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Full text of "The Mohammedan dynasties. Chronological and genealogical tables with historical introductions"

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Ex Libris 

J. Heyworth-Dunne 

D. Lit. (London) 



N9 



647 




'\rAR, Revolution, andTeace igj 







y 



THE MOHAMMADAN DYXASTIES 




THE 



MOHAMMADAN 

DYNASTIES 

CHRONOLOGICAL AND GENEALOGICAL 

TABLES WITH HISTORICAL 

INTRODUCTIONS 



BY 

STANLEY LANE - POOLE 



WizfAminettt 
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE AND COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS TO THE INDIA OFFICE 
14 PARLIAMENT STREET 



MDCCCXCIV 



« 







HERTFORD 

PKINTKI) BT STKFUSM AII8TIM AMD 80N8. 



186146 



- • «•• • • %• •• ••••• • 



PKEFACE 



The following Tables of Mohammadan Dynasties have 
grown naturally out of my twenty years' work upon the 
Arabic coins in the British Museum. In preparing the 
thirteen volumes of the Catalogm of Oriental and Indian 
Coins I was frequently at a loss for chronological lists. 
Prinsep's Useful Tables, edited by Edward Thomas, was 
the only trustworthy English authority I could refer 
to, and it was often at fault. I generally found it 
necessary to search for correct names and dates in the 
Arabic historians, and the lists of dynasties prefixed to 
the descriptions of their coins in my Catalogue were 
usually the result of my own researches in many 
Oriental authorities. It has often been suggested to 
me that a reprint of these lists would be useful to 
students, and now that the entire Catalogue is published 
I have collected the tables and genealogical trees in the 
present volume. 




vi PREFACE 

The work is, however, much more than a reprint 
of these tables. I have not only verified the dates 
and pedigrees by reference to the Arabic sources and 
added a number of dynasties which were not represented 
in the Catalogue of Coins, but I have endeavoured to 
make the lists more intelligible by prefixing to each a 
brief historical introduction. These introductions do not 
attempt to relate the internal history of each dynasty : 
they merely show its place in relation to other dynasties, 
and trace its origin, its principal extensions, and its 
downfaU; they seek to define the boundaries of its 
dominions, and to describe the chief steps in its aggran- 
disement and in its decline. In the space at my command 
these facts could only be stated with the utmost brevity, 
but in the absence of any similar attempt to arrange, 
define, and explain the relative positions and successions 
of aU the Mohammadan Dynasties in every part of the 
Muslim world, I hope the manual may be useful to 
students of history. To the collector of Arabic coins and 



PREFACE vii 

Saracenic antiquities I know, from personal experience, 
that it will be practically indispensable. 

The plan I have followed is to arrange the dynasties 
in geographical order, beginning with Spain, which first 
threw ojff the control of the Caliphs of Baghdad. From 
the extreme west of the kingdoms of Islam I gradually 
work eastwards, till the end is reached in India and 
Afghanistan. Certain deviations from the strict geographical 
order are explained as they arise (see p. 107). Each 
dynasty has its historical introduction, a chronological 
list of its princes, and (when necessary) a genealogical 
tree. The years of the Christian era are given as well 
as those of the Hijra,* and when the latter occur in 
the introductory notices they are distinguished by italic 



* The Hijra date is of course the more exact, as it is derived from 
Arabic historians ; whilst the date a.d. is merely the year in which that 
E\jra year began, and does not necessarily correspond with it for more than 
a few months. The correspondence is near enough, however, for practical 
purposes; and a reference to the conversion tables in my Catalogue of 
Indian Coins wiU render it more precise. When the Hijra year began 
at the dose of the Christian year the following year a.d. is given. 




viii PREFACE 

type. Beneath each chronological list is given [in 
square brackets] the name of the succeeding dynasty. 

The two synoptic Tables of the Mohammadan Dynasties, 
(1) during and (2) after the Caliphate, will give a 
general idea of their relative positions, and roughly 
indicate the comparative extent of their dominions. The 
numismatist will find almost all the coin striking 
dynasties within the limits of time assigned; and the 
Oriental student in general may find this map of 
the Mohammadan Empire instructive in its rough 
delineation of the relative territorial extent of the 
various dynasties, its assignment of each dynasty to its 
proper geographical position in the Muslim world, and 
its attempt to indicate the interweaving of the several 
houses and the supplanting of one by another in the 
various kingdoms and provinces of the East. It is 
interesting to trace the gradual absorption of the vast 
empire of the Caliphs from the opposite quarters of 
Africa and the Oxus provinces. "We see how the 



PREFACE ix 

Omayyads of Cordova were the first to divide the 
authority of the head of the religion, and then how 
the Idrisids, Aghlabids, Tulunids, Ikhshldids, Fatimids, 
and many others, destroyed the supremacy of the 
*Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad in their Western provinces; 
and how, meanwhile, the Persian dynasties of Tahirids, 
Saffarids, Samanids, Ziyarids, and Buwayhids gradually 
advanced from the Oxus nearer and nearer to the 
City of Peace, until, when the Buwayhids entered 
Baghdad on Dec. 19, 945, the Caliph ruled little more 
than his own palace, and often could not even rule there. 
Then a fresh change comes over the scene. The Turkish 
tribes begin to overrun the Mohammadan Empire. The 
Ghaznawids establish themselves in Afghanistan, and 
the Seljuks begin their course of conquest, which 
carries them from Herat to the Mediterranean, and 
from Bukhara to the borders of Egypt. When the 
Seljuk rule comes to be divided among many branches 
of the family, and division brings its invariable con- 




X PREFACE 

sequence of weakness, we find several dynasties of 

Atabegs, or generals of Seljukian armies, springing up 

in the more western provinces of Syria and Diyar-Bakr 

and Al-*Irak, whilst the Shah of Khwarizm founds further 

East a wide empire, which increases with extraordinary 

rapidity, and eventually includes the greater part of the 

countries conquered by the Seljuks as well as that 

portion of Afghanistan which the Ghaznawids, and after 

them the Ghorids, had subdued to their rule. And then 

comes the greatest change of all. The Mongols come 

down from their deserts and carry fire and sword over 

the whole eastern Mohammadan Empire ; the Turkish 

slaves, or Mamluks, of Saladin found their famous 

dynasty in Egypt; the Berber houses of Marin and 

Ziyan and Hafs are established along the north coast 

of Africa; and the Christians are rapidly recovering 

Andalusia from the Moors, who had given it so much 

of its beauty and renown. And here the epoch is 

chosen for beginning the second table, which begins at 



PREFACE xi 

tHe Mongol inyasion and brings the history down to 

the present day. 

Vertically the tables are divided under the headings 

of the chief diyisions of the Mohammadan Empire. 

The various dynasties have been placed as nearly 

as possible, not only under their proper geographical 

heady but in the proper portion of the space allotted to 

that head : but the difficulties of arrangement and the 

necessity of economizing space have brought about a 

certain number of exceptions. The Turkish and Mongol 

tribes who wandered in Siberia, Turkistan, Kipchak, 

etc., are altogether omitted, because no exercise of 

ingenuity availed to provide a convenient place for 

them. 

« 
Horizontally the tables are divided, though the lines 

are not ruled through, into centuries, an inch represent- 
ing one hundred years. The date of the beginning is 
taken at a.h. 41, the year of the foundation of the 
Omayyad Caliphate, because the Mohammadan Empire 




xii PREFACE 

was scarcely organized until this house came into power, 
and it would have been very difficult to indicate in any 
satisfactory manner the tide of Muslim conquest with 
its flow and ebb. Where space permits the names of a 
few leading kings and caliphs are inserted in the space 
allotted to their dynasty, especially when such names 
are familiar to European students. 

In the orthography of Oriental names I have thought 
it best to be precise and consistent, except in some 
instances of names which have been adopted into the 
English language and cannot now be amended. Every 
letter of the Arabic and Persian alphabet is represented 
as a rule by one chsiracter, as shown in the table 
on p xix. The final A, which has an inflexional use, 
is omitted, since it serves no purpose in Roman 
writing: but it must be remembered that every name 
ending in short a (as -Basra, but not & as San^a) has 
a final h in Arabic. To indicate the elision of the / 
in the article al before certain letters, (as (?, «, r). 



PREFACE xiii 

tbe I is printed in italic type : thus 'Abd-a/- 
Kahman is to be pronounced 'Abd-ar- Rahman.* The 
I is retained (though not pronounced) because it is so 
written in Arabic. On the other hand I omit the article 
altogether hefore a name. All the Caliphs and a multitude 

of other dynasts have names with the prefixed al^ and 
a considerable saying of space and some added clearness 
is gained by omitting it. To show, however, that the 
article is to be used in the original I retain the hyphen : 
thus -Hakim stands for Al-Hakim. The only sign not 

generally employed by Orientalists is the Greek colon (•) 
which I use to denote the quiescent hatriza in the middle 
of a word: as -Ma'mun, where there is a catch in the 
breath between the a and m. 

To students who are not Orientalists, and who wish to 
be accurate without elaboration ia the orthography of 

* If the inflexioii of the Arabic is to be reproduced the name would be 
'Abda-r-Eahman, and would require to be modified in accordance with 
its goyemment in the sentence ; but this would be carrying accuracy to 
an extreme of pedantry. 




XIV PREFACE 

Eastern names, I would recommend the omission of all 
the diacritical points and the prefixed hyphen, and the 
assimilation of the italic / to the letter which follows 
it: thus for popular purposes one might write Abd-ar- 
Eahman instead of 'Abd-a/-Eahman, Hakim instead of 
Al-Hakim. l^o system of transliteration can possibly re- 
present the pronunciation of all parts of the Mol^ammadan 
world : what would suit the accent of Fez would not 
fit the mouth of an Egyptian, still less of a Panjabi. 
One simple suggestion may, however, be made. Whereas 
for consistency I have adopted the a throughout to 
represent the Arabic vowel fath^ an e may advan- 
tageously be substituted for the a in spelling Egyptian 
or Algerian names, where el is nesirer the native pro- 
nunciation than aly and Shems-ed-din than Shams-al'din. 
The European reader when confronted with the long 
string of names and titles commonly affected by Oriental 
potentates is naturally puzzled to select the name by 
which a Mohammadan ruler may be called 'for short.' 



PREFACE 



XV 



In the early days of Isalni a great man was content to 
be known by a single or at most a double name. There 
would be his proper name, or what we should call his 
* Christian name,' such as Mohammad, Ahmad, *Om£ir ; 
and to this would sometimes be added a patronymic (or 
rather hyionymic), as Abu-1-Hasan, *the father of -Hasan,' 
or the name of his father as b. Tulun or ibn Tulun, 
*the son of Tulun.* The patronymics beginning with 
Ahu may always be omitted (except Abu-Bakr) in 
shortening the name, and so may the sonship prefixed 
by the abbreviation h. They are necessary in the dynastic 
lists for purposes of identification, but Ahmad the Tulunid 
is a sufficient designation for Ahmad b. Tulun, and the 
Ziyanid Musa i is adequately defined without his 
patronymic Abu-Hammu. 

But very soon other titles of an honorific or theo- 
cratic character began to be added. Such epithets 
(lakab) as Nur-aZ-din, 'Light of the Faith,' Nasir- 
a/-dln, * Succourer of the Faith,' Sayf-a/-din, * Sword 




xvi PREFACE 

of the Faith/ were prefixed to the proper name; 
and adjectives or participles such as Al-Mangur *the 
victorious,' A/-Sa*Id * the Fortunate,' AZ-Rashld * the 
Orthodox," were appended to the title Khalifa (caliph) 
or Malik (king). Thus we find the caliph Harun 
a/-Rashid, * the Orthodox,' or * rightly-directed,' caliph 
Aaron; and Saladin's full title was Al-Malik AZ-Na^ir 
Salah-a/-din Yusuf b. Ayyub, *The Victorious* Eling, 
Redresser of the Faith, Joseph son of Job.* In the 
case of compound names such as these, the owner 
is generally called either by the participial title Ai- 
i^a^ir, Al-Man^ur, AZ-Rashid, etc , or by the lakab 
with the termination a/-din ('of the Faith') or a/-dawla 
(* of the State '), etc. Thus the brother of Saladin is 
known both as Al-*Adil, * the Just [King] ' and as 
Sayf-a/-din, * Sword of the Faith.' On the other hand 
the Atabegs of Al-Mo^il are generally cited by both 



* Lit. * Helping * : one who helps the religion of Islam by his 
yictories. 



MOHAMMADAN DYNAS 



AH 



SPAIN 



NORTH AFRICA 



EGYPT 



711 



lOO 



200 



O M A Y Y , 



OMAYYAD5 

OP 

CORDOVA 

rse -lOI* 



300 



♦GO 



SOO 



600 



Akd-aL- RakmM 

m 

912-961 



HAMMUDIDS 
'ABBADID6 

'AMIRI08 
HUOID8 ETC 



O 

I 
7} 

H 

> 

Z 



I090 



IDRISI08 



Taa-9fts 




AQHLABI OS 



aoo-909 



FATlMi OS 
909- 1171 

Muiix 932-975 



ABBAS 



T U L U N I D S 

868 - eos 



I K H 8 H I D I O S 
93S - S69 



Z AYRI OS 
9T2- 114-a 



HAMMADIDS 



YasuF b. TiLshFTn 
1087- ii06 

A LM O R A V IDES 

I056 - 11^7 



2 
(0 



J L 



I007- 

I 152 



'Aba-a.l-Mumin 1150- 

ALMOHADES 
II30 - 126 9 



(D 

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Hakim 996 " I02c 
F ATI M I D S 



Mustansir IO35-94. 



Amir 1101-30 



BUIUM 

iioa 



Saladin 1169-1133 

Saphadin 1196-1218 

A Y YO B 1 D8 

1169- f250 
K&mil. 1218-1236 



lYAHIDS HAF^IDS 



M Ain UO KS 



Mc LAGAN ft CUMi4IN0.UTM. COIN? 



PREFACE xvii 

the proper name and the epithet, as *Imad-a/-din 
Zangi, *Izz-a/-din Mas^ud; though the epithet by itself 
is sufficient. As a general rule the first name given 
in the chronological lists (omitting the patronymic Abu- 
such an one) may be used to designate the ruler, to 
the exclusion of the rest. When there are several 
similar titles it is better to add the proper name : for 
instance there are eight Al-Man|urs among the Mamluk 
Sultans, and it is necessary to distinguish them as 
Al-Mansur Kala'un, Al-Man§ur LajTn, etc. 

To give a list of the authorities I have used in 
compiling the lists of dynasties and historical notices 
would involve publishing a catalogue of an Orientalist's 
library. I have referred to all the leading Arabic 
historians, consulted special histories, and derived con- 
siderable help from articles in the Asiatic and numismatic 
journals. "Where I am specially indebted to a particular 
author I refer to his work in a footnote. The coins, 
however, are the backbone of the book and the 



r 



xviii PREFACE 

historian's surest documents, and upon them I have 
relied throughout. 

In a work abounding in names and figures it would 
be strange if misprints and mistakes did not occur. I 
shall be grateful to any scholar who will convict me 
of error ; for those who * serve tables ' know the 
danger and annoyance of even slight inaccuracy. 

S. L.-P. 



The ATHENiEUM, 

l8t October^ 1893. 



PREFACE XIX 



TABLE OF TRANSLITERATION 



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\ 


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c> 


i 


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b 






1, 


t 


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P 






1^ 


z 

• 


cy 


t 






L 


< 




th 






• 


gh 


tL 


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• 


f 


^ 


ch 






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t: 

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k 
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J 


d 






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1 


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dh 






r 


m 


J 


r 






l; 


n 


• 


z 






^ 


h 


U" 


s 






-? 


w 


A 


all 






uf 


J 


t/' 


9 














VOWELS 






-^ a (rarely 


'6) 


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a 


^— aw (rarely 6) 


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COEEIGENDA 



Page 46 line 3 for Hammudid read Hammadid 



71 lines 2, 5 for Kayruwan read Kayrawan 

1% for [Tatars] read [Mongols'] 

79 line 7 from bottom, for Tughtakin read Tughtigin 

157, 172 for fIeis read fIbs 

168 heading K for 712, 1312, read 811, 1408 



/ 



/ 




CONTENTS 



Preface v 

Table of Dynasties during the Caliphate .... face xviii 
Table of Dynasties after the Caliphate face xx 

THE CALIPHS S^c. vii— xiii 1 

Orthodox 9 

Omayyads 9 

Table of Connexion of lines of Caliphs . . . . 10 

Genealogy of Omayyads 11 

*Abbasids 12 

Genealogy of ^Abbdsids 14 

SPAIN S^c. vm— XV 16 

Omayyads of Cordova 21 

Genealogy 22 

Minor Spanish Dynasties (Reyes db Taifas) . . 23 

Hammudids (Malaga) 23 

Genealogy 24 




xxii CONTENTS 

Hammudids (Algeciras) 25 

*Abbadids (SeviUe) 25 

Zayrids (Granada) 25 

Jahwarids (Cordova) 25 

Dhii-/-Nuiiids (Toledo) 25 

*Ainirids (Valencia) 26 

Tojibids (Zaragoza) 26 

Hudids (Zaragoza) 26 

Denia, Kings of 26 

Ka^rids (Granada) 28 

Genealogy 29 

* 

NORTH AFRICA Sjec. vra— xix 31 

Idrisids (Morocco) 35 

Aghlabids (Tunis) 36 

Genealogy ......... 38 

Zayrids (Tunis) 40 

Hammadids (Algiers) * . . 40 

Almoravides (Morocco, Algiers, Spain) . . . . 41 

Genealogy . 44 

Almohades (North Africa, Spain) 45 

Genealogy 48 

Haf§ids (Tunis) 49 

Genealogy 52 

Ziyanids (Algiers) 51 

Gmealogy ......... 54 

Corsairs 5^ 

Marinids (Morocco) 57 

Genealogy 59 

Sharif s (Morocco) 60 

Genealogy 62 



CONTENTS 



xxili 



EGYPT AND SYRIA Sjbc. ix— xix .... Qb 

Tuliinids 68 

Iklishidids 69 

Fatimids 70 

Geneaiogy 72 

Ayyubids . : 74 

Genealogy face 76 

Mamluks 80 

Genealogy 82 

Khedives 84 

Genealogy 85 



ARABIA FELIX (YAMAN) Sjec. ix— xvni 

Ziyadids (Zabid) 

Ya'furids (l^an'a and Janad) 

Najahids (Zabid) 

Genealogy . 
^ulaybids (^an'a) 

Genealogy . 
Hamdanids (San' a) 
Mahdids (Zabid) 
Zuray'ids ('Aden) 

Genealogy 
Ayyubids . 
Rasulids . 

Genealogy 
Tahirids . 

Genealogy 
Rassid Imams (Sa'da) 

Genealogy . 
Imams of San' a 



87 

90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
94 
95 
96 
97 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 
101 
102 
face 102 
103 



XXIV CONTENTS 

SYEIA AND MESOPOTAMIA (Arab Period) Sjec. x— xii 106 

Classification of Asiatic Dynasties ..... 107 

Arab tribes ......... 109 

fjEamdanids (-Mosil, Aleppo) Ill 

Genealogy 113 

Mirdasids (Aleppo) 114 

Geneahgy ......... 116 

'OkayUds (-Mo§U, etc.) 116 

Genealogy face 116 

Marwanids (Diyar-Bakr) 118 

Genealogy . . . . . . . . . 118 

Mazyadids (-HiUa) 119 

Genealogy 120 

PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA (Persian Period) S^c. ix— xi 121 

Dulafids (Kurdistan) 125 

Genealogy ......... 126 

Sajids (Adharbijan) 126 

*Alids (Tabaristan) 127 

Tahirids (Khurasan) 128 

Genealogy ......... 128 

Saffarids (Persia) 129 

Samanids (Transoxiana and Persia) 131 

Genealogy ......... 133 

Ilak Khans (Turkistan) 134 

Ziyarids (Jurjan) 136 

Genealogy ......... 137 

Hasanwayhids (Kurdistan) 138 

Buwayhids (S. Persia and -*Irak) 139 

Geographical distribution . . . . . . 143 

Genealogy ......... 144 

Kakwayhids (Kurdistan) 145 

Genealogy 146 



CONTENTS XXV 



THE SELJU^S (Western Asia) Sjec. xi— xii ... 147 

Genealogy face 162 

Great Seljulpj 163 

Seljuks of Kirman 153 

. Seljuks of Syria 164 

Selju]^ of -*Irak and Kurdistan 164 

Seljuks of -Rum (Asia Minor) 1 66 

Damshmandids (Asia Minor) 166 



THE ATABEGS (Seljak Officers) Sjec. xn— xiii . . 167 

Burids (Damascus) 161 

Genealogy 161 

Zangids (Mesopotamia and Syria) 162 

Genealogy 164 

Begtiginids (Arbela) 165 

Ortukids (Diyar-Bakr) 166 

Genealogy 169 

Armenia, Shahs 170 

Genealogy 170 

Adharbfjan, Atabegs 171 

Genealogy 171 

Salgharids (Ears) 172 

Genealogy 173 

Hazaraspids (Lfuistan) 174 

Genealogy . . 175 

Ehwarizm Shahs 176 

Genealogy 178 

Kutlugh Khans (Kirman) 179 

Genealogy 180 



XXVI CONTENTS 

THE SUCCESSORS OF THE SEUUICS I.V THE WEST 

Sjec. XIV — XIX 181 

Amirs of Asia Minor fcufe 184 

*Othmanli Sultans 186 

Table of growth and decay of the Ottoman Empire , 190 

Genealogy . 196 

THE MONGOLS S^c. xm— xvin 199 

Sketch-tree of Mongol Dynasties 206 

Great Khans 207 

Ogotay's line 207 

Tuluy'sline . 211 

Genealogy of Great Khans face 216 

Mongols of Persia 217 

Genealogy ......... 221 

Golden Horde 222 

Batu's line (Blue Horde) 224 

Orda's line (White Horde) 226 

Rival Families . .' .229 

Table 232 

Khans of the Krim (Crimea) 233 

Shayban's line (Czars of Tiumen, etc.) . . . . 238 
Genealogy of the House of Jfijl .... face 240 

Chagatay Khans (Transoxiana) 241 

Genealogy ........ fa4;e 242 . 

PERSIA S^c. XIV— XIX 243 

Jalayrs (-*Irak, etc.) 246 

Genealogy ......... 248 

Muzaffarids (Fars, etc.) 249 

Genealogy ......... 250 



CONTENTS 



XXVll 



Sarbadarids (Ehurasan) 251 

Karts (Herat) 252 

Genealogy 252 

Kara-Kuyunli (Black Sheep Turkomans) .... 253 

Ak-Kuyunl! (White Sheep Turkomans) .... 254 

Shahs of Persia 255 

§afavid8 259 

Afghans 259 

Afsharids 259 

Zands 260 

Kajars 260 

Genealogies 261-2 

TRANSOXIANA Sjec. xiv— xik 263 

Timurids 265 

Table of the descendants of Ttmur . . . face 268 

Table of connexion of the Transoxine Khanates . . 269 

Shaybanids 270 

Sub-dynasties of Bukhara and Samarkand . . . 272 

Genealogy 273 

Janids 274 

Genealogy 276 

Mangits . . . 277 

Khiva, Khans of . . 278 

Khokand, Khans of 280 

INDIA AND AFGHANISTAN Sjec. x— xix ... 281 

Ghaznawids (Afghanistan and Panjab) .... 285 

Genealogy 290 

Ghdrids (Afghanistan, Hindustan) 291 

Genealogy face 294 



Suiting of DeUl (HiudugUn) 39S 

Slave KingB 299 

Khaljis 299 

Taghlayds 300 

Sayyids 300 

Lodis 300 

Afghins 300 

aexealogi^ 301-3 

Pbothjciai. Dtnamibs or India 304 

GoTemon and Kingti of Bengal 306 

ShnikT Kiu^'s !..[ Jaunp6r 309 

Einge of Ualwa 

Kings of Gujarat 

6tntslogi/ 

Kinge of Kbilndish 313 

Bahmanida (Kulbarga, etc,) 

Gentalegy 

'Imid Shihe (Beilr) S20 

Kifam Shabs (A^madnagar) 320 

Band Shahs (Bidar) 321 

'Adil Shflha (Bijapiir) 321 

Kutb Shaha (Golkonda) 321 

Mogul EmpeioTs of HinduBlsn 322 

Geneahgy 329 

Amirs of Afghanietaa 330 

Durrante 334 

Barakzais ,...-.-.. 334 

Oanmlogy 335 

Imbx l« RoleiB 337 



I- THE CALIPHS 

S.CC. VII-XIII 



1. ORTHODOX 

2. OMAYYAOS 

3. 'ABbXsIOS 



I. THE CALIPHS 
S-EC. VII— XIII 

Ok the death of the Prophet Mohammad in a.d. 632, in 
the eleventh year after his Flight (Hijra, 622) from Mecca 
to -Medina, his father-in-law Abu-Bakr was elected head 
of the Muslims, with the title of Khalifa or Caliph 
('successor'). Three other Caliphs, 'Omar, 'Othman, and 
*AlI, were similarly elected in turn, without founding 
dynasties, and these first four successors are known as 
the Orthodox Caliphs (Al-JSThulafd Al-Bdshidun). On the 
murder of 'Ali in 661 (a.h. 40), Mo'awiya, a descendant of 
Omayya of the Prophet's tribe of the Kuraysh, assumed the 
Caliphate, and founded the dynasty of the Omayyad Caliphs, 
fourteen in number, whose capital was Damascus. In 
750 {132) this dynasty was supplanted (except in Spain) 
by that of the idhhdsid Caliphs, numbering thirty-seven, 
descended from 'Abbas, an uncle of the Prophet, and having 
Baghdad (founded 762, 145) as their capital. The 'Abbasid 
Caliphate at Baghdad was exterminated by the Mongol 
Hulagu in 1258 {666). A line of their descendants, the 
tdhhdsid Caliphs of Hgypt, held a shadowy spiritual dignity 



4 THE CALIPHS 

at Cairo, until the last of the house was carried to 
Constantinople by the Ottoman Saltan Sallm I., after the 
conquest of Egypt in 1517, and surrendered his title of 
Caliph to the conqueror. 

At the accession of the first Caliph, Abu-Bakr, the rule of 
Islam comprised no territory outside Arabia ; but during his 
brief reign of two years the tide of Mohammadan conquest 
had already begun to swell. In 633 {1^) the Battle of the 
Chains, followed by other victories, admitted the Muslims 
into Chaldaea (-'Ira]^ -'Arab!), and gave them the city of 
-Hira. In 634 {JLS) the Battle of the Yarmuk opened Syria to 
their arms ; Damascus fell in 635 (14) ; Emesa, Antioch, and 
Jerusalem in 636 ; and the conquest of Caesarea completed 
the subjugation of Syria in 638 (17). Meanwhile the 
victory of KSdisTya in 635 (14) was followed by the conquest 
of Mad^'in (Seleucia-Ctesiphon), the old double capital of 
Chaldaea, 637 {16) ; Mesopotamia was subdued, and the cities 
of -Basra and -Kufa founded; and Ehuzistfin and Tustar 
were annexed in 638-40. The decisive Battle of Nahawand 
in 642 {21) put an end to the S&sHnid dynasty, and gave 
all Persia to the Muslims. By 661 (41) they were at Herat, 
and soon carried their arms throughout Afghanistan and as 
far as the Indus, where they established a government in 



GROWTH OF THE CALIPHATE 5 

Sind. In 674 (54) they occupied Bukhara, and two years 
later Samarkand, but these early raids in Transoxiana were 
not converted into settled conquests until 711 {93), On 
the East the Caliphate had reached its utmost limits in 
little more than forty years after the Muslims first led a 
campaign outside Arabia. 

On the. West their progress was slower. In 641 {20) 
Egypt was conquered, and by 647 {26) the Barbary coast 
was overrun up to the gates of Roman Carthage; but the 
wild Berber population was more difficult to subdue than 
the luxurious subjects of the Sasanids of Persia or the 
Greeks of Syria and Egypt. Kayrawan was founded as the 
African capital in 670 {50) ; Carthage fell in 693 (7^), and 
the Arabs pushed their arms as far as the Atlantic. Prom 
Tangier they crossed into Spain in 710 (9i), and the 
conquest of the Gothic kingdom was complete on the fall 
of Toledo in 712. Southern France was overrun in 725, 
and in spite of Charles the Hammer's victory near Tours 
in 732 {114), the Muslims continued to hold Narbonne and 
to ravage Burgundy and the Dauphin6. Thus in the West 
the Caliphate attained its widest extent within a century 
after its commencement. 

To the North, the Greeks retained Anatolia, which 



6 THE CALIPHS 

never belonged to the Caliphate, but the Muslims invaded 
Armenia, and reached Erzerum about 700. Cyprus had 
been annexed as early as 649 {28)^ and Constantinople 
was several times besieged from 670 {50) onwards. 

Thus the empire of the Caliphs at its widest extended 
from the Atlantic to the Indus, and from the Caspian to 
the cataracts of the Nile. So vast a dominion could not 
long be held together. The first step towards its disintegra- 
tion began in Spain, where ^Abd-a/-Kahman, a member of 
the suppressed Omayyad family, was acknowledged as an 
independent sovereign in 755 {138\ and the 'Abbasid 
Caliphate was renounced for ever. Thirty years later Idrls, 
a great-grandson of the Caliph *AlT, and therefore equally 
at variance with *Abbasids and Omayyads, founded an *Alid 
dynasty in Morocco, with Tudgha for its capital, 788 {172), 
The rest of the North African coast was practically lost to 
the Caliphate when the Aghlabid governor established his 
authority at Kayrawan in 800 {ISIf). In the following 
century, Egypt, together with Syria, attained independence 
under the rule of Ibn-Tulun, by the year 877 {26If). It is 
true that after the collapse of the Tulunids, governors were 
again appointed over Syria and Egypt by the *Abbasid 
Caliphs for thirty years ; but in 934 {323). -Ikhshid founded 




DECLINE OF THE CALIPHATE 7 

bis dynasty, and thenceforward no conntry west of the 
Euphrates ever recognized the temporal authority of the 
Caliphs of BaghdM, though their spiritual title was generally 
acknowledged on the coins and in the public prayer {khutha)^ 
except in Spain and Morocco. 

In the East, the disintegration of the 'Abbasid empire 
proceeded with equal rapidity. The famous general of 
-Ma'mun, Tahir Dhu - 1 - Yaminayn, on being appointed 
Viceroy of the East in 819 (^t?4), became to most intents 
independent ; and his house, and the succeeding dynasties of 
the SafParids, Samanids, and Qhaznawids, whilst admitting 
the spiritual lordship of the Caliphs, reserved to themselves 
all the power and wealth of the eastern provinces of Persia 
and Transoxiana. From the middle of the ninth century 
the 'Abbasids had fallen more and more under the baneful 
influence of mercenary Turkish bodyguards and servile 
tnaires du palais ; and the absorption of the whole of their 
remaining territory by the Buwayhids, who occupied even 
the * City of Peace,' Baghdad itself, in 945 {S34), was little 
more than a change in their alien tyrants. From this 
date the Caliphs merely held a court, but governed no 
empire, until their extinction by the Mongols in 1258 {656), 
Occasionally, however, as in the Caliphate of -Na§ir, they 




8 THE CALIPHS 

extended their authority outside the palace walls, and even 
ruled the whole province of Arabian -*Irak (Chaldaea). 

In classifying the dynasties which' thus absorbed the 
'Abbasid empire, a geographical system is both natural and 
convenient. Beginning with the earliest secession, Spain, 
the dynasties of Andalusia and iN'orth Africa are placed 
first; those of Egypt and Syria come next; then follow 
the Persian and Transoxine dynasties; whilst those of 
India, which spread over a dominion never subdued to the 
Caliphate, are placed last. In dealing with the Persian and 
Syrian sections, however, the geographical arrangement is 
necessarily modified, since the wide sweep of the Seljuks 
and Mongols temporarily obliterated the older divisions and 
formed fresh starting points in the dynastic history. The 
relative positions, both geographical and chronological, of 
the various dynasties are shown in the table prefixed to 
the volume. 



THE CALIPHS J 

A.H. A.D. 

11—40 1. ORTHODOX CALIPHS 632—661 

11 Abu-Bakr 632 

13 *Omar 634 

23 *Othman 644 

36 'Ali 656 

—40 -661 

[Siieceeded hy Omayyads."] 



JL«n« A«H« 

41—132 2. OMAYYAD CALIPHS 661-750 

41 Mo*awiyai ....... 661 

60 Yazid I 680 

64 Mo'awiya n 683 

64 Marwan i 683 

66 *Abd-al-Malik 685 

86 -Walid 705 

96 Sulayman 716 

99 *Omar 717 

101 Yazid II 720 

106 Hisham 724 

126 -Walid n ....... 743 

126 Yazid ni 744 

126 Ibrahim 744 

127 Marwan n . 744 

—132 —760 

\iAhhd»id» ; Omayyads of Cordova'] 




10 



THE C A LUES 



m 

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12 



THE CALIPHS 



A.H. 




132-656 3. • 


132 


-Saffa^ . 


136 


-Man^ur 


158 


-Mahdi . 


169 


-Had! 


170 


-KaHhid . 


193 


-Amin . 


198 


-Ma'mun 


218 


-Mu*ta?im 


227 


-WathiV 


232 


-Mutawakkil 


247 


-Mmita^ir 


248 


-Musta'in 


261 


-Mii*tazz 


266 


-Muhtadi 


266 


-Ma^tamid 


279 


-Mu'tadid 


289 


-Mnktafi 


295 


-Muktadir 


820 


-Kahir . 


322 


-Radi . 


329 


-MuttflVi 


333 


-Mustakfi 


334 


-Muti* . 


363 


-Tai' . 


381 


-Kadir . 


422 


-Ka'im . 

• 


467 


-Mu^tadi 


487 


-Musta^hir 


512 


-MustarsMd 


529 


-Bashid . 



3. 'ABBASID OAUPHS 



A.D. 

750—1258 

750 

754 

775 

785 

786 

809 

813 

833 

842 

847 

861 

862 

866 

869 

870 

892 

902 

908 

932 

934 

940 

944 

946 

974 

991 
1031 
1075 
1094 
1118 
1135 




'ABBA8IDS 



18 



530 
665 
566 
575 
622 
623 
640 
—666 



MiOMiaf! 1136 

Mustanjid .1160 

Musta^ 1170 

Nafir 1180 

^ahir 1225 

Mustanfir 1226 

Mu8ta<9im 1242 

—1268 



[Idntids, Affhlabidt, J\iluni(h, T&hiridtf ^ff&rids, BuwayhidSf 

J^amdanids, Ohaznawidt,'] 




14 



TBE CALIPHS. 



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15 






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II. SPAIN 

S/EC. VIII— XV 

4. 0MAYYAD8 OF CORDOVA 

MINOR DYNASTIES 

5. HAMMUDIDS (MALAGA) 

6. HAMMUDIDS (ALQECIRAS) 

7. 'ABBADIDS (SEVILLE) 

8. ZAYRIDS (GRANADA) 

9. JAHWARIDS (CORDOVA) 
10. DHU-2^NUNIDS (TOLEDO) 

11. 'AmIRIDS (VALENCIA) 

12. TOJIBIDS AND HUDIDS (ZARAGOZA) 

13. KINGS OF DENIA 

ALMORAVIDES {Sm NORTH AFRICA) 
ALMOHADES „ „ „ 

14. NA8RIDS (GRANADA) 




II. SPAIN 
SMC. VIII— XV 

Spain was conquered by the Muslims in 710-12 {91-3), 
and ruled, like the other provinces of the Mo^ammadan 
empire, by a series of goyemors appointed by the Oma3ryad 
Caliphs, until 756 {138), Among the few members of the 
Omayyad family who escaped from the general massacre 
which signalized the accession of the 'Abbasids was 'Abd- 
a^Baf^man, a grandson of Hisham, the tenth Omayyad 
Caliph. After some years of wandering, he took advantage 
of the disordered state of Spain, which was divided by the 
jealousies of the Berbers and the various Arab tribes, to 
offer himself as king. He met with an encouraging 
response, and landed in Andulasia at the close of 755. 
In the following year {138) he received the homage of most 
of Mol^ammadan Spain, and successfully repelled an invasion 
of 'Abbasid troops. TTis successors maintained themselves 
on the throne of Cordova with varying success against 
the encroachments of the Christians of the north, and 
the insurrections of the many factions among their own 




20 SPAIN 

subjects, for two centuries and a half. They contented 
themselves with the titles of Amir and Sultan, until *Abd- 
a^Rahman ni adopted that of Caliph in 929 {S17), He 
was the greatest of the line, and not only exercised absolute 
sway over his subjects and kept the Christian kings of Leon, 
Castile and Navarre in check, but warded off the chief 
danger of Moorish Spain, invasion from Africa, and main- 
tained his authority on the Mediterranean by powerful fleets. 
After his death, no great Omayyad carried on his work, but 
the famous minister and general, Almanzor (Al-Man^ur), 
preserved the unity of the kingdom. After this, at the 
beginning of the eleventh century, Moorish Spain became 
a prey to factions and adventurers, and a number of petty 
dynasties arose, who are known in Spanish history as the 
Reyes de Taifas or Party Kings. Most of these were 
absorbed by the most distinguished of their number, the 

cultured house of the 'Abbadids of Seville, who were the 
leaders of the Spanish Moors against the encroachments 

of the Christians, until they were forced to summon the 

Almoravides to their aid, and discovered that they had 
invited a master instead of an ally. 



0MATTAD8 OF CORDOVA 21 



A.H. A.D. 

138—422 4. OMAYTADS OF CORDOVA 766—1031 

138 <Abd-a/.Ba^man I 756 

172 Hishami 788 

180 -Hakami 796 

206 'Abd-aZ-Ba^man n 822 

238 Mohammad I 852 

273 -Mundhir 886 

275 'Abd-AUah 888 

300 <Abd-a/-Ba^man ni. (Al-Khalifa AZ-Na^ir) . 912 

350 -Hakam n -Mustansir 961 

366 Hiflham n -Mu'ayyad 976 

399 Mohammad n -Mahdi 1009 

400 Sulayman -Musta^in 1009 

400 Mohammad n (again) 1010 

400 Hiflham n (again) 1010 

403 Snlayman (again) 1013 

407 'Atih, ^ammud* 1016 

408 *Abd-a/-Ba^man IT -Murtada . 1018 
408 'Kdsim b. J^ammOd 1018 

412 Tahpd b. 'AH 1021 

413 'Kdsim (again) 1022 

414 <Abd-a;.Bal^man y -MustafMr . 1023 
414 Mohammad m -Mnstakfi .... 1024 

416 FoAya (again) 1025 

418 Hisham m -Mu'tadd 1027 

—422 —1031 

[JbTmor Dynastiet] 

* Of the dynasty of Hammudids. See Table 5. 




22 



SPAIN 



I 

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MINOR DYNASTIES 



23 



MINOE SPAOTSH DYNASTIES* 

(REYES DE TAIFAS) 



A.H. 



407-449 



5. HAMMtTDIDS t 
(MALAGA) 



407 *Ali-Na?ir 

408 -Kasim -Mamun 

412 Ya\;tya Mu'tali 

413 -Kaaim (again) 
416 Ya^ya (again) 
427 Idris i -Muta'ayyad 
431 Hasan -Mustan^ir 
434 Idris ii -'Ali 
438 Mohammad i -Mahdi 

444 Idris iii -Muwaffa^ 

445 Idris n (again) . 

446 Mohammad n -Musta^li 

—449 

[Almoravides] 



A.D. 

1016— 10B7 

1016 
1018 
1021 
1022 
1025 
1035 
1039 
1042 
1046 
1052 
1053 
1054— 
1057 



* In the tables and trees of these dynasties Codera^s Tratado de 
Numiamdtiea Ardbigo^E^anola (1879) has been generally followed: 
which see for lists of various petty rulers here omitted. 

t The Hammfidids took the title of Caliph or ' Prince of the Faithful.' 




24 



sPAiy 



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MINOR DYNASTIES 



25 



A.H. 

431-^50 6. HAMMtDIDS (ALGECIRAS) 

431 Mol^ammad -Mahdi 

440 -ISLasim -Wathi^ 

—460 

['Ahhadida of Seville] 



A.D. 

1039> 1058 
1039 
1048 
—1068 



414—484 7. *ABBADIDS (SEVILLE) 1023—1091 

414 Abu-l-Kasim Mohammad i. b. Isma^il . 1023 

434 AbiL-*Amr *Abbad -Ma'ta^id b. Mobammad i . 1042 

461— Abu-l-KasimMobammadn -Mu'tamidb. 'Abbad 1068— 

484 1091 

[Almoravides] 



403—483 
403 
410 
430 
466 
483 



422^461 

422 
435 
450— 
461 



8. ZAYRIDS (GRANADA) 
Zawi b. Zayri ...... 

^abbu? ....... 

Bactis b. 9abbu9 -Mi^affar -Na^ir 
^Abd-Allah b. Sayf-a^-dawla Bulukkin b. Badis 
Tamim b. Bulukkin 



1012—1090 
1012 
1019 
1038 
1073 
1090 



[Almoravidea] 

9. JAHWARIDS (CORDOVA) 

Abu-l-9azam Jabwar 

Abii-l-Walid Mobammad b. Jahwar . 

*Abd-al-Malik b. Mobammad . 

I'Ahbddids of SevilU] 



1031—1068 

1031 
1043 
1058— 
1068 



427-478 10. DHU-X-NUNIDS (TOLEDO) 

427 Isma'il -^s&x 

429 Tabya -Ma'mim b. I8ma*il 

467 — Ta^ya -Kadir b. Isma^ilb.-Ma'miin . 

478 

[AlfoMO VI of Leon] 



1035 
1037 
1074— 
1085 




26 



SPAIN 



A.H. 








A.D. 


.—478 


11. *AM1RIDS (VAT-ENCIA) 


1021—1085 


412 


'Abd-al-*Aziz -Manfiir .... 


1021 


453 


'Abd-al-Malik -Mu^affar . 






1061 


457 


'Mamun of Toledo . 






1065 


467 


•Kddir „ „ ... 






1074 


468 


AbH-Bakr b. ^Abd-al-Malik 






1075 


478 


-Ka$ 'Othman b. Abu-Bakr 






1085 


»> 


^Kadir of Toledo 






»» 



[Christians (the Cid) : -then Almoravides"] 



410—536 12. TOJIBIDS & HUDIDS (ZARAGOZA) 1019—1141 
410 Mundhir -Man^ik b. Ta^ya -Tojibi . 



414 
420 

431 
438 
474 
478 
503 
513— 
536 



Ta^ya -Mu^affar b. Mundhir 
Mundhir b. Ta^ya . 



Sulayman -Musta'in b. Hud 

Abmad Sayf-a/-dawla -Muktadir b. Sulayman 

Tusnf -Mu'taman b. Abmad 

Ahmad -Musta*in b. Ytisuf 

*Abd-al-Malik ^Imad-a/-dawla b. Ahmad . 

A^mad Sayf-a/-dawla b. *Abd-al-Malik 

[^Christians'] 



408—468 13. KINGS OF DENIA 

408 Mujahid b. Tusuf . . . . 
436 *Ali Ikbal-a/-dawla b. Mujahid 



—468 



[Sudids of Zaragoza"] 



1019 
1023 
1029 

1039 
1046 
1081 
1085 
1109 
1119— 
1141 



1017—1075 

1017 
1044— 
1075 




ALMORAVIDESy ALM0HADE8 27 

In 1086 the Almoravide^ came to Spain, summoned by 
the 'Abbadids to help them against Alfonso of Leon. In 
1090 they came again, and this time they conquered the 
whole of Moorish Spain, and made it a province of their 
African empire (see Table 19). Their successors in Africa, 
the AlmohadeSy similarly annexed the Spanish province in 
1145-50 (see Table 20). A few petty dynasties sprang up 
at Valencia and Mureia between these two invasions, and 
during the decline of the Almohades' power ; but the only 
important line was that of the Nasrids or Banu-Nasr of 
Granada, whose cultivated Court and beautiful palace, 
Alhambra, for a time revived the splendour and distinction 
of Moorish Spain as it had been in the days of the great 
Caliph 'Abd-a/-Eahman ni. Their long struggle against 
the advancing Christians, however, ended in the fall of 
Granada before the assaults of Ferdinand and Isabella in 
1492, and with the flight of Boabdil the last remnant of 
Mohammadan rule vanished from the Peninsula. 




7 14. NASRID8 




im-X492 


(GRANADA) 










1273 


Mobunnud m 






1302 


Natr Aba-l-Jnyaah 






1309 


latni'il Abfi-i-WaJid . 






1314 


Mfhammad iT . . 






132i 


Tuauf Abn-l-IJtt]iii . 






1333 


Uot»iimiad T -Ghaol . 






13£4 


lami'ilii . . . 






13S9 








1360 








1362 


Tuautn . . . 






1S91 


Mobsmniftd ni . 






1392 


Tilsuf m Abi-UHftjjij .Xi,ir 




140r 






1417 






1427 


Mobammtd vm (again) . 






1429 


Tfimfiy 






1432 


Hal^unnud vm (thiid tims) 






1432 


Hobammad x . 






1444 


Sa'd -HoBla'iu 






1445 








1446 


Sa'd (sgain) . . . 






U63 


'All Aba-I-lJaian . . 






1461 








14S2 


All Abu-t-I^aaan (again) 






1483 








14Sa 






use 


—1482 




Cm 


fe] 





NASRWS OF ORANADA 



29 



!«• 



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29—8 


97 14. NASEIDS 




1232-1^2 




(GRANADA) 


620 


Motiammad I •ahalib .... 1232 


671 


Uobtuniuad n -Fii^ih . 






1273 


701 








1302 


708 


SAir Abi-l-Jurtsh . 






1309 


713 


lami'il Abu-l-Wtdid . 






1314 


736 








1326 


733 


YfifiUf Al)u-1-Hajjaj . 






1333 


766 








1364 


760 


lani-an . 






1369 


761 


Hobammad ti Ab&-8a'ld 






1360 


783 


Hobammad t (again) . 






1362 


793 


Tfimifn 






1391 


794 


Moljanunad vn . 






1392 


810 


TfiBof in Aba.l-Hftjjij .NMir 




1*07 


82D 


Hobammad vm .Hatamatgik 




1417 


831 


Hobammad rx -Saghlr . . 




1427 


833 








1429 


83S 


Ta«nfrT . . 






1432 


S3S 


Hobammad Tm (thirt tiroa} 






1432 


S4S 


Uobammad x 






1444 


8iS 


Ba'd -Morfa'In . 






144S 


8G0 


Mohammad x (again) . 






1446 


867 


Sa'd (again) . . . 






1463 


866 


'Ali Ab6-l-yamn . 






1461 


8B7 


Motiammad xi (BoabdU) 






1482 


888 


'Ali Abik-l-Vaaan (again) 






1483 


890 


Hobammad xn (Zaghal) 






1486 


892 






14SS 


-897 








-U92 



[JMuiand and InOtlla a/ CmHU] 



NASRWS OF GRANADA 



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. NORTH AFRICA 

8^C. VIII— XIX 



15. IDRI8ID8 (MOROCCO) 

16. AQHLABID8 (TUNI8. ETC.) 

FATIMID8 {See EGYPT) 

17. ZAYRID8 (TUNI8) 

18. HAMMADID8 (ALGIERS) 

19. ALMORAVIDES (MOROCCO, ALQIER8, 8PAIN) 

20. ALM0HADE8 (NORTH AFRICA, 8PAIN) 

21. MARTnIDS (MOROCCO) 

22. ZIYANID8 (ALQIER8) 

23. HAFSID8 (TUNIS) 

24. SHARTfS (MOROCCO) 




III. FORTH AFRICA 
S^C. VIII— XIX 

The narrow strip of habitable land between the grea 
African desert and the Mediterranean Sea was always the 
nursery of schismatics. The superstitious and credulous 
Berbers offered a favourable soil for the germination of all 
varieties of Mohammadan heresy. Any prophet who found 
himself without honour in his own country had only to go 
to the Berbers of North Africa to be sure of a welcome 
and an enthusiastic following ; whilst the distance from the 
centre of the Caliphate and the natural turbulence and 
warlike character of the population predisposed the 'Abbasids 
to ignore the disloyalty of provinces which profited them 
little and cost them ceaseless energy and expense to control. 
Hence the success of such strange developments of Islam 
as the Almoravides and Almohades, the establishment of 
'Alid dynasties such as the Idnsids and Fatimids, and in 
our own time the widespread authority of the Prophet 
-Sanusi. 




34 NORTH AFRICA 

North Africa had been subdued by the Arabs with 
difficulty between the years 647 {26) and 700, and had 
since been ruled with varying success by the lieutenants of 
the Caliphs. So long as Yazld b. Hatim, the popular and 
energetic governor of Kayrawan for the *Abbasids, lived, the 
tendency of the Berbers to foster rebellion and schism was 
held in check, but on his death in 787 {170) North Africa 
became a prey to anarchy, which was only suppressed by 
allowing the local dynasties, which then sprang up, to 
exercise independent authority. After the year 800 the 
*Abbasid Caliphs had no influence whatever west of the 
frontier of Egypt. 





JDRlSIDS 




A.H. 




A.D. 


172—375 


16. IDBISIDS 

(MOROCCO) 


788—986 



35 



In the year 785 {168) an insnrrection of the partisans 
of the family of 'Al! took place at -Medina. Among those 
who took part in it was Idris b. *Abd-Allah b. Hasan 
b. Hasan b. 'All b. Abu-Talib. On the suppression of the 
revolt Idrfs fled to Egypt, and thence to Morocco where he 
founded an 'Alid dynasty in the region about Ceuta. His 
coins bear the names of the towns of Tudgha and -Wallla. 
The Idiisid dominions reached their greatest extent about 
860, and gradually dwindled until the extinction of the 
dynasty in 985 {375). Some of the dates are not recorded 
by Ibn-Khaldun. 



172 


Idris I 


788 


177 


Idris n b. Idris i 


793 


213 


Mohammad b. Idris n . . . 


828 


221 


'All I b. Mobammad 


836 


234 


Yabya I b. Mobammad . 
Yabya n b. Yabya .... 
*Ali II b. *Omar b. Idris ii . 
Yabya TTT b. -Kasim b. Idris n 


849 


292 


Yabya rv b. Idris b. *Omar . 


904 


310 


-Hasan ...... 

[Miknasa Berbers] 


922 




36 NORTH AFRICA 



A.H. 




A.D. 


184—296 


16. AGHLABIDS 
(TUNIS, ETC.) 


800—909 



Ibrahim b. -Aghlab was governor of the province of Zab 

for the Caliph at the time of confusion which followed 

upon the death of Yazld the *Abbasid governor -general 

of * Africa' (Afrikiya, i.e. Tunis) in 787 {170), and was 

appointed to the government of the whole African province 

by the Caliph Harun -Eashld in 800 {18J!i)\ but did not 

interfere with the authority of the Idrisids in the far west. 

His dynasty was practically independent, and the Aghlabids 

seldom troubled to put the Caliphs' names on their coins in 

token even of spiritual suzerainty. They were not only 

enlightened and energetic rulers on land, but employed 

large fleets on the Mediterranean, harried the coasts of 

Italy, France, Corsica, and Sardinia, and conquered Sicily in 

827-78 ; which island remained in Mo^ammadan hands until 

the conquest by the Normans. The Aghlabid domination in 

Africa when at its best was indeed the period of the 

greatest ascendancy of the Arabs in the Mediterranean : their 



AOHLABJDS 37 

corsairs were the terror of the seas, and besides Sicily they 
took Malta and Sardinia, and even invaded the subnrbs 
of Eome. The incapacity of the later Aghlabid princes, 
however, and the growth of sectarian disaffection under the 
fostering influence of the Shi'ite Idnsids in the west, paved 
the way for the Fatimid triumph in 909 {296), 

184 Ibrahim I 800 

196 »Abd-Allahi 811 

201 Ziyadat-Allah I 816 

223 Abu-'Akal -Aghlab .... 837 

226 Mohammad z 840 

242 A^mad 856 

249 Ziyadat-Allah n 863 

250 Mol^ammad n 864 

261 Ibrahim n 874 

289 <Abd- Allah n 902 

290 Ziyadat-Allah in 903 

—296 —909 




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FlTIMIDS, ZATRIDii, ETC. 39 

The Aghlabids were succeeded by the Fd^imids, who, 
however, belong more particularly to the series of Egyptian 
Dynasties (see Table 27). Their empire, which at one time 
included the whole north African coast from Egypt to the 
Atlantic, together with Sicily and Sardinia, became split 
up into various kingdoms as soon as their removal of their 
seat of government to Cairo in 972 {362) weakened their 
control of the more western provinces. Their lieutenant 
over Africa, Yusuf Bulukkin, chief of the Sanhaja Berbers, 
soon declared himself independent and founded the dynasty 
of the Zayridsy whilst another dynasty, the Hammadids, 
established themselves at Bougie (Bujaya) in Algeria and 
restricted the Zayrids' authority to little more than the 
province of Tunis. Further west in Morocco various tribes 
of Berbers, -Miknasa, Maghrawa, etc., acquired independence, 
and occupied the site of the Idrisids' kingdom, but hardly 
attained to the dignity of dynasties. These were in turn 
subdued by the Almorapides, who also took a large part of 
the territory of the Hammadids of Algeria; but it was 
reserved for the Almohades to reign in the capitals of 
Hammad and Zayif . 




40 



NORTH AFRICA 



A.H. 








A.D. 


362-543 17. ZAYRIDS 972—1148 




(TUNIS) 


362 


Yusuf Bulukkln b. Zayri ... 972 


373 


MansiLr b. Yiisuf . 






983 


386 


Badis b. Man^iir . 






996 


406 


-Mu'izz b. Badis . 






1015 


453 


Tamim b. -Mu'izz 






1061 


501 


Yahya b. Tamim . 






1107 


509 


*Ali b. Ya1?ya 






1115 


516 


-^asan b. *Ali 






1121 


—543 








—1148 



[Roger of Sicily ; then Almohades] 

398—547 HAMMADIDS 1007—1152 

(ALGERIA) 

398 ^ammad 1007 

419 .Raid b. Hammad 1028 

446 Mubassin b. -Kai'd .... 1054 

447 Bulukkin b. Mohammad b. Qammad . 1055 
454 ? -Na^ir b. 'Alnas b. Mobamm^d . . 1062 ? 
481 -Man^iir b. -Ka^ir .... 1088 

498 Badis ....... 1104 

500 .*Aziz 1106 

? Yabya b. -'Aziz . . . . . 

—547 —1152 

[Almohades] 




ALMORA VIDES 41 

A.H. A.D. 

448—641 19. ALMORAVTDES (-MURABITS) 1056—1147 
(MOROCCO, PART OF ALGERIA, SPAIN) 

In the middle of the eleventh century the successes of the 
Christians in Spain, the energy of the Genoese and Fisans 
in recovering for Christendom the islands of Corsica and 
Sardinia, and the valour of the Normans in Southern Italy, 
had thoroughly humbled the power of the Muslims in the 
Mediterranean. The Fatimids of Egypt alone maintained 
the ancient prestige of the Saracens. The Zayrids of Tunis 
were incapable even of repressing the frequent revolts 
which disturbed their restricted dominion; and the rivalry 
between Zayrids, Hammadids, and Fatimids prevented any 
collective action against the Christians. It was time for a 
Mohammadan revival, and among a people so easily excited 
to religious exaltation as the Berbers a revival was always 
possible if a prophet could be found. The prophet appeared 
among the tribe of Lamtuna in the person of 'Abd-Allah 
b. Tashfin. This man preached a holy war for the glory of 
Islam, and the Berbers were not slow to follow him. His 
adherents called themselves AUMwrdhitln, which means 
literally 'pickets who have hobbled their horses on the 
enemy's frontier,' and hence ' Frotagonists for the Faith.' 




42 NORTH AFRICA 

The Spaniards corrupted the name into Almoravides, and 
the French marabout, or devotee, is another perversion of 
it. The Almoravides acknowledged the supremacy of the 
*Abbasid Caliphs. The Lamtuna Berbers under 'Abd-Allah 
were joined by the great clan of the Masmuda, and led by 
Abu-Bakr and his second cousin Yusuf b. Tashfin, reduced 
Sijihnasa and Aghmat by 1068 {1^60) , founded the city of 
Morocco (Marrakush), and in the course of the next fifteen 
years spread over Fez, Mequinez (Miknasa), Ceuta (Sabta), 
Tangier (Tanja), Salee, and the west of Morocco. In 1086 
Tusuf b. Tashfin, whose great qualities both as general 
and as administrator had secured the devotion of the 
Protagonists, was entreated by the 'Abbadids of Spain 
to come over and help them against the assaults of 
Alfonso VI. and Sancho of Aragon and the invincible valour 
of the Cid Campeador Eodrigo Diaz de Bivar. Yusuf utterly 
crushed the Castilian army at the battle of Zallaka, or, as 
the Spaniards call it, SacraHas, near Badajoz, October 23, 
1086; but he did not follow up his victory. Leaving 3000 
Berbers to support the Andalusians he returned to Africa. 
But in 1090 the King of Seville again prayed him to come 
and help him against the Christians, and this time Yusuf 
annexed the whole of Moorish Spain, with the exception of 




ALMORAVIDES 43 

Toledo, wbich remained in the possession of the Christians, 
and Zaragosa, where the Hudids were suffered to subsist. 
The success of the ALnoraTides, however, was fleeting. 
Their hardy warriors soon became enervated in soft 
Andalusia, and offered no adequate resistance to the steady 
advance of the Christians. They made no attempt to recover 
the command of the Mediterranean, and were content to 
leave the Hammadids and Zayrids in possession of most of 
Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli. .The Almoravide dynasty had 
lasted less than a century when the fanatical rush of the 
Almohades swept over the whole of north Africa and 
southern Spain, and left no rival house standing. 

A.H. A.D. 

448 Abii-Bakr 1056 

480 YiiBiif ....... 1087 

600 *Ali 1106 

537 Tashfin 1143 

541 Ibrahim 1146 

541 Is^ail^ 1147 




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ALMOHADES 45 



▲.H. A.D. 

524--667 20. ALMOHADES (MUWAH^IDS) 1130-1269 

(ALL NOKTH AFKICA) 

The Muwahhids (in Spanish, Ahnohades) or Unitarians 
were so called because their doctrine was a protest against 
the realistic anthropomorphism of orthodox Islam. Their 
prophet Abu-*Abd-Allah Mohammad b. Tumart, a Berber 
of the Masmuda tribe, began to preach the doctrine of the 
Unity of God {-Tawhld) and took the symbolic title of the 
Mahdi, at the beginning of the 12th century. Dying in 
1128 {522) he left the command of the Unitarians to his 
friend and general 'Abd-al-Mu*min, who formally accepted 
the chief authority oyer the Masmuda Muwahhids in 1130. 
In 1140 {53Ii) ^Abd-al-Mu*min began a long career of 
conquest. He annihilated the army of the Almoravides in 
1144, captured Oran, Tilimsan, Fez, Ceuta, Aghmat, and 
Salee in two years, and by the successful siege of Morocco 
in 1146 {5Ifl) put an end to the Almoravide dynasty. 
Meanwhile he had sent an army into Spain (1145) and in 
the course of five years reduced the whole Moorish part of 



46 NORTH AFRICA 

the Peninsula to bis sway. Master of Morocco and Spain, 
lie next carried bis conquests eastwards, and in 1152 {5Ipf) 
abolished the Hammudid rule in Algeria; in 1158 (553) he 
droTO the Norman successors of the Zayrids out of Tunis, 
and by the annexation of Tripoli united the whole coast 
from the frontier of Egypt to the Atlantic together with 
Moorish Spain under bis sceptre. The Holy War with the 
Christians in Spain was the chief anxiety of bis successors, 
and the disastrous defeat at Las Navas in 1235 {632) was the 
signal for the expulsion of the Almohades from the Peninsula, 
which was then divided between the eyer-encroacbing 
Christians and the local Mo^ammadan dynasties, among 
whom the Na^rids of Granada (Table 14) offered the most 
stubborn resistance to the enemy, and held out until the 
fall of their city in 1492 delivered the whole of Spain over 
to Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic. The loss of Spain 
was quickly followed by the undermining of the Almohades' 
power in Africa. Tripoli had long before been annexed by 
Saladin (1172). Their lieutenants in Tunis, the Hafsid9^ 
threw gS, their allegiance and founded an independent 
dynasty in 1228 ; whose example was followed by the 
Ziy&nids of TlemQen (Tilimsan) in western Algeria, in 1235 ; 
while, amidst the confusion created by many pretenders to 



ALM0HADE8 



47 



the throne of Morocco, the chiefs of the mountain trihe of 
the Marinida pushed their way to the front and put an end 
to the dynasty of the Almohades by the conquest of their 
capital, Morocco, in 1269 {667). 



A.H. 




A.D. 


524 


*Abd-al-Ma'min 


1130 


658 


Abu-Ya*^Lub Yusuf i . . . . 


1163 


580 


Abti-Yusuf Ya*kub -Mansur . 


1184 


595 


Mobammad -Na^ir . . . . 


1199 


611 


Abu-Ya*kub Yusuf n -Mustansir . 


1214 


620 


*Abd-al.Wabid -Makhlu* . 


1223 


621 


Abu-Mohammad *Abd- Allah -*Adil 


1224 


624 


Yabya -Mu*ta?im 


1227 


626 


Abu-l-*ina Idris -Ma*mun . 


1229 


630 


*Abd-al. Wabid -Rashid 


1232 


640 


Abu-1-Hasan *Ali -Sa'id 


1242 


646 


Abii-Haf? *Omar -Murtada . 


1248 


665 


Abu-l-'Ula -Wathik . 


1266 


—667 




—1269 



[Manntdsy Ziydnidt, ^qfyida] 




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HAFSIDS 49 



A.H. A.D. 

626—941 21. HAFSIDS 1228-1634 

• • 

(TUNIS) 

The Haloids were at first lieutenants of the Almohades 
in their province of Tunis. The government passed from 
father to son, and the dynasty became independent. For 
three centuries the Hafsids governed Tunis with justice 
and mildness, and cultivated friendly commercial relations 
with the trading republics of Italy. The Corsair Khayr-a/- 
din Barbarossa conquered Turns in the name of the Ottoman 
Sult^ in 1534, and though the Emperor Charles v. 
restored the Haloid king in 1535 and placed a Spanish 
garrison at the Goletta of Tunis, the province remained 
chiefly in the hands of the Corsairs, who re-took Tunis 
itself in 1568 and the Goletta in 1574;* since when, it 
has been a province of the Ottoman Empire, but in 1881 
became practically a possession of France. Tripoli, which 
had been taken from the kingdom of Tunis by the 
Spaniards in 1510, was added to the Ottoman Empire by 
the Corsairs in 1551. 

♦ See my Barbary Corsairs (1890), ch. viii, xii, xiv, xv. 




50 



NORTH AFRICA 



A.H. 

625 
647 
675 
678 
683 
694 
709 
709 
711 
717 
718 
747 
[747 
750 
761 
770 
772 
796 
837 
839 
893 
899 
932 
—941 



Abii-Zakarya Yal^ya i . 
Abu- *Abd- Allah Mohammad i -Mustan^ir 
Abu-Zakarya Yabja u . 
Abu-Isbak Ibrahim i . 
i^bii-Haf^ 'Omar i 
Abu- 'Abd- Allah Mol^amm^d n -Mustan^ir 
Abu-Bakr I -Shadid . 
Abu-l-Baka Khalid I . 
Abii-Ya^ya Zakarya . 
Abu-Darba Mol^ammad m -Mostan^ir 
Abii-Yahya Abu-Bakr n -Matawakkil 
Abu-Haff 'Omar n 
Marlnid occupation 
Abu-1- 'Abbas Abmad i -Fadl 
Abu-Isl^ak Ibrahim u -Mustang 
Abu.l-Baka Ehalid u . 
Aba-1- 'Abbas Al^mad n -Mustan^ir 
Abu-Faris 'Abd-al-'Aziz 
Mohammad rv -Munta^ir 
Abii-'Amr 'Othman 
Abu-Zakarya Ya^^ya in 
Abu- *Abd- Allah Mohammad v 
-Hasan 



A.D. 

1228 
1249 
1277 
1279 
1284 
1295 
1309 
1309 
1311 
1317 
1318 
1346 
1346 
1349 
1350 
1368 
1370 
1394 
1433 
1435 
1488 
1493 
1525 
—1534 



[Corsair FaahaSy and Bey», under the Ottoman Sultans] 



ZITANIDS 



&1 



A.M. 

633—796 



22. ZITANIDS 

(ALGERIA) 



A.D. 

1236—1393 



The Zijanids, lieutenants of the Almohades in Algeria, 
followed the example of their neighbours the Hafsids to 
make themselves independent as soon as their masters began 
to grow feeble. Their capital was Tlem9en (Tilimsan). In 
their turn the Ziyanids succumbed to the power of the 
Marinids of Morocco in 1393. 



633 Tagmorasan b. Ziyan 

681 'Othmani .... 

703 Abu-Ziyani 

707 Abu-Hammu Mfisa i 

718 Abu-Tashfin 'Abd.a/-Ea}?man i 

f Abu-Sa*id *Othman ii . 

I Abu-Thabit -Zaim 
753 Abu-Hammu Musa n 
788 Abfi-Tashfin 'Abd-aZ-Babman ii 
796 Abu-Ziyann 



1235 
1282 
1303 
1307 
1318 

1348 

1352 
1386 
1393 



[Marinidi of Morocco] 




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CORSAIRS AND OTTOMANS 56 

From the 16th to the present century the North African 
provinces of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli were in the posses- 
sion, more or less nominal, of the ^Oihmdntl or Ottoman 
Sultans of Turkey. The annexation of these provinces was 
due to the energy of the Earbary Corsairs. Previously to 
the arrival of Earbarossa, the Spaniards under Don Pedro 
Navarro had established several strong positions on the 
African coast, at the Peiion de Alger, Eougie (Eujaya), 
Oran (Wahran), Tripoli, etc., with a view to overawing the 
petty pirates of Algiers. In 1509 TJruj Earbarossa, a 
Lesbian adventurer, occupied the island of Jarba, off the 
coast of Tripoli, and began his operations against the 
Spaniards. He took Jijil in 1514, Algiers in 1516, Tinnis 
and Tlem9en (Tilimsan) from the Marinids in 1517; and 
in 1519 his brother Khayr-a/-dm Earbarossa was recognised 
by the Ottoman Sultan as Eeglerbeg or Governor- General 
of the province of Algiers, which corresponded very nearly 
to the Algeria of to-day, though the Spaniards kept their 
hold on the fortress or Peiion de Alger until 1530 and held 
Oran till 1706. In 1534 E3iayr-a/-dln took Tunis from the 
Hafsids, but the city was retaken by the Emperor Charles v. 
in the following year, and not restored to the Corsairs of 
Algiers till 1568. It was again captured for the moment 




56 NORTH AFRICA 

by Don John of Austria in 1573, but finally annexed by 
Ochiali (XJluj *AlI) in 1674. Meanwhile another Corsair, 
Dragut (Torghud), reduced Tripoli to the authority of the 
Porte in 1551, and drove out the Knights of St. John, 
who had held it since their eicpulsion from Rhodes in 1522. 
The three provinces of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli were 
thus annexed to the Turkish Empire in 1519, 1568, and 
1651, respectively. Algiers was governed first by a series 
of twenty-six Pashas, appointed from Constantinople; but 
in 1671 the janissary garrison of Algiers elected a Bey 
from amongst themselves, whose power soon eclipsed that 
of the Pasha, and in 1710 the two offices were united in 
that of Dey, which subsisted until the French conquest in 
1830. Tunis was governed until 1706 by Deys appointed by 
the Porte, after which the Turkish soldiery elected their 
own Beys^ one of whom still affects to reign, though Tunis 
has been occupied by France since 1881. Tripoli is still a 
Turkish province governed by a Pasha appointed by the 
Sultan. Morocco alone of the North African provinces has 
never owned Christian rule, though the Spaniards held 
various forts on the coast, and still retain Ceuta; and the 
English once owned Tangier, but neglected to keep it.* 

* See my Barhary Corsairs (1890). 



MARtNIDS 



67 



A.H. 




A.D. 


691—876 


23. MARLNIDS 

(MOROCCO) 


1196-U70 



The Marinids traced their dynasty from 1195 {591)^ as 
rulers in the highlands of Morocco ; but they did not succeed 
to the capital of the Almohades till 1269 {667). Soon after 
1393 {796) they added to their kingdom the territory of the 
Ziyanids in western Algeria. They were superseded by 
their kinsmen the Wat'asids in 1470. 



591 


*Abd-al-HaVV 








1195 


614 


^Otlunan i . 








1217 


637 


Mohammad i 








1239 


642 


Abu-Ta^ya Aba-Bakr 








1244 


656 


Abu-Yu8uf Ya*^^ub 








1258 


685 


Abu-Ya*Viib Yiifluf 








1286 


706 


Abu-Thabit *Ainir 








1306 


708 


Aba-/-Rabi* Sulayman 








1308 


710 


Abii-Sa^id 'Othman n . 








1310 


731 


Aba-1-Fasan 'Ali . 

• 








1331 


749 


Abii-Aynan . 








1348 


759 


.Sa*id .... 








1358 


760 


Abf^-Salim Ibrahim 








1359 


762 


Abu- 'Omar Tashfin 






• 


1361 


763 


*Abd-al-Halim . 

• 








1361 


763 


Aba-Ziyan Mo^jiammad ii 






1361 


768 


*Abd-al-*Aziz 








1366 




58 NORTH AFRICA 

774 Moljiammad m -Sa'id .... 1372 
I Aba-l-^Abbas Al^mad -Mustan^ir . | 
I *Abd-a/- Rahman . . . . J 

786 Musa 1384 

786 .Munta^ir ...... 1384 

788 Moljiaininad rr -WathO: 1386 

789 Abu-l- 'Abbas Abmad -Mustan^ir (again) 1387 
796 Abu-Faris 1393 

P Fans -MutawakkU .... P 

811 Abu-Sa*id 1408 



( Sa^id 
I Ya'^b 



819 ^ .... _* * ' \ 1416 



) 



827 *Abd.Allah 1424 

876 Sharif 1470 

WAT^ASIDS 

876 Sa*id, Shaykh Wat^as . . .^ . 1470 

906 Mobammad i b. Sa^id .... 16oO 

936 Abmad b. Mobammad . 1630 

967 Mobammad ii b. Abmad 1660 

[Sharlfa of Morocco] 



MARiNIDS 



69 



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60 NORTH AFRICA 



A.H. A.D. 

961—1311 24. SHARlFS 1644—1893 

reigning (MOROCCO) reigning 

The title Sharif (lit. * noble ') impHes descent from the 
Prophet Mohammad, from whom the Sharffs of Morocco 
trace their lineage through Hasan the elder son of Fatima 
by 'All. The Sharif s possessed themselves of Tarudant in 
1515, and Morocco and Yez soon afterwards, but their 
formal assumption of sovereignty dates from 1544 {951), 
The series falls into. two divisions, Hasan! and Filali Sharif s, 
and a period of anarchy for six years occurred between the 
two. Their boundaries have always remained much as they 
are in the present day, but there has frequently been a 
rival Shatif at Fez in opposition to the Sharif of Morocco. 
The Sharifs claim to be inheritors of the title of Caliph 
and Prince of the Faithful. 



SSARIFS 



61 



A.H. A.D. 

A. HASANI SHABIFS 1644—1658 

Mol^ammad i -Shaykh . . . 1544 

*Abd-AUah. . . . .. 1667 

Mohammad n 1673 

Abu-Marwan 'Abd-al-Malik i 1675 

Abu-1-* Abbas A^mad i -Man^oor . 1678 
Shaykh v 

Abu-Farifl I rivals .... 1603 
Zaydan ^ 

Zaydan (alone) 1608 

Abu-Marwan *Abd-al-Malik n . 1628 

Walid 1630 

Mobammad ni 1635 

Abmad u 1664 

—1668 



961—1069 

961 
965 
981 
983 
986 

1012 

1016 
1038 
1040 
1046 
1064 
—1069 



1075—1311 B. FILALI SHARIFS 

1076 -Kashid b. -Sharif b. 'Ali 



1664-1893 

1664 
1672 
1727 
1729 
1767 
1789 
1792 
1796 
1822 
1869 
1873 



• Interrupted by *Ali b. Isma^fl, 1147-9; -Musta4l b. Isma^fl, 
1161-3, and Zayn-al-'Abidin, 1168. 



1083 


Isma*il -Samin . 


1139 


Abmad -Dhahabi 


1141 


*Abd-Allah* 


1171 


Mobammad i 


1204 


-Yazid . i 


1206 


Hifiham 


1209 


Sulayman 


1238 


'Abd-aZ-Rabman . 


1276 


Mobammad n 


1290 


Hasan (now reigning) 



62 



NORTH AFRICA 



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IV. EGYPT AND SYRIA 

S^C. IX— XIX. 

25. TULUNIDS 

26. IKHSHTdIDS 

27. FATIMIDS 

28. AYYUBIDS 

29. MAMLUKS 

•OTHMANLTs {See Z) 

30. KHEDIVES 



r 



lY. EGYPT AN^D SYRIA 
S^C. IX— XIX 

Egypt and Syria have generally formed one government 
in Mohammadan history. Syria was conquered by the 
Arabs in 635-638 (U-IT), and Egypt in 641 {21). From 
the time of the conquest to 868 {254) Egypt was ruled 
as a separate province by 98 governors appointed by the 
Omayyad and *Abbasid Caliphs ; but the new governor in 
868, Ahmad b. Tulun, founded a dynasty which lasted 
37 years. This was succeeded after an interval by the 
Ikhshidids, who in turn gave place to the greatest of 
mediaeval Egyptian dynasties, that of the Eatimid Caliphs. 
Under these last, however, Syria became the seat of 
independent dynasties (Mirdasids, Burids, Zangids), but was 
again united to Egypt by Saladin, the founder of the 
Ayyubid dynasty, and so continued until both became 
separate provinces of the Ottoman Empire. In 1831 Ibra- 
him Pasha, eldest sdn of Mohammad ^Ali, again joined 
Syria to the dominions of the ruler of Egypt, but it was 
restored to the Porte in 1841 by the intervention of the 
European Powers, and has ever since been a Turkish vilayat. 




68 



EGYPT AND SYRIA 



A.H. 

264—292 



TULUNIDS 



A.D. 

868—905 



Tulun was a Turkish slave, who was sent by the S&manid 
ruler of Bukhara as a present to the Caliph -Ma*mun, and 
attained high rank in the court at Baghdad and Surra- 
man-ra*a. His son Ahmad succeeded to his father's dignity 
in 240, and was appointed deputy -governor of Egypt 
in 868 {25Ii)y where he soon made himself practically 
independent. In 877 {26Ii) he was allowed to incorporate 
Syria in his government, and the two countries remained 
in the possession of his dynasty until its extinction in 
905 {292), The Tulunids were renowned for the wealth 
and luxury of their capital -Katai' (between -Fustat and 
the later Cairo) and for their public works. 



A.H. 

254 
270 
282 
283 
292 



A^mad b. TMiin .... 

Khamarawayh b. Abmad 

Jaysh Abu-1-Asakir b. Kbumarawayh 

Harfin b. Khamarawayh . 

Shayban b. Al^mad .... 



A.D. 

868 
883 
895 
896 
904 
—905 



[Owemara under the 'Abbaaid Caliphs] 



IKHSHIDIDS 69 



A.H. A.D. 

323—358 TKH8HIDID9 936-969 

After a brief interval, during which the governors of 
the 'Abbasid Caliphs again held precarious sway in Egypt 
and Syria, Mohammad -Ikhshid established another quasi- 
independent dynasty. -Ikhshid was the generic title of the 
rulers of Farghana, beyond the Oxus, and T^ghj, the father 
of Mohammad, was the son of a Farghana officer in the 
service of the Caliph of Baghdad. T^g^j ^^ to be 
governor of Damascus, but was disgraced and died in prison. 
Mohammad retrieved his father's misfortune and became in 
turn governor of Damascus in S18y and in 321 governor of 
Eg3^t. He did not take over the office, however, till 
935 {323). In 938 {327) he assumed the title of -Ikhshid, 
and in 941 {330) Syria was added to his dominions, together 
with Mecca and Medina in the following year. 

A.H. A.D. 

323 Mohammad -Ikhshid b. T^igl^j * • ^35^ 

334 Abu-l-Kasim Ungiir b. -Ikhshid . . 946 

349 Abu-l-Hasan 'Ali b. -Ikhshid ... 960 

355 Abu-1-Misk Kafur [a eunuch] . 966 

357 Abu-1-Fawaris A^mad b. 'All . , . 961 

—358 —969 

[Fa^imida] 




70 EGYPT AND SYRIA 



A.H. A.D. 

297-667 27. FATIMIDS 909—1171 

The Fatimids, like the Idrisids, were (or pretended to be) 
descendants of Fafima the daughter of the Prophet (see 
the genealogical table, p. 72). The Idrisids had prepared 
the way for them, and numerous dd^U. or missionaries had 
impregnated the Berbers with Shi4te doctrine, until the 
task of the new Prophet *Obayd Allah, who took the title 
of AUMahdi, and claimed to be Caliph and Prince of the 
Faithful, became simple : in 909 {297) he suppressed the 
effete remnant of the Aghlabids and soon made himself 
master of all North Africa, with the exception of the 
Idrisid kingdom in Morocco. The Fatimid capital was 
the city of -Mahdiya (the 'Africa' of Froissart) near 
Tunis. Half a century later they added Egypt and Syria 
to their dominions. Jawhar the Fatimid general conquered 
the former country from the boy-king of the Ikhshldid 
dynasty in 969 {356\ and founded the fortified palace of 
-Xahira, which developed into the city of Cairo. Southern 
Syria was taken at the same time, and Aleppo was in- 
corporated in 991 {381) in the Fatimid Empire, which now 
stretched from the Syrian desert and the Orontes to the 




FATIMIDS 



71 



borders of Morocco. The removal of the seat of government 
from Kayruwan and -Mahdiya to Cairo, however, cost the 
Fatimids the loss of their western provinces (see p. 39); 
and the Normans gained Sicily in 1071, Malta in 1098, 
Tripoli in 1146 and -Mahdiya and Kayruwan in 1148 : but 
the power of the Fatimid Caliphs in Egypt and Syria long 
continued undiminished and their wealth and commerce 
spread throughout the Mediterranean lands. Saladin sup- 
planted the last Fatimid Caliph in 11 71 {567), 



A.H. 




A.D. 


297 


-Mahdi Abu-Mo^ammad 'Obayd- Allah 


909 


322 


-Kaim Abu-1-Kasim Mohammad 


934 


334 


-Man^fir Abii-Tahir Isma^il . 


945 


341 


-Mu*izz Abu-Tamlm Ma'add . 


952 


365 


-*Aziz Abii-MaTi?i!ir Nazar 


975 


386 


-Hakim Abu-*Ali -Man?^ 


996 


411 


-?ahir Abu-l-Hasan *Ali 


1020 


427 


-Mustan^ir Abu-Tamim Ma'add 


1035 


487 


-Musta'li Abu-l-Kasim Al^mad 


1094 


495 


-Amir Abil-^Ali -Man^ur 


1101 


524 


•Hafiz Abu-1-Maymiin *Abd-al-Majid 


1130 


544 


-i^aflr Abii-l-Man^iir Isma^il . 


1149 


549 


-Fai'z Abil-l-Kasim *l8a . . . . 


1154 


555 


-*A4id Abu-Mo^ammad *Abd- Allah 


1160 


—567 




—1171 



-f^s- 



\AyyuHd8] 




72 



EGYPT AND SYRIA 



The Twelve Imams of the Imam! Sect 



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FATIMIDS 



73 









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74 EGYPT AND STRIA 



A.H. A.D. 

564-648 28. AYYUBIDS 1169-1250 

Salah-aZ-din, or Salaxiin, the son of Ayyub (Job), was of 
Kurdish extraction, and served under Nur-a/-din (Nouredin) 
Mahmud b. ZangT, who had lately made himself king of Syria 
(see IX.). By him Saladin and his uncle Shirkuh were sent 
to Egypt, where a civil wax invited interference. Friendly 
assistance developed into annexation, and after the death 
of Shirkuh Saladin became virtual master of Egypt in 
1169 {56If)y though the last Eatimid Caliph did not die till 
three years later. In the first month of 567 (Sept. 1171) 
Saladin caused the Khutha or public prayer to be said at 
Cairo in the name of the contemporary 'Abbasid Caliph 
-Musta4i) instead of the Eatimid -^Adid, who lay on his 
death-bed. The change was effected without disturbance, 
and Egypt became once more Sunnite instead of Shi4te. 
The Holy Cities of the Hijaz generally formed part of the 
dominion of the ruler of Eg3^t; and in 1173 {569) Saladin 
sent his brother Turan-Shah to govern the Yaman (see 



A TYUBIDS 75 

v.). Tripoli was taken from the NormaiiB in 1172 
{568), The death of his former master Nur-aZ-dIn in the 
same year laid Syria open to invasion, and in 1174 
{570) Saladin entered Damascus * and swept over Syria 
{570-572) up to the Euphrates in spite of the opposition 
of the Zangids. He did not annex Aleppo until 1183 
(579), after the death of Nur-aZ- din's son, -Salih. 
He reduced -Mo^il and made the various princes of 
Mesopotamia his vassals in 1185-6 {581), He was now 
master of the country from the Euphrates to the Nile, 
except where the Crusaders retained their strongholds. The 
battle of Hittin, 4 July, 1187, destroyed the Christian 
kingdom of Jerusalem; the Holy City was occupied by 
Saladin within three months; and hardly a castle, save 
Tyre, held out against him. The fall of Jerusalem roused 
Europe to undertake the Third Crusade. Eichard I. of 
England and Philip Augustus of France set out for the 
Holy Land in 1190, and joined in the siege of Acre in 
1191. After a year and a halfs fighting, peace was 
concluded in 1192 for three years without any advantage 
having been gained by the Crusaders. Xn March 1193 
{589) Saladin died. 

On his death, his brothers, sons, and nephews, divided the 




76 EGYPT AND SYRIA 

various proyinces of his wide kingdom, but one amongst 
them, his brother Sayf-a/-din -'Adil, the Saphadin of 
the Crusader chroniclers, gradually acquired the supreme 
authority. At first Saladin's sons naturally succeeded to 
their father's crowns in the various divisions of the 
kingdom : — -Afdal at Damascus, -'Aziz at Cairo, -Zahir at 
Aleppo. But in 1196 (^592) -Af^al was succeeded by -'Adil 
at Damascus ; in 1199 {596) -Mansur the successor of 
-'Aziz was supplanted by -'Adil at Cairo; and Aleppo 
alone remained to the direct descendants of Saladin until 
1260 {61^8). 

Having acquired the sovereignty of Egypt and most of 
Syria in 1196-9, and appointed one of his sons to the 
government of Mesopotamia about 1200 {597), -'Adil 
enjoyed the supreme authority in the Ayyubid kingdom till 
his death in 1218 {615), His descendants carried on his 
rule in the several countries ; and we find separate branches 
reigning in Eg3^t, Damascus, and Mesopotamia, all sprung 
from -'Adil. Those who reigned at Hamah, Emesa, and 
in the Taman, were descended from other members of the 
Ayyubid family. 

In 1260 {6If8) the 'Adili Ayyubids of Egypt, the chief 
branch of the family, who also frequently held Syria, 



Xiijm.a/-dm AYYU 
t668 



-Nasir $ala^-a/-dm Yusuf 
(saladin) t689 



-At'dal -*Aziz 

'All *Othman 
(D. 582-92 (E.689- 
t 622) t 596) 



-Man^iir -*Aziz -Salih 
Mohammad Mohammad Al^mad 
(E.'596-6) (A. 613- 
t634) 



-Na?ir 

Yusuf 

(A. 634-58 

D. 648-68 

t669) 



-?ahir Ehidr Mu'ayyad -Ki 

Ghazi {JBap^a) Mas^ud Mo^a 

(A. 682- (t 606) (E. ( 

t 613) t e'i 



'Adi 

Ahii-I 

(E. D. 6 J 



-Ashraf -*Aziz 

Musa Mohammad 
(E. 648-60) 



[A.=A1 



7< 

VI 

th 
th 
ai 
til 
ki 
A 

ai 

.< 

a] 



S 

g 
e: 

h 

r 

n 

f] 




A YYOBIDS 



77 



made way for the Bahri Mamluks or Slave Kings. The 
Damascus branch, after contesting the sovereignty of Syria 
with the Egyptian and Aleppo branches, was incorporated 
with Aleppo, and both were swept away in the Tatar 
avalanche of Chinghiz Khan in 1260 {658), The same 
fate had overtaken the Mesopotamian successors of -^Adil 
in 1245 \6If3), The Mamluks absorbed Emesa in 1262 
{661). The Ayyubids had given place to the Rasulids 
in Arabia as early as 1228 {625), But at Hamah a branch 
of the family of Saladin continued to rule with slight 
intermission imtil 1341 {7If2\ and numbered in their line 
the well-known historian Abu-l-Fida, 



A.H. 



A. EGYPT 



A.D. 



564 


-Nasir §alah-a^diIl Yiisuf {Saladin) 


1169 


689 


-'Aziz 'Imad-a/'din 'Othman . 


1193 


695 


-Man^ur Mohammad .... 


1198 


596 


-*Adil Sayf-a^dm Abu-Bakr ♦ (Saphadin) 


1199 


615 


-Kamil Mohammad * . . . . 


1218 


635 


- * Adil II Sayf -aZ-din Abii-Bakr ♦ . 


1238 


637 


-§alih Najm-aZ-dinAyy^b* . 


1240 


647 


-Mu*azzam Turan-Shah* 


1249 


648 


-Ashraf Musa . * . . . 


1250 


—650 




1252 



[Mamluks] 
* These Sultans also ruled at Damascus. 



# 



78 



EGYPT AND STRIA 



iL.'a. 



B. DAMASCUS 



A.D. 



5S2 


-AfdalNTir-a/-dm*Ali . 




» 


. 1186 


592 


-'Adil Sayf-aZ-din A})u.Bakr {see 


^ypt) 


1196 


615 


-Mu^a^^m Sharaf-a/-din 'Isa . 


• * 


. 1218 


624 


-Na^ir l^ala^-a/-^ Dawiid . 






. 1227 


626 


-Ashraf Musa {of Mesopotamia) 






. 1228 


635 


-Salil^ Isma^U. 






1237 


635 


-Kamil {of Egypt) . 






1237 


635 


.*AdU ( „ ) . . . 






1238 


637 


-$aU^ ( „ ) . . . 






1240 


637 


-I^ali^ Isma^il (restored) . 






1240 


643 


•r^\i\ {of Egypt) . 






1245 


647 


-Mu*a?zam {of Egypt) , 






1249 


648 


-Na^ir l^ala^-aZ-din Tusuf {of Aleppo) 


1250 


—658 








—1260 



[Tatars'] 



582 
613 
634 
— 668 



0. ALEPPO 

-i^ahir Ghiyath-aZ-din Gbazi . 
•*Aziz Ghiyath-a^-din Mohammad . 
■Na^ir $ala1^-a/-diii Yusuf {see Damascus) 

[Tatars'] 



1186 
1216 
1236 
—1260 



D. MESOPOTAMIA 

597? - Awljiad Najm-a/-dm AyyQb . . . 1200? 

607 -Ashraf MuzaJOPar-aZ-din Musa {see Damascus) 1210 

628 -Miliar Ghazi ..... 1230 

—643 —1246 

[Tatars] 



A YTUBIDS 



79 



A.H. 



A.D. 



E. HAMAH 



674 


-Muzaffar i Taki-a/-dTn *Oiiiar 


1178 


687 


-Mansur i Mohammad .... 


1191 


617 


-Na§ir Kilij-Arslan. .... 


1220 


626 


-Mu^alPar n Taki-a^-^n Mahmiid . 


1229 


642 


-Mansur ii Mohammad .... 


1244 


683 


-Muzaffar ni Mahmiid • . 


1284 


—698 


[Governors under the Mamluk Sulfdns] 


—1298 


710 


-Mu'ayyadAhQ-l-FidaIsma-*il(<A^Aw/ma«) 


1310 


733 


-Afdal Mohammad .... 


1332 


—742 




—1341 



674 
681 

637 
644 
—661 



669 
677 
693 
698 
611 
612 



[Mamluks] 

F. EMESA (HIMS) 

-Mol^ammad h. Shirkiih . 
-Mujahid Shirkiih .... 
-Man^iir Ihrahim .... 
-Ashraf Muzaffar-aZ-din Miisa 

[Mamluks] 

G. ARABIA 

-Mu'a^^am TCiran-Shah h. Ayyub . 

-Sayf-al-Islam Tughtakin h. Ayyub 

-Mu^izz-aZ-^n Isma'il .. 

-Na^ir Ayyiib. .... 

-Muzaffar Sulayman 

-Mas'ud $ala^-a/-din Tfisuf . 



1178 
1186 
1239 
1246 
—1262 



—626 or 626 



1173 
1181 
1196 
1201 
1214 
1216 
—1228 



[Sasulids'] 




80 EGYPT AND STRIA 

A.H. A.D. 

650—922 29. MAMLUK SULTANS 1252—1517 

Mamluk means * owned,' and W6is generally applied to 
a white slave. The Mamluk Sultans of Egypt were 
Turkish and Circassian slaves, and had their origin in the 
purchased body-guard of the Ayyuhid Sultan -Salih Ayyub. 
The first of their line was a woman, Queen Shajar-a/-durr, 
widow of -Salih ; but a representative of the Ayyubid 
family (Musa) was accorded the nominal dignity of joint 
sovereignty for a few years. Then followed a succession 
of slave kings, divided into two dynasties, the Bahri (*of 
the Eiver') and the Burji (*of the Fort') who ruled 
Egypt and Syria down to the beginning of the 16th 
century. In spite of their short reigns and frequent 
civil wars and assassinations, they maintained as a rule a 
well-organized government, and Cairo is still full of proofs 
of their appreciation of art and their love of building.* 
Their warlike qualities were no less conspicuous in their 
successful resistance to the Crusaders, and to the Tatar 
hordes that overran Asia and menaced Egypt in the 13th 
century. 

* See my Cairo (1892) chap, iii, and Art of the Saracens of Egypt 
(1886) chap. i. 



MAltLVKS 



81 



A.H. 




A.D. 


648—792 


A. BAHRT MAMLTlKa 

• 


1250—1390 


648 


Shajar-a^-dnrr 


1250 


648 


-MaHzz ^I^z-aZ-din Aybak . . . . 


1250 


655 


-Maii?ur Nnr-aZ-^n *Ali . . . . 


1257 


667 


-Mu^affar Sayt-a/-^ Ku|uz 


1259 


658 


-^ahir Rukn-a^-din Baybars -Bundukdari 


1260 


676 


-Sa^id Na$ir-a/-din Baraka Khan . 


1277 


678 


-^Adil Badr-aZ-dm Salamish 


1279 


678 


-Man^iir Sayf-a^-din Kalafin 


1279 


689 


-Ashraf ^alah-aZ-din Khalil 


1290 


693 


-Na^ir Na^ir-aZ-din Mohammad . 


1293 


694 


-^Adil Zayn-aZ-din Eitbugha 


1294 


696 


-Man^ilir Qusam-aZ-din Lajin 


1296 


698 


-Na^ir Mobammad (again) . . . . 


1298 


708 


-Mu^affar Bukn-a^-d!n Baybars -Jashankir 


1308 


709 


-Nasir Mobammad (third time) 


1309 


741 


-Man9iir Sayf-a/-din Abu-Bakr . 


1340 


742 


-Ashraf *Ala-aZ-din Kuju]^ . 


1341 


742 


-Na^ir Shihab-a/-din Ahmad 


1342 


743 


-§alih 'Imad-aZ-din Isma'il . 


1342 


746 


-Kamil Sayf-a/-din Sha'ban 


1345 


747 


-Mu?affar Sayf-a^-din ?ajji 


1346 


748 


-Na^ir Na^ir-a^-din ^asan . . . . 


1347 


752 


-^alib ^alab-a/-din §alib . 


1351 


755 


-Na^ir ^asan (again) 


1354 


762 


-Man^fir Salab-a^-dm Mohammad 


1361 


764 


-Ashraf Na^ir-aZ-^n Sha^ban 


1363 


778 


-Mansiir ^Ala-a/-^n ^Ali 


1376 


783 


-§alib ^alab-a^-din Qajji . 


1381 


784 


Barhuk (see ButjU) .... 


1382 


791 


^ajji again, with title of -Mu^affar 


1389 


—792 




—1390 



[Burjl Mamluks] 



6 



82 



EGYPT AND SYRIA 



1^ 









a- 



OS 



P 
M- 



■03 

-a 

Gfd 
II 



— q 



'3 

OQ 



I 



• •• OS ~ 

II 



I 
I 

.a 



■^^ 

q 



CO 



OS 



— U> 



« 



•198 



C<l 



•08 

•a 
■I 



OB* 

id 



-a 



I 

OQ 



-l-s 

• OS OQ 



eo 

C4 



|F4 



103 



d 

■03 

03 
OQ 

GfO 



•08 

a 

QD 



■s 



•{3 



»5» 



-^1 



to3 
CI 






"Id 

I 
§ 

O 






00 




• 


MAMLUKS 


83 


A.H. 




A.D. 


784—922 


B. BURJI MAMLUKS 


1382—1517 


784 


-i^ahir Sayf-a/-din Barkfik . 

[Interrupted by ^Jajji 791-2.] 


1382 


801 


-Na^ir Na$ir-a/-dm Faraj . 


1398 


808 


-Man^iir ^Izz-a/-<tin *Abd-al-*Aziz 


1405 


809 


-Na?ir Faraj (again) .... 


1406 


815 


-'Adil -Musta*in (*Abbasid CaUph) 


1412 


815 


-Mu'ayyad Shaykh .... 


1412 


824 


-MuzafPar A^mad . . . 


1421 


824 


-^ahir Sayf-a/-din fatar 


1421 


824 


-^alil^ Na^ir-aZ-f^n Mohammad . 


1421 


825 


-Ashraf Sayf-a/-<tin Bars-bey 


1422 


842 


-*Aziz Jamal-a/-din Yiisuf ... * 


1438 


842 


-!?ahir Sayf-a/-din Jakmak . 


1438 


857 


-Man^ur Fakbr-a^-din ^Othman . 


1453 


857 


-Ashraf Sayf-a/-d!n Inal . . . . 


1453 


865 


-Mu'ayyad Shihab-aZ-din A^mad . 


1460 


865 


-^ahir Sayf-a/-din Khushkadam . 


1461 


872 


-?ahir Sayf-a/-to Bilbey . . . . 


1467 


872 


-?ahir Timurbugha 


1468 


873 


-Ashraf Sayf-a/-din Kait-Bey 


1468 


901 


-Na§ir Mohammad 


1495 


904 


-^ahir Kansuh 


1498 


905 


-Ashraf Janbalat 


1499 


906 


-Ashraf Kan^iih -Ghiiri . . . . 


1500 


922 


-Ashraf Tiiman-Bey 

[Ottoman Sulfans.] 


1516 
—1517 



As there are seldom more than two kings of a family in 
the aboye list a genealogical table is unnecessary. 



84 EGYPT AND STRIA 



A.H. A.D. 

1220—1311 30. KHEDIVES 1805—1893 

After the conquest by Sallm i in 1617 {922) Egypt 
remained for tliree centuries a Turkish Pashalik, where, 
however, the authority of the Pasha sent from Constanti- 
nople was minimized by a council of Mamluk Beys. The 
arrival of Napoleon in 1798 put an end to this divided 
system ; but after the victories of England at Abu-kir and 
Alexandria and the consequent retreat of the Erench in 
1801, the old dissensions revived. In 1805, however, 
Mohammad 'All, the commander of an Albanian regiment 
in the Turkish army of Egypt, after massacring a number 
of the Mamluk chiefs, made himself master of Cairo. A 
second massacre in 1811 completed the work, and hence- 
forward Egypt has been governed, in nominal subordina- 
tion to the Porte, by the dynasty of MoJt^ammad *Ali, 
whose fourth successor, Isma'il Pasha, in 1866, adopted 
the official title of Khedive. Syria was annexed in 1831, 
but restored to Turkey under pressure of England in 
1841. The Sudan was conquered in successive expedi- 
tions, down to the time of Isma^Il; but abandoned after 




KHEDIVES 



85 



the death of General Gordon in 1885. The southern 
boundary of Egypt is now drawn near the second cataract 
of the Nile, and since the suppression of 'Arabi's military 
revolt by English troops in 1883, the administration of 
Egypt has been conducted under the advice of English 
officials. 



A.H. 

1220 Mol^ammad 'Ali 

1264 Ibrahim 

1264 'Abbas i 

1270 Sa*id . 

1280 Isma'il 

1300 Tawfilf 

1309 ^ Abbas n (regnant) 



A.D. 

1805 
1848 
1848 
1854 
1863 
1882 
1892 



2. Ibrahim 
5. Isma^il 



6. Tawfik 



7. 'Aboas n 



1. Mobammad *Ali 

I 



Tumn 
I. 'Abbas I 



^1 

Moll^amniad *AIi 



4. Sa'id 



HaUm 




V. ARABIA FELIX (YAMAN) 

S^C. IX— XVI II 

33. ZIYADIDS (ZAbTd) 

34. YA'FURIDS (?AN'A. JANAD) 

35. NAJAHIDS (ZAbId) 

36. SULAIHIDS (SAN'A) 

37. HAMDANIDS (SAN'A) 

38. MAHDIDS (ZABID) 

39. ZURAY'IDS ('ADEN) 

AYYUBIDS {See EGYPT) 

40. RASULIDS (YAMAN) 

41. TAHIRIDS (YAMAN) 

42. RASSID IMAMS (SA'DA) 

43. IMAMS OF SAN'A 




y. THE YAMAN 
S^C. IX— XYIII 

The history of Arabia after the Mohammadan revolution 
bore a close resemblance to its pre-Islamic annals. The 
Arabs under the Caliphate were very like the Arabs of ^ the 
Days of Ignorance,' a people of many disconnected tribes 
headed by chiefs, and many towns and districts governed by 
Shaykhs, who were sometimes under control, and at others 
asserted their independence and styled themselves Amirs or 
Imams. The Caliphs appointed a governor of the Yaman, 
and a sub-governor of Mecca or Medina; but the outlying 
towns recognized chiefly the authority of their local 
Shaykhs. In the beginning of the third century of 
the Hijra, which saw the dismemberment of the great 
Islamic empire by the rise of powerful dynasties on its 
skirts, the governor of the Yaman followed the example of 
the Idrisids and Aghlabids in iN'orth Africa ; and about the 
time when the Tahirids were amputating the right hand of 
the 'Abbasid empire in Khurasan, Mohammad the Ziy&did 
established his authority at Zabid, the city he had 
founded in the Tihama, and thus inaugurated the rule of 
independent dynasties in Arabia, thongh the CaUphs stiU 
continued to appoint governors at intervals. 




90 ARABIA FELIX {TAMAN) 



A.H. A.D. 

204r-409 33. ZIYADIDS* 819—1018 

(ZABID) 

The Ziyadids, or Banu Ziyad, ruled at Zabid for two 
centuries, and their kingdom included a considerable part 
of the Yaman. As their power waned, various inde- 
pendent rulers and dynasties sprang up : the Ta^furida 
established themselves at San'a and Janad; Sulayman b. 
Tarf subdued a wide territory bordering the northern 
coast of the Yaman, with 'Aththar for its capital; and 
the Carmathian *Ali b. -Fadl even plundered Zabid 
itself shortly after 904 {292). Tnder the last Ziyadid, 
the government of their province fell entirely into the 
hands of a succession of slaves, until Najah, an Abyssinian 
slave of Marjan, the last Ziyadid Maire du palais, sub- 
stituted his own dynasty, the Najdhids, at Zabid in 
1021 {Ip.2). 

* The history of the Arabian dynasties may be read in H. C. Kay's 
comprehensiye work Tainan^ its early mediaval history, 1892, which 
includes a translation of the Arabic history of 'Omara and other im- 
portant and intwesting materials. 




ZITADIDS 



91 



A.H. 

204 

245 

289 

291? 

371 

—409 



Mohammad b. 'Abd- Allah b. Ziyad 
Ibrahim b. Mobammad .... 

Ziyad b. Ibrahim 

Abii-l-Jaysh Is^a^ b Ibrahim 

*Abd- Allah {or Ziyad, or IbraMm) b IsliaJ^ 



A.D. 

819 

859 

901 

903? 

981 

—1018 



Yezirs 

371 Eushd 981 

e. 373 -^osayn b Salama .... 983 

402 Marjan 1011 

—412 —1021 

Naf is, 407—12 



A.S 


[. 




A.D. 


247- 


345 34. YA^FURIDS 


861—956 




(§AN*A AND 


JANAD) 




247 


Ya^fur b. *Abd-a^Eabmaii 


• • • 


861 


259 


Mobammad b Ya'fur 


• • « 


872 


279 


<Abd al.Kadir b. A^mad b. 


Ya*fur 


892 


279 


Ibrahim b. Mobammad . 


• • « 


892 


<;. 285 


As'ad b. Ibralum . 


• • 


. e. 898 


288 


BoMid Imam 'Heidi 


• • • 


900 


299 


Carmathian *Ali b. -Fadl 


• • • 


911 


303 


As'ad restored 


• • 1 


915 


332 


Mobammad b. Ibrahim . 


• • « 


943 


352 


<Abd-Allah b. Kabtan . 


• • • 


963 


—387 






—997 



[Dynasty becomes insignificant] 




92 



ARABIA FELIX (TAMAN) 



A.H. 

412—553 



35. NAJAHIDS 

(ZABID) 



A.D. 

1021—1158 



Kajah, the Abyssinian slave of the last Mayor of the 
Palace of the Ziyadid dynasty, ruled Zabid till his death 
in 1060 {lf52)\ the town was then {IfSIl) seized by the 
Sulay^lds and formed part of their dominions until IpfS^ 
when the son of Naja^ recovered it, though it changed 
hands between the two dynasties several times during his 
life (see p. 94). After 1089 {1^82) Zabid remained con- 
tinuously with the KajaJt^ids, until their dynasty (which 
had fallen, like the Ziyadids, under the influence of vezirs) 
gave place to the Mahdida in 1059 {654). 



A.H. 




A.D. 


412 


-Mu-ayyadNajali^ (+462) . 


1021 


464 


^AH -Dd% ^ulayhid .... 


1062 


473 


Sa*id -Alt^wal b. Najat . 


1080 


482 


Jayyash b. Najab .... 


1089 


498 


-Fatik I b. Jayyasb .... 


1104 


603 


-Man^iir b. -Fatik .... 


1109 


e,6l7 


-Fatik II b. -Manfur .... 


. e. 1123 


631 


-Fatik m b. Mobammad b. -Manstir . 


1136 


—664 




—1169 



[Mahdids.'] 




IfAJAflDS 



93 



m 

I 



I — « 5 



.1 *i* 

■11 



.3 

CO 



M 



.3 









73 

- 08 
OQ 



,1, 
t 



•03 
1^ 



CI 



94 



ARABIA FELIX (FA MAN) 



A.H. 

429—495 



36. SULAYHTDS 



A.D. 

1037—1101 



(§AN*A) 
The dd^t (missionary) *Ali b. Mohammad, founder of the 
Shi^ite dynasty of the Sulayhids, or Banu Sulayt, made 
himself independent at Masar in 1037 (4^9), annexed Zabid 
after the death of Najah, in 1062 (>^54), conquered San*a 
and all the Yaman by 1063 (4^5), and took possession of 
Mecca 455-6. His capital was San*a; but he also held 
ZabId until his death in 1080 (JpfS)^ and his son -Mukarram 
recovered it in >^75, but lost it in Ip^9, took it again about 
1088 {481)y and almost immediately lost it for the last time. 
In 480 -Mukarram removed his capital from San*a to Dhu- 
Jibla in Mikhlaf Ja*far. 



A.H. 

429 Abii-Kamil *Ali b. Mol^ammad 

473 -Mukarram Ahmad 

484 -Man^nr Abii-Himyar Saba . 

—492 

*Ali the ^ulayhid 

I 



A.D. 

1037 
1080 
1091 
—1098 



Mohammad - Kadi 

• I 



'Muzaffar 



'Ahd'Allah 



1. *Ali-ba*i 



2. -Mukarram 
[Samddnids ofSan^a] 



Ahmad 
3. -Man^ur Saba 




HAUDANIDS 



95 



A.U. 

492^569 



37. HAMDANTDS 



A.D. 

1098—1173 



The yarious branches of the Banu Hamdan were descended 
from the tribes of Hashid and Bakil, which held a high 
rank among the Yjiman Arabs, and occupied the country 
about San 'a and Sa^da. They supplied rulers to San 'a 
after the Sulayhids for three quarters of a century, up to 
the Ayyubid invasion. 



A.H. 










A.D. 


492 


^atim b. -Ghashim 1098 


502 


*Abd- Allah b. flatim . 








1108 


504 


Ma^n b. Hatim . 

• 








1110 


<?. 510 


Hisham b. -Knbbayt . 
-l^amafl b. -Kubbayt . 
^atim b. -i^amas 








. c. 1116 


545 


^atim b. Al^mad 








1150 


556 


*Ali. Wahid b. Hatim 








1160 


—569 










—1173 



[Ayyubida.'] 




96 ARABIA FELIX {TAMAN) 



A.H. A.D. 

664—669 38. MAHDIDS 1169—1173 

(ZABID) 

The Mahdids, or Banu-l-Mahdl, succeeded the Najahids 
at Zabld. *AlI b. -Mahdi was a devotee and prophet in 
the Tihama, who acquired a following whom he named 
-Angar and Muhajirun, or Helpers and Refugees (after 
the example of Mohammad), and eventually 1150 (J5If5) 
began to occupy forts and subdue the country, till at 
length he was able to attack and conquer Zabid 1159 
{55 If), His successors held the Tihama, together with 
some districts and towns beyond, until the Ayyubid 
conquest. 

A.H. A.D. 

664 *Alib. -Mahdi 1169 

664 -Mahdi b. *Ali 1159 

668 *Abd-a/-Nabi b. *Ali 1162 

—669 —1173 

[AyyuhidsJl 




ZURATIDS 97 

A.H. A.D. 

476—569 39. ZURAY^IDS 1083-1173 

(*ADEN) 

The two sons of -Karam, *Abbas and Mas^ud, were 

appointed joint governors of *Aden in 1083 (JflS) by the 

^ulayhid -Mukarram, and the joint system of government 

continued for several generatioite. The *Aden princes Abu- 

Su*ud and Abii-Gharat asserted their independence of the 

king of San*a, but were not always able to maintain it. The 

dynasty was, next to the Sulayhids, the most important in 

the Yaman, and survived till the Ayyubid conquest.* 

-Karam 

BANU MA8*UD j BANU Z URAY * 

47C 1. Mas'iid 1083 476 i. <Abbas 1083 

2. Abu-l-Gharat c, 508 ii. Zuray< c, 1114 

I I 

I I iiL Aba-Su*ud 

3. Mohammad 4. ^Ali | 

bZZdep, 1138 iy. Saba 



533 V. 



<Ali -A'azz -Mortada 1138 



534 vi. Mohammad 1139 
548 Tii. 'Imran 1153 



560 yiii. Mohammad Abu-Su'ud Man^ur 1164 
—569 —1173 

(infants under vezir Yasir b. Bilal) 
[Ai/yubids'} 

* The list is taken from H. C. Kay's Taman (Edw. Arnold, 1892), p. 307. 

7 



98 



ARABIA FELIX {TAMAN) 



A.H. 

569—625 



AYYUBIDS 



A.D. 

1173—1228 



(YAMAN) 
The Ayyubid conquest in 1173 {569) is the great crisis 
in the medisBval history of Arabia. The kinsmen of Saladin 
swept over the Yaman and overturned its dynasties with 
the same uncompromising thoroughness as they displayed in 
Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia. The Hamdanids of San^a, 
the Mahdids of Zabid, and the Zuray*ids of *Aden, were 
alike suppressed by the Kurdish conqueror Turan Shah, son 
of Ayyub, and for half a century, 1173-1227 {569-625) the 
Yaman remained in the hands of the great family which 
ruled Egypt and Syria. The list of the Ayyubids of Arabia 
has already been given (p. 79) in connexion with the leading 
branch of Egypt, but is here repeated for convenience. 



A.H. 




A.D. 


569 


-Mu'a^am Tiiran -Shah 


1173 


577 


Sayf-al-Islam Tnghtigin 


1181 


593 


Hu^izz-a^KlTn Isma^il . 


1196 


598 


-Nasir Ayyiib . . . . 


1201 


611 


-Mu^affar Sulayman . 


1214 


612 


-Mus'ud Yusuf . 


1215 


—625 




—1228 



[^asulida] 




RAStfLIDS 



99 



A.H. 

026-868 



A.D. 



1229-1464 



40. RASULIDS 

(YAMAN) 
The Easulids succeeded the Ayyubids in the goyemment 

of all the Yaman, from Ha^ramawt to Mecca, and their 

power was maintained for over two centuries. They took 

their name from an envoy {rasul) of the ^Abbasid caliph, 

whose son, *Ali b. Easul, was appointed governor of Mecca 

by the last Ayyubid Sultan of Arabia, -Mas'ud, in 1222 

{619). On the death of Mas*ud in 1228 {625) 'All's son 

Nur-a/-dln *Omar established his authority over the Yaman. 



626 




-Man^Qr 'Omar b. *Ali 




1229 


647 P 




-Muipaffar Yusuf 




1249? 


694 




-Ashraf 'Omar 




1295 


696 




-Mu-ayyad DawQd . 




1297 


721 




-Mujahid *Ali 




1321 


764 




-Afdal -'Abbas 




1363 


778 




-Ashraf Isma'il i 




1376 


803 




-Na^ir A^mad 




1400 


829 




-Maii9tir *Abd- Allah 




1426 


830 




-AHhraf Isma^U n 




1427 


831 




-^ahir Yalj^ya 




1428 


842 




-Ashraf Isma'il ui . 




1438 


845 




-Mu^afPar Yusuf 




1441 






Rival claimants : 






846 


-Mufa^^a^ Moll^ammad . . 1 


1442 




846 


-Na^ir *Abd-Allah . . . ] 


L442 




854-8 -Mafl'iid . . . . 1 


1450-4 




855 


-Mu'ayyad -^osayn 


L451 






[fahirida 


.] 





100 



ARABIA FELIX {TAMAN) 



QQ 

P 
I— I 

'P 






i ^' 



•13 

id »^ 

i % ^ 

•08 a '« r«« 

o ^ S 1 

;^ J^ ^ i 
III' 

^ lO <o t* 



108 

•s- 

■!• 

tOS 



•08 

i 



■I 



i 



•s- 

I 

00 



•« 
•08 






I 

O 



I 

CO 



"a 



5 






I 

eo 



s 

I 




TAHIRIDS 



101 






1 • 






A.H. 

850—923 



•4 • 



••• 



» 



4L 5ABHHDS-.* •• 



The Tahirids, or Banu Tahir, succeeded to the Yaman 
on the break-up of the Easulids, and maintained their 
authority until the conquest of Arabia by the last but 
one of the Mamluh Sulfdna of Egypt, Kansuh -Ghurl. 
The *Othmdnli Turks then occupied the country, thus 
made ready for their rule, in 1517 {923), but were 
forced to abandon it in 1633, in favour of the native 
Imams. 



/ ?afir §alal^-a/-diii *Amir i {Zabid, t870) . \ 
^ ^ \ -Mujahid Shams-aZ-din *Ali {'Aden, f 883) . 1 



1446 



883 
894 
—923 


-Ma,Ti9ur Taj-a/-din 'Abd-al-Wa^^ab . 
-?afir §alat-a/-din 'Amir . 


1478 
1488 
—1617 








TAHTR 

1 




1 
la. -I^afiri 






lb. -Mujahid 


Ddwud 

2. -Mansur 

3. 'ia&tu 











[Mamlukt; ^OthmdnRs] 






102 



ARABIA FELIX {TAMAN) 






*' ^ '\\' 'a.k; ^.^ A.D. 

280-^' 706.' V-4iiJ. . RASSrD TMAMR 893— c. 1300 

A line of Imams of the Zaydite ."seet of the ShI'ites 
Was foTinded at Sa^da in the Yaman by -Hadi Yahya, 
grandson of -Kasim -Bassi, a schismatic of the time of 

-Ma*mun the 'Abbasid Caliph, and lasted down to the 
present day. The series is confused and the dates often 
uncertain, but the following list and genealogical table 
give the results of the latest researches.* 



t246 


-Kasim -Rassi Tarjtiman-a/-dTn . 


. t860 


280 


-Ha^-ila-1-hakk Yahya . . . . 


893 


298 


-Murtada Abu-1- Kasim Mol|^ammad 


910 


301 


-Na^ir Al^mad 


913 


324 


-Kasim -Mukhtar .... 

Yii8uf-Da*i 

-Kasim -Man^ur 


935 


393 


-Mahd! -Hosayn f 404 


. 1003 


426 


Abu-Hashim -^asan .... 


. 1035 


430 


-Nd^r Abu'UFath -Laylaml 


1038 


532 


-Mutawakkil Ahmad f 566 . 


1137 


593 


-Man?ftr *Abd-Allah t 614- . 


1196 


/ 614-23 
(614 


-Na^ir *Izz-a/-din Mol|^ammad 


1217-1226 


-Had! Najm-a/-din Yali^ya . . . . 


1217 


623? 


-Mahdl A^mad b. -Qosayn . . . . 


1226? 


656 


-Mutawakkil Shams-aZ-din Ahmad 


1258 


e. 680 


-Mimta^ir Dawiid 


1281 



See H. C. Kay's Taman^ 1892, for further details. 




a 



I 



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us a 

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»^ 108 






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S ^08 






IMAMS OF SAN'I 



103 



A.H. 



A.D. 



c. 1000— 43. IMAMS OF QAN'A e. 1591^ 

The preceding Imams had their chief seat at Sa'da, 
but they frequently succeeded in taking San^Sl. It was 
not, however, until the expulsion of the 'Othmanli 
Turks in 1633 (JLOJiS) that San^a became the permanent 
capital of the Imamate of the Yaman. The Imams who 
ruled there are generally distinguished by the title of 
Imams of San 'a, but they were really only a con- 
tinuation of the previous line of Sa^da, since their founder 
was -Xasim -Man^ur, a descendant of Yusuf -Da^I, great- 
grandson of -HadI Yahya, the founder of the Eassid 
Imamate. The following list, chiefly after Kiebuhr, is 
incomplete, for representatives of the same family still 
possess authority in the Yaman. 



e, 1000 -Kasim -Man^ur 

1029 -Mu'ayyad Mohammad 

1054 -Mutawakkil Isma'il . 

1087 -Majid Mohammad 

-Mahdi Ahmad 

1093 -Hadi Mol^ammad 

1095 -Mahd! Mohammad 

1126 -Na^ir Mol^ammad 

1128 -Mutawakkil -Kasim . 

1139 -Man^iir -Hosayn 

1139 -Had! -Majid Mohammad 

1140 -Man^Cir (restored) 
1160 -Mahdi -'Abbas 

c. 1190 -Man^ur 



e, 1591 
1620 
1644 
1676 

1682 
1684 
1714 
1716 
1726 
1726 
1727 
1747 
e, 1776 



VI. SYRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 

(ARAB PERIOD) 
S>eC. X— XII 

44. IrlAMDANIDS (-M08IU ALEPPO) 

45. MIRDASIDS (ALEPPO) 

46. *OKAYLIDS (-MOSIL, ETC.) 

47. MARWANIDS (DIYAR-BAKR) 

48. MAZYADIDS (-HILLA) 




YI. SYKIA AKD MESOPOTAMIA 

(ARAB PERIOD) 

S^C. X— XII. 

In classifying the Mohammadan dynasties of Asia, the 
purely geographical system adopted for Africa must be 
modified, in order to present the various groups of 
dynasties in historical sequence. These dynasties fall 

naturally into the following divisions: — YI. The Arab 
dynasties of Syria and Mesopotamia previous to the in- 
vasion of the Seljuk Turks; YII. The Persian and 
Transoxine dynasties before the Seljuks; YIII. The 
Seljuk family in all its ramifications; IX. The dynasties 
founded by officers who had served in the Selju^ 
armies, and subsisting between the decay of the 
Seljuk power and the invasion of the Mongols; X. 
The western successors of the Seljuks, especially the 
'Othmanli Turks; XI. The Mongol family of Chingiz 
Khan in all its branches; XII. The dynasties which 
sprang up in Persia on the decline of the Mongol 
power; XIII. The dynasties which sprang from Timur 



108 DYNASTIES OF ASIA 

(Tamerlane) in Transoxiana on the decay of the older 
branch of the Mongols; XIY. The dynasties of India 
(including Afghanistan). 

In this arrangement the geographical progress from 
west to east is still generally preserved. "We have first 
Syria and Mesopotamia down, to the great sweep of the 
Seljuk invasion; then Persia and Transoxiana to the 
same epoch. The Seljuks and their officers and suc- 
cessors in the west follow. A new power, that of the 
Mongols, then comes to sweep away for a time all 
these lesser dynasties, save the *OthmanlTs. The Mongols 
in turn grow weak, and their Persian supplanters, notably 
the several dynasties of Shahs, to the present day, are 
placed next. Further north and east, the Mongols were 
continned in a new line, that of Timur; and the 
dynasties sprung from this renowned chief, together with 
their TJzbeg successors in Transoxiana, are brought down 
to the present day. Still moving eastward, we arrive at 
India, and begin the series of Mohammadan dynasties 
of Hindustan with their historical source, the Ghaznawids 
of Afghanistan, and carry them down to the fall of the 
Mogul Empire and the establishment of British supre- 
macy m India. 



STRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 109 

The first of these groups is formed of the dynasties 
fonnded by Arab tribes in Syria and Mesopotamia. The 
geographical division is not arbitrary, for the mountaias 
of Kurdistan and the Zagros range form a natural 
boundary between Persia and Mesopotamia, which, at least 
in the earlier centuries of Mo^ammadan history, was 
seldom over-stepped. The Buwayhids indeed combined 
lower Mesopotamia with their Persian empire, but as a 
rule a dynasty which ruled in Diyar-Bakr or -Jazlra did 
not extend its sway beyond the mountains to the east, 
though it frequently spread into Syria. The first group 
is not only distinct geographically; it is also an ethno- 
logical class. With the exception of the Marwanids, who 
were Kurds, the d3naasties classed in this group were all 
pure Arabs. The Arab tribes which had migrated from 
their native deserts northwards into Syria and Mesopotamia 
had always been a political power with which the Caliphs 
had to reckon, and on the rapid decay of the central 
authority at Baghdad the various clans which roamed the 
Syrian desert and the valley of the Euphrates began to 
form permanent settlements, to occupy towns and forts, 
and found d3naasties. Thus the Taghlib tribe furnished the 
Hamddnid dynasty in -Mo^il, Aleppo, and other cities; 



110 STRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 

the Banu Eilab set the Mlrddnds on the throne of Aleppo ; 
the BanU ^Ohayl established their role in Diyar-£akr and 
-Jazira (Mesopotamia) and part of -'Irak (Chaldaea) ; and 
the Banu Asad set up the powerful Mazyadid dynasty at 
-Killa. Yet while they exercised authority over cities, 

districts, and eyen whole provinces, these Arab chiefs 
did not abandon their national life, but for the most 
part continued to dwell in tents with their tribesmen, 
and wander as the needs of their flocks or their predatory 
instincts suggested. 



HAMDANIDS HI 

A.H. A.D. 

317-394 41 HAMDANIDS 929—1003 

(-MO§IL, ALEPPO, ETC.) 

The Hamdanid family, descended from the Arab tribe of 
Taghlib, had settled in the neighbourhood of -Mo^il, and 
Hamdan b. Hamdun had taken a prominent part in the 
political events of that city as early as 873 (260), In 
894 {281) Mohammad b. Hamdan was in possession of 
Maridin, but was expelled by the Caliph -Mu*tadid; in 
904 {292) Abu-l-Hayja *Abd- Allah b. 5amdan was ap- 
pointed governor of -Mosil and its dependencies ; and from 
this time the power of the Hamdanids greatly increased. 
In 919 {307) Ibrahim b. Hamdan was made governor 
of Diyar-Rabi*a, where he was succeeded by his brother 
Dawud in 921 {309) ; Sa*id b. Hamdan became governor of 
Nahawand in 924 {312), and several other members of 
the family received appointments. *Abd-Allah made his 
son -Hasan his lieutenant at -Mo^il, which, with an 
interval, {317 — 319\ the latter held, together with Diyar- 
Rabl^a, and Diyar-Bakr, until his deposition by his son 
Abu-Taghlib in 968 {358). In 941 {330) he was given 
the title of Nasir-aZ-dawla by the Caliph; and at the 
same time his brother *Ali was named Sayf-a/-dawla. 



110 STRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 

the Banu Eilab set the Mlrddsids on the throne of Aleppo ; 
the Banu ^OJcayl established their role in Diyar-£akr and 
•Jazira (Mesopotamia) and part of -'Irak (Chaldaea) ; and 
the Banu Astd set up the powerful Mazyadid dynasty at 
-Killa. Yet while they exercised authority over cities, 

districts, and even whole provinces, these Arab chiefs 
did not abandon their national life, but for the most 
part continued to dwell in tents with their tribesmen, 
and wander as the needs of their flocks or their predatory 
instincts suggested. 




HAMDANIDS 111 

A.H. A.D. 

317-394 41 HAMDANIDS 929—1003 

(-MO§IL, ALEPPO, ETC.) 

The Hamdanid family, descended from the Arab tribe of 
Taghlib, had settled in the neighbourhood of -Mo^il, and 
Hamdan b. Hamdun had taken a prominent part in the 
political events of that city as early as 873 (260), In 
894 {281) Mohammad b. Hamdan was in possession of 
Maridln, but was expelled by the Caliph -Mu^tadid; in 
904 (292) Abu-l-Hayja *Abd- Allah b. 5amdan was ap- 
pointed governor of -Mosil and its dependencies ; and from 
this time the power of the Hamdanids greatly increased. 
In 919 (307) Ibrahim b. Hamdan was made governor 
of Diyar-Rab!*a, where he was succeeded by his brother 
Dawud in 921 {309) ; Sa*id b. Hamdan became governor of 
Nahawand in 924 {312)^ and several other members of 
the family received appointments. *Abd-Allah made his 
son -Hasan his lieutenant at -Mo^il, which, with an 
interval, {317 — 319\ the latter held, together with Diyar- 
Kabi'a, and Diyar-Bakr, until his deposition by his son 
Abu-Taghlib in 968 {358). In 941 {330) he was given 
the title of Nasir-aZ-dawla by the Caliph; and at the 
same time his brother 'All was named Sayf-a^dawla. 



112 



STRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 



The latter, after governing Wasit, took Aleppo from 
the Ikhshidids in 944 {33d), and won a great reputation 
in his wars against the Greeks. The Hamdanids were 
Shi^tes, and 6ayf-a/-dawla paid homage to the Eafimid 
Caliphs. After the deaths of these two brothers, the 
power of the dynasty rapidly declined. The Fatimids 
absorbed the dominions of Sayf-a/-dawla's grandsons in 
Syria, and the Buwayhids ousted Abu-Taghlib from Meso- 
potamia in 977-9 {367-9), The recovery of -Mo^il by 
his brothers -Hosayn and Abu-Tahir was but a temporary 
and brief revival. 



I. OF -MO§TL 

317 Na^ir-aZ-dawla Abii- Mohammad - Hasan 

358 'Uddat.a;.dawla Abii-Taghlib -Ghadanfir 

-^369 

371 ( Abu-Tahir Ibrahim .... 

—380 I Abu- *Abd- Allah -^losayn 

[Buwayhids, ^Okaylids] 



929 

968 

—979 

981 

—991 



333 
356 
381 
392 
394 



II. OF ALEPPO 

Sayf-a/-dawla Abu-l-Qasan ^Ali . 
Sa'd-a/-dawla Abu-1-Ma^ali Sharif 
8a'id-a/-dawla Abti-l-Fa^a-il Sa'id 
( Abii-1-Hasaii *Ali. 



I Abu-1-Ma*ali Sharif . 

[Fafimida] 



944 

967 

991 

1001 

1003 



HAMDANIDS 



113 






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114 SYRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 



A.H. A.n. 

414—472 45. MIRDASIDS 1023—1079 

(ALEPPO) 

Asad-aZ-dawla Abu-*Ali Salih b. Mirdas, of the Arab 
tribe of the Banu Xilab, raided the neighbourhood of 
Aleppo (Halab) with his Bedouins as early as 1011 ; and 
in 1023 (Jfllf) the inhabitants revolted against the Fatimid 
governor, and delivered the city to Salih, who ruled Aleppo 
until killed in a battle with the Egyptians in 1029 {If20), 
His son Shibl-a/-dawla Neisr succeeded him, but was also 
killed by the Fatimid army in 1037 (^9), and it was not 
until five years later that another son, Mu*izz-a/-dawla 
Tamal, who had governed -Kahba, recovered Aleppo from 
the Egyptians. In 1057 {IflfO) Tamal again abandoned 
Aleppo to Egypt, whilst his brother 'Apya occupied 
-Rahba. This fresh Fatimid rule was terminated in 
1060 (Jf52) by the conquest of the city by Rashid-a?- 
dawla, son of Shibl-aZ-dawla ; but he was expelled in the 
following year by his uncle Mu*izz-£i/-dawla, who died in 
IfdJ^, and bequeathed Aleppo to his brother *Apya. Rashid- 
a/-dawla, however, recovered the city in the same year. 




MIRDASIDS 



115 



and *Atiya seized -Eakka, whence he was expelled by 
the 'Okaylid Muslim b. Kuraysh in 1070 {463). Rashld- 
aWawla was succeeded in 4^8 by his son Jalal-a^dawla, 
who took Manbij from the Greeks, and whose brother 
Sabik (or Shabib) held Aleppo until its conquest by the 
'Okaylid Muslim in 1079 (472)* 



414 
420 
429 
434 
449 
452 
453 
454 
454 
468 
468 
—472 



l^alib b. Mirdas .... 
Shibl-a/-dawla Abli -Kamil Na§r . 

Fdfimida 

Mu^izz-a^-dawla Abu *Ulwaii Tamal 

Fa^imida 

Rashid-a/-dawla Mabmiid . 
Mu4zz-a?-dawla restored 
Abii-Du'aba *AtTya 
Rasbid-a^-dawla restored 
Jalal-a^-dawla (Samiam-a^-dawla) Na^r 
Abu-1-Fada-il Sabi^ . . . . 

MIRDAS 
1. §ali^ 



1023 
1029 
1037 
1042 
1057 
1060 
1061 
1062 
1062 
1075 
1076 
—1079 



2. Shibl-a/-dawla 
4. Rashid-aZ-dawla 

I 



3. Mu*izz-a/-dawla 5. Abu- Du* aba *Atiya 



6. Jalal-a^-dawla 



7. Sabik 
['Okaylids] 

* See H. Sauvaire, A Dinar of Salih ebn Merdas of Aleppo 
(Numismatic Chronicle, 1873). 



116 STRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 

A.H. A.D. 

386-489 46. 'OKAYLIDS 996-1096 

(-MOSIL, ETC.) 

The Banu *Okayl, or ^Okaylids, a very large Arab 
clan, formed one of the five divisions of the Banu 
Ka*b, of the Modarite tribes of Arabia; and after their 
adoption of Islam their snb-clans spread over parts of 
Syria, -*Irak, and even !N"orth Africa and Andalusia. 
In the early days of the *Abbasid Caliphate, -'Irak 
was full of *Okaylids. The Banu Muntafik, one of their 
sub-clans, migrated to the marshy country about -Ba§ra, 
called the Batiha or Bata-ih (*The Swamps'), under 
the family of Ma*ruf ; the Banu Khafaja for centuries 
occupied themselves in looting caravans in the deserts 
of -*Irak, as late as 1327; while the Banu *Obada in- 
habited, with the Banu Muntafik, the country between 
-Kufa, Wasit, and -Basra, and eventually furnished the line 
of *Okaylid princes of -Mosil. In the fourth century of 
the Hijra, the *Okaylids of Syria and -*Irak were tribu- 
tary to the powerful Arab dynasty of Hamdanids, but on 
the fall of these princes, the *Okaylids attained indepen- 
dent sovereignty. Abu-Dhawwad Mohammad was granted 
by the last of the Hamdanids the cities of ^N^asibin and 
Balad in 989 {379), to which he added -Mosil in 380, but 




{To faup. 116) 



'M\ 



It 



Ma'ti 

I 



Abu-/- 
-Dhawwad 
Mohammad 

t386 



Kajdat'oi- 
dawla A bit' 



Abu-'Ahd' Allah Mohammad 
t401 



lih 



Kamal-a/-dawla 
Sayf-aZ-din 
Abu-Sinan Gharib 
{'Okbara) t425 

I 



dhab-i 



Shihab-a/-dawla 
Abu-Dira* Rati* 
t406 



Mantmr Kamil ^5 



^ Ehamii' 



Abu-/-Ravan 
{'Okba^ii) 



Bilal 
(Awanay 441) 



Malik 



Abi 



Sham8-a/-dawla 

SaUmt519 
{Aleppo till 479 ; 
then Ja^bar and Ri 



d. 'Isa 

J 

e. ^asr 
t449 



*Ali 

{Ja^bar) 

t602 

ShihaD-a/- 

din Malik 

{surrendered Ja^ba 

to Nur-al'dm b. 



[Mu^yi-aZ-dii 
Muhammad, descS^^^' *99» ^y ^is ^on Sulayman, who died in 628. 

j tT.H.A.S.^ 






'OKAYLIDS 117 

was expelled by the Buwayhids in 381. His brother Mu- 
kaUad was more successful ; he took -Mosil in 996 {386) y 
and was confirmed in the government, together with 
-Kufa, -Ka§r, and -Jami*an, by Baha-aZ-dawla the Bu- 
wayhid, on condition of tribute; to which were presently 
added -Anbar, -Mada-in, and Dakuka. In the time of 
Muslim b. Kuraysh, the dominions of the *Okaylid of 
-Mosil extended from the neighbourhood of Baghdad to 
Aleppo. On his death, the principality speedily decayed 
in power, and -Mo?il, its capital, was conquered by a 
Turkish adventurer, Kawam-a?-dawla Karbuka in 1096, 
{If^9)f and merged in the Seljuk empire. Other branches, 
or individual chiefs, of the *Okaylids, who governed 
various small towns in Syria and Mesopotamia, are 
indicated in the genealogical table. After the destruc- 
tion of their power in Mesopotamia the *Okaylids 
returned to their old camping grounds in -Bahrayn. 



386 


Qusam-a?-dawla -Mukallad . . 


996 


391 


Mu'tamid-aZ-dawla Kirwash 


1000 


442 


Za'im-a^dawla Abii-Kamil Baraka 


1050 


443 


'Alam-a^din Abii-1-Ma*ali l^uraysh . 


1051 


453 


Sharaf-a^-dawla Abii-l-Makarim Muslim 


1061 


478 


Ibrahim . . . . . . 


1085 


486 


'All 


1093 


—489 


ISeym'] 


—1096 




118 SYRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 

A.H. A.D. 

380—489 47. MARWANIDS 990—1096 

(DIYAR-BAKR) 

On the death of Bad, governor of Hisn Kayfa, in 990 

{S80) his sister's son, Abu-* All b. Marwan, a Kurd by 

race, succeeded to his dominions, which included the chief 

towns of Diyar-Bakr, such as Amid, Arzan, Mayya- 

farikin, and Kayfa. His successor paid homage to the 

Fatimid Caliph of Egypt, and was rewarded with the 

government of Aleppo, as the Caliph's officer, for a time, 

in succession to the expelled Hamdanids. The Mar- 

wanids also acknowledged the suzerainty of the Buway- 

hids; but vanished upon the invasion of the Seljuks. 

380 Abii-*Ali -Hasan 990 

387 Mumahhid-a^-dawla Abii-Maniiir . . 997 

402 Na§r-a/-dawla Abu-Na$r Al^mad . . . 1011 

453 Nizam-a/-dawla Na^r 1061 

472 Maii?iir 1079 

—489 —1096 

MARWAN 

\ \ 

I. Abu-^Al! -Qasan 2. Miiinahlud-a/-dawla 3. Abu-Na§r A^mad 

. • . . I 



I I 

4. Na?r Sa*Td 

I {Amid) 

5. .Mansiir 



[Seljuki\ 



MAZTADIDS 



119 



A.H. 

403—645 



A.B. 

1012—1150 



48. MAZYADIDS 

(-HILLA) 

The Banu Mazyad, a tribe of the Banu Asad, after 

leaving Arabia, spread over the deserts to -Kadisiya on 

the left bank of the Tigris. The fourth of the dynasty, 

Sadaka, built his new capital of -Hilla on the site of 

the town of -Jami*an in 1101 (4P5), and the beauty of 

its buildings and extent of its trade were long celebrated. 

Sadaka is one of the great heroes of Arab history, ex- 

tolled by poets and chroniclers. The dynasty declined 

after his death, and in 1162 {558) the Caliph -Mustanjid 

attacked the tribes of the Banu Asad in -'Irak, and killed 

4000 of their fighting men, so that they disappeared 

from the Euphrates country. The Banu Muntafik of 

the Batiha succeeded to part of their territory; the 

Zangids replaced them in power. 

403 Sanad-a^dawla 'All i . . . . . 1012 



408 Niir-a/-dawla Dubays i 

474 Baha-a/-dawla AbQ-Kamil Mansiir 

479 Sayf-a^dawla ^adaka i 

501 Nur-a/-dawla Dubays n 

629 l^adakaii 

532 Mohammad 

540 *Alin 

—545 

l^Zanffida] 



1017 
1081 
1086 
1107 
1134 
1137 
1145 
—1150 



120 



SYRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA 



1 






N- 



O 



Q 
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Qj 






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o 

< 
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(O 




VII. PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 

(PERSIAN PERIOD) 
S.CC. IX— XI 

49. DULAFIDS (KURDISTAN) 

50. SAJIDS (ADHARBUAN) 
61. 'ALIDS (TABARISTAN) 

52. TAHIRIDS (KHURASAN) 

53. SAFFARIDS (PERSIA) 

54. SAMANIDS (TRANSOXIANA AND PERSIA 

55. TlAK khans (TURKISTAN) 

56. ZIYARIDS (JURJAN) 

57. HASAN WAYHIDS (KURDISTAN) 

58. BUWAYHIDS (SOUTHERN PERSIA AND -'IRAK) 

59. KAKWAYHIDS (KURDISTAN) 



VII. PERSIA AOT) TItA]?^SOXIANA 

(PERSIAN PERIOD) 
SMC. IX— XI 

The following group of dynasties ruling in Persia 
and the proyince of Md-wara-l-nahr (* Beyond the River* 
Oxus), or Transoxiana, up to the inroad of the Selju^s, 
belongs to the period of Persian revival. The Caliph 
-Ma'mun, whose mother was a Persian slave, attained 
to the Caliphate, and dethroned his brother -Amin, by 
the aid of Persian troops raised in Khurasan; his power 
was maintained by his Persian adherents; and his policy 
was unlimited conciliation of Persian national aspirations. 
The result was a revival of Persian influences at the 
expense of the old Arab polity, and the consequent 
weakening of the State. The great officers, governors, 
and generals, in the provinces began to acquire a 
dangerous degree of power, which -Ma*mun and his 
successors in the Caliphate were unable to curb, and 
various Persian dynasties, professing a merely nominal 



124 PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 

dependence upon the Caliphs, sprang up, just as the 
Arab tribes of Mesopotamia further west asserted their 
authority against the decrepit Caliphate. Some dynasties, 
such as the Buwayhids, were not even orthodox, but 
professed the 8h!*ite tenets, which have always been 
popular in Persia, as they are at this day. Although 
the period is characteristically Persian, it is not to be 
assumed that all the dynasts were Persians by race. Abu- 
Dulaf, for example, was an Arab, Hasanwayh a Kurd, 
whilst the Ilak Khans were Turks. The chief dynasties, 
however, were of Persian origin. 




'ALIDS 127 

A.H. A.D. 

260—316 61. 'ALIOS 864-928 

(TABARISTAN) 

The branch of *Alid, or Zaydite, Imams who ruled 
at Sa*da in the Yaman has already been noticed (p. 102). 
Other members of the same family, descendants of 
either -Hasan or -Hosayn, the grandsons of the prophet 
Mohammad, long maintained their rights to the Imamate 
or Caliphate in the provinces bordering the southern 
shore of the Caspian, Daylam, Tabaristan, and Gilan. A 
list of merely spiritual pontiffs, or sporadic rebels, is 
beyond the present purpose, but in 864 {250) the 'Alids 
gained possession of Tabaristan, became a power, struck 
coins, and held the province for sixty-four years, until 
expelled by the Samdnids, After this event, several rival 
houses of *Alids continued to maintain themselves in Gilan 
and Daylam, and at least one of them, Abu-l-Fa^l Ja'far 
-Tha'ir fi-llah, exercised the royal privilege of coinage. 

250 -Hasan b. Zayd 864 

270 Mohammad b. Zayd 883 

287 Sdmdnid government 900 

301 -Na^ir Hasan b. *Ali -Utrush . . . 913 

304 -Hasan b. -Kasim 916 

^316 —928 

[Samanids ; Ziydrids."} 



126 PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 



A.H. A.D. 

266— c. 318 60. SAJTDS 879— c. 930 

(ADHARBIJAN) 

Abu-/-Saj Divdad was governor of -Eufa and -Ahwaz 
at the time of his death, 879 {S66). At that date his 
son Mohammad was governor of the Hijaz; but was 
transferred to -Anbar in 269 \ and then to Adharbijan 
in 276, to which was added Armenia in 898 {285), On 
his death his brother Yusuf, who had been "Wall of 
Mecca in 884 (271\ succeeded to the government of 
Armenia and Adharbijan, setting aside Mohammad's son 
Divdad. Tusuf invaded -Rayy in 918 {306) and was 
imprisoned by the Caliph in the following year, but was 
restored to his appointments in 922 {310), He annexed 
-Eayy in 311^ and waged war upon the Carmathians. 
In 931 {319) the government of Adharbijan was vested 
in Mufli^, a freedman of Yusuf's. 



266 


Abu-/-Saj Divdad died . 


879 


276 


Mobamniad -Afshin b. Divdad 


889 


288 


YfisTif b Divdad .... 


900 


316 


Abu-1-Musafir -Fat^ b. Mol|iammad 


927 


— e. 


318 

[idbbdsid Governors] 


— <?. 930 




SAFFARIDS 129 



A.H. A.D. 

264—290 63. SAFFARIDS 867-903 

(PEBSIA) 

Ya*kub, the son of -Layth the Saffar ('Coppersmith'), 
was by a freak of fortune promoted from the leadership 
of a band of outlaws to a post of trust at the Court of 
the Caliph's governor of the province of Sijistan (Sistan, 
or Nimruz), whom he eventually succeeded, sometime 
before 868 {255), By that year he had annexed Herat 
and occupied Ears, including the capited Shiraz, to which 
he soon added Balkh and Tukharistan, and in 872 {259) 
took Klhurasan from the Tahirids. After an expedition in 
Tabaristan, where he defeated Hasan b. Zayd the 'Alid, 
he openly revolted against the Caliph -Mu'tamid, and 
advanced through Shiraz and -Ahwaz upon Baghdad ; 
but was routed by the Caliph's brother -Muwaffak, and 
died in 878 {265). His brother and successor *Amr 
was confirmed in the governments of Khurasan, Ears, 
Kurdistan, and Sijistan. The Caliph, however, dis- 
trusting 'Amr's increasing power, induced Isma'il the 
Sdmdnid to attack him in 900 {287), when the 

9 



128 



PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 



A.H. 



A.D. 



206— 2B9 



820—872 



62. TAHIREDS 

(KHURASAN) 
Tahir Dhu-l-Yaminayn ('Ambidexter'), the celebrated 
general of -Ma'muii, descended from a Persian slave, 
was appointed by that Caliph to the government of 
Khurasan in 820 {205), where he and his dynasty became 
practically independent, though holding their authority 
by patent of the Caliphs and with express acknowledg- 
ment of vassalage. They did not attempt to extend 
their power much beyond the borders of their province, 
and after half a century collapsed tamely before the 
attack of Ya*kub b. Layth the Saffarid. 

205 Tahir Dhu-l-Yaminayn .... 820 

Tal^a .... 
*Abd-Allah . 
Taliirii 



207 
213 
230 
248 
—259 



Mohammad 



822 
828 
844 
862 
—872 



1. Tahib Phu-l-Yaminayn 



>.J 



2. Tal^a 



3. *Abd-AIlah 
I 



idli 



Mus^ab 



4. Takirii 

I 

I 

5. Moliammad 

[Saffurids] 



I 



Sulaymdn 



Hoaayn 




SAFF ARILS 129 



A.H. A.D, 

264—290 63. SAFFABIDS 867-903 

(PEBSIA) 

Ya*kub, the son of -Layth the Saffar ('Coppersmith'), 
was by a freak of fortune promoted from the leadership 
of a band of outlaws to a post of trust at the Court of 
the Caliph's governor of the province of Sijistan (Sistan, 
or Nimruz), whom he eventually succeeded, sometime 
before 868 {255), By that year he had annexed Herat 
and occupied Ears, including the capital Shiraz, to which 
he soon added Balkh and Tukharistan, and in 872 {259) 
took Klhurasan from the Tahirids. After an expedition in 
Tabaristan, where he defeated Hasan b. Zayd the 'Alid, 
he openly revolted against the Caliph -Mu'tamid, and 
advanced through Shiraz and -Ahwaz upon Baghdad; 
but was routed by the Caliph's brother -Muwaffak, and 
died in 878 {265), His brother and successor *Amr 
was confirmed in the governments of Khurasan, Pars, 
Kurdistan, and Sijistan. The Caliph, however, dis- 
trusting 'Amr's increasing power, induced Isma*il the 
Sdmanid to attack him in 900 {287), when the 

9 



130 PERSIA AND TRANSOXIAXA 

Saf^rid was defeated and made prisoner. His grandson 
Tahir succeeded him in Sijistan, but, endeavouring to 
re-establish the power of his house in Pars, was im- 
prisoned 903 {290). Two other members of the family 
vainly sought to recover its lost territory. In 296 
Sijistan was granted to the Samanids, but the Saffarids 
continued for nearly a century to aim at the possession 
of this province, and several of them succeeded in holding 
it for a time.* 

264 Ya*kub b. -Layth 868 

265 «Ainr b. -Layth 878 

287 Tahir b. Mohammad b. *Ainr ... 900 

—290 —903 

\8dmdnid8\ 



* See H. Sauvaire, Sur un feU Safdride inedit de la Collection de Jf. 
Ch, de VJacluse {Numismatic Chronicle, 1881) for an account of the later 
^affarids of Sijistan. 




SA MAN IDS 131 

A.H. A.D. 

261—389 54. SAMANIDS 874—999 

(TRANSOXIANA AND PERSIA) 

Saman, a Persian noble of Balkh, being aided by Asad 
b. *Abd-Allah, the governor of Khurasan, renounced 
Zoroastrianism, embraced Islam, and named his son Asad 
after his protector. Asad's four sons all distinguished 
themselves in the service of the Caliph -Ma'mun, and 
were rewarded about 819 {20If) with provincial govern- 
ments: Nuh had Samarkand; Ahmad, Farghana; Yahya, 
-Shash; and Ilyas, Herat. Ahmad took the lead among 
his brothers, and not only succeeded Nub at Samarkand, 
but incorporated Eashghar in his dominions. His second 
son Isma^ll took Khurasan from the Saffarids in 903 {290\ 
defeated Mohammad b. Zayd the *Alid of Tabaristan, 
and brought under his sway the whole territory from 
the Great Desert to the Persian Gulf, and from the 
borders of India to near Baghdad. His power was most 
firmly established in Transoxiana, where Eukhsira and 
Samarkand became the centre of civilisation, learning, art, 
and scholarship for a large part of the Mohammadan 
world. His successors were weakened by rebellions in 
Khurasan and Sijistan and by the growing power of 



132 



PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 



the Buwayhids, In half a century they were restricted 
to little more than Transoziana and Khurasan, whilst 
the real power fell more and more into the hands of 
the Turkish slaves with whom they filled their Court. 
One of these, Alptigin, founded the dynasty of the 
Ohaznawida, which in 994 {38Ii) succeeded to the Samanid 
territory south of the Oxus. North of the river their 
power was curtailed by the llak Khans of Turkistan, 
who had acquired the leadership of the Turkish tribes 
from Farghana to the borders of China, and after in- 
vading Transoxiana and taking Bukhara in 990 {380), 
finally put an end to the Samanid dynasty in 999 {389) \ 
though Ibrahim -Muntasir continued to fight for the 
throne tiU 1104 {395). 



AH. 

261 Na^r i b. Ahmad . 

279 Isma^il b. A^mad . 

295 Al^mad b. Isma'il . 

301 Na^r n b. A^mad . 

331 Nii^ I b. Na^r 

343 *Abd-al-MaUk i b. Nul? 

350 Man^ur i b. Nuh . 

366 Nub II b. Man^ur . 

387 Man^ilLr ii b. Nub ii 

389 *Abd-al-MaUk n b. Nub ii 

[Kh&m of Turkistan ; Ghaznawids] 



A.D. 

874 
892 
907 
913 
942 
954 
961 
976 
997 
999 




SAMANIDS 



133 






k o 



!|| 



1. 









fc 
•^ 



OQ 



.1_ 






-leS 



C9 



CO 



H M 



09* 
OS 



•9 



00* 



00 



- ' CO 

•5* 



-1^ 
I 

-a 



^ fc 



»o 



I 

-a 

CO 



a 

09* 






-a 









3- 



134 PERSIA AJ^D TRANSOXIANA 

A.H. A.D. 

c.320-(7. 560 55. ILAK KHANS c. 932— c. 1165 

OF TURKISTAN 

The history of these Khans is very meagrely recorded. 
They appear to have united the Turkish tribes east of 
Parghana under their authority towards the end of the 
tenth century, when they had already become Muslims. 
Their capital was at first Kashghar, but after the conquest 
of Transoxiana from the Samanids in 999 {389) Ilak !N"a§r 
ruled his tribesmen, who roamed from the Caspian as 
far as the borders of China, from Bukhara. An attempt 
to seize the provinces south of the Oxus was signally 
defeated by Mahmud of Ghazna in 1007 {398), and 
henceforward the Ilak Khans were restricted to Trans- 
oxiana, Kashghar, and Eastern Tartary. Under their 
rule, many tribes established themselves in Transoxiana 
and were afterwards pressed forward into Persia: such 
as the celebrated Turkoman tribe of the Seljuks. The 
succession and chronology of the Khans of Turkistan are 
exceedingly uncertain, and the following list is merely 
tentative.* 

* From Dom, Inventaire dea Monnaiea de VInstitut des languea 
orientates du Ministere des Affaires Etranghres, Appendice {Peters- 
burg, 1881). 




ILAK KHANS 135 

^Abd-al-Karim SatuJk. 

Musa b. Satuk 
f 383 — 4 Shihab-aZ-dawla Harfin Buglira Khan b. Sulayman 
c. 389—400 Abu-l-Hosayn Na§r i b. *Ali 
c. 401 — 407 Kutb-aZ-dawla Abu-Na?r A^mad i b. *Ali 
c, 403—408 Sharaf-aZ-din Tughan Khan b. *Ali 

Abu-1-Muzaffar Arslan Khan i b. *Ali 
t 423 Yusuf Kadr Khan i 
c. 421 — 425 Sharaf-a^dawla Abu-Shuja* Arslan Khan ii 
c. 425—435 Mahmud i Bughra Khan 

In the West 
Chaghratigin 
c. 440 — 460 Abu - 1 - Muzaffar *Imad-a/-dawla Ibrahim Tufghaj 

or Tafkaj Khan b. Na§r 
t 472 Shams-al-Mulk Nasr ii b. Tafkaj 

Khidr Khan b. Tafkaj 
t 488 Ahmad Khan n b. Khidr 
t 490-5 Mahmud Khan n 
t 495 Kadr Khan ii b. *Omar b. Ahmad 

Mahmud Arslan Khan iii b. Sulayman 
Abu-1-Ma'ali Hasan Tigin b. *Ali 
Eukn-a/-din Mahmud Khan iii b. Arslan 
e. 558 ICilij Tafghaj Khan b. Mohammad 

Jalal-a/-dm 'All Gurkan b. I^asan Tigin 

In the East. 
439_55 Tughril Khan b. Yusuf Kadr Khan 
455 Tighril Tigin b. Tughril 
465?_496 Harun Bughra Khan b. Yusuf Kadr Khan 
Nur-aZ-dawla A][^mad b. Arslan Khan 



136 PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 



A.H. A.D. 

316—434 56. ZIYARIDS 928—1042 

(JURJAN) 

The southern shore of the Caspian had never been well 
affected to the Caliphate, and the followers of *Ali had 
repeatedly established their heterodox power in these 
regions (see p. 127); nor were the Samanids more suc- 
cessful than the Caliphs in maintaining their authority 
there. Taking advantage of this, MardawTj b. Ziyar, 
descended from a long line of princes, made himself 
independent in Tabaristan and Jurjan, and even occupied 
Ispahan and Hamadhan, and pushed his forces as far 
as Hulwan, on the Mesopotamian frontier, between the 
years 928—931 {316^319). He was the patron of the 
Buwayhids, and gave *AlI b. Buwayh his first appoint- 
ment as governor of Xaraj. Mardawij held his dominions 
as titular vassal of the *Abbasid Caliph : his brother 
and successor Washmagir paid nominal homage to the 
Samanids as well. After the rise of the Buwayhids 
in 932 {320\ the authority of the Ziyarids scarcely 
extended beyond the borders of Jurjan and Tabaristan ; 




ZITARIDS 



137 



and Kabus was even exiled for 18 years {871 — 389) 
by the Buwayhid Mu'ayyid-a^-da-Crla. On his return, 
however, he recovered Gilan as well as his former 
provinces, in which his sons succeeded him, until dis- 
possessed by the Gha%nawid8, 



316 
323 
356 
366 
403 
420 
—434 



Mardawij b. Ziyar . . t . 
?ahir-a^-dawla Abu-Man^iir Washmagir 
Bistun ...... 

Shams-al-Ma'ali Kabus 
Falak-al-Ma'ali Manuchahr . 
Anushirwan (Dara ?) . 



928 

935 

967 

976 
1012 
1029 
—1042 



1. Mardawii 



awi] 



ZIYAR 



3. BistQn 



5. Manuchahr 



[Ghiiznawids] 



2. Washmagir 



4. Kabus 

■ I 



6. Anushirw&n (DaraP) 




138 PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 

A.H. A.D. 

c, 348—406 57. HASANWAYHIDS c. 959—1015 

(KURDISTAN) 
Hasanwayh b. -Hosayn -BarzikanT was the chief of one 
of the Kurdish tribes which, like the Marwanids, began 
to make themselves prominent in the tenth century; 
before the middle of which he had possessed him- 
self of a large part of Kurdistan, including the towns 
of Dinawar, Hamadhan, Nahawand, the fortress of 
Sarmaj, etc. His power was so considerable that the 
Buwayhids did not disturb him, and at his death 
*Adud-a/-dawla of that dynasty, after annexing his 
dominions, appointed Badr b. Hasanwayh as governor 
over his late father's province. Badr still further 
enhanced the dignity and authority of his family, 
and was decorated by the Caliph with the title of 
Na§ir-a/-dawla. His grandson Zahir, who succeeded 
him in 1014 {If05)y only kept his position for a year, 
after which he was expelled by Shams-a?-dawla the 
Buwayhidy and was shortly afterwards killed. 

c. 348 IJasanwayh b. -Hosayn ....<?. 969 

369 Na^ir-aZ-din Abu-Z-Najm Badr b. Hasanwayh 979 

406 Zahir b. Hilal (f 406) b. Badr . . . 1014 

106 —1016 

[Buwayhids] 




BUWATHIDS 139 



, A.H. A.D. 

320-447 58. BUWAYHIDS 932—1055 

(SOUTHERN PERSIA AND -*IRAK) 

Buwayh, reputed to be a descendant of the ancient 
Kings of Persia, was the chief of a warlike clan of the 
highlanders of Daylam, and like most of his countrymen 
had taken part in the frequent wars which disturbed 
the provinces bordering on the Caspian. Like them, also, 
he had transferred his services from the Samanids to 
the rising chieftain Mardawij the Ziyarid about 930 {318), 
and his eldest son *Ali (*Imad-a/-dawla) had been granted 
by Mardawij the government of Karaj. *Ali, with the 
help of troops from Daylam and Gilan, soon extended 
his authority southwards, occupied Ispahan for a time, 
and annexed Arrajan 932 {820) and Nubandijan {S21\ 
whilst his brother Hasan (Rukn-a/-dawla) drove the Arab 
garrison out of Kazirun. The two brothers then pushed 
on to the eastward, and joined by the third, Ahmad 
(Mu*izz-a/-dawla), seized Shiraz {322), The Caliph was 
forced to recognize them as his lieutenants, and when 
Mu*izz-a/-dawla, working his way westward from Kirman, 



140 PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 

and reducing the province of -Ahwaz (or Khuzistan), 
entered Baghdad itself in 945 {33If\ the Caliph -Mustjikfl 
not only hestowed the honorific titles of *Imad, Bukn, 
and Mu*izz a^dawla on the three hrethren, but granted 
Mu*izz the rank and style of Amir-al- Umard, or Premier 
Noble, a dignity which was held by many subsequent 
members of the family. It is a mistake to say that they 
were ever given the title of Sulpdn, for they never styled 
themselves so on their coinage, but used the titles Amtr 
and Malik. Their authority, nevertheless, was as absolute 
as any Sultan's in Baghdad, and the Caliphs were their 
abject puppets, though treated with outward homage, in 
spite of the Buwayhids' Shi*ite proclivities. How the 
brothers and their descendants divided Persia and -*Irak 
among themselves is shown in the following tables, as 
well as the intricate history of the dynasty permits. 
Division among the princes encouraged aggression, and 
the wide dominions of the Buwayhids fell peacemeal 
to the GhaznawidSf JSTdkwat/hids, and Seljuh, 




BUWATHIDS 



141 



320 

338* 

372* 

379 

388* 

403* 

416* 

440* 

—447 



I. OF FARS 

^Imad-aZ-dawla Abu-1-I^asan ^Ali 
'Adud-aZ-dawla Abii-Shuja* Khusrii 
Sharaf-a/-dawla Abu-l-Fawaris Shir Zayd 
Sam^am-aZ-dawla Abu-Kalinjar -Marzuban 
Bahd-al-dawla (of •^Ira^) . 
Sul^an-a^-dawla Abu-Shuja* 
'Imad-aZ-din Abu-Kalinjar -Marzuban 
Abu-Nasr Khusru Firuz -Ral^im . 

* Also ruling -*Irak, etc., see next list. 



II. OF -'IItAK,.-AHWAZ, AND KIBMAN 

320 Mu4zz-a/-dawla Abu-1-Hosayn Ahmad 

356 *Izz-a/-dawla Bakhtiyar 

367 Adud-a\'dawla {of Fara) 

372 Sharaf-al-dawla {of Fdra) . 

379 Baha-a^-dawla Abii-Na^r Firuz 

403 Sul(dn-al-dawla {of Fdri) 

DIVIDED FEOriNCES: 

-*irak: 

Musharrif-a/-dawla 
Jalal-a/-dawla .... 
*Imad'a\.-din {of Fdrs) . 
AbU'Noir Khusru Firuz {of Far a) 



411 
416 
435 
440 
—447 

403 
419 
440 
—448 



KIRMAN 
Kawam-a/-dawla Abii-1-Fawaris 
^Imdd'iA-din {of Fdra) 
Abti-Mansur Fullad Battun . 



932 

949 

982 

989 

998 
1012 
1024 
1048 
—1065 



932 
967 
977 
982 
989 
1012 



1020 
1025 
1043 
1048 
—1056 

1012 
1028 
1048 
—1066 



142 PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 



III. OF -RAYY, HAMADHAN, AND ISPAHAN 

320 Eukn-a^-dawla Abu-*AIi ^9aaxi ... 932 
366- Mu*ayyid-a/-dawla Abu-Mansiir (I^ahdn 

only) 976 

—373 —983 

366 Fakhr-aZ-dawla Abu-l-I^asan *Ali {adding 

IfpahdnZIZ) 976 

387 Majd-a/-dawla Abu-T^Ub Eustam {deposed 

by MaJmud of Ohazna) .... 997 

—420 • —1029 

387 Shams-aZ-dawla Abii -Tabir {Samadhan only) 997 

(;. 412 Sama-aZ-dawla Abu-1- Hasan {deposed by Ibn^ 

Kakwayh) <?. 1021 

—414 —1023 
[Kahwayhids ; Ghaznawids; Seljuks"] 




GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE BUWAYHIDS 



PARS 



320 *Imad-a/-dawla 



338 <A4ud-a/-dawla 



372 Sharaf-a^dawla 



379 Samsam-a^-dawla 



388 (Baha) 



403 Sultan-a/-dawla 



415 'Imad-aZ-din 



KIBMAN, -'AirWAZ, -'miX, 



320. Mu'izz-a/-dawla 



356 'Izz-a^-dawla 



-RAYY, 
HAMADHAN 



ISPAHAN 



320 Rukn-aZ-dawla 



367 (*Adud) 



379 Baha-a/-dawla 



411 Mu- 
sharrif-aZ-d. 



416 Jalal. 
Sil-d. 



(kibman) 
403 Ka- 
wam-a/-d. 



419 (*Imad) 



435 



440 Khusru Firuz 
—447 {Se^uku) 



440 Fullad 
— Sattun 
448 



366 

Fakhr-a/- 
dawla 

373 



366 

Mu'ayyid- 
a/-dawla 



387 

Shams-a/- 
dawla 



412 Sama- 
a/-dawla 

414 {Kdk- 
umyhida) 



387 Maid. 
a/-dawla 



398 (Kah- 
wayhids) 



420 



{Ghazna- 
wids) 



144 



PERSIA AND TRANSOXIANA 



pq 



s 


• 


• 


• 




S 


t 


1 

•X* 


^ 




-S — 


f 


08 


08 




1 

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1 


^ 

^ 


09 


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1 


08 


GQ 


C8 
OQ 




P4 


• 

1 

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• 

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• 


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1 

73 




1 




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1 






1 




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108 






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< 


t— 1 


• 
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KAKWA THIDS 



145 



A.H. 



A.D. 



398-443 59. KAKWAYHIDS 1007—1051 

(KURDISTAN) 
Mohammad b. Dushmanzar, known as Ibn-Kakwayh, 
.was first cousin to Majd-aZ-dawla the Buwayhid, of 
Hamadhan, whose dominions he annexed by the 
deposition of Sama-a/-dawla in 1023 {Ifllf). He had 
previously taken Ispahan in 1007 {898), The family 
continued to rule in Ispahan, Hamadhan, Yazd, Naha- 
wand, etc., until their conquest by the Seljuh Tughril 
Beg in 1051 {IflfS). 



A.H. 

398 ^Ala-a/-dawla Abu-Ja*far MoJ^ammad 
433 ^ahir-aZ-din Abu-Man^ur Faramarz 
—443 

KAKWAYH 



A.D. 
1007 
1041 
— 1051 



Dushmanzar 
1. ^Ala-a/-d. Mohammad 



2. Faramarz 

I 
'All 



daughter = Fakhr-a/-dawla 
the Buwayhid 

Majd-aZ-dawla 



Karchasp 

(of Hamadhan 

and Nahawand) 



1 

Ahil-Harh 
(of Natanza) 



\8eljuk8\ 



10 



VIII. THE SELJUKS 

S^C. XI— XII 

60. A QREAT SEUUKS OF PERSIA 
B SEUUKS OF KIRMAN 
C SEUUKS OF SYRIA 

D SEUUKS OF -'IRAK 
E SEUUKS OF -RUM 



60A. DANISHMANDIDS (CAPPADOCIA) 



SELJUK8 149 



A.H. A.D. 

429-700 60. THE SELJUKS 1037-1300 

(WESTERN ASIA) 

The advent of the Seljukian Turks forms a notable 
epoch in Mohammadan history. At the time of their 
appearance the Empire of the Caliphate had vanished. 
What had once been a realm united under a sole Moham- 

• 

madan ruler was now a collection of scattered dynasties, 
not one of which, save perhaps the Fatimids of Egypt 
(and they were schismatics) was capable of imperial 
sway. Spain and Africa, including the important pro- 
vince of Egypt, had long been lost to the Caliphs of 
Baghdad; northern Syria and Mesopotamia were in the 
hands of turbulent Arab chiefs, some of whom had 
founded dynasties; Persia was split up into the numerous 
governments of the Buwayhid princes (whose Shf'ite 
opinions left little respect for the puppet Caliphs 
of their time), or was held by sundry insignificant 
dynasts, each ready to attack the other and thus con- 
tribute to the general weakness. The prevalence of 



152 WESTERN ASIA 

death of the last, civil war sprang up between the brothers 
Bargiyaruk and Mohammad, and separate branches of the 
Seljuk family attained virtual independence in different 
parts of the widely scattered dominions, although the 
main line still preserved a nominal suzerainty down to 
the death of Sin jar, the last * Great Seljuk * (whose rule 
was almost confined to Khurasan) in 1157 {552). The 
Seljuks of Kirman, of -*Irak, of Syria, and of -Bum 
or Asia Minor, were the chief sub-divisions of the family, 
but individual members of it ruled in Adharbijan, 
Tukharistan, and other provinces. In the East, the Seljuk 
empire succumbed before the attack of- the Khwarizm 
Shah; in Adharbijan, Ears, Mesopotamia, and Diyar-Bakr 
it was supplanted by dynasties founded by Seljui: officers, 
or Atabegs, but in -Eum it survived until the beginning 
of the power of the *Othmanli Turks in 1300. 



KIRMAN) 



jird 



ii. Kirnian Sha 



. Hosavn vii. Ardlar 



I mud I 



/ 



13. Kav-Ka 

I 

16. Mas'u 




SELJUK8 



153 



A.H. 

429—562 

429 
455 
465 
485 
487 
498 
498* 

611t 
—552 



433 -583 



A. GREAT SEUUKS 

Rukn-a/-din Abu-Talib Tiigliril Beg . 
*Adud-a/-dTn Abii-Shuja* Alp-Arslan . 
Jalal-a^-din Abu-1-Fatb Malik Sbab . 
Na^ir-aZ-din Ma^mud .... 
Rukn-a^-din Abu-l-Mu^affar Bargiyaru^ 

Malik Sbab II 

Gbiyatb-a/-din Abii-Sbuja^ Mol^ammad 
Mu4zz-a^-din Abii-1-I^aritb Sinjar 

[Shahs of Khwdrizm] 
B. SELJUKS OF KIRMAN 



433 *Imad-a/-din Kara-Arslan Kaward Beg 

465 Kirman Sbab 

467 Qosayn ..;... 
467 Rukn-a^-din Sultan Sbab 

477 TiiranSbab 

490 IfanSbab 

494 Arslan Sbab 

536 Mugbitb-a^-din Mol^ammad i 
551 Mubyi-a/-d!n Tugbril Sbab . 

f Babram Sbab \ 
563 I Arslan ii Sbab > (rivals) 

( Tnrkan Sbab ) 
583 Mol^ammad ii . . . . . 

[Ghuzz Turkomans] 



A.D. 

1037—1157 

1037 
1063 
1072 
1092 
1094 
1104 
1104 
1117 
—1157 



1041—1187 

1041 
1072 
1074 
1074 
1084 
1097 
1100 
1141 
1156 



1167 



1187 



* Mobammad bad been at open war witb Bargiyamk for many years 
before tbe latter' s deatb. 

t Sinjar bad been governor of Kburasan for twenty years before bis 
accession as Great Seljii^. 




154 WESTERN ASIA 



A.H. 

7—511 


c. seThTuks of SYKIA 


A.D. 

1094—1117 


487 


Tutush b. Alp-Arslan .... 


1094 


488 


Bidwan b. Tutush {at Aleppo) 

(Du^ak b Tutush at Damascus 488-497) 


1095 


607 


Alp-Arslan -Akhras b. Ei^wan . 


1113 


508 


Sultan Shah b. Bid wan 


1114 


—511 


IBurids, Ortukids'] 


—1117 



A.H. A.D. 

511—590 D. SEUUKS OF .*IRAK AND 1117—1194 

KURDISTAN 

511 Mughith-a/-din Mahmud . . . . 1117 

625 Ghiyath-a^din Dawiid 1131 

526 Tughrili 1132 

527 Ghiyath-a^din Mas^iid . . . . 1133 

647 Mu*in-a^din MaUk Shah . , . . 1152 

648 Mobammad 1153 

554 Sulayman Shah 1159 

656 ArslanShah 1161 

573 Tughrilii 1177 

—690 —1194 

• \^Shah8 of Ehwdrizm] 



SELJUK8 



165 



A.H. 

470—700 E. SEUtfKS OF -RUM 




A.D. 

1077—1300 




(ASIA MINOR) 


470 


Sulayman i b. Kutlumish .... 1077 


479 


Interregnum 






1086 


485 


Kilij-Arslan Dawiid . 






1092 


500 


Malik Shah i . . . 






1106 


510 


Ma8*ud I . . . . 






1116 


551* 


'Izz-a^din Kilij-Arslan n . 






1156 


584 


Ku^b-a^-dm Malik Shah n . 






1188 


588 


Ghiyath-a/-din Kay-KhusrH i 






1192 


597 


Rukn-aZ-din Sulayman ii 






1200 


600 


Kilij-Arslan iii . 






1203 


601 


Kay-Khusru i restored . 






1204 


607 


*Izz-a/-din Kay-Kawus i 






1210 


616 


*Ala-a?-din Kay-Kubad i 






1219 


634 


Ghiyath-a/-din Kay-Khusrii n 






1236 


643 


*Izz-a?-din Kay-Kawns nf . 






1245 


655 


Rukn-a/-din Kilij-Arslan iv. 






1257 


666 


Ghiyath-a/-din iLay-Khusrii iii . 






1267 


682 


Ghiyath-a/-din Mas^ud ii J . 






1283 


696 


*Ala-a/-din Kay-Kubad ii . 






1296 


—700 








—1300 



{^Mongols, ^Othmdnli Turks ^ ete.l 

* Kilij-Arslan survived till 588, but divided his dominions among his 
sons some years earlier. 

t In conjunction with his brothers Kilij-Arslan iii and Kay-Kubad. 

J Mas'iid was allowed by the Mongol Abaga to govern Siwas, Arzan- 
jan and Erzeriim, from the death of his father Kay-Kawus in 677, during 
the nominal sovereignty of his cousin Kay-KhusrQ iii, whom he succeeded 
in 682. Mas'iid appears to have been restored to his kingdom on the 
deposition of his nephew Kay-Kubad in 700, and to have reigned for four 
years ; but the last four SeljiiJkjs were merely governors under the Mongols 
of Persia. 



166 WESTERN ASIA 

A.H. A.D. 

c 490— 660 60A. DANISHMANDIDS c 1097— 1165 

(SIWAS, CAESAREA, MALATIA) 

Whilst the Seljuks were extending their empire in 
Asia Minor, another Turkish chief, Gumishtigin, son of 
Danishmand, established his power in Cappodocia over 
the cities of Si was (Sebaste), Kay^ariya (Caesarea), and 
Malatiya (Melitene), near which last place he inflicted a 
sanguinary defeat upon the Franks. His successors 
played a distinguished part in the wars of the Crusades, 
but the dynasty was soon absorbed in its greater Seljuk 
neighbour. 

A.H. A.D. 

Mol^ammad i Gumishtigiii b. Tilu Danishmand 

499 Ghazi b. Gumishtigin . . . . . 1106 

529 Mol^ammad n. b. Ghazi . . . . 1134 

637 Dhu-^Nun b. Mol^ammad n . . . 1142 

Yaghi {or Ya'^ub) Arslan b. Ghazi 

660 Ibraliim b. Mo^yammad n . . . . 1166 

[Seljuks of -Rum] 



/ 



IX. THE ATABEGS 

(8EUUK OFFICERS) 
S^C. XII— XIII 

61. BURID8 ATABEGS OF DAMASCUS 

62. A ZANGIDS „ ., -m5sIL 

B „ „ „ ALEPPO 

C o .. o SINJAR 

D „ „ „ -jazTra 

63. BEGTIGTnIDS ., .. ARBELA 

64. A ORTUKIDS OF KAYFA 

B „ ,. maridFn 

65. SHAHS OF ARMENIA 

66. ATABEGS OF ADHARBUAN 

67. SALGHARIDS, ATABEGS OF PARIS 

68. HAZARASPIDS, ATABEGS OF LURISTAN 

69. SHAHS OF KHWARIZM 

70. KUTLUGH KHANS OF KIRMAN 



IX. THE ATABEGS 
(SEUU?: OFFICERS) 

S-EC. XII— XIII 

The Seljuk Empire was a military power, and the 
army on which it depended was commanded by Turkish 
slaves. Free men could not be trusted with the highest 
commands or the rule of distant provinces ; it was 
necessary to rely on the fidelity of purchased slaves 
brought up at the court in close relations with the 
Seljuk princes. Every Seljuk had a following of mam- 
luks, generally brought from Kipchak, who filled the 

chief offices of the court and camp, and eventually won 
their manumission by hard service. The inevitable result 
of this system was the supplanting of the senile master 
by the virile slave. As the Seljuks grew weak and 
their empire broke up into sub-divisions, their mamluks, 
who had fought their battles for them, became the 
guardians or regents (Atabegs) of their youthful heirs, 



160 ATABEQ8 

and speedily exchanged the delegated function tor the 
privileges of sovereignty. In this way Tughtigin, a 
mamluk of the Seljuk Tntush, was appointed Atabeg 
over his youthful heir Dukdk, and on his death assumed 
full sovereign powers at Damascus. 'Imad-a/-din Zangi, 
founder of the Atahegs of -Mo^il and Aleppo, etc., was 
the son of a slave of the third Selju^ Sultan Malik Shah ; 
the Adharbijan Atahegs sprang from a Kipchak mamluk 
of Mas*ud the Seljuk Sultan of -*Irak ; Anushtigin, 
ancestor of the Khwarizm Shahs, was cupbearer to Sulfan 
Malik Shah; Ortuk and Salghar, founders of dynasties in 
Diyar-Bakr and Fars, were Seljuk officers; and the 
Begtiglnids, Hazaraspids, and Kutlugh Ehans were 
officers of the slaves of the Seljuks. In the twelfth 
century the whole Seljuk empire, save Anatolia, was 
in the hands of these captains of their hosts, who form a 
distinct group of dynasties. 



BVRIDS 



161 



A.H. 



A.D. 



497—^49 61. BURIDS 1103—1164 

(ATABEGS OF DAMASCUS) 

Tughtigin— one of the numerous officers who held 
command in the Seljuk armies, became Atabegs or regents 
of the younger Seljuk princes, and eventually usurped their 
power — ^was an enfranchised mamluk of Sultan Tutush, 
and afterwards, 1095 {If88\ was appointed Atabeg of his 
son Dukak, the Seljuk prince of Damascus, whom he 
succeeded. 



A.H. 




A.D. 


497 


Sayf-al-Islam i^ahir-a/-din Tughtigin . 


110^ 


522 


Taj-al-Mulfik BQri .... 


1128 


526 


Shamfl-al-Muliik Isma'Tl . . . , 


1132 


529 


Shibab-a/'din Ma^miid 


1134 


533 


Jamal-a/ din Mol^ammad . . . , 


1138 


534 


Mujir-a/-din Aba^ (or Anaz, f 564) 


1139 


—549 


[Zangids] 
1. Tughtigin 


—1154 


5uri 


3. Isma'il 4. Ma^mud 


5. Mohammad 



6. Aba^ 



11 



160 ATABEQS 

and speedily exchanged the delegated function tor the 
privileges of sovereignty. In this way Tughtigin, a 
mamluk of the Seljuk Tutush, was appointed Atabeg 
over his youthful heir Du^dk, and on his death assumed 
full sovereign powers at Damascus. 'Imad-a/-din Zangi, 
founder of the Atahegs of -Mo^il and Aleppo, etc., was 
the son of a slave of the third Seljulf: Sultan Malik Shah ; 
the Adharbijan Atabegs sprang from a Kipchak mamluk 
of Mas'ud the Seljui: Sultan of -*Irak ; Anushtigm, 
ancestor of the Khwarizm Shahs, was cupbearer to Sulfan 
Malik Shah ; Ortuk and Salghar, founders of dynasties in 
Diyar-Bakr and Ears, wore Seljuk officers; and the 
Begtiginids, Hazaraspids, and Kutlugh Ehans were 
officers of the slaves of the Seljuks. In the twelfth 
century the whole Seljui: empire, save Anatolia, vras 
in the hands of these captains of their hosts, who form a 
distinct group of dynasties. 




BtJRIDS 



161 



A.R. 



A.D. 



497—^49 61. BURIDS 1103—1164 

(ATABEGS OF DAMASCUS) 

Tughtigin — one of the numerous officers who held 
command in the Seljuk armies, became Atabegs or regents 
of the younger Seljuk princes, and eventually usurped their 
power — ^was an enfranchised mamluk of Sultan Tutush, 
and afterwards, 1095 {If88\ was appointed Atabeg of his 
son Dukak, the Seljuk prince of Damascus, whom he 
succeeded. 



A.H. 




A.D. 


497 


Sayf-al- Islam ?ahir-a/-diii Tughtigin . 


UOi 


622 


Taj-al-Muluk BQri .... 


1128 


626 


Shams-al-Muluk Isma'il 


1132 


629 


Shihab-a^din Maljunud 


1134 


633 


Jamal-a/ din Moljiammad 


1138 


634 


Mujir-a/-din Abak (or Anaz, f 664) 


1139 


—649 


[Zangids] 
1. Tughtigin 


—1164 


lurT 


3. Isma'il 4. Mal^miid 


6. Mohammad 
6. Abak 



11 




162 ATABEQS 

A.H. A.D. 

521—648 62. ZANGIDS 1127—1250 

(ATABEGS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND SYRIA) 

The Atabeg 'Imad-aZ-din Zangi was the son of Aksimkur 

the Hajib (chamberlain), a Turkish slave of Malik Shah, 

and from 1085 to 1094 (478^487) lieutenant of Tutush at 

Aleppo, against whom he rebelled, and was slain. Zangi 

was appointed governor of -*Irak, including Baghdad, in 

1127 {521), and in the same year annexed -Mo§il, Sinjar, 

-Jazira and Harran, and then Aleppo {522) and other 

Syrian cities. He especially distinguished himself as the 

champion of the Muslims against the Crusaders, and was 

the true forerunner of Saladin. On his death his dominions 

were divided between his sons Nur-a/-dln Mahmud, another 

famous anti- crusader, who held Syria, and Sayf-a/-din 

GhazT, who ruled in -Mo^il and Mesopotamia. In the 

next generation the Syrian branch died out; but a new 

offshoot had been established at Sinjar; whilst a fourth 

sub-dynasty sprang up somewhat later at -Jazira. The 

Sinjar line gave place to the Ayyubids in 1221 {618); 

the others came under the rule of Lu'lu*, the slave and 

vezir of the last of the -Mo^il Zangids, until all were 

absorbed in the empire of the Mongols, 




ZANGIDS 



163 



A.H. 

621—631 A. ATABEGS OF -MO^IL 

521 'Imad-aZ-din Zangi (with Aleppo) 

541 Sayf-a/-din Ghazi i 

544 Kutb-a/-dm Modud 

565 Sayf-a/-din Ghazi n . 

576 <Izz-a/-din Mas'M i . 

589 Nibr-aZ-din Arslan Shah i 

607 *Izz-a^din Mas'Qd n . 

615 Nur-a/-din Arslan Shah ii 

616 Na?ir-a/-diii Mabmud . 
631 Badr-a^-din Lulu* 
657 Isma'il b. Lu'lu* . 
—660 iMonffols] 

541—677 B. ATABEGS OF SYKIA 

541 Nur-a^din Mabmiid b. Zangi 

569 -$aU^ Isma'il .... 

-577 



A.D. 

1127—1234 

1127 
1146 
1149 
1169 
1180 
1193 
1210 
1218 
1219 
1233 
1259 
—1262 

1146—1181 
1146 
1173 
—1181 



lAtdbegs of ^Mofil and Sinjdr, 677; tJien AyyuUds, 579] 



566—617 C. ATABEGS OF SINJAR 

566 'Imad-a^-din Zangi b. Modfid 

594 Kutb-a/-din Mobammad . . 

616 *Imad-a^-dm Shahanshah 

616 Ma^mud (or *Omar) . . . . 

—617 [Ayyuhids'] 

576—648 D. ATABEGS OF -JAZIRA 

•576 Mu4zz-a/-din Sinjar Shah . 
605 Mu*izz-a/-d!n Mal^mfid 

%xx -MasMid 

—648 \Ayyubidt] 



1170—1220 
1170 
1197 
1219 
1219 
—1220 

1180—1250 

1180 
1208 
\2xx 
—1250 




164 



AT A BEOS 






00 ^. 






'3 fi^ 






00 



•'I 



lO 






r 



B 
B 

OS 

-a- 



o 
c4 



'2 



1 



CO 



^ 
^ 
CQ 

.§ 






^ t:* 



•?3 



s 



1 



W 






O 

CO 









> t^ 



108 '^* 

. • "ft . 



I 









00 

■Sis 

T «o 

»^ 

- • ? 






OS 
I 



s 



CO 



3* 



00 

CO 

'^ ^ 

-S3 1^ 



O 
io3 *^ 

CO 



a^ 



00 



CO- , 




BEOTIQINIDS 165 

A.H. A.D. 

539-630 63. BEGTIGINIDS 1144—1232 

(ATABEGS OF ARBELA, ETC.) 

In 1144 {539) 'Imad>a/-din Zang! appointed one of his 
Turkish officers, Zayn-a/-din *Al! Kuchuk b. Begtigin, 
to be his viceroy at -Mo§il, and in 1149 {Blfli) placed 
Sinjar and afterwards Harran, Takrit, Irbil (Arbela), etc., 
under his authority. On Zayn-a^din's death at Irbil in 
1167 {56$), his elder son Muza£Par-a/-din Kukburi fled 
to Harran, whilst Irbil passed to the younger son Zayn- 
a/-din Yusuf, under the tutorship of the Amir Mujahid> 
a/-din Kaimaz. On Yusuf 's death in 1190 {586) , Saladin, 
who then exercised supreme influence over Syria and 
Mesopotamia, appointed Muza£Par-a/-din Kukburi as his 
brother's successor at Irbil and Shahrazur, but gave his 
former governments of Harran, -Euha (Edessa) and Su- 
maysat to his own nephew -Taki-aZ-din *Omar. Kukburi 
died in 1232 {630\ and being without sons bequeathed 
Irbil to the 'Abbasid Caliph. 

539 Zayn-aZ-dm ^Ali Kuchuk b. Begtigm . . 1144 

563 Zayn-a?-din Yusuf b. *Ali (at Irbil) f 586 . 1167 

563 Muzaffar-a/-din Kukburi b. ^Ali (at ^arran) . 1167 

686 „ „ „ „ „ (at Irbil) 1190 

—630 —1232 

[^^Abbasidt ; then Mongols] 




166 SEUUK OFFICERS 



A.H. 




A.D. 


495—712 


64. ORTUT:TDa 

• 

(DIYAK-BAKB) 


1101 1312 



Ortuk b. Aksab, the founder of this dynasty, was a 
Turkoman officer in the Seljuk armies, and was appointed 
governor of Jerusalem when the Holy City was conquered 
by his commander Tutush the Seljuk Sultan of Damascus. 
Ortuk' s sons Sukman and 11-Ghazi, both famous in the 
wars with the Latin princes of Palestine succeeded to 
their father's post in 1091 (4<94), imtil the city was 
annexed by the Fatimid Caliph in 1096 {If89)y when they 
retired to Edessa (-Ruha) 6tnd -*Irak respectively. In 1101 
{If95) il-Ghazi was appointed prefect of Baghdad by the 
Seljuk Sultan Mohammad, £aid in the same year Sukman 
was made governor of Hisn Kayfa in Diyar-Bakr, to which 
he added Maridin a year or two later. In 1108 {502), 
however, Maridin was transferred to his brother Il-Ghazi, 
and henceforward there were two collateral lines of 
Ortukids, at Kayfa and at Maridin. The Kayfa branch, 
after the warlike exploits of Sukman against Baldwin and 
Jocelin, settled down into tranquil obscurity, hastened to 




0RTUKID8 167 

pay homage to Saladin, when his power became tlireaten- 
ing, and were rewarded with the addition of the city of 
Amid to their territory in 1183 (57P), until their line 
was suppressed by the Ayyuhid -Kamil in 1231 {629), 
A minor branch of the Kayfa family governed Khartapirt 
(Quart-Pierre) in Diyar-Bakr from 1127 {^521) to 1223 
{620) » il-Ghazi, the founder of the Maridin line, and 
one of the most redoubtable of Muslim , warriors against 
the Crusaders, gained possession of Aleppo in 1117 {511) y 
6tnd in 1121 {515) was also invested with the govern- 
ment of Mayyafarikin (in Diyar-Bakr) by the Seljuk 
Sultan Mahmud. Maridin and Mayyafarikin continued 
to be held by his descendants, the latter until 1184 
{580), the former until their submission to Timur 6tnd 
absorption by the Kara-Kuyunli in 1408 {811); but the 
Maridin Amirs ceased to be of importance after the 
Ayyubid supremacy was established in Syria and Meso- 
potamia. Aleppo fell 1123 {517) to another Ortukid 
chief, Balak b. Bahram, who had also held Ana (4P7) 
6tnd Khartapirt {515), and was a prominent leader in 
the wars with the Crusaders. 




495— fl2S 


A. OBTUXIDS OE 


KATFA 


1101-1231 


496 


Mu'in-ai-dawla Sukmin i . 


1101 


498 


Ibrahim 






noi 


e.M2 


Bukn-sI-dBwk Dawiid . 






1108 


«. 643 


Falchr-ai-din gjii-Arelin 






1148 


STO 


Nfir-al-dia Hobunmad 






ii:* 


691 


^atb-a^dia Sakmin n 






. 1186 


fi97 


Nif ir-af-dln HabmM . 






1200 


619 


Knkn-ai-dln Modfld . 






1222 


-629 


[JyyfiWrf.] 


—1231 


AH. 




i-D. 


602—712 


B. 0ETUKID8 OF 


MARIDIN llOR-1312 



eo2 


Najm^-din lUGhiii . . 






1108 


616 








1122 . 


647 


Najm-a/diQ Alpi 






1162 


672 


Kutl)-tt2-dinll-GhazI . . 






1176 


680 


HuBim-a;-di-i Yuiulf-ArsUn . 






1184 


697 


Ka(ir.a(.d-m Ortu^-AniUn -Man? 


Or 




1200 


637 


Najm-aZ-dln Gbilii i -Sa'Id . 






1239 


668 


^^ri-Aislin -Hufaffar 






1260 


691 


ShamB-a;-an DSwDd . 






12S2 


693 


Najm-aJ-<Ua Ghaii n .Uanfir 






1294 


712 


■Imad-af-an 'Ali M^ -'Adil 






1312 


712 


ShamB.a/.dm §iUt» . . 






1312 


786 


Abmad .Man,ur . . . 






1363 


789 


Habmiid -$iU|f . 






1367' 


769 


Siwud -Huiaffar 






1367 


778 


Uajd-a;-din 'Iw .^mr 






1376 


809 


§iilit 






1406 


—811 


[Jf«ra ^uyunK] 






—1408 



ORTUKIDS 



16a 




108 

-.X3 



f 






•08 
— CO* 



»o 



•s 



CO 



a 1 



CO 



il 



■ OS 

p 




170 



ARMENIA 



A.H. A.D. 

493-604 65. SHAHS OP ARMENIA 1100—1207 

Sukman -KutbT, so called because lie was once the 
slave of Katb-a/-din Isma*il, the Seljuk governor of Marand 
in Adharbljan, wrested the town of -Khalat in Armenia 
from the Marwanids in 1100 {If93\ and his descendants 
and their mamluks continued to govern this region for a 
century until their conquest by the Ayyuhids in 1207. 



A.H. 

493 

506 
521 
522 
679 
589 
594 
603 
—604 



Sukman -Kutbi . . . . 
Zahir-a/-d!n Ibrahim Sbah-Arman 
A^mad 

Na^ir-aZ-dm Sukman ii 
Sayf-a^-din Begtimur . 
Badr-a^-din A^nnkur . 
-Man^uT Mobammad 
*Izz-a/-din Balban 



A.D. 

HOC 
1112 
1127 
1128 
1183 
1193 
1198 
1206 
—1207 



1. Sukman 

I 



2. Ibrahim 



3. Abmad 



4. Sukman n 



• 

5. Begtimur 



3. Balban 6. Aksxmkur 



7. Mohammad 
[Ayyubids] 

* Dotted lines indicate the relationship between master and slave. 




ADHARBIJAN 171 

A.H. A.D. 

531—622 ee. ATABEGS OP 1136—1225 

ADHARBIJAN 

Ildigiz, a Turkisli slave from Eipchak, rose in favour at 

the court of Mas'ud, the Seljuk Sultan of -*Irak, and was 

finally granted the government of Adharbijan, together with 

the Sultan's widowed sister-in-law. His son Mohammad 

was the virtual ruler of the Seljuk kingdom of -'Irak as 

well as of his own province. Mohammad's brother Kizil- 

Arslan, who had acted as his deputy in Adharbijan, 

succeeded to his authority, and was created Amlr-al' 

Umard ; but on his claiming sovereign rights, he was 

assassinated, and his two nephews, who followed him, 

moderated their ambition. 

A.H. A.D. 

531 Shams-aZ-din Ildigiz 1136 

568 Mohammad -Fahla^an Jahan . . . 1172 

581 Kizil-Arslan 'Othman 1185 

587 AbQ-Bakr 1191 

607 Muzaffar-a^dT1l Uzbeg 1210 

—622 —1226 

1. Ildigiz 



2. Mohammad 3. Kizil-Arslan 



4. Abu-Bakr Kutlugh InanJ 5. Uzoeg 

[Shah of Khwarum] 




172 ATABEOS 



A.H. A.D. 

543—686 67. SALGHARIDS 1148—1287 

(ATABEGS OF FARIS) 

Salghar was the chief of a band of Turkomans who 
migrated into Khurasan, and after a career of rapine 
attached themselves to the Seljiik Tughril Beg, who 
appointed Salghar one of his chamberlains. One of his 
descendants, Sunkur b. M5dud, made himself master of the 
province of Ears in 1148 (5>^), and founded a dynasty which 
lasted nearly a century and a half. Atabeg Sa*d became 
tributary to the Shah of Khwarizm, to whom he surrendered 
I^takhr £aid Ashkuran; and Atabeg Abu>£akr, in his 
turn, paid homage to Ogotai Khan the Mongol, and was 
rewarded with the title of Kutlugh Khan. The later 
Atabegs were merely vassals of the Mongols of Persia ^ and 
the last of them, the princess *Abish, was the wife of 
Mangu-Timur, a son of Hulagu. The poet Sa*di lived 
at the court of the Atabeg Abu-£akr. 




SALOHARIDS 173 

A.H. A.D. 

643 Sunkur* 1148 

557 Zangi 1162 

671 Takla 1175 

691 Sa*d 1195 

623 Abii-Bakr 1226 

668 Mobammad 1260 

660 Mohammad Shah 1262 

660 SeljtikShah 1262 

662 *Abish 1263 

—686 —1287 

[Mongols] 
Modud 



\. Zt 



1. Suiikur 2. zangi 



I. Takla 4. Sa'd 

I 



6. Abu-Bakr 6. Mol^ammad Satghar 



Sa'd 7. Mohammad Shah 8. Selju]^ Shah 
9. ^Abish 

* Most of the Salgharids used the title Mu^affar-aZ-dln. 



174 ATABEOS 



A.H. A.D. 

543-740 68. HAZARASPIDS 1148—1339 

(ATABEGS OF LURISTAN) 

The founder of this line was Abu-Tahir, a general who 
was sent by the Salgharid Atabeg to reduce the Greater 
Ldristan in 1148 {5If3), This original territory was aug- 
mented by a grfitnt of the province of Khuzistan by the 
Mongol Abaga. The Atabeg Afrasiyab i seized Ispahan 
on the death of Arghun, but was speedily punished. This 
petty dynasty continued to rule tiU about 1339 (JflfO). 
Many of the dates are uncertain. Their capital was 
Idaj ; but Yusuf Shah n is recorded to have annexed 
Shustar, Huwayza, and -Basra. There was also fitnother 
petty dynasty of Atabegs, who governed the Lesser Luristan 
from the end of the 12th to the 16th century.* 

♦ For both dynasties see Sir Henry Howorth's Eittory of the Mongolia 
Part III. pp. 140, 406, 751-6. 




BAZlRASPIDS 



175 



A.H. A.D. 

543 AbH-Tahir b. Mol^ammad . . . 1148 

e. 600 Na^rat-a^-din Hazarasp . , e. 1203 

e. 650 Takla e, 1252 

e, 657 Shams-a/-din Alp-Arghu . . . . e, 1259 

e, 673 YiiBuf Shah i e, 1274 

e. 687 Afrasiyab i . 1288 

696 Na^rat-a^dm A^mad 1296 

733 Rukn-aZ-din Yiisuf Shah ii . . . . 1333 

740 Mu^affar-aZ-din Afrasiyab ii . . . . 1339 

756 Shams-a/-dln Hushang (or Niir-al-Ward) . 1355 

e, 780 Al^mad e, 1378 

e. 815 Abu.Sa*id 1408 

e, 820 Hosayn <?. 1417 

827 Ghiyath-a^duL 1423 

Expelled by Ibrahim b. Shah Rukh 



I 

3. Takla 



I 



I 
6. Afrasiyab i 



1. Abii-Tahir 



2. HAZAEASP 



4. Alp-Arghu 

I 



I 



5. Yusuf Shah i 7. Al^mad 



I 

8. Tuaot Shah n 



Kur-ai-Wapd 



I 

X 

I 

Hushang 



[Tlfnuridt] 



176 KHWiRIZM 



A.H. A.D. 

c. 470—628 69. SHAHS OP KHWABIZM 1077—1231 

A Turkish slave of Balkatigin of Ghazna, named Anush- 
tigin, rose to be the cup-bearer of the Seljuk Sultan 
Malik Shah, who made him governor of Khwarizm 
(Khiva), a post to which his son succeeded with the 
title of Khwarhm Shah. Atsiz was the first of the 
line to show 6tny ambition for independence, but his 
revolt in 1138 (^533) wslb punished by his expulsion 
from Khwarizm by Sultan Sinjar. Atsiz, however, shortly 
returned, and henceforward the Khwarizm Shahs enjoyed 
sovereign power. Atsiz extended his authority as far 
as Jand on the River Sihun (Jaxartes). Tukush added 
Khurasan, -Rayy and Ispahan to his dominions 1193-4 
(589-590), and his son, the celebrated *Ala-a/-din 
Mohammad, after a stubborn war with the Ghurids in 
Khurasan, reduced the greater part of Persia by the 
year 1210 {607), subdued Bukhara and Samarkand, and 
invading the territory of the Giir-Khan of Kara-Khitay, 
seized his capital Otrar. In 1214 {611) he entered 
Afghanistan and took Ghazna, and then, having adopted 



KHWARIZM SHAHS 177 

the *Alid heresy {61J^) prepared to put 'Hn end to the 
*Abbasid Caliphate. His career of conquest was suddenly- 
cut short by the appearance of the Mongol hordes of 
Ghingiz Khan on his northern borders. Mohammad fled 
incontinently before this appalling swarm, and died in 
despair on an island of the Caspian Sea, 1220 {617). 
His three sons wandered for some time through the 
provinces of Persia, and one of them, Jalal-a/-din, even 
visited India for two years ; but after a decade of 
stirring adventures, during which he contrived to hold 
Adharbijan from 622-8 , he was finally banished by the 
Mongols in 1231 (628). At one time the rule of the 
Khwarizm Shah was almost conterminous with the Seljuk 
empire, but this period of widest extent scarcely lasted 
a dozen years. 

A.H. A.D. 

c. 470 Anushtigin c. 1077 

490 Kutb-a^dm Mo1?ammad .... 1097 

621 AtsTz 1127 

561 Il-Arslan 1166 

668 Sultan Shah Ma1?mud (t 689) . 1172 

668 Tukush 1172 

696 <Ala-a/-^n Mohammad .... 1199 

617 Jalal-a^dln Mangbarti 1220 

—628 —1231 

{^Monffoh"] 

12 



178 



KUWARIZM 



H 
CO 



5^ 

I— I 

K 
W 

o 

W 

H 



fcc 



cS 

£ 

o 



a 

IfM 

I 

C3 
I 

• 



!■-• 



CO 



IS 

1. 



loS 
ie9 



'ts leO 'te 

^ <J c 



d 

•lOj 

a 



I 



a 

00 



I 



xi 

es 02 



103 



CO 
«3 



'5= 






icS 



d 

I 

. C3 

I 

lee 



S 

s 

C3 



d 




i»- 






^ 


133 


C3 


^ 


1 


QQ 


xi 




■*^ 


.»-i 


icS 


!5 




S 


^ 





CO 



O 



d 

I 

es 
I 

3 

P 



ip4 

^ 
u 



Od 



d "^ 

£ CO 
,3 •*- 

o 




A.H. 

619-703 



KUTLUOH KHANS 



70. KUTLUGH KHANS 



179 

A.H. 

1222-1303 



(KIRMAX) 
Burak Hajib, a native of Kara-KMtay, and an officer 
of *Ala-a/-din the Khwarizm Shah, succeeding in estab- 
lishing his power in Kirman in 1222 {619), during the 
period of anarchy which followed the overthrow of the 
Khwarizm Shah by Chingiz Khan; and his authority was 
confirmed by the Mongol Ogotay, who conferred upon him 
the title of Kutlugh Khan, The dynasty kept within 
the limits of Kirman, and were loyal vassals of the 
Mongols of Persia, two of whom married daughters of 
the family. The daughter of the last of the line 
married Mohammad the Muzaffarid of Ears. 



A.H. 




A.D. 


619 


Buruk Hajib Kutlugh Khan . 


1222 


632 


Rukn-a/-dTn Khojat-al-Hakk 


1234 


650 


Kutb-a/-din Mohammad 


1252 


655 


Kutlugh Khatun (widow of preceding * . 


1257 


681 


Jalal-a/-din SmTirghatmish . 


1282 


693 


§afwat-a/-din Padisliah Khatun . 


1293 


694 


Jalal-a/-din Mohammad Shah 


1294 


701 


Kutb-a/-din Shah-Jahan 


1301 


703 




—1303 



\_Mongol governors till 741 ; then Miizaffarids.'] 
• From 656 to 660 her son Ilajjaj Sultan was the titular ruler. 




180 



KIRMAN 



KUTLUGH KHANS 



1 . Burak Hajib 



I 

2. Eukn-a/-din 



I 

Taynku 

I 

3. Kutb-a/-din=4. Kutlugh Khatun 



J 

Hajjaj Sultan 



I I I 

5. Jalal-a/-din 6. ^afwat-a/-din daughter- 

Abaga 
il-Khan 



7. Jalal-aZ-din 8. Kutb-a/-din daughter =^9:^^\3i Il-Ehan 



daughter =.'}iL^9XDmsA b. -Mu^affar 




X. THE SUCCESSORS OF THE SELJUKS 

IN THE WEST 



S>EC. XIV-XIX 



AMIRS OF ASIA MINOR 



71. 


KARASi 


(MYSIA) 


72. 


hamFd 

• 


(PISIDIA) 


73. 


KARMIYAN 


(PHRYQIA) 


74. 


TAKKA 


(LYCIA) 


76. 


SARU KHAN 

• 


(LYDIA) 


76. 


aydFn 


(LYDIA) 


77. 


MANTASHA 


(CARIA) 



78. KiZIL-AHMADLi (PAPHLAQONIA) 

79. KARAMAN (LYCAONIA) 



80. 'OTHMANLI SULTANS OF TURKEY 



X. THE SUCCESSORS OF THE SEUUKS 

IN THE WEST 

S^C. XIV— XIX 

We have seen how the Atabegs and other officers of 
the Seljuks succeeded to the government of the Persian, 
Mesopotamian, and Syrian provinces of their wide empire, 
but, failing to found powerful dynasties, were forced to 
make way for the Mongols in the thirteenth century. 
There was, however, one part of the Seljuk empire 
where the Mongols made no lasting impression, and where 
the Seljuks were followed by a dynasty greater than 
their own, the splendid line of the *Olhmdnll or Ottoman 
Turks. Before entering upon the Mongol period of Mo- 
hammadan history, these successors 'of the Seljuks in the 
West must be noticed. 

In the second half of the thirteenth century the Seljuks 
of -Rum, or Hither Asia, became the vassals of the 
Mongols of Persia, who directed affairs in Anatolia 
through a governor. But the hold of the Mongols 
upon this distant province was slight and brief. The 



184 AMIRS OF ASIA MINOR 

decayed Seljfiks might submit, but the young dynasties 
which sprang up among their ruins paid little heed to 
the remote despots of Persia, who made few efforts to 
restrain them. Ten States soon divided the Seljuk king- 
dom of -Rum amongst themselves. The Kardsi dynasty 
occupied Mysia; the families of Sdru Khan and Aydln, 
Lydia; the Mantashd princes, Caria; those of Takka, 
Lycia and Pamphylia ; ffamid^ Pisidia and Isauria ; 
Karamdn, Lycaonia; Karmiyany Phrygia; Kizil-Ahmadll^ 
Paphlagonia; whilst the house of ^Othmdn held Phrygia 
Epictetus. 

All these dynasties were gradually absorbed by the 
rising power of the *0thmdnli8y once the least among 
them. Karasi was annexed in 1336 {7S7) ; Hamid was 
purchased as a marriage dower in 1382 (783) ; and 
in 1390 {792) Bayazld (Bajazet) i annexed Karmiyan, 
Takka, Saru Khan, Aydin, and Mantasha, in a single 
campaign, and completed his conquest by adding Kara- 
man and Kizil-Ahmadli in 1392-3 {794-5). [Thus at the 
end of the fourteenth century, not a hundred years after 
the assumption of independence by *Othman i, the arms 
of his great-grandson had swept away the nine rival 
dynasties. 




AMIRS OF ASIA MINOR 185 

After the battle of Angora in 1402 {80If)^ when Bayazid 
was defeated and made prisoner by Timur, and the *Oth- 
manli power in Asia seemed to be annihilated by the 
Tatar hordes, seven of these dynasties (but not Karasi 
or Hamid) were restored by the conqueror, and enjoyed 
a renewed vitality for about a quarter of a century. 
By that time, however, the ^Othmanlis had recovered 
from the blow, and in 1426-8 {829-832) five of the 
restored dynasties were re-absorbed by Murad (Amu- 
rath) n; and in 1471 {877)^ after the second conquest 
of Karaman, the rule of the Ottoman Turks, in the 
strong hands of Mohammad ii, was again supreme over 
all the provinces which once owned the sway of the 
Ten Amirs, as it is at this day. 

The following table shows the division of the Seljuk 
kingdom of Eum among the Ten States, and their 
absorption by the *Othmanlis, and gives the names and 
(so far as known) the dates of their princes.* 



* Details may be consulted in my article on the Successors of the 
Seljuks, in Journal R. As. Soc., N.S. xiv. (1882). 




186 TURKEY 



A.H. A.D. 

699—1311 80. *OTHMANLi OR OTTOMAN 1299-1893 

SULTANS OF TURKEY 

The *Othmaiili or Ottoman Turks were a small clan 
of the Oghuz tribe, who were driven westward from 
Khurasan by the Mongol migration, and took refuge in 
Asia Minor early in the thirteenth century. In recog- 
nition of their aid in war, the Seljuk Sultan allowed 
them to pasture their flocks in the province anciently 
known as Phiygia Epictetus (henceforward called Sultan- 
oni) on the borders of the Byzantine Bithynia, with the 
town of Sugut (Thebasion) for their headquarters. Here 
*Othman, the eponymous founder of a dynasty which 
numbers thirty-five Sultans in the direct male line, was 
bom in 1258 {656), *Othman pushed the Byzantine 
frontier further back, and his son *Orkhan took Brusa 
and Nicaea, absorbed the neighbouring State of Karasi, 
and organized the famous corps of Janizaries {Yani chart 
* new soldiery '), who for several centuries were the flower 
of the conquering armies of the *Othmanlis. In 1358 
{759) the Turks crossed the Hellespont, established a 




'OTHMANLl SULTANS 187 

garrison at Gallipoli, and began the conquest of the 
Byzantine Empire in Europe. Adrianople and Philippopolis 
fell a few. years later, and the victories of the Maritza 
(1364), Kosovo (1389), and Nicopolis (1394) over the 
chivalry of all Europe gave the Turks assured possession 
of the whole Balkan peninsula, except the district sur- 
rounding Constantinople. The capital of the Eastern 
Empire was temporarily saved by the diversion caused 
by the invasion of Asia Minor by Timur (Tamerlane) 
and the overwhelming defeat of the Ottoman Sultan 
Bayazid i (commonly called Bajazet, from an ignorant 
pronunciation of the German spelling) in 1402 {80If) on 
the field of Angora. 

For the moment an empire which had stretched from 
the Danube to the Orontes appeared to be almost anni- 
hilated by a single blow. Its recovery, however, under 
the wise rule of Mohammad i, *The Gentleman,* was 
scarcely less remarkable, and, after an interval of peace 
and consolidation, Murad n was able to defend the 
empire from the attacks of Hunyady, the * White 
Knight of Wallachia,' and to avenge a violated treaty by 
the decisive victory of Yama (1444) over a vast army 
of Christian crusaders. This signal success secured the 




188 TURKEY 

Turks from invasion from the north, and the history of 
the next two centuries is a long record of triumphs. 
Constantinople fell to Mohammad ii in 1453, and the 
last remnant of the Byzantine Empire was thereby 
destroyed. The Crimea was annexed (1475), the Aegean 
islands became Ottoman soil, and the Turkish flag waved 
even in Italy over the castle of Otranto. In his brief 
reign of eight years, Selim i, *the Grim,* defeated 
the Shah of Persia, and added Kurdistan and Diyar- 
Bakr to the Turkish Empire; took Syria, Egypt and 
Arabia from the Mamluks (1517); and not only became 
the master of the Holy Cities of Mecca and -Medina, 
but received from the last *Abbasid Caliph of Cairo the 
relics of the Prophet Mohammad and the right of suc- 
cession to the Caliphate, in virtue of which the Ottoman 
Sultans have ever since claimed the homage of the 
faithful. 

Sulayman the Great, patris fortis filim fortior^ over- 
shadowed Selim's exploits by his own magnificent achieve- 
ments. In 1522 he expelled the Ejiights of Khodes from 
their corsairs* stronghold. In the north he conquered 
Belgrade, and in 1526 utterly crushed the Hungarians on 
the field of Mohacs, slaying their king Louis n and 20,000 




'OTHMANLI SULTANS 189 

of his troops. For a century and a half Hungary became 
a Turkish province. Sulayman even besieged Vienna 
(1529), and, though he failed to subdue it, he compelled 
the Archduke Ferdinand to pay him tribute. * The Sultan's 
claim to be called The Great rests not merely upon 
his undoubted wisdom and ability, and the splendid series 
of his successes, but upon the fact that he maintained 
and improved his grand position in an age of surpassing 
greatness — the age of Charles i, Francis i, Elizabeth, and 
Leo X — of Colombus, Cortes, and Raleigh. In the great 
days of Charles he dared to annex Hungary and lay 
siege to Vienna; and in the epoch of great navies and 
admirals, of Doria and Drake, he swept the seas to the 
coasts of Spain, and his admirals Earbarossa, Piale, and 
Dragut, created panic fear along all the shores of the 
Mediterranean, drove the Spaniards out of the Barbary 
States, and defeated pope, emperor, and doge together 
at the great sea-fight off Prevesa (1638).'* The empire 
of Sulayman stretched from Buda-Pesth on the Danube 
to Aswan on the Cataracts of the I^ile, and from the 
Euphrates almost to the Straits of Gibraltar. 

* See my History of Turkey y ch. x (1888), 




X. THE SUCCESSORS OF THE SEUUKS 

IN THE WEST 

S^C. XIV— XIX 

"We have seen how the Atabegs and other officers of 
the Seljuks succeeded to the government of the Persian, 
Mesopotamian, and Syrian provinces of their wide empire, 
but, failing to found powerful dynasties, were forced to 
make way for the Mongols in the thirteenth century. 
There was, however, one part of the Seljuk empire 
where the Mongols made no lasting impression, and where 
the Seljuks were followed by a dynasty greater than 
their own, the splendid line of the ^Olhmdnll or Ottoman 
Turks. Before entering upon the Mongol period of Mo- 
hammadan history, these successors 'of the Seljuks in the 
West must be noticed. 

In the second half of the thirteenth century the Seljuks 
of -Rum, or Hither Asia, became the vassals of the 
Mongols of Persia, who directed affairs in Anatolia 
through a governor. But the hold of the Mongols 
upon this distant province was slight and brief. The 



181 AMIRS OF ASIA MINOR 

decayed Seljuks might submit, but the young dynasties 
which sprang up among their ruins paid little heed to 
the remote despots of Persia, who made few efforts to 
restrain them. Ten States soon divided the Seljuk king- 
dom of -Rum amongst themselves. The Kardsl dynasty 
occupied Mysia; the families of Sdru Khan and Aydln^ 
Lydia; the Mantashd princes, Caria; those of Takkay 
Lycia and Pamphylia ; Hamid^ Pisidia and Isauria ; 
Karaman^ Lycaonia; Karmiyan^ Phrygia; Kizil-Ahmadli, 
Paphlagonia ; whilst the house of * Othmdn held Phrygia 
Epictetus. 

All these dynasties were gradually absorbed by the 
rising power of the ^ Othmanlis, once the least among 
them. Karasi was annexed in 1336 {737) ; Hamid was 
purchased as a marriage dower in 1382 {783) ; and 
in 1390 {792) Bayazid (Bajazet) i annexed Karmiyan, 
Takka, Saru Khan, Aydin, and Mantasha, in a single 
campaign, and completed his conquest by adding Kara- 
man and Kizil-Ahmadli in 1392-3 (794-5). ^Thus at the 
end of the fourteenth century, not a hundred years after 
the assumption of independence by *Othman i, the arms 
of his great-grandson had swept away the nine rival 
dynasties. 



BITUYNIA 


1 

PHllYGIA 
EPICTETUS ^^^^ 


riKIDIA 


I'llKYGIA 


BYZANTINES 


'0THMANLI8 KARA8I 


HAJliD 


KAUMIYAN 




S 

630 Ertushril 


E 


L 


660 Michael 








PcilacologuH 








682 AndronicuH 


• 








699 'Othman *Ajlan Beg 


Hamid 


Karmivan Beg 


717 BHlsa 


726 Orkhan 






^Alishir 


731 Nicaea 


761 Murad i 




Hosayn 


*AUm 
*Ati 


737 








Ya*kuh 






783 






792 Bayazid 






792 




804 INVASION OP TIMUR 

805 Mol^ammad i 




ANNEXED B^ 


805 Ya'kub 








restored 




824 Murad ii 
855 Mohammad ii 




832 


*0 


T 


H 


M 


A 



AMIRS OF ASIA MINOR 185 

After the battle of Angora in 1402 {80Ii)^ when Bayazid 
was defeated and made prisoner by Timur, and the *Oth- 
manli power in Asia seemed to be annihilated by the 
Tatar hordes, seven of these dynasties (but not Karasi 
or Hamid) were restored by the conqueror, and enjoyed 
a renewed vitality for about a quarter of a century. 
By that time, however, the *Othmanlis had recovered 
from the blow, aud in 1426-8 {829-832) five of the 
restored dynasties were re-absorbed by Murad (Amu- 
rath) n; and in 1471 {877), after the second conquest 
of Karaman, the rule of the Ottoman Turks, in the 
strong hands of Mohammad ii, was again supreme over 
all the provinces which once owned the sway of the 
Ten Amirs, as it is at this day. 

The following table shows the division of the Seljuk 
kingdom of Rum among the Ten States, and their 
absorption by the ^Othmanlis, and gives the names and 
(so far as known) the dates of their princes.* 

* Details may be consulted in my article on the Successors of the 
Seljuks, in Journal R. As. Soc., N.S. xiv. (1882). 




186 TURKEY 



A.H. A.D. 

699—1311 80. *OTHMANLi OR OTTOMAN 1299-1893 

SULTANS OF TURKEY 

The *Othmanli or Ottoman Turks were a small clan 
of the Oghuz tribe, who were driven westward from 
Khurasan by the Mongol migration, and took refuge in 
Asia Minor early in the thirteenth century. In recog- 
nition of their aid in war, the Seljuk Sultan allowed 
them to pasture their flocks in the province anciently 
known as Phrygia Epictetus (henceforward called Sultan- 
oni) on the borders of the Byzantine Bithynia, with the 
town of Sugut (Thebasion) for their headquarters. Here 
*Othman, the eponymous founder of a dynasty which 
numbers thirty-five Sultans in the direct male line, was 
bom in 1258 {656). *Othman pushed the Byzantine 
frontier further back, and his son *Orkhan took Brusa 
and Nicaea, absorbed the neighbouring State of Karasi, 
and organized the famous corps of Janizaries {Ymii chart 
* new soldiery '), who for several centuries were the flower 
of the conquering armies of the 'Othmanlis. In 1358 
(J 59) the Turks crossed the Hellespont, established a 



'OTHMANLl SULTANS 187 

garrison at GallipoL', and began the conquest of the 
Byzantine Empire in Europe. Adrianople and Philippopolis 
fell a few. years later, and the victories of the Maritza 
(1364), Kosovo (1389), and Mcopolis (1394) over the 
chivalry of all Europe gave the Turks assured possession 
of the whole Balkan peninsula, except the district sur- 
rounding Constantinople. The capital of the Eastern 
Empire was temporarily saved by the diversion caused 
by the invasion of Asia Minor by Timur (Tamerlane) 
and the overwhelming defeat of the Ottoman Sultan 
Bayazld i (commonly called Bajazet, from an ignorant 
pronunciation of the German spelling) in 1402 {80If) on 
the field of Angora. 

For the moment an empire which had stretched from 
the Danube to the Orontes appeared to be almost anni- 
hilated by a single blow. Its recovery, however, under 
the wise rule of Mohammad i, * The Gentleman,' was 
scarcely less remarkable, and, after an interval of peace 
and consolidation, Murad n was able to defend the 
empire from the attacks of Hunyady, the * White 
Knight of Wallachia,' and to avenge a violated treaty by 
the decisive victory of Varna (1444) over a vast army 
of Christian crusaders. This signal success secured the 



188 TURKEY 

Turks from invasion from tlie north, and the history of 
the next two centuries is a long record of triumphs. 
Constantinople fell to Mohammad ii in 1453, and the 
last remnant of the Byzantine Empire was thereby 
destroyed. The Crimea was annexed (1475), the Aegean 
islands became Ottoman soil, and the Turkish flag waved 
even in Italy over the castle of Otranto. In his brief 
reign of eight years, Selim i, *the Grim,' defeated 
the Shah of Persia, and added Kurdistan and Diyar- 
Bakr to the Turkish Empire; took Syria, Egypt and 
Arabia from the Mamluks (1517) ; and not only became 
the master of the Holy Cities of Mecca and -Medina, 
but received from the last *Abbasid Caliph of Cairo the 
relics of the Prophet Mohammad and the right of suc- 
cession to the Caliphate, in virtue of which the Ottoman 
Sultans have ever since claimed the homage of the 
faithful. 

Sulayman the Great, patris fortis filiua fortiori over- 
shadowed Sellm's exploits by his own magnificent achieve- 
ments. In 1522 he expelled the Knights of Rhodes from 
their corsairs' stronghold. In the north he conquered 
Belgrade, and in 1526 utterly crushed the Hungarians on 
the field of Mohacs, slaying their king Louis n and 20,000 




'OTEMANLI SULTANS 189 

of Ids troops. For a century and a lialf Hungary became 
a Turkisli province. Sulayman even besieged Vienna 

(1529), and, though be failed to subdue it, be compelled 
tbe Archduke Ferdinand to pay him tribute. * The Sultan's 
claim to be called The Great rests not merely upon 
his undoubted wisdom and ability, and the splendid series 
of his successes, but upon the fact that he maintained 
and improved his grand position in an age of surpassing 
greatness — the age of Charles i, Francis i, Elizabeth, and 
Leo X — of Colombus, Cortes, and Raleigh. In the great 
days of Charles he dared to annex Hungary and lay 
siege to Vienna; aud in the epoch of great navies and 
admirals, of Doria and Drake, he swept the seas to the 
coasts of Spain, and his admirals Barbarossa, Piale, and 
Dragut, created panic fear along all the shores of the 
Mediterranean, drove the Spaniards out of the Barbary 
States, and defeated pope, emperor, and doge together 
at the great sea-fight off Prevesa (1638).'* The empire 
of Sulayman stretched from Buda-Pesth on the Danube 
to Aswan on the Cataracts of the Nile, and from the 
Euphrates almost to the Straits of Gibraltar. 

* See my History of Turkey, ch. x (1888). 



OTTOUAN EMPIRE 





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OTTOMAN EMPIRE 





192 TURKEY 

The reign of Sulayman tlie Great is tlie apogee of 
Ottoman power. The downward course began with the 
blow inflicted upon the naval prestige of Turkey by 
Don John of Austria's signal victory off Lepanto (1571). 
In spite of the conquest of Cyprus (1571) and such 
successes on land as the defeat of the Austrians on the 
Keresztes (1596), the Turks were no longer the terror 
of Europe. Murad iv added Baghdad to their Asiatic 
dominions in 1638, and Candia and other islands were 
wrested from the Venetians in 1645; but on the con- 
tinent of Europe the defeats at St. Gothard (1664), 
Choczim (1673), and Lemberg (1675) by John Sobieski, 
culminating in the fatal siege of Vienna (1682) and the 
rout at Mohacz, were followed by the total loss of 
Hungary (1686), and the invasion of Bosnia and Greece 
by the Austrians and Venetians. Prince Eugene delivered 
a final blow at the battle of Zenta (1697), and the 
treaties of Carlovitz (1699) and Passarovitz (1718) mark 
the end of Turkish supremacy in Hungary, Podolia, and 
Transylvania. 

The frontiers of the empire remained almost unchanged 
from this epoch of humiliation up to the recent partition of 
1878. Russian aggression began in 1736 with the annexa- 




'OTHMANLi SULTANS 193 

lion of OczakoY and Azov, and continued with the seizure 
of the Crimea in 1783, besides several invasions of the 
Danubian Principalities. Turkey itself was a prey to 
the exactions of a disorderly soldiery, and Mahmud n, 
the greatest of modem Sultans, though he massacred the 
mutinous Janizaries (1826), could- not arrest the process 
of disintegration which was going on in the Ottoman 
empire. In Africa, Egypt became practically independent 
under Mohammad *AlI in the first quarter of this cen- 
tury, and since 1883 has been still further removed 
from the 'sphere of Turkish influence' by the British 
occupation. Algiers and Tunis became semi-independent 
under their Deys and Beys in 1659 (1070) and 1705 
{1117) respectively, and Prance has been the possessor 
of Algiers since 1830, and of Tunis, in all but name, 
since 1881. The regency of Tripoli is all that now 
remains of the Turkish empire in Africa. In Asia, 
however, it has lost little since the day when Murad iv 
took Baghdad from the Persians ; though Kars and Batum 
were awarded to Eussia in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin, 
when the island of Cyprus was hypothecated to Great 
Britain. 

Turkey's most serious losses have been in Europe. 

13 



194 TURKEY 

Greece parted from her in 1828; the Danubian Princi- 
palities coalesced into the State of Eoumania in 1866 ; 
and Servia got rid of her Turkish garrisons in 1867. 
The designs of Eussia, which had been checked by- 
England and France in the Crimean War (1854-5), 
were again manifested in the invasion of Turkey in 
1877-8; but the Great Powers did not sanction the 
aggrandizing ambition of Eussia. The Treaty of Beriin 
(1878), though it gave little to Eussia, carried out the 
partition of Turkey in Europe which had already begun. 
Eoumania and Servia were created separate kingdoms, the 
independence of Montenegro was recognized, Greece was 
given Thessaly, Bosnia and Herzegovina were entrusted 
to Austria, and a new tributary principality of Bulgaria 
was established, to which Eastern Eoumelia was added 
in 1885, whereby Turkey was virtually deprived of her 
last possession north of the Balkans. The Ottoman 
Empire in Europe is now reduced to a strip of territory 
south of the Balkans, corresponding to ancient Thrace, 
Macedon, Epirus, and Illyria, instead of stretching almost 
to the gates of Vienna as it did in the great days of 
Sulayman. 




'OTHMlNLI SULTANS 



195 



A.H. 

699 

726 

761 

792 

805 

824 

855 

886 

918 

926 

974 

982 

1003 

1012 

1026 

1027 

1031 

1032 

1049 

1058 

1099 

1102 

1106 

1115 

1143 

1168 

1171 

1187 

1203 

1222 

1223 

1255 

1277 

1293 

1293 



'Othman i 

Orkhan 

Murad (Amurath) i 

Bayazid (Bajazet) i 

Moljiammad i 

Murad n 

Mohammad n 

Bayazid u . 

Selim I 

Sulayman i . 

Selim II 

Murad iii 

Mohammad iii 

Ahmad i 

Mustafa I 

'Othman ii . 

Mu?tafa I {restored) 

Murad iv 

Ihrahim i 

Mohammad iv 

Sulayman ii . 

Ahmad n 

Mu?tafa n . 

Ahmad in 

Mal^mud i 

*Othman in . 

Mu?tafa ni . 

*Abd-al-Hamid i 

Selim in 

Mu§taf a IV . 

Mabmud n . 

*Abd-al-Majid 

*Abd-al-*Aziz 

Murad v 

*Abd-al-Ij[amid ii regnant 



A.D. 

1299 
1326 
1360 
1389 
1402 
1421 
1451 
1481 
1512 
1520 
1566 
1574 
1595 
1603 
1617 
1618 
1622 
1623 
1640 
1648 
1687 
1691 
1695 
1703 
1730 
1754 
1757 
1773 
1789 
1807 
1808 
1839 
1861 
1876 
1876 



196 



TURKEY 



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XI. THE MONGOLS 

S>EC. XIII— XVIII 

81. GREAT KHANS OF MONGOLIA 

82. MONGOLS OF PERSIA 

83. GOLDEN HORDE OF KIPCHAK 

84. KHANS of THE KRIM (CRIMEA) 

85. CHAGHATAY KHANS 




Xr. THE MONGOLS* 

S^C. XIII— XVIII 

Tlie history of the Mongols begins practically with the 
great conqueror Chingiz Khan. There are many traditions 
of his ancestors current among his biographers, but, as 
in the case of many another man of unexpected fame, his 
pedigree has been elaborated rather on the ground of 
natural propriety than of fact. All that can safely be 
said about the early history of the Mongols is that they 
were a clan among clans, a member of a great nomad 
confederacy that ranged the country north of the desert 
of Gobi in search of water and pasture; who spent their 
lives in hunting and the breeding of cattle, lived on flesh 
and sour milk (kumis), and made their profit by bartering 
hides and beasts with their kinsmen the Khitans, or with 
the Turks and Chinese, to whom they owed allegiance. 
The name Mongol was not known abroad until the tenth 
century, and probably came to be applied to the whole 
group of clans only when the chief of a particular clan 
bearing that name acquired an ascendancy over the rest 

♦ The following introduction, and those to the succeeding sections 
of the Mongol dynasties, are reprinted from my Catalogue of Oriental 
Coins in the British Museum^ vol vi. They are of course based upon 
Sir Henry Howorth's great History. 




202 MONGOLS 

of tlie confederacy, and gave to the greater the name of 
the less. If not the founder of the supremacy of his clan, 
Yissugay was a notable maintainer of it, and it was pro- 
bably he who first asserted the independence of the 
Mongols from Chinese rule. In spite, however, of conquest 
and annexation, the people who owned the sovereignty of 
Yissugay numbered only forty thousand tents. Yet it was 
upon this foundation that Yissugay's son, Chingiz Khan, 
built up in twenty years the widest empire the world has 
ever seen. The father died in 1175 a.d., and Temujin his 
son, a child of thirteen years, and not yet called by the 
high title of Chingiz Khan, ruled in his stead over the 
tribes that wandered by the banks of the Onon. 

A detailed chronicle of the career of conquest inaugurated 
by this Asiatic Alexander is no part of the present purpose.* 
It is sufficient to say that after thirty years of struggle 
against home-foes, in which he succeeded in firmly estab- 
lishing his authority over his own and the neighbouring 
clans, in face of powerful and treacherous conspiracies, 
Temujin found himself free to devote the twenty years 
that remained of his life to wider and more ambitious 
designs. Having reduced all the tribes north of the desert 

* See Sir H. H. Howorth's History of the Mongols, i. 49—116* 




CHINOIZ KHAN 203 

of Gobi, from the Irtish to the Khinggan Mountains, and 
having incorporated among his subjects the Karaits, who 
had forfeited their independence by the treachery of theit 
king, Wang Khan (the Prester John of European fable, 
and an old but perfidious ally of Yissugay and his son), 
Temujin summoned, in 1206, a Kuriltay or Diet of the 
chiefs of all the tribes ; and a ahamany or priest, announced 
to the assembled nobles that a higher title than belonged 
to others had been decreed by Heaven to Temujin, and 
henceforward his name should be Chingiz Kaan, * the Very 
Mighty King.* Thus at the age of forty-four did Chingiz 
begin his undisputed reign. Three years later, after 
receiving the submission of the XJighurs, he began his 
invasion of China, and though it was reserved for his 
grandson to complete the subjugation of the Celestial 
Empire, a great part of the northern provinces, the ancient 
kingdom of Liau-tung, and the Tangut Kingdom of Hia, 
were added, as subject provinces or feudatory states, to the 
Mongol dominions during the great Khan's own lifetime. 
The next obstacle in the path to universal sovereignty 
was the old Turkish kingdom of Kara-Khitay, which 
corresponded nearly to the modem limits of Eastern 
Turkisi^, and was ruled by a line of kings called 6ur- 



204 MONGOLS 

Khans, wlio exacted homage from the border states of 
Persia and Transoxiana. Chingiz and his horsemen, how- 
ever, instead of paying homage, speedily rode down all 
resistance, and soon found themselves masters of Xashghar, 
Khoten, and Yarkhand, with the rest of the territory of 
Giir-Khans. The Mongol dominions now marched with the 
wide kingdom which had recently been conquered by the 
Khwarizm Shah; and this, therefore, became the next 
object of attack and the next example of the futility of 
resistance. The Mongol armies, divided into several 
immense brigades, swept over Khwarizm, Khurasan, and 
Afghanistan, on the one hand, and on the other over 
Adharbljan, Georgia, and southern Eussia, whilst a third 
division continued the reduction of China. In the midst 
of these diverging streams of conquest, Chingiz Khan died, 
in 1227 {62If\ at the age of sixty-four. The territory he 
and his sons had conquered stretched from the Yellow 
Sea to the Euxine, and included lands or tribes wrung 
horn the rule of Chinese, Tanguts, Afghans, Persians, and 
Turks. 

It was the habit of a Mongol chief to distribute the 
clans over which he had ruled as appanages among his 
sons,* and this tribal rather than territorial distribution 




MONGOLS 205 

obtained in the division of the empire among the sons of 
Chingiz. The founder appointed a special appanage of 
tribes in certain loosely defined camping-grounds to each 
son, and also nominated a successor to himself in the 
supreme Khanate. Beginning therefore with the KhakadnSf 
or supreme suzerains over all the other Mongol chiefs, 
the following seems the natural order: 

1. The line of Ogotay^ ruling the tribes of Zungaria; 

Khdkadns, till their extinction by the family 
of Tuluy. 

2. The line of Tuluy y ruling the home clans of Mongol- 

istan; Khdkauna after Ogotay's line, down to 
the Manchu supremacy. 

3. The Persian branch of the line of Tuluy ; Hulagu 

and his successors, the Il-khans of Persia. 

4. The line of Jujly ruling the Turkish Tribes of the 

Khanate of Kipchak; the Khans of the Golden 
and White Hordes, with the sequel, the 
Khanate of Astrakhan, and the ofPshoots, the 
Khanates of Kazan, Kazimof, and Krim ; and 
finally the Khans of Khiva and Bukhara. 

5. The line of Chagatdyy ruling Ma-wara-/-nahr, or 
Transoxiana. 



206 



MONGOLS 



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MONGOLS 207 



A.H. A.D. 

603-1043 81. GREAT KHANS 1026—1634 

1. Line of Ogotay; — Appanage, Zungaria*; Supreme 
Khakaans (1227—1248). 

By the will of Cliingiz, Ogotay besides receiving his 
appanage in Zungaria was appointed to succeed to the 
supreme authority ; and it is a singular testimony to the 
reverence in which the intentions of the great founder 
of Mongol power were held that Ogotay, although neither 
the eldest nor the most capable of the sons of Chingiz, 
was suffered quietly to assume the sovereignty over all 
the chiefs of the family and tributaries, and received their 
loyal homage at the general Diet held in 1229. His reign 
was marked by a considerable extension of the Mongol 
dominions. The Kin empire, or northern half of China, 
which had only been partially reduced in the lifetime of 
Chingiz, was now (1234) entirely subdued; (the southern 

* It will be simpler thus to indicate rouglily the position of the 
camping-grounds of Ogotay's subjects, than to say **the clans camping 
in or about Zungaria,'* etc. In this instance the tribes in question were 
the Naymans and the ancestors of the modem Kalmuks. 



208 MONGOLS 

half, or Sung empire, resisted the invaders till the time 
of Khubilay.) Korea was annexed (1241). The gallant 
and unfortunate Jalal-a/-din, son of the late Khwarizm 
Shah Mohammad, was hunted through the wide territory 
which had once owned his father's rule. A great 
expedition into Europe was conducted by Batu, son of 
Juji ; the Mongols entered Moscow and Novgorod, pene- 
trated to Hungary, burned Cracow, and laid siege to Pesth. 
The opportune death of Ogotay called for a general assembly 
of the family, and a reverse sustained at Liegnitz, at the 
hand of the Grand Duke of Austria, saved Europe. Mean- 
while the internal affairs of the empire had been organized 
and ably administered under the wise and just rule of 
the prime minister Yeliu Chutsay, a Khitan, who did 
much to restore order and security to the provinces, in 
spite of the incapacity of his imperial master, who was 
given over to the prevailing Mongol vice of habitual 
drunkenness. 

Ogotay's death in A.n. 1241 {637) was followed by an 
interregnum of several years, during which his widow 
Turakina governed the empire as regent for her eldest 
son Kuyuk, until he should return from Europe, where 
he had been distinguishing himself in the invasion of 



GREAT KHANS 209 

Hungary under his cousin Batu. He received the summons 
in Hungary, and on his return to Karakorum in 1246, 
was elected Khakaan by a general Kuriltay attended by 
most of the chiefs of the family, except the sons of JujI, 
who were dissatisfied with the succession and excused 
themselves. Kuyuk restored the tranquility which had 
been disturbed during the rule of his mother, and armies 
were now despatched to continue the work of extension 
in China and Persia. 

Kuyuk was the only member of the family of Ogotay 
who succeeded to the supreme throne, and on his death 
in 1248 the empire passed to the line of Tuluy, and 
neither Kuyuk' s sons nor any of his brothers succeeded 
him. Under the first Khakaan of the new line, the 
family of Ogotay offered no opposition to their dethrone- 
ment; but when Mangu died and Khubilay was elected 
to the sovereignty by an informal Diet held in China, 
the discontent of Ogotay' s descendants manifested itself 
in immediate and general revolt, and a series of disastrous 
campaigns ensued.* Kaydu, the grandson of Ogotay, fought 
no less than forty-one battles with the supporters of 
Tuluy on the east, and fifteen with their Kipchak allies on 

* See Howorth, i. 173—186. 

14 



210 MONGOLS 

the west: but the struggle was unequal, and soon after 
Kaydu's death (about 1301, 701) the family of Ogotay 
did homage to the line of Tuluy; their clans were dis- 
persed among the tribes of Transoxiana and Kipchak, and 
their chiefs lived in obscurity under the rule of the 
Chagatay Khans. Once and again, in a period of confusion, 
some representative of Ogotay's house was raised to the 
throne of Transoxiana; and it was the fancy of the 
great Timur to bring again to light the heirs of the 
heir of Chingiz by setting up Suyurghatmish and his 
son Ma^mud in the stead of the deposed house of Chagatay ; 
but this was only a fictitious revival, and these two roia 
faineants cannot be said to represent the original Khakaans. 



GREAT KHANS 211 

2. Line of Tuluy : — Appanage, Mongolistan ; Khakaans 

(1248-1634) in tliree stages, (1) Yuen dynasty 

in China (1248-1370), (2) Diminished empire at 

Karakorum (1370-1543), (3) Divided tribes and 

gradual submission to Manchus (1543-1634). 

Mangu, the son of Tuluy, owed his accession partly 

to his personal reputation as a warrior and general, 

and partly to the adherence of the numerous tribes 

of Mongolia proper, the nucleus of the Mongol armies 

under Chingiz, which formed the appanage of Tuluy. 

In 1251 his inauguration took place, and in 1257 he 

died. Yet in this short reign there was room for the 

beginning of two important changes. Mangu kept his 

court at the usual capital Karakorum, north of the desert 

of Gobi, and appointed his brother Khubilay governor 

of the southern provinces: this was the beginning of the 

transfer of the seat of government from Karakorum to 

Peking. The other change was the despatch of another 

brother, Hulagu, to Persia, where in place of the shifting 

rule of provincial governors he established his own dynasty, 

and thus Persia now possessed a line of kings of the royal 

house of Chingiz, like the other great divisions of the 

Mongol empire. 




212 MONGOLS 

The death of Mangu in 1257 was the edgnal for a 
general struggle. The house of Ogotay laid claim to the 
supreme sovereignty, as has been said; and Ankbuka, a 
brother of Mangu and KhubilHy, was the candidate in the 
Mongol homeland. Elhubilay was saluted Khakaan by the 
chiefs of the army in China; Arikbuka was elected by 
another Diet at Karakorum; and Kaydu received the like 
title and homage from the tribes of Ogotay and Chagatay 
further west. Juji's line in Eipchak did not attempt to 
gain the Khakaanship, but supported the house of Tuluy. 
The fine generalship, large resources, and wide personal 
popularity of Khubilay — ^Marco Polo's Great £[han and 
Coleridge's Kubla Elhan — carried him safely through these 
early complications. Arikbuka was speedily routed, and 
Xaydu was kept at a distance, though he did not cease 
from troubling till after Khubilay's death. 

The Xhakaans of the blood of Chingiz now became a 
Chinese dynasty. By 1280 Khubilay had conquered the 
southern or Sung empire of China, and, having thus united 
the whole country under his sole rule, fixed his court at 
Khan Baligh (Cambaluk) or the * City of the Khan,* 
now called Peking; whilst the old capital Karakorum 
became a provincial centre during the first of the three 




YUEN DYNASTY 213 

periods into which the history of his descendants may be 
divided. This frBt period includes the century which 
elapsed between his founding of the Mongol empire in 
China and the expulsion of the invaders under his tenth 
successor, Tughan-Timur (1370).* The Mongol Khakaans 
of this period are known in Chinese annals as the Yuen 
Dynasty. With what sumptuous glory this dynasty 
began we know from Marco Polo : the causes of its 
decay — ^the extravagance of the court, the favouritism 
of the Lamas, the poverty and sickness of the people, the 
plagues and famines, earthquakes and other ^ signs ' — ^may 
be read in Sir Henry Howorth's History. The attempts 
of various pretenders were crowned by the successful 
attack of Chu Yuen Chang, prince of TJ, the founder of 
the Ming Dynasty, who assumed the royal title and seized 
Peking in 1368. In two years China was rid of the 
Mongols; and the most prosperous period of the history 
of the Khakaans was over. 

The second period extends from the expulsion from China 
to the temporary revival under Dayan Khan (1370-1543). 
This is the time of the Diminished Umpire^ when the 
Mongols were confined to the steppes from which they 

* Howorth, i. 284-340 




214 MONGOLS 

first went forth to conquer, the camping grounds by the 
rivers Kerulon and Onon, north of the desert of Gobi. 
Even here they were not absolutely independent. The Ming 
armies surprised the Mongols by Lake Buyur and totally 
routed them, capturing 80,000 prisoners, lifting 150,000 
head of cattle, and carrying off an immense booty. This 
defeat effectually tamed the spirit of the Khakaans, supreme 
now in name alone ; and they became actual vassals of the 
Ming emperors, who appointed the rulers of the tribes by 
patents drawn up in Peking. In the 15th century a worse 
thing happened to them ; many of the clans became for a 
while subject to the TJirats. But at the end of the same 
century Dayan Khan, the fourteenth Khakaan in succession 
from Tughan-Timur, effected a temporary union among the 
scattered tribes, and organized them in certain groups. 

The third period is the history of the disastrous results of 
Dayan' s decentralizing policy — civil war among the Divided 
Tribes^ and the consequent absorption of them one by one 
by the Manchu power which had newly risen on the ruins 
of the Ming in China. Internal wars, separate dynasties, 
and universal disunion, soon brought even the nominal 
sovereignty of the Khakaans to an end; and after 1634 the 
descendants of Elhubilay were mere vassals of China. 



MONGOLS 216 
GREAT KHANS 

A.H. A.D. 

603 Chingiz Khan 1206 

624 Ogotay 1227 

639 Interregnum: Turakina . . . 1241 

644 Kayuk 1246 

646 Mangu 1248 

YUBN DYNASTY 

665 Khubilay 1267 

693 ^jaitu 1294 

706 Kuluk 1307 

711 Buyantu 1311 

720 Gegen 1320 

723 Yisun-Timiir 1323 

728 Rajipeka 1328 

729 Kushala • . . 1329 

729 Jiyaghatu 1329 

732 Rintshenpal 1332 

732 Tughan-Timiir 1332 

DIMINISHED EMPIRE 

771 Biliktu 1370 

780 Ussukhal 1378 

790 Engke Soriktu 1388 

794 Elbek 1392 

802 Gim-Tiiniir 1400 

806 Uljai-Timiir 1403 

814 Delbek 1411 

837 Adsai 1434 

843 Taisong 1439 

866 Akbarji 1452 




216 



MONGOLS 



867 


Ukektu 


) • • • 


867 


Molon 


» • • • 


867 


Mandaghol . 


t • • • 


876 


Dayan 


• • • 

DIYIDET> TRIBES 


961 


Bodi 


• • • 


966 


Kudang 


• • • 


964 


Sasaktu 


• • • 


1001 


Setzen 


• • • 


1013 


Lingdan 


• • • 


—1043 




[Manchu Tatars] 



1463 
1463 
1463 
1470 

1644 
1648 
1667 
1693 
1604 
—1634 




r 





>> 

^ 




'S 




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^ 






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M 






M 

M 






XI 




/^ 



IL-KHANS OF PERSIA 217 



A.H. A.D. 

654-760 82. MONGOLS OP PERSIA * 1256—1349 

It was in the reign of Mangu that Persia was giyen a 
royal dynasty in the House of Hulagu (of the line of 
Tuluy), called Il-khans, or provincial Khans, to indicate 
the homage they owed and invariably acknowledged (very 
cheaply) to the supreme Elhak:aans. Hulagu had little 
difficulty in establishing his authority over the country 
allotted to him. The ambitious Shah of Khwarizm whom 
Ghingiz had routed had already cleared the way by con- 
quering the better part of Persia, and there were no formid- 
able opponents to meet. Hulagu speedily drove before him 
the smaU princes who were trying to build their little 
dynasties on the ruins of the great empire of Elhwarizm; 
came to Baghdad and cruelly murdered -Musta'^im, the 
feeble representative of the 'Abbasid Caliphs; and dis- 
covered no serious obstacle in his path till he was checked 
in Syria by the valiant Mamluks of Egypt, who kept him 
successfully at arm's length. HulagQ was now master of 

• Howorth, iii. 



r 



218 MONGOLS 

all the provinces of Persia and Asia Minor from India to 
the Mediterranean. His dominions marched with those of 
Chagatay and JujI on the north, and with the territory of 
the Egyptian Sultans on the south ; and within these limits 
for nearly a century his dynasty reigned in practical in- 
dependence, whilst rendering a certain feudal homage to 
the remote Khakaan in China. Save for an occasional 
contest over the succession, the country was quietly and 
peaceably governed, and the Il-khans showed a praiseworthy 
desire to emulate the examples of earlier rulers of Persia 
in the encouragement of science and letters. 

In the reign of Abu-Sa*Id, however, the dynasty was 
undermined by the same causes which had previously 
destroyed the power of the Caliphs and the Seljuks, and 
were destined at last to bring about the downfall of the 
Mamluks in Egypt : rival amirs, generals, ministers, 
fanatics, began to take a large share in the government 
of the country, and in their jealousies and animosities lay 
the prime danger of the Il-khans. After Abu-Sa*Ids death 
the throne of Persia became the toadstool on which the 
puppet sovereigns set up by rival amirs seated themselves 
only to find it crumbling beneath them. Two great houses 
tore Persia in sunder: that of Amir Chupan, a favourite 




IL-KHANS OF PERSIA 219 

general of Ghazan and of his successors ; and that of Amir 
Hosayn the Jalayr, also called the Ilkanian. Each of 
these had a son named Hasan, distinguished hy the epithets 
Great and Little ; the son of Chupan was Amir Hasan 
Kuchuk or the Little ; and the son of the Jalayr was 
Amir Shaykh Hasan Buzurg or the Great. Their power 
was immediately felt. Arpa Khan, a descendant not of 
Hulagu but of Arikbuka his brother, was placed on the 
throne after Abu-Sa*Id's death, but was deposed the same 
year (1336) by Musa, who drew his pedigree from Baydu 
the sixth Il-khan. Musa was quickly displaced by the 
nominees of the Greater Hassui, whose rival of the line 
of Chupan presently set up an opposition in the sovereignty 
in the person of Satl-Beg, a sister of Abu-Sa*id, who had 
been the wife of Chupan, then of Arpa, and was finally 
married to Sulayman, who nominally supplanted her in the 
supremacy. After the troubled reign of Nushirwan, the 
Jalayrs were the chief power in Persia, and the dynasty 
of Hulagu became extinct. The Jalayrs, Muzaffarids, 
Sarbadarids etc., made havoc of the country till the great 
Tlmur came and swept them away. 




220 



MONGOLS 



A.H. A.D. 

654 Hidagft ' 1256 

663 Abaga 1265 

680 A^mad 1281 

683 Arghiin 1284 

690 Gaykhatii 1291 

694 Baydii 1295 

694 Ghazan Ma^mud 1295 

703 Uljaitu 1304 

716 Abii-Sa*id 1316 

736 Arpa 1335 

736 Musa 1336 



RIVAL KHANS* 

736-8 Mohammad 

739-52 Tngha-Timiir . 

739-41 Jahan-Timur . 

739-40 Sati-Beg (princess) . 

740-4 Sulayman (m. Sat! Beg) 

745 Nushirwan 



1336-8 

1338-51 

1339-40 

1339 

1339-43 

1344 



* Mol^ammad, Tugha-Timilir, and Jahan-Timiir were set np as pnppet- 
khans by the Jalayr Amir, Shaykh iiasan Bnznrg ; Sati-Beg and her 
husband Sulayman were nominees of the rival Amir Hasan Eiichuk 
Chiipani ; and Nushirwan of >Ashraf Chiipani. All were of the posterity 
of HiUagu, except Tugha-Timur who was descended from a brother of 
Chingiz Khan, and Nushirwan whose pedigree is doubtful. 




IL-KHANS OF PERSIA 



221 






IS 



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{poi^qHuy woji/) — 



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>ii3 111 



a 




222 MONGOLS 

A.H. A.D. 

621—907 83. KHANS OP THE GOLDEN 1224—1502 

HORDE 

To Juji, the eldest son of Chingiz, were assigned the 
tribes of the old empire of Kara-Khitay, north of the 
Sihun or Jaxartes, and here he, dying before his father, 
was succeeded by his eldest son Orda. A younger son of 
Juji, Batu, by his famous invasion of Europe, extended 
the appanage of his family much further to the west, and 
secured for himself the sovereignty of the Turkish Khanate 
of Kipchak. North of Batu's territory, another brother, 
Tuka-Timur, appears to have been allotted the district of 
Great Bulgaria, on the Upper Volga ; a fourth son of Juji, 
Shayban, ruled the steppes now known as those of the 
Kirghiz Kazaks, north of Orda's appanage, and a fifth, 
Teval, led the Pechenegs, afterwards known as Nogays, 
between the Ural and Yemba. All these tribes and their 
chiefs were more or less subject to the family of Batu, 
which, although a younger branch, had acquired the 
greatest power and had made their capital Saray on the 
Volga the metropolis of the Jujid empire; and all these 
tribes are included in the general name Golden Sorde^ so- 
called from the Khan's royal camp. Sir Orda or Golden 
Camp. It must be added that only the ruling family 




GOLDEN HORDE 223 

and the cream of the army were of Mongol race : the 
vast majority of the tribes allotted to the sons of Juji 
were conquered Turks or Turkomans. 

The family of Juji has, therefore, to be considered in 
the following distinct lines: — 

A. The line of Bdtu, chief Blhans of the Golden Horde, 

ruling the Blue Horde in "Western Kipchak 
(1224-1359). 

B. The line of Orda, titular heads of the family, ruling 

the White Horde in Eastern Kipchak (1226- 
1428), Khans of the Golden Horde in Western 
Kipchak after Batu's line (1378-1502); md 
finally decaying as Khans of Astrakhan 
(1466-1554). 
• C. The line of Tuka-Timur, Khans of Great Bulgaria, 
north of Kipchak; occasional Khans of the 
Golden Horde in Western Kipchak ; finally 
Khans of Kazaa (1438-1552), Kazimof (1450- 
1678), and Krim (1420-1783). 
D. The line of Shay ban, in the TJzbeg or Kirghiz Kazak 
steppes (1224-1659) ; afterwards migrating and 
becoming Khans of Khiva and Bukhara (1500- 
1872). 




224 MONGOLS 



A. The line of Bdtu -.—Chief Khans ' of the Golden 
Horde; appanage, the Blue Horde in Western 
Kipchak* (1224-1359). 

Batu's line had the privilege of ruling what was 
emphatically the Great Khanate of the West. Its history 
is important in its relations with the growth of Eussia. 
At first the liege-lords of the Kussian princes, receivers 
of their tribute, and owners of their daughters, it was 
the fate of the Great Khans of Elipchak eventually to 
become the vassals of those whom they had once held in 
bondage. But before this stage in the decay of the Golden 
Horde, Batu's line had become extinct, and the Khans 
had been supplied from his brothers' families. So long 
as the descendants of Batu held the reins of government, 
the great domain of the Khanate of Kipchak was main- 
tained in all its power. The history of this line, through 
ten Khans, to Jani-Beg, the last great ruler of this branch 
of Juji's family, is comparatively plain. But on his death 
in 1357 anarchy ensued. His son Birdi-Beg reigned for 

* The country watered by the Don and the Volga, extending east and 
west from the tlral or Talk to the Dnieper, and north and south from 
the Black Sea and Caspian to Ukek. Howorth, ii. 36-194. 




GOLDEN HORDE 225 

two years; two Xhans asserting themselves to be sons 
of Jani-Beg succeeded in a single year; and then follows 
an intricate period of twenty years of rival candidates. 

There were five branches of Jujfs house from which 
claimants for the Golden Xhanate might spring, on the 
extinction of Batu's line. North and south, in Great 
Bulgaria and the Krim, ruled the numerous progeny of 
Tuka-Timur. South also, by the Caucasus, camping along 
the Terek and Xuma, were the descendants of Baraka, the 
younger brother and second successor to Batu, to whom 
the Golden Horde owed much of its terrible prestige. 
East of the Great Khanate was the White Horde with 
its chiefs of the family of Orda ; and also east, but further 
north, were the Uzbeg tribes of Shayban's leading ; whilst 
along the northern shore of the Caspian the clans of Nogay 
pastured their herds. The attribution of the fifteen khans 
of this period of rival families to their several ancestors 
in the table on page 230 is partly conjectural, but their 
dates are established by coins. In 1378, the sovereignty 
of the Golden Horde passed into the family of Orda in 
the person of Toktamish. 



15 




226 MONGOLS 

B. The line of Ordai — Appanage, the "WTiite Horde in 
Eastern Kipchak,* 1226-1428 ; Khans of the 
Golden Horde in Western Kipchak, 1378-1502 ; 
Khans of Astrakhan, 1466-1554. 
Although Batu was the most powerful of the sons of 
Juji, Orda the eldest inherited his father's appanage by 
the Jaxartes, and received a special homage as hereditary- 
head of the family. He ruled the left division of the 
Golden Horde, known as the White Horde (Ak Orda), (a 
colour which ranked higher than the Blue), in distinction 
from the right wing, or Batu*s tribes, which were designated 
the Blue Horde (Kok Orda) in token of imaginary 
dependence. Living in the far-away steppes beyond the 
Caspian, the White Horde soon yielded the palm to its 
Blue brethren on the Don and Volga; but in its rough 
wintry life it retained a vigour and hardihood which 
eventually placed its rulers on the throne of the more 
civilized and decayed descendants of Batu. 

Of the earlier rulers of the White Horde little is 

* The country of the Lower Jaxartes and the TJlngh and Kuchnk Tag 
Mountains : bounded on the west by Batii's Blue Horde, on the north by 
Shayban's Uzbegs, on the east by Chagatay's Khanate, on the south by 
the desert of Kizil Kumm and the AlexandroYski range. Howorth, ii. 
216-362. 



OOLDEN HORDE 227 

known ; the Khanate passed regularly from father to son ; 
and the only noticeable fact is the possession by Kuchi 
of a territory at Ghazna and Bamiyan under the suzerainty 
of either the Chagatay Khans or the Il-khans of Persia. 
tJrus Khan is the first chief of Orda's line who possesses 
any individuality in the history of the White Horde. He 
had the distinction of defeating the troops of Timur more 
than once. Timur in his overbearing fashion had appointed 
to the sovereignty of the tribes of Juji*s appanage a 
member of Orda's family, Toktamish, whose father had 
been killed and he himself exiled by tJrus Khan. Assisted 
by the troops supplied by Timur to carry his nomination 
into effect, Toktamish sustained several repulses at the 
hands of tJrus, and it was not till after the death of this 
Khan and the short reign of Toktakya his son that Tokta- 
mish was able to wrest the command of the White Horde 
from another son of iTrus, TimQr Malik. 

Toktamish is * the last really great figure in the history 
of the Golden Horde.' After seizing the throne of the 
White Horde he marched upon Western Kipchak, defeated 
Mamay, the king-maker of Saray, and by this victory in 
1378 {780) put an end to the division between the White 
and the Blue Hordes, and united Eastern and Western 




228 MONGOLS 

Kipchak under his sole rule. Henceforward Orda's family 
ruled the Blue Horde, bringing no doubt the cream 
of the White Horde with them ; and their original 
camping-grounds gradually passed into the hands of the 
descendants of Shayban. Under Toktamish the Golden 
Horde recovered much of its prestige. A great campaign 
was carried into Eussia, Moscow was sacked and burnt 
(1382), and the Grand Principality was ravaged with 
the ancient fury of the Mongols. This revival of the 
glory of Kipchak, however, was only the flicker of a 
dying torch. Toktamish had the misfortune or the in- 
gratitude to quarrel with the prince who had helped him 
to his success; and no one offended Timur with impunity. 
The great conqueror in two campaigns, one marked by 
the battle of TJrtupa on the 18th June, 1391, and the 
second by a crushing defeat near the Terek in 1395, when 
Toktamish had returned from exile, destroyed for ever 
the power of the Khans of Kipchak. Toktamish indeed 
re-entered Sw^y in 1398, after Timur's departure, but he 
was speedily driven out again by Timur Kutlugh, son of 
his old enemy, Urus, and forced to take refuge with the 
Lithuanian prince Yitut, whom he involved in war with 
the Tatars; he died in 1406. 




GOLDEN HORDE 229 

The period succeeding the overthrow of Toktamish is 
one of the most obscure in the labyrinth of dark passages 
which the history of the Golden Horde affords. It is 
filled with the incessant struggles of Rival Families for the 
throne. There were at least three distinct sets of candi- 
dates for the decayed Khanship : the family of tJrus 
Khan, supported by the Nogay chief Idiku, the second 
king-maker of Kipchak ; the sons of Toktamish ; and some 
younger members of the family of Shayban. The table 
on page 232 will give an idea of this confused period. 
The rival Khans not only ruled simultaneously in Kipchak, 
but held the same cities in the same years; and the 
history of Saray and other large towns must have been 
the record of continual sieges and recaptures. 

This is the end of the Golden Horde. It was absorbed 

by Russia in 1502 {907\ and its history degenerates into 

the petty annals of its scattered fragments. Of these one 

alone belonged to the family of Orda — the insignificant 

Khanate of Astrakhan,* founded by Kasim, a grandson 

of Kuchuk Mohammad, about 1466, and held by his 

descendants until its abolition in 1554 by the Grand 

Prince of Moscow. 

* Howorth, ii. 349-362. 




230 



MONGOLS 



KHANS OF THE GOLDEN HOKDE 
i. THE BLUE HORDE OF WESTERN KIPCHAK 

a. FAMILY OF BATU 

A.H. A.D. 

621 Batu 1224 

664 Sartak 1256 

654 Baraka 1256 

664 Mangu-Timur 1266 

679 Tada-Mangu 1280 

686 [TulaBugha] 1287 

689 Tokta 1290 

712 IJzbeg 1312 

741 Tini-Beg 1340 

741 Jani-Beg Mabmud 1340 

768 Birdi-Beg Mohammad 1357 

760 Kulna 1369 

760 Nuruz-Beg 1369 

b. RIVAL FAMILIES 

OF SHAYBAN OF OKDA OF TUKA-TIMUB 

A.H. 

760 Khidr 

762 Mardud 762 Timur Kh5ja 762 Kildi Beg 

762 Murid Khoja 
764-8 PQlad Khoja 764 Kutlugh Khoja 764 *Aziz Shaykh 

764 *Abd-Allah 

768 IjEasan 
772 Tulun-Beg 771 Mo^^ammad Biilak —772 

776 Ilban —780 

777 Khaghan 

779 *Arab Shah 

—780 

[780 United to White Eorde 1378] 




OOLDEN HORDE 231 

ii. THE WHITE HORDE OF EASTERN KIPCHAK 

FAMILY OF ORDA 

A.H. A.D. 

623 Orda 1226 

679 Kiichi 1280 

701 Bayan 1301 

709 Sasibuka 1309 

c. 716 Ibisan 1316 

720 Mubarak Khoja 1320 

745 Chimtay 1344 

762 Uriis 1361 

777 Toktakya 1375 

777 Timiir Malik 1375 

778 Toktamish Ghiyath-a^-din .... 1376 
—793 (who unites Blue and White Hordes 1378) —1391 

\_Rival Families] 




232 



MONGOLS 



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09 


-a 




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KAZAN, KAZIMOF, AND KRIM 233 



A.H. A.D. 

c. 823—1197 84. KHANS OF THE c. 1420—1783 

KRIM (CRIMEA) 

C. The Line of Tuka-Tlmur : — Appanage, Great Bulgaria, 
and subsequently Krim and Kaffa; occasional 
Khans of the Golden Horde; finally, Khans 
of Kazan, Kazimof, and Krim.* 

Tuka-Timur was the youngest son of JujT, and was 
attached to the left (or Orda*s) wing of the Golden 
Horde, but probably had his own camping- grounds on 
the Upper Yolga, including part at least of Great 
Bulgaria. Almost nothing is known of this branch in 
its original seats. Mangu-Timur (of Batu's line) gave 
Urang-Timur, son of Tuka-Timur, Krim and Kaffa, and 
the family being thus established north and south of 
Batu's Khanate soon began to interfere in its dynastic 
succession. We have seen how three Khans of the first 
period of rival families belonged probably to Tuka-Timur' s 
line, and one of the second period. But the chief im- 
portance of this branch is after the downfall of the 
Golden Khanate which followed upon Timur's invasions. 
* Howorth, ii. 198-216, 274, 363-626, 1074-5 



234 MONGOLS 

One of the line, Ulugli Mohammad, after attempting to 
seize the Great Khanate on Burak's death, betook himself 
in 1438 to his old possession of Great Bulgaria, and there 
revived his forefathers' Khanate, under the title of Khanate 
of Kazan, which, no longer overshadowed by the Great 
Khanate on its south, became an independent thorn in the 
side of the growing Muscovite giant. "With the death, 
however, of Mohammad Amm, in 1519, the Mohammadan 
posterity of the founder of Kazan came to an end, and 
Khans of the true faith had to be transplanted from 
the Kazimof, Krim, Astrakhan and other stocks, under 
the auspices of Russia, who finally suppressed the Khanate 
and appointed a Eussian governor of Kazan in 1552. 

When Ulugh Mohammad was murdered by his son 
Mahmudak, in 1446, two of his other sons fled to 
Russia, and after some service in the Muscovite army 
one of these, Kasim, was granted the town and district 
of Gorodetz on the Oka, in the division of Riazan. He 
gave the town his own name, and the line of Klians 
ruling here, and known as the Khans of Kazimof were 
used by Russia to play off against their more powerful 
neighbour at Kazan, and were allowed to supply a 
couple of Khans to the greater Khanate on the ex- 



KHANS OF THE CRIMEA 236 

tinction of Ulugli Mohammad's direct Muslim line. This 
Khanate, which never had a really independent existence, 
was absorbed by Eussia in 1678. 

The most important of the three Khanates sprung from 
the house of Tuka-Tlmur was that of the Krim. Ulugh 
Mohammad had a brother, Tash-Timur, who was once a 
general under Toktamish, and was the actual founder 
of the powerful dynasty of the Khans of the Krim or 
Crimea, though his son, Hajji Giray, is generally regarded 
as the first Khan. The Krim dynasty was always an 
element in the Eastern Question, and as an outpost of 
Turkey or an ally of Eussia was an object of considera- 
tion on both sides. Eventually the inconvenience of these 
violent neighbours was agreed between Eussia and Turkey, 
and the Khanate of the Krim was extinguished by treaty 
in 1783. A lineal descendant of these powerful Khans, 
one Sultan Krim Giray Katti Giray, settled in Edinburgh 
and married a Scottish lady.* 

* Athenaum, No. 2762 



KHAN8 OF THE KRIM (CEIMEA) 



S23 


Hajjl Oiraj 








e. 1420 


871 


Nar-DawUt 








140S 


ST3 


MaigliGiiiyi . . 








I4fi» 


878 


Mnr-Dawkt {™tor«0 








1471 


882 


Jini-BGg CirSj 








1477 


883 


Mangli Giriy initored) 








1478 


931 


Mohummad Giray I . 








1616 


929 


Ghizi Gitay i . 








1623 


B29 
938 


Ba'idat Giriy i . 
Islam Giiay I 








1523 

1632 


938 


§al,ibGiriyi . . 








1632 


9S8 


Davrlat Giray i . 








1661 


985 










1677 


992 


MfliD Giriy n . 








1684 


998 


Ghi2i Giriy II . 








1688 


1002 


Fatb Giriy i 








1594 


1002 

1017 


Ghazi Giriy ll {ratorid) 
SaUmat Giriy i 








1694 
1808 


1019 


Jini-B*g Giriy ii . 








1810 


1031 


Mdjammad Giriy iii . 








1827 


loae 


Jani-Beg u {rutored) . 








1636 


lOiB 
1048 

1052 


Inayat Gitiy . 
Motammad Giriy IT . 








1638 
1612 
1644 


1064 


Islim Giray III . . 










1064 
1076 
1081 
1088 


Mohammad IT (nttored) 
'Adil Giriy 
Sellm Giiiy I . 
Mutid Giriy . . 








1654 
1666 

1670 
1677 


1091 


Hi]]! Giriy II . 








1683 



KHANS OF TEE CRIMEA 



1102 
1103 

iioe 



1163 
1156. 



SelTm I [rtttortd) 
Sa'&dat Giraj' u 
§afa Qiriy 
S«lim I (s^ain rettored) 
Dawlat Girsy n 
fieUm 1 {again rtttortd) 
Ohiizt Giray m 
Eaplui Giray i 
Dawlat Giray {ratared) 
Kaplan i [rettored) 
Kara Dawlat Giray 
Sa'itdat Giray iii 
Hangll Giray ii 
Eaplau 1 {agaia rtttond) 

M«n8lIu(reBtoml) 



118S 
1186 
1189 
llSl 

—1197 



lit Gira 
Sdim GirSy ii . 
Arslau Giray 
Halum Gitay 
Ipim Giray 
Selim Giray ui . 
Aralan Giray (res 
Makh^ud Giray 
Krim Gimy [re^twed] 
Danlat Giray in 
Eaplui Giraj □ . 
Selim m (reilortd) 
Makli;iid Giray u 
Sabib Giray a . 
Dawlat m [rntortd) 
Sliahln Giray 

{CriBua 



Mthd to Siutid] 



1706 
1707 
1707 
1T13 
1716 
1716 
1724 
1730 
1736 
1737 
1739 
1743 
171S 
176S 
1768 
1764 
1767 
1787 
1768 
1770 



1772 
1775 

1777 
—1793 



238 MONGOLS 



D. The Line of Shayhdn : — ^Appanage, the TJzbeg country 
(between the Ural and Chu rivers) ; occasional 
Khans of the Golden Horde; Khans or Czars 
of Tinmen, eire, 1226 — 1659; Khans of Bu- 
khara, 1500—1868, and of Khiva, 1515— 1872 * 

"When Batu invaded Hungary in 1240, his brother 
Shayban accompanied him, and acquitted himself so well 
that Batu not only made him King of Hungary, a title 
of a somewhat nominal value, but gave him an appanage 
of certain tribes north of Orda's Khanate. Shayban was 
to camp in summer from the Ural mountains to the 
rivers Ilek and Irghiz, and in winter about the lands 
watered by the Sir, Chu, and Sarisu. His descendant 
in the sixth generation, Mangu-Timur, was a contem- 
porary of the great Khan Uzbeg of the Golden Horde, 
and from him the tribes of Shayban's appanage took the 
name of Uzbegs, which has since become famous. On 
the extinction of Batu^s line, the family of Shayban 
supplied several Khans to the Golden Horde ; and in the 
second period of rival families, after the overthrow of 

* Howorth, ii. 686-1010 



CZARS OF TIUMEN 239 

Toktamish, the house of Shayhan is represented, in all 
probability, by Darwish Khan and Sayyid Ahmad. 

The home-line of Shayban remained in the original 
camping -grounds and assumed the title of Ciar% of the 
Tinmen, under which they were obeyed over a great part 
of Siberia. They survived till 1659, when their country 
was occupied by the Kalmuks: but for some time before 
this their authority had been purely nominal. 

Much more important were the branches descended 
from Pulad, son of Mangu-Tlmur, and once ruler of the 
Golden Horde. Pulad's two sons, Ibrahim and 'Arab-Shah, 
were respectively ancestors of the Khans of Bukhara and 
Khwarizm or Khiva, The former Khanate was founded 
by Mohammad Shaybani, grandson of Abu-l-Khayr, who 
was grandson of Ibrahim, in 1500, and survives to the 
present day, although General Kaufmann made it a 
Kussian dependency in 1868. *Arab-Shah, the founder 
of the Khanate of Khiva, is also known as, if not a 
Khan of the Golden Horde, at least a striker of coins 
in Kipchak just before the invasion of Toktamish. His 
descendant in the fifth generation, Ilbars Khan, took 
forcible possession of Transoxiana and adjacent provinces 
after Shaybani* s death, probably about 1515, and his 



240 MONGOLS 

posterity are still called Khans of Khiva, but they have 
been tributary to l^ussia since 1872. The history of 
these Khanates, which sprang up on the ruins of the 
empire of Timur, belong to a later section (XIII). 

It should be added that another son of Juji, Teval, 
was the chief of the Pechenegs, camping about the river 
Bug in Southern Eussia, and was the grandfather of 
Nogay, who took a large part in the affairs of the 
Golden Horde, but afterwards fell out with Toktu and 
was driven, along with his tribes, who adopted the name 
of Nogays, beyond the Yolga, and found settlements 
between the Ural and the Yemba. The history of this 
horde is very fragmentary, and their state was peculiarly 
migratory.* 

♦ Howorth, ii. 1011-1068 



CZARS OF TIUMEN 239 

Toktamish, the house of Shayhan is represented, in all 
probability, by DarwTsh Khan and Sayyid Ahmad* 

The home-line of Shayban remained in the original 
camping -grounds and assumed the title of C%ar» of the 
Tiumerif under which they were obeyed over a great part 
of Siberia. They survived till 1659, when their country 
was occupied by the Kalmuks: but for some time before 
this their authority had been purely nominal. 

Much more important were the branches descended 
from Pulad, son of Mangu-Timur, and once ruler of the 
Golden Horde. Pulad's two sons, Ibrahim and 'Arab-Shah, 
were respectively ancestors of the Khans of Bukhara and 
Khwari%m or Khiva. The former Khanate was founded 
by Mohammad Shaybani, grandson of Abu-1-Khayr, who 
was grandson of Ibrahim, in 1500, and survives to the 
present day, although General Kaufmann made it a 
Russian dependency in 1868. * Arab- Shah, the founder 
of the Khanate of Khiva, is also known as, if not a 
Khan of the Golden Horde, at least a striker of coins 
in Kipchak just before the invasion of Toktamish. His 
descendant in the fifth generation, Ilbars Khan, took 
forcible possession of Transoxiana and adjacent provinces 
after Shaybanfs death, probably about 1515, and his 



J 




CHAOATAT KHANS 241 



A.H. A.D. 

624r— 760 85. CHAGATAY KHANS 1227—1358 

(TRANSOXIANA) 

The Khanates founded by three sons of Chingiz — 
Ogotay, Tnluy, and JujT — have in turn been noticed. 
There remains Chagatay, who was allotted the appanage 
of Ma-wara-/-nahr, or Transoxiana (Bukharia), with part 
of Kashghar, Badakhshan, Balkh, and Ghazna, and who 
founded the Khanate of those regions. The history of 
his descendants is very scantily recorded, and, beyond 
occasional raids over the Persian border and internal 
disputes, nothing of note has been set down. Two 
members of Ogotay 's family ('All and Danishmandja) 
intrude themselves into the series, proving the presence 
of Ogotay chiefs of rank and importance in the Chagatay 
dominions (pp. 210, 265). The genealogy and chronology 
of this branch are alike doubtful; and the following list 
is merely tentative. 



16 




242 MONGOLS 



Il.,V., A.D. 

624 Chagatay 1227 

639 Kara-Hulagu 1242 

646 Yisu Mangu 1247 

650 Kara-Hulagu (restored) . . . 1252 

650 Organa Ehatun 1252 

659 Algii 1261 

664 Mubarak Shah 1266 

664 Burak Khan 1266 

668 Nikpay 1270 

670 Tuka-Timur ..... 1272 

e. 672 Duwa Khan e. 1274 

706 KunjukKhan 1306 

708 TaUkQ 1308 

709 KibakKhan 1309 

709 Yisunbugha 1309 

c. 718 Kibak Khan {restored) .... 1318 

721 Ilchikaday 1321 

721 DuwaTimur 1321 

722 Tirmashirin 1322 

730-4 P Sinjar ? 1330-4? 

734 Jingishay 1334 

e, 736 Buzun e, 1335 

e. 739 Yisun Timiir e, 1339 

c. 741 *Ali (of Ogotay stock) . . . , c, 1340 

e, 743 Mohammad c. 1342 

744 Kazan 1343 

747 Danishmandja (of Ogotay stock) . . 1346 

749 BuyanKuli 1348 

—760 —1358 
[Anarchy and rival chiefs, until 

771 Supremacy of Timur 1370.] 




{To fact p. 242.) 



Tuliiy 



III. Yisu 
Mangti 



Paidar 
(Peta) 



V. Algu 



liku 



Abukan 

I 



Surgu 
Oghul 

I 

hay XX. Yisun XXV. Buy an 
Timur Kuli 



Inial 
Khoja 



Taghlak 
Timur 



Timiir Shah 



Ilyas 
Khoja 



|)rth 




242 MONGOLS 



A.H. A.D. 

624 Chagatay 1227 

639 Kara-Hulagu 1242 

646 Yisu Mangu 1247 

650 Kara-Hulagu {rntored) . . . 1252 

650 Organa Ehatun 1252 

659 Algu 1261 

664 Mubarak Shah 1266 

664 Bural^ Khan 1266 

668 Nikpay 1270 

670 Tuka-Timur 1272 

e. 672 Duwa Khan e. 1274 

706 KunjukKhan 1306 

708 TalikQ 1308 

709 KibakKhan 1309 

709 Yisunbugha 1309 

c. 718 Kibak Khan (restored) .... 1318 

721 Ilchikaday 1321 

721 DuwaTimur 1321 

722 Tirmashirin 1322 

730-4 P SinjarP 1330-4? 

734 Jingishay 1334 

e. 736 Buzun c. 1335 

e. 739 Yisun Timiir c. 1339 

e. 741 *Ali (of Ogotay stock) . . . , c. 1340 

c, 743 Mol^ammad c. 1342 

744 Kazan 1343 

747 Danishmandja (of Ogotay stock) . . 1346 

749 BuyanKuli 1348 

—760 —1358 
[Anarchy and rival chiefs ^ tmtil 

771 Supremacy of Timur 1370.] 



THE norsi 



Juji 



I 
Muatukan 



II. Kara-Hulagu=IV. Organa 
VI. Mubarak Shah 



isun D 



Yisun Duwa 
VII. Burak Khan 



X. Duwa 



XI. Kunjuk XIII. Kihak XIV. Yisun- XV. Ilchi- 

kaday 

I 
Durji 



I. ( 



bugha 



Pulad 

XXII. Mohammad 

. I 
*A(lil Sultan 



XVI. Duwi 
Timi; 

I 
XIX. Buzui 



Kabul Sultan 



* This table has been kindly j 



XII. PERSIA 



S/EC. XIV— XIX 



86. JALAYRS (-'IRAK) 

87. MUZAFFARIDS (PARS) 

88. SARBADARIDS (KHURASAN) 

89. KARTS (HERAT) 
tTmURIDS {See XIII) 

90. kara-kuyunu (adharbijan) 

91. ak-kuyunlT (adharbFjan) 

92. safavids ^ 



93. AFGHANS 



94. AFSHARIDS v 



95. ZANDS 



96. KAJARS 



SHAHS 



OF 



PERSIA 



XII. PERSIA 
SiEC. XIV— XIX 

On the decay of the power of the Persian Mongols 
a number of prominent chiefs and provincial governors 
asserted their independence. Of these the Jalayrs were 
the most powerful, and held the provinces of -*Irak and 
Adharbijan, in which they were succeeded by the Turkomans 
of the Black and White Sheep. The more eastern provinces 
were ruled by the Muzoffarids, but not without a severe 
struggle with Abu-Ishak and other members of the family 
of Mahmud Shah Inju, whose seat was Ispahan. In the 
north-east, Khunisan was for a time divided between the 
Sarbadarids and the Xart Maliks of Herat. Timur swept 
across Persia in 1384-93, and his descendants held part of 
the country for a century. At the beginning of the 16th 
century, however, Shah Isma*il the Safavid established his 
authority over all the provinces governed by the Timurids, 
Turkomans, and minor dynasties, and presently added 
Khurasan, since which time the modem kingdom of the 
Shahs of Persia has remained practically unchanged in its 
boundaries, save for some losses on the west to Turkey. 



246 PERSIA 



A.H. 




A.D. 


736—814 


86. JAT.AYRS 


1336- 1411 


• 


(-*IUAK, ETC.) 





The chiefs of the tribe of Jalayrs, also called Ukanians, 
became the leading family in Persia after the death of 
the Mongol Abu-Sa*id. Their head, Shaykh Hasan Buznrg 
(*the Great'), as has been seen (pp. 219, 220), set up 
three puppets on the Mongol throne; after which he 
assumed sovereign functions himself, and taking possession 
of -'Irak, made Baghdad his capital. His son Oways, who 
succeeded him in 757 (1356), took Adharbijan and Tabriz 
from the Golden Horde (759), and added -M6§il and Diyar- 
Bakr to his dominions {766), Husayn, his successor, 
was engaged in wars with his xieighbours the MuzafEarids 
of eastern Persia, and with the Turkomans of the Black 
Sheep, who had made themselves dominant in Armenia 
and the country south of Lake Yan ; until the latter agreed 
to become his allies (779). On his death in 1382 (784), the 
kingdom was divided between his two sons; Adharbijan 
and -'Irak falling to Sultan Ahmad, and part of Kurdistan 



iTALAYRS 247 

(for a year) to Bayazld. On the invasion of Tlmur, who 
overran northern Persia and Armenia in 1384-7, and 
reduced Baghdad, Mesopotamia, Diyar-Bakr, and Yan in 
1393 (796\ Sultan Ahmad fled to Egypt, where he took 
refuge with the Mamluk Sultan Barkuk, who assisted him to 
recover Baghdad after Timur's return to Samarkand. From 
this time until Timur's death in 1405 {807) Sultan Ahmad' s 
life was spent in losing and recapturing his dominions, and 
when in 808 he was once more actual ruler of Baghdad, his 
breach with Kara-Yusuf the Turkoman and his ensuing 
invasion of Adharbijan ended in his defeat and death, 
1410 {813), His nephew Shah Walad continued to govern 
Baghdad until the arrival of the Black Sheep in 1411 ; 
and Shah "Walad' s widow, Tandu (who had previously 
been married to the Mamluk Barkuk) reigned at Wasit, 
-Ba§ra, and Shustar (doing homage, however, to the 
Timurid Shah Eukh) till 819 y when her stepson suc- 
ceeded to the government, and was followed by his 
brothers Oways {822-829) and Mohammad, and by their 
cousin Husayn, who was killed by the Black Sheep 
Turkomans.* 

* See Sir H. H. Howorth, Eistory of the Mongohy iii, 664-679. 




248 



PERSIA 



A.H. 

736 
767 

777 

784 
813 



Shaykh Hasan Buzurg . 
Shaykh Oways 
Hosayn 
784-6 Bayazid (in Kurdistan} 
Sultan A^mad « 

[Repeatedly expelled by Timur 796-807) 
Shah Walad 



—814 



A.D. 

1336 
1366 
1374 

1382 

1410 
—1411 



I 
3. Hosayn 



Hosayn Gurhhan 



1. l^asan Buzurg 
2. Oways 

I 



I 

Hasan 
'AH 



I I 

6. A^mad 4. Bayazid 



I 



Ala^al'dawla 
I 



I 

6. Shah Walad=TandTi 



1 



Hosayn Ma^mM Oways Mol^ammad 

[ ISlara- JS^uyunlt] 




MUZAFFARIDS 249 



A.H. A.D. 

713-T95 87. MUZAJ'FARIDS 1313—1393 

(FARS, KIRMAN", AND KURDISTAN) 

The Amir -Muzaffar, founder of this dynasty, a grand- 
son of Ghiyath-aZ-dln Hajji of Khurasan, after holding 
various posts at the court of the Mongols of Persia, 
was appointed governor of Maybudh near Ispahan. His 
son Mubariz-aZ-din Mohammad succeeded him in his 
government in 1313 {713\ and received the much more 
important command of Yazd in Pars in 1319 {719) from 
the Mongol Abu-Sa*id. Kirman was added in 1340 {7Ifl\ 
and after a prolonged struggle with Abu-Ishak Inju, 
Mohammad captured Shiraz and all Pars in 1353 (75^), 
and added Ispahan in 1356 (755), when Abu-Ishak was 
executed. After carrying Mb arms successfuUy as far 
north as Tabriz, Mohammad was deposed and blinded 
in 1357 (759), and, although restored for a brief space, 
died in a second exile in 1364 {765), His successors 
retained the government of Pars, Kirman, and Kurdistan 
until the irruption of Timur in 1387.* The poet l^^afiz 
lived at the court of Shah Shuja*. 

• Howorth, ill, 693-716. 




2S0 



PERSIA 



A.H. 



713 Mubariz-a/-din Mohammad b. -Muzaftar 
759 Jalal-a^dlIl Shah Shuja* 
786-9 Mujahid-a^-din *Ali Zayii-al-*Abidin . 

{Expelled hy Tlmur) 

I Shah Yabya {at Yazd) \ 

789 I Sultan A^mad {at Kirman) ; contemporary 

\ Shah Mansur {at Ispahan) ) 
—795 



A.D. 

1313 
1357 
1384- 
—1387 

1387 
—1393 



-Muzaftar 

I 



1. Mohammad 



Sharaf-al-din -Muzaffar 
t754 

I 



2. Shah 
Shuja* 



lah Ys 



Shah 
Mahmud 
(Ispahan) 



Shah Man§ur Shah lahya 3. Zayii-al-*Abidiii 
{Ifpahdn) ( Tazd) {Fdrs) 

[Timurids] 



I 

daughter 



Shah 
Sultan 



Abmad 
{Eirmdn) 



SARBADARID8 251 

A.H. A.D. 

73T~783 88. SARBADARIDS 133T— 1381 

(KHUEASAN) 

'Abd-aZ-Eazzak, a native of the village of Biashtin in 
Khurasan, and at one time in the service of the Ilkhan 
Abu-Sa*id, in 1337 {737) headed a rebellion of his 
countrymen against the oppression of the local governor. 
The rebels took the name of Sar-ha-ddr or **Head to 
the gibbet'' in token of the neck-or-nothing-ness of their 
cause. N'evertheless they obtained possession of Sabzawar 
and th(B neighbouring district, and held it for nearly half 
a century, during which period twelve successive chiefs 
assumed the command, nine of whom suffered violent deaths. 

A.H. A.D. 

737 *Abd-a/-Razzak b. Fadl-Allah . . . 1337 

738 Wajih-aZ-din Mas*ud b. Fadl-AUah . . 1338 
744 Ay-Timur Mohammad 1344 

746 Isfandiyar 1346 

747 Fadl-Allah 1346 

748 Shams-a^-din *Ali 1347 

753 Yaljya 1362 

756 ?ahir-a?-diii 1366 

760 Haydar -Ka?9ab 1369 

760 Lutf-Allah 1369 

761 -I^asan -Bamighani 1360 

766 *Ali -Mu-ayyad 1364 

—783 [^Abolished by Timurl —1381 




252 



PERSIA 



A.H. 

643-t91 



A.D. 

1246—1389 



89. KAETS 

(HERAT) 
The Maliks of Herat of tlie Eart race of Glior had 
held their government from the early days of the Mongol 
rule in Persia. As the Mongols grew weak, the Karts 
became an important power in Khurasan, until Herat was 
conquered by Timur in 1381 {783\ and, after a period of 
vassalage, the dynasty was extinguished in 1389 (J91), 



A.H. 




A.D. 


643 


Shams-aZ-din i 


1245 


677-82 Riilnr-a^-dm, eontemp. 1278-83 




684 


Fakhr-aZ-din 


1285 


708 


Ghiyath-a^-din 


1308 


729 


Shams-aZ-din ii 


1328 


730 


Ilafi? 


1329 


732 


Mu4zz-a/-din 


1331 


772 


Ghiyath-a/-din Pir *AU . . . . 


1370 


—791 


Bukn-al'dtn Ahu-Bahr h. *Othmdn 

1. Shams-a^-din i 

2. Eukn-a^-din 


—1389 



3. Fakhr-aZ-dln 



4. Gliiyath-a?-dln 



5. Shams-a^-din u 



6. J^A^ 



7. Mu^izz-a/>din 

I 



Mol^ammad 
(Sarakhs) 



8. Ghiyath-aZ-din Pir *Ali 



[^Timuridt] 



KARA-KUYUNLI 253 

A.H. A.D. 

780-«T4 90. KARA-KUYUNIJ 13T8— 1469 

TUEKOMANS OF THE BLACK SHEEP 

(ADHARBIJAN, ETC.) 

In the last quarter of tlie fourteenth century a clan 
of Turkomans, known as the Black Sheep, from the 
device on their standard, dominated the country south of 
the lake of Yan, and, having allied themselves with the 
Jalayr Sultan Hosayn, estahlished a dynasty in Armenia 
and Adharbijan. Kara-Yusuf, the second chief of the 
line, was several times driven into exile by Timur, but 
as often returned, and after the conqueror's death in 1405 
{807) resumed his former dominions, and in 1411 added 
those of the Jalayrs. The Black Sheep were superseded 
in 1469 {87 If) by Uzun Hasan of the rival clan of the 
White Sheep. 

780 Kara-Mohammad 1378 

e. 790 ICara-Yusuf e. 1388 

802 Invasion of Timur . . . 1400 

808 Kara Yusuf {restored) 1405 

823 Iskandar 1420 

841 JahanShah 1437 

872 lEIasan *Ali 1467 

—874 _ —1469 

[Ak-KttyunH} 




254 PERSIA 



A.V, A.D. 

780—908 91. AK-KUYUNIJ 13T8— 1602 

TUEKOMANS OF THE WHITE SHEEP. 

(ADHARBIJAN, ETC.) 

The "WTiite Sheep or Ak-Kuyunli succeeded their riyals 
the Black Sheep in Adharbijan and Diyar-Bakr, but after 
some thirty years of sole authority they were defeated by 
Shah Isma^Il the SaEavid at the great battle of Shurur in 
1502 {907)f and the dynasty soon afterwards expired. 

A.H. A.D. 

780 Kara-Yulu^ *Otliman .... 1378 

809 Hamza 1406 

848 Jahangir 1444 

871 Uzun ^asan ...... 1466 

883 Khalil 1478 

884 Ya*lfub ...... 1479 

896 Baysimkur* 1490 

897 Rustam 1491 

902 A^mad 1496 

903 Murad . . . . . . . 1497 

906 Alwand , . ' 1499 

906 Mohammad . 1500 

907 Murad {restored) . . . . . 1501 
—908 —1502 

l^afavids] 

* 'All and Masih were rival claimants in 896. 




SEAES OF PERSIA 255 

A.H. A.D. 

907—1311 92-6. SHAHS OF PERSIA 1052—1893 

The series of the Shahs of Persia is composed of five 
distinct dynasties of different races : the Safavids, Afghans, 
Afsharids, Zands, and Kajars. Of these the first claimed 
Arab lineage, for the Safavids traced their descent from 
the seventh Imam MQsa -Kazam (J;183), of the family of 
Hosayn the grandson of the prophet Mohammad (p. 72). 
Many shaykhs of the family acquired a reputation for 
sanctity, and among these the most celebrated saint was 
Shaykh Safi-a/-din of Ardabil, from whom his descendants 
took their name of §afawi or §afavid. It was not till four 
generations after Shaykh Safi that one of his descendants, 
Haydar, added the role of warrior to the profession of saint. 
He engaged in a contest with Uzun Hasan of the White 
Sheep Turkomans, and his third son Isma^il, preserving 
a continuity of policy, seized Shirwan, utterly defeated 
the Turkomans at the battle of Shuriir in the spring of 
1502 {907)y and making Tabriz his capital proceeded to 
conquer all Persia. The Timurid governors and other 
petty dynasts were rapidly subdued, and in a few years 
Shah Isma^iFs arms had advanced through Khurasan as 
far as Herat, besides annexing the southern provinces. 




256 PERSIA 

till his dominions stretched from the Oxus to the Persian 
Gulf, from Afghanistan to the Euphrates. His territories 
now marched with those of the 'Othmanlis, and the 
religious antagonism hetween the Shi^ite Safavids and the 
Sunnite *Othmanlis, embittered by the wide-spread Shi*ite 
propaganda in Asia Minor, brought about a war. Sellm 
the Grim, after massacring or imprisoning 40,000 Shi'ites 
in his Asiatic dominions, led a campaign against Shah 
Isma'il. At the head of 80,000 horsemen and 40,000 
foot, Selim marched upon Persia and forced the Shah 
to give battle at Chaldiran (1514), when the fine general- 
ship of Sinan Pasha and the valour of the Janizaries 
won the day. Selim entered Tabriz in triumph, and 
after annexing Diyar-Bakr and some surrounding districts 
abandoned the idea of further conquests in the East in 
favour of an invasion of Egypt. From this time on- 
wards there have been frequent contests over the Turko- 
Persian frontier, and provinces in Georgia and Armenia 
have been taken and re-taken, but the general boundary 
has not greatly varied, except when Murad lY conquered 
Baghdad and annexed Mesopotamia to the Turkish Empire 
in 1638. In the like manner the northern frontier was 
long contested by the TJzbegs; and Afghanistan has been 



SHAHS OF PERSIA 257 

alternately part of India and part of Persia, until the 
establishment of an independent dynasty by Ahmad 
Durrani in 1747. Babar, the founder of the Mogul empire 
in India, was an ally of Shah Isma*Tl, and his son 
Humayun was aided in his recovery of Hindustan by 
Shah Tahmasp. The greatest of the Safavid kings was 
Shah *Abbas (1587-1629), who, seconded by Sir Anthony 
Shirley, the organizer of the Persian army, recovered several 
of the western provinces from the *Othmanlis, and whose 
reign was celebrated for the cultivation of the arts and 
literature, the increase of public works, and the ob- 
servance of an enlightened foreign policy. He belonged 
to the great epoch which produced such rulers as 
Sulayman the Great, Akbar, and Elizabeth. 

The Safavid dynasty practically ended when the 
Afghans under Mahmud rose in revolt, seized Herat and 
Mashhad, defeated Shah Hosayn, and after a seven 
months' siege took the capital Ispahan in 1722 {1135), 
Members of the Safavid family, however, still retained 
a vestige of authority, chiefly in Mazandaran, and after 
ten years of anarchy, revolts, and Eussian and Turkish 
invasions, Nadir Kuli the AfsMrid Turk, made use of the 
pretext of restoring the enfeebled Safavids, to seize the 

17 



258 PERSIA 

supreme power, to whicli he soon added the avowed as 
well as the real sovereignty in 1736 {IIJ^). Nadir Shah 
not only maintained the Persian kingdom in its fullest ex- 
tent, but subdued Afghanistan, seized Kabul and Kandahar 
(1737), pushed on to Lahore, defeated the Mogul army after 
an obstinate battle near Kamal, and sacked Dehli in March 
1738 {1151). Peace was made, and for a time the Persian 
empire extended from the Indus to the Caucasus. 

The Afsharid dynasty, numbering four Shahs, ended in 
a period of anarchy, during which the Afghan Azad 
held Adharbijan ; *Ali Mardan the Bakhtiyari, Ispahan ; 
Mohammad Hosayn, the chief of the Kajars, ruled 
Astarabad; and Karim Khan the Zand fought with Shah 
Bukh the Afsharid for the supreme throne. The Zand 
eventually got the upper hand, and from 1750 {1168) to 
1779 {1193) governed all Persia except Khurasan, where 
Shah Eukh the Afsharid, though old and blind, still main- 
tained some show of authority. On the death of Karim 
Khan a contest was waged for a dozen years between his 
Zand successors and Aka Mohammad the Kajar^ which 
ended in the triumph of the latter, whose nephew in 
the fourth generation now reigns over the relics of a 
great people from his throne at Tihran. 



SfflBS OF PERSIA 



259 



A.H. 

907—1148 

907 

930 

984 

985 

985 
1038 
1052 
1077 
1105 
1135 
1144 
—1148 



1135 
1137 
—1142 



1148 
1160 
1161 
—1210 



A.D. 

92. §AFAVIDS 1502—1736 

Isma^fli 1502 

Tahmaspi 1524 

l8ma*il n 1576 

Mohammad Ehudabanda 1578 

'Abbas I 1587 

§afii 1629 

*Abba8ii 1642 

Sulayman i 1667 

Hosayn i . . ■ . . . 1694 

Tahmaspii 1722 

'Abbasiii 1731 

—1736 

93. AFGHANS 

Ma^mud 1722 

Aflhraf 1725 

—1729 

94. AFSHARIDS 

Nadir 1736 

*Adil 1747 

ShahRnkh 1748 

—1796 



260 PERSIA 



A.H. A.D. 

95. ZANDS 

1163 KarimKhan 1750 

1193 Abu-1-Fath 1779 

1193 ^AliMurad 1779 

1193 Moljammad *Ali 1779 

1193 §adik 1779 

1196 *Ali Murad (again) .... 1782 

1199 Ja*far 1785 

1203 Lutf'Ali 1789 

—1209 —1794 

96. ICAJARS 

1193 Aka Mohammad 1779 

1211 Fatlj *Ali 1797 

1250 Mohammad 1834 

1264 Na^ir-a^-dm, regnant . . 1848 



SHAHS OF PERSIA 261 



SAFAVIDS* 



1. Isma^il I 

2. Tanmasp i 

I 



3. Isma'il ii 4. Mohammad Ehudabanda Haydar 



Shah Shujd* I I 

5. * Abbas i Hamza 

Saji Mirza 



6. Safii 

7. *AbDas n 



8. Sulayman 

I 

9. Qosayn 



1 i I I 

10. Tahmasp II "^ /S^m daughter datiyhter=ItizaKuU 



11. *A 



Afshdrid 



bbas in Hosayn Isma^il Shab Bukb 

Mohammad Mirza 



* Tbe pedigrees of tbe Sbabs of Persia are abridged from tbe Catalogue 
of Persian Coins in the British Museum, by B. S. Poole, LL.D. 




262 



. PERSIA 



I 

Ibrahim 



AFSHARIDS 
Imam KuH 



2. *AdU SMh 3. Ibrahim 



1. Nadir 



Riza Kuli 



4. Shah Bnkh 



1. Karfm Khan 



2. Abu-1- 4. Mob am ■ 
Fath mad *Ali 



ZANDS 

l„ 



6. i^&di!k=wife 



6. Ja*far 3. *Ali Murad 

7. Lutf 'AJd 



Zaki 



^Aobds 

I 



3. Mohammad 

4. Na?ir-a?-din 



KAJARS 
Mohammad 9asan 

1. Aka Mohammad 

2. Fat^ *Ali 



flosayn 



'An ?ill-i SuJim 



XIII. TRANSOXIANA 

S/EC. XIV— XIX 

97. TIM Grids 

98. SHAYBANIDS 

99. JANIDS OF ASTRAKHAN 

100. MANQITS 

101. KHANS OF KHOKAND 

102. KHANS OF KHIVA 




XIII.— TEAITSOXIAITA 

BMC. XIV— XIX 

A.H. A.p. 

771—906 97. TIMURIDS 1369—1500 

Timur, or Timur Lang (Timur the Lame), commonly 
corrupted into Tamerlane, was related to the family of 
Chingiz Kaan, and one of his ancestors had been YizTr 
to Chagatay the son of Chingiz and ruler of Transoxiana. 
Timur, who was bom in 1335 {736), was appointed to 
the government of Kash by Tugha-Timur, (p. 220), and 
became Yizir to the Chagatay Khan Suyurghatmish, whose 
authority he completely usurped before 1369 {771) j 
though he allowed the Khan and his successor Mahmud 
to retain the nominal sovereignty until 1397 {800). In 
1380 {782) Timur began a long series of campaigns in 
Persia; and in seven years overran Khurasan, Jurjan, 
Mazandaran, Sijistan, Afghanistan, Ears, Adharbijan, 
and Kurdistan. An invasion by Toktamish, the Khan 
of the Golden Horde, called his attention nearer home 
in 1388, but in 1391 {793) he inflicted a total defeat 
on the Khan, which, however, had to be repeated in 1395 




266 TRANSOXIANA 

(797). Meanwhile in 1393 he had taken Baghdad from 
the Jalayrs, and had reduced Mesopotamia. In 1397 he 
entered northern India, and in the following year {801) 
raided Kashmir and Dehli. His next great movement was 
to the west. In 1401 he invaded Anatolia, and took 
Si was and Malatia; and in 1402 (804) totally routed 
the *OthmanlI Turks at Angora and took Sultan Eayazld 
prisoner (p. 185). He reinstated the minor princes of 
Asia Minor, and, having subdued Syria and taken Aleppo 
and Damascus (803), he received the homage of their 
former possessor, the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. Whilst 
on the march for a stiU more ambitious campaign against 
China, Timur died at Otrar, 1405 {807), aged 70. 

The conquests of Timur raised the kingdom of Mia- 
ward-l-nahr (* Beyond the Eiver' Oxus) or Transoxiana 
to an importance it had never before attained. Samar- 
kand became the capital of an empire which stretched, in 
name at least, from Dehli to Damascus, and from the 
Sea of Aral to the Persian Gulf; and although much of 
Timur' 8 conquest was rather a raid than an annexation, 
yet Transoxiana remained for some time the centre of a 
kingdom which embraced most of Persia and Afghanistan 
besides the provinces beyond the Oxus. But Timur's 



TIMURIDS 267 

empire was too unwieldy to be maintained in all its 
original vastness. When the petty dynasties of Persia, 
£arts and Sarbadarids, MuzafiParids and Jalayrs, had been 
swept away, and the Turks had been driven out of 
Anatolia, and all Western Asia from the Hindu Kush to 
the Mediterranean trembled before one man, a reign of 
terror and not an organized empire had been established. 
As soon as the great conqueror was dead, Ottomans, 
Jalayrs and Turkomans began to recover their lost provinces 
in the west. Although Timur's descendants retained their 
hold of the north of Persia for a century, they were able 
to offer but a feeble resistance to the rising power of the 
Safavids; and when in the sixteenth century the line of 
Shayban (of the house of Chingiz) succeeded to the 
capital of Tamerlane, the dominions of his descendants 
had shrunk to the limits which the Khanate of Bukhara 
long afterwards preserved. The table (facing p. 268) of 
Timur's descendants, who struggled with one another for 
the disjointed fragments of his empire, shows one cause of 
their weakness; there were too many rivals. Shah Eukh, 
indeed, for a while succeeded in subduing the jealousies 
of his kinsmen and maintaining the power and dignity 
of the empire; but after his death in 1447 {850) his 



268 TRANSOXIANA 

dominions were split up into various petty principalities, 
whicli made way for the Safavids in Persia and the 
Shayhanids in Transoxiana. Yet the line did not become 
extinct with the loss of Timur's dominions. His descen- 
dant Eabar founded a new empire in Hindustan which, 
known to us as that of the ' Great Moguls^^ lasted down 
to the present century (see XIV.). 

A.H. A.D. 

771 Timur '. 1369 

[771 Suyiirghatmish, nominal Khan 

790-800 Mahmud „ „ ] 

807-12 Khalil 1404-9 

807 Shah Rukh 1404 

850 UlughBeg 1447 

853 *Abd-al-Lat!f 1449 

854 *Abd-AUah 1450 

855 Abu-Sa*id 1452 

872 Ahmad 1467 

899 Mabmiid 1493 

900 Anarchy . 1494 

—900 , —1500 

[^Shaybanids] 



b 



Eg 



{To fact p. 268) 



17 



, , inkur 
17-8'^^ 



. ; Itan 
pa^- mnad 

P3"- dardn, 
: i 850 

BZl J 

itc. a 



darter 
Sultan Hosayn, f 808 



Suyur- 
ghatmish 

Kabul, 
Kandahar, 
821 t830 



Babar 
Khurasan, 

854; 
Fdrs, 855 

t861 



Mas'ud 

Kabul, etc. 

830-43 



digar Shah Mahmud 
ay^Hmmad Khurasan, 861 
^' ^sdn, 875 f 863 
=875 



Mohammad 
Juki, 
t848 



Karuchar 
Kabul, etc. 
843 



TRANSOXIANA 



269 



CONNEXION OF THE TRANSOXINE KHANATES 



CHINGIZ 



Juji 



8HAYBAN 



*Arab Shah 
I 

1LHAN8 OF KHIVA 

(1616-1872) 



I 

Ibrahim 

I 



Orda 

I 

Euchuk Mohammad 

I 



Mohammad shatbanI 

8HAYBANID8 

(1600-1699) 



daughter = jan 



jANiDs or 

A8TRAKHAN DYNASTY 



(1699-1785) 



Shah Murad = daughter 



MANOIT8 

(1785-1868) 




270 TRANSOXIANA 



A.H. A.D. 

906—1007 98. SHAYBANIDS 1500—1599 

Whilst the three sons of Mahmud, the last Timurid 
Sultan of Transoxiana, were fighting over the ruins of an 
empire, a new power was approaching, which made an 
end of all the princes of Ma-wara-/-nahr and re-established 
a strong government in the place of anarchy. This was 
the Uzbeg horde led by Mohammad Shaybani, almost the 
last of the great warriors of the lineage of Chingiz. The 
early history of the family of Shayban has been mentioned 
(pp. 238-40). Their home-line remained in Siberia as Czars 
of Tinmen; but a large proportion of the clan migrated 
to Transoxiana under Shaybani, overthrew the rival princes 
of Timur's line, and founded the Uzbeg kingdom, which 
survived in the Khanates of Bukhara and Khiva until their 
submission to Eussia within the last quarter of a century. 
This Uzbeg kingdom was ruled by several successive 
dynasties. First, the Shaybanids governed Transoxiana 
for the whole of the sixteenth century, leaving Khwarizm 



SHAYBANIDS 



271 



(Khiva) to be ruled by its own line of Khans (p. 278), who 
were also descended from Shayban, and abandoning Khurasan 
to the Safavids. Next, the Janids or Astrakhan dynasty, 
connected in the female line with the Shaybanids, governed 
the same gradually diminishing territory during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. Thirdly, their connexions 
by marriage, the Mangits, usurped the Khanate of Bukhara, 
which was now greatly restricted by the growth of the 
neighbouring Khanate of Khokand, by the rise of various 
independent principalities at Tashkand, TJratippa, and else- 
where, and by the aggrandizement of the Durranids of 
Afghanistan. Finally Bukhara,, Khiva, and Khokand, all 
fell before the aggression of Kussia in 1868-1872. 



A.H. 










A.D. 


906 


Mohammad Shaybani .... 1500 


916 


Kochkunji . 








1510 


937 


Abu-Sa'id . 








1530 


940 


<Obayd-Allah 








1533 


946 


»Abd-Allahi 








1539 


947 


*Abd-al-Latif 

• 








1540 


959 


Nurfiz Ahmad 








1551 


963 


Pir Mol^ammad i 








1556 


968 


Iskandar 








1560 


991 


«Abd.AUah n 








1583 


1006 


*Abd-al-Mu*miii . 






» 4 


1598 


1007 


Pir Mohammad ii 

[Astrakhi 


aw] 






1699 



272 TRANSOXIANA 

Samarkand was the capital of the Shaybanids, but there 
was generally a powerful, and sometimes independent, govern- 
ment at Bukhara. More than once the governor of Bukhara 
was practically the ruler of Transoxiana, and this province 
became almost as much the Dauphin6 of Samarkand under 
the Shaybanids as Balkh was under the succeeding dynasty 
of Astrakhan. 

SUB-DYNASTY OF BUKHARA 

A.H. A.D. 

947 *Abd-al-<Aziz . . . . . . 1540 

957 Yar Mohammad 1549 

961 Burl^aii Sultan 1553 

964 *Abd-Allah (who ttnited Sdtnarkani in 
986, and became from 991 *Abd' 

Allah n of the Chief Khdnatey q. v.) 1556 

SUB-DYNASTY OF SAMARKAND 

968 Khusrti Sultan . . . . . 1660 

975 Sultan Sa'id 1567 

980 Juvanmard *Ali 1572 

986 'Abd-Alldh of Bukhara . . . 1678 



SHA YBANIDS 



273 



GO 

w 



••• 

-I 



CO 



•3 

- o 
:0 

M 



w 

tsi— . 



,5 



W 



.'S ^ • jj 






CQ 



-I 









1 



t9 

•ci 




CO 




•fi na 




I' 

- t - 



1 






§ 
-<;. 

^ 



g'i 






03 



Oi 



08 



08 

-O 

"^ 

00 



■ 03 



i 

' 08 




s 

_ I 

i 






OD 

Q 



I 

C 



18 




274 TRANSOXIANA 



A.H. A.D. 

1007—1200 99. JANTDS 1599—1785 

OR ASTRAKHAN DYNASTY 

When the Eussians absorbed the Khanate of Astrakhan 
or Hajji Tarkhan (p. 229) in the middle of the 16th 
century, two of the dispossessed chiefs, Tar Mohammad 
and his son Jan took refuge at Eukhanl with Iskandar 
the Shaybanid, who presently gave his daughter in 
marriage to Jan. The issue of this marriage, Baki 
Mohammad, succeeded (after a year's interval) his 
maternal uncle *Abd-Allah n, and he and his descendants, 
during most of the 17th century, ruled Samarkand, 
Bukhara, Farghana, Badakhshan, and Balkh, which last 
province was sometimes independent. Their power gradu- 
ally decayed; the Durranids eventually gained possession 
of all their Cisoxine territories (1752 ff.) ; a rival 
Khanate sprang up at Khokand (Farghana) about 1700; 
and the Janids were finally ousted in 1785 by the chiefs 
of the Mangit tribe, who had possessed the real power 
for some years before the actual dethronement of the 
last Janid, Abu-1-Ghazi. 



J A NILS 



275 



A.H. 

1007 
1014 
1017 
1050 
1057 
1091 
1114 
1117 
1160 
1164 
1167 
1171 
—1200 



BakT Mobammad 
Vali Mohammad* 
Imam Kuli (f 1060) . 
Nadir Mohammad (f 1061) 
*Abd-al-*Aziz 
SubhanKulif . 
*Obayd-Allaht . 
Abu-1-Fayd§ 
*Abd-al-Mu*mm . 
*Obayd-AUah II . 
Mohammad Eahlm (Mangit) 
Abu-1-Ghazi 



A.D. 

1599 

1605 

1608 

1640 

1647 

1680 

1702 

1705 

1747 

1751 

1753 

1758 

—1785 



[Mangita] 



* Governed Balkh from 1007. 

t Previously ruled Balkh for 23 years. 

X Makim Khan held Balkh 1114-1119, 

§ Ruled only beyond the Oxus. 




276 



IRANSOXIANA 



03 



GO 

H 

QQ 



•a 

QQ 



II — 

'**' 9 






•s 

a 

i 

- o 

ll-l 

ics 



a 
a 

03 

o 

-1^ 



103 

Jz; 



I"- 

-a 

a 

-•OS 

^• 

QQ 



I 

_ I 

3 

U3 



I 

- I - 

00 



« 



I 



a 
1^ 



I 

ST 
o 



3 



•eS *^ 

S 03 

1^ 



US 



<o 



a 

-108 

a 



CO 




a 



Si 
-o 



eo 



MANGITS 



277 



A.H. 

1200—1284 



100. MANGITS 



A.D. 

1785—1868 



The Mangits, or "Flat-noses," a .tribe akin to the 
I^ogays, left their Kipchak camping-grounds to follow 
the fortunes of Mohammad Shaybani at the beginning 
of the 16th century. Under the Astrakhan dynasty they 
gradually increased in influence, and in the second half 
of the eighteenth century their chiefs became the vizirs 
of the rulers of Bukhara and eventually supplanted their 
masters. Their dominions had shrunk considerably from 
the wide extent of the Shaybanids' kingdom, and Ma'siim 
Shah's wars with the Durranids for the recovery of the 
Cisoxine territory were rewarded with but temporary 
success. The present Khan has been tributary to Russia 
since the campaign of 1868. 



A.H. 




A.D. 


1200 


Mir Ma*9um Shah Murad . 


1786 


1216 


Haydar Tora 


. . . 1800 


1242 


^osayn .... 


1826 


1242 • 


'Omar .... 


1826 


1242 


Na^r-AQah 


1827 


1277 


Mu^affar-a^-din . 


1860 


—1284 


Tributary to Hussia 


—1868 




278 



TRANSOXIANA 



A.H. 

c. 921—1289 



A.D. 



101. KHANS OF KHIVA c 1515—1872 



Xhwarizm or Khiva, which had once famished an 
ambitious line of Shahs of its own (p. 176), was an 
appanage of the house of Juj!, and never properly belonged 
to the Khanate of Transoxiana; up to the time of Timur 
it was held by the Golden Horde. After the confusion 
of the Timund period, the TJzbegs of Mohammad ShaybanI 
occupied Khiva as well as Transoxiana, and about 1515 
an independent Uzbeg Khanate was established there, the 
early history of which is exceedingly obscure. Wars were 
constantly waged with Bukhara with varying success. 
Nadir Shah of Persia conquered Khiva in 1740 and a 
Persian governor ruled there for a year. Finally General 
Kaufmann annexed it on .the part of Eussia in 1872. 



A.H. 

c. 921 

c. 931 



e, 946 
953 



Ilbars I 

Sultan Ilajji 

Hasan Kuli 

§ufyan 

Bujugha 

Avanak 

Kal 

Akatay 

Dost 



A.D. 

e. 1515 
c, 1525 



e. 1540 
1546 



KHIVA 



279 



A.H. 












A.D. 


965 


^Jajji Mohammad i , . . . . 1568 


1011 


'Arab Mohammad i • 








1602 


1032 


Isfandiyar . ^ 










1623 


1053 


Abu-l.Gh&xIi . 










1643 


1074 


Annsha 










1663 


c. 1085 


Mottflmmad Arank 










e. 1674 


1099 


Ishalb: Aka Shah Niya2 










1687 


UU 


'Arab Mohammad ii 
Hajji Mol^ammad n 










1702 


1126 


Yadighar . 










1714 


1126 


Arank 










1714 


1127 


Shir Ghazi 










1715 


114:i; 


Ilbars II 










nzx 


1153 


Annexation by Nadir Shah 








1740 


1154 


Tagir {for Nadir Shah) 








1741 


1154 


Abu-Mo^ammad 








1741 


115a? 


Abu-1-Ghazi n . 










174a; 


1158 


Kaip 










1745 


e. 1184 


Abu-1-Ghazi in 










e. 1770 


1219 


Iltazar 










1804 


1221 


Mohammad Ea^im 










1806 


1241 


Allah Kuli 










1825 


1258 


Ea^im Kuli 










1842 


1261 


Mol^ammad Amin 










1845 


1271 


*Abd-AUah 










1855 


1272 


Kutlugh Mohammad , 










1855 


1272? 


Sayyid Mohammad 










1856? 


1282 


Sayyid Mol^ammad Kahim . 








1865 


1289 


[Annexatic 


m by . 


Russu 


'] 




—1872 




280 TRANSOXIANA 

A.H. A.D. 

c. 1112-1293 102. KHANS OF c. 1700— 1876 

KHOKAND 

• 

Shah Eukh, who claimed to be a descendant of Ohingiz 
Khan, made himself independent in Earghana and founded 
the Khanate of Khokand about 1700. The chronology of 
the earlier Khans is uncertedn. In 1800 Tashkand was 
annexed by Khokand. The Khanate passed into the 
possession of Eussia in 1876. 

A.H. A.D. 

<?. 1112 Shah Rukh Beg <;. 1700 

Rahim 

*Abd-a?-Karim 

Erdeni 

1184 Sulayman 1770 

1184 Shah Rukh n 1770 

1184? Narbuta 1770? 

1216 *Alim 1800 

1224 Mohammad 'Omar 1809 

1237 Mohammad 'Ali 1822 

c. 1266 Shir *AlI 1840 

1261 Murad 1841 

e. 1261 Khudayar 1846 

1273 Malla 1857 

1275 Shah Murad 1859 

c. 1277 Khudayar {2nd reign) .... 1861 

e, 1280 Sayyid Sultan 1864 

1288 Khudayar (3rrf r<?i^«) 1871 

1292 Na9ir-a?-^n 1876 

—1293 [Annexed by Itus8%a\ —1876 



XIV. INDIA 

AND AFGHANISTAN 
S>€C. X— XIX 

103. QHAZNAWIDS 

104. QHORIDS 

105. SULTANS OF DEHLT 

106. KINGS OF BENGAL 

107. KINGS OF JAUNPUR 

108. KINGS OF MALWA 

109. KINGS OF GUJARAT 

110. KINGS OF KHANDESH 

111. BAHMANIDS OF THE DECCAN 

112. 'IMAD SHAHS OF BERAR 

113. NIZAM SHAHS OF AHMADNAGAR 

• • 

114. barTd shahs of bIdar 

115. 'adil shahs of buapur 

116. kutb shahs of golkonda 

117. mogul emperors of hindustan 

118. AMTrS of AFGHANISTAN 




XIY. IKDIA 
AND AFGHANISTAN 

S^C. X— XIX 

No considerable part of India ever belonged to the 
Caliphate. Soon after their conquest of Herat, indeed, 
the Arabs pushed on to Kabul in 664 {44) and thence 
descended to Multan; but this reconnaissance did not lead 
to continuous occupation. An advance from the south pro- 
duced more permanent results. Piratical expeditions by 
sea to the mouths of the Indus were frequent in the early 
days of Islam, and in 711 {92) Mohammad Kasim, a 
nephew of -Hajjaj, the celebrated governor of -Ba^ra, 
conquered Sind from the coast as far as Multan, and 
although no attempt was made to enlarge this dominion, 
the province continued to be ruled by Arab governors for 
nearly two centuries. 

The conquest of Hindustan by the Mohammadans, how- 
ever, sprang not from Sind but from Afghanistan. The 
early annexation by the Arabs of the mountainons country 




284 . INDIA 

south of the Hindu Kush had been nominal and temporary, 
and Ya*kub b. Layth the SaflParid of Sijistan (p. 129) was 
the first to establish a settled Mohammadan government at 
Kabul. Here his dynasty was succeeded by governors 
appointed by the Samanids (p. 131), and it was Alptigin, 
one of the local governors of the Samanids, who laid the 
foundations at Ghazna of the first independent Moham- 
madan dynasty in Afghanistan. 

Henceforward for two centuries Ghazna was the capital 
of a powerful dynasty to which it gave the name pf 
Ghaznawids, The incursions of the Ghaznawids into India 
and their settlement at Lahore formed the true beginning 
of Muslim rule in Hindustan. The Ghaznawid kingdom 
at Lahore prepared the way for Mohammad b. Sam the 
Gh5rid and his successors the Sultans of Dehli, who brought 
the whole of northern India under Mohammadan sway. 
The invasion of the Mongols under Babar put an end to 
the divisions which had weakened the Dehll kingdom in 
its later years, and Babar' s grandson Akbar organized 
the splendid Empire of the Great Moguls which lasted 
down to the present century. 




GHAZNAWIDS 285 



A.H. A.D. 

351—582 103. GHAZNAWIDS 962—1186 

(AFGHANISTAN AND PANJAB) 

Among the Turkish slaves whom the Samanid princes 
delighted to honour with the chief posts in the govern- 
ment of their dominions, Alptigin rose hy favour of 'Abd- 
al-MaHk to be commander of the forces in Khurasan, but, 
being deprived of this office on the death of his patron, 
he retired in dudgeon in 962 {351) to the city of Ghazna, 
in the heart of the Sulayman mountains, where his father 
had been governor under the Samanids, and where the son 
had succeeded to his authority. In the mountain fastnesses 
he could safely defy the ill-will of his masters in the plains ; 
but he died in a year's time without enlarging the dominion 
he had assumed: nor did his son Ishak or his slave 
Balkatigin enhance the power of the Ghaznawids. The 
true founder of the djmasty was Sabaktigin, another slave 
of Alptigin, and the husband of his daughter. Sabaktigin 
widened his territories on both sides; in India by the 
defeat of the Eajputs and the establishment of a govern- 
ment at Peshawar : in Persia by the acquisition of Khu- 




286 INDIA 

rasan, of which he was appointed governor by the Samanid 
Nuh in 994 {581^ in reward for his assistance in quelling 
a rebellion in Transoxiana. Sabaktigin out of loyalty or 
prudence accepted the position of a vassal of the Samanids, 
but the vassalage was nominal ; he had become more power- 
ful than his Uege-lord before his death in 997 {387), 

Mahmud of Ghazna, the son of Sabaktigin, is one of 
the greatest figures in Mohammadan history. After over- 
coming his younger brother Isma^Il, who had forced a 
contest, he repudiated the supremacy of the feeble re- 
presentative of the Samanids, and received an investiture 
for the governments of Khurasan and Ghazna direct from 
the Caliph of Baghdad, * the dispenser of powers which he 
himself no longer enjoyed.'* Having made peace with his 
powerful neighbours the Ilak Khans, who were then giving 
the eoiip de grdce to the expiring Samanids, Mahmud 
began a series of campaigns in India. Twelve several 

* It is commonly asserted that Mahmtid then adopted the title of 
Sultan, which had never before been assumed by a Mohammadan ruler : 
but the statement is not warranted by his coins, whereon he styles 
himself occasionally Amir and Sayyid, and very rarely Malik, but never 
Sultan. The first of the dynasty to use the new title was Ibrahim, who 
doubtless imitated the Seljuks, who were the earliest to adopt the style 
of Sultan, according to the evidence of the coins. It is singular that 
this first of Indian Sultans should be described as a * professed devotee,* 
who copied Korans and left seventy-six children. 



QHAZNA WIDS 287 

times, between 1001 and 1024, he descended from his 
highlands into the plains of Hindustan, and, gradually en- 
larging the scope of his expeditions, beyond Kashmir and 
the Pan jab, at length he occupied Kanauj and Muttra 

(1017) and seized Somnath and Anhalwara, the capital of 
Gujarat, 1024 {Jfl5). These expeditions were more or 
less raids undertaken with a view to plunder and 
to satisfy the righteous iconoclasm of a true Muslim, 
and the *Idol-Breaker * returned to Ghazna laden with 
costly spoils from the Hindu temples of Somnath and 
Muttra; but they led to far-reaching results. The way 
into India had been opened; the Pan jab had been 
permanently annexed; and the kingdom of Gujarat had 
accepted a raja from the hands of its conqueror. 

Besides his Indian wars, Mahmud beat oS. the attack 
of the Ilak Khan, reduced Gh5r (1010) and the country of 
the Upper Marghab (1012), and even annexed Transoxiana 
with its two great cities of Samarkand and Bukhara in 
1016 {^07), Towards the close of his reign he discovered 
a serious danger in the growing power of the Seljuk 
chiefs Tughril and Chagar Beg, whom he had at first 
unwisely encouraged; but, after reducing them to apparent 
submission in 1027 [Ifl8\ he did not live to witness their 




288 INDIA 

final triumph. On his return from an expedition into 
the heart of the old Caliphate, in which he took Ispahan 
from the Buwayhids (p. 142), Mahmud died at Ghazna 
in the spring of 1030 (4^i). His magnificent encourage- 
ment of science, art, and literature, was no less remarkable 
than his genius as a general and statesman. He founded 
and endowed a university at Ghazna, and his munificence 
drew together perhaps the most splendid * assemblage of 
literary genius,' including the poet FirdausI, that any 
Asiatic capital has ever contained.* Ghazna was enriched 
with palaces and mosques, aqueducts and public works, 
beyond any city of its age: for Mahmud had known how 
to learn from India, as well as how to plunder it. 

The empire which had thus been founded stretched 
from Lahore to Samarkand and Ispahan; but it was 
soon lopped of its western limbs. In a few years the 
Selj.uks (p. 151), after defeating Mas*ud the son of 
Mahmud near Merv, had taken possession of all the 
Persian and Transoxine provinces of the Ghaznawids, from 
Balkh and Khwarizm to Ispahan and -Rayy (1037-1045); 
and the rulers of Ghazna learned to turn their eyes to 
the east, now that the west was closed to them. Lahore 

♦ Elphinstone, Eiatory of India, 341-6 (6th ed. 1866). 



OHAZNA Wins 



289 



became their capital when Ghazna fell to the Ghorids in 
1161. Thus the losses in the west confirmed the settlement 
in Hindustan, and when in 1186 (582) the successors of 
of Mahmud, who had not emulated his ambition, gave place 
to the hardy Afghans of Ghor, the Indian provinces soon 
separated from the highlands ; and thus began the series of 
independent Mohammadan dynasties of India. 



A.H. 










A.D. 


351 


AlptigTn 962 


352 


Ishak 








963 


355 


Balkatigin* . . . , 








966 


362 


Piri 






• " 


972 


366 


Sabaktagin .... 








976 


387 


Isma'il 








997 


388 


Mahmud, Yamin-aZ-dawla 








998 


421 


Mohammad, Jalal-a/-dawla 








1030 


421 


Mas'ud I, Nasir-din- Allah 








1030 


432 


Modud, Shihab-a/-dawla 








1040 


440 


Mas'iid n . . . 








1048 


440 


'All Abfi-l-Hasan, Baha-a/-dawla . 






1048 


440 


'Ahd-a^-Rashid, *Izz-a^-dawla 






1049 


444 


Tughril (usurper) . 






1052 


444 


Farrukhzad, Jamal-aZ-dawla . 








1052 


451 


Ibrahim, ?ahir-fl/-dawla 








. 1059 


492 


Mafl'ud III, *Ala-a/-dawla 








1099 


508 


Shirzad, EamaUaZ-dawla 








1114 


509 


Arslan, Sultan-a/-dawla 








1115 


512 


Bahram Shah, Yamin-aZ-dawla 






1118 


547 


Khuaru Shah, Mu'izz-a/-dawla 






1152 


555 


Khusru Malik, Taj-a^-dawla . 






1160 


582 


{QhoHds] 








—1186 



* On the chronology of the early Ghaznawids see E. E. Oliyer, The 
Decline of the SdmdniSj in Journ, As. Soc. Bengal, ly. pt. i. 1886. 

19 



290 



INDIA 



I 
2. Is^a^ 



I 
6. Isma'il 



I 

8. Mohammad 



I 

10. Hodud 

I 

11. Mas'ud II 

{ynfant) 



GHAZNAWIDS 
1. Alptigin 



5. Sabaktigin 



7. Ma^mud 

I 



I 

9. Mas'ud I 

I 



3. Balkatigin 



I 

13. 'Abd-ai-Bashid 



12. <AIi 



I 
14. Famikhzad 15. Ibraldm 



16. Mas'ud in 

I 



17. Shirzad 



I 

18. Arslan 



19. Bahrain Shah 

I 

20. Khusru Shah 

I 

21. Khusru Malik 



( Dotted lines indicate the relation of master to slave.) 



OHORIDS 291 



A.H. A.D. 

643—612 104. GHORIDS 1148—1215 

(AFGHANISTAN, HINDUSTAN) 

Prom early times the mountainous district of Ghor (or 
Ghur), between Herat and Ghazna, had been the seat of 
a small but practically independent dynasty, who usually 
made the fortress of Piruz-k5h their headquarters. Mahmud 
of Ghazna had reduced this principality in 1010 {401) j 
when the Afghans of Gh5r were ruled by Mohammad 
b. Suri; and the descendants of this chief continued to 
govern at Firuz-k5h and Bamiyan under the orders of 
the Ghaznawids, with whom they allied themselves by 
marriage. The execution of one of the family (Kutb-a?- 
din Mohammad) by his father-in-law Bahram Shah the 
Ghaznawid was avenged by the capture of Ghazna in 
1148 {54s) by the murdered man's brother, Sayf-a^din 
Suri, the ruler of Gh5r ; but in the following year 
Bahram Shah succeeded in re-entering his capital, and 
tortured the invader to death. This second act of bar- 
barity brought down a signal punishment upon Ghazna 



292 INDIA 

at the hands of a third brother, *Ala-a^dIii Hosayn, 
sumamed Jahan-85z, or * world -incendiary,' from the 
ferocity with which he gave up the splendid city of 
Mahmud the idol-breaker to fire and sword. Contemptuously 
leaving the ashes of Ghazna, *Ala-aWln returned to Ghor; 
and after a brief captivity in the hands of Sultan Sin jar 
the Seljuk of Khurasan, he died in 1161 (556) in a 
time of anarchy, when the Ghuzz Turkomans swept over 
Afghanistan and for a while abolished both Gh5rid and 
Ghaznawid governments. 

The Ghuzz soon wended their migratory way into 
Persia, and on their departure two brothers, nephews of 
the * World-Incendiary,' became the leaders of the Ghorid 
family. The elder, Ghiyath-aZ-din b. Sam, had taken 
Ghazna from the Ghuzz in 1173 {569)y and annexed 
Herat two years later. He remained titular sovereign of 
all the wide possessions of his family until his death in 
1202 (599). The younger brother, however, Shihab-a?- 
din, afterwards styled Mu*izz-aZ-din, and commonly known 
as Mohammad Gh5ri, was the real ruler and extender 
of the kingdom. He conquered part of Khurasan from 
the Seljuks, and then began a series of campaigns in 
India, in which he reduced Sind and Multan (571), 




OHORIDS 293 

where Arab governors had made Muslim rule familiar; 
subdued the Ghaznawids in their last retreat at Lahore 
in 1186 {582)] and then proceeded to attack the leader 
of the Chohan Bajputs, Prithwl Raja of Ajmlr. His 
first onslaught was repulsed with terrible loss {587), but 
in the following year, 1192, a hard-fought battle on the 
same field of Thaneswar ended in the total defeat of 
the Rajputs, and the death of Prithwl Raja and many- 
others of the 150 princes who had assembled for the 
defence of Hindustan. The victory meant nothing less 
than the submission of nearly the whole of northern 
India; for Kanauj fell in 1194, and GwaliSr, Bandal- 
khand, Bihar, and Bengal were successively reduced by 
the generals of Mohammad Gh5rT. For the first time 
the whole of Hindustan admitted, in a greater or less 
degree, Mohammadan sway. 

So long as his brother lived, Mohammad Ghori always 
remained a loyal viceroy, but on Ghiyath-a/-din*s death in 
1202 {599) he succeeded to the supreme authority, when 
his first duty was to defend his realm against the Khwarizm 
Shah, who had overrun Persia and was forcing his way 
into Afghanistan. In the midst of the confusion of this 
invasion, Mohammad Ghori was assassinated by a party 




294 INDIA 

of Ghakkars in 1206 {602). His dynasty did not long 
survive him. His nephew Mahmud was indeed proclaimed 
Sultan throughout the wide dominions conquered by the 
uncle ; but the unity of the kingdom vanished with its 
founder. The Turkish slaves who had served as generals 
under Mohammad Ghori assumed independent power. 
Kutb-a?-din Aybak became the first of the Slave Kings 
of Dehli ; !N^a§ir-a/'dIn Kubacha ruled in Sind ; and Yildiz 
governed Ghazna. The titular successor of the great 
Gh5rid, from his capital of Flruz-koh, reigned over little 
more than western Afghanistan (Ghor and Herat) with 
part of Ehurasan ; and from all these the Ghorids were 
expelled by the armies of the Khwartzm Shah in 1215 
{612), Long afterwards, however, their descendants re- 
covered some relics of their ancient dominions, and the 
Kart princes of Herat traced their origin to the family of 
Mohammad GhSri. 

The opposite table shows the relationship and places of 
government of the chief members of the Ghorid family.* 

* For further details see E. Thomas, Supplementary Contributions to 
the Series of the Coins of the Kings of Ohaznl (1859). 




1 






( To face p. 294) 


1 

Kutb-a/^;.din 

Mohami\niad 
(Firfiz-Jioh ;f|,,^ 

by Babram 


Shu 
a/- 

{Khi) 


dm 

Jl 

rmda) 


BAMIYAN LINE 

i. Fakhr-aZ-dln 
Mas'ud 
(650- ?) 


i 


10. *Al8 


L-a/-din 


ii. Shams-aZ-dm 


i 


Mohammad 
{Ohor and 

FiruZ'kohf 
[under 6] ; 
699-603 ; 


Molja 


mmad 


• 

• > 


restored 610 ; 


iii. Baha-a/-din 


99; 


surrenders to 


Sam 




Khwdrizm Shah 


t602 




612) 

1 






1 
*Ala-a/-din 


iv. Jalal-a/-din 




{0? 


lazna^ 602-3) 


60! 

(kUl 

Khwaru 


2-9 
ed by 
zm Shah) 




11 



i' 




SULTANS OF DEHLI 295 



A.H* A.H. 

602—962 105. SULTANS OF DEHLl 1206—1554 

(HINDUSTAN) 

Mohammad Ghori, after conquering northern India to 
the mouth of the Ganges, either hy his own campaigns 
or hy those of his generals, appointed his slave Kuth-a/- 
din Aybak to act as his viceroy at Dehll; and on the 
death of the master in 1206 {602) the slave proclaimed 
himself sovereign of Hindustan, and founded the first 
Mohammadan dynasty which ruled exclusively in India; 
for hitherto Mohammadan India had been but an outlying 
province of the kingdom of Ghazna. This dynasty, the 
first of five which preceded the Mogul conquest, is 
commonly known as the Slave Kings, The greatest of 
the line was Altamish (more correctly Iltutmish), who 
subdued the governor of Sind, Na§ir-aZ-d!n Kubacha; 
compelled the viceroy of Bengal to acknowledge the 
supremacy of Dehli ; repelled the attempt of Yildiz to 
revive in India the kingdom of which the Khwarizm Shah 




296 INDIA 

• 

had robbed him at Ghazna; and in turn withstood the 
attempts of Jalal-aZ-din, the son of that Shah, to set up 
his rule in Hindustan when driven over the Hindu-Kush 
by the Mongols of Chingiz Khan. Fortunately for India 
these Mongols stopped short at the Indus, though their 
raids were a frequent source of alarm for many years. 
Altamish vigorously maintained his authority over the 
whole country north of the Vindhya mountains ; and the 
Caliph of Baghdad, for the first time recognizing a distinct 
Mohammadan kingdom of India, gave its sovereign the 
sanction of a formal diploma of investiture from the spiritual 
head of Islam. Eidiya, the daughter of Altamish, was the 
only woman who ever sat on the throne of Dehli, until 
Queen Victoria figuratively took her seat there in 1868. 
Under the later Slave Kings the Hindus began to pluck 
up the courage which had oozed away before the arms 
of Mohammad GhSri and Altamish ; and Ealban had to 
sternly suppress many serious native outbreaks, which 
were in some degree the fruit of his policy of getting 
rid of the Slave governors — a policy which led to the 
subversion of his own dynasty. 

The Khaljl Turks, the second Muslim dynasty of India, 
began to extend Mohammadan rule beyond the Vindhyas 




SULTANS OF DEHLI 297 

into the Deccan. *Ala-aZ-dIn Mohammad re-conquered 
Gujarat, 1297 ; took Chitor and temporarily subdued the 
Rajputs, 1303; and his eunuch general Malik Kafur 
seized Deogiri and Warangal, and founded a Deccan 
province of the Dehli kingdom. The extent of the 
dominion, however, tended towards disruption. After 
power had again changed hands, and a Turkish slave 
had established the Taghlakid dynasty, Mohammad b. 
Taghlak, a man of remarkable but bizarre genius, per- 
ceived the impossibility of ruling the Deccan from Dehli, 
and accordingly sought to transplant by force both court 
and population from the northern capital to Deogiri, 
which he re-named Dawlatabad, the 'seat of government.' 
But he could not check the disintegrating process which 
had begun; whole provinces revolted, and he was ever 
on the wing from end to end of his empire to suppress 
rebellion; and his successors were forced to witness the 
separation of province after province from the central 
stock, until the Sultan of Dehli sometimes commanded 
but a small district round his capital. The invasion of 
Timur, who turned northern India into a shambles in 
1398-9, hastened the catastrophe. The Say y ids and ZodU, 
who followed the house of Taghlak, held but one govern- 



298 INDIA 

ment out of the many that now prevailed in Hindustan. 
Bengal, Jaunpur, Malwa, and Gujarat were the seats of 
independent Mohammadan dynasties, and the Eajputs and 
the Hindus of the Deccan had recovered much of their 
former possessions. 

The irruption of the Moguls under Babar, who estab> 
lished his authority over most of northern India, save 
Bengal, in 1526-30, was too brief to accomplish the 
work of re-imiting the scattered fragments of the empire 
of *Ala-a/-din the Khalji. After Babar's death the Moguls 
were driven out of India by Shir Shah and the Afghans 
of Bengal 1539-40 {9Ii.6-l[\ and the courage and genius 
of the Afghan conqueror almost availed to restore the 
waning prestige of the Mohammadan power. But the 
provinces refused to obey an Afghan sovereign, and their 
disunion opened the way for the return of Babar's son 
Humayun in 1554 (P^;^) and the establishment under 
Akbar of the famous Mogul Empire, which lasted to the 
present century. 




SULTANS OF LEHLt 



299 



A. SLAVE KINGS 



A.H. 






A.D. 


602 


Aybak, Kutb-a/-din 


• • 


1206 


607 


Aram Shah 


• • 


1210 


607 


Altamish (Iltutmish), Shams-aZ-din 


1210 


633 


Fiiiiz Shah i, Rnkn-aZ-dm . 




1235 


634 


Ridiya .... 




1236 


637 


Bahram Shah, Mu'izz-a/-din 




1239 


639 


Mas'tid Shah, *Ala-a^din . 




1241 


644 


Mahmud Shah i, Nasir-a/-dTn 




1246 


664 


Balban, Ghiyath-a/-dm 




1265 


686 


Kay-Kubad, Ma'izz-a/-din . 




1287 



B. KHALJIS 



689 Firuz Shah n, Jalal-a?-din . 

695 Ibrahim Shah i, Rukn-a/-din 

695 Mohammad Shah i, *Ala-a/-d!n 

715 'Omar Shah, Shihab-a/-dm . 

716 Mubarak Shah i, Kutb-aZ-din 
720 Khusru Shah, Na^ir-aZ-din . 



1290 
1295 
1295 
1315 
1316 
1320 



/ 



300 



INDIA 



C. TAGHLAKIDS 

A.H. A.D. 

720 TagUak Shah i, Ghiyath-a/-din . . 1320 

726 Mohammad n b. Taghlal^ . . 1324 

752 FiriizShahra 1351 

790 Taghlak Shah II 1388 

791 Abii-Bakr Shah 1388 

792 Mohammad Shah m 1389 

795 Sikandar Shah I 1392 

795 Mahmud Shah n 1392 

797 Na^rat Shah {interregnum) .... 1394 

802 Mahmud II rM^or^e? 1399 

816 Dawlat Khan Lodi 1412 

D. SAYYIDS 

817 KhidrKhan , 1414 

824 Mubarak Shah n, Mu'izz-a/-din . 1421 

837 Mohammad Shah rr 1433 

847 *Alim Shah 1443 

E. LODiS 

866 Bahlol Lodi 1461 

894 Sikandar ii b. Bahlol 1488 

923 Ibrahim II b. Sikandar . . . 1617 

—930 Invasion of Babar — 152G 

F. AFGHANS 

946 Shir Shah 1639 

952 Islam Shah 1646 

960 Mohammad y. 'Adil Shah .... 1552 

961 Ibrahim ra Sur 1653 

962 Sikandar Shah III 1564 

{Mogul Emperors] 




SULTANS OF BEHLl 



301 



-S 



M 



GQ 



•J 
eo 









\^' 






§ 

II- 

r 
•1 



M 

•a 

s 



00 



•03 

u 

-•S 



-11 



-•a- 






;^ 

n 
o 

P 

o 

H 



(3 



—^2 1^— 







-M.r 






— «• 

I 

M 






.9^ 



II 


CQ 2* 





rt 



»o 






•53 

OQ 

-OS 




302 



INDIA 



11. Firtz n 

I 

12. Ibrahim i 



B. KHAUIS 



I 
14. *Omar 



I 
13. Mohammad i 

I 



I 

15. Mubarak i 



16. Khusru 



I 
17. Taghlaki 



18. Mohammad Juna 



Mahmud 



C. TAGHLAKIDS 



I 



Fatlj 



I 



Sipdh'Saldr Bajah 

I 

19. Firfiz m 



I I 

i^afar 22. Mohammad ni 

I 



20. Taghlak ii 25. Na^rat 



I 
21. Ahii- 23. Sikandar i 24. Ma^- 

Bakr mM ii 




SULTANS OF DEHLl 



303 



28. Mubarak n 



D. SAYYIDS 

27. Khidr 

I 



I 
Fand 



29. Mohammad it 

I 

30. 'Alim 



F. AFGHANS 

I 



I \ I 

Ohazl Khan Sur 38. Sikandar in 



I I 

34. Shir Shah x 

I I 

35. Islam Shah 36. Mohammad 37. Ibrahim m Sur 

♦Adil 



Firiiz 



Shir Khan 



d 



304 



INDIA 



PROVINCIAL DYNASTIES OF INDIA 

The Empire of Mohammad b. Taghlak included the 
whole of Hindustan, together with Telingana and other 
districts in the Deccan. Before his death the more distant 
provinces began to grow into independence, and soon after 
the beginning of the fifteenth century the greater part 
of his dominions was in the hands of seven provincial 
Mohammadan dynasties, besides the Hindu Rajas. 



A.H. 

699—984 

796—905 

804—937 

799—980 

735—995 

801—1008 

748—933 



1. Goyemors and Kings of Bengal 

2. Shark! Kings of Jaunpiir . 

3. Kings of Malwa . 

4. Kings of Gujarat 

5. Kings of Kashmir 

6. Fariikids, Kings of Khandesh 

7. Bahmanids, Kings of Kulbarga 



A.D. 

1202—1576 
1394—1500 
1401—1530 
1396—1572 
1334—1587 
1399—1599 
1347—1526 



On the decay of the Bahmanids, the following five 
dynasties divided their dominions between them: — 



890—980 

896—1004 

897—1018 

895—1097 

918—1098 



8. ^Imad Shahs of Berar 

9. Nizam Shahs of Ahmadnagar 

10. Barid Shahs of Bidar 

11. *Adil Shahs of Bijapiir 

12. Kutb Shahs of Golkonda . 



1484—1572 
1490—1595 
1492—1609 
1489—1686 
1512—1687 



The Hindustan dynasties were absorbed into the Mogul 
Empire by Akbar, and those of the Deccan succumbed 
to the attacks of Aurangzlb. 




KINGS OF BENGAL 305 

A.H. A.D. 

599—984 106. GOVERNORS AND 1202—1576 

KINGS OF BENGAL 

Mohammad Bakhtiyar, the conqueror and first governor 
of Bengal, subdued but a small part of the present 
province, chiefly in the neighbourhood of his capital 
Lakhnawti. In the early part of the thirteenth century 
Sonargaon and Satgaon became seats of Mohammadan 
governors, and the name Bangala included these as well 
as Lakhnawti. Firuzabad (Panduah) was the capital of 
the triple province, until in 1446 (850) the seat of govern- 
ment was again moved to Lakhnawti, which was now first 
called Gaur, and remained the capital until 1564 {972\ 
when it was succeeded by Tandah. The governors of 
Bengal sometimes also held Bihar, and occasionally Chitta- 
gong and Onsa. "Wlen the Dehli kings grew weak, 
the Bengal governors waxed independent, and several 
dynasties assumed kingly powers. Humayun occupied 
Bengal in 944-6, but after the successful defeat of the 
Moguls by Shir Shah in 1539 (946) governors were again 
appointed, and again {960) founded independent dynasties. 
In 982f however, Bihar fell before the arms of Akbar, 
and by 1576 (984) the Mogul was supreme in Bengal. 

20 



i 



306 



INDIA 



677 
681 
691 
702 
718 
710 
719 



A. GOVERNORS 

A.H. 

599 Mohammad Bakhtiyar Ehalji 

602 'Izz-aZ-din Mol^ammad Shiran 

605 'Ala-a/-^n Mardan 

608 Ghiyath-a/-to *Iwaz 

624 Na^ir-aZ-din Ma^mud 

627 *Ala-a/-din Jani . 

627 Sayf-a/-din Aybak 

631 *Izz-a/-diii Tughril Tughan Khan 

642 Kamar-a/-din Tamar Ehan-Kiran 

644 Ikhtiyar-a/-din (Mughith-a/-dln) Yusbak 

656 Jalal-a/-din Mas'iid Malik Jam 

657 ^Izz-a/-^n Balban 
659 P Mohammad Arslan Tatar Ehan. 

Shir Khan 
Amin Khan 

Mughith-aZ-dm Tughril 
*Na?ir-a/-din Bughra Khan . 
Rukn-a/-din Kay-Kawns 
Shams-a/-din Firiliz Shah 
Shihab-a/-din Bughra Shah 
Ghiyath-a^dm Bahadur Shah 



(West Bengal) 
(East Bengal) 
„ „ (All Bengal) 

723-6 Na?ir-a/-din . . . (Lakhnawti) 
725-31 Bahadur Shah reatoredy with Bahrain 

(East Bengal) 

731-9 Bahram Shah (alone) 

726-40 KadrKhan . . . (Lakhnawti) 

724-40 *Izz-a/-din A*zam-al-mulk . . (Satgaon) 



A.D. 

1202 

1205 

1208 

1211 

1226 

1229 

1229 

1233 

1244 

1246 

1258 

1258 

1260? 



1278 
1282 
1291 
1302 
1318 
1310 
1319 
1323-5 

1324-30 
1330-8 
1325-39 
1323-39 



* The following six governors belonged to the family of Balban, the 
Sul^ of Dehli, see the genealogy p. 301. 




KINGS OF BENGAL 



307 



B. KINGS 



A.H. 

739—984 



739-50 Fakhr-aZ-din Mubarak Shah (East Bengal) 
750-3 Ikhtiyar-a/-d!n Ghazi Shah (East Bengal) 
740-6 *Ala-a/-^n *Ali Shah (West Bengal) 



A.D. 

1888—1576 

1338-49 
1349-52 
1339-45 



HOUSE OF ILYAS 

740-6 Shams-aZ-din Ilyas Shah 

(contending in West Bengal) 1339-45 

746 „ (West Bengal) 1345 

753-9 „ (all Bengal) 1352-8 

759-92 Sikandar Shah lb. Ilyas .... 1358-89 
792 6hiyath-a/-^n A'zam Shah b. Sikandar {rebeh 

nn) reigns 1389 

799 Sayf-a/-d!n Hamza Shah b. A*zam . . 1396 

809 Shams-a/-din b. Hamza . . . . 1406 



HOUSE OF RAJA KANS 



812 Shihab-a/.din Bayazid Shah (with Raja Kans) 1409 
817 Jalal-aZ-din Mobammad Shah b. Raja Kans . 1414 
835 Shams -a/-dinAbmad Shah b. Mohammad . 1481 



HOUSE OF ILYAS {restored) 

846 Na^ir-aZ-din Mabmud Shah i 

864 Rukn-a/-d!n Barbak Shah b. Mabmud i 

879 Shams-aZ-dln Yusuf Shah b. Barbak 

886 Sikandar Shah ii b. Yusuf . 

886 Jalal-aZ-din Fatb Shah b. Mabmiid i . 



1442 
1459 
1474 
1481 
1481 



/ 



308 



INDIA 



A.H. 

892 
892 
895 

896 



HAB8HI KINOB 

Sul^n Shahzada Barbak .... 
Sayf-a/-dTn Firiiz Shah i . . . . 
Na§ir-a/-dTn Mal^mud Shah n b. Fat^ Shah 

(of Ilf/ds stock) 

Shams-aZ-din Abu-Z-Na^r Muzaffar Shah 



A.D. 

1486 
1486 

1489 
1490 



HOUSE OF HOSAYN SHAH 

899 *Ala-a/-din Hosayn Shah .... 1493 

925 Na$ir-a7-din Na§rat Shah b. Hosayn . . 1518 

939 *Ala-a/-dm Firuz Shah ii b. Na§rat . . 1532 
939 Ghiyath-aZ-din Mahmud Shah ui b. Hosayn 

(partial rule 1526) 1532 

— 944 {Conquest by Humdyiin) — 1537 



HOUSE OF MOHAMMAD SUB 

960 Shams-aZ-din Mohammad Sur Ghazi Shah . 1552 

962 Bahadur Shah (Khidr) b. Mohammad Sur . 1554 

968 Ghiyath-aZ-dln Jalal Shah b. Mol^ammad Sfir 1560 

971 (Son of preceding) 1563 



HOUSE OF SULAYMAN KABARANI 

971 Sulayman Khan Kararan! (Bihar and Bengal) 1563 

980 Bayazid Shah b. Sulayman .... 1572 

980 Dawiid Shah b. Sulayman .... 1572 

— 984 [Mogul Emperors'] — 1676 




KINGS OF JAUNPUR 309 

A.H. A.D. 

796—905 107. SHARKl KINGS OP 1394—1600 

JAUNPUR 

(* KINGS OF THE EAST') 

Khwaja-Jahan, the vezir of Mahmud of the house of 
Taghlak, deserted his youthful sovereign and founded an 
independent government at Jaunpur, whence he and his 
successors held sway for a time over Bihar, Oudh, 
Kanauj, and Baraich, with considerable state, as their 
noble monuments testify; and made war upon their former 
masters at Dehli (which they twice besieged), and their 
neighbours the kings of Malwa. In 1476 {881^ or accord- 
ing to some historians 879) Jaunpur was conquered by 
Sikandar b. Bahlol and reunited to Dehli ; but the adherents 
of the banished Hosayn Shah endeavoured for some years 
to restore the fallen dynasty. 

A.H. A.D. 

796 Khwaja-Jaban ...... 1394 

802 Mubarak Shah 1399 

803 Shams-aZ-din Ibrahim Shah Shark! b. Mubarak 1400 
844 Mabmud Shah b. Ibrahim .... 1440 
861 Mohammad Shah (jomtly with his father 

Mahmfid) 1466 

863 9o8ayn Shah b. Mabmud .... 1458 
—905 fled to Bengal 881, died 905 —1500 

[Sulfans of Lehlt] 




310 INDIA 



A.H A.D. 

804^-937 108. KINGS OP MALWA 1401—1530 

Malwa was among the old Rajput kingdoms wMch. 
longest withstood the Mohammadan invasion. It had 
boasted one of the most illustrious of the ancient Hindu 
dynasties, who made their capital, XJjjayn, a seat of 
learning and science. Three centuries of contest elapsed 
before it was subdued, in the time of Sultan Balban of 
Dehli. Its natural boundaries were the Narbada on the 
south, the Chambal on the north, and Gujarat and Bandal- 
khand on the west and east. Under the Khalji kings, 
however, it included Hushangabad, Ajmir, Eantambhor, 
and Elichpur, and even Chitor was sometimes forced to 
pay tribute. Its Mohammadan capital, Mandu, founded 
by Hushang Ghori, stood on a spacious plateau surrounded 
by precipices, and was famous for its palaces and mosques. 

Two successive Mohammadan dynasties reigned in Malwa. 
The first was founded by Dilawar Khan Ghori, a governor 
of the king of Dehli, and consisted of himself, his son, 
and his grandson. The second dynasty was established 




KINGS OF MALWA 311 

by Mahmud Khalji, the vezir of the grandson of Dilawar, 
and fell when Malwa was annexed in 1530 {937) by the 
neighbouring king of Gujarat, with whom the rulers of. 
Malwa had waged perpetual war. The Khaljis were a 
fighting race, and had carried the arms of Malwa to the 
gates of Dehl! in the north and Bidar in the south, whilst 
with the Eajputs of Chit5r and Chanderi their hostilities 
were unceasing.* 

I. GHORiS 

A.H. A.D. 

804 Dilawar Khan Ghori 1401 

808 Hiishang (Alp Khan) b. Dilawar . . . 1405 

838 Mohammad Ghazni Khan b. Hiishang . . 1434 

II. KHALJiS 

839 Mabmiid Shah I Khalji .... 1435 
880 Ghiyath Shah b. Mabmud .... 1475 
906 Nasir Shah b. Ghiyath .... 1500 

916 Mal^miid ii b. Na^ir 1510 

—937 \_King8 of Gujarat] —1530 



* The list of the Kings of Kashmir should follow here ; but their 
chronology is so uncertain that an accurate table can hardly be con- 
structed. See my Catalogue of the Coins of the Muhammadan States of 
India f xlvii, 08. 




312 INDIA 



A.H. A.D. 

799—980 109. KINGS OP GUJARAT 1396—1572 

Gujarat owed its long immunity from Mohammadan 
subjection to its inaccessible position, beyond the great 
desert and the hills connecting the Yindhya with the 
Aravali range, which rendered it difficult to invade 
except by sea. It was not until the time of *Ala-a/-din of 
Dehli, at the close of the 13th century, that Gujarat became 
a Mohammadan province. At the end of the 14th century 
it became independent again, but its rulers were now 
Muslims instead of Hindus. Zafar Khan, the son of a 
Rajput convert, was appointed to the government of 
Gujarat in 7P4> aiid assumed independence in 1396 {799). 
He found himself surrounded by enemies, Rajput rajas 
and wild tribes of Bhils, and possessed of but a narrow 
territory between the hills and the sea, including, how- 
ever, a considerable stretch of the coast, as far as Surat 
at least. He soon enlarged his dominions by the conquest 
of Idar and Diu; plundered Jhalor; and even took 
possession of Malwa for a space in 1407. Ahmad 
Shah I, his successor, founded Ahmadabad, which became 
the capital of the dynasty and afterwards of the Mogul 




KINGS OF GUJARAT 313 

proYince, and is still an important city. Mahmud Shah i 
not only carried on the traditional wars of his family 
with Malwa and Ehandesh, but added the stronghold of 
Junagarh in Kattiawar, and Champanlr, to his dominions, 
and kept a large fleet to subdue the pirates of the 
islands and to attack the Portuguese; to whom Bahadur 
Shah, the conqueror of Malwa, conceded the right to 
build a factory at Diu, and at whose hands he met his 
death. The last years of the dynasty were clouded by 
the intrigues of factious nobles, and the kings became 
mere puppets; until Akbar's conquest in 1572 {980) 
restored prosperity to the harassed province. 

A.H. A.D. 

799 Muzaffar Shahi^afar Khan. . . . 1396 

814 A^mad Shah i 1411 

816 Mol^ammad Karim Shah . . 1443 

855 Kutb-aZ-din 1451 

863 Dawiid Shah 1458 

863 Mal^mud Shah i Baykara .... 1458 

917 Muzaffar Shah ii 1511 

932 Sikandar Shah 1525 

932 Na^ir Khan Mahmud n . . . . 1525 

932 Bahadur Shah 1526 

943 Miran Mol^ammad Shah FarukI (of Khandesh) 1536 

944 Mabmiid Shah m 1537 

961 A^madShahii 1553 

969 Mu^affar Shah m Habib .... 1561 

—980 [Mogul Emperors] —1572 



^ 



314 



INDIA 



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KINGS OF KHANDESH 315 

A.H. A.D. 

801—1008 110. KINGS OP KHANDESH 1399—1599 

Na§ir Khan, the first Mohammad ruler of Xhandesh 
who asserted his independence of the kingdom of Dehli, 
claimed to be descended from the caliph *Omar. He was 
related by marriage to the kings of Gujarat, from whose 
dominions Khandesh (comprising the lower valley of the 
Tapti) was separated only by a belt of forest. The 
capital Burhanpur was founded near the fortress of 
Asirgarh. Akbar took Burhanpur and received the 
homage of its king in 1562; but Khandesh was not 
fully incorporated in the Mogul Empire until 1599 
{1008), when Asirgarh fell after a six months' siege. 

A.D. A.H. 

772 Malik Raja 1370 

801 Na?ir Khan 1399 

841 Miran *Adil Khan i 1437 

844 Miran Mubarak i 1441 

861 *AdUKhann 1467 

909 DawiidKhan 1603 

916 *Adil Khan III 1610 

926 Miran Mol^ammad Shah I .... 1620 

942 Miran Mubarak n 1636 

974 Miran Mol^ammad ii 1666 

984 *AliKhan 1676 

1005 Bahadur Shah 1696 

—1008 [Mogul Emperors] —1699 




316 INDIA 



THE DECCAK 

A.H. A.D. 

748-933 111. BAHMANIDS 1347-1526 

(KINGS OF KULBARGA, ETC.) 

The Deccan was partly conquered by Mohammadans 
for the first time by *Ala-a/-diii Mohammad of DehlT, 
who in 1294 seized Deogiri and Elichpur and thus 
formed a new province south of the Satpura mountains. 
Mohammad b. Taghlak enlarged the Deccan province by 
an invasion of Telingana in 1322, and for a time made 
Deogiri (re-named Dawlatabad) the capital of his empire. 
Among the numerous revolts which disturbed his reign 
that of the recently organized province of the Deccan 
was the earliest to achieve independence. From 1347 
for nearly two centuries the Bahmanid kings of Kulbarga, 
Warangal and Bidar, held sway over the northern half 
of the Deccan above the Estna. Their founder was 
Hasan Gangu, an Afghan in the employment of a 
Brahman at Dehli. He rose to high office under the 
Taghlak Sultans and received the title of Zafar Khan. 
When the revolt against Mohammad b. Taghlak broke 
out in the Deccan, Hasan placed himself at the head of 




BAHMANIDS 317 

the insurgents, drove the royal troops from the country, 

and ascended the throne at Kulbarga under the style 

of *Ala-a/-din Hasan Gangu Bahmani.* His dominions 

marched on the north with Berar, on the east with 

Telingana, whilst the river Kistna and the sea formed 

the southern and western boundaries. They included the 

greater part of the modem Bombay Presidency south of 

Surat and most of the Nizam's territory. In addition, 

the Eajas of Telingana and Yijayanagar were from 

time to time compelled at the point of the sword to 

pay homage and tribute. Under *Ala-a^dTn Ahmad n 

the Konkan was reduced and the neighbouring kings 

of Khandesh and Gujarat were defeated. In 1471 

Mohammad Shah n carried his arms into Orisa, seized 

Conjeveram, and made war in the south upon the Raja 

of Belgaon; so that the Bahmanids' sway extended from 

sea to sea and included nearly the whole of the Deccan 

north of Mysore. The extension of territory was followed 

by a new division into provinces, and the division led to 

disintegration. Yusuf *Adil Shah, a successful general of 

Mohammad Shah n, declared the independence of the 

* See an article by James Gibb in Numismatie Chronicle, ni. i. 
91-115 ; and my Catalogue of the Coins of the Muhammadan States 
of India in the British Museum , Ixii-lxri. 




318 



INDIA 



new province of Bijapur; Kizam-al-mulk prepared the 
way for the separation of Junayr; ^Imad-al-mulk was 
proclaimed king in Berar, and the loss of these proyinces 
was speedily followed by the independence of the rest 
and the extinction of the parent dynasty. The ^Imdd 
Shahs of Berar, Nizam Shahs of A^madnagar, JBarid 
Shahs of Bidar, iAdil Shahs of Bijapur, and Ku^h Shahs 
of Golkonda divided the kingdom of the Bahmanids 
amongst them. 



A.H. 












A.D. 


748 


Hasan Gangii 'Ala-a/-din ?afar Ehan . . 1347 


769 


Mohammad Shah i . . . 




1368 


776 


Mujahid Shah 










1375 


780- 


Dawud Shah 










1378 


780 


Mahmud Shah i . 










1378 


799 


Ghiyath-aZ-din . 










1397 


799 


ShamR-a/-din 










1397 


800 


Taj-aZ-din Firuz Shah 










1397 


825 


Ahmad Shah i 










1421 


838 


'Ala-aZ-din Al^miad Shah ii . 








1435 


862 


*Ala-a/-d!n Huma)'uii Shah 








1457 


865 


Ni^am Shah 








1461 


867 


Mohammad Shah ii 










1463 


887 


Mahmud Shah ii . 










1482 


924 


Al^mad Shah iii . 


A 








1518 


927 


*Ala-a/-din Shah . 


a 








1520 


929 


Wall- Allah Shah 


« 








1522 


932 


"Kalim- Allah Shah 


• 








1525 


—933 


[Five Deeca 


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—1626 




BAHMANIDS 



319 



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320 



INDIA 



A.H. 

890—980 



890 

910 
<;. 936 
<;. 968 

976 

—980 



A.D. 

112. *IMAD SHAHS 1484—1572 

(be&ar) 

Fath-Allah 1484 

*Ala.a/-dm ' 1504 

Darya e. 1629 

Burhan c, 1660 

Tufal (usurper) 1668 

—1572 
\N\zam Shaha\ 



A.H. 

896—1004 



896 

914 

961 

972 

996 

997 

999 

1003 

1004 

1004 



A.D. 

113. NI?AM SHAHS 1490—1696 
(ahmadnagak) 

Ahmad i b. Ni^am Shah .... 1490 

Burhan i 1508 

Hosayn 1553 

Murta^a 1565 

Miran Hosayn 1588 

Isma'il 1589 

Burhan II 1690 

Ibrahim 1694 

Abmadii 1594 

Bahadur* 1595 

\_Mogul Emperori\ 



* Murtada ii reigned nominally from 1598-1607; and the province 
then came under the domination of Malik Amber. 




'imId shahs 



321 



A.H. A.D. 

897— <?. 1018 lU. BARlD SHAHS 1492— <?. 1609 

(bidab) 

897 Kasimi 1492 

910 Amir I 1504 

945 *Ali 1649 

990 Ibrahim ....... 1562 

997 Kasimn 1569 

1000 Mirza *Ali 1572 

e. 1018 Amir n e. 1609 

895—1097 115. *1DIL SHAHS 1489—1686 

(BlJAPtJB) 

895 Yfisuf *Adil Shah 1489 

916 Isma'il 1511 

941 Mallu 1534 

911 Ibrahim I 1635 

965 *Alii 1557 

987 Ibrahim n 1579 

1035 Mohammad 1626 

1070 *Alin 1660 

—1097 \Mogul Umperors] —1686 

918—1098 116. KUTB SHAHS 1512—1687 

(golkonda) 

918 Sultan Kuli 1512 

940 Jamshid 1543 

957 Subhanl^uli 1550 

957 Ibrahim 1550 

989 Mobammad Kuli 1581 

1020 Abd- Allah 1611 

1083 Abu-1-Hasan 1672 

—1098 IMofful Umperors] —1687 

21 



322 INDIA 



A.H. A.D. 

932-1275 117. MOGUL EMPERORS 1525—1867 

OF HINDUSTAN 

Babar, the Mongol conqueror of Hindustan, was descended 
in the fifth generation from Timur (see the genealogical 
table p. 268) and was bom in 1482, in Farghana, where 
his father was governor. Driven from his native province 
by the Uzbegs of Shaybani about 1504, Babar sought his 
recompensp in the subjection of Afghanistan. He took 
possession of Badakhshan in 1503 {909), occupied Xabul 
in the following year, and annexed Kandahar in 1507. 
Por many years he meditated the invasion of India, but 
it was not until 1525 (932) that he felt himself strong 
enough to descend at the head of his Turks (he abhorred 
the name of Mongol*) upon the Pan jab and occupy Lahore. 
On the 20th April 1526 he signally defeated the army of 
Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Dehli on the .historic plain of 
Panipat, and the victory was followed by the rapid 

* In Arabic Mughal, whence the English Mogul or Moghul. 




MOGUL EMPERORS 323 

occupation of Dehli and Agra, and the submission of the 
northern parts of Hindustan, from the Indus to the 
borders of Bengal. Babar died in 1530 {937) before he 
could subdue the kingdoms of Bengal, Gujarat and 
Malwa; still less had he approached the Deccan. 

His son Humayun, though but nineteen years of age, 
endeavoured to complete his father's work. His attempt 
to reduce the united kingdom of Gujarat and Malwa was, 
however, abortive ; and the Afghans of Bengal, led by 
the genius of Shir Shah, the usurping king of Bihar, 
succeeded after an obstinate struggle in driving Humayun 
step by step to the west. A treacherous attack on the 
Mogul camp at Chonsa in 1539 {9If6) banished them from 
Bengal; and a total defeat at Kanauj in the following 
year gave Shir Shah the command of all Hindustan (but 
not Gujarat), and compelled Humayun to seek refuge, 
first in Sind, and then in Persia. Fifteen years passed 
before the Mogul Emperor returned to re-conquer his empire. 
Meanwhile Shir Shah, after laying the foundations of 
the administrative organization which Akbar afterwards 
perfected, died, and the disunion among his successors 
paved the way for the invader. In 1555 Humayun 
recovered Dehli, and there died in January 1556 {963). 



324 INDIA 

Humayun had only begun the work of reconqnest; it 
was left to his son Akbar, a youth of fourteen, to finish it. 
The boy's guardian Bayram Khan, a Turkoman, utterly 

defeated the Indian forces under Himu on the 5th November 
1556 on the same plain of Panipat where Babar had won 
his great victory. By this single blow Akbar found him- 
self master of the better part of Hindustan, and, young 
as he was, he soon took the reins of power into his own 
hands. Dehli and Agra were his by the victory of 
Panipat; Gwali5r fell in 1558 {966), Jaunpur in 1559, 
and Malwa and Khandesh were temporarily overrun in 
1561-2. Bajputana submitted after the storming of 
Chitor in 1567 {97 5\ and Gujarat was reduced in 1572 
{980). Bengal, which had nominally admitted the Mogul 
sovereignty, rose in rebellion, but was subdued in 1575-7 
{983-4). Kashmir was annexed in 1587 and Kandahar 
six years later.* 

' Akbar was too wise to meddle seriously ' in Deccan 
politics. All he wanted was to secure himself against 
invasion from the south; and with this view he annexed 
the rugged borderland of Khandesh, and used its capital, 



♦ See my History of the Mogul Emperors of Hindustan illustrated hy 
thtir Coins, xii. ff. 




MOGUL EMPERORS 325 

Burlianpur, witli the rocky fastness of Asirgarh, [whicli 
had withstood his siege and his English gunners for six 
months before it succumbed in 1601 {1008),'\ as outposts 
to defend his southern frontier. He also subdued Berar 
and took the fortress of Ahmadnagar (1600).'* The kings 
of Bljapur and Golkonda paid him homage and offered 
him tribute : but he never attempted annexation in the 
Deccan, beyond securing his frontier; nor had the Deccan 
Buhah or province, even in this limited sense, been organized 
as thoroughly as the rest of the empire at the time of 
his death in 1605 {lOlIf). 

The true successor of Mohammad b. Taghlak in his 
dreams of Deccan conquest was Aurangzib, the sixth 
Mogul Emperor. As governor during Shah-Jahan's reign 
in 1636-43 he had organized the four divisions of the 
Deccan province — Dawlatabad (including Ahmadneigar), 
Khandesh, Telingana, and Berar; and he made the king 
of Golkonda a vassal in 1656. The fratricidal struggle 
which preceded his accession to the throne at Dehli in 
1659 (1069) y and the work of ordering his administration, 
diverted his attention from the Deccan for some years ; 
and it was not till 1681 that he began that long series 

* See my Aurangzib (Rulers of India] pp. 144—204. 



I 



326 INDIA 

of campaigns in the south which did not end till his 
own death twenty-six years later. He besieged and took 
Bljapur in 1686 and Golkonda in 1687, and put an end 
to the dynasties of the *Adil and Kutb Shahs. But 
against the new power of the Marathas which had arisen 
in the Deccan in the middle of the 17th century he 
could make no head; and though his armies traversed 
the Deccan in all directions and took many forts, the 
country and its hardy mountaineers were never subdued. 
Yet when Aurangzib died in 1707 his dominions stretched 
from Kabul to the mouths of the Hugli, and from Surat 
across Haydarabad to Masulipatan and even Madras. All 
India, save the apex of the Deccan, was his in name; 
but except in forts and cities, the possession was nominal 
in the south. 

The empire of the Great Moguls began to break up 
after the death of Aurangzib. His successors were for 
the most part weak and debauched; and the rising powers 
of the Sikhs, Jats, and Marathas were young and strong. 
The invasions of Nadir Shah in 1738, and Ahmad Durrani 
in 1748, 1757, etc., were signs of the feebleness of the 
empire. Fifty years after Aurangzib' s death the Marathas 
were supreme in the south, except where the newly- 



MOGUL EMPERORS 327 

founded dynasty of the Nizam kept them at ann's 
length, and were pushing their way through Gujarat 
up to Dehli ; the Rajputs had ceased to acknowledge the 
Mogul supremacy; the Sikhs were gradually winning the 
mastery of the Panjab from the Afghans; the Jats were 
practically independent near Agra; Oudh was virtually 
a separate kingdom, and so was Bengal; though the 
little patches of territory at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras 
scarcely portended the great future of the East India 
Company. The progress of the Company's arms need not 
be related here. The battle of Plassey (1757) and Buxar 
(1764) laid the ghost of the Mogul Empire, though the 
fiction of Mogul sovereignty was maintained till 1857. 
The last three emperors were pensioners of the British ' 
Crown; and Bahadur n, after upsetting his puppet- 
throne by joining in the Mutiny, died in exile at 
Eangoon in 1862. 



i 



328 



INDIA 



Babar, Zahir-aZ-din* . 
Hamayun, Na^ir-a^din 
Akbar, Jalal*a/-din . 
Jahangir, Nur-a/-din . 
Ddicar'Bakhsh . 



A.H. 

932 

937 

963 

1014 

1037 
1037 Shah-Jahan, Shihab-aZ-din 

1068 Murdd'Bakhsh [in Oujarat) 

1068-70 Shuja' {in Bengal) 
1069 Aurangzib ^Alamgir, Mu^yi-aZ-diii 

1118 A'zamShah 

1119-20 Kdm-Bakhsh 
1119 Shah-'Alam Bahadur Shah i, ^u^b-a/ 
1124 Jahandar, Ma^izz-a/-din 
1124 Farrukh-siyar . 
1131 Rafi*-a/-darajat, Shams-aZ-din 
1131 Ilafi<-a/-dawla Shah-Jahan u 

1131 NikU'Siyar 

1132 Ibrahim 
1131 Mobammad, Na^ir-aZ-din 
1161 Ahmad 
1167 *Alamgir n, *Aziz-a/-din 

1173-4 Shdh'Jahanui . 
1173 Shah- * Alam, Jalal-a/-din 

1202-3 BidarBakht 
1221 Mobammad Akbar ii . 
1253 Bahadur Shah ii 
—1275 [Great Britain'] 





A.D 


• 


1526 


9 


1530 


• 


1556 


• 


1605 


1627-8 


• 


1628 


1658 




1658- 


60 


• 


1659 


1707 




1708 




din . 


1707 




1712 




1713 




1719 




1719 


1719 




1720 




• 


1719 


• 


1748 


• 


1754 


1759-60 


• 


1759 


1788 




• 


1806 


• 


1837 




—1857 



* Babar and most of his successors had the Arabic name Mohammad in 
addition to their Persian names. In the list, the names of usurpers and 
pretenders are printed in italics. 



MOGUL EMPERORS 



329 






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330 ISDIA 



A.H. A.D. 

1160—1311 118. AMIRS OF AFGHANISTAN 1747—1893 

The modem hiKtory of Afghanistan as an independent 
State begins in 1747. After the deposition of the Ghorids, 
the country ceased to possess a dynasty of its own,* and 
merely formed part of a larger kingdom. It became a 
province of the II -khans of Persia, and then of the 
TimQrid empire; and after the establishment of the 
Moguls in India, it was sometimes part of their dominions 
and sometimes belonged to the Shahs of Persia; or, more 
often, was divided between the two. Kabul and Kandahar 
were generally in the possession of the Moguls until after 
the death of Aurangzlb, whilst Herat belonged to Persia. 
In 1737 Nadir Shah, the Afsharid ruler of Persia, seized 
Kabul and Kandahar and made his memorable descent upon 
India. After his assassination in 1747 the Afghans resolved 
to be independent of Persia, and chose Ahmad Khan the 
chief of the Abdall or Durrani tribe to be their Shah. 
The post of vezir, or second man in the state, was conferred 

* T&e line of the Kart MaUks were a local exception at Herat (p. 252). 



AMIRS OF AFGHANISTAN 331 

upon Jamal Khan the hereditary chief of the rival tribe of 
the Barakzais. Henceforward for nearly a century this 
arrangement subsisted : the Shah was a Durrani and the 
VezTr a Barakzai. 

Ahmad Shah reduced all Afghanistan, conquered Herat 
and Khurasan, invaded India repeatedly, occupied Dehli 
for a time, and annexed Kashmir, Sind, and part of 
the Panjab ; but his Indian possessions gradually passed 
over to the growing power of the Sikhs, who had 
become masters of the Panjab before the end of the 18th 
century. A massacre of the Barakzais by Zaman Shah, 
Ahmad' s grandson, instead of diminishing, increased the 
influence of the heriditary vezirs, who exercised the chief 
power during the nominal reign of Mahmud Shah and the 
early reign of Shah Shuja*. Several attempts were made 
to oust them from their dominant position ; but the blind- 
ing and murder of Path Khan Barakzai in 1818 was the 
signal for the deposition of the Durrani dynasty, and after 
some years of anarchy Dost Mohammad, the brother of the 
murdered Yezir, took possession of the throne (1826), as 
the flrst Barakzai Amir of Afghanistan. 

During the decline of the later Durranis the claim of 
Persia to the possession of Herat had been pressed by force 



d 



332 ISDIA 

of arms. Since its conquest by Al^mad Shah the city had 
been held by yarious Afghan princes, with little dependence 
upon the central goyemment. In 1816 the PersiaiLs had 
attacked Herat, but had been repulsed by Fatl^ Khan the 
Barakzai. In 1837, urged on by Russia, the Shah of Persia 
again adyanced upon the ^key of Afghanistan,' and again, 
after a ten months' siege, protracted by the splendid defence 
of Eldred Pottinger, was forced to retire (1838). When 
Dost Mohammad showed signs of encouraging Russian 
oyertures, the British Government of India, excited by the 
narrow escape of Herat, and alarmed at the unfriendly 
attitude of the Amir, declared war, and the Afghan 
campaigns and disasters of 1839-1842 ensued. Shah- 
Shuja*, the representatiye of the deposed Durranis, was 
in an evil day restored to the Amirate, and Sir William 
Macnaghten was posted at Kabul as British Eesident. 
Dost Mohammad had surrendered and remained passive, 
but his son Akbar Khan continued the resistance of 
the Barakzais. In Kov. 1841 .Macnaghten and Bumes 
were treacherously murdered, and of the sixteen thousand 
British troops and camp followers who left Kabul under 
a safe-conduct only one escaped to tell the tale of 
slaughter. The massacre was avenged by Pollock's army 




AMiRS OF AFGHANISTAN 333 

in 1842, and the Afghans thenceforward, for nearly forty 
years, were allowed to manage their own internal affairs. 
Dost Mohammad died in 1863, the subsidized ally of 
England; and the history of Afghanistan since his death 
has consisted chiefly in the struggles of his sons and grand- 
sons for the throne. A second attempt to force a British 
Resident at Kabul upon the Amir, as a check upon the 
envoys of Russia, led to the defeat and deposition of Shir 
^Ali, the murder of Cavagnari, and the campaigns of 
Stewart and Roberts in 1879-81. The Amir *Abd aZ- 
Rahman, then established by the British, has since, on 
the whole, succeeded in holding the mastery over his 
refractory subjects. 




334 INDIA 



AH. DURRAXIS* A.D. 

1160 A^imad Shah I747 

1187 TimurShah I773 

1207 Zaman Shah 1793 

1216 Shuja*-al-mulk (Shah Shuja*) . . . 1801 

1216 Mahmud Shah 1801 

1218 Shuja* (2nd reign) 1803 

1224 Mahmud (2nd reign ; latterly at Herat, to 

1245) 1809 

1233 * All Shah (at Kabul) 181 7 

1233 Ayyub Shah (at Peshawar and Kashmir) . 1817 

1245 Kamran (at Herat, to 1258) . . . 1829 

1255 Shuja* (3rd reign) 1839 

1258 Fat^ Jang (fled the same year) . . . 1842 



BARAKZAIS 

1242 Dost Mohammad 1826 

1255-8 Shujd'' restored .... 1839-42 

1280 Shir All 1863 

(Afdal and *Azim at Balkh and Kabul 1866-7) 

1296 Ya'kub Khan 1879 

1296 *Abd-a/- Rahman Khan regnant . . . 1879 



* The list and pedigree of the Durranis is adapted from an article by 
M. Longworth Dames in the Numismatic Chronicle, in. viii. 325^3 

(1888). 



\ 



AMIRS OF AFGHANISTAN 



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INDEX TO RULERS* 



'Abd-al-Hamid, ^OthmdnHs, 195 
Abaga, 11- Khan of Persia, 220 
Abak, Burid, 161 
*Abbid -Mu^tadid, 'Abbddid, 25 
*Abbadids, 26 ; 20, 27, 42 
*Abbas, uncle of Mohammad, 3 
*Abba8, Khedives, 85 
*Abbas, Safavid8y,2b^ 
'Abbas, Zuray^idy 97 
'Abbasid Caliphs, 12, 13 ; 3, 6, 
7, 19, 34, 36, 42, 60, 67, 68, 
69, 74, 89, 109, 111, 123, 140, 
151, 165, 188, 217, 286, 296 
'Abbasid Caliphs op Egypt, 3 
*Abd-al-*Aziz Man?fir, ilmiridy 26 
*Abd-al-*Aziz, Butafd, 125 
*Abd-al-*Aziz, Hafyid, 60 
*Abd-al-*Aziz, jdnid, 275 
*Abd-al-*Aziz, Mamluk, 83 
*Abd-al-*Aziz, Marinid, 67 
*Abd-al-*Aziz, 'Othmdnli, 195 
*Abd-al-*Aziz, Shaybanid, 272 
*Abd-al-Hakk, Martnid, 57 
Abd-al-Halim, Marlnid, 57 
'AbdalTs see DurranIs 
'Abd-al-Kadir, Ya'furid, 91 
*Abd-al-Karim Satuk, Ilak, 136 
*Abd-al-karim, Khokand, 280 
*Abd-Alliili, Aghlabids, 37 
*Abd- Allah b. Tashfin, Almoravidy 

41 42 
•Abdl Allah -*Adil, Almohad, 47 
*Abd-Allah, Fd^imid, 71 
*Abd- Allah, Filali Sharif, 61 



*Abd- Allah, OoUen Horde, 230 
'Abd- Allah, Hamddnid{Yaman),%b 
*Abd- Allah Abu-1-Hayja, Ham' 

ddnid of -Mofil, 111 
*Abd- Allah, Hasanl Sharif, 61 
*Abd- Allah, Khiva, 279 
*Abd- Allah, Marlnid, 58 
*Abd-Allah, Omayyad of Cordova^ 

21 
*Abd- Allah, Rasulids, 99 
*Abd- Allah, Shaybdnidn, 271, 272 
*Abd- Allah, Tdhirid, 128 
*Abd-Allah, Tlmurid, 268 
*Abd- Allah, ZayHd, 25 
*Abd- Allah, Ya'furid, 91 
*Abd- Allah, Ziyddid, 91 
*Abd-al-Latif, Shaybdnid, 271 
*Abd-al-Latif, Tlmurid, 268 
*Abd-al-Ma;jid, Fdfimid, 71 
*Abd-al-Maiid, ^Othmdnli, 195 
*Abd-al-Malik, 'Amirid, 26 
*Abd-al':Malik, Hasanl Sharlfs, 61 
*Abd - al - Malik *Imad - a/ - dawla, 

JTw<^«<^, 26 
*Abd-al-Malik, Jahwarid, 26 
*Abd-al-Malik, Omayyad, 9 
*Abd-al-Malik, Sdmdnids, 132 
*Abd-al-Mu*min, Almohad, 45, 47 
*Abd-al-Mu'min, Jdnid, 276 
*Abd-al-Mu*miii, Shaybdnid, 271' 
*Abd-a/-Nabi, Mahdid, 96 
*Abd-a/-Rabman, Afghdn, 334 
*Abd-a^- Rahman, i^i/a/l Sharif, 61 
^Abd-a/- Rahman, Marlnid, 58 



* The /r«^ number refers to the dynastic list in which the name occurs. 
In the case of identical names the alphabetical order of the dynasties is 
followed. Where two or more identical names occur in the same dynasty, 
the dynastic name is put in the plural. Prefixed words like Abu-, Banu, 
Ibn, must be sought under the second name. 

22 



INDEX TO RULERS 



'Ahd-B/-RahnilD, Omagyad* af 

CtrdBta. 21: 6, 19, iO 
'Abd->r-RHljinHa Abu-Taahfin, 

'Alxl-aZ-Kaiihid, Gkuxnawid, 2R9 
'AlKl-B;-Knzzi)l(. Unrbadarid. 261 
■AlMU1.Walj1ji1),7'';Aini;(Vi)man}, 

101 
■AM-itl-Wiljid -Mnkhlii', Almo- 

had. 47 
AlMl-al-Wiljid -Itathid, Alme. 

had. 47 
'Abisli, Salijharid. 173 
Alii'i-lliibi, Alttiortti-id, 42, 43 
Alin-lhikr, 'Amirid, 26 
AM-llukr, vlf^% of AdkarMjan, 

171 
Aba-n»tir, AiiibidM, 77. 78 
AI)D-lt:ikr Sbiii. 7>rA;;, 300 
Abii-II:.kr t -Shnillil. Ifiifyid. SO 
Al)u-H'ikc II Abu-Yibya -Mute- 

ttakkil. Hafful, flO 
Abu-]{;ikr,' Mamlilc, 81 
Abu-]tiiLrAbik-Vnb}'i ,3fariHiil, h 7 
AbO-BiikT. ththudaz Caliph, S, 4, 9 
AbQ-Ilukr, Salgiaiid. 173 
AI)u-1-ITamn, Xiifrid, 28 
Abu-Sn'id. (TT Sifid. Abu- 
Am - - 



_160 






171; 



-'Adid Alm-Mnhnmmad 'Abd- 

AUSb, t'Stimid. 71 
'Adil, Afihiirid, 259 
.'Adil, Aluiohad, 47 
-'Adil Snvf - a;, din Abn - Balu-, 

(SBphndiii}, Aygi'bid, 76-8 
.'Adil II Stivf-u/-dia Abu-Bakr, 

AvyTibid, 77 
-'Adil Giray, Kr\m, 236 
-'Adil Zayu-a^-diu Kitbngba, Mmn- 

liit, 81 
.'Adil -Musto'in ('Abbaaid Caliph), 

Mamlak, B3 
-'Adil Badr-af-dlu Snlamish, Main- 

liik, 81 
■'Adil, Ortufid, 168 



'Adil KbaD. Khandith, 31S 

'Adil Shah, BeUt, 300 

'AdilShahb, 321;. 318 
Adsai, Manool, 216 

'Adud -al- dawla Abft - Shaja' 
Ehueru, Baaayhid, 141 

'A4ud-a/-din Alp-Aralaii, StUuk, 
153; 151 

-Afdal Niir-a/-diii'Ali, Ayi/iibidilt 
Afdal, Afghan, 334 

-Afdul -'Abbaa, HaiDlid, 99 
AfqhInistan, AhIsb of, 330 -S 
Afohass of DehlI, 300, 303 
Afohans, Shahb of Peusia, 259 
Afrasiyab, ITazdratpidt, 175; 174 
AFaHAHim. Shahs OF Peesia, 259 

-Aghlab AbQ-'A^al, Aghlabid, 37 
AaHLABiDS, 36, 37 ; 8, 70 
Ahmad Shih, Afghan, 331 ; 267, 

326, 330 
Ahmad, Aghlabid, 37 
Ahmad, Ji-A-Hyxnrt, 254 
Abmad, Armenia, 170 
Ahmad Shiih, Bahmanids, 318 
Aliniad Shih, Bengal, 307 
Ahmad Mu'izz-a/-dawla, Buviaj/- 

hid, 141; 139, 140 
Aljmad, Bvlafid, 125 
Ahmad, Fa(imid, 71 
Abmad -DhahabI, FitaR Sharif, 61 
Abmad, GoMm Horde, 232 
A^ad Saif^-id, Goldm Vorde, 232 
A^mad Shavkh, Qoldm Borde, 232 
Ahmad Shuh, Gujarat, 313 
A^ad I -Kadi, Haftid, 50 
Abmad n -Uustanfir, ffaftid, 60 
Abmod, Ifaiam Shartft, 61 
Ahmad Nafrat-af-dTu, Sacdror 

Abmad Sayf-a2- dawla, Sudid, 26 
Abmad Sayf-ai-dawla -Muktadir, 

Hudid. 26 
Abmad -Musfa'in, ffSrfirf, 26 
Ahmad Abu-l-Fawaris, /i4j*lrfW, 

69 
Abmad Khan, liak Ehint, 13S 



INDEX TO RULERS 



83ff 



Ahmad, Il-Khan of Persia, 220 . 
Ahmad Sultan, Jalayr, 246-8 
Ahmad, Mamlvks, 83 
Ahmad -Mustansir, Marlnid, 58 
Ahmad, Marwdnid, 118 
Ahmad, Mogul, 328 
A^mad Sultan, Mu^affarid, 248 
A Wad -Mansiir, Ortukid, 168 
Ahmad, ^Othmdnlis, 195 
Ahmad, JRasulid, 99 
Ahmad, Sdmanid, 132 
Ahmad, Ttmurid, 268 
Ahmad, Tulunid, 68, 67 
Ahmad, Wat^asid, 58 
Aka Mohammad, Kajdr, 260 
*Akal, Abu-, Aghlabid, 37 
Akatay, Khiva, 278 
Akbar, Jalal-a/-din, Mogul, 328 ; 

305, 313, 315, 324-5 
Akbar ii, Mogul, 328 
Akbarji, Mongol, 216 
-Akhras, Seljuk of Syria, 154 
Ak-Kuyunli (TM;X'0»ta«« (j/* ^Ae 
_ ?rAt^tf iSA^^;?), 254 
AksunkuT Badr-a/-dTn, ^rm«i . , 1 7 
*Ala-a/-dawla Mol^ammad, Kdk- 

way hid, 145 
*Ala-a/-dawla Mas'iid, Ghaznawid, 

289; 288 
*Ala-a/-dIn, Bahmanida, 318 
*Ala-a/-din *Ali, Bengal, 307 
*Ala-a/-din Firoz, Bengal, 308 
*Ala-a/-din Hosayn, Bengal, 308 
*Ala-a/-din Jani, Bengal, 306 
*Ala-a/-din Mardan, Bengal, 306 
*Ala-a/-din Mas'ud, DM/t, 299 
* Ala - a/ - din Mohammad, Dehll, 

299 ; 297, 316 ' 
*Ala - a/ - din Hosayn Jahan-s5z, 

Ghorid, 292 
'Ala-a^-din Mohammad, X^u^amm 

Shah, 177; 176, 179 
*Ala-a/-to, Seljuka of Rum, 155 
*Alam-a/-din Abu-1-Ma'ali Ku- 

raysh, ^ Okay lid, 117 
'Alamgir. Aurangzib, Mogul, 325-8 



*Alamgirii,*Aziz-a?-din, Jfo^«^, 328 
Alfonso of Leon, 27, 42 
Algu, Chagatay, 242 
*Ali -Sa4d, Almohad, 47 
*Ali, Almoravid, 43 
*A1T -Afdal, Ayyubid, 78 
*Ali Kuchid^, Begtiglnid, 165 

* All Fakhr-a/-dawla, Buwayhid, 142 
*Ali *Imad-a/-dawla, Buwayhid^ 

141; 136, 139 
*Ali, Carmathian, 91 
*Ali, Chagatay, 242 ; 241 
*Ali Ikbal-a/-dawla, Benia, 26 
*Ali -?ahir, Fdfimid, 71 
*Ali, Ghaznawid, 289 

* All Abu -1- Hasan, Hamddnid, 112- 
*Ali Sayf-a/-dawla, Hamddnid, 112 
*Ali -Wahid, Hamddnid (Yam.),95 
*Ali -Nasir, Hammudid, 21, 23 
'All, Jdrtaida, 35 

*Ali Abu-1-Hasan, Ikhahldid, 69 

^Ali Grurkan Jalal-a/-dln, //aA;, 135 

*A1T, Pir, Jr«r#, 252 

*Ali Khan, Ehdndeah, 315 

*Ali, Mahdid, 96 

*Ali, Mamluka, 81 

*Ali Abu-l-Hasan, Marlnid, 57 

*Ali, Abu-, Marwdnid, 118 

*Ali Sanad-a/-dawla, Mazyadid, 119 

*Ali Abu-l-Hasan, Na^rid, 28 

*Ali, 'Okay lid, 117 

*Ali, Orthodox Caliph, 9 ; 3, 6 

*A1T Aim, 6>/^MA:irf, 168 

*Ali b. Kasftl, Rasulid, 99 

*Ali -Mujahid, Raaulid, 99 

*Ali -Muayyad, Sarbaddrid, 251 

*Ali Shams-aZ-din, Sarbaddrid, 251 

'All Abu-Kamil, Sulayhid, 92, 94 

*Ali, Tdhirid (Yaman), 101 

'All Murad, Za«<?, 260 

*Ali, Zayrid, 40 

'All, ZurayHd, 97 

*Ali -A'azz -Murtada, Zuray^id, 97 

'Alids, 127 ; 6, 33*, 35, 129, 136 

'Alim, Khokand, 280 

*Alim Shah) Dehlly 300 



840 



IJfTDEX TO RULERS 



Allah ^uli, Khiva, 279 
Almanzor (Vezlr), 20 
Almohadss (-Muwahhids), 45- 

47; 27, 39, 43, 49 
Almoravidss (-Murabits), 41- 

43 ; 20, 27, 39, 46 
Alp-Arghu Shams-aZ-din, Hazdr- 

aspid, 175 
Alp-Arslan 'Adud-a/-din, Seljuky 

153; 151 
Alp-Arslan -Akhras, Seijuk, 154 
AlpT, Ortukida, 168 
Alptigin, dhaznawid, 289 ; 285 
Altamish, Behlt, 299 ; 295-6 
Alwand, Ak-KuyunU, 254 
-Amin, ^Abbdsidf 12 
Amin Khan, Bengaly 306 
AniTn Mohammad, Khiva, 279 
AmIr-al-Umara, 140, 171 
-Amir, Abu-'Ali -Man^ur, Fd^imid, 

.71 
*Amir Abu-Thabit, Marinid, 57 
*Amir, Tdhirida (Yaman), 101 
*Amirid8 (Valencia), 26 
*Amr b. -Layth, Saffdrid, 130 
Amurath, ^OthmdnlU, 195 ; 185 
Anaz, Burid, 161 
Anusha, Khiva, 279 
Aniisliirwan, J l- Khan, 220 
Aniishirwan, Zit/drid, 137 
AnushtigTn, Khwdrizm Shdh, 177 
Arab chiefs, 89, 109 £f. 
*Arab Shah, Gold. Horde, 230 ; 239 
*Arab Mohammad, Ahiva, 279 
Aram Sh4h, J)ehri, 299 
Arank, Khiva, 279 
Arank Mohammad, Khiva, 279 
Arghfin, Il-Khdn Persia, 220 ; 174 
Arikbuka, Mongol, 211 
Armenia, Shahs of, 170 
Arpa, Il'Khdn of Persia, 220 
Arslan, see Alp-Arslan, Kara- 

Arslan, Kizil-Arslan, etc. 
Arslan Tatar Khan, Bengal, 306 
Arslan, Ohaznawid, 289 
Arslan Khan, Ilak Khdns, 135 



Arslan Gir&y, Krim, 237 
Arslan, Seyuk of -* Irak, 154 
Arslan, Seljuks of Kirmdn, 153 
Arslan, Zangidt, 163 
As^ad, Ya*furid, 91 
Ashraf, Shdh of Tenia, 259 

-Ashraf Musa, Ayyvhid, 11 

-Ashraf Mu^affar-aZ-din M&sa, 
AyyTihid, 78 

-Ashraf Chiipani, 220 

-Ashraf Sayf - a/ - din Bars - bey, 
Mamluk, 83 [83 

-Ashraf Sayf-a/-din Tnal, Mamluk^ 

-Ashrai Janbalat, Mamluk, 83 

-Ashraf Sayf - a/ - dm Kai't-Bey, 
Mamluk, 83 

-Ashraf Kansiih -Ghuii, ManUuk, 
83 

-Ashraf $alal;^-a/-din KhalU, Mam- 
luk, 81 

-Ashraf 'Ala-a/-din Kiija^, Jfom- 
luk, 81 ' 

-Ashraf Na^ir - a/ - din Sha^ban, 
Mamluk, 81 

-Ashraf Tiiman-Bey, Mamluk, 83 

-Ashraf Isma^il, Easulids, 99 

-Ashraf *Omar, Easulid, 99 
Atabeos, 157 ff. 

*Atiya Abu-Du*aba, Mirddsid, 116 
Atsiz, Khwdrizm Shdh, 177 
Aurangzib ^Alamgir, Mogul, 325-8 
Avanak, Khiva, 278 

-Awhad Najm-a/-din Ayyfib, -4y- 

yubid, 78 
Aybak, Bengal, 306 
Aybak, Ku(b-a^din, DM^, 298 ; 

294-5 * 
Aybak, Mamluk, 81 
Aydin Amirs, 184-5 
Aynan, Abii-, Marinid, 51 
Ay-Timiir, Sarbaddrid, 251 
Ayyiib Shah, Afghan, 334 
Ayyub, Ayyubids, 11, 78, 80, 98 
Ayyubids, 74-79 ; 67, 80, 167, 170 
Ayyubids of the Yaman, 98 
A'fam Shah, Bengal, 307 



INDEX TO RULERS 



S41 



A'^am Sfaah, Mogul, 328 
*A?im, Afghan, 334 
>^Aziz Ghiyath-aZ-din Mol^ammad, 

Ayyubid, 78 
>'Aziz 'Imad-a/-din ^Othman, Ay- 

yubid, 77 
•^Aziz Abu-Man^iir Nazar, Fd^i- 

mid, 71 
•^Aziz, Sammddid, 40 
• Aziz Jamal-a/-din Yusuf, Mam- 

luk, 83 [328 

*Aziz-a^-diii 'Alamgir n, Mogul, 
*Aziz Shaykh, Golden Horde, 230 

Babar, ^ahir-aZ-din, Mogul, 328 ; 

257, 298, 322 
Bad of Kayfa, 118 
Badis, Hammddid, 40 
Badis, Zayrid, 26, 40 [138 

Badr Nasir-a/-din, Haaanwayhid, 
Badr-a/-dinAksunkur, Armen. 170 
Badr-a/-din Lu'lu', Zangid, 162-3 
Baha-a/-dawla Firuz, Buwayhid, 

141, 117 
Baha-a/-dawla, Ghaznawid, 289 
Baha-a/-dawla, Mazyadid, 119 
Bahadur Giray, Krim, 236 
Bahadur Shah, Bengal, 306 
Bahadur Shah Khidr, Bengal, 308 
Bahadur Shah, Qujardt, 313 
Bahadur Shah, Khdndesh, 315 
Bahadur Shah, JTo^m/, 328 ; 327 
Bahlol Lodi, Dehll, 300 
Bahmanids, 316-319 
Bahram Shah, Bengal, 306 
Bahrain Shah, Behli, 299 
Bahram Shah, Ghaznawid, 289 
Bahram, Seljuk of.Kirmdn, 153 
Batlri Mamluk^, 80-82 
Bajazet(Bayazid) , * OthmdnUs, 1 95 ; 

184, 187, 266 
. Bakhtiyar Khalji, Bengal, 306 
Bakhtiyar, Buwayhid, 141 
Baki Mol^ammad, Jdnid, 275 
. Balak, Ortukid, 167 
Balban ^Izz-al-^h, Armenia, 170 



Balban, Bengal, 306 
Balban, D^A/i, 299 ; 296, 306m 
Balkatigin, Ghaznawid, 289 ; 176 
BANU-Na^r, etc. See Nasrios, etc. 
Baraka, Golden Sorde, 230 ; 225 
Baraka Khan, Mamluk, 81 
Barakzaib, 334 ; 331-3 
Barbak, Bengal, 307 
Barbarossa, Khayr-a/-din, 49, 55, 

189 ; Uruj, 55 
Bargiyaruk Kukn-a/-din, Seljuk, 153 
Barid ShIhs, 321; 318 
Barkuk, Mamluk, 81, 83 ; 247 
Bars- Bey, Mamluk, 83 
Batu, Golden Horde, 230 ; 208-9, 

222-4, 226, 233, 238 
Bayan, Golden Horde, 231 
Bayazid Shah, Bengal, 307 
Bayazid, Jalayr, 248 
Bayazid (Bajazet), *OMm0»/»«, 195 ; 

184, 187, 266 
Baybars,_Jfaw^MA;«, 81 
Baydii, ll-Khdn of Fersia, 220 
Baysunkur, Ak-Kuyvnti, 254 
Beg Piiiad, Golden Horde, 232 
BEOTIOiNIDS, 165 

Begtimur Sayf-a/-din, Armenia , 1 70 
Bengal, Governors of, 306 
Bengal, Kings op, 307 
Berbers, 33, 39, 41, 70 
Beys of Tunis, 56 
Bidar-Bakht, Mogul, 328 
Bilbey, Mamluk, 83 
Biliktu, Mongol, 215 
Birdi-Beg, Golden Horde, 2Z0 ; 224 
Bistun, Ziydrid, 137 
Blub Horde, 224, 230 
Boabdil of Granada, 28 ; 27 
Bodi, Mongol, 216 
Bughra Khan, Bengal, 306 
Bughra Khan Mahmud, Ilak, 135 
Bughra Khan Harun, Ilak, 135 
Bughra Shah, Bengal, 306 
Buiugha, £hiva, 278 
Bulukkm, Hammddid, 40 
Bulukkin Yiisuf, Zayrid, 39, 40 




842 



INDEX TO RULERS 



oBundukdari Baybars, Matnluk, 81 
Burak Kfaan, Chctgatdyy 242 
Burak, Golden Horde, 232 
Burak Hajib, Kutlugh Khan, 179 
Burban Sultan, Shayhdnid, 272 
BURIDS, 161 _ 

BvRJi Mamlukb, 83 
BuwAYHiDS, 139-144; 109, 112, 
117, 118, 132, 136, 137,138,288 
Biiyan Kuli, Chagatdy, 242 
Buyantu, Mongol^ 215 
Buzun, Chagatdy, 242 
Buzurg Hasan, Jalayr, 248 

Caliphs, 3-1 5 ; see *Abbasid 
Carmathians, 90, 91, 126 
CbagarBegDawud,/S^{/Mifc,161,287 
Chagatay Khans, 241-2; 205, 210 
Cbaffbratigin, Ilak Khan, 135 
Chakra, Golden Horde, 232 
Cbarles Martel, 5 
Charles v, 49, 55 
Chimtay, Golden Horde, 231 
Chingiz Khan, Mongol, 215 ; 77, 

177, 179, 202-4, 296 
Cbupan, 218-220 
Cid, 42 

Cordova, Omaytada op, 21, 22 
Corsairs, 49, 65-6 
Crimea, Khans op, 236 
Crusaders, 76-6, 80, 166-7 

•Bamiohani, Sarbadarid, 261 
Danibhmandids, 156 

' Danisbmandja, Chagatay, 242 ; 241 
Dara, Mogul, 329 
Dara, Ziydrid, 137 
Darwisb, Golden Horde, 232 
Dawar-Bakbsb, Mogul, 328 
Dawlat Birdi, Golden Horde, 232 
Dawlat Giray, Krim, 236, 237 
Dawlat Kban Lodi, Lehlt, 300 
Dawiid -Nasir, Ayyubid, 78 
Dawud Sbab, Bahmanid, 318 
Dawiid Sbab, Bengal, 308 
Dawiid Sbab, Gt^arat^ 313 



Dawiid Eban, Khdndeah, 315 

Dawiid, Ortukids, 168 

Dawiid, Rasulid, 99 

Dawiid Cbagar Beg, 5'<f(^'«Ar, 15 1,287 

Dawiid Gbiyatb-a/-din, Seljuk of 

-'Irak, 154 
Dayan, JTow^o/, 216; 213 
-Daylami, Eaasid Imam, 102 
Daylamids, see Buwayhids 
Dehli, Sultans op, 299-301 
Delbek, Mongol, 215 
Denia, Kings op, 26 
Deys of Algiers, bQ 
-Dbababi, Filati Sharif, 61 
Dbu-/-Niin, Ddnishmandtd, 15d 
Dhu-Z-Nijnids, 25 
Dbu-1-Yaminayn, Tdhirid, 128 
Dilawar Kban GborT, Mdlwa, 311 
Dost, Khiva, 278 
Dost Mobammad, Afghan, 331-4 
Dragut(Toigbiid), Corsair, 66, 189 
Dubays,Nur-a/-dawla,Jfazya<;. 119 
Dukak, Seljuk of Syria, 154 
Duiaf*, Dulajid, 125 
Dulaf Abii-Kasim, Dulajid, 125 
DULAPIDS, 125 
DURRANIS, 330-5 
Duwa Kban, Chagatdy, 242 
Duwa TimQr, Chagatdy, 242 

Elbek, Mongol, 215 
Engke Soriktu, Mongol, 215 
Er&ni, Khokand, 280 

Fada*il, Abii-1-, Mirddsid, 115 
-Fadl, Haf^, 50 
Fadl-AUab, Sarbadarid, 251 
•Fai'z Ab^-l-Kasim 'Isa, Fdfimidy 

71 
Fakbr-a/-dawla Abii-1- Hasan* All, 

Buwayhid, 142 
Fakbr-aZ-din Mubarak Sfaab,j9«fi- 

gal, 307 
Fakbr-a^-dTn, KaH, 252 
Fakbr-a/-din Kara-Arslan, Ortu^ 
kid, 168 . * 




INDEX TO RULERS 



343 



-Fa^lh Mol^ammad, Na^rid, 28 
Faraj, Mamluky 83 
Faramarz ^ahir-a/-din, Kdkwayh^ 

id, 145 
Faris, Abu-, Hasani Sharif, 61 
Faris, Abu-, Haf^d, 50 
Faris, Abu*, Marlnid, 58 
Fans -Mutawakkil, Marlnid, 68 
Farrukh-siyar, Mogul, 328 
Famikhzaa, Gfhaznawid, 289 
FarukT Kings of Khandesh, 315 
Faruki Shah, Gujarat , 313 
Fath Shah, Bengal, 307 
Fath *Ali, Kajar, 260 
Fath Giray,* KHm, 236, 237 
Fath, Abii-1-*, Zand, 260 
-Fatik, Nqjahida, 92 
Fatima, 60, 70 
Fatimids, 70, 73 ; 39, 41, 67, 74, 

112, 114, 118 
Fawaris, Abu-1-, Ikhshldid, 69 
Fayd, Abu-1-, Jdnid, 275 
Fida, Abu-1-, Ayyuhid, 77, 79 
FiLAxi Sharifs, 61 
Firuz,Taj-a^-din, Bahmanid, 318 
Firuz Shah, Bengal, 306 
Firuz, Buwayhids, 141 
Firfiz Shah, Behll, 299 
Fullad Sattun Abu-Mansur, Bu- 

wayhid, 141 

Gangu, Hasan, Bahmanid, 316-8 
GaykhatA, 1 1- Khan of Persia, 220 
Gegen, Mongol, 215 

-Ghadanfir, Hamddnid, 112 

.Ghalib, Napid, 28 

-Ghani, Nasrid, 28 
Gharat, Abu-1-, ZurayHd, 97 
Ghazi, Ayyubids, 78 
Ghazi Shah, Bengal, 307 
Ghazi, Ddnishmandid, 156 
Ghazi Giray, JPTrim, 236, 237 
Ghazi, Zangids, 163 
Ghazi, Abu-1-, Jdnid, 275 
Ghazi, Abu-1-, JTAtva, 279 
Ghaznawids, 289 ; 7, 132, 137 



Ghiyath-a/-din Ghazi, Ayyuhidy 

78 
Ghiyath-a^din Mohammad, Ayyu* 

bid, 78 
Ghiyath-a^din, Bahmanid, 318 
Ghiyath-a/-din *Iwaz, l^engal, 306 
Ghiyath-a^-din A'zam Shah, Ben^ 

gal, 307 
Ghiyath-a/-din Bahadur Shah, 

Bengal, 306 [308 

Ghiyath-a^din Jalal Shah, Bengal, 
Ghiyath-a/-din Ma^mud Shah, 

Bengal, 308 
Ghiyath-aZ-din Balban, BehU, 299 
Ghiyath-a/-dTnTaghlak, DehU, 300 
Ghiyath-a/-dinb. Sam, Ohdrid,29^ 
Ghiyath-aZ-din Toktamish, Golden 

Horde, 231 
Ghiyath-a/-din, Hazdraspid, 176 
Ghiyath-a/-din, Kart, 252 
Ghiyath-a/-din Pir 'All, Kart, 262 
Ghiyath Shah, Mdlwa, 311 
Ghiyath-a/-din Mohammad, Seljuk, 

163 [154 

Ghiyath-a/-din, Seljuks of -*Irdk, 
Ghiyath-a/-din, Seljuks of 'Bum, 

165 
Ghorids, 291-4 ; 176, 289 
Ghoris (Kings of Malwa), 311 
-Ghuri, Mamluk, 83 
Ghuzz, 153, 292 
Giray, Krim, 236 
Golden Horde Khans, 222-231 
Gujarat, Kings op, 312 
Gumishtigin, Ddnishmandid, 156 • 
Gun-Timiir, Mongol, 215 
Gurkan *Ali, Ilak Ehdn, 135 
GuRKHANS, 176, 203-4 

IJabbus, Zayrid, 25 
Habshi Kings of Bengal, 308 
-Hadi, Ahhdsid, 12 [103 

-Hadi Mohammad, Imdm of San^a^ 
-Hadi -Majid, Imdm of San^a, 103- 
-Hadi Najm-aZ-din Yahya, Rassid 
Jmdm, 102 



344 



INDEX TO RULERS 






•Hadi Yahya, Ra99%d, 91, 102 

-l^afif Abu-l-Maymun 'Abd-al- 

Majid, Fafimidf 71 
?^afi?, Kart, 262 
Paf?, Abu, Almohad, 47 
Haf?, Abu-, Ha/fid, 60 
Hafsids, 49, 60 ; 46, 66 
^ajj^jt Kutlugh Khan, 179 
^ajil, Jfamluks^ 81 
Hajji Giray, /Triw, 235, 237 
I^aiji Mohammad, Khiva^ 279 

-Hakam i, Omayyads of CJordova^ 21 

•^akim Abu -'Ali -Man^ur, /Sfi- 

wirf, 71 
Hakim Giray, Krim^ 237 

•^ama«, Hamddnid (Yaman), 96 
^AMDANIDS, 111-113 
Uamdanids of the Yaman, 96 
Hamid Amirs, 184-6 
Hammad, Hammddtdy 40 
^AMMADiDs, 39, 40 ; 43, 46 
^ammu, Abli-, Ziydnids^ 61 
I4AMMUDIDH, 23, 24, 26 ; 21 
^amzu, Ak'Kuyunliy 254 
Harun a'-Rashid, tAbbdsidy 12, 36 
Harun, flak Khans ^ 136 
Harun, Tultlnid, 68 

-yasan, 'Alids, 127, 129 
J^asan, Uzun, Ak-Kuyunli, 253-6 
Hasan Gangu, Bahtnanid^ 316-8 
Hasan Rukn-a/-dawla, Ruwayhid, 
'l42; 139 

Hasan Euchuk Chiipani, 219, 220 
Hasan, Golden Horde, 230 

•Hasan, Haf^id, 50 
Hasan Buzurg, Jalayr^ 248 ; 219, 
* 220, 246 

•Hasan, Idrihid, 36 
Hasan Tigin, //aA Khan, 135 

-Hasan Abii -'All, Marwdnidy 118 
Hasan Kuli, Khiva, 278 
^asan *Ali, Kard-Kuyunlt, 253 

•I^asan Abu-Hashim, Rassid, 102 

•^asan Na?ir - a/ - dawla, Ham- 
'ddnid, 112 
^asan -Mustan^ir, Hammudid, 23 



•^asan -DamighSnl, Sarbaddrid^ 

261 
-l^^asaii) Zayrid, 40 
^asan, Abii-1-, Ikhshidid, 69 
l^ASANi ShakIfs, 61 
Hasanwathids, 138 • 
l[^atim, Ratnddnids (Yaman), 95 
Haydar -Ka^fab, Sarbaddrid, 251 
flaydar Tora, Mangit, 277 
I|aydar, Safavid, 266 
Hazam, Abu-1-, Jahtcarid, 25 
Hazakaspidb, 174, 175 
I^asan, Filali Sharif, 61 
Himyar, Abii- Saba, ^ulayhidy 94 
Hisham, F%lar% Sharif 61 ' 
Hisbam, Hamddnid (Yaman), 95 
Hisham, Omayyad, 9 ; 19 
Hisham, Omayyads of Cordova, 21 
HosihsKhan8,Tvksi8Tan, 134-5 
Horde, Golden, 222-231 
^osayn Shah, Bengal, 308 
Hosayn Jahan-soz, Ohorid, 292 
-Hosayn, Hamddnid, 112 
3osayn, Hazdraspid, 176 [253 
hosayn, Jalayra, 248 ; 219> 246, 
Hosayn Shah, Jaunpur, 309 
IJosayn, Mangit, 277 
-^osayn, Kasulid, 99 
^osayn, Safavid, 269, 257 
Hosayn, Seljuk of Kir man, 153 
-^osayn {Vezir),^iydd%d, 91 
HuDiDS, 2_6 ; 43 [217 

Hulagu, i I' Khan of Fersia, 220; 
Humayun Ala-a/-din, Bahmanid, 

318 
Humayun Na^ir-aZ-din, Mogul, 

328 ; 257, 298, 306, 323 
Husam-a/-dawla -Mukallad,*Oit:ay- 

lid, 117 
^usam-aZ-dlnTimnrtasfa, Ortukid, 

168 
Husam - a/ - din Yulnk-Anlan, 

Ortukid, 168 
Hushang Shams-aZ-din, Hazdras' 
pid, 176 
H&shang Alp Khan, Mdlwa, 311 



INDEX TO RULERS 



345 



Ibiban, Golden Horde^ 231 
Ibrahim, Aghlabids, 37 
Ibrahim, Almoravid, 43 
Ibrahim Zahir-aZ-din, Armenia, 

170 
Ibrahim, Bukhara, 239 
Ibrahim, Ddnishmandidj 156 
Ibrahim Shah, Dehli, 299, 300, 322 
Ibrahim, Ghaznawid, 289 
Ibrahim I Abu -Isl^ak, Haffid, 50 
Ibrahim u -Mustansir, Haf§id, 50 
Ibrahim Abii-Tahir, Hamdanld, 

112 
Ibrahim, Hamdanid, 111 
Ibrahim Tufghaj, Ilak Khan, 135 
Ibrahim Shah Sharki, Shams- 

a/-(tin, Jaunpur, 309 
Ibrahim, Khedive, 85 ; 67 
Ibrahim Abu-Salim, Marlnid, 57 
Ibrahim, Mogul, 328 
Ibrahim, * Okay ltd, 117 
Ibrahim, Omayyad, 9 
Ibrahim, Ortukid, 168 
Ibrahim, ^Othfndnlis, 195 
Ibrahim, Sdmdnid, 132 
Ibrahim, Timiirid, 175 
Ibrahim, Ta'furid, 91 
Ibrahim, Ziyddid, 91 
Idiku, 229 

Idris -Ma'miiD, Mmohad, 47 
Idris, //ammue^ie^, -23 
Idris, Idrisids, 35 ; 6 
Idrisids, 35 ; 6, 36, 39, 70 
*Ikbal-a/-dawla, JBTwrfi^, 26 
Ikhshidids, 69 ; 6, 67, 112 
Ikhtiyar-a/-din Ghazi, Bmgal, 307 
lkhtiyar-a/-din Yusbak, Bengal, 
_306 

Ilak Khans op Turkistan 
. (Hoeihb), 134, 135 ; 132, 286 
Il-Arslan, Khwdrizm Shah, 177 
Ilban, Golden Horde, 230 
Ilbars, Khiva, 278, 279 
Ilchikaday, Chagatdy, 242 
Ildigiz Shams-a/-din, Atdbeg of 

AdhdrHJdn, 171 



t 



Il-Ghazi, Ortukids, 166-8 

II- Khans of Persia, 217-221 ; 

155, 172, 205, 330 
ntazax, Khiva 279 
Iltutmish, Dehn, 299 
Ilyas Shah, Bengal, 307 
*Imad-a/-dawla Abu-l-^asan *AK, 

Buwayhid, 141 ; 136, 139 
'Imad-a/-dawla, Hudid, 26 
*Imad - a/ - dawla, //aA; JTAr/fi, 135 
*Imad-a/-din 'Othman, Ayyubid, 77 
'Imad-aZ-din Abii-Kalinjar -Mar- 

zuban, Buwayhid, 141 
'Imad-a/-din *Ali Alpi -*Adil, 

Ortukid, 168 
^Imad-aZ-din Kaward, Seljuk of 

Kirmdn, 153 
*Imad-a/-(kii Shahanshah, Zangid, 

163 
^Imad-a^-din Zangi, Zangids, 163 
'Imad-al-mulk, Berdr, 318 
*Imad Shahs, 320 ; 318 
Imam Kuli, Jdnid, 275 
Imams, the Twelve, and the 

Seven, 72, 255 
Imams op Sa'da and San*a, 102-8 
*Imran, Zuray^id, 97 
Inal, Mamluk, 83 
Inayat Giray, Krim, 236 
Inju, 245, 249 * 

Iran Shah, Se^uk of Kirmdn, 153 
*l8a, Ayyubid, 78 
*isa, Fatimid, 71 
*Isa, Ortukid, 168 
Isfandiyar, Khiva, 279 
Isfandiyar, Sarbaddrid, 251 
Isbal^, Almoravid, 43 
Is^ak, Ghaznawid, 289 ; 286 
Isbuk A^a Nivaz, Khiva, 279 
Isbak Abu-l-Jaysh, Ziyddid, 91 
Ishak, Abu-, Inju, 245, 249 
Iskandar, Kard-Kuyunll, 253 
Iskandar, Shaybdnid, 271 
Islam Giray, Krim, 236 
Islam Shah, LehU, 300 
Isma'il, Ayyubids, 78, 79, 98. . 



i 



346 



INDEX TO RULERS 



Isma'il, Burid, 161 
Isma'il .^afir, Lkik^UNuHid, 25 
l8ina*il, Fafimid*^ 71 
Ismii'il -8amm, ftluli Sharif, 61 
Isma'il, Ghaznawid^ 289 
Isma'il, Khedive^ 84, 85 
iBma^il -$ali\^, Jfamluk, 81 
Isma^il, XofridSf 28 
Isma^ll, Basiilidsy 99 
Isma'il, Safavida, 259; 245,254-6 
Isma'il, Satnanid^ 132 
Isma'il -^alib, Zangid, 163 
Isma'il Kutb-aZ-din, 170 
*Iwaz, Bengal, 306 
'Izz-n/-dawla Bakhtiyar, Buway- 

hid, 141 
*Izz-a/-dawla *Abd-a/-Eashid, 

Ghaznawidy 289 
*Izz-a/-din, Seljuka of -Bum, 155 
*Izz-a/-dm A'?am-al-mulk, Bengal, 

306 
'Izz-a/-din Aybak, Mamluk, 81 
*Izz-a/-dm Balban, -4r»wwifl, 170 
*Izz-n/-din Balban, Bengal, 306 
*Izz-a/-dm Mas'ud, Zangids, 163 
*Izz-aZ-din Shiran, Bengal, 306 
*Izz-a/-din Xughril Tugban Khan, 

Bengal, 306 

Jabar Bird!, (7o/^^ ITor^fe, 232 
Ja'far, Zand, 260 
Jahandar, Mogul, 328 
Jahangir, Ak^Kuyunti, 254 
Jahungir Nur-a/-din, Mogul, 328 
Jahan-Shah, Kard-Kugunli, 253 
Jahan-s5z, Ghbrid, 292 
Jahan-Timur, Il-Khdn, 220 
Jahwar Abu-1-Hazam, 25 
Jahwarids, 25 
Jakmak, Mamluk, 83 
Jalal-a/-dawla, Buwayhxd, 141 
Jalal-a/-dawla, Ghaznawid, 289 
Jalal-a/-dawla Na^r, jlfir^^i^, 115 
Jalal-a/-dinFath Shah, Bengal,S07 
Jalal-a/-din Mas^ud Malik Juni, 
Bengal, 306 




Jalil-al-dln Mo\MUiiiiuid Shil^ 

Sm^o/, 307 
Jalal-a/-^n ftruz, IMklT, 299 
Jalal-a/-din, fi'oU^ ^orvfe, 232 
JaUl-aZ-din, Ilak Khdn, 135 
Jalal-aZ-din Motammad Shah, 

KutUtgk KhiH, 179 
Jaial-aZ-din Suyuighatmish, JTm/- 

/i^A Khdn, 179 
JalaUa/-din Mangbarti, i?]ltc>£miii 

Shah, 177 ; 208, 296 
Jalal-a/-d!n, tee Akbar, Mogul 
Jalal-aZ-din Shah Shuj&S Mu- 

f of arid, 250 
Jalal-a/-din Malik Shah, SeffOk, 

153 ; 151, 160, 162, 176 
Jalayrs, 246-248; 219, 220 
Jamtd-a^dawla Farmkhzad, Qhas* 

nawid, 289 
Jamal-a/-dinMobam., Burid, 161 
Jan, 273-4 

Janbalat, Mamluk, 83 
JanT, Bengal, 306 
Jam-Beg Mal^mud, Golden Horde, 

230; 224 
Jani-Beg Giray, Krim, 236 
Janids (Astrakhan), 274 
-Jashankir, ManUHk, 81 
Jaunpur, Kings of, 309 
Jawhar, 70 

Jaysh Abii-1-fAsakir, Tulunid, 68 
Jaysh, Abu-l-, Ziyddid, 91 
Jayyash, Nqjdhid, 92 
Jingishay, Chagatdy, 242 
Jiyaghatu, Mongol, 215 
John, St., Kn^hts of, 56, 188 
Jiijl, Monaol, 205, 222 ff. 
Juvanmard *Ati, Shayhdnid, 272 

Kabus Shams-al-ma^atiy Ziydrid, 

'l37 . 
-Ka4i, 'Amirid, 26 
•kadir, Abbdsid, 12 
-kadir, 'Amirid, 26 
-kadir, JDhu-l-Nunid, 25 

l^adr Khan, Bengal, 306 



INDEX TO RULERS 



347 



KadrKhaii,//a^ Khans y 135 
Kafur Abu-l-Misk, Ikhahtdid, 69 

•Kahir, 'Abbdsid, 12 

^Kai'd, Hammddidy 40 

-Kaim, Abbdsid, 12 

-Ka'im Ab^-l-Kasim Mohammad, 

Fafimid, 71 
Ka'imaz, 165 
Kaip, Khiva^ 279 
Kait-Bey, Mamluky 83 
K A JARS (Shahs op Persia), 260 
Kakwayhids, 145 
Kal, Ehiva, 278 
Kala'un, Mamluk, 81 
Kalim- Allah Shah, Bakmanidy 318 
Kalinjar, Abu-, Buwayhidsy 141 
J^am-Bukhah, Moguls 328 
Kamal-a/-dawla Shirzad, (tAaz- 

natvidy 289 
Kamar-aZ-din Tamar, Bengal, 

-Kamil Mohammad, Ayyiibidy 77, 
78; 167 

-Kamil Sayf-a^to-Sha'ban, Mam- 

luky 81 
Kamil, Abu-, Okaylidy 117; Jfais- 

yadidy 119; Mirddsid, 115 
Kamran, Afyhdny 334 
Kan^uh, Mamluka, 83 
Kaplan Giray, iCrim, 237 
Kara-Arslan, Ortukidy 168 
Kara- Arslan, Seljuk ofKirmdny 153 
Kara-dawlat Giray, Arm, 237 
Kara-Hulagii, Chagatdy, 242 
Kara - Ku yunli ( Turkomans of the 
'Black 'sheep), 253 ; 167 
Kara-Mohammad, K-Kuyunliy 253 
Kara-Yuluk,-4Ar-irMyM«/i, 254 
Kara-Yusuf, K-Kuyunliy 253 ; 247 

^ARAMAN AmTrS, 184-5 

Kafarani Sulayman, Bengaly 308 
-Karasi Amirs, 184-5 
Karbuka, 117 

Karim Birdi, Golden Horde, 232 
Karim Khan, Zandy 260 
Karmathians, 90, 91, 126 
Karmiyan AkT^s, 184-5 



Kart Maliks, 252 ; 245, 294 
KashmIr, Kings of, 304, 31 1» 
-Kasim, Dulajldy 125 
-^asim 'M.&m.wiy Hammudidy 21-3 
-Kasim -Wathik, Hammudidy 25 
Kasim, Kazimofy 234 
•Kasim -Mansur, San*dy 103 
-Kasim -Man^iir, Rasaidy 102 
-Kasim -Mukhtar, Rassidy 102 
Kasim -Rassi Tarjaman-a/-din, 

Rassid Imdmy 102 
Kasim, Abu-1-, Ikhshldidy 69 
Kasim, Mongoly 229 
-Kas^ab, Sarbaddridy 251 
Kawam-a/-dawla, Buwayhidy 141 
Kawam-a/-dawla Karbuka, 117 
K award Beg *lmad-a/-dln Kara- 
Arslan, Seljuk of Kirmdn, 153 
Kaydii, Mongoly 209, 212 
Kay-Kawus, Bengaly 306 
Kay-Kawus *Izz-a/-din, Seljuks 

of -Rumy 155 
Kay - Khusru Ghiyath - a/ - din, 

Seljuks of -Rumy 155 
Kay-Kubad, Lehliy 299 
Kay-Kubad *Ala-a/-din, Seljuks of 

-RuMy 155 
Kazan, Chagatdyy 242 
Khaghan, Golden Hordey 230 
Khalid, Abii-1-Baka, Haf^ds, 50 
Khalifa, 3 ; see Caliphs 
Khalil, Ak'Kuyunliy 254 
Khalil, Mamluky 81 
Khalil, Tlmuridy 268 
KhaljT, Mohammad Bakhtiyar, 

Bengaly 306 
Khaljis, Sultans op Dehli, 299, 

302; 296-7* 
Kh-aljis, Kings op Malwa, 311 
Khandesh, Kings op, 315 
Khay^-a^dlnBarbarossa,49,55,189 
Khedives, 84, 85 
Khidr Khan, Dehlly 300 
Khidr, Golden Horde, 230 
Khidr Khan, Ilak Khdny 135 
Khiya^ K^ans of, 278 ; 239 



348 



INDEX TO RULERS 




Khokand, Khans of, 280 
Khubilay, Mongoly 215 ; 211, 212 
Khudabanda Mohammad, Safmid^ 

259 
Ehudayar, Khokand, 280 
Khumarawayh, Tulunidy 68 
Khushkadam, Mamluk^ 83 
Khusru, Buwat/hidSf 141 
Khusru Firtiz Abu-Na?r -Ral^im, 

Buwayhidy 141 
Khusru Malik, Ghaznawidf 289 
Khusru Shah, Dehti, 299 
Khusrfi Shah, Ohaznatvid, 289 
Khusru Sultan, Shaybdnid, 272 
Khwaja-Jahan, Jaw'pur^ 309 
Khwakizm Shahs, 176-178; 171-2, 

204, 217, 294-6 
Kibak, Chagatay, 242 
Kibak, Golden Horde, 232 
Kildi Beg, Golden Horde, 230 
Kilij-Ardan, Seljuks of -Rum, 155 
KiHj Tafghaj Khkn, ilak, 135 
Kirwash, * Okay lid, 117 
Kirman Shah, Seljuk, 153 
Kitbugha, Mamluk, 81 
Kizil-AhmadlT Amirs, 1^4 -5 
Kizil-Arslan 'Othrnan, Atdbeg of 

Adharbljan. 171 
Kochkiinji, Shaybdnid, 271 
Koirijak, Golden Horde, 232 
Krim Khans, 233-236 
Krim Girav, Krim, 237 
Kubacha, Na?ir-a^-dm, 294-5 
Kubla Khan, 212 
Kuchi, Goldeti Horde, 231 
Kuchuk Mohammad, Golden Horde, 

232; 229' 
Kudang, Mongol, 216 
Kuiuk, Mamluk, 81 
Kutburi Muzaff ar - a/ - din, Beg - 

tiglnid, 165 
Hull, Chagatdy, 242 ; Jdnids, 275 ; 
* Khiva, 278 

Kuhia, Golden Horde^ 230 
Kuluk, Mongol, 215 
Kunjuk Khan, Chagatay, 242 



Kurds, 74, 138 

Kushala, Mongol, 215 

Kutb a/-dawla Al^nad, Ilak, 135 

Kuib-a/.din Aybak, 2>«Aft, 299 ; 

294-5 
Kutb-a/-din Mubarak, Dehli^ 299 
^utb-a/-din, Gujarat, 313 
Kutb-a/-dmMoi^ammad,jrAt<70rieiii 

Shah, 177 
Kutb-aZ-din Mohammad, Kutlugh 

Khan, 179 
Kutb-a/-^nShah-Jahan, KtUlugh 

Khan, 179 
Kutb-a/-d!nll-6haz!, 0/ iMirt^,168 
Kutb-a/-dinSukman, Ortukid, 168 
Kuib-a/-din, <S!?(/uAr q/" -Rum, 155 
Kutb-a/-dln M5dud, Zangid, 163 
Ku^b-aZ-din Mo^amm. Zangid, 163 
Kutb-a^din Isma'il, 170 
Kutb Shahs, 321 ; 318 
kuTLUOH Khans, 179, 180 
Kutlugh Khatiin, 179 
Kutlugh Kh5ja, Golden Sorde, 230 
Kutlugh Mobammad, Khiva, 279 
Kutuz, Mamluk, 81 
Kuyuk, Mongol, 215; 208-9 

La JIN, Mamluk, 81 
Lamtuna Berbers, 41, 42 
-Layth, Saffarid, 129 
Lingdan, Mongol, 216 
L6DIS, 300 

Lulu Badr-a/-din, Zangid, 162-3 
Lu^f *Ali, Zand, 260 
Lutf- Allah Sarbadaiid, 251 

Ma*adt), Fdiimids, 71 

Maghrawa Berbers, 39 
-Mahdi.i4*fta«/<^, 12 
-Mahdi Mol^ammad, AUnohad, 45 
-Mahdi Abu-Mohammad *Obayd« 

Allah, Fdiimid, 70, 71 
-Mahiti, Hammudid, 23, 25 
-Mahdi, imams of 8an% 103 
-Mahdi, Kassid Imams, 102 
-Mdhdi, Mahdid, 96 



I XL EX TO RULERS 



349 



•Mahdi, Omayyad of Cordova, 21 
Mahdids, 96 

Hahmud, Afghan, 334 ; 331 
Mahmud, Afghan Shah of Fersia, ■ 

259; 257 
Mahmud Shah, Bahmanids, 318 
Ma^mud, Bengal, 306 
Mahmud Shah, Bengal, 307-8 
Mahmud Shihab-a^din, Burid, 161 
Mahmud Shah, Dehli, 299, 300 
Mahmud, Ghaznawid, 2S9; 286-8, 

291 
Mal^mud, Ohorid, 294 
Mahmud, Golden Horde, 232 
Mahmud Shah, Gujarat, 313 
Mahmud, Ilak Khans, 135 
Ma^miid Ghazan, Il-Khdn, 220 
Mahmud Shah Inju, 245, 249 
Mahmud Shah, Jaunpur, 309 
Mahmud Sultan, Khwdrizm, 177 
Mahmud Shah Khalji, Mdlwa, 311 
MaWud, Mirddsid, 115 
Mahmud, Mongol, 210, 265 
Mahmud, Muzaffdrid, 250 
Mahmud -Salih, Ortukid, 168 
Mahmud, 'Othmdnlxs, 195 ; 193 
Mahmud Mughith-a/-din, Seljuk 

of-*2rdk, 154; 167 
Mahmud Na^ir-a^-din, Seljuk, 153 
Mahmud, Timurids, 268 
Mahmud, Zangida, 163 
Ma^mudak, Kazan, 234 
Majd-a/-dawla Ab&-Talib Rustam, 

Buwayhid, 142; 1*45 [168 

Majd-a^-din *l8a -?ahir, Ortukid, 
-Maiid Mohammad, San^d, 103 
•MaKhlu, Ahnohad, 47 
Makh?ud Giray, Krim, 237 
Malik Raja, Khdndesh, 315 
Malik Shah Jalal-aZ-din, Seljuks, 

153; 151, 160, 162, 176 
Malik Shah Mu'in-a^-dm, Seljuk 

of-*Irdk,l5i 
Malik Shah, Seljuks of -Biim, 155 
Malla, Khokand, 280 
Malwa, Kings of, 310, 311 



Mamay, 227 

Makluk Sultans, 80-85; 77, 

101, 217, 226 
-Mamun, Ahbdsid, 12, 123 
-Ma'mun, Ahnohad, 47 
-Ma*mun, Dhu-UNunid, 25 
-Ma'mun, Hatnmudid, 21, 23 
Ma'n, Hamddnid (Yaman), 95 
Manchus, 214 
Mandaghol, Mongol, 216 
Mangbarti Jalal-a/-din, Khwdrizm 

Shdh, 177 ; 208, 296 
Mangits, 277 

Mangli Giray, Krim, 236, 237 
Mangu, Mongol, 215 ; 211 
Mangu-Timur, Golden Horde, 230 ; 

233, 238-9 
-Mansur, Abbdsid, 12 
-Mansar,ilwirwf, 26 
-Man§ur, Armenia, 170 
-Mansur Mohammad, Ayyuhid, 77 
-Mansur Isma'il, Fdtimid, 71 
-Man§ur, Fdfimids, 71 
-Man^Qr, Hammadid, 40 
-Mansur, Imdms of San^d, 103 
-Mansur *Izz-a/-din *Abd-al-*AziZi 

Mamluky 83 
-Man?ur Sayf-a^-din Abu-Bakr, 

Mamluk, 81 
-Man§ur *Ala-a/-din-*Ali, Mam^ 

luk, 81 
-Man?ur Nur-a/-din-*Ali, Mam' 

luk, 81 
-Mansur Sayf - a^ - dm Kala-un, 

Mamluk, 81 
-Man?ur J^usam - a/ - din - Lajin, 

Mamluk, 81 
-Mansur Salah-a/-din -Mohammad, 

Mamliik, 81 
-Mansur Fakhr-a/-din *Othman, 

Mamluk, 83 
Mansur, Marwdnid, 118 
Mansur, Baha - a/ - dawla Abii- 

Kamil, Mazyadid, 119 
Man^th" Shah, Muzaffarid, 250 
•Mansur, NqjdJiid, 92 



350 



INDEX TO RULERS 



-Mansur (Almanzor), 20 
-Manfur Ahmad, Ortukid^ 168 
-Man?ur Ortuk-Arslan, Ortukid^ 

168 
-Man?ur *Abd-Allah, Rassidy 102 
-Mansur 'Abd- Allah, Rasulid^ 99 
-Man?ur 'Omar, hasfdid, 99 

Mansur, Samdnidsy 132 
-Mansur Saba, Sulayftid^ 94 
-Mansur Taj - a/ - dm *Abd - al 
Wa'hbab, fdhirid (Yaman), 101 
-Mansur, Tq/ibidj 26 

Mansur, Zayrid^ 40 

Man§ur, ZwayUdy 97 

Manuchahr, Ziydridy 137 

Mardan, Bevgal, 300 

Mardawij, Ziydridj 136, 137 

Mardiid, Golden Horde, 230 

Maiuxids, 67-59 ; 47, 51 

Mar j an {rezlr), Ziyddid, 91 

Marwan, Omayynds, 9 

Marwan, Abu-, Haaanl Sharifs, 61 

Marwanids, 118 
-Marzuban, Buwayhids, 141 

Masmuda Berbers, 42, 45 
-MusTid Yusuf, Auyubidy 98 

Mas'ud, Bengal, 306 

Mas'ud Shah, Behli, 299 

Mas*ud, GhnznaividSy 289 
-Mas'ud, Rasulid, 99 

Mas'ud Wajih-a/-din, Sarhaddrid, 
251 

Mas'ud Ghivath-a/-din, Seljuk of 
-'Irdk,\b\\ 160; of-Rum,'U5 

Mas'ud, Znngids, 163 

MAS'tJDf Banu, 97 

Ma'sura Shah Murad, Mangit, 277 

Mazyadids, 119, 120 

Miknasa Berbers, 39 

Ming, 213 

Miran Mohammad Shah Faruki, 
Oujnrdt and Khdndeah, 313, 315 

MlRDASIDS, 114, 115 

Misk, Abu-1, Kafar, Ikhihldld, 69 

Mo'awiva, Omayyads, 9 ; 3 

UddMy' Ghaznawid, 289 



Modud, Ortukid, 168 

M5dud, Zang'id, 163 

Mogul Emperors, 328 ; 298, 305^ 

313, 316, 322-7 
Mobammad, the Prophet, 3, 188 
Mohammad, idbbddidSf 25 
Mohammad, Dost, Afghan^ 331-4 
Mohammad, Aghlabid$, 37 
Mohammad, Ak-Kuyunll, 264 
Mohammad, *Alid, 127 
Mol^ammadb.Tumart, Almohad, 46 
Mohammad -Nasir, Almo/tad, 47 
Mohammad -Mansur, Arfnenia, 170 
Mohammad -Pahlawan Jahan, 

Atdbeg of Adharbljdn, 171 
Mohammad, Aypubidt, 77, 78 
Mohammad Shah, Bahmanids, 318 
Mohammad ^iir, Bengal, 308 
Mohammad, Burid, 161 
Mohammad, Chagntdy, 242 
Mohammad Gumishtigin, Danish-' 

mandid, 156 [316 

Mohammad Shah, DehU, 299, 300, 
Mohammad b. Taghlak, Behli, 300 ; 

297, 316 
Mohammad, Fdtimid, 71 
Mohammad, Filali Sharifs, 61 
Mohammad, Ghaznawid, 289 
Mohammad b. Sam, Ghorid, 292-4 
Mohammad Bulak,. Gold. Horde, 230 
Mohammad Karim, Gujarat, 313 
Mohammad Kuchuk, Golden Morde, 

232; 229 
Mohammad, Hafyida, 60 
Mohammad, Hamddnid, 111 
Mohammad -Mahdi, HatnmudidSf 

23, 26 [23 

Mohammad -Musta^li, Hammudid^ 
Mohammad, Haaanl Sharifs, 61 
Mohammad, Idrlaid, 36 
Mohammad, Jkhahldid, 69 
Mohammad, lUKhdn, 220 
Mob ammad Abu - 1 - Walid, Jah* 

warid, 26 
Mohammad Shah, Jaunpur, 309 
Mo^iOnmad, Kdjdr, 260 ; 268 




INDEX TO RULERS 



S51 



HabBiniDad '^ti-aJ<dawla Abn- 

Jn'far, Kokwayhid, lib 
Motiammud Amin, Kazan, 234 
Mobammiid, Ulugh, Kaian, 231-5 
Mohammad Miran, Khaaiith, 313, 

31S 
Mohammad 'AIi, Sheiitv, 84, 65 ; 

67 [279 

Uobumtuad Rnbini, Khiva, 275, 
Mobummad 'All, Khokand, 280 
Hobamnuid 'Omar, KAeiand, 280 
Hobammad 'Ala-uZ-din, EAieSritai 

Shm, 177 ; i7fl, 179 
Hobammad Kutb-aZ-din, jntrSi iin 

S/idh. 177 
Mohammad Gicay, ^nm, 236 
Hobammad, Ifutlvg'h Khini, 179 
Hobammad Qhmm, Malvia, 311 
Hab>">"mid, Xaml&ki, 81, 83 
Mobamraad, Marimdi^ 67-8 
Hobammad, Mmyadid, 119 
HobammBd Ahbnr □, Magul, 328 
Hobantmnd Na^ir-sZ-dia. J% u/. 3 2 8 
Hobammad, Mufafarid, 260 ; 249 
Hobammad, Najridt, 28 
Hobammad, 'Okaglid, ilfl 
Hobammad, Oniayya^(Cbri{|f a), 21 
Hobammad, 'Oriukid, leS 
Hobammad,'Of«fflJ»iis, 1Qe;18fi-T 
Hobammad, Raiiiliil, S9 
Hobammad, Salghmidi, 173 [259 
Hobammad Khudabanda, Stifmiid, 
Hobammad 6hiyatli<Bf-diii, St/jak, 

153; lee 
Hobammnd Ma(;blth'a{-din, StffS^ 

o/KirmS,,, 163 
Hobammad, &'/((* o/-'7rai, 164 
Hobammad, Shaybdiiid, 271; 239 
Hobammad Ksaim, 5inif, 283 
Hobammad, TShirid, 128 
Hobammad, (Taf 'aiirfi, 59 
Hobammad, Ta'furidi, 91 
Hobammad 'All, Zand, 260 
Hobammnd, Zangid, 1G3 
Hobammad, Ziyddid, 61 
Hobammad, ^NMf 'Mi, 9T 



Hobammad, AM-, JEStFo, 279 
Holon, Moigol, 21S 
MoHQOLH, 199-242 ; 3, 7, 77, 166, 
172, 174, 177, 179, 183, 296; 

ft Moon LB 

-Mu-ayyad Shihab-ai-itoi Abmad, 

Mamluk, 83 
-Ml! nyyad 8h:iylih, Mamluk, 83 
-Mu'nyj'ud Najil). Ni^fdfyid, 92 
-Mu'njTad, Omaii^ad {Curdmia), 21 
-Mn'ttj^ad Daw^, RatOIid, 99 
-Ma'ayyad -Qosayo, Satiilid, 99 
-Mu-ajyad Mobammad, Sau'o, 103 
-Mn-ajjad, Surbaddrid, 251 
Mu-ayiid-al-dawla Abfl-Mananr, 

^uwflyAirf, 142 
-Mii"fl;(am Sharaf-aJ-din 'lea, 

Ayiiubirl, 78 
-Mu'njjam Turan-Shab, Aayiiiid, 

77, 78, 98 
MubarakSliDJB, Oaf</Bn f oi'A, 231 
Mubarak Mlran, Khai-drnh, 316 
Mubarak ISbih, Bengal, 3U7 
Wiibirak: Shah, ChagatSg, 242 
Mubarak Shnb, DehR, 299, 300 
Mubarak Shnb, JaunpUr, 309 
Mubariz-B/-din, Miifafarid, 260- 
-Mufnd^ftl Mobammad, SaHilid, 99 
Muflib, L26 
MuoHAL, MS Mogul 
MuKbith-si-din, Siy'iik af-'Irak, 
154; n/A-trmmi. 153 [308 

Muehitb-a/-din Tnghril, Btngal, 
Mubassin, H«m»iSdid, 40 
-Mubtadi, 'AibiKid, 12 
Mubvi-ai-din. Srijiik Kii-min, 1S3 
Mn ■ in -n/-dawla Sukman 1 , 0.(B* irf. 



fJ/uaiV/, 71 
-Mu'iKz 'Izz-aZ-dln Avbak, Jfom- 

luk, 81 
Mu'iiz, Zaffp-irf, 40 
¥u'izz ai-dania Shoira Shib, 

ahamawid, 389 



352 



INDEX TO RULERS 



Ma'izz-a/-dawla Abu- 'XJlwan Ta- 

mal, MirfUuid, 115 
Mu4zz - a/ - dawla Abu - 1 - Ilosayn 
A^mad, Buwayhid, 141 ; 139-40 
Mu'izz-a/-dm Isma'il, Ayyubid, 98 
Mu'izz-a/-din Bahrain, Dehllj 299 
Mu'izz-a/-dinK.Kubad, i)tfA//,299 
Mu'lzz-aZ-din b. Sam, Ghotid, 

292-4 
Mu'izz-a^-din, Karty 252 
Muizz-aZ-dm Jahandkr, M'offulfS2S 
Mu'izz>a^-dinSinjar, Seljukf 153 ; 

152, 292 
Mu*izz-a^-dm Mabmud, Zangid^ 

163 
Mu4zz-a^-diii Sin jar Shab, Zangid, 

163 
Mujabid Shah, Bahmanid, 318 
-Mu^ahid, Denia, 26 
-Mujabid *Ali, Masulidy 99 
-Mujabid Sbams-a^-din *Ali, Td- 

hirid (Yaman), 101 
Muj ahid - a/ - dm * Ali Zayn - al - 

*Abidin, Muzaffarid, 250 
Mujabid-a/-din Ka'imaz, 165 
Mujir-a/-din Abak, Buridy 161 
-Mukallad, Okaylidy 117 
-Mukarram Abmad, Sulayhid, 94 
-Muktadi, idbbdsidj 12 
-Muktadir, ^Abbdaidy 12 
-Muktadir, Hudidy 26 
-Muktafi, Abbasidy 12 
-Muktafi, ^Abbaaidy 12 
Mumabbid-a/-dawla Abu-Man?ur, 

Marwanidy 118 
•Mundbir, may y ad {Cordova), 21 
Mundbir, ToJibidSy 26 
Muntafik, Banti-, 116, 119 
•Munta?ir, Abbdsidy 12 
-Munta?ir, Marinidy 58 
-Munta^ir Dawud, Raasidy 102 
MuRABiTS, 41-3; 20, 27, 39, 45 
Murad, Ak-Kuyunlly 254 
Murad, Khdna of Khokandy 280 
Murad (Amuratb), ^OthmanliSy 
195; 185, 187, 192, 256 




Marad-BakbBh, Mogul, 328 

Murad Giray, XVt'm, 237 

Murad Sbab Ma'som, liangit^ 277 

Murid Kboja, Qoldtn Horde, 230 

Murtada, Golden Horde, 232 
-Murtada, Omayyad of Cordova, 21 
-Murtada MobammacI, Rastid, 102 

Musa, Ayyubidsy 77, 78 

Miisa, //a^ Khan, 135 

M usa, Il'Khdn of Feraia, 220 

Musa, Marinid, 58 

Mtisa Abu-^ammQ, Ziyant'dsy 51 

Musbarrif -a/-dawla, Buwayhid, 141 

MusUm, 'Okaylidy 117 
-Mustadf, *Abbd»id, 13 

Mustafa, 'OthmanlU, 195 
-Musta'in, ^Abbdaxd, 12 
-Musta*in, *Abbd8id of Egypt, 83 
-Musta'in, HudidSy 26 
-Musta^m, Omayyad {Cordova), 21 
-Mustakfl, Abbdsid, 12 
-Mustakfi, Omayyad of Cordova, 21 
-Musta*li, Abu-l-!l^asim Aljtniad, 

Fdtimid, 71 
-Musta'li, Hammudidy 23 
-Mustanjid, Abbdsid, 13, 119 
-Mustan^ir, Abbdsid, 13 
-Mustan^ir, Almohad, 47 
-Mustan^ir Abu-Tamim Ma 'add, 

Fdfimid, 71 
-Mustan^ir, Hafiids, 50 
-Mustansir, Hamrnddid, 23 
-Mustan^ir, Marinid, 58 
-Mustansir, Otnayyad {Cordova), 21 
-Mustarsbid, Abbksid, 12 
-Musta^^im, ^Abbasid, 13 
-Mustazbir, Abbasid, 12 
-Mustazbir, Omayyad {Ctrdova), 21 
-Muta ayyad, Hammiididy 23 
-Mu'tadd, Omayyad of Cordova, 21 
-Mu*ta4id, Abbddid, 25 
-Mu*tadid, Abbdsid, 12, 111 
-Mu'taii, Hammudid, 21, 23 
-Mutaman, EOdid, 26 
-Mutama^^ik, Nafrid, 28 
-Mu'tamid, 'Abbddid, 25 



INDEX TO RULERS 



353 



-Mu'tamid, 'Abhasid, 12, 129 
Mu*tamid-a^dawlaKirwash,* Okay- 
lid, 117 

-Mu'tasim, *'ibbd8id, 12 

-Mu'tasim, Almohad, 47 

-Mutawakkil, Abbdsidy 12 

-Mutawakkil, Imams of San*dj 103 

-Mutawakkil, Marlnid, 68 

-Mutawakkil, Hassid Imams, 102 

-Mu'tazz, ^Ahbasid^ 12 

-MutiS Abbdsid, 12 

-Muttaki, Abbnsid, 12 

-MuwafPak, idbbdsid, 129 

-Muwaffak, Hammudid, 23 
MuwAHHiDS, 45-7 ; 27, 39, 43, 
49 

-Muzaffar, ^Amirid, 26 

-Muzaffar GhazT, Ayyubid, 78 

-Muzaffar 'Omar,^y^«*»^, 79, 165 

-Muzaffar Sulayman, Ayyiibidy 98 
Muzaffar Shah, Bengal, 308 
Muzaffar Shah, Qvjardt, 313 
Muzaffar Ahmad, Mamluh, 83 

-Muzaffar Rukn-a/-din Bayhars 
-Jashankir, Mamluh, 81 

-Muzaffar Sayf - a/ - dm - IJajji, 
Mamluk, 81 

-Muzaffar Sayf - aZ - din Kutuz, 
Mamluk, 81 

-Muzaffar Dawiid, Ortukid, 168 

-Muzaffar Yusuf , Rasulid, 99 

-Mu?afear, To;«*«rf, 26 
Muzaffar-a^din Uzbeg, Atdbeg of 

Adharbijdn, 171 
Muzaffar-a/-dinMii8a, Ayyubid, 78 
Mu?affar-a/-dm Kukburi, 5^y- 

tiginid, 165 
MuzafPar-a/-din, Mangit, 277 
MuzAFPABiDS, 249-60 ; 179, 219, 
246 

Nadir, Afshdtid, 269 ; 257-8, 

278, 326, 330 
Nadir Mohammad, Jdnid, Tib 
Nafis, 91 
Naja^, 90, 92 



Najahids, 92, 93 

Najm-a/-dln, Ayyubids, 77 f 78 

Najm-aZ-din Alpi, Ortukid, 168 

Najm-a/-din Ghazi i -Sa'id, 
Ortukid, 168 _ 

Najm-aZ-din Il-Ghazi, Ortukid, 
166-8 

Najm, Abu-/, Badr, Hasanwayhid, 
138 

Narbuta, Khokand, 280 
-Nasir, tAbbdsid, 1 3 ; 7 
-Nasir Hasan, Alid, 127 
-Na§ir, Almohad, 47 
-Nasir Ayyub, Ayyubid, 98 
-Nasir Salah - a/ - din Dawud, 

Ayyubid, 78 
-Nasir Salah-a/-din, 77 ; «^tf Saladin 
-Nasir, Hammddid, 40 
-Nasir, Hammtidid, 21, 23 
-Nasir, Omayyad of Cordova, 21 
-Na§ir Ahmad, Mamltik, 81 
-Nasir Faraj, Mamltik, 83 
-Nasir Hasan, MamlUk, 81 
-Nasir Mohammad, MamlUks, 81-3 

-Nasir, iN^a?'*^, 28 
-Nasir Ahmad, Massid Imdm, 102 
-Na?ir -Daylami, R'tssid, 102 
-Nasir Mohammad, Massid, 102 
-Na?ir *Abd- Allah, JRasUfid, 99 
-Na?ir Ahmad, Rasulid, 99 
-Nasir Mohammad, San'a, 103 
Nasir-a/- dawla Abu - Mohammad 

-Hasan, Hamddnid, 111, 112 
Nasir-a/-din, Armenia, 170 
Nasir- a/- din, Bengal, 306 
Nasir-a/-din, Edjdr, 260 
Na?ir-a/-din, Ehokdnd, 280 
Nasir-a/-din Badr, Hasanwayhid^ 

138 
Nasir-a?-din Buffhra, Bengal, 306 
Nasir -a/ -din Humayiin, Mogul, 

329 
Na?ir-a?-din Khusrii, i)tfA/», 299 
Nasir-a/-din, Kubacha, 5iwrf, 294-5 
Na?ir-a/-din Ma^mtid, Bengal ^ 
307-8 



23 



354 



INDEX TO RULERS 



Na$ir-a/-din Maj^mQd Shah, BehUy 

299 
Nasir-a/-din Ma^imud, Ortukidy 

168 
Na^ir-a/'dTn Mahmud, Selfuk^ 153 
J^H^vT'Sil-dm'M.ahmudt Zartffidf 163 
Na^ir-aZ-din Mohammad, Mogul, 

328 
Na^ir-aZ-din Nasrat, Bengal^ 308 
Na^ir-aZ-din Ortuk- Arslan -Man^ur 

Ortukid, 168 
Na?ir-dm- Allah Ma8*ud, Ohazna- 

widy 289 
Nasir Khan Mal^mud, Gujarat y 313 
Ka^ir Khan, Khdndesh, 315 
Na^ir Shah, Mdlwa, 311 
Na^r, Ilak Khdna^ 135 
Na§r, Marwdnidy 118 
Na^r, MirddsidSy 115 
Na?r, Abu-1- Juyiish, Na^ridy 28 
Na^r, SdmdnidSy 132 
Na^r, Abu-, Marwdnidy 118 
Na|r-a/-dawla Abu Na^r Ahmad, 

Marwdnidy 118 
Na?r- Allah, Mangity 277 
Na^rat Shah, Bengaly 308 
Na^rat Shah, i)<jA/i, 300 
Nasrids, 27-29 ; 46 
Kazar, Fd(imidy 71 
Nikpay, Chagatdyy 242 
Nikii-siyar, Jfo^w/, 328 [118 

Nizam-a/-dawla Nasr, Marwdnid, 
Nizam-a/-mulk, 318 
Nizam Shah, Bahmanidy 318 
Nizam Shahs, 320 ; 318 
Normans, 36, 40, 41, 71, 75 
Nouredin, 163 
"^xLljiy Sdmdmd8yU2; 286 
Nfir-aZ-dawla, Ilak Khdtiy 135 
Nur-a/-dawla Dubays, Mazyad. 119 
Nur-dawlat, JTriw, 236 
Nur-a/-din *Ali, AyyUbidy 78 
Nur-a/-din *Ali, MamlUky 81 
Nfir-aZ-din Arslan, Zangids, 163 
Nur-a/-din Mahmiid (Nouredin), 
JZangidy 163; 74-5 



Niir-a/-din Mohammad, Ottukidy 

168 
Ntir-al-'Ward, Hazdraspidy 175 
Nushirwan, 11- Khan of Feraiay 220 
NiirQz A^mad, Shayhdnidy 271 
Nuruz-Beg, Oolden EordCy 230 

*Obayd-Allah, Fdfimidy 70, 71 

*Obayd-Allah, JdnidSy 275 

*Obayd-Allah, Shaybdnidy 271 
Ochiali, Cor«atr, 56 
Ogotay, Mongoly 215; 172, 179, 
205, 207-10, 241 

*0kaylid8, 116-117; 115 

*Omar Abu - Haf? -Murtada, 
Almohady 47 ' [165 

*Omar, Taki-a/-din, AyyUbidy 79, 

*Omar Shah, Dehtiy 299 

*Omar, Dulafidy 125 

*Omar Abu-^afs, HaffidSy 50 

*Omar, Mangity 277 

*Omar, Omayyady 9 

^Omar, Orthodox Caliph y 3, 9 

'Omar, RasulidSy 99 

*Omar, Zangidy 163 

*Omar, Abu-, Jifanttuf, 57 
Omayya, 3 
Omayyad Caliphs, 3-6, 9, 10, 

11, 67 
Omayyads of Cobdova, 19-22 ; 6 
Orda, Golden HordCy 231 
Organa Khatflin, Chagatdyy 242 
Orkhan, ^Othmdnliy 196 
Orthodox Caliphs, 3, 9 
Ortuk, 160, 166 
Ortui- Arslan, Ortukidy 168 
Ortukids, 166-169 
'Othman -Kadi, idmiridy 26 
'Othman, Atdbeg Adharbijawy 171 
'Othman -'Aziz, AyyUbidy 77 
*Othman Abii-*Amr, Haf^y 50 
'Othman, Mamldky 83 
*Othman, MarinidSy 57 
'Othman, Orthodox Caliph y 3, 9 
*Othman, ^OthmdnliHy 195 
*Othinan, Ziydnids, 51 




INDEX TO RULERS 



355 



'Othmanli or Ottoman Sultans, 
186-197; 4, 49, b5, 56, 67, 84, 
101, 103, 108, 152, 183, 256, 266 
Oways, Jalayrs, 246-8 

-Pahlawan Jahan, Atdbeg ofAd- 

harbljdn^ 171 
Persia, Shahs op, 258-62 
Persians, 123, 245 
Pir *A1T, Kart, 252 
Pir Mohammad, Shai/bdnids, 271 
Piri, Ohaznawidy 
Prithwi Raja, 293 
Pulad, Golden E&rde, 232 
Pulad Kh5ja, Golden Horde, 230 

Rabi*, Abu-/-, Marmidy 57 
-Radi, iAbbdsidf 12 
Rafi*-a/-darajat, Moguls 328 
Rafi * - a/-dawla Shah - Jahan ii, 

Mofful, 328 
•Rahim Khusrii Firuz, Buwayhidy 

141 
Rahim, Khokand, 280 
Rahim Kuli,* iTAtva, 279 
Raja Kans, Bengal^ 307 
Rajipeka, Mongol^ 215 
-Rashid, idbbdsidf 12 
-Rashid, ^Abbdsid, 12 
-Rashid, Almohady 47 
-Rashid, Filalt Sharif, 61 
Rashid-aZ-dawla MahmM^ Mir- 

ddsidy 115 
-Rashid&n, Khalifs, 3 
Rassid Imams, 102 
Rasulids 99-100; 77 
Reyes db Taifas, 23-27 ; 20 
Rhodes, Knights of, 66, 188 
Ridiya, Dehlf, 299 ; 296 
Ridwan, Seljuk of Syria, 154 
Rintshenpal, Mongol, 215 
Roger of Sicily, 40 
Rukh, Shah, Afshdrid, 259 
Rukh, Shah, Khokand, 280 
Rukh, Shah, Ttmurid, 267-8 



Rukn-a/-dawla Abi!i-'Ali ^asan, 

Buwayhid, 142 
Rukn-a/-dawla Bawiid, Ortukid, 

168 
Rukn-a^dTnK-Kawus,^«n^a/, 306 
Rukn-a/-din Barbak, Bengal, 307 
Rukn-a/-din Firuz, JDehtl, 299 
Rukn-a/-din Ibrahim, Dehll, 299 
Rukn-a/-(tin, Ilak Khdn, 135 
Rukn-a/-din, Kart, 252 
Rukn - a/ - dm Kho j at - al - ^akk, 

Kutlugh Khdn, 179 
Rukn-a/-din Baybars, Mamluk, 81 
Rukn-a/-din Modud, Ortukid, 168 
Rukn-a/-din Bargiyaruk, ' Seljuk, 

153 
Rukn-a/-din Tughril Beg, Seljuk, 

153; 145, 161, 172 
Rukn-a/-dTn Sultan Shah, Seljuk 

of Kirmdn, 163 
Rukn-a/-din, Seljuka of -Rum, 155 
Rushd {vezlr), Ziyddid, 91 
Rustam, Ak-KuyunU, 254 
Rustam, Buwayhid, 142 

Sa*adat Gibay, Krim, 236, 237 
Saba, Sulayhid, 94 
Saba, ZurayHd, 97 
Sabaktigm, Ghaznawid, 289 ; 285-6 
Sabik Abfi-l-Fada-il, MirddUd, 

115 
Sa*d-Musta*in, Na^rid, 28 
S&'d, Salgharid, 173; 172 
Sa*d-a/-dawla Abii-1-Ma<ali Sharif, 

Hamddnid, 112 
Sa^da, Imams of, 102 
^adaka Sayf-a^dawla, Mazyadide^ 

119 
Sadik. Zand, 260 
Safa Giray, Krim, 237 
§ AFAViDS (Shahs op Persia] , 259 ; 

245, 254, 265-7, 268 
-Saffah, Abbdsid, 12 
Saffarids, 129, 130 ; 7, 284 
§afi, ^afavid, 259 
^afwat-a^din, Kutlugh Khdn, 179 



356 



INDEX TO RULERS 



-Saghir, Nofrid, 28 

Sahib Giray, Krim, 236, 237 
-Sa'id, Almohadf 47 

Sa'id, Hamddnidy HI, U2 

Sa'id, khedive, 85 
-Sa'id Baraka Khan, Mamluky %l 
-Sa'id, MarinidSf 67, 58 

Sa'id -Aliwal, Najahid, 92 
-Sa*id Ghazi, Ortukid, 168 

Sa'id Sultan, Shayhdnid, 272 
-Sa'Td Shaykh Wat'as, Wat'asid, 58 

Sa'id-a/-aawla, Hamddnid, 112 

Sa'id, Abu-, Wazdraapidy 175 

Sa'id, Abu-, Il-Khdn of Feraia, 
220 ; 218, 249, 261 

Sa'id, Abii-, Marmid, 58 

Sa'id, Abii-, Shaybdnid, 271 

Sa'id, Abti-, Tlmurid, 268 

Saladin, 77; 46, 67, 71, 74 5, 
165 

Salah-a/-din Dawiid, Ayyubid^ 78 

Salah-a/-din Yiisuf -Nasir, Ayyu- 
bidy 77 ; see Saladin 

Salah-a/-din Yusuf , Ayyubid, 78 

Salamat Giray, Krim^ 236-7 

Salamish, Mamluk, 81 

Salghar, 160, 172 

Salgharids, 172, 173 
-^alilji Najm - a/ - din Ayyiib, 

Ayyub\d,_ 77, 78, 80 
-Salit Isma'il, Ayyubid, 78 
-Salih Hajji, Mamliik, 81 
-$alih Isma'il, Mamliik^ 81 
-^alih Mohammad, Mamliik, 83 
.$alih §alih, Mamluk, 81 

^alih, Mirdasidf 115 

Salih, Ortukida, 168 
-Salih, Isma'il, Zangid^ 163 

Salim, Abii-, Marinid, 67 

Sama-a/-dawla Abii-1- Hasan, Bu' 
way hid, 142 

SamInids, 131-133 ; 7, 127, 129 
-Samin, Filali Sharif 61 

Sam?am-a/-dawla Abu - Kalinjar 
-Marzuban, Buwayhid^ 141 

l^am^am-aZ-dawla, Mirddaid, 115 



$an'a. Imams of, 103 
Sanad-a^dawla, Mazyadid, 119 
Sanhaja Berbers, 39 
Saphadin, 76-78 
Sabbadakids, 250; 219, 245 
Sartak, Golden Horde, 230 
Saru-Khan Amirs, 184-5 
Sasaktu, Mongol, 216 
Sasanids, 4, 5 

Sasibuka, Golden Horde, 231 
Sati-Beg, Il-Khdn, 220; 219 
Sattiin, Buwayhid, 141 
Sayf-a/-dawla Abu-1- Hasan *Ali, 

Hamddnid, HI, 112 * 
Sa*yf-a/-dawla, Hudid, 26 
Sayf-a/-din, Ayyubids, 77, 78 
Sayf-a/-dinBegtimur,-kr»i^»., 170 
Sayf-a^din Ai^ak, Bengal, 306 
Sayf-a/-din Firiiz, Bengal, 306 
Sayf-a^din Hamza, Bengal, 308 
Sayf-a/-din Suri, Ghbrid, 291 
Sayf-a^din Ghazi, Zangida, 163 
Sayf-aMslamXughtigin,^yyi^»^, 

79, 98 
Sayf-al- Islam Tughtigin, Burxd^ 

161; 160 
Sayyid Ahmad, Golden Horde, 232 
Sayyid Mohammad, Khiva, 279 
Sayyid Sultan, Khokand, 280 
Sayyids, 300, 303 * 
^\im,' Oth^ndnRa, 196; 3, 84, 188, 

266 
Selim Giray, Krim, 236, 237 
Seljuk Shah, Salgharid, 173 
Seljuks, 149-155 ; 134, 140, 145, 

156, 158-62, 166, 167, 170-2, 

176, 183-6, 287-8, 292 
Setzen, Mongol, 216 
Sha'ban, Mamluka, 81 
Shadi Beg, Golden Horde, 232 
Shadid, Haffid, 50 
Shahanshah, Zangid, 163 
Shah- ' Alam Bah&dur Shah, Moguls 

328 
Shah- < Alam, Jalal-a^-din, MoguL 

328 




INDEX TO RULERS 



357 



Shah-Jahan, Kutlugh Khan^ 179 
Shah-Jahan, MogulSy 328 
Shah Rukh, Afsharid, 259 
Shah Rukh, Khokand, 280 
Shah Rukh, Tlmurid, 268 
Shah ShuiaS Afghan, 334 
Shah ShujaS Muzaffarid, 260 
Shahin Giray, Krimy 237 
Shahs of Armenia, 170 
Shahs of Persia, 258-262 
Shajar-a/-durr, Mamluk, 81 
Shams-a/-dawla Abu-Tahir, BU' 

way hid, 142 
Shams-a^-din Ildigiz, Atabeg of 

Adharhljdn, 171 
Shams -a/-din, Bahmanid, 318 
Shams-aZ-din, Bengal, 307 
Shams-aZ-dm Ahmad, Bengal, 307 
Shams-aZ-din Firuz, Bengal, 306 
Shams-a/-din Ilyas, Bengal, 307 
Shams - a/ - din Mohammad Sur 

Ghazi Shah, Bengal, 308 
Shams-a^-din Muzaffar, Bengal, 

308 
Shams-a/-dm Yusuf , Bengal, 307 
Shams-a/-din Altamish, Dehll, 299 
Shams-aZ-dm, Kart, 262 
Shams-a^dlll Salih, Ortukid, 168 
Shams-aZ-dm, JRassid Lndm, 102 
Shams -aZ-dm 'All, Sarbaddridy 261 
Shams-al-ma'ali, Ziyarid, 137 
Shams-al-mulk, Ilak Khan, 135 
Shams-al-muluk Isma'il, Bundy 

161 
Sharaf - aZ - dawla Shir Zayd, 

Buwayhid, 141 _ 
Sharaf -a/-dawla, Ilak Khan, 135 
Sharaf -a/-dawla Abu - 1 - Makarim 

Muslim, 'Okay lid, 117 
Sharaf -a/-din Ifia, Ayyubid, 78 
Sharaf -aZ-din, //aAr Khan, 136 
Sharif Abu-1-Ma'ali, Hamddnid, 

112 
Sharif, Martnid, 58 
Shabifs of Morocco, 60-63 
Shark! Kings of Jaunpur, 309 



Shayban, Mongol, 222-3, 225, 230, 

232, 238-240 
Shayban, Tulunid, 68 
Shaybanids, 269-273; 239, 268, 

278, 322 
Shaykh, Haaanl Sharif, 61 
Shaykh, Mamluk, 83 
Sheep, Turkomans of the Black 

AND White, 252-4 
Shibl-a/-dawla Abu-Kamil Na?r, 

Mirdasid, 116 
Shihab-a/-dawla Modud, QhaZ' 

naioid, 289 
Shihab-a?-dawla, Ilak Khan, 135 
Shihab - aZ - din Bayazid, Bengal, 

307 
Shihab-a^dinBughra, ^^»«^a/, 306 
Shihab-a/-din Mahmud, Burid, 161 
Shihab-a/-din *Omar, Dehll, 299 
Shihab-a/-din Mohammad, Ghorid, 

292—4 
Shi'ites, 37, 70, 102, 112, 124, 140, 

149, 266 
Shir *Ali, Afghan, 333-4 
Shir *Ali, Khan of Khokand, 280 
Shir Ghazi, Khan of Khiva, 279 
Shir Khan, Bengal, 306 
Shir Shah,i>^A/i, 300 ; 294, 305, 322 
Shirzad, Ohnznawid, 289 
Shir Zayd, Buwayhid^ 141 
Shiran, Bengal, 306 
Shuja' - al - mulk, Afghan, 334 ; 

331-3 
Shuja*, Mogul, 328 
Sikandar Shah, Bengal, 307 
Sikandar Shah, Dehll, 300 
Sikandar Shah, Gi*jardt, 313 
Sinjar, Chagatdy, 242 
Sinjar Mu4zz-a/-din, Seljuk, 153; 

152, 292 
Sinjar Shah, Zangid, 163 
Slave Kings of Behli, 299, 301 ; 

294-6 
Subhan Kuli, Jdnid, 276 
Sufyan, Khiva, 278 
Suluuan -l^u^bi) Armenia, 170 



i 



358 



INDEX TO RULERS 



SukmanNasir-a/ d!n,^rffi^i4, 170 
Sukman, Ortukids^ 168 ; 166 

^ULATHIDS, 94 

Sulayman, Ayyubidt^ 98 
Sulayman Kararani, Bengal^ 308 
Sulayman, Filall Sharif y 61 
Sulayman -Musta'in. Hudidy 26 
Sulayman, Il-Ehdnof Penia, 220 
Sulayman ) Khokandy 280 
Sulayman Abu-/-Eabi', Marinid^ 

57 
Sulayman, Omayyady 9 
Sulayman -Musta'in, Omayyad of 

Cordova^ 21 
Sulayman, 'Othmanlis, 195; 188-9 
Sulayman, Safavidy 259 
Sulayman, Seijuk of '^Iraky 154 
Sulayman, Selj'uks of -Rumy 155 
Sultan, 140, 286 n 
Sultan -a/-dawla, Buwayhidy 141 
Sultan - a/ - dawla Arslan, OhaZ' 

nawidy 289 
Sultan Hajji, Khivay 278 
Sultan Sa*id, Shaybamdy 272 
Sultan Shah Rukn-a^dfn, Seijuk of 

Kirrndfty 153 
Sultan Shah, Seijuk of Syriay 154 
Sunkur, Salgharid'y 173 ; 172 
Suri, Sayf-aZ-din, Ghoridy 291 
Su*ud, Abu-, Zuray'idSy 97 
Suyurghatmish, Kutlugh Khan, 179 
Suyurghatmish, Motigoly 268 ; 210, 

265 

Tafkaj Khan, llak Khan, 135 

Taghlak Shah, Behlly 300 

Taohlakids, 300, 302 

TaghUb,*Abu-, Hamddnidy 112 

Taffir, Khivay 279 

Tahir, Abu-, Eazaraspid^ 175 

Tahir, Saffaridy 130 

Tahir Dhu-l-Yaminayn, Tahiridy 

128; 7 
Tahibids, 128, 129 
Tahiwds of the Yaman, 101 
tahir, Ab&-, Ruwayhid, 142 



Tahir, Abu-, ^amdanid, 112 
Tahmasp, ^ifavida^ 259 
-TaiS *Abba*idy 12 
Taifas, Reyes de, 23-7 
Taisong, Mongoly 215 
Taj-a/-dBwla Khusrfi Malik, Ohaz- 

nawidy 289 
Taj-al-rauluk Biiri, BuHdy 161 
Tak!-a/-din 'Omar, Ayyubidy 79, 

165 
Takka AmIrs, 184-5 
Takla, Hazaraspidy 175 
Takla, Salgharidy 173 
Talib, Abu-, Buwayhidy 142 
Talha, TaAw-W, 128 
Taliku, Chagatayy 242 
Tamal, Mirddsidy 115 
Tamar Ehan-Kiran, Betfffoi, 306 
Tamerlane, «m Timur 
Tamim, Zayridy 25 
Tamim, Zayridy 40 
Tamim, Abu-, Fdlimida, 71 
Tandu, /a/ayr, 247 
Tariuman-a/-(tin, Raasid, 102 
Tashfin, Almoravidy 43 
Tashfin, Abu-*Omar, Marlnid, 57 
Tashfin, Abu-, Zigdnida, 51 
Tatar Khan, Bengal, 
Tatar, MamlUky 83 
Tawfl^, Khedivcy 85 
Thabit, Abu-, Marinidy 57 
Thabit, Abii-, Ziydnida, 51 
-Thair, idt/irf, 127 
Temujin (Chingiz), 202 
Teval, Mongoly 222, 240 
Timur (Tamerlane), 265-8 ; 185, 

227-8, 242, 247-63, 297, 322 
Timurbugha, Mamluky 83 
Timur, (?o/d^n Hordey 232 
TiMURiDS, 265-268 ; 175, 265, 330 
Timur Khoja, Golden Horde, 230 
Timur Kutlugh, Golden Horde, 232 
Timur Malik, Golden Horde, 231 
Timur Shah, Afghdn, 334 
Timurtash, Ortukid, 168 
Tinl-Beg, Golden Horde, 230 




INDEX TO RULERS 



859 



Tirmasharm, Chagatdyy 242 
TiuMEN, Czars of, 239 
TojiBiDS, 26 

Toktakya, Golden Borde, 231 
Toktamish Ghiyath-a/-din, Golden 

Horde, 231 ; 226, 227-9, 266 
TSktii, Golden Horde, 230 
Torghud (Dragut), Corsair, 66 
Tuda-Mangu, Golden Hord», 230 
Tufghaj *Imad-a/-dawla Ibrahim, 

Ildk Khan, 136 
Tugha-Timiir, Il-Khdn, 220, 266 
Tughan Khan, Bengal, 306 
Tughan Sharaf-a/-din, flak, 135 
Tughan-Timiir, Mongol, 216 ; 213 
Tughxil, Ghaznatvid, 289 
Tughril Khan, Ilak Khan, 136 
Tughj, Ikhshldid, 69 
Tughril, Bengal, 306 
tughril, Seljuks of -'Irak, 164 
•yughril Beg, itukn-a^-din, Selj'uk, 

153 ; 146, 161, 172, 287 
•yughnl Shiiii Muhyi-a^din, Seljuk 

of Kir man, 163 
Tughtigin, Ayyubid, 79, 98 
Tughtigin Sayf-al-Islam ?ahir-al- 

(fin, Burifl, 161 
Taka-Tlmfir, Chagatdy, 242 
Tuka-Tiraiir, Mongol, 222-3, 226, 

230, 232, 233 fP. 
Tuknsh, Khwdrizm Shah, 177 
Tula-Bugha, Golden Horde, 230 
Tulun-Beg, Golden Horde, 230 
TuLUNiDS, 68 ; 6 
Tuluy, Mongol 205, 211-217 
Tiiman-Bey, Mamluk, 83 
Turakina, Mongol, 216 
Turan-Shah, AyyUbid, 74, 77, 78, 

98 
Tiiran Shah, Seljuks of Kirmdn, 

163 
TuRKisTAN, Khans op, 134-6 
Turkomans, 246-7, 263-4 
Turks, 7, 49. 160 ff., 169 
Tutush, Seljuk of Syria, 164 ; 160, 

162, 166 



'ITddat -a.1' dawla Abu - Taghlib 
-Ghadanfir, Hamddnid, 112 

Ukektu, Mongol, 216 
*Ula, Abu.l-, Almohad, 47 

Uljai-Timiir, Mongol, 216 

Uliaitii, Mongol, 216 

TJljai-tu, Il'Khdn of Persia, 220 

TJlugh Beg, TimHrid, 268 

Ulugh Mohammad, Kazan, 334-6 

yiiij *Ali (Ochiali), Corsair, 66 

Ungur ADu-1-Kasim, Ikhshidid, 
69 

Urang Timur, Krim, 233 

Uriij Barbarossa, 66 

TJrus, Golden Horde, 231 ; 227, 229 

Ussukhal, Mongol, 216 

Uzbeg, Muzaffar-a^-din, Atabeg of 
Adharbljdn, 171 

tlzbeg. Golden Horde, 230 ; 238 

Uzun Ilasan, Ak-Kuyunll, 263-6 

"WAJiH-aZ-din Mas'iid, Sarba^ 

ddrid, 261 
"Walad, Shah, Jalayr, 247-8 
Wall-Allah Shah, Bahmanid, 318 
"Wall Mobainmad, Jdnid, 276 
Walid, Hasanl Sharif, 61 
-Walid, Omayyads, 9 
Washmagir ^ahir-a/-dawla, ^- 

ydrid, 137 
Wat^arids, 68 
-Wathik, Abbdsid, 12 
-Wathik Aba-l-^Ula, Almohad, 47 
-"Wathik, Hammudid, 26 
-Wathik, Marlnid, 68 
White Horde, 231 ; 226 

Yadighar, Khiva, 279 

Ya'furids, 90, 91 

Yaghi (or Ya'kiib) ArBlkn., Danish' 

mandid, 166 
Yagmorasan, Ziydnid, 61 
Yahya -Mu'ta?im, Almohad, 47 
Yahya -Kadir,i)A«-/-iV3nirf,26,26 
Ya^ya -Ma'mun, JDhU'l^Nunid^ 

25, 26 




360 



INDEX TO RULERS 




Yahya Abu-Zakaiya, Haff%d$, 50 

Ya^ya, Hammadidy 40 

Yahya -Mu'tali, Hammudidy2l,2Z 

Yahya, Jdrlsids, 35 

Yahya Shah, Muzafarid, 248 

Yahya, Ramlid, 99 

Yahya, Sarbaddrvd^ 251 

Yahya -Mu?affar, Tojibid, 26 

Ya^ya, Zayrid^ 40 

Yahya, Abu-, Hafyida, 50 

Yahya, Abu-, Martnids^ 57 

Ya'kub, Afghan, 334 

Ya'kub, Ak'Kuyunli, 254 

Ya*kub Abu - Yusuf -Man^ih', 

Almohady 47 
Ya'kiib, Abu Yfisuf, Marinid, 57 
Ya'kub, Marlnid, 58 
Ya'kub b. -Layth, Safarid, 128- 

130; 284 
Ya'kub, Abu-, Almohad, 47 
Yamm-a/-dawla, ««« Mahmud flw^f 

Bahram, Ohaznawid^ [274 

Yar Mohammad, Shaybdnid, 272 ; 
-Yazid, ilitoW iSAarf/, 61 
Yazid, OmayyadSy 9 
Yazid b. Uatim, 34, 36 
Yildiz, 294-5 
Yissugay, 202 

Yisunbugha, Chagatdy, 242 
Yisu Mangu, Chagatdy, 242 
Yisun-Timur, Chagatdy , 242 
Yisun-Timiir, Mongol^ 215 
Yuen, 213 

Yuluk-Arslan, Ortukid, 168 
Yusuf, '^e^tV 5AaA, 317, 321 
Yusuf Abti-Ya*kiib, Almohad, 47 
Yusuf b. Tashfin, Almoravid, 42, 

43 
Yusuf, Ayyubids, 77, 78, 98 
. Yusuf Zayn-a/-din, Begtiginid, 165 
Yusuf Shah, Bengal, 307 
Yusuf Shah, Hazdraapida, 175 
Yusuf -Mu'taman, ffudid, 26 
Yusuf, J/aA; iTAaw, 135 
Yusuf, Mamluk, 83 
Yusuf Abu-Ya*kub, Marinid, 57 



Yusuf -Nasir, Nofrids, 28 
-Yiisuf-Da'i, iJawirf, 102, 103 
Yusuf, Rasulida, 99 
Yusuf Bulukkin, Zayrid, 40 
Y^uf, Abii-, Almohad, 47 
Yiisuf, Abu, Marlnid, 57 
Yuzbak, Bengal, 306 

Zafar Khan, Bahmanid, 318 
^afar Khan, Gujardt, 313 

-?afir, Dhu-UNunid, 25 

-?afir Abu-l-MaiLjur Isma'il, JS^i- 

♦Mtrf, 71 

-?afir Salah-a/-dm *Amir, Ta- 

Atrtrf* (Yaman), 101 
Zaghal, m^-id, 28 
-^ahir, Abbdsid, 13 
-^ahir Ghiyath-a^<^ Ghazi, Ay^ 

ytlbid, 78 
-?ahir Abu-l-Hasan *Ali, Fatimid, 

71 
^ahir, J^aaanwayhid, 138 
-^ahir Barkuk, Mamluk, 81, 83 
-^ahir Baybturs -Bundukdari, Jlfam- 

luk, 81 
-?ahir Bilbey, Jlf«m/M>fc, 83 
-^uhir Jakmak, Mamluk, 83 
-^ahir Kansuh, Mamluk, 83 
-^ahir Khushl^adam, Mamluk, 83 
-Zahir Tatar, Mamluk, 83 
-^ahir Timurbugha, Mamluk, 83 
-?ahir, Ortukid, 168 
-?ahir, Yabya, Basulid, 99 
^ahir-a/-dawla, Ghaznauid, 289 
Zahir-a/-dawla, Ziydrid, 137 
^ahir-a/-din Ibrahim, Armenia^ 

170 
Zahir-a^-diu, Kdkwayhid, 145 
^ahir-a^-din ««^ Babar, 
^ahir-a^-din, Sarbaddrid, 251 
•Zai'm Abu-Thabit, Ziydnid, 51 
Za^im - a/ - dawla Abu - Kamil 

Baraka, 'Okay lid, 117 
Zakarya Abu-Yabya, Hafiid, 50 
Zakarya, Abii-, Baffida, 50 
Zaman Shah, Afghan^ 334 ; 331 



INDEX TO RULERS 



361 



Zand8(Shah8ofPbr8ia),260 ; 258 

Zang!, Satgharid, 173 

Zangi, Zangids, 163 

Zangids, Atabegs, 162-4; 74-6, 

160, 165 
Zawi, Zaprid, 25 
Zaydan, Hasanl Sharif ^ 
Zaydites, 'l02, 127 
Zayn-a^*Abidiii, Muzaffarid, 250 
Zayn-a/-din *Ali Kuchuk, Beg- 

tiginid, 165 



Zayn-a/-dm Yusniy Begtiginidf 165 
Zayribs (Granada), 25 
Zayrids (Tunis), 39, 40, 41, 43 
Ziyad, Ziyddidy 91 
Ziyadat-Allah, Aghlahid»j 37 
ZiYADiDS, 89, 90, 91 
Ziyan, Abu-, Marinidy 57 
Ziyan, Abu-, Ziyanids, 51 
Ziyanids, 51 ; 46, 57 
ZiYARIDS, 136, 137 
ZURAY'IDS, 97 



THE END 




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Selections from the Prose Writings of Jonathan Swift. Portrait. Preface, 
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Thirty "Zears of Colonial Government. From Papers of the Rt. Hon. Sir G. F. 
BowEN, G.C.M.G. Portrait. 2 vols. pp. viii, 460 ; viii, 467. Longmans. 1889. 

The Barbary Corsairs. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. xviii, 316. Unwin. 1890. ' 

Sir Richard Church, O.B., G.O.H., Commander-in-Chief of the Greeks in the 
War of Independence. With two Plans. 8vo, pp. iv, 73. Longmans. 1890. 

Stories from the Arabian Nights. z6mo. 3 vols. pp. vii, 338, 331, 346. Six 
Illustrations. Putnam. 1891. 

The History of the Mogrhul Emperors illustrated by their Coins, pp. clxxvii. 

Constable. 1892. 




BY STANLEY LANE-POOLE 



Cairo : Sketches of its History, Uonuxnents, and Social Iiife. N,umerous 
Illustrations. 8vo, pp. xiv, 320. Virtue. 1892. 

Auranffzib. Rulers of India Series.. Svo, pp. 212. Clarendon Press. 1893. 

The Mohamznadan Dynasties : Chronological and Genealogical Tables. 8vo, 
pp. xxviii, 361. Constable. 1893. 

The Iiife of Sir Harry Farkes, K.O.B., late H.M. Minister in Japan and China. 
2 vols. 8vo. Macmillan. In the Press. 

The Iiife of Saladin. Putnam. In preparation, 

Liane's Arabio-Enfflish liezlcon. Vols. 6-8. Imp. 4to, pp. xzxix, 2221-3064. 
Edited. Williams and Norgate. 1877-1893. 

NUMISMATIC WORKS 

Catalogue of the Guthrie OoUectlon of Oriental Ooins. pp. viii, 38. Five 
Autotype Plates. Austin. 1874. 

International Numlsmata Orientalia. Part II. — Coins of the Turkumans. 4to, 
pp. xii, 44. Six Plates. Trubner. 1875. 

Bssays in Oriental Numismatics. First, Second, and Third Series. Plates. 
8vo. 3 vols. 1874, 1877, 1892. 

Catalogue of Oriental Ooins in the British Museum. Printed by order of the 
Trustees. 8vo. zo vols. (Ouvrage couronnS par I'Institut de 
France, 1881.) 

Vol. I. THE KHALIFS. pp. xx, 263. Eight Autotype Plates. 1875. 

II. MOHAMMADAN DYNASTIES, pp. xii, 279. Eight Autotype 
Plates. 1876. 

III. THE TURKUMANS. pp. xxvi, 305. Twelve Autotype Plates. 

1877. 

IV. EGYPT, pp. XXX, 279. Eight Autotype Plates. 1879. 

V. The MOORS and ARABIA, pp. Hi, 175. Seven Autotype Plates. 

x88o 

VI. The MONGOLS, pp. Ixxv, 300. Nine Autotype Plates. 1881. 

VII. BUKHARA, pp. xlviii, 131. Five Autotype Plates. 1882. 

VIII. The TURKS, pp. li, .131. Twelve Autotype Plates. 1883. 

IX., X. ADDITIONS : 1875— 1889. 2 vols. pp. 420, 460. Twenty Auto- 
type Plates, and General Index. 1889, 1890. 

Catalogue of Indian Ooins in the British Museum. Printed by order of the 
Trustees. 8vo. 3 vols. 

Vol. I. SULTANS of DEHLI. pp. xiv, 199. Nine Autotype Plates. 1884. 

II. MOHAMMADAN STATES, pp. Ixxx, 239. Twelve Autotype 
Plates. 1885. 

III. MOGHUL EMPERORS, pp cliii, 401. Thirty-three Autotype 
Plates. 1892. 

Oataloffue of Arabic Olass Weights in the British Museum. 8vo, pp. xxxv, 
127. Nine Autotype Plates, Printed by order of the Trustees. 1891. 

Ooins and Medals: their Place in History and Art. By the Authors of the 
British Museum Official Catalogues. Edited. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. x, 286. 
Elliot Stock, 1885. Second Edition. 1892. 

Oataloffue of the Mohammadan Ooins in the Bodleian library, Oxford. 
pp. xvi, 55. Four Plates. Clarendon Press. x888. 



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