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PtoJiisbt ^ RBmoKi UmtKOtii » COtrait Cetliii 





ComucsT, 1913. 




■ • 

.• • 

• • * 


• • 


The present volume aims to furnish American stu- 
dents of Spanish with a convenient selection of the 
Castilian lyrics best adapted to class reading. It was 
the intention of the editors to include no poem which 
did not possess distinct literary value. On the other 
hand, some of the most famous Spanish lyrics do not 
seem apt to awaken the interest of the avei 
dent: it is for this reason that scholars will miss the 
names of certain eminent poets of the sigh de oro. 
I The nineteenth century, hardly inferior in merit and 
J nearer to present-day readers in thought and language, 
I is much more fully represented. No apology is needed 
I for the inclusion of poems by Spanish-American wri- 
] ters, for they will bear comparison both in style and 
I thought with the best work from the mother Peninsula. 
The Spanish poems are presented chronologically, 
I according to the dates of their authors. The Spanish- 
I American poems are arranged according to countries 
Land chronologically within those divisions. Omissions 
ft are indicated by rows of dots and are due in all cases to 
I the necessity of bringing the material within the limits 
|of a small volume. Three poems {the Fitsta de toros of 
\MQTa.t{a, Xh^ Casidlano leal oi Rivas and the Leyenda 
\ Zorrilla) are more narrative than lyric. The r»-j 




mances selected are the most lyncal of their kind. A 
few songs have been added to illustrate the relation 
of poetry to music. 

The editors liave been constantly in consultation in 
all parts of the work, but the preparation of the Prosody , 
the Notes (including articles on Spanish- American litera- 
ture) and the part of the Introduction dealing with the 
nineteenth century, was imdertaken by Mr. Hills, 
while Mr. Morley had in charge the Introduction prior 
to 1800, and the Vocabulary, Aid has been received 
from many sources. Special thanks are due to Pro- 
fessor J. D. M. Ford and Dr. A. F. Whittem of 
Harvard University, Don Ricardo Palma of Peru, 
Don Ruben Dario of Nicaragua, Don Rufino Blanco- 
Fombona of Venezuela, Professor Carlos Bransby of 
the University of California, and Dr. Alfred Coester 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

£. C H. 

S. G. M, 



Preface . , iii 


I. Spanish Lyric Poetry to 1800 xi 

II. Spanish Lyric Poetry of the Nineteenth Century xxxi 

III. Spanish Versification xliii 



Abendmar x 

Fonte-frida 3 

El conde Amaldos . / 4 

La constancia 5 

El amante desdichado 5 

El prisionero 7 

Vicente (Gil) (1470-1540?) 

Canci6n 8 

Teresa de jEStJS (Santa) (15 15-1582) 

Letrilla (que llevaba por registro en su breviario) . . 9 

Le6n (Fray Luis de) (15 27-1591) 

Vida retirada 9 


A Cristo cnicificado 12 

Vega (Lope de) (1562-1635) 

Canci6n de la Virgen 13 

Manana 14 

Quevedo (Francisco de) (i 580-1 645) 

Epistola satfrica al conde de Olivares . . , . . 15 
Letrilla satfrica 16 


Cantilena: De un pajarillo 17 

Calderon de la Barca (Pedro) (1600-1681) 

" Estas que fueron pompa y alegrfa," 18 

Consejo de Crespo i, su hijo 19 

GonzAlez (Fray Diego) (i 733-1 794) 

El murci61ago alevoso ao 




MoKAifN (NicolAs F. de) (i 737-1 780) 

Fiesta de toros en Madrid 26 

JovEiXANOS (Gaspak M. de) (i 744-181 i) 

A Amesto ." . . , 38 

Mel^ndez VAiDis Quan) (i 754-181 7) 

Rosaoa en los fuegos 42 

QcDiTANA (Manuel Josi) (1772-1857) 

Oda i. Espana, despues de la revoluci6n de marzo . 46 

Soiis (DiONisio) ( 1 774-1834) 

La pregunta de la nina 51 

Gaixego (Juan Nicasio) (i 777-1853) 

El Dos de Mayo 54 

MASrfNEZ DE LA ROSA (FrANCISCO) (1787-1862) 

£11 nido .... 60 

RivAS (DuQUE de) ( 1 791-1865) 

Un castellano leal 6i 

AxoLAS (Padse Juan) (1805-1849) 

"S6nids felizque yo" 71 

Espsonceda (Josi. de) (1808-1842) 

Canci6n del pirata 73 

A la patria 76 

ZommiLLA (Josi) (181 7-1893) 

Oriental 79 

Indedsi6n 82 

La f uente 86 

A buen juez, mejor testigo 86 

Tkueba (Antonio de) (1821-1889) 

Cantos de pijaro 112 

Laperejilera 114 

Selgas (Josf) (1821-1882) 

Lamodestia 114 

Alasc6n (Pedro Antonio de) (i 833-1 891) 

El Mont-Blanc 117 

El secrete 120 

BicQUER (Gustavo A.) (1836-1870) 

Rimas: II 121 

vn 122 

LIII 122 

Lxxm 124 



QuEROL (Vicente Wenceslao) (1836-1889) 

En Noche-Buena 128 

Campoamor (Ram6n de) (1817-1901) 

Proximidad del bieh 133 

iQui6n supiera escribir! 134 

El mayor castigo 136 

NdNEz de Arce (Caspar) (1834-1903) 

jExcelsior! 137 

Tristezas 137 

jSursum Corda! 144 

Pal AGIO (Manuel del) (183 2-1 895) 

Amor oculto 148 

Bartrina (JoAQufN MarIa) (1850-1880) 

Arabescos 148 

Reina (Manuel) (i860-) 

La poesfa 149 


EcheverrIa (O. Esteban) (1805-185 i) 

Canci6n de Elvira 151 

Andrade (Olegario Victor) (i 838-1 882) 

Atldntida 152 

Prometeo 159 

Obligado (Rafael) (185 2-) 

En la ribera 160 


Ortiz (Jose JoaquIn) (1814-1892) 

Colombia y Espaiia 162 

Caro (Jos£ Eusebio) (181 7-1853) 

El cipr6s 164 


Los cazadores y la perrilla 167 

Caro (Miguel Antonio) (i 843-1 909) 

Vuelta i la patria 171 



Amoeta (Di6genes A.) (1848-) 

En la tumba de mi hijo 174 

GuTiiRKEZ Ponce (Ignacio) (1850-) 

Dolora 175 

Garavito a. (Jos6 MarIa) (i860-) 

Volver6 manana . 177 


Heredia (Jos6 MarIa) (1803-1839) 

En el teocalli de Cholula 179 

El Niagara 184 

"PlAcido" (Gabriel de la Concepci6n Vald^s) (1809-1844) 
Plegaria i Dios 190 


A Washington 191 

Al partir 192 


Olmedo (Jos^ JoaquIn) (i 780-1847) 

La victoria de Junfn 193 


PeSADO (Jos6 JOAQUfN DE) (1801-1861) 

Serenata 199 

Calder6n (Fernando) (1809-1845) 

La rosa marchita . 200 

Acm^A (Manuel) (1849-1873) 

Noctumo: A Rosario 202 

Peza (Juan de Dios) (185 2-1 910) 

Reir Uorando 207 

Fusiles y munecas 207 


DarIo (Rub^n) (1864-) 

A Roosevelt 211 



Bello (Andres) (i 781-1865) 

A la victoria de Bail6n 214 

La agricultura de la zona t6rrida 214 


Vuelta i, la patria 220 


tJltima ilusi6n 224 


La carcelera 225 

Riverana 226 

La cachucha 227 

La valenciana 230 

Canci6n devota 233 

La jota gallega 235 

El trdgala 238 

Himno de Riego 242 

Himno nacional de Mexico 247 

Himno nacional de Cuba 251 

Notes 253 

Vocabulary 323 




1 observed that epic poetry, which is-£oi]ec- 
tive and objective in its nature, always reaches its' luH; 
development in a nation sooner than lyric poetry, whieli, 
is individual and subjective. Such is certainly the case 
in Spain. Numerous popular epics of much merit existed 
there in the Middle Ages.^ Of a popular lyric there are 
few traces in the same period; and the Castihan lyric as an 
art-form reached its height in the sixteenth, and again in 
the nineteenth, centuries. It is necessary always to bear in 
mind the distinction between the mysterious product called 
popular poetry, which is continually being created but 
seldom finds its way into the annals of literature, and artis- 
tic poetry. The chronicler of the Spanish lyric is con- 
cerned with the latter almost exclusively, though he will 
have occasion to mention the former not infrequently as 
the basis of some of the best artificial creations. 

If one were to enumerate iib origine the iyric productions 
of the Iberian Peninsula he might begin with the vague 
references of Strabo to the songs of its primitive inhabit- 

' The popular epics were wriKenin assooatinR lincj of variable length. 
There were also numeroua motikiah aanative poems {mesler de dgre^) 
in stanzas of foui AJeiaDdriae lines each, ail rimiag {cuadenia via). 

,• » 


r V . 

ants, and then pass on.-ta Latin poets of Spanish birth, such 
as Seneca, Lucan aad ^Martial. The later Spaniards who 
wrote Christian poetiy in Latin, as Juvencus and Pruden- 
tius, might then Jdc considered. But in order not to embrace 
many diver{«e^sui>jects foreign to the contents of this collec- 
tion, we i3Mist. confine our inquiry to lyric production in the 
language* of .'Castile, which became the dominating tongue 
of the Kingdom of Spain, 
.^uck^a restriction excludes, of course, the Arabic lyric, a 

-^§5fjty artificial poetry produced abundantly by the Moors 
••dtwring their occupation of the south of Spain; it excludes 

'also the philosophical and rehgious poetry of the Spanish 
Jews, by no means despicable in thought or form. . Catalan 
poetry, once written in the Provencal manner and of late 
happily revived, also Ues outside our field. 

Even the Gahcian poetry, which flourished so freely 
imder the. external stimulus of the Provencal troubadours, 
can be included only with regard to its influence upon 
Castilian. The Gahcian dialect, spoken in the northwest 
comer of the Peninsula, developed earUer than the Castilian 
of the central region, and it was adopted by poets in other 
parts for lyric verse. Alfonso X of Castile (reigned 1252- 
1284) could write prose in CastiHan, but he must needs 
employ Gahcian for his Cantigas de Santa Maria. The 
Portuguese nobles, with King Diniz (reigned 1 279-1325) at 
their head, filled the idle hours of their bloody and passionate 
lives by composing strangely abstract, conventional poems 
of love and rehgion in the manner of the Provencal cansoy 
dansay balada and pastorelaywYdch had had such a luxuriant 
growth in Southern France in the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. A highly elaborated metrical system mainly 


fatinftuishes these writers, but some of their work catches i 
pleasing lilt which is supposed to represent the imitation 
of songs of the people. The popular element in the Gali- 
cian productions is slight, but it was to bear important 
fruit later, for its spirit is that of the senanas of Ruiz and 
Santillana, and of vUlanricos and eclogues in the sisteenth j 

It was probably in the neighborhood of 1350 that lyrics 
began to be written in Castilian by the cultured classes of 
Leon and Castile, who had previously thought Galician the 
only proper tongue for that use, but the influence of the 
GaUcian school persisted long after. The first real lyric in 
Castihan is its offspring. This is the anonymous Razdn 
feyta d'amor or Avenlura amorosn (probably thirteenth 
century), a dainty story of the meeting of two lovers. It 
is apparently an isolated example, ahead of its time, imless, 
as is the case with the Castilian epic, more poems are lost 
than extant. The often quoted Cinlkn de la Virgcn of 
Gonzalo de Berceo (first half of thirteenth century), with 
its popular refrain Eya velar, is an oasis in the long religious 
epics of the amiable monk of S, Millan de la CogoUa. One 
must pass into the succeeding century to find the next 
examples of the true lyric. Juan Ruiz, the mischievous 
Archpriest of Hita (flourished ca. 1350), possessed a genius 
sufficiently keen and human to infuse a personal vigor into 
stale forms. In his Libro de bven amor he incorporated, 
lyrics both sacred and profane, Loores de Santa Maria and 
Cdnlicas de serrana, plainly in the Galician manner and of 
complex metrical structure. The serranas are particulariy 
free and unconventional. The Chancellor Pero L6pez de " 
Ayala {1332-1407), wise statesman, brilhant historian and 


trenchant satirist, wrote religious songs in the same style 
and still more intricate in versification. They are included 
in the didactic poem usually called El rimado de pdacio. 

Poetry flourished in and about the courts of the monarchs 
of the Trastamara family; and what may be supposed a 
representative collection of the work done in the reigns of 
Henry II (1369-1379), John I (1379-1388), Henry HI 
(1388-J406) and the minority of John II (1406-1454), is 
preserved for us in the Cancionero which Juan Alfonso de 
Baena compiled and presented to the last-named king. 
Two schools of versifiers are to be distinguished in it. The 
older men, such as Viliasandino, SSochez de Talavera, 
Madas, Jerena, Juan Rodriguez del Padr6n and Bacna 
himself, continued the artificial Galidan tradition, now run 
to seed. In others appears the imitation of Italian models 
which was to supplant the ancient fashion. Francisco Im- 
perial, a worshiper of Dante, and other Andalusians such 
as Ruy Piez de Ribera, Pero Gonzalez de Uceda and FerrSn 
Manuel de Lando, strove to introduce Italian meters and 
ideas. They first employed the Italian hcndecasy liable, 
although it did not become acclimated till the days of 
Boscan. They likewise cultivated the vielro de arte mayor, 
which later became so prominent (see below, p. Ixxv ff.). 
But the interest of the poets of the Cancionero de Baena is 
mainly historical. In spite of many an iUuminating side- 
.light on manners, of political invective and an occasional 
ghnt of imagination, the amorous platitudes and wire-drawn 
love-contests of the Galician school, the stiff allegories of the 
Itahanates leave us cold. It was a transition period and 
the most talented were unable to master the undeveloped 
poetic language. 



^^V The same may be said, in general, of the whole fifteenth 
^^nentiuy. Although the language became greatly clarified 
toward 1500 it was not yet ready for masterly original 
work in verse. Invaded by a flood of Latinisms, springing 
from a novel and undigested humanism, encumbered still 
with archaic words and set phrases left over from the Gali- 
cians, it required purification at the hands of the real poets 
and scholars of the sixteenth century. The poetry of the 

» fifteenth is interior to the best prose of the same epoch; it 
b not old enough to be quaint and not modem enough to 
ttieet a present-day reader upon equal terms. 
These remarks apply only to artistic poetry. Popular 
poetry, — that which was exemplified in the Middle Ages by 
the great epics of the Cid, the Infantes de Lara and other 
heroes, and in soogs whose existence can rather be inferred 
than proved, —was never better. It produced the lyrico- 
epic romances (ste Noks, p. 253), which, as far as one may 
judge from their diction and from contemporary testimony, 
received their final form at about this time, though in many 
cases of older origin. It produced charming Uttle son^ 
which some of the later court poets admired sufficiently to 
gloss. But the cultured writers, just admitted to the splen- 
did cultivated garden of Latin literature, despised these 
simple wayside flowers and did not care to preserve them 
for posterity. 
^^^ The artistic poetry of the fifteenth century falls naturally 
^^^Kto three classes, corresponding to three currents of influ" 
^^Hnce; and all three frequently appear in the work of one 
^^Tnan, not blended, but distinct. One is the conventional 
love-f>oem of the Galician school, seldom containing a fresh 
or personal note, .\nother is the stilted allegory with 


erotic or historical content, for whose many sins Dante was 
chiefly responsible, though l*etrj.rch, he of the Triunfi, and 
Boccaccio cannot escape some blame. Third is a vein of 
highly moral reflections upon the vanity o£ life and certainty 
of death, sometimes running to political satire. Its roots 
may be found in the Book of Job, in Seneca and, nearer 
at hand, in the Proverbios morales of the Jew Sem Tob 
(ca. 1350), in the Rimado de Faiacio of Ayala, and in a 
few poets of the Cancionero de Baena. 

John II was a dilettante who left the government of the 
kingdom to his favorite, Alvaro de Luna. He gained more 
fame in the world of letters than many better kings by 
fostering the study of literature and gathering about him 
a drde of "court poets" neariy all of noble birth. Only 
two names among them all imperatively require mention. 
Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, mahquis of Santillana (1358- 
1458} was the finest type of grand seigneur, protector of 
letters, student, warrior, poet and pohtician. He wrote 
verse in all three of the manners just named, but he will 
certainly be longest remembered for his serrantUas, the 
fine flower of the Provencal-Galidan tradition, in which 
the poet describes his meeting with a country lass. Santi- 
llana combined the freshest local setting with perfection of 
form and left nothing more to be desired in that genre. He 
also wrote the first sonnets in Castilian, but they are inter- 
esting oiUy as an experiment, and had no followers. Juan 
de Mena (1411-1456) was purely a Hterary man, without 
other distinction of birth or accomplishment. His work 
is mainly after the Italian model. The Laberinlo dejortuna, 
by which he is best known, is a dull allegory with much of 
Dante's apparatus. There are historical passages where 


■die poet's patriotism leads him to a certain rhetorical 
leight, but his good intentions are weighed dovm by three 
millstones: slavish imitation, the monotonous arte mayor 
stanza and the deadly earnestness of his temperament. He 
enjoyed great renown and authority /or many decades. 

rTwo anonymous poems of about the same time deserve 
mention. The Danta de la muerte, the Caslihan representa- 
tive of a type which appeared all over Europe, shows death 
summoning mortals from all stations of Ufe with ghastly 
^ee. The Coplas tk Mingo Reoidgo, promulgated during 
the reign of Henry IV (1454-1474), are a political satire in 
dialogue form, and exhibit for the first time the peculiar 
peasant dialect that later became a convention of the pas- 
toral eclogues and also of the country scenes in the great 

I The second half of the century continues the same ten- 
^dencies with a notable development in the fluidity of the 
language and an increasing interest in popular poetry. 
Jpfimez Manrique (d. 1491?) was another warrior of a hterary 
nun whose best verses are of a severely moral nature. His 
Bephew Jorge Manrique (1440-1478) wrote a single poem 
•f the highest merit; his scanty other works are forgotten. 
The Coplas por la muerte de su padre, beautifully translated 
by Longfellow, contain some laments for the writer's per- 
sonal loss, but more general reflections upon the instabiUty 
o( worldly glory. It is not to be thought that this famous 
poem is in any way original in idea; the theme had already 
been exploited to satiety, but Manrique gave it a supcrla- 
ftive perfection of form and a contemporary application 

hich left no room for improvement. 
I There were numerous more or less successful love-poets 


of the conventional type writing in octosyllabics and the 
inevitable imitators of Dante with their unreadable alle- 
gories in arte mayor. The repository for the short poems 
of these writers is the Cancionero general of Hcmando de 
Castillo (1511). It was reprinted many times throughout 
the siJiteenth century. Among the writers represented in 
it one should distinguish, however, Rodrigo de Cota (?). 
His dramatic LHdlogo entre el amor y un viejo has real charm, 
and has saved his name from the oblivion to which most of 
his fellows have justly been consigned. The bishop Ambro- 
sio Montesino {Caticio-nero, 1508} was a fervent religious 
poet and the precursor of the mystics of fifty years later. 

The political condition of Spain improved immensely 
in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella (1479-1516) and the 
country entered upon a period of internal homogeneity and 
tranquillity which might be expected to foster artistic pro- 
duction. Such was the case; but literature was not the first 
of the arts to reach a highly refined state. The first half 
of the sixteenth century is a pieriod of humanistic study, 
and the poetical works coming from it were still tentative. 
Juan del Encina (1469-1533?) is important in the history 
of the drama, for his fglogas, represenlacianes and autos are 
pracrically the first Spanish dramas not anonymous. As a 
lyric poet Encina excels in the light pastoral; he was a musi- 
cian as well as a poet, and his bucolic vUlancicos and glosas in 
stanzas of sii- and eight-syllable lines are daintily written 
and express genuine love of nature. The Portuguese Gil 
Vicente (1470-1540?) was a follower of Encina at first, but 
a much bigger man. Like most of his compatriots of the 
sixteenth century he wrote in both Portuguese and Castiiian, 
though better in the former tongue. He was dose to the 



XIX 1 


■people ID his thiutung and writing and some of the si 
r-fiontained in his plays reproduce the truest popular savi 

The intimate connection between Spain and Italy during 
the pieriod when the armies of the Emperor Charles V 
(Charles I of Spain: reigned 1516-1555) were overrunning 
the latter country gave a new stimulus to the imitation of 
Italian meters and poets which we have seen existed ii 
premature state since the reign of John II. The man who 
first achieved real success in the hendecasyllable, combined 

octaves, tcrsa rima and blank verse, was Jua 
BoscAn Aluocaver (i49o?-i542), a Catalan of wealth J 
fiflnd culture. Bosc^n was handicapped by writing i 
.tongue not native to him and by the constant holding of | 
foreign models before his eyes, and he was not a man 
■genius; yel his verse kept to a loftier ideal than had a 
peared for a long time and his effort to lift Castilian poetry j 
from the slough of convention into which it had fallen was I 
successful. During the rest of the century the impulse I 
given by Boscfin divided Spanish lyrists into two opposing | 
fcosts, the Italianates and those who clung to the native I 
'jneters (stanzas of short, chiefly octosyllabic, lines, for the | 
•arU mayor had sunk by its own weight). 

The first and greatest of Bosc&n's disciples was his dose 
lend Garcilasq de la Vega (1503-1536) who far sur- 
passed his master. He was a scion of a most noble family, 
favorite of the emperor, and his adventurous i 

itly in Italy, ended in a soldier's death. His J 
poems, however (ighgas, canciones, sonnets, etc.), take us J 
from real life into the sentimental world oi the Arcadian I 
itoral. Shepherds discourse of their unrequited loves ^ 
n amid surroundings of an idealized Nature. 


The pure diction, the Vergilian flavor, the classic finish o£ 
these poems made them favorites in Spain from the first, 
and their author has always been regarded as a master. 

With Garcilaso begins the golden age of Spanish poetry 
and of Spanish literature in general, which rnay be said to 
close in 1681 with the death of Calder6n. It was a period 
of external greatness, of conquest both in Europe and 
beyond the AUantic, but it contained the germs of future 
decay. The strength of the nation was exhausted in futile 
warfare, and virile thought was stifled by the Inquisition, 
supported by the monarchs. Hence the luxuriant litera- 
ture of the time runs in the channels farthest from under- 
lying social problems; philosophy and poUtical satire are 
absent, and the romantic drama, novel and lyric flourish, 
external qualities the poetry written during this 
period has never been equalled in Spain. Its poUsh, color 
and choiceness of language have been the admiration and 
model of later Castilian poets. 

The superficial nature of this Uterature is exhibited in 
the controversy excited by the efforts of Boscan and Gar- 
cilaso to substitute Italian forms for the older Spanish ones. 
The discussion dealt with externals; with meters, not ideas. 
Both schools delighted in the airy nothings of the conven- 
tional love lyric, and it matters little at this distance whether 
they were cast in lines of eleven or eight syllables. 

The contest was warm at the time, however. Sa de 
Miranda (1495-1558), the chief exponent of the Italian 
school in Portugal, wrote effectively also in CastiUan. 
Gutierre de Cetina (i5i8?-!572?) and Fernando de Acufia 
(iSOO?-is8q?) are two others who supported the new 
es. One whose example had more influence is 




Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (1503-1575), a famous diplo- 
mat, humanist and hiatorian. He entertained his idle mo- 
ments with verse, writing cleverly in the old style but 
turning also toward the new. His sanction for the latter 
seems to have proved decisive. 

Crist6bal de Castillejo (1490-1556} was the chief de- 
fender of the native Spanish forms. He employed them 
himself in light verse with cleverness, clearness and finish, 
and also attacked the innovators with all the resources of 
a caustic wit. In this patriotic task he was for a time aided 
by an organist of the cathedral at Granada, Gregorio 
Silvestre (1520-1569), of Portuguese birth. Silvestre, how- 
ever, who is noted for the delicacy of his poems in what- 
ever style, was later attracted by the popularity of the 
Italian meters and adopted them. 

This literary squabble ended in the most natural way, 
namely, in the co-existence of both manners in peace and 
harmony. Italian forms were definitively naturalized in 
Spain, where they have maintained their place ever since. 
Subsequent poets wrote in either style or both as they felt 
moved, and no one reproached them. Such was the habit 
of Lope de Vega, Gfingora, Quevedo and the other great 
writers of the seventeenth century. 

A Sevillan Italianate was Fernando de Hekrera (1534?- 
1597), admirer and annotator of Garcilaso. Although an 
ecclesiastic, his poetic genius was more virile than that of 
hia soldier master. He wrote Petrarchian sonnets to his 
platonic lady; but his martial, patriotic spirit appears in 
hb canciones, especially in those on the battle of Lepanto 
and on the expedition of D. Sebastian of Portugal in Africa. 
In these stirring odes Herrera touches a sonorous, grandilo- 


quent chord which rouses the reader's enthusiasm and 
places the uTiter in the first ranit of Spanish lyrists. He is 
noteworthy also in that he made an attempt to create a 
poetic language by the rejection of vulgar words and the 
coinage of new ones. Others, notably Juan de Mena, had 
attempted it before, and Gongora afterward carried it to 
much greater lengths; but the idea never succeeded in 
Castilian to an extent nearly so great as it did in France, 
tor example; and to-day the best poetical diction does not 
differ greatly from good conversational language. 

Beside Herrera stands a totally different spirit, the Sala- 
mancan monk Lms de Leon {1527-1591). The deep re- 
ligious feeling which is one strong trait of Spianish character 
has its representatives in Castihan hterature from Berceo 
down, but Leon was the first to give it fine artistic expres- 
sion. The mystic sensation of oneness with the divine, of 
aspiration to heavenly joys, breathes in all his writings. He 
was also a devoted student of the classics, and his poems 
(for which he cared nothing and which were not pubUshed 
till 1631) show Latin rather than Itahan influence. There 
is nothing in literature more pure, more serene, more direct 
or more pohshed than La vida del campo, Nocke serena and 
others of his compositions. 

The other great -mystics cared less for literature, either as 
a study or an accomplishment. The poems of Saint Theresa 
(1515-1582) are few and mostly mediocre. San Juan de la 
Cruz, the Ecstatic Doctor (1542-1591), wrote the most 
ejialted spiritual poems in the language; like all the mys- 
tics, he was strongly attracted by the Song of Songs which 
was paraphrased by Pedro Malon de Chaide (1530-1596?). 
It is curious to note that the staiiza adopted in the great 



mystical lyrics is one invented by Garcilaso and used ii 
amatory fifth. Cancidn. It has the rime-scheme of the'f 
'Spanish quintUla, but the lines are the ItaUan eleven- , 

.-syllable (cE. pp. Q-u). Religious poems in morel 
popular forms are found in the Romancero espiritual (1612J J 
of Jose de Valdivielso, and in Lope de Vega's Ritnas ] 
focras (1614) and Romaiuera espiritual (1623), 

There were numerous secular disciples of Garcilaso at I 
about the same period. The names most deserving mentiott I 
are those of Francisco de la Torre (d. 1504?), Luis Barahona .1 
de Soto (iS3S?-i595) and Francisco de Figueroa (1536?- I 
1620), all of whom wrote creditabh' and sometimes with. I 
distinction in the Italian forms. Luis de Camoens (i5!4?-J 
1580), author of the great Portuguese epic Os Lusiadas, T 
employed Castihan in many verses with happy result. 

These figures lead to the threshold of the seventeenth I 
century which opened with a tremendous literary output I 

many lines. Cervantes was writing his various noveb; 
the romance of roguery took on new life with Guzmdn de I 
[Ifarache (1590); the drama, which had been developing I 

,ther slowly and spasmodically, burst suddenly into full I 
'flower with Lope de Vega and his innumerable followers. , 
The old meter of the romance was adopted as a favorite I 
form by all sorts and conditions of poets and was turned | 
from its primitive epic simplicity to the utmost variety of 1 
(Subjects, descriptive, lyric and satiric. 

From out this flood of production — tor every dramatist I 

isure a lyric poet, and dramatists were legion — 
can select for consideration only the men most prominent , 

lyrists. First in the impulse which he gave to literature 
more than a century foUowing stands Luis de Argoie v 


GoNGOHA (1561-1627), a Cordovan who chose to be kcown 
by his mother's name. His life was mainly that of a dis- 
appointed place-hunter. His abrupt change of literary 
manner has made some say that there were in him two 
poets, Gongora the Good and Gongora the iJad. He began 
by writing odes in the manner of Herrera and romances and 
viUandcos which are among the clearest and best. They 
did not bring their author fame, however, and he seems 
deliberately to have adopted the involved metaphoric style 
to which Marini gave his name in Italy. G6ngora is merely 
the Spanish representative of the movement, which also 
produced Euphuism in England and priciosUi in France. 
But he surpassed all previous writers in the extreme to 
which he carried the method, and his Soiedades and Polijcmo 
are simply unintelligible tor the inversions and strained 
metaphors with which they are overloaded. 

His influence was enormous. Gongorisra, or culleranismo, 
as it was called at the time, swept the minor poets with it, 
and even those who fought the movement most vigorously, 
like Lope and Quevedo, were not wholly free from the con- 
tagion. The second generation of dramatists was strongly 
affected. Yet there are few lyric poets worth mentioning 
among G6ngora's disciples for the reason that such a per- 
nicious system meant certain ruin to those who lacked the 
master's talent. The most important names are the Count 
of Villamcdiana (1580-1622), a satirist whose sharp tongue 
caused his assassination, and Paravicino y Arteaga {1580- 
1633), a court preacher. 

Obviously, such an innovation could not pass without 
opposition from clear-sighted men. Lope de Vega (1562- 
1635) attacked it whenever opportunity offered, and his 


XXV ' 

En shows signs of corruption. It is impossible 
the master-dramatist at length here. He wrote 
over 300 sonnets, many excellent eclogues, epistles, and, in , 
more popular styles, glosses, klriUas, villuiKicos, romances, 
etc. Lope more than any other poet of his lime kept his 

Ii^ar dose to the people, and his light poems are full of the . 
Ilelicious breath of the country. 
L The other principal opponent of Gongorism was Fran- 
Ikco Gomez de Ql'evedo y Villegas (1580-1645), whose 
pit and independence made him formidable. In 1631 he 
published the poems of Luis de Ledn and Francisco de la 
jETorre as a protest against the baleful mannerism in vogue. 
But he himself adopted a hardly less disagreeable style, 
called conceptism, which is supposed to have been invented 
by Alonso de Ledesma (1552-1633). It consists in a strained 
^^^Beareh for unusual thoughts which entails forced paradoxes, 
^^fbiti theses and epigrams. This system, combined with local 
^^Bfllusions. double meanings and current slang, in which 
^^™Qaevedo delighted, makes Ms poems often extremely diffi- 
cult of comprehension. His romances de jaques, written in ' 
thieves' jargon, are famous in Spain. Quevedo v 
much and carelessly and tried to cover too many fields, but ' 
^t his best his caustic wit and [earless vigor place him high. 
• There were not lacking poets who kept themselves free 
com taint of culleranismo, though they did not join in the 
^t against it. The brothers Argensola (Lupercio Leo- 
! AxGENSOLA, 1559-1613, BARTOLOiEE Leonardo 
E Argensola, 1563-1631), of Aragonese birth, turned to 
[orace and other classics as well as to Italy for their in- 
a^Mration. Their pure and dignified sonnets, odes and 
translations rank high. Juan MARifNEz de JAdregoi 


(1583-1641) wrote a few original poems, but is known 
mainly for his excellent translation of Tasso's Aminia. He 
too succumbed to Gongorism at times. The few poems of 
Francisco de RiojA (i586?-i659) are famous for the purity 
of their style and their tender melancholy tone. A little 
apart is Esteban Manuel de Villegas (1589-1669), an 
admirer of the Argensolas, "en versos cortos divino, in- 
Bufrible en los mayores," who is known for his attempts 
in Latin meters and his successful imitations of Anacreon 
and Catullus. 

The lyrics of Ca3J)er6n (1600-1681) are to be found 
mosdy in his comediai and autos. There are passages 
which display great gifts in the realm of pure poetry, but 
too often they are marred by the impertinent metaphors 
characteristic of cidteranismo. 

His name closes the most brilliant era of Spanish letters. 
The decline of literature followed dose upon that of the 
political power of Spain. The splendid empire of Charles V 
bad sunk, from causes inherent in the pohcies of that ovcr- 
ajnbitious monarch, through the somber bigotry of Philip II, 
the ineptitude of Philip III, the frivoUty of Phihp IV, to the 
imbecihty of Charles II; and the death of the last of the 
Hapsburg rulers in ijoo left Spain in a deplorably enfeebled 
condition physically and intellectually. The War of the 
Succession (1701-1714) exhausted her internal strength still 
more, and the final acknowledgment of Philip V (reigned 
1701-1746) brought hardly any blessing but that of peace. 
Under these circumstances poetry could not thrive; and in 
truth the eighteenth century in Spain is an age devoted 
more to the discussion of the principles of literature than 
to the production of it. At first the decadent n 



r.die siglo de oro still survived, but later the French taste, 

•■following the principles formulated by Boileau, prevailed ' 

almost entirely. The history of Spanish poetry in the 

eighteenth century is a history of the struggle between 

these two forces and ends in the triumph of the latter. 

The effects of Gongorism lasted long in Spain, which, 
with its innate propensity to bombast, was more fertile soil 
for it than other nations. Innumerable poetasters of the 
early eighteenth century enjoyed fame in their day and 
some possessed talent; but the obscure and trivial style of 
the age from which they could not free themselves deprived 
them of any chance of enduring fame. One may mention, 
as the least unworthy, Gabriel .4ivarez dc Toledo (1662- ' 
1714) and Eugenio Gcrardo Lobo (1679-1750). 

Some one has said that the poetry of Spain, with the 
exception of the rmnances and the drama of the siglo de oro, 
has always drawn its inspiration from some other country. 
Add to the exceptions the medieval epic and the statement 
would be close to the truth. First Provence through the 
medium of Galicia; then Italy and with it ancient Rome; 
and lastly France and England, on more than one occasion, 
have molded Spanish poetry. The power of the French 
classical literature, soon dominant in Europe, could not 
long be stayed by the Pyrenees; and Pope, Thomson and 
Young were also much admired. Phihp V, a Frenchman, 
did not endeavor to crush the native spirit in his new home, 
but his influence could not but be felt. He established a 
Spanish .'\cademy on the model of the French in 1714. 

It was some time before the reaction, based on common 
sense and confined to the intellectuals, could take deep root, 
and, as was natural, it went too far and condemned much of 


the siglo de oro entire. The Diario de las Uteratos, a journal 
of criticism founded in 1737, and the Poilica of Ignacio de 
Luz&n, published in the same year, struck the lirst power- 
ful blows. LuzSii (1702-1754) followed in general the pre- 
cepts of Boileau, though he was able to praise some of the 
good points in the Spanish tradition. His own poems are 
frigid. The Sdlira amtra las malos escriiores de su liempo 
{1742) of Jorge Pitillas (pseudonym of Josf Gerardo de 
HervSs, d. 1742) was an imitation of Boileau which had 
great effect. Bias Antonio Nasatrc (1689-1751), Agustfn 
Montiano (1697-1765) and Luis Jose Veldzqucz (1722- 
1772) were critics who, unable to compose meritorious 
plays or verse themselves, cut to pieces the great figures 
of the preceding age. 

Needless to say, the GaUicizers were vigorously opposed, 
but so poor were the original productions of the defenders 
of the national manner that their side was necessarily the 
losing one. Vicente Garda de la Huerta (1734-1787) was 
its most vehement partisan, but he is remembered only for 
a tragedy, Rcujud. 

Thus it is seen that during a century of social and indus- 
trial depression Spain did not produce a poet worthy of the 
name. The condition of the nation was sensibly bettered 
under Charles III (reigned 1759-1788) who did what was 
possible to reorganize the state and curb the stifling domina- 
tion of the Roman Church and its agents the Jesuits and 
the Inquisition. The Benedictine Feii6o (1675-1764) la- 
bored faithfully to inoculate Spain, far behind the rest of 
Europe, with an inkUng of recent scientific discoveries. 
And the budding prosperity, however deceitful it proved, 
was reflected in a more promising literary generation. 



Nicolds FernAndez de MoratLn {1737-1780) followed 
B French rules in theory and wrote a few mediocre plays 
1 accordance with them; but he showed that at heart he 
a good poet and a good Spaniard by his ode A Pedro 
I, torero insigne, some romances and his famous ^hih- 
r, the Fiesta de loros eti Madrid. Other followers of the 
a genre not, strictly speaking, lyric at all, were 
: two fabulists, Samaniego and Iriarte. F. Maria de 
lEGO (1745-1801) gave to the traditional stock of 
apologues, as developed by Phaedrua, Lokmln and La Fon- 
taine, a permanent and popular Caslilian form. Tomas de 
Iriaxte (i750-I7qi)i a more irritable personage who spent 
much time in literary polemics, wrote original fables (Fdbulas 
lilerarias, 1781) directed not against the foibles of mankind 
in general, but against the world of writers and scholars. 

The best work which was done under the classical French 
influence, however, is to be found in the writers of the so- 
called Salamancan school, which was properly not a school 
at all. The poets who are thus classed together, Cadalso, 
Diego Gonzalez, Jovellanos, Forner, Mel^ndes Valdfa, Cien- 
fuegos, Iglesias, were personal friends thrown together in 
the university or town of Salamanca, but they were not 
subjected to a uniform literary training and possessed no 
similarity of style or aim as did the men of the later Sevillaa 

Josfe de Cadaiso {1741-1782), a dashing soldier of great 
personal charm killed at the siege of Gibraltar, is some- 
times credited with founding the school of Salamanca. He 
vas a friend of most of the important writers of his time 

1 composed interesting prose satires; his verse (Noches 
!, etc.) is not remarkable. Fray Diego GonzAlez 


(1733-1794) is one of the masters of idiomatic Castiliati in 
the century. He admired Luis de Le6n and imitated him 
in paraphrases of the Paahna. The volume of his verse is 
small but unsurpassed in surety of taste and evenness of 
finish. The Murciilago akvoso has passed into many edi- 
tions and become a favorite in Spain. The pure and com- 
manding figure of Joveljjvnos {1744-1811) dominated the 
whole group which listened to his advice with respect. It 
was not always sure, for he led Diego Gonzalez and Melendea 
Valdes astray by persuading them to attempt philosophical 
poetry instead of the Ughter sort for which they were fitted. 
He was in fact a greater man than poet, but his satires and 
Epistoia al duque de Veragua are strong and dignified. 

Juan Melendez Vald£s (1754-1817) was on the con- 
trary a greater poet than man. Brilliant from the first, he 
was petted by Cadalso and Jovellanos who strove to de- 
velop his talent. In 1780 he won a prize offered by the 
Academy for an eclogue. In 1784 his comedy Las bodas de 
Camacho, on a subject suggested by Jovellanos (from an 
episode in Don Qtiijote, II, ig-21), won a prize offered by 
the city of Madrid, but failed on the stage. His first volume 
of poems was published in 17S5; later editions appeared in 
1797 and iSzo. He attached himself to the French party 
at the time of the invasion in 1808, incurred great popular 
odium and died in France. He is the most fluent, imagina- 
tive poel of the eighteenth century and is especially success- 
ful in the pastoral and anacreontic styles. Fresh descriptions 
of nature, enchanting pictures of love, form an oasis in an age 
of studied reasonableness. His language has been criticized 
for its Gallicisms. Jose Iglesias de la Casa (1748-1701), 
a native of Salamanca and a priest, wrote much fight satin- 


■, epigrams, parodies and ietrUlas in racy Castilian; 
he was less successful in tlie graver forms. Nicasio Alvarez 
DE CiENFUEGOS (i764-i8og) passes as a disciple of Melen- 
dez; he was a passionate, uneven writer whose undisci- 
plined thought and habit of coining words lead to obscurity. 
Politically he opposed the French with unyielding vigor, 
barely escaped execution at their hands and died in exile. 
The verse of Cienfuegos prepared the way tor Quintana. 
Differing from him in clarity and polish are Fr. S&nchez 
Barbero (1764-1819) and Leandro F, de Moratin, the 
dramatist (i 760-1 S28). 

One curious result of rationalistic doctrines was the 
"prosaism" into which it led many minor versifiers. These 
poetasters, afraid of overstepping the limits of good sense, 
tabooed all imagination and described in deliberately proay 
lines the most commonplace events. The movement 
reached its height at the beginning of the reign of Charles IV 
(1788-1808) and produced such efforts as a poem to the 
gout, a nature-poem depicting barn-yard sounds, and even 
Iriarte's La m&ska (1780), in which one may read in care- 
fully constructed silvas the definition of diatonic and chro- 

c scales. 



Early in the nineteenth century the armies of Napoleon 

invaded Spain. There ensued a fierce struggle for the 

mastery of the Peninsula, in which the latent strength and 

energy of the Spaniards became once more evident. The 



French devastated parts of the country, but they brought 
with them many new ideas which, together with the sharp- 
ness of the coni]ict, served to awaken the Spanish people 
from their torpor and to give them a new realization of 
national consciousness. During this period of stress and 
strife two poets, Quintana and Gallego, urged on and en- 
couraged their fellow-countrymen with patriotic songs. 

Manuel Jose Quintana (ijja-iSs;) had preeminently 
the "gift of martial music," and great was the influence of 
his odes Al armamenlo de las provinctas contra los franceses 
and A Espana despuis de la revoluci^n de mano. He also 
Strengthened the patriotism of his people by his prose Vidas 
de espaAoks cHebres (begun in 1806); the Cid, the Great 
Captain (Gonzalo de C6rdoba), Pizarro and others of their 
kind. In part a follower of the French philosophers of the 
eighteenth century, Quintana sang also of humanity and 
progress, as in his ode on the invention of printing. In 
politics Quintana was a hberal; in religious beliefs, a mate- 
riahst. Campoamor has said of Quintana that he sang 
not of faith or pleasures, but of duties. His enemies have 
accused him of stirring the colonies to revolt by his bitter 
sarcasm directed at past and contemporaneous Spanish 
rulers, but this is doubdess an exaggeration. It may be 
said that except in his best patriotic poems his verses lack 
lyric merit and his ideas are wanting in insight and depth; 
but his sincerity of purpose was \n the main beyond question 
and he occasionally gave expression to striking boldness of 
thought and exaltation of feeUng, In technique Quintana 
was a follower of the Salamancan school. 

The cleric Juan Nicasio Gallego (1777-1853) rivaled 
Quintana as a writer of patriotic verses. A liberal in politics 




like Quintaua,, GaJlego also took the side of fais people 
against the French invaders ajid against the servile Spanish 
rulers. He is best known by the ode El dos dc mayo, in 
which he exults over the rising of the Spanish against the 
French on the second of May, i8d8; the ode A la dejtnsa de 
^..Buenos Aires against the EngUsh; and the elegy A h miterte 
I0 la duquesa de Frias in which he shows that he is capable 
[ deep feeling. Gallego was a close friend of Quintana, 
diose salon in Madrid he frequented. Gallego wrote little, 
t his works are more correct in language and style than 
; of QuinianiL. It is interesting that although the 
Titings of these two poets evince a profound dishke and 
distrust of the French, yet both were in their art largely 
dominated by the influence of French neo-c!assicLsm. This 
is but another illustration of the relative conservatism of 

In the year 179^ there had been formed in Seville by a 
group of young writers an .\cademia de Letras Humanas 
to foster the cultivation of letters. The members of this 
idcmy were admirers of Herrera, the Spanish Petrardiiat 
Ind patriotic poet of the sixteenth century, and they strove 
1 continuation of the tradition of the earlier SeviUan 
The more important writers of the later Sevillan 
were Arjona, Blanco, Lista and Reinoso. Manuel 
Haifa de Arjona (rjji-iSao), a priest well read in the 
Greek and Latin classics, was an imitator of Horace. Josfi 
Maria Blanco {i7;5-i84r), known in the history of English 
literature as Blanco White, spent much time in England 
ind wrote in English as well as in Castilian. Ordavited a 
Sitholic priest he later became an Unitarian, The best- 
rewn and most influential writer of the group was Albertoj 



LiSTA (1775-1848), an educator and later canon of Seville. 
Lista was a skilful artist and like Arjona an admirer and 
imitator of Horace; but his ideas lacked depth. His best- 
known poem is probably a religious one, A la muerte de 
Jesus, wliich abounds in true poetic feeling. Lista exerted 
great influence as a teacher and his Lecciones de lileralwa 
espanola did much to stimulate the study of 5p>anish letters. 
F61ix Jos6 Reinoso (1772-1814), also a priest, imitated 
Milton in octavo rima. As a whole the influence of the 
SeviUan school was heaithful. By insisting upon purity of 
diction and regularity in versification, the members of the 
school helped somewhat to restrain the license and improve 
the bad taste prevailing in the Spanish UteraCure of the time. 
The Catalonian Manuel de Cabanyes (1808-1833) remained 
unaffected by the warring literary schools and followed 
with passionate enthusiasm the precepts of the ancients 
and particularly of Horace. 

In the third decade of the nineteenth century romanti- 
cism, with its revolt agamst the restrictions of classicism, 
with its free play of imagination and emotion, and with 
lyricism as its predominant note, flowed freely into Spain 
from England and France. Spain had remained preemi- 
nently the home of romanticism when France and England 
had turned to classicism, and only in the second half of the 
eighteenth century had Spanish writers given to classicism 
a. reception that was at the best lukewarm. Now roman- 
ddsm was welcomed back with open arms, and Spanish 
writers turned eagerly for inspiration not only to Chateau- 
briand, Victor Hugo and Byron, but also to Lope de Vega 
and Calderfin. Spain has always worshiped the past, for 
Spain was once great, and the appeal of romanticism was 



therefore the greater as it drew its material largely from 
national sources. 

:liib known as the Pamaaillo was formed in 
Madrid to spread the new literary theories, much as the 
Cenacle had done in Paris. The members of the ParnasiUo 
met in a wretched little caffi to avoid public attention. 
Here were to be found Breton de los Herreros, Estebanez 
Calder6n, Mesonero Romanog, Gil y Zaratc, Ventura dc la 
Vega, Espronceda and Larra. The influence of Spanish epic 
and dramatic poetry had been important in stimulating the 
growth of romanticism in England, Germany and France. 
In England, Robert Southey translated into English the 
poem and the chronicle of the Cid and Sir Walter Scott 
published his Vision of Don Roderick; in Germany, Her- 
der's translation of some of the Cid romances and the 
Schlegel brothers' metrical version of Calder6n's dramas 
had called attention to the merit of the earlier Spanish 
hlerature; and in France, Abel Hugo translated into 
French the Romancero and his brother Victor made 
Spanish subjects popular with Hemani and Ruy Bias and 
the Ligendes des sticks. But Spain, under the despotism 
of Ferdinand VII, the "Tyrant of Literature," remained 
apparently indifferent or even hostile to its own wonderful 
creations, and clung outwardly to French neo-classicism.' 
Bahl von Faber,' the German consul at Cadiz, who was 
influenced by the Schlegel brothers, had early called atten- 
tion to the merit of the Spanish literature of the Golden Age 
and had even had some of Calderon's plays performed at 

' Cf. rSpopie custiUttne. Ramfin Mcnfindez Pidal, Paris, 

p. 245- J 



Cadiz. And in 1832 Duritn published his epoch-making 
Romaniero. In 1833 Ferdinand VII died and the romantic 
movement was hastened by the home-coming of a number 
□f men who had fled the despotism of the monarch and had 
spent some time in England and France, where they had 
come into contact with the romanticists of those countries. 
Prominent amongst these were Martinez de la Rosa, Antonio 
Alcala Galiano, the Duke of Rivas and Espronceda. 

In this period of transition one of the first prominent men 
of letters to show the efi^ects of romanticism was Francisco 
Martinez de la Rosa (1787-1862). Among his earlier 
writings are a Poitiai and several odes in honor of the heroes 
of the War of Independence against the French. After 
his exile in Paris he returned home imbued with romanti- 
cism, and his two plays, Canjuraci^n de Venecia (1834) and 
Abitt Humeya (1836: it had already been given in French 
at Paris in 1830), mark the first public triumph of roman- 
ticism in Spain. But Martinez de la Rosa lacked force 
and originality and his works merely paved the way for 
the greater triumph of the Duke of Rivas. Angel de Saave- . 
dra, DiTQUE de Rivas (1701-1865), a liberal noble, insured 
the definite triumph of romanticism in Spain by the success- 
ful performance of his drama Don Alvaro (1835). At first a 
follower of Moratin and Quintana, he turned, after several 
years of exile in England, the Isle of Malta and France, to 
the new romantic school, and casting off all classical re- 
straints soon became the acknowledged leader of the Span- 
romanticists. Among his better works are the lyric 
Al faro de Malta, the legendary narrative poem Ei mora 

pdsilo and his Romances hisidrkos. The Romances are. 
more sober in tone and less fantastic, — and it should be 



added, less popular to-day, — than the legends of Zorrilla. 
After a tempestuous life the Duke of Rivas settled quietly 
into the place of director of the Spanish Academy, which 
post he held till his death. 

Jose de EsPRONCEnA (1808-1842) was preSminenUy a 
disciple of Byron, with Byron's mingling of pessimism and 
aspiration, and like him in revolt against the established 
order of things in poUtics and social organization. His pas- 
sionate outpourings, his briUiant imagery and the music of 
his verse give to Espronceda a first place amon^t the 
Sf>anish lyrical poets of the nineteenth century. Some of 
his shorter lyrics (e.g. Canto i Teresa) are inspired by his 
one-time passion for Teresa with whom after her marriage 
to another he elopied from London to Paris. The poet's 
best known longer works are the Diablo mundo and the • 
Estudiante de Salamanca, which are largely made up of 
detached lyrics in which the subjective note is strikingly 
prominent. Espronceda was one of those fortunate tew 
who shine in the world of letters although they work little. 
Both in lyric mastery and in his spirit of revolt, Espronceda 
holds the place ia Spanish literature that is held in English 
by Byron. He is the chief Spanish exponent of a great 
revolutionary movement that swept over the world of 
letters in the first half of the nineteenth century. 

Jos£ Zorrilla (1817-1893) first won fame by the reading 
of an elegy at the burial of Larra. Zorrilla was a most 
proUfic and spontaneous writer of verses, much of which is 
unfinished in form and deficient in philosophical insight. 
But in spite of his carelessness and shallowness he rivaled 
Espronceda in popularity. His verses are not seldom melo- 
dramatic or childish, but they are rich in coloring and poetic 



fancy and they fonn a vast enchanted world in which the 
Spaniards still delight to wander. His versions of old 
Spanish legends are douhtless his most enduring work and 
their appeal to Spanish patriotism is not less potent to-day 
than when they were written. Zorrilla's dramatic works were 
successful on the stage by reason of their primitive vigor, 
especially Don Juan Tciwrio, El Zapaiero y el rey and Traidor, 
inconfeso y mdrlir. This "fantastic and legendary poet" went 
to Mexico in 1854 and he remained there several years. 
After that date he wrote Lttle and the Uttle lacked merit, 

Gertrudia Gomez dc Avellaneda (1814-1873) was born in 
Cuba but spent most of her life in Spain. Avellaneda was a 
graceful writer of lyrics in which there was feeling and melody 
but little depth of thought. With her the moving impulse 
was love, both human and divine. Her first volume of poems 
(1841) probably contains her best work. Her novels Sab and 
EsPatoUno were popular in their day but are now fallen into 
oblivion. Some of her plays, especially Baltasar and Munio, 
do not lack merit. Avellaneda is recognized as the foremost 
poet amongst the women of nineteenth-century Spain. 

Two of the most successful dramatists of this period, 
Garcia Gutierrez and Hartzenbusch, were also lyric poets. 
Antonio Garcia GtmERREZ (1813-1884), the author of 
El Irovador, published two volumes of mediocre verses. 
Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch (1806-1880) was, hke Fem^n 
Caballero, the child of a German father and a Spanish 
mother. Though an eminent scholar and critic, he did not 
hesitate in his Amanies de T cruel to play to the popular 
passion for sentimentality. He produced some lyric verse 
of worth, Manuel Breton de los Herkeros (1796-1873) 
was primarily a humorist and satirist, who turned from 



lyric verse lo drama as his best medium of expression. He 
delighted in holding up to ridicule the excesses of roman- 
ticism. Mention should be made here of two poets who 
had been, like Espronceda, pupils of Alberto Lista. The 
eclectic poet Marques de Molins {Mariano Roca de 
Togores: 1812-1889) wrote passively in all the literary 
genres of his time. Ve\tuka de la Vega (1807-1865) 
was bom in Argentina, but came to Spain at an early age. 
He was a well-balanced, cautious writer of mediocre- verses 
that are rather neo-cJassic than romantic. 

A marked reaction against the grandiose esaggerations 
of later romanticism appears in the works of Jose Selgas y 
Carrasco (1824-1882}, a clever writer of simple, sentimental 
verses. At one time his poetry was highly prabed and 
widely read, but for the most part it is to-day censured as 
severely as it was once praised. Among the contemporaries 
of Selgas were the writer of simple verses and one-time 
popular tales, Antonio de TRin:BA (1821-1889) and Eduardo 
BusTHXO, the author of Las cuatro esiaciones and El ciego 
de Buenavisla. Somewhat of the tradition of the SeviUan 
school persisted in the verses of Manuel CaSete and 
Nardso Campillo (1838-1900) and in those of the poet and 
literary critic JosS Amador de los Rfos. 

The Sevillan Gustavo Adolfo Becqueh (1836-1870) wrote 
perhaps the most highly polished Spanish verse of the nine- 
teenth century. His Rimas are charged with true poeric 
fancy and the sweetest melody, but the many invctsions of 
word-order that were used to attain to perfection of metrical 
fotm detract not a httle from their charm. His writings 
[ are contained in three small volumes in which are found, 
ether with the Rimas, a collection of prose legends. His 


prose worit is filled with morbid mysticism or fairy-like 
mystery. His dreamy prose is often compared to that of 
Hoffmami and his verses to those of Heine, although it is 
doubtful if he was largely influenced by either of these 
German writers. B^cqucr sings primarily of idealized hu- 
man love. His material life was wretched and it would 
seem that his spirit took flight into an enchanted land of its 
own creation. Most human beings love to forget at times 
their sordid surroundings and wander in dreamland; hence 
the enduring popularity of Becquer's works and especially 
of the Rimas. B6cquer has been widely imitated throughout 
the Spanish-speaking world, but with little success. In this 
connection it should be noted that the Spanish poets who 
have most influenced the Spanish literature of the nine- 
teenth centmy, both in the Peninsula and in America, are 
the Tyrtaean pwet Quintana, the two leading romanticists 
Espronceda and Zorrilla and the mystic Becquer. 

Like most writers in Latin lands, Juan Valera y Alcala 
Galiano (1824-1905) and Marcelino Menendez v Pelayo 
(1856-1Q12) began their Uterary career with a volume or two 
of lyric verses. \'alera's verses have perfect metrical form 
and evince high scholarship, but they are too learned to be 
popular. The lyrics of Menendez y Pelayo have also more 
merit in form than in inspiration and are lacking in human 
interest. Both authors turned soon to more congenial 
work: Valera became the most versatile and polished of aD 
nineteenth century Spanish writers of essays and novels; 
and Menendez y Pelayo became Spain's greatest scholar in 
literary history. The popular noveUst, Pedro Antonio de 
Alarcon (iSjj-iSgi), wrote lyrics in which there is a 
curious blending of humor and skepticism. 



The foremost Spanish poet of the dosing years of the 

leteenth ccatuty was Ramon de Campoamor y Campo- 

) (1817-1901) who is recognized as the initiator in 

Q of a new type of verse in his Dolaras and Fequenos 

The doloras are, for the most part, metrical fables 

r epigrams, dramatic or anecdotal in form, in which the 

tathor unites lightness of touch with depth of feehng. The 

ma is merely an enlarged dotora, Campoamor 

diked Byron and he disliked stU! more the sonorous emjj- 

j that is charactcrbtic of too much Spanish poetry.' 

1 philosophy he revered Thomas a. Kempis; in form he 

mciseness and directness rather than at artistic 

rfection. His poetry lacks enthusiasm and coloring, but 

it has dramatic interest. 

The poets Manuel del Pal.4Cio (1832-1895) and Federico 

r (1831-1905), though quite unlike in genius, woo the 

1 of their contemporaries. Palado wrote excellent 

mets and epigrams. In his Leyendas y paemas he proved 

i mastery of Spanish diction; he had, moreover, the sav- 

■fog grace of humor which was so noticeably lacking in Zor- 

's legends. The poet and Uterary critic, Balart, achieved 

e with his Dolores, in which he mourns with sincere grief 

; death of his beloved wife. Mention shoiUd also be 

e of the following poets who deserve recognition in this 

mef reyiew of the history of Spanish lyric poetry: Vicente 

(lirenceslao Querol (1836-1889), a Valencian, whose Ei 

■; Cartas d Maria, and La fiesta de Venus, evince a 

larkabte technical skill and an unusual correctness of dic- 

.. f.E 


"Al fin 


tion; Teodoro Llorente (cf. p. 379); Jos6 Galiano AlcalA 

whose verses have delicate feeling and lively imagination; 
Emilio Ferrahi (b. 1853), the author of Abdardo i Bipatia 
and AspiracidH; the pessimistic poets, Joaqufn Maria de 
Bartrina (1850-1880) and Gabino Tejado; Salvador Riteda 
(b. 1857), author of En bloi/ue, En iropd and Cantos de la 
vendimia; and the poet and dramatist, Eduardo Makquina. 

After the death of Campoamor in the first year of the 
twentieth century, the title of doyen of Spanish letters fell 
by universal acclaim to Caspar NufiEz de Asce (1834- 
1903). Nljnez de Arce was a lyric poet, a dramatist and a 
writer of polemics, but first of all a man of action. With 
him the solution of political and sociological problems was 
all-important, and his literary writings were mostly the 
expression of his sociological and political views. Nunez de 
Arce is best known for his GrUos del cornbale (1875), in which 
he sings of liberty but opposes anarchy with energy and 
courage. As a satirist he attacks the excesses of radjcalism 
as well as the vices and foibles common to mankind.' As 
a poet he is neither original nor imaginative, and often his 
ideas are unduly limited; but he writes with a manly vigor 
that is rare amongst Spanish lyric poets, most of whom have 
given first place to the splendors of rhetoric. 

Most writers on the Iiistory of European Uteratures have 

I Speabini! o( Niifies de Arce'a satire. Juan Valera says humorously, 
ia Phrilegio dt poeslai casleUanas del iiglo X/X, Madrid, i^oj, Vol. I, 
p. 347: nEatli cl poela tan enojado contra la sociedad, contra nuestra 
ifin y contra loa crfmenes y maldades de ahora, y 
nos (»nla tan pervereo, Ian vidoso y Ian infeliz al hombre de nuestros 
dfaa, atonnentodo por dudas, remordiniientos, codidas y atras vilra 
er, lejos de avergonzarseeste hombre de descender del 
mono quicn se avergonzara de haberse humanado.t 



called attention to the fact that at the beEuining of the 
nineteenth century there was a great outpouring of lyricism, 
which infused itself into prose as well as verse. When this 
movement had exhausted itself there came by inevitable 
reaction a period of materialism, when realism succeeded 
romanticism and prose fiction largely replaced verse. And 
now sociological and pseudo-scientific writings threaten the 
very existence of idealistic literature. And yet through it 
all there has been no dearth of poets. Browning in England 
and Campoamor in Spain, hke many before them, have 
given metrical form to the expression of their philosophical 
views. And other poets, who had an intuitive aversion to 
science, have taken refuge in pure idealism and have created 
worlds after their own liking. To-day prose is recognized 
as the best medium for the promulgation of scientific or 
political teachings, and those who are by nature poets are 
turning to art for art's sake. Poetry is less didactic than 
formerly, and it is none the less beautiful and inspiring. 

The Notes to this volume contain historical sketches of 
the literatures of Argentina {p. 279), Colombia (p. 385), Cuba 
(p. 2(>i), Ecuador and Peru (p. 296), Mexico {p. 307), and 
Venezuela (p. 315). It is to be regretted that lack of space 
has excluded an account of the literatures of other Spanish- 
American countries, and especially of Chile and Uruguay. 



ihveisification is subject to the following general laws: 
) There must be a harmonious flow of syllables, in 
k harsh combinations of sounds are avoided. This 


usually requires that stressed syllables be separated by one 
or more unstressed syllables.' 

(2) Verse must be divided into phrases, each of which can 
be uttered easily as one breath-group. The phrases are 
normally of not less than four nor more than eight sylla- 
bles, with arhythmic accent on the nest to the last syllable of 
each phrase.' Phrases of a fixed number of syllables must 
recur at regular intervals. There may or may not be a 
pause at the end of the phrase. 

(u) In the ii-syllable binary line the phrases may recur 
at irregular intervals. In lines with regular ternary move- 
ment phrasing is largely replaced by rhythmic pulsation 
(ct. p. Ixx). 

(3) There must be rime of final syllables, or final vowels, 
recurring at regular intervals. 

(o) In some metrical arrangements of foreign origin the 
rimes recur at irregular intervals, or there is no rime at all. 
See the silva and versos sudtos under Strophes. 

rwhether normal Spanish verse has, or ever had, binarv mo\e 
ment, with the occasional substitution uf a 'troche' for an 
"iambic," or vice-versa, is in dispute.' That is, whether in 
Spanish verse, with the usual movement, (1) the alternation of 
stressed and unstressed syllables is essential, or Hhelher (2) the 



mere balancing of certain larger blocks of syllables is sufficient. 
For instance, in this line of Luis de Le6n: 

ya muestra en esperanza el fnito derto, 

is there regular rhjrthmic pulsation, much less marked than in 
English verse, doubtless, — but still an easily discernible altema 
tion of stressed and unstressed syllables? If so, there must be 
secondary stress on es-. Or is ya muestra en esperanza one 
block, and el fruto cierto another, with no rhythmic stresses ex- 
cept those on -anza and cierto? 

The truth seems. to be that symmetry of phrases (the balancing 
of large blocks of syllables) is an essential and important part of 
modem Spanish versification; but that, in musical verse of the 
ordinary type, there is also a subtle and varied binary movement, 
while in some recitative verse (notably the dramatic romance 
verse) the binary movement is almost or quite negligible.^ 

* A count of Spanish verses (none from drama), by arbitrarily assum- 
ing three contigi^ous atonic syllables to be equal to - - - (with secondary 
stress on the middle syllable), gave the following results (cf. Romanic 
Review, Vol. Ill, pp. 301-308): 

Common syllabic arrangements of 8-sy liable lines: 

(i) ^ - ^ - -i - ^ (-) : Esta triste voz of. 

(2) - -^ - -^ — - (-) : Llorando dicen asf . 

(3) ~ "^ — -^ --(-): Mi cama las duras pefias. 

Of 033 lines, 446 (nearly one-half) were in class (i); 257 in class (2); 
and igi in class (3). The remaining lines did not belong to any one of 
these three classes. 

Common syllabic arrangements of 11 -syllable lines: 

(i) - ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ (-): Veris con cuanto amor Uamar porfia. 

(2) -^ - -i - - ^ - -i - ^ (-): Cuantas veces el 4ngel me deda. 

(3) - — ^ _ ^ _ ^ - ^ (_) : Este matiz que al cielo desaffa. 

Of 402 Knes, 216 (slightly more than one-half) were in class (i); 94 
were in class (2) ; and 75 in class (3). The remaining Knes did not belong 
to any one of these three classes. Note that, in these arrangements of 
the 1 1 -syllable lines, the irregularities in rhythm are found only in the 
first four syllables. 


Some poets have used at times a quite regular binary m 
in Spanish verse; but they have had few or no followers, as the 
effect was too monotonous to please the Spanish ear. Thus, 
Siempre anllas de la luente 

Y enlre ml le llano mfo. 
Me entristezcxi de su ausencia, 
¥ deseo en su ptesenda 
La mSs btlla parecei 
(p. 5.i, U- fr-") 
The Colombian poet, Jos^ Eusebio Caro, wrote much verse thus, 
under the influence of the English poets. 

On the other hand, some recent "decadent" poets have written 
verses in which the principle of symmetry of phrases, or of a 
fixed number of syllables, is abandoned, and rhythm and rime 
are considered sufficient to make the Uncs musical. Thus, 
Leopoldo Lugones (bom 1875?), of Argentina, in verses which he 
calls 'libres* (cf. Limario sentimental, Buenos Aires, 1909); 
Luna, quiero cantarte 
jOh ilustre andana de las mitologtasl 
Con todas la£ fuerzas de mi arte. 

Dei dad que eti los antiguos d(as 

Al poUgloto elugio de las Guias, 
Noches senlimentaleG de mises en Italia. 
(Jlimno i ta tuna) 

This is largely a liarking back to primitive conditions, for in the 
oldest Castiiian iiiirraiive verse the rule of "counted syllables" ap- 
parently did not prevail. Cf. the Cantar de mio Cid, where there 
is great irregularity in the number of syllables. And, although 


in the old romances the half-lines of eight syllables largely predomi- 
nate, many are foimd with seven or nine syllables, and some with 
even fewer or more. The adoption of the rule of "counted sylla- 
bles" in Spanish may have been due to one or more of several 
causes: to the influence of medieval Latin rhjrthmic songs; ^ to 
French influence; or merely to the development in the Spanish 
people of a feeling for artistic symmetry. 

Other poets of to-day write verses in which the line contains 
a fixed number of syllables or any multiple of that number. 
Thus, Julio Sesto {Blanco y Negro, Nov. 5, 191 1): 

|C6d90 desembarcan . . ., c6mo desembarcan 

esas pobres gentes . . .! 

Desde la escalera de la nave todo Nueva York abarcan 

de un vistazo: muelles, r!o, casas, puentes . . . 

Y despufe que todos sus dnco senddos 

ponen asombrados en ver la dudad, 

como agradeddos, 

miran i la estatua de la Libertad. 

{Ella es la Madona, ella es la Madona, 

que de la Siberia saca d los esclavos, 

que i los regiddas la vida perdona, 

y que salva d muchos de contribuyentes, pobres, perseguidoa^ 

sdbditos y esdavosi . . . 

(La iierra prometida) 

Spanish poets have often tried to write verses in classical meters 
with the substitution of stress for quantity. Thus, Villegas in 
the following hexameters: 

Seis veces el verde soto coron6 su cabeza 
de nardo, de amarillo trebol, de morada viola, 
en tanto que d pecho f rio de mi casta Licoris 
al rayo dd ruggo mio deshizo su hielo.' 

1 Sudias: Stabat Mater dolorosa 

Tuxta cruce)n lachrymosa 
Dum pendebat filius. 

' Apparently trehol instead of trihol. These lines are quoted by 
Eugenio Mele, in La poesia barbara in Ispagna, Ban, 1910. 


Josd Eusebio Caro wrote similar hexameters, and, strange to 
say, made alternate lines assonate: 

]C6firo r&pido linzate! jrapido emptijame y vivo! 
;M&s redondas mis velas pon: del proscrito i los lados, 
haz que tus silbos susurren dulces y dulccs suspiren! 

]Haz que pronto del patrio suelo se aleje mi barcol 

{En alta mar) 

The number of these direct imitations is large; but few suc- 
ceeded. They are, at best, foreign to the spirit of Castilian 

In singing Spanish verses two facts are of especial interest: 
that, where the rules of prosody require synalepha, hiatus some- 
times occurs (especially in opera), thus: 

Rec6gete — ese pafiuelo. 
(Olmedo, Folk-lore de Costilla, p. 133) 

Y el pdjaro — era verde. 
(Ledesma, Cancionero salmantino, p. 53) 

And that musical accents do not necessarily coincide with syllabic 
stresses, even at the end of a phrase. Thus, 

jCuantas v^ces. vida mia, 
Te asomaras al bakon! 1 

jCuerpo bueno, alma divina, 
Qu6 de fatigas me cuestas! 

jBendiga Dios ese cuerp6, 
Tan llenisimo de gracia! 
(Hem&ndez, Flores de Espana) 1 

1 The grave accent mark C ) indicates a strong musical accent. 



In most modem Spanish verse there is a fixed number of 
syllables in a line up to and including the last stressed 
syllable.^ In counting these syllables consideration must 
be given to the following facts: 

(i) Syneresis 

Within a word two or three contiguous vowels usually 
combine to form a diphthong or a triphthong respectively 
(this is called "syneresis"): bailie^ rey^ oi\go, ciu\dady 
cui\da\dOf es\tu\diarf es\tu\didisj dien\t€y lim\pio, gra\cio\so, 
muyy hieriy pue\dey bueyy etc. 


(a) A stressed "weak" vowel (/, u) may not combine 
with a "strong" vowel (a, e, 6) to form a diphthong: di\ay 

» The number of unstressed syllables at the end of a line is not fixed. 
See p. Ivi. 

In order to have the correct number of syllables, poets sometimes 
(i) shorten a word or (2) shift the accent: 

(i) lY &. qu^ mi puro espirtu sucias cames . . . 

(Cabanyes, A Cintio) 
(2) Puede querer . . .? Ahrale . . . 

(Zorrilla, Don Juan Tenorio, la parte, III, 6) 
Deben de ser angeles. 
(Lope de Vega, El mejor alcalde el rey, II) 

Note the artificial separation of lines in some dramatic romance-verse: 

. . . Soy un cate- 
Cdmeno muy diligente. 

(Calder6n, El Josi de las mujeres, H) 
De una vil hermana, de un 
Falso amigo, de un infame 
Criado . . . 
(Calder6n, No hay burlas con el amor, III) 



ri\e, }rl\6, Ta\iz, le\i\do, o\{\do, can\ti\nA\a, con\U\nA\e, con\- 
ti\na\o, ba\a, sa\U\a, sa\bH\ais, ca.\l\aU, etc." 
Exceptions arc rare: 

Su|pe I que | ae|rla [ di|cho[so | 
(Calderfln, No hay burlas am el amor, HI) 

Cf. also rendios, etc., where the a of os combines with 
the ( by synalepha. 

{b) ud, ud, are usually dissyilabic, except after r, g, and 
j: a\du\a\na, sU\a\ve; but cua\lro, san\li\gud, Juan, etc. 
Syneresis may occur; stia\oe. 

ic) di b usually dissyllabic, except in muy: /fl|i|rfo. 
(d) Two unstressed strong vowels, if they follow the 
stress, regularly form a diphlhoag; but if they precede Ihcy 
may form a diphthong or they may be dissyllabic, usually 
at the option of the poet. 

Que [ dd I emipilreo en | el | ce|mt | fi|na|ba.' 

(p. 180,1. II) 
Las I mar|m6|rc«s[. y aus|te|ras [ es|eulltu|ras. 

(p. 138,'-^=) 
La ] ne|gra ad]ver[si|dad|, con [ fc[rrea | ma|no. 

(p. 144, I. 20) 

El I tiemlpo enltre | sus | plie|gues | ro|e|do|r«. 

(p. 8s, 1. 24) 

I Note that in these combinations the weak vowel receives the accent 
mark. Some SpaniBh-American poelshavesinned grievously, by reason 
of their local pronunciation, in diphlhongiiing a strong vowel with a 
fotlouving stressed weak vowel, as inai:, a\laH^, in\da, lor iRa|fE. alla\iiJ 
a\t\do. respectively, etc. 

I Note that here poetic usage differs from the rules for syllabicaUon 
that obtain in prose. Thus, in empireo the i receives the accent mark, 
since it ia held to be in the antepenultimate syllable, but in verse mspireo 
is regularly trisyllabic. 


Te I van | i ar|mar | do | ca|e|rds | in|cau|ta. 

(p. 40, 1. 24) 
La I fe|al|dad | del | vi|cio|; pe|ro hii|y6|se . . .* 

(p. 39, 1. 14) 
En I tan I frd|gil | rea|li|dad. 

(p. 97, 1. 18) 
La I sub|li|me | poei'sfja | re|ver{be|ra. 

(p. 149, 1. 19) 

(e) Two strong vowels, if one is stressed, are usually 

^a|5e|a, re\cre\oy ca\no\ay etc. 

' A|rran|ca a|iTan|ca|, Dios | nif|o, 
De I la I menjte | del | po|e|ta 
Es|te I pen|sa|mien|to im|pf|o 
Que en I un I de|li|rio I cre|6. 

(p. 83, 11. 7-10) 
iQui I se hi|cie|ron | tus | mu|ros | to|rre|a|dos, 

Oh I mi I pajtria | que|ri|da? 
£D6n|de | fue|ron | tus | h6|roes | es|for|za|dos, 
Tu es|pa|da | no | ven|ci|da? 

(p. 78, 11. 1-4) 
A|na|cre|on|te, el | vi|no y { la a|le|gri|a. 

(p. 150, 1. 4) 
Sa[e|ta | que | vo|la|do|ra . . . 

(p. 121,1. 15) 
De o|ro | la | na|o| ga|di|ta|na a|por|ta. 

(p. 39, 1. 24) 
Y I no I se es|me|re en | lo|ar|la. 

(p. 43, 1. 18) 
Don|de i \ ca|er | vol|ve|r4. 

(p. 121, 1. 22) 

> The ea of fealdad is normally disyllabic by analogy with feo. Cf. 
(/) below. 


Syneresis is rare, but may occur, — except in ^a, io and 
<Ja, — provided the second vowel does not receive a rhythmic 

£s|cri|ba|no al { caer | el { sol. 

(p. 109, 1. 3) 
Caen | es|ta|llaii|do | de | Ids | fuer|tes | gonjces. 

(p. 57, 1. 19) 
Cual I na|ve | real | en | triun|fo em|pa|vejsa|da. 

(p. 40, 1. 15) 

(/) In some words vowels that would normally form a 
diphthong are usually dissyllabic by analogy with other 
forms derived from the same stem: fi\6y fi\6 (cf. fi\o)y ri\dy 
ri\e\ron (cf. ri\o), con\ti\nu\i {ci.con\ti\ni4\o)y di\a\rio (cf. di\a)y 
hri\o\so (cf. hri\o)y hu\iy hu\i\fnos (cf. hu\yo)y etc. 
Syneresis is rare, but possible, as in hrio\so for hri\o\so, 
(g) Prefixes, except a-, usually form separate syllables: 
pre\in\ser\tOy re\im\pri\miry re\hu\sar; but aho\gar. If the 
syllable after a- is stressed, dieresis usually occurs: 

A I los I que a|ho|ra a|cla|nia. 

(p. 220, 1. 3) 
En I la I sub|]i|me | so|Ie|dad | a|ho|ra . . . 

(p. 188, 1. 3) 


(2) Dieresis 

By poetic license vowels that normally form one syllable 
may often be dissolved into separate syllables (this is called 
"dieresis") at the will of the poet: glo\rio\so or glo\fi\o\sOy 
rui\do or ru\i\dOy etc.* See also (i), (i, above. 

1 Note that the dieresis mark is generally used in dieresis of two weak 
vowels, or of strong and weak vowels where the strong vowel is stressed. 


But dieresis is impossible if the diphthong is ie or ue from 
Latin i and o respectively, as in bieriy sienlCy huevo, pucdo. 

(3) Synalepha 

The final vowel or diphthong of one word and the initial 
vowel or diphthong of an inmiediately following word in the 
same line usually combine to form one syllable (this is called 
" S3malepha ") * as in : 

Cuan|do | re|cuer|do | la | piejdad | sin|cc|ra 

Con I que en | mi e|dad | pri|mc|ra 
£n|tra|ba en | nuesjtras | vie|jas | ca|tc|dra|lcs. 

(p. 137, 11. 19-21) 
La I cien|cia au|daz|, cuan|do | dc | ti | se a|lc|ja. 

(p. 143, 1. 16) 
i£s|ta es I £s|pa|fia! A|t6|m|ta y | mal|tre|cha . . . 

(p. 147, 1. 3) 
Que I mi | canjtar | so|no|ro 
A|com|pa|fi6 hasjta a|quf|; no a|pri|sio|na|do . . . 

(p. 49, U. 6-7) 

The vowels of three words may thus combine if the 
middle word is a (or ha) (see also (4), a): 

Le I di|jo 6s|te k u|na | mu|jer. 

(p. 79, 1- 15) 
Sal|va k es|ta | so|cie|dad | des|ven|tu|ra|da. 

(p. 143,1. 12) 

» Note that the union of vowels in separate words is called synalepha, 
while the union of vowels within a word is called synercsis. But syn- 
alepha may occur in combinations of vowels in which syncrcsis would 
be impossible. Compare te\ni\a and ca\no\a with: 

A|s{ al I manjcejbo in|te|rrum|pe (p. 04, 1. 13)* 

Ni I la I mijralda j que | lanlz6 al | sos|la|yo'(p. azg, I, 8). 


(4) Hiatus 

(a) Hiatus (i.e. the final vowel of one word and the 
initiaJ vowel of the immediately following word form sep- 
arate syllables)' is caused by the interposition of a weak 
unstressed vowel, as in: 

En I sus [ re|cuer[dos | de [ tiel. 

(p. 84, 1- ■;) 
De I sus I i|klmo5 { y | huer[tos. 

(p. 91, 1.8) ■ 
(p. 84, 1. 18) 

Note that, similarly, the vowels of three words may not 
combine, if the middle word is y, S (or he), 6 (or oh). A: 
0|las I de | pla|ta y j a|zul. 

(P- 7i, 1. 12) 
Que I la al|raa | no|che | 6 el | bri|IIan|te | dl|a. 

(p. 180, [. 20} 
jQui£n I cal|ma|r4, | jOh Es[pa[na! [ tus | pe|sa|res? 
(p- 79, !■ 7) 
And in all such expressions as: o|cw|,!d ^ [ »|rr(|/ajifo, 
Se\m\Ua \ H O\vie\do, etc. 

Except when a vowel is repeated: 

Si he es|cu|chaldo | cuan|do ha|bla|bas. 

(Calder6n, No hay burlas am el amor, UI) 

In modem Spanish, h, being silent, has no effect, but in older 

Spanish, h for Latin /, being then pronounced, prevented syna- 

lepha, as in: Por | el | mra | e|ra | de | nia|yo 


words is equivalent ti 



Hiatus was common in Old Spanish, except when the first of two 
words was the definite article, a personal pronoun-object or the 
preposition de; or when the vowels were the same. 

(fi) Hiatus is usual when the initial vowel of the second 
word has a strong accent (usually the rhythmic accent at 
the end of a line or phrase) : 

Pues I en I fin I me I de|j6 | una (Calder6n). 
Ta|les I fuejron | ya | 6s|tos | cual | herlmojso (Hcrrcra). 
Tal I de I lo I al|to | tem|pes|tad | des|he|cha (Maury). 
No hay | pla|ce|res | en | su | al | ma. 

(p. 85, 1. 4) 
Cuan|do [ po|bre | de | a|nos | y | pe|sa|res 

(p. 221, 1. 9) 
Con|ti|go I se I fu6 I mi I honjra. 

(p. 103, 1. 19) 
De I gra|na|das | es|pi|gas|; t(i | la | u|va . . . 

(p. 215, 1. 5) 
Por|que es | pa|ra el | ser | que | a|ma. 

(p. 84, 1. 9) 
Muy I m&s \ her|mo|sa | la | ha|llan 

(p. 44, 1. 5) 
£1 1 ne|va|do | cuejllo | aljza 

(p. 43, 1. 4) 
Porjque | tam|bi6n | e|ra| u|so. 

(p. 115,1.9) 
Que en I la I bojca, y | s6|lo | u|no. 

(p. 52, 1. 26) 
Genjte en | es|te | monjte | anjda . . . 
Ya I que | de | tu | visjta | hu|ye. 

Gi|gan|te | o|la| que el | vien|to . . } 

(p. 121, 1. 23) 

1 Synalepha is usually to be avoided when it would bring together 
two stressed syllables as in giganU ola, querido hijo, etc 


But synalepha is possible (especially oi de a-): 

To|do e|Ie|va|ba | mi &|iii|mo in|tran|qui|Io. 

(p. 139, 1. 22) 
Yo I le I da|r6|; mas | no en | el | ar|pa | de o|ro . . . 

(p. 49, 1. 5) 
And synalepha is the rule, if stress on. the initial syllable 
is weak: ^ ^^^^^ j per|so|na en | Ma|drid. 

(p. 36, 1. 19) 

To|da|, to|da e|res | per|fec|ta. 

(p. 44, 1. 22) 

If the vowels are the same, they usually combine into one: 

Del I sol I en I la aljta | cum|bre 

(p. 49, 1. 13) 
Temjblar | en | tor|no | de §I| : im | arjco in|men|so . . . 

(p. 180, 1. 10) 

(5) Final Syllables 

In estimating the number of syllables in a Spanish verse- 
line one final unstressed syllable after the last stressed 
syllable is counted whether it be present or not; or, if there 
be two unstressed syllables at the end of the line, only one 
is counted.^ Thus the following are considered 8-syllable 
lines although, in fact, one line has nine syllables and 
another has only seven: 

La I sal|pi|ca | con | es|com|bros 

De I cas|ti|llos | y | de al|cd|za|res . . . 

Pa|ra | voI|ver | d | bro|tar . . . 

* In Spanish, a word stressed on the final syllable is called 
agudo; a word with one syllable after the stress is called grave or 
llano; one with two syllables after the stress, esdrHjulo: farol, plutna, 


This system of counting syllables obtains in Spanish l)o<* 
there is one and only one unstressed syllable at the ciul of most 
verse-lines. It would, perhaps, be more logical to stop the count 
with the last stressed syllable, as the French do. Por instniue, 
a Spanish ii-syllable line would be called a "feminine" lo-syl- 
lable line by the French; but the French language has only one 
vowd (e) that may occur in a final unstressed syllabic, while in 
Spanish there are several (A, «, {?, rarely f, //). 


Spanish poetry may be in rimed verse or in blank verso, 
(i) Rimed verse may have "consonance," in which there 
is rime of the last stressed vowel and of any consonants and 
vowels that may follow in the line, as in: 

En las presas 
Yo divido 
Lo cogido 
Por igual: 
S6lo quiero 
Por riqueza 
La belleza 
Sin rival, 
(p. 75»U-5-i2) 

Madre mfa, yo soy nifia; 
No se enfade, no me rifta, 
Si fiada en su prudencia 
Desahogo mi conciencia, 
(p. 51, 11. 10-13) 

jCudn solitaria la nad6n que un dia 
Poblara inmensa gente I 
jLa naci6n cuyo imperio se extendla 
Del ocaso al oriente ! 

(p. 76, 11. 19-22) 


;0h t^Ly que duermes en casto ]echo, 
De sinsabores ajeno el pecho, 

Y d los encantos de la hermosura 
Unes las gracias del coraz6n, 
Deja el descanso, doncclla pura, 

Y oye los ecos de mi canci6n ! 

(p. 199, 11. 1-6) 


In a diphthong consisting of a strong and a weak 
vowel the weak vowel may be disregarded in rime. Cf. 
above: prudencia, conciencia; corazdn, cancidn; igualj rival, 
(2) Or rimed verse may have "assonance," in which 
there is rime of the last accented vowel and of any final 
vowel that may follow in the line, but not of con- 

Assonance of alternate lines is the usual rime of the 
romances J as in: 

Cabellos de mi cabeza 
lleganme al corvej6n; 
los cabellos de mi barba 
por man teles tengo yo: 
las Unas de las mis manos 
por cuchillo tajador. 
(p. 7, 11. 15-20) 

Here the assonance is 0. 

1 Assonance is rare in popular English verse, but it occurs in some 
household rimes; e. g.: 

Little Tommy Tucker, 

He cried for his supper. 

What shaU little Tommy Tucker have for his supper? 

Black-eyed beans and bread and butter. 

Here the assonance is a-er (final unstressed -er in standard present- 
day English represents vocalic r). 


iAbenimar, Abenimar, 
moro de la moraia, 
d dfa que tCi naciste 
gnndes y ft^l^ habfa! 
EsUba la mar en calma, 
la luna estaba crecida: 
moro que en tal signo nace, 
no debe decir mentira. 
(p. I, U. 1-8) 

Here tbe assonance is i-a} 

Del sal6n en el dngulo obscuro, 
De su dueno tal vez ol\ndada, 
Silenciosa y cubierta dc polvo 
Veiase el arpa. 
jCudnta nota dormfa en sus cuerdus, 
Como el pdjaro duerme en las ramas, 
£^)erando la mano de nieve 
Qu^ sabe arrancarlas ! 
(p. 122, 11. 12-19) 

Her6 the assonance is d-a. 

The following rules for assonance should he nolrd: 

(o) In modem Spanish a word stressed mi I he jmnl 

syllable may not assonate \vilh one stressed on .1 syll.dile 

preceding the final. ^ 

(b) A word stressed on the penult may asson.ite willi one 

» Theromances viejos were originally in linrHof appr(»xinw»4rly ,«iixtrrn 
syllables, and every line then had assonance. 

* In the old romances and in the medieval epic, li ccnihl aHS4)nate wilh 
d-a. In ^nging these old verses every line was probably niiidc (o end 
in an unstressed vowel by adding paragogic e to a final Htn^MHcd Myliablc. 
Thus, son was sung as sone, dar as dare, Uml as temle, etc. Cf. Men. I'd.. 
AiU. V, 6s; XI, 86, 92; and Men. Pid., Cantar de mto Cid, \, 65 f. 


stresficd on Ihe auttpenull \owels bttwetii the bliLsstd 
sylldble and the final syllablu are disregarded as in cru-it, 
cupula {6,-a) baw mdrgenes drabes (d-e) 

(f) In stressed diphthongs and triphlhoDgs only the 
\0wel3 receiving the stress assonate as in tale aire (a-t) 
cabellos suelo (£ a) emohiendo iiposenio (e 0) guardiai 
alia (if-a) pUilo stenlo (i-o) mucho Irtunjo {it 0) 

(d) In unstressed diphthongs and tnphthongs only the 
strong voxels assonate as in li^ba Uuiia (u a) licenaa 
qutsu.rais (S-a) pitio conlinuo (1 o) Similarly f or o 
before another strong vowei is disregarded m an unstressed 
diphthong as in modo errSneo {6-0) crece keroe (e~e) 

(e) In final unstressed syllables i and « (not in diph- 
thongs) assonate with e and o respectively as in verde 
diM {i-e) amante fdcti (S-e) Ifqutdo espinlu (f 6) 

(■>,) In Spanish blank verse { vrsos sudtos hbres blancos) 
there is usually no rime, or if there be rime it is mtrely 
incidental. Blank verse usually consists of ii-syllable lines. 
jOh! icuSnlo roslro veo, i. mi censura, 
De palidez y de rubor cubierto! 
Animo, amigos, nadie tem^, nadic, 
Su puneante aguijfin; que yo peraigo 
En mi sitira el vido, no al vicioso. 
(p. 30, II. 3-7) 
BlanL verse is little used in Spanish. It occurs chiefly 
in senoua satirical or philosophical poems. But separate 
lersos sudtof, are introduced into some varieties of composi- 
tions such as the romance, seguidilla, silva, etc' 

I The vrrsas sadtos are, with regard to the absence o[ rime, in imita- 
tion of classic Greek and Latin verae. They came into Spain by way of 
Italy during the Renaissance movement. Abjured by the romanticista, 
they were restated to favor by Nline: de Arce, 



A. Verse with Binary Movement* 

In modern Spanish this verse is commonly found in lines 
of seven, eight or eleven syllables. It may oaiir in 
lines of any length; but in lines of live or six sylla- 
bles the binary and ternary movements are j^entTally 
mingled. In Old Spanish binar>' lines of a[)[)roximately 
8+8 and 7+7 syllables were common, and lines of 
64-6, or of nine, syllables were then, as now. also 
occasionally used.^ 

The most popular measure, and the one of most im[X)rtance 
in the history of Spanish verse, is the 8 -f 8-syllal)le line 
of the old romaficeSy which was later divided into two 
8-syllable lines, and became the most common measure in 
the drama and in popular songs. This line usually has only 
one rhythmic accent, which falls on the seventh syllable.^ 

Mis arreos son las armas, 
mi descanso cl pclear, 
mi cama las duras pcnas, 
mi (lormir siempre velar 
(|). 5,11. 1-4) 

» The term "binary" is used here to distinguish ordinary Spanish 
verse from that with regular ternary movement. Cf. p. Ixx. 

* Verses of three or four syllaljes are best treated as half-lines, with 
inner rime {versos leoninos). 

' By "rhythmic accent" is meant the musical accent on the last 
stressed syllable of a phrase and not syllabic stresses that may occur 
within a phrase. 

mi introduct:on 

Rareiy 8-syIlab!e lines are written with a. fised accent on 
the third syllable (cf. p, 51, I- 10 f.).' There is then some- 
times pie quebrado in alternate lines, as in: 

Hijo mro mucho amado, 

Para mientes; 
No coQtrastes i las gentes 

Mai su gradti. 
A ma: € set&s amado; 

V podris 
Hazer lo que no hards 


Neit to the popular 8-syliable line the most important 
measure in modem Spanish verse is that of eleven syllables, 
with binary movement, which came to Spain from Italy in 
the fifteenth century, and was generally accepted by the 
writers of the Siglo de Oro. This ii-syllable line, though 
of foreign origin, has held the boards as the chief erudite 
measure in Spanish verse for four centuries, and taken all 
in all it is the noblest metrical form for serious poems in 
modem Spanish. A striking peculiarity of the Une is its 
flexibility. It is not divided into hemistichs as were its 
predecessors, the i4-syl]able Alexandrine and the 12-syllable 
arte mayor verse; but it consists of two phrases and the 
position of the inner rhythmic accent is usually variable. 

' Nole the ciample of hiatus in this older Spanish. 

A vdcBHStiKfiEd bear ^b tirpe (as & xlty^kBiC *x>»l 
cm tkc sink swfcbkL or & Ekr^mk ;icin»Lt %tt tfiae h^off^ 
sjUtitt i^staJtr witk sv&bk stress oa the t(^tK\ Nesack 
tkc ■roEssuT accBEt ia tibe tenth (M^ttioiOL GeoeriUy the 
■occmt iifeoa tibe sixtk ^-fttb&e aptP^wdnut^h Iwkt' 
oftcmas oa tke^ ioazth. 

Y cam dK'CfSKS doics va e^mvi^iidi> . . . vl*<^^ 

Y pan cm%tjt>.aa t aoreoefon . . . vC^ikkf^ 

jsqMiaocBimbot6ahaJliiroii . . . vOOaenSiO 
nalmuiidoinaestraspiestendldo . . . v^onilU) 

LoSKalljr, the dose of the first phrase^ shuuki coiikkW 
with the end of the wofd that recei\>^ the iniier rhvlhmk 
accent, and this is usually so, as in: 

^Qii6 tcngo yd, | que mi amistad prociiras? . . . U<^^) 
Son la veidad y Dids, [ Dios x-erdad^ro . . . (Quc^Nxdo) 

But in scHne lines the rhetorical and the rhythmic accents 
do not coincide, as in: 

. . . pero huydse 
£1 pudor d vivir en las cabiftas . . . (Jovellanas) 
Del plectro sabiam^te meneido . . . (Le6n) 
Que d mi puerta, cubi^to de rodo . . . (Lope) 

The ii>syllable line may be used alone. Cf. the sonneta 
of Lope de Vega (p. 14) and Calder6n (p. 18), the EphU^a 
satirica of Quevedo (p. 15), the blank verse of Jovellanua 
(p. 38) and N(inez de Area (p. 144), et al. The neo-daaaic 
poets of the eighteenth century and some of the earlier 
romanticists even used it in redondillas or assonated: 



n pago de este amor que, mal mi grado, 
!asta el ciiraea me Ueva, en su deiirio, 
i no verse por ti menospreciado 
[i virtue! elevara hasta el ti 


,JPor qu^ de nuevo p411da tristeza 
Tus rosadas mejillas descolora? 
ijPor qu6 tu rostro en ligrimas sc inunda? 
jPor quS suspiras, nifia, y te aeongojas? 
(Bret6n de los Herreros, ^uUn es eUa!) 
But the poets of the Siglo de Oro and the neo-clasaic poets 
generally used it in combination with 7-Byllable lines, as in 
Leon's verses; 

lQu£ descansada vida 
la del que huye el mundanal rilido, 
y sigue la escondida 
senda por donde han ido 
los pocos sabios que en el mundo han sido! 
Strophes of three 1 1 -syllable lines and one s-syllable line 
(versos sdficos) are not uncommon in highly lyric poems. 
Usually, in the long lines, the inner accent falls on the 
fourth syllable, with syllabic stress on the eighth, and with 
cesura after the fifth syllable. Thus:' 

Dulce vecino de la verde selva, 
Hu&ped etemo del Abril florido. 
Vita] aliento de la madre Venus, 
Cifiro blando. 
(ViUegas, Al Ujiro) 
■ Mde [op. cil.) fltates tbat the Sapphic ode was introduced into Spain 
from Italy by Antonio Agustin. bishop oF Tarragona, in the first half of 
Ihe ajctcenth centuiy, and quotes these linea by Agustln: 


ontics, artistic rmnances, quintillas, etc., in imitation of the 
Italian selienario, as in Villegas' Cantilena beginning: 

Vo vi sobre vm tomillo 

Quejarse un pajarillo, 

Viendo su nido amado, 

De quien era caudillo, 

De un labrador robado. 

In present-day songs the 7-syllable line is rather rare, except 
in combination with lines of five syllables, as in: 
Catnino de Valencia, 
Camino largo . . . 

A la puerta del delo 
Vendea zapatos . . . 

In these lines there is no fixed inner rhythmic accent. 
The Old Spanish Alexandrine verse-line was composed of 

two 7-syllable half-lines. In the thirteenth and fourteenth 

centuries numerous monkish narrative poems (ntesl^ de 

ckreila) were written in this measure: 

En el nonbre del Padre, — que fizo toda rosa, 
E de don Jhesu Christo, — Fijo dela Gbriosa, 
Et del Spiritu Sanclo, — que egual delloa [Kisa, 
De vm confessor sancto — quiero fer vna prosa . . . 
(Gonzalo de Berceo) 

The old Alexandrine fell before the rising popularity of 
the arte mayor verse early in the fifteenth century. In the 

!«ghteenth century a ij-syllable Alexandrine appears in 
Spanish in imitation of the classic French line. This later 
Spaiiish Alexandrine is not composed of two distinct half- 



lines. It also has, like its French protolype, alternule 
couplets of masculine and feminine lines (versos aguths and 
versos llanos or graees). Thus, Iriarle; 

En derta catedral una uimpana hubla 
Que 56b se locaba algdn solfmne din 
Con el mis reeio son, con imiisario com|>4s, 
Ciiatro golpes 6 trcs solia dar, no mis. 

There is an inner rhythmic accent on the sixth syllable. 
Iriarte also revived the older Alejwndrinc, but without 

Cuando veo yo algunos, — que de otros esccilcircs 

— y piensan set autores . . . 
Recent poets have revived the old Alexandrine.' Thus, 
Rubfin Dario uses it, even retaining the hiatus between 
the half-lines; but instead of grouping the lines in qua- 
trains with monorime, as the old monks did, he uses asso- 
n alternate lines, which is, so far as I know, without 

Es con voz de la Biblia — 6 verso de Walt Whitman 
Que habria que llegar — hasta ti. jcazadorl 
Primitive y modemo, — sendllo y cornplicado, 

o de WSshington — y mucho de Nemrod . . . 
r, 11. 1-4} 

Lines of five or six syllables usually have a mingled binary 
and ternary movement: 

Una barquera 
Hall£ bizarra, 
De pocoa afios 
Y muchas gracias. 
(N. Moralin) 
is line with ternary roovement, see p. Ixxix. 


Sal! S las diez 
A ver & Clori 
(No lo acerlf ) : 
Horas menguados 
Debe de habet . . . 
(L. MoraUn) 

Lines of 5 + 5 syllables (versos asdepiadeos) ar 
ally written I 

Id CQ las alas — del raudo cf firo, 
Hiimildes versos, — de las floridas 
V^as que diSTano — fecunda el Arias, 
Adonde lento ■ — mi patrio rio 
Ve los alcizares — de Mantua excclsa. 
(L. Moratiii) 

The Mexican poet Pesado used the same li 


iOh to que duermes — en casto lecho, 
De sinsabores — ajeno el pecho, 

Y i los encantos - — de la hermosuta 
Unes las gracias — del coraz6n, 
Deja el descanso, — doncella pura, 

Y oye los ecos — de mi canci6n! 

(p. .99. II. .-6) 


ne measure appears in a patriotic s 

En las cabezas ~ £1 proclam6 
I^ suspirada — constituci6n, 
V enarbolando — mardal pend6Q 
Aloslealea — acaudiUfi . . .' 


This lo-syllable measure is cantabile, and its phrases are 
too short and too regtdar to make good recitative verse. 

Versos alcaicos differ from the asclepiadeos in that the 
former have, in a strophe, two lines of 5 -f- 5, one of nine, 
and one of ten syllables. Thus, in these lines of Victorio 
Giner (who probably introduced this strophe into Spain 
in the second half of the nineteenth century) : 

Y si los nautas, cantando el pillage. 
Con remos hieren y espumas alzan, 

Se aduerme d los ecos sus penas 

Y d los ecos su batel avanza. 

Juan Luis Estelrich (Poesias, 1900) uses versos alcaicos with 
the first two lines of each strophe esdrHjulo, in imitation of 

Carmen, tu nombre trae al espfritu 
Vuelo de.aromas, susurro de drboles, 
Los pfos consorcios del cielo, 

Y el cantar melodioso del Lacio. 

{A Carmen Valera) * 

Romances in lines of 6 + 6 (or 6 + 5) syllables occur in 
popular Spanish verse, as in the Asturian romance of Don 
Bueso, beginning: 

Camlna don Bueso — mananita frfa 
d tierra de moros — d buscar amiga . . . 
(Men. Pel., Ant. X, 56: cf. also Ant. XI, 102) 

This measure was also used in endechas, as in Los comenda- 
dores de Cdrdoba (fifteenth century), beginning: 

jLos comendadores, — por mi mal os vi! 
Yo vi d vosotros, — vosotros d mf . . . 

» Cf. Mele, op. cU. 


The g-syllablc liae was not well received in Spain, and 
it has been little used. Iriarte, in his desire to vary the 
metrical constructions of his fables, used it at least once: 


Sobre una mesa, cierto dta. 
Dando estaba conver5ad6n 
A un Abanico y fi un Manguito 
Un Paraguas 6 Quitasol . . , 

There is certainly no fixed inner rhythmic accent in these 
lines. The fact seems to be th?t the g-syllable line is too 
long to be uttered comfortably in one phrase, or breath- 
group, and it is too short to be regularly divided into parts 
by cesura. 

B. Verse with Ternary Movement 

Verse with regular ternary movement may occur in lines 
of any length, but it is commoiUy found only in lines of ten, 
eleven or twelve syllables. Many ternary lines of five and 
six syllables are found, but they arc almost invariably 
mingled with binary lines. This rondel antiguo (Nebrija, 
quoted by Men, Pel., Ant. V. 66) is ternary throughout, 
it would seem: 

Dcspidc plazcr 

For mixed movements, see the serranUla on p. 45, 1, q f. 

In tines with regular ternary movement, properly speak- 
ing, every primary stress receives a rhythmic accent, and 


these accents are always separated by two atonic syllables, 

as in: 

Yo no s^ cx)mo b^lan aqui, 

Que en mi tidrra no b^ilan ansi . . . 

Rarely one finds 6-syllable and g-syllable lines with regular 
ternary movement, and these are probably never of popular 
origin. Thus: 

Serena la liina 
Aliimbra en el cielo, 
Domina en el sudlo 
Profiinda quietud . . . 
(Espronceda, El reo de muerie, U) 

Y ludgo el estrdpito cr^ce 
Confi^ y mezcUtdo en un sdn, 
Que rdnco en las bdvedas hdndas 
TioniUido f uridso zumbd . . . 
(Espronceda, Estudianle de Salamanca) 

Formerly the Spanish lo-syllable line occurred usually in 
combination with other lines, as in: 

En la dLlle de Atdcha, ilitdn! 

Que vive mi dAma; 
Yo me UlUno Bartdlo, jiitdn! 
Litdque, vit6que, y * ^lla CatAnla. * 

— En la dLlle del Sdrdo, ilitdn! 
Que v!ve mi mdzo, 
Pues k cu^to le pido, ilit6n! 
Litdque, vitdque, que si^mpre esti sdrdo. 
(Quinones de Benavente, Entremeses, baiJeSy has y sainetes, quoted 
by MiU y Fontanals, Ohras compUtas, Vol. V, p. 324 f.) 

* There is hiatus here. 


Calderfin used it in the Viiia del Senor: 

A b viiia, 4 la vliia, zagales; 

Zagjlles, venid, venid d la vlfia. 

A la viAa, i la vIna, zagiles, 

Y v5)^ de jira, de bjllla y de bide. 
Zagides, venid, venid i la vlna, 

Y vaya de baile, de bMa y de jira, 

A recent number of the IlustraciSn Espaftola y Amerkana 
(is Enero, iqii) contains lines of similar construction by 
Don Rafael Torrom6: 

Al mirilr au cartta sonrifinte, 
Tan dijice y tan buSna, 
Siempre observe que mi alma presiSnte, 

Con duglo y con p&na, 
Que mSa tilrde este milndo inclem^nte 
Trocari en sentimidntos de hi^na 
Los pilros afdctos de su illma inocente. 

Iriarte did not hesitate to write fables in these lO-syllable 
lines alone; 

De sus hijos ia tflrpe Avetdrda 

El pesido volir conocia . . . 

And the romanticists of the nineteenth century used it not 


Con inrnfivil, irfinica mufea 
Indinimn formindo en reddr . . , 
(Espronceda, Est. de Sal.) 

Del salSn en el ingulo obscilm, 
De su dudfto tal viz olvidida, 
Silenddsa y cubi£rta de pfllvo, 
VeJase el irpa. 

(B&quer, Ritna VII) 

iXTRQDrcnoK bam 

In the nineteenth centmy this line came to be pnpnljr in 
patriotic songs which are song by the mnltitiide, whik the 
crash of the drum marks the rhythmic accents: 

EntoD^mos festivos cantires, 
Pues el dla feBz ha lkgi(k>. 
Que del >'ugo servil alhiido 
Goza yk el Espaddl Hbertid. 
(La ConstUud&n) 

Al combite corrM, Bayamtes, 
Que la p^tria os contteipla orguUdfa; 
No temiis una mu^rte gioridsa. 
Que morlr por la ptoia es vivtr. 
(Cuban natioDal hymn, c£. p. 251) 

The commoner form of verse with ii-syHaUe ternary 
lines is that popularly called "<fe gaita gallega" (Men. Pd,, 
AfU.j V, p. cxcv; X, 141. Cf. also Mili, op, cU,), the 
assimiption being that this verse is intimately related to 
that t3rpe of popular (jaJidan poetry known as the muiiieira, 
which was stmg to the mu»c of the bagfnpe. These lines 
are typical of the ** tndeauUabos de gaUa gaUega*\' 

TiUito bail^ & la pu^rta del cikra, 
Tinto bail^ que me did calenttkra; 
Tinto baild i la pu^rta del b6mo, 
Tinto baOd que me di^on un bdDo.^ 

1 Many Galidan muiHeiras have been collected: cf. Mild, op. cU.; 
Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Cancioneiro de Ajuda, Vol. II, 
Halle, 1904; Jos6 P^rez Ballesteros, Cancionero popular gallego, Ma- 
drid, 1885. 


Meaendez y Pelayo (Aitl. X, 141) gives, in his collection 
of Romances tradkionales de Asiurias, the following one ia 
ternary ii-syllable lines: 

La tentaddn 

— iAy, probe Xuana dc cutrpo garridol 
\Ky, probe Xiiina de cuJrpo gali-no! 
jDdnde 1e d&cas aJ til buen a.mIgo? 
^Ddnde Ic Ahxss al tA buen atnildo? 

— |Mui!rto le ddxo k la ortlla del rio, 
mu6rto le d6xo fi la orilla del vado! 

— rjCu^nto me dSs, volverStelo vivo? 
I Cidnto me dis, volver&telo s4no? 

— DdjTe las jlrmas y dfiyte el rocino, 
dflyte las innas y d6yte el cabSllo. 

— No hh meneslJr ni armfts ni rodno, 
no h6 menestf r ni armis ni tabilio . . , 

It should be not d that thi poem has assonance of the odd 
and of the ev n hnes M n Pel. says of this popular 11- 
syllable roman th t paricion en la poesia popular 

casteilana ea n f n n gular, aun en Asturias misma, 
y hasta ahora ha. p tado mas ejemplo que 6ste,» 

Note the appa nt h f ng f stress in armas. Iriatte and 
L. Moratln did not scorn to use this line. 

Cierta cri^da la cSsa barrta 

C6n ima escdba muy sQcia y muy vi£ja • ■ . 

Moratln (in the choms of Padres del Limbo) : 
Huyan los Sfios con ripido vu^lo; 
Tidce la ti6rra duriblc consufilo; 
\lire i los hdmbrea piaddso el Sefl6r . . . 


p'^e t i-syllabk line of ternary movement has had less vogue 
in artistic verse than those of ten and twelve syllables.' 

The Spanish ternary 12-syllable line was formerly used 
diieSy in combination with lines of ten or eleven syllables. 
Some examples of mingled 10- and 1 2-syllable lines have 

L already been given above. Another is: 

Manceblto, perddne [as hfmbraa, 
Que cdmen y bcben y 116 lienen riotas. 
— Pui;s. modtas, miildlla^ scan fXlas. 

Q cdsan 6 labren 6 dLiganse mu^rlas. 

A song of mingled 11- and 12-syIlabIe lines begins thus: 

Al pksar In bkrca, me dijo el barqu^ro: 
Mdza boi^ta no ptkga dinero.' 

Efforts have been made from time to time to use the 

ternary movements in erudite verse, but these, for the jnost 

' part, have proven futile. The most serious and the most 

successful attempt appears in the use of the copla de arte 

' mayor in the fifteenth century. The copla {metro, versos) 

I de arte mayor consists of mingled u- and ii-syllable lines 

arranged in strophes of eight lines, each with consonantal 

I rime according to some definite scheme. The arte mayor 

i attained to its most perfect form and its greatest 

used B Beiible ij. syllable 



popularity in H laberinlo de la fortuna (1444?), by Juan 
de Mena, of which the following is a strophe: 

Amorea me dieron corona de amores 

porque mi nombre por mSs bocas ande; 

entonces no era mi raal memys grande, 

quando me davian placer sus doloresj 

venfen el seso sus dulfes errores, 

mas non duran sieapre, segund luego plazen; 

piles me Ikieron del mal que vos fazcn, 

sabed al amor desamar, amadores. 
(Strophe 106) 
The old arle mayor verse has these distinguishing character- 

The line is divided into hemistichs, each of which may 
have four, five or six syllables, thus: 

(i) {-)---^(-)|(-)---M-), 
except that the final syllable of the first hemistich and the 
initial syllable of the second may not both be lacking. 
These arrangements may also occur (the third is rare) : 

(2) (-)---^^-]---^(-) 

(3) (-)----! ^(-). 

Examples of types: 

(i) Las grandes fazafias | de nuestros mayores . . . (Str. 4) 
Vayan de gcnte | sabidos en gentc . . . (Str. 3) 
Reconocerin | maguer que terote . . . (Str. 274) 
Asst que qualqulera | cuerpo ya muerto . . . (Str. 244) 
Cuya virtud | maguer que redama . , . 
Sufren que passen | males e vi(ios . . . (Str. 232) 

(1) E vl 4 Pitfigoras | que defendia . . . (Str. 118) 
Bien eomo mfidioo | mucho famoso . . . (Str. 178) 

(3) Quando el sefior | es en nejessidad . , . (Str. J58) 



The initial unstressed syllable of the first hemistich is lack- 
: in approximately one-third of the lines of the Laberin!). 
These lines resemble the ii-syllabk gaita gaUega verse, and 
the others resemble the popular Gahcian 12-syllable ternary 
line, for in both the final unstressed syllable of the first 
hemistich may tall,' which seems to indicate that the ap- 
pearance of the arle mayor verse in Castihan was due to 
Gahcian influence. 

Again, as in many Galician songs of this type, the ternary 
movement of the old arte mayor verse is not strictly regular. 
Approximately nine-tenths of the lines in the LaherhUo may 
be read with regular ternary movement: 

by giving a rhythmic accent to a syllable with secondary 
stress or to a middle syllable in a group of a 
not inconsiderable number of lines, as in: 

P6r las alluras, | coUildos y cfirros . . . 

Assl que lu eres i la g<lvemad<lra . . . 

In the remaining lines the commonest movement 
Aquel daro padre, aquel dulce Euente . . 
1 CI. these Galidun tauiHeiras, dti»j by Mili y Fontmak (J 

IS Os dc tua dam. 



In the second half of the sixteenth century and in the 
seventeenth century, the arte mayor verse was out of fash- 
ion, although it appeared occasionally, as in these lines of 
Lope de Vega (a variety of the Sapphic strophe), with 

Amor poderoso en cielo y en tierra, 
duldaima guerra. de nuestros sentidos, 
loh, culntos perdidos con vida inquieta 

tu imperio sujeta! 

(Froin first act of Dorotea) 

In the nineteenth century it was restored to favor by the 
romanticists.' Good examples are: Espronceda, El tem- 
plario; Avellaneda, Las stele palabras; and Zorrilla, A un 
torreCn (part). Some writers used it even in the drama 
(cf. Gil y Zirate, Gtizmdn el bueno). The modem arte 
mayor verse is written in i2-syllable lines, usually with 
regular ternary movement. Thus: 

jOh Antllla dichdsa! | ,Jqu£ m^cos adnes, 
Qu£ liU inef^ble, | qui extraiia alegrta, 
Del cielo destiSrran | los nSgras crespfines, 
Prestilndo & esta niche | la pflmpa del dJa? 

^Por quS tan uf^oa, [ tan b£lla la IClna 
Con iiz retulgfnte | comiSnza su giro, 
V no hiy leve sfimbra ] que crtlce Emportilna 
Su tT6no eamaltido | de plita y zaflro? 
(Avellaneda, Serenata de C«ba) 

a fable or two in arte mayor verse. 


Soldidos, la P^tria | nos Ukma S la 13d; 
Jurtmos por Slla | vencfr 6 morir; 
Serinos, ai^gres, | valiSntes. os&dos, 
Cantfmos, sold^dos, | el hlmno S la Ud : 
Ya nu^tros actios | el 6rbc se admire, 

Y en adaotros ' mire | los hijos del Cid; 
Ya nu^siros aciccos | el Arbe se admire, 

Y en nflsotros mire | los hIjos del CM. 
{Himno de Riego: cf. p. 242} 

Lines of fourteen and fifteen syllables with ternary move- 
(■nent are never popular, and in artistic verse they are ex- 
■ ceedingly rare. Avellaneda used these measures in Soledad 
4 alma: 

StLle la aurdra risuflDa, de QSres vestlda, 
Dindole al ci(!lo y al ciLmpo vari^do coldr; 
T&do se anima sintiScido brotilr nueva \idai 
C^tan las fives, y d iLuia suspira de am6r. 

Huy^ron veldces — cual nClbes que el vifnto arrebaia — 
Los brSves momfintos de dicha que el eielo me difl . . . 
^Por qu£ mi existgncia, ya inilLil, su clUso dil&ta, 
Si el tirmino ansl^do & su csp^lda perdido dejd? 

Some recent poets have attempted to write ternary Alex- 
Kuidrine verse. Thus, the Peruvian poet, J096 S. Chocano 

Los EsLados Unidos, como argoila de bronce, 
contra un clavo sujetan de la America im pie; 
y la America debe, si pretende ser libre, 
imitarles primero, £ igualarles despues. 

which the musical notatioa 


Imitemos joh Musa! las crujicntes cst'^ifas 
que en el Norte se arntstian con la gmda de un tren, 
y que giren las rimas como ruedaa veloces 
y que caigan los versos como vatas de riel. 
{La epopeya del Pacljico) 


There are certain conventional combinations of line and 
rime known by special names. Those used in modern 
Spanish may best be considered under the heads (I) As- 
sonance, (II) Consonantal Rime, and (III) No Rime. 

I. (i) The romance is the most characteristic and na- 
tional of all Spanish meters. The proper romance consists 
of S-syllable lines with assonance in alternate lines ' [cf. 
pp. 1-8, 42, etc.). The structure of the romance line has 
already been treated (p. Ixi). In the old romances there 
was no division into stanzas, but poets from the end of the 
sixteenth century on regularly employ a pause after every 
fourth line, thereby creating a series of quatrains (pp. 42, 
60, etc.), except in the drama (p. 19). 

(i) Alternate assonance may be employed with lines of 
any length. With ii-syllable lines the verse is called ro- 
mance lieroico or real. Lines of seven sy lla bles make ver sos 
anacrednlkos. The name endecha is given to some asso- 
nated verse of either sis (p. 124) or seven syllables. When 
the first three lines of a stanza are of seven syllables and the 
last of eleven, the verso is called endecha real. For examples 
ofaltemate assonance in lines ofvarious lengths, see pp. 122 
(2 examples), 123, ijy, i6o, 177, 

An estribillo, or refrain, may be used in any assonating 
verse (p. 45). 

> Historically, o( i6-syllable lines, all assonating. 




lines of fourteen 
too happy device of the 

(3} The use of alternate 
syllables (pp. 211, 313} is a 

(4) The seguidilla is usually a stanza of seven lines of 
seven and five syllables in length, in this order: 7, 5, 7, s; 
5, 7, s- There is usually a pause after the fcmrth line; lines 
2 and 4 have one assonance and lines 5 and 7 another. 
The assonances change tram one stanza to another. See 
pp. iiz and 120. In some seguidUlas the stanzas consist 
only of the first four lines described. 

II. The native Spanish strophes are usually combinations 
of 8-syllable or shorter lines. The 1 i-syllable line, itself an 
importation from Italy, brought with it many well-known 
Italian strophes. In none of the pure Italian forms are 
lines ending in agudos or esdrtljitlos jjermissible. 

(i) The redondilla mayor consists of four 8-sylluble lines 
with the rime-scheme abha (pp. 149, 167), or, less com- 
monly, abab (p. 136). It is a common and characteristic 
Spanish meter. The redoiuliUa tnenur has the same form 
expressed in lines of less than eight syllables. The same 
rime-schemes are found with lines of seven or of eleven 
(pp. 117, 207) syllables, and with combinati 
and seven (p. IJ4), or eleven and five (p. 
but they are not properly called redondillas. 
. (z) The quinlUla is a 5-line strophe, usually of S-syllable 
lines. Only two rimes are used in one stanza, and not more 
than two lines having the same rime should stand together 
(pp. 26, 114). Quiiititlas are sometimes written with lines 
of other lengths. Examples with eleven and seven sylla- 
bles are found on pp. 128, 133 and 148. The stanza used in 
Vida relirada (p. g) is termed lira: cf. Introduction, p. xxiii. 

of eleven 



(3) The dicima (or espinda) is a lo-line strophe of 8- 
syllable lines which may be considered as two qumtiUas; 
but there should be a pause after the fourth line, and the 
rime-scheme is usually as follows; abbaaccddc. 

(4) The arte mayor line has akeady been described 
(p. brav). The copla de arte mayor is a stimza of eight such 
lines, usually having the rime-scheme abbaacca. 

(5) The oclava rima (lUl. oUava rima) is an Italian 
form. Each stanza has eight ii-syllable lines with the 
rime-scheme abababcc. Examples are found of octaves 
employing short lines. A variety of the oclava rima is the 
octava bermudina with the rime-scheme abbcdeec, the lines 
in c ending in agudas. 

(6) The sonelo (sonnet) is formed of fourteen ii-syllable 
lines. In the Siglo de Ore it appears as a much stricter 
form than the English sonnet of the corresponding period. 
The quatrains have the regular construction abba, and the 
tiercels almost always follow one of two types; either cde, 
cde, or cdcdcd. See pp. 14, 18, 148, etc. 

(7) Tercelos (Italian ierza rima), the verse used by Dante 
in the Diiiina Commedia, are formed of ii-syllable lines in 
groups of three, with the rime-scheme aha, bcb, cde, etc., 
ending ys_v3. See p. 15. 

(8) The term canci6n, which means any lyrical composi- 
tion, is also applied specifically to a verse form in which 
the poet invents a typical strophe, with a certain length of 
line and order of rimes, and adheres to this type of stanza 
throughout the whole poem. The lines are of eleven and 
seven syllables, — the Italian structure. Of such nature 
are the poems on pp. S, 20, 71, 137 (bottom), 174, 190. 

The same procedure is employed with lines of any length, 




but the poem is not then caUcd camidn. For strophes in 
lo-syllable lines, see p. 199; in S-syllable lines, pp. 16, 51, 
83, 151; in 7-syUables, p. 202. 

(g) The iUva is a free composition of 11- and 7-syllable 
-lines. Most of the lines rime, but without any fixed order, 
and lines are often left unrimed. See pp. 46, 54, 152, 214 
(bottom), etc. A similar freely riming poem in lines of 
seven syllables is V'illegas' Ciinlilmiii (p. 17). 

(10) The Asdepiadqan verse (p. Ixviii) and the Sapphic 
(p.'faiv) and Alcaic (p. Isix) strophes have already been 
described. These may be rimed, or in blank verse. 

(ii) Numerous conventional names are given to poems 
for some other characteristic than their metrical structure. 
Thus a glosa (gloss) is a poem "beginning with a test, a 
line of which enters into each of the stanzas expounding it." 
A ktra may be a short gloss. The name letrUla is applied 
sometimes to a lilde poem in short Unes which may be set 
to music (p. 9), and sometimes to a strophic poem with a 
refrain (p. 16). A madrigid is a short silva upon a light 
topic, an expanded conceit. The term cantilena is given 
to any short piece of verse intended to be set to music 
(p. 17). Scrranillas, in which is described the meeting of 
a gentleman with a rustic maiden, are famous for the ex- 
amples written by Juan Ruiz and the Marquis of Santillana. 
A vUlancko is a popular poem with a refrain, usually deal- 
ing with an episode celebrated in a church festival (p. 13). 

m. Versos suellos, litres or Uancos (blank verse) are 
formed, as in English, of ii-syllable lines, with occasion- 
' ally a shorter line thrown in. There is no rime, but some- 
times a couplet may mark the dose of an idea. See pp. 38 
and 144, and cf. also p. k. 





jAben^mar, Aben£mar, 
moro de la moreria, 
el dia que tu naciste 
grandes senales habia! 
Estaba la mar en calma, 5 

la luna estaba crecida: 
moro que en tal signo nace, 
no debe decir mentira. — 
Alii respondiera el moro, 
bien oirds lo que decia: 10 

— Yo te la dire, senor, 
aunque me cueste la vida, 
porque soy hijo de un moro 
y una cristiana cautiva; 
siendo yo nifio y muchacho 15 

mi madre me lo decia: 
que mentira no dijese, 
que era grande villania: 
por tanto pregunta, rey, 


que la verdad te diria. 

— Yo te agradezco, Abenamar 
aquesa tu cortesia. 

^ Que castillos son aqu^llos ? 
; Altos son y relucian! 

— El Alhambra era, seiior, 
y la otra la mezquita; 

los otros los Alixares, 
labrados £ maravilla. 
El moro que los labraba 
cien doblas ganaba al dia, 
y el dia que no los labra 
otras tantas se perdia. 
El otro es Generalife, 
huerta que par no tenia ; 
el otro Torres Bermejas, 
Castillo de gran valia. — 
Alii habl6 el rey don Juan, 
bien oireis lo que decia: 

— Si tu quisieses, Granada, 
contigo me casaria; 
dar^te en arras y dote 

d C6rdoba y £ Sevilla. 

— Casada soy, rey don Juan, 
casada soy, que no viuda; 

el moro que d mi me tiene 
muy grande bien me queria. 




Fonte-frida, fonte-frida, 
fonte-frida y con amor, 
do todas las avecicas 
van tomar consolaci6n, 
sino es la tortolica 
que est£ viuda y con dolor. 
For alii fuera £ pasar 
el traidor de ruisenor: 
las palabras que le dice 
llenas son de traicidn: 

— Si tu quisieses, senora, 
yo serla tu servidor. 

— Vete de ahl, enemigo, 
malo, falso, enganador, 

que ni poso en ramo verde, 15 

ni en prado que tenga flor; 

que si el agua hallo clara, 

turbia la bebia yo; 

que no quiero haber marido, 

porque hijos no haya, no: 20 

no quiero placer con ellos, 

ni menos consolacidn. 

jD^jame, triste enemigo, 

malo, falso, mal traidor, 

que no quiero ser tu amiga, 25 

ni casar contigo, no. 



iQui^n hubiese tal ventura 
sobre las aguas del mar, 
como hubo el conde Arnaldos 
la manana de San Juan! 
5 Con un falc6n en la mano 

la caza iba £ cazar, 
vi6 venir una galera 
que d tierra quiere Uegar. 
Las velas traia de seda, 

lo la jarcia de un cendal, 

marinero que la manda 
diciendo viene un cantar 
que la mar facia en calma, 
los vientos hace amainar, 

15 los peces que andan nel hondo 

arriba los hace andar, 
las aves que andan volando 
nel ni^tel las faz posar. 
All! fabl6 el conde Arnaldos, 

20 bien oir^is lo que dir£: 

— Por Dios te ruego, marinero, 
digasme ora ese cantar. — 
Resf>ondi61e el marinero, 
tal respuesta le fu^ £ dar: 

— Yo no digo esta canci6n 
sino i quien conmigo va. 




Mis arreos son las armas, 

mi descanso el j)elear, 

mi cama las duras penas, 

mi dormir siempre velar. 

Las manidas son escuras, 5 

los caminos por usar, 

el cielo con sus mudanzas 

ha por bien de me danar, 

andando de sierra en sierra 

por orillas de la mar, 10 

por probar si en mi ventura 

hay lugar donde avadar. 

Pero por vos, mi senora, 

todo se ha de comportar. 


En los tiempos que me vi 15 

mas alegre y placentero, 
yo me partiera de Burgos 
para ir i Valladolid: 
encontr^ con un Palmero, 

quien me habl6, y dijo asi: ao 

— (jD6nde vas tu, el desdichado? 
<j Ddnde vas ? \ triste de ti ! 
jOh persona desgraciada, 
en mal punto teconoci! 
Muerta es tu enamorada, s5 

6 espaRa 

muerta es, que yo la vi; 
las andas en que la llevan 
de negro las vi cubrir, 
los responses que le dicen 
5 yo los ayude a decir: 

siete condes la lloraban, 
caballeros mas de mil, 
llorabanla sus doncellas, 
llorando dicen asi: 
lo — jTriste de aquel caballero 

que tal perdida pierde aqui ! — 
Desque aquesto oi, mezquino, 
en tierra muerto cai, 
y por mds de doce horas 
IS no tomara, triste, en mi. 

Desque hube retornado, 
£ la sepultura fui, 
con Idgrimas de mis ojos 
llorando decfa asi: 
20 — Acogeme, mi senora, 

acogeme £ par de ti. — 
Al cabo de la sepultura 
esta triste voz oi: 
— Vive, vive, enamorado, 
25 vive, pues que yo mori: 

Dios te de ventura en armas, 
y en amor otro que si, 
que el cuerpo come la tierra, 
y el alma pena por ti. — 



Por el mes era de mayo 

cuando hace la calor, 

cuando canta la calandria, 

y responde el ruisenor, 

cuando los enamorados 5 

van £ servir al amor, 

sino yo, triste, cuitado, 

que vivo en esta prision, 

que ni s^ cuando es de dia 

ni cuando las noches son, 10 

sino por un avecilla 

que me cantaba al albor. 

Matomela un ballestero, 

jd^le Dios mal galardon! 

Cabellos de mi cabeza 15 

Ueganme al corvejon; 

los cabellos de mi barba 

por manteles tengo yo: 

las unas de las mis manos 

por cuchillo tajador. 20 

Si lo hacia el buen rey, 

h£celo como senor: 

si lo hace el carcelero, 

hacelo como traidor. 

Mas i quidn ahora me di^se 25 

un pdjaro hablador, 

siquiera fuese calandria. 


6 tordico 6 ruisenor: 
criado fuese entre damas 
y avezado d la razon, 
que me Ueve una embajada 
- d mi esposa Leonor, 

que me envie una empanada, 
no de truchas ni salmdn, 
sino de una lima sorda 
y de un pico tajador: 
lo la lima para los hierros, 

y el pico para el torredn! — 
Oidolo habia el rey, 
manddle quitar la prisidn. 



Muy graciosa es la doncella: 
15 jcdmo es bella y hermosa! 

Digas tu, el marinero 
que en las naves vivias, 
si la nave 6 la vela 6 la estrella 
es tan bella. 
20 Digas tu, el caballero 

que las armas vestias, 
si el caballo 6 las armas 6 la guerra 
es tan bella. 

Digas tu, el pastorcico 


que el ganadico giiardas, 

si el ganado 6 los yalles 6 la sierra 

es tan bella. 




Nada te turbe; 

nada te espante; 5 

todo se pasa; 

Dios no se muda, 

la paciencia todo lo alcanza. 

Quien d Dios tiene, 

nada le falta. 10 

Solo Dios basta. 



; Qu^ descansada vida 
la del qu^uye el mundanal riiido, 
y sigue la^scondida 

senda por donde han ido 15 

los pocos salvos que en el mundo han sidol 

Que no le enturbif el pecho 
de los soberbios grandes el estado, 


ni del dorado techo 
se admira, fabricado 
del sabio moro, en jaspes sustentado. 
No cura si la fama 
5 canta con voz su nombre pregonera, 

ni cura si encarama 
la lengua lisonjera 
lo que condena la verdad sincera. 
£ Qu^ presto £ mi contento 
lo si soy del vano dedo sefialado ? 

si en busca de este viento 
ando desalentado 

con ansias vivas, y mortal cuidado ? 
jOh campo, oh monte, oh rio! 
j^ joh secreto seguro deleitoso! 

, : roto ca§i el navio, 

d vuestrqjilmo reposo 
huyo de aqueste mar tempestiioso. 
Un no rompido sueno, 
20 un dia puro, alegre, libre quiero; 

no quiero ver el ceno 
.vanamente severo 

de quien la sangre ensalza 6 el dinero. 
Despiertenme las aves 
25 con su cantar suave no aprendido, 

no los cuidados graves 
de que es siempre seguido 
quien al ajeno arbitrio estd, atenido. 
Vivir quiero conmigo, 



gozax quiero del bien que debo al cielo, 

£ solas sin testigo, 

libre de amor, de celo, 

de odio, de esperanzas, de recelo. 

Del monte en la ladera 
por mi mano plantado tengo un huerto 
que con la primavera 
de bella flor cubierto 
ya muestra en es[)eranza el fruto cierto. 

Y come codiciosa 
de yer y acrecentar su hermosura, 
desde la cumbre airosa 

una fontana pura 

hasta Uegar corriendo se apresura. 

Y luego sosegada i^ 
el paso entre los drboles torciendo, 

el suelo de pasada 

de verdura vistiendo, 

y con diversas Acres va esparciendo. 

El aire el huerto orea, 20 

y ofrece mil olores al sentido, 
los ^rboles menea 
con un manso riiido 
que del oro y del cetro pond^lvido. 

T^nganse su tesoro 25 

los que de un flaco leno se confian: 
n(f es mlo ver el Uoro 
de los que desconfian 
cuando el cierzo y el dbrego porfian. 

12 ESPA5}A 

La combatida antena 

cruje, y en ciega noche^el claro dia 

se toma/ al cielo suena 

conf usa voceria, 
5 y la mar enriquecen d porfla. 

A mi una pobrecilla 

mesa de amable paz bien abastada 

me baste, y la vajilla 

de fino oro labrada 
lo sea de quien la mar no teme airada. 

Y mientras miserable- 

mente se estdn los otros abrasando 

en sed insaciable 

del no durable mando, 
15 tendido yo i la sombra este cantando; 

A la sombra tendido 

de yedra y lauro eterno coronado, 

puesto el atento oido 

al son dulce acordado 
20 del plectro sabiamente meneado. 



No me mueve, mi Dios, para quererte 
El cielo que me tienes prometido, 
Ni me mueve el infierrio tan temido 
Para dejar por eso de ofenderte. 


Tti me mueves, Seiior; mu^veme el verte 
Clavado en una cruz y escarnecido; 
Mu^veme ver tu cuerpo tan herido; 
Mu^venme tus afrentas y tu muerte. 

Mudveme, al fin, tu amor, y en tal manera, 5 

Que aunque no hubiera cielo, yo te amara. 
Y aunque no hubiera infiemo, te temiera. 

No me tienes que dar porque te quiera; 
Pues aunque lo que espero no esperara. 
Lo mismo que te quiero te quisiera. 10 



Pues anddis en las palmas, 
Angeles santos, 
Que se duerme mi nino, 
Tened los ramos. 

Palmas de Belen 
Que mueven airados 
Los furiosos vientos, 
Que suenan tanto. 
No le hagdis ruido, 
Corred mds paso; 
Que se duerme mi nino, 
Tened los ramos. 

El nino divino, 
Que esti cansado 



De llorar en ia tierra, 
For su descaoso 
Sosegar quiere un poco 
Del tierno Uanto; 
Que se duerme mi nino, 

Rigurosos hielos 
Le estao cercando, 
Ya veis que no lengo 
Con que guardarlo: 
Angeles di vinos, 
Que vais volando, 
Que se duerme mi nino, 
Tened los ramos. 

^Qu^ tengo yo, que mi amistad procuras? 
^Qu^ interes se te sigue, Jesus mio, 
Que 6. mi puerta, cubierto de rocSo, 
Pasas las noches del inviemo escuras? 

jOh cuinto fueron mis entranas duras, 
Pues no te abri! jQii^ extrano desvario, 
Si de mi ingratitud el hieio fno 
Seco las liagas de tus plantas puras! 

jCuintas veces el Angel me deda: 
*Alma, asi5mate agora a la ventana; 
Ver£s con cuSnlo amor llamar porfia!' 

V jcudntas, hermosura soberana, 


•Manana le abriremos," respondia! 
Para \o miamo responder n 



a, las rostumbres piesentes de los dLstclliLnu;, es 

a.[ Conde-Duque de Olivarta 

No he de callar, por mas que con el dedo, 
Va tocaodo la boca, 6 ya la frente, 
Silencio avises 6 amenaces miedo. 

|j No ha de haber un espiritu valienle ? 
^Siempre se ha de sentir lo que se dice? 
^Nunca se ha de decir lo que se siente? 

Hoy sin miedo que libre escandalice 
Puede hablar el ingenio, asegurado 
De que mayor poder le atemorice. 

En otros siglos pudo ser pecado 
Severo estudio y la verdad desnuda, 

Y romper el silencio el bien hablado. 
Pues sepa quien lo niega y quien lo duda 

Que es tengua la verdad de Dios severo 

Y la lengua de Dios nunca fue muda. 
Son la verdad y Dios, Dios verdadero: 

Ni etemidad divina los scpara, 
Ni de los dos alguno fu^ primero. 

i6 espaRa 


Poderoso caballero 
Es don Dinero. 

Madre, yo al oro me humillo: 
£l es mi amante y mi amado, 
5 Pues de puro enamorado, 

De contino anda amarillo; 
Que pues, dobldn 6 sencillo, 
Hace todo cuanto quiero, 
Poderoso caballero 
lo Es don Dinerd. 

Nace en las Indias honrado, 
Donde el mundo le acompana; 
Viene i, morir en Espana 

Y es en G^nova enterrado. 
15 Y pues quien le trae al lado 

Es hermoso, aunque sea fiero, 
Poderoso caballero 
Es don Dinero. 
Es galan y es como un oro, 
20 Tiene quebrado el color, 

Persona de gran valor. 
Tan cristiano como moro; 
Pues (\ue da y quita el decoro 

Y quebranta cualquier fuero, 
25 Poderoso caballero 

Es don Dinero. 
Son sus padres principales 


Y es de nobles descendiente, 
Porque en las venas de Oriente 
Todas las sangres son reales: 

Y pues es quien hace iguales 
Al duque y al ganadero, 
Poderoso caballero 

Es don Dinero. 



Yo vi sobre un tomillo 
Quejarse un pajarillo, 

Viendo su nido amado, 10 

De quien era caudillo, 
De un labrador robado. 
Vile tan congojado 
Por tal atrevimiento 

Dar mil que j as al viento, 15 

Para que al cielo santo 
Lleve su tierno llanto, 
Lleve su triste acento. 
Ya con triste armonia, 
Esforzando el intento, 20 

Mil quejas repetia; 
Ya cansado callaba, 
Y al nuevo sentimiento 

i8 espaRa 

Ya sonoro volvia. 

Ya circular volaba, 

Ya rastrero coma, 

Ya pues de rama en rama 
, Al riislico seguia; 

Y saltando en la grama, 

Parece que deda : 

' Dame, riistico fiero, 
, Mi dulce compania"; 

. Y que le respondla 

EI nisticoi 'No quiero.' 


Estas que fueron pompa y alegria 
Despertando al albor de la manana, 
A la larde seran Idstima vana ' 
Durmiendo en brazos de la noche fria. 

Este matiz que al tielo desatla, 
Iris listado de oro, nieve y grana, 
Sera cscarmieolo de la vida humana: 
;Tanto se emprende en tdrmino de un di 

A Qorecer las rosas madrugaron, 
Y para envejecerse florecicron: 
Cuna y sepulcro en un boton hallaron. 

Tales los hombres sus fortunas vieron 
En un dia nacieron y expiraron; 
Que pasados los siglos, horas fueron. 


calder(5n de la barca 





Por la gracia de Dios, Juan, 


Eres de linaje limpio 


Mds que el sol, pero villano: 


Lo uno y lo ofro te digo, 


Aquetio, porque no humillcs 


Tanto tu orguUo y tu brio, 


Que dejes, desconfiado, 

De aspirar con cuerdo arbitrio 

A ser mas; lo otro, porque 

No vengas, desvanecido, 

lO |l 

A ser menos: Igualmenle 


Usa de entrambos designios 


Con humildad ; porque siendo 


Humilde, con recto juicio 


Acordards lo mejnr; 


Y como tal, en olvido 

PondrAs cosas que suceden 

Al reves en los altivos. 

jCudntos, teniendo en el mundo 


A! gun defecto consigo, 

ao |; 

Le ban borrado por humildes! 

Y ;S ciiantos, que no ban tenido 


Defecto, se le ban hallado, 

Por estar ellos mal vistos! 

Se cort^s sobremanera, 


1 S^ liberal y csparcido; 

20 espaRa 

Que el sombrero y el dinero 
Son los que hacen los amigos; 
Y no vale tanto el oro 
Que el sol engendra en el indio 

5 Suelo y que conduce el mar, 

Como ser uno bienquisto. 
No hables mal de las mujeres: 
La mds humilde, te digo 
Que es digna de estimacion, 

lo Porque, al fin, dellas nacimos. 





Estaba Mirta bella 
Cierta noche formando en su aposento, 
Con gracioso talento, 
Una tiema cancion, y porque en ella 
Satisfacer a Delio meditaba, 
Que de su fe dudaba, 
Con vehemente expresidn le encarecia 
El fuego que en su casto pecho ardla. 

Y estando divertida, 
Un murci^lago fiero, jsuerte insana! 
Entrd por la ventana; 
Mirta dej6 la pluma, sorprendida, 


Temid, gimio, dio voces, vino gente; 

Y al querer diligente 

Ocultar la canci6n, los versos bellos 
De borrones Ueno, por recogellos. 

Y Delio, noticioso ^ 

Del caso que en su dano habia pasado, 
Justamente enojado 
Con el fiero murci^lago alevoso, 
Que habia la cancidn interrumpido, 

Y d, su Mirta afligido, 10 
En colera y furor se consumia, 

Y asi d, la ave funesta maldecia: 

* Oh monstruo de ave y bruto, 
Que cifras lo peor de bruto y ave, 

Visidn noctuma grave, 15 

Nuevo horror de las sombras, nuevo luto, 

De la luz enemigo declarado, 

Nuncio desventurado 

De la tiniebla y de la noche fria, 

<j Qu^ tienes tu que hacer donde estd el dia ? 20 

* Tus obras y figura 
Maldigan de comun las otras aves, 
Que cdnticos sliaves 

Tributan cada dia a la alba pura; 

Y porque mi ventura interrumpiste, 25 

Y d su autor afligiste, 

Todo el mal y desastre te suceda 

Que d un murcielago vil suceder pueda. 

* La lluvia repetida, 

Que viene de lo alto airebatada, 

Tan s61o reservada 

A las noches, se oponga A lu salida; 

el relampago prnntu relucieiile 

Te ciegue y amedrente; 

soplando del Norte recio el vientu, 

No permila un mosquito d tu alimento- 

" La duena melmdrosa, 
Tras el tapiz do tienes tu manida, 
Te j'uzgue, inadvertida, 
For telaraiia sucia y as^^uerosa, 

Y con la escoba al suelo te derribe; 

Y al ver que bulla y vive. 
Tan fiera y tan ridicula I'lgura, 
Suelte la escoba y liuya con presura. 

"V luego sobrevenga 
El jugueton gatillo buUicioso, 

Y primero medroso 

Al verte, se retire y se contenga, 

Y bufe y se espeluce hoirorizado, 

Y alee el rabo esponjado, 

Y el espinazo en arco suba al cielo, 

Y con los pies apenas toque el suelo. 
»Mas luego recobrado, 

Y del primer horror convaletido, 
El fwcho al suelo unido, 

Traiga el rabo del uno al otro lado, 

Y cosido en la tierra, observe atenlo; 

Y cada movlmiento 



>3 ^ 

Que en ti llegue i notar su perspicacia, 


Le provoque al asalto y le de audacia. 


•En fin sobre ti venga, 


Te acometa y uitraje sin recelo, 

Te arrastre por el suelo, 


Y d costa de tu dafio se entrelenga; 

Y por caso las uiias afiladas 

Eq tus alas clavadas, 

Por echarte de si con sobresalto, 

Te arroje muchas veces a lo alto 


• Y acuda i. tus chlUidos 

El muchacho, y convoque d sus igualea, 


Que ton los ani males 


Suelen ser comlinmente desabridos; 


Que d todos nos doto naturaleza 

IS 1 

De entranas de fiereza, 

Hasta que ya la edad 6 la cultura 


Nos dan humanidad y mas cordura. 

' Entre con algazara 


La pueril tropa, al dano prevenida, 


Y lazada oprimida 

Te echen al cuello con fiereza rara; 

Y al oirte chillar alcen el grito 

Y te Uamen maldito; 

Y creygndote al fin del diabio imagen, 


Te abominen, te escupan y te ultrajen. 

' Luego por las teliilas 

De tus alas te claven al posdgo, 

Y se burlen contigo. 




ESFARA ^^^^ 

Y al hocico te apliquen candeliUas, 

De tus gestos y acciones, 

Y i lus triates querellas ponderadas 
Correspondan con fiesta y carcajadas. 

« Y todos bien armados 
De piedras, de navajas, de aguijones. 
De clavos, de punzones, 
De palos por los cabos ufilados 
(De diversi<5n y fiesta ya rendidos), 
Te embistan atrevidos, ■ 

Y te quiten la vida con presteza, 
Consumando en el modo su fiereza. 

' Te puncen y te sajen, 
Te tundan, te golpeen, te martillen, 
Te piquen, te acribillen, 
Te dividan, te corten y te rajen, 
Te desmiembren, te partan, te deguellen, 
Te hiendan, te desueilen, 
Te estrujen, te aporreen, te magullen, 
Te deshagan, confundan y aturruUen. 

* Y las supersticiones 
De las viejas creyendo realidades, 
Por ver curiosidades, 



V.R tu sangre humedezcan algodones, 
Para encenderlos en la noche obscura, 
Creyendo sin cordiira 
Que ver^n en el aire cuiebrinas 
Y otras tristes visiones percgrinas. 



* Muerto ya, te dispongan 
El cntierro, te lleven arrastrando, 
Gori, gori, cantando, 

Y en dos filas delante se compongan, 

Y otros, fingiendo voces lastimeras, 
Sigan de planideras, 

Y dirijan entierro tan gracioso 

Al muladar mds sucio y asqueroso; 

« Y en aquella basura 
Un hoyo hondo y capaz te faciliten, jq 

Y en ^1 te depositen, 

Y alll te den debida sepultura ; 

Y para hacer eterna tu memoria, 
Compendiada tu historia 

Pongan en una losa duradera, i^ 

Cuya letra dird de esta manera: 


*Aqui yace el murcielago alevoso, 
Que al sol horrorizd y ahuyento el dia, 
De pueril sana triunfo lastimoso, 
Con cruel muerte.pagd su alevosia: 20 

No sigas, caminante, presuroso, 
Hasta decir sobre esta losa fria: 
Acontezca tal fin y tal estrella 
A aquel que mal hiciere i, Mirta bella. * 


Madrid, Castillo famoso 
Que al rey moro alivia el miedo, 
Arde en fiesUs en su toso 
Por ser e! natal dichoso 
De Alimen6n de Toledo, 

Su bravo alcaide Aliatar, 
De la hermosa Zaida amanle, 
Las ordena celebrar 
Por si la puede ablandar 
El coraaSn de diamante. 

¥as6, vencida a sus ruegos, 
Desde Aravaca a Madrid; 
Hubo pandorgas y fuegos, 
Con otros noclumus juegos 
Que di^^pu^o el adalid, 

Y en adargas y colores. 
En las cifras y libreas, 
Mostraron los amadores, 

Y en pendones y preseas, 
La dicha de sus amores. 

Vinieron las moras bellas 
De toda la cercania. 

Y de lejos muchas de eJJasr 
Las m£s apuestas doncellas 
Que Espana entonces tenta. 

nicolAh f. de mopatIn 


Aja de Jetaie vino, 


V Zahaia. la de Alcorc6n, 

En cuyo obsequio muy fino 

Corrio de ua vuelo el camlno 

El moraicel de Alcabdn; 

5 -| 

Jarifa de Almonacid, 

Que de la Alcarria en que habita 


Llevd d asombrar d Madrid 


Su amante Audalla, adalid 

Del casrillo de Zorita. 


De Adamuz y la famosa 


Meco llegaron all! 


Dos, cada cual m^ bermosa. 


Y Fdtima la preciosa. 


Hija de All el alcadf. 


El ancho circo se tiena 

De multitud clamorosa, 

'Que atiende A ver en la arena 

La sangrienta lid dudosa, 

Y todo en toVno resuena. 


La bella Zaida ocup6 

Sus dorados miradores 


Que el arte afiligrand, 


Y con espejos y flores 

Y damascos adomo. 


Aiiafiles y atabales. 

^^^^^B Con militar armonia, 

^^^^^^H Hicieron salva, y sefiales 

^^^^^B De naostrar su 






Los moros m^s principales. " 

No en las vegas de Jarama 

Pacieron la verde grama 

Nunca animales tan fieros, 


Junto al puente que se llama, 

Por sus peces, de Viveros, 

Como los que el vulgo viiS 

Ser lidiados aquel dfa; 

Y en la fiesta que gaz6, 


La popular alegria 

Muchas heridas costd. 

Salid un toro del toril 

Y a Tarfe tir6 por tierra, 

Y luego S Benalguacil; 


Despues con Hamete cierra 

El temer<5n de Conil. 

Traia un ancho listdn 

Con uno y otro matiz 

Hecho un lazo por airdn, 


Sobre la inhiesta ccniz 

Clavado con un a.r\>6n. 

Todo gal& jirelendia 

Ofrecerle vencedor 

A la dama que servla: 


Por eso perdio Almanzor 

El potro que mas queria. 

El alcaide muy zambrero 

De Guadalajara, huyo 


Mai herido al goipe fiero, 

k J 



Y desde un caballo overo 


EI moro de Horche cayd. 

Todos miran a Alialar, 


Que, aunque tres toros ha muerto, 


No se quiere aventurar, 


Porque en lance tan incierto 


El caudillo no ha de entrar. 


Mas viendo se culparia, 


Va S. pon^rsele delante: 

La fiera le acometia, 


Y sin que el rejon la plante 

Le malo una yegua pia. 

Otra monta acelerado: 

Le embiste el toro de un vuelo. 

Cogi^ndole entablerado; 


Rod6 el bonete encamado 

Con las plumas por el suelo. 

Di6 vueltu hiriendo y malando 

A los de d pie que encontrara, 

El circo desocupando, 


V emplazandose, se para, 

Con la vista amenazando. 

Nadie se atreve & satir: 

^^^^^^L La plebe grita indignada. 

^^^^^^H Las damas se quieren 


^^^^^H Porque la fiesta empezada 

^^^^^^B No puede ya pruseguir. 

^^^^^1 Ninguno al riesgo se entrega 

^^^^^^^ Y estd en medio el toro 6ju, 








Cuando un portero que llega 
De ia puerta de la Vega, 
Hinci5 la rodilla, y dijo: 

Sobre un caballo alazanp, 
t'ubierto de galas y oro, 
Uemanda licencia urbano 
Para alancear S. un ton> 
Un caballero cristiano. 

Mucho le pesa d Aliatar; 
Pero Zaida did respuesta 
Diciendo que puede entrar, 
Porque en tan solemne fiesta 
Nada se debe negar. 

Suspense el concurso enterc 
Entre dudas se embaraza, 
Cuando en un potro llgero 
Vieron entrar en la plaza 
Un bizarro caballero, 

Sonrosado, albo color, 
Belfo labio, juveniles 
Alientos, inquieto ardor. 
En el florido verdor 
De sus lozanos abriles. 

Cuelga la ruliia guedeja 
Por donde el almete sube, 
Cual mirarse taj vez deja 
Del sol la ardiente madeja 
Entre cenkienta nube; 

Gorguera de anchoa follajes. 




De una cristiaoa priraores; 


Ed el yeimo los plumajes 


Por los visos y celajes 

Vergel de diversas flores; 


En la cuja gruesa lanza, 


C'on recamado pendon, 

Y una cifra a ver se alcanna. 

Que es de desesperacidn, 

5 lo menus de venganza. 

En el arz6n de la silla 


Ancho escudo reverbera 

Con blasones de Castilla, 


Y el mote dice I la orilla: 

Nunca mi espada venciera. 


Era el cabalb galdn, 


El bnito mas generoso, 

De mds gallardo ademan: 

Cabos negros, y brioso, 

Muy tostado, y alazin, 

Larga cola recogida 


En las piernas descamadas, 

Cabeza pequefia, erguida, 

Las nances dilatadas, 

Vista feroz y encendida. 

Nunca en el ancho rodeo 


^^ Que da Betis con tal fruto 

^^^^^^L Pudo fingir el deseo 

^^^^^^1 M£s bella estampa de bruto. 

^^^^^^H Ni mis bermoso paseo. 





DW la vuelta al rededor; 

Ix)S ojcB que le veian 

Lleva prendados de amor: 

jAlate salve! decian, 


jDete el Profeta favor! 

Causaba Idstima y grima 

Su dema edad fluredente: 

Todos quieren que se exima 

Del riesgo, y ^1 solamente 


Ni recela ni se estima. 

Las doncellas, al pasar. 


Hacen de ambar y alcanfor 


Pebeteros exhalar. 


Vertiendo pomos de olor, 


De jazmines y azahar. 

Mas cuando en medio se para, 

V de mas cerca le mira 

La cristiana esclava Aldara, 

Con su seiiora se encara, 


Y aa la dice, y suspira: 

— Seiiora, sueiios no son; 

Asi los cielos, vencidos 

De nni ruego y aflicd.5n. 

Acerquen d mis oJdos 


Las campanas de Le6a, 

Como ese donee!, que ufano 

Tanto asombro viene & dar 

A todo el pueblo africano, 


Es Rodrigo de Bivar, 


El soberbio castellano, — 

Sin descubrirle qui^n es. 
La Zaida desde una almena 
Le hablo una noche coTt6s, 
Por donde se abrii5 despu^s 
El cubo de la Almudena; 

Y supo que, fugitivo 
De la corte de Fernando, 
£1 cristiano, apenas vivo, 
£st£ i Jimena adorando 

Y en su memoria caulivo. 
Tal vez a Madrid se acerca 

Con frecuentes correrias 

Y todo en tomo la cerca; 
Observa bus saetias, 
Arroyadas y ancha alberca, 

Por eso le ha conocido; 
Que en medio de aclamaciones, 
El caballo ha detenido 
Delante de sus bakones, 

Y la saluda rendido. 

La mora se puso en pie 

Y sus doncellas detrds: 
El alcaide que lo ve, 
Enf urecido ademis, 
Muestra cuin celoso est^, 

Suena un rumor placentero 
Entre el vulgo de Madrid : 
No hahii mejor caballeio, 






Dicen, en el mundn entero, 

Y algunos le llaman Cid. 
Crece la algazara, y &, 

Torciendo las riendas de oro, 
Marcha al combate cruel: 
Alza el galope, y al toro 
Busca en sonoro tropel. 

El bruto se le ha encarado 
Desde que le vio Uegar, 
De tanta gala asombrado, 

Y al rededor le ha obser\'ado 
Sin mo verse de un lugar. 

Cual flee ha se disparo 
Despedida de la cuerda, 


De tal suerte le embistio; 
DetrfLS de la oreja izqiiierda 
U aguda knza le hiri6. 

Brama la fiera buriada; 
Segunda vez acomete, 
De espuma y sudor banada, 
V segunda vez la mete 
Sutil la punta acerada. 

Pero ya Rodrign espera 
Con heroico atrevimiento, 


El pueblo mudo y atento: 
Se engalla el toro y altera, 
Y finje acometiraiento. 

La arena escarba ofendido, 
Sobre la espalda la arroja 


nicolAs f. de moratIn 


Con el hueso retorcido; 
El suelo huele y le moja 
En ardiente resoplido. 

La cola inquieto menea, 
La diestra oreja mosquea, ^ 

Vase retirando atr^, 
Para que la fuerza sea 
Mayor, y el impetu m^. 

El que en esta ocasidn viera 
De Zaida el rostro alterado, lo 

Claramente conociera 
Cuanto le cuesta cuidado 
El que tanto riesgo espera. 

Mas jay, que le embiste horrendo 
El animal espantoso! 15 

Jamds penasco tremendo 
Del Cducaso cavemoso 
Se desgaja, estrago haciendo, 

Ni llama asi fulminante 
Cruza en negra obscuridad ao 

Con reldmpagos delante, 
Al estrdpito tronante 
De sonora tempestad, 

Como el bruto se abalanza 
Con terrible ligereza; 25 

Mas rota con gran pujanza 
La alta nuca, la fiereza 
Y el ultimo aliento lanza. 

La confusa vocerfa 






Que en tal instante se oy6 
Fue tanta, que parecta 
Que honda mina reventd, 
el monte y valle se hundla. 

A caballo como eslaba 
Rodrigo, el lazo alcanzd 
CoE que el toro se adomaba: 
En su lanza )e clavii 
Y a los balcones Ilegaba. 

Y alzdndose en los estribos, 
LealargaaZaida, diciendu: 
— Sultana, aunque bien enliendo 
Ser favores excesivos, 
Mi corto don admitiendo; 


Si no OS dignaredes ser 
Con el benigna, advertid 
Que i mi me Usta saber 
Que no le debo ofrecer 
A otra persona en Madrid. — 


Elk, el rostro placentero, 
Dijo, y turbada: — Senor, 
Yo le admito y le venero, 
Por coDservar el favor 
De tan gentii caballero. — 


Y besando el rico don. 
Para agradar al doncel, 
Le prende con aficidn 
Al lado del corazon 
Por brinquino y por joyel. 


nicolAs f. de moratIn 37 

Pero Aliatax el caudillo 
De envidia ardiendo se ve, 
Y, tr^mulo y amarillo, 
Sobre un tremec^n rosillo 
Lozanedndose fu^. 5 

Y en ronca voz: — Castellano, 
Le dice, con mds decoros 
Suelo yo dar de mi mano, 

Si no penachos de toros, 

Las cabezas del cristiano. lo 

Y si vinieras de guerra 
Cual vienes de fiesta y gala, 
Vieras que en toda la tierra, 
Al valor que dentro encierra 

Madrid, ninguno se iguala. — 15 

— Asi, dijo el de Bivar, 

Respondo — ; y la lanza al ristre 

Pone, y espera d Aliatar; 

Mas sin que nadie administre 

Orden, tocaron d armar. 20 

Ya fiero bando con gritos 
Su muerte 6 prision pedia, 
Cuando se oyo en los distritos 
Del monte de Leganitos 
Del Cid la trompeteria. 25 

Entre la Monclova y Soto 
Tercio escogido emboscd. 
Que, viendo como tardd, 
Se acerca, oy6 el alboroto. 



Y al muro s 

Y si no vieran salir 
Por ia puerta i su sefior, 

Y Zaida i le despedir, 

; Iban la fuerza d embestir: 

Tal era ya su furor. 
El alcaide, recelando 

Que en Madrid tenga partido, 

Se temp Id disimulando, 
) Y por el parque florido 

Saiid con el razonando. 

Y es fama que, a la bajada, 
Juro por la cruz el Cid 

De su vencedora espada 
; De no quitar la celada 

Hasta que gane d Madrid. 



Dejamc, Arnesto, dejame que llore 
Los fieros males de mi patria, deja 
Que su rijina y perdicion lamente; 
Y si no quieres que en el centra nbscuro 
De esta prisidn la pena tne consuma, 
Dejame al menos que levante el grito 
Contra el desorden: deja que & la tinta 



Mezclando miel y acibar, siga indikil 
Mi pluma el vuelo del bufon de Aquino. 
]0h! (Cuanto rostro veo, a mi censura, 
De palidez y de rubor cubierto! 
Animo, amigos, nadie tenia, nadie, 
Su punzante aguijdn; que yo persigo 
En mi sSrira el vicio, no al vicioso. 

Va la notoriedad es el mas noble 
Atributo del vicio, y nuestras Julias, 
Mda que ser malas quieren parecerlo. 
Hiibo un tiemjjo en que andaba la modesria 
Dorando los delitos; bubo un tiempo 
En que el recato timido cubria 
La fealdad del vicio; pero huy&e 
El pudiir & vivir en las cahafias. 

jOh iofamia! job siglo! joh comipcidn! Matronas 

Castellanas, ^quien pudo vuestro daro 

Pundonor eclipsar? ;Quien de Lucrecias 

En Lais os volvid? jNi el proceloso 

Oc&no, ni, Ueno de peligros, 

El Lilibeo, ni las arduas cumbres 

De Pirene pudieron guareceros 

Del contagio fatal ? Zaqia preiiada 

De oro la nao gaditana, aporta 

A las orillas galicas, y vuelve 

Llena de objetos futiles y vanos; 


V cntre !(js signos de extranjera pompa 
Ponzi>na esconde y corrupcion, compradas 
Con el sudor de las iberas frentes; 

Y tli, misera Espafia, tii ta esperas 
Sobre la playa, y con afan recoges 
La pestilente carga, y la reparles 
Alegre entre tus hijos. Vi!es plumas, 
Gasas y cintas, flores y penachos 

Te trae en cambio de la sangre tuya; 
De tu sangre joh baldfinl y acaso, acaso 
De tu virtud y honestidad. Repara 
Cual la liviana juventud los busca. 
Mira cual va con ellos engreida 
La impudente doncella; su cabeza, 
Cual nave real en triunfo empavesada, 
Vana presenta del favonio al soplo 
La mies de plumas y de airones, y anda 
Loca, buscando en la lisonja el premio 
De au indiscrete afan. jAy triste! guarte, 
Guarte, que estd cercano el precipicio. 
El astuto amador ya en asechanza 
Te atisba y sigue con lascivos ojos; 
La adulacidn y la caricia el lazo 
Te van a armar, do caerds incauta. 
En & tu oprobio y perdiciiSn haltando. 
[Ay cuSnto, cuSnto de amargura y lloro 
Te coslaran tus galas! jCuin tardto 
Serf y est^ril tu airepenlimiento' 
Ya ni el rico Brasil, ni las cavemas 


Del nunca enhauslo Potosi no bastan 

A saciar el hidropico deseo, 

La ansiosa sed de vanidad y pompa. 

Todo lo agolan: cuesta un sombrerillo 

Lo que antes un Estado, y se consume 

En un festin la dole de una infanla; 

Todu lo tragan; la riqueza unida 

Va & la indigencia; pide y pordiosea 

El noble, engana, empena, malbarala, 

Quiebra y perece, y el logrero goza 

Los pingiies patrimonios, premio un dia 

Del geaeroso atan de altos abuelos. 

iOh ultraje! joh mengua! todo se tra&ca: 

Parentesco, amistad, favor, influjo, 

Y hasta el honor, dep(5silo sagrado, 

se vende d se compra. Y tu, belleza, 

Don el mas grato que did al hombre el cielo, 

No eres ya premio del valor, ni paga 

Del peregrino ingenio; ia fiorida 

Juventud, la temura, el rendimicnto 

Del constante amador ya no te alcanzan. 

Ya ni te das ai corazdn, ni sabes 

De el recibir adoracidn y ofrendas, 

Rindeste al oro. La vejez hedionda, 

La sutia palidez, la taz adusta, 

Fiera y terrible, con igual derecho 

Vienen sin susto a negociar contigo. 

Daste al barato, y tu rosada frente, 

Tus suaves besos y tus dulces brazos, 


Corcoia un tiempo del amor maa puro, 
Son ya una vil y torpc mercancia. 


Del sol llevaba la lumbre, 

Y la alegria del alba, 
En sus celestiales ojos 
La hermosisima Rosana, 
Una noche que & los fuegos 
Salid la fiesta de Pascua 
Para abrasar todo el valle 
En mil amorosas ansias. 
Por do quiera que camjia 
Lleva lias si la ma nana, 

Y donde se vuelve rinde 
La libertad de mil almas. 
El cefiro la acaricia 

y mansamente la halaga, 
Los Amores la rodean 

Y las Gracias la acompanan. 

Y ella, asi como en el valle 
Descuella la altiva palma 
Cuando sus verdes pimpolloa 
Hasta las nubes levanta; 

cuaj vid de fruto ilena 
Que con el olmo se abraza, 


Y sus v£stago5 extiende 
Al arbitrio de las lamas; 
A^ entre sus compafieras 
El nevado cuello alza, 
Sobresaliendo enire Codas 
Cual fresca rosa entre zarzas. 
Todos los ojos se Ueva 
Tras s!, Codo lu avasalla; 

De amor mata & los pastores 

Y de envidia i las zagalas. 
Ni las miisicas se atiendeo, 
Ni se gozan las iumbradas; 
Que todos corren por verla 

Y al verla todos se abrasan. 
iQu^ de suspiros se escuchani 
jQu6 de vivas y de salvas! 

No hay zagal que no la admire 

Y no se esmere en loarla. 
Cual absorto la contempla 

Y a la aurora la compara 
Cuando m£s alegre sale 

Y e! cielo en albores bana; 
Cual al fresco y verde aliso 
Que crece al margen del agua, 
Cuando mds pomposo en hojas 
En su cristal se retrata; 

Cual d la luna, si muestra 
Lien a su esfera de plata, 

Y asoma pior los collados 


De luceros coronada. 
Otros pasmados la miran 

Y mudamente la alaban, 

Y cuanto mis la contemplan 
Muy mds hennosa la hallan. 
Que es como el cieio su rostro 
Cuando en la noche callada 
Brilla con todas sus luces 

Y los ojos embaraza. 

;Ay, qii6 de envidias se encienden! 
jAy, qu^ de celos que causa 
En las serranas del Tormes 
Su perfeccidn sobrehumana! 
Las mSs hermosas la temen, 
Mas sin osar murmurarla; 
Que como el oro m£is pure 
No sufre una leve mancha. 
Bien haya tu gentileza, 
Una y mil veces bien haya, 
y abrase la envidia al pueblo, 
Hermosisima aldeana. 
Toda, toda eres perfecta, 
Toda eres donaire y gracia. 
El amor vive en tus ojos 

Y la gloria esid en tu cara. 
La libertad me has robado, 
Vo la doy por bien robada, 
Mas recibe el don benigna 
Que mi humildad le consagra. 


Esto un zagal la decia 
Con razones mal formadas, 
Que sali6 libre d los fuegos 

Y volvid cautivo d casa. 

Y desde entonces perdido 5 
£1 dia i sus puertas le halla; 

Ayer le canto esta letra 
Echandole la alborada: 

Linda zagaleja 
De cuerpo gentil, 10 

Muirome de amores 
Desde que te vi. 

Tu talle, tu aseo, 
Tu gala y donaire, 

No tienen, serrana, 15 

Igual en el valle. 
Del cielo son ellos 

Y tu un serafin: 
Muerome de amores 

Desde que ie vi. ao 

De amores me muero, 
Sin que nada baste 
A darme la vida 
Que alia te llevaste, 

Si ya no te dueles, 25 

Benigna, de mi; 
Que muero de amores 
Desde que te vi. 



^Qu^ era, decidme, la naci6n que un dia 
Reina del mundo proclann3 el destino, 
!La que a todas las zonas extendia 
Su cetro de oro y su blas(5n divino? 

S Voldbase a occidente, 

V el vasto mar Atlantico sembrado 
Se hallaba de su gloria y su fortuna. 
Do quiera Espana: en el preciado seno 
De America, en el Asia, en los confines 

Del Africa, alK Espafia. El soberano 

Vuelo de la atrevida fantasia 
Para abarcarla se cansaba en vano; 
La tierra sus mineros le rendia, 
Sus f)erlas y coral el Oceano, 

S Y donde quier que revolver sus olas 

£l intentase, a quebrantar su furia 
Siempre encontraba costas espanolas. 

Ora en el cieno del oprobio hundida, 
Abandonada ii la insdencia ajena, 

D Como esclava en mercado, ya aguardaba 

La ruda argoUa y la servil cadena. 
iQu^ de plagas! joh Dios! Su aliento impure. 
La pestilente fiebre respirando, 
Infesto el aire, emponzond la vida; 


La hatnbre enflaquecida 

Tendid sus brazos lividos, ahogando 

Cuanto el contagio perdond; tres veces 

De Jano el templo abrimos, 

Y a la trompa de Marte aliento dimos; 

Tres veces ^ay! Los dioses tutelares 

Su escudo nns negaron, y nos vimos 

Rotos en tierra y rotos en los mares. 

I Que en tanto tiempo viste 

Por tus inmensos t^rminos, oh IberiaP 

I Que viste ya sino tunesto luto, 

Honda tristeza, sin igual miseria, 

De tu vil servidumbre acerbo fruto? 

Asl rota la vela, abierto el lado, 
Pobre bajel 6. naufragar camina, 
De tormenta en tormenta despeiiado, 
Por Ins yermos del mar; ya ni en su popa 
Las guirnaldas se ven que antes le ornaban, 
Ni en sefial de esperanza y de contento 
La flamula riendo at aire ondea. 
Ceso en su dulce canto el pasajero, 

El ronco marinero, 

Terror de muerte en tomo le rodea, 

Terror de muerte siiencioso y frio; 

Y ^1 va fi estreliarse al dspero bajio. 
Llega el momento, en fin; tiende si 

El tirano del mundo al occidente, 

Y fiero exclama: *EI occidente es mi 


B£rbaro gozo en su cenui^a frente 
Resplandecid, cotno en el seno obscuro 
De nutje tormentosa en el estio 
Rel^mpago fugaz hrilla un moment" 
Que anade horror con su fulgor sombrio. 
Sus guerreros feroces 
Con gritos de soberbia el viento llenan; 
Gimen los yunques, los martillos suenan, 
Arden las forjas. jOli vergiienza! jAcaso 
Pensais que espadas son para el combate 
Las que mueven bus manos codiciosas? 
No en tanto os estimds: grillos, esposas, 
Cadenas son que en vergonzosos lazos 
Por siempre amarren tan inertes brazos. 

Estremeciose Espafia 
Del indigno rumor que cerca oia, 

V al grande impulse de su justa safia 
Rompid el volcan que en su interior hervia. 
Sus d^spotas antiguos 

Constemados y p51id(« se esconden; 
Resuena el eco de venganza en torno, 

V del Tajo las mdrgenes rcsponden: 
"iVeoganza!" ^D<5nde estin, sagrado rio, 
Los colosos de oprobio y de verguetiza 

Que nuestro bien en su insolencia ahogahan P 
Su gloria fue, nuestro esplendor comlenza; 

V tii, orgulloso y fiero. 

Viendo que aun hay Castilla y castellanos, 
Precipitas al mar tus rubias ondas. 



Diciendo: 'Va acabaron los tiranos. ° 

jOh triunfo! jOh gloria! ;Oh celestial momento! 
^Con que puede ya dar el labin mio 
El nombre auguslo de la palria al viento? 
Vo le dard; mas ni> en el arjia de ore 
Que mi cantar sonoro 
Acompand hasta aqui; nu aiirisionado 
En estrecho recinto, en que se apoca 
EI numen en el pecho 

Y el aliento fatldico en la Ixica. 
Desenterrad la lira de Tirteo, 

Y el aire abierto & la radiante lumbre 
Del sol, en la alta cumbre 

Del riscoso y pinlfero Fuenfria, 

Alli volard yo, y alii cantando 

Con voz que atruene en rededor la sierra, 

Lanzar^ por los campos castellanos 

Los ecos de la gloria y de la gueira. 

jGueira, nombre tremendo, ahora sublime, 
Onico asilo y sacrosanto escudo 
Al Impetu saiiudo 

Del fiero Atila que & occidente oprime! 
iGuerra, guerra, espanoles! En el Betis 
Ved del Tercer Fernando alzarsc airada 
La augusU sombra; su divina frente 
Mostrar Gonzalo en la imperial Granada; 
Blandir el Cid su centelleante espada, 

Y alls sobre los altos Pirineos, 
De! hijo de Jimena 


Animarse los mierab g gan 
En torvo ceflo y d d n p na 
Ved como cruzan p 1 es anos; 

Y el valor exhaland q se n rra 
Dentro del hueco d ml a. f fas, 

En fiera y ronca v z p n n n jGuerra! 

jPues qu^! ^Con faz serena 
Vierais los campos devastar opimos, 
Etemo objeto de ambicidn ajena, 
Herencia inmensa que afanando os dimns? 
Despertad, raza de heroes: el momento 
Lleg6 ya de arrojarse a la victoria; 
Que vuestro nombre eclipse oueslro nnmbre^ 
Que vuestra gloria humille nuestra gloria. 
No ha sido en el gran dia 
El altar de la palria alzado en vano 
For vueatra mano fuerte. 
Juradlo, ella os lo manda: /Antes la muerie 
Que con.senlir jamds ning^n lirano!* 

Si, yo lo juro, venerables sombras; 
Yo lo juH) tambi^n, y en este inslante 
Ya me siento mayor. Dadme una lanza, 
Ceiiidme e! casco fiero y refulgente; 
Volemos al combate, A la venganza; 

Y e) que niegue su pecho a la esperauza, 
Hunda en el polvo la cobarde frente. 
Tal vez el gran torrente 

De la devastacion en su carrera 

Me llevard. ;QuS importa? ^Por ventura 


No se muere una vez? ^No ir^, expirando, 
A encontrar nuestros Indites mayores? 
'jSalud, oh padres de la patria mla, 
Yo les dir^, salud! La heroica Espana 
De eotre cl estrago universal y horrores 
Levanta la cabeza ensangrentada, 
Y vencedora de su mal destino, 
Vuelve i dar i. la tierra amedrentada 
Su cetro de oro y su lilason divino, ' 


Madre mla, yo soy nifia; 
No se enfade, no me rina, 
Si fiada en su prudencia 
Desahogo mi conciencia, 

Y contarle solicito 

Mi desdicha 6 mi delito, 
Aunque muerta de rubor. 

Pues Blasillo el otro d(a, 
Cuando mis mo anocheda, 

Y cantando descuidada 
Conducfa mi man ad a, 
En el bosque, por acaso, 
Me sali<5 solito al paso, 
Mds hermoso que el amor. 

Se me acerca temeroao, 

^^P ^^^H 

Me saluda carinoso, H 

Me Fepite que soy linda, H 

Que no hay pecho que no rinda, ^| 

Que si rio, que si lloro, B 

A los horabres enamoro, H 

V que malo con mirar. 

Con estilo cortesano 

Se apodera de mi mano, 

Y entre dientes, madre mia, 

No se bien que me pedia; 

Vo entendi que era una rosa, 

Pero el dijo que era otra cosa, 

Que yo no le quise dar. 

^Sabe usted lo que decia 

El taimado que queria? 

Con vergUenza lo confieso, 

Mas no hay duda que era un beso 

Y fu^ tanto mi sonrojo, 

Que irritada dc su arroj'o. 

No s6 como no mori. 

Mas mi pecho enterneeido 

De mirarle tan rendido, 

Al principio resistiendo, 

£l instando, yo cediendo, 

Fu^ por fin tan importuno, 

Que en la boca, y solo uno, 

Que me diera permiti. 

Desde entonces, si le miro, 

L Yo no s€ por que suspiro, 



Ni por qu^ si d Clori mira 

Se me abrasa el rostro en ira; 

Ni por que, si con cuidado 

Se me pone junto al lado, 

Me estremezco de placer. 5 

Siempre orillas de la f uente 
Busco rosas a mi f rente, 
Pienso en ^1 y me sonrio, 

Y entre mi le llamo mlo, 

Me entristezco de su ausencia, 10 

Y deseo en su presencia 
La mds bella parecer. 

Confundida, peno y dudo, 

Y por eso d usted acudo; 

Digame, querida madre, 15 

Si sentia por mi padre 
Este pldcido tormento, 
Esta dulce que yo siento 
Deliciosa enfermedad. 

Diga usted con que se cura 20 

O mi amor, 6 mi locura, 

Y si puede por un beso, 
Sin que pase A mas exceso, 
Una nina enamorarse, 

Y que trate de casarse 25 
A los quince de su edad. 



Noche, Idbrega noche, eterno asilu 
Del miserable que, esquivaodo el sue no. 
En tu silencio pavoroso gime; 
No desdefies mi voz; letai Ijelefio 
Presta a mis sienes, y en tu horror sublime 
Empapada la ardiente fantasta, 
Da a mi pincel fatldicos colores 
Con que el tremendo dia 
Trace ai furor de vengadora tea, 

V el odio irrite de la p atria mia, 

Y escandalo y terror al orbe sea. 
jDia de execracidn! La destructora 

Mano del tiempo le arrojo al avemo; 
Mas I qui^n el sempitemo 
Clamor con que los ecos import una 
La madre Espafla en enlutado arreo 
Podrd atajar? Junto al sepulcro frio, 
Al palido lucir de opaca luna, 
Entre cipreses fiinebres la veo: 
Tr^mula, yerta, descenido el manto, 
Los ojos moribundos 
Al cielo vuelve, que le oculta el Uanto; 
Roto y sin brillo el cetro de dos mundos 
Yace entre el polvo, y el ledn guerrero 
Lanza a sus pies rugido lastimero. 


jAy, que cual d^bil planta 
Que agola en su furor liorrido vienlo, 
De viclimas sin cuenlo 
Llord la destruccion Mantua afligida! 
Yo vi, yo vi su juventud l]orida 
Correr inerme al huesped ominoso. 
;Mas qu^ su generoso 
Esfuerzo pudo ? El perfido caudilio 
En quien su honor y su defensa fia, 
La condeni5 al cuchiJIo. 
^Quien ]ay! la alevosia, 
La horrible asolacion habrd que cuenle, 
Que, hollando de amistad los santos fueros, 
Hizo furioso en la indefensa gente 
Ese tropel de ligres camiceros? 

Por las henchidas calles 
Gritando se despena 
La infame turba que abrigo en su seno, 
Rueda allS rechinando la curefia, 
Aci retumba el espantoso Irueno, 
Allt el joven lozano, 
El mendigo infeliz, el venerable 
Sacerdote pacifico, el anciano 
Que con su arada faz respeto 
Juntos amarra su dogal lirano. 
En balde, en balde gime, 
De los duros sat^lites en torno, 
La triste madre, la a6igida esposa. 
Con doliente clamor, la pavorosa 


Fatal descarga suena, 

Que a luto y Uanto elerno la condena. 

jCuScta escena de muerle! jcuSnto estrago! 
jCuantos ayes doquier! Despavorido 
Mirad ese infelice 
Quejarse al adalid empedernido 
De otra cuadrilla almz; "jAh! ^Qu^ te like?" 
Exclama el trisle en Idgrimas desheclio: 
"Mi pan y mi mansi6n parti contigo, 
Te abri mis brazos, te cedi mi lecho, 
Temple tu sed, y me llamd tu amigo; 
I V ahora pagar podras nuestro hospedaje 
Sincero, franco, sin doblez ni engaiio, 
Con dura muerte y con indigno ultraje?" 
iPerdido suplicar! jiniltil ruego! 
E! monstruo infame d sus ministros mira, 
Ycon tremenda viiz gritando: 'jfuego!' 
Tinto en su sangre el desgraciado expira. 

Y en tanto ;d(5 se esconden? 
^D6 estan joh cara patria! tus soldados, 
Que a tu clamor de muerle mi responden ? 
Presos, encarcelados 

Por jefes sin honor, que, liaciendo alarde 
De su perfidia y dolo, 
A merced de los vdndalos te dejan, 
Como entre hierros ei le<5n, forcejean 
Con iniitil afdn. Vosotros siilo, 
Fuerte Daoiz, inir^pido Velarde, 
Que osando resistir al gran torrente 

Dar supisteis en flor la dulce vida 

Cod firme pecho y con serena frenle; 

Si de mi libre musa 

Jani£s el eco adormecio & tiranos, 

Ni vi! Ilsonja emponzon<i su a lien to. 

Alld del altu asienio, 

Al que la accion magndnima ns eleva. 

El himno oid que d vuestro numlire enlona, 

Mientras la fama aligera le lleva 

Del mar de hielo d la abrasada aina. 

Mas jay! que en lanto sus iuneslas alas 
Por la opresa metropoli tendlendd, 
La yerma asolacidn bus plazas tubre, 

Y al aspero silbar de ardientcs balas, 

Y al ronco son de los prenados lironces, 
Nuevo fragor y estrepito sucede. 

,; OIs como, rompiendo 

De moradores timidos las puertas, 

Caen estallando de los fuerles giinces? 

jCon qu^ espantoso eslruendo 

Los duenos buscan, que medrosos Uiiyciil 

Cuanto encuentran destruyen, 

Bramandu, los atroces forajiJos, 

Que el robo infame y la malanza ciegau, 

^ No veis cuil se despiiegan, 

Penetrando en los hondos aposentos, 

De sangre y oro y lagrimas sedienlos ? 

Rompen, lalan, destrozan 
Cuanto se ofrece a su sangrienta espada. 


Aqui, matando al dueno, se alborozan, 
Hleren all! su esposa acongojada; 
La familia asolada 
Yace expirando, y con feroz sonrisa 
Sorben voraces el fatal tesoro. 
Suelta, i otro lado, la madeja de oro, 
Mustio el dulce carmin de su mejllla, 
V eo su frente marchiia la azucena, 
Con voz turhada y anheJante Uoro, 
De su verdugo ante los pies se humilla 
Timida virgen, de amargura Uena; 
Mas con furor de hiena, 
Aizando el corvo alfanje damasquino, 
Hiende su cuello el bSrbaro asesino. 

jHorrible atrocidad! . . . Treguas joh musa! 
Que ya la voz rehusa 
Embargada en suspiros mi garganta. 
y en. ignominia tanta, 
;Sera que rinda el espafiol bizarro 
La indomita cerviz d la cadena? 
No, que ya en torno suena 
De Palas fiera el sanguinoso carro, 
Los caballos flamigeros hosliga. 
Ya el duro peto y el arnes brillante 
Visten los fuertes hijos de Pelayo. 
Fuego arrojd su ruginoso acero: 
•jVenganza y guerra!" resonfi en su tumba; 
■;Venganza y guerra!" repitiO Moncayo; 

y al grito heroico que en los aires zmnba, 
• jVenganza y guerra! * claman Turia y Duero. 
Guadalquivir guerrero 
Alza al belico son la regia f rente, 

Y de! Patrijn valiente 
Blandiendo altivu la nudosa lanza, 

Corre gritando al mar: 'jGuerra y venganza!' 

jOh sombras infelices 
De los que aleve y bdrbara cuchilla 
Rob"5 S. los dulces lares 1 
jSombras inultas que en fugaz gemida 
Cnizais los anchos campos de Castilla! 
La heroica Espafia, en tanto que al bandido 
Que i fuego y sangre, de insolencia eiego, 
firindo felicidad, a sangre y fuego 
Le retribuye el don, sabrd piadosa 
Daros solemne y noble monumento. 
AllI en padron cruento 
De oprobio y mengua, que perpetuo dure, 
La vil traici<5n del d^spota se lea, 

Y altar etemo sea 

Donde todo Espanol al monstruo jure 
Rencor de muerte que en sus venas cunda, 

Y i cien generaciones se difunda. 




^Ddnde vas, zagal cruel, 
Donde vas con ese nido, 
Riyendo tu mientras pian 
Esos tristes pajarillos? 
; Su madre los deji5 sobs 

En este momento mismo, 
Para buscarles sustento 

Y dSrselo con su pico . . . 
Mfrala cu^n azorada 

> Echa menos & sus hijos, 

Salta de un drbol en otro, 

Va, toma, vueSa sin rino; 

Al cielo favor demands 

Con acento dolorido; 
; Mientras ellos en tu mano 

Baten el ala al oirlo . . . 

jTu tambi^n tuviste madre, 

V la perdiste aun muy nifio, 

V te encontrasle en la ticrra 
) Sin amparo y sin abrigol — 

Las lagrinias sc le saltan 
Al cuitado pastorcillo, 

Y vergonzoso y confuso 
Deja en el ^rbol el nido. 

Qae BO faa de eolrar, i 

PdrcBas, qinm n 

Mas Kmpio ({ue k» esii d soL 

* No profane mi palacio 
Ua fcmentido tfaidor 
Que cootn su Rey comlute 

V que a su patria rendio. 

• Pucs si cl es de Rcj-es prinra, 
Priiio de Reyes soy w; 

V ccmde de Bena\'¥nte 

Si el es duque de Borlxm ; 

■Llevindole de ventaja 

Que nunca jamds maniln^ 

La traicioD ml noble sangre, 

V haber nacido espahol. ' 

Asi atrunaba 
Una ya cascada vo2, 




Que de un pakcio salfa 
Cuya puerta se cerrd; 

Y d la que estaba a caballo 
Sobre un negro pisador, 
Siendo en su escudo !as lises 
Mas bien que timbre balddn, 

Y de pajes y escuderos 
Llevando un trope I en pos 
Cubiertos de ricas galas, 
El gran duque de Bortx5n: 

El que lidiando en Pavia, 
MSs que valienle, feroz, 

Y que d Toledo ha venido, 
Ufano de su traicion, 
Para recibir mercedes 
Y ver al Emperador. 


En una anchurosa cuadra 
Del alcazar de Toledo, 
Cuyas paredes adoman 
Ricos tapices flamencos, 

Al lado de una gran mesa, 
Que cubre de terciopelo 
Napolitano tapete 
Con borlones de oro y flecos; 

Ante un sillon de respaldo 



^^H Que entre bordado arabesco 

^^H Los timbres de Espafia ustenta 

^B Y el dguik del imperii., 

^^H De pie estaba Carlos Qitinto, 

^^H Que en Espafia era primero, 


^^H Con gallardo y noble lalle, 

^^H Con noble y tranquilo aspecto. 


^H De brocado de oro y bianco 

^^H Viste (abardo tudesco, 

^^H De rubias martas orlado, 


^^H Y desabrochado y suelto, 

^^M Dejando ver un justillo 

^^m De raso jalde, cubierto 

^^M Con primorosos bordados 

^^H Y costosos sobrepuestos, 


^^H Y la excelsa y noble insignia 

^^1 Del Toison de oro, pendiendo 

^^H De una preciosa cadena 

^^P En la mitad de su pecho. 

^^B Un birrete dc veDudo 


^^H Con un bianco airdn, sujelo 

^^H For un joyel de diamant^s 

^^M Y un antiguo camafeo, 

^^H Descubre por ambos lados, 

^^P Tanta majestad cubriendo, 


^^H Rubio, cual barba y bigote. 

^^H Bien atusado el cabello. 

^^H Apoyada en la cadera 




W a, 



La potente diestra ha puesto, 
Que aprieta dos guaotes de imbar 
Y un primoroso mosquero, 
Y con la siniestra halaga 
De un mastin muy corpuknto, 
Blanco y las orejas rubias, 
El ancho y camoso cuello. 

Con el Condestable insigne, 
Apaciguador de! reino, 
De los pasadoB disturbios 
Acaso est^ discurriendo; 

6 del trato que dispone 
Con el Rey de Francia preso, 
de asuntos de Aiemania 


Agitada por Lutero; 

Cuando un Iropel de caballos 
Oye venir a lo lej'os 

Y ante el alcazar pararsc, 
Quedando todo en silencio. 

En la antecamara suena 
Rumor impensado luegn, 
Abresc a! fin la mampara 

Y entra el de Borbdn soberbio, 
Con el semblante de azufre 

Y con los ojos de fuego, 
Bramando de ira y de rabia 
Que entrena mal el respeto; 

y con balbucieote lengua, 


^5 ^M 

^^H V con mal boirado ceno, 

^H Acusa al de Benavente, 

^^H Un desagravio pidiendo. 

^^1 Del espanol Condestahle 


^^H Lati6 con orguUo e) pecho, 


^H Ufano de la entereza 

^^1 De su esclarecido deudo. 

^H Y aunque advertido procura 

^^M Disimular cual discrete, 

^H A su noble rostro asoman 


^^H La aprobacidn y el contenlo. 

^^H El Emperador un puBtci 

^^H Quedd indeciso y suspense, 

^^H Sin saber que responderle 

^^P Al tranc&, de enojo ciego. 


^^H Y aunque en su interior se goza 


^K Con el proceder violento 

^^M Del conde de Benavente, 

^H De altas csperanzas Ueno 

^^H For tener tales vasallos, 


^^1 De noble lealtad modelos, 

^^H Y con Ids que el anchti mundo 

^H Ser£ A BUS glorias estrecho, 

^H Mucho al de Borb.5n le debe 

^H Y es f uerza satisf acerlo : 


^^B Le ofrece para calmarlo 

^H Un desagravio complete. 

^^1 Y, llamando & un gentU-hombre, 



espaNa 1 

Con el semblante severo 

Manda que el de Benavente 

Venga i su presencia presto. 


Sostenido por sus pajes , 


Desciende de su litcra 

El conde de Benavente 

Del alcSzar S. la puerta. 

Era un viejo respetabJe, 

Cuerpo enjuto, cara seca, 


Con dos ojos como chispas, 

Cargados de largas cejas, 

V con semblante muy noble, 

Mas de gravedad tan seria 

Que veneraci6n de lejos 


V miedo causa de cerca. 

Eran su traje unas caJzas 

De purpura de Valencia, 

V de recamado ante 

Un coleto a la leonesa: 


De fino lienzo gallego 

Los punos y la gorguera. 

Unos y otra guarnecidns 

Con randas barcelonesas: 

Un birretdn de velludo 


Con su cintillo de perlas, 

Y el gabin de paiio verde i 


. Con alamares de seda. * ' 


Tan solo de Calatrava 
La insignia espafiola Ueva; 
Que et Toison ha despreciado 
For ser orden extranjera. 

Con paso tardo, aunque firme, 
Sube por las escaleras, 
Y al verle, las alabardas 
Un golpe dan en la tierra; 

Golpe de honor, y de aviso 
De que en el alcazar entra 
Un Grande, d quien se le debe 
Todo honor y reverencia. 

Al Uegar S. la antesala, 
Los pajes que estdn en ella 
Con respeto le sal u dan 
Abriendo las anchas puertas. 

Con grave paso entra el conde 
Sin que otro aviso preceda, 
Sabnes atravesando 
Hasta la cimara rcgia. 

Pensativo estd c! Monarca, 
Discurriendo como pueda 
Componer aquel disturbio 
Sin hacer A nadie ofensa. ■ 

Mucho al de Borh6n le debe, 
Aun mucho mas de el espera, 
V al de Benavente mucho 


Considerar le interesa. 

Dilacion no admile el caso, 
No hay quien dar consejo pueda 

Y Villalar y Pavia 

A un tiempo se le recuerdan. 
En el si Hon asentado 

Y el codo sobre ia mesa, 
Al persona je recibe, 
Que comedido se acerca. 

Grave el conde le saluda 
Con una rodilla en (ierra, 
Mas como Grande del reino 
Sin descubrir la cabeza. 

El Emperador benigno 
Que alee del suelo le ordena, 

Y la pldtica dificil 
Con sagacidad empieza. 

Y entre severo y afahle 
Al cabo le manifiesta 
Que es el que i Borbrin aloj'e 
Voluntad suya resuella. 

Con respeto muy profundo, 
Pero con la voz enlera, 
Respfindele Benavente, 
Destocando la cabeza ; 

• Soy, sefior, vuestro vasatio, 
Vos sois mi rey en la tierra, 
A vos ordenar os cumple 



^^H De mi vida y de mi hacienda. 1 

^^M "Vuestro soy, vuestra mi casa, 

^^H De mi disponed y de ella, 

^^H Pero no toqu6s mi honra 

^H Y respetad mi conciencia. 5 

^^B "Mi casaBorbon Dcitpe . 

^^H Puesto que es volimtad vuestra, 1 

^^H Contamine sus paredes, ] 

^^H Sus blasones envilezca; 

^H > Que i ml me sobra en Toledo ,„ 

^^f Donde vivir, sin que tenga 

Que roaarme con traidores, 

Cuyo solo aliento infest a. 

Y en cuaoto 6\ deje mi casa, 

Antes de tornar yo d ella, 15 

Purificar^ con fuego 

Sus paredes y sus puerlas. • 

Dijo el conde, la real mano 

Besd, cubrid su cabeza, 

Y retir6se bajando ao 

A do estaba su litera. 

Y & casa de un su parienle 

Mando que le condujeran, 

Abandonando la auya 

Con cuanto dentro se encieira. jj 

Qued6 absorto Carlos Quinto 

^^L De ver tan noble firmeza, 

^M Estimando la de Espana 

^^^ Mds que la imperial diadema. 

1 M 



Muy pocos dias el duque 
Hizo mansion en Toledo, 
Del noble conde ocupando 
Los hoorados aposentos. 

Y la noche en que el palacio 
Dejo vacio, partiendo, 

Con su s^quito y sus pajes, 
OrguUoso y satisfecho, 

Turb6 la apacible luna 
Un vapor bianco y espeso 
Que de las altas techumbres 
Se iba elevando y creciendo: 

A poco rato tornose 
Eo hurao confuso y denso 
Que en nubarrones obscuros 
Ofuscaba el claro cielo; 

Despues en ardientes chisjias, 

Y en un resplandor horrendo 
Que iluminaba los valles 
Dando en el Tajo reflejos, 

Y al fin su furor moslrando 
En embravecido inceodio 
Que devoraba altas torres 

Y derrumbaba altos techos 
Resonaron las campanas, 

Contnovi6se todo el pueblo 
De Benavente el palatio 

^^^^F AROLAS 71 ^^M 

^^B Presa de las llamas viendo. ^^H 

^^H £1 Eni[>erador confuso ^^^H 

^^H Corre i procurar remedio, 1 

^^1 En atajar tanto dano 

^^M Mostrando tenaz empeno. 5 

^^H En vano todo: trag(5se 

^^H Tantas riquezas et fuego, 

^H A la lealtad castellana 

^^H Levantando un monumento. 

^^H Aun hoy unos viejos muros 10 

^H Del humo y las llamas negros 

^^1 Recuerdan accioD Ian grande 

^H Ed la famosa Toledo. 



^V Sobre pupila azul, con sueno leve, 

^H^ Tu parpado cayendo amortecido, i; 

^H Se parece d la pura y blanca nieve 

^H Que sobre las violetas reposo: I 

^H Vo el sueno del placer nunca he dortnido: 

^H S^ mds feliz que yo. 

^1 Sc aaemeja tu voz en la plegaria zo 

^H Al canto del zorzal de indiano suelo 

^H Que sobre la pagoda sulitaria 

^^1 Los himnos de la tarde suspinS: 




Vo solo esta oracidn dirijo a! cielo; 

Se mas feliz que yo, 
Es tu aliento la esencia mSs Cragante 
De los linos del Arno caudaloso 
Que brotan sobre un junco vacilaate 
Cuando el c^firo blando los mecid; 
Yy no gozo su aroma delicioso; 

Se mds feliz que yo. 
El amor, que es espfritu de fuego, 
Que de callada noche se aconseja 
Y se nutre con Idgrimas y ruego, 
En tus purpiireos tabios se escondid: 
£l te guarde el placer y d ml la queja: 

Se mds feliz que yo. 
Bella es tu juventud en sus albores 
Conio un campo de rosas del Oriente; 
A! iingel del recuerdo pedi (lores 
Para adomar tu sien, y me las did; 
Yo deda al ponerlas en tu frenle: 

Se mas feliz que yo. 
Tu mirada vivaz es de paloma; 
Como la adormidera del desierio 
Causas dulce embriaguez, hurt de aroma 
Que el cielo de lopacio abandond; 
Mi suerte es dura, mi destino iucierto: 

Se mas feliz que yo. 




Con diez canones por banda, 
Viento en popa d toda vela, 
No corta el mar, sino vuela 
Un velero bergantin: 

Bajel pirata que llaman, 
Por su bravura, el TemidOy 
En todo mar conocido 
Del uno al otro confin. 

La luna en el mar riela, 
En la lona gime el viento, 

Y alza en blando movimiento 
Olas de plata y azul; 

Y ve el capitan pirata, 
Cantando alegre en la popa, 
Asia i, un lado, al otro P^uropa, 

Y alia i, su f rente Stambul, 

* Navega, velero mio. 
Sin temor; 
Que ni enemigo navio, 
Ni tormenta, ni bonanza 
Tu rumbo d torcer alcanza, 
Ni d sujetar tu valor. 
* Veinte presas 
Hemos hecho 

74. es?a:!^a 

A iesceciio 

Y laa reminio 
Sus peadunes 

5 Caen. n;iicii:ae> 

A ziis pies-. • 
Q'M^ tfy wi bar: J mi ufsurti^ 
Q'Mf es mi Dios ^ littrr^ad. 
Mi Ley l^j\t€rsi y « TZtnLu. 
lo Hi mmica ptztrsa ^*i mnir, 

• AM muevan f eroz a:u€m 

Cies^js reves 
For im palmo mas de derra: 
Que TO tengo aqui por mio 
15 Cixanto abarca d mar bravio, 

A qukn nadie impuso kyes. 
•Y no'hay plava, 
Sea cual quiera, 
Ni bandera 
^^ De esplendor, 

Que no sienta 
Mi derecho, 

Y d^ pecho 
A mi valor. • 

35 Que es mi harco mi tesoro . . . 

• A la voz de * \ barco viene ! • 

Es de ver 


C6mo vira y se previene 
A todo trapo 1 escapar; 
Que yo soy el rey del mar, 

Y mi furia es de temer. 

*En las presas 5 

Yo divido 
Lo cogido 
Por igual: 
S6I0 quiero 

Por riqueza 10 

La belleza 
Sin rival. • 
Que es mi harco mi tesoro , . . 

^jSentenciado estoy i. muerte! 

Yo me no: 15 

No me abandone la suerte, 

Y al mismo que me condena 
Colgar^ de alguna entena, 
Quizd en su propio navio. 

* Y si 'caigo, 20 

^ Qu^ es la vida ? 

Por perdida 

Ya la di, 

Cuando el yugo 
. Del esclavo, 25 

Como un bravo, 

Que es mi harco mi tesoro . . • 


• Son mi mtjsica mejor 
El estr^pito y temblor 
De los cables sacudidos, 
5 Del negro mar los bramidos 

Y el rugir de mis canones. 
* Y del trueno 
Al son violento 
Y del viento 
lo Al rebramar, 

Yo me duermo 
Arrullado , 
Por el mar. * 
15 Que es ml barco mi tcsoro. 

Que es mi Dios la libertad, 
Mi ley lafuerza y el vienlo, 
Mi Unica patria la mar, 


i Ciidn solitaria la naci6n que un dia 
20 Poblara inmensa gente ! 

i La naci6n cuyo imperio se extendla 
Del ocaso al oriente! 

;I^grimas viertes, infeliz, ahora, 
Soberana del mundo, 
25 Y nadie de tu faz encantadora 

Borra el dolor prof undo! 


Obscuridad y luto tenebroso 
En ti verlid la muerte, 
Y en su furor el d&pota sanoso 
Se complaci6 en tu suerle. 

No perdon6 lo hermoso, patria mia; 
Cayo el joven guerrero, 
Cayd el anciano, y la segur imjiia 
Manejd placentcro. 

So la rabia cayo la virgen pura 
Del d^spota sombrio, 
Como eclipsa la rosa su hermosura 
En el sol del esUo, 

I Oh vosoiros, del n 
Contemplad n 
^Igualarse podran jah! c|ue dnlore^ 
Al dolor que yo sienio? 

Yo, desterrado de lu palria m(a, 
T)e una palria que adoro, 
Perdida miro su primer valia 
Y sus desgracias lloro 

Tendio sus brazos la agitada Espai 
Sus hiJDS implorandu; 
Sus hijos fueron, mas traidora sana 
Desbaratd su bando. 



^ Qui; se hicieron tus muros torreados, 
Oh mi palria (juerida? 
I Donde fueron ttis h^riics esf orzados, 
Tu espada no vencida ? 

jAyt de tus hijos en la humitde IreDte 
Esli el rubor grabado- 
A sus ojos, caidos irisietnente, 
El llaoto esta agulpado. 

Un liempo Espafia fu^; cien heroes fueron 
En liempos de ventura, 

Y las naciones timidas la vieroQ 
Vistosa en hermosura. 

Cual cedro que en el T.ibano se ostenta, 
Su frente se elevaba; 
Como el trueno A la virgen amedrenla, 
Su voz las aterraba. 

Mas bora, como piedra en el desierto, 
Yaces desamparada, 

Y el juslo desgraciado vaga incierlo 
All£i en derra apartada. 

Cubren su antigua pompa y poderio 
Pobre hierba y arena, 

Y el enemigo que lembl(S i su brio 
Burla y goza en su pena. 

rrimiiiAii ;ak Mv: dc ■ 

iQnim rahiMrf ;«& Ftpmma* i 
^QincB aecaii la IsalD? 


Cocriendo ran por la vr^ 
A las puerlas de Crutada 
Hasta cnarenta gomeks 
Y d cafHtan que los manda. 

Al entrar en la ctudad, 
Parando en su yegua blanca, 
he dijo fete & una mujer 
Que entre sus brazos lloraba: 

— Enjuga el llanto, cristiana, 
No me atormenles asi, 
Que tengo yo, mi sultana. 
Un nuevo Eden para ti. 

Tengo un palacio en Granada, 
Tengo jardines y flores, 
Tengo una fuenle dorada 
Con m^ de cien surtidores. 


espaSa ! 

Y en !a vega del Genii 

Tengo parda fortaleza, 

Que seri reina entre rail 

Cuando encierre tu belleza. 


V sobre loda una orilla 

Extiendo mi senorio; 

Ni en Cordoba ni en Sevilla 

Hay un parque como el mio. 

Alii la altiva palmera 


Y el encendido granado, 

Junto d la frondosa higuera 

Cubreo el valle y collado. 

All! el robusto nogal, 

Alii el ndpalo amaritio, 


All! el sombrio moral 

Crecen al pie del Castillo. 

Y olraos tengo en mi alameda 

Que hasta el cielo se levantan, 

Y en redes de piala y seda 


Tengo paj'aros que cantan. 

Y tii mi sultana eres, 

Que desiertos mis salones 

Eatan, mi haren sin mujeres, 

Mis oidos sin canciones. 


Yo te dare lerciopelos 

Y perfumes orientales; 

De Grecia te traert? velos 

Y de Cachemira chales. 


Y te dard blanca^ plumas 







Para que adomes tu frente, 




Mas blancas que las espumas 




De nuestros mares de oriente; 


Y perias para el cabcllo, 


Y banos para cl calor, 


Y collares para el cuello; 

Paralos labios . . . jamor! — 

— ,;Qu^ me valen tus riquezas, 

Respondiole [a cristiana, 

Si me quitas d mi padre, 


Mis amigos y mis damas? 

Vuelveme, vue'lverae, moro, 

A mi padre y a mi palria, 

Que mis torres de Leon 

Valen mas que hi Granada. — 


Escuch61a en paz el moro. 

Y manoseando su barba. 

Dijo, CO mo quien medita. 

En la mejUla una Ugrima: 

Si tus castillos mejores 



Que nuestros jardines son, 



Y son mSs bellas tus flores. 



Tor ser tuyas, en Le<5n, 



Y til diste tus amores 

A alguno de tus guerreros, 


HuridelEd^n, nollores; 

Vete con tus caballeros. — 

Y ddndola su caballo 

Y la mitad de su guardia 





£1 capit^D de los moros 
Vo]vi6 ea sUencio la espalda. 


;Belio es vivir, la vida es la armonla! 

Luz, peiiascos, torrentcs y cascadas, 
Uo sol de fuego iluminando el dia, 
Aire de aromas, flores apifiadas: 

Y en medio de la noche majestuosa 
Esa luna de plala, esas eslrcUas, 
LSmparas de la tierra ]jerezosa. 

Que se ha dormido en paz debajo de ellas. 

jBello es vivir! Sc ve en el horizonte 
Asomar el crepuscuio que nace; 

Y la neblina que corona el monte 
En el aire Hotando se deshace; 

Y el inmenso tapiz del firmamento 
Gambia su azul en franjas de colores; 

Y susuiran las hojas en el viento, 

Y desatan su voz los ruisenores. 

Si hay huracanes y aquiUin que drama, 
Si hay un inviemo de humedad vestido. 
Hay una hoguera S. cuya roja llama 
Se alza un festin con su discorde ruido. 

V una pintada y fresca primavera. 
Con su manto de luz y orla de flores. 


■ Qui 

V Doi 


Que cubre de verdor la aocha prac 
Donde brotan arroyos saltadores. 

iBeUces vivir, la vida e 
Luz, penascos, torrentes y tascadas, 
Un sol de fuego iluminando el dia, 
Aire de aromas, flores apinadas. 

Arranca, arranca, Dios mio, 
De la mente del poeta 
Este pensamiento impid 
Que en un delirio cred; 
Sin un instante de calma, 
En su olvido y amargura, 
No puede soiiar su alma 
Placeres que no gozd. 

jAy del poeta! su Uanto 
Fu^ la inspiracidn sublime 
Con que arrebato su canto 
Hasta los cielos tal vez; 
Solitaria flor que e! viento 
Con impuro soplo azola, ■ 
£l arrastra su tonnentu 
Escrito sobre la tez. 

Porque tu, joh Dios! le robaste 
Cuanto los hombres adoran; 
Tu en el mundo le arrojaste 
Para que muriera en el; 
Tii le dijiste que el hombre 


Era en la tierra su hermano; 
Mas el no encuentra ese nombre 
En sus recuerdos de hiel. 

Tu le has dicho que cligiera 
Para el viaje de la vida 
Una hermosa compafiera 
Con quien partir su dolor; 
Mas ;ay! que la busca en vano; 
Porque es para e! ser que a ma 
Como un inmundo gusano 
Sobre el tallo de una flor. 

Canta la luz y las flores, 

Y el amor en las mujeres, 

Y el placer en los amores, 

Y la calma en el placer: 

Y sin esperanea adora 
Una belleza escondida, 

Y hoy en sus canlares llora 
Lo que alegre cantd ayer. 

£l con los siglos rodando 
Canta su af^n S. los sigjos, 

Y los siglos van pasando 
Sin curarse de su afdn. 
jMaldito el nombre de gloria 
Que en tu c61era le diste! 
Sentados en su memoria 
Recuerdos de hierro estin. 

El dia a) umbra su pena, 
La noche alarga su duelo, 



ora escribe en el cielo 
Su sentencia de vivir: 
Fdbulas son los placeres, 
No hay placeres en su almii, 
No hay amor en las mujeres, 
Tarda la hora de morir. 

Hay sol que alumbra, mas quema: 
Hay flores que se marchitan, 
Hay recuerdos que se agitan 
Fantasmas de maldicidn. 


z que canta, 

Al arrancaria del pecho 
Deja fuego en la garganta, 
Vacio en el corazAn. 

jBello es vivir! Sobre gigante roca 
Se mira el tnundo d nuestros pies tendido, 
La freote altiva con las nubes toca . . . 
Todo creado para el hombre ha sido. 

jBello es vivir! Que el hombre descuidado 
En los bordes se duerme de la vida, 

V de locura y suefios embriagado 
En un festln el porvenir olvida. 

iBello es vivir! Vivamos y canlemos: 
El tiempo enlre sus pliegues roedores 
Ha de Uevar el bien que no gocemos, 

V ha de apagar placeres y dolores. 
Cantemos de nosotros olvidados, 

Hasta que el son de la fatal campana 



Toque & morir , , . Cantemos descuidados, 
Que el sol de ayer no alumbrara manana. 


Huye la fuente al manantial ingrata 
El verde musgo en derredor lamiendo, 

Y el agua limpia en su crista! retrata 

Cuanto va viendo. 
El c&ped mece y las arenas moja 
Do mil caprichos al pasar dibuja, 

Y ola tras ola murmurando arroja, 

Riza y empuja. 
Lecho muUido la presenta el valle, 
Fresco abanico el abedul pomposo, 
Caiias y juncos retirada calle, 
Sombra y reposo. 
Brota en la altura la fecunda fuente; 
,; Y a que su empefio, si al bajar la cuesta 
Halla del rio en el raudal rugiente 
Tumba funesta ? 


Ttadicidn de Toledo 

Entre pardos nubarrones 
Pasando la blanca luna, 
Con resplandor fugitivo, 

uidados, ^^^^ 
in ana. ^^^H 



La baja tierra no alumbra. 
La brisa con frescas alas 
Juguetona no murmura, 

Y las veletas no giran 
Entre la cruz y la cupula. 
Tal vez un p£lido rayo 
La opaca atmdsfeca cruza, 

Y unas en otras las sombras 
Confundidas se dibujan. 
Las almenas de las torres 
Un momento se ct.lumbran, 
Como lanzas de sotdadus 
Apostados en la allura. 
Reverberan los cristales 

La tr^mula Jlama turbia, 

Y un instante entre las rocas 
Riela la fuente oculta. 

Los Alamos de la vega 
Parecen en la espesura 
De fan (asm as apinados 
Medrosa y gigante turba; 

Y alguna vez desprendida 
Gotea pesada lluvia, 

Que no despietta d quien duerme, 
Ni 6. quien medita importuna. 
Yace Toledo en el sueno 
Entre las sombras confusa, 

Y el Tajo & sus pies pasando 
Con pardas ondas la arrulla. 

El mon<5toiio murmuUo 
Sonar perdido se escucha, 
CuaJ si por la3 hondas calles 
Hirviera del mar la espuma. 
\Qu6 duke es dormir en calma 
Cuando S lo lejos susurran 
Los fiiamos que se mecen, 
Las aguas que se derrumban! 
Se suenan bellos fantasmas 
Que el sueno del triste endulzan 

Y en tanto que suena el triste, 
No le aqueja su amargura. 

Tan en calma y tan sombrfa 
Como la noche que enluta 
La esquina en que desemboca 
Una callejuela oculta, 
Se ve de ud hombre que aguard; 
La vigilante figura, 

Y Ian a la sombra vela 
Que entre la sombra se ofusca. 
Frente por frente d sus ojos 
Un balcdn d poca altura 
Deja escapar por los vidiios 
La luz que dentro le alumbra; 
Mas ni en el claro aposento, 
Ni en la callejuela obscura 
El silencio de la noche 
Rumor sospechoso turba. 
Pas6 asl tan largo tiempo. 




Que pudiera haberse duda 

hombre, 6 solamente 

Mendda ilusion noctuma; 

Peru es hombre, y bien se ve, 

Porque con piania segura 

Ganando el centro £ la calle 

Resuelto y audaz pregunta: 

— |J Qui^n va ? — yd corta distancia 
El igual compas se escucha 

De un caballo que sacude 
Las sonoras herraduras. 
^Qui^nva? repite, y cercana 
Otra voz menos robusta 
Responde: — Un hidalgo jcalle! 

Y el paso el bruto apresura. 

— Tengase 1 1 dalg — el hombre 
Replica, y la pad mj. una. 

— Vedma b n ml m calle 
(Repusieron n m u ) 

Que hasta h y a nad e se tuvo 
Iban de \ argaa y Atuna. 

— Pase el Acuna y perdone; — 

Dijo el mozo en faz de fuga, 

Pues teni^ndose el embozo 

Sop la un silbato, y se oculta. 

Par6 el jinete i una puerla, 

Y con precaucion difuaa 
Sali6 una niiia al balcon 
Que llama interior alumbra. 





— iMipadre!^clamden 

Y el viejo en la cerradura 
Metid la Have pidiendo 

A sus gentes que le acudan. 
Un negro por ambas bridas 
Tom6 la cabalgadura, 
Cerrdse detrds la puerta 

Y quedo la calle muda. 
En esto desde el balcon, 
Corao quien tal acostumbra, 
Un mancebo por las rejas 
De la calle se asegiira. 
Asio el brazo al que apostad 
Hizo cara a Iban de Acuna, 

Y huyeron, en el embozo 
Velando la catadura. 

Clara, apacible y Serena 
Pasa la siguiente tarde, 
Y el soi tocando su ocaso 
Apaga su luz giganle: 
Se ve la imperial Tiiiedn 
Dorada por los remates, 
Corao una ciudad de gran a 
Coronada de crislales. 
El Tajo por entre rocas 
Sus anchos cimientos lame, 
Dtbujandu en las arenas 



Las ondas con que las bate. 

V la ciudad se retrata 
En las ondas desiguales, 
Como en prendas de que el rio 
Tan afanoso la bafie. 

A lo lejos en la vega 
Tiende galdn por sus mSrgenes, 
De sus dlamns y huertos 
El pintoresco ropaje, 

V porque su altiva gala 
M£s & los ojos halague, 
La salpica con escombros 
De castillos y de alcdzares. 
Vn recuerdo es cada piedra 
Que toda una historia vale, 
Cada colina un secreto 

De principes 6 galanes. 

AquI se band la hermosa 

Por quien dejo su rey culpable 

Amor, fama, reino y vida 

En manos de musulmanes. 

All! recibid Galiaoa 

A su receloso amante 

En esa cuesta que entonces 

Era un plantel de azahares. 

A115 por aquella torre, 

Que hicieron puerta los ^rabes, 

Subid el Cid sobre Babieca 

Con su gente y su estandarte. 

fi se ve el Castillo ^^^^H 

Servando, 6 Cervantes ^^^^| 

ada se hizo nunca ^^^1 


Mds lejos se ve el castillo 

De San Serv'ando, 6 Cervantes 

Donde nada se hizo nunca 

Y nada al presente se hace. 
A este lado est^ la almena 
Por do saco vigilante 

El conde Don Peranzules 
Al rey, que supo una tarde 
Fingir tan tenaz modorra, 
Que, politico y constante, 
Tuvo siempre e! brazo quedo 
Los palm as al horadarle. 
Alli esti el circo romano, 
Gran cifra de un pueblo grande, 

Y aqu! la antigua Basilicu 
De bizantinos pilares, 

Que oy6 eo el primer concilio 
Las palabras de los Padres 
Que velaron por la Iglesia 
Perseguida 6 vacilante. 
La sombra en este momento 
Tiende sus tvirbios cendales 
Por tod as esas memorias 
De las pasadas edades, 

Y de! Cambri'm y Visagra 
Los caminos desiguales. 
Camino d los Toledanos 
Hacia las murallas abren. 
Los labradores se acergan 



^H Al fuego de sus hogares, 

^^M Cargados con sus aperos, 

^^M Cansados de sus afanes. 


^^M Los ricos y sedentarios 

^f Se tornan con paso grave. 


Calado el ancho sombrero, 

Abrochados los gabanes; 

Y los cMrigos y monjes 


y los prelados y abades 

Sacudiendo el leve polvo 


De capelos y sayales. 

Que'dase solo un mancebo 

De impel uosos ade manes, 

Que se pasea ocultando 

Entre la capa el semblante. 


Los que pasan le conlemplan 


Con decision de evitarle. 

Y ^1 contempla d los que pasan 

Como si 5 alguien aguardase. 

^^ Los timidos aceleran 

ao '1 

^L Los pasos al divisarle. 

^^1 Cual temiendo de seguro 

^H Que ies proponga un combate; 

^H Y los valientes le miran 

^H Cual si sinderan dejarle 

»5 \ 

^H Sin que Ubres sus estoques 


^H £n rifla sonora dancen. 


^^M Una mujer tambien sola 


^^^^^ Se viene el llano adelante. 




La luz del rostro escondida || 

En tocas y tafetanes. i 

Mas en lo leve del paso, 

Y en lo flexible del lalle, 


Puede A traves de los vclos 

Una hermosa adivinarsc. 

Vase derecha al que aguarda, 

Y el al encuentro la sale 

Diciendo . . . cuanto se dicen 


En las citas los amantes. 

Mas ella, galanterias 

Dejando severa aparte. 

Asl al mancebo interrumpe 

En voz decisiva y grave : 


"Abreviemos de razones, 

Diego Martinez; mi padre, 

Que un hombre ha enlrado en su ausencia 

Dentro mi aposento sabe: 

Y asi quien mancha mi honra, 


Con la suya me la lave ; 

dadme mano de esposo, 

6 libre de vos dejadme.' 


MIr61a Diego Martinez 


Atentamente un instante, 


Y echando d un lado el embozo. 


Repuso palabras tales; 


"Dentro de un mes, Info niia, ' 


Parto i la guerra de Flandes; 1 



Al ano estar^ de vueita 
Y contigo en los altares. 
Honra que yo te desluzca, 
Con honra tnia se lave; 
Que por honra vuelven honra 
Hidalgos que en honra nacen. 

— Jiiralo, — exclanio la nifla. 

— Mis que mi palahra vale 
No te valdra un juramento. 

— Diego, la palabra es aire. 

— jVive Dies que estas tenaz! 
Dalo por jurado y baste. 

— No me basla; que olvidar 
Puedes la palabra en Flandes. 

— j Voto i. Dios ! i que mas pretendes ? 

— Que d los pies de aquella imagen 
Ix) jures como cristiano 

Del santo Crislo delante. * 
Vadl6 un punto Martinez, 
Mas porfiando que jurase, 
Llev61e Ini5s hacia el tempio 
Que en medio la vega yace. 
Enclavado en un madero. 
En duro y postrero trance, 
Cei^ida la sien de espinas, 
Descolorido el semblante, 
Vlase aill un crucifijo 
Tenido de negra sangre, 
A quien Toledo devota 


ESPAftA ^^^^^Hj^ 

Acude hoy en sus azares. 

Ante sus plantas divinas 1, 

Llegaron ambos amanles, 

Y haciendo In^s que Martinez 


Los sagrados pies locase, 


— Diego, ^juras 

A tu vuelta desposarme ? 

Contesto el mozo: i 


Y ambos del templo se salen. 


Pasi5 un dia y otro dia, 

Un mes y otro mes pasi5, ', 

Y un ano pasado habia, ' 

Mas de Flandes no volvia 

Diego, que & Flandes partid. 


Lloraba la bella Ines 

Su vuelta aguardando en vano, 

Oraba un mes y otro mes 

Del crucifijo a los pies 

Do puso el galSn su mano. , 


Todas las tardes venia 

Despues de traspuesto el sol, 

Y a Dios Uorando pedia 

La vuelta del espanol, | 

Y el espanol no volvta. \ 


Y aiempre al anocbecer, 




Sin duefia y sis escudero, 

£n un manto una mujer 
EI campo salta i ver 
Al alto del Miradero. 

jAy del triste que consume 
Su existencia en esperar! 
jAy del triste que presume 
Que el duelo con que el se abrume 
Al ausente ha de pesarl 

La esperanza es de los cielos 
Precioso y funesto don, 
Puea los amantes desvelos 
Cainbian la esperanza en celos. 
Que abrasan el corazon. 

Si es cierto lo que se espera, 
Es un consuelo en verdad; 
Pero Kendo una quimera, 
En tan fr^gil realidad 
Quien espera desespera. 

Asf Inf s desesperaba 
Sin acabar de esperar, 

Y su tea se marchitaba, 

Y su Uanto se secaba 
Para volver tt brotar. 

En vano a su confesor 
Pidio re medio 6 consejo 
Para aliviar su dolor; 
Que mat se cura el amor 
Con las palabras de un viejo. 




En vano i Iban acudia, 
Llorosa y desconsolada; 
El padre no respondia; 
Que la lengua le tenia 


Su propia deshonra atada. 

Y ambos maldicen su estrella, 
Callando el padre severe 

Y suspirando la bella, 
Porque naci6 mujer ella, 

Y el viejo nacid altanero. 
Dos anos al im pasaron 

En esperar y gemir, 

Y las guerras acabaron, 

Y los de Flandes tomaron 


A sus tierras i vivir. 

Pasd un dia y olro dia, 
Un mes y otro mes pasd, 
Y el tercer ano corria; 
Diego d Flandes se partid, 


Mas de Flandes no volvla. 

Era una tarde serena, 
Doraba el sol de occidente 
Del Tajo la vega amena, 
Y apoyada en una almena 


Miraba In^s la corriente. 
Iban las tranquilas olas 
Las riberas azotando 
fiajo las murallas solas, 
Musgo, espigaa y amapolas 





" 1 

Ugeramente doblando. 


Algun olmo que escondido 

Credo eatre la hierba blanda, 

Sobre las aguas tendido 

Se reflejaba perdido 


En su cristaiina banda. 

Y algun ruisenor colgado 


Entre su fresca espesura 

Daba al aire embalsamado 

Su c£ntico regalado 


Desde la enramada obscura. 

Y algiin pez con cien colores, 

Tornasolada la escama, 


Saitaba a besar las flores, 


Que eshalan gralos olores, 


A las puntas de una rama. 

V alld en el tr^mulo fondo 

El torredn se dibuja 

Como el contomo redondo 

Del hueco sombrfo y hondo 


Que habita nocturna bruja. 


Asf la niria lloraba 

El rigor de su fortuna, 

Y asl la tarde pasaba 

Y al horizon te trepaba 


La consoladora luna. 

A lo lejos por el llano 


ViiS de hombres tropel lejano 




Que en pardo poivo liviano 

Dejan envuello cl camino. 

Baj<5 In^s del torretin, 

Y Uegando recelosa 


A las puertas del CambnSn, 

Sintio latir zozobrosa 

Mis inquieto el coraain. 

Tan galan como altanero 

Dejd ver la eseasa luz 


For bajo el arco primero 

Un hidalgo caballero 

En un caballo andaluz; 

Jubon negro acucbillado, 

Banda azul, lazo en la bombrera, 


V sin pluma al diestro lado 

El sombrero derribado 

Tocando con la gorguera; 

Bombacho gris guaroecido, 

Bota de ante, espuela de oro, 


Hierro al cinto suspendido, 

Y S. una cadena prendido 

Agudo cuchillo moro. 

Vienen tras este jirete 

Sobre potros jcrezanos 


De lanceros hasta siete, 

Y en adarga y coselete 

Diez peones castellanos. 

Asi<5se 4 su estribo Infe 


Gritando: — jDiego, eres tli! — 

^^^^m loi 

Y €1 vidndoia de Ij-av^s 

Dijo — jVotodBekebii, 

Que no me acuerdo'tidit^lves! — 

Diola trisle un alanda 

Tal respuesta al escuchar, . 5 

Y a poco perdiu el senlida, 

Sin que mds voz ni gemido 

Volviera en tieira a exhalar. 

Fninciendo ambas d dos cejas J 

Encomenddla d su genie, 19.. ] 

Diciendo: — jMalditas viejas ',■''.-'-. ■ 

Que a las mozas malamente 

Enloquecen con consejas! — 

Y aplicando el capitin 

A su potro las espuelas 15 

El rostro a Toledo dan, 

V i trote cnizando van 

Las obscuras callejuelas. 

Asl por sus alios fines 

Dispone y permite ei cielo 30 

Que puedan mudar al hombre 

Fortuna, poder y ticmpo. ^^^H 

A Flandes pardti Martinez ^^^M 

De soldado avenlurero, ^^^B 

Y por su suerte y hazaftas aj 

Alii capitdn !e liicieron. 

Segun alzaba en honores 





Alzdbase-cn pensamientos, 

Y tant-T ayudd en la guerra 
Con^u valor y akos hechos, 
QW el mismo rey i su vuelta 
le armo en Madrid caballero, 
Tomdndole i su servicio 

Por capilin de lanceros. 

Y otro no fu^ que Martinez 
Quien ha poco entr6 en Toledo, 


Tan orguUoso y ufano 
Cual sali(5 humilde y pequefio. 
Ni es otro i quien se dirige, 
Cobrado el conocimiento, 
La amorosa In& de Vargas, 
Que vive por el muriendo. 
Mas ^1, que olvidando todo 
Olvidd su nombre mesmo, 
Puesto que hoy Diego Martinez 
Es el capitan Don Diego, 
Ni se ablanda A sus caricias, 
Ni cura de sus lamentos; 
Diciendo que son locuras 
De gentes de poco seso; 
Que ni ^1 prometio casarse 


Ni pensd jamis en ello. 
jTanto mudan i los hombres 
Fortuna, poder y tiempol 
En vano porfiaba InSs 
Con amenazas y niegos} 



103 ^^M 

^^F Cuanto mds elk importuna 


^H Estd Martinez severo. 

^^M Abrazada A sus rodUlas 


^^H Enmaranado el cabello, 

^^H La hermosa nina Uoraba 


^^H Prostemada por e) suelo. 

^^B Mas todo empeiio es inucil, 


^^H Porque el capltdn Don Diego 


^^M No ha de ser Diego Martinez 

^^H Como Id era en otro liempo. 


^^K Y asi Ilamaodo i su gente, 

^^M De amor y piedad ajeno, 

^H Mand61es que i. Ine's llevaran 


^^H De grado 6 de valimiento. 


^^H Mas ella antes que la asieran, 


^^M Cesaodo un punto en su duelo, 

^^H Asf hablo, el rostro Ibroso 

^^M Hacia Martinez volviendo: 

^^H *Contigo se fue mi honra, 

^^H Conmigo tu juramento; 


^^H Pues bueaas prendas son ambas, 

^H En buen fiel las pesaremos. > 


^^H Y la faz descolorida 


^^H En la mantilla envolviendo, 

^^H A pasos desatentados 


^^B Sali6se del aposento. 




Era entonces de Toledo 

Per el rey goberaador 

El jusliciero y valiente 

Don Pedro Ruiz de Alarcon. 


Miichos anos por su patria 

El buen viejo peled; 

Cercenado tiene un brazo, 

Mas entero el corazon. 

La mesa tiene delante, 


Los jueces en derredor, 

Los corchetes d la puerta 

Y en la derecha el bastdn. 

Estd, como presidente 

Del tribunal superior, 


Entre un dosel y una alfombra 

Reclinado en un sillon, 

Escuchando con paciencia 

La casi asmatica voz 


Con que un letrico escribano 


Solfea una apelacion. 


Los asistentes boslezan 


Al murmullo arrullador, 


Los jueces medio dormidos 


Hacen pliegues a! ropon, 

^ .! 

Los escribanos repasan 

Sus pergaminos al sol, 


Los corchetes a una moza 



Guiiian en un corredor, 

Y abajo en Zocodover 
Gritan en discorde son 

Los que en el mercado venden 

Lo vendido y el valor. 5 

Una mujer en tal punto, 
En faz de grande afliccidn, 
Rojos de Uorar los ojos, 
Ronca de gemir la voz, 

Suelto el cabello y el manto, 10 

Tomd plaza en el saldn 
Diciendo i gritos: *; Justicia, 
Jueces; justicia, senorl* 

Y i los pies se arroja humilde 

De Don Pedro de Alarcdn, 15 

En tanto que los curiosos 
Se agitan al rededor. 
Alzdla cort^s Don Pedro 
Calmando la confusion 

Y el tumultuoso murmullo 20 
Que esta escena ocasiond, 


— Mujer, £ qu^ quieres ? 

— Quiero justicia, senor. 

— ^ De qu^ ? 

— De una prenda hurtada. 

— (iQu^ prenda? 25 

— Mi corazdn. 

— <iTdlediste? 


ESPAlitA ^^H 

— Le presto. 

— ^ Y no te le han vuelto ? 


— ^Tienes testigos? 

— Ninguno. 

— ^Ypromesa? 

— iSi, porDios! 

Que al partirse de Toledo 


Un juramento empeno. 

~ i Qm6a es ^1 ? 

— Diego Martinesi. 

— £ Noble? 

— Y capitan, seiior. 

— Presentadme al capitan. 

Que cumpliri si juro. — 


Qued(5 en silencio la sala. 

Y i. poco en el corredor 

Se oyd de botas y espuelas 

El acompasado son. 

Un portero, levantando 


E! tapiz, en alta voz 

Dijo: — El capitan Don Diego. — 

Y entro luego en el saldn 

Diego Martinez, los ojos 

Llenos de orguUo y furor. 


— I Sois el capitan Don Diego, , 

DIjole Don Pedro, vos ? ~ 

Contestd allivo y sereno ' 


Diego Martinez: 




— I Conoc^is i esta muchacha ? 

— Ha tres afios, saivo error. 

— I Hicisteisia juramento 
De scr su marido i — 

— No. 
— } Juriiis no haberlo jurado? 

— Sf juro. — 

■ — Pues id con Dios. 

— [Miente! — clamiS Iq^s llorando 
De despecho y de rulwr. 

■ — Mujer, ipiensa lo que dices! . . . 

— Digo que miente, jurd. 

— ^Tienes testigos ? 

— Ninguno. 

— Capitdn, idos con Dios, 

Y dispeosad que acusado 
Dudara de vuestro honor. — 

Tomd Martinez la espalda 
Con brusca satisfaccion, 
£ Ines, que le vio partirse, 
Resuelta y firme gritd: 

— Llamadle, tengo un testigo. 
Llamadle otra vez, senor, — 
Volvio el capitSn Don Diego, 
Seniose Ruiz de Alarci5n, 

La muititud aquietdse 

Y la de Vai^as siguio: 

— Tengo un testigo k quien nunca 





Falt6 verdad ni razt5n. 

— ^Qui^Q? 

— Un hombre que de lej'os 
Nuestras pal a bras oyo, 
Mirindonos desde arriba. 

— ^ Estaba en algun balcon ? 

— No, que estaba en un suplicio 
Donde ha tiempo que expire. 

— ;Luego es muerto? 

— No, que vive. 
-Estaisloca, i^-iveDios! 

— El Cristo de la \'ega 
A cuya faz perjure. — 

Pusi^rense en pie los jueces 
Al nombre del Redentor, 
Escuchando cod asombro * 


Tan excelsa apelacion. 
Reind un profundo silencio 
De sorpresa y de pavor, 

V Diego bajo los ojos 

De vergiienza y confusion. 
Un instante con los jueces 
Don Pedro en secreto hablo, 

V levantose diciendo 
Con respeluosa vozi 

' La ley es ley para todos, 



Tu testigo es el mejor, 
Mas para tales tesdgos 




^^^^^r ZORRILLA 109 

^H No hay mis tribunal que Dios. 

^^f Haremos . . . lu que sepamos; 

Escribano, alcaerelsol 

Al Cristo que esta en la vega 

Tomar^is declaracido. • 


Es una tarde serena, 

Cuya luz tomasolada 

Del purpurino horiamte 

Blandamente se derrama. 

Placido aroma las (lores 


Sus hojas plegando exhalao. 

y el cefiro entre perfumes 

Mece las tr^mulas alas. 

Brillan abajo en el valle 

Con suave rumor las aguas, 



Despidiendo al dfa cantan. 

Alia por ei Miradero 

For el CambnSn y Visagra 

Confuso tropei de gente 


Del Tajo it la vega baja. 

Vienen delante Don Pedm 

De Alarcon, Ibiin de Vargas, 

Su hija Infe, los escribanos, 

Los corchetes y los guardias; 


Y detras monjes, hidalgos, 

Mozas, chicos y caoalla. 




Otra turba de curiosos 
En la vega les aguarda, 
Cada cual comentariando 
El caso seguQ le cuadra. 



Entre ellos estS. Martinez 
En apostura bizarra, 
Calzadas espuelas de ora, 
Valona de encaje blanca, 
Bigote & la borgoiiona, 
Melena desmelenada, 
El sombrero guarnecido 
Con cuatro lazos de plata, 
Un pie delante del oiro, 
Y el puno en el de la espada. 



Los plebeyos de reojo 

Le miran de entre las capas, 

Los chicos al uniforme 

Y las mozas a la cara. 
Llegado el goberaador 

Y gente que le acompaiia, 
Entraron todos al claustro 
Que iglesia y palio separa. 
Encendieron ante el Cristo 
Cuatro cirios y una limpara. 


Y de hinojos un momento 
Le rezaron en voz baja. 

Estd el Cristo de !a Vega 
La cruz en tierra posada, 
Los [lies alzados del suelo 



Poco menos de una varaj 
Hacia la severa imagea 

Un notario se adelanta, 
De modo que con el rostro 
AI pecho sanlo llegaba, 
A un lado tiene i Martinez, 
A otro lado £ In^s de Vargas, 
Detr£s al gobernador 
Con sus jueces y sus guardias. 
Despuds de leer dos veces 
La acusaciijn entabJada, 
El notario d Jesucristo 
As! demandfi en voz alta: 
— "JesHs, Hijo de Maria, 
'Ante nos esUi maHana 
*Cilado como testigo 
"For boca de ItUs de Vargas, 
"iJuriis ser cierlo que un dta 
' A vuestras divtnas plantas 
"Jurd d ItUs Diego Martinez 
*Por su mujer desposarla?* 

Asida i un brazo desnudo 
Una mano atarazada 
Vino d posar en los autos 
La seta y hendida palma, 
Y alls en los aires ' ; St jueo ! ' 
Clani6 una voz mas que human 

Alzo la turha medrosa 
La vista i. la imagen santa . . . 



Los labioa tenia abiertos, 

Y una mano desclavada. 


Las vanidades del mundo 
Renuncio alii mismo Ines, 

Y espantado de si pro])io 
Diego Martinez tarn bi en. 
Los escribants temblando 
Dieron de esta escena fe, 
Firmando como testigos 
Cuantos hubieron poder. 
Funddse un ani versa tio 

Y una capilla con el, 

Y Don Pedro de Alarcdn 
El altar ordenO hacer, 
Donde hasta el tiempo que co 

Y en cada un ano una vez, 
Con )a mano desclavada 
El crucifijo se ve. 


Tengo yo un pajarillo 
Que el dia pasa 
Cantando enlre las Horcs 
De mi ventaoa; 



^^F ¥ un canto alegre 


^^M A todo pasajero 

^H Dedica siempre. 


^^M Tiene mi pajarillo 


^^M Siempre armonias 

s > 

^^H Para alegrar el alma 

^H Del que camina . . . 

^H lOhcielosaDlo, 

^H Por que no harSn ios hombres 

^^M Lo que Ios p^jarus! 


^H Cuando mi pajarillo 

^V Canlos entona, 1 


^M Pasajeros ingratos ■ 


^H Cantos le arrojan: ^ 


^K Mas DO por eso 


^B Niega sus armonias 

^V Al pasajero. 


Tiende las leves alas, 

Cruza las nubes 

Y cania junto al cieJo 

M 1 

^m Con voz mis duke: 


^^ "Paz a. Ios hombres 


^H ¥ gloria al que en la altura 


^^B Rige Ios orbes! * 


^^M ¥ yo sigo el ejemplo 

« 1 

^H Del ave mansa 

^^M Que canta entre las Sores 


^^M De mi ventana, 

^^P Forque es sabido 


Que poetas y pdj'aros 
Somos !o mismo. 


Al salir el sol dorado 
Esta manana te vt 
Cogiendo, nina, en lu huerto 
Matitas de perejil. 

Para verte mds de cerca 
En el huerto me meti, 
V sabrds que eche de menus 
Mi coraaSn al salir. 

Tu debiste de encontrarie, 
Que en el huerto le perdi. 
'DSmele, perejilera, 
Que te le vengo d pedir,' 


Por las Hores proclamado 
Rey de una hermosa pradera, 
Un clavel afortunado 
Di6 principio a su reinado 
A! nacer la primavera. 

Con majestad soberana 
Llevaba y con noble brfo 
£1 regio manto de grana, 



Y sobre la frcnte ufana 
La corona de rocio. 

Su comitiva de honor 
Mandaba, por ser costumbre, 
El c^firo volador, 

Y habia en su servitiumbre 
Hierbas y malvas de olor. 

Su voluntad poderosa, 
Porque tambi^n era uso, 
Quiso una flor para esposa, 

Y regiamente dispuso 
Elegir la maa herraosa. 

Como era costumbre y ley, 

Y porque causa deiicia 
En la numerosa grey, 
Pronto corrW la noticia 
Por los estados del rey. 

Y en revuelta actividad 
Cad a flor abre el arcano 
De su teeunda beldad, 
Por prender la voluntad 
Del hermoso soberano, 

Y hasta las menos apuestas 
Engalanarse se vian 

Cod harta envidia, dispuestaa 
A ver las solemnes fiestas 
Que celebrarse debian. 

Lujosa la Corte brilla: 
El rey, admirado, duda, 





Cuando ocultarse sencUla 
Vid una tierna florecilla 
Entre la hierba menuda. 

V por si el regio esplendor 
Dc su corona le inquiela, 
Pregiintale con amor: 
— » i Como te llamas :-" — " Violeta, ' 
Dijo temblando la flor. 

- VYteocuKascuidadosa 
V no luces tus colores, 
Violeta dulce y medrosa, 
Hoy que entre todas las (lores 
Va el rey a elegir esposa?" 

Siemprc temblando la flor, 


Aunque llena de placer, 
Suspird y dijo : — ' Senor, 
Yo no puedo merecer 
Tan distinguido favor." 

El rey, suspense, la mira 

Y se inclina dukemente; 
Tanta modestia le admira; 
Su blanda escncia respira, 

Y dice alzando la frentc: 

' Me depara mi ventura 


Esposa noble y apuesta ; 



Scpa, si alguno murmura, 
Que la mejor hcrmosura 
Es la hermosura modesta. * 

Dijo, y el aura atanosa 
Publico en forma de ley, 
Con V02 dulce y melodiosa, 
Que la violeta es la esposa 
Elegida por el rey. 

Hubo magnlficas fieslas, 
Ambos esposos se dieron 
Prucbas de amor manifiestas, 
V en aquel reinado fueron 
Todas las flores modestas. 


jHeme al fin en la cumbre soberana! . . . 

■[Nieve perpetua . . ., soledad doquiera! . . . 

I Quien sine el horabre, en su soberbia insana, 

A hollar estos desiertos se atreviera i 

Aqui enmudece hasta la voz del viento . . .; 

Profundo mar parece el horizonte . , ., 

Cnica playa el alto firmamento , , ., 

Aoclada nave el solitario monte. 

i Nada en tomo de mi ' . . . jTododmlsplanias! 


espaiqa ^^^I 

Obscures bosques, relucientes rios, 

Lagos, Campinas, paramos, gargantas ... , 

[Europa entera yace a los pies raios! J 

j V cuan pequena la terrestre vida, 


Cuan relegado e! humanal imperio 

Se ve desde estos hielos donde anida 


EI Monte Blanco, el rey del hemisferio! 

jDe aqut tiende su cetro sobre el mimdo! 

El Danubio opulento, el Po anchuroso, 


El luengo Rhin y el R6dano profundo, 

Hijos son de los hijos del Coloso. 

Debajo de ^1 . . . los Ajpes se eslabonan 

Como escabeles de su trono inmenso: 

Debajo de ^1 ... las nubes se amontonan 


Cual humo leve de quemado incienso. 

i Sobre ^1 ... los cielos nada mis! La tarde 

Le invidia al verlo de fulgor cefiido . . . 

Llega la noche, y atin su frente arde 

Con reflejos de un sol por siempre liundido. 


Aiia turnan con raudo movimiento 

Una y otra estacifin . . . £l permanece 

Mudo, inmdvil, est^ril. , Monumento 

De la implacable eternidad parece! 

Ni el oso atroz ni el traicionero lobo 


Huellan jamds su excelsitud nevada . . 

HiJeriano vive del calor del globo . . . 

jEn & principia el reino de la nadal 

Por eso, ufano de su horror profundo. 


Dichoso aqu! mi coraziSn palpita . . . 

1 1 


^m iAqu 

^f I Soto 



Aquf solo con Dios . . ., fuera del tnuado! 
Soto, bajo la b6veda infmila! 

Y qu^ siiave, deleitosa calma 
Brinda d mi pecho esta regi6n inerte! . . . 
Asl concibe fatigada el alma 
El tardo bien de la benigna muerte. 

jMorir aquil De los poblados valles 
No retomar a la angustiosa vida: 
No escuchar mis los lastimosos ayes 
De la cuitada humanidad c^da: 

Desparecer, huyendo de la tierra, 
Desde esta cima que se acerca al cieio: 
Por siempre desertar de aquella guerra, 
De eterna libertad tendiendo el vuelo . . . 

Tal ansia acude al corazt^n llagado, 
Al mirarte, joh Mont-Blanc/, erguir la frente 
Sobre un misero mundo atribulado 
Por el cierzo y el rayo y e! torreote. 

jTu nada temes! De tu imperio yerto 
Solo Dios es sefior, fuerza y medida: 
jCdmo el ancho Oc^ano y el Desierto, 
Tli vives sdlo de tu propia vida! 

La tierra acaba en tu glacial palacio; 
Tuya es la azul inraensidad aerea; 
Tu ves mds luz, mis astros, mds espacio . . . ; 
jParte eres ya de la mansion eterea! 

(Adids! Retorno al mundo . . . Acaso un d' 
Ya de la tierra el corazon no lata, 
y sobre su haz inanimada y frfa 


Tiendas tu manto de luciente plata . . . 

Serd entonces tu reino silencioso 
Cuanto hoy circunda y cubre e! Oceano . . 

jAdids! . . . Impera en tanto desdenoso 
Sobre la insania del orgullo humano. 


S^ — Dice la nJAa, -^ " 
^ Tendiendo hacia su madre 
V Dos manecitas -l-'rt. 

J Calenturientas, ^^A 

i Cual dos blancos jasmines 
7 Que el viento seca . . . -^ 
Un silencio de muerte 

La madre guarda , . . 

jAy! ;si hablara, verliera 

Mares de lagrimas! 

Besa i la niiia, 

jY aun le fingen sus labios 

Una Bonrisal 
Del cuello de la madre 
La hij'a se cuelga 
■ Y, pegada a su oido, 
Palida y treniila, 
Con sordo acento, 
DIcele horrorizada: 
— > Oye un secreto: 


BfiCQUER 121 

I Sabes por qui d marirme 

Le tento tanlo ? 
Porque Itiego me llevan, 

Toda de bianco , 

Al cementerio . . ., 5 

jY de verme alii sola 

Va d dartne miedoP 
— ^Hija de mis entranas I 

(Grita la madre) 
Dies querrd que me vivas . . .; 10 

F, aunqiie te mate, 

Descuida, hermosa; 
Que tH en el cementerio 

A^o estards sola, • 




Saeta que voladora 15 

Cruza, arrojada al azar, 
Sin adivinarse donde 
Temblando se clavara; 

Hoja que del arbol seca 
Arrebata el vendaval, 20 

Sin que nadie acierte el surco 
Donde d caer volverd; 

Gigante ola que el viento 


espaNa ^^V^^^^^ 

Riza y empuja en el mar, 

Y rueda y pasa, y no sabe 

Qu^ playa buscando va; ,' 

Luz que en cercos tembloroaos 


Brilla, prfixima S. expirar, '| 

Ignordndose cudl de ellos 

El ultimo briliard; 

Eso soy yo, que al acaso 

Cruzo el mundo, sin pensar 


De ddnde vengo, ni addnde 

Mis pasos me llevardn. 

Del sal6n en e! Angulo obscuro, 

De su duefto tal vez olvidada, 

Silenciosa y cubierta de polvo 


Velase el arpa. 

jCuSnta nota dormia en sus cuerdas. 

Como e! pijaro duerme en las ranias, 

Esperando la mano de nieve 

Que sabe arrancarlas! 


jAy! pens^; jcuantas veces el genio 

Asi duerme en el fondo del alma, 

Y una voz, como Ldzaro, espera 

Que le diga: •Levdntate y anda!' 

VolverSn las obscuras golondrinas 


En tu balcon sus nidos A colgar, i 

^M otia 


y, otra vez, con el ala a sus cristales 
Jugando llamar^D; 

Pero aquellas que el vueio refrenaban 
Tu hermosura y mi dicha £ contemplar, 
Aquetlas que aprendieroD nuestros nombres . 
£sas , . . jno volverin! 

Volver^n las tupidas madreselvas 
De tu jard!n las tapias i escalar, 
V otra vez & la tarde, aun mas hermosas, 
Sus flores se abrirdn; 

Pero aquellas, cuajadas de rocio, 
Cuyas gotas mirabamos temblar 
Y caer, como lagrimas del dia . . . 
£sas . . . ;no volverin! 

Volverdn del amor en tus oldos 

Las palabras ardientes & sonar; 

Tu corazdn de su profundo suefto 

Tal vez dcspertari; 

Pero mudo y absorto y de rodiilas, 
Como se adora d Dios ante su altar, 
Como yo te he querido . . . desengSnate, 
;As[ no le queridn! 


espaRa ^^H 

Cerraron sus ojos 

Que aun tenia abiertos; 

Taparon su cara 

Con un bianco lienzo; 


Y unos soilozando, 

Otros en siliencio, 

De la triste alcoba 

Todos se salieron. 

La luz, que en un vaso 


Ardia en el suelo, 

Al muro arrojaba 

La sonibra del leclio; 

Y entre aquelia sombra 

Veiase a intervalos 


Dibujarse rigid a 

La forma del cuerpo. 

Despertaba el dia 

Y i su albor primero 

Con sus mil rtiidos 


Despertaba el pueblo. 

Ante aquel conlrasle 

De vida y mislerios, 

De luz y tinieblas, 

Medit6 un momento: 


'/Dios mio, qui solos 


Se quedan Ins trtaertos I " 1 

BfiCQUER 125 

De la casa en hombros 
Llevdronla al lemplo, 

Y en una capilla 
Dejaron el feretro. 

Alii rodearon 5 

Sus pdlidos restos 
De amarillas velas 

Y de pan OS negros. 

Al dar de las animas 
El toque postrero, 10 

Acab6 una vieja 
Sus ultimos rezos; 
Cruzd la ancha nave, 
Las puertas gimieron, 

Y el santo recinto 15 
Qued6se desierto. 

De un reloj se oia 
Compasado el p^ndulo, 
Y de algunos cirios 

El chisporroteo. 20 

Tan medroso y triste, 
Tan obscuro y yerto 
Todo se encontraba . . . 
Que pens^ un momento: 
^(Dios mio, qui solos 25 

Se quedan los muertosP 

126 espaSa 

De la alta campana 
La letigua de hierro, 
Le dio, volteando, 
Su adi6s lastimero. 
5 El luto en las ropas, 

Amigos y deudos 
Cruzaron en fila, 
Formando el cortejo. 

Del ultimo asilo, 
lo Obscuro y estrecho, 

Abri6 la piqueta 
El nicho d un extremo. 
Alii la acostaron, 
Tapidronle luego, 
15 Y con un saludo 

Despididse el duelo. 

La piqueta al hombro, 
El sepulturero 
Cantando entre dientes 

20 Se perdi6 d lo lejos. 

La noche se entraba, 
Reinaba el silencio; 
Perdido en las sombras, 
Meditd un momento: 

25 */Dios mio, qui solos 

Se quedan los muertos I * 

BfiCQUER . 127 

En las largas noches 
Del helado invierao, 
Cuando las maderas 
Crujir hace el viento 

Y azota los vidrios 5 

El f uerte aguacero, 
De la pobre nina 
A solas me acuerdo. 

Alii cae la lluvia 
Con un son etemo; 10 

Alii la combate 
El soplo del cierzo. 
jDel humedo muro 
Tendida en el hueco, 

Acaso de frio 15 

Se hielan sus huesosi . . . 

I Vuelve el polvo al polvo ? 
I Vuela el alma al cielo ? 
^jTodo es vil materia, 
Podredumbre y cieno ? 20 

jNo s^: pero hay algo 
Que explicar no puedo, 
Que al par nos infunde 
Repugnancia y duelo, 
Al dejar tan tristes, 25 

Tan solos los muertos! 


ia8 ESPARa 



A mis ancianos padres 

Un ano m^ en el hogar paterno 

Celebramos la fiesta del Dios-Nino, 

Simbolii augusto del amor eterno, 

Cuando cubre los monies e! invierno 


Con su manto de armino. 

Como en el dia de la fausta hi.da 

\ . 

en el que el satito de los padres llega, 

La turba alegre de los ninos juega, 

Y en la ancha sala la familia tod a 


De noche se congrega. 

La roja lumbre de los trontos brilla 

Del pequeno dormido en la mejilla, 

Que con timido afdn su madre besa; 

Y se refleja alegre en la vajilla 


De la dispuesta mesa. 

A su sobrino, que lo escucha atenlo, 

Mi hermana dice el pavoroso cuento, 



Y an otra hermana la cancidn modula 
Que, 6 biea surge vibrante, 6 bien ondula 
Prolongada en el vieato. 

Mi madre tiende las rugosas manos 

A! nieto que huye por la blanda alfombra; 

Hablan de pie mi padre y mis hermanos, 

Mientras yo, recatSndome eii la sombra, 

I'ienso en hondos a 

Pienso que de los dlas de ventura 

Las horas van apresurando el paso, 

V que empana el urienle niebla obscura, 

Cuando aun el rayu tr^mulo fulgura 

Ultimo del ocaso. 

jPadres mins, mi amorl iC6mo envenena 
Las breves diclias el temor del dafto! 
Hoy presidfs nuestra modcsta cena, 
Pero en el porvenir . . . yo s^ que un afto 
VendrS sin Nocbe-Buena. 

Vendrd, y las que hoy son risas y alborozo 
5er£n muda afliccitfn y hondo soilozo. 
No cantard mi hermana, y mi sobrina 
ichari la historia peregrina 
Que le da naiedo y gozo. 

No dara nuestro hogar rojos desteUos 

Sobre el limpio cristal de la vajilla, 

Y, si alguien osa hablar, serd de aquellos 

Que hoy honran nuestra fiesta tan sencilla 

Con sus blancos cabellos. 


Blancos Cabellos cuya amada hebra 
Es cual corona de laurel de plata, 
Mejor que esas coronas que celebra 
La vil lisonja, la ignoraocia acata, 
Y el infortunio quiebra. 

jPadres mios, mi amor! Cuando contemplo 
I^ sublime bond ad de vuestro rostro, 
Mi alma i los trances de la vida templo, 
Y ante esa imagen para orar me postro, 
Cual me postro en el templo. 

Cada arruga que surca esc sembtante 
Es del trabajo la profunda huella, 
fu^ un dolor de vuestro pecho amaote. 
La historia fiel de una epoca distante 
Puedo leer yo en ella. 

La historia de los tiempos sin ventura 
En que luchasteis con la adversa sueite. 

^f Yei 

^B Mil 

Y en que, tras negras boras de amargura, 
Mi madre se sintid mSs noble y pura 

li padre mSs fuerte. 

Cuando la noche toda en ia cansada 
Labor tuvisteis vuestros ojos fijos, 
Y, al venceroa el sueiio i la alborada, 
Fuerzas os dio posar viiestra mirada 
En los dormidos hij'os. 

Las Idgrimas correr una tras una 
Con noble orguUo por mi taz yo siento, 
Pensarido que hayan sido por fortuna, 
Esas honradas manos mi suslento 
Y esos brazos mi cuna, 

jPadres mias, mi amor! Mi alma quisiera 
Pagaros hoy la que en mi edad primera 
Sufristeis sin gemir lenta agonia, 

Y que cada dolor de entonces fuera 

Germen de una alegria. 


Entonces vuestro mal curaba el gozo 
De ver al hijo convertirse en mozo, 
Mientras que al verme yo en vueslra presencia 
Siento mi dicha ahogada en el sollozo 
De una temida ausencia. 

Si el vigor juvenil volver de nuevo 
Pudiese d vuestra edad, i por que eslas pcnas ? 
Yo OS daria mi sangre de mancebo, 
Tomando as! con ella a vuestras venas 
Esta vida que os debo. 

Que de tal modo la aSiccion me embarga 
Pensando en la posible despedida, 
Que imagine ha de ser tarea amarga 
Llevar la vida, como inutil carga, 
Despu^s de vuestra vida. 

Ese plazo fatal, sordo, inflexible, 

Miro acercarse con profundo espanto, 

Y en dudas grita el coraz6n sensible: 

— 'Si aplacar at deslino es imposible, 

^Para que araarnos tanto?" 

Para estar juntos en la vida elerna 
Cuando acabe esta vida transitoria: 
Si Dios, que el curso universal gobiema, 
Nos devuelve en cl cielo esia uniiin tiema, 
Yo no aspiro k mis gloria, 
Pero en tanto, buen Dios, mi mejor palma 
Ser£ que prolongu^is la dulce calma 


Que hoy nuestro hogar en su recinio e 
Para marchar yo solo por la tierra 

No hay fuerzas en mi alma. 



En el tiempo en que e! mundo informe estaba, 
Cred el Sen or, cuando por die ha extrema 
El paraiso terrenal formaba, 
Un fnito que del mal era el emblema 
Y otro fruto que el bien simboiizaba. 

Del miserable Adan al mismo lado 
El Sefior coioco del bien el fruto; 
Pero Addn nunca el bien halld, ofuscado, 
Porque es del hombre misero atributo 
Huir del bien, de! mal siempre arraslrado. 

El fruto que del mal el simbolo era 
Puso Dios escondido y muy lejano; 
Pero Addn lo encontraba donde quiera, 
Abandnnando en su falaz quimera, 
Por el lejano mal, el bien cercano. 

j Ah ! siempre el hombre en su ilusidn maldita 
Su misma dicha en despredar se empena, 


Y al seguiria tenaz, teoaz la evita, 

Y aunque en su mismo coraz6n palpita,, 
jLejos, muy lejos, con alia la suena! 


— Ya se para quien es. 

^ ^Sabeis quien es, porque una noche obscura 
Nos visteis juntos? — Pues. 

— Perdonad; mas ... — No extrano ese tropiezo. 

La noche ... la ocasidn . . . 
Dadme pluma y papel. Gracias. Empiezo: 
Mi querido Ramdn : 

— ^Querido? . . . Pero, enfin, ya lo hab^is puesto . . . 

— Si no quereis*. . . — ;Si, sf! 

— iQue Iriste estoyi ^No es eso? — Por siipuesto. 

— iQtti trisU estoy sin ti! 

Una congoja, al empezar, me viene . . . 

— I C6mo sabcis mi mal ? 

— Para un viejo, una nifia siempre tiene 

El pecho de cristal. 

^Qiii es sin ti el mundo? Un voile de amargura. 
I V conligo ? Un eden. 

— Haced la letra clara, senor Cura; 

Que io eatieada eso bien. 



— El bcso aquel que de niarchar il punlo 

Te di . . ■ — ^Cdmo sabeis? . . , 

— Cuando se va y se viene y se est^ junto 

Siempre . . . no os afrent^is. 

Y si volver tii afecto no procura, 

TatUo me har&s siifrir . . 
— ^Sufrir y nada mas? No, senor Cura, 

jQue me voy d morir! 

— ^ Morir? |J Sabeis que es ofender al cielo? , . . 

— Pues, si, senor, ; morir! 
— Yo no pongo morir. — jQue hombrede hielol 
iQui^n supiera escribirl 

jSefior Rector, scfior Rector! en vano 
Me quereis complacer, 

Si no encaraan lus signos de la mano 
Todo el ser de mi ser. 

Escril)idle, por Dios, que el alma mta 
Ya en mi no quiere estar; 

Que la pena no me ahoga cada dia . . . 
Porque puedo Uorar. 

Que mis labios, las rosas de su aliento, 

Nosesaben abrir; 
Que olvidan de la risa el movimiento 

A fuerza de sentir. 

Que mis ojos, que ^1 tiene por tan bellos, 
Cai^ados con mi afan, 

Como no tiene n quien se mire en ellos, 
Cerrados siempre estan. 

Que cs, de cuantos tormentos he sufrido, 
La ausencia el mas atroz; 

Que es un peqietuo sueno de mi oido 
El eco de su voz . . . 

Que siendo por su causa, el alma mia 
jGoza tanto en sufrirl . . . 

Dios mio ;cuSntas cosas le diria 
Si supiera escribir! . . . 

— Pues sefior, jbravo amor! Copio y concluyo: 

A dan Ram6n . . . En fin, 
Que es iniitU saber para esto, arguyo, 

Ni el griegoni ei lalin. 


Cuando de Virgilio en pos 
Fu^ el Dante al infierno a dar, 
Su conciencia, hija de Dios, 
Dej6 i. la puerta al enlrar. 

Despu^s que d salir vol v id, 
Su conciencia el Dante hallando, 



^H Con ella otra vez carg>3, 
^H^ Mas dijo a^! suspirando: 
^H Del infiemo en lo profundo, 
^^M No vi tan atroz seatencia 
^r Como es la de ir por el mundo 
Cargado con la tonciencia. 





^Por qu^ los corazones miserables. 
For que las almas viles, 

En los fieros combates de la vida 
Ni luchan ni resisten? 

10 ' 

El espiritu humano es mas constante 

Cuanto mas se levanla: 
Dios puso el fango en la llanura, y puso 

La roca en la montafia. 

La blanca nieve que en los hondos vaMes 

Derritese ligera, 
Eo las altivas cumbres permanece 
^H Inmutable y eterna. 



^K Cuando recuerdo la piedad sincera 
^M Con que en mi edad primera 
^B Entraba en nuestras viejas catedrales, 


w . 


^K 138 ESPAKA 

^H Donde postrado ante la cruz de hinojos 

^H Alzaba & Dios mis ojos, 

^^ Sonando en ias venturas celestiales; 

Hoy que mi frente atdnito golpeo, 

5 \ con febril deseo 

Busco los restos de mi fe perdida, 

Por hallarla otra vez, radiatite y bella 

Como en la edad aquella, 

jDesgraciado de ml! diera la vida. 

,0 [Con que profundo amor, niflo inocente, 

Prosternaba mi frente 

En las losas del templo sacrosantol 

Llendbase mi joven fantasia 

De luz, de poesia, 

,5 De mudo asombro, de terrible espanto. 

Aquellas altas bdvedas que al delo 

Levantaban mi anhelo; 

Aquella majestad solemne y grave; 

A quel pausado canto, parecido 

ao A un doliente gemido, 

Que retumbaba en la espaciosa nave; 

Las marmdreas y austeras esculturas 

De antiguas sepulturas, 

Aspiracion del arte i lo indnito; 

^m ni*5;ez de arce 


^1 La luz que por los vidrios de colores 


^M Sus tibios resplandores 

^M Quebraba en los pilares de gramto; 


^B Haces de donde en cun'a fugidva. 

^1 Para formar la ojiva, 


^1 Cada ramal subiendo se separa, 

^f Cual del rumor de mullitud que mega, 

Cuando A los cieios llega, 

Surge cada oracion dislinla y clara; 

En el g<5tico altar inmoble y fijo 


El santo crucifijo. 

Que extiende sin vigor sus brazos yertos, 

^L Siempre en la sorda lucha de la vida, 


^H Tan Sspera y refiida, 


^B Para e! dolor y la humildad abiertos; 


El mistico clamor de la campana 

^m Que sobre el alma humana 

^B De las caladas torres se despena, 

^M Y anuncia y lleva en sus aladas nutas 

^1 Mi] promesas ignotas 


^1 Al ttiste corazdn que sufre 6 suefia; 

Todo elevaba mi Snimo inlranquilo 

A m5s sereno asib: 

Religion, arte, soledaH, misterio . . . 


Todo en el templo secular hacfa 

Vibrar el alma mia, 
Como vihran las cuerdas de un salterio. 

Y d esta voz interior que s6\o entiende 
Quien credulo se enciende 
En fervoroso y celestial carifio, 
Envuelta en sus llotantes vestidiiras 

Vtilaba i las ajturas, 
Virgen sin mancha, ml oracii5n de niiio. 

Su rauda, viva y luminosa huella 

Como fugaz centella 
Traspasaba el espacio, y ante el puro 
Resplandor de sus alas de querube, 

Rasgibase la nube 
Que me ocultaba el inmorla! seguro. 

(Oh anhelo de esta vida Iransitoria! 
|Oh perdurable gloria! 
jOh sed inextinguible del deseol 
jOh cielo, que antes para m! lenlaa 

Fulgores y armonfas, 
Y hoy tan ubscuro y desolado veo! 

Ya no lemplas mis intinios pesares, 

Va al pie de tus altares 

Como en mis anos de candor no acudo. 


Para Uegar i. ti perdf el camino, 

Y errante peregrino 
Entre tinieblas desespero y dudo. 

Voy espantado sin saber por ddnde; 
Grito, y nadie responde 
A mi angustiada voz; alzo los ojos 

Y ii penetrar ia lobreguez no alcanzo; 

medrosamente avanzo, 

Y me hieren el alma los abrojos. 

Hijo del siglo, en vano me resisto 
A su impiedad, joh Cristo! 

Siglo de maravillas y de asombros, 
Levanla sobre escombros 
Un Dios sin esperanza, un Dios que gime. 

]Y ese Dios no eres tii! No tu Serena 
Faz, de con sue los Uena, 

Al umbra y guia nuestro infierto paso. 

Es otro Dios incognito y sombrio: 
Su tielo es e! vacio, 

Sacerdote el error, ley el Acaso. 

jAy! No recuerda el animo suspenso 
Un siglo mas inmenso, 
Mis rebelde d tu voz, mds atrevido; 





Enire nubes de fuego alza su frente, 

Como Luzbel, potente; 
Pero tambi^n, como Luzbel, cmdo. 

A medida que marcha y que investiga 

Es mayor su fatiga, 
Es su noche mis honda y mds obscura, 
V pasma, al ver lo que padece y sabe, 

Ciimo en su semi labe 
Tanta grandeza y tanta desventura. 

Como la nave sin timon y rota 

Que el ronco mar azota. 

Incendia el rayo y la borrasca mece 

En pi^lago ignorado y proceloso. 

Nuestro siglo — coloso, 


Con la luz que le abrasa, resplandece. 

jY esta la playa mistica tan lejns! , . . 
A los iristes reilejos 
Del sol poniente se colora y brilla. 
El huracan arrecia, el bajel arde, 


Y es tarda, ea [ay! muy tarde 
Para alcanzar la sosegada orilla. 

^ Que es la ciencia sin fe ? Corcel sin freno, 
A todo yugo ajeno, 
Que al impulso del vertigo se enlrega, 


niJSez de arce 

Y a trav^s de intrincadas espesuras, 

Desbocado y & obscuras, 
Avanza sin cesar y nunta Ikga. 

jLlegarl c'^dt'ide? . . . IlI fiensamiento hut 
Kn vani) lucha, en vano 
Su ley oculla y misleriosa infringe. 
£n la lumbre del sul sus alas quema, 

V no atlara el problema, 
No penetra ei enigma de la Esfinge. 

jSdlvanos, Crisfo, sdlvanos, si es cierto 
Que tiL poder no ha muerto! 
Salva a esla sudedad desventurada, 
Que baj'o el peso de su orgullo mismo 

Rueda al profundo abismo 
Acaao mas enferma que culpada. 

La ciencia audaz, cuando de li se aleja, 

En nuestras almas deja 
EI germen de retondilos dolores. 
Como al tender el vuelo hacia la altura, 

Deja su larva impura 
El insecto en el caliz de las (lores. 

Si en esta confusion honda y sombria 
Es, Senor, todavia 
Raudal de vida tu palabra santa, 


Di a nuestra fe desalentada y yerta: 

— ;Aiiimate y despierta! ; 

Comw dijiste a Ldzaro; — \ Levanta! — 



A tni buen amigo el lluEtie poela Manuel Reina 


Nunca mi labio i la servil lisonja 


Farias rindi6. Ni el ^xito ruidoso. 

Ni la soberbia afortunada, oyeron 

Falaz encomio de mi humilde Musa. 

Didme svi austeridad la honrada lierra 

Donde naci, y el presuroso tiempo 


Que arrastra y lleva en sus revueltas olas 

Las grandezas humanas al olvido. 

A mi pesar me ensena que en el mundii 

Tan s6\o a dos excelsas majeslades 

Puedo, sin mengua, levantar mi canto; 


La Verdad y el Dolor. 

En estas horas 

De febril inquietud, ^qui^n, Patria mfa, 


Merece como tu la pobre ofrenda 

De mi respeto y de mi amor? Postrada 

En los escombrtis de tu antigua gloria, 


La negra adversidad, cnn fcrrea mano, 


Comprime los latidos de tu pecho 1 


niJSez de arce 

Y cl aire que respiras envenena. 
Como tigre feroz ciavd sus garraa 
La catdstrofe en ti, y en tus heridaa 
Elntrahas sacia su voraz inscinto. 
^Quisn, al mirar tus lastimas, no llora? 

I Puede haber hombre tan perverso y duro, 
Ni aun concebido en crapulosa orgia 
Por hembra impura, que impasibk vea 
Morir sin fe, desesperado y solo, 
Al duke bien que le llev6 en su seno ? 
jNo existe, no! 

Perdona si movido 
Por la ciega pasion, alia en lejanos 

Y borraacosos dias, cuando airada 
Mi voz como fatidico anatema 
Troni5 en la tempestad, quizes injusto 
Contigo pude ser. Pero hoy, que sufres. 
Hoy que, Job de la Historia, te retuerces 
En tu lecho de angustia, arrepentido 

Y llena el alma de mortal congoja, 
Acudo ansioso i consolar tus pen as, 
A combatir con los inmundos buitres, 
Avidos del festJn, que en tomo giran 
De tu ulcerado cuerpo, y si lo mandas, 
jOh, noble martirl a morir contigo. 

Pero ^quien habla de morir? ^Acaso 
No eres, Patria, inmortal? Tendras eclipses 
Como los tiene el sol. Sombras tenaces, 
Cual hiperbdrea noche larga y fria. 


Sobrc ti pesardn, mieotras no llegue 
Tu santa redencion. jHora dichosa 
En que veris con jubilo y temura 
Nacer ei alba, el tenebroso espacio 
Inundarse de luz, la tierra encicta 
Estremecerse en extasis matemo, 
De armonias, aromas y colores 
Poblarse el aire, y pa! pi tar en todo 
La plenitud eterna de la vidal 

(Ten esperanza y fe! Descubridora 
De mundos, madre de indomada prole, 
T(j no puedes morir, [Dios no lo quiere! 
Aun tienes que cumplir altos destines. 
Busca en el seno de la paz bendita 
Reparador descanso, hasta que cobren 
Tus musculos salud, y en cuanto sientas 
El hervor de tu sangre renovada, 
Ponte en pie, sacudiendo tu marasmo, 
Que como losa del sepulcro, oprime 
Tu enferma voluntad. Surge del fondo 
De tu aislamiento secular, y marc ha 
Con paso firme y coraaSn resueito 
Sin mirar hacia atrSs, siempre adelante. 
Sean la escuela y el taller y el surco 
Los solos campos de batalla en doode 
Tu ra2<5n y tus fuerzas ejercites. 
Enlra en las lides del trabajo y vence. 
Que entonces de laureles coronada, 
Mds fecunda, m^s pr6spera y m^ grande, 


nUSez de arce 147 ^^^ 

Seguiras, fulgurando, tu camino ^^H 

Pnr los arcos trlunfales de la Historia. ^^^B 


;£sta es Espana! Atonita y maltrecha 

Bajo el peso brutal de su infartunin, 

Inerte yace la matrona augusia 5 

Que en otros siglos fatigd a la fama. 

La que surc(5 Uis mares procelosns 

Buscdndote atrevida en el misterii), 

Hasta que un dia, desiumbrando al mundo, 

Surgiste, como Venus, de las ondas. ,0 

Cegada por tu espi^ndida hermosura, 

Al engarzarle en su imperial diadema 

Espana te oprimio; mas no la culpes, 

Porque ^cudndo la bfirbara conqdsta 

Justa y huraana fui* ? Tambien clemente 15 

Te dio su sangre, su robusto idioma, 

Sus leyes y su Dios. jTe lo did todo, 

Menos la libertad ! Pues raal pudiera 

Darte el linico bien que no tenia. 

Cont^mplala vencida y humillada k. 

Por la dobiez y el oro, y si te mueven 

A genenisa lastima sus males, 

El trdgico desplome de una gloria 

Que es tambien tuya, ac6rrela en su duelo. 

jEs tu madre infeliz! No la abandone »$ 

Tu amor, en tan inmensa desventura. 


Ya de mi amor la confesidn sincera 
Oyeron tus calladas celoslas, 

Y fue testigo de las ansias mias 
La !una, de los tristes companera. 

Tu nombre dice e! ave placeotera 
A quien visito yo todos los dias, 

V alegran mis sofiadas alegrias 

Ei valle, el monte, la comarca entera. 

S6]o td mi sec re to no conoces, 
Por mis que el alma con latido ardiente, 
Sin yo quererlo, te lo diga a voces; 

Y acaso has de ignorarlo eternamente, 
Como las ondas de la mar veloces 
La ofrenda ignoran que les da la fuente. 


Oyendo hablar a un hombre, facil es 
Acertar donde vid la luz del sol- 
Si OS alaba d Inglaterra, sera Ingles, 
Si OS habia mal de Prusia, es im frances, 
Y si habla mal de Espana, es espanol. 


REINA 149 

Si cumplir con lealtad 
Nuestra didma voluntad 
£s sagrada obligacidn, 
Cuando mis ojos se cierren, 
He de mandar que me entierren 
Dentro de tu corazon. 

Para matar la inocencia, 
Para envenenar la dicha, 
£s un gran punal la pluma 
Y un gran veneno la tinta. 10 

Quien vive siempre entre p>ena 
Y remordimiento y dudas, 
No sabe ver mds que d Judas 
En el cuadro de la cena. 


A Teodoro Llorente 

Como el raudal que corre en la pradera 15 

Copia en su espejo pajaros y flores, 
La alada mariposa de colores, 
El verde arbusto y la radiante esfera, 

La sublime poesia reverbera 
Combates, glorias, risas y dolores, ao 

Odio y amor, tinieblas y esplendores, 



El cielo, el campo, el mar . . . ;la vida enteral 
jAsi Homero es la lid; Virgilio, el dia; 

Esquilo, la tormenta bramadora; 

Anacreonte, el vino y la alegria; 

Dante, la noche con su negro arcano; 

Calderon, el honor; Milton, la aurora; 

Shakespeare, el triste corazon humano! 




Creci6 acaso arbusto tiemo 
A orillas de im manso no, 

Y su ramaje sombrio 
Muy ufano se extendid; 

Mas en el sanudo invierno 5 

Subi6 el no cual ton^nte, 

Y en su tumida comente 
El tierao arbusto llevd. 

Reflejando nieve y grana, 
Naci6 garrida y pomposa lo 

En el desierto una rosa, 
Gala del prado y amor; 
Mas lanz6 con furia insana 
Su soplo inflamado el viento, 

Y se llevd en un momento 15 
Su vana pompa y frescor. 

Asl dura todo bien . . . 
Asi los dulces amores, 


153 ARGENTINA ^^^| 

Como \as lozanas flores, " 

Se marchitan en su albor; 

Y en e[ incierto vaivtiti 

De la fortuaa incOBstaote, 


Nace y muere en un instante 

La esperanza del amor. 


atlAntida 1 

Canlo al porvfnit ile la raza latina en America 

vn 1 

[Siglos pasaron sobre el mundu, y siglos 

Guardaron e] secreto! 


Lo presintid PlaWn cuando setitado 


En las rocas de Engina conlemplaba 

Las sombras que en silencio destendlan 

A posarse en las cumbres del Himeto; 

V el misterioso dialogo entablaba 

Con las olas inquietas 


iQue a sus pies se arrastraban y gemian! 

Adivino su nombre, hija pnstrera 

Del tiempo, destinada 

A celebrar las bodas del fuluro 

En sus campos de eterna primavera, 


i V la Uanio la Atldntida suiiada! 

\ i 

^ Til. I 


Pero Dios reservaba 
empresa ruda al genio renaciente 
De ia lalina raza., jdomadora 
De pueblos, combatiente 
De las grandes batallas de la historial 

Y cuaado fu^ la hora, 
Colun aparecid sobre la nave 

Del destiao del mundo portadora — 

Y la nave avanzo. Y el Oc&nu, 
Huraflo y turbulento, 

Lanzd al encuenlro del bujel latino 

Los negros a qui I ones, 

i Y a su (rente rugiendo el torbellini), 

jinete en el relSmpago sangrientii! 

Pem la nave fu^, y el hondo arcanu 

Cayo roto en pedazos; 

;Y desperto la Adindda sofiada 

De un pobre visionario entre los brazos! 

Era lo que buscaba 
El genio in<iuieto de la vieja raza, 
Delwlador de tronos y coronas, 
I Era lo que sonaba! 
jAmbito y luz en apartadas zonas! 
Helo armadt) otra vez, no ya arrastrando 
El sangriento sudario del pasado 
Ni de negros reruerdns bajo el peso. 
Sino en |ios de grandtosas ilusiones, 
jLa libertad, la gloria y el progresol 



jNada le falta ya! lleva en e. 
El insondable af^n del iniinito, 
[Y el infinito por doquier lo llama 
De las raontaftas con el hondo grito 
V de Ins mares con la voz de trueno! 
. Tiene el altar que Roma 
Quiso en vano construir con los escom 
Del tempio egipcio y la pagodp Indian; 
jAltar en que profese etemamente 
Un culto solo la conciencia humana! 
jY el Andes, con sus gradas ciclopeas. 
Con sus rojas an tore has de vol canes, 
Seri el altar de fulgurantes velos 
En que el himno inmortal de las ideas 
La tierra entera elevara a los cielos! 

jCampo inmenso a su afdn! Alia dormidas 
Baju el arco triunfal de mil colores 
Del trdpico esplendente. 
Las Antillas levantan la cabeza 
De la naciente luz d los albores, 
Co mo band ad as de aves fugitivas 
Que arruilaron al mar con sus extranas 
Canciones plaftideras, 
V que secan ai sol las blancas alas 
j Para emprender el vuelo (t otras riberas! 

\AM Mgjico estS! sobre dos mares 
Alzada cual granitica atalaya, 



^^^^^^ ANDRADE 155 

^r jPaxece que aun espia 

^M La castellana flola que se acerca 

H Del golfo azteca & la arenosa playa! 

H V mis alia Colombia adormecida 

^P Del Tequendama al retemblar profundo, 5 

i Colombia la opulenta 

Que parece llevar en las entraiias 

La inagotable juventud del mundo! 


jSalve, zona feliz! region querida 

De! almo sol que tus encantos cela, 10 

Inmenso hogar de animacion y vida, 


jCuna del gran Bolivar! jVenezuela! 

Todo en tu suelo es grande, 

1.0s astros que te alumbran desde arriba 

Con eterno, sangriento centelleo, 15 


El genio, el heroismo, 

^m jVolcan que hizo erupci6n con ronco estruendo 

^B En la cumbre inmortal de San Mateo! 


^m Tendida al pie del Ande, 

^M Viuda infeliz sobre entreabierta huesa, 30 

^M Yace la Roma de los Incas, rota 

H La vieja espada en la tontienda grande, 


^^ La Irente hundida en la tiniebla obscura, 


^B jMas no ha muerto el Peni! que la derrota 


^M Germen es en los pueblos varoniles 1^ 

H De redencidn futura — 

^K V entonces cuandu Uegue, 



Para su suefo, la estacidn propicia 
Del trabajo que cura y regenera, 

Y brille al fin el sol de la justicia 
Tras largos dias de vergiienza y Uoro, 
jEl rojo maato que & su espalda flota 
Las mieses bordarSn con llores de oro! 

jBolivia! la heredera del gigante 
Nacido al pie del AviJa, su genio 
Inquieto y su valor constaote 
Tiene para las luchas de la vida; 
Suena en batallas hoy, pero no importa, 
Suena tambi^n en anchos horizontes 
En que en vez de curenas y canones 
jSienta'rodar la audaz locomotora 
Cortando valles y escalando monies! 

Y Chile el vencedor, fuerte en la guerra, 
Pero mds fuerte en el trabajo, vuelve 

A colgar en el techo 

Las vengadoras armas, conx'encido 

De que es cst^rij siempre la victoria 

De la fuerza brutal sobre el derecho. 

El Uruguay que combatiendo enCrega 

Su seno a las caricias del progreso, 

El Brasil que recibe 

Del mar Atlanta el estruendoso beso 

Y i quien solo le falta 

El ser mas libre, para ser mas grande, 

jY la re"gi6n bendita, J 

Sublime desposada de la gloria, 

Que baiia el Plata y que limita el Ande! 

;De pie para cantarla! que cs la patria, 
La patria bendetida, 
Siempre en po3 de sublimes ideales, 
;KI jjueblo joven que arrutio en la cuna 
El mmor de K» himnos inmortales! 

Y que hoy liama al festin de su opiilenuia 
A cuantos rinden cullo 

A b sagrada libertad, hermana 

Del arte, del progreso y de la ciencia — - 

jLa patrial que ensancho sus horizontes 

Rompiendo las barreras 

Que en otrora su espiritu aterraron, 

|V d cuvo paso en los nevados montes 

Del Genesis Its ecos desperlaron! 

jLa patria! que, olvidada 

De la civil querella, arrojd lejos 

El fratricida acero 

Y que Ueva orgullosa 

La corona de espigas en la frente, 
[Menos pesada que el laurel guerrero; 
■[La patrial en elk cabe 
Cuanto de grande el pensamiento alcanza, 
En ella el sol de redencidn se enciende, 
Ella al encuentro del future avanza, 

Y su mano, del Plata desbonlante 

] La inmensa copa & las naciones tiende! 


]Ambito inmenso, ablerto 
De la latiiia raza al hundu aohelo! 
jEl mar, el mar gigante, la montana 
En etemo coloquio con el cielo . . . 
5 Ymas alld desierto! 

AcS. rios que corren desbordados, 
AUI valles que ondean 
Como rios eternos de verdura, 
Los bosques a los bosques enlazados, 
lo jDoquier la libertad, doquier la vida 

Palpilando en el aire, en la pradera 
V en explosion magoifica enirendida! 

iAtldntida encantada 

Que Plaldn presintii3! promesa de oro | 

15 Del porvenir huniano — Reservado 

A la raza fecunda, 

Cuyo seno engendrd para la historia 

Los Cesares del genio y de la espada — , 

Aqui va A realizar lo que no pudo 
30 Del mundo antiguo en los escombros yertos — 

jLa mds bella vision de sus visiones! 

jAi himno colosal de los desiertos 

La etema comunion de las naciones! k 

P A 


;Arriba, pensadores! que en U lucha 
Se templa y fortalece 
Vuestra raza inmortal, ouoca domada, 
Que llcTa por celeste distintivo 
Ia chispa de la audacia en la niiiada 

Y anhelos tnfinitus en el alma; 
;En cuya frenle altiva 

Se confunden y enlazan 

£1 laurel rumiiriMjo de la gloria 

Y del dolor la mustia loem pre -viva! 

i Arriba, pensadoresi 
]Que el espiritu hiimano sale ileso 
Del cadalso y h hogueral 
Vuestro heraldo triunfal es el progreso 

Y la verdad la suspirada mela 
De vuestro afan giganle. 
lArriba! ]que ya asoma el claro dia 
En que el error y el fanarismo expiren 
Con doliente y confuso clamoreo! 
jAve de esa alborada es el poela, 
Hermano de las dguilas del Ciucaso, 
Que secaron piadosas con sus alas 
La ensangrentada faz de Prometeo! 







Ven, sigue de la mano 

Al que te amo de nifio; 

Ven, y juntos lleguemos hasta el bosque 

Que esti en la margen del palemo rio. 

lOh, cudnto eres hermosa. 

Mi amada, en este sitiu' 

S6I0 por ti, y fi reflejar tu trente, 

Corriendo baja el Paranl tranquilo. 

Para besar tu huella 

Fu^ siempre tan sumiso, 

Que, en viendote llegar, hasta la playa 

Manda sus olas sin hacer riiido. 

Por eso, porque te ama, 

Somos grandes amigos; 

Luego, sabe decirte aquellas cosas 

Que nunca brotan de los labios mlos. 

E! ano que tii falCas, 
La flor de sus seibos, 
Ccimo cansada de esperar tus sienes, 


Cuelga sus ramos de carmin marchitos. 



Pdr la teisa conioite, 

Risuenos y f urtivos, 

Como sudtas guimaklas, no navegan 

Los veides camak>tes florecidos. 

Sdk) incliiian los sauces ^ 

Su ramaje sombrio, 

Y las aves mas tristes, en sus copas 
Gimiendo tejen sus ocultos nidos. 

Pero llegas . . ., y el agua, 

El bosque, el cielo mismo, lo 

£s como una explosidn de mil colores, 

Y el aire rompe en sonorosos himnos. 

Asf la primavera, 

Del tnSpico vecino 

Desciende, y canta, repartiendo flores, 15 

Y colgando en las vides los racimos. 

jCudl suenan gratamente, 

Acordes, en un ritmo, 

Del agua el melancdlico murmullo 

Y el leve susurrar de tu vestido! a© 

i Oh, si mc f uera dado 

Guardar en mis oidos, 

Para siempre, esta musica del alma, 

Esta uni6n de tu ser y de mis rlos' 




jOh! jreposad en vuestras quietas tumbas, 1 

Augustos padres de la patria mia, 

Pues bien lo merec^is! La grande obra 

De redencidn al fin eatd cumplida; 


V no llegue d turbar vuestro reposo 

El tumulto de lucha fratricida. 

Hoy i. vuestros sepulcros hace sombra 

La bandera de! iris, enkzada 

A la de los castillos y leones; 


Que el odio no es etemo 

En los pobres humanos corazones; 

Y Uego el dia en que la madre Espana 

Estrechase d Colombia entre sus brazos. 

Depuesta ya la safta; 


Libres las dos como las hizo el cielo. 

',Ab! ^ni ciSmo podrla 





Hallarse la hija siempre separada 
Del dulce hc^ar patemo, 
Ni consentir la carifiosa madrc 
Que tal apartamiento fuera elerno? 

En esos afios de la auseni 
El recuerdo de Espaiia 
Seguianos doquiera. 
Todo nos es comun: su Dio 
La sangre que circula por s 
V el hermoso lenguaje; 
Sus artes, nuestras artes; la 
De sus cantos, la nuestra; sus i 
Nuestros tambi^n, y nueslras 
Las glorias de Bail^n y de Pav 



Si a veces dislraldos 
FijSbamos los ojos 
A contemplar las hijas de Colombia; 
En el porte elegante, 
En el puro perfil de su semblante. 
En su mirada ardiente y en el dejo 
Meloso de la voz, eran relrato 
De sus nobles abuelas; 
Copia feliz de gracia soberana. 
En que agradablemente se vela 
El dccoro y nubleza castellana 

Y el donaire y la sal de Andalucia; 

Y entonces exclamdbamos: Un nombre 


Terrible, Espana, tienes; jpero suena 
Qu^ dulcemente al corazon del hombre! 

;0h! ;que esta santa alianza eterna sea, 

Y el penddn de Castilla y de Colombia 
Unidos siempre el universo vea! 

V que al jviva Colombia! que repiten 
El aureo Taj'o, y Ebro y Manzanares, 
jResponda el eco que rodando vaya 
Por los tranquilos mares 

A la iberica playa 

De jviva Espana! con quu el Andc atruena 

El Cauca, el Orinoco, el Magdalena! 


jArbol sagrado, que la obscura frente, 
Inmdvil, majestuoso, 
Sobre el seputcro humilde y silencioso 
Despliegas hacia el cielo tristemente! 
TU, si, tu solamente 

Al tiempo en que se duerme el rev del muado 
Tras las altas monlaiias de occidente, 
Me ves triste vagando 
Enlre las negras lumbas, 
Con los ojos en llanln humedecidos, 
Mi orfaodad y miseria lamentando. 



Y cuando ya de la apacible lima 

La luz de i>erla en tu verdor sc acoge. 
Solo tu troncu escucha mis gemidos, 
S<5lo tu pie mis Idgrimas recoge. 

jAy! hubo un tiempo en que feliz y ufiino 
Al seno paternal me abandonaba; 
En que con blandu manu 
Una mad re amorosa 
De mi ninez las l^grimas secaba . . . 
;V hoy, huerfano. del mundo desechado, 
Aqui en mi palria mis ma 
Soiitario viajero, 

Desde lejos contemplo acongojado 
Sobre los techos de mi hogar priniero 
El humo blanquear del exUanjcm! 
Entre el buUido de los pueblos buscn 
Mis tiemos padres para mi perdidiw; 
jVanamente! . . . Los rostros de los hombres 
Me son desconocidos. 

Y sus manes, emfiero, noche y dla 
Presenles a mis ojos afligidos 
Condno esldn; contino sus acentos 
Vienen &, resonar en mis ofdos. 

jSl, funeral cipr^s! Cuando la noche 
Con su callada sombra te rodea, 
Cuando escondido el soiitario bubo 
En tus obacuros ramos aletea; 


La sombra de mi padre por tus hojas 
Vagando me parece, 
Que a velar por los dias de su hijo 
Del reino de los muertos se aparece. 

Y si el vienlo sacude impetiioso 
Tu elevada cabeza, 

Y d su furor con susurrar medroso 
Respondes pavoroso; 

En los iristes silbidos 

Que en torno de ti giran, 

A los paternos manes 

Escucho, que dulcfsimos suspiran. 

jArbol augusto de la muerte! jNunca 
Tus verdores abata el boreas ronco! 
jNunca enemiga, venenosa sierpe 
Se enrosque en lomo de tu pardo tronco! 
iJamSs el rayo ardiente 
Abrase tu alta frente! 
jSiempre inmoble y sereno 
Por las concavas nubes 
Oigas rodar el impotente trueno! 
Vive, si, vive; y cuando ya mis ojos 
Cerrar el dedo de la muerte quiera; 
Cuando esconderse mire en occidente 
Al sol por vez postrera, 
Morir^ sosegado 
A tu tronco abrazado. 
Tli mi sepulcro ampararis piadoso 



De las roDcas tonneotxs; 
Y mi ceniza eatoocc agiadcdda. 
En restaurantes jugos cxnvntida. 
Por tu3 delgada^ vmas penetnuido. 
Te hara reverdecef, te dara vida. 

Quizd sabiendo el infeliz dcsdno 
Que oprimio mi existencia desdichada, 
Sobre mi pobre lumba atiandooada 
Una lagrima vieita el peregrino. 


Es flaca sobremanera 
Toda humaoa prevision, 
Pues en mas de una ocasitin 
Sale lo que no se espera. 

Salio al campo un: 
Un expertu cazador, 
El mis hdbil y el mejor 
Alumno que tuvo Diana. 

Segulale gran cuadrilla 
De ejercitadus monleros, 
De ojeadores, bailesteros 
V de mozos de trallla; 





Van todos apercibidos 
De las armas necesarias, 

Y llevan de castas varias 
Perros diestroa y atrevidos, 

Caballos de noble raza, 
Cornelas de moiite: en fin, 
CuanU) exige Moralm 
En au poeraa /-a Casa. 

Levantan pronto una pieza, 
Un jabali corpuiento, 
Que huye veloz, rabo a viento, 

Y rompiendo la maleza. 

Todos siguen con gran bulla 
Tras la cerdosa alimana. 


Pero ella se da tat mafia 
Que & todos los aturrulla; 

Y aunque gastan todo el d!a 
En paradas, idas. vueltas, 


Es vana tanta poriia, 

Ahora que los leccorea 
Han visto de qu^ manera 
Pudo burlarse la fiera 
De los tales cazadores. 



I&, ^M 

Oigan lo que acontediS, 
Y aunque es suceso que adtnira, 
No piensen, no, que es mentira. 
Que lo cuenta quien lo vi6: 


Al pie de uno de los cerros 

, Que batieron aquel dia, 
Una viejilla vivia. 
Que oyo ladrar & los perros; 


Y con gana de saber 
En qu^paraL- la fiesta, 
Iba subiendo k ruesta 
A eso del anoche t: 


Con ella iba una perrilla . . . 
Mas sin pasar adelante, 
Es preciso que un instante 
Gastemos en describilla: 


Perra de canes decana 
Y entre perras protoperra. 
Era lenida en su tierra 
Por perra antediluviana; 

Flaco era el animalejo, 
El mas flaco de los canes. 
Era el rastro, eran [os manes 

De un cuasi-semi-ex-gozquejoj 





. . . digo mal; 
No era una perra sarnosa, 
Era una sarna perrosa 
Y en.figura de animal; 

Era, otrosi, derrengada; 
La derribaba un resuelb; 
Puede decirse que aquello 
No era perra ni era nada. 

A ver, pues, la batahola 
La vieja at cerro subia, 
De la i^erra en compaftia, 
Que era lo mismo que ir sola. 

Por donde iba, hizo la suerte 
Que se hubiese el jabali 
Escondido, por si asi 
Se libraba de la muerte; 

Empcro, sintiendo iuego 
Que por ahi andaba genie, 
Tuvo piir cosa prudente 
Tomar las de Villadiego; 

La vieja entonces al ver 
Que escapaba por la loma, 
jSus! dijo por pura broma, 
y la perra echiS d currer. 


Y aquella perra extenuada, 
Sombra de perra que fu^, 
De la cual se dijo que 
No era perra ni era nada; * 

Aquella perrilla, si, 
jCosa es de volverse loco! 
No pudo coger tampoco 
Al maldito jabali. 



Mirad al peregrino 

jCudn doliente y trocado! 10 

Apoy^ndose lento en su cayado 
iQu^ solitario va por su camino! 

En su primer manana, 

Alma alegre y cantora 
Abandond el hogar, como i la aurora 15 

Deja su nido la avecilla ufana. 

Aire y luz, vida y flores, 

Bused en la vasta y fria 
Regidn que la inocente fantasia 
Adomaba con mdgicos f ulgores. 20 



Ve el mundo, oye el ruido 
De las grandes ciudades, 

Y solo vanidad de vanidades 
Halla doquier su espiritu afligido 

Materia da & su llanto 
Ciianto el liombre le ofrece; 
Yd la risa en sus labios no florece, 

Y olvidd la nativa voz del canto. 

HIzose pensativo ; 

Las nubes y las olas 
Sus confidentes son, y trata i solas 
El sitio mas repuesto y mas esquivo, 

A su penar responde 
En la nuche ca.llada. 
La estrella que declina fatigada 

Y en el matemo piflago se esconde. 

jVudve, vutlve d lu cenlrol 

Natura al infelice 
Clama; ivuelvel una voz tambien le dice 
■Que habla siempre con &, amiga. adentro. 

jAy triste! En lontananza 
Ve los pasados dJas, 

Y en gozar otra vez sus alegrlas 
Concentra reanimado la esperanza. 


jlmposible! jLocura! . . . 

<j Cu^ndo pudo i su f uente 
Retroceder el misero torrente 
Que probd de los mares la amargura ? 

Ya sube la colina 5 

Con mal seguro paso; 
Del sol poniente al resplandor escaso 
El valle de la infancia se domina. 

J Ay! Ese valle umbrio 

Que la paterna casa 10 

Guarece; ese rumor con que acompasa 
Sus blandos tumbos el sagrado rio; 

Esa aura embalsamada 

Que sus sienes orea, 
<j A un corazdn enfermo que desea 55 

Su antigua soledad, no dicen nada? 

El pobre peregrino 

Ni oye, ni ve, ni siente; 
De la Patria la imagen en su mente 
No existe ya, sino ideal divino. 20 

Invisible le toca 

Y sus p^rpados cierra 
Angel piadoso, y la ilusidn destlerra, 
Y el dulce sonreir vuelve d su boca. 



jQu^ muda despedida! 

^Qui^n muerto )e creyera? 
[Mirando esia Ja Patria verdadera! 
jEsli durmiendo el sueno de la vida! 

DON diOgenes a. arrieta 


i Espejismos del alma dulorida! . . . 
jHermosas esperanzas de la vida 
Que disipa la muerte con crueldad! 

Para enganar las penas nos forjamos 
Imagenes de dicha, y luego damos 
A la Ilusion el nombre de Verdad. 

AquI te Uamo y nadie me responde: 
Sorda y cruel, la tierra que te esconde 
Ni el eco de mi voz devolvera. 

A^ la Eteroidad: sombria y muda, 
El odio ni el amor, la fe y la duda 
En sus abismos nada alcanzardn. 

Otros alien ten la creencia vana 
De que es posibie li la esperanza humana 
De la muerte sacar vida y amor. 

Si es cruel !a verdad, yo la prefiero . . , 
iMe duele el corazon, perci no quiero 
Consolar con mentiras mi dolorl 


jHijn querido, la esperanza mia! 
Animaste mi hogar tan s<5lo un dia, 
No volvemos a veraos ya los das . . . 

Pues que la ley se cumpla del desdno: 
Tomo mi cruz y sign mi camino . . . 
;Luz dc mi iiogar y mi espcranza, adios! 



El ingel de mi cielo, mi Maria, 
Que d la primera vuelta de las flores 
Tres anos cumplira, medrosa un dIa 
BusciS refugio en mis abiertos brazos, 

Y cuando entre caricias y entre abrazos, 
Que prodigu^, con paternal empeiio, 
Hubo al fin disipado sus temores, 
Trocando asi en sonrisas sus clamores, 
Gend los ojos en tranquilo sueiio. 

En silencio quedo la estancia mia; 

Y sintidndome ansioso 

De no turbar el infantil reposo 
De mi bien, en mi pecho reclinado, 
Inmoviles mis miembros mantenia, 

Y mi amoroso corazon latfa 

Al ritmo de su aliento sosegado. 


COLOMBIA ^^^^^1 

Sobre su faz serena, ^| 

Regadas como limpido rocio ^| 

En el caliz de palida azucena, ^| 

Brilkban gotas del reciente lloro, ^M 

Y las guedejas dc oro ^H 

Del undoso cabello ■ 

Caian arropando su albo cuelln. ^H 

Asl nos sorprendid mi lierna esposa. 

Que i la par temerosa 

De interrumpir mi sueiio de ventura, 

Con paso leve recorrifi el estrado 

Y sin sentirla yo, vino a mi lado. 

Aqueila dulce calma 

Que reinaba entre mi y en tomo mio, 

LlenoDie al fin de arrobamiento el alma^ 

Y se quedo mi mente 

Enajenada en ^xtasis creciente. 

Absorto siempre en eUa, 

Con fntimo lenguaje la decia: 

•Eres bot6n de flor embalsamado 

Con aromas del cielo todavia. ' 

Y al veria asl, tan bella, 


Con pUcido embeleso ^m 


A su rosada frente ■ 

Fuime inclinando para darla un beso; ^M 


Pero escuch^, de subito, d mi lado, 
Algo como un sollozo; 

Y mirando con ojos sorprendidos, 
Hall^ los de mi esposa humedecidos 
Por inef able gozo . . . 

*No la despiertes,* dijome sencilla, 

Y me acercd su Candida mejilla. 


— jAdids! jadids! Lucero de mis noches, 
— Dijo un soldado al pie de una ventana, — 
jMe voy! . . . pero no Uores, alma mia, 10 

Que volverd manana. 
Ya se asoma la estrella de la aurora, 
Ya se divisa en el oriente el alba, 
Y en mi cuartel tambores y cometas 

Estdn tocando diana. 15 


Horas despu^s, cuando la negra noche 
Cubrid de luto el campo de batalla, 
A la luz del vivac p^lida y triste, 
Un joven expiraba. 

Alguna cosa de dla el centinela 20 

Al mirarlo morir, dijo en voz baja . . , 



Alz6 luego el fusil, baj6 los ojos 

Y se enjugd dos Idgrimas. 


Hoy cuentan por doquier gentes medrosas, 
Que cuando asoma en el oriente el alba, 
5 Y en el cuartel tambores y cometas 

Estdn tocando diana . . . 
Se ve vagar la misteriosa sombra, 
Que se detiene al pie de una ventana 
Y murmura: no llores, alma mia, 
10 Que volver^ manana. 




jCuanto es bella la tierra que habilaban 
Los aztecas valientesi Ed su seno 
En una estrecha zona concentrados 
Con asombro se ven todos los climas 
Que hay desde el polo al ecuador. Sus llanos 
Cubren a par de las doradas mieses 
^m Las caiias deliciosas. El naranjo 

^B Y la pifia y el pldtano sonante, 

^H Hijos del suelo equinucclal, se mezclan 

^H A la frondosa vid, al plno agreste, 

^H V de Minerva ai arbol majestuoso. 

^H Nieve etemaS corona las cabezas 

^^t De I^.taccihuai purisimo, Orizaba 

^^F Y Popocatepec; sin que el in\'iemo 

^^1 Toque jamis con destructora mano 

^H Los campos fertilisimos, do ledo 

^^1 Los mira el indio en purpura ligera 

^^M Y oro teiiirse, redejando el brillu 

^^M Del Sol en occidente, que sereno 

^^H En bielo etenio y perennal verdura 

L _ 

■ iSo CUBA ^^I^^H 

H| A torrentes vertio su luz dorada, ^^^H 

V Y vio a naturaleza conmovida ^^^| 

Con su dulce calor hervir en vida. 

Era la tarde: su ligera brisa 
Las alas en silencio ya plegaba 

Y entre la hierba y drboles dormia, 
Mientras el ancho sol su disco hundia 
Detr^ de Iztaccihual. La nieve etema 
Cual disuelta en mar de oro, semejaba 
Temblar en toroo de ^1: un arco inmenso 
Que del empireo en el cenit finalia 
Corao espl^ndido portico del cielo 

D I tid y entellante gloria, 

De Ihm yos recibia 

Lo 1 es q mos. Su brillo 
Desf 11 d f : la blanca luna 

Y d \ 1 ella solilaria 
En el cielo desierto se veian. 
[Crepusculo feiiz! Hora mas bella 
Que la alma noclie 6 el brillante dta. 
jCu^nto es dulce tu paz al alma mia! 

HallSt>ame sentado en la famosa 
Choluteca pirimide. Tendido 
El llano inmenso que ante mf yada, 
Los ojos d espaciarse convidaba. 
iQu^ silencio! iqu^ paz! ;0h! ^qui^ndirfa 
Que en estos bellos campos rcina alzada 
La barbara opresidn, y que esta tierra 

1 din a ^m 

Ida fl 



Brota mieses tan rica3. abonada 

Con sangre de hombres, en que fue inundada 

Por la supersticion y por la guerra? . . . 

Bajii la noche en tanto. De la esfera 
El leve azul, obscuro y mas obscure 
Se fu^ tornando: la raovible sombra 
De las nubes serenas, que volaban 
Por el espacio en alas de la brisa, 
Era visible en el tendido llano. 
Iztaccihual purisimo volvCa 
Del argentado rayo de la iuna 
El pldcido fulgor, y en el oriente 
Bien como puntos de ore centellaban 
Mi! estrellas y mil . . . jOhi yo os saludo, 
Fuenles de luz, que de la noche umbria 
IluminAis el velo, 
y sols del firmamento poesia. 

Al paso que la Iuna decUnaba, 
Y al ocaso fulgente descendia 
Con lentitud, la sombra se extendia 
Del Popocatepec, y semejaba 
Fantasma colosal. El arco obscuro 
A mi Uegd, cubridme, y su grandeza 
Fu6 mayor y mayor, hasta que al cabo 
En sombra universal veld la tierra. 

Vol';! ios ojos al volcan sublime, 
Que velado en vapores transparentes, 


Sus inmensos contornos dibujaba 
De occidente en el cielo. 
jGigante del Andhuac! ^crimo ei vueln 
I>e las edades rapidas no imprime 
Alguna huella en tu nevada frente? 
Corre el tiempo veloz, arrebatando 
Anos y siglos como el norte fiero 
Precipita ante si la muchediimbre 
De las o!as del mar. Pueblos y reyes 
Viste hervir a tus pies, que combatian 
Cual bora combatimos, y Uamaban 
Eternas sus ciudades, y creian 
Fatigar & la tierra con su gloria. 
Fueron: de ellos no resta ni memoria. 
I Y tu etemo seras ? Tal vez un dia 
De tus profiindas bases desquiciado 
Caerds; abrumara tu gran ruina 
Al yermo Anahuac; alzardnse .en ella 
Nuevas generaciones y orgullosas, 
Que fuiste negaran . . . 

Todo perece 
Por ley universal. Aun este mundo 
Tan bello y tan brill ante que habi tamos, 
Es el caddver pSiido y deforme 
De otro mundo que iu€ . . . 

En tal contemplacion embebecido 
Sorprendiome el sopor. Un iargo suefto, 
De glorias engolfadas y perdidas 

En la profunda noche de los dempos, 
Descendid sobre mt. La agreste pompa 
De los reyes aztecas desplegose 
A mis ojos atonitos. Veia 
Entre la mucbedumbre silenciosa 
De emplumados caudillos levantarse 
El despota salvaje en rico truno, 
De oro, perlas y plumas recamado; 

V al son de caracoles belicosos 

Ir lentamente caminando al tempio 
La vasta procesion, do la aguardaban 
Sacerdotes horribles, salpicados 
Con saogre bumana rustrus y vestidos. 
Con profundo estupor el pueblo esclavo 
Las bajas frentes en el polvo hundia, 

Y ni mirar a au sefior osaba, 
De cuyoa ojos fervidos brotaba 
La Sana del poder. 

Tales ya fueron 
Tus monarcas, Anfihuac, y su oi^llo: 
Su vil supersticion y tirania 
En el abismo del no ser se hundieron. 
Si, que la muerte, universal senora, 
Hiriendo a par al despota y esclavo, 
Escribe la igualdad sobre la (umba. 
Con su manto benefico el olvido 
Tu insensatez oculta y tus furores 
A la raza presente y la futura. 
Esta inmensa estructura 

Vi6 a la superstiddn m;is inhumans 
En ella entronizarse. 0yd los gritos 
De agonizantes rtctimas. en tanto 
Que el sacerdote, sin piedad ni espanto, 
Les arrancaba el corazdn sangriento; 
Mini el vapor espeso de la sangre 
Subir calienle al ufendido cielo 

Y tender en el sol fiinebre velo, 

Y escuchiS los horrendos alaiidos 
Con que los sacerdoles sofocal»n 
El grilo del dolor. 

Muda y desierta 
Abora te ves, Kramide. ;Mas vnic 
Que semanas de siglos yazgas yerma, 

Y la supeisticion & quien ser^-iste 
En el abismo del inliemu duenna! 
A nuestros nieios lildmos, empero, 

S^ leccion saludable; y hov al hombrc 
Que ciego en su saber fiitil y vano 
Al cielo. cual Titan, truena orgulkiso, 
S^ ejempio ignominioso 
De la demencia y del fuior humano. 


Templad mi lira, didmela. que ^ento 
En mi alma estremecida y agjtada 
Arder la Inspiracion. ;Ohl ;cuinto tiempo 
En [jnieblas pas6, sin que nu {rente 






Brillase con su luz! , . , Niagara undoso, 
Tu sublime terror sdlo podria 
Tomarme el don divino, que ensanada 
Me xoh6 del dolor la mano impfa. 

, Torrente prodigioso, calma, calfa 5 

Tu tnieno aterrador: disipa un tanio 
Las tiniebias que en tomo te circundan; 
D^jame contemplar tu faz serena, 
Y de entusiasmo ardiente mi alma Uena. 
Yo digno soy de contemplarte: siempre m 

l/O comiin y mezquino desdenando, J 

Ansie por lo terrifico y sublime. I 

Al despeiiarse el huracdn furioso, ] 

Al retumbar sobre mi frente el rayo, 
Palpitando goc^: vi al Oc^ano, 15 

Azotado por austro proceloso, 

Combadr mi bajel, y ante mis plantas J 

Vfirtice hirviendo abrir, y ame el peligro, I 

Mas del mar la liereza , 

Ed mi alma no produjo ao 

La profunda impresion que tu grandeza. 

Sereno corres, majestuoso; y luego 
En fcperos peiiascos quebranlado, I 

Te abalanzas vioicnto, arrebatado, ] 

Como el destino irresistible y ciego. 15 

^Qu6 voz humana describir podria 
De la sine rugiente 

I i 


La aterradora faz? El alma mla 
En vago pensamiento se confunde 
Al mirar esa f^rvida corriente, 
Que en vano quiere la turbada vista 
En su vuelo seguir al horde obscuro 
Del precipicio altisimo: mil olas, 
Cual pensamiento rflpidas pasando, 
Chocan, y se enfurecen, 

Y otras mil y otras mil ya las alcanzan, 

Y entre espuma y fragor desaparecen. 

iVed! jllegan, saltan! El abismo horrendo 
Devora los torrentes despeiiados: 
Cruzanse en 6\ mil iris, y asordados 
Vuelven los bosques el fragor tremecdo. 
En las rigidas penas 
Rompese el agua: vaporosa nube 
Con elastica fuerza 
Llena el abismo en torbellino, sube, 
Gira en torno, y al ^ter 
Luminosa pirdmide levanta, 
Y por sobre los monies que le cercan 
Al solitario cazador espanta. 

Mas jqu^ en ti busca mi anhelante vista 
Con inutil afdn? ^Por que no miro 
Al rededor de tu cavema inmensa 
Las palmas jay! las palmas deliciosas, 
Que en las Uanuras de mi ardiente patria 



Nacen del sol & la sonrisa, y creccD, 
Y al soplo de las brisas del Oc&ino 
Bajo UD cielo piirisimo se mecen? 

Este recuerdo A mi pesar me vjene , . . 
Nada joh Niagara! talta a tu destine, 
Ni oira corona que el agresie pino 
A tu terrible majestad conviene. 
La palma y mirto y deUcada rosa 
Muelle placer inspiren y ocio blando 
En frSvolo jardin; a ti la suerte 
GuardiS mas digno objeto, mas sublime. 
El alma libre, generosa, fuerte, 
Viene, te ve, se asombra, 
El mezquioo deleile menosprecia 

Y aun se siente elevar cuaado te nombra. 

j Omnipoteote Diosl En otrus climas 
Vi monstruos exec rabies, 
Blasfemando tu nombre sacrosanto, 
Sembrar error y fanatismo impio, 
Los campos inundar con sangre y Ilanto, 
De Herman OS atizar la infanda guerra, 

Y desolar frenelicos la tierra. 

Vilos, y el pecho se inflamo d su vista 
En grave indignacion. Por otra parte 
Vi menlidos filiSsofos, que osaban 
Escrutar tus misterios, ultrajarte, 

Y de impiedad al lamentable abismo 



A los miseros hombres arrastraban. 
Por eso te bused mi d^bil mente 
£a la sublime soledad: ahora 
Entera se abre d ti; tu mano siente 
En esta itimensidad que me circunda, 

Y tu profunda voz hiere mi seno 
De este raudal en el eterao trueno. 

iAaombroso torrente! 
\C6nio tu vista el animo enajena 

Y de terror y admiracii5n me Uena! 
jD6 tu origen esta? .iQuien ferlitiza 
Por tantos siglos tu inexhausta fuente? 
I Que poderosa mano 

Hace que al recibirte 

No rebose en la tierra el Oceano? 

Abrio el Senor su mano omnipotente; 

Cubrid tu faz de nubes agitadas, 
Did su voz a tus aguas despenadas, 

Y omo con su arco tu terrible frente. 
jCiego, profundo, infaligable corres, 
Como el torrente obscuro de los siglos 
En insondable etemidad! . . . ;A1 hombre 
Huyen as! las ilusiones gratas, 

Los Horecientes dias, 

Y despierta a! dolor! . . . ]Ay! agostada 
Yace mi juventud; mi faz, maa-hita; 

Y la profunda pena que me agita 
Ruga mi frente de dolor aublada. 

Nunca tanto sent! como este dfa 
Mi soledad y misero abandono 

Y lamentable desamor ■ ■ ■ i Podria 
En edad borrascosa 

Sin amor ser feliz? jOh; si una hermosa 
Mi carino fijase, 

Y de este abismo al borde turbulento 
Mi vago pensamiento 

Y ardietite admiracidn acompaiiase! 
iC(5mo gozara, vi^ndola cubrirse 
De leve palidez, y ser mds bella 

En su dulce terror, y sonreirse 

Al sostenerla mis amantes brazos . . . 

Delirios de virtud . . . jAy! ;Desterrado, 

Sin patria, sin amores, 

S61o miro ante mi llanto y dolores! 

(Niagara poderoso! 
jAdids! jadios! Deotro de pocos afios 
Ya devorado habra la tumba fria 
A tu debil cantor. jDuren mis versos 
Cual tu gloria inmortal! jPueda piadosy, 
Viendote aigiin viajero, 
Dar un suspiro a la memoria mla! 

Y al abismarse Febo en occidente, 
Feliz yo vuele do el Seiior me llama, 


Y ai escucbar los ecos de ml fa ma. 
Alee en las nubes la radiosa frente. 



jSer de inmensa bondad! ;Dios poderoso! 
A vos acudo en mi dolor vehemente . . . 
Extended vuestro brazo nmnipotente; 
Rasgad de la calumnia el velo odioso; 
Y arrancad este sello ignominioso 
Con que el mundo manchar quiere mi frente. 

iRey de los Reyes! jDios de mis abuelos! 
jVos solo sois mi defensor! jDios mio! . . . 
Todo lo puede quien al mar sombrio 
Olas y peces did, luz S los cielos, 
Fuego al sol, giro al aire, al norte hielos, 
Vida & las plantas, movimiento al rio. 


Todo lo pod^is vos; todo tenece, 
6 se reanima a vuestra voz sagrada; 
Fuera de vos, Sefior, el todo es nada 
Que en la insondable eternidad perece; 
Y aun esa mis ma nada os obedece, 
Pues de ella iu6 la humanidad creada. 


Yo no OS puedo enganar, Dios de clemencia, 

Y pues vuestra eternal sabiduria 

Ve al travfa de mi cuerpo el alma mia 
C'ual del aire i. la clara transparencia, 
Estorbad que bu mil lad a la inocencia 
Bata sus pal mas la calumnia impfa. 

Estorbadio, Seiior, por la preciosa 
Sangre vertida, que la culpa sella 
Del pecado de Adan, 6 por aquella 
Mad re Candida, dulce y amorosa, 
Cuando envuelta en pesar, musiia y llorosa, 
Siguii5 m muerte como heliaca cslrella. 

Mas si cuadra a tu suma omnipolcncia 
Que yo perezca cual malvado impio, 

V que !os hombres mi cadaver frio 
Ultrajcn con maligna complacencia . . . 
jSuene tu voz, y acabe mi eristencia! . . . 
iCi3mplase en ml tu voluntad, Dios miol 




No en lo pasado S. tu virtud modelo, 
Ni copia al porvenir dara la hisloria, 
Ni otra igual en grandeza e 
Dif undirin los siglos en su vuelo. 

Mini la Europa ensangrenlar su sueio 
Al genio de la guerra y la victoria, 
Pero le cupo d America la gloria 
De que al genio del bien le diera el cielo. 

Que audaz concjuistador goce en su cienda 
Mientras al mundo en paramo convierte, 
V se envanezca cuando a sien'os mande; 

jMas los pueblos sabran en su conciencia 
Que el que los rige libres solo es fuerte; 
Que el que los bace grandes solo es grande! 


jPerla del mar! jEstrella de Occidentel 
jHermosa Cuba! Tu brillante cielo 
La noche cubre con su opaco velo, 
Como cubre el dolor mi triste frente. 

jVoy i partir! ... La chusma diligente 
Para arrancarme del native suelo 
Las velas iza, y pronta a su desvelo 
La brisa acude de tu zona ardiente. 

]Adii5s, patiia feliz, Eden querido! 
DiKjuier que el hado en su furor me impeia, 
Tu dulce nombre halagara mi oido. 

jAdids! . - . iya cruje la turgente vela ... 
El ancla se alza ... el buque estremecido 
Las alas corta y silcncioso vuela! 



Canto i. Bolfvar 

El trueno horrendo, que en fragor revienta 

Y sordo retumbando se dilata 
Por la inflamada esfera, 

Al Dios anuncia que en el cielo impera. 

Y el rayo que en Jumn rompe y ahuyenta 5 

La hispana muchedumbre, 
Que mds f6roz que nunca amenazaba 
A sangre y fuego etema servidumbre, 

Y el canto de victoria 

Que en ecos mil discurre, ensordeciendo 10 

El Hondo valle y enriscada cumbre, 
Proclaman d Bolivar en la tierra 
Arbitro de la paz y de la guerra. 

Las soberbias pirdmides que al cielo 
El arte humano osado levantaba 15 

Para hablar i, los siglos y naciones, 







Templos, do esclavas manos 
Deificaban en pompa i sus tiranos, 
Ludibrio son del liempo, que con su ala 
Debil las toca, y las derriba al suelo, 
Despu^s que en fdcil juego el fugaz viento 
Bono sus mentirosas inscripciunes; 
V bajo los escombros loufundido 
Entre las sombras de! elemo olvido 
;0h de ambicidn y de mUeria ejemplo! 
EJ sacerdote yace, el dios y ef templo. 

Mas los sublimes monies, cuya frente 
A la region eti^rea se levanta, 
Que ven las tempestades i su planta 
Brillar, rugir, rompcrse, disiparse; 
Los Andes ... las enormes, estupendas 
Moles senladas sobre bases de oro, 
La tierra con su peso equilibrando, 
Jamds se moverAn. EUos, burlando 




De ajena envidia y del protervo tiempo 
La furia y el poder, seran etcrnos 
De Libertad y de Victoria heraldos, 
Que con eco profundo 
A la postrera edad dirin del mundo: 
•Nosotros vimos de Junin el campo; 


Vimos que al desplegarse 
Del Peru y de, Colombia las banderas, 
Se turban las legiones altaneras, 
Huye el fiero espanol despavorido, 


^^^^^^ OLMEDO 


6 pide paz rendido. 


Vend6 BoUvar: el Peru fu^ libre; 

Y en triunfal pompa Libertad sagrada 


En el templo del Sol iu6 colocada. » 

^Qui^n es aquel que e! paso lento mueve 


Sobre el coUado que a Junin domina? 

^Que el campo desde alli mide, y el silio 

Del combatir y del veneer desina? 

^Que la hueste contraria observa, cuenta, 

Y en su mente la rompe y desordena, 


Y i los mas bravos a morir condena, 

Cual aguila caudal que se complace 

Del alto cielo en diiisar su presa 

Que entre el rebano mal segura pace? 



Pronto y apercibido a la pelea? 

Prefiada en tempcstades le rodea 

Nube tremenda: eJ brillo de su espada 

Es el vivo reflejo de la gloria; 


Su voz un trueno; su mirada un rayo. 

^Qui^n aquel que, al trabarse la batalla, 

Ufano como nuncio de victoria, 


Un corcel impetuoso farigando. 


Discurre sin cesar por toda parte ? . . . 


^Qui^n, sino el hijo de Colombia y Marte? 

Son6 su voz: "Peruanos, 


Mirad allf los duros opresores 



De vuestra patria. Bravos colombianos, 

En cien crudas bat alias vencedores, 

Mirad alii los enemigos fieros 

Que buscando venis desde Orinoco; 

Suya es la fuerza, y el valor es vuestro, 

Vuestra sera la gloria; 

Pues lidlar eon valor y por la patria 

Es el mejor presagio de victoria. 

Acometed: que siempre 

De quien se atreve mis el triunfo ha sido: 

Quien no espera veneer, ya esta vencido. ' 

Dice; y al punto, cual fugaces carros 
Que, dada la senal, parten, y en densos 
De arena y polvo torbellinos ruedan, 
Arden Ins ejes, se estremece el suelo, 
Estrepito confuso asorda cl cielo, 
Y en medio del aiSn cada cual teme 
Que los demds adelantarse puedan; 
Asi los ordenados escuadrones, 
Que del iris reflejan los colores 
la imagen del sol en sus pendones, 
Se avanzan d la lid. jOh! jqui^n temiera, 
Qui^n, que su impetu mismo los perdiera! 

Tal el li^roe brillaba 
Por las primeras filas discurriendo. 
Se oye su voz, su acero respiandece 
Do mas la pugna y el peligro crece; 



Nada le puede resistir , . . Y es fama, 
]Oh portento inaudito! 
Que el bello nombre de Colombia escrito 
Sobre su frente en torno despedfa 
Rayos de luz tan viva y refulgenle, 
Que deslumbrado el espanol desmaya, 
Tiembla, pierde la voz, el movimiento: 
Solo para la fuga liene aliento. 

As!, cuando ea la noche algun malvado 
Va & descargar el brazu levantado, 
Si de improviso lanza un rayo el cielo, 
Se pasma, y el punal tnfmulo suelia; 
Hielo mortal & su furor sucede; 
Tiembla y horrorizado retrocede. 
Va no hay mas combatir. El encmigo 
El campo todo y la victoria cede. 
Huye cual ciervo herido; y & donde huye 
Allt encuentra la muerte. Los caballos 
Que fueron su esperanza en la pelea, 
Heridos, espantados, por el campo 
O enlre las filas vagan, salpicando 
El suelo en sangre que su crin gotea; 
Derriban al jinete, lo atropellan, 

Y las calervas van despavoridas, 

Unas en otras con terror se estrellan. 

Crece la confusion, crece el espanto, 

Y al impulso del aire, que vibrando 


Sube en clamorea y a!aridos lleno, 
Tremen las cumbres que respeta el trueno. 

Y discurriendo e[ vencedor en tanto 
For cimas de cadaveres y heridos, 

Postra al que huye, perdona 5 los rendidos. 

jPadre del universo, sol radioso, 
Dios del Perd, modera omnipotente 
El ardor de lu carro impetiioso, 

Y no escondas tu luz indeficiente! . . . 
jUna hora mas de luz! . . . Pero esta hora 
No fu^ la del Desdno. El dios oia 

El voto de su pueblo, y de la frente 
El cerco de dia mantes descenia. 
En fugaz rayo el horizonte dora, 
En mayor disco menos luz ofrece, 

Y veloz tras los Andes se obscurece. 

Tendi6 su manlo Idbrego la noche, 

Y las reliquias del perdido bando. 
Con sus tristes y at6niCos caudillos, 
Corren sin saber donde esjiavoridas, 

Y de su sombra misma se estremecen; 

Y al fin en las tinieblas ocultando 
Su afrenla y su pavor, desaparecen. 

jVicloria por la palria! joii Dios! jVictorial 
jTriunfo S. Colombia y £l Bolivar gloria! 





I Oh, tu, que duermes en casto lecho, 
De sinsabores ajeno el pec ho, 

Y d los encantos de la hermosura 
Unes las gracias del corazon, 

Deja el descanso, doncella pura, 5 

Y oye los ecos de mi cancion! 

I Quien en la tierra la dicha alcanza ? 
Iba mi vida sin esperanza, 
Cual nave errante sin ver su estrella, 
Cuando me inundas en daridad; lo 

Y desde entonces, gentil doncella, 
Me revelaste felicidad. 

jOh, si las ansias decir pudiera 
Que siente el alma, desde que viera 
Ese semblante que amor inspira 15 

Y los hechizos de tu candor! 
Mas, rudo el labio, torpe la lira, 
Decir no puede lo que es amor. 

Del Iris puede pintarse el velo; 



Del sol los rayos, la luz del cielo; 
La negra noche, la blanca aurora; 
Mas no tus gradas ni tu poder, 
Ni menos puede de quien te adora 
Decirse el ilaoto y el padecer. 

Amor encuentra doquier que vuelva 
La vista en tomo; la verde selva, 
Florido el prado y el bosque urabrio, 
La tiema hierba, la hermosa llor, 
Y la cascada, y el claro rio, 
Todos me dicen: amor, amor. 

Cuando te ausentas, el camjio irisle 
De luto y sombras luego se vistc; 
Mas si regresas, la primavera 
Hate sus galas tod as lucir: 
jOli, nunca, nunta de esta ribera, 
Duncclla hermusa, <iuii;ras partir! 

^ Eres tu, triste rosa, 
La que ayer difundia 
Balsdmica ambrosia, 
Y tu altiva cabeza levantando 
Eras la reina de la selva umbria ? 



I Por qu^ tan pronto, dime, 

Hoy triste y desolada 

Te encuentras de tus galas despojada ? 

Ayer viento suave 

Te halagd carinoso; 5 

Ayer alegre el ave 

Su cdntico armonioso 

Ejercitaba, sobre ti posando; 

Tu, rosa, le inspirabas, 

Y d cantar sus amores le excitabas. lo 

Tal vez el fatigado peregrino, 

Al pasar junto d ti, quiso cortarte: 

Tal vez quiso Uevarte 

Algun amante i. su ardoroso seno; 

Pero al ver tu hermosura, 15 

La compasidn sintieron, 

Y su atrevida mano detuvieron. 

Hoy nadie te respeta: 

El furioso aquildn te ha deshojado. 

Ya nada te ha quedado 30 

jOh reina de las flores! 

De tu brillo y tus colores. 

La fiel imagen eres 

De mi triste fortuna: 

jAy! todos mis placeres, 35 

Todas mis esperanzas una £ una 

Arrancdndome ha ido 

Un destino funesto, cual tus hojas 
Arrancd el hunicdn embravecido! 

lY que, ya triste y sola, 

No habra quien te dirija una mirada? 

ijEstaras condenada 

A eterna soledad y aniargo Uoro? 

No, que existe un mortal sobre la tierra, 

Un joven infeliz, desesperado, 

A quien horrible suerte ha condenado 

A perpetuo gemir: ven, pues, job rosa! 

Ven a mi amante seno, en el reposa 

Y ojala de mis besos la pureza 
Resucitar pudiera tu belleza. 

Ven, ven, ioh triste nisal 

Si es mi suerte a la tuya semejante, 

Burlemos gu porfia; 

Ven, todas mis caricias seran tuyas, 

Y tu (iltima fragancia sera mia. 


A Roiario 

jPues biea! yo necesito 
Decirte que te adoro, 
Decirte que le quiero 

ACUl^A ao3 

Con todo el corazdn; 
Que es mucho lo que sufro, 
Que es mucho lo que lloro, 
Que ya no puedo tanto, 

Y al grito en que te imploro 5 
Te imploro y te hablo en nombre 

De mi ultima ilusidn. 


Yo quiero que td sepas 
Que ya hace muchos dfas 
Estoy enfermo y pdlido 10 

De tanto no dormir; 
Que ya se han muerto todas 
Las esperanzas mlas; 
Que estdn mis noches negras, 
Tan negras y sombrias, 15 

Que ya no s^ ni ddnde 
Se alzaba el porvenir. 


De noche, cuando pongo 
Mis sienes en la almohada 

Y hacia otro mundo quiero 20 
Mi espiritu volver, 

Camino mucho, mucho, 

Y al fin de la Jornada 
Las f ormas de mi madre 

Se pierden en la nada, 2$ 


Y tu de nuevo vuelvea 
En mi alma i aparecer. 


Comprendo que tus besos 
Jamiis han de ser mios; 
Comprendo que en tus ojos 
No me he de ver jamas; 

Y te amo, y en mis locos 

Y ardientes desvarios 
Bendigo tus desdenes, 
Adoro tus desvlos, 

Y en vez de amarte menos, 
Te quiero mucho mis. 

A veces pienso en darte 
Mi eterna despedida, 
Borrarte en mis recuerdos 

Y hundirte en mi pasitin; 
Mas si es en vano todo 

Y el alma no te olvida, 
iQu^ quieres tu que yo haga, 
Pedazo de mi vida; 

Qui quieres tG que yo haga 
Con esle coraaSn ! 

Y luego que ya estaba 
Concluido tu santuario, 

acuNa 205 

Tu Idmpara encendida, 

Tu velo en el altar, 

£1 sol de la manana 

Detrds del campanario, 

Chispeando las antorchas, 5 

Humeando el incensario, 

Y abierta alld d lo lejos 
La puerta del hogar ... 


j Qu^ hermoso hubiera sido 
Vivir bajo aquel techo, 10 

Los dos unidos siempre 

Y amdndonos los dos; 
Tu siempre enamorada, 
Yo siempre satisfecho, 

Los dos una sola alma, 15 

Los dos un solo pecho, 

Y en medio de nosotros 
Mi madre como un Dios! 


jFigurate qu^ hermosas 
Las horas de esa vida! 20 

jQu^ dulce y bello el viaje 
Por una tierra as!! 

Y yo sonaba en eso, 
Mi santa prometida. 

Y al delirar en eso *5 


MfSXICO ^^^^^^^ 

Con la alma estremecida, ; 

Pensaba yo en ser bueno 

Por ti, no m£s per li. 

Bien sabe Dios que fee era 


Mi mLis bermoso sueno, 

Mi afan y mi esperanza. 

Mi dicha y mi placer; 

jBien sabe Dios que en nada 

Cifraba yo mi empetio, 


Sino en amarte mucho 

Baj'o el liogar risuefio 

Que me envolvid en sus besos 

Cuando me vio nacer! 

£sa era mi esperanza ... ' 


Mas ya que a sus fulgores 

Se opone el hondo abismo 

Que existe entre los dos, 

lAdi6s por la vez ultima, ! 

Amor de mis amores; 


La luz de mis linleblas, 

La esencia de mis flures; 

Mi lira de poeta, 


Mi juveniud, adifis! ■ 



jCuantos hay que, cansados de la vida, 
Enfermos de pesar, muertos de tedio, 
Hacen reir como el actor siiicida. 
Sin encontrar, para su naal, remedio! 

jAyl jCufintas vcces al reir se llora! 
jNadie en lo alegre de la risa fie, 
Porque en los seres que el dolor devora 
El alma llora cuando el rostro rie! 

Si se muere la fe, si huye U calma, 
Si solo abrojos nuestra planta pisa, 
Lanza S. la faz la tempestad del alma 
Un reldmpago triste: la sonrisa. 

El camaval del mundo engafia tanto. 
Que las vidas son breves mascaradas; 
Aqiii aprendemos i reir con llanto, 
Y lambi^n 5 Uorar con carcajadas. 


Juan y Margot, dos Angeles hermanos, 
Que embellecen mi hngar con sus carinos, 
Se entreliener con juegos tan humanos 
Que parecen personas desde nii\os, 


Mientraa Juan, de tres afios, es soldado 
Y monta en una cafia endeble y hueca, 
Besa Margot con labios de granado 
Los labios de cartdn de su n 

Lucen los das sus inocentes galas, 

Y alegres suenan en tan dulces lazos: 
El, que cxuza sereno entre las balas; 
Ella, que arrulla ud nino entre sus brazos. 

Puesto al hombro el fusil de hoj'a de lata, 
El kepis de papel sobre la frente, 
Alienta al nino en su inocencia grata 
El orgullo viril de ser valiente. 

Quizd piensa, en sus j'uegos infantiles, 
Que en este mundo que su af£n recrea, 
Son como el suyo todos los fusiles 
Con que la torpe hunianidad pelea. 

Que pesan poco, que sin odios lucen, 
Que es igual el mSs d^bil al mds fuerte, 

Y que, si se disparan, no producen 
Humo, tragor, consternacidn y muerte. 

;Oh misteriosa condicidn humana! 
Siempre lo opuesto buscas en la tierra: 
Ya delira Margot por ser anciana, 

Y Juan que vive en paz ama la guerra. 


Mirdndolos jugar, me aflijo y callo; 
i Cual sera sobre el mundo su f ortuna ? 
Suefia el nino con armas y caballo, 
La nina con velar junto a la cuna. 

Ei uno corre de entusiasmo ciego, 5 

La nina arrulla a su mufieca inerme, 

Y mientras grita el uno: Fuego, Fuego, 
La otra murmura txiste: Duerme, Duerme. 

A mi lado ante juegos tan extranos 
Concha, la primog^nita, me mira: 10 

jEs toda una persona de seis aiios 
Que charla, que comenta y que suspiral 

I Por qu^ inclina su Idnguida cabeza 
Mientras deshoja inquieta algunas flores ? 
I Serd la que ha heredado mi tristeza ? 15 

I Serd la que comprende mis dolores ? 

Cuando me rindo del dolor al peso, 
Cuando la negra duda me avasalla, 
Se me cuelga del cuello, me da un beso, 
Se le saltan las Mgrimas, y calla. 20 

Sueltas sus trenzas claras y sedosas, 

Y oprimiendo mi mano entre sus manos, 
Parece que medita en'muchas cosas 

Al mirar como juegan sus hermanos . . . 


llnocencia! jNinez! jDichosos nombresl 
Amo tus goces, busco tus cariiios; 
jCdmo han de ser los sueiios de los hombres 
M£s dulces que los sueiios de los ninos! 




Es con voz de la Biblia 6 verso de Walt Whitman 
Que habria que llegar hasta ti, jcazador! 
Primitivo y modemo, sencilio y complicado, 
Con un algo de Washington y mucho de Nemrod. 
Eres los Estados Unidos, 
Eres el futuro invasor 

De la America ingenua que tiene sangre indfgena, 
Que aun reza i. Jesucristo y aun habla ei 

Eres soberbio y fuerte ejemplar de tu raza; 
Eres culto, eres habtl; te opones d Tolstoy. 
V domando caballos 6 asesinando tigres, 
Eres un Alejandro Nabucodonosor. 
(Eres un protesor de Energia 
Como dicen los locos de hoy.) 

Crees que la vida es incendio. 
Que el progreso es erupcii5n, 
Que en donde pones la bala 
El porvenir pones. 



Los Estados Unidos son potcntes y grandes. 
Cuando ellos se estremecen hay un hondo temblor 
Que pasa por las vertebras enormes de los Andes. 
Si clamdis, se oye como el rugir de un !e6n. 
YaHugod Grant lodijo: "Lasestrellasson vuestras. • 
(Apenas brilla alzdndose el argentino sol 

Y la estrelk chilena se ievanta . . .) Sois ricos; 
Juntdis al culto de Hercules el culto de Mamnou; 

Y alumbrando e! camino de la facil conquista, 
La Libertad Ievanta su antorcha en Nueva York. 

Mas la America nuestra que tenia poetas 

Desde los viejos tiempos de Netzhualcoyolt, 

Que ha guardado las huellas de los pies del gran Baco, 

Que el alfabeto pdnico en un tierapo aprendifi, 

Que consult^ los astros, que conocid la atldntida 

Cuyo nombre nos llega resonando en Plaldn, 

Que desde los remotos momentos de su vida 

Vive de luz, de fuego, de perfume y de amor, 

La America del grande Moctezuma, del Inca, 

La America fragante de Crist<jbal Coldn, 

La America catiSlica, la America espanola, 

La America en que dijo ei noble Guatemoc: 

'Vo no estoy en un lecho de rosas"; esa America 

Que tiembla de huracanes y que vive de amor, 

Hombres de ojos sajones y alma bdrbara, vive 

Y sueQa. Y ama y vibra; y es la hija de! Sol. 
Teoed cuidado. jVive la Ani6rica espanola! 


RUBfiN DARlO 213 

Hay mil cachorros sueltos del ledn espanol. 
Se necesitaria, Roosevelt, ser Dios mismo, 
El Riflero terrible y el fuerte cazador, 
Para poder tenernos en vuestras ferreas garras. 

Y, pues contdis con todo, falta una cosa: ) Dios I 


DON andr£s bello 


Rompe el Leon soberbio la cadena 
Con que atarle pens6 la felonia, 

Y sacude con noble bizarria 
Sobre el robusto cuello ta melena. 

La espuma del furor sus labios lien a 

Y 4 tos njgidos que indignado envia 
El tigre tiembla en la caverna umbria, 

Y todo el bosque atonito resuena. 

El Le<5n despert(5; jtemblad, traidores! 
Lo que vejez creisleis, fu^ descanso; 
Las juveniles fuerzas guarda enteras 

Perseguid, alevosos cazadores, 
A la timida liebre, al ciervo manso; 
No insultdis al monarca de las fieras 


;Salve, fecunda zona, 
Que al sol enamorado circunscribes 



El vago curso, y cuanln ser se anima 

En cada vario clima, 

Acariciada de su luz, concibes! 

Tij tejes al verano su guimalda 

De granadas espigas; tii la uva 

Das d la hirviente cuba: 

No de purpurea flor, 6 roja, 6 gualda, 

A tus floreslas bellas 

Falta matiz alguno; y bebe en ellas 

Aromas mil el vieoto; 

V greyes van sin cuento 
Paciendo tu verdura, desde el llano 
Que tiene por lindero el horizonte, 
Hasta el erguido monte, 

De inaccesible nieve siempre cano. 
Tu das la cana hermosa, 
De do la miel se acendra, 
Pur quien desdena el mundo los panales: 
Tu en urnas de cora! cuajas la almendra 
Que eo la espumante jlcara rebosa: 
BuUe carmin viviente en lus nupales, 
Que afrenta fuera al miirice de Tiro; 

Y de tu anil la tinta generosa 
Emula es de la lumbre del zafiro; 
El vino es tuyo, que ta herida agave 
Para los hijos vierte 

Del Anihuac feiiz; y la hoja es tuya 

Que, cuando de suave 

Humo en cspiras vagorosas huya, 


Solazari el fastidio al ocio inerte. 

Tu vistes de 

El arbusto sabeo, 

Y el perfume le das que en ios festinea 
La fiebre insana templard a Lieo. 
Para tus hijos la procera paJma 

Su vario feudo cria, 

Y el ananis sazona su ambrosfa: 
Su bianco pan la yuca, 

Sus rubias pomas la patata educa, 

Y el algodon despliega al aura leve 
Las rosas de oro y el velldn de nieve. 
Tendida para ti la fresca parcha 

En enramadas de verdor lozano, 
Cuelga de sus sarmientos trepadores 
Necdreos globos y franjadas (lores; 

Y para ti el malz, jefe altanero 

De la espigada tribu, hinche su grano; 

Y para ti el banano 

Desmaya ai peso de su dulce carga; 

El banano, primero 

De cuantos concedid belUis presentes 

Provideocia & las gentes 

Del ecuador feliz con mano larga. 

No ya de humanas artes obligado 

El premio rinde opimo: 

No es & la podadera, no al arado 

Deudor de su racimo; 

Escaaa industria bAstale, cual puede 

Hurtar A sus fatigas mano esclava: 
Crece veloz, y cuando exhausto acaba, 
Adulta prole en torno le sucede. 

jOh! jLos que afortunados poseedores 
Habeis nacido de la lieira hermosa 
En que resena hacer de sus favores, 
Co mo para ganaros y atraeros, 
Quiso naturaleza bondadosa! 
Romped el duro eocanto 
Que OS tiene entre murallas prisioneros. 
El vulgo de las artes laborioso, 
El mercader que, necesario al lujo, 
Al lujo necesita, 

Los que anhelando van tras el aeiiuelo 
Del alto cargo y del honor ruidoso, 
La grey de aduladores parasita, 
Gustosos pueblen ese infecto cans; 

El campo es vuestra heren 
^ Amiis la libertad ? El c 
No all^ donde el magnate 
Entre armados satelites se 

Y de la moda, universal s« 
Va !a razdn al triunfal car 

Y a la fortuna la insensata plebe, 

Y el noble al aura popular adora. 

^0 la virlud amais? jAh! jQue el retire), 
La solltaria calma 

l: en el gozaos. 
ipo habita: 


En que, juez de si misma, pasa el alma 

A las acciones muestra, 

Es de la vida la mejor maestral 

^Busciis durables goces, 

Felicidad, cuanta es al hombre dada 

Y S su teireno asiento, en que vecina 
Est5 la risa al Uanto, y siempre |ah! sierapre, 
Donde halaga la flor, punza la espina? 

Id i gozar la suerte campesina; 
La regalada paz, que ni rencores, 
Al labrador, ni envidias acibaran; 
La cama que mullida le preparan 
El contento, el irabajo, el aire puro; 

Y el sabor de los fAciles manjares, 
Que dispendiosa gula no !e aceda; 

Y el asilo seguro 

De sus patrios hogares 

Que d la salud y al regocijo hospeda. 

El aura respirad de la montana, 

Que vuelve al cuerpo laso 

El perdido vigor, que d la enojosa 

Vejez retarda el paso, 

Y el rostro & la beldad tine de rosa. 
(Es alii menos blanda por ventura 

De amor ]a llama, que lemplo el retato? 
;0 menos aficiona la hermosura 
Que de extranjero ornato 

Y afeites imposlores no se cura? 
tO el coraziin escucha indiferente 



El lenguaje inocente 

Que los afectos sin disfraz expresa 

Y S la intencidn ajusta la promesa? 
No del espejo at impurtuno ensayo 
La risase compone, el paso, el gesto; 
No falta alii carmin al rostro honesto 
Que la modestia y la salud colora, 
Ni la mirada que lanaS al soslayo 
Timido amor, la senda al alma ignora. 
I Esperar^is que forme 

Mis venturosos lazos himeneo, 

Do el interfe barata, 

Tirano del deseo, 

Ajena mano y fe por nombre 6 plata, ■ 

Que do conforme guslo, edad conforme, 

Y elecci6n libre, y mutuo ardor los ata? 

jOh jovenes naciones, que ceiiida 
Alzdis sobre el atonito Occidente 
De tempranos laurel es la cabeza! 
Honrad al campo, honrad la simple vi 
Del labrador y su frugal Uaneza. 
As! tendrdn en vos perpetuamente 
La libertad morada, 
Y freno la ambicii5n, y la ley templo. 
Las gentes & la senda 
De la inmortalidad, ardua y fragosa, 
Se animarfin, citando vuestro ejemplo. 
Lo emulara celosa 


Vuestra posteridad, y nuevos nombres 

Afiadiendo la fama 

A los que ahora aclama, 

'Hijos son fetos, hijos 

(Pregonara ft los hombres) 

De los que vencedores superaron 

De los Andes la cima: 

De los que eti Boyacft, los que en la aret 

De Maipo y en Junin, y en la campafia 

Gloriosa de Apurima, 

Postrar supieron al ieiSn de Espafla." 


A mi licrmana Elodia 

[Tien-a! grita en la prnra el navegaote, 

Y coufusa y distante, 
Una linea indecisa 

Enire bnimas y ondas se divisa. 

Poco d poco del seno 
IJcstacandose va, del horizonte, 
Sobre el ^ler sereno 
La cumbre azul de un monte; 

Y asi como el bajel se va acercando, 
Va extendiendose el cerro 

Y Unas formas exlraflas va tomando; 


Formas que he visto cuando 
Sofiaba con la dicha en mi dcstierro. 

Va la vista columbra 
Las riberas bordadas de palmares, 

Y una brisa cargada con la esencia 
De silvestres violetas y azahares 
En mi memoria alumbra 

El recuerdo feliz de mi inocencia, 
Cuando pobre de afios y pesares 

Y rico de ilusiones y alegrla, 
Bajo las pal mas retozar solia 
Oyendo el arruUar de las palomas, 
Bebiendo luz y respirando aromas. 

Hay algo en esos rayos brilladores 
Que juegan por la atm(^sfera azulada, 
Que me habla de temuras y de amores 
De una dicha pasada; 

Y el vienlo al suspirar entre las cuerdas 
Parece que me dice : — ,1 No le acuerdas ? . 

Ese eieb, ese mar, esos ccx^ales, 
Ese monte que dora 
El sol de las regiones tropjcales . . . 
jLuz! jluz al fin! los reconozco ahora; 
Son ellos, son los mismos de mi infancia, 
y esas playas que al sol del mediodia 
Brillan 6. la distancia, 
jOh inefable alegria! 
Son las riberas de la patria mia. 

333 ^^H 

Ya muerde el fondo de la mar hirviente ^^H 

Del ancla el f^rreo diente; ^^^| 

Ya se acercan los botes desplegando ^^^| 

Al aire pum y blando ^^^^| 

S La enseiia tricolur del pueblo mio. ^^^| 

jA tierra! jd tierra! jO la emocidn me ahoga, I 

se aduefla de mi alma el desvario! 

IJevado en alas de mi ardiente anhelo, 

Me lanzo presuroso al barquichuelo 

10 Que ii las riberas del hogar me invita. 

Todo es grata armonia: los suspiros i 

De la onda de zafir que el remo agita, 

De las marinas aves 

Los caprichosos giros, 

IS Y las notas sUaves 

Y el timbre lisonjero, 

Y la magia que toma, 

Hasta en labios del tosco marinero, 

El dulce son de mi narivo idioma. 

ao jVolad, volad velwes, 

Ondas, aves y vuces! 

Id &, la tierra en donde el alma tengo, 

y decidle que vengo 

A reposar, cansado caminanle, 

35 Del hogar & la sombra itn aolo instante. 

Decidle que en mi anhelo, en mi delirio 

Por Uegar i. la orilla, el pecho siente ■ 


De TSntalo el martirio; 

Decidle, en fin, que mientra estuve ausente 

Ni un dia, ni un instante la he olvidado, 

V Uevadle este beso que os confio, 
Tributo adelantado 

Que desde el fondo de mi scr le envlo. 

iBoga, boga remero! iAsil ;L)egamos.' 
jOh, emocion hasla ahwa no sentida! 
Ya piso el santo suelo en que probamos 
El almlbar primero de la vida. 

Tras ese monte azul, cuya a!ta cumbre 
Lanza reto dc orgullu 
Al zafir de los cieios, 
EsiS el puebio gentil donde a! amilto 
Del maternal amor rasgue los velos 
Que me ocultaban la primera lumbre. 
jEn marcha, en martha, postilion; agita 
El latigo inciementc! 

Y d mis andar el cothe diligente 
Por la oriila del mar se precipita. 

No hay pefia ni ensenada que en mi mente 
No venga i desperlar una memoria; 
Ni hay ola que en la arena humedecida 
No escriba cun espuma alguna historia 
De los felices tiempie de mi vida. 
Todo me habla de suefios y cantares, 
De paz, de amor y de tranquilos bienes; 
y el aura fugitiva de los mares 



:, leda, a acariciar mis sicn 
a al oido 
Con misterioso acento: jBienvenido! 



Cay6 empuflando el invencibie acero 

Que coroni5 de lauros la victoria. 
Terror de extrafios, de su patria gloria, 
En traidora asechanza el caballero. 

• — Llevad mi espada a! pueblo por quien muero. 
Y airado el pueblo vengue mi memoria . . . 
Este anillo S ... mi amor ... La negra historia 
A mi madre callad. * — Dijo ei guerrero. 

Sucumbid el heroc . . . jSacrificio vanol 
Que al susjiiro final de su agonia 
Besaba el pueblo la traidora mano: 

jA otro amador la amada sonreia! 
S61o la madre en su dolor tirano 
Al guerrero Uoraba noche y dia. 

La Carcelera 

La Cachucha 



La Valenciana. 


cancion devota 233 

Canci6n Devota 









van des - ca 


-zos. Ml 

- ri 


a -do- 







m^:is --f--=z^\f=-' ^ m 


- lel tan-to baJ-l^quemE en-a-mo-r^, |a-le, 






Himao De Riego. 




Sal -da - dos, U 



jjj'^/ i i- 


=^ / i ^ 


u - re - mm por 

e - Ua ve 

RTl I' M 1 



sa - d(>s, can - te - nios, sol - da - doa, el I 


I i3p=!ss^p^p^^ 


Himno Nacional De Mexico 



Himno Nacional De Cuba 

Pedro Firuerzdo 

1. |A1 

2. No 

3. No 

om-ba - le co - rred Ba - ya 
se nu-ble ja -m^ e-sae 


- seslQue la 

- roQueeaco- 

- Ua Que las 

bar - de cual to 
hi - jas de Cu 


- do 

- ba bor 


da - 


No te - 
No re - 
Y que 


Biem - pre 
li - brey 

3£— ^-^ 

la pa . Ilia es vi 
suim-pe - rio ca 



En ca - 
Sea ben - 


- -i=-^ 


-^i 1 


. En o-pro-hioy a- fren - ta su- 
di - lalano-chese-re-na , . En que en a-le-gres cam-posde 
jm-brei loshi-josde Cu-bal ]Glo-riaynom-btealva-lien-leA-giii- | 

do. Del cia - rin es - cu - chad e) no ■ 
ra El cla - rIn de la gue - na so . 
rat iVi - val [Vi - val laa - Ie - gre ban - 

rr—r^ EHg^^ P 

do; A las ar -tes, co-iredt 
la Yel cu-ba - no ser li - bre jii - m. 
a Que en los cam-pos de Ya-i 


ROMANCES. The Spaniah romances viejas, which correspond 
in form and spirit lo the early English and Scotch ballads, enlist in 
Rreat number and variety. Anonymous and widely known among 
the people, they represent as well as any literary product can the 
spirit of the Spaniah nation of the period, in the main stem and 
martial, but sometimes tender and pkintive. Most of them 
were lyritten in the fifleenih and sixteenth centuries; the earliest 
to which a date can be assigned is Cercada lieite d Bacai, which 
must have been composed soon after 1368. Others may have 
their roots in older events, hut have undergone constant modifica- 
tion since that time. The romance po/mlar is still alive in Spain 
and many have recently been collected from oral tradition (cf. 
Mendndez y Pelayo, Aniologia, vol. X). 

The romances were once thought to be relics of very old lyiico- 
epic songs which, gathering material in the course of time, be- 
came the long epics that are known to have existed in Spain in the 
twelfth to fourteenth centuries (such as the Poema del Cid, and 
the lost caalares of Bernardo del Ciirpia, the Infanles de Lara and 
Ferndn Conzilez). But modem investigation has shown conclu- 
sively that no such age can be ascribed to the rornaiicfs in their 
present form, and that in so far as they have any relation with 
the epic cycles just cited (hey are rather descendants of (hem 
than ancestors, — striking passages remembered by the people 
and handed down by them in constantly changing form. Many 
are obviously later in origin; such are the romatues fronUrkos, 
springing from episodes of the Moorish wars, and the romances 
novelescos, which deal with romantic incidents of daily life. The 
I Juglarescos are bnger poems, mostly concerned Hjth 



254 NOTES 

Charlemagne and his peers, veritable degenerate epica, c 
by itinerant minstrels to be sung [n streets and taverns to throngs 
of apprentices and rustics. They have not the spontaneity and 
vigor which characterize the better romances vkjos. 

A few of the romances were printed in the CaiKioiiero general 
of 1511, and more in loose sheets {pliegos suetlos) not much later 
in date; but the great collections which contain nearly all the 
best we know were the Cancionero de Tema?tees "sin aHo," 
(shortly before 1550), the Canciimera de romances of 1550 and 
the Sitva de tariffs romances (3 parts, 1550). The most compre- 
hensive modem collection is that of A. Dur&n, Romancero general, 
2 vols., Madrid, 184^-1851 (vols. 10 and 16 of the Biblioteca de 
Auleres espaneles). The best selected is the Primavero y Jlor de 
romances of Wolf and Hofmann (Berlin, 1856), reprinted in 
vols. VIII and IX of Menfindez y Pelayo's Atiiologla de poetas liri- 
cos caslellanos. This contains nearly all the oldest and best roman- 
ces, and includes poems from pliegos sttellos and the second part of 
the SUm, which were not known to Durfin. Men^ndez y Pelayo, 
in his Apindices i la Primavera y jler (AnM. vol. IX) has given 
still more texts, notably from the third part of the SUva, one of 
the rarest books in the world. The fundamental critical woHo on 
the romances are: F. Wolf, Ueber die Romanzenpoesie der Spanier 
(in Sludien, Berlin, 1859); Milfi y Fontanals, De la poesia ker(nco- 
pspidar caslellana (1874); and Menfindez y Pelayo, Tratado de 
los romances viejos (vols. XI and XH of the Anlologla, Madrid, 

The rotnaiices, as usually printed, are in octosyllabic lines, 
with a fixed accent on the seventh syllable of each and asso- 
nance in alternate lines. 

Many English translators have tried their hand at Spanish 
ballads, as Thomas Rodd (1812), J. G. Lockhart (1823), John 
Bowring (1824), J, V. Gibson (1887) and others. Lockhart's 
versions are the best known and the least literal. 

In the six romances included in this collection the lyrical quality 


255 ' 

prcflomiiiates above Uie narrative (cf. the many rimes in -or in 
FoHle-frida and El priiionero). AbenAmar is properly a frontief 
ballad, and La conslattcia, perhaps, belongs with the Carolingiaii 
cycle; but the rest are detached poems of a romantic nature. 
{See S, G. Morley's Spaniik BiOads. New York, igii.) 

1. — Abenfimai is one of a very few romances which arc sup- I 
posed to have their origin in Moorish popular poetry. The J 
Christian king referred to is Juan II, who defeated the Moon ■] 
at La Higueruela, near Granada, in 1431. It is said that oa 1 
the morning of the battle he questioned one of his Moorish 1 
allies, Yusuf Ibn Alahmar, concerning the conspicuous object J 
of Granada. The poem was utilized by Chateaubriand for J 
two passages of Les aveiitures du dernier AbencSrage. 

I. Abenlmar^/tH Alahmar: see above. 

g. The verba) forms in -ara and -iera were used then as noi 
as Ihe equivalent of the pluperfect or the preterit indicativt 

II. la: ia verdad is probably understood. Cf. p. 2, 1. i. 

18. — 1. diria = djrc. In the romances the conditional often | 
replaces the future, usually to fit the assonance. 

;. reludan: in the old ballads the imperfect indicative a 
often used to express loosely past time or even present time. 

6. E] Albambra: in the language of ^e old ballads el, not 
la, is used before a feminine noun with initial a~ or e~, whether 
the accent be on the first syllable or not. 

25. Tiuda in old Spanish was pronounced v%uda and asso- ■ 
Dated in i-o. This expletive que is common in Spanish: do 1 
not translate. 

27. grande merely strengthens bien. 

3. — Fonte-frida is a poem of erotic character, much ad- | 
mired for its suave melancholy. Probably it is merely g 
allegorical fragment of a longer i>oein now lost. It is one 1 
those printed in the Cancioitero general of 1511. It was wt 
translated by Bowring. There is also a metrical version i 
Ticlcnor, I, iii. This theme is found in the Physiologus, 

■256 NOTES 

medieval bestiary. One of ihese animal sloricE relates that 
the Lurlle-dove has but one mate and if this mate dies the 
dove remains faithful to its memory. Cf. Mod. Lang. Notes, 
June, 1904 (TuHd-Taube), and February, igo6. 

3- In avecicas and tortolica the diminutive ending —ica 
seems to be quite equivalent to -ito. Cf. Knapp's Span. 
Cram., 760U. 

4. van tomar — ua» <! tomar. 

7. fuera: note that/w^ (or fuera) Spasar = pii,!d. This usajie 
is now archaic, although it is still sometimes used by modern 
poets: see p. 136, I. 18. 

18. bebia: see note, p. 2, 1. 5. 

iQ. haber, in the baJlads, of ten = (euer. See also haya in 
the following line. 

4. — El Conde Anialdos. Lockhatt says of " Count Arnal- 
dos," "I should be Indined to suppose that 

— that some religious allegory is intended to be sliadowed 
forth." Others have thought the same, and the strong mystic 
strain in Spanish character may bear out the opinion. In order 
that the reader may judge for himself he should have before 
him the mysterious song itself, which, omitted in the earliest 
version, is thus given in the Coiit 
to follow line iS of the poem 

de los llanos de Almerfo, 
del estrscho de Gibraltar, 
y del tpilfu de Venecia, 
y <!e loa bancos ie Fhades, 

NOTES 257 

Popular poems which merely cxlol the power of music over 
animals are not uncommon. 

J. |Qut€ll hubieEel ■wauU that oite might havel or -would that 
I might have! Note jquien me diesel (p. 7, 1. 55), leould that 
some one would give met: this is the older meaning of guUn in 
these expressions. Note also jQuiin supiera. escribir! (p. 134), 
would that I could ■afile! where Ihe modern usage occurs. 

us, digusme — dime. This use of the pres. subj. with the 
force of an imperative is not uncommon in older Spanish. 

24. le fue A dar: see note, p. 3, I. 7. 

5. — Let constancia. These lew lines, translated by Lock- 
hart as " The Wandering Knight's Song," are only part of a 
lost ballad which began: 

Sis lines of it have recently been , recovered (Menendez y 
Pelayo, Antologla, IX, 211}. It seems to have dealt \vith an 
incursion of the French into Spain, and the lines here given 
are spoken by the hero Moriscote, when called upon to de- 
fend his country. Don Quijote quotes the first two lines of this 
ballad. Part I, Cap. II. 

S. de me dailar = ife danarme. 

13. vos was formerly used in Spanish as usled is now used, — 
in formal address. 

El amante desdichado. Named by Lockhart "Valladolid." 
It is one of the few old romances which have kept alive in 
oral tradition till the present day, and are still repeated by 
the Spanish peasantry (cf. Antotogia, X, 132, igi). 

7. — EI prisionero. Twelve Unes of this poern were prin- 
ted in 1511. It seems to be rather troubadouresque than 
popular in origin, but it became very well known later. 
Lockhart's version is called " The Captive Knight and the 


258 NOTES 

ifi. This line is too short by one syllable, o 
hiatus. See Versification, (4) a. 

ig. las mis moaos: in old Spanish the article was often 
used before a possessive adjective that preceded its noun. 
This usage is now archaic or dialectic. 

21. bacia is here exactly equivalent to hace in 1. 33: Bce 
note, p. =, 1, 5. 

25. quien . . . me diese: see note, p. 4, ]. i. 

8.^12. Oldolo habIa=/o AflWo (*iii. 

13. This line is too long by one syllable. 

14. Gil Vicente (1470?-! 540?), a Portuguese poet who 
wrote dramas in both Portuguese and Castilian. A strong 
creative artist and thinker, Vicente is the greatest dramatist 
of Portugal and one of the great literary figures of the Penin- 
stifa. This Canci6n to the Madonna occurs in El autc de la 
Sibita Casandra, a religious pastoral drama. Vicente himself 
wrote music for the song, which was intended to accompany 
a dance. John Bo*ring made a very good metrical transla- 
tion of (he song (Ancient Poetry and Romances of Spain, 1824, 
p. 315). Another may be found in Ticknor's History of Span- 
ish Literature, 1, 259. 

16. digas tli: see note, p. 4, I. 22. el mailnero: omit el in 
translation. In the Spanish of the ballads the article is reg- 
ularly used with a noun in the vocative. 

34. pastorcico: see note, p. 3, 1. 3. 

9, — Santa Teresa de JesHs (1515-1582), born at Avila; 
became a Carmelite nun and devoted her hfe to reforming 
her Order and founding convents and monasteries. Saint 
Theresa believed herself inspired of God, and her devotional 
and mystic writings have a tone of authority. Her chief 
works in prose are the Castillo interior and the Camino de 
perfccciSn. She is one of the greatest of Spanish mystics, and 
her influence is still potent (cf. Juan Valera, Pepita Jintlntz; 
Huysmans, En route; el al.), Cf. Bibt. de Aut. Esp., vols. 53 

and 55, (or her works. This Lelrilla has been translated by 
Longfellow {" Santa Teresa's Book-Mark," Riverside ed., 1886, 
VI., 216.) 

9. — ^ Fray Luis Ponce de Lefln (1527-1591), born at Bel- 
monte; educated at the University of Salamanca; became an 
Augustinian monk. While a professor at the same university 
he was accused by the Inquisition and imprisoned from 1574 
to 1576, while his trial proceeded. He was acquitted, and he 
taught till his death, which occurred just after he had been 
chosen Vicar-General of his Order. The greatest of the mystic 
poets, he wrote as well religious works in prose {Los nambres 
de Crista, La perfecla casada), and in verse translated Virgil, 
Horace and other classical authors and parts of the Old 
Testament. In gentleness of character and in the purity in 
which he wrote his native tongue, he resembles the Frenchman 
Pascal. His poems are in vol. 37 of the Bib!, de Aut. Esp. 
Cf. Ticknor, Period 11, Cap. IX, and IntraducUan, p. nidi. 
La vida retirada is written in imitation of Horace's Bealus ille. 
9.— 1 7 to 10, — 3. In these lines there is much poetic inversion 
of word- order. The logical order would be: Que ('for') eleilado 
de los soberbios grandes no le eniurbia el pecko, ni se admira del 
dorado lecho, e/ijaspes sustentado, fabricada de! sabio moro. 
5. pregonera, as its gender indicates, modifies voz. 
12. — 10. In the sixteenth century great fortunes were made 
by Spaniards who exploited the mines of their American col- 
li. Note this unusual eiy'amftemeiii; hut the wen(e of adverbs 
still has largely the force of a separate word. 

Soneto: A Crjsto Crucificado. This famous sonnet has 
been ascribed to Saint Theresa and to various other writers, 
but without sufficient proof. Cf. Fouch6-Delbosc in Revue 
Hispanique, II, 120-145; and ibid., VI, 56-57. The poem 
was translated by J. Y. Gibson {The Cid Ballads, etc., 1B87, 
II, 144), and there is also a version attributed to Dryden. 

26o NOTES 

13. — Lope Ffilix de Vega (,'arpio (1562-1635) wi 
fertile playwright ever knoun to the world. Alone he created 
the Spanish drama almost out of nothing. Born at Madrid, 
where he spent most of his hfe, Lope was an infant prodigy who 
fulfilled the promise of his youth. His first play was written 
at the age of thirteen. He fought against the Portuguese in 
the expedition of 1583 and took part in the disastrous Armada 
of 15S8. His life was marked by unending literary success, 
numerous love-aSairs and occasional punishments therefor. 
In 1614. he was ordained priest. For the last twenty years of 
his life he was the acknowledged dictator of Spanish letters. 

Lope's writings include some 2000 plays, of which perhaps 
joo are extant, epics, pastorals, parodies, short stories and 
minor poems beyond teUing. He undertook to write in every 
genre attempted by another and seldom scored a complete 
failure. His Obras compldas are being published by the 
Spanish .\cademy (1890- ); vol. i contains his life by Barrera. 
Most of his non-dramatic poems are in vol. 3S of the Bibl. de 
Ant. Exp.; others are in vols. 16 and 35. There is a Life in 
English by H. A. Rennerl (1504). Cf. s.]io Inlroduction, p. xxiv. 

CaudSn de la. Virgen is a lullaby sung by the Madonna 
to her sleeping child in a palm grove. The song occurs in 
Lope's pastoral, Lm pailvrei dc Bdin (j6ij). In Ticknor 
(H, 17?). there is a metrical translation of the Cattcidn. 

The palm has great significance in the Roman Catholic 
Church. On Palm Sunday, — the last Sunday of Lent, — 
branches of the palm-tree are blessed and are carried in a 
solemn procession, in commemoration of the triumphal entry 
of Jesus into Jerusalem (cf. John, lii). 

14. Ticknor translates these lines as follows: 

Holy ariRcls and bleat. 
I'hrough these palms as you sweep, 
Hold their brancbeE at re5t. 
For my babe is asleep. 



NOTES a6i 

The literal meaning is; Since you are tuoiiing among the palms, 
holy aagets, hold the branches, for my child. sleeps. When the 
wind blows through the palm-trees their leaves rustle loudly. 

14. — Majlaiia: translated by Longfellow (Riverside ed., 
1886, VI, 204). 

15. — Francisco G6mez de Quevcdo y Villegas (1580-1645), 
the greatest satirist in Spanish literature, was one of the 
very few men of his time who dared criticize the powers that 
were. He was born in the province of Santander and was 3 
precocious student at Alcalfi. His brilliant mind and his 
honesty led him to Sicily and Naple9, as a high official under 
the viceroy, and to Venice and elsewhere on private missions; 
his plain-speaking tongue and ready sword procured him nu- 
merous enemies and therefore banishments. He was con- 
fined in a dungeon irom 1659 to 1643 at the instance of 
Olivares, at whom some of his sharpest verses were directed. 

Quevedo was a statesman and lover of his country driven 
into pessimism by the ineptitude which he saw about hint. 
He wrote hastily on many subjects and lavished a bitter, 
biting wit on all. His best-known works in prose are the pica- 
resque novel popularly called Et gran tacaao (1626) and the 
SiieSos (1627). His Obras complelas arc in course of publica- 
tion at Seville (i8g8- ); his poems are in vol. 6g of the Bibl. 
dc Aut. Esp. Cf. E. Mdrimfe, Essai sur la vie et les teuvres de 
Francisco de Quevedo (Paris, 1886), and IntroductioH, p. xxv. 
P'or a modern portrayal of one side of Qucvedo's character, 
Bee BrSton de los Herreros, iQuitn es ella? 

EpIstoU satirical this epistle was addressed to Don Caspar 
de GuzmSn, Conde-Duque de Olivares (d. 1645), the favorite 
and prime minister of Philip IV. It is a remarkably bold 
protest, Cor it was published in 1639 when Olivares was at the 
hdght of his power. His disgrace did not occur till 164J. 

8. Note the double meaning of sentir, — ' to feel ' and ' to 

262 NOTES 

g, libre modifies ingenio. Translate: ils freedom. 

t6. Que es lengua la verdad de Dios seveiO'^que la verdad 
es lengua dc Dios secero. 

IS. — LetrilU Satfrica was published in 1640. 

14. Genoa was then, as now, an important seaport and 
commercial center. As the Spaniards bought many manu- 
factured articles from Genoa, much at their money was 
"buried" there. 

17. — Esteban Manuel de Villegas (d. 1669) was a lawyer 
who wrote poetry only in his extreme youth. His Erolicas S 
Amatorias were published in 1617, and he says himself that 
they were written at fourteen and polished at twenty. Later 
the cares of life prevented him from increasing the poetical 
fame that he gained thus early. He had a reputation for 
excessive vanity, due partly to the picture of the rising sun 
which he placed upon the title-page of his poems with the 
motto Me surgetile, quid istat? Isiae referred to Lope, Que- 
vedo and others. VQlegas' poems may be found in vol. 42 
of the Bi'U. de Aut. Esp. Cf. Menfindez y Pclayo, Hist, de 
los helerodoios espaHoles, III, 859-875- 

There is a parody of this well-known cantilena by Iglesias 
in the Bibl. de Aut. Esp., vol, 61, p. 477. 

18. — Pedro Calder6n de la Barca Henao de la Barreda y 
Riaflo (1600-1681) was the greatest representative of the sec- 
ond generation of playwrights in the Siglo de oro. He took 
some part in the nation's foreign wars, but his life was spent 
mostly without event at court as the favorite dramatist of 
the aristocracy. He became a priest in 1651 and was made 
chaplain of honor to Philip IV in 1663. There are extant 
over two hundred of his dramatic works, comedias, aulas, 
enlrsTneses , etc. Calderfin constructed his plots more care- 
fully than Lope and was stronger in exalted lyric and Re- 
ligious passages; but he was more mannered, more tainted 
with Gongorism and less skilled in creating characters. 


NOTES 263 

His Comedias are contained in vols. 7, 9, la and 14 of the 
Bibt. de Aut. Esp.; a few of his auto$ are in vol. 5S, and some 
of his poems are in vols. 14 and 3;. Cf. also Poesias inidilas, 
Madrid, 1881; Menfindez y Pelayo, Catderdn y su teatro, 
Madrid, 1884; R. C. Trench, Catdtron, London, 1880. 

The sonnet, Eslas que fuetou . . ., is found in El Principe 
eonstanle. II. 

88. — Diego Tadeo Gonzdlez (1733-1794) was born at Ciu- 
dad-Rodrigo. He entered the order of Augustinians at eight- 
een, and mied various important ofHces within the Order 
during his life. His duties toolc him to Seville, Salamanca 
&nd Madrid, From youth he showed a particular bent for 
poetry, and Horace and Luis de LeAn were his admiration. 
He was an intimate friend of Jovelianos, who induced him 
to forsake light subjects and attempt a didactic poem, Las 
tdades, which was left unfinished. Fray Diego's modest and 
lovable character and his friendly relations with other men of 
letters made him an attractive figure. His poems are in 
vol. 61 of the Bibt. de Aul. Esp. Cf. tntroducHoH, p. ssx. 

11. Mirta was a lady with whom the author long corres- 
ponded and to whom he addressed many poems. Delio 
{I. 15) was the name by which Fray Diego Gonzilez was 
known among his literary intimates; Jovelianos was called 
"Jovino"; MeWndez Vald^s, "Uatilo"; etc. 

12. fi la ave: a more usual construction would be at ave, 
although the sound would be approximately the same in either 
case. See also below in line 24, d la alba, 

23. — 4. reludente, modified by an adverb, htit^relu- 

6. reclo: a predicate adjective with the force of an adverb. 

36, — Nicolis FernJlndez de Moratfn (1737-1780) was born 
in Madrid of a noble Asturian family. He studied for the 
law and practised it in Madrid, but irregularly, devoting most 

kmghls lost their lues at a single Pitsia de Toros in 1511. 
The present form of the sport, so much less dangerous for the 
man and so much more cruel fur the beast, was adopted ahout 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. The constructEon, 
in 1749, of the first great Plaza de Toros in Madrid definitely 
converted the once chivalrous sport into a. public spectacle, 
in which none took part but professional Toreros." The pad- 
ded picador of to-day, astride a blinded, worn-out old hack, is 
the degenerate successor of the knight of old. In the seven- 
teenth century bull-lights in Madrid were sometimes given 
in the Plaza Mayor (or Plaza de la ConslUuclin). 

6, Aliatnr: this, like most of the names of persons in this 
poem, is fictitious; but in form these words are of Arabic 
origin, and it is probable that Moratfn borrowed most of 
them from the romances morlseos. The names of places, it 
should be noticed, are also Arabic, hut the places still retain 
these names. See AlimcnSn, and all names of places, in the 

28. — ig. Hecho im lazo por oirOn, lied in a knot \to iook\ 
like a cresl oj plumes. This was doubtless the fori 


NOTES 265 

the modern banderilla (barbed dart ornamented with streamers 
of colored paper). 

30. — 26-28. Cual . . . nube^cKo/ la ardienle madeja del 
sol deja mirarse tat vez enire cenicienia Mlbe. 

31. — II. blaaones de Castilla: as at this time (in the reign 
of .\ironso V'l) Le6n and Castile were united, the blasoaea 
were probably two towers (for Castile) and two lions (for 
LeiSn), each one occupying a corner of the shield. 

14. Nunca mi espada ventiara apparently means: Never 
did he conquer my sword. This may refer to any adversary, 
or (o some definite adversary in a previous combat. 

26. The best bulls raised for biill-iights come from the 
valley of the Guadalquivir. 

33, — 22-26. Arf . . . BCerqnen S . . ., Como, may , . . bring 
to . . ., just as surely as. 

83, — a. Fernando I: see in Vocab. 

35.-28. The stanzas of pages 34 and 35 are probably 
known to every Spaniard: schoolboys commit them to memory 
for puhlic recitation. 

36. — 15. i^airedes^digiiareis. Tn modem Spanish the 
d (from Lat. I) of the 2d pers. plur. verb endings has fallen. 

38. ^ 4. Y . . , despodir = v [11 110 vieran] d Zaida que le 

13. Crvz: the cross of a sword is the guard which, crossing 
the hilt at right angles, gives the sword the shape of a cross. 
The cross swords were held in especial veneration by the medi- 
eval Christians. 

Caspar Melthor de Jovellanos (or Jove-Llanos) (1 744-181 1) 
was one of the loftiest characters and most unselfish states- 
men ever produced by Spain. Educated for the law, he filled 
with distinction important judicial offices in Seville and Ma- 
drid. In 1 780 he was made a member of the Council of Orders. 
He attached himself to the fortunes of Count CabarrQs. and 
when that statesman fell from power in 1790, Jovellanos was 

266 NOTES 

exiled to his home in Gijfln (Asturia.3). There he devoted 
himself tD the betlermcnl of his native province. In 1797 
the favorite, Godoy, made hira ministro de gracia y jusiicia; 
but he could not be other than an enemy of the corrupt 
" Prince of the Peace," and in 1798 he was again sent home. 
In 1801 he was seized and imprisoned in Majorca and was 
not released till the invasion of Spain hy the French in iSoS. 
He refused flattering offers of office under the French, and was 
the most active member of the JuTila Central which organized 
the Spanish cortes. Unjustly criticized for his labors he re- 
tired home, whence he was driven by a sudden incursion of 
the French. He died a few days after in an inn at Vega 

Jovellanos' best literary work is really his political prose, 
such as the Informe sebre nn proyecto de ley agraria {1787) and 
De/ensa de la junta central (iSio). His Delincuente henrado 
{'773)i 1 comidie larmoyante after the manner of Diderot'* 
Fiis naivrel, had wide success on the stage. His works are 
in vols. 46 and 50 of the Bibl. de Aut. Esp. CI. E. MWmfie, 
Jovellanos. in the Retue kispanique, I, pp. 34-68. 

jQuis tarn patiens ut teneat Be? vrho is so long-su^gering as 
to control himself? 

21. prisiSa; see mention above of Jovellanos' imprisonment 
in Majorca. 

39. — 2, It is scarcely accurate to call Juvenal a btifdn, 
since he was rather a scornful, austere satirist of indignation. 

4S. ^ — 26. Cuinto de is an unusual expression; but if the 
line read: ;Ay, cudnta amargnra y cudnto tlaro, it would lack 
one syllable. 

41. — 4-6. cuesta . . . infanta. Evidently the world has 
changed little in a hundred years! 

42. — Juan Meltndei Valdes (1754-1817) was born in the 
district of Badajoa (Estremadura). He studied law at Sala- 
manca, where he was guided in letters by Cadalso. fn 1780 


NOTES 267 

he won a prise offered by the Academy for the best eclogue. 
He then accepted a professorship at Salamanca offered him 
by Jovcllanos. Literary success led him to petition a posi- 
tion under the government which, involving as it did loss of 
independence, proved fatal to his character. He filled hon- 
orably important judicial posts in Saragossa and Valladolid, 
but court intrigue and the caprices of Godoy brought him 
many trials and undeserved punishments. In 1S08 he aC' 
cepted a position under the French, and nearly lost his life 
from popular indignation. Later his vacillations were pitiful: 
he wrote spirited poems now for the French and now against 
them. .When they were finally expelled in 1813, he left the 
country with them and died in poverty and sorrow in Mont- 

Most of his poems are in vol. 63 of the Sibl. de Aut. Esp.; 
others have been published in the Revue hispanique, vols. I. 
and IV. Cf. his Life by Quintana in Bibl. de Aut. Esp., 
vol. ig; E. Mfrimfe, MeUndez Valdis, in Revue kispanique, 
I, 166-igs; Introduction, p. sxx. 

44. — 5. Muy mis: this use of muy is not uncommon in 
the older classics, but the usual expression now is mucho mis. 

28, benigna: see note, p. 22, 1. 6. 

46. — Manuel Jos£ Quintana (1772-1857) was bom in 
Madrid. He went to school in Cordova and later studied law 
at Salamanca. He lied from Madrid upon the coming of the 
French. In the reign of Ferdinand VII he was for a time con- 
fined in the Bastile of Pamplona on account of his liberal 
ideas. After the liberal triumph of 1S34 he held various public 
offices, including that of Director General of Public Instruc- 
tion. Tn 185s he was publicly crowned in the Palace of the 

See Inlroducliofi, p. xixii; Ticknor, III, 332-334; Blanco 
Garcia, La literalura espanota en el siglo XIX, 2d ed., Madrid, 
iSgg, I, 1-13; Men£ndez y Pelayo, D. Manuel Josi Quintana, 

268 NOTES 

La poesia Urica al frindpiar el siglo XIX, Madrid, 
E. Pineyro, if.-J. Quiiilana, Chartres, 1892; Juan VaJera, 
Florilegio de poesias casleUauas, Madrid, IQ03, V, 32-38. His 
works are ia vols. 19 and 67 of Bibl. de Aul. Esp. 

The Spanish people, goaded by the subservience of 
Charies IV and his prime minislet and favorite, Godoy, to 
the French, rose in March, 180S, swept away Godoy, forced 
the king to abdicate and placed his son Ferdinand upon the 
throne. It was believed that this change of rulers would 
check French influence in the Peninsula, but Ferdinand was 
forced by Napoleon into a position more servile than that 
occupied formerly by Charies. 

J. Note the tree word-order in Spanish which permits, as 
in this line, the subject to follow the verb, the object to 

14. Oceano: note the omission of the accent on r, that the 
word may rime with sobecano and vano; but here oceano 
still has four syllables. 

47. — 2S. tirano del mimdo = Napoleon Bonaparte. 

48. — 24. By los coloBos de oprobio y de vergQenza are 
probably meant Charles IV and Godoy. 

49. — 29. hijo de Jimena: see Jimena and Bernardo del 
Carpio, in Vocab. 

ftO. — 2. En ... y, xviih a . . . and in. 

51. — Dionisio Soils y Villanucva (i;74-t834) was born in 
Cordova: he never rose higher in life than to be prompter in 
a theater. He fought against the French, and he was esiled 
for a time by Ferdinand VH. Soils wrote some plays and 
translated many from other languages into Spanish. The 
best that can be said of Soils as a poet is that his work 
is spontaneous and in parts pleasing. Cf. Blanco Garcia, 
I, so and 61-63; Valera, Florilegio, V, 44-46. 

S3. — 13-19. ^^'^ - ■ ■ enf ermedad = f ila didce deliciasa 
tnjtrmcdad que yo sicnlo. 


NOTES 269 

25. si puede (here meaning if it is passible) is understood 
before que trate. 

54. —Juan Nicasio Gallego (1777-185^) was born nt Za- 
mora. He was ordained a priest : later he went to court, and 
was appointed Director of His Majesty's Pages. He fre- 
quented the salcm of his friend Quintans, and was elected 
deputy from Cadiz. In 1814, during the reign of Ferdi- 
nand VII, Gallego was imprisoned for his liberal ideas and 
later was banished from Spain. He spent some years in 
France and returned to Spain in iSiS. Later he was ap- 
pointed Perpetual Secretary of the Spanish Academy. 

See Inlroduclion, p. xxxii; Blanco Garcia, I, 13 (.; Valera, 
Florilegio, V, 38-44. His poems are in vol. 67 of the BtH. de 
Aul. Esp. There is also an edition of his poems by the Acade- 
mia de la Lengua, Madrid, 1S54. 

El Dos de Mayo: on the second of May, 180S, the Span- j 
ish people, unarmed and without strong leaders, rose against 1 
Napoleon's veteran troops. Aided by the English, they drove J 
out the French after a long and bloody war, thus proving ! 
to the world that the old Spanish spirit of independent 
was still alive. This war is known to the Spaniards as the 
Giierra de la inde pendencia and to the English as the Pen* 
insular War. The popular uprising began with the seizure of 
a powder magazine in Madrid by Velarde and Daoiz {see in 
Vocab.). These men and their followers were killed and the 
magazine was retaken by the French, but the incident roused 
the Spanish people to action. 

9. al furor, in Ike glare. 

SS. — 4. Mantua: a poetic appellation of Madrid. Cf 
article by Prof. Milton A. Buchanan in Romanic Review, 1910 
p. 211 f. See also p. xxxiii, Inlroduclion to this volume. 

11-12. ^QuienhabrS... qjK caente,ii<ho may Iheri beta tell.. 

48. —^16 to St. — 3. Note how the poet refers to the van 
ous parts, of the Spanish peninsula: Mjos dc Pelayo^thi 


270 NOTES 

Spaniards in general, or perhaps those o( northernmost Spain ; 
Moncayo = Aragon, Navarre and Castile; Tuna = Valencia ; 
Duero — Old Castile, LeoD and Portugal; and Guadalqtlivir = 
Andalusia. See Pelayo and Moncayo and these names o( 

5. Patrfin = Santiago, or St. James, the patron saint of 
Spain. According to the legend James " the Greater," son of 
Zebedee, preached in Spain, and after his death his body was 
taken there and buried at Santiago de Campostela. It wjs 
believed that he often appeared in the battle-fields fighting 
with the Spaniards against the Moslems. 

14-15. i . . . brindfi felicidad, drank in jin and blood a 
least to her prosperity. 

W. — Francisco Martinez de la Rosa (i 787-1862) was bom 
at Granada. During the War of Independence he was sent 
to England to plead for the support of that country against 
the Trench, Later he was ejiiled by Ferdinand VII, and was 
for five years a prisoner of state in a Spanish prison on Che 
African coast. After his release be became prominent in pol- 
itics, and was forced to dee to France. In 1834 he was called 
into power by the queen regent, Maria Cristina. He repre- 
sented his country at Paris, and later at Rome, and held sev- 
eral important posts as cabinet minister. 

See Introduction, p. xxxvi; Men£ndez y Pelayo, Esludios de 
critics Hleraria, Madrid, 18S4, pp. 123, (.; Blanco Garcia, I, 
115-128; Juan Valera, Ftoritegio, V, 56-63. His O.Vaj com- 
phlas, 1 vols., ed. Baudry, were published at Paris in 1845. 
Several of his articles of hterary criticism are in vols, 5, 7, to 
and 6t of the Bibl. de Aut. Esp. 

3. ttyeada = riendo. 

61. — Angel de Saavedra, Duquede Kivas (1791-1865) was 
bom at Cordova. He prepared for a military career. By 
son oE his liberal ideas he was compelled to leave Spain 
went to England, France and the Island of Malta, 

and I 

NOTES 271 

tuioed to Spain in iSj4 and became a cabinet minister, but 
was again forced to flee the country. Later he was welcomed 
back and represented Spain at Naples. He retired from poli- 
tics and was appointed Director of the Spanish Academy. 

See Introduction, p. xxxvi; Blanco Garcia, J, 129-153; Juan 
Valera, Florilegio, V, 184-195. His Obras contptetas, in 5 vols., 
were published by the Spanish Academy, Madrid, 1854-1855, 
with introductory essays by Pastor Dfaz and Caflete. His 
works were also published in the ColecciSn de Escritores cas- 
lellanos, i8g4- . 

4. De . . . pro = en pro de mi sanp-e y casa. 

6!t. — 3. fi la que: translate, before lukich. 

TO. duquc de Borbfin is the subject of eEtaba, 1. 3. 

18. Emperador^ Charles V. 

61. — 8. CoDdestable = Vela5CO, Constable of Spain, who 
in 1521 defeated the comuiteros who had rebelled against the 
rule of Charles V. 

65. — 32. Y con los que, viith whom. 

t3. estrecho stands in antithesis to ancho: for his glory the 
broad iBorld will be narrow. 

66. — 18-19. Y . . . leonesa^y uncolelai la leanesa de reca- 

68. — io-!i. Que . . . Tesuelta= que es volunlad suya re- 
siiclla (cl) que aloje d Borbdn. 

69.— 22. de un su pariente is archaic. The regular ex- 
pression to-day would be de un parienle stiyo. 

71. — Juan Arolas (1805-1849) was born in Barcelona, but 
spent most of his life in Valencia. In 1825, when sixteen 
years old, Arolas, much against the wishes of his parents, 
joined a monastic order. Arolas wrote in all the literary genres 
of his time, but he distinguished himself most as a poet by 
his romantic "oriental" and love poems. 

Cf. El P. Arolas. su mda y sus versos, Madrid, 1898, by Josfi 
R. Lomba y Pedraja; Blanco Garcia, I, 186-189; Juan Valera, 

272 NOTES 

Florilegio, V, 111-130. A new edition of Arolas' verses was 
published at Valencia in iSS,^. 

J8. — ^ Josfi dc Espronceda (1808-1842), Spain's greatest 
romantic poet, was born in Almendralejo (Badajoz). At the 
Colegio de San Mateo Espronceda was considered a precocious 
but wayward pupil. His poetic gifts won for him the lasting 
friendship of his teacher, A1h«rto Lista. At an early age he 
became a member of a radical secret society, Lob Numantinos. 
Sent into exile to a monastery in Guadalajara, he there com- 
posed the fragmentary heroic poem Pelaya. After his release 
he went to Lisbon and then to London Enamored of Teresa 
though another's wife, he fled w th her to Pans where he 
took an active part in the re olut on of 1830 Fspronceda 
returned to Spain in 1833 and engaged n journal sm and 
pohtics. Worn out by his tempestuous hfe h died at the 
early age of thirty-four years 

See Iitiroduction, p. xiivii E Rodriguez SoUs Fspronceda 
su tiempB, sw vida y sus obras Madrid 883 Blanco Gacda 
I, 154-171; Juan Valera, Flonlegto \ 19 07 Antonio Cor 
t6n, fisfroBceda, Madrid, igo6 PhhpH thurchman E pron 
ctda's Blanca de Borbdn, Renue htsp iqo; and Svratt and 
Espronceda, ibid., 190Q. For Jus poems see Obras poilicas 
in the Biblioleca amena i ntslruclrva Barcelona 1S82 Obras 
poilicas y escritcs en prosa, colecciin ordenada por D Patricia 
de la Escosura, Madrid, 1884. 

J». — Jos£ de Zorrilla (rSir-iSgs) was born in Valladolid. 
After receiving his secondary education in the Jesuit Semana- 
rio de Nobles he began the study of law; but he soon turned 
to the more congenial pursuit o( belles-lettres. In 1855 he 
went to Mexico where he resided eleven years. Though a most 
productive writer, Zorrilla spent most of his life in penury 
until, inbisoldage, he received from the government an annual 
pension of .30,000 reales. He became a member of the Spanish 
Academy in 1885, and four years later he was "crowned" 


in Granada. Zorrilla died in Madrid in his sevenly-sixtli 

See Introduction, p. xxivii; an. autobiography, Recuerdos del 
liempo viejo, 3 vols.; Femindez F16rez, D. Josi Zorrilla, i 
Autores dramdlicos contempordneos , iSSi, vol. I; Blanco Garda, 
I, 197-^16; Juan Valera, FloriUgio, V, 358-;;o. For his works, 
see Poeslas, 8 vols., Madrid, 1838-1840; Obras, edition Baudry, 
3 vols., Paris, 1852; Poeslas escogidas, published by the Aca- 
demia de la lengua, Madrid, 1894; Obras dramdlicas y Itricai, 
Madrid, i8gs. 

86. — ID. Faiitasnias = como/o»(ajmos. 

86. — A Buen Juez Major Testigo, A Geod Judge, Bui a Bet- 
ter Witness. In Berceo's Milagros de Nueslra Senora there is 
a similar legend of a crucifix summoned as witness. 

61. — 4-5. Como . . . baie: this passage is obscure, but 
the meaning seems to be, as a pledge thai the river should so 
zealously bathe it. 

18. lahennosa, according to tradition, was Fjorind a, daugh- 
ter of Count Julian. Roderick (Roderico or Rodrigo), the 
last king of the Goths in Spain, saw Florinda bathing in the 
Tagus, conceived a passion for her and dishonored her. In 
revenge Julian is said Co have brought the Saracens into 

27. puerta: this may refer to the Puerta Visagra Antigua, 
an ancient Arabic gate of the ninth century, now closed. 

92. — 12. Las . . . horadaile = a/ koradarle las palmas (of 
rey). According to tradition Alfonso, who became afterward 
King Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile, when a refugee at 
court of A!imen6n, the Moorish king of Toledo, overheard the 
Moorish sovereign and his advisers talking about the defences 
of the city. The Moors said that the Christians, by a siege, 
could probably starve Toledo into submission. Upon per- 
ceiving Alfonso near at hand apparently asleep, the Moors, 
to prove whether he was really asleep or not, poured molten 

374 NOTES 

lead into his hand, and he had sufficient will power 
motionless while the lead burned a hole through it. 

Mariana (Uisioria de BspaHa, Libra IX, Cap. VIII) re- 
lates this story, but rejects it and says that the real cause of 
Alfonso's nickname ("e/ rsy de la ntano horadada") was his 
eitreme generosity. 

13. circo romano: to the east of the Hospital de San Juan 
Bautisia of Toledo lies the suburb of Covachuelas, the houses 
of which conceal the ruins of a Roman amphitheater. ' 

15. BasOJCa: in the lower Vega, to the northwest of Toledo, 
is the hermitage of El Crista de la Vega, formerly known as the 
Basilica de Sanla Leocadia, which dated from the fourth cen- 
tury. This edifice was the meeting-place of several Church 
councils. The ancient building was destroyed by the Moors 
and has been repeatedly rebuilt. 

M. — 21. el templo: the Ermila del Crista de la Vega. See 
preceding note. 

27. Viase = teirije; nla, for vela, is not uncommon in poetry. 

lOS. — 3-5. Gritan . . . vaJor = /Ds que en el tnercado senden, 
gritan en discorde son Id vendido f el valor (— u/ia( Ikey have 
Jar sale and its price). 

107. — 13-14. y . . . hoilor = )i dispensad que (yo) dudara 
de vuestro honor acusado. 

108. — 10. See note, p. g2, 1. 15. 

113. — 16. cada un aHo^cada ano. 

Antonio de Trueba (i8Ji-r88g) was born at Montellano 
(Viacaya). At the age of fifteen or sixteen years he removed 
to Madrid and engaged in commerce. In i&bi he was ap- 
pointed Archivist and Chronicler of the Seiiorlo de Vi/caya, 
which post he held for ten years. Trueba, best known as a 
writer of short stories, published two volumes of mediocre 
verses which achieved considerable popularity during the 
author's lifetime, but are now nearly forgotten. 

Cf. Nolas aiUobiogrificas in La Iluslracidn Espanola y 



NOTES 275 

Americana, Enero 30, 1889; Blanco Garda, II, 26-28 and 301- 
308; Juan Valera, Florilegio, V, 307-311. For bis verses, see 
El libro de los canlares (1851) and El libra de las monlaAas 

113. — 14. Cantos: note the double meaning of canto. 

114. — Jos6 Sejgas y Carrasto (1821-1881) was born in 
Murcia. A writer on the staS of the satirical and humorous 
journal, El Padre Cobos, Selgaa won the attention of the public 
by his ironical and reactionary articles and was elevated lo 
an important political office by Martinez Campos. He is the 
author of two volumes of verses, La Primanera (1850) and 
El eslio. 

See Introduction, p. xxxix; and Blanco Garcia, II, 19-23 and 
244-250. For Selgas' verses, see his Faesias, Madrid, 1882- 

117. — Pedro Antonio de AIarc6n (1833-1891) was bom in 
Guadin. He studied law, served as a volunteer in an African 
war and became a writer on the staff of several revolution- 
ary journals. His writings, which at first were sentimental or 
radical, became more subdued in tone and more conservat 
with his advancing years. In 1877 he was elected to member- 
Bhip in the Spanish Aciidemy. Primarily a journalist a 
noveUst, Alarc6n published a volume of humorous and descrip- I 
live verses, some of which have merit. 

Cf. Blanco Garcia, II, 62-63 ^""l 45^-4^7; and articles in 
the Nuevo Teatro Crttico (Sept., Oct. and Nov., i8gi). For 
his verses, see Poeslas serias y humorislicas , 3d ed., Madrid, 

131. — Gustavo Adolfo Bficquer (1836-18J0) was born in 
Seville, and became an orphan in hia tenth year. When eight- 
een years of age he went penniless to Madrid, where he earned 
a precarious living by writing for journals and by doing 
literary hack-work. 

See Introdnclion, p. xxxix; Blanco Garcia, 11, 79-86 and J74- 

276 NOTES 

377. For hia works, see his Obras, 5th ed., Madrid, 1898 
(with a Prdlogo by Correa; the Rimas are in vol. III). 

122. — 12-13. Del salfia . . . olTida.da = en d ingulo obscuro 
del saldn, lal ves ohUada de su dueno. Bficquer, in his striving 
after complicated metrical arrangements, often invertE the 
word-order in his verse. See also Introdttctioit, V ersificatioH, 

ig. airancarlas: las refers to Cu&nta nota, which seems to 
have here the force of a plural. 

24. See InlToduction, Veni/icalion. p. Ixv. 

134. — 14. intgrvalo: the standard form is intervalo. 

126. — 12. E! nicho & un ertremo; the meaning is, o«e end 
of the recess, in which the coffin will be placed. The graveyards 
of Spain and Spanish .America have lofty walls with niches 
or recesses large enough to contain coffins. After receiving 
the coffin, the niche is sealed with a slab that bears the epitaph 
of the deceased. 

138. — The Valencian Vicente W. Querol (1836-1889) gave 
most of his time to commerce, but he occasionally wrote 
verses that had the merit of correctness of language and 
strong feeling 

Ct. Blanco Garda, II, 376-378, For his verses, see Rimaa 
(Prdhgo by Pedro A, de Alarcfin), 1877; La fiesta de Vernts, 
in the Almanaque de la Huslracidn, iS;S. 

7. (5 en el que=fi en el dta en que: the reference is to the 
anniversaries of the wedding day and the saints' days of the 

129. — ig. las que . . . son, ui/toJ is . . . 

131. — 15-16. la que . . , agonla^'a lenla agonia que sufris- 

133. — Ram6n de Campoamor y Campoosorio (1817-1901) 
was born in Navia (Asturlas). He studied medicine but soon 
turned to poetry and politics. A pronounced conservative, 
be won favor with the government and received appointment 


NOTES 277 

Id several important offices including that of governor of 
Alicante and Valencia. 

Cf. Intraduclicii, p. xli; Juan Va|era, Obras poSlitas de 
Campaamor, in Esludios criticos sobre tileratura, Seville, 1884; 
Peseux- Richard, in the Revue kispanique, I, 236 (.; Blanco 
Garcia, I[, Cap. V. For his works, see Doloras y cantares, 
i6th ed., Madrid, 1882; Los pequeAos paemas, Madrid, tSS2~ 
1883; PefSica, 1&S3; El drama universal, 3d ed,, Madrid, 1873; 
Ei licenciado Torralba, Madrid, i838; Obras escogidas, Leipzig, 
1885-1886; Ohras complelas, S vols,, Madrid, 1901-03. 

135. ^3. se va y se viene y se est&: note the use of se in 
the sense of people, or an indefinite we. 

5. Y . . . procuracy sr lu afeclo no procura voher. 

13«. — 18. See note, p, 3. 1. 7. 

137. — Vallidolid was the birthplace of Caspar NHftez de 
Arce {1834-1Q03). When a child, he removed with his family 
to Toledo. At the age of nineteen years he entered upon a. 
journalistic career in Madrid. As a member of the Progresista 
party, Nfiaez de Arce was appointed Civil Governor of Bar- 
celona, and afterward he became a cabinet minister. 

Cf. Introduction, p. xhi; Menfndez y Pelayo's essay in 
Estudios de critica literaria, 1S84; Juaa Valera's essay on the 
GrUos del combale, Revisla europea, 1875, no. 60; Blanco 
Garcia, Cap. XVIII; Jos6 del Castillo, N6Ses de Arce, 
Apunles para su hiografia, Madrid. 1904.. For his works, see 
Griios del covibaie, Sth ed., iSgi; Obras dramdticas, Madrid, 
1879. Most of his longer poems are in separate pamphlets, 
published by M, Murillo and Fernando Fe, Madrid, 1895- 

13J. — Tristezas shows unmistakably the influence of the 
French poet .-\ltred de Mussel, and especially perhaps of his 
Railil and Confession d'uH enfant du siicle. 

138. — 16 f. Compare with the author's La diida and Mise- 
rere, and Bficquer's La ajorca de oro. 


278 NOTES 

142. — 1-3. The poet seems to compare the nineteenth cen- 
tury, amidst the Samea of furnaces and engines, to the fallen 
archangel in hell. 

id. mfstica, thai is, of communion with God, heavenly. 

144. — jSursum Corda!; the lines given are merely the in- 
troduction to the poem, and form about one fourth of the 
entire work. They were written soon after the Spanish- 
American War, See Sursum Corda.', Madrid, 1904; and 
also Juan Valera's Fiorilegio, IV, 413 f. 

8. The plains of Old Castile may well be called "austere." 

14fi. — 10-16. Cf. A Espana (1866) and A Casldar (1B73). 

147. — 11-19. There are few stronger lines than these in all 
Spanish poetry. 

148. — Manuel del Palacio (1832-181)5) was born in LSrida. 
His parents removed to Granada, and there he joined a club 
of young men known as La Cuerda. Going to Madrid, he 
devoted himself to journalism and politics, first as a radical 
and later as a conservative. 

Cf. Blanco Garda, II, 40. For his works, see his Obras, 
Madrid, 18S4; Vetadas de olono, iSS4,HuelgasdiptomiSlitas, 1887. 

5. el ave placentera: a well-known Spanish-American poet 
calls this a mere ripio (stop-gap), and says it may mean one 
bird as well as another. 

The Catalan Joaqufn Mada Bartrina (born at Reus in 
1S50) published in 1876 a volume of pessimistic and icono- 
clastic verses, entitled Algo. After his death (1880) his 
works were published under the title of Obras en prosa y versa, 
escogidas y coleccionadas par J. Sardd, Barcelona, 1881. Cf. 
Blanco Garcia, II, 349-350. 

148. — 15-19. These lines give expression to the pessimism 
that has obtained in Spain for two centuries past. 

149. — 14. The reference is, of course, to the paintings, of 
which there are many, of "The Last Supper" of Jesus. 

Manuel Reina (i860- ) was born in I'uente Genii. Like 


NOTES 279 

Ga.rtritia, Reina is an imitator of Ndfiez de Arce, in that he 
sings of the degeneracy of mankind. He undertook, with but 
little success, to revive the eleven -syllable romance of the 
neo-elassic Spanish tragedy of the eighteenth century, 

Cf. Blanco Garda, II, 354-355- For iiis verses, see Andantes 
y allegros and Cromos y acuarelas, cantos de nueslra fpoca, con 
un prilogo de D. Josl Ferndndez Brtmin. 

The Valencian Teodoro Llorente (h. 1836) is best known for 
his translations of the works of modern poets. He is also the 
author of verses {Amorosas, Versos de la jieoenlud, el ai,). 

161. — Argentiaa. The development of letters was slower 
in Argentina than in Mexico, Peru and Colombia, since Argen- 
tina was colonized and settled later than the others. During 
the colonial period there was little literary production in the 
territory now known as Argentina. Only one work of this 
period deserves mention. This is Argentina y conquisia del 
rlo de la Plata, etc. (Lisbon, 1602), by Martin del Barco Cen- 
tenera, a long work in poor verses and of little historical 
value. During the first decade ol the nineteenth century 
there was an outpouring of lyric verses in celebration of the 
defeat of the English by the Spaniards at Buenos Ajres, but 
to all of these Qallego's ode A la defensa de Buenos Aires is 
infinitely superior. 

During the revolutionary period the best-known writers, 
all of whom may be roughly classiQed as neo-classicists, were: 
Vicente L6pez Planes (i;84-i8s6), author of the Argentine 
national hymn; Esteban Luca (17B6-1824); Juan C. Lafinur 
(17Q7-1824); Juan Antonio Miralla (d. 1825); and, lastly, the 
most eminent poet of this period, Juan Cruz Varela (i7g4- 
1839), author of the dramas Dida and Argia, and of the ode 
Triunfo de Ituzaingi {Poeslas, Buenos Aires, 1879). 

The first Argentine poet of marked abihty, and one of the 
greatest that his country has produced, was the romanticist 
(who introduced romanticism into Argentina directly from 


France), Esteban Echeverrfa (i8os-'85i), author of Los C»n- 
suelos (1834), Rimas (1837) and La cautiva. The latter poem 
ia distinctively "American," as it is full of local color. Jua 
Valera, in his letter to Rafael Obligado (Cartas ai 
serie), says truly that Echeverrfa " marks the point of depar- 
ture of the Argentine national literature." {Obrm complelas, 
5 vols., Buenos Mtcs, 1870-74). 

Other poets of the early period of independence are: the 
literary critic, Juan Maria Gutierrez (1809-1878), one-time 
rector of ihe University of Buenos Aires and editor of an 
anthology, America pofiica (Valparaiso, 1S46); Dr. Claudio 
Mamerto Cuenca (1812-1866; cf. Obras poiticas escagidas, - 
Paris, 1889); and Josfi Mfirmol (181S-1871), author of El 
Peregrine and of the best of Argentine novels, Amatia (fibras 
poilicas y dramdlicas, cohccionadas par Josf Domingo Corlis, 
3d ed., Paris, 1905). 

In parenthesis be it said that Argentina also claims as her 
own the poet Ventura de la Vega (1807-1865), who was born 
in Buenos Aires, as Mexico claims Juan Ruiz de Alarefin, and 
as Gertrudis G6mez de Avellaneda is claimed by Cuba. 

As in Spain Ferdinand VII had driven into exile most of 
the prominent writers of his period, so the despotic president, 
Juan Manuel Rosas (1793-1877: fell from power in 1851), 
drove from Argentina many men of letters, including Varela, 
Echeverrfa and MSrmol. 

Down to the middle of the nineteenth century it may be 
said Ihat the Spanish-American writers followed closely the 
literary movements of the mother country. Everywhere 
across the sea there were imitators of Melfndez Valdfe and 
Cienfuegos, of Quintana, of Espronteda and Zorrilla. During 
the early years of romanticism some Spanish- American poets, 
— notably the Argentine Echeverrfa, — turned for inspira- 
tion directly to the French writers of the period; hut. In the 
main, the Spanish infiuencc was predominant. The Spanish- 



American verses, for the most part, showed insuiEcient prep- 
aration and were marred by many inaccuracies of diction; 
but here and there a group of writers appeared, — as in Co- 
lombia, — who rivaled in artistic excellence the poets of Spain. 
Id tbe second half of the nineteenth century tbe Spanish- 
American writers became more independent in thought and 
speech. It is true that many imitated the mysticism of 
flfcquer or the pessimism of Nunez de Arce, but many more 
turned for inspiration to native sujects or to the literary works 
of other lands than Spain, and particularly of France and 

The estreme in local color was reached in the "lileralura 
gauchesca," which consists of collections of popular or semi- 
popular ballads in the dialect of the gauchos, or cowboys 
and " ranchers," of the Pampas. The best of these collections, 
— ■ Martin Fierro {1872), by Jos^ FernSndez, — is more artistic 
than popular. This long poem, which in its language reminds 
the English reader of Lowell's Blglow Papers, is the best- 
known and the most widely read work by an Argentine 

The greatest Argentine poets of the second half of the cen- 
tury have been Andrade and Obligado. Olegario Vfctor An- 
drade (1838-1882). the author of Prometeo and AlUnlida. is 
generally recognized as one of the foremost modern poets of 
Spanish America, and probably the greatest poet that Argen- 
tina has as yet given to the world. In art, Andrade was a 
disciple of Victor Hugo; in philosophy, he was a believer in 
modern progress and freedom of thought; but above all else 
was his loyal patriotism to Argentina. Andrade's verses have 
inspiration and enthusiasm, but they are too didactic and they 
are marred by occasional incorrectness of speech. AtlSnlida, 
a hymn to the future of tbe Latin race in America, is the poet's 
last and noblest work {Obras, Buenos Aires, 1887). 

It is said of Rafael Obligado (1852- ) that he is more 

282 NOTES 

elegant and correct than Andrade, but his muse has less ii 
spiration. He has, moreover, the distinction of showing almost 
no French influence, which is rare to-day among Spanish- 
American writers. Juan Valera regrets Ohligado's excessive 
Americanism," and laments the fact that the poet uses many 
words of local origin that he, Vafera, does not understand. 
The poet's better works are, for the most part, descriptions of 
the beauties of nature or the legendary tales of his native 
land {Poesias, Buenos Aires, 1885). 

Among recent poets, two have especially distinguished 
themselves. Leopoldo Diaz (1868- ) began as a disciple 
of Heredia, and has become a pronounced Hellenist, now a 
rare phenomenon in Spanish America. Besides many sonnets 
imbued with classicism, he has written odes to the conquista- 
dares and to AtlSittida canguistada. Like Darlo, Blanco- 
Fombona and many other Spanish-American poets of to-day, 
Diaz resides in Europe; but, unlike the others, he lives in 
Morges instead of Paris (Soitetos, Buenos Aires, 18S8; Bajo- 
relieves, Buenos Aires, i8g5; et al.). A complete " modernista" 
(he would probably scorn the title of "decadent") is Leo- 
poldo Lugonea {1875?- ), whose eariier verses are steeped in 
an erotic sensualism rare in the works of Spanish -American 
poets. He seeks to be original and writes verses on every con- 
ceivable theme and in all kinds of metrical arrangements. 
Thus, in Lunario sentimental there are verses, essays and 
dramatic sketches, ail addressed to the moon. For an exam- 
ple of his versos libres. see Inlroduclion to this volume, p. xlvi 
(Las tnonlafias de oro, Los crepAscutos del jardln; Lunario 
sentimental, Buenos Aires, igog; Odas seculares, Buenos Aires, 

For studies of Argentine literature, see Blanco Gurcia, 
Hisl. Lit. Esp., HI, pp. 380 f.; Mengndez y Pelayo, Anl. 
Poetas Hisp.-Am.. IV, pp. Ixxsix t.; Juan Valera, Poesta 
argeiilina, in Cartas americanas, 1' serie, Madrid, 1889, pp. 51- 

NOTES 283 

iig; Lileralura argettfina, Buenos Aires, 1903; Poelas argen- 
linos, Buenos iVires, 1904; Anlelegla argeitlina, B. T. Mar- 
tinez, Buenos Aires, 1890-91; Compendia de lileralura 
argetiliaa, E. Alonso Criada, Buenos Aires, 1908; Misceldtiea, 
by Santiago Estrada; La lira ofgentina, Buenos Aires, 1834. 
Other important works, treating of Spanish -American liter- 
ature, are; Biblioteca hispttno-americatta (1493-1810), Joafi 
Toribio Medina, 6 vols., Santiago de Chile, 1898-1902; 
Bibliography of Spanish-American Literature, Alfred Coester, 
Romanic Review, III, 1; Escrilores hispana-americanas, Manuel 
Caflete, Madrid, 1884; Escrilores y poelas sud-americanos, 
Francisco Sosa, Mei., 1890; Juicio critico de poelas ktspano- 
americanos, M. L. Amunitegui, Santiago de Chile, 1861; La 
joven lileralura hispano-americana, Manuel Ugarte, Paris, 

Echeverrta: see preceding note. 

Candfin do Elvira. This Gutierrez calls the "song of the 
American Ophelia." 

153. — Andrade: see note to p. 151. 

iS. A celebrar las bodas, lo be Ike bride, 

153. — 3. The Argentines, especially, seem to take delight 
in calling themselves a Latin, rather than a Spanish, race. 
This may he due to the fact that fully one third of the papu- 
lation of Argentine is Italian. Both Juan Valera and 
Menfndez y Pelayo have chided the Argentines for speaking 
of themselves as a raea latino-americana, instead of kispano- 

15. arcano, secrel, seems to have the force here of a secret 
ark, or secrel sancluary, which b broken open that its secrets 
may be disclosed. 

154. — 6-10. These lines refer, of course, to the Christian 
religion, spoken of symbolically as an allar, which has replaced 
the heterogeneous pagan cults of ancient Rome, and which 
the Spaniards first brought to .America. 

984 NOTES 

II. ciclopeas: note Ihc omission of the accent on o tliat 
the word may rime with ideas. 

153. — s. Tequendama; see in the Vpcab. Severa! Colom- 
bian poets, including Don Jos£ Joaqu[n Ortiz and Doila. Agri> 
pina Monies del Valle, have written odes to this famous 
waterfall. See Menfindes y Pelayo, AnI. Poetas Hisp.-Am., 
II; and Parnaso colombiano, II, EogotS, 1887. 

17-18. A revolutionary hero, Antonio Ricaurte (b. 1786), 
blew up the Spanish powder magazine on the summit of a 
hill near San Mateo, and lost his life in the explosion. See 
Mateo in Vocab. 

1S6. — $, The colors of the Peruvian flag are red and white, 
mainly red. The red, — symbolical of bloodshed, — shall 
be largely replaced by the golden color of ripening grain, — 
symbolical of industry. 

8. Caracas, where Bolivar was born, lies at the foot of 
Mount Avik. 

II. This line, and line 16, would indicate that Atlfintida was 
written soon after the war, begun in 1S76, between Chile and 
the allied forces of Bolivia and Peru, in which Chile was 

12-15. When this was written there was little immediate 
prospect of other railways than the narrow-gage road from 
Oruro to the Chilean frontier, about five hundred miles in 
length; but now Bolivia has the promise of becoming the 
railway center of lines connecting both Argentina and Chile 
with Peru. These lines are now completed or building. 

27. Andrade died in 1882, and seven years after his death, 
in i8Sg, the emperor Dom Pedro II was deposed, and a repub- 
lican form of government was adopted by Brazil. 

167. — 3. .\ndrade now sings of his own country, hence 
jDe pie para contarlal 

8. There is a larger immigration of Europeans into Argen- 
tina than into any other South- American country. The 

NOTES 28s 

ne mostly from northern Italy and from 

12-16. As the AtUndda was the last poetic work of Andrade, 
these lines may refer to the treaty of 1881 between Argentina 
and Chile, by which Argentina acquired all the territory east 
of the Andes, including Patagonia and the eastern part of 
Tierra del Fuego. 

By the conquest and settlement of the broad plains (f am- 
pas) and the frozen region of the south, a new world was 
created, much as in the United States of America a new world 
was created by the acquirement and settlement of the western 
plains, mountain lands and Pacific coast. 

2r. Vast areas in Argentina are given over to the cultiva- 
tion of wheat, barley and oats. 

159. — These are the last stanzas of Prometeo, a poem in 
which the author addresses the human mind and urges it to 
break its bonds and free itself from tyranny and prejudice: 
see also iti Vocah. 

160. — Obligado: see note to p. 151. 

163. — Colombia. Colombia was formerly known as Nueva 
Granada, and its inhabitants are still sometimes called Grana- 
dinos. An older and larger Colombia was organized in 1819, 
toward the close of the revolutionary war; but this state was 
later divided into three independent countries, viz., Venezuela, 
Nueva Granada and Ecuador. In i86i Nueva Granada as- 
sumed the name of Estados Unidos de Columbia, and only 
recently the Colombian part of the Isthmus of Pananvi 
Established itself as an independent republic. The present 
Colombia has, therefore, only about one third the area of the 
older state of the same name. In treating of literature, the 
terms Colombia and Colombian are restricted to the present- 
day Colombia and the older Nueva Granada. The capital 
of the Republic is Santa Fe de BogotS, to-day generally 
known simply as Bogota. It ia at an elevation of 8700 feet 

above the level of the sea, and has a cool and equablf 

It is generally conceded that the hlerary production of 
Colombia has excelled that of any other SpaniEh-American 
country. Mentndea y Pelayo (Aiil. Poetaz Hhp.-Am., Ill, 
Inlrod.) speaks of Bogoti as the " Athens of South America," 
and says further: " the Colombian Parnassus to-day excels in 
quality, if not in quantity, that of any other region of the New 
World." And Juan Valera in his Cartas americanas (i" saie. 
p, :2i f.) says; "Of all the people of South America the Bogo- 
tanos are the most devoted to letters, sciences and arts"; and 
again: "In spite of the extraordinary ease with which verses 
are made in Colombia, and although Colombia is a democratic 
republic, her poetry is aristocratic, cultivated and ornate." 
Blanco Garcia characterizes Colombia as one of the most 
Spanish of American countries. 

During the colonial period, however, Nueva Granada pro- 
duced few literary works. Gohzalo Jimenez de Qucsada, the 
conquistador of New Granada, wrote memoirs, entitled Ralos 
de Saesca (1573?), of little historical value. The most im- 
portant work of the period is the chronicles in verse of Juan de 
Castellanos (b. 1522? in the Spanish province of Seville). This 
work is largely epic in character; and, with its 150,000 lines, 
it is the longest poem in the Spanish language. Though for 
the most part prosaic and inexact, yet it has some passages of 
high poetic worth, and it throws much light on the lives of the 
early colonists. The first three parts of the poem, under the 
title of Eleglas de narones iluslres de Indias (the first part only 
was published in igSg), occupies ail of vol. IV of the Sibl. dr. 
Aut. Esp. The fourth part is contained in two volumes of the 
Colecci6n de Escrilores Castellanos, under the title of Hisloria 
del Nnevo Reino de Granada. 

In the seventeenth century the colonists 
with the conquest and settlement of the country to spare 

NOTES 287 

for the cultivation of letters. A iong epic poem, the PiKma 
ktrcko de San Igrtocio de Loyola, with much Gongorism and 
little merit, was published at Madrid in i6g6, after the death 
of the author, the Colombian Hernando DomSnguez Camargo. 
A few short lyrics by the same author also appeared in the 
Ramilklc de tarias fiores poilicas (Madrid, 1676) of Jacinto 
Evia of Ecuador. 

Early in the eighteenth century Sor Ftancisca Josefa de la 
Concepci6n, " Madre Castillo" {d. 1743), wrote an account of 
her life and her SentimUidos espiriluales, in which there is 
much of the mysticism of Saint Theresa. 

About 1738 the printing-press was brought to BogotS by 
the Jesuits, and after this date there was an important intel- 
lectual awakening. Many colleges and universities had al- 
ready been founded, — the first in 1554. The distinguished 
Spanish botanist Jos£ Celestino Mutis, in 1762, took the chair 
of mathematics and astronomy in the Colegto del Rosario, 
and under him were trained many scientists, including Fran- 
cisco Jos£ de Caldas. An astronomical obser\'atory was es- 
tablished, the first in America, fn 1777 a public library was 
organized, and a theater in 1794. And of great influence tvas 
the visit of Humboldt in 1801. Among the works published 
in the second half of the eighteenth century mention should 
be made of the Lamentacioaes de Fubln by the canon Josf 
Marfa Grueso (177Q-1835) and El placer piiblko de Santa 
Fe (Bogoll, 1804) by Jost Maria Salazar (i78s-i8;8). 

During the revolutionary period two poets stand preemi- 
nent. Dr. Jos£ FernSndez Madrid (d. 1830) was a physician 
and statesman, and for a short time president ol the Republic. 
His lyrics are largely the expression of admiration for Bolivar 
and of hatred toward Spain: his verses are usually sonorous 
and correct (Poeilos, Havana, [S32; London, 1828), The 
" Chfinier" of Colombia was Luis Vargas Tejada (iSoi-iSig), 
the author of patriotic verses, some of which were directed 


against Bolivar, and of neo-dassic tragedies. He died by 
drowning at the age of twenty-seven (Pocsias, Bogota, 1855). 

The four moat noted poets of Colombia are J. E. Caro, 
Arboleda, Ortiz and Gutilrrez Gonidle^. A forceful lytic 
poet was Josfi Eusebio Caro (181 7-1853), a philosopher and 
statesman, a man of moral greatness and a devout Christian. 
In the bloody political struggles of his day he sacrificed his 
estate and his life to his conception of right. He sang of God, 
love, liberty and nature with exaltation; but all bis writings 
- evince long meditation. Like many Spanish- American poets of 
his day Caro was influenced by Byron. In his earlier verses 
he had imitated the style of Quintana (cf. El ciprfs); but later, 
under the influence of romantic poets, be attempted to intro- 
duce into Spanish prosody new metrical forms. Probably as 
a result of reading English poetry, he wrote verses of 8 and 
It syllables with regular alternation of stressed and unstressed 
syllables, which is rare in Spanish. So fond did he become of 
lines with regular binary movement throughout that he re- 
cast several of his earlier verses {Obras escogidas , EogotS, 1873; 
Foesias, Madrid, 1885). 

Julio Arboleda (1817-1861). " Don Julio," was one of the 
most polished and inspired poets of Colombia. He was an 
intimate friend of Caro and like him a journalist and poli- 
tician. He was a good representative of the chivalrous and 
aristocratic type of Colombian writers of the first half of the 
nineteenth century. His best work is the narrative poem 
Comaio de Oy6n which, though incomplete, is the noblest epic 
poem that a native Spanish- American poet has yet given to 
the world. After studying in Europe he engaged in joumal- 
iam and politics. He took part in several civil wars. A can- 
didate for the presidency of the Republic, he was assassinated 
before election {Paeslas, colecciiii formada sobrr las tnnnitscritas 
originates, con prdlogo par M. A. Caro, New Vork, 1883). 

The educator and journalist Joa€ Joaquin Ortiz (1814- 

NOTES 289 

iSt)2) imitated Quintana in form but not in Ideas. Though 
a defender of neo-dassicism, lie did not entirely reject ro- 
majiticism. Ortiz was an ultra-catholic, sincere and ascetic 
His verses arc impetuous and grandiloquent, but often lack' 
ing depth of thought {Pociias, Bogoti, iSSo). 

The poet Gregorio Guti6rrea Gonzdiez, "Antioco" (1820- 
1872), was a jurist and politician. He began as an imitator of 
Espronceda and Zorrilla and is the author of several senti- 
mental poems (A Julia, iPor qui no caitlo? Una Idgrima, el 
al.) that are the delight of Colombian young ladies. His fame 
will doubtless depend on the rustic Georgic poem, Memoria 
sobre el culliva del malz en Aiiiioquia. This work is an in- 
teresting and remarkably poetic description of the homely life 
and labors of the Antioquian country folk [Poeslas, Bogoti, 
iSSi; Paris, 1908). 

The minor poets of this generation are legion. Among 
these are: Manue! Maria Madiedo (b. 1815), a sociologist; 
Germdn Gutifirrez de Pineres (1816-1872), author of melan- 
choly verses; Josd Marfa Rojas Garrido (1824-1883), a noted 
orator, one-time president of Colombia; Joaquin Pablo Posada 
(1825-1880), perhaps the most clever versifier of Spanish 
America, but whose dlcimas were mostly written in quest of 
money; Ricardo Carrasquilla (b. 1827), an educator and 
author of genial verses; Jos^ Manuel Marroqutn (b. 1827), a 
poet and author of articles on customs and a foremost humor- 
ist of South America (he was president when Colombia lost 
Panama); ]as6 Maria Samper (b. 1S28), a most voluminous 
writer; Rafael Nfiflez (1825-1897), a philosopher and skeptic, 
and one-time president of the Republic; SanliaRo Pfirez {1830- 
igoo), educator, journalist and one-time president; JosS Maria 
Vergara y Vergara (1831-1872), a Catholic poet and author of 
a volume of sentimental verses (Libre de las ciinlares); Rafael 
Pombo (1833-1912), an eminent classical scholar and literary 
critic, and "perpetual secretary" of the Colombian Academy; 


290 NOTES 

Diego Falldn (b. 1S34), son o( an English father, and author 
of several highly hnished and beautiful poems; Pini6n Kico 
(b. 1834), author of popular, romantic aonga; Wsar Conlo (b. 
1836), a jurist and educator; Jorge Isaacs (1837-1S95), better 
known as author of the novel Maria; and Felipe P6rez (b. 

In the second half of the nineteenth century, the most 
eminent man of letters in Colombia has been Miguel Antonio 
Caro (1843-1909), a son of J, E. Caro. A neo-Catholic and 
"traditionalist," a learned literary critic and a poet, the 
younger Caro, like Bello before him and like his distinguished 
contemporary Rufino Jos^ Cuervo, has worked for purity of 
diction and classical ideals In literature. Caro is also the 
translator of several classic works, including one of Virgil 
which is recognised as the best in Spanish. 

Other poets of the closing years of the century are; Di6genes 
Arrieta {b. 1848), a journalist and educator; Ignacio Guti6rrez 
Ponce (i8so), a physician; Antonio G6mez Restrepo {b. 1856), 
a lawyer and politician; Jos£ Marta Garavito A. (b. 1S60); 
Jos£ Rivas Groot (b. 18G4), an educator and literary critic, 
and editor of La lira nufva; Joaqufn Gonzilez Camargo 
(b. 1865), a physician; Agripina Montes del Valle (b. about 
the middle of the nineteenth century) noted for her ode to 
the Tequendama waterfall, and Justo Pastor Rfos {i8;o- ), 
a philosophic poet and liberal journalist. 

The "modernista" poet Jos£ Aaunci6n Silva (1860-1896) 
was a sweet singer, but he brought no message. He was fond 
of odd forms, such as lines of 8+8, 8 + 8+8 and S + 8 + 4 syl- 
lables (Poesfas, con Prdlogo de Miguel dc Vnamuno, Barcelona, 

References: Cf.: Men^ndez y Pelayo, AnI. Poelas Hisp.-Amer., Ill, 
p. 1 f.; Blanco Garda, III, 331 f.; Juan Valera, Carlos Am., /" serit, 
p. 151 (,; Bistoria de la lUeratura (1538-1810) ™ Nucca Granada, Jo^ 
Marta Vergaiay Vergara, fioeoti, 1S671 AptuOa sobte Ubliegrnfia celam' 



Hana, can mueslras acogidas rn piosa y terio, Ifddoro Laveide Amaya, 
BogotS, 1882; ParnoiO cohmtnajio. J. M. Vecgara y Vergara, 3 vols,; 
La lira granaduKS, J. M. Vergara y Vergara, BogotS, 186s; Pamaso 
colambiano. Julio Aflez, con Prdlogo de Jost Rivas Crool. a vols,, Bogoti, 
1886-87; La lira nurca, J. M, Rivas Groot, Bogoti, 1886; Antologta 
colonliiana, Erailiano I^aza, Paris, 1895. 

Ortiz: see preceding nofe, 

Colombia j EepaOa: In this poem, dated July 2a, 1SS2, 
the poet begins by recalling the war of independence that 
he witnessed as a boy and the heroic figure of Bolivar; then 
he laments the fratricidal struggles that rent the older and 
larger Colombia; and, finally, in the verses that are here 
given, he rejoices over the friendly treaty just made by the 
mother country, Spain, and Colombia, her daughter. 

8. The colors of the Colombian flag are yellow, blue and 

g. The colors of the Spanish flag are red and yelli 
the Spanish arms two castles {for Castilh) and two li 
Lein) are pictured. 

164. — j. E, Caco: see note top, 162, 

I6J. — Marroquin: see note to p. t63. 

Los cazadores y la perrilla: compai 
"Elegy on the Death of a Mad Dog." 

168.— 7. Moxatin; see note to p, 26. 


ith Goldsmith's 

L Bibl. 

de AtU. E^p.. 11, 4g f, 

169. ^ 16, describilla, ar 

171. — M. A. Caro: seen 

174. — i4-r6. sombrfa . 
dad) sombrla y elema, ni el odio n 
olcanzardn nada en sits abismos. 

179. — Cuba. Although the literary output of Cuba is 
greater than that of some other Spanish- American countries, 
yet during the 1 olonial period there was in Cuba a dearth of 
both prose and verse. The Coleyio Semanario de San Carlos 

■r poetic for dfseribirla. 

. eicaj>ZK&n = {sien4o la Elerni- 
H( la je ni la duda. 


y San Ambrosio was founded in 1689 as a theological seminary 
and was reorganized with lay instruction in 1765. Tlie Uni- 
versity of Havana was established by a papal bull in 1721 
and receiied royal sanction in 172S; but for many years it 
gave instruction only in theological subjects. The first book 
printed in Cuba dates from 1720. Not till the second half of 
the eighteenth century did poets of merit appear in the island. 
Manuel de Zequeira y Arango (1760-1846) wrote chiefly 
heroic odes (Poeslas, N. Y,, tSzg; Havana, 1852). Inferior to 
Zequeira was Manuel Justo de Rubaloava (176(1-1805), the 
author of bucolic poems and sonnets {Poeslas, Santiago de 
Cuba, 1848). 

The Cuban poet Don Josfi Maria Heredia (1803-183(1) is 
better known in Europe and in the United States than Bello 
and Olmedo, since his poems are universal in their appeal. 
He is especially well known in the United States, where he 
lived in exile for over two years (1833-1825), at first in Boston 
and latet in New York, and wrote his famous ode to Nia- 
gara. Born in Cuba, he studied in Santo Domingo and in 
Caracas (1812-1817), as well as in his native island. Accused 
of conspiracy against the Spanish government, he fled to the 
United States in 1823, and there eked out a precarious exis- 
tence by giving private lessons. In 1825 he went to Mexico, 
where he was well received and where he held several im- 
portant posts, including those i)( member of Congress and 
judge of the superior court. In Heredia 's biography two facta 
should be stressed: that he studied for five years in Caracas, 
the city that produced Bolivar and Bello, respectively the 
greatest general and the greatest scholar of Spanish America; 
and that he spent only twelve years, all told, in Cuba. Aa 
he lived ior fourteen years in Mexico, that country also claims 
him as her own, while Caracas points to him with pride as 
another child of her older educational system. 

Heredia was most unhappy in the United States. He od- 

NOTES 293 

mired the political institutions of this countryjbut he disliked 
the climate of New York, and he despaired of learning English. 
Unlike Bello and Olmedo he was not a classical scholar. His 
acquaintance with the Latin poets was limited, and seldom 
does a Virgilian or Horatian expression occur in his verses. 
Kather did he stand for the manner of Chateaubriand in 
France and Cienfuegos in Spain. Though strictly speaking 
not a romantic poet, he was a close precursor of that move- 
ment. His language is not seldom incorrect or lacking in 
sobriety and restraint; hut his numbers are musical and his 
thought springs directly from imaginative exaltation. 

Heredia's poorest verses are doubtless his early love-songa: 
his best are those in which the contemplation of nature leads 
the poet to meditation on human existence, as in Nidgara, El 
Teoeath de Cholula En una lempfslad and 4/ sol In these 
poems the predominant note is that of gentle melancholy In 
Cuba his best known \erses are the two patnotic hymns 
i Emtha El himno del dislcrrado These were written 
before the poet wis disillusioned by his later experiemes in 
the turbulent Mexico of the second ind third decades 0/ the 
nineteenth century and they are so ".irulent in their expres- 
sion of haired of Spain that Menfindez y Pelayo refused to 
include them in his Anthologv Heredia undertooL to write 
several plavs but without success Some translations of 
dramatic works however were well received and especially 
those of Ducts ibufar Chfnier s Tibere Jouv s Stia \ol 
taire s Mahomet and Mhen s iuw/ The Garnier edition 
(Pans iSgj) of Heredii s Poeilits contains an interesting 
introduction by the cntic Etfas Zerolo (Poisias N Y iSaSi 
Toluca i8}2 N \ 187s Pans 1893) 

The mulatto poet Cabricl de la Conrepcjfin \ ald£s bet 
ter known by his pen-name "PIScido" {1809-1844), an 
uncultivated comb-maker, wrote verses which were mostly 
commonplace and often incorrect; but some evince remark- 


294 NOTES 

able sublimily aod dignity (cf. Plrgaria d Dies). Cf. Poesiat, 
Matanzas, iSjS; Matanzas, 1842; Veracruz, 1S45; Paris, 1S57; 
Havana, i386. The greatest Cuban poetess, and perhaps 
the most eminent poetess who has writ ten in the Castilian 
language, is Gertrudis G^mcz de Avellaneda y Arteaga (1814- 
1S73). Siace Avellaneda spent most of her life in Spain, an 
account of her life and work is given in the Inlroduction to 
this volume, p. xixviii. Next only to Heredia, the most popular 
Cuban poet is Jose Jacinto Milan^s y Fuentes (1814-1863), 
who gave in simple verse vivid descriptions of local landscapes 
and customs. A resigned and touching sadness characterizes 
his best verse {Obrai, 4 vols., Havana, 1846; N. V., 1865). 

A lawyer, educator and patriot, Rafael Maria Mendive y 
Daumy (i8ii-i886) wrote musical verse in which there is 
spontaneity and true poetic feeling {Pasionarias, Havana, 
1847; Poesias, Madrid, i860; Havana, 1883), Joaquin Lorenzo 
Luaces (1826-186;) was more learned than most Cuban poets 
and fond of philosophizing. Some of his verse has force and 
gives evidence of careful study; but much is loo pedantic to 
be popular {Poeslas, Havana, 1B57). A poet of sorrow, Juan 
Clemente Zenea, — "Adolfo de la Azucena" (1832-1871), — 
wrote verses that are marked by tender melancholy [Poesias, 
Havana, 1855; N. V., 1872, 1874)- 

Heredia was not the only Cuban poet to suffer persecution. 
Of the seven leading Cuban poets, often spoken of as "the 
Cuban Pleiad," .'\vcllancda removed to Spain, where she mar- 
ried and spent her life in tranquillity; and Joaquin Luaces 
avoided trouble by living in retirement and veiling his patri- 
otic songs with mythological names. On the other hand 
Jos£ Jacinto Milan£s lost his reason at the early age of thirty 
years, Jos6 Maria Heredia and Rafael Mendive fled the coun- 
try and lived in exile; while Gabriel Valdfe and Juun Clemente 
Zenea were shot by order of the governor-general. 

Since the disappearance of the "Pleiad," the most popular 



Cuban poets have been Julian del Casal, a skeptic and a 
Parnassian poet who wrote pleasing but empty verses ( Bojas 
al sienlo, Nieve, Busies y Rimas); and Francisco Sellfn, irhose 
philosophy is to conceal suffering and to put one's hand to 
the plow again (Libra inlimo, Havana, 1865; Paesias, N. Y., 
1890). Jos£ Mart! (iSsj-rSgs) spent most of his life in edie; 
but he returned to Cuba and died in battle against the Spanish 
forces. He wrote excellent prose, but few verses {Flor y lava, 
Paris, i9io(?)). 

References; Menindra y Pelayo, Ant. Feelas Eisp.-Am., 11, p. 1 !.; 
Blanco Garcia, III, p. ago f,; E. C. Hills, Bardes cvbanos (contains a 
bibliography), Boston, igoi; Aurelio Mitjaos, Esludia sabre d manmietila 
dfuHfico y likrarU) en Cuba, Havana. iSgo; Bacliiller y Morales. Apunles 
para la historia de las Iilras y de la inslruccUn pAblUa ie la Isla de CiAa, 
Havana. 1S51J; La potsia lirica en Cuba, M. Gonz&lez del Vulle, Bar- 
celona. iQOO; Cuba pollica, Havana, 185S; Parnaso ciibano, Havana, 

;ntral and southern 
;ntral plateau it is 
as at the foot of 

Heredia- see preceding note 

S This IS quite true On the a 
Mexico the climate is tropical o 
temperate and on the mountain 
Popocatepetl it is fngid 

13 14 Iztaccihual and Popocatepec are the popular names 
of these mountima but their oihciat names are / laccikvatel 
and Popocalfpele! These words ire of Nahuillan ongin see 
m \ ocab 

id-iS do teHir8e = rfo) A el t'dn I do las mira Unirse 

en purpura ligera y era 

181 — 3 This poem was wntten in the fourth decade of 
the nineteenth century when Mexico was torn by civil war 
There «as peace only when some military leader assumed des 

21. Note that the moon set behind PopocBtepec, a little to 
the south of west from Cboluk, while the sun sank behind 

Iztacdhnal, i 

183. — 14. Pueron (lit. Ihey -luere), they a 
this Latiiiism the preterit denotes that n thing or condition 
that once existed no longer exists. C£. fuit Iliutn {/Encid, II, 
3'S), "Troy is no more." 

186. — 4-5. Que . . . Beeuii = que, en sa tuelo, la turbada 
pisia quiere en vana seguir, 

190. — "PlStido": see note to p. 179. 

Plegaria & Dios: this beautiful prayer was written a tew 
days before the poet's death. It is said that " Placido " 
recited aloud the last stanza on his way to the place of execu- 
tion, and that he slipped to a friend in the crowd a scrap of 
cloth on which the prayer was written. 

191. — 4. del . . . traiispareiiciB. = iE (in) la dara transpa~ 
rencia del aire. 

Avellaneda: see Introduction, p. xxiviii. 
ig. No . . . modelo = (/a hislaria) no {did] modelo & lu virlud 
en lo pasado. 

193. — 1-2. MirS . . . victoria = /ij Europa mird al gcnio de 
la guerra y la victoria ensaiigrentar s« suelo. The genio wjia 
Napoleon Bonaparte. 

4. Al . . . cielo -el cielo Ic diera al genio del bieii. Note that 
le is dative andal genio accusative. This otherwise admirable 
sonnet Is marred by the numerous inversions of the word-order. 

193. — Ecuador is a relatively small and mountainous 
country, lying, as the name implies, directly on the equator. 
The two principal cities are Guayaquil, a port on the Pacific 
coast, and Quito, the capital. Quito is beautifully situated 
on a plateau 9300 feet above the level of the sea. The 
climate is mild and salubrious, and drier than at Bogotd. 
The early Spanish colonists repeatedly wrote of the beauti- 
ful scenery and the "eternal spring" of Quito. 




All of the present Ecuador belonged to the Virreinato del 
Peril till 1721, after which date Quito and the contiguous ter- 
ritory were governed from Bogota. In 1S24 Guayaquil and 
southern Ecuador were forcibly annexed to the first Colombia 
by Bolivar. Sis years later Ecuador separated from Colombia 
and organized as a separate state. 

In the territory now known as Ecuador the first colleges 
were established about the middle of the sixteenth century, 
by the Franciscans, for the natives, and by the Jesuits, as 
elsewhere in America, for the sons of Spaniards. Several 
chronicles by priests and other explorers were written dtuing 
the early years of the colonial period; but no poet appears 
before the seventeenth century. In 1675 the Jesuit Jacinto 
de Evia published at Madrid his Ramillete de varias fiores 
poilicas which contains, beside those by Evia, verses by An- 
tonio Bastidas, a Jesuit teacher, and by Hernando Domlnguez 
Camargo, a Colombian. The verses are mediocre or worse, 
and, as the date would imply, are imbued with culteranism. 

The best verses of the eighteenth century were collected by 
the priest Juan de Velasco (1727-1819) and published in six 
volumes under the title of Ei ocioso de Faenza. These volumes 
n poems by Bautista Aguirre of Guayaquil, Jos£ Orozco 

(£a conqnista de Menarca, 
Ranitin Viescaa (sonnets, 
most of whom were Jesuits 
The expulsion of the Jes 
several colleges in Ecuador, 

I epn 

poem in four cantos), 
:, dfciiitas, etc.) and others, 

its in 1767 caused the closure of 
ind for a time seriously hampered 
the work of classical education. But even before the edict of 
expulsion scienllhc study had been stimulated by the coming 
of French and Spanish scholars to measure a degree of the 
earth's surface at the equator. The coming of Humboldt in 
1801 still further encouraged inquiry and research. The new 
spirit was given concrete expression by Dr. Francisco Eugenio 
de Santa Cruz y Espejo, a physician of native descent, in 

298 NOTES 

El nuevo Luciano, a work famous in Che literary and the polit- 
ical history of South America. In this work Dr. Espejo at- 
tacked the prevailing educational and economic systems of the 
colonies, and his doctrine did much to start the movement 
tonard secession from the mother country. 

Although the poetry of Ecuador is of relatively little impor- 
tance as compared with that of several other American coun- 
tries, yet Ecuador gave to the world one of the greatest 
of American poets, Josfi Joaquin de Olmedo. In the Americas 
that speak Castilian, Olmedo has only two peers among the 
classic poets, the Venezuelan Bello and the Cuhan Heredia. 
Olmedo was born in Guayaquil in 17S0, when that city still 
formed part of the Virreinato del Peril. Consequently, two 
countries claim him, — Peru, because he was born a Peruvian, 
and because, furthermore, he received his eduaction at the 
Universidad de San Marcos in Lima; and Ecuador, since 
Guayaquil became permanently a part of that republic, and 
Olmedo identified himself with the social and political li(e 
of that country. In any case, Olmedo, as a poetic genius, 
looms suddenly on the horizon of Guayaquil, and for a time 
after his departure there was not only no one to take his place, 
but there were few followers of note. 

Olmedo ranks as one of the great poetic artists of Spanish 
literature at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He is 
of the same semi-claasic school as Quintana, and like him de- 
voted to artistic excellence and lyric grandiloquence. The 
poems of Olmedo are few in number for so skilled an artist, 
and thoroughly imbued with the Grxco-Latin classical spirit. 
His prosody nears perfection; but is marred by an occasional 
abuse of verbal endings in rime, and the inadvertent employ- 
ment of assonance where there should be none, a fault common 
to most of the earlier Spanish- American poets. Olmedo's 
greatest poem is La victoria de Junin, which is filled with 
sweet-sounding phrases and beautiful images, but is logically 

NOTES 299 

inconsistent and improbable. Even Bolivar, the " Libertador," 
censured Olmedo in a letter for using the mackina of the ap- 
pearance at night before the combined Colombian and Peru- 
vian armies of Huaina-Capac the Inca, "showing himself to 
be a talkative mischief-maker where be should have been 
lighter than ether, since he comes from heaven," and instead 
of desiring the restoration of the Inca dynasty, preferring 
"strange intruders who, though avengers of his blood, are 
descendants of those who destroyed his empire." 

The Canto ol general Flares is considered by some critics to 
be the poet's most finished work, though of less substance 
and inspiration than La victoria de Junin. This General 
Flofes was a successful revolutionary leader during the early 
days of the Republic; and he was later as bitterly assailed by 
Olmedo as he is here praised. Of a different type is the philo- 
sophic poem, A un amiga en el nacimietito de su primegtnilo, 
which is filled with sincere sympathy and deep meditation as 
to the future. With the coming of middle age Olmedo's 
poetic vein had apparently been exhausted, and the Peruvian 
bard Felipe Pardo addressed to him an ode in which he 
sought, though to no avail, to stimulate the older poet to 
renewed activity (Paesias, Valparaiso, 1848, Paris, 1853; 
Poesias itUdilas, Lima, 186)). 

For a time after Olmedo's muse had become mute, little 
verse of merit was produced in Ecuador. Gabriel Garcia 
Moreno (1B21-1875), nnce president of the Repubhc and a 
champion of Catbobcism, wrote a few strong satires in th? 
style of Jovellanos. Dolores Veintemilia de Galindo (rSsi- 
1857), who committed suicide on account of domestic infe- 
licity, left a short poem, Quejas, which is unique in the older 
Spanish-American literature by reason of its frank confession 
of feeling. The reflexive and didactic poet Numa P. Llona 
(1832- ) was the author of passionate outpourings of 
doubt and despair after the fashion of Byron and Leopardi 



300 NOTES 

(Paellas, Paris, 1870; Canlos ameticanos, Paris, 1866; Cim 

sonetos, Quito, 1881). The gentle, melancholy bard, Julio 
Zalumbide (1833-1887), at first a skeptic and afterwards a 
devout believer in Christianity, wrote musical verse in correct 
languagebut of little force. Juan Lefin Mera (1832-1S94) was 
one of the moi^t prominent literary historians and critics of 
the Republic. Besides his Poesias (2d ed., Barcelona, 1893), 
Lein Mera left a popular novel, Cumandd (Quito, 1876; Ma- 
drid, 1851), an Ojeada histiricp-tritica sebre la poeiia ecuato- 
riana (ad ed., Barcelona, 1893), and a volume of Cantares del 
Pueblo (Quito, iHga), published by the Academia del Ecua- 
dor, which contains, io addition to many semi-popular songs 
in Castilian, a few in the Quichua language. 

A younger generation that has already done some good 
work in poetry includes Vicente Pedrahita, Luis Cordero, 
Qllintiliano S&nchcz and Remigio Crespo y Toral. 

References: Men. Pel., AtU. Pailas Hisp.-Amer., in, p, Imiii (.; 
Blanco Garda. Ill, 350 f.; Ensayo sobre la lUtralura ccutdmana. 
Dr. Pablo Berrera, Quito, iS6o; Ojeada kislirico-crUica sobre la paesta 
ecMOloriaBa. Juan Ledn Mera, Quito, 1S6S, 2d ed., Barcdona, 1803; 
EscrUeris espanalci I Uspane-anieTiianos, CaSete, Madrid, 18S4; Lira 
ecBoldnana, Vicente Emilio Molestina, Guayaquil, 1865; Nueca lira 
tcual., Juan Abel Echeverria. Quito, 1879; Panose ecual., Manuel 
Gallegos Naranjo. Quito, i87g; Amtrica petlica, Juan MarCa Gutifnex, 
Valparaiso. 1846 (the best of the early anthologies: contains a few 
poems by Olmedo) ; A ntologia eeuai., published by tbe Academy of Ecua- 
dor, with a second volume entided Caalarei del pueblo ecual. (edited by 
Juan Le6n Men), both Quito, iSg2. 

Peru. The literature of Ecuador is so closely associated 
with that of Peru, that the one cannot be properly treated 
without some account of the other. The Virreinato del Pcrii 
was the wealthiest and most cultivated Spanish colony in 
South America, and in North America only Mexico rivaled it 
in induence. Lima, an attractive city, thoroughly Andalusiait 

NOTES 301 

in character and appearance, was the site of important insti- 
tutions of learning, such as the famed Universidad de San 
Marcos. It had, moreover, a printing-press toward the close 
of the sixteenth century, a public theater by i6oz, and a 
gazette by the end of the seventeenth century. The spread 
of learning in colonial Peru may be illustrated by the fact 
that the Jesuits alone, at the time of their expulsion In 
1767, had twelve colleges and universities in Peru, the 
oldest of which dated from the middle of the sixteenth 
century and offered courses in philosophy, law, medicine 
and theology. 

The Peruvians seem to have been content with their lot as 
a favored Spanish colony, and they declared for independence 
only when incited to do so and aided by Bolivar of Colombia 
and San Martin of Buenos Aires. After the revolution, Peru 
was torn by internal discord rather more than other Spanish- 
American countries during the period of adolescence; and it 
was its misfortune to lose territory after territory. Bolivar 
took northern Peru, including the valuable seaport of Guaya- 
quil, and made it a part of the first Colombia; and largely 
through the influence of Bolivar much of Upper Peru was made 
a separate republic, that of Bolivia. Lastly, Chile, for centuries 
a dependency of Peru, became independent and even wrested a, 
considerable stretch of the litora) from her former mistress. 
It is hard to realize that Peru, to-day relatively weak among 
the American countries, was once the heart of a vast Inca 
empire and later the colony whose governors ruled the terri- 
tories of Argentina and Chile to the south, and of Ecuador and 
Colombia to the north. With the decline of wealth and piolit- 
ical influence there has come to Peru a decadence in letters. 
Lima is still a center of cultivation, a city in which the Cas- 
tilian language and Spanish customs have been preserved 
with remarkable fidelity; but its importance is completely 
eclipsed by such growing commercial centers as Buenos Aires, 

303 NOTES 

Montevideo and Santiago de Chile, and by relattveljr small 
and conservative towns such as Bogota. 

In the sisteenth century Garcilasso Inga de la Vega (his 
mother was an " Inga," or Inca, princess), who had been well 
trained in the Latin classics by Spanish priests, wrote in 
excellent prose his famous works, Florida del Inca, Comen- 
tarios reales and Historia general del Ptru, The second work, 
partly historical and largely imaginary, purports to be a 
history of the ancient Incas, and pictures the old Peru as an 
earthly paradise. This work has had great induence over 
Peruvian and Colombian poets. MenSndez y Felayo (Ant. 
Poetas Hisp.-Amer., Ill, Inlrod.) considers Garcilasso, or 
Garcilaso, and .\larc6n the two truly classic writers that 
America has given to Spanish literature. 

In the Golden Age of Spanish letters several Peruvian poets 
were known to Spaniards. Cervantes, in the Canto de Caliope 
and Lope de Vega in the Laurel del A polo make mention of 
several Peruvians who had distinguished themselves by their 

An unknown poetess of Huanuco, Peru, who signed herself 
"Amarilis," wrote a clever silva in praise of Lope, which the 
latter answered in the epistle Bdardo d Amarilis. This sUva 
of "AroBriJis" is the best poetic composition of the early colo- 
nial period. Another poetess of the period, also anonymous, 
wrote in terza rima a Discurso en loot de la foesia, which 
mentions by name most of the Peruvian poets then living. 

Toward the close of the sixteenth century and in the early 
decades of the seventeenth century, several Spanish scholars, 
mostly Andalusians ot the Sevillan school, went to Peru, and 
there continued literary work. Among these were Diego 
Mexfa, who made the happiest of Spanish translations of 
Ovid's Heroides; Diego de Ojeda, the best of Spanish sacred- 
epic poets, author of the Cristiada; Juan G&lvez; Luis de 
Belmonte, author of La Hispdlica; Diego de Avaios y Figueroa 


NOTES 303 

whose Misceldnea austral (Lima, 1603) contains a. long poem 
in ottava rima entitled Defensa de damas; and others. These 
men exerted great influence, and to them was largely due the 
peculiarly Andalusian flavor of Peruvian poetry. 

The best Gongoristic Poetics came from Peru. This is the 
Apologitica en favor de D. Luis de Gdngora (Lima, 1694), by 
Dr. Juan de Espinosa Medrano. 

In the eighteenth century the poetic compositions of Peru 
were chiefly "versos de circutistanciai" by " poeias de ocasiin." 
Many volumes of these were published, but no one reads them 
to-day. Their greatest fault is excessive culteranism, which 
survived in the colonies a half-century after it had passed 
away from the mother country. The most learned man of the 
eighteenth century in Peru was Pedro de Feral la Barnuevo, 
the erudite author o£ some fifty volumes of history, science 
and letters. His best known poem is the epic Lima fundada 
(Lima, 1732). He wrote several dramas, one of which, Rodo- 
guna, is CorneiUe's play adapted to the Spanish stage, and 
has the distinction of being one of the first imitations of the 
French stage in Spanish letters. All in all, the literary output 
of Peru during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is 
disappointingly small in quantity and poor in quality, in view 
of the important position held by this flourishing colony. The 
Peruvian writers, then and now, lact in sustained effort. 

During and immediately following the revolutionary period, 
the greatest poet is Olmedo, who was born and educated in 
Peru and became a citizen first of the primitive Colombia 
and then of Ecuador, only as his native city, Guayaquil, 
formed a part of one political division after another. It is 
customary, however, to consider Olmedo a poet of Ecuador, 
and it is so done in this volume. 

After Olmedo, the commanding figure among the classical 
poets of Peru is Felipe Pardo y Aliaga (1806-1868). Pardo 
was educated in Spain, where he studied with Alberto Lista. 

304 NOTES 

From his teacher he acquired a fondness for classical studies 
and a conservatism in letters that he retained throughout his 
life. In his later years he was induced to adopt some of the 
metrical forms invented or revived by the romanticists, but 
in spirit he remained a conservative and a classicist. He had 
a keen sense of wit and a lively imagination which made even 
his political satires interesting reading. Besides his Foesias y 
escritos en prosa {Paris, i86g), Pardo left a number of com- 
edies portraying local types and scenes which are clever at- 
tempts at imitation of Spanish drama. As with all the earlier 
poets of Spanish America, literature was only a side-play to 
Pardo, although it probably took his time and attention even 
more than the law, which was his profession. A younger 
brother, Jos^ {1830-1S73), wrote a few short poems, but his 
verses are relatively limited and amateurish, Manuel Ascensi6n 
Segura (1805-1871) wrote clever farces filled with descriptions 
of local customs, somewhat after the type of the modern 
gittero chico {Artlculos, poesias y camedias, Lima, 1866). 

The romantic movement came directly from Spain to Peru 
and obtained a foothold only well on toward the close of the 
first half of the century. The leader of the Bohemian roman- 
ticists of Lima was a Spaniard from Santander, Fernando 
Velarde. Around him clustered a group of young men who 
Imitated Espronceda and Zorrilla and Velarde with great en- 
thusiasm. For an account of the "Bohemians" of the fourth 
and fifth decades in Lima [Numa Pompilio Llona (b. 1831), 
Nicolis Coqjancho (1830-1863), Luis Benjamin Cisiieros 
(b. 1837), Carlos Augusto Salaverry {1830-1891), Manuel 
Ascensi6n Segura (b, 1805), Clemente Althaus (i83S-i88r), 
Adolfo Garcia (1830-1:883), Constantino Carrasco (1S41-1S77) 
and others], see the introduction to the Poesias (Lima, 1887) 
of Ricardo Palma (1833- : till igia director of the national 
library of Peru). 

Not often could the romanticists of America go back to 


NOTES 305 

mdigenous legend for inspiration as their Spanish cousins so 
often did; but this Constantino Carrasco undertoolc to do in 
his translation of the famous Quichua drama, OUania. It was 
long claimed, and many still believe, that this is an andent 
indigenous play; but to-day the more thoughtful critics are 
inclined to consider it an imitation of the Spanish classical 
drama, perhaps written in the Quichua language by some 
Spanish priest (Vald^s?). The 8-syIlable lines, the rime- 
scheme and the spirit of the play all suggest Spanish in- 
fluence. In parenthesis it should be added that Quichua 
verse is still cultivated artificially in Peru and Ecuador. 

The two men of that generation who have most distinguished 
themselves are Pedro Paz-Soldin y Unanue, "Juan de Arona" 
{1839-1894), a poet of satire and humor; and Ricardo Palma 
(1833- ) a leading scholar and literary critic, best known 
for his prose Tradiciones peritanas {Lima, 1875 and 1899). 

The strongest representative of the present-day " moder- 
nislas" in Peru is Joafi Santos Chocano (1S67- ), a, disciple 
of Darfo. Chocano writes with much grandiloquence. Hia 
many sonnets are mostly prosaic, but some are finished and 
musical (cf. La magnolia). He is more Christian (cf. Eva-nge- 
leida) than most of his contemporaries, and he sings of the 
conquistadores with true admiration [cf. En la aldea, Lima, 
1895; Iras sanlas, Lima, 1895; Alma Amfrica {PrSlogo de 
Miguel de Unamuno), Madrid, igoG; La selva virgen, Paris, 
1901; fiat lux, Paris, 1908I. 

A younger man is Edilherto Zegarra Ball6n of Arequipa 
J, (1880- ), author of Vibraciones, Poemas, el al. His verse 
is simpler and less rugged than that of the more virile 

References: Men. Pel., AiU. Paelas Biip.-Amer., Ill, p. alii f,; 
BkncD Garda. Ill, 362 I.; Diccimtaria Mstdrico y biogrdJicB dd Peri, 
fomiado y redailado par Manjul de Meadibum, g vol^., Lima, 1874-80; 
ColtaUn dt docuMtnles lUerarias del Peri, 11 vols,, Manuel de Odrio- 

306 NOTES 

lola, Uma, 1863-74; Amfrica pollica, Juan Marfa Guti^TTei, Valparala 
1846; PamasB peruana. J. D. Cortes, Paris, [S75; La Bckemia limn 
it 1S4S tl i860, Prilata it Potslas dt Ricarda Palma, Oma, 1SS7; Lira 
amtricana, Ricaido Palma. Paris, 1S65. 


193. — Olmedo; see preceding note. 

8. A, with. 

IH. — 15-17. The following is a translation of a note 
these lines which is given in Poesias de Olmedo, Garnier Her- 
manos, Paris, 1896: "Physicists have attempted to explain the 
equilibrium that is maintained by the earth in spite o( the 
difference of mass in its two hemispheres" (northern and 
southern). "May not the enormous weight of the Andes be 
one of the data with which this curious problem of physical 
geography can be solved?" 

195. — 4. The religion of the ancient Peruvians, before they 
were converted to Christianity by the Spaniards, was based 
on the worship of the sun. The chief temple of the sun was 
at Cuzco. 

aS- Bolivar was a native of Caracas, Venezuela; but, when, 
this poem was written, Colombia comprised most of the pres- 
ent States of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador. 
Moreover, Colombia is probably used somewhat figuratively 
by the poet to designate the "land of Columbus." 

26. The Peruvians and the Colombians were allies. It is 
an interesting fact that in the war for independence waged 
by the Spanish Americans against Spain, the leaders of the 
Americans were nearly all of Spanish descent, while the ma- 
jority of the rank and file of the American soldiery was Iq- 
dian. To this day, a majority of the population of Spanish 
America, excepting only Chile, Argentina and the West 
Indian Islands, is indigenous, and their poets still stng of " in- 
digenous America," but they sing in the Spanish tonguel See 

e to ' 

:.l. 7. 

NOTES 307 

196. — 21. See note to p. 163, 1. 8. The Peruvian flag has 
an image oF the sun in its center. 

23. It is reported that the first onslaught of the Spanish- 
American cavalry failed, partly by reason of their impetuous- 
ness, and that they would probably have been defeated if 
Bolivat had not rallied them and led them on to victory. 

198. — 10. The ballleof Junin began at about five o'clock in 
the afternoon, and it is said (hat only night saved the Spaniards 
from complete destruction. 

II. El dios ofa: destiny did not permit the god to stay his 
course for an hour, but the god left behind him his circlet of 
diamonds (the stars). 

199. — Mexico. The Virreinalo de Nueva EspaiSa was a 
favored colony, where Spanish culture took deepest root. It 
had the first institution of learning in America (opened in 
ISS3 by decree of Charles I) and the first printing-press 
(1540?). Some 116 books were printed in Mexico City during 
the sixteenth century, most of which were catechisms or gram- 
mars and dictionaries in the native languages. In the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries several Spanish poets, 
mostly Sevillans, went to Mexico. Among these were Diego 
Mexla (went to Mexico in isg6); Gutierre de Cetina, Juan de 
la Cueva, and Mateo AlemSn (published Orlografia casteltana 
in Mexico in 1609). Ccrtdmcncs pcfticos ("poetic contests") 
were held in Mexico, as in other Spanish colonies, from time 
to time. The first of importance occurred in Mexico City in 
1583, to which seven bishops lent the dignity of their pres- 
ence and in which three hundred poets (?) competed. After 
the discovery and conquest of the Philippines, great opulence 
came to Mexico on account of its being on a direct route of 
Pacific trade between Europe and Asia, and Mexico became 
an emporium of Asiatic goods (note introduction of Mexican 
dollar into China). 

The first native poet deserving of the name was Francisco 

3o8 NOTES 

dc Terrazaa (cf. Cervantes, Canla de Callape, 1584), who left 
in manuscript sonnets and other lyrics and an unfinished epic 
poem, Nneva tniindo y canguiala. It is interesting that in the 
works of Terrazas and other native p<)ets of the sixteenth 
century the Spaniards are called " sobtrbios," "maias," etc. 
Antonio Saavedra Guzm&n was the first in Mexico to write 
in verse a chronicle of the conquest [El peregrino indiano, 
Madrid, 1599). Coloquios espirituales (publisheil posthu- 
mously in 1610), aw/tiiof the "morality" type, with much local 
color and partly in dialect, were written by FernSn Gonz&lez 
Eslava, whom Pimentel considers the best sacred dramatic 
poet of Mexico. Sacred dramatic representations had been 
given in Spanish and in the indigenous languages almost from 
the time of the conquest. According to Beristain, at least 
two plays of Lope were done into Nahuatl by Bartolomfi de 
Alba, of native descent, and performed, tis.: M animal projtta 
y dickosa parricula and La madre de la Mejor. 

The first poet whose verses are genuinely American, exotic 
and rich in color like the land in which written {a rare quaUty 
in the Spanish poetry of the period), was Bernardo de Bal- 
huena {1568-1637: born in Spain; educated in Mexico). Bal- 
huena had a strong descriptive faculty, but his work lacked 
restraint {cf. Grandeza mexicana, Mex., 1604; Madrid, 1821, 
iSig and 1837; N. V., 1828; Mex., i860). The great drama- 
tist, Juan Ruiz de Alarcfin (isSiP-iOjg), was born and edu- 
cated in Mexico; but as he wrote in Spain, and his dramas are 
Spanish in feeling, he is best treated as a Spanish poet. 

Next only to Avellaneda the most distinguished Spanish- 
American poetess is the Mexican nun, Sor Juana In£s de la 
Cruz (1651-1695), whose worldly name was Juana Infis de 
Asbaje y Ramirez de Cantillana. Sor Juana had intellectual 
curiosity in an unusual degree and early began the study of 
Latin and other languages. When still a young girl she became 
a maid-in- waiting in the viceroy's palace, where her beauty 

NOTES 309 

and wit attracted touch attention; but she soon renounced the 
worldly life of the court and joined a religious order. In the 
convent of San Jer6nimo she turned for solace to books, and 
in time she accumulated a library oC four thousand volumes. 
Upon being reproved by a zealous bishop for reading worldly 
books, she sold her entire library and gave the proceeds to Ihe 
poor. Sor Juana's better verses are of two kinds: those that 
give evidence of great cleverness and mental aculeness, and 
those that have the ring of spontaneity and sincerity. As an 
exponent of erotic mysticism, she is most interesting. In the 
most passionate of her erotic verses there is an apparent sin- 
cerity which makes it difficult for the lay reader to believe 
that she had not been profoundly inBuenced hy human love, 
— as when she gives expression to the feelings of a loving wife 
for a dead husband, or laments the absence of a lover or tells 
of a great jealousy. In addition to her lyrics Sor Juana wrote 
several aulo! and dramas. Her poems were first published 
under the bombastic title of Inundaciin caitilida de la jlnica 
poelisa, Musa dlctma, Sor Juana I tits de la Crus, Madrid, 16S9 
(vol. II, Seville, 1691; vol. Ill, Madrid, 1700). 

During the first half of the eighteenth century the tradi- 
tions of the preceding century persisted; but in the second 
half there came the neo-classic reaction. Among the best of 
the prosaic poets of the century are: Miguel de Reyna Zehallos 
(La elocuencia del silencte, Madrid, 1738); Francisco Ruiz de 
Le6n {Ilernandia, 1755, based on the Conijuisla de Mixica by 
Soils); and the priest Jorge Jos£ Sartorio (1746-1828; Poeslas 
sagradas y profanas, 7 vols., Puebla, ifiii). The Franciscan 
Manuel de Navarrete (1768-1809) is considered by Pimentel 
superior to Sor Juana Infa de la Crua as a philosophic poet 
(the writer of this article does not so consider him) and is 
called the " restorer of lyric and objective poetry in Mexico" 
I (cf. Pim., Hist. Poesla Mex., p. 442). Navarrete wrote in a 
tyariety of styles. His verses are harmonious, but altisonante 


and often incorrect. His best lyrics, like those of Cienfuegos, 
have the personal note of the romanticists to ioltow (Enire- 
tcnimimtos poiticas, Mex., 1813, Paris, 1835; Poesias, Mex., 

There were no eminent Mexican poets during the revolu- 
tionary period. Andres Quintans Roo (i78?-i85i) was a 
lawyer and journalist and president of the congress which 
made the first declaration of independence. Pimcntel (p. 
309) calls him an eminent poet and one of the best of 
the period. Two of the most important in the period arc: 
Manuel Sinchez de Tagle (1781-1847), a statesman given to 
philosophic meditation, but a paot versifier (foeiloj, 1851); 
and Francisco Ortega (i793-r84.9), an ardent republican, who 
opposed Iturbidc when the latter had himself proclaimed em- 
peror of Mexico in 1S21 (_Poesias liricas, 183Q; cf. A llurbide 
en !u coronacidn) , To these should be added Joaqufn Marfa 
del Castillo y Lanzas (1781-1878), one-time minister to the 
United States (Ocio J jwreniifi J, Philadelphia, 1835); and the 
priest Anastasio Maria Ochoa (1783-1833), who translated 
French, Italian, and Latin (Ovid's Heroides) works, and wrote 
some humorous verses {.Poesias, N. V., 1828: contains two 

Next to AIarc6n, Che greatest dramatist that Mexico has 
produced is Manuel Eduardo de Gorosliza (1789-1851), who 
wrote few lyric verses, but many dramas in verse and prose. 
His plays, which are full of humorous contrasts, were written 
during bis residence in Spain and are, for the most part, 
typically Spanish in all respects. Gorostiza, in manner and 
style, is considered a bridge between Moratin and Bret6n. 
His best comedy is La indulgencia para tados (cf. Teairo 
original, Paris, i8aa; Teatra escogido, Bruxelles, 1835; Obras 
dramdlims, Bibl. Aul. M ex., vols. 22, 24, 26, 45, Mei., -iSgg). 

Romanticism came into Mexico through Spain. It was 
probably introduced by Ignacio Rodriguez Galvin ((81(1-1843), 

a. translator, lyric poel, and dramalist. His lyrics have the 
merit of sincerity; pessimism is the prevailing lone and there 
is much invective. His Profeeias dc Guatimoc is considered 
the masterpiece of Mexican romanticism (Obras, z vols., Mex., 
1851; Paris, 1S83). Another well-known romantic lyricist and 
dramatist is Fernando Calderfln (1809-1345), who was more 
correct in form than Rodriguez Galvin (Poesiai, Mex., 1844 
and 1849; Paris, 1883; Mex., igoa). 

The revival of letters in Mexico is generally attributed to 
the conservative poets Peaado and Carpio, both of whom 
sought to be classic, although they were not altogether so in 
practise. Probably the best known Mexican poet, though 
certainly not the most inspired, is Jos<5 Joaquin Pesado 
(1801-1861). He translated much from Latin, French and 
Italian, and in some cases failed to acknowledge his indebted- 
ness (cf. Pimentel, p. 694). His best translations arc of the 
Psalms. The Azlccas, which were published as a translation 
of, or an adaptation from, indigenous legends, are mostly 
original with Pesado in all probability. He is an unusually 
even writer, and some of his verses are good (cf. certain son- 
nets: Mi amada en la miia del alba, which reminds one of 
Melfndez Valdfs in Rosaiia en los fuegos; Elegia al dngcl de 
la guardia de FJisa; and parts of La revclaci&ii in ociavas reales). 
Monies de Oca and Menindez y Pelayo consider Peaado the 
greatest of Mexican poels; but Pimentel does not (p. 6g4). 
Cf. Poesias originates y Iradticciones , Mex., 1839-40 (must 
complete), 1886 (introduction of Montes de Oca); Biografla de 
Pesado, by Jos6 Maria Roa Bircena, Mei., 1818. Manuel 
Carpio (1791-1860) began to write verses after he had reached 
the age of forty years, and there is, consequently, a certain 
ripeness of thought and also a lack of feeling in his poetry. 
His verses are chiefly narrative or descriptive and generaliy 
treat of biblical subjects. His language is usually correct, 
but often prosaic (Poesias, Mex., 1S49). 

312 NOTES 

Minor poets of this period are: Alejandro Arango (iSai— 
1B83), an imitator of Le6n [Versos, 1879; Ensayo kistdrico 
sobre Fr. Luis de Lein, Mex., 1866); Ignacio Ramirez (181S- 
1S7Q), of Indian race, who was a free lance in religion and 
politics, and largely responsible for the separation of Church 
and State in Mexico {Poeslas, Mex., i88g, and Leccianes de 
lileratura, Mex., 1S84); and Ignacio M. Altamarino (1834— 
iStij}, an erotic and descriptive poet [Obras, Mex., 1899). 

The most popular Mexican poets during the second half of 
the nineteenth centurv have been Acuiia Flores Peza and 
Gut £rrez Nj.jera \ mater al t c conocljjtt Manuel Acuna 
(1B49-1S73) nas une en and n orrect n language but capa- 
ble ot deep poet e feel ng In h s Poesfas (Gam er, Paris, 
8th ed ) there are t vo hort poen s that may hve Noclurno, 
a pass onate express on of d sappo ntment n love and Ante 
un adivtr a poem of dogmit matenat sm \cufia com- 
m tted suede at the ige of t»entv four years Manuel 
Maria Flores (1840- 8'?5) an erot c poet largeiv nfluenced 
by Musset, is very popular in Mexico (Pasiananas, Paris, 
1911). Probably the most widely read poet of the period is 
Juan de Dios Peza (1851-1910). His verses are often incor- 
rect and weak, as he improvised much; but they are interest- 
ing, as they usually treat of homely topics (Poesias compUtas: 
El arpa del amor, iSgi; Hagar y pairia, 1S91; Leyeiidas, iBgS; 
Flares del atma; Recuerdos y esperanzas, 1899, Gamier, Paris), 
The romantic pessimist, Manuel Gutierrez Nijera (d. 1888), 
was tormented throughout life by the vain quest of happiness 
and the thirst of truth. His verses, which are often elegiac 
or fantastic, are highly admired by the younger generation of 
Mexican poets. In a letter to the writer of this article, Blanco- 
Fombona praises Gutierrez Nijera above all other Mexican 
poets (Poeslas, Paris, 1909, 2 vols.). 

References: Menfndez y Pdayo, Anl. Poelas Bisp.-Amer. 
Blanco Garda, HI, 304 i-\ Francisco Pimertel, Itisloria 


NOTES 31 j 

paella m Mtxico, Mei., iSqi; Biblioleca hhpmui-ameru-ana sefilenlrienid, 
n. }<a( Mariano Beristain de Souza, Men., iSib-?i. .< vuk {hat, more 
Ihan :iooo litliH), — reprinted by Fortino Hipdlito de Vera, Amecameca, 
iSHj; Bibliesrafia mtxicaaa dd siglo XVI (caHHagg naonado de las libras 
impresoi in MtxUo de 1530 d j6oo); Biagrnfias de mericanos dislinguidos. 
D. Francbco Sosi, Mex., 1884; Paelas yvcaticoi y laiajviieflii, D. Manuel 
Sanchez Mintiol y D. Alonso de Kegil y I'e6n, M^rida dc Vucalin, 
1S61; PiKfiiiu mexicaHos, Bugotd, 18S9: CeiecciSn de poeiiai nericaniu, 
Paris. 1836; £J farnaso neiKsno. j6 vuU.. R. B. OrtegB. Mo.. iSSd; 
BiblinUca dt auUrei mexicanas, some 75 vols, to igii, Mex,; 4iiiaj0jtld 
df patttis mexioitios, publ. by .\cad. Mei.. Mex., 1S94; Poelai foexi- 
canos. Carlos G. Am£zaga, Buenus Aires. i8g&; Las Iravadores de ittiics. 

Pcsado: see preceding note. 

La Serenata: see I nlradiulioa, Versification, p. Ixviii. 

MO. — 6-11. These lines of Pesado are similar to those 
found in the &rsl stanzas of Su aima by Milan^. See Hills' 
Bardos cubanos (Boston, igoi}, p. 5g. 

CalderOn: see note to p. 199. 

242. — Acufla: see note to p. igg. 

294. — 15. The language is obscure, but the meaning seema 
to be: borrarte (d li que eslis) en nw's rtcuerdos. 

ig. The forced synalepha of 70 haga is discordant and 

304. — 33 to 80S. — S. That is, when the alur was ready 
for the marriage ceremony, and the home awaited the bride. 
The reference, apparently, is to a marriage at an early hour 
in the morning, — a favored time for marriages in Spanish 

806. — [.la alma, by poetic license, since d aima would 
make the line too long by one syllable. 

80T. — Pcza: see note to p. 199. 

Ml. — Darlo: with the appearance in 1888 of a small volume 
of prose and verse entitled Azid, by RubSn Darfo (1864- ) 
of Nicaragua, there triumphed in Spanish America the "move- 

314 NOTES 

ment of emancipation," the "literary revolution," which the 
"decadents" had already initiated in France. As romanticiam 
had been a revolt against the empty formalism of later neo- 
classicism, so " decadence " was a reaction against the bard, 
marmoreal forms of the " Parnasse," and in its train there 
came inevitably a general attack on poetic traditions. This 
movement was hailed with joy by the young men of Latin 
America, who are hy nature more emotional and who live in 
a more voluptuous environment than their cousins in Spain; 
for they had come to chafe at the coldness of contemporary 
Spanish poetry, at its lack oE color and its " petrified metrical 
forms." With the success of the movement there was tor a 
time a reign of license, when poet vied with poet in defying 
the time-honored rules, not only of versification, but also of 
vocabulary and syntax. But as in France, so in Spanish 
America, "decadence" has had its day, although traces of 
its passing are everywhere in evidence, and the best that was 
in it still lingers. 

To-day the Spatiish-American poets are tuining their at- 
tention more and more to the study of sociological problems 
or to the cementing of racial solidarity. These notes ring 
clear in some recent poems of Darfo, and of Josf S. Chocano 
of Peru and Ruiino Blanco-Fombona of Venezuela. The 
lines given in the text are an ode which was addressed to 
Mr. Roosevelt when he was president of the United Slates from 
1901 to 1909. The meter of the poem is mainly the Old Span- 
ish Alexandrine, but with a curious intermingling of lines of 
nine, ten and eight syllables, and with assonance of the evma 
lines throughout. In all fairness it should be stated here that 
Senor Darfo, in a recent letter to the writer of these JVo(ei, said: 
"I do not think to-day as I did when I wrote those verses" 
(Dario; Eplslolas y poemas, 1885; Abrojos, 18S7; Aziil, 1888; 
Cantos de vida y esperama, Madrid, igos; Ei canto errante, 
Madrid, 1907). 




212. — 8, Argentina and Chile are the most progressive 
of the Spa.nish- American States. The Argentine Qag is blue 
and white, with a sun in the center; the flag of Chile has a 
white and a red bar, and in one comer a white star on a blue 

II. This refers, of course, to the colossal bronze Statue of 
Liberty by the French sculptor, Frfdfric Bartholdi, which 
stands in New York harbor. 

14. In a letter to the writer of these Notes, Senor Dario 
explains this passage as follows: "Bacchus, or Dionysius, after 
the conquest of India (I refer to the semi-historical and not 
to the mythological Bacchus) is supposed to have e<"i^ W 
other and unknown countries. I imagine that those unknown 
countries were America. Pan, who accompanied Bacchus 00 
Us journey, taught those new men the alphabet. All this 
is related to the tradition of the arrival of bearded men, 
Strangely dressed, in the American countries . , . These tra- 
ditions eiist in the South as well as the North." 

16. Queconsultfilosastros: the ancient Feruviansand Mexi- 
cans had made considerable progress in thestudyof astronomy. 

814. — ■ Venezuela. During the colonial period the develop- 
ment of literary culture was slower in the Capitania de Caracas 
than in Colombia, Peru and Mexici 
Rosa, which was founded at Carai 
university in 1721. Not till 1806 w 
set up in the colony. 

Poetry in Venezuela begins with Bello, tor the works of his 
-predece^ors had little merit. Andr6s Bello (1781-1865) was 
lummate master of poetic diction among Spanish- 
American poets, although he lacked the brilliancy of Olmedo 
and the spontaneity of Heredia. Born in Caracas and educated 
in the schools of his native city, Bello was sent to England in 
Oie year 1810 to further the cause of the revolution, and he 
lined in that country till iSjg, when he was called to 

The Coiegio de Santa 
IS in T6g6, was made a 
s the first printing-press 

3i6 ncptes 

Cldle lo Uike service in the Department of FoTEign ACsirs. 
Hts life may, tbetefore, be divided inio ilircc distinct periods. 
In Caiacas he studied chiefly the Lalin and Spanish classics 
and Ibe elements of intmiational lav, and he made metrical 
translations of Virgfl and Hoixce. Upon arriving in England 
at the age of twenty-nine years, he gave himself with enthusi- 
asm to the study of Greek. Italian and French, as well as to 
English. Bello joined nHth ihe Spanish and Hispa no- -Ameri- 
can scholars in London in the publication of several literary 
reviews, notably the Ctnsor anrricana (1810), the Biblioteca 
americana (1823) and the Repertorio amrricaHO {1816-17), and 
in these he published many of bis most important works. 
Here appeared his studies of Old French and of the Seng of 
My C!d, his e^iceUent translation of fourteen cantos of Boiardo's 
Orlando innamorata, several important articles on Spanish 
syntax and prosody, and the best of all his poems, the Sitvas 

fn 1829, when already forty-eight years of age, Bello re- 
moved 10 Chile, and there entered upon the happiest period 
of his life. Besides working in a government office, he gave 
private lessons until in 1831 he was made rector of the College 
of Santiago. In the year 1843 the University of Chile was 
established at Santiago and Bello became its 
held this Important post till his death twenty-two years later 
at the ripe age of eighty-tour. During this third and last 
period of his life Bello completed and published his Spanish 
Grammar and his Principles of IiilernalioHal Lav-, works 
which, with occasional slight revisions, have been used aa 
standard textbooks in Spanish .\merica and to some extent 
in Spain, to the present day. The Grammar, especially, has 
been extraordinarily successful, and the edilio 
by Jos£ Rufino Cuervo is still the best text-book of Spanish 
grammar we have. In the Grammar Bello sought to I 
Caatllian from Latin terminology; but he desired, most of li, 

NOTES 317 

to correct the abuses ao common lo writers of the period and 
to establish linguistic unity in Spanish America. 

Bello wrote little original verse during these last years of 
his life. At one time he became exceedingly fond of Victor 
Hugo and even tried to imitate him; but his classical training 
and methodical habits made success impossible. His best 
poetic work during his residence in Chile, however, are trans- 
lations of Victor Hugo, and his free metrical rendering of 
La PricTe pour lous (from the Feuilks d'aulemne), is amongst 
his finest and most popular verses. 

It is interesting that Andrfs Betlo, the foremost of Spanish- 
American scholars in linguistics and in international law, 
should also have been a preeminent poet, and yet all critics, 
except possibly a few of the present-day " modernislas," place 
his American Sihas amongst the best poetic compositions of 
all Spanish America. The Silvas are two in number: the Ato- 
cuciSn i la poesia and the Silva & la agricullura de la zona 
ttrrida. The first is fragmentary- apparently the poet de- 
spaired of completing it and he emb d ed in the second poem 
n of those passages of the first work which de- 
ture in the trop cs The S Ivas are in some degree 
s of Virgil's Georg cs and thev are the best of Span- 
Menfindez y Pelajo who is not too fond of 
American poets, is wilhng to adm I ( int., II, p. cxiii) that 
Bello is, "in descriptive and Georgic verse, the most Virgilian 
of our (Spanish) poets." Caro, in his splendid biography of 
Bello (in Miguel Antonio Caro's introduction to the Poesias 
de Andres Bello, Madrid, 1882) classifies the SUvas as "sci- 
entific poetry," which is quite true if this sort of poetry gives 
an esthetic conception of nature, expressed in beautiful terms 
and adorned with descriptions of natural objects. It is less 
true of the Alocud6n, which is largely historical, in that it 
introduces and sings the praises of towns and persons that 
won fame in the revolutionary wars. The Siha d la agricul- 


318 NOTES 

lura, which is both descriptive and moral, may be best de- 
scribed in the words of Caro. It is, says this distinguished 
critic, "an accoimt of the beauty and wtalih of nature in the 
tropics, and an exhortation lo those who live in the equator 
Ih(it, instead of wasting their strength in political and domes- 
tic dissensions, they should devote themselves to agricultural 
pursuits." Hello's interest in nature had doubtless been stim- 
ulated by the coming of Humboldt to Caracait in the first 
decade of the nineteenth century. In his attempt to express 
his feeling tor nature in poetic terms, he probably felt the 
influence not only uf Virgil, but also of Arriaza, and of the 
several poems descriptive of nature written in Latin by Jesuit 
priests, such aa the once famous RusHcalio Utxkana by Father 
Landivar of Guatemala. And yet there is very little in the 
Sihas that is directly imitative. The Siha d la agricullura 
de la zona tirrida, especially, is an extraordinarily successful 
attempt to give expression in Virgilian terms to the exotic life 
of the tropics, and In this it is unique in Spanish literature. 
The beautiful descriptive passages in this poem, the noble 
ethical precepts and the severely pure diction combine to 
make it a classic that will long hold an honored place in 
Spanish- American letters {Obras complfias, Santiago dc Chile, 

During the revolutionary period the most distinguished 
poets, after Bello, of that part of the greater Colombia which 
later formed the separate republic of Venezuela, were Baralt 
and Ros de Olano. Rafael Marfa Baralt (iSio-iS6a) took 
part in the revolutionary movement of secession from the 
first Colombia; but later he removed to Spain and became a 
Spanish citizen. His verses are usually correct, but lack feel- 
ing. He is best known as a historian and maker of dictionaries. 
Baralt was elected to membership in the Spanish Academy 

General Antonio Ros de Olano (i8o2-!8B7) also removed to 

NOTES 319 

Spain and won high rank in the Spanish army. He joined the 
romantic movement and became a follower of Espronceda. 
Besides a volume of verses {Poestas, Madrid, 1S86), Ros de 
Olano wrote El daclor Lanueta (1863) and other novels. Both 
Baralt and Ros de Olano were identified with literary move- 
ments in Spain rather than in Venezuela. 

Jos^ Heriberto Garda de Quevedo (1819-1871) was a cul- 
tivated and ambitious scholar who collaborated with Zorrilla 
in Maria, Ira de Dios and Un cueitio de amores. Among his 
better works are the three philosophical poems: Delirium, 
La stguada vida and El prescriio {Obras pollicas y lilerarias, 
Paris, 1863). Among the lesser writers of this period are 
Antonio Maitfn (1804-1874), the best of Venezuelan roman- 
ticists (cf. Et canio fiineire, a poem of domestic love); Abigail 
Lozano (18^1-1866), a romanticist and author of musical but 
empty verses ("w«ojaJ(ijoBaH(ej");Jos£ Ramfin Yepes(r82i- 
1881), an army officer and the author of legends in verse, be- 
sides the inevitable Poestas; Eloy Escobar (i8!4-i88g), an 
elegiac poet; and Francisco G. Pardo (1829-1872), a raedloera 
imitator of Zorrilla. 

Next to Bello alone, the most distinguished poet of Vene- 
zuela is JosfPfirez Bonalde { 184G-1 892), who was a good German 
scholar and left, besides his original verses, excellent transla- 
tions of German poets. His metrical versions of Heine, es- 
pecially, exerted considerable influence over the growth of 
literary feeling in Spanish America {Estrojas, N. V., 1877; Ei 
poema dd Nidgara, N. Y., iSBo). At least two other writers 
of the second half of the nineteenth century deserve mention: 
Miguel Sfinchez Pesquera and Jacinto Gutifirrez Coll. 

Among the present-day writers of Venezuela, Luis Ltipez 
Mindez was one of the first to introduce into Spanish America 
a knowledge of the philosophy and metrical theories of Paul 
Verlaine. Manuel Dfaz Rodriguez (1868- ) has written 
little verse; but he ia the best known Venezuelan novelist of 

3 20 NOTES 

to-day [Sangre palricia, Camino de perfecciSn (essays), idoles 
Totos, CuenlBS, 2 vols., Confidential de Psiquis, Cuenles dt 
color, Sensacioaes dr. viajr, De mis romerias]. The most influ- 
cnliaJ of the younger writers is Rufino Blanco-Kombooa, who 
was expelled from his native country by [he present andino 
("mountaineer") governmEnl and now lives in exile in Paris. 
At first a disciple of Mussel and then of Heine and Maupassant, 
he is now an admirer of Darlo and a pronounced modernista. 
Ills Leiras y telrados de H is pano- America is the best recent 
work of literary criticism by a. SpanLsh-.\merican author- 
Bianco- Fombona is a singer of youthful ambition, force and 
robust love. His verses have rich coloring, but are at times 
erotic or lacking in restraint (prose works: CiirM/D.r de poeta, 
Maracaibo, 1900; Mds olid de los horisonles, Madrid, 1903; 
CiieiUos americanos, Madrid. 1904; El hombre de kierro, Cara- 
cas, 1907; Leiras y teirados de H ispano- America, Paris, igo8. 
Verses: Potria, Caracas, 1895; Trovadores y Irovas, Caracas, 
rSgg; Pequeiia ipera Urica, Madrid, 1904; Cantos dc la prisiSn, 
Pads, 191 1 ). 

References: 't.\eaeniezy'Pc\z.yo. Am. Poelas llisp.-AmrT..n. p. est: 
Blanco Garda, III, p. 311 I.; Reseha kislSrica de la lileralara venezolana 
(1888) and Eslado mtual de la lileratma en Venezuela (t89a>, both by 
Julio Calcafio, Caracas; La tileralura venezelaHa en el sigle XIX, 
Gonzalo Picdn Fehres, Caracas, 1Q06; Pamaso wtteadatu. 11 vols.. 
Julio Calcafio, Caracas. 1895; Biblioleea de escrilores vetieiolanos, Jos* 
Maria Roj'as, Paris, 1875; Pamasa vennolitna, Barcelona, 1906, 

Bello: see preceding note. 

1. The LiOK symbolizes Spain, since from the medieval 
kingdom of Leon modem Spain sprang. The battle of Bailf n 
(see in Vocab.) look place in 1808 when Bello was twenty- 
seven years of age and still loyal ro Spain. 

214. — 16 io21S, — .^. Que . . . condibe6 = que circwtscribes 
el vaga curso al { — del) sol cnamorado, y (lA), acariciada 4« Jt 

!, coHcibes ciunto sw ( = every being that) si 
rio clima. 

tS. The use of quien referring to inanimate objects is 
now archaic. 

216. — ig to 317. — 3. It is said that the banana gives 
nourishment to more human beings than does any other 
plant. The fruit is taken when it is still green, before the 
starch has turned to sugar, and it is boiled, or baked, or it 
is ground and made into a coarse bread. 

6-g. En que . . . bonda.dosa!^«i qiie (/a) naturaUza bonda-' 
desa qaiso kacer reseHa dt sm favorfs . . . 

9. The student should compare this and the following lines 
with Vida rtlirada by Fray Luis de Le6n, p. 9. 

ig.' The rime requires habita, instead of kabilad. 

22-23. 7 atada = v !a rasdn na alada al Iriunfal carra 

de la moda, iiniiersat seriora 

Slfl. — io-i6 ^EsperarfiB . , . ata? ^ ^esperariis que (el) 
kimenco forme mdi venturoias lasoi da el interis, tirano del 
deseo, barata ajena mano y fe por nomhre 6 plata, que do con- 
jorme gttsio, conforme rdad, v ( = both) eUccidn litre y { = and) 
mttluo ardor ala los lazosi Note that, by poetic license, ata 
agrees in number with the nearest subject, although it has two. 

220. — S-ii. As this poem was written after the Spanish- 
American colonies had revolted against the mother country, 
Bello no longer rejoices at the success of Spanish arms not 
grieves over their losses, as he had done when he wrote A la 
victoria de Bailin. 

Pfrea Bonalde; see note to p. 214. 

222. — 5. The Venezuelan flag is yellow, blue and red with 
seven small white stars in the center. 

225. — La carcelera: the words and music of this song and of 
the first that foHows are taken from the Cancionero salman- 
lino (DAmaso Ledesma), Madrid, iga;. 

227. — La cachucha: the words and music of this song and 

322 NOTES 

of the five that immediately follow are taken from Poesias 
populares (Tom£s Segarra), Leipzig, 1862. 

t9S, — El tiigaU: (lit., the svaUaw it) a song with which the 
Spanish liberals taunted the partizans of an abscdute gov- 

Z4Z. — ffimno de Riego: a song to the liberal general, Rafael 
de Riego (i 784-1823), who initiated the revolution of 1820 in 
Spain and proclaimed at Cabezas de San Juan the constitu- 
-tion of 181 2. Cf. Versification, p. Ixziz. 

251. — Himno Nadonal de Cuba, called also the ffimno de 
Bayamo, on account of the importance of Bayamo (see in 
Vocab.) in the Cuban revolution of 1868. Note the ternary 
movement of this song, and see Versification, p. Izziii. 






















past participle, 











pr. n. 

proper noun. 



















N. B. — Articles, pronouns and demonstrative adjectives 
are omitted, unless there is a special reason for their presence. 

Adjectives having a masculine termination in -o and fem- 
inine in -a are given in the masculine form only. In other 
cases where both forms are not given the masculine and 
feminine are assumed to be alike. 



abrazo, m., embrace. 

«,M^, to, at, in, on;by, ot, 

fibrego, m., southwest wind. 

from; with, for; before; al 

abreviar (de), to cut short. j 

afio, witliin a year. 

abrigar, to shelter, lodge. 

abad, m., abbot. 

abrigo, ni., shelter. 

abajo, Bdr., beiow. 

abril, m., April; pi. years. 

abalanzarse, to rusli, dart. 

abrir {p. p. abierto), Ir. to 

abandonor, to abandon, de- 

open, tear open, lay bare; 

sert, give up. 

iiUr. and refi. to open. 

abandono, m., forlorn ness. 

abrochar, to button. 

abauico, hi., fan. 

abrojo, «., thorn; thistle. 

abarcar, to embrace, contain. 

absolute, adj., absolute, des- 

abastar, to supply, provide. 


abatir, to overthrow, lay low. 

absorto, odj; absorbed (in 

abedul, m., birch-tree. 

llioughl), entranced. 

Abenfimar, pr. n. m. 

abuela, /., grandmother, an- 

abierto, p. p., open. 


abismarse, to »nk. 

abuelo, m., grandfather, an- 

abismo, w., abyss, gulf. 


ablaadar, to soften. 

aca, adv., here, hither. 

abominar, to detest. 

acabar, Ir. to end, finish; 

abonar, to fertilize. 

iiilr. to come to an end, 

abrasar, to set on fire, kindle, 

end; cease. 

fire, bum, parch; rejl, to 

acallar, to hush, quiet. 

burn, be on fire. 

acariciar, to caress. 

^^ abrazado, p. p., (it-ilh fi) cm- 

acarrear, to carry. 

^^L bracing, dasping. 

acaso, adv., by chance, per- 

^H. ^'^ 

VOCASULAKY ^^^^^^^| 

haps; n. m., chance; al 

acsGO, at the mercy of 

in anguish. 


aconsejar, to advise; rejl. lo 

acator, to respect, revere. 

take advice. 

acddn,/,, action, gesture. 

acontecef, to happen. 

acodar, to sour; spoil. 

acordar, to determine upon; 

_ acelerado, p. p., hasty, 

tune, mate harmonious; 


refl. with de, to remember. 

acelerar, to hasten, accelerate. 

acorde, adj., in harmony. 

ocendiar, to purify, refine. 

acoirer, to aid. 

ocento, HI., accent. 

acostar, ro lay away. 

acerado, adj., of steel. 

acostumbrar, to be accus- 

acerbo, adj., bitter. 

tomed to. 

acerear, to bring near; refi. to 

acrecentar, to increase; ad- 



acero, «., steel; sword. 

acribillar, to pierce with 

acertar, to guess aright, tell 

boles (like a sieve). 


actividad, /., activity. 

aclbar, m., aloes; bitterness. 

actor, m., actor. 

acibarar, to embitter. 

acuchiHado, p. p., slashed. 

adamacidn, /., acclamation; 

acudii (fi), to have recourse 

pi. applause. 

to, turn to for aid; hasten 

adamar, to applaud. 

up, approach; assist, at- 

aclarar, to clear up, solve. 


acoger, to receive, shelter; 

Acufla, pr. n. 

re^. witk en, to take refuge 

acusacifin, /., accusation. 

in, rest upon. 

acusar, to accuse. 

BGometer, to attack. 

adalid, m., chieftain, com- 

acometiiniento, m., attack. 


Adamuz, pr. n. (a viUage in the 


province of Cardm/a; popu' 

acompasado, p. p., measured. 

lation about 7000). 

acompasar, to measure, mark 

AdSn, pr. a. m., Adam. 

time for. 

adarga,/., shield. 




adueSarse (de), to seize. 

adulaci6ii, /., flattery. 

get ahead; advance. 

adulador, m., flatterer. 

adulto, adj.. adult, full-grown. 

ward, further; el llano ade- 

adusto, adj., sullen. 

Unte, forward across the 

adversidad,/., adversity. 


adverse, adj., adverse. 

ftdemAn, m., gesture, attitude. 

advertido, p. p., eiperienced. 

adem&s, adv.. moreover, be- 



sides; (arch.) excessively. 

advertir, to take notice, ob- 

adentro, adv., within. 

serve, note. 

•difis, inlerj., farewell, good- 

aereo, adj., aerial. 


afable, adj., affable. 

sdivinar, to guess, foretell. 

afSn, m., care, anxiety; de- 

administrar, to administer. 

sire, solicitude, eagerness; 



atauar, totoil; desire eagerly. 

admirado, p.p., astonished; 

afaiioso, adj., zealous, solici- 


tous, eager. 


admirar, to astonish, cause 

afecto, m., affection, love. 

admiration; admire; rejt. 

afeite, m,, cosmetic, paint. 

wilh de, to wonder at, ad- 

aficifin, /., affection; eager- 

admitir, to admit, accept, ad- 

eflcionar, to inspire affection. 

mit of. 

afllar, to sharpen. 


adonde, adv., whither. 

afiligranar, to adorn with fili- 


adoradSn,/., worship. 

gree work, embellish. 

adorar, to worship, adore, 

aflicdon,/., affliction, grief. 


love passionately. 

afligir, to afflict, pain; refi. to 

adonnecer, to lull, soothe. 


adonneddo, p. p., drowsy, 

afortunado, adj., fortunate, 



lucky. J 


adOTmidera, /., poppy. 

afrenta, /., insult; disgrace; ■ 


adoniar, to adorn, decorate. 

ser afrenta &, to shame. ^M 


ofrentarse, lo lie ashnmcd , 

Africa, pr. M. /., Africa. 
aEcicano, adj., iVfrican. 
agave, /., agave or maguey 

(plant /ram which "pulque" 

Bgitar, to agitate, stir, ^huke; 
refi. to stir, be uneasy; 
move, throng. 

agolpar, to beap up, gather. 

agottia,/., agony; deatb strug- 

agonizante, adj., in the throes 
of death, dying. 

agora, adv., now {arch, and 
poetic far ahora). 

agOEtar, to parch, wither. 

agotar, to exhaust. 

agradabletnente, adv., agree- 
ably, in a pleasing manner. 

agradar, to please, gratify, 

agradecer, to be grateful [lo 
one for something^. 

agradecido, p. p., grateful. 

agreste, adj., wild, rude. 

Bgricultura, /., agriculture, 

agna, /., water. 

aguaeero, in., shower, down- 

agtiardar, Ir. lo await, wait 

for; intr. to wait, 
agudo, adj., sharp. 
aguijfin, m., prick, spur, goad. 



figuila, !.. eagle; aguila caudal, 

Aguilera, pr. n. 

lahl interj., ah! 

aM, adv., there, 

ahogai, to throttle, choke, 

ahora, adv., now. 

ahuyentar, to put 1 

airado, adj., angry. 

aire, «i,, air, wind, breeze. 

airfin, m., crest, plume. 

aiiOED, adj., airy. 

aislamiento, m., isolation. 

Aja, fr. «./. 

ajeno, adj., another's, foreign; 
ajeno S, Ignorant of; aji 
de, void of, free from. 

ajustar, to adapt, make c 

ala, /,, wing. 

AU, pr. n. m., Allah. 

alabar, to praise. 

alabarda, /,, halberd. 

alado, p. p., winged. 

alamar, m., frog and bratd 

alameda, /,, promenade bor- 
dered by trees. 

filamo, m,, poplar. 

alancear, to spear- 

AlarcCn, pr. n. 

alarde, m.; hacer 




•husar, to lengthen, prolong* 

alcunaa./., lineage. 

teach out, hand over. 

Aldara, pr. n. }. 

alarido, m., shout, cry, shriek. 

aldeana,/., country girl, lass. 

alalia, -asa, adj., sorrel. 

alegrar, to gladden. 

■ IftTanrt = fllazftn. 

alegre, adj., happy, glad, 

alba,/., dawn, morning light. 

merry, light-hearted. 

alberca,/., pool, reservoir. 

alegiia, /., joy, gladness, 

albo, adj., white {as alabaster). 


albor, m., dawn; infancy. 

Alejandro, pr. n. m., Alexan- 

alborada, /., dawn of day; 

der {the Great [B.C. 356- 

serenade at dawn. 

32i], king of Macedonia, and 

alboroto, m., tumult. 

conqueror of much 0/ south- 

alborozarse, to make merry. 

Vfeslern Asia. He was a 

alborozo, m., gaiely, merri- 

ireai getteral, with a far- 
reaching ambition for con- 

Alcabfln, pr. n. (0 village near 

quest. He was also great 


organizer and statesman, but 


alcadt, m., ( = cadf), Moorish 



judge, magistrate. 

alejarse, to depart, separate 

alcaide, m., governor (0/ 



AlemaniB, pr. n.f., Germany. 

alcalde, m., mayor. 

alentor, to stimulate, ani- 

alcanfor, m., camphor. 

mate; foster, cherish. 

alcanzar, to attain to, reach, 

aletear, to flit. 

overtake; gain, obtain; al- 

aleve, adj., treacherous. 


canzar i hacer, succeed in 

alevosla, /., perfidy. 


aleTOGO, adj., treacherous. 

AIcania,/.r, n.(a«o«n(u/«oM.( 

alfabeto, m., alphabet. 

dislricl iti Ike province 0/ 

alfanje, m., cutlas, scimitar. 


alfombra, /., carpet; surface 

alcizar, m., castle, fortress. 

(of a plain). 

alcoba,/., bedroom. 

alforja,/., saddle-hag. 

AlcorcSn, pr. ,,. (a village 8 

algaMTS, /., hubbub, shout- 

mUes south 0/ Madrid). 



330 VOCABULAKY ^^^^^^^| 

alivio, HI., solace. 

algoddn, m., colton, cotton- 

AUxares, pr. n. m. pi. (The 

plant; wad of cotton. 

palace of the Alizares stood 

Alhambra, pr. n. }. (the beau- 

formerly near the present 

ti/ui Moorish palace buM 

cemetery of Granada, to the 

on an etcvaled plateau Ikat 

soHlheast of the Alhambra.) 

overlooks the city 0} Gra- 

alma, / , soul; dear one; del 


alma, dear. 

All, pr. „. «.. 

Alraanzor, pr. n. m. 

alianza,/., alliance. 

almena, / , merlon (of a bal- 

Aliatar, pr. n. m. 


aliento, m., breath, spirit; p!. 

almendra, /., almond; al- 

vigor; dar aliento ft, to 

mendra de cacao, cocoa 



Bllgero, adj., winged. 

almete, m., helmet. 

alimofla, /., beast. 

almfbai, m., syrup; sweetness. 

Alimeafin, pr. n. m. (Alime- 

almo, adj., kindly, holy; cre- 

11611 [written also Almen6n|, 

ative, fostering. 

Moorish king of Toledo in 

almobada, /., pillow. 

the middle of the eleventh 

Almonacid, i<r. ». (There are 

century. He received and 

several Spanish villages with 

protected Alfonso [afUr 

this name. The one men- 

wards Alfonso VI of Castile 

tioned in" Fiesta dcToros." 

and Le6n] when the latter 

p. 27, /. 6, is in Alcarria.) 

fkdfrom his brother Sancho. 

Almudemi, pr. n.f. (an Ara- 

Alfonso VI took Toledo 

bic Tiiord denoting a public 

from Cadir, the son of AH- 

house where grain is bought ; 

men6n, in 1085, and made 

and sold . . . The present 

Cadir the nominal king of 

Valencia, but subjea to 

Almudena in Madrid stands \ 

Castile and LeSn). 

near the site of the ancient 

■Umento, m., food. 

church of the Virgin of the 

bUbo, m., alder. 

Almudena, which was made 

aliviar, to relieve, lighten. 

into a Christian church from 




lop; inir. to rise; refi. to be 

captured Madrid in 1083. 

raised, rise, appear. 

The tttrret on the wall, to 

aM, adv., there; mis alU, 

which Moratin refers [p. 33, 

farther on. 

Hne 6] may have been en or 

aUf, adv., there, then ; por alU, 

near the siU of the church of 

that way; alU mismo, on 

the A!mude«a.) 

the very spot. 

aloJHT, to lodge, give lodging 

amable, adj., pleasing, de- 



Alpes, pr, n. m. pi., Alps. 

amado, -a, m. and /., loved 


about, around. 

amador, m., lover, suitor. 

altanero, adj., haughty, 

amBinar, to die down, soften 


(of wind). 

altar, m., altar. 

amaute, adj., loving; of 

alterar, to change, disturb; 

lovers; n. m., lover, suitor. 

refi. to be confused, ex- 

amapok, /., poppy. 


altiTO, adj., proud, arrogant; 

amargo, adj., bitter. 


amargura, /., bitterness, sot- 

alto, adj., high, tall, lofty; 


eminent; toud; fi lo alto. 

anuuillo, adj., yellow; livid. 

on high; de lo alto, from 

amarrar, to fasten, lash. 

aloft; n. m,, height, eleva- 

'unbar, m., amber; guante de 
(unhar, amber-colored 

altura, /., height, summit; pi. 



ambicifin, /., ambition. 

alumbrar, Ir. to light, illu- 

fimbito, m., space, room. 


minate; inlT. lo shed light. 

ambos, -as, adj. and pron., J 

alumno, m., disciple. 

both; ambos fi dos, both. 1 


alzado, p. p., lofty, arrogant, 

ambrosia,/., ambrosia; {loose- fl 



/>■) perfume. 1 


alzar, Ir. to raise, hotat; alzar 

amedrentar, to frighten. ■ 

el gfllope, lo take a gal- 

amenaza, /., threat. ^1 

332 voc.4BUL.uey ^^^^^^^| 

0/ sotdtern Sp*if wtKd 1 

ameno, adj., pleasant, de- 

compriset the prtmnces of 


Granada. AimerUi, Mdlaga, 

America, pr. «./., .A.merica. 

Cddis, Btulva, SenUa, CSr- 

amigo, adj., friendly; n. m. 

doba and Jain). 

anrf/., friend, lover. 

andalnz, -la, adj., Andalu- 

amistad, /-, friendship. 


amoDtonarse, to be piled up. 

andar, to go, move, walk; be; 

amor, m,, love; Cupid; object 

S mis andar, at full speed. 

of love, loved one; pi. 

andas,/. pi., litter, bier. 

amours, lo\'e-affairs. 

Ande, Andes, pr. n. «. sing.; 

amoroso, adj., loving. 

Andes, pr. n. m. pi.. Andes 

amorteddo, adj., drowsy. 

(the greitl mountain chain of 

amparar, to protect. 

South America, closely fol- 

amparo, m., protection. 

lowing the Pacific Coast). 

Aaacreonte, pr. n. m., Ajia- 

fingel, ™., angel. 

- creon (a Greek lyric poel 

angelito, m,, little angel. 

[561-476? B.C.]; he ja«g 

fingulo, «., comer. 

chUjly Ike praise of wine and 

angastia, /., anguish. ' 


angustiado, adj., anguished, 1 

AnShuac, pr. n. {Nahuallan 

distressed. 1 

name 0} the elemted central 

angustioso, adj., full of an- ' 

plateau of Mexico). 


ananfis, m., (=anana) pine- 


ing, gasping, sobbing. 

anlielar, to pant. 

anciano, adj., old, aged. 

anhelo, w., desire, yearning. , 

ancla,/., anchor. 

anidar, to nestle, dwell. 

anclar, to anchor. 

anillo, m., ring. 

ancho, adj., broad, wide. 

Anima,/., soul; pi. ringing of 


church-bells as a signal for , 

anchuroso, adj., spacious, 

prayer in behalf of the souls 1 


in purgatory. ' 

Audalucfa, pr. 11. /., [Iha! part 


animacifin, /., animation. i 




anlnul, m., animal. 

alio, m. year. 

animalejo, m., liltJe beast. 

apacible, adj., gentle, peace- 


liven; refi. to recover vigor 

Of spirit, receive life; feel 

apagar, to extinguish, de- 



Hn'mo, Bi., courage;, mind, 

Bpaiecer, {aho rejl.) to ap- 


pear, come into view. 

aniversaiio, m., anniversary. 

apariciQn, /., apparition. 

anochecer, to grow dark; al 

aparta'do, p. p., far apart; far 


anfinimo, adj., anonymous. 

apartamiento, m., separation. 

ansia, /., anguish, anxiety; 


pi. longing, eagerness. 

aparte, adv., aside, apart. 

ansiar, to long, yearn. 

apasionado, adj., passionate. 

ansioso, ad}-, anxious. 

ante, prep., before. 

apenas, adu., barely. 

ante, m., buckskin, chamois. 

apercibido, p. p., prepared. 

antecimara, /., antechamber. 


antediluviano, adj., antedilu- 

apero, m., farm implement. 
apiilado, p. p., close together; 

antena, /., yard. 


antes, adv., before, formerly; 

apiflar, to join together, 



antesala,/., antechamber. 

aplacar, to appease. 

antiguo, adj., ancient, old. 

aplicar, to apply. 

Antnias, pr. n.J. pi., Antilles 

apocar, to cramp, confine. 

{the West India hlands). 

antoroha,/., taper, torch. 


aporrear, to beat, maul. 


aportar, to make port, ar- 

afiadir, to add. 


aitafll, m., Moorish trumpet. 

aflil, m., indigo-plant. 


334 VOCABULARY ^^^^^^^| 

apostu, to post. 

Araraca. pr. ». (o •^a«*<^^| 

md„ from Madrid). ^^H 

pearaocc, adornment. 

arbinio. m., wiU, judgmcnt^^^H 

■poytu-. to rest, support. 

irbitn, m., arbiter. ^^^| 

Bprender, to learn. 

bbol, m-. ^H 

^irestar, to make ready. 

arbusto, m., shrub, busb. ^^^| 

■presuTBT, to hasten; Tefl. to 

arcingd. »>., archangel. ^^^^| 

make haste. 

arcana, m., secret. ^^^| 

^iretar, to press, grasp. 

area, m., arch; bo«. ^^H 

aprisioiiar, to confine. 

arder, to bum, grow Ixi^^^H 



ardiente, adj.. burning, ^oi^^H 

■pueato, adj., elegant, attrac- 

ing, hot; passionate, feve^^^H 



ApariniA or Apurfmac, ft. n. 

ardor, m., ardor, impetuosity. 

{jher and deparlrmnl of 

ardoroso, adj., ardent, pas- 



■quejar, to afflict, torment. 

arduo, adj., arduous, difficult- ^^^ 

■quese, -a, -O, that {arch, for 

arena, /., sand; arena. ^^H 


areooso, adj., sandy. ^^1 

aqtieste, -a., -o, this (arch, for 


ArgentJna, pr. n., Argentine ^^ 

aqnf, adt., here; this point. 

((*e Argentine Republic; 

next to BrazU tht largest 

come still. 

state in South America, the 

aquilfin, tn., north wind. 

total area being 1,114,000 

Aquino, pr. n., Aquinum (in 

square miles [tvo-fifths of 

Italy; ike birthplace of Ju- 

that of the United States]. 


Unlike the other Spanish- 

iiabe, m., Arab. 

American countries, most of 

anbeBco, adj., Arabic; n. m.. 

Argentine is a broad plain 


gently rising from the ocean 

arado, p. p., furrowed; n. m.. 

toward the Andes. The d^^^^t 


male of central ArgttOi^^^^ 



^^^^^■^ VOCABULARY 335 

is UmperaU. Popidalion, 

grctom to the bride at the 

aboiU 7,000,000, of whom 

wedding; dowry. 

only about 25,000 are In- 

dians. Buenos Aires, the 

along, sweep away; reji. 

capital, h a beaulifiU city 

to crawl. 

of somt one million inhabi- 

urebatado, f: p., violent. 


rapid, impetuous. 

argolla, /., iron collar. 

arrebatar, to carry away, 

■rgflir, to infer. 

snatch, catch up. 

■nna, /., weapon, arm, arms. 

airedflT, to increase in in- 

annar, to arm; set; umar 


cabBllero, knight. 

arreo, m., adornment, deco- 

■rmifii), m., ermine. 

ration, dress. 

■rmonla, /., harmony; music. 

anepeotido, p. p., repentant. 

HimDnJosD, adj., harmcmi- 

AnuUdoo, pr. n. m. 

arriba, adv., up, upward, 

amis, m., armor. 


Amesto, pr. n. n. 

Amo, pr. n. {one of the largest 


rivers in Italy, rising in 

arrojar, to fling, hurl, cast. 

Ike Apennines. It passes 

cast up; reJI. to rush, cast 

Virough Florence and enters 


the Mediterranean near 

arrojo, m., daring. 


arropar, to drape, cover. 

■roma, bi., perfume, fra- 

arroyada, /., channel of a 



arpa,/., harp. 

aiTOyo, m., rivulet, stream. 

Hrp6n, nt., harpoon, barb. 

arruga, /., wrinkle. 

urancor, to tear out, pluck 

BJTuUador, -ra, aJj., lulling. 

out, draw out, tear away; 


^K airancar del pecho, utter. 

amillar, tr. to lull to sleep. 

^KwrsE,/. pi., a sum of .3 gold 

soothe; inlr. to coo. 

^^V --■-- given by the bride- 

amillo, m., lullaby. 



336 VOCABCLASY ^^^^^^^H 

arte, m. and f., art, skill; de- 

to show oneself al. appear 

iice; uade. 

at, tome to. 

aiz6a, M.. saddle-bow. 

ualto, m., attack. 


asedunza, /., ambuscade, 

Bsombro, m., amazement, 

ambush, snare. 


ssegunulo, p. p.. assured, 

asombroso, aJj., mar\elous, 

made safe; asegurado de 


que, assured against. 

asordai, to deafen. 

Aspero, adj., rough, rude. 

oneself in safety. 


asemej&i^e (4), to resem- 

aspiracifin, /., aspiration. 


aspirar, to aspire. 

asentado, p. p., seated. 

asqueroso, adj., filthy, dis- 

aseo, m., neatness. 


asesinor, to murder. 

astro, m., heavenly body, orb. 

aaedno, m., assassin. 

sstuto, adj., crafty. 

OBl, adv., thus, so; also; of 

asunto, m., aSair. 

such sort. 

atabal, m., small drum. 

Aaifl,pr. n./., Asia. 

atajar, to stop, cut short. 

asido, ^ p., attached. 

atalaya, /., watch-tower. 

asiento, m., seat; dwelling- 

atar, to tie, bind. 


atarazado, p. p., wounded. 

asilo, m., refuge, retreat; pro- 



asir, to seize; reJI. mth 4, to 

atender, Ir. to notice, heed; 

seize, clutch. 

inlr. to wait. 

ssistente, m., assistant; one 

atenido, p. p., subject. 


atentamente, arfi., attentive- 

ly, closely. 

asoladfin, /., sack, plunder. 

atento, adj., attentive, watch- 

asolar, to desolate, pillage. 

ful. 1 

aBomar, to begin to appear, 

aterrador, -ra, adj., terrible, 1 

appear, peep; reJI. wiili 4, 


dreadful. J 



Kterrar, to terrify, appal. 

alrevido, p.p., bold. 

AtOa, pr. n. m., AlUla (king 

atrevimiento, m., audacity. 

of Ike Huns, who devastated 


eastern Europe in the jijth 

atribtUar, to afflict. 



etributo, m., attribute. 


■tisbar, to watch. 

atrocidad, /., atrocity. 

atizai, to incite. 

atron&r, to stun, stupefy {with 

Atlante, pr. n. m., Atliia; mar 

a loud noise); ihundEi in.. 

Atlante, Atlantic ocean. 

atropellar, to trample under 

Bflintico. adj., Atlantic. 

foot, knock down. 

AtUntida, pr. n. /., Atlantis 

atroi;, adj., cruel. 

(the sunken continent which. 

atuiTullar, to confuse, be- 

according to legend, onct ex- 


isted in the Atlantic ocean. 

atusar, to trim, comb. 

It is first menlioned in liter- 

audacia,/., boldness, daring. 

ature by Plato in the " Ti- 

AudaUa, pr. n. m. 

eioeus," and again in Ike 

audaz, adj., bold, audacious. 

" Crilias." According to 

augusto, adj., august, ma- 

Plata, AUanlis was inhab- 

jestic, solemn. 

ited nine thousand years be- 

aim, atin, adv., yet, neverthe- 

fore by a fowerfnl nation 

less, still, even. 

aimque, conj., although. 

were able to resist. It had 

aura, /., breeze; auia popu- 

finally been engulfed by the 

lar, popularity. 


iureo, adj., golden. 

n&ioBlsra, j.| atnLOsphcre. 

aurora, /., dawn. 

■tteito, adj., amazed, per- 

ftusencia, /., absence. 


ausentarse, to be absent. 

atormentai, to torment. 

ausente, adj., absent. 


atiaer, to attract. 

austeiidad, /,, austerity. 

atrfts, adv., backward. 

auGtero, adj., severe, austere. 

atravesai, to go tlirough, pen- 

austro, m., south wind, 
auto, m., writ, decree; pi. doc- 

atreverse, to dare, venture. 

uments {in a lawsuit). 




entor, m., author; cause. 

finally overthrown by the 

avadar, to become low enough 

Spaniards under Cortis in 

to iord. 

i$li. The civUizalioH of 

avanzar, to advance. 

ancient Mexico seems to 

avftsallar, to subdue, enslave. 

liave preceded the Aztecs, and 

aye, /., bird. 

was probably developed by 

avecica,aYecilla,/., little bird. 

the Mayas in southern 

Mexico and Nicaragua and 

by the Toltecs in Central and 

free lance. 

northern Mexico); golfo az- 

averao, m., hell. 

teca, gulf of Mexico. 

avezado, p. p., accustomed. 

azucemi,/., (white) lily. 

fivido, adj., eager. 

aiufre, m., sulphur. 

Avila, pT. n. (a mountain near 

azul. adj-, blue, azure. 

Caracas, Venezuela). 

azulado, adj., azure. 

arisar, to warn, admonish, 



aviso, «., notice, warning. 

layl itUerj., alas! jay del 

Babieca, pr. «. m. (o famous 

alas for!; n. m., groan. 

horse of the Cid). 

ayer, adv., yesterday. 

Baco, pr. n. m., Bacchus {or 

ayudar, to aid, assist, help. 

Dionysus, in Greek myth- 

azahar, m., orange-blossoms. 

ology; a god of vegetation and 

azar, m., disaster, disappoint- 

the vine). 

ment; hazard, chance. 

bailor, to dance. 

azorar, to terrify. 

Bailen, pr. n. (u Spanish lovm 

azotar, to lash. 

in the province of Jain, 1 

azteca, adj. and ii., Aztec (a 

where Ihe French troofs sur- 

race that came inla central 

rendered to the Spanish in 

Mexico from Ike north prob- 

July, i8o8, in the Penin- , 

ably ahowl looo A.D.; U 

sular War). 1 

paduaUy conquered Ike 

bajada, /., descent. 

^^. country and established the 

bajar, tr. to lower; intr. to fall, 

^H 1 Mexican empire, which was 

settle tiown; descend. 



bajel, m., sh[p, vessel. 

basflica, /., basilica (buUding 

bajfo, m., shoal. 

for public meeting! or re- 

ha jo, adj., low, base; subdued; 

ligious services). ' 

prep., under; por bajo, be- 

bastar, to suffice, be enough. 


bastfin, m.. cane, stick; staff. 

bala,/., ball, bullet. 


balbudente, adj., slammer- 

basura, /., ordure, filth. 


batahola,/., hubbub. 

b>]c6ii, m., baJcony. 

batalla,/., battle. 

balde, m.; en balde, in vain. 

batir, to beat, strike, dash, 

baldSn, m., reproach, insult. 

clap; batir laa palmas, clap 

bals&inico, adj., balmy. 

the hands. 

balleBtcro, m., crossbowman. 


baiuao, m., banana- tree. 

bayamSs, -esa,adj., native of 

bandtt, /., sash, scarf; side (0/ 


a skip); border, edge. 

Bayamo, pr. n. (0 city near 

baadada, /., flock, covey. 

Sanliago de Cuba, promi- 

bandera, /., banner, flag. 

nent in Ihe revolution of 

bandido, m., bandit. 


bando, m., party, faction. 

beber, to drink. 

baflar, to bathe. 

Belcebfl, pr. n. m., Beelzebub. 

bafio, m., bath. 

beldad,/., beauty. 

baratar, to barter. 

Bel6n, pr. 11., Bethlehem. 

baimto, m., bargain; al barato, 

beleflo, m., henbane, poison. 


belfo, adj., thick (of tips). 

barba, /., beard. 

belico, adj., warlike, martial. 

bfirbaro, adj., barbarous, 

belicoBO, adj., warlike. ,;; 


belleza, /., beauty. ' 

borcelongs, -esa, adj., of 

beUo, adj.. beautiful, fair. 

■ Barcelona. 

Benalguacil, pr. 11. ni. 

barco, m., boat, vessd. 

Benavente, pr. n. 

barqiiichuelo, m., small boat. 

bendedr (p. p. bendito and I 

bairoTB, /., barrier. 

bendecido), to bless, praise. 

base, /., base, foundation. 

ben^fico, adj., charitable. 



benigno, adj., kind, gracious. 

berganUn, m., brig (lao- 
masled Square-rigged tenel). 

bermejo, adj., bright icd; 
Torres Bermejaa, Ihe Ver- 
milion Towers (« farlrcss 
sotUkwest oj Ike Albambra 
and near Ihe cily of Granada; 
so called from the reddish 
stone of which it is built. It 
is notv 'used as a military 

Bernardo, pr. n. m., Bernard; 
Bemoido del Caipio {ac- 
cording to tradition, an ille- 
gitimate son of a Conde de 
Saldafia and Jimena., sister 
of Alfonso el Casto, king of 
Aslurias, in the eighth cen- 
tury. In legend, Bernardo 
del Carpio has came to he 
the Spanish adversary of the 
French Roland, and there- 
fore the victor at the battle 
of Roncesvalles) . 

besar, to kiss, 

beso, m., kiss. 

Betis, pr. n. ( = Guedalquiytr, 
a river which floics through 
Cordova and Seville). 

Biblia,/., Bible. 

bien, adv., well; bien como, 
just like; t bien . . . d bien, 
either ... or else; «. m.. 

good, welfare, blessing; 

haya, hail to. 
bieaquisto, adj., generally eS' 

teemed, liked. 
bienvenido, p. p., welcome, 
bigote, m., mustache. 
birrete, m., cap, 
birret6a, m., large cap. 
Bivar, pr. n. (a village 6 miUs 

north of Burgos). 
bizantino, adj., Byzanl 
blzarrla, /., gallantry 
bizarro, adj., gallant. 
bUnco, adj., white, 
blandamente, adv., » 
blandir, to brandish. 
blando, adj., soft, pleasioj 

mild, smooth, 
blanquear, to show white.' 
blasfeniar, to blaspheme. 
Blasillo, pr. n. m. 
blasSn, m., one of the figures 


t of a 

; blaz 

. glory; pi. coat o£ arms, 
boca, /., mouth, lips, 
boda, /. (also pi.), wedding, 

Bolivar, pr. n. (Simdn BoUvar 
y Ponte [1783-1830!, el 
Libertador; born at Caracas, 
Venezuela, of noble parents; 
was leader of the norHtern 


^^K firmrittces of South America 

with Henry IV [i5S3-tf>'o\ 

^P in Ihiir slruggle for inde- 

and ended wUh Louis Pki- 

^ fendtncefrom Spain, which 

lippein 1&4S. The Spanish 

began witk the insurrection 

Bourbon dynasty began with 

of Caracas in 1810 and 

Philip, duke of A njou [ 1 683- 

ended successfutty with the 

1746I, grandson of Louis 

evacuation of Callao by Ike 

XIV of France, who as- 

Spaniards ittiS26. Bolfvai 

cended the Spanish throne 

was the first president of the 

as Philip V in 1700. The 

region then known as Co- 

present king of Spain, Al- 

lombia, which is now divided 

fonso XllI, is a Bourbon. 

into Venezuela, Colombia, 

Charles Bourbon [1489- 

Panamd and Ecuador). 

Brtivia, pr. n. (a South- A mer- 

and ConslabU of France, 

ican republic named after 

being ill-treated by Francis 

Bolivar; area about 515.000 

I, ting of France, offered 

square miles; population 

Ms services lo Charles V of 

about i,it>o,ooo. The cop- 

Spain, and helped the Span- 


ilot, Sucre, is 8840 feet 

iards lo defeat the French at 

aboze sea-level. Bolivia lost 

Paviain 1535). 

its seaboard lo Chile in the 

bordado, m., embroidery. 

war of .876). 

bordar, to embroider; bor- 


bonanza,/., fair weather. 

borde, m., edge; border. 

bondad, /., goodness, kindli- 

bflreas, m., Boreas (the North • 

borgoaCn, -ona, adj., Burgun- 

boneto, m., cap. 

diao; 5 la borgoilona, in the 

BofbSn, pr. n., Bourbon (0 

Rurgitndian manner. 

noble family of France, rep- 

borlfin, B!., tassel. 

resenlalives of which occu- 

bonar, to erase, blot out, ef- 

^^l pied several thrones in Eu- 

face; mal boirado, ill-con- 

^^k rope after the ibth century. 


^V The dynasty in France began 

borrasca,/., tempest, storm. 



borrascoso, ndj., lempeatu- 

tuguese is spoken in Brazil, 

ous, stormy. 

while in all Ike other Amer- 

borran, m., blot. 

ican republics south of the 

bosque, m., wood, forest. 

United Stales Spanish is 

bostezar, to yawn. 


bota, /., boot. 

bravlo. adj., wild, untamed. 

bote, m., boat, skiff. 

bravo, adj., brave; powerful. 

bot6n, m.. bud. 

bravura, /., ferocity. 

bCveda, /., arch, vault. 

brozo, nt., arm. 

Boyacfi, pr. n. {town and 

breve, adj., brief, short. 

department, in Calombia. 

breviario, m., breviary. 

Near Ike town of Beyacd. 

brida,/., bridle-rein. 

7500 feet above sea-level. 

bridfin, m., steed. 

the Spanish Americans de- 

brillador,-ra, adj., brilliant. 

feated ike Spaniards in 

brillante, adj., brilliant, bright. 



bramador, -ra, adj., roaring. 

briUar, to shine, glisten, glit- 

bramar, to roar; bluster, 



brillo, m., gleam, brilliance, 

bramido, m., howl; roaring. 


BraBil, pr. «., Brazil ( United 

brindar, to offer. 

States of Brazil, a republic of 

brinquUio, m., trinket, orna- 

South America that is larger 


than the United States of 

brio, m., spirit, vigor. 

America excluding Alaska; 

brioso, adj., spirited, mettle- 

area, about 3,110,000 square 


miles; population, aboid 

brisa,/., breeze. 

31,000,000, of whom not 

brocado, m., brocade. 

more than one-half are pare 

broma, /., joke, jest. 

European stock. The cap- 

bronce, m., brass; cannon. 

^^ itai, Rio de Janeiro, is a 

brotar, tr. to put forth; intr. 

^^^^k picturesque city and impor- 

to issue, gush forth; bud. 

^^^L tant seaport, iiilh some 

bruja, /., witch. 

^^^H 1,000,000 inhabilants. Por- 

bruina,/., mist, haze, ■ 



bniBCO. adj., rude. 

ing, astride; 11. m., knight, 

brutal, adj., brutal, brute. 

cavalier, gentleman. 

bruto, m., brute, beast, animal. 

caballo, m., horse; fi caballo, 

bueno, adj., good, kind. 

on horseback. 

bufar, to snort, blow. 

cabafla, /., hut, cottage. 

buf6n, m., buffoon, coarse 

eabellera,/., hair, tresses. 


cabeUo, m-, hair (0/ (fa- head). 

bubo, m., owL 

caber, to fall to {the lot of); 

biiitre, «j., vulture. 

he contained. 

bulto, fli., bulk, mass; dim form. 

Cabeza, /., head. 

bulla, /., bustle, racket. 

cable, IB., cable. 

buUido, m., bustle, tumult. 

cabo, m., extremity, end; 

buUicioso, adj., lively. 

bottom; al cabo, at last, In 

buUir, to move, stir. 

the end; pi. mane and tail 

buqiie, m., vessel, ship. 

(of a horse). 

Burgos, pr. n. (alown in north- 

Cachemira, pr. n.. Cashmere. 

ern-cenira! Spain; pofiu- 

cachorro, m., whelp, cub. 

kUion, about jo,ooo; one- 

cachucha, /., cap; a popular 

time capital of old Castile, 

Andaluslan dance. 

and famous as Ike home 

cochuchero, m., cap-maker. 

tovmoflhe Cid). 

cachuchJta, dim. of cachucba. 

buriar, to mock, deceive, dis- 

cada, adj., each, every; cada 

appoint; rejl. with de, to 

cual, each one; cada cual 

laugh at, make sport of. 

mds hennosa, vying with 


each other in beauty. 

burro, m., donkey. 

cadalEO, m., scaffold. 

busca./., search, pursuit. 

cadftver, m., corpse, dead 

buEcar, to seek, seek for. 



cadena, /., chain. 

cadera, /., hip, thigh. 

caer, to fall, droop; set (of Ike 

' eaba]Badura,/.,ridinganima1, 



caldo, p. p., fallen, down- 

cabaUero, adj. {with en), rid- 




calftdo, p. p., perforated, tra- 

camalote, m., an aquatic plant 

ceried; pressed down (oj u 

which floats on the surface 


of the water. 

calandria, /., calendar lark. 

cimara, /., hall, chamber. 

Calatrava, pr. n. (a religious 

cambiar, to change. 

and mililary order in Spain, 

cambio, m., exchange. 

founded in 1158). 

cambrfin, w., bramble. 

CalderCn, pr. n., Calderon 

CambrOn; Puerta del Cam- 

(ifE note lo p. 18). 

brSn (u gale in Ihe northwest 

calentuiiento, adj., feverish. 

wall of the city of Toledo, 

caliente, adj., warm, hot. 

buil! by Alfonso VI in 1102 

cfiliz, m., calyx. 

and restored in 1576). 

colma, /., calm, quiet; en 

caminante, m., traveler. 

caima, calm. 

caminar, to travel, ttiove. 

calmar, to calm, stilt, quiet. 

camino, m., way, road, path; 

color, m. {and arch. J.), heat, 

camino de Valencia, on the 


road to Valencia. 

calunmia, f., calumnj', slan- 

campana, /., bell. 


campanario, m., bell-tower, 

calzas, /. p\.. breeches, trou- 



cainpafla, /., campaign. 

calzar, to put on, wear {hools 

campesino, adj., rustic, rural. 

or spurs). 

campiQa, /., field, champaign. 

callado, p. p., silent. 

campo, m., field, battlefield; 

callar, tr. to hush, still; callar 

country (111 opposed lo city). 

fi, keep secret from; intr. to 

can, m., dog, canine. 

be silent, keep silence. 

canalla,/., mob, rabble. 

calle, /., street, lane; jcaUel 

canciCn, /., song. 

make way! hacer calle, to 

candelilla, /.. candle. 

make way. 

cfindldo, adj., candid, guile- 

\ callejuela, /., narrow street, 

less; white. 

1 lane, alley. 

caador, m.. candor, ingenu- 

camH,/„bed, couch. 

ousness, purity. 

camafeo, m., cameo. 

cano, adj., while, hoary. 




^^^^^ VOCA6UIARY 345 

^F eonsado, p. p., weary, tired; 

carcelera, /., woman jailer, 

^m tedious, wearisome. 

jailer's wife. 

^1 cansor, to tire, weary; rcji. to 

carcelero, m., jailer. 

^H become tired. 

carga,/., burden; cargo. 

H cantar, m., song. 

cargado, p. p., laden, loaded; 

^r cantar, Ir. to sing, sing of; 


intr. to sing. 

caigar, Ir. to load, weigh 

duitico, m., canticle, song of 

down; inlr. (v'ilk con) to 


take up (0 load). 

cantilena, /., short piece of 

■ verse, generally intended 


■ tobes„g. 

caricia, /,, caress. 

■ canto, nt., song, singing; 

carifio, m., love, aSection. 

■ stone, pebble. 

carifloso, adj., afleclionate. 

H cantor, -ra, adj., singing; a. 


^M m. and}., singer. 

Carlos, pr. n. m., Charles; 

H cafla, /., reed, cane, sugar- 

Carios Quinto, Charles ihe 

■ cane; walking-alick, cane. 

Fifth ([1500-1558], i««l -/ 

■ caflfiQ, m., cannon. 

Spain and emperor of Iht 

■ caos, m., chaos. 

Holy Roman Empire). 

■^ capa,/., lioak, cape. 

Carmen, pr. 11. m., order of 

capaa, adj., capacious. 

monks and of nuns (Ibat 

capelo, m., priest's hat. 

takes its nanu from Hi. 

capllla./., chapel. 

Carmel, in Palestine. The 

capitfin, m., captain. 

Vifiin Mary is said to have 

Ciq)ricIlO, m., fancy; fanciful 

revealed Ihe scapular which 


became a distinctive mark oj 

capridioso, adj., fanciful. 

the order). 

^^ cara,/., face; hacer cara fi, to 

caimin, m., carmine {the col- 

^H confront. 

orim mailer 0} coMnMl). 

^Hmracol, m., shell trumpet. 

comaval, m., carnival. 

^B conch. 

came, /., flesh. 

^^ carcajada, /., burst of laugh- 

camicero, adj., carniverous; 





carnoso, adj., fleshy. 

thi peninsula; the latter ex- 

caro, adj.. dear. 

tends from New Castile 

caireni, /,, course, running. 

north to the coast). 

carro, m., car, chariot. 

Castillo, m., castle, fortress. 

Cartaeena, pr. ». (a seaport 

casto, adj., chaste. 

on the southeast coast of 

catadura,/., face. 


catjstrofe, /., catastrophe. 

caitfin, m., pasteboard, card- 

catodral,/., cathedral. 

board; papier-m^ch£. 

caterva, /., throng, crowd, 

casa, /., house. 


casar, to marry, give in mar- 

catOlico, m.. Catholic. 

riage; inlr. and refi. wilk 

Cauca, pr. n. (a river in Co- 

con, to marry. 

lombia, South America, the 

cascada, /., cascade, water- 

chief tributary of the Mag- 



cascado, p. p., broken, infirm. 

CiucBBO, pr. «., Caucasus (a 

casco, m., helmet. 

mountain range forming 

casi, adv., almost, neariy. 

part of the boundary be- 

caso, m., case, event; por 

iTveen Europe and Asia). 

CEtEO, perchance. 

caudal; figuila caudal, long- 

casta,/., breed. 

tailed eagle, royal eagle. 

castofiueU, /., <rastanet. 

rying much water. 

castigo, m., punishment. 

caudillo, m., leader, com- 

Castilla, fir. n., Castile (for- 

mander, chief, head. 

merly a kingdom in nortk- 

causa,/., cause; por su causa, 

ern-central Spain, that in 

on his account. 

time absorbed the other 

causar, to cause. 

Christian Spanish king- 

catitivo, adj., captive, j 

doms. To-day there are 

cayerua,/., cavern, cave. 

two regions of this name in 

cayemoso, adj., cavernous. 

Spain, knoivn as JVm Cas- 

cayado, m., stail. 1 

tile and Old Castile. The 

caza,/., chase, hunt, hunting, 

former lies in the center of 


fowling; game, 


W r- ■■' 

censura, /., censure, repri- 

^1 hunter. 


•J Mzu, to hunt, go fowling. 

centella, /., lightning-fiash; 

ceder, to yield, give up. 


Cedro, m., cedar. 

centellante, adj., sparkling, 

ceflro, m., zephyr, breeze. 


cegar, to blind. 

centelUr, to sparkle, flash, 

ceja, /., eyebrow. 


celada, /., helmet. 

ceUje, m., appearance of the 


sky when covered by light 

centelleo, m., scintillation, 

clouds of many colors; va- 



centineU, m., sentinel, sentry. 

celar, to watch over; con- 

Centro, m., center; natural en- 


vironment, place of origin. 

celebrar, to celebrate. 

ceilir, to gird on, fasten on, 

celeste, adj., heavenly, ce- 

girdle, wreathe. 


ceHo, m., frown; supercilious 

celestial, adj., heavenly, ce- 



ceiludo, adj., grim, travia- 

celo, m. {usvd mostly in plu- 


L rai), jealousy. 

cerca, adv., near at hand. 

BtooBta. /., Venetian blind, 

close by; de cerca, near; 

^^ lattice. 

cerca de, prep., near. 

celoso, adj., zealous; jealous. 

cercanla, /,, neighborhood. 


cena,/,, supper. 

cercano, adj., near at hand. 

cendal, m., sendal, silk gauze. 


l^^eDidento, adj., ash- colored, 

cercar, to encircle, surround; 

■[ ashen. 


^E«alt, m., zenith. 

cercenar, to lop off, cut oS, 

^ CeniM, /., ashes, remains of 

cerco, m., circlet, ring. 

the dead. 

cerdoso, adj., bristly. 

censorlo, adj., critical. 


cerradura, /., lock. 

348 VOCABULARY ^^^^^^ 

CM»r, tr. to shut, close; inlr. 

indrpettdera chieftain near 

mtk con, to close with, at- 

Saragassa; finally he con- 


quered Valencia, which he 

cerro, m., hill. 

held tilt his death. Be mar- 

Cervantes, pr. n. (Miguel de 

ried Jimena [Freitck Oa- 

Cervantes Saavedra [1547- 

niene[, daughter of the Count 

i6i6|, the author oj "Don 

of Oviedo, a lady closely re- 

Quijote" and many other 

lated to Alfonso Vt. Tra- 

viorks, flW generally consid- 

dition has made of ihe Cid 

ered Ike most Javtous of all 

a legetidary hero who per- 

Spanish wrUers). 

sonifies Christian Spain in 

cervii, /., nape of the neck, 

its struggles with the Moham- 


medan Moors). 

cesor, to cease, stop; sin 

ciego, adj., blind. 

cesar, incessantly, con- 

CielO, m., sky, heaven, at- 



Ciaat, pr. n., Cffisar (GaiuB 

ciencia, /., science; knowl- 

Julius Caesar [B.C. 100- 

edge; skill. 

44], a Jamous Roman gen- 

riena, m., mud, mire. 

eral, statesman, and writer). 

ciento, cien, one hundred. 

cEsped, m., tuct, grass. 

cieito, adj., certain, a certain; 

cetro, fli., sceptre. 

ser derto, to be true. 

dd6peo, adj., (when in rime 

ciervo, m., slag. 

may be accented on the 

cierzo, m., north wind. 

penult) Cyclopean. 

cifra, /., device, emblem. 

Cid, pr. n. (Arabic sM, 'my 

cifrar, to comprise; cifrar en. 

lord'), Cid (Rodrigo [or 

£s upon, make depend 

Ruj] Dfaz de Bivar [or 

upon; cifrar el empefio en, 

Vivar]; born at Burgos, or at 

fix one's desires upon. 

the village 0/ Bhar near 

cima, /., summit, top; por 

^^ BitTgos; died al Valencia 

cimas de, over. 

^^^ in 1099. A Castilian, he 

cimiento, m., foundation. 

^^n fought for and against Cas- 

cinta,/., ribbon. 

^■1 tiU; for a Hme he was an 

cintillo, w., hat-band. 


drculor, adj., circling. 
drculsr, to circulate. 
circuudar, to 

drcunscribir, to bound, 

ilitio, m., large viax. candle 
/., rendezvous, meeting. 

'>(sudtid, /., city. 


Idiio, m., 1 
(to, /., rei 
dtar, to 
(sudad, /., 
ciril, adj., 
damar, tc 
dunor, n 

■Ciril, adj., civil. 

to shout, cry, i 

, dar 
damoreo, ni., shrieking. 
damoroEO, adj., noisy, 
claramgnte, adv., clearly. 
cUridad, /., light, splendor, 
clailn, m., bugle. 
daro, adj., dear, bright; pure; 

vm, to nail, fasten, stick in, 

^r fix. 

davd, m., pink, 
davo, m., nail. 

clemente, adj., mcrdful. 
clgrigo, m., priest. 
dima, nt., climate, dime. 
Clori, pr. It./., Cloris. 
Cobarde. adj., cowardly. 

coca], m., grovi 

cocodrilo, m., crocodile. 

coche, m., coach, carriage. 

codidoso, adj., greedy, cove- 
tous, eager. 

codo, m.p elbow. 

cpger, to seize, capture, catch; 
gather; lo cogido, the spoils. 

cola, /., tail. 

c61era, /., rage, anger. 

coleto, m., buff doublet or 

colgar, to hang, suspend. 

coUna, /., hill, hillock. 

colocar, to place, instal. 

Colombia, pr. n. {the only 
slate of South America that 
lies OK bath the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans; area, about 
500,000 square miles; popu- 
latiott, about 5,000,000; the 
capital, Bagol(S,is &yoo Jeel 
above sea-level and has a 
mild, temperate climate. 
The country was named after 

Colombiano, adj., Colombi 

ilombian. I 

350 VOCIBULAKT ^^^^^^| 

CoUo. pr. V rolurabus 

como. adt.. how, as. Uke; as 

(Christopher Columbus 

if; ic6nio! bow! why! 

(.446-1506), hotn mat 

Genoa, ItaJy; wkilt in tie 


tervia of Spain he iiscm- - 

conqwlUa, /., companions, 

trcd AmerUa in 1491). 


coloquio, m.. conversation. 

companr, to compare. 

color. «., color; complexion. 

cotnpis, m.. rhythm. 

ndondo, adj., red. 

compasado. p. p.. rhythmic. 

uAont, to color. 

compasidD. /.. compassion, 

coloul, adj., colossal, gigan- 



COii^Mndiar. to condense. 

Wrtunibrar, to see vaguely. 



complacencia, /., pleasure, 

GolUdo, m., hill. 


collar, m., necklace. 

complacer. to please, satisfy; 

conurca, /., district, region. 

reji. to take delight. 

Combate, n., combat, battle. 

completo, adj., complete. 

complicado, p. p.. complei. 


combatir, tr. to combat, fight, 

settle, adjust. 

give battle, attack; stiain; 

comportar, to suSer, endure. 

intr. to fight. 

comprar, to buy. 

comedido, p. p., courteous, 

comprender, to comprehend, 


understand, know. 

comentar, to (.omment. make 

comprimir, to repress, bind. 


comun, adj., common; de 

comentariai, to make a tom- 

Comlin, together. 

mentary upon, gloss. 

comuniSn,/,, communion, fel- 


comenzar, to begin, com- 

comiinmente, adv., usually. 


comer, to eat, devour, con- 

con, prep., with, by; con que, 
so then, and so. 


comitiva, /., retinue. 

cCncavo, adj., hollow. 







coBcebir, to concede, create. 

gether, heap together, con- 

coflceder, to grant._ 

fuse, confound, mingle. 

conccntrAr, to cODcentrcitf. 

confusion, /., conlusioD, dis< 

conciencia, /., conscience; 

order; bewilderment. 
COnfuso, adj., confused, dim. 

concilio, m., council; assem- 


ijL bly of bishops. 

congojfl,/., anguish, distress. 

■bnclDir, to conclude, com- 

Googojar, to oppress, afflict. 


■■ condusi6ii, /., conclusion. 

Conil, pr. n. {a lou'n in Ike 

concurso, tn,, assembly, mul- 

province 0/ Cadiz). 


Concha, pr. n. /. {derivative of 


ConcepciiSn^Maiia de la 

conocer, (0 know, be or be- 

ConcepciSn), Conception. 

come acquainted with, rec- 

conde, m., count. 


condenar, to condemn, doom. 

conocimiento, m., conscious- 

condestable, m., constable, 


lord high constable. 

conqoista, /., conquest. 

condici6n, /., condition, slate. 

Conducir, to convey, carry; 



consagTM, to dedicate. 

confesar, to confess. 

conseja, /., story, tale. 

confeEien, /., confession. 

consejo, m., advice. 

Gonfesor, m., confessor. 

Consentir, to consent, admit. 

confiai, to entrust; rejl. mth 


de, to put one's trust in. 

conservar, to keep, preserve. 

Gonfidente, ni., confidant, in- 

considerar, to treat with re- 

timate friend. 


conffn, m., confine, border. 

Consolacifin, /., consolation, 

CODfonne, adj., similar, cor- 



coasolador, -ra, adj., consol- 

ing, comforting. 

and GonfuBo), to jumble to- 

GonBolar, to comfort. 



constancU,/., constanry, per- 

contrario, adj., hostile. ^^^^| 


contrasts m., contrast. ^^^^^| 

COnstante, adj.. firm, unalter- 

convalecer, to recover, I^^^* 

able, faithful. 


convencer, to convince. 

coQvenir, to suit, be fitting. 

constemado, p. p., terrified, 

converter, to convert, change; 

in consternation. 

refi. with en, to change to. 

conEtruir, to build. 


consuelo, m., consolation. 

convidar, to invite. ^^^^ 

cooGultar, to consult. 

coavocor, to summon. ^^^^| 

copa, /., cup; tree-top. j^^^H 

consuqiir, to eshaust, wear 

copia, /., copy, counterpB^^^H 

out; squander. 

copiar, to copy, transcrib^l^^H 

contagio, m., contagion, dis- 

coral, m., ^^^H 


corazon, m., heart. ^^^^^^^| 

contaminar, to contaminate. 

Gorcel, m., charger, steed. ^^^H 

contar, to count; relate, tell; 

corchete, m., constable. 

contsr eon, count upon. 

Gordero, m., lamb. , 

rely upon. 

Cfirdoba, pr. »., Cordova {a' 

contemplacifin,/,, meditation. 

Spanish city oj same 50,000 

contemplar, to view, behold. 

inhabitants, on the Cuadal- 

gaze at, look at. 

guiw Rivtr above Seville. 

cootener, to restrain, check. 

It was formerly a papulous 

contento, m., contentment. 

Moorish capital of great 


wealth and spUndcr. It was 

contestar, to reply, answer. 

taken by the Christian Span- 

iards, under Si. Ferdinand, 

contlno, adv. (Jor continuo), 

in ,236). 

or de contino, continually, 

cordura, /., prudence, good 


sense; sin cordura, fool- 

coDtonio, m,, outline, con- 



cometa, /., bugle; cometa de 

contra, prep., against. 


monte, huntsman's horn. 




^^^^^^t VOCABULARY 353 

^H corona, /., crnwn. 

or other public entertain- 

■ »™.„,toc,ow.. 


coipulentD, adj., corpulent, 

costB,/., cost, e!ipense; coast, 

fat, o£ large size. 


conedor, m., corridor, entry. 

coEtar, to cost. 

^^ correr, (r. to travel, go over; 

coBtOBO, adj., costly. 

^H inlr. to run, hasten; glide 

costumbre, /., custom. 

^^M by, Sow, pass; el tiempo 

crapuloso, adj.. drunken. 

^H que coixe, the pn-scnt 

crear, to create. 

^M [j^g. 

crecer, to increase, grow, rage. 

correrifl, /,, excursion, foray. 

creddo, p. p., full. 

carrespooder, to answer, re- 

creciente, adj., increasing. 


credulo, adj., credulous, be- 

corriente, /., current. 


comipciSn, /., corruption, de- 

creencia, /., belief. 


creer, to believe, think, deem. 

cortar. to cut. 

crepusculo, tn., dasvn; twi- 

^K corte, /., court. 

light, dusk. . 

^^^ _ cortejo, m,, cortege, proccs- 

Crespo, pr. n. m. 


criador, «., creator. 

Coit6s, adj., courteous, polite. 

criar, to create, produce; ed- 

cortesano, odj., courteous. 

ucate, rear, bring up. 


crin, /., mane. 

^^ cortefda, /., courtesy, civility, 

cristal, m., crystal; mirror; 



^^P corto, adj., short, slight. 

Cristalino, adj., crystalline. 

^^H correjfin, m., hock, bend of 


^H the knee. 

cristiano, adj. and »., Chris- 

^^V Gom>, adj., crooked. 


^^ft cosa, /., thing. 

Cristo, pr. n. m., Christ. 

^^H cosdete, tn., corselet. 

Cristfibal, pr. n. m., Christo- 

^^B coser, to sew; cosido en, 


^^1 sticking close to. 

crucificar, to crucify. 

^^M cosa, m., square for bull-6ghts 

crucifijo, m., crucifii. 


cnido, adj., rude, cruel. 

cuaito, ^^^H 

cruel, adj., truel. 

cuatro, four. ^^^B 

craeldad, /., cruelty. 

cuasi-semi-ei-gozquejo, nt., - ^ 

cniento, adj., bloody. 

quasi-semi-ex-lit tie-cur. 

cnijir. to crackle, creak. 

Cuba,/., vat. 

cnil, /., cross. 

Cuba, pr. tt. {ike largest island 

cruzar, to cross, pass, pass 

republic of the West Indies; 

through; cnizar por, pass 

area, 44,000 square miles; 

through; reJI. to intermin- 

population, about 2,000,000, 


oj whom lifo thirds are 

cuadra,/., large hall. 

while. Cuba was Ike last of 

cuadrar, to fit, please. 

the Spanish- American States 

cuadrilla, /., band. 

to gain independence from 

cuadro, m., picture. 

Spain [in 1898] after many 

cuajor, to curdle; load; cua- 


jado de, coated with, heavy 

cubano, adj., Cuban. 


cubo, m., turret. 

cual, adv., as, like, as if; 

cubrir (p.p. cubierto), to 

how!; pron., which, who; 


such as; cada cual, each 

cuchilla,/., sword. 

one; cual .... ctial, one ... , 

cuchillo, m., knife; sword. 


cuello, m., neck. 

cualquiera, adj. and pron.. 

cuento, m., story, tale; sin 

any one, any whatever. 

cuento, numberless. 

cuondo, tonj., when. 

cuerda, /., string, bow-string; 

cuanto, cuan, how great, how 

rope; pi. cordage. 

much, how many, how 

cuerdo, adj., prudent, dis- 

many a, how; as many 


as, as much as, all that, 

cuerpo, m., body, corpse. ^^^H 

every that; cuanto mis, the 

cuesta, /., slope, hill. ^^^| 
cuidado, m., care, heed; anii- 

more; ™ cuanto. 

cuarenta, forty. 

ety, apprehension; toner 

cuaitel, m., barracks. 

cuidado, to take care. 




curioao, adj., inquisitive, cu- 

^H cuitftdo, adj., sad, sorry, mis- 


^H erable, unFortunaU. 

^H GUJR, /., knee-bucket (lealhcr 

curva, /., tnirve. 

^M bag fastened to tke saddU, in 

^H which to rest the butt of the 



^H culebrina, /., wavy sLreak of 

chal, m., shawl. 


charlar. to chatter, prattle. 

^ culpa,/., guilt. 

chico, ad;., little; N.«.a«rf/., ' 

culpable, adj.. guQty. 

child, urchin. 

culpar, to bring blame upon, 

ChDe, fr. n. (s republic on the 

blame; culpado, guilty. 

west coast of South America, 

^1 culto, adj., cultured, polished; 

from ?o lo 250 miU$ wide 

^B ». tn., cult, worship. 

and about 1700 miles long; 

^H cultuim, /., education, cui- 

arta, about 290,000 square 


miles; populalioH, about 

^B cumbie, /., peak, summit. 

4,000,000. Chile and Ar- 

^H cumplir, tr. to discharge, carry 

gentine are the most progres- 

^^H out, perform, complete, ful- 

sive stales of South America, 

^m fil; GlimpUse tu Toluntad, 

by reason of their temperate 

^H thy will be done; inlr. to 

climate and the preponder- 

^H befit, be the right of; keep 

ance of Europeans in tke 

^M one's woid. 

popuialion. The capital. 

^M cuna, /., ciadle. 

Santiago, is near the coast 

^H condir, to spread. 

and has about 300,000 in- 

^H cfipula, /., cupola, dome. 


^H cora, M., parish priest, priest. 

chileno. adj., Chilean. 

^H corar, Ir. to cure, heal; inlr. to 

cbillar, to screech, scream. 

^H care; curar or curarse de. 

chilUdo. m., Ehriek, shrill cry. 

^^1 care (or, notice. 

china, /., sweetheart. 

^^R curefla,/., gun-carriage. 

chispa, /., spark. 

^^B cnriosldad, /., strange sight, 

chispear, to ahine hriKliily, 

^H cuiioBity. 


356 VOCABULARY ^^^^^^^1 

chispomteo, m., sputtering. 

Daoiz, pr. n. (Luis Dooiz 

chocar, to clash, collide. 

In^y-iSoS], a Spanish cap- 

Cholnla, pr. n. {an old J/«i- 

tain of artiUery who distin- 

can lovin, in ihe stale of 

guished himself, and lost his 

Pltebta, 7000 feet above sea- 

life, in fighting the French 

kvel; fopulaiion, about 12,- 

invaders, in the uprising of 

000. Near Cholula stands 

3f(.vJ, 1808. 5rf Velarde). 

one of the largest pyramids 

dar, logive;cause;dara,laiid 

in Mrxico. Cholula was an 

in, visit; dar por, con- 

important religious center of 

sider; dar el rostro, set the 

ancient Mexico). 

face; dar voces, shout, call 

choluteco, adj., of Cholula. 


chusma, /., crew. 

de, prep., of, from; in, with, 
by; than; as. 


debajo de, prep., under, bc- 

danm,/., lady. 

debelador, -ra, n. m. and /., 

dam&sco, m., damask, figured 



deber, to owe; must, ought. 

have to; be about to. 

cus, Damascene. 

debido, p. p., due, proper. 

Dante, pr. n. m. (Dante AU- 

debil, adj., weak. 


decana (/. of decano), dean. 

esi of Italian foels, author 

decir, to say, speak, tell, read. 

of the "Divine Comedy" 

decision, /., decision, resolve. 

and other works). 

decisive, orf/'., decisive, reso- 

Danubio, pr. »., Danube 


{Unglh 1800 miles; rises in 

declaradSn, /., deposition. 

Ihe Black Forest, Baden, and 

declarado, p. p., avowed. 

empties into the Black Sea). 

declinar, to descend, sink. 


danzar, to dance; whirl. 

decoro, m., gravity, honesty; 


dafiar, to injure, do barm to. 



dafio, HI,, damage, injury. 

dedicar, to devote, offer. 



dedo, m., finger. 1 






^H defecto, m., defect, fault. 

denso, adj., dense. 

^H defender, to defend. 

dentro, adt., inside, within. ' 

^M defensa, /., defense. 

dentro. dentro de, prep,. 

^^1 defensor, m., defender, pro- 

within, inside of. 

^H lector. 

deparar, lo offer, present 

^H defoime, adj., disfigured, im- 


^H perfect, hideous. 

deponer, to lay aside. 

^m degollu, to behead. 

depoGitar, to deposit. 

^M ddficar, to deify. 

depCsito, m., trust. 

^■. deju, to leave; cease, fail. 

derecho, adj., straight, right; 

^H dejo, m., inflection. 

N. /., right hand; n. m.. 

^H delaate, adt., in front; de- 


^f lonte de, in front of, before. 

dernunar, lo shed; reji. with 

deleite, «., pleasure. 

de, to streom from. 

derredor, m.; en deiredor, 


round about. 

delgado, adj., slender, deli- 

derrengado, p. p., lame. 


derretirse, to melt. 

deliCftdo, adj., delicate. 

denibar, to overthron', knock 

deUda,/., delight. 

down, hurl down, throw 

delldoBO, adj., delicious, de- 

o£f; slouch (a hat). 


derrota, /., defeat. 

DeUo, pr. n. m. 

demuabar, to precipitate, 

^^ dolinw, to rave, dote, dwell on 

topple down; rfjl. to fall, 

^H with passion; delirar por. be 

desabrido, p. p., rough, cruel. 

^H very eager to. 

desabrochado, p.p., unbut- 

^P delirio, m., delirium, moment 

toned, open. 

^^^ of madness, madness. 

desafiar, lo challenge; rival. 

delito, m., fault, crime. 

desagraTio, m., salistaclion 

dellaa, arci.Vdeellas. 

{lor an ojense). 

demands, to ask. 

desahogar, to relieve, un- 

demfis; los demGs, the others, 


the rest. 

desalentar, to put out of 

d«niencU, /., insanity. 

breath; discourage. 


3S8 \'OC«uiARy 

desunor, m.. lack of lo«; 

loDclmess of spirit. 


desconfiar, to lose hope; des- 

desaparecer. to disappear. 

confiado. diffident, lacking 

desastre, m,, disaster, mis- 



desatsr. lo loosen, free. 

descoiisolado, p. p., discon- 

desatenUdo, aJj., heedless, 



describir, to describe. 

desboratar, to disperse. 

/., discoi-erer. 

beyond restraint. 

descnbrir, to discover; reveal, 

desbordado, p. p., overflow- 

disclose; leave uncovered, 



descuidar, to make oneself 


easy, lose ansiety; descni- 

descalio, adj., barefoot, un- 

dado, careless, free from 



descansado, p. p., peaceful, 

desde, prep., from, since; 


desde que, since. 

descanso, m., rest, repose. 

desden, «., disdain, scorn; 

descarga. /., discharge. 


desdeaar, to disdain, scorn. 


desdefioso, adj., scornful, con- 



desdicha, /., misfortune. 

descender, to descend, go 

desdichado, adj., unfortu- 

down, sink; alight. 

nate, unhappy, wretched. 

descendiente, m., descendant. 

desear, to desire. 

descefUr, to ungird, take 

desechado, p. p., outcast. 


desembocar, to open out. 

^^^ desclavar, to unnail. 

desengallar, to undeceive; 

^^H descolorido, adj., colorle^i^, 

ceive thyself. 



^H deseateiT&r, to disinler, bring 

desmelenado, p. p., dishev- 


elled, loose. 

^B deseo, m., desire, wish. 

deserUr, to desert, be a de- 

tear limb from limb. 

serter (from). 

desnudo, adj., naked. 

desocupar, to empty. 

desespem-, to despair; deses- 

desolar, to lay waste; deao- 

perado, despairing, desper- 

lado, desolate. 


desollar, to flay. 

desfallecer, to fail, fade, grow 


desordenar, to throw into 

deBgmJM, to tear off. 

confusion, confound. 

desgrada, /., misfortune. 

deaparecer, to disappear. 

desgnUiUdo, adj., unfortu- 

despavorido, adj., terrified. 

nate, unhappy; desgra- 

despecho, m., dismay, des- 

ciado de ml, uniiappv one 

pair; fi despecfio de, in 

that I am. 

spite of, in defiance of. 

deshacer, to destroy, pull to 

despedida. /., farewell, part- 

pieces; melt; rejl. to fall to 

ing; departure; echar la 

pieces, fade away. 

despedida, to set free. 

deahojar, to strip of leaves or 

despedir, to emit, discharge; 


bid farewell to, escort at 

deshonn,/., dishonor. 

departure; nfi. to take 

dederto, adj., deserted. 

one's leave, depart. 

lonely; n. m., desert, wil- 

despertar, Ir. to awaken, 


wake; inlr. lo awake; (0/ 

deaignio, m., purpose, idea. 

day) break, dawn. 

deaigual, adj., uneven. 

desplegar, to display, unfold; 

desinar (/or designar), to des- 

unfurl, hoist; reJl. to spread 

ignate, appoint. 

out, scatter. 

deslucir, to tarnish. 

despefiar, lo precipitate, hurl, 

drive; rtfi. to rush head- 

desmayar, to be disheartened, 

long, fall. 

discouraged; faint. 

desplome, m., collapse, ruin. 



despojar, lo slrip. 

desvelo, m,, watchfulness. 

desposada, /., bride. 

vigilance; anxiety. 

desposar. lo marry. 

des Ventura, /., misfortune; 

d^spota, m., despot, tyrant. 


despreciar, to despise, reject. 

desveaturado, adj.. calami- 

desprender, to unfasten; let 

tous, unlucky. 

fall, emit. 

desvio, »!., coldness, indiffer- 

despues, adv., afterward; 


despugs de, after; despuSs 

detener, to stop, check, rein 

que, after. 

in; rejl. to stop, halt. 

desque, conj. {arch.), as soon 

detrfis, adv., behind; d^trfis 

as, when. 

de, behind. 

deudo, m., relative, kinsman. 

move from the foundation. 

deudor, -ra, adj., indebted. 

destocar, to detach. 

devastacidn, /., destruction, 

destello, bj., sparkle, spark. 


desteirar, to esile, banish. 

devastor, to devastate. 

devolver, to restore, give 

destiiiar, lo destine. 


destino, m., fale, destiny. 

devorar, lo de\'our, consume. 

destocar, to remove the hat 

swallow up. 


devoto, adj., devout, religious. 

destrenzar, to unbraid, di- 

dia, m., day; pi. life; de d£a, 


by day, dav; un dIa, some 

deBlrozar, to break to pieces, 



diablo, m., devil. 

destruccian, /., destruction. 

diadema, m. and /., diadem. 

destiuctor, -ra, adj., destruc- 



diilogo, m., dialogue. 

destrujr, to destroy. 

diamante, m., diamond. 

desvanecido, p. p., presump- 

diana,/., reveille. 

tuous, conceited. 

Diana, pr. n. /. (o Roman 

desvarfo, m., delirium, rav- 

goddess corresponding lo the 

ing; caprice. 


Greek Artemis; usually pic- 

^^^^^F VOCABULARY 361 

^^r tured as a hutUrtss, armed 

Heavens! i»i»e DImI u 

^^P udlh bow and quiver, and 

Codlivckl jdcoaDioa, lure 

^H sometimes holding a deer). 

Ihee well. 

^B dlbujar, to sketch, draw, out- 

Dioft-Niflo, «,, ChriM-Chlldj 



^V dlchft,/., happiness, good for- 


^^ tune; delight, blessing. 

diiigir, lu dirett, Ruide, id- 

dicboso, adj., happy, forlu- 

dress; ca»l {a tfancr); rifi. 

to turn, move. 

Diego, pr. n. m., James. 

disco. <n.. dlik. 

^H diente, m., tooth; entredien- 

discorde, adj., di»cordanl. 

^H tes, under one's breath, in 

discreto, adj., dliertol, pru- 

H a whisper. 


^" dieBtro, adj., skiiful, saga- 

discurrir, lo wsmter, ru*b 

cious; n. /., right hand; n. 

aluul; (liKUM, dlKWUrMl 

m., right. 


diez, ten. 

disfru. n., disguiie. 

difidl, adj., difficult. 

disimular, to diuemWe, 

difundir, to diffuse; make 

disipar, lo di<»i|tute, (KUttcf. 

known, disclose. 

diwiver (,p. p. diiuelto), to 

difuSO, adj., difiuse; exces- 



ditpartr, to ihool, fire. 

fignuse, to deign. 

diapendioM, adj.. corily. 

dicBO, adj., wonhy. 

diapenMT, to ettuie, hr%\vt. 

lEUdfa,/., delay. 

dUpon«r {p. p. dJapuuto), to 

dlUtar, to dHale, distend; 

arrange, pfcpafc, direct, 

refi. to swell, spreud. 

rommund; di.JNme, «l. 

daigente, adj., active, busy, 

distoscii, /,. disuncc. 

eager; awift. 

distanle, adj., dimnnt. 

dtnero, m., money. 

Dioaisio. fir. n. m., DionysiuE. 


^^ Ofaw, pr. n., God; por Dim, 

dUtintiTO, «., di«tinctlve 

^^L L beg you, please; by 

mark, badge. 

^^m Heavent jDios mtot oh 

dirtinto, adj., diitincl. 



diBtraldo, p. ^..absent-minded. 

dolor, m.. pain, sorrow, grief ; 


coo dolor, grieving. 

distrito, «., district, region. 

dolora, /., a word coined fay 

dlsturbio, m., disturbance. 

Campoamor, to designate 


a short poem rather mel- 

diversi6n, /., fun, sport. 

ancholy in content. 

divereo, adj., diverse, vari- 

dolorido, adj., afflicted, heart- 

divertir, to amuse, occupy. 

dlvidir, to divide, split. 


dirino, adj., divine. 

domar, to tame, break 

divisar, to descry, discern. 


do, adv. (arch, and podic 

domiaar, to dominate, over- 

for donde), where; do do, 


whence; por do, through 

don, don, Mr. (genUBman's 

which, over which; do 

title, used only before Chris- 

qiilera, everywhere. 

tian name). 

dobia,/., ancient Spanish gold 

don, m., gift. 

coin, worth about 10 pese- 

donaire, m., grace, winning 

tas ($2.00). 

doblar, to bend. 

doncel, m., noble youth {prop- 

doblei, ™. andf., duplicity. 

erty, one who has not yet 

doblfin, m., doubloon (ancient. 

been armed knight). 

Spanish gold coin, worlk 

doncella, /., maiden, girl. 

about S4.00. The doblSa 

donde, adu., where, at which, 

setamo was worth %i.oo). 

whither; & donde, whither, 

doce, twelve. 

wherever; de donde. 

dogid, w., noose, halter. 

whence; en donde, where; 

doler, to pain, ache; rejl. with 

donde quiera, everywhere, 

de, to take pity on. 

in any place. 

doUente, adj., painful, sor- 

doquier, doquiera, adv., ev- 

rowful, mournful; sorrow- 

erywhere; por doquier, 

^ l»s. 

everywhere; doquier que, 

^^ dolo, m., deceit. 


^^^^^^r VOCABULARY 363 


ing; no durable, fleeting, 

dorado, gilded, golden. 


donnir, lo sleep; rrfi. to tall 

duradero, adj., lasting. 

asleep; dormido, sleeping, 

dinar, to endure, last. 


duro, adj., hard, harsh, cruel. 

^^ dos, two; e! doB de majo, the 

^^^ second oC May. 


Hdo»l, m., canopy. 

^VdoUr, to endow. 

Ebro, pr. n. {a river, rising 

^" dote, m. and/., dowry. 

in the Canlabrian Moun- 

duda, /., doubt. 

tains of Northern Spain, 

dudar, to doubt, hesitate; 

dudar de, doubt, have 

direction by Saragassa, and 

doubts concerning. 

emptying into the Mediter- 

dudoso, adj., doubtful, of un< 


certain outcome. 

edipsar, to eclipse, darlien; 

^^.dualo, M., sorrow, grief; 

outshine; ecUpsar sn her- 

^^L mounung; train oC mourn- 

mosura, lose its beauty. 

B e». 

eco, m., echo. 

^■■ttasfia, /., mistress, house- 

ecuador, m., equator. 

keeper; duenna. 

Ecuador, pr. n. {a repub- 

dudlo, m., master, owner. 

lic an the western coast of 

DuBTO, pr. n. (one of Ike larg- 

South Amerita; area, about 

^^ est rivers oj Spain, which 

115,000 square miles; 

^H fiws through Cadile, LeSv, 

population, about 1,500,- 

^H and Portugal, and implies 

000. The capital, Quito, 

^V hao the 'Atlantic Ocean at 

is 9300 feet abote sea-laiel. 

^ oporto).' 

and has some 90,000 inhabl- 

dnlce, adj., sweet, gentle, 



echar, to throw, cast, hurl; 

dtilcemente, adv., sweetly. 

echar menus, echar de 

H_ gently. 

menofi, miss; echar ft hacer. 

^fe duque, m., duke. 

begin Co do; echar la des- 

^H datable, adj., durable, last- 

pedida, set free. 

364 ^^^^^^^1 

edad, /., age; i los quince de 

su edad, at the age of fd- 



emboscar, 10 place in am< 

Ed6n, pr. n., YAen. 


educar, to raise. 

emboio, m., mufiler, cloak 

egipcio, adj., Egyptian. 

wrapped about the head as 

eje, m., axle. 

a disguise. 

ejemplar, m., exemplar, spec- 

embravecido, p. p., raging. 


embriagado, p. p., inloxi- 

ejemplo, m., example. 


ejerdtar, to practise; train. 

eUstico, adj., elastic. 


deccien,/., choice. 

emodSn,/., emotion. 

elefante, m., elephant. 

empanada,/., meat-pie, pally. 

elegante, adj., elegant, grace- 

empaflar, to dim. 


empapar, to saturate. 

«levar, to elevate, raise; elate; 

empavesar, to dress (,skips) 

k/. to rise; elevado, lofty. 

with flags and bunting. 

elig^, to choose. 

empedemido, p. p., slony< 

Elodia, pr. n. f. 


Elvira, pr. n. f. 

empettar, to pledge, pawn; 

embajada, /., embassy, mes- 

rejl. to persist. 


empeflo, m., earnest desire, 1 

fumed, aromatic. 

zeal. ' 

embarazar, to perplex; dazzle. 

emperador, m., emperor. 

embarcar, to embark. 

empero, uJu., yet, however. ' 

embargar, to paralyze, over- 

empezar, to begin. 


emplreo, m., empyrean, 

embebecido, p. p., absorbed. 


embeleso, m., rapture. 

emplaiar, to fo in a certain 

embellecer, to beautify. 


^L embestir, to assail, rush upon, 


with feathers, plumed. 


^^^^^P VOC.4BtTL.Uiy 365 

eneamsr, to incarnate, incor- 


colored; red. 

en^TCM, /., eoterprise, un- 

encender, to light, kindle, en- 


Lindle; rejl. to be kindled. 

empniar, to impel, push, drive 

glow; encendido, fiery. 


encerrar, to lock up, shut up; 

empnje, «., onslaught. 

contain, enclose. 

enqmflu, to grasp, clutch. 

endnta, adj. /., pregnant. 

enuilar, to emulate, rival. 

enckvar, lo nail. 

^M Cmnlo, •»., rival. 

^V en, prep., in, into, on, over, 


^V at, to; with; as, like. 

^^ enajenar, to transport, en- 

encoutrar, to meet, find, meet 


with; rejl. to be, feel. 

enamoimdo, p. p., In love, lov- 

encuentro, m., meeting, en- 

ing, enamored; n. ui. and/.. 

counter; salir al encuentro 

lover, dear one, sweet- 

de, go to meet. 


endeble, adj., weak, flimsy. 

dumorar, to inspire love; 

endulzar, to sweeten, soothe. ' 

^^ rejl. to fall in love. 

enemjgo, adj., hostile, un- 

K encaje, «., lace. 

friendly; ». m., enemy, foe. 

^^1 encaatado, p. p., enchanted, 

energU, /■, energy, strenuos- 

^^m charmed. 


enfadarse, to be angry. 

■ ing. 

enfennedad,/., sickness, com- 

^^P encanto, n., charm, delight; 


^F enchantment. 

enfermo, adj., sick, illj dis- 

encanunar, tu extul. 


enflaqueddo, p. p., thin, lean; 

toward, face. 


^_ racorcelar, to imprison. 

enfreoar, to curb, restrain. 

^^U' WcarecM', to assure of, extol 

enfnrecer, to anger, irritate; 

^B the value of. 

Ttjt. to rage, grow furious. 


enorme, adj., enormous. 

engallarse, lo draw onestif 

entamada, /,, bower, arbor. 

up, arch the neck. 

enriquecer, to enrich. 

engafLador, m., impostor, de- 

cniiscado, adj., craggy, full of 



engailar, to deceive, siMithe 

enroscar, to twine, twist, curl. 


ensalzar, to exalt. 

engafio, m,, deceit. 

ensanctuir, to widen. 

enearzoi, to string (on a ivire). 

ensangrentar, to stain with 



engendrar, to generate, pro- 

enSHflado, p. p., enraged. 


ensayo, m., test. 

Engine {usually spelled Egi- 

enseuada, /., inlet. 

na), fr. n., Aegina (an 

ensella,/., banner. 

island in the Gulf of A egina. 

ensefiar, to teach. 

of the east coast of Greece). 

ensordecer, to deafen. 

«DgoUai, to be lost from sight 

entablar, to initiate, begin; 

[in the open sea). 

bring (suit). 

engreldo, p. p., conceited. 

entablerado, p.p., pushed 

enigma, «., enigma, riddle. 

against the barrier {which 

enjugar, to wipe away. 

surrounds a ball-ring). 

enjuto, adj., lean, withered. 

entena,/., yard, yard-arm. 

enlazar, to intertwine, join. 

entender, to understand. 

enlctquecer, to madden, turn 


the brain. 

entereza, /., integrity; firm- 

enlutar, to put in mourning; 


• veil, darken. 

entero, adj., whole, complete, 


intact, entire; vigorous. 

enmudecer, ta be silent. 

enterrar, to bury. 

enojar, to irritate, anger. 

entierro, m., burial, funeral. 

enojo, m., vexation, anger. 

entonar, to intonate, sing. 

enoJDSO, adj., offensive, trou- 

entonce, adv. (arch, and poetic 



/orentonces), then. 



^^^^^" VOCABULARY 367 

•abmces, adv., then; de en- 

§poca,/., age, era. 

tonces, of that time. 

equilibrar, to balance. 

equinocdal, adj., equinoctial. 


ei^uir, to raise; ei^do, 

eatrafla,/.,- pi. entrails; heart, 

steep; lofty; erect. 

feelings, recesses; de mis 

errante, adj., wandering. 

entrafias, darling. 

entiar, to enter; advance. 

enipddn, /., eruption. 

entre, prep., among, between, 

escabel, m., foot- stool. 

amid; in, within; por entre, 

escalar, to scale. 

amid, through. 

CBcalera, /., stairway. 

eacama, /,, scale {0/ a fisk). 

escondalizar. to cause scan- 


refi. to yield oneself, aban- 

dal, scandalize. 

don oneself. 

escindalo, m., scandal; as- 

entretener, to amuse. 


CTuistecerse, to grow sad. 

escapar, to escape. 

eatTonizar, to enthrone, exalt. 

escarbai, to scrape, paw. 

entinbkr, to disturb, con- 

eEcanniento, m., warning. 


escainecer, to mock, scoS at. 


envanecerse, to become 

escaso, adj., slight, limited; 


dim, scanty. 

enTBjecerso, to grow old. 

escena,/., scene. 

envenenai, to poison. 

esclarecido, p.p., illustriou.s 

enviai, to send, send forth. 


envidia,/., envy. 

esdavo, adj., slavish, of a 

envidiar, toenvy. 

slave; «. m. and/., slave. 


envilecer, to debase. 

escoba, /., broom. 

envolver {p.p. envuelto), to 

escoger. to choose. 

envelope, surround, wrap. 


epaogo, m., epilogue. 

bris. J 


epCstOla, /., epistle, letter. 

esconder, to hide, conceal. M 

epitafio, m., epitaph. 


escribano, m., clerk, notary. M 

m 1 


eacribir (p.p. escrito), to 

esmero,m., greatest care, best 

espaciorse, to wander about 

escTutar, to scruLinizc. 

escuadr&n, m., squadron. 

at leisure. 

escuchar, to listen to, hear. 

espado, m.. space. 

escudero, m., st|uire. 

espadoso, adj., spacious. 

eacudo, m., shield, proLec- 

espada, /., sword. 


espalda,/., back, shoulders. 

escuela, /., school. 

espantar, to frighten, terrify. 

escultura, /, sculpture, carv- 

espanto, m., fright, consterna- 


tion, horror. 

esct^, to spit upon. 


ese, -a, -0, adj., that; ft eso 

Espafla, pr. n.f., Spain (area. 

de, at about. 

192,000 square miles; popu- 

eBcncia,/., essence, perfume. 

lation, about 20,000,000). 

esfera,/., sphere; heaven. 

espaflol, -la, adj., Spanish; ». 

esfinge, /., sphinx {according 

m. and f.. Spaniard. 

to a Greek ntyih, the sphinx. 

esparcir, to scatter, spread; 

— a monster wUk the head of 

esparcido, cheerful, open, 

a -woman, the body 0} a lion. 


the ivings of a bird, and Ih^ 

espavorido, p. p.. terrified. 

taU of a serpent, — pro- 

espejismo, «i., mirage, illu- 

posed a riddle to the The- 


bans, and slew all who 

espejo, m., mirror. 

could not guess it. It was 

espeluzarse, to bristle the 

finally solved by (Edipus). 


^^^ esforzar, to strengthen, em- 

esperanza, /.. hojie. 

^^K phasize; esfonado, strong. 

eaperar, Ir. to expect, await; 


hope for; inlr. to hope; 

^^1 eBfuerzo, m,, courage; effort. 


^H eBlabooai-, tu link, join. 

espeso, adj., tbicfc. 

^^H QBmerarse (en), to da one's 

espesura, /.. thicket, dense i 

^H^ best 



^^^^^r VOCABULARY 369 

^BMmt, to spy out, wairh 

estado, m., state; condition; 


V for. 

Estados Unidos, United 

" CBpiga,/., ear („/£-«/«). 

States (oreo, exclusive of 


espigado, p. />., eared, with 

Alaska and the colonial de- 

heads {as grain). 

pendencies, about 3,025,600 

espina, /., thorn. 

square miles; populaiion in 

:i)io, aboiil 90,000,000). 


espira, /., spiral. 

estallanle, adj., cracking. 


esplritu, m., spirit, soul. 

estallar, 10 burst, crash. 

estampa,/, image. 


estancia, /., room. 


estar, to be {temporarily); 

eaplendor, m., splendor; de 


esplendor, splendid. 

este, -a, -0, adj., this; en 

esponjado, p. p., swelled like 

esto, meanwhile. 

^^ a sponge. 

Esteban, pr. <i. m., Stephen. 

^B wposa, /., wife, spouse, con- 

estenso, adj., extensive, spa- 

^^H sort; pi. manacles, fetters. 


^Vmposo, ffi., husband; pi. hus- 

esteril, adj.. sterile. 

^ band and wife. 

estilo, m., manner. 

espnela, /., spur. 

estimacifin,/,, esteem, regard. 

espuma, /., (oam. 

estimar, to esteem, regard. 

espumante, adj., foaming, 

consider; estimar en tanto, 


think so highly of; refi. to 

EsquHo, pr. n. m., ^schylus 

be conceited. 

{the first in time of the three 

eatlo, m., summer. 

estoque, m., rapier. 

^^ [535-456? B.C.I). 

estorbar, to prevent, forbid. 

^Ki^Mnft./-. comer. 

estrado, m., drawing-room. 

^Ktequirar, to shun; reJI. to 

estrago, mi., havoc, destruc- 

^*" withdraw, hold aloof. 


esquiVO, adj., retired. 

estrechar, to press. 

ertadta,/., season. 

estrecho, adj., narrow. 


P 370 VOCABULARY ^^^^^^B 

estrella, /., star; fate. 

exclamai, to exclaim, cry 

MtrellarBB, to be dashed to 


pieces, fall and be killed. 

execrable, adj., execrable, ac- 

estremecerse, to sliake, trem- 


ble; estremeddo, trem- 

eiecracifin. /., execration. 

bling, quivering. 

exhalar, Jr. to exhale, breathe 

estrfipito, m., din, clamor, 

forth; uller; intr. to emit ^ 



estribO, m., stimip. 

exhauEto, adj., exhausted. ^^| 

estractura,/., structure. 

engir, to demand, call for. ^^| 

estnieiido, «., crash, thun- 

ezunir, 10 exempt, excuse. ^^| 

derous sound. 

eristencia, /., existence, Iif!«^^| 

estniendoso, adj., loud, noisy. 

'eziatir, to ^^| 

estrujar, to crush, mash. 

£xito, m., issue; success. ^H 

estudio, m., study. 

experts, adj., expert. ^^| 

estupendo, adj., stupendous. 

expirar, to expire, die. ^H 

estupor, m., stupor. 

explicar, to explain. ^H 

6ter, m., ether, sky. 

etfireo, adj., ethereal, heav- 

expresar, to express. ^^| 


eipresifin, /., expression, ut^^^ 

eternal, adj., eternal. 


eternamente, adv., forever. 

Sitasis, m., ecstasy. ^^^| 

etemidad,/., eternity. 

extender, to extend, stret^^^f 

eterno, adj., eternal, irrevoca- 


ble, never-ending. 

extenuado, p. p., extenuatq^^H 

Europa, /., Europe. 

feeble. |^H 

evitar, to avoid, shun. 

eitranjero, adj., foreign; n. D^^^H 

excelsior (Latin), excelsior. 

amj/., stranger. '^^| 

fc hieher. 

extrafiar, to wonder at. ^^| 

fcaxcelsitud./., loftiness. 

extraQo, adj., strange; n. "^^^1 

^bxcelBO, adj., lofty, exalted. 


BuceaiTO, adj., excessive. 

eztremo, adj., extreme, vu!^^| 

^nzceso, m., excess. 

great; R. m., end, extretij^^H 

W cxdtar, to stimulate, move. 


^^^^^ VOCABULARY ,;;! 


fatfdico, adj.. oriicuLii, in- 

spired; (uldtil. 

fabUr. arck. f«r hablar. 

fadga./., loiljiilw; UilBiK-, 

fabrior, lo construct. 

fatigax, lo wrary, (Ire, 

ffibula,/., fable; l[e. 

Ffitima, pr. n./. 

facer, arch, for hscer. 

fattsto, adj., hnjipy, miiiiil- 

flcO, adj., easy, lifihl; sim- 



favonlo, m., wt-^l o'inil. 

facilitar, to make ready. 

favor, «„ fuviir, i<mi|iliim-in, 

fttUue, adj., deceptive, lying, 



fai, /., face; en tai da, with 

falcon, «. (arci. for Imlcta), 

the Rppcaranve o(, 


faz, arch, for hac«. 

falso, adj., false. 

fo, /., fnilh. (roth, i-utimBncyi 

faltar, to be lacking, be ab- 

dar fe, to bear teitlinoiiy. 

sent; nada 1b (alta, he Ucks 

fealdad,/., ugliiiew, 


Febo, fr. n. m., I'hiwbus, the 

foma, /., fame; report; es 
fama, it is said. 


febril, adj.. frvcrlsh. 

familia,/., family. 

fecundo, <utj.. Iruitfiil. fcrlilc. 

famoBO, adj., famous. 


fanatismo, m., fanaticism. 

fellcldad, /., linppincM. 

fandango, tn., s. Spanish 

fellz, adj., happy, (ortuniin^, 



faneo, w., mud, mire. 

felonia,/., Ircachery, trciison. 

fantasia, /., fancy, imagina- 

femeotido, adj.. tiiiihtess. 


fenecer, to come to an end, 

fantasma, m., phantom, spec- 


tre; vision; fantasmas de 

feo, adj.. ugly. 

maldicidn, cursed phan- 

fSretro, m., bier, coffin. 


Fernando, pr. n. m., Ferdi- 

fantflstico, adj., fantastic. 

nand (Fernando I mlUd E] 

fastidiD, m., weariness, ennui. 

Magno [d. loesl, king of 

fatal, adj., fatal, ominous. 

Castile and U6n; the first 




riment, fun; fiesta de toroB, 

ke waged war successfully 


against Ihe Moors of Por- 

figura, /., form, shape, figure. 

tugal, Attdalmia. and Va- 

figuraise, to imagine, think. 

lejicia; Fernando m [el 

fijar, to fi:^. 

Tercer Fernando] of Castile 

fljo, adj., fixed, motionless. 

and Leon, known as St. 

flla, /., rank, row, line. 

Ferdinand \d. iis^I, %vage:d 

fil6sofo, m., philosopher. 

war tigOTOUsly and success- 

fin, m., end, aim; fU fin, finally, 

fully against the Moors). 

at last, after all; en fin, fi- 

feroz, adj., fierce, ferocious. 

nally, at last; in fine; par 

Krreo, adj., of iron, iron. 

fin, at last; sin fin, endless. 

ffirta, adj., fertile, frmtfiU. 

final, adj., last. 

fertilizer, to fertilize, malce 

flnar, to die, die away. 


flngir, to feign; imagine. 

fervido, adj., glowing, pas- 

fine, adj., fine; delicate. 

sionate, boiling. 

firmamento, m., firmament, 

fervoroso, adj., fervent, ar- 



firmar, to sign. 

festln, m., feast, banquet; en- 

firme, adj., firm. 


firmeza, /., firmness, stead- 

feado, m., fief, feudal do- 



fiaco, adj., weak, frail, thin. 

flamenco, adj., Flemish. 

trust, confide. 

fiamlgero, adj., flaming. 

flebre,/., fever. 

flfimula, /., streamer, pennon. 

fiel, adj., faithful, eiact; n. 

Flandes, pr. n., Flanders (iAe 

«., needle of a balance; 

old name of a region em- 

^^k scales. 

bracing parts of the present 

^^1 flera,/., wild beast. 

kingdom of Belgium and Hc^ 

land and Ike French Depart- 

^^H floo, adj., cruel, terrible. 

meni of Le Nord. A large 

^^^H wild, fierce, fiery; ugly. 

part of Flanders passed mik 1 

^^H fiesta, /., feast, festivity, mer- 

FkUip 11 to Ike Spanish 



^^^^^^ VOCABULARY 373 

^^K line of the House of Haps- 

forja,/., forge. 

^B iurg. When Flanders [Ihen 

forjar, to forge, invent. 

^B a fori oj Ike Netheria»d!\ 

forma, /., form, figure; pi. 

^Hr tnoUed against Spamsh rule. 

form, outlines. 

^B the Spaniards, led by Ike no- 

fonnar, lo form, fashion, com- 

^F torious Duke 0/ Alba UsoS- 


1582), aUempted la crush 

fortalecer, to strengthen. 

the DuUh. Al first sacuss- 

fortaleza, /., fortress. 


Jul, the Spanish forces ul- 

fortuna,/., fortune, fate; good 


timalely failed). 



fleco, m., fringe. 

fragancia, /., fragrance, per- 

flecha,/., arrow. 


flexible, adj-, flexible, lithe. 

fragaste, adj., fragrant, odor- 

flor, /., flower, blossom; en 


flor. in iia prime. 

frfgil, adj., fragile, weak. 

florecer, to bloom, blossom; 

fragor, m., crash. 

florecido, in bloom. 

fragoso, adj., rough, full of 


thriving, prosperous. 

fraile, m., monk. 

florecilla, /., floweret. 

francea, -esa, adj., Trench; «. 

floresta, /., forest. 

m.. Frenchman. 

florido, adj., flowery, bloom- 

Francia, pr. ». /., France 

ing; c hoi test. 

{area, exclusive of colonies. 

flota,/., fleet. 

about 300,000 square miles; 

flotante, adj., floa.ting. 

ptipiihlioH, about 40.000,- 

flotar, to float. 

foUaje, m., foliage; frill. 

Francisco, pr. a. m., Francis. 

fondo, in,, bottom, depth, 

franco, adj., frank, open. 


fraaja,/., band, border. 

fontana, /., fountain, spring. 

franjfldo, p. p., striped. 

fonte-frida, /. (arcA. for fuen- 

fratricida, adj., fratricidal. 

te Wa), cold spring. 

fray, m., brother (liile of mem- 

forajido, JH,, outlaw. 

bers of a religious order). 

forcejear, to struggle. 

frecnente, adj., frequent. 


374 VOCABULARY ^^^^^1 

fren^tico, adj., furious, fran- 

de, by dint of, by force of; 


es fuena, it is necessary. 

freno, m., bridle; restrainl. 

fuga,/., flight. 

frente, /,, forehead, brow; 

fugaz, adj., fleeing, fleeting, 

face; i frente, straight 


ahead; frente por frente, 

fugitiyo, adj., fugitive, flee- 

directly opposite. 

ing, fleeting, sweeping. 

fresco, adj., fresh; cool; 

fulgente, adj., refulgent, bril- 



frvBCOr, m., freshness, luxuri- 

fulgor, m., brilliancy, gleam, 



Ma, adj., cold; n. m., cold. 

fulgurante, adj., shining. 

frfvolo, adj., frivolous. 

fulgurar, to flash, shine. 

frvndoEO, adj., leafy. 

fulminante, orfj.. fulminating. 

frugali adj., frugal. 

explosive; flashing. 

fruncir, to knit {the brows). 

fimdar, to found. 

fiiito, m., fruit, product(s); 

fliaebre, adj., funereal, dark, 



fuego, m., fire, bonfire; ardor; 

funeral, adj., funereal. 

pi. fireworks. 

funesto, adj., dismal, sad, 

Fuenfrfa, pr. n. (o pass in 

ill-omened, fatal. 

the Guodarrama mounloins. 

ftiria, /., fury, rage. 

not far lo the noHhwtst of 

furioso, adj., furious, raging. 


furor, «!., rage, fury, madness. 

fuente, /., fountain, spring. 

hirtivo, adj., secret. 

source; stream near its 

fusil, m., rifle, gun. 

flitU, adj., futile, worthless. 

fuera, adv., outside; fuera de, 

futuro, adj., future; n. m., fu- 

aside from, without. 


fuero, m., statute law; law, 



^^B fuerte, adj., strong, violent. 

gabin, «., overcoat. 

^^ (uw«, /., strength, force, 

gaditano, adj., of Cadiz. 

^^^H 1 might; fortress; & fuerza 

gala, /., choicest part of a 

^^^^ VOCABULARY 375 

thing, gem, ornament; 

ganar, to gain, earn; win, 

grace, gallantry; holiday; 


pi. finery. 

gaiianta,/., throat; gorge. 

Eolfin, -sna, adj., gallant, 

garra, /., claw, talon, clutch. 

spirited, splendid; n. m.. 

garrido, adj., graceful, hand- 

gallant, lover. 


gklanteilk,/., gallantry, com- 

gasa, /., gauze. 


Gaspar, pr. n. m., Jasper. 

gBlardfin, m., reward, recom- 

gSEtar, to spend, waste. 


gatiUo, m., kitten. 

galera,/.. galley. 

gemido, m,, groan, moan. 

Galiana, pr. n.f. {according to 

gemir, to moan, groan, 

tradUion, a beaalifui MooT- 


isk princess ej Toledo for 

whom her father built a pal- 

Generalife, fr. «. {The beau- 

ace in the vega la the north- 

east of the city. Here 

the celebrated summer resi- 

dence oj the Moorish kings 

cording to one legend, won 

of Granada, is situated to 

her tote, and in a duel cut 

the east of the Alhambra kill. 

of the hand of, and then 

and about 165 feet above it.) 

slew, a rival for the afec- 

generoso, adj., generous, no- 

tions of the princess). 

ble; rich {of color). 

fUlco, adj., Gallic, French. 

GfineBia, pr. «. m.. Genesis. 

galope, m., gallop. 

GeBn.,pr.n.(ariver whichrisei 

gallardo, adj., graceful, spir- 

in the Sierra Nevada, passes 

ited, bold. 

Granada, and empties into 

gaUego, adj., Galician. 

L gana,/., desire. 

genio, m., genius, spirit. 

W- gan&dero, m., cat tie- dealer, 

Genova, pr. n., Genoa. 

■ atock-man. 

gente, /., people; servants, 

■ ganadico, m., little herd. 


■ flock. 

gentil, adj., elegant, charm- 

■ ganado, m., herd, Sock. 

ing, graceful; excellent. 


gnUileza, /., grace, chaim; 

gradousness. couriesy. 
gentilhombre, n., genlleman- 

in- waiting. 
Eennen, m., germ. 
gctto, m., face, expression r>f 

the (ace; grimace. 
Gibraltar, pr. n. (an Engluk 

fortras on Iki soulhcasitrn 

extremity of Ike Spanisk 

gigante, adj., gigantic, huge; 

), adj., gigantic. 
gigantesco, adj., gigantic. 
girar, to circle, hover about, 

giro, m., circling, circular mo- 

gladal, adj., glacial, icy. 
globo, m., sphere, globe. 
gloria, /., glory, fame; bliss, 

heavenly bliss; brilliance. 
glorioEO, adj., glorious. 
gobemador, m., governor. 
gobeniar, to govern, rule. 


., gOVf 


goce, m., joy; possess! 

golfo, m., gulf. 

golondnna, /., swalkiv 


■ golpe 


golpear, to beat, striltLe, 

grfieria,/,, dainty. 

gomel. m. iprobably same as 
gDiner, a member of Ike 
Gomrra Iribt of Berbers). 

gonce, m., hinge. 

Goozalo, pr. n. m. (Gonzalo 
de Cfirdoba [i4S3-'S"Sl. 
ktunan as EI Gran Ca|iitin, 
the ckitf Spanisk generai of 

his lime; ke aided 

I the 

conquest of Granada [14 

and in wars against f 

lugal and Italy). 
gorguera./., gorget; ruff. 

of the priests' mumbling 

chant at funerals. 
gota, /., drop; no yw gota, to 

be blind. 
gotear, /r. to let fall ii 

inir, to drip, drop. 
g6tico, adj., Gothic. 
gozar, !r. to enjoy; intr. to re 

joice, take delight; refi. ti 

gozo, w., joy. 

gozoBO, adj., cheerful, glad, 
grabar, to grave, impress. 
gracia, /., grace, gracefulness 

pi. thanks, 
gracioso, adj., graceful, pleas 

ing, amusing. _ 

grada, /., step, terrace. 
grado, m.; degrado, willingly. 

willingly. I 



18,/., dog's-gras! 

grana,/.. scarkl. 

^ Craiuda, fr. h. (a Spanisli 

' cily of some 70,000 inhabit 

I lanls, formerly the capilal 

~ of a Moorish tingdem. At 

' an allilttdc of 2195 frel 

above the sea, it is pittur- 

esquely situated at the foot 

of snow-dad mountains. It 

was taken by the Chrislion 

Spaniards in 1492). 

rcranado, ^. ^., seedy, Cull of 

grain; n. m., pomegranate 

ee; labios de granado, red 

tnde, adj., great, large; n. 
a h[gh office; gran- 
dee {noUeman of tlie first 
^ rank, who may wear his 
n the king's presence). 
la, /., greatness, size; 
f grandeur. 

I, adj., grand, splen- 

gnu^co, adj., of granite. 

granito, m., granite. 

grano, m., grain (either as a 

cereal or a single seed) . 

Grant, pr. n. (Uljrsses Simp- 

MD Grant [1822-1885!, " 

^^_ celebraied American general 

^^^^ ttnd Ike eighteenth president 

^^K ^ the tfnited States. After 

retiring from the presidency. 
Grant made a triumphal tour 
of Europe and parts of Asia, 
and mtt many distinguished 

gratamente, adv., pleasingly; 

giRto, adj., pleasing. 
grave, adj., grave, serious; 

heavy; deadly. 
gravedad, /., gravity. 
Grecia, pr. n., Greece (area, 

about 15,000 square miles; 

population, 2,500,000). 
grey, /,. flotk, fierd; throng; 

griego, lulj., Greek, 
grillo, m.; pi. shackles, fet- 

grima, /., horror, fear. 

gris, adj., gray. 

gritar, Ir. to call out, shout 
out; inlr. to cry, shout. 

giito, m., cry, shout, shriek. 

grueeo, adj., thick, stout, 

Guadalajara, pr. 11. (a Spanish 
town 35 miles northeast of 
Madrid; population, about 

Guadalquivir, pr. n. (a river 

that flows through Cordova 
and Seville, and empties into 
the Atlantic). 
gualdo, adj., yellow. 


gnaute, «., glove. 

gtislo, Hf., taste, choice. 

enardar, lo presen-e, keep, 

gostoso, adj., glad, content, 

watch over, protect. 



guard; /., guard (body of 


haber, to have, possess (in 

gnarecer. to shelter. 

arch, laiiguage used for 

gnaraecer, to embellish; [rim, 

tener); haber de, to have 


to, must; no he de callar, I 

IguoTtel inUrj., beware! 

will not be silent; jamfis ha 

GiMtemoc, pr. n. m., Guate- 

de ser, it can never be; bien 

moc or GuatemoUiindisoo?- 

haja, blessings on, hail to; 

1525!, Ike last Aslec em- 

haber por bien de (arck.). 

peror of Mexico; a nephew 

to consider right, take 

pleasure in; poco ha, a little 

moc was captured by the 

while ago; ha tiempo, long 

Spaniards, and because he 

ago; impers. (vnth present 

refused lo reveal hidden treas- 

indicative hay), there to be. 

ure he was tortured by fire. 

exist; haj que llegar, one 

He was later executed by 

must come; refl. there to be. 

order of Cortls). 

hlbU, a<J;'., skilful, intelligent. 

Euedeja, /., forelock; long 

habitador, m., inhabitant. 

lock of hair. 

habitar. tr. lo inhabit, live in; 

gtiero, adj. {for huero), emp- 

inlr. to tlweU. 

ty; (colloquial) blonde. 

hablador, -ra, adj., speaking. 

gnerra,/., war; de guerra, in- 


tent on war. 

hablar, lo apeak; bien ha- 

Euerrero, adj., of war, war- 

blado, courteous of speech. 

like; n. «,, soldier, warrior. 


guiar, to guide. 

hacer, to make, do, create; 

guifiar, to wink. 

hacer calor, to be hot (0/' 

Euimalds,/,, wreath. 

the weather); hace muchos 

pila,/., gluttony. 

dfas estoy, I havf been for 

gusano,- w., worm. 

many days; refl. to become. 

^Hfcada, prep., toward; bacia 
^F Ctris, backw3.riJ, 

hadenda, /., fortune, estate. 

hado, m., fate, dest[iiy. 

bolagar, to flatter, allure, 
soothe; stroke. 

lullor, to find; reji. to be, re- 




:, famine. 

barSo, m., harem. 

barto, adj., satiated, glutted; 

full, 1 


baBta, prep., to, up to, un- 
til; adv., even; hasta que, 

haz, m., sheaf;/., face. 
Iiazalla, /., deed. 
I he I inter]., behold, 
hebra,/., fibre, thread, strand. 
hechizD, m., charm. 
hecbo, m., deed. 
hediondo, adj., fetid; repul- 

helado, p. p., frozen, icy. 
helarse, to freeze, 
bellaco, adj., heliacal {said of 
a morning or evening star, 
vihick rises or sets a short 
'e before or after the sua). 
», /., female; woman. 
I, m., bemisphere. 
ta fill out; stuff, 

bender, to crack, split, cleave; 

hendido, deft, pierced, 
horaldo, w,, herald. 
HSrcules, pr. n. m., Hercules 

{a mythical Greek hero who 

personified persistent physi- 

ciii sirenglk). 
heredar, to inherit. 
beredera, /., heiress. 
bereada, /., heritage. 
berida,/., wound. 
berii, to wound, strike; herido, 

wounded (man). 
hennana /., brother, sister. 
bermano, m., brother; pi. 

brother and sister. 
bennoso, adj., handsome, 

beautiful, lovely, fine, fair, 
hermosura, /., beauty. 
beroe, m., hero, 
heroico, adj., heroic. 
herolsmo, m., heroism. 
berradura, /., horseshoe. 
bervir, to boil, seethe, stir, 
hervor, m., boiling; vigor. 
hidalgo, m., nobleman. 
liidrOpico, adj., dropsical. 
hiel, /., gall, bitterness. 
hielo, m., ice, frost; chill, 
hiena, /., hyena. 
hierba, /., grass, weed, 

hierro, m., iron; sword; pi. 

380 VOCABULARY ^^^^^^H 

higu««,/., fig-tree. 

hombro, m., shoulder. 

hija,/., daughter. 

Homero, fr. n. m., Homer (an 

hijo, m., son; pi. children. 

unknown Creek poel who 

hlmeneo, m., hymen, mar- 

gate shape lo the Iliad and 


possibly to the Odyssey, in 

EQmeto, pr. n., Hymettua (a 

the lolh or ii(4 century 

moanlain range in Allica, 


about iooo feel high). 

hondo, adj.. deep; hiddenf.^^H 

hinmo, m., hymn. 

m., bottom, deep. J^^^| 

hiDcar; hincai' la rodilla, lo 

bonestidad, /., purity. ^^^B 


honesto, adj., honest, virtu- 

hinefaar, to swell. 


hinojo, m., knee; de hinojos, 

honor, m., honor. 


honra, /., honor. 

hiperb6reo, adj., hyper be- 

honrar, to honor; honrado. 


hora, /., hour; ads., now. 


boradar, to pierce. 

hispano, adj., Spanish. 

Horche, pr. n. (a village in the 

historiA, /., history, story. 

Province of Guadalajara). 

hocico, m., snout, nose. 

horizonte, m.. horizon. 

hogor, m., home, hearth; hot- 

horrendo, itdj., dreadful, aw- 



llOguem, /., bonfire, fire, 

horrible, adj., horrible, dread- 

blaze; stake (of whkh crim- 


inals were burned). 

b6rrido, adj., hateful, hideous. 

hoJB,/., leaf, petal. 

horror, w., horror. 

|holat inter j., ho there! 

horrorizar, to terrify, strilu^^^ 

tiollar, to trample upon, tram- 



bospedaje. m., hospitality.'^^H 

hombre, m., man. 

hospedar, to lodge, harbon^^^H 

^^ hombrera,/.,pauldron (a piece 

bostigai, to lash. ^^^^| 

B of armor lo cover Ike skoul- 

boy, adv., to-day. ^^^^| 

I ... 

hoyo, ;n., hole, pit. ^^^^| 





^^^^M^ VOCABULARY 381 

hueco, adj., hollow; h. m,, 

ble, lower; rrJI. 10 bow 




huoUa, /., trace, track, fool- 

himio, «.., smoke. 

print; mark, impression. 

hundir, to submerge, sink, 


hufirfano, adj., bereaved; n. 

destroy; rejl. to sink, sink 

V,., orphan. 


buerta, /., pleasure- garden, 

huracfin, in., hurricane. 

summer-house {arch, mean- 

huraflo, adj., wild, intracla- 

ing oj the -word). 


huerto, m., orchard. 

huri, /., houri. (The houris 


huesa,/., grave. 

are Ike beaalijul maidens 

buoM), m., bone; hom. 

described by Mohammed, 


huSapod, m., guest; host. 

who dardi in Paradise, and 


huesrte,/., host, army. 

■whose companionship is one 


fitigo, pr. n. CVictor Hugo 

of Ihe rewards ofend to 


[i8oj-i88sl, a dislingvished 

pious Mussulmans.) 


French peel, noveiist, and 

hurtar, to steal, snatch. 




hair, lo flee, run away; es- 




Ibfin, pr. n. m. 


Iberia, pr. n. (the peninsula 


manity; humaneness. 

■which includes Spain and 


humano, adj., human; hu- 

Portugal). 1 


mane; like men and women. 

iberico, ibero, adj., Iberian. 


bnniBar, to smoke. 

ida,/., sally, going forth. 

idea, /., idea. 

ideal, m., ideal. 

bumedecer, to moisten, wet. 

idioma, m., language, tongue. 

bfimedo, adj., damp. 

iglesia, /., church. 

bumildBd,/., humility. 

ignominia,/., ignominy. 

bnmflde, adj., humble, mud- 


bumillar, to humHiate, hum- 


ienorancia,/., ignorance. 





ignorar, not to know, be 

impooer, to impose. 

ignorant; ignorado, un- 

importar {impers.), to matter. 


ignoto, adj., unknown. 

portune, be importunate 

igual, adj., equal, even; n. m.. 


equal, fellow; por igual, 

equally; sin iguaJ.utiequaled. 


igualarse, tu be equal. 

impostble, adj., impossible. 

igualdad, /., equUity. 

impostor, ~ra, adj., deceitful. 

igualmente, adu., equally. 

impotente, adj., impotent. 

leso, adj., unharmed. 

itiminar, to illuminate; adorn 

imprimir, to impress, stump; 

with festal lamps. 


JuBifa, /., illusion. 

iustre, adj., illustrious. 

denly, unexpectedly. 

magen,/., image. 

impudente, adj., shameless. 

imaginar, to imagine, believe. 

impulBO, m., impulse; impact. 

impasible, adj.. impassive, 

impuro, adj., impure. 


inaccesible, adj., inaccessible. 

impeler, to drive; drift. 

inadvertido, adj., heedless. 


impexar, to rule, reign. 

inagotable, adj., inexhausti- 

Imperial, adj., imperial. 


imperio, m., empire. 

inanimado, adj., lifeless. 

bnpetu, m., impetus, momen- 

inaudito. adj.. unheard of, ex- 

tum; impetuosity. 


Impetuoso, adj., violent, 

Inca, pr. n. (a noble among 

fierce, impetuous, spirited; 

the ancient Peruvians. The 


empire of the Incas was 

impiedad, /., Impiety, impi- 

OBertkroicn by the Spaniards 

Dusness, irreligion. 

under Pizarro, ■who entered 

^^- im[da, adj., impious, wicked. 

Peru in 1531- The capital 

^^K implacable, adj., implacable. 

of the Incas was Chech, 

^^1 , implorar, to implore, entreat. 



1 1 ,OQQ feet above sea-levtl, — - 


■ The AOec Empire and Ihr 

1 Empire of Ihf Incas vere the 


H two civilizal slalts in A mer- 

indignado, p.p., indignant, 

H ica ai the time 0} Ike dis- 


■ c<»eTy). 

indigno, adj., disgraceful. 

V incansable, adj.. unwearied. 

indio, adj., Indinn. 

incauto, adj., unwary. 

incendiar, to set on fire. 

indficU, adj., unruly. 

incendio, m., fire, conflagra- 


inddmito. adj., unconquercd. 

■ incensaiio, m., censer. 

industria,/.. industry, labor. 

H indenso, m., incense. 

inefable, adj., ineffable, un- 

■ inderto, adj.. ioconsUnt; un- 


H certitin, doubtful. 

inerme, adj., defenceless, un- 


■ indinar, to bend, bow; rtjl. to 

inerte, adj., inert, sluggish; 

r bow. 


inclito, adj., renowned, illus- 

In^a, pr. n. J., Inez. 


ineihausto, adj., unex- 

incfignito, adj., unknown. 


incoostante, adj., fickle. 

L indedBifin,/., irresolution. 


■ indeciso, adj., undecided, hes- 

iofame, adj., infamous. 

V itating; indistinct. 

infamia. /., infamy. 

" indefenw, adj.. defenceless. 

infandtt, /., infancy. 

infando, adj., unspealcable. 

indUno, adj., Indian. 

infanta,/., princess. 

Indias, pT. n. f. pi., Indies 

infantil, adj., childish, infan- 

■ (East or West). 


infatigable, adj., indefatiga- 

^B with indifference. 

ble, unwearying. 

V indfgena, adj., indigenous. 

infecto, adj., tainted, cor-. 1 

W native. 


■ indieenda, /., poverty. 

iofeUce, poelic/or iofeUz. ^H 

384 VOCABUL.\KY ^^^H 

infelix, adj., wretched, un- 

inmortalidad,/., immortality. 


inmfivil, adj., motionless; un- 

iafestsr, to infest. 


infiemo, m., hell. 

inmtuido, adj., unclean, dirty. 

infinito. adj., infinite. 

inmutable, adj., immutable, 

inflamarse, to blaze; become 


inocencia, /.', innocence. 

ing, scorching. 

Inoceate, adj., innocent. 

inflexible, adj., inexorable. 

influjo, m., influence. 

inquieto, adj., restless, un- 

informe, adj., shapeless, [orm- 



inquietud,/., restlessness. 

infoTtunio, m., misfortune. 

insadable. adj., insatiable. 

infiingir, to violate, break. 

infundir, to inspire. 

inEano, adj., mad. 

ingenio, m., mind. 

iiiGcripciSii, /., inscription. 

ingenuo, adj., ingenuous, 

insecto, m., insect. 

open-hearted, free. 

inseoaatez, /.. folly; stupidity. 

Inglaterra, pr. n., England 

insensato, adj., stupid, mad. 

{area 0} England proper. 

iosigne, adj., distinguished, 

50,000 square miles; poptt- 


lalion, 31,000,000). 

insignia,/., badge, decoration. 

inglSs, -esa, adj., Enghsh; «. 

m., Englishman. 

insondable, adj., unfathoma- 


mgrato, adj., ungrateful. 

inspiraciCn, /., inspiration. 

mhiesto, adj., erect, raised. 

inspirar, to inspire. 

mbiunano, adj., inhuman. 

instante, m., instant. 

injuBto, adj., unjust. 

instar, to urge. 

inmensidad, /., immensity. 

instinto, m., instinct 

inmenso, adj., immense. 

insultar, to insult. 

imnoble, adj., immovable, 

intencifin, /., intention, pur- 



^H inmortal, adj., immortal. 


intentar, to try, attempt. 



^^^^^^^ VOCABULARY 385 

^H Intento, m., purpose, mean- 

iris, ,„.. rainbow. 

^H ing; esforzai el inteato, lo 

irresistible, adj., irresistible. 

^B make every effort. 

irritar, lo excite, vex. 

inteiis, m., interest, advan- 

izar, lo hoist. 


izquierdo, adj., left. 

interesar, to concern; be of 

Iztacdhual, or Iztaccihuatel, 

advantage to. 

pr. n., Iilaccihuatl (a lofty 

interior, adj., interior, inward, 

tnoutUain of valcanU arigin 

from within; n. m., interior; 

in Mexko.jusl norlh of Po- 


pocatepetl, about 40 miUs 1 

Intemunpir, to interrupt. 

southeast of the City of Mex- 

intervalo, m., interval. 

ico, and only a feiii miles 

faitimo, adj,, intimate, secret. 

wisl of Cholula; height, about 

17,000 /erf). 


tatrSpido, adj., dauntless. 


intrincado, adj., tangled. ^ 

introduGcidn, /., introduction. 

jab*all, m., wild boar. 

inulto, adj., unavenged. 

ja!de,urf;., bright yellow, cro- 

inimdar, to flood. 


inflta, adj., useless. 

jamfis, adv., ever, never. 

invasor, m., invader. 

Jano, ?--.«. m.. Janus. (.The 

inTectiva,/., diatribe. 

skrim of the Roman god 

invencible, adj., invincible. 

Janus, which formed an en- 

inTestlgar, to investigate, ex- 

trance lo the forum. v,as 


closed only in time of peace.) 

iavjemo, m., winter. 

Jarama, pr. n. (a river th^ 

invisible, adj., invisible. 

empties into the Tagus near 

invitar, to invite. 

Aranjuez. It forms the 

ir, to go, go on, proceed; ir 

boundary line between the 

S, be about to, going to; 

provinces of Madrid and 

^^ jqnien va? who goes there? 


^L rej)., to go away, depart, 

jarcia,/., rigging, shrouds. 

B in,/., anger, ire. 

jaidin, m., garden. 

^V 386 VOCABUL.4RY ^^^H 


of St. John the Baptist by 

jaspe, «., jasper. 

the Roman Cathnlic Church.) 

jazmin, m., jasmine; jasmine- 

jlibilo, m., rejoicing. 


jubfin, m., doublet. 

jefe, «., chief, leader. 

Judas, pr. «. ,n. 

jweiano, urf/., of Jerez. 

juego, m., play, game. 

Jesucristo, pr. n. m., Jesus 

juez, w , judge. 


jugar, to play, frolic. 

Jesfis, pr. «. m., Jesus, 

j«go, m., sap, juice. 

Jetafe, pr. n. (a village S mi^ci 

juguetSn, -ona, adj., frolic- 

louiA 0/ Madrid). 

some, playful. 

Jfcara,/., chocolate-cup (jma/; 

juicio, m., judgment. 

w «ie). 


JimeM, ?r. «. /. (Fr.^h 

junco, m., rush. 

ChimSne; imje oj Ike Cid; 

Junln, pr. n. (an elevated pla- 

an earlier JimenEi was the 

teau, 13,000 feet above sea- 

motheT of the legendary Ber- 

level, in Peru, where the 

njirdo del Caipio [in 'sik 

Spaniards were defeated by 


the Spanish-Americans un- 

jiiiete, m., horseman, rider. 

der Bolivar in 1824. There 

Job, pr. «. m. {the hero of the 

are also a village and a lake 

Book of Job, who symbolized 

of the same name in the dis- 

the pious and patient suf- 



juntar, to join, unite. 

Jornada,/., journey. 

junto, adj., together; junto 4, 

Jo8e,^r.„.«., Joseph. 

near, close to, beside. 

jota,/., a populardance. 

jtiramento, m., oath. 1 

joren, adj., young, youthful; 

jurar, to swear. 

n. m. and f., youth, young 

man, girl. 

justicia, /., justice. 

joy el, m., valuable ornament. 

justiciero, adj., just, up- 

Juan, pr. n. m., John; San 


Juan, St. John. (June 2^ is 

justillo, m., waistcoat, jerkin. 

consecrated to the Nativity 

juGto, adj., just, righteous. 



jtnrenil, adj., youthful. 
juventud,/., youth. 
juzgar, to judge, deem. 

kepis, m., shako, soldier's cap. 

labio, m., lip.' 

labor, /., labor, task; needle- 

laborioso, adj., industrious, 

labmdor, m., farmer; farm- 
hand, plowman. 

labrar, to construct; carve 
{stone) \ iabrado, wrought, 
worked, carved. 

ladera, /., slope. 

lado, m., side. 

ladrar, to bark. 

lago, m., lake. 

Ulgiima, /., tear. 

Lafs, pr, n. /., Lais (the name 
of two Greek courtesans 
noted for their beauty and 

lamentable, adj., deplorable. 

lamentar, to lament, bewail. 

lamento, m., cry, wail, lament. 

lamer, to lick, lap. 

Umpara, /., lamp. 

lance, m., adventure; risk. 

lancero, m., lancer. 

Ubiguldo, adj., languid. 

lanza, /., lance, spear. 

lanzar, to launch, hurl; cast; 
loose, give up; utter. 

lares, m. pi., home. 

largo, adj., long; lavish. 

larva,/., mask, shell; larva 

lascivo, adj., lascivious. 

laso, adj., weary. 

ULstima,/., pity; pitiful object; 

lastimero, adj., mournful. 

lastimoso, adj., doleful. 

lata,/., tin-plate; hoja de lata, 
tin-plate, tin. 

latido, m., throbbing, palpi- 

ULtigo, m., whip. 

latin, m., Latin. 

latino, adj., Latin. 

latir, to throb, beat. 

laurel, m., laurel. 

lauro, m., laurel; glory. 

lavar, to wash, cleanse. 

lazada, /., bow-knot, knot. 

L&zaro, pr. n. m., Lazarus 
([i] the name given by Jesus 
to the poor beggar in the 
parable, Luke xvi, 19-31; 
[2] the brother of Martha and 
Mary whom Jesus raised 
from the dead, according to 
John xi and xii). 


lazo, m., knol; bond, tie; bow; 

letal, adj., lethal, deadly. 


letra, /., writing, inscription; 

leal, adj., loyal, true. 

short poem with a refrain. 

lealtad,/., loyalty. 

letrilla,/., short poem, usually 

leccidn,/., lesson, example. 

set to music. 

lector, -ra, m. aitd /., reader. 

levantar, tr. lo raise; intr. lo 

lecho, m., bed, couch. 

arise; refi. to rise, arise. 

ledo, adj., cheerful, glad. 

leve, adj., light, slight. 

leer, to read. 

ley, /., law. 

I^ganitos, ^r. fl. (TAeinoate 

Lfbano, pr. 11., Lebanon (Ihe 

de LeganitOG is in the noHh- 

li'eslcrn and higher of two 

weslern pari of Madrid). 

mountain chains in Syria, 

iBgifo,/.. legion. 

once notedfer Us ^ne cedars). 

lejano, adj., distant. 

lejos, adv., far, far away; & 

rent; ni., member ot the 

lo lejos, in the distance; de 

liberal political party. 

lejos, desde iejos, from 


libra,/., pound. 

lenpia, /., tongue. 

librar, to free; rejl. to escape. 

lei^pjaje, m,, language. 

Ubre. adj., free. 


librea, /., livery. 

Ucencia, /., permission. 

lentitud, /., slowness. 

Ud,/-, combat, fight. 

lento, adj., slow. 

LdiM,ir.,tofight(6««j);ia(f. , 

leflo, m., ship, vessel. 

to fight. 

Ie6ii, m., lion. 

Uebre,/., hare. 

Lefin, pr. n. (a jormer king- 

lienzo, m., linen doth, linen. 

dom in northwestern Spain, 

Lieo, pr. n. m.. Lyaeus (/Ae 

which united defimtely -with 

god who frees from care; a 

Castile in 1230, under St. 

surname of Bacchus). 


ligeramente, fldi., lightly, 

leones, -BSa, adj., of Leon, 



ligereza,/., celerity, swiftness, 

Leonor, pr. n./., Eleanor. 


^^^^^^^ VOCABULARY 389 

^m ligero, adj., light, ddirale; 

lobreguez,/,, obscurity, dark- 



^H UUbeo, fir. M., Lilybaeum {Ihe 

loco, orf/., mad, crazy; wild; 

^H dMMW^ name »/ Cape Boco 

n. m., madman. 

^^H (K fJK western enlremily of 

locoinotora, /., locomotive. 

^V ^tcilji). 

locura./., madness, folly. 

^B Hsu, /., file; lima Eorda, 

lograr, to succeed, gain. 

^^V file blunted with lead 5a 

logrero, m., usurer. 

^1 as to make its action 

loma, /., ridge. 

^H noiseless. 

loOH,/., canvas. 

Umitnr, to Iwuntl. 

lontananza, /., distance. 

Ifapido, od]., limpid, clear. 

losa,/., slab, heavy stone; pi. 

Bmpio, adj., dean, stainless; 



lozanear, to act or speak 

Biuje, m., lineage, race. 


Hndeio, w., limit, boundary. 

loiano, adj., luxuriant, vigor- 

lindo, adj., pretty, fair. 



lucero, wi., bright star, star. 

Hra,/., lyre. 

luciente, adj., shining. 

Brio, m., lily. 

lucir, Ir. to display, show; 

^^_ lis, J., fletu--de-lis (lAc emblem 

iiUr. to glitter, shine. 

^L <!^ Ife royoi /om^/y of 

Lucreda, pr. ti. /., Lucretia, 

^H i?r<»K«). 

Lucrece {Ihc most famous 

^^BKfflja,/,, flattery. 

heroine in early Roman his- 

UBonjero, adj., flattering; 

tory. After haling been rav- 


ished by Sexlus Tarquinius, 

liBtado, p. p., streaked, striped. 

one of the king's sons, she 

^^ listdn, m., ribbon. 

related the fads to her fallicr 

^^ litera,/,, litter. 

and to her husband, and then 

^V Uviauo, od/., light; frivolous. 

killed herself). 

^H VMdo, adj., iiv\d. 

lucha,/., struggle, strife. 

^^ loar, to praise. 

luchar, to struggle. 

lobo, ».. wolf. 

ludibrio, m., mockery, scorn. 

Ubrego, orfj., murky, dark. 





luegO, adv., at once, immedi- 

knock, tap; jcfimo te lla- 

ately; next, then, besides; 

mas? what is thy name? 

luego que, as soon as. 

lUnoia, /., simplicity. 

luei^o, adj., long. 

llano, m., plain. 

lugar, m., place, spot. 

Uanto, m., weeping, tears. 

lugubre, adj., sad, gloomy. 

llanura, /., plain. 

Luis, pr. n. m., Lewis. 

Uave, /.. key. 

hijo, m., luxury. 

Uegar, to arrive, come; Uegar 

Injoso, adj., showy, luiu- 

a, reach; Uegar L hacer, 


succeed in doing. 

lumbreda, /., bonfire. 

llenar, to fill. 

lumbre,/., light. 

Ueno, adj., full, filled. 

luminoso, adj., luminous. 

Ilevar, to carry, carry away, 

luna,/., moon. 

bear, take; wear; endure; 

Lutero, pr. n. «., Luther. 

lead; Uevarse algo, take 

luto, m., mourning, grief. 

something away. 

Ivx, /., light; lighted taper or 

llorar, tr. lo mourn for, weep 


for; intr. to weep; mourn. 

Luibel, pr. n. m.. Lucifer (Ike 


iHoruing star. In Isaiah 

Iloro, m., weeping, sobs. 

«!i, 12, them words occur: 

Iloroso, adj., tearful, weeping. 

" HeTi> art Ikou fatUn from 

lluvia,/., rain. 

Heaven, Lucifer, son of 

tkenwrnins-" This passage 


was understood to refer to the 

fall of the rebellious arch- 

madeja, /., skein (of thread); 

angel from heaven) . 

jigAock (of hair). 

inadera,/,, wood; timber. 


niBdero, m., beam. 

madre, /., mother. 

Uaga, /., wound. 

Uagar, to wound. 

Madrid, pr. n. (capital ef 

llama,/., flame- 

Spain; en the plains of jVew 

Uamar, Ir. lo call; mtr. to 

Castile, 1150 feel above Ike 




^^^^^■^ VOCASUIAKY 391 

^H sea; population, about 550,- 

ish-Americans defeated the 

^H 000. Madrid first apptars 

Spaniards in 1818). 

^H i» history in the tenth mi- 

raafa, IB,, maiie, Indian corn. 

^K, (wy OS a fortified OHtposI of 

majeslad, /., majesty; divin- 

^B the' Moots, intended to check 


^H lAo advances of Ikr Christian 

majestuoso, adj., majestic. 

Spaniards. It was lakei by 

mai, adv., badly, ill; hardly; 

the Spaniards undir Alfonso 

«. in., evil, truubie, disease; 

VI of Castile and Udn in 

faacermal, to harm, hurt. 

^^ 1083. Philip II. in 1560, 

^^ seUcled Madrid as Ms capi- 

malbaratar, to sell out cheap, 

^^B lal, and U has been the cap- 

dissipate (j/or/»<ie). 

^H Ual ««■ since, except for a 

maldecir, to curse; p. p. mal- 

^H time in the reign of Philip 

dito, accursed, confounded; 

^H III, when the royal head- 


^H quarters were at ValladaUd). 

maldidfin, /., curse; damna- 

^^Btnadnigar, to rise early, begin 

tion; de maldicidu, cursed. . 

^m earty. 

maleza, /., underbrush. 

^■ilueBtro, -a, m. and /., 

maligno, adj., malicious. 

^^V teacher. 

malo, adj., evil, bad, wicked. 

^™'M«fidalMia, pr. n.f., Magda- 

maltrecho, adj., ill-treated. 

len, Madeleine. (TfeMag- 


dalMUl ftti«f is the largest in 

malva, /., mallow. 

Colombia, South America.) 

inalvadD, «»., criminal, scoun- 

mi^,/., magic. 


mlgico, adj., magical, magic. 

Mamnfiii, pr. >!., Mammon 

{ = riihes, or the god of 

nugnate, m., magnate. 


magnfflco, adj., splendid. 

iMgnllitr, to mangle. 

manada, /., flock, herd. 

Uaipo, or Maypu, pr. n. (0 

manantiai, m., spring, source. 

^B plain between the cities of 

^^H Santiago and San Bernardo, 


^^M in Chile, where the Span- 

mancha,/., spot, stain. 

^r 392 VOCABULARY ^^^^^^| 

manchar, to stain. 

through Madrid and joins 

numdar, to command, order; 

the Jarama, which in tarn 


joim the Tagus [Tajoi). 

mando, m., authority, power. 

mafia, /., craft, cunning; skitl. 

mafiana, adv., lo-morrow; n. 

iiianejar, to wield. 

/., morning. 

manera,/., manner, ivay. 

mar, w. {and poetic /,), sea. 

maneB, m. pi., manea, spirit, 



marasmo, «., wasting disease, 

nwmida, /., abode, dwelling- 


place, nest. 

mararilla,/., wonder, marvel; 

manifestar, lo declare, state. 

fi maravilla, wonderfully. 

maniflesto, adj., evident. 

marcha, /., march; [en mar- 


chal move on! , 

manjor, m,, food; dish. 

marchar, to go away, depart; 

mano,/., hand. 

advance, proceed; walk. 

manosear, to finger, stroke. 

marchitarse, to wither, fade. 

marchlto, adj., withered. 

inansi6ii, /., mansion, abode; 


stay; hacer mansidn, to 

margen, m. and /., border, 

stay, sojourn. 


manso, adj., quiet, gentle. 

Margot. pr. n., Marget. 

mantel, m., tablectoih. 

Maria, pr. 11. f., Mary. 

mantilla, /., mantilla {lace 

marido, n., husband. 

scarf used as a headdress). 

marinero, m., sailor, mariner. 

manto, «., cloak, manUe. 

marino, tidj., marine. 

Mantua, fr. b. (0 city of Lom- 

mariposa, /.. butterfly. 

bardy, Italy, taken by the 

mann6rea, adj., marble, of 

French in 1797. after a fa- 


mous siege; also a poetic ap- 

marta./,, marten fur. 

Mh- pellation of Madrid.) 

^* Honuel, pr. n. m., Emanuel. 

Marte, pr. n. m., Mars Qhe 

Roman god of war). 

Manianares, j/r. n. (an iin- 

martUlar, to hammer. 

imporlanl rher -j-'kich passri 

martillo, m., hammer. 



^^^^r^ VOCABULARY 393 

■ Marttaei, ^r. .,, 

medida,/., measure; Smedida 

^P mSnir, m. and J., martyr. 

que, according as, in pro- 

martirio, tn., torture. 

portion as. 

muzo, m,, Maicb. 

medio, m,, middle, midst; en 

mas, canj., but. 

medio de, in the mid^t of. 

mis, adv., more, most; an- 

among, in company with. 

^^ other, 01 her; la&s bien, 

mediodla, m., noon, noonday; 

^m rather; no m&s. only; por 


^1 mfis que, however much, 

medir, to measure. 

^K although. 

meditar, to meditate, intend. 

^H mascarada, /., masquerade. 

medrosameote, adv., timidly. 

■ m4stel, m. (ar^A. for maste- 

medroso, adj., timid; dread- 

^F lero), topmast. 


mastio, M., mastiff. 

Mejico, pr. n. {the spMing 

nuitauua, /., slaughter, but- 

ttsed ojicially by Ike Mexi- 


can gavernment is Mfixico, 

matar, to bill. 

but the papular spelling is 


Hftteo, pr. n. m., Matthew; 

Mijico), Mexico (the only 

San Mateo (a lovsn in ike 

large Spanish - A merican 

districtoj La Victoria, Vene- 

country in North America; 

H^ suela). 

area, 767,000 square miles, 

^m aiateria,/., matter, material. 

or more than three times thai 

^B msternal or matemo, adj.. 

of France; population, about 

^^M maternal, motherly. 

15 millions, of ■u/hom Ikree- 

^H BUtlta, /., sprig. 

fourlhs are Indians or of 

^H BUtii, m., hue, tint. 

mixed blood. The scenery 

^H matrona, /., matron. 

of Mexico is very beaulifui. 

^V maro, ffi., May. 

and the climate of the ele- 

^B mayor, ad,., larger, greater; 

vated central plateau is 

^H largest, greatest; ». nt. pt., 

unexcelled. The City of 

^H ancestors, forefathers. 

Mexico is 7350 feet above 

^H mecer, to stir, sway, rock. 

sea-level, and has some 

^^K Ueco, ^. n. (a village 25 miles 

450,000 inhabitants). 

^H northeast 0/ Madrid) . 

mejilla,/., cheek. 




mejor, adj. and adv., better, 

merecer, to deserve. * 


mes, m., month. 

melancfilico, jdj., melancholy. 

mesa,/,, table; fare, v^ 

melena,/., long locks of hair; 

mesmo, arch, for ■ 

melindroao, adj., finical, fas- 

meaura, /., civUity; mi 


tion; gravity. ' 

melodioso, adj., melodious. 

meta,/., goal. 

melSn, m., musk-melon, car- 

meter, to put, fix; met«( 

tel oupe. 

to enter. i 

meloso, adj., honeyed, sweet. 

metrfipoU,/., metropoHJ 

roemoria, /., memory. 

Mezicano, adj., Meidca 

mendigo, m., beggar. 

Mexico, see Mfijico. \ 

menear, to stir, move, ply. 

mezdar, to mingle. • 

meogua, /., shame. 

mezquino, adj., petty,^ 

menos, adv., less, least; S lo 

wretched, unhappy 1 

menos, at least; ni menos. 

meamm) ' 

still less; prep, except. 

mezquita,/ , moique \ 

menospredar, to despiae. 

jfcre several masgin 

mente,/., mind, thought. 

Granada The one 1 

mentir, to lie, tel! a falsehood; 

mentido, false. 

ferrtd lo at p 2, I \ 

mentira, /., lie, faisehood. 

the mezquita real, it 

mentiroso, adj.. lying. 

mosque buill by, UohA 

menudo, adj., common, insig- 



It -was removed in ij)! 

mercader, m., merchant, 

part of its site is o^ 


now by the church afi 
Maria.) J 

mercado, m,, macbet, market- 


miedo, m., fear; dar rati 

mercancia, /., merchandise. 

to frighten. 

nierced, /., reward; fi merced 

miel, /., honey. 

de, at the mercy of; pi. 

miembro, m., limb. J 



^ VOCABULARY 395 ^^^ 

que, conj., while; mientras 

hapless; mean-spirited; n. 

no, until. 

m., scoundrel. 

miBB, /., ripe wheat or other 

miserablemeate, adv., wretch- 

graio; harvest; pL grain- 



miseria, /., misery, wretched- , 

mil, one thousand. 

nesa; destitution. j 

militar, adj., mUilary. 

mfsero, adj., miaerable, 

Milton, pr. n. (John MUton 

wretched; destitute. 

[160S-1674I, an eminent 

mismo, adj., same; very, own: 

English poet). 

lo mismo, the same thing; 


lo mismo que, the same as, 

just as. 

Minerva, /i-.n./. {Se^ under 

misterio, m., mystery. ^^J 


misterioso, adj., mysterious. . ^^^H 

miniBtro, m., agent, subordi- 

mlslico, adj., mystic. ^^^| 


mitad,/., half; middle. ^^M 

mirada, /., glance. 

miradero, m., watch-tower. 

lookout; (Miradero of To- 

li.39°^-i*^4], a great war j 

ledo, an eleiiated protnenade, 

chief of ancient Mexico, who 

in the northeastern part of 

conquered much territory and 

the city, and command- 

had himself declared em- 

ing a beautiful view of 

the Vega and the plains be 

rS2ol, emperor of the Aztecs 


at the lime of the Spanish 

conquest). ' 

room fropi which a fine view 

moda, /., fashion. 

is obtained). 

modelo, m., model, pattern. 

mirar, tr. to watch, see, look 

moderar, to moderate, curb. 

at, gaze at; inlr. to take or 

moderno, adj., modern. 

keep watch. 

modestia, /,, modesty, hu- 

Mirta,?r.«./., Myrtle. 

mility. 1 

mirto, m., myrtle. 

modesto, adj., modest, un-- 

miaerable, adj., miserable, 

pre tending. .j 

^V 396 VOCABULARY ^^^^^^^^ 

^H modo, m., method, manner, 

Spanish Monte Blanco), 

^V way exieiil de modo que 

pr. H. m., Mont Blant (i.i 

■ so th... 

France, about 40 miles 

modorra, /., drowsiness, stu- 

south of Lake Geneva; 


height, 15,781 >e(). 

modular, to sing with ease 

montero, m., tracker. 

and variety, moJulaie, 

mojor, to wet, moisten. 

morada, /., abode. 

mojino, m., hinny. 

mole,/., mass, bulk. 

morador, m., inhabitant. 

moraicel, m. (.an unknevm 


word, probably from some 

momiTGa, m., monarch. 

derivative of the Arabic root 

Uoncajo, pr. n. (a lofly 

rsl, "to send"; as mursal, 

mountain 60 miles west of 

"envoy"; murasil, " eorrt- 

Saragossa, ■which marks Ihe 

spondent "; or mirsfil, " mes- 

point oj union oj the an- 


cient kingdoms of Aragon, 

moral, m., mulberry- tree, . 

Navarre, and Castile). 

Moratin, pr. n. 

Mondova, pr. n. (usually 

morder, to bite. ' 

spelled Moncloa. The pla- 

morena,/., dark-haired girl. ' 

za de Honcloa is in the 

moreria. /., Moorish quarter 

north-western pari of Ma- 


drid, not far from Ike School 

moribundo, adj., dying. 

of Agriculture). 

morir {p. p. muerto), to die, 

monje, m., monk. 

perish; re^. to die. 

jnonStono, adj., monotonous. 

morito, m., little Moor. 

monstruo, m., monster, hide- 

moro, adj., Moorish; n, m. and 

ous creature. 

/., Moor, Moorish woman. 

mortal, adj., mortal, deadly; 

montar, to mount, ride. 

n. m., mortal, being. 

monte, m., mountain, mount; 

mosquear, to twitch. 

^^^^ pi., wooded hills. 

^^t. Mont-BlaDC {French name; in 

bundle of branches or pieces 



^^^^^r VOCABULARY 397 

^H of paper, fastened to a stick. 

m]ierto, p. p. of morlr, dead; 

^V to frighten away fiies; by ex- 

also, equals matado. 

^^^ letision, any object, orna- 

muestra, /., muster; pasar 

mental or otkeriche, used to 

muestra, to pass in review. 

drive fiies away). 

mujer,/.. woman. 

muladar, m., dunghill. 

mOBtrai, to show, disclose. 

multitud, /., multitude. 

mote, m., motto. 


mover, to move, stir, impel; 

mullido. p. p., soft, downy. 


^_ brandish; mover guerra. 

mundanal, adj., worldly, of _ 


^L make war; refi. to mo^■e. 

[he world. J 


^K movible, adj., moving, chan^'- 

mundo, m.. world. 1 



mufleca,/., doll. 1 


mtiraUa,/., wall. 


motion, power of muiion. 

murcielago, m., bat. 

moza, /., girl. 

murice, m., murex (mollusk 

mozo, HI., youth, lad. 

which furnished the Tyrian 


muthacha, /., girl. 

pnrplc); puip]e. 

mochscho, m., boy, tad. 

murmullo, m., murmur, rip- 


^H mob, throng. 

munnurar, tn murmur, purl; 

^L macho, adj., much, ereut. 

grumble, find fault, criti- 

^H many; adv., much, fur, 


■ very. 

muro, m.. wall. 

mndamente, adv., in silence. 

musa, /., muse. (Zm Greek 

mndanza, /., change, vuria- 

mythology, Ike muses wtre 
Ihr inspirers of song and 

^_ mudar, to change, alter. 

music. According to later 

^K mndo, adj., dumb, mute, si- 

Greek writers the muses were: 


Clio, history; CaUiope, epic 

^H siuela,/., molar tooth; mal de 

poetry; Polyhymnia, seri- 

^^1 mnelas, toothache. 

ous sacred song; Euterpe, 

^B muelle, oJj., soft; voluptuous. 

lyric poetry; Terpsichore, 

^H mnerte, /., death. 

the dance; Erato, erotic 



poetry; Mdpomene, tragedy; 
Thalia, comedy; and Ura- 
nia, astronomy.) 

mlisculo, m., muscle. 

musgo, m,, moss. 

mliEiEa, /., music; band, or- 

mustio, adj., sad, languid, 

tnuGulmin, m., Mussulman, 
mutuo, adj., mutual. 
muy, adv., very. 


Nabucodonoaor, pr. n. m., 
Nebuchadnezzar [the great 
king [rided b. c. 604-561?) 
of the Neo-Bahylonian em- 
pire, Tt'ho conquered a pari 
oj the Assyrian empire, 
Syria, and a pari of Egypt. 
He inas not only a great 
warrior, but also a great 
builder. Nebuchadnezzar 
look Jerusalem and carried 
many of the nobles and 
leaders into captivity. For 
this he was punished, ac- 
cording to Daniel iv, a, in 
I driven jn 


and did eat grass as 
to be born, spring up. 

arise; begin; bien nacido, 
of noble birlh, well bred. 

naciente, adj., growing. 

nacifin, /., nation. 

nacional, adj., national, 

nada, /., nothingnes.s, noth- 
ing; indef. pron., nothing. 

nadie, pron., no one, any- 

nao,/., ship, vessel. 
napolitano, adj., Neapolitan, 
naranjo, tn., orange-tree, 
nariz, /., nostril, 
natal, m., birthday, 
nativo, adj., native; inborn. 

natural, adj., natural. 

naturaleza, /., nature. 

naufragar, to be wrecked, suf- 
fer shipwreck. 

navaja,/., {large) knife, clasp- 
nave,/., ship, vessel; nave. 

navegante, m., sailor. 

navegar, to sail. 

navfo, m., vessel, ship. 

neblina, /., mist, fog. 

necesaiio, adj., necessary, 

neceEitar, to need to, must; 
need, require. 

nectfireo, adj., of nectar. 

negar, to deny, refuse. 

negociar, to drive a bargain. 




negro, adj. 

gloomy; n. m., negro. 

nel, an arch, form for en el. 

Nemrod, pr. n. m., Nimrod 
(" a mighty our in tkt 
earth " and " a mighty 
hunter before the Lord " 
{(hrtesis X. 8-9I]. 

Netzhoalcoyolt, or Nezaliual- 
cofotel, pr. n. w. ([?i403- 
1470], o *'«« of ancicHt 
Mexico, knoivn as " Ike 
great and wise." He wrote 
odes and hymns, some of 
which, it is said, were trans- 
lated into Spanish). 

ilMVadO, p. p., snowy. 

., neither, nor, not 

(»« iiUerrogatian) or; 

no s6 ni, I do not even 

Hiigaia, pr. n., Niagara (Hi- 
Hgara Falls; height of fall, 
160 feet; volume of water, 
180,000 cubic feet a second. 
Not the height of the fail, 
bat its width, and the great 
volume of water, make Ni- 
agara notable). 

idcho, m., niche, recess. 

niiio, m., nest. 

niebla, /., fog, mist. 

nleto, m., descendant; graad- 

, /., 

iw; {poetic) I 


niftez, /.. ihildhood. 

niflo, -a, m. and!., child, boy, 
girl; desde nifloE, from 
childhood; muy niflo, very 

noble, adj. and 11. m,, no- 

nobleza, /,, nobility. 

noctumo, adj., nocturnal, is- 
suing by night; n. m., noc- 
turne, serenade. 

noche, /., night; de noche, at 
night, by night; Noche- 
Buena, Christmas Eve. 

nogal, m., walnut-tree. 

nombrai, to name, mention. 

nombre, m., name, renown. 

nopal, n6pBlo, m., nopal, co- 
thineal cactus, prickly pear 

□orte, m., north, north wind. 

notar, 10 note, detect. 
notario. «., notary, 
noticia, /., news, 
noticloso, adj., informed, 
notoriedad, /., notoriety. 
nubairdn, «., heavy, dark 

nube, /., cloud. 
nublado, p. p., clouded. 




^H nublarse, to be covered by 

ocaso, m., setting, west. 

^P douds. 

ocddente, m., west, Occident. 

H^ Duca, /., nape of Lhe nceic, 

oceano, m. {the siren is ojlm 


made to jail on the penult), 

nudoBO, adj., knotty; slout. 

ocean, sea. 

HuBTH York, pr. n.. New 

ocio, m., leisure, idleness. 


oraltar, to hide, conceal. 

nuevo, adj., new; de nuevo, 

octUto, adj., hidden, secret. 

anew, again. 

ocupar. to occupy. 

numen, w., inspiration. 

oda, /., ode. 

numeroso, adj., numerous. 

odiar, to hale. 

nunca, adu., never, ever. 

odio, m., hate, hatred. 1 

nuncio, m., messenger, har- 

odioso, adj., hateful. 1 


ofender, to offend, anger. 

nutiir, to nourish. 

ofenaa, /., offence; hacer 

ofensa, to give oEfence. 

ofrecer, to offer; display. 

6, conj., or. 

ofrenda,/., offering, gift. 

ofuscar, to confuse, blind. 

objeto, m., object. 

darken; hide. 

obligBCi6ii, /., obligation. 

iohl inlerj., O! oh! 


oldo, m., ear; hearing. 

Obra,/., work, deed. 

oir, to hear. 

obscurecerse, to disappear. 

ojaU, adv. and co»j., would 

obsctlridfld, /., darkness. 

that, God grant. 

obscuro, adj., dark, gloomy; 

ojeador, tn., beater. 

i obscuias, in the dark. 

ojiva,/., ogive, pointed arch. 

ojo, m., eye. 


Ola, /., wave, billow. 

observar, to observe, scru- 

oler, to smell of, sniff. 

tinize, watch. 

oliva, /., olive-tree, olive 1 

^^ ocasifin,/., opportunity, occa- 



OUvares, pr. n. {See note to 

L ^^ 

p. IS.) 


olmo, m., Elm-lree. 

oibe, m., orb, heavenly body; 

olor, w., scent, perfunip, odor; 


de olor, odoriferous. 

orden, /., order, command; 

order {of knighthood, or 

forgotten; forectful. 


olvido, «., oblivion, forgelful- 

ordenar, to order, command; 

tiess; poner en olvido, lo 

ordenar de, dispose of 

forgei; poner olvido de, lo 

at will; ordenado, well-or- 

cause (0 forgcl. 

dered, serried. 

ominoso, adj., ill-omened. 

orear, 10 blow upon. 

omnipotenciB, /., omnipo- 

oreja, /., car. 


oifandad, /., orphanage, be- 


^_, tent. 

orgla,/., orgy. 

K onda, /., wave, ripple; pi. 

or^uUo, m., pride. 


orguIloso,fli(;., proud, haughty. 

^1 ondear. to wave. 

oriental, adj., oriental; n. m., 

^H opBCO, adj., opaque, thick; 

a poem dealing with orien- 

^H dim. 

tal life. 

^H opinio, adj., fruitful, rich. 

oriente, m., east, orient. 

^M oponerse (i), lo oppose. 

origen, m., origin, source. 


Opreaor, m., oppressor. 

orillas de, on the bank of. 

oprimir [p. p. oprimido aiid 

Orinoco, pr. n. (a large river 

0/ South Anitrica, flowing 

^B whelm, crush; press; opri- 

through Venctuela, except 

^B mido, pressed, tight. 

for a short distance, where U 

^H oproblo, m., infamy, disgrace. 

forms the boundary between 

^V opuesto, p. p., opposite. 

Venezuela and Colombia). 

Orizaba, pr. h. {the highest 

^V opulento, adj., opulent, rich. 

mountain in Mexico; height. 

■^ OM, adv., now. 

iS,205feel; about 150 miles 

oraciSn,/., prayer. 

east of the City of Mexico). 

oiOT, to pray. 

oris,/., fringe, border. 


^H orlar, to border, edge. 

paga, /., payment. 

^H oroar, to adorn. 

pagar, to pay, pay for; r^ 

^f oniato, m., ornament, adorn- 



pagoda, /., pagoda, Indian 

oro, f»., gold; gold coin; eomo 


im oro, spick and span, fine 

pajarillo, m., little bird, fledg- 

as gold. 


osar, to dare; osado, auda- 

pijaro, m., bird. 

cious, daring. 

paje, m., page. 

oso, m., beat. 

palabra,/., word. ' 

OBtentar, to display, show. 

palado, m., palace. 

otro, adj., other, another; 

Palas, pr. n.f., PaUas Athene 

otro que d, also, likewise; 

(.Rovtan Minerva; a Greek 

imo r otro, both; unos . . . 

goddess of [i| batiU and vic- 

otroa, some . . . others. 

lory, and later [2] oj learn- 

Otrora, adv.; en otrora, for- 

ing. The olive-tree was 


sacred to this goddess). 

otrod, adv., likewise, besides. 

overo, adj., blossom- or peach- 

pfilido, adj., pale, pallid. 

colored (said oj horses whose 

palma.,/., palm {of Ike hand); 

cool is 0/ while hairs mixed 

palm (tree); triumph; batir 

luilh sorrel or bay). 

las palmas, to clap the 


palmar, m., palm-grove. 

palmera, /., palm-tree. 

palmero, m., pilgrim, palmer. 

pacer, tr. to nibble, graze on. 

palmo. m., span {eight inches). 

paciencia, /., patience. 

palo, ™., stick. 

poclfico, adj., peaceful. 

paloma,/., dove. 

■ padecer, to suffer; n. in., suf- 

palpitar, to beat, thrill, vi- 

1^ fering. 


^^B pftdie, m., father; pi. parents. 

pan, m., bread. 

^^H ^Wlrttii, m., model; column 

panal, «., honeycomb. 

^^H -with inscription. 

pancista, «., one who tries to 


^^H stand well with all sides, 
^^^ trimmer. 

pandorga, /., kiic. 
pinico. adj., of Fan. (In 
Greek mythology Pan wns the 
god of herdi and shepherds 

»and itncuUitated nature. In 
\ ttrt he became attached to 
r Bacchus.) 
pantcra, /., panther. 

panza,/., paunch. 

pailo. m., cloth, hanging. 

papel, m , paper. 

par, adj., equal; S la par, 
equally; n. m., equal, peer; 
fi par, alike; a] par, equally; 
& par de, besides, 

para, prep., to, in order to, 
toward, for. 

paiada, /,, stop, halt. 

paralso, m., paradise. 

pfiramo, m., paramo (cold, 
deserted plateau); (hence) 

ParanS, pr. n. (a large river of 
South America which emp- 
ties inlo the Plata). 

parHT, tr. to iitop; Inlr. to stop; 
come out, end; reji. to stop. 

parasite, adj., sponging, para- 

porcha, /., common name of 
various flowers of the pas- 
sion-flower family. 



pardo, adj., dark gray, brown, 

parecer, to appear, seem; 
pareddo fi. like, resembling; 
parecerse fi, to resemble, 
pared,/., wall, 
paj'entesco, m., relationship, 
parias,/. pt., tribute, 
paiiente, m., relative. 
pfirpado, m.. eyelid. 
parque, m., park, 
parte,/., part, place; portoda 
parte, on all sides. 

party, supporters, 
to split, cleave; 
y, to set forth, de- 

., passenger, pas- 



pasada, /., passage, passing; 

de pasada, on the way. 
pasado, m., past. 
pasar, to pass, happen; fuera 

£ pasar, chanced to pass; 

refi. to come to an end; 

pasado, past; lo pasado, 

the past, past things. 
Pascua, pr. n. /., Easter. 
pasearse, to walk about. 
paseo, m., giut, walk. 
pasi6ii, /., passion, 
pasmar, tr. to astounri; intr. 

to be astounded; reJl. to be 

stupefied, stunned. 



paso, m., step, tread, pnce; 

pedazo, m., piece, part. 

way; al paso que, while, as; 

pedir, to ask, beg. 

mover el paso, 10 pate; 

Pedro, pr. n. m., Peter. 

salir al paso, to tome to 

pegado, p. p., close, clinging. 

meet; adv., softly, gently. 

Pelayo, pr. n. m. (0 leader of 

pastor, m., shepherd. 

the eighih century, who, after 

pastorcico, pastorcUlo, m., a 

the coming of Ike Moors. 

liule shepherd. 

took refuge ■with the remnanls 

patata,/., potato. 

of the Spanish army in 

paternal, adj., 0! a. father, pa- 

Asturias, and thence began 

ternal, fatherly. 

the iBOtk of reconquest. Los 

paterao, adj., of a. father, pa- 

Hijos de Pelayo = the 

ternal, parental. 


patio, m., court, yard. 

pelea,/., conflict, combat. 

patria, /., country, native 

pelear, to fisht, combat. 


pehgro m danger peni 

pena / h rdsh p pa n sor- 

patria orfj na e 

row -ifB ton trouble 

patrQn patr n sa n 

penacho m crest plun cs 

pausado adj u aim 

penar u suff r 

Paria pr Pa a (a 

pender hang be us- 

northern Italy Jikere I e 

r ended 

forces of Charles I of Spain 

peDd6n w flag banner 

aided by the Duke Of Bvu 

pendulo n pe dulum 

hort defeated the Fre ch and 

penetrar to penetrate 

capti red Franc si tn 535 

pavor HI fear dread 

pavorosa adj awful terr b e 

pensar h nk expect con- 

paz, / peace truce 

s der pensar en th nk of 

pensativo adj pen e 

pecado m sm 

peaa / ro L {arge) stone. 

pecho IB breast bosom 


heart r bu c dar pecho 

pefiasco m arge ock cl S 

to pi> tr bute 

peCn f foot sold er 



peor, adj., worse, worst. 

pequello, adj., small, insigni- 
ficant; Iff. Iff., child. 

Peranzules, pr. n. m. (friend 
and companion of Alfonso 
VI at the court of Alimcnon 
of Toledo). 

perder, to lose, waste; ruin, 
defeat; rejl. to be lost, dis- 

perdiddn, /., destruction. 

p^rdida, /., loss, thing lost; 
perder una p^rdida, to 
su£Fer a loss; perdido, lost; 
wildly in love; far away {pj 

perdonar, to pardon, excuse, 

perdurable, adj., everlast- 

perecer, to perish. 

peregrino, adj., strange, rare; 
ft. Iff., pilgrim, traveler. 

perejil, m., parsley. 

perejilera, /., parsley-gath- 

perennal, adj., perennial, per- 

perezoso, adj., lazy, idle. 

perfecddn, /., perfection. 

perfecto, adj., i>erfect. 

perfidia,/., perfidy. 

p^rfido, adj., perfidious. 

peifil, m., profile, outline. 

perfume, m., p>erfume, sweet 

pergamino, m., parchment. 

perjurar, to swear falsely, 
commit i>erjury. 

perla, /., i)carl; de perla, 

permanecer, to remain, en- 

permitir, to permit, allow of, 

pero, conj., but. 

perpetuamente, adv., forever. 

perpetuo, adj., perpetual, con- 

perra, /., female dog, bitch. 

perrilla,/., little dog. 

perro, m., dog, canine. 

perroso, adj. (coined word), 

perseguir, to pursue, perse- 

persona, /., person; grown 

personaje, m., distinguished 

perspicacia, /., sagacity, keen 

Peril (el), pr. ;/., Peru (a re- 
public on the west coast of 
South America; area, about 
700,000 square miles: pop- 
ulation, about 4.000.000. c»/ 
whom probably not more than 




^M 10 per crnt are wkUe. In 


^H Ptru and Mexico, where the 

pieza./,, piece; animal igame). 

^M ancient American cinUiza- 

pilar, m., pillar, column. 

^B tion had reached Us highest 

pimpoUo, w., shoot. 

^H developTneiil, the native races 

pincel, m., brush. 

^H have been most successful in 

piagiie, adj., rich. 

^F holding their euin. Lima, 

the capital, is near the coast, 

ered with pinea. 

and has some 115,000 in- 

Pino, m., pine. 


pintar, to paint; pintado, 

penumo, adj., Peruvian. 

painted, many colored. 

perverso, adj., perverse. 

pintoTBsco, adj., picturesque. 

pesar, m., sorrow, grief; & 

piBa, /., pineapple. 

pesar de, in spile of; i mi 

plo, adj., piebald. 

pesar, in spite of myself. 

piquets, /., pickaxe, pick. 

peser, to weigh; cause regret; 

pirfimide, /., pyramid. 

pesado, heavy, slow. 

pirata, m., pirate. 

peso, m., weight. 

Pirene, pr. n. m., Pireneos, 

peslQente, adj., pestilcnlial, 

pr. n. m. pi., Pyrenees (thi 


mountain range betiveen 

peto, m., breastplate. 

Spain and France). 

pez, m., fish' (alive and in the 

pisadof, m., prancing steed, 



piadoso, adj., pious, merciful. 

pisar, to tread upon. 

piar, to chirp, peep. 

placentero, adj., joyftU, con- 

picar, to prick, puncture. 

tented; pleasing. 

pico, m., pick; beak. 

placer, m.. pleasure. 

pie, m., foot; base; trunk (0/ 

pMcido, adj., placid, mild. 

^^ a tree); los de & pie, those 

plaga, /., plague, affliction. 

^^^ on foot; de pie, standing; 

planta, /., sole of the foot, 

^^B 1 ponerse en pie, to stand up. 

foot; plant. 

^B piedad,/., pity; piety. 

plantar, to plant; &x in. 

^m piedra,/., stone. 

plantel, m., nursery, garden. 

^^M pi^lago, m., open sea, sea. 

plaflidera, /., weeper, hired 

; de plafiideras, as pluma,/. 
3. plumaje, 
, adj.. Dlaintive. Po, Hr. i 


plaU,/,, silver. 
Plata, pr. h. m. (ike Bfo de la 
Plata [SUver River], the 

» broad esluary of the cam- 
bitted Farand and Uruguay 
rivers of South America, be- 
tween Uruguay and Ar- 
geatine. Monlenideo and 



ttano, m., banana-plant, 

pUtica,/., conversation. 
Plat6n, pr. n. m., Plato (a 

Greek pkUosopker [427-34; 

B.C.], hern en ike island of 


aya, /., shore, beach. 
|daza, /,, square, place; posi- 

pUuo, m., fixed time, limit. 
plebe, /., populiLce. 
plebefo, m., une of the lom- 

plectro, w., plectrum. 

ptegar, to fold. 

plegoiia, /,, prayer, suppjita- 

plenitud,/., fulness. 

pluma,/., feather, plume; pen. 

plumaje. hi., plume, crest. 

Po, pr. M. ((Ac largest river of 
Italy; rises in the Alps, 
fiovfs through Piedmont and 
Lombardy and along the 
southern borders of Veaetia, 
and empties into Ike Adri- 
atic) . 

poblar, to people, inhabit. 

pobre, adj., poor; barren. 

pobrecillo, adj., very poor, 
very modest. 

poco, adj., little, scanty; few; 
adv., little, a little; ft poCO, 
immediately; n. m., little, 

podadera, /., pruning- knife. 

poder, Lo be able, can, may; 
no puedo tanto, I cannut 
endure so much. 

poder, n. m., power; haber 
poder, to have authority. 

poderfo, m., might, domin- 

poderoso, adj., powerful, 

podredumbre, /., decay, cor- 

poema, m., poem. 

poesia, /., poetry, poesy. 

poeta, m., poet. 

politico, adj., politic, shrewd. 

polo, m., pole. 

polvo, m., dust. 




^B poma,/., apple; rubias po- 

poitia, /., persistence, ob- 

■ mas (de la patata), yellow 

stinacy; hacer 4 porfia, to 

^H tubers (nf the sweet po- 

vie with one another in 



^H pomo, m., Sask, vial. 

porfiar, to persist, insist; con- 

^B pompa, /., pomp, splendor; 


■ ceremony, pageant. 

porque, coiij., because, in 

pomposo, adj., splendid, ma- 

order that. 


portador, -ra, m. and J., 

poaderar, to exaggerate, ren- 


der emphatic. 

porte, m., carriage, demeanor. 

poner, to put, place; set down; 

portento, m., prodigy, mir- 

ponerse en pie, to arise, 


stand up. 

portero, m., gate-keeper, 

poniente, adj., setting. 

warder; usher. 

poniofla, /., poison. 

p6rtico, «., portal. 

popa,/., stern; viento enpopa, 

porvenlT, m., future. 

fair wind. 

pos, adv.; en pos, behind; en 

Popocatepec, or Popocate- 

pos de, after, behind; in 

petel, pr. n.. Popocatepetl 

pursuit of. 

(0 volcano about 40 mites 

posar, tr. to rest, let fall; inlr. 

southeast of the City of 

to rest, perch, alight. 

Mexico height ij yS^feil) 

popular adj popular of the 

posible alj possible. 


postendad / posterity, de- 

for, prep for through along 


across on it by to in 

postigo m shutter 

over; m order to as por 

postill6n m postilion. 

^^ Dioa, in heaiena name, 

postrar, to prostrate, humble; 

^^V por eso, on that account; 

overthrow; refi. to bow. 

^^m foi si, lest; to see if; por 

posbero, a^j., last, latest. 

^^1 tanto, therefore; por tierra, 

potente, adj., powerful. 

^^H ' on the grtiuod. 

Potosf, ^r. H. (0 mountain in 

^H pOTdlosear, lo beg, ask alms. 

Peru, rich In minerals). 

^^^^^r VOCABULARY 409 

potro m colt horse (<^ to 

presagio m presage to- 

four years M) 


pradera / neadow pr r e 

presea / precious art le, 

prado n mc do field 


precaucifin / precauL on 

presencia f presence 

preciado odj pr c oui 

br nf, before 

precioso adj pre oub beau 

presente adj [resent Hi 

t fill V Ity 

presente at present now; 

precipiciD m prec p c 

1 m present gift 

precipitar to dr e headlong 

presentar lo feel n ad ance, 

hasten r fl lo rush 

ha e a forebod ng of fore- 

precise adj necesuty 


prefenr to prefer 

presidente n prea dent pre- 

pregonar i pro U m 

s ding judge 

pregonero adj annuunc ng 

presidir to preside over 

of i cr cr 

preso (fj cap e 

pregunta f question 

prestar to lend add 

preguntar t ) ask 

presteza / speed haste 

prelado a prelate 

presto adti speed ly 

premio 1 re ard prize 

presumir to suppose 

prenda f pledge tuke 

presura f haste 

viluaUr ornament je I 

presuroso adj qu k has- 

en prendas de que 3 1 


plelfce that 

pretender lo endeavor ex- 

prendar harm 

pert tiis re 

prender 1 n fasten ap- 

prevenirse to make ready; 

t ale 

pre&ado adj prcgnint badei 

prensiSn f fores ght 

laden preiladoen 1 g v th 

primavera / spr ng 

chdrj,e(i th 

primero adj hrst earliest; 

preparar to prcpar make 

front {rank) 


pntnitivo lulj pnm ti\e 

presa / pre pr at 

pnmo ousm 

^M 410 VOCABULARY ^^^1 

^H primoeenito, adj., first-born, 

profesor, m., teacher, pro- 


fessor; one who pro- 

^H primor, m., beauty; beautiful 


^K handiwoik. 

profeta, m., prophet. 

^H piimoroso, adj., exquisite. 

profundo, adj., deep, pro- 

^B principal, adj., chief; cetc- 

found; lo profundo, the 

^^ brated, illuatriuus. 


principc, m., prince. 

prop-eso, m., progress. 

prmdpiar, to begin. 

prole,/,, offspring. 

principio, m., beginning, com- 

proloaear, to prolong; pro- 

mencemEnt; dar prindpio 

longado, prolonged, long- 

fi, to inaugurate. 


prisiSn, /., prison; imprison- 

promesfl,/., promise. 


Prometeo, fir. n. m., Prome- 

prisionero, m., prisoner. 

theus (the hero of a Greek 

pro, m. and /.; en pro de, in 

mylh thai ka! to do with the 

behalf of. 

origin of fire. As a punish- 

probar, to try, try to discover; 

metU for bringing Jin to 

taste, experience. 

man, Prometheus was bound 

to a column and visited daily 

proceder, m., conduct, be- 

by an eagle which ale his 


liver, until he was freed by 

'proceloso, adj., tempestuous. 

Hercules. In Aeschylus and 

procero, adj., tall, lofty. 

later poels, Promeihtus sym- 

procesifin, /,, procession. 

bolises the emancipator of 

proclamar, to proclaim. 

mankind from darkness and 

procuTHT, to try; aolicit; iiuc- 


ceed In; secure, obtain. 

prometer, to promise; prome- 

L prodigar. 10 lavish. 

tido, betrothed. 

m prodigioso, adj., marvelous. 

pronto, adj., ready; sudden, 

■ producir, to produce, cause. 

prompt; adt,, quickly, sud- 

f profanar, to profane, deiile. 


" protesar, to praiiise, pro- 

pronunciar, to pronounce, 


"'" M 

p .„..., „, 

^H propido,a*y., propitious, suit- 

puesto qtie, conj., although; 



pn^o, adj.. own; si propio, 

pugna, /., battle, cimflict. 


pujania,/., might, power. 

proponer, lo propose. 

proTB, /., prow. 


prooesuir, to continue. 

punta,/., point. 

punto, m., point, momeni; 

proBteruoi, to prostrate. 

al punto, immediately; k 

proterro, adj., perverse, per- 

punto de, at the moment 

sistent in evil. 


^Btopomi,/., first of dogs. 

punzante, adj., sharp. 

punzar, to prick. 

provocar, to incite, rouse. 

punzOn, m., punch, awl. 

puflal, m., dagger. 

prflzimo, adj., near, ready. 

pufio, m., fist; cufi; hilt. 

prodencia,/., wisdom. 

pupiU, /., pupil (0/ Ike 

pnidente, adj., prudent. 



pureia, /., purity. 

pniebB, /., proof. 

purgatorio. w,, purgatory. 

Prnsis, pr. n., Prussia. 

purificar, to purify. 

puWicar, to proclaim. 

puro, adj., pure; mere; do 

pudor, m., modesty, shame. 

puro eoamorado, purely 

pueblo, m., town; people; na- 

from love. 

^^L tion. 

piirpura,/., purple. 

^HvnMHe, «t. and/., bridge. 

puiplireo, adj., purple. 

^HfUVril, adj., boyish. 

puipurino, adj., purplish. 

^^K.paerta,/., door. 


^^H Puerto, m., harbor, refuge. 

^H pace, adv., well, of course. 

^^M Burely, then; |pues bien! 

que, relative proti., who. 

^^H welll come then! conj., 

which, that; conj., that, 

^^V since, for; pues que, a1- 

for, since; and; adv., than; 

^^M though, beciiuse. 

ique? what ! i« qu€? where- 




^L capt 

^H quiU, 


fore! [que! what! jqul del 

how many! 
quebrantai, to break. 
qnebrai, tr, to break; weaken, 

tarnish, dim; color que- 

brado, sallow color; hilr. to 

go bankrupt, 
quedar, to remain. 
quedo, adj., quiet, stQl. 
queja, /., complaint, la- 

quejarse, to fumplaiii, la- 

querella, /., complaint; quar- 

querer, to wish, desire, love; 

querido, dear, beloved, 
querube, m., cherub. 
quisn, pron., who, whom, 

whoever, he who, one who; 

(arch.) which; jquiin su- 

plera escribirl if I could 

quieto, adj., quiet. 

quimera, /., dream, imagina- 

quince, hfteeii. 

quinto, 6fth. 

quitar, to take away, take off, 
remove; quitar & uno la 
piiBi^Jn, release one from 

quilA, adv., perhaps. 

rabia, /., rage, fury. 
rabo, iR., tail. 
racitno, m., cluster, h\ 


ch of 

radionte, adj., radiant. 
radioao, adj., radiant, 
rajai, to cleave, split. 
rania, /., bough, branch. 
ramaje, m,, branches, 
ranial, m., branch, ramifica- 

ranio, m., bough, branch. 
RamSa, pr. n. m., Ray- 
ninda, /., iace trimming. 
rSpido, adj., rapid, swift, 
raro, adj., strange, unusual, 
rasgar, to rend, tear. 

rastrero, creeping, trailing. 
rastro, m., trace, veatige, 

rato, m., short space of Lime; 
& poco rato, in a little while. 

raudo, adj., swift. 

rayo, m., ray, thunderbolt. 

razfin, /., reason, reasoning; 

right, justice; word, 
razonar. to talk, < 
real, adj., royal. 



realidad, /., reality. 

realizar, to realize, bring to 

reanimar, to revive, bring to 
life; encourage, cheer. 

rebafto, m., flock, herd. 

rebelde, adj., rebellious. 

rebosar, to overflow. 

rebnunar, to bellow. 

recamado, m., raised em- 

recamar, to embroider with 
raised work. 

recatar, to conceal. 

recato, m., modesty. 

recelar, to fear, dread. 

recelo, m., fear, suspicion. 

receloso, adj., suspicious, dis- 

recibir, to receive. 

redente, adj., recent. 

rednto, m., inclosure, lim- 
ited space, precincts. 

redo, adj.y, hard. 

redinado, p. p., reclining. 

recobrar, to recover. 

recoger, to receive, gather up, 
pick up; draw in, press 

rec6ndito, adj., secret, con- 

reconocer, to recognize. 

recordar, to remember; re- 
mind, call to mind. 

recorrer, to pass over, pass 

recrear, to delight, gladden. 

recto, adj., upright, sane, 

rector, m., rector; priest. 

recuerdo, /ii., romomhrauio, 

rechinar, to creak. 

redyf.y net. 

rededor, m.; al rededor. en 
rededor, round uhoul. 

redend6n,/., redemption, sal- 

redentor, w., redeenuT. 

redondo, adj., round. 

reflejar, to relUn l. 

reflejo, w., relUviion, re- 
flected liKht. 

refrenar, to rherk. 

refugio, w., refuKe, Hheller. 

refulgente, adj., rertilgrn(« 

regalado, p. />., deliKhifiil. 

regar, to sprinkle. 

regenerar, to reKenetnle. 

regiamente, adv., rovnlly. 

regio, adj., royal, n%i\\. 

regi6n,/., reKJon, renlin. 

regir, to rule. 

registro, w., nt»te, entry. 

regocijo, m., joy, Kli»'l»»«*f*s. 

regodeo, ;«., joy. 

regresar, tu return. 

414 VOCABULARY ''^^^1 

rehuEai, to refuse. 

rencor, m., grudge, spite. 

reina,/., queen. 


reinado, m., reign. 

rendimieato, m., submission. 

rcinv, to reign, rule. 

rendir, to yield, render, sur- 

reino, m., kingdom, realm. 

render; produce; overcome; 

reir, to laugh; reiree (de), 

rendir culto fi, worship; 

laugh (at). 

rendir parias i, pay hom- 

reja,/., iron bars of a window, 

age to; rendido, subdued. 

grating; rejas de la calle. 

conquered, worn out; ob- 

gratings before the win- 

sequious, devoted. 

dows of the ground floor. 

renovar, to renovate. 

rej6ii, M., spear (/or bult-fig^h 



relSmpago, m., lightning 

retiir, to scold; reDJdo, hard- 



relegado, p. p., remote, un- 

reojo; mtrar de reojo, to look 


askance at. 

religiSn,/., religion. 

reparador, -ra, adj., recuper- 

reUquia,/., remnant, remains. 


reloj, m., clock. 

Teparar, to observe. 

relucieate, adj., glittering, 

repartir, to distribute. 


repasar, to examine, peruse. 

relucir, to shine, glow, glit- 

repetir, to repeat. 

,. ter. 

repUcar, to reply. 

^^k remate, m., pinnacle. 

reponty, lo answer; p. p., te- 

^^B remedlo, m., remedy, aid. 

puesto, secluded. 

^^m remero, tn., rower, oarsman. 

reposar, to rest, repose. 

reposo, m., rest. 

repugnancia, /. , repugnance. 

^H tex, eddy; crowd, throng. 

resefla, /., review, summary. 

^B remordimiento, tn., remorse. 

reservsr, to reserve, con- 

^^B remote, adj., remote, distiint. 


^V reiiacdente,aJj., renascent, re- 

resistir, to resist, withstand; 


resistirse £, the same. 


^H resonar, to resound, echo, ring 

refo, w., challenge. 

retorcerse, lo writhe; retor- 

reEopUdo, m., snort. 

cido, crooked. 


retonwT, to return; retomar 

leBpetable, adj., highly re- 

en sf, come to oneselt {arch. 



respetOT, to respect. 

retozar, to p[ay, romp. 

respeto, m., respect. 

retratar, to draw, copy, image, 


fespirar, to breathe, exhale. 

retrato, m., picture, image. 


retribtiir, to repay. 

retroceder, lo retreat, with- 



lesplandor, w., light, radi- 

retumbar, to resound, re- 



responder, to reply, answer, 

revelar, to reveal. 


reventar, to burst, esplode. 

responso, m., responsory for 

reyerberar, to reflect. 

the dead. 

reverdecer, to grow green 

respuesta,/., reply, answer. 

again, acquire new fresh- 

restar, to remain. 


restauTftnte, adj., restorative, 

reverencia, /., reverence, re- 



reatos, m. pi, remains. 

rev6s, m., reverse, defeat; a] 

resudtar, to revive. 

reves, on the contrary, in 

resuello, m., breath. 

opposite manner. 

resuelto, p. p., determined. 

revolucifln, /., revolution, up- 

retardar, to delay. 


retemblar, to shake, tremble. 

revuelta,/., winding, twisting. 

retirarse, to withdraw, retire; 

ie?uelto, p. p., restless; intri- 

retirado, retired, quiet, sol- 

cate, confused. 


rey, m., king. 

retiro, «., retirement, pri- 

rezar, to pray. 


rezo, m., prayer, devotions. 


^B Rhin, pr. »., Rhine {Ike pHnci- 


Rfidano, pr. «., Rhone (the 

H pal river of w,sUr« E,.ropr; 

principal river oj eastern 

^ rises in soulkerii SvAizer- 

Franct; rists in the Alps 

land, fiows Ihroiigk 'j.tsl- 

and empties into the Medi- 

ern Germany aiid Holland, 

lerratitan Sea; length, 504 

and implies into llie North 


Sea; Unglk, 760 miles). 

rodar, to roll. 

ribeia, /., baok, shore. 

rodear, to surround, encom- 

rico, adj., rich, exquisite. 


ridicule, adj., ridiculous. 

rodeo, m., winding. 

rielar, to glimmer, shine. 

rodiUfl, /., knee; de rodillas, 

rienda, /., rein. 

kneeling, on one's knees. 

riesgo, m., risk, danger. 

Rodrigo, pr. n. «i., Roderick. 

rifleio, m., riSeman. 

roedor, -ra, adj., gnawing, 

rigido, adj., rigid, stiff; firm. 

rigor, m., severity. 

logar, to ask, beg; pray. 

riguroso, adj., severe, harsh. 

rojo, adj., red, ruddy. 

rifi«,/., quarrel, fray. 

Roma, pr. n., Rome (i» an- 

rio, m., river, stream. 

cient times the capUal oJ the 

riqueza,/., riches. 

Roman empire, and now the , 

risa,/., laughter, laugh. 

capital oj the kingdom oj 

riBCOSO, a4j.. craggy. 

Holy. For centuries Rome 

ristre, m., rest (/or a lance). 

has been, with Jew inletrup- ' 

risueflo, adj., smiling, pleas- 

tions, the seal of power of the \ 


Roman Catholic Church). f 

ritmo, m., rhythm. 

romance, m., ballad {usually ' 

riiai, to curl, ripple. 

in oclosyllabic lines mth ai- { 

robar, to rob, plunder, take 

ternate assonance). , 

away; robar fi, steal from. 

romano, adj., Roman. 

robo, m., theft, plunder. 

romper, p. p. roto, tr. to 

robuEto, adj., robust, firm. 

break, tear, break open; 


rout, defeat; inlr. to break 

roca, /., rock, cliff. 

forth; re^. to break. ; 

rocfo, m., dew. 

ronco, adj., hoarse, harsh. 

^ ^' 


Roosevelt, pr. «. 

rumor, »., rumor, report; 

ropa,/., clothes. 

murmur, noise; .sound. 

ropaje, m., clothes, apparel; 

rumoroso, adj., loud, striking. 


rustico, in., peasant. 

ropfin, m., loose gown. 



losado, ii>i;'., rosy. 

RoEona, ^. «./., Rosanna. 

sabeo, adj.. of Sheba, Sabean; 

Rosario, ^. n. /. iliterally 

arbusto sabeo, coffee- bush 


(Mocha is in Soulkern Ara- 

Tosillo, mij,, roan. 

bia [Yemen], the ancient 

rostro, m., face. 


rozarse (con), to be intimate 

saber, to know, know how to; 


be able to, can; learn; n. m.. 

nibio, adj., golden, ruddy; 

knowledge, learning. , 

blonde, fair. 

eabiamente, adv., wisely, skil- 

rubor, m., shame. 


nido, adj., rude, rough, diffi- 

sabido, p. p., well-known. 


sabiduria, /., wisdom, knowl- 

ruego, m., entreaty, request. 


ruE«r, to wrinkle, furrow. 

Babio, adj., wise, sage; cun- 

rogido, m.. roar. 


rugiente,odj., roaring. 

sabor, m., savor, taste. 

niginoGo, adj., rusty. 

sacai, to draw out, set free, 

nigir, to roar. 

obtain. ^^m 

rugoao, adj., wrinkled. 

EBcerdote, tn., priest. ^^^H 

ruido, !»., noise, clamor; mur- 

saciar, lo satiate. ^^^| 


sacriflcio, ni., sacrifice. ^^^| 

ruidosD, adj., noisy; widely 

sacrosanto, adj., sacred. 


sacudir, to shake; shake off; 

ruina,/., ruin, downfall. 


ruisefior, m., nightingale. 

saeta,/., arrow. 

Biiiz, pr. >i. 

EaeUa, /., loophole. ^^^M 

rumbo, m., course. 


sagaddad, /., sagacity. ^^^| 


^V sagrado, adj., sacred. 

Banguinoso, adj., bloody; 

^H sajar, to make a. cut in flesh, 


^^ slash. 

San Juan, pr. n.. Saint John; 

^B sajfin, -^na, adj., Saxon. 

Saint John's Day IJunen). 

H sal,/., salt; wit. 

santo, adj., saintly, blessed, 

H sala,/., hall, parlor. 

sacred, holy; n. m., saint; 

^H salida, /., departure, setting 

saint's day. 


santtuuio, ni., sanctuary. 

siKr, to go out, come out. 

safla, /., anger, passion, fury. 

issue, depart; occur; rise 

safioso, adj., furious, angry. 

(0/ the suii); salir de, 

sailudo, adj., furious, angry. 


saraiiento, m., runner, shoot. 

salmfin, m., salmon. 

sama,/., mange. 

B«I6n, IB., hall, parlor. 

samoso, adj., mangy. 

salpicar, to sprinkle. 

BatinJCO, adj., satanic, devil- 

saltedor, -ra, adj., leaping. 


saltor, to spring, leap, hop; 

sateute, m., satellite, foUower, 

rebound; se le saltan las 


laerimas, tears spring to 

sfitira,/., satire. 

her eyes. 

satlrico, adj., satirical. 

flalterio, m., psaltery. 

Sfttisfaccidn, /., satisfaction. 

salud,/., health; jsaludl hailt 

satisfacer, to satisfy; humor, 

saludable, adj., salutary. 

grarify; repay; f. p. satis- 

saludar, to salute, hail. 

fecho, satis6ed, content. 

saludo, m., salutation. 

sauce, nt,, willow. 

salva,/., salute, welcome. 

sayal, m., coarse woolen 

salvaje, adj., savage. 


Balvar, to save, preserve. 

Bozonar, to season; ripen. 

isalvel inlerj., haill 

secar, to dry, wipe away, dry 

salvo, adv., saving, barring. 

up; parch, wither. | 

san, abbreviation of santo. 

seco, adj., dry, withered. 

^ sangre,/., blood; race, family. 
^^ ^angriento, adj., bleeding. 

parched. " 1 

secreto, m., secrecy; secret. 

^^B bloody; cruel) blood-red. 


secular, adj., century-old. 

m .,..,., ., 

^f: sed. /., thirst. 

sencillo, adj., simple, artless; 

■ aeda,/.,silk. 

of less value {coins). 

senda, /., path. 

Gediento, adj., Ihirsting. 

seno, m., bosom, breast; em- 

sedoso, adj., silky. 

brace; depths; womb. 

seguir, /r. to follow, pursue; 

sensible, adj., sensitive; 


ensue, ' 

sentar, to seat; establish, fix. 

seg&a, prep., according to; 

brand; rejl. to sit down. 

conj., according as. 

sentenda,/., sentence, doom. 

segimdo, adj., second. 

sentendar, to sentence. 

segur,/., axe; sickle. 

sentido, m., sense, senses. 

de seguro, assuredly; tnal 


seguro, unsafe, insecure, un- 

sentir, to feel, perceive, hear; 

certain, in danger; n. m., 

grieve, mourn, regret. 


sefial,/., signal, sign; portent. 

sefiw {more often spelled 

seaalar, to point out. 

ceiho), «. «., silk-cotton 

seflor, m., sir, Mr., gentle- 

tree {eriodendron aafraclu- 

man; lord, master. 

osum, a Jlaweriag tree of 

seflora, /., lady, mistress. 

South America). 

seflorio, w., domain. 

seis, six. 

seBuelo, m.. lure, enticement. 

selva, /., wood, forest. 

separar, to separate, part; 

sellar, to seal, end. 

rejl. to be separated, shoot 

seUo, m., seal, mark. 


aemana, /., week; septenary. 

sejmlcro, «., tomb, grave. 

semblonte, m., face, counte- 


. nance. 

Bembrar, to sow, strew. 


seme jar, to seem, appear. 

Egquito, w., retinue. 

Bempiterno, adj., eternal, last- 

ser, to be; es de ver, one 


should see; n. m., existence, 


^ 1 



being, essence; person; no 

inhabitants, on the river 


aer, non-eiistence, nolhing- 

largest and weaUhiest town 

serailn, m., seraph, angel. 

in A ndalusia. Formerly an 

serenaU,/., serenade. 

important Moorish capital. 

sereno, adj., serene, quiet. 

it ■u-as taken by the Christian 

self- possessed. 

Spaniards under Si. Ferdi- 

serio, adj., serious. 

nand in 1248). 

wnflnaj., mountain-girl. 

Shakespeare, pr. ». (William 

Serrando, pr. n. (The ruins 

Shakespeare U ^f,i-jf,\(,]. 

of the castle oj San Serrondo 

the greatest nf English dra- 

matic poets). 

heigMs oJ IhK left bank ej 

si, conj., if, whether; por si. 

the Tagus, opposite Toledo. 

to see if. 

Some ingenious wrilers kane 

si, adv., yes; otrori, see 

attempted to trace the origtn 


of the name 0} CervanUs 

siempre adv., always, ever. 

hack to the name of ih,i 

Giempieviva, /., everlasting, 

castle, which was ereUed by 


Alfonso VI.) 

Bien / temple. 

serricio, m., servjce 

Bierpe f terpent, snake. 

Bervidor, «.. servant, wooer. 

Bierra, /., mountain-range. 



servidnmbre, /., slavery, ser- 

Bierro, -a, m. andf., slave. 

vitude, service. 

siete, seven. 

senrU, adj., slavish, of servi- 

siglo, ni., century, age. 


signo, m., sign, symbol, sign 

■ervir, to serve, pursue. 

of the zodiac; character. 

Beeo, m., brains, sense, wis- 

B^juiente, adj., following. 


silbar, to whistle. 

severo, adj., severe, stern, 

sUbato, m., whistle. 



silbido, m., whistling; sough- 


SeviUa, pr. n., Seville (u 



Spanishcityof some 150,000 

silencio, m., silence. 


adj., sibr 

/., a particular verse- 
form {having lines of 7 and 
II syllabtei in lenglk, with 
fret Hmc)\ a composition in 
such verse-form. 

Bilvestre, arf/., wild. 

sills, /., saddle. 

Billfin, m., arm-chair. 

simbollzar, to symbolize, 

^mbolo, m., symbol, type. 

ain, prep., without; sin que, 
cDBj., without. 

EinceTO, adj., sincere. 

siniestra./., left hand. 

Bino, conj., but, cscept, un- 

sinsabor, m., trouble, trial. 

siquiera, conj., whether. 

Birte,/., syrtes, whirlpool. 

Bitio, «., place, site, spot. 

so, prep., under, beneath. 

soberano, adj., sovereij^n, su- 
preme; highest, topmost; 
n. m. and}., sovereign. 

Boberbia,/., arrogance, pride. 

soberbio, adj., proud, lofty. 

SObrai, to be more than is 
necessary; me sobra, I have 
more than enough. 

Bobre, prep., on, upon, above, 

sobremanera, ddv.. extremely, 
sobrepuesto. m.. [aciiig. 
Eobresalir, to be supreme, 

sobresalto, m.\ con Eobre- 

salto, suddenly, with a 

sobrevenjr, to arrive, ap- 

Bobiino, -a, m, aiidf., nephew, 

sociedad, /,, society, 
sofocar, to .stifie. 

solamente, adi'., only, alone. 

solazar, to Eolacc, relieve. 

soldado, m., soldier. 

soledad, /., solitude. 

solemue, adj,, solemn, grand. 

Boler {defecline verb used only 
in present and imperfect 
lenses), to be wont, use. 

Bolfear, to drone out. 

solicitai, to try. 

Bolltaiio, adj., solitary, lonely. 

solito, adj., all alone. 

solo, adj., alone, single, soli- 
tary; i solas, alone. 

s61o, adv., only; tan s6Io, 
solely, only. 

soltar, to let go, drop; un- 


sodostr, to sob. 

BOllOlO, M., sob. 

sas^;ai, to rest; sosegado. 

^_ sambra. /., shadow, shade, 

quiet, peaceful. 

^^L darkness; spirit. 

soslayo; al soslayo, sidem'se. 


sombrero, «., hat. 

sombrfo, adj., gloomy, dark, 

sostener, to sustain, hold up. 



son, w., sound, noise. 

Soto, pr. n. ( = grc7w, IkUkd). 

SOnuile, adj., sounding, son- 

orous; rustling. 

(pari of ConslaminopU). 

BOiux, to make a noise, sound. 

suave, adj.. soft, smooth. 


subir, I,, to L-limb; .W. to 

sonelo. «., sonnet. 

rise, mount. 

sonido, m.. sound. 

saUto, adj.. sudden; de ad- 

sonoro, adj., loud, sonorous. 

bito, suddenly, unexpect- 



sublime, adj.. sublime. 

sonmr. (also reji.) eo smile. 

suceder, to happen; suceder 

i. succeed, follow. 

sonrojo. m.. blush. 

sncesa. ■•..ex-ent. 

sndo, adj., dirty- 

soflar. 10 dream, imagine; 

sncumbir, to die, perish. 

sojiar ea. con, dream of. 

sudario, m.. shroud. 

soplar. to blow. 

Mdor, m., sweat. 

soplo. M., blast, gust, breath. 

snelo, <■-, ground, earth, smi. 

sopor. ■>., letharg)-, hea\-y 



SDclto, p. p., loose, flowing; 

sart>», to suck. 

separate; at large. 

S<H*>. aJj.. deaf; noiseless. 

snello, M.. sleep, slomba; 

silent, stiSed; duQ; linia 

dream. vH^on. 

sarda. m lima. 

snerte, /.. chance, lot, fate; 

good fonuDe; slate; way, 1 

^^^ upon suddenly, overtake. 





siifrir, to suffer, endure, per- 

suicida, m., suicide {one who 
commUs self-murder). 

sujetar, to subdue, conquer. 

sujeto, adj.y fastened. 

sultana,/., sultana, sultaness. 

sumir, to plunge, submerge. 

sumiso, adj.y submissive, obe- 

sumo, adj., highest, supreme. 

superar, to surmount. 

superior, adj.^ superior, up- 

superstici6n, /., superstition. 

suplicar, to entreat; iperdido 
suplicar! vain supplication! 

suplicio, m.j place of execu- 

supuesto; per supuesto, of 

surcar, to furrow, plow. 

surco, m.y furrow. 

surgir, to issue, come forth. 

sursum corda {Latin) ^ lift up 
your hearts. 

surtidor, m.y jet, spout. 

|sus! interj.y sick him! 

suspender, to hang. 

suspense, adj.y hanging; in 
admiration, in doubt. 

suspirar, tr. to sigh forth; long 
for; intr. to sigh. 

suspire, m.y sigh. 

sustentar, to support. 

sustento, m.y support; nour- 

susto, m.y fright. 

susurrar, to murmur, rus- 

sutil, adj.y cunning, skilful; 

tabardo, m.y tabard {a longy 
loose outer cloak). ^ 

tafet&n, m.y thin silk, taffeta; 
pi. woman's ornaments. 

taimado, adj.y sly, cunning. 

tajador, -ra, adj.y sharp. 

Tajo, pr. n.y Tagus {the longest 
river in the Spanish penin- 
sula; it rises in the Albarra- 
cin mountainSy skirts the 
provinces of Guadalajara 
and Madridy flows about 
Toledo y crosses Portugaly 
and empties into the Atlantic 
at Lisbon). 

tal, adj.y such, the following; 
el tal, the aforesaid. 

talar, to lay waste, ruin. 

talento, m.y talent, mind. 

talle, m.y figure. 

taller, m.y workshop, factory. 

tallo, m.y stalk, stem. 

tambien, adv.y also. 

tambor, m., drum. 




^H twnpoco. <tdv., neilher, (u//f 

techo. m., roof, celling. 

^H negalitt) eilbcr. 

lechtimbre,/., ^higk) roof. 

H taa, adv., so, so much. 

tedio, m., eoDui, loalbiog. 

^H TinUlo, ^. ft. m., Taotalus. 

tejer, lo weave. 

^^M (Acrording to Cretk Ugrnd, 

tekraaa,/,, cobweb. 

^H Tanialus. having egendtd 

telilla./., membrane. 

^H Ikt gods, iBos cast into Tar~ 

temblar. to tremble, shake. 

^H taru!, and Ikirt punished. 

temblor, m.. tremor, thrill. 

^H Ont version has il thai he 

^H siotd in pool ichost aatrrs 

tenier. to fear, be frightened. 

receded aheneter he sloaped 

temertSn, -ona. adj., rash, dar- 

to dnnk^ ahUe mer his head 


hung dusters of fruit that 

temeroso, adj., tearing, timid. 

kept beyond his reach.) 

temor, m., fear- 

tMlto, adj.. so miiA, as much; 

tempestad./., tempest, storm. 

otTRS tantas, an equal num- 

tempestuoso. adj.. tempestu- 

ber; adu.. so much; en 


tanto. meanwhile; en tanto 

.templar, to soothe, allay. 

que, while; un. tanto, some- 

calm; temper, prepare; 

what, a Utile. 

tone; rerf. to reslr^n one- 

tapar, to cover, veil. 


tapete. m-, cover, clolh. 

templo, M., temple, church. 

tapta./., mud waU, wall. 


b^iar. to waU in. 

tenqnna. adj., eariy, pre- 

^K tapiz. m., tapestry. 


^ft tardar, to delay, be slow in 

tenai, adj., stubborn, obsti- 

^^H . coming. 

nate; heavy (0/ sleep). 

^^^L taide, adj., late; ». /., after- 

tender, to spread, spread out. 

^^H noon, evening. 

■ eitend, display, sttetch 

^^1 taiAo, adj., late, tardy. 

out; tender d vnelo, lake 

^^H taido. adj., slow, tardy. 


^H tana./., task. 

tenebroso. adj.. gloomy, shad- 

^V TmOt, pr. m. m. 


^m tM,/., torch. 

tener, to have, hold, poasass. 



keep; tener por, consider, 
deem; tener que, have to, 
be compelled to; refi. to 
stop, halt. 

teair {p. p. tinto), to tinge, 
color, stain, dye. 

teocalli, or teucali, m., teo- 
calli (an Aztec stone temple y 
built on a truncated pyra- 
mid; by extension^ the pyra- 
mid. The pyramids now 
standing at Cholula and at 
San Juan de Teotihuacdn 
are the largest in Mexico. 
The former is covered with 
earthy and much resembles a 
hill. On its summit a Chris- 
tian church has been erected. 
The pyramid at San Juan de 
Teotihuacdn^ near Mexico 
Cityy has been cleared of 
earth and debrisy as have 
also the homes of the priests 
about it. This pyramid is 
nearly as large as that of 
Cheops in Egypt). 

Teodoro, pr. n. w., Theodore. 

Tequendama, pr. n. (a large 
waterfall 12 miles west of 
Bogotd, Colombia, and at 
an altitude of Sooo feet above 
sea-level; the water falls 455 

tercero, adj., third. 

tercio, m., regiment {in i6th 
and lyth centuries). 

terdopelo, w., velvet. 

Teresa, pr. n. /., Theresa. 

termino, m.y boundary, limit; 
bounds, space; pi. territory, 

temtira, /., tenderness, affec- 

terrenal, adj., terrestrial, 

terreno, adj., earthly. 

terrestre, adj., terrestrial, 

terrible, adj., terrible, awful. 

terrifico, adj., terrible, fright- 

terror, m., terror. 

terso, adj., smooth. 

tesoro, m., treasure. 

testigo, m.y witness. 

tetrico, adj., grave; crabbed. 

tez, /., complexion, face. 

tibio, adj., warm, mild, soft. 

tiempo, m., time; & un tiempo, 
at the same time; en un 
tiempo, once. 

tiemo, adj., tender, kind, 

tierra,/., land, earth, ground, 

tigre, m., tiger. 

timbre, m., device, crest; 

^V 426 VOCABULAKY ^^^^^^H 

^M Qmido, adj., limid. 

todo, adj., every, all; R. m.. 

^m tmUSn, m., helm, rudder. 

everything, whole. 

^* tmiebla. /. (generally pi.), 

toisfiD, m. (French); tois6n de 


too. Golden Fleece (in 

tioo, n., judgment; sis tino, 

Greek tradition, the fieece of 


the ram Chrysomallvs, the 

tmtft,/., color, tint; ink. 

recovery of which wai the 

tiranfa, /., tyranny. 

pur pose of the At gonautic ex- 

tinmo. adj., tyrannical, op- 

pedition. The golden fiuce 

pressive, overwhelming; it. 

has given its name lo a celt- 

«., tyrant. 

bratsd order of knighthood in 

tiMT, to throw, toss. 

Austria and Spain, founded 

Tiro, pr. n.. Tyre (ike most 

in Burgundy in 1430). 

important city and seaport 

Toledano, adj., Toledan, of 

oj ancUnl Phoenicia). 


Tirtoo, pr. n., Tyrtaeus (a 

Toledo, pr. ». f. (an ancient 

Creek lyric poet of the sevenlh 

mailed Iou'h in NeTf Castile. 

century B.C., famous for kis 

situated on a granite hill 

political elegies and march- 

nearly surrounded by the 

ing songs). 

deepgorge of the Tagus; pop- 

TMn, pr. »., Titan. (In 

ulation now. about 20,000. 

Greek mythology, the Titans 

Toledo was an important 

awe the famUy from which 

capital during the rule of the 

sprang Cronos and his son 

Visigoths and of the Moors; 

Zeus, kings of the gods. 

it was captured by the Chris- 

Those Titans who rebelled 

tian Spaniard sunder Alfonso 

against the rule of Zeus vere 

VI of Castile and Leon in 

conquered and cast into 

1085, and was for some time 


the capital of Spain). 

toca,/., head-dress, hood. 

Tolstoy, pr. n. (Count Leo 

tocar, to touch; toll, ring, 

Tolstoy li&2S-igio]. a fam- 

blow, sound. 

ous Russian author. Among 

toda»fa, adv., yet, stiU; never- 

his teachings is that of pas- 


sive resistance). 


tomar, to take, get, receive. 

lorreado, p. p., turreted. ^KM 

tomiUo, m., thyme. 

torrente, n>., torrent. ^^| 

topado, m., topaz. 

torre6n, m., strong tower. " t 

toque, m., peal, ringing, 

tfirrido, adj., torrid. 


tortolica, /. {dim. of tfirtoU), 

torbellino, m., whirlwind. 

turtle-dove. ■ 


torvo, adj., stern, grim. 

torcer, to turn; wind, bend. 

tosco, adj., coarse, rough. 

tordtco, m. (dim. of tordo), 

tostado, p.p., rich snd dark 


irf color). 

toril, «., bull-pen. 

trabajo, m-, labor, work, toil. 

tonnenta, /., storm, tempest. 

trabar, to join; trabar la 


bataUa, join battle, begin 

tonnento, m., pain, anguish. 

tbe fight. 

tonuentoBO, adj., stormy. 

tradicifin,/., tradition. 

Tonnes,^, n. (0 riverlhatrhes 

traer, to bear, bring, carry, 

in Ike Credos mountains near 

drag, swing. 

Aviia, and, Jlowng Ihtough 

traficar, to barter. 

Salamanca, emplies into the 

tragar, to swallow, swallow 


up, devour. 

tornar, tr. to turn; return, re- 

trfigico, adj., tragic. 

store; inir. to turn, return; 

traicifin,/,, treason, treachery. 

tomar en rf, come lo one- 

traicionero, adj., treacherous. 

self, recover consciousness; 

tiaidoi, -ra, adj., treacherous, 

rejl. to return; (-j-iVA or 

traitorous; n- m., traitor. 

mlhout en) become. 

trallla, leash; mozo de tratUs, 

tomasolado, p. p., iridescent. 

keeper of hounds. 

tamo; en tomo, round about; 

trajo, m., costume, dress. 

en torno de, around, about. 

trance, m., peril; crisis; last 

tors, m., bull. 

moment of life. 

toipe, adj., base; stupid, 

clumsy, unskilled. 

transitorio, adj., transitory. 

torre,/., tower, turret; Torres 

BenneJBB, ste bcnnojo. 


ency, limpidity. 



transparente, adj., transpar- 

trapo, m.. rag; sails; t todo 

trapo, with all sails set. 
tras, prep., behind, after, 
traspasar, to traverse, cross, 
traspouerse, to set (0/ Ihe 

tratar, ir 



traT#s; fi traves de, al travea 
de, through* de traves, 

trazai, to draw, sketch. 

tregua, /., truce. 

tremecfo, nt. (=caballo de 
Tlemcfin, a hoTse from 
Tlemcen, a cily in Algeria, 
80 miles soulhivesl of Ornii), 
Arab steed. 

tremendo, adj., awful, grand, 

tremer, to tremble. 

tremulo, adj., shaking, trem- 
bling, Lremulous. 

trenza, /.. tresses; braid. 

trepador, -ra, adj., climb- 

trepar, to climb, mount. 

ktribu, /. 

tributar, to pay the tribute of, 

tributo, m., tribute. 

tricolor, adj., cricolored. 

triste, adj., aad, sorrowful, 
wretched, dismal, mourn- 
ful; trifite de ti, alas for you, 

tristemente, adi'., sadly, 

tristeia, /., sorrow, gloom, 

triunfal, adj., triumphal. 

triunfar, to triumph. 

triunfo, m., triumph, ' 

trompa, /., horn, 
trompeteria, /., trumpets.^ 
tronante, adj., thunderou| 
tronar, to thunder, 
troncD, m., trunk; log. 

tropa, /., troop, throng, 
tropel, m., rush; crowd, troop. 
tropical, adj., tropical. 
trSpico, m., tropic. 
tropiezo, m., slip, fault. 

tnicha,/., trout, 
trueno, m., thunder, thur 

tudesco, adj., German. 
tumba,/,, tomb, grave, 
tumbo, ffi., fall; pL, rapiji 
tfimido, adj., swollen. 



ttunulto, m., tumult, uproar. 

dnico, adj., sole, only. 

turoultuoso, adj., lumultuouB. 

unifoime, m., uniform. 

tundir, to cudgel, drub. 

uiii6n,/., union. 

hino, adj., roguish, "rasciti I y. 

unir, to unite, add; unido El 

tupldo, adj., thick, luituriani. 

suelo, close to the ground. 

turba,/., throng. 

imlverBal, adj., universal. 

turbar, to disturb, trouble, 

complete; of the universe. 


umverBO, m., world, universe. 

turbio, adj., muddy, turbid; 

ufia,/., nail. claw. 

indistinct; dusky. 

urbano, adj., courteous. 

turbtilento, adj., turbulent. 

Timfl, /., t»bt — 

turgente, adj., swollen, swell- 

Uruguay, pr. n. {Ike smalUsl 


republic of South America; 

Turk, pr. a. (anolker name 

on the east coast between 

0/ the rhrr Guadalaviar, 

Argentine and Brazil; area. 

wkkk rises in the Albarra- 

about 72,000 square miles; 

population, about 1,100,000. 

inlo the Mediterranfan afler 

The capital, Montevideo, is 

Jloviing through Valencia). 

the most important seaport 

tumar, to alternate. 

in South America, and the 

tutelar, adj., tutelary. 

fourth or fifth largest in 

shipping of the world; it 

has sanir 330,000 itihabi- 



nfono, adj., proud; cheerful. 

usar, to use, wear; caminos 

ulcerado, p. p., ulcerated. 

por usar, untrodden ways. 

filtimo, adj., last. 

uso, m., usage, custom. 

ultrajar, to insult, maltreat, 

uva, /., grape. 


ultraje, m., outrage. 


mnbilo, adj.. shadowy, dark. 

undoso, adj., wavy, billowy. 

vacilaote, adj., wavering, 

undulftr, to undulate, ripple. 


rise and fall. 

vaciUr, to hesitate. 




Tufo, adj., empty, void; b. 

vano, adj., vain, empty, idle, 

m., void, empty space. 

useless; conceited; en vano, 


in vain, useless. 

vagor, lo wander, roam. 

vapor, m., vapor, mist, spray. 

vagaroso, adj., errant, wan- 

vaporoBO, adj., misty. 


vara,/., yard {.about 33 inches). 

vago, adj., wandering; vague. 

Vargas, pr. .;. 

valv^D, m., wavering, vacilla- 

vario, adj., various, different, 



vajiUa,/,, table-service, china. 

varaoil, adj., manly, virile. 

ValencU, pr. n. (a city oh Ike 

vasallo, m.. vassal, subject. 

fast coa^l of Spain; popula- 

yaso, m., glass, vase, jar. 

tion, about 213,000). 

vSstago, m., stem, sucker. 

valentfa, /.. valor, gallanlrv. 

valer, to be worth; mfia vde. 

vecino, adj., neighboring. 

it is better. 

near, close. 

valla, /., worth, excellence. 

vega,/., meadow, plain. 

valiente, adj., valiant, brave. 

keen, fervent. 

by compulsion. 

veinte, twenty. 

TEtlona,/., broad rolling collar. 


valor, m., valor, courage; 

vela,/., sail; candle, taper. 

value, worth, price. 

velar. It. to veil, cover; inlr. 

ValladoUd, pr.n.{a town in Old 

to watch, be awake, keep 

Castile; papulation, about 

vigil; velar por, to watcb 

65,000; for a lime, the capi- 


tal of Spain under Philip 11 

Velarde, pr. n. (Pedro Ve- 

and Philip HI). 

larde |i77g-i8o8], a dis- 

yalle, m., valley, vale. 

linguiihed Spanish cavalry 

ojicer who led the revolt 


against the French, May 2, 

vtodalo, m., vandal. 

1808, and lost his life. To 

vanidad, /., vanity, ostenta- 

Velarde and Daoiz, several 


years after their death, the 


3000 feel above sea-level. 

General was graaled by the 

and has some 100,000 in- 



velero, adj., switt-aailing. 

vengador, -ra, udj., aveng- 

veleta,/., wealher-cock, vane. 


velo, m., veil. 

veloz, adj., swift. 

vengar, to avenge. 

vell&i, m,, fleece. 

venir, to come, come upon. 

velludo, m., rough velvet. 

ventaja, /., advantage; Uevar 


de ventaja fi alguien, to 

vencedor, -ra, adj., conquer- 

have the advantage over 

ing, victorious; M. m. and 


ventana, /,, window. 

rencer, to conquer, triumph; 

Ventura, /., fortune, good tor- 

vencido, conquered, sub- 

tune, happiness; chance; 


por Ventura, by chance; sin 

vendavBl, m., strong wind 

Ventura, unfortunate. 

from the sea.. 

venturoso, adj., happy, fortu- 

vender, to sell. 


veneno, m., poison. 

Venus, pr. n. f. {in classical 

veneaoBO, adj., venomous, 

mythology the goddess of 


love [Greek Aphrodite]; one 

venerable, adj., venerable, re- 

legend has it thai she sprang 


from the sea-foam which 

veneraciOn, /., veneration. 

gathered about the malUated 

venerar, to respect, honor. 

Uranus) i estreUa de Ve- 

VraenieU, pr. ». (a r^piMk 

nus, {the planet) Venus. 

on the northern coast 0} 

ver (p. p. visto), to see; estar 

South America; area, about 

mal Tisto, to he disap- 

600,000 square tniies; pop- 

proved of, unpopular. 

ulation, about 2,500,000, 

veiano, m., summer. 

most of U'hom are of mixed 

verdad,/., truth. ^H 

Indian and Spanish blood. 

verdadero, adj., true, reaU^^f 

The capital, Caracas, is 

verde, adj., green. ^^H 

^H 432 VOCABULAKY ^^^| 

^H verdor, m., verdare, grcen- 

■rictima,/., victim. 1 

^H ness; frcEhncaa. 

victoria,/., victory. 1 

^1 verdugo, m., executioner. 

vid,/., vine, grape-vine. 1 

^H murderer. 

vida,/., life; de mi vida, my 

^H verdura, /., verdure, herbage. 


^B vergel, /., flower-garden. 

Vidrio, «., glass, window- 

^* Tergonzoso, adj., shameful, 

pane; vidrlo de colores, 


stained-glass window. 

TCrgflenza, /., shame, dis- 

viejUIa,/., little old woman. 


viejo, adj., old, ancient; n. 

verso, m., verse. 

m. and /., old man, old 

vfatebra,/., verlebra. 


veiter, to shed, pour forth. 

VientO, m,, wind, air; van- 

vertigo, *n., dizziness; insan- 


ity; confusion. 

vigilante, adj., vigilant. 

vestido, m., dress, garment. 

vigor, m., vigor. 

vestidurp,/., vesture. 

vil, adj., vile, base. 

vestir, to clothe; wear, put 

ViUadiego ; tomar las de Vflta- 

on; vestirse de, to put on. 

diego, to run a«ay. 

TBZ, /., time (as one of a «- 

Villalar, pr. n. {a village in 

Ties); i ve«s, at times; 

the province of Vatladolid, 

icufintas vecesl how often! 

where the comuneros who 

en vez de, instead of; otra 

had revolted against the rule 

vez, again; tal vez, perhaps, 

of Charles V were defeated 1 

perchance; sometimes; una 

in 1521). 1 

vez, once. 

villanfa, /., villony, meanness, { 

viaje, m., journey, passage. 

base deed. ; 

viajero, m., traveler. 

Villano, adj., rustic, not no- | 

vibrante, adj., vibrating. 



vinagre, m. (or f. in dialed). 

vibmr, Ir, andinlT. to vibrate. 


jar, Ihrill. 

vino, «., wine. 

^^ Vicio, HI., vice. 

viotento, adj., violent. 

^H vidoso, adj., vicious. 


violeta, /., violet. 



7ir«r, to tack, come about. 

hurrah fori vive Dios, as 

viigen, /., virgin. 

God lives. 

Virgilio, pr. n. m., Vergil 

vivo, adj., alive; bright; sharp. 

(Publius Vcrgilias Maro, 


[70-ig B.C.], a celebrated 

Roman poet). 

volador, -ra, adj., flying. 

viril, adj., virile, manly. 


viitud,/., virtue. 

Tolar, to fly, take flight. 

VisagM, pr. n. (The PuerU 

volcfin, m., volcano. 

Viaagra of Toledo is a 

voltear, to revolve, whirl. ' 

double gateway, built in 

voluntad,/., wish, will; desire. 

iSS° ""d restored in 1575. 


The Puerta Visagra An- 

volver, Ir. to return, give 

tigna is an older Arab gale 

back; intr. to turn, re- 

dating from the ninth ««- 

turn; volver fi hacer, do 

tury, and is now closed.) 

again; rejl. to become. 

viable, adj., visible. 


vjsi6ii,/., vision. 

TOraz, adj., voracious, raven- 


Viaitar, to visit. 

Vfirtice, m.. vonex. whirl- 

viso, m., sheen, lustre. 


rista, /., sight; glance; {Jig.) 

volar, to vow; ivoto & Diosl 


I vowl 

voto, w., prayer, supplica- 

Thida,/., widow. 


viva, m., acdamation, huz- 

VOZ, /., voice; word, shout, 


expression; & voces, loud- 

vlvsc, m., bivouac, camp. 


vivBZ, adj., vivadous, live- 

vnelo, «,, flight; de unvuelo, 


without stopping, in one 

vivero, w., fish-pond. 


viviente, adj., living. 

vuelta, /., turn, return; dsr 

vivir, to live, be alive; vivir de. 

vuelta, to turn; dar la 

live on; ivival long live! 

vuelta, to miike the circuit; 

^^P 434 VOCABULARY '^^^B 

^H estar de vuelta, to have 

late; ». ffi., waste, deserted 

^H returned, be back. 


^H vtllgo, «,, populace, multi- 

yerto, adj., motionless, rigid, 




yuca, /., cassava, manioc 


(/rom Ike root of which 

^m W&Bbingttat, pr. »., Washing- 

tapioca is made). 

^H ton (George WaEhington 

yugo, m., yoke. 

H U73!~i799). first president 

yimque, m., anvil. 

■^ "/ 'fe (^'"''erf ■S'fl'e-'). 

Whitman t Walt Whitman, 

pr. n. m. {an American 


peel [iSig-iSgs], author of 

zafir, Hifiro, m., sapphire. 

"Leaves of Grass" and other 

zagal, m., swain, lad. 


zagala, /., maiden, shepherd- 


y, conj., and. 


ya, adv., already, now, finally. 

Zahara, pr. n. f. 

lornier!y;ya...ya, now... 

Zaidtt,?r. «./. 

now; no ya, nor indeed; 

Zalamea, pr. n. (a village in 

no . . . ya, not . . . again; 

Ike extreme west of Atida- 



cnnj., since. 

zambrero, adj., lively. 

yacer, to lie. 

zapato, m., shoe. 

Yara, pr. n. (a toien near San- 

zarpar, to weigh anchor. 

tiago de Cuba). 

zarza,/., brier. 

yedra, /. {mod. spelling hie- 

Zocodover, pr. n. {the Ploia 

dra), ivy. 

yegua,/., mare. 

the focus of Ihe city's life. 

yehno, «., helmet. 

It is a small triangular 

yerba, see hierba. 

plaza to the northviesl of Ihe 

yenno, adj., waste, unculti- 

center of Toledo). 

vated, uninhabited; deso- 

zona,/., zone. 



Zorita, pr, n, (There are sev- 
eral Spanish villages with 
this name. The one men- 
tioned in " Fiesta de toros," 
p. 37, /. 10, is in Alcarria, 

and has the ruins of a famous 

old castle.) 
zonal, m., thrush, 
zozobroso, adj., anxious. 
zumbar, to hum, resound. 


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