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Full text of "Mollusca. (Freshwater Gastropoda & Pelectpoda)"

THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 

EDITED HY A. E. SHIPLEY, Sc.D. Cantab., HON. D.Sc. Princeton, F.K.S.- 
ASSISTEI) J5Y GUY A. K. MARSHALL, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 



MOLLTISCA. 

(FRESHWATER GASTROPODA & PELECYPODA.} 

BY 

H. B. PRESTO X, F.Z.8. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR ANJ) FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

CALCUTTA: I BOMBAY: 

THACKER, SPIXK, & CO. THACKEK & CO., LIMITED, 



March, 1915. 



03 





PKINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



Cat. for 

Earth 




SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



p 

MOLLUSCA 


a g e 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

2 
2 
2 

3 

3 
4 
4 
4 

5 
o 

5 
5 



6 
6 
6 

7 
7 
7 


Page 
4. livesayi (Dohrn) 8 




5. squamata (Dohrn) .... 

Order PECTINI- 
BRANCIIIATA . . 

Suborder Taenioglossa . 


8 

8 
8 

8 

8 

8 
9 

9 
10 
10 
10 
10 
11 

11 

11 
11 
12 
12 
12 
12 

13 
13 

13 
13 
13 


Order SOUTIBRANCHIATA. 
Suborder Rhipidoglossa 
Family 1. HYDROCBNIDJE .... 
Subfani. 1. Hydrocenince .... 

1. Hydrocena, Parreyss .... 
') Oeorissa Blanford . . 


Family 1. TIARID^: [ = Me- 
laniidce] 

Subfani. 1. Tiarince . .... 


1 . Faunus, de Montfort .... 
1. ater (Linne&us) 


1. saritta (Benson) 
2. liratula, Stoliczka .... 
3 illex (Benson) 


var. perdecollata, 

Nevill . . 


2. Tiara, Bolten 


4. pyxis (Benson) 
o. fraterna, Theobald $ 
Stoliczka 
6. frustillum (Benson). . . . 
7. rawesiana (Benson) .... 
8. blanfordiana, Stoliczka . 


1. cybele (Gould). . 


var. amara (Morch) . . 
3. Iladina, Preston 


1. hastula (Lea) 


var. subacutissima 
(Nevill) . . 


subvar. subcrenulata 
(Nevill) 


Subiiiiu 1 ^ct'itincc . . . 


2. crenulata (Deshayes) . . 
var. tirouri (Ferussac). 
var. ccnfusa (Dohrn) . 
3. clavus (Lamarck) .... 
var. sobrius (Lea) .... 
subvar. cochlidium 
(Lea} 


1 . Theodoxis, de Montfort . . 
1. perotetiaiia (Recluz) . . 
2, fuliginosa (Theobald) . . 
3. reticularis (Soicerby) . . 
4. obtusa (Benson) 
2. Septaria, Ferussac 
1. reticulata (Recce) .... 
2. compressa (Bejison) 
3. crerulescens (Sowerbu) . . 


var. pirenoidea (Nevill) 
subvar. perdecollata 
(Nevill) . . 


var. plana (Brot) .... 
4. fuscata (Born) . . 



4728 



IV 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



5. zeleborii (Brot) 

var. nana (Nevill) . . 
var. solid! uscula 

(Nevill) 

6. charon (Preston) 

7. expatriata (Preston) . . 

8. multistriata (Preston) . . 
4. Striatella, Brot 

1. tuberculata (Midler) . . 

var. subcrebra, Nevill. 
var. layardi (Dohrn) . 
var. tigrina (Huttori) . 
var. orissaensis, Nevill 
var. luteomarginata, 

Nevill 

var. myadoungensis, 

Nevill 

sub var. subplicifera, 

Nevill 

2. sublutosa (Nevill) 

3. turriculus (Lea) 

4. nevilli (Brot) 

var. andamanica, 

Nevill 

sub var. sernilaevigata, 
Nevill 

subvar. appressa, 
Nevill . 



5. nicobarica (Reeve) ---- 

subvar. canaliculata, 

Nevill ........ 

subvar. gigantea, 

Nevill ........ 

var. fusiformis, 

Nevill ........ 

var. perstriatula. 

Nevill ........ 

6. crebra (Lea) ........ 

subvar. emaciata, 

NevM ........ 

7. rivularis (Ph'Hippi) .... 

var. subunifascialis, 
Nevill ........ 

8. pyramis ( Benson)* ____ 
5. Melanoides, H. $ A. 

Adams .............. 

herculea (Gould) ...... 

gloriosa (Anthony) .... 

var. peguensis (Hanley 
# Theobald) . . 
var. compacta, Neiill . 
var. beddomeana, 

Nevill ........ 

humerosa (Gould) .... 

var. lanceolataC Hanley 
fy Theobald) ____ 



1. 



13 
14 

14 
14 
14 
15 
15 
15 
16 
16 
16 
17 

17 
17 

17 
17 
18 
18 

18 
19 

19 
19 

19 
19 
19 

19 
20 

20 
20 

20 
20 

21 
21 
21 



Page 
var. imbricate (JSfan&y 

$ Theobald) .... 23 
var. solidiuscula, 

Nevill 23 

4. variabilis (Benson) .... 23 

subvar. cincta (Hanley 

$ Theobald) . . 24 
subvar. subtubercu- 

lata, Nevill .... 24 
subvar. subspinosa, 

Nevill 24 

var. subvaricosa, 

Nevill 24 

var. fasciata, Nevill . . 24 

5. episcopalis (/. $ H. Lea) 25 

var. pontificalis (v. d. 

Busch) 25 

6. menkeana (Lea) 25 

var. microstoma, 

Nevill 26 

7. baccata (Gould) ...... 26 

subvar. recta. Nevill. . 26 
var. fusif ormis (Hanley 

$ Theobald) 26 

var. pyramidalis 

\Hanley fy 

Theobald) 26 

var. iravadica 

(B/anford) 27 

8. terebra (Benson) 27 

9. spinata (Godwin- 

Austen) 27 

10. baccifera ( Theobald) . . 28 

var. sublaevigata, 

Nevill 28 

var. vittata (Theobald) 28 

11. jugicostis (Benson) .... 28 

12. godwiui (Brot) 29 

6. Pachychilus, Lea 29 

1. liruborgi (Hanley) 29 

2. hinigerfordiana,}S T <?M7/. . 30 

7. Acrostoma, Brot 30- 

1. hiigeli (PhiUppi) 31 

var. compacta, Nevill . 32 

2. assamensis, Nevill . . , , 31 

3. praemardica ( Tryoii) . . 31 

4. pagodula (Gould) 32 

8. Melanella, Swainson 32 

1. zonata (Benson) 32 

2. riqueti (Grateloup) 32 

9. Tarebia, H. $ A. Adams. . 33 

1. batana (Gould) 33 

2. broti (Dohrn) 33 

subvar. subrudis, 

Nevill 34 

3. rudis (Lea) 34 



SYSTEMATIC IIS'DEX. 



Page 

var. ceylouica, Nevill . 34 

4. lineata (Gray] 34 

var. seniigranosa (v. 

d. Busch) 35 

sub var. pergranosa, 

Nevill 35 

var. fiavida (Dunker) . 35 

10. Plotia. H.tSf A. Adams . . 35 

1. scabra (Milller) 35 

var. elegans (Benson) . 36 

2. datura (Dohrn) 36 

3. aeanthica (Dohrn} 36 

var. roepstorffiana, 

Nevill 37 

subvar. brevispira, 

Nevill 37 

subvar. subscabra, 

Nevill 37 

11. Mairiwaringia, Nevill .... 37 
1. paludomoidea, Nevill , . 37 

Subfam. 2. Palmlomince 38 

1. Faludomus, Swainson .... 38 

1. globulosa (Gray} 38 

2. sphaerica, Dohrn 39 

3. conica ( Gray) 39 

subvar. cherraensis, 

Nevill 39 

subvar. dibirensis, 

Nevill 40 

subvar. chittagong- 

ensis, Nevill .... 40 
var. sibsaugorensis, 

Nevill 40 

var. pealiana. Nevill. . 40 

var. jaintiaca, Nevill . 40 

var. kopilensis, Nevill 40 

subvar. nana, Nevill. . 40 

4. paludinoides. Reeve . . 40 

5. constricta, Reeve 41 

6. ornata, Benson 41 

7. andersoniana, Nevill . . 41 

var. myadoungensis, 

Nevill 42 

subsp. peguensis, 

Nevill 42 

subvar. nana, Nevill. . 42 

8. regulata, Benson 42 

subvar. minor, Brot . 43 

9. blanfordiana, Nevill . . 43 

10. petrosa ( Gould) 43 

11. burmanica, Nevill .... 43 

12. stephanus (Benson) . . 44 

13. reticulata, Blanford . . 44 



Page 

14. obesa (Philippi) 45 

15. chilinoides, Reeve .... 45 

16. Isevis, Layard 45 

17. zeylanica (Lea] 46 

18. fulgurata, Dohrn 46 

19. palustris, Layard .... 47 

20. tanschaurica (Gmelin). 47 

var. kadapaen-is, 

Nevill 47 

var. malabarica, 

Nevill 47 

21. inonile, Hanley 48 

22. rotunda, Blanford 48 

var. microstoma, 

Nevill 48 

23. inflata, Brot 49 

24. striatula, Nevill 49 

25. travancorica, Blanford 49 

26. annandalei, Preston . . 50 

27. spiralis, Reeve 50 

28. maurus, Reeve 51 

29. pyriformis, Dohrn . . 51 

30. clavata, Reeve 51 

31. lutosa, Souleyet 51 

32. nasuta, Dohrn 52 

33. albreviata, Reeve .... 52 

34. acuta, Reeve 52 

35. baccula, Reeve 53 

2. Philopotamis, Layard .... 53 

1. sulcata (Reeve) 53 

subvar. minor, Nevill . 53 

var. contracta, Nevill . 53 

var. compacta, Nevill . 54 

2. decussata (Reeve) .... 54 

3. trifasciata (Reeve} 54 

4. bicincta (Reeve) 55 

5. rupseformis (Brot) .... 55 

6. regalis, Lai/ard 55 

7. nigricans (Reeve) 55 

var. subgranulosa, 

NeviU 56 

8. erronea, Nevill 56 

9. subdentata, Nevill .... 56 
10. violacea (Layard) .... 56 

3. Tanalia, Gray 57 

1. loricata (Reeve) 57 

2. erinaceus (Reeve) .... 57 

3. nodulosa (Dohrn} .... 57 

4. reevei, Layard 58 

subvar. minor, Nevill . 58 

5. funiculata, Reeve 58 

6. picta, Reeve 58 

7. swainsoni (Dohrn) .... 59 

8. distinguenda (Dolun) . . 59 

9. torrenticola, Dohrn .... 59 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

10. neritoides (Reeve} .... 60 

var. globosa (Brot) . . 60 

11. dilatata (Reeve) 60 

12. gardneri (Reeve) 60 

13. cumingiana (Dohrn) . . 61 

14. thwaitesi (Layard} 61 

15. tennantii (Reeve] 61 

16. dromedarius (Dohrn} . . 62 

17. solida (Dohrn) 62 

18. hanleyi (Dohrn) 62 

var. major? Nevill . . 62 

19. skinneri (Dohrn} 62 

20. similis, Layard 63 

21 . melanostoma (Hanley fy 

Theobald) 63 

4, Stomatodon, Benson 63 

1. stomatodon, Benson . . 64 



Fam. 2. LITTORINIDJE 



Subfam. 1. Cremnoconchime . 

1 . Oemnoconclms, Blanford 

1. syhadrensis (Blanford) 

2. conicus, Blanford . . . 

var. canaliculatus, 
Blanford 

3. carinatus (Layard} . . . 

2. Bithinella, Moquin-Tandon. 66 

1. canningensis, Preston . . 66 

Fam. 3. PALUDESTRINTDJE 67 



64 

64 

64 

60 
65 

66 
66 



Subfam. 1. Paludestrinince .... 

1. Paludestrina, d'Orbigny .. 

2. Belgrandia, Bourc/uiynat . . 

1 . miliacea, Nevill 

subvar. gibbosula, 

Nevill 

subvar. subangulata, 

Nevill 

var. minor, Nevill .... 

3. Tricula, Benson 

1. montana, Benson ..*.... 
var. curta, Nevill .... 

4. Amnicola, Gould 

1. cincta, Gould 

2. parvula (Hutton) .... 

Subfam. 2. Lithoylyphince .... 

1. Lithoglyphus, Hartmann. . 
1 . martabanensis, Theobald. 



67 

67 
(37 



68 
68 
68 
68 
68 



69 

69 

70 
70 



Page 
Subfam. 3. Bitliyniina \_Bithi- 

ni'ince emend.] . . 70 



1. Bithynia, Leach . 

1 . tentaculata (Linn&us} . . 

var. kashmirensis, 
Nevill 

2. cerameopoma (Benson) . 

var. carinulata, Nevill. 
var. gigantea. Nevill. . 

3. travancorica, Benson . . 

4. lutea, Gray 

5. moreletiana, Nevill .... 

6. pulcliella (Benson) .... 

var. obtusa, Nevill . . 
var. pusilla, Nevill . . 

7. subpulchella, Nevill . . 

var. tenuior, Nevill . . 

8. inconspicua, Dohrn .... 

9. orcula, Benson 

var. minor, Nevill 
var. producta, Nevill. . 
var. parvula, Nevill . . 
var. acuminata, Nevill. 

10. nassa, Theobald 

11. IfBvis, Morelet 

12. goni omphalos (Morelet) . 

13. evezardi, Blanford .... 

14. pygnisea, Preston 

15. stenothyroides, Dohrn . . 

var. biangulata, Nevill. 

16. troscheli (Paasch) 

2 ? Fossaiulus, Neumayr .... 

1. costigera, Kilster 

var. curta, Nevill .... 

3. Hydrobioides, Nevill 

1. turrita (Blanford) .... 



70 

70 

71 
71 

72 
72 
72 
72 
72 
73 
73 
73 
73 
74 
74 
74 
74 
74 
75 
75 
7o 
75 
76 
76 
76 
77 
77 
77 
77 
78 
78 
78 
78 



79 



! Subfam. 4. Stenoikyrina 

1. Stenothyra, Benson 79 

1 . deltas (Benson) 79 

subvar. minor, Nevill . 79 

subvar. minima, Nevill 79 

2. hungerfordiana, Nevill. . 80 

3. monilifera, Benson .... 80 

4. foveolata, Benson .... 80 

var. minor, Nevill . . 81 

5. blanfordiana, Nevill . . 81 

6. minima (Sowerby} .... 81 

7. woodmasoniana, Nevill . 81 

8. chilkaeusis, Preston 82 

9. orissaensis, Preston .... 82 



SYSTEMATIC IXDEX. 



VII 



Fam. 4. VIVIPARIDJE 



Page 
83 



Subfam. 1. Viviparmce 83 

]. Vivipara, de Mont fort .... 83 

1. bengalensis (Lamarck) . 83 

vav. balteata (Benson). 83 
var. fasciis-elevatius- 

culis (Nevill) . . 84 
var. phaeostoma, 

(Nevill) 84 

var. gigantea (Reeve) . 84 

2. doliar is ( Gould) 84 

3. oxytropis (Benson) .... 84 

4. uaticoides ( Theobald) .. So 

var. concolor (Nevill) . 85 
var. carinata (Theo- 
bald) 85 

var. fasciata ( Theo- 
bald) 85 

5. theobaldi, Kobelt 86 

G. crassa (Button) 86 

var. tezpurensis 

(Nevill) 87 

7. siamensis, Francnfeld . . 87 

var. \mrmnmcti( Nevill) . 87 

8. dissimilis (M 'tiller) .... 87 

var. sindica (Nevill) . . 88 
var. subiimbilicata 

(Nevill) 88 

var. assamensis 

(Nevill) 88 

var. bhamoensis 

(Nevill) 88 

var. kutchensis 

(Neuill) 88 

9. variata (Franenfeld) . . 89 

var. pseudohelicina, 

Kobelt 89 

var. peguensta, Kobelt. 89 

10. ceylonica (Dohrn) .... 89 

var. ecarinata (Hanley 

# Theobald) 90 

11. lecythis (Benson) 90 

var. ampulliformis 

(Benson) 90 

12. remossii (Philippi) .... 91 

13. dipfona (Blanford) 91 

14. nagaensis, Preston .... 91 

15. hilmendensi., Kobelt . . 91 

16. anuandalei, Kobelt .... 92 

var. halophila, Kobelt. 92 

17. shannensis, Theobald . . 93 
2. Idiopoma, Pilsbn/ 93 

1. henzadensis, Pilsbry .. 93 



Page 

94 
var. viridis (Reeve) . . 94 



2. helicifornns (frauen- 



Fam. 5. VALVATIDJE . 



Subfam. 1. Valmtinfc . 



1. Valvata, Midler 

1. piscinalis (Miiller) . 

2. microscopica, Nevill 



Fam. 6. PJLIDJE [ = Ampul- 
^ 



95 



95 

95 
95 
96 



96 



Subfam. 1 . PUinee 96 

1. Pila, Bolten 96 

1. globosa (Stcainson) .... 97 

var. sphaBrica (Hanley 

8> Theobald) .'. 97 
var. fasciata (Hanley 

$ Theobald) . . 97 
var. sinistrorsa 

(Nevill) 97 

var. incrassatula 

(Nevill) 97 

var. minor (Nevill) . . 97 

2. corrugata (Swainson) . . 98 

var. longispira (Nevill) 98 

3. carinata (Swainson) . . 98 

4. malabarica (Philippi) . . 98 

5. layardi (Reeve) 99 

var. virens (Lamarck) . 99 

6. mix (Reeve) 99 

7. maura (Reeve) 99 

8. theobaldi (Hanley) 99 

9. saxea (Reeve) . .' 100 

10. conica ( Gray) 100 

var. expansa (Nevill) . 100 
var. orientalis 

(Philivpi) 101 

11. dolioides (Reeve) 101 

12. mcesta (Reeve) 101 

13. cinerea (Reeve) 101 

14. olea (Reeve) 102 

15. tischbeini (Dohrn) .... 102 

16. woodwardi (Dohrn) . . 102 

17. alucinans (Sowerby) . . 103 

18. winkleyi (Pilsbry) 103 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Order PULMONATA 



Page , Page 

. 104 Subfam. 3. Planorbitue . . 115 



Suborder Hygrophila ...... 104 



Fam. 1. LIMNJEID.E 



104 



.Subfam. 1, Ancylimc ........ 104 

1. Aiicylus, Geoff t-oy ........ 104 

1. baconi, Bourguignat . . 104 

2. ceylanicus, Benson .... 104 

3. tennis, Bourguignat . . 105 

4. verruca, Benson ....... 105 

Subfam. '2. Limnceince ........ 105 

1. Limnaea, Lamarck ...... 106 

2. Limnaea, Lamarck (sensu 

stricto) .............. 106 

1. stagnalis (Linncem) . . 106 

2. acuininata, Lamarck . . 106 

var. patula, Troschel. . 107 
var. sulcatula, Troschel 107 
var. aniygdalum 

Troschel ...... 107 

var. prunum, Troschel. 108 
var. cerasum, Troschel. 108 
var. strigata, Hanley 

# Theobald ____ 108 
var. chlamys, Benson . 108 
var. rofescens, Gray. . 109 
var. syllietica, Hartley 

# Theobald .... 109 
var. gracilior, von 

Martens ...... 109 

3. ovalis, Gray .......... 109 

var. nucleus, Troschel . 1 09 

4. tigrina, Dohrn ........ 110 

var. /3 minor ........ 110 

3. Gulnaria, Leach ........ 110 

1. pereg-er (Drapernaud) . . 110 
"2. auricularia (Draper- 

naud} .............. HI 

3. brevicauda (Sowerby) . . Ill 

4. hookeri (Reeve) ..*.... Ill 

5. auriformis (Clessin) .. 112 

6. labiosa (Philippi) .... 112 

7. succinea (Deshayes) . ... 112 

var. i mpura ( Troschel) .113 

8. hians (SknMrby) ...... 113 

9. pinguis (Dohrn} ...... 113 

10. siamensis (Sowerby} . . 113 

11. simulans (Preston) .... 114 

4. Bulinmea, Haldeman .... 114 

1. truncatula (Jeffreys} , . 114 

2. bowelli (Preston). ..... 114 



1. Planorbis, Geoff roy 115 

1. exustus, Deshayes .... 115 

var. eburneus, Gray . . 116 
var. brunneus, Gray. . 116 
var. zonatus, Dunker . 116 

2. zebrinus, Dunker 116 

3. hindu, Clessin 117 

4. orientalis, Lamarck. ... 117 

5. modicus, Benson 117 

6. merguiensis, Philippi . . 118 

2. Gyraulus 118 

1. compressus (Hutton) . . 118 

2. convexiusculus (Htitton) 118 

3. labiatus (Benson) .... 119 

4. sivalensis (Hutton) .... 120 

5. hohenackeri, Clessin . . 120 

6. huttoni (Benson) 120 

7. barrakporensis (Clessin). 120 

8. himalayanus (Hutton) . . 121 

9. liratus, Westerland 121 

10. demissus, Westerland . . 121 

11. associatus, Westerland. 122 

12. elegantulus (Dohrn) . . 122 

13. nauus (Sowerby) 122 

14. rotula (Benson) 122 

15. stelzneri (Dohrn) .... 123 

16. hyptiocyclos (Benson) . . 123 

17. acutus, Clessin 123 

18. issykulensis, Clessin . . 124 

3. Hippeutes, Ayassiz 124 

1. versicolor, Wester lund . . 124 

4. Segmentina, Fleming .... 124 

1. umbilicalis (Benson) . . 125 

2. trochoideus (Benson) . . 125 

3. gruneri (Clessin) 125 

4. spirodelus, Westerlund . 126 

5. sindicus (Benson) .... 126 

6. cantori (Benson) 126 

7. calathus (Benson) .... 127 

8. caenosus ( Benson) .... 1 27 



Fam. 2. 



. 127 



Subfam. 1. Physince 127 

1. Physa, Drapernaud 127 

1. coromandelica, Dunker. 128 

Class Pelecypoda 128 

Order TETRABRANCHIA . . 128 

^ 

Suborder 1. Mytilacea 128 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



IX 



Finn. 1. 



Page 



Subfam. 1. Arcitue 128 

1. Scaphula, Benson 129 

1. celox, Benson J29 

2. pinna, Benson 130 

:"}. deltas, Blanford U30 

Suborder 2. Submytilacea . . 132 

Fam. 1. UNIONIDJE 132 

Subfam. 1. Utiioninee 132 

1. Solenaia, Conrad 132 

1. soleuiformis (Benson) . . 132 

Subfam. 2. Hyrime 134 

1. Unio, Retzius 134 

2. Lymnium, Oken 134 

1. niongolicus, Middendorff 135 

3. Nodularia, Conrad 135 

4. Nodularia, Conrad (sensu 

stricto) 135 

1. digitiformis (Sowerby) . . 135 

2. cseruleus (Lea) 136 

var. gaudichaudi (Ey- 

doux) 1 37 

var. keraudreni (Ey- 

doux) 137 

3. shurtleffiana (Led) 138 

4. occata (Lea) 138 

5. pacliysoma (Benson) . . 139 

6. chaudhurii, Preston . . 140 

7. bonneaudi (Eydoiix) . . 140 

8. pugio (Benson) 141 

9. gratiosa (Phillipi) 141 

10. crispata (Gould) 142 

11. scobina (Hanley) 142 

12. andersoniana (Nevill) . . 143 

13. theobaldi, Preston 143 

14. olivaria (Lea) 144 

15. nuttalliana (Lea) 145 

16. involuta (Benson) 146 

5. Radiatula, Simpson 146 

1. crispisulcata (Benson) . . 146 

2. lima, Simpson 147 

var. siliguriensis(Pres- 

ton) 148 

5. Physimio, Simpson 148 

<3. Lens, Simpson 148 

1 . velaris (Soiverby) 149 

7. Pseudodon, Gould 149 

8. Trigonodon, Conrad 149 



Page 

1. peguensis (Anthony) . . 150 
var. crebristriatus(/l?z- 

thony) 150 

var. curvata, Preston . 152 
9. Pseudodon, Gould (sensu 

stricto) 152 

1. inoscularis (Gould) .... 152 

2. salwenianus (Gould) . . 152 

3. nicobaricus (Morch) . . 153 

10. Bineurus, Simpson 153 

1. ava (Theobald) 153 

11. Parreyssia, Conrad 154 

12. Parreyssia, Conrad (sensu 

stricto) 154 

1. corruffata (Millie r) .... 154 

var. fragilis (Hanley 
$ Theobald) 156 

var. laevirostris (Ben- 
son) 156 

var. nagpoorensis 

(Lea) 157 

2. wynegungaensis (Lea) . 157 

3. favidens (Benson) .... 158 

var. marcens (Benson) 159 
var. trig-ona (Benson) . 159 
var. densa (Benson) , . 159 
var. deltae (Benson) . . 159 
var. chrysis (Benson), 160 
var. viridula (Benson) 160 
var. assamensis, Pres- 
ton 161 

var. pinax (Benson) . . 161 
var. plagiosoma (Ben- 
son) 162 

4. smaragdites (Benson) . . 163 

5. bhamoensis ( Theobald) . 163 

6. pernodulosa (Preston). . 164 

7. feddeni (Theobald) 165 

8. daccaensis, Preston .... 165 

9. tavoyensis (Gould) ... 166 

var. triembolus (Ben- 
son) 167 

10. vulcana (Hanley) 168 

11. feeea (Tapparone-Cane- 

fri)..... 168 

12. rajabeusis (Lea) 169 

13. rugosa (Gmelin) 169 

14. corbis (Hanley) 169 

15. burmanus (Blanford) . . 170 

16. sikkimensis (Lea) .... 171 

17. gowhattensis(7tfeo&afr/) 171 

18. perconvexa, Preston . . 172 

19. annandalei, Preston. . . . 173 

20. dalliana ; Frier son .... 174 

13. Lamellidens, Simpson .... 174 



SYSTEMATIC IX.DEX. 



Page 

14. Lamellidens,*S'm;js0 (sensu 

stricto) 175 

1. rnarginalis (Lamarck] . . 175 

var. obesa (Heinle y $ 

Theobald] 170 

var. tricolor (Kiister) . 170 
var. zonata (Deshayes) 177 
var. candahftrica(Jiaw- 

iey Theobald).... 178 
var. cylindrica (Han- 
ley $ Theobald) . . 179 
var. hanleyi, Simpson . 179 
subsp. thwaitesi (Lea) 179 
subsp. consobrina 

(Lea) 180 

subsp. lamellata (Lea) 180 
var. sublamellata, 

Preston 181 

subsp. scutum (Sower- 

by) 181 

var. humilior (?;. Mar- 
tens) '. 181 

subsp. corrianus (Lea) 183 
subsp. generosus 

(Gould) 184 

eubsp. jenkinsianus 

(Benson) 184 

subsp. sawaddyensis, 
Preston 185 

2. pulcher (Tapperone- 

Canefri) 185 

var. lamellatiformis 

( Tapparone- Canefri) 185 
var. ponderosus (Tap- 
per one- Canefri) 185 

3. exanthematicii8(Jtt*fcr) 187 

4. canefrianus, Simpson . . 187 

5. narainporensis, Preston . 187 

6. nongyangensis, Preston . 190 

7. phenchooganj ensis, Pres- 

ton) 190 

8. mainwaringi, Preston. . 190 

15. Trapezoideus, Simpson .... 193 

1. foliaceus (Gould) 193 

var. comptus (Deshayes 
Sf Jullien) 193 

var. zayleymauensis, 
Preston . 194 

2. misellus (Mordet) .... 194 

3. exolescens (Gould) .... 195 

4. theca (Benson) 195 

16. Arcidopsis, Simpson 196 

1. footei (Theobald) 196 



Page 
Subfain. 1. ^Etlieriince 197 



1. Mulleria, Ferrusac 
1. dalyi, Smith. . 



197 



Suborder 3. Conchacea 
Fam. 1. GLAUCOMYIDJE . 

Subfain. 1. Glaiicomyince 

1. Tanysiphon, Benson . 
]. rivalis. Benson. . . 



197 

197 

200 
200 

200 

200 
201 



Fam. 2. CYBENIDJE 201 

Subfam. 1. Cyrenince 201 

1. Cyrena, Lamarck . 201 

1. ceyloniea (Chemnitz) . . 202 

2. impressa, Deshayes .... 202 

3. smuosa.,Desh(iyes .... 205 

4. bengalensis, Lamarck . . i ; 05 

5. tennentii, Hanley 206 

6. proxima, Prime 206 

7. galathese (March) .... 207 

2. Batissa, Gray 207 

1. iuflata, Prime 208 

2. sirnilis, Prime 208 

3. capillata, Preston 208 

3. Velorita, Gray 209 

1. cypriuoides (Gray) .... 209 

2. cochinensis (Hanley).. . 210 
3. Coibicula, Meaerle ...... 210 

1. fluminalis '(Miiller) 211 

var. liolstitina, Scklesch 211 

2. fluminea (Miiller) 211 

3. fluviatilis (Miiller) . . 212" 

4. parvula, Prime 212 

5. agrensis, Prime 213 

6. subradiata, Prime .... 213 

7. cashmirensis, Deshayes .213 

8. trigona, Deshayes .... 214 

9. striatella, Deshayes .... 214 

10. huttoniana, Clessin .... 215 

11. subnitens, Clessin 215 

12. solida, Clessin , 215 

13. nevilli, Clessin 216 

14. occidens, Deshayes .... 216 

15. iravadica, B Ian ford. . . 216 

16. regularis, Prime 217 

17. bengalensis, Deshayes. . 217 

18. bensoni, Deshayes .... 218 

19. consan guinea, Prime . . 218 

20. sylhetica, Preston .... 218 

21. quilonica, Preston .... 219 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XI 



Page 

'22. alberti, Preston 219 

23. inflata, Clessin 220 

24. picta, Clessin 220 

25. iiidica, Clessin 221 

2(1. regia. Clessin 221 

27. ncetmgi, v. Martens. . . . 222 

28. arata (Sowcrby) 222 

Subfara. 2. Spherima 223 

1. Sphserium, Scopoli 223 

1. avanuffl, Theobald .... 224 

2. indicum. A. Adams. . . . 224 

2. Pisidiurn, C. Pfeiffer .... 224 

1. clarkeanum, G. fy H. 

Nevill. . . 225 



Page 

2. hvdaspicola, Theobald . . 225 

3. bombayanum, Theobald. 226 

4. atldnsor.iamim, Theobald 226 

5. nevillianuiu, Theobald. . 227 

6. stewarti, Preston 227 

7. zugmayeri, Wcler .... 227 



Fam. 3. SOLEXIDJK . 
Subfani. 1. Soleninte 



228 
228 



1. Novaculma, Benson 229 

1. gangetica, Benson .... 229 

2. andamanensis, Preston. . 230 



INTRODUCTION. 



IN collecting the materials for the following pages, the Author 
has been chiefly concerned in assembling, as far as possible, the 
original descriptions of all the freshwater species of both 
Gastropods and Pelecypods inhabiting the regions in question. 
Many of these, however, are of so short or fragmentary a nature 
that it has been deemed advisable either to supplant them 
altogether or to supplement them considerably by various notes 
of his own or of other writers on the subject. Moreover, even 
original descriptions have only been retained when printed in 
English or Latin, those in other languages having been either 
translated or rewritten. 

An effort has been made to reduce all original measurements, 
as far as possible, to millimeters, and thus to eliminate a host of 
different systems ranging from English inches to German lines. 

Wherever possible, illustrations of hitherto unfigured species 
have been given, though in a few cases, owing to the lack of 
authentic specimens, this has not been found practicable 

In some cases considerable difficulties have presented themselves 
with regard to the inclusion or rejection of certain genera which 
include both fresh and brackish-water forms, but generally 
speaking a genus has been included where members are liable, 
when occasion arises, to adapt themselves readily to new con- 
ditions, such, for instance, as in the case of the ponds and pools 
of the Grangetic Delta, which, though normally brackish, may 
become practically fresh through excess of rainfall after a dry 
season, or through the gradual silting up of the saltwater chan- 
nels feeding them ; in such instances the Mollusca which inhabit 
them will generally thrive equally well under the new conditions 
and become, in effect, freshwater species. 

At one time it was intended to add to the present volume the 
terrestrial operculate genera, and a certain portion of the work 
was actually done when the Author was informed that this group 
had already been entrusted to other hands ; under the circum- 
stances the work was immediately stopped and, presumably, these 
families will form the subject of another volume by a different 
author. 

It is much to be regretted that the present volume can, in most 
instances, only deal with the shells of the species quoted, this 
being largely due to the little anatomical work which has been so 
far done on the freshwater genera inhabiting the Indian region 



Xiv INTRODUCTION. 

chiefly owing to the lack of properly preserved material for 
investigation ; it may not, however, be out of place to here insert 
a few biuomic notes which concern the families generally, these 
being grouped under the various headings as below : - 

1 . Breeding Habits. 

2. Larval Stages. 

3: Development from Post- Larval Stages. 

4. Habitat and Mode of Life. 

5. Movements, Locomotion, and Dispersal. 

6. Economic Uses. 

1. Breeding Habits. Generally speaking the sexes in both the 
freshwater Gastropoda and Pelecypoda are distinct, though here 
and there examples of herinaphroditism are known to exist, as, 
for instance, in the case of certain species o Anodonta. 

In the former case, the sexes can frequently be distinguished 
by the form of the shell, that of the female being of a larger size 
and generally more inflated than is that of the male. In the 
Gastropoda this is especially to be remarked in the Viviparidae, 
while in the Pelecypoda it is chiefly evident in the LTmonidae, the 
female in this group being noticeably broader than the male. 

In the fluviatile Gastropod families sexual contact usually takes 
place, ova as a result being deposited in the majority of instances., 
though in the case of the Tiarida? and Viviparidse, as the name of 
the latter would imply, the young are produced alive. 

In the Pelecypoda, however, union of the sexes does not take 
place, the male at certain seasons in the year freely discharging 
the spermatozoa into the water, these being introduced into the 
inhalent siphons of the female by means of currents set up by 
ciliary movements, fertilization taking place either in the oviduct 
itself or else in specialized spaces of the mantle cavity. 

The quantity of eggs or young produced by the different 
families varies enormously, this, while attaining in the Pelecypoda 
to thousands, and sometimes even to hundreds of thousands, as in 
the case of certain species of Unio and Anodonta, falls in Planorlis 
and Limncea to anything from twenty to a hundred, and in Ancylus 
to such a small total as five or six only, while Vivipara and Tiara 
average not more than about fifteen individuals at a time. 

In Tiara the embryos are developed in a marsupium which is 
formed by an infolding of the skin near the base of the right 
tentacle, while in the Unionidae, CyrenidaB, and some other 
Pelecypoda development takes place in the spaces between the 
folds of the gills where, in the Cyrenida?, special marsupia exist 
for their reception. 

2. Larval stages. In the fluviatile Gastropoda at birtli the 
animal is generally more or less similar to that of the half-grown 
or adult state, though the shell differs considerably ; in the earlier 
stages it is exogastric or coiled forward over the head of the 
animal, but rapidly assumes the normal spiral of the adult. In 



INTEOPUCTION. XV 

the hyperstroph genus Planorbis the embryonic shell is sinistral, 
becoming dextral at a very early stage of growth, though the 
animal remains sinistral throughout life, moreover the protoconch 
or embryonic shell is frequently of a horny texture, even though 
the later growth is of a calcareous nature, and in all cases the 
line of demarcation can be plainly seen between the embryonic 
shell and the later formed test, this line being probably caused by 
a rest period during which the young animal was occupied in the 
fuller development of other parts. 

The larval stage of the freshwater Pelecypoda calls for con- 
siderable comment, so different is the embryo of the Unionidae 
from the later stages of development that it was at first described 
as a different creature under the name Glochidiwn, a name which, 
though it can no longer be employed in a generic sense, is still 
used to differentiate it from the later stages of growth. The 
Olochidium upon its emancipation from the parent animal is a 
helpless creature enough, being unable to swim freely or to fend 
for itself in any way, indeed so helpless is it, that it must perforce 
become parasitic in its habits ; so that it may attain this object, 
it is furnished with a hook-like process in the median part of the 
margin of each valve, which is perforate, and in addition a long 
byssal thread ; should a fish approach, the valves are rapidly 
opened and shut, by which action the byssal thread is thrust 
forward, and should this touch the approaching fish it clings fast 
to it ; thus attached it will generally, by the movements of the 
fish, be drawn into close contact with it, when the hook-like pro- 
jections immediately grip the intended host beyond power of 
dislodginent ; to allay the irritation occasioned by the adherence 
of the Glochidium the unwilling host causes a skin or cyst to 
form over it, and thus the embryonic naiad obtains a new home 
in which to continue its development, while obtaining its susten- 
ance from the tissues of the fish. During this second period of 
development considerable changes take place, both the byssus and 
the aductor muscle are dispensed with, and in place of the latter 
two new aductors, together with the foot, make their appearance, 
a new shell is formed underlying the embryonic test, and finally 
the cyst is eliminated and the animal, falling from its host, begins 
its normal life as a free agent. 

Post-larval development. On this subject little need be said, 
the Gastropods having passed the embryonic stage proceed to 
develop on quite normal lines, only pausing frequently for rest 
periods, which may be due to seasonal conditions or other Causes ; 
generally just before these periods of rest a thickening of the 
shell is more or less formed round the outer rim of the aperture, 
in some species when the new growth activity commences these 
thickenings are left and appear as either slight transverse ridges 
or sometimes varicose costulaB on the adult test, in other species 
upon the resumption of growth they are absorbed by the animal, 
the material thus secreted being doubtless used in the further 
building up of the shell ; in a few genera, such for instance as 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

Planorbis, denticles and lamellae are also found on the inner walls 
of the shell, these also being absorbed at a later stage ; thus 
should an immature shell be split open these are often disclosed, 
though the inner walls of an old specimen would be quite smooth 
and without excrescence of any kind. 

This post-embryonic shell is formed both in the Gastropods 
and Pelecypods of three layers, the outer or " periostracum " 
being formed almost entirely of " conchyolin," a chitinous sub- 
stance indissoluble in water, acid, alcohol or ether ; the two- 
inner layers are composed chiefly of about 95 per cent, of 
calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or arragortite, the 
remaining parts being made up of small quantities of calcium 
phosphate and magnesium carbonate with a small admixture of 
conchyolin, this compound being known as "ostracum," and, as 
will be readily seen, is easily subject to erosion by reason of the 
extreme vulnerability of most of its component parts by acids in 
the water, hence the outer chitinous layer for its protection. 

The progress of post-larval growth in the Pelecypods is the 
same, the growth markings appearing as consecutive lines or 
ridges ; in many of the TJniouidse, and especially the Indian 
members of the family, the umbonal region of the shell is fre- 
quently corrugatedly sculptured, this sculpture becoming obsolete 
and gradually disappearing in the later formed portions of the 
test, though in some cases, notably of African or Par Eastern 
forms, the corrugated sculpture is carried on to the end. 

4. Habitat and Mode of Life. The habitat of the freshwater 
pulmonates and prosobranchs varies usually according to the 
genus, and even sometimes the species : thus Hydrocena and 
Cremnoconchus are more or less amphibious dwellers in wet 
vegetation, clinging to the faces of rocks continually washed by 
the spray from waterfalls ; Theodoxis and StenotJiyra are in- 
habitants of either absolutely fresh or brackish water, and even 
in the case of the former, of pure sea-water, these generally 
requiring a rocky bottom, while the latter delight in a muddy or 
sandy bottom on which to crawl ; the habitat of Paludomus is 
chiefly rocky mountain-streams, though the author has found 
more than one species plentifully occupying the muddy runlets 
among the paddy-fields of Ceylon. 

Tiara, Bitliynia, Vivipara, and Pila, as also the pulmonate 
genera Limncea and Planorbis, chiefly inhabit either stagnant or 
slow running water; especially where decaying vegetable matter 
and mud are abundant. 

Among the Pelecypoda the UnionidaB are chiefly, though not 
always, to be found on sandy bottoms in clear running water, 
though some species are by no means averse to an abode in the 
mud of pools and tanks, in which situations they lie almost buried 
in the sand or mud with only the posterior side and the projecting 
siphons showing ; Scapliula, which is obviously a descendant from 
the marine Area, is found not only in the brackish waters of the 
Gangetic and other Indian deltas but also in perfectly fresh water 



INTBODUCTIOtf. XVli 

a thousand miles from the coast ; Corbicula and Sphcerium are 
generally sand or mud dwellers ; while Pisidium largely affects 
running streams where there is still considerable vegetation in 
which to lurk. 

As would be naturally supposed the waters of the plains and 
lower mountain-slopes are the most productive of molluscau life, 
though the writer was able to record some years ago the presence 
of Limncea and Pisidium in Thibet at an altitude of 14,500 feet,* 
this probably establishing a record for the elevation at which 
mollusca are known to exist, though it is only fair to state that 
the stream in which they were found was fed from a warm spring 
and was only completely frozen over in the coldest months 
(February to March). 

The extraordinary adaptability, in adverse circumstances, of 
certain of the delta genera is remarkable, being able, as they are, 
to thrive equally well in either brackish or almost salt and per- 
fectly fresh water as occasion arises, as is also the power of some 
species of both Gastropods and Pelecypods to sestivate buried 
deep down in almost dry mud during times of drought. 

To illustrate the powers of endurance of certain species it may 
here be stated that Limncea pereger has been known to occur in a 
spring in Iceland having a normal temperature of 40 Centigrade, 
while a species of Paludestrina has been taken also in a warm 
spring with a temperature as high as 50 Centigrade. 

As far as is known, the freshwater Gastropoda are usually 
vegetable feeders, though some specimens of an African proso- 
branch (Cleopatra), kept alive recently by the author, eschewed 
oatmeal and all other vegetable food provided for them, prefering 
instead to devour the periostracum of one another, this canibalistic 
action, however, was probably produced by the sudden change of 
climate and environment to which they were subjected. 

The Pelecypoda, having once passed the parasitic embryonic 
stage, are equally vegetarian in their habits. 

5. Movements, Locomotion, and Dispersal. The progress of the 
fluviatile Grastropods is necessarily slow as they glide along on 
the "foot" across the mud, rocks, or up the aquatic plants on 
which they live, this gliding motion is caused by the alternate 
contracting and expanding of certain portions of the lower surface 
of the foot, several contractions and expansions being frequently 
in operation in different parts of its " sole " at the same time ; in 
the Pelecypods, however, the causes of the mode of progression 
are rather different, the foot, it is true, is also used to propel the 
creature on its way, but the gliding motion of the Gastropods 
gives place to a jerky movement caused by the foot being ex- 
tended, then swollen by the blood being, as ifc were, pumped into 
it, thus giving it power in its swelled condition to obtain a grasp 
of the object or exact spot which is to form the end of the step, 

* Eec. Ind. Mus. Calcutta, iii, 1909, pp. 115-116. 



Xviii INTEODUCTIOtf. 

this being accomplished by a sharp contraction of the pedal muscle, 
the shell and the remainder of the animal are forced suddenly 
forward. 

Both Gastropods and Pelecypods, however, are not dependent 
on the foot only for voluntary movement, among the former 
Limncea especially, and among the latter Pisidium are able to put 
forth filaments of mucous by which they are enabled to ascend 
and descend to and from the surface of the water and not only to 
float on, but to skim along it, foot uppermost. 

The more or less artificial dispersal of mollusca is a subject 
upon which, from time to time, a good deal has been written ; 
undoubtedly the larval Gasteropod forms are often swept many 
miles hy floods, frequently by this means being stranded in pools 
and ponds isolated in normal times and to which it would 
necessarily be impossible for them to obtain access were it not for 
the agency of waterfowl which, there can be little doubt, do carry 
certain species about in the plumage just above the legs, con- 
siderable opportunity being given for the mollusca to ascend these 
and become entangled in the feathers during the lengthy periods 
in which the birds remain stationary in the water watching for 
their prey. 

The Pelecypoda also are great travellers, but this is due to their 
being carried far in their embryonic state by the hosts to which 
they have attached themselves ; once the parasitic larval stage is 
over, they are seldom able, except through an exceptional accident, 
to move far afield. 

Prom the foregoing remarks, however, it must not by any means 
be assumed that all the fluviatile species are widely distributed, 
many instances occur of extremely localized forms, among which 
may be mentioned as examples the Limncea involuta of Killarney 
and some of the peculiar forms of Lake Tanganyika which do not 
seem to have become diffused in the remainder of the Congo basin. 

6. Economic Uses. The purification of water is doubtless to 
a certain extent performed by the mollusca in their capacity of 
scavengers, in addition to which they also provide food for valu- 
able birds and fish ; as a rule, however, the fluviatile species are 
not in much request as food for man ; though in Guadeloupe, 
Mauritius, China, Japan, and even in France, certain species of 
freshwater bivalves are* used for human consumption. 

The chief services rendered to the human race are, however, 
rather ornamental than actually useful; in the Unites States 
certain species of UnionidcR are extensively fished and even culti- 
vated for their nacre which is used largely for button punching, 
small knife handles and other purposes to which mother-o'-pearl 
is put, while as a bi-product pearls themselves are doubtless 
obtained ; indeed, a case has recently been placed on record of as 
many as nine hundred and twelve being taken from a single 
individual *, one hundred of which were of marketable size, though 

* Nantilus, Boston, Mass., xxv.. p. 84. 



INTEODUCTIOK. XIX 

the large majority of the remainder must have been so small as to 
be commercially worthless ; there is no doubt, however, that the 
whole industry is of considerable value. 

There is also a legend, which may or may not be true, that one 
of the reasons which tempted Caesar to the invasion of Britain 
was the exaggerated stories current in Borne of the magnificent 
pearls produced by the river mussels of these Islands ; whether 
this is true or not, the fact remains that, certainly up to a few 
years ago, the Highland peasants were in the habit of eking out 
their scanty incomes by fishing for Margaritana margaritifera in 
the Scottish rivers, though the pearls obtained therefrom were 
not of great value, they being generally small and of a dark 
colour ; but the shell itself does not seem to have been a com- 
mercial article, possibly because of the small quantities only 
obtainable. 

In China an extensive artificial cultivation of " blister pearls " 
was at one time in vogue, the mode of culture being as follows. 
When adult, or nearly so, a large species, Dipsas plicata, was 
selected ; a wedge was placed temporarily between the valves in 
order to prevent their closing, while obstructions, often in the 
shape of small metal images of Buddha, were inserted between the 
mantle and the shell, generally in horizontal rows, the irritation 
caused by these foreign bodies in the shell induced the animal to 
cover them over with a layer of shelly nacre, though how long 
the whole operation took before they were fully and sufficiently 
thickly coated it- is difficult to say; as many as twelve of these 
metal images were frequently placed in a single shell, each image 
measuring about 19 by 13 millimeters. 

In India and the middle East, however, the author has never 
heard of any economic use for the freshwater mollusca, and 
certainly, after a sojourn of some years in Ceylon and Southern 
India, no case of this ever came to his notice. 

In conclusion the author's thanks are due to many friends for 
help most willingly given in various ways, among whom may he 
mentioned Messrs. E. A. Smith, I.S.O., B. B. "Woodward, E.L.S., 
and Gr. C. Hobson, of the British Museum, Lieut. -Colonel H. H. 
Godwin-Austen, E.R.S., Mr. T. Iredale, and especially to Dr. N. 
Annandale of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, who has been kind 
enough to place the whole of the Indian Museum Collection of 
Naiades at his disposal in order to assist him in his work. 

To Mr. Eorster Cooper, of the Museums at Cambridge, the 
author is also indebted for the loan of certain specimens from the 
Benson Collection for purposes of figuring. 

Eurther, the author would wish to acknowledge the help 
afforded to him in compiling the above binomic notes by 
Mr. B. B. Woodward's admirable book 4 The Life of the Mollusca/ 



53 West Cromwell Road, S.W. 
March 1915. 



MOLLTJSCA. 

Class GASTROPODA. 

Order SCUTIBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder EHIPIDOGLOSSA. 

Family HYDROCENID.E. 

Subfamily HYDROCENIN^E. 

Shell globose, imperforate, small ; operculum calcareous, with 
concentric striae. 

Distribution. S.E. Europe ; S. Asia ; Malaysia ; S. Africa. 

Genus HYDROCENA. 

Hydrocena, Parreyss, 1846, Hermannsen's Indicis Generum Malac. 
i, p. 546. 

TYPE, H. cattaroensis, Pfeiffer ; Dalmatia. 

Range. S.E. Europe ; S. Asia ; Malaysia ; S. Africa. 

Shell small, thin, imperforate, with few volutions; whorls 
convex; aperture oval, angled nt the base; labrum having the 
margins joined by a light parietal callus, not reflexed, acute ; 
operculum subconcentric, outwardly spirally striate. 

Subgenus GEORISSA. 

Georissa, W. Blanford, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xiii, 1864, p. 463. 
TYPE, Hydrocena pyxis, Benson ; Burma. 

Range. India ; Malaysia. 

Original description : Testa imperforata vel vix perforata, 
minima, conica, succinea vel rubella, plerumque spiraliter sulcata 
vel striata. 

Operculum semiovale, sine ullo vestigio structurae spiralis, ex- 
centrice striatum, testaceum, transparens. 

Animal parvum, lobis hemisphaericus in loco tentaculorum 
munitum. 

Oculi normales. Pes brevis, rotundatus. 

B 



1. Hydrocena (Georissa) saritta (Benson). 

Hydrocena (Georissa} saritta (Benson), A. M. N. H. ser. 2, viii, 1851, 
p. 188 (as Cyclostoma) ; Pfeiffer, Mon. Pneum. i, p. 314 (as Cyclo- 
stoma) ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 117, fig. 2 (as Hydrocama). 

Original description: Testa subimperforata, ovato-conica, liris 
spiralibus crebris, sulcis angustis divisis, munita, ferrugineo-albida, 
apice rubente, sutura bene impressa, apice obtuso ; anfractibus 4 
valde convexis; apertura vix obliqua, ovata, | longitudinis iequante, 
peristomate acuto, expansiusculo, marginibus disjunctis, columel- 
lari superne angulato, pariete calloso. 

Alt. 2, diaru. 1'25 mm. 

Hob. Cherra Poonjee, Garo Hills. 

2. Hydrocena (Georissa) liratula, Stoliczka. 

Hydrocena (Georissa) liratula, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, pt. 2, 
p. 157, pi. 6, fig. 6. 

Original description : Testa globoso-corrica, solida, imperforata, 
carneo-luteola; anfractibus 3-3|, convexis, sutura profunda sim- 
plici junctis, priino apicem subobtusum formante mammillato, 
laevigato, luteolo vel rubescente, caBteris supra (infra suturam) 
paululum depressiusculis, spiraliter liratis, liris acutis, simplicibus 
i'ere arquidistantibus, in anf. penultimo 6-7, in ultimo 9-10, basi 
convexa, centraliter minute multistriata ; apertura semilunari, 
altitudine fere spiram sequante, baud dilatata ; labro simplici, 
curvato, intus striato, labio incrassato, albido, aduato, intus recti- 
usculo, laevi. Operculum testaceum, tenue, diaphanum, latiuscule 
semilunare (nucleo excentrico), striis incrementi rugulosis vestitum, 
intus ad nucleum appendice tenui, longo, lateraliter sub marginetn 
columellarem projiciente, instructum. 

Alt. 2-2, alt. ult. anf. ad aperturam fere 1, diain. maj. 1*8, diain. 
min. l - 5 mm. 

Aperture : diam -7 mm. 

Hob. Damotba, near Moulmein. 

Animal sordide rubescente albidum, rostro lato, nigricante ten- 
tuculis brevissimis, \dx projicientibus, latis, inedio fere conHu- 
entibus, oculos parvos supra, ad basin et paulo lateraliter sitos, 
gerentibus ; pede breve, subovato pallido. 

" It is mostly allied to the Khasi hill species G. saritta, 

Bens., but is more globose and a little more numerously spirally 
ribbed " 

3. Hydrocena (Georissa) illex (Benson). 

Hydrocena (Gcorissa) illex (Benson), A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 18oG, 
p. 231 (as Hydrocena} ; PfeilFer, Mon. Pneum. ii, p. 161 (as Hy- 
drocena) ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 117, fig. 4 (as Hydrocena). 

Original description : Testa vix perforata, ovato-acuta, minutis- 
sime striata, spiraliter confertim tenuisulcata, succinea, trans- 



HYDROCENA. 3 

lucente, versus spiram rubello-fusca, spira nitida, elongato-conica, 
sutura prof uiida, apice obtusiusculo ; anfractibus 4 valde convexis, 
ultimo -^ totius testae superante ; apertura obliqua, ovata, superne 
angulata, peristomate tenui, nori continue, marghribus conniven- 
tibus, dextro recto acuto, columellari reflexiusculo. Operculo 
tenui, corneo, pellucido, pauci-spirato, nuuleo basali. 

Alt. 2'65, diam. 1*65 mm. 

Hab. Phie Than, Tenasserim, adhering to stones. 

"Nearly allied to Hydrocena (Cyclostoma') saritta, nobis, 

but more slender in form." 



4. Hydrocena (Georissa) pyxis (Benson). 

Hydrocena (Georissa) pyxis (Benson), A. M. N. II. ser. 2, xvii, 1850, 
p. 232 (as Hydrocena) ; Pfeiffer, Mon. Pneum. ii, p. 161 (asHydro- 
ceena) ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 117, tig. 3 (as Hydroccena). 

Original description : Testa obtecte perforata, ovato-conica, 
spiraliter sulcata, succinea, translucente, spiram versus rubente ; 
spira conica, sutura profunda, apice obtuso ; anfractibus 4 con- 
vexis, ultimo f totius testae aequatite; apertura obliqua, semi- 
circulari, peristomate tenui, acuto, non continuo, margine 
columellari expanse, reflexiusculo. Operculo ? 

Alt. l*o, diam. 1*25 mm. 

Hab. Thyet-Mio. 

" H. pyxis, although smaller than H. illex, is more coarsely 
sulcate, and the furrows on the lower whorl are more distant near 
the suture than below." 



5. Hydrocena (G-eorissa) fraterna, Theobald $ Stoliczka. 

Hydrocena ( Georissa} fraterna, Theobald & Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 
xli, 1873, pt. 2, p. 332, pi. 11, figs. 5, 6. 

Original description : Testa cylindraceo conoidea, solidula, 
pallida, iraperforata, regione umbilicali paulo impressa ; anfrac- 
tibus 3|, convexis, supra modice subtruncatis, sutura per-prcfundu, 
junctis, spiraliter crasse liratis, liris in anfractu penultimo quiuque, 
supera a sutura remotiuscula : apice valde mamillato ; ultimo 
anfractu spira breviore, basi convexiusculo, spiraliter striato ; 
apertura fere semicirculari, labro simplici, antice modice recedente, 
margiue subobtuso instructo, labio recto, incrassato ; operculo 
testaceo, tenui, subdiaphano, paucispirato. 

Alt. 1'4, diam. maj. '9o mm. 

Hab. Ataran Eiver Valley, near Moulmein. 

" Allied to O. pyxis in having the uppermost spiral ridge on the 
whorls somewhat remote from the suture, but the ridges them- 
selves are stronger, the whorls somewhat less numerous, the apex 
very distinctly mammillate, and the entire form of the shell more 
slender and cylindrical," 



4 HYDROCENID^. 

6. Hydrocena (Georissa) frustillum (Benson). 

Hydrocena (Georissa) frmtillum (Benson), A. M. N. II. ser. 3, vi, 
1860, p. 193 (as Hydrocena} ; Pfeiffer, Mon. Pneum. iii, p. 251; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 117, fig. 5 (as Hydrocana). 

Original description : Testa iraperforata, ovato-oblonga, solidi- 
uscula, spiraliter confertissime tenuisulcata, succinea?; spira 
subpyramidata, apice obtusiusculo, sutura impressa; anfractibus 5, 
convexis, ultimo f testae subaequante ; apertura obliqua, truncato- 
ovata, superne necnon ad latus sinistrurn angulata, peristomate 
tenui, non continue, pariete calloso. Operc. ? 

Alt. 2'5, diam. 1*75 inm. 

Hob. Ava. 

Differing from G. illex (Benson), " in the absence of the very 
elongate slender spire of that species, in the want of an umbilicus, 
and in the form of the aperture, which presents internally an 
angle at the junction of the coluraellar lip." 

7. Hydrocena (Georissa) rawesiana (Benson}. 

Hydrocena (Georissa) rawesiana (Benson), A. M. N.H. ser. 3, vi, 
J860, p. 193 (as Hydrocena) ; Pfeiffer, Mon. Pneuin. iii, p. 252; 
Theobald & Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, pt. 2, p. 332 ; II. & T., 
C. I. pi. 117, fig. 6 (as Hydroccena). 

Original description: Testa imperforata, subgloboso-conica, 
solida, confertim spiraliter striata, luteo-albida; spira conica, apice 
obtuso, sutura profundiuscula ; anfractibus 4, valde convexis, 
ultimo spiram subaequante ; apertura vix obliqua, semicircular!, 
superne et ad latus sinistrum angulata, peristonmte tenui, margine 
parietali calloso, intus recto, stricto ; loco umbilicali subfoveato. 
Operc. ? 

Alt. 2, diam. 1-5 mm. 

ffab. Near Moulmein in the J?arm Caves. 

" The shell is more globose than that of H. pyxis, Benson, and 
the sculpture is altogether different. In the formation of the 
aperture there is an approach to that of H. frustillum, but it 
exhibits a straight knife-like edge at the internal parietal 
margin." 

8. Hydrocena (Georissa) blanfordiana, Stoliczka. 

Hydrocena (Georissa) blanfordiana, Stoliczka, J.A.S. B. xl, 1871, 
pt. 2, pp. 157-158, pi. 6, fig. 6 ; xli, 1873, pt. 2, p. 332 ; H. & T., 
0. 1. pi. cxvii, fig. 2 (as Hydroc&nu). 

Original description: Testa globoso conoidea, imperforata, 
moderate solidula, Juteola, apice rubescente, mammillato lvissinio; 
anfractibus 3|, convexiusculis, trans versaliter striis increment! 
urinutis tectis, sublsevigatis ; ultimo ad peripheriam rotundato, in 
altitudine spiram subaaquante ; apertura late semilunari ; labro, 



NBBITIDA 5 

uniforme curvato, postice (vel supra) ansrulata, labio incrassato, 
levissime arcuato, supra paululum dilatato, infra angustiore. 

Alt. 18, alb. ult. anf. ad apert. '8, diam. inaj. 1*2, diain. min. 
1 mm. 

Aperture : diam. *5 mm. 

Hab. Farm Caves, near Mouhneiu. 



Family NERITID2E. 

Subfamily NERITINJS. 

Shell imperforate, subglohular or subpatelliform ; operculum 
calrareous, the internal surface furnished with projecting apo- 
phvses, the internal margin being thus articulated to the coluinellar 
septum. 

Distribution. Temperate and Tropical Regions of the "World. 

Genus THEODOXIS [Neritina']. 

Theodoxis, de Montfort, Conch. Syst. ii, 1810, p. 350. 
JVeritina, Lamarck, 1822 [Neritine, 1809]. 

TYPE, T. lutetianus, de Montfort (fluviatilis, Linn.) ; Europe. 

Range. Temperate and Tropical Regions of the World. 

Shell globular, oval, or turriculated, smooth or spirally striated, 
often adorned with vivid and varied colours; inner lip septifortn, 
crenulated, rarely simple. 

9. Theodoxis perotetiana (Reduz). 

Neritina perotetiana, Recluz, Rev.Zool. Cuv. 1841, p. 333; Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch, ii. pi. 115, figs. 200, 201 ; Reeve, Con. Icon., Ner. 
sp. 124 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 157, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description: Testa ovato-semiglobosa, fusco-nigricante, 
tenuissime striata ; anfractibus tribus : nltimo superne coarctato ; 
spira brevi, convexa, obtusata ; apice pallido, sub-hyaline ; aper- 
tura extus rotundata ; labio piano, albido, in medio vix arcuato 
obsoleteque crenato. 

Alt. 9, diam. 11 mm. 

Hab. Streams of the Nilgherries. 

T. ceylonensis (Recluz), J. Conch. 1851, p. 202, appears to be a 
variety having an orange edge to the otherwise black operculum. 

10. Theodoxis fuliginosa (Theobald). 

Neritina fuliginosa (Theobald), 3. A. S. B. xxvii, 1859, p. 315. 
Neritina reticularis, var. capillulata, Sow. Thes. Conch, ii, pi. 156, 
figs. 265, 266 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 157, figs. 8, 9. 

Original description : Testa neritinaeformi, subglobosa, spira 



6 NERITIDJE. 

minima; colore luteo-flavescente rubro reticulata; intus flave- 
scente-pallida ; aliquando caerulescente ; non raro fasciis duobus 
eineta in apertura facilius visis. Epidermide plerumque nigro 
colore, extraneo fucato ; semipolita, operculo palliae aurantiaco, 
margine anteriore rubro. 

Alt. 12-5, diam. 12%5 mm. (from fig. 266 in Thes. Conch.). 

Nab. Burma, near Amrapoora. 

11. Theodoxis reticularis (Sowerby). 

Theodoxis reticularis (Sowerby) (for Neritina reticulata, Bens, not 
Sow. in P. Z. S.), Conch. lllust, Ner. fig. 44 ; Thes. Conch, ii. 
p. 536, figs. 264, 265 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 157, figs, 5, 6. 

Neritina humeralis, Th. (name only). 

Original description : Testa snbconica, Isevi, pallide fulva, 
rufescente, epidermide tenui, subviridi induta, lineis angulatis 
transverse reticulata; spira plerumque exsertiuscuia, apice sub- 
complanato, anfractu ultimo, supra suturam angulatira elevato, 
infra medium ventricoso ; apertura subcontracts, labio externo 
superne declivo, infra medium producto ; columella tumida, margine 
sublaevigato. 

Alt. 15, diam. maj. 15 mm. (from fig. 264 in Thes. Conch.). 

Hob. Calcutta. 

12. Theodoxis obtusa ( Benson). 

Neritina obtusa, Benson, in Sow. Conch. lllust., Ner. fig. 43 ; Thes. 

Conch, ii, p. 517, pi. Ill, figs. 72, 73. 
Neritina spiralis. Reeve, Conch. Icon., Ner. fiaf. 99 (from type) ; 

H. & T., C. I. pi. 157, fig. 7. 

Original description : Testa transverse ovali, leviter striata, 
epidermide subviridi induta ; spira depressa, anfractibus duobus ; 
apertura magna, subcinerea ; labio externo interne crassiusculo ; 
labio interno complanato, recedente, margine sinistro oblique 
acuto, margine dextro in medio subarcuato, subcrenulato. Operculo 
cinereo. 

Alt. 10, diam. maj. 12-5 mm. (from fig. 72 in Thes. Conch.). 

Hub. Banks of the Ganges, Calcutta. 

* Genus SEPTARIA. 

Septaria, Ferussac, Essai M^th. Conch., Paris, 1807, p. 61. 
Navicella, Lamarck, 1809. 
Cimber, de Montfbrt, 1810. 



Sandalium, pars, Schumacher, 1817. 
Catillus, Humphrey, 1797, fide Swainson, 



1840. 



TYPE, Patella porcellana, Linn. : Islands of Bourbon, Eodriguez, 
Mauritius, and Madagascar. 

Range. S. Asia ; N. Australia ; Malaysia ; Tropical Islands of 
Indian and Pacific Oceans. 



SEPT A HI A. 7 

Shell oblong-ovate, depressed, Patella-shaped, sometimes con- 
centrically striated, more frequently smooth, olive -yellow or 
greenish, generally reticulated with black, no spire, vertex rather 
obliquei} r inflected, sometimes beaked, lip simple, columellar area 
thin, flat, septum-like, aperture very large, muscular impressions 
two, distinct. Operculurn testaceous, nearly square, flat, with a 
sharp tooth at the side. (Reeve.) 

13. Septaria reticulata (Reeve). 

Septaria reticulata (Reeve), Conch. Icon., Navic. pi. 5, figs. 20 , 6, 
& pi. vi, figs. 26 , 6 (as Navicella eximia) ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 137, tigs. 5, 6. 

Original description: Shell depressly ovate, thin, semitrans- 
parent, yellowish, tinged with rose towards the apex, openly 
reticulated with olive-black, columellar area small. 

Diam. inaj. 20, diam. min. 13 mm. (from fig. 20 a in Conch. 
Icon.). 

Diam. maj. 31, diam. min. 20'5 mm. (from fig. 26 & in Conch. 
Icon.). 

Hcib. Ceylon. 

14. Septaria compressa (Benson), 

Septaria compressa (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 749. 
Navicella lineata, var., Sow. Thes. Conch, ii, pi. 118, fig. 25 ; H. & T., 
C. I. pi. 137, figs. 1, 4, 

Original description : Testa transverse elongata, compressa, 
lutea, albida, vel cornea, lineis munitissimis trausversis diverse 
coloratis, maculisque alternatis radiantibus decoloratis picta; 
dorso elevato ; limbi extremitatibus emarginatis. 

Diam. maj. 21-25, diam. min. 11'25 mm. 

Eab. Hooghly River. 

Generally found adhering to the stems of shrubs growing in 
the water. 

15. Septaria casrulescens (Sowerby). 

Septaria ccendescens (Sowerby), Thes. Conch, ii, p. 550, pi. 118, 
fig-. 29, & pi. 118 bis, figs. 36, 37, 38; Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
Navic. pi. 7, fig. 29. 

Navicella orientals, Reeve, loc. cit. fig. 33 (young). 

Navicella tessellata, Benson (not well of Lam.), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, 
p. 750 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 137, figs. 2, 3, 7, 10. 

Original description : Testa breviuscula, subdepressa, sub- 
quadrata, ca3rulea, maculis nigris angulatis picta ; raargine apicem 
superante ; septo angustissimo, arcuato. 

Diam. maj. 17'5, diam. min. 12'5 mm. (from fig. 29 in Thes. 
Conch.). 

Hob. River Ganges, Bengal. 



8 . TIAKID^E. 

16. Septaria livesayi (Dolirn). 

Septaria livesayi (Dolirn), P. Z. S. 1858, p. 135 (as Namcella) ; 
H. & T v C. I. pi. 137, figs. 8, 9. 

Original description : Testa oblongo-ovata, tennis, parum 
pellucida, fusco-viridis, ad apicem rubescens, maculis triangu- 
laribus luteis ornata ; apex ad dextram spectans, prominulus ; 
apertura alba. 

Alt. 6, diam. maj. 35, diain. min. 15 mm. 

Aperture: diam. 18 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

17. Septaria squamata (Dcihm). 

Septaria squamata (Dolirn), P. Z. S. 1858, p. 135; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 157, figs. 1, 4 (as Navicelld). 

Original description : Testa ovata, tenuis, pellucida, fusco- 
viridis, ad apicem rubeseens, maculis luteis squamseformibus, striis 
fulguratis et maculis nigrescentibus picta; apex ad sinistram 
spectans, marginalia ; apertura alba. 

Alt. 5'5, diam. maj. 18, diam. min. 12-5 mm. 

Aperture : diam. 15 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



Order PECT INI BRANCH IAT A. 
Suborder TJ2NIOGLOSSA. 

Family TIAR1DJE [= Melaniidce]. 

Subfamily TIAEIN^E. 

Shell ovately or subulately fusiform, smooth, striate costulate 
or spinously nodulate. 

Distribution. S.E.Europe; S. & E. Asia; N.Australia; Africa; 
America ; Tropical Islands of Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Genus FAUNUS. 

Faunus, de Montfort, Conch. Syst. 1810. 
Pirena, Lamarck, 1822. 
Melanamona, Bowditch. 

TYPE, Strombus ater, Linnaeus : Moluccas ; New Guinea ; New 
Ireland; Java; Philippines; Timor, Buru, Amboyna ; Ceylon. 

Range. The above Islands and also New Caledonia ; Penang ; 
China. 



rATJNUS. 9 

Shell subulate, acuminate ; columella smooth, arched, extending 
into a parietal callus ; aperture ovate, having an anterior canal 
at the base. 



18. Faunus ater (Linnceus). 

Strombus ater, Linn. Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1213, no. 516; Rumph. Amb. 

pi. 30, fig. R ; Chemn. pi. 135, fig. 1227. 

Nerita atra, Miill. Verm. no. 375 ; Schroter, Flussconch. p. 371. 
Strombus atropurpureus, Schroter, Flussconch. p. 372. 
Strombus dealbatm, Gmel. 110. 46, p. 3523; Seba, Mus. pi. 56. 

figs. 13, 14. 

Cerithiumfluviatile, Fer. Syst. Conch, p. 69, no. 1. 
Melanamona, Bowditch, Elem. Conch, pi. 6, fig. 19. 
Pirena atra (L.), Mousson, Moll. Java, pi. 10, tig. 1 ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icoii. fig. 5. 
Faunus ater (L.), H. & A. Ad., Gen. of Reo. Moll. ; Gray, Guide 

Syst. Distrib. ; Chemn. Man. Conch, tig. 2080. 
Melanopsis atra (L.), Fer. Monogr. Melanops. pi. 2, fig. 7, p. -32 ; 

Sow. Gen. of Shells, fig. 1 ; Deshayes, Encycl. Meth., Verm, ii, 

p. 337, no. 11. 
Pirena terebralis, Lam. Anim. s. Vert. no. 1 ; Quoy & Gaimard, 

Voy. Coquille, ii, p. 360 ; Sowerby, Conch. Man. fig. 316 ; Brot, 

Mater, iii, p. 23. 

Pirena picta, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 3. 

Buccinum acicula, Gmel. p. 3503 ; Lister, Conch, pi. mlv, fig. 7. 
Pirena acus, Lesson, Voy. Coquille, ii, p. 360. 
Melanopsis atra, Pot. & Mich. Gal. pi. 31, figs. 7, 8. 
Melanopsis princeps, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. v, pi. 19, fig. 74; 

Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio, i, p. 194, pi. 19, fig. 74. 

Faunopsis princeps (Lea), Gill, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1863 (Monstr.). 
Pirena pagodus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 4. 
Faunas acer, Linn., Nevill, Hand List, ii, p. 217. 

Shell sharply elongately tapering, intense black, obscurely 
minutely yellow-mottled ; whorls twenty or more, concavely 
flattened, densely minutely wrinkle-striated ; aperture small, 
columellar margin callously incurved. (Reeve.) 

Alt. 84, diam. 19 mm. (Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 5). 

Hob. Ceylon; Nicobars?; Moluccas; New Ireland; Penang ; 
Java ; Philippines ; Timor ; Buru j Amboyna ; Celebes, etc. 

Var. perdecollata, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 218. 

" Apparently a form constantly characterized by the strong 
decollation, erosion of the surface and iron-rust, reddish colour of 
the peristome, etc Very variable in size." (Nevill.) 

Alt. 76-5, diam. 21 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon, Southern Province (Nevill). 



10 



Genus TIARA. 



Tiara, Bolten, 1798, Mus. Bolten. 
Melania, Lamarck, 1799 et auct. 
Turritella, Link, non Lamarck. 
Ellistoma, Rafinesque. 
Melanites, Krugel. 
Hygronoma, Gistel. 

TYPE, Helix amarula, Linn. : Mauritius ; Madagascar ; Comoro 
Islands. 

Range. Tropical Islands of the Indian Ocean and Moluccas. 

Shell ovate ; spire and aperture of nearly equal length ; whorls 
coronated with spines or tubercles ; aperture ovate, entire in front, 
pointed behind ; inner lip very thin ; outer lip simple, acute. 

19. Tiara cybele (Gould). 

Tiara cybele (Gould;, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 1847, p. 222 (as 

Melania cybele). 

Melania crenularis, Deshayes, Mag. Zool. 1884, pi. 83 ; Nevill, Hand 
List, pt. 2, p. 279. 

Original description : Testa ovata, turrita, crassa, f uliginosa, 
epidermide velutina induta ; spira ad apicem valde erosa, anfr. 
superstit. ad 3 planulatis, superne tribulatis, et pinnis curtis acutis 
arrectis ordinatim dispositis corouatis ; apertura angusta, elongato- 
ovalis, postice angulata ; intus livida. 

Alt. 25, diam. 15*5 mm. 

Hob. Fij i, Navigators' Islands, etc. 

Var. amara (March), J. de Conch. 1872, p. 319, as Melania 
amara, for M. mitra, Reeve (not of Meuschen), Con. Icon. sp. 175. 

Original description : Shell ovate, ventricose, black-brown, 
sometimes covered with a soft epidermis ; whorls few, smooth, 
sharply coucavely angled at the upper part, prickly-tubercled at 
the angle; aperture obliquely ovate ; colurnella callously effused, 
interior sometimes blood-stained. 

Alt. 47, diam. 24-5 mm. (fig. 6 in Conch. Icon.). 

Hob. Sumatra (Cuming) ; Pulo Panjang (Morch) ; Great Nicobar 
(Roepstorff). 

Melania, Lamarck, b'eing an absolute synonym of Tiara, Bolten, 
and as none of the names used in the genus appear to be 
applicable, the author proposes the subgeneric name Radina for 
the following group. 

Subgenus RADINA, nov. 
Melania, H. & A . Adams, 1855 ; Brot, 1874. 

TYPE, Melania hastula, Lea : Philippines ; Fiji ; Halmaheira ; 
Aru Islands. 



TIAEA. 11 

Range. S. & E. Asia; Malay Archipelago; islands of the 
Pacific. 

Shell subulate, elongated ; spire many-whorled, acute ; whorls 
smooth, not spinose ; aperture ovate, acuminate, posteriorly entire, 
rounded in front; inner lip thin, not callous; outer lip simple, 
acute, margin entire. (H. fy A. Adams.) 

20. Tiara (Radina) hastula (Lea). 

Tiara (Radina) nastula (Lea), P. Z. S. 1850, p. 189 ; Conch.-Cab. ii, 

pi. 16, figs. 3, 3 b ; tide Brot. 
Melania costata, auct. [not of Quoy]. 
Melania Jlammulata, Busch [not of Reeve]. 
Melania picta, Rve. [not of Hinds]. 
Melania acuta, live, [not of Lea]. 
Melania arroensis, Rve., Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 228. 

Original description Testa striata, nonntmquam plicata, elon- 
gata subulata, diaphana, tenui, fusca, striis transversis crebris 
costulas decussantibus ; spira acuminata ; suturis linearibus ; an- 
fractibus plano-convexis'; apertura parvula, ovata, intus vel fusca 
vel albida ; columella incurva tortaque. 

Alt. 83, diam. 20-25 mm. 

Hab. Philippines ; India. 

Var. subacutissima, Nevill, torn. cit. 

" Spiral striation on base of last whorl distinct : 

upper whorls obscurely dotted and flamed with brown and 
peculiarly alternate .*..." 

Alt. 55, diam. 16 mm. 

Hab. Andamans (Roepstorff). 

Subvar. subcrenulata, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 229. 

Alt. 51, diam. 16-75 mm. 
Hab. Andamaus (Roepstorff). 

21. Tiara (Radina) crenulata (Deshayes). 

Tiara (Radina) crenulata (Deshayes), Lamarck, Hist. Anim. s. Vert. 

ed. 2, viii, 1838, p. 434. 

Bulimus torulosm, Brug. Encycl. Meth., Vers, i, p. 352 ? 
Helix crenata, Dillwyn, Cat. ii, p. 950, no. 144 ; Nevill, Hand List, 

pt. 2, p. 225. 

Original description: Testa elongato-turrita, apice truncata albo- 
fuscescente obsolete sulcata ; anfractibus latis subplanis ad suturam 
depressis, marginatis ; margine lato, excavato ; apertura magna, 
ovali, ad basim dilatata ; columella coutorta, crassa. 

Alt. 64, diam. 21 mm. 

Hab. Philippines. 



12 TIAEIDJ3. 

Var. tirouri, Ferussac, Quoy & Gaim. Voy. de 1'Astr., Zool. iii, 
p. 159, pi. Ivi. figs. 38, 39 (as Melania tirouri) ; Nevill, Hand List, 
pt. 2, p. 226. ' 

Original description : Testa turrita, solida, crassa, rudenter 
transversim sulcata, albida; anfractibus plano-eonvexis ; postiee 
sulco impresso divisis ; spira erassa, truncata ; apertura ainpla, 
ovali et caerulea. 

Alt. 54 mm. 

JJab. Celebes ; Philippines ; Puniar River, Cuddalore (Beddome) , 
Vizagapatam (Stoliczka) ; Audamans (Roepstorff). 



Var. confusa, Dohrn, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 225. 

Melania confusa, Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 135 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 72, 

fig. 4. 

Original description : Testa turrita, solida olivacea vel nigricans ; 
anfr. 10-11 planulati, spiral isulcati aut varicosi, longitudinaliter 
striati ; apertura oblonga, albida, non detmncata. Operculum 
corneuui, nigrescens, oblongum. 

Alt. 72, diam. 18 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 22, diam. 11 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



22. Tiara (Radina) clavus, Lamarck. 

Tiara (Radina) clavus (Lamarck), Hist. Anim. s. Vert, vi, 1822, 

p. 165. 

Melania acuminata, Dkr. Phil. Abb. 

Melania acus, Lea, P. Z. S. 1850 ; Reeve, Con. Icon. %. 92. 
Melania gaudiosa, Hinds, A. M. N. H. xiv, 1844 ; Nevill, Hand List, 

pt. 2, p. 223. 

Shell shortly subulate, spire sharply acuminate towards the 
apex, horny, rather thin, livid purple, white at the sutures ; whorls 
twelve to thirteen, rather flat, the first longitudinally ribbed, the 
rest smooth ; aperture ovate, columellar margin callous white. 

Alt. 25, diam. 85 mm. (Eeeve, Con. Icon. fig. 92 as M. acus, 
Lea.) 

Hab. Nicobars (Levitt). 



Var. sobrius, Lea. 

Melania sobrius, Lea, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 181, and Reeve, Con. Icon. 
figs. 32, 80 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 223. 

" of a plain uniform colouration, without traces either of 

spots or bands." (Nevill.} 

Alt. 31-5-39 5, diam. 10-1275 mm. 
Hob. JNlcobars. 



TIARA. 13 

Subvar. cochlidium, Lea. 

Melimia cochlidium, Lea, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 183 ; Reeve, Con. Icon. 
%. 27 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 224. 

Original description : Testa la?vi, subulata, subcrassa, rufo- 
cornea ; spira elevata, acuminate, ad apicera minute plicata; 
suturis regulariter irapressis ; anfractibus tredecim, subcompressis, 
anf ractu ultimo supra angulato, inagno ; apertura late ovata, parva, 
ad basira retusa, iritus albida ; columella regulariter incurva. 

Alt. 37-5, diam. 12-5 mm. 

Hah. Philippines ; Katchall, Nicobar Islands (Roepstorff). 

Var. pirenoidea, Ntvill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 224. 

" A remarkable, * Pirena-like,' strongly decollate and massive 

form, " (Nevill.) 

Alt. 30, diam. 12 mm. 
Hab. Nicobars. 

Subvar. perdecollata, Nevill, torn. cit. 

A smaller form, still more decollate, only two or three whorls 
remaining. 

Hab. Nicobars. 

Var. plana, v. d. JBusch, MS., Brot, Conch.-Cab. ii, pi. 21, 
fig. 17 a. 

? Melanin gaudiosa, Hinds, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 225. 

" The apical eight whorls are very prominently and regularly, 
longitudinally ribbed and spirally striated ; last whorl, of course, 
smooth at base ; of uniform dark olive-green colouration." 
(Nevill.) 

Alt. 28-5, diam. 7'75 mm. 

Hab. Great Nicobar. 

23. Tiara (Eadina) fuscata (Born). 

Tiara (Radina) fuscata (Born), Test. Vindob. 1780, p. 390 (as Helix) 
[not of the Con. Indica], and Test. Mus. Caesar. Vindob. pi. 16, 
tig. 17 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 221. 

Original description : Testa subulata, laevis, transversim sub- 
tilissime striata ; anfractus decem teretes ; apertura ovata ; labriun 
laeve ; faux cinerea ; color e luteo fuscus. 

Alt. 48, diam. 15 mm. 

Hab. Nicobars. 

24. Tiara (Radina) zeleborii (Brot). 

Tiara (Eadina) zekborii (Brot), Mat. Melaniens, iii, p. 35, pi. 2, 
figs. 13, 14 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 230. 

Original description ; Testa subulata, solida, f usco-nigra, polita ; 



14 TIABID.E. 

spira eroso-decollata (specim. adult.) ; anfract. 5-6 incolumes sub- 
plamilati, Inevigati, sutura subcanaliculata, angusta marginata 
divisi, ultimo magno, basi obtuse angulato, circa columellam striato. 
Apertura pirit'ormis, superne acute angulata, basi producta, late 
effusa, columella torta, margine dextro recto, basali arcuato. 
Opercul. subspiraturn, nucleo basali, marginal!. 

Testa jnvenilis spira subintegra, colore fusco-corneo ; aufr. 
ultimus basi angulatus, parte mediana fusco tinctus. Anfr. 
circa 11, supreini lougitudinaliter crebre striati, striis sensim 
evanescentibus. 

Dim. specim. adult, decollate (anfr. 5-6). 

Alt. 54, diam. 13 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 18, diam. 10 mm. 

Dim. specim. juv. (ant'r. circa 11), 

Alt. 37, diam. 8 mm. 

Hab, Nicobars (Roepstorff). 

Var. nana, Nevill, torn. cit. 

" Strongly decollate, only 3 or 4 whorls remaining." 

Alt. 29-5', diam. 10-5 mm. 

Hab. Great Nicobar (Roepstorff). 

Var. solidiuscula, Nevill, torn. cit. 

"A very distinct variety, slightly decollate, 6 whorls ; 

constantly distinguished from the preceding by its greater 

solidity and by the less convex whorls, especially noticeable in the 
last one." 

Alt. 37, diam. 11 '5 mm. 

Hab. Andamans (Roepstorff) . 

25. Tiara (Radina) charon (Preston}. 

Tiara (Radina) chat-on (Preston), Ilec. Ind. Mus. ii, p. 196, pi. 15, 
tig. 22. 

Shell elongately subulate, dark brownish black ; remaining 
whorls 12, convex, marked throughout with lines of growth and 
spirally sculptured with faint, somewhat distant raised stride ; 
sutures well impressed ; columella descending in a rounded curve 
and extending into, a slight callus which reaches the lip above ; 
peristome simple ; aperture oblong-ovate ; interior slate-colour. 

Alt. 56, diam. maj. 12 mm. 

Aperture, alt. 11*75, diam. 7 mm. 

Hab. Andaman Islands. 

26. Tiara (Radina) expatriata (Preston). 

Tiara (Radina) expatriata (Preston), Rec. Ind. Mus. ii, p 196 
pi. 15, fig. 23. 

Shell subulately turreted, dark blackish brown; remaining 
whorls 4|, spirally striated on the lower half of the upper whorls ; 



TIA.RA. 15 

the body- whorl encircled by an infra-sutural ridge forming a 
distinct shoulder and weakly spirally lirate throughout below the 
ridge; sutures impressed; peristome simple ; columella arched, a 
callus joining it with the lip above ; aperture inversely auriform. 

Alt. 33-25, diam. maj. 12-25 mm. 

Aperture, alt. 10-5, diam. 5-5 mm. 

Hob. Andaman Islands. 

The shoulder formed by the infra-sutural ridre presents a some- 
what striking appearance and recalls some of the Western Pacific 
Island forms in which this character occurs ; the other characters, 
however, when taken collectively or singly, easily separate it from 
any of the species described from those regions. 

27. Tiara (Radina) multistriata (Preston}. 

Tiara (Radind) multistriata (Preston), Rec. Ind. Mus. ii, p. 196, 
pi. 15, fig. 24. 

Shell decollate, subulate, dark olive-brown ; remaining whorls 4, 
rather flat, sculptured throughout with fine transverse striae and 
coarser spiral striae ; sutures deep and incised ; columella arched ; 
peristome acute ; aperture ovate; interior bluish grey. 

Alt. 26, diam. maj. 10 ram. 

Aperture, alt. 9'5, diam. 4 mm. 

flab. Andaman Islands. 

Subgenus STRIATELLA. 

Striatella, Brot, Conch. Cab. 1875, pp. 7, 193. 

TYPES, Melania corporosa, Gould, Tahiti ; and Melania tubercu- 
lata, Miiller, N. Africa, S. & E. Asia, Malaysia, N. Australia. 

Range. Add to the above S. & E. Africa and Tropical Islands of 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Original description: Testa turrita, mediocris, longitudinaliter 
plus minusve striata, saepe transverse plicata ; apertura basi rotun- 
data, columella modice torta. 

Testa longitudinaliter inciso-striata, sutura canaliculata. 

(Typ. M. corporosa.} 

Testa longitudinaliter elevato-lirata ; rubropunctata vel flam- 
mulata. 

(Typ. M. tuberculata.} 

28. Tiara (Striatella) tuberculata (Mullir). 

Nerita tuberculata, Miiller, Hist, Verm. 1774 (as Nerita), Coro- 
mandel ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 74, figs. 1-4 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, 
p. 239. 

Shell elongate, very acuminate or subulate, pale, thin, sculptured 
with raised spiral striae and undulating grooves, blotched with 
blood-red, these red markings often forming zigzag bands. Whorls 
8 or 9, ornamented with longitudinal tubercular ridges, each bearing 



16 

about 9 tubercles on the body-whorl ; aperture ovate, outer lip 
acute, polished within and marked with more or less transparent 
bands. 

Hab. Throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon, and perhaps one 
of the most widely distributed and variable of species extending 
as it does from Morocco in the West to China and Australia in 
the East. 

The principal Indian varieties would seem, according to Nevill, 
to be as follows : 

Var. subcrebra, Nevill, Hand List, p. 241. 

"A subgranulose variety approaching M. crebra, Lea ; 

of a uniform straw-colour ; spire not much produced ; last whorl 
convex, whorls 6-7." 

Alt. 22, diara. 775 mm. 

Nab. Baiidarawella, Ceylon. 

Var. layardi (Dohrn), Nevill, Hand List, p. 242. 

Melania layardi, Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 135; Reeve, Conch. Icon, 
pi. 15, sp. 104 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 73, figs. 8, 9. 

Original description : Testa turrita, solidiuscula, olivacea ; anfr. 
6-7 convexi, striis spiralibus, rugis longitudinalibus regulariter 
ornata, ad suturam f usco-maculata : apertura ovato-oblonga, iritus 
cseruleo-albida ; columella rotundata, peristomium valde product 11111, 
arcuatum. 

Alt. 35, diam. 10 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 10, diam. 5 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon; S. Canara (Beddome). 

On the S. Canara specimen Nevill makes the following 
remarks : 

" The first specimens, I believe, of this very characteristic variety 
described from Continental India. They are a very fine form. 
long. 33, diam. 10-} mm. 7 whorls." 

The dimensions given in the original description are those 
of Dohrn's largest specimen, he gives them, together with the 
following description, of a smaller form, thus : 

" Var. Minor, decollata, nigrescens. intus cserulea." 
Alt. 22, diam. 7 mm. 
Aperture : alt. 7, diam. 4 mm. 

Var. tigrina (Hutton), Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 242. 

Melania tigrina, Hutton. J. A. S. B. 1850. p. 658 ; H. & T., C I. 
pi. 110, fig. 2. 

Original description : Shell devoid of apex, the spire being 
invariably much eroded ; general appearance that of M. pyramis, 



TIARA. 17 

but differs in being coarser, in wanting the strong and prominent 
longitudinal furrows which characterise that species, and which 
are observable throughout its length ; the outer lip also has a 
tendency to be more produced ; while the flame-shaped streaks of 
colouring are narrower, closer, and less devious or zigzag, often 
becoming bifid or pronged on the body-whorl ; epidermis pale 
olive-green or olive-brown, ornamented with close, narrow, irregular 
transverse dashes. General number of whorls in eroded and 
decollated specimens five, though nine or ten would appear to 
be the correct number, wrinkled transversely by coarse lines of 
increase ; the upper angle of the aperture is never so acute as in 
M. pyramis, and the sutures are deeper and whorls more tumid at 
their junction. 

Var. orissaensis, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 243. 

" A remarkable form ; spire short, with ventricose whorls, sub- 
stance thick, coloration uniform green (or almost so), longitudinal 
ribbing remarkably developed, even on the last whorl." 

Long. 25, diam. 9 (scarcely) mm. 

Hub. Cuttack, Orissa (J. Caldwell). 

Var. luteomarginata, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 244. 

Long. 37'5, diam. 13 mm. 

Hob. Kalgan, Persia ; Baluchistan. 

Var. myadoungensis, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 245. 

" A very distinct form remarkable for its ' terebra-like ' pro- 
duced spire, its contracted or appressed whorls (especially the 
last) ; the spiral, undulating sculpture is more acutely prominent 
than in any form I know ; all the whorls, except the last, have 
a light longitudinal ribbing as well; of a light yellowish-green 
colour, prettily marbled with brown. Anfr. 8 ; long. 27|, diam. 
7/0- mm." 

" PI. 74, fig. 1 of the Con. Indica resembles it, only 

the last whorl is too ventricose, etc." 

Hob. Myadoung, Upper Burma (Anderson). 

Subvar. subplicifera, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 245. 

" A form nearer Eeeve's fig. 109 B ; distinguished from the 
preceding by the more developed longitudinal structure through- 
out." 

Hab. Myadoung (Anderson). 

29. Tiara (Striatella) sublutosa (Nevill). 

Tiara (Striatella) sublutosa (Nevill), Hand List, pt. 2, p. 234. 

Original description : " Very strongly decollate, an exact 

c 



18 

'miniature' of M. Brot's pi. 24, fig. 15, M. . lutosa, Gould,' from 
Upolu. " 

Alt. 15, diam. 6-10 mm.; whorls 3. 

JJab. Great Nicobar (Roepstorff). 

30. Tiara (Striatella) turriculus (Lea). 

Tiara (Striatella} turriculus (Lea), P. Z. S. 1850, p. 190. 
Melania perpinguis, Reeve [not of Hinds], sp. 113; Nevill, Hand 
List, pt. 2, p. 234. 

Original description : Testa striata, conoidea, subtenui, obscure 
maculata, cornea, spira subelevata ; suturis impressis ; anfractibus 
novem, convexiusculis, lineis subraris impressis, superne angulatis ; 
apertura parva, subconstricta, intus albida et obscure maculata, ad 
basim rotunda; columella regulariter curvata. 

Alt. 2775, diam. 10 mm. 

Hob. Philippines ; Andamans (Roepstorff). 

31. Tiara (Striatella) nevilli (Brot). 

Tiara (Striatella} nevilli (Brot), Conch .-Cab. ii, 1877, p. 200, pi. 22, 
fig. 13 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 236. 

Original description : Testa subulato-turrita, subcylindracea, 
solida, virenti-olivacea, nitidula. Spira erosa ; anfr. persist. 6-7, 
declivi-convexiusculi, sutura appressa, subcanaliculato-incisa divisi, 
supremi longitudinaliter arete inciso-striati, ultimi 3-4 omnino 
laevigati vel lineis increment! leviter striatuli. Apertura piriformis, 
basi latiuscula, vix effusa ; columella subincrassata, parum torta et 
arcuata ; margine dextro subrecte descendente, baud protracto. 

Alt. 38, diam. 11 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 11, diam. 5-5 mm. 

Hab. Andaman Islands (Hanley) ; Tahiti (Morelet). 

Var. andamanica, Nevill, torn. cit. 

" distinguished by the upper three or four whorls being 

invariably longitudinally ribbed, the ribs being not at all pro- 
minent and slightly but distinctly arcuate ; quite young specimens 
show the ribbing throughout, the ribs only becoming obsolete on 
the lower portion of the last whorl. Generally but slightly 
decollate, eight whorls remaining; covered with a rust-brown 
coating, beneath which the shell is light green, irregularly and 
very slightly spotted with brown below the suture ; throughout 
spirally striated ; a single specimen only has this spiral sculpture 
obsolete on the central portion of the last two to three whorls. 
The majority ef specimens are smaller than type-figure of 
M. nevilli, and have the last two whorls increasing much more 
rapidly in breadth " 



TIARA. 19 

Subvar. semilaevigata, Nevill, toin. cit. 

The author gives no further description than that implied by 
the name. 

Hob. Andamans (Ford). 

Subvar. appressa, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 237 

The last two whorls are contracted much as in typical 
T. (S.) nevilli. 

Hob. Andamans (Anderson). 

32. Tiara (Striatella) nicobarica (Reeve). 

Tiara (Striatella) nicobarica (Reeve), Con. Icon. sp. 54 ; Nevill, 
Hand List, pt. 2, p. 237. 

Original description : Shell turriculated, rather solid, black : 
whorls ten to twelve, somewhat rounded, the first spirally grooved 
throughout, the rest with the upper and lower grooves fading 
away ; aperture rather small. 

Alt. 33*5, diam. 10 mm. (fig. in Con. Icon.). 

Hcib. Nicobar Islands. 

Subvar. canaliculata, Nevill, torn. cit. 

Apparently channelled below the suture. 

Hab. Nicobars (Roepstorff) S. Andaman (Roepstorjf). 

Subvar. gigantea, Nevill, torn. cit. 

A large form which, though only having four whorls remaining, 
is of the following dimensions : 
Alt. 43, diam. 17 mm. 
Hab. Camorta (Roepstorff) ; S. Andaman (Roepstorff). 

Var. fusiformis, Nevill, torn. cit. 

" Well distinguished by its produced and fusiform shape ; the 
whorls increase regularly and are more convex than those of 
the type form, in which the upper whorls are abruptly and cori- 
tractedly attenuate, the lower ones increasing rapidly in size, 
especially the last, which is always very tumid. In var. fusi- 
formis, on the contrary, it is only a trifle more swollen than the 
preceding one. More solid and of brighter coloration ; sculpture 
rather less distinct." (Nevill.) 

Alt. 32-5 (9 whorls), diam. 9 mm. 

Hab. S. Andaman (Roepstorff). 

Yar. perstriatula, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 238. 

"The last two whorls are throughout regularly and evenly, 
finely spirally striated." 

Hal. Andamans [?] (Stoliczlca). 

c2 



20 TIAKIDJE. 

33. Tiara (Striatella) crebra (Lea}. 

Tiara (Striatella} crebra (Lea), P. Z. S. 1850, p. 193 (as M. crebra} ; 
Reeve, Con. Icon. 1860, sp. 162 ; Tar. from Nicobars, Brot, pi. 33, 
fig. 2, as of Sect. Tarebia ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 238. 

Original description : Testa cancellata, elevato-conica, crassa, 
tenebroso-castanea ; spira valde elevata ; anfractibus decem, con- 
vexiusculis, ad basim striis impressis ; apertura parvula, ovata, 
intus albida ; ad basim rotunda ; columella incurvata. 

Alt. 37-5, diam. 12-5 mm. 

Hob. Philippines (Lea) ; Preparis Isd., Bay of Bengal (Stol- 
iczka, Wood-Mason') ; S. Andaman (Roepstorff) ; Nancowri and 
Katchall, Nicobars (Roepstorff). 

Subvar. emaciata, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 239. 

" Besides the more contracted whorls the coloration is darker 
and the longitudinal sculpture less developed." 
Alt. 28*5, diam. 7 mm. 
Hob. Katchall and Nancowri, Nicobar Islands (Roepstorff). 

34. Tiara (Striatella) rivularis (PMUppi). 

Tiara (Striatella) rivularis (Philippi), Abbild. ii, pi. 4, fig. 6, 1847. 
p. 171 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 247. 

Original description : Testa turrita, virescente, apice decollata ; 
anfractibus 7, convexis, sutura prof unda divisis, transverse striatis, 
superioribus lineis runs longitudinalibus, medianis serie transversa 
punctorum infra suturam, pictis ; apertura ovato-oblonga, superne 
acuta, basi effusa ; labro basi valde producto. 

Alt. 20, diam. 6-75 mm. 

Hab. Java ; Andamans (Roepstorff). 

Var. subunifascialis, Nevill , torn. cit. 

" .... the spiral striation is more or less obsolete on the upper 
portion of the whorls, imparting a very characteristic appearance 
to the shell ; basal band round the columella not visible within 
the aperture/' 

Alt. 19 (whorls 8^), diam. 6 mm. 

Hab. Andamans 



35. Tiara (Striatella) pyramis (Benson). 

Tiara (Striatella) pyramis (Benson), as Species B, Gleanings in 
Science, no. 13, 1830, p. 22 ; Hutton, J. A. S. B. xviii, 1850 
pt. 2, p. 658 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 110, figs. 3, 4. 

Original description : Shell subiilafce-turreted, translucent ; 
whorls depressed, with longitudinal and transverse rug*, which 
give a decussated appearance to the upper whorls. Colour pallid, 



TIAKA. 2 1 

with bands of red-brown dots or irregular longitudinal streaks of 
the same colour, sometimes altogether devoid of markings. 

" This shell occurs alive in the Gumti, Yamuna, Betwa, and 
Cen rivers. I have met with the exuviae in the Ganges. In this 
.... species the foot is of a pullid colour with brownish black 
markings. The body is light verdigris-green." 

Alt. 29*75, diam. maj. 8'75 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 8'5, diam. 4 mm. 

The above dimensions are taken from a specimen in the British 
Museum, none being given in the original description. 



Subgenus MELANOIDES. 

Melanoidss, H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. 1854, i, p. 296 ; Nevill, 
Hand List, pt. 2, p. 248. 

TYPE, Melania asperata, Lamarck ; Philippines. 

Range. S. and E. Asia ; Japan ; Malaysia. 

Shell subulate, solid ; whorls often nodulous or rugose ; aperture 
subcircular, produced in front; inner lip somewhat callous; 
outer lip sinuated, thickened, dilated and produced anteriorly. 
Operculum subcircular, stibspiral, of few rapidly-enlarging whorls. 



36. Tiara (Melanoides) herculea (Gould). 

Tiara (Melanoides) herculea (Gould), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 
1846, ii, p. 100 ; Otia Conch, p. 199 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 72, tig. 5. 

Original description : Testa ponderosa, elongato-conica, fusco- 
viridis, decollate : anfr., numero integro ad 15, superstitibus 2-5, 
planulatis, infra suturam constrictis, plicis profundis 4-nodosis 
longitudinalibus ; ultimo subcarinato, basi striis crassis cincto ; 
apertura subrhomboidali ; antice producta, callo columellari rotun- 
dato, crasso, fauce plus minusve fusco. 

Alt. 71*5, diam. 25*5 mm. 

Hob. Tavoy River. 



37. Tiara (Melanoides) gloriosa (Anthony). 

Tiara (Melanoides) gloriosa (Anthony), Amer. Journ. Conch, i, 
1865, pt. 3, p. 207, pi. 18, fig. 2 j H. & T., C. I. pi. 72, figs. 1, 2. 

Original description : Shell ovate-conic, smooth, olivaceous ; 
spire elevated, but abruptly decollate, exhibiting only four whorls, 
which are convex and quite broad ; sutures very deep and dis- 
tinct ; lines of growth remarkably prominent, often amounting to 
varices, and with revolving striae less prominent, but, nevertheless, 
distinct, decussating with them; aperture large, ovate, blotched 
with reddish-brown within; columella very much curved, thickened 



22 

with a white callus, and forming, with the sinuous outer lip, a 
lengthened, but not very decided sinus at the base. 

Alt. (as eroded) 63, diam. 25 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 25, diam. 18 mm. 

Hob. Pegu. 

Belongs to a group of which M. Jierculea, Gould, may be cited 
as an example, but is much larger, has never such regular folds as 
that species, nor are its concentric striae so prominent as to form 
nodulous ridges as in M. Jierculea ; it is probably one of the most 
ponderous species of the genus ; the revolving striae are more 
prominent near the sutures, and at the base of the shell they are 
also much crowded and more elevated. 

Var. peguensis, Hanley <$> Theobald, H. & T., C. I. pi. 72, fig. 6 
(as M. peguensis) ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 250 (as var. of 
M. touranensis, Soul.). 

Differing chiefly from the typical form in the absence of spiral 
striation and basal contraction of the aperture. 
Alt. 88, diam. 31 mm. (fig. in Conch! Ind.). 
Hob. Henzada, Pegu (Stoliczlca}. 

Var. compacta, Nevill, to'm. cit. (as var. of M. touranensis, 
Soul.). 

Smaller and more compact than the above, with the spiral striae 
at the base of the last whorl very distinct but more crowded than 
in typical M. gloriosa. 

Alt. 63-5, diam. 23-5 mm. 

Hob. Henzada (Stoliczlca}. 

Var. beddomeana, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 251 (as var. of M. touran- 
ensis, Soul.). 

4 Closely resembles the preceding in shape of the whorls and 
spiral striation at base of the last whorl; relatively even more 
solid; appears to be perfectly smooth throughout, with the 
exception of the above-mentioned basal striation." (Nevitt.) 

Alt. 44, diam. 17 j diam. 

Hob. Near Moulmein (Beddome). 



38. Tiara (Melanoides) humerosa (Gould}. 

Tiara (Melanoides) humerosa (Gould), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

ii, 1847, p. 219 ; Otia Conch, p. 200 ; Brot, Conch. -Cab. 1875, 

p. 107. 
Melania (Melanoides) reevei, Brot, Mater, i, 1862, p. 46=balteata, 

Keeve, sp. 144, fide Nevill. 

Original description : Testa elongate -turrit a simplex, viridi- 
cornea ; spira derosa, anfr. ad 8 convexis, prope suturam obsolete 
angulatis, lineis tenuissimis spiraliter striatis, ultimo antice 



TIARA. 23 

costato-striato ; apertura subovali, antice vix effusa; columella 
rotundata, alba, fauce fasciatim sublivida. 

Alt. 47*5, diam. 12-5 inm. 

ffab. Manko, Tavoy. 

Var. lanceolata (Hanky $ Theobald), Concli. Ind. pi. 153, 
fig. 1 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 248. 

A slender form. 
Alt. 63, diam. 22-75 mm. 

Hob. Mandalay (Anderson) ; Henzada, Pegu (StoliczJca) ; Thyet 
Myo (Hungerford). 

Var. imbricata (Hanley $ Theobald), torn. cit. fig. 4; .Nevill, 
Hand List, pt. 2, p. 249. 

" In quite young specimens the ' imbricated ' sculpture can 
scarcely be detected." (Nevill.) 
Alt. 65, diam. 25 mm. 
ffab. Henzada (StoliczJca) Taylaymaw (Anderson). 

Var. solidiuscula, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 249; Brot, 
Conch.-Cab. ii, pi. 13, fig. 6 (as M. reevei [juv.] ") 

" . . . . Solid and light yellow coloured ; a quite young specimen 
having a single broad brown belt on the middle of the last whorl." 
(Nevill.) 

Alt. 48, diam. 18 mm. 

ffab. Pegu (StoliczJca). 



39. Tiara (Melanoides) variabilis (Benson). 

Tiara (Melanoides) variabilis (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, 
pp. 746-747 ; Brot, in Conch.-Cab. 1875, pp. 85-87, pi. 10, figs. 1, 
1 a-d-, H. & T., C. I. pi. 109, figs. 2, 3, 5, 6. 

Original description : Testa elongato-turrita, solida, olivacea vel 
picea, sub epidermide albida ; anfractibus convexis transverse 
liratis, longitudinaliter striatis et costatis ; costulis anfractus 
ultimi superne nodulosis ; apice plerumque truncate ; suturis 
excavatis. Apertura intus violacea, coiumellae basi sinuata. 

ffab. Goomty River at Jonpur, Tolly's Mullah, near Calcutta. 

Var. A. Anfractuum inferiorum liris elevatis, nodulis eleva- 
toribus. 

ffab. River Hooghli at Calcutta. 

Var. B. Liris, mediana excepta, obsoletis ; nodulis subspinosis 
carinam humeralem coronantibus. 
This is the var. sjoinosa, Benson. 

Var. C. Laevis liris costulisque obsoletis ; anfractus ultimi medio 
subcarinato, adulti nodulis humeralibus frugaliter sparsis. 



24 TIARIDJE. 

Var. D. Anfractuum superiorum costulis obsoletis, ultimi et 
penultirai liris transversis costulis longitudinalibusque superne 
serie duplici nodulosis. 

Benson further adds : " Varieties B, C, and D are in the 
Silhet collection. The type specimens of several of these varieties 
would, if viewed apart, be easily mistaken for distinct species, but 
they melt into each other so gradually, occasionally showing the 
characters of more than one variety combined in the same shell, 
that no doubt remains of their blending in one species. In 
Tolly's Nullah I took larger specimens than any in the collection 
[Museum of the Asiatic Society] ; though at least four twists of 
the spire were defective, one individual measured 3'4 inches in 
length. The Gumti specimens are less liable to truncation, and 
in young specimens the apices are nearly perfect. I have not 
observed more than 12 whorls present in any specimen. I de- 
scribed the type of the species without a name as species A in the 
13th no. of the ' Gleanings in Science.' It was figured as no. 7 
in plate vii. vol. i." 

Subvar. cincta (Hanley $ Theobald), H. & T., C. I. pi. 109, 
fig. 5 ; JXevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 252. 

The ribs in this variety show a strong tendency to become 
spinose. 

Alt. 58, diam. 19 mm. (fig. in Conch. Ind.). 
Hob. Assam (Bacon} ; Eaniganj (StoliczJca). 

Subvar. subtuberculata, Nevill, torn. cit. 

" Aperture relatively very small, almost round ; last two whorls 
with scarcely any sculpture/' (Nevill.) 
Alt. 36, diam. 12-5 mm. 
Hob. Calcutta (Stoliczlca). 

Subvar. subspinosa, Nevttl, torn. cit. p. 253. 

No other description given than that implied by the name. 
Hob. Tank opposite Bengal Club, Calcutta (Nevill). 

Var. subvaricosa, Nevill, torn. cit. 

Appears to be more or less varicose. 

Alt. 65'5, diam. 24*mm. 

Hob. Arakan and Pegu ? (StoliczJca}. 

Var. fasciata, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 256. 

Having " a somewhat indistinct brown band in the middle of 
the whorls, two at base; substance rather thin, outer lip not 
acutely angled at base, although angled at the periphery; no 
tendency to posses a raised keel there, as is often the case." 

Alt. 33, diam. 17 mm. (4 remaining whorls). 

Hob. Bhootan (StoliczTca). 



TIARA. 25 



40. Tiara (Melanoides) episcopalis (1. & H. Lea}. 

Tiara (Melanoides) episcopalis (I. & H. Lea), P. Z. S. 1850, p. 184, 
in part; Reeve, Con. Icon., Melania, pi. 3, sp. 12; H. T.. 
C. 1. pi. 72, fig. 7, & pi. 75, figs. 5, 7. 

Original description: Testa plicata, turrita, subcrassa, tene- 
brosa-castanea ; spira elevata ; suturis impressis ; aufractibus 
subconvexis, prope suturam superiorem concavis; plicis raris, 
subacuminatis ; apertura rnagna, elliptica, intus caerulescente ; 
columella contorta. 

Alt. 61, diam. 20 mm. 

Hob. A sluggish river, Malacca. 

The authors also append the following note : 

" This is a remarkable and interesting species, and differs from 
any which has been described in having rather large and some- 
what distant folds rising on the upper part into nodular points 
in all the four specimens submitted for examination. The apex 
of these specimens being truncated, the number of whorls cannot 
be ascertained. A perfect adult would probably present about 
ten. The folds are distinct on the four lower whorls only. On 
the middle of the lower whorl there is a slightly elevated line, 
below which are about six obscure striae. The aperture is large, 
and more than one-third the length of the shell ; it is twisted, 
and has an elongated base. The columella is whitish and very 
much incurved. The operculum is more spiral than usual, and 
the polar point more toward the centre." 

A number of minor varieties are cited by Nevill in his ' Hand 
List,' from which, however, for the purposes of the present work 
it will be sufficient to quote the following : 

Var. pontificalis (v. d. Busch), Mousson, L. & S. Moll. Java, 
p. 65, pi. 10, fig. 3 (as Melania pontificalis). 

Melania infracostata, v. d. Busch, in Reeve, Conch. Icon., Melania, 
sp. 14 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 259. 

Original description : Testa turrita, magna, crassa, lactea, 
superne flammulis nonuullis picta, epidermide olivacea induta, 
anfractibus longitudine transversimque tenuiter striatis, superiori- 
bus fere planatis, inferioribus convexis, ultimo et penultimo 
crassicostatis, costis distantibus superne in nodulos exeuntibus ; 
columella arcuata, labro acuto ad basin producto ; apertura ovata, 
Jactea. 

Alt. 72, diam. 24-5 mm. 

Hob. Borneo ; near Sibsagar (Peal). 



41. Tiara (Melanoides) menkeana (Lea), emend. 

Melania metikiana, in Lea, Obs. Unio, iv, p. 24, for Melania plicata, 
Lea, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (& Obs. Unio, ii, p. 20), pi. 23, fig. 95 
(not oi'Meuke, Synops. 1830). 



26 TIAEIDJE. 

Melania menkeana, Lea, Brot in Conch.-Cab. 1875, p. 91, pi. 11, 
figs. 1, 1 , b ; H. & T., C. I. p. 45, pi. 110, fig. 6. 

Testa turrita vel conoideo-turrita, solidula, fusco-olivacea non- 
nuDquam brunneo bi- vel trifasciata ; spira decollata, anfr. super- 
stit. ad 8, convexi, in medio angulati, infra angulum transversim 
plicati, plicis ad angulum in spinas breves, extus directas termi- 
natis. Ani'r. ultimus basi obsolete liratus, linea suturali con- 
spicue filoso-angulata. Apert. elliptico-ovata, superne acuta et 
angustata, basi angulatim producta; columelJa contorta, margine 
dextro simplici, basin versus protracto. (Brot, in Conch .-Cab.) 

Alt. 46, diam. 20 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 18'5, diam. 9 mm. 

Hob. Bengal. 

Var. microstoma, Ntvill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 26] . 

A small form with a small and almost rounded aperture. 
Alt. 25, diam. 11*75 mm. 
Hob. Sjlhet. 



42. Tiara (Melanoides) baccata (Gould). 

Tiara (Melanoides) baccata (Gould), Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, 
ii, p. 219; Otia Conch, p. 200; H. & T., C. I. pi. 75, figs. 1, 4 : 
Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 262. 

Original description : Testa magna, crassa, elongato-turrita, 
epidermide fusco-castaneo induta ; spira decollata, anfr. 6 rotun- 
datis, plicis longitudinalibus et costis volventibus triseriatim 
nodoso-decussatis, ultimo ad basim 4 costato ; apertura lunata, 
labio antice producto, columella aurantia valde arcuata; fauce 
caarulescente fusco-fasciato^ 

Alt. 51, diam. 18*5 mm. 

Hob. Thoung-yin River, Burma. 

Subvar. recta, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 262 ; Brot, in Conch.- 
Cab. 1874, pi. 9, fig. 6 (as M. baccata, Gld.). 

"Well represented by the above figure, but more decollate, 
only 2| whorls remaining." (Nevill.) Upper Salvviii. 

The following varieties are depicted by Hanley and Theobald 
in the Conch. Indica, pi. 75, figs. 2, 3, both from the Shan 
States : 

Var. fusiformis. 

Var. pyramidalis. 

Melanoides variabilis, rar. pyranndah's, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 
xxxiv, 1865, pt. 2, pi. 19, fig. 7. 



TIABA. 27 

Var. iravadica (Stanford), P. Z. S. 1869, p. 445 ; H. & T., C. I. 

pi. 71, fig. 1 ; JSTevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 262. 

Original description : Testa elongato-turrita, tenuis, fusco- 
olivacea, decollata. Anfr. circa 7, primi erosi, 3-4 superstites 
convexi, superi seriebus duabus spiral ibus nodorum confertorum 
circuindati, ultimus spiraliter liratus, nodis fere vel omnino 
obsoletis. Apertura rhomboideo-ovata, antice subeffusa ; peri- 
stoma tenue, margine externo subrecto, basali antice porrecto, 
columellari sinuate. Operc. ? 

Length (of a large decollated specimen) 25, diam. 15 mm. 

Aperture taken obliquely: length 13, diam. 8 mm. 

Total length (of a medium-sized example, also decollated) 13, 
of the last whorl 11, largest diameter 14, smallest 12'5 mm. 

Aperture taken obliquely and including the labrum : length 13, 
diam. 8'5 mm. 

Hob. Irawady Eiver above Male and Bhamo ; Manwyne and 
Taylaymaw. 

43. Tiara (Melanoides) terebra (Benson). 

Tiara (Melanoides) terebra (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 747 ; 

Beeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 11, sp. 59. 
Melanoides torqiiata, Busch, in Philippi, Ab. N. Conch, i, Melania, 

pi. 1, fig. 18 j Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 264. 

Original description : Testa elongato-turrita, olivaceo-brunuea, 
Ia3vi, polita ; anfractibus tumidis ; suturis excavatis ; sinu inter 
basin labri columellamque nullo. . . . Testa truncata. 

Alt. 41 mm. 

Hob. North-East Frontier of Bengal ; Sylhet. 

Benson remarks : " It is distinguished from the young of the 
smooth variety of M. variabilis by the want of angularity at the 
centre of the lower whorl, by its polished epidermis, more tumid 
whorls and more deeply sunk sutures, as well as by the absence of 
the sinuation of the inner lip which characterizes that species. 
The apex of the shell is more or less truncated." 



44. Tiara (Melanoides) spinata (Godwin- Austen). 

Tiara (Melanoides) spinata (Godwin-Austen), P. Z, S. 1872, p. 514, 
pi. 30, fig. 1 (as Melanoides) ; Brot, in Conch.-Cab. 1875, p. 89, 
pi. 10, figs. 2, 2 a ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 109, fig. 1. 

Original description : Shell angularly turreted ; colour olive- 
green ; spire acute, rather rapidly decreasing in diameter ; apex 
eroded ; suture marked by a distinct cord continuous with that 
on the lower angle of the last whorl ; whorls 5-6 (there would be 
8 if perfect), very convex and flattened on the periphery, with 
strong tubercles arranged in two parallel longitudinal rows, the 
spines being rather longer on the upper : aperture ovate, vertical, 



28' TIABIDJE. 

well channelled at the base, a thin milky callus on the columellar 
margin, within pale grey with two or more bands of brown 
coinciding with the rows of spines and the corded surface of the 
outer base. 

Operculum paucispiral, nucleus suhcentral. 

Animal 1*4 in. long ; foot round and large, not angular in 
front ; colour grey, mottled with ochre ; body also grey, the ochre 
markings showing as streaks ; tentacles very short, 0*4 inch. 

Alt. 58, diam. 30 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 26, diam. 17 mm. 

Hob. Kopili Biver, North Cachar Hills, a tributary of the 
Brahmaputra. 

45. Tiara (Melanoides) baccifera, Theobald. 

Tiara (Melanoides) baccifera (Theobald), J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1866, 

pt. 2, p. 274, pi. 9, fig. 5 (as M. variabilis, var. baccifera). 
Melanoides subasperata, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 262. 

Differing from M. variabilis in having the " whorls ornamented 
with four or five rows of beaded keels, the transverse ribbing being 
often well marked likewise " (Theobald). The small and circular 
aperture is also a distinctive character. 

Alt. 47*5, diam. 18*75 mm. 

Hob. Shan States. 

Var. sublaevigata, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 262. 

A rather smoother form. 

Hab. " Burma " (Stoliczka) ; Shan States (Fedclen). 

Var. vittata (Theobald), J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1866, pi. 9, fig. 4, 
p. 273 (as M. variabilis, var. vittata) ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, 
p. 263. 

Shell smooth, with somewhat convex whorls, rather pale in 
colour, ornamented with a dark median band which becomes 
obsolete on the last whorls ; it is, however, well marked on the 
earlier convolutions. 

Alt. 50, diam. 18-30 mm. 

Hab. Shan States (Fedden). 



46. Tiara (Melanoides) jugicostis (Benson). 

Tiara (Melanoides} jugicostis (Benson), 31S. (Hanley & Theobald), 
Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 110, tigs. 8, 9 ; Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 
1877, pt. 2, p. 33. 

"Shell small, slightly decollated; whorls five, abruptly angular, 
smooth and shining, with a few rather distant, somewhat obsolete 
and irregular, transverse ridges on the lower half of the last 
whorl; longitudinally angularly ribbed, ribs very distant, thick 



TIAEA. 29 

prominent, almost varicose, eight of them on the last whorl, 
disappearing towards the base ; very pale green, with no markings 
except a subobsolete brown band at base." (Nevill.) 




Fig. 1. Tiara (Melanoides) jugicostis, Bens. (type). 

Alt. 12, diain. 6 mm. 

Hob. Tenasserim Biver {Conch. Ind.} ; Myadoung, Burma 
(Nevill). 

47. Tiara (Melanoides) godwini (Broi). 

Melanoides hanleyi, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 514, pi. 30, 
fig. 2 (as Melanoides} ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 110, fig. 5. 

Tiara (Melanoides) godwini (Brot), in Conch.-Cab. 1875, p. 90, 
pi. 10, fig. 3. 

Original description : Shell turreted, colour rich dark chestnut- 
brown ; spire rather acuminate, rapidly decreasing ; apex eroded ; 
suture impressed but slightly, but strongly marked ; whorls 5 
(without the apical), flat, sharply angular above with a single row 
of well-defined small tubercles on the angular margin ; body-whorl 
large, well rounded below, distinctly corded at base near the 
columellar margin ; aperture vertical, ovate, very slightly effused 
at base ; within pale grey, with three or more red-brown bands. 

Alt. 47,diam. 25 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 22, diatn. 12 mm. 

Hob. Diyung Eiver, North Cachar Hills. 

Subgenus PACHYCHILUS. 
PacJiychilus, Lea, P. Z. S. I860, p. 179. 

TYPE, P. cumingii, Lea [as gen. n.] ; Central America. 

Range. "W. Indies ; C. & S. America ; Tropical Asia. 

Original desertion:- Testa conica. Apertura ovata, basi 
integro. Labrum crassum. Collumella superhe incrassata. 
Operculum suborbiculare, corneum. 

48. Tiara (Pachychilus) limborgi (Hanley}. 

Tiara (Pachychilus) limborgi (Hanley), Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. xiv, 
1878, p. 580 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 269. 



30 TIAEID-ffi. 

Original description: Testa oblongo-turrita, brevis, magis 
minusve crassa, olivaceo-flava. Anfractus pauci (circiter 8), 
magni, convexi, rapide crescentes ; supremi lacves, fascia spiral! 
livida aliquantulum supra medium saepius picti ; inferiores costellis 
subdepressis (nonnunquam versus costellas basis acutiores augustas 
magisque distantes obsoletis) spiraliter ornati. Sutura distincta. 




Fig. 2. Tiara (Pachychilus) limhorgi, Hanley (type). 

Apertura ovato-elliptica, basi rotundata, circiter f longitudinis 
testse sequans, livida vel livido-fasciata ; peristomo pallida ; 
columella arcuata, macula livida picta, haud angusta. 

Alt. 25 mm. 

Hob. Mule-it Range, Tenasserim (Limborg). 

" The shell, displays no other painting than the narrow 

livid band which winds occasionally to the outer lip ; it is probable, 
however, that additional ones are sometimes developed upon the 

body-whorl. The spire tapers quickly to its point There 

are no longitudinal folds." 

49. Tiara (Pachychilus) hungerfordiana, Nevill. 

Tiara (Pachychilus) hungerfordiana, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2 
p. 270. 

" Slightly truncate, seven whorls remaining, thick and 

solid, of a yellowish-brown colour, girt with a single well-marked 
band in the middle of the upper whorls ; three bands on the last 
whorl ; the basal margin subacutely angled, not rounded . . . . ; no 
spiral sulcation at base of last whorl.' 

Alt. 39*5, diarn. 10 mm. 

Hob. Upper Burma (type) (Hunger ford) ; Pegu. 

Subgenus ACROSTOMA. 
Acrostoma, Brot, in Conch. -Cab. 1874, p. 17. 
TYPE, Melania h'tigeti, Philippi ; India. 
Range. India ; Java. 

Original description : Testa fusiformis subbiconica ; apertura 
basi angulatim producta. 



TIARA. 31 

50. Tiara (Acrostoma) hiigeli (Philippi}. 

Tiara (Acrostoma) hilgeli (Philippi), Abbild. N. Conch, i, p. 61, 

Melanin, pi. 2, fig. 8. 
Melanin siphonata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 20, sp. 143 ; H. & T., 

C. I. pi. 71, tigs. 5, 6 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 270. 

Original description : Testa oblongo-conica, obscure f usca ; 
anfractibus planiusculis, transversim striatis ; ultimo ventricoso, 
basi grosse sulcato ; apertura ovata, anfractus 3 antecedentes 
simul sumptos aequante, basi manifesto effusa ; columella arcuata. 

Ait. 33, diam. 19'5 mm. 

Hob. Kbasi Hills ; Mysore ; Upper Canvery River (Stanford). 

Var. compacta, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 270. 

" Easily distinguished by its short, stout form, relatively con- 
tracted aperture, less tumidly swollen, but more subangulate last 
whorl, and closer spiral sculpture ; the spire is more truncate, the 
coloration darker." 

Alt. 25-5, diam. 1375 mm. 

Hob. Wynaad [type var.] and Cochin Hills (Beddome); Canvery 
River (Jerdon). 



51 . Tiara (Acrostoma) assamenis, Nevill. 

Tiara (Acrostoma} assamensis, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 271; 
Hanley, Conch. Misc. pi. 5, fig. 43, as " M. hiigeli, var. of Philippi, 
from Khasya." 

Original description : Remarkably close to Mel. Jiiigeli, from 
which it can be distinguished by its less solid substance, its much 
more convexly rounded whorls, the last not being (more or less) 
subangulate as in its ally ; of a plain, uniform, dark colouration ; 
of similar minute striation. but wanting the spiral sulcations at 
base of last whorl ; characters of the columellar margin and 
aperture generally much as in typical M. Imgeli, strongly decollate, 
three whorls only remaining. 

Alt. 35, diam. 18*5 mm. 

Hob. North Cachar (Godwin-Austen} ; " Delaima " ? (Nevill}. 



52. Tiara (? Acrostoma) prsemordica (Tryori). 

Tiara (? Acrostoma} pramordica (Try on), Amer. J. Conch, ii, pt. 2, 
1866, p. Ill, pi. 10, fig. 3 ; Brot, in Conch.-Cab. 1875, p. 108, pi. 13, 
figs. 8, 8 a ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 153, fig. 2. 

Original description : Shell ovately conical, robust, covered with 
regular, close, curved growth lines, and with rounded revolving 
ribs, of which seven are on the body-whorl ; spire conical elevated, 
(? eroded), suture deeply impressed; whorls convex, surface 



32 TIARIDjE. 

formed into a succession of planes by the revolving ribs ; aperture 
ovate, a little broadly effused below; the ribs form slight sulcations 
within the aperture. Reddish brovvu, sometimes dark greenish- 
brown ; internally white or light yellowish, the sulcations deep 
brown. 

Alt. (eroded) 30, diam. 22 mm. 

Hob. Burma. 

53. Tiara (Acrostoma) pagodula (Gould). 

Tiara (Acrostoma) pagodula (Gould), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 
1847, ii, p. 219 ; Otia Conch, p. 200 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., lo, fig. 
10 (as lo), H. & T., C. I. pi. 153. fig. 3. 

Original description : Testa crassa sub-rhombea, turrita, 
tenuiter striata, fusco-castanea, decollata ; spira elevata, conica ; 
anfr. 4 angulatis, angulo spinis 6 robustis armato ; ultimo autice 
sub-rostrato, et costulis ad 4 cincto ; apertura ovata, antrorsum 
producta, fauce cserulescente, fusco-maculato. 

Alt. 38, diam. 22-5 mm. 

Bab. Thoungyin River, a branch of the Salwin. 

Subgenus MELANELLA. 

Melanella, Swainson, 1840, Treat. Malac. p. 341 : Nevill, Hand List, 
pt. 2, p. 271. 

TYPE, Melania Jiolandri, Fe'russac ; Austria-Hungary. 

Range. S.E. Europe ; S. & E. Asia ; Malaysia. 

Original desertion : Obovate ; spire scarcely longer than the 
aperture, which is entire ; inner lip much thickened its whole 
extent. 

54. Tiara (Melanella) zonata (Benson). 

Tiara (Melanella) zonata (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 747 ; 
Philippi, Abbild. N. Conch, i, Melania,pl. 1, fig. 12; Reeve Conch. 
Icon. pi. 31, sp. 217 ; H. <fc T., C. I. pi. 71, fig. 4 ; Nevill, Hand 
List, pt. 2, p. 272. 

Original description : Testa ovato-conica-laevi, longitudinaliter 
striata, olivacea, zonis tribus brunneis fasciata, anfractibus leviter 
convexis, suturis minime profundis ; apertura albida, ovato-oblonga, 
infra subangulata. 

Alt. 21-25 mm. 

Hal. North-East Frontier of Bengal ; Sylhet. 

55. Tiara (Melanella) riqueti (Grateloup). 

Tiara (Melanella) riqueti (Grateloup), Trans. Lin. Bordeaux, xi, pi. 5, 
fig. 28 ; II. & T., C. I. pi. 71, fig. 10 ; Brot, in Conch.-Cab, 1877, 
p. 333, pi. 34, figs. 6, 6 a. 



TIARA. 33 

" Testa ovato-turrita, tenuicula, nitida, cornea, sparsim fusco- 
punctata. Spira modice exserta, Integra, acuta ; anfr. 8-9 ; 
supremi transverse plicati et longitudinal! ter striati, media 
angulati et submuricati, sequentes convexiusculi, infra suturara 
leviter constricti, transversim sinuose costati, sparsim longi- 
tudinaliter striatuli, costis ad suturam in nodulis terrainatis ; anfr. 
ultimus basi liris elevatis 5-7 ornatus. Apert. ovata, superne 
acuta, basi valde et subanguste effusa ; margine dextro valde 
sinuoso, et versus basin conspicue arcuatim producto ; columella 
torta, inodice arcuata." (Brot, in Conch. -Cab.) 

Alt. 16, diam. 7mm. 

Aperture : alt. 8, diam. 4 in in. 

Hob. India, Bombay (Grateloup), Quilon, Travancore, Cochin 
(Hanley) ; Philippines (Cuming)- Java? (Dunker). 



Subgenus TAREBIA. 

Tarebia, H.^ A. Adams, 1854, Gen. Rec. Moll. p. 304 (as subgenus 
of Vibex, Oken). 

TYPE, Melania granifera, Lamarck ; Timor. 

Mange. S. &JE. Asia; Malaysia; Pacific Islands. 

Original description : Shell ovato-fusiform, whorls granulose or 
tessellated with nodules : outer lip sinuated towards the hind 
part ; interior of aperture often furnished with spiral grooves. 

56. Tiara (Tarebia) batana (Gould). 

Tiara ( Tarebia) batana (Gould), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, i, p, 144 ; 
Otia Conch, p. 191 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 74, figs. 8, 9 ; Nevill, Hand 
List, p. 274. 

Original [desertion : Testa turrita, solida, fusco-virescente, 
apice erosa ; anfract. 6-7, planulatis, postice sub-coronatis, costulis 
longitudinalibus et volventibus gemmularum series tres effor- 
mantibus; apertura angusto-ovata, postice coronata, intus 
caerulescente, columella alba. 

Alt. 25-5, diam. 38 mm. 

Nab. Tavoy ; Tenasserim Eiver. 

57. Tiara (Tarebia) broti (Dohrn). 

Tiara (Tarebia) broti (Dohrn), in Reeve's Con. Icon. pi. 22, sp. 160. 
Melania chocolatum, Brot, Revue Zool. 1860, June, pi. 16, fig. 2; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 71, figs. 2, 3 ; Nevill, Hand List, p. 276. 

Shell ovately turreted, rather solid, burnt-olive; whorls few, 
decussately wrinkle-edged throughout, concavely angled at the 
upper part, spinously tuberculed at the angle ; aperture rather 
small, truncated at the base, lip notched at the upper part. 

Hab. Ceylon 

D 



34 TIAEID^E. 

" Strongly grain-wrinkled throughout, and conspicuously coron- 
ated with spine-tubercles." (Reeve.} 

Subvar. subviridis, Nevill, torn. cit. 

"... it may fairly be considered a connecting link between this 
species and M. rudis" (Nevill.) 

Alt. 26, diam. 11*25 mm. (decollate, 3| whorls only remaining). 
Bob. Ceylon (Layard). 

58. Tiara (Tarebia) rudis (Lea). 

Tiara (Tarebia) rudis (Lea), P. Z. S. 1850, p. 186 ; Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. pi. 24, sp. 172 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 74, figs. 7, 10, as Melania 
rudis ; Nevill, Hand List, p. 275. 

Original description : Testa plicata, subfusiformi, crassa, cornea ; 
spira subelevata ; suturis irregulariter impressis ; anfractibus plan- 
ulatis trans versim lineis impressis cinctis, superne canalictilatis ; 
plicis numerosis, crebris ; apertura parva, ovata, intus albida ; 
labro superne emarginato ; columella Ia3vi, subcrassa, torta, 

Alt. 27, diam. 10 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon ; Tenasserim Eiver. 

The original locality is given as Amboyna. 

Nevill in his Hand List cites a " var. ceylonica,*' but without 
figure or description. 

59. Tiara (Tarebia) lineata (Gray). 

Tiara (Tarebia) lineata (Gray), Wood, Index Test. Supp. (1828), 

Helix, fig. 68 ; Trosch. in Wiegm. Arch. Nat. 1837, p. 176. 
Melanin lirata, Benson, J, A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 782, name only tor 

nameless fig. D in Glean. Sci. Calcutta, i (1829) ; Reeve, Con. 

Icon. pi. 24, sp. 170 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 71, fig. 7 ; Nevill, Hand 

List, p. 276. 

Original description : Testa conica, exserta, tenui, subdiaphana, 
anfractibus applanatis, lineis elevatis spiralibus 7-8, quarum super- 
iores plerumque tuberculata3 sunt, cinctis ; apertura ovato-acuta. 
Anfr. 10. 

Alt. 22, diam. of the last whorl 9, alt. of aperture 10 mm. 

Hob. River Goomty ; Tenasserim, etc. 

Nevill in his ' Hand List of Mollusca in the Indian Museum ' 
notes the following forms : 

" With one or two undulating, subgranulose keels below the 
suture only ; well represented by the Con. Indica, pi. 71, fig. 7 
Calcutta granulose sculpture distinct and well developed ; 
fairly represented by M. Brot's pi. 33, fig. 6, excellently by Reeve's 
fig. 170 ( Sikkim). Long. 30, diam . 14 ; another long. 34, diam . 12| 
mil." ; Calcutta [in tanks]. 

" Long. 19, diam. 8 mill., granulose sculpture almost obsolete.'* 
TeriaGhat; Ceylon; Tespore; Goalundo; Mandalay ; Gowhatty 
and Bhootan. 



TIARA. 35 

Var. semigranosa (v. d. Busch), Nevill, Hand Lisb, p. 277. 
Mclania semigranosa, v. d. Buscli, Philippi, Abbild. i, 1884, Java. 

" Differs conspicuously by the shorter spire, and the more 
tumidly ventricose last whorl, which is also more produced, etc. 
Long. 31. 

" Diam. 15 mm ; apex eroded. 

" Hob. Near Moulmeiu. 

" Long. 18, diarn. 8J mm. May be considered as a connecting 
link with M. batana, Grid. Pegu. 

" A fine form with turriculately planulate whorls. Long. 30, 
diam. 13 mm. Meetan, Tenassernn Province; Teria Ghat?" 
(Nevill} 

Subvar. pergranosa, Nevill, torn. cit. 

" Long. 15J, diam. 7| mm. G-ranulose sculpture very pro- 
minent." (Nevill.) 
Hab. Port Canning. 

Yar. flavida (Dunker), Nevill, torn. cit. p. 277; Philippi, Abbild. 
i, 1884, p. 164, pi. 3, fig. 15. 

Original description: Testa parva, oblongo-pyrainidata, solidula, 
flavida, diaphana, anfractibus senis planulatis, transversim sulcatis; 
apertura subelliptica. 

Alt. 12, diam. 4'5 mm. 

A pale yellowish variety originally described as a species with- 
out locality, it is a common Javan form, Indian specimens of which, 
according to Nevill, have the spire more subcylindrically produced 
than those from Java. 

Hal). Teria Ghat (Stoliczlca). 

Subgenus PLOTIA. 
Plotia, H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. 1854, p. 295. 

TYPE, Melania spimdosa, Lamarck = J/. scabra, Miiller ; S. Asia. 

Range. S. Asia, Malaysia and Tropical Islands of Indian and 
Pacific Oceans. 

Original description : Shell ovate, fusiform ; whorls spinose, 
transversely sulcate ; aperture elongate, simple in front. 

60. Tiara (Plotia) scabra (Miiller). 

Tiara (Plotia) scabra (Miiller) (as Bucdnum scabra), Hist. Verm. 

ii, p. 136: Chemn. Conch.-Cab. figs. 1259, 1260, badly as (Helix 

scabra) ; Brug. Enc. Meth., Vers, i, p. 330 (as Bulimus scabra) j. 

Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. s. Vert, ix, p. 443. 
Helix aspera, Gmel. Syst. Nat. fig. 3656; Dillw. Cat. ii, p. 950; 

Wood, Ind. Testae, pi. 34, fig. 141 . 
Melania eleyans, Reeve, Con. Icon., Mel. sp. 178 ; H. & T., C. I. 

pi. 73, figs. 1-4 ; Brot, in Conch.-Cab. 1877, pp. 266-269, pi. 27, 

figs. 14, 14a-^ ; 15, 15 a. 

" Sbell ovate, sometimes a little elongated, rather thin, brownish- 



36 

olive, dotted, and sometimes streaked with purple-rust; whorls 
seven to nine, specially unequally striately ridged, slopingly angled 
round the upper part, prickly spined at the angle, spines a little 
descending in varices ; aperture ovate." (Reeve, Con. Icon.) 

Alt. 13-26, diam. 7-11 mm. 

Aperture : alt 6-11, diam. 2-5-5-5 mm. 

Hob. India ; Pondichery, Madras (Blanford), Poona, Coro- 
inaudel, Cochin (Hanky $ Theobald) ; Ceylon (Humbert) also 
Timor (Lamarck); Vanikoro (Quoy 6," Gaimard); Java (Mousson); 
ISew Guinea (Less.)', Halmaheira (Landaner) also Mauritius and 
Seychelles. 

Var. elegans (Benson). 

Melania elegans, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836. p. 782, name only for the 
unnamed turreted form in Gleanings in Science, ii, 1830, p. 22. 

Melania letter c, Hutton, J. A. S. B. xvii, pt. 1, 1849, p. 657 ; H. & 
T., C. I. pi. 73, figs. 5-7 ; Brot, in Conch.-Cab. 1877, p. 274, 
pi. 28, figs. 9, 9 a. 

" Testa turrita, solidiuscula, cornea, pallide rubro punctata vel 
-eleganter interrupte flammulata. Spira integra ; anfr. 9 coavexi, 
rsuperne subangulati, transverse plicato-costati, piicis ad angulum 
spinulosis, longitudinaliter lirati, elegantissima granoso-clathrati. 
Apertura ovata, basi subanguste rotundata ; columella vix arcuata, 
margine dextro vix sinuoso." {Brot, in Conch.-Cab.) 

Alt. 16-32, diam. 7-5-12 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 7-11, diam. 4-6 mm. 

Hob. Rivers Guinti, Belwa and Cen. 

61. Tiara (Plotia) datura (Do7irn). 

Tiara (Plotia) datura (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1858, p. 135 (as Melania) ; 
Reeve, Con. Icon. pi. 32, sp. 213 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 73, fi-. 10 ; 
Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p, 281. 

Original description : Testa oblongo-pyramidata, fragilis, dia- 
phana, fusco-nigricans, decollata : anfr. 3-4 ad suturam angulati ; 
supra plani, subtus vix convexi, in augulo iongis spinis, infra 
medium lineis elevatis ornati ; apertura caerulea oblonga. 

Alt. 21, diam. 11 mm. 

Aperture : alt. ,10, diam. 5 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



62. Tiara (Plotia) acanthica (I. & H. Lea). 

Tiara (Plotia) acanthica (I. & H. Lea), P. Z. S. 1850, p. 194 (as 
Melania); H. & T., C. I. pi. 110, fig. 10; Nevill, Hand List, 
p. 281. 

Original description -.Testa, spinosa, ovato-turrita, varicosa, 
transversim lineata, subtenui, f usca ; spira elongata, conica, scalari- 
f orini ; apice truncata ; sutura lineari ; anfractibus superne angu- 
latis varicibus distortis ; angulo spinis instructo ; varicibus magnis 



TIARA. 37 

regularibus, subobliquis, superne in spinis productis ; spinis longis, 
tenuibus, irregularibus, extortis ; lineis transversis, crebris, parvis, 
subalternantibus ; anfractu ultimo parvo, ad basim lineato ; aper- 
tura elliptica, inf'erne effusa ; labro inferne producto ; columella 
parva, inferne incrassata. 

Alt. 20, diam. 10 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon ; also occurs in the Philippines, Sumatra, etc. 

KeviH is his ' Hand List Moll, in Ind. Mus., Calcutta,' p. 281, 
gives the following varieties, all from the Andaman Islands. 

Var. roepstorffiana, Nevill. 

Long. 18|, diam. 9| mm. ; whorls 7. 

Very near M. Brot's pi. 28, fig. 10 A. [Philippines]. 

Subvar. brevispira, Nevill. 
Long. 12|, diam. 6| mm. 

Subvar. subscabra, Nevill. 

Long. 14J, diam. 7f mm. A connecting link with Tiara (P.) 
scabra, the spines being rather less developed. 

Subgenus MAINWAEINGIA. 

Maimoannyia, Nevill, Hand List, 1884, pt. 2, p. 286. 

TYPE, Melania (Mainwaringid) paludomoidea, Nevill ; Gangetic 
Delta. 

Range. Gangetie Delta. 

Original description : " apparently connecting Melania 

and Paludomus, distinguished by the presence of rows of hairs or 
bristles, especially noticeable on the body whorl, which is orna- 
mented with broad revolving brown bauds ; not umbilicate ; apex 
remarkably acute, ' quasi styliform ' ; peristome acute, columella 
thickened and excavatedly inflected. Operculum transparent, of 
one substance throughout that is, without any thickened process 
for attachment of very light horn-colour, without sculpture, 
ovate, acuminate at one end, at the other rounded, and distinctly 
terminally subspiral, with 2| whorls, closely resembling Adams' 
pi. 35, fig. 10 A-B, operculum of Hydrobia ulvce." 

63. Tiara (Mainwaringia) paludomoidea, Levitt. 
Tiara (Mainwarinyid) paludomoidea, Nevill, torn. cit. 

Original desertion : [Shell] imperforate, conically produced,, 
spire turretedly acuminate, apex very acute, suture distinct ; of a 
rather yellowish, bright " horn-colour," girt on the last whorl with 
three distinct, broad, dark- brown bands, showing clearly within the 
aperture; spirally regularly striated, below the slight subangulation 



38 

of each whorl, the stria? prominent, with a minutely ''quasi 
punctate" appearance, the above becoming somewhat obsolete ; 
covered more or less with rather long and well-developed hairs ; 
whorls nine, the apical three exceedingly minute, white and sculp- 
tureless, the next live slightly subangulate a little above the middle, 
cyliudrically turreted, last whorl rather tumidly convex, about the 
same length as the spire ; aperture rather small, vertically ovate, 
peristome acute, columella thickened, dark violet coloured, inflected 
obliquely, at base sharply angulate. Operculum as above described ; 
it seems to me slightly convex. 

Alt. 9*5, diam. 4 mm. 

Hal. Mutlah Eiver at Port Canning, in brackish water on trunks 
of trees submerged at high tide (Mainwaring). 



Subfamily PALUDOM1N.E. 

Shell solid, ovate or ovately fusiform, imperforate, without 
basal canal, smooth or spirally striate or lirate. 

Distribution. India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Borneo. 

The above was introduced by Stoliczka in his Pal. Ind., Cretac. 
Fauna S. India, p. 207, but appears to be a nomen nuditm, hence 
the above description by the present author. 

Genus PALUDOMUS. 

Paludomus, Swainson, Treat. Malac. 1840. p. 340. 
TYPE, Melania ylobulosa, Gray ; Ceylon. 

Ham/e. Ceylon ; India ; Malay Peninsula ; Borneo. 

Shell oblong-globose, strong ; spire shorter than the aperture ; 
inner lip very thick. 

The above may be supplemented by Benson's amended des- 
cription (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, xvii, 1856, p. 495) : 

Testa plerumque imperf'orata, globoso-ovata, ovato-oblonga, 
vel ovato-acuta, fere solida, glabra, spiraliter sulcata, vel lirata, 
interdum spinuloso-costata, epidermide cornea induta; apertura 
subverticali, ovato-acuta, callo parietali munita, margine columel- 
lari, crasso, arcuatp, basali integro, interdum subeffuso. 

Operculo corneo, concavo ; nucleo subspirali insulari, sub- 
mediano, ad sinistram sito, srriis lamellatis concentricis partem 
majorein disci usurpantibus, circumdato. 

64. Paludomus globulosa (Gray). 

Paludomus globulosa (Gray), Griff, ed. Cuvier, Moll. pi. 14, fig. 6 
(as Melania}', Reeve, Con. Icon., Palud. sp. 4; H. & T., C.I. 
pi. 123, fig. 5. 

Original description : Shell globular, solid, spire flatly depressed, 



PALUDOHUS. 39 

whorls swollen round the upper part, smooth throughout ; olive, 
aperture whitish, conspicuously marked with three black bands. 

Alt. 24, diam. 21-25 mm. (taken from fig. 4 , pi. 123, in 
Con. Icon.). 

Hab. Kopili Biver, Assam (Godwin-Austen). 

" Distinguished from all others at present known by its solid 
globular form, and is figured and named in Griffith's Cuvier .... 
but not described." 

The locality given in the Conch. Ind. as " Ainbegamoa, Ceylon " 
is, according to Col. Godwin-Austen, who lent Hanley the specimen 
from which the species was figured, a mistake, the true locality 
being as above. 

65. Paludomus sphaerica, Dolirn. 

Paludomus sphcerica, Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 124 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 124, fig. 8. 

Original desertion : Testa solida, globosa, olivacea, parum 
nitida, confertim longitudinaliter et transverse striata; spira 
depressa, exserta ; anfractus rotundati, fasciatim spiraliter nigro- 
maculati ; sutura simplex, alba. 

Alt. 18, diam. 17 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 15, diam. 12 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Still rounder than P. globulosa, Gray, and different in the 
markings and sculpture ; P. globulosa is in the upper part of the 
whorls slightly angulated ; the whorls of P. spluerica are round. 

66. Paludomus conica (Gray}. 

Paludomus conica (Gray), Griff, ed. Cuvier, Moll. pi. 14, fig. 5 (as 

Melania] ; Reeve, Con. Icon., Palud. sp. 14 ; Benson, J. A. S. B. 

v, p. 747 (as Melania). 
Melania crassa, Busch, in Philippi, Ahbild. N. Conch, i, Mel. pi. 1, 

figs. 10,11. 
Paludomus rudis, Reeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 126 ; H. & T., C. I. 

pi. 124, fig. 4. 

Original description : Testa solida, globoso-conica, longitudi- 
naliter striata plerumque transverse obsolete sulcata ; anfractibus, 
ultimo ventricoso, cseteris rapide diminutis ; suturis bene signatis ; 
apertura ovata, intus albida, fasciis quibusdam castaneis ornata ; 
labro intus denticulate. 

Alt. 27, diam. 21 mm. (taken from fig. 14 c, pi. 3, in Con. 
Icon.). 

Hab. Sylhet, Bootan, Assam, etc. 

Subvar. cherraensis, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 288. 

" A short spired form. . . ." 
Alt. 16, diam. 13-5 mm. 

Hal. Teria Ghat (type), (Godwin- Austen] ; Mangken River, 
Assam (Godwin-Austen}. 



40 TIABIDJB. 

Subvar. dihiriensis, Nevill, torn. cit. 

Nevill gives no description other than the following dimensions : 
Alt. 17-5, diam. 12 mm. 

Hal. Stream on the Dihiri Hill (Brahmaputra watershed) 
( Godwin- Austen}. 

Subvar. chittagongensis, Nevill, torn. cit. 

"Besembling M. Brot's [figure in Conch.-Cab.] pi. ii, fig. 13, 
but with spire even more produced and the last whorl less tumid." 
(Nevill.} 

Alt. 21, diam. 14 mm. 

Hob. Chittagong (type) (Raban). 

Var. sibsaugorensis, Nevill, torn. cit. 

" Agrees well with M. Brot's [figs, in Conch.-Cab.] pi. viii, 
figs. 8, 9." 

Var. pealiana, Nevill, torn. cit. 

No description given, other than dimensions. 

Alt. 19'5, diam. 15 mm. 

Hob. Assam (Robinson) ; Sibsagar (Peal). 

Var. jaintiaca, Nevill, torn. cit. p. 289. 

" Spire not decollate, unusually sharp-pointed." (Nevill.) 
Alt. 14-25, diam. 10 mm. 
Hob. S. Jaintia Hills. 

Var. kopiliensis, Nevill, torn. cit. 

" Whorls 1| only, the apical ones being decollate, last whorl 
remarkably inflated, subangulate." (Nevill.) 

Alt. 24-5, diam. 21 mm. 

Hob. Kopili River, North Assam (Godwin- Austen} N.Assam 
(Oldham). 

Subvar. nana, Nevill, torn. cit. 

Presumably a dwarf form. 

Alt. 16, diarn. 14-5 mm. (1^ whorls). 

Hob. W. Khasi Hills (Godwin- Austen). 

67. Paludomus paludinoides, Reeve. 

Paludomus paludinoides, Reeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 127; H. & T., 
C. I. pi. 123, fig. 9 ; Nevill, Hand List, as P. cornea var. palu- 
dinoides, p. 289. 

Original description-. Testa oblonga, spira subelevata ; an- 
fractibus convexis, longitudinaliter lirato-striatis, superne leviter 



PA.LUDOMUS. 41 

depressis et marginatis ; apertura inediocri ; virescenti-olivacea, 
rufo-nigricante irregulariter fasciata. 

The dimensions given below are taken from the figure in the 
* Conchologia Indica.' 

Alt. 20-25, diam. 1575 mm. 

Hob. Sikkim branch of the Granges. 

Characterized by a fine sculpture of close-set longitudinal ribs. 

68. Paludomus constricta, Reeve. 

Paludomus constricta, Keeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 129 j H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 126, figs. 1-4. 

Original description : Testa subpyramidali - oblonga, solida, 
spira exserta ; anfractibus laevibus vel obscurissime sulcatis, 
superne concavo-constrictis ; olivacea, fascia nigropunctata, rnoni- 
liformi, versus apicem picta ; apertura ovata, callosa, alba. 

The dimensions quoted below are taken from fig. 1, pi. 126, 
in the ' Couchologia Indica.' 

Alt. 25-25, diam. 18'5 mm. 

Hob. Mountain streams of Ceylon. 

Differing " from P. conica, to which it is most nearly allied, 
chiefly by its more oblong and constricted form." 

69. Paludomus ornata, Benson. 

Paludomus ornata, Benson, A. M. N. H. (ser. 2) xvii, 1856, p. 496 ; 
U.&T., C. I. pi. 108, fig. 8. 

Original desertion : Testa ovato-conica, solidiuscula, Iseviuscula, 
striis remotis obsoletis, cincta infra suturain marginatam bisulcata, 
luteo-olivacea, fasciis 4 f usco-castaneis, suturali angusta, secunda 
latissinia, quarta inconspicua, ornata ; spira conica, apice eroso ; 
anfractibus 4 superstitibus convexis, ultimo f testae vix superante ; 
apertura vix obliqua, ovata, fauce caeruleo-albida, 4 fasciata, 
superne angulata, angulo intus calloso ; peristomate tenui, acuto, 
marginibus callo albo junctis, coluinellari subrevoluto, angusto, 
albo. Operc. ? 

Alt. 18, diam. 13 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 13, diam. 8 mm. 

Hob. Burma. 



70. Paludomus andersoniana, Nevill. 

Paludomus andersoniana, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 35 ; 
loc. cit., 1, pt. 2, p. 160, pi. 5, fig. 2. 

Original description : [Shell] large and globose ; spire produced 
and pointed ; of a striking greenish-yellow colour, with four 
intense black bands on the last whorl, the one at the suture and 
the two near the base about the width of the broadest baud on 
P. ornata ; the second band from the suture twice this width, 



42 TIAEIDJB. 

this latter, in all but very old specimens, is very distinctly visible 
within the aperture ; whorls seven, the first two or three generally 
decollated, transversely superficially ridged, ridges more or less 
obsolete towards the centre of the upper whorls, one of them 
below the suture more prominent than the rest ; columella pure 
white ; the operculum constantly differs on its inner side from 
those of the other Burmese species by the remarkably raised and 
very rugose nucleolar portion and by the distinct, though minute, 
granular margin. 

Alt. max. 29, diam. max. 22 mm. 

Hal). Mandalay, Ava, Bhamo, Kabyuet, and Myadouug. 

NOTE. The width of the band on P. ornata, according to fig. 8, 
pi. 108, of the Conch. Ind. is nearly a millimetre. 

Var. myadoungensis, Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1, pt. 2, p. 160. 

Original description : " A small decollate and prettily marked 
variety, with the whorls markedly more rounded." 
Alt. 15, diam. 12 mm. 
Hob. Myadoung, near the Yunnan Frontier. 

Subsp. peguensis, Nevitt, J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 35. 
Paludomus regulata, Benson, var., H. & T., C. I. pi. 108, fig. 6. 

Original description : Differs from the preceding [P. anders- 
sonicoia]l>y the slightly more rugose sculpture, by its more decollated 
apex, by the less cylindrical whorls and less produced and pointed 
spire (more apparent in young specimens), by the columella being 
apparently invariably faintly stained with brown, by the almost 
entire apparent absence of colouration on the last whorl, especially 
in the absence of the second broad band within the aperture. 

Alt. 21, diam. 16 mm. 

Hob. Pegu. 

" The specimen figured in the Conch. Indica is a very old 
decollated one." 

Subvar. nana, Nevitt, J. A. S. B. 1, pt. 2, p. 160. 

Original description : Spiral sculpture a trifle less distinct. 
Alt. 15, diam. 11 mm. 
Hob. Pegu. 

71. Paludomus regulata, Benson. 

Paludomus regulata, Benson. A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, p. 496 ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 108, fig.' 5. 

Original description : Testa ovato-acuta, solidiuscula, regulatim 
distincte spiraliter sulcata, interstitiis latis planatis, minutissime 
confertissimeque decussato-striatis, sulcis 2-3 prope suturam 
latioribus profuudioribus, pallide lutea, fasciis subquatuor, tertia 
latiori, ornata ; spira elata, conica, apice acuto ; anfractibus 6, 



PALUDOMUS. 43 

-convexiusculis, ultimo dimidium testae vix superante ; apertura 
vertical!, ovata, superne angulata, albida, iutus 4-fasciata, peri- 
stomatis margine dextro rectro acuto, aBtate intus vix incrassato- 
inarginato, parietali calloso, columellari versus basin subdilatato, 
appresso. Operc. ut in sp. typ. 

Alt. 19-24, diam. 12-14 mm- 

Aperture: alt. maj. 13, diam. 9 mm. 

Hab. Thyet-Myo, Burma. 

INevill in his * Hand-list,' on p. 391, cites a 

Subvar. minor, Brot, Conch.- Cab. pi. 7, fig. 16. 

Alt. 15-25, diam. 10 mm. 
Hab. Burma. 

72. Paludomus blanfordiana, Nevill. 

Paludomus blanfordiana, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 37 ; 
op. cit., 1, p. 159, pi. 5, fig. 3. 

Allied to P. labiosa, Benson, but larger and more angularly 
globose than that species, the columella is less vividly stained 
with brown, the brown bauds are more regular and distinct, and 
neither young nor old specimens are truncate ; the sculpture of 
both is the same, quite smooth except for a few irregular spiral 
striae below the suture. 

Alt. 19, diam. 15 mm. (type). 

Hab. Ava; Assam. 

An Assam specimen measures, according to Nevill : Alt. 20, 
diam. 15 mm. 

73. Paludomus petrosa (Gould). 

Paludomus petrosa (Gould), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1844, 

p. 144 (as Paludina). 
Pahidomus labiosa, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, p. 495; 

Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1, pt. 2, p. 159, pi. 5, fig. 5. 

Original description: Testa solida, imperforata, subglobosa, 
apice erosa, saturate viridi, rufo-fasciata ; anfract. 3, ultimo amplo, 
sutura praecipue marginata; apertura semi-circulari, columella 
late planulata, rufescente ; intus nigrescente vel holoserica ; 
operculo apice subcentrali, elernentis concentricis. 

Alt. 13, diam. 10'5 mm. 

Hab. Burma (Mason). 

74. Paludomus burmanica, Nevill. 

Paludomus burmanica, Nevill, .T. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 36 ; 
op. cit., 1, pt. 2, p. 160, pi. 5, fig. 4. 

Original description : Shell small, very thick, spire depressed, 



44 TIARIDJE. 

in shape closely resembling the European Litorina obtusata\ only 
two whorls, the others decollated in both young and old specimens ; 
smooth, with a few irregular striae at suture; columella very 
thick, pure white ; aperture somewhat compressed as in typical 
P. labiosa [=petrosa~], not globosely expanded as in P. blanfordiana;. 
in all the ten specimens found, only three instead of four bands v 
the upper one exceedingly broad, covering nearly half the last 
whorl, the middle one narrow, the basal one broad, but not diffused 
over any part of the columella ; these bands are of the most intense 
black within the aperture, even in very old, thick specimens ;. 
epidermis unusually thick, dark olive-green, closely covered with 
regular raised pustules of a lighter colour. 

Alt. 14-5, diam. 12 mm. 

Hob. Yaylaymaw and Mandalay. 



75. Paludomus stephanus (Benson). 

Paludomus stephanus (Benson), J. A. S. B. 1836, v, p. 747 (as 

Melanidj ; Reeve, Con. Icon., Palud. sp. 11. 
Melania coronata, v. d. Busch, in Philippi, Abbild. N. Conch, i,. 

Mel, pi. 1, figs. 5, 6 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 122, fig. 10. 

Original description: Testa ovato-conica, gradata, plerumque- 
deinde truncata, globoso-ovata, olivacea, anfractibus obsolete 
fasciatis, transverse sulcatis, superue plauulatis, spiris brevibus- 
validis coronatis ; apertura albida subrotundata, superue fere- 
augulata ; labro subdenticulato. 

Alt. 15'5, diam. 14*75 mm. (taken from fig. in Con. Icon.). 

A considerably larger shell is depicted in the ' Conchologia, 
Indica,' of which the following are the dimensions : 

Alt. 1975, diam. 19'25 mm. 

Hob. Bengal. 



76. Paludomus reticulata, Blanford. 

Paludomus reticulata, Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1870, xxxix, pt. 2, p. 9, 
pi. 3, fig. 1 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 108, fig. 4. 

Original description : Testa imperforata, globosa, solida r 
albida, epidermide i'usca induta, liris reticulati spiralibus et 
verticalibus decussato-sculpta, lirarum intersectionibus riodiferis.. 
Spira brevis ; apice eroso ; sutura prof imda. Anfr. superst. 
2-3 convexi, ultiinus infra suturain tumidus. Apertura ovalis, 
postice vix subangulata, parum obliqua, intus crerulescens ; 
peristoma tenue, acutum fere rectum, ad basin vix retrocurvatum, 
intus minute corrugatum, niargine basali expansiusculo ; colu- 
mella mediocri. Operc. normale. 

Alt. 19, diam. maj. 17, diam. min. 13'5 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 13'5, diam. 10 ram. 

Hub. Cachar. 



PALUDOMUS. 45 

" This is an ally of P. stephanus, Benson, so far as form is con- 
cerned, but it differs widely in sculpture, and although that is not 
a, character of much importance in the genus Paludomus and its 
allies, still, as no intermediate forms between the two are known, 
it appears quite justifiable to separate them.' 7 



77. Paludomus obesa (Philippi). 

Paludomu* obesa (Philippi), Abbild. Neue Conch, ii, 1842, p. 170, 

Melania, pi. 4, fig. 3 (as ? Melanid). 

Paludomus maculatus, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. viii, p. 110. 
Rivulina maculatus, Lea, Journ. Acad. Philad. ser. 2, vi. p. 118, 

pi. 20, fig. 10; II. & T., C. I. pi. 126, figs. 7, 10. 

Original description : Testa obloriga, tenuiuscula, lutescente, 
punctis rufo-f uscis per series transversas dispositis picta ; anfrac- 
tibus 4, prater summos erosos, convexis, superne subangulatis ; 
apertura ovato-oblonga ; labro perpendicular!, recto ; columella 
-arcuata, incrassata. 

Alt. 13-25, diam. 10 mm. 

Hab. Bombay, Ahmednuggur (Conch. Ind.). 

78. Paludomus chilinoides, Reeve. 

Paludomus chilinoides, Reeve, Con. Icon., Palud. sp. 7, pi. 2, 

fig. 7 a, & pi. 3, figs. 7 b, c. 

Paludomus phasianinus, Reeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 127. 
Paludomus parvus, Layard, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 90 ; II. & T., C. I. 

pi. 123, fig. 2. 

Original description : Shell ovate, rather thin, spire small, 
exserted, whorls depressed round the upper part, smooth ; olive, 
longitudinally waved with black, aperture white. 

Alt. 17*5, diam. 13*5 mm. (taken from pi. 3, fig. 7c, in Con. 
Icon.). 

Hab. Bed of the Mahawelle Granga, near Kandy, Ceylon : 
Uda Pussellawa, Ceylon (Preston). 

"Fouud abundantly in the stream above noted; the chief 
variation of form consists in the whorls being more or less de- 
pressed round the upper part, after the manner of a Chilina, with 
the spire varying considerably in its elevation." 

79. Paludomus laevis, Layard. 

Paludomus lavis, Layard, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 89 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 108, fig. 3 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 293 (as P. chilinoides 
var. Icevis). 

Original description : Shell oblong-ovate, axis 11 lines, diam. 

lines ; spire acute, exserted, moderately long ; whorls rounded, 
not depressed round the upper part, smooth. Colour olive-yellow, 
the lower whorls seldom marked, but the upper always spotted 



46 TIARID^E. 

with one or two rows of arrow-headed dots ; apex bluish ; 
aperture white. 

Operculum as in P. cJiilinoides, Reeve. 

Bab. Ceylon, in slow-running streams on the northern side of 
the mountain-zone extending into the flat country beyond 
Anarajahpoora. I also obtained a few in a paddy-field in the 
south of the island, near the village of Heneratgodde. 

Possibly a variety of P. chilinoides, from which it " only differs 
in wanting the depression round the upper part of the \vhorls 
and in the colouring." It is found in the same localities as that 
species. 

80. Paludomus zeylanica (Lea). 

Paludomus zeylanica (Lea), P. Z. S. 1850, pp. 194-195 (as 
Melanid). 

Original description : Testa Ia3vi, ovata, crassa, nitida, albida 
aut virido-f usca ; badio flammulata, spira brevi, acuminata, apice 
acuta, aliquaudo erosa ; sutura lineari ; anfractibus quinque, con- 
vexis, ad suturain superiorem impressis, maculis flammnlatis aut 
sagittatis badiis ; anfractu ultimo magno, bullato ; basi laevi ; 
apertura ovato- rotunda, superne angulata, inferne rotunclata, intus 
albida ; colurnella magna, alba, superne incrassata, inferne curvata. 




Fig. 3. Paludomus zcylanica (Lea). 

Alt. 22'75, diam. 14-75 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon (also reported from the Seychelles). 

" The markings are very variable, being sometimes oblique, 
zigzag lines, extending over the whole surface of the whorls^ 
sometimes sagittate or short zigzag spots in transverse series. 
Indeed, some specimens are of a uniform dark green. The last 
whorl sometimes has t'wo impressed transverse lines. The mouth 
is nearly two-thirds the length of the shell." 

81. Paludomus fulgurata, DoJim. 

Paludomus fulgurata, Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1857. p. 123 : H. & T., C. I. 
pi 123, fig. 1. 

Original description : Testa oblougo-ovata, tenera ; spira elevata, 
apice obtuso, leviter longitudinaliter et spiraliter striata, lte 
olivacea, fusco fulgurata, ad suturain impressain fusco fasciata; 



PALUDOMUS. 47 

anfractus quatuor convexi, supra medium obsolete carinati; 
apertura oblonga, simplex, albida, lineis fuscis, pellucentibus. 
Operc. ? 

Alt. 16, diam. 13 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 11, diam. 6 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

82. Paludomus palustris, Layard. 

Paludomus palustris, Layard, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 89 ; II. & T., C. I. 
pi. 126, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description : Shell ovate, thin ; axis 10 lines, diam. 
6 lines ; spire exserted, long ; whorls rounded, rather flat, spirally 
closely grooved with minute granular striae (visible under the lens). 
Colour of adult shell a rich yellow spotted with dark brown, the 
markings frequently running into wavy lines ; apex bluish ; aper- 
ture white. Operculum nearly oval, the apex slightly inclined to 
the left ; concentric nucleus subcentral, sinistral. 

Hob. The grassy margins of a tank at Anarajahpoora, Ceylon. 

In young shells the ground colour is almost hidden by the dark 
markings, and the aperture is found to be spirally marked with 
thin lines of the same colour. 



83. Paludomus tanschaurica, Gmelin. 

Paludomus tanschaurica, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 3655, for the Helix 
jluviatilis tanschaurensis of Chemn., Conch.-Cab. ix, p. 174, 

fig. 1243. 
Helix fluviatilis, Dillwyn, Desc. Cat. Shells, p. 959 ; H. & T., C. I. 

pi. 123, fig. 8. 
Paludomus tanjoriensis, H. F. Blanford, emend. Trans. Linn. Soc. 

1863, p. 173, pi. 27, figs. 2 a-e. 

Original description ; Testa subturrita, brunnea, glaberrima, 
anfractibus septem, maculis obscurioribus seu nigricantibus cor.- 
spersa, ore subrotundo, fauce albicante. 

Alt. 16, diam. 13 mm. (taken from fig. in 'Conchologia Indica'). 

Hab. India. 



Var. kadapaensis, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 294. 

" Apparently without sculpture ; apex not acute ; spire pointed, 
of four to five whorls, longitudinally, regularly, handsomely 
flamed, somewhat as in P. parva, Layard [=<'7iilinoides, Eeeve], 
but in a less " zigzag " manner." (Nevill.} 

Alt. 15-5, diam. 975 mm. (spire slightly eroded only). 

Hab. Kadapa District. Madras (King). 

Var. malabarica, ^evill, torn. cit. 

"Decollate and in shape exactly resembling the Ceylon var. 



48 TIAEID^l. 

palustris [P. palustris, Layard] ; decussating striae, however, 
obsolete in the adult, as in the typical Madras form, spiral striation 
very variable in amount of development." (Nevill.) 

Alt. 16-5, diaui. 1T5 mm. (decollate, three whorls only re- 
maining). 

Hob. Travancore (Beddome) ; Pulney Hills (Fairban/e). 



84. Paludomus monile, Thorpe MSS., Hanley. 

Paludomus monile, Thorpe MSS., H. & T. ; C. I. pi. 108, fig. 10 
(fig. only). 

Shell fusiform! j turbinate, small, yellowish-olive, painted with 
interrupted spiral lines and bands of reddish-purple; remaining 
whorls 3|, regularly increasing, sculptured with spiral lines crossed 
by transverse stria? which present a somewhat decussate appear- 
ance ; suture impressed, callously and decussately margined below ; 
coluniellar margin descending in a curve, whitish, extending above 
into a thickish, well-defined, parietal callus which reaches to the 
upper margin of the labrum ; labrum acute, bevelled inwardly at 
the base ; aperture ovate ; interior of shell showing the reddish- 
purple bands through the test. 

Alt. 12-5, diaui. maj. 9, diam. min. 7 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 6'75, diam. 4 mm. 

Hob. Southern India. 

Type in British Museum. 



85. Paludomus rotunda, Blanford. 

Paludomus rotunda, Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1870, xxxix, pt. 2. p. 10. 
pi. 3, fig. 2 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 108, fig. 2. 

Original desertion; Testa non rimata, globosa, rotunda, 
solida, epidermide fusca induta, sub-laevigata, striis increment! 
et liris sub-obsoletis confertis, miuutis, spiralibus decussantibus 
signata ; spira brevissima ; apice erosulo ; sutura vix iiupressa. 
Anfr. 2^-3 rapide crescentes, primi parum convexi, ultiinus valde 
major, tumidus, antice non descendens, subtus convexus. Aper- 
tura sub-obovalis, postice angulata, obliqua, intus fasciis 2-3 in- 
trantibus ornata ; "peristoma simplex, acutum, margine basali 
expansiusculo ; columella albida, callosa, lata. Operc. normale. 

Alt. 15, diam. maj. 14 mm. 

Hab. Travancore. 



Var. microstoma, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 295. 

Ko other description than dimensions given. 

Alt. 11, diam. 10 mm. (much eroded, 1 whorls only remaining). 

Hab. Anarnallay Rivers (Beddome) ; Madura Hills (Beddome). 



PA.LUDOMUS. 49 

86. Paludomus inflata, Brot. 

Paludomus infata, Brot, Conch .-Cab. ii, 1879, p. 44, pi. 8, 
tigs. 25, 26 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 295. 

Original description : Testa globosa-turrita, solidiuscula, lutes- 
centi-olivacea, profuse et distincte nigro undulatim fasciata et 
punctata. Spira erosa, sat exserta, anfr. 3 persist, declivi-convexi- 
usculi, longitudinaliter inaequaliter sulcati; anfr. ultimus subito 
globose dilatatus, sulcis longitudinalibus superficial! bus, infra 
suturam constrictus deinde gibboso-inflatus. Apertura late ovata, 
intus vivide maculata et strigata, superne acuminata, basi obtuse 
subangulata; columella arcuata incrassata; callo parietal! dis- 
tincto; margine dextro acuto, superne impresso, deinde valde 
arcuato. Opercul. typicum. 

Alt. 18, diam. 14 mm. (eroded, 3 whorls remaining). 

Aperture: alt. 11, diam. 7 mm. 

Halt. Travancore (Hanley, Beddome) ; Amerghat ; Tinnevelly 
(Beddome). 



87. Paludomus striatula, Nevill. 

Paludomus striatula, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 297. 

" In Brot's pi. 7, figs. 7, 8, in the Conch.-Cab., P. isseli from 
Borneo gives an exact representation of this ne\v and rare Ceylon 
form ; the well-developed, crowded, almost granulose spiral 
striation will at once distinguish it." (Nevill.) 

Alt. 18, diam. 13-5 mm. (Strongly decollate, two whorls only 
remaining). 

Hob. Ceylon (type) (H. Nevill). 

Brot's figures appear to depict a conically fusiform, solid, light- 
brown form, with yellowish labrum and aperture; they do not, 
however, give any appearance of spiral sculpture. 

88. Paludomus travancorica, Blanford. 

Paludomus travancorica, Blauford, J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, p. 219, 
pi. 2, fig. 22. 

Original description : Shell imperforate, ovately conical, rather 
thick, covered with a dark-brown epidermis ; beneath the epi- 
dermis white, with narrow vertical, very wavy dark purple stripes ; 
all the whorls spirally ribbed, the ribs rather close together, with 
the interspaces smooth, the striae of growth being inconspicuous. 
Spire conical, apex eroded (doubtless acute when perfect), suture 
impressed. Whorls remaining 3 (probably in the perfect shell 
5 or 6), convex, the last exceeding half the length of the shell. 
Aperture nearly vertical, ovate, angulate at the posterior ex- 
tremity, bluish white, with conspicuous, close, vertical, wavy, deep 
purple bands within ; peristome in one plane, the external margin 



50 TIABID.E. 

sharp, the columellar and basal margins white, thickened within, 
aud dilated. Operculum normal. 

Alt. (apex wanting) 23 (when perfect about 25), diam. maj. 16, 
diam. min. 13'5 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 12, diam. 9 mm. 

Hab. Streams traversing the plains between Trevandrum and 
the foot of the Aghastyamali. 

" In a young specimen of P. travancorica, there appears to be a 
tendency to the development of minor parallel ribs between those 
forming the spiral sculpture, aud the latter are rather closer 
together near the suture." 

89. Paludomus annandalei, Preston. 

Paladomus annandalei, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, iii, 1909, 
p. 277 (figs, in text). 

Original description : Shell conoidal, upper whorls eroded, 
solid, dark olivaceous brown, a paler yellowish brown band 
appearing at the periphery, above this obscurely painted with 
regular, transverse, vertical, deep chestnut flammules and below 
with very oblique flammules of the same colour ; remaining whorls 
about 3, sculptured with revolving, spiral lirae rather coarser just 
below the sutures and disappearing altogether or becoming obsolete 
towards the periphery, but reappearing on the base of the shell, 
the interstices between the Iira3 having a somewhat punctate 
appearance ; sutures lightly impressed ; columeila arched, white 
and diffused into a minutely granular callus which joins the upper 
lip and is thickened almost into a nodule above ; peristome acute, 
scarcely serrated ; interior of shell bluish white, showing the rows 
of flammules distinctly ; operculum spirally laminiferous, with 
subcentral nucleus. 

The dimensions of the three specimens taken as the type series 
are as follows : 

1. 2. 3. 

Alt 24 mm. 22 mm. 21-5 mm. 

Diam., maj 18 17 16 

Aperture : alt. . . 16 13 12-5 

diam.. . 9-5 8 8 

Hob. Tenmalai, W. Grhats (W. side), Travaucore (rocky mountain 
stream (N. Annandale). 
Types in Indian Museum. 

90. Paludomus spiralis, Reeve. 

Paludomus spiralis. Reeve, Con. Icon., Palud. p. 15, pi. 8, fig. 15. 

Original description: Shell ovate, spire large, prominent, whorls 
rounded, smooth ; olive, spotted here aud there with black, interior 
\vhite. 

Alt. 17'5, diam. 12-5 mm. (taken from Con. Icon.). 

Hob. Streams of Ceylon. 



PALUDOMUS. 51 

91. Paludomus maurus, Reeve. 

Paludomus maurus, Reeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 127 : H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 124, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description : Testa subacuminato-turbiuata, spira pro- 
minente ; anfractibus rotundatis, superne subexcavatis et obsolete 
lineatis ; apertura parva ; castaneo-fusca, immaculata. 

The following dimensions are taken from fig. 3, pi. 124 in 
the ' Conchologia Indica.' 

Alt. 21, diam. 22 mm. 

Hcib. Branch of the Ganges. 

92. Paludomus pyriformis, Dohrn. 

Paludotmis pyriformis, Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 536 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 125, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description : Testa solidiuscula, pyriformis, laete 
olivacea, striis viridibus brunneisque ornata, "decussata ; sutura 
striis aliquot valde itnpressis circumdata ; anfractus 4 convexiusculi, 
ultiinus -| spirae subaequans ; apertura oblonga, margine columellari 
arcuato albido, striis pellucentibus. 

Alt. 21, diam. 15 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 15, diam. 9'5 mm. 

Hcib. Ceylon. 

93. Paludomus clavata, Reeve. 

Paludomus clavata, Reeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 129 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 123, fig. 4. 

Original description: Testa oblongo-ovata, utrinque attenuata, 
crassa, ponderosa, spira breviuscula, conica ; anfractibus lasvibus 
conico-declivibus; nigricanti-olivacea ; apertura subdilatata, callosa, 
alba. 

The dimensions according to the figure in the ' Conchologia 
Indica ' are as below : 

Alt. 20, diam. 12-5 mm. 

Hob. Mountain streams of Ceylon ; Uda Pussellawa, Ceylon 
(Preston). 



94. Paludomus lutosa, Souleyet. 

Paludomus lutosa, Souleyet, Voy. ' Bonite,' Zool. ii, p. 550. pi. 31, 
figs. 28-30; H. & T., C. I. pi. 123, fig. 6. 

Original description : Testa oblongo- conica, olivacea, nitida ; 
spira conico-acuta ; anfractibus septenis, supra depressiusculis ; 
duobus inferioribus ventricosis, penultimo basi spiraliter sulcato, 
ultimo in medio multi-sulcato ; apertura ovato-acuta. intus caBru- 

B2 



52 

lescente ; labro incrassato, albo ; labro acuto. Operculum corneum, 
fusco-nigrum, concentrice striatum. 

Alt. 20, diam. 14 mm. 

Hob. Ganges. 

According to a note appended to the original description the 
animal is of a blackish-brown colour. 

95. Paludomus nasuta, Dolirn. 

Paludomus nasuta, Dolirn, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 123 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 124, fig. 7. 

Original description : Testa solida, oblongo-conica, apice acuto, 
nigrescens, versus apicem albicans, ad suturam linea valde im- 
pressa distincta, obsolete decussata; anfractus quatuor convexi- 
usculi, ultimus inedio leviter angulatus ; apertura simplex, oblonga, 
albida. Operc. ? 

Alt. 12, diam. 8 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 7'5, diam. 4-5 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



96. Paludomus abbreviata, Reeve. 

Paludomus abbreviata, Reeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 127 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 125, fig. 7. 

Original description : Testa abbreviato-ovata, solida, Keritiuse- 
formi, spira brevissima ; anfracttbus superne plano-declivibus, 
deinde convexis, laevibus ; apertura subampla ; olivacea, lineis 
duabus fuscis interdum obsolete cingulata, aperture fauce fasciata. 

The following measurements are taken from the figure in the 
' Conchologia Indica ' : 

Alt. 20-5, diam. 16 mm. 

Nab. Ceylon. 

Of a solid JKeritina-like form. 



97. Paludomus acuta, Reeve. 

Paludomus acuta, Keeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 127 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 123, fig. 7. 

Original description : Testa acuminata-turbinata, spira acuta; 
anfractibus rotundatis, ad suturam excavatis et lineatis, medio 
liueis incisis cingulatis ; apertura parva, virescenti-olivacea. 

The measurements of the figure in the * Conchologia Indica ' 
are as below : 

Alt. 17-25, diam. 10-75 mm. 

Hob. Near Pondicherry. 

The apex of the shell, which in most species is eroded, is here 
sharply developed. The whorls are characterized by being encircled 
round the middle with conspicuous engraved lines. 



PALUDOMPS. 53 

98. Paludomus baccula, Reeve. 

Paludomus baccula, Reeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 128; Hanley, Conch. 
Misc., Melan. fig. 63 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 124, fig. 10. 

Original description: -Testa oblongo-turbiuata, spira prominente, 
anfractibus, plano-convexis, laevigatis, vel, sub lente, subtilissime 
striatis ; apertura parva ; olivacea, brunneo-aigro tincta. 

The dimensions according to the figure in the Conchologia 
Indica ' are as follows : 

Alt. 17, diam. 11 mm. 

Hob. Branch of the Ganges. 

A small dark olive turbinated species, besmeared with shining 
brown-black. 

Subgenus PHILOPOTAMIS. 

Philopotamis, Layard, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvi, 1855, p. 134. 
TYPE, Paludomus sulcata, Reeve ; Ceylon. 

Range. Ceylon. 

Original description : Animal fluviatile, amphibious, delighting 
in rocky torrents. Operculum horny, subtriangularly ovate ; 
apex superior, paucispiral ; nucleus sub-basal, dextral. 

The subgenus is based upon the characters of the operculura. 

99. Paludomus (Philopotamis) sulcata (Reeve). 

Paludomus (Philopotamis] sulcata (Reeve), Con. Icon.. Palud. sp. 8 ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 122, fig. 2. 

Original description : Shell ovate, spire prominent, whorls 
rounded, spirally very closely grooved, grooves and intermediate 
ridges very closely decussated with longitudinal striae ; yellowish 
olive, painted here and there with black, sometimes entirely black, 
interior whitish. 

Alt. 25, diam. 20 mm. (taken from pi. 3, fig. 8 c in Con. Icon.). 

Hob. In a mountain stream at Ratnapoora, Ceylon ; TJda 
Pussellawa, Ceylon (Preston). 

Subvar. minor, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 299 ; cf. Brot, Conch.- 
Cab. ii, pi. 5, fig. 18. 

Apparently a small form. 

Alt. 14-5, diam. 11'5 mm. (according to Brot's figure). 

Hob. Ceylon (Stoliczka). 

Yar. contracta, Nevill, torn. cit. ; Brot, Conch.-Cab. ii, pi. 5, 
figs. 19, 20 (as ; ' P. sulcatus, var."). 

Nevill gives no description beyond the reference to Brot's 
figure ; it appears to be a narrow form. 
Hob. Arabegammoa, Ceylon (Blanford). 



54 TIARID^E. 

Var. compacta. Nevill, torn. cit. 

" Remarkable for its small aperture.''" (Nevill.) 
Alt, 16-5, diam. 1175 mm. 
Hab. Ceylon (H. Nevill). 

100. Paludomus (Philopotamis) decussata (Reeve), 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) decussata (Reeve), P. Z. S. 1852, p. 127 ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 123, fig. 3. 

Original description : Testa acuininato-oblonga, tenuiuscula, 
spira subacuta ; anfractibus eonvexis, striis minutis longitudi- 
nalibus et transversis undique subtilissiine decussatis ; apertura 
parviuscula ; virescenti olivacea, faseiis tribus rufo-nigricantibus 
cingulata. 

The dimensions given below are taken from the figure in the 
Conchologia Indica ' : 

Alt. 23-5, diam. 22 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Chiefly characterized by its finely decussated surface. 

101. Paludomus (Philopotamis) trifasciata (Reeve}. 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) trifasciata (Reeve), P. Z. S. 1852, p. 126 
H. & T., C. I. p. xvii. 

Original description: Testa oblonga, spira subelevata ; 'an- 1 
fractibus plano-convexis, undique costellato-striatis ; apertura 




Fig. 4. Paludomus (Phifopotamis) trtfasciata, Eeeve. 
(Specimen.) Nat. size. 

parviuscula, intus vix callosa ; olivacea, faseiis tribus nigricanti- 
fuscis subirregulariter cingulata. 

Alt. 21, diam. maj. 14 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 13, diam. 9-5 mm. (specimen). 

Hab. Branch of the Ganges. 



102. Paludomus (Philopotamis) bicincta (Reeve). 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) bicincta (Reeve), P. Z. S. 1852, p. 129 ;, 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 123, fig. 10. 

Original description : Testa globosa vel oblongo-globosa, longi-i 



PA.LUDOMUS. 55 

tudinaliter subobscure sulcato-striata, spira brevi ; anfractibus 
convexis superne subdepressis, et minute spiraliter sulcatis, 
olivaceo-fusca, nigricante obscure bifasciata ; apertura albida. 

The dimensions according to the figure in the ' Corichologia 
Indica ' are as follows : 

Alt. 17'5, diain. 14 mm. 

Hob. Mountain streams of Ceylon. 

" Allied to P. decussata, but of more acuminated growth." 

103. Paludomus (Philopotamis) rupaeformis (Brot). 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) rupceformis (Brot), Concli.-Cab. ii, 
p. 30, 1880, pi. 5, fig. 10 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 298. 

Original description : Testa globoso-mucronata, solidula, corneo- 
olivacea, nigro inquinata, unicolor. Spira subintegra, parvula, 
breviter concavo-mucronata ; anfr. 6 (integra3 ad 7) convexi, 
sutura distincta divisi, laevigati, lente crescentes ; ultimus subito 
inflatus, globosus, sublaBvigatus vel striis incrementi tenuibus vix 
striatulus. Apertura ovata, superne acuminata, basi rotundata, 
intus alba, vel pallide late bifasciata ; coluinella arcuata, crassi- 
uscula. Operculum typicum. 

Alt. 16, diam. 12 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 10-5, dium. 6 mm. 

Hob. Matale, Ceylon (Layard). 

104. Paludomus (Philopotamis) regalis, Layard. 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) reyaiis, Layard, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 93 ; 
H. &T., C. I. pi. 121, fig. 10. 

Original description : Shell oblong ovate ; axis 1 inch, diam. 
9 lines. Spire exserted, short. Whorls rounded, depressed at 
the upper part, spirally corded with close-set slight ridges, longi- 
tudinally minutely striated, and crowned with a single row of 
short, sharp, hollow, angular spines, closely set. Colour yellowish- 
olive, painted with wavy, dark brown longitudinal lines. Aperture 
pure white. 

Operculum unknown, but most probably as in P. sulcata. 

Hob, Stream in the Cnia Corle, Western Province, Ceylon. 

105. Paludomus (Philopotamis) nigricans (Reeve), 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) nigricans (Reeve), Con. Icon., Palud. 
sp.6; H. & T., C. I. pi. 124, fig. 1. 

Original description: Shell ovate, spire rather prominent, ex- 
serted ; whorls smooth, faintly angled towards the base; blackish, 
interior bluish white. 

Alt. 1375, diam. 9*25 mm. (taken from fig. in Conch. Icon.). 

ffab. Ceylon (in mountain streams at 6,000 feet elevation). 



56 TIABIDJE. 

Var. subgranulosa, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 299; Brot, 
Conch.-Cab. ii, 1880, pi. 6, fig. 6 (as var. B). 

No other description given than that implied by the name. 
Hob. Ceylon (Blanford). 



106. Paludomus (Philopotamis) erronea, Nevitt. 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) erronea, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 300 ; 

H. & T., 0. I. pi. 108, fig. 7 (as P. parvd) [not of Layard]. 
Paludomus phasianinus, Layard, A. M. N. II. 1855, p. 136 "[not of 

Reeve]. 

" The only ally, I know, of Paludomus erronea is P. nigricans 
of which Mr. H. F. Blanford considers it a smooth variety ; the 
above-quoted figure, however, shows the differences at a glance." 

Alt. 10-5, diam. 6-5 mm. 

Hab. Hackgalle [Hakgalla], Ceylon (Layard); Ceylon (Blan- 
ford). 



107. Paludomus (Philopotamis) subdentata, Nevill. 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) suldentata, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, 
p. 300. 

Original description'. Almost smooth, prettily longitudinally 
striped, " flames " only slightly flexuous ; columella very broadly 
excavated, alabaster white, subdentate at base ; spire truncate, 
two whorls only remaining, the last one convexly swollen ; flames 
are discernible within the aperture. 

Alt. 13-75, diam. 9'75 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon (type) (H. Nevill). 



108. Paludomus (Philopotamis) violacea (Layard). 

Paludomus (Philopotamis) violacea (Layard), P. Z. S. 1854, p. 92, 
(as Tanalia) ; Brot, in Conch.-Cab. ii. 1880, p. 15, pi. 5, tigs. 3, 
3 a, 3b. 

Original description : -Shell globose ; axis 6 lines, diam. 5 lines. 
Spire very short, slightly exserted. Whorls rounded, ventricose, 
spirally grooved with close-set, fine, minutely decussated stria3 (in 
one variety the stria3 become ridges). Colour a dark bluish-brown, 
almost amounting to black, with darkish brown patches appearing 
in some specimens. Aperture deep violet inside ; columella 
white, stained on the outside edge with dark brown. 

Hal>. A small mountain torrent in a dense forest between 
Gillymalle and Pallabaddoola, towards Adam's Peak, Ceylon. 



PALUDOMUS. 57. 

Subgenus TANALIA. 

Tanalia, Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 153 ; Layard, op. cit. 1854, p. 88. 
TYPE, Nerita aculeata, Chemnitz ; Ceylon. 

Range. Ceylon. 

Original description : Animal fluviatile, delighting in the most 
rapid mountain torrents. Operculum horny, subtriangularly 
ovate ; apex lateral, lamellated ; nucleus lateral, dextral. 

As in the subgenus Philopotamis, the present subgenus is also 
based upon the structure of the operculum. 

109. Paludomus (Tanalia) loricata (Reeve}. 

Paludomus (Tanalia) loricata (Reeve), Con. Icon, iv, Palud. sp. 1. 
Paludomus area, Reeve, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 128. 
Tanalia loricata, Layard, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 91. 
Paludomus layardi, Reeve, 1. c. 

Paludomus undata, Reeve, Con. Icon, iv, Palud. sp. 2; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 121, fig. 3 as P. undata, tig. 5 as P. area, fig. 6 as P. layardi. 

Original description : Shell obovate, spire scarcely exserted, 
whorls slightly angularly depressed round the upper part, spirally 
encircled with close-set squamate ridges; aperture large; very 
black-brown, interior white, columella and edge of the lip purple- 
brown. 

Alt. 20*5, diam. 2O5 mm. (from original figure 1 a). 

Alt. 32-25, diam. 34'5 mm. ( 1 6). 

Hal). In rapids flowing from Adam's Peak, Ceylon (Gardner}. 

110. Paludomus (Tanalia) erinacea (Reeve}. 

Paludomus (Tanalia) erinacea (Reeve), P. Z. S. 1852, p. 128; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 121, fig. 1 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 301 
(as P. (Tanalia} aculeata var. erinacea}. 

Original description: Testa obovata, tenuiuscula, anfractibus 
convexis, Kris muricato-squamatis spiraliter cingulatis ; apertura 
subampla ; atra, intus caerulescente, columella et aperturae limbo 
castaneo-nigris. 

The following dimensions are taken from the figure in the 
4 Conch ologia Indica.' 

Alt. 21-5, diam. 21 mm. 

Hob. Mountain streams of Ceylon. 

111. Paludomus (Tanalia) nodulosa (Dolirn). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) nodulosa (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 3857, p. 125; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 126, figs. 8, 9; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, 
p. 302 (as P. (T.) aculeata var. nodulosa}. 

Original description : Testa oblongo-ovata, laete olivacea, longi- 
tudinaliter nigro f ulgurata ; spira exserta ; anfractus costis 



58 TIAEID^E. 

tuberculosis spiraliter cingulati, sutura crenulata ; apertura 
subcircularis, nigra, intus albida, lineis nigris pellucentibus. 

Alt. 27, diam. 21 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 20, diam. 16*5 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

112. Paludomus (Tanalia) reevei, Layard. 

Paludomus (Tanalia) reevei, Layard, P. Z.S. 1884, p. 92 ; H. & T., 
C. I. pi. 121, fig. 7, and pl/124, fig. 5; Neviil, torn. cit. -(as 
P. (T.) nodulosa var. reevei). 

Original description : Shell oblong-ovate ; axis 1| inch, diam. 
1 inch 2 lines. Spire exsertecl, short. Whorls rounded, spirally 
corded with rather distant obtuse ridges, longitudinally striated 
with well-marked close-set strire, the great characteristic mark of 
the species. Aperture : outer lip edged with deep purple-brown, 
columellar lip white. Colour a dark yellow-brown, thickly marked 
with longitudinal, slanting, jet- brown wavy bands. 

Hab. The Calloo Ganga, Ratnapoora [Kaluganga, Rafriapura], 
Ceylon. 

Subvar. minor, Neviil, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 302. 

No description is given by Neviil, but presumably it is a small 
form. 

Hab. Ceylon (H. F. Blanford}. 

113. Paludomus (Tanalia) funiculata, Reeve. 

Paludomus (Tanalia} funiculata, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Palud. sp. 13. 

Tanalia funiculuta, Layard, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 93 (amended des- 
cription) ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 125, figs. 1-4 ; Neviil, torn. cit. 
(as P. (T.) aculeata \&i'. funiculata). 

Original description : Shell oblong-ovate, spire exserted, whorls 
rather depressed round the upper part, spirally corded with rather 
distant obtuse ridges ; jet-brown, interior whitish. 

Alt. 25, diam. 22 mm. (taken from fig. in Con. Icon.). 

Nab. In a mountain stream at R/atnapoora, Ceylon. 

" Of a dark sombre colour, without any indication of pattern, 
encircled throughout with rather distant ridges." 

j 

114. Paludomus (Tanalia) picta, Reeve. 

Paludomus (Tanalia) picta, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Palud. sp. 10 ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 122, fig. 7 ; Neviil, torn. cit. p. 303 (as P. (T.) 
aculeata var. picta}. 

Original description : Shell oblong-ovate, spire exserted, whorls 
spirally obtusely striated : olive, painted longitudinally with 
narrow undulated waved bands, interior white, margin of the 
columella stained with brown. 



PALUDOMUS. 59 

Alt. 23-5, diam. 19*25 mm. (taken from pi. 2, fig. a in Con. 
Icon.). 

Hob. In a mountain stream at Katnapoora, Ceylon. 

" The waved painting may be observed in adult specimens on 
the outside, when not visible in the interior." 



115. Paludomus (Tanalia) swainsoni (Dolirn). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) swainsoni (Dolirn), P. Z. S. 1857, p. 125 ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 124, fig. 6. 

Original description : Testa ovata, solida, olivacea, costis nigris 
spiralibus ornata, obsolete spiraliter et longitudinaliter striata ; 
spira exserta ; anfractus convexi, ad suturam nigricantem 
depressi ; apertura ovata, albida, obsolete dentata, interdum 
fusco-maculata. 

Alt. 25, diam. 23 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 21, diam. 12 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Allied to P. (T.} picta, but differing in having black ribs. 

116. Paludomus (Tanalia) distinguenda (Dohm). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) distinquenda (Doiirn),P. Z. S. 1857, p. 124; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 122, fig. 3 ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 303 
(as P. (T.) aculeata var. distinguenda) . 

Original description : Testa ovata, olivacea, nitida, fasciis nigris 
fulguratis longitudinaliter picta, spiraliter et longitudinaliter 
striata ; spira exserta ; apertura ovata, caerulescens ; peristomata 
nigro, obsolete dentato ; margine columellari planato, fasciis 
nigris, pellucentibus. 

Alt. 25, diam. 19 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 18, diam. 12'5 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

117. Paludomus (Tanalia) torrenticola, Dohm. 

Paludomus (Tanalia) torrenticola, Dolirn, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 530; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 124, fig. 9 ; Neviil, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 303 
(as P. ( T.) aculeata var. torrenticola). 

Original description : Testa oblongo-ovata, nigricanti- olivacea, 
obscure fulgurata et inaculata, spiraliter confertim, longitudinaliter 
rarius striata ; spira exserta ; anfractus convexi ; sutura simplex ; 
apertura ovalis, violacea, margine columellari albo. 

Alt. 22, diam. 16 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 16, diam. 12 mm. 

Hob. Cevlon. 



60 TIARID-. 

118. Paludomus (Tanalia) neritoides (Reeve). 

Paludomus (Tanalia} neritoides (Reeve), Conch. Icon., Palud. sp. 3 ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 122, fig. 8. 

Original description : Shell oblong-ovate, spire a little exserted, 
whorls rounded, obscurely obtusely ridged ; aperture rather large ; 
olive, sharply waved in the young shell with brown, interior 
white, columella and edge of the lip sometimes blotched here and 
there with blackish brown. 

Alt. 31'5, diam. 24*5 mm. (taken from pi. 1, fig. 3 b in Con. 
Icon.). 

Hob. In the bed of a river at Ambegamoa, Ceylon. 

" This species has more the form of a Nerita than any other, 
and is distinguished in an early stage of growth by a brilliant 
pattern of zigzag painting in the interior. The lip and columella 
are sometimes white, sometimes blotched with blackish brown." 

Var. globosa, Brot, Conch.-Cab. ii, 1880, pi. 8, fig. 1 ; Nevill, 
Hand List, pt. 2, p. 304. 

A somewhat swollen form. 
Hob. Ceylon (Nevill). 

119. Paludomus (Tanalia) dilatata (Reeve). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) dilatata (Reeve), P. Z. S. 1852, p. 128; H. & 
T., C. I. pi. 125, figs. 5, 6; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 303 (as 
P. (T.) neritoides var. dilatata ?). 

Original description : Testa suboblougo-ovata, spira exsertius- 
cula; anfractibus rodundatis, superne vix depressis, spiraliter 
obscura superficialiter liratis ; intense nigricanti-fusca, immacu- 
lata ; apertura oblonga, inferne dilatata, intus caerulescenti-alba, 
bi- vel trifasciata, nigro-limbata. 

The following dimensions are taken from fig. 5, pi. 125, in the 
1 Conchologia Indiea.' 

Alt. 36-75, diam. 29 mm. 

Hob. Mountain streams of Ceylon. 

120. Paludomus (Tanalia) gardneri (Reeve). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) qardneri (Reeve), Conch. Icon., Palud. sp. 9; 
II. & T., C. I. pi. 122, fig. 6 ; Nevill, torn. cit. (as P. (T.) neri- 
toides var. (/ardneri). 

Original description: Shell orbicularly ovate, spire flatly 
depressed, whorls regularly convex, very closely spirally ridged, 
ridges rather thin, obtuse, alternately larger ; aperture very large ; 
jet-black, interior whitish, columella and margin of the aperture 
stained with purple-black. 

Alt. 35, diam. 34 mm. (taken from pi. 2, fig. 9 b in Con. Icon.). 

Nab. In a stream at the foot of Adam's Peak, Ceylon. 



PALUDOMUS. 61 

121. Paludomus (Tanalia) cumingiana (Dolirn\ 

Paludomus (Tanalia} cumingiana (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1857. p. 124: 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 126, figs, 5, 6. 

Original description : Testa globosa, solida, olivaceo-fusca, 
obsolete spiraliter sulcata ; spira valde depressa, exserta ; anfractus 
ultirnus ceteros superans, ad suturam in formam canalis impressus ; 
apertura magna, obliqna, flavescens, intus albida, lineis Digris 
undatis longitudinaliter distincta. 

Alt. 33, diam. 34 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 30, diam. 24 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Allied to P. (T.) gardneri, Eeeve, but distinguished by the 
" deep channel-like impression on the upper part of the whorl, and 
in the large size of the mouth." 

122. Paludomus (Tanalia) thwaitesi (Layard). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) Ihwaitesi (Layard), P. Z. S. 1854, pp. 93-94 
(as Philopotamis) ; H. & T., C. 1. pi. 125, figs. 8,9 j Nevill, Hand 
List, pt. 2, p. 304 (as P. (T.} nentoides var. thwaitesi?). 

Original description : Shell oblong-ovate ; axis 13 lines, diam. 
9 lines. Spire exserted, short. Whorls almost carinated round 
the upper part, spirally corded with unequal sized, close, but 
irregularly set ridges, granulated or minutely striated. Colour 
yellowish olive, painted more or less with wavy, dark brown 
longitudinal lines. Aperture pinkish white, occasionally having 
the outer lip dotted with dark pink-brown marks. 

Alt. 30-5, diam. 23'75 mm. (Conch. Ind. pi. 125, fig. 9). 

Hob. Weyweldenia, Ceylon. 

123. Paludomus (Tanalia) tennantii (Eeeve). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) tennantii (Reeve), Con. Icon., Palud. sp. 12 ; 
H. & T., C. 1. pi. 122, tig. 5 (as P. te.nnentii) ; Nevill, torn. cit. 
(as P. (T.) neritoidesvai*. tennenti). 

Original description : Shell obovate, rather thick, spire scarcely 
exserted ; whorls rounded, smooth, or very obscurely ridged ; 
aperture rather largely effused ; olive, indistinctly longitudinally 
waved, interior white, columella and edge of the aperture stained 
with purple-brown. ,__ ^^ , 

Alt. 31, diam. 29 mm. (taken from pi. 3, fig. c, in Con. Icon.). 

Hab. In a rocky stream flowing from Adam's Peak, Ceylon. 

" . . . . distinguished in early growth by an elaborate pattern of 
waved painting, which is very conspicuous in the interior of the 
shell. At a more advanced period, this striking display of pattern 
is entirely obscured by a superincumbent deposit of colourless 
matter." 



62 TIABID^E. 

124. Paludomus (Tanalia) dromedarius (Dohrn). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) dromedarius (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1857, p. 124; 
H. & T., C. 1. pi. 122, fig. 9 ; Nevill, torn. cit. (as P. (T.) neri- 
toides var. dromedarius). 

Original description : Testa oblongo-ovata, nigra, obsolete 
spiraliter, longitudinaliter striata ; anfractus convex!, ultimas 
antice valde deflexus ; apertura subcircularis, alba, obsolete 
dentata, interdum flavocincta. Operculurn subtriangulare, cor- 
neum, nucleo lateral! dextrorse. 

Alt. 29, diam. 21 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 20-5, diam. 16 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

125. Paludomus (Tanalia) solida (DoUrn). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) solida (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1857, p. 124; H. & 
T., C. I. pi. 122, fig. 4. 

Original description : Testa ovato-oblonga, solidissima, flava, 
brunneo-maculata ; spira exserta ; anfractus convex!, spiraliter 
sulcati, sub lente longitudinaliter striati; suturaimpressa; apertura 
crassa, alba, semicircularis. Operculuin corneum, nigrescens, 
concent/rice stratum, uucleo sinistro. 

Alt. 19, diam. 14*5 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 13, diam. 10 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

126. Paludomus (Tanalia) hanleyi (Dohrn). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) hanleyi (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1858, p. 535 ; H. & 
T., C. I. pi. 125, fig. 10. 

Original description : Testa semiovalis, neritaBforaiis, solida, 
olivacea unicolor vel saturatius longitudinaliter striata, decussata ; 
spira exserta ; anfractus convexi ; apertura obliqua, ampla, labio 
columellari magno, margine interno vix curvato, externo semi- 
circular! ; alba vel flavescens. Operc. ? 

Alt. 18, diam. 15 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 15, diam. 13 mm. 

Hab. Ceylou. 

Var. major, ? Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 305. 

A large form. 

Alt. 23, diam. 20 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon (H. Nevill). 



127. Paludomus (Tanalia) skinneri (Dohrn). 

Paludomus (Tanalia) skinneri (Dohrn), I 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 121, fig. 4. 

Original description : Testa ovata, nigricanti-olivacea, confertim 



Paludomus (Tanalia) skinneri (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1857, p. 124; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 121, fig. 4. 



PALUDOMUS. 63 

costis squamatis spiraliter cingulata, supra medium obsolete 
carinata ; apertura semicircularis, alba, intus caerulescens. 

Alt. 35, diam. 32 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 29, diam. 21 mm. 

Hub. Ceylon. 

128. Paludomus (Tanalia) similis, Layard. 

Paludomus (Tanalia) similis, Layard, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 92 ; H. & T.. 
C. I. pi. 122, fig. 1. 

Original description : Shell rather globose ; axis 8 lines, diam. 
6 lines. Spire short, exserted. Whorls rounded, ventricose, 
spirally grooved with close-set, fine, minutely decussated striae. 
Colour rich olive-yellow, profusely marked with longitudinal, 
wavy, dark lines, interrupted by four or five fine transverse bands 
of the same colour. Aperture: the dark markings of the shell 
show through, and are dimmed by a bluish haze ; columella lip 
white, stained on the outside edge with dark brown, which runs 
round the outer lip in a thin band. 

Hob. A mountain torrent at Kandangamoa, near Ratnapoora, 
Ceylon. 

129. Paludomus (Tanalia) melanostoma, Hanley $ Theobald. 

Paludomus ( Tanalia) melanostoma, Hanley & Theobald, Con. Ind. 
pi. 121, figs. 8, 9 (figs. only). 

Shell oblong-ovate, solid, dark yellowish-brown, painted with 
oblique, transverse, zigzag bands of black ; remaining whorls 3, 
rapidly increasing, the last large, sculptured with more or less 
beaded, spiral lirae ; suture impressed ; columella margin excavated, 
white within, stained with brownish- black without, extending 
upwards into a thickish, well-defined, parietal callus which has 
the same colouring and reaches to the upper margin of the 
labrum; labruin edged with a variegated band of brown and 
yellowish white just within, acute ; aperture ovate ; interior of 
shell white. 

Alt. 25, diam. maj. 21'25, diam. min. 15*25 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 20, diam. 11'25 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Type in British Museum. 



Subgenus STOMATODON. 

Stomatodon, Benson, A. M. N. Tl. ser. 3, x, 1862, p. 414. 
TYPE, Paludomus stomatodon^ Benson ; Travancore. 

Range. Travancore. 

For description see that of Paludomus (S.) stomatodon given 
below. 



64 



130. Paludomus (Stomatodon) stomatodon, Benson. 

Paludomus (Stomatodon^ stomatodon, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, 
x, 1862, p. 414 (as ? Tanalia) j H. & T., C. I. pi. 108, fig. 1. 

Original description : Testa ovato-globosa, solida, laeviuscula 
(juniorum polita), striis spiralibus obsoletis induta, olivaceo- 
nigrescente ; spira brevi erosa, sutura irnpressa ; anfractibus 3 
superstitibus, superioribus convexiusculis, ultimo convexo ; 
apertura ovato-acuta, albida, intus demum angustiore, sinuata ; 
peristomate integro, margine dextro basalique acuto, columellari 
late calloso, infra latiore, subito intus truncate, dente prominente 
crasso mimito. 

Alt. 14, diam. 12 rnm. 

Hal. Mountain streams near Cottyam, Travancore. 

" . . . . There is some resemblance in this shell to Neritina^ for 
which genus a specimen might, on a cursory glance, be taken. 
The upper part of the columellar callosity exhibits in some 
specimens a blackish-brown tint, and a patch of the same colour 
may occasionally be observed at the base, in the interior of the 
aperture, the throat of which is tinged with violet and purple and 
presents a minutely corrugate surface.' 7 



Family LITTORNID^E. 
Subfamily CREMNOCONCHIN^E. 

Shell ovate, depressedly turbinate, with large aperture. 
Distribution. S. Asia. 

Genus CREMNOCONCHUS. 

Cremnobates, Blanford, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xii, 1863, p. 184. 
Cremnoconchns, Blanford, A. M. N. H. ser. 4, iii, 1869, p. 343. 

TYPE, C. syhadrensis, Blanford ; Western India. 

Range. W.India; Tonkin. 

Original description : Testa perforata, turbinato - globosa, 
costulata. Apertura mediocris, subovata ; peristomatis margine 
dextro simplici, columellari vix calloso. 

Operculum testaceum, subovatum, paucispirale ; nucleo sinistro'; 
margine membranaceo. 

Animal (pulmoniferurn ?) parvum ; tentaculis duobus brevibus 
subulatis, oculos in lobis tumidis ad basin gerentibus praeditum. 

Pes brevis, rotundatus. Proboscis brevis. 



CREMNOCOXCHUS. 65 

131. Cremnoconclms syhadensis (Stanford). 

Cremnoconchus syhadensis (Blanford), A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xii, 1863, 
p. 184 (as Crtnmobates), pi. 4, figs. 1-7 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 146, 
fig. 6. 

Original description: Testa subobtecte perforata, globoso- 
turbinata, costulis elevatis crenulatis circumdata, inter costuliis 
liris ininoribus spiralibus lineisque obliquis decussantibus incre- 
ment! ornata, periomphalo baud costulato concentrice decussato- 
striato albida, ad apicem rubella, epidermide viridi-fusca induta ; 
spira brevis, conoidea, sutura impressa, apice acuto, plerumque 
erosulo ; anfraetibus 3, rapide accrescentibus, convexis, ultimo 
rotimdato, circa perforationem angulato ; apertura diagonalis, 
ovata, lineis longitudinalibus fusco-purpureis prope suturam et 
versus basin marginis dextri, spatio interveniente, interne signata, 
interdum omnino colorata ; peristoma simplex, marginibus callo 
junctis, dextro recto, basili expansulo, columellari reflexo, appresso 
perforationem partim tegente. Operculuin normale. 

Alt. 7, diam. 7 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 5, diam. 4 mm. 

Hob. Western Grhats. On wet rocks (Blanford}. 

"Witb regard to tbe animal tbe author doubts the existence of 
gills and makes the following remarks : " . . . . the large vascular 
sac at tbe back of the neck exactly resembles that in the opercu- 
lated land- shells. The mantle- margin is free, and the sexes 
distinct. The lingual ribbon is very long; one from a large 
specimen measured J inch (17 mill.); the teeth are 7-ranked, but 
differ in form from those of Cyclostomaceous genera. The 
amphibious habits of the animal, the short foot, and the olive- 
green epidermis, so characteristic of fresh-water shells, induce me 
to place it in the vicinity of Lithoglyplius." 



132. Cremnoconchus conicus, Blanford. 

Cremnoconchus conicus, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 1870, 
p. 10, pi. 3, fijrs. 3, 3 a j H. & T., 0. I. pi. 146, figs. 8, 9, and 
C. conicus var. lig. 10, fide. Blanford, J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, 
p. 221. 

Original description : Testa imperforata, ovato-conica, solida, 
albida, fascia spirali castanea supra peripheriam interdum ornata, 
epidermide olivacea, baud nitida, induta. Spira conica; apice 
acuto, plerumque eroso ; sutura profunda. Anfr. 5 convexi 
(primi sapissime carentes), ultimus ad peripheriam sub-angulatus, 
subtus convexus, non descendens. Apertura obliqua, ovata, 
postice subangulata, intus fulvescens vel alba, aliquando fascia 
castanea intranti instructa; peristoma tenue rectum, marginibus 
callo junctis, basali sub-effuso, columellari calloso. Operc. nor- 
male, corneum, pauci-spirale, nucleo sub- basali, haud procul a 
latere columellari sito. 

F 



66 LTTTORXID7E. 

Alt. 8, diam. 6 mm. 1 A young specimen with 

Aperture: alt. 4-5, diam. 3'5 mm.) perfect spire. 

Alt. 9-5, diam. 7 mm. 1 An old specimen with eroded 

Aperture : stlt. 6, diam. 5 mm. J spire. 

Hab. Near Poonah. 

Var. canaliculatus, Stanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 1870, 
p. 11, pi. 3, fig. 4. 

Original description : Sutura canaliculata, anfractibus juxta 
suturam acute cariuatis. 
Alt. 8, diam. 6'5 mm. 
Hal. Torna. 

133. Cremnoconchus carinatus (Layard). 

Cremnoconchus carinatus (Layard), P. Z. S. 18o4, p. 94 (as 
Anculotus) ; Blanford, J. A" S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 1870, p. 12, 
pi. 3, fig, 5 ; op. cit. xlix, pi. 2, p. 221. 

Original description : Shell somewhat globose ; axis 5 lines, 
diam. 4 lines. Spire exserted, short. Whorls inflated, rather 
square, sharply keeled round the inferior angle, minutely; longi- 
tudinally striated. Colour dull olive, marked faintly with two or 
three broad bands of dark rufous-brown, which are very apparent 
in the aperture : columellar lip white, stained with a light dash of 
the same rufous-brown on the exterior margin. 

No dimensions being given the following is taken from 
Blanford's description (J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 12). 

Alt. 7*5, diam. 5 mm. 

Hab. Streams in the Mahableshwar Hills, Bombay Presidency. 

Subgenus BITHINELLA. 

Bithinella, Moquin-Tandon, 1851, J. de Conch. Paris, p. 239, 
& Hist. Moll. Terr. Fluv. France, 1855, p. 516 (as Bythinella}. 

TYPE, Bulimus viridis, Poiret ; Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Asia ; N. America. 

Shell having the opercuium set far back in the interior ; it is 
also subcorneous, spirally striate, with excentric nucleus. 

134. Bithinella canningensis, Preston. 

Bithinella canninyensis, Preston, A. M. N. II. ser. 7, xix, 1907, 
p. 216 (fig. in text). 

Original description: Shell subperforate, pyramidal, dull 
yellowish-brown horn-colour ; remaining whorls 3, somewhat 
convex ; sutures well impressed ; aperture oval ; peristome 
simple, continuous ; opercuium horny, paucispiral. 

Alt. 1*75, diam. maj. 1 mm. 

Hab. Port Canning, Lower Bengal ; in brackish pools. 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



PALUDESTRINID^E. 67 



Family PALUDESTRINID^ [=HytooNUU]. 

Subfamily PALUDESTRININ.E. 

Shell small, corneous, fusiform, narrowly rimate or imperforate. 
Distribution. World-wide. 

Genus PALUDESTRINA. 

Hydrobia, Hartmann, 1821, nee Leach in Ooleoptera, 1817. 
Paludestrina, d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Moll. 1840, p. 381. 

TYPE, P. auberiana, d'Orb. ; S. America. 

Itange. World- wide. 

Animals having no eyes on the tentacles, these being placed 
outwardly at their base ; operculum horny, spiral, resembling 
Littorina. An inhabitant of both fresh and brackish water. 

Subgenus BELGRANDIA. 

Belgrandia, Bourgtiignat, Cat. Moll. Ter. Fluv. Env. Paris, 1869, 
p. 15. 

TYPE, Bithinella gibba, Drapernaud ; France. 

Range. Europe; Asia. 

Shell having one or two rounded swellings on the last whorl, 
these, as the author explains at some length, being quite different 
from those caused by rest periods. 

135. Paludestrina (Belgrandia) miliacea, Nevill. 

Paludestrina (Belgrandia} miliacea, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlix, pt, 2, 
p. 161; op. cit., 1, p. 158, pi. vii, fig. 7; Nevill, Hand List, 
pt. 2, p. 52 [as Hydrobia (Bythinella)]. 

Original description: Testa minuta, vix rimata, conico- 
elongatula, solida, parum nitida, albido-viridula, laevigata ; spira 
paululum producta, apice minuto, acutiusculo ; anfr. 5, con- 
vexiusculi, ultimis duobus rapide accrescentibus, ultimo basi 
subplanulato, ad aperturam gibbositate crassa circumscripto ; 
apertura ovato-rotundata, iutus incrassata, peristoma continuum, 
valide incrassatum, raargine externo arcuato, basi sinuato, mar- 
gine columellari subangulatiin contorto, subrefiexo. Operculuui 
sat prot'imde immersum, tenue, pellucidum, vitreum. 

Alt. about 2-75, diam. 1-75 mm. 

Hab. Port Canning (Nevill, Mainwaring). 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Subvar. gibbosula. 

Hab. Port Canning (Stoliczka), 



68 

Subvar. subangulata. 

Hob. Port Canning (Nevill) ; Chilka Lake (Blanford). 

The above two subvarieties are given by Nevill in bis * Hand 
List/ p. 52, but without further descriptions than those implied 
by the names themselves. 

Var. minor, Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1880, pt. 2, p. 161. 

Alt. 2, diam. 1'25 mm. 
Hob. Port Canning. 



Genus TRICULA, 

Tricula, Benson, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. 1843, p. 467. 
TYPE, T. montana, Benson ; India. 

Range. India. 

Original description : Testae spira olongatiuscula, apertura 
obliqua, ovata, integra superne angulata; peristoinate contiuuo, 
subreflexo ; anfractu ultimo subumbilicato. 

Animal. Melaniae simile, proboscide elongata, antice emar- 
ginata, tentaculis filiformibus duobus oculos postice prope basin 
.gerentibus; pede mediocri ovato, antice subquadrato. Operculo 
corneo subspirali. 

136. Tricula montana, Benson. 

Tricula montana, Benson, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. 1843, p. 467 ; 
A. M. N. H. 1862, pp. 415-416; H. & T., C. I. pi. 155, %. 1. 

Original description : Testa olivacea ovato-conica, anfractibus 
sex rotundatis, suturis impressis, apertura intus albida, peri- 
stomate nigrescenti ; apice obtuso, plerimique decollate. 

Alt. 3, diam. maj. 1'25 mm, 

Hob. Bhimtal. 

Nevill (Hand List Moll. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, p. 62) cites a 
presumably short variety under the name var. curia, but without 
other description ; it is from the Jhiri Valley, N. Cachar, at an 
altitude of 3000 feet. 



Genus AMNICOLA. 

Amnicola, Gould & Haldeman, Rep. Iriv., Mass., 1841, p. 228. 
TYPE, A. porata, Say ; Massachusetts. 
Range. N. America ; E. & S. Asia. 

Original description: Shell ovate-conic, thin; spire acute, 
composed of a tew rounded whorls ; aperture small, oblique, 
rounded-ovate ; lips continuous, simple : operculum horny, spiral, 
with a few volutions. 



AMNiCOLA. 69 

Animal having an elongated foot, rounded posteriorly, with 
each anterior angle produced laterally ; head halt' the breadth of 
the foot, and protruding beyond it ; tentacula short, filiform, 
unequal, ? the eyes seated at the side of the external base ; 
oviparous. Inhabits fresh water. 

137. Amnicola cincta, Gould. 

Amnicola cincta, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 100 ; 
Otia Conch, p. 199. 

Original description: Testa minuta, tenuis, ovato-oblongata, 
impert'orata, pallide cornea, decollata : anfr. (superstitibus) 3, 
ventricosis, ultimo magno, subcarinato, liueis volventibus, et 
interdum fascia fusca, cincto: apertura ovata, basi admodum 
producta, labro simplici. 

Alt. 2 mm. 

Hal). Tenasserim, Burma. 

Unfortunately no actual specimen has been accessible to the 
author of the present work; hence the impossibility of illus- 
trating this hitherto unfigured species. 

138. Amnicola parvula (Hutton}. 

Amnicola parvula (Button), J. A. S. B. xviii, pt. 2, p. 655 

(as Paludina). 
Bithinia globula, Lea, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1856, viii, p. 110, 

& Jouru. Acad. Philad., n. s., vii, p. 119, pi. 22, tig. 12 (= Obs. 

Unio, xi probably) ; H. & T., 0. I. pi. 161, tigs. 8, 9. 

Original description : Animal dusky grey. 

Shell conoid, of four whorls exclusive of apex ; colour of 
epidermis dull or dusky green ; aperture ovate, rounded below, 
angular above ; oblique ; operculum horny ; subumbilicate, pillar 
lip partially reflected ; sutures deep ; epidermis of the upper 
whorls usually eroded ; transversely striated by fine lines of 
growth. 

Alt. 4*5 mm, 

Hab. A marshy patch of ground caused by a spring oozing from 
the side of the Kojuck Pass, at Chunirnun. 



Subfamily LITHOGLYPHIN^E. 

Animal with simple foot; radula with several basal denticu- 
lations ; penis simple or forked ; operculum horny, spiral or 
subspiral. 

Distribution. S.E. Europe ; S.E. Asia ; C. Africa ; N., S. and C. 
America ; Melanesia. 



70 PALUDESTKINIDJE. 

Genus LITHOGLYPHUS. 

Lithoglyphugj Hartmann, Sturm's Fauna, 1821, vi, Heft 5, p. 57. 
TYPE, L. eburneus, Meg. v. Miihlfeld ; Europe. 

Range. Europe ; India ; Tonkin. 

Shell imperf orate, globular with short spire, solid, suture 
lightly impressed; aperture large, snbovate or nearly circular; 
labruin simple ; columellar margin callous ; operculum horny, 
paucispiral, with excentric nucleus. 

139. Lithoglyphus martabanensis, Theobald. 

Lithoylyphus martabanensis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, 
pt. 2, p. 402, pi. 18, fig. 9; H. & T., C. I. pi. 81, tig. 10. 

Original description : Testa globose coriica, imperforata, solida, 
virescente albida, translucente, fere laevi, transversim exilissime 
striata, spira parva, regulari, subobtusa; anfractibus 4|, celeriter 
crescentibus, ultimo f longitudinalis sequante, apertura elliptica, 
antice rotundata, postice angulata. Columella callosa, polita, 
paulo dilatata, labro acuto leviter curvato, antice ad latus 
eubtruncato. 

Alt. 4 mm. (fig. in Conch. Ind.). 

Hob. Martaban. 



Subfamily BITHYNIIN.E [Bilhmiina emend.]. 

Animal with simple foot; rachila \\i\ln several basal denticu- 
lations ; penis bifid; operculum calcareous, concentric. 
Distribution. Europe; Asia. 

Genus BITHYNIA. 

Bithynia, Leach, in Abel's " Narrative of Journey into Interior of 
China," 1818, p. 362. 

TYPE, Helix tentaculata, Linnaeus ; Europe. 
Range. Europe; Asia. 

Shell small, ovately fusiform with more or less convex whorls ; 
aperture oval ; labrum continuous ; operculum testaceous. 

140. Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus). 

Helix tentaculata, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1758, p. 774. 
Neritajaculator, Miiller, Verm. Hist. pt. 2, 1774, p. 185. 
Turbo nucleus, Da Costa, Brit. Conch. 1778, p. 91, pi. 5, fig. 12. 
Bulimus tentaculatus, Poiret, Coq. de 1'Aisne, 1801, p. 61. 
Cyclostoma impurum, Draparnaud, Tabl. Moll. 1801, p. 41. 
Turbo janitor, Vallot, Exerc. d'Hist. Nat. 1801, p. 6. 
Cyclostoma jaculutor, Ftirussac, Ess. Meth. Conch. 1807, p. 66. 
Lymncea tentaculata, Fleming, Edin. Eucyc. vii, 1814, p. 78. 



B1TIIYNIA. 71 

Paluclina impura, Brard, Coq. Paris, 1815, p. 183, pi. 7, fig. 2. 
Paludinajaculator, Studer, Kurz. Verz. 1820, p. 91. 
Turbo tentuculcitus, Sheppard, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiv, 1823, p. 152. 
Biikyniajaculator, Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur, Merid. iv, ]826, p. 100. 
Palndind tentaculata, Fleming, Brit. Anira. 1828, p. 315. 
Bithinia tentaculata, Gray, Turton Man. 1840, p. 93, pi. 10, fig. 120. 
Bithinia (Eiona) tentaculata, Moquin-Tandon. Hist. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 528, pi. 39, figs. 23, 24. 
Bythinia tvntaculata, Reeve, Brit. L. & F. W. Moll. 1863, p. 189. 

" Shell : conically ovate, with a minute nearly closed umbilicus, 
fulvous green, subtransparent, apex rather sharp ; whorls five, 
smooth, convex, the last rather ventricose ; aperture somewhat 
pyriformly ovate, lip dark-edged, scarcely reflected. Operculum 
subtestaceous, striated concentrically around a central nucleus." 
(Reeve.} 

Hab. Throughout Europe (in gentle streams and still waters). 

Nevill gives the following variety without other description 
than the dimensions : 

Var. kashmirensis. 

Alt. 7, diam. 4-5 mm. 

Hab. Kashmir (Stoliczlca) ; Srinagar (Kashmir) (Theobald ?). 



141. Bithynia cerameopoma (Benson). 

Bithynia cerameopoma (Benson), Gleanings in Science, Calcutta, 
ii, p. 125 (name for sp. in vol. i, p. 362 ) (as Paludina) ; J. A. S. B. 
xxiv, 1855, p. 131. 

Bithi/nia ceranospatana, Frauenfeld, Verhandl. zool.-bot. Wien, 
1862, p. 1156 5 H. & T., C. I. pi 38, figs. 1, 4. 

Original description : Small, ovate-oblong, whitish -yellow, 
subhyaline, the lip at the base of the columella slightly produced; 
operculum calcareous. 

The above meagre description may be supplemented by the 
following, based on a specimen in the British Museum : 

Shell oblong-ovate, cinereous shading to yellowish white ; 
whorls 5, regularly and rather rapidly increasing, convex, 
minutely and obsoletely sculptured with very fine, spiral striae 
and marked with rather weak growth lines ; suture well im- 
pressed ; umbilicus moderately narrow, deep ; labrum continuous, 
slightly reflexed, bevelled within ; aperture a little oblique, ovate ; 
operculum shelly, slightly concave, with subcentral nucleus, 
having about seven convolutions. 

Alt. 10-75, diam. maj. 9, diam. min. 6 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 6, diam. 4'25 mm. 

Hab. Bengal. 

There is in the British Museum a second set of this species, 
presented by Captain T. Hutton and labelled " Plains India." 
The shells in this set are of rather smaller dimensions than those 



72 PALUDESTRI^ID^. 

to which the specimen above described belongs, and are all of a 
dark colour, varying from light chestnut to yellowish-brown. 

Nevill, in his ' Hand List of Mollusca in the Indian Museum,' 
p. 34, quotes two subvarieties, as below : 

Var. carinulata. 

Apparently a deformed specimen from Assam. 

Var. gigantea. 

No description, but presumably a large form from Calcutta. 

142. Bithynia travancorica, Benson. 

Bithynia travancorica, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, vi, 1860, 
p. 259 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 38, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description: Testa imperforata, conoideo-globosa, irre- 
gulariter striata, striis minutissimis spiralibus eonfertim decussata, 
albida, vel corneo-flavescente, translucente ; spira dimidium testa3 
OBquante, apicem versus conoidea, vertice obtusiusrulo hyalina, 
sutura impressa ; anfractibus 4| convexis, ultimo globoso, antice 
eensim descendente ; apertura obliqua. ovata, margine sinisiro 
calloso, callo extus sulco marginato. Operculo normali, cras- 
siusculo, extus nonnunquam tenuiter radiatim striato ; nucleo 
subceutrali. 

Alt. 6, diam. 5 mm. 

Hub. Ponds near Quilon. 

143. Bithynia lutea, Gray. 

Bithynia. lutea, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1824, p. 277. 
Bithynia goniostoma, Hutton MSS. 

Paludina pulchetla, Kiister (not Benson), ed. Cheran. Paludina. 
p. 30, p l. 6, fig. 19 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 37, fig. 7. 

Testa anguste perforata. globoso-ovata, sericiua, tenera, sub- 
pell ucida, obsolete striata, subtilissirae concentrice lineata, pallide 
ferruginea ; spira obtusa ; anfractibus 5 convexis, ultimo basi 
albo ; apertura subovali, marginibus conjunctis, albo-callosis ; 
perist ornate reflexinsculo, basi angulato subauriculato. (Kiister.) 

Alt. 7'25, diam. 5'5 mm. 

Hob. Purneah (Conch. Ind.). 

144. Bithynia moreletiana, Nevill. 

Bithynia moreletiana, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 29; 
op. cit., 1, pt. 2, p. 156, pl. 6, fig. 14. 

Original description: In shape resembling B. lutea, Gray 
(Conch. Ind. pl. 37, fig. 7); spire peculiarly short, apex very 
obtuse and flattened, always eroded, but not decollated ; whorls 



BITIIYNIA. 73 

3|, the last obliquely produced ; always imperforate, both in very 
young and very old shells ; margins of aperture entire, broadly 
reflected, produced and angled at base, outer margin rounded ; 
epidermis dark olive-green; under the lens a minute spiral 
sculpture can be detected. Young specimens invariably show 
a sort of varix, formed probably at a period when their growth 
is arrested by some cause, this varix becoming a.bsorbed in adult 
specimens. 

Alt. 8'75, diam maj. 6 ; alt. anfract. ult. 7 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 5-25, diam. 3 mm. 

Hob. Yaylaymaw, ? Upper Burma. 

" This species can easily be distinguished from the Indian 
B. cerameopoma and B. lutea; it is imperforate, has fewer whorls, 
a shorter and more obtuse spire, the columellar margin is less 
acutely angled at base, the epidermis green instead of brown." 

The original dimensions given by Nevill are quoted below, 
though some of them are not intelligible. 

"Long. max. 8|, inin. 7|, diam. max. 6, min. 7| mil., long, 
anfract. ult. 7 ; long, apert. 5J, diam. 3 mil." 



145. Bithynia pulchella (Benson}. 

Bithynia pulchella (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 746 (as 

Paludina) ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 38, figs. 5, 6. 
? = Vafaeta, no. 9, Button, J. A. S. B. iii, p. 90. 

Original description : Testa ovato-comca leviter striata, epider- 
mide olivacea, anfractibus rotundatis, suturis depressis. Aperturae 
peritremate nigrescente ; umbilico arco. 

Alt. 7'25 mm. 

Hal. Sylhet (Conch. Ind.). 

Nevill designates two new varieties in his 'Hand List of 
Mollusca in the Indian Museum,' p. 35, but without descriptions, 
as follows: 

Yar. obtusa. 

Hcib. Port Canning (StoliczTca). 

Yar. pusilla. 

Presumably a stunted form. 
Alt. 6*5, diam. 4'5 mm. 
Hob. Ferozpur (Temple). 



146. Bithynia subpulchella, Nevill. 

Bithynia wbpulchella, Nevill, J. A: S. B. 1, pt. 2, p. 157, pi. 6, 
fig. 12. 

Original description : [Shell] narrowly rimate, conically ventri- 
cose, of rather thin substance, slightly transparent, without 



74 FALUDESTRIXIDJE. 

sculpture, almost white, with a very slight brownish tinge here 
and there, suture very distinct, spire elongately drawn out, apex 
rather obtuse; whorls 4|, eonvexly ventricose, the last one 
tumidly and globosely swollen, about the same size as the others 
together, a distinct opaque varix on the left-hand side (away 
from the aperture) on each side of the two last whorls ; aperture 
nearly round, not oblique, with scarcely thickened, convex, 
peristome, and columellar margin nearly straight, subangulate 
at base. 

Very variable in size. Type : Alt. 6, diam. 4 mm. 

Hob. Kutch. 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

A thinner form designated by Nevill, var. tenuior, also occurs 
in the same locality, 

147. Bithynia inconspicna, Dohrn. 

Btihynia inconspicua, Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 123 ; II. & T., C. I. 

pi. 37, figs. 5, 6. 

Original description : Testa oblongo-conica, tenera, alba vel 
fulva, pellucida ; spira acuta ; anfractus 4-5 convexiusculi, sub 
lente leviter longitudinaliter striati; apertura oblonga. Operculum 
testaceum, concentricum. 

Alt. 5, diam. 3'5 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 2-5, diam. l'7o mm. 

Bab. Ceylon. 

148. Bithynia orcula, Benson. 

Bithynia oreula, Benson, MSS. in Frauenfeld, Verhandl. zool.-bot. 
Wien, 1862, p. 1154 ; H. &. T., C. I. pi. 38, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell very convex, globosely conic, scarcely perforate, milk- 
white, smooth though little polished ; whorls 4, slightly rounded 
with the exception of the last which is considerably swollen ; 
aperture large, roundly ovate ; columellar margin somewhat 
reflexed ; operculum weakly convolute, rather concave with 
central nucleus. 

Alt. 6-4, diam. 5 mm. 

Hab. Purneah (Con. Icon.). 

Nevill in his 4 Hand List,' pp. 36-37, cites several varieties 
without other descriptions thau those contained in the names 
themselves ; these are as below : 

Var. minor. 

Hob. Orissa (Ball). 

Var. prcducta. 

Hab. Sambhar and Salt-Lakes (Stoliezkd)\ Jam ul pur (Stoliczka); 
Ferozpur (Temple). 

The dimensions of the latter are : Alt, 7, diam, 5'25 mm. 



BITHYN1A. 75 

Var. parvula. 

Hab. Moradabad ; Jaunpur. 

Var. acuminata. 

Hab. Andainaris? (Roepstorff). 

149. Bithynia nassa, Theobald. 

Bithynia nassa, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, pt. 2, 1865, p. 27o ; 
op. cit, xxxix, pt. 2, p. 404, pi. 18, %. 8; H. & T., 0. I. pi. 37, 
figs. 8, 9. 

Original description : Testa elongata, i urbinata, polita, diaphana, 
solidiuscula. Labio expansiusculo, plica callosa externa munita. 
Anfractibus quinque. 

Alt. 10-25, diam. 6-25 mm. 

Hab. Shan States. 

A supplementary and fuller description is given in the Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxix, as follows : 

Testa elongate turrita, polita, diaphana, solidiuscula, imper- 
forata; anfractibus 6, lente convexis, sutura simplici junctis, 
striis exilissimis increment! tectis ; ultimo basi convexiusculo ; 
spira breviore ; apertura subovata, intus Isevi, supra (vel postice) 
acute angulata, antice rotundata, sensim producfa ; labio et labro 
leviter curvatis, primo paulo incrassato, altero acuto, margine 
tenui, extra prope marginem costa solidiuscula crassa instructo ; 
operculo testaceo, ovato, concentrice striato, nucleo subcentralL 

Alt. 8-5, diam. maj. 6-25 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 4-75, diam. 3-25 mm. 

Hab. Shan States. 

150. Bithynia laevis, Morelet. 

Bithynia leevis, Morelet, Ser. Conch, iv, 1875, p. 313, pi. 13, fig-. 2 
(as Bithinia Itevis) ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 38. 

Original description : Testa superficialiter arcuato-rimata, 
conico-oblonga, corneo-rubella vel lutescens, lineolis spadiceis, 
distantibus, longitudinal iter uotata, uitida, Isevis, apice trunca- 
tula; anfr. 5| convexiusculi, sutura simplici juncti, ultimus 
ventriculosus, circa rimam compressus : apertura ovalis, basi 
angulata, intus albido-toarulea, marginibus crassioribus, obtusiu>- 
culis, fusco anguste limbatis, columellari strictim dilatato. 
Operculum testaceum, pagina interna homogenea, alba, externa 
concaviuscula, epidermide fulva, concentrice striata iuduta, nucleo 
subcentrali. 

Alt. 10, diam. 5 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 4-5 mm. 

Hab. Siam, Cochin China (Morelet) ; Damothu, Moulmcin 
(Stolwzlca $ Riclithofen). 



76 PALUDESTEINID.!:. 



151. Bithynia goniomphalos (Morelet). 

Bithynia yoniomphalos (Morelet), Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1866, p. 167 

(as Paludina) ; Ser. Conch, iii, pi. 13, tig. 4. 
Bithynia irawadica, Blanford, P.' Z. S. 1869, p. 446 ; H. & T., C. I. 

pi. 37, fig. 10 (as Bythin/ia irawadica)', Nevill, in J. Anderson's 

Anat. & Zool. Researches during Yunnan Exp., Calcutta, 1878 

[1879], p. 890. 

Original description: Testa riraato-perforata, oblongo-conoidea, 
solidula, sub lente subtilissime decussata, parum nitens, viridi- 
f usca ; spira elongato-conica, apice truncata, anfr. superst. 4J 
convexi, ultimas circa perforationem compresso-carinatus, spiram 
non sequaus; apertura ovalis, basi angulata, intus lilacina. mar- 
ginibus fusco anguste limbatis. Operculum testaceum, extus 
concentrice lamelloso-striatum, intus candidum. 

Alt. 14, diam. 7 mm. 

Hob. Cochin China (Morelet) ; marshes and rivers round 
Maridalay (Blanford). 

152. Bithynia evezardi, Blanford. 

Bithynia evezardi, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, p. 220 ; Nevill, 
op. cit. 1, pt. 2, p. 157, pi. 6, fig. 13. 

Original description : Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovately conical, 
solid surrounded by regular spiral impressed lines rather close 
together, whitish horny, covered with an olive epidermis. Spire 
conical, apex eroded, suture deeply impressed. Whorls re- 
maining 3 (in a perfect shell about 4 to 5), rounded, the last 
about half the whole length, moderately ventricose, angulately 
compressed at the base around the umbilicus, which is conical 
and smooth inside. Aperture nearly vertical, oval, subangulate 
in front at the base and at the posterior extremity ; peristome 
simple, straight., obtuse ; operculum normal. 

Alt. 3-75, diam. maj. 3'25, diam. min. 2 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 2, diam. 1'5 mm. 

Hob. Lanowlee (Lanaoli), on the railway -line between Bombay 
and Poona, a few miles east ot Khandalla at the top of the 
B or- ghat. 

153. Bithynia pygmsea, Preston. 

Bithynia pygmcea, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta; ii, p. 45, fig. 
in text. 

Original description : Shell ovately fusiform, dark olive-brown ; 
whorls 3g, convex, smooth; sutures well impressed; aperture 
oval; peristome simple, continuous ; umbilicus narrow; operculum 
shelly, spiral with central nucleus. 

Alt. 3*25, diam. maj. 2 mm. 



BITHYNIA. 77 

Aperture : alt. 1'75, diaia. 1 mm. 

Hob. Myetmyo, Burma. 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

154. Bithynia stenothyroides, Dohrn. 

Bithynia stenothyroides, Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 123 ; H. & T., 
C. I. pi. 38, figs. 7, 10. 

Original description : Testa ovata, tenera, alba vel fulva, 
pellucida, nitida ; anfractus 4-5 convexiusculi, ultiraus efflatus, 
ventricosus, ad basin leviter rarinatus, antice descendens ; sutura 
simplex ; apertura oblongo-ovata, parum coarctata, ad basin acuta, 
alba. Operculum oblongo-ovatum, testaceum, crassum, concentrice 
striatum. 

Alt. 5-5, diam. 4-75 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 3, diam. 2 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Nilgherries. 

'* This species has some characters of Stenoihyra. The last 
whorl is unusually great, the mouth somewhat contracted, but 
the general aspect is that of Bithynia" 

Nevill gives the following variety as new, but without other 
description than the mere name (Hand List Moll, in Ind. Mus., 
Calcutta, pt. 2, p. 37) : 

Var. biangulata. 
Hab. Madras. 

155. Bithynia troscheli (Paascli). 

Bithynia troscheli (Paasch), Archiv fur Naturg., Berlin, 1842, 
p. 300, pi. 0, iigs. A-D (as Paludina). 

Paludina similis, Boll. Moll. Arch. Yer. Freunde Nature, Mecklen- 
burg, v, 1851, p. 102; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 40. 

Shell small, ovately fusiform; whorls 4-5, convex; suture 
rather deep ; labrum continuous ; aperture ovate. 

Alt. 5-5, diam. 4-25 mm. 

Hab. Europe ; Kashmir. 

"All the Kashmir specimens are decollate; the whorls are 
even more convexly rounded than usual." (A'evill.) 



Subgenus FOSSARULUS. 

Fossarultis, Neuinayr, Jahrb. Geol. Beichs. Anst., Wien, 1809, 
p. 361. 

TYPE, F. stachei, Neumayr : Miocene of Dalmatia. 
llancje. India. 



73 PALUDESTRIXIDjE. 

Original description: Testa parva, subglobosa, rimata, longi- 
tudiaaliter nodoso-costata ; apertura late ovata, superrie et ad 
basin effusa : peristomate continue, incrassato, duplicate. 

156. Bithynia (? Fossarulus) costigera, Kiister. 

Bithynia (? Fossarulus) costigera, Kiister, Conch.-Cab., Paktdina, 

p. 33, pi. 7, figs. 18, 19. 
Valmta sulcata, Eyd. & Soul., Voy. ' Bonite,' Zool. p. 517, pi. 31, 

figs. 19-21 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 151, fig. 10. 

Original description : Testa perforato-rimata, ovato-conica, 
turrita, solidula, pallide flava ; spira acuta ; anf ractibus 6 con- 
vexis, subtilifcer concentrice lineatis, longitudinaliter striatis, 
superne planulatis ; superioribus lineis tribus, ultimo numerosis 
lineis elevatis, transversis obsitis ; apertura subrotunda, peristo- 
mate recto, margine angulato. 

Alt. 7*5, diam. 5-5 mm. 

Hob. Bengal. 

Var. curta, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 42. 

A short form, apparently constant, with the spire less produced 
or exserted. 

Alt. 6-5, diam. 5-5 mm. 
Hab. Bangalore. 



Subgenus HYDROBIOIDES. 

Hydrobioides, Nevill, Hand List, 1884, pt. 2, p. 42. 

TYPE, Biihynia*! turrita, Blanford ; Burma. 

Range. India ; Burma. 

Shell solid, turrite, rimatc ; aperture ovate ; the margins of the 
peristome united by a parietal callus. 

157. ? Bithynia (Hydrobioides) turrita (Blanford). 

? Bithynia (Hydrobioides} turrita (Blanford), P. Z. S. 1869, p. 446 

(as Fairbankia (an Bithynia)). 
Bithynia turrita, 'Nevill, in J. Anderson's Anat. & Zool. Researches 

during Yunnan Exp., Calcutta, 1878 [1879], p. 890, pi. 80, 

tigs. 4, 4 a. 

Original description: Testa subperforata, turrita, solidula, 
fulva, glabra, nitidula. Spira elongato-comca, sutura impressa. 
Anfr. 7, convex!, ultimus antice subascendens, subtus rotundatus. 
Apertura ovata, postice vix angulata, varice externa mediocri 
instructa ; peristoma undique expansiusculum, marginibus callo 
junctis, externo leviter arcuato, columellari obliquo, antice cum 
basali subangulatim juncto. Operc. ? 



STENOTHYRA. 79 



Alt. 6-25, diam. 3 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 2*5, diam. 1*75 mm. 

Hob. Kyoukpong, River Irawady. 



Subfamily STENOTHYRINJE. 

Foot simple; radula of Bithi/nia ; operculum calcareous, spiral. 
Distribution. S. and E. Asia; N. Australia (Recent): Eocene 
of Europe (Fossil). 

Genus STENOTHYRA. 

Stenothyra, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, p. 496. 
Nematura, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 781 (not of Fischer, 
genus Orthopt., 1813). 

TYPE, S. delta, Benson ; Gangetic Delta. 

Range. S. & E. Asia ; N.E. Australia. 

Original description. Animal. Caput tentaculis duobus setaceis 
oculis postice prope bases tentaculorum sessilibus ; proboscide 
eloDgata, cylindracea, extensili. Pes ovato-oblongus, medio ventri- 
cosus, postice augustatus, acuminatus, processu brevi filiformi 
subito desinens ; antice expansus, medio prof unde emarginatus ; 
ala utroque latere porrecta late angustata, acuminata. 

Testa ovata, ventricosa, a latere cornpressa, ultimo anfractu 
iusuper aperturam angulato, deflexo. Apertura integra constricta, 
orbiculari, supra vix angulata ; peritremate acuto leviter intus 
incrassato. Operculo teuui in spiram plenam convolute. 

158. Stenothyra deltae (Benson). 

Stenothyra delta (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 781 (as 
Nematura) ; A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, p. 499 ; Sowerby, 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (Charles worth's series) i, 1837 (as Nematura) ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 37, fig. 2. 

Original description : Testa ovato-conica, a lateribus tumida, 
lutescente, ultimo anfractu ventricoso, majori omnibus oblique 
minute striatis; spira brevi, apice acuto; umbilico evanescente. 

Air. 6 mm. 

JIab. Ganges Delta. 

Subvar. minor, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 43. 

Alt. 4, diam. 2-5 mm. 

Hob. Port Canning (Nevill, Wood-Mason). 

Subvar. minima, Nevill, torn. cit. 

Alt. 2-75, diam. 1-75 mm. 

Hab. Port Canning (Nevill, Wood- Mason). 



80 PALUDESTR1NTDJE. 

159. Stenothyra hungerfordiana, Nevill. 

Stenothyra hungerfordiana, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, p. 159 ; 
op. cit., 1, pt. 2, p. 156, pi. 7, fig. 9. 

Original description : Testa parva, imperforata, ovato-elongata, 
solidiuscula, viridula, vix nitida (sub lente), lineis impressis ac 
dense puncticulatis confertira cingulata ; spira panlulurn elongata, 
ovato-convexa, apice obtuso, sutura profunda ac obsoleta raar- 
ginata ; anfr. 4, convexi, ultiinus cornpresse ovuliformis, antice 
subapplanatus, valcle descendens ; apertura perpusilla, suboblique 
rotundato-ovata, superne leviter angulata, sulco profundiori ab 
anfractu ventrali separata, peristomate obtuso. 

Alt. 2'5, diam. 1*5 mm. 

Hob. Andaman Islands. 

" This is one of the most distinct and interesting species of the 
genus as yet discovered ; the few imperforate whorls, with markedly 
obtuse apex ; the distinct, though minute, close punctulation ; the 
unusually convex whorls, with the remarkable long, compressed, 
slightly flattened, and egg-shaped last whorl are all good characters. 
The suture is very distinct and, on the last whorl, distinctly 
marginate below. The operculum is normal." 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

160. Stenothyra monilifera, Benson. 

Stenothyra monilifera, Benson, A. M. N. El. ser. 2, xvii, 1856 
p. 497 ; Blanford, Cont. Ind. Mai. pt. 8, pi. 2, fig. 15 ; H. & T., 
C. I. pi. 37, fig. 4 (as Nematura in Index). 

Original description. Testa subperforato-rimata, oblongo-ovata, 
compressiuscula, nitidiuscula, sulcis confertioribus, dense puncfci- 
culatis, spiralibus impressa, fusco-cornea, fascia pallida supra 
mediani ornata, versus apicem obtusulum hyalinum rubente, spira 
convexo-conica, sutura profunda, canaliculata ; anfractibus 4| con- 
vexis, ultimo subsoluto, $ testa3 requante, antice valde descendente, 
subtus rotundato, periomphalo subcompresso ; apertura obliqua 
diagonali, rotundato-ovali, sules profundiori ab anfractu penultimo 
divisa, peristomate obtusulo, callo parietali superne solum con- 
spicuo. Operculo corneo-pellucido, apice ad dextrain spectante. 

Alt. 4'5, diam. 3 mm. 
Mergui; Fegu. 



161. Stenothyra foveolata, Benson. 

Stenothyra foveolata, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, 
p. 497 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 37, fig-. 3 (as Nematura in Index). 

Original description. Testa vix rimata, ovato-acuta, spiraliter 
foveolato-striata, striis versus basin confertissimis, spira conica, 
apice acuto, sutura mediocri; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, ultimo 
at ventrem planiusculo, J testae a3quante, antice descendente, basi 



STENOTHY2A. 81 

rotundato ; apertura obliqua. rohmdato-ovata, peristomate obtuso, 
margins parietal! sulco mediocri ab anfractu ventral! separate. 
Operculo ? 

Alt. 5, diam. 3-25 mm. 

Hub. Ganges, near Sikrigali, Bengal. 

Nevill cites a var. minor (Hand List, p. 44) also from Sikrigali. 

162. Stenothyra blanfordiana, Nevill. 

Stenothyra blanfordiana, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, p. 160; 
op. cit., 1, pt/2, p. 156, pi. 7, tig. 10. 

Original description : Testa minima, euperficie rimata, sub- 
ventricoso-ovata, vix solidiuscula, nitida, laevis, pallide cornea, 
subpellucida ; spira subacuta, apice minute, subobtuso ; anfr. 4|, 
coiivexi, ultimus magnus, subsolutus, tumide-ventricosus, sub- 
biangulatus, antice subapplanatus ; apertura subovalis, paululum 
postice retro rsa, peristomate continuo, superne angulato. Oper- 
culuru ovale, superne leviter acuminatum, vix crassiusculum, 
subtranslucidum, spirale, apice subcentrali, interne testaceo- 
costatum. 

Alt. 3*1, diam. 2'1 mm. 

Hob. Lake Chilka (type) ; also Port Canning and Madras. 

Of the operculum the author further states : "it is oval, semi- 
transparent, spiral, of few whorls, with the apex also central, on 
the inner side three ridges, one semicircular and two short ones 
with a slight S-curvature, for the attachment of the animal. 

" The species is somewhat variable, especially as regards size 
and the greater or less distinctness of the angulation of the last 
whorl. Specimens from Port Canning agree better with the above- 
described typical form than do those from Madras." 

The type is in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

163. Stenothyra minima (Soiverby). 

Stenothyra minima (Sowerby), in Mag. Nat. Hist. (Charlesworth's 
series), i, 1837, p. 217, fig. 22 b (as Nematura) ; Adams, P. Z. S. 
1851, p. 225 (as Nematura) ; Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 
1856, p. 501 ; H. & T., 0. I. pi. 37, fig. 1. 

Original description : Testa parva, cornea, semipellucida, ovali, 
spira subproducta; polita, fasciis rufis subobsoletis ornata; apertura 
orbiculari, peritremate simplici. 

Alt. 3 mm. 

Hob. Western India ; Lake Chilka. 



164. Stenothyra woodmasoniana, Nevill. 

Stenothyra woodmasoniana, Nevill, J. A 
op. cit., 1, pt. 2, p. 156, pi. 7, fig. 8. 

Criminal desertion: Testa parva, imperforata, ovato-acuta, 



Stenothyra woodmasoniana, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, p. 159 ; 
op. cit., 1, pt. 2 ; p. 156, pi. 7, fig. 8. 



82 PALUDESTRIKIDjE. 

solida, crassa, pallide viridula, polita, nitida (sub lente), obsolete 
submalleata ; spira aculeiformis, subconcava, producta, apice per- 
acutissimo ; anfr. 6, baud convex!, ultinms pertumidus, medio 
subangulatus, basi applanatus, antice ad aperturam abrupte et 
valide deflectus ; apertura percontracta, perfecte rotundata, raar- 
ginibus coritinuis, valide incrassatis. 

Alt. 3-5, diam. 2 mm. 

Hob. Port Canning. 

" This interesting form is easily recognized by the very acute 
and concavely-excavated spire, the subarigulate last whorl, 
flattened round the umbilical region ; it is not spirally pitted, 
as in most species of the genus, but appears absolutely malleated 
or indented under a powerful lens." 

The type is in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



165. Stenothyra chilkaensis, Preston. 

Stenothyra chilkaensis, Pjreston, Eec. Ind. Mus v Calcutta, x, 1914, 
p. 300, tig. 011 p. 298. 

Shell minutely rimate, ovate, yellowish brown ; whorls 5, the 
first very small, the second large in proportion, the last also 
large, convex, without sculpture ; suture well impressed ; perfora- 
tion reduced to a very narrow chink : labrum continuous ; 
aperture oblique, ovate. 

Alt. 2-75, diam. maj. 2 (nearly), diam. min. 1-5 mm. 

Hob. Barkul, Lake Chilka, Orissa, among weeds at the edge of 
the lake. 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



3 66. Stenothyra orissaensis, Preston. 
Stenothyra orissaensis, Preston, torn. cit. 

Shell small, narrowly perforate, ovately turbinate, pale greenish 
yellow ; whorls 5, regularly increasing, smooth, but for growth 
markings, the last convex and rapidly descending in front ; 
labrum continuous, slightly erect ; aperture strangulate, oblique, 
oval. 

Alt. 2-25, diam. maj., 1*5 mm. 

Hab, Off Satpara, Lake Chilka, Orissa, at a depth of from 4 to 
6 feet, close in shore (type) ; dead specimens were also taken at 
Manikpatiia at a depth of 4 feet. 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



YIVIPAIUJXE. 83 

Family VIVIPAKID.E. 

Subfamily VIVIPARIN^. 

Shell turbinate, subperforate or imperforate ; whorls more or 
less convex ; operculuui horny, concentric with excentric sublateral 
nucleus placed near the inner margin. 

Distribution. Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and N. America. 

Genus VIVIPARA. 

Vivipara, de Montfort, Conch. Syst. ii, 1810, p. 247, as Vioiparus, 
emend. Dupuy, Hist. nat. des Moll. . . . qui vivent eu France, 
1851, p. 534. 

Paludina, auct. 



V. ftuviorum, de Montf. (vivipara, Linn.); Europe. 

Range. Europe; Asia; Africa; Australia; X. America. 

Shell conoidal, rather thin, with obtuse apex ; whorls convex ; 
labrum not sinuous; operculum horny with sublateral nucleus. 

Animal having the tout moderately large; tentacles loug ; right 
cervical lobe very large arid bent back to form a groove ; teeth ot 
the radula finely crenellated on their reflexed margin. 

167. Vivipara bengalensis (Lamarck). 

Vivipara bengalensis (Lamarck), Aniiii. s. Vert. (ed. Desh.), viii, 

p. 513; Deles. Rec. Coq., Lam. pi. 31, fig. 2 (as Paludina) ; 

Reeve, Con. Icon., Paludina, sp. 5 ; Kiister, ed. Chemn., Paludina, 

tigs. 15, 16. 

Paludina elonyata, Swains. Zool. 111. ser. 1, pi. 98, top. 
Paludina lineata, Valenc. in Humb. & Bonpl. Voy., Zuol. ii, p. 2-55 ; 

II. & T., C. I. pi. 76, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Original description: Testa ventricosa, ovato-acuta, tenui, 
virescente, transversim f'usco-lineata ; striis exilissiinis decussatis ; 
spira conica ; anfractibus septenis, convexis. 

To supplement the above, Reeve's description is given below. 

Shell elevatedly conical, thin, greenish, shining lineated and 
narrowly banded with dark-green ; whorls convex, smooth, very 
minutely decussately striated. 

Alt. 38, diam. 24 mm. (fig. 5 a in Conch. Icon.). 

Alt. 44, diam. 29'5 mm. (fig. 5 b in Conch. Icon.). 

Hab. North- West Provinces of Hindostan. 

A shining pale-green shell, banded and lineated throughout 
with dark green, sometimes turning to rusty-brown. The surface 
is very minutely engraved with impressed spiral striae, decussating 
slightly-raised longitudinal striae, which are striae of growth. 

Var. balteata (Benson), J. A. S. B. 1836, pt, 2, p. 745 ; Nevill, 
Hand List, pt. 2, p. 21. 

Ha 1 ). Silcliar, etc. ; Cachar. 

G2 



84 YIVIPAB1D-S. 

Var. fasciis elevatiusculis. 

Hal. Sylhefc (Benson) ; Silchar and Cachar ( Wood-Mason). 

Var. phaeostoma (Nevill), Hand List, pt. 2, p.. 21 (without 
description). 

Presumably a dark-lipped form. 
flab. Calcutta. 

Var. gigantea (Reeve), van den Buscli, MS,, in Reeve, Con. 
Icon. sp. 7 (as Paludina gigantea) ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 21. 

Original description : Shell elevately conical, rather ventricose, 
pale green, moro or less obscurely banded and lineated with dark 
green, whorls obtusely swollen round the upper part, then rounded, 
decussately very minutely striated, longitudinal striae numerous, 
close-set. 

Alt. 54, diam. 37*5 mm. (fig. in Con. Icon.). 

Hob. Bengal ( lieeve) ; Dinapur (Mainwariny). 

168. Vivipara doliaris (Gould). 

Vivipara doliaris (Gould), Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, i, p. 144 fas 
Paludina] ; Otia Conch, p. 191 ; Reeve, Con. Icon., Paludina, 
sp. 1 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 77, fig. 6. 

Original description : Testa tenui conico - globosa, luteo- 
viridescente, arctissime uuibilicala ; anfract. 5 veutricosis, striis 
ininutissimis reticulatis, coetulis numerosis inequalibus, purpureis, 
cinctis ; apertura sub-circulari ; columella renexa, non appressa, 
alba ; labiis postice disjunctis. 

Alt. 28. diam. 22-5 mm. 

Hob. British Burma (Conch. Ind.). 



169. Vivipara oxytropis (Benson). 

Vivipara ozytropis (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 745 (as 
Pahtdina) ; Reeve, Con. Icon., Paludina, sp. 9. 

Paludina pyramidata, Philippi, Ab. N. Conch, i, Pnludina, pi. 1, 
figs. 3, 4 ; Kiister, ed. Cliemn., Taludina, pi. 6, figs. 1, 2 ; H. & T., 
C. I. pi. 76, fig. 5. 

Original description : Testa tenui ovato-conic-a olivacea, decus- 
satim striata ; anfractibus superne carinis plurimis fuscis ornatis, 
ultimi carina media saliente subacuta ; interne fasciis quibusdam 
elevatiusculis f uscis ; suturis inconspicuis ; apice acuta ; canali 
umbilicali excavato ; apertura intus violacea, peristomate acuto, 
nigro. 

'Alt. 42, diam. 32-5 mm. 

llab. Bengal. 



VIVIPARA. 85 

170. Vivipara naticoides (Theobald). 

Vivipara naticoides (Theobald), J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, pt. 2, p. 274, 
pi. 9, figs. 1, 2, 3 (as Paludina naticoides) ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 76, 
figs. 1, 4, 



Original description : Testa turbinata, snb-polita, solida, pallide 
flavescente cornea ad peripheriam carina rnunita ; marginibus 
callo junctis, callo coluroellari non raro valde incrassato, 
uinbilicum obtegente. 

Alt. 33, cliam. 22 mm. (taken from fig. 1 in Conch. Ind.). 

Alt. 34-5, diam. 24 mm. (taken from fig. 4 in Couch. lud.). 

Hob. Shan States. 

Var. concolor (Nevill), Hand List, pt. 2, p. 25. 

Of a light, uniform, olive-green colour ; whorls not so exserted 
as usual, last one less swollen in proportion, more regularly and 
globosely swollen, with a single, somewhat inconspicuous, raised 
ridge at the periphery; aperture small, with the outer margin 
regularly rounded. 

Alt. 25-75, diam. 18 mm. 

Hob. Upper Salween (type) (Theobald). 

Yar. carinata (Theobald), torn. cit. p. 27-3. 

Original description: Var. carinata. Carinis quatuor fortissimis 
supra munitur, et infra peripheriam sex vel quinque laBvioribus ; 
colore albido ; epidermide flavescente, fasciis nonuullis castaueis 
interdum ornata. 

Ail:. 35, diam. 25 mm. 

Hob. Shan States. 

" These two varieties pass into each other, but the peculiar 
columellar callus is pretty constant in all specimens. But for 
this character, some of the smooth variety might be referred to 
P. bengalemis, which is an extremely variable species. 

"The strongly corded var. is well marked, but I have preferred 
taking the smooth shell as the type of the species, and have 
regarded the keeled individuals as hypertrophied, placing the 
greatest value, as a specific character, on the coiumellar callus, 
occurring in both varieties." 

Var. fasciata (Theobald), torn. cit. & Cat. Moll., Ease. E, p. 34. 

Original description: Varietas fasciata, fasciis duabus castaneis 
ornatur, htic superperipheriali, ilia juxta suturam posita. Anfractu 
ultimo tertia notes t a carina paulum remota. Callo flavescente, 
ore interior! coerulescente. Anfractibus (i. 

Alt. 36, diam. 27*5 mm. 

Hob. Shan States. 



86 YIVIPAIMD.'E. 

171. Vivipara theobaldi, Kolelt. 

Vivipara theobaldi, Kobelt, in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. -Cab. 
1907, p. 151, pi. 30, tigs. 10, 11. 

Original description: Testa exumbilicata, ovato-conica, tennis. 
Laud nitens, unicolor fusco-olivacea vel subnigrans, subtiliter 
striatula, plerumque limo ferrugineo ad hae rente induta, apice 
nigricante. Spira conica, apice acuto, sutura par urn impressa. 
Anfractus 7, superi convex!, inferi supra planati et angulati, 
carinis spiralibus plus minusve distinctis 3 cincti, ultimns acute 
carinatus, carina versus aperturam distinctiore et eubtuberculata, 
utrinque convexus, carinulis tribus superioribus, prima et secunda 
magis approximatis, duabus inferis minoribus cinctns, antice 
descendens, basi irregulariter costato-sulcatus, spirae altitudinem 
superans. Aperttira parum obliqua, basi recedens, ovata, supra 
acutiuscula, faucibus ccerulescentibus, vix fasciatis ; peristomn. 
rallo angusta nigro-marginato continuum, margine exteruo vix 
incrassato, extus ad carinam angulato, columellari calloso, distincte 
duplici sed parum incrassato, aibo, nigro-marginato. 

Alt. 31-5, diam. 24 ram. 

Aperture : alt. 17, diam. 12 mm. 

JJab. Burma (Moellendorff Coll.}. 

172. Vivipara crassa (ffuttoii). 

Vivipara crassa (Button), MSS. in Benson, .T. A. S. B. v, 1836, 
p. 745 (as Paludina) ; lieeve, Con. Icon., Paludina, sp. 33. 

Paludina obtnsa, Troschel, Wiep:n)ann's Arch. Nat. Hist. 1837, 
p. 173 ; Philippi, N. Conch, i, p. 116, pi. 1. n>. 14 : Reeve, Con. 
Icon., Paludina, fig. 33 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 76, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description : Testa ovato-conoidea, ventricosa, solida, 
pallide virente, obsolete fasciata, rugis exilissimis decussata ; 
anfractibue tumidis, suturis excavatis ; spira obtusa ; umbilico 
Bubcanaliculato ; apertura intus lactescente. 

Alt. 25 mm. 

Jfab. Bengal. 

" This species varies in configuration even in the same waters, 
some specimens approaching to a subglobose form, while others 
have a more lengthened conoid spire. It is very abundant in the 
river Gumti at Jonpur, where it is paler, and has a more yellowish 
tinge than the Silhet variety, which, from having an eroded 
summit, appears 1o have inhabited stagnant water. It has a 
singular habit, for the genus, of burying itself in the mud or 
sand in shallow water, often in large societies ; other species 
conceal themselves in the mud in the season of drought, but 
]\ crassa does so from choice, and is impelled by no such 
necessity. The shell of the lately excluded young ie so depressed 
and globular, that it might be easily mistaken for a young 
Ampullaria. The adult shell attains a degree of thickness 
unusual in the genus." 



VI VI PAR A. 87 

Tar. tezpurensis (Nevill), Cat. Moll., Ease. E, p. 35. 

"A very interesting form, almost exactly intermediate between 
P. crassa and P. siamensis. Spire much shorter than in typical 
form, and only a little more produced than in the Siam species ; 
whorls more globose ; aperture less deflected, umbilicus less open, 
sculpture more distinctly malleated " 

Alt. 17*5, diam. 15'5 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 9'5, diam. 11-5 mm. 

Hob. Tezpur. 

173. Vivipara siamensis (Frauenfeld) . 

Vivipara siamensis (Frauenfeld), Verh.zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1865, 
p. 531, pi. 2-2 ; Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 32, & op. cit. 1, 
p. 32. 

Shell solid, acuminately conic, flattened below, widely per- 
forate, somewhat polished, very pale olive-green, margins of the 
upper whorls almost whitish, the third and fourth convolutions 
tinged with purplish-brown ; whorls 5, very convex, though 
somewhat flattened in the sutural region, marked wirh faint 
growth lines which show darkly here and t^ere and sculptured 
with weak, interrupted, spiral striae ; aperture large, broad ; 
labrum thick, black ; interior of shell white ; operculum thin, 
pale brownish, with very excentric nucleus. 

Alt. 24, diam. 21 mm'. 

Aperture : alt. (including the labrum) 17'5, diam. 14'5 mm. 

Hob. Siam. 

Var. burmanica (Nevill), Hand List, pt. 2, p. 26. 

Original description : A very small variety ; spire short, apex 
obtuse, with the whorls even less acute and exserted, the last one 
larger in proportion and more globosely swollen, with the keel 
round the umbilicus obsolete ; aperture more contracted, that is, 
less dilately expanded : colouration of epidermis and the black 
peristome exactly similar. 

Alt. 11, diam. 10 mm. 

Hob. Prome, on the Irawady (type) (TJieobald)- Tenasserim 
Province (Limborg) ; Yaylaymaw, Upper Burma (Anderson). 

174. Vivipara dissimilis (Muller}. 

Vivipara dissimilis (Muller), Verm. pt. 2, p. 184 (as Nertta.)', 
Schroter, Einl^it. Conch, ii, p. 253, pi. 4, tig. 10 (Nerita). 

Helix dissimilis, Gmelin, Syst.. Nat. 3647 ; Dillwyn, Desc. Cat. 
p. 941 (Nerita). 

Paludina remossii, Kiister (not Philippi), ed. Chemn., Paludina, 
p. 26, pi. 5, figs. 17, 18 ; H. & T., C. 1. pi. 77, figs. 3, 4. 

Original description : Testa pellucida glabra f uscescente-alba ; 
albido maxime m iui'eriore anfractus parte conspicitur, quasi 



88 VI VIP \HIDjE. 

fascia lata alba cincta esset. Anfractus sex convexitate inter 
viviparam et fasciatam media. Apertura distinguitur rnargine 
minus acuto, nigro, nitido. Operculum pellucidum luteo-fuscum, 
nitidum. 

Alt. 28, diam. 20 mm. (from fig. 3, pi. 77 in Conch. Ind.). 

Hab. Tanks, near Calcutta; Kondooruwave, etc. (Conch. Ind.). 

Var. sindica (NeviU), Hand List, pt. 2, p. 28. 

" . . . . not decollate, 6 whorls, almost colourless." 

Alt. 32, diam. 2175 mm. 

Hob. Sind ; Kathiawar (Fedden). 

Var. subumbilicata (Nevill), torn. cit. 

Columella straighter than usual, only slightly edged with black ; 
distinctly openly rimate, almost umbilicate ; slightly more convex 
whorls, the last one almost perfectly rounded ; belt at periphery 
less distinct than in typical form, substance of shell a trifle 
thicker and less brightly coloured. 

Hab. ( Ferozpur (Temple). 

Var. assamensis (Nevlll). torn. cit. 

Original description : This is a well marked and characteristic 
variety, easily distinguished from all the preceding forms by the 
turreted and remarkably produced spire, the cylindrical instead of 
convex whorls ; the deep, uniform green colour, the last whorl 
and aperture much smaller and more contracted in proportion, 
the latter less everted ; periphery subangulate, with the belt 
obsolete ; scarcely rimate ; peristome black. 

Alt. 22-75, diam. 16 mm. ; slightly decollate. 

Hob. Tezpore, etc., Assam (type) (Stoliczka, Oldliam); Jamal- 
pur ? (Stoliczka) ; Silcuri, Cachar (.Wood-Mason). 

Var. "bhamoensis (Nevill), torn. cit. p. 29. 

" An interesting gmall form of the preceding, with shorter and 
less produced spire . . . ." 

Alt. 17-25, diain. 1375 mm. ; slightly decollate. 

Var. kutchensis (Nevill), Cat. Moll., Fasc. E, p. 40 (sine norn.) ; 
Hand List, pt. 2, p. 30 (as Paludina) ; Kobelt, in Martini & 
Chemnitz, Conch.-Cab. 1908, p. 287, pi. 58, figs. 1-4. 

Original description : A very fine, interesting form, with 
sculpture even more developed than in Madras specimens; no 
trace of a white band ; sharply angulate in young specimens, 
becoming more or less obsolete in adult ones, no trace of hi- 
angulation ; im perforate. 

Alt, 28, diam. 22 mm. 

, KaCh [Cutch] (Stolic&a). 



YIVIPARA. 89 



175. Vivipara variata (Frauenfeld). 



a variata (Frauenfeld), Verbandl. zool.-bot., Ges. Wien, 
1862, p. 1163 (as Paludina} ; H. & T., 0. I. pi. 115, g. 8. 

Shell somewhat conic, narrowly deeply umbilicate ; olive-green, 
slightly polished ; whorls 5?, not very convex, the last descending 
behind the aperture, marked with weak growth lines and sculp- 
tured with regular, numerous, very fine, punctate, spiral striae ; 
suture well impressed ; aperture pyriform ; interior of shell of a 
dirty bluish colour ; labruui polished, black. 

Alt. 21, diam. 16 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 12, diam. 10 mm. 

Hab. Pondicherry. 

Var. pseudohelicina, Kobelt, in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch.- 
Cab. 19u8, p. 293, pi. 59, figs. 5-8. 

Vivipara dissimilis subsp. helidformis, Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 30 
(nee Frauenfeld). 

Original description : Testa subobtecte rimata, ovata, solida, 
subtiliter striatula, sculptura spiral! nulla, olivaceo-viridis ; spira 
ero^a, sutura linearis. Anfractus, superst. 4-5 convexi, infer! 
supra subangulati, ultimus ad peripheriam obsolete angnlatus, 
has! convexus, antice haud descendens. Apertura vix obliqua, 
sat anguste ovata, supra leviter acuminata, intus coeruieo-albida, 
late, nigro-limbata ; margo columellaris leviter incrassatulus. 

Alt. 20, diam. 17 mm. 

A.perture: alt. 11, diam. 9 mm. 

Nab. Pegu. 

Var. peguensis, Kobelt, in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. -Cab. 
1909, p. 378, pi. 58, figs. 7, 8. 

Original description : Testa anguste et subobtecte umbilicata, 
ovato-globosa, spira breviter conica, erosa, saturate viridescente- 
fusca, hie illic anguste nigro strigaTa, anfractibus convexis, sutura 
profunda discretis, ultimus niaguus, obsoletissime angulatus, circa 
umbilicurn subcornpressus ; peristoma late nigrolimbatum. Oper- 
culum crassiuseulum, extus limbo iucrassata, intus disco pedali 
prominente munitum. 

Alt. 21, diam. 17 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 12, diam. 10 mm. 

Hab. Moulmein, Pegu. 



176. Vivipara ceylonica (Dohrn). 

Vivipara ceylonica (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1857, p. 123 (as Paludina} 
Keeve, Con. Icon., Paludina, sp. 32 (as P. ceylanica) ; H. & T. r 
C. I. pi. 77, h'g-s. 1, 2, P. ceylanica. 

Original description-. Testa ovato-couica, perforata, solidiuscula, 



90 Y1YIPA1UDJE. 

viridis, versus apicem fnscescens ; spira magis nrimisve elevatn, 
exserta ; anfractibus convex!, ad suturam et basin obsolete, medio 
acute carinati ; spiraliter et longitudinaliter striata ; sutura 
simplex, impressa ; apertura ovata, intus alba, peristoma sub- 
incrassatum, reflexiusculum, nigrum. 

Alt. 21, diam. 16 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 12-5, diam. 9 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Var. ecarinata (Hanley d: Theobald), Conch. Ind. pi. 115, 
fig. 9. 

The type of this variety is not available, and is probably lost; 
the figure depicts an ecarinate shell with rounded whorJs and 
painted with a narrow, brownish or blackish, subperipheral band 
on the last whorl. 

Alt. 21, diam. 16*5 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



177. Vivipara lecythis (Benson}. 

Vivipara lecythis (Benson), J. A. S. B, v, 18S6, p. 745 (as Pnltt- 
dina) j H. & T., C. I. pi. 76, fig. 6. 

Original description: Testa tentii, globoso-conica ampullacea, 
olivacea, glabra, rugis obsoletis decussata ; spira obtusiuscula ; 
anfractibus valde ventricosis, rotundatis; suturis excavatis ; 
apertura intus violacea spiram longitudine superante ; peri- 
tremate nigro, subreflexo ; umbilico evanescente. 

Alt. 50-5, diam. 42-25 mm. 

Nab. Upper Burma (Conch. Ind.). 

" . . . . It is a very thin shell in proportion to its volume. 
The epidermis is greenish olive in young specimens, reddish 
fuscous in the adult." 

Var. ampulliformis (Benson). 

Paludina ampulliformis, Eydoux & Souleyet, Vov. Bouite, Zool. 
p. 549, pi. 31, tigs. 25-27 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 76. tig. 7. 

Original description : Testa globosa, conico-clepressa, fusco- 
nigricante ; anfractibus senis, ventricosis ; superioribus erosius- 
culis ; apertura ovato-acuta, obliqua, intus iusca ; peristomate 
continue ; umbilico angusto. Operculum corneum, ovatum, con- 
centrice striatum. 

Alt. 35, diam. 30 mm. 

Hob. Upper Burma ; Cochin China. 

" Only differs from the type by the absence of the infra-sutural 
angle." (Hanley fy Theobald.) 



YIY1PAHA. 91 

178. Vivipara remossei (PMlippi). 

Vivipara remossei (Philippi) (erroneously as of Benson), Abbild. 
N. Conch, ii, Paludina, p. 134, pi. 2, fig. 3 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 77, 
figs. 8, 9. 

Original description : Testa anguste-perforata ; ventricosa, 
solida, Ifflvigata, corneo-virente ; ppira exserta, acutiuscula ; anfr. 
senis parurn convexis, superne baud angulatis, sutura parum 
impressa divisis, ultimo snbangulato ; apertura ovato-orbieulari, 
spiram non aequante, nigrolimbata ; labio calloso. 

Alt. 29-25, diam. 22 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 13-25 mm. 

Hab. Jounpore, Soobathur, etc. (Coricb. Ind.). 

179. Vivipara digona (Blanford). 

Vivipara digona (Blanford), P. Z. S. 1869, p. 445 (as Paludina} ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 115, fig. 7. 

Original description : Testa P. bengalensi persimilis, sed de- 
cussatim striatula, anfraciibus superioribus juxta suturam angu- 
latis ; ultimo biangulato, efc supra et infra peripberiam, angulis 
singulis fasciis f uscis spiralibus congruentibus, zona tertia inter- 
media, aliis basalibus, lineis angustioribus spiralibus interdum 
interjectis. 

Alt. 23-5-32, diam. 17-5-23 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 13-1 7'5, diam. 10-5-14-5 mm. 

Hab. The Iraw.-idv about Ava, Bbamo, etc. 

Appears, according to its author, to be intermediate between 
V. benyalensis (Lk.) and F. oocytropis (Bens.). 

180. Vivipara nagaensis, Preston. 

Vivipara nagaensis, Preston, Proc. Malac. Soc. xi, p. 20, fig. in 
text. 

Original description : Shell globosely turbinate, rimate, dark 
olive; whorls 5, regularly increasing, convex, painted with 
narroxv, transver.se stripes of reddish-brown, sculptured with 
fine, spiral and wavy, transverse striae, suture well impressed ; 
umbilicus reduced to a mere chink ; labrum very slightly reflexed, 
black, the margins joined by a light blackish Ciillus ; colnmella 
descending in a slight curve ; interior of sbell bluish ; operculum 
thin, larniniferous, with excentric, depressed nucleus 

Alt. 28, diam. maj. 22, min. 20 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 15'5, diam. 11 mm. 

Hab. ]N T aga Hills. 

181. Vivipara Mlmendensis, Kobelt. 

Vivipara liilmendensis, Kobelt, in Martini &; Chemnitz, Conch.- 
Cab. 1908, p. 289, pi. 59, figs. 9-12. 

Original description : Testa obtecte umbilicata, ovato-conica 



02 

vel ovato-turrita, solidula sed paruni crassa, nitida. subtiliter 
striatula, sculptura spiral! inconspicua, albida, obsolete fusco 
fasciata, fascia lata in anfractibus superis, duabus latis in ultimo. 
Spira conica vel turrita, apice in speciminibus extantibus fracto, 
in erabryonalibus acutissimo ; sutura distinct a sed vix impressa. 
An tract us 7 (superstates plerumque 5) convexi vel siibteretes, 
mediani infra suturam plus minusve planati, ultiinus tumidus, 
rotundatus, vix descendens. Apertura ovato-rotundata, supra 
vix acuminata, intus fuscescenti-albida ; peristoma album, lenue, 
acutum, m argin ibus callo tenui junctis, columellari leviter super 
umbilicum dilatato. Operculum intus disco pedali rugoso vix 
prominente munitum. 

Alt. 24, diarn. maj. 20 mm* 

Aperture: alt 13, diam. 15'5 mm. 

Alt. 27, diam. maj. 2'2'5 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 13, diam. ]2 mm. 

Hab. Seistan. 



182. Vivipara annandalei, Kolelt. 

Vivipara annandalei, Kobelt, in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch.'Cab, 
1908, p. 296, pi. 57, tigs. II, 12 (V. unnendalei [sic]). 

Original desertion: Testa vix rimata, ovata, tenuis, subtiliter 
striatula, sculptura spirali nulla, viridifusca, saturate fusco varie 
fasciata. Spira late couica, sat brevis, apice acutissimo ; sutura 
linearis, impressa. Ant'ractus 6 vix celerirer accrescentes, superi 
convexiusculi, penultimus convexus, supra angulato-planatus, 
biiasciatus ultimus tumidus inflatus, supra vix planatus, medio 
obsolete angulatus, basi convexus, fasciis 4-6 lineolisque nonnullis 
angustis ornatus, antice baud descenclens. Apertura masjna, 
irregulariter ovata, supra angulata, faucibus livide coarulescentibus 
fasciis externis vix transliu-entibus ; peristoma acutum, tenue, 
margiuibus vix callo tenuissimo junctis, externo supra producto, 
basi cum columellari leviter dilatato et utnbilicum fere obtegente 
angulum paruni distinctum forniante. 

Alt. 26-6, diam. maj. 21 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 16, diam. 11*5 mm. 

Hab. South India? 

Van halophila, Kobelt, torn. cit. p. 297, pi. 59, figs. 17-20 (as 
V. annendalei halopMla [sic]). 

Original description : Testa rimato-perforata, ovato-globosa, 
summo omnino cariose-erosa, tenuis sed solidula) parum nitens, 
striatula, sub vitro fortiore vix subtilissinie spiraliter sculpta, 
viridi-fusca, fasciis nigro-castaneis 4-5 cincta. Spira in speci- 
minibus adultis erosa, in junioribus breviter conica apice acuto ; 
sutura linearis. Anfraotus 6 (persistentes 3-4), penultimus 
angulato-tabulatus, ultimus inflatus, ad peripheriam obsolete 
angulatus, fasciis tribus majoribus, 2-3 liuearibus ciuctus, antice 



V1VIPARA. 93 

baud descenclens. Apertura magim, ovata, supra acuminata, 
infra subeffusa, faucibus ccerulescentibus ; peristoma tenue, acutunj, 
marginibus vix junctis, columellari vix dilatato. Operculum 
magnum, te.nue, corneum, extus concavum, disco pedali hand 
rugoso. 

Alt. 24, diam. maj. 20 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 13, diam. 11 mm. 

Hab. Salt Eange (N. India). 

183. Vivipara shanensis, Theobald. 

Vioipara shanensis, Theobald, Catalogue, 1876, p. 17 ; Kobelt, in 
Martini & Chemnitz, Conch.-Cab. 1909, p. 411, pi. 77, tigs. 4, 5. 

Original description : Testa exumbilicata, ovato-conica, solicla, 
crassa, oblique striata, in anfractibus inferis spiraliter et peculiarity 
costata, costis nodosis, nitida, virescenti-t'usca, subunicolor vel sub- 
nigro trifasciata. JSpira ehita, apice acuto, nigro; sutura distincta, 
inter anfractus inferos subirregularis, impressa. Anfractus 7, 
superi 3 lentissime accrescentes, Iseves, conulum regularum form- 
antes, superi subscalati, liris spiralibus rudibus tribus prim urn 
laevibus, dein tuberculatis, sculpti ; ultimus postice fere f- altitudinis 
sequans, liris tuberculiferis vel seriebus tuberculorum obliquiis 
4-5 majoribus nonnullisque minoribis cinctus, serie quarta peri- 
pherica peculiariter squamosa, aperturam versus supra subdeclivis, 
subangulatus, ad anguluin productus, vix descendens. Apertura 
irregulariter ovalis, supra acuminata, basi valde recedens, intus 
concolor vel fasciata; peristoma callo anguste nigro-marginato 
continuum, margine externo tenui, acuto, ad peripheriain sub- 
augulato, margine columellari calloso ; dilatato, f usco, nigro- 
marginato, processum semilunarem, umbilicum omnino occludeatem 
emittente. 

Alt. 30, diam. maj. 24 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 18, diam. 14-15 mm. 

Hab. Sban States. 



Section IDIOPOMA. 

Idiopoma, Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, liii, 1901, 
p. 189. 

TYPE, F. (/.) henzadensis, Pilsbry ; Burma. 

Range. C. Africa ; S.E. Asia. 

This section is based upon the characters of the operculum as 
given in the following description of V. (L) lienzadtnsis, Pilsbry. 

184. Vivipara (Idiopoma) henzadensis, Pilslry. 

Vivipara (Idiopoma} henzadensis, Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, liii, 1901, p. 188, pi. 5, fig. 1. 

Original description : Shell umbilicate, broadly ovate-conic ; 



94 

olive-green with some narrow slightly darker streaks ; surface 
glossy and smooth, under a lens showing fine, delicate and spaced 
spiral striae, which become crowded and somewhat granulose ou 
the base. Spire short, obtuse, the earlier whorls eroded, the 
eroded portion reddish, tipped with black. Sutures deeply im- 
pressed, the whorls strongly swollen just below them ; last whorl 
angular at the periphery in front, the angle disappearing on the 
last half whorl, which is rounded; umbilicus narrow, excavated 
behind the columellar lip, surrounded by an angle. Aperture 
oblique, rounded-ovate, bluish white inside; peristome narrowly 
expanded at the edge, blunt, black, with a blackish border inside 
and out; continuous across the parietal margin. Operculum 
chestnut-brown and slightly wrinkled outside, with a conspicuous 
raised or reflexed cuticular border ; inside with a conspicuously 
raised and minutely roughened ovate area nearer the columellar 
side, radiating striaB on the outside of this area, and a raised 
border all around. 

Alt. 23, diam. 16-5-1 7*5 mm. 

Hob. Henzada, Burma ( Winkley). 

185. Vivipara (Idiopoma) heliciformis (Ft-auenfdd). 

Vivipara (Idiopoma) heliciformis (Frauenfeld) (as Paludina}, 
Verhandl. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xv, 1865, p. 532, pi. 22 ; Zool. 
Misc. pt. 5. 

Paludina dissimilis, var. decussntula or P. decussatula, Blanford, 
P. Z. S. 1809, p. 445 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 77, figs. 6, 10. 

Shell acuminately conic, scarcely umbilicate, rather solid, 
smooth, polished, pale olive-green with eight or nine more or less 
conspicuous brownish bands which disappear entirely on the 
upper whorls ; whorls 6, regularly increasing, convex ; suture 
well impressed ; aperture oval, somewhat angled above ; interior 
of shell bluish white ; peristome acute, erect, somewhat thickened 
towards the columella. 

Alt. 20*5, diam. 14-5 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 10, diam. 8 mm. 

Hab. Pondicherry ; Pegu (Stoliczka). 

Yar. viridis (Reeve), Hanley MS., Reeve, Conch. Icon. 1862, 
sp. 20 (as Paludina. viridis) ; Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1877, pt. 2, p. 31, 
& Anderson's Zool. Yunnan Exp. 1879, pi. 80, tig. 1 ; Nevill, 
Hand List, pt. 2, p. 30. 

Original description : Shell clavately conical, dark green, whorls 
rounded, smooth, rather constricted at the sutures, beneath the 
lens minutely decussately striated throughout. 

Alt. 39, diam. 25 mm. (fig. in Conch. Icon.). 

Ifab. Kabyuet, Upper Burma (Anderson). 



VALVATID.E. 



Family VALVATID/E. 

Subfamily VALVATINJ3. 

Shell umbilicate turbinate or subdiscoidal depressed ; labriun 
continuous ; opercuium multispiral. 

Distribution. Europe, N. Asia, IN". America. 

Genus VALVATA. 

Valvata, M tiller, Verm. Hist. ii, 1774, p. 198; Zool. Dan. Prodr. 

1776, p. 239. 
Buccinum, d'Argenville. 

Nerita, Geoffrey ; Mtiller ; Schroter; Grnelin ; Alien. 
Helix , Schroter ; Ginelin ; Montagu ; Alten. 
Trochus, Schroter. 

Cyclostoma, Drapernaud ; Voith ; Lesueur. 
Turbo, Donovon ; Poire t ; Montagu ; Turton olim. 

Valoearius, Dumeril. 

Paludina, Menke olim ; Michaud ; Ueshayes. 

Gyrorbis fy Valvata, Fitziuger. 

Volvata, Berge. 

TYPE, Valvata cristata, Miill. ; Europe. 

Itange. Europe ; JN". Asia. 

Shell umbilicate, turbinate or subdiscoidal, with little exserted 
spire, whorls few, not numerous ; aperture circular, oblique ; 
labrum continuous, thiu ; operculuin multispiral. 

186. Valvata piscinalis (Miiller). 

Nerita piscinalis fy nusilla, Miiller, Verm. Hist. pt. 2 (1774). 

pp. 171-172. 
Trochus cristatus, Sehroter, Gesch. Fluss-Conch. (1779), p. 280, 

pi. 6, fig. 11. 
Helix piscinalis fy fascicularis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788) pp. 3627, 

3641. 

Nerita obtusa, Studer, Coxe, Trav. in Switz. iii (1789) p. 436. 
Turbo fontinalis, Pulteney, Cat. Shells Dorset. (1799), p. 45. 
Turbo cristatus, Poiret, Ooq. de 1'Aisne (1801) p. 29 (not of Matoii 

& Rackett). 

Cyclostoma obtusum, Draparnaud, Tabl. Moll. (1801) p. 39. 
Valvata minuta, Draparnaud, Hist. Moll. (1805) p. 42, pi. 1, 

tigs. 313-38. 

Valoat.a viscinalis, Ferussac, Ess. Syst. Conch. (1807) p. 75. 
Lymncea fontinalis, Fleming, Edin. Encyc. vii (1814) p. 78. 
Valvata obtusa, Brard, Coq. Paris (1815) p. 190, pi. 6, fig. 17. 
Turbo thermalis, Dillwyn, Desc. Cat. Shells (1817) p. 852. 
Valvata depress, C. Pfeift'er, Deuts. Moll, i (1821) p. 100, pi. 4, 

fig. 33. 
Valvata moquiniana, Regnies, Dupuy, Hist. Moll, v (1851) p. 586, 

pi. 28, fig. 15. 

The following description of this species, which is widely spread 



96 VALVATID.E. PILID.E. 

throughout Europe, Siberia, and Asia Minor, is taken from Reeve's 

*' Land and Freshwater Mollusks indigenous to the 

British Isles " : 

Shell : somewhat globosely heliciform, deeply narrowly um- 
bilicated, pale straw-colour, semitransparent but solid ; whorls 
four and a half to five, depressed at the apex, longitudinally 
densely finely striated, spirally faintly ridged, ridges sometimes 
obsolete ; aperture somewhat pyriformly rounded. 

" Valvata piscinalis is almost milk-white, showing its bright 
blue-black eyes very conspicuously on the inner base of each 
tentacle," 

It is recorded from Kashmir. 

187. Valvata (?) microscopica, G. Nevill. 

Vakata (?) microscopic^ G. Nevill, Cat. Moll., Fasc. E, 1877, & 
Hand List, pt. 2, p. 17. 

Original description : Shell exceedingly minute, orbicular, 
moderately thin, depressed, and discoidal ; whorls four, moderate, 
convex, with distinct suture, the last whorl increasing rapidly ; 
the shell, both above and below, rugosely and distinctly spirally 
striated, deeply umbilicated, with rounded and proportionately 
rather large aperture : the specimens were coated with some thick 
black deposit; when cleaned the shell presents a brownish-red 
appearance ; the operculum examined under the microscope is 
horny and circular, of comparatively rather thick substance ; it 
appears to be multispiral, but we were not able to make out the. 
structure quite satisfactorily. 

Diara. 1*5 mm. 

Hab. Port Canning, in brackish water. 



Family PILIDJE [~Amjndlariidci\. 

Subfamily PILING. 
Shell globose, large, holostome, with calcareous operculum. 

Genus PILA. 

Pila, Bolten, Mus. Bolten. 1798. 

Ainpullaria, Lamarck, M6m. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1790, p. 76. 

TYPE, Helix ampullacea, Linn. ; Malaysia. 

Range. S.E. Asia ; C. Africa. 

Shell turbinate, globose, with little exserted spire ; aperture 
oblong, oval ; labrum arched, simple, occasionally reflexed ; 
operculum calcareous. 



PILA. 97 

188. Pila globosa (Swainsoii). 

Pila globosa (Swainson), Zool. Illust. ser. 1, ii, pi. 119 ; Philippi, 
Monogr. Ampul. (Krister's ed. Chemn). p. 8, pi. 1, fig. 3 ; Reeve, 
Con. Icon., Ampul, figs. 46, 47 ; H. & T., 0. 1. pi. 113, fig. 3. 

Original description : Shell globose, very smooth, olive ; spire 
depressed ; margin of the aperture thick, fulvous, grooved ; 
umbilicus small, contracted, placed near the base; operculum 
shelly. 

Alt. 55-5, diam. 56-5 mm. (measurements of Swainson's figure). 

Hob. Calcutta ; Rohilkund ; Orissa, etc. (Conch. Ind.). 

Yar. sphjerica (Hanley $ Theobald), Conch. Ind. pi. 113, fig. 4. 

Figured, but without description ; the figure shows a much 
larger shell than the typical form, it is of a greenish-olive tint and 
painted with several narrow bands of a reddish hue, with an 
obliquely-set aperture. 

Alt. 64*5, diam. 65 mm. 

Nab. Moradabad. 

Var. fasciata (Hanley $ Theobald), torn. cit. fig. 5. 

Also figured, but without description ; the figure in this instance 
shows a more numerously banded form with a rather less oblique 
aperture. 

Alt. 63-5, diam. 62 mm. (measurements of fig. in Conch. Ind.). 

Hub. Moradabad. 

Nevill in his 'Hand List' quotes a number of varieties as 
follows : 

Var. sinistrorsa (Nevill), Hand List, pt. 2, 1884, p. 2. 
Hob. Calcutta. 

Var. incrassatula (Nevill), Cat. Moll. Fasc. E, 1877, p. 4 ; Hand 
List, pt. 2, p. 2. 

A small variety " distinguished by its greater relative thickness, 
by its (in living specimens) pure white peristome, slightly more 
exserted spire, absence of coloured bands, and by the unusually 
small umbilicus." 

Alt. 32, diam. 28'5 ram. 

Hab. Calcutta (Nevill) ; Dum-Dum (Wilmer). 

Var. minor (Nevill), Cat. Moll. Ease. E, 1877, p. 4 ; Hand List, 
pt. 2, p. 2. 

A small variety with spire and aperture at base more produced 
than in the typical form ; the columellar margin is widely ex 
panded and stained of a rich dark chestnut-brown, the interior of 
the aperture being similarly coloured ; it is of a thinner and more 
delicate texture than the var. incrassatula. 

Alt. 36, diam. 3O5 mm. 

Hab. Dum-Dum, near Calcutta ( Wilmer) ; Siliguri (Mainwaring). 

H 



98 PILID^B. 

189. Pila corrngata (Swainson). 

Pila corruffata (Swainson), Zool. Illust. ser. 1, iii, pi. 120 (badly 
copied in Kiister's ed. Chemu., Ampul, pi. 1, fig. 10) ; H. & T., 
C. I. pi. 113, fig. 2. 

Amrwttaria globosa, Sw., var. corrugata, Sw., Nevill, Cat. Moll., 
Fasc. E, p. 2. 

Original description : Shell globose, wrinkled, olive ; spire 
prominent, acute, the whorls ventricose ; margin of the aperture 
thick, fulvous, grooved ; umbilicus small, linear, near the middle 
of the inner lip ; operculum shelly. 

Alt. 63, diain. 54 mm. (measurements of Swainson's figure). 

llab. Bengal ; Pondicherry (Conch. Lid.). 

Var. longispira (Nevill), Hand List, pt. 2, p. 2. 

Rugoselv malleated, peristome of a pale yellow colour. 
Alt. 68,'diam. 63 mm. 
Nab. Benares (Mainwaring). 

190. Pila carinata (Swainson). 

Pila carinata (Swainson), Zool. 111. ser. 2, Ampul, pi. 1, from which 
Philip. Mon., Ampul, (in Kiister's ed. Chemn.), pi. 1, fig. 2 ; 
? Reeve, Con. Icon., Ampul, sp. 58 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 114, fig. 1. 

Ampullaria globosa, Sw., var. carinata, Sw., Nevill, Cat. Moll., 
Fasc. E, p.' 3. 

Original description : Shell olive, ventricose, without bands ; 
whorls carinated near the suture. 

The above description being so meagre, Philippics description in 
Kuster's edition of Martini Chemnitz is given below : 

Testa globosa, laevissima, olivacea, fasciis destituta, anfractibus 
prope suturam carinatis, supra plauis ; apertura ovato-oblonga, 
inlra medium latiore, fulvo limbata ; labro subreflexo ; umbilico 
mediocri ad dimidinm labri sito. 

Alt. 57, diara. 52-75 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon. 

191. Pila malabarica (Philippi). 

Pila malabarica (Philippi) (not Reeve), MOR. Ampul. (K lister's ed. 

Chemn.) p. 29, pi. 7, tig. 8 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 114, fig. 2. 
Ampullnria globosa, Sw., var. malabarica, Phil. Nevill, Hand List, 

pt. 2, p. 3. 

Original description : Testa ovata, anguste umbilicata, olivacea, 
unicolore, laevi; spira fere tertiam altitud.inis partern sequante, 
subcontabulata ; anfractibus ad suturam horizontal! bus, ibique 
radiatim subrugosis, ultimo versus basin paullulum attenuato ; 
apertura ovato-oblonga ; peristomate intus incrassato. 

Alt. 36-25, diam. 32 inm. 

Hub. Mangalore. 



PI LA.. 99 

192. Pila layardi (Reeve). 

Pila layardi (Reeve), Con. Icon.. Ampul, sp. 27 ; H. & T., C. I. 

pi. li4, fig. 4. 
Ampullaria globosa, Sw., var. layardi, Reeve, Nevill, Hand List, 

pt. 2, p. 3. 

Original description : Shell rather compressly globose, whorls 
narrowly flatly impressed round the upper part, then rounded, 
smooth, shining ; umbilicus small, contracted ; aperture ovate ; 
whitish, covered with an olive horny epidermis. 

Alt. 48, diam. 44 mm. (taken from fig. in Con. Icon.). 

Hub. Colombo, Ceylon. 

Yar. virens, Lamarck, Hist. Anim. s. Vert, vi, 1822, p. 179, 
Hab. ? ; Nevili, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 3. 

" carination at suture obsolete." 

Hab. Kollain (Beddome). 

193. Pila nux (Reeve). 

Pila nux (Reeve), Con. Icon., Ampul sp. 132 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 115, fig. 1. 

Original description : Shell oblong-conoid, solid, scarcely um- 
bilicated, spire obtusely exserted, whorls convex, slanting and 
obsoletely plicately wrinkled at the suture ; fulvous-chestnut ; 
aperture ovate, rather small, columellar lip callously reflected. 

Alt. 3u, diam. 23 mm. (taken from fig. 132 a, pi. xxviii, in 
Conch. Icon.). 

Hab. Bom Day. 

" A solid fulvous-chestnut shell of an oblong-conoid form, with 
the columellar lip rather unusually callously reflected." 

194. Pila maura (Reeve). 

Pila maura (Reeve), Con. Icon., Ampul, sp. 57. 

Original description : Shell globose, narrowly umbilicated, spire 
rather short, whorls a little flattened at the sutures, then rounded, 
smooth ; dark olive ; aperture ovate, lip stained within with 
purple-black. 

Alt. 45, diam. 41 mm. (taken from fig. in Conch. Icon.). 

Hab. Assam (Conch. Ind.). 

" Of a particularly globose form, the lip being characteristically 
stained within with purple or chestnut-black." 

195. Pila theobaldi (Haiiley). 

Pila theobaldi (Hanley), H. & T., C. I. pi. 115, fig. 2 (as 

Ampullaria). 
Ampullaria maura, Reeve, var. theobaldi, Hanley, Nevill, Cat. Moll., 

Fasc. E, p. 6. 

Figured as above, but not described, and as no specimen is 

H 2 



100 PILIDJE. 

available to the author a few remarks only on the figure are 
possible. The shell appears to be of large dimensions, globular in 
form, of an olive-green tint ornamented with groups of narrow 
spiral reddish bands, each group varying in having from two to 
four bands in number, the umbilicus would appear to be 
moderately wide and the columella is diffused above into a well- 
defined, purplish, parietal callus which joins the upper margin of 
the labrum, the outer lip is rather irregularly streaked or blotched 
with the same colour and the aperture is obliquely ovate. 

Alt. 80, diam. 77*5 mm. 

Hob. Burma ? or Pegu ? (Conch. Ind.) ; Bharno (Nevill). 



196. Pila saxea (Reeve). 

Pila sa.vea (Reeve), Con. Icon., Ampul sp. 108 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 115, figs. 3, 4. 

Original description : Shell oblong-ovate, rather solid, with a 
narrow covered umbilicus, spire rather obtuse, whorls a little 
depressed round the upper part, obsoletely angled, then rounded ; 
olive ; nperture pyriformly oblong, columellar lip thinly reflected. 

Alt. 29, diam. 2o mm. (taken from fig. 3 in Conch. Ind.). 

Hab. Bassein, Pegu (Conch. Ind.). 

" An oblong-ovate shell, of rather solid texture, characterised 
by a faint depression round the upper whorls, causing a scarcely 
perceptible angle." 

197. Pila conica (Gray}. 

(Ampullaria) conica (Gray), Wood's Index Test. Sup. p. 29, 1828, 

& Hanley, Conch. Misc. pi. iii, fig. 13. 

Ampullaria scutata, Mousson, Moll. Java, 1849 (not of Phil.). 
Ampullaria javanica, Reeve, var. 1856, fide Martens j from Cam- 
Morelet ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 5. 



" Shell conically oblong, scarcely umbilicated ; spire exserted ; 
whorls convex, rather narrow, smooth ; dark olive ; aperture 
ovate, rather small ; lip thin." (Reeve.) 

Alt. 40'75, diam. 30'5 mm. 

Hab. Java (Reeve)-, Moulmein (Riclilliofen, Stoliczka) ; Akyab 
(Stoliczka). 

Var. expansa, Nevill, Cat. Moll., Ease. E, p. 9, 1877. 

Ampullaria paludinoideSjU. & T., C. I. pi. 114, fig-. 5 [not of Philippi 
or Crist. & Jan.] ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 5. 

Original description: Testa subglobosa, umbilicato-perforata, 
plerumque glauca, fusco-zonata ; epidermide olivacea : spira conica, 
tertiam altitudinis partem occupante ; anfractibus ad suturam 



PILA. 101 

horizontalibus ; apertura oblongo-ovata ; labro intus incrassato, 
obtuso. 

Alt. 43, diam. 35 mm. 

Hob. Mangalore ; Pegu (type of var.) (W. Theobald] ; Tenasserim 
(Stoliczka) ; Mandalay (Stoliczka). 

Var. orientalis (Philippi), Zeits. Malak. 1848, p. 192, ' China " ? 

Ampullaria scutata, Phil. Conch.-Cab. ii, pi. 1, figs. 4, 5 [not of 
Mousson] ; Nevill, Hand List, pt. 2, p. 5. 

Original description : Testa obovata, subimperforata, satis 
tenui, obsolete fasciata, saepius unicolore ; epidermide nitida, 
olivaeea ; anfractibus convexis, superius subangulatis ; spira 
dimidiam aperturam fere asquante, plerumque erosa ; apertura 
ovato-oblonga, semilunari ; operculo calcareo. 

Alt. 39'5, diam. 36 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 30 mm. 

Hob. China; Bassein, Arakan (Blanford). 

198. Pila dolioides (Reeve). 

Pila dolioides (Reeve), Con. Icon., Ampul. 1856, sp. 75 ; Nevill, 
Hand List, p. 7. 

Original description: Shell ovate, thin, ventricose, narrowly 
umbilicated, spire short, sharp ; whorls convex, shining, impressed 
at the sutures, last whorl largely swollen and expanded; ash-olive, 
obscurely red-ban ded, bands linear, irregular ; aperture very large, 
open, columellar lip reflected. 

Alt. 56, diam. 47 mm. (dimensions of fig. 75 a in Conch. Icon.). 

Hab. Bombay (Reere) ; Ceylon (Nevill). 

199. Pila moesta (Reeve). 

Pila mcesta (Reeve), Con. Icon., Ampul, p. 92 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 115, fig. 6. 

Original description: Shell ovately globose, narrowly umbili- 
cated, spire rather exserted ; whorls slightly flattened at the upper 
part, then rounded, smooth ; dull olive, encircled with narrow 
darker bands ; aperture lunar-ovate, lip yellowish-white within. 

Alt. 36, diam. 30-75 mm. (taken from fig. in Conch. Icon.). 

Hab. Ceylon. 

"A dull greenish-olive species, of globose form, narrowly 
compressly umbilicated, encircled with numerous faint bands, 
irregular in width, but mostly linear." 

200. Pila cinerea (Reeve). 

Pila cinerea (Reeve), Con. Icon., Ampul, sp. 94 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 113, fig. ]. 

Original description : Shell globose, thin, rather inflated 



102 PILIDjE. 

narrowly umbilicated, spire short, whorls rounded, smooth, the 
last ascending in front ; pale ash, encircled with three to four 
linear reddish-brown bands ; aperture pyriformly ovate, columellar 
lip thinlv reflected 

Alt. 39'5, diam. 35 '25 mm. (taken from fig. in Con. Icon.). 

Hob. Ceylon. 

"A peculiarly rounded species, thin and somewhat inflated, of 
a light ash-colour, encircled with faint bands, which, towards the 
apex, are like red-brown lines, of which only the uppermost one 
is visible." 

201. Pila olea (Reeve). 

Pila olea (Reeve), Con. Icon., Ampul, sp. 102. 

Original description: Shell subglobose, scarcely umbilicated, 
epire rather short, whorls rounded, longitudinally striated ; shining 
olive, encircled with two distant narrow blackish-red bands ; 
aperture pyriformly ovate. 

Alt. 29, diam. 23'25 mm. (taken from fig. in Con. Icon.). 

Bab. India? 

" Of a peculiar compact subglobose form, with a shining olive 
surface, encircled with two distant linear bands." 

202. Pila tischbeini (Dohrn}. 

Pila tischbeini (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1858, p. 134 ; H. & T., C. I. 
pi. 114, fig. 3 (as Anipullaria). 

Original description: Testa ovato-globosa, solida, peranguste 
umbilicata, rude longitudinaliter, sub lente subtilissime spiraliter 
striata, olivacea, fasciis saturatioribus cingulata ; spira exserta ; 
anfr. 3-4 integri convexi, rapide accrescentes, ad suturam im- 
pressam angulati ; ultimus efflatus ; apertura lunato-ovalis, intus 
i'usca, dense fasciata; peristomium rectum, labro intus albido. 

Alt. 33, diam. maj. 31, diam. min. 28 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 25, diam. 17 mm. 

flab. Ceylon. 

203. Pila woodwardi (Dohrn). 

Pila woodward? (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1858, p. 134 ; H. & T. ; C. I. 
pi. 115, fig. 5 (as Arnpullaria). 

Original description : Testa subturbinata, solidiuscula, parum 
nitida, longitudinaliter striata, late umbilicata, olivacea, fasciis 
viridibus vel fuscis spiralibus ornata ; spira exserta ; anfractus 
4-4| integri convexi, rapide accrescentes, supra medium angulati ; 
ultimus efflatus, antice descendens; apertura ovato-lunaris, alba, 
fasciis intus pellucentibus ; peristomium simplex, rectum. 

Alt. 29, diam. maj. 26, diam. min. 22 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 19'5, diam. 11-5 inm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



PILA.. 103 

204. Pila alucinans (Sowerby). 

Pila alucinans (Sowerby), Proc. Malac. Soc. ix, p. 63 (fig. in text) 
(as Ampullaria). 

Original description : Testa late ttirbinata, mediocriter umbili- 
cata, t'usco-olivacea, fasciis numerosis angustis nigro-fuscis ornata, 
longitudinaliter irregulariter plicata et striata, striis transversis 
siibtiiissimis decussata ; spira brevis ; anfractus convex!, supra 
planulati ; ultimus latiusculus, superne rofunde angulatus, supra 
angulum leviter depressus, infra angulum rotunde convexus, 
basim versus leviter contractus ; apertura latiuscula, intus fasciata ; 
peristoma tenue. 

Alt. 23, diam. 23 ram. 

Aperrure : alt. 22, diam. 12 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

205. Pila winkleyi (Pilsbry). 

Pila winklei/i (Pilsbrv), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, liii, 
1901, p. 19, pi. 5, figs. 2, 3 (as Ampullaria). 

Original description : Shell narrowly umbilicate, globose ; 
yellowish-olive, uniform or with few or numerous dusky olive 
spiral bands, the earlier whorls eroded, blackish or ruddy. Surface 
smooth, somewhat shining, under a strong lens seen to be very 
densely, microscopically striated spirally, the striae minutely granu- 
lose ; spire low-conic ; sutures impressed, the whorls flattened 
below them, elsewhere sy in metrically convex. Aperture vertical, 
semi-rotund, narrower above, reddish-tawny and sometimes banded 
within, becoming white near the lip ; peristome a trine expanded 
below, white or dirty yellowish, the outer margin equably curved, 
columella concave, blunt and more or less thickened but not 
reflexed, parietal callus rather thin, white, thinner within. Oper- 
culum thick and solid, concave externally, and partially covered 
with a thin, yellowish-brown cuticle. Tnside bluish, with a mica- 
like gleam, the scar of attachment sunken, the columellar side 
concentrically striate, the enclosed eminence narrow, curved and 
smooth. 

Alt. 58, diam. 50 mm. 

Aperture : alt. maj. 43 mm. 

Hob. Henzada. Burma ( Winkley}. 

Types in Coll. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 



104 LIMN XWJE. 



Order PULMONATA. 

Suborder HYGROPHILA. 
Family LIMN^EID.E. 
Subfamily ANCYLIN^. 

Shell patelliform, without spire. 

Distribution. Temperate and Tropical Regions of the World. 

Genus ANCYLUS. 

Ancylus, Geoffroy, Traite" de Coq. de Paris, 1767; Clessin, Conch.- 
Cab., 1882, p. 11, etc. 

TYPE, A. Jluviatilis, Linnaeus, from Europe generally, Algeria 
and Madeira. 

Range. Europe, Asia. 

Shell small, patelliform, either dextral or simstral, thin, conoidal ; 
aperture either ovate or rounded ; peristome acute, simple. 

Animal having the lateral teeth of the tongue narrow, sharp 
pointed, and the cardinal [median] tooth, small, rounded. 

206. Ancylus "baconi, Bouryuignat. 

Ancylus baconi, Bourguignat, Cat. Ancyl. in Journ. de Conch, iv, 
1853, p. 181; Bourg. Descr. Ancyl. Cuming in P. Z. S. 1853, 
p. 89, pi. 25, figs. 18-25; H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. 
ii, 1855, p. 266; Bourg. Spicil. Malac. 1862, p. 205; Clessin in 
Conch.-Cab. 1882, p. 61, pi. 7, fig. 7. 

Original description : Testa autice recta vel paululum convexa, 
postice recta vel paululum concava ; apice postico, obtusissirno, 
paululum dextrorsus dejecto ; depressione apicali vix conspicua, 
in extremitate verticis sita. Testa parva, fragili, diaphana, 
laevissima, vel concentrice striatula ; epidermide albido-virescente ; 
apertura ovata. 

Alt. 1, diam. maj.-3, diam. min. 2 mm. 

Hal). Bengal. 

207. Ancylus ceylanicus, Benson. 

Ancylus ceylanicus, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xiii, 1864, p. 139 ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 81, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description : Testa suboblonge conoidea, antice con- 
vexa, postice concava, extus tenuissime radiato-costulata, costis 
subremotis elevatioribus munita, striis confertis concentricis de- 
cussata, viridescenti-cornea, margine lato, lulescenti-cornea, apiee 



ANCYLUS. 105 

submediano, subelongato, postice attenuate, acutiusculo, ad dex- 
trum leviter verso ; apertura subrotundato-ovata, intus albida 
nitente. 

Alt. 2-5, diam. maj. 6, diam. min. 4 mm. 

Hab. Matelle (Matale) District, Ceylon. 

Resembling in some respects the A. fluviatilis of Europe. 

208. Ancylus tenuis, Bourguignat. 

Ancylus tenuis, Bourpruignat, Spicil. Malac., 1862, p. 208 ; Clessin, 
in Conch.-Cab. 1882, p. 62. 

Original description : Testa pygmea, depresso-oblonga, fragili, 
i, cornea, vel luteolo-nigrescente ; - antice sinistrorsusque 
paululum convexa; postice dextrorsusque recta, vel paululum 
concava ; apice maximo, obtusissimo, paululum canaliculato, 
postico, dextrorsus paululum dejecto ; - - depressione apicali 
minima, rotundata, ad sinistram partem verticis sita; apertura 
oblonga. 

Alt. 1*5, diam. maj. 2 mm. 

Hab. Streams in the Nilgiri Hills. 

209. Ancylus verruca, Benson. 

Ancylus verruca, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1855, ser. 2, xv. p. 12 ; 
H. & T., 0. I. pi. 81, figs. 2, 3 ; Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 1882, 
p. 62. 

Original description. Testa vix sinistrorsa, depressa, sub- 
elongato-ovata, postice vix angustiori-laevigata, pallide virente- 
flavida vel cinerea, tenui, intus albida, submargaritacea, antice 
superne convexiuscula, postice prope umbonem breviter declivi, 
urn bone vix elevato, compiessiusculo, submediano, ad spatium 
totaB testae posita. 

Alt. 1, diam. maj. 3-5, diam. min. scarcely 2 mm. 

Hab. Bhimtal ; .Kemaon Lake; marshes near Moradabad ; 
near Budaon Rohilla; Orissa ; Ceylon, etc., always adhering to 
the floating leaves of water plants. 

From Benson's notes, attached to his original description, it 
would seem that the present species, though generally sluggish 
in its habits, is able to swim shell downwards on the surface of 
the water. 



Subfamily 

Shell ovate or fusiform with exserted, or more or less contracted, 
spire. 

Distribution. World-wide. 



106 LIMXJE1DJE. 

Genus LIMNJEA. 

Limncea, Lamarck, 1799, Me"m. Soc. Hist. Nat., Paris, p. 75, as 
Lymncfa, emend. Rang, 1829, Man. de 1'Hist. Nat., Moll. p. 176; 
Sowerby in Reeve,. Con. Icon, xviii, etc. 

Helix, Linn., Gmelin, Burrow. 

Bucinum, Miiller. 

Bulimus, Poiret, Brugrriere. 

Ltmnaus, Draparnaud, Born. 

Limncea, Lamarck, Nilsson. 

Stagnicola, Leach. 

Linmceus, auct. reliq. 

TYPE, L. staynalis (Linnaeus) ; Europe generally. 

Range. World-wide. 

Shell dextrally spiral, horny-testaceous, ovate or pyramidal, 
covered with a thin epidermis ; spire acuminated, whorls generally 
turreted, inner lip of the aperture narrowly spread on the body- 
whorl, generally with a single plait. No operculum. 

Animal rather long and twisted in a spiral coil ; head prominent ; 
tentacles short, triangular and flattened ; foot oblong, bilobed or 
notched in front and obtusely rounded behind. 

Section LIMN^A (sensu stricto). 
Eor characters, type and range, see above. 

210. Limnaea (Limnaea) stagnalis (Linnceus}. 

Limnceus, Linn., 1758, Syst. Nat. 10th ed. p. 774, as Helix stagnalis 

&nd. frag His. 
Limncea (Limncea) stagnalis, Lamarck, 1801, as Lymncea stagnalis, 

Syst. Anim. sans Vert. p. 91 ; Sowerby in Reeve's Conch. Icon. 

xviii, pi. 1, no. 4 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. xvi. 
Lymncea stagnalis, in Reeve, L. & F. W. Moll. British Isles, p. 160. 

" Shell : ovately turreted, eompressly urnbilicated, rather thin, 
yellowish horny, spire produced and sharply acuminated; whorls 
five to six, slopingly convex round the upper part, then ventricose, 
striated in the direction of the lines of growth, sometimes evanes- 
cently obscurely irregularly ridged and malleated in the opposite 
direction ; aperture moderate, somewhat squarely ovate, columella 
callously twisted, lip broadly appressly dilated over the umbilicus." 
(Reeve.) 

Alt. 47*5, diam. 22*5 mm. (spec.). 

Hob. Europe ; Afghanistan ; Kashmir. 

211. Limnaea (Limnaea) acuminata, Lamarck. 

Limncea (Limncea) acuminata, Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert, vi, pt. 2, 
p. ICO ; Deles. Rec. Coq. Lam. pi. 30, fig. 6 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 69, 
tigs. 8, 9 ; Sowerby, in Reeve's Conch. Icon, xviii, pi. 10, no. 66. 

Original description : Testa ovato-ventricosa, tenuissima, 
hyalina, subalbida ; spira brevissima, apice acuminata. 
Alt. 25 mm. 
Jdab. Bengal ; 130 miles S.E. of Hiugola, etc. 



LIMNJ3A. 107 

Sowerby's description in Eeeve is as follows : 

" Shell oblong, ventricose, reddish purple, thin, semipellucid, 

smooth, spire short, narrow, whorls attenuated ; last whorl 

slightly angular above, inflated below the middle; aperture large, 

rounded anteriorly, columellar lip tortuous." 

The species, as are most of the group, is exceedingly plastic, 

and a number of varieties have been described by various authors 

as follows : 

Var. patula, Troschel, in Wiegmann's Archiv for 1837, iii, p. 167; 
H. & T., C. I. 1876, pi. 69, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description : Testa imperforata vel vix rimata, ovato- 
acuta, tenuissima, pellucidissima ; spira mediocri, acuta; ultimo 
anfractu ventricoso ; | testae longo, margine exteriore patulo, 
aiifr. 5-6. 

Alt. 44, breadth of the last whorl 24, height of the last whorl 
13, height of the aperture 33 mm. 

Hob. Ganges. 

Var. sulcatula, Troschel, von Martens, Conchologische Mittheil- 
ungen, i, p. 75, pi. 14, tig. 6. 

Limnceus sulcatulus, Troschel in Wiegmann's Arch, fiir Naturg, iii, 

1837, p. 167. 
Limnaus striatus (Benson), Kiister, in Conch.-Cab., Martini & 

Chemnitz, Lira. p. 33, pi. 6, figs. 11,12. 
Limncea amygdala (non Troschel), H. & T., C. I. pi. 69, figs. 7, 10. 

Original description : Testa rimata, ovata, acuta, tenui, longi- 
tudinaliter sulcata ; spira mediocri, acuta ; ultimo anfractu | 
testae longo ; apertura ovata, plica columellari profunda. Ant'r. 
5-6. 

Alt. 33, breadth of last whorl 17'5, height of last whorl 15-25, 
alt. of aperture 21*75 mm. 

Hub. Bengal (Lamare-Picquot). 

Var. amygdalum, Troschel, von Martens, Conch. Mittheil. i, 
p. 76, pi. 14, figs. 7, 8. 

Limncea amygdalus, Troschel, Wiegm. Archiv, iii, 1837, p. 168; 
Kiister, ed. Martini & Chemn., Lim. p. 35, pi. 6, figs. 15, 16. 

Original description : Testa imperforata vel vix rimata, colore 
strammeo vel cycaceo, nitida, ovata ; spira mediocri, acuta ; 
ultimo anfractu | testae longo, margine exteriore plus minus 
adpresso. Anfr. 5, rarissime 6. 

Alt. 28-75 breadth of last whorl 17-5, height of last whorl 
13*25, alt. of aperture 20'75 mm. 

Hob. India. 



108 

Var. prunum, Troschel, von Martens, Conch. Mittheil. i, p. 81, 
pi. 15, figs. 1, 2. 

Limnceus prunum, Troschel in Wiegmann's Archiv. fiir Naturg. 

iii, 1837, p. 170. 
Limnceus sinyaporinus, Kiister, in Conch.-Cab., Martini & Chemn., 

Lim. p. 35, pi. 6, fig. 17, 
Limncea ovalis, Gray, Reeve in Conch. Icon, xviii, pi. 9, fig. 59 

(small). 
Limncea luteola, Lk., Reeve, id. pi. 15, fig. 104 ; II & T , C. I. 

pi. 70, fig. 6. 

Original description : Testa ovata, rimata, subglabra, subtiliter 
striata ; spira globoso-acuta, anfractibus convexis, suturis pro- 
fundis ; ultimo anfractu testae dimidium superante ; apertiira 
ovato-acuta. Anfr. 6. 

Alt. 26-75, breadth of last whorl 15-25, height of last whorl 
13 - 25, alt. of aperture 17*5 mm. 

Nab. Bengal (Lamare-Picquot). 

Var. cerasum, Troschel, von Martens, Conch. Mittheil. i, p. 81, 
pi. 15, figs. 3, 4. 

Limnceus cerasum, Troschel in Wiegmann's Archiv fiir Naturg. 

iii, 1837, p. 170. 
Limnceus petinoides (Benson), Kiister, in Conch. -Cab., Martini & 

Chemn., Lim. p. 34, fig. 6, fior, 14. 

Limncea ovalis, Gray, Reeve in Conch. Icon, xviii, pi. 9, figs. 59, a, b. 
Limncea luteola (Lam.), H. & T., C. I. pi. 70, fig. 5. 

Original description : Testa subglobosa, rimata ; spira pro- 
minula, acuta ; ultimo anfractu ventricoso f testas longo ; apertura 
ovato-acuta. Anfr. 6. 

Alt, 21-75. breadth of last whorl 16-75, height of last whorl 
13-25, alt. of aperture 17'5 mm. 

Hub. Bengal (Lamare-Picguot). 

Var. strigata, Hanley $ Theobald, Conch. Ind. pi. 70, fig. 4. 

Said to have the aspect of var. cerasum, Troschel. 
Hab. Jounpore. 

Var. chlamys, Benson, von Martens, Conch. Mittheil. i, p. 76. 

Limncea chlamys^, Benson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1836, v, 
p. 744 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 69, figs. 5, 6 ; Reeve, Couch. Icon, 
xviii, pi. 10, fig. 65. 

Original description : Testa translucente, cornea aut castanea, 
elongato-ovata ; spira gracili, breviore, acuminata ; anfractu 
ultimo infra prsecipue ventricoso ; suturis parce depressis ; 
apertura infra patente, basi leviter evasa. 

The dimensions of two specimens given by von Martens are as 
below: 

Alt. 29, diam. maj. 19, diarn. min. 13'5 ; apertura, alt. 22-5, 
diam. 12 mm. 



LIMNvEA. 109 

Alt. 31, diam. maj. 18, diam. min. 13 ; apertura, alt. 21-5, 
diatn. 12 mm. 

Hab. Calcutta (Nevill), Benares and Moradabad (Benson & 
Theobald). 

Var. rufescens, Gray ; von Martens, Conch. Mittheil. i, p. 76, 
pi. 14, fig. 3. 

Limncea rufescens, Gray, in Sowerby's Genera Shells, pt. vii, 
Limn. fig. 2 ; Reeve, Conch. System, pi. 191, fig. 2 j H. & T., 
C. I. 1870, pi. 69, figs. 1, 4, and pi. 70, fig. 1. 

Limntsa chlamys, Benson, in part. 

Shell oblong-lanceolate, thin, hyaline, purplish-red, whorls 4. 
Spire very short, acute, sutures very oblique. Aperture lanceolate, 
elliptical. Columella very oblique. 

Diameter to the length as 6 to 13. 

Hab. Ganges etc. 

Var. sylhetica, Hanley $ Theob., C. I. pi. 70, fig. 9. 

According to the figure in the ' Conchologia Indica,' a form with 
short spire and rather inflated whorls. 
Hab. Marshes in Sylhet. 

Var. gracilior, von Martens, Conch. Mittheil. i, p. 77. 

Limncea rufescens (Gray), Eeeve in Conch. Icon, xviii, pi. 3, 
figs. 14 a, b; H. & T., C. I. pi. 70, fig. 1. 

Original description : Minor, pallide flavescens (vel rosea), 
valcle gracilis, antractu ultimo supra perangusto, margine aperturae 
externo simplice, oblique paulum arcuato. 

Alt. 24, diam. maj. 10, diam. min. 7 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 16, diam. 6'5 mm. 

Hab. Bengal (Nevill). 

212. Limnaea (Limnaea) ovalis, Gray. 

Limnaa (Limnced) ovalis, Giay, in Sow. Gen. Shells, pt. vii, Limn. 
fig. 4 ; Reeve, Conch. Syst. pi. 191, fig. 4 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, 
pi. 70, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell oval, pellucid, pale horn-colour : finely transversely striate, 
whorls 5. Spire very short, acute, suture almost horizontal. 
Aperture oval, elliptical. 

Diameter to the length as 5 to 9. 

Hab. Calcutta ; Almorah, etc. 

Var. nucleus, TroscTiel ; von Martens, Conch. Mittheil., i, p. 82, 
pi. 15, figs. 8, 9. 

Limneeus ovalis, Gray ; Sow. Gen. Shells, pi. 43, fig. 4 ; H. & T., 

C. I. pi. 70, figs. 2, 3. 
Linmaus nucleus, Troschel, Martens, Conch. Mittheil. p. 171 ; 

Reeve, Couch. Icon. pi. 10, fig. 67. 



110 

Original description : Testa ovata, vix rirnata, cornea ; anfractu 
ultimo | testae longo, impresso ; apertura ovata, margine exteriore 
impresso subcordata ; margine columellari reflexo. Anfr. 6. 

Alt. 22, breadth of last whorl 15-75, height of last whorl 13, 
alt. of aperture 15*75 mm. 

Hab. Bengal (Lamare-Picguot). 

213. Limnaea (Limnaea) tigrina, DoJirn. i 

Limn<ea (Limncea) tigrina, Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 134 ; 

von Martens, Conch. Mittheil. i, p. 85, pi. 15, fig-. 5. 
Limncea pinguis, var. strigata, Reeve, Uonch. Icon, xviii, pi. 9, 

fig. 18 b. 

Original description : Testa oblonga vel ovato-oblonga, imper- 
forata vel vix rimata, tennis, pellucida, nitida, cornea, longi- 
tudinaliter irregulariter albofasciata, subtilissime spiraliter et 
longitudinaliter striata ; sutura simplex, plerumque brunnea ; 
spira acuta, apice f uscescente ; anfr. 4-5 vix convex!, ultimus 
efflatus, | longitudinis subaequans ; apertura ovato-oblonga vel 
oblonga ; peristomium simplex, rectum, margine columellari re- 
flexo ; inarginibus callo albido, non nitido, junctis. 

Alt. 25, diam. 13 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 16, diam. 8 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Var. fi. Var. minor : cornea vel albida, interdum unicolor. 

Alt. 19, diam. 10 mm. 
Aperture : alt. 14, diam. 7 mm. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

Section GULNAEIA. 

Gulnaria, Leach, Syn. Moll. Great Britain, 1852, p. 106. 
TYPE, Limncea pereger, Draparnaud ; Europe. 
liange. World- wide. 

Original description : Testa spira brevissima, abrupte formata, 
ad apicetn acuminata. Umbilicus perforatus, apertus. Tentacula 
latissima. Pallium non dilatatum. 

214. Limnaea (Gulnaria) pereger (Drap.). 

Limnaea (Gulnaria) pereger (Drap.), Tabl. Moll. 1801, p. 48; 

H. & T., C. I. 1876 (as L. peregra, Linn.). 
Lymncea limosa, Linn., Reeve, L. & F. W. Moll. British Isles, 

p. 57. 

Shell: obliquely ovate, compressly minutely umbilicated, rather 
thin, yellowish horny, spire short, acuminated; whorls four, 
convex, irregularly striated in the direction of the Hues of growth, 
the last much the largest, ventricosely inflated ; aperture ovate, 
columella arcuately t\\isted, lip broadly appressed over the 
umbilicus. (Reeve.) 

Alt. 19, diam. 12 mm. (spec.). 

Jlab. Europe; Afghanistan; Kashmir. 



LIMNJEA. Ill 

215. Limnaea (G-ulnaria) auricularia (Drap.). 

Limncea (Gulnarid) auricularia (l)rap.), as Lymnceus auricularius. 

Tabl. Moll. 1801, p 48. 
Limn&us, Syst. Nat. 10th ed. 1758, p. 774, as Helix auricularia, 

H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. xvi. 
Lymncea auricularia, in Reeve, L. & F. W. Moll. British Isles, 

p. 159. 

" Shell : somewhat squarely semiglobose, compressly umbili- 
cated, rather thin, pallid horny, spire very small, sharp ; whorls 
three to four, convex, irregularly striated in the direction of the 
lines of growth, sometimes evanescently obscurely irregularly 
ridged and malleated in the opposite direction ; extremely rapidly 
enlarging, last whorl abruptly widely auricularly inflated ; aperture 
very large, outer lip thinly expanded, coluuiella callously twisted, 
lip appressly dilated over the umbilicus." (Reeve.) 

Alt. 30, diam. 23 mm. (spec.). 

Hab r Europe ; Afghanistan ; Kashmir. 

216. Limnaea (Gulnaria) brevicauda (Sowerby). 

Limncea (Gulnarid} brevicauda (Sowerbv), Con. Icon., Limn.. 
sp. 105 ; H. & T., C. I., pi. 158, fig. 7. 

Original description : Shell obliquely tortuous, pale horn, 
veutrico^e ; spire short, acuminated ; whorls three, small ; last 
whorl much inflated, rather short, excavated behiud the columella, 
aperture expanded, anteriorly subacuminated ; columellar fold 
prominent, spirally tortuous. 

From the figure in the ' Conchologia Indica' the dimensions 
would seem to be about as follows: Alt. 21, diam. maj. 17 mm. 
It is probably a form of L. auricularia, Linn. 

Hob. Kashmir ( W. Blanford). 

Sowerby's specimen was said to be from Australia, but this was 
undoubtedly an error. 

217. Limnaea (Gulnaria) hookeri (Reeve}. 

Limncea (Gulnaria} hookeri (Reeve), P. Z. S. 1850, p. 49; Gray, op. 
cit. 1856, p. 186; Sowerbv, in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xviii, pi. 11, 
sp. 74: Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 1886, p. 381, pi. 42, tig. 3 ; 
Preston, Rec. lud. Mus., Calcutta, iii, pt. 2, no. 3, p. 115. 

Original description: Testa ovata, tenuicula, conspicue um- 
bilicata, anfr. 4-5, convexis, superne depresso-rotundatis, suturis 
subimpressis, apertura orbiculari-ovata, marginibus luiniua 
latiuscula subverticali conjunclis; sordide olivaceo-fusca. 

Alt. 17, diam. 10 mm. 

Hab. Thibetian or North side of Sikldm Himalaya at 1800 feet 
elevation (Hooker) ; Gyimtze, 13,120 feet, Mang-tsa, 14,500 feet ; 
Se-chen, 13,100 feet, Thibet (Stewart). 

Reeve, in his paper describing the shell, seems to think that it 
is closely related to L. pereger, the common European form, an 



112 

idea which is certainly borne out by its general aspect. When, 
however, recently working out some material for the Indian 
Museum, the author had occasion to send specimens of what, after 
comparison with the type specimen in the British Museum, he 
believed to be this species to the Rev. E. W. Bowell for dissection, 
his report states " that the genitalia are very similar to those of 
the common European form L. auricularia, Linn. The vas deferens 
is, however, markedly shorter, and the radula is remarkable for 
the length of the cusps and their subulate appearance, and also 
for there being no great distinction in type between the laterals 
and marginals." 

Keeve, in his description, gives no actual dimensions, but those 
above given are taken from his smaller figure which is said to be 
of natural size. 

218. Limnsea (Ghilnaria) auriformis (Olessin}. 

Limnceus auriformis, Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 1886, p. 391, pi. 43, 
fig. 11. 

Original description: Testa auriformis, angustissime rimata, 
solida, leviter striata, pallide cornea ; spira minuta, acuta; anfr. 4, 
valde convexi, sutura profunda separati, celerrime accrescentes ; 
peiiultimus et ultimus inflatus, ultimus i longitudinis aequans ; 
apertura ampla, auriformis ; peristoma acutum ; marginibus callo 
coluniellari levi conjunctis ; columella fere recta. 

Alt. 12-3, diam. 10-5 mm. 

Nab. India. 

219. Limnaea (G-ulnaria) labiosa (Philippi). 

Limntea (Gulnaria) labiosa (Philippi), Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 
1886, p. 397, pi. 16, figs. 3-4 (as L. labiosa). 

Original description : Testa ovata, tennis, cornea ; spira brevis, 
acuta; anfr. 5, convexi, celeriter accrescentes, sutura leviter 
impressa separati ; ultimus inflatus, | longitudinis aequans ; 
apertura ovata, superne acuminata, peristoma acutum, marginibus 
callo columellari tenui latissimo conjunctis ; columella valde 
contorta. 

Alt. 21, diam. 1175 (fig. 3, pi. 16, in Conch.-Cab.). 

Hab. India. 

220. Limnsea (Gulnaria) succinea (Deshayes). 

Limncea (Gulnaria) succinea (Deshayes), Voy. dans 1'Inde par 
Belanger, Zool. p. 418, pi. 2, figs. 13, 14 ; Deshayes in Lamarck, 
Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2, viii, p. 417, no. 15. 

Limnaua succineus, Desh., Kiister, in Conch.-Cab., Martini & Chem- 
nitz, Lim. p. 29, pi. 5, figs. 18, 19. 

Original description: Testa ovato-acuta, tenuissima, fragili, 
succinea, laevigata ; spira acuta ; anfractibus convexiusculi, ultimo 



L1MXJEA. 113 

maximo; apertura ovata-acuta, basi dilatata ; marginibus integris,. 
tenuissimis, acutis ; columella contortuplicata. 

Alt. 22, diam. 12. 

flab. Malabar. 

Var. impura (Troschel}, von Martens, Conch. Mittheil. i, p. 86 y 
pi. 15, figs. 6, 7. 

Limnceus impurus, Troschel, in AViegmann's Archiv fiir Katurges- 
chichte iii, 1837, p. 172. 

Original description: Testa ovato-oblonga, rirnata, tenui sub- 
tiliter striata, fusea, subolivacea ; spira inediocri, acuta, suturis 
satis excavatis ; ultimo anfractu subventricoso, testae dimidium 
superante, apertura ovata, plica columellari nullo vel exigua. 
Anfr. 5. 

Alt. 15-5, breadth of last whorl 8-5, height of last whorl 6-5 ;., 
alt. of aperture, 8'5 mm. 

Ilab. Bengal (Lamare-Picquot). 

221. Limnaea (Gulnaria) Mans (Sowerby). 

Limncsa (Gulnaria) hians (Sowerby), in lleeve, Conch. Icon.- 
xviii, pi. 9, sp. 57 ; Clessin. in Conch.-Cab. 1886, p. 392, pi. 4o, 
fi. 9. 

Original description: Shell thin, semipelhicid, polished, ovate- 
oblong, subfusiform, pale horny ; spire acuminated, elevated 
whorls three, narrow: last whorl ovate; aperture auriform, 
columellnr fold tortuous, outer lip more or less expanded. 
(Sowerbi/.) 

Hal.' Malabar. 

Closely related to, if not identical with L. succinea, Desh. 

222. Limnaea (Gulnaria) pinguis (Dolini). 

Limncea pinguis (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1858 ; p. 134 ; H. & T., C. I.- 
pl. 70, gs. 7-10. 

Original description: Tesia ini perforate vel vix rimata, ovato- 
oblonga, pellucida, tennis, nitidissima, longitudinaliter levissime 
striata, cornea vel albicans ; sutura simplex, albida ; spira elevat* 
apice acuto, rubicundo ; anfr. 4-4J convexiusculi, ultimus- 
| longitudinis subsequans 5 apertura obliqua, ovato-oblonga ; 
peristomium rectum, simplex, margine columellari reflexo ;.. 
marginibus callo tenui iunctis. 

Alt. 18, diam. 9 -5 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 11*75, diam. 5*5 mm. 

Uab. Ceylon (Dohrn) ; Bombay (Peile) ; Madras (Dalgliesli}>: 



223. Limnaea (Gulnaria) siamensis (Sowerby). 

Limruea (Gulnaria} siamensis (Sowerby), in 
xviii, sp. 63 ; Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 1886, 

Original description : Shell ovate, obese, smooth, finely red- 



Ijimncea (Gulnaria} siamensis (Sowerby), in Reeve, Conch. Icon, 
xviii, sp. 63 ; Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 1886, p. 330, pi. 50, fig. 9V 



1 1 4 LIMNJEID.E. 

lined; spire rather short, conical, acuminated; whorls 3, small, a 
little convex ; aperture pyriform, rounded anteriorly, columellar 
fold strong, raised to the middle, arched. 

Alt. 24, diam. maj. 12-25 (%. in Conch. Icon.). 

Hab. Siam. 

Resembling Limncca pinguis, but marked with reddish lines. 
(Sowerby.) 

224. Limnsea (Gulnaria) simulans (Preston). 

Limneea (Gulnaria) simulans (Preston), Rec. Ind. Mus. Calcutta, 
ii, pt. 1, 1908, p. 46, fig. 6 (as L. simulans}. 

Original description: Shell fusiform, brownish horn colour; 
whorls 5; sutures impressed; umbilicus narrow, partly concealed 
by the reflexed columella ; columella arched, thick, extending into 
a callus which reaches the lip above; peristome simple ; aperture 
inversely auriform. 

Alt. 7*75, diam. maj. 4'25 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 4, diam. 2 mm. 

Bab. Pharping, Nepal. 

Section BULIMNEA. 

Bulimnea, Haldeman, Mon. Freshwater Univ. Moll. U.S.A. 1842 
(Limnea), p. 6. 

TYPE, Limneea megasoma, Say; IN .AY. Territory, U.S.A.; Ver- 
mont, U.S.A. 

llanye. N.America; Europe; Asia. 

Original description : Shell thick in texture, inflated, lip not 
^expanded. 

.225. Limnsea (Bulimnea) truncatula (Jeffreys). 

Limneea (Bui' .mea) truncatula (Jeffreys,), Trans. Linu. Soc. xvi, 
1830, p. 7 (as Limnceus truncatulus) ; Miiller, Verm. Hist. 
1774, pt. -, p. 130 (as Buccinum truncatuhtm) ; H. <fc T., 0. I. 
1876, p. 16. 

Lymncsa truncatula, in Reeve, L. & F. W. Moll. British Isles, p. 164. 

Shell : acuminately ovate, distinctly umbilicated, rather solid, 
yellowish horny, spire rather produced ; whorls 5 to 6, convex, 
truncate next the sutures, roughly and often densely striated in 
the direction of the lines of growth ; aperture rather small, ovate, 
columella callous, but little twisted, lip elongately expandedly 
reflected round the circumference of the umbilicus. (Reeve.} 

Alt. 13, diam. 7*75 mm. (spec.). 

Hab. Europe ; Afghanistan ; Kashmir. 



226. Limnaea (Bulimnea) bowelli (Preston). 

Limn&a (Bulimnea) bowelli (Preston), Re 
no. 3, p. 115, figs, (as L. bowelli). 

Original description: Shell rimate, acuminately ovate, rather 



Limncca (Bulimnea) bowelli (Preston), Rec. Ind. Mus. iii, pt. 2, 
no. 3, p. 115, figs, (as L. bowelli). 



PLANOKBIS. 115 

solid, polished, shining, pale yellowish horn colour ; whorls 4, 
shouldered above, marked with rather coarse lines of growth; 
sutures deeply impressed ; columella descending obliquely and 
diffused above into a thick callus which joins the upper margin 
of the peristome ; peristome simple ; aperture ovately, inversely 
auriform. 

Alt. 8*5, diam. maj. 5-25. 

Aperture: alt. 5, diam. 3*75 mm. 

Hob. Te-ring G-ompa, 14,000 feet; Mang-tsa, 14,500 feet; 
High Hill, Gompa, G-yantse Valley, 14,500 and Gyantse, 13,120 
feet, in small streams. 

" Mr. Bowell informs me that the radula bears a strong re- 
semblance to that of L. ylabra, Mull., but has fewer laterals, the 
general appearance being more suggestive of the radula of a 
Planorbis than that of a Limncea ; the maxilla is also very 
remarkable, with a large blunt beak arising from the centre of 
the semicircular piece." 



Subfamily PLANORBIIN^E. 

Shell sinistral, spire flattened or elevated. 
Distribution. World-wide. 

Genus PLANORBIS. 

Planorbis, Geoffrey, Coq. de Paris, 1767, pp. 12, 81 ; Guettard, 

1756 (pre-Linnean\ 
Coretus, Adamson, 1757. 
Helix (pars), Linnaeus, 1758. 
Angarius, Martens, 1773. 
OrbiSj Schroter, 1776. 
Nautilus, Lightfoot, 1786. 

TYPE of genus, P. corneus, Linn. 

Range. World- \v ide. 

Shell spiral, sometimes sinistral, spire depressed, whorls 3 to 7 ; 
aperture semilunar, or ovate or trigonal, margin generally thin. 

227. Planorbis exustus, Desli. 

Planorbis exustus, Desli., Belang. Voy. Ind. Orient., Zool. 1834, 
p. 417, pi. 1, figs. 11-13; ed. Lam. viii, p. 392; Midler, Synopsis 
Test. p. 34. 

Planorbis indicm, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 743 ; Marten?, 
Mai. Blatt. xiv, p. 212 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 39, rig. 10, & pi. 40, 
fig. 10; Sowerby, in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 4, fig. 31; 
Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 1886, p. 43, pi. 6, figs. 20-22, & p. 116, 
pi. 17, tigs. 1, 2. 

Original description : Testa orbiculata, utroque latere depress, 
sutus concaviuscula ; aufractibus convexis, tenue striatis 

i2 



116 LIMN^EIDJE. 

obliquatis ; apertura semi-luuari, obliqua, alba ; colore externo 
fusco, subcorneo. 

Shell greenish brown, finely ridged ; spire rather flattened ; 
whorls 3, last large ; aperture angularly raised, then depressed, 
sloped, expanded below, rather produced ; lower disc broadly 
concave. 

Alt. 10-25, diam. maj. 2O5 mm. (fig. 10 in Conch Lid.). 

Hob. India; Ceylon. (Generally diffused.) 

The P. coromancielicus, Kiister, described and figured by Sowerby 
in Reeve's 'Conchologia Iconica,' vol. xx, pi. 4, sp. 34, seems to 
be a synonym. 

Var. eburneus, Gray, Sowerby, in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 5, 
sp. 38 ; Clessin, in Conch .-Cab.* 1885, p. 226. 

Shell high, tumid, undulating, smooth, white, banded with 
chest-nub in the middle of the whorls ; apex small ; whorls 3, 
rather flattened above then sloped, inflated below ; last large, 
high, rapidly increased ; lower disc convex, apical whorl hidden ; 
aperture large, flexuously depressed above, inflated below, 
produced. (Sowerby in Reeve.) 

Diam. maj. 17, diam. min. 13'5 mm. (fig. 386 in Conch. Icon.). 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Var. brimneus, Gray, Adams, Genera, ii, 1858, p. 261 ; Sowerby, 
in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 5, sp. 40 ; Clessin, in Couch.- 
Cab. 1885, p. 226. 

Shell subglobose, high, smooth, ferruginous, spire small ; whorls 
contracted above, raised, a little angular above the suture, then 
rounded, inflated in the middle ; lower disc narrowly umbilicated ; 
aperture semilunar, produced and expanded below. (Sowerby in 
Reeve.} 

Alt. 8-25, diam. maj. 12'5 mm. (fig. 406 in Conch. Icon.). 

Hab. Bombay. 

The following are the dimensions taken from Sowerby 's figures 
in Reeve: alt. (excluding labrum) 6'5, diam. maj. 11 -25, diam. 
min. 9 ; aperture : alt. (including labrum) 8, diam. 6 mm. 

There can be little doubt that it is a small variety of PI. exustus. 

Var. zonatus, .Dunker, in Conch.-Cab. 1884, p. 117, pi. 17, 
fig.l. 

Alt. 6^, diam. 16 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Appears to be irregularly transversely banded with purplish red. 



228. Planorbis zebrinus, Dunker. 

Planorbis zebrinus, Dunker, 
figs. 11-13. 

Original description : PL testa solida, straminea strigisqne rufis 



Planorbis zebrinus, Dunker. Conch.-Cab. 1850. p. 57, pi 6, 
figs. 11-13. 



PLANOKBIS. 117 

picta, nitida denseque striata, haud pellucida, supera facie 
planiuscula, in medio profuride umbilicata, inferne concava ; 
anfr. 3|-4 tutnidis, rotundatis infra prope suturam profundam 
subangulatis ; apertura reniformi perparum obliqua ; labro tenui 
f usco vel castaneo ; lamella in pariete aperturali tenuissima. 

Height 6'25, greatest diameter 16-25 mm. 

Hab. Pondicherry and the Coast of Coromandel. 

A very doubtful species. 

229. Planorbis hindu, Clessin. 

Planorbis hindu, Clessin, Conch.-Cab. 1885, p. 224, pi. 33, fig. 9. 

Original description : Testa discoidea, depressa, leviter regulari- 
terque striata, albidula, diaphana, nitida ; supra infundibuliforme 
concava, infra concava ; anfr. 4, modice celeriter accrescentes, 
depresso-rotundati, utrinque sutura modice profunda separati, 
inferne ad suturam vix obtuse angulati ; ultimus amplus, 
penultimo duplo latior ; apertura perobliqua, late-lunata ; 
peristoma acutum, marginibus callo tenui conjunctis ; margine 
superiore valde arcuate producto. 

Alt. 4, diam. 11 mm. 

Hal). India. 

230. Planorbis orientalis, Lamarck. 

Planorbis orientalis, Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert, vi [2], p. 153 ; 
Sowerby, in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 11, sp. 89; Clessin, in 
Conch.-Cab. 1885, p. 227. 

Original description : PI. testa discoidea, utrinque plano- 
depressa, subrugosa, fragili, cornea ; ultimo anfractu subangulato. 

Shell thin, irregularly undulated, yellowish-white, sinistral : 
spire narrow depressed ; whorls a little raised above the suture ; 
last broad, sloped, expanded towards the aperture ; aperture com- 
pressed above and below, large, obliquely deflected ; margin 
sinuous ; lower disc concave. 

Lamarck in his original, though scanty, description, gives the 
diameter of the shell as 4 lines (=9 mm.). 

231. Planorbis modicus, Benson. 

Planorbis modicus, Benson, Adams Genera, ii, 1858, p. 261 ; Sowerby, 
in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 9, sp. 76. 

Shell horny, tumid, spire funnel-shaped ; whorls 5, raised and 
angular near the suture, last broad, sloped, concentrically finely 
wrinkled ; aperture subtrigonal, lower disc concave, whorls 
rather flat. 

Diam. maj. 19-75, diam. min. 16-25 mm. 

Hab. India. 



118 LIMN^EIDJE. 

232. Planorbis merguiensis, Philippi. 

Planorbis merguiensis, Philippi tibi ? ; H. & T.,C. I. pi. 151, figs. 5, 6 ; 
Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 11, sp. 85 ; Clessin, Conch.-Cab. 
1886, p. 140, pi. 12, figs. 26-28, & pi. 20, tig. 4. 

Shell depressed, solid, striate, shining, pale horn-colour or 
brown ; deeply umbilicate, slightly concave above ; whorls 4, 
rapidly and regularly increasing, rounded ; suture above deep, 
umbilical suture only lightly impressed ; the last whorl twice as 
broad as the penultimate ; aperture broadly semilunate, oblique ; 
labrum acute, thickened. 

Alt. 6, diam. 12 ram. 

Hob. Mergui (Coll. Duuker legit Phil.); Chybassa, Bengal 
(var. major) (Coll. Dunker). 

Section GYRAULUS. 

yrw/MS,Agassiz,Nouv.Mem. Soc. Helv. i, 1837 (Hartmann, 1844). 
Nautilina, Stein, Schnecken Berlin, 1850, p. 50. 

TYPE, Planorbis albus, Miiller ; Europe. 

Range. World- wide. 

Shell small, compressed, paucispiral ; whorls rapidly increasing, 
the last broadening towards the aperture ; aperture rather wide. 

233. Planorbis (Gyraulus) compressus (Hutton). 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) compressus (Hutton), J. A. S. B. iii, p. 91 
(no. 13), 93; Benson, J. A. S. B. v, p. 743; Martens, Mai. 
Blatt. iv, p. 213 ; H. & T., 0. I. pi. 99, figs. 1,4; Sowerby, in 
Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 14, fig. 118 ; Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 
1886, p. 107, pi. 16, fig. 10. 

Planorbis tondanensis, Mouss., Moll. Java, p. 44, pi. 5, fig. 4. 

Shell compressed, rather broad, pale, smooth, dextral, narrowed 
above, broad below, somewhat keeled, spire depressed ; aperture 
obliquely pyramidal, angular above, lower margin produced. 
(Sowerby in Reeve.) 

Alt. 3'5, diam. maj. 11*5 mm. (fig. 118 a in Conch. Icon.). 

Hob. Biver Ganges, etc. 

234. Planorbis (Gyraulus) convexiusculus (Hutton). 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) convexiusculus (Hutton), J. A. S. B. xviii, 
pt. 2 (1849), p. 657 ; H. &. T., C. I. pi. 99, figs. 8-10 ; Sowerby, 
in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 11, sp. 93 ; Clessin, Conch.-Cab. 
1884, p. 127, pi. 17, fig. 9. 

Original description : Shell depressed, j of an inch in diameter ; 
pale horn-colour ; polished ; closely and obliquely striate ; whorls 
4 or 5 ; rounded ; suture well defined ; periphery subangular, but 



PLAKORBIS. 

not influencing the aperture, which is ovato-lunate ; umbilicus 
wide, discovering all the previous volutions ; the whorls rising 
gradually and spirally from the horizontal, and rounded below. 

Animal black or dusky. 

Hab. Kandahar, plentiful in tanks ; Quettah and the Kojuck 
Pass, in marshes, and along the marshlands of the Eiver Helmund 
at G-irishk (Hutton)-, Grangetic Provinces (Tope Cliancey}\ Pinjore, 
below Simla (Jfutton). 

It differs from Planorbis compressus in wanting the delicate 
carina at the periphery and in having a lunate aperture without 
the angle on the middle of the outer lip ; in being more convex, 
with rounder whorls ; and in having its volutions wound round 
on a more open and less horizontal twist. 

235. Planorbis (Gyraulus) labiatus (Benson}. 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) labiatus (Benson), A. AT. X. II. ser. 2, v y 
1850, p. 350. 

Original description : Testa solidiuscula, plano-depressa, niticla, 
albido-cornea, subdiaphaua, oblique arcuato-striata, striis remotius- 
culis spiralibus decussata ; apice profunde concavo; sutura 
profunda ; anfr. 3|, cito crescentibus, convexis, ultimo antice 
majori, ab axe superiorum discedenti, rotundato, carina mediana 
levissima submembranacea instructo, infra valde convexo ;. 
umbilico subaperto profundiori, margine interiori subangulato ; 
apertura obliqua, cordiformi, intus albo-labiata ; margine superior! 
arcuato, inferiori rotundato. 

Alt. scarcely 2, diam. inaj. 5, diam. min. 4 mm. 





Fig. 5. Planorbis (Grt/raulus) labiatus, Bens. (Types.) 
1, spire ; 2, base of shell. X 4. 

Hab. Moradabad (found amoog specimens of Planorbis 
pressus, Hutton). 

' This Jittle shell is remarkable for the departure of the last 
whorl from the axis which governs the previous volutions. This 
is especially apparent underneath, where the earlier whorls in the 
umbilicus proceed regularly, the last whorl becoming suddenly 
excentric. The whitish rib within the lip is also a marked 
character, as well as the proportion of the axis to the diameter." 



120 

236. Planorbis (Gyraulus) sivalensis (Hutton). 

Planorbis (Gyraulus} sivalensis (Hutt'on, MS.), Clessin, in Couch. - 
Cab. 1884, p. 194, pi. 28, fig. 9. 

Original desertion : Testa minuta, compressa, solid ula, pallide- 
cornea, subtilissiine striata, nitidula; supra centre immerso, 
infra concava; anfr. 3|-4, lente et regulariter accrescentes, 
superne convexiusculi, sutura profunda separati, inferne sub- 
planulata ; ultimus infra obtuse angulatus, penultirao vix duplo 
latior ; apertura ovata, perobliqua ; peristoma acutum, marginibus, 
x-allo tenuissimo conjunctis. 

Alt. 1*2, diam. 4'5 mm. 

Hab. N. India, Dehra Dun (Benson). 

237. Planorbis (Gyraulus) hohenackeri (Clessin). 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) hohenackeri, Clessin, in Concb.-Cab. 1884, 
p. 205, pi. 31, fig. 7. 

Original description: Testa solidula, diaphana. leviter et 
regulariler costulata, fulvo-cornea, supra profundissime perforata, 
infra parum concava ; anfr. 3| celerrime accrescentes, teretes, 
utrinque sutura profunda separati ; ultimus ^ ornnis diametri 
superans, ad aperturam breve descendens ; apertura lunata, 
rectum ; peristoma acutum, fusco-labiatum ; marginibus callo 
Jbenui juoctis. 

Alt. 4-5, diam. 9 mm. 

Hab. Himalayas. 

238. Planorbis (Gyraulus) huttoni (Benson). 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) huttoni (Benson, MS.), Clessin, in Conch.- 
Cab. 1884, p. 139, pi. 18, fig. 4. 

Original descriptions Testa parvula, depressa, tenuis, trans- 
verse striata, pallide-cornea, supra plana centro immerso, subtus 
modice umbilicata ; anfr. 3^, celerrime accrescentes, ovato- 
depressi, sutura profunda separati, ultimus valde dilatatus, 
penultimo triple latior ; aperturam versus paululum descendens ; 
apertura ampla, valde obliqua ; peristoma acutum, margine 
superiore producto. 

Alt. 1, diam. 5'5 mm. 

Hab. Calcutta; Benares. 

239. Planorbis (Gyraulus) barrackporensis (Clessin). 

Planorbis (Gyraulus] barrackporcnsis, Clessin, Conch. -Cab. 1884, 
p. 125, pi. 18, fig. 7. 

Original description : Testa depressa, supra paulo con- 
vexiuscula, centro immerso; infra umbilicata; subtiliter striatula, 
diaphana, tennis, paulo nitidula, pallide-cornea ; anfr. 3|, ovato- 
rotundati, utrinque aequaliter convexiusculi, angulati; celerrime 



PLANOBBIS. 121 

accrescentes ; ultimus penultimo fere tertio latior ; apertura valde 
obliqua, ovata ; peristoma acutum, margine superiore valde 
producto, arcuato. 

Alt. 1-2, diam. 4 mm. 

Hal). Barrackpore. 

240. Plan or bis (Gyraulus) himalayanus (Button}. 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) himalayanus (Hutton, MS.), Clessin, Oonch.- 
Cab. 1884, p. 141, pi. 20, tig. 8. 

Original description : Testa depressa, solidula, uitidula, 
pellucida, arcuate striata ; supra plauulata centre concavo; subtus 
paululum concava ; anfr. 4, modice celeriter accrescentes, depresso- 
ovati, sutura leviter immersa separati, in peripheriam fere 
augulati, utrinque aequaliter convexiusculi ; ultimus penultimo 
duplo latior; apertura perobliqua, ovata; peristoma acutum, 
marginibus disjunctis, margine superiore arcuata producto, 
inferiore fere recto. 

Alt. 1-2, diam. 5'5 mm. 

Hal. Tinjori Valley, 

241. Planorbis (Gyraulus) liratus, Westerlund. 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) liratus, Westerlund, in Vega Exped. Vetens- 
kapliga Jakttagelser, iv, p. 206, pi. 4, fig. 18. 

Original description: Testa parva, plana, utrinque centre 
subaequaliter impressa, lutescenti-cornea, supra et infra, ab apice 
ad aperturam sub lente perdistincte spiraliter lineata, transversim 
vix striatula ; aui'r. 4, convexi, regulariter accrescentes, ultimus 
leute accrescens, subcylindraceus, basi perobsolete angulatus, supra 
paullo magis convexus ; apertura rotundata. 

Alt. 1, diam. 2'5 mm. 

Nab. Point de Gralle, Ceylon. 

242. Planorbis (Gyraulus) demissus, Westerlund. 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) demissus, Westerlund, in Vega Exped. Vetens- 
kapliga Jakttagelser, iv, p. 204, pi. 4, fig. 16. 

Original description: Testa depressa, utrinque centre impressa 
(supra inagis), striatula, sculptura spiral! nuila, angulo peripherico 
distincto, juvenis cornea, nitidula, matura alba, opaca ; aufr. 4^, 
celeriter sed saspius (praesertim subtus) irregulariter accrescentes, 
utrinque magis magisque centrum versus demissi, ultimus dilatatus, 
medio angulatus, utrinque subaiqualiter convexiusculus, antice 
paullo descendens ; sutura sat profunda ; apertura perobliqua, 
intus semper nitida, ovata, extus acutiuscula, margiuibus callo 
elato in pariete contiguis, interiore leviter curvato, exteriore forte 
arcuato. 

Alt. 1-5, diam. maj. 6, diam. min. 5 mm. 

Hal. Point de Gralle, Ceylon. 



122 LIMXJEIDJE. 

243. Planorbis (Gyraulus) associatus, Westerlund. 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) associatus, Westerlund, in Vega Exped. 
Vetenskapliga Jakttagelser, iv, p. 205, pi. 4, fig. 17. 

Original description : Testa depressa, supra plana, centre vix 
impre'ssula, subtus late convexiuscula (anfractus ultimus circum- 
circa altior et spira sensim profuudior), striatula, nitidula, cornea ; 
anfr. 5, lente accrescentes, primi convex!, caeteri convexinsculi, 
sutura sat profunda disjuncti, ultimus sensim latior, non dilatatus, 
peripheria obsolete angulatus, utrinque subaequaliter convexi- 
usculus ; apertura obliqua, ovato, peristomate subincrassato. 

Alt. 1-5, diam. 5*5-6*5 mm. 

Hab. Point de Galle, Ceylon. 

Almost certainly a variety of P. (G.) demissus. 

244. Planorbis (Gyraulus) elegantulus (Dokrn). 

Planorbis (Gt/raulus) elegantulus (Uolirn), P. Z. S. 18o8, p. 134; 
H. & T., G! I. pi. 151, figs. 1-3. 

Original description: Testa discoidea, albida sub lente teuuiter 
striata, nitida, pellucida, supra convexiuscula, umbilicata, subtus 
plana ; anfr. 4-5 lente accrescentes, ultimus infra medium obsolete 
carinatus ; apertura perobliqua, sublunaris ; peristomium rectum, 
intus calloso-albo-labiatum. 

Diam. maj. 4-75, diam. min. 4 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 1 mm. 

I Jab. Ceylon. 

245. Planorbis (Gyraulus) nanus (Soiv.). 

Planorbis (Gyrauhts) nanus (Sow.), Sowerby, iu Reeve, Conch. Icon, 
xx, pi. 9, sp. 75 ; Benson, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 186. 

Shell pale fulvous, compressed, rather convex above, broadly 
and deeply umbilicated below ; spire narrow, flat ; whorls 3, 
obliquely striated, rapidly increased, last very broad ; aperture 
depressed, very bread, outer lip obliquely produced above. 
(Sowerby in Reeve.} 

Diam. maj. 11, diam. min. 10 mm. (fig. 75 a in Conch. Icon.). 

Hab. India ; subfossil, Tsoral Lake, Tibet (Captain H. Stmcliey}. 

246. Planorbis (Gyraulus) rotula (Benson). 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) rotula (Benson), A. M. N. H. ser. 2, v, 
1850, p. 351 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 99, figs. 2, 3. 

Original description: Testa minuta, depresso-nlanata, aper- 
tissime umbilicata, luteo-cornea, diaphana, impolita, spiraliter 
obsolete striata; anfr. 3|, cylindraceis, lenie horizontaliter in- 
crescentibus, supra et subtus asqualiter apparentibus ; ultimo ad 
periphffirium rotundato, nullo modo angulato : sutura supra in- 
fraque profunde impressa ; umbilico minime profundo ; apertura 
vix obliqua, rotundato-lunata ; margine superior! arcuato. 



PLA^OKBIS. 123 

Alt. 1, diam. maj. 2-66, diam. min. 2 (about) mm. 

Nab. Moradabad. 

The figures and description given by Soxverby in Reeve's 
' Conch ologia Iconica,' vol. 20, and copied by Clessin in the 
' Conchylien-Cabinet,' 1885, obviously can have nothing to do 
with Benson's species. 

247. Planorbis (Gyraulus) stelzneri (Dolirri). 

Planorbis (Guraulus} stelzneri (Dohrn), P. Z. S. 1858, p. 134; 
H. &T., C. J. pi. 91, figs. 4, 7; Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 1884, 
p. 117, pi. 11, tig. 11. 

Original description: Testa discoidea, albido-cornea, tenuiter 
longitudinaliter striata, nitida, pellucida, supra plana, subtus paullo 
convexior, utrinque foveolata ; anfr. 3-4 vix convexi, ultimus 
acute carinatus ; apertura perobliqua, sublunaris ; peristomium 
rectum, intus albolabiatum. 

Diam. maj. 7, diam. min. 5-5 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 1 ram. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

248. Planorbis (? Gyraulus) hyptiocyclos (Benson}. 

Planorbis (? Gyraulus) hi/ptiocyclos (Benson), A. M. N. H. ser. 3, 
xi, 1863, p. 89, & Pfeiffer, Mou. Helic. v, p. 117 (as Helix) ; 
H. & T., C. I. pi. 99; Sowerby in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, 
pi. 14, fig. 120; Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 1885, p. 228. 

Original description: Testa latissime umbilicata, orbiculato- 
planata, planorbit'ormi, depressa, fragili, oblique striatula, trans - 
lucente, polita, olivaceo-cornea ; spira concaviuscula, apice foveo- 
lato, suturis profundis ; anfr. 4|, gradatim increscentibus, 
utrinque convexis, ultimo convexiusculo, peripheria subcarinata ; 
apertura valde obliqua, elliptico-lunata; peristomate tenui, acuto, 
marginibus conniventibus, callo tenui junctis. 

Alt. 1:5, diam. maj. 6, diaoi. min. 5 mm. 

Hab. Fort MacDonald, Ceylon (Province of Uva) (F. Layard). 

Clessin (Xachr. Bl. Malak. Ges. xxxix, 1907, p. 7) reports 
PI. (Tropidiscus) marginatus, Drap. var. submaryinatus, Jan, and 
PI. (T.) carinatus, Mull, from the Pamirs, together with the 
following txvo species described by him at the same time, 
without figures. 

249. Planorbis (Gyraulus) acutus, Clessin. 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) acutus, Clessin, Nachr. Bl. Malak. Ges. 
xxxix, 1907, p. 7. 

Shell flattened, whorls 4, very rapidly increasing, the last one- 
third of the total diameter of the shell, xvhorls very compressed, 
in section almost lancet-shaped ; sharply keeled, more convex 
above the keel than below; suture slightly impressed; finely 
sculptured ; umbilicus wide ; aperture very oblique, compressedly 
ovate. 

Alt. 1-5, diam. 7 mm. 

Hab. Pamirs, numerous but very local. 



124 

250. Planorbis (Gyraulus) issykulensis, Ckssin. 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) issyktdensis, Clessin, Nachr. Bl. Malak. Ges. 
xxxix, 1907, p. 7. 

Shell small, slightly compressed, whorls 4, rapidly increasing 
(the last scarcely one-third of the total diameter of the shell) ; 
suture moderately deep ; umbilicus rather wide ; sculpture fine, 
irregular ; aperture oblique, compresseclly ovate. 

Alt. 1-2, diam. 4*5 mm. 

Hab. Pamirs, from only one locality, but very plentiful. 



Section HIPPEUTES. 

Hippeutes, Agassiz, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Helv. i, 1837. 
TYPE, Planorbis fontanus, Lightfoot ; Europe. 

Mange. Europe; Asia. 

Shell small, lenticular, much depressed, paucispiral ; whorls very 
rapidly increasing, carinate ; aperture obliquely heart-shaped. 



251. Planorbis (Hippeutes) versicolor, Westerlund. 

Planorbis (Hippeutes) versicolor, Westerlund, in Vega Exped. 
Vetenskapliga Jakttagelser, iv, p. 206, pi. 4, tig. 19. 

Original description: Testa juvenis rufo-castanea, nitidissima, 
adulta rufescenti-coruea, nitidula, subtilissinie oblique striatula, 
supra convexa, centro sat profunde immersa, subtus planiuscula, 
umbilicata (umbilico centro augustissimo, aperturam versus 
dilatato) striatula ; anfr. 4, primi angusti, spiram minimam for- 
mantes, ultimus maximus, extus declivis, subtus convexiusculus, 
peripheria acute angulatus ; apert. perobliqua, cordiformis, 
margine columellari subrecto, exteriore antrorsum valde convexo. 

Alt. 1-5, diam. o mm. 

Hab. Point de Galle, Ceylon. 



Subgenus SEGMENTING 

Segmentina, Fleming, Hist. Brit. Anim. 1828, p. 279. 
TYPE. Planorbis nitidus, Miiller ; Europe. 
Range. Europe ; A sia ; Africa ; Australia. 
Shell orbicular, depressed, furnished internally with transverse, 
testaceous partitions or teeth ; aperture transversely oval, or 
circular. 

See also description of Planorbis, p. 115. 



PLANORBIS. 125 

252. Planorbis (Segmentina) umbilicalis (Benson). 

Planorbis (Seymentina) umbilicalis (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, 
p. 741 ; A. M. N. H. ser. 2, v, 1853, p. 351 ; Martens, Mai. 
Blatt. xiv, p. 216; H. & T., C. I. pi. 40, figs. 7-9; Sowerby 
in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 10, fig. 77 ; Clessiu, in Conch.- 
Cab. 1884, p. 136, pi. 15, tig. 6. 

Original description : Testa quasi dextra luteo-cornea, polita, 
leviter radiato-striata, infra excavato-depressa, anfractibus omnibus 
versus umbilicum prol'undum spectantibus, ultimo interiores pene 
tegeute; supra convexa versus apicem planata, apice concavo, 
omnibus anfractibus satis apparentibus ; periphaaria obtuse 
angulata. 

The dimensions as given by Clessin are as follow : 

Alt. 2, diam. 8*5 mm. 

Hab. Sylhet. 



253. Planorbis (Segmentina) trochoideus (Benson). 

Planorbis (Segmentina) trochoideus (Benson), J. A. S. B. v, 1836, 
p. 742 (Glean. Scien. Calcutta, i, pi. 8, tig. 10) ; A. M. N. H. 
ser. 2, v, 1850, p. 352; H. & T., C. I. pi. 39, tigs. 4-6; 
Sowerbv in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 9, fig. 70 ; Clessin, in 
Conch .-Gab. 1885, p. 225. 

Original description : Testa quasi dextra diapbaua, subtro- 
chiforini, supra glabra, rotundato-convexa, apice concavo-depresso 
quasi umbilicali ; anfractibus omnibus parum apparentibus, sutura 
excuvata divisis ; infra radiatim striata, truncata, planata, umbilico 
contracto. Anfractu ultimo majori reliquos ainplectente, supra 
pene, infra omnino obtegcnte ; peripbaeria acuta. 

Alt. scarcely 2, diam. 3 mm. 

Hob. Barrackpore. 



254. Planorbis (Segmentina) gruneri (Clessin). 

Planorbis (Segmentina) gruneri (Clessin), in Conch. -Cab. 1884, 
p. 148, pi. 21, tig. 9. 

Original description : Testa depressa, supra centre paululum 
concavo, subtus subplauata, nitidula subtilissime irregulariter 
striata, diaphana. cornea ; anfr. 4| lenteet regulariteraccrescentes, 
depresso-ovati, utrinque convexiusculi ac sutura profundaseparati; 
ultinius penultimo vix duplo latior ; apertura obliqua, ovata ; 
peristoma acutnm, marginibus disjunctis ; margiue superiore 
paululum producto. 

Alt. 8, diam. 5 mm. 

Hob. India ; Singapore. 



126 



255. Planorbis (Segmentina) spirodelus, Westerlund. 

Planorbis (Segwentina) spirodelus, Westerlund, iu Vega Exped. 
Vetenskapliga Jaktlagelser, iv, p. 209, pi. 5, fig. 21. 

Original description : Testa navescenti-cornea (anfr. prioribus 
rufis), supra convexa, medio impressa, subtus plana, concavi- 
uscula, latiuscule unibilicata ; afr. 5, primi lente, ultimi regulariter 
accrescentes et diameter penultimi ad aperturam perfecte duplo 
minor quam reliqua spira et spira totamagna, latitudine anfractum 
ultimum ad aperturain multo superans ; anfr. ult. couvexus, extus 
lente descendens, basi sat acute angulatus, antice non dilatatus ; 
apertura descendens, valde obliqua, forte lunata, obtuse cordata, 
rnargine coluraellari subrecto, exteriore valde arcuatim producto ; 
faux pluries lamellis 3 albis coarctata. 

Alt. 1'25, diam. 4'5 mm. 

Hob. Point de Galle, Ceylon. 



256. Planorbis (Segmentina) sindicus (Benson}. 

Planorbis (Segmentina} sindicus (Benson), A. M. N. H. 1850 
p. 350 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 40, tigs. 4-6. 

Original description : Testa rninuta, perforata, subleaticulari, 
albida, laevi, subdiapbana, supra convexa ; spira planulata, apice 
depresso ; anfr. 2|, ultimo medio obtuse angulata, subtus convexo ; 
apertura cordata, obliqua, margine superior! arcuato, prominente, 
inferior! recedente. 

Alt, -66, diam. 2-5 mm. 

Hab. Upper Sind. 



257. Planorbis (Segmentina) cantori (Benson). 

Planorbis (Segmentina) cantori (Benson), A. M. N. H. ser. 2, v, 
1850, p. 349 ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 40, figs. 1-3 ; Sowerby, in Reere, 
Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 10, fig. 79: Clessin in Conch.-Cab. 1884, 
p. 158, pi. 23, fig. 9. 

Original description: Testa nitidula, cornea, subdiaphana, 
radiato-striata, depressa. supra convexiuscula, spira planata, apice 
concavo, sutura bene impressa; anfr. 5J, convexiusculis, lente 
crescentibus, ultimo antice majori, subtus convexo, periphaeria 
subcarinata ; umbilico aperto, prof undiusculo ; apertura obliqua 
subcordiformi. margine supra valde arcuato, fuscato, infra leviter 
rotundato. 

Alt. 2, diam. maj. 7, diam. min. 6'25 mm. 

Diam. spirse 3-5 ; lat. anfract. ult., antice, 3 mm. 

Hab. Barrackpore. 



PHYSID.E. 127 

258. Planorbis (Segmentina) calathus (Benson). 

Planorbis (Segmentina) calathus (Benson), A. M. N. II. ser. 2, v, 
1850, p. 348; II. & T., C. I. pi. 34, figs. 1-3; Sowerby, in 
Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 4, fig. 30; Clessin in Conch.-Cab. 
1884, p. 136, pi. 15, fi-. 13. 

Original description: Testa nitidiuscula, albido-cornea, vel 
lutescente cornea, subdiaphana, exiliter radiato-striata, supra con- 
vexa, versus apicem plunulata, apice concavo, sutura impressa ; 
anfr. 4, ultimo extus depresso, inferne angulato, intus laminis 
denticulisque radiatis frequentioribus munito, subtus subplanato, 
versus umbilicum angustum, profunduin excavate ; apertura 
obliqna, cordato sagittata intus remote labiata, margins superior! 
arcuato, prominente, inferior! subrecto, recedente. 

Alt. 2, diara. maj. 4-66, diam. min. 4 mm. 

Hab. Bhimtal and Neini Tal, in tbe Kemaon Eegion of the 
Himalayas; Moradabad ; Kattiawar ; Ceylon; Kashmir, etc. 

Apparently very local, but abundant where fouud. 

259. Planorbis (Segmentina) caenosus (Benson). 

Planorbis (Segmentina) ceenosus (Benson), A. M. N. H. ser. 2, v, 
1850, p. 349; H. & T., C. 1. pi. 39, figs. 7, 8; Sowerby, in 
Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, pi. 10, fig. 78; Clessin, in Conch.-Cab. 
1884, p. 165, pi. 24, fig. 4. 

Original description : Testa nitida, luteo-cornea vel olivaceo- 
t:oriiea, oblique et rude (praecipue subtus) radiato-striata, sub- 
diaphana, supra depresso-convexa ; spira parvula, apice excavato ; 
sutura impressa; anfr. 3J, ultimo majori, extus depressiusculo, 
inferne carinato, subtus planato, versus umbilicum majorem 
leviter excavato ; apertura obliqua, sagittiformi, margine superior! 
arcuato, prominente inferior! recedente, recto. 

Alt. 1'5, diam. maj. 6, diam. min. 5 mm. 

Hab. Moradabad ; Ceylon. 

Differing from P. (S.) calathus in having no internal laminas and 
in being more depressed and more angular at the keel ; moreover 
tbe relative dimensions are not the same. 



Family PHYSID^. 

Subfamily PHYSIN^. 

Shell fusiform or ovately fusiform, sinistral, horny. 
Distribution. World- wide. 



Genus PHYSA. 

Physa, Draparnaud, Tabl. Moll. France, 1801, p. 52, & Hist. Nat. 
Moll. Terr. Fluv. France, p. 54. 



128 

Bulla, Linnaeus, etc. 
Planorbis, Miiller. 
Turbo, Costa. 

Bulimus, Bruguiere, Poiret. 
Limnea, Sowerby. 

TYPE, Physa fontinalis, Linn. ; Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Asia ; Africa ; America. 

Shell fluviatile, horny, thin, spiral, simstral, generally ovate 
acuminated ; outer lip sharp, simple ; inner lip expanded, con- 
tinuous with the columella ; columella tortuous, single-plaited. 

260. Physa coromandelica, Dunker. 

Physa coromandelica, Dunker, Malak. Blatt. 1862, p. 150. 

Original description : Testa subovata tennis, fusco-cornea, sub- 
diaphana, anfractibus quinis carinatis, per longitudinam striatis, 
sutura distincta divisis instructs ; spira parum exserta, ob carinam 
prominentern scalata ; anfractus embryonalis vel apex obtusius- 
culus; apertura ovato-oblonga obliqua ; spira duplo major; labrum 
acutum in margine superiore angulatum. 

Alt. 11, diam. 5*5 mm. 

ffab. Coromandel. 



Class PELECYPODA. 

Order TETR A BRANCHI A. 
Suborder MYTILACEA. 

Family ARCID^E. 

Subfamily ARCING. 

Shell either equivalve or inequivalve, oval, rounded or trape- 
zoidal, covered with a periostracum ; ligament spreading over a 
considerable external area, or confined to a small depression 5 
hinge multi-dentate, 'the teeth short or lamellif'orm ; adductor 
scars extended, subequal ; pallial line simple ; interior of shell 
not nacreous. 

Animal, with the exception of Scaphula, marine; foot large,, 
broad, bearing a byssiferous groove and frequently a. byssus ; the 
adductor muscles in both valves of about equal size ; siphons 
absent; gills oblique, either equal or unequal; palpes simple 
without posterior appendages. 

Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas, and rivers of 
Eastern India and Burma far bevoml the limits of tide. 



BCAPHULA. 129 

Genus SCAPHULA. 

Scaphula, Benson, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 91; Zool. Journ. v, 1835, 
p. 464 ; A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, p. 128. 

TYPE, Scaphula celooe, Benson ; River Jumna, near Bundelkund. 

Range. Rivers of India and Burma. 

The original description of the genus is as follows : 

" The form of the shell, its lozenge-shaped ligamental scar, and 
the position and order of its teeth shew its place to be among the 
Arcacece ; while the oblique production of the teeth on the posterior 
side down the inner surface of the cardinal lamina, the separation 
of the teeth into two sets by the interposition of an edentate 
portion of the cardinal lamina, and the freedom of the shell from 
ribs, with the exception of the ridges which occur at the angle 
of the shell, will suffice to distinguish our shell from the genus 
Area, which will still comprehend marine shells only." 

In 1856 in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History/ 
p. 128, Benson gives an amended description of the above as 
follows: "Testa aequivalvis, valde inaBquilateralis, subtrapezi- 
formis, carina valida ab umbonibus distantibus usque ad marginem 
posteriorem et basalem extendente ; cardo rectilihearis, medio 
tenuis, ad extremitates sulcidentatas latior, dentibus anterioribus 
4, crenulatis minutis obliquis posterioribus lamellatis, parallelibus, 
intus oblique descendentibus, 4 ad 6, primo obliquis, demum 
transversis, raro bifurcatis, munita ; ligamentum exterius, rhom- 
biforme, inter umbones situm ; epidermis tenuis vel crasse 
lamelloso-rugosa ; inusculi adductoris impressio antica unica, 
posteriores dua3 subdistantes quorum inferior oblongo-quadrata : 
pallii impressio integra." 

"The genus is at once distinguished from its nearest allies, 
Area and Cucull&a, by the hinge being linear and edentate in the 
middle and for the greatest part of its length, and by the form 
and position of the teeth at the ext^mities ; the laminar posterior 
ones, which are sometimes ramose, running obsoletely and 
obliquely into the interior of the shell. The two distinct ad- 
ductor muscular impressions, and the squareness of the lower one 
on the posterior side in both species, are peculiar features sup- 
porting the claims of the type to generic distinction." 
The animal is unknown. 



261. Scaphula celox, Benson. 

Scaphula celox, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 750 (as figured in 
Glean. Science, Calcutta), i, pi. 7, figs. 2, 3 ; A. M. N. H. xvii, 
1856, p. 129 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxvi, pt. 2, pi. 14, figs. 14, 
15 ; H. & T., C. I., 1876, p. 47, pi. 116, figs. 8, 9 j Crosse & 
P. Fischer, J. Conchyliol., Paris, xxiv, p. 339. 

Area scaphula, Benson, P. Fischer, Man. Conch., p. 976. 



] 30 ARCID.E. 

Scaphula celox, Benson, Lamy, J. Conchyliol., Paris, 1907, Iv, 
pp. 109-111. 

Original description'. Testa elongata, tumida, Iseviuscula 
antice angulata, inter umbonem extremitatemque anticam subito 
evasa ; carino umbonali compresso, costula obsoleta contigua. 

As Benson gave no dimensions, the following are taken from 
three specimens in the British Museum. 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 3-5 3-25 4-5 ram. 

Lat 10-75 11-75 11-5 mm. 

Diain 6 6 775 mm. 

Hob. Eiver Cane, near Banda, Bundelkund. 



262. Scaphula pinna, Benson. 

Scaphula pinna, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, pp. 128- 

" 3. 11-J" 



129 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxvi, pt. 2, pi. 14, figs. 11-13 ; 
H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 47, pi. 116, figs. 5-6. 

Original description : Testa elongato-triangulari, subtrapezi- 
formi, extus sub epidermide albida, intus cserulescente, antice 
angusta, extremitate subacute angulata, arcuatim descendente 
postice, subalata, expansa, extremitate superne arcuata, infra 
rectangular! ; carina acuta, compressa ; pagina postica majori 
subremote, antica confertim concentrice sulcata, utrinque radiatim 
striatula ; epidermide fusco-nigra, crasse rugoso-lamellata, mar- 
ginem nigrescentem excedente, musculi anterioris impressione 
ovato - rotundata, posterioribus duabus, superiori subcardinali 
elongata, angusta, inferiori elongato-quadrata. 

Long. 5, lat. 11, diam. 6 mm. 

Three specimens in the British Museum, received from the late 
Dr. Blanford, are of the following dimensions. 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 3*5 3 2'25 mm. 

Lat 9-5 8-25 6-5 mm. 

Diam 4'25 4-25 3-25 mm. 

Hob. Tenasseriin River. 



263. Scaphula deltae, Blanford. 

Scaphula delta, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxvi, pt. 2, pp. 71-72, 

S. 14, figs. 7-10 ; Cont. Ind. Mai. pt. 8, p. 21, pi. 3, figs. 7-10 ; 
. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 47, pi. 116, figs. 2 & 3. 

Original description : Testa tumida, perelongato-rhomboidea, 
sub epidermide crassa, fusca, postice radiatim lirata albida, lineis 
minutus elevatis coufertissimis decussata, ante carinam costa 



SCAPHULA.. 131 

unica lata, planulata, aliquando obsoleta, a natibus ad marginem 
decurrente, inunita, intus caerulescens, antice rottindata, postice 
oblique truncata, margine ventrali antice convexa, postice vix 
concaviuscula (testae junioris recta). Carina perelevata, acuta, 
valvas in paginas duas dividens, antica tumida, postica concava. 
Area nitida, sub lente striatula, ligamento rhombeo solum antice 
induta. Dentes cardinales postici breves, obliqui, ab extremitate 
remotiusculi. 

1. 2. 

Long 3-5 3 mm. 

Lat 10 8 mm. 

Diam 6*5 5 mm. 

Hob. Irawady River at Pegu ; found " under stones in creeks, 
adhering by a byssus " ; Mahanadi River, at a point five miles 
above Sambalpur, Orissa (Chaudhuri). 

The author appends the following notes to his description : 
" Shell very tumid, elongately rhomboidal (the ventral and dorsal 
margins being parallel as in S. celox), covered with a thick dark 
epidermis, which is rather rough and radiately ribbed behind the 
keel. Beneath the epidermis the shell is white, and decussately 
very minutely sculptured, one flat broad rib, scarcely raised, and 
occasionally obsolete in old specimens, passing from the umbones 
to the margin just in front of the keel. This is scarcely dis- 
tinguishable until the epidermis is removed. The valves are bluish 
within, rounded in front, obliquely truncated at the posterior 
margin ; the ventral margin is convex anteriorly, subconcave 
posteriorly, being straight for the greater part of its course in 
young shells, but becoming slightly concave, at the spot where the 
byssus passes out, in old specimens. The keel is very high and 
sharp, separating the valves into two subdivisions, the anterior of 
which is tumid, the posterior concave. The area is polished and 
striated rather obliquely, the ligament diamond-shaped and 
covering only the anterior portion, about to J the length of the 
area. The hinge teeth are oblique, but less so than in either 
S. celox or S. pinna, and the posterior teeth are much farther from 
the extremity of the shell than in either of those species." 

" The great distinction between this species and the other two 
previously described is in the far greater tumidity of the valves, 
which are nearly twice at broad in their diameter from side to side 
(of the closed valves) as they are from the dorsal to the ventral 
margin. The proportion of the two diameters in the present 
species averages about 12 : 7. In S. celox it is 12 : 10! and in 
S. pinna 12 : 91 " 



K2 



132 ITMONIDjE. 



Suborder SUBMYTILACEA. 
Family UNION TD^E. 

Subfamily UNIONIN^E. 

Shell nacreous, covered with a more or less thickened perio- 
stracum; umbones generally corrugatedly sculptured; ligament 
somewhat elongated, projecting ; hinge teeth bearing, the teeth 
usually strong, arranged as cardinals and laterals ; pallial line 
generally simple. Animal with labial palpes somewhat drawn out, 
projecting posteriorly ; embryos borne in the outer or in all four 
gills. 

Distribution. Temperate and tropical regions of the world. A 
single genus occurring in the Indian Eegion. 

Genus SOLENAIA. 

Solenaia, Conrad, Am. Jouru. Conch, iv, 1869, p. 249. 
TYPE, Mycetopus emarginatus, Lea, from Siarn. 

Range. South-Eastern Asia and China, one species only from 
India. 

Shell elongated, thin ; gaping anteriorly ; hinge with a long, 
acicular, lateral tooth in each valve, slightly developed. 

The soft parts appear to be unknown, though Fischer notes in 
his paper * Observations sur les genres Mycetopus et Solenaia ' * 
that the animal retains an upright position in a hole which it 
bores in the earth, which is often very hard, the manner of boring 
being unknown. The siphons are placed above, the valves gaping 
apart, the foot is turgescent having the anterior extremity much 
swollen in the form of a bowl. 

264. Solenaia soleniformis (Benson). 

Solenaia soleniformis (Benson), Simpson, Syn. Naiades, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 656. 

Anodonta soleniformis, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 750. 

Maryaron ( Unio) bensoni, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 57. 

Mycetopus bemonianus, Lea, H. & T., C. I. 1876, pi. 9, fig. 1 ; 
Peetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 186. 

Spatha soleniformis, Fischer, J.Conchyliol., Paris, xxxviii, 1890, 
p. 94. 

Original description : Testa elongatissima, postice angustata, 
extremitate rotundata ; antice latiore, sub-alata, extremitate 



* J. Oonchyliol., Paris, xxxviii, 1890, p. 11. 



SOLENAIA. 



133 



oblique truncata: natibus complanatis, inconspicuis, senectate 
obliteratis, decoriicatis ; epidermide junioris fulvida, pneter 
angulum umbonis viridi, sulcis illuc vinis impressa, setate fusca. 
Long. 150, lat. prope apicem 30, lat. prope alam 37-5 mm. 
Benson adds the following note to his description : 
" This is a very interesting shell, being, in proportion to its 
length, the most elongated of the genus. The pearl of the 






Fig. 6. Solenaia soleniformis (Benson) (specimen), nat. size, 
showing pallial line and muscular scars. 



interior is bluish with a salmon tinge in old specimens, which are 
likewise much worn on the exterior surface, and have their 
posterior muscular impression very deeply marked, and, as it were, 
carious. The anterior muscular impression is considerably 
elongated under the transverse direction." 

Hob. Assam. 

There is a good series of this species in the Indian Museum 
Collection, all from Cachar, of which the measurements of three 
specimens are : 



Long. 
Lat. 
Diam . 



1. 

55 
183 
29-75 



45-5 
391 
25-75 



3. 

49*5 ram, 

207 mm. 

27'75 mm. 



134 



Subfamily HYRIN^E. 



Male and female shells alike, with beak sculpture radial or 
zigzag-radial ; marsupium occupying the inner gills only. 

Distribution. Southern arid Eastern Asia ; Malay Archipelago ; 
Solomon Islands ; Australia ; New Zealand ; Tasmania ; South 
America ; and Africa. Several of the genera are found in the 
Indian Region. 

Genus UNIO. 

Unio, Retzius, Diss. Hist. Test. Gen. 1788, p. 16 ; Bruguiere, Choix 

de Memoires, i, 1792, p. 106. 
Limneea, Poli (pars), Test. utr. Sic. i, 1791, p. 31. 
Lymnium, Oken, Lehrbuch, 1815, p. 237. 
Elliptic, Rafinesque, J. de Phys. t Hist. Nat. 1819, p. 426. 
Mysca, Turton, Conch. Ins. Brit. 1822, p. 243. 
Canthyria, Swainson, Tr. on Mai. 1840, p. 278. 
Uniomerus. Conrad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vi, 1853 y 

p. 268. 

TYPE, Unio tumidus, Retzius, from Northern and Central 
Europe, Siberia. 

Range. Europe, Siberia, Asia Minor, Assyria, N. Africa, and a 
single species recorded from Kashmir. 

Shell inequilateral, ovate or elongate, generally cuneate, ridged 
vith concentric growth-lines ; umbones moderately large, generally 
corrugately sculptured ; hinge possessing one pseudocardinal and 
one lateral tooth in the right valve and two pseudocardinals and 
two laterals in the left valve ; umbonal cavity shallow. 

The following description of the animal is taken from Simpson's 
work on the Unionidse.* " Animal having the inner branchiae 
free from the abdominal sac for from one-half to their entire 
length ; marsupium occupying the whole length of the outer 
gills only, forming a thick, smooth pad when filled with young ; 
gills united to the mantle behind to their extreme points, or very 
nearly so ; papilla? on branchial and anal openings unbranched ; 
superanal opening always closed below." 

< Section LYMNIUM. 
Lymnium, Oken, Lehrbuch, 1815, p. 237. 

TYPE, Unio pictorum, Retzius ; Europe. 

Range. Europe ; N". and C. Asia. 

Oken's description being totally inadequate, it has been ampli- 
fied by Simpson as follows : " Shell generally smooth ; beak 
sculpture broken, often somewhat corrugated or pustulcms; 



* Washington, D.O., Smithsonian Inst. Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 680. 



UNIO. NODULABIA. 135 

pseudocardinals compressed ; beak cavities well excavated, not 
compressed. Animal highly coloured, anal opening crenulate or 
smooth." 



265. Unio mongolicus, Middendorff. 

Unto mongolicus, MiddendorfF, Sib. Reise, ii, 1851, p. 277, pi. 27, 
figs. 7, 8 ; Hessling, Perl, und Ihre Perlen, 1859, p. 203 ; 
Sehrenck, Reise und Forsch. im Amur-Lande, ii, 1867, p. 699 : 
Westerlund, Kong. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Handl. xiv, no. 12, 1876, 
p. 74 ; Paetel,"Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 159 ; Westerlund, Faun, der 
Pal. ii, pt. 7, 1890, p. 113. 

Original desertion : Testa transversim oblonga, subreniformi, 
ttimescente, fusca ; latere postico anticum quater superante ; mar- 
gine ventral! nonnihil retuso ; margine cardinali primo ventrali 
parallel! et turn, inde a dimidio latitudinis, in rostrum asyminetri- 
cum, inferum, descendente ; umbonibus prominulis, erosis ; den- 
tibus cardinal! bus par vis, crassiusculis ; dent! bus lateralibus 
evolutis. 

Long. 32, lat. 76, diam. 24 mm. 

Hob. A mountain stream at Gorbitza in Daurien. 

There is a single specimen in the National Collection which 
is indistinguishable from that in the Indian Museum from the 
Upper Indus. 

Genus NODULARIA. 

Nodularia, Conrad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vi, 1853, 
p. 268 ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst, Nat. Mus. 
Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 806. 

TYPE, Unio douylasice, Gray ; China. 

Range. China; Japan; Eastern Siberia; Indo-China; India; 
Borneo ; Java ; Sumatra ; New Guinea ; Africa. 

Shell nodose ; cardinal teeth robust, single in the right valve ; 
in each valve the principal cardinal tooth is parallel with the 
lateral teeth, or directed towards the posterior extremity of the 
shell. 

Section NODULARIA (sensu stncto). 
See above. 

266. Nodularia (Nodularia) digitiformis (Sowerby). 

Nodularia (Nodularia) digitiformis (Sowerby) ; Simpson, Washing- 
ton, B.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc., xxii, 1900, p. 809. 

Unio digitiformis, Sowerby, Conch. loii. xvi, 1868, pi. 65, 
fig. 333 ; Pjfitel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890. p. 150. 



136 UNIONIDjE. 

Original description : Shell narrow, elongated, very tumid, very 
thick, covered with a black, smooth epidermis, white within, 
anterior teeth large, jagged, posterior teeth laminar, elongated ; 
posterior side oblique, angular, acuminated at the end of the 
angle, ventral margin slightly swelled posteriorly, then contracted, 
straight in the middle; anterior side very short, umbones large. 

No dimensions are given with the description, but the following 
are taken from Sowerby's figure. 

Long. 35*5, lat. 99 mm. 

Hob. India. 

267. Nodularia (Nodularia) caeruleus (Lea). 

Nodularia (Nodularia) caruleus (Lea) ; Simpson, Syn. Naiades, 

Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, 

pp. 811,812. 
Unto ccendeus, Lea, Philadelphia, Pa., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. iv, 

p. 95, pi. 13, tig. 25 ; Obs. on Uniouidae, i, p. 105, pi. 13, 

fig. 25. 

Margarita ( Unio) cceruleus, Lea, Syn. 1836, p. 26 ; 1838, p. 20. 
Margaron (Unio) cantleus, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 30; 1870, p. 47. 
Unio gerbidoni, Eydoux, in Guer. Mag. de Zool. 1838, p. 9, pi. 118, 

tigs. 2, 2 , 2 b ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 6, pi. 12, tig. 2. 
Unio substriatus, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, viii, 

1856, p. 93 ; Obs. on UnionidaB, vi, 1857, p. 20, pi. 26, tig. 14. 
Margaron ( Unio) substriatus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 47. 
Unio humiiis, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, viii, 1856, 

p. 93; Obs. on Unionidae, vi, 1857, p. 16, pi. 26, tig. 10. 
Margaron ( Unio) humiiis, Lea, Syn. 1870. p. 32. 
Unio corrianus, Kiister, Conch.-Cab., Unio, 1861, p. 229, pi. 67, 

tig. 5. 
Unio leioma, Benson, A. M. N. II. 1862, p. 192 ; H. & T., C. I. 

1876, p. 6, pi. 12, fijf. 6. 
Unio pilatus, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, x, 1866, 

p. 133; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vi, 1868, p. 181, 

pi. 38, tig. 95. 

Margaron ( Unio) pilatus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 47. 
Unio evittatus, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat, Sci. Philadelphia, 1868, 

p. 133; Lea, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vi, 1868, 

p. 279, pi. 38, fig. 92. 

Margaron ( Unio) cristatus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 47. 
Unio trirostris, Sowerby, Couch. Icon, xvi, pi. 65, fig. 331. 

Original description : Testa angusto-elliptica, transversa, inaequi- 
laterali, subcylindracea ; valvulis tenuibus ; natibus prominulis, 
rotundatis ; dentibus cardinalibus lamelliformibus, et in dextra 
valvula sola duplicibus ; lateralibus rectis margarita casruleo-alba 
et iridescente. 

Ha b. Eiver Hooghly. 

To the above locality may be added the following, from which 
specimens are represented in the Indian Museum, Calcutta : Eam- 
pur; Siliguri ; Patna; Jamalpur, Phenchooganj, Central Sylhet; 
Barrack Eiver, Silchar ; Darjiling ; Kochk ; Rajputana ; Maub- 
hoom; Eohri, Sukkur District, Siud; Saharumpur, United 
Provinces ; Lower Nerbudda ; Sambalpur, Bengal ; Bhagulpur ; 
Kajmahal ; Umballa; Poonassa; Burwani; Bagh ; Hazrapur. 



NODULARIA. 137 

A very widely spread form, as will be seen from the list of 
localities quoted above ; to a certain degree it varies considerably ; 
always corrugatedly sculptured in the umbonal region, this 
character may be either restricted to the extreme umbone, or 
spread over the greater portion of the surface of the shell. 

A number of so-called species have been constituted out of its 
many varietal forms, of which, perhaps, that most often quoted is 
U. leioma, Benson, but on examination of a large series there can 
be no doubt that these must be relegated to synonymy. 

Below are given the measurements of four specimens in the 
Indian Museum, No. 1 being from Calcutta, No. 2 from Bagh, 
No. 3 from Umballa, and No. 4 from Poonassa. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 

Long 20 17-25 25-25 30mm. 

Lat 39-75 30 49-5 56 mm. 

Diameter 12 11 18-75 21 mm. 

Var. gaudichaudi (Eydoux). 

Unio gaudichaudi, Eydoux, Mag. de Zool. 1838, Cl. v, p. 10, 

pi. 118, fig. 3. 
Margaron (Unio) gaudichaudi, Lea, Syii. 1850, p. 32; 1870, 

p. 50. 
Nodularia gaudichaudi, Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., 

Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 812. 

Shell oval, transverse, inequilateral ; umbones not prominent, 
slightly roughened, covered with a periostracum ; the anterior side 
is short and rounded ; the posterior is broader and obscurely angled ; 
the whole shell slightly swollen ; texture of shell thin, finely or 
irregularly striate and covered with a dirty brown or yellowish 
periostracum ; interior of shell nacreous, of a pinkish violet 
shade ; hinge very narrow and nearly straight, a single, rough and 
projecting cardinal tooth appearing on the right valve and two 
oblique and unequal cardinal teeth in the left valve; lateral teeth 
very thin, smooth, obliquely truncate at the posterior end, the 
plates of the opposite valve, between which it fits, of nearly equal 
size. 

Long. 22-5, lat. 38-25 mm. 

Hob. Rivers of Bengal. 

Var. keraudreni (Eydoux). 

Unio keraudreni, Eydoux, Mag. de Zool. 1838, Cl. v, p. 8, pi. 118, 

fig. 1. 
Margaron ( Unio) keraudreni, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 30 ; 1870, p. 46. 

Shell oblong-ovate, somewhat depressed, very inequilateral, 
smooth; anterior side obtuse, short; posterior side gently 
attenuated with blunt extremity ; umbones scarcely prominent, 
much eroded ; remainder of outer surface covered with a dark 
brown periostracum ; interior of shell nacreous and tinged with 



138 UXIOSIDJE. 

yellowish white ; hinge narrow, rather sinuous in the median part ; 
cardinal tooth lamelliform, carious somewhat oblique fitting into 
the opposite valve between two small unequal teeth joined at 
their base and denticulated above ; posterior lateral tooth lamelli- 
form, sharp, inserted in the opposite valve between two lamellae, 
quite as narrow as that of the left valve ; muscular scars sub- 
circular, the anterior rather deep, the posterior very superficial. 

Long. 22-5, lat. 40'5 mm. 

Bab. Small streams and marshes of Bengal, it is found in great 
profusion in the neighbourhood of Chandernagor. 



268. Nodularia (Nodular ia) shurtleffiana (Lea}. 

Nodularia (Nodularia) shurtleffiana (Lea) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, p. 813. 

Unto shnrtlejfianus, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
viii, 1856, p. 94 ; Obs. on Genus Unio, vi, p. 22, pi. 27, fig. 17 ; 
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, p. 302. 

Margaron ( Unto) shurtleffianus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 32. 

Original description : Testa minute plicata, elliptica, insequi- 
laterali, subcylindracea, postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata, 
ad latus subplanulata ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus prominulis, ad 
apices minute undulatis ; epidermide nrido-lutea ; dentibus car- 
dinalibus sublongis, compressis geminisque ; lateralibus longis 
subrectisque ; margarita salmonis colore tincta et viridescente. 

Hob. Siria Eiver, India (Major Le Conte); Ahmednugger 
(SJmrtleff). 

There are also specimens in the Indian Museum which cannot 
be separated from this species from Myadong and Shuaygoomyo, 
Burma. It is of doubtful specific rank, unfortunately very few 
specimens have been available for examination ; probably, could a 
large series be brought together, it would prove to be but a variety 
of N. ccerulea. 

The dimensions of three specimens in the British Museum 
which agree well with Lea's original figure and description are : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 24 22-5 20 mm. 

Lat :. 44 44 35 mm. 

Diam. 14-25 15 12-75 mm. 



269. Nodularia (Nodularia) occata (Lea}. 

Nodularia (Nodularia} occata (Lea) ; Simpson, Washington, B.C., 
Smiths. Inst., Nat., Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 813. 

Unio occatus, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iv, 1860, 
p. 307 ; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vi, 1863, p. 398, 
pi. 50, fig. 304 ; Ob8. on Genus Unio, x, 1863, p. 34, pi. 50, 
fig. 304. 



NODULARIA. 139 

Margaron (Unio) occatus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 31. 
Unio macilentus, Benson, A. M.'N. H. x, 1862. p. 187 ; H. & T., 

C. I. p. 5, pi. 10, fig. 2, & p. 62, pi. 154, fig. 5.' 
Unio rugosus, H. & T., C. I. p. 62, pi. 154, fig. 3. 

Original description: Testa plicata, elliptica, rugoso-occata, 
compressa, valde insequilaterali, postice biangulata, antice regu- 
lariter rotundata ; natibus prominulis, valde compressis, ad apices 
plicis, pulchris divaricatis ; epidermide luteo-oliva et valde rugosa; 
dentibus cardinalibus parvis, compressis, obliquis ; lateralibus 
sublongis subcurvisque ; margarita alba et valde iridescente. 

Hab. Bengal (W. A. Haines). 

The dimensions given below are those of a specimen in the 
British Museum with locality " Bengal," which, although some- 
what larger than that figured by Lea, agrees well with his figure 
and description. 

Long. 22, lat. 42, diam. 15-25 mm. 

It may here be noted that, upon examination, the specimen 
no\v in the British Museum, figured by Hanley in the ' Concho- 
logia Indica ', pi. 10, fig. 4, and which was most probably copied 
by Sowerby in the l Conchologia Iconica ' on pi. 79, fig. 412, 
proves to be a very immature example of a totally different 
species. 

270. Nodularia (Nodularia) pachysoma (Benson). 

Nodularia (Nodularia} pachysoma (Benson); Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 813. 

Unio pachysoma, Benson, A.M.N.H. x, 1862, p. 186; H. & T., 
C. I. 1876, p. 6, pi. 12, fig. 1. 

Margaron ( Unio) pachysoma, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 63. 

Unio pachystoma y Paetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 162. 

Original description : Testa transverse ovato-elongata, insequi- 
laterali, tenuiuscula, valde tumida, antice brevi rotundata, postice 
breviter alata, demum modice acuminata, margine ventral! 
subrecto, postice ascendente ; disco laeviusctilo, polito, transverse 
striatulo, postice dense striato ; epidermide viridi, fasciis nonnullis 
luteis radiisque obscuris ornata, postice cserulescen ti -viridi ; um- 
bonibus prominentibus versus apices contiguos minute radiato- 
costatis, carina umbonali prominente obtusa, linea secunda 
radiata interjacente ; dentibus cardinalibus duplicibus, laminatis, 
lateralibus modice elongatis, valvae sinistra} solum duplicibus : 
margarita pallide purpurea, interdum salmonis colore tincta. 

Long. 23, lat. 44, diam. 22 mm. 

Hab. Brahmapootra Eiver, Assam ; also Sawaddy, Burma 
(Indian Museum Coll.). 

The anterior cicatrices are distinct, the posterior confluent, the 
dorsal ones under the cardinal teeth. The inner lamina of the 
latter in the left valve is sometimes obsolete. 

It differs from U. cceruleus in being more inflated and-devoid of 
radiate corrugations on the slopes, the posterior side is excavated 



140 

and the colour of the interior of the shell also distinguishes it 
from that species. 

271. Nodularia (Nodularia) chaudhurii, Preston. 

Nodularia (Nodularia) chaudhurii, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Cal- 
cutta, vii, 1912, p. 290. 

Original description : Shell small, rather thin, elongately ovate, 
pale olive, covered with a finely laminiferous periostracum ; both 
valves concentrically striate, sculptured with irregular, minute, 
nodulous, radiate ridges which appear posteriorly as regular corru- 
gations ; umbones small, somewhat prominent ; dorsal margin 




Fig. 7. 1 & 2. Nodularia (N.) chaudhurii, Preston (type), nat. size. 
3. Hinge and muscular scars of same. 

slightly arched ; ventral margin straight ; anterior side produced, 
rounded : posterior side bluntly rostrate, abruptly sloping above 
and below ; hinge teeth elongate, anteriorly projecting ; anterior 
scars deep, roundly triangular ; posterior scars scarcely impressed ; 
interior of shell iridescent, nacreous, posteriorly corrugate. 

Long. 12-75, lat. *J3 mm. 

Hob. Upper Burma. 

The type is in the Indian Museum. 

272. Nodularia (Nodularia) bonneaudi (Eydoux). 

Nodularia (Nodularia) bonneaudi (Eydoiix) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 813. 

Unio bonneaudi, Eydoux, in Maff. de Zool. 1838, Cl. v, pp. 10-11, 
pi. 119, figs. 1, I a ; H. & T., C. I. pi. 10, fig. 6. 

Maryaron ( Unio) bonneaudi, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 32 ; 1870, p. 50. 

Shell oval, transverse, swollen, inequilateral, of thin texture, 
gently sinuous in the median region ; the anterior side obtuse, 
short ; posterior side obscurely angled ; umbones scarcely promi- 
nent and not eroded ; the outer surface irregularly furrowed by 
multitudinous stria?, covered with a thin yellowish green perio- 
stracum ; interior of shell nacreous, white ; hinge narrow, the 
anterior margin of the right valve bearing two lamelliform teeth 
of equal size, the left valve bearing a single rather large crest-like 



141 

tooth also on the margin, at the base of which appears a second 
and much smaller tooth ; posterior lateral gently curved, narrow, 
sharp, falling between two equal sized lamellae in the left valve ; 
anterior muscular scar moderately to slightly deep, posterior 
muscular scar superficial. 

Long. 27, lat. 47'25 mm. 

Hob. Eivers of India ; Pegu (Ind. Mus. Coll.). 

The species seems to vary greatly in shape and colour, some 
specimens, in the long series of the Indian Museum Collection, 
being posteriorly much more rostrate than others, while in some 
the dorsal margin is angled posteriorly and produced anteriorly. 
In colour the species seems to vary from pale yellowish green to 
dark blackish brown, and thus two extremes might easily be 
taken at first sight for different species : there does not seem, 
however, to be any clear line of demarcation between the many 
varieties, all of which merge into one another when a sufficiently 
large series is examined. 



273. Nodularia (Nodularia) pugio (Benson). 

Nodularia (Nodularia) pugio (Benson) ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., 

Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 814. 
Unio pugio, Benson, A. M. N. II. x, 1862, p. 193 ; Sowerby, Concli. 
Icon. pi. 45, fig. 516 j H. & T,, C. I. 1876, p. 5, pi. 10, fig. 7. 

Original description: Testa transverse elongato-triangulari, 
linguaeformi, valde inequilateral!, compressiuscula, crassa, antiee 
brevissima, subito descendente rotundata, postice sensim angus- 
tiore, cuneiform!, clemum acuminata, margine dorsali recta, 
ventral! convexiusculo, postice ascendente; umbonibus late 
planatis, laevibus, prominentibus, carina umbonali subito obtuse 
angulata, area interjacente versus cardinem descendente ; disco 
subplanulato, laeviusculo, substriato ; dente cardinal! (valva> 
dextrae)brevi, crassa prominente, radiato-sulcata, laterali elongata, 
subduplicata, iutus crenulata : margarita albida, iridescente. 

Long. 21, lat. 42, diam. 16 mm. 

Hob. Neighbourhood of Ava, Pegu (Indian Mus. Coll.) ; also 
recorded from the Barrack River, Silchar. 

A curious species whose smooth surface and anteriorly swollen 
and posteriorly cuneiform shape easily distinguish it from any 
other Indian members of the family. 



274. Nodularia (Nodularia) gratiosa (Philippi). 

Nodularia (Nodularia) gratiosa (Philippi) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 815. 

Unio c/ratiosus, Philippi, Conch, i, 1845, p. 20, pi. l,fig. 5 ; Catlow 
& Keeve, Conch. Norn. 1845, p. 59; ? Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 
1861, p. 239, pi. 80, fig. 3. 

Margaron (Unio) f/ratiosus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 32. 



142 UNIONID^E. 

Original description: Testa rainuta, trans versim oblonga, 
antice rotundata, postice latiore subrostrata, rugio radiantibus, 
confertissirnis sculpta, sordida lutescente et virescente ; dente 
cardinal!, valvae dextrae coinpresso triangular! ; valvae sinistrae 
huraili, sub vertice appendiculato ; dentibus lateralibus >alvae 
sinistrae geminis ; margarita ex luteo rubente. 

Height 156-5, length 273-5, diam. 91 mm. 

The species would seeni to be very doubtfully Indian. 

275. Nodularia (Nodularia) crispata (Gould). 

Nodularia (Nodularia) crispata (Gould) ; Simpson, Washington, 

D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 835. 
Unio crispata, Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. i,1843,p. 141 ; 

Otia Conch. 1862, p. 191. 
Unio crispatus, Catlow & Reeve, Conch. Nom. 1845, p. 58; H. & 

T., C. I. 1876, p. 21, pi. 45, tig. 1. 
Margaron ( Unto) crispatus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 32. 
Unio scobinatus, Lea. Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Philadelphia, viii, 

1856, p. 93 ; Obs. on Genus Unio, 1857, p. 19, pi. 26, tig. 13. 
Margaron ( Unio) scobinatus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 32. 
Unio mandarinus, Morelet, J. Conchyliol., Paris, xii, 1863, p. 159. 
Unio pellis-lacerti, Morelet, J. Conchyliol., Paris, xiii, 1865, p. 22; 

Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 86, fig. 457. 
Unio venustus, Morelet, J. Conchyliol., Parib, xiv, 1866, p. 63. 
Unio oblatus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 64. 

Original description : Testa ovali-elongata, inaequilaterali, antice 
rotundata, postice subrostrata, costaque mnbonali ; umbonibus 
parvis ; colore virescente, fusco variegata ; rugis angulatis 
radiantibus undique crispata : intus livida ; dentibus parvis 
obtusis. 

Long. 23, lat. 43, diam. 13 mm. 

Hal. Tavoy ; also Siain and Battambong, Cambodia (Indian 
Museum Coll.). 

A very beautiful species easily recognizable by its curious 
sculpture, consisting of dark green, nodulous, waved ridges run- 
ning anteriorly in a horizontal, and posteriorly in a longitudinal 
direction upon a ground of bright brownish-yellow. 

276. Nodularia (Nodularia) scobina (Hanley). 

Nodularia (Nodularia} scobina (Hanley) ; Simpson, AVashiugton 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 816. 

Unio scobina, Hanley, Rec. Biv. Shells p. 382, pi. 23, fig. 40 ; 
Hanley & Theobald, Cat. L. & F. W. Shells Brit. Ind. p. 49 j 
H. & t. C. I. pi. 46, fig. 2. 

Original description : [Shell] oblong, inequilateral, moderately 
thick, rather compressed, with < dark green ray on the anterior 
slope, densely covered with raised oorrugations, which, upon the 
simple umbonal slope are disposed in somewhat transverse 
divergent curved narrow folds, are angularly met beyond it by 
similar raised wrinkles, are arranged upon the hinder extremity in 



NODTJLARIA. 143 

short subtransverse angularly flexuous lines, and elsewhere are 
broken into short zigzags, or angular dots (like a worn out rasp) ; 
dorsal and ventral edges subparallel, the latter straightish, a 
little retuse ; anterior side bluntly biangulated ; umbones eroded, 
not prominent ; nacre bluish, iridescent in front ; anterior 
lateral tooth elongated, posterior lateral tooth very short, much 

elevated The primary tooth, in the only valve known to me, 

is a mere callus. 

Long. 18, lat. 32 mm. 

Hob. Assam ; Seebsaugor (Indian Mus. Coll.). 

The dimensions of two specimens in the Indian Museum are : 

1. 2. 

Long 13 12'5 mm. 

Lat 23 22 mm. 

Diam 6'7o 7 mm. 

277. Nodularia (Nodularia) andersoniana (Nevill). 

Unto andersonianus, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 1877, p. 40 ; Yunnan 
Exp. pi. 80, fig. 9. 

Original description : Shell allied to U. pachysoma, Bens., and 
to some of the varieties of U. cceruleus. Lea. It is easily distin- 
guished from U. bonneaudi by its more irregular shape, thinner 
texture, by the acute angulation, greater production posteriorly, 
and by the more developed sculpture ; a constant character also is 
the pink colour of the nacre, which in U. bonneaudi is bluish 
white, this is equally distinct and characteristic in young as in old 
specimens. 

Long. 15-5, lat. 32, diam. 11-75 mm. 

Hob. Myadong, Burma. 

278. Nodularia (Nodularia) theobaldi, Preston. 

Nodularia (Nodularia) theobaldi, Preston, Rec. lud. Mus. Calcutta, 
vii, 1912, p. 292. 

Orif/inal description: Shell ovately rectangular, very slightly 
curved, gaping anteriorly, moderately solid, concentrically striate, 
covered with a dark olivaceous periostracum ; umbones small, 
not prominent ; dorsal margin somewhat arched, ventral margin 
slightly excavated in the median region, otherwise straight ; 
anterior side slightly produced and somewhat sharply rounded ; 
posterior side very obtusely rostrate, steeply sloping above, then 
sharply rounded and again sloping inwards below ; cardinal teeth 
in right valve roughly triangular, jagged, somewhat inwardly pro- 
jecting, fitting between two teeth in the left valve, which are 
roughened and of which the anterior is rather broad and massive ; 
lateral teeth in both valves elongate and nearly straight ; anterior 



144 



UNTOXID^E. 



scars somewhat deeply excavated, especially above ; posterior scars 
ovate, lightly impressed ; interior of shell nacreous shading from 




Fig. 8.--1 & 2. Nodularia (N.} theobaldi, Preston (type), nat. size. 
3. Hinge and muscular scars of same. 

pale flesh-colour to bluish iridescent, especially towards the 
posterior margins. 

Long. 34, lat. 60, diam. 19 mm. 

Hob. Manipur. 

The type is in the Indian Museum. 



279. Nodularia (Nodularia) olivaria (Lea). 

Nodularia (Nodularia} olivaria (Lea) Simpson, Washington, D.C., 

Smiths. Inst.,,Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 817. 
Unto olivarius, Lea, Philadelphia, Pa., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. iv, 

(n. s.) p. 108, pi. 16, fig. 38 ; Obs. Genus Unio, i, p. 118, pi. 16, 

fig. 33 ; H. & T., C. I. p. 5, pi. 10, fig. 1. 
Margarita ( Unio) olivarius, Lea, Syn. 1836, p. 26 ; 1838, p. 20 ; 

1852, p. 30; 1870, p. 47. 
Unio pumilio, Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 1862, p. 268, pi, 90, 

fig. 7. 

Original description : Testa ovata, transversa, inflata, pellucida ; 
valvulis pertenuibus ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide pertenui, 
lajve et oliv* colorem habente ; dentibus cardinalibus magnis 



NODULAEIA. 145 

laminatis erectisque, lateralibus laminatis brevibusque; margarita 
pertenui albaque. 

Long. 20, lat. 38, diam. 18 mm. 

Hob. Burrill River (Dr. Burrougli) ; specimens in British 
Museum from Moradabad, Agra, and E/ohilkund Streams (the last 
figured in Conch. Icon. pi. x, fig. 1); in Indian Museum from 
Assam and Saharanpur. 

The above description is amplified by the following note : 

" Shell ovate, transverse, inequilateral, inflated, pellucid : sub- 
stance of the shell very thin ; beaks slightly elevated, rounded 
and devoid of undulations : ligament very small : epidermis olive, 
very thin and smooth : rays obscure : cardinal teeth large, erect, 
and lameliiform ; lateral teeth short and lamelliform : anterior 
cicatrices slightly confluent : posterior cicatrices confluent : dorsal 
cicatrices not perceptible : cavity of the beaks wide : nacre very 
thin and bluish white. 

"Remarks. It is a perfectly distinct species, and 

may easily be recognised by its form, its pellucidness and its 
smooth olive-coloured epidermis. It somewhat resembles a young 
Anodonta on the exterior, but the elevated lamelliform teeth 
easily distinguish it from that genus. Its resemblance to a 
Spanish olive is very striking." 

280. Nodularia (Nodularia) nuttalliana (Lea). 

Nodularia (Nodularia) nuttalliana (Lea) ; Simpson, Washington, 

D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 817. 
27mb nuttallianus, Lea, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, viii, 

1856, p. 103 ; Obs. Genus Z7mb, vi, 1857, p. 30, pi. 30, fig. 25 ; 

Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, 1858, p. 310, pi. 30, 

fig. 25 ; H. & T., C. I. p. 19, pi. 41, figs. 5, 6. 
Margaron ( Unio) nuttallianus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 74. 

Original description : Testa laevi, elliptica, subinflata, inaequi- 
laterali ; valvulis tenuibus ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide 
olivacea, eradiata, valde polita ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, rectis, 
compressis crenulatisque ; lateralibus subcurtis, subrectis lamella- 
tisque ; margarita salmonis colore tincto et iridescente. 
ffab. India (Prof. Thomas Nuttall). 

No dimensions are given with the above description; there are, 
however, several specimens of the species in the British and 
Indian Museum Collections, of which the measurements of three 
are as follows ; No. 1 being in the British and Nos. 2 and 3 in the 
Indian Museum. 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 23-25 19 17'75 mm. 

Lat 38 31-25 28'5 mm. 

Diam 15 11-5 10'5 mm. 

Allied to N. olivaria, but of a darker colour and more convex, 
with more rounded ventral margin and generally ovate form. 



146 VNIONIIHE. 

281. Nodularia (Nodularia) involuta (Benson). 

Nodularia (Nodularia) involuta (Benson) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 817. 

Unio involutus (Benson), in Hanley, Rec. Biv. Shells, 1856, p. 385, 
pi. 23, fig. 19 j H. & T., C. I. p. 19, pi. 41, tig. 2. 

Original description : Peaked ovate, not so very inequilateral, 
compressed in front, swollen in the umbonal region, thin, polished, 
rather pale green, very obscurely subradiated ventrally with ochre- 
yellow, rather tinged with blue dor sally, marked with 2 or 3 dark 
green lines on the anterior slope, partially marked with some 
close and regular shallow groove-like posterior wrinkles, elsewhere 
smooth ; ventral edge strongly arcuated and much rising behind, 
less curved yet almost equally rising in front; anterior side 
tapering to a blunt subcentral peak, no uinbonai ridge ; hinder 
dorsal edge nearly straight, scarcely sloping ; umbones swollen, 
prominent, with a few longitudinal corrugations ; beaks incurved ; 
nacre silvery ; umbonal cavity ample ; lateral teeth large, laminar, 
raised, the shorter one very elevated at its extremity. 

"In the single specimen described from, there is no cardinal 
tooth, but the hinge-plate is elevated beneath the umbones." 

Long. 34, lat. 48 mm. 

Hob. Assam. 

A curiously thin, smooth, boat-shaped form which is consider- 
ably inflated, the diameter respectively of a right and left valve 
in the British Musum Collection being 10*75 and 9'5 mm. 



Section EADIATULA. 

Radiatula, Simpson, Washington D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. 
Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 820. 

TYPE, Unio crispisulcatus, Benson ; Burma. 

Range. Burma ; Assam ; Cambodia. 

Original description'. Shell rather solid, triangular oval, with 
high beaks which are but little inflated, not very full at post base, 
bluntly pointed behind, the beaks and entire surface covered with 
radiating, occasionally slightly zigzag or divaricate ridges, which 
are cut more or leg's into nodules or cancellations by concentric 
sulcations; the sculpture of the posterior slope stronger, and 
curving upward ; pseudocardinals of the left valve 2 to 3, ragged, 
the anterior larger, two in the right valve, with a parallel-sided 
socket, the larger teeth compressed but rather solid. 



282. Nodularia (Radiatula) crispisulcata (Benson). 

Nodularia (Radiatula) crispisulcata (Benson) ; Simpson, Wash- 
ington, D.O., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 820. 



tfODULABIA. 147 

Unio crispisulcatus, Lea, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 193 ; Sowerby, 

Conch. Icon, xvi, 1866, pi. 49, fig. 262. 
Margaron ( Unio) crispisulcatus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 149. 

Original description : Testa transverse subovata, subinsequi- 
laterali ; antice rotundata, postice superne descendente, leviter 
angulata, demum obtuse angulata, crassiuscula, compressiuscula ; 
disco convexiusculo minutissime radiatim rugoso-costulato, costulis 
nonnullis acute divaricatis, posterioribus latioribus ; umbonibus 
prominentibus, contiguis, apicibus acutiuseulis ; epidermide luteo- 
olivacea, postice fuscata, hie illic nonnunquam viridiscente ; 
dentibus cardinalibus utriusque valvae duplicibus, lamellatis, late- 
ralibus obliquis, modice elongatis, valvze sinistrae duplicibus : 
margarita cseruleo-albida iridescente. 

Long. 28, lat. 45, diam. 36 mm. 

Hob. Bangong Eiver near Thyet-Myo, Burma (W. Theobald) ; 
Pegu (Indian Mus. Coll.). 

To the above description is appended the following note : 

" The anterior cicatrices are distinct, the posterior confluent, 
the apical ones above the moderate angular cavity, and running 
under the cardinal tooth. 

*' The delicate sculpture over the whole disk of this shell is 
peculiar. In form it does not approach any Gangetic type." 

A well-marked and apparently very constant form, the large 
series of about twenty-three specimens in the Indian Museum 
Collection, from the Irrawaddy near Thyetmio and Pegu, practi- 
cally showing no variation whatever. 

283. Nodularia (Radiatula) lima, Simpson. 

Nodularia (Radiatula} lima, Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 

Inst,, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 820. 
Unio radula (Benson), Hanley, Rec. Biv. Shells, Supp. 1856, p. 382, 

pi. 23, fig. 41 ; H. & T., C. I. p. 5, pi. 10, fig. 3. 
Dysonomia radtila, Eochebrune, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris vi, 1882, 

p. 42. 

Original description : Transversely oboval, inequilateral, not 
very thick, rather compressed, olivaceous, sculptured as in U. sco- 
bina, but rather more linearly and transversely ; ventral and front 
dorsal edges convex and subparallel; hinder extremity rounded, 
narrower : umbonal ridge inconspicuous, umbonal slope simple ; 
neither the eroded umbones nor the ligament prominent ; nacre 
bluish ; umbonal cavity shallow ; hinder tooth strong, complicated ; 
front lateral tooth elongated, a little curved. 

Long. 19, lat. 32 mm. 

Hah. Assam ; Siliguri and Sikkiin (Indian Mus. Coll.). 

Extremely variable in sculpture and form ; in some speci- 
mens the corrugations extend over the whole surface of the shell, 
while in others they are confined merely to the umbonal region ; 
in general outline it varies from ovate to trapezoidal as the 

L2 



148 . UNIONIDvE. 

following measurements of four specimens in the Indian Museum 
show: 

1. 2. 3. 4. 

Long 19 19 14 16-25 mm. 

Lat 33-5 31-25 22'5 23 mm. 

Diam 12 11-25 8-75 9-25 mm. 

Var. siliguriensis, Preston. 

Unio siliguriensis, Preston, Kec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, ii, p. 47 (fig. 
in text) ; op. cit. vii, p. 293, as N. (JR.) lima, var. siliguriensis. 

Original description : Shell inequilateral, ovate oblong, reddish 
brown, sculptured with concentric lines of growth and oblique 
transverse wrinkles, these latter being especially marked poste- 
riorly ; anterior side rounded ; posterior side acuminately rounded ; 
dorsal margin arched ; ventral margin very slightly contracted in 
the middle ; umbones much eroded ; interior of shell iridescent, 
pale bluish white. 

Long. 21, lat. 37'75 mm. 

Hdb. Siliguri, N. Bengal. 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



Genus PHYSUNIO. 

Physunio, Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. 
Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 830. 

TYPE, Unio gravidus, Lea, from Siam, Cambodia, and Cochin 
China. 

Range. Siam ; Cochin China ; Cambodia ; Sumatra ; Assam. 

Original description : Shell thin, irregularly obovate, narrowed 
in front, decidedly produced at post base, pointed behind, and 
posteriorly winged, with a moderate posterior ridge and often a 
second or third faint ridge above it ; beak sculpture zigzag radial, 
somewhat disposed in two sets, the one down the posterior ridge 
slightly nodulous ; posterior slope having irregular radial corru- 
gations, the rest of the shell smooth ; epidermis often cloth-like, 
with one or more green rays on the posterior slope ; hinge-line 
curved ; a single obliquely granularly striate pseudocardinal and 
generally three laterals in the left valve, and two pseudocardinals 
and two laterals in the right, all greatly compressed ; beak cavities 
deep ; muscle scars irregular ; nacre bright, bluish, and iridescent. 

Animal unknown. 

Section LENS. 

Lens, Simpson, Washington, D.O., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. 
xxii, 1900, p. 831. 

TYPE, Unio eximms, Lea, from Siam and Cambodia. 



PHYSUNIO. PSEUDODOX. 149 

Range. Slain ; Cambodia ; Assam. 

Shell sublenticular ; three laterals of left valve distinct ; cavity 
of the beaks compressed. 

284. Physunio (Lens) velaris (Sowerby). 

Physunio (Lens) velaris (Sowerby) ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., 
Smiths. Inst, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 831. 

Unto velaris, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 72, fig. 368 ; 
Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii. 1890, p. 171 ; Benson in Hanley, Rec. 
Biv. Shells, p. 385, pi. 23, fig. 42. 

Original description : Shell small, thin, rather compressed, pale 
green, neither radiated nor sculptured ; anterior extremity very 
narrow; posterior side winged, ventral margin arcuated, rising 
abruptly anteriorwards, beaks very acute, prominent, lunule exca- 
vated ; nacre white ; cardinal teeth large, lamellar, approximate. 

The following note is appended to Sowerby's description : 

"The abrupt fall of the front dorsal margin in this symphonote 
species give a seeming projection to the beaks. Both dorsal edges 
are angulated above, and rounded off below ; the hinder dorsal 
edge is much elevated. The compression of the valves is espe- 
cially conspicuous on the anterior portion of the shell." 

As the author gives no dimensions the following are taken from 
the figure in the k Conch. Icon/ 

Long. 55, lat. 59 '5 mm. 

Hub. Assam. 

Genus PSEUDODON. 
Pseudodon, Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1844, p. 161. 

TYPE, Anodonta inoscularis, Gould, from the Salwen Eiver, 
Burma. 

Range. Siain and Indo-China ; Burma; China; Java; Sumatra; 
Borneo ; Malacca ; Nicobars ; Japan. 

Hinge margin with a tooth-like apophysis on each valve, the 
surface of which is not fractured, but smoothly covered with 
enamel, fitting into corresponding undulations in the opposite 
valve, that on the right valve closing in front of that on the left. 

Section TRIGONODON. 

Trigonodon, Conrad, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1865, 
p. 233. 

TYPE, Monocondylcea peyuensis, Anthony, var. crebristriata, 
Anthony; Pegu. 

Range. Burma; Cambodia. 

Oval, somewhat compressed, with a prominent triangular 
cardinal tooth in each valve, with a deep pit behind it for the 
reception of the tooth of the opposite valve. 



150 UNIONID^E. 

285. Pseudodon (Trigonodon) peguensis (Anthony). 

Monocondylcea peguensis, Anthony, Am. Journ. Conch, i, 1865, 

p. 205, pi. 17, fig. 2. 

Margaron (Monocondylcea) peguensis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 73. 
Pseudodon crebristriatnm var. peguensis, H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 5, 

pi. 9, fig. 5. 
Pseudodon (Trigonodon) crebristriatus var. peguensis, Simpson, 

Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, 

p. 835. 

Original description: Shell smooth, rhombic-ovate, inequilateral, 
somewhat inflated, sub-biangular behind ; substance of the shell 
thick; beaks rather prominent, eroded, but apparently not undu- 
lated ; ligament short, thin ; epidermis dark brown or nearly 
black, smooth over the umbones and on the anterior portion of 
the shell, but having the sub-truncate posterior portion nearly 
covered with distinct corrugated folds, more prominent near the 
hinge margin ; cardinal teeth prominent, curved and slightly 
bilobed, particularly in the right valve; anterior cicatrices con- 
fluent ; dorsal cicatrices deeply impressed, placed in a curved line 
under the beaks ; nacre light salmon-colour and very iridescent. 

Long. 57, lat. 81, diam. 33 mm. 

Hob. Pegu. 

Yar. crebristriatus (Anthony). 

Monocondylcea crebristriata, Anthony, Am. Journ. Conch, i. 1865, 

p. 205, pi. 18, fig. 1. 
Trigonodon crebristriata, Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch, i, 1865, 

p. 233. 
Unio crebristriatus, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 95, 

fig. 517. 

Margaron (Monocondylcea) crebristriata, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 72. 
Pseudodon crebristriatus, H. & T., C. I. p. 5, pl/9,fig. 3. 
Unio vondembmchi, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, pi. 95, fig. 518. 
Pseudodon (Trigonodon) crebristriatus, Simpson, Washington, D.C., 

Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 835. 

Original description. Shell rhombic, strongly striate, very 
inequilateral, depressed, bi-angular behind ; substance of the shell 
rather thick ; beaks not prominent, eroded, having no indication 
of any undulations at the tip ; epidermis light brown, with occa- 
sionally broad green rays on the posterior slope ; the umbones 
and, indeed, the surface is covered with crowded, fine, crenulose 
striae, which, on the posterior slope, are crossed at right angles 
with prominent, regular folds ; cardinal teeth prominent, erect, 
bilobed in the left valve ; anterior cicatrices deeply impressed, 
distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent and indistinct ; dorsal 
cicatrices small, but distinct, and placed at the base of the pro- 
minent tooth in the left valve, while in the right valve they are 



PSEUDODON. 



151 



less distinct and placed a little more posteriorly ; nacre light 
salmon, iridescent. 

Long. 32, lat. 53, diam. 13 mm. 

Hob. Pegu. 

Comparing the present variety with what must be considered 
the typical form of P. peguensis, the author makes the following 
observations : " .... uniformly more depressed, lighter coloured ; 
more regularly rhombic in form, and of less size ; but the most 

2 




Fig. 9. 1 & 2. Pseudodon ( T.) peguensis (Ant.) vr. curvata, Preston. 

(Type.) Nat. siafie. 
3. Hinge and muscular scars of same. 

prominent difference consists in the beautiful crenulose striae of 
the present species, which are densely crowded over the whole 
surface of the shell, while M. [P.'] peguensis is remarkably smooth 
over all except the posterior slope, and there the rugose folds are 
broader and less numerous than in M. [P.] crebristriata ; the lines 
of growth are also more numerous in M. [P.] peguensis, generally 
about 8, while crebristriata has rarely more than 3. 



152 TJNIONIDJB. 

Var. curvata, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, vii, 1912, 
p. 295. 

Shell having the ventral margin more curved, and generally 
less ovate in shape than in the typical form. 
Hob. Pegu. 
Type in the Indian Museum. 

Section PSEUDODON. 
Pseudodon, Gould. 1884. 

For characters and type see description of genus above. 
Range. Siam and Indo-China ; Burma; China; Java; Sumatra; 
Borneo ; Malacca ; Mcobar Islands. 

286. Pseudodon (Pseudodon) inoscularis (Gould). 

Pseudodon (Pseudodon) inoscularis (Gould) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. lust, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 847. 

Anodon inoscularis, Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1844, 
p. 160 ; H. & T., C. I. p. 5, pi. 9, fig. 2. 

Maryaron (Monocondylcea) inoscularis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 73. 

Margaritana inoscularis, Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 173. 

Original description : Testa transverse oblonga, sub-ovata, 
solida, subventricosa, picea : umbonibus parum elevatis ; margiue 
supra brevi, recto, ad angulum posticum rotundato, postice sub- 
truncato ; infra arcuata ; utraque valva processu cardinal! crassa, 
dentiformi, instructa, uno ante altero aptante ; margarita albida ; 
impressione musculari antico profundo. 

Long. 44, lat. 76, diam. 28 mm. 

Hob. Salwen Kiver, Burma ; Tenasserim (Indian Mus. Coll.). 



287. Pseudodon (Pseudodon) salwenianus (Gould). 

Pseudodon (Pseudodon) salwenianus (Gould) ; Conrad, Am. Journ. 

Conch, i, 1865, p. 233. 
Anodon salwenianus, Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1844, 

p. 160. 

Anodonta salweniana, Gould, Otia Conch. 1862, p. 193. 
Unio salwenianus, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 94, fig. 513. 
Margaron (Monocondylcea) salweniana, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 72. 
Pseudodon salwenianum, H. & T., C. I. p. 5, pi. 9, fig. 4. 
Monocondylcea salweniana, Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 174. 

Original description : Testa trapezoidea, compressa, subtenui, 
retro dilatata, postice truncata, colore picea ; supra costam um- 
bonalem radiatirn plicata : umbonibus parum elevatis ; margine 
superior! recta, compressa, ligamentum occultante, ante umbonibus 
excavata ; utraque valva processu dentiformi cardinali, uno ante 
altero aptante, instructa ; cavitate minime profunda ; impres- 
sionibus muscularibus rninime impressis ; margarita sub-livida. 



PSEUDODOtf. 153 

Long. 59, lat. 140, diam. 32 mm. 

Hob. Salwen River, Burma; Tenasserim River (Lid. Mus. 
Coll). 

288. Pseudodon (Pseudodon) nicobaricus (Morch). 

Pseudodon (Pseudodon) nicobaricus (Morch) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 838. 

Alasmodonta (subg. ?) nicobarica, O. Fabiicius ; Morch, J. Conchyliol., 
Paris, xx, 1872, p. 327. 

Original description : Testa irregulariter ovalis, convexiuscula ; 
strise incrementi irregulares ; diraidium testae marginem versus 
olivaceum, fasciis obscurioribus, radiis numerosioribus, obsoletis, 
obscure viridibus. Intus argeutea, postice iridescens. Umbones 
plani, erosi, antice siti ; margo dorsalis parum arcuatus, (inargo) 
anticus rotundatus, angustior, (margo) ventralis antice et postice 
sat arcuatus, medio leviter inflexus, (margo) post, angustus leviter 
reflexus. Dentes cardinis fere oinnino evanescentes, dens lat. 
post, linearis obsoletissimus. 

Anodonta zollingeri, Mousson (Java, p. 96, t. 18, fig. 1), affinis, 
sed species Fabricii differt : margine ventrali arcuato, postice 
subito ascendente, nee non margine dorsalis declivi, baud arcuato. 

Hob. Nicobar Islands (0. Fabricius). 

The species was described from a single specimen without figure 
or dimensions being given, it does not seem to have come to light 
again at any time. 

Section BINEURUS. 

Bineurus, Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. 
Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 839. 

TYPE, Monocondylcea mouhoti, Lea, from Cambodia and Siain. 

Range. Cambodia; Siam ; Perak ; Burma. 

Original description : Shell elongate rhomboid, thin, rounded in 
front, widely and feebly biangulate behind, having two or more 
raised radiating lines on the posterior slope, which is somewhat 
obliquely wrinkled ; beaks low ; surface finely, irregularly, con- 
centrically grooved ; epidermis olive ; teeth smooth, compressed ; 
nacre bluish. 

Animal unknown. 

289. Pseudodon (Bineurus) ava (Theobald). 

Pseudodon (Bineurus) ava (Theobald) ; Simpson, Washington, 

D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 839. 
Monocondylcea ava, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1873, pt. 2, p. 209, 

pi. 17, fig. 15. 

Original description : Testa oblonga, solidiuscula, antica rotun- 
data, postice curvatim truncata. Margine ventrali recto ; liga- 
mentali convexo. Umbonibus decorticatis. Epidermide picea in 
junioribus luteo-flavescente lineis tenuibus obscure radiatim 



154 UNIONID^E. 

notata. Testa increment! lineis concentrice rugata, postice plicis 
paucis raro notata et valde evaneseentibus. Dentibus minimis 
ut in M. salweniana. Nacrea cserulescente, unibones versus 
flavescente. 

Long. 52, lat. 96, diam. 28 mm. 

Hob. Near Mandalay. 

Allied to P. salwenianus, but differing from that species in its 
more elongate form and smoother surface ; young specimens 
occasionally show traces of sculpture on the posterior slope, but 
this character disappears when adult. 

Genus PARREYSIA. 

Parreysia, Conrad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vi, 1853, 
p. 267 ; Simpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xxii, 1900, 
p. 840. 

TYPE, Unio multidentatus, Philippi. Said to come from 
Australia but probably an Indian shell. 

Range. India ; Burma ; Indo-China ; China. 

Shell solid, inflated, oval to subrhomboid, with full, high, zigzag, 
radially sculptured beaks, the sculpture often extending over the 
disk ; epidermis smooth and bright, sometimes a little rayed, with 
two irregular pseudocardinals in the left valve which are more or 
less broken into ragged denticles or are strongly, vertically striate, 
and two laterals, the lower the larger; right valve with one, 
sometimes two pseudocardinals, the upper small, compressed, and 
a few tubercles behind them, with two laterals, the upper the 
larger ; cavity of the beaks rather deep, not compressed ; dorsal 
scars under the hinge, not visible ; the two upper anterior muscle 
scars very deep, confluent, the lower linear ; nacre white to 
salmon, iridescent behind. 

Animal unknown. 

Conrad's name appears to be a nomen nudum and Simpson's 
description is therefore that given above. 

Subgenus PARREYSIA (sensu stricto). 
Parreysia, Conrad, 1853. 

.For type, range and characters see description of genus above. 

290. Parreysia (Parreysia) corrugata (Miiller). . 

Parreysia (Parreysia) corruqata (Miiller) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 841. 

Mya corrugata, Miiller, Verm. Terr, et Fluv. 1774, pt. 2, p. 214 ; 
Besch. Ges. Berl. iv, 1779, p. 56, pi. 36, figs. 7, 8; Gmelin, Syst. 
Nat. 13th ed. 1788, p. 3221; Schroter, Flussconch. 1779, 
p. 181, pi. 9, fig. 3 ; Wood, Gen. Conch, i, 1815, p. 108, pi. 24, 
figs. 1-3; Dillwyn, Cat. i, 1817, p. 52; Mawe, Linn. Conch. 
1823, pi. 4, fig. 3 ; Wood, Ind. Test. 1825, p. 12, pi. 2, fig. 31 a ; 
1856, rev. ed. p. 16, pi. 2, fig. 31. 



PAEKETSIA. 155 

Unio corrugata, Lamarck, An. sans Vert, vi, 1819, p. 78 ; Deshayes, 

Enc. Meth. ii, 1827, p. 584, pi. 248, fig. 8. 
Unio (Potamida) corrugata, Swainson, Tr. on Mai. 1840, p. 268, 

fig. 51 ; p. 281, fig. 57. 
Unio corrugata, Retzius, Diss. Hist. Nat. 1778, p. 18; Speugler, 

Skriv. Selsk. Nat. iii, 1793, p. 68 ; Hanley, Test. Moll. 1842, 

p. 197 ; Biv. Shells, 1843, p. 197 ; Catlow & Reeve, Conch. 

Nona. 1845, p. 57 ; H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1857, 

pp. 493, 497 ; Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 1862, p. 289, pi. 97, 

figs. 3, 4 : Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1867, p. 136 ; Sowerby, 

Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 71, fig. 360; H. & T., C. I. 1876, 

p. 21, pi. 45, figs. 2-5 ; Pa>tel, Conch. Sam, iii, 1890, p. 149. 
Margarita ( Unio) corrugatus, Lea, Syn. 1836, p. 29 ; 1838, p. 21. 
Margaron ( Unio) corrugatus, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 20 ; 1870, p. 30. 
Mya spuria, Gmelin, Syst. Nat, 13th ed. 1788, p. 3222; Wood, 

Gen. Conch, i, 1815, p. 110; Lamarck, An. sans Vert, vi, 1819, 

p. 80. 

Mya gaditana, Schreiber's Versuch. 1793. 
Unio multidentatus, Philippi, Conch, iii, 1847, p. 46, pi. 3, fig. 4 ; 

Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 1856, p. 136, pi. '36, fig. 5; Psetel, 

Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 160. 

Margaron ( Unio) multidentatm, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 50. 
Unio fulmineus, Philippi, Conch, iii, 1847, p. 46, pi. 3, figs. 5, 6 ; 

Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 1862, p. 286, pi. 96, figs. 2, 3 ; Psetel, 

Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 153. 
Unio lutens, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, viii, 1856, 

p. 93; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, 1857, p. 291, 

pi. 24, fig. 4 ; Obs. Genus Unio, vi, 1857, p. 11, pi. 24, fig. 4. 
Margaron (Unio) lutens, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 46. 
? Unio semirugatus, Chenu, Conch, iii, 1858, pi. 12, figs. 2, 2 a. 
Unio merodabensis, Kiister, Conch-Cab., Unio. 1861, p. 233, pi. 78, 

fig. 4; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1866, p. 142; Psetel, Conch. 

Sam. iii, 1890, p. 159. 

Unio ivynegungaensis, II. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 21, pi. 45, fig.6. 
Unio tennenti, II. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 22, pi. 45, figs. 7 & 9; Psetel, 

Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 169. 
Unio phayresi, Theobald MSS. 

Original description. Testa viridescens, tenera, pellucida, ab 
utraque cardinis parte et in natibus striis elevaiis rugosis, figuraque 
a prsBcedente distincta. Valvulse intus striis radiantibus, sub- 
tilissimus notantur. Csetera uti in praecedente. Epidermide 
remota margaritacea evadit. 

Hob. Rivers of Coromandel. 

The species has a wide range and is represented in the Indian 
Museum Collection by a long series of specimens, definite localities 
for which are as follows: Garchiroti Tabsil: River Dukkaree 
near Uniballa ; Ceylon ; Sewan, close to the Indus ; Gudur, 
Madras Presidency; Manbhoom; Patna; Berhampore; Murshi- 
dabad District; Brahmapuri Tahsil; Bangalore; Phenchooganj, 
Sylhet ; Singpai Garki, Nepal ; Arrah. Assam. 

As the original description is short and somewhat inadequate, 
the following taken from the ' Conchologia Iconica ' may be of 
interest : Testa parva, viridi, subventricosa, magis minusve ovali, 
vix inaequilaterali, laevigata, paucis autem linearibus obliquis nates 



156 

versus eminentes subradiata ; rnargine dorsali vix declivi, antice 
concavo ; margiDe ventral! convexo ; lunula distincta margarita 
albida, dentibus cardinalibus validis, laciniatis, haud laminatis. 

Shell small, green, subventricose (but varying in shape from 
elliptic to rounded oval), scarcely inequilateral, smooth, except 
near the prominent beaks, which are adorned with somewhat 
radiating, oblique, linear ridges ; dorsal edges not much sloping, 
the front one concave ; ventral margin convex ; lunule well 
marked, nacre nearly white, cardinal teeth strong, jagged, not 
lamellar. 

No dimensions being given in either of the above descriptions 
the following are taken from three specimens in the Indian 
Museum collection ; No. 1 being a specimen from the Biver 
Dukaree, and Nos. 2 & 3 from Ceylon : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 32-5 24-5 2075 mm. 

Lat 42-75 36 28 mm. 

Diarn 19-25 17'5 14-25 mm. 

Var. fragilis, H. $ T., C. I. p. 21, pi. 45, fig. 4. 

Presumably a thin form. 
Long. 29, lat. 41 mm. 

Var. Isevirostris (Benson} ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 
Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 842. 

Unio lavirostris, Benson, A. M. N. II. x, 1862, pp. 191-192 ; 

Blanford, J. A. S. B. Calcutta, xxxv, 1862, p. 144. 
Unio corrugatus, var. Icevirostris, H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 21, pi. 44, 

tigs. 5-6. 

Original description : Testa transverse oblonga, subovata, valde 
inaequilaterali, crassiuscula, medio subtumida, antice superne 
breviter angulata, deinde ro tun data, postice superne sensim 
convexe descendente ; demum rotundata, margine ventrali con- 
vexiusculo ; disco Iseviusculo, concentrice leviter striato ; epi- 
dermide olivaceo-viridi, fusco fasciata; umbonibus convexis, 
decorticatis, obsolete radiato-sulcatis, apicibus prominentibus, 
approximatis ; lunula, impressa, elliptica ; ligamento elongate ; 
dentibus cardinalibus brevibus, crassiusculis, eroso-sulcatis, later- 
alibus subobliquis, elongatiusculis, rectis, utriusque valvae duplic- 
ibus ; margarita colore salmonis vix tincta. 

Long. 28, lat. 50, diam. 20 mm. 

Hob. Streams and ponds near Chunar above Benares ; repre- 
sented in the Indian Museum collection by localized specimens 
from the Chittagong Hills, Sudiya and Arrah. 

Benson's description is supplemented by a short note from 
which the following quotation is taken : " It has two indistinctly 
raised dark rays on the posterior slope. The gradually compressed 



PABBEYSIA. 157 

form of the hinder edge of the shell contrasts strongly with the 
inflated form of the central portion. Anterior and posterior 
cicatrices confluent, apical ones under the cardinal tooth." 

The variety sometimes attains a considerable size, a specimen 
in the Indian Museum collection from the Chittagong Hills 
having the following dimensions : 

Long. 43-25, lat. 70, diam. 27 mm. 

Var. nagpoorensis (Lea) ; Simpson, Washington, DC., Smiths. 
Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 842 ; H. & T., C. I. p. 21, 
pi. 45, fig. 3. 

Unia nagpoorensis, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, 
1859, p. 331; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iv, 1860, 
p. 270, pi. 45, fig. 150; Obs. Genus Unio, vii, 1860, p. 88, pi. 45, 
tig. 150; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1866, p. 143. 

Margaron ( Unio} naypoorensis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 38. 

Unio corrugatus, Mull., var. naypoorensis, H. &T., C. I. 1876, p. 21 ; 
Psetel, Conch. Sam. 1890, p. 149. 

Original description : Testa Ia3vi, subtriangulari, subinflata, 
inaBquilaterali, postice biangulata, antice rotunda ; valvulis sub- 
tenuibus, antice crassioribus ; natibus prominentibus, epidermide 
rufo-fusca, striata eradiata, dentibus cardinalibus parvis, com- 
pressis, obliquis, crenulatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus ; lateral- 
ibus longis, lamellatis curvisque ; niargarita salmonis colore 
paulisper tincta et iridescente. 

Hob. Ambajari Tank, Nagpoor, Bengal (C. M. Wheatley). 

Specimens in the Indian Museum Collection are localized as 
follows : Poona ; Grudur ; Madras Presidency (G. H. Tipper) ; 
Grodavery River. 

The dimensions of an average specimen are : long. 30, lat. 46, 
diam. 22*75 mm. 

291. Parreysia (Parreysia) wynegungaensis (Lea). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) wynegungaensis (Lea) : Simpson,Washington, 

D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii,' 1900, p. 842. 
Unio wynegungaensis, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

1859 (1860) p. 331 ; Obs. Genus Unio, vii, p. 89, pi. 45, fig. 151 ; 

Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1866, p. 143 ; Sowerby, Conch. 

Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 67, p. 339 ; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, 

p. 172. 
Margaron (Unio) wynegungaensis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 50. 

Original description : Testa Ia3vi, elliptica, inflata, maaqui- 
laterali, postice sub-biangulata, antice oblique rotundata ; valvulis 
subcrassis, antice crassioribus ; natibus prominentibus, ad apices 
valde divaricate undulatis ; epidermide luteo-oliva, micante, obso- 
lete radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus subcrassis, suberectis. valde 
crenulatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus ; lateralibus sublongis, 
crassis subrectisque ; margarita salmonis colore paulisper tincta et 
iridescente. 



'158 

Hob. Wynegunga Biver, 30 miles east of Nagpoor, in the 
Deccan, Bengal (C. M. Wheatley). 

The following localities are attached to specimens in the Indian 
Museum Collection : Damuda ( W. T. Blanford) ; Surat ; Sambal- 
pur ; G-odavery River ( W. T. Blanford} ; Barod, about 130 miles 
S.W. of Sepree. 

The dimensions of three average specimens are as follows : 
No. 1 being those of the specimen figured by Hanley in the 
1 Conchologia Indica,' and now in the British Museum Collection. 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 29 33-25 36 mm. 

Lat 42 51 55 mm. 

Diam. 17'25 19-5 21mm. 



292. Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens (Benson). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens (Benson) ; Simpson, Washington, 

D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, pp. 842-843. 
? Mya spuria, Wood, Ind. Test. 1825, p. 12, pi. 2, fig. 35 a. 
Unio favidens, Benson, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 188 ; J. A. S. B. xxxv, 

1867, p. 138; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 6, pi. 11, fig. 1; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon, xvi, 1865, pi. 26, fig. 131 ; Pajtel, Conch. Sam. iii, 

1890, p. 152. 

Maryaron (Unio) favidens, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 38. 
Unioflavidens, Paetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 152. 
Unio trirostriSy Musgrave, Hanley, Phot. Conch. 1863, pi. 2, fig. 9; 

H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 6, pi. 11, fig. 6; Paetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 

1890, p. 170. 
Unio tripartitus, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vii, 

1863, p. 190; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vi, 1866, 

p. 57, pi. 19, fig. 55 ; Lea, Obs. Genus Unio, xi, 1867, p. 61, 

pi. 19, tig. 55. 

Margaron (Unto) tripartitus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 35. 
Unio smaragdites, Benson, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 190 ; Blanford, 

J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1866, p. 347 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 5, pi. 10, 

fig. 5 ; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 167. 

Original description : Testa transverse ovata, insBquilaterali, 
crassa, subtumida, antice rotundata, postice subalata, declivi, 
angulata, demum obtusa, margine ventrali convexiusculo ; disco 
inaequaliter sulcato ; 'epidermide olivaceo-f usca, versus marginem 
ventralem luteo-olivacea, postice viridi parce fasciata ; umbonibus 
tumidis, prominentibus, decorticatis, sulcis radiatis angulato- 
flexuosis indutis ; lunula impressa, elliptica, decorticata; liga- 
mento elongate; carina umbonali laeviuscula, linea unica vix 
elevata notata; dentibus cardinalibus crassis, fortiter radiato- 
rugosis, lateralibus obliquis, elongatiusculis, valvae dextra3 duplic- 
ibus, sinistrae subtriplicibus ; margarita pallide lutea iridescente. 

Long. 45, lat. 66, diam. 30 mm. 

Hob. Upper Ganges. 



PABREYSIA. 159 

The anterior and posterior cicatrices are distinct, the apical 
ones disposed on the underside of the cardinal tooth. 

Taken by the author of the species at Bhitoura, between Cawn- 
pore and Allahabad and represented by specimens in the Indian 
Museum Collection from the following localities : Moradabad; 
River Indus; Barrack River; Silcher; Rajputana ; Berhampur; 
Dacca ; E. Cachar ; Sylhet ; Tezpore ; Poona ; Karnul, Madras ; 
Calcutta (J. Wood- Mason}; Arrah ; Rajmahal ; Hazrapur; Rani- 
gunga; Sunderbunds. 

An enormously variable species, of which many varieties have 
been described, several of these appear, however, to be somewhat 
obscure; the original descriptions are nevertheless given below: 

Yar. marcens (Benson), A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 188. 
Unio marcens, H. & T., 0. I. 1876, p. 19, pi. 42, figs. 4-6. 

Original description : Banded with olive and green ; nacre 
salmon-coloured ; beaks nearly smooth, eroded ; sulci obsolete ; 
lunule narrow. 

Long. 44, lat. 66, diam. 27 mm. 

Hal. Berhampooter River, Assam. 

Var. trigona (Benson). 

Unio favidens, var. densa, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 188. 

Original description: Shell with a piceous epidermis, more 
oblique ; beaks and nacre as in type ; lunule broad. It shows an 
inclination to verge towards U. triembolus. 

Long. 44, lat. 67, diam. 27 mm. 

Hab. Nujeebabad, in the North-west of Rohilknnd. 

Yar. densa (Benson). 

Unio favidens, var. densa, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 189. 

Original desertion : More solid and tumid [than the typical 
form] ; epidermis yellow-brown, eroded ; lunule as in type ; shell 
more oblique. 

Long. 33, lat. 47, diam. 24 mm. 

Hab. Ganges River, above Chunar, between Allahabad and 
Benares. 

Yar. deltae (Benson). 

Unio favidens, var. delta, A. M. N.H. x, 1862, p. 189; H. & T., 
C. I. 1876, p. 19, pi. 42, %. 2. 

Original description : Epidermis olive-green and yellow, rayed ; 
nacre salmon-coloured ; rugae on umbones very distinct, some also 
on the upper part of the umbonal hinder slope ; lunule somewhat 
broader than in the type ; cardinal teeth narrower. 

Long. 34, lat. 47, diara. 24 mm. 



160 



UKEONIDvE. 



Hob. River Jellinghy, Upper Gangetic Delta. Also recorded 
in the Indian Museum Collection from Hazrapur and Calcutta. 

Var. chrysis (Benson). 

Unio favidens, var. chrysis, Benson, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 189 ; 
H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 19, pi. 41, fig. 3. 

Original description : Longer and less broad in proportion ; 
epidermis a beautiful green, banded more or less with yellow ; 




Fig. 10. Parreysia (P.) Javidens (Bens.), var. chrysis (Bens.). 
(Specimen.) Nat. size. 

umbonal rugse very strong and extended ; cardinal teeth mostly 
narrower than in the type ; nacre salmon-tinted. 

Long. 27, lat. 35, diam. 16 mm. 

Bab. Eiver Dojora at Kareily Ghat, near Bareilly. A specimen 
in the Indian Museum is labelled Patna. 




Fig. 11. Parreysia (P.] Javidens (Bens.), var. mridula (Bens.). 
(Specimen.) Nat. size. 

Var. viridula (Benson). 

Unio favidens, var. viridula, Benson, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 189. 
Original description : Form of type, but more compressed ; 



PAEREYSIA. 



161 



colour as in the last ; cardinal teeth broad ; nacre bluish white ; 
umbonal rugae as in var. chrysis. 

Long. 27, lat. 40, diam. 17 mm. 

Hob. Standing water, or <4 jheel," between Hameerpore and 
Someerpore, Bundelkhund. 

Indian Museum specimens are from Damuda ; Manbhoorn ; 
Gunduk, Ranigunga and Patna. 

Var. assamensis (Nemll MS.), Preston, Kec. Ind. Mus. Calcutta, 
vii, 1912, p. 299. 

Shell more convex than the typical form, the dorsal margin 
rather less posteriorly angled, the anterior side is more rounded 
and the posterior slightly more nasute. 

Hob. Dihong. 




Fig. 12. 



-Parreysia (P.)favidem (Bens.), var. assamensis, Preston. 
(Type.) Nat. size. 



Specimens in the Indian Museum are also labelled as follows : 
Assam; Arrah ; Sylhet. 

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 




Fig. 13. Parreysia (P .) favidens (Bens.), Tar. pinax (Bens.). 
(Type.) Nat. size. 

Yar. pinax (Benson). 

Unio pinax, Benson, A. M. N. II. x, 1862, p. 192. 
Uniofauidens, var. pinax, H. & T., C. I. p. 6, pi. 11, fig. 2. 

Original description: Testa transverse oblonga, suboblique 

H 



162 UNION IDJE. 

ovata, valde inaequilaterali, crassa, subinflata, antice rotundata, 
postice superne sensim descendente, demum obtusa, margine 
ventral! convexiusculo, postice vix emarginato ; disco laeviusculo, 
concentrice leviter striatulo, antice obsolete radiato-striato, versus 
marginem ventralem et posteriorem plicato ; epidermide olivaceo- 
fusca; uinbonibus convexis, decorticatis, obsolete radiato-sulcatis, 
apicibus prominentibus obtusis, remotiusculis ; lunula elongato- 
elliptica ; ligamento brevi ; dentibus cardinalibus crassioribus, 
radiatim eroso - suleatis, lateralibus obliquis, utriusque valvae 
duplicibus, subflexuosis ; margarita albida, iridescente. 

Long. 30, lat. 48, diam. 21 mm. 

Anterior cicatrices subconfluent, posterior entirely so, apical 
ones under the cardinal tooth ; cavity of the beaks very deep. 

Hob. Gunguu Biver, near Moradabad, Eohilkhund. Specimens 
in the Indian Museum from Arrah. 

A very distinct cuneiform variety. 

Var. plagiosoma (Benson}. 

Unio plagiosoma, Benson, A. M. N. II. x, 1862, p. 191. 
Unio favidens, var. plagiosoma, H. & T., 0. I. 1876, p. 6, pi. 11, 
fig. 3. 

Original description : Testa transverse trigono-ovata, ina3qui- 
laterali, crassiuscula, tumidiuscula, antice rotundata, postice sub- 
convexe declivi, demum obtusa, margine ventral! convexiusculo ; 
disco obsolete plicato, epidermide luteo-olivacea vel olivaceo-f usca ; 
umbouibus convexis, prominentibus, decorticatis, angulatim 




Fig. l4.Parrei/sia (P.)faridens(Bens.), var.plagiosoma (Bens.). 
(Type.) Nat. size. 

flexuoso-sulcatis, apicibus prominentibus subremotis ; ligamento 
brevi ; carina umbonali obtusa ; lunula elliptica ; deutibus cardi- 
nalibus crassiusculis, radiatim eroso-sulcatis, lateralibus sub- 
elevatis, inodice elougatis, obliquis, valvae sinistra? duplicibus, 
dextra3 simplicibus : margarita colore salinonis tincta. 

Long. 26, lat. 39, diam. 18 mm. 
22, 32, 15 mm. 

"The anterior cicatrices, as well as the posterior, are sub- 
confluent, the apical ones situated on the underside of the 
cardinal teeth. The nacre is very iridescent posteriorly. A dark 



PARKEYSIA. 163 

raised line borders the iuner side of the umbonal slope, which 
exhibits a few rugae at the upper part." 

Hal. Cane River, near Banda, Bundelkhund. Specimens in the 
Indian Museum are labelled as follows : Patna ; Langlai ; Alipur, 
Calcutta (Dr. J. Anderson), Beerbhoom (J. Wood-Mason). 

293. Parreysia (Parreysia) smaragdites (Benson). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) smaragdites (Benson) ; Simpson, Washington 

D.C., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 843. 
Unio smaragdites, Benson, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 190 ; Blanford, 

J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1866, p. 147 j H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 5, pi. 10, 

fig. 5 ; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 167. 

Original description : Testa transverse ovato-rhomboidea, in- 
aequilaterali, crassiuscula, tumida, antice rotundata, postice alata, 
recta, turn valde declivi, demum subangulata, margine ventrali 
convexo ; disco laevigato, polito, vix striatulo, sub epidermide 
pulchre viridi tenuissima obscure radiata albo, margine lutescente ; 
umbonibus prominentibus, apicibus approximatis, subdecorticatis, 
margaritaceis, breviter et minute radiato-sulcatis ; lunula angusta, 
elongata, transverse rugata ; ligamento subelongato ; carina um- 
bonali prominente obtusiuscula, areola versus apicem depressi- 
uscula, viridi obscure radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus duplicibus, 
subangustis, rugosis, lateralibus curvatis elongatiusculis, valvae 
dextrae simplicibus, sinistrae duplicibus, nonnunquam subtri- 
plicibus : margarita albida, nonnunquaui luteo tincta. 

Long. 31, lat. 42, diam. 20 mm. 

The above description is amplified by the following note : 

"Remarkable for the smoothness of the beautiful green 
epidermis, which is very thin, and, when rubbed off, exhibits a 
plain white colour, not nacreous, underneath. The anterior 
cicatrices are confluent, the posterior nearly distinct, the apical 
ones situated under the cardinal teeth. Cavity of beaks very 
deep ; a few rugae cross the stria3 on the posterior slope. In 
general characters it approaches most nearly to the Jellingyhy 
variety (deltce) of U. [P. (P.)] favidens, which has a more tumid 
ovate form, a regular, sulcate, olivaceous surface, longer and dis- 
tinctly angulate-flexuous umbonal furrows, and a broad lunule." 

Hob. Berhampooter Eiver, Assam (Col. Jenkins). 

There is a fine series of this interesting form in the collection 
of the Indian Museum bearing the Burmese localities, Bhamo and 
Zayleytnan (Dr. J. Anderson). 

294. Parreysia (Parreysia) bhamoensis (Theobald). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) bhamoensis (Theobald) ; Simpson, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 483. 

Unio bhamoensis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1874, pt. 2, p. 207, 
pi. 17, fig. 1; PHanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, p. 62; 
pL 155, fig. 2; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 146. 

ic2 



164 

Unto mandelayensis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1874, p. 208, pi. 17, 
fig. 2 : H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 62, pi. 154, fig. 4 ; Psetel, Conch. 
Sam. iii, 1890, p. 158. 

Original description : Testa subtriangulato-ovata, postice acunri- 
nata, margine ventral! modice rotundato, umbonibus tumidiusculis, 
laevigatis, pustulis parvis aliquando armatis, decorticatis. Epider- 
mide tenuissima, laevi, subpolita, laete viridi, in senioribus flaves- 
cente. Testa concentrice subrugata, lineis paucis sive rugis 
angustis ligamentum versus plus minusve subradiatim notata, et 
antice rugis paucis perbrevibus leviter corrugata. Deutibus cardi- 
nalibus lamellatis, et denticulatis, in valva dextra singulo, multi- 
fisso, in sinistra gemino, posteriore triangulari et umbonem juxta 
posito, anteriore lainelliformi. striato. Nacrea argentea et viri- 
descente. 

Long. 40, lat. 52, diam. 26 mm. 

Hab. !Near Bhamo; Pegu, Western Prome. 

To Theobald's description the following is appended : 

" A rare species in Western Prome where alone I have met 
with it in Pegu, and remarkable for its smooth thin epidermis. 
The posterior slope alone is conspicuous ly ornamented with 
sculpture ; but in my largest specimen from Bhamo and in some 
others also, the peculiar sculpturing of U. [P. (P.)] burmanus, 
W. Blfd., is faintly but distinctly perceptible over part of the 
valves towards the umbones especially." 

295. Parreysia (Parreysia) pernodulosa, Preston. 

Parreysia (Parreysia} pernodulosa. Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, 
vii, 1912, p. 300. 

Original desertion : Shell small, ovate, dark brown ; both 
valves sculptured anteriorly with coarse, corrugate ridges, which 




Fig. 15. 1 & 2. Parreysia pernodulosa, Preston. (Type.) Nat. size. 
3. Hinge of same. 

become more nodulous and irregular in the median and posterior 
regions ; umbones rather large ; dorsal margin rapidly sloping 
anteriorly, slightly sloping posteriorly; ventral margin somewhat 



PAKKETSIA. 165 

rounded ; anterior side rather contracted, sharply rounded ; 
posterior side broad, very gently rounded ; cardinal teeth very 
anteriorly situate-, in right valve squarish, bearing two elongate 
grooves, in left valve large, jagged, split into three portions, be- 
tween each of which occur two deep notches, the middle portion, 
or that between the two notches, being by far the smallest, at the 
base of the anterior portion is situated a smaller, jagged tooth, 
which is obliquely grooved in the centre; lateral teeth in both 
valves posteriorly, elongately arched, grooved down the whole 
length ; anterior scars very deep ; posterior scar elongate, but not 
well marked ; interior of shell pale bluish, nacreous. 

Long. 15'5, lat. 2O5 mm. 

Hob. Zayleyman, Upper Burma (Dr. J. Anderson). 

Type in the Indian Museum Collection. 

296. Parreysia (Parreysia) feddeni (Theobald). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) feddeni (Theobald) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C.. Smiths Inst., JN T at. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 843. 

Unio feddeni, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1874, p. 208, pi. 17, 
fig-. 3. 

Original description : " Testa quadrato-ovali, concentrice sul- 
cata, antice gibbose rotundata, postice dilatata, subtruncata ; 
parum insequilaterali. Umbonibus decorticatis haud promi- 
nentibus. Epidermide Isevi, subpolita, viridescenti-flava. Den- 
tibus cardinalibus lamelliformibus, striatis ; in valva dextra singulo, 
serrato, in sinistra geminis triangularibus, striatis et serratis. 
Nacrea ca3rulescenti-albida. 

Long. 29-5, lat. 40, diam. 19 mm. 

Hob. Peemgunga, Central India (F. Fedden) ; there are speci- 
mens also in the British Museum and in the Indian Museum 
from the same locality, the latter collected by the late Dr. W. T. 
Blanford. 

297. Parreysia (Parreysia) daccaensis, Preston. 

Parreysia (Parreysia) daccaemis, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, 
vii, 1912, p. 300. 

Original description : Shell differing from P. feddeni, Theobald, 
in its larger size, more ponderous form and more elongately ovate 
shape, it is much darker in colour, being of a dark blackish-brown 
instead of the greenish-yellow shade of that species, the shell is 
much more coarsely concentrically striate and is also considerably 
malleated, while P. feddeni is almost smooth in texture; the 
umbones in the present species are, though larger, far less 
prominent, but the" system of the hinge-teeth is the same. 

Long. 47, lat. 76'5, diam. 29 mm. 

Hob. Dacca. 

The type specimen is in the Indian Museum. 



166 



UNIONIJXE. 




Fig. 16; 1 & 2. Parreysla (P.) daccacnsis, Preston. (Type.) Nat. size. 
3. Hinge and muscular scars of same. 

298. Parreysia (Parreysia) tavoyensis (Gould). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) tavoyensis (Gould); Simpson, Washington, 
B.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 843. 

Unto tavoyensis, Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1843, 
pp. 140-141; Catlow_& Reeve, Conch. Norn. 1845, p. 64; 
Kiij 




1876, p. 62, pi. 154, fig. 6,7; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, 

p. 169. 

Margaron (Unio) tavoyensis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 31. 
Unio savoyensis, Pastel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 166. 
Unio parma, Benson ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 95, 

'fig. 514 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 61, pi. 154. fig. 1 ; Psetel, Conch. 

Sam. iii, 1890, p. 162, 

Original description : Testa rotundata, solida, sub-equilaterali, 
fusca, postice dilatata, subangulata; umbonibus elevatis, uoa cum 



PAEEEYSIA. 167 

latere postico corrugatis; dentibus cardinalibus pyramidatis, 
lateralibus flexuosis : impressionibus musculorum profundis ; 
margarita albido-incarnata. 

Long. 38, lat. 51, diam. 20 inm. 

Hob. Tavoy ; also recorded in the Indian Museum from the 
following Burmese localities: Pegu, Arakan, Tenasserim, and 
Mandalay. 

I 

Var. triembolus (Benson}. 

Unio triembolus, Benson, J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1855, p. 44 ; id. A. M. 

N. H. x, 1862, p. 190; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 48, pi. 107, fig. i>; 

Paetal, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 170. 
Unio houngdaranicus, Tapparone-Caiiefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. 

Genova, vii, 1889, p. 341. 

Original description : A thick shell with large teeth. A massive 
species which inhabits the Nerbudda. and the shells of which are 
found fossil associated with the bones of extinct mammalia in the 
gravels of the river valley, may be a variety of this species 
[P. tavoyensis], 

The author writing in the ' Annals & Magazine of Natural 
History,' in 1862, further describes his species. 

Testa oblique rhomboidali, subtrigona, transversa, inasquilaterali, 
crassa, antice brevi rotundata, postice subalata, descendente, 
demum angulata, obtusa, margine ventrali convexo ; disco trans- 
verse plicato et striato, piceo-nigresceute ; umbone tumido, gibboso, 
versus apices remotos obtusos decorticatos iridescentes radiato- 
sulcato, carina umbonali obtusa; dentibus cardinalibus crassissiinis, 
corrugatis, lateralibus obliquis, valva dextne duplicibus, sinistrse 
triplicibus ; margarita albida vel colore salmonis tincta. 

The dimensions of three specimens given at the end of Benson's 
description are as follows : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 47 45 44 mm. 

Lat 57 62 63 mm. 

Diam 27 27 30 mm. 

Hob. Eanigunga, near Moradabad. Specimens in the Indian 
Museum are labelled Cachar ; Barrack Eiver, Silchar, and 
Calcutta. 

The author also mentions that he obtained the following 
variations of this form : 

(1) Smaller, and more trigonal. Eiver Goointy. 

(2) Smaller, obliquely elongated. Eiver Goomty. 

(3) Green and olive in colour. Eiver Dojora, near Bareilly. 

(4) Gibbous. Eiver Gungut, near Monghyr, in Bahar. 

The following note is given with reference to the description of 
the typical form : " The anterior and posterior cicatrices are 
distinct, the latter particularly so; the apical cicatrices are in- 
distinct on the inner side of the cardinal tooth; cavity of the 



168 TINIONID^E. 

beaks very deep and angular The green Dojora variety is 

remarkable for the great development of the teeth. The lateral 
ones are disposed to be treble in the right as well as in the left 
valve; and several parallel plicae intervene between them and 
the exaggerated cardinal teeth in a perfect specimen with the 
following dimensions: Long. 37, lat. 50, diam. 23 mm." 

299. Parreysia (Parreysia) vulcana (Hanley). 

Pnrreysia (Parreysia} vulcana (Ilanley) : Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc/xxii, 1900, p. 844. 

Unio vulcanus, Hanley, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 606 : H. & T.. C. I. 1876, 
p. 62, pi. 155, fig. 3 ; Pastel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 172. 

Original desertion: Testa solida, inaequilateralis, subovata, 
viridis, undique (nisi fortasse ad extremitatem anticam) plicato- 
rugosa ; plica? (sen tubercula elongata confluentia) undatim angu- 
lariter et oblique ordinata3. Margo dorsalis posticus et margo 
ventralis convexi, subparalleli. Costa umbonalis nulla ; area 
postica nequaquam concava. Lunula lata, hand multum impressa. 
Margarita alba, vix minime iridescens. Margo cardinalis latus ; 
dentes cardinales solidi, lacerati ; in valvula sinistra dens lateralis 
inter duos valvulae dextra3 insertus. 

Long. 25, lat. 38 mm. 

Hcib. Burma. 

Described from an isolated specimen and appearing to somewhat 
resemble P. tavoyensis (Gld.), in form. 

To the description the following note is appended : 

" . . . . When hold before a light the valves appear of a yellowish 
green, richly embossed with zigzag ridges of ii darker or bluer ver- 
dure. The hinge is nearly the same as in U. \_P. (P.)] fitoridcn* of 
Benson, the central teeth being short and complicated." 

300. Parreysia (Parreysia) feae (Tapparone-Canefri). 

Parreysia (Parreysia} few (Tapparone-Canefri) ; Simpson, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 844. 

Unio fees, Tapparone-Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Geneva, 
xxvii, 1889, p. 340. 

Original description : Testa solida, crassiuscula, subcordato- 
ovata, insequilateraii, postice attenuata, margine ventrali sub- 
arcuato postice sinuato, umbonibus tumidiusculis, decorticatis. 
Valvse rugis concentricis profundis 3-4-5 saepius exaratae, epi- 
dermide luteo olivacea, tenui, ]a3vi indutae, umbonibus prsesertim 
et latere postico in jtmioribus varie ex Ia3te-viridi depictis et 
fulgurato-corrugatis. Dentes cardinales crassi, subtrigoni, laciniati 
et striati, dentibus in valva dextera unico, in sinistra duplici, 
postico majori triangulari, antico-oblongo minori. Margarita laete 
carnea. 

Long. 42-43, lat. 55, diam. 25-29 mm. 

Hal. Meetan, Houugdaran Eiver (L. Fca). 



PARKEYSIA. 169 

301. Parreysia (Purreysia) rajahensis (Lea}. 

Parreysia (Parreysia) rajahensis (Lea) ; Simpson, Washington, 

D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 844. 
Unio rajahensis, Lea, Philadelphia, Pa., Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. ii, 

1841, p. 30; Philadelphia, Pa., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. viii, 

1842, p. 239, pi. 23, fig. 53; Obs. Genus Unio, iii, 1842, p. 17, 
pi. 23, fig. 53 ; II. fc A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1857, p. 495; 
Chenu, 111. Conch. 1858, pi. 26, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b ; Pzetel, Conch. 
Sam. iii, 1890, p. 165. 

Maraaron ( Unio) rajahensis, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 25 ; 1870, p. 38. 
Unio indicus, Sowerbv, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1866, pi. 40, tig. 222 ; 

H. & T., C. I. 1876," p. 43, pi. 107, fig. 1. 
Maraaron (Unto) indicus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 31, 

Original description : -Testa triangulari, inflata, inaequilaterali,. 
postice angulata ; valvulis crassis ; natibus valde prominentibus ; 
epidermide tenebroso-t'usca ; dentibus cardinalibus magnis : later- 
alibus sublongis curvisque ; margarita alba et valde iridescente. 

Hob. The Rajah's tanks, Calcutta (Dr. Jay). The species in the 
Indian Museum is represented by specimens from Poona; Ner- 
budda River ( W. Theobald $ W. T. Blanford} ; " From the 
soil of the Ran Kach ?' ; " From 130 miles S.W. of Sepree " ; 
Sahibguoga. 

Three specimens from the Nerbudda River yielded the following 
dimensions : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 27-25 28 27 mm. 

Lat 31-75 35 31 mm. 

Diam 16 19 16-25 mm. 

302. Parreysia (Parreysia) rugosa (Gmelin). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) rugosa (Gmelin) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 844. 

Mi/a rugosa, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 13th ed. 1788, vi, p. 3222; Wood, 
Gen. Conch, i. 1815, p. 109 ; Dillwyn, Cat. i, 1817, p. 53 ; Wood, 
Ind. Test. 1825, p. 12, pi. 2, fig. 33 ; rev. ed. 1856, p. 16, pi. 2, 
fig. 33. 

Unio ruyosus, Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 1862, p. 290. pi. 97, 
fig. 5 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1867, p. 137 ; Psetel, Conch. 
Sam. iii, 1890, p. 166. 

Original description : Testa ovali rugosa, extrinsecus virescente, 
intus margaritacea : cardiriis dente primario crenulato, laterali 
longitudinali, alterius duplicate. 

Hob. Coromandel. 

303. Parreysia (Farreysia) corbis (Hanley). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) corbis (Ilanley) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 845. 

Unio corbis, Hanley, Biv. Shells, 1856, p. 386, pi. 23, fig. 43 ; 
H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 22, pi 45, fig. 10. 

Maroaron ( Unio} corbis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 50. 

Original description : Shell oval, inequilateral, rather thin, 



170 UNIONIDJE. 

subventricose, concentrically zoned with bluish green and ochra- 
ceous yellow, rather glossy, smooth, except at the umbones, which 
are adorned with longitudinally divergent slender corrugations, 
the hinder lines of which incline interiorwards, the front ones 
posteriorvvarcls ; a few similar wrinkles radiate subtransversely 
thence to the dorsal end of the concave anterior slope ; ventral 
edge convex ; front dorsal edge straightish, a little elevated ; 
extremities rounded, the front rather broad ; nacre silvery ; 
umbonal cavity ample ; teeth laminar, compressed. 

Long. 19, lat. 26-5 mm. 

Hob. Assam. 

The species was originally described from a single valve : below 
are given the dimensions of two specimens in the British and 
Indian Museums collections respectively : 

1. 2. 

Long 1(5*75 19 mm. 

Lat 25'5 30 mm. 

Diam 13 1475 mm. 

The above two specimens are the only ones which the compiler 
of the present volume has been able to examine; though agreeing 
in the essential characters with the original description, there are 
still considerable differences between them : the smaller, or British 
Museum specimen, being far more obtuse posteriorly than that of 
the Indian Museum, the dorsal margin of the former gradually 
sloping upwards posteriorly to a rounded angle, while in the latter 
this character is not nearly so accentuated. 

304. Parreysia (Parreysia) burmanus (Blanford}. 

Parreysia (Parreysia) burmanus (Blanford) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 845. 

Unio burmanus, Blanford, P. Z. S. 1809, pp. 449-450. 

Unto birmanus, H. & T., C. I. 1870, p. 19, pi. 4'2, fig-. 1; Pastel, 
Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 140. 

Original description: Testa subovata, solida, subcompressa, 
valde ina3quilateralis, picea vel fusco-olivacea, concentrice plicato- 
striata, disco medio et postico rugis obliquis irregulariter angulatis, 
interdum granosis, hie illic praesertim versus marginem veritralem 
obsoletis corrngato ; umbonibus non prominentibus, subplanulatis, 
angulatim corrugatis, haud procul ab extremitate anteriore positis; 
lunella parva, concava; latere antico brevissimo subacuminato- 
rotundato ; area convexa ; margine dorsali postice regulariter 
convexo-curvato, terminaliter rotundato, ventrali convexo; den- 
tibus cardinalibus crassis, radiatim corrugatis, in valva dextra binis, 
anteriore minimo, in sinistra terriis vel subternis ; lateralibus 
elongatis subcurvatis, in valva dextra subduplicibus, in sinistru 
duplicibus ; margarita colore salmonis tincta. Testa junior 



PAEHEYSIA. 171 

rotundato-ovalis, omnino prater ad extremitatein anticain sub- 
radiatim gran oso-plicif era. 

The dimensions of three specimens given at the foot of the 
original description are as follows : 

1. 2. 3 (young shell). 

Long. 52 45 34 mm. 

Lat 35 32 26-5 mm. 

Diam 22 20 17 mm. 

Length of ligament 23 20 -5 16 mm. 

Hob. Irawady River at Bharno. 
The type is in the Indian Museum. 

305. Parreysia (Parreysia) sikkimensis (Lea}. 

Parreysia (Parreysia) sikkimensis (Lea) ; Simpson, Washington, 
B.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 845. 

Unio sikkimensis, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, 
1859, p. 151 ; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iv, 1859, 




tigs. 6, 7 ; Pastel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 167. 
Maryaron (Unio) sikkimensis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 64. 

Original description : Testa laevi, obovata, inaequilaterali, sub- 
inflata, postice obtuse biangulata ; valvulis crassiusculis ; natibus 
prominulis ; epidermide luteo-fusca, eradiata ; dentibuscardinalibus 
parvulis, brevibus crenulatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus ; later- 
alibus brevibus subcurvisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. 

Nab. Sikkim (H. Cuming Sf Prof. Hanley). Represented in the 
Indian Museum by specimens from Sibsagar, Assam (S. E. Peal) ; 
Siliguri ; Namtsik ; Dihang, and Cachar. 

No dimensions being given with the original description, those 
of three specimens in the Indian Museum are appended : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 28-5 28-25 19-5 mm. 

Lat 38-5 37-25 2725 mm. 

Diam 20 19-25 12-25 mm. 

The species though varying somewhat, usually in the posterior 
region, is easily distinguishable from others of the group by its 
considerable convexity in proportion to its size and by its short, 
broad, and generally ovately rounded form. 

306. Parreysia (Parreysia) gowhattensis (Theobald). 

Parreysia (Parreysia) gowhattensis (Theobald) ; Simpson, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 845. 

Unio gowhattensis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1873, p. 208, pi. 17, 
fig. 4; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 154. 

Original description : Testa quadrato-ovata, antice rotundata, 



172 



postice declive truncata, margine ventrali recto. Urabonibus 
decorticatis. Epidermide flavescente, postice viridescente. Testa 
concentrice striata et rugis plurimis minutis valde approximantibus 
angulariter seu fulgurate granuloso-crispata, postice tantum radi- 
atim granuloso-crispata. Dentibus cardinalibus bifidis in utraque 
valvo. ISTacrea cserulescenti-albida, iridescente. In senioribus 
granulationes valde inconspicua? fiunt. 

Long. 25*5, lat. 39, diam. 18 mm. 

Hdb. Near Gowhatti, Assam. 

The sculpture of this species much resembles that of Nodularia 
crispisulcata, Benson. 

307. Parreysia (Parreysia) perconvexa, Preston. 

Parreysia (Parreysia) perconvexa, Preston, Rec. Ind.Mus., Calcutta, 
vii, 1912, p. 302. 

Original description : Shell ovate, slightly curved, very convex, 
solid but much eroded, where intact covered by a dark blackish- 




Fig. 17. 1 & 2. Parreysia (P.} perconvexa, Preston. (Type.) Nat. size. 
3. Hinge of same. 

brown periostracum ; umbones moderately large ; dorsal margin 
sloping in an anterior direction ; ventral margin slightly curved 



PAEliETSIA. 



173 



posteriorly ; anterior side gently rounded ; posterior side slightly 
and very bluntly produced, rounded ; cardinal teeth very anteriorly 
situate, with upper surface multi-ridged and supported in each 
valve by an enormous column-like callous thickening of the shell ; 
lateral teeth coarse, rather short, curved ; anterior muscular scars 
of great depth ; posterior scars subcircular, well impressed ; 
interior of shell very pale greenish white. 

Long. 37, lat. 55, diara. 33 mm. 

Hob. ISTongyaug Lake, south of Patkai. 

The type is in the Indian Museum. 



308. Parreysia (Parreysia) annandalei, Preston, 

Parreysia (Parreysici) annandalei, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, 
vii, 1912, p. 302. 

Original description : Shell oval, convex, moderately solid, 
coarsely concentrically ribbed, covered with a thin, smooth, 
brownish-olivaceous periostracum ; umbones rather small, not 




jrjg > 18. 1 & 2. Parreysia (P.) annandalei, Preston. (Type.) Nat. size. 

3. Hinge of same. 

prominent; dorsal margin arched; ventral margin considerably 
rounded; anterior side slightly produced and rather sharply 
rounded : posterior side very bluntly subrostrate ; cardinal teeth 
two in each valve, somewhat anteriorly situate, rather coarse and 
corrugated ; lateral teeth strong, curved ; anterior scars rather 



174 

small, very deeply excavated ; posterior scars also small, ovate, 
deeply impressed ; interior of shell whitish iridescent. 

Long. 29, lat. 41, diam. 20 mm. 

Hob. Gowhatty. 

The type specimen is in the Indian Museum. 

309. Parreysia (Parreysia) dalliana, Frierson. 

Parreysia (Parreysia) dalliana, Frierson, 'Nautilus/ Boston Mass, 
xxvi, p. 142 ; Haas, Martini & Chemnitz, Conch.-Cab. pi. 32, 
figs. 3, 4 (as Trapezaideusfoliaceus). 

Original desertion : Shell small, rather thick, somewhat 

ovate Bounded before, basal and dorsal lines nearly 

straight, post basal point rounded. Epidermis olivaceous, 
greenish in young shells, brownish in old specimens, and 
frequently bleached. Beaks very small, pointed, low, and in- 
curved, with fine zigzag radial sculpture, which extends a little 
down the shell, and especially down the post slope ; in dirty or 
eroded specimens hardly to be noticed. The shell is a little 
inflated, the post I'idge rounded. Inside the nacre is soft cream 
or white. The left valve has two cardinals, the anterior blade- 
like, and the posterior much smaller and tubercular. The laterals 
are double (or even inclined to be trifid) ; in the right valve the 
cardinals are split or double, and the laterals single. The 
anterior cicatrices are confluent, and also those of the posterior. 

Long. 25, lat. 40 mm. 

Hob. Burma. 

" The shell is stouter, shorter, and more inflated than 
T. foliaceus, and the posterior 'portion is not green." 



Genus LAMELLIDENS. 

Lamellidens, Simpson, Washington. D.O., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. 
Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 854. 

TYPE, Unio marginalia, Lamarck, from India, Burma, and 
Ceylon. 

Range. India ; Burma ; Ceylon and China. 

Original description : Shell elongate, elliptical, pointed behind, 
with a slight post-dorsal wing, a low, often biangulate posterior 
ridge, and generally two sharp, radiating lirae above it ; beaks with 
curved, radiating ridges which sometimes are slightly zigzag and 
often become almost concentric, but which fade out as they approach 
each other at the centre of the disc ; epidermis smooth, generally 
shining, brownish, often with concentric bands of lighter colour, 
rayless or nearly so ; left valve with two compressed pseudo- 
cardinals, the front one roughened, and two laterals; right valve 



LAMELLLDENS. 

with two parallel, lamellar pseudocardinals and one lateral ; 
cavity of the beaks rather shallow ; dorsal scars few, deep, 
distinct, scattered ; anterior scars separate ; nacre bluish-white 
to straw. 

Animal unknown. 

Subgenus LAMELLIDENS (sensu stricto). 

Lamellidens, Simpson, Washington, D.C. Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. 
Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 854. 

TYPE, Unio marginalia, Lamarck. 
Eange. India ; Burma ; Ceylon ; China. 
Shell dark-coloured ; teeth well developed. 

310. Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck). 

Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck) ; Simpson, Washington, D.C. 

Smiths. lust., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, pp. 854-855; Die 

breite Mahler-Mtischel aus Gronland, Schroter, Flussconch. 1779 

p. 181, pi. 9, fig. 1. 

? Unio groenlandicus, Morch, Am. J. Conch, iv, 1868, p. 38. 
? Unio testudinarius, Spengler, Skriv. Selsk. Nat. Hi, 1793, p. 65 ; 

P*etel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 169. 
? Umo truncatus, Spengler, Skriy. Selsk. Nat. iii, 1793, p. 65 ; 

? Schroter, Arch. Zool. Zoot. ii, 2 Stuck, 1802, p. 107. 
Unio marginalis, Lamarck, An. sans Vert, vi, 1819, p. 79 ; Deshave.*, 

Enc. Meth. ii, 1827, p. 151, pi. 247, fig. 1 ; Hanley, Test. Moll. 

1842, p. 206 ; Hanley, Biv. Shells, 1843, p. 206, pi. 20, fig. 53 ; 
Catlow & Reeve, Conch. Norn. 1845, p. 61 ; H. & A. Adams, 
Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1857, p. 491 ; Kiister, Conch. Cab., Umo, 
1861, p. 239, pi. 80, fig. 4; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1867, 
pi. 59, tig. 27 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 20, pi. 43, fig. 2 ; Paetel, 
Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 158. 

Margarita ( Unio) marginalis, Lea, Syn. 1836, p. 37 ; 1838, p. 24. 
Margaron ( Unio) marginalis, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 38 ; 1838, p. 24. 
Unio anodontina, Lamarck, An. sans Vert, vi, 1819, p. 80 ; 

Deshayes, An. sans Vert, vi, 1835, p. 546 ; ii, 1839, p. 671. 
Unio anodontinus, Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 1861, p. 240, pi. 80, 

tig. 15 ; Pjetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 144. 
Symphanota bilineata, Lea, Philadelphia, Pa., Trans. Amer. Phil. 

Soc. iv, 1831, p. 98, pi. 11, fig. 19; Obs. Genus Unio, i, 1834, 

p. 108, pi. 11, fig. 19. 

Margarita ( Unio} bilineatus, Lea, Syn. 1836, p. 38 ; 1838, p. 25. 
Unio bilineatus, Hanley, Test. Moll. 1842, p. 207 ; Biv. Shells, 

1843, p. 207, pi. 21, fig. 30; Catlow & Reeve, Conch. Norn. 
1845, p. 56 ; H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1857, p. 491 ; 
Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 71, fig. 365. 

Margaron ( Unio) bilineatus, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 38 ; 1870, p. 61. 
? Unio evanescens, Mousson, Moll. Java, 1849, p. 91, pi. 17, fig. 2. 

Original description : Testa ovato-oblonga, subrhombea, tenui, 
intus caerulescente ; fasciis transversis marginalibus ; dente cardi- 
nali parvo conipresso. 



176 UNIOKLD.E. 

The above description may be amplified by that given by 
Sowerby in the Conchologia Iconica ':" Shell oblong-ovate, 
thin, very smooth, somewhat inflated, covered with a blackish- 
brown shining epidermis, pale iridescent-fawn within ; posterior 
side roundly angular, produced, dorsal margin straight, lateral 
margin oblique, end subacuminated, ventral margin raised towards 
the end, very slightly contracted in the middle ; anterior side 
short, narrow, dorsal margin slightly sloped, cuueate ; umboes 
smooth." 

The following dimensions are taken from three adult specimens 
in the collection of the Indian Museum : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 51 50*5 52'5 mm. 

Lat ]00-5 95-25 95 mm. 

Diam 32 30 34 mm. 

The species is very widely distributed throughout India, Burma, 
and Ceylon, and should Mousson's Unio evanescens prove to be 
really a synonym, then Java must also be added to the above. 

Var. obesa (Hanley fy Theobald} ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., 
Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 855. 

Umo marginalia var. obesa, H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 20, pi. 43, fig. 3. 
Unio corrianus, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 77, fig. 401. 

The variety is described as follows in the ' Conchologia Indica' 
" A giant form, which does not exhibit the ochraceous band, and 

is peculiarly swollen The upper anterior tooth is almost 

linear ; the lateral [teeth] are not bent at the extremity, and the 
upper one in the left valve is scarcely developed." 

The following dimensions are those of three specimens in the 
Indian Museum. Those of No. 1 are of a specimen from Silchar 
and those of Nos. 2 and 3 of specimens from Tonghoo : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 67 64 57*5 mm. 

Lat 118 125 109 mm. 

Diam 48 44 43 mm. 

This inflated variety was originally noticed from the Irrawaddy 
Eiver; there are, however, specimens in the collection of the 
Indian Museum which undoubtedly belong to it from Chittagong, 
Silchar and Toungoo, Burma. 

Var. tricolor (Klister^^ Simpson, "Washington, D.C., Smiths. 
Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 855. 

Unio tricolor, Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 1856, p. 156, pi. 45, 
fig. 1 ; Jickeli, Faun. Moll. N.O.-Afr. 1874, p. 275 ; Pajtel, Conch. 
Sam. iii, 1890, p. 170. 



LAMELL1DEXS 177 

Unio marginalis var. tricolor, H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 20, pi. 42, 
fig. 5. 

Original description : Testa valde inaequilatera, ellipfcica, tenera, 
nitida, modice convexa, obsolete sulcata et subtilissime strigata, 
olivaceo-f usca, parte inferiore flava ; postice laete viridi-radiata ; 
umbonibus depressis ; area compressa ; dentibus cardinalibus 
compressis, dextro duplicate, lamellis tenuibus acutis ; margarita 
nitido-caerulescens, subtiliter radiata. 

Long. 28-25, lat. 60-5, diam. 17-25 mm. 

Kiister gives as the habitat of his species ' ; JEgypten im Nil," 
but this must be an error, as the shell he figures is obviously 
a variety of the Indian L. marginalis. It is represented in the 
Indian Museum collection by specimens from the following 
localities : Shuaygooinyo, Burma and Manbhoom, Bengal. 

Var. zonata (Deshayes). 

Unio marginalis, .Desh. Encycl. Meth., Vers. ii, p. 587. 
Unio marginalis, Lk., var. zonata, H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 20, pi. 44, 
fig. 2. 

Shell oval, transverse, inequilateral, thin, covered with a dark 
brown periostracum interrupted towards the margins by trans- 
verse zones of rather pale greenish-yellow ; anterior side rounded, 
obtuse, rather narrower than 'the posterior side which terminates 
in a somewhat prominent angle ; the dorsal and posterior margins 
compressed and slightly dilated in the form of a wing, separated 
towards the umbones by a posterior angle continuing to the top, 
interior of shell nacreous, rather deep and very bright yellow, 
tinged with reddish and bluish shades towards the posterior side ; 
hinge very narrow, gently arched, consisting, in the right valve, 
of an oblong, crested, cardinal tooth roughened on the inner side, 
crenellated at its free end and bearing on the outward side a small 
decurrent swelling which limits the cavity into which the tooth 
of the opposite valve is received ; left valve bearing two blunt 
teeth, of which the posterior, which is the shorter, only commences 
to rise at the extremity of the other ; lateral posterior tooth 
elongate, arched, narrow, sharp, rough and truncated at its 
posterior end, fitting between two lamellae in the left valve which 
are unequal both in length and height. 

Long. 46, lat. 84 mm. 

Hau. Bengal. 

There are specimens which correspond to this description in the 
Indian Museum collection from Rangoon, the measurements of 
three of these being as below : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 39-5 41 36 mm. 

Lat 74-5 73 67 mm. 

Diam. 23 19 23 mm. 



178 

Var. candaharica (Hanley $ Theobald) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.O., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 855. 

Unio marginalia var. candaharica, H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 20, pi. 43, 
fig. 4 ; Hutton, J. A. S. B. xviii, pt. 1, 1849 (1850), p. 660. 

Original desertion: Shell oval oblong, ventricose, tumid 
not produced nor attenuated behind ; beaks flattened and denuded ; 
upper edge rounded or falling ; lower edge curved ; strongly- 
wrinkled transversely ; epidermis olive-brown, in young specimens 
with broad yellowish margin. 

The dimensions of three specimens mentioned by Hutton 
are : 

1. 3. 

Long 41-25 41-25 44-25 mm. 

Lat 75 73 78 mm. 

and of two specimens, both from Candahar, in the Indian 
Museum : 

1. 2. 

Long. , 37-5 38-25 mm. 

Lat 65-5 68-5 mm. 

Diam 22-5 24-5 mm. 

Hob. Candahar, in canals. 

Hutton further states that it differs from typical U. marginalis, 
Lk. " in the less produced and lengthened form pos- 
teriorly, in the upper part of the anterior edge being straighter 
and more elevated than in U. marginalis, and in the beaks being 
less denuded and more wrinkled. In Unio marginalis of the 
Gangetic Provinces the breadth appears to exceed the length 
much more considerably than in the Candahar shells, measuring 
in four specimens of each as follows : 

" Indian [Gangetic Provinces] specimen, 

1. 2. 3. 4. 

Long 35 41-25 35 38 mm. 

Lat 40 89 80 76-5 mm. 

"Afghan specimens, 

1. 2. 3. 4. 

Long *. . 16 41-25 41*25 46 mm. 

Lat 75 73 75 78 mm. 

"The proportions thus appear to be reversed; the Indian 
species showing a greater transverse breadth in proportion to its 
length, the Afghan one showing a greater length in proportion to 
its breadth. All my specimens of the Indian variety are produced 
or elongated posteriorly, giving the shell a narrow wedge-shaped 
appearance, whereas the Afghan one, being transversely shorter, 
appears ovate-oblong." 



LAMELLIDENS. 179 

Var. cylindrica (Hanley $ Theobald) Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 855. 

Unio marginalia var. cylindrica , H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 20, pi. 44, 
fig. 1. 

As hitherto the name has been a mere nomen nudum, and no 
specimen actually corresponding to Hanley & Theobald's figure 
being available the following short description of the figure itself 
may be given : 

Eather more rectangular than the typical form, dark olive- 
green, concentrically banded, especially towards the ventral margin 
and posterior side, with yellowish brown, and transversely rayed 
from the umbonal region with dark olive-brown ; interior of shell 
salmon-coloured. 

Long. 44, lat. 10-2 mm. 

Hob. ? 



Var. hanleyi, Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. 
Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 855. 

Unto marginalia var. corrictna, H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 20, pi. 44, 
fig. 4. 

Shell more or less indented in the middle, sometimes elongated 
cylindrical, sometimes compressed and oval-oblong ; cardinal 
callosity (which is rarely absent) more or less developed ; anterior 
or hinge teeth almost horizontal, outwardly curved, rather more 
elongate, or if shorter, rather more prominently elevated. 

Long. 42, lat. 89 mm. (fig. in Con. Ind.). 

Sab. Calcutta, etc. 



Subsp. thwaitesi (Lea). 

Unio thwaitesi, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, 
1859, p. 152 ; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iv, 1860, 
p. 246, pi. 37, fig. 125 ; Obs. Genus Unio, vii, 1860, p. 64, pi. 37, 
fig. 125 j Keeve, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1865, pi. 23, fig. 105; H. & 
T., C. L 1876, p. 20, pi. 43, fig. 1 ; Paetel, Conch. Sain, iii, 1890, 
p. 169. 

Margaron ( Unio) thwaitesii, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 74. 

Unio consobrinus, H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 19, pi. 41, fig. 7. 

Lamellidens thwaitesii (Lea), Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 
Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 856. 

Original description : Testa laevi, regulariter elliptica, sub- 
inflata, inaequilaterali ; valvulis crassiusculis ; natibus prominulis ; 
epidermide castanea, polita, transverse fasciata ; dentibus cardi- 
nalibus valde compressis, lamellatis, valde obliquis, in utroque 
valvulo duplicibus ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis curvisque ; 
margarita salmonis colore tincta et iridescente. 

Hob. Ceylon (Thwaites). 



180 UNIONIDJE. 

The following dimensions are taken from three specimens in 
the Indian Museum : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 44-5 35 34 mm. 

Lat 88 63 62 mm. 

Diam 28-25 20 20-25 mm. 

Subsp. consobrina (Led]. 

Unio consobrinus, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, 
1859, p. 331 ; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1860, p. 272, 
pi. 45, fig. 152 ; Obs. Genus Unio, vii, 1860, p. 90, pi. 45, tig. 152 ; 
Pastel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 148. 

Margaron ( Unio) consobrinus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 46. 

Unio corbeti, Deschamps, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. xvii, 1892, p. 68, fig. 

in text. 

Lamellidens consobrinus (Lea), Simpson, Washington, D.C./ Smiths. 
Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 856. 

Original description : Testa lasvi, elliptica, subinflata, insequi- 
laterali, postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundato ; valvulis sub- 
tenuibus, antice paulisper crassiusculis ; natibus prominulis ; 
epidermide micante, tenebroso-fusca, eradiata ; dentibus cardi- 
nalibus parvis, crenulatis, compressis, obliquis in valvulam dextram 
duplicibus ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis subcurvisque ; margarita 
salmonis colore tincta et valde iridescente. 

Nab. "China "(6'. M. WTieatley). 

The locality as given by Lea is probably a mistake ; the variety 
is widely distributed over India and Ceylon. 

The following are the dimensions of three specimens in the 
Indian Museum collection : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 43 48-5 47 mm. 

Lat 79 91 83 mm. 

Diam 27-5 32 27 mm. 

Subsp. lamellata (Lea}. 

Unio lamellatus, Lea, Philadelphia, Pa., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
vi, 1838, p. 19, pi. 6, fig. 16 ; Obs. Genus Unio, ii, 1838, p. 19, 
pi. 6, fig. 16; Troschel, Arch. Natg. Berlin, v, pt. 2, 1839, 
p. 234; Hanley, Test. Moll. 1842, p. 194; Biv. Shells, 1843, 
p. 194, pi. 21, fiff. 49; Catlow & Eeeve, Conch. Norn. 1845, 
p. 60 ; H. & A. Adams. Gen. Eec. Moll, ii, 1857, p. 494 ; Chenu, 
111. Conch. 1858, pi. 22, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, 
xvi, 1866, pi. 52, fig. 272; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 21, pi. 44, 
fig. 7 ; Pretel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 126. 

Margarita (Unio} lamellatm, Lea, Syn. 1836, p. 26 ; 1838, p. 20. 

Margeron (Unio) lamellatus, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 29; 1870, p. 46. 

Unio layardi, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, 1859, 
p. 153 ; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iv, 1860, p. 243, 
pi. 36, fig. 122 ; Obs. Genus Unio, vii, I860, p. 61, pi. 36, fig. 122 ; 



LAMELLIDENS. 181 

Reeve, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1865, pi. 23, fig. Ill ; H. & T., C. I. 

1876, p. 19, pi. 41, fig. 1 ; Pastel, Conch. Sam. iii,1890, p. 157. 
Margaron (Unio) layardii, Lea, 1870, p. 46. 
Lamellidens lamellatus (Lea), Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 

Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 856. 

Original description : Shell subovate, transverse, somewhat 
inflated, shining; valves very thin; beaks scarcely prominent, 
undulated ; cardinal teeth long, thin and lamellar ; lateral teeth 
long, thin, and nearly straight ; nacre bluish. 

Long. 38, lat. 64, diam. 25'5 mm. 

Hob. Bengal (Captain Lang}. This variety is represented by 
specimens in the Indian Museum bearing the following localities : 
Mandalay, Pegu, Bhamo (Dr. J. Anderson), also Calcutta and 
Ceylon. 

Var. sublamellata, Preston, Eec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, vii, 1912, 
p. 305. 

Original description : An elongate, somewhat rostrate form, 
having the hinge-teeth rather less developed. 
Nab. Burma (W. Theobald). 
The type is in the Indian Museum. 



Subsp. scutum (Sowerby). 

Unio scutum, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 94, fig. 510 ; 

H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 22, pi. 46, fig. 1 ; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 

1890, p. 167. 
Lamellidens scutum (Sowerby), Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 

Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 857. 

Original description : Shell thick, unequally subventricose, 
somewhat indented in the middle, somewhat depressed in front, 
very inequilateral, oblong, obliquely sub-biangular behind, of a 
uniform pitch-colour, smoothish ; ventral edge retuse, rising in 
front : umbonal ridge elevated, the space behind it broad and 
rather concave ; beaks but little projecting, nacre livid whitish ; 
primary teeth slanting, lateral lamellae distant. 

The dimensions of the specimen figured in the ' Conch. Icon/, 
and now 7 in the British Museum, are as follows : 

Long. 50, lat. 1 00, diam. 32-5 mm. ; 
and those of a specimen in the Indian Museum collection : 

Long. 52-25, lat. 98, diam. 35'25 mm. 

Hab. Tenasserim (original locality); there are also specimens 
labelled " Eangoon " in the Indian Museum. 

Var. humilior (von Martens), Arch. JSTaturg. Berlin, Ixv, pt. 1, 
1899, pp. 45, 46, pi. 5, fig. 1. 

Somewhat more depressed than the typical form, but agreeing 



182 




Fig. 19. 1 & 2. Lamellldens (Z.) marginalia, Lk. var. sublamellata, Preston. 
(Type.) Nat. size. 

3. Hinge and muscular scars of same. 



LAMELLIDE^S. 183 

well in other respects ; juvenile specimens are bright brownish- 
green, older ones blackish ; the following are the measurements 
of a series at various stages of growth : 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 

Lat 124 92 79 72 65 43 mm. 

Long, (from urnbones) . . 49 40 36 32 28 19 mm. 
Long, (from posterior ex- 
tremity of wing) 56 46 39 37 32 21 mm. 

Diam 26 25 20 20 17 llmm. 

The wings average two-thirds of the length. The lower margin 
in young specimens is fairly straight in the middle, in older ones 
slightly curved inward. The edge running backwards from the 
uinbones, separating the posterior from the lateral surface, is 
always distinct. The hinge-teeth are nodulated, but comparatively 
small. 

Hob. The Chindwin Eiver, near Kalewa; also in the River Tu, 
one of the tributaries of the former. 

Young specimens of this variety, in outward form, greatly 
resemble the U. marginalis var. anodontinus of the ' Conch. Ind.', 
pi. 42, fig. 7. 

Subsp. corrianus (Lea). 

Unio corrianus, Lea, Philadelphia, Pa., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. v, 
ser. 2, 1834, p. 65, pi. 9, fig. 25; Obs. Genus Unio, i, 1834, 
p. 177, pi. 9, fig. 25; Hanley, Test. Moll. 1842, p. 207; Biv. 
Shells, 1843, p. 207, pi. xx, fig. 60 ; Catlow & Reeve, Conch. 
Norn. 1845, p. 57 ; H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1857, 
p. 491 ; Pastel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 149. 

Margarita ( Unio) corrianus, Lea, Syn. 1836, p. 38 ; 1838, p. 25. 

Margaron ( Unio) corrianus, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 38 ; 1870, p. 61. 

Lamellidens corrianus (Lea), Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 
Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 857. 

Original description : Shell narrow-elliptical, very transverse, 
very inequilateral, subangular behind ; valves very thin ; beaks 
scarcely prominent ; cardinal teeth thin and bladed ; lateral teeth 
long, thin and nearly straight ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Long. 25-5, lat. 53*5, diam. 13'5 mm. 

Hab. Calcutta. The following localities refer to specimens 
in the Indian Museum : Seebsaugor (Peal) ; Pegu (W. T. Blan- 
ford)', Balagunga, Central Sylhet; Madras; Berhampur, Mur- 
shidabad District, Bengal (S. W. Kemp) ; Sambalpur ; Zayleymau, 
Upper Burma (Dr. J. Anderson). 

Lea's description is amplified by the following notes : " Shell 
narrow elliptical, very transverse, very inequilateral, subangular 
behind ; dorsal line nearly straight ; substance of the shell very 
thin ; beaks very slightly elevated and minutely waved at the tip ; 
ligament long and slender ; epidermis smooth, dark brown ; rays 
none ; cardinal teeth thin, bladed, single in the left valve and 



184 UNIONID^E. 

double in the right ; lateral teeth long, thin, bladed and nearly 
straight ; anterior cicatrices distinct; posterior cicatrices confluent ; 
dorsal cicatrices situated nearly in the centre of the cavity of the 
beaks ; cavity of the beaks exceedingly shallow ; nacre pearly 
white and iridescent It closely resembles the U. margi- 
nalia of Lamarck, but differs from that species in being more 
transverse, in the beaks being more retuse, in the dorsal line 
being nearly straight, and in its not being possessed of a light 
border along the margin. The cardinal teeth are remarkably thin, 
and form nearly a line with the lateral teeth." 



Subsp. generosus (Gould). 

Unio generosus, Gould. Proo. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 1847, 
p. 220 ; Otia Conch. 1862, p. 210 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 22, 
pi. 46, fig. 4 ; Pastel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 153. 

Margaron (Unio) generosus, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 29. 

? Unio lamellatus, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 94,iig.5H. 

Lamellidens generostts (Gould), Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 
Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 857. 

Original description : Testa magna, solida, transversa, oblongo- 
ovata, inequilateral!, antice rotundata et angustata ; postice ob- 
liquata, subrostrata, ad apicem truncata ; margine ventrali arcuata, 
dorsali recta, abscendente ; umbonibus contiguis hand elevatis ; 
valvis subtumidis radiatim substriatis, postice subcostatis, epider- 
mide fuliginosa, disco nitido : dentibus remotis ; cardinalibus 
elongatis, obliquis, laminatis : margarita alba vel salmonacea 
limbo iridescente. 

Long. 64, lat. 95-5, diam. 38-25 mm. 

Hob. Newville, Tavoy (Mrs. Vinton) ; specimens in the Indian 
Museum are labelled respectively Myadong, Upper Burma 
(Anderson), Mandalay (Annandale), and Bhamo (J. Coyyin 
.Brown). 



Subsp. jenkinsianus (Benson). 

Unio jenldnsiamis, Benson, A. M. N. II. x, 1862, p. 185 ; H. & T., 
C.I. 1876, p. 19, pi. 41, fig. 4; Pastel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, 
p. 155. 

Lamellidens jenMnsianus (Benson), Simpson, Washington, D.C., 
Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 857. 

Original description : Testa transverse elongata, subacuminato- 
ovata, valde insequilaterali, tumida, crassa, antice brevi rotundata, 
postice elongata, minim e alata, superne sensim descendente, 
demum angusta. . obtusa ; margine basali antice convexiusculo, 
postice subrecto ; ligamento brevi ; disco valde tumido, transverse 
plicato ; epidermide picea, versus marginem ventralem olivacea ; 
umbonibus leviter convexis, decorticatis, apicibus obtusis ; dentibus 
arcuatim sitis, crassiusculis, erosis, cardinalibus elongatiusculis. 



LAMELLIDENS. 185 

valva3 sinistraD subsimplicibus, dextrae duplicibus laminatis, laterali- 
bus remotis subelongatis, valvse sinistrse duplicibus, lamina interna 
demum incrassata ; margarita violaceo-albida, iridescente. 

Long. 52, lat. 94, diam. 38 mm. 

Hdb. Brahmapootra River, Assam. The following localities 
are, among others, attached to specimens in the Indian Museum : 
Sylhet, Bhagalpur (Captain Shenvill). 

Subsp. sawaddyensis, Preston, Eec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, vh', 
1912, p. 305. 

Original description : Shell much more ovate and convex than 
the typical form, having the dorsal margin more arched and 
posteriorly ascending, the ventral margin and anterior side more 
rounded, and the posterior side produced and roundly rostrate. 

Hub. Sawaddy River. Specimens in the Indian Museum are 
labelled Bhamo (Dr. J. Anderson) Shuaygoomyo, Upper Burma 
(Dr. J. Anderson), and Mandalay (Dr. N. Annandale). 

The type is in the Indian Museum. 

311. Lamellidens pulcher (Tapparone-Canefri). 

Lamellidens pulcher (Tapparone-Canefri) ; Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 856. 

Unio pulcher, Tapparone-Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Geneva, 
vii, 1889, p. 350. 

Original description: Testa tenui, subcompressa, ina3quilaterali, 
transverse ovata, subquadrata, postice dilatata, sub-biangulata, 
area postica depressa, margine ventrali rectiusculo, umbonibus 
haud eminentibus, rarius integris, sa3pius breviter decorticatis. 
Superficies valvarum Ia3vis, nitida, rugis concentricis minutis, 
subregularibus, sa3pe obsoletis exarata; pallide olivaceo-castanea, 
radiis duobus ina3qualibus in area postica fuscis vel viridibus 
picta. Dentes cardinales parvi, laminati, infero in valva dextera 
crassiusculo, subtruncato, superne acuto. Margarita argentea, 
superne luteo-carnea vel luteola. 

Long. 43, lat. 70, diam. 22 mm. 

Bab. Meetan, River Houngdaran (L. Fea). 

The author also describes two varieties of this species as 
follows : 

Var. lamellatiformis. 

Testa magis postice dilatata, inferne bisinuata. 
Long. 43, lat. 76, diam. 21 mm. 

Var. ponderosus. 

Testa majore, crassiuscula, magis lata, subquadrato-oblonga, 
superficies valvarum castanea vel castaneo-fusca. 
Long. 48, lat. 84, diam. 28 mm. 
Both the varieties are from the same locality as the type. 



180 





Fig. 20. 1. Lamellidens (L.) marginalis (Lk.), var. sawaddyensis. 
(Type specimen.) Nat. size. 

2. Muscular scars and pallial impression of same. 



LAMELLIDENS. 187 

312. Lamellidens exanthematicus (Kilster). 

Lamellidens exanthematicus (Kiister) ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., 
Smiths. Inst., Nat Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 856. 

Unio exanthematicus, Kiister, Conch. Cab., Unio, 1861, 1 p. 243, 
pi. 81, fig. 2; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 152. 

Original description : Testa trans versa, subovata, convexa, 
tenuis flava, fuscescenti-annulata, postice viridi-radiata, sub- 
tiliter striata, subtil issime pustulata, pustulis numerosis, majoribus 
minoribusque mixtis ; umbonibus prominulis ; area subtrigona, 
compressiuscula ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, minus elevatis, in 
valvula utraque duplicibus, lamellis longis, curvatiusculis ; rnar- 
garita carneo-alba et iridescente. 

Long. 26, lat. 43, diam. 13-5 mm. 

Hob. East Indies. 

313. Lamellidens canefrianus, Simpson. 

Lamellidens canefrianus, Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., 

Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 857. 
Unio protemus, Tapparone-Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Genova, 

vii, 1889, p. 349. 

Original description : Testa transverse oblonga, insequilaterali, 
postice subbiangulata, inter angulos truncata et in rostrum 
abbreviatum attenuata, margine ventral! inodice arcuato et ad 
rostrum sinuato, umbonibus late decorticatis. Superfices val- 
varum epidermide kevi, intense fusca in adultis, viridi-olivacea 
in junioribus induta, zona marginal! pallidiore inferne ornata. 
Dentes cardinales tenues, in valva dextera duo majusculi, 
laciniato-striati, inargine denticulati, in valva sinistra unicus, 
tenuior, ultra medium siibacutus. Margarita argentea, postice 
vivide iridescens ; superficies interna valvarum saepius plus 
minusve margaritifera. 

1. 2. 

Long. ........ 89 65 mm. 

Lat 44 34 mm. 

Diam 27 18 mm. 

Hob. Prome, Lower Burma (L. Fea). 

314. Lamellidens narainporensis, Preston. 

Lamellidens narainporensis, Preston, Hec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, vii 
1912, pp. 305-306. 

Original description : Shell cuneate, moderately convex, pos- 
teriorly rostrate, dark reddish-brown, covered towards the margins 
with a finely laminiferous periostracum, marked with concentric 
lines of growth, bearing two carina3 on each valve running from 
the umbones in a dorsally posterior direction; umbones small, 
not prominent, somewhat coarsely corrugated; dorsal margin 



188 



TTtfJONIDJE. 



very gently arched ; ventral margin scarcely rounded in the 
anterior and median regions, slightly curved posteriorly ; anterior 
side abruptly rounded; posterior side sloping ahove, then angled 
and very abruptly descending ; cardinal tooth in left valve 
obtusely triangular, erect ; absent in right valve ; lateral teeth 
anteriorly short, deeply grooved and projecting in right valve, 
erect and jagged in the left, posteriorly moderately elongate and 




Fig. 21. 1 & 2. Lamellidcns (L.) narainporensis, Preston. (Type.) Nat. size. 
3. Hinge and muscular scars of same. 

bifurcated in both valves ; anterior scars rather circular, deep ; 
posterior scars lightly impressed ; interior of shell pale flesh- 
colour, shading to iridescent bluish - white, very minutely 
granulate. 

Long. 35, lat. 84 mm. 

Hob. Narainpore Bhil, Murshedabad District (Major C. J. 
Robertson-Milne, I.M.S.). 

The type specimen is in the Indian Museum. 



LAMELLIDEXS. 



189 





Fig. 22. 1 & 2. Lamellidens (L.) nongyanjensis, Preston. (Type.) Nat. size. 
3. Hinge and muscular scars of same. 



190 

315. Laxnellidens nongyangensis, Preston. 

Lamellidens nonyyanensis, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, vii, 
1912, p. 306. 

Original description : Shell very elongately ovate, inflated, 
covered with a blackish-brown, finely laminiferous periostracum, 
concentrically marked with rather coarse lines of growth ; dorsal 
margin anteriorly somewhat straight, posteriorly arched above, 
sloping and slightly excavated below; ventral margin scarcely 
rounded ; anterior side abruptly descending ; posterior side 
rostrate, obtusely rounded ; cardinal teeth very anteriorly situate, 
triangular, erect ; lateral teeth elongate, also erect, terminating 
posteriorly in an abrupt slope ; anterior scars deeply marked, 
posterior scars lightly impressed ; interior of shell flesh-coloured, 
shading to bluish ; iridescent, minutely pitted and granulate. 

Long. 45, lat. 94 mm. 

Hal. Nongyang Lake, South of Patkai. 

The type is in the Indian Museum. 

3L6. Lamellidens phenchooganjensis, Preston. 

Lamellidens phcnchooganjensis, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, 
vii, 1912, p. 306. 

Original description : Shell very elongately ovate, posteriorly 
obtusely rostrate, dark blackish-brown, sculptured with fine con- 
centric striae, crossed, especially in the anterior median region, by 
fine, slightly distant, transverse, radiate striae, thus presenting a 
minutely wrinkled appearance ; umbones flattened, much eroded ; 
dorsal margin anteriorly gently sloping, posteriorly more rapidly 
sloping in a slight curve ; ventral margin scarcely rounded ; 
anterior side angled above, gently rounded below ; posterior side 
produced, angularly rounded; hinge-teeth very elongate, some- 
what fine ; anterior scars ovate, moderately impressed ; posterior 
scars roughly triangular, not well impressed: interior of shell 
shading from pale brown to bluish, nacreous, marked, especially 
towards the anterior ventral region, with very shallow radiate 
furrows. 

Long. 42, lat. 86 mm. 

Nab. Phenchooganj, Central Sylhet. 

The type specimen is in the Indian Museum. 

317. Lamellidens mainwaringi (Nevill, MS.},* (Preston.) 

Lamellidens mainwaringi (Nevill, MS.), Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus. 
Calcutta, vii, 1912, p. 306. 

Original description : Shell rather small, cuneate, covered with 
a finely laminiferous periostracum ; both valves marked with 
rather fine, concentric, and finer transverse, radiate, scratch-like 



LAMELLIDENS. 



191 





Fig. 23. 1 & 2. Lamellidens (Z.) plienclwoganjensis, Preston. 
(Type.) Nat. size. 

3. Hinge and muscular scars of same. 



192 

striae; dorsal margin anteriorly gradually sloping, posteriorly 
arched and more rapidly descending ; ventral margin somewhat 
straight ; anterior side rounded ; posterior side angled above and 
below, somewhat obliquely and obtusely rostrate; hinge teeth 





Fig. 24. 1 & 2. Lamellidens (Z/,) mainwariiigi, Preston. (Type.) Nat. size. 
3. Hinge of same. 

well developed, moderately short ; anterior adductor scar deeply 
impressed ; posterior scar somewhat roughly triangular, well 
impressed ; interior of shell bluish iridescent, rather granulate. 

Long. 25*5, lat. 50 mm. 

Hob. Siliguri ; there are also specimens in the Indian Museum 
from Namtsik, Dihong Biver. 

Type in the Indian Museum. 

A small, light, and thin form, which Simpson in his * Synopsis 
of the Naiades ' * refuses to recognise as a species, but regards as 
L. consobrinus ; the author, however, having been able to examine 
a large series from the collection of the Indian Museum, all the 
specimens of which are very constant in their size, form, and 
hinge, and other characters,, considers it without doubt to be 
worthy of specific rank. 

The following dimensions are taken from specimens in the 
Indian Museum Collection : 





1. 


2. 


3. 


Long 


. 22-25 


21 


29-5 mm. 


Lat 


41-75 


40-5 


37 mm. 


Diam. 


11-75 


12-5 


9-25 mm. 











* Washington, B.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Hus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 856 
(footnote no. 3). 



TRAPEZOIDEUS. 193 

Genus TRAPEZOIDEUS. 

Trapezoideus, Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. 
Mus. Proc. xxii, p. 858. 

TYPE, Unio foliacea, Gould ; Burma. 

Range. Burma; Siam : Cambodia; Sumatra; Bundelkund. 

Original description: Shell trapezoid, much compressed, with 
a low posterior ridge and but slightly raised though pointed 
beaks, which seem to be sculptured with irregularly radial ridges 
arranged in two imperfect chevron-shaped loops ; surface con- 
centrically sculptured, often having irregular radial ridges on the 
posterior slope ; epidermis yellowish -green or brownish, with two 
or more green rays above the posterior ridge ; teeth compressed ; 
two pseudocardinals in the left valve, one under the beak, the 
other in front, often not well separated, and two laterals ; right 
valve with two pseudocardinals and one lateral ; pseudocardinals 
all irregular, often pitted and peculiarly dentellate ; laterals 
granular, showing traces of vertical striation ; cavity of the beaks 
rather deep, compressed; muscle scars shallow, anterior scars 
separate ; nacre soft, creamy, yellowish in the beak cavities. 

Animal unknown. 

318. Trapezoideus foliaceus (Gould). 

Trapezoideus foliaceus (Gould) ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., 
Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 858. 

Unio foliacea, Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1843, p. 141 ; 
Otia Conch. 1862, p. 191. 

Unio foliaceus, Catlow & Reeve, Conch. Nom. 1845, p. 59; 
H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1857, p. 492; H. & T., 
C. I. 1876, p. 19, pi. 42, fig. 3 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exp. 1877, 
p. 900, pi. 80, figs. 8-12 ; Peetel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 153. 

Margaron (Unio) foliaceus, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 39; 1870, p. 62. 

Unio peyuensis, Anthony, Amer. Journ. Conch, i, 1865, p. 351, 
pi. 25, fio-. 2 ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xvi, 1868, pi. 95, fig. 619 ; 
Pffitel, Conch. Sam. iii, 1890, p. 162. 

Margaron (Unio) peguensis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 51. 

Original description : Testa parva, compressa, fragili, fusco- 
virescente, inequilaterali, transverse oblongo-ovata, postice sub- 
angulata ; umbonibus parvis, subtilissime corrtigatis ; dentibus 
exilibus, rectis, ad marginem parallelis ; margarita livida, irides- 
cente. 

Long. 22, lat. 41-5, diam. 12-75 mm. 

Hab. Tavoy. Represented in the Indian Museum by speci- 
mens from Bhamo (Dr. J. Anderson), and Pegu (W. T. Blanford). 

Var. comptus (Deshayes # Jullien); Simpson, Washington, 
D.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 859. 

Unio comptus, Deshayes & Jullien, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, x, 
1874, p. 126, pi. 6, figs. 3 & 4. 



194 

Unio fraqilis, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 1877, p. 39; Anderson, 
Yunnan Exp. 1877, p. 400, pi. 80, figs. 8-12. 

Original description : Testa oblonga, trausversa, compressa, 
tenui, fragili, inequilateral!, luteo-rubiginosa, ad apicem decorti- 
cata et striis granulosis divaricatis ornata; umbonibus minimis, 
obtusis, vix proeminentibus ; latere antico obtuso, paulo angus- 
tiori; latere postico latiori, oblique truncate, striis numerosis, 
sub^qualibus, arcuatis, ab angulo postico nascentibus ornato ; 
margine cardinal! brevi, angnsto, in valvula dextra dente cardinal! 
ruinimo, obliquo, simplici, vix preeminent], dente lateral! postico 
elongate, angustissimo ; in altera valvula dentibus cardinalibus 
duobus, iniequalissimus, divaricatis, dente postico angusto pro- 
funde et angustissime bifido. 

Long. 18, lat. 32, diain, 10 mm. 

Hab. Cambodia. 

Var. zayleymanensis (Nevill, J//S.) ; Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., 
Calcutta, vii, 1912, p. 307. 

Original description : Shell thinner and smaller than the typical 
form, more produced anteriorly and much more obtuse posteriorly; 
the slight curve in the ventral margin is also absent. 

Hab. Bhamo (Dr. J. Anderson) ; there are also specimens in the 
Indian Museum from Zayleyman (Anderson) and Bhamo. 

Type in the Indian Museum. 

319. Trapezoideus misellus (Morelet). 

Trapezoideus misellus (Morelet) ; Simpson. Washington, D.C. ? 

Smiths. Inst, Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 859. 
Unio misellus, Morelet, Journ. de Conch., Paris, xiii, 1865, p. 21 ; 

Ser. Conch, iv, 1875, p. 341, pi. 14, fig. 2; Psetel, Conch. Sam. 

iii, 1890, p. 159. 
Unio swmensis, Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, x, 1866, 

p. 133 ; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vi, 1808, p. 279, 

pi. 38, fig. 93 ; Obs. Genus Unio, xii, 1869, p. 39, pi. 38, 

fig. 93. 
Margaron ( Unio) siamensis, Lea, Syn. 1870, p. 57. 

Original description : Testa transversa, depressa, inaequi- 
lateralis, tenuis, epidermide lamelloso-striata, luteo-virenti, pro- 
gressu temporis fuscescente, vestita ; margo anterior attenuatus, 
posterior dilatatus, inferior medio sinuatus ; umbones parvi, 
depressi. acuti, plerumque decorticati ; dens cardinalis lamelli- 
formis, exilissinius, in adultis obsoletus ; lamellae in utraque valva 
parvulaa, simplices; testa interna inaequaliter sulcata vel malleata; 
margarita plumbea, squalida, sub umbonibus late rubigineo tincta. 

Long. 28, lat. 61, diam. 16 mm. 

Hab. Siam. Represented in the Indian Museum by specimens 
from Tenasserim, and the Irrawaddy River at Sagaing (J. Cogyin 
Brown). 



TKAPEZOIDEUS. 195 

320. Trapezoideus exolescens (Gould). 

Trapezoideus exolescens (Gould) ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., 
Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 859. 

Unto evolescens, Gould, Proc. Boston, Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1843, 
p. 141 ; Catlow & lleeve, Conch. Nona. 1845, p. 59 ; H. & 
A. Adams. Gen. Eec. Moll, ii, 1857, p. 493: H. & T v C. I. 
1876, p. 43, pi. 107, fig. 5 ; Psete), Conch. Sam. iii, 1890J 
p. 152. 

Margaron ( Unio) exolescens, Lea, Syn. 1852, p. 32 ; 1870, p. 51. 

Original description: Testa transverso-oblongata, inequilaterali, 
subcompressa, fusco-virescente ; postice dilatata, sub-biangulata ; 
umbonibus subelevatis; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, obliquis, 
interdum exoletis; lateralibus reraotis, rectis ; margarita livida 
v'el ferruginea. 

Long. 32, lat. 70, diam. 15 mm. 

Hob. Tavoy ; also Bhamo (Indian Museum Collection). 

321. Trapezoideus theca (Benson}. 

Trapezoideus theca (Benson) ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 

Inst.. Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 859. 
Unio theca, Benson, A. M. N. H. x, 1862, p. 186; II. & T., 

C. I. 1876, p. 6, pi. 12, fig. 5 ; Psetel, Conch. Sam. iii. 1890, 

p. 169. 

Original description : Testa transverse oblongo-ovata, valde 
inaequilaterali, tenui, compressa, antice et postice rotuhdata, 
superne subtusque convexiuscula, margine ventrali medio recto; 
disco subplanato, Iseviusculo, lineis trarisversalibus subrugosis 
versus margines notato ; epidermide pallide stramineo-lutea ; 
umbonibus planatis, decorticatis, versus apices tenues prominulos, 
concentrice sulcatis, postiee lineis duabus radiantibus tenuibus 
subelevatis munitis; ligamento longiore ; dentibus cardinalibus 
laminatis, teuuibus, brevibus, utriusque valvae duplicibus, valvae 
dextras prope marginem anteriorem sitis, obliquis ; sinistrse lobo 
subapicali transverse, anteriore obliquo, lateralibus elongatis, vix 
curvatis, valvae dextrse simplicibus, sinistrse duplicibus ; margarita 
lutea, versus marginem ventralein albida. 
Long. 20, lat. 40, diam. 10 mm. 
Hob. River Cane, near Ban da, Bundelkhund. 
The above description is amplified by the following notes : 
" Interior of shell transversely subplicate ; cavity of beaks 
shallow. Anterior cicatrices separate, posterior confluent, apical 
ones in the cavity of the beaks. Some slight rugse are visible on 
the posterior slope at right angles to the striae of growth. 

" The shell is somewhat wider posteriorly than 

anteriorly. The pale opaque straw-colour of the unpolished 
epidermis is also a peculiar feature, not observable in any other 
Northern Indian species. 

the double umbonal line, apparent occasionally in adult 

specimens of U. [(L.) L.~] marginalis, is conspicuous." 

o2 



196 



Genus ARCIDOPSIS. 

Arcidopsis, Simpson, Washington, B.C., Smiths. Inst., Nat. Mus. 
Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 861. 

TYPE, Unio footei, Theobald, from the Kistna Elver. 

The genus is represented by a single species (A. footei 
(Theobald)). 

Original description: Shell inequilateral. elongated, with dorsal 
and ventral lines nearly straight and parallel ; anterior end 
strongly and obliquely truncated from the beaks to the anterior 
base, and ending in a rather sharp but rounded point below ; 
posterior end obliquely truncated above, rounded below ; posterior 
ridge full, rounded ; the shell in front and below rather compressed ; 
surface concentrically and radially ridged ; pseudocardinals strong, 
two in the right valve, one in the left, and supported by a strong 
cardinal rib ; muscle scars well impressed ; pallial line distinct. 

Animal unknown. 



322. Arcidopsis footei (Theobald). 

Arcidopsis footei (Theobald) ; Simpson, Washington, D.C., Smiths. 

Inst., Nat. Mus. Proc. xxii, 1900, p. 861. 
Unio footei, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 187, pi. 14, 

figs. 9, 9 a. 

Original description : Testa elongata, rofcundato-quadrata, 
valde inaequilateraii ab umbonibus angulata, et infra et antice 
valde compressa, concentrice striata et postice radiatim striata. 
Dentibus cardinalibus fortibus, in callo costiformi positis, in valva 
dextra duobus alteraque singulis, subverticalibus. Cicatricibus 
valde depressis. Pallii impressione valde conspicua. 

Hob. Kistna Eiver near the " Gutparba falls " (A. B. Foote). 

To Theobald's description is added the further note. "The 
shell has its valves divided into two subequal areas by a strong 
ridge running back and down from the beaks. The lower and 
anterior portion is strongly compressed, simulating the appear- 
ance of Area subtorta, though there is no true " version *' in the 
valves. The strorrg cardinal rib which supports the cardinal teeth 
is also a marked feature of this species, as well as its radiating 
striae intersecting the concentric lines of growth. Unfortunately 
the beaks are much decayed in my two specimens and their 
sculpture wholly effaced." 



JETHERIIDjE. 197 

Family 

Subfamily 

Shell irregular, free or attached, covered with a periostracurn, 
interiorly nacreous or subnacreous ; hinge edentulate ; ligament 
linnear, subinternal ; sometimes with two adductor scars on the 
valves, sometimes with only the posterior ; pallial line entire. 

Animal fluviatile ; mantle open ; branchial orifice communi- 
cating with the pedal orifice ; anal orifice closed ; foot absent ; 
palpes large, semi-ovate ; gills unequal, folded, uniting behind 
together with the visceral sac and the mantle. 

Distribution. Tropical Africa; S. India: United States of 
Colombia. 

Genus MULLERIA. 

Mulleria, Ferussac, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1824, i, part 2 7 
pp. 368-369 ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xviii, 1872. 

TYPE, Mulleria lobata, Ferussac, from the U.S. of Colombia. 

Range. United States of Colombia and Southern India. 

Translation of original description : Shell attached, inequi- 
valve, irregular [in form] ; valves joined by an exterior ligament, 
short, lateral, and by a sinuous hinge furnished with oblique 
fossettes, in which are enclosed corresponding projections, both 
being ornamented with a ligamental appendage. 

323. Mulleria dalyi, Smith. 

Mulleria dalyi, Smith, Proc. Malac. Soc. iii, 1898, p. 14, figs, in 
text ; Woodward [Anatomy], torn. cit. p. 87, figs, in text. 

Original description : Testa irregulariter quadrata, sed postice 
producta et rotundata, compressa, insequivalvis ; valvae mediocriter 
crassa3, intus margaritaceaB, iridescentes, olivaceo plus minus 
maculataB et ad marginem olivaceo-fusco limbata}, extus sub perio- 
straco subfibroso, nigro-fusco, fortiter concentrice striato, ex 
laminis albis calcareis et aliis corneis fuscescentibus constitse; 
valva adhaerens irregulariter planata, altera convexior, plus minus 
erosa ; cicatrix musculi posterioris magna, elongata vel rotundata, 
mediocriter profunda, concentrice et radiatim striata ; linea pallii 
irregularis, punctata, ad marginem superior! fere attingens ; margo 
dorsi rectus, ligamento valido per totam longitudinem instructus. 

Long. 52, lat. 65, diarn. 20 mm. 

Hob. Kadur District, Mysore. 

After comparing it witlTthe S. American species of the genus 

the author makes the following remarks " the nacre 

exhibits an iridescent mixture of white, bluish, greenish, olive and 
pinkish tints, whilst the margin is olive-brown. The exterior, 
also, is of a rich deep brown or blackish-brown "' 



198 jETHERIIDJE. 

For the anatomy of this interesting species it may be well to 
quote from the late Mr. Martin F. Woodward's invaluable paper 
on the subject : 

" The Mantle and Muscular System : The mantle folds are 
almost completely separated from one another, being united at 
two points only, viz., at the posterior attachment of the gills, 
thus separating an iuhalent from an exhalent orifice, and dorsally 
from the posterior end of the hinge-line for about one-quarter of 
the distance between this point and the attachment of the gills. 
The margins of the mantle below the attachment of the gills are 
beset with small sensory papillae for a space which occupies about 
one-quarter of the extent of the mantle-margin from the attach- 
ment of the gills to the anterior hinge-line " 

" A small posterior pedal retractor is present in Mulleria, situ- 
ated immediately above, or anterior to the posterior adductor, and 
exhibiting the typical relations of that muscle to the organ of 
Bojanus and to the nerve-cords." 

" The Mantle Cavity. The branchial cavity is large and entirely 
open below. The supra-branchial (anal) chamber opens poste- 
riorly by a wide slit; it consists of a large median chamber behind 
the posterior adductor muscle, where it receives the opening of 
the anus. Under the adductor this chamber becomes divided into 
three by the union of the primary branchial filaments with the 
body -wall on either side." 

" Still further forward, the middle of these three chambers 
becomes divided by the intervention of the visceral mass. In the 
relationship of this cavity to the surrounding parts, Mulleria 
resembles typical Eulamellibranchiata ; there is, however, no 
communication, other than through the gill-slits, between the 
branchial and supra-branchial cavities, such as we meet with 
in a form like Anodonta" 

" The external apertures of the organ of Bojanus, and of the 
genital gland, open into the innermost subdivision of the supra- 
branchial cavity." 

" The Foot and Visceral Mass. The muscular foot present in 
most lamellibranchiata is entirely wanting in Mulleria, a condition 
which is correlated with the fixed abode of life of this form .... 



" The visceral mass is small and slightly bilobed posteriorly ; it 
exhibits a few superficial muscular fibres mainly connected with 
the posterior pedal retractor." 

" The Labial Palps. Two pairs of very small leaf-shaped 
labial palps are present ; they are equal in size, and exhibit 
oblique ridges on the opposed surfaces. The inner pair unite 
below the mouth to form the lower lip, while the outer pair, 
which become slightly expanded anteriorly, unite above the 
mouth/' 

" The Respiratory and Circulatory Systems : The gills of 
Mulleria consist of two lamellae on either side of the body ; of 
these the outer is slightly the smaller. Their relations to each 



MULLERIA. 199 

other, to the mantle and to the body-wall, are those of a typical 
Eulamellibranch. The same is true of their more intimate 
structure, for an examination of sections under the microscope 
reveals the fact that the two halves of each gill lamella are 
connected together by vascular mterlamellar junctions, and that 
the gill filaments themselves are further similarly united. In the 
individual filaments we find a supporting tissue, and firmer sup- 
porting rods are present. The whole structure recalls in its most, 
minute details that of the gills of Anodonta or Unio" 

" The heart consists of a muscular ventricle and two thin- walled 
auricles, the former giving origin to an anterior and a posterior 
aorta, the whole being enclosed in a fairly spacious pericardium. 
A mass of brown tissue forms the side-walls of the pericardium 
anteriorly ; this evidently represents Keber's organ." 

" The most striking feature seen in connection with the heart 
is the fact that the ventricle is not perforated by the rectum, but 
is situated some little distance below the latter, being separated 
from it by a portion of the genital gland. The pericardium, 
moreover, does not surround the rectum as in Anodonta, its roof 
being formed by the thick mass of the genital gland, within which 
the rectum lies embedded." . 

' ; The Kidney or Organ of Bojanus. The kidney is 

essentially that of a typical Eulamellibranch, and closely resembles 
that of Anodonta in every detail." 

" The Genital Organs : A large genital duct opens close to, 
but perfectly independent of, the external opening of the kidney 
in the super-branchial chamber. The genital gland is extensive ; 
it surrounds the coils of the intestine, and even extends round the 
rectum above the pericardium." 

" The Alimentary Canal : The mouth practically leads direct 
into the stomach, an oesophagus, as such, not being present. The 
digestive glands are situated below and at the sides of the stomach, 
into which they opsn. There is no crystalline style or " fleche 
tricuspid." The intestine is fairly long, and bent on itself several 
times ; before leaving the visceral mass it enlarges abruptly ; this 
point evidently represents the junction of the mid-gut with the 
hind -gut. The latter passes dorsally and continues to enlarge, 
becoming considerably dilated just in front of the heart ; from 
this point it runs posteriorly, and gradually diminishes in size, 
finally opening into the super-branchial chamber above the adductor 
muscle. The hind-gut is characterized by the possession of a 
longitudinal infolding of its ventral wall, forming what is known 
as a typhlosole." 

" The Nervous System : The only point of interest connected 
with the nerves is the presence of well-developed pedal ganglia ; 
this, in face of the entire suppression of the foot, suggests that 
the latter has only recently been aborted. The cerebro-pedal 
commissures are, however, somewhat short. Owing to the great 
transverse width of the mouth, the cerebral ganglia are widely 
separated, and their transverse connective is consequently long." 



200 GLAUCOMYID^;. 



Suborder CONCHACEA. 

Family GLAUCOMYID^. 

Subfamily GLAUCOMYINJE. 

Shell transversely eloDgate, thin, covered with a periostracuin ; 
hinge bearing three cardinal teeth in each valve ; lateral teeth 
absent ; ligament external, elongated; pallial line sinuous. 

Animal inhabiting either fresh or brackish water ; siphons very 
long, united ; gills unequal, the external the smaller and appendi- 
culate ; foot small. 

Distribution. India ; China ; Malaysia. 

Genus TANYSIPHON. 

Tanysiphon, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, i, 1858, p. 408, pi. 12. 
TYPE, Tanysiplion rivalis, Benson, from Bengal. 

Range. Gangetic Delta. 

Original description : " Testa subincequivalvis, iuaBquilateralis, 
transverse oblonga, umbonibus prominentibus obtusis, extremi- 
tatibus (postica maxime) hiantibus, margine superiori subarcuato, 
ventrali subrecto. Cicatrix siphonalis elongata ^ longitudinis 
testa? invadens. Valvse dextra dentes tres, 1 anterior angustus 
prominens intrans, 2 laminares transversi, medianus prominens, 
posterior major obtusus ; valvre sinistra3 dentes duo, anterior 
bilobatus, posterior major. Ligamentuni duplex, externum 
parvum ellipticum, vix convexiusculum, internurn lineare t'oveam 
posteriorem occupans, demum laminam cardinalem perpendi- 
culariter truncans. Epidermis tenuis. Area interior test* nitida, 
non margaritacea. 

Some of the teeth are apt, in large specimens, to become 
obsolete. 

Benson makes the following remarks on the animal : 

" The siphons closely resemble those organs in My a truncata, 
Linn., Woodward, *p. 317, fig. 220. Both are united in a finely 
annulated compressed scabbard nearly equalling the length of the 
shell. A raphe or seam appears along the inferior margin of the 
scabbard. The free extremity is surrounded by tentacula, which 
are distant, and of unequal length. The orifices of the siphons 
are papillar ; that of the branchial siphon, the larger, is provided 
with minute tentacula, but the orifice of the exhalant siphon is 
naked. The small foot is hatchet-shaped, with the posterior 
margin notched. Both the siphons and the foot are wholly 
retractile, and highly sensitive. The foot is sometimes extended 
and tongue-shaped, but generally of the outline represented." 



TAXYSIPHO2T. 201 

"The specimens received in spirits show that the mantle is 
closed at the basal edge, presenting narrow openings at either 
extremity for the passage of the siphonal sheath and foot. The 
suture is nearly straight, scarcely undulate. The foot is thick 
and cartilaginous, broad, and with a pit or depression at the 
anterior end, and laterally hamate, or bent like the crook of a 
walking-stick, the point being towards the hinge-side and the 
hinder edge straight, not concave." 

324. Tanysiphon rivalis, Benson* 

Tanysiplion rivalis, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, i, 1858, p. 408, 
pi. 12 B, figs. 1-3 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 47. pi. 116, 
figs. 1 & 4. 

Original description: Testa tenui, transverse oblonga, antice 
breviori obtusa, postice longiori, angustiori, extus tenuiter stria ta 
et irregulariter remote rugosa, epidermide pallide cornea ; natibus 
decorticatis latis prominentibus, umbonibus obtusis ; valvis male 
congruentibus, per spatium breve cardinale et ventrale soluin 
tactum exhibentibus ; humero umbonali antico breviter compressi- 
usculo ; area interiori caerulescenti-alba. 

Long. 11, lat. 21, diam. 9 mm. 

Hob. Streams in the neighbourhood of Calcutta. 



Family CYKENIDJB. 

Subfamily CYRENIK/E. 

Shell equivalve, closing tightly, with umbones often eroded, 
covered with a periostracum, not pearly, trigonal or roundly 
ovate ; hinge usually bearing two or three cardinal teeth and both 
anterior and posterior laterals ; ligament external, prominent : 
pallial line simple or sinuous. 

Animal fluviatile, lacustrine or estuarine ; with anteriorly open 
mantle; generally furnished with two siphons of variable size, 
seldom a single (anal) one ; foot large, without byssus in the adult 
state; palpes triangular; gills joined behind, unequal, the outer 
the shorter. 

Distribution. Asia ; Africa ; America ; Australia. 

Genus CYRENA. 

Cyrena, Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert, v, 1818, p. 551. 

Venus (pars), Chemnitz, Martini & Chemnitz, vi, 1782, p. 333, 

pi. 32, fig. 336. 

Cyclas (pars), Bruguiere, Encycl. Meth. 1792. 
Cyanocydas, Ferussac, Diet. Sci. Nat. xii, 1818. 
Polymesoda, Eafinesque, Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. fit IS at. v, 

p. 219. 



202 CYEENIDJE. 

Mactra, Brongniart, Mem. Vincent, 1823, p. 81, pi. 5, fig. 8. 
Gelonia, Gray, Synop. Brit. Mus. 1844, p. 75. 
Cyrena. Prime, Cat. Corbiculidae, 1869-70, p. 141 ; Clessin, in 
Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 101. 

TYPE, Cyrena ceylonica (Chemnitz) ; Ceylon. 

Range. Tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, 
Oceania and Australia. 

Shell oval or subtrigonal, rather convex, solid, covered with a 
periostracum generally of a brownish-green or yellow hue ; each 
valve bearing three somewhat divergent cardinal teeth ; the right 
valve bearing four unequal short lateral teeth, of which the 
anterior are more nearly situate to the cardinals than the posterior, 
and the outer smaller than the inner ; the left valve bearing but 
two lateral teeth, one anteriorly and one posteriorly ; pallial line 
generally entire. 

Animal with very short siphons, large, compressed, trigonal foot, 
gills of unequal size, and triangular labial palpes. 

325. Cyrena ceylonica (Chemnitz). 

Venus ceylonica, Chemn. in Martini & Chemnitz, vi, 1782, p. 333, 

pi. 32, fig-. 336. 

Venus coaxans, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1788, p. 3278, fig. 336. 
Cyclas zeylanica, Lamarck, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. vii, 1806, p. 420. 
Cyrena zeylanica, Lamarck, An. sans Vert, v, 1818, p. 554; Prime, 

Cat. Corbiculidae, 1863, p. 6. 
Cyrena ceylonica, Lamarck, Prime, Cat. Corb., 1869-70, p. 143, 

Gen. Cyrena, no. 12; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, 

pp. 102-103, pi. 17, figs. 1 & 2, pi. 18, figs. 1 & 2. 
Cyrena ceylanica, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 1878, pi. 19, sp. 11. 

Shell large, solid, subtrigonal, subcompressed, high, subequi- 
lateral, covered with a thin, yellowish epidermis, with fringed 
striae : posterior side obtusely two-angled, rather concave in front 
of the anterior angle ; flattened, much sloped behind the posterior 
angle ; anterior side rather short, latero-dorsal flattened, sloped. 
(Sowerby.) 

Hob. Ceylon. 

The dimensions here given are those of three specimens in the 
British Museum Collection : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 62 51 47 mm. 

Lat. 65 50 48-5 mm. 

Diam. 35-5 27'25 27 mm. 

326. Cyrena impressa, Desliayes. 

Cyrena impressa, Deshayes, P. Z. S. xxii, 1854, p. 18 ; Cat. Brit. 
Mus. 1854, p. 249. 

Original description : Testa ovato-subcirculari, obscure sub- 
quadraugulari, valde inaequilaterali, turgida, mediocriter crassa; 



CYEEXA. 



203 





Fig. 25. Cyrena imprcssa, Desh. 
(Type.) Nat. size. 



204 CTKENIDJE 

epidermide viridi-glaucescente, transversim tenuissime laininata, 
postice inferneque atro-virente, lamellis saepius crispis ; umbonibus 
minimis, oblique antice curvatis, decorticatis, acutis, parum 





Fig. 1&. Cyrena imprcssa, Desh. ; hinge of. Nat. size. 

prominentibus ; latere antico-declivi, rectilineo, inferne obtuso ; 
margine suporiore convexiusculo, postico latere subtruncato, sulco 
impresso ab umbone descendente distincto ; lamina cardinal! lata, 
dentibus primariis tribus angustis, elongatis, prominentibus, apice 
profunde furcatis, dente laterali antico conico, brevi, compresso, 
postico longiore. 

Long. 87, lat. 92, diam. 52 mm. 

Hab. Java (Jukes}-, Philippine Islands (Cuminy)-, Australia; 
Ceylon (fide Brit. Mus.). 

Type in the British Museum. 



CYRENA. 205 



327. Cyrena sinuosa, Deshayes. 

Cyrena zeylanica, Mousson, Moll. Java, 1849, p. 89, pi. 12. 

Cyrena sinuosa, Desh., P. Z. S. xxii, 1854, p. 18; Cat. Brit. Mus., 
Conchif. 1854, p. 249; Prime, Cat. Corbiculidae, 1863, p. 6, 
1869-1870, p. 147, no. 70; Sowerby, Con. Icon. 1878, pi. 7, 
sp. 26 ; ? ? Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, r pp. 228-229, 
pi. 45, fig. 1 

Original description : Testa ovato-rotundata, tumida, cordi- 
formi, solida, valde inaequilaterali, epidernride fusco-fuliginosa, 
transversim tenue lamellosa vestita ; latere antico brevi. rotundato, 
postico subtruncato, latere supero-posticali sulco, profundo, 
sinuoso, decurrente separate ; umbonibus tumidis, brevibus, 
saepius erosis ; ligamento aiigusto, partim infosso ; valvis intus 
albis ; cardine crasso, utroque latere tridentato, deutibus obliquis, 
mediano et postico valvse dextrae bifidis ; dentibus lateralibus 
brevibus, antico crasso, conico, apice acuto. 

Hob. Java. Ceylon, jide Sowerby. 

Type in the British Museum. 

The following dimensions are those of specimens in the 
National Collection, nos. 1 and 2 being the type specimens from 
Java and no. 3 a specimen labelled " China." 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 68 63 73 mm. 

Lat 71 68 78 mm. 

Diam 43 38 42mm. 

Clessin's figure in the Conch. Cab. 1879, pi. 45, fig. 1 is 
certainly not that of Deshayes' species. 

328. Cyrena bengalensis, Lamarck. 

Cyrena bengalensis, Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert, v, 1818, p. 554 ; 
Delessert, Recueil, 1841, pi. 7, figs. 6a-6 d; Prime, Cat. Corb., 
vi, 1865 ; 1869-70, p. 142, Gen. Cyrena, no. 5; Sowerby, Conch. 
Icon, xx, 1878, pi. 7, sp. 23 ; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 
1879, pp. 107-108, pi. 13, figs. 1 & 2, pi. 17, tigs. 4 & 6. 

Venus bengalensis, Lister, Hist. An. pi. 345, fig. 182. 

Cyclas bengalensis, Ferussac, Cat. 1837, p. 20. 

Curena turgida, Lea, Philadelphia, Pa., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
v, 1832, p. 109, pi. 18, fig. 51 ; Hanley, Descrip. Cat. 1844, p. 93, 
pi. 14, fig. 50. 

Shell solid, tumid, thick, subtrigonal, blackish-brown, roughly 
striated ; anterior side high, very short, sloped, full ; posterior 
side produced, dorsal margin with a long slope, truncated at the 
end, very slightly excavated in front of the angle. (Sowerby.) 

Hob. Bengal. 



206 CYBENIDJB. 

The following are the dimensions of three specimens in the 
British Museum Collection : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long. . , 47-25 42 41-25 mm. 

Lat 52-5 48 43 mm. 

Diam 31-75 26-5 28 mm. 

329. Cyrena tennentii, Hanley. 

Cyrena tennentii, Hanley, P. Z. S. xxvi, 1858, p. 23 ; Prime, Cat. 
Corbiculidse, 3869-70,' p. 148, no. 75; Clessin, in Martini & 
Chemnitz, 1879, p. 240. 

Original description : Testa ovato-subtrigona, solicla, ventricosa, 
insequilaterali, sublsevigata, epidermide tenui impolita fusco- 
lutescente vestita : umbonibus tumidis, decorticatis, valde promi- 
nentibus, vix obliquis ; latere antico anguste -rotundato ; latere 
postico longiore subattenuato, ad extremitatem obtuse rotundato ; 
margine ventrali arcuato ; margine dorsali antice declivi, convexo, 
postice subdec]ivi, convexiusculo ; lunula nulla ; superficie interna 
albido-violascente ; dentibus lateralibus brevibus, validis, x obtusis ; 
antico approximate, postico remoto : sinu palliari brevissimo, 
acutissimo. 

Long. 27-75, lat. 38 mm. 

Hob. Ariho River (flowing into the Gulf of Manaar), Ceylon. 

In a note appended to the description the author states that 

" the hinge-margin is strong, and the cardinal teeth of 

the right valve peculiarly large. The inner disk, beneath the 
umbones, has a redder tint ; there is neither a lunule, nor any 

indication of an umbonal ridge." 

j 

330. Cyrena proxima, Prime. 

Cyrena proxima, Prime, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. viii, 1864, 
pp. 85-86. fig. 34. 

Original description : Testa ovato-suborbiculari, suba2qui- 
laterali, subinflata ; latere antico rotundato, postico subobtuso ; 
pagina interna candidissima; cardine crasso, lato ; dentibus cardi- 
nalibus angustis, divergentibus, majoribus bifidis ; umbonibus 
parvulis, integris, inclinatis, iucurvis, approximatis ; striis 
obsoletis ; epidermide viridi, nitente induta. 

Long. 63, lat. 67, diam. 37 mm. 

Hob. Siam ; Sulinan Island, Mergui (fide Brit. Mus.). 

The following note is appended to the description : 

"The shell is oval-suborbicular, nearly equilateral, and some- 
what inflated. The anterior side is rounded, the posterior is 
subobtuse. The beaks are small, they curve inwardly and are 
approximate. The valves are solid. The interior is white. The 
hinge is broad. The cardinal teeth are narrow and divergent, 
the two principal ones are bifid. The anterior lateral tooth is 



CYRENA. BATISSA. 207 

conical and the posterior are somewhat elongated and flattened. 
The striae are more or less obsolete. The epidermis is light green 
and polished. The ligament is narrow, elongated, and not 
prominent." 

The only specimens of this species which the author has been 
able to see are those in the British Museum, two in number, 
which, though they agree well with Prime's description and figure, 
are much smaller, having soinewhat the appearance of young 
specimens ; their measurements being as below : 

1. 2. 

Long 43 46 mm. 

Lat 47-5 49 mm. 

Diam 24 24-5 mm. 



331. Cyrena galathese (Morch). 

Cyrena (Corneocyclas) (jahithea (Reinhardt MS,), Morch, Cat. 

Conch. Kierulf, 1850, p. 32, pi. 2. 
Cyrena yalathea, Prime, Cat. Corb., 1863, p. 6 ; 1869-70, p. 144, 

no. 33. 

Original description : Testa cordato-trigona, insequilatera, 
turgida, concentrice striata, postice longiore, truncata, antice et 
inferne angulata, umbonibus distantibus, prominentibus ad 5 
anter. sitis ; lunula rhomboidali, medio carinata ; area lanceolata, 
convexa, ligamento tumido duplo longiore. Dentibus lateralibus 
interne fovea impressa ; d. 1. posteriore v. sin. triangulari 
compresso ; pone ligarnenturn sito ; d. lunulari v. s. conico, 
dentibus cardinalibus aproximato. Dentium cardinalium 2 
anterioribus v. s. et 2 posterioribus v. d. bifidis, dente card, 
posteriore v. s. lineari, v. d. obsolete. Limbo augusto, nitido. 
Impressione musculari semilunari, posteriore rhomboidali, duplo 
majore. Colore albo, dentibus cardinalibus et fundo cavitatis 
flavescentibus. Epidermide nigrescente, antice radiis obsoletis. 

Long. 100, lat. 120, diam. 74 mm. 

Hab. Galatea River, ]S"icobar Islands. 



Genus BATISSA. 

tiatissa, Gray, A. M.N. H. ser. 2, xi, 1853, p. 38. 

Cyprina, Cyclas, Bruguiere, Encycl. M3th. 1792. 

Cyrena, Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert, v, 1818, p. 553. 

Venus, Gray, in Wood, Index Test., Suppl. 1828, pi. 2, fig. 13 : 
Deshayes, Cat. Brit. Mus. 1854, p. 219 ; Prime, Cat. Corbiculida^ 
1869-70, p. 138 ; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab. 
1879, p. 206. 

TYPE, Batissa tenebrosa, Hinds, from the Fiji Islands. 
Range. Nicobar Islands ; Malay Archipelago ; N. Australia and 
Tropical Islands of the Pacific. 



208 

Shell roundedly ovate or subtrigonal, solid, thick, dorsal margin, 
bearing on each valve three divergent cardinal teeth ; lateral teeth 
curved, elongated, striate, unequal, shorter in front than behind, 
double on the right valve ; ligament large, projecting, thick ; 
pallial impression simple or subsinuous. 

Animal having two short siphons, united at their base ; mantle 
lobes simple or fringed. 

332. Batissa inflata, Prime. 

Batissa influta, Prime, P. Z. S. xxviii, 1860, p. 320 ; Cat. Corbi- 
culidse, 1869-70, p. 139; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 1878, 
pi. 4, sp. 10; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, pp. 218- 

Original description : Testa magna, orbiculari, inaequilaterali, 
crassa, solida, obtusa, epidermide rugosa, fusco-nigrescente vestita ; 
umbonibus productis, erosis obliquis ; valvis intus albis et violaceis ; 
dentibus cardinalibus crassis, subaequalibus ; lateralibus angustis. 

Long. 83, lat. 96, diam. 57 mm. 

Nab. Nicobar Islands. 

333. Batissa similis, Prime. 

Batissa similis, Prime, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N.Y. vii, 1859, 
p. 112; viii, 1866, p. 229, fig. 60 ; Cat. Corbiculidre, 1863, p. 5 ; 
1869-70, p. 140, no. 25; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, 
p. 213, pi. 36, fig. 3. 

Original desertion: Testa ovato-orbiculari, oblique inaequi- 
laterali, tumida, solida, depressa, intus superne alba, postice 
inferneque violacea, epidermide nigra vestita, sulcis remotis, 
umbonibus profunde erosis ; dentibus cardinalibus tribus, sub- 
aequalibus, caniculatis ; lateralibus elongatis, angustis, subaequal- 
ibus, serrulatis. 

Long. 53, lat. 79, diam. 34-5 mm. 

Hob. Nicobar Islands. 

334. Batissa capillata, Preston. 

Batissa capillata, Preston, Rec. Ind, Mus., Calcutta, ii. 1908, p. 207. 
pi. 16, fig. 39. 

Original description-. Shell subtrigonal, inequilateral, thick, 
rather inflated, covered with a dark, brownish-black periostracum 
except in the umbonal region where erosion has taken place, 
sculptured with coarse, irregular, concentric growth-lines which 
are obliquely crossed posteriorly with coarse hair-like ridges ; 
anterior side somewhat angularly rounded ; posterior side slightly 
produced, obscurely angled ; ventral margin rounded ; ligament 
large, prominent ; cardinal teeth broad and very coarse ; anterior 
lateral teeth elongated, finely striate ; interior of shell purplish- 
white, the purple staining deepening posteriorly. 

Long. 74, lat. 72 mm. 

Hob. Andaman Islands (Warneford). 



YELOBITA. 209 



Genus VELORITA. 

Velorita, Gray, 1834, in Griffith, Animal Kingdom, xii, 1834, pi. 31, 

fig. 6 (misprinted Villerita) ; Synops. B. M. 1842, p. 75 ; P. Z. S. xii. 

1847, p. 184 ; A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xi, 1853, p. 38. 
Cyrena, Gray, Ann. Phil. n. ser. ix, 1825, p. 137. 
Venus, Gray, in Wood, Index Test., Suppl. 1828, pi. 2, fig. 14. 
Villorita, Bunker. 1846 (misprint) ; Cyrenodontce, Johannis, Mag. 

Zool. 1836, pi. 70. 
Velorita, Deshayes, Cat. Brit. Mus., Conchif. p. 240 ; Prime, Cat. 

Corbiculidee, 1869-70, p. 141 ; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 

1879, p. 224. 

TYPE, Velorita cyprinoidcs, Gray, from the Philippine Islands. 

Range. S. India and the Philippines. 

Shell triangularly cordiform, solid, with well marked lunule ; 
umbones prominent; dorsal margin thick ; hinge bearing on each 
valve three oblique cardinal teeth of which the anterior in the 
right and the posterior in the left valve are obsolete ; lateral teeth 
finely striate : the anterior short, strong, triangular, closely 
situated to the cardinal teeth ; the posterior compressed, elongated, 
diverging ; pallial line leaving a sinus scarcely noticeable at its 
junction with the posterior adductor impression of the valves. 
Animal unknown. 



335. Velorita cyprinoides (Gray}. 

Cyrena cyprinoides, Gray, Ann. Phil. n. ser. ix, 1825, p. 136. 

Venus cyprinoides. Gray, Wood, Index Test., Sappl. 1828, pi. 2, 
fig. 14. 

Velorita cyprinoides,Gv^,j\n Griffifth, Animal Kingdom, xii, 18o4, 
pi. 31, iig. 5 ; Deshayes, Cat. Brit. Mus., Conchif. 1854, pp. 240- 
241; Prime, Cat. Corbiculidse, 1869-70, p. 141, no. 2; Clessin, 
in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, pp. 224-295, pi. 42, tigs. 3 & 4. 

Original description: Testa cordato-trigona, gibba, olivacea, 
concentrice sulcata ; cardine incrassata, dentibus lateralibus 
Isevibus, anteriori conico caeteris approximate. 

Long 31*5, lat. 33*5 mm. 

The habitat is undoubtedly Southern India, the original locality 
" Japan " and later " ? Philippines," the latter quoted by Prime 
in his ' Cat. Corbiculidae,' are certainly both erroneous. 

The following dimensions are taken from authentic Malabar 
Coast specimens in the British Museum ; 

1. 2. 3. 

Long. . . 41 31 29 mm. 

Lat. ...... 39 29 28'5 mm. 

Diam. 30 22'5 21 mm. 



210 CYREXIDJE. 

336. Velorita cochinensis (Hanley). 

Cyrena cochinensis, Hanley, P. Z. S. xxvi, 1858, p. 54-3. 

Cyrena corbiculiformis, Prime, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

I860, p. 80 ; Cat. Corbiculidse, 1863, p. 6. 
Velorita cochinensis, Hanley, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. viii, 1866, 

p. 236, tig. 66 ; Prime, Cat. Corbiculidee, 1869-70, p. 141, no. 1 ; 

Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 225, pi. 30, figs. 5 & 6. 

Original description: Testa cordata, crassa, valde inaequilate 
obliqua, ventricosa seii tumida, epidermide nitente, nigro- 
fuscescente vestita, sulcis remotiusculis antice exarata, postice magis 
minusve laevigata ; extremitate lateris antici perbrevis rotundata ; 
lateris postici attenuati productique, in adultis obtusa, in junioribus 
rotundato-acuminata : niargine ventrali arcuato antice valde, 
postice parum acclivi : natibus obliquis, erosis, prominentibus : 
lunula nulla, loco ejus autem sulcorum experfce: area dorsali postica 
lata, retusa : superficie interna alba, niargine cardinali violaceo 
sparso, concavitate noununquairi rubescente, sinu palliari vix ullo : 
dentibus primariis vix emarginatis ; lateralibus haud mariifeste 
striatis, sub lente autem minutissime corrugate -granosis, antico 
brevi et valde approximate, postico elongato et remotiore. 

Long. 47, lat. 38 mm. 

Hab. Cochin. 

In a note following the original description, the author makes 
the following remarks : " .... The primary teeth are somewhat 
peculiar, and have a tendency to shelve outwards ; the hinder 
and central ones are not strictly bifid, but exhibit a kind of 
shallow sublateral grooving; the front one in the right valve 
is very short, and simply pyramidal. The beaks are probably 
acute when young; the surface below the epidermis is reddish 
purple." 

The following measurements are taken from three specimens 
in the British Museum, labelled as coming from the Malabar 
Coast : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 34 35 32 mm. 

Lat..... 3625 35'75 33mm. 

Diam. . 23-5 25-5 22 mm. 



Genus CORBICULA. 

Corbicula, Megerle, Mag. Gesell. Naturf. Berlin, v, 1811, p. 56. 

Tellina \pars), Muller, Verm, ii, 1774, p. 205. 

Venus (pars), Chemnitz, in ^Martini & Chemnitz, Conch.-Cab. vi, 

1782, p. 320. 

Cyclas (pars), Bruguiere, Encycl. M<th. 1792. 
Cyrena, Lamarck, A mm. sans Vert, v, 1818, p. 552. 
Venulites, Schloth., Petref. 1820, p. 200. 

TYPE, Corbicula flumindlis, Megerle. 

Ranye. Tropical and subtropical regions of the world. 



COBBICULA. 211 

Shell subtrigonal or cordiform, subequilateral ; with umbones 
prominent, concentrically grooved ; hinge bearing three divergent 
cardinal teeth in each valve ; lateral teeth elongated, compressed, 
lamelliform, finely striate ; right valve having two lateral teeth 
both anteriorly and posteriorly, the left valve having but one on 
each side ; pallial line usually continuous. 

Animal having the edge of the mantle ornamented with small 
conical tentacles ; siphons very short, closely situate ; orifices 
papillary ; foot tongue-shaped, rather large, laterally compressed ; 
palpes triangular, large ; gills joined behind. 

337. Corbicula fluminalis (Muller). 

Tellina fluminalis, Mull. Verm, ii, p. 205. 

Venus jluminalis, Chemn. iii Conch.-Cab. vi, p. 319, pi. 30, fi?. 320 ; 

Wood, Ind. Test. pi. 8, fig. 113. 
Tellina Jluminalis, Schroter, Flussconch. p. 195, no. 20 ; Gmel. 

S. N. p. .3242, no. 79. 

Cy das fluminalis, Blainv. D. S. N. xii, p. 280. 
Cyrena fuscata, var.?, Lamk. An. s. Vert, v, p. 522, no. 4. 
Corbicvla fluminalis, Deshayes, Cat. Brit. Mus., Conchif. 1854, 

pp. 222-22:1 

Original description: Testa crassa, dura valde gibba, opaca, 
antice versus cardinem latior, quam postice, extus viridis crebro 
striatim. imbricata ; striae aperturae parallel*. Intus cyanea ; 
cardiuis dentes inedii sex cum fossulis, tres nempe in quavis 
valvula, utriusque ligamento proximus emarginatus est ; laterales 
utrinque elongati, sulcique excipientes, crenulati sunt. 
Hob. India, etc. 

The following dimensions are those of two specimens in the 
British Museum : 

1. 2. 

Long 39-25 38 mm. 

Lat 45 43'25 mm. 

Diarn 26 23*5 mm. 

Var. holstiana, Schlesch, Calcutta, Eec. Ind. Mus. ii, 1908, 
p. 308. 

Said to be more arched than the typical form. 
Hab. Hoti-Mardan, near Peshawar. 

338. Corbicula fluminea (Mutter). 

Tellina jluminea, Miill. Verm, ii. p. 206; Gmel. S. N. p. 3243, 

no. 80. 

Cyclas jluminea, Blainv. D. S. N. xii, p. 280. 
Venusflumima, Chemn. in Conch.-Cab. vi, p. 320, pi. 30, figs. 322, 

323, an eadem species ? ; Schroter, Einl. iii, p. 159, no. 13 ; 

Wood, Ind. Test. pi. 8, fig. 114. 
Tellina fluviatilis, Schroter, Flussconch. p. 193, pi. 4, figs. 2 & b. 



212 CYRE1S T ID,E. 

Cyrena fluminea, Lamk. An. s. Vert, v, p. 553, no. 5 ; Hanley, 
Descr. Cat. p. 92; Philippi, Abbild. Conch, p. 2, no. 3, pi. 1, 
fig-. 3, an eadem apecies ? : Mousson, Moll, de Java, p. 87, no. 2, 
pi. 15, fig. 3. 

Original description : Testa gibba, opaca, antice et postice 
versus cardinem fere sequalis, extus viridis, costis latis transversis 
quasi circulis doliaribus circumdata ; intus albida semicirculo 
nigro notata. Cardinis dentes et fossula3, uti in pracedente. 
Hob. India, etc. 

The dimensions given below are those of three specimens in the 
British Museum : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 35-25 37 32-5 mm. 

Lat 42 41-25 37 mm. 

Diam. . 23 29-25 23 mm. 



339. Corbicula fluviatilis (Mtiller). 

Tellina fluviatilis, Miiller, Verm, ii, 1774, p. 206. 

Cyclasfluviatilis, Blainv. D. S. N. xii, p. 280. 

Venus fluviatilis, Chemnitz, Conch. -Cab. vi, p. 330, pi. 30, fig 1 . 321 ; 

Wood, Ind. Test. pi. 8, fig. 116. 

Cyrena fuscata, Lamk. An. s. Vert, v, p. 552, no. 4, exclus. var. . 
Cyrena fluviatilis, Philippi, Abbild. Conch, p. 3, no. 5, pi. 1, fig. 5. 
Cyrena manilensis, Philippi, Zeitschr. fiir Malak. 1841, p. 163. 
Corbicula fluviatilis, Deshayes, Cat. Brit. Mus., Conchif. 1854, 

p. 226; Prime, Cat. Corb. 1869-70, Gen. Corbicula, no. 41, 

p. 132; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, pp. 151-152, 

pi. 27, figs. 3-5. 

Original description: Testa latior et tenuior proxime prse- 
cedentibus, fusco-virens, in cardine antice et postice aBqualis 
latitudinis, lineis elevatis cincta area interjecta angustior, quam in 
T. [(7.] fluminea t variolosa. Facies interna dentesque cardinis 
uti in proxime praecidentibus. 

Hob. India, etc. 

The dimensions of a specimen in the British Museum Collection 
are : Long. 17, lat. 19-25, diam. 12-25 mm. 

340. Corbicula parjvula. Prime. 

Corbicula parvula, Prime, Proc. A cad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1861, 
p. 127; Cat. Corb. 1863, p. 4 ; Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. viii, 
1864, p. 76, fig. 25 j Cat. Corb. 1869-70, no. 76. 

Original description : Testa ovato-transversa, depressiuscula, 
tenui, aBquilaterali, extremitatibus rotundata ; umbonibus magnis, 
tumidis, erosis ; sulcis irregularibus ; epidermide viridi flavescente, 
irregulariter maculata vestita ; intus pallide violacea ; dentibus 
primariis crassis, lateralibus aequalibus. 

Long. 10, lat. 12, diam. 5 mm. 

Hab. India. 



CORBICUEA. 213 

341. Corbicula agrensis, Prime. 

Corbicula agrensu, Prime, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1861 
p. 128; Cat. Corb. 1863, p. 3; Ann. Lye. Nat. llist. N.Y. viii, 
1864, p. 75, tig. 24 ; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 175, 
pi. 30, fig. 23. 

Original description : Testa ovato - transversa, aequilaterali, 
laevigata, depressiuscula, extretnitatibus rotundata ; epidermicle 
viridi-olivacea induta ; sulcis regularibus, distantibus ; intus 
pallide violacea ; umbonibus tumidis. erosis ; cardiac angusto, 
deiitibus cardinalibus crassis, lateralibus aequalibus teriuiter 
serrulatis. 

Long. 8, lat. 8, diain. 5 mm. 

Hub. Agra. 

342. Corbicula subradiata, Prime. 

Corbicula subradiata, Prime, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1861, 
p. 127 ; Cat. Corb. p. 4, 1863; Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. viii, 
1864, p. 75, tig. 23 , Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz. 1879, 
p. 174, pi. 30, tig. 21. 

Original description : Testa trigona, sequilaterali, compressi- 
uscula, antice paulo latiore et obtusiore, striis regularibus, 
epidermide viridi, nitente induta ; intus pallide violacea ; um- 
bonibus niinimis, acutis antice obliquaris, violaceo-subradiatis 
cardine angusto, dentibus priraariis crassis. 

Long. 12, lat. 14, diam 7 mm. 

Uab. India. 

343. Corbicula cashnrirensis, Deshayes. 

Corbicula cashmirensis, Deshaye*, P. Z. S. xxii, 1854, p. 344 ; 
Cat. Brit. Mus., Conchif. p." 224 ; Prime, Cat. Corb. 1869-70, 
Gen. Corbicula, no. 18 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 55, pi. 138, 
tigs. 2 & 3; Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 166, 
no. 57, pi. 29, figs. 17 & 18. 

Original description: Testa ovato -transversa, subtrigona, 
sequilaterali, tumidula, transversim tenue et regulariter striata, 
striis postice evanescentibus, epidermide nitida, atro-virescente, 
in latere postico tenuissime striata vestita; umbouibus tumidis, 
prominentibus, prot'unde erosis, violaceis ; cardine angusto, in 
valva dextra bideutato, in altera tridentato, valvulae dextrae dente 
antico laterali aduato, dentibus primariis divergentibus, sim- 
plicibus, lateralibus longis, angustis, antico longiore, cardine 
proximo; valvis iutus violaceis, impressione pallii margine valde 
remota. 

Nab. Casbmir; also recorded from Belucbistan, Avantipura, 
etc. 

Of the following dimensions (none having been given with the 
description), Nos. 1, 2, & 3 are taken from the three specimens 



214 CYRENID^E. 

which form the type series ; the dimensions of No. 4 are those 
of the specimen figured by Hanley and Theobald in the Conch. 
Ind. All four are now in the British Museum. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 

Long 32-25 30 33 25-75 mm. 

Lat 37 36 38-5 29 mm. 

Diam. . 10-25 20-5 12 16 mm. 



344. Cor bicula trigona, Desliayes. 

'Corbicula trigwia, Deshayes, P. Z. S. xxii, 1854, p. 344; Cat. 
Brit. Mus., Conchif. p. 224 ; Prime, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. 
viii, 1866, p. 221, fig. 53; Cat. Corb. 1869-70, Gen. Cvrbiculn, 
no. 102; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 62, pi. 15-5, fig. 7 ; Clessiu, in 
Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 203, no. 126. 

Original description : Testa trigona, aeqnilaterali, compressi- 
uscula, antice paulo latiore et obtusiore, utroque latere asqualiter 
declivi, transversim tenue et regulariter striata, epidermide viridi, 
nitente induta, intus pallicle violacea ; umbonibus minimis, 
brevibus acutis ; lunula ovata, angulo obsolete circumscripta, 
pallida laevigata ; cardine angusto, bidentato, altero tridentato ; 
dentibus lateralibus aequalibus, tenuissime striatis, antico leviter 
arcuato. 

Hob. Pondicherry. 

The dimensions given below are taken from three specimens in 
the type series in the British Museum : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 11-25 10 1075 mm. 

Lat 12-75 11-75 12-25 mm. 

Diam 7 *3 7 mm. 

* Single valve. 

345. Corbicula striatella, DesTiayes. 

Corbicula striatella, Deshayes, P. Z. S. xxii, 1854, p. 344 ; Cat. 
Brit. Mus., Conchif. p. 224 ; Hanley, Photog. Conch. ; Prime, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. viii, 1864, p. 74, fig. 22 ; H. & T., 
C. I. 1876, p. 55, pi. 138, figs. 7 & 10; Clessin, in Martini & 
Chemnitz, 1879, p. 167, no. 58, pi. 29, figs. 19 & 20, pi. 30, 
fig. 20. 

Corbicula violacta, Prime, op. cit. 1861, p. 28, teste Prime ; 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1861, p. 128. 

Original description : Testa ovato-transversa, depressiuscula, 
subaequilaterali, extremitatibus sequaliter obtusa. transversim 
regulariter lirata, liris ad latus posticum evanescentibus, epi- 
dermide pallide virescente, nitida vestita, intus atro-violacea ; 
umbonibus brevibus, atro-violascentibus, pallidiore biradiatis ; 



COimiCTLA. 21 

cardine angusto, tridentato, dentibus inaequalibus, divaricatis, 
postico longiore et angustiore, dentibus lateralibus elongatis, 
angustis subaequalibus, arcuatis, tenuissime striatis. 

Bab. Pondicherry ; also recorded from Scinde. 

The dimensions of Nos. 1 and 2, as given below, are those of 
the two type specimens; those of No. 3 refer to the largest 
Scindian specimens. All are in the British Museum. 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 14-25 10 18'5 mm. 

Lat 18 12-25 21 mm. 

Diam lo 6'25 1275 mm. 

346. Corbicula huttoniana, Clessin. 

Corbicula huttoniana, Clessin, Mai. Blatt. ix, n. f. 1887, pp. 77-78, 
pi. 3, fig. 5. 

Original description: Testa mediocris, ovata, subsequilateralis, 
solidula, modice inflata, nitidula, anguste regulariterque sulcata ; 
epidermide flavescente vel fuscescente ; antice vix acuminatim 
rotundata ; postice rotundata ; umbonibus modice inflatis et 
prominentibus ; margine dorsali valde arcuato, marg. postico 
et antico rotundata, marg. ventrali convexo ; ligamentum curtum, 
tenue ; lunula profunda, elongata ; cardine modice angusta ; 
dentibus lateralibus a?qualibus ; margarita violaeea.. 

Long. 17, lat. 21, diam. 11 rum. 

Hab. Ahimdabad. 



347. Corbicula subnitens, Clessin. 

Corbicula subnitens, Clessin, Mai. Blatt. ix, n. f. 1887, p. 77. pi. 3, 
fig. 5. 

Original description : Testa parva, triangulata, tenuis, ventri- 
cosa, subaequilateralis, paullulum nitidula, levissime irregulari- 
terque striata, obscure olivaceo-viridescente ; autice rotundata ; 
postice acuminatim rotundata; umbonibus inflatis, prominentibus; 
margine dorsali arcuato ; marg. postico et antico rotundato ; 
marg. ventrali convexo ; ligamentum curtum, Ia3ve ; lunula incon- 
spicua ; cardine angustissimo ; dentibus lateralibus subaequalibus ; 
margarita violacea. 

Long. 13, lat. 13, diam. 12 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon? 

348. Corbicula solida, Clessin. 

Corbicula solida, Clessin, Mai. Bliitt. ix, n. f. 1887, p. 76, pi. 3, 
fig. 4. 

Original description: Testa parva, fere triangulata, sub- 
sequilateralis, soliclissima, nitidula, epidermide olivaceo-flavescente, 



216 CYKENID^E. 

regulariter auguste sulcata ; antice panllulum acuminata, postiee 
eubtruncata : umbonibus inflatis, valde prominentibus, erosis ; 
margine dorsali fere angulato, niarg. antico rotundato, marg. 
postico rotundato, marg. ventraii valde convexo ; ligamentum 
curtum, solidum, lunula triaugulata ; cardine valde incrassato ; 
dentibus cardinalibus crassis ; dent, lateral, paulluluin arcuatis, 
subsequalibus ; margarita saturate violacea. 

Long. 12, lat. 11-5, diam. 10 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Type in the British Museum. 

349. Corbicula nevilli, Clessin. 

Corbicnla nevilli, Clessin, Mai. Blatt. ix, n. f . 1887, pp. 70-71, pi. 2, 
fig. 5. 

Original description : Testa parvula, modice solidula, ovato- 
rotundata, nitidula, sulcis distantibus ornata, epidermide flaves- 
cente ; antice vix subacuminata, rotundata ; postiee subtruncata, 
umbonibus paullulum elevatis, erosis ; margine dorsali valde 
arcuato, marg. antico rotundato, m. postiee rotundato, m. inferioir 
convexo ; ligamentum crassium ; lunula profunda ; cardine in- 
crassato ; dentibus cardinalibus tenuibus ; dent, later, sub- 
sequalibus, subarcuatis ; margarita violacea, sub umbo. pallida. 

Long. 12, lat. 14-5, diam. 9 mm. 

Nab. Assam. 

350. Corbicula occidens, Deshayes. 

Corbicnla occidens, Deshayes, Cat. Brit. Mus. Conchif. 1854, p, 223 ; 
Prime, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. viii, 1866, p. 220, fig. 51 ; 
H. & T., C. I. p. 55, pi. 138, figs. 8, 9. 

Original description: Testa ovato-transversa, aequilaterali, 
tumida, tenui, transversim regulariter lirato-sulcata ; epidermide 
flavescente-viridi vestita, ad umbones atro-violascente vel breviter 
albo radiata ; umbonibus tumidis, brevibus, laevigatis ; lunula 
ovato-lanceolata, pallida, Isevigata ; valvis intus profunde fusco- 
violascentibus ; cardine angusto, inaequaliter tridentato ; dentibus 
lateraiibus brevibus augustis albis tenue striatis. 
Hab. 8ikkim ; Moradabad, Bengal. 

The dimensions given below are taken from three specimens in 
the British Museum : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long.. 13-25 11-25 12-25 mm. 

Lat 16 13-25 15 mm. 

Diam 8 7 7*75 mm. 

351. Corbicula iravadica, Blanford. 

Corbicula iravadica, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xlix, 1880, pp. 221-222 ; 
II. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 62, pi. 115, fig. 8. 



CORBICULA. 217 

Original description: Testa fere aequilateralis, rhomboideo- 
ovata, ventricosa, solidiuscula, concentrice striato atque costulis 
subremotis, iuterdum plus ininusve obsoletis, ornata, epidermide 
olivacea induta, intus violacea : latere antice ante umbones 
prominentes subhorizontali ; tune fere regulariter convexo, postico 
declivi, oblique subrruncntulo, demum subangulato, margine 
ventral! modice arcuato ; ligamento postice subito contracto. 

Long. 9, lat. 10'5, diam, 7 mm. 

The author also gives the dimensions of another specimen 
as : 

Long. 8'5, lat. 1V5, diam. 7 mm. 

Hub. Maudalay. 



352. Corbicula regularis, Prime. 

Corbicula regularis, Prime, P. Z. S. xxviii, I860, pp. 321-322 ; 
Cat. Corb. 1869-70, Gen. Corbicula, p. 136, no. 90 ; H. & T., 0. 1. 
1876, p. 55, pi. 138, tigs. 5, 6 ; Clessm, in Martiiii & Chemnitz, 
1879, p. 202. 

Original description : Testa ovato-transversa, aequilaterali, intus 
violacea, epidermide viridi-navescente ; umbonibus disparibus ; 
dentibus cardinalibus tribus, inaequalibus, lateralibus pra3longis, 
striatis. 

Long. ]7'75, lat. 22-75, diam. 11 mm. 

Bab. Deccan ; also recorded from Madras. 

353. Corbicula bengalensis, Deshayes. 

Corbicula bengalensis, Deshayes, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 344 ; Cat. Brit. 
Mus., Conchif. p. 224; Prime, Cat. Corb. 1864, p. 4; 1869-70, 
Gen. Corbicula, p. 128, no. 10; Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. viii, 
1866, p. 200, fig-. 52 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 62, pi. 155, fig. (5 
(Corbicula bengalica [sic 1, Deshaves) ; Clsssin, in Martini & 
Chemnitz, 1879, pp. 138-139, pi. 24, fig. 20. 

Original description : Testa ovato-subtrigona, depressiuscula, 
tenui, subsequilaterali, obsolete transversim striata, striis, regu- 
laribtis, distantibus, epidermide flavescente, nitidissima, intus alba, 
in medio macula rubescente notata ; umbonibus miuimis acutis ; 
cardine angusto, trideutato, altero bidenlato ; dentibus lateralibus 
angustissimis, argute striatis. 

Hob. Bengal ; also recorded from the Eiver Jumna. 

The dimensions given below are taken from the two specimens 
forming the type series in the British Museum : 

1. 2. 

Long 8 8 mm. 

Lat 10 9-75 mm. 

Diam 5 *2 mm. 

* Single vulve. 



218 CTREXIDJE. 



354. Corbicula "bensoni. 

Corbicula bensoni, Deshayes, P. Z. S. xxii, 1854, p. 345 ; Cat. Brit. 

Mus., Vener. p. 224. 
Corbicula bensonii, Desh., Prime, Cat. Corb. 18C9-70 ; Gen. Corbicula, 

p. 128, no. 11. 
Corbicula bensoni, If. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 65, pi. 138, figs. 1,4; 

Clessin. in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 198, no. 111. 

Original description ; Testa ovato-transversa, subtrigona, aequi- 
laterali, laevigata, nitida, depressiuscula, extremitatibus, obtusa, 
utroque latere sequaliter declivi, epidermide tenui, nitente, vires- 
cente vel flavescente induta, aliquantisper lineis interruptis,fuscis 
radiata, intus alba, vel pallide violascente ; cardine angusto, tri- 
dentato, dentibus insequalibus valde divaricatis, dentibus lateralibus 
prselongis, angustissimis, tenuissime striato-crenatis, antico paullo 
longiore. 

Hob. Bengal ; also recorded from the River Jumna. 

The dimensions given below are taken as follows : No. 1 from 
the single valve representing the type, and Nos. 2 and 3 from two 
other specimens in the British Museum : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long ....... 7-5 7 7 mm. 

Lat ......... 9-25 9-5 9-25 mm. 

Diam ....... *2 4-25 *2 mm. 

* Single valves. 

355. Corbicula consanguinea, Prime. 

Corbicula consanguinea, Prime, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y. viii, 
1867, p. 417; Cat. Corb. 1869-70, p.' 129, no. 22; Clessin, in 
Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 199. 

Original description : Testa ovato-transversa, compressiuscula, 
sequilaterali ; epidermide viriclescente, nitente vestita ; regular! ter 
striata ; umbonibus brevibus, atro-violascentibus ; valvis intus 
violaceis ; cardine lato. 

Long. 14, lat. 16, diam. 9 mm. 

Hob. India. 

The type is inaccessible to the compiler of the present volume ; 
the author, however, states that though closely allied to C. stria- 
tella.) Deshayes, the lateral teeth are stronger and much broader 
in the present species. 

356. Corbicula sylhetica, Preston. 

Corbicula sylhetica, Preston, Eec. Ind. Mus. Calcutta, ii, 1908, 
pp. 47-48 (fig. in text). 

Original description: Shell nearly equilateral, tumid, sub- 
trigonal, pale olive-green, sculptured with fine irregular concentric 



COBMCULA. 219 

striae ; anterior side rounded ; posterior side somewhat angularly 
rounded; lateral margins sloped; ventral margin rounded, slightly 
contracted towards the posterior side ; umboes large ; interior of 
shell purplish-white. 

Long. 1O5, lat. 12 mm. 

Hob. Phenchooganj, Sylhet, Assam. 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Allied to C. iravadica, Benson, but is more trigonal and more 
swollen. 



357. Corbicula quilonica, Benson. 

Corbicula quilonica, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, vi, 1860, p. 260. 

Corbicula quilonensis [sic] Benson ; Prime, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N.Y. viii, 1866, p. 224, fig. 56; Cat. Corbiculidse, 1869-70, 
p. 135, no. 87; Clessin, in Martini Chemnitz, 1879, p. 135, 
pi. 24, fig. 10. 

Original description: Testa inaequilaterali, trigono-rhomboidea, 
gibba, tenui, concentrice subremote costata, costis postice evanes- 
centibii'i, sulcis intermediis latioribus, sub lente decussatim striatis, 
albida vel lutea, radiis fuscis angustis ornata ; umbonibus promi- 
nentibus, apice fere eroso ; latere antico breviore, valde arcuato, 
angustiore, postico striato, latiore ; superue et basin versus 
ungulata ; margine ventrali mediocriter arcuato ; ligamento ob- 
longo intra nates attenuate ; pagina interna valde concava, albida, 
maculis radiisque purpureis ornata ; dente mediana valvae dextra? 
duplici, dentibus lateralibus brevibus serrulatis. 

Long. 8, lat. 10, diam. 5'5 mm. 

Hub. Xear Quilon, in (probably brackish) ponds. 

The author adds a note to his description from which the 
following may be quoted : " The younger shells are more gibbous 
towards the uinbones in proportion to their length than the larger 
specimens. A tawny-yellow epidermis covers the fresher speci- 
mens. The rays are numerous, more or less broad, sometimes 
appearing as mere lines of small spots, and occasionally spreading 

so as to make the surface appear nearly black The 

shortness of the lateral teeth, on the anterior side especially, is a 
notable character, as well as the insequilateral form, which is- 
more conspicuous in the young than in the adult shell." 

358. Corbicula alberti, Preston, nom. nov. 

Corbicula violacea, Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, pp. 180- 
181, p. 30, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell small, almost equilateral, swollen, fairly thin, polished, 
shining, strongly and distantly ribbed, covered with a dark olive- 
brown periostracum ; anterior side scarcely attenuated, rounded ;. 
posterior side dilated, truncated ; vertical transverse section 
cordate ; horizontal contour ovate ; umbones broad, inflated, 



220 CYBENIDJE. 

prominent, eroded ; anterior margin rounded, gradually passing 
into the lower margin ; ventral margin much arched ; posterior 
margin curved, somewhat truncated ; ligament short, thin ; 
ligamental sinus shallow, slightly rounded ; escutcheon and lunule 
absent ; interior of shell polished only at the margins ; nacre dark 
violet; hinge margin narrow; lateral teeth long, the anterior 
longer than the posterior, the inner almost uniting with the 
outer, those portions bordering on the cardinal teeth somewhat 
swollen, the swelling increasing very gradually ; muscle and 
mantle scars shallow. 

Long. 17, la't. 19, diam. 12 mm. 

Jlab. ? India. 

Type in Sandberger Coll., Wurzburg. 

The name "violacea" having been already used by Prime in 
the genus, it becomes necessary to substitute another, hence that 
now given to the present species. 

359. Corbicula inflata, Clessin. 

Corbicula inflata, Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 179, 
pi. 31, figs. 14, 15, 

Shell of medium size, solid, much inflated, almost equilateral, 
sculptured with polished, strong, somewhat distant, concentric 
riblets, covered with a yellowish-brown periostracum ; anterior 
side short, scarcely attenuated ; posterior side broadly truncated ; 
umbones broad, much inflated, very prominent, strongly recurved ; 
vertical transverse section broadly cordate ; horizontal contour 
roundly ovate ; anterior margin somewhat curved towards the 
lower margin, sharply rounded, gradually passing into the strongly 
arched Literal margin ; posterior margin somewhat curved, 
gradually passing into the lower margin ; escutcheon and lunule 
scarcely noticeable ; ligament short, very strong ; ligamental 
sinus shallow, angularly notched ; interior of shell polished only 
at the margins, nacre pale violet ; hinge margin fairly strong ; 
cardinal teeth solid, much elevated, furrowed above ; lateral teeth 
very long, the anterior much longer than the posterior ; margin of 
the hinge much dilated in the vicinity of the two cardinal teeth ; 
muscle-scars shallow. 

Long. 32, lat. 36^ diam. 24 mm. 

ffab. India. 

Type in Sandberger Coll., Wurzburg. 

360. Corbicula picta, Clessin. 

Corbicula picta, Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, p. 179, pi. 31, 
figs. 12, 13. 

Shell small, somewhat iuequivalve, slightly inflated, moderately 
solid, strongly concentrically ribbed, the ribs being rather closely- 
set, slightly shining, covered with a dark-green periostracum and 
ornamented with black, radiate bands running from the umboues 



COIIBICULA. 221 

to the outer margins, the umbones themselves being of a reddish 
colour; anterior side short, broadly rounded; posterior side 
broad, somewhat truncate ; vertical transverse section narrowly 
cordate ; horizontal contour almost cordate ; uinbones large, i'airly 
prominent, much eroded ; anterior margin somewhat curved, 
rounded, gradually passing into the ventral margin ; ventral 
margin slightly arched ; posterior margin strongly curved, sepa- 
rated from the ventral margin by a distinctly marked, somewhat 
rounded angle ; ligament short, somewhat thick ; ligamental sinus 
very shallow, slightly notched, elongate ; interior of shell dull, 
except at the outer margin where it is polished, violet coloured ; 
hinge margin rather narrow, bearing three cardinal teeth, the two 
posterior comparatively strong, grooved above, the third or 
anterior one very weak ; lateral teeth long, somewhat curved ; 
muscle scars very shallow ; mantle scar distinct. 

Long. 21, lat. 22, diam. 14 mm. 

Hal. ? India. 

Type in Sandberger Coll., Wiirzburg. 

361. Corbicula indica, Clessin. 

Corbicula indica, Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 1879, pp. 143-144, 
pi. 25, figs. 21-23. 

Shell of medium size, slightly inflated, solid, somewhat inequi- 
lateral, with glossy, strongly ribbed surface, the ribs somewhat 
close and acute, covered with an olive-green periostracum and 
painted with dark spots ; growth striae not distinct ; anterior side 
somewhat shortened and pointed, posterior side slightly elongated, 
truncate ; umbones large, scarcely prominent, very slightly re- 
curved, eroded ; vertical longitudinal section broadly lanceolate ; 
vertical transverse section very narrow, cordate ; horizontal contour 
triangularly ovate ; anterior margin somewhat rouudedly pointed ; 
lower margin strongly curved ; posterior margin forming a some- 
what broad and short beak considerably roundedly angled on both 
sides ; escutcheon and lunule scarcely visible ; ligament short, 
fairly strong and prominent ; ligamental sinus short, shallow 
triangular ; interior of shell dull, the outer margin only slightly 
polished, tinged with violet, dorsal or hinge-margin white ; 
cardinal teeth not divergent ; lateral teeth very elongate and 
finely ribbed, equally strong over their whole length, the anterior 
much stronger than the posterior ; muscle and mantle scars both 
shallow. 

Long. 23, lat. 28, diam. 15 mm. 

Hab. ? India. 

Type in Gruner Coll., No. 518. 

362. Corbicula regia (Benson MS.), Clessin. 

Corbicula regia (Benson MS.), Clessin, in Martini & Chemnitz, 

1879, p. 267, pi. 43, fig. 5. 
Shell small, ovate, solid, much inflated, very inequilateral, with 



222 

strong fairly distant ribs, periostracum yellowish-brown ; anterior 
side elongated, pointedly rounded, posterior side much shortened, 
obtuse, umbones much inflated, prominent, generally eroded ; 
upper margin curved, gradually passing into the side margins ; 
anterior margin narrow, rounded, gradually passing into the much 
arched and long ventral margin ; posterior margin slightly curved 
and merging into the dorsal and ventral margins ; ligament short, 
fairly strong and prominent ; interior of shell dull, nacre white, 
marked with fine narrow brown rays, of which three are equally 
divided over the surface, running from the umbones to the ventral 
margin, while the remaining two run towards the hinge-margin, 
terminating at the lower side of the latter ; hinge-margin fairly 
broad ; cardinal teeth small, not grooved above ; lateral teeth 
elongated, depressed, the posterior being shorter. 

Long. 9, lat. 10, diam. 8 mm. 

Hab. ? India. 



363. Corbicula noetlingi, v. Martens. 

Corbicula ncetlingi, v. Martens, Arch. Natg. Berlin, Ixv, 1899, p. 47, 

pi. 4, figs. 7-9. 
? Cyrena moussoniana (Deshayes), Sowerby in Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

xx, 1878, pi. 17, fig. 97 (non moussoni, Desh., Cat. Brit. Mus., 

Conchif. 1854, p. 227). 

Shell posteriorly elongated, in form somewhat resembling Venus 
or Tapes; dorsal margin descending more obliquely anteriorly 
than posteriorly ; anterior margin rounded ; posterior margin 
rounded above and below, vertically descending in the median 
region ; ventral margin moderately rounded ; concentric ribs 
strong, narrow, half the breadth of the spaces between, anteriorly 
and posteriorly becoming gradually reduced to slight striae ; 
hinge strong ; lateral teeth long, the anterior one bent at the 
anterior end, the posterior one fairly straight ; interior of shell 
bright violet. 

Long. 22, lat. 29, diam. 14 mm. 

Hab. Hpaung, N. Shan States (in a small pool). 

The author mentions a small variety which is still more posteriorly 
elongated and rounded (fig. 7 in the reference to the original 
description quoted above). 

Long. 16, lat. 22, diam. 11 mm. 

Bab. Bakmio. 



364. Corbicula arata (Sowerby). 

Cyrena arata, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 1878, pi. 17, fig. 93. 

Original description : Testa ovata, tenuissima, rosacea, turni- 
dissima, liris magnis, distantibus ad latera suboblique terminantibus 
rugata, epidermide aurantio-flavida induta ; latere antico rotundo, 



SPHvEUIUM. 223 

vulde iuflato ; latere postico magis producto, subattenuato, anguste 
truncate. 

Hub. Tenasserim. 

The dimensions of a specimen in the British Museum are: 

Long. 14, lat. 17, diam. 11 mm. 

A pale, uniform greenish-yellow shell ornamented with distant, 
concentric riblets ; somewhat elongately ovate and considerably 
inflated, especially remarkable for its thin texture. 



Subfamily SPH^RIIJSLE. 

Shell small, ovate or trigonal, lateral and cardinal teeth more 
or less developed, ligament external ; palliul line entire. 
Distribution. World-wide. 



Genus SPHJERIUM. 

Sphcerium, Scopoli, 1777 ; Scopoli, Introduct. p. 397. 

Chama, d'Argenville, Hist. Nat. Lithol. Coiichyl. no. 9, 1742, 

pp. 368, 374, pi. 31. 

Teltina, Linnaeus ; Linn. Syst. Nat. 10th ed. i, 1758, p. 678. 
Cardium, DaCosla, Brit. Conch. 1778, p. 173, pi. 13, tig. '2, 
Cydas, Bruguiere, Encycl. M6th. 1792, pi. 301. 
, Humphrey, Mus. Calonn. 1797, p. 59. 




Amesoda, llatinesque, Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. et Nat. v, 1820, p. 310. 
Cycladitex, Kriiger, Gesch. Urwelt. ii, 1823, p. 469. 
Pisidium, Verany, Descris. Geneva, ii, 1846. 

TYPE, Sphcerium corneum, Linn. ; Europe. 

Range. World-wide. 

Shell thin, ovate, convex, subequilateral, covered with a fine 
periostracuin, smooth or concentrically striate ; umboues lightly 
anteriorly inclined ; anterior side rather shorter than the 
posterior ; margins of the valves simple ; cardinal margins 
thin; cardinal teeth small, that in the right valve often bifid, 
fitting between two oblique teeth in the left ; both anterior and 
posterior lateral teeth compressed, divergent, somewhat pro- 
jecting, lameUiform double in the right valve, single in the left ; 
ligament external, weak, scarcely apparent ; pallial line entire. 

Animal having the edge of the mantle smooth ; foot tongue, 
capable of considerable extension ; siphons moderately long, 
united at their base, separated at the end ; the branchial siphon 
somewhat the longer and broader ; siphonal orifices simple ; 
palpes triangular, lanceolate; gills unequal, the outer the shorter 
and fringed. 



224 CYRENIDJE. 

365. Sphaerium avanum, Theobald. 

Spharium avanum, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1873, xlii, pt. 2, p. 209, 
pi. 17, fig. 6. 

Original description : Testa quadrate rotunda, tumida, antice 
rotundata, postice truncata, dilatata, equilateral!. Epidermide, 
leyiter et concentrice corrugata, postice levissime radiata. Um- 
bonibus prominentibus, tumidis, osculantibus ; colore pallide 
stramineo, tribus fasciis purpureis umbonalibus radiatim picto. 
Ligumento umbones versus inflate. 

Long. 6-6, lat. 7*5, diam. 5'2 mm. 

Hob. Near Ava. 

366. Sphserium indicum (Deshayes, MS.\ A. Adams. 

Spharium indicum (Desh. Ms.), A. Adams, P. Z. S. xxii, 1854, 

p. 342, & Cat. Brit. Mus., Conchif. p. 265. 
Oyclas indica, Deshayes, H. & T., C. I. pp. 62-63, pi. 155, fig. 9. 

Original description : Testa ovato-rhomboidea, tumidula, sequi- 
laterali, tenui, pellucida, albo-grisea ; Jatere antico late rotundato, 
postico obtuse truncate ; umbonibus tumidis, paruin prominenti- 
bus ; cardine obsolete bidentato, dentibus lateralibus candidis, 
antico majore, trigono, acuto, postico paulo breviore, valvis sub 
lente tenuissime striatis. 

No dimensions, habitat, or figure are given with the above 
description, but the habitat attached to the types is " Loodiana, 
Punjab," and that given in the Conch. Ind. " Moradabad" ; the 
following dimensions are taken from three specimens of the type 
series in the British Museum : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long 5-25 5-5 4'7o mm. 

Lat 6-25 6-25 5 mm. 

Diam 3*5 3'75 2'75 mm. 

Genus PISIDIUM. 

Pisidium, C. Pfeiffer, Naturgeschichte deutscher Land- imd Sliss- 
wasser-Mollusken, i, 1821, p. 123, pi. 1, fig. 19; ii, 1825, p. 33; 
iii, 1828, p. 68. 

Tellina, Miiller, V^rm. ii, 1774, p. 205. 

Spharium, Scopoli, Introduct. 1777, p. 397. 

Cardium, Poli, Test. Sicil. i, 1791, p. 65, pi. 16, fig. 1. 

Cyclas, Draparnaud, Tabl. Moll. 1801, p. 106. 

Pera, Cordula, Leach, in litt. in Mus. Brit. 1818-20. 

Phymesoda, Rafinesque, Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. et Nat. v, 1820, p. 319. 

Gallileja, Costa, Corrisp. Zool. 1839. 

Pisum, Gray (non Megerle), P. Z. S. xv, 1847, p. 184. 

Musculium, Gray (non Link), 1851. 

Pisum, Deshayes (non Megerle), Cat. Brit. Mus., Conchif. 1854. 

Musculium, H. & A. Adams (non Link). 

Pisum, H. & A. Adams (non Megerle), Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1858. 



PISIDIUM. '225 

TYPE, Pisidlum amnicum, Jenyiis, from Europe aucl .Northern 
Asia. 

llanae. World-wide. 

Shell small, roundly ovate or obliquely wedge-shaped, inequi- 
lateral ; anterior side longer than the posterior; umbones slightly 
inflated behind; hinge bearing two cardinal teeth in each valve ; 
right valve bearing four laterals and the left valve two ; lateral 
teeth strong ; ligament situated on the smaller (posterior) side ; 
pallial line entire. 

Animal having the mantle lobes smooth and open ; furnished 
with a single short (anal) siphon, with non-papillary orifice ; 
branchial cavity indistinguishable from the pedal cleft ; foot 
large, tongue - shaped, capable of great extension ; palpes- 
triangular, elongated. 

367. Pisidium clarkeanum, G. *J- H. yevill. 

Pisidium clarkeanum, G. & II. Nevill, J. A. S. 13. xl, 1871, p. 9, 
pi. 1, figs. 4, 4 -4 d. 

Original description : Testa ventricosa, pblonga, valide in&qui- 
lateralis, pallide fulva ; postice elongata ac rotundata, antice 
rotundate truncata ; umbonibus prominentibus ac tumidis ; super- 
ficie coneentrice confertim striata, striis tenuibus, regularibus. 

Long. 4*5, lat. 5*5, diam. 8*5 mm. 

Hal. Tanks, etc., close to the Dainuda at Moisraka. 

368. Pisidium hydaspicola, Theobald. 

Pisidium hydaspicola, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 147. 

Original description : Testa sub-cordate ovali tenui, exilissime- 
striata, antice rotundata, postice vix truucata. 
Long. 3-4. lat. 4, diam. 2-5 mm. 
Hab. Kashmir, near Shypion. 




Fig. 07. Pisidium hydaspicola, Tlieob. (Tjpe.) x4. 

To the above scanty description is added the following note : 
" The nearest ally of this species is P. clarkeanum, Xev., but it 
more rounded in front and hardly truncated behind." 
The type is in the British Museum. 



2 CYEEXIDJE. 

309. Pisidium bombayanum, Theobald. 

Pisidium bombayanum, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlv, 18 TO, p. 188. 

Original description: Testa subovali, tumida, tenui, iniequi- 
laterali, postice rotundata, vix truncata ; antice rotundata 
elongata; exilissime et confertim concentrice striata ; dente 




Fig. 28.- 1 & 2. Pisidium bombayanum t Tlieob. (Type.) Xo 
3. Hinge of the same, x 3. 

cardinal! minutissimo ; dentibus lateralibus in valva dextra 
geminis, in sinistra autem singulis. 

Long. 3-70, iat. 4-30, diam. 2*70 mm. 

Hah. Western Ghats (W. T. Blanford). 

Type in tbe British Museum. 

370. Pisidium atkinsonianum, Theobald. 

Pmdium atJtinsonianum, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 189. 
Original description : Testa subovali, vix tumida, iuaequi lateral!, 




Fig. 29. Pisidium atJcinsonianum, Theob. (Type.) x4. 

antice eiongata, utrinque rotundata, tenui, pnllide cornea, conceu- 
trice striatula ; et lineis paucis (4-5) increment! fortioribus 
signata. 

Long. 2'70, Iat. 3-30, diam. 1 80 mm. 



PISIDIUM. 227 

Hab. Tonglu, Sikkim, at an altitude of 10,000 ft. ( \V. S. 
Atkinson). 

The following note is appended to the description : " Com- 
pared with P. bombai/amim this is a smaller, natter and less 
inequilateral shell. . . ." 

Type in the British Museum. 

371. Pisidium nevillianum, Theobald. 

Pisidium nevillianum, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 188. 

Original description : Testa trigona, tumidiuscula, tenui, 
inaequilaterali, postice modice convexa, antice elongata, sub- 
acuminata, exilissime concentrice striata ; umbonibus tavigatis. 

Long. 3-50, lat. 3'60, diam. 2'20 mm. 

Nab. Near Burki. 

Appears to be chiefly distinguishable from its allies by its 
trigonal form. 

372. Pisidium stewarti, Preston. 

Pisidium stewarti, Preatou, Rec. Ind. Mas., Calcutta, iii, 1909, 
p. 116 (fig. in text). 

Original description : Shell sub-trigonal, rather inflated, pale 
yellowish brown colour, marked with fine concentric lines 3f 
growth ; umbones large ; anterior later.il teeth somewhat curved 
with broad grooves between, posterior lateral teeth broad and 
somewhat projecting in right, strong and sharply curved in left 
valve. 

Long. 2-25, lat. 3 mm. 

Nab. High Hill, Grompa, Gyantse Valley, Tibet, in a small 
stream, among moss and stones, 14,500 feet. 

The type-specimen is in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Two specimens only were obtained by Capt. F. H. Stewart, 
I. M.S.: its nearest ally would appear to be a fossil species from 
the tertiary deposits of Belgium *, there being no known recent 
form resembling it. 

373. Pisidium zugmayeri, Weber. 

Pisidium zuymai/cri, Weber, Zool. Jahrb. Jena, xxix, 1910, 
pp. 310-311. 

Ori' final description: Testa flavescens, satis solida, insequilatera, 
orbiculato-ovalis, parte posteriore abbreviata, obtusa, ventriosula, 
tenuissime striata, sulcis post intervalla interpositis, lineis incre- 
ment! signata ; umbones versus marginem posteriorem siti, rotun- 
dati, prominuli ; dentes cardiuales valvae sinistrse bini, ante 
umbones, superior (exterior) fere rectus, tennis, media parte 



* P. riticentianuni, B. B. Woodward, Cat. Brit. Spec. Pisidium in Co 
rit.Mus., 1913, pp. 127-128. 



. - .11. 
Q2 



1 28 SOLENJLDJE. 

inferiorem (interiorem) tegens, inferior crassior, prope dentem 
lateralem anticum, baud curvatus, altior exteriore ; dextra} 
singuli ; pauluin curvafci, parte sinistra ascendente tenues, parte 
dextra desceudente incrassati ; clentes laterales in valva sinistra 
bini, erecti, antice triangulafci ; postice uncinati, valva dextra bini 
postici et bini antici, bini exteriores (11011 semper exstantes) 
minimi ; interiores longi, triangulati. antice crassiores. 

Affinis Pis. scholtzii, Clessin*, differt forma dentium cardin. 
valvse sinistrse, situ deutium cardinalium, minore profund. 

Hob. Lake Walar, Kashmir. 

The author appears to have only been able to see two perfect 
specimens -which were both very young, lie therefore gives the 
following measurements taken from a series of single valves : 







1. 


2. 


3. 4. 5. 6. 




f Long. . . 


3 


3 


3 2-7 2-6 mm. 


Eight Valves. 


(TA* 


3-5 


3 


3-2 3 29 3-4 mm. 




^ jjitim. . . 


1. 


2. 


3. 


Three 
Left, Valves. 


f Long. . . 
4 Lat, . . 
[Diam.. . 


2-7 

3 

1 


3 
3-1 
1-1 


2-4 mm. 

2-8 mm. 
1 mm. 



The proportion between length and breadth is therefore 3'1 

to 2-8. 



Family 

Subfamily SOLENIN^S. 

Shell equivalve, transversely elongate, more or less gaping at 
each end, covered with a periostracum ; umbones not prominent; 
ligament external, on an elongate ridge; hinge very variable, 
bearing from one to three cardinal teeth on each valve ; lateral 
teeth wanting ; adductor scars in both valves distant ; pal Hal 
impression posteriorly more or less sinuous, pedal impressions 
well marked beneath the umbones or near the dorsal margin; 
external surface of the shell presenting a well-defined cellular 
structure, consisting of long prisms, very oblique in relation to 
the surface and showing the presence of nuclei ; internal surface 
nearly homogeneous ; non-nacreous. 

Animal, with the exception of Novaculina, marine or estuarine ; 
siphons usually short, in part united or entirely separate ; foot 
large, powerful, more or less cylindrical, elongated ; without any 
trace of byssogenous organs ; palpes variable in size ; gills straight, 
unequal, lengthened and enclosed in the branchial siphon. 

Distribution . World- w i de . 



P. scholtzii, Clessin=P. olitusale. 



NO VAC ULIXA . 229 

Genus NOVACULINA. 

Novaculina, Benson, Glean. Science, Calcutta, ii, 1830, p. 63. 

TYPE, Novaculina gangetica, Benson ; Rivers Jumna, Gumti, and 
Ganges. 

Range. Ganges System ; Andaman Islands. 

Original desertion : Shell subiuequivalve, inequilateral, trans- 
versely elongated; ligament external, communicating with the 
interior of the shell by an oblique channel. Beaks prominent. 
Hinge-line nearly straight. Two narrow entering teeth under 
the beak in one valve, generally three in the other. Syphonal 
scar very long. Extremities of the shell gaping. Epidermis easily 
detached when dry, folding over the edges and extremities of 
the shell, and connecting the hinge-margins. Interior glossy or 
dull, never pearly. 

Animal. Mantle with the basal-edges united, forming a tube 
which encloses the animal, longitudinally constricted at the 
suture. Foot proceeding from the anterior extremity, short, 
thick, cylindrical, and very muscular ; enlarged at the extremity 
into a disk, with a convex surface, the plane of which is at right 
angles with the axis of the foot and shell. Syphons separate, as 
long as the shell, when fully extended ; the anal one > or that 
nearest the hinge, half the thickness of the other ; apertures 
constricted, not ciliated. 

374. Novaculina gangetica, Benson. 

Novaculina gangetica, Benson, Glean. Science, Calcutta, ii (1830, 
Feb.), p. 63 (as genus Novaculina^ ; A. M. N. H. ser. 3, i, 
1858, pi. 12 B, fig. 4 ; H. & T., C. I. 1876, p. 47, jl. 116, fig. 7. 

Novaculina novaculina, Gray, A. M. N. H. xiv, 1854, p. 24. 

Solecurtus novaculina, Reeve. Con. Icon. 1874, pi. 7, figs. 31 a& b. 

Tayelus gangeticm, Clessin, in Conch. Cab. 1888, pp. 81-82, pi. 23, 
fig. 6. 

Original description : Shell oblong, with truncated extremities, 
white, slightly violaceous internally, epidermis olivaceous. 

The above meagre description was supplemented later * by 
Benson as follows : " Epidermis easily detached when dry, 
folding over the edges and extremities of the shell, and con- 
necting the hinge-margins." 

No measurements being given by the author, the following are 
taken from three authentic specimens in the British Museum : 

1. 2. 3. 

Long. 9-25 8'75 7 mm. 

L a t 25 20-5 19 mm. 

Diam 6 6 5 mm. 

Hub. Rivers Jumna, Gumti, and Ganges. 

* A. M. N. H. ser. 3, i, 1858, pp. 409-410. 



230 SOLENID.E. 

375. Novaculina andamanensis, Preston. 

Novaculina andamanensis, Preston, Rec. Ind. Mus., Calcutta, ii, 
p. 209, pi. 16, fig. 40. 

Original description : Shell oblong, elongate, inequilateral, con- 
stricted towards the middle, pure white, bearing traces o having 
been covered with a yellowish-brown periostracum, concentrically 
striate ; dorsal margin slightly sloped anteriorly ; ventral margin 
excavated in the middle, anterior side rounded ; posterior side 
produced, somewhat angled below ; umboes small. 

Long. 16-5, lat. 37'5 mm. 

ffab. Andaman Islands. 

The type is in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

The specimens on which the above species was based were col- 
lected in the Andamans by the late Eev. J. Warueford. It would 
seem to be scarce as, though several collections of Andaman Island 
material have since passed through the hands of the compiler of 
the present volume, no further specimen has come to light. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



abbreviata (Paludomus), 52. 

acanthica (Tiara (Plotia)), 36. 

acicida (Buccinum), 9. 

Acrostouia, 30. 

aculeata (Nerita), 57. 

acuminata (Bitliynia orcula var), 75. 

aeuminata (Liinncea (Limnaea)), 106. 

acuminata (Melania}, 12. 

acus (Melania), 12. 

acus (Pirena}, 9. 

acuta (Melania}, 11. 

acuta (Paludomus), 52. 

acutus (Flanorbis (Gyraulus)), 123. 

aerea (Paludomus), 57. 

-/Etheriidae, 197. 

yEtberiinse, 197. 

agrensis (Corbicula), 213. 

ulberti (Corbicula), 219. 

albus (Planorbis), 118. 

alucinans (Ampullarta), 103. 

alucinans (Pila), 103. 

amara (Melania}, 10. 

arnara (Tiara cybele var.), 10. 

a mar u la (Helix), 10. 

Amesoda, 223. 

Amiiicola, 68. 

amnicum (Pisidium), 225. 

ampullacea (Helix), 96. 

Ampidlaria, 96. 

Ampullartides, 96. 

ampulliformis (Paludina), 90. 

ampulliformis (Vivipara lecythis 
var.), 90. 

amygdala (Limncea}, 107. 

amygdalum (Limntea (Limnaja) acu- 
minata var.), 107. 

amygdalus (Lijmncea), 107. 

Ancylinae, 104. 

Ancylus, 10^. 

andamanensis (Novaculiua), 230. 

andamsnioa (Tiara (Striatella) nevilli 
var), 18. 

andersoniana (Paludoinns), 41. 



andersoniana ( Xodularia (Xodula ria)) 

andersonianus ( Unio), 143. 

Augarius, 115. 

annandalei (Paludomus), 50. 

annandalei (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 
l/o. 

annandalei (Vivipara), 92. 

annendalei ( Vivipara}, 92. 

anodontina ( Unto}, 175. 

anodontinus ( Unio), 175. 

appressa (Tiara (Striatella) nevilli 
var), 19. 

arata (Corbicula), 222. 

arafa (Cyrena), 222. 

Arcidje, 128. 

Arcidopsis, 196. 

Arcinae, 128. 

aroen&is (Melania), 11. 

aspera (Helix), 35. 

asper^^ta (Melania), 21. 

assamensis (Parreysia (Parreysia) 
f'avidens var.), 161. 

assamensis (Tiara (Acrostoma)). 31. 

assamensis (Viv para dissimilis A'ar.), 

88. 
associatus (Plauoi'bis (Gyraulus)). 

122. 

ater (Paunus), 9. 
ater (Strvmbus), 9. 
atkinsuiiianum (Pisidium), 226. 
atra (Melanopsis), 9. 
atra (Nerita}, 9. 
atra (Pirena}, 9. 
atropurpureus (Strombus), 9. 
auberiana (Palurlestrina), 67. 
auricidaria (Helix}, 111. 
auricularia (Limnaja (Gulnaria)), 111. 
auricidaria (Lymntea}, 111. 
auricularius (Lymnceus], 111. 
auriformis (Limnaia (Gulnaria)), 112. 
auriformis (Limiiceus}, 112. 
ava (Moitocondylcea}, 153. 



232 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



ava (Pseudoclon (Bineurus), 153. 
a van um (Sphaerimu), 224. 



baccata (Melania), 26. 

baceata (Tiara (Melanoides)), 26. 

baccifera (Melania variabilis var.), 

28. 

baccifera (Tiara (Melanoides)), 28. 
baccula (Paludoums), 53. 
baconi (Ancylus). 104. 
balteata (Melania), 22. 
balteata (Vivipara bengalensis var.), 

83. 
barrackporensis (Planorbis (Gyrau- 

lus)), 120. 

batana (Tiara (Tarebia);, 33. 
Batissa, 207. 
beddomeana (Tiara (Melanoides 

gloriosa var.), 22. 
Belgraudia, 67. 
bengalensis (Corbicula), 217. 
bengalensis (Cyclas), 205. 
bengalensis (Cyrena), 205. 
bengalensis (Paludind), 83. 
bengalensis ( Venus), 205. 
bengalensis (Vivipara), 83. 
bengalica (Corbicula), 217. 
ben-son ian us (Mi/cefopus). 132. 
bensoni (Corbicula), 218. 
bensoni (Margaron (Unio)), 132. 
bbanioensis (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 

163. 

bhaniocnsis (Unio). 163. 
bhaiuoensis (Vivipara dissimilis var.), 

88. 
biangulata (Bithynia stenotbyroides 

var.), 77. 
bicincta (Palndoinns (Philopotamis)), 

55. 

bilineata (Syinphano(a). 175. 
bilineatus (Margarita ( Unio)), 175. 
bilineatus (Margaron ( Unio)), 175. 
bilineatus ( Unio), 175. 
Bineurus, 153. 
birmconts ((7*1*0), 170. 
Bithinella, 66. 
Bithi)iiin(S, 70. 
Bithynia, 70. 
Bithyniinae, 70. 
blanfordiana {Hydrocoena), 4. 
blant'ordiana (Hydrocena (Georissa)), 

4. 

blanfordiana (Paludomus), 43. 
blauf'ordiana (Stenothyra), 81. 
bombayanum (Pisidiuua), 226. 
bonncaudi (Margaron (Unio}), 140, 
bonueandi (Nodularia (Noclularia)), 

140. 

bonneaudi ( Unio). \ 40. 
bowelli (Limncea), 114. 



bowelli (Liraiuiea (Buliranea)). 114. 
brevicanda (Limnaea (Gulnaria)), 111. 
brevispira (Tiara (Plotia) acanthica 

var.), 37. 

broti (Tiara (Tarebia)), 33. 
brunneus (Planorbis exustns var.), 

116. 

Buccinum, 95, 106. 
Bulimnea, 114. 
BiilimitK, 106, 128. 
Bulla, 128. 

burmanica (Paludomus), 43. 
burmanica (Vivipara siamensis var.), 

87. 
burmanus (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 

170. 

burmanus (Unio), 170. 
Bythinella, 66. 



caenosus (Planorbis (Segmentina)), 

127. 

caarulescens (Septaria), 7. 
cceruleus (Margarita ( Unio)), 136. 
ceeritleus (Margaron ( Unio)), 136. 
caeruleus (Nodularia (Nodularia)), 

136. 

cceruleus (Unio), 136. 
calatlms (Planorbis (Segmentina)), 

127. 
canaliculata (Tiara (Striatella) nico- 

barica var.), 19. 
canaliculatus (Crenmoconchus 

conicus var.), H6. 
candaharica (Unio marginalia var.), 

178. 
candaharica (Lamelliclens raargin- 

alis var.), 178. 

canefrianus (Laniellidens), 187. 
canningensis (Bithinella), 66. 
Canthyria, 134. 
cantori (Planorbis (Segmentina)), 

126. 

capillata (Batissa), 208. 
capillata (Neritina reticularis var.), 5. 
Cardium, 223, 224. 
carinata (Ampullaria globosa var.), 

98. 

carinata (Pila), 98. 
carinata (Vivipara naticoides var.), 

85. 

carinatus (Anculotus), 66. 
carinatus (Crernnoconchus), 66. 
carinulata (Bithynia ceraineopoma 

var.), 72. 

cashmirensis (Corbicula), 213. 
Catillus, 6. 

cattaroensis (Hydrocena), 1. 
celox (Scaphula), 129, 130. 
ceraineopoma (Bithynia), 71. 
cerameopoma (Palu'dina), 71. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



233 



ceranospatana (Bithynia), 71. 
cerasum (Limntea (Limnoea) acu- 

rainata var.), 108. 
cerasum (Limnteus), 108. 
ceylanica (Cyrena), 202. 
ceylanica (Paludina), 8',). 
ceylauicus (Ancylus), 101. 
ceylonensis (Theodoxis), 5. 
ceylonica (Cyrena), 202. 
ccylonica (Paludina), 89. 
ceylonica ( Venus}, 202. 
ceylonica (Vivipara), 89. 
Ckama, 223. 

charon (Tiara (Radina)), 14. 
chaudhurii (Nodularia (Noclularia)), 

140. 
cherraensis (Paludomus conica var.). 

39. 

chilinoides (Paludomus), 45. 
chilkaensis (Stenothyra), 82. 
chittagongensis (Paludomus conica 

var.), 40. 

chlamys (Litnneea), 108, 109. 
chlainys (Limiuea (Limnaea) acu- 

minata var.), 108. 
chocolatum (Melanin), 33. 
chrysis (Parreysia (Parreysia) favi- 

clens var.), 160. 

chrysis (Unio favidens var.), 160. 
Cinibur, 6. 

cincta (Amnicola), 69. 
cincta (Tiara (Melanoides) variabilis 

var.). 24. 

cinerea (Pila), 101. 
clarkeanum (Pisidium), 22."). 
clavata (Paludomus), 51. 
clavus (Tiara (Radina)), 12. 
coaxans (Venus), 202. 
cochinensis (Cyrcna), 210. 
cochinensis (Velorita), 210. 
cocklidium (Melcinia), 13. 
cochlidium (Tiara (Radina) clavus 

var.), 13. 
corapacta (Paludomus (Philo- 

potamis) sulcata var.), 54. 
corapacta (Tiara (Acrostorna) hiigeli 

var.), 31. 
compacta (Tiara (Melanoides) 

gloriosa var.), 22. 
coiupressa (Septaria), 7. 
compressus (Planorbis (Gyraulus)), 

118. 
comptus (Trapezoideus foliaceus 

var.), 193. 

comptus ( Unio), 193. 
Oonchacea, 200. 
concolor (Vivipara naticoides var.), 

85. 

coiifusa (Melania), 12. 
con f usa (Tiara (Radina) crenulata 

var.), 12. 



coniw. (Melon ia), 39. 

conica (Paludomus), 39. 

conica (Pila), 100. 

conicus (Cremnoconchus), 05. 

conicttt var. (Cremnoconchus), 65. 

consangumea (Corbicula), 218. 

consobrina (Lamellidens inargiualis 

subsp.), 180. 

consobrinus (Lamellidens), 180. 
consobrinus (Margaron (Unio)), ISO. 
conwbrinus ( Unio), 179, 180. 
constricta (Paludomus), 41. 
contracta (Paludomus (Philopotamis) 

sulcata var.), 53. 
con vexiusculus (Planorbis (G> raulus)), 

118. 

corbeti (Unio), 180. 
Corbicula, 210. 
corbiculiformis (C//rcna), 210. 
corbis (Margaron (Unio)), 169. 
corbis (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 109. 
corbis (Unio), 109. 
Cordula, 224. 
Coretus, 115. 
Cornea, 223. 

corneum (Spbffirium), 223. 
corneus (Planorbis), 115. 
Corneocyclas. 223. 
coromandelica (Physa). 128. 
coromandelictcs (Planorbis), 116. 
coronata (Melania), 44. 
cerporosa (Melania), 15. 
corriana (Unio marginalis var.), 

179. 

corrianus (Lamellidens), 183. 
corrianus (Lamellidens marginal is 

subsp.), 183. 

corrianus (Margarita ( Unio)), 183. 
corrianus (Margaron ( Unio)), 183. 
corrianus (Unio), 136, 176, 183. 
corruqata (AmpuUaria globosa var.), 
,98. 

corrugata (Mya), 154. 
corrugata (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 

154. 

corrugata (Pila), 98. 
corrugata ( Unio), 155. 
corrugata (Unio (Potamida)}, 155. 
corrugatus (Margarita ( Unio)), 155. 
corrugatus (Margaron (Unio)), 155. 
costata (Melania), 11. 
costigera (Bithynia (? Fossarulus)), 

78. 

crassa (Melania), 39. 
crassa (Paludina), 86. 
crassa (Vivipara), 86. 
crebra (Melania), 20. 
crebra (Tiara (Striatella)), 20. 
crebristriata (Margaron, (Monocon- 

dykea)), 150. 
crebristriata (Monocondyltfa), 150. 



234 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



crebristriata (Monoeondylaea pegu- 
ensis var.), 149. 

crebristriata (Trigonodon}, 150. 

crebristriatum var. peguensis (Pseu- 
dodon}, 150. 

crebristriatus (Pseudodon}. 150. 

crebrtstriatus (Pseudodon ( Trigo- 

liodon)}, 150. 

crebristriatus (Pseudodon (Trigo- 

nodon) peguensis var.), 150. 
crebristriatus (Unio}, 150. 
crebristriatus var. ptguensfa (Pseu- 
dodon (Trigonodon)}, 150. 
Cremnobates, 04. 
Cremnoconclu'nse. 64. 
Cremnoconcbus, 04. 
crenularis (Melania}, 10. 
crenulata (Tiara (Radina)), 11. 
crispata (Nodularia ("Nudularia)), 

142. 

crispata ( Unio), 142. 
crispatus (Margaron ( Unio}}, 142. 
crispatus ( Unio), 142. 
crispisulcata (Nodularia (Radia- 

tula)), 146. 
crispisidcatus (Margaron ( Unio}}, 

147. 

crispisulcatus ( Unio}, 147. 
cristatij, (Valvata), 95. 
cristatus (Margaron ( Unio}}. 136. 
cristatus ( Trochus), 95. 
cristatus ( Turbo}, 95. 
cuiningi (Pachychilus), 1:9. 
cuniinofiana (Paludomus (Tiinalia)), 

61. 
curta (Bithynia (? Fossarulus) costi- 

gera var.), 78. 

curta (Tricula montaiia var.), 68. 
curvata (Pseudodon (Trigonodon) 

peguensis var.), 152. 
Cyanocyclas, 201. 
cybele (Melania}, 10. 
cybele (Tiara), 10. 
Ci/cladites, 223. 

Ct/clas, 201, 207, 210 r 223, 224. 
Cyclostonia, 95. 
ejlindrioa (Lamellidens marginalis 

var.), 179. 
cylindrica ( Unio marginalis var.), 

179. 

Cypr'ma, 207. 

cyprinoides (Cyrena'), 209. 
cyprinoides (Velorita), 209. 
cyprinoides ( Venus}, 209. 
Cyrena, 201, 202, 207, 209, 210. 
Cyrenidae, 201. 
Cyreninie, 201. 



daccaensis (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 
165. 



dalliana (Perreysia (Parreysia)), 

174. 

dalyi (Mulleria), 197. 
datura (Tiara (Plotia)), 36. 
dealbatus (Strombus}, 9. 
decussata (Paludomus (Philo- 

potaiuis)), 54. 
decussat'ula (Paludina}, 94. 
decussatula (Paludina disaimili* var.), 

94. 

delta (Ncmatura), 79. 
deltas (Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens 

var.), 159. 

delta? (ScapLiula), 130. 
deltas (Stenotbyra), 79. 
deltte ( Unio favidens var.), 159. 
dernissus (Planorbis (Gyraulus)), 121. 
densa (Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens 

var.), 159. 

densa (Unio favidens var.), 159. 
depressa ( Valvata}, 95. 
digif.iformis (Nodularia (Nodularia)), 

135. 

digiiiformis (Unio}, 135. 
digona (Paludina}, 91. 
cligona (Vivipara), 91. 
dihirensis (Paludomus conica var.), 

40. 

dilatata (Paludomus (Tannlia)). 60. 
dilatata (Paludomus (Tanalia) neri- 

toides var. ?), 60. 
dissimilis (Helix), 87. 
dissimilis (Nerita}, 87. 
dissimilis (Vivipara), 87. 
distinguenda (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 

59. 
distinguenda (Paludomus (Tanalia) 

aculeata var.), 59. 
dollar is (Paludina}, 84. 
doliaris (Vivipara), 84. 
dolioides (Pila), 101. 
douglasiae (Unio), 135. 
dromedarius (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 

62. 
dromedarius (Paludomus (Tanalia) 

neritoides var.), 62. 



eburneus (Litboglypbus), 70. 
eburneus (Planorbis exustus var.). 

116. 
ecariuata (Vivipara ceylonica A T ar.), 

90. 

clegans (Melania), 35. 
elegans (Tiara (Plotia) seabra var.), 

36. 
elegantulus (Planorbis (Gyraulus)), 

122. 

Kllipiio, 134. 
Ellistoma, 10. 
elongata (Paludina}, 83. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



235 



emaciata (Tiara (Striatella) crebra 

var.), 20. 

eniarginatus (Mycetopus), 132. 
episcopalis (Tiara (Melanoides)), 25. 
erinacea (Paludomus (Tanalia) acu- 

leata var.), 57. 

erinacea (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 57. 
erronea (Paludomus (Philopotamis)), 

56. 

evanescens ( Unio), 175. 
evezardi (Bithynia), 76. 
evittatus (Unio), 136. 
exanthematicus (Lainellideus), 187. 
exanthema/ ictis ( Unio), 187. 
eximia (Navicelld), 7. 
eximius (Unio), 148. 
e.volescens (Margaron (Unio)), 195. 
exolescens (Trapezoideus), 195. 
e.colescens (Unio), 195. 
expansa (Pila conioa var.). 100. 
expatriate (Tiara (Radinaj, 14. 
exustus (Planorbis), 115. 



fasciata (Pila globosa var.), 97. 
fasciata (Tiara (Melanoides) variabilis 

var.), 24. 
fasciata (Vivipara naticoides var.), 

85. 

faf-cicularis (Helix), 95. 
fasciis-elevatiusculus (Vivipara ben- 

galensis var.), 84. 
Faunus, 8. 

favidens (Margaron ( Unio)), 158. 
favidens (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 158. 
favidens (Unio), 158. 
fete (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 168. 
fe<e ( Unio)', 168. 

feddeni (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 165. 
fcddeni ( Unio), 165. 
flammulata (Melania), 11. 
flavida (Tiara (Tarebia) lineata var.), 

35. 

flavidens ( Unio), 158. 
Huminalis (Corbicula), 210, 211. 
tium.inalis (Cyclas), 211. 
fluminalis (Tell in a), 211. 
fluminalis ( Venus), 211. 
fluminea (Corbicuia), 211. 
fluminea ( Cyclas ) , 2 1 1 . 
fluminea (Cyrena), 212. 
fluminea (Tellina), 211. 
fluminea (Venus), 211. 
'fluviatile (Cerithiuni), 9. 
lluviatiiis (Ancylus), 104. 
fluviatilis (Corbicula), 212. 
fluviatilis (Cyclas), 212. 
fluviatilis (Cyrena), 212. 
fluviatilis (Helix). 47. 
fluviatilis tanschauriensis (Helix), 47. 
fluviatilis (Tellina), 211, 212. 



fluviatilis (Venus), 212. 
fluviorum (Vivipara), 83. 
foliacea ( Unio), 193. 
foliaceus (Mar gar on (Unio)), 193. 
foliaceus (Trapezoideus), 174, 193. 
foliaceus ( Unio), 193. 
fontanus (Planorbis), 124. 
fontinalis (Lymn&a), 95. 
'fontinalis (Physa), 128. 
fontinalis ( Ttirbo), 95. 
footei (Arcidopsis), 196. 
footei ( Unio), 196. 
Fossarulus, 77. 
foveolata (Nemafum), 80. 
foveolata (Stenothyra). 80. 
frogilis (Helix), l6(>. 
fragilis (Parreysia (Parreysia) eorru- 

gata var.), 156. 
fragilis (Unio), 194. 
fraterna (rlydrocena (Georissa)). 3. 
frustillum (Hydrocana), 4. 
f rust ilium (Hydrocena), 4. 
frustillum (Hydrocena (Georissa)), 4 
fulgurata (Paludomus), 46. 
fuliginosa (Neritina), 5. 
fuliginosa (Theodoxis), 5. 
fulmineus ( Unio), 155. 
funiculata (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 58. 
funiculata (Paludomus (Tanalia), 

aculeata var.), 58. 
funiculata (Tanalia), 58. 
'fuscata (Cyrena), 211, 212. 
'fuscota (Helix), 13. 
'fuscata (Tiara (Radina)), 13. 
fusiforinis (Tiara (Melanoides) bac- 

cata var.), 26. 
fusiforinis (Tiara (Striatella) nico- 

barica var.), 19. 

gaditana, (Mya\ 155. 

galathea (Cyrena), 207. 

galathese (Hyi-ena), 207. 

qalathea (Cyrena (Corneoo/clas)), 

207. 

Gallileja, 224. 

gangetica (Novaculina), 229. 
gangeticus (Tagclus), 229. 
gardneri (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 60. 
gardneri (Paludomus (Tanalia) neri- 

toidcs var.), 60. 
Gastropoda, 1. 

gaudichaudi (Margaron (Unn>)), 137. 
qaudichaudi (Nodnlariti), 137. 
gaudichaudi (Nodularia (Nodularia) 

caeruleus var.), 137. 
gaudichaudi ( Unio), 137. 
gaudiosa (Melania), 12, 13. 
Gelonia, 202. 

generosus (Lamellidens), 184. 
generosus (Lamellidens marginalia 

subsp.), 184. 



236 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



gencroms (Margaron ( Unto)}, 184. 

generoms ( Unio), 184. 

Geori.ssa, 1. 

gerbidoni ( Unio}, 136. 

gibba (Bithinells), 67. 

gibbosula (Paludestrina (Belgrandia) 

miliacea var.), 67. 
gigantea (Bitbyniacerameopoma var.), 

72. 

gigantea, (Paludina}, 84. 
gigantea (Tiara (Striatella) nicobarica 

var.), 19. 
gigantea (Vivipara bengalensis var.), 

84. 

Glaueoinyidge, 200. 
Glaucomvinse, 200. 
globosa (Paludomus (Tanalia) neri- 

toides var.), 60. 
globosa (Pila), 97. 
globula (Bithinia), 69. 
globulo?a (Melania), 38. 
globulosa (Paludomus), 38. 
gloriosa (Tiara (Melanoides)), 21. 
godwini (Melanoides), 29. 
godwini (Tiara (Melanoides)), 29. 
goniomphalos (Bithynia), 76. 
goniomphalos (Paludina}, 76. 
goniostoiiia (Bithynia}, 72. 
gowhattensis (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 

171. 

gowhaitensi* (Unio), 174. 
gracilior (Liiunaea (Limnjea) aeumi- 

nata var.), 109. 
granifera (Melauia), 33. 
gratiosa (Nodularia (Nodularia)), 141. 
gratiosus (Margaron (Unio)}, 141. 
gratiosm (Unio), 141. 
graviclus (Unio). 148. 
groenlandicus ( Unio), 175. 
gruneri (Planorbis (Seginentina)), 

125. 

Gulnaria, 110. 
Gyraulus, 118. 
G-yrorbis, 95. 



halophilla (Vivipara annandalei var.), 

92. 
halophilla (Vivipara annendalei var.), 

92. 
hanleyi (Lamellidens marginalis var.), 

179. 

hanleyi (Melanoides), 29. 
hanleyi (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 62. 
hastula (Melania), 10. 
hastula (Tiara (Radina)), 11. 
Jieliciformis (Paludina), 94. 
heliciformis ( Vivipara dissimilis sub- 

- sp"), 89. 
heliciformis (Vivipara (Idiopoma)), 

94. 



Helix, 95, 106, 115. 

henzadenpis (Vivipara (Idiopoma)), 

93. 

herculea (Tiara (Melanoides)), 21. 
hians (Limnaja (Gulnaria)), 113. 
hilmendensis (Vivipara), 91. 
himalayanus (Planorbis (Gyraulus)), 

121. 

hindu (Plauorbis), 117. 
Hippeutes, 124. 
hobenackeri (Planorbis (Gjraiilus)), 

120. 

holandri (Melauia), 32, 
holstiana (Corbicula fluminalis var.). 

211. 

hooker i (Limneca (Guluaria)), 111. 
houngdaranicus ( Unio), 167. 
hiigeli (Melania), 30, 31. 
liiigeli (Tiara (Acrostoma)), 31. 
hiigeli var. (Melania}, 31. 
kumeralis (Neritiwi), 6. 
humerosa (Tiara (Melanoides)). 22. 
humilis (Margaron (Unio)), 136. 
humilis ( Unio), 136." 
humilior (Lamellidens marginalis 

subsp. scutum var.), 181. 
hungerfordiana (Stenothyra), 80. 
hungerfordiana (Tiara (Pachychilus)), 

30. 

huttoui (Planorbis (Gynmlus)), 120. 
huttoniana (Corbicula), 215. 
hydaspicola (Pisidium). 225. 
Hydrobia, 67. 
Hydrobiida, 67. 
Hydrobioides, 78. 
Hydrocena, 1. 
Hydrocenida 1 , 1. 
Hydrocenina?, 1. 
Hygronoma, 10. 
Hygrophila, 104. 
hyptiocyclos (Planorbis (? Gyraulus)), 

123. 
Hyrinae, 134. 



Idiopoma, 93. 

illex (Hydroctfna}, 2. 

illex (Hydrocena}, 2, 

illex (Hydrocena (Georissa)), 2. 

imbricata (Tiara (Melanoides) hume- 
rosa var.), 23. 

impressa (Cyrena), 202. 

impura (Limnoea (Gulnaria) succinea 
var.), 113. 

impura (Paludina), 71. 

impurum (Cyclostoma), 70. 

impurus (Limn&us), 113. 

inconspicua (Bithynia), 74. 

incrassatula (Pila globosa var.), 97. 

indica (Corbicula), 221. 

indica (Cyclax), 224. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



237 



indicum (Sphaerium), 224. 
indicus (Margaron ( Unio}, 169. 
indicus (Planorbis), 115. 

indicus ( Unio), 169. 
inflata (Batissa), 208. 
inflata (Corbicula), 220. 
inflata (Paludomus), 49. 
infracostata (Melania), 25. 
inoscularis (Anodon), 152. 
inoscularis (Anoclonta), 149. 
inoscularis (Margaritana}, 152. 
inoscularis (Margaron (Monocondy- 

Itea)), 152. 
inoscularis (Pseud od on (Pseudodon)), 

152. 
involuta (Nodtilaria (Nodularia)), 

146. 

involulus (Unio), 146. 
iravadica (Corbicula), 216. 
iravadica (Tiara (Melanoides) baccata 

var.), 27. 

irawadica (Bithynia}, 76. 
irawadica (Bythinia), 76. 
issykulensis (Planorbis (Gyraulus)), 

124. 

jaculator (Bithynia), 71. 
jaculator (Cyclostoma}, 70. 
jaculator (Ncrita), 70. 
''jaculator (Paludina}, 71. 
'jaintiaca (Paludoums conica var.), 40. 
janitor (Turbo), 70. 
javanica (Ampullaria}, 100. 
jenkinsianus (Lamellidens}, 184. 
jenkinsianus (Lamellidens marginalia 

subsjD.), 184. 

jenkinsianus ( Unio), 184. 
jugicostis (Tiara (Melanoides)), 28. 

kadapaensis (Paludomus tanschau- 

rica var.), 47. 
kashmirensis (Bitbyuia tentaculata 

var.), 71. 

Jteraudreni (Margaron ( Unio)), 137. 
keraudreni (Nodularia (Nodularia) 

cseruleus var.), 137.^ 
Jccraudreni ( Unio), 137. 
kopilensis (Paludomus conica var.), 

40. 

kutchensis (Paludina), 88. 
kutcbensis (Vivipara dissimilis var.), 

88. 

labiatus (Planorbis (Gyraulus)), 119. 
labiosa (Li/nn&a), 112. 
labiosa (Linma?a (Gulnaria)), 112. 
labiosa (Paludomus), 43. 
Icevirostris (Parrej-sia (Parreysia) 
corrugata A-ar.), 156. 



Icevirostris (Unio), 156. 

lavirostris (Unio corruqattis var.), 

156. 

Its vis (Bithinia), 75. 
laevis (Bithynia), 75. 
laevis (Paludomus), 45. 
Its vis (Paludomus chilinoidcs A r ar.), 45. 
larnellatiformis (Lainellidens pulcher 

var.), 185. 

lamellafus (Lametlidens), 181. 
lamellata (Lamellidens mar<rinalis 

subsp.), 180. 

lamellatus (Margarita (Unio}}, 180. 
lamellatus (Margaron (Unio)}, 180. 
lamellatus ( Unio}, 180, 184. 
Lamellidens. 174, 175. 
lanceolata (Tiara (Melanoides) hurae- 

rosa var.), 23. 

layardi (Amjmllaria globosa var.). 99. 
layardi (Margaron ( Unio}}, 181. 
layardi (Melania}, 16. 
layardi (Paludomus}, 57. 
lajardi (Pila), 91). 
layardi (Tiara (Striatella) lubercu- 

lata var.), 16. 
layardi (Unio}, 180. 
lacythis (Paludina}, 90. 
lacy this (Vivipara), 90. 
leioma (Unio}, 136. 
Lens, 148. 

lima (Nodularia (Radiatula)). 147. 
limborgi (Tiara (Pacliychilus)), 29. 
Limusea, 106, 134. 

Limnsca (sensu stricto). 106. 
Limnaeidfe, 104. 
Limnaeinae, 105. 

Limnceus. 106. 

Limnea, 114, 128. 

limosa (Lymntea}, 110. 

lincata (Navicella}, 7. 

lintata (Paludina), 83. 

lineata (Tiara (Tarebia)). 34. 

lirata (Melania}, 34. 

liratula (Hydrocena (Georissa)), 2. 

liratus (Planorbis (Gyranlus)). 121. 

Lithoglypbimu, 69. 

Litboglypbus, 70. 

Littorinida?, 64. 

livesayi (Navicella}, 8. 

livesayi (Septaria). 8. 

lobata (Mulleria), 197. 

longispira (Pila corrugata var.), 98. 

loricata (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 57. 

loricata (Tanalia}, 57. 

lutea (Bithynia), 72. 

lutcola (Limiitsa). 108. 

luteomarginafa (Tiara (Striatella) 
tuberculata var.), 17. 

lutetianus (Theodoxis\ 5. 

lutens (Margaron ( Unio}). 155. 

lutens ( Unio), 155. 



238 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



lutosa (Paludomus), 51. 
Li/'riintea, 106. 
Lymnium, 134. 



ma client us ( Unio). 139. 

Mactra, 202. 

maciilatus (Paludonus), 45. 

maciilatus (Bivulina), 45. 

Mainwaringia, 37. 

mnimvaringi (Lamellidens), 190. 

major (Paludoinus (Tanalia) hanleyi, 

Tar:), 62. 
malubarica (Ampullaria. globosa var.), 

98. 
malabarica (Paludomus tanscliaurica 

var.). 47. 

malabarica (Pila), 98. 
mandarinus ( Unio), 142. 
mandelaycnsis ( Unio), 164. 
manilcnsis (Cyrena~), 212. 
marcens (Parreysia (Parreysia) favi- 

dens var.), 159. 
marcens (Unio}, 159. 
marginalia (Lamellidens). 175. 
marginalis (Margarita (Unio)), 175. 
marginalis (Margaron ( Unio), 175. 
marginalis ( Unio), 174, 175, 177. 
martabanensis (Lithoglyphus), 70. 
inaura (Pila), 99. 
inaurus (Paludoinus), 51. 
megiisoma (Linmaea). 114. 
Melanamona, 8, . 
Mebinella, 32. 
Melania, 10. 
Mclaiiiida, 8. 
Melanitcs 10. 
Melanoides, 21. 
melanostoina (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 

63. 

menkea.iia (Melanin}, 26. 
meukeana (Tiara (Melanoides)), 2-.\ 
menkiana (Melanin), 25. 
merguiensis (Planorbis), 118. 
merodalicnsis (Unio), 155. 
microscopica (? Valvata), 96. 
microstoma (Paludomus rotunda 

var.), 48. 
microstoma (Tiara (Melanoides) 

menkeana var.) 26. 
miliacea (Hydrobia (Bythinclla}}, 67. 
miliacea (Paludestrina (Belgrandia)), 

67. 

minima (Nematura*), 81. 
minima (Stenothyra), 81. 
minima (Stenothyra delta? var.). 79. 
minor (Bithynia orcula var.), 74. 
minor (Limnaea (Limnaea) tigrina 

var.). 110. 
minor (Paludestrina (Belgrandia) 

miliacea var.). 68. 



minor Paludomus (Philopotamis) 

sulcata var.), 53. 
minor (Paludonuis regulata var.), 

43. 
minor (Paludomus (Tanalia) reevei 

var.), 58. 

minor (Pila globosa var.). 97. 
minor (Stenothyra deltas var.), 79. 
minuta ( Valvata), 95. 
inisellus (Trapezoideus), 194. 
misellus ( Unio), 194. 
mitra (Melania), 10. 
modicus (Planorbis), 117. 
moesta (Pila), 101. 
mongolicus (Unio), 135. 
monile (Paludomus), 48. 
monilifera (Nematura\ 80. 
monilifera (Stenothyra), 80. 
rnontana (Tricula), 68. 
moquiniana ( Valvata,}, 95. 
moreletiana (Bithynia), 72. 
iriouhoti (Monocondylaea), 153. 
moussoni (Corbicula}, 222. 
mousa-oniana ( Cyrena}, 222. 
Mulleria, 197. 
multidentatus (Margaron (Unio)), 

155. 

multidentatus ( Unio), 154, 155. 
multistriata (Tiara (Kadina)), 15. 
Musctilinm, 223, 224. 
myadoungensis (Paludomus ander- 

souiana var.), 42. 
myadoungeusis (Tiara (Striatella) 

tuberculata var.), 17. 
Mi/sea, 134. 
Mvtilacea. 128. 



r.agaensis (Vivipara), 91. 
Hogpoor&uu (Margaron (Unio)), 157. 
nagpoorensis (Parreysia (Parreysia) 

corrugata var.), 157. 
nagpoor ens-is ( Unio), 157. 
nagpoorensis ( Unio cornujatus var.), 

157. 
riana (Paludomus andersoniana siibsjj^ 

peguensis var.), 42. 
naua (Paludomus conica var.), 40. 
nana (Tiara (Radina) /eleborii var.), 

14. 

nanus (Planorbis (Gyraulus), 122. 
narainporensis (Lamellidens), 187. 
nassa (Bithynia\ 75. 
nasuta (Paludomus), 52. 
naticoidcs (Paludina}, 85. 
naticoides (Vivipara), 85. 
Xautilina, 118. 
NoMtilux, 1 1 5. 
Kavicella, 6. 
Namatura, 79. 
Xeriia, 95. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



239 



Neritidaj, 5. 

Neritina, 5. 

Neritinas, 5. 

neritoides (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 60. 

nevilli (Corbicula), 216. 

nevilli (Tiara (Striatella)), 18. 

nevillianiun (Pisidium), 227. 

nicobarica (Alasmodonta.), 153. 

nicobarica (Tiara (Striatella)), 19. 

nicobaricus (Pseuclodon) (Psen- 

dodon)), 153. 
niirrican3(Paliuioinus(Philopotainis)), 

55. 

nitidus (Planorbis), 124. 
Nodularia, 135. 
Nodularia (sensu stricto), 135. 
nodulosa (Paludoiuus (Tanalia)), 57. 
nodulosa (Paludomus ( Tanalia} 

aculeata var.), 57. 
noetlingi (Corbicula), 222. 
nongyangensis (Lamellideiis), 100. 
Novaculina, 229. 
novaculina (Novaculina), 229. 
novaculina (Solecurtus), 229. 
nucleus (Limutea (Limnaea) ovalis 

vaA), 109. 

nucleus (Limnam), 109. 
nucleus ( Turbo), 70. 
nuttalliana (Nodularia (Nodularia)), 

145. 

nuttaUianus (Margaron (Unto)), 1-15. 
nuttaUianus ( Unio), 145. 
Nux, -J23. 
nux (Pila), 99. 



obesx (Melania), 45. 

obesa (Paludomus), 45. 

obesa ( Unio marginalis var.), 176. 

obesus (Lnnelliclens marginalis var.), 

176. 

oblatus ( Unio), 142. 
obttisa (Bithynia pulchella var.), 73. 
obtusa (Nerita),95. 
obtusa (Neritina), 6. 
obtusa (Paludina), 86. 
obtusa (Theodoxis), 6. 
obtusa ( Valvata), 95. 
obtusum (Ct/clostoma), 95. 
ocrjata (Nodularia (Nodularia), 138. 
occatus (Margaron ( Unio)), 139. 
occatus ( Unio), 138. 
occidens (Corbicula), 216. 
olea (Pila), 102. 

olivaria (Nodularia (Nodularia)), 144. 
olivarius (Margarita ( Unio)}, 144. 
olivartits ( Unio), 144. 
Orbis, 115. 

orcula (Bithynia), 74. 
orientidis (Navicclla), 7. 
orientali.s (Pila conioa var.), 101. 
orientals (Planorbis), 117. 



orissaensis (Stenotbyra), 82. 
orissaensis (Tiara (Striatella) tuber- 

culata var.), 17. 
ornata (Paludoiuus), 41. 
ovalis (Lirniuea) (Liiumea)), 109. 
ooalit (Limnaa), 108. 
ovalis (Limnaus), 109. 
oxytropii (Paludina), 84. 
oxvtropis (Vivinara), 84. 

Pachychilus, 29. 

pachysoma (Margaron ( Unio), 139. 
pacbysoiua (Nodularia) Nodularia)), 

139. 

pachysoma ( Unio), 139. 
pachystoma ( Unio), 139. 
pagodula (lo), 32. 
pagoduia (Tiara (Acrostoma)), 32. 
pagodas (Pirena), 9. 
Paludestrina, (57. 
P'lludeatrinidiu. 67. 
Paludestrinai, 67. 
Paludina, 95. 

paiudmoides (Ampullaria), 100. 
paludinoides (Paludoiuus), 40. 
paliidinoidcs (Paludomus conica var.), 

40. 

Paludoininae, 38. 
paludomoidea (Melania (Main- 

waringia)), 37. 
paludomoidea (Tiara (Mainwaringia)), 

37. 

Paludomus, 38. 
palustris (Paludomus), 47. 
parnm (Unio), 166. 
Parreysia, 154. 
Parreysia (sensu stricta), 154. 
parvula (Amnicola), 69. 
parvula (Bitliynia orcula var.), 75. 
parvula (Corbicula), 212. 
pzr 'vula (P(dudina), 69. 
par v us (Paludoi/ins), 45. 
patula (Limnaea (Limnaja) acuiuinatu 

var.), 107. 

pealiaua (Paludomus coiiica var.), 40. 
Pectinibrancbiata, 8. 
peguewni (Margaron (Monocondylceu)), 

150. 

pegueiwia (Margaron ( Unio)), 193. 
peguensis (Melania), 22. 
pegucnsis (Monocondt/loea), 149, 150. 
pe^uensis (Paludomus andersoniana 

lubsp.), 42. 
peguensis (Pssudodou crcbristriatum 

var.), 150. 
peguensis (Pseuclodon (Trigonodon)), 

150. 
peguensis (Pseudodon (Trigonodon) 

crebristriatus var.), 15D. 
peguensis (Tiara (Melanoides; 

gloriosa var.), 22. 
peunensis (Vivipara variata var.). 89. 



240 



ALPHABETICAL IXDEX. 



'pcquensis ( Umo), 193. 

Pelecypoda, 128. 

pdlis-lacerti ( Unio), 142. 

Pera, 224. 

perconvexa (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 

172. 

perdecollata (Faunus aler var.), 9. 
perdecollata (Tiara (Radina) clay us 

var.), 13. 

pereger (Limnaea), 110. 
pereger (Limnaea (Gulnaria)), 110. 
peregra (Limncea), 110. 
pergranosa (Tiara (Tarebia) lineata 

var.), 35. 
pernodulosa (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 

164. 

pcrotetiana (Neritina), 5. 
perotetiana (Theodoxis), 5. 
pcrpinguis (Melania), 18. 
pei'Striattila (Tiara (Striatella) nico- 

barica var.), 19. 
petinoides (Limnceus), 108. 
pcfrosa (Paludina), 43. 
petrosa (Paludomus), 43. 
pbaeostoma (Vivipara bengalensis 

var.), 84. 

phasianinus (Paludomus), 45, 56. 
j)hayresi ( Unio), 155. 
Philopotamis, 53. 
phencboogangensis (Lamellidens), 

190. 

Phymesod-a, 224. 
Pbysa. 127. 
Physidaj, 127. 
Physinae, 127. 
Physunio, 148. 
picta (Oorbicula), 220. 
picta (Melania), 11. 
picta (Paludomus (Tanalia)). 58. 
picta (Paludomus (Tanalia) aculeata 

var.), 58. 
picta (Pirena), 9. 
pictorura (Unio), 134. 
Pila, 96. 

j)il(ttns (Margaron (Unio), 136. 
pilatus(Unio), 136. 
Pilidae, 96. 
Piliiiae, 96. 
pinax (Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens 

var.), 161. 

pinax ( Unio favidens var.), 161. 
2)inax (Unio), 161. 
pinguis (Limnjea (Gulnaria)), 113. 
pinna (Scaphula), 130. 
Pirena, 8. 
pirenoidea (Tiara (Raclina) clavus 

var.), 13. 

pisefoqlis (Helix), 95. 
piacinalis (Nerita\ 95. 
piscinalis (Valvata), 95. 
Pisidium, 223, 224. 
Pisum, 224. 



plagiosoma (Parreysia (Parreysia) 

favidens var.), 162. 
plagiosoma ( Unio), 162. 
plagiosoma (Unio favidens var.), 162. 
plana (Tiara (Radina) clavus var.), 

13. 

Planorbiinae, 115, 
Planorbis, 115, 128. 
plicata (Melania), 25. 
Plotia, 35. 
Polymesoda, 201. 
ponderosus (Lamellidens pulcher 

var.), 185. 

pontifical-is (Melania). 25. 
pontificalia (Tiara (Melanoides) epis- 

copalis var.), 25. 
purata (Ainnicola), 68. 
porcellana (Patella), 6. 
pramordica (Tiara (Acrostoina)), 31. 
princeps (Faunopsis), 9. 
princeps (Melanupsis), 9. 
producta (Bitbynia orcula var.). 74. 
protensus (Unio), 187. 
proxiiua (Cyrena), 206. 
prunuui (Limnaea (Limnjea) acumi- 

nata var.), 108. 
prunum (Limn&us), 108. 
Pseudodon, 149, 152. 
pseudobeiicina (Vivipara variata var.), 

89. 

pugio (Nodularia (Nodularia)), 141. 
pitgio (Unio), 141. 
pulcbella (Bitbynia). 73. 
pulcliella (Paludina), 73. 
pulcher (Lainellideus), 185. 
pidcher ( Unio), 185. 
Pulmonata, 104. 
pumilio (Unio), 144. 
pusilla (Bitbynia pulcbella var.), 73. 
pusilla (Merita), 95. 
pygrnaea (Bitbynia), 76. 
pyramidalis (Melania varialnlis var.), 

26. 
pyramidalis (Tiara (Melanoides) 

baccata var.)). 26. 
pyramidata (Paludina), 84. 
pyramidata (Vivipara), 84. 
])yramis (Tiara (Striatella)), 20. 
pyritbrniis (Paludomus), 51. 
pyxis (Hydroc&na), 3. 
pyxis (Hydrocena). 1, 3. 
pyxis (Hydrocena (Georissa)), 3. 

quilonensis(Corhicula), 219. 
quilonica (Oorbicula), 219. 



Radina, 10. 

Radiatula, 146. 

radula (Dtjsonomia), 147. 

radnla (Unio), 147. 

rajahensis (Margaron (Unio)), 169. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



241 



rajahensia (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 

169. 

rajahensis ( Unio), 169. 
rawesiana (Hydroccena), 4. 
rawesiana (Hydrocena), 4. 
rawesiana (Hyclrocena (Georissa)), 4. 
recta (Tiara (Melanoides) baocata 

var.), 26. 

reevei (Melania (Melanoides)), 22. 
reevei (Paludomus) (Tan alia), 58. 
reevei (Paludomus (Tanalia) nodtilosa 

var.), 58. 
regalis (Paludomus (Pkilopotatnis)), 

55. 

regia (Oorbicula), 221. 
regularis (Oorbicula), 217. 
regulata (Paludomus), 42. 
regulata var. (Paludomus), 42. 
remossei (Vivipara), 91. 
remossii (Paludina), 87, 91, 
reticularis (Theodoxis), 6. 
reticulata (Neritina), 6. 
reticulata (Paludomus), 44. 
reticulata (Septaria), 7. 
Rhipidoglossa, 1. 
riquetti (Tiara (Melanella)), 32. 
rivalis (Tanysiphon), 200, 201. 
rivularis (Tiara (Striatella)), 20. 
roepstorffiana (Tiara (Plotia) acan- 

thica var.), 37. 

rotula (Planorbis (Gyraulus)), 122. 
rotunda (Paludomus), 48. 
rudis (Melania), 34. 
rudis (Paludomus), 39. 
rudis (Tiara (Tarebia)), 34. 
rufescens (Limn&a), 109. 
rufescens (Limnsea (Limnasa) acu- 

minata var.), 109. 
rugosa (Mya), 1(59. 
rugosa (Parreysia) (Parreysia)), 169. 
rugosus (Unio), 139, 169. 
rupaeformis (Paludomus (Philo- 

potamis)), 55. 



salweniana (Anodonta), 152. 
salweniana (Margaron (Monocon- 

dylaa)\ 152. 

salweniana (Monocondylcea'). 152. 
salwenianum (Pseudodon) 152. 
salwenianus (Anodon), 152. 
salwenianus (Pseudodou (Pseudo- 

don)), 152. 

salwenianus (Unio), 152. 
Sandalium, 6. 
saritta (Cyclostoma), 2. 
saritta (HydroccBna), 2. 
saritta (Hydrocena (Georissa)), 2. 
savoyensis ( Unio), 166. 
sawaddyensis (Larnellidens marginalis 

subsp.), 185. 



saxea (Pila), 100. 

scabra (Buccinuiri), 35. 

scabra (Bulimus), 35. 

scabra (Helix), 35. 

scabra (Melaniii), 35. 

scabra (Tiara (Plotia)), 35. 

Scaphula, 129. 

scaphula (Area}, 129. 

scobina (Nodularia (Nodularia)), 142. 

scobina (Unio), 142. 

scobinatus (Margaron. ( Unio)), 142. 

soobinatus ( Unio), 142. 

scutata (Ampullaria), 100, 101. 

Scutibranchiata, 1. 

scutum (Lamellidens), 181. 

scutum (Lamellidens marginalis 

subsp.), 181. 
scutum ( Unio), 181. 
Segmentina, 124. 
semigranosa (Melania), 35. 
semigranosa (Tiara (Tarebia) lineata 

var.), 35. 
semikevigata (Tiara (Striatella) nevilli 

var), 19. 
semirugatiis (1 Unio), 155. 

Septaria, 6. 

shanensis (Vivipara), 93. 
sburtlefnana (Nodularia (Nodularia)), 
138. 

shtirtleffianus (Margaron (Unio)), 138. 

shurtleffianus (Unio), 138. 

siamensis (Limnsea (Gulnaria)), 113. 

siatnensis (Margaron ( Unio)), 194. 

siamensis ( Unio)), 194. 

siamensis (Vivipara), 87. 

sibsaugorensis (Paludomus conica 
var.), 40. 

sikkimensis (Margaron (Unio)), 171. 

sikkimensis (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 
171. 

sikkimensis (Unio), 171. 

siliguriensis (Nodularia (Eadiatula) 
lima var.), 148. 

siliguriensis ( Unio), 148. 

similis (Batissa), 208. 

similis (Paludina), 77. 

similis (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 63. 

simulans (Limneea), 114. 

simulans (Limnaea (Gulnaria)), 114. 

sindica (Vivipara dissimilis var.), 88. 

sindicus (Planorbis (Seginentiua)), 
126. 

singaporinus (Limnaus), 108. 

sinistrorsa (Pila globosa var.), 97. 

sinuosa (Cyrena), 205. 

siphonata (Melania), 31. 

sivaiensis (Planorbia) (Gyraulus)), 
120. 

skinneri (Paludomus) Tanalia)), 62. 

smaragdites (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 
163. 



242 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



smaragdites (Unio), 158, 1(53. 

sobrius (Melania), 12. 

sobrius (Tiara (Radina) clavus Tar.), 

12. 

Soienaia, 132. 
Solenidae, 228. 
Soleninae, 228. 
soleniformis (Anodontd), 132. 
soleniformis (Soienaia), 132. 
soleniformis (Spat ha], 132. 
solida (Corbicula), 215. 
solida (Paludomtw (Tanalia)), 62. 
Bolidiuscula (Tiara (Melanoides) 

humerosa var.), 23. 
soliduscula (Tiara (Radina) zeleborii 

var.), 14. 

sphaeriea (Paludomus), 39. 
sphcerica (Pila globosa var.), 97. 
Sptueriinse, 223. 
Sphserium, 223, 224. 
spinata (Melanoides), 27. 
spinata (Tiara (Melanoides)), 27. 
spinosa (Tiara (Melanoides) variabilis 

var.), 23. 

spinulosa (Melania), 35. 
spiralis (Neritina), 6. 
spiralis (Paludumus 1 ), 50. 
spirodelus (Planorbis (Segmeutina)), 

126. 

spuria (Mi/a}, 155. 
spuria (lMya\ 158. 
squamata (Navicella), 8. 
squamata (Septaria), 8. 
stachei (Fossarulus), 77. 
stagnalis (Helix}, 106. ' , 

stagnalis (Lymnaa), 106. 
stagnalis (Limnaea (Limuaea)), 106. 
Stagnicola, 106. 

stjlzneri (Planorbis (Gyraulus)), 123. 
Stenothyra, 79. 
Stenothyrinae, 79. 
Stenothyroides (Bithynia), 77. 
stephamts (Melania), 44. 
stepbanus (Paludomus), 44. 
stewarti (Pisidiuin) 227. 
Stomatodon, 63. 
stomatodon (Paludomus), 63. 
stomatodon (? Tanalia), 64. 
stomatodon (Paludomus (Stoma- 
todon)), 64. 
Striatella, 15. 
striatella (Corbicula), 214. 
striatula (Paludomus), 49. 
striatus (Limnceus), 107. 
strigata (Limnsea (Limnsea) acum- 

inata var.), 108. 

strigata (Limn&a pwguis var.), 110. 
subacutissima (Tiara (Badina) hastula 

var.), 11. 
subangulata (Paludestrina (!Bel- 

grandia) miliacea \ar.), 68. 



suhasperata (Melanoides}, 28. 
subcrebra (Tiara (Striatella) tuber- 

culata var.), 16. 
subcrenulata (Tiara (Kadina) hastula 

var.), 11. 
subdentata (Paludomus (Philopu- 

tamis)), 56. 
subgranulusa (Paludomus (Philo- 

potamisi) nigrioans var.), 56. 
sublievigata (Tiara (Melanoides) 

baccit'era var.), 28. 
sublasvigata (Tiara (Striatella) nevilli 

subvai-.), 19. 
sublamellata (Laniellidens marginalis 

subsp. lamellatus var.), 181. 
sublutosa (Tiara (Striatella)), 17. 
Submytilacea, 132. 
subnitens (Corbicula), 2J5. 
subplicif'era (Tiara (Striatella) tuber- 

culata var.), 17. 
subpulchella (Bithynia), 73. 
subradiata (Corbicula), 213. 
subscabra (Tiara (Plotia) acanthica 

var.), 37. 
subspinosa (Tiara (Melanoides) vari- 

abilis var.), 24. 

substriahis (Margaron (Unio}), JS6. 
substriatus ( Unio), 136. 
subtuberculata (Tiara (Melanoides) 

variabilis var.), 24. 
subumbilicata (Yivipara dissimilis 

var.), 88. 
subunifascialis (Tiara (Striatella) 

rivularis var.), 20. 

eubvaricosa (Tiara (Melanoides) vari- 
abilis var.), 24. 
subviridis (Tiara (Tarebia) broti var.), 

34. 

succinea (Limnsea (Gulnaria)), 112. 
siicciiieus (Limn&tts), 112. 
sulcata (Paludomus), 53. 
sulcata (Paludomus (Philopotamis)), 

53. 

sulcata ( Valvata), 78. 
sulcatula (Limnaea (Limnsea) acumi- 

nata var.), 107. 
sulcatulus (Limneeus), 107. 
swainsoni (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 59. 
syhadrensis (Crenmobates), 65. 
syhadrensis (Cremnoconchus), 64, 65. 
sylhetica (Corbicula), 218. 
sylhetioa (Limnaea (Limnsea) acumi- 

nata var.), 109. 



Taeniogloesa, 8. 
Tanalia, 57. 
Tanisiphon, 200. 
tatijoriensis (Paludomus), 47. 
tanschaurensis fluviatilis (Helix), 47. 
tanschaurica (Puludomus), 47. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



243 



Tarebia, 33. 

tavoyemi* (Margaron ( Unio)), 166. 

tavo^ensis (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 

tavoycnsis ( Unio), 166. 

Tellina, 210, 223, 224. 

tenebroea (Batissa), 207. 

tennantii (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 61. 

tennenti (Paludomus (Tanalia} neri- 

toides var.), 61. 
tennenti ( Unio), 155. 
tenneutii (Cyrena). 206. 
tennentii (Paludomus), 61. 
tentaculata (Bithinia), 71. 
tentaculata (Bithinia, (Elona)), 71. 
tentaculata (Bithynia), 70. 
tentaculata (Bythi/tia), 71. 
tentaculata (Helix), 70. 
tentaculata (Lt/mncca), 70. 
tentaculata (Paludina), 71. 
tentaculatus (Bulimus), 70. 
tentaculatus (Turbo), 71. 
teuuior (Bithynia, subpulchella var.), 

74. 

tennis (Ancylus), 105. 
terebra (liara (Melanoides)), 27. 
terebralis (Pirena), 9. 
tcssellata (Navicella\ 7. 
test ud inarius (Unio), 175. 
Tetrabrauchia, 128. 
tezpurensis (Vivipara crassa var.), 87. 
theca (Trapezoideus), 195. 
thcca ( Unio), 19n. 
theobaldi (AmpuUaria), 99. 
theobaldi (Ampullaria maura var.), 99. 
theobaldi (Noclularia (Nodularia)), 

143. 

theobaldi (Pila), 99. 
theobaldi (Vivipara), 86. 
Theodoxia, 5. 
thermalis ( Turbo), 95. 
thwaitesi (Lamellidens rnarginalis 

subsp ), 179. 

thwaitesi (Margaron ( Unio)), 179. 
thwaitesi (Paludoums (Tauaha);, 61. 
thwaitesi (Paludomus (Tanalia) neri- 

toides var.), 61. 
thwaitesi (Philopotamis), 61. 
thwaitesi ^ Unio), 179. 
thwaitesii (Lamellidens), 179. 
Tiara, 10. 
Tiarida;, 8. 
Tiarinaa, 8. 

tigrina (Limnsea (Limnjea)), 110. 
tigrina (Melania), 16. 
tigrina (Tiara (Striatella) tuberculata 

var.), 16. 

tirouri (Melanin), 12. 
tirouri (Tiara (Eadina) crenulata 

var.), 12. 
tischbcini (Ampullaria), 102. 



tischbeini (Pila), 102. 
tondanensis (Planorbis), 118. 
torquata (Melania), 27. 
torquata (Melanoulcs), 27. 
torrenticola (Paludomus (Tanalia)), 

59. 
torrenticola (Paiudomus (Tanalia) 

aculeata var.), 59. 
torulosus (Bulimu*), 11. 
touranensis (Melania), 22. 
Trapezoideus, 193. 
travancorica (Bithynia). 72. 
travancorica (Paludonuis), 49. 
tricolor (Lamellidens marginalis 

var.), 176. 
tricolor (Unio), 176. 
tricolor (Unio marginalis var.), 177. 
Tricula, 68. 
triembolus (Parreysia (Parreysia) 

tavoyensis var.), 167. 
triembolus ( Unio), 167. 
trifasciatus (Paludomus (Philopo- 

tamis)), 54. 

trigona (Corbicula), 214. 
trigona (Parreysia (Parreysia) 

favidens var.), 159. 
Trigonodon, 149. 

tripartitus (Margaron (Unio)), 158. 
tripartite (Unio), 158. 
trirostris (Unio), 136, 158. 
trochoideus (Planorbis (Segmentina)), 

125. 

Trochus, 95. 

troscheli (Bithynia), 77. 
troscheli (Pahidina), 77. 
truncatula (Lymncea), 114. 
truncatula (Limnoea (Buhmnea)), 114. 
truncatulumi (Buccinum), 1 14. 
truucatulus (Limnaus >, J 14. 
triincatus ( Unio), 175. 
tuberculata (Melania), 15. 
tuberculata (Merita), 15. 
tuberculata (Tiara (Striatella)), 15. 
tumidus (Unio), 134. 
Turbo, 95, 128. 
turaida (Cyrena}. 205. 
tur'riculus (Tiara (Striatella)), 18. 
turrita (Bithynia), 78. 
turrita (? Bithynia (Hydrobiuides)), 

78. 
turrita (Fairbankia (an 

78. 
Turritella, 10. 



umbilicalis (Planorbis (Segmentina)), 

125. 

undata (Paludomus), 57. 
Unio, 134. 
Uniomeriis, 134. 
Unionidse, 132. 



244 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Unioninae, 132. 



Valvata, 95. 
Vahatidae, 95. 
Valvatinse, 95. 
Valvearius. 95. 

variabilis (Tiara (Melanoides)), 23. 
variata (Paludina), 89. 
variata (Vivipara), 89. 
velaris (Pbysunio (Lens)), 149. 
velar is ( Unio), 149. 
Velorita, 209. 
Venulites, 210. 
Venus, 201, 207, 209, 210. 
venustus ( Unio), 142. 
verruca (Ancylus), 105. 
versicolor (Planorbis (Hippeutes)), 

124. 

Vibex, 33. 
Villorita, 209. 

violacea (Corbicula), 214, 219. 
violacea (Paludomus) (Philopo- 

tnmis)), 56. 
violacea (Tancdia), 56. 
virens (Pila layardi var.), 99. 
viridis (Bulinius), 66. 
viridis (Paludina), 94. 
viridis (Vivipara (Idiopoma) helici- 

formis var.), 94. 
viridula (Parreysia (Parreysia) favi- 

dens var.), 160. 

viridula (Unio favidens var ), 160. 
vittata (Mclfinia variabilis var.), 28. 
vittata (Tiara (Melanoides) baccit'era 

var.), 28. 



Vivipara, 83. 
vivipara ( Vivipara)^ 83. 
Viviparidae, 83. 
Viviparinse, 83. 

Viviparus, 83. 

Volvata, 95. 

vondemhuscki ( Unio), 150. 
vulcana (Parreysia (Parreysia)), 108. 
vulcanus ( Unio), 1(58. 

winkleyi (Aw pull aria), 103. 

winkleyi (Pila), 103. 

woodmasoniana (Stenothyra), 81. 

woodwardi (Ampullarid), 102. 

\voodwardi (Pila), 102. 

wyuegungaensis (Margaron ( Unio)), 
157. " 

wynegungaensis (Parreysia (Par- 
reysia) , 157. 

wynegungaensis (Unio), 155, 157. 



zayleyinanensis (Trapezoideus foli- 

acetis var.), 194. 
zebrimis (Planorbis), 116. 
zeleborii (Tiara (Radina)), 13. 
zelanica (Cyclas), 202. 
zelanica ( Cyrena], 202, 205. 
zeylanica (Melania), 46. 
zeylanica (Paludomus), 46. 
zonata (Lamellidens margirialis var.), 

177. 

zonata (Tiara (Melanella)), 32. 
zonata ( Unio marginalis var.) 177. 
zonatus (Planorbis exustus var.), 116. 
zugmayeri (Pisidiuin), 227. 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



UNIFORM WITH THE PRESENT VOLUME. 

The Fauna of British India, 

including Ceylon and Burma. 



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Nematocerous Diptera (excluding the Chironomidce and the Culicidce). By 

E, BRUNETTI. Illustrations in Text mid 12 plates. <!. 

Ichneumonidae. By CLAUDE MORLEY, F.Z.S. Numerous illustrations 

and 1 plate. 1. 

Orthoptera (Acridiidai). By W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S. Numerous illustrations. 10*. 

Mollusca: Vol. II. (TrochomorphidceJanellida). By G. K. GUDE, F.Z.S. 

Numerous illustrations. 1. 



Fauna of British India. 



IN the "FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA" Series 
the further volumes which the Editor, Dr. A. E. Shipley 
with the assistance of Mr. Guy A. K. Marshall, and with the 
sanction of the Secretary of State for India, has arranged 
for, are : 

Volumes on Butterflies (Lyccenidce and Hesperiidce) by 
Mr. H. H. Druce : on the Curculionidce by Mr. G. A. K. 
Marshall : on the Longicorn Beetles by Mr. C. J. Gahan : 
on the Ixodidce and Argasidce by Mr. C. Warburton : on 
Leeches by Mr. W. A. Harding : on the Brachyurous Crustacea 
by Lieut.-Colonel A. Alcock, M.D. : on the Homoptera by 
Mr. W.L. Distant: on the Apterygota, Termitidce and Embiidce 
by Mr. A. D. Imms : on the Diptera Bracliycera by Mr. E. 
Brunetti : on the Rutelidce by Mr. G. J. Arrow : and on 
the Operculata by G. K. Gude. 



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