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*- /. o 5>. 
I^ T B n ^ R Y 


Theological Seminary, 

C'^-^c, Hmsi < ZSr 

^^^-V, ^Secilc /^ 

Book, No, ^Vt.'J? 

^ N.^ 



O F A N 

Univerfal Hiftory, 


Earlieft Account of Time. 

Mob. Hist- Vol. IV. A 

-EH E 

•^^ /Sfe^-^/^^-^ 


O F A N 

Univerfal Hiftory, 


Earlieft Account of T i m e. 

Compiled from 

Original Writers. 

By the A u T H o R s of the AntientParT. 

L N B O N: 

Printed for S. R i c ii a r d s o n, T. O s b o r n e, C. Hitch, 
A. Millar, John Riving ton, S. Crowder, 
P. Day E Y and B. La w , T. Longman, and C. Ware. 



T O T H E 


Relating to this F o u r t h Vo l u m e, 

WE have feen, In the courfe of the pre- 
ceding volume, a feries of eleven ^baf- 
Jine khalifs from Al Kay em, the 26th 
of that dynafly -f-, to the total extindlion of the 
khalifat, gradually ftripped of all their fecular au- 
thority and power, and reduced to a mere religi- 
ous and eccleiiaftical fway, by a fucceffion of JV/- 
iukian monarchs, the defendants of the famed 
Togrol Begh *, who, under the bare title of Emzr 
udlOmrd, which that unfortunate khalif beftowed 
upon him, governed all civil and military affairs 
with an abfolute and defpotic power, affuming the 
royal title of foltan only over their Seljuk fubjeds, 
and their other conquefts : fo that, in order tofet 
forth the furprifing decline, as well as the once 
amazing extent and power, of the khalifat, we 
have been under the neceffity of anticipating, in a 
great meafure, the SeJjukian hiftory, which was 
defigned for this volume ; without which that of 
the khalifs muft have appeared maimed and im- 
perfedt to any curious reader. 

t Vol. iii. p, 107, & feq. * Ibid. p. 241^ ad 



vi Advert if ement to the Reader, 

Being now therefore come to give a particular 
account of that celebrated dynafty, the fame rea- 
fons will of courfe oblige us to recapitulate, tho' in 
the moft fuccind manner thefubjedt will admit of, 
the fame monarchs reigns, conquefts, and tranf- 
adions, in order to render their hiflory, which 
makes no lefs a figure in the Oriental one, as 
full, clear, and compleat, as the former, which 
we have given of the khalifat, efpecially as both 
of them have been fo ftrangely mutilated and 
difguifed by the Greek writers : but of tliis we 
ihall fay the lefs iierc, having prefixed at the 
threfliold of the Seljukiaji hiftory an account of 
them, as well as of thofe others, whether Turkif:> 
or Araby of whom we have made ufe in the 
courfe of it *. And that, joined to Vvhat we have 
faid above, will, we hope, l^ifhciently account to 
our readers, not only for every fuch unavoidable 
repetition, but likewife ±ot every contrafl and in- 
confiflency they may have occafion to remark 
between thofe writers. It being, indeed, next 
to impofTiblc it fhould happen otherwife, confi- 
dering the vaft difference of their religions and 
interefls : one fct of them zealous Mohaiumedans^ 
the other Heathen 3 the former full of gall and 
refentment againfl thofe monarchs who had de- 
prived tlieir khalifs of all their fecular power, and 
raifed their own to that envied height upon the 
ruins of theirs. The other no lefs jealous of the 
•glory of their owii natural princes, reprefenting 
their every a6lion, motive, and fuccefsful ftep to 
agrandifement, in the mofl; advantageous light, 
and glolhng over every thing that caft the leaft 
tarnilh upon it. 

• See hereafter, p. 76, & fcq. 


/idvertifement to the Reader, vii 

To give one inftance for all of the different 
reprefentations of thofe writers; When the haugh- 
ty khalif ^/ Kay em [after having been reftored to 
his dignity, and reconducted to his capital, and 
to his very palace, v^^ith the greateft marks of 
honour and refpedl by the generous Togrul 
Begh'\ "f* was obferved to helitate foiong whether 
he {hould condefcend to grant him his daughter 
in marriage ; it was natural for the Mojlem hiftori- 
ans to reprefent his behaviour as a mark of his ftre- 
nuous and laudable zeal for the Mohammedan re- 
ligion, whilft the Seljiiks looked upon it as a piece 
of ill-timed pride and black ingratitude to fo 
noble a prince and benefaftor. We have en- 
deavoured to account for thefe and other mate- 
rial variations as often as the nature of the fub- 
jed: would permit it ; the reft we have chofen to 
refer to our reader's judgment ; only deliring 
him to infert with his pen the few following 

E R R A T A» 

Page 97. tinc},!. Injitead of taking, read hax'ing exaftcd (an 
oath). And ibid. 32. Infteadofto, read from. 

109. 31. Injlead of his own, read his vazir's (piety). 

119. 30. After altho', read that dignity had been 

enjoyed by the (Khalifs). 

1 20. 1 1 . For depart from, read retire to. 

1 59. 17. For Gypfies, read plail^erers, or workers in 

lime and mortar. 

t See vol. iii. p. ^46, & feq. 

Modern Hiftory: 




Univerfal Hiftory. 


General HiJio?y of the Turks, and the 
empires fou?jded by them in Tartary 
and the Lower Afia. 


The origin^ country^ and different tribes or 
bra?tches, of the Turkidi nation ^ with an 
account of their affairs till the deJlru6iion of 
their empire in Tartary. 


*The origin of the Turks. 

ALTHOUGH the origin of the Turh hath been Or/;^/« of 
already treated of elfewhere a, yet feveral matters //^^^I'urks. 
relating thereto were left unhandled, becaufe they 
feemed more proper for this place, where m'c are to fpeak 
particularly of that warlike nation ; whofe em.pire, fhifting 
gradually from eail: to weft, under different dynaflies, hath 
continued for above 2,000 years, and frill fubfifts under the 
Othman family, with no fmall luflre. 

TUR isT is a name known in all languages ; and the Arabs 
have out of it formed the plural Atrdk, that is, Turks I>. 

=» Vol. V. p. 344. noteE. xx. p. i. & feq. '» D'Herbe- 

LOT. Bibl. orientale, p. 897. Art. Turk. 
Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. B There 

2 General Fiji or y of the Turks. B. I. 

There are three traditions or accounts concerning the origin 
of thefe people ; one given by thcmfelves, the other by x.\iePer- 
fiansiindL Arabs, and the third by the Chitie/es. The reader has 
already, in the places before referred to, been made acquainted 
with that related by the Titrkijb hillorians ; which is, that 
they derive themfclves from one Turk, whom they affirm to 
be the fon of Yafis, or Jafet : we fhall, in this place, lay be- 
fore him the tradition of the' Per/tans, Arabs, and ChinefeSy 
According as delivered by their hiftorians, accompanied with remarks ; 
to the wherein we fliall examine their refpeftive authority, and fhew 
Turks, which tradition deferves mofl: credit, purfuant to a rule which 
we have always obferved throughout this work : for it is the 
duty of an hirtorian to examine the memoirs he makes ufe 
of, and give his opinion of their fidelity ; not out of oflen- 
tation, to fhew his ikill in critical learning, but purely for the 
fake of truth, and to diflinguifh the fpurious from the genuioe. 
There are authors, who, by their filence on this important 
head, miflead their readers for fear of difgufting them ; and 
facrifice their own credit, to fave that of fables. 
According ACCORDING to xh&Perfian hiftorians, the Turks are defcend- 
to the Per- ed from Tiir, third fon oiFrayhdun (A), the feventh krngof P^r- 
fjans. j\(^ . or, according to others, fixth king of the firft race of 
kings called Pifiddd, contemporary with Abraham *. Frayh- 
dun having divided his dominions among his three fons. Ma- 
Jharek, or the Eajlern Countries (B), fell to the fhare of Tur^ 
who went and built the city Turdn, in Turkcftdn, not far 
eaft from the Cafpian fea. Tur having joined his fecond bro- 
ther Sahi (who had Mogareb, or the JVe/l Countries), againft 
his eldeft brother Ireje (C), and flain him by treachery, Mann- 
cher (D), Ireje'i fon, flew him ; whereby, upon Frayhdun'% death, 

* Anc. hift. vol. v. p. 328. 341, & feq. 

(A) By fonie written y^/Z-nVr/ff ter peculiar to it. To prevent 
ox Afriduv, Phridun :i.nd Fridun, confufion therefore, we never 
Pheridun and Fcridiai ; but wc nfe g before e or / inftcad of y, 
never ufe ph for / in oriental which is the proper letter, 
words. (D) It may be written aHo 

(B) Thefe arc to l)e under- Manuj-r or Manujeher, not 7f/«- 
ftood more properly of the coun- nuger, for the renfon affigned in 
tries to the North of the river note C ; much \zhManugjer,\iy 
yiJhunovAmu, containing all that joining g andy, to make a dou- 
part of Afia which goes at pre- ble charader ; which is not only 
fent by the name of Tartary. unneceflary, but highly impro- 

(C) Some write /rfg-f, but im- per, as it may miflead one to 
properly ; for, in oriental names, read Manug-jer. 

the fame charadler ought not to Obfervc alfo that we always 

be ufed for two different founds, ufe ch as in charm, never as kb 

when one of them has a chuj-ac- in chronicle, 

7 which 

C. I. ^heir Origin, '^ 

which happened foon after, Turan or Turkejlan fell under his 
dominion c. 

In the fiftieth year o^ Manucher or Mamj'er's reign, Jfra- Ex-phitsof 
Jiab, (on of PaJJjangh, king of Turkejlan, rebels in that coun- Afrafiab. 
try, under pretence of jrevenging Tur's death, from whom he 
was defcended ; beats Maniicher, and obliges him to appoint the 
river Jihun or rlmu the boundary bef.vixt Perjia and Turkejlan. 
Nauder (E) fucceeding his father Manucher, Afrafiab invades 
him with 400,000 men, and never gave over, till he had taken 
and put him to death ; fubduing all PerJia, which, with Tur- 
kejldn, became fubjedl to his father Pajhangh d. 

But the cruelties of Afrafiab foon obliged the Perfians to He con- 
throw off the Turkijh yoke ; and he quitted Perfa, after he quers Per- 
had been pofleffed of it twelve years (F). Yet, in the reign of fia. 
Kdykobdd, the eleventh king of Perfia, Afrafiab invades that 
kingdom again, but is beaten by Rojldm, the famous Perfina 
champion ; who, in the reign oi Kaykaws, the twelfth king, co- 
temporary with Solomon, routed him a fecond time, purfued him 
as far as Tiirdn^ the capital of Turkejlan, and plundered it of 
vaft treafures. A'a_yA^o/?^'u;, the thirteenth king of P^r//.^, fent 
an army of 30,000 men to invade Turkefdn, but they were 
defeated ; and their general, Gudarz, being befieged by the 
Turks in the mountain of Damctwand, in the province of Ma- 
zaiiderdn, had been loft, if Rojldm had not come to his relief. 

The fanie of that fiege brought two kings, neighbours 
of the Turks, to their alliflance ; the one called Hhakhon or 
Khakhdn, the fame as Khaan, a title of the Mogol kings ; and 
the other Shangol ; the former of whom was flain. Gudarz 
afterwards beat four armies of the Turks, took an hundred 
thoufand of them prifoners, and, fome time after^ Afrafiab 
hlmfelf was taken and flain ^. 

This is the acccount of the original of the Turks, given 
by Mirkond (G), a famous Perfian hiflorian, which differs 


« Mirkond. ap. Texeira, hifl. Perfia, p. 33. D' Herbelot. 
Bibl. orientale, p. 895. Art. Tour. See anc. hiil. vol. v. p. 328, 
& feq. •* Mirkond. ubi fupr. p. 40. Ant. hift. ubi iiip. p. 

349. « Mirkond. ubi fupr. p. 45 &; feq. 52,56 &feqq. 

(E) Written by {om.t Nuder. (G) Mirhhond, or Mlrkha- 
This is a confequence of not in- 'vetid, as the Perfians pronounce 
ferting the vowel points ; and of it, is an abbreviation of the true 
taking the Arabic IVa^v or double name of this author ; which is 
«, fometimes for a vowel. Mohajiwied Ehn Aniir Khoiudnd 

(F) He is reckoned the 9th ' ^hdh, or Khamdnd Shah. He 
king of Perfia, of the Pfbddd wrote a general hiftory of the 
race, and third from Praydim or world, in Perfian, from the cre- 
Feridun, tlon to the year 875 of the Hej- 

B 2 number 

3 General Hipry of the Turks. B.I. 

greatly from that penned by t'(idlallah{H), another Per/ian,v,ho 
wrote the hiflory of the Mogols and Tartars, at the command of 
-V. Ghazan Khan, one of Jenghtz Khan's fucceflbrs in Perjia. 

\\i&ii It is eafier to account how the Perjian hiftorians came to 

differ fo much, than to reconcile them : for thofe who wrote 
before the Turks obtained the dominion in their country, 
framed their hiftory to aggrandize their own nation, and 
depreciate the Turks, whom they hated, for the injuries re- 
ceived from them ; whereas thofe who wrote under the 
Turkijh monarchic?, through fear or flattery, conformed them- 
felves to the traditions of their mafters ; or, not thinking it 
for their honour to adopt the old Perfian account, framed an- 
.^5^ other, more agreeable to their humour ; from whence natu- 
rally arole the contradiftions we meet with. 

Nor is the Perfian flory perhaps more true than that of 
the Turks ; at leaft it is, on many accounts, liable to excep- 
tion ; particularly as to the chronology of thofe firft kings, 
and the length of their reigns. 

It is obfervable, that the account above given oi Afrafiah, 
makes his life of an incredible length. The hiftorian, being 
aware of this, remarks, on the occafion, that he waged war witli 
fo many princes, that he muft have lived three or four hundred 
years. Hence feme authors make .-^r^yi'^^ or F^/y/^z^ (I) (which 
i\^\^t% conqueror of Perfia),z title common to thofe kings of 
Turkejidn, who obtained fo many viftories over the Perfians 

rah, and of Chrifl: 1471, con- extrafls of the reigns of kings, 

firtingoffevcn thick volumes in furnifhed F)y DV/fv^r/o/, in his 

folio, collefted from a great oriental didticnary, fufficiently 

numberofhiftories, general and particular and accurate. How 

particular (i). ever, for want of better, we 

There is a Perjian abridge- have made ufe of them, and 

meiit of the whole work of the tranflation of Texeira by 

Mirkhoud-, by his Ton Gaxyath Stephen.', which is alfo very in- 

>^</^/;?, Tirnamed Khond Ainu-; corroftly printed, 
whom D'Herhelct confounds (H) Called alfo Khojah Ra- 

with his father (2). He alfo y/3/i; from whom chiefly y^^a'i^- 

wrote a hiflory of the Mcgils hdz,i Khdr, cited lower down, 

ix\6. Tartars, ycnghix Khdn arid e.\tra<fled his hiftory. An ac- 

his children, which was pub- count is given of /"^y/^//*?^, and 

liihed about the year 1508 (3). hit colledion, in fe£l. iii. 

Texsira, a Pcrtugue^tt xxavA- (I) Called alfo Arjaib : he 

ler and geographer, publifhed kept his court at a city in Tur~ 

an abftradt of Mhkoul^ hillory; iejldn, called Heft Khan, ox Heft 

but it i;^ too concife, and, in Kho'ven. See D^Herbelot. Art. 

many places, confufed, as well lleft KJmn. 
as dcfedive. Nor are the larger 

(i) D'Ktrltl. p. i;?:. Art. Mncund. ^ p. 709. Art. Raoudhjt al Safa. De la 
Croi:e HtH. of Genghis. Can. p. 4^0. 446. (z) See litrb. p. 994. Art. 

iihvultistr, (3; De U Croix, ubi Jupr, p, 42;. 


C. I. Thir Origin, 

in antlent times : and, for the fame reafon, others compare 
his reign to a very dark night which covered Perfta. 

However that be, all the Tiirkijh families, which have made 
a noife in the world, claim to be defcended from this great 
conqueror, Seljuk, founder of the Seljftk monarchy, would 
have it believed, that he was the thirty-fourth of his defcend- 
ants, in a right male line ; and the Othmdn monarchs, who 
pretend to be related to the Seljuks by the family of Oguz 
Khdn, afTume in their titles that of Afrafiab, as well to de- 
note their nobility as valour ; efpecially as they have, in lat- 
ter times, obtained great vidlories over the Perfians ^. 

JFRJSIAB mufl have been eight or nine generations ■^^'''«'*^' 
later than Oguz Khdn, v/ho, according to the Turhi/h hiflorians, ^" ^"** 
was cotemporary with Kay-nmarraz, firfl Perfian king of 
the Pijhddd race ; and conquered Perjia during the minority 
of his fuccefTor Hnjheng, at what time the great lords were 
at variance among themfelves S. But as none of the early 
Perfian hiflorians make mention of thefe great conquefts, A'C*'^ 
fome of the latter are apt to think that they might have been 
effefted in the interval between the death of Kay-umarraz^ . 
and the reign of Hufi.eng, a fpace of two hundred years ; 
during which time, we are told, the hiftorians have not taken 
notice of any tranfa<flions '>. 

However this may be, according to the extraft we have from 
Mirkhond, a modern author, he mentions no fuch interreg- 
num : he only fays, that when Kay-nmarraz died, his grand- 
fon HufJjeng was a minor ; and that, as foon as he came of 
age, he afcended the throne '. Now, though we fliould 
confider the throne to be vacant during his minority, yet we 
cannot rationally fuppofe that it lalled two hundred years. 

One would imagine that Abu}gh\z Khdn, who undertook A'-^cw c/* 
profeffedly to write a genealogical hlflory of the Twks, could Turkef- 
not have avoided fpeaking of the Khans of Turkefidn, and ^^"• 
particularly of Afrafiab : {o far from that, he treats of no 
defcents from Oguz, but thofe relating to the Mogols and 
Tartars ; and never fo much as mentions Afrafiab, except 
once, on occafion of Ihk, Khan of Ba dfdgun, who, he tells 
us, was defcended from Afrafiab Khdn k, without faying any 
thing more of this hero, or his race. 

But to return to the origin of the Turks. If the authors, Turkish, 
who have come to our hands, had given us the genealogy <§'';"^'^'*'' 
of Seljuk, it might have been of ufe in fettling this point.^'^^' 

f D'Herb. p. 895. Art. Touran. p. 66. Art. Afrafiab. & p. 
800. Art. Selgiouk. g Aeulghazi Khan hift. Turks, &c. 

p. 10. D'Herb. p. 683. Art. Ogouz Khan. " D'Kerb.. 

ubi fupr, ' MiRKoND. ap. Texeir. p. 13. ''See 

Aev iGHAZi Khan. hill. Turks, &c. p. 44. 

B 3 However, 

6 General Hijiory of the Tqrks. B. I. 

However, if we may judge by that of Ozmdn or Qthmdn, 
founder of the Otfmian empire, their pretences to antiquity 
feem very fufpicious : for, in three lifts of that prince's an- 
ceflors, two given by Leonclavius, one in his hiJlory of the 
Soltns \ the other in his Mujfulman hi/lory '", and the third 
by Vv'mQQ Cant emir, in his hi/lory of the growth and decay of 
the Othman empire ", all taken from the Turkijh hiflorians 
themfelves (K) ; though, in all of them, Iifay, we meet withr 
the name of Oguz, yet none of them makes mention of either 
Afrafiab or Turk (L) ; Bidkhas (M) being put inflead of the 
latter in one of them, which alone runs fo high as Japhet. 
The lift found in the hijiory of the Saltans, which was tranf- 
lated from the TurkifJj, ends at Lekrek, who is but the fifth 
in the other given in the hijiory of the Mujfidmans . And 
though both genealogies are faid to afcend from fon to fa- 
ther, yet Othmaii's anceftors by one are fifty-feven, and by 
tlie other only feventeen, to Lekrek. 
vtryfufpi- Prince Cante?nirs lift wants three anceftors, found in the 
eious. former, with which it beft agrees, and ends at Takva, called 
in the other Diptakoy (N) ; only adding, that he was of the 
houfe of Jafet. But although this author reprefents his lift 
as the beft and moft corredl of any which are to be found 
in the Turkifh hiftorians, yet he obferves, that his author, 
Saadi Effendi, does not venture to warrant it as certain. In 
fliort, the whole hiftory of the origin and defcent of the 
Turks carries the marks of fiftion : for, although we fhould 
admit that there might have been fuch perfons as Afrafiab^ 
Oguz, and Turk, among the anceftors of the Turks, yet it is 
manifeft, that both the times and a<ftiqns afcribed to thofe 
heroes muft be falfe (O), as well as the tradition of Turk be- 
ing the fon (P) of Jafct ; fmce he is not to be found in the 


' P. I. "> P. 90. n Pref. p. i|. 

(K) Wc {hall Infertthem here- mir\ lift, is named VHjeKhan j 

after, in the Othman hiftory. from whom Oguz. Khan was th^ 

(L) This omiflion may pof- third in delccnt. 
fibly be owing to the averfion (O) See what is remarked 

•which the Othmdns have to be with regard to x.\\QTurkiJh chro- 

called Turks, as will be obferved nologv, in the preface to Abulg- 

when we come to give their hi- hnx.i Khan\ hiftory, p. 7. Alfo 

ilory. the new coileftion of voyages 

(M) Unlefs Bulkhas, or Jhul and travels, ^.to. vol. iv. p. 41 2. 

Khai may lland for the father and Univ. Hift. Vol xx. p. 44. 
of the Kaks or Gad, who are (P) His right of primogeni- 

the wandering 7"ttr^^ or Turk- ture is alfo difputed ; for Tome 

tn$.ni. ' * hiftorians give it to C/'/», whom 

(N) Son of Bulkhas, and fa- others make the fecond fon. 

(her of Lekrek, who, in Cantg' However, the oriental Turks 


C. |. 'Their Origin. j 

genealogy of that patriarch, given by Mofes, which both the 
Chrijiians and Mohainmedans follow. 

The truth may polTibly be, that the Soltans of either the 
Gaznah or Seljuk families, firil Turkijh fovereigns mP erJia,'wh.o 
were Mohamnwdans^ having had, by tradition,' one Turk for 
their common anceflor, or feigning him to be fuch, their hi- ■^"'^ 
ftorians, to honour them, by carrying his origin as high as they^"'''^^' 
could, n^ade him the fon of Jafet ; whqfe pofterity, accord- 
ing to Mqhamynedans , as well as Jcivs and Chrijiians, people^ 
the north parts oi Afia. The Othnan Turks, who fucceeded 
the Scljuks, thought they could not do better than claim or 
acknowlege the fame original ; and the fucpeflbrs of Jenghiz 
Khdn in Perjia, the t\vo Bukharias and Karazm, being Mo^ 
bammedans, confented to be branches of Turks, that they 
might have the fon of fo great a patriarch as Jafet at the 
head qf their anceftors. It muft farther be con/idered, that 
they who were the firft hifloriographers to this lafl race, be- 
ing Perjiaus, took care to make their hiflory tally with that 
of former writers of their nation, who made all the inhabits 
ants of Tiirtary, from one end to the other, to be fprung 
from the fame common ftock. But it is hardly to be prefumed 
that the Mogols, and other tribes of the eaft, who continued 
in their old religion, acknowleged themfelves to be defcended 
from Turk, though they were poiTibly a branch of the TurkiJJy 
nation ; whom yet they always hated for their inroads, and 
had lately conquered. 

According to the Chinefe hiftorians, the Hup.s and Turks Oripiv of 
are the fame people; who, at different times, went under ;■/'<' Turks 
thofe different names. They give them the appellations oi/ro?n the 
Hyong-nu and Tu-ki-uk, that is, Huns and Turks ,• the iirft Chinefe 
is that which they had before the Chrijiian sera ; the fecond ^'f""'^^' 
that which a remnant of thofe Huns, re-eflablifhed in Tartary, 
affumed afterwards ; and fay, that they dwelt ° in the neigh- 
bourhood of the great defart, extending from the country 
of Korea, in the eaft, to that of the Getes, in the wefl: ; which 
part of Tartary was their habitation from all antiquity P : 
That Mau-ton, fon of the laft Chineje monarch, of the firfl 
family, or the Hya race, was the firft Tanju, or emperor of 

" Ven-byen-tum-kaw, Kam-mo, Ye-tum chi van fan turn 
pow fwi fu, as cited by Guigues fur Vorigen des Huns l£ des 
Turks. P Ven-hyen-tum fhau, Kam-mo. 

maintain, that Turk was the count ^he founder of their na- 
eldeit, whom they call Jafet tion (4). 
Oglan, the fon of Jajet, and ac- 

(4) Stt D^UirbtUt, Aft, Turk. />. 898. 

B 4 the& 

S Generat Hiftory of the Turks. B. I. 

thefe Huns ; and the fame with the famous Ogdz Khan^ fo 
renowned among the prefent Turh and Tartars, and ac- 
knowleged for the founder of their empire : that, in the 
reign of one of his fucceflbrs, they came to be divided under 
two diflinft Tnnjus ; one branch was called the northern, the 
other the fouthcrn Huns ; but the Perfian hirtorians diftin- 
guifhed them by the names of Tartars and Mogols : that 
the northern Hunsy being deftroyed by the Chinefes, removed 
weflward ; and palFed, at leaft part of them, into Europe. 
That the fouthern Huns, after this, became beft known by 
the name of Turks ; about which time they were fubdued 
by the Juijen, eaftern Tartars ; and at length, being greatly 
reduced, they retired into the mountain of Erganakon, where 
they forged iron for their conquerors : that they after- 
wards overthrew them in their turn, and eftablifhed a new 
empire under the name of Turks, as will be more fully re- 
lated lower down T. 

In this account we difcover two very material h^s, hi- 
therto unknown to the hiflorians of Europe, and perhaps to 
thofe of the weft of Jjia ; namely, firft, the original of the 
Huns, about which Jornandes, and other writers, have related 
fuch ridiculous fables r : fecondly, that the Huns and Turks^ 
are the fame people, under difierent names ; which latter 
feems not to have been given them till about the year 500, 
as noted before ; at what time they became known by it in 

9 See feci. iv. ' See anc. hift. vol, xix. p. 204, &feq, 


A general defcription of Great Tartary, with an ac- 
count of the Turkifh tribes or nations inhabiting it, 
according to the Arab authors. 

Great Tr)EFORE we treat of the feveral branches of the Turk- 
Tartary. X) ijb nation inhabiting Great Tartary, it will be necefTary 

previoufly to infert fome general account of that vaft region ; 

that the reader may be better able to form a notion in what 

part of it the feveral tribes formerly were, or at prefent are, 

Bounds TAR TART, or xz.'CcitxTaiary , in its greateft extent, is fituate 

and ex- between fifty-feven and one hundred and fixty degrees of lon- 
ttnt. gitude (A) ; and between the thirty-feventh and fifty-fifth de- 

(A) Reckoning from the weft rii, and feventeen degrees thirty-t 
end of the iP.e oi Ferro, fuppofcd five minutes weft oi London. 

to be twenty degrees weft oiPa- 


C.I. Defcription of GrtziTzxizxy, ^ 

grees of latitude : being bounded on the north by Siberia, or 
that part of North Afta which belongs to Rujfm ; on the 
weft, by the rivers Don (B), the JVolga, and Kama, which fepa- 
rate it from RuJJia ; on the fouth, by the Eiixine and Cafpian 
feas, Karazm, the two Bukharias, China, and Korea ; and 
on the eaft, by the oriental or Tartarian ocean. / From this i 

account it appears, that Tartary, or Great Tartary, as we 
call it, is a vafl: region, fituate almoll: in the middle of JJia, 
and extending the whole length of it, in that part from weft 
to eaft, the fpace of one hundred and four degrees in longi- 
tude, or four thoufand one hundred and forty-five geographical 
miles : but its breadth is not proportionable ; being not above 
nine hundred and fixty miles where broadtft, and, where nar- 
roweft, three hundred and thirty. 

This vaft region is divided into two great parts ; the onej)i^;/rg„^ 
called the Wejiern, the other the Eajiern Tartary : which 
laft is fcarce one-fourth part fo large as the former ; begin- 
ning at about the one hundred and thirty-ninth degree of lon- 
gitude, and eit^ing at the one hundred and fixty-firft. Hence 
it contains oil/ twenty-two degrees of longitude, or is but 
nine hundred geographical miles from welt to eaft, though 
eight hundred and eighty broad, from fouth to north. But 
with this part of Tartary we have nothing to do at prefent : 
for although fome oriental authors would derive all the inha- 
bitants of Tartary in general from the fame ftock, making 
the people of Katay, under which denomination they feem to 
comprife all the inhabitants of Eaflern Tartary (of whom 
they had fcarce any knowlege at all), to be defcended from 
Turk, the fon of Jafet ; yet, in the genealogy of thofe tribes 
given by Abu'lghazi Khan, and doubtlefs in that of Fadlal- 
lah (C), from whom chiefly he extrafted his hiftory, we meet 
with none but what are to be found in Wejiern Tartary : for 
which reafon we ftiall confine our defcription, in this place, 
to that part only. 

In this vaft region of Wejiern Tartary, (containing inWeftern 
extent one hundred and thirty-nine degrees of longitude Tartary. 
out of one hundred and fixty^one), although the lands be- 
longing to every nation or tribe are marked out, and 
well known to the inhabitants ; yet as there are few or no 

(B) The limits might be car- (C) We cannot be pofitive 

ried weftward, beyond the Dni- as to this point, becaufe De la 

tpar cr Borijihenes ; but thefe Croix, in his hiftory of Genghix, 

parts were rather conquered of jOjjw, taken chiefly from F^rty^A 

later ages, than originally inha- lah, has mentioned only theMo- 

bited by lurkijh or Tartar go/ tribes, 


10 General Hijlory of the Turks. B. I, 

cities, towns, or villages, to direft Grangers, their feveral 
fituations or poflefTions are bed dilHnguilhed and afcertained 
by the natural marks or boundaries, fuch as mountains, ri- 
vers, lakes, and the like, with which IVeJlern Tartary abounds. 
But it will be fufficient for our prefent purpofe to mention 
only the mofl remarkable of them. 
Chief The principal mountains, or rather chains of mountains, 

«w««/«///;, found in this part of Great Tartary, may be divided into 
three claires : firft, thofe which run along the northern bor- 
ders of it ; and though perhaps not always contiguous, or of 
the fame denomination, go under the general name of Vlug 
Tag or Ddgt that is, the great mountain : fecondly, thofe 
which make the fouthern bounds, and are called Ki- 
chuk Tag, or the lefTer mountain : the third great chain is 
called mount Jltay, lying nearly in the middle, between the 
Cafpian fea and Eajlern Tartary, and extending between the 
other two, in about the one hundred and tenth degree ef lon- 

mnJ de- The chief defarts or plains are, firfl, thofe of Kipjdk or 

farts. Kapchak in the weft, extending many days journey on the 
north and north-eaft of the Cafpian fea. Thefe are general- 
ly fertile lands. Secondly, thofe ftretching eafhvard from 
Kipjak to mount Jit ay. Thirdly, that called the ^r^^? Ao^/, 
or fandy dcfart, by the Mogols, and Sha-mo by the Chinefes. 
It is divided by ridges of hills into three or four parts, and 
extends eaftward from mount Altay to Eajiern Tartary. 

Ri'vers. Th E principal rivers of IVeJicrn Tartary, befides the Dnieper^ , 

The }a.'ik. Don, and IVolga, are the Ja'ik or Talk and Tern, both defcend- 
ing from the Ulug Tag, and falling into the Cafpian fea, on 

T^be Hi. the north fide. The river Hi or Khonghis, which rifes out of 
the Kichiik Tig, on the borders of Little Bukharia, about the 
one hundred and fourth degree of longitude, and runs north- 
weft into the lake Palkafi (D) : on this river the Khdn of 

Theltii^. the Eliiths or Kabnuks ufually refides. The river Irtiflj, Irtis, 
or Erchis, which rifes in mount Altay, and runs wefKvard^ 
inclining to the north, between two branches of it, into the 
lake Sayfan (E) ; from whence iffuing again, it pafles north- 

^he Obi. ^veft, through part of Siberia, and falls into the Obi, which 
has its fource out of the fame mountains, about one degree 
to the north of that of the Irtijlj : and feven or eight degrees 

(D) It is about forty miles Honhctu Nor, ninety miles long 
long, and thirry broad, in lati- from welt to eaft, and forty 
tude forty-eic'ht degrees, lonp;i- broad ; in latitude forty-feven 
tude ninety-feven, reckoning degrees thirty minutes, longi- 
from the ille of Ferro. tude one hundred and four ae- 

(E) SnJ^an OX If an, called alfo grecs. 


jC. I. Defcripiion of Great Tartary. 1 1 

to the north-eaft rifes the Kem, or Jenifea, which runsKcm. 
weflward for the fpace of feven or eight degrees, and then, 
turning northward, enters Siberia. 

The next river of note is the river Selinga, which rifes SelipgJU" 
put oif the lake Kofogol or H^tuktu (F), not far from the 
JTource of the Jenifea tj^lies a fweep fouthward round by the 
eafl, and falls northward into the lake Baykdl, in Siberia, 
about thirty leagues north-weft of the city Seliiighinjkoy, 
^hich flands upon it. Into the Selifiga runs the Orkon, Orkon 
coming from the fouth-weft ; and into the Orkon the Tula, and T\Adi.. 
rifing eaftward in Mount Kentey ; two rivers very famous 
in the hiftory of Jenghiz Khdn. Out of the fame moun- 
tain (G), and not far from the fource of the Tula, rife two other 
rivers, ftill more famous than the former ; firff, the Ojion, Onon or 
palled alfo by the Mogoh, Saghalian Ula, or the dragon river, Sagha- 
and by the Ruffians Amur ; which running north-eaflward, 1^* 
and then taking a large fweep by the fouth, rolls along the 
bounds of Eajiern Tartary, and falls into the Eajiern ocean, 
in about the 53d degree of latitude, and 159th of longitude. 
On its bank ftand two cities ; Nerchinjloy, or Nipcheiv, a 
frontier of the Ruffians, almoft due north of Pe-kin, ia 
China ; and Saghalian Ula, polTelTed by the Chinefes. 

The fecond river is the Kerlon, or Kerulon ; which run- Kerlon or 
ping north-eallward, falls into the lake Kulon, or Dalay (H), Argun, 
and, paffing out again, under the name of Ergona, or Argun, 
joins the Saghalian Ula, about one hundred and feventy miles 
l^eyond Nerchinffioy . To thefe let us add the river Kdlka, Kalka. 
from whence, tho' fmall, the Kdlka-Moguls, or Mongols, take 
their name. It rifes in the mountains, feparating the Eajiern 
from the Wejlern Tartary ; and, running weftward, falls into 
ihe lake Puir, and then into that of Kulon, before fpoken of. 

Having mentioned the principal lakes of Wefiern Tartary, Lakes. 
in our account of the rivers, we fhall take notice only of two 
more ; firft, the Kdmijh, about four hundred and eighty-four 
miles long, and near as many broad (I). The fecond. If" 
fikol', a lake of fmall extent (K), but renowned among the 
inhabitants in the weft of Tartary, for being the place where 
Turk, their great anceftor, fixed his refidence, or royal 

As to the political State of Wejlern Tartary, we ftiall only Mogol 
fay in general, that it is intu-ely pofFefled by the Mogol tribes, nations^ 

(F) Or Khutulitu, 70 miles fouth-weft to north-eaft, and 

long from fouth to north, and 27 broad. In lat. 48" 30' long. 

20broad. In lat. 52''.long. 118. 135. 

^ (Gj It lies in about 126 de- (I) In lat. 50°. long. 83* 

grees of long, and 48 of lat. 30' 

(H) Sixty miles long from (K) Lat. 46°. long. 94." 30'. 

under , 


Eluths or 

The Kal- 

f roper 
cr Mon- 


to the 

General Hifiory of the Turks. B. I. 

under fcveral Khans, whofe dominions are named after the 
people, or their prince who rules over them *. The firft and 
chief of thefe Mogol nations are the Eluths, nicknamed Kal- 
muks by the Mohammeilan Tartars. Thefe are divided under 
two Khans. The firfl: are called Jyuki Eluths, from iheir 
Khan Jyuki, who has the weftcrn part of Tartary, bounded 
by the river Jdik, containing moft of that country which was 
formerly called Kijjak, or Kapchdk, and extending about lo 
degrees eaftward from the river Ja'ik, in the 7 2d degree of 
longitude. The fecond are called Dfongari or Kontaijhi 
Eluths, from the title of their prince, ftiled Kontaijh, whofe 
dominion extends from 72 degrees of longitude as far as the 
end of mount Altay, in about the io2d degree. 

The fecond nation or branch of the TV/o^g-o/j are the Kalka, 
Khalkha, or Hdlha Mogols : their country extends from mount 
ylltay eafhvard to the fource of the river Kdlka, whence they 
derive their name, in the borders of Eajiern Tartary, and 
1 39th degree of longitude. The third branch are the Mo' 
gals or Mongols, properly fo called ; whofe territories lie to 
the fouth of that of the Kdlkas, between them and the great 
wall of China ; to which empire both nations are fubjeft. 

Besides thefe Khans \\v\\o with their fubjecfls areidolaters, 
of the religion of Tibet, or the Dalay Lama) there are t^vo 
others in Great Tartary, who pofTefs that part of it called 
Turkejldn, fituate to the north of Great Bukharia and Ka- 
razm, between thofe countries and the dominions of the 
Eluths ; of which we ihall fpeak more particularly in a fubfe- 
quent fecflion, and now return to our fubjeft, for explaining 
which, this fhort difcription of Tartary, with the help of 
maps, may fuffice. 

It is generally agreed by the oriental hiflorians, that the 
inhabitants of Great Tartary are originally Turks, or fo 
many branches of the fame nation : but thofe who wrote of 
Turkifh affairs, and even the Turks themfelves who inhabited 
Perjia before the time of Jenghiz Khan, fcem to have had 
but a flender knowlege of the feveral tribes of people into 
which their nation was faid to be divided. The Arab author 
of the book mifcalled The geography of the Nubian, who 
wrote about the middle of the twelfth century, fays, the 
Turks were branched into many different kinds of people; as 
the Tobhat (L), Taghazghaz (M), Kharkirs, Kaymaks^ Kha- 

See anc. hill:, vol. xx. p. x, & feq. 

(L) Thefe were probably a co- 
lony from 7ilit or Tobbnt, as the 
Jgiiri or J'igurs fccoi to have been . 

(M) Mifcalled Bagbarghart 
in the Latin tranflation. 


C. I. Turkifii Tribes, jj 

zaljes (N), HofarenSy Mohametans, Torkhojh, Odhkojh, Khof- 
Jhaks{0), Khalaj {?), Olghars, and Bolghars{QJ. 

This geographer affords us little more concerning thofe 
different people than their names ^ ; but defcribes the coun- 
tries inhabited by fome of them : from whence we fhall ex- 
traft fo much as may be proper to lay before our readers. 

The country of Tobbat (Tibet), with part of India, bor- Tobbot. 
ders on the weft on Mdivdra^lndhr (or Great BiikhariaJ, 
and on the eaft on Sin (or China). The chief cities are 
Tobbat and Shih, Wakhan, Sakita, Berwan, Ug, Majag, Ra- 
majag, and Danekhu. The country of Wakhan and Sakita. 
border on thofe of Wakhajlo and Jil, in Mdwara'lnahr. fVak- 
han abounds with rich mines of the fineft gold and filver. 
In it is a lake called Berwan, forty leagues in length, and 
twenty-four in breadth. 

The land of the Taghazghaz, who are governed l» by a Taghaz- 
Khakdn, is bounded on the eaft by Kharkir, on the fouth by ghaz. 
Sin, and on the north by the people of Kaymak. It contains 
four cities ; Kakhdn or Tantabee, Mafa, Jormok, and Ba- 
khvjdn. Kakhdn, the capital, has twelve iron gates, and is 
feated on a great river, that runs eaftward : 'tis two months 
journey from Berfajan the higher, in the country of Farghd- 
na (R), and twelve fouth-eaft from Bakhzvdn. In the moun- 
tains near this laft city are found the mufk goats. There is 
among the Taghazghaz Turks a nation who adore the fire c. 

The inhabitants of Kharkir border on the fea of Sin, and Kharkir, 
pofTefs four populous cities, all lying within the compafs 
of four days journey. The country is large and fertile, 
abounding with water. Some of its rivers defcend from the 
country of Sin ; the greateft of them, called Menhar, is very 
rapid ; running between rocks, and driving mills for grind- 
ing rice and wheat. On its banks grow aloes trees and 
cojium duke. In -its ftream is found a fifb called Jhatrun ; 
which, being eaten, affedls the feminal vefTels. It is faid, 
that it has not many bones ; that the flefh is divided into 
joints, and does not fmell like other fifh. The city where the 
king refides is moft ftrongly fortified, with wails, ditches, 
and counterfcraps, and is three ftages from the fea ; where 

» Geogr. Nublenfis, p. 145. ^ P. 144. Tis faid to extend 
to the dark Oriental ocean. « Geogr. Nub. p. 141 — 145. 

(N) Or rather perhaps iT/^flz- (P) T^q Kalatx. 

c/^', hereafter mentioned. ( Q^) Th^Bolgariatis, OrWol- 

(O) Thefe muft be the Kap- gariatis. 

jaks, written alfo Kofjdks, and (R) Which belongs to Md- 

Kipjak ; alfo Kapchdk, and Kip- iMara" Inahr. 



14^ Getieral Hijlory of the Turks. B. t 

Hiere Is a large pen'infula, called that of the Hyacinth, from 
the precious Hones of the fame name, which are found there 
in abundance <*. 

Kaymak, The land of the people of Kaymak has, on the fouth, 
Taghazghaz, on the fouth-weft Khazalj, "where it joins with 
Tobbot, on the weft Khalakh, and on the eaft the fea of dark- 
nefs; wherein are illands, to which the merchants pafs on 
horfeback, and lie every night on trees. The king of Kay- 
mak is equal to the greatefl monarchs for power and gran- 
dure ; the inhabitants are very numerous, and worfhip the 
fire. It contains fixteen cities ; the principal whereof are 
4/iur, Buragh, Sifian, Mannon, Mojianah, Khakan{S); the 
regal feat, Benjar, Dholan, and Hanawes ; to thefe may be 
added Karan Hiya. 

Rii'tr The great river Ghammas, rlfing in the mountains of 

Gham- Benjar , runs eaftward to the city Ajhir, on its fouth bank; 

mas. fix iLtges diftant, through the defart ; thence to Sifian, on 
the north fide, twelve flages ; it proceeds for\vards to the 
regal city Khakan, which ftands on the fouth fide : then it 
turns northwards to Mojianah, on its weft bank, four ftages 
diftant. From this city it advances eaftward till it falls into 
the fea, one ftage diftant. Along all the coaft of Kaymak is 
found gold, when the fea rages ; and the country produces 
plenty of mufk ; but not fo good as that of Tobbot, which 
is the beft of all*. 

From Karan Hiya, the firft city of Kaymak, to Khakan^ 
or the royal city, are twenty-four ftages, from weft to eaft. 
From Khakdn to Buragh four ftages, fouth-weftward ; and 
eighteen ftages, through the defart of the Turks of Kha- 
lakh, to Tardn (T). From Taron to Benjar are thirty-fix 
ftages : thus, to Kafra forty-five miles; to Damorrtah^ cfoiling 
a mountain in the way, four ftages ; to Khaykham caftle 
twenty ftages, eaftward ; and to Benjar four ftages. 

Khazalja. The country of Khazalj a has feveral cities in it; among 
which are Berfajan the higher, Naivaketh, Rudhan, Talan, 
and Berfajan the lower. From Jtas (in Farghana) to Ber- 
fajan the higher are fix ftages, through the country of the 
Turks : to Naivaketh, in the entrance of Khazalja, almoft 
ten ftages. From /Itrakana to Karanttia, the firft city of 
Kaymak, ten ftages, through the dellirts. From Taran to 
Berfajan the lower, confifting of towns and fields, thirty- 
nine miles. From Berfajan the lower to the higher thus j 

'• Ibid. p. 145 & feq. * Geogr. Nub. p. 213 & feq. 

(S) Khakan, with this author, every country of the 7'«r^/. 
is the name of the chief city of (T) Perhaps rather Taraz. 



C. I. Turkifh Tribes. I5 

firft, to y^yas Caftle fix miles ; to Kukfaivb twelve miles ; to 
Kit Ian Ghaya town fifteen miles ; to Borak town fifteen miles : 
it ftands on a mountain, from whence the river Borak de- 
fcends, and, running weftward, through the territories of 
Aylan, falls into the river Aljhah {the Sihun or Sir) : to J^- 
ra fifteen miles ; to Chane Burekt town twenty-four miles ; 
to Jerk town twelve miles ; to the city of Khakan twelve 
miles ; to Kobab thirty-fix miles 5 to Berjajan the higher near 
ten ftages, with the Karaivan ^. 

The Arabian geographer fays little or nothing of the other The Odh- 
Tiirkifi nations, and their countries, except the Odhkos and kos. 
Olgharians ; of whom almofi: every thing he relates may be 
fufpected of fable. We ftiall, however, give the reader a 
tafte of what he has collefted on the occafion. The country 
of the Odhkos has on the weft the land of Jl Aazaz ; on 
the eaft naiions, and their generations. In the fouth part 
is the lake Tahama, 250 miles in compafs, whofe water- 
is exceeding green, but fweet. Four ftages eaft of the lake 
is the mountain Jorda, or Bald; which is fo flippery that 
to get to the city at top they were forced to dig into the 
bowels of the hill, and to afcend by the help of ladders. 
The north fide of the country is covered by the great moun- 
tain Taraan, extending for eighteen ftages from weft or eaft. 

This tribe of Turks are reported to have broad faces, 
great heads, thick of hair, and flaming eyes. They have » 
peculiar language, and worftiip the fire. However, fome of 
them are pretended to be MoJIems or believers ^. 

Eight days journey from the caftle of Jordah aforefaid is Mountain 
the mountain of Kokaiya, which is inacceffibly fteep, and al- Kokaiya, 
Ways covered with fnow and thick clouds. It extends thence 
to the north of Bolgar, and furrounds the country of Tajuj 
and MajuJ, which is full of cities, cultivated lands, and ex- 
ceeding populous''. 

As thefe are the famous nations of Gog and Magog, after Gog anJ 
whom fo much enquiry has been made in Europe, to little purpofe Magog, 
hitherto, it may not be amifs to give the reader fome account 
of them, and their country, from the Arabian authors, who 
pretend to be acquainted with both f . As a convincing proof 
of this, they inform us, that the people of Tajuj are of a 
proper fize ; but thofe of Majuj not above three fpans high : 
that they are covered with a fort of thick down, and have 
large round hanging ears '. < - 

But let us hear the report of an eye-witnefs, reputable 
by his office, Salam the interpreter j who was fent by no 

^ Geogr. Nub. p. zit. e Ibid. p. 247 Sc feq. *> Ibid. 
p. 248. 276. t See anc. hilt. vol. xx. p. 23. ' Ibid, 

p. 249, 


1 6 General Hijiory of the Turks. B. I/^ 

Icfs a perfonage ih^n Mohammed Ami n Billah, fixth Khaltfah 

of the Mhas family (U), in order to difcover the mountain of 

Kokaiya, with the bank of Taji^ and Majuj, of which fuch 

flrange things had come to his ears. 

SalamV SALJM, who had with him fifty men, and provifions for 

journey a whole year, leaving Sarra Manray (X), where the Khall- 

'thither. fahs then refidcd, took his way by Tnflis (Y), having had 

letters from his mafter to the icing of Armenia, who gave 

him others to the king of Al Sarir (Z). This king fent them 

to him of Ldn (A), and he palTed them on to the lord Fila 

Shah, who gave them five guides. Having, in twcnty-feven 

days, reached the bounds of the regions of Befcjert (B), they 

came to a black long (linking land, in which they travelled 

. ten days, ufuig perfumes, to keep off the noxious fmells. 

They travelled a month farther, through a defart country, 

where they faw the ruins of many cities, deftroyed by the 

people of Yajtlj and Majiij. In fix days more they arrived at 

the caflles near the mountain Kokaiya ; in the opening of 

which appears the bank. Thofe in the caflles fpoke Pcrjian 

and Arabick. There is alfo a city there, whofe king is called 

Khakan Odhkos ; and the inhabitants, who are Mojleins, have 

temples and academies. 

Surprifng From that city they went to fee the bank, two flages 

hank. diftant. Here they found a mountain, with a ditch cut in it 

one hundred and fifty cubits wide, and within the chanel an 

iron gate, fifty cubits high, fupported by great buttrefTes, with 

» an iron bulwark, crowned with iron turrets, reaching to the 

top of the mountain, which is as high as one can well fee. 

The reader, by the heigh th of the gate, may judge of the 

(U) He began his reign in the courfe of this journey is fo 

the year 193 oi x.\\& Hejrah, of manifcftly northward, 'tis un- 

Cbriji 808 ; and enjoyed the accountable how Bayer fhould 

Khalifat five years. fuppofe Lan to be Lahijan in 

(X) A city on the eaft fide of Ghilan ; and Befrjerd, Be/a or 

t\iQ Tigris, 64 miles or ftages to Phafn (the old Vafagarda), to 

the nortli of Baghdad; now in the fouth-eaft of Perfepclis : as 

ruins. if the country of Tajuj and Ma- 

(Y) Tajiis, or 'Trfis, is at pre- juj, in Tortary, lay to the fouth- 

fent the capital of Gfor^/a. eaft of Sarra Matiray, inftead 

(Z) Or of Shirivd?!, a pro- of the north-eaft ; or that to get 

vince of Perjia, on the Cofpian to Brfa, inftead of going {direft- 

fea. ly fouth-eaflward, the way was 

(A) Or Allan. firft to travel twice as far north 

(B) Rather perhaps Bejkhcrt, to Tafis, and then turn back 
or Bajkir, a people of Kipjdk, again fouth-eaftward, to reach 

bordering on the Rujp.av domi- that city, 
nions. However that be, as 


C. I. Turkifh Trihes. ^y 

fize of the valves, lintels, and threfhold of the gate, with 
that of the bolts, lock, and key, which are defcribed. What 
is moft curious of all, the governor of the caftles before- 
mentioned takes horfe every Friday, with ten others, and, 
coming to the gate, flrikes the bolt three times with a ham- 
mer, weighing five pounds, and then liflening, hears a murr 
muring noife within ; from whence they concludej that the 
Tfijuj and Majuj are confined within bounds. Sa/am was 
told, that they often appeared on the turrets of the bulwark ; 
and that a high wind had once blown three of them over ; 
who, being meafured, were found to be each but three fpans 
high (C). Salam returned by the cities Lohnan, Jaraban, Ber- 
fajan, and Taraz, to Samarkand, after having fpent tw'enty- 
eight months in the journey. 

The Olghars poflefs inaccefTible mountains, on which are 7-;^^ 01- 
garifoned caftles ; where the kings fortify themfelves, and ghar?. 
foy up their provifions. The chief of thefe, and capital of 
Olgharia, is named Hiycmx. At the fouth foot of the hill, on 
which it ftands, runs the large river Rudha (D), eaftward ; 
and feven days journey down the ftream is another cit)-, called 
Jajan. There are in this country fever al other cities. 

Northward of the city Hivum is the great n\Qunx.:x\n Mountah 
Moregar, which is covered with fnow, and divides Olgharia Moregaf , 
from Besjert (E). In a river, defcending from it fbuthward, 
is found much gold, and Lapis Lazidi-, and in the woods, 
along its banks, are caught the Alnebr, monftrous beads, 
■which are carried into all parts of Armerna and Greece ; 
whofe fkin is very beautiful, and furs furpafs all others iu 
goodnefs : but the yellow fox-fldns, being fcarce, are referved 
for the ufe of the kings of thofe regions. 

On the fide of the above-mentioned river flands a high 
mountain, out of which gulh a thoufand fprings, that flow 
into the river Margha. On the top of it ftand Aitja and 
Badegha, one day's journey afunJer ; and on Its fkirts Daran- 
da and Darku, three flages diflant from each other ; and the 
laft, which lies moft eaihvard, ten from Jajan. The lake 
of Karazm is fix ftages diftant to the fouth ''. 

^ Gcogr. Nub, p. 245, 

(C) There are found among (D' This feems to be derived 

*hc orientals many fuch tradi- from . Rudh, the ferfian word 

tions as thefe, of a long Hand- for a river, 
ing, grounded on the like tehi- (E) Perhaps rather Bejlhert 

mony ; which are as firmly be- or Be/khert j that i , the coun- 

lieved by the unthinking raulti- try of the Bajlhs, ' 
tude as fo many articles of faith. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. ly. C Bb- 

Gaz and 




Atel or 



on the 

General Hijlcry cf the Turks. B. I. 

Beyond the mowniz\\\ Moregar, fouthward, dwells a na- 
tion of wandering Gaz Turks, called Khanakct, who deftroyed 
the land of Samarik, or IValak Turks, which is divided from 
that of Khanakct by the fame mountain. To Saruarik be- 
longs the city Lokhman, fcated on the mountain Sunia, out 
of which fifes the river Lokhmm, on whofe weft fide ftands 
Danbaha, a beautiful city ; from whence boats go up the 
ftream, as far as a great lake, and thence to the city Jcrmdn K 

With regard to the countryof Bolgiir, it is only obferved, 
that there is in it a city called Babim, built on the top of a 
hill, and ftrongly fortihcd : that, to the north, lies the moun- 
tain Kokaiya; beyond which are found no dwellings, nor any 
living creature, by reafon of the intenfe cold : and, laftly, that 
the land is wafhcd ^ by the y^tel (F). This river confifts of 
two branches, the eaftern flowing out of Kharkir, between 
Kaymak and Olgdr, runs weftward, till it comes to Bolgar : 
there it divides into two arms (G), one of which turns to the 
eaft, and pafling through the countries of Rus (H), Bolgar y 
and Bcrtas, at length falls into the fea of Khozdr (I) : the 
other flows weftward, to the fea oi Nitcs (K). 

The city of ^^tel (L), twenty ftages from the borders of 
Bcrtas, is the capital of Khozdr, and divided into two parts 
by the river, very populous, and three miles long. The king 
of Khozdr refides in the eaft part ; the merchants and com- 
fiaonalty in the other. The Khozars are ChrijHans, Moham- 
medans, and Pagans : but there is no contention among them 
about religion ». 

To this account of the Arab geographer we may add, from 
others, that the Khozdrs were defcended from Khozdr, the 
youngeft brother of Turk ; that their king was ftiled Khakdn ; 
that they made a great figure in the feventh century ; and that 
the capital of the country was called Balanjar : befides which, 
two other cities are mentioned, viz. Siyakowcth and Saray°. 

From this account of the Turki/Jj nations, and the coun- 
tries they inhabit, the reader may perceive how little Tartary 
was known to the Arabs ; as well as what a knack they have 
at invention. They have mentioned rivers, lakes, and moun- 
tains, which, in alJ probability, never were in being ; nor 

' Geogr. Nub. 
p. 243, &: feq. 

(F) Atel or EM, the Wolga. 

(G) The author here muft 
makethci^c/zcryrt/ya/;,* branch 
of the Wolga. 

(H) Or Ruffla. 

266. "" Ibid. p. 276. " Ibid, 

° D'Herb. p. 1003. Art. Khozar. 

(I) That is, the Cafpian fea. 
(K) Or the Euxine. 
;L) This fecms to be the pre- 
fent Afirakhan. 


C.I. TuTk\(h Trihes. 19 

are their names to be found in later writers': -they have 
placed large and rich cities, where never any-thing but del^rts 
exifled ; and, in many particulars, had recourfe to fiftion. 
In Ihort, if v/e except the names of nations, which might 
have been formerly in ufc, and of a few places which are iHll 
known, the whole feems to be romance. Neither are we fure, , : 
from what our author has written, that all the nations Whom 
he mentions were branches of the Turk's : in all probability 
they were only fo in the opinion of the Jrabs ,- it being 
cuflomary to call the ditferent people, under one power or 
dominion, by the fime name ; or to give the name of the 
people who are neareft, to all the refl who are beyond them, 
either for want of" knowing better, or to avoid prolixity in 
fpeaking of them. 


An account of the Turkifh tribes or nations, as deli- 
vered by the Turkifh and Tartarian hijlorians. 

THE oriental authors, who wrote in and after the tirtie of Turkifh 
the Seljuk SoliJns reigning in the wefl oi Afia^ feem xahijloriansf 
have been a great deal better acquainted with the TiirkiJJj na- 
tions than the Arabs, although fome of them extend their 
branches much too far ; including, under that denomination, 
not only the Mogols, Tartars, and Igitrs or Vigurs, but alfo 
the inhabitants of Kitay or Katay a, which contained the 
northern provinces of China, and great part of Tartary, to 
the north and north-wefl of it. Others, as Mirkhond ^n6. according 
JrabJJjah (A), more diftindly inform us, that the pofferity /o Mirk- 
of Ti(rk was divided into four great tribes, named Eriat,^^^^' 
Jalayr, Kaxvjin, and Berlas or Perlas ^, which were again 
fubdivided by Oguz Khan into twenty-four others, of which 
the principal are the Mogols, the Turks properly fo called, 
the Igurs, the Kanghdis (B), the Kipthdks, the Kazclaks (C), 

* D'Herbelot. Bibl. orient, p. 897. Art. Turk. 
'' Arabshah. hift. Trim. 1. i. §4. D'Hexb. p. 89S. Art. 
Turk. p. 685. Arc. Ogour Khan. 

(A) Jrab Shah, 3.TurkiJhh.\- has been piibliHied in French^ 

ftorian, who wrote the Hfe of tranflated by Fatier. 
Timur-bek, oxTamcrlun, in ele- (B) L'r Ka7iklis. 

gant Arabic: but gives that (C) OxKazlaki', hut Kar/iks 

prince a very bad chaiacler; inAbu /ghazi Khdn. The leader, 

probably on account of the vie- in perufing this account of the 

tories obtained by him over the T^urkifo tribes, may confult vol. 

Turks, an3 the ravages he made xx. p. 23, & feq. 

in their country. This hil^ory 

C 2 and 


General Hijiory of the Turks. 3^ I» 

and the 'Pamg<y (D). Thefc twenty-four tribes were likewife 
divided into the right and left wing, called by the Alogols 
Jivangar and Berungar, which, by their fundamental laws, 
were never to mix or marry one with the other c. 
Abu'Igha- This fcrap which D'Herbclot has given us from the ori- 
21 KhanV ental hiftorians, wag all to be met with on the fubjedt, till 
hijlorj, ^e hiftory of Abulghazi Khan of Karazm (E) appeared of 
late, one of whofe chief defigns was to treat particularly of 
the tribes of the Turkifh nation, and mark the dcfcent of 
each. As this book is one of the chief funds which afford 
materials for the hiftory of the Turks and Tartars, it will be 
proper to inform the reader on what authority it is ground- 
ed. Ghazdn of Kazan Khan, fjxth fucceffor of Halaku, 
grandfon of Jengkiz Khin, who fubdued Pcrfia, being dc- 
firous to preferve the memory of the M-jgol tribes, as well as 
the great exploits of'his anceftors, fent one Puh'ui, or Fu/dd, 
a nobleman iT^illed in, the Alogol language, into Tariary, in 
order tocoUecH: materials for that purpofe. At his return the 
Kh.Tn put his memoirs into the hands of his grand Wazir or 
Vifier Fadlallah, that he might compofc a regular hiftory 
from them ; and ordered Pulad to allift him in the work, 

'^ DTIerb. ubi fupr. 


(D) Taingnj, or Tlamgaj, or 
jr<z»;^ir5;,is,by all the oriental au- 
thors reckoned a tribe oi Turks, 
which he takes to be the Gat, 
defcended from Go.z, tenth fon 
of Jf^f'i; and from them came 
the Turkmans. But A'oulfeda 
fays, the country of Tamgrj is 
that of Katay. See DTlerhelot, 
Bibl. orient. Art. Gax., Tarn 
gngc, and Thamgage. 

(E) It is written in the Mo- 
gol or Turkijh language, and un- 
der the tit^e of Shf^jnri Turki, 
that is, a gcnealogic^d hijlory of 
the'Turks. It is divided into nine 
parts : the two firft treat of 
fche Khans and tribes defcend- 
ed from Turk, tlie fon of Jnfet, 
to the time of Jaighr^ Khtif; : 
Ifie third relates the life and ac- 
tions of thai conquvror: the five 
next thofc of his fons and I'uc- 

(«) Sti Mulghazi Kbdnibifttry, f. 
4f«. %»l. i\. f. 4-.7. 

ccflbrs in the feveral parts of 
Tartary : and the ninth treats of 
the Khans of Kharazm, to the 
death of the author, who was fo- 
vcreign of that country, which 
lies on the eaft fide of the Caf- 
plan fca. The Khan dying in 
1663, before the hiftory was 
quite finifhed, his fon and fuc- 
ceflbr, Aniijha Mciar.e^ Khar., 
completed it two years after. 
Befides the hiftory of Khoj^ih 
Ro/.id,a& he calls Fadlallah, 
and eighteen others which he 
docs not name, he made ufe of 
particular memoirs relating to 
feveral Tl/o^o/ tribes (i). 

Abulghnzi Khans hiftory, 
which was procured by Strah- 
lenbcrg, while prifoncr in Sibt- 
ria, has been tranflated into 
Ruffian, German, French, and 

30, and 63. A'Ji colltcl. Toy. &? trav. 


d. i. Turkifh Tribes. 2f 

which confifls of three folio volumes (F), and was finished 
in the year of the He] rah 702, and of Chrifl 1302. It was 
from this hiftory chiefly that AbuHghazi Khan extrafted his, 
excepting as to that part which relates to the Uzbeks of Great 
Bukharia and Karazm. 

According to this author, the feveral different nations or Turkifh 
tribes of people, called Jymaks, may be dillinguinied miQtrihet. 
two forts ; thofe defcended from the Mogoh or Mongols, and 
thofe not defcended from them. Whence many of thefe lat- 
ter are derived, does not appear from Ahu'lghazi Khdn'z hi- 
flory ^ ; but they mufl be either Mogols or Tartars, who had 
loll the memory of their origin ; or elfe tribes fprung from- 
the Khans preceding Alanza ; for all the Aymaks, it feenis, 
are derived from the Khans. 

With, refpeft to the tribes not defcended from the Mo- 
gols, the original of fome has been already mentioned c j as 
the Kankli, Kipjaks, Karliks, Kalach, and Vigufs : of thefe 
five, which derive their nanle from Oguz Khcin, the lafl only, 
We ar6 told, fprung from Mogul Khan. 

1. THii Kankli dwelt, for fome time, jointly with the 57-^ Kan. 
Turkmans, in th^ fandy defarts : but when thefe Jaft begankli. 

to live in towns, the former weiit to inhabit about the ri- 
vers IJfilhd and TalaJJj (G), where they have remained for a' 
long time. Jenghiz Khan put to the fword ten thoufarrsl of 
them, whom he tound there ; th^ reft, to the number of fifty 
or fixty thoufand, had before becoiiic fubjeds to.Soltan /I'/o-; 
hammed Karazm Shah, whofe mother was of tliis tribe. . 

2. The Kipjaks (H) have always inhabited the banks off/^^Kip- 
the Don, JVolga, and Jnik. . . . ^ . , Jaks. 

3'. The Karliks have conftantly dwelt in the mountains QiSheK2,r- 
the Mogols country, living on the produce of their lands. hks. 
This tribe elefted their Khan, and might have amounteil to 
twenty thoufaiid' families in the tirheot Jenghtz Khan. This 
Conqueror having ferit an envoy to perfuade them- to fubmit,^- 
Arfuhi, th^ir Khari, carried him a pretty daughter, befidcs 

<i See p. 31. e See vol. xx. p. 23, & r<fq, 

(F) The firft volume is in the (H) Called alfb Kafjah aHd 
Fre7ich king's library, and was Kifchc.ks. Thefc are iuppdfed 
tranflated hyDe la Croix the fon, to be the fame with the Kcfaks', 
but not publilhed. ; who inhabit the fame' parts: 

(G) The Fretich tranflator a.nd both may bethe re'm;iins of 
fays they are now called Tekiz: the Khozdrs or Khazafi, who 
and Hi : but he feenis to have had an empire to the north of 
been miftaken, at leali with ru- the Cnfplayi fea, in the time of 
fard to the lalt. the Greek trn'^^xoTjuJiiisian. 

C 3 very 

a« General Hijlory of ibe Turks. B.I. 

very magnificent prefents. The receiver, in return, gave 
him a relation in marriage : but, when he was gone, faid, 
the name Jr/lJnSirak (I) Tuited him better than that o{ Arjlun 
Khan. The Moguls ufe the term S'lrak^ fignifying a poor- 
fpirited man, when they fpeak of the Tajiks (K), who are 
a very fimple people '. 
Tht Kal- ^. KAL-ACU ilgnifics hungry, for the rcafon already men- 
Ach. tioned P. There are, at prefent, feveral numerous branches 
of this tribe, not only in the country of Alawaralnahr, or 
Crt'ctt Bukharia, but alfo the Vcrfian provinces of Khorafun 
and Irak h. 
*Tht Ta- 5. The Takrins. Dugay Zinanz, Khan of this tribe, be- 
krins. jng invited by Jcnghi'z Khan to fubmit, he fent, among other 
prefents, a daughter, who appeared fo beautiful in the eyes 
of Ugaday, or Otlay Khan, that, after his father's death, he 
married her, and loved her above all his other wives. 
Tre Kerg- 6. The tribe of the Kerghis, which was but thin at firft, 
bis* increafed confiderably in time, by the accefTion o^ Moguls, and 

other families wl-.o joined them, for fake of the agreeable 
country which they inhabited. Urus Inal, their prince, unable 
to refill: Jenghiz Khan, who fummoned him, by two ambaf- 
fadors, to lubmit, fent that great monarch magnificent pre- 
fents, and, among the refl, a bird called Shungar (L). The 
Ik.7r, or Ikrdn jMuran, now called Jcnifca, glides along the 
borders of the Kerghis (M), and falls into the Azokh Jeng- 
hiz, or hitter fea. Near its mouth, our author tells us, 
there is a great town, called Alakhzin, which fignifies pied (N) ; 
which name it took, becaufe the inhabitants thereof, and the 

' Abu'lghazi Khan's hiflory of the Turks, &-C. p. 14. 31, & 
fcq. 8 See before, vol. xx. p- 31. '' Abu'lchazi 

KhaNj&c. p. 18. 

(I) This muft fignify, the (M) At prefent, by /fyzV/oiu's 

Jntaking Hon. map, tliey are placed near the 

(K) Tajiks are the trading borders of ^wyf^, and thet/ro/ 

people or inhabitants of con- Tag. 

quered countries: the Tartars (N) StrahUnherg mentions 

oi Karaxm give thePerJjans that the ruins of a town called A/ai 

nick-name in contempt or aver- Sin or Chin, which fignifies the 

fion, being their enemies, and (hequc'e.i tribe ; but places it 

of a different fedl in religion. without the great wall of Chi' 

(L) Or Shotjkar; a bird of na [z). 
prey, found in the plains of 

(z ) See hii hifi. geegr. tfejc. of tbt north and (aft parts of Eurepe and Afia, 
intrad. p, 75. 


C. I. Turkifli Tribes , 23 

dependent towns, have none but pied horfes (0) : thefe horfcs 
are very tall ; a colt of a year old being as large as a horfe of 
three any- where elfe. There are likewife rich fdver mines in 
its neighbourhood. The Ilory goes farther ; that the favourite 
widow of Tauli Khan, fon of Jenghiz Khan, to whofe fhare 
the Kergh'is fell, fent three officers, with a thoufand men, 
up the river, by water, to difcover this country. After a 
long flay, they returned, with only three hundred of their 
company ; the reft being loft, as they pretended, by the bad- 
nefs of the air. Thefe gentlemen confirmed, as truth, all 
which had been reported of the place ; and even declared, that 
they had loaded their veffels with fdver, but were obhged to 
throw it all over-board, for want of hands to get it up againfl 
the ftream. 

7. The tribe oiUr-mankats, fo called, from their WmgTheVr- 
in places moft remote, and full of forefts, are neighbours to mankats. 
the Kerghis, on the Ikar Muran, and fubmitted, at the fame 

time, to Jenghiz Khan. There is another tribe who bear the 
fame name, and follow the fame courfe of life, but they are 
Mogols ». 

8. The tribe o^ Tatars, or Tattars, (bythe weftern nations TheTa.- 
o^ Europe called Tartars), one of the moff ancient and famous tars. 

of the Turkijh nation, being defcended from Tatar Khan (P), 
confifted formerly of above feventy thoufand families, and 
had only one Khan, who was very potent : but coming af- 
terwards to be divided into feveral branches, its power, by 
degrees, declined. The principal branch fettled in the coun- 
try of Bmrnaver, near the borders of Kitay, to which it 
was brought in fubje<flion : but, in fome time revolting, the 
emperor of Kitay forced them, by arms, to return to their 
duty : and this happened often to be the cafe with them. 
Another branch went and inhabited the river Ikdr, or Ikrm 
Muran ^ above-mentioned. Gaubil informs us, from the 
Chinefe annals, that, in the time of Jenghiz Khan, they were 
fettled along the rivers Kerulon, and Onon or Amur ; and were 

* Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 36, 39. "^ Ibid. Hiftory of the 

Turks, &c. p. 36, & feq. and 39. 

(O) The Ruffians have a tra- ftory of Jenghiz Khan, fays, the 

dition like this, of a pied peo- Tartars are the fame called Su 

pie, fomewhere in Siberia, cal- Moguls, or the Moguls oftheiva- 

led by them PefirayaOrda, or ters ; and that they took the 

the pied tribe. See hiftory of name Ta/«r from a river of that 

XkzTurks, &c. p. 648. name, in the country oi' Su Mo- 

(P) See anc. hill, book xx. gul. Yet, in another place,- he 

p. zd. De la Crsix, in his hi- derives it from TatavKhdn. , 

C 4 tributary, 

2,^ General Hijiory of the Turks. B. I. 

tributary to the emperor of the Kin, who reigned in Kitay '.. 
From this tribe all the reli, and the country they inhabited, 
took their name, among the nations of the fouthern /Ifia and 
of Europe ™. 
7heV\- 9. The Vira^s (Q_). Tliis tribe inhabit the b^nKs of the 
rats, ai:d S^kir Muran, or eight rivers, which fall into the Jkar, or 
tranches. Jkran Aiun.n, that is, the Jenifca, on the ealt fide (R). Af- 
ter maintaining the war a coniiderabic while againft Jenghiz 
Khan, their Khan Tokta-beghi, with his two (oas, Inalzi 
and Tauraiizi, were obliged to fubmit. Several tribes have 
fprung fiom them. i. The Torga-iits, fo called, becaufe 
they dwelt beyond the country of Snlika, which lies beyond, 
that of the Moguls : but, at prefent, they are under jyuki, and make the whole or part of the fecond branch of 
the Elnths or AliUhs, called Eluths- Jyuki, or Torga-uti ". 
a. The Kuris. 3. The Utilas. 4. The Twnats, who dwelt 
in the country of Barku-chin-tugum (S) : their Khan, Tatulu 
Sukdr Khan, was obliged to fubmit to Jenghiz Khc'in. 5. 
The Boygazms.. 6. The Hirmuzins. Thefe two lall tribes 
dwell neai- the Kerghis, and are very peaceable. 7. The 
Telanguts. 8. The Oraf-uts. 9. The Kujfutmaits. Thefe 
three laft have been always famous for their (kill in phyfic 
qnd magic, as well as hunting and tiihing j which carried 
them to dwell near forefts and rivers °. 

STRJHLENBERG rditts, that the Knhnuk nation, properly 
called Eiuths, call themfelves Avirat, and J'irat, or Dorhon Virat, 
that is, the fcur Avirat tribes, which are Torga-oth, Kojhi- 
ath, Kayoljt, Dfongar and Dorb-cth, which two laft: make but 
one tribe. He likewife obferves, that the terminations oth^ 
ath^ and aiith (or lit and o,t P, as otheis write them), \x\ 
thofe and tJie like words, are the fame : that the Mongols 
call the above -mentionedt four tribes not only Avir-'dt, but 

' SouciE.T. obf. math. i-c. p. 186. Gaubil. hiftv do Jengliiz 
Khan, p, 3. «» Ahu'lohazi-Khan, p. 38, " Sec new 

collect, trav. p. 401. a; and SouciEi's obf. math. p. 148, 160, 
& icq. ** Aeu'lchazi Khan, p. 40. p Abu'lokazi 

Khan writes /V/,as Torga-iits. 

tQ_) Perhaps "C^t Burati or ran, Zagan Muran, and Khaja 

Strati, ftill inhabiting therea- Muran. Muran fignifies. a, rir 

houts. ver. 

(R) Abulgbaiti Kbanhys [%), (S) Perhaps the plain- of Bor- 

t\ie Migiih call them Kok Mu' gu, mentioned by Mana Polo^ 

ran. Or. Muran, KaraUjfun, Se- was in this COUntfy. 
iiiiiftt Jkran Muran, Akar Mu- 

{x) dr.til. h-Jl. ^,41, 



Q J, Turkifh Trihf. 25 

alfo VH-'ith, and Avil-oth (T) : and that tliefe are defcend- 
ants of the fame people, whom the later Greek wriceis call 
Avafi % and Abari ; but Jornandes, more aearly, Avlri "^ ; 
of both which v/ords D'Herbelofs Avairat^ is a kind of com- 
pound ". But as our author makes the Avari or Var, and 
ffum or Khuni, the fame with tlie Igiirs or Un-igurs, how Huns, 
can they be KalmuMs or E hit hs, who are a very different peo- 
ple from the VigufS ? We have already fliewn how very 
uncertain it is to trace the origin of people by the names 
found in hiftorians of foreign countries : and, to fpeak the 
truth, Mr. Strahlcnberg, though very happy in many of his 
Conjeftures, yet was fo bigotted to this method, that he takes 
the fmalkft refemblance in the name as a certain proof csf 
l^is point ; and often flrains matters beyond meai'ure, to- 
make things anfwer his purpofe. 

10. The Nay mans is a very antient tribe, and very 7"/^^ Nay- 
rich (U) : they dwelt in the comitry of the Moguls, called majj-s. 
i^arakum, or bla^k [and (,W) ; but 4^ not ufe agriculture. 
Tlueir Khan, in the time of Jenghiz Khauj was called Toy* 
yan, wrho, with hi& fon Kuchluk,, was flain by that conqueror. 
Omibil informs us, that the Naymans were contiguous xo tlie 
Moguls, near the cit}^ of Hdin, or Kara-kurai), to the north 
of the great fandy defart. At prefent they are fettled near 
the S'ira Muran, to \h& northrcaft of Pahin "«'. 

1.1. The K/jna-it'S (X), thu'ia, fiuarthy, fo called from T/^^ Kara* 
the fwarthy complexion of feven. briother.s, from, whom rheyits. 
fprung. Korzakur Khan, furnamed Bufruk, fon. of Margtis^ 
lii-Khan, was the father of Tayrd Khm^ to whom the em- 

^ Menander c. 7. . "'■ De reb. Get. p. 597. 

"■fiibl. orient.' p^ I43> - " Stkahi.. hiit. geogr,. defer, pref. 
p. 6, & feq. ^ See SoucIvBt, as before, p. i,&5 ; alfo the 

map of Tartary, fqbjedl to China. 

(T) Hence perhaps the name their capital IJfcdoh is called by 

cSEluthsQV.Aluths. the- moderns Sukkir-{x). Be- 

(U) For this reafon, along fides, Sukiir is now known to 

with the name, Strahlcnherg fup- be Su-che-i'j in China, at a great 

pofes tht Naymans, or No^'mans^ diftance from the country of the 

are thtNomai, afcer^vards called Naymans. 
Aramai, oi Pliny : but it is furr (W) A name given to biureti 

prifmg that 7)^ la Gvix, without fandy defarts. 
any apparent grounds, fhould (X.) Written J£^r<>, and,.^«>, 

affirm, that thefe Naymavs are by Europam. 
the Ijjldotp. Scythiaas, and that 

(4j Ssvb^j J.'^Si'*^ KbMiy f, 5, 6, 7« 


2$ General Hijiory of the Turks. B. I, 

peror oi Kitay gzxt the title of JVang (Y) : hence fome writers 
give him the name of IVarg Khan. This is the famous Ung 
Khan, ftiled Prcjlcr John, by Marco Pclo, and other European 
writers, who reprcieiit him both as a Chriftian king and 
prieft ; bat without the ieafl foundation that appears from 
any hiftory but their own. The Kara-its were neighbours 
to the Naymans, and pofleHed a great part of the countries 
along tlie rivers Tula or Tola ^, and Orghitn Y. 
The Un- 1 2. The Ungutii (Z), that is, men -well to pa/s ; for thefe 
gutti. people, being fituate near the Chinefc wall, had great wages 
of the emperors of Kitay, to guard it and its gates. In the 
time of jenghiz Khan this tribe confifted of about four 
thoufand families, whofe Khan y^lakus, making an alliance 
with that monarch, contributed much to render the conqueft 
of Kttay cafy, by going to meet him as he approached, and 
giving him a free entrance by the wall *. 
T^eTar- 13. The Titrkaks. This word fignifies a guard, in the 
kaks. Turki/b : for, among the Turks, while, one half of the night, 
the guard taJce their repofe, the other beat on fomething, to 
ihew they are on the watch ; and, when they want to be re- 
lieved, call to thofe at reft, Turkak, that is, get up and beat. 
Tur fignides get up, and kak, beat. Tliis tribe is very nu- 
merous a. 
Vigurs^*- We come now to the Mogul or Mungl tribes, which are 
Oygurs. 'in all forty-five. The firft of thefe are the Vigurs (A), who 
took their rife in the time of Ogi'z Khan (B), as hath been 
before related. They dwelt originally between the moun- 
tains Tugra Tubujluk, Ujkunluk-tugra, and Kut, on the well 
of the Moguls (from whom they feem to have been fcparated 

"* Then called Kollanuar, according to Bentink's Notes on the 
hiftory of the Turks, Mogols, &c. p. 76. ^ Gaubil's hiftory 

of Jenghiz, p 4. note 6. ^ Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 42, &c. feq. 
• Ibid. p. 45. 

(Y) In the tranflationsv/«;f/7>f-, done in imitation of Mohammed, 

and, by European writers, no lefs who gave the name of Anfdrsy 

faultily Ung. or heifers, to a family oi Arabs 

(Z) Perhaps the fame as 0«- on the like occafion. We judge 

hiot and Ankiit. the Vigurs to have been a colony 

(A) W'tgurs, Igurs, QtOsgurs, i:om Tibet, as has been already 

as the word is varioufly written, obferved, if not the Ikori or 

it fignifies helpers ; at leall that Juijen. 

fenfe has been given to it by the (B) If fo, how could they be 

Mohammedan hiflorians, to ho- now exifting ? fince we-are told, 

nour this tribe, which was very none of the Moguls efcaped the 

potent, for joining with yenghix flaughter made in the army of// 

KJjdn. This fcems to have been Khan, except Kayan and "Sagos. 


C. i^ Turkifh 'Tribes. 27 

by the mountain Kut or Jit ay. As there are, In this country, 
nineteen rivers, ten on one fide, and nine on the other, thofe 
who fettled about the former were called Un Vigurs (C), and 
fuch as dwelt along the latter Tokos Vigurs (D). Thefe two 
tribes, which confiil of more than an hundred and twenty 
branches, poffefTed a great number of towns and villages, 
yet had no Khans ; till at length falling out together, the 
firfl eledled a prince, called Maitgatati, to whom they gave 
the name of Il-ittar ; and the fecond chofe another, whom 
they called Il-irghin. Their defendants had the fame titles : 
but, an hundred years after, the two tribes, coming to unite, 
had but one fovereign, ftiled Idikvt ; which, in Turkijlj, fig- 
nifies, fcnt by the fpirit (E), but, in the Ujbek tongue, a. 
free independant per/on. 

They lived thus in union two thoufand years, in xhtThelr 
above-mentioned mountains : after which a new AMfftrtncc branches » 
arifmg between them, they feparated, for good and all ; one 
part remained where they were, and the other went to dwell 
on the banks of the river IrtiPj. Thefe lall:, dividing again 
into three branches, one went and dwelt in Bijh-balik (F), 
and cultivated the lands about it : the fecond difperfed them- 
felves in the neighbourhood of that city, feeding on their 
cattle : and tlie third branch continued on the IrtiJJD, where 
tliey lived by fifhing, and hunting of fables, caflors, martens, 
fquirrels, and other beafrs. On the flefh of thefe they fed, 
and clad themfelves with their fkins, which had always been 
their cloathing. 

BANERZIK (G) Idlkut, their Khan, fubmitted to Jeng- 
h'lz Khan, in order to fecure himfelf againft Kavar (H) Khan 
of Turkejidn ; and every year fent him confiderable prefents. 

(C) From thefe it is fuppofed hard to determine, confidering 

came the Uuks or Hum ; but how greatly words have been 

more efpeciaUy the Onagj-i, Uni- diftorted by thofe means. 
gari, Igurai, and Inugrt, as they (D) Vn fignifies ten^ and To' 

are called by authors ; alfo Utri- kos nine, in Turkijh. 
gori and Kutrigori, Vthiirgari (E) ldi,\it\n^fent, Kuf, 

ZXiA Kuth-urgari. Whether this fpirit. Abu l-faraj ^\\es\i\m Idi- 

difference in the names had any kub, and fays, it fignifies lord of 

real foundation, as belonging the empire. Hid. dynaft. p. 283. 
to different tribes of people, who (F) Bijhbaligw&i inLittleBuk' 

appeared at different times, or hdria, near the city of Ta>/a». 
in different parts of the Roman (G) He is called Parchukorte 

empire, or was owing to thofe Tikin in the Chinefe hiftory. 
who tranfmitted accounts of (H) Rather, perhaps, G«>*,, 

them, either miflaking or cor- or l^ur Khan. 
fiipting the names, feems pretty 


28. General Hipry of the TuxV^. B.I. 

He joined the coDcjuerof aJfo, when he went to attack Ah- 
htvnmcd Karazm Shuh. 
Jindlearn- In regard many of the Vigurs were (killed in the Tiirkijh 
*"K- language, sind expert in writing, Jengh":z Khun made ufe of 

them in all his expeditions, as fecretarics to the chancery : 
in which quality aifo his dcfcendants, who reigned in Mn- 
ivaralnhar and Pcrfm, cmplojed ihem for a long time •'. 
On this occafion it may be obferved, that the Figitrs or Qy- 
gurs were the only people inhabiting Great Tartary, who had 
the ufe of characters, which were the flime with thofe now 
found mTibet, where they are called charafters oiTangvt ^. 
TleUr- The Ur-mank(tti. They lead much the fame courfe of 
mankats. life with their namefakeS before-mentioned ; and are defcend- 
ed from Oguz Khc.n .- which is all that is faid oi them '^. 

It has been alrtady remarked, that the defcendants of 
Kayaii took- the furname oi Kayat p and thofe oi Nagoi that 
of DurLzgan, or Nagojlcr : whence, in a (hort time, they 
came to iofe their trite names. The tribes mentioned as 
fprung from them, are thirty-eight in number ; thirty derive 
their pedigree from A'ayrrn, and five from Images. 
Nlrkha or The tribes defcended from Kay an are the following. 
Niron ^ From the three fons of Alanku (I) fprung a numerous 
ttive. tribe, in the 7l/<j^/// language furnamed Nirkha; that is, a 
pure family ; in memory that the founders of it were begot- 
ten without any commerce with man, as hath been before 
related : elfewhere it is faid they took the furname of Ni~ 
rcn «. 
TheYi\in- 2. Thr Kunkurnts, or KankratS' {K). Thefe are fprung 
Kurats. from Kunkurat^ a fon of Zurlak Mergan. who defcend- 
ed frorti- Kayart (L). They, dwelt along the river Kahf- 


** ArtJ'LGMAZl Khan, p. 13, & feq. 31, & fcq. Si 46. 
''GavI'il, in SoucitT. obf. math. p. 146. "^ Abu'louazi- 

Kkan, p. 3^". *'Xbld. p. 4O, and 5S. 

(I) The hiftory of Alanku, circumflances, that this Ztirluk 

and her tiree fons, has been al- Mergan lived many ages before 

ready related, anc. hift. vol. ^/a;/,(w, and polfibly, during the 

y!X. p. 37. a!fo an account given time the Mcguh remained Huit 

of their dtrfcendants to ymghiz up in the mountain of trgnii/rkiii,^ 

ifhafi : mofl: of whom are men- fince the tribe oi Kin-hrs dcr'we 

tioned hereafter, on occafion of thcmfelves from him, and li.r- 

the Mogul tnhfi being derived tiztna Khatt, of the Moguls, at 

from them. Some write ..^/t<;/- the time of their famous fally* 

in^va. from thence, v/as a dcfccndant. 

{K.) JKofiisr^f.'^ndlCoKgcrtJts. of Kuilas. Mention if made of 

(L) It appear?, t.-om fevejal Zuri.ik M-rgti'ii two brod^er?. 

q, f, Turkifh Tribes. 559 

fiii (lyj), in the time- of Jenghiz Khan ; to whom' their 
Khan Turk-ill, who was his relation, went over f. 

3. The Burkiits : and, 4. The Ku7'la-uts. Thcfe two TZ-^ Bur- 
tribes formerly inhabited along with the Kunku rats, who are^^'^^. 
related to them. 

5. The Ankarah ; and, 6. The Alaknuts ; aie defcended T/;'.? An- 
from the two fons of Kahay Shira, brother of Ziirluk Mer- karah. 
gan. Ulun, called alfo Ulun Iga, and Uhin Kufm, the mo- 
ther of Jenghiz Khan, was of the latter tribe. 

7- The Kara-nuts. Thefe are fprung from Karaniit,TheKzTa.< 
eldeft fon of Bufyiuiay, third brother of Zvrluk Mergan g. nuts. 

8, The Kurlas, one of the mod eminent tribes among T^^Kur- 
the Moguls, are fprung from Kurlas, fon of Mcyfir-ili, fon las. 
of K^naklot, fon of Bafyuday, youngeil brother of Zurluk 
M^rgiw. Bertizena, Khanof the /Wo^w/j, when they faliied 
out of the mountain Irgaiia Kon, was a defcendant of KuT' 
I^is. This tribe is divided into many branches, who have 
I he fur name oi NirQn. f. The Kaiaguns, defcended from 
Bokum Kafagum, the eldell of Alanku's three fons. 2. The 
Zalzuts, from Bofiin Zalzi, fecond fon of Jianku. 3. The 
Bayzuts, from Bajjlkar and Hurmalankum, fons of Kaydu 
Khan. 4, The Zipzuts, from Zapzin, Baydu Khan's, third 
fon, 5. The /,>-/^^Z-'<f;2i'j-, from Z(2j52m alfo h. 6. The Zcnas, 
furnamed Abgos, but different from the Nagojler : they 
fprung from Kauduzena and Olekinzena, fons of Hurmalan' 
kum. 7. The Butakins, irom Butakin, e\de[i {on oi Tumana 
Khan, grandfon of Kaydu Khan. 8. The Uruths, from 
Uruth, fecond fon of Tumo-na. Khan '. 9. The Mankats, 
from Mankat, Tiimana's third fon : thefe are nick-named 
Kara Kalpaks by the Ruffians, and poflefs at prefent the welt- 
ern half of Turkejim, with the city of that name. But Ky- 
rillovj\ map makes the Kara Kalpaks and Mangats diflinft 
tribes. 10. Badiirghins, from Sarnharum, third, fon of Tu' 
mana Khan. 1 1 . The Biidats,hom Batkilti, Tumana's fourth 
fon ^^. 12. The Burlas or Berlas (N), from Zedemzi-burlas, 

*■ Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 48, 52, & 75. e Ibid. p. 48., 

52, & feq. h Ibid, p 48, 55. ^ Ibid. p. 59. 

^ Ibid. p. 59, 567, 575. 

Kahay Shira and Bujyu/fay, but of hi.^ ear, without touching the 

not of his father: lie was fucli jewel at which it hung. 

an excellent archer, that, being (M) NowOrihon, according 

to fight on horfeback with Ka- to BaitinFs notes on Abulghdvci 

hay Shira, and feeing him thro' Khan. 

fear bend down on one fide for (N) Written Perlas by the 

fhelter, in pity, would not kill Per/tans and ^u^■h. 

jaim, but ftruck the pendent out 

7 foft 

20 General Hijlory of the Turks. B. L' 

(on of Kdziili, Tumana's, fixth fon. Of tliis tribe was the 
great Timur-bcigh, or Tamcrlav. 13. The Kayums, from 
Udur-bayati, feventh fon of Tumana Khan. 14. The yUots^ 
from Balzar, Tumana s eighth fon, tailed Oglan, or the lame, 
becaufe he halted. 15. The Bajfuts, or Tcjfiits, from Olzin- 
gan, ninth fon of Tumana '. 1 6. The Kayats are defcendcd 
from the fix fons ot Kabul Khan ; in whom, being Arong men, 
and great warriors, was revived the name of Kayat, which 
had been in a manner unknown for above three thoufand 
years. 17. Tho. Borzugan Kayats fprung from the five fons 
of Tcjfiighi Bahadur Khan, of whom Tcmujin, afterwards 
Jcnghiz Khan, was the eldefl:. They were all of a fair com- 
plexion, inclining to yellow, with a red circle between the 
black and white of their eyes ; which kind of eyes the Mo- 
guls call Borziigan, from whence their defendants had that 
name "i. 
TheWzi- p. The Ilzigans. This tribe is defcended from ItzigaKf 
gans. brother of Kurlas, fon of Meyfir-lli, before-mentioned. 
TheY>\xx- 10, The Durmaus, that is, four, in the Moguls language 
mans. ^q^^ derive their origin from the four elded fons of Bizin 
Kayan Khan ; who, refenting the eleftion of Kipzi Mergan 
Khon, though it was made purfuant to the will of their fa- 
ther, left the country : but their dcfcendants, in procefs of 
time, came and dwelt in the dominions of Kipzi Morgan. 
From thefe are defcended two tribes, i . The Barians, from 
one of that name. 2. The Sukut, from the fon of a Dur- 
inan, by a flie-flave: this Have coming before her time, through 
the abufe recci\ed from his wife, went and hid the infant 
among fhrubs, called, in their language, Yidgun ; but, by the 
Moguls, Sukut (P) : the father finding it here oext morning, 
from thence gave it the name of Sukut ". 

The tribes of the Nagojler, or DurlaganSy defcended from 
Nagos, are five. 
The Ba- I . The Bayuts are divided into feveral branches, the mofl 
yuts. confiderable of which are ihe Sr.daghin Bayuts, and the Ma- 
krim Bayuts, fo named from the rivers Sadaghin and Ma- 
kriyn, on the banks whereof they inhabit ; being neighbours 
to the Virats. 

' Abu'lghazi Kuan, p. 60. "Ibid. p. 61, "Ibid, 

p. 49, & feq. 

(O) But, in the language of (P) Hence it looks as if the 
the Eluths or Kalmub, Dirb is /^.vrwawj had a language of their 
four, according to StrahUubergs own, different from the Mogul. 
tabic of dialects. 

2. The 

C. i: Turkifh Tribes. 51 

2. The Jalayrs (Q^) are a very antlent tribe : they were 
formerly fcattered over a great extent of country, and had 
many princes ; till, the Kitayans having declared war againft 
them, they wqre obliged to come clofer together, in order 
to be in a capacity to affill one another. Their families 
were fo numerous, that they fpread over feventy different 
provinces (R), which they called in their language Kiiran ; 
and the greater part of them dwelt in a quarter of the Mo- 
guls called U7ndn. But^the emperor of Kitay having de- 
feated, and carried away, a great number of them (S)^ the 
refl fled, and were reduced to live on roots. 

This happened in the reign of Dutianin Khan (T), father y-^^/^ ji, 
of Kaydu Khan ; who going to be married in another cown-jirefs. 
try, left his fecond brother, Mutiilun, to take care of the 
houfe, and his feven other brothers. Thefe repairing one 
day to a very level fpot of ground, near their habitation, 
where they ufed to perform their exercifes and tournaments, 
they found the Jalayrs digging for root§, which rendered 
the place unfit for their divcriions. They immediately inform- 
ed Mutulun hereof, who haflened thither with a ftrong force, 
and put the Jalayrs to flight : but the latter returning to the 
charge, after great lofs, at length overcame Mutithm, killed 
him, and his feven brethren : not content with this, they 
ruined their habitations, and put to the fword as many of 
their fubjefts as fell into their hands. 

KATDU Khan, being informed of this misfortune, return- •T'^^^jKay- 
cd home forthwith, and fent to demand of the Jalayrs the du Ja- 
reafon why they had killed his brothers. The Jalayrs, ter- layrs, 
rifled at the meffage, fent five of the chief perfons concerned, 
with their wives and children, to the Khan, to be difpofed 
of as he thought fit : but he was content to keep them as 
his flaves ; which proved of good account to him : for they 
took the furname of their mafter, ferving him and his pofte- 
rity faithfully, to the fourth generation ; infomuch that fome 
of his defcendants had ten, twelve, and even twenty, families 
of them, for their portion. In the reign of Jenghiz Khan 
the other Jalayrs took the name of their captive brethren °. 

•> Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 53, & feq. 

(Q^) Or Chalayrs ; in the at prefent, the Chalayrs inhabit: 

tranflations SalaglArs, doubtlefs Karchin (or Kara-chin) fignifies 

by a wrong reading. the black tribe. 

(R) Or diftrids. (T) Grandfather of Jenghiz 

(S) Perhaps into ifisrfii/w, to KhaKy in the feventh genera- 

the north qI fe-ihe-U ; where, tion. 


^i General Hijiory of the Turks. B. I. 

BrsiDF.s the Mogul tribes before-mentioned, there are nine 
others : but it is uncertain wliether they are fprung from 
Kay an or Nayos. 
T/rMar- '• The Alarkats. Toktu-hcghi Khan, of this tribe, was 
kats. always at variance with Jenghtz Khan. One time, in the ab- 
fence of that hero, he carried away his wives and fubjefts, 
with all that fell into his hands. Another time, lying in am- 
bufh for Jcnghlz Khan, he made him prifoner while he was 
taking a walk ; and it cofl his fubjeci'S a large fum of money 
to ranfom him. 
TbcVm- 2. The Umma-iits, formerly called Urma-iits. From them 
ma-uts. are derived four tribes, i . The Kunakhmars, fprung from 
a perfon of that name. Menglik, furnamed Izka, or the dc' 
vout, for his piety and virtue, was of this tribe, and married 
the widow Ulun-iga (U), mother of Temujin, or Jenghiz Khariy 
who was then but thirteen years of age. Some years after 
Vang Khan (W), of the Kara-its, fent a letter to him, pro- 
pofmg to kill Tcmnj'in, and divide his poffeflions between 
them. This was to be done at the time of a vifit Vang Khan 
was to make to Menglik. Soon after he gave Temujin an in- 
vitation, under pretence of treating about a marriage between 
his daugliter and the other's eldell fon. Temujin, who fre- 
quently vifite'd him, as having been an intimate of his father's, 
immediately fet forward, with only two domeflicks : but 
meeting on the road with his father-in-law, who informed him 
_ - .of Vang Khan'?, treachery, he returned, and fo efcaped the 
■''^^'''^^^^'fnare. 2. The fecond branch of the Umvm-vts is the Jrlats, 
fprung from Jrhit, fecond fon of Alenglik Izka, by his firft 
wfe. 3. The Kalkits, from Kalkif, third fon of Menglik ; 
{b named becaufe he could not fpeak plain. From the Kal- 
kits are derived, 4. The Kijhliks, from one KiP^lik. This 
man, who, with his brother Baydu, kept the horfes of a 
great lord belonging to Vang Khan's court, going to his ma- 
fler's with a feveral-days gathering of mares milk, overheard 
him bid his wife grt ready his arms, for that the Khan intend- 
ed to invade Temujin unawares ; and being fprung from the 
Moguls, as foon as they had delivered in the milk, they went 
and difcovered the plot ; for which lervice Jenghiz Khan 
made them and their defcendants, for nine generations. Tar- 
km (X) ; which frees them from all forts of taxes. 

(U) Otherwifc called Ulun- wrlten. In thetranflation^aral 

knzin. Kb an. 

(W) Or IVavg Kha>u the fa- (X) Or Tcrkan, as written by 

mous Ihig KhcM of the European De la Croix. 

Q. The 

C. I. Tufkiili 1'riheS). ^5 

3. The Vifiuns : 4. The Siddus .- and 5. 'T\itOklmni:fh<'YU 
Of whom nothing more is mentioned^ than that they arefhuns. 
branches of the Moguls P. 

This is the account of the tribes or branches of the Ttitk' 
ijh nation, given by Ahxilghhzi Khan ; which, though the moil: 
extenfive of any which has yet come to our hands, is> after all) 
• very fuperficial : nor indeed could it well be otherwife, fuice 
it does not appear, that any of the inhabitants of Tartary had 
written records, or even made ufe of letters, except the Igurs 
ox Vigiirs, before the time of Jcnghiz Khan : and tht?ir oral 
traditions mufl needs, from the nature of the thing itfelf, 
have been very imperfedf, as well as liable to much uncer- 
tainty, and even corruption. 

However that be, Ahiilghtizi Khan^ and the authors ZPZ/W/'c- 
whom he made ufe of, difier much from thofe quoted hymentof 
D'Herbeht, and apparently go upon a different plan (Y). Yota^thsTi, 
he fpeaks neither of Tiit'k's polbrity being divided into four 
tribes, nor of any fubdivifion into four others by Oguz, con- 
formable to Mirkondf and the earlier Perfian hifforians. In 
all probability we fhould difcover a flill greater difagree- 
ment, had D'Hcrbelot but given us the names of all the 
Turkifi tvHoes from that author, or his (on Kond Jmir, who 
wrote a particular hiftory of the Alogol tribes, Jcnghiz Khun 
and his iuccelTors ''. 

What mJbulghdzi Khan feems moft fingular is, that he 7^*0 friht 
mentions no particular tribe properly called Turks ^ as i\\c called 
Pcrfian hiftorians have done. Whether he omitted them, Turks, 
in confequence of nothing being faid about them in the au-* 
ihors he made his extraifls from (Z) ; or as intending to treat 
chiefly of the Moguls, which feems indeed to have been his 
main defign ; or laflly, becaufe there is at prefent no txih^nonvir. 
in all Tartary exifling under the name of Turks ^ that people Tart Jiry, 
having long fuice paffed into other countries, or been de- 
llroyed by wars ; we cannot determine. But let whatever 

P Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 47, & feq. and p. j^, 1 See 

before, p. 4, noteG, 

(Y) Their hlftory undoubted :- ftory of JrnglizKfJn, piiblifhed 

ly was calculated to do honour liy De la Crcix, which, though 

to the Mcgols ; as that given by extrail^id chiefly {torn Fa J Li lied:, 

the authors before-mentioned the principal author made ufe 

was to do honour to the 5^/- oihy Ahu/ghd-zi Khan, mtniiom 

ji*^^' fcarce any tribes befides thcfe 

(Z) We can form no judg- which are il%c/.-. 
ment on this point from the hi- 

MoD, III ST. Vol. IV. D y^,\\\ 

34 General Hijlory of the Turks : B. I. 

will have been the reafon, it is certain, that there was formerly 
a particular tribe or nation among the inhabitants of Tartaiy 
named Turks ; for they are mentioned both by the Roman 
and Chincfe, as well as the /Irab and Pit/tun iiiftorians al- 
ready cited. This will appear more evident ftiil from tlK'ir 
hiAory, delivered in the following fc(ftion. 


The affairs of the Turks with the nations bordering 
on Tartary, and among themfehes^ frorn their firji 
appearance J till the time of Jenghiz Khan. 

Particular TT may Well be qneftioned, whether all the different tribes 
tribe of "*■ of people inhabiting Tartary are branches of Turks ; but 
It feems probable that there was a particular nation among 
the antient Scythians who went by that nam6 ; fince the 
Tiirci, perhaps better written Turkic are mentioned by Pom- 
foniiis Mela the geographer a, and Pliny ^ ; who place them 
among the nations dwelling in the neighbourhood of the ri- 
ver Tanais, and the Palus MiCotis. 
oriental How the Turks fhould be known fo early to the Romans, 
Turks, ^^^^ "ot to the Greeks, who lay much nearer to them, may 
feem a little Grange ; for they are not mentioned by Ptok- 
?ny (A), nor any waiter of that nation, who has come to our 
hands, before the middle of the lixth century. Then, in- 
deed, they fpeak of them for the firfl time ; but, far from 
placing them in the weft of JJia, they give them a fituation 
in the f irtheft eaft : yet it muft be confefFed, that the name 
of oriental Turks, by which they call them, fliould feem to 
be conft-rred on them, with a view to diftinguiHi them from 
other Turks, known to them in the weft. However this be, 
it is furprizing that Kka/kokonJilas, who, in his hiftory of 
the fall of the Creek empire, treats of the name and origin 
of theTurks, fhould fay nothing of thefe eaftern Turks, men- 
tioned by preceding hiftorians : but indeed he feems to be 
quite a ftranger to \l\e Seljuks, or any kind of Turks, though 
living near the northern borders of the empire (B}, before th» 
time of the Oguzians or Othmans. 

■■' De fitu orbis, 1. . cap. iilt. '' Hill. nat. I. vi. c. 7. 

(A) For the T'/./r/ 'can't be (B; In Hungary, in and be- 
filid to be the Tttrh, without ioxe t\\it i\mc oi Ojnji an! ii:e For - 
ftraining matters beyond ,rca- phyyogmittis. ♦ 



C.I. T'&eir affairs (ill J enghizKhin^. 55 

The Bizantine hiftorians tell us, that thefe oriental TurhTheir fitu^ 
were the fame formerly called Sakit {Q) -. that they dwelt «^'^*» 
beyond the Sogdians (D) ; and were divided into eight 
tribes (E) : that they had greatly increafed in power within 
a few 3'ears, fo as to border on the Roman empire : that 
their king, named DifabuleSy fent ambafladors in the fourth 
year of JuJHn the younger (F) ; and that they brought with 
them iron, to fell, to make it believed, that there were mines in 
their country : that Difahiles encamped near the mountain according 
Ek tak : that this name ixgrn^ts tht mountain of gold -, and^'"^^ 
was given to it on account of the abundance of fruits and ^'^^^'^ 
cattle which were on it : that it flood in the moft eaflern part 
of his dominions : that to the fouth of it was a place called 
Talas, and four hundred fladia to the weft a plain, called 
Ikar \ 

Whether this Tcilas was the fame mentioned by later 
travellers ', or the plain of Ikar had any relation to the river 
Ikar or Ikran ", now called Jcnifea, we fhall not pretend to 
fay : but 'tis certain this account agrees very well with what 
is related by a curious miillonary, from the Chine fe hiflory, <7«.-/ Chi- 
which begins to fpeak of the Turks, Vv^hom they call Tu-quc, "^^f ^-'f' 
in the year 545 ; at which time they were an inconfiderable''""^"^* 
people, who dv/elt to the north-weft of Turfan (G), in Little 
Hukharia ; and, not long before, their employment was to 
work iron, near a mountain called Kin (H) (that is, gold ) i 
but, in a few j-ears, they grew very powerful ; fubduing the 
whole country betvv^een the Cafpian fea and the river Lyau^ 

* Menander, cap. 6. to the 14th, Simocatta, 1. vii. c. 
8. ap. new colled, of voy. and trav. vol. iv. p. 537. "^ Ru- 

BRUQUis, in new colledl. voy. and trav. vol. iv. p-556. * See 
Abu'lghazi Khan's hill. p. 39. 

(C) According to this ac- (D) Ey the 5o^^/^».f are to be 

count, the name of Turks was underftood the inhabitants of 

but newly fprung up. What the country about Samarka-nd, 

was their former name muft be called Sogd; or, in a larger 

very uncertain. The antient fenfe, all Ma'waralnahr, or 

hiftorians were not always geo- Bukharia. 
graphers, and guelled in this (E) By the /w7g-^£»'s or A7-.'7;:'s 

cafe as the moderns do, who letter to the emperor Mauritius., 

are oftener in the wrong than in their number was only feven. 
the right. Befides, how (hould (F) Which was in 569. * 
the Greeks know much of peo- (G) Named perhaps from the 

pie who lived at fuch a difiance, Turks 

and with whom aU intercourfe (H) Or Tukin. Kin in Chi- 

had been broken off for fome nefe Tignifies gold : pofnbly that 

ages ? '-• called h-gar.akon b}' the 1'urhs. 

D 2 in 


Set up 
rear the 


General Hijiory of the Turks : B. I. 

ill the province of Lyau-tcng. They were divided into 
Tu-quc ot the north, and Tu-qiic of the well ; and had grpat 
wars either among themfelves, or with tiie Chincfc, to whom 
they were very formidable '. Whether they made any con- 
quefts in CImm itfelf, docs not as yet appear : but we are* 
told, that the founders of the dynamics of the latter Tang 
and Han in that empire were of thefe Tu-quc ^ ; the former 
commencing in the year 923, the latter in 947, of the Chrif- 
tian jera. 

BESIDES the great conformity between the Roman and 
Chinefe hiffory, relating to the rife of the Turkijh power, it 
is worth obferving, that they both confirm a very remarkable 
circumftance in the hiltory of the Mogols, and almofl prove 
them to be the fame people with the Turks ; namely, their 
working in iron, near a mountain called Kin. This moun- 
tain is probably the fame with that of Irganakon, Erkana, 
or Jrkcnckom (I), fituatcd in the extreme north parts of the 
Alogols country ; wheie, we are told, a foundery was eredied 
by the chiefs of the Kayat (K) tribes, thence called the ^r- 
kenekom fmiths ^ (L). And hence the fable related by Abul- 
ghdzi, Khan of the Alogols, making a way through that 
mountain, by melting the iron mines ', doubtlefs had its rife. 

Whether the mountain Kin, which in Chinefe fignifies 
gold, be the fame with that called Ek tak, or Jk tak (M), I 
will not pretend to fay, the fituation of this laft not being 
fufficiently fixed by the Byzantine writers : neither does the 
name fignify the fame as Kin ; for although thofe hiflorians 
explain it go/J, yet in reality y^ltttn tak or tag fignifies the 
mountain of go! J, in the Alogol or Turkijh language; Ek tak 

' Gavbil. hill. Jenghiz Khan, p. 2. New colledion of tra- 
vels, 4to. vol. iv. p. 433. 6 Gaubil. p. II. in the noteS', 
'' De la Croi.v, hill. Jeng. p. 6. * See ancient hiftory, 
vol. XX p. 

(I) D'Herbclot writes Erke- 

(K) Kayat fignifies, afmith. 

(L) De la Croix (from whom, 
in his life oVJenghi'zKhan, p. 6. 
we have this circumilance^, tells 
us of an annual fcaft obfeived 
by x\\(iMogoh, in memory of this 
foundery ; or rather, perhaps, 
of their having found out the 
way of working iron, which, 
i^vidc\ informs us, the Tuaks 

<:'.rr/? in his time unacquainted 
nvieh. Abulghazi Khan, in his 
hillory, p. 28. pretends the feaft 
was appointed in memory of 
their famous fally out of Irga- 

(iVI) Perhaps Artag ; to the 
ea(i of which the Mogols dweltj 
between it and the mountain 
Kartag. See Abulghaxi KhanS 
hiftory, p. lO; and Go/ius ap. 
Horn. arc. Nocc, p. 246. 


C. iT 't^sir affairs till Jenghiz Khanr 37 

or Jk-tak, the w&ite mountain. Perhaps it went by both 
names, and the Greeks brought home only the latter. 

In effeft, if we may be able to judge, from the imperfcft 
account that is left us, of the roads which the ambalfadors 
took to and from the Turkijb camp or court, the mountain 
Ek tak, in cafe it be the fame with that of Kin, muil be ra- 
ther to the weft than eaft of it. 

That our reader may the better judge of this, we fhall 
lay before him what little we find concerning thofe roads. 

With regard to the route taken by Zeviark, the ^v9i Roads into 
ambaflador from the Romans to the Turks, we are only 
told, that he was fent back with Maniak, priufe of the Sog- 
dians ; and that, being arrived in his country, he travelled from 
thence to mount Ek tak, and returned to Confiantinop/e thro' 
the country of the Kliatorians, and town of Koalitcs. The 
ambalTadors fent to Toxander, fon of Difabules, took a dif- 
ferent courfe : they failed from Conjlantinople to Sinope, on 
the north coaft of 4fia Minor, and thence croITed over the 
Euxine fea to Kherfona, in the Kherfonefus : they proceeded 
through the country of the Opturians, and other fandy terri- 
tories, and the fouth frontiers of Taurica : then, pafling over 
marlhy places, full of reeds, they came to the country of ylk ' Turks 
Jga (N) ; fo named from a lady, who formerly commanded '■°""^0'' 
the Scythians, and received that power from Anongeus, prince 
of the Utragurians. Laftly, they arrived at the places where 
the trophies of Toxander were fet up ^. 

This is all we meet with relating to the roads into the 
country of the Turks, taken by the Roman ambafladors : nor 
is there any thing faid of that road which the ambafTadors of 
Lkifabules took in their way to Conjlantinople-, farther than 
that, after travelling over a vaft extent of country, and 
mountains covered with fnow, they entered (O) into the Caf- 
pian ftraits. 

Our author Is fomewhat more particular in his account Kliat am'' 
of the road taken by the ambafladors of the Kliats. After a hajfadorsi 
long march they arrived at a marfhy traft of land, of great 
extent : here one of the ambalTadors taking the Ihorteft but 

^ Menand. c. 13. ig. 

(N) Ak Aga fignifies, the 'vchite dia and Parthia by Ptolemy, and 

Icdy. a day's journey from Rages by 

(O) One would have ima- Arrian; vAiich. Rages or Ragau, 

gined, that they pafled fouth- in all probability, is the fame 

ward, between the Euxine and with Ray or Rey, once the capi- 

Cafpian feas ; but the Cafptan tal of Ptrjian Irak, about eighty 

ilraits are placed between Me- miles fouth-eail oi Kazi/m. 

D 3 moft 

^8 General Hijlory of the Turks : B. I. 

moft defart road, the other advanced along the morafs for 
twelve days together ; then, continuing his journey over hills, 
at length came to the river Hik (P) ; and next to the river 
Daik (QJ. From thence, travelling along another lake, they 
arrived at JttiU (R), and the country of the Himgars. Pro- 
ceeding through a dry defart country, along feveral great 
lakes, they came to a morafs, into which the river Kofon dii- 
^TrarjiiS charges itfelf. Then they entered the country of the Jldns ; 
i„to but were afraid of the HorotnoJJts ; and, being advifed not to 

Greece, go into the tenitories of the Mindimians (becaufe the Per- 
fians lay in ambiifli, in Sivania, to intercept them), they 
turned off to the right, and, ftriking through xhcDarina (S), 
or two gates, a f)af^, arrived in Apfilta (T) : thence they proceed- 
ed to Rctaurion (U), and the Euxine fea ; afterw-ard, croflmg 
the Phafis (X), they came to Trabizond, and fo to Conjian- 
tincpie '. 

We are beholden to Menandcr for thefe notices ; which, 
though fhort, defer\e to be preferred, as being almofl the 
only account we find of travels into Tartary for many cen- 
turies together. 
Turks But to return to the affairs of the oriental Turks. Dif- 

i:nh.aj[y abides having, at the requefl of the Sogdians (Y), whom, 
wdth the Nephtalitcs (Z), he had newly conquered, fent 
two embaffies to the Perfians, to folicit a trade for filk; 
the Perfians were not content with reje(fling the alliance. of 
the Turks, on account of their inconftancy and breach of 
faith, as they alleged ; but, to give them an averfion to the 
country, poifoned their ambaffadors : from whence began the 
enmity between thofe two nations. It was on this occafion 
that Difabules fent ambaffadors to the emperor Jujiin, as be- 
fore-mentioned ; who concluding a treaty of peace, the Turks 
became the friends and allies of the Rotnans ; with whom 
,, fjyf they never had any dealings before. Much about the fame 
Romans, time the Kliats (A) alfo, who were fubjedt to Difabules, an4 

' Menand. c. 6. 

(?) This may be the Tern. (U) Retciirion, a town, or ca- 

(Q_) Which feems to be the ftle, belonging to \\\^ Ramans. 
Jaik, or Talk. (X] Now Fap, or Rkn. 

(R) Doubrlefs the Wdga -, (Y) The Sogiiiatis were the 

called alfo Jtil, or E.iel; or elfe people zhoKii Stunariaiid, which 

fome town upon it. ftands in a valley cnlled iS'cj^^. 

(S) Da'n;n fignifies, in Ara- (Z) Called, b\ P'cccpius.^ph' 

hie, the trvo gates. talitesy of whom hereafter. 

(T) Apfilia, fomeuhcre in (A) Perhaps the fame with 

Mingrelia. the Kalatz. 


C. u 'ithiiy affairs till Jenghiz Khah. 59 

inhabited " near the borders of the Roman emph-e, fent am- 
bafTadors to Jujiin, The country of the Turks was then di- 
vided into four governments, all under the command of Difa- 
bides : feveral nations, and, among the reft, tiae Avares (B) 
and Hungers (C), were fubje(5l to them : but 20,000 of the 
former had revolted, and pafled into Europe '". 

The am.bafladors engaged JuJlin to make war upon theP^r- The Per- 
fians, offering to ravage Media at the fame time : and, at thefians i-n- 
end of his fourth year (D), the emperor fent Zemark on aa 't-v?.!'/:^!'* 
embafTy to Difabules : who, profeffing much friendihip, feall- 
ed the ambaffadors under a tent, fpread with carpets, of fe^ 
veral colours, but plain manufacture; where they eat and 
drank all day. At this entertainment there was no wine ; 
for no grapes were found in their country ; but they had 
other liquor, which was fweet and agreeable. Next day they 
were treated in anotha- tent, whofe furnicure was rich and - 

Soon after, Difabules, fetting forward on his march againft 
the Perftans, took Zemark with him, and fome of his retinue ; 
but left the reft in the country of the Kliatorians (E). He 
alfo gave the ambaflador a concubine of his, who was one of 
thofe called Ccrkhifes "(F). 

In the fecond year of the emperor Tiberius (G), l^akntine ^omzn 
was fent on an embaffy to Difabules, in company with 600 embafjies. 
Turks, who came to Conflantinofle, with feveral ambaffadors': 
but Difabules dying foon after Valentine's arrival, he was the 
next day admitted to audience by his foa Toxander; who 
charged the Romans with artifice, and breach of faith, for con- 
federating with the Varkonites, or Avares, who were in re- 
bellion againft him. After this, he gave the ambafTador to 
underftand, that he had fubdued the Alain s and Utrigorians -, 
and that Ananceas (H) was then aftually 'encamped before 
Bofphorus [l], with an army of Turks. In fhort, &,q Creek 
hiftorian complains, that he treated the ambafTador very ill ". 

*" Menand. c. 6, 7, 15. " Ibid. ex. 13. "Ibid. c. 19. 

(B) Efagrius fays, the Jbari . (F) Doubtlefs either Chirkaf' 
\vere driven out of their coan- fians, or Keri^his, 

try by the Tar/Jj. ^ (G) That is, in 580. 

(C) Perhaps Un-ignrs. (H) Perhaps the fame widi 

(D) The fourth of his reign, Anangaus. \ 
An. Chr. 569; and fecond of , (Ij A city of the /?owrt«j, Jn 
the fifty years truce with Khof- the Tawica Khcrfonefus of the 

.roes, I prefume. . old ?cmticofnt7n \, and, if flill 

(E) Or Kiiats, before-men- exifting in the Krh7i, is eitheV 
i'Oned. ^ X^rA kalay QX Kenh, ] 

D 4 This 

40 General Hiftory of the Turks : B. I, 

C'cnfueJ^j This account we bare from Mcnandcr. The nfxt news 
of the "we hear of the Turks is from Simokatta; who informs us, 
1 urks. that the Kagan (K) of his time (whom he names not), fo fa- 
mous among the oriental Turks, fent an ambaflador to the 
emperor Mauritius, in the beginning of the fummer (L), with 
a letter, fpeaking in high terms of his vi<ftories : the fuper^ 
fcription ran thus ; The Kagan, the great lord of /even na- 
iicns, and majlcr of /even climates of the -world, to the king 
of the Romans. In effedf, continues Simokatta, this Kagan 
had conquered the Jbtelians, or Nephtalites, and ftized their 
dominions : after which, being elated with his fuccefs, he 
joined Stcmbiflader, and fubducd the yJvares. Next h? 
marched againll the Ogcrites (M), and conquered them (N), 
killing 300,000, and put to death their king Kolk. 
Their eit'il This vi6lory was followed by a civil war among the Turks, 
ntjars. One of his relations, named Turon, having revolted, he was 
obliged to implore the aid of Sparzugun, Khunaxolus, and 
Tuldik ; with which he defeated the tyrant, in the plain of 
Jkar. After he had thus fettled his affairs, he fent the above- 
mentioned embalTy to the emperor Mauritius, to a(;:quaint 
him with his good fuccefs. The Kagan, fiuther to keep 
things in a fettled poflure, made alliance with the inhabitants 
of Taugafia (O), whofe prince was called Tayfan p. 

These are all the tranfaftions which the Rom(;ins had with 
the Turks, till the time of the Scljuks. Let us now turn our 
eyes towards the Higher JJla, and lee what they were doing 
on that fide. 
The I'nig We have already given an account of the origin of the 
^J'^jilia, Txirks, from an extract lately made from the annals o{ China, 
?\nd publi(h?4 by Mr. G'/igucs, under th? title of The origin 

9 SjMSKATTA, 1. vii. C. 7, S, 

(K) Khan, Kaan, OX Kohan, f/:/»r/,whencethofe people have 

as the prefcnt^Vo/'^tf/j aiid£/i</Zv taken the fame names. Simo- 

pjonounce it. katta, book vii. ch. 7. 

l\.\ In the year 600. (N) Simokarta {^tm% to con- 

(M) Thcfc(J_fcr;A/, Or Qgcrr, found the conquells of Difahu/es 

feem to be the Oy^urs, or Hgurj, with thofc of fhc Khan of his 

oft mentioned before ; they were own time. 
become powerful by their nam- (O) A famous city of the 

^ers, and dexterity a: their wea- Turks, npar Sogdiana, .iccording 

pons : they inhabited the banks to Califus, c 30. Sc^Jiana is 

of the river Til, calltd by the the fame, at prefcnt, with the 

Tiirks the h/aci rivir ( Kara-fu, jtrovince of Samarkand, in Grrat 

tiT Karamuren). The ancierjt £uiharu:,0T ^cvhiYsmxYiGrtat 

princes who commanded them, £ukhcr:a itfelf. 

W^rt; called Tar, and Kkuni, or 


C. I." ^^sir affairs till Jenghiz Khan. 41 

cf the Huns and Turks ; who, from thence, appear to have 
been the fame people, under different names. We fhall in 
this place give the fubilance of that memoire at large, as it 
may help to fupply and explain many imperfedl and obfcure 
pallages in the hjftory which follows of thofe people, taken 
from the oriental hiflorians. 

The Huns were a conliderable nation of Great Tartary ; j if 
and had the dominion there more than 200 years before thexm-i;s. ' 
Chriftian aera. They inhabited formerly 1 in the neighbour- 
hood of the great defart, extending from the country of Ko- 
rea, on the eaft, to that of the Getes (P), on the weft. 
The Chincfe hiftorians give them two different names, Hyong- 
?iu and Tii ki ilk ; that is, Huns and Turks. The firft is that 
which they had before the time of Chrift : the fecond, that 
which a remnant of thefe Huns, re-eftabli(hed in Tartary, 
affumed afterwards. 

These Huns or Turks ^ dwelt in tents, placed in carts, ^^n. c/ 
and removed from place to place, for the conveniency oi lining. 
pafture to feed their cattle ; which fupplied them with both 
food and cloathing. They defpifed old people, and only fet 
a value on the young, as more proper for war, which was 
their fole occupation. Their riches conllfted in fheep and 
cattle ; but chiefly in the number of flaves, taken in war. 
The Ikulis of their enemies ferved for cups to drink out of in 
their principal ceremonies. Once every year they affembled at 
the imperial camp, and ficrificed to their anceftors, heaven, 
the earth, and fpirits. Every morning the emperor adored 
the rifing fun, and in the evening the moon. The left hand 
was the port of honour with thefe people, as it is at prefent 
with the Turks : and in all their encampments the emperor's 
tent was placed fronting the north. At his death, they put 
into the coffin with his body his richeft habits ; and conveyed 
him to his fepukhre, attended by all thofe of his family, and 
his officers. For the fpace of one month, they attended on him 
in the fame manner as when he was alive : and the men of 
viilour engaged ia tilting, like our knights formerly, in their 

<i Ven hyen turn kau ; Kam-mo, or Kang-mu. Ye turn chi van 
fan turn pow fwi fhu. ' Ye turn chi. Ven hyen turn kau. 

[(P) Or Jctah, as the orien- by the Chinefe Shamoy and by 

tals write it ; the defart which the Mongols, who inhabit it, Ko- 

Mr. Guigues calls the defart of hi; a word which fignifies a de- 

China, is that vaft defart to the fart], 
Rorth of the Chine/tff^W, called 


42 General Hijiory of ibe Turks : B.I. 

Bivharous Thus lived the Hiius iii the carlieft times, that is, under 
euftim. their Tanjus, or emperors * : but their manners changed in 
time. When re-eflabliflied in Turkeftan, they introduced a 
barbarous cuflom, with regard to their kings. As foon as 
their grand Khdn was dead, his fon, or nearell relation, was 
declared emperor ; and, to know if hi? reign would be happy 
and long, they put a filk cord about his iicck, and after 
drawing it fo tight as to Hop rcfpiration, then flackened it, 
and the firft words which he proiwunced in coming to him- 
felf, were confidered as predi<ftion3 ot what was to happen in 
his reign. 
Oguz These Huns have inhabited Turkrjlan from all anti- 

Klian quity • : and it appears from their hiftory, that, in procefs 
their f.rj} of time, feveral Chincfes alfo removed into that part of Tczr- 
empcror. tary. After the dcftruftion of the Hya dynafly, a prince of that 
family, fon of the laft emperor ( QJ, retired thither with ail 
his people ; and, according both to the Chinefe and Perfmv. " 
hiftorians, the Tanjus or emperors of the Huns are his de- 
fcendants. Diblukawi, jncntioned by Mlrkon.i (R), is no 
other than the emperor T//, founder of the fame Chlncft dy- 
^afty : and one of his defcendants, named Mau-tcn Tan-ju, 
h the famous Oguz Kluin (S), who is confidered throxighout 
Tartary as the founder of the jempire of the Huns (T) : lie 
maintained fierce wars againft the Chinrfrs. His pofterity 
reigned a long time over the whole nation of the Huns, with 
the title of Tanju ; being the contracffion of a word which, 

' Swi fliu. Tam fhu. Ven hyen turn kau. ' Ven hyen turn 
fhau. Kam-mo. " AlBeidawi. Mirkond. 

(Q^' [This emperor's name was his Tattarian oxTurkijb. All the 

Kye ; he reigned fifty two years, inhabitants oi Weftern Tartan, 

The dynafty continued 441, and as well as the Othmdn Turks, 

ended 1767 years before the put him among their earlieft 

birth of Chrill. Mr. Gulgucs anccflors, and grcatcll conquer- 

On"i)ts the dates of many remark- ors]. 

able tranfaflions, which renders (T) Kam-mo. Ven-hyen turn 

his extradt impcrfcfl and ob- kau. [The liiftory, in thi? place, 

fcure]. fcems to be obfcure, ifnotcon- 

(R j Dihhoka^.d, Or, as others fufed : from the circumftance of 

write, Dibbakui Khan, is men- the //«;; emperors being defcend- 

tioncd by Abulghaz-i Khan, in ed from the fon of the lall cm- 

his liiflory of the Turks. If he is pcror of the Hya, he feems to be 

the frme v.ich Tw, he began his the fame with Oguz K/.\in. It 

reig" in the year 2Z0~ before the time of their reigns had 

Chrift. been fpecified, it would have 

(S) \^Mau-tcr: niuil be confider- cleared up the point.] 
c& a? his Chhitft name ; Oguz as 


C. I. Their affairs till Jenghiz Khan. 43 

in their language, fignified the fin of heaven ; and often com- 
mitted hoililities againll the Chincfes, notwithftanding the 
treaties of peace and alliances which were made with them. ' 

Under one of thefe princes, named Pil kiiTanjii ", ther^^/^ 
empire of the Huns begun confiderably to decline. A terrible /,<3.w?r 
famine, which happened among them, proved the fore-runner ^t<://«£'j. 
of many other evils. The Chinefes, taking advantage of their 
miferable circumflances, attacked them ; but, at their humble 
fuit, granted them peace. Yet fcarce were the Chinefes retired, 
when the Eajiern Tartars entered their country, and obliged 
them to remove more to the north. But that which was the 
fource of all their evils, and completed the ruin of this em- 
pire, was the dilTention which crept into the royal family, on 
the following occafion. PilkilTanju (U) put to death a bro- 
ther of his, who was to have been his fucceflbr, in order to 
place his own fon on the throne. Hereupon, a prince of the 
fame family, the fon of an emperor, concluded, that the fuc- 
ceiTion belonged to him. ; which had like to have coif him his 
life : but, being warned in time of his danger, he found 
means to efcape, and put himfelf at the head of certain Hor- 
das or tribes, who proclaimed him emperor. 

Thus the empire of the Htins came to be divided into iwofigij- 
parts. Thofe of the fouth, over whom the new monarch f;,v/>/r<r 
reigned ; and thofe of the north, fubjefl to Pil kit Tanjii. lidi'vidcd. 
is this divifion of which the Perfian hiflorians IMirkoud and 
Beiddwi make mention ; giving to one party the name of Mo- 
gols, and to the other that of Tartars (W). 

After this defedlion, the northern //"/mj found the Chi-fhatofthe 
nefes lefs difpofed to afTift them in their calamities than they northern 
were before. They were continually oppofed by thofe ofHarvs^fe.- 
^ the fouth ; who at length granted them peace. They theny'''<'.V^^- 
refolved to carry their arms into Mawnra'lnahr ; where, 
elated with their fuccefs, they, without regard to the faith of 
treaties, bent their forces againfl China. But there they found 
the Huns of the fouth, who repulfed them vigoroufly. At 
length the Chinefes, always aided by thefe latter, after feveral 
battles, determined utterly to deflroy the Huns of the north ; 
which they effefted by their general Tevj-hyen, who, in the 
reign of Hyan Ho-ti (X), emperor of the Han dynafty in 
China, defeated the northern Huns in Tartary : and, in or- 

^ Kam-mo. Ven-hyen turn kaw. Kam-lhu. 

(U) [In the copy before us, 'tis (W) [The Tartars feem to be 
here fpek Pouyicu, which is be- the fubjedls oiPu. kuTarju]. 
fore written Pcucou]. (X) [He began his reign A. 

D. 89]. 


44 General Hijlory of the Turks : B. I. 

dtT to tranfmit to pofterity the memory of this vi(f^ory, he 
ciuffJ an infcription to be cut on a mountain in Turkcfian, 
indicaung the time when it happened (Y). 

The Pcrftan hiAorians ^ afcribe this defeat of the Htms to 
Tur, the foa oi t't-rtdun : but it is eafy to fee, fays our au- 
thor, that they were led into this error by the fimilitude of 
the names Tew and Tur (Z) : witlial, being fond of their 
antieiit heroes, they laid hold of this occafion to advance their 

Of the Jlims, thus vanquifhed ^, fome remained in Tar- 
tary, and mingled with the tribes who had been brought from 
the farthelt parts of the eaft, to re-people this country. But 
T''rv na- the major part of them continued to advance towards the weft, 
•:v;/f.v through the regions to the north of Samarkiimi, till they 
ri.;:'i- reached the Cafpian fea, and parts about Jflrakdn. Here, 
^■...-.' J. where the Chine fe hiftorians lofe fight of them, ours begin to 
have them in view; and, conducting them into Ewr'j/r, over the 
Piilus Maotis, after pointing out their various migrations, feat 
them in Pannonia, as hath been already mentioned. 
Southern Thil fouthcrn Huns, who * remained in their antient 
Hujis country, pixicrved their power, till inch time as a tribe of 
the oriental Tartars, named Juijen, intirely fubdued them, 
and brought almoll the whole extent ot Tartary under their 
dominion. The title borne by their kings was that of Khan, 
or Khdkun, which was fubftituted in the place of Tauju. 
The Huns, thus driven out, went and ellablilhed feveral prin- 
cipalities in the northern China ; which were deftroyed one 
after the other. One of them, whofe princes defcended from 
the emperor of the Huns, was defeated by Tay-vu-ti, em- 
peror of the northern China. Upon this misfortune, the 
^ whole family, together with the Huns, retired into a moun- 

f'f'^'"''ihxz\no^ Tartary, mm<id Erhcna-Kom. Thefe people, at that 
'' '"J^'J'^"'time mol^ known by the name oi Turks, were employed, ac- 
cording to the Chincft', as well -as, Mohammedan hiilorians '' , in 
forging iron works, for the fervice of the Khans of the Jui- 
jen Tartars ; and continued in this manner to fupport them* 

y MiRKCND. D'Herpelot. * Vcn hven turn kau. 

Kam-mo. ' Huhanihu. Kam-mo. Chin fhu. U tay Oiu 

•* Kam-mo. Swi fhu. Keidawi. Mirkond. Tamfhu. 

(Y) [Mr. Gulgucs would have Totir. This conjeflure feem? too 

done well to mention when this forced. Befides, the /'fr/F^.';: hi- 

was, or in what year of Hsnu fterians refer the reigns of Ti'tr 

Ho-ti, emperor nf the Han, this and Feriaun, or Frasahun, to the 

defeat happened]. ages long before the Chnjtian 

(Z) [In the /'/vwiZ', TVcK and xraj. 


C. I. 1'heir affairs till Jenghiz Khan. 45 

felves for a certain number of years ; that is, till tlie Jiiijev came 
to be attacked by the nations inhabiting to the welt of them. 

TU-MIVEN (A) Khan, at that time chief of the Irkena- 
Kom Turks, marched out of the mountain, at the head of 
thofe people, and defeated the enemy. Tii-mxven, making a 7he Jui- 
merit of this fervice which he had done the K-hakdn or em-jen 'by tit 
peror of the Juijen, imagined he was intitled.ta demand hrsTurko* 
daughter in marriage. The Khakun, far from being of the 
fame opinion, rejedted the propofal with difdain ; faying, that 
it did not become a Jlave to afpire to Juch aii alliance ivith his 
fovcreign'^. Tii-miuen, incenled at lb contemptuous a repulfe, 
immediately revolted againft his prince ; and, having flain the 
Juijen envoy, entered into a confederacy \v\t\\Vcn-ti, emperor 
of the northern China. Next year he marched againfl the Juijen, 
defeated them, and flew their Khan ; after which he alFumcd 
that title, and caufed himfelf to be called Tu-mwen Ilkhdn. 

In this manner was eftablifhed a powerful dominion in Tar- 
tary, at that time called the empire of the Turks. To pre- 
ferve the memory of the origin of this family, they ufed to 
alfemble every year, and, with much ceremony, beat a piece ^Tot/.-V^ of 
of hot iron upon an anvil : a cuftom which continued to ''^''? Turk), 
the time of Jenghiz Khdn '', who defcended from this Tu- 
Tn-wen Khun ; and 'tis from hence that fome of our hifl:ori"ans 
have reprefented this prince as the fon of a blackfmith. 

The Juijen, thus driven out of their country by the 
Turks ", in all probability pafTed into Eiirope ; wliere, h€\\vj 
known by the name of the falfe Avares, or Abarcs, they 
mixed with the Huns of the north, who had been fettled Hun?-ti- 
there a long time before : and thefe two people uniting toge-rians^ 
ther formed the nation of the Hungarians ; that is to fay, '^'•''^'''''«'- 
Hun-Ikorians : which laft name is that which the Juijen went 
by in Great Tartary. 

This is the true original of the fecond Huns, or Turks, m 
Turkejian, according to the Chinefe hiflorians. But, not con- 
tent with a beginning which had not fomething extraordinary 
in it, they affirm \ that a nation of Tartars, being at war, Fah's of 
was fo intirely defeated by their enemies, that only one child ^^c- Zen ns 
efcaped the flaughter, whofe arms and legs, however, they cut 

«Kam-mo. ^ La Croix hiil:. de Jenghiz Khan. « Kara- 
mo Nicephorus Cal. f Ven hyen tum fhau. 

(A) [^y t\it Mohammedan hi- owto^ TrgaKakon,MwlerBfrti-'::epa. 
ftorians written Ttmana Khdn. Khdn, nineteen generatiors he- 
Abii'lghdziKhdn makes him the fore -, and, by his reckoning, 
fifth anceftor of 7(';?o-/^5':j; A'/v?/v ; ' above 2 00 years. Seeanc. hilL 
and puts the fally of the M-)^5.V I'ol.ii.p. -5 — 49]. 


46 General Hijlory of the Turks : B. I. 

off, ani-l then threw hhti into a lake : that a fhe-wolf, touched 
with the misfortunes of the boy, drew him out of the dan- 
ger he was in, and provided for his fupport : that the child, 
out of gratitude, married this wolf; and, returning with her 
into the mountains to the north-wcfl: of the Ig:*rs country, fhe 
there brought forth twelve children ; whofe defcendants took 
the name of Aj}'cna. 
ho^n: ex- The account whicli is given (by the weftern hiftorians) of 
filaintJ. Tu-rnivcn llkhJn ^, will explain the above fable. This prince, 
named TumLina by the Pcrjian hiftorians, was the fon of B'lf- 
fkcr, fon of Kaydii, dcfcended from Buzenjir, fon of queen 
Jlankaiva. This queen of the Mogo/s or Turks, then inha- 
biting the mountains of Tartarv, and before the rc-eftabliili- 
ment of their empire, being left a widow, with two children, 
according to the account both of Mohammedan and Chinpfc 
writers, took the government of her fmall ftate, during the 
minority of her fons, and conftantly refufed to marry again. 
However, her firm attachment to viduity did not hinder her 
from being the mother of three other children, one of whom 
was named Buzcnjir. The grandfon of Buzcujir, called 
Diitumin, had nine children, eight of whom perifhed on a 
certain occafion ^ : and our author is perfuaded, that the 
above-mentioned fable had an eye to this maOkcre. 
Trihc cf The ninth fon of Dutumin, who efcaped, was Kaydu, the 
//^<r Zenas fv,f j^ei- of BiJJikar, and another called Hunnalankuni, whofe 
*'" '"■^''^■^•'' children bore the name of wolves ; on which the fable is ap- 
parently founded : but then this hiftory does not refpedt the 
Turks in general, but only the particular hord of them called 
Zcnas (B), or AjJ'enas, as the Chinefe pronounce it, defcend; 
ed from Hurmalankuvi. 
Eaftevn TU-MWEN Ilkh.m, after he had fubdued the Juijen, 
and attacked and defeated feveral other people of Tartary. His 

I'/eftcrn fg^s, imitating their father's example, formed an empire, 
Turks, -which extended from the Cafpiaii fea to Korea. But as fo 
vafl a region could not long remain under the dominion of 
one prince, theie Turks divided into two branches ', the 
eaftern and the weftcrn, who had each their particular Khan. 
Whey-ke The empire of the latter extended as far as the Sihun ^, 
Turks, and more than once became formidable to the kings of Per- 
f.a, particularly Hcnniizd, or Hormijdas, fon of Kofrii AnuJ]o- 

8 Hift. gen. dcsTartares. Mirkond. hid. de Jenghiz Khan. 
Hift. des IVlonguls. Ywcn (h«. Kain-mo. •» See. before, 

"p. 38. 'Kanifhu. Kam-mo. Anc. hill vol. xx. •= f erdnfi. 

(B) ZenUy la Turkifjy fignilics aiKolf, ^■j hatli been obferved 

7 ir'j.'aiu 

C.I. Tkir affairs nil Jenghiz Klun. . 4y 

irxvan. But, in procefs of time, this empire of the wefleih 
Turks was deilroyed by other Turks of the hord, named 
l¥ffey-kcj who founded a new dominion in the fame country; 
and from thefe JVhey-ke Turks, in the opinion of our author, 
were defcended the four famous SeJjuk dynaflies of Irun, ox from 
Perfia at large, Kcrmcm, Rum, or JJia viinor, and Syria, ivhom the 
reigning in Aleppo and Damafcus. Scljuks. 

As for the oriental Turks, who inhabited at the farther end 
of Turkejldn, their branch was deflroyed by the people named Eaffern 
Khitan\ who came originally from Eajlern Tartary : the Turks, 
Khitan were, in their turn, invaded from the fame quarter, 
by the Nyu-che Tartars ^, who are the Altun Khms (C) of 
the Mohaimncdan writers, and called by us at prefent Man- 
chews. This nation having ruined the empire of the Khitm, ,. 
fome of the latter pafTed into Pcrfia, and there eftablifhed ^ E tb^Y^\. 
dynafty, known to the Mohammedan authors by the name of j^jj^ 
Kara Khatayans. 

The Turks, after the deflrufrion of their empire, as above 
related, formed themfelves into fmall principalities ; and every ^^.^^.^^ /;j. 
hord had its particular Khan. The Kcra-its, or Kara-its, to tribei-, 
one of thefe Turkijh tribes ", were, in the twelfth century, 
governed by a prince named Tuli Khan, otherwife called Onk 
Khan °, whom the Arab writers flile King John, and Europcafi 
travellers Prefier John. 

The pofterity of Tu-nwoen Ilkhdn dwindled infenfibly, and 
was on the point of being extinguifhed, or at leafl of never 
making any confiderable hgure again in Tartary, when the 
famoug Jenghiz Khun appeared p. 

This is the original of the Turks, according to the Chinefe 
^hillorians ; but compared, in certain periods, with the ac- Some re- 
counts given by the weflern Ajiatic writers. In this compa- tnarh on 
rifon, however, Mr. Cuigues does not fufficiendy diftinguifh 
what is taken from the authors of each kind, either in the 
text, or by the references : neither does he affign dates to all 
the principal faffs. When he fays Dibakkaiui Khan is the em- 
peror Tu, and that Mau ton Tanjou is Oguz Khan, it does not 
appear whether thofe are the words of the Chinefe annals, or the forego- 
only conjeftures of his own. Suppofmg them to be the Chi-^°J"^ 
nefe account, there will be found a great difagreement be- 

'Sumfhu. Kam-mo. Venhyen turn fhau. "^ Abu'lfaraj. 
Beidawi. " Ywen {bu. " Aeu'lfaraj. p Guicue3 

orig. des Huns & Turks. 

(C) [And the Kin Tartars of «(;yf, appellative hx gold,z% hath 
the Chir.efe hiflorians ; Altun be- been liheady remarked], 
ing the Turkijh, and Kin the Cki- 


'^oittg eX' 

. 4 8 General Hijlory of the Turks : B. I. 

twecn it and the Tartar relation : for Ogttz Khan will be the 
nineteenth in defcent from Dibbakihvi, or Tii, according to the 
former, and but the fifth according to the latter. By this 
latter alfo Tu-mivcn is only the fifth anceflor of Jcngbiz Khdn : 
but the Chineff annals let him at the head of the Irganakcn 
fally, inftcad of Ihrtizcna, nineteen generations before. If Mr. 
Giiigiu's had been more copious and dilVmdt in his extraft, it 
"would have fupplied many defeats, and cleared up many ob- 
fcurities in the hiflory of the Turks, which, for want there- 
of, we meet with in the Mohavnncdiin hillorians, from whom 
we are now going to give an account of their affairs, till the 
Scljuks founded their empire in Iran. 

M IRKO ND, the Pcrfian hiftorian, informs us, that, 
when Kcfrc /InufhW-wan, the famous Khofrocs (D) of the Greek 
hiflorians, came to the throne, which was about the year 

Subdues 531, he was poflTefTed o{ Maivaralnahr (E), to which he 

the Ab- added other countries ; and, among the refl, that of Jbtela *>. 

tela. Thr country of Mtda, which llgnifies, in Per/tan, water 

of gold, takes its name from a people fo called ; who, fome 
time before, had conquered it. The Greeks, corrupting the 
word, called them Nephtalites (K), Eutalites, and, more near- 
ly, EphtaUtes. They were denominated, by the Arabs, Hay- 
atelah. According to Procopius, the Ephf allies were thofe 
called the 10 hit e Huns : they feem to have been mailers, for 
a time, of all Mawara'lnahr, or Great Bukharia ; to which 
Abidfcda gives the name of Hayatclah '. Dr. Hyde obferves, 

Their do- ^.^^ Heyiitcleh was the title of the king of KatUhi % a pro- 
vince in the eaflcrn part o^ Mawaralnahr : and Et/fyehius in- 
forms us, ihAt Gq/J.^naiL'az, king of Abtelah, who rai fed Fz>;/z , 
to the throne of Perfia, about the year 465, was king of 
Balkh S and part of Khorafi'm ; which fhews, that the domi- 
nion of the Abtela. had once been ve ry extenfive (G) ; though 
we may fuppofe their power to have been much reduced, at 
the time when'Wiin conquered them. 

1 MiRKOND. ap. Teixeiram, p. 165. ' Abulf. defer. 

Chowarazm, p. 29. » Hvde in Pcritfol. itin, mund. p. 156. 

* EuTYCH. annal. vol. ii. p. 1 1 1 , 

(D) Son o^KahaJcs. TheP^r- {G^ D'Herbelot fays they wefe 

Jians write Khofruiv xni Kobad. the antiznt If:do-Scith^, and in- 

(K) Which name anfwers to habited the countries of A'^^<^^- 

Trcjrjlxana. hSr, Tibet, and Baravtcla, a parf 

(I') Hence fome 7^ ?<rc/T^« aa- o^ 'Tibet; from whence he fup- 

thors have rnppofed thofe coun- pofes the name to be derived, 

tries to have bcfn peopled by Bibl. orient, art. Hiathela and 

Jii'-s, particularly of rhr- tribe i^:uj^ itK->an, p. 421,680, 


of finfbthaU. 


C. I. ^^^^^ affairs till Jenghiz Khan. 49 

But while this printe was bufy in exrendihg his dotni-. 
nions, they were invaded by Khakdn Chini, king of Tatar or 
Tartary, with a mighty army, who took from him Samar' 
hand, Bokhara, and feveral other cities in Ma-wara'hiahr, 
which he afterwards was forced to quit upon the fuccefles of 
his grandfon Hormoz ", 

D' li E R B E LOT Tt^ovti, from Mirkond, that ^mi/Jjir-wan 
having repulfed the Hiyatelah beyond the mountain ParapU' 
mifiis (H), in his twelfth year, marched againft the Khakdn 
of the oriental Turks, who then reigned in the Tranfoxane 
provinces, and obliged him to fue for peace, as alfo to yield 
him one of his daughters in marriage "'. Eutychius relates 
this tranfacflion with fome variation : he tells us, that the 
Pcrftan monarch, refolving to revenge on the Hiyatelah the 
injury done his grandfather Firuz, firft makes an alliance 
with the great Khakdn of the Titrks, and acquaints him with 
his defign ; that then marching againft the enemy, he over- 
threw them, and killed their king ; by this means the coun- 
try of Balkh, and the adjacent parts of Khorafdn, were deli- 
vered up to him : after which he encamped in Fargdna (I), 
and married the Khakdn s daughter ^. 

The reader, from what has been faid, may fee thatKha' 
kdn is a general name given by the Perfian hiftorians to the 
princes of the Turks, called alfo emperors ofTartary, of whom 
we find mention from the time of Bahrdm-jaur, fon ofTazdc- 
jerd I. king of Perjia, who began his reign about the year 
of Chrift 417'', as a people different, at leaft with regard to 
their original country, from the antient Turks, or inhabitants 
of Turkejldn, fituate to the north of Perfia, with whom the 

" Mirkond. ap. Texeir. p. 163. ^ D'Herbelot. bibl, 

orient p. 680. art. Noulhirwan. " Eutych. annal. vol. 

ii. p. 188. y Ibid. p. 83. 

(H) This can't be the name than in giving the antient names 

given by iV//r«ow^ ; nor can we for the modern ; or thofe of their 

determine what mountains Z)' own fancy, inftead of the names 

Herbelot intends thereby. We found in the writers they copy 

prefume he means chofe divide- from : what is iHll worfe, they 

ing either the country of 5^/4^, commonly omit inferting, by 

or Khorafdn, from India. Au- way of note, the names ui'ed in 

thors, often endeavouring to ex- the original; which often puts 

plain, become more obfcure ; it out of the power of others to 

and, out of an affedation of correal their mitlakes. 
Ihewiiig their {kill in geography, (J) A province o^ Maiva- 

betray their want ®f it. There ralnahr, or Great Bukharia, be-, 

is no point in which they yond the river Sihitn or Sir, 

have commi:ted more errors. Herb. Hormoz. 457-. 

. MoD.HiST. Vol. IV. E Perftansa 

^Q General fliJloTy of the Turks. B. I. 

Pcrfiay\Sy according to their hiftory, had wars (K), in the 
earlieft times of their monarchy. The former are called ori- 
ental Turks, by way of dillinc^tion ; and the gentile name of 
Chin is added to the title of Khakan, in all probability to 
denote their coming from the eaftern parts of Tartary to- 
wards China : although it mi>ft be obferved, that Chin is a 
general name, fometimcs ufed by the orientals, to compre- 
hend both thofe regions ^. 
Second in- HORMOZ (L), fucceedcd his father /^/j^Z/ZJ/r^yfln, about 
'vafioM. j]^e ye;^r 586, and was not long after invaded by the Greek 
emperor (M) ; of which ShabaJJjah, his coufm-german, fon 
of the Khakau, whofe daughter Niijhirwan had married, take- 
ing the advantage, paHes the JihAn, or Amu, with 300,000 
men (N), and fubdues KhorafAn. Perfia being in this diflrefs, 
Bahrtim Chubin, the bravefl man of his time, was fent for to 
oppofe the enemy (O) ; who taking with him but 12,000 
experienced foldicrs, made a great llaughter of them, flew 
their king, and took, his fon prifoner, befides an immenfe 
booty : but afterwards being defeated in his attempts againft 
Khofraiv Parviz, the fon and fuccefibr oi Hornioz, he fled in- 
to Turkejidn, where he ferved the Khakan Chini '. 
TJm'oter- From that time the 7i/r^x feem to have remained quiet, 
3a;;Peifia. till the year 654, being the nineteenth of the reign of Taz- 
dejerd, laft king of Perjia ; at which time vaft multitudes 
of them (P) from Tiinin, or Turkejlan, pafTed the river Sihuiiy 
or 5/r, and laid wafte the countries to the fouth of it. At 
the fame juncflure the Arabs invaded his dominions on the 
other lide ; and he dying next year, the whole, by degrees, 
fell a prey to the latter.^ At length, in 716, the Arabs drove 
XkitTurks out of Karazm and Mawaralnahr. 

flow EVER, from that time they fwarmed aU over the do- 
minions of the Khalifah, and, by degrees, got the pofreffion 
of them : for being a handfome people, and famous for their 


^ See Texeira's hill, p. 105. * Mirkond. ap. Texeir. p. 
186. EuTvcH. annal. vol. ii. p. zco. 

(K) Thefe were the Juijcr, hiftorians, Hormizdas invaded 

whofe princes had the title of firft, in 587. See ant. hill. vol. 

Khar., or Khakan . See p. 44. xvii. p. 8. 

(L) He is alfo called //orwoxy, (N) Texeira has 400,000. 

whence the Greek Hormizdas ; (O) Texeira Hill calls them 

alfo Tajedar, or the crown-car- Tartars. 

rier ; becaufe he wore the 7"/77V (P) This is the firll timtf 

on all occafions. Mirkond (i2\\% them 'Twr^j, ac- 

(M) This was Mauritius, cording to yfATfiVa's abllraft. 

whom, according to the Greek 


C. I. y''^^''^' affairs till Jenghiz Khan.' ^X 

courage, the Khalifahs, and, after their example, feveral of 
the princes, who, in time, threw off their yoke, caufed great 
numbers of young TurkiJJ} flaves to be bought,, and educated 
in their courts. Out of thefe they formed troops of militia, 
who often rebelled, and depofed the Khalifah himfelf. In 
eife(5l, at length their commanders became maflers, not only 
of the Khalifat, and perfons of the Khallfahs '', whofe guards 
they were ; but alfo of great dominions, which they erefled 
in Khorafan, Karazm, Egypt, and India itfelf % as hath teen 
already fet forth at large. 

But to return to the affairs of the Turks at home. In 
the year 894 Ifmael al Sammani, who, throwing off his fub- 
jeftion to the Khalifah, fet up for king of MawaraHnahr 
and Khorafan, marched into Tnrkejim ; and, defeating the 
Khan, took him prifoner, with 10,000 men, befides a vaft 
treafure. Some time before his death, which happened in 
909, he made another expedition thither, fubduing feveral 
provinces ^. 

The Turks feem to have kept within their bounds till the Intited hy 
reign oi Nuh Ebu Manfur, fixth king of the race of the Sam- rebels, 
mani, who afcended the throne in the year of the Hejrah 
365 (Q__), and oi Chriji 975. This prince, being poflefTed of ^^J"^^^ 
all Mawara' Inahr znd Khorafan, gave the government of two ^ ^' 
confiderable dil1:ridfs to two brothers, Abuali and Fa'ekh. 
Thefe, at length, quarrelling together, the latter firfl, and 
then the former, rebelled, and invited Kj,ra Khan (R) of Tur- 
kefian to invade the dominions of Nuh (S). The Khan joins 
them ; and, routing the army of Nuh, takes Samarkand and 
Bokhara, while Nuh made halle to mufler another. Kara 
Khan, falling fick, was advifed by his phyficians to return 
to Ttirkefian ; which he attempted to do, but died by the 

However, the rebel brothers ftill held out, and raifed 
great forces ; being affilled by the neighbouring princes : at 
what time Sabektekin, a famous general of Nuh's, having re- 

^ See D'Herbelot. p. 898, & feq. Art. Turk. « See 

Before, vol. ii. and iii. ^ Mirkond. ap* Texeir. p. 197, 2o6> 

257y 239. 

(QJ D'Herbelot, by miftake, (R) So D'Herbelot. Texeira 
puts this event twenty years calls him Bokra Khan. 
low'er : and tho' Texeira does (S) Thefe troubles, accord- 
not date all his fads, yet he ing to D'Herbelot, began about 
feems more correft in his num- the year 371 of the Hejrah, of 
iiers. Chrift^^i. 

^ 2 turned 

52 General Hijlory of the Turks. B.I. 

tuineJ with laurels from India, the king, by his afnrt:incc, 
marched againft, and, after a doubtful battle, routed them ', 

Aftlr this battle, A'J;, at the rcqueft of SaMarkrn, made 
his Ton Makmt'iJ gencnal of his forces, and went to Bokhara ; 
Sjbckti'kin to G'az/iin (T), a territory in Khorafan, and Mah- 
iiuid to Nijhabur ; whence .'Ihunli and Faekh, who had retired 
thither, fled ; but, rai fing forces, they drove out Mahnud : 
however, the latter, rallying his troops, and being joined by 
his father Sabrktfkin, routed the brothers in their turn. 
yjhna/i, upon this, hibmittcd to A'/</'; but Fiiekh retired to 
lick Khm, who fucceedcd B.kru Khan in Tnrkrjldn, and was 
pcrfuadcd by him to make war on Ki.h. 
JlekKliiln A' 6' y/, being informed of what was in 'agitation, ordered 
I'Ath- Sabcktckin to attend him, and Makmud, \\ith his troops, be- 
ti-G-Ms. twccn KrJJj and Nc-faf, near Samarkand \ but an accommo- 
dation being agreed on, whereby Fackh was to have the go- 
vernment of Samarkand, an intire end was put to thefe trou- 
bles in 995 ; and X^ih died in peace two }'ears afrei-, ha\'ing 
reigned twenty -two years, lca\ing his fon .Jbn'/harrs Mnnfur, 
a youth, to fucceed hiui at Bokhara, in the dominion of Ma- 
ifdra'1/A.ihr and Khorafdn. 
Re enters ^^' ^^- death oi Niih, Ihk Khun invades Abii'lharcs ; and, 
J\'Iavva- being joined by Fa'tkh, governor ot Samarkand, attacks Bo- 
ra'liiuhr. khara : from whence Abu'lharcs flies, but foon after returns 
again, on afTurances of fidelity given by Faekh, whom 'he 
makes his general, and Baktuzun governor of Khorafdn ^ 

M.JHMU D Cazni (U), fon of Sabektektn, whofe go- 
verment Khornf..n, was complaining of this injury, AbiClhares 
gives him Baikh, Trrnird 3.nd Flc-rat in lieu thereof: but Mah- 
7n^d, not being content w ilh the exchange, marches to Ni/ha- 
bur, from whence the king fled ; yet, fearing to be deemed a 
rebel, turns off, without feeing that city. Baktuzun marches 
to the king's relief; and, meeting him on his return, un- 
v,- ,, . dor f'ome pretence confpires with Fa'ekh, and puts out 
i',"" '"J"\\\% eves, after he had reigned one year and fevcn months, 

iV/IOraian-„.i i ,;;;>;; i -111- I 71* » . I 

1 hev enthrone .■//>^/i;/;;.'j/<-A-, the eightn king; but Alahnud 
marching againff the traitors, they fled diticrent ways; Faekh 
cariying the new king to Bokhara. Thus JMahmud became 
poiTe/Ted of all Khorafdn. The traitors, gathering force?, 

' IMiRKOND. ap. TcNt'iram, p. 255, c^' fcq. D'Herkeiot. 
p. 679. /\rt. Nouh ben Manicui. ^ Wirkond. ubi fup. 

r. 250, &; feq. 

(T) Cf which the city Grtx- (U) Or Cazn-ii, fo called 
f:ah, or Liuana, u the capltaJ. from the ciry G^s:,,ci>, where his 

father rcf.dcd. 
I DiJich 

C.I. fheir affairs lill Jenghiz. K\Ai:\, 53 

march againfl him ; but Faekh dying, tlie txpeditioa came to 

Mean time ILk Kk'm, taking, advantage of thefe troubles, T^/r-f 
advances to Bokhara, under pretence of affilfing Jl'd^i/nu'iM. Bokhara. 
The young king, giving credit to his words, fent the beft com- 
manders he had to return him thanks, whom the Khan ie- 
cnred. J'odalmalek, in a fright, liid himJeh, with an intent 
to efcape ; but Ilek Khan having taken the city, and flriet 
fcarch being made, Jhdalmalck was found, and fent to Uf- _ 
hwd[Y.), where he died in confinement. This happened in ^^^^jrah 
the year 999. 39- 

His fubjefts proclaimed king a younger brother of his; bnt'^^-'~" the 
he enjoyed not the dignity long. Ilek Khan, being thus pof-'^'-'-X- 
feffed of Bokhara, feizcs the blind king AhuUxires Man- 
Jar, his two brothers, and two uncles, with others of the 
royal family, who were all confined apart, and attended by 
his women fiaves. She who attended Jbu Ibrahim Montefcr, 
taking a liking to him, procured his efcape by means of lier ^■eil. 
Being at liberty, he went to Karnzm, where crouds refort- 
ing to him, he fent a numerous army to Bokhara, which de- /),•/; /»/f,/ 
feated lick Khan's forces, and took their general prifoner. ti'jiu'. 
Marching forward, he routed another of his armies, com- 
manded by Takln Khan, governor of Samarkand. 

MONTESER, after this, returned to ^o/.-Z'r^/-^ ; hut Ihk 
Khan foon marching againfl: him, he fled ; and palTuig thejihun, 
came to Nijhabur, in the \ear lOOQ : about the beginning of ^^^JJ""^'* 
the next year, by^ the aflifhince of the 7l!ir;-/(:7?2.'?/?j-, he marched 39'- 
into Maxvara'lnahr, where lick Khan met him with a greatly Mx^- 
army : but as thjsy lay encamped near each other, tl:e Tark-^^kr. 
mans one night, by furprize, fell upon the Khan's camp, 
and killing many men, put the reft tQ flight : after whicii 
they returned to their hords, with the better part of the 
plunder, Montefcr, finding himfelf deferted by the Turkmans, 
crofled xhtjihiin, which was then frozen, upon the ice. Mean 
time theTiirkmans, repenting that they had left him any part 
of the booty, returned to take it away; but coming to the 
fiver by day, found it thawed, and were thus baulked, as 
not being able to purfue him. Monteft-r, after this, got ^ third 
fome vi^fories in Khorafun ; but finding he could not flay \xidijeat. 
that province, repafled the Jlhnn, with his followers : and 
though he lofl- mof!: of his men, in a conflieT: with th.e Skena, 
or governor of Bokhara, yet, with the reif, he afliiulted that 
city by night, and took it. Upon this Tick Kh&n haflened 
thither ; but being met in the territory oi Samarkand hy Mon- 

(X) D'llrhclo^ V/rites D:^ghn:l. 

54 General Hijlory of the Turks. B. I. 

Hejrah tefcr, was there overthrown ; with whofe phinder the v'uflor's 

394- army was enriched. This was in 1003. 

JLE K Khan, after this defeat, having recruited his forces, 
marched again towards Montrfer, and found him, when tJiofe 
who had afTiAed him were gone. What was worfe, one of 
his generals going over to the enemy, with 4000 men, he, 
defpairing of fuccefs, fled. Finding no poiTibility of crofling 
the Jlhun, he came to Bokhara, with very few followers ; and 
though the governor promifed to afTift him, yet knowing that 
he was purfued by Ilek Khan's genera!, to whom moft of his 
men had gone over in difgull, he left the city ; an>l getting 
into Khorofim, hid himfelf in a poor houfe ; which being 
Hejrah forced in the night by one who was in fearch of him, he was 

395- there killed, in 1004 ^ 

Mahmud ^his was the fate of the dynafty of the SammM fa- 

fou/ids the jj^-jiy jj^ Pcrfia, which properly ended in Nuh Elm Manfur, 

in whofe reign fprung up the Gazni monarchy, under M^y?'- 

7ni?^ 6'rt2:«/ before-mentioned ; the foundation of which was 

laid by his father Sahektck'tn. This Sabektekin was a Turk 

by nation, and originally flave to j^lptckhi, another Turk, who 

^. • was general to Nuh Ebn Mnnfur : on whofe death ^'^^^•yt- 

monanhv '''^^'^ fucceeded in that poA ; and, by his conquefts in India, 

and authority with the foldiery, became equal in power to the 

king himfelf. D'Hcrbelot tells us, that he defeated Kara Khan 

of Turkejlhn in feveral battles (though Texeira fpeaks of but 

one, which he had with Ilek Khan) ; and that, at his return 

fjejrah from the expedition, he died at Balkh, in the year 997 ; 

'3^7- which is the fame year in which Nuh Ehn Manjur died. 

However that be, his fon Mahmud, who fucceeded to 
his father's power and authority, being difguAed, as hath 
been before-mentioned, at his government of Khorafm being 
given to another, by Abu Wares, fucceflbr ol Nuh Ebn Man- 
fur, fubdued the whole province to himfelf ; and having in- 
tirely pacified the troubles which reigned there, as hath been 
Hejrah l?eforc fet forth, in the year 998, went from Gaznah to 
383. Balkh, where the Khalifah Kader fent him a rich veft, by way 
of inveftiture in his new dominions : and thus the monarchy 
pafTed from the /ilfamynani to the Gazni ^. 
InvaJfdhy SooN after, Mahmud concluded a perpetual peace with Ikk 
JlekKhan A'A//2; and, to make it the firmer, took one of his daugh- 
xiejrah ^gj-g Jq marriage. In 1002 the governor of Sijlan, or Seje- 
393- Jlan, having revolted, he has recoiirfe for aiTiflance to lick Khan ; 

i MiRK'^VD. uBi fupr. p. 267, 270, &: feq. '' D'Herbel. 

p. 679, 792, 533. Art. Nouh ben Manfour, Scbekttkin, and 


C. I. ^heir affairs //'// Jenghiz Khan. 55 

who, in 1005, taking advantage of Mahtnud beiBg engaged Hejnih 
in the war of India, fends two generals to invade Khovnfm ; 39°* 
but Mahmud returning on the news, they foon were obliged 
to retreat. Ilek Kkdn, upon this, applies for fuccour to Ka- 
der Khun, of Ketau Kotan (Y) ; who, joining him with 50,000 
horfe, gathered in Ketau Kotan, Turkcjlan, and Mavoara'l- 
nahr, they pafTed the Jihun. 

MAHMUD, on this news, haflens to Balkh, with a no-Whois 
ble army of Turks (Z), Gaxnu, and other people, to xnttiowr- 
the enemy. They came to a battle ; and Mahmud's forces thr(ii\.B. 
giving ground, he, almofl in defpair, ruflied into the thickeft 
of the enemy, and cutting his w^y through them, came up to 
Ilek Khan ; whom his elephant, unhorfmg him, tofled up in the 
air. His men, at this, refuming their courage, put the ene- 
my to flight. This battle happened in 1006 (A), and proved 
one of the mofl bloody which was fought in that age '. 

ILE K Khan, after this lofs, retired into Maivara' Inahr ; 

* Teixeira, p. 278. D'Herbel. p. 554. 

(Y) 'Tis hard to fay what 
country this is : inTexeira there 
is added, doubtlcfs by himfelf, 
(ivhich ive call Katay. 'Tis true, 
the empire of Kitay or Ka- 
tay might have extended, at 
this time, under the Kit an, as 
far weftward as Kajhgar ; and 
this Kadcr Khan been the go- 
vernor, or one fet up there for 
himfelf : or the country here 
mentioned might have beenifo- 
tan or Hoto7i, a noted city and 
province to the fouth eafl of 
Kafngar ; which formerly had 
kings of its own, but then feems 
to have been under the Kitan 
hereafter mentioned. 

(Z) Thefe Turks were either 
fuch as he and his father, who 
were Turks, always command- 
ed ; or elfe Sdjuk Turks, who, 
many years before, had fettled 
in Ma-.i:ard'lnahr. But neither 
D'Her-belot nor Tcxeira are ex- 
plicit enough on this point. 

(A) Three other authors, 
made ufe of by D'Herbelot, place 

this event in Hejrah ^lO,ov 1019 
of ChriJ}, and vary much from 
the account oi Mirkond. Thefe 
authors call Ilek Khan king of the 
oriental Turks, and all the coun- 
try beyond the Jihun. They add, 
that, dying in his own country, 
in 403 (1012), he was fucceed- 
ed by his fon Kader Khan ; who, 
being joined by Arjldn Khan, 
kingofTurke^dn,they pafTed the 
Jihun, and advanced to Bdlkh ; 
but that, being met \)y Mah- 
mud, mounted on a white ele- 
phant, they were driven back to 
that river, wherein mofl of them 
perilhed. The Soltan, crofling 
the y/7^««, quite ruined the ene- 
mies country, and then returned 
in 410, 1019, above-mentioned 
(i). According to this account, 
there were two great monarchies 
of the "Turks exifting in Tartary 
at the fame time. Ilek Khan, 
who, in the other account, is 
called king oiTurkrJldn, is here 
made king of the oriental Turks, 
and Kader Khan to be his fon. 

(i) D'llerbi!. t, 554, [^ feq. At. Mahmoud. 

E 4 


56 General Hijlory of the Turks. B. I. 

where underftanding that his brother Togthi (B) Khan, who 
had been with him in that fight, had fent to make his apo- 
logy to M.ihmud, he marched aguinft him ; but Mahmud in- 
terpofmg, they were reconciled ''. 
Rife of the DuRiNG thefc invafions by Jlek Khan, great numbers of 
Sc\]hk<iy. Turks took the opportunity of pa/Tmg out of Turkcftdn into 
najiies. Maivara Inahr. Among tht rell was Scljuk, who, with his 
family and followers, fettled about Samarkand and Bokhara, 
where, by degrees, they acquired large pofTefTions : at length, 
Hejrah j^ 1034, being the fifth ye^r of the reign of Soltan (C) 
420. j[JaJfud^ fon and fuccelTor of Ala,hmud C'azni, the grandfons 
of Seljitk, Mohamnu-d and Daiid (D), called afterwards Togrul- 
beg and Jaffar-beg) pafiing the Jlhun or /hmi, and fat down 
about Ncfa and Abhverd, or Baward, in Khorafim, where 
they betan fome commotions : but, on the return of Majfud, 
who wjTs then in India, they fat fl:ill, and fent an envoy to 
him, offering to become his fubjefts. MaJJiid reje(5Ved their 
mcffige with contempt : yet, contrary to the advice of his 
council, fet out again for his Indian conquefts, beibre the 
affairs of the Turks were fettled. They, in his abfence, be- 
gan to make their inroads through Khorafun, with fo much 
fuccefs, that, in two years, they conquei^ed almof^ all that 
Heirah province, with ' Per/tan Irak (E) ; founding, in 1037^ the 
^29. fecond great monarchy of the Turks, in the fouth oi Jfia -, 
which, in time, fpread over all Pcrfia, and the countries 
weftward, as far as the Archipelago : whereof we fhall give 
the reader an account in the next chapter. 
Turks Having brought down the foreign hiflory of the Turks, 

empire from their firft appearance out of Tartary, to this period, we 
ought now to return to their domefllc affairs, and fee what 
they were doing in Tartary among themfelves, or with their 
kindred nations, during that interval. But here we are at 
a greater Iql's than before : for the memory of tranfactions, 
which are not committed to writing, can never pofTibly be 
hroken in lafVing ; and oral records are foon defaced. In Ihort, Ave 
Tartary. fcarce know any thing of their domeflic afHurs during that 
long interval. We can only colleft, in general, from certain 
circumftances, that their dominion, which once extended over 

''^Texeira, p. 2F1. ' D"HERnEi.OT. p. Soo, & feq. 

Art. Scigiouk. Texeira, p. 292, 5: fcq. 

(B) Ox DnganKhan. (D) Dai^d, OT Daut^, is the 

iC) His fattici- i\lah/>.u> was fame with iDaa'/</. 
the firft wlio took the tide of {l\) '\'\\:iZis,iY,e Per/u » hdk. 
Sol. an. There is anoilier talld i\\c . 'ra- 

tion Irak. 


C. 1. ^Jbeir affairs all Jcnghiz Kh'in. 57 

all Tartar)', in procefs of time became divided among feveral 
Khans ; and their power being thus broken, gave other na- 
tions ap opportunity of depriving them of the greater part of 
what they formerly poflefled. 

We learn from the Ch'mefc hiflory, that, at the beginning ^'^«'^?/'/^? 
of the tenth century, the Kitun or Lyau, who founded the "^'J^prn 
empire of Kitay or Katay (which comprized the northern -'^"^"» 
provinces o{ China, with the adjoining part oiTartary, thence 
tailed Kara Kitay), fubdued all the countries wellward from 
Korea, as fur as Kajhgar "\ And the Perfian authors inform 
us, that, in the year 1017, t,oo, 000 Tartars and Mogols, Hejrah 
comprized under the name of Turks, ifTuing from the borders 4°'5- 
of China, ravaged the country from the oriental ocean, as far 
as Balufiigun, then the capital of what is more properly cal- 
led Turkujim : but that Togan, or Dogdn Khan, who at that 
time reigiied there (F), not only prevented their progrefs 
any farther welfward, but, obliging them to retreat, purfued 
them for three months together, and killed more than 200,000 
of them \ 

These, which are here called Tartars and Mogols, WQXO, called liz.~ 
doubtlefs no other than the Kit an, or thofe from Ketan Ao-rakitay- 
tan before-m.entioned ° ; who, under Kader Khan, or his fuc-^"s. 
cefTor,- aimed to have extended their dominions, which al- 
ready reached fiom Kitay to Kajl^gar, as far v/eflward as the 
Cafpian fea. Not but a great part of their army might have 
coufiffed of Mogols and Tartars ; thefe people probably, at 
that time, having been fubjefl to the Kitdn, as we know 
tliey were not long after. 

The Kit'ln having, in 1 124, been difpofTefTcd by the Kin , Their fet" 
another nation (G) of eaifern Tartary retired weffward, zn&tlement. 
founded the empire of the weffward Lyait, near Kajhgar P. 
The hiflorians of the weft of Jfia call thefe Lyau or Kitdn, 
who, after this event, became better known t'o them, Karaki- 
tayans ; and fay they fettled in the parts about Imil (H), 
mixing themfeives with the Turks q ; who, at that time, 
were divided into many nations, under different cliiefs. The 

"" Gaueil. hifl. de Gentch. p. ii. " D'Herbel. p. 8qg. 
Art. Turk. ° See before, p. 55. P Gaubil. ibid, 

p. 127. "3 MiRKOND. ap. Horn. arc. No;e, p. 287, &■ feq. 

Abu'lghazi Khan's hilt. p. 44. 

^ (F) He was brother to Ikk led Matiche^'s, now reigning in 
Khan, as hath been before-men- China. 

tioned, and probably fucceeded (K) Called alfo ^w// and An- 
him^ mil, to the well of Aimalek, in 

(G) The fame with thofe cal- Little Bukhdria. 


cS General Hijlory of the Turks. B. I. 

Kit an found fome tribes about Turf an, and others on the 
borders of Great Bnkh&r'ui, wliom they defeated. 
7*/^^ Turk- These feem to have been independent tribes, which own- 
i(h empire ed no fubje^tion to the Khan of Turkejfdn ; who, though 
pofTefled of but a part of the dominions of his anceftors, flill 
preferved a (hew of grandeur. But, in a (hort time after, 
his power began greatly to decline ; infomuch that Ikk Khon^ 
who reigned at BaUifogun, about the middle of the twelfth 
century, to defend himfelf againft the Kank/i, Karliks, and 
eea/es in Ki/jiiks, refigned his dominions to the king of the weflern 
Tartary, xitan, or Karakatayans >", before-mentioned ^ : and thus Ttir- 
kcfidn, which for fo many ages had been poflelTed by Khans 
of its own, fell under the dominion of a foreign prince : for 
although fome oriental hiftorians pretend to derive even the 
Kitayaiis from 'Tzirk, the fuppofed fon of Jafet ; yet their 
language and manners, as well as remote fituation, fhew them 
to be people of a different origin. 
The luhoJe As foon as this prince was fettled in his new dominions, 
fojfejj'cd byssizox^m^ to JbuHghdzi Khun, he aflumed the title of Kavar 
KhciK, that is, great lord. But Mirkcnd writes Kt'ir Khan (I), 
and lays it was the title of the kings of Karakitay ^, adding, 
that after he had vanquifhcd the Kankli, he purfucd his good 
fortune, and conquered, in the year 1141 (K), the cities of 
Kafhgar, Khcten, Bifhbuleg, and Turkcjlon : and thus all Tar- 
tary, between mount j^ltay and the Cafpian fea, became again 
united under one iovereign, who was the greateft prince who 
had reigned in northern Jfia for many ages, before the time 
of JenghiT, Khan. 
f^f Kara- In all probability all the Turkifj tribes, and even thofe 
kitayans. fettled about Turfan, had fubmitted to Kur Khan ; fmce we 
find the Vigurs or Igurs, their neighbours to the eaft, were 
under his protection; and fo continued till the year 1212, 
when flaying his tax-gatherer, they went over to Jenghiz 

■■ See an" account of them before, p. 5-. ' Abu'lcua- 

7.1 Khan, p. 44. Mirkond. ap. Horn. arc. Noa:, p. 288. 
*■ Mirkond. ap. Horn. arc. Nox, p. 2S7. ^ Abu'lgha- 

.^ • zi Khan, p. 87. Gaucil. hill. Jeng. p. 13. 

(I) Which, in 7/o/-;/;«.r, is fnid kJ.\in, he fays it fignifles /^f/j/r- 
to fignify //^/^ 0/ if///^.r. Altho' :n-/.Tiv and kinfmon of kings 
this fecms to be infertcd as tlie and princes. See D'Herb. p. 
explanation of Jlf;>/w/f/, \vc (hall 878. An.7itnour. 
not give it as his; fincc, in his (K) Abulghczi Khan places 
Siccowntoi TirKur, or Tcr-irrlane, thcfc events in the year 1177, 
who a/Tumcd the title of Kur- p. 4 \. 


C. I.' 5"M> affairs till Jenghiz Khan. ^9 

To check this growing power, Sanjar, fixth Soltah of the 
Sfljuk Turks, before-mentioned, being at Samarkand about 
the year 1 145, was prevailed on to attack Keirkhun (L), 
king of Karakatay ; but he was defeated, and all his Haram 
(or women) taken w. 

In i\j2,Takafi {de^cendedL irom Sab ektekin'^, tht Turkijh 
founder of the Gdzni monarchy), third Soltaa of Karazm (a 
new dominion, which fprung up in the time of the Seljtiks), 
applying to the king of Karakitay for aid againft his brother 
Soltdn Shdh, he fent Karamara, his fon-in-iaw, with a pow- 
erful army, which recovered the crown for him >'. 

The Karazm Shahs were tributary (M) to the Kurkhans ; 
but, on the death o(TakaJl>, oxToktiJh, his fon, Mohaiiimed 
refufed to pay the tiibutc ; and raifmg great forces, in the 
year 1200, firft reduced Bokhara, and the other cities of Ma- 
wara'lnahr (which had become independent under princes of 
their own) ; then, maixhing into the dominions of Karakatay 
Kurkhiln, overthrew his army, commanded by Tanihi TaraZy 
a famous commander. After this, he took Otrar, at that time 
the capital of all Turkeftcm, and returned home. Some years 
after, the Karakitay ans, entering Ma-war a hahr, laid fiege to 
Samarkant : but hearing, at the fame time, both of the ap- 
proac-h of Mohavimed, and the revolt of Kuchlnk the Nay- 
vian, againft Kurkhan his father-in-law, they raifed the fiege, 
and returned to Turkejlan ^. 

This account of the Karakitayans reigning in Turkejlan, Eijloriant 
we have made up the beft we could, from the few xxa^zxit^ difagree. 
memoirs we meet with extradled from Mirkond ; according 
to which, there were two Kurkhhns who reigned in Turkejlan, 
before the invafion of Jenghiz Khan ; the firft called Ciirjajh, 
to whom, by the courfe of the hiftory, Ilek Khan muft have 
refigned his dominion ; the other Kuyang, to whom Kuchluk 
retired. But JbtVlghdzi Khan makes only one Khan of the Abu'I- 
two, and differs in the date of his reign, and other circum- ghazi 
fiances. He tells us, that the Khan of Jurjut (N) having Khan's 
conquered Karakitay, its prince, called Nuji Tayghir Hi, was accounts 

vD'HEREELOT,p. 736. Art. Sangiar. ^ Ibid. Art. Mo- 

hammed Khouarazm Shah. y J bid. p. 826. Art. Soltan Shah. 
^ Ibid. p. 609. Art. Mohammed Khouarazm Shah. p. 610. Horn, 
arc. Noc;, p. 288. 

(L) Named Gi^?y^_/^. (N) Vcxhz^s King hyn,mih.t 

(M) D'Herbclot mentions no- province of Si?fr.-Ji in Chiva, then 

thing of this tribute in the life the capital of an empire called 

either of Tahajh or his fon Mo- Hjd. 

kavmed, e xtraft ed from Mirkcnd. 


6o General Hijiory of the Turks.' B. I. 

obliged, in the year 1 1 77, to retire among the Kerghis, and 
thence to a town of Kitay (0), called Imit : that, xv>n years 
after, Ilek Khdrty a dcfcendaiit of Afrafiab Kbtin, who reiided 
^t Baliifagun (P), being oppofed by his neighbours the Kmt- 
klis, who had fpoiled all his cultivated lands, for fake of his 
affiftancc, refigned the fovereignty of that city to the Knraki- 
tayan prince (Q^), who immediately affumed the name of AVi- 
var Khan (R), or the great lord\ after which he conquered 
the towns of ylndijan, Tajhkant, and Turkejlav, and made 
-Samarkand tributary. After he was returned home, he fent 
JriSy one of his generals, with a numerous army, tOM'ards 
Urghcnj (vS) ; who obliged Vighijh (T), Khan of that city, to 
pay his mafter a tribute of 20,000 gold dinars. However, 
Soltan Mchammedy his fuccefTor, refufing to do what his fa- 
ther had done, prepared for war. But though he had ga- 
thered all die forces of his dominions, which extended as far 
as Rum (U), yet he was defeated by Kavar Khan, and obliged 

(O) Rather of iu?r^i(//a)', and 
fubjedl to Kitay. 

(P In ihe Englijfj tranflation 
^alafagiin : it was the capital 
of furkejian, about 1 40 miles 
to the north-eaft of Tonkat, on 
the river Sir. 

(Q^) It is hard to fay which of 
the two accounts is, in the main, 
the moft exaft ; but both are 
erroneous, as well as defective, 
in certain particulars. Jhul- 
gkdz.i Khan feems to make 
Nuji Tayghir Hi the founder 
of the d) nafty of the welKrn 
Karahitayans ; whereas there 
were feveral kings of that race 
(1), which began in 1124, as 
hath been related above. On 
the other hand, Mirkmid gives 
Kuymig, his ficond Kurkhdn, a 
reign of eighty-one years, if we 
;inay depend on the extradl (2). 
So that, on a fuppofition that it 
ended in \z\\, by the conquctl 
oi Ktichluk, whom that author 
makes Kmang's fuccefior, tiie 
beginning of it will fall in the 

{' l) GjHbil, ulii Jupra, 

year 11 33; which is to make 
him begin his reign in Turkejldn 
eight years before his predecef- 
for ; to whom, according to 
Mirkofjd'i account, Ilek Khan re- 
figned in 1 141 ; whereas Ahul- 
ghdz.i Kbci7! places that event in 
1 1 77. We frequently meet with 
fuch irreconcileable difagree- 
ments in the cxrradts made from 
the oriental hillorians : whether 
the originals are more confiftent 
we know not ; but polTibly the 
difficulties might be cleared up 
from the hillory of the wellern 
Lyai or Kit an, which, we are 
told, is given at large in t\\.cChi- 
Tiefe annals (3). 

(R) A miilake, perhaps, in 
the reading, f.r Kurkhan : for 
the fame letters may admit of 
both readings. 

(S) Or Orkeni, the capital 
ol Karazm. 

(T) A miilake, perhaps, for 
Tekcjh, or -Jaknjh. 

(U) Or Anatolia. 

(x) Urn. arc. N:a,p. iSS. 


C.I. Tbeir ciffairs all Jenghiz Kh^n. 6i 

to fly for ihelter to the Kanklis, till he could find means to 
obtain a peace ^, 

In the year 1 209, Kitchluk, the fon of Tayyan (X) Khan Karaki- 
of the Naymans, having been defeated by Jenghlz Khan, andtayaufw- 
his father flain, fled for flicker to Karakitay Kurkhan, whopif^* 
received him honourably, and gave him his daughter in mar- 
riage ^ : which favours, not long after, he repaid with in- 
gratitude. Upon his revolt, he fent ambafl^adors to conclude 
a peace with Soltan Alohaymned, whom he left at liberty toi 
take Kajljgar and Khotan, in cafe he could conquer them be- 
fore him. Kuchhik attacked his father-in-law firft, and pre- 
vailed for a while, but was at length defeated. Soltan Mo- 
hammed, on his fide, entered Kurkhdn\ dominions, and would 
have made great progrefs, but for the revolt of one of his ^ 
generals with part of his troops. This accident, which hap- 
pened in. the midfl: of a battle, put the Soltan in no fmall 
danger ; fo that at length he was forced, in the habit of a 
Tartar, to cut his way through the enemy to join his army. 
After which he founded a retreat ; and, by flow marches, re- 
turned to Karazm ^ 

As iorKuchliik, he ftill continued his rebellion, and at length .9a//^ 
deprived his father-in-law of more than half of his domini- ot'er- 
ons. But his ingratitude did not remain long unpunifhed r^^rffOL-JK. 
for, in 1 2 1 6, Jenghlz Khan fent one of his mofl experienced 
generals againif him ; and, although he advanced with an 
army fuperior to the Mogols, yet he was overthrown ; and, 
flying with fome troops, was at laft overtaken near Badag- 
Jhan in Great Biikharia, and put to death ^. After this the 
Mogcl forces over-ran Turkejidn, flaughtering all who oppofed 
them. And thus an end was put to the very name, as well 
as dominion, of the Turks in Tartary. 

S E C T. V. 

Chara5fer of the Turks before the time of Jenghlz 
Khan ; and whether they were the defcendants of 
the antient Scythians, or the prefent inhabitants of 
Tartary are defcended from them. 

F T E R what has been fald of the early Turks and their Cujioms 
affairs, it might be proper to give fome account of xhtof the 
manners and cuftoms of thofe people : but our memoirs are 

* See Abu'lchazi Khan, p, 44, & feq. ^ Ibid. p. 85, 

94. «^ D'Herbelot. p. 610. Art. Mohammed Khouarazia 

Shah ^ Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 94. 




6z General Hijiory of the Turks. B. I. 

very defecftive in fuch particulars. The Byzantine hiilorians 
already cited, take notice of very few things concerning them, 
and that only occahonally : as, that the Roman ambaiTador^ 
found their king, Difahules, under a tent, attended by a 
coach (or waggon) with two wheels * : that it was tiieir 
cnrlent cuftom to fuave the beard in token of grief ; and that Taxan- 
l arks, f^f. required this ceremony of tlie Roman ambafladors upon 
the death of l\is fatlier '' : that, during the funeral, he or- 
dered four Huns to be brought out of prifon, and (lain upon 
the tomb, with the horfes of the deceafed prince ^ : that they 
pay public figns of refpe(51: to the fire and water, and chant 
hymns in honour of the earth : that, however, they adore only 
cue God, creator of the vifible world, and facrifice to him 
horfes, bulls, and fiieep : laftiy, that their priells can fore- 
tel future events d. 
furely By the report of Ruhniquius the monk, and others, who 

Tarta- travelled into Tartary in the thirteenth century, as well as 
rian. of the orientals, who wrote the hiilory of Jenghiz Khun, it 
appears that the fitme culfoms were common to the Mogo/s, 
and other inhabitants of Tartary, in the time of that con- 
Bad cha- The Greek hiflorians, from whence we took thefe notices, 
ra^er by f^y nothing as to the character of the Turks : but that defeft 
may be ealily fupplicd from the Jrab and Perjian authors, 
with whom the word Turk pafTes ufually for a highwayman 
or robber. Hafez, a Perftan poet, who lived in the fifteenth 
century^, {peaking of fome evil, fays, that it takes from our 
hearts all patience and repofe, ivith as much violence as the 
Turks or beggars do the victuals from a wellfurnifhed tabl^. 
What is more furprifmg, we meet with a diflich in the Turk- 
ijl} language to this purpofe : although a Turk or Tartar 
flooidd excel in all the fciences, yet the barbarian iiould ftill be 
» V ,rooted in his nature. It may be feen in the hiflory of the 
Perfiarf^ Khallfahs, of the family of ^bbas, to what a degree the blood 
of the Turks was thought unworthy to be mixed with theirs, 
when it was propofed to give a princefs of that houfe in mar- 
riage to Togriil Beg, firft Soltan of the Seljuk race. 

But that thefe things were, in great meafure at leafl, ow- 
ing to prejudice, appears from a proverb which the Perfians 
have, importing, that no perfon need ever fcrupie to kill a 
Turk, even though he was a JDoHor cf the Mohammedan lavj. 
The Jrabs and Perfians bore a hatred to the Turks, for the 
injuries received from them, for fcvcral ages together, not 

• Menander, c. 13. 
ig. *= Id. ibid. 

See alfo before, p. 44. ^ Ibid, c. 

*• Skmokatta, 1. vii. c. 8. 


C.I. Their affairs i! II Jenghiz Kh^m^. ^ 63 

only by their frequent invafions from Tartary, but alfo by Why hated 
the difturbances they raifed in their dominions. To explain h them. 
this, it muft be obferved, that Al Motajfem, eighth Khalifah 
of the Jbbas race, Shehab addin, Soltan of the race of Gaury 
Al Malek al Sdleh, Soltan of the family of Ayyob in Egypt, 
and feveral other princes of Ajia, caufed a great number of 
young TurkiJIj (laves, the handfomefl who could be procured, 
to be bought, and educated in their courts (A) ; thefe being 
formed into troops of militia, as hath been already mention- 
ed f, not only often rebelled, and depofed the Khalifah, but, 
involving the country in cruel war, committed unheard of 
outrages on the inhabitants g. 

This is the true foundation of the great animofity -which. Tete^eem- 
the Arabs and Perfians bore the Turks ; who, it muft be ac- edfor 
knowleged, always were a moil turbulent and infolent race 
of mortals, as they Hill are, where they had power ; though 
humble enough where they had none. However, they were 
not altogether fo defpicable and brutifh as their enemies re- 
prefent them. The good air and mien of thofe young (laves their ha» J- 
above-mentioned pleafed the eyes of the Perfians ; infomuchy^'^^'^C/^* 
that the poet Hafez himfelf, who had pafled fo fevere a re- 
fleffion on them, would have the word Turk to fignify a hand- 
fome man : and was charmed with one of them to fuch a 
degree, that, in his Divan, he cries out. If I could but gain 
the good-will of this Turk of the city of Shiraz, I would give, 
for the jmallejl of his favours, the cities of Samarkand and 
Bokhara ^. 

Authors divide the Tz/r^^ into two kinds, with reCpe^ On'gi»a//j 
to their way of living, fome dwelling in towns and fixed li-ved 
habitations, others in the fields, and leading a wandering 
life, like the Bedwm Arabs : thefe are called, by the Turks, 
Guchgimji Atrak, and Konar Kocher ; which implies a roving 
kind of life, and without fixed dwellings >. From thefe the 
Turkmans^ and even the founder of the Othman family (B), 
defcended. In effeft, the Turks originally, like all the other 
nations inhabiting Tartary, lived in the fields, under tents, ^ ^x^ander- 
and without any houfes, but fuch as were carried on carts, z^;^ //^. 
This appears plainly enough from the manner in which the 

f See before, p. 51. s D'Herbvl. p. 898, &feq. Art. 

Turk. h Id. ibid. i D'Herbel. p. 898, Art. Turk. 

Cantemir. hift. Othm. pref. p. 12. 

(A) Much in the fame man- as well as Seljuks, have been 
ner as the y<?«2ar:>/, at prefent ftigmat.'zed with the name of 
among the Turks. Turkmans, by the Arabs and 

(Bj And hence the OtJmatis, Firfiam. 


54 General Hi/lory of the Turks. B. I. 

Rcmnn ambafFadors found their king Difabuirs encamped, in 
the iixth century, with tents and carts, juft as the Mogols, 
Ehiths or Kahnuks, and Turkmans, encamp at prcfcnt. And 
we prcfume it will be very difficult to prove, that ever thd 
Turks lived in towns, or fixed habitations, til! fuch time as 
they had conquered them (C) from their neighbours in the 

Thus wc have, from the imperfctfl memoirs which are in 

our pofTelFion, given the beft account we could of the origin 

of the Turks, of the tribes into which their nation is divided 

by the oriental authors, and of their affairs from the iixth 

century, when they became confiderable, till the time of 

Jenghiz Khan. But, before we quit the fubjeiff, it will be 

_ . necefTary to examine into three particulars ; i . Whether the 

i"f'i Turks are defcended from the antient Scythians, mentioned 

^ ,• , 'by the Creek and Roman authors. 2. Whether all the inha- 

Scythi- bitants or Turtdry ^xc either ongmally Turks, or iprung 

ans. from one and the fame root. 3. ^Vhether Turkcjian always 

had the fame fituation and extent that it has at prefent. 

First, Whether the Turks, or, if you will, all the pre- 
fent inhabitants of Tartary, are defcended from the antient 
Scythians. If, by Scythians, is to be underAood not thofc 
properly fo called, but all the different nations mentioned by 
Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolomy, and other authors, which, under 
that common name, inhabited that vafl region : it ma}', with- 
out hefitation, be anfwered, that the prefent inhabitants are 
the defcendants of the antient; or rather of fuch of them as 
remained in Tartary, over and above thofe which might have 
been def^roycd, or migrated into other regions : for not only 
there is a great conformity in the perfons, manners," and cu- 
ftoms of both, but no other nation or nations can be affign- 
cd, from whence the prefent poflcfrors of Tartary could pro- 
ceed. To the fouth of them live people, fuch -as the Per- 
Jians, Indians, Tibctians, and Chincfe, who always dwelt in 
cities, or fixed habitations ; and, confequently, could never 
be tempted to change their country and way of living for 
thofe of the Scythians, unlcfs compelled by force (D), of 
which we meet with no inf^ances in hiflory. 
^Butfnm Indeed, if we defcend to particular nations or tribes, and 


(C) Thus the Mankats and Litf/e Buiharia AndTiitt, where 

Kajfals never dwelt in cicies, till the Khan, at certain times, rc- 

they fettled \r\Turkeffati: yet Uill ijdes. 

in fummer encamp in fields. So (D) As the J'igurs. who feem 

■t\it Eluthsor KnJmuksTicvcT Wwvdi to be Tibitiaiij, might have 

in towns, till they conquered been. 



C. t. Their affairs till Jenghiz Khah, C^ 

want to know whether the Turks are fprung from this Maffd- 
geta, the Naymans from the IJfidon Scythians, or would 
trace the migfa.tions of the Saka, Huns, Sarmatians, or other 
fwarms from th^ immenfe and prolihck hive, the attempt 
will prove a fruitlefs labour. This will plainly appear, if it 
be only confidered, i . that moft of the names of the Scythian 
nations, which we find in the authors above-mentioned, did 
not properly belong to them, but were given them by the 
Greeks. Even the general name of Scythians was unknown 
to the Scythians, who, we are told by Herodotus, called them- 
felves Sko/ot. Again ; thofe names which cannot be affirmed 
to have been corrupted, or impofed by the Creeks, were luch, 
perhaps, as were given to them by other nations (E)* Thus 
the people, whom they called Scythians, were named by the 
Perjians Saga or Saka, as we learn from Mela and Pliny J 
yet the Creeks confidered the Saka as a particular hation or 
tribe of Scythians. Hence the Creeks confounded the feveral 
nations together, gave one nation the name of another, and 
often the fame nation feveral different names, as hath been 
already hinted. 

2. Another reafon which makes it very difficult, if not 
almoil: impoffible, to difcover what nations or tribes the an- 
tient names found in authors belong to, or to trace the fe- 
veral removals of thofe tribes, is ; that it feems to have been 
always cuflomary with the inhabitants of Tartary, as it is at 
prefent, to change their names on various occafions, as on 
removing their fituation, dividing into different branches, 
being brought in fubjedtion by other tribes^ or in compliment 
to the reigning prince, if much beloved by them, of which 
fome inftances have been already produced ^, and more will 
be given, when We come to the hiflory of the Tartars. 

As to the fecond queftion, whether all the inhabitants o^ j„jjaiiii^. 
Tartary are either originally Turks, or fprung from one and^,,/^ (,f 
the fame root, our opinion is in the negative : for there is no Tartar/, 
probability that people, fo extremely different in their make»o/«// 
and features, as mo^ oi the Mohammedan Tartars, and the Turks j 
Eluths or Kalmuks are, Ihould proceed from the fame flock^ 

* See before, p. 23, & feq. 

(E) This is comhionly done Eluths, Kalmuks : and thef&, in 
at prefent from various motives, the return, name the ethers. 
The Turks call the Poles Leh, Hafak Puruk. So the ^rahs call 
from a king or general of the the Perfmns,j^jem, that is, bar- 
Poles. The tlabek Tartars, by hariavs : as the Greeks former]/ 
way of tiick-namc, call the did all foreign. iiatioas, 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. 1* aay 

66 General Hijiory of the Turks : B. I. 

any more than fre/h and fait water fhould proceed from the 
fame foiintaui. It is true, all the inhabitants oilVeJlernTar- 
tary (tor ihofe ot the Eiijlcrn are out of the cafe), fpcak the 
fame language, or at leall dialects ot it : but might not this 
happen through conllant intercourfe, or one power prevail- 
ing over the re^, as that of the Turks did in the fixth cen- 
tury, and that of the Mogols in the twelfth i the conquered 
people generall? fpeak the language of the conquerors, as well 
as thci own, which, by degrees, becomes extinft, as that of 
the Kopis almoft already is in Egypt, where the Jrabic pre- 
vails ; the Celtic in Caul, where the French takes place ; and 
in England the Britijh, which has been fuperl'eded b/ tha 
though all However, it muft be allowed, that the identity or affi- 
jpeak iiity of languages would go lor almoll a certain proof of the 

the fame identity of nations, as to origin, did they agree in the other 
language, circumftances before-mentioned ; and might alfo be admitted 
as a tolerably fure rule in tracing the migrations of people : 
becaufe the migrating nation cannot receive their language 
from people of a different language among whom they live ; 
and therefore mull be a-kin to the unmigrating nation, whofe 
Language happens to be the fame with theirs. Thus the 
language which the Othmun Turks fpeak, though mixed with. 
Pcrjuin, Aralnc, and even Greek words, demonflrates that 
they came from Tartary, or are defcended from fome of the 
inhabitants of that region, known by the name of Turks; al- 
though it may not be ealy to afcertain the particular tribe or 
tribes from which thev draw their original. 

We come now to the third queilion, whether Turkejlan 
always had the fame fituation and extent which it has at 
prelcnt. To this we anlwer likewife in the negative ; and 
make no fcruple to affirm, that it hath often changed its fitu- 
ation as well as bounds ; which we ihall endeavour to de- 
inoiillrate in the next fe(ft:ion. 


Of the original country inhabited by the Turks, with 
a dejcription of the frefent Turkeftan. 

Karnes of TT appears, from the account a! ready given, both by the 
Turkef- A RrT,ian and Chimfe hlfhuians, that die country pofleffed by 
'""• the Turks, at their firft becoming known in the world, was 

about the middle of all Tartafy, towards mount Altay, which 
divides that great region, as' it were, into two parts: and 
that, in a" few ye;irs, they, from a very InQonfiderable begin- 
ning, extended their dominion Iroin the river Lyau in the 

C.I. 'Their original country^. 6y 

caft, as far v/eAward as the Cafpian fea. Thus almoft* the 
v/holfe of Great Tartary (A), becoming fubjeft to the Turks, 
might have taken the name of Turkejlan, or country of the 
Turks ; at leaft the oriental writers give that nanie to all the 
countries lying north of the river Sihihi or Sir, the Jaxartes 
oi the antients. 

The name of Turcm they extend ftill farther, making it ^;,^ Tu- 
to include all the countries to the north* of the Jihu7i or ran* 
Amu, that is Tartary and Maivard'hiahr, now called Great 
Biikharia ^ ; and thus they feem to make their own hero T'.r 
amends for the lofs faftained by the Tartaruan hero Turk^ 
who has ingrolTed all the inhabitants of Tartary as his de- 
fcendants. But the fault lay in the framers of the antient 
Perfia?! hiftory, who, by leaving the final k out of Tl.r's 
name, gave their rivals the Turks an opportunity, by the ad- 
dition of that letter, to form one more fuitable to the perfod 
who was to reprefent their great anceflor. 

It may be prefumed, if the name cf Twkejian ever pre- Extend 
vailed over ail Tartary, that it continued in ufe fo long only o-^'^/" Tar-. 
as the dominion of the Turks was intire : but that when ^^^7- 
their power was broken, and they became divided under 
many fovereigns, Turkejlan alfo became divided into fo many 
different parts^ and loll the name, which feemed to have 
fetded in the wefiern part of Tartary, to the nGrth of Per- 
Jia and Great Bukhdria ; where probably the defcendants of 
their firfl Khan, Difabules ^, fixed their (eat. From thefe 
quarters it was, that they made continual wd^v upon the Pcr- 
fians and Arabs, for feveral ages together ; and here they 
maintained their dominion longelt, and with greateft luilre. 

This, at leaf!:, we know from hiflory ; that, foon after Cf^j;« 
the time of Toxander, in the feventh centufy, the Turks fell the eaft^ 
at war among themfelves, which probably ended in a par- 
tition of the dominions*: and, in the feventh, eighth, and 
ninth centuries, we find the country of the Turks actually 
divided among feveral Kakhans, or kings, fome of whom had 
very large territories, called by different names, or thofe of 
the tribes under their fubjeclion, as hath been already fet 
forth "^ in a foregoing ftclion. However, it inuil: be ob- 
ferved, that all thofe territories extending over almofl the 
whole ot Wejlern Tartary, are reprefented as parts of the 

* D'Herbel. p. 899. Art. Turk. ^ See before, p. 37, 

tc feq. * See alfo p. 43 & 46. « Se6 before, p. 56, &c feq. 

(A) All but what is, by us, called Laft cm Tartary, to the eaft 
of Lyau tong, ^ 

J % SelM 

6^ General Hijlory of the Turks : B. I. 

Bilud 41 ./tnik, which is the ,'lrabic word anfwering to the 
Pcrfian Turkejian, that is, the country of the Turks. 
Sfttles in It may be prcfumed, that the nations who were not im- 
tl.'f iv/t. rnediately fub'e(fb ro the ruccefn:)rs of Difabulcs, were, in 
time, conquered or brought in Aibie<i\ion by fome other na- 
tion or nations, more to the ealt or louth : and thus the 
name of Turkejian came to ceafe, or be difufed, in all but the 
Meftern parts of that empire, where the Turks ftiil preferved 
their power : on which account it always retained the name 
of Turkejian with tiic Perfians. 
Re'v/1'es HowKvr.R, from time to time, the Turks in this weftern 
i«/^'rfrt/?. region, at different times, feem to have recovered or extend- 
ed their dominion cafhvard, as they found opporfunity, from 
their own increafe of ftrength, or the weaknefs of their 
neighbours, whom they had to deal with. Thus, in the 
time of Ehn Said al Alagrebi, the geographer **, KdJJjgar, in 
Little Bukhdria, was the capital of Turkcjlcm : as it fcems to 
have been alfo in 996, under Ihk Khan. At leai'^ Turkejian 
mnft, at that time, have been divided into two diftin(ft do- 
minions, the weftern and the eaftern : of which laft, accord- 
ing to fome authors •", llek Khan was the fovereign lord, while 
Arflan Khan reigned over the former. 
Extends Eastern Tvrkefti'm, if we may fo call it, that is, the 
over countries eaft of KaPjgar, foon after fell into the hands of 

Tartar/, the Karakitayans ; and from thence had the name of Kara- 
kitay given to it by the Perfmn hiftorians. But at length, 
about the middle of the twelfth century, both the eaflern 
and wcllern Turkejian were united again under one prince, 
in confeqnence of the fu rrender made by llek Khioi of Bala- 
fdgiln to Karnkitay Kurkhtin, or Kavar Khan ^ : nor did the 
wcllern Turke/ian, upon that revolution, take the name of 
Karakitay, but Itill retained its own, at leaft with the Per- 
Again con- BuT things did not long continue in this flate : for, at 
traded, the begintiing of the thirteenth century, Kuchluk the Naym^n, 
rebelling againft his father-in-law Kurkh^n, WTefted from him 
the eaftern Turkejian ; and thus once more caufed a divifion 
of the empire. Some fay both parts were united again in the 
perfon of Kuchluk himfelf, who fucceeded Kurkhdn. Be that 
as it will, in a very few years after, Jenghiz Khan the great, 
having over-run the whole weflern Tartary with his Mogols, 
all Turkejian became a province of his immenfe empire. Since 

•■ Aku'lfuda tabl. Chowarafmia;. &c. in edit. Hudfon, p. 53. 
« Sec before, p. 52. ' Sec before, p. 58. 


C.I,' JDefcription of TmVit^^n'. 69 

which time we have heard no more of eaftera Tv.rkeflm, or 
oriental Turks. 

However, the part of Tartary to the north of PerfiaRemaimin 
and Great Bukhdria, (till retained the name of Turkejlan ; the ive/t. 
and, in the partition which Jenghiz Khan made of his em- 
pire among his four fons, fell to the Ihare of Jagatay (B), 
who was the fecond. But, in proceis of time, thefe new 
monarchies being fplit into leller Hates by intefline tactions, 
and the defcendants of one brother invading thofe of ano- 
ther, Turkejlan fell into the hands of the Uzbeks, and, at laft, 
into thofe of the Kajj'dts and Manktits ; who were formerly 
the fubjecfts of Juji, eldeft fon of Jenghtz Khan, and at pre- 
fent is pofTefled by them : the KaJJ'ats having the eaitern 
part, and the Mankats (better known in Europe by the nick- 
name of Kara KdlpaksJ, the weftern part, under their refpec- 
tive Khans ; who, with their fubjedts, are Alohammeclans. 

Fro?j what has been faid on this fubjedt, it appears th&tWhy/o 
Turkejlan had not always the fame fituation and extent ; hut/'<^jf-'f 
varying both, from time to time, is found fometimes in one 
part of Tartary, fometimes in another ; juft as the Turks, 
who, like the other tribes, lived for the mofl part in the 
fields, were able to ftand their ground, or obliged to give way 
to fuperior force. Thus countries, which have neither cities, 
nor any fixed habitations, may be faid to be of an itinerant '^ "■''^"g^ 
nature, and foliav/ their inhabitants wherever they remove. ''''■ 
However, the Turks, w^o inhabited to the north of either Great 
Bukhdria or Perfia, h"d generally towns along the Sir in 
their polfeffion, as the Mankats and Kajjdts have at prefent : 
and as it was from the fame quarter that thofe countries were, 
from time to time, invaJed by them, it always retained, 
among the Perjians, the name of Turkejlan : with the de- 
fcription of which we (hall clofc this iutrodudtion to the hi- 
(tory of the Turks. 

The prefent Turkejlan is fitnate betweed 42 and 50 or 51 Prcjent 
degrees of latitude, and between 73 and 90 degrees of Ion- ^"[^^^f- 
gitude, reckoning from Ferro, one of the Canary ifles. li^^'^'sjte. 
is bounded on the north by the Jrdl Tdg, or mountains of 
eagles, which are no better than hills in thofe quarters ; on 
the eaft, by the dominions of the grand Khan of the Eluths 
or Kalmuks \ on the fouth, by the river Sir, which feparates 
it from Karazm and Great Bukhdria (C) ; and on the weft by 

(Z) StQ p'Herbelot. Art. Khan. StQ Jhulghazi Kh/!n\ 
Geughiz Khan, ^nd. Giagathay. hillory ofthe7';<r^7,p. 307. 563. 
But perhaps part of it was in (C) But Mr. Shahletibtrgs 
the lot of Juji, and given by map extends it much to the 
Baytu to his brother Sheybani fouth of the Sir. 

F 3 the 

/O Befcription of Turkeftan. B. I. 

the Cafpian fea, and river Yem. It may be about 660 miles 
in length from weft to eaft,. and 540 in breadth from fouth 
to north. 
Natural Ihe country confifts generally of vaft extended plains, 
jtate. which are very fruitful ; and has but a few mountains, 
excepting thofe before-mentiuned. It is watered by feme 
rivers ; fuch as the Taraz, or Talajh, which falls into the 
Sir ; the Tiirugay, which falls into the Tahifj ; the Karafu ; 
and others of lefs note. They all defcend from the north, 
and fall, for the moft part, into the Sir ; but authors diffsr 
as to the piirticular places where they enter that river ^. 
Here likewiie one meets with feveral lakes. Among the reft, 
one called Kamijb I\'or, that is, the lake cf reeds, is 4c or 
50 miles long, and 30 broad. That of IJjihol, where Turk, 
the fon of Jafct, is faid to have fettled, is very near the 
eaftern border of Turkeftan, if not within it. 
frhicttal When TurkejUn was in its fiourifhing ftate, under its own 
(itiss. fovereigns, and even till the irruption of Jenghiz Khan, it 
abounded with ftrong and populous cities. However, thefe, 
or moft of them, probably, were not built by the Turks, who 
lived moftjy in the fields, but by the old inhabitants of the 
country, or the Arabs, from whom they took them. Thefe 
were fituate chiefly on the rivers in the fouthern parts ; efpe- 
cially on the gveat river Sir ; which was its natural common 
boundary on the fide of Maxvaral'nahr, or Creot Bukharia. 
The chief of thefe were Jenghikant, Jund, TaJJi, Sabrdn, Sa- 
gandk, Uzkend, Otrdr, Tarhz, Esfijab, Ofbanikat, Tonkat, 
Baltifdgun, Benkat, Tajhkant, Shakrckiya, &c. 
l^oyal Four of the above-mentioned cities were, at different p?- 

fi^^^' riods, tiie capitals of Turkdjidn ; namely, Tenghikant, or Ka- 
riyat al Jididah, in the time of al Berjendi the geographer. 
Baldfiigun, or Kambd'iik, enjoyed that honour from 1017 to 
J 177, and Otrdr was the metropolis in 1200 ; whence Soltdn 
Mohammed Karazm Shah took it from Karakitay Kurkhdn^ 
king of Turktjidn, 

Many of the above-mentioned cities ftill exift, notwith: 
landing the deftru(5lion made of them by the Mogols, under 
'Jenghiz Khan : but we are better acquainted with the ftate of 
them at that tirne, than at prefent ; being furnifhed with very 
^w modern accounts rdatipg to this part of JJia. 

5 See the maps of De l'Isle, Strahlenberc, D'ai^ville, 
^nd the author of the new colledt. voy. and trav. vol. iv. p^ 

A77- • ' ■ 


(j, i; Defiription of Turkeftan. 71 

TE NGH Ikant\E), ox Al Kariyat al Jadidah, as the .YrcZ^j' Yengi 
called it, both names lignifying the new city or fort refs, waskant. 
fituate, according to the Jrab geographers, near the river 
al Shujh (F), which falls into the lake of Karafm. This we 
take to be the Aral Nor, or lake of Eagles, in that country. 
It was tea days journey [of the Karawdns'} from Karafm, 
twenty from Farah (or Otrar), and twenty-five from Bok- 
hara ^. fund or Jand was a little city^ not fai* from thence. Jund, or 
It is near the mouth of the Sihun, and has produced feveralj^ad. 
famous men. Mirkond relates, that it was from this and 
fome other cities thereabout that the Scythian ambalTadors 
went to meet Alexander, and reproached him for his ambi- 
tion and rapine. On the approach of the IMogols under TufA, 
fon of Jenghiz Khan, in i 2 1 9, Sokan Mohaynmcd Karazm 
Shah, to whom it was then fubjeff, fent 5000 men ib gari- 
fon it. However, Kutluk Khan, the governor, fled : but the 
inhabitants, depending on the ftrength of the walls, and its 
towers, which was ver)^ gi'eat, they ilood on their defence, 
and might have held out a long fiege, if it had not been 
furprifed by flratagem, without bloodfhed. On this account 
their lives were fpared ; but they loft all their effefts '. 

TASSI, Sabran, and Saganak or Sign/ik, are often men- Yaffi, Sa- 
tioned in ShatJts addhi's life of Timur Bek. The laft was a bran, Su- 
large and ftrong city at the time oijenghiz Khan's invafion. gauak, 
Soltan Mohammed fent 20,000 men to defend it. It was the 
firft place the Mogols befieged ; who, in their approach, fent 
an envoy to fummon the inhabitants t;o furrender, with a 
promife of good treatment : but they, inifead of liflening to 
his propofal, tore him in pieces ; which fo exafperated Tuf].-<i 
Khan, who commanded at the fiege, that he never ceafed af- 
faulting the place till he had taken it ; and then, to revenge 
the murder, caufed 10,000 of them to be put to the fword. 
The terror of this execution made Uzkcnd, or Urkend, fur- 
render ^. 

OTRAR, called by the Arabs Farah, was, according to Otrar, or 
Abulfcda, fituate on the river Al Shhjh ((]), in the neighbour- Farub. 

^ Abu'lfeda defer. Chowar. p. 56. ' Abu'lf. ubi 

fupr. 57. De LA Croix hill. Jenghiz Khan, p. 172, 177, &fe(j. 
^ Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 113. De la Caoix, p. 174. 

(E) This word kant, which near its mouth, in the lake of 
fignifies town or city, is written Karafm. Some maps, which 
alfo hint and kent ; and fome- make that river fall into the 
times ends with a d, as the pro- Cafpian Tea, place it between 
nunciation varies from time to that fea and the lake. 

time^, or in different places. (G) The fame with \\\zSihw:^ 

(F) ^ilpiat, or ^/V, probably or ^'ir. 

f 4 hocci 

72 Befcription of Turkcftan. B. I. 

hood of Bahy.tgun ' : but Sharif addhi removes it t\vo pa- 
rafangs, or Perjinn leagues, from the north bank of the Si- 
hurt or Sir. VVe underftand, from the fame author, that a 
league to the eaft of it is the river Jrj, with a bridge over 
it ; likewife, that it is iix Kara-wan Aages from Tafhkunt, and 
feventy-fix parafangs from Samarkand '". De la Croix places 
Otrdr in the molt wellcrn extremity of Tttriv/hin ; and bounds 
its territories on the eaft with that of ^/ Shah or Tajhkant. 
It was a city of great trade between the Turks and Alohatn- 
in-;dans when the Mogols invaded the dominions of So/tan 
Its famous As this was a place of great importance, the So/tan left 
Jf'gc. 60,000 men with Gayfr Khan, the governor, to defend it ; 

who, on the march of Oktay and Jagatay, two of Jenghiz 
Khans Ions, with 200,000 men, to attack it, fhut himfelf 
up in the town, and vigoroufly fccured it for five months : 
but, as the place could not hold out much longer, one of 
his generals advifed him to capitulate in time. The go\ernor, 
being confcious that he had been the fole occafion of the war, 
rejected the propoial. 1-lereupcn the general retired, in the 
night, with his 10,000 men, into the camp of the Mogols \ 
who, detefling his treachery. Hew them all, and entered the 
, city by the gate which they had marched out of. 

Cover- G/ITER Khan, finding the town taken, retired with 

ffor'j 20,000 men into the caftle ; which, being too little for fo 

bravery, great a number, he endeavoured to free himfelf by continual 
fallies. This extremely incommoded the enen\y for fome 
time : but the princes, redoubling their eriTorts, took it at 
lafl, fword in hand, and cut all the garifon to pieces. The 
governor, perceiving all was loft, retired into his apartment, 
with two men ; who being at length killed, and arrows fail- 
ing, Gayer defended himfelf for fome time with great flones, 
which his wife fupplied him with. At laft he was taken, and 
fhut up in a clofe prifon, loaded with chains, where he was 
foon after put to death by Jenghiz Khan's orders ". 
Timur D'HERBELOT fays -Otrar was taken by Soltan Moham- 

dies here. Vied at fuch tune as it was the capital of Turkejlan ; and that 
this a<flion drew on his back the Afogcls, who retook it in 
1219 P ; but he miflakes the caufe of the war. De la Croix 
fays, the caftle was rafed ; but that the city walls were re- 
' built ''. TimurBck or Tamerlan died in this city, on his way 

' Abu'lf. ubi fupr. p. 64. •" Sharif Adp^n's life of 

Timur Bck, p. 3,82, 390, 395, 397. " Hift. Jengh. p. 

145, 158. ° Hi(K Jcngh. ubi fupr. Aiiu'i.GUAzi Khan, 

p. Ill, & feq. •• D'Herb. bibl. orient, art. Otrar, p. 697. 

« Hift. Jengh. p. 170, & fetj. 

2 lowaids 

C. 2. Defcription of Turkeftan. . 73 

townvdiS Kit ay ot China; which he intended to conquer : but 
at prefent it is a place of no great note. 

TARAZ (H)"was a city where the Turks and Mohammedans Taraz^ 
met to trade. It produced many learned men. It was near 
to Esfjab and Jckel, and four parafangs from Shalj. Thefe 
two latter were cities of the Turks \ Taraz ftands on the 
river Arj, about 70 miles to the north-eaft of Otrar. 

ESFIJJB was reckoned a large city ; though not fo bigEsfijab. 
by two parts in three as Benkdt. It had a caftle formerly ; 
but it was not Handing in the time of Abulfcda. Both the 
city and fuburbs were inclofed : the fonner with a double 
wall ; the latter with a fingle wall, three parafangs in com- 
pafs. The inhabitants were accommodated with delightful 
gardens in the adjacent plain, which is well watered : and 
from them to the neareft mountains is a fpace of three para- 
fangs '. Esfjab ftands upon the north bank of the Sir, or 
near it. 

BALASAGUN (I), according \o Abulfeda, was acityBalafa- 
beyond the river SihCin, in the borders of the Tttrk'i domi- gun. 
nions. In one place he makes it to be near Kdfogar ; and 
near Farab, or Otrar ^ in another ' ; which is a fort of con- 
tradiflion ; thofe rsvo places lying at a great diftance afunder. 
By the pofition given it in his tables (K) it was about feventy- 
five leagues north-eaftward of tlie latter. AbCHlghazi Khan 
obferves, that it was called by the Mogols Khambdlig, or good 
town. It was the capital of Turkeftan for a long time ; but 
at prefent feems not to be in being ". 

BENKAT is a great place of trade, belonging to y^/Benkat. 
Shtl/h, or Tajhkunt, being a league in length. The fortrefs 
is without the city ; but the fame wall ferves both. Its di- 
flrifl or liberties are inclofed with a wall, as are its gardens 
and out-buildings. It is well fupplied with running waters ''. 

AL SMASH was formerly a magnificent city, fubjeft to Al Shifh, 
Samarkand^ near the Sihun ; from whence the water flowed or Tafh- 
to every houfe. It is four flages from Khojend, and five from J^""'- 
Fargdna or Andu hand ^ . It is at prefent called Tajhkunt "^^ 

' Abulf. ubj fupr. p. 69, 71. * Abulfeda defer. Cho- 

war. p, 68. ' Abulf. ubi fupr. p. 64, 74. " Abu'lcth. 
hirt. Turks, p. 44, 473. ^ Abulf. ubi fupr. p. 66. 

y Abulf. ubi fupr. p. 33, 65, 66, 72. * Hift. Timur Bek, 

p. 406. 

(H) Perhaps the fame called (I) 'Tis fometimes written 
7a/<i« in the Geogr. Nubienfis : Talafagun, as in Abulgbd%i 
the nun and xe being often writ- Khdn^ hiftory. 
ten nearly alike. (K) Lat. 47 degrees. 


^4 Defcriplion of Turkeflan. B. I. 

but much reduced from its former fplcndor, having been often 
dcilro^ed and rebuilt ; yet. is the winter rcfidence of the 
Khun of the Knjfdts, v.ho pofTefles the eaft part of Turkcjlan *. 
TuJJji took this place from Soltan AUImntmcd in 12 19 j but 
not without much ctfufion of blood **, and aftei-ward put a 
great number of the inhabitants to thefword*'. 
Fena- FE N .1 KU N'T (L) was a flrong city, on the eailern bank 

kunt, of the Sir, in tlie time of Jt-ngh'iz Khan. That prince fent 
(UflwShah- 50,000 men againft it, under two generals : and though Sol- 
rakhi/a. tCm Mohammed had detached thither 10,000 men, yet it was 
taken, after a fiegc of three days. All the garifon were put to 
the fword, and the inhabitants carried into ilavery^. It was 
fo ruined on this occaiion, that there remained no veftigia 
of it till 1 392, when Timur Beg oixlercd it to be rebuilt, 
and peopled : and, as that conqueror gave it to hisfon Mirza 
Sh/ihrokh, it was from him called Skiihrckhiya (M). So wc 
are informed by the author of Thnurs life '^. At prcfent it is a 
mifcrable place, of about 200 cabins, dependent on Tq/b- 
kunt ; from whence it lies about fixteen leagilcs to tlTC call ^, 
or rather perhaps to the fouth. 
TunkSt, TUNKAT, or Ton kdf, is a city and mart of the province 
cr Ten- of J!ak. Before the time of Jcnghiz Khan it was inclofed 
kit. with a wall, in which were many gates. It ftood on a river ; 

from whence water flowed into the town, and through its 
territories. It had a caftlc for its defence, and was adorned 
with the palace of a prince. While it was in the hands of the 
Arabs and Perjtana it had a wall, extending from the moun- 
tain ShahiMeg to the end of the valley of Al ShaPj, built to 
hinder the irruptions of the Turks. This city was the nur- 
fery of many learned men ^, and called Dar al Urn ; that is, 
the palace of the fcicnccs ; on account of the academy of arts 
and fciences, which was formed there. It was a place fo 
fitted for pleafurg, that it became a faying, that Cod never 

' Abu'lg. p. 569. ° De la Croix hift. Jengh.p. 177. 

* Abu'lg. p. 114. <* De la Croix hift. Jengh. p. 172^ 
Abu'lg. hiii. Turks, p. 114. « Hift. Timur Bek, p. 373. 

* Abu'lg. p. 569. s Abulf. ubi fupr. p. 67, 72. 

(L) TjyAluIghaziKkiWVjxk- rip, in his laft map o^ Perjia^ 

ten Fatiuikant, and by De la makes it the fame with Shah- 

Croix, MiH. Jengh. p. 172, Fe- rikhiya, Strablcnbtrg, in his 

Ttaket. mzpofTartary, gives the three 

(M) De la Croix, in his hid. to one place. Arabjhah, in his 

O^ 'Jrvghix Khnn, p. 1 72, COn- hillory of Timur, 1. i. § 12. 

founds F(i:aket, as he writes the fpeaks of Shahrokkia as quite a 

r,anic, with Tor.kdt ; and as De new cJ-ty. 

7 n\(idc 

C. 2. Defcription of Turkeftan. 75 

made a more delicious dxvelling than Tonkat *'. JengbizKhm 
held a general diet here in the year 1224 ; which was fo nu- 
merous, that its plain, though feven leagues in length, was 
fcarce able to contain the number of people who were aflem- 
bled on that occafion '. 

To the cities before defcrlbed 'tis necefTary to add that oiCity 
Turkejian, which we omitted to mention among the towns of Turk- 
this country ; becaufe we find no antient place of that name^ftaa. 
jn the oriental authors ; though poffibly it then exifled under 
fome other denomination, being mentioned often by AhiTl- 
ghtizi Khun, in the earlieft times of his hiftory. It fiands oa 
a river that comes frqm the north-eaft, and falls into the Sir 
a little below the town (N) : though built of brick, is yet z, 
very pitiful place, and remarkable for nothing but an agree- 
able fjtuation : however, in this condition it enjoys the ho- 
nour of being the capital of Turkcjldn, and is the refidence 
of the Khan of thq Mankdts, who pofleiTes the v/eilern part 
of this country ^. 

•• De le Croix hift. Jengh. p. 182, & feq. » Ibid. p. 

356. '' Abu'lgh. p. 568. 

(N) The maps of De rif.c and Ztrahlenh^rg place it about 15 
miles diftant. 


The hijiory of the Seljukians of Iran, or Perlia, 
at large -y and of Kerman. 


l!he authority on which the Seljuk hijiory is grounded. 

BESIDES the empires which the Turks eflablhhed inSeljukian 
Tn.-tary, their native country, they founded four gve:it djnajlies . 
monarchies in the fouth of J/ia. The three firll were 
pofTefTed by the princes of the fame family, called Seljuk, 
and '^urks, of the fame tribe or tribes. The fourth, by 
princes of the family of Othmm, or Ozjnan (A), with their re- 
fpe6live followers. Of thefe we propofe to give the hiftory 
in order ; and are fufficiently furnifhed with materials for fet- 
ting the Othman affairs in a very good light. We could wifh, 
for the reader's fake, that we were but half as well provided 

(A) Oth?ndn is the Arab pro- fian, which is mollly followed 
aunciaticn -, QzmSn, the Pir- by the Turks. 

*jS General Htjhry of the St\]\ik^t B.I. 

to treat of the Stljuk dynafties. The misfortune is, that, al- 
though many Perf.nn and .-Irab authors have penned their 
hiftory at large, but few copies in the original language have 
as yet appeared in this part of Europe; and none of them been 
tranflated into any European tor.gue. 
Oriettfal *Tis true that two or three oriental hiftorians have been 
.^;_yfcr/<i/rj, rendered into Latin, which fptik of the Seljuk affairs;. as 
Jhu'l-faraj (^), Ehn Jmhf, called Jl Makin (C), and the Leb- 
tarikh (D) of Amir Tahia ; but although thefe furnifli us with 


(B) Thcworkof Gr,r^e<":v-^^^^- 
farajt near x.\n: Euphrates, is in- 
II tied, a cotnper.dintif hiJJory of 
ihraiHes, or fucccflions. It is 
wiitcen by way of annals, and 
takes in the tranfaflions of the 
moll remarkable kingdoms, 
from the beginning of the world 
to the end of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. He is remarkable for 
giving a good account of the 
Mogol affairs under Jmghiz 
Khan, and his fucceflbrs, to 
that time. He likewife has in- 
ferred many remarkable parti- 
culars relating to the Seijuk dy- 
nallies ; efpecially that oi Rim, 
or Natoiia, which he had an 
opportunity of knowing, as 
having been a phyfician of ^Ja^ 
Istia, a city of that country 
near the Euphrates. His hi- 
llory, in Arabic, with a Latin 
tranflation, was publiflied by 
Dr. EJncarJ Pocock, that great 
mafter in the oriental learning, 
as well as languages. 

(C) George, the fon of .^kul- 
yafer al Athid, compiLd a hi- 
llory out of fcveral aiuhors, 
particularly Abu Jnffar Al Ta- 
ta i, and Kemal oddin Arnjum. 
The firft a very copious au- 
thor ( I ). It begins at the crea- 
tion, and reaches down to the 
year of Chrill 1 127. The lat- 

ter part, filled Tarikh Al Mof- 
le/, or the hijlory of the Mc>f- 
lems, was publifhed by Erpe- 
nius (but from a very fa'jUy 
copy', both m folio and oflavo, 
in 1625. The former has join- 
ed with it a Latin tranilation ; 
which is alfo publilhed feparate- 
ly in qu.irto, under the title of 
Hijioria Siuacenica. He was 
for his learning called Al Sheykh 
al Kais al MaJin ; that is, the 
prime doclor, (clidly learned. 
Hence his tranflator fliles him 
Al J^'akin: but all others quote 
him by the name of Ebn Amid, 
or the fon of Amid, who was 
fecretary for 4 j years to the 
council of war under th^ Soltans 
o f Egypt , f t h e f a ni 1 1 y o f Jyuh^ 
or yob; and, cm hi? father's 
death, fucceded him in that 
employment 12). 

(D) The Lehtarikh, or Lob 
Al Ta^i-arik, ii written in P^r- 
Jinn by the At/iir Yahia Ebn Ab- 
d'ollatif of Ka%iin, in the year 
1541 \3). This is a very brief 
hillory of the yiohamviedan mo- 
narchic , and thole preceding 
Mohammed. It was tranflated 
into Latin by M. (Jolmin,^ a 
Frenchman ; but part of the co- 
py, at the beginning and end, 
is loll ; the remainder was pub- 
lifhed by Mr. De Jhe^enot, in 

(i) Sft the autko'-'t p-rtrthie. { z\ fid. H'/l. -^itracen. p<ig. ult- Hyde 

Ji re!i^. vit, F.rfjr. FnJei.tx't ,'ife k/ Mabtmet. f>. ii6. (3, i/f> 948. 


C. 2. -^nd its authority, 77 

the origin of thofe monarchies, and a fucceflion of their 
kings, with many fa(fts, and their dates, not to be met with 
in our weftern writers; yet they are all too general to give 
fuch a light into the hiflory of them, as might be fufficient 
to fatisfy the curious. The two firfl authors likev/ife, being 
digefted in the form of annals, the Scljuk hiltory is given 
mixed with that of other flates, and not in one continued 
feries, as it is in the Lebtarikh : but then this latter, befides 
Its great concifenefs, treats only of the firft Seljuk monarchy, 
and Jl Makin of no more than the fix firft princes cf that line. 

These defers indeed are fomewhat fupplied by D'Her-' 
belot ; who has made an extraft of the hiftory of the refpec- 
tive kings of each dynafty from Mirkond, often mentioned 
before, and other Perftan hiftorians. But Texcira, who has 
given an abftradf of Mirkond, fo far as relates to the hiftory 
of Perjia, fays very little of the Seljuks, except Togrtil Bek, 
or of their affairs, and that very imperfedlly, as welJ as in 
confufion. Perhaps he grew tired towards the end of his 
■work, or was afraid of fwelling it too much ; for we pre- 
fume his author Mirkond has handled matters in a more ex- 
a(ff and particular manner. 

As for the Greek or Byzantine hiftorians (both thofe who 57,^. <.^}gr. 
wrote by way of annals, or fuch as penned the lives of pzni-em lurz- 
cular emperors), they give fuch imperfeft, confufed, and cr~ tsrs 
roneous accounts of all tranfadlions which happened without 
the bounds of the Roman empire, that fcarce any thing true, 
or of moment, is to be expected from them. This may ap- 
pear from the hiftories of the Arabs, th.; Khallfahs, and other 
Perfian monarchies, as well as that of the Seljuks ; compiled 
out of them by Curio, Lonicerus, Bizarus, Leunclavius, and 
other authors. Thefe our Kjioivles made ufe of in his volu- 
minous work ; which, confequently, muft be like the origi- fvery d:- 
nals, a confufed imperfe<5l mafs, full of chafms and inti-ica-/^<5;"T/4H 
cies ; nor to be depended on, either as to the fadts, dates of 
aftions, or even names of places and perfons : in which they 
difagree fo much, that it would be utterly impoflible for any 
man to reconcile them (E), or make any good ufe of their 


his colleflion of voyages and one of the copies, which were 

travels. It is obfervable, that made uie oi by thofe two gen- 

theextrafts given from the Z,-^- tlemen, neither of whom can 

tar'ikh by Mr. D'Herbelot, who be fuppofed capable of ex- 

often makes ufe of it, feme- pounding their author fo ill. 
times differ widely, and even (E) The reader may find a 

contradift the text of Golnin : remarkable inilance of this in 

but the fault mult need? be in the learned and judicious Lmn- 

jet ofuj'e 

78 CeneraX llijlory cf the Scljuksj B. I. 

materials, wltliout the aflillance of the oriental authors to 
6!ivc(X his fteps. 

Our readers \v\\\ cafily perceive this, by only flightly com- 
paring the account, wliich we (hall give him, ot the Scljuk 
dynallies, with that fiirnifhcd by any of the above-mentioned 
authors : for ahhough I.cunclavius hath gone far beyond the 
reft, with regard to the hillory of the Othnum Turks, as be- 
ing taken in part from the Titrkijb hillorians ; yet what little 
he hath collected in relation to the Seljuh Is almoft wholly 
drawn ivomEur^^pcan authors, having had no oriental writers 
to help hin\ out. 

HowEVTR, it is not to be thought, by what has been 
faid, that the Byzantine and other weftern hiftorians are of 
ha ufc in writing tht hiftory of the Turks : on the contrary, 
as the latter Greek einperors had wars with the Seljuks as 
well as the Othmdns, (o thofe wars, related fometimes in 
detail, fometimes very fuperficially, make a part of their 
hiftory ; and hence it is that we fometimes meet with tranf- 
aftious not to be found in the oriental authors. Which fliews, 
that to write the hiO.ory of a nation with any completenefs, 
it is abfolutely necefTary to confult the hillories of thofe na- 
tions with whom it hath had hoflilities, or other concerns. 
Br.siDEs, although in relating the affairs of the Turks, we 
. ought in reafon to give preference to TitrkiJ)} authors, as 
every nation muft be needs be beft: acquainted with their 
own tranfacftions, yet \vc are not to expeft abfolute per- 
feclion and exaftnefs from them : for they fometimes differ 
in the account they give of the origin of their monarchies, as 
well as in the aftions and reigns of their princes, with refpedt 
to their beginning and length : but this is no more than what 
happens to the hiftorians of all other nations ; for often the 
rife of the flates being attended with various changes, before 
^ they come to be fettled, and their founders obfcure or incon- 
Hr fiderable perfons, it is therefore difficult fometimes to fix the 
Remarks origin of either. Refides, the memory of many traftfaftions 
4n them, and events is lofl or obfcured in the confufion introduced 
in countries by wars and revolutions ; efpecially, if they be 



clai-ius, who, exnmininj; into 
the original of the Heljuks, as 
delivered by feveral authors, all 
difagrceing among themfelves ; 
was fo preplexed in his judg- 
inent, as to rejed the true lift 
given by ylyton, or Hayton, the 

(l) Df Tariali, eip. xv. p. 377. edit. Gryn. 1532. 
hiji. Mujul. Turk. I. i. f>, 71, tdit. JVcchtl. i59i. 

ihz Arrrnnan 'l), of the firft 
kings of that race, in favour of 
the falfe account given by Cc- 
drenus, and other Greek wri- 
ters (2), as we fhall have occa- 
fion to fhew hereafter. 

{%) Fid. LeuneU 

C. 2. . till they entered 'QtiCml • 7^ 

of any long continuance. However, as fome hiflorians are 
more exacfl as well as particular than others, and it being 
our misfortune, as yet, to have only extra(fls from the orien- 
tals, and thofe not from any hiftorian who has written ex- 
prelly on the iubjcft, it is therefore prefumed, that the reader, 
where-ever he meets with any fuch imperfections in the fol- 
lowing hiftory, will rather impute them to theib lall than to 
the firfl-mentioned caufes. 

This we judge to be doing no more than what is juffice, Extrafts 
e\'en to the authors from whence the extrafts before us '\xtf^°^^^<-^'*: 
made, in order to prevent our reader's taking up any hafty 
prejudices agalnll: the oriental writers in general, from the 
defeats which he may difcover in the few fcanty materials 
out of which we ;ii-e obhged to compofe the hiftory of the 
Scljuks, for want of more copious memoirs. And indeed 
there is the more reafon for this apology in their favour, 
becaufe the extraffs in qucftion differ in certain particulars, 
and, among the reft, in thofe relating to the origin of the Sel- 
jiiks, and the eifablifhment of their monaixhies. 

S E C T. II. 

^he origin of the Seljukians, and their entrance into 

VELJUK, or Saljuk, the founder of the Seljuk dynafty of Seljuk h^ 
*-' Jrm, or Pcrfia at large, according to the Lehtarikh, defcentt 
derived his origin from Jfrafiah, often before mentioned *, 
and was the thirty-fourth defceudaut from that prince, in a 
direft male line. 

But Mtrkond, in his account of the genealogy of Jenghiz 
Khan, fays, that SeJjuk was of Mogol race, and defcended 
from Bojldn Safji, fon of Jlanhuhva ^. . , 

Mr. Guigucs, in his memoir concerning the origin of the 
Huns and Turks, extrafted from the Chinefe hiftorians, feems 
to think, that the Seljuks were derived from a ftock different 
from both the former. He relates, that the children of 
Twmuen Ilkhdn, or Tumena. Khan ; who, defcended from Bu- 
:ienjir, the fon of rllankdiva, imitating the example of their 
father, formed an empire, which extended from the Cafpian 
fea to Keren : that this empire, being too large to continue 
long intire, at length became divided into two ; the eaftern 
and the weftern -, each of which had its own Khan : that 

* Seep. 3, & f<!(j, *> Se-s before. D'Herbelot, p. 




and for- 

Central Hijiory of the Stijuks, B. I. 

the empire of the weftcrn Turks, which extended as far as 
the river Sihun, or Sir, was often formidable to the kings ot 
Pcrjia ; particularly Honnozd, Ton of Kofru AnuJ}jirvjan, with 
whom they had confiderable wars : that, in procefs of time, 
other Turks, of the hord of Whey-hc, delbo\ed the empire 
of the weflern Turks, and founded a new empire of their 
own :..and 'tis from thefe lyiuy-ke, that, in the opinion of Mr. 
Guigues, the four Sclj'lk dynafties, which reigned in the 
fouthern y^/ta, were dcfcended. 

According to this hypothecs, the Scljiik tribe could not 
be defcended from ehhtr y^/rnjiab Khan, or Jlankdwa. But 
as this is only a conje<fture of Mr. Cuigves, and he has pro- 
duced no arguments to fupport it, we (hall leave it, and re- 
turn to the account given by Mirkond. This author informs 
us more particularly as to the family of Seljtik, that he was 
the fon of Dekuk, chief officer of Bigu, prince of thofe Turkijh 
tribes which inhabited the plain of Khozar (A), or Kipch&k, 
to the north of the Cafpinn fea. Dekak was fo renowned, among 
thofe of his nation, for his extraordinary "wifdom and valour, 
that they gave him the furname of Tazialig, which fignifies 
njirong bcnv, and hard to manage. After his death, the king 
took care to educate Seljuk, who was very young ; and, not 
doubting but the fon of fuch a father would make a very 
brave man, furnamed him Bajfajhi; that is, Chief, or Cap' 
tain. As he advanced in years, the Soltan heaped favours on 
him : but, forgetting his duty to fo good a prince, he one 
day prefumed to enter the fecret apartment of the palace, and 
would needs fee his women and children. 

BIGU, being informed of this infolence, was refolved to 
punifh him feverely for it. But Seljuk, getting fome know- 
lege of his defign, thought it beft to avoid his anger, by 
efcaping in time. Accordingly, having gathered all his friends 
and people, who were attached to his family, he retired, with 
his efTe(f^s ; and (croffing the Sihiin, or Sir), drew towards 
Sanmrkand (B). Belil Khan, governor of that city (C), not 
relifhing fuch neighbours, refolved to oblige them to remove 
at a diflance : but Seljiik, having augmented his forces, got 
the better of him in feveral engagements. In one efpeciaily 

(A) On this occafion DHer- 
belot obferves, that thefe Kip- 
chak Turks are Khorarians, 
whom the Greek and Latin hi- 
ftorians, who Ipeak of the wars 
of the emperor Heraclius and 
Khofrces, call Arariani, 

(B) This was in the Hrjrah 

375, and of Chrift 985, ac- 
cording to the Lebtarjkh; which 
fays, the motive of their expe- 
dition was to feek pafture. 

(C) 'Tis not faid for whom ; 
bat at this time Maiuara Inhar 
fcems to have been under the 
Khan of Turkejian. 


C 2. till they fettled in Vtx^\2i] %\ 

he obtained a coiifiderable advaatage, by means of an am- 
bufcade; which was fo well conducted, that he acquired a 
great reputation throughout the country. This fuccefs laid 
the lirll: foundation of his greatnefs, and emboldened him to 
prefent himfelf before Bokhara ; where he was very well re- 
ceived <^. 

M IRKO ND mentions nothing of the death of Seljuk; Leaves 
which we learn from two other authors, £"^72 y^mid and Ebn Turkef- 
Shohnah (D) ; who differ fomewhat in their account of him^^"^ 
both from that hiftorian, and from one another. Ehi Amid re- 
lates, that Dakdk, Seljiik's father, being a wife as well as flout 
man, was always confulted by the king of the Turks, and car- 
ried with him in his wars : that he was the firft of his fami- 
ly who embraced Mohammedifm : that his fon Sdjuk, being 
of age, when he died, the king made him general of all his 
forces : but that, afterwards, apprehending danger from his 
crafty difpofitlon, he refolved to kill him ; which coming to the 
knowlege of Seljilk, he fled to Hartin Sahah Cddaivla, king 
of Ghabia, and deilred aid of him, to go and conquer the 
country of the infidel Turks : that Harm furnifhed him with 
a numerous army, to execute his defign ; but that. In a battle 
with thofe infidels, ScV^uk was flain, when he was 107 years 
old d. 

According to Ehn Shohnah, Scljuk's father was vamtdSetiks 
Dokak, or Dokmak, which, In TiirkiJJj, fignlfies a hammer ; about ^ 
but at prefent is pronounced Tokmak. Seljuk was chief of ^o'^"*'"*^- 
one of the principal families of TurkeJIon ; and, as he was 
always followed by a great number of relations, and others, 
who were In his interefl:, the king grew jealous of the great 
authority v/hich he had acquired, and obliged him to depart 
his dominions. 

SE LJUKuYion this retired into the countries of the 
Mohammedans, where he embraced their religion. His firfl 
fettlement was at a place called Joiid, which depended on the 
city of Bokhara, m. MavjarcClnahr. From whence he con- 
tinually made incurfions upon the infidel part of the Turks ; 

*^ D'Hereelot Bibl. orient, p. 8co, art. Selgiaki. 
^ Ebn Amid Hill. Saracen, p. 351. 

(D) The furname of Muhi- the author of feveral works ; 

bo ddin AbiCl ivalid Mohavnned. among the refl, of a very exaft 

He was a great doftor, of the hiftory from the creation to the 

{eSto{ Han'fah, and high chan- year 806; that is, of Chrill 

cellor of the ^r^c'/i?;.' />v'?^. He 1403. D''Herlelut, pa^. 792. 

di-d in the year of the Hejrah Art. Schchiud:. 
883, of Chrift 1478. He is 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. G whom. 

S 2 General Hijiory of the Seljuks, . B. I. 

whom he harrafTed diirhig' the whole courfc of his life : in 
the length whereof Ebn Shonah agrees with Ebu ylm'ul ; but 
mentions nothing about his death. 
^isfom. The Perfuin hillorians unanimoufly agree, that 5f^'«^ (E) 
had four fons ; but differ a little as to their names ; which, 
according to the Lchiarlkh, were Miha'el, Ij'racl, Mujja, and 
Tinios : but 71 ///-^'m/ calls the 1afl7i/^«, and not r««w. Ebn 
Shohncih gives him only three fons ; whom he names Al^ 
ylrjhin, Mika'el, and Mujfa (F). While Ebn yhnid feems to 
allow him only one; that is, IWikael; from whom the 
founders of the Scljuk monarchy are unanimoufly acknow- 
" Icged to have been defcended '^. The fons of Seljtik became 
very powerful in friends, and rich in lands as well as flocks f, 
efpecially Mika'el', than whom, great numbers of Turks ac- 
knowleged no other fuperior : and, when Soltan Mahmud 
Ebn Sabektekin pafl~ed the Jihun, with forces, to the afl!iftance 
of JVarar Khan (G), king of MawarcClnahr, Mika'el went to 
falute that prince ; who, admiring his courage, and the great 
fubmiflion which his family paid him, intreated him to re- 
main about his perfon, and, at his return, to accept of the 
government of Khorafan, in order to defend it againft the 
invafion of enemies. On Mika'eN declining the Soltan's 
offer, Mdhmiid, enraged, fent him in chains to prifon, and, 
returning to Khorafchi, [\'\\\ kept him in durance. However, 
the foldiers and family of Mika'el followed the Soltan, and 
fettled in the plain of Khorafiin. This is Altabari''^ account 

• D'Herbelot, ubi fiipr. p. 8oi, f Lebtarikh. 

(E) It is Scljuk, who is to mius had a fon, called Muhha- 
be underilood by Hayihoti^ Sa- let ; and that MikciTs brother 
dock (i), and not Tattgrolipix, had two fons, Kutlu Mufes (Ko- 
or Togrcl Bck, as Lcuncla^vius tul Mijh), and Jhitnelekh; of 
writes (2); for Haython makes whom more hereafter. 

Sadok the father of DogriJJ'a (G) Other hiftorians, as liath 

(which Hands for Dcgri lilMih, been before fet forth, fpeak of 

ovDogrilShah) ; who ii evident- AIa/.>MU(i as undertaking this cx- 

\y Togrol Beg. pedition on his own account 

(F) Cedrnnts makes lliLeil aga'miX Kara Kkdn of •Tur/:tJ?i!n^ 
the father oi Tdngrolipix (as he or of Karakitay. If fo. H urar 
wr'nesTogro/ BekJ i ILiLnt.y.ius- Khan mud be a miflake for 
Ail?/:, Afppjn-Sallarius (fo he Kara Khan', and brire;ing aid 
calls Alp Arfdii) ; and a third to him, a millranflation for 
fon, whom he docs not name, bringing forces againft him : 
He adds, that this lall left a which is not unlikely to be the 
fon, called A/.m (or HnJJht:), cafe, confidering how faulty a 
furnamedthe Deaf: ihdii Hair a- copy Erpcnius made ufe of. 

(l) Hii'tth. dcTarraris, cap. xv. f, "iTj. edit. Cryn. 1532. (2^ Uift. 

Alu[ul. 'lurk, l,\. f. 71. tdit, Jl'ccbil, 1391. 

3 of 

C. 2. till they feitled in F&vCn. go 

of the manner in which the Seljukians firft entered Perjia ^. 
But other authors reprefent the occafion very differently. 

MIRKO ND relates, that Mika'el deceafed very young ; 
and Ebn Shohnah fays exprelly, that he died in MaiuarcClnahr, 
in the war which he waged with the infidels ^ and that, for 
this reafon, he is dignified in the genealogy of the Seljukians 
with the title of Shedld, or Shadid; that is, martyr. Ac- 
cording to the Lebtarikh, and Mirkond, Mika'el left two fons, Heirs of 
Mohammed and Dmud, who were afterwards called Togrol Sdjdk, 
Beg and Jafar Beg (H) ; but Ehi Shohnah adds to thefe a 
third, whom he places before the otlier two, as if the eldeft, 
called Tcbegil : but poffibly this is Begu, whom he has omitted 
among the fons of Seljilk, and reckoned ' to Mika'el. How- 
ever that be, we are told by Mirkond, that Seljiik took great 
care to educate his two grandfons ; and, by his \V\\\, left them 
fole heirs to all his eifefts and growing flate. The young 
princes, having arrived at the age fit to bear arras, were 
mafters of fo much addrefs and condu(5f, as Vvell as valour, 
that in a /hort fpace they gready enlarged their fmall territo- 
ries, by the defeat of feveral princes of Maxvaru'lnahr ; who 
became their vallals. The news of thefe viflories coming to 
the ears of Mahmud (firfl Soltan of the Gaznah family, who 
reigned in Khorafan), he fent to defire them to fend fome 
trulfy perfon to him, in order to treat about an affair of im- 

ISRAEL, the uncle of the young princes, offered to re-IfraelV 
pair to the Soltan ; who received him with great civility and^^'^''^"- 
honour- : but one day, being defirous to know what number -of ^^'■^» 
troops he was able to furnifh him with, in cafe of need ; 
Jfra'el replied, that if the Soltan would fhoot one of the two 
arrows, which .he held in his hand, into their camp, 40,000 
horfe would immediately fet out, for his fervice : that if he 
fhot the other into the Ordii of Bilkhdn (I), he might com- 
mand 50,000 ; and the Soltan afking, how many could be 
had, if there was very preffing occafion, Ifra'el told him, that 
if he would fend his bow into Turkejlan, 200,000 Twr/rj would 
ilfue forth to his affiflance. This difcourfe fo alarmed Mahmud, 
that, to prevent danger, he feized T/;-^^'/, and fecured him in a 
caftle; where he died. This caftle is named Kalenjar{K), and death. 
by the author of the Niglnarijlan ; who fays, he was confined 
there feven years. The fame writer fpeaks of the Seljukians with. 

S Ebn Amid, p. 332. 

(H) Ahul-faraj calls him (I) The author of the iV/^y^r- 

Jagri Beg. Thsfe rather were arijian cz\hth'\s ^Wce. Beljan. 
their firft names. (K) A c'aiile in hijjorajdn. 

G 2 great 

84 General Hijlory of the Seljuks, B. L 

great contempt ; and fays, they were defcended from the an- 
ticnt Turkmans. As a proof of this, he alleges the reproaches 
which MaJJ'ud, third Soltan of the Cazni race, and Moham- 
med, Soltan of the Kamzmians, made them, on account of 
the bafenefs of their original ^. However, the Scljilks looked 
npon that imputation as a great difhonour to them, and 
treated it with the utmoft contempt. 
7heSt\- Historians diflfer about the time when the Seljtikians 
jfikiatii firft pafTed the Jihuny to enter \x\\oPerfia. Some fay, it was 
in the rt-ign vf Mohmud, the fnfl Soltan of the Cazni race, 
and by his permifTion ; others, in that of his fon Majfud. Of 
tlie Hrll fentiment are Jhul-faraj, the Lcbtarikh, and Al 

The Lcbtarikh relates, that, on their having demanded 
leave to crofs the river, Arjlm Jazcb, governor of the city 
Tils (L), in Khorafon, was of opinion, that their requeft fliould 
not be granted, left thefe four tamilics of the children of 
i^cljuk, which were already pretty numerous, fliould draw 
others to them ; but that IMahmud, who confided too much 
in his own power, rejecTced the governor's counfel ; and, not 
only granted their demand, but alfo permitted them to fettle 
in the neighbourhood of Nfjfa and Baiiwrd (M). This co- 
lony increaied fo much in a fliort time, by the continual paf- 
fage of Turks, who joined them ^as the governor Jazcb had 
forefeen), that the inhabitants of Khorafjn began to be in 
fear of them, and refolved to get rid of thofc new gucfts, 
whom they looked on as dangerous neighbours (N). 

^ MiRKOND ap. D'Herb. p. Soo. Art. Selgiuki. 

(L) It is alfo called Tl/^y^/'rt.y, fcnts them quite otherwife. 

or, The place of the Martyr d, Tliere wc are told, that Togrcl 

from the tomb of I/iidm Riza, Bek and Jaffar Bck, had fome- 

who \va^ murdered there ; and thing fo royal in their afpedl, 

is a great place of pilgrimage. that the people of Khorufun 

(M) The lirft is called alfo were extremely fond of them, 

JbiiKcrd, and the latter AV/i.', and had recourfe to them, to 

or Little Dairafctis, about 1 20 decide their differences: that 

miles from the river Jthrhi or this was the caul'eof Mahmud's 

Aniii, and fiom each other, hatred to them : that the Sel- 

They are often mentioned in juki having beaten an army 

Ahulghaxi Kl'ani hillory of tlic fcnt againft them, Mahr.ud pre- 

Turit, by the names of Ilu/nlu pared to be revenged ; but the 

and AVj/2;v; and, when he wrote, troubles in Lidia calling him 

belonged to the kingdom of thither, he left the cooduft of 

Karazm. the war to A/hi, governor of 

(N) This account is taken Khorajdn ; who was alfo de- 

from D^Herhelot\ extraft, p. fcTxted. 

80c J but Qobnlnh copy rcpre- 


C. 2. till ihey feitled in Vtx^u. 85 

EBN AMID agrees, in the main, with xhe. Lebtnrikh.p^fi ti^' 
He tells us, that Mahniud before he died repented much of J^^'^"* 
having fuffered the Scljukians to remain in his dominions ; 
fearing they might feize them after his death '. 

ABU'L-FARAJ goes further ftill on this head. He 
writes, that in the year 420, \\\\AQ.Togrol Beg, with his bro- A D. 
x^txi Davjd zxi^ Biga, were flill m Ma-ward' Inahr, the Gdz 1029. 
Turks (O), under Arjlcm (P), fon of Seljiik, ravaged Khorajun : 
that, however, Tamhi Oddaivla Mahmud drove them out of 
that province : but that the enemy, carrying with them about 
2000 tents, went to Isfahan. Togrol Btg, with his brothers 
Daivd and Biga, the fons of Mikael ( Q^), were then in Ma- 
luard'lna/;;: Some of tlae CJiz, after being expelled Khora' 
flill, fliaped their way into the province of Aderbijdn, where 
they took the city of Alardga, burnt the temple, and made 
a great flaughter of the people ; among whom were many 
Kurds (R). After this fome went to Ray, others to Hama- 
ddn and Mai f el, which they alfo took •". 

Some hiflorians have written, that Soltan Mahmud qkkq Under Sol- 
the Seljukians liberty to crofs the Jihun, in order to feize the ^^f Maf- 
vafl riches which they had amafled, by the plunder of the *"'^* 
bef} cities in Alaivard'hiahr. 

But, in oppofition to all this, Mirkond affirms, that the 
Seljuk Turks, who had already made a great noife in Pcrfia, 
pafTed the Jihiin, or Amii, not in the reign oi Mahmud; but 
of his fon Majfild, in the year 424, under the conduct of A. D. 
Togrol Beg and fajfar Beg ; who, fettling themfelves about '032. 
the cities before-m.entioned, foon after began to make incur- 
fions into the neighbouring provinces '. 


^heir tranfa5lions itt Perfia, and founding of their firfi 
monarchy there. 

A BOUT the time that. the Seljuk Turks entered Perfui, xhz State af 
-*-*- provinces of Khorafdn, Sablefidn, Gaznah, Perfian frdk, Perfia, 
Tahrefldn, Jorjdn, and part of hidia, 'wcie under Majfud, 

' Ebn Amid, p. ^t,z. ^ Abu'l-faraj hill, dynaft. p. 222, 
' D'Herb. p. 562, Sc 8o(, art. Sclgiuk and Alairoad. 

(O) The Gaz Turks are pro- ( QJ Son of Srlj^i, fon of 

perly Turkmans. They gave Yakak. 
the name to Gi32^r/(7. (R) Of the lladh Bp.n'.sah 

(P) This muft be the AV^ tribe. Another copy has' At 

Aff^-fi oi Eb» Shohnah. Harney ah, 

G 3 third 

S6 General Hijlory of /^^Scljuks, B. I. 

third Soltan of the Ciz/z^ race. The reft of Perfta (A) was 
in the hands of .-Ibu'lganjar, by others called Kalijar, one 
of the princes of the family of Buyah, or Boivyah ; who had 
reigned in Purs (or Proper Pcrfui), and Kermun, both the 
Perfian and Arabian IrJks, Mazandcrdn, and Jorjan^ Diyar- 
bekr (or part of Mcfopotamia), and m Baghdad : to the ju- 
rifdiflion of which city, the dominions of the Khalfah, once 
fo very cxtcnfivc, were now almoft wholly confined. 

«' this As to the provinces of Maivar/ihiahr and Khora/an, it is 

juncture, fomewhat dubious what poorer they belonged to. From fome 
circumftances in the hillory of the Gaztii Soltans, they fhould 
be in the poiTcfiion of Majfud, third Soltan of that race * : by 
other circumftances, MuiuanTlnahr, or at leaft a good portion 
of it, feems to have been in fubjedtion partly to the Khan of 
Tiirkejlm, and partly to feveral princes of its own **. Ebn 
y4m:d, as hath been related, makes it fubjedl to its own mo- 
narch. PolTibly all thofe different princes might have had a 
fhare in it ; and the confufion which the country muft have 
been in, from fo many contending powers, doubtlefs favoured 
greatly the quiet entrance of the Se/juks into that province : 
^ but it is not probable they had conquered the whole before 
they entered Perjia, as Mirhnd, in his genealogy of Jenghiz 
Khan, aflerts ; not only becaufe he elfewhere brings proof to 
the contrary, as hath been fliewn, bat becaufe fuch a fuppo- 
fitlon is quite inconfiftent with the fub^niffion which the 
fame author tells us the}' offered to MajJ.ld, on their arrival in 

Raifefomt ACCORDING to this hiftorian, as foon as they had fat 
.comma down about Ncffa and Baxverd, they fent an exprefs to that 

tions', Soltan (who afcended the throne in 421,) to demand a place 
Hejrah ^^ fettlement ; offeriag to fwear obedience and fidelity to 
»^^L him. But Maffiid received the ambalTador very ill ; and, 
among other diiobliging things, faid, that he never heard cf 
the Seljuk/iz.'w;/^', although he xvas himfe/f a Turk by defcent, 
and therefore ought to be luell acquaint edivith all the illuftrious 
hrthfcs of that nation. When thc'Seljukians were informed 
with what contempt the Soltan had treated both their am- 
baflador and family, they prepared for war " ; and, according 
to M r/cond, as related by Texeira, whllft Majfud was fub- 
duing the provinces of Jorjun and Tahrcjldn, in tJie year 

» Texeii. hilf . Per. p. 202, ^ See before, p. 56,&feq. 

- D'Herb. p. 801, art. Selgiuk. 

. [t^] h^P/lrs, or Propter Pi-rjia, h'jan, with Arabian Irak^ of 
Koviiin, Khuzejhiii, 2.nd A Jher- which 2?^jZ</«V was the capital. 


C. 2. till they fettled in VtK^xz. 87 

426, made fome commotions in Khorafan ; but (at flill upoii 
his return (B). 

Although their aEiirs were not fettled, yet the Soltdn Dr/eat 
would go into India, againfl the advice of his generals. In So/fan 
his abfence they made incuriions throughout the country, Maflud: 
from Khorafan to Pars (or Proper Pcrfta), with fo much fuc- 
cefs that they obliged Alia odda-wlat Ebn Kaknya and jlbufa- 
lah to quit their governments of Rey and Ifpahdn, which the 
Seljiiks feized, with other parts of Perfa. This was about 
428 : by which time Mafud retuHied from his Indian expe- 
dition to Gaznah ; and, two years after, fet out again for Hejrah 
Jorjan. In -his way, being informed, that Nur Takkin, go- 428. 
vernor of Balkh, oppreiTed them, he moved towards him, ^- ^• 
though in a hard froft; but, when advanced about half ^^lo, 
way, turned back againfl: Dawd Seljuk, who \vas marching 
with conhderable forces to alTifl Nitr Takkin ; and, though 
this latter fell on his rear, and took moft of his baggage, yet 
he held on his way till he met Dazud ; by whom being over- 
thrown, he fled to Gaznah ; where he put to death many of 
the Turks who ferved under him (C) ; becaufe they had mif- 
behaved in the battle **. 

TEXE IRA (eems to have omitted the moft remarkshle TaJ^e 
circumflance, relating to the eftablifliment of the Seljilk mo- TuHi aiul 
narchy. Ebn Jnnd is more particular. This author writes, Nifliabur; 
that Majpid, furnamed Abifayd (foon after Mahmud'^ death), 
fent an army againft the Bcljiik Turks ; who were defeated, 
and fome of them taken prifoners. Not long after this, Mikael 
ebn Scljuk dying (D), his foldiers put themfelves under the 
command of his fon Moham?ncd Abutalib, furnamed Tognil 
JBeg ; who, attacking Majpid's army, routed it, and purlued 
them to Tus : which he befieged, and took. This is the firfl 
city which fell into the hands of the Seljilkians ; who afTem- 
bled there, and fortified it. After this they fubdued Nifju- 

Meanwhile Majfud fled into India, where he ffaid vl Conquer 
long time : fo that Khorafan being deierted by him, the Sel- Khora- 

^ Texeir. p. 292, & feq. D'Herb. p. 562, art. MofToud. 

(B) In thtEijgli/k ofTcxeira, (D) From what has been faid 
they are always written Salin- before about Mikdei'i death, 'it 
guis,Q'c Sali-nquis/m'A.e^^oi Sal' fhould feem that he is named 

jiikis, or rs.i\\tx Saljiikians ; and here (and perhaps in the former 

yakarBek,\r\?(ez6.oiJaJfarBek. place) \>y Ebn Amid, or the au- 

(C) Great part of his forces, thors he copied fron^, inilead 
and almoft all his chief officers, of Ijrael, 

were lurh. 

G 4 juks 

88 General Hiji or y of the Seljuks, B. I. 

Hejrah juks made ufe of the opportunity, and conquered it. M(tf- 
439- fiid, upon advice of this, returned from India ; but the 
•A- O. Scljiikiansy advancing to meet him, put him to (Tight (E) : 
»03o. upon which the Khalifah Kayhn Bcamrillah recommended 
to them the defence of the country of the Mojlcms (F). 
Maffiid, incenfed hereat, marched againft them ; but they 
made him turn his hack a fecond time. And thus their em- 
pire was eAabliihed in the year of the Hejrah 430. of Chrift 

Empire ERN AMID omits to mention either when NifiAb&r 

founded, was taken, ^r that Togriil Bek afcended the throne there ; 

both which happened by tlie general confent of hiftorians \ 

in the year 429, from whence they date the beginning of his 

reign, and the Scljtik monarchy. 

According to Mirkond (G), as delivered by D'Herbelot, 
as foon as Togrol Beg was acknowleged for king, in the city 
A. D. of Nijlxihtir, in the year 429, he fent his brother Jaffar 
^^n- Bek to fubdue the city and county of Herat, or Heri, in the 
fame province of Khorajm : which conquefl being foon per- 
formed, he placed one of his uncles there, to go\ern it. In 
the mean time he marched himfelf to Merii (H), and, having 
Ti>eir taken it, he made it his royal feat. After this he put Khora- 
rojal feat . Jan under new regulations ; and, by that means, fupprefled 
the diforders which had reigned there for a long time. 

The fame year, which was 429, Soltan Ma(fud Gazni 
affenibled all his forces to drive the Se/jtikians out of his 
dominions : but the two brothers, having alfo colle<^ed 
their troops, after an exceeding bloody battle, gained fo com- 
plete a \ iciory, that MaJJud found he had no farther bufinefs 
in Khrafan. 

« Ebn Amid, p. 332, h feq. ♦" Ab'ul-faraj hi'll. dy- 

nall. p. 225. Lebtarikh, p. 42, and in D'Herb. p. 800. 

(E) AccoxA\r\z,io jibu If araj in his p]acc : and the rather, 
Maffud, marching from Ga%na fince Kondamir, being only an 
to Jialkb, drove the Seljuks out abridgment of h'irkond, cannot 
cti Kborafdfi, the year after they be fuppofcd to differ from him. 
had taken Nijhdbiir{\). (H) There are two cities of 

(F) That is, believers, or this name in Khorafdn ; one 
iViohammedans. I 30 miles north-eaft of Htidtt 

(G) />>7/e'/if/(?/ indeed quotes the other 140 north of it to- 
Kondamir ; but as he confoimds wards the river Jihun or A/fm. 
the two authors together, as hath This laft, called lilciu or Alaru 
>)ecn obferved before (2), ue Shahjdn, is tlie place mentioned 
maice no fcrupit to put Mirkond in tlie text. 

(1) Abvl-Jar, p. 2:6. (z) Fjg. 4. rj.'i G. 


C. 2. till they fettled in Va^\z. Z^ 

Having related what the oriental hiftorums deliver con- Erromous 
cerning the foundation of the Seljuk rvlonarchy, let us fee «""««'• 
what the Greeks have faid upon the fame fubjefl. Two 
of them, Cedrenus and Nicephorus Bryennits are more parti- 
cular than the reft, and fpeak nearly alike. In the year 1030, 
whJile Mitkhiimct (I) (fon of Imhrdil (K), prince of Perfia, Me- 
dia, the Khornfmians, and Oritans), was engaged on one 
fide with the Indians, and on the other with the BabylonianSf 
he fent an embalTy to the prince of Turky (L), for 3000 
auxiliaries. The Turk, charmed with the prefents made on 
tliat occafion, readily difpatched the men, under the conducSt 
of TagroUpix Mukalct (M), fon of Mikael. And the rather, 
as he flattered himfelf, that, at their return, when the ene- 
mies of the Saracens were defeated, they might eafdy feize 
the tv/o caftles which guarded the bridge over the Wraxis (N), 
and open a paflage for his Tu7-ks into Perfia, which he pro- 
pofed to conquer. 

With thefe fuccours Miikhumet marched againfl Piffafi-^f ^^^if 
riiis (O), prince of the Bahylonijlo Jrahs, and eafily routed °'"^^'"''^* 
him ; the Arabs not being able to withftand the force of the 
Turkifh bows. The expedition being finifned, the Turks de- 
lired leave to return home ; and that the guard of the faid 
bridge might be committed to them : but Mukhumet infifled 
on their following him into India ; and, on their refufal, 
threatened to compel them (P). The Turks, through fear, 
withdrew into the defart of Karvonites ( QJ ; from whence 
they made incurfions on the Saracens and Perfians-. Here- 
upon Mukhumet fent againft them an army of 20,000 men, 
under ten of his befl: commanders ; who pitched their camp 
at the entrance of the defart. TagroUpix, being informed of 
this, made two great marches, and, coming upon them in the 
night, defeated them : on which occafion he got abundance 
of arms, horfes, and riches : then, illuing out of the defart, 

(I) This muft be Mahmud, him Pifares. This is Bafafiri, 

the firft Soltan of the Gazni pnnce of Irai Jrabi, or Baheli, 

race. (mifnamed by Kncnvks and o- 

(K) Samhrael fom^ C0T^\Q%. thersKalif of Bab i/o?2), whom Dot 

(L)^ Tzirkrjidn. Mah//:ud Gazni, hwt Togrol Bek, 

(M) Nicephorus Brjen makes had to do with, and that not 

Mitkalet a diltind peribn from till the 17th year of his reign. 

Tangrolipix, OT Togrol Bek. (P) There was fome difpute 

(N) This is not the Araxes, of this kind between them and 

v^ow Arr its t'wi Armenia, 2^'s,x\\q\\\{- MaJJud, fon and fucceilbr of 

torians hitherto have imagined j Mahmud. 

hat the Jihiin 01 Amu. ( Q^) Or Karabofiitif, as Ni' 

(O) Nicephorus Brjen Calb cephorus Brjm, 


hj the 


^6 I'be Scljuks of Iran. B. 1. 

nnd encamping in the open country, his army, by the accef- 
fion of difafFefted people, (laves, robbers, and the like, in- 
creafed at length to 50,000 men. 

MU K'HU METy imputing the late difgrace to the mif- 
condu(ft of his generals, ordered them to be deprived of 
their fight ; and threatened to expofe, in womens cloaths, 
the fokiiers who fled (R). Aher this, raifing an army 
of Saracens, Perfians, Kaviri, and Jrabs, 50,000 ftrong, 
and having with him 100 elephants, bearing towers, he 
marched to Jff^akhan (S) ; where Tngrolilix huftened to 
meet him. The conflict, for a time, was bloody and doubt- 
ful ; but, while Mukhumet rode about to animate his troops, 
he fell from his horfe, and broke his neck (T). Whereupon 
his army, fubmitting to Tagrolipix, proclaimed him king of 
Pcrfia. The new monaixh immediately fent to open the paf- 
fage over the Jraxis ; and, giving free permiilion to all 
Turks to enter Perfia, vafl; numbers laid hold of the oppor- 
tunity; and thus became lords of the country, giving the 
title of Soltan, which fignifies emperor, or king of kings (U), 
to TdProHpix ; who divided the provinces, and, beftowing 
all offices in the magiftracy and government among his Turks, 
reduced the natives to a very miserable condition. 
Remarks The reader, from the foregoing fpecimen, may fee what 
«r them, little accuracy he is to expecl from the Byzantine hiflorians, 
I with regard to the affairs of other nations ; and what little 
they have further written concerning the tranfactions of this 
Soltan, and one or two of his fuccefTors, excepting fuch as 
the R'jmans themfelves had a fliare in, is no lefs coafufed and 
erroneous. Let us now refume the hiflory of the Seljuki 
from the eaflern writers. 


The reign of Togrol Bck. 

Vyr.afiy TT H E defcendants of Seljuk are, in Arabic, called Seljuki- 

ef Iran. -*- yt'in, or Selajckah, and, in Perfian, Seljukiydn ; which 

is made Englifh by the aildition only of an s, at the end of 

it. The fingular of both is Siljuki ; which, with the particle 

(R) Somethincof this iTature 
is related oi MajTu.-i, who put to 
death fcvcral of his Turkijh ofti- 
cers an.l foldiers, for not fioing 
their dnty agalnll the S'/ji'ds. 

(S) ■fjlaicin, OxS^di.dn, ca- 
pital oi Fcrjia. 

"^ (T) Mnh/)!uci neither fought 
batt'e with Tcgrol Eek, nor- 
dicd a violent death. 

(U) It is equivalent only to 
the title of king ; and was firil 
aiiumed by Ma/.int.'h' Gazni. See 
that article in D'Herbclot. 

C. 2. Firfi Sohan, Togvol m<i. gi 

Jl, or the, before it, fignifies any perfon of the family or 
race of Seljuk (A). 

The oriental authors divide the Seljukiaiis into three dy- 
nafties or races of princes, reigning in the fouth of Jfia, and 
which were contemporary, not fucceffive ; namely, thofe of 
Iran, or Perfia at large ; thofe of Kermdn, a province of 
Perfia ; and thofe of Ru7n, or Jfia miner ; of which we pro- 
pofe to treat in order. And, firff, of the Seljukians of Iran, 

The author of the Nighiarijlan gives to the dynafty ollts Jura' 
Iran fourteen princes ; fixes its commencement at the year ofiion. 
the Hejrah 42g, of Chrifl 1037 ; and terminates its duration, 
which he makes 161 years, in the year 59*3, of Chrift 1196. 
This is conformable to Mtrkond (B), and the Lebtarikh ; 
only the latter puts the end of this dynafty in 590 : but Katiby 
or Kyatib Zadeh, furnamed Haji Khdifah, in his work, inti- 
tuled, Tahulm al Tavartk, fays, that this fucceifion confifled 
of 'fifteen Soltans ; who began to reign in 532, and ended in 
590 ; giving them an exigence of no more than 158 years ^. 
Ebn Amid again places the commencement of the Seljuk mo- 
narchy in 430 of the Hejrah ; and, in a matter of fome 
uncertainty, 'tis hard to fiiy which com.putation is mofl ex- 
aft : however, as we are obliged to make ufe of one, we 
choofe to be regulated by that of Mlrkond, and the Nigbi- 

TOGROL Bek, or Beg, firfl Soltan of this dynafly, is thei.SoUa», 
pev{on -whom Cedrenus, and the other i?y z^w^i/z^ writers, callTogrol . 
Tagrolipix, or Tangrolipix, by a corruption of the name, no ^^'^•■ 
lefs extraordinary than common with the Greeks, who have, 
in all ages, fo disfigured moft of the words which they bor- 
rowed from other languages, that 'tis fcarce pofTible to tell 
what to make of them. His Mohammedan name was Abu 
Taleb Mohammed ; and his furname, or title, given him by 
the Khalifah, Rokn Oddin (C) ; the pillar of the faith and 
religion ^. 


a D'Here. p. 800, art.Selgiuk. ^ D'Herb. p. 1027, 

art. Thogrul Beg. . 

(A) We fometimes, after our (B) D'Herlelot has Kondamir\ 

authors, ufe the word Al Set- but v^ have already obferved, . 

Juki, but render it thcSeljukian, p. 4. note G. that he confounds 

never the Seljuk ; but in the the father and fon together. Wc 

plural fay, tlie Seljuks, and Sel- always make the change found 

jukia;is, indifferently, as our Ian- in the text: 

guage admits of either. The (C) This laft word may be 

word may be alfo written ei- written Addin, compounded of 

tber Beljiik or Saljuk. el, the, and dvi, faith, or reli- 
gion ,' 




43 «■ 
A. D. 




A. D. 


The Scljuks of Iran. B. I. 

Although the Seljuks had gotten porTefTion of alraoft all 
Khorajan, yet MaJfuH, a brave prince, relohed to do his ut- 
moft to recover it. Accordingly, in the year 431, having 
raifed a confiderable army, he marched againft Tcgrol Bek, 
and put him to flight ; killing a good number of his men, 
and taking others prifoncrs, with their arms. Next year 
Togrol Bek returned to Nijkabt^r ; from whence Ma[fiid fled 
to Gazna : and, after this, the Seljukiins became maimers 
of all Khorafihi ; on which occafion an incredible multitude 
of people were flain. Thus writes Ebn Jmid'^. 

But the Lehtarikh relates, that he returned thither after 
fighting a battle with tl^ Seljuks, in the plain of Zaudckon, 
near Alaru, wherein he was defeated. "I'is added, 
thefe fuccelfes were followed by the patent of invefliture (D) 
fent to the two brothers, Togrol Bek and J'iffar Bek, by the 
Khalif^ih Kayim ^ ; and by the redu(ftion of the provinces of 
Jorjan and Tabrejlan, in the year 433*^, Vi\i\c\i Togrol Bek 
undertook, and then made himfclfmafter of all \.\\q Per/tan 
Irak ^ : for, in 434, Ebralntn Neiil Al Seljuki (E), took 
Hamaddn. He was followed by Togrol Bek, who fubdued 
Key (F). Then, dividing the provinces between them, Jaf- 
far Beg had for his ihare Khornfan, and Togrol Beg the Pcr~ 
fian Irak, with the other provinces which -he fubdued ; fix- 
ing his feat at (G) HamadAn ^. 

MJSSUD, after his retreat to Gazna, feems to have 
raifed frefli forces ; the command of which he ga\e to his fon 
Ma'edud, whom he fent towards Beilkh, to defend that frontier ^. 
Then carrying his blind brother Mohammed with him, he 
marched again into the Indies ; where he continued till the 
winter following, and made great progrefs : but being 
obliged to advance towards the city of Bu'kh, to defend him- 
felf againft the Seljttkians, who every day increafed in power, 
as he was about to pafs the river Sind, which is the Indus, 
Tu/cf Ebn Pujlckktn, one of his generals, dcpofed, and after- 

* P. 333. ^ Lebtarikh, p. 42. ' Aeulf. p. 22^-, 

' D'Herb. p. 1027. 8 Lebtarikk. D'Herb. p. 1027, 

art. Selgiuk. ^ DTIei^b. p. 562, art. Maudud. 

gion : the / being liquidated in- him in the time oi Majfiid, 298, 

10 the d. lie muft have loft it ag;»in be- 

(D) Or patent of Soltan, as fore he could take it tlie fccond 
in D'HerheUt. time. 

(E) That is, the rf:jukiaK. (G) Faultily, in Gdmini copy, 

(F) As it was fubdued by Gcmndav. 

C. 2. Firft Soltdn, Togrol Bek. ^-^ 

wards murdered him in the fame year 433 (PI) ; when he 
had reigned thirteen years with great magnificence, and the 
love of all the learned men of his age, of whom he was very 

MAE D UD his fon, who was then at Balkh, fucceeded Karazm 
him in the kingdoms of Maward'hahr, Khorafdn, iiwA' In-fubdued. 
dia, fo far as had been conquered : but the Seljuk Turks, 
who dweh in thofe provinces, refufing to acknowlege him, / 

he fent an army againfl: them in 435, which being met byHej. 435.' 
Olb Arjldn, fon of Jaffar Bek, with a confiderable force, was A. D. 
overthrown. On the other fide, great numbers of Turks '043- 
breaking out of Turkefldn into the territories of Gaiwiafcr :ind 
^rt/?//j^iir, to pbinder, were routed hv Maedud's gai'ifons ^ By 
this time the power of th-? Seljukians was fo well elfabliflied, 
in that large province, that, after the Soltan's death, they 
found it no difficult matter to join to their other conquells 
the province of Balkh, with all the country of Karazm ^. 

The fame year a detachment of 1650 Gaz (I) horfe, under Turkman 
four commanders, Kukias, Abu Ali Ebn Dahkan, Haji Ifracl, ui%aftQn, 
and Abii Manfur, made an irruption into the country of 
ybntd (K), and Miyafarkhi (L), then poflefled by prince 
Abunafr Ebn Marwdfi. From thence they went to NafMn, 
where they cut down the trees : and having flayed for fome 
time, proceeded to Mufol, whofe lord,' Karvcas Ebn Moktadir, 
bought his peace of them with money. But after deffroy- 
ing the other cities of Diyarbeh-zwdi Aljazirah (M), they re- 
turned to 71fz//o/, and took it, killing, enflaving, and plun- 
dering the inhabitants. When they had been here for fome 
time, the Arabs aflembled on all fides ; and befieging them, 
at length drove them out of the city. They afterwards de- 
feated them in feveral battles, and killed many : the refl fled 

' Texeira, p. 294, Sc fcq. 

( H ) Texeira has 4 3 1 , or I o 3 9 
of Chrift, but faultily. 

(I) By Ci2« Ta>-^j are proper- 
ly to be underftood Turkmans. 
'rhefe, with the Twr/^.r, fwarmed 
in Fcrfta, having been employ- 
a ed as foldlers, not only by the 
Gazni Soltans, who were them- 
felves originally Turksy but by 
all the princes 0/ the Bityah fa- 
mily, who reigned in Tahref^an, 
Perfian Irak, Pars, or proper 
Perjta, and at Baghdad, befors 

^ D'Herb. ubi fupr. 

they were fubdued by the Sel- 
juklavs, under whom the Turks 
and Turkmd7!s united and ferved, 
a's their natural princes. 

(K) The fame with Diyar- 

(L) A city, two days journey 
to the north of Diyarbekr city : 
it is the ancient Marfyropclis. 

(M) That is, Mefopotamia, 
or rather the part fouth of the 
province q^ Diyarbekr. 


94 '^be Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

to MayaferVtn ; and making what plunder they could, re- 
tired into Aderbijr.n ''. 
Affairs of The fame )car 435, Julal JJda-wlat, king of Baghdad, 
I'effia. dying without children, after fcventeen years reign, his 
nephew yJbu Kalmijar (N), fon of Soltdn /Iddaivlat, fucr 
ceeded him in the poft of .hnr al omerah, that is, gene- 
raliffimo of the troops of the Khalifat: and finding Togrol 
Bek grow powerful in Perfta, made an alliance with him in 
A. D. 439, by marrying his fon to the Sokans niece, the daughter 
1047' of Dciivd al Salju/d : but the following year died, having 
reigned four; and \ws fncceeded by the fecond of his four 
fons, Khofraiv Feruz, who happened to be at Shiraz, and 
liej. 441. there aflumed the name of Malek Rahim. Maedud Cazni re- 
■'*• ^' folving to recover Khorafan, if poflible, out of the hands of 
l°+9- the Seljuks, began his march againfl them with a powerful 
army ; but dying by the way of the cholick, his great prepa- 
rations came to nothing '. 
Ifpahan In the year 4^2, Togrol Bek, marching to Ifpahan, took it 
'taken. by force ; and, four years after (446), entering Jdherbijan 
Hcj. 442.^^,jj.j^ Yi\% troops, reduced it under his obedience '". 
^■^- MALEK Rahim, king of Baghdad, fucceeded his father 
^°' ylbu'l Ganjar {or Kalanjar) in 440, 1048, as hath been faid. 
But being attacked by /fbu Maufur FuLd Sotun, his eldeft 
brother, and deferted by his Turki% troops, he retired to 
Ahvjaz (in Khuzcjian), and thence to Wafct (on the Dijlat of 
Tigris) ; where the war was continued, with various fuccefs, 
Hej. 447. till 447 : when being informed thzx. Togrol Bek, at the infli- 
A. D. gation of Abu Manjiw, had poffeHed himfelf of Shiraz, and 
"^^IS' moft of Pars, he raifed all the forces he could, and recovered 
it : then returned to Wafct. 
Other pla- ABU Manfur having, by the defeat and death of his 
CCS fubmit .\ixo\}cvtx Abufayd, fecured himfelf in the throne of Pars (O), 
died in a callle, where he was imprifoned by IVazir Fazel 
Haffan, or Huya, who afTumed the tide of king. Malek Ma- 
vcrd, a Scljuk commander, who was then in the province of 
Kcrtndn, being inturmed of this, marched againfi: Fazel Huya, 
and he fled to another calld Olb Arflan (P), whofe lands he 

^ Ebn Amid. p. 333. ' D'Hf.rb. p. 240, art. Cairn Beam- 

rillah. Texeir. p. 296. 298. Abulf. p. 226. "" Abulf. 

p, 226. 

(N) \xiTexeira,Ahulgaii}ar; (P) This doubtlcfs w^i Olb 

" in Abulfarof Kalijar. or Alp Arfan, Togrol Bci's ne- 

(O) Or proper Perfa, called phew and fucceflbr 
Fan by the Arabs, of which S/A' 
rax. is the capital. 


C. 2. Firfi Solum, Togrol Bek. 95 

farmed ; and growing very rich by that means, revolted from 
him : but foon after was-taken, with a fon of his called Ne^ 
zam alMolk,znd imprifoned in the fortrefs of AS/r^/;ar, where 
they died. This was in the year 448. 

JBU all Kay Khofraiv, who had facceeded his father Abn'l 
Ganjar, voluntarily fubmitted to Olb Arjlan, who gave him 
Nubanjan and Aktak (Q_) to live on, treating him with much 
honour (R). 

About this time Dawd the Seljuk, called alfo Jaffar Bek^ 
brother o{ Togrol Bek, who commanded mKhorafm, made war 
upon Ferokzad Ebn MaJJud, eighth Soltan of the Gazni race 
(S) ; but the Soltan defeated him ; and then marching into 
Khorafchiy overthrew the king of Turkeftms (T) general, who 
came to meet him. At lafl Olb Arjlan, advancing againft him, 
routed his forces. Ferokzad, having reigned fix years, died, 
and left the crown of Khorafdn and Ma-wara'lnahr (U) to his 
brother Ibrahim Ebn Ma([ud, who concluded a peace with the 
Titrks, and then marched into India, to make farther con- 
quers ". 

The diflra(^ions which had long fuofiHed at Baghdad, Bafafiri 
occafioned by the Turkljh militia, Hill continued to affli6t^^^f/j> 
that city ; when great feuds arofe between Rdis al RuJJa, 
Wazir or Vizier to. the Khallfah Kay mi Beamrillah, and a 
Turk called Rujlau. AbiCl Harith Mutafer, furnamed Bafafi' 
ri (W). This Bafafiri was originally a Have to Bahao ddaw 


" Tex. p. 298, &feq. 

[QJ) Two cities in the pro- tco much hafte in that author 

vince of /*«;-/, to the north-weil making his extrads from Mif 

oi Shiraz. kcnd. 

(R) This prince lived forty (U) Tho' he feems to have 

years after his brother, dying had very little fliare of either 

in 487 ; and in him ended tiie province, excepting the country 

family of Buyah in Fdrs. Tex. of Ga%nah, and the parts eaft- 

p. 301. ward of it. 

(S) Hefucceeded his brother (W) So named from the city 

Aldal Rajhid, or Abdal Rah'im, Bafa, or Pafa, in Pays, or pro- 

who was murdered in 445, or ^f:Perfia,\.]\eanX.\tx\X.Pafagarda; 

1053, by Togrol or Tokzel Bek, and not from Bafafir, as Ahul- 

one of his favourites. far aj writes, p. 226. of which 

(T) In Texeira he is called name we meet with no city, 

general of Sallnquah, king of In the Lebtar^kh of Golmin he 

Turhfan, by whom muft be un- is called prince of the Dila- 

dcvUood Togrol Bc^, and Olb Ar- mites; probably a miflake for 

ftSri fa d to be his fon ; which an Amir or commander cf the 

inaccuracies may be owirg to D/Ai.wV^ troops j meaning thofe 


g6 The Seljuks of Iran.' B. I. 

lat, king of Irak and Baghdad; but, by degrees, rofe to be 
one of the principal commanders of Malek Rah'im, then king 
of Baghdad: Being obliged, on account of this quarrel, to 
quit Baghdad, he put himfelf under the prote(fl:ion of yil Mo- 
Jianfer, Klialifah of Egyf^t ; who fupplying him with troops, 
a^ainj? fhehe became very poweilul in Irak j^rabi, and at length got 
Khallfah. pofleffion of the codntry, which he ravaged as far as the im- 
perial city ; fo that he grew a terror both to the Arabs and 
PcrpAins. He was already prayed for in the pulpits of that 
province : and as the Khallfah had been deprived of all au- 
thority by the Buyah or Dilcm princes, in whofe hands he 
was, fo, by this rebellion of Bajhjtri, nothing remained to 
Mnlek, who fucceeded Jbu Kalanjar, but the naked title of 
king of Baghdad ". 
Togrol Authors place thefe events in the year 447 ; but they 

Bek /«- feem to have had a beginning fome years earlier. (X). How- 
l^tfd. (>y^j. (}^^[ i^g^ jj. jg certain that the Khallfah, being informed 
A n^^ ^^^^ Bafafiri defigned the fame year to fcize on the imperial 
■, ■ caftlc, wrote to Togrol Bek, who .was then in the dillrid of 
^ Rey, intrea'ting him to come to his alTiftance. 

BASASIRI was at Wafet (Y), whence fome of his fol- 
diers deferting, came to Baghdad \ and, having plundered, • 
burnt his palace. 

TOG ROL BE K arrived at that capital in the month of 
Ramadhan, bringing with him eighteen elephants ; at what 
time Bafaf.ri, who was at Rahaba, on the Euphrates, wrote 
to Mojianfirbillah, lord of Egypt (Z), had prayers put up in 
his name, and furniflied him with money. 

** Tex. p. 29g. D'Herb. p. 240, art. Ca'im Bemr. Ebm 
Amid. p. 336. Abulf. p. 226. 

0^\\\^Buyah\i\w<^% ol Baghdad, (X) Jbu I far aj remarkf, p. 
CzWcd DAaNiites; as being ori- 226. that Bci/ajiri t^ok Anbar, 
ginally from Dilu;n, Deylum, ox Ambar, a city of /;vf>f, on the 
Dayluin, or Deylanon, a city in £w//^r«/fj,in thj year of the/fi^'- 
the province of G/vy/i??;, or Ay,-/- rah 441, or of ChriJ} IO49: 
Ian, in P erfi a [\). Befides, there whence we prefume, that the 
was z. Buyah race of kings inTa- origin of thefe troubles may be 
brejldn and Jorjdn, called Diale- dated at leall fo high. 
mah, Dcykmiyah, or Deylamites. [Y) A city on the Tigris. See 
Okarius fays that Di'um is a city before, p. 94. 
of tlie province oi Pejtt in Ghi- (Z) He was the Khalifah of 
/c«; 'tis :iOt n hi?mapofc7Zv7rt;r, Egypt, whofe power extended 
injerted p. 388. but we find the over that country, vSjv/rt, and the 
mountain Deylum On the call fide coall of Barbary. 
of the river I/perHdh, or K./I/uza ft. 

{ij Texeira i>if, f, 132. 243. Olearius trav. li'cfc, Pirf. f. 198. 


C. 2. Firfi SoMn, Togrol Bek. ^7 

As foon as Togrol Bek arrived at Baghdad, he felzed Malek 
Rahim, for whom prayers were no longer faid (A). Thus end- 
ed the dominion of the Buyians, Which had continued 127 
years ; and that of the Seljuks began in the fame city, where 
Togrol Bek took up his lodging, in the imperial cafHe. Next 
year the Khallfah married AWzy^, the Mer of Togrol Bek, i^t]. ^^Z 
who gave her a portion of 100,000 crowns in gold : and To- ^- ^• 
grol Bek, having flayed between three and four months at ^^S^- 
Baghdad, marched from thence towards Mufol, carrying with 
him battering rams, and other engines of war (B). He went 
alfo and befieged Takrk, at what time the cities of Kufa^ 
Wafct, and Jynottamri, falling off from their allegiance, 
caufed prayers to be made in the name of Mcflanfir Billah^ M 
Khallfah of Egypt. 

In 449 the Khallfah Kaytm Beamrillah honoured Togrol Bek Buyian 
with the imperial vefl:, and crowned him king of Baghdad, dyvajiy 
He likewife adorned him with the collar and bracelets, 2i^-/i(ppreJ/e,i\ 
pointed him ruler over his court, and money to be coined in 
his name p. 

Thus the Soltanat of ^^^M/W, or poft of Jmir al ome- 
rah of the Khalifahs, paffed horn the houfe of the Buyahs to 
that of the Seljilks '' .• and thus his power was thoroughly efta- 
blifhed : nor was there any perfon left, in both the Ir a ks and 
Khorafm, who gave him the leafl: oppofition. 

The year following Togrol Bek marched to Mufol, and from Rc-voh of 
thence to Nafibln, with a defign to fubdue thofe places. There Ibrahim, 
went with him his brother Ibrahim, whom Bafafiri, by his^^j- 45°° 
emilTaries, ftirred up to revolt; giving him hopes of obtain- Jg* 
ing the kingdom, and promiilng affiftance. Ibrahim, upon '^^ ' 
this, taking an oath of fidelity to the foldiers, departs with 
a great army to Rey, and rebelled '. 

KONDAMIR, or Mirkond, as reported by D'Herbclot, 
reprefents this . affair two very different ways. In one place 
he fays xhzi Ibrahim, furnamed A7a ', TogrrA Bek' shroth&r, feized 
the city of Hamadan ; and while the Soltan was on his march 

P Ebn Amid, p: 336, & feq. ^ D'Herb.. p. 1027, art. 

Thogrul. ^. Ekn Amid, p. 337, & feq. 

(A) Togrol Bek, or Beg, was which we find was taken the 
prayed for in the pulpits inltead fame year hy Bafafiri : but that, 
of him. Ahulfaraj, p. 226. on'rrtjjr^/iVi'sappioach.heaban- 

(B) Our author does not tell doned it. Mirkond, ap. D'Her' 
us what his defigr. was ; but pro- helct, p. 240, 2.x\. Cuim Beam- 
bably it was to befiege that city, rillah. 

Mod, Hist. Vol. IV, H to 

^S rhe Selj{iks of Iran: B. I. 

to drive him thence, Bnfafiri, taking the opportunity, made 

himfelf mafter of Baghdad ^. 

Togro! In another place the Tame author relates, that Ibrahhn, the 

'BtV.'sbro- SokAn's maternal uncle, revolted, and unexpeftedly advanced 

">f. againft him from the Jrabian Irak, where he was governor, 

with an army, as far as Hamadun (C), in Perfian Irak, where 

Togrol Beg then redded ^ 

* The Perfian hiftorian alfo dates tliis tranfacflion, if it be 
the fame with the former, three years later in this place than 
in the other (D). Whether this difference be owing to the 
difagrecment among authors, from whom Kondam'ir copied, 
or to the negligence of D'Herbelot, in extracting from him \ 
or whether they be two dillin£l events, differing with re- 
fpecfl to perfons, time, and atftion, wc muf\ leave the reader 
fo judge, on reading a fubfequent note, relating to Ibrahim's 
BafafuiV BJSJSIR I entattd Baghdad on the 8th of Dhulhajjah, 
cruchj. with the name of the Egyptian Khalifah (E) infcribed on his 
ftandards ; and on the 13th prayers were put up in the ca- 
thedral church in his name. Then ordering a bridge to be 
laid aerofs the Tigris, he palTed over to the eaflcrn fide of. 
the city, called Rufifah (F), where the fame ceremony was 
performed. After this, feizing Ebn JMoflem, the Khallfah's 
Wazlr or Vizier, he ordered him to be drefled in a woollen 
gown, with a high red bonnet, and a leathern collar about 
his neck ; and, in this manner, to be led through the flreets 
of Baghdad, tied upon a camel, with a man lalhing him all 
the way behind : then being fowed up in a frefli bull's hide, 
with the horns placed over his head, he was hung up on 
hpoks, aud beaten till he died. 
The Kha- As for the IChallfah, he went to the camp, where a tent 
tifnh i/n- was fct up for him on the eaft fide of tiie cit}'. Mean time 
pri/ontd, the mob pillaged the imperial palace of things to an im- 
mcnfe value. On Friday, the 4th of Dhulhajjah, there was 
neither fermon nor prayers in the temple of the Khalifah ; 
while, in all other churches, the harangue was made in the 

' KoNDAMiR .Tp. D'Herb. p. 240, art. Caira. * Ibid. 

p. 1027, art. 'I'hogrulbek. 

(C) The Jmatha of the Jenvs, (E) Fiz. Prince Maladi Alu- 
Z\\^Ekhatanaoix\vzC,recki\ ^r- tcimim, Mojlanftr Billah, Amir 
roneoiifly thought to be Ttiuris Alvnmemn. 

by moll authors. (F) Kecaufe the ftreets were 

(D) That i.s, in the year of paved with llones. Got. not. 
the Uejrah 454., and uf Chnjl inAifrngan, p. 1^2. 





C. 2. Firji Solldn, Togrol Bek: 

name of Mojlanfir Bil'ah, lord of Egy^t. Thus the fovereign- 
ty of the Khalifah was fupprefTed for that day. 

After this, Kayhn EeamriVah was conveyed to Hadhha 
(G) ; and being put in fetters, was left in cuilody with the 
governor of the town. 

The year following, Bafaf.ri fending for the great chan- Hej 
cellor Abu Abdallah Ebn Damiyun, with the preachers and A 
princes of the family of HaJJjem, required from them fecurity, ^059- 
and an oath of fidelity to Moftanfir Billah, lord oi Egypt. 

The fame year, 451, Togrol Bek marched againfl his bro- 
ther Ibrahim, defeated, and having taken him prifoner, had Ibrahim 
him ifrangled with a bow-firing (H), Pie likewife put to dtf sated-, 
death a great number oi Turhnms, who had joined with 

Having thus re-eflabliflied his power, he marched toBagh- 
<^<iJ againfl Bafafiri, and fent the Khalifah his compliments, with 
5000 crowns in gold, and 6,000 fuits of cloaths for his wife. 
As he drew near the city, on the 1 1 th o? Dhulkddah, Mah- 
ras, lord of Hadltha, came to meet him, bringing Kayim 
Beamrillah (I) with him. 

(G) There are two lladithas, 
one on the Euphrates ; the other 
here mentioned ftands on the 
eall fide of the Dijlat or Tigris, 
near the great Zab, fourteen 
parafangs, or Perfiayi leagues, 
of four Englijh miles each, h^- 
\o\v Mufcl ; from whence ic has 
the name of Haditha nl M-.'fol. 
It was, for a time, the feat of 
theKhalifahs. Ahulfvda, in his 
defcription of hdk at Arab. 

(H) Kondainir differs from 
jbimfelf, as in the beginning, 
fo in the event of this s-tfair (i). 
In one place he fays, Togrol 
made up matters v/itli liis bro- 
ther Ihrahim Nial, and then re- 
turned x.oBa^hdcid,hom. whence 
Bafaf.ri was fled (2). In the 
other place l;e tells us, that he 
was affifted fo feafonably by his 
nisphew Alp Ar/ldn, v/lth the 
forces oi Khcn-fd?:, that hi-s nn- 
c\c Ibrahim was eaiily vanquilh- 

f J). S:f be/ore, />. 79. {z) D' 

(l) Idioifp. 10; 7, uiu Ibogrulltg. 

ed ; and being taken, was put 
to death (3). The hillorian 
adds, that, after this fignal vic- 
tory (as he calls it), Togrcl Bek 
fent Alp Arjidn bad: to Khora- 
fdn, and made himfelf a fecond 
journey to Baghdad; at what' 
time he delivered the Khalifah' 
from the perfecution of Bafafi- 
V/, and replaced him on the 
throne a fecond time (4). This 
fhews that the hiHory, in both 
places before- mentioned, relates 
to the fam.e perfon and tranfac-' 
tion, tho' differently toid, and 
differently dated. 

(I) According to Mlrhndy as 
foon as TcgrclBck entered Bagh- 
dad, he w.-nt to the piifon, and 
fet the Khalifali at liberty, 
Ivlirkcnd. ubi fupr. But this 
feems to be a raiftake ; for he 
was then at Haditha, in cu- 

Hcrbekt. p. 241, art. QuYm Beatr.'iHab. 
(.|; Idim ii/id. 



100 ^^e Scljuks of Iran. B. I. 

rtWBagh- As foon as he arrived at BaghJoil, his foldiers fell to pil- 
dad /.;/- laging it (K), efpecially that part called Karkha ; and having 
iageJ. collected a great quantiry of tents, chariots, and other move- 
ables, fcnt them all to the Khalifah, with his Wazir Jbdol- 
malck Al Kandcri, and AJhul Abubekr. Then a tent being 
fet up, the Khalifah entered it ; and, after two days reft, 
on the 25th of the fame month, went into Baghdad, from 
whence he had been abfent a whole year, accompanied by To- 
grol Bck, who held the bridle of his mule till he had palfed 
through the ftone gate ". 
The Kha- MIRKOND relates, that he condu(fled the Khalifah to 
Iif\-h re- the imperial palace on foot, fometimes holding the ftirrup, 
Jfortd. fometimes the bridle, of his mule ; and that, to gratify this 
refpci^t of Tcgrol, he gave him the title of Rokn oddin, in thefe 
words ; Erkeb ya Rokn oddin. : mount on horfeback, you -who 
arc the vvfl firm pillar, or fupport, of the religion. After 
this, the Soltaii told the Khalifah, that if Malek al Rahhn had 
no hand in the late tumult, he might fafely come to him. 
IMaIck, tiufting to Togrol Bck's promife, waited on him ; but 
being feized and imprifoned, in him ended the dynafty of 
of the Buyahs, which had continued 127 years ^. 
Bafafiri So M E time before this, Bafi/iriwas gone to IVafet ; and having 
/airi. gathered a large quantity of corn, fent it on board fome barks : 
but when he heard what had happened at Baghdad, he ad- 
vanced 10 Noma niy a {IS). The Soltan fent againft him part 
of his army, under the command of Hcmarmakin, and other 
generals ; following himfelf, with the relt of his forces, in 
the end of Dhulkhdah (M). Bafafiri ht\wg killed in the bat- 
tle, his head was brought to Togrol Bck, who ordered it to be 
carried on a pike through the ftreets of Baghdad. Then 
proceeding to IVafct, he fet matters to rights there, and re- 
llcj. /^ j2. turned to Baghdad in the year 452 ; where the Khalifah made 
A- '^- him rich prefents, and received him with great honour. Ai- 
1060. j^,j. jjj-jg^ ]^£ vitwl to Jabal (N), leaving his Wazir Abdolmulek 

" Ebn Amid, p. 338, ^ feq. * D'Herb. p. 240, & feq. 
. art. Ca'im Eemr. 

(K) Mirkond hvi, this was (L) A city between /r^/ and 

done by the Sohau's oruer, be- Baghdad. D' Herbelot. p. 674. 

caufe the people role againll the (M) The laft month but one 

Turks; who grew very infolcnt, of the Mohammrd.jn year, 

foon after they had entered the (iS ) So the Arahick : the Perm 

city. Mirkoi.d. ubi iupr. p. ftan word is Kuhcfidn ; that is, 

240. the mountain country, the fame 

with /'i7y,"<2«/rtf7-, at leall a part. 


C. z: Firji SoUdn, Togrol Bek. loi 

al Kandcri as his lieutenant ; and having fettled that coun- 
try in peace, returned to Baghdad the fame year ^, 

The above-mentioned battle was fought between Ji^ajet His eff'eds 
and Kiifah, according to the Lcbtarikh >' : but Mirkond rtlztes/ti^^ed. 
that Bafafiri having been purfued hyTcgrid Bek as far as the 
lafl of thofe two cities, and being accompanied with no great 
force, fome of his foldiers found an opportunity to kill him, 
and carried his head to the Soltan z.. They likewife feized 
all the effects which he, znd A^uro' dddxu/at Dobays (O), who ac- 
companied Bafafiri in his retreat, were carrying off: but Do- 
• bays made his efcape ; and fubmitting to Togrol Bek next year, 
was honourably received by him ^. 

Having related matters thus far from the hiflorians of the T/^^Greek 
eafl, it is time to look weftward, and fee what is to be vatiaccoimt. 
with farther, concerning the Seljtlkian Turks, in the Creek au- 
thors ; whofe want of that exaftnefs found in the orientals, in 
marking the dates of adlions, makes it difficult to range them 
in chronological order, or deliver, them from the confufion 
in which they feem placed. We are told by Cedremis, and 
Nicephorus Bryennius, that, after TcPgrolipix found himfelf 
fecure in the throne of Petfia, he began to make war on the 
neighbouring princes ; and marching againft Pi[fafiriiis be- 
rore-mentioned, after defeating him in feveral battles, flew 
him, and brought the country of xh&Bahylonians (P) in fub- 

He then fent his nephew Kittlu Mofcs (Q_) againft Karme-Yi\x([\\ 
fes (R), king of the Arabians: but being overthrown, helViofes 

'^ Een Amid. p. 340. ^ P. 42. ^ D'HERB.'p. 240, 

art. Cairn Bemr. * Abu'lfaraj. p. 226. 

(O) He was an Arab prince, (P) That is, Araliati Irak. 
of the tribe of Afjdd, and lord (Q_) Called alfo Kuthi Mu- 

oi Hellah, a city on the Eupbra- fes by the Greeks; a corruption 

tes i fuppofed, with good rea- of Ktii/u Mi/y, or Kotobnijh. 
fon, to be built in or near (R) One would be apt to take 

the place where Babylon flood, this for Karmath, prince of the 

In 425, A. D. 1033, Bafafiri fedlaries from him called A''^i;-a. 

marched from Baghdad to afTift jneth, or Karatnetha ; or eife for 

his brother Abu Kavjam Thabet, fome prince of that feft, which 

who was at war with him Do- began at Kutha, in Irak Arahiy 

hays lived eighty years, and if we had not known that it was 

enjoyed his principality fifcy- fupprefied in the tenth century, 

feven. He died in 474, and See D'Herb. art. Carmath. 
was fa.mous for his virtue, and 
adls of goodnefs (i). 

{!) Ahulfaraj, p.'.zs,zi-],^ Z-~,Z. ~ 

H 3 ^ took 


Tliei from 

nvho lurf:i 
A rue. 

"The Sdjiiks cf Ir-an. B. I. 

took fhelter in McJia (S), ami flopped at Ba.'ts, or Danfpra- 
kan. From thenc-i he lent to Stephen, the Roman governor, 
to dcfirc a paflagc (T) ; and being denied, routed his troops, 
xmd took him prifoner. Tnen marching to Brifcium, on the 
borders of Perji.t, fold him there for a llave. When he re- 
turned XoTagroHpix, after cxcnfing his ill fuccefs againfl the 
Jli^aljs, he advifed him to invade Media, which he faid was 
inhabited by women (U) : but that prince, higlily offended 
at his defeat, would not hearken to him ; but raifing new 
forces, went againft the Jrabs in perfon, and was likewife 
put to the woril. 

At his return he marched againfl: Kutlu Mufes, who, fear- 
ing the Soltan's difpleafure, had fled wlth.his followers; and 
takiag r2fuge in Pa/ar, a city of the Khcrafmir.ns (W), re- 
volted from him ; v/hil^ he, with part of his army, befieged 
Pafar, \/hich, being ftrong, held out long. He fent another 
part, confifting of 20, coo men, inider the command Oi /Ijfan 
(X), furnamed the deaf, his brotlier's fon, to fubdue Media ; 
where he committed dreadful ravages ; but being, in the 
end, drawn into an ambufh by the Roman generals, he was 
cut off, wi'.li hi:, wliolc army. 

TylG ROLIP IX, no v/ay difcouraged at this misfor- 
tune, fent a new army into M^dia, near i oOjOoo flrorg, com- 
manded by Abraham Alhn (Y), his half-brotlier ; who laid 
waflc the country without oppofition, the Reman x fhutting 
themfclves up in their flrong holds ; and "tlien laid fiege to 
j^rtza (Z), a place, on account of its great trade, efleemed 
the mofl wealthy in thofe parts ; but not being able to ma- 
tter it, they reduced it to allies. Of the inhabirants, 150,000 
and upwards are faid to have perifhed, either by the fword, 
or in the flames. 

(S) It (hould rather be Ar- 
minia, to which Barfprakon or 
Vafpurakaii belongs. The pro- 
vince lies benyixt the lake of 
Wan zv^^^\tx\\cx Arras. Other 
circumftances fliew, it ought to 
be yhmcrjia, or'ia, 
which might have been joined 
to Media, OE Adh,rbijdn, which 
the Turks conqi;cr«d in ic^o, 
as before related. 

(T) Thcfe Turks arc faid to 
have been i\\^ known to the 
Greeks in the time cf the empe- 
ror Cojrftaruine Mcucmachus, \\ ho 
began ms rei^n in 104? ; but 

the year wy.en this affair happen- 
ed does not diflindly appear. 

(U) Alluding to tiie weaknefs 
and effeminacy of the Rcrnatrs. 

(W) Thefe are the inhabit- 
ants of Karartn, to the porth of 
Pirfia, and tco far out of the 
way . 

(X) Perhaps Hajfait. 

/Y) This muft be Ihralim 

(Z) Artze or Arxe, near Tle- 
cdc/icpJis in Arner.ia, the pre- 
fent Arzen al RUtn, or Arze- 


C. 2? Firjt Soli an i Togrol Bek." 103 

ABTiAHAM, after this, hearing that \hs. Romans, under Roman 
the (Command of Liparites, governor of Iberia, had taken t]\egeneral 
field, he inarched againft them. The tv/o armies engaging '^'^^''* 
with great fury, the vidlory continued long doubtful, but 
at length inclined to the Romans ; although their general was 
taken prifoner, which hindered them to purfue the flying 

Hereupon the emperor difpatched embafladors, with 
rich prefents, and a large fum, to redeem Liparites, and 
conclude an alliance with TagroUpix, who generouliy ire- 
turned them, with the money, to Liparites, and fet him at 
liberty without ranfom ; only requiring him, atiiis departure, 
no more to bear arms againfl the Turks. 

Not long after, the Sokan fent a Sharif {A), a perfon <£ 'The empire 
great authority, with the charadfer of ambaflador, to Cotijlau-iwcadni. 
tlnople ; who, having arrogantly exhorted the emperor to fi^b- 
mit to his mafler, and acknov/iege himfelf his tributary, was, 
by Monomachus , difmiiled with fcorn, and driven out of the 

TAGROLIP IX, offended at the reception of his em- 
bafTador, while the emperor was engaged in a war with tlie 
Patzinaca (B), a Scythian nation, entered Iberia ; aiid hav- 
ing laid the country wafle, as far as Koyma, returned from 
thence into Media, and laid fiege to Mantzikhiert (C), a place 
defended by a numerous garifon, and fortified with a triple 
wall, and deep ditches. However, as it was fituated in a 
plain and open country, he hoped to be maimer of it in a 
iJiort time : but, after he had continued before it thirty days, 
was obliged to retire, pretending fome urgent affairs had cal- 
led him home. 

Not long after, difcord arifing between the Sol tan and Abraham 
Abraham Alim, or Halim, whom he fought to deffroy, Abrci Ah'm 
hayn fled (D) to his nephew Kiitlu Mufes, and joined in the/«'». 
rebellion. The Soltan, meeting thera not far from Pafar {h), 
defeated them in battle ; and Abraham being taken, was put 

(A) A Seriph, in Cedrenus : The fame author, in another 
Sharif figniiies jjoble, and de- place, calls it Matzikisr. Ce- 
notes being of MohaimnecVs iirenus nzmes it Illawoliergki. 
kindred. _ (D) This was in the ye;u 

(B) The invafion of the Pat- 1058, which falls in the reign 
zinac^ was in (or about) the ci Conf^niinc Ducas, 

year 1050, (E) This muft be Haija.h-:, 

{C) Mafj/zi^ bi'erl a, accoT'ling or near it; and the adlion in 

to Oiropalata, \i \n. EttafrakaK, 1059, as related h£:fore out of 

or piore properly Fajpiiraka?;. the oriental hiilorlans, 

H 4 to 



The Seljuks of Iran. B. V 

to death. A'utlu Mufcs, with his coulm Malck, fon oi Abra- 
ham, followed by 6000 men, Hed to the borders of the Ro- 
man empire ; from whence he fent for prote(fiion to the em- 
peror AhuomachuSf a little before his death, which happen- 
ed in 1054 (F). But while he waited for an anfwer, he 
marched into Per/a rnicma, as far as the city Kar/e (G), which 
he took, though not the caftle. But hearing that 'Tagrolipix 
was advancing towards him, he fled to the Arabs, who were 
the Soltan's enemies. 

The Soltan turning into Iberia, laid it wafte, fparing nei- 
ther fex nor age. But upon the approach of Michael Acohi- 
thiis, who was fent againft him at the head of a confiderable 
.army, he retired to Tauris (H), leaving 30,000 men behind 
him under Samukh, to infeft the frontiers of the empire ; 
» which they did with great fuccefs, the borders being left 

imguarded, through the avarice of Moncmachiis, who about 
this time died. The Turks prepared to invade the empire 
on his death, but were prevented by the care of Theodora 
his fucceflbr. But being encouraged by the reir/ifTnefs of Con- 
Jlantine Ducas, who afcended the throne in 1059 (I), they 
extended their conqucfts on all fides ''. 
JafFarBek • Thus far the Byzantine hiflorians. Let us now return 
idies. to the oriental authors. According to them, in 453, Jafar 

Hej. 453.5^^, Togrol^ brother, died in Khorafan, and left for his iuc- 
ceffor his fon Alp Ar/lh (K), who was afterward heir alfo to 
his uncle, who died without children ". 


'' Cedrekus, NvcETH. Bryen;:. Corotalat. Leunclav. 
hift. Miiluim. p. 75. alio univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. izi, &;c. 
' D'HrRB. p. 1027. Lebi AR. p. 42. 

(F) Others fay in 1057 ; fome 
jn 1049 ; fo uncertain is the lat- 
ter Greek chronolcgv. But if 
KutluMuus fent to till"; emperor 
after the^eath oi Ivrahim, cither 
hhnomacbus mull have been 
alive in 1059, or the oriental 
authors date that event too ear- 
ly. 'Tis probable the Gr,,ks 
have confounded things of dif- 
ferent times together, in this 
inftance, as they feem to have 
done in many others. 

(G) Perhaps the fame now 
called Karsy between th*; cities 
Arzerum and Erri'vm. 

(H) This circumftance (hews 
that he was then niafcer of Ai- 
herhijun, ox Media, which hav- 
ing been fubdued in the year of 
the Hejrah 446, or of Chriji 
I0!J4, as before related, doubt- 
Icl? the invafic;i of the Ro?Kan 
"Medic- or rather Pcrfarmcnia, 
and the fiege of Mantz-ikyerty 
was about that time. 

(I) Others fay 1057. 

(K) Written alfo O/^ y/;//7V 
According to the Lehtarikh, p. 
42. he fucceeded by the ap- 
pointment of his uncle Togrol 


C. 1. Firft Solldn, Togrol Bck. io^" 

The fame year Togrol Bck demanded the daughter oi KayhiTogroVs 
Beamrillah in marriage : but the Khalifah giving him a de- marriage^ 
nial; it occafioned many mefTages and threatenings, on the 
part of Soltan ; who next year, 1062, forbad the Khalifah's 
officers to meddle with the pubhck money (L). Hereupon 
they advifed him to let the Soltan have the princefs ; which 
he at length confented to, though fore againft his will (M). 
On this com^Y\2Lnce, Togrol Bek, being greatly rejoiced, revoked 
the order he had given for feizing the Khalifah's treafures, and 
fent him very rich prefents, - 

In 455 the Khalifah's daughter was conducted to the ^o\- and death. 
tan, who received her with great demonftrations of joy, andHej. 455. 
belfowed gifts on all thofe who accompanied her: but fix -A.D. 
months after, in the fame year, Togrol Bek died at Ray, or Rey^ 1 1 03- 
the capital oi Irak ^ (N). 

The author of the Nighiarijlan is fomewhat more parti- 
cular than Ebn Amid, with regard to the marriage of the Kha- 
lifah's daughter, whom he calls Setdah (O). He tells us, that 
when A7md al Molk Konderi, Togrol's Wazir or Vizier, Jiad, 
by his addrefs, obtained the princefs for his mafler, he con- 
duced her to Tauris, where the Soltan then was : that it 
was in this city where the marriage was concluded, and the 
contradl figned : but that the nuptials and confummation of 
the marriage were to be performed at Rty, then the capital Qccafionof 
of Perfian Irak, and royal (eat of Togrol : that this prince //; 
repaired thither, to prepare things with proper magnificence : 
but that the feafon being exceffive hot, he left the city, to 
take the air of Rudbdr, a moft delicious place, where he had 
a very beautiful palace ; and that here, in a few days, he 
was carried off by a bloody flux * : fo that, as Khondamir 

^ Ebn Amid, p. 340, & feq. ^ D'Herb. p. 1028, art. 

Thogrul Bek. 

(L) His Wazir counfelled daughter in return, though an 

him, by degrees, to retrench honour too great for a ^urk to 

the Khalifah's revenues ; \vhich expeft (i). 
obliged him to confent, accord- (N) Called alfo y// y<3^^/ by 

ing to the Nigbiarifidn, ap. D' the Jrabs ; and by the Pcrjians^ 

Herb. p. 1028. Kuhefian; both fignifying the 

(M) According to ^sw^/jOTzr, mountain country . 
in D'Herbelot, Kayim was fo (O) Seidah is the feminine of 

highly obliged to Togrol Bek, for Seid, or Seyd, and the common 

re-eftablifhing him the fecond terra for the wife or daughter of 

time, that he judged he could a Seid or lord, 
not do lefs than give him his 

{l) D'Herb. p. lozj, art. Thogrulbek. 


toG The Seljiiks of Iran^ B. T. 

obfcrves, when his wife arrived at Rey, fhe fouiid him dead ; 
and To returned cs Ihe can-iC ^ 

Authors gen'.rally agree, that this great prince died -at 
Rtj, in the year of \.\\^hejrah 455 (P), and at tlie age of 
feveaty : but .the Lebtarikh makes his reign twenty-fix yearsg, 
\yhich is one mof'^ than Kbn yiir.U gives to it ''. 
Ws cha- TOG ROL BEK was a good-natured, wife, and politick 
raSlir^ prince ; exceedlrgly te^red and courted by the provincial 
lords, who often wrote to him '. Accordiug to the Lebta- 
r:kh, he was the befl of princes : he faid the prayers, with 
his whole family, five times a day ; and failed every week on 
the iifth and fecond days. Whenever he was difpofed to 
ere<fl a palace, he firfl built a temple ^'-. As he had no chil- 
4ren, he was fucceeded by his nephew Jlp Arfuin. 

S E C T V. 

The Reign of Alp ArOan. 

THIS prince was the fon of Dcwd, or JaffarBeg (A), fon 
of Michae!, fon of Seljuk ; and, by fuccceding his un.- 
Ssltan, e]g Togrol Bck, thus united in his perfon the two kingdoms 
^Ip At- Q{fckQrafan (B) and Irak, with their dependencies : fo that, 
^"' in the year of the Hcjrab 455, when he began his reign, he 

A t\^"^^'"S fole monarch of all the countries lying between the ri- 
1062' ^^^^ J^l^i^n (C) or Jm:<, and the DijlJt or Tigris \ that is, of 
aft Iran or Perfa, in its greatefl extent ; in the conqucrt of 
\yhich he had a confiderable fhare. 

TOGROL BEK left him in full power r.t Bi:ghdud, where 
the Khalifah Kayiin lived in dcpendeace on the Sdjukiaus, till 
the fecond year of Malek Shah, when he died '*. 

TijfE name which tj\is Soltan toolx, after he had embraced 
*^'''"^'""* Mchammedifm^ was Mohammed, or Jbit Shejah MQhammfd'f 

f D'HeRC. p. ICZJ- ^ I.EuTARIKH, p 4Z. •> Es^ 

Amid. p. 341. ' Ibid. p. 342. '^ Leetar. p. 4:. 

• KoND. ap. DTIerb. p. 241. 

{?) TYiC Ldtariid^ of Go/wi'a DTurb. p. 1 01, art. Jlp Ar- 

^3*453, and tharof D7/<rr^f/<7/ f.d:-. 

454; the iSth of Murxiaahdut (B) According to Kirdamxrt 

y/hicli is the hrft nionth of tht: Ije governed there as TogroPi 

J^ubnTtimtciur. year. lieutenant-general, for ten years 

(A) Abii Ifaraj calls him before Itc afcendcd the throne. 

Daivd [ox Da'vi4) Jagyiifg, D'tlcrb. ^. \o\,ZxX.. JlpArflda. 

D'lirrielot fpeaks of authors (C) The ancient Oamj of tlxo 

who make /Vrv//, and J ajar Graki- 

two djficrcnt fons of hVuhetl. 


C. ^; Second SoUdju Alp Arflan. %6f 

for iie was before called Ifraeh, and that of JIp Arjlan (D), 
which fignifies in TurkiJJj, the courageous Hon, is a furname. 
The Khalifah Kayim Beamrillah, on account of his own power 
and merit, as well as that of his predeceflbr, gave him the 
title of Jzzaddtn, or Jdhadoddin (E), which figniiies, the 
proteSior of the religion. 

At the beginning of his reign he put to death Kandari,and Wa- 
furnamed Amid al Molk (F), Wazir to TogrolBek, for abufes «i^'''^' 
committed by him in his office, during his uncle's life ; and 
raifed to that employment Nadham al JMolk (G), who was the 
greateft man of his time, and adminiftered the affairs of the 
kingdom, in the reign of this prince and his fuccCiTor, with 
the greateft integrity and approbation ''. 

According to the Vaffaiya (H), at the beginning of hisKotol- 
reign. Alp Arjldn made war upon Kotolmtflj, fon of Ifracl, hismifhr^- 
coufm-german, who rebelled againll him in the province oiP^^^' 
Darn^gan (I). But this revolt was foon quafhed, by an un- 
cxpeclid accident : for Kotolmifb advancing at the head of 
his troops, which were very fine ones, to give the Soltan t'-zt ^ ^^ 
battle, his horfe of a fudden fell under him, and, throwing ^ /-^// 
his rider, broke his neck ; upon which his army fabmitted, 
and were pardoned '^. - 

^ KoND. ubi fupr. p. 102, art. Alp ArCao. Le^xar. p, 42. 
« D'Herb. p. 102. 

(D) Alp, which is alfo pro- in Khorafap, according to the 

nounced tjlp and Olup, Alh and Lcbfankh. 

Olb. fignifies, in the language of (G) The Perfians fay Ka'ziitt 

t\icTurLv!dns,a branje and'valiant al Molk ; pronouncing the Ara- 

cc7n7na;id;r. Hence it is often hk dh (which has the force of 

found in the names of eminent \}^QEngi!jh th, in the wordp //vV, 

Turks or Turkmans, as Alp Tek- the^n, t5V.) hice s: ; alfo Nc-zdm. 
kin, Kay Alp. The Grffl; Call (H) Written by Nexdm r^i 

this prince Afpafahm, and Af- jlfo//!*, the famous Wazir (or Vi- 

parrfallarius ; but generally j^;<r- zier) o^ Alp Arfuhi, mentioned 

an ; poffibly corrupting tire before In the text ; in which he 

5 .■^rkifo word Ak Hat:, or Ak gives princes precepts and ex- 

Khcn, which fignlfies the 'white amples for governing well, i)! 

king ; a name given polfibly for Hahelct. p. 055. 
a reafon mentioned in a future (l) Or Dar;:r.van : it is thj 

note. Dr. //>v/f obferves, that capital of the province of ^/J/w* 

Aip^ArJldn anfwers to the Frr- (the AWi//,';?.? of P/o/sz'/y), which 

fan Ard/blr. Relig. vet. Fcrf. from thence may take the name 

p- 197. Qf Dan'.egdn. Jt lies between 

(E) Ehn Amid has Adadod- TahnQdri and the north-ealt 


lat. part of Perfian Irak, called Ki- 

\iFj At IS^i/a, Ne/a, or Nafay, hcjlan. 

7 . This 

io8 " ^T-^^ Seljuks ^/ Irjn.' B.I. 

This was the end of Kotlomijl.\ or Kotolm{P.\ according 
to the oriental writers ; but the Greek hiftorians reprefent the 
iflTue of his rebellion quite otherwifc : they tell us, that this 
prince, whom they call Kittlu Mofcs, or Miifes, having re- 
belled in the time of Ta/jqrolipix, was defeated by him, and 
fled into Jrabia '', where he remained till ylxan (or j'Up Ar- 
Jlchi), came to the crown : that then, returning from thence, 
at the head of confiderahle forces, and advancing to Re (K), he 
laid claim to the fovereignty : but that, while the two armies 
were on the point of engaging, the Khalif of Babylon of a 
fudden appeared, and, interpoling his authority, which he 
ftill retained in fpirituals, brought them to this agreement, 
that the Soltan fhould hold Perjui, and that Kiitlii Miifes, and 
his children, who were five in number, fliould pofLfs all the 
_ , countries which they fhould take from the Roman empire ; 
^^^ and that he fhould afhft them with troops for that purpofe : 
.,r ' that, after this, the father and his five fons entered the Ro- 
' wan empire with their forces ; and that Kutlu Mcfcs adlually 
commanded a body of Turks, which came to the afliftance 
of Botaniatcs, when he ufurped the empire "^ : whereas, ac- 
cording to the oriental hiflorians, who could hardly be mif- 
takcn in a tranfaftion that concerned one of their own princes, 
and happened -among themfelves, Kotolmijh mull have been 
dead eight or ten years before. 

This fliews with what caution the Greek writers ought 
to be read, who wei^e ignorant both of the name and per- 
fon of the pince, who had puflied his conquers within a 
few days march of Conftantinople itfelf ; and had, even by 
their own account, been for fome time perfonally prefent in 
their emperor's army. But to return to the eailern hifto- 
Jtihellion The wai" with Kotolmiflj was no fooner finiflied, than Ka- 
q/^Arflan, ra /Irjlan raifcd new dilhirbauces in Pars and Kerman. The 
Soltan, to fupprcfs this rebel, employed Fadhhvieh, one of 
his moft valiant commanders, who defeated him, and was 
rewarded for his fervice with the government o{ Pars, 
and of But this ambitious governor, as foon as he faw the Sol- 

radhlo- ^^^ ^^ |^-g march to Khorafdn, refolved to make himfclf ab- 
'"^ folute mafler of his province. In order to cffeft this, he for- 

tified a caftle, fituated in a very advantageous place, where 

' See before, p. 104. ^ Si.e Cldrenus, and univ. hift. 

vol. xvii. p. 134. 

(K) By Re is here probably 7/73,(; and not iTrf, or £;■<•/, in the 
to be undcrftood the city Rc\ or province of Shivwdn, as Lenn- 
Raj, then capitaj of PerJ'.an cla--cius fuppofes. 


Q^ 2. Second Solidn, Alp Arflan.^ 109 

he fhut himfelf up, accompanied with very good troops, and 
a vail deal of money, which he had amafled by a thoufand 
extortions in his government. Nezam al Molk received or- 
ders from his prince to attack this caftle, and bring him the • 
traitor aUve or dead. All who had a knowlege of the place ' 
advifed againfk a fiege, becaufe' they deemed it impregnable ; 
but the Wazir, refolving to gratify his mailer, invefted the 
caftle with his forces, and went himfelf round it to take a 

During this tour, he did not obferve fo much as oneFortrefs 
man of the befieged upon the ramparts; which 'mdLi(:2iimg reduced hj 
the greatefl confidence of their fecurity, he -was fo chagrin'd, 
that, but for (hame, he would inflantly have raifed the fiege. 
However, he refolved to do his utmoft ; and had aheady 
gotten together provifions and llores for a whole year's 
blockade : when one morning, at break of day, he was fur- 
prized to hear them beat the chamade, and that the governor 
defired to capitulate. 

The joy which this news gave him, made him grant them«« odd 
honourable conditions ; the chief of which were, that the e'vent. 
governor fhould remain in the place, doing homage to the 
Soltan, and paying him a certain tribute annually, befides 
the ufual prefents. V7hen matters were fettled, the Wazir, 
who was in pain to know what could have obliged Fadlilovieh 
to make fuch a fudden furrender, was informed by one of the 
befieged, that it was ov/ing to the fprings and cifterns, which 
were very numerous in the place, drying up all at once. 
This the Mohamviedan author attributes as a miracle, wrought 
by providence, in regard to the juftice of the Soltan's caufe, 
and his ov/n piety. 

An attempt having been made to difpoflefs the Soltan oiDefart of 
the province of Kernum, he marched thither with his army ; Nuban- 
and, being obliged to pafs through the great defart of A'ii-dijan. 
bandijdny which feparates that province from Khorafan, and 
is deftitute of all things neceffary to fupport an army, his 
troops, who had entered it with great reluftance, perceiv-. 
ifig their provifions to fail daily, began to murmur ; and wei^e 
on the point of revolting, when they came to an old ruined 
caftle, which feeijied to be the retreat of owls and wild 
beads : but, in viewing it, they found corn enough to fup- 
ply the whole army. Yet this plenty of viftuals being of 
no ufe vv^ithout drink, God, to complete the miracle (as our 
author will have it), fent fo heavy a rain, that every body had 
water enough to ferve his occafions ^. 

f Vassaia, ap. D'Herb, p. 103, art. Alp Arflan. 


no th(* Seljuks of Iran: B. t 

Karazm lii 457 the Soltan marcheci againft KhdzaiU wTio had r'e- 
rebels. volted in tlie country df Kho-warazm (or Karazm) ; and 
*i^J- 497- having routed his army, confifling of 30,000 men, very few of 
F' whom efcaped the llaughter, he gave the government of that 
^' province to Malek Shahy his eldcll fon. In his return from 
this expedition through Khorafan, he paid a vifit to the fe- 
pulchre of /Jli Riza (L), the eighth Imam, who was buried 
at Thus (thence called Majhhad)^ where there is continually 
a great refort of people, who go thither out of demotion. 
J/feml't After he had performed this pilgrimage, he took the 
^ the road of Rackkdn,\\'\i&rt he encamped with his army in a moil 
j^atei. agreeable pilace. From hence he difpatched couriers through , 
all the provinces of his empire, to fummon the go\ernors 
and great lords to a general afTembly of the eftates. Being 
all met together, he declared his fon Malck Shah for his fuc- 
celfor, and only heir to his dominions. This done, he or- 
dered his fon to fit on a throne of gold, prepared for that 
purpofe, and made all the officers of the empire talce an 
oath of fidelity to him (M). 

Immediately after this, he acquainted all the chiefs 
and generals of his armies, that he deiigncd to attempt the 
conquefl of Turkejldn^ the country whence he drew his ori- 
ginal ; and where, as he pretended, his anceftors formerly 
reigned (N). But this expedition was not undertaken till 
feveral years after ^. 

Let us now turn ourfelves wellward, and fee what the 

Turks were doing on that fide. 

T/DfTurks Upon the death o^ Conjlantinc Ducas, which happened iir 

invade tlie year 1065, the Turks, underftanding that the Roman em-^ 

pire was governed by a^woman, broke with great violence 

into Mcfopotamia, CUicia, and Cappadccia, deflroylng all with 

fire and fword. The emprefs was no way in a condition tc» 

oppofe them, the greater part of the army havirig been dif- 

banded in her hulband's life-time ; and the troops which' 

the Rom- ^,£j.g £^m Qjj f-QQf beiiig undifciplined, and altogether unfit 

*'^*''^.^"^' for fervice. Euaocia, therefore, to fecure at once the empire 

8 KoND. ap. D'Herb, art. Alp Ardan. 

[\J)SC)i\\tFerf:a?is;t\\ejir(ibs to be " done juil before his 

pronounce ^/c/w, foundii'sg the death. ■ 

clh like the Englijh th, in tJ.isy (N) Meaning, wc prefume, 

thai:, i^c. as Jias been oblerved Jfrnfiah, and his fuccclTorSj,, 

a few notes before. from whom the Scfj/'L derivca 

(M) £1/: Jir'ul relates this their pedigree, as has been be- 

* fore related, p. 79. 


I C. 2: Second SoMn, AlpAvVAnl " ill 

from foreign, and herfelf from domeftic, enemies, marHed 
Romamis Diogenes, who was thereupon procU.lm2d cnperor. 
As he was a man of great a^ivity, and experience in war, 
he no fooner faw himfelf veiled vith the Ibv^reign power, 
than taking upon hiai the command of the army, he pafTed 
over into Jfia ; where, on his arrival, he was in'ormed, that 
the Turks, having furprized and plundered the city of Nco" 
cafdrea, were retiring with a rich booty. The emperor fol- 
lowing them, at the head of a chofen body of light-armed 
troops, came up with them the third day, killed a great 
number of them, and recovered the fpoil. He then purfued 
his march to Hakb (0), which he retook, togetlier with Hie- 
rapolis, where he built a llrong caflle ''. 

The oriental hiftorians place this ^jTz'^n expedition in theRomanu^ 
year of, the Hejrah 462, which anfwers to that of Cknji defeats 
1069. They relate, that he befieged the laft city, which ''^^''» 
they call Mamhej (P), for fixtcen days, but do not lay that 
he took it ; only that afterwards the Mof.cms, or believers (fo 
the Mohammedans call themfelves),, advancing v/ith an army»- 
h^ defeated them: but provifions ' failing in his camp, byv 
which means great numbers of his foldlers perifned, he re- 
turned to Conjiantmople. 

In his way back he defeated a numerous body of Turks, 
who attempted to cut oIF his retreat ; after which the Turks 
abandonsd feveral cities on his approach. 

In 463 yj^ Arjlan marched to AklMt (Q_), with /\o, 000 Are- themi- 
Jiorfe, to meet the Rq?nans, who had a vaft army; but they/A-ves de^ 
were defeated, and their general, vvho was a nobleman, ht-f^^^^- 
ing taken, tlie Soltan ordered his nofe to be cut off*. "^j* +°3« 

This, by tiie circumftances of the hiftory, rnuft have been 
Philaretus, who had been left to guard the banks of the 

^ Cedrenus; Univ. hill. vol. xvii. p. 130. ^ Ebn Amid-. 

p. 343, & feq. 

(O) Aleppo, the antient Ber- 45. Schultens index geogr. ati"- 

h/ea, according to Cedraius and vit. Sakciini, art. Mcnbesjiim. 
Others. (Q^) Called alfo Kelidt, and 

(P) The ancient BaiKhyee^ KalB.*- ; a city on the north fidtf -' 
called afterwards tUerapQlls. of the lake of /-^'<f«, three days 

In the prefent copies of Pliny journey to the north q^ Bcdih, 

it is faid to be named /ifoecj^ by or Bitlh. It formerly a'' 

the Syrians, inflead of Mchog; very famous place, the feat of ' 

which is a corruption of Man- many prince^', and capital of'" 

htjy or Manhe, and that of P^z/j- Annenva. Cedrenus and l^ke- 

ii, or TZthar Pamte, ihii PerJ-mn phor us Bnemt: us wntt Kleatl It' 

word for cotton. See Hyde, in- wars- their iirche- hands of th.b 
noc. Ad l-'eritfol. itiav mu.-.d'i-p.-'fa.-ij, 

' _ ^ ■ EnhhrdteS 


112 The Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

Euphrates (R). The Byzantine hiftorians farther relate, 
that the Turks, after this viftory, advanced into Cilicia, and 
furprized I/conium, the principal city of that province : but 
that hearing of the emperor's approach, they, after plunder- 
ing it, retired in hafte. However, the Armenians falling 
upon them in the plains of Tar/us, put them to flight, and 
(fripped them of every thing. 
The einfe- In the fpring following, the emperor marched anew into 
ror Dio- j4fia, at the head of a confiderablc army, which he had raifed 
genes ^nd difciplincd during the winter. But, contrary to the ad- 
vice o{ Niccphorus Brycnnius, who, commanding the left wing 
of his army, with others, would have had him wait for the 
Turks in Cappadocia, he marched to Mazckerta (S) ; and, di- 
viding his army into two parts, fent one of them to Kleat 
(T), a fmall town belonging to the Turks : between whom 
and the Romans feveral Ikirmiilies happened, in one of which, 
Bafdacius, one of the emperor's chief officers, was killed ; a 
juft reward for his wrong advice and falfe intelligence. At 
length Romanus, refohing to come to a general engagement, 
marched forwards with his army, in three bodies, of which 
he commanded the centre "*. But as an account has been 
already given of the battle from the Creek hilforians \ we 
Iball here confine ourfelves to what the oriental authors have 
related on that occafion. 
attacks the Ebn Jimd informs us' in general, that the Soltan having 
Turks. jj^et the Ronian emperor on the 26th of the month Dhiilkada, 
463, in a place called Zahra, gave him battle on a Friday, 
and defeated his forces ; of which an incredible number were 
killed, and the emperor himfelf taken '". But the beff ac- 
count we have as yet from the oriental authors, of this re- 
markable battle, is that given by Abulfaraj. In the year 
above-mentioned (fays this author), Romanus (U) DiogeneSy 
the Rotnan emperor, marched with an army of 100,000 men 
to' Malazkcrd (X), in the territory of Khalat. The Soltan, 
who was then at Khunaj, in the province oi Jdherbijan, hcar- 

^ NicEPH. Bryen. in Cond. c. v. § 5. ^ Univ. hift. vol. 

jcvii. p. 131, & feq. ""Ebn Amid. p. 343. 

(R) The Lebtarikh obfcrves, (T) Kelldt, or Aklat. 

that Alp Arf.djt was the firft (U) This author writes Ro- 

'/a^/v}}^ Soltan who pafTed this marius. A'oW/jm/V, and the other 

river : but it does not appear orientals, Ormauus. 

when he did it, by either the (X) This Teems to be Mazi' 

eallern or weftern authors. kt'rta, r\ea.rKieat, mentioned by 

(S) 'i'hc fame wiu"! MtJdz- i^Vc. Bryen. in the hill, of Ro- 

jerd. vianus, cap. 5. 

3 "'S 

C. 2 . Second Sohdn, A Ip ArH a n . 113 

ing of this, made hafle to meet him, though able to draw 
together no more than 15,000 horfe (Y). When the armies 
were in fight, he fent to the emperor to dehre peace ; but 
his anfwer was, that he would make none with him, unlefs 
he furr^ndered up the city Ray (Z), or Rey. The Soltan, 
provoked at this, on Fr/fl(Tj/ afternoon put up prayers to God, 
with tears in his eyes, before his army, who wept themfclves 
to fee their monarch weep. 

Before he engaged, he gave thofe leave to return VfhoTheSol- 
had a mind. Then carting away his bow and arrows, ht^^^i'^ bra- 
took his fword, and an iron fceptre, grafping his horfe's '^^'J* 
taiJ in his hand, as all his foldiers did after him. He dreffed 
himlelf in white (A) ; and brewing on perfun.ies. If I -am 
Jlain (B), faid he, this -will fcrve mc for a ivinding Jljcet. 

After a bloody battle the Creeks, were put to ll'ght, andT/^<^ empC" 
a multitude of them killed : their emperor was taken prifoner,^*'" taktn, 
by a ilave named ShCidi (C) ; and being difcovered by the 
ambafflidor, Shddi, lighting olf his hcrfe, paid him reve- 
rence, and then brought him to /Up Jr/Ian. T'ac Soitdn, 
patting him three times with his hand, faid. Did r.ot I fend 
to you with propofals of peace, and you ivoidd not hearken to 

(Y) According to Kondamir 
he had no more than i 2,000, 
and the Greeks 300,000. But 
we prefer the account of Eb?: 
Amid, which gives room to be- 
lieve, that he had near 40,000 • 
becaufe, from the relation given 
of the battle by Niccphorus Bry- 
enniits, who commanded the left 
wing of the Roman army, the 
Turks feem to have been as nu- 
merous as the Rufnatis, who, be- 
fore the battle, were divided in- 
to two parts ; and one of them 
fent to befiege Kleat or Kalat. 
See Niceph. Bryen. hift, oiConJi. 
Ducasy i>cRomanus Diogenes, cap . 
5 & 6. 

(Z) In Ferfian Irak, and then 
the capital of his dominions. 

(A) Perhaps from hence cal- 
led Ak Han, or the n.vhite prince, 
according to the Greek hiftori- 
ans, who write Axan. 

(B) Yet Bryennius fpeaks as 
if the Soltan did not expofe him- 

MoD.HisT. Vol. IV, 

felf to danger in the battle ; But, 
leaving the whole condu(5l of it 
to Tarang, an eunuch, one of 
his generals, gave his orders at 
a dillance. 

(C According to M^rhnd 
and Kondamir, the emperor was 
taken by Javaher, one of the 
Soltan's generals, who was fent 
to purfue the Remans. On this 
occafion hiltorians relate, that 
the Soltan, reviewing his troops 
before the battle, had a mind 
to difmjfs one of his foldiers, 
becaufe he feemcd to be very ill 
made : but an ofHcer prevented 
it, by telling his niajeily he was 
very brave ; and that poilibly 
that very man, whom he dc- 
fpifed fo much, might take the 
Greek emperor priforer. As the 
officer foretold, fo it happened ; 
and the horfeman, inliead of 
being cafhiered, was advanced 
to the highell polls in thi army. 


mf ? 

T 1 4 The Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

mc ? The emperor replied, Do not reproach me, and do ivhat 
you think ft : then alked the Soltan, What ivculd you have 
done to me, if I had fallen into your hands F 1 fjoidd have 
infixed fome infamous kind of puntjhment on you, anfwered 
the emperor. Jnd ivhat, faid the Sohan, do you think I 
fall do to you ? Either put vie to death, reply 'd Romanus^ 
carry me through your dominions for a fpeclacle to every bo- 
dy, or elf (ivhat is beyond my hopes) fparc me, en payment 
The Sol- of a ranfom, and a j^ point me your deputy. Tet this laf is the 
tan s gene- 'May, faid the Soltan, that I intend to deal by you. Accord- 
t^>fity. ingly he fct him at liberty, on condition of paying a million 
of crowns in gold (D), and difmifling all the Mohammedan j^n- 
foners in his empire. 

Whi:n matters were thus concluded, the Soltan made 
the emperor fit in the throne with him : then had a tent 
fet up for him, fending him 10,000 pieces of gold, for his 
fubfifleace. He likev/ife fet free many Roman lords, prefent- 
ing them, as well as the emperor, with veils, by way of ho- 
nour. At parting, he fent an army to efcort him to a place 
of fafety, and accompanied him on his way tho fpace of a 
Emperor s When Romanus arrived at the caftle of Daivkiya (E)-, and 
burdjate. was told that Michael had afcended the throne, he put on a 
religious habit, and difpatchcd a courier to let the new em- 
peror know what kind of peace he had made with the Sol- 
tan. Then coUeffing 200,000 crowns in gold,hefent them to 
■ the Soltan (F), folemnly protefting, that it was not in his 
power to do more. Ebn Amid adds, that, in his way back 
to Conftautinoplc, the king of Armenia ordered him to be 
felzcd, and, having put out his eyes (G), fent advice thereof 

(D) £^ff^OT?^fays,T,(;oo,ooo, (F) Alfo a precious ftone, 
befides an annual tribute of worth 90,000 gold crowns, ac- 
^60,000, which the Lthtar'ikh cording to Ebn Amid. This is 
i'wells to ten millions. Kondu- poflibly no other than the rich 
viU- relates, that the emperor pearl called the Orphan, which 
was obliged, by the treaty, to was found in the emperor's tent 
'TJve his daughter in marriage after he was taken. 

to the Soltan's fon ; and that (G) The way of putting out 

the condition was pundually the eyes, or blinding, with the 

performed. Greeks 2.r\A AJiatics; was not by 

(E) Niceph Bryennlus cn\\s\t pulling or cutting out the eyes, 
Dokia : it was in Armevia minor, as fome have imagined, but by 
probably towards the borders of drawing, or holding a red hot 
Ciliiia. iron before them. This method 

is ftill in ufe in Af:a. 


C. 2. ' Second Soltdriy Alp Arflan. ii^ 

to the Soltan ". But this is contrary to the account of the 
Greeks, which has been already given in another place o. 

After this great \\^ox^, Alj) Arjldn, according to xh^ConqueJi if 
Lebtarikh, marched mioGurjijian, ox Georgia; which having Georgia, 
conquered, he deprived the great lords of their libert}-, and 
obliged them to wear iron rings in their ears, as a mark of 
their flavery (H) : to avoid which ignominy, many of them 
turned Mohjinmedajis . However, the country was not fo 
thoroughly fubdued, but that there remained a great number 
of ftrong holds in the mountains, which required much time 
to reduce ; and as the Sultan was called away by other af- 
fairs, he left his fon Malek Shuh to continue the war. 

The mod famous fiege undertaken by this prince, \\'h.Q, Famstu 
to finilh the conqueft which his father began, liad the ioxt-Jtcge. 
redes of mount Cauc.xfus to fubdue, was that of a place 
called, in the Perfian, Miriam Nijhin, that is, the place, or 
dtvclling, of Alary ; on account of a monaflery and church 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, fituated in the middle of a 
lake. Malek Shcih chofe for the attack the beft of his troops, 
whom he put into boats, with ladders and grappling irons 
for fcaling the walls : but juft when they were going to make 
the aflault, there arofe fo furious a ftorm on the lake, and^^^^^*^" 
the fky was darkened to fuch a degree, that nothing could>'^^'''^' "■^^'^ 
be done. This ftorm was followed by fo violent an earth-^^'v'' 
quake, that both the befiegers and the befieged, the7'?/rA'j- and^"" ^* 
the Chrijlians, expecled to be fwallowed up together. How- 
ever, the latter fuffered moft by it ; for part of their walls 
falling into the lake, when the elements were fettled again, 
the Turks, without any difficulty, forced the place, and ruin- 
ed the monaftery, which was reforted-to mofi of any in Ceor' 
gia, on account of devotion P. 

The affairs which called the Soltan away from Georgia,The Soltan 
as is before remarked, were his preparations for the conqueft/o^^i 
of Turkejlan : he fet out, at length, with that view, in the 
year 465 (I), at the head of 200,000 men, towards Mawa-Yit]. 465. 
ra'lnahr. When he came to the Jihun, or Jmu, he laid a A. D. 
bridge over that river, for the pafTage of his army, which 1072. 

" Abu'lf. p. 227, & feq. ° Univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 133. 

P Vessaia, ap. D'Herb. p. 103. Art. Alp Arflan. 

(H)- According to the Lf^//ar- (I) E bn Jmt^l (z.ys he fet out 

rUh, inltead of the iron ring from Baghdad in the month of 

which was the mark of flavery Safar, of the year 464. HJft, 

before, he ordered them to wear Saracen, p. 344. 
a horfe-fl^oc in their ears. 

I 2 being 

ii6 77:7(? Seljuks ^/ Iran. B.I 

being (o numerous, t(x/,<. up twenty days. Here flaying toj 
Berzcm take in certain caftles, he Hrll attacked that of Beizcm, 
a^fie. Barzam {K), in which Titff Kot/}u,i/, {inhiutpid Kara Z7nini 
commanded (L). This governor defended the place vigo 
rouHy for federal da\s ; but being at h\l\ taken by force, tin 
Soltan ordered him to be brought into his prefence, an 
gave him very injurious language, for daring to hold out 
(o long agai nil fnch an army as his. Ttifcf, who rather ex- 
pected that the Soltan would have praifed his valour, being 
provoked at fuch outrageous treatment, anfwered with a 
gre It deal of warmth, and at lull loll all rdpecfl. Where- 
upon .///> Arjlan ordered his hands and feet to be bound to 
four polls, that he might be put to a cruel death. 
Isjlaln^ TUSEF, upon hearing his fenterrce pronounced, took out 
a knife, which he had in one ol his boots ; and threatening 
the Solrdn, faid, ivickcd man, is this the treatment -which 
a pcrfon of my jm-rit dcfcrvcs ? and advancing at the fame 
time to rtrike at* the king, the guards would have fallen up- 
onhim : but that prince, who had not his equal either for 
flrength, or Ihooting with thebow, hindered them from top- 
ping him ; and let fly an arrow (M) at Tufif, which miffed 
/)' the go- him. Tufcf, hereupon, full of fury, ran at the Soltan with 
'veifKjr. all his force, and mortally wounded him (N) ; after which 
he defended himfelf a long time againll that prince's guards, 
wounding feveral of them, till one of the pages (O) of the 
Soltan's chamber felled him with a club i. Another author 
relates, that, as r///!/" fprang forward, the Soltan rofe, in or- 
der to defcend from the throne ; but that, his foot Hipping, 
he fell on his face : that then Tiiftf, leaping upon him, kept 
him down with his knee, and ftabbed him in the flank : that 
the Soltan rifmg, went into another tent ; and one of the 
N pages knocked the murderer on the head '. 
Hisreflcc- ALP Arjlchi lived for fome hours after this misfortune : 
tion there- when, finding himfelf near his end, he (aid to thofe about 

^ Epn Amid. p. 344. Abu'lfar. p. 228. Kond. ap. D' 
Kerb. p. 103, art. Alp Arllan. ' Abu'lfaraj. hift. dy- 

nall. p. 228. 

{^)\vit\i&Lehtarikh,Barxa. [O] The Lebtar'ikh {;iys he,j 

(L) ¥.bn Atnid lays, he had would have efcapcd, if G'rt;:»7f<7A 

rebelled againflthe Soltan. the page had not knocked him 

(M) Both Ebn Amid and the on the head with a Hone. Abiil^ 

Lebtar'ikh fay he fhot three ar- faraj fays it was done with a 

rows at him. hammer. 

(N) In the fide, according to 
Etn Amid, 

7 ^^ 


C. 2. Second Soliafjj A\p Ar^ldn. 117 

him, / now call to mind tivo pieces of advice which formerly 
•were given to me by a wife old inan^ my maftcr .- thefrji ivas. 
Never to defpife any perfon : the fecond, Never to have too 
great an opinion of one's felf : neverthclefs I have of ended 
againjl thefe tvoo important rules thcfc two lafl days of my 
life :for yejierday beholding from an eminence the great iium- 
her of my troops, I imagined that there was not any Power 
on earth able to rcfiji mc ; nor any man who dared to attack 
me (P) : and to-day, forbidding my guards to Jtop that man 
v:ho was inaking at 7nc with the knife in his hand, I believed 
I had both frcngth and fill enough to defend myfelf But I 
voiv perceive that no force nor addrefs can withjtand de/liny ^. 

This prince reigned nine years (Q^) fix months and twelve t^i' age, 
d;iys, and lived forty -four years and three months ; for he 
was born in 421, and died in 465 (R). He was buried at 
Marii (S), one of the four cities of Khorafdr, with this epi- 
taph : All yon, who have beheld the grandeur of x^lp Arllan 
raifed to the very heavens, come to Maru, a7id yon ivill fee 
him buried under the duft. 

He was very brave and liberal; juft, patient, witty, and ''^'^ <''^^- 
iincere ; conffant in prayer, and gi\ing alms : he greatly fear- ^^<^c>'' 
ed God, and was a flrenuous advocate for Mohammedifm ' . 
His ihape and mien fo very engaging (T), that he gained the 
refpect and affeiftion of all who approached him. He had 
very long whiilcers, and wore commonly a very high turban, 
made in form of a crown. His power was fo very great in 
Afta, that there have been feen at the foot of his throne, no 
fewer than 12,000 princes, or fons of princes, paying their 
court to him ". 

= KoND. ap. D'Herb. ubi fupra. ' Ebn Amid. p. 345.; 

" KoND. ubi fupr. p. 104. 

(P) Ehn Amid, who reports about the tenth of ^«^'v/7/im/-; 

this pafTagc with fome fmall va- the Lehtarikh, about the end of 

nation, makes him alfo fay ; that month. 

that he never undertook any- (S) Som'e write iV/^z/-w«; 'tis 

thing, excepting this time, with- Maru Shahjdn, mentioned in a 

out imploring the divine affifl- former note, 

ance. (TYYh.tLchtarzkh,'^: i^z. fays, 

(Q^) The Lebtarikh, by fome that his afpeft and huge fize 

miftake,has two years. ftruck people v.'ith fear. 

(R) Ehi Amid fays, it was 

I 3 SECT. 

ii8 The Sc\]uks of hzn. B.I. 


The Reign of iMalek Shah. 

5^ST)ltan. TIJ.^LEK Sklh fiicceeded his father Jlp Jrjlan, accord- 
Malck •^'■^ ir.g to his appointment before related, ahhough he was 
Shah. not his eldcrt fon. He was induced to declare him his fuc- 
ceflbr by the counfel of his Wazir Nczam a! Molk. The 
name and furnames of this Soltan at length are Moez-addin 
AbiClfetah Malck Shah. Inftead o{ Moez-adJin, fome put "Ja- 
lal-OiUin, or Jaldl-oddciivhit * ; others, JalaWddin ''. 

J L P Jr/ldn was no fooncr dead, tlian he was acknow- 
Itged lawful heir and fucccfTor of his father, at the head of 
Kamcsaiid\.\\t armies which lie jiad commanded (A). The Khalifah 
tiles. alfo ftnt iiim his confirmation of the title and power of Sol- 

tan ; adding thereto e\en the quality of yhnir dl Momcninf 
that is, commander of the faithful, which, till then, theKha- 
Ijfahs had referved to th.emfclves, without conferring it on 
any A'hhammcdan prince whatc^'er. 

He was likcwife proclaimed throughout his dominions by 
the name of Jalal-oddawl-'t ivaoddin, that is, the glory of 
the flate and religion. It M'as on account of this title falcd^ 
that the reformation of the Perfian calendar, which was made 
in his reign, was called Tarikh Jaklli, that is, the Jalakan 
kalendar c, of which an account will be given hereafter. 
His uncles As foon as Maruhil, fon of Da-^vd, or Jaf'ar Bek, heard 
rehil. of Jlp Jrfldnz death, he fet out from Rn)\ in order to ob- 
tain the crown : but Alalek Shcih meeting him on the fourth 
day of 5/>i3Pi//2 (B), nc^^r Hamad an, his forces were defeated, 
. and himfelf taken prifoner ''. Kaderd, a fon of Jaffar Bek 
alfo, another of his uncles, ralfed Hill a more dangerous re- 
bellinn againft him. He was governor of the province of 
Kerman (C), and advanced with a confiderable force even as A';<r/, ov Gurj. The Soltan fent the troops of A'^?r^z- 
f:n, which had always been viftorious in his father's reign, 

» So Rp.N Ak^d. hill. S.rac^n. p. viv *" As the author 

of the LtBTARiKH. ' KoND. A'iiKK. NicHiARis r. ap. D' 

Herb. p. 542, art. Malek Schah. ^ Ebn Amio. p. 345. 

(A) As foon a-; he afcended that this adion feems to have 

the throne, he went to Mrrriin, happened the fame year, 
or Maiu, and there buried his (C) He was properly Soltan 

father. E^»J.~r'.^. h\i\. Saraccn. of Krrwrn ; being the founder 

p 345. of the i'ri^/^'A dynaily reigning in 

(iJ) I'ue eighth month. So that country: by ion^c Kufdcrd, 



C. 2. Third SoUdn, Malek Shah. 1 19 

to oppofe him. The two armies, after harrafllng each other 
for three days and nights, came to a general engagement ; 
which proved one of the mofl bloody that ever happened in 
Perfia. At length the viflory fell to Malek Shah ; and Ka- Kaderd 
derd, being taken prifoner, was fent under a flrong guard to ^"^"^ P''^' 
a caHIe in Khorafdn. On this llgnal fuccefs, which eftablifhed-^^"^'"' 
the new Soltan's authority, the troops grew fo infolent, that 
their principal commanders infifted on having their pay dou- 
bled, threatening otherwife to fet Kaderd on the throne, 

MALEK ShAh, perceiving that the name of a competitor //n is poi* 
was fufficient to give occafion to his troops to revolt, ho.(MoneJ, 
Kaderd poifoned the fame night, in prifon. Next morning, 
when the officers of the army came to know the Soltan's an- 
fwer, the Wazlr, who probably had a hand in what was 
done, told them ; that he had not been able as yet to prefent 
their petition to the Soltan, becaufe he found him over- 
whelmed with grief the night before, on the unexpefted 
death of his uncle, who, driven to defpair, had taken poifon, 
which he carried in one of his rings. This anfwer flopped 
the mouths of the officers and the whole army all at once : 
for they talked no more of the augmentation of pay, when 
they found the perfon was dead who only could ha^•e favoured 
^^ their mutiny*^. 

In 468, Msis, the Karazjnian (D), one of Malek Sha//s -'^^^{^f"^* 
generals, marched toDainaJhus ; and, befieging it, conflrained^*-^-;^)'''^^' 
the inhabitants, by flimine, to capitulate. He likcwife reduced }' 1°^'* 
molt part of Syria (E), and caufed the oration to be made, in 
the name of Jl Moktadi, Khalifah of Bagdod (F) : although 
afterwards that honour reverted to the Khallfahs of Egypt ^ 
Next year he marched into Egypt ; which fo frighted Al A. D, 
Mojlanfir Billa, the Khalifahy that he refolved to fly. But 1076, 



. * KoND. Sec. ubi fupr. 

(D) EbiiJmid calls him Ifdr, 
furnamed Afsis. 

(E) According to Kondamir, 
Malek Shah fent his coufin So- 
leymdn, ion oi KotolmjJh,xh^ year 
before, with an army to fub- 
due all Syria ; which he did, in 
a Ihort time, as far as Antioch, 
then a confiderable city (i). 
But this is rendered improbable, 
not only by this expedition of 
Atsih or Akus^ but alfo by the 

(i) WHitb, p. 542, 

f A 

AULF. p. 237 

hiftory afterwards, which puts 
that country in other hands. 
Befides, we are told by the 
fame author, that Mah'k Shah 
gave ^Jia minorXO Sohjmdn ; and 
find, from other quarters, that 
the latter did not enter Syrii^ 
till the year 477 of the Hejrah. 
(F) He fucceeded Al Kayhn 
Bcmrillah, who died the yeai' 
before ; after a reign of forty ^ 
four years and half. 
art. M^lek Sb^b, 

I A tho 

I20 The Scljuks of Ivzn. B.I. 

the citizens of Jl Kahera (or Kayro) and Saivdan advancing 
againft him, ck'^Vatcd his troops, though nuich fiipcrior in 
nun"il)er. \<\ liis way back to Damajhts, he put great numbers 
to the fwoid at R.Lmla ((J) and "Jervfalem. 
Tatafti M AJ^EK Shah, lufpefting that yiksis had been flain in his 

/ent tht' Egypticui expedition, wrote to his brother Tnj oddawlat Ta- 
ther. fe^lj (H), in 470, to go and conquer Syria. When Taj ar- 

h. D. y\xc(\ at Dly\rb:kry he found Aksis, lord of Darnajliis, was 
^°77- jilivt; : Mho, hearing that the other was advancing againfl 
him, offered to pay an annual tribute. Malek Shah, accept- 
ing thereof, wrote to his brother to depart from Manbcj (I). 
lie did fo, and went from thence to Halep, then poflefled by 
. Sabak al Jrnm Ebn Mahmiid Ebn Nafr Ebn Mar das : but, not 

being able to take the place, returned hy Ha r ran (K) to Di- 
yarbakr ; which put JMofiem Ebn Korais, lord of NaJ'ilii and 
Senjar, upon his guard ^. 
Mawa,- In 471, Malek Shah undertook the conquefl of the country 
ra'lnahr beyond the river Jihun or .-hnu j whofe Khan, called Soleyvuwy 
(ovquer^d. he took prifoner, after defeating his army ; and lent him giiard- 
Hpj. 471 gd to Ifbahaa, then the capital of his dominions. In this war, 
^- ^- Ntz/im al Molk (L) gave the watermen, who had ferried the 
^*^7 • Soltan's forces over the 7/7;««, for their trouble, an afTignment, 
infii-ad of money, on the revenues of the city of Jntkkh. The 
men having made their complaint to Malek Shah, he afked the 
Wazir, why he had appointed a fund at fuch a diftance for 
paying off thofe poor people ? *' It is not, replied that mdni- 
ifer, to delay the payment, but to make pollerity admire at 
the largenefs and extent of the dominions which you poilefs, 
when they fhall hear of money received at ,-Iniiokh for pay- 
njent of Sailors belonging to the Cafpian fea, and of water- 

8 Ebn Amid, p. 349. 

(C The antient Ruma in we make no doubt but 7atajh, 

J^.i-::icn. Tetejh, o-" TotoJ}:) (for it may bp 

(M) In the copies of £r^f?;/- read thofe three wayb), is the 

Ui and Vai',er it is Nifus, in- true word, 

ileaji o^ Tatajh \ occafioncd, (I) Named Hierapclis and 

doubileis, by the wrong point- Bamhyce by the Greeks. 

ing cf the letters ; a thing (K) The antient Haran and 

very comTiOn with the Jrab Karr^ in Alefopotamia. 

copilb. TJie three letters, of (L) Nazam, or Nozafn, as 

vvhich the name confifts, are the Pfr/ians, but }\edhdtn, Na- 

poit\ted three different ways in dhdm, or NjJdm, as the Jr/^is 

Jbulfaraj'x). But, as theGrff/^ pronounce it. It fignifies, or«/?- 

Hvriters call this prjnce 'Tu^us, meat ofthejlatc. 

(I ) f. 3C6 fif 376, 


C. 2. "^hird Soltan^ Maiek Shah. i24 

men who plied on the Jihun. " This fancy pleafed Malek 
Shah exceedingly ; efpecially, when he faw that the Wazil* 
paid ofF the notes immediately. 

That fame year the Soltan married Ttirkan or TarkAnMsXek 
Khatim, daughter of Tamgaj Khan (M), fon of Bagra Khan ; ShahV 
who, in 479, brought him a fon, called Sanjar (N), from li'narriagee, 
little city of that name in KhorafAn, where he was born ''. 

On the return of Ibrahim Ebn Majfml (ninth Soltan of 
the Gaznah race) from hidia, where he had made confide- 
rable conquefts, Malek Shah made great preparations to in- 
vade him (O) : but was prevailed on by his ambaffadors to 
defilf, and make an alliance, by marrying his daughter to 
Majjudy Ibrahtni's fon; who fucceeded him (P) in 481 \ 
' In 472, the army of Mefr, or Egypt, coming to befiege Afsis 
Damajhin, Jfsts fent for help to Taj oddaiulat ; on whofe^^"'. 
approach the Egyptians retired. Hereupon Jfsis, coming to ^^j- 472. 
"vifit him, was feized, and llain, by his order. Then, taking ^- ^* 
the city, he becam.e mafler of all his riches and effe6ls. ^°79- 
After this, the inhabitants, who had fled into Perjia, to avoid 
the tyranny ot Afsis, returned, to enjoy the protection of the 
Seljtikians ( Q^). 

The fame year, Shcvf oddawlat Ebn Mojlem Ebn Karats, Affairs of 
lord of Miifol, having obtained leave of Malek Shah, to fub- Halep, 
due Halep, on condition of paying him 300,000 gold crowns 
annually, marched againft that city ; and, after befieging it 
for fome time, it v^^as, with the cattle, delivered up to him ; 
paying to Sabak al Amin 20,000 crowns every year. 

^ KoND. &c. ap. D'Herb. p. 542. ' Texeira, hift. 

Perf. p. 302. D'Herb. p. 480, art. Ibrahim Ben Maflbud. 

(M) Ehn Atmd, p. 356. calls as he makes him reign fcrty- 

him Terakh, king of the Turks, two years, thofe joined to 445, 

or defcendant of y^-/2/2^/^, when Abdal Rajhid was flain, 

(N) It ought to be Mahmud; amount to but 487 of the Hej- 

whom Hie wanted to be her huf- rah, or of Chrijl 1094. 

band's fueceflbr. For Satijar ( Q_) Mojidfa Haji Khalifah 

wab by another venter, as will makes a fourth dynafty of Sel- 

appear hereafter. jukians, which began this year 

(O) As neither of our au- in Halep, and other places of 

thors mention the date of thjs Syria, founded by Tatajh above- 

tranfadtion, we choofe to refer mentioned. It lalled about forty 

it to this time, when we find years, ending in the year 511, 

Malek Shah marching north- on the death of Soltan Moham- 

»vard. med. D'Herb. p. 80 1, art. 

(P) D'flerbelot, p. 480. puts Seljmian. 
his death in 492, or 1098 : but 


122 T'i'^ SeJjuks of Iran. B.I. 

and Next year, Sedid oddmulnt AbiC l-hajfan All Elm Mankiid 

Shayzar. took the caftle of Shayzar (R) from the Romans, with a 
Hej. 1-73- great army; and it continued in the pofll'fTion of his family 
•^- ^- till it -was taken by Mahmud al Adel Nur oddin Ebn Zika (S), 
^° °' after an earthquake, which had dtllroyed the place. Sedid 
oddawlat, who was an excellent prince, and eminent poet, 
dying in 475, his fon, AbiTl-mcrhaf al ^ufr, furnamed I\Ialck 
oddaiulat, fucceeded him, at Shayzar. 
Relcllion I^f477» Malek Shtlh fent his gcner.d Kajlakar {T) to Bagh- 
ef Ta- d'ld, as his lieutenant there; at which time his Wazlr's fon 
kafli. was in that city. The fame year, his brother TakaJJj (U) rc- 
Hej. 477. belled againft him; and, having taken Aiarwa, gave his 
■^- ■^- army leave to plunder it for three days, while he and his 
*°^4- afTociates lay with the won]en, and di-ank wine in the great 
temple, in the month of Ravtadh^n (W). Malek Shah 
marching againft him, he retired into the caftle of Bcrjes ; 
which being taken, he was imprifoned elfewhere. 
Soleyman The fame year, Shdrf odduwlat Ebn Kcrays, lord of Ha- 
Shah Icp and Mufol, marched to attack Aiitiokh, then in poflef- 
J/ain. fion of Soleymati Ebn KotobmJJj (X) ; who put his forces to 
flight, and he died of his wounds. Soltan Taj cddaivlat. 
Tie]. 478.^C3ring of his death, marched towards Halcp the next year, 
A. D. accompanied by Ortok, the Turkman, who had fubdued 
1085. Ilolu'dn (Y) and Habela. Both thefe agreeing to invade So- 
leymAn, prince of Antiokh, they fought fevcral battles with 
him, under the walls of Halep ; in the lal\ of which SoLy- 
jncln was fiain, and his forces routed. By this means Ha- 
lep (Z) fell into the hands of Taj odda-^vLit, who became 
maftcr ot all Syria ^. 

The Greek hiftorians fay, that the Great Soltan, being 
informed of the fuccefs of Tutus (A) (us they call Taj od- 
daivlat), and fearing he fliould grow too powerful, to 
itrengthen hinifeU, fc^it to propole an alliance of marriage 

^ Ebn Amid, p. 350, &; feq. 

fR' This p'ace, which is fitu- th" fame name : Taj oddat^:lat 

ated on the river /Jjji, or Oron- heino; called A7/«/ alio. 
/«, IS the fame called by riiewii- (VV) Which is their Z-^;/^. 
ters of the holy war C.c/aria. (X) Both the MSS. of Erpe- 

(S) Kather 7.evghi. nizn and I'aticr have Ptolemy. 

(T) Jn P'atier's copy Aijla- (Y) Hokk-an is a city in the 

kar, or Extakar, as he wriies it. nordiern horder of Ar/ibian Ira/^t, 

(U) It is Ni/us in the copies nenr that oi Pf'/ian hak. 
af Erpfniu! and Vaiirry doubt- ['/>) It fhould feem rather 

lefs, by a niiflake in wvitir.g or Antiokh, or both ci;ies. 
pointing the Icrtn;. For he (A) Rather y^.^yv, according 

could pot have two hrothcrb of to Ab.'i'Ifaroj. 


C. 2. Third SoMft, Mcilck Sh\h. 123 

between a fon of his and a daughter of the emperor Jlex- 
is 1 : the fuccefs of which fhall be relaied, in the hiftory 
of the Scljuh of Rtim, or Jfia minor. 

In 483, the Bathaniya.h (B), that is, Bathaniajis, ox B a- Rife of the 
tanijls, began to fubdue caifles in Pcrfian Irak and Dilem.ajj'afjins. 
The firfl they took was in this lafl: province, and called T^z/t/^^r. Hej. 483. 
Jt belonged to Kamak, a fubjeft to Malek Shhh ; and was de- -^- ^' 
livered to Hajfan Ehn Mafhak, for 1200 crowns, by the go- »09°- 
vernor, who turned Batanifi. This Hajjan was a native of 
Mariva, and had been fecretary to Abdolrezak, at Haram. 
Afterwards going to Egypt, he met with a Batantjl, who 
brought him over to their perfuafion ; and, by confent of the 
people, made him grand mafter, and head of the fe6t. He 
had many followers ; and, growing confiderable, Malek Shah 
fent him a threatening meflage, requiring his obedience. 

The ambafliidor being brought before him, he fent for Their i/t- 
a company of his people, and commanded one of them, zirepidity. 
young man, to kill himfplf ; which he did, without hefita- 
tion. He ordered another to throw himfelf headlong from 
the top of the caflle ; which he performed that inflant, and 
broke his neck. After this, he told the envoy, that he had 
no other anfwer to fend the Soltan, than that he had 70,000 
men at his (Command, who obeyed him in the manner which 
he had feen. The Soltan was furprized when thcfe things 
were reported to him ; and, having other affairs on his hands, 
let the Batan'ifls alone. They afterwards took feveral other 
caflles ; and, among the reft, that of Jl Mut (C) ; which was 
their ftrongefl hold, and royal feat ^. 

These bravoes quickly grew famous for their daring mur- 
ders : one of which was perpetrated foon after, on the per- 
fon of Nczam al JMolk, Wazir to Malek Shah, one of the 
greatefl perfonages among the Mohammedans , who had been 
depofed a little while before. 

The occafion of this V/azir's difgrace is fomewhat dif- Difgracs 
ferently related by authors ; though all agree, that it was of the 


1 Ann. CoMN. Alex. 1. vi. c. 8. "^ Ebn. Amid, p. 353. 

(B) Thefe are the followers of to deftroy. They are known 

Hafan Sabah, who founded the in our hiftorieb chiefly by the 

dyhafty called The Ifmaelians name of aflaffins. For a fa»-ther 

o/Perlia, in the year and place account of them, and their fe- 

jnentioned in the text, The veral dynafties, fee D'Herbeloty 

Bathanians were abfolutely de- art. Bathania, Ifmaelians, and 

voted to the fcrvice of their Haf'an Sabah. 
prince; by whofe order they (C) Or Al Maivt ; which 

either flew themfelves, or any fsgnifies death. 
pei^fon whopi they had a mind 


i24 "the Sdjiilcs of Iran. B. I. 

owing to fome imprudent or unguarded cxpreflions of his, in 
anlwcr to the Soltan'y mcinigc to him, concerning the infolent 
lxha\iour ot one or more of his Ions ; of whom \vc are told 
he liad tweh'c. Kondamir writes, that it was brought about 
by the Soitana; ^vho, incenfcd agaiiiil him, for oppoiing her 
defign of geting her youngefl fon (D) declared Malck Shdh'^ 
iucceflbr, accufed him of abfolutcly difpofing of all places 
in the government, and dividing them among his fons. 
Nczam The Solran, offended that he fliould a(5l in fnch manner 
alMollc. without confulting him, fcnt to tell him, that if he did not 
alter his conduct, he ivoidd oblige him to rij'ign the cap and 
ink-Jland ; which were the marks of his dignity and power. 
Nezam, nettled at this menace, anfwercd, that the cap which 
he -wore, andthcpojl he poJJ'effl'd, iverc Jo united to the crown and 
throne by the eternal decree of providence, that thofe fjur 
things could not fubfift without each other. This anfwcr, tho' 
bold, will admit of a good meaning : but it was altered by 
the meflenger, who was in the Soltana's intcrefl:, in fuch a 
manner, that Malek Shah, exafperated to the hi\ degree, de- 
prived the Wazlr of his employment that inflant, and gave it 
to Taj al Molk Kami, chief of the Soltana's counfeliors ; with 
a commilTion to examine into the mifmanagements of his pre- 
decelfor '■. 
^Ic caufc According to Jhmed Ebn Mohavvmd, author of the 
cjit. Nighiariftdn, the caufe of the Wazir's difgrace was his fon 
Mowiad al J\'k)lk, who had been made fecretary of ftate, 
turning out Alib, the firft clerk in the office, an excellent 
writer, though put in by the Soltan's order; and anfwering, 
when Malck Shah ftnt to have him reitored, that he had 
fivorn never to employ that man ; and believed the Soltnn would 
not have him be guilty of perjury. The Soltan leplied, in 
anger, if Mowiad has fivorn not to employ Adib, / have made 
vo fuch oith : much lefs have I f worn to continue Mowhd in 
his anphyment : and at the fame time ordered Alib to be 
made iecretary in his room. Moutad, after that, having 
com.menced a violent profccution againll one of 3Ialek Shah's 
chief officers, that prince fent the Wazlr word, that he could 
no Ioniser bear the inpAcnce of his fons ; and that, iinlcfs a 
flop zvas put to it, he Jhould be obliged to take the govern^ 
ment of the flatc out of his hands. It was on this occafion 

" KoND. ap. D'Hcrb. p. 543, art. Malck Schah, 

(D) Kondamir calls him ^an- fet up, on the death of her ])uf- 
//7> ; bi:t it mud be a miftake 

for Mahmiidy whom the Soluna 



C.2. ^bird Soltan, M3\tk Shsh. 125 

that Nezam Al Molk made the anfwer before related, which 
brought on his fudden remove". 

A BU'L-FARAJ writes, that the Wazir's diftTrace was 
the confequence of a very infoknt aniwer (E) which he fent 
the Sokan ; who refeiited the ill treatment given by his 
grandfon (fon of the governor of Marvja) to one of his 
principal 'laves P, 

Whatever the caufe was, Nezam al Molk, after his I'Q- fjeisaTaf- 
movc, followed the court, which juft at that time fet omfmatej'. 
for Baghdad ; and, being gotten as far as Nahawdndy a boy 
of the Batdnift {(tdi, approaching him under pretence of beg- 
ging, or otherwife, ihibbed him with a knife, by the pro- 
curement ot ^aj Ebn Alolk Kami (F), who fucceeded him in 
the Wazirrtiip ; ot which wound he died foon after, in tlie 
year 485 ; aged 93 years (G). His corps was carried back •A. D. 
to Ifpuhdn, where it was buried with pornp. 1093. 

MIRKOND writes, that Nezam al Molk (H), when but His cba- 
iwelve years old,- knew all the Koran ; and, when very young, '■«^'*'''- 
acquired fo great a knowlege ot the civil law, according to 
the principles of Sbaf'jy (I), that he gained the admiration of 
every body. As he was very learned, he no fooner got into 
authority than he took men of letters under his patronac^e ; 
founding houfes and colleges for them in the cities of Bagh- 
dad, Bafrah, Herat, and Ifpahan. But the moft grand mo- 
nument left by him is the famous college of Baghdad, called, 
after him, Aledraffat annczamiyat ; which hath produced 
fome of the moll: learned men of their time. 

As an inflance to what a high pitch of dignity, zn\h.GVitY, Honours 
and efleem, Nezam al Alolk was rifen, the fame author relates •,p'^^^ l-i'" 
that when Malek Shah went to Baghdad, to be crowned 
by the Khalifah Al Rddhi, to render the ceremony more fo- 
lemn, he funnnoned all the doctors of the law, and other 
learned men, witiiin the Mohammedan dominions, to be pre- 
fcnt at it. Being allembled, he ordered them to go on foot 

• D'Herb. p. 654, art. Nazham Al Molk. p Abu'lf. 

p. 237. 

(E) To the pnrpofe of that after he had ferved the Soltans 
already recited, but more bold. thirty years. 

(F) According to the Leb- (H) Kezcim al Molk, as the 
tarikh, it was done by the com- Perjiam, and Nazam al Molk, 
mand of Hajfan Sabab, who as the Arabs pronounce it, lig- 
was prince of the affafiins, as m^t^ the oniatnsnt oT the Jiate. 
hath been obferved in a former (I) One of the dodors, or ' 
note. heads of the principal feels 

(G) Ahulfaraj fays, p. 77, among the Mohavmieduns . 


126 'rhe Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

from his palace in the weftern part of the city, to pay their 
/,y the compliments in a body to the Khalifah, whofc imperial palace 
kJjal'ifah. was in the eallern parr. Al Radhiy being informed, tl at this 
learned troop was coming to falute him, with Nezdm al Mo!k 
at their head, fent his olhcers to meet them; and ordered, 
that the Wazir alone Ihould advance on horfe-back. When 
they appeared before theKhalifah, he commanded a feat to be 
placed tor the Wazlr, and made him lit down, while all the 
other doflors flood, on his right and left : but what flill more 
furprized them was, that he honoured Nezhn with a veft (K), 
and conferred on him the title of learned, juji, ntid direBor 
of the dominions of Radhi, Khalifah of the MoHems : for, 
till then, thofe Spiritual raonarchs never gavef any title or 
dignity, which belonged to themfehes, to any of their mi- 
hh lihe- The liberality which this great man exercifed, vaflly in- 
ralifj. hanced his other rare qtialities : for, in the firfl: progrefs 
which Malek Shah made through his dominions, he diffri- 
buted among the poor, out of his own coffers, no lefs than 
280,000 crowns''. 
Ills origin. As to the original of Nod ham ov Nczam al Molk, whofe 
name was Hajfan, 'tis faid, he was the fbn of a peafant, near 
Ti{/h (or Mafhhad), who learned the \/lrabik, and was fecre- 
tary to Bajer, lord of Balkh : but that prince ufing him ill, 
he fled to Jagri Beg (L) Dawd al Mmva ; who made him 
preceptor to his fon Olb Arflhn. His way was, when any 
great men, cither in church or flate, came to vifit him, to 
rife, and then fit down again ; but, a certain poor man of 
learning coming one day, he rofe to meet him, and placed 
him in his feat. Being afterwards alked, why he made that 
difference ? he anfwered, that the great folks, of both kinds^ 
ivhen they come, fraife him for excellencies which did not be- 
long to hi?n ; ajid this feeds his vanity and pride : whereas the 
ether per fon puts him in mind of his faxdts, and whatever he 
did amifs ; which made him hinnbk, and refeEl on many fail- 
ings he was fubjcR to. His hard fate was lamented by many 
of the poets of that time. 
M;ilek After the alfaifmation of Kczum al Molk, MrJck Shah 

ShahV proceeded to Baghdad: where being arrived, heweatahunt- 
deuth. jug on the third of Shawal; and, eating fome of the flefli 
of the game, returned fick. A vein being opened, but little 
blood came out ; which increafed his illnefs to a burning 

'i Mirk ap. D'Hcrb. p. 543, & fcq. art. Makk Shah. 

(K) Called K.}//,in: [L) Or, as others^ J/7/>r Beg. 

fcvcr ; 

C. 2. Third Salldft, Makk Shiih. 127 

fever ; (o that he died about the middle of the fame month \ 
no more than eighteen days after Nezmn al Molk, oppreffed 
with vexations '. He lived thirty-feven years and five months j 
of which he reigned twenty, and fome months over ^ 
I The 6'/t<:'/(: hiltorians relate, that this Soltan, whom yet Greek «<■- 
they do not name, v/as aflaffinated. They tell us, that Tutus count falfe, 
(or Taj otidaivlat Tatajh), his brother, having flain Amir 
Soleymdn (as above related), and his fon-in-law, refolved to 
Hay the Soltan alfo, before he Ihould flrengthen himfelf by 
an alliance with the Roman emperor : that, tor this purpofe, 
he hired twelve KaJJians, being certain allallins, fo called by 
the Perftans ; who, going to the palace, found that prince 
in liquor, and, pretending they had fomething to fay to him 
from his brother, as foon as the guards were withdrawn, 
flubbed him with their poniards : that they were all put to 
cruel deaths ; which; on fuch occafions, this kind of people 
glory in n. 'Tis eafy to fee, that the murder of the Wazir is 
here applied to the Soltan. Poilibly there was fuch a rumour 
at firff ; and that prince's death happening fo near the time of 
his minilfer's, might favour the miftake. 

However that be, Hamdalhih Meftuf has committed ^Blunder of 
greater blunder than tliis. He tells a formal flory here, that Mellufi. 
the Soltan, in his fecond progrefs round his dominions, fall- 
ing into an ambufcade of Creeks, was carried to the emperor, 
who had advanced to the borders with a powerful army : 
that, not being known to thofe who took him, Nezdm al 
Molk, on notice thereof, immediately feigned an embaffy to 
the emperor ; who, at his departure, made him a prefent of 
the prifoners, as he expelled : that, afterwards, the two 
armies coming to a battle, the emperor -was taken prifoner ; 
but prefently reftored to his liberty, without ranfom : laflly, 
that, dying foon after, Malek Shdh fubdued part of his do-- 
minions, and gave the government thereof to his coufin Soley- 
man, fon oi Kotohni/h '^v. 'Tis plain, that the emperor here 
intended was Romainis Diogenes : for we read of no other 
Creek emperor who was taken by the Seljuk Soltans ; and, 
confequently, the author has confounded 3JaIek Shah with 
his predeceflbr Jljy ArJJdn. 

Soltan Mah-k Shdh, as to his perfon, was very hand- Malek 
fome, both in fhape and features, befides being exceeding Shah'j 
genteel in his behaviour ''. To give his due charafter ; )xzcbara8ef, 

' Abu'lf. p. 238, & feq. ' D'Herb. p. 544, ubi fup. 

* Een Amid, p. 354. " Ann. Comi^n. in Alex. 1. vi. 

e II. '^ Hamd. Mestufi. Tarikh Ghuzideh. ap. 

D'Herb. p. 543. * D'Herb. p. 544. 

3 was 


and pil- 

Hej. 48: 

Fond of 


ne Seljuks of Iran: B. I. 

was an excellent prince, \vife, liberal, courageous ; had fine 
parts ; was remarkable for his fincerity and piety. He re- 
duced the taxes, and put a flop to other vexations ; repaired 
bridges, high roads, and canals ; creifted the temple of Bagh- 
dad, called the Masjed of the Soltan ; alfo the Hamfcan col- 
lege (M), near the chapel of the prelate Abu Hanifah, in the 
quarter of the city called Rcfafa, and endowed it nobly. He 
likcwife built markets and towns. He made great conquefts ; 
reducing under his power all the country fiom the borders 
o{Tiirkc/}(in to x\\Q ffoly Land, and r^/?zwiZ« (N). He made 
the roads fecure, and every thing plenty in all places. He 
was a terror to bad men, and a fupport to the innocent, the 
widow, and the poor ; who had always juAice done them in 
his courts ^, 

This Soltan took great delight in travelling ; and 'tis re- 
ported, that he made the tour of his dominions, though fo 
very extenfive, as hath been related, no fewer than ten 
times ^. Hamdo'llah Mcfltifi, before cited, relates, that Malek 
Sh/ih made the pilgrimage to Mekka in 481 (O), with an in- 
credible expence : for, iDcfides abolifhing the ufual tribute 
which the pilgrims paid, he laid out very great fums in build- 
ing towns in the defart ; where he ordered a great number 
Wells and cifterns to be made, and water to be conveyed 
to them from all fides. He likewife commanded plenty- of 
provifions to be carried, for fubfiAence of the pilgrims ; and 
diftributed immenfe fums among the poor, with an unparal- 
leled liberality a. 

But Maltk Shah's greatefl: pafTion was for hunting. He 
kept 47,000 horfes for his ordinary guard, and the chace (P) ; 
in which he ipent a good deal of time. 'Tis faid, that for 
every bcall: which he killed himfclf, he gave a piece of gold 
to the poor : and it happened fomctimes that he Hew a great 

y Ebn Amid, p. 354. 
» D'Herb. p. 542. 

' KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 542. 

(M) Kondamir fays, he Or- 
dered colleges, hofpitals, and 
houfcs of pleafure, to be built 
in feveral parts of his domi- 
nions. D'Herb. p. 544. 

(N) Tamman is the country we 
call Arabia fcclix. Kondamir 
fays, his dominions extended 
from Antiokh to Urkend (or V-x.- 
ficvd), a city of Turkejidn. W 
Herb. p. 542. 

(O) According to the Leh- 
tarikh, he performed the pil- 
grimage in Hrjrah 479. 

(?) According to the Leb- 
tarikh, he kept a Handing army 
of 48,000 horie always on foot ; 
who had lands allotted them 
for their maintenance, that they 
might not be burthcnfome tp 
the people. 


C. 2. ^h'r^ Sohan, Makk Shih. 129 

many. In fhort, Ma/ek Shah is acknowleged to \yxvt been 
the greateil: prince among the Seljukians ; whether we conii- 
der his conquefls, the extent of his dominions, or his mag- 
nificence, Hberality, and other virtues. 

His ambition feems to have been very moderate : for he Pro'vifice^ 
difpofed of" great part of his dominions, in his life-time, among p-z^w 
his relations and domeftics. He gave to his coufin Soleyvia7i,a^^aj 
fon of KotolmiJIj, the country of Rum, or what he had taken 
from the Greek emperor, extending from the Euphrates a 
great way into Afia viinor ; of which part Azzcrvm was then 
the capital. He eflablifhed, or reftoied, Soltan Shah, fon of ^v Maiek 
his unkle ySTA^tr^, before-mentioned, m Kerman, or the P^r- Shah. 
fian Caramama ; of which he was the fecond Seljuk Soltan. 
He gave part of Syria to his brother Tebs ( Q^) ; Karazm 
to Tufhtekkin ; the country of Halcp, or Aleppo, to Akfankor-, 
that of Miifol to Chaghirmtfi (R) ; and Mardhi to Katraur. 

Some of the above-mentioned ftates became reunited in 
time to the dominions of the family of Malck Shah, and 
others remained in the families of thofe to whom he gave 
them "o. 

We mufl not conclude this reign, without giving fome ac- Jalaleaa 
count of the Tawarikal Jaldli, or the Jaldlean kalendar, alreadv kalendar, 
mentioned ; which is a correftion of the Perfian kalendar, 
firfl made by order of Malek Shah, and afterwards by Soltan 
Jalal-oddin Mankberni, fon of Mohammed Karazm Shah. 

The Malekean epocha begins, according to fome, on Sun- 
day the fifth day oi Shebdn, or the eighth month, in the year 
oi the If ej rah 464 (anfwering to that of Chriji 1071) (S); 
according to others, on Friday the tenth of Ramadhdn (or 
the ninth month) in 471 (or of Chriji 1078) (T). So that 
there is a difference of 1097 days. The caufe of this dif- 
ference was unknown to our author Uhigh Beg. According 
to the fecond, and mofl: received, opinion, the year which is 
folar begins on that day in which, at noon, the fun enters Jries, 
and the months are reckoned from the paffage of the iun accoufrt 
through the feveral figns : however, they confiif of no moreof it. 
than thirty days each ; but five are added to the lafl month, 
and a day intercalated every four years. But when the in- 

^ D'Herb. p. 544. 

( C^) This is, doubtlefs, a (R) Or Jagarmljh. 
miftake in the copy for Tatajh, (S) Beginning Wednefday, 2S 

by mifplacing the diacritical of September. 
points. TataJ^, OT Tutus, as thi (T) Ecg^nnmg Saturday, Ju/y 

Greeks write, is the fame with 13. 
Taj odda^j:lat. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV, K tercalatlon 

150 27j^ Seljuks of Iran. B. I, 

tercalation comes to be made fix or feven times, the leap-year 
is put off to the fifth year. The Jalalean year coififts of 
365 days, 5 hours, 49'. 15'. o". 48 "; and is truly tropi- 
cal, moft exactly corrcfponding with the motion of the fun : 
for the fixth, and fometimes the feventh, leap-year being 
transferred to the fifth year, the equinoxes and foiftices be- 
come conftantly fixed to the lame days of the month. This 
form of the )ear was contrived that the Newruz, or new- 
year's-day, might always fall on the fame day c. 

« Ulug. Beigh. epoch celebr. p. 38. Beveridge inftit. 
chronol. p. 45. 


'The reign of Barkiarok. 

Ath Sijltan A/f^ LEK Sht:h left four fons, Barkiarok, Mohammed, San- 

Barkia- j^''f ^^'^ Mahnud; which laft he appointed for his fuc- 

lok celTor, though but five years (A) and ten months old. This was 

done by the management of his wife Turkdn Khatun, and the 

Wazir TajoH Molk ; who, concealing the Soltan's death, 

carried his corps out of BaghJad ; and, by diflributing 

money, got the army to take the oath to her fon. The Kha- 

llfah alfo ordered his name to be publilhed in the pulpits ; 

and, fending him the enfigns of inveftiture, he was cloathed 

with the Soltan's Kaftan, or vefl, the crown put on his 

head, and the fword girt to his fide. On this occafion it is 

obferved, that never prince fo young behaved with better 

grace ; and that, after the Kalifah's Wazlr, who performed 

the ceremony, had made him his mailer's compliments, he 

returned thanks for the favours received in a very handfome 

manner. As foon as the ceremony was OA'er, the Soltana 

went to Nahraiuan and encamped \ 

troclaimed While J^'lahmud was crowned at Baghddd, Abu I Modhaf- 

iit Ifpa- ./^'" Kujfein, called Barkiarok, \\'as acknowleged for legal fuc- 

lan. cefl<3r at Jfiuihini, where he then was : with whom many 

joitied, as being the elded fon of Malek Shah, and becaufe 

he was thought more capable of governing the ftate than a 

child and a 

Hereupon Turkan Khatun, who was a woman of great 
fpirit as v/ell as undciHanding, marched thither from Nahra- 
-wiin, with fuch diligence that (he furprized him in that city, 
which Ihe took : but Ibme domcffics of the late Nezdm al 

• Abu'lk. p. 239. Ebn Amid, p. 355. Sc feq. 
(A{ Alr^'iraraj fa) s but four years old. 



C. 2. Fourth Soltdn, Barkiarok. 131 

Molk ioun^'m^ms for him to efcape out of his moxhet-\n-Taken',hut 
law's hands, and retire to Shiraz ; where refided Takajhefcapes, 
Tekkhi, who had been made Atabek, that is, lieutenant- 
general of PdrSy or Proper Pcrjta, by Malek Shah b. 

That grateful prince not only gave him protedlion, buti';^-/^/^. 
conducted him to Ray, one of the capitals of Irak ; where he ed at Ray. 
had him acknowleged the rightful fucceiTbr. At the fame time 
the Soltana caufed her fon Alahfiiud to be crowned at I/pahan, 
the other capital, and fent troops to purfue Barkiarok : but 
many of them going over to his fide, he defeated the reft. 
Among the prifoners taken on. this occafion was Tajo'l M'olk 
Kiami ; who, being brought to the Soltan, the friends of 
his predeceflbr Hew him. He was a Perjian, endowed with 
many virtues, and excellencies of every kind : but aU his 
good qualities were defaced by the murder of NadhAm ". 

After this Barkiarok marched to Jfpahan, and befieged Mahmud 
his brother, with an army of 20,000 men. Tiirkdn Khatun,fejfgm, 
finding the people ready to revolt from her, came to an ac- 
commodation : by which Mahnud and fhe were left in pof- 
felTion of Ifpdhan, and its dependencie=!, on condition he di- 
vided with Barkiarok the treafure of his father, which was in 
that city. 

The Soltan, having received for his fhare 500,000 dinars///^ ^ra- 
in gold, raifed the fiege, and turned his arms towards Ha-thn re- 
maddn, where one of his uncles, named Ifmael, commanded ; bel. 
who, allured by the Soitana, with hopes of marriage, had 
made war upon his nephew. The two armies, which were 
pretty equal, met, in 486, near that city; where, after anHej.486. 
obftinate battle, Ifmael was defeated ; and, being taken by A. D, 
the enemy, llain by them. The fame year Takajb Shdh, fon 1093. 
of Arjldn Shah, another of Barkiarok'% uncles, declared war 
againft him ; and, having a much greater force, obliged him to 
retire towards Ifpdhdn, where he was very kindly received by 
his brother Soltan Mahmi'.d, whofe mother was then dead. 

But thofe of Mahmud's. pai'ty, judging the opportunity of •5'"*^'/ 5 
advancing his afl^.irs ought not to be flipped, feized his hvo-^"' ^f-'^P^^' 
ther ; and, 'tis faid, orders were aftually given to deprive 
him of fight, when Mahmud, being taken with the fmall 
pox, died in a few days. Hereupon Barkiarok was fet at 
liberty, and faluted emperor, by the very people who juft 
before would have ruined him. Being by this unexpe^ed 
accident feated a fecond tim.e on the throne, he chofe lor his Mowiad 
Wazir, or prime minifter, Mov^nad al Molk (fon of Nezam ^'t^'^^ •'■^"^ 

^ KoND. pp. D'Heib. p. 185, art. Barkiarok. « Kond. 

ubi fupr. p. iS3, Aeu'lf. p. 239. & feq. 

K 2 «/ 

1^2 I'he Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

/«/ MolkJ, mentioned in the former reign : but, in a little 
time, through fome dilbuft, the Soltan turned him out, and 
put his brother Tukr al Ah!k in his place **• 
Croix'md In 487 TurMn Khatthi died (H), and Barkinrok marching 
ut Bagh- fo BiighdAii, had his name mentioned in the pulpits, and the 
dad. title of Rokno\Uhi given to him by the Khalifah *= : he alfo 

Ht'j. 487.afrumed that of /Imir al Momenin, which no prince before 
A. D. Miilck Shuh had been honoured with. Having fettled his af- 
^094' fairs, he applied himfelf intirely to war. His iirrt expedition 
was againrt Takajh his coufm-german, who fome time before 
had driven him to the extremes above-mentioned ; and, af- 
Rebel un- ter feveral battles fought betweea them, Takq/h was at length 
(li^Jlain. flain (C). After this he marched into Khorafan, where Jr- 
Jltin Shah, father of Tahajby who commanded there, had con- 
Hej. 490. (iderablc troops: but he was delivered from his enemy by 
A.D. another of his fons (D), who committed that parricide, in 
IC96. order to feize his father's government : yet was difappoint- 
ed ; for Bark'iarok, being thus become mafler of it, gave it 
to his brother Savjar, and returned to Irak *". 
Tatafh D A RKI ARO K had Aill another uncle to vanquifh be- 

mfj:irei, fore he could be at rell ; and that was Taj odJa-wlat Tata/lj^ 
fovereign or king of DLimaJlus, and mod part of Syria. 
This afpiring prince, as foon as he heard of his brother 
Mafek ShiWs death, ordered the Kotbah to be made in his 
name ; and fent to Moktadi, to defire that the fame might 
be done at Baghdad', but the Khalifah refufing, he marched 
to Rahaha (or Rahba), on the Euphrates, and took it. Here- 
upon Kafmar oddaxvlat (or Ak Sankar ) (E), (whom Alalck 

d KoND. ubi flip. p. i?!S 1S8. * Ebn Amid, p. 357./ 

Adu'i.f. p. 240. f KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 185 & 544, art.l 

liarkiarok k Malck Schah. 

(B) Bhn Amid makes her die hath been related. \{ not, AA 
before Mai: mud : faying, that, bulfaraj muft have afcribed toj 
on lier death, the army defcrted the fon both the name and' 
froni him to Uarkiaiok ; and death which belonged to the \ 
that, on his approach, he quit- father. 

tc^ Baghdad. (D) According to y^^a'/^Tn?;', 

(C) Ahulfiiraj, p. 240, fays, Soltan ArJJdn Argun (as he calls 
he was fmothercd under uater, him) was flain by one of his 
and one of Ill's font flain at the domeftics, in 490, to fne man- 
fame time. He alfo makes him kind from his injujiice. 

the uncle oi Burkiarok. Jf fo, (E) This muit be the fame 

he mull be the fame Takajh, W th Ik Sankar, or Ak Sankar^ 

who, according to Ebn Amid, hereafter-mentioned, to whom 

rebelled againft his brother Ma- Malck Shah gave the city. 

lek Shah ten years before, as 


C. 2. Fourth Soil an, Barkiarok. 133 

Shah had made governor of Halep, after he had taken it from A. D. 
his brother Taj oddawlat), fubmitted to this latter ^. But, I093« 
in 486, going over to Barkiarok's fide, 'Taj oddawlat fought 
feveral battles with him ; who at length was llain. 

By this means TataJ/j becoming lord of Halep, he pre- •c^aw^z/^^- 
pared to march into /r<z^. Accordingly, in 488, Barkiarok meted, and 
him near Ray ; where a bloody battle was fought, in which hisA'f • 
rebellious uncle was flain. T'ry o^i/^tu/a^, before the engage- "^ 4^3. 
ment, had fent Tiifef, fon of Ortok, the Tiirhndn, before-men- " ^' 
tioned, to get him proclaimed Soltan at Baghdad-, but Tzifef^ °^' 
hearing of his mafter's death, fled back to Hakp ^. The 
Greek hiflorians mention the death of Tataff), or Tuiiis, as 
they call him. They fay, that Pufan, who had been fent by 
the Soltan againft Apel KKfem (or Ahiil Kajfem) at Nice, as 
foon as he heard of his mafter's death, marched towards 
Khorapji, againft Tutus, and was flain in battle : That, after 
this, Tutus expcifted to be acknowleged Soltan ; but, being 
met by Barkiarok, the late Soltan's fon, was routed, and 
flain '. According to this account Putdn fliould be Kafmar 
oddawlat Ak Sanker, or Ik Satiker. 

B ARKIAROK, whofe reign was a feries of rebellions, y//?o//5«r 
^vas no fooner freed from one, but another arofe. Mo%viad,reb(llion^ 
from the time of his being turned out of the Wazirfliip, did 
his utmoft to revenge his difgrace, by fomenting new trou- 
bles. He began by fplriting-up Anzdr, who was formerly 
flave to Malek Shah, and had a great influence in the pro- 
vince of Irak. He enabled him to fet a confiderable army 
OH foot ; and Anzdr might have given the Soltan much trou- 
ble, if he had not been taken off by an affaffm, in the city 
of Sawa ; where he was already advanced to give his fove- 
reign battle. Moivtad, after this, applied himfelf to Moham- Mohain 
med, brother of Barkiarok (who had given him but a fmall*?^^^** 
fhare of his father's dominions, in the province of Adherhijdn), 
and never ceafed urging him till he had taken up arms againfl 
his brother '^. Mohammed (furnamed Gayatho'ddtn) and 5^/2- 
jcr were Malek Shah's children, by the fame venter. Mo- 
hammed, after his father's death, followed the intereft of his. 
brother Mahmud; and, after the battle, which the latter 
loft, obtained, from Barkiarok, Hav^kha (F), and its depend-, 
encies, for his fupport : to which place he retired \ 


s Ebn Amip, p. 35^6. ^ Ebn Amid, p. 360. Abu'lf, 

p. 241. * Ann. CoMNEN. in Alex. 1.6. c. 1 1 . '^ KoNi>, 

ap. D'Herb. p. i86, art. Barkiarok. 'Ebn Amid, p. 364. 

(F) We knp.vY no fuch place. According to Kofidamh-., Mo- 

134 "ihe Seljuks c/ Iran. B. I. 

Barkia- This prince fet forward in 492 to dilputc the fovereignty 
ioky/7>/. ^vitia his brother; and, although he liad only a fmall army 
^^^- 492. at firft, yet it foon became formidable, by tlie great credit 
• and influence which Mou'iud had in that province. At this, 
'^ "^ time the lords of the court, being inccnfed againft T^/is/flr^i 
al Molk Kid7ni, luperintendant of" the finances, by whofe fru- 
gal management they found their filaries curtailed, attacked 
his houfe, and obliged him to ily for refuge to the Soltan. 
The Soltan refufmg to deliver him up to them, they took 
the palace by alTault ; and, cutting Kiami in pieces, uould 
have treated Barkiarok in the fume manner, if he had not 
efcaped by a back-door ; abandoning In'tk to his brother. 
'/ff.Jiedly MOH A MMED, thus poficfled of a great dominion 
Ayyaz, without flriking a ftroke (G), nmde lyioiviad al Molk his 
Wi'.zir'"; and fent an ambaflador to BaghdM, to get his 
name mentioned in the Kotbah, or oration, made in the pul- 
Hej. 4q3.Pi^s ^"^ Fridays : but, in 493, Barkiarok, repairing thither, 
A. b. had it fuppreffed. Then, allembling a great army, marched 
1099. to TC\&ex. Mohar,imed : who, nt. Nahdan, defeated him ; Barki- 
arok efcaping with oaly fifty horfe ". Hereupon, quitting /?^_y, 
he fled to Khuzejlan ; where Ayyaz, formerly Have to Malek 
Sh(V}, ruled with almoft an abfolute fway " : by whofe alTifl- 
ance the Soltan found himfelf foon at the head of a power- 
ful army ; with which, in 494, he defeated jyiohammed's 
forces in feveral engagements. 
dt'featihii In 495 they had another battle: but, as Bi:rkiarok had 
brothers. ^0,000 troops, zvid I^Iohatnmcd ou\y 15,000, the latter was 
Jiej. 495- put to flight. Hereupon, taking his way to Khorafan, to 
A. D. feek aid of king Senjar, he flopped at Jorjm. Here Scnjar 
' ^^' • coming to him with his forces, diey went to Damegdn ; where 
the army laid waffe the country to fuch a degree, that the 
Inhabitants, for w'ant of dogs and dead animals, eat one an- 
other P. After this, marching againfl Barkiarok, they were 
put to flight ; and their moiher being made captive, was ex- 
changed for the prifoners taken before by Scnjar. 
YlcS. 496. Next year SoltUn Barkiarok bcficged Mohammed in Ifpuhan ; 
A. D. but was obliged foon to depart, for warit of forage and pro- 


«" KoND. iibi fopr. p. tS6, & feq. ^ Ebn Amjd, p. 564. 

* KoNu. ubj ftpr. f Ael'lf. p. 243. 

hnrr.tned refidcd commonly at (G^ Ehn An'id fays, Barkia- 

Gavjeh, a city of Arran, part rok fent forces againrt him ; hut 

.of Adhrrhijdn , near the river that they uent over to ium, in-- 

KiLT^ and the borders ofGVc;-- llcad cf fght;ng. 


C. 2. Fourth Soltdn, Barkiarok. 13^ 

vifions. Mohammed hereupon raifed troops, and met his 
, brother : but, being defeated, was obliged to fly into Ar- 

It is obfervable, that the Kotba was interchangeably made 
at Baghdad, in the names of thofe two Soltans, as often as 
they had the advantage one of the other. Of fo great im- 
portance was that ceremony thought to be by the Moham- 
medan princes, fo long as the race of the Khalifahs fubfifled ; 
though, at this time, they were no more than fhadows of 
what they had been formerly. 

Our readers, doubtlefs, will be curious to know what he-Thtral. 
came of Mowiad, the author of thefe troubles. Wefliall^^^ Mo- 
therefore inform them. In one of the battles above-men- ^^*^ 
tioned, in which Barkiarok had the advantage, he happened 
to be taken prifoner : but, inftead of being puniihed, as he 
deferved, he, by his addrefs, fo gained the principal lords of 
the court, that the good-natured Soltdn, at their interceffion, 
pardoned him, and afterwards made him his prime Wazir. f„^j^(„.i,„t 
However, he did not long enjoy that pofl : for one day pf^azir. 
Barkiarok, retiring to reft, overheard one of the gentlemen 
of his bed-chamber, who thought him afleep, faying to an- 
other, The/e Seljaklzn princes are of a nature very different 
from that of mojl other> princes. They neither knoiv how tt 
make them/elves feared, nor to revenge the injuries done to 
them : for infiance, added he, this Mowiad, ivho has been the 
caufe of fo many evils, is promoted by the Soltan to the em- 
ployment of Wazir, as a reward for all treafons. 

BylRKIAROK, touched to the quick with thefe reflec-p^,^ ^^^ 
tions on his condufl, not long after, fent for the Wazir, and death. 
ordered him to fit down. Then, without faying any thing 
farther, with one ftroke of the fcymitar, which he held in 
his hand, he cut off his head, with fo much dexterity, that 
it remained on his (boulders till the body fell. This done, 
he faid to his courtiers, See now if the princes of my houfe 
do not know how to make themfelves feared, and take venge- 
ance on their enemies. 

While this tragedy was acting at court, the armies of theT he empire 
Soltan and his brother often flcirmiflied, without coming Xodi^ided. 
a general engagement. At length, in 498 (H), a treaty wasHej. 498, 
concluded ; whereby Mohammed x^md^ntdi mafter of the pro- h. D. 
vinces of iS/;4???, ox Syria; Diydrbekr al Jazireh, ox Mefopo- 1104, 

^ Ebn Amid, p. 364, & feq. 

(H) Ahulfaraj fays, in 497. the countries yielded to Mq' 
He likewife omits Adherbijdn, hammed, 
Armenia, and Georgia, among 

K 4 tamifi ; 

136 The Scljiiks of Iran. B. 1. 

tamia ; Miifol, Jdberbijan, j^nnenia, and Georgia. The 
reft ol the empire ; viz. Pars, Irak, Kermun, Kborafdn, 
jyicnvara'lnnhr, and part of Hindmvjian, were to be poirefTed 
by Barkiarok '. It was alio agreed, that Barkiarok fhoiild not 
go to meet Mohammed with drums, nor be named in the pul- 
pits along with him in the countries which were ceded to 
him '. 

The civil wars, which for fo many years together had af- 
flitfled the Scljukian dominions, being thus at length brought 
to an end, by a partition of the empire between the brothers, 
let us now turn our ejes towards Syria, and fee what was 
doing there, and in the neighbouring countiics, during that 
Affairs of -^s foon as the news ef the death of Taj oddawlat, king 
Syria. of Syria (who was llain in the battle againft Barkiarok, as 
hath been before related), came to the ears of his fon Red- 
won, at Damafius, he repaired immediately to Halep, and 
. took pofTefTion of it, with the title of Tahro I Molk (Hj. His 
brother Dckak Shems al Molk (I) following him from Di- 
yarbekr, with part of his own and his father's army, there 
Sih'eSlto ^^'^ '^y'i^h. him. Soon after, receiving letters from Siibtekkin 
fl^J al Hadim, Taj oJdatulat's lieutenant of the caftle of Da- 

lit]. ^SS.maJhis, he flipped away, without Red-jodns knowlcge; and, 
A. D. ^ though hotly purfued, got thither, and took polTefTion of the 

1094. city. Dekdk made Subtekkin his lieutenant, to govern his 
flate ; but foon after fet in his place Jtr.bck (K) Tegtekkiriy 
who had been governor before both of it and I^Ityaferkin 
under Taj odda-djiat, and preceptor to Dckak himfelf. He 
w\is taken prifoner at the battle wherein that prince loft his 
life ; and, efcaping back, was received with great honour, 
and promoted by his quondam pupil, as hath been related ; 

^ which Subtekkin (L) refented fo highly, that Dekdk put him to 


Sotis of In 489, Dekdk marching with his troops towards the fea 

Tatafh. coaft, his brother Redwdn, who longed to recover Darnafkus, 

He]. 489, haftened with a great army, to furprize it in his abfence, 

A. D. 

1095. t KoND. ubi fupr. p. 187. » Abu'lf. p- 243. 

(H) That is, the glory of the had the government and di- 

kingdom. redion of the Seljukian princes. 

(1) 'The fun of the khigdom. They grew fo powerful at laft 

(K) In the copies made ufe as to found four races, or dy- 

of by Erpeniui and D^Heibdot, nallies, in Irdky jldherbijartt 

Jbalpek. Atahck fignifies, in Pars, ox Proper Perf a, ind La- 

^iirhijh, father of the prince. A rflan. 

^itle giy^n IQ fevvml loifsisj^ who (L) By feme written Sft/viiw. 

' ■ " ' The 

C. 2. Fourth SoUdn, Barkiarok. 137 

The citkens /hutting the gates againft him, he belleged the 
place ; but Dekdk returning, he was obliged to retire. Up- 
on this he wrote to Mojla AH, Khalifah oi Egypt, promifing 
to have his name publiflied in the pulpits of Halep, provided 
he would aflill: him to take Damajkus ; which Mojia Alt agree- 
ing to, the Kotbnh was accordingly made in his name : but 
failing to fend him troops, he foon loft that honour again ^ 

STRIA was thus fcarce reduced under the power of th^The cru- 
Seljukian Turks, who took it from the Arabs, when fhe foundy"*/.-. 
herfelf invaded by an army of Franks (L) or Europeans, ga- 
thered from the fartheft weft. This was the famous crufade, 
or war of the crofs, more commonly called the holy war ; 
wherein almoft all the Chriftian princes, influenced by a mad 
zeal for devotion, excited in them by the artifices of tlie 
pope (more with a view to carry on his ov/n am.bitious de- 
signs (M), than to ferine the interefts of religion, which was 
the pretence), entered into a league of confederacy to refcue 
the fepulchre of Chrift at Jerufalem from the Mohammedans^ 
and drive them out of the Holy Land. 

In profecution of this extravagant undertaking, which may Franks 
juftly be termed a religious frenzy, or piece of knight-errantry, take An- 
a vaft army oi Franks, with king Baldvoin at the head of them, tiokh. 
entered Syria in the year 491, and fitting down before An- He]. 4gu 
tiokh, took that city. We ftiall fay nothing of this fiege A. D. 
from the Chriftian writers, an account thereof having been ^°97* 
already given elfewhere " ; but ftiall, for the moft part, con- 
fine ourfelves to what we find related in the oriental hiftori- 
ans concerning this war. 

As foon as Kawam oddaivalnt Kodhuka (N), who was vci^lochi 
Mefopotamia, heard that Antiokh was taken by the Chriftians^ "P ^^^^^t 
he raifed forces, and, coming into Syria, laid fiege to it, 
with a defign to recover it. There were then in the city 
five Chriftian princes ; namely, Bardaivi/, or Baldwin, San- 
jil, Gonqfri, Kumes the prince of Roha (O), and Baymimd 
prince oi Antiokh {?). Thefe falling in want of provifions, 

* Ebn Amid. p. 360, & feq. « Univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 149. 

(L) Rather Frapp; fo the (O) The Count of i?(?^<j was 

orientals call the Italians, .and taken after by Jagarmijh, and 

thence the Europeans in general. releafed by A/ Jd^jjeli Sakanxia. 

(M) Purchas has fet forth AbiClf. p. 248. 

thofedefigns, in hiscolleftionof (P) Thefe are Bald'wtn, the 

travels, vol. ii. p. 1245. count of 5^. Giles, Godfrey of 

(N) The weftern hiftorians of Bulloin, the count of Edejfa, and 

fhe crufade call him Qo^rhanaSi Bmnond. 

and Carhagath, 


13 8 Tbe Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

fent to Kodbuka, offering to furrender the town, on condi- 
tion tliat he would fufPcr them to depart : but he refufed, 
faying, they Jhoidd efcape no cthjruife than by making their 
Rat'fe tie ivay with the J'worJ. While they were in this diftrefs, a 
Si g^' monk of theirs tells them, that the ftaif of St.P^/tr, ftrength- 
ened with iron at the end (Q_), was buried in the church of 
the priefts ; and that, if they found it, they fhould overcome 
their enemies in battle ; if not, they fhould all perifh. After 
tliree days fafling and praying, they dug and found the flafF. 
Encouraged by this good omen of victory, they began to 
march out of the city, five or fix at a time. Kodbukas of- 
ficers advifcd, that their foldiers might ftand at the gates, and 
kill all who came forth ; but he faid it was better to let 
them all come out firfl;, and then to put them to the fword. 
When they were all come out to the lafl man, they formed 
a great army, which put the Mojlenis to flight. The lafl 
•who fled was Sohndn Ebn Ortek. Many thoufands of them 
.were killed : and the Franks feizing their camp, got provi- 
fions, riches, horfes, and arms ^. 
Take]tx\x- Their affairs being thus reflored, they went and took 
falem. Moarrolnoman, flaying its lords. Thence they proceeded to 
Hej. /Loi.RajnIa, or Rama, and took it. In 492, perceiving the weak- 
. A. D. nefs of the Egyptian Turks, they went and befieged Beyt al 
1098. Makiles, that is, Jerujalem\ where Sokmaii and J/gazi, fons 
of Ortok the Turkman, with their uncle StineJ, were fhut up. 
But the Franks playing above fourfcore engines againfl the 
place, it was furrcndered upon terms ; SckmHn and his fol- 
lowers having leave to depart : but tlie Egyptians put in his 
room one E/tekaro'ddawlat; Wherefore th : Franks having 
erefted tM'o towers againfl the city, they took it on the north 
fide (R), and put the people to the fword. They continued 
to kill the Moficms in the country round for fcveral weeks 
together : they affembled all the Jews into tlieir temple, and 
burned them in it (S) : they killed more than 70,000 Mof' 

' Aeu'lf. p. 242. 

(Q__)|Thc\vcflernh;floriansray .(R) Z)^ /^ G-o/a- afcribes the 

it was the lance which pierced lofs of Jerufahin, and other 

the fide of Chiji. But Fulcher places, to the diforders which 

Carmtenjh, who was in the ex- happened on the death of Ma' 

pcdition,rcprcfcntsit as a cheat, lek Hhdb. Hill. Genghis Khdn, 

He fays, many, with the bifl^op p. 1 30. 

of Pciiium, fufpcflcd it; and (S) The hidorians of the weft 

that the man who found it, in fay 10,000 Saracens were flain 

pafling through the to prove in it. 
his integrity, was fo burnt, that 

he died in twelve days aftir. '^'^-f 

C. 2. Fourth Soli an, Barkiarok. 139 

lems (T), and took an immenfe treafure • among the reft, 
more than 140 filver lamps, weighing each 3600 drachms (U) ; 
a furnace weighing forty pounds (X) ; and above twenty 
lamps of gold y. 

In 494 the Franks took Hayfa (Y) by afTault, and Arftif Farther 
by compofition ; making themfelves mailers of moft of the/uccejes. 
maritime places. Next year they befieged Tripoli, whofe lord Hej. 494. 
Fakro' Imalek, fon of Amar, fending to Shamfo ddawlat De- ^' ■^* 
k k, prince of Damajhus, and Hujfeyn Henahd' ddawlat , lord ''°°' 
of HcDis, they fent him troops, but were routed by the 
Franks. Thefe vi(5lories of an enemy m the heart of Syria, 
did not hinder its princes from purfuing their private views, 
or revenge. Hitjfeyn, who had hitherto been of Fakro'lmolk 
Redivan's party, quitted it in 496, to go over to Dekak ; 
whereupon Redxvm got three Batanijis to affalfinate him in 
the great Masjed, or temple. 

When this news was brought to Atabek Tegtekktn, fur-Turkifli 
named Fahiro'ddin, and Dekak, they marched to Hems, which, broils, 
with the caftle, was furrendered to them. This happened 
juft at the time when the Franks arrived at Riiflhi (Z), with 
a defign to attack Heyns : but on advice that Dekdk was there, 
they returned. The year following, Sams al Molk Z)^/('«j^Hej. 497. 
died. Some fay that his mother, who was married to the At a- ^' ^' 
bek Tegtekkin, fent him a fervant maid, who poifoned him, ^'°3« 
by pricking a grape %yith an invenomed needle, which he 
plucked and eat. However that be, after his death Tegtek- 
kin made himfelf mailer of the kingdom of Damajkiis, and 
its dependencies. 

In 497 the Franks took Akka {A). Baldwin, who hzdiTake Ak- 
made himfelf mailer of Jcntfalem, came tliere with his troops, ka> £"* 
accompanied by the Genoefc Franks, in ninety fliips ; and Akra. 
having feized all the neighbouring country, both by fea and 
land, took the city by llorm. Zakro' ddawlat al Habajhi, -'" 

y Abu'lf. p. 243. Ebn Amid. p. 363. 

{T)AbulfaraJ(zys,t}\atnxim- (X) Or fixty marks. ^ 

ber was (lain in JlAk/a, or the (Y) Called Cayphas, by the 

farther Chapel only. The ac- crufade writers, ft ftands at 

count given by the crufade hi- the mouth of the bay oi Akka, 

ilorians themfelves who were or Ptolemais, on the fouth fide, 
prefent, is fhocking to human (Z) A town on the river y^/, 

nature : the Chrijiian foldiers or Orontes, between Hejns and ' 

thirfted zhtrMohnmmedafihXoo^, Hama. 

and feemed to delight in murder (A) Called by the crufaders 

and cruelty. Akra ; the ancient Piolemais. 

(U) That is, thirty-feven 
raai'ks and an half. 


140 The Seljuks of Iran. B.I. 

governor for the Khalifah of Kaherah, abandoning it, fled firft 

to Damajkits, and thence to Ei^yf^t ^. 

Barkiarok It is time now to return to Perfia, whither the courfe of 

*li^^' our hiftory calls us, to conclude the reign of Barkiarok. 

That prince, after the agreement made with his brother Mo- 

Hej. /if^^. hammed, in 498, as before-mentioned, advanced towards 

■A. D. Baghdad, to vilit his great benefactor Jyytiz, who had a fo- 

iio^.. vereign authority in that city. But being atflifted both with 

a confumption and the piles together, he died by the way at 

Jfpdhdn, in the thirty-fifth year of his age (B), and thirteenth 

of his reign ; appointing for his fuccelfor his fon Malek Shahy 

then but four years and eight months (C) pld. He had him 

cloathed with a Kaftun, or velt, and appointed .-Imyr Jyydz 

his Atabek, or governor, in the prefence of his great officers, 

who ail promifed to obey his commands ". 

Appoints a The firft thing which was done in favour of tlie infant 

fmcejffor. pnnce, was to get the Kotba made at Baghdad in his name ; 

to which was added the furname of Jalal-o'ddaivlat, that is, 

the ornament of the ftate. 

About the time \.\\z.x. Barkiarok was on his way towards 
Baghdad, Soltan Mohammed marched from Jdherbijan, to 
jT • take Miifol from JagarmiJJj. The people of the country, on 

/i' £) his approach, rofe in their prince's defence, and killed the 
HOC.* Soltan a great many men : but when the fiege had lafted 
three months, Jagarmi(l:i, heajing of Barkiarok\ death, fent 
to offer obedience to Mohammed, who recei\ed him with em- 
braces '', 


^he Reigns 0/ Mohammed and Sanjar. 

^'^fj\ AFTER this, the Soltan, who already pofTefTed one part 

Soltan, xA. Qf j.^g Seljukian empire, prepared to wrcfl the other 
Moham- p^^^ ^j.^,^ j^jg nephew Malck Shak, and unite it to his own. 
According to Ebn JmUi, he, on the news of his bro- 
ther's death, repaired without delay to Baghdad \ where Ay.- 
yadh, or Jyyaz, had gathered 25,000 horfe to oppofe him : 
but that an accommodation taking place, Mohammed entered 
that cit}', and took pofTclTion of the Soltauat : the Khalifah 

^ Een Amid. p. 364, & feq. ^ J^^q^d. ubi fupr. p. 187. 

Abu'i F. p. 244< Ebn Amiu. p. 366. '' Aeu'lk. p. 244. 

(B) He was but twenty-five (C) Ebn Amid has fourteen 
years old, according to Konda- years. 
inir in D' Her be lot. 

3 Mcjladkcr 


C. 1* Fifth Soltan^ Mohammed. 141 

Mejl&dher Billah prefenting him with the Kaftan^ and deli- 
vering into his hands the command of the palace. Yet when 
his affairs were fettled, he feized Jyyddh, and put him to 
death ^ 

The author or authors made ufe of by D'fferbelof, gives zOppofeshis 
very different account of this affair ; viz. that Ayyaz and Se- nephew, 
dekias, the tutors of the young prince, having affembled pow- 
erful forces to oppofe Soltan Mohammed, the two armies met 
in 501 : but that, while they faced each other, expelling theHej, 501. 
fignal for battle, there appeared in the fky a cloud, in form • A. D. 
of a dragon, which cafl down fo much fire upon the troops 1107. 
of Malek Shah, that the foldiers, terrified with fo flrange an 
event, threw down their arms, and begged quarter of Mo- 
hammed ; who, by this means, became mailer of the perfons 
both of his nephew and his two generals, whom he fent pri- 
foners to the caflle of Lehed. 

After this unexpefted viflory, without a blow, he march- Oh tains 
ed to Baghdad, where he obtained the title of Gay at h, ox the empire, 
Mogayath-o'ddin (A) ; and in his patents was dignified with 
that of Jmir al Momenin, or commander of the faithful ; by 
which, in effeft, the temporal power of the Khalifah over 
the Moflems was conferred on him. 

The fame year the Soltan marched againfl Sayfo^ddin S^ 
deka (B), prince of Hella, who was flain, and his forces rout- 
ed, after he had enjoyed his ilate twenty-two years, and 
lived fifty-fix. 

MOHAMMED having finifhed this fmall expedition, xQ-Afalfe 
turned to Baghdad. During his flay there, he was informed, /*'"<'/>^^^^ 
that one Ahmed, furnamed AtthafJj, a pretended prophet, ^^^^"' 
had not only gained over a great number of followers by his 
impoflures, but alfo feized the fortrefs of Dizghodeh, after 
corrupting the m.inds of the garrifon with his impious te- 
nets. This Important place had been built by Malek Shdh^ 
near Ifpdhdn, to awe the inhabitants, who were very fubje<^ 
to revolt. On this advice the Soltan hafled thither, and 
formed the blockade of the caflle, which was fo flrong, both 
by fituation and art, that there was no reducing it but by 

The place not having been furnifhed with provifions, At-^°^'r^P*' 

thafjj foon found himfelf obliged to fend a man to inform '^^"^ ^'^'*" 


' Ebn Amid. p. 367. 

(A) That is, the propagator of (B) Son of Danis (Dohays)^ 
the religion : he is called alfo fon of J/i, fon of Tezid al 
Gajdthoddin AbiiJ}:>ejab Moham- Afddi. 


142 Tbe Scljuks of Irin. B.I. 

Saad al Molk, fumaraed /Iwji, the Soltan's Wazir, "whom he 
had alfo iufe<J1ed witli his opinions, that he could not hold 
out above two or three days longer. The Wazir anfwered, 
that he only delircd him to Hand his ground eight or ten 
days more, for that, within fuch time, he would find means 
to rid him of that dog, meaning the Soltan. 

This prince, who was of a very flinguine complexion, 
and ufually fell into great diforders occalioned by excefs of 
blood, was accuftomed to lofe fome every month. Jvjji 
hereupon went to the furgeon, who, for the reward of a 
thoufand chekins, and a purple veft, promifcd to make ufe 
of a poifoned lancet the firil time he bled the Soltan. 
Uistrea- The plot happening to come to the knowlege of one of 
fon detiSl- the grooms of the prince.'s chamber, he difcovered it to his 
'd' wife, and fhe to her gallant, who communicated it to the 

Soltan himfelf. As foon as he was apprized of it, he pre- 
tended he wanted to be let blood ; and accordingly the fur- 
geon was font for ; who, having bound up the Soltan's arm, 
took out the fatal inflrument : but while he was going to 
perform the operation, Mohammed caft fo terrible a look at 
him, that the wretched phlebotomift, being feized all over 
with a trembling, which made the lancet drop out of his 
hand, fell at his fovereign's feet ; and confelTmg his wicked 
defign, declared who was the author of it. The Wazir 
was immediately feized, and punilhed as he defcrved : the 
furgeon was only fentenced to be bled with the fame inflru- 
ment which he had prepared to bleed the Soltan. i 

'[he relet The rebels finding that their treafon was difcovered, ana 
funijhcd. being no longer able to refill:, furrendered at difcretion. ylt- 
thnJI.t their chief was conduced to Ifpahdn, tied neck and 
heels upon a camel: there, after the prophet had been ex- 
pofed for fome days as a laughing-dock to the people, he was 
put to a cruel death : after which his body wft burned, with 
a great number of his difciples, who had joined in the re- 
volt. It is reported, that this impollor, who was well verfed 
in alfiology and geomancy, finding himfelf hard prefled by 
the befiegers, wrote to the Soltan, that he had found by his 
horofope, that, i?i a f-w days, he foouia be jurrounded "with 
a great number of far s in the midf of Ifpahan, even in the 
freferice of the Soltan : and when he was led through the 
city, accompanied with great crouds of fpecfiators, to the 
place of execution, being afked concerning the accomplifhment 
of his predi6lion, he anfwercd, that acthing ccidd be a clearer 
verification than the cojidition he then was in ; but that he found 
the great number cf fan, 'ii'hii:h he loped to fee, -were not to 


C. 2. Fifth SoUdtti Mohammed. 143 

ferve, as he had believed, to do him honour, but to cover him 
ivith Jhame and confufion. 

Sol TAN Mo hajnmed h2i\\ng fettled his dominions in peiLce, Con^ue/ts 
marched into Hindo%uftdn, and made coniiderable conquefts ^'« India, 
there. The author of the Tarikh Ghuzideh vchtes, that this 
"prince, who was very zealous for religion, having found, in 
one of the temples which he had demolifhed, an image of 
flone, weighing 400 kintals, he ordered it to be removed, 
as an object of idolatry. The Indians offered its weight in 
precious ftones, and other things for its ranfom ; but Moham- 
med rejefting their propofal, faid to his officers, / -would ?iot 
have it reported hereof ter that Azar (C) ivas a maker of ima- 
ges, ajid Mohammed luas a merchant of them. At the fame 
time he ordered that great heap of flone to be tranfported to 
Jfpdhdn ; where, after having been fhewn as a trophy of his 
vidlory, it was condemned to ferve for the threfliold of the 
great gate belonging to the ftately college which he erefted 
there, and which contained his fepulchre ''. 

Authors having furnifhed us with no farther tranfac- JavveliV 
tions of this Soltan's re'gn, in the eaft part of his empire, let/ucce/s. 
us look weflward, and fee what is doing on that fide. 

In 500, the year after Jagarmifh, prince of Miifol, hadHej, 500. 
fubmitted to Mohammed, as hath been before related, Aljd- A. D. 
ivali Sakaxvwa, lord, oi Roh a, ot Orfd, marched againft him no6. 
with 1000 men ; and rufhing into the middle of his troops, 
though double the number, put them to flight; none re- 
maining behind but Jagarmtjh hinifelf, who, not able to 
ride for a paralitica! diforder, was carried in a litter. The 
news of his being taken coming to the citizens, they gave the 
command to his fon Zenghi. Afterwards Jl Jdiveli, befieging 
Mufol, had Jagarmiflj (hewed to the people daily on a mule, 
offering to fet him at liberty, in cafe they would furrender 
the city to him. On their non-compliance he imprifoned him 
in a place under -ground, where one morning they found him 

Hereupon his fubje6ls wrote to Kikj Arflan, fon of So-Soltax 
leyyjim, fon of Kotolmjflj, prince of Koniya (D) and Akfdra, of- Arflan 
fering to deliver the city to him ; on whofe approach Al Jd- ^'"ot-'-^w^- 
lueli broke up the fiege. Kilcj Arfdn, after honouring Zenghi 
and his attendants vvdth Kaftans, ordered the name of Soi- 

^ D'Herb. p. 605, & feq. art Mohammed ben Malek Shah. 

(C) So they call Tcrah, the Put-tiraf?, that is, the cutter or 
father oi Abraham. 'The Per- car-uer of images. 
fansgiwQ. him the fiirname of (D) Iko7:ium,inAfa minor. 


144 '^l^e Seljuks of Mn. B. I. 

tan Mohammed to be fupprcflcd in the pulpits, and his own 
mentioned inftead of it. Tliis done, he marched againft AI 
JAivell, who was at Rolni (E), but was defeated at the river 
Khabur-f into which the Soltan entering, defended himfelf 
with his bow againft the enemy ; but his hoife carrying 
him out of his depth, he was drowned. His body appear- 
ing fomc days after, he was buried at Shemfania. Al Jdwe^ 
Hei C02. ''» °^ ^^^^ fuccefs, went back, and took Mufol. But, in 
A. D. S^2, Ma'tidud, fon of Altiin Takajh (F), with the army of 
1108. ^cM.\'^ Mohammed, recovered it, and took pofleflion c. 
Franks The fame year the Franks took Tripoli by capitulation, 

take Tri" after a fiege of feven years continuance ; the inhabitants hav- 
Po^» ing been deftroyed by famine and the fword. It was a great 

city, full of Mohammedans and learned men '^, 

Next year Tangri al Franji (Tankred) lord oi Antiokh, 

took Tar/us and Adena, in the borders of Syria, and He/no' I 

Akrad (G) furrendered to him ". Others fay, the forts of 

Akiid and Alinaitar were reduced: but that Mefiafa and 

Akkad bought their peace, by agreeing to pay tribute ; yet 

«»/ Bery- foon revolted. The Fz-^n^j likewife {uhAvLed. Beyrtit, ov Be- 

tus. rytiis, after a long fiege ; the ambafladors of the Egyptian 

Khalifah making a vigorous defence. The fame year died 

Kornja, prince of Hems, and was fucceeded by his fon Sam 

Jam, Herohan ^. 

Sidon In 504 the Franks took Sayda, or Sidon, and Rardia^ 

taken. -with all the coaft of Syria. At the beginning of the year 

a" t°^' ^°^' ^'"^'' Maiidud, lord of Mufol, encamped near Roha, 

^'^^' whofe corn-fields were devoured by his army. From thence 

he rem6ved to Sarftj (H), where they did the fame : not once 

thinking of the Franks, till Jtljltn (I), lord of Tel Bdjber (K), 

came on him fuddenly, while the horfes were difperfed over 

the paftures, of which he took many, and killed a good 

number of his men. 

Next year, the Mojlems uniting their forces, invaded the 
acquifitions of the Fratiks, who were defeated near Tiberias. 

' Abu'lf. p. 244., & feq. ^ Ebn Amid. p. 367. 

* Abu'lf. p. 245. ^ Ebn Amiu. p. 367. 

(E) Or Orfa, formerly £- journey eaftward of Bir, near 
Jefa. - Hivfiin, and Roha, or Or/a. 

(F) Alias Tah'in, or Tcdhz. {W'jcXkiine. 

(G) That is, the caftle of the (K) A very ftrong caftle, two 
Kurds. days jomne> to the north of 

(H; A fmall town, a day's Haicj.>, oi Ale^^o. 



G. 2. Fifth Saltan, Mohammed?* 145 

After the battle, Maiidud, who was one of the allied Franks 
princes (L), gave leave to his troops to return and x&ireih'^efiated. 
themfelves till the fpring following; and wei^ himfelf to^^-5°7- 
Damajkus, to fpend the Teafon with Tegtakktn, lord of that 
city : but one day as he was going into the Masjed, a Bata- *^'3'' 
nift approaching him, under pretence of begging alms, {tab- 
bed him four times with a knife, of which wounds he died 
the fame day, and the afTaiTin wus put to death g. 

The fame year died Fahroddawlat Red-w&n, fon of Taj'od- 
dawlat Tata/h, prince of Halep, and was fucceeded by his 
fon Tajo ddaxvlat , furnamed Ahras : who being (lain the year 
following, the city and caftle of Halep fell into the hands of 
Lulu, page to Tajorrus, fon of Jalala, who afterwards re- 
figned them to Soltan Shah, fon of Red-wdn. 

In 509 Dhahero'ddhi Atahek Tegtakkin, prince of Pamaf- Affairs of 
kits, went to Baghdad, and offered his fervice to Moftadir^y^]^' 
Billah, and Gayatho'ddin Mohammed, who received him with"^j- 5°9' 
great honour. Next year he returned ; and Lzi/i«, prince of '^^ ■^• 
Halep, v/as killed near Balis (M), ingoing to the caftle of *'*5* 
Jaffar. Thereupon Abu Meali Ehn Malki, fecretary of war, 
fucceeded in the command of the fortrefs of Halep ; which, 
the year following, fell into the hands of Amir Bulgari Ebn 
Arik, who held it five years ^. 

The year 51 1 was fatal to Soltdn Cayathdddin Aiohammedi Death of 
who died in the laft month of it, after he had lived thirty-fix Moham- 
years, and reigned thirteen (N). When he perceived death ™^^- 
approaching, he fen t for his (on Mahmud Ahcl Kajfem, but"^J*5''- 
fourteen years old, whom he had declared his fucceflbr, kif- 
fed him, and wept : then ordered him to go and fit in the ' ' 

throne : but the young prince declined it, faying, it was an 
unlucky day. The Soltan anfwered, Toufay true ; but it is 
fo to your father, not to you, -who gain Ah empire. Then 
mounting the throne, he was there adorned with the crown 
and bracelets'. 

6 Abu'lf. p. 246. ^ Ebn Amid. p. 368. ' D'Herb. 

vbi fiipr. p. 607. Ebn Amid. p. 368. Abu'lf. p. 246. 

(L) Ebr Amid fays, he was (M) A town on the Euphra- 

fent again 1 the Fra7iks by Soltdn tes, between Halep and B.a/cka. 
Mohammed, in 504 ; and that he (N) According to the Lebta- 

was killed by the Batanifs, near rikh he was born in 474, reigned 

Damajkus, in 505. But we 13 years, lived 24, and died in 

choole to ioWow Abit'lfaraj as 501. But thefe two iaft num- 

to the dates. bers muft be miftakes, for 37 

and 511. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. L Soltan 

,146 the Scljuks <?/lran.' B. I. 

His cha- Sol TAN Mohdmnud was eminent for gravity, juftice, and 
railcr. clemency ; was ftrong, and could talk well ''. He left in the 
trcafury eleven millions of gold, bcfides as much in furni- 
ture, and other ctfcdts. Hillorians do not tell us what me- 
thods he made ufe of to fill his coffers : but by the follow- 
ing ftory, related in the Nighiarijliin, it may be judged, that 
that they were not more equitable than thofe which other 
princes have employed for tlie fame purpofe. 
Th TVa- D H lA al DIolk, fon of the famous Nezam al Molk, a/Hif- 
«/'• // finated in the reign of Maiek Shah, apprehending himfelf 
caught injured by fome ill officers of Alao'dJa-w/at, prince oi Hama- 
ddn, who alfumcd the title of Said or Seid (O), which word, 
ilgnifying lord, is appropriated to the race of Mohammed-, to 
be revenged on him, told the Soltan, that if he would per- 
mit him to call Alao' ddaiidat to an account, he would engage 
to bring 500,000 crowns of- gold into the treafury. The 
Soltan granted his requeft. But as the Said, who had ma- 
ny friends at court, "was quickly informed of what was do- 
ing againft him, he made fuch hade, that he was at Jfpd- 
han before the Wazir knew any-thing of the matter : and 
. 7 . findinff means to throw himfelf at the Sokan's feet, repre- 

»« his etVfl ^ r , ■ ■ n- 1 II -^ ■ • ■ L I • r- 

/hare Icntcd, the tnjujtice he ivould commit in giving up a prince of 

the houfe of his prophet into the hands of an infdel and here- 
tic, as was the IVaztr. He added, that, if the dcfre of fo 
much money was what had induced him to confent to his mi' 
ni/icrs injurious propofal, he would pay down 800,000 crowns, 
which were 300,000 more than the malicious IVaztr had offer- 
ed, provided his majcjiy woidd deliver Dhia al Molk into his 
hands ; with leave to oblige him to render as exacl arid ri- 
gorous an account as he fiould require of him. 

Jnflanre of This propofal being accepted of (P), the Said returned, 
Jirmtiefj along with a perfon who was commiffioncd to receive the 
money. Being arrived at Hamaddn, the officer, who expec- 
ted that the prince would lodge him in his palace, and do 
liim many other honours, was given to undcrftand, that he 
mufl repair to the public Karawanfaray, or inn, and live at 
his own expence, till the fum could be ralfed ; and that 
then notice ffiould be given him to come and take it away. 
The officer, offended at this treatment, bbgan with com- 
pl.iiats ; and finding them of no avail, proceeded to menaces. 

^ Aeu'lf. p. 24^. Lebtarikli. p. 43. Ebn Amid. p. 368. 

(0)Or 5'q.V.- the5'/<7«/<7r./jfrom frequently pratflifed by the late 
thence have made their Lid. h'uley Ifmucl, emperor of Mo- 

(P) This Ibrt of irafiick was rokko, 

7 But 

C. 2^ Sixth Soltdn, Sanjar." 147 

But the Said, afluming aa air of authority, told him, If you and nolle 

do not be eafy, I ivill order you to be hanged up injlantly, be-fpirit, 
fore the houfe "johere you lodge ; after luhich I have only to 
add 1 00,000 crowns more to the fum which I have promifed 
the Saltan ; for with that money he might biiy a thoifand 
flaves, the worft of whom woidd be better than you. The of- 
ficer, who was in fa6l one of the Sokdn's flaves, hearing the 
Sa:id talk in that manner, thought it befl to bear all patient- 
ly, and waited at the inn forty days ; in which time Alao'd- • 
dawlat raifed the fum in queflion, without either borrowing 
money on intereft, or felling any of his effefts. 

On the cafh being paid into the royal treafury, the Wazir UnparaU 
was delivered into the hands of the Said, to do with him lulled ge- 
juft as he fliould think fit : but that prince fet, on this XiQ-'"^'''°fty: 
cafion, an example of virtue, the moil eminent and rare to 
be found among men ; for, inftead of taking vengeance on 
his enemy, or even of making him pay the fam which he 
had been obliged to give the Soltan, he treated him with fo 
much honour and generofity (Q_), thzlDhia alMolk became 
his befi: friend •. 

After the death of Mohammed \vz.s known, Sanjar (R), Sixth Sol' 
fon of Malek Shalj, who had governed the great province oitdn, San- 
Khorafan for twenty years, under the two preceding reignsj^r. 
of his brothers, raifed a puiffant army ; and marched (S) in- 
to the province of Perfian Irak, where his nephew Mahmud 
AbuHkaffem, furnamed Mogayatho'ddin, had taken the title 
of Soltan : but the latter being defeated, after a bloody bat- 
tle fought between them, he retired to the caftle of Saveh^ 
a place of great ftrength and importance. 

MA H MUD, finding his affairs intircly ruined, was obliged Divides 
to fue for peace to his uncle, and fent to him his Wazir Ke- the empire^ 
malo'ddiyi AH, a very eloquent perfon, who, by his addrefs, 
brought about an accommodation. Hereupon Mahmud went 
to vifit Sanjar ; and was fo well received, that he obtained 
of him the invefliture of the province of Irak (T), with the 


1 N1GHIAS.1ST. ap. D'Herb.'p. 606, & feq. 

(QJ This is agreeable to a gan in the year of the Hejrab 

precept of the Ko^an, Do good to 5 1 3, of Chrift 1 1 j 9. 

him n.vho doez you harm. (T) In another place of De 

(R) Pronounced alio Sanjtr, Herbelot, p. 537, art. Mahmudy 

and Se7ijar. it is faid that he was made San- 

(S) According to yf/wV/tir<z;, yWs governor, and lieutenant- 

and ihs Ltbtcrikhf this vyiu be- general, in both the hdks ; and 

Lz p. 185. 

1^.8 The St]^]\jks of h^n. B.I, 

following conditions : that the name of Sanjar (hould always 
be mentioned in the public prayers before that of Mahmud\ 
that this latter Ihould not have the fourth veil, or curtain (U), 
in his apartments ; that the trumpet (hould not found when 
he went in or out of his palace ; and laftly, that he (hould re- 
tain the officers whom his uncle had eflabliihed in his pro- 
^vitb his AlAH MUD, according to Kondamir, was obliged to re- 
ntphev:. ceive thefe conditions with thanks, and refolved to fpend his 
time in hunting, without meddling with any affairs. How- 
ever that may be, this feems, from the courfe of the hiflory, 
to have been an a^lual partition of empire, which took place 
foon after, if not from the time, when the agreement was 
made ; by virtue whereof Mahmud and his defcendants were 
to enjoy the fliare allotted to him, with the title of Soltan, 
in as abfolute a manner as Sanjar enjoyed his. Accordingly 
we find that Mahmiid was fucceeded in his dominions by four 
or five princes, who claimed under him, during the reign of 
Sanjar * in Khorafan : nor does it appear that he gave any op- 
pofition to their fnccelTion ; or that they applied to him for 
his confent. At the fame time it muft be confefled, that the 
hiftories and extracts which have come to us relating to thefe 
Soltans, are very defective ; and, to add to the misfortune, 
that of Ebn Jmtd, which was one of our chief funds, defcends 
no lower than the reign of Soltdn Mohammed, Sanjar's pre- 
decefTor m. 
Death. of This Soltan is called " Moazoddtn MuHhareth, and Mo- 
Kothb- azo'ddin Borhan (X). The firft thing remarkable that we 
o'ddin. meet with in his reign is the death of Kothbo'ddin, founder of 
a new monarchy, in the year 521. His father Bujlekkin was 
flave to Balkatekktn, or Malkatekktn, who was one of Ma- 
lek Shah's principal (laves, and pofTeded the employment of 
Tejhtdar, that is, great butler, or cup-bearer ; on whofc 
death the Soltan gave it to Bujlekkin : and, bccaufe the revenues 
of Karazm, a country on the eaft (ide of the Cafpian fea, were 
annexed to that office, he eafdy obtained the government of 

"" KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 755,&feq. art, Sangiar. " De 

Herb, art, Seljiikian. • Lebtar. p. 43. 

p. 185, art. ^<2ri/^iro/f, the title (U) Hung before the door of 

oi lieutenant-general'xi.'^vzviVvm. a room for (late. 
as the fignification of Atabek. (X) This is the fame men- 

Thc Lebtarikh fays, that Saw/ar tioned by R.Benjamin, thelying 

rcftored to him Irak, as far as Jt-w, in his travels, who calls 

the borders of the /?0M^« empire him Seuigar Shah, ion of Shah 

znd Syria. (i), that is, MaltkShah. 

(i) Btfij, Ttidtl. edit, Conft, iUmf. f. 87. 


C. 2. ' Sixth Soltafti Sanjar. 249 

that province. His fon Kothbo'ddhi fucceeded him in all hisHej. 521. 
places. As he was a man of fpirit and valour, his credit A, D. 
grew fo much during the reigns of Barkiarok and Sajijar, ^^27. 
that he obtained the title of Karazm Shah, that is, king of /y-^ Ka- 
Kharazm, which defcended to all his pofterity, in that great razm 
monarchy of which he was the founder, and which proved atSbah. 
length the ruin of the Seljukian dynafty of Iran, to which 
they owed their rife. However Kothbo^ddm, though very 
powerful, never departed from his obedience to the Soltans ; 
and, for thirty years, he did his duty of cup-bearer at court 
every fecond year, being relieved every other year by his fon 
Jtsiz °. 

In the year 524, Sanjar pafTed the Jihun, into Maward'I- Revo/tert 
nahr, to reduce Ahmed ebn Soleymdn, governor of Samarkand,ful>dued. 
who refufed to pay the ufual tribute. Being obliged to fur-^^j- 5^4' 
render after a vigorous fiege, the Soltan fpared his life, only •"* ■^•> 
depriving him of the government, which he gave to one of ^ ' *5* 
his flaves : but Ahmed, finding means to get into Sanjar % 
favour, was in a little time reftored. After this Bahram 
Shah, Soltan of the Gazni family, whofe kingdom extended 
from the province of Gazna, to the eaft of Khorafan, a great 
way into Hindowjidn, had a mind alfo to fhake off the yoke 
of the Seljukians. Hereupon, in 530, the Soltan entered hisHej. 530 
dominions with a large army : but Bahrdm, not being able A. D. 
to refift fo great a force, fent ambafladors to pay the tribute, »i35. 
and do homage for his crown, by which means he diverted 
the florm p. 

Upon the death ol Kothbo ddtn before-mentioned, his ion At- AtsizKa* 
siz, called alfo Takajh, fucceeded, both in his employments and razm 
the title of Karazm Shah, though no more, in reality, than go- Sliah 
vernor of that province, like his father. He grew in great cre- 
dit with Sanjar by his fervices, efpecially in coming up feafona- 
bly to refcue him out of the hands of an ambufcade, laid for him 
by Ah7ned, governor of Samarkand, before-mentioned. But 
afterwards growing out of favour at court, he got leave to 
retire to his government, where the people were inclined to 
revolt. The Soltan, at his departure, faying to thofe about 
him, / fee the back of a man, ivhofe face it is likely I never 
Jhall fee again. They advifed to have him arreted : but 
Sanjar would not confent ; alleging, that he fhr.idd violate 
ihe acknoivlegenunts due both to him and his father for their 
fervices, if heflmdd do any thing to offend him on a bare fuf* 

" D'Herb. p. 1 76, art. Cothbeddin. p Konp. ap. D'Herb, 
p. 756, art. Sangiar. 

L3 ^rsiz 

150 ri'^ Seljuks o/ Iran: B.rl 

rebfls^vith ATSIZ verified the Soltan's progfiofVic ; for he no foon- 
/uccc/s. er arrived in Karazm, than he put himfelf at the head 
of the rebels : {o that Sanjar was obliged to reduce by 
force an enemy, whom he had fuffered to efcape, by having 
more regard to the maxims of amity than thofe of policy. 
Ho\ve\er, the expedition did not gi\e him much trouble ; 
^^.i- 533' for advancing in 533, with fuperior forces, he fcut the rebels 
^- ^' to flight : and // K'llij, fon of Atsiz, being taken, was put 
*'3^- to rkath. The troubles m Karazm being thus effcfluilly ' 
fuppreffed, Sanjar gave the government of it to his nephew 
Soleymchi Shah. But as he left him only a few forces, he was 
foon obliged to quit it to' Jts/z ; who advancing with a con- 
liderable army, re-entered Karazm. And this year is reckon- 
ed for the commencement of the dynafty of the Karazm Shahs, 
or fovereigns in a proper fenfe 1. 
'Another Two years after, Samarkand vthtViQA again, in oppofition to 
rebellion the governor ; who, being afflifled with the palfey, was not 
(nurfi>t\i. j^ijjg J.Q ^^^ 'pj^g Sol tan marched againfl them ; and, after 
A n^^ "^'^^^ °^ ^'^ months, the city furrendered : but Safijar fpa- 
red the inhabitants, according to his ufual clemency ; and 
difplacing the feeble father, gave the government of the place 
to his fon. 
Tartarian During the Soltan's flay at Samarkand, he was folicited 
ivar. by fome lords ofhis court to bend his arms againfl Gurj-rfhy 
king of Karakatay (Y) ; alleging the glory that would arife from 
the conquefl of a country deemed in a manner inacceffible. 
Safijar, prevailed ^n by their inftances, marched on that 
Ude (Z) ; but Giirjafh advancing with his forces, cut in pieces 
30,000 of the Soltan's troops, and feized his camp, where 
v/as all his equipage, and Haram, or women ; among whom 
was Tiirkhhn Khatun, his principal queen. Sanjar, in this 
diftrcfs, picked out 300 of his bravefl: men, and made his 
way through the middle of his enemies, in order to reach 
termed (A), where he arrived with only twelve or fifteen fol- 
lowers. The reft of his fcattered troops repairing thither by 
degrees, he palled with them into Khorafan, quite afhamed 

1 KoND. Lebtar. &;Nighiar. ap. D'Herb. p. 146, art. Atsiz. 

fY) See an nccount of this (Z) The ^/-/''/m-^/^ places this 
couniry before, p. 57.65,^- feq. expedition in the year 536, of 
D'Hcrbelot, Qr his author KonJa- Chrift 1 141, and fays, the con- 
cur, fays, it is called LLj-'.Katay, fequence of his defeat was the 
becaufe of the tliicknels qf its \ohof Manvdralnahr. 
forefts, and decpncf: of its val- (A) A city on the Jihun, to 

lies, which render it dark and the north oi Bdlkh 


C. 27 Sixth Saltan, Sanjar.' t^i 

of his expedition ; which convinced his people that he was 
not invincible, as before they thought him to be \ 

^•/TaS/Z continuing more and more to encroach on the^tsizV 
Soltan's authority, he found himfelf obliged, a fecond time, '*^'^'''':/'' 
to take the field againfl him ; and, in 538, having reduced ^^'^'■^ 
feveral pafles and ftrong places in the way, came and befieged 
him in his capital city, j^tstz finding himfelf reduced to the^^j' 53^« 
laft extremity, fent very rich prefents to Sanjar, intreating 
pardon, which jvvas granted by the generous Soifin : who, on '^^' 
his taking a new oath of fidelity, left him in poireflion of his I 
government. But all this clemency had no effefl on the am- 
bitious mind of Atszz ; Sanjar receiving advice, from feveral 
parts, that he was raiflng forces, and paid no regard to his 
orders, fent Adihfaher, one of his great lords, to inform him- 
felf of the condu(5f oi Jtstz ; who, on his arrival in Karazm, 
fet guards over him, and fent affafTms to Marti to kill the the Sol- 
Soltan. But Adib coming to the knowlege hereof, gave no-''^«'^ ^^fi' 
tice to Sanjar; fo that the bravoes were difcovered, and put 
to death. Atsi% concluding that the intelligence came from 
that lord, had him thrown headlong from the top of his 
caflle into the Jihuriy or Amu. 

In 542, the Spltaa undertook once more to punifh ^tSuhmlts at 
treafon oiAtsiz; and invefled Hazar AJh, the ffrongefl: place /"./''• 
in Karazm, where Atstz l"hut himfelf up; and, after making ^^^j- 5^42. 
a vigorous defence, had the good luck to efcape ; the city ^^^• 
having been taken at length by ftorm. Sanjar followed him ^^7- 
to the city oi Karazm, which he might foon have taken; but 
whether weary of the fatigues attending the camp, or through 
his averfion to fhed blood, he liftened to propofals of peace, 
negotiated by a DarwiJJj, or religious man ; by whofe ma- 
nagement y^^j/z was obliged only to repair to the fide of the 
Jihun, oppofite to the Soltan's camp, and there proflrating 
liimfelf, kifs the earth. Atnz came to the place appointed ; 
but, without alighting off his horfe, only Itooped forv/ard, 
and bowed his head to falute the Soltan ; who, for all this 
arrogance, fent him the pardon he had promifed : after which 
all hoftiiities ccafed between them, till the time of the death 
oi Atsiz, which happened in 551, the year before that of 
the Soltan s. 

One of the moil remarkable events in this Soltan's reign, Gaurw*?,/^ 
is the fignal vitTtory which, in 554, he obtained over Hujjeyntnhutury. 
Jehanfuz, Soltan of the dynafry of Gaur, a country lying be- Hej. 544. 
tween that of Gazna and Khorafan. HuJJeyn having entered -^- ^^• 

*■ KoND. ubifupr. p. 756, art. Sangiar. * Ibid. p. 146, 

& feq. art. Atsiz. 

L 4 this 


132 T'-^^Seljuks <?/Iran. B.I. 

this laft province with a great army, in order to conquer it, 
Sanjar marched his troops, and, defeating thtm, took both 
him and Jli Cheteri, his general, prifoners. As Jli was born 
in the dominions of Sanjnr, and had formerly been loaded 
with favours by him, that prince put him to death for his 
ingratitude ; but foon after fent home Hujj'eyn to govern 
Gaur under his authority. 
The Saltan In 548 the Soltan was led, againfl his inclination, to cha- 
takcn by ftife the Turkmans, who refufed to pay the ufual tribute of 
the Turk-fheep(B) ; when his army was defeated, and himfelf taken pri- 
jnans. foner by that rabble, to the great diflionour of the houfe of 
Seljitk ; which was fo much leverenced by all the Turkijh na- 
tion (C). Thefe Turkmans, not knowing what to do with the 
perfon of fo great a prince, placed him in the day-time on a 
throne, and fliut him up at night in an iron cage. He fpent 
_j four years in this confinement ; till the Sol tana T^r^^a^ Kha- 

A n^^""> "^^° governed in his abfence, happening to die in 551, 
^^' he refolved to deliver himfelf put of the hands of the Turk- 
Efcrp shy To bring this about, he employed Jmtr Elias, one of his 
fratagem. confidents, who carrying on a correfpondence with Jmir 
Jhmed Komaj, governor of Termed, got him to provide boats 
ready in the river, againft the Soltan paiTed by in hunting. 
This flratagem fucceeded to Sanjar's wi(hes ; and the go- 
vernor, after entertaining him magnificently at his caftle, 
gathered what troops he could, who conducted him to Ma- 
ru, then the capital of Khorajan, where he ufually refided. 
But the Soltan found that city, and all the country through 
which he pa/Ted, in fo bad a condidon, on account of the 
incurfions which the Turkmans had made during his abfence, 

(B) The caufe of this war is (C) This event, in the arti- 

Tcprefented fon.cwha: different- cle of Jtsi-z, is placed in the be- 

iy in the Lcltankh : according ginning of Sanjar\ reign ; but 

to this author, the Cdz., oxTurk- ort vvhofe authority does not ap- 

»tfl»j,cro{ring ihe^./ii>; towards pear: for though D^Herbelct 

the end of Sanjar b reign, fufFcr- <\uotcs, it is along with 

ed great inilery : yet the king other authors, at the end of the 

refolved to march againft tlum. whole article, and not at thp 

'J'he Gaz. begged peace in the particular fafts or paragraphs, 

moft fuppliant manner ; each as he does in ether articles, 

family offering a piece of filver. It is there faid that Jt.'iz go- 

with which the Sohan was con- verned the Aate, in conjunc- 

ttnt : but the grandees obflrudl- tion with Mahmud, Sanjar & nc- 

Jng I he treaty, the Gdz were at- phew, during the Sultan's cap- 

C. 2. ^iiff^ Sohdn, Sanjar. 153 

that he fell into a deep melancholy, and afterwards into aHej. 552. 
diflemper (D) of which he died in the year 552 '. A.D. 

According to the Lebtartkh, this Soltan lived feventy- ]^S7' 
two years, and reigned fixty-two, in which m«Il be under- ^" death. 
Hood to be included the twenty years, which, the fame au- 
thor fays, he reigned in Khorafdn, before the death of Mo- 
hammed his predeceflbr. 

He extended his empire from Katay and Kotan {%), to ih&ExtenJive 
end of Syria and Egypt, and from the fea of Khozdr, or the dominions. 
Cafpian, to Tamman, or Arabia foelix. 

He fought nineteen battles, of which he gained feventeen : 
was much feared by all ; famous for liberality and clemency 
to his fubjefts. He was diligent in matters of government. His cha- 
but hated kingly pride ; wearing a coat made of fkins ". Yet radtr. 
the Karazm Shah's ferving the ofHce of cup-bearer to him, is 
produced as an argument of the magnificence with which he 

All the oriental hiftorians praife this prince for his vz- Greatly 
lour and juftice, magnanimity and goodnefs. As a proof of ^^^<''^*^* 
this, they write, that he was fo well beloved by his fubjefts, 
that they continued to publifh his name in the temples for 
a whole year after his death, as if he had been ftill alive, and 
on the throne. They gave him alfo the furname of Ejhander 
Thani, that is, Alexander the fecond : and his name of San- 
iar has pafled for that of Alexander among his pofterity ''. 

It is remarked that this Soltan eftablifhed Saad Ebn Zen- Atabek 
ghi (E), who had been his governor, lieutenant-general oidynafties, 
all his dominions, under the title of Atabek ; which title fig- 
nifying, father of the prince (F), and given to the tutors or 
governors of the Seljifkian princes, became afterwards a title 
of dignity. 

* KoND. ubi fupr. p. 756, & feq. art Sangiar. " Lebta- 

rikh, p. 43. * KoND. ubi fupr. p. 757, art. Sangiar. 

(D) According to the Nighi- Mojhaker, firft Atahek of ParSy 

arijidn [\\zxi^Ahulfaraj,\X.W'i2L% or ^proper Perf a, in 543, both 

the cholic, attended with a loofe- being pftablifhed during Sanjar s 

nefs and vomiting. reign. He feems to have been 

(J) This is llraining things the firft ; but D'Herbelot is very 

too far; for, inftead of con- confufed on this head. Seethe 

quering, he was defeated by articles Atahek, Saad hen Mo- 

the Karakitayansy aj before re- gaffer, and Salgar Shah, 

lated. ^ (F) Dr. P^^rori renders it, ^7^- 

(E)Thisniufl.havebcenO/wa</- minijirator regni. Ahulfaraj, 

o^ddinZenghi, ^& ^x'^ Atabek o{ hift. dynaft, p. 250. So does 

Iraki in 521, or Modhajfero^ddin D'Herbelot in feme places, 
{i) D'Herb.f.-j^-l, AbiPlf. I>,2^%, 



Rei^/! of 
juks, , 

ext'trB In 



rhe Seljuks of Iran: B. I. 

Aftfr Sanjars death, ALilmutd, his fifter's Ton, by Mo- 
hammed Khan, defcended from Bagra Kkdn, fucceeded in 
Khorafjn. . But at the end of five years, one of his lords (G) 
revolted from him, and, after feveral battles, feized his do- 
minions, and deprived him of fight. The Soltan of Karazm, 
whofe dynaAy rofe during the reign of Sanjar, taking ad- 
vantage of thc'e divifions in Khorafdn, made himfelf mafter 
of one part of that great province, while the other remained 
in polfcn^on of the rebels (H). So that the Seljukian Soltans, 
who ftill rt-igned in both the Irdks, no longer had any foot- 
ing in Khora'an *. 

We mufi: now turn back to thefe Soltans ; the firA of 
whom, Mogayatho'ddin Mahmud Ebn Mohammed, though be- 
ginning his reign at the fame time with his uncle Sanjar, 
and dying t^venty-feven years before him (I), is yet reckoned 
his fucceffor : Mahmud, Sanjar'5 filler's fon, before-mentioned, 
not being put in the lift of Soltans. 

S E C T IX. 

'The Reigns of Mahmud, Togrol, and Maflud. 

^eventlj T T hath been obferved before, in the reign of Sanjar, that 
Saltan, •*■ Mahmud, fon of his brother Mohammed, fiirnamed I\lo' 
Ma.hmud. gay at ho' ddin Mulkajfern, by the agreement made between 
them in 513 (A), was left in poffefTion of the Perfian and 
Arabian Iraks, with the countries wefhvard, whereof, tho' 
according to Kondamir he was only Sanjar's governor aad 
lieutenant-general, yet he fcems to have aifbed independently 
of him : nor does it appear that his uncle exercifed any power 
within his dominions. It is true, none of the authors be- 
fore us give any account of this Soltan's tranfaflions, after 

y MiRKOND ap. D'Herb. p. 537, art. Mahmud Khan. 

(G) The Lehtankh, which 
calls him Moyedabia, fays, that 
he had been one of Sanjar % 

(H) The Lehtarikh fays, the 
Soltans o[Go«rhad alfo a part. 

(I) Here we mud take notice 
of a g' eat millake in Kov.daniir, 
or his extra(flor/)7/rrZr/o/, who, 
in the article of Mahi/rud, fon of 
Mohammed, p. 537. fays, he re- 
fic'eJ lourtcen years in hak, as 

governor wx^^trSatijar; but that, 
on the Soltan's death, he was 
proclaimed by the peop'e for 
his fine qualities j yet in the 
fame page (article Mohammed 
Khan), makes Mahmud the fon 
of this latter, to fucceed him, 
twenty -fi.v years after. 

(A) Yet the beginning of his 
reign is reckoned horn the death 
of his father, 


C. 27 Seventh SoUdn, Mahmud.' 155 

his agreement with Sanjar. D'Herbelofs extratHis from Kon- DefeSi of 
damir, and other oriental authors, end there ^, Texeira v^^'^authors, 
in f'uch hafle to finifli his abftraft of Mirkond, that he would 
fcarce allow himfelf to look into the hiftory of the Seljuhian 
Soltans, or even to know their names. The Lebtarikh only 
fays, that Mahmud married two of Sanjar's daughters, and 
fought two battles with his brother Majfud, whom he de- 
feated both times. In fliort, the particulars collefted by 
Jbii'lfaraj, relate almoft folely to the affairs of Mefopotamia, 
and Syria ; which, in effedt, are all the materials we have 
towards the hillory of this Soltan's reign. 

That author informs us, agreeable to the account g\vtViT>eath of 
by the weftern hiffcorians, that, in the year 512, as Baldwin, ^^^'^^'^' 
king of Jerufalem^ was fwimming in the Nile at Balbays, in "^* 5^^' 
Egypt, a wound, which he formerly had received, opened ; ' „' 
whereupon returning to Jeriifalem, he there died, after hav- 
ing recommended the care of his kingdom to Al Carries (B), 
lord of Roha 

In 514 the Corj, or Kor], who are the fame with \}cit. Kho-T^he Gorj, 
zars, the Kafjaks, and other nations, invading the Moham- °^ Kho- 
medan countries, Al Amir Ilgdzi, lord of Mardhi, Dobays ehi"^^^^' 
Sadeka, lord of Hellah, and king Tcgrol (C), to v/hom be- 
longed Arran and Nakhjaxvan, advanced to meet them as « r\ 
far as Tefits, with 30,000 men. The armies being drawn up j j^o" 
to battle, there came forth 200 Kafjaks, who, as the Mq/lems 
thought, intended to furrender themfelves : inftead of that, 
they attacked their front fo vigoroufly with arrows, as ^nt invade the 
them into diforder ; which thofe in the rear taking for aSeljuks. 
flight, fled with fuch precipitation, that they ftumbled over 
one another. The Gorj purfuing for twelve Perfian leagues, 
flev/ moll of them, and took 4C00 prifoners : but king To- 
grol, Ilgazi, and Dobays, efcaped. The Gorj returning, be- 
fieged Tefis ; and, after harraifing the inhabitants, took that 
city next year by florm. 

In 51 5 Sokyman, fon of Ilgazi, being jull: turned of twen- A fairs cf 
ty, rebelled againfl: his father; but die latter coming upon Syria, 
him unexpeftedly, feized thofe who had fet him on, and pu- 
nidied them. Among the reft he ordered one Nafr, a com- 
mander brought up by his father Ortok, to have his eyes 
plucked out, and tongue cut ofF. He condemned another, 

* Bibl. orient, art. Sangiar & Mahmoud, fils de Mohammed. 

(B) For Comes ; To they call Jagarmjh, and fet ^rtt by Jd' 
the count of RoJ.a, or EdcJJa, ivcli, beice-ment oned. 
who had been taken prifoner by (Cj A brother of Mahmud. 


156 The Scljuks of Iran. B. T. 

whom he had made governor of Halep, firft to be deprived 
of fight, and then to have his hands and feet chopped off, 
which occafioncd his death. 

SOLETMJN was brought before him drunk ; but he 
was reftrained from killing him by natural affeftion. After 
this he fled to Damafkus ; and Ilgazi made SoleymAn, fon of 
his brother Abdo^ljaiibar, governor of Halepy and named him 
Badro'ddawlat ; after which he returned to Mardin. 
anJMch- The fame year the Soltan (D) gave Mayaferkin to tlie Am'ir 
potamia. Ilgdzi ebn Ortok ; and the cities of Mufol, Mefipotamia, and 

Senjar, to the Jmir Kofaym oddawlat Okfenkar al Bor/dki. 

Hej. CI 6. NEXt year Ilgdzi died at Mayaferkin ; on which his fon 

A. D. Hafamodd.n Taniartajh feized the caftle of Mardin^ and his 

'122. fon Soleyman Mayaferkin ; Badro^ddawlat Soleymdn continu- 

A.D. ing at Halep. But, in 517, Balak, fon of Babrdm ebn Or- 

1123. toky finding his coufin Soleymdn not able to defend his coun- 
try, came and clofcly befieged Halep, which was at laft fur- 

I A.D. rendered to him. Next year he took Manhej, but was flain 

1124. by an arrow (E) in attacking the caftle. Hereupon his army 
difperfed ; and Okfenkar al Borfdki took Halep, as the Franks 
did Siir, or Tyre. 

Okfenkar Towards the end of the year 520, Okfenkar, lord of Mu- 

'iff^f- foh ^'as aflaflinated in the royal temple of that city by the 

Jinated. Batdnijls, and his fon Ez?o'ddin Majfud took poiTe/Tion with- 

•A- D. Qyf oppofition. The hiftorian wonders how Ezzo'ddin fhould 

* * 2"* be informed of his father's death by the lord of Antiokh (F), 

before a courier brought him the news : But j^btVtfaraj ob- 

ferves, that it was fooner known to the Franks, by the care 

they took to learn the ftate affairs among the Moflems ^. 

Atabeks The year 521 is remarkable for being the firfV of the dy- 

tf Irak, nafty of the /Itabeks of Irak, founded by Omado'ddin Zenghi 

Hej. 521. (G), fon of Olfankar, or Akfinkar, who was eftablifhed in 

■^' ^' tbf government of the city of Baghdad, by Soltan Mahmud. 

''?7' His brother Ezzcddin Alajfud dying the fame year, Omado'd- 

*• Aeu'lf. p. 248, & feq. 

(D) A queftion may here a- (F) Ba/Jiuift^ king of 
rife, whether Sohan Sanjar, or fakm, was at this time in pof- 
Sohan Mahmud, is to be under- fefTion of --/w/Zoy^/j, though he re- 
ftood ? florcd it to Boamovd the younger 

(E) Fulfher Carnotenf. fays, the fame year. 

5fl/a> was flain in batde againft (G) He is, by the hiftori- 

Jofcellne ; that 3000 men were ans of the crufade, called San- 

flain, and his head fent to An- guin, which is a corruption of 

tiekb. Zinibi, 

C.2^ Seventh Solidfti Mzhmud.' i^y 

dm became poflefled of Mii/ol, and its dependencies. Next 
year he took Halep, with its caftle ; and the year following 
the city of Hamah ". 

In 524 Jl Amir BeahMmillah Ahual'i, lord of Egypt (H), Egyptfaa 
was a/Taflinated by the Batdnijls, as he returned from taking Khalifah 
a walk. The fame year there were feen at Baghdad {Qox-ajfaf- 
pions with wings, and a double fting. finated. 

The next year proved fatal to Soltan Mahmud, who diedT/^^ Sol- 
at Hamad&n, in Shawal, or the tenth month, having lived tan dies^ 
about twenty-feven years (I), and reigned thirteen ^. 

He was a handfome perfonage, and very generous; hxit.Hh cha- 
the love of women, and hunting, by degrees, impaired his ^^'t"' 
charafler. It is reported, that his hunting-equipage was fo Hej. 525; 
magnificent, that he kept 400 greyhounds and blood-hounds, A. D. 
each of which wore a collar fet with jewels, and a covering »» Sl- 
edged with gold and pearls. He laid out fo much in this 
expence, that he often wanted money to pay his troops, and 
for other occafions ^. Yet he did not fleece his fubjefts to 
recruit his coffers : he likewife reftrained his favourites from 
doing them any injury. He was merciful, good-natured, and 
prudent. He forbore to punifh thofe who fpoke ill of him. 
No prince ever ftudied the art of reigning more. He was 
fkilled in grammar, poetry, and chronology (K) ; was very 
eloquent, and wrote a fine hand ^ 

« Abu'lf. p. 250. D'Herb. p. 141, art, Atabek. 
"* Abu'lf. p. 251. « KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 537, & 756, 

art. Mahmud & Sanjar. Lebtar. p. 43. ^ Lebtar. p. 43. 

(H) He was the tenth Kha- years : perhaps itfliould be 497, 

lifah o^ Egypt, of the family of and that will bring it totwenty- 

Fatemah. They are called lords eight. The numbers in this au- 

of Egypt, by the hiftorians who thor are very incorreft ; and 

lived within tKe dominions of D''Herbelot feems to make ufe 

the princes fubjeft to the Kha- of tliem fometimes, without 

lifah of Baghdad, becauie they quoting him ; and even to fub- 

acknowleged no other Khali- ftitut^' them for thofe of Kon- 

fah. damir. In this uncertainty we 

(I) Our authors differ here: muft make ^^«^7r<2;' our guide, 

D'Herbelot, who quotes Konda- fince Ebn Amid has failed us. 
ndr, fays, he either governed K) We were unwilling to 

or reigned alone twenty-feven fully fo good a character, bjr 

years : the Lebtarikh, that he inferting in the text, that he 

lived but twenty-five years y^^ riade a collection of the inter- 

pucs his birth in 487, which preadons of dreams, 
extends his life to thirty-eight 


^58 the Seljiiks of Iran: B. I. 

Eighth MJNjMUD left for his fuccefTor his brother Togrol^ 

Sohnn, furnamed Rokno^ddin (L) : but his brother Majfud difputed 
Togrol. the crown with him ; and fcveral battles were fought between 
them, in the fpace of three or four years, which he reigned. 
According to Kcndamir, he was the fecond Soltan of a branch 
of the Seljukians who reigned in Perfian and Jrabian Irak : 
which confirms our remark, that the agreement made be- 
tween Sanjar and Mahnwd contained a divifion of the Sel- 
fukian empire of /rM-, or Pcrfia at large. However, it does 
not appear that oriental hiftorians confider them as two fe- 
paratc monarchies, but as one and the fame ; making Mah- 
mtid, the predeceiTbr of Togrol, the fucceflbr of Sanjar ; 
though both died fome years before him, as hath been already 
obferved ^ 
Hlirei^n . This Soltan, according to Abulfaraj, before he came to 
/hort. the throne, pofTcfTed the province of Jrran and Natchjavj^n 
(M). But the authors before us give no account of the 
tranfacftions of his reign, excepting Abulfaraj ; whofe me- 
moirs, as in the preceding reign, are confined to Mefopotamia 
and Syria. 
Hej. 526. This annalift informs us, that, in the year 526, Soltan 
A. D. Senjar wrote (N) to Omddo'ddin Zenghi ( Atabck oi IrdkArabi) 
'•31- and Dobays Ebn Sadekah (lord of Hellah), commanding them 
TheAtabek^Q rnarch into Irak, againll the Khalifah Al Mojiarfhcd. Ac- 
"^enghi cordingly they went, and encamped in a place called Mana- 
riyah, which belongs to Dojayl(0). The Khalifah Al Mo- 
Jlarfied, palling over to the wefl fide (of the Tigris), pitched 
his tents in /// Abbafiya. The armies met in Hadra al Ba- 
rdmakch (P) ; when Zenghi attacking the right wing of the 


*■ KoND. p. 1030, art. Thogrul, fil. de Mohammed. 

(L) According to tVc Lehta- that of Togrol, then the Soltans 

rikh, his name is Rokno'Jdiii of //«;{ mult have been depend- 

Abu I Mot afcr Togrol Bek. We ent on him; and his fucceflbr 

are the more exail in giving the Mrjfi'd, as well as his predecef- 

feveral names, becaiiic fonic au- for Mahmud, mull have done 

thors mention only one, fome every thing they did by his or- 

another; which frequently con- dcrs or confcnt. 

founds readers. (O) In another copy Dokhasl. 

(M) Commonly called A'^a/f-?'- It is the country along the it' 

juivd;!, Nakhchuivdu, and Nakh- gris, for fome fpace, to the 

Jii>nn, in Armenia. north of Baghdad. 

(N) If the name of Sanjar (?) The villa of the family 

be not put here by millakc for oi Bardmakth. We mention the 


G.2. Eigkb Saltan, Togvol JSTinih Msii^ud: >59 

Khalifah, where was Jamal oddaivlat Jkbal, put them to 
flight: "at the fame time the Khalifah, fupported by Nafr al attacks the 
Khadem (the eunuch), who commanded his left wing, fell oxyKbalifahy 
the right wing of Om&doddm and Dobays ; and, after a lliarp 
conflidf, put them to flight ; killing and taking many of theic 
men^. The fame year the Atabek al Shahtd recovered Mo- 
arrah Al Nonidn, in Syria, from the Franks ^. 

Next year the Khalifah fent a pretty fharp meflage to 
Zenghi, by Sheykh Bahao'ddtn AbuH Fotuh ; who, relying on 
the Khalifah's power, and his own character as legate, added 
feveral reproaches of his own. Hereupon Zenghi, arrefling 
him, treated him very ill. Al Mojlarjhed, incenfed hereat, 
departed trom Baghdad with 30,000 men; and, approaching 
Mitfol, Zenghi marched out of the city with part of his 
forces, leaving the reft under the command of his deputy 
Nastroddin, whom the Khalifah befieged ; and, while he '^'^'' ^^- 
preffed the place clofely without, a gang of gypfies within A?^-' ^"• 
agreed to betray it to him: but being difcovered, and exe- 
cuted, he retired, after three months leaguer to little pur- 
pofe; and, next year, a peace was concluded between him 
and the Atabek '. 

Sol TAN Togrcl died at Hamadan, in the firft month ofTogrol 
the year 529; lived twenty-five years, and reigned three, ^'"^-f- 
He was juft and valiant, good-natured and liberal. He un-^^j- 529." 
derftood the art of governing, and did nothing unbecoming ■^•^' ' 
a prince ^ ^ ' 34- 

MASSUD (P), furnamed Gayatho'ddtn Abu'lfetah, v>'zs Ninth Sol- 
at Baghdad when his brother Togrol died : and while his '^«» Maf^ 
friends fent a courier to haften him up to Hamadan, then^^^> 
the capital of the Seljukians of Irdk, the court party dif- 
patched another to Daivd, fon of Togrol, v/ich the fame 
view : but the uncle happening to get the ftart of the nephew, 
MaJJud was unanimoufly faluted Soltan by the grandees, and 
Daivd no more thought of ^ 

He was fcarce feated on the throne, before he ^ownd Kim- attach the 
felf obliged to make war on Al Mojlarjhed, twenty-ninth jK'W//^/^, 

s Abu'lf. p. 251. '' Ebn Amid. p. 363. ' Abu'lf. 

p. 251. "^ KoND. ubi fupr. p. 1030. Lebtar. p. 44. 

' KoND. ubi fupr. p. 563, art. Mailoud. 

great cities and the fmall, ac- laft a being the Ayn, v/hich Is 3 

cording to our original propo- guttural, but meked down into 

fal.that the geography of thefe the ti, fo as fcarce to be heard 

countries may be known to our in the pronunciaticn ; or itmny 

readers. be faid to ferve only to give the 

(P) Mc£udy or Mafalid; the u a gutturnl found. 


tSo The SeljAks of Iran^ B. I. 

Khalifah of Bnghdad, of the family of M Abhas. It feems, 
that, in the reign of Togrol, Dobays Ebn SaJckah, who was 
governor-general of Irak Jrabi for the Khalifah, plotted 
with that Soltan to furprize him in BaghiLid. But Togrol 
filling ill of a burning fever, hindered the execution ; Al 
Mojlarfhed's army alfo got the better. This war lafted till 
Majfud came to the crown ; when the Khalifah, at the in- 
ftance of fome court lords, had his name fupprefled in the 
public prayers, and even deprived him of the title of Sol- 
tuho is MJSSUD, being informed of this injury, fet out in- 

irfeatedf ftantly from Ray^ where he refided, at the head of a power- 
ful army, for the Arabian Irak ; from whence the Khalifah 
advanced, accompanied by a great number of his grandees. 
The tM^'o armies came to a battle in the feventh month of the 
year 529 ; when the Khalifah's left wing deferting to the 
Soltan, he was furrounded and taken, while his right wing, 
after a Qight oppofition, fled. After this defeat, Baghdad 
opened its gates to Majfud, without oppofition. The Sol- 
tan having had another war in his head, carried MoJiarJJjcd 
with him into the province of Adherbijan. Being arrived at 
Mar&gha, the Khalifah was confined in a tent, at a diftance 
from the army, near the gate of that city : where mellengers 
palled between him and the Soltan, relating to peace. At 
length it was agreed, that Al MoftarJJjed, bcfides paying 
yearly 400,000 crowns in gold, fliould remain in Baghdad, 
and not raife any other troops befides his ordinary guards. 
widajfaf. After this agreement that prelate was fuffered to ride on 
fatatid, horfeback with the covering of a faddle (QJ carried before 
him, in token of honour. In flxort, he was ready to return 
' to Baghdad, when news being brought that arv ambafTador 

was arrived from Soltan Sanjar, the people followed Majfud 
to meet him, and among the reft fome of thofe who had the 
care of the Khalifah. Twenty-four Bataiitjis took this op- 
portunity to get into his tent, and murder him, by giving 
him above twenty wounds ; then cutting oft" his nofe and 
ears, left him naked, where he remained till the citizens of 
Maragha buried him. Many believe, with good leafon, fays 
Kondamir, that Majfud was at the bottom of this murder ; 
and talked of an agreement with him, on the terms above- 
mentioned, only to cover his defign. 
Dobays Not long after this, as Dobays ebn Sjdekah was ftooping, 
Jiain. with his fingers on the ground, before his tent, near the city 
of Khunrj, a young Armenian, employed by the Soltan, cut 

(QJ The harnefs of a horfe. 

3 off 

C. 2. Ninth Sottdn, Mafltid. l6i 

off his head : For Maffud was jealous of his power, and had 
only made ufe of him as an inftrument to oppofe yll Mo'- 

The year following, the kings and lords of the provinces 77-^ /^i?- 
alTembling at Baghdad, threw off their ottedience to Saltan '^'^^^•f re' 
Majftid. On this Dawd (or David), fon of Soltan Mahmud'^°^{- 
(R), marched from Adhcrbljan, followed by Oraddo'ddin Zen- \' 53°* 
ghi, from Mufol lo Baghdad, where he was prayed for in ' ." 
the pulpits (S). Tl^e Soltan on this news haffens to that ^■'* 
city, and befieges it : but finding, after fifty days leaguer, 
that he could do nothing againil it, refolved to return to 
Hamaddn. He was a(ftually on the road, M^hen Tarentdy, 
lord of Wafct, arriving with a great number of Barks, he 
returned to the fiege. At the fame time, the princes who 
had affembled at Baghdad falling out among themfelves, 
king Dawd returned home, and the refi: difperfed. The 
Khalifah Jl Rajhed, with a few followers, paffed over to 
Zenghi, who was on the weft fide (of the river), and re- 
tired with him to Mufol. 

Hereupon Soltan Majfud, entering Baghdad, fixed his^^^ud 
feat there : then, affembhng the judges, witneffes, and thofe^'"''^'''-^ 
learned in the laws, he laid before them the oath which ^/^^S^dad, 
Rajhed had made to him, in his own hand-writing : /, in 
cafe I flmll affemhle forces, march out, or put to the fword 
any of Soltan Mafsud'j adherents, depofe myfelf from the em- 
pire. Accordingly he was, by their fentence, depofed ; and hhDepofesthe 
name fuppreffed every-where in the pulpits, before he had Khalifah. 
reigned twelve months. Then the Soltan called another 
council, who, after declaring Al Rafied unworthy of the 
Khalifat, eledted Al Moktafi Beamrillah, fon of At Mofladher 
(or Al Mojladhaher), who was his friend. The depofed 
Khalifah, leaving Mufol, in 531, went to Hamadun, where Hej. 531, 
king Dawd then was ; and from thence to Ifpahdn, v/here he -A. D. 



"^ KoND. & Ebn Shohnah, ap.D'Herb. p. 634, art. Moftar- 
fched. Abu'lf. p. 252. 

(R) Kondamir, in D'Herbelot, occafioned by the Saltan fend- 

calls him the fon oi Mohammed, ing to demand of ^/ Rn/hcd i\\Q 

For all this difagreement, he is fum which his father had pro- 

doubtlefs the D^ayi who is faid mifed to pay yearly. WHcrb. 

before to have been a fon of To- p. 710, art. Rafched. 

grol, and whom a court party (S) And, according to Kon- 

would have advanced, in oppo- dajmr, had the title of Soltan 

fition to Maf'ud. According to given him by the Khalifah. 
the fame author, this war was 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. M was 

1 62 T'^^ Seljiiks ^/ Iran. B.I. 

Was flaln by fome of his domedics (T), at noon, while he 
took a nap, after his recovery from a fit of ficknefs ; being 
forty years of age. He was buried at Shabrcjiaiiy without 
Jfpdhdn ". 
yf good mi- MASSUD, underftanding that the governor of Parj (or 
r.ijler Proper Perfia), made fome difficuhy to acknowlege Moktafi 
the new Khahfah, he fent his brother Seljttk Shdh, with the 
Jtabck Karajankar, to bring him to his duty. But the Ata- 
bik had no fooner made one day's march, than he fent the 
Sohan word, he would proceed no farther, unlefs he fent him 
Pir Mohammed Khazcn, his prime Wazlr, whofe death he 
'^"''''^ ^/'- fought. This Wazir manage i ftate affairs very well; but 
cnjice. difgufted the courtiers by too firm and haughty a carriage. 
Miijjud could not confent at firft to'fo unreafonable a de- 
mand ; but, as Karafankar had all his forces at his devotion, 
he was obliged at lafl to fend him the Wazir's head. 

The Atabek being fatisfied, returned to his duty ; but did 
not long enjoy the fruit of his revenge ; for he died a few 
days after he had gotten rid of his enemy. The Soltan gave 
his command to Ildighiz, with the almoft abfolute govern- 
ment of Jdhcrbijan (of which he was the firfl: Atabek (U), 
and that of Kiirdcjlan. He likewife gave him in marriage his 
fifter-in-law, who had been promifed formerly to Soltan To- 
grol, his brother and predecefTor. Soon after this, AbbdSy 
governor of the city Ray, with fome other confpirators, rofe, 
in favour of Soleyman Shah, brother of Majfud, and fet him 
on the throne. But this plot w^as foon quadied : after which 
the Soltan remained in peaceable pofleffion till his death °. 
The.^tahek As this is all we find in our authors relating to the re- 
Zenghi mainder of his reign, we fhall fupply the defett with the 
actions of the Atabcks of Ir&k, who rcfided at Mufol, or Mo- 
ful, and are called lords of that city, and of Syria. 
Hcj. 532. In the year 532, the Atabek Ointkio^ddin Zcnghi made a 
A. D. progrefs into Syria ; and, on his arrival at Hamdh, fent to 
^'37' Shchabo'ddin, lord of Damajlus, dcfiring that he might marry 
hauWd ' ^'^ mother Zamorrod Khatun, daughter of Al Jaivcli ; the 
marriaze ^^'^^ ^"^^y ^^^° ^"'^^ ^^^ college out of Damajhus, near the 
river Barada. By this means Hems, and its caftle, came into 
his pofTefTion. His motive to the marriage was, that as the 
affairs of Damajktis feemed to be under her dire(flion, he was 

" Abu'lf. p. 253. ° KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 563, art. 


(T) KoKiiamir, in Dllo-bf/ot, (U) This dynady commenced 
favs, he was flain by the Bafii- in 1J55, and ended in 622. 

7 in 

C. 2. Ninth SoMn, Mafliid. 163 

in hopes thereby to gain the country : but, when he found 
himfelf difappointed in his expedations, he went away, and 
left her behind. 

Next" year, he took Baalbek (X) (in Syria)', and, the j&^v Takes fe- 
following, Shahraztir, with its territory. In 539, he refcued '^^''«^//«- 
Roha (or EdeJjaJ out of the hands of the Franks (Y) ; and '^^^\ 
laid fiege to the ftrong caftle of Btr (Z) : but when he had^^-j- 5 39* 
near taken it, an exprefs arriving, w^ith an account that Na- ' 
stro'ddiny his deputy in Mujhl, was ilain, he departed. How- '^^' 
ever, the Franks, fearing his return, fent for Nojvio'ddin (A), 
lord of Mhrdhi, and delivered it up to him. Next year, 
while he was befieging the caflle of Jahar (B), certain ^2i\t^^'^l^i^ h 
flew him (C), in the night, and fled to the caflle. The be-Z^"^^-^- 
fieged on this, rejoicing, called out to let the army know 
their commander was (lain ; accordingly, entering his tent, 
they found him breathing his lafl. He was more than fixty 
years old when he died ; behaved with great gravity both 
towards his army and his fubjefts ; and was perfe6lly {killed 
in the art or governing. The city of Mufol (D), before he 
took it, was, for the mofl part, deflroyed ; and the adjacent 
country, which now abounds with fruits and ordoriferous 
plants, was the mofl barren in the world. 

NUR O'DDIN (E) Mahmtld, who was in the camp when Nuro'd- 
his father was flain, drawing the ring off his finger, went ftraitdin Mah- 
to Halep ; and, taking poffefTion of it, remained there; while "^"'^• 
his brother Sayfo'ddtn Gazi, haflening (romShahrazur, which y{- 
had been afTigned him, entered Mufol; and thus became lord ^_ d^ 
of that city, with ^'/ Jaztr^h {or MefopotamiaJ. He died 1140. 
there, after he had reigned three years, and was fucceeded 
by his brother Kotbo'ddin Maiidiid, His elder brother, Nu- SettL s in 
ro'ddin Malmiud, who poflefTed Halep and Hamah, in Syria, Syria, 
marching into Jl Jazireh, took Senjdr, without any oppofi- 

(X) And gave the command who, in 532, took the caftle of 

of it to Najmo'ddm Jyuh, or Job, Jl tietakh from the lall of the 

father of the famous Salahoddin, Mcr--ucan family. 
ov Saladin,\v\iO reCQVQvtd Sy-ia (B) V/illtam o^ Tyre calls it 

from the Chriflians. Abu If. p. Calogenhar : it flands onthe£K- 

263, &r feq. phrates, between Blr and Rak- 

(Y) William of Tyre fays, it kah. 
was by mining; and that Jof- (C) William 0^ Tyre {^yz, he " 

Celine foon recovered, but could was drunk when he was flain. 
not hold it. (D) Maufel, or Moful, as 'tis 

(Z) Or M Bir, on the Eu- varioufly written. 
fhratcs. Lat. obferved, 37° lo'. (E) He is called Norandir,, 

(A) He was fuccefibr to Ha- and Nuroldin, by the hiflorians 

famo ddin Tamartdfh ebn llga%i, of the crufade. 

M 2, t'lon, 

J 64 The Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

tion, from Kotbo'ddin : but peace afterwards being concluded 
between them, Ntiro'dJin religned Scnjiir, and took in lieu 
of it Hems and Rahaba (F), in Syria. The fame year, he 
invaded the Fninks about .-/nfiokh, and defeated them, after 
a bloody battle, in which the prince of that city was flain (G). 
His Ton Baymoiid ( lioamiind) fucceeding, who "being but an 
infant, his mother governed the kingdom during his mi- 
Defeated In 546, Nuro\idhi invaded the territories of Juflhi (or 
^yjofce- JofccUn) (H), which lay to the north of Halcp ; and being 
Iin._ "met by that wife and valiant knight (I), was defeated, after 
Hej. ^46.3 fierce battle, and his armour-bearer taken; whom Jujlin 
"• fent with Nuro'ddhi'^ arms to king IMaJjud Ebn Krij Arjl&n, 
*'^'' lord of A'^/2/)'^ and Jhfara; faying, This is your fon-in-law's 
armoitr-hcarcr : after him, Joviething jnorc will come to you. 
AYiro'ddhiy greatly incenfed at this conduft ol Jujlin, refolved 
to be revenged on him. Accordingly, fending for fome of 
tiie diiefs of the Turkmans, he, by large gifts, engaged them 
to {cMQ-Jiyiin, knowing he was not able to cope with him 
in battle. The Turkmans therefore keeping a watchful eye 
Ceti him Upon him, furprized him one day as he was hunting, and 
feiiud. brought him bound to Nt'iro'ddin (K) ; who immediately there- 
upon went and took the caflles of Jyn tab, Azaz, Kures, 
M Rawanddn, Borjol refas (L), Doliik, Marajh, Nahrol 
Jaxvr, and others l3elonging to Jujlin p. 
Mafiiid The year follow!- g, viz. 547, SoltAn Majfiid died at 

dies. Humaddn, after he had lived forty-five years, and reigned 

eighteen, witli llx months over 1. 
His cha- This prince was a great lover .of pious and learned men ; 
raSer. humble and affable : but, for religion, clemency, juflice, and 
bravery, fnperior to all the Seljnkians. He often defeated 
armies at the firff onfct, and killed lions with one (froke. He 
trequendy, when a boy, was in battles, and fought himfelf. 

P Aeu'if. p. 255, & feq. "^ D-Rerb. p. 563, art. Maf- 

foud. Lebtar. p. 44. 

(F) Or Rabla, on the Eu- (I) Yet U^i /Ham nf Tyre gWes 
phiafes. him tlie charadler of a voluptu- 

(G) This was Rayjnomf, who ous and diilblutc man, and one 
fiicceeded Bcamond, flain in who rejoiced at the Id's of An^ 
1130. tiokh. 

(H) He was called carl of {K)Ul!!iamofT\re or\\y {^y$, 

En-^ia, and refidcd at Tclbajhar, he was taken by the enemy, and 

named Itrbexet, and Turbejj'el, died in the calUe of //tfA./<7i, or 

by the hillorians of the cru- Halep. 
fade. { L^ That is, the tciicr cflczd. 

1 Uc 

C. 2.^ Ninth S oh an, M^^tid. ' 165 

He always came off vI6lor in the wars with his brothers. 
The people lived in great eafe during his reign ''. He dif- 
regarded treafures, giving them among his co irtiers ; which 
was the reafon that he almoft always wanted m .'ney, and left 
none in the treafury. 

MJSSUD was the laft of thefe Soltans who had anySeljuk^<j- 
power in the Jrahian Irak: for, upon his demife, MoktaJi,mi-'UQns. 
thirty-firlf Khalifah of Baghdad, of the family of Ahhas, de- 
prived the Seljukians of all authority in that city. For this 
reafon Ehn Shohnah makes this dynafty to end in the year 
547 ; which was alfo fatal to the race of Gazn'i Soltans ^. 

In the time of Majfud alfo a new dynafty of Atabeks J.taheh of 
arofe, which carried away part of his dominions: for theP^rs. 
Salgarians, or family of Salgar, invading Pars, or Proper 
Perjia, affumed the title of kings. They began to reign in 
the year 543, fixing their refidence at Shizciz, in that pro-Hej. 543, 
vince^ A. D, 

We fhould rob this reign of one of its greateft ornaments, iH^- 
iliould we omit to mention the famous MoiviadrS ddtn abii If- 
ma'il ebn Alt, furnamed Togray, who was reckoned the mofl 
excellent writer of his time (M), both in verfe or profe. A 
celebrated poem of his, called Lamiyat al Jjem (becaufe the 
laft confonant of each rhime is a Lam, or LJ, has been pub- 
liftied by Dr, Pocock, with a Latin trajiflation, under the title 
of Carmen Togray. According to Ebn Shohnah, he 'W2i$7he fa' 
firft employed,- at court by Soltan Malek Shah, and MaJJud'"°"^ To- 
made him his Wazir (N) : but being taken prifoner in theS^'^y* 
battle which that prince had with his brother Mahmtid, in 
513, he loft his head ; the Soltan alleging, that he knciu 
him to ke an infidel, and a wicked man ". But Ebn Khalikaii 
fays, he was put to death by Mahmiid's Wazir (or Vizier) 
for no other caufe, but that they feared hi?n on account of his 
excellent virtues ^. 

>■ D'Herb. p. 563, art. Maffoud, Lebtar. p. 44. » Id. 

ibid. ' Lebtar. p. 44. D'Herb. p. 748, art. Salgar, 

° Ebn Shohnah apud D'Herb. p. 1027, art. Thogrul. ^ Po.-^ 
COCK, nets in carm. Tograi, p, 3, & feq. 

(M) Or the pha:nix of the (N) In the city of Maufal, ox 
age, as Pocock has it. Mufol, according to Pocock. 

M ^ S E C T« 

i6S ne Seljuks of Irk. B. I. 


The reigns of Malek Shah II. Mohammed Soleymk 
Shah, Arflan, and Togrol, in whom the dynajly 

Tenth jy/IALEK ShUh II. furnamed MogayahodJhi (A) was, ac- 
Soltan, •'■ '■'■ corduiJT to Kcndavnr, the fon of Mohammed, fon of 
Malek MaU'k Sh&h I. But Ahulfaraj and the Lchtankh " fay, that 
Shah II, ]ie ^y^g jj-jg ^qj^ of Mahmud, fon of Moh.wimed, and, confe- 
quently, great grandfon of the firft Malek Shah. He fuc- 
ceeded his uncle Ma/fud.: but his reiga was of no long con- 
tinuance, as having been wholly unworthy of the crown ; 
for he minded nothing but indulging his appetite (B), and 
left affiiirs intirely to his minifters. 
Ldipnfed Notwithstanding his incapacity, he grew jealous of 
the authority of Khajhek, furnamed Belingheri, who had been 
in great efleem with Majfud, and paffed for one of the moft 
^•nliant men of his time. Malek ShAh wanted to have him ar- 
reted : but as the whole court thought fuch a proceeding 
unjuft, Hafjan Kandar, who was one of Khajlek's beft friends, 
^>KaItek. refolved to prevent the blow ; and, under pretence of giving 
the Soltan a grand entertainment, kept hini three days in a 
continual debauch, in the midft of which he feized his per- 
fon, and fhut him up in the caflle of Hamadc.n. After which 
they fent for his brother Mohammed, who was then in Khu- 
zefian, and fet him in his place. Some time after, Malek 
Shah, finding means to efcape out of prifon, fled to the pro- 
vince from whence his brother had been called to the throne ; 
where he remained till the death of Mohammed, in the end 
of the year 554 : when, haflening to ifpahan, he re-afcend- 
ed the throne ; but enjoyed it only a few days, dying in the 
beginning of the year 555, at the age of thirty-two ''. Ac» 
cording to the Lehtarikh, he reigned the firft time four 
months, and the fecond no more than nine days. 
Khaltfah It is proper to take notice here, that as the Khalifah 
Jhakes off Moktafi owed his elevation to the credit and authority of 
MaiJud, he had no fhare in the government of his ftate 
during the life of that Soltan ; but, after his death, he re- 
fjumed the authority, r.nd quite excluded that of the Sel- 

» Adu'lf. p. 247 lebtar. p. 44. *> Kond. apud D'Herb. 

p. 544, art. Malek Shall, i6i. de Mohammed. 

(A) The Lehtarikh fubjoins C") Diverfions and mufic : 
^lulfctah. Ub.'aiikh. 

jukkns J 

C. 2^ Eleventh SoUdn, Mohammed II. 167 

jukians ; for he would not allow Malck Shah to have any 
power or command in the fbltanat of ^^^/;^^^ ; but remained c v'l- 
fble mailer in his dominions, which comprehended ^a^j/o/zj/Zj f ^" 
Irak (C), and Arabia : in Ihort, it was under this Khalifah"^^ 
that the power of the Seljtikians, who had been mafters of 
all the forces and poiTeiTions of the Khalifahs, began to de- 
cline, and, by degrees, becam.e extinft ^. On this occafion 
Abulfaraj obferves, that Al Moktafi was the firll who reigned 
in Irak Arabi without a Soltan, and governed his armies, 
as well as fubjefts, according to his own will (D), fmce the 
time that the Mamluks, or flaves (E), firft uiurped power 
over the Khalifahs, un^tx Al Mojlanfir "^ (F). 

As Khafhek, who was the chief inflrument of the advance- Elci'enth 
ment of Mohammed, furnamed Gayatho'ddtn, would needs S'oMw, 
have the intire government of the (tate at his own difpofal ; Moham- 
and as that lord's credit, as well as riches, rendered him"^^"-^^* 
powerful, Mohammed {oon perceived that he could never reign 
with authority, fo long as fuch a perfon was alive. For this 
reafon he refolved to get rid of him, according to the advice 
of one of his miniffcers ; who, alluding to the youth of the 
prince, and age of Khajhck, told him, that 7io new branches 

Jhot from the foot cf ths vine, till the old ones were cut away. 

Upon his death (G) the Soltan became pofTefTed of all the'^%'^ 
wealth which he had amafled, during the time that he had Khasbck. 
the management of the treafury. It is remarked, as a thing 
extraordinary, that he had in his wardrobe an infinite num- 
ber of very precious moveables (H), among which were 1 3,000 

^fcarlet and purple vefts. 

However, the death of Khajl-ek had like to have been 
the ruin of Mohammed : for that great lord had made pow- 
erful friends at court, who were refolved to revenge it. With 

" D'Here. p. 592, art. Moktafi. ^ Abu'lf. p. 258. 

{C) Cs.\]ed z\(o Arahiafi Irak, Khojbek as {t\7\Ti<g Malek Shah 

containing the 2i\\XKVi\.Khaldea. without provocation, and fend- 

(D) He reigned twenty-four ing for Mohammed only with de- 
years ; dying in //{/V^/;- 555. fign to deftroy him : but that 

(E) Meaning the 7'i/r/?-j. Mohamf/ieii,kQ\x\<g\nX.o his vil- 

(F) It fhould h& Al Montaf- lainy, flew both him and his 
yjr, who was the eleventh Kha- armour-bearer two days after, 
lifah of the Abbas family ; un- as they came into his prefence ; 
der whom the Tjirkijh militia and caft out their heads to be 
began to ufurp authority over eaten by dogs. Abu If. ^. 2 ^^-j. 
the Khalifahs. (H) The TarUh Khozidch 

(G) Abulfaraj reprefents gives a lift of thcra, all. 

- M 4 tiiat 

i6S "The Seljuks of Iran. B.I. 

that intent the A'tabck Ildighiz (I), and Akfanhr, lord of 
Martigha, having rc\'olted, depofcd M'^hammCil, and proclaim- 
Tllcs for ed his uncle Solcymdn Shah, Ton of Mohammed I. The young 
fear. unexperienced Soltan was (b frighted at this news, that not 

knowing whether to light or accommodate matters, he fled to 
Jfp&hun, while So'.cymun Shdh took peaceable pofTelTion of his 
capital 7/rtW7A-/<2/?, 
Sokyman '['he new prince might have preferved the crown with as 
Shah ad- much eafe as he obtained it, if he had not been intirely de- 
nianced. ftitute of counicl, and very unhappy in his conduft. Among 
other indifcrete acftions, he took the employment of the great 
chamberlain from Mohammed Karazm Shah (K), and gave it 
to Alp Argun : he likewife turned out his Wazir Fakro'ddin 
Kajhl, and put AbtVlncjib in his place. Thefe two great of- 
ficers, to revenge their difgrace, plotted to reftore Moham- 
med : but as that could not be done without depofing Soley- 
772dn Shah, and the militia feemcd to be attached to him, 
they contrived aftratagem, which fucceeded to a wonder. 
F/ies In his MO HAM ME D Karazm Shah tells his filler, who was 
turn. the Soltan's wife, as a great fecret, that there was a plot on 
foot to bring back his nephew, and that her hulband's per- 

* "■ ■ ■ • : y liii^ii 

and fearful Soltan, without ft:iying to enquire the leafl into 
the matter, immediately mounted horfe, with a few of his 
intimates ; and took the road to Mazanderun, a province on 
the Cafpian fea. 

Next day every body was' ftrangely furprized to hear of 

the Soltan's fligTit. The foldiers immediately mutinied, and 

Moham- running to the palace, plundered it. Mohammed no fooner 

rncd re- received advice of his uncle's flight, which was fo like his 

iuria. own, than he made haile to HamadJn, and re-afcended the 

vacant throne. 

SO LEY MAN Shi'tb, perceiving too late that he had been 
duped, refolvcd to attempt the recovery of his dominions, 
by the afiiftancc of his friends. The Khalifah Moktaf, and 
the Atabek ildighiz, joined , their troops to thofe which he 
Defeats Li sgzthizvQA in AIazar„Wdn : but being met by his nephew on 
usAt. the banks of the river Arras, or Araxes, was overthrown, 
and obliged to retire to Mufol. Mohammed, after this vic^ 
tory, was inclined to have attacked the Khalifah, who gave 
protection to his uncle :, but confldering that he had another 
enemy, his biothcr Malek Sbdh, to fear, he was obliged to 

(I) Who became afterwards thor, muft be miftakcn here; I 
/irft Atabek of Anle-hijcin. for it cannot he ^lobammed, but 

i^\\) P'Hcrbeht, or his au- Aiii;^, 

C. 2. twelfth Soltdn^ Soleyman Shah. 169 

make up matters with Moktafi, who gave him his own daugh- 
ter in marriage. 

This princefs, named Kcrman Khatim, fet forward with 2iHis death. 
fplendid equipage, and the Soltan went to meet her ; but an 
heftic fever which attended him put an end to his life, on 
■ the road to Hamaddn, in. the year 554 (L), after a feven 
years reign, aged no more than thirty-two. - 

This Soltan has always pafTed for a mofl accomplifhed HrV r /;>«- 
prince, who pofTefled all the virtues military and civil.' YiQraaer, 
was a great patron of men of learning, piety and merit : in 
which, fay the hiflorians, he was the very reverfe of his bro- 
ther Malek Shah. 

It is faid that this prince quitted life with much reluc- 
tance ; that, before he expired, he ordered his troops, his 
court, and all his treafures, to pafs before him, as it were 
in review ; and that, after he had confidered all thefe things^ 
he faid, Hoxv is it pojfible that a foiver as great as mine is 
not able to lejfen the weight of my diforder one fingle grain, 
nor to prolong my life but for a moment ? 

He left his dominions to his brother Malek Shah, who fur- avJ fuccef- 
vived him only a few days, as hath been faid before. He.^'■■f• 
was fucceeded by his uncle Soleyman Shah, the other compe- 
titor of Mohammed^ , 

SOLEYMAN Shah, furnamed Moazo'ddhi Kaffem {y[),T^i':elfth 
was the fon of Soltan Mohammed, fon of Malek Shah I. Sol tan, ^ 
This prince being at Mujol when his two predecellbrs died, ^o'fyni^'i 
the great lords, after fome Rebate among themfelves, fent for ^ * 
him, and placed him on the throne. But as he gave himfelf 
up intirely to voluptuoufnefs, and the company of women, '' 

without minding the affairs of the kingdom, they feized and 
imprifoned him, at the end of fix months ; advancing, in his 
room, his -nephew y-yA/?fl«, in the year 555, Setting afide .'•555* 
his bad condu6l, for which he was depofed, he did not want 7^' 
fome good qualities : he was very familiar with thofe about 
him ; and excelled as to his behaviour, perfon, and eloquence, {s foon 
He died in the fecond month of the year 556, at the age oidepofd, 
forty-five ^ This is all the account we have of Soleyman^ 
fhort reign, and taken from the Lebtarikh ; for D'Herbelot 
fays nothing of it. As for /Ibulfaraj, he does not mention 

« KoND. Tarikh'Benakiti, Tarikh Khozedah, apud De 
Herb. p. 60S, & feq. art. Mahammed, fil. de Mohammed. 
*^ Lebtarikh, p. 45. 

(L) In Dhulhajjah (which is (M) The Lehtankb calls him 
the laft month), according to the Soltan Moa:coddin Abulhareth 
Itebtarikh, Boleymdn Shah, 


170 ^ke Seljuks of Iran." B. I. 

the Soltans of Pcrfmn Irak, after the death of Mohammed II. 
when the Khahfah threw off the Seljiik yoke, and refumed 
the dominion in Irak ylrabi. 
Thirteenth ARSLAN was the fon of Togrol, fon of Mohammed , fon 
Saltan, of Malck Shah I. and furnamed AbiCl Modhaffer Zeynoddhiy 
Arflan, according to Kondamir ; but the Lcbtarikh ftilcs him Roknod- 
ddwlat. He is commonly called by hiftorians I\Iakk Jrjlan. 
He was proclaimed Soltan in Hamadan, by the influence of 
theAtabek//^/]^/;/z (N) : but from the beginning of his reign, 
Kinuir, governor of Ifpahan, and Enhancj, or Inanj, governor 
_ ^ of Ray, revolted againfl: him ; fetting up for Soltan one of 
b-r ^^^^^^ couiins, named Mohammed Seljuk Shuh ; with whom, at 
tJie head of a great army, they advanced to Hamadiln. /irjlm 
went to meet them as far as Kazvin, where he got ihe vic- 
tory ; for the new Soltan was killed in the battle, and his 
two fupportcrs fled X.oRay, and from thence to Mazanderan. 
ARSLAN had no fooncr put an end to this war, but he 
found himfelf engaged -in another ; for the prince of the Ab- 
khaz, fituated bet\veen Georgia and ChcrkaJJia, who was a 
Chriflian, entering Adhcrbijan, ravaged that province as far 
Defeats as Kazvin. The Soltan, turning his vi(florious arms on that 
the Ab- fide, defeated him near the Arong caflle of Kak, which he 
khiz. had taken and fortified ; but, being afterwards forced by the 
Seljuk troops, was demolilhcd. 

Towards the end of the year 559, Solthn Arflan made 
a progrefs to Ifpahan : the Atabck Zenghi SaJgari, who com- 
manded in that city, went out to meet him, and took the 
oath of allegiance. The Soltan confirmed him in his go^•ern- 
ment, of which he extended the bounds as far as the province 
of Fdrs, or Pars. 
Enbancj Enbancj (O), who ftill flood out in Mazandernn, in 561 
Cubmits. made alliance with \\\q. Karazm Shah, by whom being affilled 
Hcj, i;6i.with a great body of troops, he entered Perfian Irak, and 
A. D. lavaged the country about Abher and Kazvin : but Arjlihi, 
* 5* accompanied with the Atabek Ildighlz, coming on him by 
furprize, obliged him to fly to his old retreat. Two years 
after, the fame rebel, invading the country about Ray, de- 
feated Mohammed, the fon of Ildighlz^ who was fent againll 
him. Hereupon Ildighiz himfelf marched ; and, being come 
to that city, made feveral propofitions to Enbanej, who there- 
upon agreed to go with him, and make his fnbmifiion to 

(N) FIrft Atabck o{ Adhcrhi- tan Arjlan began his, i'i%. of the 
jan; where he bccraii to reign llejrah ^:^z^. 
the fame year in which the Sol- (O) Or hianj. 


C. 2. Fourteenth Solldn, TogYol II. 171 

the Soltan : but the night before this ceremony was to be He is 
performed, Enbancj was killed in his lodgings. The Sokan,/'«'»- 
on this news, gave the government of Ray to the fon of Ildi- 
ghiz, who foon after married the only daughter of Enba- 
nej ; the fruit of which was Kiithik (P), furnamed Enbanej. 

In 568 the mother of the Soltan, a princefs of great m\t- The Saltan 
tue, died in the houfe of lldighiz ; and this great man fol- dies. 
lowed her not long after. The Soltan himfeif, afflifted at 
two fuch great lofTes, fell fick of a languiihing ilinefs, Hej. 571. 
which yet held him till the year 571, when he died; after -A. D. 
he had lived about forty-three years, and reigned about fif- ^^1^- 
teen (Q_). 

He was a prince not only valiant and generous, hxxfAioHischa- 
patient, and good-natured to fuch a degree, that he would racier. 
not fuifer any-body to be fpoken ill of in his prefence ^ ; nor 
(Ever ti'eated any of his domeflics with feverity or contempt ; 
being eminent for modefl:y and clemency. He never denied 
any-thing to a man of good addrefs and parts. He was very 
nice in his diet and apparel ; for he had very rich vefcs, of 
every kind and colour, wrought with gold, fuch as no king 
before him ever wore. His converfation was familiar, and 
perfectly llncere ^. 

TOGROL, fon of Soltan Arjlan, called alfo Roknd'ddln fourteenth 
Kaffem (!<.), was the lafl Soltan of the Seijiik dynafty of Iran, S°^^^'»^ 
or rather Perfian Irak, which ended in him. He fucceeded, ^^S^'ol 
and governed his dominions happily enough, under the di- 
rection of his maternal uncle the valiant Mohammed (S), fon 
of the Atabek lldighiz. 

At the beginning of his reign Badanjar attacked the prq- 
vince of Jdherbijdn ; and Mohammed, fon of Soltan Togrol ebii 
Mohammed, that of Perfian Irak : but Mohar,i7ned ebn lldighiz, 

2 KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 129, art. Arfian ben ThogruL 
^ Lebtar. p. 45, 

(P) He is called Kiligb, in (R) He is named, in the Z^-^- 

D'Ht'r^f/o/, p.836. who, p.277, tarikh, Soltan Mogayatho' ddin 

art. Cotluk, gives him the fur- Togrol. 

rxcime of Fakro'ddin. (S) Jbu If araj calls him the 

(Q^) According to the Nig- VahlcroanMohammedehnlldegary 

'hiarijidn, fifteen years eight and fays he lord of Jl Je- 

jnonths and fifteen days. The Idl, or Kuheftdn, part of Perfian 

Lebtarikh of Gohnin has but ele- IrJk;ofRay,Ifpdhdn,Adherbijd}i, 

van years ; yet places the be- and Arrdn, which lafl is pai t of 

ginning and ^nd of his reign as Armenia. __Abu If. ^.zyi^Sc feq. 
in the text. 



lyz The Seljuks of Iran. B.I. 

with his brother Kizil Jrjlan (T), marching againft them 
at the head of a great army, foon obliged them to fue for 
Grand con- In the tenth year of his reign there was one of thofe great 
jiinBicn. conjunftions of the feven planets, which very rarely happen. 
Hej. > appeared in the third degree of Libra-, which, according 
■^' P" to the rules of judicial aftrology, is a very airy fign.' All the 
" 5- aftrologers of that time, and among the reft Anvari, fur- 
named Hakim, or the philofcphcr, foretold, from this phacno- 
menon, that fuch violent winds would blow the foremen-, 
tioned year, and fuch dreadful hurricanes arife, that moft of 
the houfes in the country would be blown down, and the 
mountains themfelves fhaken. Thefe prediflions had fuch 
an effedl on many people, that they provided places under- 
ground, to retreat from fuch horrible calamities. 
Tanity of NoT wiTSTANDiNG all this, to the utter corifufion of 
ajlrology. the aftrologers, there did not blow, during the wliole time 
affigned by them, any wind to hinder the farmers from 
threlhing and winnowing their corn '. Yet the Lcbtankh, 
as if to fave the credit of thefe pretenders to foreknowlege, 
would perfuade us, againfl the teflimony of other hiflorians, 
that they from thence prognoflicatcd the great devaftations 
which attended the irruption of the Aloguls under Jcnghlz 
Khiin, into the countries of Turan and Irak ^, twenty-nine or 
thuty years after : for although he began his conquefts in 
the eaft of Tartary about that time, viz. in 599, yet he 
did not move weftward, to fubdu'e provinces, till the year 
614, or that following. Why then might not the pheno- 
menon in queflion have related rather to the fall of the Sel- 
jitk monarchy of Irak ? Was it too fmall an event for fo 
great a congrefs of the heavenly bodies ^ Or could the aflro- 
logers fee the more diflant evil, but not that near at hand ? 
The lords In the fame year 581, the Atabek Mokammed, fon of Ildi- 
ecnfpire ; ghiz, dying, a breach began between the Soltan and Kizil 
Jr(lan Atabek (U), brother of the deceafcd ; for this ambi- 
tious lord, taking upon him to difpofe of all things without 
TogroV^ orders, gave great umbrage, both to that prince, 
and his whole court. The Atabek, perceiving the Sokan to 
be difpleafed with him, to prevent the confequcnce, marched 

' D'Herc. p. 1028, art. Thoc,ruI ben Arflan. ^ Lebtar. 

(T) Qx K,zel Arjldn, that is, (U) Third Atabck of ^^/vr- 
tbe red lion. Hois called el fc- h'tjdn. 
where KiHj or Kdrj Arfdn, and 
Kezd Kin,:/ A-Jiutj, 

C. 2. Fourteenth Soltdny TogxoXW. 173 

of a fudden with a great army towards Hamadan, from 
whence Togrol, having no forces to oppofe him, retired. Ki- 
zil Arjlm entered the city without refiitance ; and, after he 
had continued there for fome time, content with having given 
this infult to the Soltan, withdrew home to Adherbijan. 

After his return, Togrol re-entered his capital; but \\\tfei%e the 
Atabek did not let him remain long in quiet : for drawing 5o//fl« ; 
feveral difcontented lords of Irak to his party, he perfuaded 
them to fend proper perfons to let the Soltan know that they 
were ready to come and afk his pardon, if he would have 
the goodnefs to grant it them. Togrol, well pleafed with 
their fubmiffion, appointed a day to receive it, when he was 
to play at mall in the gi-eat fquare of the city. The lords 
did not fail to appear there before him ; but, inflead of afk- 
ing pardon, fcized his perfon, and imprifoned him in the 
flrong caflle named Kaldt al Naju, or the cajlle of refuge. 

As foon as this fchemewas executed, Kizil Jrjlan leh Ad- divide his 
herbijan, and came to Hamadan, with defign to fet San] ar, dominions. 
fon of the late Solcymm Shah, on the throne. But, on re- 
ceiving advice from Baghdad that the Khalifah fhould fay, the 
Jltabek had a good pretence to become Soltan himfelf he re- 
folved to aflTume that title, and ordered money to be coined 
in his own name. This proceeding changed the face of af- 
fairs : for Fakro'ddln Kiitluk (X), his nephew, and feveral 
other great lords, who thought thenifelves his equals, enter- 
ing into a conspiracy, flew him, and divided Tc^ro/ 's domi- 
nions among them. 

At this jundfure the Soltan efcaped from his confinement. He reco- 
by the intrigues of Hoffamo'ddzn, general of his troops ; "vers thenu 
among whom there were many attached to his interefl. As 
foon as he was at liberty, he raifed an army ; and defeating 
the rebels, puniflied them as they deferved. 

Yet did not this put an end to their treafons ; for, in 588, Kutluk 
Firmah, widow of the Atabek Mohammed, fon of Ildightz,^^^^^^ • 
who lived in the Haram, among the Soltan's women, was ^' 

prevailed on by her fon Kuthdi Enbanej to poifon the Soltan. ''92- 
But that prince having notice thereof, prevented the blow, by 
making her take the dofe Vv'hich flie had prepared for him. 
After this, he ordered Kilthtk to be feized ; and would have 
fecured his own life, if he had not reftored him to his li- 
berty ; which was the caufe of all the evils that afterwards 
belel him. 

(X) Surnamed Ejihariej, be- Atabek of Adherh/jdn, twenty 
fore mentioned. He was fifth years after. 


174. rhe ScYjuks of Iran. B.I. 

joint- J hy In fliort, this Ungrateful wretch was no fooncr releafed 

Takafh: out of prifon, than he fent to perfuade Takafl?, fifth king 
of Kiirazm, to conquer Pi-rjian Irak. Takajh came ; and, 
jouiing his forces, went and took the caftle of Thabrck (Y) : 
but, after remaining for fome time about Ray, retired on the 
Sohan's approach, leaving Tafaj to take care of his new con- 
qucf^s (Z). But next year To^^rcl recoverdl all, and punifhcd 
Tofnj, whom he took prifoncr. 

hoth de- In 590 Ktithik, avTting in concert with Takjjh, marched 
frated. with a powerful army into Pcrjlan huh ; but being defeated 

Hej. Tcgrol, was obliged to fly into Karazm to his afliftance. 
A. D. 'j^hg Soltan, after this, thinking he was delivered ftom all 
"93- his enemies, abandoned himfelf to women and wine, with 
boundlefs exccfs. And though he was told, that Takn/Jiw^xi 
raifing a formidable army to invade his dominions, yet in- 
toxicated with his fuccefs and delights, he continued his de- 
bauches, and negledled affairs to fuch a degree, that the 
grandees of the court wrote themfelves to Takq/h, to make 
haftc, afluring him that he might eafily farprize Tcgrol in the 
mid If of his revels. 

Togrol Takajh, following their advice, made fuch expedition, that 

fain, he arrived at the gates of Ray, while the Soltan was flill bu- 
ried in liquor. However, he put himfelf at the head of Jiis 
troops, and marched towards the enemy, repeating certain 
verfes out of the Shah Nameh (A), fpoken by fome warrior, 
boafting of what he would do : but raifing his mace, as if he 
was going to ftrike, in conformity to the words he had pro- 
nounced, he difcharged fuch a blow on one of the fore legs 
of his horfe,.that the beaff fell under him, and he was thrown 
himfelf by the fall. Kiltluk, feeing him on the ground, im- 
mediately ran, and, with one blow of his fcymitar, put an 
end to his life, and the power of the Scljuks in Irak '. 

JJlalice of TAKAS H, not content with the down fal of tliis prince, 

Takafh, whofe dominions he joined to his own, fent his head to the 
Khalifah at Baghdad, and had his body fallened to a gibbet 
at Ray "i. It is furprizing, that neither of thefe two remark- 

* D'Here. iibi fupr. p. tozg, & feq. >" Lcbtar. p. 45; 

De la Croix hill, de Genghis, p. 131. 

{Y ) 7ahrai,0T Tal>arak, nc&v containing the hiftory of the 

Hav. anUcni kings of Pcrj.'a. Itcon- 

(Z) This affair is fomevvhat fills of 60,000 diilichs ; which 

differently related elfeuhere. the author, Fadufi, was thirty 

See lyUcrh. p. 83-;., Tin.TncnJh. years in compofing, at the com- 

(A) That is, tic royal hook: mand o^ Mahm'd Cazni, often 

it i; a fauious Pirium poeni, mentioned before. 


C. 2." " Fourteenth Soltdn^ Togrol II. ijr- 

able circumftances, which are related by the Lebtarikh, are 
mentioned- by D'Herbelot, in either the article oi Togrol ben 
Jrjldiiy or TakaPj, wherein the death of that prince is fpoken 
of; and yet, if we miifake not, he takes notice of them in 
fome other place : on which occafion he obferves, that fome 
of the Perjian hillorians afcribe the ruin of the Karazmian re'ven'^ed 
empire, not many years after, by Jenghtz Khan, under ^o\-j'oon after. 
tan Mohanif}T£d, fon and fucccfTor of Takafi, as a judgment 
on that family, for their ingratitude to the Seljukians, to 
whom they owed all their fortune. 

According to Kondamtr, Soltan Togrol reigned eighteen 
years ten months and a half ". The Lebtarikh has twenty- 
nine years, by miftake for nineteen ; as appears by collating 
the year of his death with that of his predecefTor, marked by 
the fame author. What children he left (B) does not ap- 

This prince had a great many noble qualities ; for he was Ch^^raJIf}' 
not only remarkable foj his courage, which made them com- of Tho- 
pare him to Rofiam and hfandiar (C), but alfo for his witgrul; 
and knowlege. He excelled fo much in poetry, that fome 
compare him to Anvari and Dhahir °. He often difputed 
with the learned ; had a majeflic mien ; and was very hand- 
fdme. He furpalTed all the Scljtikians in goodnefs and juflice, 
as well as in managing his arms both on foot and on horfe- 
back P. 

The Seljukians of Irak were, for the general, a race oiOfthe 
very accomplifhed princes, eminent for their good-nature, '5«'//«"«j' 
courage, liberality, juiliice, and other virtues, both zw'A zxA^^ general . 
military. They owed their ruin chiefly to their too great 
bounty, and indulgence to their favourites ; particularly in 
vefling governors with fo much dignity and power, as the 
Karazm Shahs and Atabeks, by whom their own was at length 

Thus we have completed the hiftory of the firfl and "^rm-Defeas ef 
cipal Seljukian d^ynafty, compiled almoft wholly from the ori- Greek 
ental hiflorians : on which occafion it may be proper to ob- 
ferve, that, of the fourteen Soltans whereof this monarchy 

" D'Herb. art. Selgiukioun. «> Ibid. p. 102S, art. Tho- 

grul. P Lebtar. p. 45. 

(B) We only find an account the bloody Turkan Khatun, wi- 

of one fon, who, on the irrup- dow of Takajh, who had fo un- 

tion of the Mogols into Karazm, worthily treated his father. De 

in the year 1220, was put to /a Croir h'lCt. Gefigh. p. 242. 

death, with eleven other chil- ' (C) Two Pcrfan heroes of 

dren of fovereign princes, by antiquity. 


176 The Sdjuks of Ir-dn. B.I, 

confifts, none but the two firft are mentioned (under the cor- 
rupt names of TangroUpix and JxanJ by any of the Byzan- 
tine hiflorians, excepting /Inna Comnena, vviio fpeaks of the 
two next, Malck Sh&h and Burk'tarok, but names only the 
latter ; after which they pafs to the Sc/jukian princes, who 
.fettled la' JJia minor ; feeming to confound the two dynarties 
and other ATT ON, or Hayton, the Armenian, whofe memoirs, in 
bij} or ioHS ; cou]\xx\i^\on with thofe of the Greeks, the other European hi- 
Aorians have hirlicrtomadc ufe of, does rauch the fame thing. 
He gives fome account of the four Hrlt Soltans ; after which 
he fays, the Turks cut to pieces- the brother of Barkiarok, who 
attempted to afcend the throne ; and then falling out among 
tliemfelves about tlie choice of a fucccllbr, the Georgians and 
Greater Armeni.ins invaded, and drove them out of, Perfia. 
That hereupon they removed, with their families, into the 
kingdom of Turky (^meaning Ikoniunr] ; and thus increafed 
the power of. the Soltan, fo that he became the moft potent 
of all the Soltans ''. 
toiichat This falfe information, or defeft in the before-mentioned 
taufcs authors, is doubtlefs owing to the grants made by Malek 
Shah I. of the countries weft of Pcrjian Irak ; which thus 
becoming in a manner independent, under their own princes, 
the Greeks heard no more of the great Soltan, as they called 
him, oi Terf.a, or of his commanding in Afia minor; and 
therefore concluded the empire of the eaftern Seljtiks was at 
an end. It muft likewile be confidered, that, by this aliena- 
tion of the provinces, the intercourfe with Perjia was much 
interrupted ; which might be one reafon why Hayton, though 
living in the very midft between thofe two monarchies of the 
Turks, appears to be fo utterly ignorant of the affairs of 
Perjia, from the time of Barkiarok, to that of Jenghiz 
to be To this caufe may be added his want of reading, and 

afcrihcd. being of a different language, as well as religion, from the 
Turks ; which might have hindered him from converfing 
with his neighbours, or confulting their hiftories. It is true, 
Abulfara], as having had the advantage of the Arabic, and 
more erudition than his countryman Hayton, carries down 
the Irak dynafty through a fuccefTion of eight Solt;:ns more: 
but after Iruk Arab: comes to be fevered from the Sdjuk do- 
minions, by the Khalifah Moktnf, on the death of Moham--^ 

' Haith. de Tart cap. xr. p. 378, d- fcq. ap. Grynxi, nov. 


C. 5. The Se\]uks of KcrmsLn, 177 

med II. in the year 554, as if that difmemberment had cut 
off all correfpondence with Perjia, he fpeaks no more of the 
fucceeding Sol tans of the Seljuk race. 


*rhe Seltans of the fecond branchy or dynajiy^ of 
the Seljukians, called that of Kerman. 

TT'ERMAN, the country from whence this race of Sol- Kerman 
J\^ tans takes its denomination, is a province of Iran, or monarchj^ 

Perfta at large, the fame with ancient Karaniania, 
It has on the weft Pdrs^ or proper Perfia ; on the north Se- 
j eft An J or Sift an ; on the eaft Mekrdn, and on the fouth the 
ftraits of Harmuz or Ormus. The principal city is called 
Kerman, or Sirjan, fituate near, the borders of Pars. Be- 
iides which, we meet with feveral others, as Tuberdn, Gab- 
bis, Barslr, or Berdasir, Maftih, or Mafrih, Bemnasir, or 
Kermastn, Bam, Ciroft, or Sir'ejl, <bc. To which may be 
added the ports of Jafties, Mina, and Comrun, or Bander 
JbbAJt ; with the iflands of Harmuz and Kejhom, which lie 
off the fouthern part of it, at prefent called Mcgojidn. 

This dynafty takes the name of Kerman, becaufe it was //j ^;j.^^^^ 
founded in that province : but the power of its princes was 
not confined within the bounds of that fingle country ; for 
they enlarged their dominions not only by the acquifition of 
Pars, on the weft, but of the countiies eaftward, as far as 
the river Send, or hidus ^ ; comprizing, as it fhould feem, the 
province of Mekran, or Makran, with part of Sajejldn, and 
Sablejlan, and poflibly fo much of India as lay between thofe 
provinces and the Indus. 

All the oriental hiftorians agree, that this dynafty ^o'ct^-. and durS^ 
menced in the year 433 of the Hejrah, and ended in 583, tion, 
fubfifting 1 50 years, under eleven Soltans, viz. i . Kaderd. 
2. Saltan Shah. 3. Tiiran Sh'Jh. 4. Iran Shah. 5. Arflan 
Shah. 6. Mohammed, j . Togrol Shah. ^ . Arjlan Shah ^. 
9. Baharam ShAh. *i o. Turdn Shah II, 1 1 . Mohammed Shah. 
Of whom, from the fcantinefs of the extrafts given by D^Her- 
helot, who is our only affiftant ds to the hiftory of this 
branch of the Seljukians, it appears that the orientals them- 
felves have fpoken very little. 

»- Kaderd, or Kadherd, the firft, and founder of this race o^TirftSal- 
Soltans, \yho, from him, are, by way of diftindlion, called tdn, Ka- 
a KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 801, art. Selgiukian Kerman. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. N Kaderdians, 

1^8 ^he Selj(iks c/Kerman.' B. I. 

KnderdianSt was the fon of Dawd, or Jaffar Bek, fon of M- 
A. D. ^a'^h (on of Seljiik. In the year 433, his uncle Tcgrol Bek^ 
1041. founder of the dynafty of Iran, made him governor of the 
province of Kermdn, the Per/tan Karamania of the Creeks^ 
where he became fo powerful, that he aflumed the authority 
of a fovcreign prince, and added to his new dominion the 
province of Fdrs, or Pars (A), adjoining to it on the wefl. 
AD. So that, in the year 455, he had formed a confiderable flate, 
1063. ^ith which he might have been fatisfied ; but the defire of 
pofleffing more, which generally increafes with many acqui- . 
Jiis amhi- fitions, having pufhed him on to attack the dominions of his 1 
tiou fatal, nephew Malek Shhh I. third Soltan of the Seljuks of Iruny 
A. D. he was defeated at Gurj, in the year 465 ; and,, being taken 
107*. prifoner, was confined in a caftle in Khorafdn ; where, not long 
after, he was poifoned, by order of Malek Shah '', as hath 
been already related ". This prince reigned thirty-two years, 
and left for his fuccefTor a fon named Saltan Shah. 
Seectti Malek Shdh, on the death of his uncle Kaderd, reflored his 

Soltdn, dominions to his coufin-german Soltan Shah, fon of Kaderd, 
Solran who reigned there under his authority. But he enjoyed the 
Shah. throne no more than two 5'ears, according to Kondamlr, who 
A. D. places his death in 467 ; although the Tarikh Khozideh gives 
1074. him a reign of t\velve years, which ends in 477 ••. 
Third TURAN Sh&h ehn Kaderd fucceeded his brother Soltan 1 

Soltan, Shah, under the authority likewife of Malek Sh^h. He reign- j 
Turan ed with the reputation of a very juft and wife prince, apply- 
Shah. jng himfelf folely to repair the ruins made in his dominions 
A. D. by the former wars. He died in the year 489, after he had 
*o95- reigned thirteen years; and left for his fuccefTor his fon, 
Fonrth IRAN Shah, who had not the good qualities of his fa- 

Sohan, ther : befides, his cruelty was lb great, that his fubjefls, no 
Iran Shah, longer able to endure it, in general confpired againft and flew 
A. D. him. in the year 494, and fifth of his reign. He was fuc- 
1 100. ceeded by Jr/ldn Shhh, fon of Kermdn Shah ebn Kaderd '. 
Fifth Sol- ARSLAN Shdh, during the life of his uncle Iran Shdh, 
tan, Ar- kept himfelf concealed in a Ihoemaker's fhop, for fear of 
flan Shah, falling into his hands : but as foon as he heard of his death, 
he made hTmfelf known, and was proclaimed Soltan the fame 
year, by fhe unanimous confent of the grandees of the king- 
dom. So that the Seljukians of Pars, his relations, who had 

'' KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 225, Srfeq. « P, 119. 

* D'Herb. p. 826, art. Solthan Schah. *lbid. p. 498, art. 

Iran Shah. 

(A) The Arabt write Fdrs, the Fcrfmrn Part, 
7 gWea 

($3* ' ^^^ Se.ljuks of Kerman." **79 

given much uneafinefs to his predeceflbrs, durft not attack 
him. By this means he reigned in peace for forty-two years, 
and left the crown toJ his fon Alohnmmed \ 

Mohdmtned, furnamed Mogay at ho ddtn, (ucceeded his father ^ixth So/' 
Arjldn Shah, in the year 536 ; and, the fecure him-'*^*' Mo- 
felf in the throne, put out the eyes of all his brothers. All^^'P"^^*^* 
that Kondamir relates of him is, that he was much addifted^J- i3°* 
to judicial afl:rology> and was very fond of building. He ' 
reigned fourteen years, and died in the S 5 1 ft year of the ^ j^* 
Hejrah g. Some call this prince Turan Shah ^. , ;'-5] 

TOGROL Shah, furnamed Mohio'ddln (B), fucceeded \nsSe'venth 
father Mohammed, and died after reigning twelve years. He So/tan, 
left three fons, JrJIan Shah, Bohardm Shdh, and Turdri Shdh,Togrol 
who made war on each other for twenty years together, with^hah. 
alternate advantages; fo that he who gained a vi(ftory was"^J- 5"3- 
acknowleged for Soltan, till fuch time as he was driven out P' 
by one of his two brothers ». Thefe fucceeded one another, * 7- 
as fet forth in the lift of Soltans, at the beginning of this 
chapter : but the duration of their reigns is fo uncertain, that 
authors have marked only that of Turdn Shah, to which they 
give eight years. 

He was fucceeded by his nephew Mohammed Shah, fon oi^M'venth 
his brother Baharam, or Beheram Shah, who was the eleventh '^<'^'f^«. 
and laft Soltan of this fecond branch of Seljukians : for Malek °, /*}7 
D'mar^ a defcendant of Alt, fon-in-law of the prophet y>f£,-n^edShah. 
hammed, having conquered Kermdn in the year 583, this dy-Hej. 583. 
nafty, according to Kondamir, ^nd xheTarikh Khozideh, be- A. D. 
came extinft. But the reigns of the four laft Soltans are H87. 
fo confounded one with the other, that the Tarikh al Ta-wa- 
rikh reckons no more than nine princes in this Kermdn fuc- 
ceffion ''. 

<■ KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 130, art. Arflan Schah, fil. de Ker- 
man Schah. 8 Ibid. p. 6o'g, art. Mohammed, fils d' Arflan 

Schah. ^ D'Herb. p. 800. * Kond. ubi fupr. p. 

1030, art. Thogrul Schah. ^ Ibid. p. 540, & 800, art. Ma- 

lek Dinar, & Selgiukian Kerman. 

(B) That is, the rejicrer ofreligiou. 

N 2: • C H A P. 

l8o The St\]uks of R^m, B.I. 


Hijlory of the third dynajiy of the Seljukians, 
called that of Rum. 


Their dominions^ conquefty ejiablijhmenty and fuc* 

Denonii* T~W^ HIS dynafly of the Seljuk'ians takes its name of Rum 
nation of ■ from their having reigned in the country of Ruiiz^ 
Rum. -*- that is, of the Romans, or rather of the Greeks ; 

whofe emperors, being the fucceflbrs of the Roman emperors, 
preferved the title of emperors of the Romans, although they 
had changed the feat of their empire from Rome to Conjlan- 
tinopie ; and confequently were more properly or immediately 
, fovereigns of the Greeks ; who befides, at this time, of the two 
nations were only fubjeft to them ; Italy, and the weflern 
provinces, having been torn off from their dominions many 
ages before. 
Extant of It is not to be prefumed, from the denomination which 
iomirtion, this dynafty or race of Soltans bears, that they were lords of 
all the then Roman empire, or country of the Romans. No : 
that was a glory referved for the Othmdn or Ozman Turks, 
who rofe out of the ruins of thefe Seljukians ; and fucceeded 
them firll in their dominions, which were confined for the ge- 
neral to y^l/ia minor, or rather a part of it, during the reigns 
of all the Soltans of the Seljuk race, excepting two or three 
of them, who extended their conquefts beyond its bounds, 
to the eaft and fouth, which yet continued as part of the 
Rumean monarchy, but little longer than their refpeiflive 
Arabs, The Jrahs, who were the great reigning power before 

tieir Je- the Turks, had wrefled from the Roman emperors all their 
tline. dominions in Africa and /Jfta, excepting Jfia ininor ; the eaft- 
crn parts of which, towards the Euphrates, had been in their 
hands for the fpace of more than 150 years : but, for fome 
time before the appearance of the Seljukians, the emperors 
had recovered from them moft of the cities they were pof- 
(cfled of within that province, befides fome part of the Greater 
j4rmenia ; which, however, they foon loft again j being taken 
from them by thofe new invaders^ 


C. 4." Their Conq^ueft and Settlement, i8l 

JSIA Minor, called more commonly by the latter Creek's M\ti mi- 
^mtole (A), that is, the eajl, is a large peninfula in the weft- nor. 
era part of Jfia. It is bounded on the north by the Euxine Extent. 
fea and PropontiSy on the weft by the Archipelago, on the 
fouth by the Mediterranean fea and Syria, on the eaft by 
the country of the Lazi or Kurti, and the river Euphrates, 
It is fituated between the 36th and 4 2d degrees of latT^ 
tude, and between the 44th and 58th degrees of longitude, 
reckoning from Ferro ; being in length, from weft to eaft, 
about 640 miles, and in breadth, from fouth to north, 360 

At the time when the Seljuk Turks firft invaded Jjta mi- Pro'vinceti. 
nor, it was divided much in the fame manner as in former 
times, into twelve large provinces : all thefe, excepting four, 
are maritime ; and, beginning with the moft eaftern, lie round ' 
the peninfula in the following order : Pontus, Paphlagoniet^ 
and Bithyyiia, along the Euxine fea : Myfia, in which Is Eolis ; 
Jonia and Caria are wafhed by t\i€ Jrchipelago : Lycia (con« 
taiuing MyliaJ, Pifidia (including PamphiliaJ, and Ciliciaf 
by the Mediterranean. The four inland provinces are Lydia, 
Phrygia (containing Lycaonia and Ifauria) ; Cappadocia (in- 
cluding Armenia minor and CafaoniaJ ; and Galatia : the three 
firft run eaftward, in the fame parallel, from Ionia to the ri- 
ver Euphrates ; and the fourth lies to the north of Phrygia 
and part of Cappadocia. 

From the account which has been given, the reader mny their /if it* 
form an idea of the manner in which the provinces are fitu- atio7i, 
ated, in refpeft of one another : but, to make it ftill more 
clear, it may be proper to obferve, that Cappadocia, which 
extends from Phrygia, eaftward, to the Etiphrat esf lits be- 
tween Pon/wj on the north, and Cilicia, with part of Syria, 
on the fouth ; Galatia has on the north Paphlagonia and Bio- 
ihynia; Phrygia, which is the middle province of all, and 
whofe north-weft corner is covered by a fkirt of Bythinia, is ''( 
bounded on the weft by Myfia, Lydia, and Caria j and on the 
fouth by Lycia, Pifidia, and part of Cilicia. 

Of thefe provinces, Pontus, Phrygia, and Cappadocia, zrc and mag- 
very large ; Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Myfia, Pifidia, Cilicia, zndnitudf^ 
Galatia, of a middle fize ; Lydia, Caria, and Lycia, ftilllefsj 
and Ionia leaft of all. It is not neceflary to give a defcrip- 
tion of thefe provinces, according to the ftate they then were 
in ; for that will appear fufficiently from the hiftory of the 
Soltans, wherein we ftiall have frequent occafion to fpeak o£ 
^he principal cities and places in each. 

(A) An(J corruptly, by the Turks and others, Natalia. 

N a The&s 

1 82 1'be Sc\]uks of Rum^. B.I. . 

Scljukian There is fcarce any piece of hiftory among Europeans in 
hijiory ; greater conf^iilon than this of the Seljttkian Soltans of Rum ; 
or any which deieives more to be (et in a clear light, on 
account of the great conacdlion which there is between the 
affairs oi thofe Soltans, ami thofc of the latter Roman or Greek 
emperors, as well as xh(iOtl7m.>n'Turki,t\\Q\x fucceflbrs, reign- 
ing, at prefent. This is owing to the imperfe<ftion of the Greek 
account of their affairs, full of chalms and errors ; from 
whence alone Leunclavtus, KnoivL's, and all other wellern 
writers hitherto, have coir piled their hiftories of this dynaily. 
its had It may be prefuraed, that the det^dls of the Greek authors 

fiate. might be fupplicd, and their errors conx:6led, from the ori- 
ental, efpecialjy thofe of /?«/«, or the countries fubjeft to 
this third branch of the Seljiikiam, if any of them yet remain. 
But the misfortune is, that very few particular hifVories of 
the c;\ftcrn monarchies have as yet come to our hands; and 
fewer ftill of the general ones been tranllated. 
IFant of .With refpciflto thefe latter, no tranllation has been pub- 
l^elpst liflied which treats of the Soli ns of this dynai^y, excepting 
that of the compendium of .ibii'l/araj, who fpeaks only of 
the firfl eleven, ^and mentions no more than the names of 
fome of them. For this author, digefting his materials by 
way of annals, gives no complete or connecfted account of any 
of ;them. However,.fo much as we find in him has been of great 
ufe to us, in compiling our hiftory of this third branch of 
*-j, ■: the Seljukians ; nor could we polTibly have cleared up the 
chief dijiculties, and fettled fome of the moll important fa(fts, 
without his afTiftance. 
fromeri- As to the extrafts from the oriental authors which D'Her^ 
0Htal au- lelQi furnifhed, they are very inconfiderable ; for though in 
fkon. jj^g articles, under the names of the refpe(fbive Soltans, he. 
cit£S Kondamtr, ebn Shonah, and other Perfian hiftorians, and 
has given a table of thofe princes, from one or more of them ; 
yet the account he gives of the fiift Soltan is copied almoft 
wholly from JhiVlfaraj : as if the other authors had inferted 
nothing relating to them, but their names ; which, in fuch 
■ cafe, he ought to have acquainted his readers with, in order 
to account for fo ftrange an imperfeftion, and prevent their 
imputing it to his own negleifl, 
Greek The Byzantine hifforians aftbrd no fmall fund of mate- 

H-^rtien, rials : but then they relate almoft ijitirely to fuch princes as 
they had wars or other tranfadions with ; and extend very 
little beyond thofe afflurs, in which themfelves were concern- 
ed : fo that you neither hnd in them a regular feries of the 
Soltans, nor often the true names, if the names at all, even 

• of 


C. 4^ * Their Conquefi and Settlement', 1S3 

of thofe with whom they had to do. In fhort, they have their de" 
related matters very imperfe(n:ly, often erroneoufly, and vajt^s. 
great confuflon, both in point of hiftory and chronology ; 
nor have the orientals been free from the fame faults, which 
we fhall point out as we go along. However, as fcanty as 
our memoirs are on every fide, yet the authors often- fupply 
thedefefts of one another : and if, from the oriental writers, 
we have received a more complete fucceflion of the Soltans, 
and better account of their tranfaftions of the eail:, yet we 
flioald be at almoft an entire lofs for their conquefls in the 
wefl, but fdr the Greek hiftorians. 

It has been already remarked from thofe writers, in theKotoI- 
reign of Togrol Bek, firfl Soltan of the Seljukian dynafty of P"^ ''»- 
Iran, that the Turks penetrated very early into the Roman'"'^'^^' 
empire. They tell us, that Tagrotipix (B), fo they call To- 
grol Bek, having llain Pifares, or Bafafiri, and fubdued the 
BiihyloniaiiSy that is, the people of Irak Jrabi, named alfo 
Babeli, fent his nephew Kiitlu Mofes (C) againft the Ara- 
bians ; but, being defeated, he fled into Baas, or Baafprakan, 
in Perfarmenia, and, forcing his paflage through the country, 
returned into Perfia ; where, for fear of the Soltan, who was 
enraged at his . bad fuccefs, he retired to the city of Pafar, 
and rebelled agailiit him, while he was in an expedition againfl •> 

the Arabs. 

TAG ROLIP IX having finifhed that war, marched againil theV.omzti 
Kutlu Mufes ; and while he held him befieged in Pafar, fent &frjflrt. 
part of his army, under the command oi AJfan, or Hajfan, fur- 
named the deaf, another of his nephews, to fubdue Perfar- 
menia ; but he mifcarrying in that defign, the Soltan dif- 
patched his half-brother Abraham Alim, or Halim, with a 
great force, on the {ame expedition, which fucceeded better ' 
than the former : for Abraham burned Artze, or Arzerum^ 
and took the Roman general prifoner. Tagrolipix generoufly 
gave the general his liberty ; and, fome time after, fent an ■ "? 
ambaflador to fummon the emperor Monomakhus to become 
his tributary. The emperor, for this infult, treating the am- 
baflador ill, the Soltan invaded Iberia, at a time when the 
Romans were at war with the Patzinaka Scythians, ^hich hap- 
pened in the year of Chriji 1050. 

Nor long after, difcord arifmg between the Soltan zndRde/s 
Abraham A/ijn, the latter fled to Kutlu Mufes, and joined in agai»f 
the rebellion : but the Soltan defeated them both near Pafar Togi ol 
before-mentioned ; and Abraham being taken prifonerj, was ^^^' 

(B) Or Tafigrolipix,, as fome. write : Bryennlus, moxQ correftly 

(C) Or Kutlu Mu/t'^, as fome Kutlumes, for Kutlim'ijh. 

N 4 put 

rJj4 ^^^ Seljiiks of Rum. B. I. 

put to death. Kutlu Ahifes, with his coufin Malek, fon of 
Jbrahatn, followed by 6000 men, fled to the borders of the 
Roman empire, from whence he fent for prote(n:ion to Mo' 
vomakhus, a little before his death, which happened in 1054: 
but inftead of waiting for an anfwer, he marched into Perfar- 
vienia, and took Karfv, now KArs ; when hearing that Ta- 
grolipix was advancing towards him, he fled to the Arabs^ 
who were the Soltan's enemies. 
Conquejis Here Kiitlu Miifes remained during the life of TagroUp'ix : 
and death, \i\x^ as f(X)n as Jxan, fo xht Creeks call Alp Arjlan (D), had 
afcended the throne, he returned from Arabia with confide- 
rable forces ; and advancing to Re (E), laid claim to the fo- 
vereignty. But while the two armies were on the point of 
engaging, the Khalifah of Babylon (F) of a fudden appeared, 
and, interpofing his authority, which he ftill retained in fpi- 
rituals, brought the contending parties to this agreement : 
that the Soltan fliould hold Perfia ; and that Kutlu Mufes, and 
his children, who were five in number, though not particu- 
larly named, fliould po.Tefs all the countries which they were 
able to take from the Roman emperor ; and that Axan fliould 
afllfl them with troops for that purpofe. 
0eeortfiu£ The Soltan having, in performance of this agreement, 
to the furnifhed Kutlu Mufes with forces, that prince, and his five 
Greeks, fons, invaded the Roman empire ; and, in the reign of Mi- 
chael Ducas and his fucceflbr, made himfelf mafler of all Per/- 
armenia, Lycaonia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia 

According to Cedrenus and Zonaras, who ha\'e been fol- 
lowed by all the weftern hiftorians, Kutlu Mufes lived at leaft 
fixteen years after that battle ; for they fay that he adlually 
commanded a body of troops which came to the afllftance 
of Botatiiates, when he ufurped the e'mpire * in the year 
Their er- This account, given by the Greeks, of the conquefls 
rerpro'vcd, msidQ in A/ta minor by the Seljuktan Turks, under the com' 

* Cbdren. Zonar. & univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 134, & feq. 

(D) Knonvks boldly denies account of the four firft Soltans 

Axan and Affia/ahm, or J p j4r- to be falfe, 
^«, to be the fame (i) ; which (E) That is Rey, or R^', the 

is more than Leunclai'ius, whofe northern capital Qi Perjianlrak. 
plagiary he is, would venture to (F) Thus the Gr^f/f writers 

do ; though relying too much confound Babylon, which was . 

on the authority o(Ccdre/:us, he on the Euphrates, with Baghdad, 

looked on Hayton the Armenian's which is on the Tigris. 

(i) KiiwUf'tbift, cftbt Turkt, p 9. tdit, Riefjt, 


G. 4. ^heir Conquefi and Settlement. i8^> 

mand of Kutlu Mufes, it muft be confefled, contains feveral 
errors ; which having remarked elfewhere ''', we fhall not re- 
peat here. It will be fufficient for our purpofe to take no- 
tice, in this place, that thofe writers were mifinformed as 
to the event of that battle ; which, according to the oriental 
hiftorians, was fought in the year of the Hejrah 455, andHej. 455. 
proved fatal to Kutlu Mufes, who was killed by a fall from A.D. 
his horfe, as he was going to engage Mp Arjlan, againft whom 1062. 
he rebelled, in the province of Damagdn ^, in Per/ia. 

' Now this being fuppofed to be faft (and the authority olf'^omgood 
hiflorians ought to be allowed, when fpeaking of an affair ^«'^'''''^>'» 
which concerned themfelves, and happened in their own 
country), all which the before-mentioned Greek authors re- 
late, concerning the aftions of Kutlu Mufes after that battle, 
irhift be falfe : and this feems, in good meafure, confirmed 
by Nicephorus Bryennius, a more correft hiflorian than the 
former, who relates, that the emperor Michael fent an ambaf- 
fador to Soleyman, fon of Kutulmes (G), in the year 1074, 
defiring his adiftance againft Botaniates '' : which implies that 
his father was then dead. And this may explain what he 
fays afterwards ; that, in 1078, the fame ufurper y^/z^ /o (/<?- 
mand fuccours of Mafur (FI) and Soleyman, yo«j <2/" Kutulmes, 
prince of Nice ^, that is, late prince of Nice. 

The fingle remark touching the death of Kotolmtfh is zWEnquirj 
which has been yet tranfmitted to us from the eaflern writers into 
concerning that prince (I), corruptly called Kutlu Mufes by 
the Greeks ; excepting another, which feems to be taken from 
them, made by a late author, who informs us, that he efla- 
blifhed himfelf in Jfia minor, about the year of the Hejrah 
442, (of Chrifi 1050)^; which is not at all improbable; 
fmce, according to Cedrenus, the Greeks became acquainted 
with the Turks about the year 1 040 ; and ten years was time 
fufficient for making confiderable conquefts in that country. 

However that be, the 6'r^d'^ hiftory feems to clafh zgsanthetme 
with the oriental in this article : for if KotobnifJj had fettled 'when 
himfelf in y(fia, minor fo early as the year of Chj-i/i 1050, 

b See before, p. 108. « See before, p. 107. <* Ni- 

CEPH. Bryen. in Mich. Ducam, c 15. « Id. in Eotaniat. 

c. I. ^ Dz LA Croix hift. Genghis Can. p. 127. 

(G) Which is nearer the true (I) WHerbelot has given us 

name Kotolmp, than Kutlu Mu- no article under his name, in 

feS' his hibliotheque orientale ; and 

(H) A miftake, we prefume, Abulfaraj only mentions him 

for Mafuti or xmhexMaJUd. and bis fon Sok^mdn, 


1 86 The Seljuks of Ruml B. f. 

how can it be imagined tiiat he fliould repair two or three , 
yeaxs after to the borders of the Roman empire, filing for 
protetftion, as ,the Greeks relate the cafe ? for this fuppofes 
him either to have been driven out of his new poireHions in 
that country, ahnoft as foon as he acquired them, which- 
we hear nothing of from either quarter ; or elfe that he had 
not as yet made any conquclls there, which is contrary to the 
authority of the eartern hiflorians. 
Kotol- It would be in vain to pretend to folve the above diiScul- 

xaiih/ef- ties, till we are fnfficiently furnilhed with memoirs from the 
^^ eaflern writers, relating to Koto'.mijh. In the mean time it muft 

be obfcrved, in bchalt of the account given by De la Croix, 
which we only fnppofe to have been taken from fome oriental 
author or authors, that there is an err r in iht Greek relation, 
which feems to lelfen its aut';ority. For the application made 
by that Seljukian prince to MouomachuSy is laid to have been 
made after the baitle againft Tcgrol Bek, wherein Ibrahim, 
his coufm, and partner in the rebellion, was taken and 
fli'angled. Now this could not pofTibly be the cafe ; fmcc 
that battle, by the teflimony of the oriental writers, was 
fought in the year 1059, which was five years after that em- 
peror's death : and it the Byzantine hiftorians have miflaken 
in one circumftance, they might in another ; efpecially when 
it relates to an event which happened at fo great a diftancs 
from the capital of the empire, 
ia Afi» On a prefumption therefore that Kotohwjh had eftablifhed 

minor. himfelf in .■^Trt: ;m/zcr about the year 1050, he will have a 
kind of dominion in tliat country for the fpace of thirteea 
years. However, it is not this prince, but his fon SohymaUy 
who was the firft of the Seljukian Soltani ot Rum : nor does_ 
it appear that Soleymdn,\\']\o did not begin his reign till nine' 
years after his father's death, derived any title to thofe tcr- . 
ritories from him. 

B f r before we enter upon the hiflory of that prince and his 
defccndanrs, it will be proper to fettle the number of them, , 
witii the beginnings and lengths of their relpeftive reigns ; 
about which there is no fmall difagreement, as well between 
the oriental authors and the Grecian, as umong the oriental 
authors themfelves. 
S^TtAns In order tq do this the more effectually, and to the fatif- 

•j .-^um. ftrtion of our readers, v/e f/iall infer t two tables, or lifts, 
of thei^Soltans of the Rujk dynafty : the Hrit according to the 
Per/ian authors, as communicated by D'Herheht, with our 
remai-ks fhercoo ; the fecond as retftified by the afliftance of 
other oriental authors, con^parcd ' with l\i^ Greeks. ' 


C. 4^ ^heir Conqueji and Settkntentl 1S7 

Soltaus. Reign began Years Tirfitabkf 

Hej. A,Q. reign'd, 

l.SolcymAn - - . - 480 1087 20 

a. Dawdy or -^^^{/ ^rjldn - 500 1 106 1 3 

3. M(ijljud - - - - 19 

4.' Kiiij Arjldn II. - - - 10 

5. Rokno'ddin Soleymdn - - 588 1192 24 

6. Azzo'ddin Kilij Jrjl&n - 600 1203 [i 

7. Cayatho'ddin Kay Khofraiu - 601 1204 6 

8. Jzzo'ddin Kaykaivs - - 609 1212 i 
g. Alao ddiH Kaykobdd - - 610 1213 26 

■10. Gayathdddin Kay Khofraiv II. 634 1236 8 

11. Robw'ddhi Sokymdnll. - [644 1246] 20 

12. Kay Khofraiu - - - 664 1265 18 
1^. Cayatho'ddhi MaJ/ud - - 682 1283 [j 
14. Kaykobdd - - -. - 687 1288 [13 

Slaia - - - - 700 1300 

This table is taken from D'Herbelot, who, in his article W^rrr^ 
of the Seljukian dynafty, has given a lill of the Soltans, with taken. 
the length of their reigns ; and we have added the years va. 
which they afcended the throne, from the particular articles 
inferted in his bibliotheqite, under their refpeftive names. 
The figures within hooks, refulting from the other numbers, 
have b^n inferted by us, to fill up the vacancies ; that our 
readers may better judge of its real imperfe<5lions. 

THOse which occur upon the fiice of the table are tv;o la imper- 
. very material ones, Firft, the fum of the years which all the/'<^?'««' 
princes reigned amounts only to 189, being 31 fhort of the 
duration of the dynafty (reckoning from its commencement 
in 480, t<5> jts conclufion in 700), which makes 220 yeais. 
The fecond ^apparent defeft is .in the Interval between the fe- 
cond and fifth Sokan : for, as that interval appears to be 88 . ^ 
years, and the years' of the reigns of the three So! tans with --''^ -''" 
in that period make but 47, which fall 43 fhort ; either thofe 
reigns muft have been confiderably longer than th<;y are re- 
prefented by the table, or elfe theie muft be an cuiiiricn b-e- 
tween Daiud and Rokmddin of one or two princes, whole 
reigns are neceffary to fill up the vacancy. Befides thcfe great 
defecfls, you find that the number of years reigned do not 
always tally with the years when the reign began : thus Rokn- 
o'ddzn, the fifth Soltan, is made to reign 24 years ; yet the 
diflance betwixt the beginning of his reign and that of his 
fuccefTor is but. 22 years, By the fame rule Gnyathoddin., 
the feventh, ought to havg 8 years to his reign inftead o' 6, 


J 88 rhe Seljuks of Rum. B. I. 

while /f/ao'dJin, the ninth, has 2 more given him than come 

to his fhare. 

Difagree- In effeft, D'Herbelot acknowleges there is- a great differ- 

metit ence betweca Kondeimir, whom he feems to follow, and the 

among the author of the NighiariJiAn, as to the length of the reigns ; 

though he only mentions rwo inftances, which regard the fe- 

cond and fourth Soltans ; the Nrghiarijidn allowing the firft 

but four years to his reign, and giving 20 to the latter ; 

which widens the gap, taken notice of above, between the 

fecond and fifth Soltan, by four years. 

With regard to this chafm, as it is evident, from what 
has been faid, that there is fome defe(f\ in the numbers, fo 
D'Herbelot gives us room to believe there may be a Soltan 
wanting to complete the lift : for this author farther informs 
ns, that Kondamir and the Nighiariftan differ alfo in the names, 
fucceiTion, and number, of the Soltans. 
trxtntal As to the number (which is the article of the three at 
iri/terians prefent moft to our purpofe), he fays, that the Nighiarijldn 
makes thefe Soltans the 14th and 15th, whom Kofidamir 
reckons the 13th and 14th ^ as in the table. Hence it ap- 
pears, that, according to the firft author, there were fifteen 
Soltans in the dynafty of Rum, or /4fia minor. 

D'HE RBELOT^ indeed, has not told us either the name • 
of the additional Soltan, nor his rank in the fuccelTton ; but, 
with regard to the latter, where is his reign moi^ likely to 
come in, than in the interval or chafm before- mentioned ? 
Nay, that author feems to point out the very place ; for 
though in the table he reckons Majfud the third Soltan, in 
the article of Majfud, he makes him the fourth (K). 
fairly Now this being fuppofed, we have found out a Soltan to 

^iJ. fupply the place of the third ; which, by his fetting Maffud 
a defccnt lower, becomes vacant. And there is the more reafon 
to believe that there ought to be more Soltans than three 
vithin the interval in queftion ; bt-c:\ufe, according to our 

t D'Herb. ubi fupr. 

fK) Accordingly, Jhioddln, Lie, is only the feventh in the 

who in the table is the ninth, in article under his name. But it 

the article of Cnikohad is faid mull be obferved, that UHer- 

X.O be the tenth. It is true, he is btlot not only made ufe of au- 

not uniform in this refptd ; for thors who difagreed on this fuh- 

Cnyathoddin, the feventh in the je^, but alfo that his biblio- 

table, is made the fifth or fixth tkeque is very incorredt ; he not 

in the article : in like manner living either to fit the work for 

Kajianvj, the eighth in the la- the prefs, or to fee it printed. 

3 computation^ 

C.4» 'their Con<ittefl and Settlement. iZf 

computation, that interval is larger by twelve years than what 
the foregoing table makes it. 

As to the difagreement which D'Herbelot fays there is 
among the oriental hiftorians, with refpe(St to the names of 
the Soltans of Rum, he has furnifhed us with no inftance 
thereof : but we Ihall mention fome hereafter, particularly in 
the hiftory of Azzoddin, our twelfth Soltan ; and perhaps 
fome authors put his name in the fucceflion inflead of Rokri- 
c'ddin's, as we ourfelves have done. 

In thefe remarks on the foregoing table, the reader fees ReafoNt 
the grounds for the alterations which are made in that which/or the 
ibllows ; the particular proofs in fupport of which wiU be 
produced, as we go along, in the hillory of the Soltans. It 
may be fufficient to intimate here, that, as the chafm before- 
mentioned has been fupplied from certain occafional remarks 
left us by the Byzantine hiftorians and AhuHfaraj', fo, in fet- 
tling the chronology, we have been chiefly obliged to the laft 
author, who has inferted in his annals the deaths of three or 
four of the Soltans : which ferve as fo many fixed points to 
guide us in our enquiries, and juftify our diilenting from th© 
authority of other oriental writers. 


Reign began 

Years ^econi 

Hej. . 


reign'd. tahk. 


Soleymdn - - - - 




-^•^ — Death 

478 1 





Daivd, or Kilij Atjlan 





Say/an - - - ^ 

500 ] 




Maffud - - - . 




Kilij Arjlanll. 




Gayatho'ddin Kay Khofravj 





Rokno^ddin Soleymdn 




Kilij Arjldn 111. - 

600 ] 



Kay Khofraiv reftored - 

601 ] 




Azzo ddin Kaykaws 





Alao'ddin Kaykobad 

616 ] 




Gayatho'ddin Kay Khofraiv II. 

634 J 




Azzo' ddin - - - - 

642 ] 




Kay Khofra'ju - - _ 
Interregnum ... 

664 ] 




Gayatho'ddin Maffud - 

683 1 




Kaykobad . - - - 

687 ] 



Slaia - - - 

700 1 



190 the Scljiiks of Mm. B. I, 

t>efe^s of The dates oF the reigns, which are inferted only accord- 
Greek ing to the years of Chriji, are computed the beft we could 
Authors from the little light given by the Byzantine hiftorians, who 
feldom mark the time of a(ftions ; which is an almoft inex- 
cufable fault, as it gives great perplexity to a compiler, and 
makes it very difficult to conned! the hiflory of the Creeks 
with that of other nations. 

It has been already obferved, that no complete feries of 
Soltans, or continued account of their tranfaftions, much 
lefs the dates of them, is to be gathered from thofe writers. 
LeuncUvius, mifled by Cedrenus and Zonaras, makes two 
dynafties of Soltans : one at Nice^ which lafted only during 
fernicious ^^^ reigns of Kutlu Mufcs and his fon SoleymAn Shdh, as they 
t* hi/tory. call him : the other, at Iconiiim, which commences with 
y/lao'ddirTf whom he makes to be the fon of one Kai Ko/roes, 
but of a different family from that of Kutlu Mufes, and 
newly come out of Perfia, from whence he was expelled by 
the Tartars^. And tho' the defe(fl of the Soltans, between 
SoLymdn and Alao'ddin, may be fupplied in fome meafure 
from other Greek hiflorians, who had better opportunities of 
being acquainted with affairs than the two above-mentioned ; 
yet, with regard to the Soltans who fucceeded Alao'ddin, you 
meet with fcarce any thing belides their diflorted names, ac- 
cording to the corrupt cuflom of the Grecians. What little 
there is of hiflory is very erroneous, and delivered in great 

S E C T. II. 

Reign of SoltSn Soleyman. 

rir/i Sol- '\T7HATEVER conque[\:s Kotolmijh mzdc \n Ltifer /ffa, 

tan Soley- ^ or whatever power and authority he cxercifed there 

man during his life ; yet the Perfian hiflorians, who make his fon 

SoLymcin the founder of this Scljukian dynafly, are fo far 

from deriving any right of pofTefTion to him from his father, 

that they fpeak as if the Turks had no dominions in y4fuz 

jninor for him to reign over, till they were conquered by his 

uncle. Hamdallah al Mcjhifi, author of the Tank Khozideh, 

foumh the fays, that Makk Shah, third Soltan of the Seljtikians of Irdu 

monarchy, (or Perfia at large), on advice that the Greek emperor (A) 

was dead, fent Soleyman, fon of Kotolmifb, to make war on 

•> Leuncl. hift. Mufulm. Turc. p. 78, & feq. 
(A) This mufl be the emperor Diogenes, who died in 107:. 

• the 

.C4« Ftrft Soltajty SdiQym^n. 191 

the Greeks in Jfta minor ; and that this prince, having made 
conquefts there, fettled himielf entirely in the year 480. ^ Ken- Hej. 480. 
damtr rtiore particularly informs us, that Malek Shah gave to A. D. 
his coufin Soleymdn the country of Rum, or what he had 1087. 
taken from the Greek emperor, extending from the Euphrates 
a great way into Afia minor, of which part Arzerum was the 
capital ''. 

It is not faid when this conqueft or grant was made ; butCo^^A'^ of 
it maybe prefumed to have been done three or four )• ears Rum i 
after his acceilion to throne, when he began to carry his arms 
weftward of that river : and we meet with a pafTage, taken 
from the fame hiftorian, which helps to countenance this 
opinion, namely, tliat in the year 467, Malek Shah fent his Hej. 467. 
coufm Soleyman into Syria, with an army fuihcient to reduce A. D. 
that province; and that, in a ihort time, ne fubdued the 1074, 
whole country as far as yintiokh % It is true, Syria is the 
country faid in this pafHage to be conquered, and not Jjia 
minor ; but that might have happened through a miftake in 
Kondamir, or his trandator D Herbclot, both of whom are 
pretty fubje^ to fuch failings : and there is the more reafon 
to believe fo ; becaufe, hrll, we find Soleymdn in that very 
year 467, or oi Chriji 1074, aftuallyat the head of the iSW- 
juk forces about Nice, when Botaniates the Roman emperor 
fent to liim for fuccours (*). Secondly, It appears from two'^vlrea 
other oriental authors, of equal credit with Kondamir, and, ""^(i^- 
in our opinion, more accuracy, that the conqueft of Syria 
was not undertaken till the year following, viz. 468, when Hej. 46S. 
Atsis, or Atkfts, was fent by the fame Soltan to conquer that A. D. 
province ; and accordingly did conquer it, and fettled there**. »o75. 
Nor do the fame authors fpeak of Soleymdn' s entering Syria to 
make any conqueft, till about the year 477, when he took An- 
tiokh from the Romans or Greeks ; which was the only city he 
ever pofTelTed in Syria, and which he did not long hold, as 
will be related hereafter. 

From hence we think it highly probable, that the hc^xn- Firj't year 
ning of Soleyman' 5 reign ought to be placed much earlier £/" 
than the year 480 of the Hejrah ; altho' D'Herbelot affirms 
that all the oriential hiftorians unanimoufly agree to fix it to 
that year, excepting one, who puts it three years higher ". 

* D'Hfrbel. p. 822. art. Soliman ben Coutoulmifch. 
^ KoND. ap. D'Herb. p. 543, arc. Malek, ScliAh. = Kond. 

ubi fupra. (*) See lower down. ^ V'jd Een Amid. 

p. 350. Abul'f. p. 237.iiiro btlore, p. 119. = D'Herb. 

p. ^01. art. Sclgiukian. 

... But 

192 Tbe Seljuks 0/ Rum. B. L 

But whether the firft be the true commencement of the dy- 
* nally or not, we may venture to affirm, that the latter muft 

be erroneous, becaule we have proof that SoLymdn died in 
478, which was two years before : and, indeed, from the 
difagreement which D Hcrbelot confeflcs there is among the 
its reign oriental authors, concerning the number and reigns of thefe 
^xed. Soltans, as well as from his giving little or no account, from 
them, of the anions of either Soleymdn or feveral of his fuc- 
celTors, it appears, that the hiftorians he made ufe of (who 
feem to be chiefly, if not folely the Pcrfian, excepting Abul- 
faraj), had, in their hands, very few memoirs relating to the 
Scljukiayi princes of Rilm, at leaft the firft of them ; which 
might have happened thro' the diflance of place and confufioa 
of affairs during thole times. 
Settled by However that be, on a fuppofition that Soleymhn began 
grant, his reign in the year 467, it will be a farther confirmation 
that he derived nothing in fucceflion from his father, who, ia 
that cafe, died nine years before (and twenty-two, according 
to the accounc which puts the commencement of the dynafly 
in 480); whence it may be prefumed, that whatever terri- 
tories KotolnvJ}} might have been poflelfed of in j^fia minor 
not fuc- at his death, whether by ufurpation, or grant from Togrol- 
ce(Jion. bck, they fell into the hands of his nephew Alp Ar/ldn^ 
againft whont he had rebelled ; nor did his Ion Sobyman en- 
joy any part of them during the life of that Soltan, ac- 
cording to the oriental hiftorians, who affirm, that the 
countries which he poffefTed were conquered from the Romans^ 
and given to him by Malek Shah, who fuccceded Alp Arjldn 
in the year of the Hejrah 4 64, and o^ Chi-iji 1072. 
Early pro- The Greek writers are not acquainted with this grant, or 
ore/s the Soltan who made it : but the belt of them agree very 

well with the account of this conqueft, and the commence- 
ment of the reign of Soleynuln, as delivered by the oriental 
authors whom we follow : tor they tell us, that, foon after 
the death of the emperor Roiumuis Diogeties, the Turks 
broke into the territories of the empire. Michael Durus, 
^ D his fuccefTor, being alarmed at this irruption, fent againfl 
I07Z. them Ifaac Comnenus ; who, after gaining a few advantages, 
was defeated, and taken prifoner on the frontiers of Cappa- 
Hcj. 466. ^^'■'■''^j "Of ^^^ ^^'o^ Cafarca. His brother Alexis, on his re- 
A. D. turn, having palfed the river Snugariits, was attacked by a 
1073. party of Turks, who had aheady made incurfions thro' Bi- 
thynia, as far as Nice. 
ff the Another army was foon difpatched againft them under 

Turks. thecoininand of J:'hn Ducas, the emperor's uncle, and Cafar; 
but, while he llrove to reduce Urfel, who had revolted, the 


C. 4* Firfl SoUiin^ Soleyman. 193 

Turks took the opportunity to purfue their conqi:efl:s. He 
himfelf was afterwards taken by Ur/el; and both of them 
by Artuk (C) (M'-ho then commanded the Turkifi forces) at 
Trikcum, near the above-mentioned river. About the fame time 
a new army came from Pcrfia under Tutak, who ravaged the 
country about Jmafia. To him Urfel, after being difmilfed 
by Jrtitk, applied for affiftance ; but Tutak betrayed him, for 
a fum of money, to Alexis Comnenus, who had been ap- 
pointed general in Afia. In his return, Alexis was attacked 
near Heraklea in Bithyma, by a party of Turks, but efcaped 
by his courage and addrefs. About the fame time Jfaac Com- 
nenus, newly made governor of Antiokh, was fiaiii in an en- 
gagement with a party of Turks, which had made an irrup- 
tion into Syria ^ 

After this, feveral pcrfons afpiring to the empire, Michacl^ohyvc.i'o. 
fent an ambaflador to Soleyman, fon of Kutulmes (or Kotol-^Iil^^^ 
mijlj), defiring his affiftance againfl jyicephorus BctaniateSy 
general of the armies of the eafl, who had revolted ; and 
being joined by KhryJoJImles, a Turkifi commander, who in ' '^* 
the reign of Diogefies had taken part with the Romans, had 
marched from Phrygia into Bithynia, with a defign to get 
into iViV^. Soleyman, being gained by the emperor, feized Nicepho- 
all the paflages, and watched the motions of Botaniates ; ^^'^ Bota- 
who, having but three hundred followers, took the b}'-roads, "'^^'^** 
and travelled by night to avoid the Turks, and reach that 
city before they knew of his march : but they, getting in- 
telligence of it, fent a party of horfe to harrafs his men. 
Thefe, however, he repulfed ; but, fearing to be furrounded, 
fent Khryfofiules, who for a fmall fum of money prevailed 
on them to withdraw, and leave the way to Nice open. 
When he came near to that city, to his great furprize he 
found a numerous army drawn up in order before the fub- 
urbs, whom he took to be enemies ; but, to his greater fur- 
prize, he found they had proclaijjaed him emperor s. 

It appears from this paflage, that Soleyman was in Afia, 
viinor in the year 1074, which we fuppofe to be the firfl of 
hLs reign ; and the abrupt manner, in which Nicephonis Bry- 
ennius here fpeaks of him for the firfl time, gives room to 
conjeft ure that he had been in the country for fome confider- 
able time before, which farther fupports our hypothefls. 
What follows, from the fame author, feems to confirm it ftill 

*" NicEPH. Brien. in Mich. Ducam, cap. i — 8. £ Idem 

ibid. cap. 15. 

(C) \>^l:urkifr:,Ortok. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. O more*. 

194 fr/&^ Seljdks (?/ R^im. B.I. 

Phrygjin more. Bofanlata, being in pollcllion cf the empire, raifed 

tfWCJala- ^t^fces to oppofe Nicrphorus Bryenn'uis, %vho afpircd to the 

tia throne ; and having dvtmanded luccour of Majur (D) and Ho- 

hymdn, fons ot KtJlmnes, prince of Aice in Bithynia, they 

A. D. ft:fi( \{-^^^ 2000 men, and promiied more. But after he had, 

»o;8. fjy fj^g conduft of Jlexis Comnetiiis, who fucccedcd hiin, 

quaflicd the rebellions of Brycnnius and Bajilacius, he had 

likewiic that oi Nkcphorus MeliJJcnus to fupprefs. This lord, 

during the two former rebellions in Europe, fetting up for 

emperor, had gotten together fome Turkijh troops in Afia 

minor, with which he overran the country ; putting all the 

lii'tn ly towns which he took into the hands of the Turks. V>y this 

Mcliiie- nuans, in a little time, they became maflers of all Phrygta 

nus. and (JaLitia : in fhort, he reduced Nice in Bithynia, and 

ilruck terror through the empire*^. And thus, probably, that 

famous city came to be polfefied by Soleyman (E), who after- 

warus made it the feat of his new empire. 

EOT AN I AT E S, greatly alarm.ed at thefe fuccelTes, 
fent an army againfl the enemy under the command of 
John, an eunuch, who went and encamped near Fort Baji- 
lexim, about forty fkadia from Nice ; and marching along a 
lake (F) came to Fort St. George, and took it. It was then 
debated if they fhould befiege that city, or go to DcryUiim (G) 
and fight the Soltan (H). Th<i former being refolvcd on, 
they fat down before it ; but hearing of the Soltan's approach 
to relieve the place, the eunuch retired for fear, while the 
Turks purfued and harrafled them extremely '. 
Turkirti We are informed by the princefs Amia Comnena (I), that 
fojjcjfions. when Botaniates obtained the empire, the Turks were polFefled 
ot the countries between the Euxine fea and the Hellefpont, 
between the Egean fea and fea of Syria, and between the 

* Nic. Bryen. Nic. Eotan. * Idem ib. cap. i — 4, Sc 5. 

(D) Rather Mafut ; as the This would have helped to 

Greeks wx'mc Masiui, or Majjud. clear up fome doubtful points : 

(E'l This muft have hap- But fuch perplexing omiiFions 

pencd between tlie years 1074 frequently occur in the Byzan- 

and 1078; perhaps in 1076. tine hiftorians, who too often 

(F) Doubtlels the lake of attend more to the perfection of 
Nice. their ftile than their hiftory. 

(G) The regal feat of So/ey- However, from what follows, 
fudfi feems, from this circum- the Soltan here meant muft be 
ftance, to have been at Dory SolcyKdr.. 

hum. (I) She was daughter of the 

(H) The author fhould have emperor Alexis (who fucccedcd 

told us who the Soltan was, BsUinia/a), and wrote his life. 
V. licthcr io/jj/W// or Kotolmijh. 

7 giil^s 

C. 4.' - Firfi Soltdn^ Soleyman." 195 

gulfs which are along the coafls of Pamphilia and Cilicia. As 
he had gained the empire by help of the Turks, fo he 
iifed their aid to overcome Nicepborus Bryennius, who afpired 
to the throne)^'. But thofe adventurers, who were ready to 
join with any party to ferve their own turns, afterwards af- 
fifted his competitors Mileffenus and Jkxis to dethrone him. 
At length he refigned the crown to Alexis, in 1081. Dur- 
ing thefe difputes, the Turks made ufe of their opportunity, 
took Cyzicum, and ravaged the country of Anatolia.^ 

At the time when Alexis afcended the throne, as above- Nice the 
mentioned, Solcymcin, who commanded in Anatolia, had ^x&6. royal fiat. 
his feat at Nice in Bit/.ynia, and daily made inroads with his 
Turks as far as the Bofphorus, then called Damalis (Kj ; but 


Alexis, by ordering armed barks to fcour the coaft, obliged 
riiem foon to abandon it. ' Purfuing his advantage by land, 
he retook Bcjphorus, Thynia, and Blthynia ; wiiereupon the 
Soltan fued for peace ; which was granted the Turks, on con- 
dition that they kept on the banks of the river Draco, without 
ever palling the borders of Bithynia '^. 

But while Alexis wzs engaged in war with Robert and 
his fon Boemond in Illyrium, ApelkaJJcm (L), governor of 
Nice in the abfence of Soleymdn, ravaged the eait, with the 
coall of Propontis, and the fea. 

The occafion of Soleymdn 5 leaving Nice was this : one Soleyman 
Filaretus, zn Armenian, who for his courage and conduft't^^^-f An- 
had been made grand domeflic by Diogenes, was fo touched *^°''"» 
at his maker's hard fate, that he refoived to be revenged ; 
and, in order thereto, feized Antiokh ; but not being able to 
live in quiet for the continual inroads of the Tz/r^j, he^em- 
braced Alohammedifm. fie had a fon, who,- becaufe he could 
not divert him from his defign, rode in eight days to Nice^ 
und perfuaded Amir Soleymdn (M) to come and take Antiokh. 
Soleymdn, leaving Apelkajfem to govern in his abfence, fet 
forward, and in twelve nights, which he chofe to march in 
to prevent difcovery, arrived nt tliat city,- and took it by af- 
fault ; at the fame time that Karatice reduced Sinopc, where 
he was told there were great riches ". 

The precife time of this event is not to be colledled h-om arJisJlai/Z' 
the Greek hifforian ; allho' we kiK)W it muft haA'e happened 

^ Ann. Comnena in Alex. 1. i. c 3. ' Ibid. 1. 2. 

c. 2. 5, & 8. °' Ibid. i. 2. c. 7. 1 Ibid. 1. 6. c. 7. 

(K) Or ^httari. Sohdrj, which is equivalent to 

(L) Perhaps a corruption of King ; fometimes A.'\'ir, whicli 

Ahu I K dignities only a fijnple co.fn- 

(M) cjumetimes he is called rcacder ct general of troops. 

O z bs-vscea 

^^6 the Selj6ks of Rum. B. I. 

between the years 1081 and 1084 : for we are Informed by 
Ebn y-Jniid, an oriental hillorian, that Antkkh was in the 
hands ot Scleyman, fon of Kotolmijh, in the jear of the 

Hej. ^•jy.Hejmh 477. This is mentioned by that author, on occafion 
A. D. of the dciith of Slmrfo'dJawlat ehn Korays, lord of Halep 
loi^. and Aliifol, who advancing witli troops to take .-hitiokh from 
Si.oleymon, was routed in battle and ilain". We are obliged 
to the fame hirtorian for the exaft time of SoUymdns death, 
which happened in tlie year following. For Soltan Tajo'd- 
diivjfat (lord of Danuijkus), hearing of S.harfo'ddaiu/at's 

Hej. 47 S- misfortune, marched with his forces, accompanied by Ortok 
^- ^- the 'Tiirbudn, to attack SoleymHn prince of Antiokh, who 
''^5- fought feveral battles with them under the walls of Halep 'j 

in battle, in the laft of which he was llain, and his forces routed P. 

This event is contirmed by the Greek hiltorian Anna 
Ccmncna, tho' flie differs fomewhat in the manner of his 
death. She fays, that Tutiife (fo the Creeks call TataJJj, fur- 
named Tajo'dda'xiat), brother of the great Soltan (N), who 
polTefled Mefopotamia, with the cities of Jerufalem, Halep, 
and Baghdad {O), having a great defire to be mafter of An- 
tiokh, advanced with his forces againft Soleym/in ; who being 
defeated, and finding he could not rally his troops, retreated 
himfelf : but the officers of the other party coming to tell 
him, that his uncle Tutiife fent for him, and fearing to trufl 
himfelf in his hands, to avoid being conftrained, drew his 
fword and ran himfelf through. Flereupon his foldiers, who 
had efcaped from the battle, joined the army of Tiitufc'\. 
Here you have the death of Soleymdn circumflantially at* 
teilcd by two cotemporary hiflorians, one an Aftatic. 

Time of his SO LEY MA N, dying in the year above-mentioned by 

4tath Ebn Amid, will have eleven years to his reign. But this 
time of his death, as well as that which we have affumed for 
the commencement of his reign, is contradi<Jted by other hif- 
torians both eaflern and weftern. D^Herbelot alTures us, that 
Kondaviir, and almofl all the oriental hilfoiians (at leafl 
whom he had confulted), agree to place the death of this 
Soltan in the year 500 of the Hejrah, or 1 106 of Chrijt^f 
■which is twenty-one or twenty-two years later ; and give 
him a reign of twenty 5'ears, in confequence of fixing the be- 

• Ebn Amid. hift. Saracen, p. 352. p Ibid. p. 3:1^3. 

<« Ann. CoMMEN. in Alex. I. 6. c. 7. ' D'Here . p. 822. 

art. Solimati ben Coutolmifch & p. 801. art. Selgiukian. 

(N) lie was the brother of (O) A mifbke perhaps for 
^luUk SI. ah, lliiid Solti.T of Damojkiii. 



ginning of it in 480. This is a wide difference, and the 
more irreconcilable, as Kondamir begins his reign two years 
after his death, as related by Ebn Jinid', and if we follow '^'^^^"^'C/^ 
the computation of Haindallah al Mcjiiifi, who puts ths^^P"''^^^ > 
commencement in 477 of the Htjrah, that date will indeed A. D, 
coincide with the years of Soleyman's, life, but will afford 1084, 
him only about one year of reign, if we fix his death ac- 
cording to Ebn yf77iid; tho' it extends the fame to t\venty- 
three by the fyftem of the other oriental writers. In 
fhort, Ccdrenus, Zonaras, and other weftern hiflorians, con- 
firm the fupputation of Kondamir, &c. againft Ebn Amid^ 
by fpeaking of Soleyman (P) as making conquefls, and fight- 
ing battles, many years after the year 1085 s. The /*''"''■ 
falem Chronicon, in particular, recites the words of a letter 
fent by Soleyman in the year 1098 to the Soltan o{ Khorajfan, 
to defire fuccours againji the Franks, who had taken fr-om him 
Nice and Romania ; meaning the country of Ruvi, or Jfid 

But notwithftanding the majority is againft us In this point, jf' fot dif* 
yet we have very good reafon to fufpe6l their authority mfi^"^^ 
favour oi Ebn A?nid and Jnna Comnena, if it be only confidered 
that the hiflorians whom D'Herbelot confulted, feem to have 
been very little acquainted with the affairs of the Seljukians 
of Rihn, for the reafons before offered ; and that all which 
he has produced from them, relating to the death in queflion, 
is a naked date, without any concurrent circumftances lotofxit, 
fuppdVt it ; whereas Ebn Amid, and Jn7ia Comnena, not only 
relate the manner of Soleyman s death, but that event is con- 
ncfted with foreign tranfadlions ; which is the ftrongeft 
proof that the date of it, given by the former of them, mufl 
be exa6t. As to the other Greek hiftorians, after what has 
been faid, it is enough to fiiy, that they could not have fo 
good an opportunity of being rightly informed about fuch 
roatters, as a princefs of the imperial family. 


VOLET MA N, according to Kondamir, and the other Per- Vfurpixthn 
^ fian hiftorians confulted by D'Herbeht, left for fnccenbr o/gover- 
his fon Dawd (or David J furnamed Kilij Arjlan (Q_), \vho a- non. 

*• See univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 149, & ffjq. 

(P) Tkey ^all him Zolmdn (Q^) That is the f-.'.-ord of 
Shak, the non. 

O 3 fcended 

ic)8 "The Seljuks of Rum. B. I. 

fccndcd the throne in the vear 500, immediately after his fa- 
ther's deceafe'. But it appears, from the hifVory of y^mia 
Ccmnena, that the fudden and violent death of SoUyman was 
attended with an interregnum, or ufurpation of the gover- 
nors in the dominioiis of Ritm ; and that Kbliziaftlan (as 
the (Weeks corruptly name Kilij [K) .'Ir/Un), was m Pirf:a 
till about the year 1093, when he returned to Nice; which 
will make a vacancy in the throne of nine years. 

As there has been nothing tranfmitted to us from the eaft, 
relating to the afFuirs ot the Scljitkians in Rum, from the death 
of Soleyman to the death of this warlikie Soltan, excepting his 
]aft expedition, in which he died, our fole recourfe muft be to 
the Greek hiftorians, pai ticuhuly the princcfs before-men- 
tioned ; who has given a pretty full account ot the proceed- 
ings of the Turks againft the Roman empire duriag that pe- 
Apeikaf- WiicN the news of Amir SoJeymati^ death reached the 
iem /sizes t2ccs of his governors in Afia minor, they divided his terri- 
Nice. torie? among themfelves. /Jps'kajfem by this means became 
lord of Ni.e, famous for the palace of the Solt..ns. He had 
before given Cappadocia to his brother Pulkis ; but, being 
naturally active, he thought k unbecoming the dignitv of 
Soltan to fit idle, and made iacu; lions into Bithynia as fir as 
the Propontis. The emperor, finding he could :.ot be 
brought to a treaty, fent a powerful ar ny, under the com- 
mand of Taticius, to befiege Niee, vvl,ich encamped at a 
place twelve ftades dillant. 

The night following a peafant brought advice, that Pro- 
fvk, fent by a new Soltan called Barkiarjk, approached at the 
head of 50,000 men. Taticius, not able <■<: cop? with fuch 
a force, retired towards Nikomcdia. Apc]ka[lhn purfued and 
attacked him at Prenef.e ; but the French, who were in the 
army headed by Taticius, couching their ianccs with their 
ufual alertnefs, fell on them like lightning, and, defeating 
them, gave Taticius leifnre to retire. 
Vijits the APE L K A S S E M, with a defign to conquer the iOands, 
emperor, built fliips, intending to take the city of Scio (S), featcd on 
the fca fide : but the cmpf-ror fent and burnt them in the 
harbour. At the fame time Taticius fell on the Turks at Aly- 
kas, called alfo CypariJJium ; and after fkirmifliing with them 
lor fifteen d.ays, at length routed them. The emperor oil 

' Sec D'Htrb. ubi fupra, 

(R) This word may be pro- (SI Or Cium, in the bay of 
nounced Kij, or Kelj, Klij, or MGudajjio, mifcalled hhmtanta, a 
Kljg l^ort of Kice. 


C.4^ J N'TE R REG NUM. igg 

this wrote an obliging letter to Apelkajfem, defiring him to 
delift from his fVuitlel's attempts, and invited him to come to 
Conjlantinople. That prince, underftanding that Profuk had 
taken many leiTer towns, and intended to befiege Nice, ac- 
cepted of the invitation, and was received with extraordinary 

The politic emperor took the opportunity, while Jpel- ^'f^ho a- 
kajfem was at Conjlantinople, to build a fort by the fea fide io"'^/>'^ hitfi. 
fecure Nikomedia, the capital of Bithynia (T) ; making the 
Turks, who would have oppofed thaf defign, believe that he 
had their Soltan's order for it, whom all the while he amufed 
with diverfions. "When the fortrefs was finifhed, he loaded 
him with prefent?, gave him the title of Moft Augaft, con- 
cluded a peace with him, and fent him home by fea. The 
fight of that fabrick in his palTage gave him much difplea- 
fure ; but he thought it better to diiTemble his refentment 
than complain. 

P RO SU K foon after befieged Nice ; and, having attacked Nice he- 
it vigoroufly for three months, ApelkaJJ'em fent for fuccour \oficgcd, 
the emperor, who fent him tlie flower of his troops, but 
with orders to a<fl: for his intercft ; both parties being in effe<?b 
his enemies. The Roman troops, having taken the city of 
St. George, were admitted into Nice, and difplaid their ilan- 
dards : hereupon Profuk, believing the emperor had entered 
the city, raifed the ficge, and retired ". 

It will be proper to obferve in this place, that as foon as A'ex's, hy 
the great Soltan (U) (vvlio reigned in KhoraJJdnJ, was m-artifcct 
formed of the fuccefs of Tutus againfl Solejnnav (as has been 
related in the life of that prince), he was alarmed ; and fear- 
ing he might grow too powerful, fent a Chaufli (X) to the 
emperor Alexis, to propofe an alliance with him by way of 
marriage ; offering, on that occafion, to withdraw the Turks 
fettled near the fea-coafts ; to abandon a certain number of 
fmall towns, and furnifh him with troops, in cafe of need. 

The emperor, defirous to recover the places wichout the 
marriage, prevailed on the chaulTi to turn chriftian : -fter 
which, as he had a written order fi-om the Soltan, for the 
Turkip.-) gzxY\{o\\s, to quit all the maritime places ar< foon ^i^reco-x-- 
the marriage was agreed on, he went to Sinope, and fiiewing''««'?,v a- 
the order to Karatik the governor, obliged him to depart '^'^^• 

" Ann. Comnen. in Alex. 1.6, c. 7. — 10. 

(T) It became (o after Nice the father and predeceffor of 
was taken hy the I'urks. Burki-'rok. 

(U) This V/as Makk Shah, (X) C'.aus, or Chaujh, is a 

mefier.gcr oi Hate, 
O 4 without 

200 'The Seijuks of Rum. B.I. 

without taking any thing away (Y), and left it in the hands 
of Dala/Jcnes for the emperor. Having by the like artifice 
gotten the Turks out of other towns, and put in Roman gar- 
rifons, he returned to Con/luntinople, where he was baptized, 
'■ and received the title of duke of Jnkhialus, with other great 

rew^ards ^. 
Nice be- The Sohan was extremely vexed when he came to Iiear 
fuged'a- how the chaafh had fcrvcd him. Notwithftanding this, he 
ga:n: fent a letter to the emperor, aifuring him, that, provided he 
gave his daughter in marriage to his fon, he would affifl: him 
with troops to prevent JpelkaJfcTii'^ iacurfions, and take /^n- 
tiokh (Z) from him : At the fame time he fent Pufan with 
forces againfl: ylpclkaffem. The emperor wrote an anfwer, 
which, without granting his dcinand, flattered his hopes, and 
fent it away. Mean time Pufaii attacked Nice feveral times ; 
but being repulfed by means of the emperor's fuccours, drew 
Relieved off to Lop,jdion (A), oa the river Lamf^e. As foon as he was 
a fecand gone, Apelkaffcm, loading fourteen mules with gold, fet out for 
/mr: Perfia to obtain the Soltan's confirmation in the government : 
but the Soltan, who was then at Spaka (B), refufing to fee 
him, ordered him to go back to Pufan ; faj'ing, he \vt)uld 
confirm whatever the other agreed to.- After a long and fruit- 
lefs folicitaiion he fet out to return, but was not gotten far, 
before he was met by 200 men, who, by the Soltan's order, 
ftrangled him. The ambafTador, who carried the eniperor's 
letter, proceeded on his journey ; but hearing, before he got 
to Khoraffdn, that the Soltan himfelf was aTlalTinated (C), he 
returned to Conjlantinople. 
JUJisred to After Apelkajfem had fet out for Khorajfan, as above- 
related, Pulkas, his brother, took poflefllon of A7tv; which. 

" Ann. Covin. 1. 6. c. 8. 

(Y) The Greeks fay, Ka'-aiik (A) Now called Lobatj or 

was p-ficfled by the devil, for Lu'^ad. 
)iav'!ng plundered the church (B) Doubtlefs I/pdkdti. 

of the thrice pure Motlit-r of (C) Thi.s was MaLk Shah, as 

God when he took the cit/. appears from the courfe of time, 

(Z) This mud be Anti'ikh in as well as the miftaken account 

ivia't whence it appears, not of his death, given in this place 

only that Antiakh did not fall by our hiftorian, as we have 

into the hands of Tutm (or fa- elfewhere obferved (i) ; altho', 

titjb) , on the defeat of S'llfynuln ; by fome overfight in ranging her 

btK alfo ihv^t Apt/krJ/l;,'i (01 J/iu/ materials, thele lads may fecm 

Kiftm) was in poilt'lhon of the to belong to the reign of Barki- 

gicater pait of his dominions. arckh, his fon and lucccffor. 


C. 4. Second Soltan, Kilij Arflan. 201 

the emperor, by large offers, tempted him to deliver up : but 
he ftill put him off, under pretence of expefting the return 
of his brother. While this matter was in agitation, the two 
fons of Jmir Soleyman, efcaping on the death of the mur- 
dered Soltan, by whom they were detained in prifon, arrived 
at Nice ; where they were received by thofe who had mofl the fons of 
power with the people, and acknowleged by Pii/kas, who de- Soley- 
livered up the city into their hands. From this revolution or™^*** 
refloration (which, according to the courfe of the Greek hif- 
tory, happened about the year 1093), we date the commence- 
ment of the reign of Kilij Arjlan I. 


Keign of Sotldn Kilij Arflan I. 

"KJICE having thus, after an ufurpation of fei'eral y^^'^^tSeccndSol- 
■*• ' been reffored to the heirs of Soleyman ; Kilij, or KUj tan Kilij 
Jrjlan the eldeil, whom the Greeks call Khliziajllan^ or Arflan I. 
Kliziqftlan, alfumed the reins of government. His firfl care 
was to repeople the city, by calling home the wives and chil- -A. D.- 
dren of the old inhabitants, as he defigned to honour it with *°93- 
the ordinary refidence of the Soltans. Then, difplacing Pid- 
kas, he made Mahomet (A) governor ; after which he marched 
towards Melicene. What was the occafion of his departure, 
what part of his dominions he went to, or what he did for 
Ibme time after, we are intirely flrangers to ; the Greek 
writers, to whom we are obliged for all this Soltan's hiftory, 
excepting the lafi: tranfaftion of his reign, treating no farther 
of the TurkiJJj affairs than as they concerned themfelves : for 
this reafon the reader will not be furprizcd if he meets fre- 
quently with chahus in the hiffory, and fometimes the mat- 
ters abruptly introduced. 

The emperor ^/i-x/j-, having been informed that Elkdn,'E\kin 
prince of the Satrapas (B), had taken Apoloniadc and Cyzicum, taken pri"^ 
maritime cities, and ravaged the fea ccaft ; fent Eiipherbene,foner, 
who befieged Jpohniade, and reduced the exopolis, or out- 
town. The Turks defended the citadel vigoroufly till fuccours 
arrived ; on ,which the Roman general withdrew, and put his 
men on board the fliips : But Elkan having feized the mouth. 
of the river and the bridge, they were forced to re-land, an4 

(A) Perhaps the name of the (E) Or Turkifh governors; 
Soltan's brother, which is not perhaps a Beglerleg, 
exprefly mentioned. 

'SLOi 7'be Sdjiiks of Rum. B. I. 

mofl of them cut off in battle. After this, Ofur, being 
fent againft him, took Cyzicum and Poimanenon by aflault ; 
then bcfieging yJpoloniade, forced Elkan to furrender ; who, 
being fent to the empejor, was very kindly received, and 
turned chriAian'. 
9.i/e of While Alexis was ingaged in war with the Patzina- 
Tzakas. cians (C), he received advice that the fon of Jpclkajfem, go- 
vernor of Nice (caiJed Satrapa by the old, and /imiral, by the 
modern Pcrfmns (D), was inclined to befiege Nikomedia. At 
the fame time Tzakas, a Turk, rcfolving to fet up a naval force, 
cni ployed a native of 5w2)r;:<z for that purpofc; wlio having 
buiit him fevcral vefTcls, and forty barks, he went and took 
Clazomene and Pkocea without much refifhmce ; then fending 
a threatening meffage to Alopins, governor of Mitylency he fied : 
but Tzakas, finding the inhabitants of Metymnc, a city of the. 
ifle feated very high, prepared to recei\'e him, he pafled on to 
the iiland of Khlo, which he took by force; 
Br defeats The emperor, on this news, fent a fleet againll him, 
which was defeated : then he fent another under Conftantine 
Delajfemis, his relation ; who, defirous to retake Khio while 
Tzakas was abfent, made a breach in the wall, which obliged 
the Turks to implore mercy : but while the general delayed 
taking poffelTion, to prevent the foldiers from putting thcni 
to the fword, the befieged repaired the breach in the night.. 
Tzakas arrived from Smyrna at the fame jun(fl:ure on the other 
fide ot the ille, and marched at the head of 8000 men, fol- 
lowed along the coail: by his fleet ; then, going on boar 1, he 
encountered the Greek fliips in the night : hii ommi being 
, joined together by chains, fo that they could not btr fcparated. 

Gpus, who commanded the Grecian fleet, furprized at this 
new fort of difpofition, durft not advance. 
the Ro- TZ/iKJ S followed him rtowly, and at length landing, 

nuns : began the attack, Tiic French, on their approach, marched 
brifkly agninli them with their lances : but the Turks, hnving 
difcharged arrows at their horfos, obliged them to retire in 
diforder to the camp, and thence openly to the fliips. T'he 
RomavSf difmayed by this defeat, fled likev/ife, and ranged 
thcmfclvcs along the walls of the town. This emboldened rhc 
Turks to go and k-ize fome vofiels bnt the failors, cutting the 
( aWe-,. went and anchored with the reft at fome diltance from 
tlie fliore. Mean time Dt'Az^^f /zwj retired to Bo/iJ/its, a towu 

■ Ann. Co: nem.1.6. c. ii & 12. 

;C) A S.y/iu-an nation, who (D) Rather Av:'r, whence 
inhabited t^odolia and M}lda''jis. comes our aiairal, and admiral. 

4» fituatcd 

C. 4^ Second SoMn, KWi] Ar([^nl 203 

fituated on a cape of the ifle ; and Tzakas, knowing his va- 
lour, fent to propofe an aGcommodation. 

Next day they met ; and Tzakas demanded, that what. Pfopofes 
the emperor Botaniates had given him ftiould be dehvered iuto/'^^^^* 
his hands, and a marriage take place between his fon and a 
daughter of the emperor ; in which cafe he promifed to re- 
flore all the iflands he had conquered. It feems this Turk 
had been taken prifoner when' 5'oung in JJia, and prefented 
to Botaniates, who honoured him with the title of Molt Noble, 
and with rich prefents ; on which he took an oath of fidelity 
to him, but thought himfelf not bound by it to Jlexis. De- 
laffemis referred him for an anfwer to John, the emperor's 
brother-in-law, who was expedfed with forces in a few days : 
but Tzakas, not caring to wait his coming, returned in the 
night with his fleet to Smyrna, in order to raife new forces 
for the conqueft of the illand. After which Delajfenus took 
Bolijus, and the city of Khio itfelf '', 

Mean time Tzakas, while the emperor was at war vnth j^ugjnenti 
the Scythians, increafed his fleet with an extraordinary num- bnpeeti 
ber of fliips, gathered from feveral ports, wherewith he re- 
folved to plunder all the ifles which refufed to fubmit, and 
ravage all the weflern coaflis. He endeavoured to excite the 
Scythians to fubdue the Kherfoncfus, and to oblige the fuc- 
cours to return which came from the eaff ; making great of- 
fers to draw the Turks to efpoufe his caufe ^ After this he 
afiumed the name of king at Smyrna, which he made his re- 
gal feat ; and fitted out a fleet to ravage the ifles, and pene-. 
trate as far as the very capital of the empire. 

At the beginning of fpring (E) the emperor fent an army .Wr-?r,/<T/ 
and a fleet to Mitylene ; the former under the conduft of John Mitylene: 
Diikas, and the latter of Conjlantine DelaJJ'cnus. The place 
was commanded by Galahatzes, brother of Tzakas, who came 
alfo in pex'fon to defend it. Dnkas battered the place for 
three months, and often fought the enemy from morning till 
night without any advantage ; but at laft Tzakas thought fit 
to furrender the city, on condition that he might have liberty 
to return to Smyrna. This was granted him : but as he en- 
deavoured to carry off the inhabitants of Mitylene, contrary to 
the treaty, Delajfenus attacked him by fea, and took feveral 
barks ; Tzakas himfelf with difficulty efcaping in one of the 

^ Ann. Comnen. 1. 7. c. 5 & 6. « Ibid. 1. 8. c. 2. 

(E) You find mention often feafons of the year, but not of 
in the Greek hiftorians of the the year itfclf. 


204 ^^e Scljiiks of Rum. B. I. 

fmaLIeft vefTels. After this Dukas retook Samos, and the other 
irtes which that Turk had feizcd. 
Heisjiain TZ AKAS, as fooa as he returned t.o Smyrna, ordered 
barks to be buih, and galleys of" two and three tire of oars, 
bcfides other light velfeis, with a defign to fend them out as 
coriaiis. Hereupon the emperor difpatched Dclaffcniis with 
a puiirant fleet, and at the fame time wrote to ftir up the Sol- 
tan (F) againft his fon-in-law, whom he reprefented as afpiring 
to the empire ol the Turks. The Soltan iinmediately fet for- 
ward with his forces, and was at Avido, which TzaLis had 
befieged, almoft as foon as Dc'.ajfcnus. Tzakas having no 
(hips with him (for his fleet was not yet equipped), and find- 
ing himfelf unable to oppofe both the emperor and t!ie Sol- 
tan, refolved to go meet the latter, not imagining how much 
ly the Sol- he ^vas incenfed againft him. The Soltan received him with 
ttan. a great fhew of friead:hlp, and kept him to dine with him ; 

but as foon as he found him overcome with liquor, drew his 
fword, and killed him with a ftroke on his {jde'^. 
Care of The emperor was fcarcely delivered from this enem)% be- 
^le;cis fore he found himfelf obliged to march againfl the Konidns, 
who continued to make incurfions into his territories : mean 
while the Turks took that opportunity to ravage Bithynia, 
When the war therefore was over, he applied himfelf to fe- 
cure the country inclofed by thefca between the river Sanga- 
riiis and a place called CeU, which was expofed to their fre- 
io fecure quent incurfions. Having found a deep canal, which had 
Bithynia. been formerly dug by the emperor Auajhijhis to drain the 
marlli of Baanom, he ordered it to be cleanfed and extended : 
but confidering that in time it might become fordable, hq 
built on the fide of it an exceeding ftrong citadel, thence 
called the ^rcn Cajlle, which fervod for the defence of Niko' 
Cr.:faJers; The emperor had fcarce rcflcd from this fatigue, when 
their cru- Peter the hermit, author of the crulade, or holy war, ar- 
ehtes rived at Conjlantinof)!^: at the head of 80,000 men, devoted to 
the recovery of Jcnifd'unn from the Turks. The emperor ad- 
^l • vifed him to wait till Godf;-ey of Bulloin, and the other princes, 
*^^ ' arrived: but Peter, confident of his own fuccefs, palled the 
fea, and encamped near a fmall city called Helenopolis. From 
hence ten thoufand Norrnam, who were among them, made 
an incurfion as far as Nice, committing the moA horribly 
cruelties ; but the garrilon of that city fallylng out upon them, 
they v/erc obliged to retreat. After this thev took Xcrigorda.', 

'' Ann. Comnen. 1. 9. c. i & 3. 
(F) Kil-j Arjldn, (on of ScJfjman. 


C. 4. Second Sollarty Kilij Arflan. 205 

but Elkan (G), being fent with fome troops by the Soltan, re- 
covered that place. 

That general, knowing the Franks to be very covetous,;K/?/y /a- 
contrived the way how to ruin them. He firft laid his ■ssa.-nijhed : 
bufcade ; and then commiflioned two artful perfons to give 
out in Peter ^ army, that the Normans had taken Niccy and 
feized an im.menfe booty. On this report they ran without 
any order toward that city ; and falling into the ambufcade 
which had been laid for them near Dragon, were cut in 
pieces. The number llain on both fides was fo great, that 
their bodies being hid together made a mountain. Peter re- 
tired with a fmall number of his men to Helenopolis, where 
the Turks befieged, and would have taken him, had not the 
emperor fent fome troops to relieve the place ^. 

Soon after the reft of the weftern princes arriving, zWTheytake 
crofTcd the ftrait to Civitot, except Boemond, who marched Nice; 
through Bithyyiia towards Nice, which the confederates in- 
veiled. The Soltan fent fome troops to annoy the chriftians ; "" ' 
but they were defeated, as was the next day the Soltan him- *'^97' 
felf ; who, feeing the multitude of enemies he had to deal 
with, gave leave to the inhabitants of N'ice to a6t jufl as they 
thought beft for themfelves. The emperor Alexis, who was 
encamped at Mefampele, near the town of Pelckaiie (for he 
did not care to join the Franks, whom he looked upon as a 
treacherous faithlefs people), finding that the Soltan fupplied 
the city with both men and provifions by means of the lake (H), 
he advifed them to attack it on that fide : and having pro- 
vided proper veflels for the purpofe, the lake not being deep, 
filled them with men under the .command of Bitumites, and 
fet off from the fide oppofite to the ifle of Khio. 

The Turkifi commanders were fo alarmed at this xya^"^- defeat the 
pefted fight, and the Franks making a general affault at \heSohdn: 
fame time, that, on Bitumites promifing a general pardon, 
with honours to the Soltan's fiiier and his wife (faid to be 
the daughter of Tzakas), they delivered the city up to him ; 
who fent olf the garrifon, by way of the lake, to the em- 

Presently after the army fet forward for Antiokh in 
Syria ; with whom the emperor fent a body of troops com- 
manded by Taticius. Being arrived in two days at a place 

•^ Ann. Comnen. 1. 10. c. 4 — 7. 

ily tlie fame El- Nice and the gi 
1 before. (of old the GV.v 

(H] Which lies between it empties by a river. 

(G^ Probably the fame El- Nice and the gulf of Moudania 
irt« mentioned before. (of old the GV.v^/cy' ; into which 



The rtrpe- 
ror reco- 

2o5 The Scljuks of Rum." B. I. 

called Leuka, they thought fit to feparate, and let Sccmond go 
A. D. belbre, as he defircd. The Turks difcoverhig hiin in the 
1097. plain ot Dorylainn, fell i>pon him vigproully, and killed 
forty of his befl men ; whereupon, being alio himlelf dan- 
geroufly wounded, he retreated to the army. As they ad- 
vanced in companies, they met, near a place called Ehraik, the 
Soltan Tanifman (I) and Hajjlin, who alone was at the head of 
80,000 men. The battle was very obftinate, when Bocmond, 
perceiving the Tlirks fought with more vigour than their ene- 
mies, fell with the right wing like a lion on the Soltan Klizi' 
aJi!dn{K), or Kilij Arjlan, and put them to flight. Soon 
after tl;ey met the Turks near .■■luguJlopoHs, and defeated them 
a fecond time. After which they fulfered them to continue 
tlieir march to y/;2^/c/^/;, without daring to appear. 

The emperor .thought this a good opportunity to recover 
other places from the Turks. Tzakas had feized Smyrna.'^ 
Hangripcrmes was in pofleffion of Ephcfus : Other robbers 
were mafters of different places : K/.no, Rhodes, and feveral 
other ilJands were in rheir hands, from whence they fcoured 
all the adjacent feas. To prevent thefe depredations, he fitted 
out a large lleet, under the command of John Dukus, who car- 
ried with him the daughter of Tzakas, to convince the pi- 
j\ J) rates that the city was taken. Being come to Jvido, he gave 
1097. the command of the fleet to Kajpaccs, in order to attack 
Smyrna, Smyrna by fea, while he befieged it by land. The inhabi- 
tants, terrified, immediately furrendered upon terms, and Kaf- 
paces was made governor, but did not long enjoy his pof^ : 
for having ordered a Turk before him, who had flolen a fura 
of money ; the fellow, thinking they were carrying him to exe- 
cution, in dt;fpair drew his fword, and Aabbcd the governor 
in the belly, mixing himftlf at the fame time with the croud. 
The foldiers and feamen were fo enraged at this murder, that 
they put 10,000 inhabitaiits to the fword. 
Ephefus, From Smyrna Dukas marched to Ephcfus, where, after a 
and bloody battle which lafted near the whole day, he defeated 

Ta)!gripermes and Aluraccs. The remainder of the Turkijb 
fojces fled up the Alaander to Polyboium. Dukas purfued 
them ; and in the way took Sardes and Philadelphia by af- 
fault : Laouicca fubmitted to him. Then, paffing by Kome, 

(I) ThzGieek hiftorians give crufade make SohyKon the Sol- 
the name of vSoltan often with- tan of Nice at this time; but 
out diltinduon to all gcntialb or we have alrendy (hewn, both 

grea' comniandtrt, as well as to 
the '.)rothcrs of the Solan. 
(K) '1 he Latin writeri of the 

fr m tije Greek and orienral au- 
ti.iis, ihat he was dead fonie 
years btfoie. 


C. 4. second Soltdtty Kilij ArQan.' lof^ 

he forced Lampe. He found at Polybotiim a great multitude 
of Tiirksy but defeated them iutirely, carrying off much 
phmder and many prifoners. 

Mean time the emperor Alexis prepared to fuccour x}!\e other 
Franks, who were befieged by the Turks in Antiokh ; and being /"/^ffj. 
arrived at Fihmelion, cut in pieces a great number ot their 
troops, and recovered feveral places out of their hands. But ■^- ■^' 
hearing that IJmael (L), fon of the Sokan of Korajfdn, was *<^9^' 
advancing at the head of a vaft army ; he thought it moft 
prudent to return with his prifoners and plunder, after he , 

had given notice to the inhabitants in and about Polybotiim 
to provide for their fafety. Ijniacl, advancing, laid fiege to the 
fort of Paipcrt, which the famous Thcodorits Caiirus had taken 
but a little while before, with a defign to obferve the paf- 
fage of the Turks, and make incurfions upon them. 

About that time there arrived at ConJia?iti?iopIe an army y/;-,;;« ^r 
oi Normans, 100,000 foot and 50,000 horfe, commanded by Normans 
the two brothers of Flanders. The emperor would have had 
them taken the fame road wliich the other Franks had fol- 
lowed ; but their defign was not, it leems, to join the con- 
federates of the crufade, but to march into the eafl, and con- 
quer Khorajjan itfelf. Having palled the ffraits of Civitot^ 
they went and took Ancyra. After they had crofled the Halys^ 
they came to a little city belonging to the Romans ; where the 
priefls coming out to meet them, with the crofs and gofpel 
in their hands, they were fo barbarous as to put them all to 
the fword. The Turks, who are very ficilful warriors, took 
care to carry off all the provifions in the country thro' which 
they palled ; and being near Amajia, after defeating, hemmed 
them in fo clofely that they had no opportunity to paAure 
their horfes. 

The Abnnans in defpair rufned upon their enemy : hnt/fai}il>yflg 
the Turks, inflead of engaging them at a diilance with the Turk;, 
bow or lance, came to clofe fight with their fwords, and 
made a dreadful (laughter. Upon this, they afked the count 
of ^t. dies and Tzitas, vv'hom the emperor had fent with 
them for their alliftance, if there was not fome country be- 
longing to the empire near at hand, which they might fly to ; 
and being informed that there was, immediately abandoned 
their c^mp and baggage, flying to the maritime parts of Ar- 
7neniii and Pmtrasa. The horfe for hafle leaving the infantry 
behind, they were all (lain by the Turks, excepting a few, 
whom diey referved us it were to Ihew in Khorajjan. The 

(L) Barkictrok was theil Scjltan; but vv'c meet w!tli no fon of 
liis who had that name. 

2o3 The Scljuks of Rilm. B. t. 

count and Tzitas rcturneil, with the horlc which efcMped, to 

Cofi/iantinopic ; from whence the emperor Tent the count bjr 

fea to Tripoly in Syria, where he propofed to continue the 

ficge, but died foon after he landed, leaving his pofl'eflions to 

his nephew Ifi/liam *". 

Rebellion In the fourteenth indit^ion, Gregory, governor of Trebi- 

of Gre- zond, who had revolted two years before, intended to fhut 

gory- himfelf up in the caftle of Kolonia, which was reckoned im- 

A r» pregnable, and to implore the protei^ion of Tanifman the 

.'c Turk before-mentioned ; but being purfued hy Jolm Comnenus 

the emperor's nephew, and his couiin, was taken, and fent to 

Coixflantinoplc •'. 

We mull now quit the Greek hiftorian, to clofe this reign 
with an account of the laft action and death of Kilij Jrjldn, 
which the Greeks were Grangers to ; and altho' it is the only 
matter relating to this Soltan which has been communicated 
to us from the oriental authors, yet it ferves to give us a 
greater idea of his power than all the tranfaflions already re- 
SoliaM The iniiabitants of Mufol ( Maufcl, or MofulJ having been 

irkes Mu- befieged by --// JaiL<e/i{M), who had taken their prince Ja- 
^^ ' garmtJJ} prifoner, ient to offer Kilij Jrjldn, lord of Konia, 

or Ikoniiim (N) and Akfara, the pofleffion of their city, in 
cafe he would come to their relief. Hereupon Kilij yhjldriy 
hartening with his forces, took polTefrion of Mufol, Jaweli 
retiring on his approach. He pitched his camp in a place 
called Jl Mogreka, where Zenji, fon of Jagarmijh, with his 
friends, repairing to him, he honoured them all with kaftans 
or vefls. Then fitting in a throne, he ordered the name of 
Soltan Mohammed (O) to be fuppreffed in the pulpits, and 
his ow^n mentioned in place of it. 
Is drbiun- This done, he marched againfl yll Jaweli, who was at 
ed. Roha ; but being met by him at the river Kha'our (P), was 

put to liight. Kilij ArJlAn plunged into the river, with an in- 
tent to crofs it; but, while he defended himfelf with his bow 
againll the enemy, his horfe carrying him out of his depth, 

f Ann. Comnen. I. 1 1. c. i — 7. s Ibid. 1. 12. c. 5. 

(M) Jan.i:eli, Or Ja^.vivnli, and the latter Greeks Kogni, or 

lord o^ Roha, or Or/a, in Mrfo' Kunni. 

potan'.ia. See before, p, 143, (O; %o\^ o^ Malek Shah, ZXidk 

& feq. fifth Soltan of Irnk,or Perfia. 

(N) Hence it appears, that (?) It rifes in Mefopotamia 

after the lofs of A7a', he tranf- from a fountain called Ras al 

tlrrcd the royal feat to Kon't^ah; Api, and falls into the Euphra- 

fo the wrientalb call Ik-^uiuTn, tis near Kerkijia. 


C 4! 'Third SoUdn^ Sayfarir 209 

he was drowned. Some days after, his body was found float- 
ing on the water, and buried 2X Al Shamfdnia (P). This event 
is placed, by our author, in the year 500 of the Hejrah ^ 
which anfwers to that of Chriji 1 106. 

It is remarkable that D'Herbekt, under the name of xhx=,Defeds of 
Soltan, has given only an abifracft of the foregoing tranfac- ««^'^''''"-f> 
tion from Jbulfaraj' ; which feems to fhew, that there is no- 
thing to be found in Kondamir, and the other authors whom he 
made ufe of, concerning that prince. But in fupplying their 
defedl from the Syrian annaliff, he has alfo adopted his chro- 
nology, which contraditSls theirs : for AbiClfaraj makes the reigli 
ol Kilij Arjldn to end in the fame year that they will have \i*'VP^^^^S 
commence ; and we prefer his authority to theirs, for the fame "^^^^^ * 
reafon which induced us to give the preference to Ebn Amid^ 
with regard to the year of the death of his father Sc'eymm. 

According to their reckoning Kilij Arjldn reigned eighteeri 
years j according to ours, fourteen : but the Nighiarijrun gives 
him only four years to his reign. The fame authors alfo 
make his fon Maffud to have been his immediate fucceflbr j 
whereas we have taken the liberty, on what we judge to be 
fufficient authority, to put in one between them. 


^he Reign c/ Soltan Sayfan." 

hpHERE is no mention of a Soltan with the name oiThlrJSoU 
-*- Say fan, among the oriental hiftorians ; but we have ^^n. Say- 
already Ihevv^, from their inaccuracy, and other imperfeftions^^"^ » 
•witli regard to this dynafly, that there are fufficient grounds 
to believe, that there were more princes in the fucceflion than ' 

thofe of whom they give us the names. It is confeffed alfo, 
that fome of them reckon fifteen Soltans ; and if fo, the 
chronological chafm, which has been remarked between the 
reign of Kilij Arjldn I. and Rohnoddhi Soleyman, leaves room 
for introducing one here. Although Abu'lfaraj agrees with 
Kondamir \\\ naming the firft ten Soltans^ yetj as he does riot"^'^^^"^^'^ 
tell their number or rank in the fucceffion, and but barely""^ ^y 
mentions fome, and that only occafionally ; fo he may poifi- 
bly have omitted the name of one or more, efpecially in this 
interval we are fpeaking of; which appears, from his dates of 
facls, to be very wide, at the fame time that they help to fill 

*> Aeu'lfaraj, hill, dynaa. p. 245, » See D'Herb, p, 

4004, art Kilig Arilan ben Soliman. 

(P) Ox Al Shamdmyah, 

Mod, Hist. Vol, IV. P ^p 

2IO "The Seljiiks of R{lm. B. I. 

up the chafm, by giving a much greater length of reign to 
the princes he mentions, than the other oriental authors have 
aifigned them. In this he agrees \vith thole deck hiftorians 
whom we have chofen to follow in our account of the Sol- 
tans. In (hort, as the eaftern hiftorians afford us fcarce any 
memoirs relating to the ful\ Soltans of this dynally, it is but 
juA-that we fliould be governed by the authority of the By- 
zant'me writers, to whom we are almoll wholly beholden for 
our materials, 
//v Greek It is true, wt find Khliziaftlan, ox KlUj Arjl&n, fpoken of 
ix:ntcrs, by Anna Comncna, as Soltan of Kogni, or Ikoniwn, till the 
very lalf aftion of this reign : but then the fudden tranfition, 
in the account of that action, from KhliziajUan to Say/an, 
as Soltan of Kogni, fliews that the hiflorian was all the while 
fpcaking of one and the fame perfon ; for there could not be 
two Soitans of Kogni at the fame time : nor do we find any 
farther mention of Khliziajllan. It cannot be thought that by 
lyhom lie this latter is meant Ki/iJ Jr/Idn, the former Soltan, accord- 
/ht/oiv. jng to the Greek cuftom of prolonging the reigns of princes ; 
becaufe he is faid to be in the vigour of his youth ; and 
as the fame quality is afcribcd to Sayfan, it is a farther proof 
that thofe two names are given to the fame perfon. Howe- 
ver that was, Sayfan muft have been the fon of the former 
Soltan, fmcc he is called tlie brother of Mafut, or Maffud ; 
who was the fon of Kilij Jrfldn, according to the unanimoiis 
confent of the oriental hiAorians. 

Having prcmifed thefe few remarks, which are neceflary 
both to juftify the innovation we have introduced, and ob- 
viate what at firft fight appears to be a very great difficulty, if 
not a fort of contradi(5fion, we fhall proceed to the hiAory. 
Greeks, TiiE coafl oi Jfia having, by the late wars, been ruined, 
their bar- from Smyrna to Attalia, and thofe once populous and ilately 
tarity; cities become heaps of rubbifh, the emperor fcnt Filokales to 
~^" reftore them. That nobleman firrt rebuilt Endromit, ov Adro- 
^'° J nu.'ium (which had been fo totally deflroyed by Tzakas, that 
there remained no figns of it habitations), and peopled it with 
the peafants and Grangers (A). After this, being informed 
that the Turks were gathering near Lampis, he fent thither 
fome troops, who cut part of them in pieces, and took a 
great number prifoners, ufing their vicffory fo cruelly, that 
they boiled children to death. The Turks who remained 
put on mourning clothes, and went over the country, to ex- 
cite their companions to venge.mce. 

(A) The date of anions in hook, denotes being fct at a 
the margin, when placed in a venture, or by gutis. 

7 At 

G. 4* ^hird Soltdft, Sayfan.' sri 

At the fame time Filokales reduced Philadelphia \Vhhout take Phi- 
any trouble : but foon after HaJJan, one of the prime com- ladelphia» 
manders, who governed almoft abfolutely in Cappadocia, hear- 
ing of the barbarities exercifed by the Romans, came at the 
head of 24,000 men, and bcfieged the place. Filokales, who 
Was a man of ftratagem, not having forces to take the field, 
forbad the inhabitants either to open the gates, appear oa 
the \valls, or make the Jeaft noife. Hajfan, having been be* 
fore the town three days, and feen no perfon appear, con- 
cluded that the befieged had neither forces nor courage enough 
to make Tallies : hereupon he divided his army ; fending 
1 0,000 men to Kelbiana, another party toward Smyrna, and 
a" third towards Cliara and Pergamus, with orders to ravage 
the country ; and followed with another party himfelf. As 
foon as Filokales faw the Turks parted into bodies, he fent 
troops to attack them one by one : they accordingly came up 
with, and defeated, the two firft detachments, killing a great 
number of the men ; but could not overtake either of the 
others, who were gotten too far before. 

Some time after, Jmtr Sayfan marched from the eaft, with Sayfan 
a defign to ravage Philadelphia, and the maritime cities. The mahs 
emperor, on this advice, fent a fmall body of troops up xhe.p'^<:^' 
river Skama?zder to Endromit and Thrakefion, to wait his or- ^- ^' 
ders. G auras commanded at that time z.t Philadelphia, -wixh ''<^^-J 
a ftrong garrifon, and Monajlras at Pergamus. The army 
fent by the Soltan of Khorafdn advanced in two bodies ; one 
of them crofled mount Sina, and the other marched into 
AJia minor. Gauras went out to meet thefe latter ; and 
coming up v/ith them at Kelbiana, routed them. When the 
Soltan (B), who had fent them, heard of this defeat, he dif- 
patched ambalTadors to the emperor ; who, after he had put 
feveral queftions to them concerning their mafter (C), con- 
cluded a peace with them. 

He had not been long at reft, before he was alarmed with Turks 
a new irruption of 50,000 Turks, come from Anatolia, a.nd ?2env I rrup- 
even from Khorafdn. The emperor, on this news, pafTed the^'^^- 
flrait from Conftantinople to Damalis (f) ; and though in ^- ^• 
the gout, got into a chariot, which he drove himfelf. In ^*°9-J 
three days he arrived at Jigyla, where he embarked for Civi' 

(B) In the title bf the chap. (C) Yet the hiilcrian gives no 

ter he is called Soltd?: Sayfan', account of this Soltan, nor even 

but he was not Sol ran of Kho- his name. 

rafan : and juft before he is [■\) l^\v?: Bof^horus v/as called 

called only zxl Aniir^ or com- 1)^7^^/7.1 from thence. It is the 

itxander, lame with EJkudar, or Shutari. 

P 2 tot 

2ri2 ^he Seljuks of Rum.' E. !. 

tot (D). As foon as he landed, he was informed that the com- 
manders ot the enemy had divided their forces into feparate bo- 
dies ; one was to fcour the country about Nice ; and Alonotikus 
to ravage the fea-coall : other parties had done the Hke about 
Pnifa, Jpollcniade and Lcpadion ; and had taken Cyzicus by af- 
fauh ; the governor making no reliflance. The two princi- 
pal Soltans, Kontogma and Amir Mahomet, were gone to P(e- 
mancnc, by the country of the Lencians, with intinite wo- 
men and children (E), whofe lives they had favcd : and Mo- 
voHkus, having croffed Barene (which like the Skanmrnlcr, the 
Aiigihcometcs, the /Jmpelle, and many other rivers, defcends 
from the mountain Jbibes), was turned tovv'ards Pardon, hav- 
ing palTed by Avido, Endromit, and C/iara, with a great num-. 
bcr of Haves, but without fhedding blood. 
j^/farh-d Hereupon Alexis ordered Kamltzes, governor of Nice, 
/iy ICamyt- to follow the Turks, with 500 men, to watch their motions, 
7*3. \jx\t to avoid lighting. The governor came up with all the 

Soltans (F), and, forgetting his orders, attacked them brilk- 
ly. The enemy having heard of the emperor s march, and 
concluding that he was fallen upon them with all his forces, 
betook themfelves to illght : but being made fcnfible of their 
miflake by a prifoner they took, ralUed their forces ; and 
having met with Kamytzcs, who flayed to divide the fpoil, 
inftead of getting into Pamar.ene, attacked him at break of 
day : his foldiers all fled, excepting the Scythians, the frenchf 
and a few Romans, who fought valiantly : but mofl of them 
Ifis being at length flain, and his horfe killed, he fet his back 

hra'very. againfl an oak, and laid about him inceifantly with his po- 
niard, killing or wounding all who came within his reach. 
The Turks, furprized at fo m.uch valour, and being defirous 
to prefcrve him, Amir Mohammed alighted ofF his horfe, and 
putting afide thofe who fought with him, faid, Give me your 
hand, and prefer life to death. Kamitzes, unable to refill 
fuch a multitude, gave his hand to J\Iohammed, who order- 
ed him to be tied on horfeback, that he might not efcape. 
Defmted The emperor miflrulling the road which the Turks had 
in Alexis, taken, took another. He pafTed by Nice ; then crofTed Mw 

(D) Or C/.7//0 and Cv"V{7, the the cruelties committed before 
port of l^ice, with a caltle, by the Greeks. 
which commanded that city, of- (F) As if there were many 
ten mentioned by the crufade Sol:ans at this time in Jfta mi- 
writers ; but they do not mark nor. But we have already ob- 
its jituation ; perhaps near Khi- ferved that the Crccki made no 
us, Ki:ts, or Kio, novJ Jemlik, on diftindlion between Soltan and 
the gulf of Moudauia, or Muh- Amir, king and commander ; for 
tania. . they often mifcal or millake one 

(£) Thefe were reprizals, for for the other. 

7 lagna 

C 4.- ^hird Solidn^ Sayfan.' 2 1 '. 

Ingnaand Bafilicus two very narrow pafTcs of the moimtam 
Olyvipus. After this he marched to Aletines, and thence to 
Acrocus, with AQ':vgn to get before the enemy. There beinjr 
informed that they were incamped in a vaUey full of reeds^ 
where they thought themfdves in no danger from him he 
feU upon them with his forces, killed a great number, 'and 
took a great number prifoners. The reft thought to elbape 
by lying concealed among the thick reeds : nor could the 
foldiers come at them for that reafon, and the mar/hinefs of 
the place : but Alexis having ordered the reeds at one end to be 
ftred, xhtTurks flew from the flames into the hands of the Ro- 
7nans who killed one part of them, and carried ofl?^the other 
.nH r f ^^^^^'"'"^^/, having been joined by the Turb-,mns,Amh Mo 

anci lome other people of Aj;a minor, appeared at the famehammed 
inltant to give the emperor battle; and though Akxis open- ^orjU. 

t! '''^^/°' ^''^^'^^' ^y ^^f^^""§ '^^^^ he purfued, yet ' 
Mohammed came up with the rear, commanded by A7nMas 
^A^L ^^'^"r^^-^-^' ^^ho running full fpeed againft the Tvrks 
Mohammed, who well knew how to make ufe of an advan- 
tage finding them at a diftance from their foldiers, fhot not 
at them but their horfes ; which bringing them down, they 
were furrounded and flain. For all th^ his troops we^e put 
to fligh by thofe left to guard the baggage and the horfes- 
m which confufion Kamitzes made hi^efcape ^ 

Not long after this, Soltan Sokymdn ordered his troops of W.. ./- 
Khorafan and Hakp to over-run .nd plunder all AJia JnorJ^^s. 
The emperor, to prevent him, intended to carry the war to 

fT u ^^°^"'' °'' ^'^'">^' where Khliziajilan (G) com- A. D. 
manded : but while forces were raiflng, he was feized vio- "'4.] 
My with the gout, which hindered his deflgn. Mean time 
Khtiztajllan ravaged the country feven times over. The 
nirt^s, who judged the emperor's diforder to be only a pre- 
tence, to co^-er his want of courage, made game of him over 
th ircup^, and afted comedies, wherein they reprefented 
Alex,s lying m his bed, furrounded with nb- -" - -vho ^;^.. //.. 
fometimes confulted, aiV ■ -'--^-^-^ ^noupont/,e 

eafe ; after which ' ■' 

tl4 ?'-&^ Seljuks of Rum. B. I. 

the lake of Nice ; then proceeding three days march, he en- 
camped near the bridge of Loj^adion, on the rivulet of Kary- 
ceum. The Turks, who had ravaged the plain which is at 
the* foot of the Leuciennian mountains and Kolcrecia, on the 
news of his approach, retired with their plunder. The em- 
peror followed them to Pa-mancnc, and then fent feme light 
troops after them : thefe overtaking them at KclUa, killed ma- 
ny, and recovered part of the fpoil. 
They re- J LEX IS returning, went to take the air at the pafs of 
ne'w Malagna, on the top of mount Olympus, whither the emprefs 

came to him from the prince's ijlc (f) .• there being informed 
that the Turks were at hand, he marched towards Nice ; but 
the enemy, without wailing for him, fled. However, being 
overtaken by two of his generals, who from the top of the Gcr- 
?ninian mountains obferved their motions, they were defeated. 

The emperor being arrived at Fort St. George, pafled on 
to the town of Sagydeiim, and thence to Helenof-olis, where 
the emprefs waited for a wind to return to Conjlantinople. 
Prefently news being brought of another irruption of the 
their in- Turks, Alexis marched to Lopadion, and thence to Khio ; 
curjions. where being informed that the enemy were at Nice, he re- 
tired to Mijkura : but under (landing afterwards that they 
were onjy flying parties, who appeared about that city and 
Doryleum to obferve his motions, and not thinking himfelf 
yet fufficiently flrong to follow them to Kogni, he turned tov 
wards Nicomedia. The enemy judging, by this motion, that 
"^ he had no defign to attack them, took their former pofls, 

and renewed their incurfions ; which was what the emperor 
had in view : however, it gave occafion to his enemies at court 
to reproach him with doing nothing, after raifing fo confide- 
rable an army. 

When the fpring was pafV, ///e-.v/j judged it time to put 

Mmncr o/'his fiifl; defign in execution, and march to Kogni j from Nic» 

f^hting. he paffed tp Gdita, and the bridge of Pithicus ; then having 

in til-"' ^^'"5 a'^vanced to Armenocajlra and Leucas, he arr 

r' ^ T>r^- ' where he reviewed his 

'""wing up his forces 

C. 4^ TMrd Soltan^ Sayfan. 215 

ufual way of fighting was at a diflance ; and, whether purfu- 
ing or purfned, they made ufe only of the bow, which they 
drew with fuch force, that, even though they fhot when fly- 
ing, they never failed to pierce either the man who followed 
them, or his horfe. 

For this reafon the emperor ordered his army to be drawn AlexisV 
up in fuch a manner, that his foldiers fhould oppofe their wau <///"- 
bucklers to the fide from whence the Turks fhot ; and that ci^Une. 
others fhould flioot on thai: lidc which the Turks laid open 
to them in fhooting. Having arrived at Santabaris in this 
new difpofition, he divided his forces, in order to execute fe- 
veral different defigns. He fent Kamytzes, with one party, to 
Polybotc and Kcdrcum, where Pulkhcas was governor ; and 
Stypeotes with another, to attack Amerion (H). When Ka- 
mytzes arrived at Kedreum, Pulkheas and his foldiers were 
fled ; then marching, to Polybotiim, he flew the garrifon, and 
retook the fpoil. Stypeotes had the like fuccefs at Pcemanene, 

The emperor, being ready to fet out from Cedreum to Po-Has re- 
ly bote and Kogni, was informed that Sokan Soleyman had (etcour/e 
fire to all the forage through Jja minor ; and that another 
army of Turks was coming to oppofe him : he confulted God, 
to know whether he fhould march towards Kogni, or give 
battle to the Turks, who were coming from Filomilion. Hav- 
ing written thefe two queflions on two pieces of paper, he 
laid them in the evening on the altar, and fpent the night in to diinna* 
prayer. In the morning the bifhop entered, and taking up ''<'''• 
the firfl paper which came to hand (I), unfolded it, and read 
it aloud, whereby he was determined to go to Filomilion, 
Mean time Bardas, having paffed the bridge of Zompi, defeat- 
ed a large body of Turks in the plain of Omorion ; while an- 
other pillaged his camp. Being preffed hard afterwards by 
a third party, the emperor came up timely to refcue him. 
Alexis, having paffed 7V/^/o«<i(57<?, near the lake of forty martyrs, 
arrived at Filomilion, which he took by force. From hence 
he detached divers parties to ravage the toiyp^^j^jVif,g'"'i^ciges 
about Kogni ; which the^ fome.l^rx\!r went about to give hinf 
of Turks,^ and a pfp^gy fg^ ^p ^ horfe-laugh. The emperor 
at lengtli, landing at Civitot, came to Fort St. George, near 

' Ann. CoMN. in Alex. 1. xiv. c.i 8, 

(G) "^y Khliziaftlan IS to be or general ; while i'^jA^;;/^?^, who 

tinderllood Sayfa?:, or the fon of was only a commander, is call- 

Kilij Arftiln, the former Soltan. edSoltan. Qx^\ASok'iuidn,cd^\\- 

It is obfervable here, that he ed the fonof old^'s/rj'/^-vw, by the 

who was a£lua!ly Soltan is ftiled crufade writers, reion at the fame 

opiy a commander, governor, time in the weft, about ISice? 

r -i the 

2i6 The SeYpks cf Rum: B. 1. 

being come to the plain between Polybcte and the above-men- 
tioned lake, the enemy appeared. Mono'.ykiis (K), who was 
a man in years, and of great experience, began the attack, 
and continued it all the day, without making any impreffion 
on the ranks. Next day Sohan Khliz'uijilan arrived ; 
and though he was no lefs furprizcd at the new dirpofition 
of the Roman army than Alonolykus, yet being in the heat of 
youth, he reproached that old man with fear, for not giving 
them battle. At the fame inft^nt the Soltan attacked the 
rear, and fent two bodies to fall on the van, and one of the 
^eltans TiiE Turks fought bravely, y^ndroninis PorjihyrogenetuSy 

narrmu the emperor's fon, who commanded the left wing, was kil- 
^cape. led. Nyccphorus Bryennius (L), who was at the head of the 
right, fearing the van would be defeated, ran to its afliftante : 
upon which the Turks, with Soltan Khiizinjilan, turned their 
backs, and re-afcended the hills. As thofe who efcaped fle4 
different ways, the Soltan, with his cup-bearer, got into a 
chapel, upon a mount planted with cyprefs, where they were 
followed by three Scythians and a Creek, who took the cup- 
bearer ; but Kh'.iziaJHan, not being known to them, had the 
good fortune to efcape. The night being come, the Turks 
afTembled on the tops of hills, lighted a great number of 
fires, and barked like dogs (M). 
Tropofes a Next day the baggage, women, and children,, being pla- 
treaty. ced in the middle, the army marched towards Jraprus ; 
but on the way, the Soltan, having afTembled all his forces, 
inclofed and attacked them courageoufly : however, he could 
not break their ranks, which flood as firm as a wall of ada- 
mant. Being vexed and afliamed that he was not able to 
get any advantage againft the emperor, he held a council in 
the night ; and at break of day fent to treat of peace. 
feace con- ALEXIS, who was then in the plain h^Vwetn Augitflo- 
fluded, polls and Joronium, caufed his army to halt, in the order they 
then were, and went to the place of interview, with his re- 
lations and chief officers, guarded by fome foldiers. The 
Soltan came prefently after, accompanied by all his officers, 
■vyith Monolykus at their head ; who, as foon as they came in 
fight, alighted and faluted the emperor. The Soltan would 

(K) He is here called the life, from whence this account 

great Scltan, by which muH be of the Turks is taken, 
lindtrllood comnr.ancler only. (M)The author often throws 

(L) Hyfband to /luna Covine- refledions of this kind on the 

va, the emperor's daughter, an Turks. 
author who wrote her father's 


C.'4» T^rd Soltdn^ Sayfan. 217 

have done the fame, but Alexis hindered him : however, 
when he was near, he alighted, and kilFcd the foot of that 
prince, who prefented him his liaad, and ordered a horfe to 
be brought for him. Then taking oif his mantle, he put it 
pn the Soltan. After this, entering on the fubjefi: of peace, 
Alexis agreed that he fhould remain in poffeilion of ail the 
territories which the Turks were maflers of before the reign 
pf Diogenes, and the battle in which he was taken prifoner. 
Next day the Soltan and his officers figned the treaty ; after 
which the emperor made them rich prefects . 

While this affair was tranfading, Alexis having difco-Maffud 
vered that Mafut had confpired to afTaffinate Soltan Say-^°"J}'>'f 
fan (N), his brother, he advifed him to ftay with him till 
fhe plot was blown over : but trulling in his own power,, he ^ r) 
refolved to return; nor would fo much as accept of a guard in6.] 
to efcort him to Kogni ; although he had a dreai)? the night 
before which might have made him lefs rafli. He thought 
a great fwarm of flies furrounded him while at dinner, and 
fnatched the bread out of his hand ; and that, when he went 
to drive them away, they changed into lions. Next mornv. 
ing he aflced a Roman foldier the meaning of his dream ; who 
told him, that the infults of the flies and lions feemed to 
denote a confpiracy of enemies. For all this, the Soltan 
would believe nothing, but continued his journey with more 
obftinacy than before. 

However, he fent his fpies abroad, who indeed met with ogojrijl his 
Mafut at the head of an army : but having efpoufed his \n.- brother', 
tereft, they went back, and told Sayfan that they had feen 
nobody on the road ; fo that the Soltan, proceeding forward 
without any mifliruft, fell into the faare. As foon as he came 
\n fight, Gazi, fon of the commander HaJJ'an Katuk, whom 
Sayfan had put- to death, fet fpurs to his horfe, and gave 
him a llroke with his lance ; which Sayfan fnatching out of 
his hands, faid, with an air of contempt, I did not knew that; 
npomcn carried arms. Pidkheas, who was in his train, and 
held a correfpondence with his .brother Mafut, pretending 
great zeal for his fervice, advifed him to retire to Tyganion, 
(P) a fmall city near Filomilion, where he was very kindly re- 
ceived • 

(N) Here is a fudden tranfi- that, at firfl light, he feems to 

tion from KkUziaftldn to Say- be a different Soltan. 
fan; whom, for the reafons al- (O) Where 'as his army? 

ready al'eged, we take to be the where was Mof:ol^kus, the great 

fame perfon. Although he is Soltan as he is called), and the 

introduced in fuch a manner, other Soltans, who were v.'ith 


2i3 ^e Seljuks of Rum.' B. F, 

cehtd by the inhabitants, who knew he had made peace 
(P) with the emperor, under whofe obedience they were. 

Huho is be- M.^/SUT came prefcntly after, and inverted the place ; on 

trajcJy the walls of which Say fan appeared, and reproached his fub- 
jefts with tl>eir pcrfidioufncfs ; threatening them with the 
coming of the Romans, and a punifhmcnt fuitable to their 
crime. Thefe menaces were fupported by the vigorous re- 
fiftance made by the befieged. It was then that Pulkheas 
difcovered his treachery : for, coming down from the wall, 
as if with delign to encourage the inhabitants to defend the 
place, he aflured them, that there was a powerful army on 
the road to a/Till: the befiegers ; and that they had no other 
way to prevent being plundered, than to furrender at difcre- 
tion. The citizens, following his counfcl, delivered Say/an up 
to his enemies ; who having had no inftrument with them 
fit for putting out his eyes, made ufe of a candleftick (Q), 
which the emperor had given him, to deprive him of his 
fight. When he was brought to Kogni, he declared to his 
fofter-father that he could fee. The fofter-father told this 
to his wife, who kept the fecret fo well, that it became pub- 
lic in a few days : fo that coming to the ears of Mafiit, it 
put him in fuch a rage, that he forthwith ordered E/gam, 

an/lftran- one of his commanders, to go and flrangle his unliappy bro- 

gled, ther b. 

Although this account of Say fan is but lamely intro- 
duced, and, for want of fome identical marks, he may fcem 
to be a different perfon from Khliziajllan, yet, from the cir- 
cumftances of the who'e, we prefume, they appear clearly 
enough to be the fame Soltdn, under two different names : 
or rather that, through inadvertence in compiling from two 
different memoirs, the name of Khliziajllan has been put, in 
fome places, for that of Say/an. 

This event happened about the year of Ckrijl ii i6 (R), 
which gives a reign of ten years to this Soltan. 


* Ann. CoMN. in Alex. I. xv. c. J— 7. 

him the day before ? did they (Q^ ) By making it red hot, 

all deiert him in this time of and holding it before his eyes. 
♦ danger? or did he put more (R) This date we gather from 

confulcnce in Pullikeas than any the death of the tmy&ror jllexis. 

of them ? For we are told by his daughter 

(P) This is a farther argu- 7iTi<i \i\[\on:iv., Anna-Cr;fn>ui:a [\), 

inent that Saylhn is the fame that, a year and a iialf after his 

Wi\\\Khliziofitdii, return from the above-men - 

(i) 7a .41(x. /. XV. <:. ij. 


C.4: J^curth Solidjiy MaffM, tti^ 

S E C T V. 

The Reign of Soltan Maflud. 

ALTHOUGH D'Herbclot, in his table of Soltans, taken Fo«r/>& : 
from Kondamtr, phces Ma/fud a.s the third Saltan, yeiSo/tafi^ 
Jn the article under his name, or rather another prince of the MaiTud, 
fame name ^, he fays he was the fourth. I'his is conform- 
able to the author of the Nighiariftdn, who makes the num- 
ber of the Soltans to be fifteen, contrary to the general opi- 
nion of the Perjian hiflorians : thefe hiflorians conneft the 
beginning of Majjud'% reign, as the third Soltan, with the 
year of the Hejrah 500, or of Chriji 1 106 : but in cafe he 
was the fourth, it muft fall lower of courfe : and on a fup- 
pofition that he fucceeded his \)vo\\\ex Say/an, after putting ^^^//7j/^/j 
him to death, according to the teftimony of Anna Cc7nnc?ia, rf2g7i,Hcj, 
his reign will commence in the year of C/;ri/I 1 1 16, 613. 

D'H E J^ B E LOT has imparted nothing more from the 
oriental authors (if they afford any-thing more) than the 
fmgle circumflance inferted above, which ferves only to con- 
tradidl the fyftem he has adopted, and fupport ours. Nor 
has JbtVlfaraj mentioned more than two fa(fl:s relating to this 
prince : but the Byzantine hiflorians, as hitherto, have fup- 
plied us pretty well on their fide, with materials for a hiflory 
of his reign. 

The emperor John Comnemis, who fucceeded Alexis, ^Tidi- Emperor 
ing that the Turks (A), inflead of keeping their treaties xn^dc takes So- 
with his father, lacked feveral cities of Phrygia, about the zopolis ; 
Meander, marched againfl, and defeated them ; after which ^- ■^* 
he took Laodicea, and inclofed it with walls ; then returned **'^'^* 
to Conjlantinople ; but foon after departed, in order to reco- 
ver Sozopolis, in the fame country. As the city was defend- 
ed- by a flrong garrifon,. and furrounded with precipices, he 
ordered fome troops to hover at a diftance, and fhoot at the 
inhabitants. This drawing them into the plain, as the em- 

a D'Herb. p. 563, art. Maffoud, fll. de Mohammed, at the 

tloned expedition againft the (A) Our author Nicetas calls 

Turks of Kogni, he was feized them Peyjia>is here, and gene- 

with a grievous diftemper, rally elfewhere ; either be- 

brought on by a wrong treat- eaufe the Turks came originally 

ment of the gout, which held into the empire from Perjia, or 

him fix months, at the end imagining that they ftill came 

whereof he died. from thence. 


22Q T^*^ Sc-ljuks of Rum? B.I. 

pcror expected, and r/hilc they piirfucd the Remans who 
Hcd, they were cut off by an ambuicade ; by wjiich ftrata- 
gcm the city fell into his hands. He reduced likewife a fort 
called the Spar-haivk, and fcveral other IclTer places, which 
the enemy had maftered ^. 
aJfo Kaf- Some time after this he marched into P aphligon'ui , and 
tamona ; took Kj/lamoua : but, Upon his return to Conjlantinoplc, Ta- 
^- ^- nifmany 2. Turk o'i Armenia, mentioned in the former reign, 
**^^* who commanded in Cappadocia, recovered it, and put the 
garrifon to the fword. On this advice the emperor fet 
A, D. forward the fccond time: and when he came before the city, 
1124.] was informed that Tan'ifman was dead, and that I\IslhimmcJ, 
who was at variance with jVafitt, governor of Kagni (B), was 
in podedion of it. Hereupon he made an alliance with Ma- 
Jut, and having received a reinforcement from him, marched 
againft Mohammed : but the httcr, by his perfuafions, pre- 
vailed on the Soltan to withdraw his troops ; fo that the em- 
peror was obliged to make ufe of his own forces. With 
««</ Gan- thcfc he retook Kajlamona, and then beilcged Cangra, a 
tP" very powerful city of Pontus, which had been fubdued not 

long before by the enemy. Having battered the walls for 
fome time in vain with his engines, he removed them to a 
little eminence, which commanded the place t and, by beating 
down the houfes about their ears, obliged the inhabitants to 
furrender : then leaving 2000 men in garrifon, returned with 
many prifoners to his capital. 
hvaJa He had not been long at home, before he marched againft 
Armenia, i^/^q^i^ j^ing of Leffer Armenia (C), who had taken feveral pla- 
ces, and befieged Seleiicia. The emperor gained the pafs in- 
*'3'^-] to that country without oppofition ; and not content M'ith 
reducing Adana and Tarfiis, refolved to conquer the whole 
kingdom. He took, either by force or capitulation, a great 
many forts ; and, among the reft, Bcka, flrongly fituated on 
a flee p rock. Then he proceeded to An azarba, a verv po- 
pulous city, Handing on a flccp rock, and inclofed with flrong 
walls. After battering the firfl: wall, and entering by the 
breacle^ much blood was fpilt in forcing the fecond wall ; 
the principal -frmenitins, who had fled there for refuge, mak- 
ing a very brave defence : but the place was taken at lail. 

^ NicETAs in John Comnen. c. 3. 

[VA Here MnJTit, or Mrffid, part of CH'icin, joining upon 

who was Soltan. is called only S\fia, with Tome part, perhapsj, 

governor of i he place. of Cc^^adocia. 

(C; It contain. d the callcrn 


C. 4* Fourth Sdlt an ^ M^^iidk, 42 1 

After this he marched into -Syr/.^, where he took P?/^, a«</ Syria; 
on the Euphrates, Scrcp, Kafcrda, and IJlria ; but was obliged 
to raife the fiege oi Sezer (D), and fo returned to Jntiokh. ^^S^-J 
From thence he marched back, in order of battle ; and, in 
the way, fent part of his army to ravage the country about 
Kogni, in reprifal for invading his territories during his ab- 
fence '^. 

Some little time after, the emperor crofled over into /!jia. Defeats 
to difperfe the Turks, who laid wafte the country adjoining ''■'^- Turks 
to the river Sangarhis. This done, he marched into Anne- 
nia, to put a ftop to their incurfions in that province, and ^[^^.''-\ 
CMxh x\\Q.\Xi{o\tViZQQi Conjltintine G auras, who had feized on 
Trebizond, and erefted a kind of tyranny. Mohammed, be- 
fore-mentioned, at that lime commanded at C^farea ; and, 
having reduced Iberia, with part of Mefopotamia, was grown 
very rich. He boafted of being defcended from Arfaces, and 
the modern family of the Tatvjmajis, who were the greateft ifi federal 
enemies the Romans had in the eafl: in that age. The empe- battles, 
ror fuffered great inconveniencies in the enemies country, from 
the fevere cold, and want of provifions, which defvroj'ed moft 
of the horfes in his army. Of this the Turks took fome ad- 
vantage ; but being at length repulfed, the emperor returned A. D. 
to Neoccfarea (E), where he had feveral fldrmiflies with them, 1138' 
but did not recover that city ; which was owing, in great 
meafure, to John Comnenus, his brother Ifaac's fon : who re- 
fenting that his uncle ftiould order him to give one of his 
horfes to an Italian, who had lolf his own, went over to the 
Turks, and changing his religion, married, as it was faid, the 
daughter of Mafilt, at Kogni. 

The fame year he marched into Phrygia, to At t alia, zReco'vers 
famous city (F), in order to reprefs the incurfions of thefi^^ 
Turks, who had, amongff the refl, feized the Pahis Pugrtfta-^ ■^"' 
mis. This is a lake of vafl extent, with many iflcs in it ; 
whofe inhabitants, by trading with the enemy, had become 
fo much their friends, that they joined in oppofing the em- 
peror. But by means of veffels, and engines, with which he 
battered the illes, he reduced them at lalf, though not with- 
out the lofs of fome barks and men ^. 

* NicETAS in John Comnen, c. 5 & 6. ^ Id. ibid. c. 9 

& 10. 

(D) Rather Shayzar; cnlled (E) Called Nlkfarl, by the 
by moH of the crufade hifco- Turks. 

rians Ca'farea, (F) On the coaft cf Tamphl-' 

It a. 


222 The SelJLiks of R(im. B. L 

Mairiid Wini.E thefe things were doing in the weft, it naay be 

taks Ma- pielumed that MaJJiui was extending his dominions in the 
laiiyah. g^ft . but -^vc arc informed of none of his exploits on that 
fide, but one, by /ihulfnraj, who tells us, that, in the year 
Hej. 537. of the HeJ rah ^^7, Mohammed, (on of Danijbmand, lord of 
A. D. Malatiyah, and of the borders, dying, king Majfud, lord of 
1142. Koniya and Ak/am, took pofrefTiou ot his territories". 
Emperor Now let US return to the affairs of the Greeks : JohnCovz- 
Manuel nenus dying in 1143, his fon Alanuel fucceeded him. One 
^A. D. of his firlt cares was to march againfl: the Turks, who ra- 
«»43- vaged Thrace, and atteinptcd to take the fort of Pithecana. 
Ha\ing put them to flight, he eroded Lydia, and freed the 
cities ot Phrygia, near the Meander, from their fears. Near 
Filomelion he engaged the enemy, and was \\'ounded in the 
heel by a foldier when he had pierced with his lance ; for 
he expofed himfelf to danger even more than his father. From 
thence he pu(hed on directly for Kogni, at which time Ma- 
fut was gone to encamp at Taxara, formerly called Colonia 
ittveJ!sKo- (G). Being fer down before the city, the wife oi JohnCom- 
niyah. nenus, before-mentioned, fpoke very notably from the wall, 
A. D. in behalf of her father Ma/tit. The emperor retired, after 
1144- going round the town ; and was forced to fight feveral bat- 
tles on the road, to open a way back for his army. 
Wis e^yd In the year 1 146, Conrade, emperor oi Germany, and other 
dealing Chriftian princes who had taken the crofs, came to Conjian- 
tinople, in the way (by land) to Syria, intending to pafs 
through Lejfcr /Ifia. The Greeks were in fuch haffe to get 
rid of them, that the whole marine was employed to fhip 
them over. The emperor Manuel took fome care about their 
fubfiflence : but, at the fame time, ordered fnares to be laid 
for them in the difficult pafiages ; by which means a great 
fcjcarJi number of-them perifhed. The inhabitants of cities in their 
the cru- march, inflead of receiving and fupplying them freely with 
j'adtrs. provifions, from the top of the walls drew up their money 
in bafkets, and then let down as much bread for it as they 
thought fit themfelves : there were even fome, who fpoiled 
the flour, and mixed it with lime. But our author is not 
fure that all this was done by the emperor's order, as was 
given out ; although it was certain that he had ordered bafe 
fJver to be coined, wherewith to pay them for the goods they 
fold. In a word, there is no mifchief which Manuel did 
not contrive, or caufe to be contrived, againfl them ; that 

' Abu'lf. hlft. dynaft. p. 255. 
(G) To the north-eaft of liomum, or Kogni, 


C. 4.' Fourth Solidn, Mafiud. 222 

their pofterlty might, by the misfortune of their ariceflors, be 
deterred from ever fetting foot on Roman ground. 

The Germans and French had not marched far into J/ia,TheTiiTks 
before they were met by the Turkljh army, commanded hyjlaughter. 
one Pamplan ; who, excited by the letters of Manuel, and f^ jy^ 
animated by his example, fouglit and defeated them. They 1147! 
afterwards appeared at the Meander, to oppofe their pafiage : 
but Conrade fpurring his horfe into the river, his army fol- 
lowed ; and getting over, fell on the Turks with fuch fury, 
that fcarce any efcapei. The flaughter might be judged by 
the vaft mountains of bones in that place, which our author 
Nicetas had himfelf beheld with aftonifhment. The fame 
hiftorian tells us, that, after this famous viftory, the Germans 
met with no enemy to oppofe them, daring the remainder of 
their march. But we are informed by the weflern writers, 
who fliouid know bell:, that the difappearance of the enemy 
laded only till the Franks came to Ikonium, the capital of the 
Turkijb dominions in Lejfer Afia. This city they ciofely in- Koniyah 
veiled : but it was fo ftrongly fortified both by nature and befieged. 
art, as well as bravely defended by the Turks, that though 
they had lain a long time before the place, they made no 
progrefs in taking it. At length provifions failing in their 
camp, fuch a mortality enfued among the foldiers, that the 
emperor Conrade was glad to raife the fiege, and return home. Conrade 
The caufe of this mortality, and overthrow of the whole ex- returns 
pedition, is generally afcribed, by the faid writers, to the^'"'^^" 
Greeks mixing lime with the meal which they brought to 
fell, by the connivance of their emperor ; whom they charge 
likewife with betraying the defigns of the Chrijlians to Soltan 
Mafiit, or Mahmiit, as fome name him ^ 

Thefe are all the tranfaftions mentioned by the Greeks^ 
during the reign of Mafnt : to which we have only one more 
to add, from Ahulfaraj, namely, that, in the year of the 
Hejrah 546, Jujlin (H), having taken Niiro'ddins armour- A. D, 
bearer prifoner, fent him to DlaJJlid, who was Nuro'ddin's fa- 1151. 
ther-in-law, with a threatening anfwer ^. This fa6l is of little 
fignificancy, but as it fcrves to fettle the length of this Soltan's 
reign ; which is thus brought down with certainty to this 
period ; and, from circumflances produced hereafter from the 
Byzantine hiftorians, it is probable that he lived two or three 
years longer. But fuppofing that he died at the end of the Deaf /^of 
year 1 152, this will bring the end of his reign fifteen ye^rs^'^^^^^- 

*" Nicetas in Manuel, 1. i. c. 2, 5 & 6, s Abu'lf. 

p. 256. 

(H) That Is, Jofalin, count of Edefa. 


224 "The Seljiiks of Rum." B. L 

Idwer in the century than a calculation made from the years 
of his reigning afligned by the Pcrftan hillorians ; and gives 
it a length of thirty-fevcn year?, which is double, within one 
year, to what they have given it : but on a fuppofition that 
he, and not Savfun, immediately fuccecded his father, he will 
then have a reign of forty-fcven years. This goes a great way 
to fill up the chronological chafm which thofe hiilorians have 
left in the fuccc/fion of thefe Soltans ; and, by the f\ill longer 
rieign of his fon and fucccfTor, wc Iliall be able to accom- 
piilh it. 


The reign of SoUdn Kilij Arflan II. 

F!fth Sol- TT is agreed, both by the Greek and oriental hiitorians, that 
ian, Kilij X j^i/jj j,.yj^i,i n. fuccecded his hihtr Mafud in the Soltanati 
Arllan -i^'of j'?Kr/z : but this circumftance is all the account which we 
have received from the P<7ym7z authors, relating to this prince^ 
except the length of his reign ; which they have made fhorter 
by three-fourths than it ouglit to be. This confirms the fu- 
fpicion, that they havq^ no memoirs relating to the firfl 5^/- 
jttkian Soltans of Rum. In efTeft, D'Herbelct, as before, has 
gi^^en nothing under the article of Kilij Arflan II. but what 
he takes from Abiilfaraj " ; and that is no more than a fliort 
account of the troubles which befel him, on dividing his do- 
minions among his fons, a few years before his death, and 
which is to be found in the Byzantine hiftorians : fo that our 
readers may be faid to be indebted to them for every thing 
concerning this Soltan, excepting only the time of his deathj 
which is fixed by Jim' If a raj. 
attacxJhy MASUT, OX Majfud, emperor of the Turks, at his 
Jagupa- death divided his dominions and provinces among his fons. 
' He gave to Khliziaftlan, or Kilij Arflan, his capital Kogni, 

with the places depending on it : to his fon-in-law Jagiipafan 
(A) the cities of Amcfia and Ancyra, with Cappadocia, that 
■ ■ fruitful country : and to Dadiin the cities of Cafarea and Sc' 
^' bajle. The three brothers did not long live in unity : for 
the Soltans of Kogni and Cappadocia, envying each other's pof-' 
felTions, carried their complaints before the emperor Manuel^ 
who fecretly widened the breach between them ; though he 
openly agreed to alTift Jagiipafan, through the averfion which 

* SceD'HcRP. p. 1004, art. Kilig Arllan ben MafToud* 
(A) Perhaps 7'^' X<:^ //«/««. 


C. 4^ 'Pifth SoMn, Kilij Ardan II. 225 

he had to the Soltan, a prince of a dark and gloomy dlfpofi- 
tion, who itudied the death of all his kindred, and often mad'e 
incuriions on the Roman territories. 

JJGUPASJN, elated with this reinforcement, attacked 
the Soltan, who fought feverai battles, with pretty equal fuc- 
cefs J but vidlory at length declaring for the former, he la,id 
down his arms, and continued for fome time in repofe. 

The Soltan, after this, went to meet the emperor on his Ke/ires /# 
return to Conjfantinople, from his expedition to the weft (B), and Manuel, 
was received with joy ; as he imagined his prefence would 
ferve to fettle his affairs in the eaft. A triumph was ordered 
on that occafion ; but the people were fo affrighted with an 
earthquake, which threw down the beft houfes in the city, and 
darkened the air with vapours, that this pageantry was but little 
minded. During the long ftay which the Soltan made ztCoti' 
Jrantinople, he often diverted himfelf with public Ihews. One ^Turkilh 
day a Turk, who at iirft palfed for a conjurer, but turned Icarus. 
out to be a fool, got on the tower of the Hippodrome (C), 
pretending to fly acrofs it. He was dreffed in a white gown, 
very long and wide ; the fides of which being ftuck with 
ozier twigs, were to ferve for wings. He flood a long 
time ftretching out his arms to gather the wind. The people 
Impatient called out to him often to fly. The emperor Would 
have diffuaded him from that vain and dangerous attempt ; 
while the Soltan was divided between hope and fear. At laft, 
when he thought he had brought matters to bear, he launched 
off like a bird ; but his wings deceiving him, he was carried 
down headlong by the weight of his body, and broke his 
neck, to the great diverfion of the Chriftian fpedlators. 

The emperor, who had made Khliziajllan confiderable Manuel'/ 
prefents, carried him one day into his cabinet j and having/"'^/^«'-f« 
ihewn him a great deal of gold and filver coin, wrought plate, 
fplendid habits, and rich filks, fent there for the purpofe ; 
ailced him, ivhich of thofe p^arceh he would have? The Soltan 
hiid, he frjould receive with reJpeU that which was agreeable 
to his viajejiy to give. Manuel then demanded, if, with the 
money which he faxv, he fiould be able to humble his enemies F 
Khliziafilan ^nfwered ; that he would have done it long agOy 
in cafe he had been mafler of but part of that wealth. Theny 
flild the emperor, l^vill give you the whole, that you may judf^e 

(B) This, we fuppofe, was for our author Kicetas marks 
his expedition againft Sicily ; neither the time nor place, 
which we judge might have (C) Ca'.'ed by ih.Q Turks At' 
been in the year 1 1 5 3, or 1 1 5 4. ; jneyddn, which figniiies the fame 


Mod. Hist. Vol, IV. ' Q^ i^oat 

2^6 The Seljuks o/Riim; B. I. 

what a monarch fojj'ejjcs, who can make fuch magnificent 


7heSol- The Saltan, charmed with fuch great liberalit)^ promifed 

tdnsdif- to rellore to Manuel the city of Sebnfte, with its depcnden- 

honefly j cics. The emperor accepted the offer with joy, and promifed 

to make liim farther prcfents, pro\ ided he performed his pro- 

inife; and, to ftrike the iron while it w-as hot, fent Ccnjian- 

tine Cauras with the money and troops. But Khlizia/llan 

was no fooner arrived at Kogni, than he ruined Schajlc, took 

Ccvfarcay drove Dadihi out of his territories, and went in pur- 

fuit of Jagitpafctn, who died while he was raifmg forces to 

oppofe his enemy. Dadun having feized Jmafia, was the oc- 

calion of the death of Jagupafans widow, who had called 

him thither ; for the inhabitants rifmg, flew her, and drove 

out Dadun, whofe powder fhe intended by her intrigues to 

'• eftablim. 

hii frreat BuT they found themfelves too weak to refift Khliziajl- 
Jucccfi-y Ian, who reduced their city to his obedience, as he had done 
Kappadoc'ui a little before ; although he was quite a cripple, 
and {o lame of his hands and feet, that he could not go, but 
* as he was carried in a chair. Yet being full of fpirit, this 

tiid not hiiider him to violate the peace, and take feveral 
places from the Rc?nans : finding alfo the opportunity favour- 
able, he went and fubdued the city of Mclitcnc, which he 
intirely deitroyed, and forced out the Amir, although he was 
one of the fame religion. He made ufe of perfidy to deceive his 
own brother, and expel him, like the refl, who fled for re- 
fuge to the emperor. 
Invadei At the fame time oxit Soleymtin, a fubtle fair-fpoken perfon, 

the em. came to excufe theSoltan's condu6f, lading the blame of the 
pre. infringements made in the treaty, on the Turks. His apology 

was accompanied with excellive praifes on Manuel, and a 
prefent of fbme fine horfes from his mafler. 

The emperor ordered the ambafTador to reproach the Sol- 
tan, in his name, with his breach of faith and inconflancy : 
but Khliziajilan, far from paying any regard to his remon- 
Ibances, though he called him fiither, went to Laodicea ; 
which, at that time, was not walled, and carried off a great 
ninnber of prifoners, as well as cattle ; killing alfo many 
people, and, among the reft, the bifliop ''. The Turks com- 
mitted other ravages; but Manuel put a ftop to them : and 
repaired Kliate, Pergamus, and Endromlt, which had been 
ruined by them . he lUcewife built feveral forts to fccure the 
frontiers c. 

'' Nic£T. in Manuel, 1. iii. c. 5 iS: 6. 

* Ibid. 1. IV. Q. 7. 


C. 4: Fiflh Bolt any Kilij Ardan IT. 227 

The care, which the emperor took to repair the fortifica-^«fw 
tions oi Doryleum, gave occafioii for a rupture. The ^o\,rupture. 
pretending not to know the defign of his coming, fent to A. D. 
intreat him to retire ; and the '•Tu?-,^^, not liking to be driven ^^7S' 
out o^ a fruitful territory, fo convenient for feeding their 
flocks, made frequent inroads, burning villages, and ravag- 
ing the country. However, Manuel went on with the work ; 
and when the fortifications of that place were finifhed, he 
fet forward thofe of Sableian. This made the Soltan accufe 
him v/ith breach of treaties : while the emperor, in his turn, 
upbraided the Soltan with ingratitude. 

Both parties being irritated, the emperor made great pre-Manuel 
paiations, and crofTed into Jjla. He marched ihxowg'n. P hry-fets.for- 
gia, and, pafllng by Lacdicca, came to Kone, formerly Kolof-'^^''^' 
fus, a very rich city (D), where our authoi- Nicetaswzz born: 
from thence he marched to Lempis, and fo to Cclcne, where 
the river Marfias has its fource. Proceeding forward, he ar- 
rived at Kome, and next at Myriocephale. He advanced with 
great precaution, always intrenching his army with care, and 
never expofing himfelf to danger ; though the multitude of 
warlike engines rendered his march very How and incommo- 
dious. The enemy appeared fometimes, and fkirmiflied with 
the Romans : but, what was worfe, they deflroyed the fo- 
rage, and fpoiled the water of rivers and fountains, which 
gave them the flux. 

The Soltan, having received a reinforcement from Mefo-The Saltan 
^ofcz??zia and elfewhere, fent an embafly to demand peace oibegspeace^ 
the emperor, on his own terms : which all the perfons of ex- ■^- O- 
perience advifed him to accept ; reprefenting that the cavalry ^ ' 7^* 
of the Turks (E) was very good ; that they had feized the in- 
acceffible parts of the country ; and that a contagious diflem- 
per already prevailed in the Roman army. But Manucl,Suf- 
fering himfelf to be led by his relations, who had never been 
in a camp before, fent back the ambalTador, without promi- 
fmg any-thing. The Soltan having applied for peace a fe- 
cond time, and received no other anfwer than that the em»pe- 
ror would fatisfy his demands when he came to Kogni ; he 
prepared an ambufcade, in the pafs of Sybriza, through which 
the Romans were to march after they left Myriocephale. 

(D) There was the church of calls them Terftajis: which flievvs 
^t. Michael; admired for its he means the fame people ; snd 
largenefs, and the beauty of its that he ufes the form or name, 
architedlure. only becaufe they came origi- 

(E) A few lines before he naliy from Perjla. 

CL2 It 


22g 7';??^ Scljuks ^/ Ram. BX 

Dangerous It IS n long Valley, bounded on one fide with high moun- 
tajfage. tains, and on the other by deep precipices. The emperor, 
initcad of going before with light armed troops, to open the 
way, divided his army inio fix bodies, and marched behind 
the baggage, at the head of the hfth, which confilled of the 
flower of his troops. The two firll corps parted the mod 
dangerous places without any lofs ; bccaufe they covered them- 
fflves with their bucklers, and valiantly fought the enemy, 
who attacked them from the top of the rocks. For want of 
thcfe precautions, the right wing, which made the third bo-, 
dy, was broken and cut in pieces, with BaUiui/i, the empe- 
r<M-*s brother-in-law, who commanded them. The Turks ^ 
elated with this fuccefs, fliut up the paffagc intirely ; fo that 
the Rommis could neither advance nor retreat : in a moment 
both men and horfes w^ere pierced with infinite arrows, which 
covered the ground with dead bodies, and made the chanels 
run with blood. 

The enemy made great efforts to defeat the troops which 
were about the emperor, who tried feveral times to repulfe 
them, and open a pafTage : but not being able to compafs 
his defign, he threw himfelf almofl alone into the 'middle of 
them, and happily efcapcd, after he had received feveral 
wounds : about thirty arrows were flicking in his buckler, 
and his cafque was half beaten off. Mean t;me t!ie foldiers 
fell thick in the battle ; and thofe who efcaped this fatal pafs 
perifhed in tiie valley. The whole defile confifled of {tvtn 
vallies, one within another, the entrance of which was pretty 
wide, and the way out very narrow. A violent wind hap- 
pening to raife clouds of duft, both parties fought for fome 
time in the dark, killing indifferently their friends or foes. 
However, a much greater number of the Romans were (lain 
than of the Turks, and chiefly the emperor's relations. 

When the ftorm was over, men were feen buried ii|) to 
the waift among dead bodies, extending their arms, and im- 
ploring help with lamentable cries ; without being able to ob- 
tain any, from men who were in too much danger them- 
fclves to think of alliffing others. 

The emperor was alone, without his armour-bearer or 
guards, refting himfelf under a wild pear-tree : there was 
oiily one horfeman v/ho offered to ferve him, and tried to re- 
tit his head-piece. At the fame time a Turk feizcd the bridle 
of his horfe, but he ffruck him down with a piece which re- 
mained of his lance. Prefcntly after, others running up to take 
him, he drove them off with the lance of the horlcman who 
attended him ; killing one of them, and his alTillant cut off* 
the head of another with his fword. Having been joined at 


The emf-e 
tors di- 

C..4." iv/?^ ^<?//i;?, Kilij Arflan II. 229 

length by ten Romans, he furmounted, with incredible {^-Efcopes 
tigue, the difficulties of the pafTages : then crofling the n-^v^ith d'£i- 
ver, and marching over dead bodies, he met with a troop oF'^^O'' 
his foldiers, who came up as foon as they faw him. He be- 
held in the way John Cantacuzeniis, who had married his 
niece, fighting very valiantly ,- but at length killed and Grip- 
ped, while he looked in vain to fee if any body would comb 
to his afliftance. Thofe who had llain him, having perceived 
the emperor, who could not be hidden, made a fort of ring, 
clofmg their ranks, to furround him. They were mounted 
on barbs, nicely trained ; which, among other ornaments, 
had long collars of hair, with little bells. Manuel, encou- 
raging his mxn, repulfed the enemy vigoroufly ; and ftill ad- 
vancing, fometinies fighting his way, at length joined the firfl: 

Before he came up with them, he afked for fome wzttv Jn in/olent 
out of a river which ran by ; and finding that it was tzmtQdfildio; 
with the blood of the llain, threw it away, faying, How un- 
happy am I to drink Chrijiian blood? An infolent foldier re- 
torted, It is not to-day only that you have drank Chrijiian 
blood : you have, for a long time, drank it tojuch excefs, that 
you have been drunk with it ; ftnce you load your JubjeBs with 
the moji violent and inhuman exa^ions. The emperor, at 
the fame time, obferving the Turks carrying off the bags of 
money defigned for paying his army, he exhorted thofe about 
him to go and recover them. But the fame foldier, continu- 
ing his infolences, faid. He ought to have given us that mo- 
ncy, injledd of commanding us noxv to go and retake it, at 
the peril of our lives. If he be that man of courage as he 
bga/ls himfelf, let hivi go and wrejl it from the Turks. Ma^ 
nucl bore thefe infults with a profound patience. 

CONTOSTEPHANUS, and fome others, arrived In \\itThe ewpe.. 
evening, without having received a wound. They pafTed therc^rr^- 
night in the greateft anxiety, leaning their heads on their/'/wj /o 
hands, and reckoned themfelves no better than dead men,7?>'» 
confidering the dangers which furrounded them. What ter- 
rified them mod was, to hear the Turks running round their 
camp, and calling aloud to thofe of their country to haile out 
of it, for that next morning they would put all to the fword. 
The emperor hereupon conceived the defign of flying pri- 
vately, and leave his people to be flaughtered ; nor was he 
ashamed to own it : thofe who were about him were filled ■ 
with indignation at it, and Contojiephanus moft of all. 

A SOLDIER unknown, who was without the tent, and 
heard what he faid, raifing his voice, cried out. What a de-^ 
iejiable thought has entered ivto the mind of the emperor ? 

0,3 Then 

236 "the Seljuks of Rum.' B. I. 

Witb-held Then addrefTing his fpecch to him, Is it not you, faid he. 

hy re- 

•who have brought us to pcrijh here, under rocks which bruife 
us, and inountains which overwhelm us ? what have we to do, 
in this valley of groans and tears, in this dejcent to hell, in. 
the midjl of preci{i:es and pits ? We have had no difference 
with thefe. Barbarians, who have inclofed us within this chain 
of m'juntains : it is you who have led us to the flaughter, to 
facrijicc us as vi3ims. This boldnefs of fpeech touched the 
emperor, and made him refolve to fubmit to the neceflity of 
the cccafion. 
The Saltan While no hope feemed to be left for the Romans, the 
offers Soltan, by perfuafion of the principal men of his court, who 
in time of peace received penfions and prefents from the em- 
peror, propofed to offer him terms of peace. However, the 
Turks, who knew nothing of their mafler's intentions, pre- 
pared at day-break to attack the camp, courfing round it 
with horrible cries. Twice the Rowans made a fally to re- 
pulfe them, and both times returned without gaining any ad- 
vantage. Mean while the Soltan fent Gauras, who, having 
ordered hoftilitics to ceafe, and faluted the emperor after the 
Turkifj fafhion, prefentcd him with a fword, and a horfe 
which had a filver bit, and was very well trained ; making 
ufe of the mofl: gentle and agreeable words to comfort him. 
Obferving that Manuel had on a black veft over his cuirafs, 
he faid. That colour is not proper in time of war, and prefages 
no good luck. The emperor received this freedom laughing, 
and gave him the vefl, which was adorned with gold and 
purple. Afterwards he concluded and figned the peace, by 
which he was obliged to demolifh the forts of Doryleum and 

The emperor defigned to avoid returning hy the place of 
battle ; but the guides brought him diredlly through it, that 
he might" beiiold at leifure the deplorable fpeffacle. In fhort, 
the vallies and forefls were covered, and every hollow filled, 
with dead bodies. The heads were all fcalped, and the privy 
parts cut off; which, it is faid, was done by the Turks, that 
the Chriflians might not be diftinguifhed from the circum- 
cifed, as well as to fhew that the viiflory was theirs ^. 

When t\\zRomansh:x6. paffed the f^raits of the mountains, 
the peace i they were attacked again by the Turks, who purfued them 
in parties, and killed the Tick and wounded, who were not 
in a condition to help themfelves, notwithflanding all the 
care that could be taken to prevent it. It is faid, the Soltan, 
repenting that he had let the prey flip out of his hands, had 

* NiCET. in Man. I. vi. c. i~^ — 4. 

terms of 

returns : 



C. 4.' Fifth Soltdn, Kilij Arflan II. 231 

given his.foldiers leave to commit thofe hoflilities, which con- 
tinued till they got to Kone. He flayed a while at PhiladeU 
pbia. to refrefn himfelf ; and, in paiTing forward, demoliflied 
the fortifications of Schkmn, but left thofe oiDorylcwn Hand- 
ing ; and when the Soltan complained of it, anfwered, that 
he paid little regard to a treaty which was extorted from 
him by force. Hereupon the Soltan fent Atapakus (F) at the 
head of 20,000 chofen men, with orders to lay wafte the 
Roman provinces, and bring him home fea-water, fand, and 
an oar. That commander ruined all the cities near the rix^xlofrs many 
Meander ; had Trdllcs and Jntiokh delivered to him by com-ciiics. 
pofition ; took Liana, Pentakhira, with fome other caflles, by 
force, and ravaged all the fea-coaft. 

The emperor, on this advice, immediately difpatched ycZvz^-^^TurJ^s 
Vataces, his nephew, Conflantine Ducas, and Michael Afpa-^'f^^^^'-^* 
cius, all able men, with forces to reprefs the enemy. Vata- 
ces led his troops directly to Hicliinn and Liinnokhira, fmall 
cities, which had formerly a bridge on the Meander ; and 
hearing that the Twr/(:x were retiring with their plunder, made 
the greater part of his army lie in ambufh, and ported the 
reft beyond the river. The Turks having been attacked in 
a place where they were much expofed, Atapakus charged 
the Romans at the head of his braveft foldiers, to glA-e the 
others time to crofs the river. He gave eminent proofs, for 
a while, of his courage and conducft : but when he faw that 
there was another army of the enemy beyond the Meander^ 
which Hew all thofe who appeared before them, his ardor 
abated, and he fought a place where he might pafs the 
flream with lefs danger. Finding none fordable, he placed him- 
felf in his buckler, as in a boat, making ufe of his fword for a 
rudder ; and holding the bridle of his horfe, who fwam behind, 
gained the other fide of the river. As foon as he had landed, 
he told his name aloud, in order to draw ^h^Turks about him : 
but an Allan, who fer^'ed in the Roman army, coming up, (lew their gene- 
him : upon which his troops being routed, moft of thcm^'^l/'^i"' 
were drov\aied in the Meander. This exploit, more than 
any other, retrieved the affairs of the Romans, and humbled 
the pride of the Turks. Afpietus perifhed unhappily in this 
rencounter ; for a Turk, not being able to hurt him, his ar- 
mour being proof, made a flroke at the head of his horfe, 
which, capering, threw him into the river ^. 

*^ NicET.inMan. 1. vi. c. 6. 

(F) Seme perfon, we pre- the Sc/ji'ks of 7?//w copied thofe 
fume, who. had the title of Jta- of Iran in moil things. 
hi ; expreiled in Jiapaiuj : for 

Q_4 Ths 

232 y/^^Seljuks ^/Riim. B.I, 

Shameful The empcror being defirous to attack the Turks of Pa- 
fight of a nefa and Lacere, reduced the fiift ; then fcnt Katidus, governor 
pt Laodicea, to difcover the condition of the others : but 
he threatening them with the emperor's arrival, they fled 
immediately ; which fo enragCL. Alanuel, that he ordered 
Katidus to have his nofe cut off. Soon after, he gave troops 
to Andronicus Angdus, and Manuel Cantacuzcnus, to attack 
Roman the Turks of Karacc, which is between Lampis and Graofgala. 
general. Anlror.icus, having only taken fome fheep and peafants, fled 
full fpeed at the bare report of the Turks being at hand, 
without fo much as enquiring how many they were ; and not 
content with efcaping to Kone, fpurred his horfe on to Laodi- 
cea. The foldicrs, afloniflieJ at the abfence of their general, 
abando :ed the prifouers and the baggage, and would have 
difperfed, but for Cantacuzcnus. The emperor would have 
punillied this gallant behaviour of Jndronicus, by making him 
walk through the city in women's cloaths, but for the rela- 
tionlhip that was between them. 
B'-a'very As the Romans retired, a Turk, from a riflng ground, flew 
. pothers, a great number with arrows. Several Ihot at him again, but 
he had the dexterity to avoid their {hafts ; till Manuel Xerus 
alighting, went up to him, and cleft his head with his fword 
although he demanded quai-ter after killing fo many others 
A Deacon, who was a man of courage, and related to Ni 
cetas^ having had the charge of fome plunder at Karace, did 
not leave it behind like the reft, for fear of the danger. Some 
admired his refolution, in marching flowly in the middle of 
his enemies ; and others mocked him for his avarice, in fet- 
ting a greater value on the booty than his life : for his part, 
he defpifed their railleries, and reproached them with cowar- 
dice, in flying when they were not purfued. 
Claudio- The Turks foon after beileged KlaudiopoUs \ on the news 
polls re- of which the emperor ran to its relief, with incredible dili- 
heved. gence, without any equipage befides his arms. He crofled 
Bithynia by the light of torches : he pafled the nights with- 
out fleep : and, when fiitigue and watching obliged him to 
take a little reft, he lay upon nothing but flraw. At the 
news of his approach the Turks betook themfelves to flight, 
^nd the citizens, were filled with^joy, being no longer able to 
have held out ^ 
Great fuc' KH L IZ lASTLAN, who greatly feared the emperor Ma' 
^lA r.uel, no fooner heai-d of his death (G), than he went and 

^ Njcet. in Man. 1. viii. c. 8. 

(G^ The emperor died in Sep- which anfwers to the year of 
tetnler, in the fifteenth indiftion, Cbrijl 1 1 8z. 


C. 4: Fifih Solhin, Klllj Arfian 11.' 233 

took Sozopolis ; befieged, for a long time, the celebrated city A, D. 
ofJttalia; and rdvugcd Kotyalhmi ; and, more than this, fe- ^^^2. 
veral provinces voluntarily iubmittcd him ^. This prince, 
who enjoyed a vigorous health, though upwards of feventy o^\ 
years of" age, took the like advantage of the death of Jndro- _ 

nicus, and proclamation of I/aac Jngelus ; upon the news of^/^^pj 
which, he fent Jmir Sarnes, with feme horfe, to make an ir- ^^^^'^' 
ruption into Thrace, from whence he returned with many 
prifoners and much plunder : for the nations of the eaft let 
the Roinans remain no longer in repofe than they made them 
prefents, or paid them an annual tribute, which was the way 
of making them quiet, ufed by the emperors of that age; 
who, in this refpeft, fays Nicetas, were weaker than women, 
who handle nothing but the fpindle and diftaff ''. 

This Soltan, who, in his latter days, became very po\y~ Dh'i/es 
erful, divided his dominions among his fons, of whom he*" enqire, 
had many ' : but we meet with the names of only five, Maf- 
Jud, Kothbo'ddhi, Rokno ddin Soleyman, Cayatho'ddin Kay 
Khofraw, and Mcazo'ddin Kay far Shah (H). After this di- 
ilribution, his children treated him with much ingratitude, and 
even contempt : Kothboddvi (I) went fo far, as to feize and 
confine him'. Afterwards marching to befiege Kayfariyah 
(tiiat is, Cafarea, in Cappadocia), which he M^anted to take 
from one of his brothers, to whofe fhare it fell ; the old 
Soltan, whom he carried along with him, found means at 
length to make his efcape into that city. But meeting there 
with a bad reception, he applied himfeif firft to one fon, and 
then to another, who all proved alike, excepting Cayatho'ddin 
Kay Khofraw. This prince not only received him with affec- 
tion, but went with him to befiege Koniyah ; and having taken 
it, placed him once more in the throne ^. The diffribution 
made by Kilij Arjlhi of his dominions among his fons, we 
judge, from the courfe of the Greek hiftory, to have been in 

s NicET. in Alex. Comn. c. 1 5. ^ Ibid, in Ifaac Angel. 

1. i. c. 4. * Ibid, in Alex. Co.-nn. 1. iii. c. 5. ^ Abu'l- 

FARAj, hift. dynaft. p. 276. 

(H) Nicetas mentions only the (I) This prince, by what fol- 

firft four, whom, according to lows, was in poJleflion of isfowi- 

the Greek way of corrupting yah {C2.\\c^ hy xha Greeks Kogni, 

names, he calls Mafut, Kopatin, ox Kon;ii\ and conleqacntk was 

Hukratin, and Kai Kofroes ; leav- to have been his father's iuccef- 

jng out the additional names of for in the kingdom, or the fo- 

So/ey7/!dnandGe>ycitho'Mn,-whom vereign on v.'hoin the reft de- 

the Greeks wxite So/iman andy«. pended. 


234 '^^^ Seljuks of Rum. B. I, 

the year 1 1 07, or that ft^Uowiiig ; and his reAuuratlon to have 
h.ippemvi ill 1 1 90 or 9 1 . 
TlfGcx- During this priuoe's abdication, and ill treatment by his 
man en- children, the emperor FrcJcric Barkiirojfci (K), who had taken 
fetor the crofs, arri\cd in Thrace, in his way to Syria ; and hav- 
ing made peace with ffaac Jngchis, repaired with hhCcrmans 
A. D. to Kallipoiis ; where, iinding (hips ready, they crolTed over into 
1150. JiidtoHa. \s\ic\\\.\\cy iiTivac to Philadelphia, the inhabitants, 
who behaved well enough at firft, attacked them in the rear, 
at their departure : but finding they had to deal with flatues 
of brafs, and invincible people, they betook themfflves to a 
fliameful flight. The citizens of Laodicea, in Phrygia, ou 
the contrary, received thefe ftrangers with fo much good-nu- 
tuie, that the emperor prayed for their profpcrity on his 
knees. When they came to the roads leading to the hi! Is, 
they met with the Turks, who incommoded them all they 
could, by fkirmifliing ; although ihey had promifed them paf- 
fage, as well as the Romans. But they paid dear for their 
Jefea's the FEEDER IC gave battle near the fort of Filcmelion to the 
Tuiks. {"Qiig Qf the Sokan of Kogni, who had been driven from his 
dominions, and reduced to a miferable condition ; and hav- 
ing defeated them, took the fort and burned it. Coming to 
a fecond engagement vv'ith them at Cinglacion, he gained a 
fignal victory. : for as they waited for him at the pafles which 
they buid fcized, the emperor incamped in a plain ; and hav- 
ing divided liis army in the night, he ordered one half to re- 
main in the camp, and the other to feign a flight as foon as 
clay appeared. The Turks belie^'ing that they iied for fear» 
quitted the pafles, and coming down into the plain, entered 
the camp, where they expeded to meet with a rich booty : 
but the pretended ruti-aways returning, and thofe who were 
Great in the camp appearing, they, between them both, furround- 
JIaughter. cd the Turks, and made a horrible flaughter of them. 

As the emperor was on his way to h'ogni, the Soltnn, who 
had taken retuge in Taxara, or Ko'.ciiia, font to excufe what 
had happened, for that he knev/ nothing of the conduct of 
his fons, one of whom, named Kopatin (L), had driven him 
out of his dominions. The Turks had barricaded themfelvcs 
in the gardens which were about Kogni ; and as they carried 

(K) Kicetas never calls l»im Kohades, ns Lci:f:c!a'vius jniged, 
expcior, but king; yet fpeaks h'lW. Mit/if/rfi. v. 86. Some hi- 
of him as a great, wife, and ftoiians fay, this Kofllo'Juin 
good prince w as taken by FreJeric in one of 

(L; That is Aff/Z'Z-ijV.^f/r, net thcie bafiilcs. 


C. 4^ Fifih Sokdn, Kill] Ar^'in II. 235 

light weapons, and fhot well, thought they could eafily de- 
fend themfelves againil troops heavily armed. But they were 
alfo deceived this time by their hopes : for the Germans ob- 
ferving that they took the adva)itage of rnooting from behind 
the hedges and ditches, the horfemen carried the foot-foldiers 
behind them, and fetting them down when they were near 
the enemy, fupported them in every place where they were 
able to go. Thus all the Turks perifhed, excepting a few 
who efcaped. A Mohammedan, who turned Chrijlian, fwore 
that it coft him 200 pieces of filver to bury thofe who re- 
mained dead upon his field ; by which the number of the {lain 
may be judged of. 

Although the Germans were mailers of Kogn'i, iheyTahs Yiowt. 
would not go into the city; but were content to lodge in the^ya. 
fuburbs, and there take the proviiions which they wanted. 
The Turks, apprehending that the emperor intended to con- 
quer their country, and fettle there, endeavoured to gain his 
&txe6fion by falfe olfers of fervice : but after he had received 
fom.e of their children in hoflage, with guides, he left their 
frontiers, and pufhed into Armenia, where he was received 
with great honours. In a few days he proceeded to Jntiokh, 
and foon after was unfortunately drowned in paffing a ri- 
ver '. . 

One Alexis, who pretended to be the fon of the emperor^ Greek 
Manuel, dlfguifed his impofture with fo much art, that hftfretejider 
imitated the true Alexis, even to the fau'nefs of his hair, and 
hefitation in his fpeech. He made his firfl appearance in the A- ^' 
cities along the Meander : then going to Armale, difcovered »i9^- 
himfelf to a Roman, with whom he lodged ; telling him, that 
his father had ordered him to be thrown into the fea, but 
that he was faved by the compailion of the officers who were 
charged with that cruel mandate. He and his landlord going 
to Kogni, he prefented himfelf before the old Soltan, who had 
not then been driven from the throne by his (on Kopaf in (M), 
and had even the boldnefs to reproach him with ingratitude 
and hard-heartednefs, not to be touched with the difgrace of 
the fon of an emperor, who had been his friend. Khliziajt- 
lan, overcome by his impudence, and deceived by fome marks 
of refemblance which appeared in his face, made him pre- 
fents, and gave him hopes. 

' NiCET. in Tfaac Angel. 1. ii. c. 7 Sc 8. 

(M) Either this mufl have not appear that the (7rdv/,f knew 
happened after the reftoration any thing of his reUoration to 
Kil Kilij Arf.dn, or the marginal the throne. 
^datemuH be wrong. It does 


22^ the Scljuks of Rum. B. I. 

claiins the One day, boaftiiig of his birth in th.c prcfence of the Ro- 
iJD^in i man aniballiuior, tlie Soitan alked tl-se latter if he was fure that 
this pretender was Munucl's fou ? The ambalfador anfwered, 
that it was certain that the foil of DLinucl had been drown- 
ed (N) ; and that it was in vain for the party prcfent to in- 
vent a ftory which would meet with no credit. The falfc 
Alexis was fo provoked at tiiis aniwer, tliat he would have 
flown in the amhaflador's face, if the latter had not cooled his 
courage by affeftiiig alfo to be in a great paflion ; and if the 
Soitan had not rebuked him fomewhat fliarply. All the af- 
fjftance he obtained from this prince was only letters called 
Mufiir, permitting him to lift foldiers : by which he drew 
to his party Jlmuras, Arfan, and other commanders, accu- 
ftomed to rapine. In a fhort time he gathered 8000 men, 
with which, by force or compofition, he reduced many cities 
upon the Meander. 
fainhya SEVERAL generals, and laftly Alexis, the emperor's bro- 
friefi. ther, were fent againft him : but they could do no good, for 
/ fear of being betrayed by their foldiers ; who fhewed more 

inclination to ferve this pretender than their lawful emperor. 
Nor was the infeiflion conhncd to the people only : the prin- 
cipal perfons at court were pleafed with this illufion. But 
while the power of this impoftor increafed every day, and 
he fecmed to be in a fair way of compafTmg his dclign, he 
was fuddcnly taken off by an unexpe<5led means : for hav- 
ing returned ixom Armale toPiJfc, and drank more than ufual, 
he was flain by a prieft, with his own fword. When his 
head was brought to the Scbaftocrator f Alexis J, he put 
back the long hair with his horfe-whip, and faid, that it 
wus not without reafon that fo many had been difpofei to 
follow him m. 
Tie Saltan J^ ^ ^ ^ J Arjltln died in his capital, in the year 588, ac- 
dics. cording to Abulfiiraj : which gives him a reign ot forty years, 

H^j. 588. by our reckoning, from the death of his father I\Lzffud', al- 
A. D. tho' Aa"7(/.7j;r;V allows him but ten years. The author of the 
''9^- Nii!;kl:rijian, indeed, doubles that number ; but both are 
wide of the truth. From the before-mentioned account of 
his age, he nnift have been feventy-fix at his death. 
H:s cha- Tius piincc was grandfon to the firll: of that name ; and 
railer. dlftingiiilhcd hiinfeU, not only by the wars which he car- 
ried on againft his neighbours the Greeks^ but alfo by his 

"" NicET. in Ifaac Angel. 1 iii. c. i. 

(N.) He was f.rll ftranglcdby in to be an afibciate with the 
order 'f the tyrant Jndronicus, young prince in the empire. 
wiio, by \\\.i. ai ti, thrull himfclf 


£.4, Sixth Soitdn^ Gayatho'ddin.^ 237 

wifdom, jtiftlce, and Ikiil in governing his people. He left 
his fon Cayathd'ddin Kay Khofraxv for his fuccelfor ". 

In confequence of this new nomination, Koniyah, as being 
the regal feat of the Sokans fince the lofs of Nice, fell to the 
fhare of Kay Khofraw, as it had done to Kothbo'ddin, by the 
firfl diftribution : and it is, doubtlefs, to this fecond appoint- 
ment of Kilij Arjldn, that the partition, mentioned at the be- 
ginning of the next reign, ought to be referred. -. 


*Ihe reigns of Gayatho'ddin Kay Khofraw, Rokno'ddm 
Soleyman, Kilij Arflan III. and of Kay Khofraw 
a fecond time. 

f^ AYATHCDDIN Kay Khofraw, according to our h.y- Sixth Sd- 
^^ pothefis, was the fixth (A) Soltan of this Seljukian dy-^^''» Gay- 
nafty. On the death of Kilij Arjldn, his dominions flood thus ^5^ ^''i^^'* 
divided among his fons (B) : Majjud had for his ihare Amafia, ^f--^ 
Ancyra, Dorylmim, and feveral other fine cities of Pontus ; ^"°'^^^* 
Kothbd'ddin poffefled Melitene, Cafarea, and Kolonia, called 
Taxara; Roknoddm was mailer of Amynfus, Dokiva, and 
other maritime cities ; and to Kay Khofraiv belonged Komyay j 

Lykaonia, Pa7nphyUa, and all the country as far as Kotti- 
anyiim '. 

ALEXIS Komnemis, who fucceeded Ifaac in the ^"csx- ^notljer 
pire (C), had fcarce been three months on the throne, heiore pretender, 
nev/s arrived of another pretender, a Cilician, who had taken A. D. 
the name o^ Alexis ; and was well received by the Soltan of 1^95 ] 
Ancyra (D), with a delign to embarrafs the emperor, and 
oblige him to buy his friendHiip. Oenopolitiis the eunuch, 
who was fent againil him, being able to do nothing, he went 
himfelf, thinking to make an alliance with the Turks: but 

n Aeu'lf. p. 276. a NicET. in Alex. Comnen. 1. 3. c. 5. 

(A) D^Herhelot, in his table, donebyagreementamongthem- 
foUowing iiro«y^»;zr, makes him felves, as he declares after- 
the fifth ; but, in the article of wards. Such as thefe are but 
this prince, iays he was the fifth fmall inaccuracies with the By- 
ox fi.xth ; for that hiftorians dif- xantine hiftorians. 

far on this head. (C) In the year 119^, 

(B) Our author A7aY/75 fays, (D) According to the above 
that Kilij ArJJo.n made this di- diftribution, this mull have been 
ftribution among his fons in his Mnjjud. 

o!d-aoe : or, poliibly, it was 


23S rhe Seljuks of Rum. B. t. 

they refiifed to conclude a peace with him, unlcfs he paid 
them down 500 pounds of coined filver, and 300 every year, 
belides 400 filk vcJls. .'Hexis, having deftroyed fome torts, 
returned to Covjinnthvjhle, after two months employed in 
this expedition, leaving the pretender to increafe in power ; 
and doubtlcls he would have done a great deal of mifchief, 
it his throat had not been cut in the fort ol Zangre. 
GTctkf/i/. Hewi-.VER, the Soltan of /Incyra carried on the war, and 
graces. befieged D'uiJibris with all his forces. At tour months end, 
■A. p troops arrived under three young chiefs, 'Theodore Uranus^ 
*>9'^J Jiidroniciis Kdt.ikuhn, and Theodore Kafanvs : but the Turksy 
laying an ambnfcadc, fell on them at day-break, put them to 
flight, killed a great number, and among the prifoners took 
two of the gencrak ; whom they dragged with their hands 
tied behind their backs, to fhew to the befieged. The inha- 
bitants, difcouraged at the fight, and being in great want of 
provifion?, delivered up the city, on condition of having the 
liberty to retire with their families and effects ; becaufe the 
vi£lor would not permit them to flay in the town paying tri- 
bute. Soon after, when the war had laffed a year and a 
lialf, the emperor made peace with the Sokan ; and was not 
afhanied to agree to the terms which he had refufed before 
the place was befieged ''. 
Mancaf TH EODORE Mangafcs, after his revolt at Philadelphia, 
re-volts; and peace made with the emperor ; to avoid the attempts of 
Bafdius Vat aces, governor of Thrace, fled to Kay KhofraiVy 
Soltan of Kogni (E), and intreated him to fupply him with 
troops to make war upon the Romans. The Soltan, in/lead 
of granting his requeft, only permitted him to an"emble fomc 
Turks who lived by plunder. Having gathered a multitude 

•' NiCET. In Alex. Comncn. 1. i. c. 4 & 9. 

(E) This event is placed in or Kogni, the royal feat ; nor 

the reign of the emperor Ij'aac did he fuccced on his father's 

y^»5*'/w.S at thcyear 1 188. The relloration, for Kilij JrJJdn 

date docs no: agree with what reigned himfclf: unlels we fup- 

is faid a litde lower down, that pole that he was rertored before 

Kay Khofran.v had but iici-K-ly fuc- the year 1188, and that Kay 

tecded bis father \ for he did not Khof,a-M was his aflbciate, or 

iuccecd till after his father's governed as if he was Soltan ; 

death in 1192. He did not luc- for which we have no authori- 

cccd on his .-ibdication, in con- ty. To make the hillory there- 

fequence of the dlvifion Kilij fore confident with itfclf, we 

Arf.dn made of his dominions ; place this tranfaclion here, fup- 

io\ Kothboddin was, by virtue pohng it to have happened 

thereof, in pofTcflior. of Kordyah, about the year 1 1 96 or 1 197. 

7 of 

C.4. Sixth Soltdn, Ga.ya.t\\6*ddm. 239 

of thefe, he invaded the empire, doing incredible damages in 
Phrygia (efpecialiy about Laodicea and Kone\ and in Karia ; 
after which he retired with abundance of priibners and cattle. 
The emperor, fearing that Mangafes might by his advice cor- 
rupt that young prince, who had but newly fucceeded his 
father Kilij Jr/Uin, fent ambalTadors, who by prefents prevailed 
on him to deliver up that refugee, on condition that he/j del'i<ver' 
fhould not receive any corporal punifhrnent. This aftion oiea up. 
the Soltan fo difpleafed his brothers, who had divided with him 
their father's dominions, that they would have made war upon 
him, if he had not appeafed them, by alleging : that he had 
not betrayed him, but only fent him back for the good of 
the ftate ; that he was a banifned man whom he had fettled 
again in his own country, to the end that he might no longer 
perfecute others, or be perfecuted himfelf ^ 

Towards the end of the third year of his reign, JlexisTioe Sol- 
broke the treaty which had been made with Kay Khofroes, tans J'uc-i 
Soltan of Ikonium, upon a very frivolous occafion. This <^'/' » 
prince Aopped two hoffes, which had been fent the emperor ^^' ^' 
by the Soltan of Alexandria ; and one of them having broken * ^9°- J 
a leg in running, he fent to apologize for both thofe acci- 
dents, and promifed to make fatisfaftion. Alexis, inftead of 
being pacified with this civil excufe, flew into a rage, and 
threatened much : but at lafl took revenge upon himfelf, by 
ordering the merchants from Kogni, Romans as well as Turks, 
to be feized, together with their effects, which were fquan- 
dered away. On advice of this, the Soltan immediately fell 
upon the cities near the Meander, took Karia and Tantalus, 
with feveral others ; and had become mafter of Antiokh in 
Phrygia, but for a merry accident. 

The fame night in which he intended to furprize that 
city, one of the principal inhabitants happening to celebrate 
the nuptials of his daughter, the guefts made a great noife, 
as is ufual on fach oc:afions : Kay Khofroes, as he approached 
the Vv^alls, hearing this confufion of voices, and the I'/grd, 
•which the foldiers, who had been informed of his coming, 
gave to one another, he retired to Larnpis. 

There he viewed his prifoners; and inquiring into t\\e\v his great 
names, countries, and after what manner they were taken, humanity 
afked if any of. his foldiers had hidden the married wo- 
men and maidens, with a defign to abufe them. Then he or- 
dered the effefts to be reftored which had been taken from 
them; and finding that their number amounted to 5000, he 
ranged .them according to tlieir familes, and, at parting, took 

^ NicET. in Ifaac Angel. 1. 2. c. 3. 


^40 ^he Sdjuks cf Rum? B. I,' 

care that they fhould be fupplied with provifions daring the 
march. For fear ah'o that tliey (hould be injured by the cold 
weather, he took an ax himfelf to cleave a tree which was 
fallen. The foldiers riuining to fee him work, he ordered 
them to do the fame, faying : they might go out of the camp 
when they pleafed to cut wood ; but that the Roman prifoners 
durrt not do it, for fear of being fufpefted of a defign to 
to the VVhen he arrived at FilonuUon, he affigned them houfes 

chrijlians ; to lodge in, and lands to maintain them, diltributing them corn 
and other grain. He promifed moreoAcr to fend them back 
witiiout ranfom, wiien he (hould conclude a peace with the 
emperor ; and that, in cafe he retuied to conclude one, they 
ftiould remain live years in his dominions without paying any 
tax ; that afterwards they iliould pay but a very light one, 
which rtiould never be increafed, as w^ere often thofe efla- 
blilhed in the empire. Having thus regulated matters, he re- 
turned to Kogni. Such favourable treatment made the cap- 
tives forget their country, and drew into the Soltan's terri- 
tories abundance of people who had not been taken in war. 

ALEXIS fent againft xht Turks Jndronicus Dukas, who 
being very young, contented himfelf with attacking the troops 
of Jmtr in the night, and prefently retiring "^^ 
attached So ME time after this, war broke out among the fons of 
hy Rok- Kilij Arpjn, on the following occafion. Kothbo'ddin (F) being 
uo'ddin ; dead, a difpute arofe between Rokn'i'ddin (G) and Majfudf 
who fliould fucceed to his dominions (which, as hath been 
obferved before, confifted of Melitene, Ccrfaria, and Kolonia), 
But as Roknoddhx had more fpirit than his brother, and un- 
der Itood military affairs better, he gained tlie advantage ; and 
conftrained him to demand his friendship for one part of his 
country, leaving him the other part as before. After this, 
having conceived an inveterate hatred againll his brother Kay 
Khofraiu, becaufe his mother was a thrillian,.and burning w^ith 
defire to polfefs Kogni, fent to require him to deliver it up, 
in cafe he had a mind to exempt the reft of his dominions 
from the hazard of a war. 
retires to K AT Khofniiv upon this, having TXizAt peace with Alexis^ 
Alexis, repaired to his court (drefled in a robe adorned with gold 
point), juft as his father had done before to that of the em- 
peror Manud, during the difputes which he had with his 

<^ Nicr.T. in Alex. Comnen. 1. c. c. ^ 

^ V 

(F) By the G^vf^; named A'j- hap"; by miftake for Huknatin. 
fatin, or Kclatij;. So hhjj'ut, inllcad of MjJJud. 

(G ) In AV( ttas R,tkrafi7t,pzT- 

7 brothers 

C. 4^ Seventh Soltdn, Rokno'ddin.' 241 

brothers after the death of their father Maffud: But whereas 
Manuel affifted Kilij Arjlun with forces beyond his hopes, 
Kay Khofra-jj received nothing from Alexis but common ci- 
vilities. He was fcarce returned to Kogni, when he was pur- 
fued hy Rokno'ddin, and forced to fly into Armenia (H) ; where 
he was kindly received by Leon (I), although formerly he had 
been at war with him. That prince hov/cver lent him no af- 
fiflance againfl: his brother, with whom he faid he was allied, 
becaufe he forefav/ that the war would be very bloody. 
Hereupon Kay Khofraw returned again to the emperor, in 
hopes of being reftored by his means. But this fecond hope 
being as vain as the firfl, he continued at Conflantinople (K) 
in a private condition, and much below his birth ^. This 
revolution happened, according to the computation of the 
Creeks, in the year 1 198, or rather later. 

RO KNO'DDIN Soleyman having driven his h'^oxkitt^^'venth 
Kay Khofraw out of his fliare in the empire, in the (nmQ^"^^^" ^ 
manner as he had expelled his other brothers out of theirs, "v.^ "° 
the whole became again united under one prince, , ^" ?' 

Not long after, the emperor fent Corjlantine FrankopoUs, \ j^' 
with fix gallies, into the Euxine fea, under pretence of get- j jgg] 
ting up the mtccIc of a fhip which had been cafl away near 
Kerafonte (L), in returning from the river Fafts ; but in re- 
ality to rob the merchants who landed their goods at Amin- 
tus. FrankopoUs following exaftly the orders which he had 
received, fpared no veffel whatever ; plundering thofe which Empiror 
carried commodities to Conjiantinopld, as well as thofe which ^'''"»-f /'* 
had returned with the price of fuch as they had fold*"^'^' 
there. They flew fbme of the merchants, and threw them 
into the fea : the refi: they flripped to a (hamcful degree. 
Thefe prefented themfelves before the emperor's palace, and 
entered the great church with tapers in their hands, to de- 
mand jufllce : But their efTedls having been already fold, and 
the money confifcated, they could obtain no redrefs. 

The merchants of Koniyah had recourfe to Rokno'dd/n ; 
who, by his ambafTadors, demanded back what had been 
taken from them, and at the lame time propofed a treaty of 

^ NiCET. 1. 3. c. 5. 

(H) The Icfl'cr Armenin. Others fay, he died there. Sea 

(I) Others uame him Zehun, K/io-tv/es, a'oI. i. p. 39. 

a TuiL See Kxiiks, vol. i. (L) Ox Kerafus {from whence 

p. jg. edit. Ricaut. cnme Cherrjsj, a city and pert 

(K) By what appears after- cf ror-.tus in the Euxine fea, 

V/ards, he recovered his throne, abont fixty miles fouth-v.'cll of 

Trnpezus, OX Trapcxotid. 

Mo D . Hi s T . Vo L . I V. R r eiice. 

•242 The Seljuks of Riim. B. I. 

peace. The emperor laid all the blame on FrankopcUs : how- 
ever, die articles of peace at length taking place, Rokno'ddin 
had fifty raina of filver, to fatisfy him and his fubjefts, be- 
and an af- lides the promife of a yearly tribute. Some days after, Jlexis 
Jajjin. was ftiamefully convi(ftcd of an attempt againlt the Soltan's 
life ; having fent a very polite letter to that prince by a 
KdJJlan (M), whom he had bribed to afrailinate him : But 
the bravo being arrertcd, the plot was difcovered, and the 
peace broken almofk as foon as made ; which rupture occa- 
lloned the ruin of many cities of Anatolia. 
Roman At the lame time Michael, the natural fon of John the fe- 

harlai- b.iftocrator, a f reward and pafTionate young man, having been 
tici. fi;nt to colle<5t the taxes due from tTie province of Alylajja (N), 

re\olted : but, being defeated, fled to Rokno'ddin, who re- 
ceived him very civilly, and gave him troops ; with which he 
plundered the cities about the Meander, and comriiitted more 
horrible cruelties than the Turks would have been capable of 
7lje Com- It mufl be confefTcd, that nothing ever contributed fo 
neni cen- rnuch to the defolation of the provinces, or the ruin of the 
Jurca. empire, as the ambition of the Conneni; who were of no 
ufe to their country fo long as they (laid in it, and became 
very pernicious to it when they were out of it K To this ob- 
fervation of Nicetas we may add, that the Romans generally 
brought on themfelves the evils which befell them ; either by 
their breach of faith, or violences committed againft the bor- 
dering nations : yet, when the injured made reprifals, they 
loudly exclaimed ; as if they had a. right to be cruel with im- 
punity, or thought thofe aclions virtuous in themfelves, which 
tiiey deemed moll execrable in others. 
RoknoM- We are not much' better fupplied with materials from the 
din'j ex- oriental hiftorians, relative to this Soltan, than thofe pre- 
ploits. ceding him : what little we have from that quarter is given 
by JbiTlfaraj. This author informs us, that Rokno'ddin So- 
Icyman took Koniyah from his brother Cayatho'ddin Kay 
p^ J) khofravj ^ ; and that in 597, in the month of Ramadan (O), 
1200. ^^ forced the city of Malattyah out of the hands of his 
brother Moezo'ddin Kayfar Shah, after a few days leaguer. 
Then marching to Jrzen al rum (or Arzcrum), which be- 
longed to the fon of king Mohammed cbn Salik ; that lord, 

• ^ NicET. in Alex. Conirien. 1. 3. c. 7. s Abu'lf. p. 276. 

(M) So the Greeks call the . (N) Ac'iiy of Karia. 
^atatiijis, or Ifrnaelians, whom (O) The ninth month of the 
tlie other naiions oi Europe iiame MohiWimeJan year. 


C. 4: Eighth Solldn, Kilij ArQari III. V243 

depending on Rokno'ddin's promife, went to him, In order to 

treat of peace : but the Soltan imprilbned him, and then took 

the city. He was the lafl of his family, which, for, a long 

time, had reigned there **. Solua Rokno'ddin, lor d^ oi Riim, and death, 

died in the year 600, in the month of Dhulkaada (P), leaving •A- D. 

his fon Kdij Arjldn^ a minor, to fucceed him'. izo^. 

D'HERBELOT affords us nothing from the Perfian. 
writers concerning this prince, only that he had great dif- 
putes \vith his brother Kay Khofraxv \ but that at length 
peace was concluded between them : that,' having reigned in 
quiet twenty-four years, he died in 602 of the Hejrah, and 
of Chriji 1205 ; and \^'as fucceeded by his fon Kilij /Irjldn, 
furnamed Azzo'ddin, an infant ^. But, befides that we hear 
nothing elfewhere of peace between the two brothers (for 
Kay Khofraw retired to the Creek emperor, and lived in Eu- 
rope, while Rokno'^ddin lived), there- is an error both in the Errors 0/ 
length of his reign and year of his death. For, reckoning autkoru 
from the end of the reign of Kilij Arjlan II, which is fixed 
hjAbulfaraj in the year 588 of the Hejrah, to 602, when^ 
according to D'Herbelofs account, Soleymdn died, it will 
give him no more than fourteen years to his reign out of the 
twenty-four : but as that event is alfo fixed by Abulfaraj to 
the year 600, there muft be a deduftion of two years out of the 
fourteen. This is ftippofing that Soleyman immediately fuc- 
ceeded his father Kilij Arjlan : but it appears from the Greek 
hiftorians, that Kay Khofraiv reigned between ; perhaps as long 
as, or longer than, Roknd'ddhi reigned himfelf. To the above 
miftakes, or inadvertencies, we may add another, which Is, 
that, in the article of Soleyman, D Herhelot fays that he was 
the fifth Soltdn ; whereas, in his table of Soltans, he gives 
him the 6th place. 

KILIJ j^lrjldn III, furnamed Azzo'ddin, M'-as i^6.\zx\ceA Eighth 
to the throne immediately after the death of his father Rok- Soltdn^ 
no'ddin Soleyjnan, towards the end of the year 600. But as ^^''^J ^^' 
foon as his uncle Gayathp'ddin Kay Khojraw heard that his ^'^"^ ^^^'^ 
brother was dead, he left the caftle where he refided near 
Conjiantinople ;- and, making what hafte he could to Komyah, 
feized the child, and took pofTeffion of the city : aft^r which 
he flripped him of the reft of his dominions. This revolu- 
tion happened m Rajeb (Q^) 601 '. D'Herbelct has copied 

^' Aeu'lf. p. 2S0. " Ibid. p. 282. ^ D'Herb, 

p. 822. art. Soliman ben Kilig' Arflan. ^ Aeu'lf. p. zb'2, 

& feq. 

(P] The eleventh month. [Q^\ Rajeh is the fcventh 

Mohamtned&ii month, 

R a V the 

244 '^^ Seljuks of Rum. B. I. 

the article of Kilij JrJlAn III. from Jbiilfamj, without adding 

any thing to it from other oriental hiltoriuns. Some Greek 

writers fay, this Soltan, wiiom they call Tathat'mes 

(which is a corruption of his furname GoyatMddin) (t)i oa 

the taking of Conjlantinoph by the 'Lt'tifis, fled along with the 

qaickly rt'f-emperor ^-Jtcxis ^■Jn^e/us, otherwile calleJ Comncnus; and that 

tiraiuil', a few days .ifter, beinj; fecretly informed of the death of his 

brother )izatines (io they mileall liokno'dJ'in), he departed in 

difguife, and, repairing to his own people, was proclaimed 

8oltan ■". 

agJ tr' AYATHO'D D IN Kay Kh'fnviv afccnded the throne of 

Gaya- Kcr.iyah for the fecond time in 60 1, the 'fame year in which 

tho'ddin the Latins took ConJidntin:l-U from tl'.e Creeks. Abuljnrtij 

K^-'y informs us, that, after this, he became very powerful, and 

Khofiaw i-ejgQt;,^ -^vith i^reat dignity ". This is all we learn from tlie 

'^^a'd orit^'i^l authors touching the fecond reign of tliis prince; 

and the Byzantine hiltorians iiave not faid much concerning 

it. According to a fault very common with them, they do 

not diredlly mention the reftoration of Kay Klxfraw ; and 

only give an impeifedt hint, where they fhould fpeak out. 

Sitnte of After the Jkimeful flight of the emperor Alexis (who 

the empire. c\i:xng(z6. his name of Avgclus to that of Comuenus), and the 

eleflion of Baldwin by the Latins ; thefe latter, in lefs than 

one year's time, reduced all which the Roinam poilefied both 

in Europe and in A/ia, excepting tJic cities of Nice and Prii/a. 

The Creek commanders, and other leading men, fwayed by 

the fpirlt of pride, malice, and corruption, inftead of unite- 

ing in defence of their country, divided into factions, and 

formed parties for creating new emperors. The weftern part 

of the empire feemed to be quite cut off from the eiiftern, 

which fent it no manner of aJTiflance : but, being infefted 

with the fame contagion, produced a multitude of com- 

inanders, who ruined the country, and formed a monfler with 

three heads. 

Maurozo- MANUEL Alaiirozomus^ fupported by Kay Khofra-w^ 

mus a- to whom, fince the taking (R) of Koniyah, he had promifed 

fphes to his daughter in marriage, made all his efforts to ufurp the 

empire i fovereign power, and joined the Turks to ravage the country 

about tlie IMeatider. Thcodorits Lqjkaris, illullrious both by 

his birth and alliance with the emperor, having defeated hiiii. 

A. D. 


■" Georg. Acrop. Niceph. Gregor. I. i. n Aeu'lf* 

ubi fupra. 

(R) That is from his nephew beginning, and ndJing an / at 
Kilij /t>,':tiity as before related. the end. Jalkatines ii t\\Q Cer' 
^f J By omitting the Ga at the mm: orthogi'Thy. 


C 4^ Gayatho'ddin rej^ored. 245 

put on the purple bufl^ins ; and had himfelf proclaimed empe- 
ror thro' the cities ot the E<i/t (S). On the other fide, David 
Comnenus, having gathered troops at Hernclea, a city of 
Pgntus, and in P aphlagonia ; having alfo fubdued the Ihe' 
riitns, who inhabited along the Fa/is, reduced fome towns 
and cities, and made himfelf the forerunner of his brother 
JlcxiSf whom he had a defire of advancing to the throne : 
but this Jlexis, inflead of hartening to take polTeffion, loitered 
about Trehizond. Mean time David having fent a young 
ipan, named Synadermis, with troops to Nikomedia, Theodore drf. ated hy 
Lajkaris advanced at the head of his army to give him battle ; Laflcaris. 
and, taking a crofs-road, inftead of the great one, fell upoi-^ 
him unawares, and difperfed his forces. He defeated lliortly 
after Manuel Mav.rozomus ; cut in pieces part of the Turks 
whom he commanded; and took the mofl confiderable pf 
thofe who were in the van °. 

In fliort, Lydia, Philomclpis, Prufa, Nice, Smyrna, Ephe- Empire of 
Jus, and fome other cities of the eaft, were fubjeft to Theo- Nice. 
dore Lajkaris ; who built long fliips, and fubdued feveral ■"• -^• 
illands. However, in making peace with Kay Khofraw, he ' ^°^' 
gave up to Manuel Maurozomus, his fatlier-in-law, part of 
the country which he po/FefTed ; comprizing the city of Kone 
(or Koloffus), Laodicea, itnd all incloied within the winding? 
of the Meander to its fall into the fea, 

DJVID and Alexis, the fons of Manuel, and grandfons ^w//*-^ 0/ 
of the tyrant j-lndronicus, had eflablllhed their dominion inl'rebi- 
diiTerent parts: David in P aphlagonia, and at Heraktia inzcnd. 
Pontus ; Alexis at Encum, Sinope, and Trebizond, Aldobran- 
dini, an Italian, learned in the Roman laws, commanded at 
Attalia ; and the ifland of Rhodes was under a particular 
lord (T). The& numerous commanders, inftead of acting 
in concert, to preferve the cities which they held, or recon- 
quer thofe which they had loft, gave themfelves up to a fu-. 
rious paffion of lording it ; and having taken up arms one 
agalnfi the other, yielded then: enemies an opportunity of 
gaining farther advantages. 

Kay Khofraiv at this juncture laid fiege to the city of ^■/f- Attalia 
talia; imagining that it was not in a condition of defending ^C^^^'^-^'. 
itfclf: but Aldobrandini having procured 200 foot from 
Cyprus; the unexpefted appearance of them, at the beginning 

» NicET. in Baldwin, c. 5 & 8. 

(S) Or Anatolia; (o th^ Aji- the fame manner among many 

atic part of the empire was petty fovercign?. SeeiN/Vif/. in 

called. Bald-vjin, C 10. 

(T) Gi-eccs was divided in 

R ? of 

245 The Seljuks of Rum. B. I. 

of the aflanlr, made the Soltan retire, after he had been fix- 
teen days before the place p. 

As Mi'e find nothing farther in Nicetas concerning Caya- 
iho'ddin Kay Khofra-w, we muft, to finifh his reign, have re- 
courfe to the fuccccding hiftorians : who, being Icfs accurate 
in their account of matters, have greatly embarrafTed the 
hiflory of the Soltans ; and led thofe, who have hithL-rto 
written of them, into very grofs miflakes, which we fhall en- 
deavour to clear up. 
Alexi': re- J LEX IS yfngr/iis, the late emperor, hearing thzt T/?eO' 
tir : fe- dore Lajkaris, his fon-in-law, reigned at Nice ; being affifted 
eie.'y by his co'jfin AUkhael Comnenus, who was prince of Epirus, 
A D. ' crofTed over from thence into JJia, and went fccretly to 
1206. (j\iyat!:o'Jdin{\J), Soltan of Koniyah, his old friend and ally, 
then lying at Attal'm, which he had not long before re- 
duced (X), and be^-Tged his aid for the recovery of his domi- 
nions, efpeciaily that part of them poflefTed by Lajkaris. 
The Soltan had been very ferviceable to Lajkaris (Y) at a 
time when he was reduced to great flrai'ts, by lending him 
forties, M'ifh which he defeated his enemies, and had alfo 
to the concluded a pt.ace with him : but being urged by gratitude to 
Soltan ; bis qaondam benefadlor, as w'ell as interefl:, (Alexis making 
him great promifes), he threatened Lajkaris by his embalfa- 
dors with the utmofl extremities of war, unlefs he immedi- 
ately refigned his territories to his father-in-law. Theodorits 
was much troubled at this unexpe(fl:ed mefTage, as fearing 
both the Soltan's power, and the people's inclination to their 
old emperor : but, having founded the minds of his new fub-. 
jefls, and finding them ready to fupport him, he took heart. 
tijho at- Before the return of the ambafTadors, Gayatho'ddin, at- 
ttuks i\n- tended by Alexis, marched with 20,000 Turks and befieged 
{iokhj Antiokh on the Meander : which Lajkaris no fooner under- 
flood, than he hafted with 2000 men, the moft he was able 
to raife on fo fhort a warning, to the relief of that city, which 
was a flrong frontier ; and being the key of his dominions on 
that fide, he knew, if taken, would open a way into the 
auor/9f the^^^'^^ °^ them. Lajkaris, drawing near to Antiokh, fent the 
decks • ^ ■nbaffador before, who could fcarce perfuade the Soltdn, by 
oaths, that the em.peror w^as approaching with fo final! ^ 

P NicET. in Ealdv.'in. c. 11. 

(U) The Creeks write Ja- on account of A'exis, whofe 

thatims- daughter, Anna Augujla-, Lnjlarii 

(X) Ibis m'lft have been in had nia-ried ; which lady the 

a fccond attempt. Soltan ufed to call filler. 

(Y) This fceuis to have been 


C. 4* Gayatho'ddin r^_/?or^^. 247 

force. However, he drew up his army in the beft manner 
the narrownefs of the place would allow of; which he had 
fcarce done, than 800 Italians ot the Roman army began ilie 
attack, and, breaking through the TurkiJJj ranks, put them into 
the greateft diforder. As the Greeks had not courage enough 
to follow them clofely, they were feparated from the reft of 
the forces : fo that, on their xeturn, they were furrounded, 
and all to a man cut to pieces, tho' not without making an 
incredible flaughter of the enemy. 

The Greeks, dilheartened at fo great a lofs, were on thQ/^rhtsivith 
point of flying, when the Soltan, now almoft in poffellion of Lafi;arisj 
the vieflory, defcrying the emperor, and trufting to his own A. D. 
great ftrength, rode up to him ; and at the firft blow, given i^io, 
with his mace on the head, ftruck him oif his horfe. But 
Lajkaris, though forely ftunned, nimbly recovering himfelf, 
drew his fword ; and, while the Soltan turned about, 
ordering his attendants, with an air of contempt, to take 
him away, he difabled the hinder legs of his mare, which 
thereupon reai'ing up threw her rider, who, before he could 
rife, had his head ftruck ofF(Z) : which, being fhewn w^ion and /Iain. 
the point of a fpear, ftruck fuch a terror into the Turkijlj 
army, that they immediately betook themfelves to a diforderly 
flight, leaving the Greeks mafters of their camp and baggage. 
Jlexis, the author of this war, was taken prifoner, and cai-- 
ried to Nice, where he was confined to a monaftery, in 
which he ended his days fom.e years after. This gave the 
Romans an opportunity of breathing : for, from that time, 
the Mojlemans made a peace with them, which they kept in- 
violably 1. 

The Greek hlftorlans, who relate this tranfaclion, Ti\7^Q.Mifiahi 
Jathatines, or Gayatho'ddin, a different perfon from Kayof th^ 
Khofra-M ; not knowing that Gayatho'ddtn (which name per- 
haps he moll commonly went by after his reftoration, or did 
not aflume till then) v/as his furname. They fay that he 
was the fon of Solt: n Aladin, brother of Kay Khofra-w, con- 
fequently Kay Khofraw\ nephew : that Jladin, not long fur- 
viving his fiid brother, left his dominions to this Jathatines, 
and his other fon called Jzatines (or Jzzo'ddtn), who was 

^ Georg. Acrop. Niceph. Gregor. 1. i. Univerf. Hift, 
vol. 17. p. 173. 

(Z) The hiftorians hy it was done, or who did it. This 

was done fo fiiddenly, that nei- looks as if they would have i? 

ther thofe prefent, nor the em- pafs for fomethiiig miraculous, 
peror himfelf, knew how it 

R 4 ths 

24S The Seljuks of Rum.' B. I.* 

the elder : that Jathatlnes, being afterwards expelled by 
u4zatincs, fled to Jlcxis y^ngchts : and that, JzntineS dying 
foon after, he returned to Ikoniinn, and recovered his king- 
Greek dom. The Jladin here faid to be the brother of Kay Khof- 
k:Jiiri:nts, raiv, feems to be the fame wich his fon the great Jladin ; 
who did not begin his reign till the year 1 2 19 : and A-^atlnes 
is put inflea.1 of the Rukratin of Nicetas, by whom Cayath- 
o'dJin Kay Khofraw had been driven out. How fuch great 
millakes came to be adopted by thofe writers is hard to ac- 
count : but whatever errors there may be in the names and 
genealogy, the circumftances of the flory and juniflure of 
time fhews, that Jathatines is no other than Kay Khofraiv. 
According to the chronology of the Creeks, Jathatines was 
flain in the year of Chri/l 12 10. Mulfaraj docs not men- 
eoncernlng tion his death ; and D' Herbelot only fays, from the oriental 
this Sol- authors, that, having feized and imprifoned his nephew Kilij 
tan. Jrjlcm, he reigned in the dominions which he had ufurped (A) 

the fpace of fix years, till 609 of the Hejrah, and 121 2 of 
Chri/l r. As there is here a difference of two years, we have 
fixed his death at the middle year 1 2 1 1 , (which gives him 
feven years to his fecond reign, and thirteen to both) ; being 
fenfible, there may happen a miHake of a year on one fide or 
the other. 

We find the names of two fons, whom he left behind 
him, Azzo'ddtn Kaykavjs and Jlao'ddin Kaykobtid, who fuc- 
ceeded each other. 

' D'Herb. art. Gaiatheddin ben Kilig Arflan. 

(A) lyHerleht confounds his or feems to have been a ftranger and fecond reign together, to the former. 


^he reigns of Soltdn Kaykaws and Alao'ddin Kay- 

Kirjb Scl- /^T this Sol tan Kaykaws, {uraamed Jzzo'ddjn, or Ezzod- 

tdn, Kay- ^^ din, we find very little mentioned. Abiilfaraj only tells 

kaws. UP, that he died in the year of the Hejrah 616; leaving no 

A. D. children, but who were minors ; by which means his brother 

'^'9' ///<7/-AA/;n A'tf>'X-5/>^«/ became his fuccelTor \ D'Herbelot adds 

notliing more from his authors, than that he died of a con^ 

fumpiion of the lungs : only he dhfors much from JbtTlfaraj 

as to the time of his death ; for, he fays, it happened in 

the year 609, after he had reigned no more than one year ^ ; 


» Abo'lf. hill, dynaft. p. ^89. ? D'Herb. p. 237. 

jut. Caikaus Ezzoddin. 

C. 4? ^^^i^ Soltdft, Alao'ddin; 249^ 

whereas the other, putting his death feven years later, allows 
him eight to his reign. There is the lefs reafon to depend 
on D'Herbebt, as he places the death of his father Kay 
Khofraw in the fame year, 609 ; in which cafe Kayka-ws could 
not have fat in the throne lb long as a year, perhaps not a 
month. Befides, he begins the reign of his fucceffor Kay- 
kobtd, agreeable to AbWlfaraj (whom indeed he, for the mofl 
part, copies), in the year 61 6. 

A ZZG'DD IN Kaykaws having died, without leaving 7>;;//^ ^0/- 
any fons old enoi\gh to take the government upon them, the tan, Kay- 
army went to the caftle of Menjlmr, which flands on thekobad. 
Euphrates, near Malatiyah, where his brother Kaykobad,^^^h ^^^' 
furnamed Alao'ddin, was imprifoned ; and, bringing him ■^•^• 
forth, proclaimed him king^. °' 

After the deflrudlioa of the Karazmian empire by 
Jenghtz Khiln, and his Mogols, Soltan Jalalo'ddin, furnamed 
Mankberni, eldcfl: fon and fucceflbr of JShhammed, for fome- 
time made head againft them, with furprifing bravery : but, 
being at length obliged to give way to num.bers, he retired jjff^afg 
wellward into Armenia ; where, intending to reduce it under jalalod- 
his power, he, in the beginning of the year 627, fat down din; 
before Kheldt (or Aklut, capital of that country), wherein A. D. 
were two brothers of Al Malck al Aj]jrdf{A). Having clofe- » 229. 
ly befieged the city all winter, and battered it with twenty 
rams, on the fide towards the fea (B), the inhabitants, who 
were reduced to eat dog's flefli, delivered it up to him, with 
the caftle. 

On this news Al Malek al Ajhraf and Alao'ddin Kaykobad 
marching with their forces, met near Abolojiayn (C), and 
thence proceeded to Akjljahr^ where the Karazmian met 
them with 40,000 men ; and coming to a battle, which 
lafted near tv/o days, was at length put to flight, with gvtzt'^'fP^Kf^' 
flaughter of his men. Thofe who fled efcaped to the moun-^" army. 
tains of Trapczond, where 1 500 loll: their lives. Jalaloddm 
efcaped alone to Khartabert (D), and thence to Khoway (or 
Koy), After this, he fent one of Malek al Ajloraf\ brothers 
in chains to the Khahfah at Bagdad; and put one of his 
flaves Azzo'ddin Ibek to death : but hearing of the approach 
of the Mogols againfl: him, under the command of Jiinnaguti 

^ Aeu'lf. hift. dynafty, p. 289. 

(A) Lord of Roha or Or/a, (C) Or Ablafla. 

Harrdn, znA Khelat or Khaldt. [D) A\{o Haretbdretihy^ome 

(B) Or the lake of Van, to travellers called Karpurt. 
the north of which it Hands, at 

fome diliance, 


^Q^O 1'he Seljuks of Rum, B. i. 

Nowain, he fent ambafladors from Tabriz (or TaUrisJ, iii- 
viiiug both JJhraf and /Hao" ddin to aid him with their 
forces to repel the florm ; vhich, if it pafled him, he faid, 
would tall on them. But they paid no regard to his in- 
trcaties •^. 

EmlnJJy to In 630, Soltan ylLio'dJin fent ambafTadors to Oktay Kaan^ 

Oktiy. ofTeriiig obedience to him. Oktay, commending his prudence, 

A. D. told him, that if their mailer would come to his court, he 

1232. would receive him with honour, and give him one of the chief 

employments there, without taking away his revenues. Which 

haughty anfwer the ambafladors wondered at. 

The fame year Alao\idin breaking with Al Maick al Afl> 
ruf, took from him Khcldt and Sarmaniciy {E,). Two years 
after he likewife forced Roha from him ; in which, f«.>r three 

Hejiored days, the Rums flew both CkriJHans and Mobanvnedans . The 

the SeU remainder they flripped of all ; not fparing the churches. 

jaks Hereupon Harran furrendered to him. After this he took. 

Rakkah and Bir. But, as foon as his forces were withdrawn, 
/si Malck al Kamel (lord of Egypt ) came and befieged Roha ; 
which he took at the end of four months, and fent all thq 
Rdmi whom he found there vixio Egypt, in chains, upon 
camels. D^Hcrbelot fays, that, being prefixed on one fide by 
the Mogols, and on the other by the princes of the houfe of 
Ayub (F), he was obliged to withdraw his troops out of their 
dominions, in order to prefervc his own. 

fame and This prince returned home, loaded with plunder and glory; 

empire. having extended his name and conquefts very far caftward «. 
In fliort, he refl:ored the great reputation of the Seljukinus^ 
which the children of Kilij Arfian had fomewhat impaired by 
their divifions ; enlarged the empire to its former limits ; and 
re-eflabliflied order in the ftate, 

}ih death, f N 634, Soltan Alao'ddin Kayhobiid died fuddenly : for 
A. D. at a feaft which he made for his chief lords and officers, juft. 
1236. as he was boafling of the extent of his dominions, he felt z, 
diforder in his bowels ; and, being taken at the flune time 
with a flux, difcharged fuch a cjriantity of bloody excre- 
ments, that he died two days after, having reigned eighteen 
years ^ . 

D'HERBELOT has given the hiftory of this prince 
wholly from Abu'lfarnj, only adding one or two particulars 

^ Aeu'i.f hifl. dyiiany, p. 506, ct ftq. * D'Herb. 

p. 239. tV f.q. art. Caikobud. *' Ibid. p. 311, &; feq. 

(E) Ox Surtnatnv. Gcnnans); from whom Salah- 

(F) Cr Jyuh; "that Is, Job oV^;« was dcfcended. 
(as we wjfitc ilic wcu d after tlie 


C, 4.^ ^enih ScUdn^ Alao'ddin. 251 

f' om Kondannr ; who, in thofe points, differs from him. 
That author fays, Alao'ddin was poifoned by order of his fon 
Kay Khofraw, whom he had declared his heir. He likewife 
bjiuns his reign in 610, and puts his death in 636, which 
makes its duration twenty-fix years ; whereas Ebn Shohnah 
agrees exaftly v/ith Jbulfaraj '^. 

This prince was prudent, temperate, and flrong. Ht a>t^ d'am, 
kept a very ftri(5t eye over his nobles and dependants. KeraSisr. 
was endued with great firmnefs of mind, magnanimity, and 
profound gravity : nor could any fovereign govern better. 
As all the world fubmitted to him, fays our author, he was 
jufHy fliled (G), king of the -world ^, He mufl therefore have 
been not a little mortiiied by the meflage, above-mentioned, ^ 

fent him by Oktay Khan. 

This is the famous Aladin I. known to the European 
writers ; who acquired moft reputation of all the Soltans of 
his race, and paffed for one of the greatcfl: princes of his time. 
He generally gained fome advantage in all the wars wherein 
he was engaged : but was obliged at lafl to acknowlege the 
Mogols for his mailers ". 

It was under this Soltan that both Ortcgrol and Othn&n, R;fe of 
or Ozman his fon, founder of the prefent Othman race and Oihman. 
empire, ferved, with their followers, and laid the foundation 
of their future greatnefs ''. 


The reigns of SoUdn Gayatho'ddin Kay Khofraw, 
and Azzo'ddin. 

ylLAO'DDIN being dead, the princes took the oath of ^, 
-^ fidelity to his fon Gayathoddin Kay Khofrmv ; ^vho^^™''^ 
prefently after feized Gayer Khan, prince of the Karazmians. ^^ ^' 
The reft of them fled, with their chiefs, by Malatiyah, Khofraw. 
Kdkhtin, and Khartabert ; where they did great mifchief : Hej. 624. 
then, wafting the country of Somayfat (H), they paffed on to A: D. 
Soiuayda. But Jl Malek al Naffer, lord of Halcp, affigning 1236. 
oxer to them Roha, Harran, and other places beyond the 
Euphrates, they defifted from farther ravages. 

In 637, the Mogols advanced, with a defign to invade the 

A. L/. 
8 See D'Herb. p. 239, art. Caikobad. ^ Abu'lf. p. '239. 

290 & 312. » D'Herb. p. 83, art. Alaeddin ben Cai- 

khofrau. ^ Ibid. p. 240, art. Caicobad. 

(G) He affumed the title of (H) Or Scmeyfat, the fame 
Shdb "Jehdii ; which flguifies vvith Samoff.t, on the Euphrates, 
hiiigofthe'viorld. to the north pi" ^/ i?/r. 


252 7'h Scljuks of Rum.' B. I. 

Kumcan tenitories ; but, on CayatfnddhJs feeding forces 
into j-lrmenia^ they thought fit to forbear. 
J Talk- Next year a Turkman prophet, called Baba, appeared at 
nrin pro- /Jmafia, who drew after biin niukitudes of people, by the 
i'-'^ ftraiige tricks which he performed, in order to deceive them. 

He font one If-hak (or Jf.i.ik)^ a difciple, in a dolor's gown, 
through the other parts of the coiinn-y oi Rum, to draw-in 
the Turkmans ; who fucceeded foweU, that, at Samayjai, he 
had gathered no fewer than 6000 horfe, hefides foot, chiefly 
of thofc people. Thus Arengthened, they began to propa- 
gate their impofture by force, making war upon all who 
would not fay, i}^cre is no Cod hut gcd Baba (A), the aj^Jilc 
cf C^J. So that they flew a great number ot the jnhabitoj^ts, 
of Msficms and ChriJtir.nSy of Hefnohnnnfur, Kahhiin, Car- 
gar, and S'-jmayfaf, who refufed to follow them : they like- 
wife put to flight all the troops which oppofed them in their 
way to Amajla. 
isrs wiicJj Hereupon Gayatho'ddin fent an army againfl: them, in 
wi/ihref. v/hich w;is a body of Franks, who were in his pay. But the 
Mojlcms giving way, through ftar, the Franks let themfelves 
in the front of the battle; and, making a vigorous attack, 
put the rebels to flight, aad killed every man of them. The 
two doctors, Bub a and Ij'-hdk, were taken alive, and put to 
RToguIs In 639, Jorm/igun Nozvayn (B), advancing into y/rW(?nM, 
take Ar- as far as Jrzen Alrun, took ir by force, killed Sciian, its fub- 
aernm. baiha, with a great number of the inhabitants ; and, carry-! 

and military florcs, fuch as had not been known before. 
Eefidcs his own troops, he was afi'fled by Greeks, Frajiks, 
Georgians, Armenians, and Arabs, The twx) armies met in 
a place called Kufadag, belor.ging to Arzenjdn ; but, on the 
firft attack, all the a'lxiiiary forces turned their backs and 
fiod. The Soltan, aflonirticd at this event, fled likewife to 
drfarea ; whence carrying his wives a'ld children to Ankiira, 
(or Ancyra), he there fortified himrtll. 
^'-.vA^Jur- The Mogds, no lefs furprized at the flight of the eneny, 
rtndtrs. kspt Lhemfclvcs ftill all that day, not daring to puifue, fu- 

. (A^ li\i\i\i^t'Muhammei!fln i'hori No~'/.an, KGnjian, nnd AV- 
copftiTion of faith; oriy the iia*i. 'Tis .1 military tide, fjg- 
ii2!Dc Baha is inferred inlicad of nifyitig the fame as Amir, or 
T^'ohfintfrfJ. coiuniander. 

. (B) Wri:ter slfo by our a-.i- 

• fpcairg 

C. 4« Eleve7:ihSJidn,'ddmll, "2^3 

fpeftlng It \7a£ oniy an. artifice to draw them into ambufoidss : 
becaufe they could perceive no, reafon that fuch a numerous 
army had to ily. But, as foon as they came to knov/ the 
truth of the matter, they peiietvated into the couiitry of Ji£>:fz^ 
.-and hi doNvn before Siiv/is ; which havhig fun-endej-ed to i 

them, they {pared the lives of the inhabitants ; but t-ook 
away all their eiie&, burnt all tlie warlike engines they 
found there, and demoii&ed the city walls. From herice 
proceeding to Kayfartynb (or Caf&rea.), the citizens oppofed 
them for a few days : but at length the Mogch. taking the 
plac^. by ioxQz, put the priucipal inbibitants to tb^ fword, 
torturing them, to difcover their riches. 

After i\m- they returited, cj^rying the women and chil- Arset^jSa 
drea along with them, without entering any farther into the/''^'f<^ 
Soitaft'-s dominions- This new's coming "ioMalatijah, v/here 
our ainhor Jhu'ifanij and his tiien were, Raftido' ddhi, 
its prince, and mony of the inhobirantSj fied, for fear of the 
Mvgois%-\vh.<i in their palHige (lew ilneral of tliem, near the 
town o{ B/iJKZs, tea Perjuin leagues diftant; but without 
coming nearer the city, held on their way to Arzenjuii^ 
which they took by afiauk, and ferved in the fame manner as 
tiiey had done Kayfanyab. The Soitan, finding himfclf inSclta-nptip 
no condition to oppofe the ensmy, fent arabaffadori; to defa-e tribuu. 
peace ; which xvas gj^anted him, on condirion that he fhould 
annually pj.y a large tribute^ in money, horfes, veils, and other 
things of value ^. 

In 642, Cnyathoddsn fent a great army to befiege Tarftis : Hh ckath 
but, as they were on the point of taking It, news arrived of 
his death ;. upon which they retired from, before the city, ia 
autumn, when there fell ^^ery heavy rains. 

This prince was given to wine, and fpeaking idly. YiCarJcha.' ■ 
led a life very unbecoming his dignity, indulging liimfelf in raa^r. 
pernicious defires. He married the daughter of the king of Hej. 642. 
the Georgians ; whom he loved to fuch a degree, that he had ^- -^• 
ii£:r image. {lamped upon his coin. The reverie of fome was '*44- 
a lion, with the fun over its head. Tlie allrologers told 
Mm, that in cafe he had the figures engraved, which repre- 
fcated his horofcope, he ftiould fucceed in all his deilgns. 

He \dt three fons, Azzaddin, Roknoddm, and JIao'ddln. His chil- 
The two firlf by Rumcan women ; the lall: by a GeorgiaiuJre*.. 
He declared the eldefl for his fuccefibr, appointing for his 
tutor and Atabek Jalok'dJvi Kortay, a perfoa of great inte- 
grity and rigid chafiity ^. 

'^ Ap.u'ir, p. 312, 5: feq. ^ /iBv'Lr. hll^. dynMlr, 


their er- 

Tatar In- 

to them. 

Sol ton, 

The Stljuks of Rum. B. t 

The article o{ Cayatho'dilin, given by D'Herbclot ^, feems 
to be taken intirely tiom AbuVfaraj, whom he quotes twice; 
yet, at the end, puts the name of Kondamir, as if the whole 
was cxtrafted from that author. 

The Byzantine hiftoiians mention this Soltan, whom 
they call jnthatincs : but fay, he was the fon of AzatineSf 
who fucceeded his uncle Jatkat'tncs. For all this falfe gene- 
alogy, which is common with the Greek writers, 'tis evident, 
from their own account, that he is the Soltan in queftion ; 
not only as they make him contemporary with John Dukas, 
furnamcd Fatazes, fecond emperor of A^ice, who began his 
reign in the year 1222 ; but they give him juft fuch a cha- 
racter as we find in Jbulfaraj ; viz. that of a flothful 
prince, who delighied in drunken and debauched company. 
What goes IVJI farther to decide the point, they fay, his fa- 
ther excelled, in military affairs, all his predeceffofs : which 
character can be applicable only to Alao'ddin. 

With regard to the tranfadfions of his reign, thofe hi- 
florians inform us : that the Tankhari (C), a nation oiTartarSt 
having invaded his dominions, and defeated his army, he 
fent to Vatazes, defiring afliflance, as well by his advice as 
forces. In this, he faid, both of them would find their ad- 
vantage ; fince, in cafe the enemy fubdued the MoJIemanSi 
they would next invade the Romans. Vatazes, judging this 
to be a right meafure, entered into a league with the Soltan, 
and had an interview with him at Tripolis, on the Meander ; 
which river Gayathao'ddin (D) pafTed over a bridge, made in 
haffe, with rafts or floats of timber joined together. The two 
princes not only gave their hands to each other, but to all 
their followers of diftinftion. After this they agreed, in the 
ftrongeft terms, to join their forces againft the enemy : but 
the Tankhari, for a while, fufpended the war againft the 
Soltan, that they might go and attack tht Khalifah of Ba.^ 
hyhn \ 

AZZC DD IN (E) having fucceeded by his father's ap- 
pointment, the great officers and nobles took the oath of 
fidelity, and he was prayed for in the pulpits. 

' D'Herb. p. 356. art. GaiathtddinCaikhofrau. 


^ Georc. 

(C) Called byy/)7o«, or Uay- 
thon, \\\Q. Armenian, ToJ'gori. 

(D) Some anthorb pretend 
this was the Soltan to whom 

Mikael Palcclcru: fled ; whereas 

it was to Azzo'dJit:, his fuccef- 

(E) Azz-o'dJin is only the fur- 
name of thib Soltan, whofe name 
feims to have J^ccn Knykanxs. 


C. 4. Twelfth SoUan^ Azzo'ddin. 255 

Next year ambafladors came from the Great Klian Olday, Hej. 643, 
requiring the Soltan to come and pay him homage : but he A. D. 
cxcufed himfelf ; alleging, that as both the Creek and Anne- ' ^'^^\ 
man kings were his enemies, they would feize his domir.ions^^'^''^^'". -^ 
in his abfence. Mean time he obliged the ambafTadors with "^ ^ 

gifts ; and, at length, fent his brother Rokno^Uhi (F), under the 
care of Bahao'ddin, the interpreter, whom he made his Atabek 
(or tutor). He alfo appointed for \ns ownW^zlr ShaT>ifo^ddtn, 
a learned native of Isfahan ; whofe credit was fo great, that 
he married the Sokan's mother : which, however, the gran- 
dees were much offended at. This year the Great Khan 
died ; and, the next, a Kuriltay, or grand aflembly, was 
called : at which, befides the Mogol princes, there were pre- 
fent many foreign potentates.; and, among the reft, Soltan 
Rokm'ddbi, from the country of Ricin. In this grand council 
Kayilk, eidefl fon of the late emperor, was cholen to fucceed 

In 645, Kayuk, the Great Khan, fent lieutenants into {q.- dcpofed If 
veral parts of his empire ; appointing Iljiktay Nowayn for b'"'- 
the countries of Mm, Mufol, Syria, and Ccrj (G). At the ^*^J- ^45* 
fame time he granted the government of Rtmi to Soltan -^•-'-'• 
Rohnd'ddin, and ordered Soltan Azzo'ddin to be removed, '^t"/* 
Next year Roknd'ddin, and the interpreter Bahao'ddin, arriving, 
with 2000 Mogol horfe, to put this decree in execution, Sol- 
tan Azzo'ddin was advifed by his Wazir Shajn/o'ddzn to op- 
pofe it, and withdraw to fome caftle near the fea. When 
Koriay heard this, he feized the Wazir, and fent him to Baha- 
o'ddin ; who immediately difpatched fome of the Mogol chiefs 
to Koniyah, to make him difcover where his treafures were; 
which, having done, they put him to death. After this the 
interpreter and Kortay meeting, agreed to divide the domi- 
nions between the two brothers. Azzo'ddin was to have 
Koniyah, Akfera, Ankur.a (or Ancyra), Anatolia (H), and 
the refl of the weflern provinces : Roknoddin, Kayfcriyahy 
Siiuds, Malatiyah, Arzengan, Arzen al Rum, and the pro- 
vinces to the eaft. They likewife appointed Atao'ddm, the 
3/oungefl:, a proper portion for. his maintenance ; and had 
money coined in all their names, with this infcription, the 
great kings Azz. Rokn. and y'lla^, 

•= Aeu'lf. hiil. dynally, p. 319, Sc feq. 

(F) His proper name, ac- (G) Oi K'jrj ; that is, Geor" 

cording to others, was Soley- g'ui. 

tnan, Rohio ddin being his fur- (H) In another copy, ^k/^/'z- 

naine. . yaly or Antiokhia, in Ajla minor. 


2sS T'/je Seljuks of Riim.' B. I.' 

Sent for In 652, there came feveral ambafTadois^ one after the other, 

agaifi. to Jzzo'dlin, lord of J?um ; requhing him to go and 

Hcj. 652. pay homage to Munkaka Kaan (I). He accordingly fet out: 

^' ^^- but hearing, at Siwils, that the Omcra (K) were incUned to 

*^^4'" place Roknoddin in his throne, he returned in hafte to KonU 

yah, and fent Alaoddin in his room, with letters, fetting 

forth ; that he had fent his brother, who was no lefs king 

than himfclf ; but that he could not come, becaufe his Ata- 

bek Kortjiy was dead, and his enemies to the weft (L) were 

at war with him : however, that when he was delivered from 

the fears of them, he would wait on the Khan himfelf. Ala- 

o'ddin accordingly fet out ; but died on the way, before he 

reached the Orda (M). 

'Attcmft JZZO'DDIN, conceiving that he fliould never be fafe 

again ft while his brother Roknoddin lived, refolved to put him to 

Rokno d- death. This defign taking wind, the Omcra contrived his 

dm. efcape. They drelfed him in the clothes of a cook's boy ; 

and putting a bowl, with meat in it, on his head, fent him 

out of the palace and caftle (N), along with certain boys who 

carried \ichials to a neighbouring houfe : then, fetting him 

on horfcback, they conduced him to Kayfariyah ; where a 

great number of Omcras repairing to him, they got together 

an army, and marched towards Komyah againft Azzd'ddin : 

but the Soltan, marching out with what troops he had about 

him, put them to flight; and Rokno ddin, being taken priforier, 

was caft, fettered, into the caftle of Daivalu. 

OppofestJye The year following, B ay cj u No-way 7i, being obliged tore- 

Tarars ; move from the plain of Miigan (O), where he ufed to winter, 

Hcj. 653. in order to give place X-oHiilaku (P), fent a meHenger to Soltan 

^ •''*• Azzo'ddhi, requiring fome place to winter in with his troops : 

but the Soltan, inftead of complying, pretended that he had 

(I) Called alfo Morgo and himfelf. And he feems to have 

Mnrgu Khnn. He was the refided at Jkomum ; although he 

fourth; and fucccded A'^;v«'^, in had one half of the empire. 
648 of the Hejrah, of Chrill: (O) Or Mokatt, a fpacious 

1 250. plain in the north ^2Lrto^ Jdher- 

(K) Ometd is the plural of bijun, towards the mouth of 

j1?iiir, and fignifies the princes, the river Kur, and the Cafpian 

chiefs, great commanders, or fca. 

generals. A title denoting both (?) Who afterwards reigned- 

great lords and cfficers. in Perf.a, by grant from his 

(L) By thefe muft be meant brother Kublay Khan, in the 

the Greeks. year 656 of the Hijrah, of 

(i\'I) The court or place C/.;r//? i 258 ; founding a dynafly 

where the Khan was encamped, of Mogols, or Tartars, as they 

(N) By this it appears, that arc commonly called. 
JLahtcddin was bat a youth 




C. 4. rwelfthS^ohdn, Azzo'ddin, with Rokno'ddin. 257 

deferred from his prince ; and, collecSling forces, gave him 
battle at Khano' I Soltan, between Koniyah dindi Akfira. How- 
ever, Azzdddin happening to be defeated (Q^), Baycju took 
his brother out of prifon, and put him in polFefficn of all 
the Rumean dominions *". 

It was, doubtlefs, in the above-mentioned battle that 
Mikhael Paleokgus was prefent, as we are told by the Greek 
hiilorians ; whom we mufl: now follow for a while. Thefe h o'vsf^ 
hiflorians inform us, that, in the year 1255, P^^cologus {K),thro'vj7ii 
who had been imprifoned, on fufpicion of fome dangerous 
defigns, efcaped, and fled to the Turks. It happened, that, 
while he was at the Soltan's court, the Tatars (S), after 
having ravaged the gre^tefl part of his dominions, came and 
befieged the city of Axara (T). Hereupon the Turks march- 
ed out againft them, giving to Palcologus the command of the 
Greeks forces. The Tatars, being repulfed at the firft onfet 
by Paleologus, or, as others fay, difmayed at the fight of fuch 
numerous forces, were upon the point of flying, when one of 
the TurkiJJj generals went over to them, with the troops under 
his command ; v/hich changed the fortune of the field. The 
Tatars, encouraged, returned to the charge, and, defeating 
the Turks in their turn, made a great llaughter with their 
arrows, purfuing them a confidcrable way. Paleologus, uoon 
this, joined the Peklarpek (U) v/ith his troops ; and they two 
retired, for fevcral days together, with the enemy at their 
heels, till they got to Kaftamona (X), near which that oflicer 

The Tatars now over-ran the country, and the TurkiJJjflies to the 
forces being difper fed, the Soltan flies to the emperor ; \vh.o cmtcrot. 
received him kindly ; but could fpare him only 400 men, 
under the commzw^ oi Ifaac Ducas, {urnzintdMurizuflui (Y), 
The Soltan, in requital, gave him the city of Laodicca : 
which, however, foon returned to the Turks ; becaufc the 

^ Abu'lf. hift. dynafty, p. 329, k feq. 

( QJ Tliis, (doubtlefs, is the (SJ They are called by fome 

battle which Hayton fays was i\\eTankhariTatars. 
gained by the Tatars, under (T) Alfera, not Akfaray ; or 

Bnydo, over the Soltan (whom the •v.-hitc ^cJac:. 
hedoesnot name) of 'ra,-Z-)'(i) J (U) Or Ueglerhg; that is, 

{q that author calls the donii- lord of lords, thi g-vcrno.s of 

nioiiS of the Seljukians c^ Rum. great provinces. 

(R) He had married the em- (X) Caffinncra. 
peror's niece ; was coniiable, (Y) Beca;:lc his family had. 

and commanded the Fr^?ich thick eye-brovvs, and to- 

tropps. I PacL. c 7. gether. 

(I) lljyt dcTjitarii, cap. 23, 24.. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. S Iccnanf 

i^S 'The Seljuks of Rum. B. I. 

Romans could not defend it. After all, the Soltan not be- 
ing able to oppofe the Tatars, he obtained peace, by be- 
coming tributary. Mean time the emperor wrote to Palco- 
hgiis, inviting him to return home ; his reconciliation hav- 
ing been made by means of the bifhop of Kogni (or Koni- 
yah) : and, foon after his return the emperor died, in 1 258 ^, 
Nei^/fi^s In the foregoing account, from the Greek hiitorians, we 
o/rh find no mention of the difpute between Jzzo'dcUn and his 
brother Rokno'ddin ; which was, in a great meafure, the 
caufe of this Tatar war : but Pakhamirey in one place of his 
hiftory, occafionally introduces it. He theie tells us in ge- 
neral, that Soltan Azatines (fo he calls /Izzo'dJm) had great 
conteffs with his brother Riikratin (that is Roknoddin), afrei^ 
the death of their father Jatka:tincs (or Gayathoddin) : that 
Rnkratiii, having taken arms, and obtained confiderable force? 
Gvfek ^T^om the Tatars, became ftrong enough to opprefs his bio- 
ha'tor'uvn. *^"^^'" ' that AzatinQs upon this retired to the court of the 
emperor Thcodorits Lajl-aris ; who received him civilly ; but 
let him know, that he could not fnelter him in his dominions, 
for fear of drawing on himfelf the refentment of the Ta- 
tars (Z) : that Azatincs accordingly withdrew ; yet received 
fuch confiderable fuccours from Lajlaris, that he over- 
came his brother, and recovered the throne ^. From this 
paffage, and feveral others, occurring in Pakhaviirc, and the 
refl of the Byzantine hiflorians, which are brought in ab- 
ruptly, and out of place, there appears reafon to believe, 
that the Greeks had particular hiftories or memoirs of the 
Soltans ; of which they have only given us pieces occafionally 
^in the reigns of their emperors, as they related to their o\mi 
affairs, and that, for the general, without either the proper 
clacidations or connexions. But to return to our fubject. 
A7.7/od- As Abulfaraj does not mention what became of y^zzoW<:///7, 
din oppc/cs^-^i^T^ he was removed from tl:e throne by Bayeju, the Mogal 
general ; neither docs he tell us how he recovered it again : 
but, proceeding as if no fuch revolution had/liappened, in- 
Hej. 655. forms us, that, in 655, this Solt.'in fent an ambaflixdor to 
A. D. Hiilakii, to teffily his fubmiffion, and intreat him to drive 
1257. Bayeju Noway n out of his kingdom. Huldkii, in anfwer, or- 
dered that he fliould divide the RAmean territories with his 
brother. Hereupon Azzao'dJln returned to Koniyah, and 

8 Pakhamir, 1. i. c. 9. NicspH. Grecoras, and othersw 
*> Pakh. 1. xiii. c. 22. 

(Z) Yet, on his coming to the crown, he renewed the nntlent 
Icaj^uc with the Soltan. 


C. 4. i^izelfth S-oltdn^ Azzo'ddin, with Rokno'ddin.' 255) 

Rokno'dJhi went with Baycju to the camp. Azzo'ddin, beltig 
i^ili afraid of this Mogol, fent into the parts about Malatiyah ' 
and Khartabert, to raife an army of Kurds, Turkmans, and 
Jrabs. The officer fent him two commanders of the Kurds, 
Ahmed ebn Bclas and Mohanimcd ebn ol Sheykh Adi ; to whom 
the Soltan aifigned the faid cities. 

EBN Sheykh Adi, being met on the way to Kharfabcrt \y^the\A6i 
-Jngurk Nowayn, was flain, with his followers : and the peo- gols in 
pie of Malatiyah, having taken an oath lo Rokv.o ddin , xt-'''J^in. 
fnfed to receive Ehn Bclas ; who thereupon treating them 
ill, they killed 300 of his men. With the reft he fied by 
Klaudiya ( \) towards Anted (B) ; where he was flain by the 
lord of Mayaferkin. AzzoWdln appointed in his room one 
All Bahddr ; who, beitig a bold man, the citizens, thro' fear, 
admitted hiin. And he did them great fervice : for he cleared 
*■ the county of the Al Jcizi, a tribe of Turkmans, who ufed 
in their incurfions to kill the inhabitants, and carry off their 
children. The(e,he defeated, and took their comuiaiider Ju- 
tabeg prifoner. 

Mean v/hile Baycju Novjayn, advancing with his forces, 
obliged all the caflles, which had beeu delivered up, to fi:b- 
mit to Rohid'ddin. Then going to the city of Abohjlayn (C), 
he flew about 6000 of the inhabitants, and made captives of 
the women and children. 

On his approach to Malatiyah, All BahMr fled' to Kakh- Malat?.' 
iah ; and the citizens, going to meet him with prefents, fub- yahyz.'w- 
mitted x.o' Rokno ddin ; who fet over them one of his flaves, '''"^■'"* 
named Fakro'ddin Ayyaz. But as foon as Bayepi had gotten 
beyond the borders of Rwn, in his way to Irak, AH Bahddr 
returned ; and, being denied admittance, befiegcd the city. 
At length, provifions growing very fcarce, fome of the com- 
Inon people opened a gate, by which AH entered with his - 
Turkmans. Having thus recovered the pofl^ellion of Malati- 
yah, he call Soltan Robio'ddins governor into prifoji, and 
put a- fey of the leading men, who oppofcd him, to death. 

At the fame time the famine was fo great in the diftriiTt oi Dreadful 
this city, that cats, dogs, and leather, were eaten, for want of famine 
food. A friend of the author's fliw in a certain village ^'^h^re. 
company of women in a houfe cutting pieces of fleili out of a 
corpfe which lay before them, and broiling- them to eat. 
Likewife another, who baked her dead child ; imaginingi 

(A) The antientC/rt;/^/.'^c/:V, (B) The antienc ^'.=r/V^, non' 
on the EupbraHSi below irlala- Diyqrhckr. 

U)"<:h. . {Q.)OT/ib'Ioff<7)ni\vA\izG£OPr. 

Kulh^Jls,. Ahl,r\: 



260 The Seljuks of Rum. B. I. 

that his flefh would agree better with her than that of vermin. 

In fhort, .-/It Bahddr, though he fubducd the town, could not 

withllaiul the calamity ; but retired to Soltan .'Izzo'ddin. 

Fmpire In 657, Hulaku lent tor Azzo'ddln, Soltan of the Rumr, 

diiided. and his brother Roknd'ddin ; who obe}ing his fummons, he 

Hcj. 65-7. went out to meet them, expreding great faiisfa^lion at their 

A D. tomiiij^. Then he appointed AzzoWdin to reign over the 

'^^'9- country irom Kayl\iriydh to the borders of Greater Armenia ; 

and Rok.ioddin to command from Akfera to the fea-coafl 

bounding the territories of the Franks. Atter this he began 

his march for Syria ; and, when he drew near the Euphrates^ 

the two brothers, taking their leave, returned with joy to 

their own dominions '. 

Wf. Hnd no farther account in AbuJfaraj of thefe tvvo 
Soltans (who reigned together, or interchangeably) ; although 
that author is more particular in relating their tranfadtions 
than thofe of any of the [ormcr :, but the defect is, in fome 
meafure, fupplied by the Creek hii^orians, who happen to be- 
gin, as it were, jult where he leaves off. 
A7.zo'd- Although we left the two Soltans going home in good 
din retires harmony ; yet, according to the Greek hiftorians, they did 
^- ^- not long continue fp. They tell you, that, after the death 
'259- of Theodorus Lafiaris, Mihhacl Paleologiis, being made the 
alfociate in the empire with his fon Jo/}//, after Ibengthening 
the frontier places with garrifons, fent an embalfy to the 
Turks, to notify his advancement ; and that, not long after, 
fetting out with the young emperor on a new progrefs, he 
received, at Nympho'um, an embiiil;/, with preients, from the 
Soltan ; wdiofe arfliirs were in a very bad condition : for, 
being threatened with an invafion from the Tatars (or Mo- 
golsj, every perfon, inftead of faving the ftate, thought only of 
laving his family, and the governors every-where revolted. 
fo Mi- PA LEO LOCUS, upon intimation of this, give the Soltan 

khae! Pa- an invitation to come and refide at his court, promifing to 
leologus, let him return when his affairs were fettled. The caufe of 
the Soltan's fear was, the news which he received of the arrival 
of Alalek (D), with a formidable army. This Ma/ek had fled, 
it feems, to the emperor before ; and Azzo'dJ.n was afraid he 
might efcape, and crofs the defign he had of re-eflablilhing 
his atfairs ^. In another place the fame author informs us, 
that the reafon of Azzo'ddiu's applying to the emperor was, 

' Ai;u'lf. p. 332, £c feq. ^ Pakh. 1. ii. c. 7, 10, 24. 

(D) Who this Ma/tk was, \vc ahout him. Perhaps he wn? the 
are quite at a lofs to kiiovv, Soltan's brother, iiientioiied a 
the author having laid no more liccle lower Jowii. 


C. 4- ^ Twelfth SoUitn, Kokno'ddm alofie. 261 

becaufe Rukratin had gathered new forces ^(E). However that 
be, the Soltan accepted of the offer ; and, relying on the friend- 
ship of Paleologus, retired, with his wife, children, his mother 
(who was a Chriflian), and his iifter, to Conjiantinoplc™. 

Some authors tell us, that, after the former defeat of ^-^^ Greek 
/Izatin, the Tatars, inffead of penetrating farther into \{is, emperor. 
dominions, went and conquered Syria : but that, returning 
next year, the}' crolTed the river a fecond time, marched into 
Kappadocia, and took Ikoniitm ; from whence Jzatin fled, 
Avith his brother I\Ialek, and his family, to the emperor 
Mikhael Paleologus ; who, not long before, had retired for 
flielter to his court ". Nicephorus Gregoras relates, that 
Azatin, taking occafion from the invafion of the Tatars^ 
(hook off the Perfian (he means the Turkiflj) yoke, and fub- 
dued feveral provinces belonging to the eaflcrn emperors : 
but that he was obliged at length, with his fon Moloko, to 
retire to Mikhael Paleologus, after having been routed by the 
Tatars, in the year 126 1 °. Here w-e find feveral Maleks,l{e]. 66i. 
who poffibly might all have been the fame perfon, confider- A. D. 
ing the inaccuracy of the Greek authors; and that Malek i2Ji. 
limply is no other than a title, fsgnifiying king, which \vas 
given to the princes of the Seljtik blood. 

But to return to J^zo'ddbi. Paleologus received h\m His i// re-^ 
with great (hew of friendfhip, and promiied in time to furmih ceftion 
him with troops, to recover his kingdom. Mean while he 
fuffered the Soltan to live intirely at liberty, to fit in his 
prefence, to have his guards, and wear the purple bullvins. 
In July 1 261, Conjlantiiiople being recovered out of the 
hands of the Latins, he returned thither from A7r^,. with his 
coUegue John. Next year he fent ambaffidors to Khalau (or 
Httlukti), prince of the Tatars, in Perfia, and another to the 
Soltan of Ethiopia (rather Egypt). As for Jzatin, he was at^?/ Con- 
Conjiantinoplc; where, Arolling about to view the ftreets andttantino. 
public places, which were almoft quite unpeopled, he led aple: 
debauched life, with his followers, expetfling the performance 
of the emperor's promife : but all Mikhad^ fair outfide was 
only diffimulation : for, being very intent on making an alli- 
ance with the Tatars, be fent the Soltan's wife and children 
to Nice, under pretence of greater fecurity ; at. the fame tinve 

^ Pakh. 1. xiii. c. 22. "" Ibid. 1. ii. c. 24. " August. 
Curio. ^ Nicefh. Gregor. 1. iv. c. 1. 

(E) Sure Rulrc! tin and Malek cy in ftile than hiflory, or order 

cannot be the fame perfon : for of time in ranging his faiils : is 

no anchor fpeaks of i?oA-»oV^/»'s very verbofe, yet de^cient in 

frying for fliekcr to the emperor, matter. 

Pakhiimire ainii more at accura- 

S 3 l^x 

i5* 'ithe SdjCiks of Ri^m. B. I, 

he aftnally proraifcd Mnry (F), his naliiral dtiUi^httr, tq 
Khakii, "Who yet died before ftie arrived at his court. After 
this he coiicluded an I'Uiance with J^agair{G). 
makes his '^^'P- Soltan, after a tedious Itay at Cciifiantivople^ having 
e/cn^'f difcbvered that" the em-peror was treating with his enemies, 
A. D. wrote to an uncle of his, who d>^elt towards the Euxyie fea, 
1266. on the north fide ; iutieating him to work his deliverance, by 
excitii>^ Conftantine, king of Bu'gr.ria, and Nogas, Khan o£ 
^eT.itars{\\), againft Ai/trio^<7j- : in which cafe, hefaid, he 
■<vould endeavour to deliver rhat prince into tlieir han.ds. The 
Soltan's uncle having agreed to this propofal, Jzatines, pur- 
fuant to leave obtained, repaired to the emperor, who was 
then in the weft, under pretence of feeing that part of his 
dominions. In their return back, within a day's march of 
mount If emus, Palcokgiis, to his great allnnirtimcnt, under- 
ftood that the Bulgarians and Tatars had paffcd ^the ftraits, 
fpoiling and killing where-ever they came. The emperor, 
who had not forces to oppofe them, left the Soltan, with his 
baggage, in the nighr, and, getting to the fea-fide, pafTed ia 
a bark to his capital. Axatincs, with thofe M'ho had care of 
the baggage, retired to the fort of Ahie (I). Prefently the 
hy aftra- enemy came, and, befieging the place, it was at length. 
iagem. agreed, that the Soltan, and his attendants, fhould be deli- 
vered to them ; on condition that they withdrew, and fuf-^ 
fdred the reft to retire, with the baggage, to the port ; 
which they did : and the next day came fuccours by fea ; 
with whom they returned to Co^ftant'mojAe. The emperor, 
enraged at tlieir conduct, puniflicd the chief of them ; and, 
, imprifoning the wife, mother, daughter, and fifter, of the 
Soltan, with their children, coriifcated all their effL:<fls p. 
The Greek hiftorians fay, that Jzntincs never returned 
into his own dominions ; but died, foon after his cfcapc, it^ 
the country to the north of the Cafpian fea, 
Hi/iorlans HISTORIANS, both eaftern and weftern, difagrce fo much 
dlfagrce with regard to this Saltan, that an authoj-, for want of far- 
ther helps, muft be at a great nonplus how to reconcile 
them. The Greeks and AbtVlfaraj agree to make Az'zo'dJin. 
Soltan of Koniya ; and,, from all circumllances of the hiftory,. 
he muft have, been fo, . at Icaft for a term of years. But- 

P Pj«kh. 1. ii. c. 24. 1. iii. c. 3, 25. 1. xiii. c. 22. 

(F) Hence fhe is ■called af- Cafj-iM fea, and the Z)^««^<r. 

terwards queen of the IvJvgiils, He afterwards married Euphro- 

^hoagh not married to HiUdki. fwr, the emperor's natural 

'^'^G) Ah^ga, Qr Abaka^^Kh^n,- daughter, 

fon and fuccclTor of ///i/^/jJ.- . . (I^ ■>'y>'-^'.», or Oenufrit 

(H) To the north of the „ 

- ■ : :. D'Hcrbekt, 

C. 4. 'Twelfth BoMn^ Rokno'ddin^/^^^r 2oj 

lyHerbcioty aftei* the. Per/tan hiftoiians, mzkesSokno'ddifi the 
Soltaii : pofTibly, becaiile he was .fupportfed by the Mogolsy 
and continued to reign after Azzo'ddin was expelled : yet he 
recites from them only two tranfacStions of his reign. He - 
informs us, i\\2.l. Roknvddbi Soleymdn, havii^ fent his hxo- in fi'veral 
tlier Jlao'ddin Kaykobad to the court of the Great Khan oi^^fp'^h ■ 
the Mogols, to tranfa^t the affairs of the Seljukians, that 
prince gained the favour of the KJian by his addrefs ; and 
returned with fuch ample powers, that Soleymdn, finding 
Hmfelf almoffc wholly depri\"ed of his authority by Kay' 
kobc/d, bribed one of his domeftics to poifon him : that 
Jl)dka Khan, being informed of this ill office which Sohymdn 
had done his brother, ordered him to be ferved in the fame 
manner (*), in the year 664, after he had reigned twenty years. Hej. 664, 
He left for his fuccefTor his fon Kay Khoj'raw, who had his A. D 
confirmation from the fame Khan^. 1265. 

It is evident, from the teflimop^/ oi Jhulfaraj, a fubjeft auzVii ?r- 
of the Seljilkian empire, backed by that of the Creek writers, gard to 
that Jzzo'ddin immediately fucceeded his father Gayatho'd- 
diii. It appears alfo, that foon ^ittr Rokno^ddin's being fet up 
by the Mo^ols, and the monarchy divided between them, 
they both reigned at the fame time for feveral years, each 
in his refpeclive territories : tliat, at length, Jzzo'ddin, be- 
ing expelled by the Mogols or Tatars, Rokndddhi reigned 
alone (f) over the whole. It feems therefore but jufl, that^'^^''^/'^'-* 
Az'^o' ddtn ^or\SA be reckoned among the Soltans, as well 2i%^oltans, 
Rokno'duhi ; and the rather, as we find him named firft on 
the coin mentioned by /Ibulfaraj. But whether we divide 
the reigns of the two brothers, ending that of Jzzo'ddin with 
his laft abdication, or make but one reign of both, it m\x9c 
be obferved, that Kondam'ir (or whatever author D'Hcrbelot 
took thefe few particulars from, fcr he recites no one), dif^ 
agrees with Ahulfaraj in two or^ three very eflential points : 
I . According to him, there were no more than two brothers, hftances 
RohwWdin and Alaoddun ; whereas Ahiirfaraj affirms there thereof, 
were three ; of whom Azzoddln was the eldeft. 2, He fays, 
that Alad'ddln was fent to the Khan by Roknd'ddin. Abii'U 
faraj fays, Azzoddln fent both him and Roknd'ddin on that 
erabafly. 3 . He affirm.s, that Alaoddin returned into, 

^ D'Herb. p. 822, art. Soliman ben Caikhofrou. 

(*) Ahulftda fays, that May- Salaho ddhi, per Bahadin. edit. 
nc'ddin al Ber<rj:dna, the Tatar Schyltenf. p. 59- 
.general, hereafter -mentioned, (f) Abulfeda, in the fara ; 
being oftendcd with Roknoddlv, place, fays, they reigned tog'-'- 
ilijvyhim. Excerptaadfoi. liite ther for a time, and tljie^.-^i^/c^;- 

o\{din alone. 
S 4 ' and 

s64 ^he Scljuks cf Rum. B. I. 

and was there poifoned by Rokno'dJin. ^^'Ibulfaraj affirms, on 
the contrary, that .-Jlao'dJin died on the road into Tntary. 

With regard to this .•//^J'V^.t?, which-ever death he died, he 
rnay have bteu one of the .^/ar/cidms mentioned in the Turki/h 
hiftory, under whom the father oiOthman fcrved ; for he was a 
King or Solian in the fhare of the iV//«Aw« dominions, which 
was given him, as appears by the above-mentioned coin. 
Anatolia In the reigns of thcfe two Solans, the Roman empire, 
cicr-ruK which, ever fince the death of Gay.itho'ddin Kay Khofra-cj^ 
rJ Ilain by Thcochrus Lnjkaris, in 1210, fecms to have been free 

from the depredations of the Turks, began to be invaded by 
them with greater fury than ever it had been before : not fo 
much from inclination, which governed their former invafions, 
as neceffity, which obliged them to it in their own defence. 
For as the difTentions between the two brothers gave encou- 
ragement to the governors towards the borders of the Seljuki- 
thtfugi- ^„ dominions to fet up fur themfelves ; fo, on the invafion of 
*jy, the J\Io'7ols, the Turks, to avoid them, retired weftward, in 

great multitudes, under different commanders : who, the bet- 
ter to fecnre themfelves againft thofe formidable enemies, and 
gain new poHeflions in the place of thofe they had abandon- 
ed, fell, with all their force at once, on every fide of theRo- 
r:an territories in y^Jia, which then were in a mofl defence- 
lefs flate ; and, in the compafs of a few years, fubdiied the 
whole, as will be fhewn more at large in the next reign.' 

*T}:irt:cnth KAT KkcfrcTM III. fon of Rokno'dd'vi Soleyman, being but 

Sdtdn, an infixnt when he afcended the throne in 664, Maka Khan, 

KayKhof-virho married his mother, appointed Pcrvanch Kafhi{X) for his 

raw III. tutor (or Atabelc). This Soltan reigned eighteen years ; at 

the end of which, in 682, he was killed, by order of Jhmcd 

Khan (K), who fucceeded /!u:ka Khan ; and Majfud, fon of 

KayLrxs, was afterwards appointed his fucceffor by Argun 

Khhn, who fucceeded Ahmed '. 

This is all which D'Ht-rbeht furniAies from the oriental 
authors, relating to this prince, whom he reckons the twelfth 
Soltan ; nor does Abiilfaraj mention any of the Soltans after 
Azzo\idtn, uncle to Kay Khq/'raiv, However, we meet with 
a paflage in him, which we fhall cite, as it relates to Pcrvanehy 
the Soltan's tutor, and the affairs of his kingdom. 

' D'Here. p. 239 1- \z-j, ait. Calkhofru troificmc, & Argoun 

(|1 Per'iaf:ch\% the fofter r^r- led his father, entron'd him in 
yr<7»» pronunciation of 5rr'T'.-.-7r.-?;{', hisftcad. 

who, Aiu//iJa (>ys, having kil- (K) Surnamed NikudarOglan; 

he ^MZCCC^ziMckaKhau, in 68 1 . 


C. 4. ^hirleenth SoJldn, Kay Khofraw III. 265 

i That author informs us, that, in the 3'ear 675, Bendck-Sohdn of 
dir, Soltan of Egypt, excited by feme fugitives, refolved to Egypt 
invade the territories of Rum ; which king Lcun, fon of the^'^'^J- ^75* 
king of Jrmcnia (Batem), being informed of, fent notice ^' ■^* 
to the Mogol comm-anders who were in that country. But '27°" 
this advice being reprefented to them as falfe, by Berxvdnah 
(L), who wilhed well to Bendokddr, and hated the /Inncnian 
king, they paid no regard to it. So that the. Egyptir.ns came i "'vades 
upon them at a time when they were fo overcome with liquor : 
that they "could not mount their horfes : and as, by their 
7'a/a (M), or laws, they are obliged not to fly till they have 
faced the enemy, they gave them battle ; in which all the 
great Mogol officers were llain, befides mo/l of their men, 
and 2000 out of 3000 Gcrj (N), who were with them. The 
Egyptians likcwife loft a vaft number on their fide. Jier-wa- 
nah, on this news, fled to a caflle for fecurity. BendokdAr, 
after his victory, encamped in a place called Kaykohdd, near 
Kayfanyah, where he remained fifteen days, without doing the 
leafi hurt, or taking any thiiig without paying for it. Nor did 
he enter that city more than once; faying, that he came not to 
lay wafte the country, but to deliver its lord from (iavery. 

As foon as Ahuha Khun (O) was informed of this misfor-rf'/Vrj on 
tunc, he gathered forces, and marched into the country ofihe 
the Rums : but Bcndokdar, knowing himfelf unable lo with- 
ftand him, had retired into Syria before he arri\-ed. Bcr- 
"vjdnah went to meet the Khan, who received him without 
any fliew of refeiitment, and took him with him in his re- 
turn to the Tak (P) ; under pretence of coafulting what num- 

(L) Bcrivanah is the Arab name, given to., or afTumed by, 

pronunciation ; Pc-rvamh (or Hulakit, whofe del'cendants are 

Pari'ana, as Hayton the Anne- thence called Ilkhanians. He 

nian writes) is the Berfian. feems to have afllimed it in inii- 

The fame Hayton fays, he was tanonofTumena Itiban (2), who. 

commander of the Tatars in firfl iitroductd it ; and to fhew . 

Tz^r/iy (i), fo he calls the Set' he vva defcended from that hero. 

jukian dominions in Afia minor: This title differs from that of//i7>& 

but lie mufl be underflood of a ox Ilek Khan, allamed hyTurkijh 

civil, not a military, ofRcer. princes, who pofTelTed the coun- 

(M) Or TaJ/'a, laws military try of /Aj/i; wafiied on thefouth 

and civil, made by Ji.nghi'z by the river Sihtin or Sir, and 

Khan, but faid to have been wl'.ofe capital was T(3;iA!-.2/, or, as 

framed firft by OgL% Khan, and others fay, Nobakht. D'Herh. 

only revived by the other. bibl. orient, p. 488, art. //<3,^. 

(N) Or Kurj ; called by us (P) yf/fi/J is the piace of en- 

Ce:rgians, inilead o(Garja?.'s. camping, or where he en- 

^O) // A'/'i?? is atitle, or fur- camped. 

(i) Ilayt. de 'Taturis, caf, 34.. (?) Cee lifore, p. 45. 


Z6& 7'^ Seljuks ^/ K6in. U.l. 

Khdti s (tp']ritr of forces would-be fyllicicnt to guard the countary of 
proacb. /{titfi agaiuil: the Egyptians', ■ Beinj^ aiuived in the camp, the 
Khan made a inagniiicent fea-li, wherein he took care to ply 
Bei-ujanah with mare's milk tQ^), for he. drank no wine. At 
length, the lafucr going out to draw water, Mdkif gave the figit 
to lome in waiting, who followed, and cur hiin in pieces (R). 
This WHS the end of a traitor : nor did Beitd'jMar long furvive 
him ; frx he died at Ht^js (in Syria), in his return to Egj'pf, 
Some fay of a wound received by an arrow, in the engagement 
with the Mogols ; others by poifon, infufed by one oi his do- 
melHcs in the raare'smilk, which he called for {S} to drink ^, 
Wifirahk Having nothing farther to fay from the caA, let us tuio! 
jiaic oj weftward, and view the miferable condition of tlie Greeks y 
unable to refift the power of tlie Turks, who, like an inun- 
dation, fuddenly overwhelmed them. As we have already 
mentioned the delencelefs (late of tl>e empire at this juncture, 
k wilt be proper to fet forth by what means it came to oe 
reduced to fuch a weak condition. To do this the more ef- 
I'eifluaily, it may be necelfary to take the matter a little high- 
er. Although, on the acceffion of Theodoras l^ijlaris to the 
throne, the empire of A7rc was conhned to the narrow bounds 
of only three cities, Nice, Prujli, and Philadelphia-, yet affairs 
were managed With fuch prudence, that the ftate was fectire 
againil: all its enemies. The better to oppofe the Franks, who 
tad taken Con/lantinaple, and were mafters of the fea, the 
minifters made peace with the Turks % paying tliem yearly 9 
- large fum, and then turned all their forces againft the for- 
i/VGreeks*'^^''- -"^ter they had -done with them, they applied thenrfelvcs 
iff Aii^; * to fortify the mountains, in Ipite of all tlie cndeuvoars of the 
Turks to hinder them. They built forts, committing the 
care of them to tlie natives of the country- ; and thus fecured 
the empire on that fide. 

As the people who inhabited thofe mountains were inclina- 
ble to change lides, and did not care to run any riik by re- 
filling the enemy ; the emperors attached them to their inte- 
relt, by exempting them from certain taxei,' and beflowuig 

» Abu'lf. p. 358, Sc feq. 

(Q_^ The chief liqnor ufcd tuals which were ferved at his ta- 

b^' tiiefcr'plc of Tattiry ; it is b!c ; and that he and all his of- 

called /wVAv/j, and isftrongand ficcrs catof it. /^/V/. This is one 

pleafant. of ///r-.Ycff's romances. 

(R) Iia\ro7t fays, he v/as cut (S) He was fourth Solfan of 

jn t\vir> b)' the niiddh-, accord- tht Bnhrryem Mumiuhy\\h.Q were 

in^ tcrthc ca'hnii of the Trt/drj ; ll.ives from Tatary. He was 

ard rhnr the Kli;in ordenid his called xiX^o Bihars al Salchi,-k.- 

i!(.Ui :o be. ipi:icd wi.h ci\c vie- uiou^f^ his vicloai^es. 

.\ co.t- 

C. 4.', ^hirteentk.^li^n, Kay Khafraw III, ^67 

confiderable bounties on the principal perfons among them, 
who, by that means, became very richw Tlieir zeal for their 
couiitry increafed with their wealth : fo- that they made it 
their bufinefs to furprize the^enemy in the night, carrying ofl" 
inuch .plunder ; and chofe rather to prevent thdr coiningj 
than wait for them. The care which w^as taken of the fore- 
j-efles had this happy effeifl ; and that thofe who guarded them 
might not be tempted to defert them, there were troops in 
the neighbourhood, ready to fupport them ^ 

By thefe good regulations, the affairs of the Greeks \WQXS:to ^.<:haSf^ 
io greatly advanced in the eaft, that when Mikhael ParleoJogusoiii^g. 
returned from Nice to Coiiftantinopk, npoii its being taken 
from the Latins in 1260, Jfia minor, Pafblagonia (T), Bi- A. D, 
thynia, the Greater and Capatian Phrygias, with Karia. were 1^60, 
pnder the obedience of the Romans (U), and paid them tribute ". 

But after Mikhael had removed the feat of his empire, and 
that the inhabitants, efpecially thofe who had been in com- 
mand, were returned, the people who poffefled the moun^ 
tains were exceedingly weakened ; and, no longer receiving* 
any fuccours, were tbemfelves obliged to ftifbin the weight of 
the war. To make the matter ftill worfe, the affairs of the 
empire {'m Europe) falling afterwards into a bad flare, Mi- 
khael Paleo'ogiis, by the advice of Kadenus., governor of Con- 
Jtantinopte, ffripped thofe people, who were rich, of their ef- 
' feffs ; and, allowing each forty crowiis peiifion, ordered the 
refl of the revenues arifing from the lands, j^nd which amount- 
ed to confiderabie fums, to be brought to the treafury .■ v/hlch 
ill treatment dimlnifhed their flrength, and took away their' 

The emperor, in all likelihood, was the more eafily In- Turks 
duced to do this, as he apprehended no danger from the {nl&foi-ced 
of the Turks ; whom he kept at peace by continual treaties, 'ivc/^''-t'3^V: 
and who were too much employed by the Tatars to give him 
any dillurbance. But that which fcemed to promife mofl fe- 
curity, proved mofl pernicious to his interefl : for fliortly af- 
ter, by an unforefeen event, the Turks a-oiiding weflward, to 
avoid the army of the enemy, and being too many for the 
country, to make themfelves room, began to invade the Roman 
empire j or, to fpeak in the wcurds of our author, the moft 

* Pakh. l.i. c. 2, 3. V DuKAS, c, 2. 

(T) Bulgaria is added here. latia, Pa7;jphylia, Armenia^ He' 

(U) T\iQ Turks, who a little l€nopont,PyJi'dia,Lycia,macx\\zt 

before had taken Likconia, were provinces. C^lofyria is added j 

tiien mailers oi Kappadocia, Ca- perhaps by miftake. 



268 The Seljuks cf Rum." B. I. 

vnlhnt among the Turks, finding, after being vanquiftied by 
the Tatars, tiiat they had no other recourfe but their arms, 
retired into the mountains, and committed robberies. AVith 
this view, they aflemblcd in great numbers, and attacked the 
Romans', who, being weak, were obliged to yield to them. 
Sei^c the They would have fuffered themlclves to be quite driven 
mountains. out of the country, if the penfions v.hich they ftill received 
had not with-held them. The defire of preferving that little 
which was left them made them defend the places, and de- 
fire the aid of Roman troops, when they were hard prefled : 
but then they never cxpofed themfclves to make fallies, or 
fight in the open field ; and as foon as thofe falaries were re- 
trenched, fome of the foldiers went over to the enemy, and 
the reft retired whither they thought fit. 

The Turks, having thus become mafters of thofe parts, 
made incurfions through the country, plundering it at plea- 
fure; and extremely incommoded the Roman forces, who were 
continually harrafTed between them in theeaft, and the Franks 
in the weft ^. 
Thecoun- As the emperor had not forces enough to divide them, and 
try de- thought it of mofl importance to prefcrve that part of his 
fencehji : dominion which lay in Europe, he employed them chiefly 
againft the laft enemy, wlio threatened Conjianfmople itfelf. 
By this means the eaft came to be neglefted ; and, being de- 
flitute of troops, as well as garrifons, was expofed to the 
A. D. ravages of the Turks : fo that about the time that Soltany^z- 
^^'^^- zo'ddin made his efcape from /linum, the affairs of that coun- 
try were in dreadful confufion ; efpecially about the river Me- 
ander, where the Turks had feized many towns and monafte- 
ries : but John the Defpot, repairing thither in time, faved the 
chief of them, and fecured Tralles, Karyjler, and other ad- 
\anced places. He likewife prevented the lofs of the Mage- 
donans, thofe expert archers, who were in danger of being 
fubdued, for want of the forces which had been called away 
to the defence of the weft. The Turks, intimidated by the 
vigour with which the Defpot proceeded, fent to offer him 
their prifoners, and demand a peace, which was granted. 
ofprejfedhy B u T while the emperor by his ai-ms fa\'ed towns on one fide, 
taxes ; he loft whole nations and provinces on the other, by his exac- 
tions : for he laid fuch heavy taxes on the Mar'iandincs, Bu' 
ce//arians,:indPiip/}/cigonians,chhev to pay his foreign troops, 
or keep thefe people in fubjeclion, caufing them, at the fame 
time, to be raifed with fo much rigour ; that he quite ruined 
the country, and obliged the inhabitants to deliver up the 

^ Pakh. 1. i. c. 5, 6. 


C. 4,' thirteenth Saltan, Kay Khofraw III. 2(^9 

fortrcfles, and put themfelves under the dominion of the 
Turks, in hopes of better ufage y. 

The affairs of the Franks likewifc requiring the prefence A. D. 
of the De/pot in Eitrof>e, the country about the Meander, as 1267. 
well as the reft of the eaft, became expofed afrefti to the 
depredations of the Turks. The mountain, defended by the 
forts of Jbahi, Kaajia, and Mazedon : the once famous pro- 
vince oi Karia alfo lay open to their incurfions. Trakhiitm, isovsr-ntn 
Stadia, Strabilon, and the lands lying oppofite to the ifland 
of Rhodes, which, but a little while before, had been reduced 
under the power of the Romans, were become the retreat of 
the enemy, from whence they made their inroads. The peo- 
ple inhabiting the northern coafts of Jjia minor (not to men- 
tion thofe within land), the Mar iandines, MoHnians, and the^ / 
generous Enetes, were ruined to a deplorable degree : the 
fortrelfes of Kromitus, Jmajlris, and Tios, which are near the 
fea, had nothing left of their ancient fplendor ; and muft 
have been deftroyed, but for the advantage of their fituation, 
which madeiteafy to relieve them. In fhort, Jnatolia wa.s 
fo over-run by the enemy, that the Sangarius ferved as the 
frontier, and there was no pofTibility of getting to Hcraklca, 
by land. This bad flate of the eafl was owing to the trea- 
chery of the men in command ; who, that they might have 
the Ijetter opportunity to emich themfelves, made the empe- 
ror believe the lofTes which happened in thofe parts were 
fo inconfiderable, that it was not worth his while to crofs the 
fea to repair them : which falfe report, as Mikhacl faid him- 
felf, was what contributed mofl of all to its ruin ^. 

However, no fteps were taken, for feveral years after, Tralles 
to put a flop to the progrefs made by the Turks, till y)f/-W'«^'. 
kbael, refle(51ing on the ruin of Karia, Antiokh, and the t' P' 
neighbouring country ; and on the necefllty there was of fend- 
ing fuccours to Kayjlro, Priene, Mile/as, and Magedon, fent 
Jndronicus, his fon, and aflbciate in the empire, with a con- 
fiderable army, accompanied by a great many perfons of di- 
flincffion. In his march along the Meander, he beheld the 
ruins of Tralles (X), formerly a famous city'; and, being 
charmed with the beanty of its fituation, refolved to rebuild 
it, and give it the name either of Jndroniccpolis or Paleohgo- 
polis. As the mafons were at \vork, they found an oracle 
gut on a piece of marble, declaring ; that, in time to come, a 

y Pakh. 1. iii. c. 21,22, 28. 'Ibid. I. iv. c. 27. 

(X'l By this, Tralles mufl have yet the author hns not taken no- 
been lately ruined by th.e-Turk£\ tjce.of ic remarkable an event. 



270 9%i Seljuks of RiVml B. I. 

f»rin(?e fhouM raifc this city out of its ruins, and build it 
^vith greater miigrjliccnce than ever. 
jf'fiJre ANORONICUS, applying the oracle to himfelf, in hopes 

brdc/'e. of th^ long life which \vas promifcd to its refiorer, undertook 
to rebuild it, and fet about the bufincfs with great earnell- 
nefs. B-iit this oracle was no other than an illufion, which 
proved the death of an infinite number of people. When 
the wftlls were finifhed along the Bleamlcr, no fewer thao 
35,000 cume to inhabit the place. Ht>w6ver, they were' fcarce 
warm in theii' houfes, when they found tliemfclvcs of a fud- 
den befieged by an army ot Turks, commanded hy Mantakhiitf 
furii.imcd S(t!face ; which, in their language, fays our author^ 
fignifics a fliong man. As the foil anprdcd no fprings, and 
there wei-e neither fountains, ciltcrns, nor wells, in the place, 
Libadctrius, the grand Caii:ulary, v/ho commanded there, knew 
not what to do. The inhabitants wou-ld have been content, 
though reduced to eaj vermin, and even dead bodies, could 
they have only found drink with fuch bad food. Many died 
for thirft (Y ) ; and others, to avoid that death, went to beg 
relief from the enemy, who drove them back, or killed 
_ them. 
- ^'/.A Those within relying on the oracle, and the hopes of 
^yr. / f<i<^cour, the T'/z/'/.r lefolved to make a laft effort ; and, ap- 
^ -^^ * proaching the tvall, under cover of their budders, fapped 
it. When they had fixed tiie fhorings, they once more fum' 
moned the befieged to furrcnder ; and, on their refufal, fet 
fire to the wood : a bi^each being thus made, they took the 
city by ftorm, and put all the inhabitants to the fword. Be- 
fore this, tliey took Nijfii ; wliich, in like manner, fell into 
iheir hands, for w-ant of forces to relieve it. What is moft 
firange, the young emperor was at Nyjnpkciim ail the while 
tbey were performing thofe two exploits : after which they ra- 
vaged and plundered Anafolia without controul. 
^ithynia The Turks, encouraged by thefe fuccelfes, crofTed the rl- 
taidiva/Ii. ver Sangarhis, and laid waAe the country to the wefl of it. 
■A- D. On this news, the empa-or il/,-^/\':i7, rriifing all the forces he 
*^^*' could, in hafte fet forward to ftop their inroads. When he 
beheld the dreadful dcfolation which they had made, he wa?; 
flruck with the deepefl: anguifli. On this occafion he told 
the patriarch of J/cxaiiilriii, that the attemps of certain per- 
fons to fiir up his fubjeiSts againf^ him, by condemning his 
condu(5l:, had obliged him to neglefl the care of the provin- 

(Y) Could not the Meavder fays ran through the city ? vol. 
have fupplicdthcni with diink ? ii. p.-rtz. p. 67. 
or the ftrcam which DvxFois^k 


C. 4." Fouriesnth SoMn, Mafiud 11. « 7 J' 

tes, in. order' to, 'look to his ovvnfafety : and- thrat-'thef go^ 
verQor-s, to whom" he had intrufled thofe diftant- parts or" his 
dominions, had concealed from him the diftrefs they were in, 
dther becaufe th^-y had been gained ov-er by prefents, or thro* 
fear of being punifiied for their negleft. . , . . 

.They found fo great a quantity: of fruit und^r ttxXtirecs^The fron- 
that it ferved to ftibfrft one half of the army. The Turks tiers 
ierired as fail as the emperor advanced. : who w.antiog ihtp>'>^'i*^'^'^ 
neceflai-y conveniencies for putfuing tliem in the -hilly conn- <^^* 
tries, v/hithsr they had retreated ; he was content- ta fecure 
the froixtsers, by repairing the old forts, and bnilfiiing new 
ones in tl"sofe places where the SangTrii's \\'as moif narrow and 
foi'dable. He hke\^^ife gave ortki s to fortiry the river, for a 
certain fpace, with. Srfees; whofe branches weie fo thick, zad 
well intermixed, that a fniikc . could not make his way tiiro' 
them \ 

MJSSUD, furnamed Gityiafi'o'ddfi:, was the fon of Az-^Fourfefnlh 
zo'ddhi Kaykaivs, fon of Ciiyatho ddlr^ Kay Kbcfraixi, two of 5i?/a '■.•.', 
the preceding Soitans. This prince had. btit little Authority Mafiud, 
left hkn in the dominions which his predecefibrs h-id con- 
quered in y-i^^.^?«i/z5r,. and iht greats?- Jnnenia, : for, in ef- 
feft, thofe countries . wcxa intireiy fubjec^ to Jrguii Khati, 
from whom he received the inveiliture of them ''. DUi<:rbe- 
lot^ who gives -this fiiort account of him, at the end of an 
article relative to a dL'Ferent prince, mentions the time nei- 
ther when he began nor ended his reign : but in tlie table or 
lift of the Soitans of Rum % his death is put in 687. It niuAHe?. 6S7; 
be obferved, that there v.-as an interregnum of one year, at A. D. ' 
leaft of fome montlis, from tlie death o'i Kay Khofraxv, to the 128S, . 
death o{ Ahmed; and it does not appear \\\iz\\ Argvn Khan. 
Invofted Mafj^.d : but fuppoiing it to have been in his firfc 
year, or 683, then ALifj-ud muil haveieigned but four or live 
years at moft. 

This is ail the information v/liich has yet come to on\'HisJ!o>y 
hands, from the oriental hiftorlans, concerning this prince \i»!prft::U 
as for the Greek writers, their memoirs are fo confufed and; 
imperfect, that we can deliver nothing with certainty from 
t-liem. We find no more relating to Rukratin, or Rokn^'MhXy 
than what has been already taken notice of, altho' he mufl ■ 
have reigned feveral years after's expulfiOn; nor 
any mention of Kay Khofranv, who reigned after him for the 
fpace of eighteen ycarj. They tell you, indeed, that the foil 

*Pakk. 1, vi. c. 20, 21, 20. ^D'Hert.. p. v6^, art. Mai- 
knid. fii. de Mohammed, liib lin, * .ibid p- ^rx:.. 

i■l^ The Se]ji]!-:s of Rum. B. I^ 

of /IzcthMn, or Azzoddln, who retired to Conjlantinople, and 
v/hom they call Alnlck, did, a long time after his retreat 
from thence with his father, recover his dominions. Wc 
cannot pofitively fiy that tiiis Alalek is the Majfud of the ori- 
ental a'ith(jrs, although there are circumllances in his ftory 
which favour that opinion. 
Obtains Thf. hiAorian who gives the beft account of this matter, is 
the khig- Pakhamir. We have already relate:^, from the fame author, that 
dom. Malck, whom he likewife calls Mabk Majur (Z), fled, along with 

his father Azatint's, trom the caftle ot Aine into the country 
beyond the Eux'inc fea. There they wandered together, for 
{bme yeirs : till atter the death of .Vz^rfm^'j (A), he croHed 
the fea into Af:a viuior ; and, arriving at Thymenum, gained 
' the favour of Argun, Khan of the Tatars. By this means 
he became maftcr of the county, as his proper inheritance; 
and reduced to his obedience the principal Turkijh com-* 
manders. But Amur (B), father of All, having gathered a 
confiderable army of Tatars, fell upon Malck, and reduced 
him to fuch an extremity, that he refoivcd to go with his 
wife and children, and fubmit himfelf to the emperor. He 
repaired Hrfl: to Hcraklca or Pont us, and then to Confiantiiw 
pic ''. The ftory thus far is related fomewhat differently by 
the fame author, in another place. He there fays, that Aia^ 
lek, a long time after his f.ither's death, crOiling the Et/xine, 
flopped at Kafiamona ; where, having gained the good-will 
of the Tatars, he made an attempt to recover his father's 
kintrdom : but having been defeated by Amur (C), he retired 
to Hcraklca, aiui thence to Conftantinopk '. 

The emperor Androniais , who lucceeded Mikhael, iDcing 
then at Xy:uphcuv:, Malck left his wife at Conjlantinople, and 
crolfed over into Afia. But when he was near Endromit (D), 
he began to fufpeft the emperor's friendiliip ; and obferving 
that his conductor had too watchful an eye over him, com- 
plained openly of it, and quitted him ; declaring, that if any 
body offered to Aop him, he would repulfe him vigoroufly. 
He retired to the Turks ; and having, in a fhort time, acquired 
a more illuftrions reputation, and more conHderable forces 
than he had before, Aynur became fo much afraid of him, 
that he came with his feven fons, and humbly fubmitted to 


it again. 

^ Pakh. 1. X. c. 25. 

(Z) .\ inilliike, probably, for 
J^h'fit, or M.:fl.A. 

(A) Elfjw'htTe it is f.iici, a 
loiifi; time afrt-r his father's death; 
which iULit have been the cafe. 


^ Ibiu. 1. xiii. c. 2::. 

(B) Called by others Ilomur-j 
and Oi. er. 

(C) Who was fetded there- 

(D) Ox Adromitium. 

him : 

C. 4.^ Fourteenth Soltdn, MalTud. 273 

him. But while he lay proflrate at Malek's feet, to implore 
his clemency, that prince reproached him with his former 
treachery ; and having taken a glafs of wine, as if to drink, s/ays 
extended his hands: on which fignal thofe in waiting drew Onier. 
their fwords, and flew j^mur, with his fons. 

However, one efcaped, named Jli, who refolved to pe- 
riih, rather than not revenge the death of his father and bro- 
thers. With this view he gathered a confiderable number of 

♦ Turks ; and ranging the country after the manner of robbers^ 
it was Ma/ek's ill .fortune at length to fall in his way : for 
as his horfe ran full fpeed, he fell, and threw his rider, who li fain by 
at the fame inftant was run through by his enemy. Ah. 

A LI was fo puffed up with this fuccefs, that, gathering 

. fome troops, he began to ravage the Roman territories ; into 
which the river Sangarius, by an unforefeen accident (E), 
gave him admittance. At the head of this account we are 
told, that ylli, and Najlratius, his brother, had been a long 
time with the Romans as hoflages : and that, having gained 
the aff^ions of the Turks, who dwelt about Kaftamona, they 
committed divers a6ls of hoftility againft the people who in- 
habited towards the Euxine fea, and the river Sangarius, 

without daring to advance farther; but that his infolence 

increafed, after he had flain Malek Mafur (F) (rather Mafut), 
the fon of Soltdn /Izatijies ^. 

There is nothing in this account of the Greeks inconfifl:- 

ent with that of the orientals. On the contrary, it feems coa- 

«"Pakh. 1. 

(E) The accident which gave 
jili a pafiajje over the Sangarius, 
was this. In the month oi March, 
that liver, delerting its fortifica- 
tions, made by the emperor Mi- 
khaelPaleologus, refumed its an- 
cient bed, where the emperor 
Jujiifiian had built a bridge ; 
and although the river Melan 
took: its place, yet it had not 
water' fufiicient to fill its cha- 
nel. Afterwards the Sa?igarius, ' 
being greatly fwelled with the 
rains, changed its courfe a fe- 
cond time, carrying with it fuch 
a vaft quantity of gravel, mud, 
and earth, that it might be crof- 
fed on foot. Thofe who garri- 
foned the faid fortifications, fee- 

(i) r,2khatr.i'-, /. xiii. r. 22, 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. T firmed 

X. c. 25. 

ing themfelves expofed, by this 
alteration, to the ihroads of the 
enemy, withdrew, A month 
after, the river took its ufual 
chanel ; as if it had left it only 
to difperfe the garrifons, and 
favour the incaifions of the 
enemy (i). 

(F) Some render k,J/fer}Aa.- 
lee Ma.{\ir/}adJIain the /or. cf So/- 
ian Azatines : but that is to fay, 
after the fon oiAxati?2es had flain 
the fon oi Azatines., which is ab- 
fyrd. Befides, Jli, in fla . mgMa- 
hli, flewthefon Oi Azatines ; and 
from thence it was that he grew 
fo elated or infolent, as to ra- 
vage ths jRi7»/«;; territories. 

474 ^^^ Scliuks ofRxxm. B. I] 

Maiek, firmed by two circumrtiinccs : one is the name of Mafur^ 
Mailud. which is (ioubtlefs a miltake for .'1/^?////, \\%\^^G recks write 
Majfiid ; the other, that he was advanced by the favour of 
Argun Khan, as it appears Mnjfuil was. 

Wu mull Dot forget to mention that 7l7a/t7ir, a confiderablc 
time after his retreat from Endromity fent for his wife, who, 
by the emperor's confcnt, went to him : but his daughter 
remained in hoftage (G), as well as Conjlantine Malek (H), 
another fon of Azat'ina, who h;ui been baptized, and lived 
after the manner of the Creeks ^. It is not me4Uioned at 
what time be fcnt for the Soltana : but it niull have been be- 
fore he obtained the kingdom, in regard the emperor Mikhael 
died the year before that event; namely, in the year 1283. 
JIIJSSUD was fucceeded by his neplicw Kaykobdu. 

fifteenth KJYKQB^4D, the laft Soltan of Rtny^, was the fon of 

Soltait, farajnorZj fon of Kaykaivs ; and fucceeded his uncle Majfud^ 

Kayko- under the authority of Cazan Khan, who confirmed or in- 

-y-cfted him in the dominions of his anceftors, in the year 

A. D. 687 (I) : but having revolted againft that prince fome years 

izZ'i. after, the Mrjgcls took from him all his dominions : then feiz- 

ing his perfon, put him to death ; and, at the fame time, an 

end to this laft branch and dynafly of the Seljukians ^. 

This happened, according to the table of the Seljukian 
princes giveo by D'Herbcht, in the year 700 of the Hejrahf 
or of Chr'^ 1300- T)\Q Creek hiftorians make no mentioa 
of this Soltan, with whom they had no affairs : the Turks, 
whom they were at that time engaged in war with, having 
been the Seljiik commanders ; who, taking advantage of the 
diff ra(ffions caufed by the MogcJ invalion, threw off their de- 
pendence on the Soltan, and fet up for themfelves. 
Philantro- ^'"^' order to reprefs their progrefs in the Rornan territories, 
penus re- tbe emperor Andronicus made Alexis, furnamed Ph'dantrope^ 
iiih: niis (.who was his cup-bearer, and fecond fon oiTarkoniatesy 

the protoveftiary), governor of Ajia minor and Lydia. Phi- 
lantropeniis, having then under his command the troops of 
Kandia, and at length all the armies of the eaff, difplayed 
fb much valour, and gained fo many viftories, that, during 
his government, which continued a long time, he reftored 

i Pakh. 1. xiii. c. 22. •» D'Herb. p. 2^0, art. Caikobad. 

(G) She was given in mar- to be ii\\& Conflantiiie than Maf- 
riage to IJr.ak Malek, as the fiui. 

reader will find hereafter. (I) D^Htrbelot, in another 

(H) Other authors mention place, p. 363, art Gar.anKhan, 

bat one fon. Gr,-^o/v?j c.-\l!i him puts it in 702, which is two 

Malek Shdk ; who is niov; likely years after the end of his rcij^n, 

and of the SJjukian dynaffy. 


C. 4." Fifteenth SoUdrty Kaykobad. > 275 

the affairs of the empire in the eafl: ; and at the fame time, 
by his great liberality and addrefs, gained the affeftion both 
of the Romans and their enemies. In all his expeditions he 
acquired much wealth, yet gave moft away in prefents and 
re'vvards. Of this we fhall give an inftance. Near Mela' 
dun there was a fort, called the Fort of the tvjc little •hiils 
(which our author thinks was the ancient Didymkn of the Mi^ 
lefians),' where the principal wife of Salampaces before-men- 
tioned, who was lately deceafed, had retired with ineflima- 
ble treafures. As it was not poiTible to take the place by 
force, Philantropenus, making ufe of art to gain his ends, 
thought to deceive that lady by fecret promifes of marriage. 
After flie had rejecled his propofal, perceiving that there 
\vere pofls driven into a little lake which wafhed the walls of 
the fort, he ordered planks to be faftened to them, with 
ropes, and built towers on them ; at the fame time covering 
the reH: of tlie lake with vefTels filled with foldiers, and en- 
gines proper for taking cities, he quickly became mafter of 
the place, and all the riches, which he diflributed among his 
followers. Thefe perfuaded him to revolt : but Libadarius, defeatedl^ 
governor of Neokajlrmn, Lydia, and Sardes, marching againfl Libada- 
him at Nympheum, he was betrayed by the Kandiots : who, rius. 
feizing him at the head of his army, delivered him into the 
hands of that commander, who immediately ordered his eyes ^' -^' 
to be put outi His forces, which were very numerous, con- '^9°* 
filling of Turks as well as Romans, fled ; while Libadarius, 
with his fmall forces, made a great flaughter of them. 

The Turks, fome timd' after, to revenge the fhame of this Greek /?/*- 
defeat, affembling in great numbers, laid walle the \v\io\efairsmendt 
country, from the Euxine fea to that of Rhodes. To put a 
ftop to thefe diforders, the emperor fent over John Tarko- 
mates with money and troops, although he was an obflinate 
abettor of the fchifm which then prevailed in the church. 
This he did, upon a perfuafion that a diifenter from the efta- 
blifhed religion might love his country ; and that to defeat 
the enemies of a ftate, depended more on the military fiiill, 
than orthodoxy of its generals. In effeft, Tarkoniates, by 
his conduft, proved the emperor's fentiments to be jufl. He 
brought the foldiery to a proper regulation, by preferring 
poor men of merit to rich cowards ; and obliging thofe to do 
duty, who, prefuming on their wealth, defpifed the orders of 
their commanders. By this m.eans, in a fliort time, he raifed 
a numerous army, and equipped a powerful fleet, v^ith whicii 
he had fuch good fuccefs, both by land and fea, that he foou 
teftored the affairs of the eaffc. But they were ruined again, Relapfe 
by the negligence and bad conduft of thofe who fucceeJed amnjj, 
T 2, him: 

2yS Hijiory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. II. 

him : for the ^oney, appointed for payment of the foldierj, 
being mifapplicd, the troops dwindled away by degrees, and 
laid the country open anew to the incurfions of the enemy ''. 
Fffc of Among the commanders who headed different armies of 

Othman, Turks, and invaded the empire in different parts at the fame 
time, Othman was one ; who, fiom a fmall beginning, in a 
# few years laid the foundation of a mighty empire, which 
rofe out of the ruins ot the Scljitkian. With regard to this 
latter it may be obferved, that the empire of the Seljuks ended 
properly with Gnyatho\Uin Kay Khofraiu, the eleventh Soltan, 
who, after his defeat and loffes, in Hejrah 641, became their 
tiibutary. This is noted by MtVlfeda ', who marks Hejrah 551 
{.■1. D. 1 1 56), for the firft year of Kilij Arflan II, which gives 
liim a reign of only thirty-feven years, inftead of forty, as we 
have affigned him in our table of Sol tans : that remark not 
having occurred time enough to correcft the miffake (K). 

h Pakh. l.ix. c. g,- 10, 14, 25. * Aeu'lf. excerpt, ad 

fin. vitx Saladin. edit. Schukens. p. 5^7. 

(K) It may be proper farther din Saltan Shah : that this latter, 

to relate from Alulfeda, that A7- after taking Koniyah from Malek 

lij Arjldn had ten Tons: that to Shah, went to Akf ra: that there 

Kothbo'ddin MaLk Shah he gave died his fatiier ; and MalekShdb 

i< ; and C./Juria, to Kurod- foon after. 


The Hifiory of the Moguls and Tartars from the 
time of Jenghiz Khan. 


A Dcfcriptlon of Weftern Tartary, as divided 
at frefent among the three Branches c/'Mungls, 
or Moguls. 

Di'vifun /'"^ RE AT Tatary, or Tartary, as has been already ob- 
c/Tatary. Vj" ferved % is divided into eaft and weif. The eaffern 
Tatary is poffeifed by feveral nations ; who, being 
fubjevff to the Manchcivs, at prefent maAers of China, go by 
that general name. The w^eflern Tatary, which is conlider- 
ably more than the other, is in like manner occu- 
pied by a great number of nations or tribes of people, who 
arc called Mungh, or, Mungals, by themfelves, and Moguls or 
Tatars indifferently by other nations. 
' See before, p. 9. 



C.I. Since JcnghizKhin. 277 

These Mungls or Moguls, after various revolutions, rhcPrcpei- 
moft remarkable of which will be related in the following ^'^""g^^ 
hiflory, became latterly divided into three great bodies, under '""""^'"-''" 
different fovereigns. One retained the name of the Mungis ''"■"V"** 
fimply; the fecond took that oi Kalkas; and the third af- 
fnmed the name of Aluths, or Eluths : and among thefe three 
Mungl powers is all the weffern Tartary divided. So that, 
at prefent, weflern Tartary may be faid to fall under a tri- 
partite divifion : however, it muft be obferved, that as the 
country of the two firfl: of -thefe three Mogul branches, as 
well as that part properly called eaflern Tartary y are fubjedl 
to China; therefore fome authors, particularly the jefuits, 
who have given us of late the hiflory and defcription of that 
- empire, divide Great Tartary in general into nearly two equal 
parts, by affigning mount Altay for the weflern limit of 
eaflern Tartary i Perhaps it would be better to divide weflern 
Tartary hi to two parts : that is, to make mount Alt ay the 
partition between them, and afcribe the eaflern part, com- 
prizing the CQuntries of the Mongols and Kalkas, to the do- 
minion of China. But in this cafe every hiflorian may do as 
he thinks befl. 


Country of the Mungis properly fo called. 

*TpHE country of the Mungis, or Mungals, called by xheCountry 15 
-*- European geographers Mongalia (A), is bounded on the Mungis, 
eafl by eaflern Tartary ; on the fouth, by the Chinefe wall ; 
on the wefl and north-weil, by the Kobi, or great defiu-t, and 
country of the Kalkas, from which it is divided by the. Karii, 
or limits fixed by the late emperor of China Kang-hi; and on 
the north by the Kalkas, and part of eaflern Tartary. This 
is a very large region, of no lefs extent than the Tatary jiifl 
mentioned. It is fituated between the 124th and i42d de- 
grees of eaflern longitude, arfd between the 38th and 4/ch 
degrees of latitude : fo that it is in length, from the borders 
of eaflern Tatary in the eafl, to the parts over-againfl Ninc- 
hya, in China, to the weft, about 300 leagues; and about 
ioo in breadth from north to fouth, although not every-where 
fo broad, as may appear by the maps ^. 

* Du Halde defcript. China & Tartary, vol. ii. p. 249, 261. 
Eng:l. fol. edit. 

(A) It fhould r-ither be called guls,OT Muvgls -, and fo we find 

Mcgi<lijidv, ox Muvgliftdn; that part of T'^/ary named by the 
is, in the Mungl, or Turkijh Ian- oriental hiftorians. 
guage, the «ountry of the Mo- 

T 3 ' ' 'Ths 

Hijlory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. II, 

The part of Tatary within this divifion, has been the 

fcene of the gr^atcfl actions performed both by the eaffern 

and wcftern Tatars. Here the great empire of Jenghiz Khtin, 

and his rucccil'ors, had its riic and feat : here the empires of 

f'''" "^J'^'' Kit.iy zvitX Karakitiiy were founded; and here the prefent 

a„ tons. ^,yjpij.g of the eaftern Tatars, or Manchc-ms (now in pof- 

fellioa of China) had its beginning. Here, for feveral ages, 

bloody wars fubfifted, and many battles were fought, which 

deciled the fate of thefe monarchies. Here all the riches of 

the louthern Afidy at feveral times, were carried and difli- 

paxJ. Laftly, in thefe defarts, for a time, arts and fciences 

were culi/ated, and many populous cities flouriihed : but, 

at preienr, they are all deftroyed " ; nor do any figiis of 

wealth remain, which may ferve to witncfs the once opulent 

condition of the country. 

Mountains THESE territories of the JMiingls are full of mountains, ef- 

andri-vers. pecially in the fouth parts adjoining to China ; and are inter- 

fperfcd With rivers. Among thefe may be reckoned the JVhang- 

ho; which, paifing out of China, furrounds the country of 

Ortus, and then enters the empire again in the' province of 

Shsnfi : the Shjniti, which enters Fe-chc-li towards the fea ; 

and the Sir a Ma ran, which, rifing to the north of the Shantu, 

runs eaif, and then, turning fouth, palTes through Lyau-tong 

by the nanue of Lyaii, There are feveral lakes in this country, 

but none remarkable for their magnitude, 

Divijion The Countries of the Mungls are divided into feveral terri- 

into [land- tories, or diflrifts, according to the tribes which pofFefs them. 

ards. But fmce they have put themfelves under the protection of the 

emperor of China, they have been di\ided into forty-nine di- 

ftri<5ls called Shajfaks, that is banners, or ftandards, under 

fo many princes or chiefs. The fituation of thefe territories 

may be confidered as they refpe(5l the four gates in the great 

wall of China ; viz. Hi-fong-kevj, Kii-pe-kciv, Chang-kya- 

kew (thefe three in the province of Pe-che-li), and Sha-hcw' 

keiu, in Shan-fi. 

fl^fi Passing north from the gate Hi-fong-kei.u (B) you foon 

courfe. arrive in the countries of Karchin, Tiimet, Ohan, Naymariy 

and Korchin. 
Karchin. KARCH IN, whjch begins at the fald gate (C), is divided 
into txyo diArifts, called llandards ; the moft remarkable place 

^ Celled. Trav. 410. vol. Iv. p. 367. 

(B' Latitude 40 deg. igmin. of London, and 114° caft of 

30 records; longitude 1" 28' Paris. 

\o" well of Pe-king ; which is (C) Karchin figni/ies the black 

\ 34 call of Ferro, 1 1 1'^ 35' call tribe. 


C. fr ^^'^^"^ Jenghiz Khan. 279 

here is Chahan-Suberhan-Hohm{D). It is by far the beftPro/^r 
belonging to the Mungls ; for, -as the prefent princes of it areMungls 
originally Chincfc, they have drawn thither feveral of \\\6s"'-^^^^y- 
countrymen, who have built towns, and improved the lands, '-"-v— -^ 
Here are iikewife mines, fome of excellent tin ; with large 
forefls of fine timber : by which the great anceflor of the prefent 
family got immenfe riches. Karchin is 42 great French leagues 
from north to fouth, but much larger from eaft to weft : and 
liere are the emperor of China's fine houfes of pleafure, near 
which the late Kang-hi frequently hunted, and ufually fp^nt 
his fummer ; efpecially at J-e-ho, about forty leagues from 
Pe-king^. ' 

KORCHIN (E) Is divided into ten ftandards. Including x.orchln. 
the countries of Turheda and Chaley, or Chalayr (F). Tlie 
principal refidence of the Korchin Tatars is along the river 
^leyler (G), and their poireifions extend to the Sir a Mu- 
ren (H) ; but they have neither fprings for drink, nor wood 
for fuel, which they fupply by wells, and dung of cattle. 
The principal point of Turbeda is Haytahan Pira (I) : the 
Chaley Tatars dwell by the Nonni Ula (K). So that Korchin^ 
from north to fouth, contains aimofl four degrees, extending 
fix leagues to the nordi of Haytahan ; but it does not ex- 
ceed three degrjses four minutes from eaft to weft. 

The country oi Nay man (L) contains but one banner, orNaymaa. 
ftandard, and begins from the fouth llde of Sira Muren ; its 
principal north point being Topin-tala '' (M), 

•= Du Halde, ibid. p. 249, Sc feq, ^ Ibid. 249, 264 

(D) Hoiun, in the Ma>2chen.v (H) Lat. 43° 37' long. 6^ 
language, fignifies city ; 2,nd Su- 30' eaft. 

berhan, a ^pyramid of feveral (I) Lat. 47*^ 1 5' long. 6*^ 30^ 

ftories. Lat. 41° 33' long. 2" eaft. P;>a fignifies a fniall river, 

45' 20" eaft of Pe-king, as Muren, or Muran, a great 

(E) That is the red tribe. one. 

(F) It is written alfo y^/^'r, (K) Ula is the Manche^.v 
and Jelayr. word for great rivers. Lat. 46** 

(G) Lat. 46° 17' long. 4^ goMorig. 7° 45' eaft. 

22' eaft of P^-;^/;7_g-. Note that (L) This country begins on 

the latitudes were obferved by the Sira Mure?:, in lat. 43° 37' 

the jefuit mlffionaries, who, in by obfervation, long. 5° eaft of 

1709, 10, and 1 1 , by the empe- Pe-king. The ancient country 

ror of China's command, fur- of the Naymatts was from the 

veyed and made a map of Chi- river Selinga to the Jaiif.a, Oby^ 

nefe Tatary : the longitudes are and Irtifi. 

the refuk of their geometrical (M) Lat. 43° 15' long. 4" 

operations. 45' eaft of Pif-i/TTg-. 

T 4 OH^N 










Uljiory of the Moguls ayd Tartars, B. II. 

H J N is chiefly inhabited along the river Narkoni Pira, 
where fome rivulets, as the iShaka (N) kol fall into it. On 
this fide the latitude of 41 degrees 15 minutes, are fcen the 
ruins of a city called Orpan, or Kurban-Siiberhan-Hotun (O), 
on the little river Nuchuka, or Nuchaka, which falls into the 
Talin Ho. and Ohan, though far Icf-, are yet 
much better than Kcrchin, being interfperfed with fhrubby 
hills, which furnifli wood for fuel, and abound with game, 
efpecially quails. Thefe three countries, with Turbeda, are 
fandy, and extremely cold. 

TU MET is divided between two banneret princes, and 
inhabited chiefly beyond the river Suharhan, where occur the 
ruins of Modun Hotiin (P). This country extends fouthward 
to the great wall of China ; eaftward to the palifade inclofing 
Lyaii-tmg (Q^) ; and northward to Halha, or Ham Paychang. 

2. If you go from the gate Ku-pe-keiu (R), you enter upon 
the territories formerly part of Korchin and Onhiot, but now 
converted to a foreft, where the emperor hunts, and has feve- 
ral fine fummer-houfes. Farther north are the countries of 
Onhiot, Kcchiktcn, Parin, Sharct, Uchu Muchin, Arukorchin^ 
and Abuhanar. 

NH lOT is divided into r^vo ftandards of two princes, 
on the river Inkin (S). 

PARIN, divided alfo into two flandards, has its princi- 
pal habitation (T) on the Hara Murcn, which falls into the 
Sira Murcn. This territory is larger than Onhiot, but ia 
other refpecls like it, the foil being but indiflerent. The 
princes of thefe countries are allied to the imperial family of 
China, and are regulos of the firlt and fecond order ". 

KECH IKTEN, or Kcfikten, is divided into two Aand- 
ards, and has its principal habitation (U) on a fmall river, 
which runs north-eaft into the Sira Muren. 

UCHU Muchin, or Utfi Mufin (X), has two ftandards 
along the Hulakar, or Hulgar Pira ; its prince is a prime re- 

' Du Halpe, p. 249, &: feq. 

(R) Called by the Rujpans 
Kapki, lat. 40° 42' 15" long, 
well of Pf -king, 0° 39' 4''. 

(S) Lat, 42° 30' long. z° 

(N) Lat. 42'' 15' long. 4' 

fO) Lat. 41° 20' long. 3' 
30' caft. 

(P) Lat. 41° 28/ long. 3° eaft. 
40' ea(t. (T) Lat. 

(Q_) Tumet, Oban, Naymr.n, 14' eail. 
and 'Turbeda, or Turmeda, follow (U) Lat. 

tach other from weft to eaft, eaft. 
with a fweep northwards, and (X) Lat. 
lie to the north of Ljau-tcr.g. \o' eaft. 




r to' 

36' long. 


45/ long, x^ 


C. I.' Since Jtughiz Khliu. aSi 

SHAROT, divided into two ftandards likewife, is m- Proper 
habited chiefly towards the confluence of the Laban Pira (Y) Mungls 
and Sira Muren. country. 

JRUKORCH IN has but one banner, which refides on "'-^V'"*-' 
the river Jrukondulen (Z). 

ABUHANAR has two flandards, and is bell: inhabited Abuha- ■ 
about the Taal Nor (A), or lake of Tao.l. nar. 

Within this fecond divifion, going almoil: due north from Ruins of 
Ku-pe-kcw, one meets with fome towns, and the ruins q^ {q- cities. 
veral confiderable cities, as Ilan Hotim, Poro Hotiiny Kurtii 
Palhajfiin, and Chau Nayman Sume Hotim (B), all upon the 
river Shangtu, or Shantu. The lafl of thefe places feeras to Shang-tu* 
have been the city of Shantu, called by the Chincfe Kay-ping- 
fii, whofe ruins Gerbillon law in 1691 ^ It was built by 
Kcblay Khdti, the fifth Miingl emperor (and . grandfon of 
Jcnghiz Khan), who removed the imperial feat thither, in 
order to be nearer his new conquefts ; and ferved as the fum- 
mer feat of his fucceflbrs in China, who in winter refided at 
Khdn-balik, or Pe-king. It belongs to the country of Kar- 
chin ; but the other miilioners, who furveyed and made the 
map of Tatary, take no notice of it, any more than the refl 
of the antient cities mentioned by Marco P oh, and other early 
travellers, excepting Kerakoram ; which 5'et they were intirely 
at a lofs about, as will be feen prefently. 

3. When you pafs out of the gate Chang-kya-kew (C), you Third 
enter on a country which was conquered by the emperor <'^«'y^« 
Kang-hi, and is his property. Thefe lands, and all the reft 
along the Chinefe wall as far as Hi-fong-kexv, are occupied by 
farmers belonging to his majefty, the princes, and feveral 
Tatar lords. Here are Mungl Tatars alfo of different countries, 
ranged under three ftandards, and commanded by officers ap- 
pointed by the emperor, therefore not reckoned among the 
forty-nine Mungl banners. 

Farther to the north of Chang-kya-kew are the countries 
of the Mungl princes of Whachit, Sonhioty Sabahay, and 

f Du Halde, vol. ii. p. 335, 

■ (Y) Lat, 43° 30' long. 4° _ (B) Lat. 42° 25' by obferva- 
20' eaft. tion, long. 0^11' weft of Pe- 

(Z) Lat. 45° 30' long. 0° /%. 
28' eaft. (C) Lat. 40° 51/ 35// long. 

(A) Lat. 43° 30' long, o^ weft of ?f-/f;>;^ 1° 32' 48'^ 


ft82 Hiflory of the Moguls, and Tartars, B. 11. 

Proper WH ACHIT is divided into rvi'o ftandards near the river 

JVIungIs C/jikir{D), or Chirin Pira. 

country. SO iX H lOT has two Aiindards, and the principal habita- 

*-*""V"*^tion is near a lake (E). 

Abahay. AB A H AT is divided into two Aandiirdf., which encamp 
about fonie lakes or meers, the fouthermoft whereof is called 
Siret u - hue bin ( F ) . 

Twin- TIVINCHUZ contains but one banner or ftandard near 

chuB. the Orgun Aiiii (C), or mountain Orgun. 

fourth 4' t'l^OM \kiz ^■xx.z oi Sha-hu-kc-.v (\\) yoj enter on the cm" 

courfe. peror's lands. In this country Huhil Hotun, or Khukhu Ho- 
tiin (I), is moft remarkable. Here inhabit the chiefs of two 
Tatar banners, called alfo Tumct, who are appointed by the 

Khukhu emperor. Huhu Hotini is the capital of all the country of 

Hotun. the proper Aliingis, where the emperor's governor, and the 
kutuktu, or high-prieft of thofe people, refidc. 

Beyond the territory of Htitu Hottin lie the countries of 
the Mungl princes of Kalka-Targar, Maumingan, Urat, and 

Kalka- K ALK A-TA RG A R (K.) is watered by the little river 

Targar. Aypaha Mtiren, and contains but one banner. 
MAUMINGAN{h) has but one banner. 

Urat. URAT [or Vi rat) is divided into three ftandards, and is 

moftly inhabited along the river (M) Kondolen ^, or ^u:nclolcn. 

Ortus. The Mung/s called Ortos, or Ortus (N), are bounded on the 

fouth by the great wall ; which, in that part ; and indeed 
throughout Shen-fi, is only of earth, and fifteen foot high. 
On the three other fides they are hemmed in by the Whang-ho^ 
or yellow river : which pafling out of China, near the fine 
city of Ninghya, makes a great fweep, and enters the empire 
again near Pau-te-chew. Thefe Mung/s are governed by fe- 
veral petty princes under fix ftandards, and pride themfelves 
in the number and largenefs of their tents, as well as multi- 

8 Du, p. 264. 

fD) Lat. 44^6Mong. o°45' (I) Lat. 40" 49' long. 4" 

rail. 48'- 

(E) Lat. 42° zq' 7" by ob- (K) Lat. 41^ 44' long. 5^ 

fervation, long, i'' 28' we'i of C5'. 

Pe-khg. ' (L) Lat. 41° 15' long. 6** 

!F) Lat. 44° long, i'^ 31' 4'. 

well. (M) Lat. 49'' <^<^' by obfer- 

(G) Lat. 41° 41' long. 4"^ vation, long. 6° 30'. 

.-10' well. (N) The chief point of this 

(H) In Shan-fl, lat. 40° 27' country is in lat. 39° 30' long, 

lony. weft of Fe-ki>!g 4° 1 1', 7° 3c'. 


C.2l i5/«r<f JengMz Khan; 2?^ 

tude of their flocks. They had beyond the great wall, onKalka 
the IVhang-ho, a city called Toto, which feems by the ruins to Mungis 
have been pretty large ; though at prefent they have no fkill """*'0'- 
in building, nor take any delight that way ^. v— -\r"!«»J 

Although the feveral tribes or branches of the Mungis Umits 
lead a roving life, yet they have their refpeftive limits Hxedfett/eif. 
by cuflom, beyond which they mufl not pafs to fettle j for this 
js reckoned an ail of, hoilility among them. 

C H A P. II, 

The country of the Kalka Mungis, 

F all the Miwgl nations depending on China, the moft Country of 
numerous and famous are the Kalkas, who take their '/■'^ Kal- 
name from the river Kalka, written alfo Khalkha, and ^^^' 
Halha. They po/Iefs above 200 leagues of the country from eaft 
to weft, and the banks of the fineft rivers in this part of Tatary. 
They dwell beyond the Mungis northward, and have the AluthSf 
or Eluths, on the weft. Their country, according to Gerbillon the 
jefuit, extends from mount Altay " in the weft, to the province 
of Solon in the eaft ; and from the 5 1 ft degree of latitude (A) to 
the fouthcrn extremity of the great Kobl, or defart, which is 
reckoned to belong them : for they encamp there during 
the winter, when they ftand lefs in need of water ; which is 
rarely to be met with in their territories, and generally bad. 

The defart above-mentioned, called iTc/;/, or Co/^/, bytheCr^^/ 
Mungis, and Sha-mo, by the Chinefe, bends about China ; andKobi, or 
is larger and more frightful towards the weft (B). Gerbillon defart. 
pafled it in four different parts. From Its eaftern extremity 
to the mountains north of the great wall, it is about one 
hundred leagues, not including the country beyond xhcKerlon ; 
which, though thinly inhabited, efpecially the weftern part, 
abounds with water and pafturage. The Kobi is much larger 
from north to fouth, and above 1 00 leagues over. In fome 
parts it is quite bare, without trees, grafs, or water, except- 
ing certain ponds and marfties made by the rains, with here 
and there a well of water, far from being good. 

^ Du Halde, p. 253, 265. ^ See before, p. 10, k feq. 

for Jit ay. 

(A) It is faid, p. 265 o? Du (Bl This is the great defart 
JIalde\ Hiftory oi China, vol. 2, of which Marco Polo has given 
that they extend from ealltowefl us fuch frighiful ideas ; and of 
22 degrees, and but 5 deg. and which,tililately,our geographers 
half from north to ^outh. had but very im^jerfccft notions. 


Ilijlory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. II. 

The Kalkas are the defcendants of the Alungls ; who, 
about the year 1 368, were expelled China by Hong-vu, founder 
of the Ming family (which the Manchcvjs fucceeded) ; and, re- 
treating northward beyond the great defart, fettled chiefly 
along the rivers Sclinga, Orkhon, Tula, and Kcrlon : where, 
after being long accuftomed to the delicacies of China, they 
returned to the roving and fordid life ot their anceflors ''. 
7"/^fKalka Thf. Kalka Pira is not much frequented by the A'a/kas, 
Pira. although they take their name from thence. It flows (C) from 

a famous mountain called Sudki, or Siulki, 84 leagues from 
Parin to the north-north-eafl, and 64 from Tfitftkar, the 
capital of eaftern Tatary, to the wed. After pafTmg through 
a lake called Pui)\ it changes its name to Urfon, and runs 
due north into a larger called Kidon Nor. 
TheVizr- The Kcrlon, Tula, Tzvi, and Selinga, though lefs famous 
Ion. for their origin among thefe people, are yet of more account 

for their clear and wholefome waters, abounding with trout, 
and other good fifli ; as well as for the fruitful, large, and 
populous plains they glide through. The Kcrlon, or Keru- 
Ion, running from well: to eaft, falls alfo into the (D) lake 
Kulon Nor ; which difcharges itfelf into the Saghalian Via by 
the river Ergona, or j^rgun, the boundary of the ManchciQ 
empire on that fide. The Kcrlon, which is about fixty feet 
broad, and not deep, waflies the richell paftures in all Ta- 
The Tula. The river Tula, or Tola (E), runs from eafl to weft, and 
in molf places is larger, deeper, and more rapid, than the 
; Kcrlon ; has finer meadows, and more woods : the mountains 

alfo on the north fide are covered with large fii\ This river, 
having joined itfelf to the Organ, Orkhon, or Urkon, which 
comes from the fouth-wefl, runs towards the north; and, 
after being increafed with feveral others, as the Selingha Pira, 
at length falls Into the greateft lake in all Tatary, CiUled Bay- 
kal, or Paykal, in that part of Siberia belonging to the 
Ritjfians . 

^ Du Haide China, vol. ii. p. 259. 

(C) The moll fouth part is (E) The T't*/^, or 7*1//^, called 
in lat. 47° 28' 48" obicrved, formerly Koll-an-nner. As foon 
long. 3"; the mod north part as the karawans from Siberia 
in lat. 48° 5' long, i'^ 48' call pafs this river, they enter tha 
of Pc-ki:g. territories depending on China. 

(D) i^/Ioath of the Kcrlon, Enitink, apud Ahulgbaxi Khdtt 
lat. obfcrved 48° 50' z\" long. /•/}':'. Turks, Sec. p. 515, & feq. 
o" 45' end of Pe-iiri?. Head of The fource of this river is about 
it in about lat. 4!;° long, 7'^ lat. 48"" 10' long. 8° 30' well. 
30' well. 


C. 2I Since Jenghiz Khanr 255 

The Tivi Pira, whofe waters refemble thofe of the Z>r/(j«, Kalka 
makes its way through fertile plains, and, after a pretty long Mungls 
courfe, lofes itfelf in the ground near a little lake, without "^^^try 
appearing any more ^ >— v— iJ 

The river Selingha has feveral fources ; the chief oiThe Se- 
which, called JVerJh Selingha, ifliics from a lake, named bylinga. 
the Mungls Kofogol{¥). Its courfe is nearly in a line from 
fouth to north through very fertile plains ; and, after receiv- 
ing many other rivers, falls into the lake Baykal. Its waters 
are good, but do not afford plenty of fifli : both its banks, 
from its fprings till within one day of Selingh'mjhoy (a city of 
the Rujfmns built on its fouth fide), are in the hands of the 
Mungls ; but the neighbouring country, from that city to the 
lake, belongs to the Rujfmns. 

The Orkhon above-mentioned, formerly called KalaJfuiyThe Oxk- 
runs (G) north-north-weft into the Sclwgha; and on itshon. 
banks the Khan of the Kalka Mimgls, and their khutuktu, 
(or high-priefl) ufually make their abode. 

The river Jltay, at prefent called Siba, has its fpring to-AItay, or 
wards the frontiers of the Kalmilhs, or Eluths, in the moun- Siba. 
tains called Ujhun-lug-tugra, to the fouth of the fprings of 
the river Jenifea ; and, running from thence eafl-north-eaff, 
lofes itfelf to the north of the Kobi, or defart, and fouth- 
fouth-eaft of the fprings of the Orkhm. A petty Khan of 
the Mungls ufually refides about the Siba. _ ■ ■' 

The Tfan, or Ja?i Muren, has its fonrce in the mountains Jan Mii- 
which crofs the Kobi; and, running fouth-fouth-eafl, falls intoren. 
the Whang-ho, on the frontiers of Tibet. Two petty Khans 
dwell on its banks. 

The river Argun (or Ergona) rlfes in the country of theT/^a At- 
Mungls (H), from a lake called Argun Dalay, or Kulon Aor. gim. 
Its courfe is nearly eaft-north-eaft ; and, having run about. 
100 leagues, falls into the great river Amur^, as the RuJJians.- 
C2l[1 the SaghalianUla. : 

The princes of the Kalka Mungls ufually inhabit the 
banks of the rivers already defcribed, with thofe of Ham, 

"^ Du Halde, vol. ii. p. 250, & feq. ^ Bentink ap. 

Abulghazi Khan. hift. Turk. Sec. p. 515, & feq. 

(F) Or KoJ'okcl, called alfo is in lat. about 49'^ 40' long. 
Kutuktu-vor. Kol, or Go/, and 15° 20'. 

A'lrr, fignify alake, in the ilfz/;/^/ (G) Source about lat. 47* 
or Tv.rkifb languages, Vi'hich are long, i 5° welL 
in eifeft the lame. Its fource (H) About lat. 49^ long, i* 

30' ea.'l. 

4 OF 

2S6 m/lorj of nBg Moguls avd Tartars, B.- IIj 

Ka!ka or A'ar.i Pira, Ihen Pira (I), which f.'ills into the Orkhcn, 
Mungls Karaiijir, Ira Pira, Patarik Pira, and the Tegurik Pira (K), 
tountry. towards the fourcc of the Irtijh, and city of Hami, or Kha' 
^'•"'■V**^ W2//, in Little Bukharia *-'. 

Ruins of There were tormetly feveral cities In this part of Tatary 
cities. pofleifed by the Kalkas. The midioners who furveyed Chinefe 
Tatary, by order of the emperor. K(ing-hi, met with the 
rnins of a large fqnare city, two leagues in circuit, named 
Para Ho- Para Ifoii/;i{L), that is the Tigo'^s City, from the cry of 
tun. that animal, which was thought a good omen. Not far from 

tlience is a place called Kara U/Jhn, with a fmall lake and fine 
ipring, in a fertile plain abounding with deer, mules, ii;c. all 
wild. There may be other monuments in thefc quarters of. 
the eafly times of the Mungls under Jenghiz Khdii, and his 
four immediate fuccellbrs : but there do not appear to be any 
footfleps of Karakoram, the capital of the whole empire 
during that time ; at leaft thofe miffioners were wholly at a 
lofs about it, fuppofing it to be Kara Ujjon above-mentioned, 
although the fituation no wa} s agrees with that which authors 
have given of Karakoram. 
Karako- However, Gaubil, a jefuit who fettled It Pe-king fome- 
ramcZ/j', time after his brethren return from Tatary, by confulting the 
Chinefe hiftorians and aflronoraers, found out the fituation of 
that city, which they call Ho-lin (M). It was in being before 
the time of Jenghiz KhAn, having been the refidence of the 
Khan of the Kara-its, the famous Van Khan, or Ung Khan : 
but when Jenghiz Khan took it from that prince it was a 
very inconfiderable place. The conqueror much improved it, 
and his fun Oktay Khan rebuilt and made it a famous city ^ : 
with this account the Chinefe hiftory agrees s. So that when 
Abulfaraj, who fays it is fiime with Orduhalih, affirms that 
it was built by Oktay '', it is to be underftood of the improve- 
ments of that prince, who made of it a new city, and built a 
magnificent palace there, in the year 1225 '. Yet Rubruquis^ 

• Du Halde ubi fupr. vol.ii. p. 265. ^ De la Croix 

hift. Gengh. Can. p. 27, 362. ^ Ap. Sotcilt obferv. 

mathemat. &c. p. 186. " Hift. dynall. p. 310, 320. 

* SouciET ibid. p. 192. Abu'lghazi Khan hift. Turk. &c. 

P- 354. 5'3- 

(I) ReHdence of the khu- (L) Lat. 48° 4' 48'/ long. 2" 
tuktu of the Kalkas on this 49' 30". 
river ; lat. obl'erved 49"^ 26' 47'' (M) Latitude obferve^ by the 

long. 10° $9'. 

(K) I.nt. obfcrvcd 42*^ 
long. 22° 23' 20''. 

Tatars 44*" 1 1' long. 10° 1 r' by 
coinpiuation. Souciet. obierv. 
mathcm, Is'f. p. 185. 


C. 2.. Since Jenghiz Khan. 2S7 

the minoiite friar, who "was at Karakoram in 1253, faysitKalka 
had then only a mud wall ; and that the place itfelf, and theMungIs 
Khan's p:uace, compared with the £'^^rc/j$>£'<^;z, were but poor""»^'J' 
, boildings ; hcAvever, he allows it to have been very populous, •*— ~v^— ^ 
and to contain a great many palaces, temples, ebc^^ 

KARAKORAM ilood to the north of the great K<jbi,nt}vj 
or fandy defart, and near the lake Kurahan Ulen (N), marked /'k'^^^ 
by the jefuits in their map of Tatary, although they looked 
for it at Para Hotun, . 420 miles di.flant to the north-cail,, tt 
was the imperial feat of the Khans, till Kublay removed it tgr 
iS'/;^z;2p--;f« already mentioned > which continued to be the place 
of theii" fummer refidence as long as tbe.yT/?/;/^/^- werein pof- 
■feflion of China: but after their expulfion, about the year 
1368, it is probable Ar^^r^A-oram became again the feat of the 
Khans ; although, according to Dc la Croix, they refided 
ever fmce the time of Oktay [Jenghiz Khun'i immediate fuc* 
ceflbr) at Uhig Tiirt (O), a city not far diilant ', if it be not. 
ths fame place. Here Alchi Timtir, the thirteenth from Kub- 
lay, afcended the throne- in 1405 ; and. we find it fubfiiling 
in the time of Aday, the fifteenth fucceflbr : but after tliat ' 
we are told no more is heard of Uliig Yurt in the oriental 
authors'". Yet neither the time nor occafion of the deftruc- 
tion of that city, or. of Karakoram, is mentioned by any; hiilo- 
rian yet known to us. . . 

TAT ART, according to Regis the jefuit, abounds Vf'ith. Store of 
all forts of game, even of the kinds common in Europe ; zsgame, 
hares, pheafants, deer, and the like : the yellow goats are 
feldom feen in the plains, except in large herds. They are of 
the fhape and fize of common goats, only their hair is yellow, 
and not fo fmooth : they are likewife exti-emely fleet, which 
makes it difficult to catch them. The wild mules go in (mall^'A^ 
herds, but are not like the tame ones, nor can be brought to"'^'^^' 
carry burthens. Their fielh is of an agreeable tafle ; and, in the 
opinion of the Tatars, as nourilhing and wholefome as the 
wild boar's (P). This lali animal frequents the woods zndJ'Fihl hoar. 


^ PuRCH. pilgrim, vol. iii. p. 39. ' Hifi. Genghis Can, 

p. 3S6. »' Ibid. p. 401. 

(N) That city, by the lati- the Kohi from north-weft to 

tude, as well as this lake, flood fouth-eafl. 

rather in the midft of the Kohi, (O) Ulug Turt fignifies the 

on the river Onghin (which runs great city, 

foutheallinio the faid lake), and (P) Gerhillon, in his fecond 

about 50 miles north-eaft of a journey into T/:.'f/'.'rj',faw a young 

chain of mountains which crofs wiid mule, Qi ^ kijid which pro- 

288 Hijlory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. Hi 

Kalka plains beyond the river Tula, and is traced by the earth it 
Mungls turns up to come at the roots on which it feeds. 
country. Thk wild horfe, and dromedary, which is a native of this 

^T'^y'*^ region, are like the tame. Thefe are found chiefly in the 
drome/"- ^*^^^^''" P^i's of great Tatary, although fometimes they are 
ries. *"^' 'w'iih in the territories of the Kalkas, bordering on Kha- 

mil in Little Bukharia. The wild horfes go in large droves ; 
and when they meet with tame ones, furround and force them 
away : they are fo very fleet, tliat the fwiftefl hunters can fel- 
dom reach them with their arrows. 
TheHaute- The Hautehan is an animal which refemblcs an elk : the 
han. miflioners faw fome, which, when killed, were bigger than 

the largeft ox. They are found only in particular diftrifts 
about mount Siiclki, in boggy grounds, where they delight 
to refort ; and are very eafUy killed, their great weight pre- 
venting their flight. 
*rhe cheli' The chulon, or ohclifon, is about the fize of a wolf, and 
fon. feemed to Regis a fort of lynx. It has long, foft, and thick 

hair, of a greyifh colour ; and their furs are valued at the 
courts both of China and Rujfia, which laft abounds with 

T AT ART is Infcflied with tigers and leopards. The tigers 
found eaflwards are furprizingly large and nimble. Their 
fkins are commonly of a fallow red, Itriped with black lifts ; 
fome are white, with black and grey lifts. The Ikins of the 
leopards are whitifh, fpotted with red and black. Although 
they have the head and eyes of tigers, they are not fo large, 
and have a different cry. 
Dipy. The deer, which multiply exceedingly in the defarts and 

huntin<r, forefls, differ in colour, bigncfs, and fhape of their horns, 
according to the different quarters of tliis vaff region ; and 
fome are like the deer of Eiirope. One way of hunting them, 
termed tiie ftag-call, is thus : the hunti'men, carrying fome 
llags-hcads, counterfeit the cry of the hind, which brings the 
largeft flags towards the place from v\hence they hear the 
cry : they then Itop, and look about ; till, perceiving the flags 
heads, they tear up the ground with their horns, and im- 
.mediatcly run forward, but are fliot by fome who lie in am- 
bufli. The emperor Kang-hi took great delight in this di^ 
Horfe:. vcrfion. Tlie intrepidity of Tatarian horfes in encountering 
tigers is furprizing; and yet it is owing wholly to ufe : for 

pagatcs. This was a female, hoofs and feet uncloven, like 

had large ears, a long head, thofe of other mules. Collect, 

flcnder body, and long legs ; voyag. &: trav. quart, vol. iv. 

its luir vsa'. .'.lh-co!cur, and its p. 6S6. 


C. 2. Since Jenghiz Khan." 289 

they are as fearful of them at firfl as other horfes. The Kalka 
Mungls are very expert in taming and breaking, as well as Mungls 
catching them running, with the flip-knot of a cord. They country. 
underftand their dillempers, but ufe fuch remedies as would ^— ^-'•■~- 
no more agree with the horfes of Europe, than tlieir foods. 
They are of a middle fize, yet fome are large as well as 
fmall ; but the Tatars wifely prefer flrength-^id hardinefs to 
either largenefs or beauty. 

The Kdlkas are not rich in fable (kins, but have plenty o^The taeU 
fquirrels, foxes, and a creature as fmall as an ermine, calledi*<?. 
tael-pe ; of whofe fkins at Pe-king they make mantles to keep 
out cold. Thefe animals are a kind of land rats, and dig in 
the earth a range of as many little holes as there are males ia 
the company ; one of whom always keeps watch above, but 
flies under-ground at auy body's approach. When the hunters 
difcover their neft, they furround it ; and, opening the earth 
in two or three places, tlirow in flaming ftraw to frighten 
them out : thus they take great numbers, which makes their 
fldn cheap. 

The rivers in the country of the Mungls do not ^at^The fijh', 
any great variety or plenty of fifli, like thofe of eaftern Td- 
iary. The flurgeon, which they fometimes find in the Tuhy 
<ome3 from the lake Baykal; and the Urfon, falling into the 
Saghalian Ula, or Amur, receives from thence the fifh which 
is found in the eaflern rivers. In the fame river you meet 
with an amphibious animal called Turbegha, refembling an 
otter ; but the flefli is tender, and almofi: as delicious as that 
of the roe-buck". 

As to uncommon birds, there are bred vafl: quantities oiShonkar 
an extraordinary beauty in the plains of grand Tatary. That tird, 
mentioned by Jbu'lg/mzi Kbdn " feems to be a kind of heron, 
which is found in the country of the Mungls towards** the 
frontiers of China. It is all over white, except the beak, 
wings, and tail (Q^ ) ; which are of a very fine red. The flefh 
is very delicious, and tafles fomewhat like that of the wood- 
hen. However, as the bird which that author fpeaks of is 
very rare, Bentink thinks it may be the' flork, which is very 
fcarce all over Rujjia, Siberia, and great Tatary : yet fome are 
found in the Mungls country near China, which are for the 

" Du Halde's China, &c. vol. ii. p. 255. " Hii^. 

Turks, &c. p. 37, & 86. p Ibid. p. 500, k feq. 

(Q^) Mulghazi Khan fays, and p. 86, that the head, feet, 
in his hiftor) , p. 37, that the bill, and eyes are red. 
feet, eyes, and bill are red ; 

Mob. Hist. Vol. IV. U general 

2C)0 Uifio'/'y of the Moguh and Tni'tzr$i B. II. 

Eluth genera] all over white p. A^ yibulgkazi Khanhys, this bird is 
Muiigls called Ihimgar in the 7urhiJ}? language (and kratzfliet by the 
tiutitry. Riijfians), it is doubtlefs the lame with the fhonkar, which was 
'preientcd to Jcr.ghiz Khi'm by the auiballadors of Kipchdk. 
On this occafion we are told, that the fhonkar is a bird of 
prey, prcfented to kings, adorned with precious ftones, as a 
mark of homi^gc ; and that the Ri'Jp.anSy as well as Knvi Ta- 
tars, are obliged, by their lait treaties with the Othman Turks, 
to fend one every year to Conftantinopley adorned with a cer- 
tain number of dianr.ouds "i. 


T/r Countries helonghig to the Eluth^, or Eluth 



H E countries belonging to the AJuths, or Ekths, nick- 
named Kdhnuks, are to be confuiered, as that nation 
is at prefent divided into thiee branches, viz. the 
■Dfingari or Jcngari, the Kojhoti, and the Tcrgaiiti. 
EInthJon- I. The Eliiths Jongari, who are the moft confiderable 
garyV branch of the three, pofTefs the larger half of what Europe 
country. ^„j ^all the v/eftern T^ftary : extending from the Cafpian fea 
and river Ja'ik, in 72 degrees of longitude, from Fcrro, to 
vc\owx\\.ylltay, in 1 10 degrees ; and from the 40th to the 52d 
degree of ladtude. Whence it may be computed about 1930 
miles in length, from weft to eafl ; and in length, at moft, 
from f^uth to north, 650 miles. It is bounded on the north 
hy RtiJJia and Siberia, from which it is feparated by a chain 
of mountains ; on the eafl by mount Altay ; on the fouth by 
the Countries of Karazm and the two Biikharias (A); from 
•which alfo it is feparated partly by another chain of moun- 
tains, and fome ri\ers, particularly the Sir ; and on the weft 
by the ri\'er Ja'ik and the Cafpian fea : or rather by Turkejidnf 
which lies between. 

T nil RE are, in the country of the Eluths or Kahniikx^ 

three confiderable clxiins ot mountain;?, viz. the Tuhrti Tu- 

biijhk, the UjJ^urJuk Ti/gra, and the J/tay. The firlt, which 

makes its northern frontier, and is called alfo Ulugiag, or the 

great inoitntain, begins at the caltern bank of the Irtijl?, to 



^ Hid. Turks, p. 500, & feq. 
Bee, vol. i. p. 350. 

(A) /-/.'//(• Bukbiiria, thoiig,h 
out «f the bounds of 'Tatary^ is 

^ De la Croix liift. Timur 

yet under the dominion of tlic 
Kliiu of iJic E!i.ils. 


C. ^.' Since J^nghiz Khan. 291 

the north of the lake Say/an, through which that river pades, Eluth 
aaJ runs due eafl, as far as the Selinga, which it coalb north- Mungis 
ward, to the lake Baykal : then turning ealt, it proceeds to <:°^^»try. 
ihe^mur, or Saghaliaa Ula, about Nerchwjhy; and follows "*''*"V''**^ 
the courfe of that river, on the north fide, to the eaflern 

The fecond branch, called Ujlimluk Titgra, bears alfo theUfkunluk 
name of Kichik-tag, or the little mountain : it commences in Tugra. 
the confines of Turkeflan and Great Bukhdria, to the fouth of 
the river Str ; and running nearly eail, makes the bounds be- 
tween Great Bukhdria and the country of the Eluihs. It con- 
. tinues its courfe on the fame line, till, arriving to the fouth of 
' the fprings of the Jenifea, it flrikes off to the fouth-eaft ; and 
; falls in with the frontiers of China, as far as the province of 
Lyau-tong. There making an elbo%y to the north-eafl, it fe- 
parates that province, and Korea, from the country of the 
Mungis ; and ends at lafl on the fhore of the fea of Japan, 
about the 42d degree of latitude. 

The mountain /Iltay (by feme called Kaltay, and mAbii'ltMount 
ghazi Khdn'5 hiffory Kut) is a branch of the Ujhunluk Tiigra, Altayi 
taking its rife to the wefl of the fpring of the Jenifea. It 
runs almofl: in a flrait line from fouth to north ; conftantly 
inarching along the weflern bank of that great river, at a 
diflance of one or two days journey, till it joins the Tugra 
yubujluk, in about ^o degrees of latitude. 

For all this region of the Eluths is bounded by mountains, Ri<veiSf 
yet it is watered by very few rivers which defcend from them. 
The moft confiderable known to us are the Tekh, and Hi (B), ^he Teki^ 
the Chui, and Talas. According to the Jefuits map, the Te- andlW, 
kts rifes in the mountain bounding Little Bukhdria on the 
north (C) ; and having run about 70 miles north -eaff, falls, 
by feveral mouths, into the Hi, which has its fource in the 
fame hills, and runs north-well: about 1 50 miles : then, fliap- 
ing its courfe north i 50 miles farther, falls into the lake Pal' 
kati (D), in about 48 degrees of latitude. On this river the 
Khan of the Eluths has his chief refidence or camp, which is 
called Harkas, or, as others fpell it, Urga. 

The Chui and Talas, according to the fame map, defcend ^"^ ^'^(^ 
from the above-mentioned mountain ; and running north-wefl-^'^^^^* 

(B) Bentink makes them the (C) Which feems to be the 
Iffikul and Tallajh, mentioned VJkmiluk Tuira. ^ 

in Abulyjmzi Kkdn\ hill, of the (D) In Strahlenhergt map 
Turks, isc. p. 33. But the mif- named, Chui. 
fioners map makes the Tallafh 
defcend from the other two, 

U % about 

2^2 tlijiory of the Moguls and Tartars, D. IT. 

Eluth about r8o leagues each, fall into ditTerent lakes, the Chui in- 
Mungls to Kalkol, and the Tiilas uno Sikirhk Nor \ 
country. Hr.sipr.R the rivers already dtTcribcd, we meet with none 

^^ — v~"^of"any grcut note, except the Irtljb ; nor docs more than a 
part ot it rnn throui^h this country. 

J"^^ Irtifti. This river, which is the moll confidcrable in the north 
of Jfui, hath its rife (E) fron; two lakes, thirty miles afun- 
der; in about 45 degrees 15 minutes of latitude, and 1 13 oi 
longitude-, on the well fide of mount .<///jy, and to the nonh 
of the province of Khamil, or Hmni, in Little Bukhiiria, in- 
clining to the eaft. The rivers formed by them run weft- 
ward. The northern ftream is called Khar IrtlJ).) ; the fouthern 
Khor Irtijh : and, about 30 miles diflance from their fources 
uniting, form the river called Irti/h, Irtis, or Erchii, as the 
Eliiths pronounce it. This river, having run wefl about 50 
leagues, makes the Xdkt Say/an (f), that is, of the liability, 40 
miles long, and 20 broad. PafTmg out of the lake it turns 
northward, as fiu- as Ujkamen, tl^e firfl Ruffian fort and fet- 
♦lement on this river, in the borders of the FAitths country on 
that fide. The reft of the Irtijh belongs to Siberia ; where,, 
after pafTmg by the capital Toboljhcy, it joins the Obi, a little 
above Samara. 

fheOh\. STRAHLENBERG places the fources of the Obi, or 
Ubi (F), alfo in the country of the Eluths. It is formed like 
the Irtifi, by the confluence of two rivers, the Khatiin and 
Be, from which laft it derives its name. The Ba, or Bi^ takes 
its beginning in a lake, to which that author gives the names 
yiltun Nor, Altiin Kiirkc, ylltin, and Tclejhy ; perhaps the 
fame called in the Jefuits map Kirkir. But both maps feem 
to have been made, in this part, from very uncertain reports. 

Soil and Thk vaft region oi'Tatary, being fituated under the fineft 

proauce. climate in the world, is every-where of an extraordinary 
goodnefs and fertility. But though almoft all the great ri- 
vers of .-Ifia have their fprings in the mountains of this coun- 
try, yet the land being perhaps the higheft any-where on 
Citrth, It is, in feveral parts, deftitute of water ; fo that it is 
inhabitable only neai- the rivers and lakes. Verbieft, the Je- 
fuit, in the country of the Ahuigls, about 80 leagues to the 
north of the great wall, towards the fpring of the river Knr- 
fu, found the ground to be 3000 geometrical paces, or three 
miles, higher than the fta-coafl neaieft Peking. Hence it is 

• * Hill, Turks, Sec. p. 522, 524, 526. 

[V.) In about lat. 46^4' long. (F) Source in about lat. /•f,^'* 

ii" ?o' wcfl oi Pe-king. 30' loi g. 1 8'^ 30' welt. 

(t; AllOA r:-<«Mrt, bv thc Huf. 
far,-. , tliat 

^^ ,; Smce Jenghiz Khan." 

that Great TaUn appears fo much colder than other coun- 
tries in the feme 'latitude. Our author was even affured, by 
perfons of credit, who had travelled there, that in Midfumyncr ^ 
the north-eaft wind is lb piercing, that one muft cover him- 
felf well in the night ; and often mAugvJi one night produces 
ice the thicknefs of a crown- piece, and fometimes of two. 
Nay, dig where you will, in fummer, in the country of the 
Mungh, four or five feet deep, and you find clods of earth 
quite^ congealed, and even intire heaps of ice ; which Vcr- 
biejl afcribes to the falt-petre with which the foil is impreg- 
nated. , . !/• t. -^ 

The fame extraordinary elevation of the earth is alio xh^Kcrtai fer' 
r^afon why there are fo many defarts in Grand Tatary : hut^i^i'J- 
thefe defarts are not altogether fo frightful as Europeans fan- 
cy them. For fettingaiide the vaft Kohi, or Gobi, before- 
mentioned, and a few other fmall fandy defarts, all the reft 
afford excellent pafture ; producing grafs in abundance, as 
high as one's middle, which would grow to the height of 
a man, if it was not for want of water : but, through that . 
ddc^\ moft of it decays prefently at the root ; and as withered 
grafs \mtc choaks up the young, the inhabitants, in fpring, 
ict fii-e to the old herbage, which fometimes fpreads above 
lOo leagues round. In lefs than fifteen days after, the new 
grafs fhoots up every-where to the height of a fpan ; which 
proves the great fertility of the foil : and fo much of this 
vaU country, as is fupplied with water, is fufficient for the 
fiipport of four times the number of its prefent inhabitants, 
if it v>'as but well cultivated. But then none, befides the 
Mohammedan Tatars, till their lands (G) ; while the Ekiths, 
and moft part of the Mungls, have not the ufe of agricul- 
ture, fubfifling intirely upon their cattle (H) : this is the rea^ 
fon why they can have no fixed habitations, being obliged 
to change their quarters, according as the fcafons change. 
Yet, for all the foil is fo luxuriant. Great Tatary does notA'j/'v? 
produce a fingle wood of tdl trees, of any kind whatever, ^'-^^^. 
excepting in feme fe\v places towards the frontiers : all the 

(G) The miffioners fay, that (H) There are no plart- t.> 

the lands oi Tatary, from the be found in their country. When 

country of the Mmchecivs, or the miffioners aiked them why 

ealtern Tatary, welhvard, as far they would not at leali eulcivate 

as the Cafpia>t fea, are, for the fome litde herb-garden ; they 

generality, unfit for tillage; and replied, herbs are fir the heop. 

tho:e of Kora'jin,Ohan, nod Ntiy- of the field, and the heajh fior 

man, in the country of the ?nei2. Du HaldcCki?:a,i^\.voL 

Mungls, worft of all. Du Halde ii. p. 254. 

Qhiria, V^l. ii. p. 249. 

> U 3 vvood, 

The Kb an 

Plenty of 

The glut- 
ton ani- 


Hijldry of the Moguls ani Tartars, B. It." 

wood, that is found in the heart of the country, confifts in 
fhrubs, which never exceed the height of a pike; and thefe 
are very rare ''. 

r The Khan of the F.luths dwells continually under tents, 
although he pofTefTes Little Bukharia, with its dependencies, 
wherein there are a good many towns ; only when his affairs 
call him thither, he refides at Tnrkien, or Yarkiin, the capital 
of that country. He has continued about the river Jla and 
Tekis for fome years;>pafl ; that he might be near at hand to 
watch the motions of his coufm /lyuki Khhn, as well as the 
Mohammedan Tatars and Mungh, bet^\'een whom the Ehtths 
are fituated. His camp is a great curiofity : it is diftributed 
into feveral quarters, fquares, and ftreets, juft like a town; is a 
good league in compafs; and able, at a minute's warning, to 
fend into the field ;_5,ooo horfe. The quarter where the Kh n 
refides, is in the middle of the camp. His tent is made of 
Kitayka, a flrong fort of callico ; which, being raifed very 
high, and of all forts of lively colours, exceedingly delights 
the eye at a diftance. In winter the tent is covered with felt, 
which makes it impenetrable by the weather. His wives are 
lodged in little wooden houfes, which may be taken down 
in an inflant, and fet on waggons, when they are going to 
decamp ". 

Although, according to the account of the mifTioners 
who furveyed Chinefe Tatary, there are no plants to be met 
with in that region ; yet we are affured, by a certain curious 
author, that, in the parts about the rivers Orkhon and .W//z- 
gha,\.owdir^zSelinghinJkoy, rhubarb grows in great abundance; 
and that all which Ruffia furnifhes foreign countries with, 
comes from about this city ; the diftricl of which yields 
fuch plei;.ty, that the treafury of i'z^ir/a fells 25,0001b. weight 
of it at a time ''■. 

The animals in this divifion of weflern Tatary are much 
the fame with thofe to be found in the two former parts ; 
unlefs we may except one, called, by Bcntink, the glut tofi^ 
which abounds in the country of the Ehiths. It is a carni- 
vcrous beaft, not quite (o tall as a wolf, and peculiar to the 
mountains of northern j-lfia : the hair, which is ftrongand- 
long, is of a very fine dark brown all over its back. This; 
bead is exceedingly mifchievous : for it climbs the trees, and 
watcliing the game, which paffes underneath, leaps down oa 
its back, where it failens with its paws, and makes a great 

- Jbid 

Hifl. Turks, p. 381, Sc feq. a!fo colled, trav. 
* Abu'lg, hill. Tuiksi &c. p. 543, 
p. 501. 

4to. vol. 
ii feq. 

IV. p. 

hole : 

C. 3« 6"/^^ Jenghiz Khan.' 295 

hole : while the poor creature, quite fpent with angulfh and Eluth 
flruggling to get rid of its enemy, at length falls on the Mungls 
ground, and becomes his prey. It requires three ftoutrf^ogs (^^^^-m- 
to attack this beafl, fmall as it is ; and very often they come *''"'*V"^ 
oiT ftrangely mauled. The Rujjlans make great account of 
its fliin, which they ufe for mens mulFs, and borders of bon- 
nets ^. We leave our readers to judge whether this be the 
chidon, found in the country of the Miingls ; as well as the 
fame with the arkhora, mentioned by Ahughazi Khan ; fince 
the glutton leaves fuch narrow paths la the hills and forefis 
as are made by that animal ^ 

2. The Eliiths Kofioti pofTefs all the kingdom o^ Tangut,'E\\it.hs 
and are fubject to the Daiay Lama, or great pontiff of Tibet, Kofhoti. 
who governs them by two Khans ; of whom one has the go- 
vernment of Tibet, the other of Koko Abr ^. Thefe latter are 
called, by the Mancbeivs and Chincfcs, Tatars oi Kcko Ncr. 

.The country of Koko Nor, or Kokonol, is fo called by thefe Koko Nor 
Eluths from a lake of \h.t fame name, termed by the Chine fes country. 
Si-hay, that is, the wejh-rn fea. It is one of the largefl in 
isXiTatary, being above twenty gi'ezt. French leagues in length, 
and more than ten in breadth ; fituated between the 3 6th 
and 37th degrees of latitude, and between the i6th and 17th 
of longitude, wefl of Peking ^. 

This country lies between TiZi^r? on the weft, ztiA ChinaExtcnt and 
on the eaft, bordering on the provinces of Shen-Ji and Se-fi*^- 
chivcn. It is pretty large, extending from north to fouth - 
above feven degrees. It is feparated from China by moun- 
tains, fo high and ileep, that they ferve almoft every-whcrc 
inlfead of the great wall. Thofe to the fouth, which fepa- 
rate it from the kingdoms' of Pegu and Ava, are frightful and 
inaccefTible, inhabited by a favage people. They alfo make fo 
ftrong a barrier to China, by their great length and breadth, 
that the entrances on that fide are left unfortified '. 

3. The Eluths Torgaiiti are the leafl confiderable of theEIafhs 
three branches. They dwelt heretofore towards Turkcfian, Tor^a- 
and were fubjeft to KontaiJJj : but about the beginning oi^^^- 
the prefent century, Ayuka, or Ayiiki, one of his coufins, 
flying from his court, under pretence that he was hi fear of 

his life, pafTed the river Ja'ik, with the tribe of the Tcrga- 
uti, and put himfelf under the proteffion of RiiJJia. In win- 
ter Ayuka Kh^ji ufually encamped with his Ordas in thefnndy 
gKOund about AJlrakhan, to the eail: of the river Wolga, be;- 

<= Bent. ap. Abu'lg. hifr. Turks, p. 528. *' Ibid. p. 2(3, 

« Ibid. p. 538. *' Du Halhe's China, vol. ii, p. 265. 

^ Ibid. vol. i. p. 29, & vol. ii. p. 258. 

U 4 twenrt 


mjlory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. II, 

twcen it and the Jdik ; and in lummer he often |\vcnt to re- 
fidc on the banks of this river, about SaratoJ and Zaritza. 
(I). ■ Although the Kojhoti and Torgaiiti Eluths have their 
own Khans, yet Kontaijb prcfervcs a kind of fovcreignty o^'£r, 
and draws confidcrablc aid from them, when he is at war 
with his neighbours the Mungls, Chincfc, or Mohammedan 
Tatars ^ 


Of the Mungls, or Moguls, and their fe'ceral 


^heir Name^ Perfons^ Manners^ Cujicms, Way of 
livings Habit aitonsT, Language. 

f^ame '"TT^ H E Moguls, or rather Mungls, derive their name 
Mungls, I from Mungl Khan, one of their ancient emperors; 
-*- and one branch of them flill retain it, called, by our 
authors, Mungals or Mongals, of which the word Moguls^ 
commonly ufed by the Afiatics, as well as Europeans^ is u 
corruption. Thefe people are frequently confounded with 
_ the Tatars, which may be owing to the following carfes : 
^^ ' Firft, The people of the north of JJia having been known, 
■hence • ^^^ rnany ages, by the name of Tatars, to the inhabitants of 
the fouthcrn countries, particularly the Chineje and Pcrfians\ 
thefe latter, feeing the Mungls come from the fame quar- 
ters, and no way different as to features, language, and man- 
ners, from the Tatars, confidered both as the fame people, 
under different names (A). Secondly, there were, in the 
army of Jenghlz Khan, when he invaded ihofe countries, 
tribes of Tatars as well as Mungls ; which made thofe na- 
tions, who were acquainted with the Tatars before, give 
both names, indiJfcrcntly, to the follow-ers of that conqueror. 
Laftly, the Tatars having been very ferviceable to Jcnghiz 
Khan in the battle againfl Vang Khan, or Uvg Khan, v/hichi 
put him in poffefnon of the fovereignty, to reward them, 

* Bentink ap, Abu']gha7.i's hift. Turks, &:c. p. 538, & feq. 

fl) Thefe Elutks ftill have, (A) The Chincfes fay Kalka 
or had, confiderable territories Tatars and Eluth Tatars, as well 
to the eaft oijaik, and border- as Kaiita Mungls and Eluth 
i;ig wclV.vaid on the 'Jongoii Miorgh, 



C 4; Since Jenghiz Khan.' 297 

joined their name ^ with that of the Mungh, In the title Mungls, 
which he thereupon aiTumed, filling himfelf grand Khan of their cu- 
tk£ Mungls and Tatars. A»"- 

Whatf^'ER was the caufe of introducing this cuftom, it^'^'^'^ 
is certain that it obtained, and flill continues in force. This^-^ J •'' 
is what gives a fanction to the liberty taken by moft authors/^'^^" ^' 
who, hy Mungh and Tatars ,mean the fame people {X). This 
we mention, to prevent our readers from failing into any mif- 
take on this head, in the courfe of their hiftory. It muft be- 
confefTed, it would be much better to lay afide a praftice 
which tends to breed great confufion, and at leaft to confine 
the name of Tatars to thofe commonly called ■ Mohammcdajz 
Tatars, to whom another cuftom has in effeft appropriated 
it. After all, thofe names fhould be applied only for di- 
iVincSlion f^ke, neither of them being flridlly due to the peo- 
ple who enjoy it. For as the name of Tatars is given ro 
many tribes who are not Tatars ; fo that of Moguls extends 
to many who are not Moguls : the name of the conquering, 
or mofl powerful tribes, having paiTed to the conquered, or 
lefs powerful tribes. 

The Mogids or Mungh are, at prefent, divided into \\\reejhree 
great branches ; the Mungh, properly fo called, ' the Khalkas, Mogul 
and the Ahiths, or Ehiths. The firfl branch retains the an- hranchei. 
cient name of the nation, which has been already accounted 
for. The Kalkas, which may alfo be written Khalkha, and 
Hcdha, as the firfl letter is a deep guttural, derive their name 
from the river Kalka, already defcribcd, which runs in their 
country. Whence the Eluths (B), Ahths, or Aluts, derive 
their name, it is not fo eafy to determine. Thefe are the 
people commonly known by the name of Kahnak, or Kalmslkj, 
whofe etymology is alfo unknown to us. All which we are 
certain of is, that it is a nick-name given to them by the Mo' 
hammeda.n Tatars, in hatred of their idolatrous religion (C) ; 

* De i.a Croix, hill. Gengh. p. 63. 

(J) And, after all, they are, in The Oircts feeni to be the Firats 

effed, the fame people : as being of Jbulghazi K'mn. 

the defcendants of the Huns, or (C) Math, a Mica^v de Sar- 

lurks. See belore, p. 43. matia Jf,ana, cap, 3. and Her' 

(B) We are told by Strahlen- hrejiein in rerutn Mufco'u, com- 

herg, that they call themfelves me^/t. in the article d" TartariSf 

Derbon Oiret, or Oireth, that is, towards the end, fay. that they 

the four Oiration tribes : and, by are called Kalmuhs, becaufe they 

the Englijh tranflator of him, are the only Y?i.xX.?LXnations^vJ.o let 

that they are called Eloth, and their hair groiv. But this fecms 

corruptly Z.a/^. Seei'/r^-^/. defc. very trifling ; fince the hair they 

oiTartarj, introd. p. 83 & 89. wear is no more than a lock on 

the crown of their heads. 


298 Hijlory of the Moguls and TarKrs, B. II. 

Mungls, or for fome other caufe. The RuJJlans took it fi'om thofe 
their cu- Tatars, and from the Rujfians it came in ufe among Europe- 
Jlsms. ans ; while the name of Eluth was unknown to them. They 
**— "V"*^ take it as an ^ifront to be called Kalmuks, and fay, they have 
a better title to the name of Mungls than their neighbours, 
who at prcfent enjoy it ; as thefe latter are fprung from that 
part of the Mungls and Tatars who were expelled China, by 
Hong-vu, the founder of the Idling family, in 1368 ''. 
Mungls in Tins fhews, that although the two laft branches have, 
general, for diflinftlon fake, or fome o'.her reafon, afTumed different 
names from the ftrft, yet they full retain the name of Mungls ^ 
which they highly honour ; as the Jews did that of IfraclitcSf 
to denote their origin and defcent. Whether the numerous 
tribes, into which each of the three branches is divided, be 
derived from the fame flock, is a queflion which \\e have dif- 
cufTed eliewhere ^ But let that be as it may ; as they have 
all the fame cufloms, language, religion, and form of go- 
vernment, with little or no variation, what may be faid of 
one branch, will fcrve for the other two. For this reafon we 
fhall conneft together, under the general name of Munglsy 
v^hat materials the befl travellers, and other authors, afford 
us, concerning the aforefaid three branches ; only dillinguifli- 
ing fuch things as may be peculiar to each of them. 
Their The Mimgls, in general, arc of a middle fize, but exceeding 

Joape : robui]:, and well-fet : they have big and broad hclds, flat faces, 
and complexions of a dark olive colour, pretty near that oi Jme- 
rican copper ; very black and fparkling eyes, but too far afun- 
der, and opening but a little, altho' they are very long : the 
bridge of their nofe is quite flat, and almofl level with the face, 
fo that there is nothing of a nofe to be feen but the end, which 
is very flat alfo, witxh two great holes, which form the nof- 
trjls (D) : their ears are very large, though without the rims : 
their beards very thin : hair black, and ftrong, like horfe- 
h'air ; but they fiiave all otT, excepting a lock on t!\e crown of 
their heads, which 'falls down their backs, and is let grow to 
its natural length. To make amends for all this homelinefs, 
they have very pretty mouths, with fmall teeth, as white as 
ivory, and are perfeftly well limbed. Their women have 

•» Abu'lg. hift. Tuiks, Sec. p, 259, & fcq. * See before, 

f. 61. 

(D) Although this defcription with regard to their eyes and 
doubtlcfs bslongi equally to the noles, fays only, that their nofes 
proper Mur?ls and Kalkas, as are fi^t, but their eyes black and 
well as the Lluths, yet our au- full. Bentink ap.Abulgh. hifl. 
thor, fpc^-kivig cf ;he Moguls^. 'Jui-!;s, fs^. p. 502. 


C. 4^ Since Jenghiz Khan. . , 299 

much the fame features, only not fo large : but then they are Mungis, 
commonly of a very clever fize, and well-fliaped . '^-^-i^ cu- 

GER BILLON, the Jefuit, fays they are quite rude and Z^'^^- 
unpolifhed in their manners ; yet honeft and good-natured : V""'^^'"*^ 
the Eluths, in particular, do ill to nobody, -if not firft pro- ^ " "'* ''^^"* 
voked : and although extremely brave, yet they do not live " ' 
by robbery, like their neighbours the Mohammedan Tatars, 
with whom they are continually at war. The proper Mungis 
and Kalkas are naity and llovenly in their tents an.d clothes, . 
living amidft the dung of their beafts ; which ferves them for 
fuel, for they have no wood (E). They excel in horfeman- 
/hip and hunting ; and are dextrous archers, either on foot or 
on horfeback. In gene- al they lead a wretched life : and, be- 
ing averfe to labour, they prefer grazing to archite<flure '-■. 

REGIS, another of the miffioners, obferves, that the ut- ^^^'^ H' 
mofl: ambition of the Mungis is to preferve the rank of their '''°'''"» 
families. They value things only for dieir ufe ; having no 
regard to their rarity or boauty : are naturally of an eafy 
chearful temper, ahva} s difpofed to laugh, and never dillurb- 
ed with melancholy. Indeed, they find little occafion for 
care : having generally neither neighbours to manage, enemies 
to fear, nor lords to pleafe. Perplexed with no difficult affairs, 
nor bufinefs of con/lraint, they divert themfelves wholly with 
hunting, fifhing, and other bodily exercifes. However, \h!t{^'^»d genius -, 
people are capable not only of the fcicnces, but the greateft 
undertakings : witnefs their fubduing China, in 1264 ; which 
they governed, even in the opinion of the Chinefe, with great 
judgment and addrefs ^. 

As to their drefs, according to Bentink, they wear very tl^^^r ^re/s, 
large fhirts, and callico drawers : their habits are commonly 
made of calHco, called Kitayka, or fome other flight fluff, 
which they line with Iheep-fkin : and fometimes they wear 
entire garments of ftieep-fkin (F). They fallen- their gar- 
ments, which reach to the ancles, with leather ffraps about 
the waifl:. Their boots are exceeding large, and ufually 
made of ^7/^^ leather : their bonnets fmall and round, with , 

a fur of four fingers breadth. The women's drefs is nearly 
the ftme, excepting that their garments are longer, their 

^ Bemt. ap. Abu'lg. hiil:. Turks, Szc. p. 535,, & feq. «= Du 
JIalde ibid, p. 256. ^ Ibid. p. 253. 

fE) Hence their tents have a (F) According to ^^-i-^V, the 

rankifh fmell, hardly tolerable, ufital clothing of the Mungis 

fays Regis du Halde, uhifitpr.. p. and Kalkas is fheep and lamb- 

254. feiiis, the wool next the bod/c 

boots ■ 

'3^0 Hiftcry of the Moguls ^«^ Tartars, B. IK 

IWungls, boots generally red, and their bonnets Hat, with fome little, 
ornaments ^. Regis fays, they know how to drefs and whitea 
thofe ilcins, as well as the llvius of flag:, deer, wild-goats, 
6r. which fervc the rich for under -garments in the fpring : 
y€t, for all their care, you fmcU them as foon as they come 
near you ; whence the Chinffc ha\e given them the name of 
Tfau-ta-tfe (G), that is, ftirking Tatars ^ 
njcinterand The Eluths wear much the fame kind of clothes with the 
fitmmcr. proper Mungh and Kalkas. In the fouthera provinces they 
ufc no fhirts in fummcr, contenting themfelves with a kind 
of fhcep-fi<in doublet, without fleeves ; which they put on 
next their flcin, with the woolly fide out, tucking their fliirt 
within their breeches j fo that all the arm is left bare up to' 
the fhoulder. In winter they wear a rhcep-flcin over their 
doublet, which reaches to the calf of the leg, and turn the 
woollen fide inward. Thcle upper /kins have fleeves fo long, 
that they are obliged to turn them up, when going about 
any work. Their bonnet is red, and commonly fet off with 
a tuft of fdk or hair, of a bright red. Their women go ha- 
bited much after the fame manner ; their callico Ibift making 
all their clothing in fummer, and a long fhecp-fkin gown, 
with a bonnet, the fame with their hufbands, fufficing them 
in winter '. 
Colour re J Red is the colour in greatefl efteem with the Tatars; and 
ejieemul. how ill clothed foever their princes may be, in other re- 
fpyc'fls, they never fail to have a fcarlet robe for ftate occa- 
fions. Their chiefs v/ould rather be without a fhirt, than a 
fcarlet coat ; and the wom.en of quality do not think them- 
felves well drefled, if the fcarlet gown be wanting. The ve- 
ry meaneft people affecl to wear red cloaths, although the 
cloth be ever fo ordinary. This humour has fpread even 
among the inhabitants of Siberia. In fliort, all over the north 
of yyla, a man may do more witl; u piece of red cloth, than 
four times its value in filver ''. 
Mungl The arms of the Miingls confift in the bow and arrows, 

arms. the pike and fabre, which they wear after the Chinrfc manner. 

And they always go to war o/i horfcback. 
Their cat' THESE people live intirely on their cattle ; which confifl: 
fig. of horfes, dromedaries, oxen, cows, and lliecp. Their horfts 

arc very good and mettlefome : their oxen larger than thofe 

f Bf VT. ap. Abu'lg. hift. Turks, ^c. p. 505. ''DuHalde, 
ubi fupr. p. 254. ' Abo'lcii. hift. ubi I'upr. p. 533, & feq. 
* Ih'n^. p. 409. 

(G) The Tfudatfn of Nieu- oi Tjau-ta-tfe, See OgJlb. Chi' 
/•c^ «:e OQubikfi i corruption «<?, p. ji*. 


C. 4 J Since Jenghiz KhSn." 301 

of the Ukrauii and the tailed in the world. Their dromcda- Mungk, 
ries are large and ftrong. Their fheep are very large alfo, but thei7- <•«- 
have very ihort tails; which are buried in a cafe of fat, /out- 
weighing feveral pounds, and hanging perpendicularly : the**"*^''""^ 
wool of them is very long and coarfe ; they have a bunch or 
rifing on the nofc, like the camels, and hanging ears, like 
hounds K This is to be underftood properly of the Eluths ; 
for although the Mimgls aiid Kalkas have the fame fort of 
cattle with them, yet they are far inferior, both for goodnefs 
and appearance, except the fticep; whofe tails are about two 
fpans long, and near as much in compafs, weighing com- 
monly between ten and eleven, pounds : it is almoft one in- 
tire piece of very rank fat. They, above all things, abhor y/^/r <//>/.' 
fwine /" ; and the El,uths never eat either them or poultry. 
They, in general, eat nothing but horfe-flefli and mutton ; not 
eftcemlng that of bnlloclc;- or cows fo good. They are alfo 
fonder of mare's than cov/'s milk, being much better and 
richer. Indeed, the cows, after their calves are taken from 
them, will fuller none to draw their teats : they llkewife 
quickly lofe their milk ; fo that necellity has hitfoduced tlie 
ufe of mare's milk ". 

GERB ILLON fays, that, in fummer, xht Mimgls feed 
on milk meats ; ufmg indifferently that of cows, marcs, ewes, 
goats, and camels. Their drink is water, boiled witii the 
worft fort of Chinefe tea, in which they put cream, butter, 
or milk. They make a fpirituous liquor from four milk, •P'''«'^ y?''- 
which is diftilled after fermentation; The rich lay mutton^''"'"'"'' "" 
to ferment with their four milk. This liquor is ftrong and^^"''"^" 
nourifhing, and they delight to get drunk with it. They al- 
fo fmoke a grea,t deal of tobacco °. Bent'ink informs us, that 
the Kalmuks have a way of making the milk four in tv/o 
nights time ; after which, pouring it into an earthen pot, they 
flop it very clofe, and putting a funnel to it, fet it ou die 
fire. This fpirit is as clear and good as that which in Eu- 
rope is dillilled from grain : but to make it fo, it muft be fet 
twice over the fire. They call it ara.k, in imitation of the 
Indians their neighbours, who give all their ftrong liquors that 
uame ^. 

RUB RU^UIS tells us, that, in the time of MafrguKo/mn:,o^^ 
Khiin, the Miingis, befides wines which came from foreign ^m?f- 
countries, made excellent drink of rice, millet, and honey ', be- 
ing well-flavoured, and high-coloured, like svine : but that 

' Aeu'lgh. ubi fupr. p. 536. ^ Ibid. p. c2j. " Ibid. 

p. 405, 536. ° Du HALD£,ub: fupr. p 250. ^ Abv'i c;.. 

ubi fupr. p. 403, 5 j6. 

•► ' their 

302 Uijlory of the Moguls andTTiXl^x^, B. 11." 

^ Mungls, their chief liquors were the kofmos (H) and karakofinos ; which, 

thiir cu- according to that author, arc made in the tcllowing manners. 

, J'°''^^- For the kofmos, they fill a great ikin-bag wiih martV-milk, and 

T*''''^/^'^ beat upon it with a club, which has a knob at the end, as 

big as a man's head, but hollow. As foon as they beat, the 

milk begins to boil (or ferment) like new wine, and turn 

four : they continue this labour till the buuer comes : then 

tailing the whey, if it be pretty Iharp, it is fit to drink ; for 

It pricks the tongue like rape-wine, and leaves a flavour like 

that of almond-milk. It intoxicates weak heads ; is very 

plenfant, and diuretic. 

Karakosmos, or black kofmos, is the drink of g-eat lords, 
and made thus : tiiey beat the milk, till the groilcr part fub- 
fiding, like white-wine lees, tlic purer remains at top, like 
new whey. The fettlings are given to fervants, who fleep 
rery found after it. This, fays our author, is a very plea- 
fant and wholefome liquor '^. 
Crent The inhabitants oi Great Tatary, in general, are fond of 

drinkers, fb-ong liquors ; for when they can get any, they never let it 
reft, while they are able to iland. When they have a mind 
to make merry, each brings what liquor he can procure ; and 
then they fet themfclves to drink night and day, never ftirring 
till every drop is out. They are no lefs fond of fmoking j 
which cuftoms prevail moft, in proportion as they live more 
northerly ^ 
^heirtraf- These people, having no manufa<5lures, exchange their 
fcl*\, - cattle with the Rujfians, Bukhurs, and other neighbours, for 
what they want : nor is it poiTiblc commerce could flourilh 
there as it did in the time of Jenghlz Kh^n, fo long as the' 
vaft regions they inhabit remain divided among feveral princes; 
fome of whom will always oppofc the deiigns of otliers. 
Befides, the rapines of the Mohammedan Tatars, who rob the 
karawans, keep ofF the merchants of the weft. However, on 
the lide of Siberia, China, and the Indies, they may arrive in 
full fafety. Thofe from Chifia refort in great numbers to the 
Mungls, bringing them rice, bohea-tea, which they call kara- 
chay, tobacco, cotton, cloth, and other ordinary ftuffs ; be- 
fides feveral forts of houfhold utenhls, and other necelTa- 
ries ^ 
Nof.a^je As the heathen Tatars lead a very harmlefs life, they are 
tr^de. • j^Qt Co earneft to pj*cure flaves for their fervice as the Mo' 

■5 See Pup.cH. pilgr. vol. iii. p. 5, <5c feq. "■ Aeu'lch. 

ubi fujir. p. 403, 536. ' Ibid. p. 41 2, 505, Sc 536. 

(H) By other authors called Kumis, or Kimis. 

5 ♦ hammcdan 


C. 4. Since JenghJz Khan. ^02 

hanvncdan Tatars. Befides, having no need of more than Mungls, 
their own families to guard their cattle, which are all cheir tkeir cu- 
riches, they do not care to burthen themfelves with ulelets J-ofis. 
mouths. Hence it is, that none, except the Khans and the '^■"•>*"*-' 
Tayk, is to have flaves. When they take any from their ene- 
mies, all, except thofe whom they keep, are diftributed 
among their fubjefts, in order to augment their number ; 
which, at the fame time, increafcs their revenue. On the 
tontrary, the I\lohammcdan Tatars often make war with theii;- 
heiglibours, on no other fcore bat to get flaves ; felling thofe 
they do not keep. Which humour prevails fo much with the 
ChircaJJian, Daghrjidn, and Nogay Tatars, that, when they 
can't meet with grown up people, they fteal children Xo fell j 
and, if they cannot get other people's, do not fcruple to fell 
their own : efpecially their daughters, if beautiful ; rs they do 
tKeir wives, on the flighteft difguft. In fhort, the trade of 
flaves being all their wealth, they fpare neither friends nor 
foes, when they meet with a fair opportunity of carrying 
them ofF^ 

The Eliiths take as many wives as they will (I), befideS Po.)x'^»'{yV 
concubines, whom they chufe out of their flaves : and 
whereas the Mohammedan Tatars mufl: not contraft within 
certain degrees, the Pagan may marry any of their kindred, 
except their natural mothers. In this our author fuppoles 
they are reflrained, rather by the age of their female parents, 
than by any law ; becaufe it is riot unufual, among the Eluths 
znd^Mungls, for the father to take his daughter to wife : arid 
they give over lying with their wives when they draw near 
forty ; confidering them thenceforth as no other than fervants, 
to whom they give victuals, for taking care of the houfe, and 
tending the young wives who fucceed in their places. 

The children born of concubines are equally legitimate, ^«'^^''^V- 
and capable of inheriting : only if the father has been Khan,^"^*^* 
or chief of fome tribe, the ifllie of the wives fucceed before 
"thofe born of concubines. The offspring of common pro- 
ftitutes are looked on with a fort of contempt by every-body ; 
and very rarely fucceed their fathers, efpecially if people of 
diftinftion : bec|,ufe there is no knowing if the perfon, fuch a 
creature lays the child to, be the real father. Polygamy is not 
/b inconvenient to the inhabitants of Tatary, as' it is to the 

' Abu'lg. ubi fupr. p. 412, 505, & 536. 

lion fays, that altho' gene; 
S not forbidden a- Ho.lflt 
mong the Mungls, yet they have 350. 

(I) Gerhillon fays, that altho' generally but one wife. />« 
polygamy is not forbidden a- Ho.ldf''% China, ^'c. vol ii. p. 


UiJieY} of the Moguls and Tartars, B. H, 

rcrt of the .^Jidtics\ their wives being of great ufe, and lit- 
tle expence, to them. For the old ones rnan:ige the houfe- 
\vi:ry, take care of the cattle, and, in (hort, provide intirely 
for the fublillence of the f.iir.ily ; fo that the hufbaad has 
nothing to do but llcep, and follow his diverllons. 
CrcatfJial NoTHiNG equ.ds thc refpcct paid by children, of all ages 
teffca. and conditions, to their fathers, who are confidered as kings 
of their families : but they make little account of their mo- 
thers, unleis under fome particular obligations to them. 
They mull lament a father for many days, and deny them- 
fehcs of all forts of pleafure during the whole time. The 
fons mufl even abfiain from the company of their wives for 
feveral months. Nothing muft be fpared to render his fu- 
neral honourable ; and at leafl: once a year they mufl pay their 
devotions at his tomb, calling to mind tlie infinite obligations 
which they owe to him : but the Mohammedan Tatars are 
not fo exaft as to their duties paid the dead ". 
Burials Tiii: Mungls burn their dead, and interr their alhes on fome 

and eminence j where, raifing a heap of flones, they place thereon 

^ta-ves. little banners ^. The greater part of the Pagan Tatars bury 
along with the deceafed his bell hoiTe and moveables, fuch as 
wooden porringers, for his ufe in the other world. In many 
parts, towards the borders of Siberia, there are to be feen 
little hills, under which are found llceletons of men, accom- 
panied with horfe-bones, and many forts of fmall veflels, be- 
fides jewels of gold and fdver. Likewife the fkeletons of 
women, with gold-rings on their fingers. As this does not 
agree with the condition of the prefent inhabitants, they are 
doubtlcfs the graves of the old Mungls, who died after their 
return with the plunder of the fouthern countries of Jf,a, 
into thefe dcfarts, where they buried veflels ol gold and fil- 
ver, with other riches, fo long as they had any left. The 
Swcdyh prifoners in Siberia, as well as the Ruffians, ufed to 
go in great troops to fearcli thofc tombs, which lie far within 
the lands of the Eliiths : but a good number of them hav- 
ing been llain by thofc people, all farther expeditions were 
forbidden, under fevere penalties. This behaviour of the 
Eluths, otherwife fo very peaceable, fliews, that they confi- 
dered them as the tombs of tlielr anceflors ; for which all thc 
Pagan Tatars have an extraordinary veneration ^. 
jinfirnl On this occafion it may be proper to mention what frier 
fcfulchris. Rubruquis, who, in 1255, "^'''^s "^^ ^^^^ court of DIangu Khdn^ 

" .Abu'lg. ubi fupr. p. 406, Sc feq. ^ Du Halde's Chi- 

na, SiQ. p. 256. y Abu'lg. ubi fupr. p. 556, &: feq. 


C. 4^ ^^f^^^ Jenghiz Khan? 305 

writes, concerning the fepulchres of the Komanlans, or peo- Mungls, 
pie of Kipchak. They build a large tomb over their dead, their cu- 
and fet his image upon it, with its face towards the eaft, and fi°"^^' ^^• 
holding a drinking-cup before his belly. On the monument ""-^V*^ 
of rich men they erecft pyramids, or little conic houfes. In. 
feme places the autlior met with vail brick towers : in others, 
ftone pyramids ; although there are no ftones found in the 
neighbourhood. Near the grave they generally leave one of 
the defunft's horfes. At one he faw fixteen horfe-hides hung 
up on high pofls, four towards each cardinal point; with 
kofmos (or kimis), fet for the deceafed to drink, and flefli 
to eat : but could never learn, that they buried treafures 
with the corps. He obferved other kinds of fepulchres to- 
wards the eaft : namely, large ftone floors, or pavements, 
fome round, others fquare ; with four tall ftones eredled at 
the fides, facing the cardinal points ^. 

The Mungls dwell either in tents, or little moveable h.nX.s. their 
Regis, fpeaking of the Mw:gl tents, fays, that they aretenfsi 
round, and covered with a thick grey or whiter felt, up- 
held within by poles, with one end tied round a hoop. They 
thus form the fuperficies of a broken cone ; with a round 
hole at top, to let out the fmoke, which afcends from the 
hearth, placed in the middle underneath. While the fire 
lafls they are warm enough, and then grow cold again ; and, 
in winter, would, without care, freeze in their beds. To 
avoid this, as well as other inconveniencies, they have their 
tent door very narrow, and fo low that they cannot enter 
"without (looping. They have alfo the art to join thefe loofe 
pieces fo nicely, as to keep out the piercing blafts of the 
north wind^. 

The Eliiths, according to Bentlnk, have, in fummer, gTez.lfnsveahle, 
tents of ketayka, a fort of callico ; and, in winter, {ht^s,houfes\ 
made of boards, and covered with felt ; which they can fet 
up and take down in lefs than an hour's time. The huts, 
or houfes, ufed both by them and the Mtmgls, are made 
round, with great poles of light wood, joined together with, 
leather thongs (K), for the more eafily fitting up and re- 
moving them. They cover them on the outfide with a 
thick felt, for defence againfl the cold and bad weather. In 

z PuRCH. pilg. vol. iii. p. 6, 7, 8. » Du Halde ubi . 

fupra, p. 254. 

(K) In the time of Ruira- (or floor) of the fame ma- 
^uis, they were interwoven with terials. 
wickers ; and the foundation 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. % the 

3o6 llijlory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. II. 

Mungls, the middle of the roof, which is conical, they leave an open- 
their en- ingy which fervTS both for a window and chimney : the fije- 
y?''///.t, I've. place being dire(ftly underneath, and the lleeping places ronnd 
*"-^\'~"— ^ the hut againll the wall. The chiefs, and peilons of diftinc- 

tion, have huts larger and more converiicnt ''. 
^rrlednn Thesf, mo\ cable habitations (in their removals) are car- 
<u:aggom. ried on \vaggons, with four wheels. Thefe carriages have two 
(hafts, made of a very pliable light wood, and fafiened to the 
axle-tree of the fore-wheels, by means of one of their ends', 
which is turned back. They put them between the body of 
the waggon and the wheels, tying a cord a fpan diflance 
"Irom the foremoft end of the fhatts. This cord goes into the 
^nd of the axle-tree, which pafTes through the nave of the 
wheel : fo that the wheels, which arc pretty fmall, play on 
both fides of the waggon, between the (hafts and the cord. 
The horfe marches between the (h;ifts ; and over his back 
there goes an exceeding pliable piece of wood, in form of a 
femicircle, which is fiiftened on both fides to the harnefs, 
and the fhatts to its two ends. They pretend, that in this 
manner the bcaft is much eafed ; and Inxleed one horfe will 
draw a waggon, well loaded, above a hundred leagues : but 
it mu(\ be ol)ferved, thefe machines arc not very large. 
When they put more horfes, they either place them before 
the fufl, or fallen them to the hindmofi: axle-tree. The 
Ruffians and Kojfdks make ufe of much the fame fort of car- 
riages ". 
Antlent The honfes, in the time of Ruhrxiqxiis, were thirty feet in 

mij'a diameter, llretching on each fide five feet beyond the wheels. 
Over the felt they laid mortar, marie, or bone-afhes, to mvike 
it fhine white ; adorning the roof with beaTitiful picftures, 
and hanging bcfcxe the cioor a felt painted with birds, trees, 
and hearts. That traveller counted twenty-two oxen draw- 
ing one cart, eleven on a fide. TKe axle-tree was as big as 
the mall of a fliip, and the driver ftood at the door of the 
honfe. Thoir houlhold lluti' and treafure were kept in fquaie 
wicker chofl^., rounded at top, and covered with felt, greafed 
over, to keep out rain. They were adorned with paintings> 
or feathers, and fixed on carts, carried by camels, for trof- 
ifng rivers ; but never taken down like the houfcs. 
honv ■ TflESE houfes, when fet on the ground, are placed, a.^all 

plactJ. their habitatioiis are, with the door faci;ig thefouth, to avoid 
the north winds, which are A'ery piercing all over great Ta- 
tary. Then they range the chell-carts at a little dillance, on 
each fide, as it were two walls. One rich Mungl had one 

y Atti oil. liilh Turks, t^vc. p. 409. ' IbiJ. 


C. 4: Sme Jengliiz Khan." 507 

or two hundred fuch carts with chefts ; fo that fuch a great Mungis, 
man's court looked like a great village ''. their cu- 

The fixed habitations of the Eluths, which are but few, fi°fns,icc. 
excepting the roof, which is in the form of a dome, are '^!!'"'*^*]*^ 
built in all refpefls like the moveable huts ; without either ff. 
chambers, windows, or garrets : the whole confifting of one 
.fuigle room, about twelve feet high. But thefe houfes are not 
near fo large and convenient as thofe of the Manchevjs^ who 
build them fquare ^. 

In the year 1721, fome perfons, fent by the emperor of^^^^/^j. ^^ 
RiiJJia, Peter I. to difcoVer plants, near the fiver Tzulim {or/pires. 
ChidimJ, to the well of the town olKrafnoyar; found eredfed, 
. about the middle of the great flep or defart, a kind of 
needle, or fpire, cut out of one white flone, about fixteen 
feet high ; furrounded by fome hundred fmall ones, four or 
five feet high. There is an infer iption on one fide of the 
great needle, and feveral characters on the lefler ones ; which 
time has already defaced in many places, and feem to have no 
refemblance of any ufed in the north parts of Afia. As there 
are no fiones within an hundred leagues of thefe monuments, 
and fuch works do not agree with the genius of the prefent inha- 
bitants of Tatary, Bcntink feems to think, that they could not 
have been executed either by them or their anceftors. But this 
conclufion will not hold good, if we confider what has been 
already quoted from Rubniqnis, who found tombs in that 
form (L) in his journey through the fame parts of Tatary, 

In that part of the country between the Ja'ik and Sir, A defer ted 
: \¥hich is inhabited by the Eluths, towards the borders of xkittoivn, 

KaJJatcha Orda, who pofTefs the other part, the Ruffians^ 
, about 1 7 14, difcovered a town, quite deferted ; in the ntidft 
'. of vaft fmdy grounds, eleven days journey to the fouth-weft 
! (M) of Tamijha, and eight to the Weft of Sempakt (N). It 

•* PuRCH. ubi fupra, p. 3, & feq. * Abu'lch. ubi. fu- 

pra, p. 410, 

(L) PaulLucas, in his fecond have been built by the Tatarj, 

voyage to the Livant, torn. i. in one of their expeditions on 

p. 126, faw a furprizing num- that fide. 

ber of pyramids, no fewer than (M) It fhould be fouth-eaft, 

20,000, within two days jour- zcQordmgto Strahletihrrg'smz^, 

ney oi Cccfarca, in JJia 7tiinor ; which places this town in the 

with doors, ftairs, rooms, and neighbourhoodof 5fw/a/<j/, and 

windows; and in the upper part Abhiket, both on the Irtijh. 
of each a corpfe. Which, from {^) Scmpalat, o- Sedempalati 

their uniformity with thofe in that is, the fe^uen palaces, is 2 

Tatary, may be prefumed to RuJJian fetdement on the Irtt/h. 

X 2 is 

3o8 Hijiory of the Moguls and Tartars, ^. II, 

Miingls, Is about half a league in compafs, with walls five feet thick, 
t/jcir cu- and jlxreen high : the foundation frccflone, and fuperflruc- 
Jio'iis, S<c.[xxvt brick, Hanked with tower% in feverul places. The 
^■***'''*'*']ioufcs were all built with fun-burnt bricks, and fide-pofls o£ 
wood, much after the common fadVion in Poland. The bet- 
ter fort had feveral chambers. There were Ijkewife great 
brick buildings, with each a tower ; which, in all likelihood, 
ferved for temples, Thcfc buildings were in pretty good 
condition, without the Ic.vH appearance of violence having 
been ufed to them. 
Writ'vigs In moll of the houfes was found a gre:it quantity of 
found Writings done up in rolls. One furt wits in Ch'uia ink and 
there, fi]|f paper, white and thick. The leaves were two feet loiig, 
and nine inches broad, written on both fides ; and the lines 
ran frcxn the right to left acrofs the fame. The writing 
was bounded with two black lines, which left a two-inch 
margin. The fecond fort was engrolTed upon fine blue filk 
paper, in gold and filver, with a line round each, in one or 
the other. The lines were written lengtli-v/ays, from right 
to left ; and varnifhed over, to preferve them. The firfl fort 
were found to be in the I\Iiingl language : the fecond in that 
relating to of Tangitt (or Tibet ) ; both treating of religious matters. 
^rvotion. SiiKe then, two other towns were difcovered, defcrted in 
the fame manner by the Eluths ; probably on account of 
their wars with the Mungls. Much of the f'lme kind Uas 
the difcovery made in 1721. Some ruAics, fent from To- 
holjkoy, by the governor of Siberia, privately to look for 
ruins and ancient fepulchres, found certain images of gold, 
filver, and brafs, in all the tombs. And, having advanced 
1 20 German miles toward the Cafpian fea, met with the ruins 
of fplendid buildings : among which were fome chambers 
under-ground, whofe floors and fides confifled of mofl fhine- 
ing flone. They faw here and there black ebony cheffs ; 
which, inflead of trcafure, contained writings or books. , Of 
thefc they carried away only five leaves : one whereof, being 
tolerably well prefcrved, was made publick (O). The learned 
of Europe, to w hom the emperor Peter I. alfo communicated 
thefe writings, were much puzzled about them ; but at once 
Were known by meffieurs Freret and Fourmont, of the acade- 
my of Infcriptions at Paris (P) to be the language and clia- 

(O) In the Jda Erndltorum, (P) In the hiflory oF that . 

vol, xlvi. p. 375, "July iyz2, academy, for the year 1727, 

and in the ILteiary ncwiof Z^c./)- there is a full account of thele 

JiiL the Z5th of y<>/;^, the funic writings. 

year, p. 414. 


C. 4! ^iftce Jenghiz Khan^ 309 

r:icler of Tibet, They found it to be a funeral fermon, with Mungls, 
a moral on the other life, well handled ^ their cu- 

The language fpoken by the numerous tribes of Miirgls fioms, &rc. 
Is fimply called the Miingl tongue. They have indeed fe- *-— ^r- *-» 
veral dialers ( QJ ; biit uridfirfland each other very well 2, ^«»^«^^^- 
The characters found on the antient monuments are the fame 
with thofe in prefent ufe ; but different from the Manchews, 
which are no older than the family now reigning. They 
have not the leaft refemblance of the Chinefe letters, and are 
no more difficult than the, Roman. They are written on ta- 
bles with an iron pencil ; for which reafon a book is a great 
rarity among the Mungls. The emperor Kang-hi, to pleafe 
them, had fome of their authors traiiflated, and printed at 
Pe-king. But the chief book among them is the Kalendar^ 
pubiilhed by the mathematical tribunal in tliat capital, and 
graved in Mungl characters ^. 

The Mungls, in the flouriihing times of their empire, Learnvtg2 
cultivated arts and fciences ; which they learned from the 
fouthern nations of JJia, whom they conquered. Among the 
refl, ailronomy, geography, and other parts of mathematics, 
are m.uch indebted to the labours of their countrymen. But, 
with their dominion out of Tatary, they loft their love for 
learning ; and, at prefent, are involved in their antient igno- 
rance, fiowever, as they are fludious to preferve the know- ■ 
lege of their genealogies, tribes, and other m.atters appertain- 
ing to their own hiftory, they ftill retain a method pecullan 
to themfelves of computing time, and fettling the dates qf 
events. This is a cycle of twelve lunar years, \^\nch.\YQ Cycle of 
meet with in a work afcribed to one of their emperors, who ("^-elfe 
reigned in Perfia and Great Bukharia, with each its name,J'^'^''-f' 
taken from fome animal, in the following order : i . Krfku, 
or the moufe. 2. Out, the ox. 3. Pars, the leopard. 4. 
TuJJ.ikdn, the hare. 5. Lti'i, the crocodile. 6. Tidan, the 
ferpent. 7. Tunad, the horfe. 8. Kui, or Roy, the fteep,. 
9. Pichan, the ape. I'o. Dak'ik, the hen. 11. Eyt, .t^e, 
dog. 12. Tongu%, thehog'. The Mufigis took this cycle' 
from the Igths, Oygurs, or Vigurs ^, the only people in ail 

*" Abu'lgh, hifl. Turks, 2.'C. p.556, &feq. s 
ubi fupra, p. 256, & feq, *^ Ibid, p. 253. ■ ' UJug, 

Beigli Epoch, ctlebr. p. 6. ^ Hyde re!, vet. Perf. p. a;^, 

(Q_) According to 5i'?2//>l, huhhaziV\^.Tttrh,i:c.^.^(jC), 
the Eliiths are the only people ' & ieq. Among them ylhulgha-zt 
of Grand Tatary who preferve Khm learned the Turkij'.o lan- 
the antient Mungl or Turkljh gviage, in which he v/rote hiS ' ^ 

language in ail its purity. A- hiftory, ilnd, p. 31. 

X 3 Tatarv 

3 10 ' Hijlory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. II, 

Mungls, Tatary who had cither learning or letters before the time of 
their cu- Jcnghiz Khan. And from the Mun^h the Japancfc took 
y?pz;::,&c. their Jetta, or twelve figns '. 


Religion of the Mungls. 

Mimglrr-T'IIE 71///;?^^//, before the time of 7^/?^'^/-rA'/'/?/;, were, ia 
ligion: all probability, i\.nSt deifls ; llnce that conqueror, at the 

head of his Yaffa, or laws, ordained the belief of One God, 
the creator of heaven and earth. But, in the reigns of his 
fuccelfors, the Lamas of Tibet found admiflion into Tatary y 
and, by degrees, fo infecffcd the inhabitants, that, at prefent, 
nil but the Mohammedan Tatars profefs the religion of Fo, 
called in their language Fo-J]:>aki : which, befides the doc- 
trine of the tranfmigration of fouls (A), teaches the belief 
of a future flate, purgatory, invocation of iuints, worfhip of 
images, confeflion, pardons, abfolution, and other doctrines, 
{o very conformable to thofe of the Romijh religion, that ;t feems 
the counter-part of it, as well in efTcntials as ceremonies, even 
to crofling, the beads, and holy wate-r. They have not, indeed, 
any thing fo abfurd as tranfubflantiation ; but they have an ar- 
ticle of faith equivalent to it : for thev believe, that the God 
r<3, whom they call God incarnate, not only afTumes a human 
that of form, and aftually refides in Tibet, where he is worshipped 
Tibet. as the true Deity, or Sovereign both of heaven and earth ; 
but that he communicates his divinity to his chofen fervants, 
who officiate, in the feveral parts of his fpiritual dominions, 
in his flead. Thefe arc the vicars, or deputies, of the Ti- 
betian god, and are called, in the I\ lung/ language, KhutCiktii. 
There are feveral of them in Great Tatary. The Miingls 
have one, who refides among and prcfides over them. The 
Khalkas another. The Khutuktu, or vicar of the Mimgls, 
has his abode at Kkuhhti Hotun, mentioned before in the 
geography of their country ; where he lives in great ilate, 
and receives the adorations of the Mungls, who make pil- 
grimages thither, to vifit him, with as much devotion as the 
Romanijls do to Roync. 

' Kempf. hill. Japan, p. 156. 

(A) Regis fays, they do not hut more of wild than tame 
hold the tranfmigration of the animals. Du HaUe\ China, 

foul, at lead into brutes : for 3cC. vol. ii. p. 257. 
t^at they eat the fiefli of beafts ; 



C. 4. ^/»;^ Jenghiz Khan. 311 

GERBILLON xht Jefuit, who was at Khukhu Hot tin In Mungls, 
1688, with the emperor Kang-hi, faw the Khut&ktu, who J^^"> '"«- 
was then about twenty-five years old. For although they f""!^ ^'c. 
believe he never dies, yet they lay he from time to time dif- !77'*Xv^ 
appears ; iii which interval, his foul, being feparated from his i,| . 
body, immediately enters that of fome child, who is difco- 
vered by the Lamas, or prlells. Hence they are called Fti- 
JJjeki, or the Living Fo (B) ; and worfliipped as God on earth. 
He was flat faced, and very long vifaged ; fat in an alcove, at 
the end of the temple, on two large cuihions, one brocade, 
the other yellow fdttin. There were feveral lamps on each 
hand ; but only one lighted. He was covered all over with 
a gown or mantle of yellow damalk, fo that nothing could 
be feen but his head, which was quite bare. His hair waij 
curled, and his mantle edged with a pard-coloured galoon, 
four or five inches broad, like a prieiVs cope ; which that 5/" ^Zr 
veftment nearly refembled. All the civility he fliewed theMungLj 
emperor's ambaffiidors was^ to receive landing their compli- 
ments, or rather adorations : for v/lien they were advanced 
within fix paces of him, they call their caps on the groujid, 
and proflrat^d themfelves thrice, knocking the earth with 
their foreheads. After this, kneeling by turns at his feet, he 
put his hand on their heads, and made them touch his chap- 
let, or beads. Tlie ambafladors then paid a fecond adora- 
tion, and, the pretended immortal being firfl feated, took 
their places in alcoves, one on each fide. Some of their re- 
tinue alfo, after paying their adorations, received the impofi-- 
tion of hands and touch of the beads. Then an entertain- 
ipent was fet ; and while the counterfeit god reached a cup 
oi' Tataridfi te^, ferved jn plate, our author obferved, that.^/V if- 
his arms were bare up to the fhouiders ; and that "he had noi^az-taur. 
other clothes underneath but red and yellow fc:ui$, wrapped 
about his body. The collation being over, and the tables 
removed, they converfed for fome time. During which the 
living idol kept his gravity very well : he fpoke no more than' 
five or fix words, and thofe very foftly, in anfwcr to the 
ambafiadors quefi:ions ; but was continually rolling his eyes, 
looking earnelHy, now at one, then at another ; and forae- 
times vouchfafed to fmile. In this temple were no images, 

{'B)T'htC/jiiic/ehHo-Fo. In vol. iv. p. 653. He is called 
Tibet he is called Lama Konju ; alfo Lama Laiiialu; that is, the 
^ad, by the C/pine/e and Tatars, LamaofLatnas; and Dalay La- 
God the Father, according to ma, ov the Great Lama; being 
the Jefuit Grueber. See colleft. the pope of thofe countries, 
voyages and travels in quarto, 

X 4 iis 

312 Uiftory of the Moguls and Tartars , B. II ' 

Mungls, as in other temples ; but pifturcs of their deities, painted on 
tbeir cu- the walls. In a chamber they faw a child, of feven or eight 
_/?o/r«, &c.yeai-s old, with a lajnp burning befide him, dreflcd and fcat- 
*'*"''V~**'cd like the Khatuktu, and Teemed dengned for his fucceflbr. 
When the ambaflTadors took their leave of this mock deity, 
he neither ftirred from his feat, nor paid them the Icail ci-. 
vility \ 
Khutuktu The Khutuktu of the Kalkas is not fubje(5t to the Dalay 
of the Lama of Tibet, though originally a deputy from him to them 
Kalkas; and the Ehiths : but, having tnfled the fweets of fpiritual com- 
mand, he made bold (towards the year 1 680) to fet up for him- 
felf. This he performed with fo much addrefs, that there is 
fcarce any mention made at prefent of the Dalay Lama among 
the Kalkas ; who believe their living Fo to be no lefs divine and 
immortal than him of Tibet. The court o{ China had a gieat 
hand in this new apotheofis, in order to di^'ide the Kalkas 
from the Eluths ; which they faw could not well be done fo. 
long as both nations continued attached to the fame head of 
religion ; who would, at all tines, in cafe of difference, en- 
deavour, for his own fake, to reconcile them ^. With this 
view the emperor Kang-hi, at the intreaty of the Khutuktu, 
a/fified the Kalkas againfl Kaldan Pojiiktu, Khan of the 
Ehiths, in 1688. But before the Chine/? forces arrived, Kal' 
dan had made great ravages in the country of the Kalkas. ; 
and, among the reft, deftroyed the magnificent temple, which 
the Khutuktu had built near the river Tula, with yellow, 
varnifhed bricks. 
his reft- "tuis living Fo, who was the chief occaiion of the war, 
^nce: by his cruelty and injuftice, was named Chemifzim Tamba 
Khutuktu; and brother to the Khan of the Ka'kas, called 
Tujhctu Khan. After his temple was deftioyed, and KaU 
dan was repulfed by help of the imperial troops, he went 
and dwelt in tents, on the banks qf the Ibcn Pira, a little 
river, which fidls into the Selinga. As the veneration which 
the Kalkas had for him drew crouds of people thither, the 
place, in a little time, might be called a large city of tents ; the 
hurry being much greater there than any-where elfe in that 
part of Tatary : for it is reforted to by the Rujfians, and other 
nations, for the fake of trade, as well as by the priefts of 
all ranks, from Hindofidn, Pegu, Tibet, and China'^. Gerbillon. 
faw this Khutuktus, in 1691, at an audience of the emperor 
Kang-hi ; who obliged that pretended god to pay him hom- 
ferfon end ^gc^ He was a corpulent man, §ind the only fat ^alka pur 


» DuHaipf, China, &;c. v»l. ii. p. 279. ^ Abu'lch. 

hill. Turks, &c. p. 508. « DuHalde ubifupra, p. 252. 



Jfe, 4; Since Jenghiz Khan^ 3 1 j 

"author had ever feeii : of a piddle flature ; and, though up- Mungis, 
wards of fifty, had a very ruddy complexion. He was drefled their eu- 
ro, a long gown of yellow fattin, with a border of rich fur, P'^^-> ^^' 
and collar of the fame. Over hjs fhoulder he wore a great '*-'V*^ 
linen fcarf, of a dark red. His head and beard were fliaved. 
His bonnet was a kind of mitre, of yellow fattin (C), with 
four red corners turned up, and faced with extreme fine 
black fable. He had on red boots, peaked at the toes, a nar- 
row galoon running along the feams. He was followed by 
two Servants ; and con4'J<^'2d by the prefident of the tribunal 
of the Mungis. After this, being lent for by the emperor, 
he, for all his pride, put on the habit of ceremony appointed 
him by his Chinefe majefty, and received a prefent of about 
330 pounds'*. 

These Khutuktus are attended by Lamas, or priefts, "who Lamat, op- 
Jiave a great afcendant over the people, and are held in gvfuipriejis i 
veneration by them : although the Jefuits tell us, if they may 
be credited, that they are commonly not only ignorant (D), 
(being accounted learned, if they can but read their {^credt^^elrc^a^ 
books in the Tibctian language) ; but alfo great libertines ; ^aiiers. 
debauching women, with impunity. They fing their pray- 
ers, which they fcarce underiVand, with a folemn yet harmo- 
nious air : and this makes almoft the whole of their religious 
wordiip. They make no facrifice, or offering ; but they give 
abfolution to the people, who demand it, bare-headed, on their 
knees : and are fo bigotted to them., that the miilioners faj'; 
there are very little hopes of converting them to the Ramifh 
feith. It is generally believed, that they can call down hail' 
and rain. This was teftified to the Jeluits by feveral Man- 
darins, as eye-witneifes : and they were told at Pe-king, that 
the Lamas pradlifed forccry (E), They pretend alfo to phy- 

* Du Halde abi fnpra, p. 338, & feq. 

(C) The colour of yellow de- fallibility, that he had mucL 
notes being in the iatereft of ado to bring himfelf off with, 
the emperor of China, whofe honour. Abi7}gh. hift. Turks, 
livery that is. <.'^^c. p. 48Q. Now, if they are 

(D) On the contrary, we are fo well acquninted with the reli- 
to\d hy Bentink, that one of his ^ions of othernations, it is nof -i 
popiQi friends, in his way thro' likely they are ignorant of their 
the Mungis country, having re- own. 

proached fome Lamas for de- (E) The anticnt travellers, as 

ceiving the vulgar, in making Ruhruguis and Marco Po/o, (peak. 

them believe the divinity of the much of their forcery and ma- 

Dalay Lama, and the Khutkutu; gic : but no wonder, fince 

they fo fmartly retorted en him that fuperftiticn is flill believed 

the Romijh dodlrines, relating to by the RoTmjb clergy. 

the pope's, fupremacy and in- ^ 

'St ' fie; 

S 1 4 Hijiory tf the Moguls and Tartars, B. II. 

Mungis, flc ; which they pta<flice. Their drefs is like that in which 

tbdr iu- the apoftles are painted; and they wear a mitre and cap, 

Jioms, Scc.\\]^(. bifhops. They do not live in community in Tatary : 

^^■^"■■"'but, in fome places, have a kind of prebends; being the 

lands and flocks of thofe whom they fucceed ; of whom they 

are generally the difciples or companions, l-hey go froit) 

tent to tent, and repeat certain prayers ; for which they have 

(I falary «. 


Government of the Mungis. 

Aymaks T N order rightly to underAand the nature of government in 
m^Or- ufe among the IMimgls, it rauft be obfervcd, tliat each of 

das, the three great branches is divided into Aymaks,. or tribes i 

and although any one of them comes to fubdivide into feveral 
leflcr branches, yet they are always reckoned as belonging to 
fuch tribe. £lv?ry Aymak is compoled of a number of fa- 
milies, who ufually encamp together; and never feparate, 
witliout acquainting their chief, that he may know where to 
find them. When an Aymak, or tribe, is aflembled, whe- 
ther to go fight their enemies, or for any other particular 
reafon, it is called Orda, or, as Europeans term it, an hord. 
Tayki Every tribe, or branch feparated from it, has its particu- 

cWKhan.lar chief, who is called Tayki (qr Tayghi) : which dignity 
defcends regularly to the eldeft fon. , Thefe arc all their no- 
bility : and, riches being equally divided among them, there ^ 
is no other difference between one head of a tribe and an- 
other, but that of merit, or the number of families in his 
Orda^'. Thcfe chiefs of tribes are fubjeft to fome Kh^n, 
whofe vafTals they are, as well as by birth his generals and 
counfellors. Khan, or Han, is a title given to the fovereign of 
any ftate, great or fmall (A) : thus, feveral pcny Mitngl princes 
are filled Khans, though tributary to the Khau of the Kjika 
Alungls ; who is himfelf under the prote(flion of the emperor of 
China : and this laft monarch, originally coming from Tatary, 
is alfo called Khan ; being confidered as the Great Khan of 
the Manchevjs, proper Alungls, and Kalkas, who are fubjed to 

* Du Halde ubi fupra^ p. 252, & feq. & p. 263. * Ibid, 
p. 397, & feq. 

(A) In the time oi Jin^hlz were then called Khan, as being 

Khan every tribe fcemed to have independent, till they were fub- 

its particular Khan; or thofe diied by, or fubnMtteJ to, that 

chiefs who are nowcalled'l a\ ki conqueror. 

I liim. 

C. 4f Since J cnghizKh^n- 3i* 

him. It Is not permitted to any of the family, excepting the Mungls, 
reigning prince alone, to aflume the title of Khan ^ : that tk^ir cu- 
"svhich belongs to the princes of the blood being Tayki =, fioms, &c. 
When a Khan dies, all the princes of the reigning family, S— ■^v— ^ 
and heads of tribes, which are under the dominion of that '^/'^'^''^"'^ 
houfe, meet at the ufual refidence of the deceafed monarch ; ^^^^^"'^^'^ 
where they proceed to the ele(5lion of a new one. They only 
examine who may be the. eldell among thofe princes, without 
regard to the fcniority of the feveral branches of the family, or 
to the children of the deceafed ; and they never fail to elect 
him who appears to be oldeft, unlefs fome extraordinary per- 
fonal defeft be found in him. It is true, force and ufurpa- 
tion may fet this order ahde : but this cafe happens much 
feldomer among the Pagan than Mohammedan Tatars ^. 

The Mungls, for fome confidcrable time after their divide- 77'^ 
Ing into three great branches, continued Independent under Munglg 
their refpeftive Khiins : but, at prefenr, only the Eluths re-f'ib^i^ 
tain an abfolute fovereignty ; the Mungls and Kalkas having 
become fubjeft to the Manckcvjs, now reigning in China, on 
twotdifFerent occafions. 

After the defendants of Jenglnz KhAn, towards the/<? the 
middle of the fourteenth century, were driven out of China, Man- 
the princes of his houfe feized on territories, and formed ^^^^^* 
diffej-ent hords : however, the title of Khan remained to the 
chief of them, called Chahar Khdn, defcended from Hu- 
kelay, or Kullay. To this prince the other Mimgl tribes 
(who had continued in Tatary ), and even the Eluths them- 
felves, were tributary, till about the beginning of the feven- 
teenth century ; when his fubje(fl:s (B), unable to bear his 
cruelties and riots, called In the founder of the Manchevj 
monarchy in China : who obliged him to quit the title of 
Khan for that pf Vang, and Intirely fubdued the Mungls 
about the great wall ^. 

These new mailers, aftev their conquefl of China, con- their go- 
ferred on the moft powerful of them the titles of Vang, vcrfiment: ■ 
Pey-le, Pey-tfe, Kong, ^'f. anfwerlng to thofe of regulo, 
prince, duke, earl, 6'c. ; divided them into forty-nine ftand- 
ards, and fettled a revenue on each chief; fixed the bounds 
of their lands, and ellablllhed laws, by which they are go- 

^ Du Halde ubi fupra, p. 391. 9 Souciet. obf. math, 

p. 160, note 3. ^ Ibid, p- 398. ^ Du Kalde, vol. ii. 

p. 251. 

(B) By this, Chahar Khan could not have lived two whole 
^uft be only a title ; fmce he centuries and more. 


3 1 6 Mijiory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. IF, 

Mungis, verned to this day. There is a grand tribunal at Pc-king 
their (u- (called that of the MiingtsJ, to wliich appeals are brought 
JtomSf&cQ.^yQYci the judgment of the princes thernfelves ; who arc 
^"■*^'***' obliged to appear, when cited. The Kalkasy iince their fub- 

jc^ion, are under the fame regulation ^ 
Princes The fcveral countries or diftricts of the Mtingls, evert 

uumeroui. thofe which are the worfl, being dry, fandy, and cold, fuch 
as Korchin, Oban, Nayman, and Turbcda, n>aintain a great 
number of princes. The houfe of Korchin only, at the time 
when the miffioners paflcd thro'.igh it (in 1710), had eight 
Or nine diftinguifhed by their feveral titles above-mentioned ; 
the number of which is not fixed : becaufe they depend on 
the will of the emperor of China, who is, with refpeft to 
them, the Grand Khan ; and who exalts or degrades thyn, 
according to their conduft. When they are without title, 
or military command, they are called Tayghi (C^ ■ neverthe- 
lefs, they are confidercd as maflers of their territories by 
the Mtingh, who are no better than flaves to the heads of 
their refpeftive families. 

These princes have a politcncfs which diftinguifhes them 

from their fubjefts : who, though they Aile thernfelves flaves, 

/ are not treated with feverity ; but have ready accefs on the 

flighteft occafions : yet, forpied by education, this familiai-ity 

J^kes off nothing of their refpeft ^. 

IT/^efKalka It "^oes not appear at what times that part of the Mungis 

Mun^Is called Kalkas afTumcd the name. Thefe had at firft a Khan, 

who, as well as the other -/l'/«;?^/j and Eluths, was tributary to 

the Chahar Khan above-mentioned : but the Kalkas inc.eafing 

vaflly in time, and the defcendants of Ktiblay, who had only 

the title ofTayki, growing numerous ; the more powerful among 

them became by degrees independent on each other, and of 

the Khan himfelf, to whom they paid only a flight homage. 

Before the year 1688 they are fliid to have amounted to 

fj 'it 600,000 families, divided into feven ftandards, under fo 

Vang.hj. many chiefs ; on three of whom the Dalay Lama of Tibet 

conferred the title of Khan : although the Tayki's allowed 

them no farther fuperiority than the firfl: place in affemblies. 

But, in the year above-mentioned, KaUanPojcktu, Khan of the 

Ehiths, having in\'aded their territories, to revenge himfelf on 

the Khutuktu, both for his ufurpation, or revolt from the 

Dal.ay Lama, and the death of a Khan, which He had con» 

*" "Dv Halde, vol. ii. p. 261, 264. K Ibid. p. 250. 

(C) The Chlnffe pronauncp it ^aj-ki, and the Rujpanf Tay/hi, 
W Jayha, 

ccrted i 

C. 4. Since JcnghizKlun. 317 

certad ; the Kalka Khans, after half then- fubjefls had been de- Mungis, 
ftroyed by the enemy, implored the affifbance of the emperor '^-"' "'' 
of China, Kang-hi ; to whom, after the war, two of them fi""^^^^ 
fubmitted immediately, with their fubjefls. Thefe he divided ' """""'^ 
into Shafliiks, or flandards, like the Miingis ; conferring new 
titles on their princes, and appointing them lands for their 

TUS HE TU, or Tufiehtii, the mofl powerful of the Khans At frefent 
(D), after his defeat by the Eluths, fled ; but was not iol- poiverfuin. 
lowed by many of his people : mofl of whom retired into 
the woodsy on the north fide of the river Tula ; and aftei"- 
wards, fubmitting to the emperor, were divided into three 
ftandards, under fo many princes ''. However, we are told 
by other autiiors, that this fubmiffion, obtained by the in- 
trigues of the Lamas, was very precarious, and merely no- 
minal : for that hiss. fon TuJJjidtu Khan, who, in 1720, had 
his urga, or camp, on the river Orkhon, twelve days journey 
to the louth-ea(i of Sellnghwjkoy , was very powerful; and 
had feveral petty Khans, who dwelt about the fprings of 
the Jenifea, and the great Kobi or defart, tributary to him. 
Likewife, inftead of paying tribute himfelf, the emperor o£ 
Chifra fends him every year magnificent prefents ; and the 
complaifance- with which he is treated, (hews, .that he is 
feared more than any of the neighbouring princes : for, 
(hould he ever come to an agreement with the Eluths, the 
union might endanger the prefent family reigning in Chi;ia K 

The Eluths, who at firfl were tributary to \.)\e.Chahar Khan, Eluths 
as well as the Kalkas, at length became independent alfo ; go'verx' 
and are, at prefent, the mofl numerous of ail the greaf^'^'* 
branches into which the Mungis are at prefent divided. 
Thefe people grew very formidable in the lafl century. After 
fubduing Little Biikharia, under the famous Kaldon PojoktUy 
before-mentioned, they ruined the Kalkas ; and even threat- 
' ened to attack China itfelf, with a handful of men : but he 
was overthrown at lafl, altho' with m.uch difficulty. Since 
which time they kept themfelves wit-hin their proper bounds, 
and have not been fo troublefome to their neighbours as 

The Khan (called Ko7itayki, or the great lord) Is a ^tcvitpoiver and 
prince, being able to bring into the field above an hundred/'''"' ^^• 

^ Du Halde, vol. ii p. 251, 25:9. ^ Benti.nk ap. 

Abu'lg. hilt. Turks, &c. p. 505, i- feq^. 

(D) His territories extended along the Sciiti^a, Orkhon, and 
Tula, 35 far as mount Kintuy. 


3 r 8 tiijlory of ihe Moguls and Tartars, B. II. 

Mungis, thoufand men ^. On this occafion it may be proper to ob- 
their cu- ferve, that the Taykis are of account to their Khans only in 
Jiotns, &c. proportion to the number of families in their refpeftive 
^ ~»~ -' Aymaks, or tribes ; and the Khans formidable to their neigh- 
bours, only in proportion to the number of tribes which are 
in fubjeftion to them ; and in which confifls all their riches 
and grandeur, as well as power '. 
'Arm of The arms of the Eluths arc chiefly great bows, with fize- 
/-i^EJuths, able arrows ; which they draw very true, and with great force : 
it having been obferved, in the difference which the RuJJians 
had with them in 1715, on account oi fome fettlements on 
the river IrtiJf.->, that they pierced men quite through the 
body with their fhafts. They have alfo great arquebuffes, 
fix feet long, with barrels an inch thick ; and yet the ball 
they carry is hardly fo much. They fix them on rcfts, and 
never mifs at fix hundred yards diltance ; firing them off 
i&owic!>;wwith a match. When they march they carry them acrofs 
iy them, their backs, faftened to a ftrap ; ai>d the reft hangs on the 
right fide. As they never go to war but on horfe-back 
(having no infantry), they all ufe lances, and moft of them 
coats of mail, and iron caps. Their commanders, but few 
elfe, wear fabres, like the Chinefcs, the handle behind, and 
the point before, that they may draw backwards, which is 
the more comx^nient way. Thefe commanders are ufualiy 
the heads of Ordas : fo that a troop is ftrong, according as 
an Orda is more or lefs numerous, Mofl of the inhabitants 
of Tatary hang their bow at the left fide, in a fort of cafe, 
when they take horfe ; but they carry their quivers at their 
backs. The left hand is the place of honour with moft of 
the oriental people ; pai'ticularly the Mohammedan Tatars. 
Way of They fhoot their arrows with as much fkill flying as ad- 
Jigbtbig ; vancing : for this reafoa they chufe rather to provoke their 
enemies at a diftance, than come to clofe fight with them, 
uiikfs thev have much the advantage. They have not the 
method of fighting in lines and ranks : but, upon going to 
aflion, divide themfclves, without any order, into as many 
troops as there are Ordas, which compofe the army ; and in 
this manner each advances, led by its chief, to charge the 
enemy, lance in hand. The Tatars have been ever very ex- 
pert in fighting flying, as ^lintus Curtius, and other antient 
authors, relate. In this the fwiftnefs of their horfes Hands 
them in great ftead : for often, when one concludes them 
intircly routed, they return, and fall upon their enemy with 
as much, vigour as before ; and when their adverfaries are 

^ Bent. ap. Abu'lgh. hilV Turks, i-c. p. J43. w^- feq. 
^ Ibid. p. 39S. 


C. 4* Sifice J enghizKh^TU 519 

eager to purfue them, without preferving order, they run Mungls, 
terrible rifles of being defeated. The Elutbs are brave be- their cu- 
yond what can be imagined, and want nothing but European fi""^^-' ^^' 
difcipline to make them formidable. They have not yet''""*'V~^ 
learned the ufe of cannon ; and, indeed, as they confili only 
of cavalry, it would not be of much fervice to them ^. 

Each Aymak has its particular enfign or banner; wVx^^Enfigm 
is ufually a piece of Kitayka, or fome other coloured fluff, or cj- 
an ell fquare, fet upon the top of a lance, twelve feet long.^''"^^ - 
The Ehiths and Mungls exhibit the figure of a dromedary, 
cow, horfe, or other animal, putting under it the name of 
the tribe : and as all the branches of the fame tribe flill re- 
tain the figure reprefented in the enfign thereof, adding 
thereto only the name of the branch for whofe ufe it is de- 
ligned, thefe enfigns ferve them, in fome meafure, initead of 
a genealogical table. When an Aymak is in march, the en- 
fign proceeds at the head, immediately after the chief". 

The prefent inhabitants of Great Tatary in general, vAioHaxard 
have exa«niy preferved the manner of living of the antienta// atk 
Mungls, carry their whole fubftance along with them where- '^^'*' 
ever they go. Hence it comes, that when they happen to 
lofe a battle, their wives and -children commonly remain a 
prey to the vanquifher, with their cattle, and generally all 
they pofTefs in the world. They are, in fome meafure, ne- 
cefTitated to incumber themfelves this way; for otherwife they 
fhould leave their families and effedls a prey to other Tatars 
their neighbours °. ■ 

• As there is but little magnificence at prefent to be ioMnATheKlan^f 
in the court of a Khan, and their fubjefls are obliged to io\-revenut. 
low them to war, on the hopes of fpoil, which is their only 
pay, they have no occafion, or rather pretence, for large 
revenues ; which confifl wholly in tythes. The Tatars of all 
denominations pay two tythes annually of all their effedls ; 
fxrfl to tlieir Khans, and then to their heads of tribes. The 
Ehiths and Mungls, not cultivating their lands, give the 
tenth of their cattle, and the booty which they take in 
war P. 

With regard to the government of the other twoEluths 
branches of the Ehiths, the Torgaiiti and Kofioti: the hrfl Torgaiiti 
who fcparated from the Jongari, in the beginning of the pre- 
fent century, put themfelves under the prote'6lion of the 
Ruffians ; and ftill make ufe of it, although they poffefs a 
confiderable extent of country, to the eafl of the kingdom 

^ BENT.ap. Abu'lgh. hift. Turks, &'c. p. ^3;. " Ibid. 

p. 401. <'lbid. 537. 9 Ibid. p. 395, 398. 


S 2 o ITiJlory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. II. 

Mungls, of JfrakhAny and river J.iik. In other refpcfts live under the 
their cu- fame (q^^ o]' oovcrnmeni with the reft of the Ehtths, divided 
p"i^,Si^y^iQ A3maks, or tribts, with their Taykis, and a Khan over all. 
JkoT^ The Eluths Kojhoti have been fettled in the country of 
hoti their "^'^^^ ^^''' ^^^^ ^'"^^ ^'^ Mungls were driven out of China, 
go-jitn- They are fubjeifh to eight Taykis, or princes, who have their 
ment. refpe(5livc: territories, but are leagued together for their mu- 
tual profervation. They are all of the lame family, and dig- 
nified by the emperor of Chhui with the titles of regulo, or 
petty king, prince, duke, and earl : they are all vaflals to the 
Khan, who lefldes at Tibet, or rather to the Great Lama ; on 
whom one of the anceflors of tliat Khan beftowed Tibet 
about the year 1630, after he had conquered it from the law-" 
ful prince. But after the defeat of Kalian, Khan of the 
Jongari Eluths, by the troops of the emperor of China in 
1 69 1, die emperor Kang-hi fent to invite thefe eight Taykis 
to become his valfals. The chief in rank among them, accept- 
ing the invitation, was made Tfing Vang, or prime regulo. 
Some of the others fubmitted to pay him homage by proxy ; 
and the emperor chofe to win the reft by prefents, and allow- 
ing them a trade cuftom-free "J. 


Hijlory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire^ 
founded by Jenghiz Khan. 


^he Reign of Temujin //// eleSied Grand Khan, 

Mogul r'B""^ H E empire of the Moguls, whofe hiftory we are now 
empire, I entering upon, is one of the moft furprizing phseno- 

-^ mcna which has appeared on the theatre of this 
world ; and what defervcs moi-e than any other to attraft the 
reader's admiration, whether he conliders its rife, its extent, 
or the rapidity of its progrefs. It was thought that the Arabs 
had carried conqueft to its utmoft ftretch ; and that no human 
power could ever do more than a people', who in the compafs 
of fevenf^y years, fubJued more countries than the Romans had 

^ Du Halde, vol. i, p. 29, & fcq. and vol. 2. p. 265. 


G. r . Reign of Jenghiz Khan. 

done in 500. But the Moguls have gone far beyond the 
Jlrahs, and from as fmall a beginning acquired a much larger 
empire in far lefs time: ior Jengh.z Khan, in a few years/ 
extended his dominions, from a fmall territory, to more than 
1800 leagues from eaft to weft, and above 1000 from north //i ■u-sy? 
to fouth, over the moft powerful, as well as wealthy, \i\ng- extent; 
doms of j^fia. Hence he is with juftice acknowleged to be 
the greateft prince who ever filled the eaftern throne ; and all 
hiftorians have bellowed on him the higheft titles, as well as 
greateft encomiums^ that ever monarch was honoured with. 
Xhey ftile him the conqueror of the World, the only king of 
kings, the mafter of thrones and crowns : they likewife fay, 
that God never invefted any fovereign on earth with fo great 
authority ■'. 

But for all Jfia fo long refounded with the fame of iKi^its hijtorj 
hero, his name has been icarce known to Europeans, till of little 
late, that his hiftoryhas been given from the oriental znthoTS'.kno^n. 
for although fome early travellers, as Rubruquis and Marco 
Polo, wrote concerning the Moguls, and their conquefts, yet 
they have done it in fo imperfecl and erroneous a manner, as 
to afford no juft idea of them ; whilft the fables, which tlieir 
relations are mixed with, rendered the whole fufpedted and 
defpifed by men of judgment. ^ t 

The ftiort but curious accorint, which Ahulfara] (A) has AfiatJc 
delivered of Jenghiz Khan, and his immediate fuccelfors, firft authors 
gave the learned of thei'e parts of Europe a defire to know 
more of their hiftory. In this D'Hcrbelot in good meafure 
gratified them in his Bibliotheque Orient ale (B). Afterwards 
M. Petit de la Croix, the father, wrote the hiftory of Jenghiz 
Khan, compiled chiefly from the oriental authors, by order 
■of Lewis XIV. king of France ; to which his fon hath added 
an abridgment of the hiftory of that monarch's fucceflbrs in 
the feveral parts of his empire (C). Since then a tranflation 
has been publifhed of the genealogical hiftory of the Turks 
and Tatars, written by Ahulghdzi Khdn of Karazvi : wherein 
Is given the hiftory of Jenghiz Khan, in fome detail from wc^,? j^ 
nineteen or twenty oriental authors, of whom Fadlallah is the^- 

" De la Croix hill;. Gengh. p. 2. 

(A) In his Hijloria compen- (B) Publifhed in 169O, in 

diofa Dynajiicariim, publifhed folio, 

in 1663, by the learned : Jr. P(9- (C) PubliOied in French, in 

cock, with a LatL; verfion, and two volumes 8vo, 1722; and in 

a fupplement of his own. EngUjh, in one volume, 1730. 

Mo D , Hi s T . Vo L . IV. Y principal, 

m-nt a- 

Hijlory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. Ill] 

principal, with that of his fucccfTors, chiefly in Great Bukharia, 
7ini\ Kahchak {D). LalUy, Anthony Gaubil, a Jcfuit at Pr- 
king, obliged the world with a hiftory ol: Jengh.z Khdn, and 
his lucceflbrs in China, till their expulfion ; e\tra<5ted from the 
Chincfc annals, and illuftratcd with very ufetul notes ot his 
own(E), Thefe are the works of any note, taken immedi- 
ately from the Jfiatic writers, which have as yet come to 
hand ; and from them principally have we diawa our mate* 
rials relating to the Mogul affairs. 

But here it mull be obferved, that Ahti'lghazi Khan and 
Dc la Croix, or the authors they have made ufe of, proceed 
wc«^y/fi:<- on different plans, or according to different memoirs. The 
thorf. fii-f\ confines himfelf to a plahi narration of fafts, in the or- 
der they happened, without enlarging on any thing : the 
latter improves every thing to the advantage of his hero, in 
order to make his adlions appear with greater luftre. The firft 
leaves him in a ftate of inadfivity, from the death of his father 
till the fortieth year of his age, that he became in a condition 
to reduce his revolted fubje<fl:s, and obtain the empire : the 
latter fills up that fpace of time with a great many incidents, 
and even affigns tliem their dates, that his reign might not ap- 
pear with fo great achafm in it. To inhance his future glory 
the more, he makes him, during that interval, reduced to 
put himlcif under the proteclion o^ Vang KhAn, fovereign of 
many nations ; whereas Ahulghazi Kh&n reprefents him as 
quite Indepeadent all the while. Laflly, Dc la Croix places 
Temujins's birth ten years earlier than the other, which makes 
a great difference in the chronology, from thence to the time 
he became Grand Khan. 

(P) He brings down the hi- 
flory to year 1663. Itwasfirft 
procurtd by the Z^jccdij^j priion- 
trs from a Bukhar n.crchant, 
who brought iKX.o'TobnlJko}, ca- 
pital of Sibc'-ia. StrahUnberg 
gotittranflated into the ^;.^"tf//; 
and iVir. Loiliuli, with his ap- 
probation and diret^ions, pub- 
Ji;hcd it in French, with curious 
notes, in 1726, in one voUime 
izmo; and, in 1750, it was 
publiflicd in Luglijh, with addi- 
tional notes, in two volumes 
8vo. The tlrft contains the hi- 
flory i the I'tcoud the uoics, con- 

neficd fo as to form a regular 
account of countries, dnd their 
prelent inhabitants. 

(E) Tliis learned and judi- 
cious Jefuit tranfmitted two 
trads to E. Soucict, of the fame 
fociety ; who publifhed them 
firll in his Obfeyv. tr.ath. ajlt. 
gtogr. t3c. in 410, 1 71 9. It i« 
intituled, A brief hillory of the 
firll five Mogul emperors. The 
fccond appeared by itfclf, in 
1739, under the tide of the hi- 
ftory oi Gettfchijiiin, and all hi* 
fucccflbrs, who reigned in Chira. 


C.I. Reign of ]enghiz Khan. 323 

Whence this great difagreement arifes it is not eafy to A. D. 
determine: {\TiCC Abu' Ighazi Khan, though he made ufe of '163. 
twenty authors, never quotes, or even mentions, any, except- ^--"v ^ 
ing Fadlallah ; and that only to give fome account of his work, ^'-'^^y »^ 
as being his principal authority : on the other hand, De la^''""^ ^' 
Croix commonly cites his authors in the margin, btit not dl- 
flinftly enough to know what belongs to each. However, 
from thence we are able to difcover, that he took not only the 
date of Temi/jifi's birth, but alfo his hiftory, efpecially for the 
beginning of his reign, chiefly from Mirkond, Kondamir, and , 
other oriental authors, rather than Fadlallah, whom he fel- 
dom quotes on the occafion. Now as this is the principal hi- 
ftorian made ufe of by Ahu'lghazi Khan, who alfo had re- 
courfe to feveral Mogid writers, it is probable he follows them 
in thofe particulars : and hence may arife the difference between 
him and De la Croix. 

Possibly Fadlallah relates no more concerning the ^"c^ Which of 
years of Temujin's reign than what we meet with in Abu' I- them 
ghazi Khan ; and that the latter hiftorians have fwelled it 
with incidents, and even inlarged the term of his life, for the 
reafon before-mentioned. However that be, it is certain 
Mii'lghazi Khan took his memoirs, fo far at leafl, from other 
authors than thofe whom Dc la Croix has made ufe of; and 
his authority, we think, ought to be preferred : not only be- 
caufe, as being a Mogul himfelf, he was better able to judge 
what writers were mofi: to be depended on : but alfo becaufe 
the account he gives is correfpondent vnxh the Chinefe hiftory, 
whofe authority ought to take place, had all the Perftan hi- 
ftorians, and even Fadlallah himfelf, contradicted it. For al- 
though the Wazir Fadlallah wrote his curious work in the 
year 1294, at the command of Gazan, or Kazan Khan (fixth 
fucceflbr of Hulaku, Jeyighiz Khan's grandfon, in Perfia), 
from the memoirs of Pulad, a Mogul, fent by that monarch 
into Tatary to colledt them ; yet Kublay Khun, HuIakCs bro- 
ther, who reigned in the caltern part of Tatary and China, 
had ordered the hiftory of his predeceffors to be written feve- 
ral years before^. So that, fuppofing oral traditions, x?c^.z\ to be pre- 
than written memoirs, were the chief bafis of both hiftories^ z,f erred: 
yet that fet on foot by Kublay Khdn may be prefumed to be 
more complete and accurate than the other compofed by 
Kazdn Khan's order : as not one perfon only, but many, doubt- 
lefs, were employed to coliedt materials ; and being written on 

** See De la Croix hiit Gengh. p. 424. ^ Soucibt 

©bferv. mathemat. &c. p. 202. 

y 3 the 

Uifiory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. HI. 

the fpot, recourfe might be eafily had, from time to time, to 
proper pcrions for information and folving difficulties. Not 
'to mention the advantages it muA have received from the* 
Chinefe hiftorians, who have been always careful to record, 
by way of annals, the affairs of their neighbours, efpecially 
fuch as they had any tranfadlions with ; fo that whatever de- 
fe»5ts occurred in the Mogul traditions, with rcfpeft to dates, 
andrea- Or otherwife, might have been fupplied from thence. It ia 
Jom Illy, for thefe rcafons that, in the following hiflory of Jenghiz 
Khan, and tlie Moguls, we have preferred Mulghazi Khdti's 
hiflory to that of Dc la Croix ; and that given us by Gaubilivom 
the Chlncfc hiflorians, to both the others : who yet, with regard 
tti the affairs of the Moguls in the weflern parts, for the fame 
rcafons, are preferable to him. 

We ha\'e already given an account of the Mogul tribes, 
their ancient hiftory, and Khans, to the time of Jenghiz 
Kh.m ; with remarks on the fame '' : we fliall therefore, in this 
place, only touch on fuch matters preceding the time of that 
conqueror, as more immediately relate to him, and may be 
necefliiry to complete his hiftory. 
Jenghiz According to the tradition of the Moguls, Jenghiz Khan 
KhauV was of divine defcent, fmcc his family can be traced no farther 
iejccKt. tjack th;'n .ilanki^t ox J'ankawa ; wh ), being got with child by 
a fpirit, brought forth three fons, who from thence obtained the 
furname of Niron (F), which their pofterity enjoyed : thofe of 
her former children being called Dirlighin, to denote that they 
had no miraculous original. As Jenghiz Khan defcended in 
a right line from Buzenjir (G), the third of Jlankii's celeftial 
offspring, and his predeceflbr in the ninth degree, fome au- 
thors call him the Son of the Sun (H). According to Fad- 
lallah (I), who wrote his life, his defcent from yjlanku is as 
follows: \. Buzenjir Khiin. 2. Biika Khan. 3. TutU7niten 
Khun. 4. Kaydu Kk-n. 5. Bavfankar Khan. 6. Tumaia 

"* See before, p. 19, & 34, & feq. 

(F) This, the oriental authors //J's chamber, and aflumed the 
fay, is a corruption, or contrac- fhape of a man. 

tion, o( Njoa/iiyii'i, which figni- (I) This is the firft and mofl 

fies children of light. eminent of all who have written 

(G) j^biilgha-zi Khaii'stX3iT\{- oi "Jenghiz Khan, and his fuc- 
\2LioT%c:^[\\\\m BuiienJirMo^ak. ceflbrs. An account has been 

(H) According to Ahu lgha%i already given of him, vol. iv. 
Khdni, hillory, ibmcching as p. 20. 

bright as the f^un fell ijito Alan- 


C.I. Reign of J enghtzKh^n. 525 

Khan. 7. Kabal Khan. 8. Purtan Khan. 9. Tefukay (K) A. D. 
Behadr. 10. Jenghtz KhAn^ {L). 1163. 

Among thefe princes three or four were particularly fa- ^—*'V~—' 
mous; Buze}yir, furnamed the jufl, was Khan of Kctan.^'^ '^"' 
Bayfankar (or Bajfikar, as Abu'lghdzi Khan calls him) was ^i"-^ 
prince of great conduct, and conquered man)' provinces. Kw 
bal, or Kabul Khan, made himfeU the admiration of all Afta 
by his courage (M) : he had fix fons, in whom the name of 
Kayat, which had been loft for 3000 years, was revived ' (N). 
Bifukay (or Tejfiiki) Behadr, the father of Jenghiz Khan, was 
remarkable for having brought under his command the greater 
part of the chiefs of the Mogul nations, with the kings of Ka-^ 
rakatay, or Karakitay (O), who troubled his quiet. He van- 
quifhed them, although they were frequently allilled by the 
king of Katay, which comprifed the northern provinces of 

After this, having received an affront from the tribe ofrZ-tvV co^i' 
Su Moguls (P), or Tatars, he entered their country, which htqitejiu 
pillaged ; and, being met by Tennijin Khan, lord of feveral 
tribes, who came to drive him thence, he put him to flight, 
after a bloody battle, and returned with honour to his country- 

* I)e la Croix hill. Gengh. 
alfo Abu'lch. hift. Turks, Lc. 

(K) De la Croix writes Pifu- 
ka ; and feems to have followed 
MirkorJ, and others, who call 
\i\m. Bijjukay, or Pijj'ukay. But 
Konctamir, Jbulghazi Khan, and 
the Chine/e annals, name him Te- 
fukay; which we have followed. 

(L) The names in this fuc- 
ceflion differ a little from thofe 
given by Jhulgbazi Khan, pro- 
bably through feme millake in 

(M) Page 5, it is faid, that 
the Moguls under him made a 
vafl progrefs, and advanced as 
far as Karakatay, where thev 
obliged fome Khans to pay them 
tribute : but that, in the twelfth 
century ,_ in which Jenghiz. Khan 
was born, they were tributary 
to the Kara-its. The Tmnena 
Khan, in this lift of anceftors, 
E!ult be a difierent perfon from 

p. 9, & feq. ^ Ibid. See 

p. 55, & 63, & feq. 

the hero of that name, mention- 
ed vol. iv. p. 45, & feq. 

(N) They were called Kir on 
Kayat, of which tribe 'Jenghv:^ 
Khan was chief. Ic is called his 
own tribe, p. i8. 

(O) The Chine/e annals do 
not feem to make him fo pow- 
erful : it is only faid, that he 
was chief of the principal hord 
oi t\\Q Moguls. This hord was 
contiguous to that of the Nay- 
mans, near the city of Holin, or 
Karakorom, to the north of the 
fandy defart. Soucict obferv. 
mathemat. ^V. p. 185. andG««- 
^/Vhiltoire de Gentchifc.p. 2. 

(?) It may be queifioned, if 
this diftin^lion, of i'w Mogols, or 
Tatars, is to be found in any 
oriental author ; for it feems to 
be taken from Carpin the frier, 
who was fent into Tafarj by the 
pope, in 124^, 

3 feafj 

A. D. 

1 163. 

Hijiory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

feat, where he commonly refided, called Dilon Ildak (Q_), in 
Teka Ahgulift^n. To commemorate this vidory, he gave the 
name of the vanquifhed Khan to a fon, of whom Olon Ayka (R), 
A 559- the fiift of his wives, was foon atter delivered (S), calling him 
Tcmujin (T). As he was born with congealed blood in his 
hands, Sughujin, the Khan's relation and firft minifter, fore- 
told, by his fkill in aflrology, that he fliould overcome his 
enemies in battle, and, ut length, arrive to be Grand Khan 
of all Tatary. On the death of Sughujin, Pifuka chofe his 
fon KnrqPicr Nev'ian, a man of great parts and learning, to 
educate Temujin ; who had fcarce attained his r.i.ith year, 
when he would apply himfeif 10 no other exercife than that 
of arms ^, 

TESU K AT at length was unfortunately taken prifoner 
by the Khan of A'/V^iy (U) ; but afcer a long imprifonment, 
making his efcape by bribing his guard, he refolved to re- 
venge himfclf : in order to which, he married Temujin, though 
not thirteen yeare old, to the Khan of the Nay mans daughter ; 
but died (X) before he could execute his defign ''. 

Bi-FORE we proceed, it will be proper to acquaint our 
readers with the (late of Tatary^ and the neig^libouring 
countries, at the time of this prince's death. The whole re- 
gion between mount ^^Itay and the eaflern Tatary, was di- 
vided among a great number of aymaks, or tribes ; who had 
each one or more Khans, according as it was more or lefs 

8 De la Croix hift. Gengh. p. 12, & feq. ^ Ibid p. 15. 


State of 

(Q_) The fame, probably, 
called in Abu. Ighcezi Khdn\ hi- 
fiory Biunjuldaky 

(R/ In Abulghazi Khdns hi- 
ftory, p. 48, & 67. ftie is cal- 
led Ulun Iga. The furname of 
Ig , in the ^^fiTj.'./ language, fig- 
iiifies geat. She h;id alfo the 
fjrname of Kujin, which, in ihe 
language of Knav. i znoIJivo- 
mcin. She was of the tribe of 
AUtknurs, and had a vaft deal of 

(S) Th's date is according to 
Ahuighazi Khan ; and agrees 
rearly \vith the Chine/e hiftory, 
which piits it in 1 162 : but De 
la C oix places his birth in 549, 
ten hight-r, fom Mhhond, 
and oihcr l.iftor.ans. 

(T) According to the Chinefe 
annals, he vvas firlt named ^^ic- 
'wcn : but af:erwards, in memo- 
ry of the victor} over Temujin, 
chief of a Tatar hord, whom his 
father 'I'efukr.j took prifoner, he 
was calcd Ttnajin. He was 
born at a mountain near the 
river Ouon, cr Amur, where Te- 
fukay incampcd after the battle. 
Gaulil hift. de Gentchifc. (5'r. 
p. 2. 

(U) De la Croix places this 
in 562 of the Hijrab, of Cbrijl 

(X) According to \}\tChincfe, 
he died in the flower of his agej 
left five fotis and a daughter ; 
.".nd appointed Temujin chief of 
the hold. 


C. i: Reign ^/ Jenghiz Khan. 

numerous, and divided into branches. Among thefe, that of 
Kara-its was moll: powerful, whofe prince aflumed the title 
of Grand Khan : to him moft of the other tribes, and, among' 
the refl the Moguls, were tributary ; but, according to the 
Chinefe hiflorians, both one and the other paid tribute to the 
emperor of Kit ay, or Katay. 

CHINA was at that time divided into two parts : x)[iG Empire of 
nine fouthern provinces were in the hands of the Chinefe em-Kitay ; 
perors of the Song family, who kept their court at Hang- 
chew, the capital of the province of Che-kyang : the five 
northern provinces, except part of Sheii-fj, with the adjoining 
parts of Tatary, were polfefled by the Kin, a people of eaftern 
Tatary, from whom the Manchew, at prefent maflers of 
China, are defcended. This vafl dominion was named Kit ay ^ 
or Katay, and divided into two parts : that which belonged 
to China was properly called Kitay ; and the part which be-^ 
longed to Tatary was named Karakitay ; in which fome even 
include the territories of the Moguls, Kara-its, and other 
nations, mentioned in this hiftory. 

The welfern part of proper Kitay was pofTencd by ao/"Hya; 
prince of TurkiJJj extraffion, who had lately formed an em- 
pire there, called by the Chinefe Hya and Si Hya ; whoie ca- 
pital city was Hya-chew, at prefent Ning-hya, in Shen/i, from 
whence the kingdom took its name. To the weft of Hya lay 
Tangvt ; a country of great extent, and formerly very power- 
ful : but at that time reduced to a low flate, and divided among 
feveral princes ; fome of whom were fubjedt to the emperor 
of Hya, and others to him of China. 

All Tatary to the weft of mount Altay, as far as the Cafan^T\if> 
pian fea, with the greater part of Little Bukharia, which thenkellan ; 
pafTed under the general name of Turkefian, was fubjeft to 
Gurkhan, Kurkhan, or Kavar Khan ; to whom the Oygurs, 
Vigurs, or Igtirs, and even the Karazm Shah, who reigned 
over Great Bukharia, Karazm, and moft part of Iran, or 
Perfia, were tributary^. This Curkhhi had been prince of 
the weftern Kitdn, or Lyau ; who, driven out of Kitay by 
the Kin, fettled in Little Bukharia, and the country to the 
north, between Turfdn (about which the Oygurs inhabited) 
and KafJ.gar, where they founded a powerful ftate in the 
year 1124. 

This was the ftate of the north part di Afia, at Pifukay'^af Pifii- 
(Y) deceafc ; at what time between thirty and forty thoufandkayV 


(Y) InZ)t'/<3:C;wVs hiftory it fcript, in putting three points 
is vvritten thus; perhaps by a under the firlt letter /, inltead of 
piiUake of the oriental mapu- two. 

y 4 families. 

Hipry of the Mogul or MungI Empire. B. III. 

families, all fi-om the fame Hock, were under his obedience. 
But Tcmujin being fo young, the Tayjuts fiift, and then two 
thirds of the reft, deferting him, went over to one Burgani 
Kjriltuk. All the Kataguns, the Jifjuts (Z), the Jayghe^ 
rats (or Jajcrats), and the Nirons, excepting a few families, 
joined him to a man. Hereupon the Mnrkats, who never 
would fubmit to Tcfugln (or Pijuka) BahaJr, fubmittcd to him. 
They who continued faithful to Temujin were the defcendants 
of his great grandfather, half the tribe of the Markats, and 
feveral families of the other tribes : there remaining out of 
fome fifty families, one or two hundred out of others, and 
no mure than ten or five out of many. It is true, Temujin 
did all he could to remedy this evil in the beginning : for this 
end, while fcarce thirteen years old, he took the field againft' 
thofe revolters, and fought a bloody battle -, but, in regard it 
■was not decifl\e, he was obliged to temporize till the fortieth 
year of his age. This is all which Jbtilghazi Khun relates 
concerning him till tha^t period ; but many remarkable traaf- 
a(flions happened during that interval, which are mentioned 
^ by other authors '. 
Temujin PIS UK. ^'s death threw things into confufion : for fooa 
Juccici/s : after the Khans of Tanjut (A), Merkit, and feveral other 
Nircn tribes, his relations, whom he had fubdued, with his 
coufin Jemuka (B), revolting, came to attack Temujin : who, 
encouraged by his mother, fet up his flandard, which dis- 
played a horfe's tail, and marched along with her at the head 
of his forces ; which fought the enemy witlj good fuccefs ''. 

This affair is related more particularly in the Chinefe hi- 
Aory : which takes notice, that Temujin being \'ery young, 
his mother Ulun governed in his flead, and brought back fe- 
veral of his vafials, who had gone over to Taychot (C) and 

' Aeu'lghazi Khan hid. Turks, p. 66, & feq. ^ De la 
Croix ubi iupra, p. 15. 

(Z) In the tranHation written Clina were formerly known to 

T-if^uts; the ? be r)j;coinmoijiy them. 

ufed iniltad of tlie Englijh j (B) Alulghaxi Khan, p. 70, 

conlbnant. calls him Jamuka "Jijcn ; which 

(A) The fame which \x\Ahul- Isil word figni.'ies eloquent. The 

^ha'>i Khdti is written /^'yw/j ; Chinefe annals name h'lm Cha- 

by lome nilAake, perhaps, in muka. 

pointing the letter for a v inftcad (L ) This Taychot feems to be 

of an », or the conrrary. If the Burgani Kariltuk o{ Jbul- 

Tanjut be the name, it may pof- ghazi Khan, mentioned a little 

fibly be the fame -ich Tcnyu, before; but he fays not what 

in KXittChinefe hillories; by which became of him. Perhaps alfo'tis 

the -JataKi :o the norch-v.clt of his Tnyjuts, in note (A). 


C.I, l?^/j-« ^/ Jenghiz Khan. 

Charmika, two princes, enemies to his family. Thefe, having 
formed an army 30,000 Arong, of foldiers chofen out of 
feven hords, came to attack Teyniijin : but being affifled by his' 
mother, who led a body of troops herfelf, and by Porji, ^S^^"^ ^ 
young lord of the hord of Oria, but thirteen years old ; after '^''^'"^ ' 
a bloody battle, in which thofe three did wonders, Taychot 
was flain, and Chamuka put to flight. This aflion made 
a noife all over Tatary, greatly to the advantage of the 
young Mogul prince : who difcovered on this occalion much 
grandeur of foul, in the manner of rewarding his officers and 
foldiers, making theai ride his own horfes, giving them ha- 
bits, and the like. Almoft all Taychofs hord, which was 
very numerous, and poffelfed a large country, fubmitted to 
the viftor ; and Potti (D), who was lord of the country about 
the river Ergona ' (or Argim), became his fail ally, marrying 
his filter Tumiihui ; upon whofe death Jenghiz Khan gave him 
his daughter to wife'". But after this we are told, that, for- 
tune turning againfl Temiijin, he was beaten ; and fell feveral 
times into the hands of his adverfaries : yet had always the 
.' uck to efcape. 

In his fourteenth year he efpoufed Purta Kujin, daughter /o/Jj )5zV 
to the Khan of the Kongorats, and kinfwoman to Vang (or Ung)'u:ife. 
Khan of the Kara-its (E) ; by whom he had a daughter that 
lame year. But next year, while he was on fome expedition ^- ■'^• 
from home, the Merkits entered Niron Kay at, which be- ^^7°* 
longed to one of his tribes ; and, having defeated the few 
forces who guarded it, carried off all that was valuable, with 
the princefs Purta Kujin, who was big of her fecond child. • 
Her they fent to VangKhJn, and her hulband's enemies prefled 
him to marry her ; but, though fhe was very beautiful, he 
declined it, faying, He could not marry his fon's wife. He 
fpoke thus, becaufe, at the time when he made a league of 
amity with Tefukay, he called 'Tcmujin his fon. 

So foon as the Mogul prince heard of his wife's captivity, T^^ Mot 
he fent an ambaflador to Karakorom, to demand her of theg"^^ '"^" 
Khan (F) ; who immediately granted his requefl. Happening '^°^■'• 
to be delivered of a fon on the road, fhe wrapped him in 
pafle ; and fo carried him in her lap, without hurting his 

J See before, p. 385, & feq. >» Gaueil, ubi fupra, p. 3. 

(D) Afterwards faid to be been in the year 11 76, or 
lord o{ I-ki lye-tfe hord. 1 177- 

(E) This^, following the Chi- (F) ' Hejrah 567, A. D. 1 168, 
nefe and Abulgbazi Khdn\ com- De la Croix, ^ 
putation of his birth, muft hav§ 


H^ory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

tender limbs, to the palace of her hufband, who called him 
Juji (G). Two years after this, his own tribe of Niron Kay at, 
feduced \y^7ukta Bey, Khan of the Merkits, his moft power- 
ful enemy, took up arms againfl him ; and he was himfelf 
retires to made prifoner by the tribe of Tanjvt (or Tayjiit). He had 
Karako- however the addrefs to efcape again from the hands of his 
lom. enemies. After this, reflefring on the bad poftiire of his 
affairs, he offered the Khans all they could defire to procure 
an accommodation ; but their deflgn being entirely to ruin the 
houfe of Tcfukay, they rcjefted all his propofals, and feized the 
greater part of his dominions. Hereupon, refolving to take 
refuge under the Grand Khan, he fent a Nevian, or prince 
of his court (H), to Karakorom, to implore the prote^ion of 
Vang Khan, who readily granted it ; in confideration, as he 
faid, of the fignal obligations which he lay under to his father 
. Pifuka. Upon this Temvjin married his mother Uhn Ayka 
to Ell rah (I), an eminent man, whom he placed on his right 
hand abo\ e a!] the princes ; and leaving the regency of his 
kingdom to his uncle Utejekin, departed with Karajhar, and 
all his faithful fervauts, cfcorted by a guard of 6000 men, 
for the court of the Grand Khan '" ; of whom it may be pro- 
per to give fome account. 
Vano- The predeceffors of this prince, whofe original name was 

KhanV Togruly had been powerful lords in MoguUJian, Jelayr, Ttir^ 
dtjcenf. kejian, and Karakitay. Some of his anceftors had even af- 
fumed the title of emperor ; but their greatnefs in time de- 
cayed. His family, one of the moll illuftrious in Karakitay, 
contained fix great tribes of Derlighin Moguls ; among whom 
were <he Kararits, who made war with their neighbours. 
Mcrgiis (K), the grandfather of Togrul, whofe tribe refided 

" MiRKOND Marakashi. ap. Dc la Croix, ubi fupr. p. 16, 
& feq. 

(G) That is, in the Mogul as prefiguring to him the empire 

language, happily arrited. So of two parts of the world. Ma- 

lays De la Croix : but Jhul- rakejki. 

gbiizJ Khan fays it fignifies a (I) In D^'/rt Cwjr he is called 

guej}. This prince was named Jmir Buzruk ; in jihulgbaxi 

alfo Tjijhi. Khan.Mfngliklzka. Hebrought 

(H) About this time be the whole tribe of Kunakmais, 

dreamed, that his arms were of which he was, to fubuut to 

grown of an extraordinary yenghi% Khan ; and informed 

fcngth ; and that, holding a him of Vang Kl:dn'i> d^fign a- 

fword in each hand, that in the gainft him. 

right pointed «o the eaft, the (K) Mirgut Hi, in jihulgha- 

other to the weft. Which the xi Khdn% hiuory. 
queen, his mother, intcrprcttii, 

z at 

C. I. i?^/^« of JengMz Khan. 

at KarakoroTTty was one of the moft confiderable and valiant 
Khans of the Kara-its, but at the fame time unfortunate : 
for feveral Khans of Karakitay having combined againft, and 
twice vanquiftied him ; one of them, named Naivr, his rela- 
tion, drew him into an ambufcade, and fent him to the king 
of Kurga (L) in China, who caufed him to be fewed up, bound, 
in a fack, and left to expire on a wooden afs. 

KUTUKl, the widow of Mergus, enraged at the treachery Female 
of Nazur, yet feigning to be angry with none but the king oi courage. 
Kiirga, fifteen months after fent to tell the former, that fhe 
paffionately defired to divert herfelf in his company ; and that, 
if he retained the affeftion which he profelTed for her before 
her marriage with Mergus, fhe would not fcruple to make him 
her hulband. Naxvr, falling into the fnare, the lady imme- 
diately fets out, attended by waggons laden with great veflels 
made of ox-hides, filled v/ith Kammez (or Kimis), a hundred 
fheep, and ten mares, which were ordered to be drefled. 
The Kh n met the princefs with all the demonftrations of 
joy ; and having drank plentifully of the liquor which fhe 
prefented him, fhe gave the fignal to her attendants : thefe 
opening the great barrels, there came forth armed men, 
•and cut to pieces Naivr (whom fhe had already ftabbed), with 
all his domeflics. After this, flie made her retreat, without 
the leafl fufpicion ; and for fo great an adfion was highly 
efleemed by all the princes of that age. 

ME RGUS Kh^n left two fons by his princefs, Koja ^ffoy- Vang 
riik and Curkhan. The firft at his death left feveral child- KhanV 
ren ; the eldefl of whom was named Togrul (M) : at teo/^'"'^"'* 
years of age he accompanied his father in the wars, and was 
in that expedition where his grandfather was taken by Nawr^ 
and with much difficulty efcaped himfelf. As he had more 
merit than the reft of his brothers, he fucceeded his father, 
which made them hate him (N). After this, having frequent ' 
quarrels with his brothers and coufins, he put fome of them 
to death ; which rigorous treatment moved his uncle Gurkhan 

(L) De la Croix fays, fome Numiffay, and yukambu, who is 

pretend that this Kwga was Ko- called Hahernbu by others. 

rea: but that country is too far (N) Itis added here.thatthis 

djftant. averfion was increafed by he 

(M) Called, in Ahulghazi king of China's, (or rather A"/- 

Al^^w'shiftoryjTrt;^^/, perhaps by tay) honouring him with the 

fome miftake. Thefe tranflations ude oi Urig Khan. But this, ac- 

name him alfo Aunak, which is cording to the Chinefe hiftory, 

^ corruption of Vang ; and fay happened not till afterwards, 

his brothers were Jakahara in the time of Tefnujin ; as will 

{hyothtrs, Erie^ara),Baytimur, be related prefently. 


Hijiory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

to make war upon him. Vang Khan, being vanquifhed, and 
difpoHelFcd of his dominions, fied to Pifuka, Tant/jin'i 
'father; by whofe artiftance he recovered his thionc, and pur- 
fued Gurkhdn even to the kingdom of Kajhin °. 
TAfPreftcr This Vang Khan (or, as it is commonly written, Ung Khan) 
John; was the prince who made fo great a noife in the Chriftian 
world towards the tr.d of the twelfth century, under the title 
of the Prejlcr John of yt^a, which the Nejloridiis firft con- 
ferred on him : and there are lour letters exnihr, faid to be 
fent by him to pope Alexander III. Lrms Vil. of France, the 
empeior of Conjlantinopie, and the king of Portvgal. That 
to the king of France, of which there is a French copy, begins, 
*' Pre/hr John, by the grace of God, the mof^ powerful mo- 
" narch, king of all Chriflian kings, wiflieth health, dc." He 
boafts of his great wealth, and the vaftnefs of his dominions ; 
fpeaking of feventy kings who fcrvc him, and vauriiing of the 
tribute which he extorts from an Ifraclitijh king, who is lord 
of many dukes and Jcwifb princes. He invites the king of 
France to come and fee film, promifing to give him great do- 
minions, and make him his fucceffor. He proceeds to name 
the different kinds of people and rarities that are in his king- 
doms. He calls himfelf a prieft, becaufe he performs the fa- 
crifice of the altar ; and a king, as he executes the office of a 
fovereign judge. He fpeaksof St Thomas according the fa- 
bulous notions of the Indians ; and, at the conclulion, de- 
fires the king to fend him Jomc valiant cavalier <?/' French ge- 
neration P. 
tf Nefto- But it is not difficult to dlfcover that this letter is fpurious, 
rian fc- and written, not by Vang Khan, but the Nejiorian mifllonaries ; 
tion. -who were very numerous, and had been ef^ablifhed there in 

the year 737, by means of thofe of yJi/z/o/and Bafrah. Thefe, 
by their emilfaries, had fpread a report all over Chriflendom, 
that they had converted the greater parr of the inhabitants of 
Tatary, and even the Great Khan himfelf; who, they faid, was* 
aft u ally become a prielf, and had aUumed the name of John. 
They invented thefe fables to make their 7.eal more confpicuous, 
and render their feft more rcfpefted. There is alfo a letter of 
the pope's, which flilcs him, a jnojl holy friejl ; al^though, in 
reality, there is not the leall appearance that he was a Chrif- 
tian : but only, that he permitted Chriflians to live in his do- 
minions, with their bifliops ; and that fome of his fubjedts 
had embraced their religion. 

" Fadhi.ali.ah .np. De la Croix, p. 2T, &: feq. P Math. 

Paris ap. euiid. p. z.\. Si fe<j. 


C. I.' i2^/^« ^/ Jenghiz Khan^ 335 

All that can be allowed as true, is, that this prince was ,A. D. 
the moft powerful Khan of the country north oi Kltay ; and 11 82. 
that a great many foverign princes paid, him tribute. Abu I- ^"""y"^ 
faraj obferves, that he was lord over all the eaflern Turks ; "S^ 
for, in his time, the greater part of the inhabitants of Ta- -^"^^ * 
tary were called Turks. Vang Khan was a native of the tribe ^'''^*'^''* 
of Kara-its, whofe dependants were the inhabitants oi Jelayr 
and Tenduk, who poflefTed the largeft parts of that region. 
The capital of this kingdom was Karakorom (O), fituate about 
ten days journey from the place where Temujin firft kept his 
court, and about twenty days from the borders of China. ^ 

This city, after Vang Khans reign, became the refidence of 
the Mogul emperors, and had the name of Ordubaleg given it 
by Oktay Khan, the fuccefTor of Jenghiz Khan ''. 

This prince was in his twentieth )'ear (P), when he ar-Temujia 
rived at Karakorom, where he was received with great marks efieemed^ 
of affeclion by the Grand Khan, whom he affured of his obe- 
dience, profeiling to devote himfelf intirely to his fervice* 
Vang Khan, on the other hand, promifed him his protection, 
and to force the Mogul Khans to return to their duty. He 
fent lords to menace" them with war, if they continued hofli- 
lities againft Temujin ; and daily heaped honours on his royal 
guefl : called him his fon, and even placed him above the 
princes of his own blood : increafed the officers of his reti- 
nue ; and committed the conduct of his armies to him, in 
the war he had with the Khan of Tenduk. Temujin made his 
courage appear on this occafion, and humbled {ome Mogul. 
Khans, who refufed to pay Vang Khan the ufual tribute. But 
this fuccefs and favour of the fovereign created him many 
enemies among the courtiers ; who, at firff , following the ex- 
ample of their mafler, flrove who fliould pleafe him moft "■. 

This enmity was increaied by another accident. The Marries. 
princefs IVifuliijine, daughter to the Grand Khan, charmed his daugh^ 
with the valour and perfon of the young Mogul prince, fell'^^« 
in love with him ; and rejesffed the offers of Jemuka, Khan 
of the tribe of Jajerat (Q__), who had, with much earneft- 

1 De la Croix, p. 26, & feq. "■ Abu'lfaraj, ap. eiind, 

p. 28, & fe<|. 

(O) De la Croix fays, it fig- ghazi Khan, and the Chineft 
nifies black /and. Jn Alulghazi computation, it will fad in 1 182^ 
Khdtukarukum is faid to ht'Turk- or 1183 


ijhiox hlaik fund. Perhaps both (Q_) In Ahulghazi Khdns 

names may fi^nify the iame h'Acry czWed. Joygherats . This 
thing. -is placed by De ia Croix in Hej. 

(P) Then, according to x^^r/- 571. A. 0.1175. 


334 Hijlory o///<>f Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

A. D. nefs, afked her in marriage. But Vang Khan having given 
her to Temiijin, Jcmuka was fo enraged, that lie vowed re- 
'venge; and ftirrei up many perfons, as envious as himfelf, t6 
join with him : yet the credit whicli that young prince had 
with the Grand Khan, who had made him his prime mini- 
fler, and the great number of his friends, for a long lime 
defeated all their contrivances. However, Vang Khcin, who 
wanted nothing but firmnefs of mind, at lafl fufFered himfelf 
to be feduccd with calumnies. 

This is the account given by the Pcrftan hiflorians ; but 
the Chinefe do not fpeak of Tcmujin as feeking protetftion of 
the Kara-it Khan. On the contrary, they reprefent him as in 
friendfhip with, but independent of, him, and in good cir- 
cumftances ; ever fince the defeat of Jamuka and Taychot, by 
his mother's afliftancc : at which time he fcems to have re- 
duced the revolted tribes under his obedience '-. 
Tatars After this, probably about the time that he is faid to 

riduced. have retired to Karakorom, the Chinefe hiftory informs us, that 
the hord of the Tatars, who ufually encamped along ihtOnon 
(R), having revolted agalnfl the emperor of A'zVd';', this monarch 
ordered all his tributary princes (S) to aflemble near that river, 
and march againft them. To-li (T), lord of iht Kara-its (U), 
and Temujin, having diflinguifhed themfelves on this occa- 
flon, the firft was made a Vang or Wang (X), which anfwers 
to Khan ; whence afterwards called by his fubje<5ls Vang 
Khdn ; and Tcmujin had a confiderable poft in the army con- 
ferred upon him. 

After this, Tc-Z/'s brother, in difcontent, fled to the Nay- 
m&ns, and prevailed on their Khan to attack him. This ob- 
liged him to fly to the countries of the U'hcy-hu (Y), to the 

• Abu'lkayr, ap. Dela Croix, p. 30. 

(R) Or Wa-nan ; the fame diflinguiih it from the other 

with the Saghalian Via., or part, which wab cultivated, and 

Airur. inhabited moitly by Chine/es. 

(S) From hence it appears, (T) Called, hy Akuighazx 

that the Kara-its and Moguls Khan, Tayrel ; by others, To- 

Wcre tributary to the emperor grul. 

of Kitt^j. And indeed, what is (U) In the Chirf/f, Ke-/ve. 

fo often mentioned in De la (X) Fadlallah, and the other 

Crcix'% hiftory of ycKghiz Khan, authors made ufe of by De la 

from the oriental hiltorians, of Croix, do not mention the occa- 

the Moguls and other tribes in- iion of this title being given, 

habiting Karakatay, fhews this (Y) The p;inces of the //'.i^'- 

to be lo ; fince with them/k^ra- hu, at firft called IV hey he, were 

iatay was part of the empire of pofleirtd of the territories to the 

Kitay, fi^nif/ing Uack Kitaj, to north or north-weft, and well, 


C. r. Reign of JcughHz Khzn. 

weft of the Whang-hoy or yellow river, which runs through 
China. In this diftrefs Temujin lent his troops to Vang Khan ; 
who, marching to the river Tula^ defeated the Merkits (or 
Markats), who were neighbours and allies of the Naymans .• 
then joining Tenmjin, both together fell upon the Naymans^ 
and routed them.. But aitho' Vang Khan got much plunder 
in thefe aflions, he gave none to his benefactor, who yet 
concealed his refentment '. The Perfian hiftorians relate this 
affair more at large, in the following manner. Tuktabeyy 
Khan of the Merkits (or Markats), was at the head of thofe 
who fought to ruin Temujin ; and finding that their plots 
did not fucceed, broke friendftiip with Vang Khan, in order 
to compafs his defign by force (Z). With this view he League 
a league with the Khan of Tanjut (or the Tayuts), who both agoing 
together afTembled a formidable army, into which they ad- thetn. 
mitted all who were enemies either to Temujin or his proteft- 
or : and, to confirm their union, took a folemn oath, ufual 
with the Moguls on fuch occafions. All the Khans and chiefs, 
or their deputies, hewed in pieces with their fwords a horfe, 
a wild ox, and a dog ; after which they pronounced this 
formula : " Hear, O God ! O heaven ! O earth ! the oath 
*' that we fwear againft Va77g Khan and Temujin : if one of 
** us fpares them, when occafion offers, or fails to keep the 
*' promife which he has made to ruin them, and affift their 
** enemies againft them, may he become as thefe beafts. " 

This oath was long kept fecret : but at length the Grand Vang 
Khan, and Mogul prince, having been informed of all by a Khan de- 
Kongorat lord, prepared to prevent their enemies. Temujin, throned. 
joining his Moguls to one half of the Kara-it army, which 
was given to him, marched to the borders of the Tanjuts 
(or Tayuts) ; and, by his extraordinary diligence, furprized 
them with his arrival. However, their general, to avoid 
fighting, till f©me of the allies had joined him, amufed Te- 
mujin by various ftratagems. Mean time the Naymans hav- 
ing learned by their fcouts that the Grand Khan had but 
part of his army with him at Karakorom^ Erkekara (A), a 

' Gaubil, ubi fupr. p. 3, & feq. 

of Turfdn, in tittle Bukhdria, Perhaps the fame with the 
and perhaps to the fouth of that Whes-ke, 'p 47. 
city. They were defccnded (Z) This is placed, by De la 
from the Whey-hu, who, during Croix, in Hejrah 573. A. D. 
the Chine fedyndAy oiTang, were 1 177. 

fo powerful, and afterwards (A) Called Jakakara, in 
\x^QzmQ Mohammedani* Gaubil, Ahulghaxi Khan; znA Ifankula, 

in die Chine/e anrisls. 


H'ljlory of the Mogul (7rMungI Empire. B. IIL 

younger brother of liis, who many ye,irs before had retired 
to that tribe, perfuaded their Khan Tayyan to attack that 
prince, in Temujins abfence. Accordingly, they entered the 
dominions of I'nvg Khan, who thought of nothing lefs than 
an irruption from that quarter ; having, the year before, made 
peace with Tayyan Khan, on terms very advantageous to the 
Temujin The Grand Khan, at ilils unexpected vlfit, made a brave 
defeats defence; but, after an obUinate fight, was obliged to fly, to 
tbcm. avoid falling into the hands of the enemy. The greater part 
of his foldicrs were either killed or wounded, and the capital 
city pillaged ; where his hr other Erkekar a .ifcended the throne, 
as Khan of the Kara-its. The remainder of his fcattered troops, 
with prince Sankiin his fon, retired to the mountains (B) ; 
and Van{^ Khan himfclf hafled to feek his fon-in-law, whom 
he found ready to give battle to the Tanjuts and their confede- 
rates. The Mogul prince was much amazed when he faw 
the king in his camp, and heard of his diiafter : but com- 
forting him with the hopes of having now his full revenge ; 
he refigned to the Kh in the command of the main body, 
and put himfelf at the head of the left wing, a Kara-tt lord 
being intruded with the right. The viftory was a long time 
doubtful : but at length Temujin broke in with fuch fury 
upon the confederate forces, that he put their left wing 
into diforder ; which aniiTiating the reft of the troops, the 
enemy was mtirely routed, and the Tanjiit tribe almolt quite 
Heflores Next j'ear (C) Temujin got together a formidable army 

the Khan, of Kara-its, with intent to reftore the Grand Khan : nor was 
that of the confederate Khans lefs confiderable. Tuktabeyy 
for want of Tanjuts, brought Merkits with him. Tayyan 
Khan led the Nay mans in perion, and the tribes which Erke- 
kara hud engaged to his part, helped greatly to augment his 
army. After fkirmifhing a while, Temujin, at the head of 
his troops, began a general battle, the moil bloody, perhaps, 
that was ever fought. At Lift the leaders of the enemy g^ve 
way, and fled, followed by their troops ; of whom the pur- 
fuers made a teiTible tlaughter. It was not known what be- 
came of Erkekara (D) : but the Grand Khan, his brother, 

(B) The Cbivefe hilkiry fa} s, (D) Ahu'lghnziKhan fays, he 

to the H'hcv-hu princes, to the was taken and put to death; but 

wcJV of the If'hang-ho, as before places this event in the time of 

remarked. Tefltk.ry. 

(C) Hej. 575. A. D. 1 1 79, 
De liJ Croh-. 


C. I.' Reign of Jenghlz Khan. 337 

entered vi(5lonoufly into Karakcrom, in 11 79, and Was re- A. D. 
eftablifhed in his throne ". 1201. 

ABU'LG HAZ I Khan does not mention this reftoration ^'■"'•'VT-^ 
of Vang Khan by Tetnujin, but fpeaks of his .dethronement ^J Iff'^^'^ 
Jakakara, as an event which happened in the reign of Yejfu-^ "" 
kay Behadr ^. That author leaves Temujin in a ftate of in* 
aftion for the fpace of twenty-feven years. He tells us, 
that, after the battle which he fought when but thirteen 
years old, finding himfelf not able to reduce the tribes which 
had revolted from him, to Burgani Kariltuk, he was obliged to 
temporize till the year Bars, or the tiger ; when entering In-"^J- 59^^' 
to the fortieth year of his age, a man belonging to the re- ^' ^' 
volted tribes came to tell him, that the Tayjuts and Nirons '^ '" 
were joined with the Bayjuts, the Markats, and the Tatars, 
intending to furprize him. On this news Temujin, who had 
already confiderably augmented his forces, and acquired great 
experience in war, gave a general review to the thirteen tribes, 
which were then under his obedience. After this he ordered 
the baggage and cattle to be placed in the middle of thC-^^ reyoU" 
camp; and putting himfelf at the head of his troops, pro-"^ ^^'^^^^' 
pofed, in that poflure, to wait for the enemy : but, at their 
approach, he ranged his 30,000 men in a line, to cover, by 
fo large a front, his baggage and beafts. Having in this 
manner engaged his foes, he gained a complete victory, with 
the flaughter of 5 or 6poo llain on the fpot, and a great 
number taken prifoners. 

Immediately after the battle, he ordered feventy large ^"7^'^'^''* 
caldrons of water to be put on the fire, and caufed the prin-'^^'^-'^i'^* 
cipal of the revolters to be thrown in headlong, when the 
water was boiling hot. After this he marched to the habi- 
tations of the revolted ; and having plundered them, carried 
away the men, cattle, and all other effefts. He condemned 
to (lavery the children of the chief men of the tribes ; and 
difiributed the reft among his troops, to ferve for recruits >'. 

Prince Chamaka (or Jemuka) env}'ing the reputation oiConfedi- 
Temujin, flirred up feveral princiss, the chief whereof were ^'^'^^ ^- 
thofe oi Hat akin, Sachihu, Kiliipan, and Tatar, who refolved^''-^'?/^ ''-''''*> 
to feize on both him and Vang Khan. Te-in (E), lord of tlie 

. *" Abu'lfaraj, ap. De la Croix, p. 31, Sz feq. ^ Aeu'L- 

GHAzi Khan, p 72. ^ Ibid. p. 69, & feq. 

(E) The fame, perhrips. who by a lord oF the Kcfigorafs, men- 

is by Abitl^hazi Khan called tioned before, but out of its 

Turk-ili. This feemb to be the place, 
fame confederacy and dilcovery 

Mo D. Hist. Vol. IV, Z Hm Yirafs 


Hiflory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

Ilcnkiruts (or Koiigorats), wlio liad been forced into the 
le igue, retired to his own huids, and fent notice to Tamtjin, 
who had married his dauj^hlcr. Hereupon Tcniiijiu and Fang 
Khun took the held, when leaft expected, and defeated the 
confederates in fevcral battles. The Moguls were confidera- 
bly reinforced by the accelTion of the Ulutay, Mangu, Chalar (or 
Jalayr), Hcnkiruts, a'ld 1-ki-lyc-tff. Thefe five horde, which 
furnilhcd excellent olHcers, and fprnng from the five fons of 
Liuhiiig Piitur, fixrh anceftor of Tc-in, dwelt along the Gnon, 
Kcrlon, Ergoiid, Kalka, and other neighbouring rivers. At 
this time Tcmiijin and Td-in made a treaty, famous in the hi- 
flory of the Moguls ; by virtue of which the chief of each 
family was to take his firft wife out of the other : which 
treaty was Ihiiftly obferved, fo long, at leafl, as the defcend- 
ants of Temnjin reigned in China ■'■. 
rai/cdhy In I202 Jdmuha having afTembled the confederate princes 
Jamuka. near the river Tula Pir (F), they elefted him their chief, and 
^- ^' took an oath to obey him. This league was exceedingly 
1202. i^rengthened, by the acceflion of Boyrak (G), king of the 
Naymtins. Tcniujin, who was affifled by the princes of his 
houfe, and his allies, had in his army four generals, called 
PiiUpanlaiU, or the four intrcpUs, named Muhuli (H), Por- 
ehi, Pcrokona, M\dChilnhna (I). Befides thefe, there was a 
llranger called Say-i, \vho was expert in the art of war ; and 
being a fire- worfhi per, was called Chapar (K). 
V ang^ Next year 7V/W///7/2 joined Vang Khan, near the mountain 

^ *"•''"" A'z.7 (L), where Jamuka wvvd his allies had afTembled their 
on ancy. ^^^^^^g^ g^. j^uymka, fearing the fuccefs of a battle, chofe 
rather to render the Kara-it prince jealous of Temujin, by 

^ Gaueil. ubi fupr. p. 5, &: feq. 

(F) Probably the Toro Pirn, (K) TheTa/fjr pronunciatloa 
which rifes in !at. 47° and long, of the word Ghtir [ov (Jkabr): 
3"^ eall of Pc-k!?ig. the Chinefe word is Cha pa-eul. 

(G) In X.\\c Chinefe, Poloyu; Gauh. 

he was the eldejc brother of ■/«}■- (L) It is, according to the 

yan Klin. Chinefe geographers, 500 // (or 

(H) Thefe are the Mungl 50 leagues), well of the moun- 

rames, in which language they tain Tu-kin ; which lall is about 

were intitled ^ue/ye, which is the 45th or 46th degree of lati- 

t\\t^efttanoi MfPolo.Gaubil tude, and the izth or 13th of 

(I) 'fhe firft and lali were of longitud.-, well oi Pe-kivg,-w\\tY(i 

the hord of Chalar (or J.lnyr) ; the kings of the Tu-quc, or Turks^ 

Porchi belonged to that ofOrIa; ufed to encamp, in the fifth cen- 

and Porokona to the hovd of Uyu- tury . Gaub. 

bujkitt. Gaubii. 



A. D. 

C.I. R^i^H of J enghiz'Kh^n. 

fuggefting to him that he was not to be trufled. Fang Khan 
hereupon fecretly decamped in the night, and retired firfl to »202. 
the river Hafixji (M), and thence to Sali, between the Tula <— — v—- ' 
and Onon. They had fcarce feparated, when the Khan of the 
Naymans attacked feveral parties of the Kara-its, and plun- 
dered the habitations of that hord. On this Vang Khan dif- 
patched couriers to Temiijin, defiring the, aid of his four in- 
trepids ; who, on their arrival, beat the Naymans, and re- 
covered the booty. This feafonable affifiance begat a firmer 
union than ever between the two ; and each promifed a 
daughter in marriage to the other's fon. 

Mean time Jlako (N), Vang Khan's fon, who had longIlako*5 
envied Temujins reputation, by the infngation of Jamuka^^'^y' 
(O), perfuaded his fiither, ever wavering and diftruifful, that 
the prince of the Miingls had betrayed him. In this belief 
he refolved to deflroy Temujin by artifice : with which view 
he invited him to his camp, with his fon Chuchi (or Juji), 
and the princefs his daughter ; under pretence of accomplifli- 
ing the double marriage before agreed on. Temujin indeed 
fet forward ; but returning again, fent an officer to put ofF 
the ceremony till another opportunity. Soon after, being in- 
formed of the whole plot, he fent to his allies, and took pro- 
per meafures to prevent a furprize ". 

The reafon of Temujin s fudden return is not mentioned P/^?/ a- 
in the Chinefe hiflory ; nor does Caiibil inform us from thence ^«/«y? Te- 
in what manner he came to know of the plot : but both aren»"ji"» 
related by Jbu'Ighazi Khan (P). According to this author, 

a Gavsil. p. 6,k feq. 

(M) Which rifes lat. 47° 50' 
long. 15° 40' well of Pe-king, 
and falls into the Selingha, lat. 
49° 20' long. 13° 25'. Gaub. 

(N) Or Ilako; Called by De 
la Croix, Jlako ; Sanghin p.nd 
Su7ighhn, by Ahu Ighazi Khan. 

(O) According to De laCroix, 
in 1180, the year after Fa»g 
Khdni reftoration by Temujin, 
"Jernuka, by Savkun% mediation, 
obtained leave to return to 
court, where he perfuaded San- 
kujiX}^7it'Te7-nuji?2''s dclign was to 
deprive him of the (ucceiTion } 
and, for that end, correi ponded 
witll 'fayyan. Khan of the Nnx- 
tndasi VajigKhdn% enemy, whole 

daughter he huri married in his 
minority. That young Sar.kun 
hereupon, in 118 , wrote his 
father an account; who, with 
reluftanCe, at lafl;, in Hcj. 588. 
A. D. 1192 refolved to feize 
lemujin. De la Croix, hift« 
Geng. p. 34, & feq. alfo Abul' 
ghaxi Kkan, p. 70,72. 

(P) Vvho, p. 69, places this 
affair in or after the year ;2oi, 
agreeable to the C/'jV/.'yif- annals : 
v.hereas De la Croix, in Hejrah 
590. A. D. I I93,eightyears ear 
iJer ; which li.ull b:; owing to the 
error in puicing ■7'^^/ii(/7«"5 birth 
fo many years too early. 

z % 


3 .', o Hijio'^y of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

A. D. ^^i-ing Khan, at the fame time that he invited Tcmujin, under 

1 202. pretence oF making a more ftri(ft alliance by the marriage, 

^'•'"'V^^ront to tell I\L-uglik Izka, Tcmnj'ni's father-in-law : that, as 

nothing ftood between him and the crown but his wife's fop, 

he would come and help him to put that prince to death, and 

then divide his poflcirions between them. As Vang Khan 

was an intimate friend of Pojukiy and owed great obligations 

to him, Tcmujin, after receiving his ambalTador with honour, 

fet forward to go to his court : but meeting on the road 

ho-ixi (iifco- with his father-in-law, who difcovered the Grand Khan's 

vertd. propofal to him, he returned back, and difniifled the am- 

balfador, with an apology to his mailer for putting off his 

vifit for the prefent. 

Five or fix days after the ambafTador's departure, Badu 
and Kijhlik, two brothers (Q__), who kept the horfes of one 
of Vang Khtin's chief domeftics, came and informed Tanujin ; 
that the grand Khan, finding he had milled his point, was 
refolvcd to fet out inftantly, and furprize him next morning, 
before he could fufpe<5f: any danger. They fi\id they heard 
their mafler tell this to his wife, the day before, when they 
went to carry milk to his houfe ; and, without delay, came 
to give him notice ^. 
Temnjin TE MU J /Nwds then, according to De hi Croix, encamp- 
y?<3/rrfi gj r^^ fomc dlflance from Karakorom, by Vatig Khans order ; 
who had fent him from court, under pretence that his pre- 
fence was neceflary in the army (R) ; but, in reality, to get 
him away from his own guards : for all the foldiers adored 
him for his brave actions in the field, and liberality to tiiem. 
Although the Mogul prince could hardly believe what Badu 
and Kij7j!ik h?id told him, he .thanked them for their affe(ffion; 
and having confulted KaraJ]:ar, with the reft of his friends, 
it was refolved that they fhould lie in ambufcade. And as the 
flavcs had alfured him that he was to be feized in his tent, he 
vton his "'Jcrcd all things of value to be removed out of it ; that all 
guard. ^i^ domeftics and officers fliould quit theirs; and that fires 
fliould be left burning all night in the camp (S). After which 

•* Abu'lcua?.!, ubi flip. p. 49, 72, & feq. 

(Q__) Jhfilghazi Khan, p. 50. (R) De la Croix places this in 

makes them of the tribe of Afrt/- Hej. 589, A. D. 1 193. 

if//, whicli* he fay^, fpruiig from (S) Ahiilghaxi Khun fays, he, 

the third fon of Mengllk Jx-.ia, on this occafion, fcnt his wo- 

by a former wife ; but this does men, and children, and cfFcdts, 

not fcem probable. P. 6g, he out of the way, to a place called 

fa}s, Temujin then entered his Baljunabalak. 
fortieth year 


C. r ; Reign <?/ Jenghiz Khan . 

he marched, with all his troops, to pofTefs himfclf of a nar- 
row lane or pafs, called Jcrmegah, two or three leagues 

They 'were fcarce departed from the place, when Vang 
Khans forces arrived, commanded by Sanhhi and Jemuka (T). 
The prince rode full fpeed up to the illuminated tents, and, 
with his followers, (hot a prodigious number of arrows at 
Temujin's ; not doubting but the cries of the wounded would 
foon drive out him they wanted : but hearing no noife, they 
entered the tents ; where, to their furprize, they found no- 
body. Hereupon, concluding that he had fled through fear 
and guilt, they followed him by the track of his troops, in 
great hurry and diforder. 

Mean time Temiijin had ported himfelf at the foot of z Defeats 
mountain, in the narrow pafs, which was covered by a wood, Vang 
with a brook before him : but when he faw the enemy ad- Khan, 
vancing in diforder, although much inferior in force, having 
only 6000 men againft 10,000 (U), he eroded the ftream, 
and attacked them fo hotly, that, after a very flight refiftance, 
they fled before him. In this fight they loll: a great numbef 
of foldiers and officers : prince Sankun, who, with the reft, 
fled back to Karakorom, was wounded in the face with an 
arrow. This aftion happened when Temiijin was forty years 
of age (X), and had been eighteen years- in Vang Kk'm's 
fervice ^ 

According to the Chinefe hiftory, when Vang Khan ^^tx-Sendstore-' 
ceived that his plot was difcovered, he openly attacked Te-proach 
mujin on all fides : but the Mogul prince got the advantage '^■''^• 
in four battles, in the laft of which he fought with Vang 
Khan himfelf; and Ilako, being wounded with an arrow, re^ 
tired out of the engagement. Temnjin, after this, went and 
encamped at the lake Tong-ko, from whence he fent an officer 
to reproach Toli in the following manner : " When your 

* De la Croix, p. 37, & feq. Abu'lghazi, p. 74. 

(T) De la Croix places this more than 2500 men ; but Vang 

aftion in Hej. 590, A. D. 1 1 93 ; Khan had i z,ooo with him. 

but as the year 589 of the Hej- (X) De la Croix, or his au- 

rah is alfo referred to the fame thors, place this action Hej. 

year of Chriil, it muft be ob- 590, A. D. 1193, when he was 

ferved, that 589 began the 6th forty years old : but if Teinujin 

of January, 590 the 36th of was born in 1162, that battle 

December, 1193. will fall in (202, near the time 

(U) According to Ahulghazi to which it is referred by Abul- 

Khan, he could get together no ghazi Kkdn, and the Chinefe au- 

Z 3 ** unde 

HijUry of theMoguX or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

uncle Kior (Y) defeated you ar Nula-iu/wn (Z) you loft 
your pofTenions. J\iy father deicated Kicr mHo-fi, and re- 
ftored you. When your brother armed the Naymdns 
" agahift you, and you were obliged to retire weftward, I 
" feat my troops, who beat the Markats, and huidcred the 
** Nayma)is from defeating you. "When you were reduced 
*' to fo great mifery, I gave you part of my flocks, and every 
" thing elfe that I had ; yet you fent mc nothing of all the 
" great plunder which you got from the ALirkats : although 
•' it was by the help of my officers that you became fo rich, 
" and my four genaals brought you out of the plunge you 
" were in. You know what I have done to prevent the 
** ill dcligns which the confederate princes fo often formed 
" againft you ; will you, after fo many obligations, attempt 
" to deftroy me in fo bafe a manner ? " 
JiFTztzry The rupture bet\veen Tonujin and Vajig Khan put moft 
tK motkn. of the princes of Tatary in motion : the firft was joined by 
his brother-in-law 'Hafar-lVhaclmi (A), prince of the Hong' 
hirats {ov Kongorats), a.nd Put ii, prince of l-ki-lye-t/c", ^teli, 
Vang Khans brother ; Chafmr, and feveral other lords. After 
many corifultations with his four generals, the army fet for- 
ward ; and being arrived at the river Panchimi, or Long-ku, 
League of whofe water was very muddy, Hafar caufed a horfe to be 
""'"killed. Then Temiijin, taking up fome of the water, drank it; 
and, invoking heaven, promifcd to (hare with his officers, 
during his life, both the fiveet and the bitter ; wifhii^.g, in cafe 
he ever fhould be fo unhappy as to violate his oath, that he 
might become as the luatcr "which he drank. All his allies and 
officers did the fame after him. This ceremony linked them 
exceedingly firm to his intereft ; and the families of thofe 
who drank the water on that occafion, valued themfelves much 
on account of their fidelity : nor were they held in lefs efteem 
by others. After tins they marched to light the enemy J. 

Thesr matters are related with no f'niall variation, and 
more circumflances, by the weftern hiAorians. According 

«■ Gavbil, hill. Gentch. Kan, p. 8, 

(Y) Kiar, according to prince (Z) Straits of the mountains 

Kantxmir [Othm. hill, p 30;, fouth of the river Or^/'w/; j lat. 

note 48), figi'ifies one who is 48° 20' long. 12° 15' well of 

hind, or hus t'Ut Off i-\e. This Pekiug. QaubiK 
fetms to he Curkhd'i of Df ia (A) This was doubtlefs the 

CrcixTvw^ Abu '.ghn%i Khan. Per- fon of 'Td-Zw, Khan of the Hcn-i 

haps he was blind. VVe will not k rats ; probably the fame with 

fay Hat the weftern hilloiiana Turk-iii, who was dead. 

havt madeG'a/ out oi Kior^ 


C.I. Reign of J tnghiz Khan. 343 

io JbiVlghazi Khan, Ti'inujin, after the above-mentioned bat- A. D. 
tie, contenting himfelf with the honour ot having beaten the 1202. 
enemy with fuch a handful of men, judged it convenient to ^— "v*~^ 
retreat, before all their forces came down upon him ; and 
fhaping his courfe to Baljiiria-balak, where he had fent his 
family and efFefts for fecurity the night before, found fo lit- 
tle water there, that he was conftrained to march towards the 
river Kallafid (B). As the tribe of Kunkurats (or Kongorats), ^^^ Kun- 
at this time dwelt on that river, and had a chief named Turk- kuratsy«^- 
ili, who was a relation of Temiijin, he fent an officer to ac-''"'* 
quaint him ; that he intended to vifit him, and ftiould be glad 
to know if he was difpofed to keep up the friendfliip which 
had long fubfifted between them. Upon this method Turk- 
Hi (who fcems to be Hafar above-mentioned), thought pro- 
per to fubniit to Temujin, and join him with all the Kiinkurat 
tribe. From thence they marched towards the river Kolla- 
?maer (C), on whofe banks they flopped for fome time. Af- 
ter this, he fent j4rkayjwn Behadr to upbraid Fang Kkdn 
with his ingratitude ; who confefTed the charge : yet as the 
war had been entered upon by the advice of his fon, he fent 
the envoy to him for an anfwer : but Simgun, refolving to Sanghin 
be revenged for his late hurt, would hear of no accommo- inexorahlf^ 
dation ^. 

D E la Croix relates this affair with a greater number of 
circumftances, and Itill farther variation from the Chinefe hi- 
ftory, as follows : Temiijin, after the battle, retired with his 
troops to the lake Baljuta (D), of fait water, and in no great 
quantity ; where his friends and the difcontented Kara-its 
reforting to him, he went and encamped on the frontiers of 
China, at the river Kakul (E), near a high mountain. From 
that place, after fome flay, he marched for Moguliftdn 
(F), where he was joyfully received by his fubjefts of Teka-^ 
Mogul, and Niron Kay at. After this, in feveral kurilties, or 

* Abu'lghzi Khan, ubi fupr. p. 75. 

(B) Now called Orkhon, or miftake the fame letter being 
Orkon, according to Bentink ; marked for a ^ inftead of a. 
wheieas it ought to be the river (E) De la Croix fays, it was 
which he r\7i.mts Argun, and is alfd called Karamuren: there 
t\v(t Ergona, according to the is fuch a river, which runs from 
Chinefe hiftory. north to fouth, within a little of 

(C) Now called Tola, orTu- the Whang-ho. 

la, according to Bentinh. (F) This is placed Hej, 591, 

(D) This muftbetheJ?«/;w«<a;- A. D. 1194. 
ha'ak qI Ahulgha%i Kl.dni by 

Z 4 aiTemblicSj 

344 Ilijlory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

A. D. afTcmblics, fumtnoncd to iounJ and aiumatc the people (G), 
1 202. he propoled throwing ofF the yoke of the Kara-its : telling 
'— ""v"*^ them they had now a fair Opportunity ; and, to induce them 
the ioouer, pretended he was lent fiu:n God for that purpofe. 
l/.-eMo- This fpeeeh had the deiired etfeft : for applauding his enter- 
guls u.'iiic. prize, they prorpired to obey him. Hereupon he raifed on- 
ly 4500 foldicrs raore than he had before ; and then fent 
to propofc ^ league with the Khan oi the Kongorats, fon to 
his father-in-law, who was dead ; alfo with the Khan of the 
Kurlas : but thoie of the Sti Moguls, or Tatars, refufing his 
offers, he conftrained them by torce of arms. The Khans 
of Mcrkat, feeing this, chofe to do freely what they would 
otherwife have been compelled to : and leveral other tribes 
followed their example, although follicited to-ftand out by 
fome Khans, particularly thofe of Mcrkit ; of whom Tiikta- 
bcy, Temiijins mortal enemy, was the moll powerful, 
Jtefufepay- AFTERWARDS, all the allied Khans, by proclamation, for- 
ing tribute, bad paying any more tribute to Vang Khan ; who, on this, tried 
gentle means. Bqt finding nothing would reclaim them, freed 
the Merkits from all tribute, and made large promifes to 
Tuktabey (H) ; hopiPig thai this party of Moguls would bal- 
lance the power of the other. Mean time Temuiin, feeming 
to be for peace, advifed fending to propofe an accommoda- 
tion to Vnng Khdn, on condition that he Ihould releafe them 
from all taxes, as he had done the Merkits . . 
Tcmujin As they left the management of this affair to himfelf, he 
fropo/es pitched on j4rniji:n to be the ambaffador ; who, after reciting 
peace : jjjg obligations he owed to his mafler', and Vang Khans un- 
generous returns, intreated him to grant peace to the Moguls, 
and renew his friendihip with his fon-in-law. Fang Khan, 
having referred the aiFair to his council, for a while (t) put 
off the envoy ; who,, in the mean time, fuffered a thoufand 
indignities from the friends of Sankun and Jemuka, which he 
loudly complained of: but m.eetiug with no redrefs, fent an 
account of all to Temujin, who ordered him forthwith to 
<n: !ch is The Grand Khan would willingly have made peace ; but 
rcjeiied. Sankun, prejudiced by Jemttka's, fuggcflions, oppofed it with 
all his might ; and carrying his father's anfwer himfelf, told 
the amba/iador, " that the .''l/c;^-?//^ were to expedl no peace, 
** but by fubmdtting abfolutely to the Khan's will ; and that, 

^ Abu'lkayr ap. De la Croix, p. 41, & feq. 

(G This is referred toHej. (|) La Croix hy% for a whole 
592. A. D. 1 194. year. 

(H) This is referred toHej. 
594. A.D. U97. *' »s 

C. I. Reign c/ Jenghiz Khan. 

" as for Temtijin, he would never fee him but with fword 
** in hand (I)." The confederate Khans, exafperated by 
fo haughty a meflage, prepared for war 8. Hereupon San- ' 
km fent troops to ravage Mogiilijian, but they were al- 
ways repuhed with lofs. The Grand Khan, enraged at this 
difgrace, levied troops all over his dominions, and drew above 
30,000 men out oi the provinces of Tiirkeftdn (K), Tcndtiky 
and other parts, depending on the kingdom of Jclayr. Then- " ■■ 

fending to fummon the Moguls to fubmit, he promifed them 
all the fatisfaftion they required if they complied ; but if not, 
threatened to treat them with the utmofl rigour. 

Some Khans were at firll of opinion to accept of Vang Prepares 
Khan 's propofals ; but others, lefs timorous, nobly oppofed/o?" lyiar. 
them. At length, animated by Temujin's arguments, who 
produced letters from Karakorcm, alluring them that the 
Grand Khan and his fon had l\vorn the ruin of the confede- 
rates ; it was refolved by the whole afiembly, then met at 
Mankernle, to raife all the forces their tribes could furnifli, 
and to carry on the war with the utmofl vigour. Then de- 
claring 7'(?/;wy/rt general, they prefented him the Top uz, or 
truncheon of command : but he would not accept of it, but 
on condition that every man fhould pundlually'obey his or- 
ders ; and that he ftiould have full power to punifh thofe 
who did not do their duty, f^aving granted all his demands, 
they returned to their refpeftive countries, in order to get 
their troops ready to take the field. 

T EMU JIN., the better to fecure his friends in his 'm.X.t- Bounty and 
reft, loaded with benefits thofe who had left Vang Khdn, togratitude. 
follow him ; and out of them chofe all his general officers. 
But he in a fnigular manner rewarded the two llaves who 
gave him notice of that prince's defigns againft him : for be- 
fides the confiderable prefents which he made them, he de- 
clared them Terkdns (L), and afligned them a revenue for 

s MiRKOND. ap. De la Croix, p. 45, & feq. Abu'i/Ghazi, p. 
76, & feq. 

(I) This is placed, hy Ahul- eaflern tribes, who probably are 

ghaz:,m Hej. 598. A.D. 1201. meant here. 
by De la Croix, in Hej. 596. A. (L) According to Jbulfara}, 

D. 1 199. 3i\-i6.Sa?ikm''i hoftilities t\\eTerkdn,OTTarkhdnM exempt 
in 1 200. from all taxes ; enjoys his whole 

(K) This cannot be under- booty, without giving any to the 

flood ofthe country of the 7»ri^/, Khan; goes into his prefence 

in the weft of ra/a/^)-' ; but there without afking leave; and is 

were fome Turkijh tribes who pardoned nine times, let the 

bordered weftward on the terri- fault be what it wiN, 
tories of the Moguls, and other • 


34^ Hijiory of the Mogul cr Mungl Empire. B. III. 

A D. their maintenance ; ordaining that thele orivik-ges fhouki con- 
\zoz. tinue to them and their defcendants to the feventh, fome au- 
^— '"v"*-' thors fay to the ninth, generation. Thefe adts of gratitude 
and liberality were of great fer\ice to him. When all the 
^''forms confederate troops were c<jme tog-.thcr ; contrary to the cuftom 
d'tjciphne. q{ j^g Mo-nils, who ufcd to attack, their c:\emies in qjiQ main 
body, he divided his army into two wings, and in the center 
placed his own troops, as a body of referve. Then march- 
ing direOly towards the Grand Khan's dominions, he found 
that his army was already in n.otion ; but being incumbered 
"with carriages, was flow in his march to the plain ot Tangut, 
in the country of the Kara-its, where Tcmujin waited his 
coming ^. 

To avoid the confufion which would arife from mixing 
difcording relations together, and to leave our readers to chufe 
for themfches, we have laid before them feparately, as we 
have hitherto done in the like cafes, the accounts of the fc- 
veral authors in view •„ and fhall make no remarks on them, 
farther than to obferve, that neither thofe made ufe of by 
Abulghazi Khun, nor De la Croix, fpeak of the famous oath 
taken by Temujin and his confederates, at the river Pauchuni, 
as mentioned by the Chincfe hiflorlans, to whom we fhall now 
l^eeti the TEMUJIN having marched from that river in queft of 
Kara-US, ^j^g enemy, the two armies met between the T/z/a and Kerlon, 
or Kcrulon : and though that of Fang Khan was by far the 
mofl numerous, yet, after a bloody fight, Temujin gained a 
complete viffory : after which the greater part ot the van- 
quifhed troops joined Tiis. Vang Khan had much ado to get 
off; and many of his own officers would have killed him. He 
was purfued, however, and taken by one of the parties fent 
after him ; but the flime day efcaped, and retired into the ter- 
ritories of the Naymans : where an officer of that country 
knowing him, caufcd the unfortunate prince to be flain. His 
,fon llaho (or Vaho Sanghin) retired firll into the kingdom of 
Hya ; from whence being driven, and flying to the country 
of Kiit-tfc (M), between Turfan and Kajhgary he was there 
killed, by order of its prince '. 


^ JoviNi ap. Dc la Croix, p. 47, k feq. * Gaubil, ubi 

fiipr. p. ID. 

(M) 'Tis hard to fay v/liat Bukhdria, which belonged to 
place this is : Ahulghaxi Khan Kalijuhara, a lord of the tribe 

"eadof pro- 
eath. But 

fays, that he retired to the city, of Kallatz ; who, infteadofpro- 
of Khutiii (or Kotan), in Littie Ceding, put him to death. But 

C. I . Reign of Jenghiz Khan. 

With this account the weflern hiiiorians agree, but re- 
late the feveral matters more at large : they tell us, that 
prince Karajljar, who commanded the van-guard of Temyjin's ' 
army, began the battle, by attacking that ot the enemy, head- 
ed by Jemukn. The conflift was the more bloody, as the per- 
fonal hatred betwixt thofe two generals was very great ; but 
Karajljar was at length overthrown. Then Siiida Behadry 
at the head of the veteran troops, joined with the Su-moguls, 
or Tatars, fo vigoroully charged Vang Khun'?, main body, 
that they gave back ; and Jcmuka, who advanced to fuflain 
them, was obliged alfo to give ground. At the Hime ^i^^e and defeats 
the two wings of Temujins army, commanded by the princes /i^rTw. 
Bubba and Irka, attacked the two wings of the enemy, and 
for three hours both fides behaved with extraordinary bravery. 
The Kara-its fought with fo much courage, that the vidfory 
fcemed often ready to declare in their favour. But, in the 
end, the Moguls gained it (N) : for Temitjin, when he faw it 
was time to advance with his corps-de-relerve, where he wms 
with the prince his fon, fell on with fuch fury, that the Kara- 
its began to give back, and break their ranks on all fides ; nor 
could their Khan, and prince Sankun, rally them again ; (o 
that they were at lafl obliged to follow their flying army, 
who fell in heaps before the purfuing enemy. This vi(ft:ory 
greatly enriched the Moguls, who, befides the plunder of the 
baggage, took abundance of prifoners, and a great number 
of horfes '% 

This day, which was fatal to Vang Khan, proved the moll Vang 
profperous to Temiijin, who was then forty years of age :Knan 
for it put him into poHeirion of the kingdom of xh^Ka-fi^^^'* 
ra-its, and i\\ Karakitay. The vanquifhed not only loft 

'' De la Croix, p. 55, &c feq. 

according to De la Croix, after ituck them in the ground at 

removing in difguife from one fome diftance. After this they 

country to another, and think- began to read their conjura- 

ing himfelf unfafe at Kajhgar, tions, during which the fticks 

he returned to Tibet, where he approached ; and having fought, 

was put to death the fame year Vmcans remained undermoftj 

for a fpy. which prefaged the victory to 

(N) Mtfrro /*o/o reports, that Citigis. This piece of juggle is 

this prince ordered the aftrolo- ftill in ufe among the T/zryfj, Jfri- 

gers and magicians to try his cans, and oX.\\er Mohammedan na- 

fate by wands : they fplit a tions, which they call do the 

piece of green cane in two; then book ; vjhexQO^The<venot gives an 

writing the name of Cingis on account in his travels to xhtLe- 

one, and of Umcm: on the other, vant, 


Hijlory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

40,000 men, killed in the battle; but the bed troops which 
remained went over to his enemy. As he was wounded in 
the fight, he was obliged to quit the command of his army, 
with deiign to retire to Karakorom ; but feeing himfelf pur- 
fued by a troop of Moguls, he fled for refuge to his enemy 
Tayytin Khdn. This retreat was much wondered at, as that 
Khan hated him ; and there were in his court feveral gi-eat 
Naymtin lords, whom he had ill treated : thcfe lords did not 
fail to aggravate the injuries which he had done their coun- 
ti7 ; and even to allege, that his flying thither was only with 
a malicious dellgn to ruin them, by drawing the vi<flor's an- 
ger upon the NaymAns. 
is put to TATYAN Khhn, who was naturally ungenerous, readily 
4tAtb. gave ear to their advice, to put the Grand Khan to death. As 
foon as he was feized, they held a council, at which their 
prince took care not to be prefent ; imagining, by that 
means, to avoid the charge of having violated the law of na- 
tions and hofpitality. " He even pretendgd to be difpleafed 
at his enemy's death ; but when Vang Khcin'^ head was pre- 
fented him, he could not conceal his joy, nor contain from 
infulting him with words full of fcorn and fpite '. 

Some authors relate this matter very differently; accord- 
ing to them, Vang Kbhn, being on the road to Tayyan Khan, 
he was met by Karimaju and Tamika, two Nayman chiefs ; 
who knowing there had always been animofity between him 
and their Khan, flew him, with all his attendants : but that, 
on prefenting his head (O) to Tayyan Khan, he blamed much 
the a(ftion, faying, that Vang Khan, having been a great 
prince, and venerable for his age, they had much better fervcd 
for his guard, than been his executioners. Farther to ho- 
nour the memory of fo great a prince, he had his head in- 
chafed in niver, and placed upon his own feat, with his face 
turned to the door ". 
Ws doni' 7 E MU J I N, when informed of Vang Khan's death, with- 
vioiii jdx.- out lofs of time continued to felze liis dominion?, as his right 
*"*• by conqueft ; auj Sankitn being no-where to be found, he re- 

mained peaceable pofleflbrof all the Art;Y/-zV territories. About 

' JoviNi ap. Dc la Croix, p. 56. Abu'lghazi, p. 77. 
^ Ibid. p. 77. 

(O) Both De la Croix and prcfages were drawn in favour 

Akulginxi Khan mcnticn the ofTtmujin. The firll fays, this 

circumftance of the tongue happened when the head was 

thrulliii!'; itfelf feveral times out frcfti ; the latter, when it was 

C'f the mouth ; from whence fome dry. 


C.I. i?^/;^« ^/JengliizKhan. 

. the end of the year (P) he returned to his own country, where 
he was received with acclamations by all the Mogul Khans, who 
came to pay their acknowlegements to him, for having deli- 
vered them from the tyranny of f^afig Khan, whom they called 
the perfecutor of their nation. 

After this Hakerahil, a brother of Fang Khan, came toHakem- 
ofFer his fervice to Temujhi, and a daughter in marriage. b."._/a^. 
The Grand Khan received him favourably, gave him the em- fnits. 
ployment he dehred, and accepted of his daughter with joy : 
at the fame time telling him, " that he owed him a kind 
" treatment, in return for that which his brother had given 
" to him in his misfortunes. That although both Vang Khan 
*' and prince Sankun had, without caufe, confpired againft 
" his life, yet he never blamed them, but imputed all their 
" perfecutions to Jemiika ; nor had, on that fcore, one jot 
" the lefs refpe^l for their memories, than if they had always 
" continued his friends." Temiij'm fully defigned to have 
married his daughter ; but perceiving that the captain of his 
guards, whom he much efleemed, was fallen in love with 
that princefs, he gave her to him for a wife. 

TATYAN, YA\2Xs.o'i \^A Nay mans, one of the mofl confi- Jemuka 
derable princes of Karakitay, was alarm'd and uneafy at his//" a^ 
fon-in-law's furprizing fortune, notwithflanding the harmony 
there had been of long time between them. While his • 
thoughts were employed on this fubjeft, Jemuka, who had 
efcaped out of the late battle, with the remains of Vang 
Khm's army, and moft of the officers, arrived at his court ; 

(P) In the text o^La Crcix, p. 
6 1 , it is, about the end of the year 
1 202, being forty-nine years of 
age. ^at,2iCCOx6\ng\.oAhulghazz 
Khan, p. 78. he was no more 
than forty yea-s of age when he 
gained the viftoiy ; and was ac- 
knowleged by theM(?^«/j tor their 
Khan, in the country of Nau- 
tnanktira, \v\iQxt he then refided. 
He places this event in the Mogul 
year of the Hog, and of the 
Hejrah 599, which anfwers to 
the year of Chriit 1202; at the 
end of which De la Coix alio 
puts it : fo that here the chro- 
nology of thefe two authors, 
which diTagreed before, coin- 
cides, and thenceforward tal- 
lies pretty well. On this occa- 

fion it muft be obferved, that 
the authors followed by IJe la 
Croix, fpin out to ten years 
length the affairs, which thofe 
made ufe of by Abu Ighazi Khan 
comprize within t! e tompafs of 
one year : for the former puts 
VaT'gKharii. plot to feize Temu' 
jin in Hej. 588, the latter in 598, 
A. D. 1201. at which time the 
Khan fays he was forty ; but 
De la Croix, that he had en- 
te ed into his f(;rty-e!ghth year. 
Whence this differerce happen- 
ed is not fo eafy to determine ; 
but we conclude Alulghazi 
Khans, account to be moll ex- 
aft, as the Chinefe hiftory gives 
but the fpacc of a year to the 
fame tranfadions. 

250 llijion of tbeMo'^vX cr Mungl Empire. B. III. 

A. D. and being known to be a man of great abilities, was very well 
1203. received. As he had a Aibtil wit, and was fkilled in all the 
^■'-'v^*-' arts of courts, he endeavoured to ftir up his jcaloufy againfl 
Tnnujin. He rcprcfented him as a man of unbounded ambition, 
the other ^vho quarrelled with princes, for a pretence to invade their 
Ktauj. dominions ; as well as the moll ungrateful and perfidious : 
alleging that he contrived to deprive both Vang Khiin and 
Sangun of their empire and lives, at the fame time that they 
loaded him witli their favours. Tayyan KhAn knew this to 
be all calumny ; yet, urged more by his own fears than Je- 
mtikiis follicitations, he refolved to make war on Tlwi/yV//. To 
this purpofe he propofed a league with fomc other Khans, 
whofc intereft it v%'as to put a flop to the new emperor's 
growing greatnefs : into which Tuktabey, and the other Mer^ 
kit (Q^) Khans, the Khan of the Virats, and he of the Kerit, 
who was a relation of Fang Khan, prefently entered ; and 
Jcmuka engaged for the whole tribe of Jajcrats (or Joyg- 
her at s) ". 
Theplot Among the rcfl, Tnyym Khan had likewife invited j^laku 
diJcovereJ. (or Alakiis), to join with him and prince Jcmuka, in order to 
• curb the power of Tcmujin. This Alakus (R) was chief of 
the white Tata, who dwelt to the fouth-fouth-eaft of the 
mountain Jltay. Thefe Tata are different from the Tatars : 
that name beip.g fometimes given by the Chlnefes to the 
people in general inhabiting be}^ond the great \vail ; and 
at other times to certain particular hords, whereof fome 
were called Tata of the waters (S), fituate almofl due north 
of Korea ; others white Tata, of whom we are fpeaking. 
Their chief, Alakus, was a defcendant of the antient Turkijh 
princes (T) ; and having had a very great efleem iorTe?nuJin, 
he detained the meffenger who came from Tayyan Khan, and 
gave the Mogul prince notice of the propofal. Hereupon his 
brother Kancbckin, preffing him to take fpecdy and vigorous 
meafures, he mounted his horfe ; and, followed by his choicefl 

" De la Croix, p. 60, k fcq. 

( Q^) In Jhulghazi Khan, mentions Su Mogul:, or Moguls 

Mai-k^:ts. cfthe-i.vattr. 

(R) In Chlurfr, A-la-u-tfe: (Tj Called, by the Chir.efe^ 

De la Crcix fa^'?, he was Khaa Tuque. They dwelt to the 

of the Anl'utf, or Vnhuts, as north weft c^f '7"//r/a;/. and were 

Jlulghazi Khd)i. In the text very formidable to the Chineft 

of Dc la Croix the Karluki are thenifclves in the fixth century, 

put in by fome millake. as haih been related before, p. 

(S) Or StiiTa:a. Ruhruq;' 



C.I. i2(f/g-« c/ Jenghiz Khan.' 351 

foldiers, marched to the mountain Hang-hay (U), where fay- A. D. 
yan was incamped with his Naymans ; who, though much * 204. 
more numerous, were defeated, and their Khan (lain : on ^^T"^^^""^"^ 
which many hords declared for the viftor, who before were ^y""^"* 
retrained by fear. This happened in the year 1 204 ; and ' 

next year Tejimjin began to make incurfions on the territories 
of the king of Hya°. 

With regard to this new victory, the weftern Jjtatic 
hiftorians tell us, that Jlakus, having fent Tayyati Klmz's 
letter, containing all the particulars of the confpiracy, with 
the names of the before-mentioned Khans, to Tcmiijin ; this 
latter convened a council, in which he would have his elded 
fon Jitji, otherwife called "Tiifin, to afTifl ; and, the defigns 
of the confederates being made known, war was refolved 
on (X). The army afTembled in the beginning of the year 
(Y) : foon after which Temujin began his march ; and, 
having palled his ov/n frontiers, came at length to the river 
Altayi^L). Where no troops appearing, to difpute the pa{^ 
fage, he was furprlzed ; becaufe he muif have fuifered much, ^ » . 
had there been ever fo few to have oppofed him. Jemuka f^y^^^ 
would have had Tayyan Khan go meet the enemy, and not jjain. 
wait their coming; for that in fo doing he would prevent A. D, 
the Moguls from ravaging his country, and his own men 1204* 
from flying, by leading them far from home. But the Nay- 
man Khan, inflead of hearkening to his advice, flattered him- 
felf, that the farther the Moguls advanced, the lefs able they 
would be to fight ; and, on the contrary, that his troops, 
being in full flrength, would eafily get the vidory. 

While he deluded himfelf with thefe vain imaginations, 
the Moguls, who were well fupplied with provifions and 
forage, approached his camp. But when his ofHcers brought 
him word how formidable the enemy was, he began to re- * 
pent that he had not followed the counfel of Januka;'who 
yet fhewed not the leafl: difcontent, nor appeared lefs zealous 

° Gaubil, ubi fupra, p. lo, & feq. 

{Ul A chain of mountains, fatigue of the former expedt- 

the moil eallern part, in lat. tion": but that Daritby Oljigauy 

50° long, near 17° vvcft of Pe- or Bulay, Jerghtz khcji^ uncle 

king. The chii;f mountam be- by the "father's fide, offered to 

longing to it, is in 1. c 46° jo' furniih the rvhole army with 

long. 14° 38' weft. Gaubil. horTes of his own j which obvi- 

(X) JbiugbaziiAy^ that: the ated the objedlion, 
heads oi tribes alleged, that (Y) De la Croix places this 

they were not in a condition to affair in l.Uj. 600, J, D. i 03. 
undertake any thing, till their ;Z) Now ca^ed 8iha, ac- 

Jiorfes were recovered from die cording to Bentink, 


Hijlory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

for the caufc P. The two armies being in iight, and drawn 
up in order, prince Juji, and one ot his uncles, Jujikar^ 
' began the fight, with great vigour : but Knjhluk, Tayyan 
Khins fon, luftained the fliock without giving ground. 
ThcTc two young princes, whom the love of glory equally 
inllamed, ftrovc to fignalize their (kill and valour. The 
brave refirtance which the van-guards made on both fides, 
by degrees engaged the other corps, and brought on a ge- 
neral battle. The fight lalled from fun-rife to fun-fet, with 
great oblHnacy ; but at laft the Moguls, breaking the ene- 
mies ranks, put them to flight, and made a terrible flaughter 
ol them. Tayyan Khan, who performed all the parts of a 
good general, was, at the beginning of the battle, mortally 
Kulhluk wounded, and died foon after. Kiijhhik, his fon (A), and 
fies. Tukta Bey (B), fled, with all thofe who efcaped the fwords 

ot the enemy. As for Januka, fpi^rred on by his hatred to 
the Grand Khan, he fignalized himielf by a thoufand heroic 
Jcmuka aiftions : but his rage made him venture too far, for he was 
excxuuJ. taken prifoner ; and after the battle had his head flruck 

ofF(C), as the principal caufe of all the late dilbacftions. 

T'Z'fNay- The kingdom of the vanquilhed being thus fubdued by 

mans re. Tcinitjin, who brought under his obedience a vafl: traft of 

ducid. land, he returned to Karakorom ; where, during the winter, 

his court was filled with ambafllidors, who were fent by their 

mafl:ers, either to congratulate him, aflc his proteftion, or 

fubmit to his govejnment. Aimoft all the Kalmuk (D) tribes 

in the ealfern parts put themfelves under his proteflion : but, 

to the north, fome Khans, jealous of their liberty, and even 

fome Mogul tribes, who were mofl: out of his reach, refufed 

to afli his favour. Tukta Beg, who was once a very power- 

P De laCroix, p. 70, & fcq. Abu'lghazi, p. 80, & feq. 

-" (A) According to the C^/V/^ their prefent fovereign, who 

liiftory, he was ion of Boyrak, caulcd him to' be diavvn limb 

Tavyans brother. from limb. 

'(B) 'By J! ;:r!gbazi Khan CdiW- (D) By thefe fesm to be 

cd Tckta Brg/v, who fled to meant the tribes who continued 

Bayrak, another Khan of the Pagans, or who were not il/o- 

Kayjndns, and "Tayyaii's eldcll harnrnfJans, when our hiftoiians 

brother. wrote. De LiJIc, in his map to 

(C) It appears not, from the hillory of J ngkiz Khan, 

Abii'lghaxiKrtUi, p. 86, thiU he places them to the north of the 

was in thij b.utli;: but aficr '/"rt)- river Saghalian, or Amur, in 

yati Kha>i% death he returned to Karakatay, \v\\q.xg Knyakatr.) ne- 

kis tribe : who, confiderinc; him vcr was. But that map is full 

as the caufe of the war, tarri- of grof$ errors, 
cd him bjund to 'ycnzhix KJ.'tir, 

3 f«l 

C. i: R^lgn ^/ Jengliiz Khan: 

ful prince, could not bear to fee the fuddeii grandenr of the 
new emperor, llrove all he could to foment their hatred 
againfl him. On the other hand, Tenmjhi, looking on him 
as his worft enemy, refolved to turn his arms againfi: this 
Khan, who had io highly injured him. Accordingly, early 
in the fpring (E), he fet out at the head of a pov/erful army 
againfi: the Merkits (or MarkatsJ» 

TUKT/l Bey was not infenfible of the provocations heT/^ Mer- 
had given Temujtn : yet his envy flattering him with hopes of kits ^f, 
fuccefs one time or other, he alfo made great preparations oifsated. 
war; and was joined by fome Tanjuts (or Tayjuts), with 
prince Kajhluk. But when he heard that Tcmujhi appi-oach- 
ed his capital city Kafoin, with an army, the lilce of which 
was never feen before in Mogulifldn, his heart failed him; 
and he, with his eldeft fon, fled to Boyriik, Tayyan Khan's 
brother, to whom Kafljluk, his nephew, had already retired 
for flielter 1. 

The Grand Khan by this means found none in the field 
to oppofe him. However, the city of Kajhin (F) feemed re- 
folved to fland a long fiege : but although, at firfl, the inha- 
bitants made a vigorous reliftance, yet they were in a fhort 
time obliged to furrender ; and Tcmujhi, having put all to 
the fword who had been in arms againft him, razed the 
fortrefs. After this he took an oath of fidelity from all the 
tribe of KaJInii, as well as others of the Merklt tribe ; and 
all the Khans whom he pardoned fwore to obey him. 

The Grand Khan, having finiflied the conquefl: oi Mo gxiJ- Military 
j/?rt«,- returned to his capital Karakorom ; where, refle6lingreu«/«- 
on the vaft^ number of his acquifitions, he judged it proper '''»-f' 
to regulate- his empire. With this view he called a general ^^'^j- ^'^H 
dyet, which he appointed to be held on the firft day of fpring '^ ^' 
the next year, when the fun entered ^/nVj ; to which were ^^°5*. 
fummoned all the great lords, both Mogul and Tatar. In 
the interim, to eftablilh good order in the army, he divided his 
foldiers into feveral Tomans, Hezarehs, Sedehs, and Dehehs j 

1 Aeu'lk. ap. De la Croix, p. 74, & feq. 

(E) De la Croix places this in weft borders of China, to which 
the fpring of the year 12 4. it feems to be near: fjnce, p. 

(F) It IS not eafy to fix the 91, Jrdjfr, in the borders of the 
fite of this city, p^ 92 and 371, Nayfna>is and Merklt, was near 
The country oi 'L avgut is faid Tai:gut ; 2iX\6. Keunplon (v^hichis 
to have borne that name. De known to be Kan-ch£<v:, in the 
Z//7f. in his map prefixed, places province of Shcjif., in China) ^ 
Xi to the fouth of the Naymdn was the capital of Tangut. 
country; but far from the north - 

, Mod. Hist. Vol. IV^ A a that 

154 I-Iijfory cf the "Wlogu] or Mv.n^\ Empire. B^IIT. 

A. D. that is, bodies of ten thoulimd, o;ie thoulaud, one hundred, 
J2o^. and of ten, men : virh their rcfpeifiivc offices, all fubordi- 
^ ~tr-"-' nate to the generals who commanded the Tomans j and thefe 
Avcre to aiff under one of his own fons. He next turned his 
thought to making new laws ; whereof he ordered a memorial 
to be drawn up, which he communicated to liis privy-council, 
before he efpoied it in the general dyct. 
Temujin At length, the day of holding it being come, the princes of 
injialieJ, the blood and great lords met at the place appointed, drciTcd 
in white. Then the Grand Khan, clothed Hke the reft, fitting 
clown on his throne, with his crown on his head, was compli- 
mented by the whole affembly, who wilhe'd the continuance of 
his health and profperity. After this they confirmed the Mogul 
empire to him and his fuccefTors ; adding all tliofe kingdoms 
and nations which he had fiibdued, the defcendants of whofe 
vanquifhed Khans were deprived of all right or. title to any 
of them. When he had thanked them for thefe marks of 
love and refpeff, he declared his refolution to add to the 
antient laws fome new ones, which he commanded that they 
fhould obfervc ; and which we have inferted at the end of 
his reign *■. 
A.D. After this, in the tenth month of the year 1206, the 
1 2o6. princes of the family of Temtytn, the chiefs of hords, and 
mffd ac- generals of the army, affembled at the fource of the river 
'^no'uileged Onon. All the troops were divided into nine bodies, each of 
which having fet up a pavilion and difplaycd a Ifandard, 
they acknowleged Temiijin for their fovereign, by this general 
cry, ChingUz Kohcm[G). After which he nominated MithiiU 
and Porchi his t\vo chief generals and prime miniffers. From 
this event the Chinefe hillory commences the empire of the 
I\Icngol (or Morigl) conqueror '. 

ABU'LGHAZl Khan, to- the Ch'wcfc hiflo- 
rians, gives Temujin the empire and name of Jcnghiz Khan 
at the fame time : but De la Croix places thofe events three 
years afunder ; the firfl in 1202, jull after the defeat and 
death of VatJg Khan (in which year Abulghazi places both), 
the latter in 1205. They iikewife relate them with different 
circumftances. With regard to Tcmnjin being acknowlegv^d 
fovereign, Abu'Ighazi Khdn only fays, that, in tlae year 599, 

"■ MiRKOND, KoNDAMiR, Abu'l. ap. Dc la Crol.v, p. 76, 
& fcq. » GauiJIl, ubi fupra, p. 11, & fcq. 

(G) In the French, Tching- afcribe extraordinary qnah'tics, 
h fie. Which is not a M'ugd and make its appearance the 

word ; but a found cxprciiing preface of good luck, 
the CIV of a bird, to which they 


C. r: Ketgn of JenghizK\v\l^. 

called by the Moguls Tonguz, or the hog, Jenghiz Khan be- 
ing full forty years old, all the tribes of Moguls who had 
fubmitted to him, acknowleged him for their Kliaa in the' 
country of Nau?nankura '; where at that time he reiided : '" f S^'^^' 
on which occafion he gave his fubjecl:s a great feail. Dc la •>^^* 
Croix enlarges much on the fubjeft ; and informs us, that 
Temtijin laid hold of the opportunity which his viftory over • 
Vang Khan alForded, to Ifrengthen his interefi: with the 
people ; who, gained by his eloquence, and the encomiums 
of his friends, refolved to chufe him their Grand Khan. 
The Khans who v/ere already in hia intereil: importuned the 
other Khaas to yield to the requeil: of Temujhi, whofe pre- 
fents were ftill more prevalent. Notice having been given to 
the abfent Khans, of what wa? agreed on in this great a!l<:m- 
bly, they repaired to Dllon Iljak, in the province of I'tka 
Mogul (fl), to perform the ceremony of Ills inauguration. 
There Temujin, placing himfelf on a plain feat^^ fet for h'lvcxfor Gr.nd 
upon an eminence, harangued the people with his ufual^-<*'« of 
eloquence. After which they fet him on a black felt carpet 
fpread on the ground ; and then the perfon who was ap- 
pointed to give the peoples fufirage pronounced aloud their 
pleafure : firfl he told him, " that the authority or power, 
/' which was given him, came from. God ; who would not 
''** fail to profper him., in cafe he governed his fubjefts well : 
** but that, if he abufed his power, he (hould render himfelf 
** miferable, as the black felt, on which he fat, intimated to 
** him." After this remonfcrance, feven Khans lifted him up, 
with an air of ceremony, and bore him to a throne, which 
Was prepared for. him in the midfl of the affembly. Then 
they proclaimed him emperor, with the title of Grand Khan, 
or Khaan, of all. the Mogul tribes ; and bowed their knees 
nine times before him, in token of obedience : afte'- v.^hich 
the people performed the fame ceremony, accom.panied with 
acclamations of joy. 

The new emperor promifed on his part to govern them Moguls 
with as much juilice as mercy, and defend them againfl all and Ta» 
their enemies *, always to procure their good and eafe : to ^^rs, 
acquire glory for them, and make their names known' to all 
the earth. As he had much reafon to commend the Sn- 
Moguls i or Tatars, he declared, that, in reward of their 

* Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 78. 

(H) To make this agree with the fource of the 0;/(7» ; and in - 
the foregoing Chineje account, deed the ct)unrry of the Moguls 
Dihn JlJah and Teka Mogul feems to have been theie- 
rouft have been fituate about abouta. 

A a 2 fervicej, 

Hijiory of the Mogul cr Mungl Emplrf. B. Ilt- 

fcrv'ces, he would join their name in his title, by flilirg 
hiinfclf Grand Khan of the Moguls /■•,■.•// Trvrars. AVhen the 
' ceremony was wcr, he dilbibured preieaL", both to rixat aud 
hn;ill. He likcwKe male magnificent enk-;t.i.i nncQls (I); 
which, according to the cuftom of thofe nation?, cortiuued 
for feveral days tc)gc;ther. After tliis he difmlucd the 
affembly ". , 

Vamed CoNCERKiNO the name of Jenghiz Khan, MtYIghazz 

Jcny;hiz Khiln relates, that, during the ceremony of the manguration. 
Khan, one Kokza (or Kokja), fon of IMoigliJh Izka (or IjkaJ, by ths 
i\\i\ venter, father-in-law of Tcmujin, came to him, and de- 
clared, " that he came from Cod to tell them, that from 
*' thenceforth he fhould take the name of Jenghiz (K), and 
" order his fubjects to call him Jenghiz Khan" (L). He 
foretold at the fame thne, that all his poilerity, ftiould be 
Khans, from generation to generation. This Kokza ufed to 
go bare-footed in winter, and very thin of deaths : but as he 
iliffcred no injury by it in his health, as others would have 
clone, they furnamed him the imngc of God. He gave our, 
that a white horfe came to him, from time to time, which 
carried him up to heaven, w^here he converfed with the Deity ^. 
Many believed that Kokja was fet on by Temtijin to play this 
game. However that be, from this time forward he affumcd 
the name of Jenghiz Khiln; which we fhall ufe for the 
Ij a re-ve- To WARD'S the end of the year 1205 a dyet was called, 
Jfiiiofj. wherein the 3^ogul lords, who were, in the fecret of the pre- 
tended revelation, fupported it fo ftrongly, that the Moguls 
every -where gave credit to it ; and already looked upon all 
the reft of the world as belonging, by divine right, to their 

" De LA Croix, p. 61, & feq. « Abu'lfaraj, Mir.* 

KOND, ap. eund. p 64. Adu'lghazi, p. 78. 

(I) At this feaft, according he named him JatgMz Khan 

to yllulghazi Khan, he aflumed 7ubt Tangri ; but Mirkond and 

the name of Jenghiz Khun, at others fay, Tuht Tangri (or as 

the inftance of ifo^x^. D'Herhelot, p. 379, writes it 

(K) Oar royal author, ex- Tuht Tangri) was the name of 

plaining this name, fays, that the prophet. Dc la Crci.x fays, 

Jin, in the Mogul language, fig. that Mirkond calls him Bar Tan ■ 

nifies ^reat ; and the tcrinina- gri. This fignifies the fon of 

lion ghi-x, making the fupcila- Cod, and fee.nis defigned for an 

tivc; 7%^''~ is as much as to explanation of Tiibt Tangri \ 

{iy the tnojl great. Pe la Croix which perhaps after all, figni- 

fays, it fignifics the Khan of fies the image of God, and wa 

i^*ians. Kikja'i, furname 

(L) Ahtilfaraj, p. 2S1, fays. 


C X." Reign of J en^hizKh^n, ^57 

Grand Khan. In this peiluafion they breathed nothing but A. D. 
war; and even thought it a crime againfl: heaven in thofe izo8, 
princes who refilled, in defence of thc;ir own dominions >'. ^— "v— *- 

But to return to the Chinefe hiftorians. The year i2o6Boyruk 
was farther memorable for the intire defeat of Pologu (or Khan di- 
Boyrak), brother of Tayyan, Khan of the Nay mans. His ionfeated. 
(M) Knfiluk, and Toto (or ToktaBey), lord of .the Ma r kits, ' 
retired to the river Irtifh ; where the former had Hill a 
powerful party : but, in 1208, Chinghiz Khan, having at- A. D« 
tacked them both, flew 7(jfo with his own hand, and Kujh- i-o!;>. 
luk fled into the kingdom of the Kitan (N). This viftory 
put him in a condition to fubdue the reft of the hords, which 
itili ftood out . 

The Perftan hiftorians fay, that Boyrak, being purfued, 
was taken, and put to death in the camp. After this, ac- 
cording to JluYlghazi Khan, Kufoluk and Tokta Beg retired 
to the river Irtijb. But De la Croix, who quotes Miirkond, 
Kondamir, and .^^«7A'a_yr, for his authorities, foys, they re.- 
treated to Ardifi, a fortrefs on the frontiers of their refpec- 
tive territories in the tribe of Merkit ; where they defigned 
fco recruit their fcattered forces, with fome others who were 
left bcliind : but that, two years after (O), Jcnghiz Khan, 
to prevent their having tim£ to fortify themfelves, raaj-ched 
again ft them in the midft of winter. Thofe princes, amazed - 
at his fudden arrival, and not being ftrong enough to oppofe 
him, retired under the fortrefs of ylrdifJj : but Jcnghiz Khan, 
for all the rigour of the fealon, and difficult roads, foon ap- 
peared before that place, and forcing them to come to an en- 
gagement, quickly put them to flight. Tukta Bfg\va.s killed 
m the aftion : hut KuJJjiitk, with fome expert foldiers, efcapedKuihlufc 
to Turkeftan, where he was kindly received by Gurkhan {V),efca'pcs. 
a very powerful monarch ; who, touched with the misfor- 
tunes of this young prince, gave him his daughter In mar- 
riage ^. 

y Dg La Croix, p. 90. ^ Gaubil, u'oI fupra, p. 12, 

* MiRKOND, Abu'lkayr. ap. De la Croix, p. gi, & feq. 
Abu'lcha?!, p. 84, & feq. 

(M) The weflern v^/fd/zV vvri- coming originally from /Tam- 

ters make him the fon of Tay- kitay. 

ya-nKhdn, as has been obferved (O) This is placed in the 

in a former note. year 1207 by De la Croix. 

(N) This mud be underfiood (P) He was fovereign both of 

of the Kitan fettled in Little the JVeJiern Kitan, or Knraki' 

Buhhdria ; of whom an account taynns, and Tut-kejldn ; and ge« 

will be given hereafter. ' They nerally refided z.KKdJhgar, 

were called Karakitaja:::^ as 

Aa 3 Our 

2s^ Hijlory of the Mogul <?r Miingl Empire. B. III. 

A. D. OuK readers cannot but be furprifed at the great difagree- 

120C?. meat aciong tlic authors before us, concerning the place of 

'^— "V-*-'^aiVion ; fome making it to be at a river beyond the regions of 

Ahftake ji-g Moguls; Others at a tortrefs at a great dillance from 

recti ped. xh^^^zt^ not far from the borders of Tangnt and Kit ay. 

Whether rhofe who alfert the huter as faft (for we take the 

concurrent tcfliniony of Abu'lgh.izi Khan, and the Chlnefc 

hiftorians, to be a proof that the Irtijh was the fccne of 

aftion), had it from the memoirs of PulAd, or finding only a 

bare name of a place, fupplied the want of a defcriptioa by 

conjc^ftures of their om'o, we will tiot venture abfolutely to 

detcrraihe : but this latter looks to be tVTe cafe, fmce Archjh 

and Irtifi are written with the fame Mogul or even Arabic 

charai>ers : and De la Croix does not cite Fadlallah, who 

wrote his hiftory from the memoirs and afTiftance of Piilad ; 

which feems to (hew, that he fays nothing to fupport the 

matter in qiieflion. 

Joyghe- J ENG H 17. KhAn, in his approach to the Irfip, pa/Ted 

rats C'.d near the habitations of the Joyghcrats and Kirliks : the firfl 

Karliks fubjeft to Konaha Beghi ; the latter, to Arjldn Khan ; who, 

fibwit. fiQ(. being in a condition to oppofe his foiccs, both fubmittcJ 

to him, and conducted him to the camp of Kiichhik and 

Tidda Bi-'ghi. In his return from this expedition he fum- 

moned Unis Indl, chief of the Kcrghis : who I'.lewife fub- 

mitted, and fent him a fhungar, or flionkar, for a prefent ''. 


Jenghiz Khan hivaJes the Khigdoms cf Hya, 
Kitay, and Turkeftan, 

TeiT>]iiz ^ '|jr"^HE Grand Khan, having finifhed the conqucA of 

khan in- I Moguli/run, or that part of Tariary inhabited by 

'uades "^ the various tribes of people comprehended under the 

name of Moguls and Tatars, (extending from the borders of 

what is called Eajiern Tatdry to mount Altay in the weft), 

began to think of invading the countries out of Tartary 

to the fonth. Which, unlike the defarts he had already fub- 

dued, where no works of Aoae appeared to flop the progrcfs 

of an enemy, were full of fortified cities, and llrong places, 

as well as inhabitants. A confideration which at once .pre- 

)<v fents to the re;ider's mind the difhculty of the entcrprize, to 

people as jet, it may be prefumed, unexperienced ia tlie art 

** Aut'tGHAzj Khan, p 85, k feq. 

C. 2^ Reig?j of J enghizKhln, 555t 

of taking towns ; and fnews the genius of the prince who A. D. 
formed (o grand a defign. 1209. 

J ENGHIZ Khan, who, as hath already been obferved,''-*"V~*-» 
had, in the year 1205, began to make iucurfions upon the^y'fj''/^''^ 
territories of the king (or emperor) of Hya-, in 1209, at-*'-' ^'^° 
tacked his dominions, with defigu to reduce them under his 
obedience : but, after forcing ieveral pofts near the great 
wall, Li-gan ffvei2, to fave Kis capital, which Jenghiz Khan 
Was preparing to artack, fubmitted to become his tributary, 
as will be related hereafter "*. 

Almost at the fame time that prince conquered the coun- 
tries of Krekir and Kafiin ; which iail name, we are told, for- 
merly the region of Tangiit bore '' : but where thofe coun- 
tries lay is hard to determine. If any fuch there were, they 
mail, by the circumftances of the hiftory, have been in the 
neighbourhood of Kamywn, either belonging to the province 
of Shen-Ji, or on its borders. 

The fame year, Parchukorte Tikin (A), prince of Igu r, The lgnr& 
friled Idikut (B), flew the Kitan (C) officers, who were in hisrcvo/ts 
city ; and, going in perfon, put himfelf under Jcngbiz 
Kh:hi's proteilion : "^/ho gave him a daughter in marriage ". 

The occaf.on of this proceeding is related by the Perfuin 
hiflorians. They tell us, that Idxkut, Khan of the OygurSf 
or Igurs, though a very powerful prince, was yet tributary 
to Gurktiny king ot TurkeJJ^n ; w^ho ufually kept a deroga 
among the Oygurs, to gather his tribute. Shu-wakem, who 
at that time was his officer, exafting more than his mafVer's 
due, the prince, on the people's complaints, fpoke to him. But 
the other, inflead of forbearing, threatened Idiktit : who, to 
revenge the infult, had him alTaffinaLed ; and, then to fkreen 
himfelf from Giirkhan's refentment, fent to afk the Grand ' 
Khan's pro Left ion. The envoys overtook Jenghiz Khan in 

* In the Ir.ilory of the Hya and Si/an. ^ De la Croix, p. 
92. ^ G-AUBIL, p. I 3. 

(A) Ahiilgha-zi Khan names porting heing fent, and kut, the 
him Banerjik Idikut Khan, p. jfpirit, or foul. Jbulfaraj, p. 
36. 283, writes Idikiih i that is, /i"? 

(B) Jhiilk.'iir znd. Ahulfaraj lord of the empire. 

fay, that ■ Idtkut fignifies the (C) Thefe were the Wcfl(rn 

reig7iing prince ; but Akulgha%i Kitdn, or Lyau, fettled to the 

Khan explains it, a free man, eaft of Kdfhgar, then fubjedl to 

}2ot fiihjett to any body. So he Gurkhdn, k'mg of Turkefdfi and 

fays it fignifies in the language the Kitdn; whofe country was 

of the Lz.beks_: hxxi fnt by the from them called i(#»r«>^/Ay'. 

fpirit, in the Turkijh. Idi iia- 

A a 4 |Jl5 

^6o htjlcry of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. E. Ill, 

A D. the coun.ry or Tangut, where lie was gone to reduce Shi- 

I2IO. cinjlii; who, with fo:iie other Khans, had revoked from him : 

^— '"V"'*^a!nong the reft was the Khan of Krckir, whofe territories he 

intircly ruined. 
fuhmit lo The Mogul emperor, glad of an opportunity to make 
Icnghiz Gurkhdn uneafy, who was never a friend to him, and had 
iihan. now made an alliance with Knjhluk, received the Oygar (or 
Ig**r ) envoys much better than otherwife he would have 
done; and fcnt them back with two perfons, to afTure their 
Khan of his friciidfliip and protection. Idikut, charmed 
with this generous behaviour, Ilrait went himfelf,- with coflly 
prefcnts, to offer his fervice to Jcnghlz Khan : who received 
Jlej. 607. him witJi affeflion ; and afterwards, to rewad his fidelity, 
A. D. gave him one of his daughters in marriage. Gurkhan, on 
1 2 10. the news of Shiiiuakcni's death, had threatened Idikut with 
fire and fword : but, hearing he was become the Grand 
Khan's fon-in-law, he fmothered his rage, for fear of draw- 
ing the iMogiil forces^ againft himfelf '. 
-., . IDIKUT was of an antient family among the chiefs of 

eountn ^^ ^^"'^ tribe, for above 500 years ftanding. They fiifl 
iifcribed. pofTefled the country where the ScHnga rifes. In procefs of 
time they became mafters of the country of Kau-chang, Igury 
or Kjau-chcw, being the fame with that of Turfdn, in Little 
Biikharia. The Chincfe geographers agree, that the country 
of Igur (Vigur, or OygurJ, was fituated where Turfdn now 
flands ; but feem unacquainted with its extent. The fame 
authors farther inform us, that the Igiirs underflood the 
Chincfe charatfters, and had the books of Kong-fu-tfe, or Kon- 
fufnis : that they honoured the fpirit of heaven, had many 
Bonzas among them, and followed the Chinefe kalendar. The 
chief city, where Idikut refided, was called Ho-chew ; the 
ruins of which ftill remain, feven or eight leagues to the 
eafl of Turfdn*^. To the north of this laft city lay BiJ]?bd- 
Ug, which all the oriental writers make the capiti-I of the 
Igurs ; whofe territories, according to yJbuUghazi khdn, ex- 
tended to the Irtifo : for they were divided into three 
branches ; fome living in towns, others in the fields ^. 
f"/-^ K'tan jENGHiZ Khdn, being now at peace with all his 
gf^pi^f neighbours, and flrengthcned by the accefTion of fo many 
princes, who either fubmitted fo, or joined in league with 
him, rcfolved to fhakc off the yoke of the A7// ^ to whom 

<• MiRKOND, Abu'lkayr, ap. De la Croi.v, p. 93, & feq. 
Abu'lch. p. H7. « Gaubil, p. 13, 38, tS: 40, *" Abu'lgh. 

p. 35- 

• at 

C. 2.' Keign of J CDghizKlAn, 361 

at this time the Moguls were tributary (D), as they had been A. D. 
before to the Kit an. Sometime before the Miingls (E) and 12 10. 
other hords of Tatary had scknowleged that prince ^^^^T'^^'C^ 
their fovercign ; 7lzy-/io, emperor of the A""//?, (tnt Tong-tji, ^]l^f 
prince of the Mood, to the city of Tfing-chew (now called 
Khukhu-hotun ' ), to receive from them the annual tribute. 
On this occafion Tong-tfi made flight of Tcmujm, and ad- 
vifed framing feme pretence to put him to death. But the ' 

emperor rejected the propofal ; which coming to TcmtijiH's 
ears, he refolved to be revenged on the author of it. 

WANG -TEN 'KING, emperor of the Kin, dying in 
the tenth month, Tong-tfi, who fucceeded him, fent, the fol- 
lowing year (12 10), an officer to order Jenghtz Khan to pay 
the tribute. That prince demanded, whom he came from ? 
and being told, from Tong-tft, then emperor, he abfolutelyr^«y^/ t^ 
refufed : faying, he was himfelf a fovereign, and would never/^j' tri- 
acknowlege Tong-tji for his mailer. It is f aid, added the^a/f. 
Khan, by way of fneer, that the Chlnefe ought to have the 
fon of heaven for their majler ; but, at frcfent, they know net 
how to chufe a man. Having fpoken thefe words, he mounted 
his horfe, and rode towards the north. Tong-tfi was flrangely 
nettled at thefe cutting expre/Ttons. Jenghtz Khan had other 
reafons to be difpleafed with the Kin. Among the reft, 
Ching-pu-hay , a prince of his houfe, had been flain by them, 
in 1206 ; to revenge which injury (F) the Mungls waited for 
an opportunity : befides, their Khan was told, Tcng-tfi in- 
tended to have him feized. Thefe things determined him 
to go and encamp along the Kerulon ; where he aflernbled ^^Ith a 
a formidable army, compofed of veteran troops. From thence ^''^^''^^'''iy 

2 See before, p, 282. 

(D) In the tenth month of the fv.kiUay among the predeceflbrs 

yean i47,theemptroroftheiir/>/, of Jetighiz Khan, as given by 

unable to fubdue the Mo7igols, yliii'/ghazi Khan, a,nd other on- 

was obli;j;ed to make peace with eiital authors, 

them. Their chief was then (E) They are always called 

jiolopukih'ay, and called himlelf Mongu in the Chinefe hlftory ; 

emperor. This fliews, that fmce which fhews, that the word 

then the povvcr of the Mongols Mrgul had obtained only in the 

had been weakened : for the well of JJta. , 

hiftory of Jenghiz Khan fays (F) The weilerny:^^//^ writers 

pofitively, that, in his time, mention injuries in general re- 

they paid tribute to the Kin. ceix'ed from Jltwi Khduf but 

Gaubil. hid;. DeGentchis, p. 20. none Iq particular. 
There is no fuch prince asJi/o- 



121 1. 

the Kin. 

IJiJtcry of the Mogul or Mungl Ewplre. B. IIL 

he ordered Cke^'r Noyar. ^ij), and 2'f/u Kohay (H), to march 
towards the borders of Shan-Ji and Pe-che-li: who, having 
'obrcrved the country, and made lome fpoils, returned to the 
main army ''. 

The Kin had confiderahle forces in Lyau-tong, which was 
the bulwark ot their empire. In the fame province, and 
coiintriei depending on it, the:"e ftill remained alfo a great 
number of Ki-tun, and many princes of the family of the 
Lyaii, whom they hatl deprived of the empire. But as Tong- 
tji grew jealous of them fmce the rife of Jenghiz Khan, he 
commanded double the number of Nyu-chc (or Kin J families 
to be put in all places where they were fettled, in order to 
watch their motions. After this precaution, which gave a 
general difcontcnt to the Kitan, the emperor caufed notice to 
be given cvery-where, that the Mungis intended to attack 
him, raifed powerful armies, and ported troops in all the 
fortified places on both fiJcs of the great wall, from the 
IVhang-ho to Lyau-totig\ 

In the fprlng, and firfl month of the year 121 1, JrfJn, 
prince of the Karluks (I) in the wefl, came with a body of 
troops, to offer his fervice to Jenghiz Khan ; and Idikv.ty 
prince of Igur, to confult tlie prclervation of his country. 
The army began its march fouthwai'ds, the beginning of the 
fecond month : on which Tong-tfi fent to make propofals of 
peace (K) ; but thjiy were rcjeifted. Chcpe with the choiceft 


* Gaufil, p. 13, & feq. 

(G) He was one of the "^h- 
fuls befl generals. The title of 
Ncy^u (10 alio it is written in 
jibulgbazi Khans hiftoi y, but 
Ntiian, by De la Croix), is 
given only to prmces of the 
reigning family, fons in-law of 
Khans, or great lords, who are 
chiefs of hords. Gattbil. 

(H) Yelu Kohay (written alfo 
Ydu Koia^, perhaps by miftake), 
was a great mandarin, or officer, 
of the Kin emperor ; who, be- 
ing fent to fettle fome afTairs 
with Jinghix, Khan, was fo 
charmed with him, that he en- 
tered into his fervice. He was 
a prlnci: of the imperial 

of the L^ou, whofe name was 
Yelu. Gaubil. 

(I) So we explain Jjtlan, 
prince of A-lalu; which laft 
V ord Gauhilwr.s at a lofs about. 
This Jr/Ian, Khan of the K^r- 
hfk:, or Karlik!. is mentioned 
by Ahulghazi Khan and De la 
Croix, as repairing to 'J^':g'-'i'Z 
Khan about the time with 

(K) AhUWghazi Khan relateSf 
that ye.'ighiz Khan fent to fum- 
nion J/f!/n Khan to fubmit j 
and that this prince, falling in- 
to a pafllon, laid to the ambaf- 
lador. You ie/ieie, ptrhaps, you 
have to do lui/jb one cfy.ur petl^ 

C. 2. Reign d?/ Jenghiz Khan.- 

of the troops forced the poAs of the great wall (L), to 
the north-weit and north-eaft of Tay-tong-fu (M), whilft 
others feized the fortrelTes without the barrier. MuJndl 
took the polls about Pau-gan, and Ten-king, in Pe-che-li. 
Chapar furprifed the garrifon of Kn-yang-qiian (N), an im- 
portant place : and Jenghtz Khan deieated a confiderabl^ 
body of the Kin, near S-vjen-ivhu-fu ; which city he took, 
widi the fortrelFes about Tay-tong-fu, then called Si-king, or 
the ivejlern court, all in Skan-Ji : m fliort, the Miing/s made 
incur fions as far as the tapital. 

HJSAR Wha-chen, prince of the Honkirats {or Kiinku-'^he K.'nin 
rats J, Jenghiz Khan's brother-in-law, who had been fent torenjoh. 
the frontiers of Lyau-tor.g (O), to found the pulfes of the 
Kit an lords, and attack the Kin on that fide ; found the 
prince Tclu Lycvj-ko at the head of an hundred thoufand 
men, ready to declare in favour of his mafler. In teftimony 
of his fmcerity, that prince, afcending the mountain Kin (P), 
facrificed a V/hite horfe and black ox, broke ^n arrow, and 
made an oath to be faithful to Jenghiz Khcin. Lyeiv-ko, 
who was of the royal family of the Lyau, a good officer. 

Turkifh trihes. Jhulgh. hift. 
Turks, kz. p. 89. Or, zsDe la 
Croix has it. Tour rnajler treats 
me as if he tBought me a 1'urk, 
or a Mogul. Hift. Gcngh. p. 

(L) V.O\\\.Ahulgha%lKhdrr,^. 
44, and De la Croix, p. loi, 
fay, that Alak's, Khan of the 
Uvruts, or Atihiit, opened one 
of tlie great gates of the wall, 
of which he had the cuftocly, to 
fe'nghiz Khan . 

(M) In the province of Shan- 
ft, \Xi China, iat. 40° 15/ long. 
3° 15' weft of Pe-Ji'mg. Note, 
Fu, at the end of the name of a 
place, denotes a city of the firll 
ranic in China; chcv:, one of 
the fecond ; and hjen, one of 
the third rank : quan, a fort- 
refs; kciv, a gate or ilrait of 
the mountains. 

(N) A fortrefs nine le.igues 
roith-north-eaftof P(?-/{/;7!7-; and 
Ttn-king is three or four north of 
Kii ya;/g- quan, Gauhil. 

(O) Dc la Croix, p. I CO, fays, 
fenghix. Khan fent three of his 
fons to attack Kurje, which he 
calls A.7;v/7 ; but it muft be Lyau- 
to;:g, as well from the circum- 
ftances of the hiHory, as the 
dcfcription of it, which hb 
givts from Faalallah ; viz. ihae 
it 'was ftuate to the north of 
China, ar,d had the fea ok the 
eaft : that the country contained 
i.hout 700,000 inhabitants ; anf 
had been alnxiays govern rd by its 
otvn kings, ivho <^jjere fometim/'i 
maflers r/Xhina (ratherYJw^-^j^^ 
ivbich, in its turn, nxias majlerof 
it. That Lyau-tong is Kurjc, ap- 
pears further, from what is faid, 
p. 108, that Miikli Gojank (who 
is Muhuli) was fent to Kurje^ 
with a body of troops, to hin- 
der tiie forces of that country 
to join Alti'.n Khan. 

(P) According to the Chinefs 
geographers, 45 or 50 leagues^ 
north of MUgden, capital oC 
Lyau- tang. Gnubil, 

llijlory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

and had many vairals ; pr()\okcd at the inciignkics which tlic 
Kitan daily received from tlic kin, took arms, as fooii as he 
heard that the Afutigls intended to make war upon them. 
Tlie Khan, to prevent .jL>'<'u'-y(;o from being drawn off again, 
made him very advantageous offjrs, and conferred on him 
the title of king ( Q^) ; furnifl-ung IVha-chcn and Chcpe with 
good troops, to affill him. Lye-w-ko ordered hiniklf to be 
proclaimed king where-ever he came; and, having taken 
many places, marched againd: tlie Kin army, over which he 
obtained a fignal vi(ftory. Hereupon m;iny Kitcin lords fliook 
off their yoke, and feveral cities fubniittcd to him. After 
ivhich he reduced Tong-hing (R), or Lymi-yang, a city of 
Lyau-tong. This great fuccefs fwelled the reputation of the 
new Kitan king ; and made the Kin raife uumerous forces, to 
fave that province '. 
Tcnghiz I^ i 21 2, Jcnghiz Khan fubdued Whan-chew (S) ^ and Mu- 
Khan hull, the fortrefles without the great wall, near the 
woounhd: ho. When the Miingls had reduced all the ftroog places 
■A. D. between that city and the river, they prepared to befiege Tay- 
121 2. tong-Ju. To prevent them, Yong-tji {<:i\\. Hiijaku, or Ki-Jhc' 
lyc, and Han-yrn, at the head of 300,000 men. The Khan, 
by advice of lUubuli, marched to meet this army, which 
was encamped near the mountain Tthil (T), where they were 
attacked by the Alungls ; who, notwithlianding the fuperi- 
ority of their numbers, defeated them. In autumn he in- 
verted Tay-tong-J'ti ; where, although the governor Hujakii 
fled, he met with more refillance than he expecfted. At laft, 
having in a vigorous attack loft many men, and been dan- 
gcroudy w^ounded by an arrow, he raifcd the fiege, and re- 
tired iixo Tatary : after which the Kin retook Paitgan, Sivai" 
'wha.-Ju, and eveu Ku-yang-qiian. « 

* Gauhil, p. 14, ^ fcq. 

(QJ That is, Khan, orVang, 42d and 43d degree of latitude, 

we prefume, oi Lyau-tcug. now dclUoyed. But, p. 28, 

(R) That is, the cadcrn Cauhil more juftly places it 

* court, lat. 41*^ 20' long. 6° 56' almofl; of Peking, or 

c'i^ ci Pc-kirg. In the map of north- north-weft. It fecnis to 

the Jefuits it is placed on tlic have b;;cn Voro-hotun, whofe 

lYorth fide of the river Takfa, ruins are feen about twenty 

which falls into the Lyau ; and miles, fouth by weft, from thofe 

is a diftinft town from Lyan- of Shan-tu, one of the antient 

yavg, which lies three miles to capitals of 'Tatary. Sec before, 

the fouth, and was thena great p. 281. 
> city. (T) Seven or eight -leagues 

(S) A city of 7'rt//irj, north- weft, or weft north-weft, of 

oaft of Pc-klrg^ between the S-ivin-i.'.bi^-fu. Gnuhil. 


C. 2." Reign of Jenghfz Khan.' 

J ENG H IZ Khun, who, in this difgrace, was comforted 
by the news he receb/ed from Lyau-tong, being cured of his 
wound, re-entered China in 1213 ; recovered Siuen-ivha-fu 
and Paii-gan ; defeated an army of the Kin, after a bloody ^^•^"^-'^ ^^ 
battle (U), near Whay-lay (X) ; and one of his generals took V^f) 
Ku-pe-kew {Y). After this battle, the Khan, not able to en- 121^.' 
ter Pe-che-li by Kii-yang-qnan, forced the fortrefs of Tfc-kin- 
^uan, and took I-chcw and Cho-chcw (Z). However, Chcpe, 
in his return from Lyau-tong, pafled on to Nan-kew (a place 
of importance), and took Ku-yawg-qtian, which is not far 
cliflant. On the other fide, in the feventh m.onth, a great 
battle was fought at the mountain U-ivhey-lin, near ^tan- 
chmig-hyen (A) ; wherein the Kin were overthrown, with a 
great flaughter. 

In the eighth month, HujaM, generallHimo of the Kin'The em- 
troops, who had been cafliiered in 121 2, for bad fervices,/^*^^ >««''■-• 
and reflored, feized on the perfon of Tong-tfi ; and, foon ^^^'^'^ 
atter, caufed him to be murdered. The true caufe of the 
fucceffes which attended the Mungh was, that general's 
hatred to thofe who were the occalion of his difgrace (the 
year before) ; which lafled two months. After being re- 
placed, he was ordered to encamp to the north of the court : 
but, inlfead of endeavouring to flop the enemies profi^-efs, 
minded nothing but hunting, nor regarded the emperor's 
order. At length he marched with his army to the imperial 
city, under pretence of preventing a confpiracy which he had 
difcovered. Being arrived before it, he fent horfemcn to the 
palace, to cry aloud, that the Tl/z^/z^/j- were at the city gates : he 
next put to death fuch as he fufpefted ; and, having difpofed 
his troops in different quarters, the officers both civil and 
, military affilled him ; not imagining that he had a defign to 
dethrone their prince : but as foou as he had fecured the 
gates of the city, he feized the palace, and confined the em- 
peror ; then depofed and put him to death. After this, find- 
ing he could not get himfelf declared emperor, he Inthroned hy Hu# 
San, a prince of the blood. Thefe difiractions determinedjaku. 
Jcnghiz Khan to befiege the imperial city. Chepc, after 

(U) This was the battle, (Y) A famous fortrefs at pne 

perhaps, in which the Perfuin of the gates in the great wall, 

writers fay, that Altun Khd/i, See before, p. 280. 
joined by the forces of Kurjcy (Z) A city in the weft bor- 

ioft 30,000 men. ders of Pi-chc It. Tfc-k'ni-quan 

(X) Four or five leagues weft is 25 miles weft of /-c^f'K,-. 
oi Ku-yang-quan. The field was (A) A city in the borders of 

ftrewed with dead bodies for Shan-/i.s.nd Fe-che-li. 
four ka2;ues together. 


Tlijlcry of ihs Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. III. 

taking K'n-yang-quan, {'it forward with 50,000 chofen horfc 
to join the army. But the van-guard, coming to the river 
*T/au (li), and, endeavouring to pafs thf bridge, was intircly 
defeated by Hujdkd ; who was carried in a car, being hurt in 
the toot. Next day, being hindered from marchiiK^ himfelf, 
by his wound opening, he ordered Chu-hu-hiiu-ki to advance 
with 5,000 troops, to oppofe the enemy ; but that general 
*rhf nfftif- coming too late, Hujakii would have put him to death ; which 
fnjluin. the emperor, knowing him to be a good officer, would not 
fufFer. Then Hujukii {Ixid to him, if you beat the encvzy, I 
'Will [pare you \ if you are defeated, you f hall die. Kau-ki 
inarched agalnft the enemy ; but a north wind arillng, which 
blew the fand into hfs ioldiers eyes, he was obliged to re- 
enter the city with lofs. As he took it for granted, thati/"//- 
katu would put him to death, he raii with his troops to that 
general's palace : who, being apprized of his defigo, got oa 
his garden-wall ; but, falling, broke his leg. The foldiers 
having killed him on the fpot, Kaii-hi carried his head to 
the gate of the imperial palace, and furrendered himfelf to 
the mandarins, in order to be condemned to death : but the 
emperor publilhed an editff, wherein he charged Hiijaku with 
leveral crimes, and commended Kau-ki; whom he made 
generaliffimo in his room ^. 
(The Kin -^ ^-^ ^'^ N-TS VE N, king of Hya, finding himfelf prefTed 
hard by the I\Iuv(^Is, demanded aid of the Kin ; who refufed it, a? 
frejjcd. having occafion themfelves for more troops than they had. Here- 
upon the //y^,. after they had made a treaty with the Mungls, 
before-mentioned, in 12 10, declared war againft the AVn ; 
with whom they had been at peace for fourfcore years, and 
attacked Kya-chcvj (C), in Shen-fi. The fame }'ear, Li-gan- 
tfven dying, Li-tfun-hyu, his relation, fucceeded him. This 
prince, more fuccefsful than his prcdeceffor, reduced King- 
cheiu (D), at the end of 1213. 

Since the time Jsnghiz Khhn began to invade the Kin 
empire, many Chinefe officers, who had been taken prifoners, 
entered into his fervice. Thcfe he fncv/ed a great effeem for, 
and gave them parties of their own nation to command. As 
he now refolved to attack the enemy on every fide, he mixed 
the Chinefe and Tatarian troops together, forming out of 

'' Gaubil, p. 18, k feq. 

(B) A canal, whofe waters, (C) Lat. 38° 6' long. 6' 4' 

coming from Chang- prng-ckciv, weft oi Pe-kirg. 

paficd by the imperial city; (D) lnShe>!-fi^\{o. Lat. 35* 

from which the bridge could 2z' long. 9° 5' weft, 
no: be far. 

5 them 

C. 2." Reign of Jenghiz Khan. 

thein four armies. One he ordered to inca.ap to the north of 
Ten-king, the imperial city : another to ravage the country 
to the north and eall:,*as tar as Lyau-tong : the third, under 
three of his fons, was to deflroy all to the foath and fouth- 
W'sil, as far as the JVhang-ho ; while hs hiuifelf, with Tuleyy 
his fourth fon, marched through Pe-che-U to Tji-nan-juy the 
capital of Shan-tong. 

The Kin, for their defence, fent their bell: troops to Great dc 
guard the difficult paflkges of rivers and mountains ; oblij^e- '^J^-fiatioa* 
ing all people fit to bear arms to retire into the cities. The 
Ehan, being informed of this, ordered his generals to take 
all the old men, women, and children, out of the villages 
and uafortified towns, and fet them in the front of the 
army. The people from the walls, on hearing the voice, of ' 
their friends and relations, rcfufed to defend themfelves, tQ 
their deftruftion. The defolation* was general throughout 
Shan-fi, that part of IJo-nan to the north of the Whang-ho, 
Ve-che-li, and Shan-fong. The 'Mungh plundered and de- 
flroyed more than ninety cities ; reduced to arties an infinite 
number of towns and villages ; took all the gold, filvers and 
filk, they met with ; and m-affacred thoufands of ufelefs peo- 
ple' : carrying into flavery a vaft number of young womea 
and children. The fpoU which they took in cattle was in- 
eftimable ; and in all thofe fpacious countries there were but 
ten cities Vvhich the Mungh could not fubdiie : among which 
in Pe-che-li were Yen-king, the imperial city, Tong-cheiVy 
Chin g-ting- fit, and Tay-ming-fu. All this devaftatlon hap- 
pened in the year 1 2 1 3 . 

In 1 2 14, Jenghiz Khan, being returned from Shan-tong,The capjl 
affembled all his troops in one body, and invefied Ten-king, tal iu'vefi- 
in the fourth month ; pitching his camp on the nopth fide. ^^• 
His generals preffed him, vdthoat delay, to fcale the walls, ^' ^* 
and ruin the city t buf the PChan, having had other views in ^^H* 
his mind, inftead of following their counfel, fent an officer 
to tell the Kin emperor, that his mafler was vvilling to re- 
turn into Tatary : however, that, to appeafe the anger of 
the Fvlungl troops, it was necefiary to make them confiderable 
prefents ; adding, that he ought to confider Tai-king was 
almoft the only place which remained in his pofTefiion to the 
north of the Whahgrho. One of the Kin minifcefs, provoked at 
this mediige, propofed to march out and fight the army of 
Ta-che (E) : faying, that many of the Mungl foldiers were 

(E) Or\t cf the names given gion, at prefent pofTefied by t!ic 
t}' the Chir.efe to that Jarge rs- ^Mufigls and Kalkas. Gauhtl. 

36s Wflory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. IIL' 

A. D. f^ck ; and that they were not in a condition to withfland a 
1 21 2. vigorous attack '. 

Another miniAcr was ngainfl this advice : f^^^^'ing, that 
they had every thing to fear, if they loft a liattle; and but 
little good to expc(ft from a vidlory. He added, " that the 
" troops in the city had nothing in view but to quit it, as 
" moft of them had families of their own : that the beft 
** meafure therefore was to accept of peace •, and when the 
** Mungls were retired, they fliould be better able to confnlt 
" what was proper to be done." The emperor, approving 
this counfel, fent a lord to the Mungl camp, to defire a 
peace ; wherein it was ftipulated, that a daughter (F) of the 
late emperor Tong-tfi fhould be given to Jcnghiz Khan ; with 
500 young boys, and as many girls, 3,000 horfes, filk, and 
a great fum of money. As foon as the conditions weie per- 
formed, the Khan raifed the fiege ; and, departing by the 
way of Kii-yong-quan, commanded all the young children, 
^vhom he had taken in the four provinces of Shan-tong, Ho' 
van, Pc-che-li, and Skan-fi, to be mafTacred. 
7he em- After the retreat of the Mungls, the emperor San dc- 
feror re- rlared to his council, that he refolved to remove his court to 
tnoi'es the Pyen-lyang{G), mHcnan. Tii-JJji-ni, a wife andfaitliful mini- 
fiiurt. f^ej.^ reprefented, that, in fuch cafe, the northern provinces 
would be loft. He obferved, that Lyau-tonghtingxcvy ftrong 
byfituation, it was eafy to maintain themfelves there : that no 
more was to be done, than to make new levies, fortify the 
court, fill the garrifon, and recruit the troops of that pro- 
vince. Moft of the grandees were of his opinion : but the 
emperor faid, that as the treafury was exhaufted, the troops 
weakened, and cities round the capital deflroyed. Ten-king wz^ 
no place of fecurity for him. Accordingly he departed, with 
his fiimily and fome troops ; leaving the prince, who was to be 
his fucce/Tor, to encourage the inhabitants. 
Jtsleid The /(Tm monarch had foon occafion to repent this bad 

<enft'- ftep. Being arrived at Lyang-hyang (a city five leagues 
^uencc. fouth-weft of Pc-king) he demanded back from his troops 
their horfes and cuirafTes. The major part of them, refufing to 
obey, Hew their general, and chofe three others in his ftead : 

' Gaubil, p. 20, & feq, 

(F) The Perfian, &c. hifto- (G) Called alfo A'aw-^f/w^, Of 

rians fay, peace was made on the court cf the fouth, and flill 

thofc conditions ; but not ihat Pyen. It ilood nearly wher^ 

^i-kirg, i^x Khan Balik, was in- Kay-fong-fv, the capital of Ho- 

veiled. Tuvi, at prefcnt funds. Ccubil. 


C. 2. Reign o/Jenghiz Khan. 

after which they returned, and feized the bridge of Li-kew 
(H). From thence Kantd, one of their generals, fent a cou- 
rier to Jenghiz Khan, who ~ was then encamped at the city 
Whan-chev), in Tattxry, to offer himfelf and his troops at his 
fcrvice. As foon as that prince was apprifed of the emperor's 
retreat, he was much incenfed ; complaining that he had been 
deceived by the Kin, and thereupon relblved to re-enter Chi^ 
na. With this view he fent his general Mingan, with a 
great force, to join Kinta, and befiege Ten-king (1). "When 
this news reached the emperor, he ordered his fon to leave 
that city, and repair to Pyen-lyang. This alfo was againft 
the advice of his miniflers, fupported by the example of 
Ming-vjhang, or Hivn-tfong, a Chinefe emperor of the Tang 
race (K), The departure of the prince difcouraged the gar- 
riibn, not only oi Ten-king, but of other flrong places m. 

The rapid conqueft of the Mungls, and retreat of the Kin State of 
emperor, gave great uneafmefs to the Chinefe monarchs of the China. 
Song race ; who were then mafters of the fouthern provinces 
of China, called by fome authors Manji, viz. ^lan-tong, and 
the ifle of Hay-nan, ^tang-fi. Tun-nan, Se-chxven, ^ley-cheiv^ 
Hu-qnang, Kyang-fi, Che-kyang, Fo-kyen, and almoil all Ky- 
ang-/ian, v/here the Kin had a few cities. In Shen-fi they 
poflelTed the country of Hang-chong-fu, befides fome places , 
in the diftrift of Kong-chang-fu, and on the borders of Se- 
chiuen. The great wars which they had carried on againil 

"" Gaubil, ubi fupr. p, 23, & feq. 

(H) Now called When-ho. great revolution is one of the 

The Kyau, or bridge, is two mod carious parts of the C^'wf/^ 

leagues weft-fouth-weft of Pe- annals ; and gives confiderable 

king, and a very fine one. light into the hirtory and geo- 

<}aubtl. graphy of the countries between 

(I) Called, by the oriental 5A,77-y^ and the Cay/i.w? fea. It 

authors, Khdn-talik, that is, appears that, in thofe times, a 

the city of the Khan ; or Khan- great number of y^r^?^ and Per- 

palu, the place, cr rcftdence, of fia-n veflels frequented the port 

the Khan. Some write Baleg now called Kanton. Gauhil. — ■ 

and Hdn, for Balik and Khan. T his laft remark confirms Re- 

(K) Who retiring from Sj^ew- naudot^Ancienncs Relations, l^u 

Ji to Se-chivcTi, left his fon be- p, 8, & feq. of the rebellion 

hind him, to defend the pro- above-mentioned. Some ac- 

vince. In 736, Gan-h-flmn re- count is given by Du Halde, 

belling, I 50,000 men fromTr^v- vol. i. p. 23, & 199. See new 

kffdn, and the Mahamviedan Cvileft. voy. & trav. 4to. vol. iv. 

countries, came to aid the em- p. 438. noted. 
pire. The particulars of this 

MoD: KisT. Vol. IV. B b tb? 

llijiory cf the Mogul cr Mungl Empire. B. III. 

the Kin, had forced them to make a Ihamcful peace, where- 
by they were to pay a yearly tribute (L) iu filk and lilver. It 
was relulved therefore, at this JuiK^ure, to refufe tendcnng 
the tribute any longer : but the propolals made by the king 
of Hya, to join forces againft the Kin, were rejected. 
Corqu-Jli Th e Kin polfcired m Ly.iu-toni^ an army of 1 00,000 men, M'ho 
in Lyau- had retaken many phices, iubdued the preceding jears by king 
tong. Lyew-ko ; and, among the relt, Lyiiit-yang .• but in the ninth 

month, Mtihtili, followed by the general iVir, of the hord of 
Shan-tfii, entered that province, in order to fuccour the 
prince, and tut off the communication with Pc-chc-li, which 
Was erteftedv The huge army of the Kin, being lilled with trai- 
tors, dUperfed ; and the inferior officers killed their general. 
King Lyciv-ko recovered Lyau-yang ; and Pc-king, now caJled 
Alugdcn, furrendered to JMilhuH. This general put to the fword 
a great number of fubmltting foldiers, under pretence that they 
came in too late : but ftoppcd the llaughtcr, on being told, 
that fuch a conducft would hinder many other places from 
yielding. Towards the end of the year, the city of To)ig- 
chcw (M), an important poll, to the calf of Ten-king, fur- 
rendered to the Miingls, The emperor of the Kin having 
been obliged to lay taxes on the people, it furniflied feveral 
lords with a pretence, fome to throw off their dependence, 
and others to fubmit to the Alungls. 
Lyevv- is 1 2 1 5 many of the Kitan advifed Lycw-ko to be declared 

Vxisfidt- emperor, independent of the Miingis : but that prince rejecffcd 
*"y' the propofal, as contrary to the oath which he had taken, to 

be Jcnghtz Khans fubjetff , At the fame time he fent his fon 
Syc-tii to tlie Khan, with ninety waggons loaded with rich 
prefents (N) ; and a lift of the families which had fubmitted 
to him, amounting in all to 600,000. Towards the end of 
V the year he came in perfon, to do homage to the IMungl fo- 
vertign. Meantime the emperor of the A7/;, being informed 
of the diffrefs Ten-king was in, fent a great quantity of pro- 
vlfions, with forces for its relief: but the tirlf convoy, under 
the cfcort of an inexperienced general, arriving at Pachew 
(O) his army was there defeated ; on the news whereof the 

(L) The emperor Knu-tjl?isr, Pc-ho, about twelve miles eaft 

in the articles of peace made in of P, king, and its port. 
1144, with the emperor of the (N) They were expofcd on 

Kin, fubfcribcd himfclf a Tub- felts for feven days, to give 

jeft, and tributary of his. See heaven notice of what was 

Cotipltt. tab. chron. linic. p. 73. done. 

(M) In Pe cbeli, on the river (O) Lat. 39* 3' long. 0° o'. 


C. 2. Reign ^/ Jenghiz Khan.' 

other generals fled, and left all the provifions a prey to the 
enemy ". 

The two generals, who commanded in Ten-'k'mg, were 
JVan-yen Cbang-whiy (P) and Mo-nycn Chin-chong ; the for- "^^J^" 
mar of whom, out of all hope of fuccours, or withftanding^^"f 
the enemy, propofed to the latter to die for their country, "** * 
Mo-nycn, on whom the troops immediately depended, re- 
fufing, Chiing-whty retired in a rage, and told a Mandarin 
his refolution. The Hrfl day of the fifth month he wrote a 
petition to the emperor, wherein he touched on matters of 
government ; and mentioned the crimes of a bad minifler, 
whom his mailer made ufe of, me