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:A$ BJJJ&<§@$k$% dM&a® ^/^da^ - C 

A. Paolrein D. entreves La notiion : I HjSIlLZ - C 
De, L,etat, Traducton Trancaise Sirey Paris^ GEcE 

Bertrand De Jouvenel, Le Pouvoi _P tt(J - D 

■M\±M^Y^-^k -d' 

London, Routledge, KengaN Paul, L.T.D, CEdE 
O- The Caliphate thus recegnized was a deaspetism 
which placed unrestricted power in the hands of the 
ruler and demanded unhesitating ebedince from his 
subjects". 
Arnold, The Caliphat, P.dELdfe 
6 - The political theory thus enunciated appears to 
imply that all earthly autherity is by divine 
appointment, the duty of the subjects is to obey, 
whether the ruler is just or unjust, for responsibility 
rests with god, and the only satisfaction that the 
subjects can feel is that God will Punish the unjust 
ruler for his wicked deeds even as will reward the 
righteous menarch 
Arnold, P, <£ 
E - In one respect only was the arbitrary, autocratic 
power of the Caliph limited, in that he, just as every 
other Muslim, was obliged to subnit to the ordinances 
dCE 



of the Shariah, or law of Islam. This limitation arese 
from the Peculiar Character of Muslim, law as being 
primarily (in theory at least) derived from the inspired 
Word of God, and as laying down regulation for the 
conduct of every department of human life, and thus 
leaving no room for the distinction that arese in 
Christendom between canen law and the law of the 
state. 
The law being thus of divine origin demanded 
the obedience even of the caliph himself, and 
theorgtically at least the administration of the state 
was supposed to be brought into harmony with the 
dictates of the sacred law. 
Arnold, P, ED 
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