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Full text of "Modern Swedish grammar"

MODERN 
SWEDISH GRAMMAR 






\SgM 



S T O C K H O JL M 



P. A. X O R S T E I) T & SO N TK R S 
F O R I, A O 



1m. Bjorkliagen, Phil. Lie. 

MODERN 
SWEDISH GRAMMAR 



M O D E R N 
SWEDISH GRAMMAR 



by 



I m. Bj orkhag e n, P h i I. L i c. 

Lecturer in Swedish, 
in the University of London. 





STOCKHOLM 



P. A. Norstedt & Soners 
F 6 r 1 a g 



STOCKHOLM 1923 

KUNGL. BOKTRYCKERIET. P. A. NORSTEDT ,V ^nNi It 
222444 



PREFACE. 

In the last few years the study of Swedish has been taken up 
with increasing interest in England. In 1918 a Swedish lecture- 
ship was instituted at University College, London. One year later 
Swedish was made a ^degree subject* in the University of London, 
i. e. it may be chosen as one of the subjects in the B. A., M. A. 
and B. Com. examinations. 

The undersigned, who since 1918 has held the above mentioned 
lectureship, has keenly felt the want of a satisfactory Swedish 
grammar for the use of Englishmen. Most of the existing gram- 
mars of the kind are so full of mistakes as to render them almost 
useless. The present volume, which is the fruit of four years' 
experience in Swedish class-teaching, will, it is hoped, prove a more 
reliable guide for those who begin learning the language. 

Special attention has been devoted to the pronunciation, which 
has always proved to be a stumbling-block to English students. For 
the analysis and description of the Swedish sound-system I have 
enjoyed the valuable assistance of Prof. Daniel Jones and Miss 
Lilias E. Armstrong, B. A., of the Phonetics Department, University 
College. Miss Armstrong has also kindly undertaken to read the proofs 
of the phonetic part of the book for which I here beg to express 
my sincere thanks. 

My original plan was to publish a Reader and Grammar com- 
bined in one volume, but for several reasons it was found unprac- 
tical. The two parts are therefore published separately. The second 
part called "First Swedish Book" will appear simultaneously with 
this volume. For the beginner it forms a necessary complement to 
the Grammar and contains practical exercises in reading, conversa- 
tion, writing, etc. 

The grammatical terminology is in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology 
(published by John Murray, London, 1920). 



6 

I have much pleasure in thanking Mr Sidney J. Charleston, 
M. A., F. R. Hist. S., late lecturer in English in the University of 
Upsala, Sweden, for his great kindness in revising the manuscript 
and proof-sheets and for the many valuable suggestions he has 
furnished. 

Finally I am glad to take this opportunity of expressing my 
warm gratitude to C. A. Lowenadler, Esq., without whose generous 
financial assistance the publication of this work would not have 
been possible. 

London, July, 1922. 

1m. Bjorkliagen. 



CONTENTS. 

Page 

Tables of Sounds 11 

Sounds and Phonetic Symbols 15 

The Alphabet 20 

Orthography and Sounds 21 

New Spelling 33 

Length of Sounds 34 

Key-words for the Pronunciation 36 

Accentuation. Stress 37 

Intonation, with diagrams 38 

Signs used to indicate Accent 44 

The Spoken Language 45 

The Noun. Articles 51 

The Use of the Articles 56 

Gender 61 

Case 64 

Declensions 69 

Remarks on Number 76 

The Adjective. Declensions 77 

Comparison 84 

Adjectives used as Nouns 89 

Inflection of Participles 92 

The Numerals 94 

The Pronouns. Personal 97 

Reflexive: sig 102 

Possessive 103 

Possessive reflexive: sin 104 

Demonstrative 107 

Determinative 112 

Relative 113 

Interrogative 116 

Indefinite. . 118 



Page. 

The Verb. Auxiliary Verbs 125 

Conjugations 130 

Subjunctive 152 

Passive 154 

Deponent Verbs 158 

Periphrastic forms 158 

The Use of the Tenses 162 

The Use of the Auxiliary Verbs 164 

The Use of the Infinitive, Participle and Supine 170 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 180 

Reflexive Verbs 180 

Compound Verbs 181 

The Adverb 184 

Conjunctions 190 

Prepositions 194 

Order of the Words . . 201 



PRONUNCIATION 




Front 

Card/na/ vowe/s (a-u) 
Swed/sh vowe/s O (OL - u) 



Front 



Central 




Front 

Cardinal vowe>/s 
EngJ/sh isowe/s 



13 



f 

S'fi 

&& 

ii 



83 S- 
O 

3? 

^ 





Vowels Consonants 




gq W 

1 
o c^ 


t? 
o' 
P 

<rh 


I 


tr 1 

P 

c-h 
CD 
Hi 

P 


P 
CO 


Plosive 




^ O i^ 












CD * ' ! 


. 


. 


. 


. 




8 VJ VJ ^ 






^B 


* 


bd 


9 o -o Si B 













o^ * p. 








P 


cr 


^ gs 














Cf 














P p I 




1 i 










cr ' 














I ' 














3 














E 


, 


CO 








et- 


b 





























P 








^ 


3 


P, 


g 




CO 








.^ 


fe 

t H-l 














rt O 














o S- 






?? 


*""* 


P 


P- 


p* ' 


H-. tz] 


-o 










g 


cB ^ ? 










1 


'^ s P ^ x^ 

i -. >**x O ^^ 

^'' 2 















^^~N. 5* 

P Qp 








t 




O ^""^ P 






P? 


t 


o bd 




















ca 


crq 
















P 

o" 


. 


p~ 










s 


1 












C- 



H 

& 

c^ 
o 

Mj 

02 

O 



& 



CC 

I 
e 
& 



Sounds and Phonetic Symbols. 1 

(Compare the tables on pp. 11, 13.) 

l. Consonants. 

Labial. 

The consonants p, 6, w, v are pronounced like the Eng- 
lish corresponding sounds. 

Note 1. At the beginning of fully stressed syllables, espe- 
cially before a vowel, p is more aspirated than in English, 
e.g. pa (po-) on; park (par-k) park. 

Note 2. Swedish m is voiceless after t and s in words 
like rytm (ryt-m); entusiasm (antusias-m). 

Note 3. The English sound represented by w does not 
occur in Swedish. The Swedish letter w is pronounced as v. 

Dental. 

Swedish , d, n, ?, s are dental sounds, not alveolar as in 
English. The tongue articulates against the inner edge of 
the upper teeth. 

Notice particularly the clear sound of I in Swedish, e.g. 
in the word full (ful-), as compared with the dark sound in 
English "full". 

Note 1. At the beginning of fully stressed syllables, espe- 
cially before a vowel, t is more aspirated than in English, 
e.g. td (to-) toe; tal (ta-1) speech. 

Note 2. The English dental sounds represented by e and 
6, e.g. in the words "think", u then", do not occur in Swedish. 

Note 3. The sound z as in "busy" does not occur in 
Swedish. 

1 The use of the signs () and ( c ) to indicate Accent is explained on p. 44. 



16 

Post-Alveolar. 

The specifically post-alveolar sound in Swedish is r. It is, as 
a rule, faintly rolled, especially between two vowels and after 
a consonant, e. g. bara (ba-ra c ) only; frdn (fro-n) from. In 
other positions it is often fricative. 

When the dental sounds , d, w, I, s, are immediately pre- 
ceded by r in the spelling they become post-alveolar, i.e. their 
point of articulation is moved much further back, approxim- 
ately to the r-position and further back than English f, d, n, 
7, s. The tip of the tongue is curled somewhat backwards. 
The resulting sounds might be described as "retroflex" t, d, 
n, I, s. Phonetic symbols: t, d, n, 1, s. Orthographically 
these sounds are represented by -rt, -rd, -rn, -rl, -rs. In the 
pronunciation the r is dropped and the following consonant 
acquires the retroflex character. Compare the following pairs 
of words: 

Retroflex t, d, n, 1, s. Dental t, d, n, 1, s. 

start (sta-t) start stat (sta-t) state 

bord (bco-d) table bod (bw-d) shop 

i morse (imos-8 c ) this morning mosse (mos-a c ) bog 

Karl (ka-1) Charles kal (ka-1) bald 

varna (va-na c ) warn vana (va-na c ) habit 

Retroflex s resembles the English sh-sound, but it is formed 
further back, the tip of the tongue is curled back and the 
lips considerably rounded. 

In certain parts of Sweden (e.g. Stockholm) the retroflex s 
is also used as the ordinary sh-sound, which in this book 
will be represented by the same symbol; e.g. passion (pasw-n); 
person (pssoxn); sju (su-) seven; skinn (sin-) skin; stjdrna (see-na') 
star; forst (fes-t) first; kors (kos-) cross; etc. 

Palatal. 

The palatal sounds c; (voiceless) and j (voiced) may be 
formed by pronouncing Swedish i with a very narrow space 



17 

between the tongue and the palate so as to produce fric- 
tion. The voiced fricative sound, if isolated, is the sound j. 
When unvoiced it becomes c. These sounds are, as a rule, 
accompanied by lip-rounding. 

In rapid speech j often loses its fricative character and 
sounds like English y in yes. 

E.g. Jccinna (csn-a c ) feel; tjocJc (cok-) thick; Jcedja (oe-djV) 
chain; ja (ja-) yes; jul (ju-1) Christmas; garna (J8e-na c ) willingly. 

Velar. 

K, g and rj (ng) are pronounced as in English, except be- 
fore a front vowel and in a final position, when they become 
palatalised, i.e. their point of articulation is moved much 
further forward, e.g. bock (bok-) buck; fislc (fis-k) fish; 'bo'k (bco-k) 
book; vig (vi-g) agile; Icok (c0-k) kitchen; flog (fl0-g) flew; flyg 
(fly-g) fly; ring (rirj-) ring; ting (EIJ-) meadow; sjong (seen-) sang. 

At the beginning of fully stressed syllables, especially be- 
fore a vowel, k is more aspirated than in English, e.g. kom 
(kom-) come; ko (kw-) cow; kal (ka-1) bald. 



2. Vowels. 

Front. 

i when long, is closer than the English vowel in "be" (bi-). 
When it is long and fully stressed it ends with a fricative 
sound (j). When it is short it is like the English vowel 
in "mean" (if shortened). 

Ex.: vi (vi-) we; min (min-) my. 

y is pronounced with the same tongue-position as i, but the 
lips should be energetically rounded and protruded. The 
acoustic effect is similar to French u and German ti, which, 
however, have narrower lip-opening. Long y ends with 
a fricative sound (j). 

Ex.: by (by-) village; mynt (myn-t) coin. 

2 222444. Bjorkhagen, Modern Sicedish Grammar. 



18 

e is about the same sound as French e and German e. The 
easiest way to produce it is to lengthen out the English 
vowel in "lid" and try to pronounce it with tip of tongue 
pressed against the lower teeth, and the muscles tense. 

Ex.: ek (e-k) oak. 

o is pronounced with practically the same tongue-position as 
e and the same lip-position as y (lips rounded and pro- 
truded). It is approximately the same sound as French 
eu in "peu". 

Ex.: do (d0-) to die. 

u is pronounced with practically the same tongue-position 
as e and but the lip-opening is reduced to a minimum 
(about the size of a pin's head). Long ia has such a nar- 
row lip-opening that the sound, when fully stressed, ends 
up with a labial fricative. That is the reason why Eng- 
lish people imagine they hear a b or p after it. 
Ex.: 1ms (hu-s) house; musik [musi-k] music. 
is the same sound as English e in "bed" (or a little closer) 
and occurs both long and short. 

Ex.: Idsa (le-sa c ) to read; la'tt (1st-) easy. 

<r is pronounced with practically the same tongue-position as 
s but with rounded lips. Lip-opening wider than for 
or y. It only occurs short. 
Ex.: host (hces-t) autumn. 

se is approximately the same sound as Southern English a 
in "man" (a little closer). It occurs both long and short. 

Ex.: bar (bse-r) berry; stjart (sset-) tail. 

a may be produced by isolating out the first element in the 
English diphthong in >how. It is like French a in "la". 
The lips are drawn somewhat to the sides. The sound 
only occurs short. 
Ex.: hatt (hat-) hat. 



19 



Central. 



the neutral vowel in Swedish is like English e in "finger" 
though a little closer and nearer the front-position, espe- 
cially in double-tone words, where it becomes rather like z. 
Ex.: taket (ta-kat) the roof; gosse (gos-o c or gos-s c ) boy. 

Back. 

is articulated a little further back than English a in 
"father". The lips should be slightly rounded. Like 
French a in "pas". The sound only occurs long. 

Ex.: ja (JQ.) yes. 

is rather like the English vowel in "ought" but has more 
lip-rounding. The sound only occurs short. 

Ex.: slott (slot-) castle. 

is closer than the English vowel in "ought". Narrow lip- 
opening as for English o in "do". The sound is nearly al- 
ways long. 

Ex.: get (go-) to go. 

is articulated further back than English oo in "book" and 
with an extremely narrow lip opening (as for ui-). The 
sound occurs both long and short. When it is long and 
fully stressed it ends up with a labial fricative (just as m-). 
When it is short the lip-opening is a little wider and the 
friction is omitted. 

Ex.: ord (w-d) word; hon (horn-) she. 

is articulated nearer to the central position than English 
u in "value". (It closely resembles the first element in 
the English diphthong in "no" as pronounced by educated 
Londoners). The easiest way to produce it is perhaps 
to aim at English u in "up" and keep the lips in the 
same position as for English o in "do". It only occurs 
short. 

Ex.: hund (hun-d) dog. 



20 

is a little lower than 11 and articulated nearer to the 
central tongue-position. Lip-rounding as for oe (a little 
wider than for u). The sound is intermediate between 
English u in "burden"' and English u in "up" and may 
be produced by aiming at the latter sound while rounding 
the lips. It occurs both long and short. 
Ex.: forst [fast] first; gora [J9-ra c ] to do. 



3. The Alphabet. 

A a (Q.) K k (ko-) U u (ui-) 

B b (be-) L 1 (eL) V v (ve-) 

C c (se-) M m (em-) W w (dub-alt ve-) 

D d (de) N n (sn-) X x (ek-s) 

E e (e.) o (to-) Y y (y.) 

F f (ef-) P p (pe-) Z z (se-ta) 

G- g (ge-) Q q (ku.) A a (o-) 

H h (ho-) E r (ser-) A a .() 

I i (i-) S s (SB-) 6 (0-) 

J j (ji-) T t (te-) 

<7, o, u, d are called hard vowels. 

e, i, y, a, are called soft vowels. 

l>i $"> 9, j, I, m, n j r , v are voiced consonants. 

/", h, k, p, s, t are voiceless (breathed) consonants. 

q and iv are now almost out of use. They occur only in 
a few names of persons and places and are pronounced 
as k and v respectively. 

z occurs in a few loanwords and is pronounced as s (voi- 
celess). 



21 



Orthography and Sounds. 

4. I. Towels. 

a 

The Swedish letter a is pronounced: 

1. when it is long as a-. 
Ex.: ja (ja.) yes 

dag (da-g) day 
bara (ba-ra c ) only 

2. when it is short as a. 

Ex.:. katt (kat-) cat paraply (paraply-) umbrella 

packa (pak-a c ) to pack flicka (flik-a f ) girl 
Note. Swedish a is never pronounced as a in unstressed 

or final position. 

Ex.: finna (fin-a c ) to find Amerika (ame-rika) 

seglade (se-glade c ) sailed Kristina (kristi-na c ) 
flicka (flik-a c ) girl 



is pronounced: 

1. when it is long as e-, 
Ex.: se (se-) see 

lek (le-k) play 

genast (je-nas c t) immediately 
Exception: the prefix er- is pronounced ee-r-. 
Ex.: erkdnna (se-rcsn'a) to confess 
erhdlla (8e-rhol c a) to obtain 

2. when it is short and not followed by -r as s. 
Ex.: mest (mss-t) most 

penna (psn-a c ) pen 

3. when it is short and followed by -r as 83. 
Ex.: herr (heer-) Mr. 

vcrk (veer-k) work 



4. in unaccented syllables ending in -e, -el, -en, -er, and in 
the definite article -en, -et, as 8. 
Ex.: gosse (gos-9 c ) boy fagel (fo-gal) bird 

gossen (gos-an c ) the boy finger (firj-ar) finger 
taket (ta-kat) the roof 
A'. B. This is the only neutral vowel in Swedish. 

i 

is pronounced: 

1. when it is long as i- (close and with friction). 
Ex.: m (vi-) we rida (ri-da c ) to ride 

vis (vi-s) wise ~bageri (bagari-) bakery 

2. when it is short as i (more open and without friction). 
Ex.: vind (vin-d) wind riddare (rid-ara c ) knight 

viss (vis-) certain binda (bin-da f ) to bind 



represents three different sounds: to, o- and o. to occurs both 
long and short, o- is long, o is short. 

1. Examples of words with long to- (very close and with 
labial friction). 

bo (bto-) dwell ord (co-d) word 

stor (stw-r) great jord (jo)-d) earth 

slco (skco-) shoe ort (w-t) place 

mot (mw-t) against borde (bco-d8 c ) ought 

broder (brw-dar 1 ) brother f/jorde (jw-d8 c ) did 
bord (bco-d) table mod (mw-d) courage, etc. 

The prefix o- is always pronounced : 

olycldlg (w-lyk c lig) unhappy 

oTtand (w-Qsn-d) unknown 

omojlig (cfrmcBJ'lig) impossible 

2. Examples of words with short to: 

orm (<or-m) snake blomma (bltom-a c ) flower 
ost (ws-t) cheese novcmber (ntovem-bar) 
mi tl (om-d) angry bonde (bo)n-da f ) farmer 



23 

The plural ending -or (1st Declension) is pronounced with 
short to (coll. a): 

flicker (flik-o)r c ) girls 
gator (ga-ttor c ) streets 

The plural ending -o in the Past of the 4th Conjugation 
is pronounced with short to: 

bundo (bun -da/) bound 
skrevo (skre-vto c ) wrote 

The old genitive and dative ending -o in compound words 
is pronounced with short to: 

kyrkogard (cyr-ktogo c d) churchyard 
sannolik (san-toli c k) probable 

3. Examples of words with o- (only long): 

son (so-n) son sova (so-va c ) sleep 

kol (ko-1) coal ordna (o-dna c ) arrange 

lova (lo-va c ) promise villkor (vil-ko c r) condition 
and many words of foreign origin, e. g. 

garderob (gadero-b) cupboard mikroskop (mikrosko-p) 

filosof (filoso-f) philosopher dialog (dialo-g) 

epok (epo-k) 

4. Examples of words with o (only short): 
kom (kom-) come (imperative) Stockholm (stok-hol c m) 
komma (kom-a c ) to come bort (bot-) away [cf. bort (hot) 

Supine of bora] 
norr (nor-) North morgon (mor-gon c ) morning 

The suffixes -ow, -ton and -or have o, e. g. 
helgon (hsl-gon f ) saint par on (pse-ron c ) pear 

tretton (trst-on c ) thirteen doktor (dok-tor c ) 

professor (prcafss-or c ) 

[but in the plural: doktor er (doktorar), professorcr (prw- 



^T. B. The suffixes -tion, -sion, -jon have long to. 

Ex.: nation (natsto-n); mission (misto-n); bataljon (batal- 
jto-n). 



24 



represents two different sounds: ia- and u. 

1. When it is long it is pronounced as u-. 
Ex.: ut (ui-t) out sju (su-) seven 

djnr (jia-r) animal ful (fu-1) ugly 

hus (hu-s) house brut en (bru-t0n r ) broken 

buga (bu-ga) to bow 

N. B. In unstressed position, u acquires a more open 
sound and loses its friction. 

Ex.: om du lean (om du kan-) if you can 
musik (miasi-k) music 
ladugdrd (la-dugo c d) cow- shed 
butelj (biatsl-j) bottle 

2. When it is short it is pronounced as u. 

Ex.: hund (hun-d) dog Imnna (kun-a c ) to be able 

full (ful-) full gubbe (gub-8 c ) old man 

under (un- dor) under mun (mun-) mouth 

V 

is pronounced: , 

1. when it is long as y- (close and with friction). 
Ex.: fyra (fy-ra c ) four nya (ny-a c ) new (plural) 

ny (ny-) new lysa (ly-sa c ) shine 

2. when it is short as y (more open and without friction). 
Ex.: mynt (myn-t) coin nytt (nyt-) new (neuter) 

syster (sys-tar) sister lydde (lyd-a c ) obeyed 

d 

is pronounced: 

1. when it is long as o-. 
Ex.: gd (go-) to go 
dr (o-r) year 
mala (mo-la c ) to paint 
^V. B. In unstressed position d acquires a more open sound. 



25 

Ex.: gd bort (go hot-) go away 

pa landet (po lan-dat) in the country 
2. when it is short as o. 
Ex.: matt (mot-) measure Idng (lorj-) long 
dtta (ot-a c ) eight alder (ol-dar) age 

a 

represents two different sounds: ee and s. 

1. When followed by -r it is pronounced se. This sound 
occurs both long and short. 

Ex.: (long) (short) 

liar (hse-r) here vdrk (veer-k) pain 

Idra (lse-ra c ) teach tvdrtom (tvaet-om-) on the con- 
trary 

varld (vse-d) world drr (ser-) scar 
jam (jse-n) iron mdrka (meer-ka e ) to mark 
pdrla (pse-la c ) pearl 

2. In other cases a is pronounced s. This sound occurs 
both long and short. 

Ex.: (long) (short) 

ndt (ns-t) a net rddd (rsd-) afraid 
dta (s-ta c ) to eat smdlta (smsl-ta 1 ) melt 
lasa (ls-sa r ) to read hast (hss-t) horse 
apple (sp-l9 c ) apple 

o 

represents three different sounds: 9, oe and 0-. 

1. When followed by r it is pronounced 9. It occurs both 
long and short. 

Ex.: (long) (short) 

for (f'9-r) for dorr (der-) door 

.hora (h9-ra c ) to hear torstig (t9S-tig c ) thirsty 
hort (ha-t) heard mork (mar-k) dark 
or a (9-ra c ) ear forst (fs-t) first 

orn (9-n) eagle 



2. In other cases it is pronounced. 

a. when it is long as 0-. 
Ex.: do (d0-) to die 

oga (0-ga c ) eye 

rovare (r0-var8 t ) robber 

b. when it is short as oe. 
Ex.: host (hoes-t) autumn 

dromma (droem-a c ) to dream 
fotter (foet-ar) feet 



5. II. Consonants. 

b 

See 1. 



is pronounced: 

1. as s before the soft vowels (e. i, ?/). 
Ex.: cedt-r (se-d^r) cedar 

cigarr (sigar-) cigar 
cylinder (sylin-dar) cylinder 

2. as k in other cases. 
Ex.: fiicka (flik-a c ) girl 

tjock (cok-) thick 
N. B. The word och is pronounced ok-. 

d 

See 1. 

1. Swedish d sounds like t before the genitive s. 
Ex.: Guds barn (gut-s ba-n) the children of God 

godsdgare (gcot-ss f gar8) squire 

2. Swedish d is not sounded in the combination dj at the 
beginning of words. 

Ex.: djup (jui-p) deep djavul (je-vul') devil 
fljur (ju-r) animal djarv (jser-v) bold 



27 



is pronounced like English f. 

N. B. In the old orthography, which is still used by 
some writers, the v-sound was represented by f at the end of 
words, and by fv and f in the middle of words. 
Ex. : bref (bre-v) letter 

hafva (ha-va c ) to have 
tafia (ta-vla c ) picture 

In the new orthography these words are written: brev, 
hava, tavla, etc. 



is pronounced: 

1. as g 1. before the hard vowels (a, O,'M, a). 
Ex.: yata (ga-ta c ) street gud (gw-d) god 

god (gw-d) good gd (go-) to go 

2. before -e in unstressed syllables. 
Ex.: fay el (fo-gal) bird 

mager (ma-gar) lean 
mage (ma-ga c ) stomach 
o. before a consonant. 
Ex.: glad (gla-d) glad 
ynida (gni-da') rub 
gnaga (gna-ga c ) gnaw 

4. at the end of a syllable (except after I and r). 
Ex.: svag (sva-g) weak 

sag (so-g) saw 

II. as j 1. before the soft vowels (e, , y, a, o}. 
Ex.: git (je-t) goat magister (majis-tar) teacher 

forgylla (farjyl-a) to gild ga'rna (jse-na) with pleasure 

gora (J9-ra c ) to make 

2. after I and r in the following words (and a few others). 
Ex.: talg (tal-j) tallow arg (ar-j) angry 

lielg (hsl-j) church festival varg (var-j) wolf 



28 

berg (bair-j) hill or gel (or-jal 1 ) organ 

fdrg (fser-j) colour sorg (sor-j) sorrow 

korg (kor-j) basket torg (tor-j) market-place 

Norge (nor-ja) Norway 
Notice the pronunciation of Sverige (svser-ja). 

III. as k before s and t. 

Ex.: hogst (hoek-st) highest overlagsen (0-vakk c san) superior 
lagt (lak-t) laid trijggt (tryk-t) safely 

IV. as r} before n in the same root-syllable. 
Ex.: vagn (van-n) carriage lugn (lurj-n) calm 

regri (rsn-n) rain Agnes (an-nas) 

V. as s before e and i in foreign (French) words. 

Ex.: geni (sani-) genius passagerare (pasase-rara c ) 

passenger 

ingenjor (insenje-r) engineer tragedi (trasadi-) tragedy 
Eugcn (euse-n) 

VI. g is not sounded in the combination gj in the follow- 
ing words: 

gjorcle, gjort, gjord (jw-da 1 , jw-t, jo>d) did, done 
gjuta (ju-ta c ) cast 

h 

is pronounced as English h in most cases. 

h is not sounded in the combination hj at the beginning 
of words. 

Ex.: hjul (jui-1) wheel lijarta (jtut-a*) heart 
hjalm (jsl-m) helm hjord (jw-d) herd 
hjort (jco-t) deer 

N. B. Words formerly beginning with hv drop the h after 
the new orthography. 

Ex.: (old spelling) (new spelling) 

hvilken (vil-kan c ) vilken who 
livad (va-d) vad what 

hvit (vi-tj vit white 



29 



is pronounced: 

1. as j in most cases. 
Ex.: ja (JQ.) yes 

yarn (jse-n) iron 
jul (jui-1) Christmas 

2. as s in a few words of French origin. 
Ex.: journal (scona-1) journal 

projekt (prossk-t) project 

U 

is pronounced: 

1. as k 1. before the hard vowels (a, o, u, a). 
Ex.: kail (kal-) cold bust (kus-t) coast 

komma (kom-a ( ) to come Ml (ko-1) cabbage 

2. before e and i in unstressed syllables. 
Ex.: vacker (vak-or) beautiful 

rike (ri-ka c ) kingdom 
trdkig (tro-kig') dull 

3. before and after a consonant. 

.Ex.: Mocka (klok-a f ) clock krage (kra-go c ) collar 

kniv (kni-v) knife morkret (mar-kret) the dark 

4. at the end of a word. 
Ex.: lok (bo>k) book 

5. before a soft vowel in a few loanwords. 
Ex.: bankett (banket-) banquet 

monarki (mwnarki-) monarchy 
ko (k0-) queue 

II. as 9 1. before the soft vowels (e, i, ?/, a, o). 
Ex.: kedja (ce-dja c ) chain kypare (cy-par9 c ) waiter 

kemi (9mi-) chemistry kdr (cse-r) dear 
kines (cine-s) Chinese kora (c9-ra c ) drive 
2. in the combination kj (j is mute). 
Ex.: kjol (cco-1) skirt 



30 

I 

See 1. 

I is not sounded in the combination Ij at the beginning 
of words. 

Ex.: ljud (jui-d) sound ljuv (jui-v) sweet 

ljus (jia-s) light Ijuga (jw-ga c ) to tell lies 
ljum (jum-) luke-warm 

I is mute in the words varld (vse-d) world, and Icarl (ka-r) 
man, fellow. 

m 

See 1. . 

n 

See 1. 

n is pronounced as 13 before A", and in a few words borrowed 
from the French. 

Ex.: tanka (tsrj-ka 1 ) to think 

annons (anorj-s) advertisement 
The combination ng is pronounced as 13. 
Ex.: Idng (log-) long angel (sn/al 1 ) angel 

finger (firj-ar) finger Idngre (krj-ra) longer 
X. B. The i]-sound is not followed by a g-sound as in the 
English words "finger" and "longer" (finge, loQga)- 

The combination -gn at the end of a root-syllable is pro- 
nounced as rm. 

Ex.: vagn (varj-n) carriage vagnen (vaij-non) the carriage 
ugn (uij-n) oven ugnar (ug-nar) ovens 

lugn (lurj-n) calm luyna (lug-na) to calm 

P 

See 1. 

a 

is pronounced as k. It only occurs in proper names. 



o-i 
01 



See 1. 

The combinations rd, rl, rw, rs, rt are pronounced as d, 

1, n, s, t. See 1. 

Ex.: hard (bo-d) hard forst (fas-t) first 

bo'rda (b9-da c ) burden for sent (fase-nt) too late 
sorl (so-1) noise i morse (imos-8 c ) this morning 

forlora (falter a) lose ort (w-t) place 

barn (ba-ii) child borta (bo-ta c ) away 

gossarna (gos-ana c ) the boys 
N. .B. At the end of words Swedish r has the same sound 

as at the beginning of words. It is not mute or changed 

into a neutral vowel (a) as in English. 

Ex.: finger (fig-ar) finger skor (skco-r) shoes 

doktor (dok-tor c ) doctor bar (ba-r) bare 
ner (ne-r) down dar (dse-r) there 

gor (J 9<r ) ^^ s 

8 

See 1. 

In words ending in -sion, the combination si is pronounced 
as s. 

Ex.: passion (pason) passion 
pension (par^sw-n) pension 

sch-, sc~, sj-, sTtj- and stj- 

are pronounced as s. 

Ex.: schack (sak-) chess 

Convalescent (konvabssn-t) convalescent 

[Exception: seen (se-n) scene] 

sju (su-) seven skjorta (sw-ta 1 ) shirt 

sjo (s0-) sea skjuta (su-ta c ) shoot 

sjdl (ss-1) soul stjdla (ss-la c ) to steal 

sjd'lv (sel-v) self stjarna (sge-na c ) star 
sjdtte (sst-'a c ) sixth 



is pronounced: 

I. as sk 1. before a consonant. 
Ex.: skrika (skri-ka c ) to shriek 

2. before the hard vowels (, o, w, a). 
Ex. : sA-a#(ska-ka c ) shake skulle (skul-a c ) should 

skog (skto-g) wood sltdp (sko-p) cupboard 

3. at the end of a root-syllable. 

Ex.: fish (fis-k) iish fisken (fis-kan) the fish 

mask (mas-k) w r orm maskar (mas-kar c ) worms 
[fdrsk (fses-k) fresh] ruskig (rus-kig 1 ) bad 

II. as s 1. before the soft vowels (e, i, y, a, o). 
Ex.: shed (se-d) spoon skdra (see-ra c ) to cut 

inaskin (masi-n) engine shot (s0-t) shot (Past) 
skynda (syn-da c ) to hurry 

2. in the words: 

manniska (men-isa'j man marskalk (mar-sal c k) marshal 
[but: wa'wsA;?^ (mn-sklig c ) [or: mas-al c k] 

human] skarlakan (sala-kan) scarlet 



t 

See 1. 

The combination ti in words borrowed from the Latin is 
pronounced tsi before e and a. 

Ex.: gratier (gra-tsiar) graces 
aktie (ak-tsie) share 
initiativ (initsiati-v) initiative 

The combination ti is pronounced as a (sometimes ta) in 
foreign words ending in -tion. 
Ex.: lektion (hksto-n) lesson 

Confirmation (konfirmasw-n) confirmation 
nation (natsw-n) nation 



The combination th (only in proper names) is pronounced t. 
Ex.: Luther (lut-or) 

Thomander (tcoman-ttar) 



is pronounced as c. 
Ex.: fortjusande (facui-sanda) lovely 
tjog (9o-g) score 
tjugo (cw-g<o c ) twenty 



See 1. 

w 

only occurs in proper names and is pronounced as v 
(never as English w). 

x 
is pronounced as ks. 

Ex.: exempel (ekssm-pal) example 

In words ending in -xion the combination xi is pronounc- 
ed ks. 

Ex.: reflexion (rsflsksw-n) reflection 



is pronounced as s. 
Ex.: zoologi (soologi-) zoology 



6. Spelling Reform of 1906. 

In 1906 some important changes were made in the ortho- 
graphy. When using dictionaries with the old spelling it 
should be borne in mind that hv, fv and f as symbols for 

3 2224-44. Bjorklidgen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



34 

the v-sound have now been abolished and replaced by v. 

The spelling -dt has been replaced by -t (-it after a short 

vowel). 

Ex.: old spelling new spelling 

Jivit white vit 

sofva to sleep sova 

brcf letter brev 

Mndt (neuter of hand) known kant 
godt (neuter of god) good t/ott 



7. Length of Sounds. 

1. In Swedish a syllable with principal or strong 
secondary stress (see 9) is always long. 

2. If the vowel is long, the following consonant is 
short. 

Ex.: tal (ta-1) speech 

3. If the vowel is short, the following consonant is 
long. 

Ex.: tall (taL) fir-tree 

4. A long sound (vowel or consonant) can only occur 
in a stressed syllable. 

5. In a stressed syllable the vowel is long if it is followed 
by one consonant. The vowel is short if it is followed by more 
than one consonant. 

Ex.: long vowel short vowel 

talc (ta-k) roof tack (tab) thanks 

lam (la-m) lame lamm (lam-) lamb 

fina (f i-na c ) fine (plural) finna (fin-a c ) to find 
fat (fa-t) dish fast (fas-t) fast 

Note. In many words the length of the consonant is not 
indicated in the spelling. This is especially the case with 
m and >/. 



35 

Ex.: dom (dcom-) judgment man (man-) man 
som (som-) who, that mun (mun-) mouth 
Jcom (kom-) came lion (horn-) she 

6. The combination short vowel + short consonant 
(as in English "put") only occurs in unstressed syllables. 
Unstressed syllables are always short. 

Ex.: lian liar Jcommit hem (han har komit hsm-) he has 
come home 

7. Long consonants, which are rare in English (blackjoffee, 
night-time, good dog) are very common in Swedish. 

8. Notice the long consonants between two short vowels 
and between a short vowel and a consonant, in which cases 
English has a short consonant. 

Ex.: 

mamma (mam-a c ) mama pappa (pap-a c ) papa 

Anna (an-a c ) gosse (gos-a c ) boy 

flicka (flik-a c ) girl falla (fal-a c ) to fall 

darra (dar-a c ) tremble hugga (hug-a c ) to chop 

matta (mat-a c ) carpet gubbe (gub-a c ) old man 

ladda (lad-a c ) to load straffa (straf-a c ) to punish 

akt (ak-t) act slappt (slap-t) slack 

fish (fis-k) fish sharp (skar-p) sharp 

9. Notice particularly the long //, />. and f in Swedish, after 
a short vowel. Immediately after the articulation of the vowel 
the tongue (or lips) is placed in position for the consonant 
but the explosion is deferred and preceded by a short 
pause or stop. 

Compare the following pairs of words: 

Swedish English 

topp (top-) top top 

sltepp (ssp-) ship ship 

lock (lok-) curl lock 

lott (lot-) lot lot 

dogg (dog-) bull- dog dog 



8. Key- words for the Pronunciation. 



A. Consonants. 

Key- words are not required for the following consonants 
p, b, #, d, m, n, I, r, /; r, s, h. 

phonetic 

symbol 

d bord (bco-d) table compare: bod (bw-d) shop 

t start (sta-t) start stat (sta-t) state 

s i morse (imos-9 f ) this mosse (mos-8 c ) bog 



sjo (s0-) sea 

1 porlar (po-lar c ) purls 

n varna (va-na 1 ) warn 

j Ja (JQ.) yes 
9 kedja (ce-dja c ) chain 
k ko (ko>) cow 

g 9& (go-) to ga 



pdlar (po-lar 1 ) pales 
vana (va-na c ) habit 



B. Vowels. 



i- bi (bi-) bee 

i binda (bin-da c ) to bind 

y- by (by.) village 

y mynt (myn-t) coin 

e- se (se-) see 

0- do (d0.) to die 

u- hus (hu-s; house 

e- vdg (vs-g) way 

E heist (hes-t) horse 

oo host (ho2s-t) autumn 

se- Mr (hae-r) here 

se Herr Chaer-) Mr. 



hand (han-d) hand 
(/lad (gla-d) glad 
boll (boL) ball 
gd (go-) to go 
ko (kw-) cow 
ost (ws-t) cheese 
Jcund (kun-d) customer 
smo'r (sm9-r) butter 
work (m9r-k) dark 
taket (ta-kat) the roof 
gosse (gos-d c ) boy 



37 

Accentuation. 

9. A. Stress (expiratory accent). 

There are in Swedish four different degrees of stress: 

1. principal stress (3), generally placed on the first syl- 

33 2 

lable of a word, c. g. bagare, landsortsupplaga. 

In words beginning with the prefixes be- and 
for- the principal stress is placed on the second 

syllable, e. g. besluta, forklara. 

In loan-words and words ending in -eri the prin- 
cipal stress is generally placed on the last syllable, 

e. g. general, agent, protestant, bageri. 

2. strong secondary stress (2), placed on the first syl- 

lable of the second part of a compound word, e. g. 

armband, universitetsldrare. 

Strong secondary stress is also used in the ter- 
minations -dom, -het, -lek, -simp, -bar, -sam, and 

others, e. g. ungdom, sJconhet, Jcarlek, ddrskap, up- 

2 3 2 

penbar, gynnsam. 

3. weak secondary stress (1), placed on the second syllable 

of dissyllabic words with Tone II, e. g. flicka, tula. 
When several weak syllables follow in succes- 
sion, weak secondary stress falls on every other 
syllable, counting from the syllable with the prin- 
cipal stress, e. g. universitet, flickorna^ kallade. 

4. weakest stress (0), in all unstressed syllables, e. g. han- 

? * 30110103 

den, flickorna, kallade, universitet. 

Notice particularly the second syllable in words 

30 30 3 . 3 

with Tone I, e. g. foten, handen, fatter, ha'nder, as 
compared with the second syllable in words with 

Tone II. e. g. gossen, rosor, kalla. 



10. B. Intonation (musical accent). 

1. There are in Swedish two principal kinds of 
tones or musical accent: the single-tone and the double-tone. 
Both are subject to a great number of variations according 
to the position of the word (in a sentence or isolated). Only 
the most important cases can be treated here. 

2. The single-tone in isolated words is falling: ( 0? c - [I- 

in told, finger, Jtandcn. Notice that the pitch drops very 
little on the first syllable; the low pitch sets in on the se- 
cond syllable. In this the single-tone is different from the 

falling tone in English (c. g. in ''finger") which drops to the 
low level on the first syllable: (^ _). 

3. The double-tone is used in words of more than one syllable. 
In isolated double-tone words of two syllables the pitch is falling 
both on the first and the second syllables, but the second syllable 
begins on a higher pitch than the first: (^ i), e. g. in mamma. 

4. The single -tone will in this book be referred to as Tone I. 

5. The double-tone will be referred to as Tone II. 

6. In single-tone words of two syllables the first syllable 
has principal stress (3) and the second syllable is unstressed, 

c. f/. Jianden. 

7. In double-tone words of two syllables the first syllable 
has principal stress (3) and the second syllable has weak 

secondary stress (1), e. g. flickan. Compound words have prin- 
cipal stress (3) on the first part of the compound and strong 

secondary stress (2) on the second part, c. <j. xjoman, univcrxi- 

tetskatalog. 

8. The distribution of the tones in words of more than 
two syllables may best be seen on. the diagrams on pp. 42 
and 43, which also show the modifications the tones iindergo 
when the words are placed in the middle or at the end of a 
sentence, and in questions. 



11. Tone I. 

Tone I (one stress and falling tone) is used in the fol- 
lowing cases: 

1. in monosyllabic words, e. g. fot, vit, gd. 

2. in many dissyllabic words ending in ~el, -en, -er (such 

words were monosyllabic in Old Swedish, the -e 
having been put in later to facilitate pronuncia- 
tion), e. g. fag el, botten, seger. Two important 
groups of words belong to this category: 

a) Irregular Plurals of the Third Declension, e. g. 

f otter, liander, backer, siting er, getter, saker, etc.; 

also bonder, fader, broder. 

b) the Present Singular of verbs of the Second and 

Fourth Conjugations, e. g. binder, Jcoper, vander, 

bjuder. 

3. in the definite form of Nouns that have Tone I in the 

N. V. s ^ ^ 

indefinite form, e. g. foten, handen, fdgeln, fotterna, 

^ x ^ v 

handerna, broderna. 

4. in Comparatives ending in -re (but not -are), e. g. liogre, 

aldre, mindre. 

5. in most polysyllabic words (except compounds) with 

the principal stress on another syllable than the 

first, e. g. agent, universitet, protestant, forklara, 

telefonera, 'Eerzelius. 

N. B. The prefixes be- and for- change Tone II 
of the main verb to Tone I, e. g. 



40 

Tone II Tone I 



tola 


betala 


Jialla 


behdlla 


folja 


for folja 


oka 


foroka 



Exceptions: 

a) Nouns ending in -inna and some others end- 
ing in -a have Tone II, e. g. grevinna, prinsessa, 

,.> ;> 

italienska. ^ ^ 

b) Latin words ending in -or, e. g. professor, inspector, 
etc., have Tone II. ^ ^ 

c) many names of places, e. g. Kinnekulle, Sodertdljc, 

Karlskrona, have Tone II. 
6. Loanwords have, as a rule, Tone I, e. g. Afrilea, Amerika, 

piano, artikel, aria. Also in the plural: artiklar, 

~~~ ^ *. 

anor. 

Notice particularly words of foreign (German) 
origin ending in: 

a) -el, -en, -er, e. g. add, bibel, dunkel, handel, add, 
sa'ker, vackcr. 

Exceptions are e. g. angel, spa gel, himmcl, 

a'vcn, which have Tone II. 

b) -sk, e. g. nordisk, hednisk, engelsk. 



41 

7. Words that mostly occur without stress in a sentence, 
such as Prepositions and Conjunctions, have Tone I, 

e. g. eller, darfor, over, under. 



12. Tone II. 

Tone II is used in words that do not belong to any of 
the categories enumerated above. The following groups may 
be distinguished: 

1. The majority of native polysyllabic words with the prin- 

cipal stress on the first syllable, e. g. flicka, flickor, 

gosse, gossar, kalla, ballade, kallat, kopa, kopte, ko- 

,x ^ \ ^ ^ kV^ ^ - ^ ^ . 
panae, gammat, gamla, trogen, trognare, trognast y 

flickorna, gossarna, applena, binda, bundit, bindande. 

2. The majority of compound words, e. g. guldring, affdrs- 

man, Andersson, Bergztrom, aktiebolag, tdndsticks- 
fabrik, utrikesdepartementet. 

S V X N 

Exceptions: Tyskland, England, Frankrike, 
Sverige, Norge, Danmark have Tone I. 



Diagrams illustrating the Tones. 

(The stress is indicated in figures.) 

A. In isolated words. 

Tone I. 



Words of 2 syllables: 



Words of 3 syllables: 



Words of 2 syllables: 



Words of 3 syllables: 



Words of more than 
3 syllables: 



- 


V. 


- 


30 3. 

handen springer 
han-den sprin-ar 
the hand runs 


fag el 
fo-gal 
bird 


- 


- 





,30 1 3 1 

handerna Franknke 
hsn-dena fran-krike 
the hands France 

Tone II. 


30 

bctala 
beta-la 
to pay 


T 


^ ^ 


^ 


bunden armband 
bun-d0n c ar-mban ( d 
bound bracelet 


3. 1 

spring a 
sprin-a 1 
to run 


"^ ^ 


"^ x 


"^ *v 


30 1 3 2 

gossarna armbandet 
gos-ana c ar-mban'dat 
the boys the bracelet 


301 

kallade 
called 


^ 


~^ V 



3080 

Osterrike utrikesdcpartementct 

fps-t8ri c ka la-trikasdepatamsn'tat 

Austria the Foreign Office 



43 



N. 13. In questions the tones are rising instead of falling: 

Tone I. 



X 
X 


X 
X 


x 
X 
X 


X 

X 

X 



handen? springer? hdnderna? 

Tone II. 



utrikesdepartementet? 



Frankrike? 



X 

^ 


X 

^ 


X 

x 


X 

x 



bunden? armband? gossarna? armbandet? 



B. In connected speech. 

The tones are as a rule rising except before full stop. 

Tone I. 



(Tone II) 



handen ar varm 
the hand is warm 



____ 

handerna dro katla 
the hands are cold 



(Tone II) 



^ ^ 



en fdgel i handen dr ba'ttre an tio i skogen 
a bird in the hand is better than ten in the wood 

Tone II. 



alia gossar Imnna inte simma 
all boys can not swim 



44 



13. Signs used to indicate Accent. 

1. In the phonetic transcription used in this book a stop(-) 
indicates principal stress and an inverted comma (') secondary 
stress. When placed immediately after a vowel, the stop indicates 
that the vowel is long; when placed immediately after a conso- 
nant, it indicates that the consonant is long (and in consequence 
the preceding vowel short). 

Ex.: mat (ma-t) food matt (mat-) weak 

2. The inverted comma ( c ), too, is placed immediately 
after a vowel if tlie vowel is long, and immediately after 
a consonant if the consonant is long. 

Ex.: sltonliet (s0-nhe c t) beauty 
ungdom (un-dwm c ) youth 

3. If a doublestressed word ends in a vowel carrying the 
secondary stress, the inverted comma must, of course, be placed 
immediately after the vowel, whether the vowel is long or 
short. In most cases this causes no real inconvenience, as 
certain vowels only occur long and others only short. It 
should also be kept in mind that the ending vowel is long 
if it has strong secondary stress (2) (i-e* in compound words) 
and short if it has weak secondary stress (1) (see 9). 

Ex.: gosse (gos-a c ) boy (short ending vowel) 

Ijusbld (ju-sblo f ) light- blue (long ending vowel) 

4. The stop(-) and the inverted comma( f ) serve not only to 
indicate stress but also intonation. If only a stop(-) is used, the 
word is pronounced with Tone I. If both a stop( ) and an in- 
verted commaf) are used, the word is pronounced with Tone II. 

Ex.: 

Tone I Tone II 

matcn (ina-tan) the food fl-ickan (tiik-an 1 ) the girl 

fotterna (foot-ana) the feet gossarna (gos-ana c ) the boys 



45 

5. The meaning of a word often depends on the tone. 
The word anden, for instance, may be pronounced either 

with Tone I or Tone II: an-dan or an-dan c . If pronounced 
with Tone I, it means the duck> (definite form of and). If 
pronounced with Tone II, it means the spirit (definite form 
of ande). 

6. Many Swedish words mean one thing when pronounced 
with Tone I and another thing when pronounced with Tone II. 

Ex.: 

Tone I Tone II 

anden (an-dan) the duck anden (an-dan c ) the spirit 

buren (bu-ran) the cage buren (bu-ran c ) carried 

panter (pan-tar) panther panter (pan-t9r c ) pledges 

eder (e-dar) your eder (e-dar c ) oaths 

slutet (sha-tat) the end slutet (sha-tat c ) closed 



14. The Spoken Language. 

Spoken Swedish differs very much from the written lang- 
uage. The following are the principal divergencies. 

1. All Nouns end in -a in the definite plural. 
Ex.: b'gona (ogoneri) the eyes 

liuscna (husen) the houses 
barna (barnen) the children 

2. The noun huvud head, has the form huve, (def. form 
Ituvetj def. pi. huvena). 

3. Adjectives ending in -ig glrop the g. 
Ex.: traki(g), trdki(g)t, tr&Jei(g)a, dull 

4. Many Pronouns have special colloquial forms. 
Ex.: ja' (jag) 

mig, dig, sig are pronounced msj-. dsj-, sej- 

de, dem are pronounced dom-, e. g. dom sdjer they say; 

jag sag dom I saw them 
ndgot, intet have the forms nage, inge(t) 
ndgonting is contracted to na'nting 



46 

5. Aft before an Infinitive is pronounced o. 

6. The plural forms of Verbs are not used in 
colloquial speech. 

Ex.: ri I'dper we buy (vi Jcdpa) 

dom springer they run (de springa) 
dom sprang they ran (de sprungo) 

7. The Past of the 1st Conjugation has the same form 
as the Infinitive. 

Ex.: ja' kasta' I threw (jag kastade) 
vi ropa 1 we called (vi ropade) 

8. The short forms la' and so 1 are used instead of l<ul< . 
sade (put, said). 

9. The verb saga, sager, is pronounced ssj-a c , sej-er. 

10. A few Verbs have short colloquial forms in the In- 
finitive and the Present. 

Ex.: ge, ger instead of giva, giver to give 
be, her bedja, beder to beg 

ta\ ta'r tag a, tager to take 

bli', blir > bliva, bliver to become 

11. The Supine of the 4th Conjugation ends in -c or 4 
instead of -it. 

Ex.: vi liar tage (-i) (vi hava tagif) we have taken 

dom liar sprung e (-i) (de hava sprungit) they have run 

12. The Auxiliary Verbs have the following colloquial 
forms: 

jag dr colloquially pronounced ja 

de aro t dom 

jag (vi) hade ja (vi) had-s c 

jag var ja vci- 

vi roro vi va- 

jag shall ja ska- (unstressed ska) 

vi skola viska-( ) 

13. The prepositions mcd, till are pronounced me, te (ti). 

14. The conjunction och is pronounced o. 

15. Final d, g and t are often dropped after a vowel. 



47 



Ex.: de(t) (Definite Article and Pronoun) 

va(d) what 

go(d) good (plural god) 

da(g) day (def. form da'n; plural dar) 

bro(d) bread (def. form bro't] plural bro'n) 
16. Final nd is often assimilated to nn. 
Ex.: vinn (instead of vind or vinden) wind, the wind 

lumn (instead of Imnd or Jmndcn) dog, the dog 



GRAMMAR 



4 222444. Bjorkhagen. Modern Swedish Grammar. 



The Noun. 

Articles. 
15. I. The Indefinite Article. 

Masc. en son a son Neuter ett horn a horn 

en gossc a boy ett apple an apple 

Fern, en doiter a daughter 
en flicka a girl 

Com. en park a park 
en skola a school 

The Indefinite Article is: 

en for masculine, feminine and common gender; 

ett^for neuter gender. 

16. II. The Definite Article. 

The Swedish Definite Article is a terminal article, i. c. it is 
affixed to the end of the Noun, and not placed before the Noun 
as in English. 

Singular. 

Masc. sonen the son Neut. hornet the horn 

gossen the boy applet the apple 

Fern, flickan the girl 

Com. parken the park 

skolan the school 



52 

The Definite Article in the singular is: 
-en (or -n) for masculine, feminine, and common gender; 
-et (or -t) for neuter nouns. 

The shorter forms (-n and -) are used when the Noun ends 
in a vowel (and in a few other cases, for which see below). 

Plural. 

Indefinite Definite 

1. sJcolor schools skolorna the schools 
prinsar princes prinsarna the princes 
parker parks parltcrna the parks 
skomakare shoemakers skomakarna the shoemakers 

(the final -e is dropped before -no) 

2. dpplen apples dpplena the apples 

3. horn horns hornen the horns 

The Definite Article has three forms in the plural: 

1. -na for nouns belonging to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd 
Declensions; also for nouns of the 5th Declension ending in 
-are and -ande. The final -e in nouns ending in -are is dropped 
before -na. 

2. -a for nouns of the 4th Declension. 

3. -en for neuter nouns of the 5th Declension. 



17. Remarks on the Formation of the Definite Singular. 

1. Non-neuter nouns ending in unstressed -el, -er 
(Tone I, see 9 B) take -n (not -en) in the definite form: 

artikeln the article 

fdgeln the bird 

dkern the field 

segern the victory 

2. Neuter nouns ending in unstressed -el, -er (Tone I) 
drop the -e before -I and -r in the definite form: 



53 

Indefinite Definite 

ett segel a sail seglet the sail 

ett exempel an example exemplet the example 

ett finger a finger fingret the finger 

Notice: papper paper, papperet the paper; the -e is not 
dropped in this word because it has Tone II. 

3. Nouns (non-neuters and neuters) ending in unstressed 
-en (Tone I) drop the -e before the definite article: 

Indefinite Definite 

botten bottom bottnen the bottom 

soclten parish socknen the parish 

vapen weapon vapnet the weapon 

tecken sign teclmet the sign 

Notice: siden silk, sidenet the silk; the -e is not dropped in 
this word because it has Tone II. 

4. The following nouns take the definite article -n (not 
-en) although they have Tone II: 

Indefinite Definite 

fader father fader n the father 

moder mother modem the mother 

broder brother brodern the brother 

dotter daughter dottern the daughter 

syster sister system the sister 

5. The word himmel (Tone II) heaven, takes the definite 
form himlen (sometimes himmeln or himmelen). 

6. Non-neuter nouns ending in -are (e.g. skomahare shoe- 
maker; bag are baker; liammare hammer) drop the final -e before 
the definite article in colloquial speech: 

skomakaren (coll. skomakarn) the shoemaker 
bagaren (coll. bag am) the baker 

hammaren (coll. hammam) the hammer 

7. Loanwords ending in a vowel fluctuate: 



54 

iirmeen or anu>'n the army 

idten or iden the idea 

liafcet (coll. ~kafet) the cafe 

poesien (coll. poesin) poetry 
filosop.cn (coll. filosofiii) philosophy 

8. Latin words ending in -or take the definite article -n 
(not -en): 

Indefinite Definite 

doktor doktorn 
professor professorn 

9. Latin words ending in ~eum, -ium drop -urn before 
the definite article -et. 

Indefinite Definite 

museum museet 

laboratorium laboratoriet 

10. In colloquial speech some nouns ending in -n remain 
unchanged in the definite form, e. g.: 

Indefinite Definite 

botten bottom botten (instead of bottnen) the bottom 

Uapten captain kapten (instead of kapteneri) the captain 

mun mouth mun (instead of munneri) the mouth 

grind (pronounced grind (instead of grinden) the gate 
grin-) gate 

11. Nouns derived from Verbs and ending in -an remain 
unchanged in the definite form: 

borjan beginning; the beginning 
Idngtdn longing; the longing 

12. The nouns cxamcn examination, and froltcn Miss, do 
not take the definite article. 

13. Nouns containing a short vowel followed by -M, double 
the -n in the definite form, e. g. man man, manncn the man; 
mun mouth, munncn the mouth. 



55 

18. Remarks on the Formation of the Definite Plural. 

1. In formal style masculine nouns often take -ne instead 
of -na in the definite plural: 

Indefinite Definite 

kungar kings kungarne (or Jcungarna) the kings 
bag are bakers bagarne (or bagarna) the bakers 

2. Neuter nouns ending in unstressed -el) -en, -er drop 
the -e before the definite article in the plural: 

Indefinite Definite 

segel sails seglen the sails 

exempel examples exemplen the examples 

vapen weapons vapnen the weapons 

tecken signs tecknen the signs 

fonster windows fonstren the windows 

fruntimmer women fruntimren the women 

3. Notice the following irregular plurals: 

Indefinite plur. Definite plur. 

man man man men mannen (double n!) the men 

gas goose gdss geese gassen the geese 

mus mouse moss mice mossen the mice 

oga eye ogon eyes ogonen the eyes 

or a ear oron ears oronen the ears 

4. The noun huvud head, has the definite plural huvudena 
(coll. huvena). 

5. Notice the following divergences between the written 
and the spoken language in the definite plural of neuter nouns 
belonging to the 5th Declension: 

Indefinite Definite 

hus houses husen (coll. husena) the houses 

segel sails seglen (coll. seglena) the sails 

fonster windows fonstren (coll, fonsterna) the windows 

6. The definite plurals ogonen the eyes, and oronen the 
ears, have in colloquial speech the forms ogona, orona. 



56 



The Use of the Articles. 
A. The Definite Article. 



19. In most cases the use of the definite article in 
Swedish corresponds to the use of the definite article in 
English. The following are the principal exceptions: 

20. Abstract, appellative and material nouns, when used in 
a general sense, take the definite article. 

Konsten dr lang, livet dr kort. Art is long, life is short. 



Ljuset gar fortare an ljudet. 
Tiden gar. 

Den allmdnna opinionen. 
Elefanterna dro Jdoka djur. 



Light travels faster than sound. 
Time flies. 
Public opinion. 
Elephants are sagacious ani- 
mals. 



21. Notice particularly the following words: 



natiwen nature 
forsynen Providence 
bdet fate 

kristcnheten Christendom 
mtinskligheten humanity 
parlamentet Parliament 
eftervdrlden posterity 
samhdllet (societeten) society 
dlderdomen old age 
ungdomen youth . 
himlen heaven 



helvetet hell 
paradiset paradise 
skdrselden purgatory 
mdnniskan man (mankind) 
mannen man 
kvinnan woman 
~kyr~kan church 
skolan school 
universitetct college 
hovet court 
staden town 



Examples: 



Sddant forekommer aldrig 

naturen. 

Odct var emot honom. 
Sddan dr ungdomen. 



Such things never occur in 

nature. 

Fate was against him. 
Such is youth. 



57 

Fader vdr, som dr i himlen. Our Father, whicli art in 

heaven. 

Mdnniskan spar, Gud rdr. Man proposes, God disposes. 

Kvinnan skapades efter man- Woman was created after man. 

nen. 

Jag gar i Jsyrkan om son- I go to church on Sundays. 

dagarna. 

Om vardagarna gar jag i On week-days I go to school. 

sko Ian. 

Han har rest in till staden. He has gone up to town. 

22. Names of meals, seasons, days, and festivals take the 
definite article. 

De gingo nt efter middagen. They went out after dinner. 
Jay brukar ta en promenad fore I generally go out for a walk 



frukosten. 



before breakfast. 



Om sdndagarna gar jag i On Sundays I go to church. 

kyrkan. 

Varen dr en hdrlig drstid. Spring is a lovely season. 

Om somrarna bo vi pa landet. In summer we live in the 

country. 

Han kom och hdlsade pa oss He came to see us at Christmas. 

vid julen. 

23. Names of streets, squares, parks, and other public 
places take the definite article. 
Jag lor pa Kungsgatan. I live in King's Street. 

24. Nouns denoting time and measure take the definite 
article, where in English the indefinite article is used. Nouns 
denoting time are preceded by a preposition (i, om). 
De Mr tavlorna kosta 500 kro- These pictures cost 500 kroner 

nor stycket. apiece. 

Handskarna kostade sju kro- The gloves cost seven kroner 

nor paret. a pair. 

Pennorna kosta tvd kronor The pencils are two kronor 

dussinet. a dozen. 



58 

Tdget gar sextio engelska mil The train travels sixty (Eng- 

i timmen. lisli) miles an hour. 

Det hdnder cndast en gang om It only happens once a year. 
dret. 

25. Forra last, is followed by a noun in the definite 
form. Notice the Definite Article of the Adjective in the 
expressions det mesta, de fiesta. 

Jagtraffadehonomfdrraveckan I met him last week (month, 

(mdnaden, dret). year). 

(But: jag trciffar lionom ndsta I shall be seeing him next 

vecka. week.) 

Det mesta teet kommer frdn Most tea comes from China. 

Kina. 

DC fiesta affdrerna dro stdngda Most shops are closed on Sun- 

pd sdndagarna. days. 

26. Nouns preceded by the epithets bdda both, vardera 
either, and in gender a neither, require the definite article. 

Pd vardera sidan (onpd omse On either side of the fairway. 

sidor) om segelleden. 
Bdda gossarna voro ute. Both boys were out. 

27. In several cases, which cannot be specially classified, 
an indefinite form in English corresponds to a definite form 
in Swedish. 

Ex. hela dagen all day, liela natten all night, blind pa 
ena ogat blind of one eye, hdlften av landet half of the 
country, vara av den dsikten to be of opinion, forlora tdla- 
modet lose patience, doma till doden sentence to death, vid 
soluppgdngcn at sunrise, om dagen by day, om natten by 
night, till namnet by name, till utseendet by sight, etc. 

28. The definite article in Swedish often corresponds 
to a possessive adjective in English. 

Han stoppadc handen i fickan. He put his hand in his pocket. 
Jcunde inte halla balansen. He could not keep his balance. 



59 

V 

29. Names of persons, vessels, and hotels do not take the 
definite article. 

Jag bor Jios Lundstroms. I arn staying at the Lund- 

stroms'. 
Han restc till New York med He sailed for New York in 

Aquitania. the Aquitania. 

Han tog in pa Strand. He put up at the Strand. 

30. In several cases, which cannot be specially classified 
a definite form in English corresponds to an indefinite form 
in Swedish. 

Ex.: 1 han stcg av pa fel (ordtt) station he got out at 
the wrong station, jag shall stiga av vid ndsta station I am 
getting out at the next station, i nuvarande ogonblick at 
the present moment, det d'r pel hb'ger (vdnster) sida it is 
on the right (left) hand side, norr (soder, osier, vaster) om 
Stockholm to the north (south, east, west) of Stockholm, spela 
piano play the piano, spela flojt play the flute, ha tandvdrJc 
have the toothache, etc. 

B. The Indefinite Article. 

,31. In most cases the use of the indefinite article in 
Swedish corresponds with the use of the indefinite article in 
English. Notice the following expressions: 

1. With the indefinite article: 

en del av pengarna part of the money 

2. Without the indefinite article: 

han vdntar pa svar he is waiting for an answer, han 
skriver brev he is writing a letter, gora narr av ndgon make 
a fool of a person, ha oga for have an eye for, hurudan karl 
dr han? what sort of a man is he? han hade stor lust att for- 
so'ka he had a great mind to try, jag har huvudvdrk I have 
got a headache, man har rdtt att forsvara sig one has a right 
to defend oneself, gora slut pa put a stop to, vara slut be at 
an end, tag a plats take a situation, 



60 



32. Predicative nouns denoting a person's nationality, reli- 
gion, profession, trade, age etc. do not take the indefinite article. 
They are as a rule preceded by the prepositions till or for, or 
by the word som (except after the verbs vara and ~blivd). 

Ibsen dr norrman, Strindberg Ibsen is a Norwegian, Strind- 

berg is a Swede. 

The husband was a Protestant, 
his wife a Roman Catholic. 

He is a physician by profes- 
sion. 

Even as a child he wrote no- 
vels. 

He was elected a Member of 
Parliament. 



dr svensk. 
Jlannnen var protestant, lians 

hustru katolik. 
Han dr Itikare till yrket. 



Redan sow barn skrev han ro- 
maner. 

Han blev vald till riksdags- 
man. 



33. The indefinite article is not used after the word 
vilken how (or what) in exclamations, nor after Imr however, 
or mdngen many a (one). 

Vilken lidrlig utsikt! (but: en What a splendid view! 

sddan hdrlig utsikt!} 
Inser du inte, vilket oerhort Don't you realise what a ter- 



misstag du liar gjort? 

Hur stort misstag jag an liar 
gjort, sd har du gjort ett 
dnnu storre. 



rible mistake you have 
made? 

However great a mistake I 
have made, you have made 
a still greater one. 



Mdngen gang kan det se mbrkt Many a time the outlook may 



ut. 



be dark. 



34. The indefinite article is placed before and not after 
the Adjective in expressions like the following: 

en halv mil half a mile, en halo timnie half an hour, ctt 
sddant svdrt problem so difficult a problem, vid en sddan tid 
at such a time, hon var en lika skicklig politiker som Elisabet 
sjdlv she was as clever a politician as Elisabeth herself, ett 
alltfor stnrt mixstag too great a mistake, etc. 



61 



Gender. 

35. The Swedish language has four Genders: mascu- 
line, feminine, common, and neuter. 

A Noun is: 

1. masculine, if the pronoun han (he) can be used instead 
of the Noun. 

Ex.: gossen: lian the boy: he. 

2. feminine, if the pronoun lion (she) can be used instead 
of the Noun. 

Ex.: flickan: lion the girl: she. 

3. common, if the pronoun den (it) can be used instead 
of the Noun. 

Ex.: stolen: den the chair: it. 

4. neuter, if the pronoun det (it) can be used instead of 
the Noun. 

Ex.: bordet: det the table: it. 

In masculine, feminine, and common nouns the definite 
singular ends in -n. 

Ex.: gossen, flickan; stolen. 

In neuter nouns the definite singular ends in -t. 

Ex.: lor det. 

36. I. Masculine are: 

1. Designations of men and male animals. 
Ex.: Erik; Jconung king, tjur bull, tupp cock. 

2. Designations of higher animals are generally treated 
as masculine even if they are common to males and females. 

Ex. : elefanten the elephant, hasten the horse, ornen the eagle. 
37. II. Feminine are: 

1. Designations of women and female animals. 
Ex.: Maria; drottning queen, ho cow, Mna hen. 

2. Nouns designating animals are often feminine if the 
nominative ends in -a. They may also be treated as of com- 
mon gender. 

Ex.: rdtta mouse, duva pigeon, fluga fly. 



62 

3. A few other nouns ending in - ? c. g. klocka clock, 
blomma flower. 

N.B. Hur mycket dr klockan? Hon <h- hale sju. What 
time is it? It is half past six. 

4. The noun -niatniiska man (including both man and 
woman). 

38. III. Common are: 

1. Designations of things and animals (with the above 
exceptions) if the definite form ends in ~n. 

Ex.: snigeln the snail, fdgeln the bird, fisken the fish, 
gdddan the pike, stolen the chair, so/fan the sofa, morgonen 
the morning, rosen the rose, Jiandcn the hand, foten the 
foot. 

2. Names of months, seasons, and festivals. 

Ex.: vdren spring, sommaren summer, hasten autumn, 
vintern winter, julen Christmas, pdsken Easter, pingsten 
Whitsuntide. 

3. Names of trees. 

Ex.: bjorken the birch, granen the spruce-tree, fallen the 
Scotch fir, poppeln the poplar. 

4. Names of lakes, rivers, and boats. 

Ex.: Mdlaren Lake Malar, Vattern Lake Vatter, Thcmsen 
the Thames, Thorsten the Thorsten, Balder the Balder. 

5. Nouns ending in: -ad, -are, -dom, -hct, -ing, -leJc, 
-ion. 

Ex.: mdnaden the month, hammaren the hammer, barn- 
domen childhood, skonhcten the beauty, tdrningen the die, kar- 
leken love, nationen the nation. 

39. IV. Neuter are: 

1. Designations of things and animals if the definite 
form ends in -t. 

Ex.: fdret the sheep, Met the bee, lejonet the lion, lordet 
the table, fonstret the window, taket the roof, scglet the sail, 
fingret the finger. 

2. Names of continents, countries, mountains, pro- 
vinces, towns, and other inhabited places. 



63 

Ex. : Europa, Asien, England, Sverige (Sweden), Mont Blanc, 
Dalarna, Stockholm, London, Mora, Drottningnolm. 

3. The letters of the alphabet. 
Ex.: ett a an a, ett I a b, etc. 

4. Nouns ending in -en', -on (names of berries), -urn. 
Ex.: bryggeriet the brewery, liallonet the raspberry, ett 

museum a museum, ett laboratorium a. laboratory. 



40. Exceptions. 

1. The masculine titles ending in -bud and -rdd take the 
neuter articles (def. and indef.). 

Ex.: ett sandebud an ambassador, ett statsrdd a minister. 
N.B. The pronoun used instead of these nouns is han 
(not det). 

Ex.: Ar statsrddet lieinma? Is the minister at home? 
Nej, han har gait ut. No, he has gone out. 

2. The feminine appellation fruntimmcr woman, lady, 
takes the neuter articles, but the pronoun used instead of 
fruntimmer is lion (not det). 

Ex.: Det ar ett fruntimmer (def. form fruntimret) i tam- 
buren. Son ber ait fa tala med doktorn. There is a woman 
in the hall. She wants to speak to the doctor. 

3. The noun barn child, is neuter (ett barn, barnet). 

4. Nouns like kusin cousin, gemdl consort, patient patient, 
are masculine or feminine according as they refer to men or 
women. 

5. In poetry abstract nouns are often personified and treated 
as feminine (sometimes masculine). 

Ex.: sanningen truth, friheten liberty. 

6. The noun sto mare, is neuter. 

7. A few words ending in -are are neuter: ett altare an 
altar, ett ankare an anchor. 

8. Two nouns ending in -on are common: morgonen the 
morning, aftoneti the evening. 



64 



41. Remarks on Gender. 

1. Common and neuter in Swedish correspond to neuter 
in English. 

2. The pronouns den and det correspond to it. 

3. To know whether a noun denoting a thing or an ani- 
mal is common or neuter, it is necessary to consult a dic- 
tionary. No hard and fast rules can be given. 

Common are c. g.: Neuter are e. g.: 

stolen the chair bordet the table 

bollcn the ball golvet the floor 

gdsen the goose Met the bee 

geten the goat fdret the sheep 



Case. 

42. A Swedish noun has two case-forms: nominative 
and genitive. The nominative is also used as objective case. 
43. The genitive is formed by adding -s to tae nomina- 
tive, both in the definite and in the indefinite form, both in 
the singular and in the plural: 
Ex.: 

Nona. Gen. 

en skola a school en skolas of a school 

skolan the school sJcolans of the school 

skolor schools slcolors of schools 

skolorna the schools sliolornas of the schools 

N.B. No apostrophe is used before the -s. 

44. Remarks on the Genitive. 

1. The genitive of proper names ending in ~s has the 
same form as the nominative. In writing, the genitive is 



65 

indicated by an apostrophe after -s. Ex.: Johannes' evange- 
llnm the Gospel according to St. John. 

2. The genitive of nouns ending in -s, e. g. prins, dans, 
should be avoided in the indefinite form. 

3. Latin names, especially those ending in -us, often take 
the Latin genitive. 

Ex. : Pauli brev till romarna St. Paul's Epistle to the Ro- 
mans, Berselii park Berzelius' Park. 



The Use of the Genitive. 

45. The genitive in -s is more common in Swedish than 
in English. Not only nouns denoting living beings but also 
nouns denoting inanimate objects take the genitive in -s. 

Ex.: Imsets agare the owner of the house, bergets fot the foot 
of the mountain, en arans man a man of honour, parkens trad 
the trees of the park, ljusets hastighet the rapidity of light, etc. 

46. Even adjectives and participles used as nouns take 
s in the genitive. 

Ex.: den gamles tacksamhet the old man's gratitude, de 
na'rvarandes mening the opinion of those present, etc. 

47. In cases like the following the genitive is not used 
in Swedish. 

Han bor hos sin master. He is staying at his aunt's. 

Jag gick med receptet till na'r- I took the prescription to the 

maste apotek. nearest chemist's. 

Han gick till bagarcn. He went to the baker's. 

En van till hans far (or: ) \ p -i f > L> +1 > 

A friend of his father s. 
En av hans jars vanner). \ 

En slakting till min hustru. A relative of my wife's. 
(Compare: En av mina vanner. A friend of mine.) 



5 222444. Bjdrkhagtn, Mode-n SirecUsh Grammar. 



66 



Prepositional Epithets. 

48. The English preposition of in epithets corres- 
ponds to various prepositions in Swedish. 

Ex. : slaget rid Trafalgar the battle of Trafalgar, kdrleken 
till Gud the love of God, herr Andersson frdn Stockholm Mr 
Andersson of Stockholm, dorren till rummet the door of the 
room, toppen av berget or bergstoppen the top of the moun- 
tain, gudsfruktan the fear of God, tanken pa doden the thought 
of death, etc. 

49. Nouns denoting quantity are not followed by a 
preposition in Swedish. 

Ex. : en butelj vin a bottle of wine, en bit popper (or en 
pappersbit) a piece of paper, ett glas vatten a glass of water, 
ett par mdnader a couple of months, ett par skor a pair of 
shoes, mycket pengar plenty of money, en hel del bcsvdr a 
great deal of trouble, ett stort antal trddar a great number 
of wires, etc. 

50. Notice the following expressions: 

Vi voro fyra stycken. There were four of us. 
Giv mig tvd stycken. Give me two of them. 
De dro for manga. There are too many of them. 

51. The expressions a kind of>, a sort of are transla- 
ted by ett slags, en sorts. 

Alia mojliga slags man- All sorts and conditions of 

niskor. men. 

Ett nytt slags potatis. A new kind of potatoes. 

Jag tycker inte om sddant. I don't like that sort of thing. 

Tvd sorters papper. Two kinds of paper. 

52. No preposition is used after geographical appel- 
lations, such as land country, rike kingdom, stad town, land- 
*>kap province, etc. 



On Gottland ligger milt i The island of Gotland is situat- 
Ostersjan. ed in the middle of the 

Baltic. 

Landskapet Dalarna. The province of Dalarna. 

Konungariket Sverige. The kingdom of Sweden. 

53. No preposition is used after the nouns mdnad 
month, namn name, titel title, rop cry, parti game, betydelsc 
sense. 

En bagare vid namn Lund- A baker of the name of Lund- 

berg. berg. 

Han fick titeln professor: The title of professor w r as be- 
stowed upon him. 

De spclade ctt parti bridge. They played a game of bridge. 

Jannari mdnad dr den kal- The month of January is the 

laste. coldest. 

N.V. Den tjugoforsta The 21st of April. 

april. 
Den sista januari. The last of January. 

54. No determinative pronoun is used in Swedish 
before a genitive in cases like the following: 
Ljusets hastighet dr storre an The rapidity of light is greater 
Ijudets. than that of sound. 



Indirect Object. 

55. No preposition precedes the indirect object after 
the verbs tillskriva attribute, meddela communicate, synas 
seem, forefalla appear, tilllwra belong, lidnda happen. 

Dikten har tillskrivits Tegner. The poem has been attributed 

to Tegner. 
Han tneddelade mig sina He communicated his observa- 

iakttagelser. tions to me. 

Oss forefaller det omojligt. To us it seems impossible. 



68 

Huset tillhor nvig. The house belongs to me. 

Det foil Jtouoiu aldrig in, att It never occurred to him that 

han kunde ha ortitt. he might be wrong. 

Har ndgonthig It ant poj- Has anything happened to the 
a\* boys? 



56. The indirect object is often used without a prepo- 
sition when it is governed by a predicative adjective. 

Jag skulle bli er mycket for- I should be very much obliged 

bunden. to you. 

Fiendernavoro oss overlay sna The enemy were superior to us 

i antal. in numbers. 

De gamla visorna dro mig The old songs are as dear to 

lika kdra som ndgonsin. me as ever. 

57. The verb "to tell" is translated by tala om for 
or saga (at). 

Tala inte om det for ndgon.} _. 

.. , . . , , A J Do not tell anybody. 

bag det inte at nagon. 

Vem taladc om det for dig?} ATri 

-tr 1 , j . Who told you? 

Vem har sagt detJ J 

Sag mig en sak. Tell me something. 

Jag har ndgonting att saga I have something to say to you. 

er. 

Sdg at 1 lionom, att han kom- Tell him to come here. 

mer hit. 

Sag dt l honom,attjag villtala Tell him that I want to speak 

mcd honom. to him. 

58. The indirect object is preceded by the preposition 
at to, when it comes after the direct object. 

Han kopte en segelbdt at inig He bought a sailing-boat for 
och en dngmaskin fit min me and a steam-engine for 
bror. my brother. 

1 With the stress on dt. 



69 



Declensions. 

59. The Swedish language has five declensions, i. e. five 
different ways of forming the plural of nouns. 

60. The plural of nouns belonging to the 1st Declen- 
sion ends in -or* 

The plural of nouns belonging to the 2nd Declension 
ends in -ar. 

The plural of nouns belonging to the 3rd Declension 
ends in -er. 

The plural of nouns belonging to the 4th Declension ends 
in -n. 

The plural of nouns belonging to the 5th Declension 
has the same form as the singular. 



61. 1st Declension. 

Plural termination: -or. 

Singular Plural 

1. en sUola a school sfcolor schools 
sJcolan the school sftolOTnn, the schools 

2. en ros a rose rosor roses 
rosvn the rose rosorna the roses 

62. To the 1st Declension belong: 

1. Non-neuter nouns ending in -a. 

Ex.: Itrona crown, fliclca girl, gata street, flagga flag, 
tavla picture, etc. They drop the final -a before the plural 
termination: Jcronor, flickor, gator, tavlor. 

(Exception: historia story, plur. historier.) 

2. A few others: 

ros rose, svan swan, vug wave, vad calf of the leg, toffel 
slipper, udcr vein. 



70 

In the plural: rosor, svanor, vagor, vador, toff lor, 
ddror. 

N.B. Anor ancestors or pedigree, bannor chidings, mat- 
varor victuals, inalvor entrails, are only used in the plural. 



63. 2nd Declension. 

Plural termination: -ar. 





Singular 


Plural 


1. 


en droppe 
dropper 


a drop 
the drop 


droppnr 


drops 
the drops 


2. 


en prins 
prinssn 


a prince 
the prince 


prins&vn& 


princes 
the princes 


3. 


en vinter 


a winter 


vintrsir 


winters 




vintern 


the winter 


vintrBmti 


the winters 


4. 


en o 


an island 


oar 


islands 




on 


the island 


oarna 


the islands 



N.B. There are no neuter nouns in this declension. 
(Exception: ett finger a finger, pi. fingrar.) 



64. To the 2nd Declension belong: 

1. Most monosyllabic non-neuter nouns ending in a con- 
sonant. 

2. Some monosyllabic non-neuter nouns ending in a vowel, 
e. g. Iro bridge, by village, fru Mrs. or wife, sky cloud, sjo lake, 
d stream, o island. 

3. Xon-neuter nouns ending in unstressed -r, -r/, -en, and 
-< r. They drop the -e before the plural termination, e. //. 
gossc, pi. f/ossar boy, fdgcl, pi. fdglar bird, olien, pi. oJcnar 
desert, seger, pi. segrar victory. 

4. Non-neuter nouns ending in -dom and -ing, e. g. egcn- 
estate, ijn<iUn<j young man. 



71 



5. The following nouns have an irregular plural 



Sing. 

sommar summer 
afton evening 
morgon morning 
djdvul devil 
moder mother 
dotter daughter 



Plur. 

somrar 

aftnar 

morgnar 

djdvlar 

modrar 

dottrar 



N.J3. Fordldrar parents, and pengar (penning ar) money, 
are only used in the plural. 



Singular 

1. en park a park 
parkvn the park 

2. en hand a hand 
handen the hand 

3. en protestant 
protestanten 

4. en neger 
negern 

5. en doktor 
doktorn 

6. ett bageri 
bagerist 

7. ett museum 
musevt 



65. 3rd Declension. 

Plural termination: ~er. 

Plural 



hands? 



parks 
the parks 

hands 
the hands 



protestanter 
protestanternn 



negrer 



a negro 
the negro 

a doctor 
the doctor 



a bakery bagerier 
the bakery bagerierna, 

museer 



negroes 
the negroes 

doctors 
the doctors 

bakeries 
the bakeries 



1 Plurals of this group have Tone II. Plurals of the other groups have 
Tone I. 

2 With the stress shifted on to -or-. 



6(>. To the 3rd Declension belong: 



1. Many monosyllabic nouns ending in a consonant, c. </. 
fdrg colour, vers verse, form form, dam lady, grans boun- 
dary. They have Tone II in the plural. 

2. The following nouns, which modify their root-vowel in 
the plural: 



Sing. 

hand hand 
and duck 
brand brand 
rand stripe 
strand beach 
tand tooth 
land (n.) country 
tang pair of tongs 
stdng pole 
ledamot member 
son son 
stad town 
bolt book 
fot foot 
rot root 
natt night 

bokstav letter in the 
alphabet 



Plur. 

ha'nde.r 

Under 

brdnder 

rdnder 

strdnder 

t cinder 

lander 

tdnger 

st anger 

ledamoter (Tone II) 

soner (Tone II) 

stdder 

bocJcer 

fdtter 

rotter 

natter 

bokstaver 



N.B. All these plurals (except ledamoter and soncr) have 
Tone I. 

3. The following nouns, which double the final consonant 
in the plural: 

Sinjr. Plur. 

! I ft goat getter (Tone I) 

tint nut nutter (Tone I) 



73 

4. Nouns ending in -at?, -slzap, -nd'r and -else, e. g. mdnad 
month, JcunsJcap knowledge, konstnar artist, lidndelse event. 
The final -c in -else is dropped in the plural: handelser. 

5. Non-neuter nouns of foreign origin (loan-words) with 
the stress on the last syllable, e. g. akademi academy, arme 
army, ide idea, metall metal, diamant diamond, nation nation. 
Plur. akademier, .armeer, ideer, etc. 

6. Latin nouns in -eum and -ium, e. g. museum, labora- 
torium. They drop -um before the plural ending: museer, 
laboratories 

7. Loan-words ending in -arie, -ie. These drop the -e be- 
fore the plural termination, e. g. bibliotekarie librarian, dktie 
share. Plur. bibUotelcdrier, aktier. 

8. Loan-words ending in -or, e. g. doctor, professor. In 
the plural: doktorer, professorer (with the stress on -or-). 

9. Loan-words ending in unstressed -el, -er, e. g. fabel 
fable, mirakel miracle, muskel muscle, mobel piece of furniture, 
fiber fibre, neger negro. (Exception: tiger tiger, pi. tigrar.) 
The -e is dropped in the plural: fabler, miraJcler, muskier, 
mobler, fibrer, negrer. 

10. Neuter nouns ending in -eri, e. g. bryggeri brewery. 

11. The following nouns ending in a vowel form 
their plural by adding -r instead of -er: 

Sing, mo maiden pi. mor 

hustru wife hustrur 

jungfru maid jungfrur 

Jco cow Jcor 

Ido claw Idor 

sJco shoe skor 

td toe tar 

frande (Tone II) relative fra'nder (Tone I!) 

fiende enemy fiender 

bonde (Tone II) peasant bonder (Tone I!) 

stadsbo town- dweller stadsbor 



74 

12. The following nouns are only used in the plural: 
grdnsdker vegetables, ranker intrigues, ferier vacation, /?- 
nanser finances, kalsonger pants, orgier orgies, specerier, 
ri kindlier groceries. 



67. 4th Declension. 

Plural termination -n* 





Singular 




Plural 


1. 


ett apple 
applet 


an apple 
the apple 


cipplen apples 
applet the apples 


2. 


ett M 


a bee 


bin bees 




biet 


the bee 


biu& the bees. 



68. To the 4th Declension belong: 

Neuter nouns ending in a vowel, e. g. rike kingdom, lalte 
belt, bo nest, spo rod, piano, solo, konto account, hjcirta heart. 

69. N.B. The definite article in the plural of this declen- 
sion is only -a (instead of -no). 

The following nouns are irregular in the plural: 

Sing. Plur. 

ett oga an eye dgon eyes 

dgat the eye b'gonen the eyes 

ett or a an ear or on ears 

drat the ear dronen the ears 

N.B. The definite article in the plural of the nouns dga, 
ora is -en (instead of -a). Compare 14. 1. 



75 



70. 5th Declension. 

Plural like singular. 

Singular Plural 

1. ett horn a horn horn horns 
hornet the horn hornen 1 the horns 

2. en bagare a baker bagare bakers 
bagaren the baker bagarnn 2 the bakers 

3. en resande a traveller resande travellers 
resanden the traveller resandensL 2 the travellers 



71. To the 5th Declension belong: 

1. Neuter nouns ending in a consonant, e. g. barn child, 
namn name, hus bouse, bad bath. Also neuter loan-words 
ending in a consonant, e. g. kapital, ackord. 

2. Nouns ending in -are and -ande, e. g. skomakare shoe- 
maker, resande traveller, anJcare (neuter!) anchor. 

3. Some nouns (names of peoples and Latin words) ending 
in -er, e. g. belgier a Belgian, egyptier an Egyptian, indier an 
Indian, perser a Persian; akademiker academician, botaniker 
botanist, musiker musician. 

4. The names of the suits in cards: hjdrter, ruter, klover, 
spader hearts, diamonds, clubs, spades. 

5. Nouns denoting measure: en mil a mile, en kilometer, 
en meter, en turn an inch, en liter, en ton (ton-). 

72. 1. The neuter nouns of this declension (except ankare) 
take the definite article -en (instead of -na) in the plural: 
hornen, barnen. 

2. The non-neuter nouns ending in -are, -ande, and -er 
have the regular definite article -na in the plural: bagarna, 

1 See 72. 1. 

2 See 72. 2. 



76 



rcsandena, cgypticrna. The final -e in -are is dropped be- 
fore the definite article in the plural. 

73. The following nouns are irregular in the plu- 



ral: 

Sing. 

en man a man 

mannen (double n!) the man 
en gas a goose 
gdsen the goose 
en lus a louse 

the louse 

a mouse 

the mouse 

a father 

the father 

a brother 

the brother 



en mus 
musen 
en fader 
fader n 
en broder 
brodern 



Plur. 

tniin men 

mannen (double n!) the men 
gass geese 

gassen the geese 
loss lice 

lossen the lice 



moss 
moss en 
fader 
fdderna 
broder 



mice 
the mice 
fathers 
the fathers 
brothers 



brodcrna the brothers 



Remarks on Number. 

74. The following nouns are used both in the singular 
and in the plural (in English only in the singular): 



Sing. 

ett rad a piece of advice 
ett goromdl a piece of business 
en mobel a piece of furniture 
en inkomst an income 
en underrdttelse a piece of in- 
formation 

(en) kunskap knowledge 
en penning a coin 
ett framstcf/ progress 
en nyhet a piece of news 



Plur. 

rad advice 
(joromdl business 
mobler furniture 
inkomster income 
underrdttelser information 

kunskaper knowledge 
pengar money 
f ram xt eg progress 
nylicter news 



77 



Han har my diet smd inJcomster. 

Kunslcap ar maid. 

Han liar goda Itunskaper i 

frdmmande sprak. 
De gjorde snabba framsteg. 
Mina pengar dro stulna. 
Det var goda nyheter. 



He has a very poor income. 

Knowledge is power. 

He has a good knowledge of 

foreign languages. 
They made rapid progress. 
My money is stolen. 
That is good news. 



75. Notice the singular form of the following nouns: 

en sax a pair of scissors 

(den har saxen these scissors) 

(tvd saxar two pairs of scissors) 

a pair of compasses 

a pair of tongs 

ashes 

contents 

oats 

riches 

a flight of stairs (i trappan on the stairs) 

thanks 

wages 



en passare 

en tang 

aska 

innehdll 

navre 

riJcedom 

en trappa 

tack 

Ion 



The Adjective. 

I. Declensions. 

76. A. Indefinite Declension. 

Singular 

Non-Neuter (M., F. & C.) Neuter 

varwi warm varmt 

Plural (all Genders) 

varma 

Ex.: En varm sommar a warm summer. 
Ett varmt bad a warm bath. 
Varma somrar warm summers. 



78 

The Indefinite Declension has three forms, viz.: 

1. One for the non-neuter singular: varm. 

2. One for the neuter singular, formed by adding -: rarntt. 

3. One for the plural of all genders, formed by adding -a 
to the non-neuter sing.: varma. 

The indefinite forms are also used predicatively. 

Ex.: Sommaren dr varm the summer is warm. 
Badet dr varmt the bath is warm. 
Somrarna dro varma the summers are warm. 

77. B. Definite Declension. 

Singular and Plural (all Genders) 
varma 

Ex.: Den varma sommaren the warm summer. 
Det varma badet the warm bath. 
De varma somrarna the warm summers. 

78. The Definite Declension has only one form: varma. 
It is like the plural of the Indefinite Declension. The defi- 
nite form is generally preceded by 

the Definite Article of the Adjective: 

den for the non-neuter in the singular; 
det for the neuter in the singular; 
de for the plural of all genders. 

79. N.B. It must be observed that the Noun takes the 
(terminal) Definite Article although the Adjective is preceded 
by den 9 det, de: den varma sommaren, det varma badet, 
de varma somrarna. 

80. Remarks on the Formation of the Neuter in the 
Indefinite Declension. 

1. Adjectives that end in a stressed vowel take double 
-t in the neuter. 



79 

Ex.: bid blue neuter: bldtt (pi. blda) 

grd grey grdtt (pi. #rda) 

wy new nytt (pi. w/a) 

/H free fritt (pi. /Ha) 

2. Adjectives that end in unstressed -ew drop the -n in 
the neuter. 

Ex.: mogen ripe neuter: moget (pi. mogna) 

liten small fo'fefl (pi. 

own eget (pi. 



3. Adjectives that end in - preceded by a consonant 
remain unchanged in the neuter. 

Ex.: fast firm neuter: fast (pi. 

proud sfoZtf (pi. 



4. Monosyllabic adjectives that end in -t preceded by 
a long vowel have double -t and short vowel in the 
neuter. 

Ex.: sot sweet neuter: sott (pi. sotd) 

vat wet vatt (pi. 



5. Adjectives that end in -it remain unchanged in the 
neuter. 

Ex.: trott tired neuter: tr'ott (pi. trotta) 

6. Adjectives that end in -d preceded by a consonant 
drop the -d in the neuter. 

Ex.: ond evil neuter: ont (pi. onda) 

blind blind blint (pi. blinda) 

hard hard Mr (pi. hard a) 

mild mild m*7< (pi. milda) 

7. Adjectives that end in -d preceded by a vowel 
change -d into, -ft. 

Ex.: #od good neuter: gott (pi. #oda) 

glad glad #Zaft (pi. glada} 



80 

8. Adjectives that end in -nn drop one -n in the neuter. 
Ex.: sann true neuter: stint (pi. sanna) 

9. The following adjectives are not used in the neuter 
singular of the Indefinite Declension: lat lazy, rcidd frightened, 
hogcr right, vanster left. 



81. Remarks on the Formation of the Plural and the 
Definite Declension. 

1. Adjectives that end in unstressed -al\ -n?, -e/, -er 
drop the vowel proceeding -?, -n, -r in the plural and in the 
definite form. 

Ex.: gammal old plural and def. form: gamla (one m!) 
mogen ripe mognci 

adel noble ddla 

tapper brave t appro, 

2. The adjective liten little, is irregular: 

{en liten flicka a little girl 
ett litet barn a little child 

smd flickor (barn) little girls (children) 

{den lilla flicJcan the little girl 

det lilla barnet the little child 

de smd flicJcorna (barnen) the little girls (children) 

3. In the masculine singular of the definite declension 
the termination -e is sometimes used instead of -a. It should 
always be used (in the masculine singular) instead of -a in 
the following cases: 

a) In exclamations and in solemn apostrophes. 

Ex.: gode Gud! good God! 
Mre vein! dear friend! 



81 

b) When the Adjective is used as a Noun. 
Ex.: denMinde the blind man 

(compare: den llinda the blind woman) 

c) When the Adjective is used after a proper name as a 
surname. 

Ex.: Karl den store Charlemagne 
Erik den helige St. Eric 

".-- y C" ',< - . , . . 

Remarks on the Use of the Indefinite and the Definite 
Declensions. 

82. A. The Adjective should be declined according to 
the indefinite declension when used: 

1. with the indefinite adjectives: 

Ex.: mdngen (varje) tapper soldat many a (every) brave 

soldier 

<v ingen ovdnlig handling no unkind action 

ndgon vdnlig mdnniska some kind person 

2. with the interrogative adjectives in exclamations: 
Ex.: vilken hdrlig utsikt! what a glorious view! 

^i 

83. 13. The Adjective should be declined according to 
the definite declension (but without the definite article) when 
used: 

1. after a genitive: 

Ex.: Anderssons nya 1ms Andersson's new house 

hans (hennes, deras) nya Jtus his (her, their) new house 
husets nya dgare the new owner of the 

house 

2. after a personal pronoun: 

Ex.: jag olyckliga mannisJca! I, unhappy man! 

3. after a possessive adjective: 

Ex.: mitt (ditt, vart, ert, sitt) nya. bus my (thy, our, your, 

his) new house 

6 222444. Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



8L> 

4. after a demonstrative adjective: 

Ex.: detta nya hns (dct hiir nya Imset) this new house 

5. after a determinative adjective: 

Ex.: det nya hus, som du the new 'house you see over 
ser ddr borta there 

6. after a relative pronoun: 

Ex.: han dr en man, vars he is a man whose good taste 
goda smaJc jag Jean I can rely on 
lita pa 

7. in forms of address: 

Ex.: hare van! dear friend! Jcara barn! dear child! (Com- 
pare: Basta Herr Andersson! Dear Mr Andersson.) 

8. When the Adjective qualifies a following proper name: 
Ex. : lilla Maria little Maria, Tjocka Bcrta Big Bertha. 

9. In commercial correspondence expressions like the fol- 
lowing are often met with: ovanndmnda brev the above-men- 
tioned letter, nedan angivna dag the date indicated below, 
narslutna skrivelse the enclosed letter. 

84. Notice that in all these cases the Adjective has the 
definite form, but the Noun the indefinite form. Except after the 
demonstrative adjectives den hdr and den dar, when both the 
Adjective and the Noun take the def. form. 

85. Exception: The adjective egen, own, takes the in- 
definite form after a genitive and after a possessive adjective. 
Ex.: Anderssons egen bror Andersson's own brother, hans 
(min, var) eg en bror his (my, our) own brother, mitt 
(ditt, vdrt, ert, hans) eget hus my (thy, our, your, 
his) own house, (pi. vdra egna barn our own 
children). 

86. Notice the omission of the Definite Article of the 
Adjective in expressions like the following: 

i samma dgonblick at the same moment, han sdlde det i 
ndrmaste 8tad he sold it in the nearest town; 



83 

Atlantiska oceanen the Atlantic Ocean, norra (so'dra, ostra 
vastra, mellersta) Sverige the north (south, east, west, centre) 
of Sweden; 

hela landet all the country, halva staden half the town, 
sjdlva kungen the King himself, etc. 

87. The Definite Article of the Adjective is often omitted 
in headings, 

Ex.: Andra kapitlet Chapter TI, Franska revolutionen the 
French Revolution, etc. 



Genitive of Adjectives. 

88. When an Adjective is used as a Noun it takes - 
in the genitive. 

Ex.: Han dr de fattigas van. He is the friend of the poor. 
Vi tro pa det godas slutliga seger. We believe in the 
. , final victory of good. 

89. When an Adjective follows after the qualified Noun 
the Adjective takes the genitive -s instead of the Noun. 
den stores soner the sons of Charlemagne. 



Indeclinable Adjectives. 

90. Adjectives that end in -a and -e remain unchanged 
in the neuter and in the plural. 

Ex.: ring a humble, bra good, stilla quiet, udda odd, ukta 
genuine, samtida contemporary, gyllene golden, ode 
desert, gdngse current. 

En bra karl a good fellow, ett bra svar a good ans- 
wer, etc. 

91. The adjective stackars does not change: stackars 
flicka! poor girl! stackars barn! poor child! stackars md'nni- 
skor! poor people! 



84 



II. Comparison. 

92. The degrees of comparison are: 

1. Positive: 2. Comparative: 3. Superlative: 

varm vann&re varmast 

warm warmer warmest 

93. The regular terminations of the Comparative 
and the Superlative are -are and -ast. They are al- 
ways added to the non-neuter form of the Positive. 
Ex.: ~kall cold kallare kallast 

stark strong starkare starkast 

ny new nyare nyast 

trott tired trottare trottast 

sann true sannare sannast 

94. If the Positive ends in unstressed -el, -en, -er, the 
-e before I, n, r is dropped in the Comparative and Superlative. 
Ex.: adel noble ddlare ddlast 

mogen ripe mognare mognast 

vacker pretty vackrare vackrast 

95. If the Positive ends in -a, this vowel is dropped in 
the Comparative and the Superlative. 
Ex.: ring a humble ringare ringast 

96. The following adjectives form their Compara- 
tive and Superlative by adding -re and -st (instead of 
-are and -ast). 

Ex.: hog high hogre hogst 

grov coarse grovre grovst 

stor big storre storst 

ung young yngre yngst 

tung heavy tyngre tyngst 

lung long Icingre Idngst 

trdng narrow trdngre trdngst 



85 

lag low Idgre Idgst 

fa few farre 

smarre small 

97. These adjectives modify their vowel in the Compara- 
tive and Superlative: 

o is changed into 6 
a a 

u y 

Smarre and fdrre have doable -r. 

98. The following adjectives have irregular com- 
parison: 

god (or bra) good bdttre bast (def. form: bdsta) 

ddlig bad sdmre sdmst (def. form: stimstd) 

ond bad vdrre vdrst (def. form : vdrsta] 

gammal old 7dre didst (def. form: dldsta) 

liten little mind re minst (def. form: minsta) 

manga pi. many /?era (or fler) de fiesta 

mycken much mera (or mer) wes (def. form: mesta) 

99. Some adjectives form their Comparative and Super- 
lative by mera more, and mest most, instead of terminations, 
i. e. the adjectives that end in -ad, -e, -isk and all Past Parti- 
ciples used as Adjectives. 

Ex.: 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

godhjartad kind-hearted mera godhjdrtad mest godhjdrtad 
ode desert mera ode mest ode 

nitisk zealous mera nitisk mest nitisJc 

dlsJcad beloved mera alskad mest alskad 

100. Some adjectives only occur in the Comparative 
and the Superlative. 

Ex.: frdmre fore-, front frdmst foremost 

inre inner innerst innermost 

yttre outer ytterst outermost 



Declensions of the Comparative and the Superlative. 

I. The Comparative. 

101. The Comparative is indeclinable* It has the same 
form in the neuter as in the non-neuter, the same form in 
the plural as in the singular, and the same form in the de- 
finite as in the indefinite declension. 

Indefinite Declension. 

Ex.: en varmare sommar a warmer summer 

ett varmare lad a warmer bath 

varmare somrar warmer summers 

Definite Declension. 

den varmare sommaren the warmer summer 
det varmare badet the warmer bath 

de varmare somrarna the warmer summers 

II. The Superlative. 

Indefinite Declension. 

102. The indefinite form of the Superlative ends in -ast 

(or -st), (common, neuter and plural alike). 

Ex.: sommaren ar varmast the summer is warmest 
badet ar varmast the bath is warmest 

somrarna tiro varmast the summers are warmest 

Definite Declension. 

103. Superlatives ending in -ast take the termination -c in 
the definite form (common, neuter and plural alike). 
Ex.: den varmaste sommaren the warmest summer 
'/</ varmaste ladet the warmest bath 

de varmaste somrarna the warmest summers 



87 

104. N.B. Superlatives that end in -st (instead of -ast) 
take the termination -a (instead of -e) in the definite form. 
Ex.: den yngsta dottern the youngest daughter 

det dldsta barnet the eldest child 

de bdsta eleverna the best pupils 

105. When used predicatively the Adjective is declined 
either according to the definite or to the indefinite declension. 
Ex.: 

Era blommor aro vackrast. Your flowers are prettiest. 
Era blommor aro de vackraste. Your flowers are the prettiest. 

106. The indefinite form must be used when the com- 
parison refers to different parts of the same object. 
Ex.: Har dr sjon djupast. Here the lake is deepest. 

107. The definite form must be used when the Super- 
lative is followed by a qualifying clause or phrase. 
Ex.:" 

De har blommorna aro de vack- These flowers are the prettiest 
raste, jag liar sett. I have seen. 

108. When used attributively (as an epithet) the Superla- 
tive is declined according to the definite declension. It is then 
generally preceded by the Definite Article of the Adjective 
(den, det, de). 

Ex.: den starkaste gossen the strongest boy 
det stdrsta huset the largest house 

de Jcallaste ndtterna the coldest nights 
109. The Definite Article of the Adjective is omitted 
in a number of stereotyped expressions, e. g.: 

i frdmsta rummet in the foremost place 

i storsta hast in great haste 

i bdsta fall at best 

Notice also: 

Karaste du! Dearest! 

Bdsta Herr Andersson! Dear Mr. Andersson (beginning 

of a letter). 



88 



110. Remarks on the Terminations -a and -e in the 

Adjective. 

1. The termination -a is used: 

a) in the definite form of the positive. 

Ex.: den Jcalla vintrrn the cold winter 

den stora gossen the tall boy 

det lilla barnet the little child 

de roda bloninwrna the red flowers 

b) in the definite form of the superlatives that end in -st. 
Ex.: det ho'ysta bcrget the highest mountain 

den storsta gossen the tallest boy 

de minsta mmmen the smallest rooms 

2. The termination ~e is used: 

a) in the definite fornTof the superlatives that end in -ast. 
Ex.: den starkaste gossen the strongest boy 

den vackraste flickan the prettiest girl 
det morkaste molnet the darkest cloud 
de rikaste pcrsonerna the richest people 

b) sometimes in the definite form of the masculine (positive 
and sup. in -st), especially in elevated style. 

Ex.: den (idle lor den the noble lord 

den store mannen the great man 

den Hogste The Most High 

Gode Gud! Good God! 

kdre van! dear friend! 
Baste Herr Andersson! Dear Mr. Andersson, 

den yngste brodern the youngest brother 

den fjamle the old man 

(den gamla the old woman) 

den rike the rich man 

(de rika the rich) 

Karl den store Charlemagne 

Erik den helige St. Eric 






89 



Genitive of Adjectives. 



111. The Adjective takes an -s in the genitive in the 
following cases: 

1. When it follows the qualified Noun. 

Ex.: Erik den heliges dod. The death of St. Eric. 

2. When it is used as a No an. 

Ex.: De fattigas vein. The friend of the poor. 

Den starJcastes rd'tt. The right of the strongest. 

Relics of old Case-inflections. 

112. In the modern language the old case-inflections of 
the Adjective have been retained in a few set phrases. 

1. The dative termination -om in the following phrases: 
/ sinom tid. In due season. 

Lyckan star dem djarvom bi. Fortune favours the brave. 
Det ar icke allom givet. It is not everybody's lot. 

2. The accusative termination -an in: 
I ljusan lag a. All ablaze. 
Argan list. Wicked cunning. 

3. The dative termination ~o in: 

Frdls oss ifrdn ondo. Deliver us from evil. 
/ godo. Amicably. 

Anyo. Afresh. 

Adjectives used as Nouns. 

113. In English only a few adjectives used as Nouns 
take the plural termination -s, e. g. the blacks and the whites. 
In Swedish all adjectives used as Nouns take the termination 
~a in the plural. 



90 



Ex.: dc fattiga 
de rika 



the poor 
the rich 



114. Many English Adjectives used as Nouns, particu- 



larly those denoting nationality, 

by Nouns. 

Ex.: infodingarna (en infoding) 
vildarna (en vilde) 
tyskarna (en tysk) 
engelsmdnnen (never dc cn r 
gelska) (en engelsmari) , 
kineserna (en kines) 
italienarna (en italienare) 
norrmdnnen (en norrman) 
fransmdnnen (en fransman) 
ryssarna (en ryss) 



are in Swedish expressed 

the natives 
the savages 
the Germans 

the English 
the Chinese 
the Italians 
the Norwegians 
the French 
the Russians 



The corresponding Adjectives in Swedish are: tysk, engclsk, 
kinesisk, italiensk, norsk, fransk, rysk. 

N. B. 1. These Adjectives are not written with capital 
letters in Swedish. 

N. B. 2. The word svensk Swedish, Swede, is both Adjec- 
tive and Noun. As a Noun it is inflected according to 'the 2nd 
Declension: en svensk, svensken, svenskar, svenskarna. When 
used adjectivally it is inflected like an ordinary Adjective. 

115. Most Swedish Adjectives may be used as- Nouns 
without the restrictions observed in English. 



Ait forena det nyttiga med det 

nojsamma. 

Dc rika och de fattiga. 
En blind och en dovstum 

bodde tillsammans. 
Vi unya kunna icke forstd de 

gamla. 
Det var det enda, han kunde 

gora. 



To combine the useful with 
the agreeable. 

The rich and the poor. 

A blind man and a deaf-and- 
dumb man lived together. 

We young people cannot un- 
. derstand old people. 

It was the only thing he 
could do. 



Han var den enda frdnvarandc. 
Han insdg det fordelafctiga 

i erbjudandet. 
Det nya daruti ar icke sant, 

och det sanna daruti ar 

icke nytt. 
De ndrvarande underteck- 

nade en petition. 
Det ar det,som ar det svdraste. 
Den okande kom icke till- 

~bdka. 



He was the only person absent. 

He saw the advantage of the 
offer. 

What is new about it is not 
true, and what is true about 
it is not new. 

Those present signed a peti- 
tion. 

That is what is most difficult. 

The unknown (man) did not 
come back. 



116. N. S. The word one which often replaces a Noun 



after an Adjective in English, 
Den dd'r bollen ar inte Ira; 

'du shall fa en ny. 
Han var den ende, som kunde 

gora det. 
Giv mig en vit Jcula och tvd 

svarta. 
Vi maste ta hand om de snid. 

Den Onde. 



has no equivalent in Swedish. 
That ball is not good; you shall 

have a new one. 
He was the only one who 

could do it. 
Give me one white marble and 

two black ones. 
We must take care of the 

little ones. 
The Evil One. 



117. Notice the use of the adjective egen in phrases 



like the following. 

Han liar egen bil. 
Han liar tvd egna barn. 



He has got a car of his own. 
He has got two children of 
his own. 



118. The Comparative is often used in an absolute 
sense, e. g. en sto'rre penning summa a largish sum of money; 
en yngre herre a youngish gentleman; battre folk gentlepeople; 
en langre tid a goodish while, etc. 



Inflection of Participles 
I. The Past Participle. 
119. A. Indefinite Declension. 

a) Past Participles ending in -ad (1st Conjugation). 
The neuter singular is formed by changing -d into -. 
The plural is formed by adding -c (not -a/) to the 

non-neuter sing. 

Ex.: En jay ad hare. A. hunted hare. 

Ett jagat lejon. A hunted lion. 

Jagade harar. Hunted hares. 

b) Past Participles ending in -d (2nd Conjugation). 
The neuter singular is formed by changing -d into -. 
The plural is formed by adding -a to the non-neu- 
ter sing. 

Ex.: En hojd Ion. A raised salary. 

Ett ho'jt arvode. An increased remuneration. 
Hojda loner. Raised salaries. 

c) Past Participles ending in -t (2nd Conjugation). 
The neuter singular remains unchanged. 

The plural is formed by adding ~a to the non-neu- 
ter sing. 

Ex.: En md'rkt nasduk. A marked handkerchief. 
Ett ma'rkt lakan. A marked sheet. 
Markta nasdukar. Marked handkerchiefs. 

d) Past Participles ending in -dd (3rd Conjugation). 
The neuter singular is formed by changing -dd into -tt. 
The plural is formed by adding -a to the non-neu- 
ter sing. 

Ex.: En bebodd o. An inhabited island. 

Ett bebott land. An inhabited country. 
Bebodda oar. Inhabited islands. 



93 

e) Past Participles ending in -en (4th Conjugation). 
The neuter singular is formed by changing -n into -t. 
The plural is formed by adding -a to the non-neu- 
ter sing., and the -e before -n is dropped. 

Ex.: En stulen Idocka. A stolen watch. 
Ett stulet paraply. A stolen umbrella. 
Stulna IdocJcor. Stolen watches. 

A . /;. In the plural the termination -a is used for all the 
Past Participles except those ending in -ad (1st Conjugation). 

Ex.: hojda, marlda, bebodda, stulna; but jagade, ballade. 

120. B. Definite Declension. 

The definite forms of the Past Participles are like the 
plural of the indefinite declension: 

a) Past Participles ending in -ad (1st Conjugation) 
lake the termination -e in the definite declension. 

Ex.: Den jagade Jtaren. Det jagade lejonet. De jagade 
Jtararna. 

b) All the other Past Participles take the termi- 
nation -a in the definite declension. 

Ex.: Den hojda lonen. Det liojda arvodet. De liojda 
lonerna. Den mcirkta nasduken. Det markta lalcanet De 
markta nasdukarna. Den bebodda on. Dtt bebodda landet. 
De bebodda oarna. Den stulnci Jclockan. Det stulnct para- 
plyet. De stulna Jclockorna. 

121. C. Genitive. 

All Past Participles, when used as Nouns, take ~s in the 
genitive. 

Ex.: Den alskades namn. The name of the beloved one. 

Det stulnas varde. The value of the stolen pro- 

perty. 



94 



II. The Present Participle. 

122. The Present Participle, when used as an Adjective, 1 
is indeclinable. 

Ex.: Den uppgdende solai. The rising sun. 

Det leende ansiUet. The smiling face. 

Ett ri/tande lejon. A roaring lion. 

De ndrvarande minist- The present ministers. 
rarna. 

When used as a Noun, the Present Participle takes ~s 
in the genitive. 

Ex.: De narvarandes namn an- The names of those present 
tecknades. were taken down. 



The Numerals. 

123. Cardinal numbers. Ordinal numbers. 

1. en, neuter: ctt (den, det) forsta 

2. tvcl andra 

3. tre tredje 

4. fyra fjdrde 

5. fern femte 

6. sex sjdttc 

'7. SJU xjiuulr 

8. dtta dttonde 

9. nio niondc 

10. tio tiondc 

11. civ a 'V/'/r 

12. tolv tolftc 

13. tretton trcttondc 

14. fjorton fjortonde 

15. femton femtonde 

16. sexton sextonde 



95 



(den, det) sjuttonde 
adertonde 
nittonde 
tjugonde 
tjugofdrsta 
tjugoandra 
tjugotredje 
tjugofjdrde 
tjugofemte 
tjugosjdtte 
tjugosjunde 
tjugodttonde 
tjugonionde 
trettionde 
trettioforsta, etc. 
fyr(a)tionde 
femtionde 
sextionde 
sjuttionde 
dttionde 
nittionde 
(ett) hundrade 
(ett) hundraforsta 
(ett) tusende 
(ett) tusenforsta 
(ett) tusenandra, etc. 
ett .tusen sexhundra 
sjuttiofem sjuttiofcmte 

1,000,000. en miljon 

0. noil 

Note 1. Den forsta and den andra sometimes end in -e 
in the masculine: Karl I (den forste), Karl II (den andre). 

Note 2. Ett hundra and ett tusen are really Nouns. They 
remain unchanged in the plural: ire hundra, fyra tusen. 

Note 3. En miljon is a Noun of the 3rd Declension. Plu- 
ral: tvd miljoner, etc. 



17. 


sjutton 


18. 


aderton 


19. 


nitton 


20. 


tjugo 


21. 


tjugoen (-ett) 


22. 


tjugotvd 


23. 


tjugotre 


24. 


tjugofyra 


25. 


tjugofem 


26. 


tjugosex 


27. 


tjugosju 


28. 


tjugodtta 


29. 


tjugonio 


30. 


trettio 


31. 


trettioen, etc. 


40. 


fyr(a)tio 


50. 


femtio 


60. 


sextio 


70. 


sjuttio 


80. 


dttio 


90. 


nittio 


100. 


(ett) hundra 


101. 


(ett) hundraen (-ett) 


1,000. 


(ett) tusen 


1,001. 


(ett) tusenen (-ett) 


1,002. 


(ett) tusentvd, etc. 


1,675. 


ett tusen sex hundr( 



96 



124. The Numerals in Dates. 

Jag ar fo'dd den 13 (trettonde 1 ) I was born on May 13th, 1897. 

maj 1897 (adertonhnndranit- 
o tiosjn). 
Ar 1066 . (tiohundrasextiosex) In 1066 England was con- 



erovrades England. 



quered. 



Stockholm den 19 (nittondc) Stockholm, 19th April, 1922. 

april 1922 (nittonhundra- 

tjugotvd). 
Han anlande den tredje augusti. He arrived on Aug. 3rd. 



125. The Numerals as Nouus. 

Jag Jean inte skilja dina cttor I cannot tell your ones from 
frdn dina sjuor. your sevens. 

"When used as Nouns the numerals 110 add an -a and 
are treated as nouns of the 1st Declension: eh ctta, tvda, 
trea, fyra, femma, sexa, sjua, dtta, nia, tia. The figure as a 
Noun is called en nolla. Definite form: ettan, nollan, etc. 
Plural: cttorna, tvdorna, etc. 

Attiotalet var realismens period. The eighties were the period 

of realism. 

Han levdepd 1700-talet (sjut- He lived in the 18th century. 

tonhundratalet). 

Hundratals manniskor blero Hundreds of people were kil- 

dodade. led. 

Fabrikcrna sysselsatta tuscntals The factories employ thou- 

arbctare. sands of workers. 

De tios rdd. The council of ten. 

Det ar inte, ens fel, att ivd It takes two to make a quar- 

trcita. rel. 

Den ena d'r sju ar, den andra One is seven years old, the 

ar nio. other is nine. 



97 



126. Fractional Numbers. 

l /2, en halv; 2 /2, tvd halva; V 8 , en trcdjedel; 2 / 3 > tvd tredje- 
dclar; 5 /e, fern sjattedelar; 4 / 8 fy ra dttondelar; 3 / 9 > tre nionde- 
lar; 3 / 21 > t re tjugoendelar. 

The Fractional Numbers are formed by adding -del ("part") 
to the Ordinal Numbers. If the Ordinal Number ends in -de, 
the -de is dropped before -del (except in fjdrdedel and sjimdedel). 

126 a. Notice the following expressions: 



Tre och en halv ton. 

Tvd och ett kvarts kilo kaffc. 

En Jcvart. 

En och en tredjedels mil. 

Fern och en halv mil. 

Tvd dussin (ett dussin) Imivar 

Tre tjog (ett tjog) dgg. 

Dussintals Jcnivar. 

Tjogtals dgg. 



Three tons and a half. 

Two kilos and a quarter of 

coffee. 

A quarter of an hour. 
A mile and a third. 
Five miles and a half. 
Two dozen knives. 
Three score of eggs. 
Dozens of knives. 
Scores of eggs. 



Pronouns. 

127. Personal Pronouns. 

Singular 



1st Person 
Nom. jag I 

Gen. 
Dat. & Ack. mig me 



2nd Person 
diiy ni thou, you 

dig, e(de)r thee, you 

3rd Person 

Nom. han he hon she den it det it 

Gen. hans his hennes her dess its dess its 

Dat. &Ack. honom him henne her den it det it 

7 222444. Bjiirkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



98 



Plural 
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 



Norn. 

Gen. 

Dat. & Ack. oss us 



vi we ni you 



de they 
deras their 
dem them 



e(d)er you 

Note 1. Instead of the missing genitives of jag, du, ni, 
vi the possessive adjectives min, din, er, vdr are used. 

Note 2. The genitives hans, hennes, dess, deras are in- 
declinable. 

Note 3. Han, lion and de are the only words in the Swed- 
ish language that have special objective case-forms (honom, 
hennc, dem). 

128. Du is used between intimate friends and members 
of the family (like French "tu" and German "du"). 

Ni is not yet generally accepted as a form of address 
like "you" in English, but it is gradually coming into use. It 
is always correct when speaking to a stranger or to one's in- 
feriors. If you know the title or the name of the individual 
addressed, it is considered more polite to use the title (in the 
definite form) or name with the third person of the 
Verb as if speaking of the person instead of to him. 



Talar ni svensJca? 
Spelar ni schack? 



Do you speak Swedish? 
Do you play chess? 



Ni Jean Me komma dit i lev all. You cannot get there to-night. 

Har prof cssornvariti London? Have you been in London? 

Har generalkonsuln sett tid- Have you seen to-day's paper? 

ningen for i dag? 

Har greven (the Count) varit Have you been to the theatre 

pa teatern nyligen? lately? 

Vill fru Andersson dricha en Would you like a cup of tea, 



kopp te? 



Mrs. Andersson? 



Har herr Fetter sson en tand- Have you got a match, Mr. 

Pettersson? 



129. When addressing one person, ni is used with the 
singular form of the Verb. In the spoken language (and 



99 

often in the written) the singular forms of the Verb are also 
used with ni when addressing several persons. 

-130. The pronoun I instead of ni in the plural is now 
only used in elevated style (in the Bible, in poetry, etc.). 
It is followed by a special form of the Verb ending in -en: 
I dren, I hatfen, etc. Ye are, Ye had. 

131. In formal correspondence Ni and Eder are writ- 
ten with capitals. 

; 132, Den refers to a noun of common gender. 
Var dr bokcn? Den liggerpd Where is the book? It is on 
: bordd. the table. 



Det refers to a noun of neuter gender. 

Var dr Uackliornet? Det star Where is the inkstand? It is 
pa bordcL on the table. 

133. In colloquial speech the enclitic (affixed) forms 
9 en, ? n are often used instead of honom, den; 'na instead of 
henne? 'et,Jt instead of det. 

Ja($y l stfen ' intr. I did not see him (or it). 

Ja(g) la'n (lade ileri) dlir. I put it there. 

Har du setfna? Have ycu seen her? 

Vill du ha't sd trit. If you want it, take it. 

Har du funderat petit? Have you thought it over? 



134. The Use of Det. 

Det corresponds to English it, there, he, she, they, so, that. 

In some cases it h r as no equivalent in English. 



1. Det = it, that. 

Vad dr det? - - Det dr ett What is that? It is an aero- 

aeroplan. plane. 

Hurndant vdder dr det i dag? What sort of weather is it 

- Det snoar. to-day? It is snowing. 



100 



Det dr svdrt att tola svenska. It is difficult to speak Swed- 
ish. 

Det var rnte jag, som gjorde It was not I who did it. 
det. 



2. Det = there. 
Det var en gang en gosse. 

Det finns ingenting kvar. 
Det finns 500 backer i biblio- 
teket. 



Once upon a time there was 

a boy. 

There is nothing left. 
There are 500 books ' in the li- 
brary. 



Det fanns inget postkontor i There was no post-office in 



den byn. 
Ar det ndgot fel med det? 

Det ringer. 

3. Det = he, she or they. 

Vem dr den ddr damen? 
Det dr en sldkting till mig. 



that village. 
Is there anything the matter 

with it? 
There is a ring at the bell. 

Who is that lady? She is a 
relative of mine. 



Vilka dro de ddr herrarna? Who are those gentlemen? 
- Det dr svenskar. They are Swedes. 

4. Det = so. 

Jag dr somnig. Det dr I am sleepy. - - So am I. 

jag ocksd. 
Han har egen bil, och det lia 

vi ocksd. 



He has got a car of his own 
and so have we. 



Ar doktorn inne? - - Ja 3 jag Is the doctor in? Yes, I 



think so. 
I told him so. 
Did he say so? 
I hope (believe, suppose) so. 



tror det. 

Jag sade honom det. 
Sade han det? 
Jag hoppas (tror, formodar) 

det. 

5. Det without an equivalent in English. 
Han har ju rest till Frankrike, He has gone to France, hasn't 
Jntr? Ja,detltarlian. he? Yes, he has. 



101 



Han tycker om att resa, men 

det gor inte jag. 
Var snail ocli hdlsa era for- 

d'ldrar. Tack, det shall 

jag gora. 
Han frdgade hennc, om hon 

var ond, ocli hon sade, att 

lion var det. 
Hur mycket tir klockan? 

Det vet jag Me. 
Var for frdgar dti det? 
Vem talade om det for dig? 

N.B. Det must not be 
Verbs or after frdga, veta, 



He is fond of travelling but 

I am not. 
Please remember me to your 

parents. -- I will. 

He asked her if she was angry, 
and she said she was. 

What time is it? I don't 

know. 

Why do you ask? 
Who told you? 

omitted after the Auxiliary 
tola om. 



135. Impersonal Construction. 

Phrases like "I am glad", "I am sorry", etc., are often 
rendered by an impersonal construction in Swedish. 

Det var trdkigt, att du inte I am sorry you cannot come. 

ban komma. 

Det var roligt, att han dr I am glad he is better. 

l)dttre. 

Hur gar det for er? How are you getting on? 

Det gick mycket Ira for honom. He did very well. 

Det forvdnar mig, att han inte I am surprised he didn't do it. 

gjorde det. 

Det var kallt i vattnet. The water was cold. 

Det knackar pa dorren. There is a knock at the door. 



102 



Reflexive Pronoun. 

S 13ti. Sig. 

Sig refers back to the subject of the clause in which it occurs. 
It is used when the subject is in the third person (singular or plu- 
ral) and the object is the same person as the subject. 

Han sag sig i spegeln. He saw himself in the glass. 

De sago sig i spegeln. They saw themselves in the 

glass, 

Hon var utom sig. She was beside herself. 

Han drog honom efter 8ig. He pulled him after him. 
De hade inga pcngar pd ig. They had not got any money 

about them. 

Note. If the object is another person than the subject the 
ordinary objective forms (honom, henne, den, det, dem) 
are used. 

Han sag honom i spegeln. He saw him (another person) 

in the glass. 

137. There are no special reflexive pronouns for the first 
and second persons. The ordinary objective forms (mig, dig, 
er, oss, er) are used also in a reflexive sense. . , 

Jag roar inig. I enjoy myself. 

Du roar dig. You enjoy yourself. 

Ni roar er. You enjoy yourself. 

Han roar 8ig. He enjoys himself. 

Hon roar sig. She enjoys herself. 1 ' 

Barnct roar sig. The child enjoys itself. 

Vi roa oxs. We enjoy ourselves. 

Ni roa er. You enjoy yourselves. 

De roa nig. They enjoy themselves. 

Man har raft att roa sig. One has a right to enjoy one- 
self. 



Singular 
M., F. & C. N. 
min mitt 


Plural 
All genders 
mina 


din ditt 


dina 


vdr vdrt 


vdra 


(er ert 


era 


(Eder Edert 


Edra 


Note 1. Er (ert, era 


) refers to one c 



103 

V_ ^ 

138. Possessive Adjectives. 



my 

thy, your 

our 

your 

your 



and corresponds to the personal pronoun ni. 

Note 2. The longer form Eder (Edert, Edra) is used 
in formal correspondence. 

Note 3. Instead of the missing Possessive Adjectives for 
the third person, the genitives of the Personal Pronouns of 
the third person are used: hans, hennes, dess, deras. 

Note 4. The Possessive Adjectives are declined like ordi- 
nary adjectives, but are only used in the indefinite declen- 
sion. In the plural they may be used as Nouns and are then 
preceded by the Definite Article of the Adjective: de mina 
my people, de dina your people, etc. 

139. There are no special forms for the possessive adjectives 
when used without nouns, such as the English "mine", "yours", etc. 

Det' ddr dr min bok. That is my book. 

Den ddr boken dr min. That book is mine. 

Din tillgivne . . . Yours sincerely . . . 

(Hdgaktningsfullt . . . Yours faithfully . . .) 

Det dr inte vdrt ; det dr deras* It is not ours ; it is theirs. 

Vdra rosor dro bdttre an hen- Our roses are better than hers, 

nes. 
Era rosor dro bdttre an vdra. Your roses are better than 

ours. 
Ert hus dr storre an mitt. Your house is larger than 

mine. 



104 

DM nus fir storrc an vdrt. Your house is larger than 

ours. 

140. Notice the peculiar use of the Possessive Adjectives 
in expressions like the following: din idiot you idiot, din 
tlnmma dsna silly ass, jag, min dumsnut, trodde vad han sadc 
ape that I was, I believed what he said. 

141. The English construction "a friend of mine" is 
not used in Swedish. 

En av mina elever. A pupil of mine. 

Ndgra av mina vdnner. Some friends of mine. 

Vem ar den da'r unge mannen? Who is that young man? He 
- Dct ar en slakting till oss. is a relation of ours. 

En gammal bckant till dig (er). An old acquaintance of yours. 

142. Notice the following expressions: 

Jag kunde inte for mitt liv be- For the life of me I could 
gripa, vad han menade. not understand what he 

meant. 

Dei kommer att Hi min dod. It will be the death of me. 
Dina gelikar. The likes of you. 



143. Possessive Reflexive Adjective. 

Singular Plural 

M., F. & C. N. All genders 

sin sitt sina his, her, its, their 



144. XJH corresponds to the reflexive personal pronoun sic/. 
It refers back to the subject of the clause in which it occurs (not 
to the subject of a previous clause). The subject may be one 
or several possessors in the third person. Sin can only be used 
to qualify the object (not the subject). 

145. When English "his", "her", "its", "their" are not used 
reflexively, /. - . when they do not refer back to the subject of the 



105 

clause in which they occur, they correspond to the genitives of the 
personal pronouns: hans, hcnnes, dess, deras. 

Han sag sin far pd gatan. He saw his (own) father in 

the street. 
Hans (not sin!) far gicJc His father went out. 

ut. 
Han sag hans far pa gatan. He saw his (another person's) 

father in the street. 
Han sag sin far gd ut. He saw his (own) father go 

out. 

Han sag, att hans far gicJc ut. He saw that his (own or so- 
mebody else's) father went 
out. 
lion sag sin far gd ut. She saw her (own) father go 

out. 

Hon sag, att hennes far gicJc She saw that her (own or 
ut. somebody else's) father went 

out. 

Hennes (not sin!) far gickut. Her father went out. 
Hennes boJc lag pd bordet. Her book lay on the table. 
Hon lade sin bole pa bordet. She put her (own) book on 

the table. 
Hon lade hennes bole pd bor- She put her (another person's) 

det. book on the table. 

Deras (not sina!) fordldrar Their parents are in America. 

dro i America. 

De ha inte sett sina fordldrar They have not seen their 
pd flera dr. (own) parents for several 

years. 
Jag har aldrig sett deras for- I have never seen their par- 

aldrar. ents. 

De ha forlorat sitt enda barn. They have lost their only child. 
Han bor hos en av sina van- He is staying with a friend 
ner. of his. 



Remarks on the Personal Pronouns and the Possessive 

Adjectives. 

146. The English form "her" corresponds to hennes, 
henne and sin in Swedish. 

Hennes mor dr dod. Her mother is dead. 

Jag liar aldrig sett henne. I have never seen her. 
Hon har forlorat sin mor. She has lost her mother. 

147. The Swedish form er (Eder) corresponds to "you", 
"your" and "yours" in English. 

Det var roligt att Iraffa er. I am glad to meet you. 

Ni har glomt er hatt. You have forgotten your hat. 

Jag liar tagit er, och han har I have taken yours, and he 

tag-it min. has taken mine. 

148. A pleonastic mig occurs in expressions like the 
following : 

Det var mig en dum en! "What a fool! 

149. A Personal Pronoun may be qualified by an Adjec- 
tive. 

Tack, Tear a dul Thank you, my dear! 

Stackars dig (du)! Poor you! 

150. In cases like the following, where the ownership is 
implied in the context, the definite article of the noun corresponds 
to a possessive adjective in English. 

Han stoppade hdnderna i fie- He put his hands in his poc- 

korna. kets. 

Han satte hatten pa Imvudet. He put his hat on his head. 

De forlorade minnet. They lost their memories. 

Hon brot benet av sig. She broke her leg. 

151. In some cases the English Possessive Adjective is 
not expressed in Swedish. 



107 

Jag ber om ursakt. (Or: for- I beg your pardon. 

Idtf) 

Han har dndrat sig. He has changed his mind. 

Jag liar gdtt vilse. I have lost my way. 



152. Demonstrative Adjectives or Pronouns. 

M., F. & C. N. Plural 

den that det that de those 

denna (-e) this detta this dessa these 

den ddr that det ddr that de ddr those 

den heir this det heir this de har these 

Note 1. Den, det, de, are also used as the Definite 
Article of the 'Adjective. As Demonstrative Pronouns they 
have stronger stress. 

,-, Note 2. The form denne (instead of denna) is often, used 
in the masculine. 

Note 3. Den har and den ddr are the forms ge- 
nerally used in conversation (instead of denna and den). 

153. Den, det, de, when used substantively, are inflected 
like the personal pronoun den, det, de. Denna, detta, dessa, 
when used substantively, take an -s in the genitive. 

Den (ddr) gossen dr inte sa That boy is not so stupid as 

dum, som lian ser ut. he looks. 

Det svaret tycker jag om. I like that answer. 

De barnen ha aldrig gdtt .i Those children have never 

skola. ; been to school. 

Denna uppgift dr inte riktig. This statement is not correct: 

JJetta vissie jag forut. This I knew before. 

Dessa elever aro Idngre Jcomna These pupils are more advanc- 

, i an de andra. ed than the others. 

Den ihdr tavlan dr vackrare This picture is prettier than 

an den ddr. that. 



108 



JJet ddr tradet ar liogre tin That tree is taller than this. 

det hdr. 

De hdr skorna tiro inte sd These shoes are not so strong 

starka som de ddr. as those. 



154. After a demonstrative adjective the noun takes the 
definite article, except after denna (detta, dcssa): 
den gossen, den hdr gossen (but: denna gosse); 
det tradet, det ddr tradet (but: detta trad); 
de hdr gossarna (but: dessa gossar). 



155. Densamma and samma. 

M., F. & C. Neuter Plural 

densamma the same detsamma desamma 

samma the same samma samma 

Note 1. The masculine forms often end in -e: densamme, 
samme. 

156. Densamma (detsamma, desamma) is used as a 
Noun. It takes an -s in the genitive. Samma is used 
as an Adjective. 



Han ar alltid densamme. 

Det gor mig alldeles 
samma. 

Jag skall gor a det med det- 
samma. 

I detsamma fick han se Id- 
raren komma i dorren. 

De kommo pa samma gang. 

Han var klddd i samma gamla 
kostym. 



He is always the same. 
It is all one to me. 

I will do it at once. 

At that very moment he saw 

the master come in. 
They arrived at the same time. 
He was wearing the same old 

suit. 



/ samma ogonblick dog han. At that very moment he died. 
Samma rcglcr galla aven i The same rules apply in this 



detta fall. 



case, too. 



109 

Note 1. After samma the Adjective takes the definite 
form, but the Noun the indefinite form: samma gamla 
Jcostym, samma Idnga vcig. 

Note 2. No article is used before samma: pa samma 
sdtt in the same way. 



157. Sddan. Dylik. 

M., F. & C. Neuter Plural 

(en) sddan such (ett) sddant sddana 
(en) dylik such (ett) dyliltt dylika 

Note 1. Sddan and dylik are used as Adjectives and Nouns. 



Det ddr var en stilig Mt. En 
sddan skulle jag vilja ha. 

Sddant hdnder. 

I sddant (so) fall. 

Sddan herre, sddan drdng. 

Sddana finns det gott om. 

Giv mig fern sddana hdr! 

Ndgot dylikt liar jag aldrig 
hort. 

Han menade nog ndgot dy- 
likt. 

Sddana ord som "liar", "ddr", 
"*#", "dit", "ww", "dd" o. d. 
(och dylika) liallas adverb. 

Dylika metoder aro Me att 
rekommendera. 



That is a line boat. I should 
like to have one like it. 

These things will happen. 

In that case. 

Like master, like man. 

There are plenty of those. 

Give me five of these! 

I have never heard anything 
like it. 

I suppose he meant something 
like that. 

Such words as "here", "there", 
"hither", "thither", "now", 
"then", etc., are called Ad- 
verbs. 

Such methods are not to be 
recommended. 



Note 2. En, ett are placed before sddan and dylik, not 
after as in English: en sddan man such a man. 

158. Sddan is also used in exclamations: 
Ett sddant barn han dr! What a child he is! 

En sddan harlig utsikt! What a splendid view! 



110 

Remarks on Demonstrative Pronouns. 

159. The Demonstrative Pronouns are often used su In- 
stant ively, referring both to things and persons. 

Jag mil Me ha den har, giv I do not want this one, give 

mig den ddr i stdllet. me that one instead. 

Denne fir oskyldig. This man is innocent. 

Han frdgade sin advokat om He asked his solicitor about 

saken, men denne mile icke it, but he (the latter) wasi 

ge ndgra upplysningar. not willing to give any in- 
formation. 

Note 1. The English word one (in this one>, that one) is 
not translated. 

160. "This" (that, these, those) used as the subject of the 
verb to be with a following predicative noun in the singular or 
plural is translated by det heir (det ddr). N. B. Always in 
the neuter singular, irrespective of the gender or number of 
the following noun. 

Det har a'r min svagerska. This is my sister-in-law. 
Det ddr a'r Tiennes pojkar. Those are her boys. 
Vad ar det ddr for md'nni- What people are those?* Y 
sJcor? 

161, When "this" refers to time it is, as a rule, translated 
by a prepositional phrase, e.g.: i ar this year, i dag pa mor- 
goncn this morning, i dag dtta dagar this day week, i dag 
for dtta dagar sedan this day last w^eek, endera dagen one of 
these days. 

162. Notice the following expressions: 

Det var darfor, som jag That is why I had to leave. 

mdste flytta. 

Just darfor. That is why. 

Det var pa dctsattet, han lycka- That is how he managed to 
des go'ra det. do it. 

ar det, han Jtar orcitt i. That is where he is wrong. 



Ill 



Jag gjorde pd det liar sdttet 
(sd Mr). 

Stirra inte pd det ddr sdt- 
tet (sd ddr)! 

Herr den och den. 
Vid den och den tiden. 
Pd den ocli den plat sen. 
Sd ilia d'r det inte. 



I did like this. 

Do not stare like that! 

Mr. So-and-so. 
At such and such a time. 
At such and such a place. 
It is not so bad as that. 



163. Emphasizing Adjective or Pronoun. 

Sjdlv. 

When "myself", "himself", "ourselves", etc., are used 
as emphatic forms, as in: "I myself saw it", they cor- 
respond to the Swedish forms sjdlv, neuter sjdlvt, 
plural sjdlva. 
Han gjorde det sjdlv. 
Ldt dem gora det sjdlva. 
Han overtrd'ffade siy sjdlv. 
Nej, tdnkte jag for mig sjdlv 
jag skall inte gora det. 



He did it himself. 
Let them do it themselves. 
He surpassed himself. 
No, I thought to myself, I 
will not do it. 



Det skadar bar a honom sjdlv It only hurts him and no one 

och ingen annan. 
Vi kunna gora det sjdlva. 
Jag Jean laga till mitt te sjdlv. 



else. 

We can do it ourselves. 
I can make my own tea. 
Hon skulle aldrig ha tankt pd She would never have thought 

det sjdlv. 
Sjdlva hung en. 



of it herself. 
The King himself. 



164. Reciprocal Pronoun. 



De hjdlpte varandra. 

De buro varandras bordor. 



They helped each other. 
They carried one another's 

burdens. 

Varandra (genitive varandras) corresponds to "each other", 
one another". 



112 



165. Determinative Adjective or Pronoun. 

Den, det, de are used as Determinative Pronouns 
referring to a following relative clause, an Infini- 
tive, etc. 



Den tavla, jag menar, ar Me 

den ni tanker pa. 
Den av Gustav Adolf's larare, 

som hade det storsta inflytan- 

det pa lians utveclding, var 

Johan Skytte. 
Aven den, som liar gott orn 

pengar, kan misslyckas vid 

forsoket. 
Det, som glanser, ar ej alltid 

guld. 
De elever, som onska stanna 

hemma, fa gora det. 
Stockholm och Goteborg dro de 

stader, som jag kanner last 

till. 
Jag har den dran att gratu- 

lera. 



The picture I mean is not the 
one you are thinking of. 

The one of Gustavus Adolphus's 
teachers who had the great- 
est influence on his develop- 
ment was Johan Skytte. 

Even the man who has plenty 
of money may fail in the 
attempt. 

All that glitters is not gold. 

Those pupils who wish to stay 
at home, may do so. 

Stockholm and Gothenburg 
are the towns that I know 
best. 

Allow me to congratulate you! 



166. Plural nouns qualified by the Determinative 
Adjective do not take the definite article: de elever, 
som . . . (not: de eleverna). Singular nouns fluctuate. 

167. If used as a Noun the Determinative Pronoun has 
the form dem in the dative and accusative plural: 



Han kdnde inte ens igen dem, 
som hade skott honom under 
lians sjukdom. 



He did not even recognise 
those who had nursed him 
during his illness. 



113 

Jag gav pengarna at dem, som I gave the money to those 
bast behovde dem. who were most in need of it. 

168. Den y det, de as Demonstrative and Determinative 
Pronouns (or Adjectives) are always stressed. 

(Den, det, de used as the Definite Article of the Adjective 
are always unstressed: den lilla flickan, de smd barnen, etc.) 

169. X. B. No determinative pronoun is used in Swedish 
to refer to a following genitive. 

Guldets egenskaper tiro icke The properties of gold are not 
desamma som silvrets. the same as those of silver. 



170. Relative Pronouns. 

The Relative Pronouns are: 

som (indeclinable, used in all genders) who, which, that 
vars (only genitive) whose, of which 
vad (indeclinable, only neuter) what, that 
vilken, neuter vilket, plural (all genders) vilka, who, 
that, which. 

171. Som is the' most common Relative Pronoun 
and almost the only one used in conversation. It may 
be used for all genders, singular and plural. It is not used 
in the genitive or after a Preposition. 

Jag sag en polis, som hade I saw a policeman who had 

arresterat en tjuv. arrested a thief. 

Jag hittade boken, som jag I found the book which I had 

hade tappat. lost. 

Han gav bort alia de locker, He gave away all the books 

som lian hade kopt. he had bought. 

Tradet, som ni ser da'r borta, The tree you see over there 

ar en palm. is a palm. 

8 222444. Bjorkhagen, Modern Sivedish Grammar. 



114 

172. If sow has to be used in connection with a 
Preposition, the Preposition is placed at the end of 
the relative clause, never before som. 

Jag banner Me den person, I don't know the person you 
so tti ni talar om. are speaking of. 

173. Instead of the missing genitive of som the geni- 
tives vars or vilkens (vilkets, vilkas) may be used. The geni- 
tives, however, are avoided in conversation. 

174. Vilken, vilket, vilka take an -s in the genitive. 
They may be preceded by a Preposition. 

Dar funnos hoga stdnyer, pd There were high poles on 
vilka ndt hdngde for att which nets were hanging 
torka. to dry. 

175. Vars replaces the missing genitives of som 
and vad. It may be preceded by a Preposition. 

Valet, pd vars (or vUJcets) The election, on the result of 
utf/dng sd mycket berodde, which so much depended, 
var ovanligt livligt. was exceptionally lively. 

176. The Relative Pronoun is often left out, though not 
so often as in English. 

Den person du tanker pd, dr The person you are thinking 
inte den jag menar. of is not the one I mean. 

177. After ingen, ndgon, sddan, samma, and after a 
Superlative, som must be used (not vilken or vad). Som after 
sddan and samma corresponds to English "as". 

Ingen, som en gang har sett det, Nobody who has seen it once 

lean ndgonsin glomma det. can ever forget it. 

Jag har samma elcver, som jag I have the same pupils as I 

hade forra dret. had last year. 

Jag Uopte den minsta, som I bought the smallest one 

faint*. there was. 



115 



$ 178. Vilkeri," vilket, vilka must be used when the Rela- 
tive Pronoun refers to a whole clause, or when it is used 
as an epithet (adjective). 
Han sager, att jag gor snabba 
framsteg, vilket glcider rnig. 



Han kommer nog att frdga 
mig, om jag vill folja med 
honom till Frankrike, i vil- 
ket fall jag tanker svara nej. 

179. Vad is used in the sense of 
allt. 
Uppskjut inte till morgondagen, 

vad du Jean gora i dag. 
Han lyckas i allt, vad han 

foretager sig. 



He says that I am making 
rapid progress, which I am 
glad to hear. 

I am sure he will ask me if 
I should like to accompany 
him to France, in which case 
I am going to answer "no". 

that which" and after 



Do not put off till to-morrow 
what you can do to-day. 

He succeeds in everything he 
undertakes. 



180. Indefinite Relative Pronouns. 

vein som heist som whoever 

vem an whoever 

var och en som whoever 

vilken (vilket, vilka) som heist som whoever, what- 
ever 

vad som heist som whatever 

vad an whatever 

De sdlde sina varor till vem They sold their wares to who- 
som heist, som ville kdpa ever would purchase them. 
dem. 
Vem ni an ar, har ni icke ratt Whoever you are, you have 



att vara har. 
I Vem som heist som (or: 
[Var och en som) hor honom 

tola mdste betmdra honom. 
Vad du (an) gor, kom inte for Whatever you do, do not miss 



no right to be here. 
Whoever hears him speak must 
admire him. 



sent till tdget. 



your train. 



116 



181. Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives. 

The Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives are: 



Neuter 
vad what 

vad for ett what 

(kind of) 
vilket 



Plural 
(no plural) 

vad for (ena) 
vilka 

(no plural) 
hurudana 



M , F. & C. 
vem who 
vents whose 
vad for en who, 

what (kind of) 
vilken who, what, 

which 

vilkendera which vilketdera 
hurudan how, what hurudant 

(kind of) 

Note 1. The following Interrogative Pronouns take an -s 
in the genitive: vems, vilkens, vilkets, vilkas, vilkendcras, 
vilketderas. The others are not used in the genitive. 
Vem dr den ddr mannen? Who is that man? 
Vilka dro de ddr mannen? Who are those men? 
Vad liar du gjort? 
Vad i all vdrlden gjorde du 

det for? 

Vad for en bob vill ni ha? (or What (kind of) book will you 
Vad vill ni ha for en bok?) have? 
Vaddr det ddrformdnniskor? What people are those? 
Vad dr det for slags karl? What sort of a fellow is he? 



What have you done? 
Whatever in the world 
you do that for? 



did 



Vad for slag? 

Vad dr ni for ena? (Coll.) 



What? (Beg pardon?) 
Who are you? (Plural). 

Vilkenderatyckernibdstom? Which do you like best? 

Hurudant var vddret forra What was the weather like 
veckan? 

Hurudan hatt hade hon? 



last week? 
What kind of hat was she 



Vems pcnna dr det hdr? 
Vilken spdrvagn shall jag la'? 



wearing: 

Whose pencil is this? 
Which tram do I take? 



J17 

Note 2. Vem is only used as a Noun and only about 
persons. 

Note 3. Vad is used as a Noun. 

Note 4. VilJcen is used both as a Noun and as an Adjec- 
tive. 

1S2. When the interrogative pronouns are used as the sub- 
ject in a dependent question they are followed by som. 

Jag vet inte, vein som har I don't know who has done it. 

gjort det. 

Vet ni, vad som finns i den Do you know what there is 

har Iddan? in this box? 

Har ni liort, vilka som kommo Have you heard who came 

forst? first? 

(But: Jag vet inte, vilka bocker I don't know which books he 

han har bestdllt. has ordered.) 

183. Vilken is also used in exclamations: 

Vilken hdrlig utsikt! What a splendid view! 

Vilket misstag du har begdtt! What a blunder you have 

made! 

N. B. No indefinite article is used after vilken in Swedish. 

184. Notice the following expressions: 

Hur ser hans far ut? What does his father look 

like? 
Hur dr det fatt? (or: Vad dr What is the matter? 

det?) 
Vilket ar det cna, och vilket dr Which is which? 

det andra? 



118 



185. Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives. 

The Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives are: 

M., F. & C. Neuter Plural 

man one (gen. ens, objective 

en) 
nag on some, somebody (any, ndgot ndgr 

anybody) 

ingen no, nobody intet (coll. inget) inga 

soinlig some somligt somliga 

annan other, else annat andra 

den andra (andre) the det andra de andra 

other 

all all allt alia 

tndngen many, many a (one) tndnget manga 

ndgonting some- - 

thing 

ingenting nothing 
allting everything - 
var every, each vart 

varje every, each varje 

var och en everybody, each vart och ett 
varenda (en) every (one) vartenda (ett) 

fa few 
Hera 

several 
ndgondera ( nag on av dem) ndgotdera 

some one, either 

ingendera (= ingen av dem) intetdera 
no one, neither 

Man har rdtt att forsvara sig. One has a right to defend one- 
self. 

Ndgon hod' faint om det for Somebody had told her about 
h rune. it. 



119 



Har nag on varit har? 

Nej, jag har inte sett ndgon. 

Det var ndgra vanner till mig. 

Jag har inte gjort ndgot (nd- 
gonting) i dag. 
Ar det ndgot black kvar i 

bltickhornet? Nej, det dr 

inget (intet) kvar. 
Ndgonting ar bdttre an in- 

genting. 
Ddrav blev intet. 
Ing en mdnnisJca har ndgonsin 

sett ndgonting dylikt. 
liar ni ndgon annan bok att 

lana mig? 
Det har glaset ar inte rent. 

Giv mig ett annat! 
Giv mig ndgonting annat! 
Jag har ingenting annat 

att bjuda pa. 
Somliga mdnniskor d'ro rika, 

andra d'ro fattiga. 
De andra gossarna ha gdtt 

och badat. 
Hn annan gang shall jag 

berdtta ndgra sagor. 
(Vill ni ha en kopp te till? 

Allt dr icke guld, som glimmar. 

Vi mdste alia do. 

Var dttonde dag. 

Tag gd var tionde minut. 

Med fa minuters mellanrum. 



Has anybody been here? 

No, I have not seen anybody. 

They were some friends of 
mine. 

I have not done anything to- 
day. 

Is there any ink left in the 
ink-stand? - - No, there is 
none left. 

Something is better than no- 
thing. 

Nothing came of it. 

Nobody has ever seen any- 
thing like it. 

Have you got any other book 
to lend me? 

This tumbler is not clean. 
Give me another. 

Give me something else. 

I have nothing else to offer 
you. 

Some people are rich, others 
are poor. 

The other boys have gone to 
have a bathe. 

Another time I will tell some 
stories. 

Would you like another cup 
of tea?) 

All that glitters is not gold. 

We must all die. 

Once a week. 

Trains leave every ten minu- 
tes. 

Every few minutes. 



120 



Varannan dag. Var tredjc Every other day. Every third 

dag. day. 

Varje manniska (or: var och Everybody has his peculiari- 

eri) liar sina cgendomliglietcr. ties. 

Var och en vet, liur svart Everybody knows how diffi- 



det dr. 

Han har fa vdnner. 
Jag banner ndf/ra av dem. 



cult it is. 

He has few friends. 
I know a few of them. 



Mdngen simile onska, att lian Many a one would wish that 



vore i ert stdlle. 



he were in your place. 



Man lean se slottet Mrifrdn. You- can see the castle from 

here. 
Han gav pojkarna var sitt He gave the boys an apple 

apple (or: ett apple var). 
De gingo at var sitt hall. 



each. 

They went their several ways. 
De sutto pa var sin sida av They were seated on either 



(or: om) bordct. 
Kan jag fa lite mera te? 



side of the table. 
May I have some more tea? 



Han lyckades pd ett eller He managed somehow or other. 

annat sdtt. 
Om ndyon skulle Imacka pd If anybody should knock at 



dorren, sd oppna inte. 



the door, do not open it. 



Det gamla spelet om "JZnvar". The old play "Everyman". 

Note 1. When used as Nouns, nag on, ing en, annan, envar, 
and mdngen, take an -s in the genitive. 

Enligt ndf/ras men<n</. According to some people's 

opinion. 

Note 2. The plurals somliga, alia when used as Nouns 
also take an -s in the genitive. The genitive of var och en 
is vars och ens. 

186. The interrogative pronouns vcm, vad, vilken (vilket, 
vilka) are made into indefinite pronouns by adding som heist. 

vem sorn heist anybody (you like) 
vad som heist anything (you like) 



121 



vilken som heist any, anyone (you like) 
neuter: vilket som heist 
plural: vilka som, heist 



Vem som heist ban gora dot. 

Vad som heist duger. 

Han brukade titta in vid vil- 
ken tidpd dagen som heist. 

Man Jean ta vilket tag som 
heist. 

Frdga vem som lielst. 

Tank pd ett tal vilket som 
heist. 

Tag vilken som heist av Take any one of these books. 
dessa backer. 



Anybody can do it. 

Anything will do. 

He used to look in at any 

time of the day. 
You can take any train. 

Ask anybody. 

Think of any number you like. 



Remarks on the Use of Certain Indefinite Pronouns. 

187. Man. 

Man is used a great deal more in Swedish than 
"one" in English. It is often used when English has 
"you", "we", "they", "people", or a passive construction. 1 

Man Jean aldrig vet a. You never can tell (or: there 

is no knowing). 

Man Jean Jcomma dit med tag. You can get there by train. 
Man sdger (coll. dom sager), They say that he is ill. 

att lian ar sjtiJc. 
Man erJcanner allmant, att . . . It is generally acknowledged, 

that . . . 
Man pdstdr, att Jian ar myc- He is said to be very rich. 

Jcet rik. 
Varfor svarar du inte, nar Why do you not answer when 

man talar till dig? you are spoken to? 



Compare French "on". 



122 



188. Far, Varje, Varenda, AIL 

Var, rarjc, varenda and all are only used as Adjec- 
tives. The corresponding noun-forms are rar och en, var- 
erida en. The neuter and plural forms of all: allt, alia may 
be used as Nouns. 



Det dr nag anting, som var 
(varje, varenda) mdnniska 

borde veta. 
Det ar ndgonting,som var och 

en(varenda en)borde veta. 
Det dr ndgonting, som alia 

borde veta. 
Han liar all anledning att vara 

nb'jd. 

Allt mojligt. 

Ndr allt kommer omkring. 
Han har misslyckats i vart- 

enda fall. 

En for alia och alia for en. 
Pa allt sdtt. 
At alia hall. 
Allt emellandt. 
Han dr allt utom lyMig. 



It is something that every- 
body ought to know. 



He has every reason to be 

satisfied. 

All sorts - of things. 
After all. 
He has failed in each and 

every case. 

All for each and each for all. 
In every way. 
In every direction. 
Every now and then. 
He is anything but happy. 



Note 1. English "all" is often translated by hel. 
Den franska renassan sens hela All the refinement of the 

for fining. French renaissance. 

Hcla tiden. All the time. 



189. Ndgon and Ingen. 

Ndgon and ingen are used as adjectives and nouns, not 
only in affirmative sentences but also in negative and interrogative 
sentences (where English has "any"). 



123 



Jag har ingapengar. Harm I have no money. Have you 

ndgra? any? 

Jag liar inte ndgot vin kvar. I have no wine left. Have 

Har ni ndgot? you any? 

Han har ingapengar, och hon He has no money and she has 

har inga heller. none either. 

Note 1. "No" (none, nobody, nothing) is often translated by 
icke ndgon (icke nag of). 

Note 2. Any (anybody, anything), when used in a question, 
in a negative or conditional phrase, corresponds to 
ndgon (ndgot, ndgra) in Swedish. 

Jag har inte sett ndgon. I have not seen anybody. 

Har ni sett ndgon? Have you seen anybody? 

Om ni har sett ndgon. If you have seen anybody. 

Note 3. Any (anybody, anything), when used in an affir- 
mative phrase, corresponds to vilken (vilket, vilka, vad) 
som heist in Swedish. 

Vilken pojke som heist Jean Any boy can do that. 

gora det. 
Vad som heist duger. Anything will do. 

Note 4. When "some" (any) is used in a partitive sense 
(corresponding to the partitive article in French) it is, as a 
rule, not translated. Sometimes the word lite is used in this 
sense. 

Far jag server a er lite gron- May I help you to some vege- 
saker? Tack, jag har. tables? I have some, thank 

you. 

De hade kaffe med sig i en They had brought some coffee 
thermosflaska. in a thermos flask. 

190. "Few" is translated by fd, "a few" by ndgra. 
"Little" is translated by foga, "a little" by lite. 
"Somewhat" is translated by ndgot or tamligen. 



124 



"Some" before a Numeral is translated by unge- 

fdr or omkring. 
"Any" before a Comparative is not translated. 



Jfoga eller indenting. 

Vdnta lite! 

Beskrivningen dr ndgot over- 
driven. 

Han levde for onikring ire- 
hundra dr sedan. 

Jag orkar inte dta mer. 

De hunno icke langre. 

Fa ha sett det. 

Jag liar sett ndgra stycken. 



Little or nothing. 

Wait a little! 

The description is somewhat 

exaggerated. 
He lived some 300 years ago. 

I could not eat any more. 
They did not get any further. 
Few have seen it. 
I have seen a few. 



191. Notice the following expressions: 

Ndgonting gott something good, vi tycka om tennis bdda 
tva both of us are (we are both) fond of tennis, man kan 
saga bdda delarna (vilket som heist) you can say either, 
mdnget barn many a child, en for mycket one too many, myc- 
ket folk many people. 



192. Annan. 

Annan (annat, andra) corresponds to "other", "an- 
other", and "else", in English. 

Jag skall gora det en annan I will do it another time. 

gang. 

Den enes dod, den andres One man's meat is another's 

brod. poison. 

Den ena gick ut, och den One went out and the other 

e andra stannade hemma. stayed at home. 

A ena sidan . . . a tuiftrff On the one hand ... on the 

sidan. other hand. 



125 

Dei har ndgon annan gjort. Somebody else has done it. 
Vad annat kunde ni vanta? What else could you expect? 

193. Notice the following expressions: 

Vem Jcunde det annars vara? who eJse could it be? harom 
dagen the other day, ett eller annat something or other, pa 
ett eller annat satt somehow or other. 



The Verb. 

A. Auxiliary Verbs. 

194. Att hava to have. 

Present Past 

jag har I have jag hade I had 

du har you have du hade you had 

ni har you have ni hade you had 

han har he has han hade he had 

lion har she has hon hade she had 

den har it has den hade it had 

det har it has det hade it had 

vi Jia(va) 1 we have vi hade we had 

ni ha(va) you have ni hade you had 

de ha(va) they have de hade they had 

Present Perfect Past Perfect 

jag har haft I have had jag hade haft I had had 
du har haft you have had du hade haft you had had 
ni har haft you have had ni hade haft you had had 
han har haft he has had han hade haft he had had 



1 The form hava is nearly always pronounced ha. 



12(5 



/ton har haft 
den har haft 
tlet har haft 
vi ha(va) haft 
ni ha(va) haft 
fie ha(va) haft 



she has had lion hade haft she had had 
it has had den hade haft it had had 
it has had det liade haft it had had 
we have had vi hade haft we had had 
you have had ni hade haft you had had 
they have had de hade haft they had had 



Future 

jag shall (or Icommer att) hava (lid) I shall have 

you will have 

you will have 

he will have 

she will have 

it will have 

it will have 

vi shola (or komma att) hava we shall have 
ni shola hava you will have 
de skola hava they will have 



du shall hava 
ni shall hava 
nan shall hava 
hon shall hava 
den shall hava 
det shall hava 



Future in 

jag shulle hava 
du shulle hava 
ni shulle hava 
han shulle hava 
hon shulle hava 
den shulle hava 
det shulle hava 
vi shulle hava 
ni shulle hava 
de shulle hava 



the past 

(ha) I should have 
you would have 
you would have 
he would have 
she would have 
it would have 
it would have 
we should have 
you would have 
they would have 



Imperative 
hav have 



Infinitive 
att Jiava (or att Jia) to have 



127? 



Supine 
haft had 



Past Participle 
havd had 



195. The auxiliary verb att liava is often omitted in 
subordinate clauses. 



Som jag icke (liar) fdtt svar 
pa mitt forra brev . . . 

Om jag Me (hade) hunnit 
med dngbdten, hade jag tagit 
tdgct. 



As I have had no reply to 
my previous letter . . . 

If I had missed the steamer 
I should have taken the train. 



196. Att vara to be. 
Indicative. 



Present 


jag 
du 
ni 
han 


I am 
you are 
you are 
dr he is 


hon 


she is 


den 


it is 


det 


it is 


vi 


we are 


ni 
de 


ciro you are 

they are 



Present Perfect 



Past 


j a g 


I was 


du 
ni 
han 


you were 
you were 
var he was 


hon 


she was 


den 


it was 


det 


it was 


vi\ we were 


ni\voro you were 
de] they were 



Past Perfect 



jag har varit I have been jag hade varit I had been 
vi ha(va) varit we have been vi hade varit we had been 

Future 

jag shall (or Iwmmer att) vara I shall be 
vi sliola (or komma att) vara we shall be 



128 



Future in the past 
jag skulle vara I should be 
vi skulle vara we should be 

Imperative Present Participle 

var be varande being 

Infinitive Supine 

att vara to be varit been 

Subjunctive. 

Present Past 

jag ma vara I be jag vore I were 

vi ma vara we be vi vore we were 



197. Vara and bliva. 

The verb vara denotes a state == to be. 
The verb lli(va) denotes transition from one state to ano- 
ther = to be, to become, to get. 

Det dr morkt. It is dark. 

Det borjar bli morkt. It is getting dark. 

Det blir morJct om en lit en It will be dark in a little 

stund. while. 

H an var ra'dd for sin far. He was afraid of his father. 

Han blev radd, nar han horde He was (became) frightened 

visselpipan. when he heard the whistle. 

De komma att vara borta hela They will be away the whole 

sommaren. summer. 

Det shall bli roligt att traffa I am looking forward to see- 

dem igen. ing them again. 

Han blev dodad i kriget. He was killed in the war. 

Nd'r jag kom, var han redan When I came he was already 

dod. dead. 



129 

Hcnncs mor liar Idnge varit Her mother has long been ill. 

sjuJc. 

I for fa, vccltan blev lion ope- Last week she was operated 

reracl, ock sedan dcss liar on, and since then she has 

lion blivit btittrc och latfre become better and better 

for var dag. e\ 7 ery day. 



198. Other Auxiliary Yerbs. 



Present 



Past 



1. 


jag shall 
vi skola 


I shall 
we shall 


jag shulle 
vi skulle 


I should 
we should 


2. 


jag vill 
vi vilja 


I will 
we will 


jag ville 
vi ville 


I would 
we would 


3. 


jag Kan 
vi kunna 


I can 
we can 


jag kunde 
vi kundc 


I could 
we could 


4. 


jag mdste 
vi mdste 


I must 
we mast 


jag mdste 
vi mdste 


I had to 
we had to 


5. 


jag ma 
vi n id 


I may 
we may 


jag matte 
vi matte 


I might 
we might 



Infinitive of shall: att shola to be obliged Supine: skolat 
vill: att viJja to be willing > velat 
Izan: att kunna to be able Jvunnat 



9 222444. Jljorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



130 



B. Verbs with full meaning. 

199. Conjugations. 

There are in Swedish four Conjugations, distinguished by 
the form of the Supine. 

In the 1st Conjugation the Supine ends in -at. 
In the 2nd Conjugation the Supine ends in -f. 
In the 3rd Conjugation the Supine ends in -tt. 
In the 4th Conjugation the Supine ends in -it. 

200. Supine. 

The Supine is the form of the Verb used after the auxiliary 
verb (itt Jiavci to have, in compound tenses. 

Ex.: j'ag liar fcallat I have called 
jag hade Izallat I had called 

The function of the Supine corresponds to one function 
of the Past Participle in English. 

201. Past Participle. 

The Swedish Past Participle, on the other hand, is never used 
to form the Present Perfect or the Past Perfect. The Swedish 
Past Participle is used after the auxiliary verbs an mm and 
aft hiirff (to be' and 'to become') and as an Adjective. 

Ex.: jfig fir Itallad I am called 
jag l)lcv Jtallfid I was called 

Consequently there are two forms in Swedish (Supine and 
Past Part.) which correspond to the English Past Participle. 

202. Principal Parts. 

The Principal Parts of the Verb are: Infinitive, Present, 
Past, Supine, and Past Participle. 



131 



203. First Conjugation. 



Supine ends in -at. 
Past ends in -ade. 



Present 



jay 

du 

ni 

han 

lion 

den 

del 



Past 
jag ballade I called 



kallar 



I call etc. 



vi kallade 



we called 



ni\ kalla 

de\ 



we call etc. 



Present Perfect 



Past Perfect 



jag har kallat I have called jag hade kallat I had called 
ri ha(va) kallat we have vi hade kallat we had called 
called 

Future Future in the past 

jag shall (or kommer att) Italia jag skulle Imlla I should 
I shall call call 

vi skola (or Jcomma att) kalla vi skulle Italia we should 
we shall call call 

Imperative: Italia call 
Infinitive: alt kalla to call 
Present Participle: kallande calling 
Past Participle: kallad called (den dr kallad, det ar Jeal- 
lat, cle aro kallade) 

Supine: (jag har) kallat called 



1 Negative and interrogative forms: jag kallar ickc I do not call, Jcallar 
jag? do I call? kallade jag icke? did I not call? etc. 



132 



Infinitive Present 

lea liar 



Examples: 
Past 



c . Past 

Supine Participle 

ballade kallat kallad 



kalla 

call 
dansa dansar dansade dansat dansad- 

dance 
Ixxlft badar ladade ladat ladad 

bathe 
lioppa Jioppar Jtoppad** hoppat (over)hoppad 

jump 
tclefonera telefoncrar telcfoncrade telefonerat telefonerad 

telephone 

The majority of Swedish verbs belong to the First Conjugation. 



204. Second Conjugation. 

Supine ends in -t. 

Past ends in -de or -te. 



The verbs of the Second Conjugation are divided into two 
classes. 

The verbs belonging to the first class take -de in the 
Past and -d in the Past Participle. 



Present 

jar/ bojer I bend 
vi boja we bend 

Present Perfect 



Past 

M>jde I bent 

// bojde we bent 

Past Perfect 



jag bar bojt I have bent jay hade bojt I had bent 
vi 1ui(va} bojt we have bent vi hade bojt we had bent 



133 

Future Future in the past 

jay ttJgall (or kommer att) boja jag skulle boja I should 
I shall bend bend 

ri skola (or komma att) boja vi skulle boja we should 
we shall bend bend 

Imperative: bb'j bend 
Infinitive: att boja to bend 
Present Participle: bb'jande bending 
Past Participle: bb'jd bent (den dr bojd, det dr bojt, de 
tiro bb'jda) 

Supine: (jag liar) bb'jt bent 







Examples: 






Infinitive 


Present 


Past 


Supine 


Past 
Participle 


boja 


bo'jer 


bojde 


bojt 


bojd 


bend 










liora 


Mr 


horde 


hort 


liord 


hear 










vanda 


v tinder 


vande 


vdnt 


vdnd 


turn 










(jomina 


yommcr 


yomde 


gomt 


(jomd 


hide 










stdllci 


stdller 


stdllde 


sttillt 


sttilld 


put 










rora 


ror 


rorde 


rort 


rord 


move 










branna 


brdnner 


brdnde 


brant 


brand 


burn 










leda 


leder 


ledde 1 


lett 


Udd 


lead 











1 When the root-vowel is long and followed by a d, the Past, Supine and 
Past Part, have short vowel and doable consonant. 



134 

To the first class belong verbs the root of which 
does not end in k 9 p, x, t. 

If the root ends in ~r the termination -er is drop- 
ped in the Present singular: jag hor, j(t</ rot; etc. 



II. 

Verbs belonging to the second class take -te in the 
Past and -t in the Past Participle. 

Present . Past 

jftf/ koper I buy jay kopte I bought 

vi kopa we buy vi kopte we bought 

Present Perfect Past Perfect 

jay liar kopt I have bought jftf/ hade kopt I had bought 
viha(va) kopt we have bought vi hade kdpt we had bought 

Future Future in the past 

jag skall (or Itommer att) kopa jag skulle kopa I should 
I shall buy buy 

vi skola (or Jcomma att) 7co^)ci vi skulle kopa we should 
we shall buy buy 

Imperative: kop buy 
Infinitive: att kopa to buy 
Present Participle: kdpande buying 
Past Participle: kopt bought (den r koj>t. (let iir k<">/>t, 
de tiro Iwptd) 

Supine: (jag liar) kopt bought 



135 







Examples: 






Infinitive 

hop a 
buy 
Icisa 


t 
Present 

kioper 
laser 


Past 
kopte 

Idste 


Supine 
kopt 

last 


Past 
Participle 

kopt 
last 


read 










soka 


sober 


sokte 


sokt 


sokt 


seek 










1)1 a nit a 


Hanker 


Ijldnkte 


blaukt 


bld'nkt 


shine 










motci 


mdter 


nwtte 


mott 


mott 


meet 










mcitft 


mater 


matte 


matt 


matt 


measure 










tycka 
think 


tycker 


tyckte 


tycUt 


tyckt 


leka 


leker 


Iclite 


lekt 


lekt 


play 
smalt a 


smalt er 


smalt e 


smalt 


smalt 


melt 











To the second class belong verbs the root of which 
ends in /, p 9 s or t (voiceless consonants). 

When the root ends in -t, preceded by a long vowel, the 
Past, the Supine, and the Past Part, have double -t and 
short vowel (motte, matte). 

Verbs of the Second Conjugation have a soft vowel in 
the root (e, i, y 9 ci, 6). 



205. Third Conjugation. 



Supine ends in -tt. 
Past ends in -dde. 



136 

Present 
jay bor I dwell 



vi bo 



we dwell 



Past 

jag bodde I dwelt 

vi bodde we dwelt 



Present Perfect Past Perfect 

jag liar bott I have dwelt jag hade bott I had dwelt 
vi ha(va) bott we have dwelt vi hade bott we had dwelt 

Future Future in the past 

jag tt'kall (or kommer att) bo jag skit lie bo I should dwell 

I shall dwell 
vi skola (or komma att) bo vi skitlle bo we should dwell 

we shall dwell 

Imperative: bo dwell 
Infinitive: att bo to dwell 
Present Participle: boende dwelling 
Past Participle: bodd 1 (neuter: bott, pi. bodda) 
Supine: (jag har) bott dwelt 

Examples: 



Infinitive Present 
bo bor 2 


Past 
bodde 


Supine 
bott 


Past 
Participle 
bodd 


dwell 










tro 


tror 


trodde 


trott 


tro dd 


believe 










ro 


ror 


rodde 


rott 


rodd 


row 










* 


sgr 


xijdde 


sytt 


sydd, 


sew 










fly 

flee 


flyr 


flydde 


fll/tt 


flydd 


Ud 


Hdr 


Idadde 


Idatt 


Idddd 


strike 











1 E. g. in bebodd "inhabited". 

* The plural of the Present is always like the Infinitive. 



137 

Only a few verbs belong to the Third Conjugation. 
They are, as a rule, monosyllabic. The Infinitive does not 
end in a. 

206. Irregular Yerbs of the First Conjugation. 

Infinitive Present Past Supine 

Sing. Plur. 

lieta lieter hcta hctte lietat 

be called 
liunna kan Jcunna Imnde kunnat 

be able 
leva lever leva levde levat 

live 
veta vet veta visste vetat 

know 
vilja mil vilja mile velat 

be willing 

207. Irregular Yerbs of the Second Conjugation. 

Infinitive Present Past Supine Past Part. 

bring a bringar 1 bragte bragt bragt 

bring 
bora bor borde bort 

ought to 
dolja doljer dolde 2 dolt 2 dold 2 

conceal 
ylddja gldder gladde ylatt 

gladden 
gora yor gjorde gjort yjord 

do, make 
lagga lagger lade lagt layd 

lay 
sJcilja skiljer skilde skilt skild 

separate 

1 The plural of the Present is always like the Infinitive. 

2 N. B. long vowel! 



sHturjd 
anoint 


smorjer 


jnarde 


smort 


xniord 


sporja 
ask 


sporjw 


spordc 


spQrt 


spoi'd 


stadja 
hire 


xtiidjcr 


staddc 


Stfftt 


stadd 


stodja 
support 
saga 


stodjer 
stiycr 


stodde 
sade 


stiJtt 

Sfff/t 


xtodd 
sayd 


say 
stilja 
sell 


saljcr 


saldc 


salt 


said 


salt a 


satter 


satte 


satt 


soft 


set 










toras 


tors 


tordes 


torts 




dare 










(tord) 

vcilja 
choose 


tor 
(may) 
vciljer 


tordc 
(might) 
valde l 


vain 


raid 1 


vanja 
accustom 


vanjer 


vande 1 


vant l 


vand l 



208. Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation. 

Infinitive Present Past Supine Past Part. 

Sing. Plur. 
bad bddo 'hett bedd 



ask 



do 



die 



fd 



ber 
dor 
far 



get 



dog dof/o 
Jick Jingo 



<H>tt (dod) 

fnll (and)fddd 
(ldri)fdngen 



' N. J3. long vowel ! 

8 The plural of the Present is always like the Infinitive. 



gar 
ler 



ga 

go 
le 

smile 
se scr 

see 
std star 

stand 
sld 

strike 



sldr 



yick yinyo gdtt 

log loyo Ictt 

say sago sett 

stod stodo stdtt 

slog sloyo slayit 



130 
gang en 

(be)lcdd 
scdd 

(over)stdnden 
slayen 



209. Fourth Conjugation. 

Supine ends in -it* Past Participle ends in -en. 

In the Fourth Conjugation the Past is not formed by a 
termination as in the other conjugations but by changing the 
root-vowel, e. g. binda, Past. sing, band, plural bundo. 

The verbs of this conjugation are here classified according 
to the various vowel-changes. 

210. I. Towel-change: (short) i -- a -- u. 

Present Past 

jay binder I bind jag band I bound 



vi binda we bind 



vi bundo we bound 



Present Perfect 
jag liar bundit I have 

bound 
vi ha(va) bundit we have 

bound 

Future 
jay shall (or Jcommer att) binda 

I shall bind 
vi skola (or Jcomma atf) binda 

we shall bind 



Past Perfect 
jag hade bundit I had 

bound 
vi hade bundit we had 

bound 

Future in the past 

jag skulle binda 

I should bind 
vi skulle binda 

we should bind 



140 

Imperative: bind bind 

Infinitive: att binda to bind 

Present Participle: bindande binding 

Past Participle: (den a'r) bunden bound; ((let dr) bundet, (de 

aro) bundna 
Supine: (jag har) bundit bound 



Infinitive 


Present 


Examples: 
Past 


Supine 


Past 

Participle 






Sing. 


Plur. 






binda 


binder 1 


band 


bundo 


bundit 


bunden 


bind 












spring a 


springer 


sprang 


sprungo 


sprungit 


sprungen 


run 












finna 


/inner 


fann 


funno 


funnit 4 


funnen 


find 












brinna 


brinner 


brann 


bnmno 


brunnit 


brunncn 


burn 












dricka 


dricker 


drack 


drucko 


druclrft 


drucLcn 


drink 












rinna 


rinner 


rann 


runno 


runnit 


runnen 


run, flo 


w 










vinna 


i inner 


vann 


vtinno 


vunnit 


v u imen 


win 













211. II. Vowel-change: (long) i - - e - - i. 

Present Past 

jag biter I bite jay bet I bit 



ri bita we bite 



vi beta we bit 



Present Perfect Past Perfect 

jag har bitit I have bitten jag hade bit ft I had bitten 
vi ha(va) bitit we have bitten vi hade bitit we had bitten 

1 The plural of the Present is always like the Infinitive. 



141 

Future Future in the past 

jay shall (or kommer aft) bita jay sknlle bita I should bite 

I shall bite 
i'i slcola (or Jcomma att) bita vi sktille bita we should bite 

we shall bite 

Imperative: bit bite 

Infinitive: att bita to bite 

Present Participle: bitande biting 

Past Participle: (den a'r) biten bitten; (det a'r) bitet, (de aro) 

bitna 
Supine: (jag liar) bitit bitten 







Examples: 






Infinitive 


Present 


Past 


Supine 


Past Part. 


bita 


biter 


bet, beto 


bitit 


biten 


bite 










skriva 


sliriver 


sltrev, sl'revo 


skrivit 


shriven 


write 










gripa 


griper 


grep, yrepo 


gripit 


gripen 


seize 










rida 


rider 


red, redo 


ridit 


riden 


ride 










bliva 
become 


bli(ve)r 


blev, blevo 


blivit 


bliven 


sprida 


sprider 


spred, spredo 


(spritt) 


(spridd) 


spread 
lida 


lidcr 


led, ledo 


lidit 


liden 



suffer 

212. III. Towel change: y (or ju) -- o -- u (ju). 

Present Past 

jay ilyyer I fly jay ftoy I flew 

vi fiyya we fly vi floyo we flew 



Present Perfect Past Perfect 

jag 7iai' fliigit I have flown jay hade fluff it I had flown 

vi /tft(ra) fl-ngit \ve have H hade flu git we had flown 
flown 

Future 
jag shall (or komnter att) flyga 

I shall fly 
vi skola (or komma att) fly go, 

we shall fly 



Future in the past 

jag kulle flyga 

I should fly 
vi skulle flyga 

we should fly 



Imperative: flyg 

Infinitive: att flyga 

Present Participle: flygande 

Past Participle: (den ar) (bort)flugen, (det fir) (bort)fluget, (d( 

dro) (lort)flugna 
Supine: (jag har) flugit 







Examples : 






Infinitive 


Present 


Past 


Supine 


Past Part. 


flyga 


flyger 


flog, flogo 


fluffii 


(bort)flugen 


fly 










frysd 


fryscr 


fros, froso 


frusit 


fruscn 


freeze 










fhjta 


flyter 


fldt, floto 


flnfit 


(kring)fluten 


float, 


flow 








krypa 


kryper 


krdp, kropo 


krnpit 


krupen 


creep 










hjiidii 


Itjndcr 


bjod, Ijwlo 


Itjudit 


1> jit den 


offer 










sjunka 


* junker 


sjonk, sjonko 


sjunkit 


xjnnken 


sink 










s jnng a 


sjunger 


sjong, sjongo 


*j ting it. 


sjtwgcn 


sing 










skjuta 


skjuter 


skot, xkoto 


s]:jntil 


xkjitten 


shoot 











143 



213. IT. Other Towel Changes. 



Infinitive 


Past 


Supine 


btira 


bar, luro 


bur it 


bear, carry 






stjala 


stal, stulo 


stulit 


steal 






skara 


skar, skuro 


skurit 


cut 






drag a 


drog, drogo 


dragit 


draw 






tag a 


tog, togo 


tagit 


take 






fara 


for, foro 


farit 


go 






hdlla 


loll, hollo 


hdllit 


hold 






falla 


foil, folio 


fallit 


fall 






Irregular 


Changes: 




giva (ge) 


gav, gdvo 


givit 


give 






grata 


grdt, grata 


grdtit 


cry 






Idta 


Icit, Idto 


IMit 


let 






komma 


kom, kommo 


kommit 


come 






sova 


sov, sovo 


sovit 


sleep 






sU 


slog, slogo 


slagit 


strike 







144 



Infinitive 
srara 


Past 
svor, svoro 


Supine 
svurit 


swear 






vara 


var, ntro 


varit 


be 






ata 


at, dto 


dtit 


eat 







214. Alphabetical List of Verbs of the 4th Conjugation. 

Infinitive Present Past Supine Past Part. 

Sing. Plur. 



bind a 


binder 


band 


bundo 


bundit 


bun den 


bind 












bita 


biter 


bet 


beto 


bitit 


bit en 


bite 












bjuda 


bjnder 


bjod 


bjodo 


bjudit 


bjnden 


offer 












bli(va) 


blir 


bkv 


blevo 


blivit 


hlircti 


become 












brinna 


brinner 


brann 


brunno 


brunnit 


brtiiuiDi 


burn 












brista 


brister 


brast 


hrusto 


brnstit 


l> nisi en 


burst 












bryta 


hri/tcr 


brot 


broto 


brutit 


hr/iten 


break 












bara 


bar 


bar 


buro 


burit 


buren 


bear 












drag a 


dra(gc)r ' 


drog 


drof/o 


dragit 


dragen 


draw 












dricka 


drirker 


drack 


ilrticko 


drnckit 


drncken 


drink 












driva 


driver 


drev 


drevo 


drivit 


driven 


drive 












falla 


filler 


foil 


folio 


fUit 


fallen 



fall 



Infinitive Present Past 

Sing. Plnr. 
far a 



145 

Supine Past Part. 



far 


for 


foro 


farit 


(hiid an) fare 


finner 


fann 


funno 


fun nit 


funnen 


flyger 


ftog 


flogo 


flu git 


(lort)flugen 


flytcf 


flat 


floto 


flutit 


fluten 


fnjser 


fl'OS 


froso 


frus-it 


fruscn 



finna 

find 
flyga 

fly 

flyta 

float 
fnjsa 

freeze 
forsvinna forsvinner forsvann forsvunno forsvunnii forsvunncn 

disappear 

gdvo 



gica (ge) giver (ger) gav 

give 



gjuta 

cast 
glida 

glide 
gnida 

rub 
grip a 

seize 
grata 

cry 
liinna 



gjuter got 

glider gled 
gnidcr gncd gnedo 
griper grcp grcpo 

grater grdt 

Jiann 

hogg 

Mil 



Jiinw cr 

have time 
Jwggft hugger 

hew 
lidlla lidller 

hold 
JcUva Idiver 

stride 
lily v a Idyvcr 

cleave 

10 22244-1. Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



Mov 



gtrit given 

goto gjutit g jut en 

gledo glidit 

gnidit f/ widen 

(jripit grip en 

gratit (be)grdten 

liunnit linnnen 

hog go hug git hug gen 

hollo hdllit li alien 

Idirit (upp]ldivcn 

klitvit lluven 



grdto 
Jnimw 



Idevo 
1:1 or o 



Infinitive Present 


Past 


Supine 


Past Part. 






Sing. 


Plur. 






knipa 


kniper 


kne]> 


kncpo 


ktiipit 


/. nip en 


pinch 












kui/t(f 


kni/t( r 


knot 


L'noto 


Juiutit 


kmiten 


tie 












komma 


kommer 


kom 


Jcommo 


/commit 


kom men 


couie 












krypa 


kryper 


krbp 


kropo 


krupit 


/,'i'upcn 


creep 












lida 


lider 


led 


ledo 


lidit 


liden 


suffer 












ligga 


ligger 


lag 


Id go 


leyat 


(for)lcyft(J 


lie 












y(?a 


ljudcr 


Ijbd 


Ijodo 


ljudit 




sound 












ljuga 


ljugcr 


Ijog 


Ijdgo 


ljugit 


(be]ljugen 


lie 












fata 


later 


lai 


lato 


Idtit 


(ovcr)ldtcn 


let 












niga 


niger 


neg 


ncgo 


nigit 




curtsy 












njuta 


njuter 


njbt 


njoto 


njutit 


njitten 


enjoy 












^??>a 


piper 


pep 


pepo 


pipit 




pipe 












rwfa 


rider 


red 


redo 


ridtt 


rid en 


ride 












riwwa 


r inner 


rann 


runno 


runnit 


ru linen 


run, flow 


riva 


river 


rev 


revo 


rivtt 


riven 


tear 












Mfta 


sitter 


satt 


sutto 


suttit 


(fb'r)si(tf<'ii 


sit 












sjuda 


Binder 


sjod 


sjodo 


sj-udtt 


sjuden 


seethe 





















147 


Infinitive Present 
s jung a ft jung er 


Past 

Sing. Plur. 
sjong sjongo 


Supine 
s jung it 


Past Part. 
s jung en 


sing 
sjunka sjunker 
sink 


sjonk 


sjonko 


sjunkit 


sjunken 


s kina skiner 


sken 


skeno 


skinit 




shine 










skjuta skjutcr 
shoot 


skot 


skoto 


skjutit 


sit jut en 


skrida skrider 


skred 


skredo 


skridit 




slide 










sJcrika skriker 
shriek 


skrek 


skrcko 


skrikit 


(ut)skriken 


skriva skriver 


skrcv 


skrevo 


skrivit 


skriven 


write 










skryta skryter 
boast 


skrot 


skroto 


skrutit 


(om)skruten 


skdra skdr 


skar 


skuro 


skurit 


sJcuren 


cut 










slippa slipper 
slip 
slita sliter 


slapp 
slct 


sluppo 
slelo 


sluppit 
slitit 


(upp)sluppen 
sliten 


tear 










sluta slutcr 


slot 


sloto 


slutit 


sluten 


conclude 










sld sldr 

strike 


slog 


slogo 


slagit 


slag en 


smyga smyycr 
slip 
snyta snyter 
blow the 


smog 
snot 


smdgo 
snoto, 


smug it 
snutit 


(in)smugen 
(o)snuten 


nose 










so va sover 


sov 


sovo 


sovit 




sleep 











148 



Infinitive Present 


Past 
Sing. 
spann 


Plur. 
xpunno 


Supine 
spunriil 


Past Part. 
*/>u mien 


spin 
spricka sprickcr 
burst 


sprack 


sprucko 


spruckit 


sprucken 


sprida sprider 
spread 


sprcd 


spredo 


spritt 


spHdd 


springa springer 


sprang 


sprung o 


xftningit 


sprungen 


run 










sticka sticker 


stack 


stucko 


stiickit 


stuckrn 


stick 










stiga stiger 


steg 


stego 


siigit 


stigcn 


rise 










stjdla stjdl 
steal 


stal 


stulo 


stulit 


stulen 


strida strider 
fight 
stryka stryker 
stroke 


sired 
strok 


stredo 
stroko 


stridit 
strukit 


(be)$tridd 
strukcn 


svida svider 


sved 


svedo 


svidit 




smart 










ta(ga) ta(ge)r 
take 


tog 


togo 


tagit 


t (fen 


tiga tiger 
be silent 


teg 


tcgo 


teyat 


(fdr}tegcn 


tjttffi tjutcr 
howl 


tjot 


ijoto 


tjutit 




vika vikcr 


veil 


veko 


viliit 


viken 


fold 










rinti viner 


ven 


VOIO 


vinit 




whiz 










vinna v inner 


vann 


vunno 


nninit 


rnnnen 



wn 



149 

Infinitive Present Past Supine Past Part. 

Sing. Plur. 
vrida vrider rred vredo vridit widen 

twist 

d'ta Liter at dto atit dten 

eat 

Remarks on the Terminations of the Verb, 

215. The Infinitive. 

First Conjugation: ait tala, att Italia, att bada. 
Second Conjugation: att Itopci, att bdja, att soka. 
Third Conjugation: att bo, att tro, att sy, att fa. 
Fourth Conjugation: att binda, att Jsomma, att bita. 

The Infinitive ends in -a in the 1st, 2nd and 4th 

Conjugations. 
In the 3rd Conjugation the Infinitive ends in another 

vowel than -a. 



216. The Present. 

Singular. 

First Conjugation: jag talar, jag kallar, jag badar. 
Second Conjugation: jag kb'per, jag bojer, jag sober. 
Third Conjugation: jag bor, jag tror, jog syr, jag far. 
Fourth Conjugation: jag binder, jag Itommer, jag biter. 

The Present singular of the 1st Conjugation ends 

in *ar. 
The Present singular of the 2nd Conjugation ends 

in -er. 
The Present singular of the 3rd Conjugation ends 

in -r. 
The Present singular of the 4th Conjugation ends 

in -er. 



150 

Plural. 

First Conjugation: vi tala, vi kalla, vi bada. 
Second Conjugation: vi ko'pa, vi bdja, vi soka. 
Third Conjugation: vi bo, vi tro, vi sy, vi ga. 
Fourth Conjugation: vi binda, vi komma, vi bita. 

The Present plural has the same form as the Infini- 
tive. Exception: vi tiro we are (Infinitive: vani). 



217. The Past. 

Singular. 

First Conjugation: jag talade, jag ballade, jag badttde. 
Second Conjugation: jag kb'pte, jag bojde, jag sokte. 
Third Conjugation: jag bodde, jag trodde, jag sydde. 
Fourth Conjugation: jag land, jag ~kom, jag let. 

The Past singular of the 1st Conjugation ends in -ttde. 

The Past singular of the 2nd Conjugation ends in 
-de or ~te. 

The Past singular of the 3rd Conjugation ends in -dfle. 

The Past singular of the 4th Conjugation has no ter- 
mination. 

Plural. 

First Conjugation: vi talade, vi kallade, vi badade. 
Second Conjugation: vi kopte, vi bojde, vi sokte. 
Third Conjugation: vi bodde, vi trodde, vi syddc. 
Fourth Conjugation: vi bundo, vi kommo, vi beto. 

The Past plural of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Conjugations 

has the same form as the singular. 
The Past plural of the 4th Conjugation ends in -o. 



151 



218. The Imperative. 

First Conjugation: tala, Italia, bada. 
Second Conjugation: kop, boj, sok. 
Third Conjugation: bo, tro, sy, gd. 
Fourth Conjugation: bind, Jcom, bit. 

The Imperative of the 1st and 3rd Conjugations has 
the same form as the Infinitive. 

The Imperative of the 2nd and 4th Conjugations is 
like the Infinitive minus -a. 



219. The Supine. 

First Conjugation: talat, kallat, badat. 
Second Conjugation: hopt, bojt, sokt. 
Third Conjugation: bo tt, trott, sytt, gait. 
Fourth Conjugation: bundit, kommit, bitit. 

The Supine of the .1st Conjugation ends in -at. 
The Supine of the 2nd Conjugation ends in -t. 
The Supine of the 3rd Conjugation ends in -tt. 
The Supine of the 4th Conjugation ends in -it. 
The Supine cannot be inflected. 



220. The Past Participle. 

The Past Participle of all the conjugations is inflected 
like an ordinary Adjective. It takes -t in the neuter and -a 
in the plural. The definite form is like the plural of the 
indefinite form. 

In the First Conjugation, however, the plural and the 
definite form of the Past Participle take -e instead of -a. 



M., F. and C. Xeuter Plural 

First Conjugation: Itallad Jcallat kallade 

Second Conjugation: ki'>j>t leapt Itopta 

bojd bojt hnjdft 

Third Conjugation: trodd trott trodda 

Fourth Conjugation: bnndcn bnndct bunchta 

The Past Participle of the 1st Conjugation ends in 

ad. 
The Past Participle of the 2nd Conjugation ends in 

t or -d. 

The Past Participle of the 3rd Conjugation ends in 

-dd. 
The Past Participle of the 4th Conjugation ends in -en. 



221. The Present Participle. 

First Conjugation: talande, kallande, badaude. 
Second Conjugation: Mpande, bojtuide, sokande. 
Third Conjugation: bocnde, troende, syende, gdende. 
Fourth Conjugation: bihdande, kommande, bitatide. 

The Present Participle of the 1st, 2nd and 4th Con- 
jugations ends in -ande. 

The Present Participle of the 3rd Conjugation ends 
in -cnde. 



Subjunctive, 

222. The special forms of the Subjunctive are gradually 
falling out of use in modern Swedish. Very few are retained 
in the spoken language. They all end in -1*. 

-l'li\. The Present Subjunctive is formed by replacing the 
-ft of the Infinitive by -c 



153 

Infinitive Present Subjunctive 
ait leva leve 

vd Isign a v a Isiyn e 

vara vare 

Jcomma komine 

224. The Past Subjunctive of the First, Second and Third 

Conjugations is like the Past Indicative, c. g.: talade, Uopte, 
trodde. 

% 225. The Past Subjunctive of the Fourth Conjugation is 
formed by replacing the -o of the plural Past Indicative 
by -c. 

Plural of Past Indicative Past Subjunctive 

(att giva) vi gdvo jay ydve, vi ydve 

(ait se) vi sago jay sdye, vi sdye 

(att vara) vi voro JGfl vore, vi vorc 

(att fa) vi fingo jay finye, vi finye 

226. Examples showing the use of the Sjbjunctive: 

Leve lionungen! Long live the King! 

Gud vare med dig! God be with you! 

Vare d armed huru som heist. Be that as it may. 

Rddde sig den som Jean! Let him save himself who can! 

Ske din vilje! Thy will be done! 

Jag onskar, att det aldrig bleve I wish it would never be sum- 

sommar! iner! 

Om jag vore hung. If I were king. 

Om jag finyc, toy e jag plat- If I were allowed, I would 

sen genast. take the situation at once. 

Om inte mdncn fimnes, skulle If the moon did not exist, 

det inte finnas nagot tid- there would be no tide. 

vatten. 



Passive Voice. 

227. The Passive is formed by adding -> to the active 
forms of the Verb. If the active form ends in -r, the -r is 
dropped before -s. 



228. 1st Conjugation. 

Present Past 

jag kallas I am called jag kallades I was called 
vi kallas we are called vi kallades we were called 

Present Perfect Past Perfect 

jag har kallats I have been jag hade kallats I had been 

called called 

vi Jia(va) kallats we have vi hade kallats we had been 

been called called 

Future Future in the past 

j ag skall (Jcommer att) kallas jag skulle kallas I should 

I shall be called be called 

vi skola (komma att) kallas vi skulle kallas we should 

we shall be called be called 

Infinitive: att kallas to be called 
(Past Participle: kallad called) 
Supine: kallats been called 



229. 2nd, 3rd and 4th Conjugations: 

If the active form ends in -er (second and fourth conjuga- 
tions) the -e is generally dropped before -s, except in literary 
and formal style. 



155 



Ex.: det hors (liores) it is heard; 

clet {joins (go mines) it is hidden; 
det sitrids (strides') it is spread. 



Infinitive 

att hop as 

to be bought 
att bojas 

to be bent 
att tros 

to be believed 
att bindatf 

to be bound 
att brt/tas 

to be broken 



Past 



koptes 
bo j ties 
troddes 
bands 
brots 



pi. bundos 
brotos 



Present 
kdp(e)s pi. kopas 

boj(e)s bojas 

tros tros 

bind(e)s bindas 

bryt(e)s brytas 



Supine 
k&pts 
bojts 
trotts 
bundits 
brutits 



The Use of the Passive Yoice. 

230. The Passive Voice should be avoided in colloquial 
speech. It has, on the whole, a more restricted use than in 
English. 

231. The Indirect Object of an active sentence cannot, 
as a rule, be made the Subject of a passive sentence. 



\Man Itar sagt mig det. 
\Det har sayts mig. 



I have been told so. 



I 11 

(It has been told me. 
(But not: jag liar sagts det.) 

visade mig tvd tavlor. jl was shown two pictures. 
\Tva tavlor visades mig. [Two pictures were shown me. 
(But not: jag visades tvcl tavlor.) 



156 

232. When there are two Direct Objects, one denoting 
a thing and the other a person, only the thing-object can be 
made the Subject of a passive sentence. Best is to avoid the 
passive construction altogether. 

T (I was taught a new dance. 

Jag fick lara miq en mi dans. { A 

I A new dance was taught me. 

T ~ j , f o [I was asked three questions. 

Jan fick trc frag or. <* 

I Ihree questions were asked me. 

233. A Verb followed by a Preposition cannot be 
turned into the Passive Voice, unless the Preposition forms 
part of a Separable Verb. 

Man kommer sakert att ta He is sure to be taken care of. 

hand om lionom. 

Man skrattade at hennc. She was laughed at. 

Man far intc undra pa det. It must not be wondered at. 
Man har inte sett efter licnne She has not been properly 
ordentligt. looked after. 

But: motet sicotrt upp (or uppsko'ts) the meeting was post- 
poned; 

locket sJtruvades pd (or pdskruvades) the lid was 
screwed on, etc. 

234. An English passive infinitive after the verbs 'be', 
'remain', 'leave', corresponds to an active infinitive in Swedish 
in expressions like the following: 

Vad dr att gora? What is to be done? 

Det var att vanta. It was to be expected. 

Vad dterstdr att </6ra? What remains to be done? 

Utstallningen Idmnade dtskil- The exhibition left a great 

lint dvrigt att onttka. deal to be desired. 

Foljande historia tttod att The following story was to be 

lasa i en StockJtolmtidni)t(/. read in a Stockholm news- 
paper. 



157 

Var kan man fd (kopa) den Where is this book to be had? 
/tar bokcn? 
(Note. Delta hus ar till salii. This house is to be sold.) 

235. The verbs 'cause', 'command', 'order', 'direct', fol- 
lowed by an accusative and a passive infinitive are translated 
by Idta and an active infinitive in Swedish. 

Han lat riva liuset. He had the house pulled down. 

Ordfdranden lilt upplasa pro- The chairman caused the mi- 

tokollet over foregdende sam- nutes of the preceding mee- 

mantrade. ting to be read. 



Other Uses of the s-form. 

236. The verb-forms in -8 are also used to express a 
reciprocal action. 

DC mottcs pel bron. 
Vi hjalptes at. 

De foljdes at till stationen. 



Vi ses om fredag. 

Vill du ftldss? (double -s!) 



They met on the bridge. 

We helped each other. 

They went together to the 

station. 

See you on Friday. 
Will you fight? 



237. Some s-forms acquire an active meaning. 



Ndsslan branns. 
Han tycker om att retas. 
Hunden bits. 
Narras inte! 
Knuffas inte! 



The nettle stings. 
He is fond of teasing. 
The dog bites. 
Do not tell stories! 
Do not push! 



238. Deponent Verbs. 

Some Verbs have only #-ibrms. They are called Deponent 
Verbs. Deponent Verbs have passive form but active meaning. 

Jag Jean inte atidtts. I cannot breathe. 

Jag lioppas, aft lian kommer. I hope he will come. 
Jag minus inte, vad lian sade. I do not remember what he 

said. 

Other Deponent Verbs are: envisas be obstinate, brottas 
wrestle, lyckas succeed, Iras (pa sin far) take after (one's 
father), krakas be sick, synas appear, etc. 



Periphrastic Forms. 

239. The Passive Voice is also formed by the auxiliary 
verbs bliva or vara and the Past Participle of the main 
verb. 

In colloquial speech the .<?-forms are avoided as much as 
possible. 

{Han fir dlsltatl av alia. 

' .... 77 He is loved by everybody. 

(Han dfskaa av alia. 

(Han liar IMvit void till riks- 
dag sman. He has been elected a Mem- 
IHan hur rft/ts till riksdags- ber of Parliament. 
man. 

240. It is difficult to give any simple rules as to the 
use of the s-forms and the periphrastic forms. 

In order to know when to use the periphrastic forms it is 
necessary to distinguish between (1.) Verbs that denote an 
action which is not continued indefinitely but implies a 
change of a state or leads to a cessation, and (2.) Verbs 
that denote a continued action without reference to a 
change of state or to a cessation. 



159 

Verbs of the first category may be called verbs of transi- 
tion, the others verbs of duration. 

Examples of verbs of transition: somna go to sleep, valma 
wake up, tanda light, Idgga lay, bliva become, flytta remove. 

Examples of verbs of duration: sova sleep, vaka keep awake, 
brinna burn, ligga lie, vara be, dlska love, frulda fear. 



241. A. The Passive of Terbs of Transition. 

1. Present: x-form is the rule. 

Ljusen tiindas ocli jidldap- The candles are lighted, and 

parna utdelas. the Christmas gifts are dis- 
tributed. 

(Compare: Ljusen tiro tanda. The candles are alight. 

Julldapparna tiro The Christmas gifts have been 

utdelade. distributed.) 

Supinum bruJcas efter lijdlp- The Supine is used after the 

verbet 'hava'. auxiliary verb 'to have'. 

Avlagda kldder uppJcopas. Cast-off clothes bought. 

2. Past: s-forms and periphrastic forms with bliva are used 
without distinction. 

(Han tof/ft till fdnga. He was taken prisoner. 

[Han blev to gen till fdnga. 

{Papperen lades at sidan. The papers were put aside. 
Papperen blevo lagda at si- 
dan. 

N.B. Periphrastic forms with vara in the Present and 
the Past indicate completed action, the result of which still 
remains or remained. 

Himlen ar (var) tdcM av The sky is (was) covered with 

moln. clouds. 

(Compare: Himlen tacTcet* av The sky is getting overcast.) 
moln. 



100 

Stolen var Iftt/trd. The chair was (or: had been) 

mended. 

3. Present Perfect and Past Perfect: .s'-forms and peri- 
phrastic forms with bliva denote completed action. 

(Stolen liar (hade) la-f/attt. The chair has (had) been mend- 

| Stolen har (lutdc) bliuit (not ed. 
I varit!) la-gad. 

Han hade blivit ( not varit!) He had been killed (shot). 
skjuten. 

N.B. Periphrastic forms with vara in the Present Per- 
fect and the Past denote: 

a) completed action, the result of which no longer remains. 

Koppen har varit lay ad en The cup has been mended once 
gang men tir nu sonder igen. but is now broken again. 

b) someting that has been taking place for some time and 
is (was) still taking place. 

Han 7iar varit forlovad i He has been engaged for seven 
sju dr. years. 



242. B. The Passive of Verbs of Duration. 

1. Present and Past: s-forms and periphrastic forms with 
vara denote proceeding action. 

(Han fruktas av undersd- He is feared by his subjects. 
J tarna. 

\Ilan tir fruktad av undcr- 
\ sdtarna. 

Han fraktades (var frnk- He was feared by his subjects. 
tad) av undersdtarna. 

N.B. Jilir fruktad denotes beg inning action in the 
future ("will be feared"), itlrr fruktad denotes begin- 
ning action in the past ( % 'came to be feared"). 



161 

2. Present Perfect and Past Perfect: s-forms and periphras- 
tic forms with vara and bliva are interchangeable. 



243. C. Passive Infinitive after Auxiliary Yerbs. 

1. Skall, followed by s-\ or m denotes Pre- arrangement, 

Wish or Demand. 

Ett regemente shall siindas One regiment is to be sent to 
till Sydafrika. South Africa. 

2. 8kall, followed by a periphastic form with bliva de- 

notes Promise, Assurance. 

Han shall bli(va) val mot- He shall be well received. 
tagen. 

3. Mdste, bor, torde, followed by #-form denote Ne- 

cessity, Wish, Demand. 

Ndgot mdste yoras. Something must be done. 

Flaskan bor skakas val fore The bottle should be well 

begagnandet. shaken before use. 

Anmdlningar torde sdndas Applications should be sent 

till undertecknad. to the undersigned. 

4. Mdste, bor, torde, followed by a periphrastic forn 

with bliva often denote Supposition or Proba- 
bility. 

Partiet torde bli(va) avsdnt The consignment will probably 

inom en vecka. be sent within a week. 

(Compare: Partiet torde av- Kindly send the consignment 

sdndas inom en within a week.) 
vecka. 



11 222444. Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



162 



The Use of the Tenses. 
244. Present 

The Present is often used instead of the Future, especially 
in the case of Verbs of Motion and the verb bliva to be, to 
become, when a sense of futurity is implied in the context. 



Han komtner i morgon. 

Eaten gar nasta vecka. 

Ko miner ni tillbaka till kloc- 

kan o? 
Det blir morkt om en liten 

stund. 



He will come to-morrow. 
The boat will leave next week. 
Will you be back by five? 



It will be 
while. 



dark 



in a 



little 



Note the use of Present instead of Past in the following 
examples : 

Ndr ar ni fodd? When were you born? 

Jag ar fodd den 14 juni 1888. I was born on the 14th of 

June, 1888. 



245. Past. 

Swedish Past corresponds to English Present in expressions 
of Feeling or Opinion like the following. 



Det var roligt, att du gick 

igenom i examen. 
Det var trdkigt, att du inte 

kan komma. 
Det var synd, att du inte 

tankte pa dct, medan han 

var har. 



I am glad you passed in the 

examination. 
I am sorry you cannot come. 

It's a pity you didn't think 
of it while he was here. 



163 



246. Present Perfect. 

Swedish Present Perfect often corresponds to English 
Past, especially in sentences containing ndgonsin ever, and 
aldrig never. 

Vem liar Idrt dig del? Who taught you that? 

Hfir ni sovit gott i natt? Did you sleep well last night? 

Har ni ndgonsin sett ndgot Did you ever see such a thing 

sddant forut? before? 

Har ndgon varit har, medan Did anyone call while I was 

jag har varit ute? out? 

Swedish Present Perfect refers to the future in cases like 
the following: 

Jag har nog slutat, nar du I am sure I shall have finish- 
a'r far dig. ed by the time you are 

ready. 



247. Future. 

The usual way of expressing simple futurity in Swedish 
(without implying any Intention) is to use the phrase Jtom- 
iner att + the Infinitive of the Verb. 

Ni tcommer att dngra er You will be sorry for it lat- 

langre fram. er on. 

Dei hoininer inte att ske i It will not happen in our life- 

vdr livstid. time. 



248. Future in the past. 

The Future in the past is used as in English. Sometimes 
the Past Subjunctive, or the Past Perfect Subjunctive, is used 
instead of the Future in the past. 



164 



not do it if I were 



Jag skulle inte yora det, om I should 

jag vore som du. you. 

Ni skulle gora mig mycket You would greatly oblige me 
forbunden genom att gora by doing me this favour. 
mig denna tjd'nst. 

I should be thankful for a 
reply at your earliest con- 



Jag vore tacksam for svar sd 
snart som mojligt. 

venience. 

It would have been better if 
we had stayed at home. 

N.B. ]n English should is used in the first person, would 
in the second and third persons. In Swedish ftJculle is used 
in all three persons. 



Det hade varit battre, om vi 
hade stannat hemma. 



249. Continuous Form. 

Swedish has no special Continuous Form. 'I am writing' 
is rendered by jag skriver or jag hdller pd att skriva (lit. 
I keep on to write). 

Jag har last hela dagen. I have been reading all day. 

En ny kyrka hdller pd att A new church is being built. 

bygga*. 

Jag steall yd pa teatern i kvall. I am going to the theatre to- 
night. 

Vad yjorde du (or vad It oil What were you doing when I 

du pd med), na'r jag Icom came in? 

in? 



The Use of the Auxiliary Verbs. 

1. Skall, skulle. 

250. Shall indicates Future, generally with an implied 
notion of Intention or Will, Promise or Threat. It is used 



165 



in all three persons and so corresponds to English "will" 
in the second and third persons. If no Intention is im- 
plied, the Future is expressed by hammer att instead of 
shall. 

Skulle indicates Future in the past. 



Jag shall (kommer att) se 

till, ail han far tillbaka sina 

pengar. 
Kungen shall oppna utstdll- 

ningen. 
Kungen hommer att oppna 

utstdllningen. 
Han shall inte resa for ran i 

kvall. 

Han reser inte for rein i kvall. 
Han hommer inte att resa 

for ran i kvall. 
Han tanker inte resa forran 

i kvall. 
Jag shall nog hdlla utkik 

sjalv, shall du fa se. 
Var snail och hdlsa sa mycket 

till dina fordldrar. -- Tack, 

det shall jag gora. 
Han lovade, att han inte shulle 

gora om det. 
Jag hade foresatt mig, att jag 

shulle gora det. 
Jag shulle just ga ut, ndr 

du kom. 



I will (shall) see to it that 
he gets his money back. 



The King will (is going to) 
open the exhibition. 



He will not leave till to-night. 



I will be on the look-out my- 
self, you shall see. 

Please remember me to your 
parents. -- I will. 

He promised that he would 

not repeat it. 
I had made up my mind that 

I would do it. 
I was just going out when 

you came. 



251. Skall is also used to indicate dependence on 
another person's Will or on a Previous Arrange- 
ment, 



166 

Shall jag sta'nga fonstret? Shall I shut the window? 

Du shall icke drdpa. Thou shalt not kill. 

Vad shall pojkcn bli? What is the boy (going) to 

be? 

Vad shall jag gora? What am I (supposed) to do? 

Vi shola traffas vid stationen. We are to meet at the station. 

Kungen shulle vara ndrva- The King was to be present. 
rande. 

252. Shulle is used in Conditional Clauses where Eng- 
lish has "were to". 

i 
Jag vet inte, vad som shulle 1 do not know what would 

handa, om han skiille for- happen if he were to try. 
soka. 

253. As a rule skulle is not used like "should'' in Eng- 
lish, after verbs expressing Feeling, Emotion or a personal 
Opinion, such as 'I am glad', 'I regret', 'I am surprised', 'it 
is a pity', 'it is strange', 'it is possible', etc. 

Det dr synd (jag beklagar), att It is a pity (I regret) that he 

han shall vara sd dum. should be such a fool. 

Det dr synd, att han har It is a pity that he should 

f/jort dct. have done it. 

Ar del mojliyt, att han iir en Is it possible that he should 

tjuv? be a thief? 

N.13. 'I shall', 'I will', 'I am going to', 'I am about 
to', 'I am on the point of, 'I am to', 'I am supposed to', 
all correspond to jay shall in Swedish. 



II. Vill, ville. 

254. Vill is not used to indicate Future as in Eng- 
lish; it is only used to express a Wish or a Desire. Han 
vill corresponds to English 'he will', 'he wants to', 'he 



167 



is willing to', 'he wishes to', 'he desires to', 'he likes', 
'pleases', 'cares', 'chooses'. 

Vill ni folja med till statio- Will you go with me to the 

nen? , station. 

Tror ni, att han skulle vilja Do you think he would like 

go'ra d<t? to do it? 

Jug vill ~bli ingenjor. I want to be an engineer. 

Vad vill tii? What do you want? 

Han far gora, som han vill. He can do as he likes (pleases, 

chooses). 
Jag ville Me besva'ra honom. I did not want to trouble him. 

255. In English the verbs 'want' and 'like' are often 
followed by an Accusative with the Infinitive. This con- 
struction cannot be used in Swedish after vill. It must be 
translated by a Subordinate Clause beginning with att* 

Han ville inte, att jag skulle He did not want me to know 

veta det. it. 

Jag skulle inte vilja, att han I should not like him to do 

gjorde det. it. 

256. When English 'will' expresses Natural Propensity 
or Habit, it is not translated by vill but by the Present of 
the main verb; 'would' is rendered by brukade (used to), 
kunde (could), or no auxiliary. 



Delta tyg krymper icke. 

Han kunde sitta timtals och 
gora ingenting. 

Pojkar aro nu en gang pojkar. 

Sedan brukade han ta av sig 
rocken och borja. Han bru- 
kade skicka jungfrun efter 
for 50 ore spik, etc. 



This material will not shrink. 
He would sit for hours doing 

nothing. 

Boys will be boys. 
Then he would take off his 

coat and begin. He would 

send the girl out for sixpen'- 

orth of nails, etc. 



168 



257. 111. The translation of "may", "might". 

1. 'May' is translated by md or indtte when it express- 
es a Wish or Concession. 

Md (indtte) du bli lycldig. May you be happy. 
Huru ddrmed an md forJidlla However that may be. 
sig. 

2. 'May' is translated by kan when it expresses a Polite 
Demand. 

Ni Uan gdrna gora det nu. You may as well do it now. 
Ni Jean gdrna saga at honom, You might tell him that I 
att jag vill trdffa Jwnom. should like to see him. 

3. 'May', 'might' is translated by sltall, skulle when it 
expresses an Intention. 

Han gjorde det, for att de He did it that they might see 
skulle fa se, hur skicklig how clever he was. 
han var. 

4. 'May', 'might' is translated by Jean, Tcunde or with 
the help of the adverb Imnske when it expresses Possi- 
bility. 

Det Uan Jidnda. It may happen. 

Det Uunde Jidnda. It might happen. 

Han Ttanske gor det, om ni He may do it if you ask him. 

ber honom. 

Ni Jtunde gora er ilia. You might hurt yourself. 

Det dr kanske inte sant. It may not be true. 

5. 'May' is translated by far when it expresses Per- 
mission. 

Far jag lesvdra om senapen. May I trouble you for the 

mustard. 



169 

Far jag Idna den Mr boken? May I borrow this book? 

- Ja, det far du. Yes, you may. 

Nej, det far du inte. No, you mayn't. 



258. IV. The translation of "must". 

'Must' corresponds to mdste, which form is used not only 
in the Present but also in the Past and the Future, 
where English has 'had to', or 'shall have to'. 

Han indste resa genast. He must leave at once. 

Han indste resa i gar. He had to leave yesterday. 

Han indste resa ncista vecka. He will have to leave next 

week. 
Han har mast resa. He has been obliged to leave. 

N.B. 'Must not' is translated by far icJce, when it ex- 
presses absolute Prohibition. 

Ni far inte gora det. You must not do that. 



V. Ldta. 

259. Ldta is used in two different senses: (1.) "to 
allow" and (2.) "to cause". 

1. Ldt mig hjdlpa dig. Allow me to help you. 
Ldt Jionom inte komma in. Do not let him come in. 
Han later inte overtala sig. He will not be persuaded. 
Han lat overtala sig. He suffered (permitted, allow- 
ed) himself to be persuaded. 

Ldt inte mig stora er. Do not let me interrupt you. 

2. Ordforanden lat uppldsa The chairman caused the mi- 

foregdende motes proto- nutes of the preceding meet- 

koll. ing to be read. 

Han lat dcm arbeta som He made them work like slaves, 
slavar. 



170 

Jag shall Idta gora en ny I am going to have a new suit 

kostym. made. 

Jag lat skraddaren laga roc- I got the tailor to mend my 

ken. coat. 

Generalen Hit skjuta deser- The general ordered the de- 

toren. serter to be shot. 

Har jag Idtit er vanta? Have I kept you waiting? 



The Use of the Infinitive, Participle and 
Supine. 

I. The Infinitive. 

260. The Infinitive is, as a rule, preceded by att. 

Han kom mig att skratta. He made me laugh. 
Hellre an att ge vika beslot Rather than yield he resolved 
lian att do', to die. 

261. When the Infinitive is used to express Intention 
or Purpose, it is preceded by for att or till att. 

Han reste in till staden for He went up to town to see 

att ha'lsa pa sin dotter. his daughter. 

Han reste till Paris for att He went to Paris in order to 

studera musik. (with a view to) study music. 

Tra anvandes till att gora Wood is used to make paper. 

papper av. 

Han skrev ett brevkort for att He wrote a post- card to say 

tola om, att han var sjuk. that he was ill. 

Jag lioll mig borta for att I kept away so as not to 

inte stora dem. disturb them. 

262. The Infinitive is used without att: 
I. after the Auxiliary Verbs (skall, vill, kan, bor, 
far, mdtfte, etc.). 

Dct borde goras genast. It ought to be done at once. 



171 



2. after the following Verbs: tdnka think, hoppas hope, 
tyckas seem, synas seem, brnka be in the habit of, behova need, 
onska wish, and a few others. 

When are you leaving? 

I hope to see him to-morrow. 

It does not seem to be true. 

He tried to jump over the 
gate. 

He learnt (how) to swim. 

I taught him (how) to swim. 

He used to take a walk be- 
fore breakfast. 

What do you want to know? 

The typewriter requires oil- 
ing. 

He succeeded in escaping. 

He asked me to come and see 
them. 

Those who want to take part 
in the match are asked to 
put their names on the list. 



Nar tanker ni resa? 

Jag hoppas fa trdffa ho- 
nom i morgon. 

Det tycks inte vara sant. 

Han fo'rsokte hoppa over 
grinden. 

Han Idrde sig simma. 

Jag Idrde honom sitnma. 

Han brukade ta en prome- 
nad fore frukosten. 

Vad vill ni veta? 

Skrivm askinen behover smor- 
jas. 

Han lyckades undkomma. 

Han bad mig Jeomma och 
ha'lsa pa dem. 

De, som onska deltaga i 
tavlingen, ombedjas skriva 
sina namn pa liatan. 



3. In the constructions Accusative with the Infi- 
nitive and Nominative with the Infinitive. 



Jag horde ndgon vissla. 
Ndgon hordes vissla. 



I heard somebody whistle. 
Somebody was heard to whistle. 



263. In the following cases an English Infinitive 
is rendered by a full Subordinate Clause in Swedish: 
1. After the expression 'had better'. 

Det ar bast, att ni gor det You had better do it at once. 
genast. 



172 



2. When English has an Accusative with the Infini- 
tive after the verbs 'want', 'like', 'expect', 'wish', 'desire', 
'require'. 

What do you want him to do? 



Vad mil ni, att han shall 
t/or a? 



What would you like him to 
do? 



What do you wish (desire) 

him to do? 

England vantar, att var man England expects every man to 
gor sin plikt. do his duty. 

3. When English has the preposition 'for' followed by 
an Accusative with the Infinitive. 

Jag vdntade bara pa att han I was only waiting for him 

skulle gd. to go. 

Jag Idngtar efter att han I am longing for him to come. 

shall komma. 
Pa den tiden var det inte van- 

liyt, att 

cigar etter. 



darner rokte 



At that time it was not custo- 
mary for ladies to smoke 
cigarettes. 



4. When English has a Superlative or an Ordinal 
Number followed by an Infinitive. 

Han var den forsta (tredje, He was the first (third, last) 
sista) soin forsohte det. to attempt it. 

5. In expressions like the following: 

Jag var dum, som hjdlpte I was a fool to help him. 

honom. 
Ni vore dum, oin ni trodde You would be a fool to be- 



dtt. 



lieve it. 



Hur knnde han vara sd dum, How could he be so foolish 



att han trodde det? 



as to believe it? 



6. When English has an Interrogative Pronoun or 
Adverb followed by an Infinitive. 



173 

Jag vet inte, vad jag skull I do not know what to do. 

gora. 

Han visste inte, hur han He did not know how to do 

skulle bdra sig at. it. 

Han var osaker pa om lian He was uncertain whether to 

skulle gora det eller inte. do it or not. 

Jag shall saga till, ndr ni I will tell you when to stop. 

shall stanna. 

7. In expressions like the following. 

Det dr inte troligt, att han He is not likely to do it. 

gb'r det. 
Det ar sakert, att han kom- He is sure to come. 

mer. 

264. The English Gerund is, as a rule, rendered by an 
Infinitive in Swedish. 

The Swedish has no Gerund. 

Det tjdnar ingenting till att It is no use trying. 

forsoka. 

Han kunde inte Idta bli att He could not help laughing. 

skratta. 

liar det slutat regna? Has it stopped raining? 

Uppskjut inte att skriva! Don't put otf writing! 

Jag har harmed no jet scinda I have the pleasure of sending 

bifogade priskurant. enclosed price-list. 

Jag foredrar att resa med I prefer going by steamer to 

dngbdt framfor att dka med travelling by train. 

tag. 

Han dr sysselsatt med att He is busy writing letters. 

skriva brev. 

Det dr knappast vdrt att It is hardly worth mention- 

namnas. ing. 

Det dr omojligt att veta, vad There is no knowing what 

som skulle kunna handa. might happen. 



174 



Jag brukar stiga upp tidigt. I am in the habit of rising early. 

265. When the English Gerund is preceded by a Pos- 
sessive Adjective, a Genitive, or a Noun governed by a Pre- 
position, it is translated by a full clause in Swedish. English 
contracted sentences are also best rendered by a full clause 
in Swedish. 



Att jag fir svag, ger er in- 

gen rattighet att forolampa 

mig. 
Han tog bort knappcn, utan 

att pojken sag det. 
Hon gillade inte, att unga 

flickor voro sysslolosa. 
Jag hoppas ni ursaktar, att 

jag Idtit er vdnta. 
Kungen var beldten med stdl- 

let, einedan det lag sd 

avsides. 
Dd han ftck syn pa Harris 

och mig . . . 
Eftersom Eder fir ma bli- 

vit oss reborn mender ad, sltulle 

vi gdrna vilja veta, etc. 



My being weak gives you no 
right to insult me. 

He removed the button with- 
out the boy's seeing it. 

She did not approve of young 
girls being idle. 

I hope you will excuse my 
having kept you waiting. 

The King was pleased with 
the place owing to its being 
so secluded. 

On catching sight of Harris 
and me . . . 

Your firm having been recom- 
mended to us, we should like 
to know etc. 



266. An Infinitive is often governed by a Prepo- 
sition in Swedish. 



Han har forstort sina ogon 
genom att liisa for myc- 
Jcet. 



He has spoilt his eyes by 
reading too much. 



Han gjorde det utan att He did it without thinking. 

tdnka. 
Lyckan bcstdr i att gora 

gott. 
Hon reste utan uppehall utom 

for att byta hdstar. 



Happiness consists in doing 

good. 
She travelled without a halt, 

save for changing horses. 



175 

Efter att ha atit mid lag After having Lad her dinner, 
gick hon upp pa sitt rum. she went upstairs. 

267. A Subordinate Clause is often governed by a 
Preposition in Swedish. 

Kan jag lita pa att ni Jeom- Can I rely on your coming? 
mer? 

Ar ni saber pa att han inte Are you sure he is not out. 

ar ute. 
Han gick utnn att 

visste om det. 



jag He went without my knowing 

it. 



Han pdminde oss om att det He reminded us that it was 



var tid att ga hem. 
Jag gratulerade honom med 
anledning av att han hade 
fdtt forsta pris i tdvlingen. 



time to go home. 
I congratulated him on the 
fact that he had got the first 
prize in the competition. 



Han var overtygad om att He was convinced it would 
det skulle bli regn. rain. 



268. The Accusative with the Infinitive. 

The Accusative with the Infinitive is often used after the 
verbs se see, hora hear, befall a command, Idta let, tillata allow, 
komma make, cause, anse consider, and a few others. 



Jog sag honom komma. 1 

Jag sag, att han kom. J 

Jag har hdrt henne sjunga. 

Han befallde dem att stanna. 

Han lat mig fortsdtta. 

Det var det, som kom mig 
att skratta. 

Jag anser honom vara Compe- 
tent. 

(Passive Voice: Han anses 
vara rik. 



I saw him come. 

I have heard her sing. 
He ordered them to stop. 
He allowed me to continue. 
That is what made me laugh. 

I consider him to be compe- 
tent. 
He is considered to be rich.) 



176 

N.B. An English Accusative with the Infinitive after 
verbs expressing Will or Wish must be translated by an 
aff-clause. 

Jag vill Me, att han skall I do not want him to come. 

komma. 
Han simile gdrna vilja, att vi He would like us to stay on. 

stannade kvar. 

269. An English Accusative with the Infinitive after 
verbs like "think", "know", "prove", "take", etc. must be trans- 
lated by an aff-clause. 

Jag bevisade, att han hade I proved him to be wrong. 

or att. 
Ron trodde, att det var ett She took it to be a joke. 

skamt. 

270. The verbs tro think, tycka think, mena consider, 
saga say, pdstd contend, fdrsdkra assure, and vanta wait, are 
often followed by a Reflexive Pronoun and an Infinitive. 

Jag tyckte mig liora nay on I thought I heard somebody 

sjunga. (Jag tyckte, att jag singing. 

horde ndgon sjunga.} 
Han trodde sig forstd, rad He thought he understood what 

hon menade. (Han trodde, she meant. 

att han forstod, vad . . .) 
Han pdfttod sty veta, vad He said he knew what it was. 

det var. (Han pdstod, att 

han visste, vad . . .) 
Jag vdntade miy inte att I did not expect to meet him 

trciffa honom ddr. there. 



177 



II. The Present Participle. 

271. An English verb followed by a Present Participle 
often corresponds to two coordinated verbs or a verb 
followed by an Infinitive or an Accusative with the In- 
finitive in Swedish. 



Han brukar sitta uppe och 
Idsa sent om ndtterna. 

Han fortsatte att tola (och 
talade). 

Forldt, aft jag liar latit er 
vanta. 

Jag horde honom sjunga. 



He is in the habit of sitting 

up late reading at night. 
He went on talking. 

I am sorry I have kept you 

waiting. 
I heard him singing. 



272. After the verb komma come, and sometimes after 
bliva remain, the Present Participle is used as in English. 

Han kom springande. He came running. 

Han blev ligyande i sno- He remained lying in the snow- 
drivan. drift. 

273. Contracted Sentences (Participial Constructions) 
should be avoided in Swedish and substituted by full sentences. 



Han slwev ett brevkort och 
talade om, att han var sjuk. 

Da Jian sag, att det var 
omojligt, gav han upp det. 

Sedan han hdllit detta tal, 
Idmnade han motet. 

Nar han lamnade statio- 
nen, hurrade folkmassan for 
honom. 

Om Gad vill och vddret till- 
later. 



He wrote a post-card saying 

that he was ill. 
Seeing that it was impossible, 

he gave it up. 
Having delivered that speech, 

he left the meeting. 
When leaving the station he 

was cheered by the crowd. 



God willing 

mitt ing. 



and weather per- 



225444. Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



178 



III. The Past Participle. 

274. In Swedish the Past Participle is not used after 
the auxiliary verb liava to form compound tenses (Present 
Perfect and Past Perfect). For this purpose the Supine is 
used. The Past Participle is used as an Epithet or a Predica- 
tive Adjective, mostly after the verbs vara, bliva, and is de- 
clined as an Adjective. 

Jag blev presenterad for I 

Itonom pa en bj'udning. 
Middagen iir server ad. 
En fallen kung. 
Jag vill inte fa min liatt och 

min kostym forstorda av 

regnet. 

Pengarna tiro stulna. 
De voro icke vdntade. 
Foreld'sningen liar blivit 

uppskjuten. 

Jag kan go'ra mig forstddd. 
Ett brutet lofte. 
Brevet dr skrivet. 
Fienderna blevo slagna. 
Den s. k. (sd ballade) stu- 

dentexamen. 
Det overyivna huset. 



was introduced to him at a 
party. 

Dinner is served. 

A fallen king. 

I do not want to have my hat 
and my suit spoilt by the 
rain. 

The money is stolen. 

They were not expected. 

The lecture has been postpon- 
ed. 

I can make myself understood. 

A broken promise. 

The letter is written. 

The enemy were beaten. 

The so-called matriculation 
examination. 

The abandoned house. 



IV. The Supine. 

275. The Supine is only used after the auxiliary verb 
hava to form compound tenses (Present Perfect and Past 
Perfect). It is indeclinable. After the auxiliary verbs vara 
and bliva the Past Participle must be used instead of the 
Supine. Compare the following examples: 



179 



Supine. 

Jag liar skrivit ett brev. 
I have written a letter. 

Han horde ha stdngt dorren. 
He ought to have shut the door. 

Han har hallat manga men 
utvalt fa. 

He has called many, but chos- 
en few. 

Jag har inte sett till honom. 
I have seen nothing of him. 

De ha lagat sina maskiner. 

They have mended their ma- 
chines. 

Vi ha inte hart talet. 

We have not heard the speech. 

De ha brutit sitt lofte. 
They have broken their pro- 
mise. 

Floderna ha frusit. 

The rivers have frozen. 

Jag har aldrig anvant kosty- 

men. 
I have never worn the suit. 

De ha overrasteat oss. 
They have taken us by sur- 
prise. 

Vem har sytt din kla'dning? 
Who has made your frock? 



Past Participle. 

Brevet Or skrivet. 
The letter is written. 

Dorren horde vara stdngd. 

The door ought to be shut. 

Manga aro kallade men fa 
utvalda. 

Many are called, but few chos- 
en. 

Han blev sedd av manga. 
He was seen by many. 

De Itunde inte fa sina masM- 
ner lagade. 

They could not get their 
machines mended. 

Talaren Jcunde inte gora siy 
hord. 

The speaker could not make 
himself heard. 

De bruttia loftena. 
The broken promises. 

De frusna floderna. 
The frozen rivers. 

Kostymcn har aldrig varit 
anvdnd. 

The suit has never been worn. 

Vi ha blivit overrasJtade. 

We have been taken by sur- 
prise. 

Skorna aro hanclsydda. 

The shoes are hand-sewn. 



180 

276. In Subordinate Clauses the Supine is sometimes 
used without an auxiliary verb to form Present Perfect and 
Past Perfect. 

Han svarade, innan han blivit He answered before he had 

ttllft'dgad. been asked. 

De hade kanske lyckats, om de They would perhaps have suc- 

forsvkt litet tidigare. ceeded if they had tried a 

little earlier. 



Transitive and Intransitive Terbs. 

277. Transitive Verbs cannot be used intransitively or 
vice versa. 

JBestiga (not kldttra) ett berg. Climb a mountain. 

Hans ogon fy tides (not fyllde) His eyes filled with tears. 

av tdrar. 

Brevet lyder (not laser) sd. The letter reads as follows. 

Slappa iipp (not flygd) en Fly a kite. 

pappersdrake. 

Man branner ved i kakel- They burn wood in the stoves. 

ugnarna. 

Veden brinner. The wood burns. 

278. Some verbs that are transitive in English are in- 
transitive in Swedish, e. g.: gd in i ett rum enter a room, 
kdrnpa emot ndgon fight somebody, gd in vid armen join the 
army, gd forbi ndgon pass somebody, inverka pa en person 
influence a person, etc. 

Reflexive Verbs. 

279. Some verbs that are not reflexive in English are 
reflexive in Swedish, e. g.: avhdlla siy abstain, visa sig appear 
(prove, turn out), ndrma sig approach, fordndra sig change, 
bekltif/d Nig complain, forestdlla sig fancy, imagine, lara sig 



learn, gifta sig (med) marry, 
glddja sig rejoice, draga sig 
mistaken, etc. 
Det visade sig, att han hade 

ordtt. 
Om det visar sig vara rik- 

tigt. 
De ha icltc fordndrat sig 

mycket. 
Hon beklagade sig over att 

hon inte kunde sova. 
Ni Jean forestdlla er vdr for- 

vdnirtg. 
Han Idrde sig franska pa tre 

mdnader. 

Hon gifte sig ined en prdst. 
Jag kdnde mig inte riktigt 

bra. 

De rorde sig inte. 
En framling, som visade sig 

vara kungen av Spanien. 

Har du tin drat dig? 
Jag kan inte dtaga mig att 
gora det. 



181 

kdnna sig feel, rora sig move, 
tillbaka retire, misstaga sig be 

It appeared that he was wrong. 

If it proves correct. 

They have not changed much. 

She complained that she could 
not sleep. 

You may imagine our sur- 
prise. 

He learnt French in three 
months. 

She married a clergyman. 

I did not feel quite well. 

They did not move. 

A stranger, who proved (turn- 

.ed out) to be the King of 

Spain. 

Have you changed your mind? 
I cannot undertake to do it. 



Compound Verbs. 

280. Compound Verbs (composed of a Verb + a Prefix, 
a Noun, an Adjective, an Adverb or a Preposition) are di- 
vided into Separable and Inseparable Verbs. 

281. Verbs beginning with one of the following Pre- 
fixes are inseparable: 

an-, be-, M-, ent-, er-, for-, hdr-, miss-, sam-, um-, 
und-, van-, a-. 



182 

Ex.: ariklaga accuse, betala pay, bista assist, entlediya 
dismiss, erkdnna confess, forklara explain, hur- 
st-ammo, be descended, mittstaga sig be mistaken, 
samarbeta cooperate, ' umgds associate, undkomma 
escape, vanstdlla disfigure, dtaga sig undertake. 

Note 1. Most of these verbs are borrowed from the Ger- 
man. 

Note 2. The prefixes be-, ent- and for- are unstressed 
and the Verb has Tone I. 

Ex.: befalla command, forstd understand. 

Verbs compounded with the other prefixes have Tone II 
with principal stress on the prefix. 

Ex : an f alia attack, bispringa succour. 

Note 3. A few verbs compounded with an- are separable. 

Compare 283. 

282. Compound Verbs not beginning with any of the 
prefixes mentioned in 281 have, as a ruJe, one separable 
and^one inseparable form. 

In colloquial speech the separable forms are more common 
than the inseparable forms. 

Ex.: kd'nna igen or.igenkdnna recognise 

Jcaxtct bort or fiortka&ta throw away 
stryka under or under stryka underline 



folja mcd 
gd till 
slita sonder 
tola om 


or med folja 
or tillgd 
or sonderslita 
or omtala 


accompany 
happen 
tear up 
mention. 



Note 1. In the separable forms all the stress is, as a 
rule, on the Adverb or the Preposition. The Verb itself is 
quite unstressed. 

Note 2. The inseparable forms have Tone II and strong 
stress on the prefix. 

Note 3. Many verbs compounded with an Adverb or a 
Preposition only occur as inseparable verbs. 



183 

Ex.: frambringa produce, inverka (pa) influence, overgiva 
abandon, fortlygga prevent, emotse await, forbise 
overlook, etc. 

283. In some Compound Verbs the inseparable form 
has a different meaning from the separable form. Compare: 

Vad star pd? Han pdstdr det. 

What is up? He says so. 

Han brbt av happen. Han avbrb't samtalet. 

He broke the stick. He broke off the conversa- 
tion. 

Det gdr inte for sig. Vad f or si g gdr liar? 

It will not do. What is happening here? 

Hur star det till? Han tillstdr sitt fel 

How do you do? He admits his fault. 

Det gdr an. Det angdr oss inte. 

It will do. It does not concern us. 

De gingo under. Hon undergicU en stor for- 

dndring. 

They perished. She underwent a great change. 

Note 1. Verbs belonging to this class are, as a rule, in- 
separable when used in a figurative sense. 

284. The Present and Past Participles of Com- 
pound Verbs are inseparable. Compare: 

Jag Uorde ut Jionom. Han blev utltord. 

I turned him out. He was turned out. 

De valde om honom. Han liar blivit omvald. 

They re-elected him. He has been re-elected. 

Tola inte oin det! Det omtalade dokumentet. 

Do not mention it! The above-mentioned docu- 

ment. 
Vilka ord ha ni strukit over? Inga ord aro overstrultna. 

Which words have you No words are crossed out. 
crossed out? 



184 



De kcinde genast igen mig. 
They recognised me at once. 

Tio ombud togo del i for- 

handlingarna. 

Ten delegates took part in 

the negotiations. 
Vem har slagit ttonder fonst- 

ret? 

Who has broken the window? 



De blevo genast igenkanda. 
They were recognised at 
once. 

De i fdrhandlingarna delta- 
f/ande ombuden. 
The delegates taking part 

in the negotiations. 
Det sonderslagna fonstrct. 

The broken window. 



The Adverb. 



285. A great many Adverbs are formed from the 
corresponding Adjectives by adding - (the Adverb being 
like the neuter form of the Adjective). Compare: 



En vacker villa. 

Villan var vackert belagen 



En omsorgsfull mdnniska. \ 
Arbetet var omsorgsfullt\ 
gjort. J 

En trogen van. } 

De foljde honom trof/et. I 



A beautiful villa. 
The villa was beautifully sit- 
uated. 

A careful person. 
The work was carefully done. 

A faithful friend. 
They accompanied him faith- 
fully. 



286. Present Participles are sometimes used as Adverbs. 
They undergo no change. 

Hon ar fortjiisande sot. She is awfully (lit. charming- 

ly) pretty. 
Det ar rasande svdrt. It is frightfully difficult. 



185 



287. Other Adverbs correspond to Pronouns and may 
be divided into Demonstrative, Relative, Interrogative 
and Indefinite Adverbs. 



1. Demonstrative Adverbs are: 



heir, hit here 

ddr, dit there 

overallt everywhere 

nu now 

da, sedan then 

sa so 

ddr for therefore, therefor 

harmed herewith, hereby 

hdrigenom by this 

da'rmed with that 

ddrigenom by that 

2. Relative Adverbs are 
ddr, dit, (varest) where 
vari wherein, in which 
varav whereof, of which 



hdrifrdn from here 
ddr if ran from there 
hdrav from this 
ddrav from that 
hdruti, hdri in this 
ddrutij ddri in that 
hdrom of this 
ddrom of that 
hdremot against this 
ddremot on the other hand 



varifrdn from where 
varom of which 
varuti in which 



N. B. English "where" as a Relative Adverb is trans- 
lated by ddr and dit. 



Stanna dcir du dr! 

3. Interrogative Adverbs are 
var? where? 
vart? where to? 
varifrdn? where from? 
vanned? wherewith? 



Stay where you are! 

ndr? when? 
hur(u)? how? 
var for? why? 
vartill? whereto? 



and others composed of var and a Preposition, such as 
varigenom, varvid, etc. 

4. Indefinite Adverbs are: 
ndgonstddes somewhere 
ingenstddes nowhere 
annorhinda otherwise 
ndr som heist at any time. 



hur som heist anyhow 
var som heist anywhere 
vart som heist to anywhere 



186 

5. Indefinite Relative Adverbs are e. g.: 
Kom ndr du vill! Come whenever you like! 

Var han aV, dr han. i vtigen. Whereever he is, he is in the 

way. 

The Indefinite Relative Adverbs are often emphasised by 
the addition of tin or heist. 
Hur det an gar. However it goes. 

Vare harmed hum som heist. Be this as it may. 
Hur rik han an dr. However rich he is. 

Vart (heist) han vande sig, Whichever way he turned, he 
sag han bar a bryggor. saw nothing but jetties. 

288. The adverb ja yes, answers to a question 
expressed affirmatively; Jo yes, answers to a question 
expressed negatively, or contradicts a negative statement. 

Vill ni ha ett tipple? Jatack. Will you have an apple? 

Yes, please. 
Vill ni inte ha ett apple? - Won't you have an apple? - 

Jo tack. Yes, please. 

Han kommer nog inte. Jo, I am afraid he will not come. 

det gor han. Yes, he will. 

289. Jo also corresponds to English "oh", "why", 
"well", in expressions like the following: 
Vad dr det ddr? Jo, det dr What is that? Oh, it is a 

en skrivmaskin. type-writer. 

Comparison. 

290. Adverbs derived from Adjectives form their De- 
grees of Comparison in the same way as the Adjectives. 

Ex.: 

tidiyt early tidigare tidigast 

omxorysftillt carefully omsorgsfullare omsorgsfullast 
snabbt quickly snabbare snabbast 

lf/f/t lowly lagre lagst 



187 



291. A few other Adverbs may also be compared: 



ofta often 
fort quickly 
veil, bra well 
ilia badly 
garna willingly 
ndra near 



oftare 

fortare 

bd'ttre 

varre 

hellre rather 

narmare 



oftast 

fortast 

bast 

vdrst 

heist preferably 

narmast 



292. Many Adverbs have one form when used in con- 
nection with a Verb of Motion (indicating Direction) and a 
different form when used in connection with a Verb of Rest. 
Compare the following examples. 



Han gick in. \ 

Han ar inne. J 

Han gick ut. 1 

Han ar ute. J 

Min far reste bort i gar, och 

han har inte kommit hem 

an. 
Han liar varit borta sedan 

i gar och a'r inte hemma 

an. 

Vart liar han rest? 
Var ar han? 
Kom hit! 
Jag ar heir. 
Stanna dar du ar! 
Han gick inte dit han skulle. 



He went in. 

He is in. 

He went out. 

He is out. 

My father went away yester- 
day, and he has not come 
yet. 

He has been away since yes- 
terday and is not home 
yet. 

Where is he gone to? 

Where is he? 

Come here! 

I am here. 

Stay where you are! 

He did not go where he ought 
to have gone. 



Other Adverbs with a double form are: 
Direction Rest 



upp up 

ner (ned) down 
dit there 
fram forward 



uppe 
nere 
dar 
framtne 



188 



293. Some Swedish Adverbs have no exact equivalents 
in English, e. g.: nog, val, eller hur, gdrna, hellre, heist, ju, 
ju . . . desto, visserligen, namligen t kvar. 

The following examples show their use. 



Det blir nog regn I morgon. 

Han vet not/ inte av det dnnu. 
Ni har veil hort, att han har 

rest? 
Han kunde veil inte hjdlpa det, 

ban jag tro. 
Ni gdr veil nied pa teatern i 

kva'll, eller hur? 

Jag stannar lika gdrna hem- 
ma. 
Jag stannar heist (hellre) 

hemma. 

Ju forr desto bdttre. 
Jag kan ju inte veta, vad han 

tanker pa. 
Jag har ju aldrig sett karlen 

forr. 
Han dr visserligen dldre an 

jag, men han ser mycket 

yngre ut. 
Jag kdnner honom mycket val. 

Vi dro namligen skolkam- 

rater. 
Snon ligger kvar hela som- 

maren. 
Ar det ndgot kvar i flaskan? 



I am afraid it will rain to- 
morrow. 

I don't think he knows it yet. 

I suppose you have heard that 
he has left? 

I suppose he couldn't help it. 

You will be going with us to 
the theatre to-night, will 
you not? 

I'd just as soon stay at home. 

I prefer to stay at home. 

The sooner the better. 

I can't tell what he is think- 
ing of, can I? 

I have never seen the man 
before, you know. 

He is older than me, it is true, 
but he looks very much 
younger. 

I know him very well. We 
went to school together, you 
see. 

The snow remains all the sum- 
mer. 

Is there anything left in the 
bottle? 



189 



294. The word forstds, (which is really the passive 
form of the verb forstd, understand) is used as an Adverb in 
the sense of "of course". 

Det visste han forstds Me. He didn't know it, of course. 

295. The adverbs redan already, and forst first, are 
also used in the sense of "even" and "only" in expressions 
like the following: 

Hedan som barn skrev han Even as a child he wrote nov- 

romaner. els. 

Jag kom forst i morse. I arrived only this morning. 

296. Da and sedan. 

English "then" is translated by dd when it means "at 
that moment", or "in that case". 

English "then" is translated by sedan when it means 
"after that", "subsequently". 

Just dd fick han syn pa en 
tjur. Dd borjade han springa. 



En dag sJculle geten go, tit i 
skogen efter mat. Dd bal- 
lade hon till sig alia killing- 
arna och sade: 0m vargen 
kommer, sa oppna inte, for 
dd ater han upp er. Vi 
ska nog akta oss, svarade 
killing arna. Dd brdkte 
geten och gick ut i skogen. 

Vargen gick forst till en han- 
delsman och kopte ett sty eke 
krita . . . Sedan gick han 
till en bag are och bad ho- 
nom stryka lite deg pa tas- 



Just then he caught sight of 
a bull. Then he started to 
run. 

One day the goat was going 
out into the wood to get 
some food. Then she called 
all the kids and said: "If 
the wolf comes, do not open 
the door, for then he will 
eat you." - "We will take 
care", answered the kids. - 
Then the goat bleated and 
went out into the wood. 

The wolf first went to a shop- 
keeper and bought a piece 
of chalk . . . Then he went 
to a baker and asked him 
to put some dough on his 



190 



sen. . . . Sedan gick han 
till en mjolnare och bad ho- 
nom stro lite mjol pa tas- 
sen. Sedan gick han till- 
baka och knarkade pa dorren. 

Vad skola vi gora, om det reg- 
nar? Da stanna vi hemma. 

Han drack en kopp te och gick 
sedan och lade sig. 

Och sedan dd? 

N. B. Sedan and da may 

See S 303 and 304. 



paw. . . . Then he went to a 
miller and asked him to 
sprinkle some flour on his 
paw. Then he went back 
and knocked at the door. 

What shall we do if it rains? 
Then we will stop at home. 

He drank a cup of tea and 
then went to bed. 

And then? 
also be temporal Conjunctions. 



Conjunctions. 

297. The principal Conjunctions are: 



och and 

samt and 

bade . . . och both . . . and 

saval . . . som as well ... as 

varken . . . eller neither . . . nor 

icke endast . . . utan (ocksd) not 

only ... but (also) 
icke blott . . . utan d'ven not 

only . . . but also 
dels . . . dels partly . . . partly 
an ... an now . . . now 
eller or 

anting en ... eller either . . . or 
men but 
utan but 
ty for 
att that 
c?a, nd'r when 
ndrhelst whenever 
medan, under det att while 



forra'n, innan before 
(lika) . . . som (as) ... as 
liksom . . . (sd) as ... (so) 
(icke sd) . . . som (not so) ... as 
som om as if, as though 
an than 

sd att that, so that 
pa det att that, in order that 
pa det att icke lest, so that - 
not 

darfor att\ , 

> because 
emedan J 

eftersom | 
alldenstund] 



cnar 



as, since 



dd 

om, sd framt, sdvida if 

om . . . icke unless 

om ... bara \ 

r.. ... > as long as 

for sa vitt som} 



191 

sedan after forutsatt att provided 

allt sedan since antaget att suppose 

tills, till dess, till until ehuru, fasta'n though, although 

(just) som, i det ait as om an, oaktat even though 

sd la'nge som as long as vare sig att... eller whether... or 

sa snart som as soon as hur ... an however 

liksom, allt efter som as om, huruvida if, whether 



Examples illustrating the Use of Certain Conjunctions. 
298. Men ; utan. 

Han a'r fatfig men hederlig. He is poor but honest. 

Han liar Met hem utan mdste He has no home but is ob- 
bo an hos den ene, an hos liged to stay now with one 
den andre av sina sldktingar. now with another of his re- 

latives. 

Men is used after an affirmative, utan is used after 
a negative phrase or clause. 

299. For. 

"Du kan fa alia tre yxorna, for "You can have all three axes, 

du ar en bra karl", sade torn- for you are a good fellow", 

ten. said the elf. 

In conversation for is used instead of ty. 

300. Ndmligen. 

Min bror ligger i dag. Han My brother is in bed to-day, 
ar namligen inte riktigt because he is not quite well. 
bra. 

Namligen, which is really an Adverb, often corresponds 
to "for" or "because" in English. 

301. Sd. 

Vdnta lite, sd far ni se! Wait a little and you will see! 

Om ni gar dit i morgon, sd If you go there to-morrow, 

trdffar ni honom. you will meet him. 






192 

Sd, corresponding to English "and", is used after a clause 
expressing Command, Promise, etc. Sd without any corre- 
sponding Conjunction in English, often introduces a Prin- 
cipal Clause following a Conditional Clause. In both cases 
sd may be left out. 

302. The translation of "as". 

Hon dr lika snail som be- She is as good as she is clev- 

gdvad. er. 

Kom sd snart (som) ni kan! Come as soon as you can! 

Vi gingo iinda till slottet. We walked as far as the castle. 

Silver dr inte sd dyrt som Silver is not so valuable as 



gold. 

He lived and died a Protes- 
tant. 



guld. 
Han levde och dog som pro- 

testant. 
Som (medan, bast) jag stod As I stood there, I saw a man 

ddr, sag jag en man hoppa jump into the river. 

* floden. 
(Efter)som jag 



inte hade 

ndgra pengar, (sd) kunde jag 
inte kopa bdten. 

As = lika, sd, bast, som, eftersom. 



As I had no money, I could 
not buy the boat. 



303. Dd. 

Distinguish between (1) the Adverb da then, and (2) 
the Conjunction da when, as. After the Adverb the 
word-order is Inverted, but not after the Conjunction. 



1. Dd gor det ingenting. 
"Da f lingo de hem. 



Then it doesn't matter. 
Then they went home. 



2. Dd de gingo hem, hdnde When they went home, an ac- 



det en ohjcka. 

Dd jfff/ inte hade ndgra 
pengar, kunde jag inte 
resa. 



cident happened. 
As I had no money, I could 
not go. 



198 

Compare the following sentences: 

Da oppnade raven mun- Then the fox opened his 

nen, och tuppen flog npp i mouth, and the cock flew 

ett trad. up into a tree. 

.Dd raven oppnade tnun- When the fox opened his mouth,. 

Hen, flo'cf tnppen ttpp i ett the cock flew up into a 

triid. tree. 

>? H04. Sedan. 

Xwlaii may be an (1) Adverb, a (2) Conjunction or a 
(;>) Preposition. 

1. Sedan f/ick han till en Then he went to a miller. 

nijolnare. 

2. Sedan han hade adtt. After he had gone, they were 

voro de inte rddda law/re. not afraid any longer. 

Sedan han for, ha vi Since he went away, we have 

lute /tort ndgot nr ho- had no news of him. 

nom. 

3. Jag har 'leant honom sedan I have known him since that 

den tiden. time. 

Han reste till Amerika for He left for America three years 

tre dr sedan* ago. 

N. B. For the distinction between dfi and wcltm as tem- 
poral Adverbs, see 296! 

305. Nar, dd. 

Jay (jick ut, ndr (dd) hem I went out w r hen he came in. 
kom in. 

Ndr and dd are interchangeable as temporal Conjunctions^ 
but ndr is more common in colloquial speech. 

306. Att. 
The Conjunction att should not be omitted in Swedish. 

Hur visste Aaw, att jay var How did he know I was here? 
Mr? 

13 222444. Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



194 

-Jag sadc at ho HOW, aft IK in 1 told him he was a fool. 

oar dnm. 

Han svor j><( <ttt him aldr'tg He swore he had never seen 

hade sett home fornt. her before. 



Tho translation of that. 



"That" may be a (1) Demonstrative Pronoun, a (2) Re- 
lative Pronoun, or a (3) Conjunction. 



1. Vent fir den dcir karleii? 

Just den nattei/. } 

Redan samitta kviill. I 

:2. Var det ni, som knackade? 

3. Jag sadc honow, att han 

mdste (/or a det. 
Nit dd han har rest, kan 
man int<' </<" a nagot at 
saken. 

J)et var i det oyonblick, dd 
de engelska katolikernas 
sista forhoppningar sking- 
rats, som Maria Stuart 
landsteg i Leith. 



Who is that fellow? 
That very night. 

Was it you that knocked? 
I told him that he had got 

to do it. 
No\v that he is gone, nothing 

can be done in the matter. 

It was at the moment when 
the last hopes of the Eng- 
lish Catholics had been 
shattered, that Mary Stuart 
landed at Leith. 



Prepositions. 

308. The principal Prepositions are: 

av of, by 

bakom behind 

efter after 

enlifjt according 

mot, emot towards 

mellan, inellan between 



framfor, fore before 

frdn, if ran from 

for . . . sedan ago 

for . . . skull for . . . sake 

hos at 

* in 



msr 

ibland, bland among rorande concerning 

igenom, yenom through sedan since 

innan before till to, till 

inom within under under, during 

med with utan without 

medelst by means of uti in 

odktat in spite of utom except 

omkriny, kring about vid, bredvid beside 

pd, ovanpd on at to 

over over 

309. A few Prepositions are placed after the word they 
govern in certain stereotyped phrases. 

Ex.: Oss emellan between ourselves, liela natten iyenom all 
night. 

310. When the word governed by the Preposition is 
placed at the beginning of the sentence, the Preposition should 
be placed at the end. 

Ex.: Kor dr jay Me r add for. I am not afraid of cows. 

This is always the case after the Relative Pronoun soni. 
Ex.: Popper et, soin jay The paper on which I am 
skrivcr pd. writing. 

311. The Preposition is very often placed after an 
Interrogative Pronoun. 

Ex.: Vad tanker ni j)d? What are you thinking of? 

312. The prepositions till and i are used with the 
genitive of the Noun in a few common phrases. 

Ex. : Till lands by land, till sjoss to sea, till bord# at table, 

till fots on foot, i onsdays last Wednesday, 

last Christmas, i vintras last winter. 



13f 222444. Bjiirkhayen, Modern Swedish Grammar. 



196 



313. Examples of the translation of certain English 
Prepositions. 



About. 



Frag ad 'c lian cr out dct? 
Har ni ndgra pent far pa er? 
Omltriny (nnt/cfar) kl. >. 
Tank pa vad dn (/or! 



Did he ask you about it? 
Haveyouany money about you? 
At about o o'clock. 
Mind what you are about! 



Dtt finns intct hogmod /to.s There is no pride about him. 
Jionom. 



For fern fir sedan 
hemifrdit. 



Ago. 

este htm Five years ago he left home. 



At. 



Klockan fern. 
Mdncn skiner out natten. 
Han sag tit f/enom fonstrct. 
Han stod vid fonstrct. 



Han iir i skolan. 
Han bor i Uppsala. 
Hon bor hot* sin tant. 
Jay sag dig pa teatcrn i 



(jar. 



Han bor pa Carlton. 
I ugaren liar anlant till Stock- 
holm. 
Vid vilkcn tid va'ntar ni honom. 

Han brnkar kotunm r/d julnt. 



At five o'clock. 

The moon shines at night. 

He looked out at the window. 

He was standing at the 
window. 

He is at school. 

He lives at Uppsala. 

She is staying at her aunt's. 

I saw you at the theatre 
yesterday. 

He is staying at the Carlton. 

The steamer has arrived at 
Stockholm. 

At what time do you expect 
him? 

He generally comes at Christ- 
mas. 



197 

Just i det byonblieket. At that very moment. 

Han sag pet miy och skrattade He looked at me and laughed 

at miy. at me. 

Jay har inte wit honom alls. 1 have not seen him at all. 



By. 



h'ont och sitt vid (framfor) 

brasan! 

liestc ni over Goteborg? 
Ni kommer dit vid den har 

tic! en i overmoryon. 
Jay kommer tiUbaka till kloc- 

kan 8. 

Jlan hatades av folket. 
liescr n't ined tdy eller bat? 

Jay dker spdrvayn. 

Man kan intc yd eftet' rcylcr 

i delta fall. 

11 an far bctalt per timmc. 
llan dr iitt/cnjor fill yrkct. 

Jlan yick for siy sjdlv. 
Lav er det Mr stycket itta it- 
till! 



Come and sit by the fire! 

Bid you go by Gothenburg? 
You will be there by this time 

the day after to-morrow. 
I shall be back by 8 o'clock. 

He was hated by the people. 

Are you going by train or by 
steamer? 

I am going by tram. 

You cannot go by rules in 
this case. 

He is paid by the hour. 

He is an engineer by pro- 
fession. 

He went by himself. 

Learn this paragraph by heart 



For. 

llan restc till Amerika i forra He left for America last week. 

veckan. 
Jay har inte sett honom pd 1 have not seen him for ever 

myckct ldny< . so long. 

Han kommer att vara borta He will be away for a day 

or two. 
He has not been at home for 



(pa) ett par dayar. 
Han liar inte varit hemma (tin 
tier) de sista dayarna. 



the last few days. 



198 



Av brist pa pengar. 

Det var inycn finintn rtffl 

fin att gc cftcr. 
Vad fa vi till m'uldag? 

Han griit ttr yladjc. 

Jag skullc ha drunknat, om intc 

han hade hja'lpt miff. 
Han Idngtadc cfter att dag en 



For want of money. 

There was nothing for it but 

to give in. 
\\'hat are you going to give 

us for dinner? 
He wept for joy. 
I should have been drowned 

but for him. 
He longed for day to break. 



In. 

Jag motte honom pa yatan. I met him in the street. 
Visby ligger pd Gottland. Visby is situated in the island 

of Gotland. 
De anlande till London i gar. They arrived in London yester- 

day. 
)"/' bo pd landct om somrarna. We live in the country in 

summer. 
Pd morgonen, pa cftermid- In the morning, in the after- 

dagen. noon. 

f 'nder drottning Viktor ia* re- In the reign of Queen Victoria. 

gering. 
Jag kommer tillbaka om m I shall be back in about a 

fjorton dar. fortnight. 

Till svar a Edcr shrivels? bcr In reply to your letter I beg 

jag fa meddcla. to say. 

Vad heter det pit swtiska? What is that in Swedish? 



Into. 

Han ramladc i *jon. He fell into the water. 

Hint gick in i en aftar. He went into a shop. 

'Oversdtt (let hiir till WHS/HI! 'translate this into Swedi>li! 



199 



Of. 



Ar du rddd for hunden? 
Det skullc aldrig falla mig in.\ 
Jag sktille inte dromma om> 

eu sadan sal'. 
Han Itar en hog tanke otn sin 

dverstc. 
Han Jtar berovat mig mina 

pengar. 

Han anklagades for stold. 
En karta over England. 
Kommgariket Sverigc. 
Staden Stockholm. 
Ett glas vatteu. 
Bcrgets fot. 
Hordsbenen. 
Vi voro fyra stycken. 
Universitetct / Uppsala. 
Han dr en god vein till wiif/* 
I norm Sverige. 
Uppsala ligger norr ont Stock-' 

holm. 



Are you afraid of the dog? 

I should not dream of such a 
thing. 

He thinks a lot of his colonel. 

-He has robbed me of my 

money. 

He was accused of theft. 
A map of England. 
The kingdom of Sweden. 
The town of Stockholm. 
A glass of water. 
The foot of the mountain. 
The legs of the table. 
There were four of us. 
The University of Uppsala. 
He is an old friend of mine: 
In the north of Sweden. 
Uppsala is situated to the 

north of Stockholm. 



To. 



Shall ni resa till Sveriyc niista 

sommar? 
Han har alltid varit mycket 

vdnlig mot mig. 
Far jag present era er for hwr 

Bergman. 
Kan jag fa tola med hcrr 

Andersson? 
Dei dr svdrt att vet a. 



Are you going to Sweden next 

summer? 
He has always been very kind 

to me. 
May I introduce you to Mr. 

Bergman. 

May I speak to Mr. Andersson? 

' r " \'\ 

It is difficult to know. 



'200 



Tio mot en (ett). 
Han tog inte av 
for mi<i. 



Ten to one. 
hatten He did not 
to me. 



take off' his hat 



Examples illustrating the I se of certain Swedish 
Prepositions. 

Over = over, above, past, beyond, across, by. 

liyyrr 300 fot over 
havsytan. 

Klockan dr over eh a. 
Han yiclv liver yatan. 
Han yick tvdrs over par ken. 
Reste ni over Gotebory? 
Det gfir over win horisont. 



The town is situated MOO 

above sea-level. 
It is past eleven o'clock. 
He crossed the street. 
He walked across the park. 
Did you go by Gothenburg? 
That is beyond me. 



Under under, below, beneath, during. 



Katten dr under bordet. 
Det dr tio grader under noil. 
Levnadskostnaderna voro myc- 

ket hoc/ a under kri(/et. 
Under tiden. 
Under hans regerint/. 



The cat is under the table. 
Ft is ten degrees below zero. 
The cost of Jiving was very 

high during the war. 
In the meantime. 
In (during) his reign. 



Om 9 omkriny = round, about, for, in, etc. 



Han say siy om(krinfj). 

De seylade om oss. 

Presidenten v aides om. 

Las om den liar versen! 

Om och om iy en. 

Om morgnartnt. 

Jag kommer tillbaka om en 

vecka. 
Han rescr bort en gdny out 

m-et. 



He looked round. 

They sailed past us. 

The President was re-elected, 

Read this verse again! 

Over and over again. 

In the morning. 

I shall be back in a week. 

He goes away once a year. 



201 

Komm-er ni om onsdag* Are you coming next Wed- 

nesday? 

Tiggaren bad out en bit brod. The beggar asked for a piece 

of bread. 



Order of the Words. 

I. The Place of the Subject. 

315. The Subject is generally placed be fore the Verb. 

316. The Subject is placed after the Verb in the following 
cases : 

1. In Interrogative Sentences where the Subject is not 
an Interrogative Pronoun. 

liar ni redan? Are you going already? 

Heir hcin inte gait anmi? Has he not gone yet? 

2. When the Sentence begins with the Object, a Predica- 
tive Noun or a Predicative Adjective. 

Vad I/or ni om sondagarna? What do you do with your- 
self on Sundays? 

Den liar boken har jay kopt This book I have bought in 
i London. London. 

3. When the Sentence begins with an Adverb or 
with an Adverbial Phrase. 

Nu iir vdrett heir. Now spring is here. 

Sedan gick varffen tillbaka Then the wolf 'went back to 

. till skogen. the wood. 

Om somrarna bo vi pa landct. In summer we live in th'e 

country. 

1 c/dr var det mycket liallt. Yesterday it was very cold 

/ dag iir det varmt. To-day it is warm. 



202 



I 'art tot/ kniven viigen? What became of the knife? 

Nar ffdr tdget'S When does the train start? 

Ont en timme kommer brev- In an hour the postman will 

Imraren. be here. 

4. In a Principal Clause when it is preceded by a 
Subordinate Clause. 

Nar vedhuggaren hade tappat When the wood-cutter had 



sin yxa, visste han Me, 

vad han skulle ta sig till. 



lost his axe, he did not 
know what to do. 



Om du inte dr ddr senast kloc- If you are not there by seven 
-Jean sju, vantar jag inte o'clock at the latest, I shall 



pa dig. 



not wait for you. 



5. In the Principal Clause after a Direct Quota- 
tion. 

:Hur star det till?* frdgacle "How are you?" he asked. 
han. 



> Tack bra, svarade hon. 



Quite well, thanks'", she an- 
swered. 



(5. In Conditional Clauses where the Conjunction is omitted. 



Vore jag som du, sd svarade 

jag inte. 
Kommer han hit, sd shall 

jag tola om det for honom. 

7. In Optative Clauses. 

Tillkomme ditt rike! 
Leve konungen! 



If I were you, I should not 

answer. 
If he comes here, I will tell 

him. 



Thy kingdom come! 
Long live the king! 



N.B. The rules about inverted word- order refer chiefty to 
Principal Clauses. Subordinate Clauses have, as a rule, 
normal (uninverted) word-order. 
Compare: Vadharhangjort? What has he done? 

Jag vet inte, vad I don't know what he has 
han har gjort. done. 



203 



II. The Place of the Object 

317. The Indirect Object, when used without any Pre- 
position, precedes the Direct Object. 

G-iv honottt den! Give it him! 

Han lovadc att sl-icka miy He promised to send it me. 
den. 



III. The Place of the Adverb. 
A. In Principal Clauses. 

318. In Principal Clauses the Adverb is placed 
after the Verb (in compound tenses immediately after the 
Auxiliary Verb). 

Han rayrade rixliiji'n att He wisely refused to go. 

9* 

Nan konwner ofta hit. He often comes here. 

Jag trdffar honom nfistan I hardly ever see him now. 

fildriy mi. 
Han rcser alltid till sodra He always goes to the south 

Frankrike om vintrarna. of France in winter. 

Han kom snart underfund He soon found it out. 

mcd det. 

Ldmna aldrig dorren oldst! Never leave the door unlocked! 
Jag har aldriy traffat ho- I have never met him. 

nom. 

B. In Subordinate Clauses. 

319. In Subordinate Clauses the following Ad- 
verbs are placed before the Verb (in compound tenses be- 
fore the Auxiliary Verb): icke, inte, ej, ingalunda, bar a, aid- 
rig, alltid, ofta, xnart, xallan, antaf/liyen, formodlif/en, moj- 
ligen, and a few others. 



.///// rissfr, aft IKIII hite Jtttdc 

nirit d<h\ 
I hi dr rn niclodi, nom tinni 

oftti /for. 
1>< , sont intf f'h-o f'drdit/ti i fid. 

iiKistr xtunim licttnuo. 
Varden* spm bttra kunde tola 

fy.s7.yf, . . . 
Han sade^atthansnartsknlle 

/coin HI t{ tillbaktt. 
Drt hade rarit hattrr. out han 

(i/ffrif/ Imdc /commit. 
Dt't '-fir uricjot, som jag oinoj- 

lif/cn ktfittfc vet a. 

medgar. aft lian ant at/- 

/i</<'it Jtfftft' raft. 



1 knew that he had not been 

there. 
It is a tune that one often 

hear.- 2 . 
Those who are not ready in 

time must stay at home. 
The landlord, who could only 

speak German, . . . 
He said he would soon be 

back. 
It would have been better if 

he had never come. 
It was something I could not 

possibly know. 
I admitted that he was prob- 

ably right. 



320. Demonstrative Adverbs and Adverbs expressing 
a (more or less) definite time are placed after the Verb. 

Jay cct. <iif /tan hor hiir. I know that he lives here. 

Om /"(it rcxc)' i d<i(/. .SY/ Icom- If he leaves to-day he will 

incr Itan frit-in om frcda;/. be there on Kriday. 

*. 

o21. The Adverbs ickc, intc, ej, Utid. and (tldrn/ are 
placed between att and the Infinitive. Other Adverbs 
may either be placed between ait and the Infinitive, or 
after the Infinitive (not before ittt). 

Jfi(/ honfoll honom fftt Jute 1 implored him not to d<> it. 

f/OI'ff <l('t. 

Ha it lovadc aft <ifdri</ if or a 

ont (lit. 

fid, order att f/enast 
Irtnnia laiuhL 



He promised never to do it 

again. 
He was ordered to leave the 

country immediately. 



Att alltfd ftirldta dr battre Always to forgive is better 



(in fftt (ffflrif/ foi'/fftff. 



than never to forgive. 



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