(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Mollusca--II. (Trochomorphidae--Janellidae)"

r 



/ THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



^^" CEYLON AND BURMA. 

PVBLISIIEI) lynKl! THE Al rilOlUTY Or TftK SECRETARY Ot 

State fot, I.\I)Ia i\ Covxcil. 

EDTTKD KT A. E. SHIPLEY, S(-.I). Cantab., KON. D.Sc. Princeton, F.R.9. 
ASSISTED l!Y Grr A. K. MARSHALL, F.Z.S,, F.K.S. 



R^^CvaW. W.J. ni 



MOLLUSCA-II. 

(TllOCHOMOllPHID^— JANELLID^.) 



G U D E, F.Z.S. 





,zso(iqz 



L N D N : 

TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED MOX COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CALCUTTA: 
THACKER. SPIXK, & CO. 



BOMBAY 
THACKER & CO.. LIMITED. 



N'ovemhcr, 1914. 




PRINTED «y TAYLOK AND FRANC IS, 

RED LION COl RT, FLEKT STREET. 



P R E F ACE. 



The first volume of the Land Mollusca, forming part of the 
' Fauna of British India' scries, and comprising the families 
of Testacellidi:e and Zonitidae, was issued in 1908 under the 
joint authorship of the late Dr. AV. T. Blanford and Lieut. - 
Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen. 

It was at first anticipated that the second volume woidd 
be the joint production of Lieut. -Colonel Godwin-Austen 
and the present writer. Unexpected circumstances have, 
however, unfortunately deprived me of the advantage of tlie 
former's cooperation. Tiiis is the more to be regretted as it 
involves the loss of a considerable quantity of additional 
anatomical details, the result of his recent researches, which 
would have greatly increased the value of the present 
volume; and, further, that his own collection and that of 
the late Dr. Blanford — both very rich in Indiau Mollusca, 
and both in the custody of the British Museum — have in 
consequence been inaccessible to me. 

Very valuable assistance in the preparation of this work 
has been rendered by many malacologists, both at home and 
abroad. Foremost among ^these I would thank Mr. E. A. 
Smith and Mr. John H. Poiisonby for advice on many critical 
points^ Tiie latter, besides giving me free access to his 
extensive collection, has in addition very kindly looked 
through the proofs and offered many valuable suggestions. 
Mr. G. C. Leman, the present owner of the late Colonel 
Beddome's collection — unrivalled in its wealth of Indian 
shells, has very generously placed much valuable material 
at my disposal, and ]\lr. G. C. Robson has greatly facilitated 



my research amongst the rich material in the National 
Collection. Finally, I am under a deep obligation to the 
following for the loan of specimens from their own collections 
or from collections in their charge : — Mr. John M. Clark, of 
the State ^Museum, Albany, New York ; Dr. L. Doncaster, of 
the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge; Dr. Fritz 
Haas, of the Seuckenbergisches Museum, Frankfurt a/M. ; 
Mr. A. S. Kennard ; Major A. J. Peile; Mr. F. R. Rowley, 
of the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter; Dr. R. 
Sturany, of the Naturhistorischcs Hofmuseum, Vienna; and 
Mr. B. 13. Woodward. 

G. K. GUDE. 

London, Novemhcr, 1914. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Pane 

Fam. 1. TROOiioMOinMiii'-T: . . 1 

Gen. 1. Trochomorpha, .4/iers. . 1 

Siibgeii. ] . Sivella, Blanford. o 

1 . castra, i^s '^> 

2. cervx, L's '^ 

■'3. bilieana, Mirch 4 

4. frauenfekli, Zel "j 

o. galevus, Bs ■'5 

6. hyptiocyclos, Ih o 

7. percompivssa, BIf. .... G 

Subg-en. 2. \'id("iia, II. ij- .4. 

Aduin>> ^ 

8. andainanica, (i.-A (• 

9. bicolor, J/As 7 

10. ioplmrvnx, MiJrch .... 7 

11. lavdea,' ^^//s. . ._ 7 

12. pseudosanis, i-V/^ 8 

18. sanis, J?.s 8 

14. subninritella, i?tvW 9 

15. .sulcipe.s, Miirch 9 

var. major, Mihch .... 9 

16. ti-illneata, MUrch 10 

Fara. 2. Kxiioi>ontid.;e 10 

Subfam. 1. Thysanotinfo 10 

Gen. 1. Thy.'?anota, Aiders .... 10 

1. tabida.iyr 10 

2. guevini, Pfr 11 

:',. tlavida, Oitde 12 

4. crinigera, Bs 12 

5. eumita, Si/kes 12 



Page 

(). hi.'^pida, Si//crs I3 

7. elegans, Brenf 13 

Gon. 2. Glyptaula.v, Gude .... 14 

I. artificiosa, Bs 14 

Gen. 'i. Philalanka, Godtriti- 

Austen 14 

1. bilirata, /.V/'. 15 

2. siibbilirata, O.-A 15 

;5. liratida, 7yV 1(> 

4. humfrayi, G.-A 16 

■'). tiicarinata, B/f. 17 

(). quinquelirata, Gude, ... 17 

7. lamcabensis, Jci/z.-vs 18 

8. secessa, G.-A 19 

9. daghoba, Blf. 19 

10. pirrieana, Iff 20 

II. bidenticulata, Bs 20 

12. tritilosa, Pfr 21 

lo. niononema, Bs 21 

14. bolampattiensb. G.-A. , 22 

15. febrilis, Blf. 22 

10. teriiana, Blf. 22 

17. thwaitesi, Pfr 23 

var. sua\ is, Jovss 23 

18. depressa, Prist 24 

10. circunisculpta, Syh'S . . 24 

20. .sinhila, G.-A 25 

Gen. 4. llutbvenia, Glide 25 

1. retifera, Pfr 20 

■>. clatbratuloide.^. Gude . . 27 

3. clathratula, Pfr 28 

var. compressa, Syk^s . 30 

4. caliginosa, Sykes 30 

5. biciliata, Pfr 31 



VI 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Pao'e 
Gen. 5. Piipisoma, Sioliczka . . 33 

1. liguicola, Stol 34 

\ai'. unidentata, G.-A. 35 

2. constrictiiiu, G.-A 35 

3. orcula, Bs 36 

4. evezardi, Blf. 37 

5. seriola, Bs 38 

6. miccyla, Bs 38 

7. cacharicum, G.-A 39 

8. long-staff ;e, G.-A 39 

Siibfam. 2. PijramiduUnff .... 41 
(I en. 1. Pyramidula, Fitzingev.. 41 

1. humilis, Bs 43 

2. euomphalus, Blf. 43 

3. hal^'i, JoKSS 44 

Fam. 3. Philomycid.'e 480 

Gen. 1. Incilaria, Bs 480 

1. canipesti'is, G.-ui 480 

2. monticola, G.-A 481 

Fam. 4. Arionid.s 408 

Siibfani. 1. Armiince . 468 

(Jen. 1. Xw&Aewuf-, Heynemanii. 468 

1. altivagus, Theuh 470 

2. giganteiis, Heyiicm 474 

3. beebei, Ckll 475 

4. modestus, Theoh 476 

5. scblagintweiti, Heynem. 477 

6. jerdoni, G.-A 478 

7. blanfordi, G.-A 479 

Fam. 5. Helicid^ 44 

Subfam. 1. Acavince 44 

(Ten. 1. Acavus, Montfort .... 44 

1. liremastoma, L 45 

var. melaiiotragus, 

Born 46 

var. conus, Pih 47 

var. coneolor, Pils. . . 47 

2. fastosus, Alh 47 

3. prosperus, Alb 48 

4. pba^nix, Ffr 49 

5. superbus, Pfr 49 

Till', greviilei, Pfr. . . 50 

var. roseolabiata, iN'i??;. 51 



Page 

6. waltoni, Bv 51 

var. polei, t'vlldt .... 52 

7. skinneri, ^i' 52 

Subfiini. 2. Cor/'llina 53 

Gen. 1. Gorilla, Adams 53 

1. adamsi, Gudc 56 

var. Iiiuidunensis, JS'ev. 57 

2. beddomeffi, Hani 57 

3. anax, Bs 59 

4. giidei, <S(//.r.s 60 

5. humberti, Brot. ...... 61 

6. odontopliora, Bs 62 

7. fr3'0e, Gude G4 

8. erronea, All 66 

var. erronella, Gnde . . 67 

9. carabinata, Fer 07 

10. colletti, Stjhes 69 

Gen. 2. Plectopylis, Benson . . 69 

Sect. 1. Endotbyra, Gudc . . 75 

1. minor, G.-A 75 

2. hanleyi, G.-A 77 

3. blanda, Gude 77 

4. macrom])balus, ^Z/'. . . . . 79 

5. sowerbyi, Gudc 80 

6. plecto.stoma, Bs 81 

var. tricarinata, Gude . 83 

var. exsertri, Gude. ... 83 

7. affiuis, Gude 84 

8. pinaeis, Bs 86 

9. fultoni, G..A 87 

Sect. 2. Chersa3cia, Gude. ... 89 

10. muspratti, Gude 89 

11. austeni, Gude 90 

12. oglei, G.-A 92 

13. serica, G.-A 93 

14. uiunipurensis, G.-A. . . 94 

15. nagaensis, G.-A 96 

16. kf-ntungensis, Gude .... 97 

17. leiophis, Bs 99 

18. refuga, Gld 102 

19. perriera?, Gude 103 

20. i-biroiensis, G.-A 105 

21. perarcta, Blf. 106 

22. brachydisciis, 6-'.-.4 108 

23. dextrorsa, Bs 110 

24. sbauensis, Stol Ill 

25. brahma, G.-A 113 

26. andersoni, Blf. 114 



SYSTEMATIC IXBEX. 



Vll 



Sect. 3. Endoplon, (hide . ... 115 

27. sniitliiana, <i»de 115 

28.. bracli vi)lecta, lis 117 

Sect. 4. l'lcct()]nlis,^\.s. r/w^/e 119 

29. poiisoiibyi, G.-A 119 

80. lis.soclilamy3. (imh .... 121 

ol. niagUii, Guile 122 

32. woodtliorpei, Giiih .... 124 

33. leucochila. Gude 120 

34. feddeni, iiY/". 12S 

35. cairnsi, Gude 129 

30. cyclaspis, Bs 130 

37. karcuonim, lllf. 132 

38. linterte, midf. 1-34 

var. fusca, Gude .... 136 

39. aiiguina, Gld 136 

40. beiisoni, Gude 138 

var. repercussoide?, 

Ginle 141 

var. infiatasciata,G'(«/e 142 

var. ca.staiiea, Gude . . 143 

var. obcsa, Gude .... 143 

var. venusta, Gude . . 144 

var. breviplica, Gude. . 145 

41. ropercu?sii, Gld 140 

Subfani. -3. Cauiccniucc 149 

Geu. 1. CaiiKcna {Alhers), Pils- 

bnj 149 

1. ncetliugi, Mts l.oO 

2. oclitlioplax, Bs l.")0 

3. saturnia, Gld 151 

Gen. 2. Oreobba, I'ilsbrij .... 152 

1 . codouodes, Pfr 1 52 

tlen. 3. Plaint-])ira, Beek 153 

Subgen. 1. Tracbia, .4///^/>-. . 153 

1 . albic().stis, I'fr 1 55 

2. asperella, Pfr 1 55 

3. atkinsoui, Theob 150 

4. coiitracta, Bs 157 

5. fallacio.sa, Fer 157 

6. cra.ssicostata, Bs 158 

7. colletti, Bedd 1."j9 

8. f'jo'ei, Stol |.">9 

9. nilajrerica, Pfr 159 

10. iiag])oreusis, Pfr KiO 

11. ruginosa, Fer 1<>1 

12. sordida, Pfr 161 



Page 

13. proxiiua, Fer 162 

14. armstriiiigi, Smith .... 163 

15. trochalia, /->'.< 164 

IC. vittata, Miill 164 

var. albiiia, Grat 16."> 

17. sbanica, Bedd 160 

18. tVitillata, Bs 166 

Geu. 4. Cliloritis, Beck IGG 

Subgeii. 1. Chloriti.s, s. s. 

1. bifoveata, Bs 167 

Subgt'n. 2. Trk-liucbloritis, 

Pilsbri/ . 1 68 

2. propiuqua, Pfr 169 

3. belferi, Bs 170 

4. leitbi, Gude 1 70 

5. wimberle}'!, G.-A 171 

5. delibrata, Bs 172 

var. procuiubens, Gld. 172 

var. fasciata, G.-A. . . 173 

var, kbasieii.sls, iN'er. . . 173 

7. gabata, Gld 17.3 

var. niprguiensis, P/iil. 174 

8. heruiupta, B< 174 

9. cyclotreiiia, Bs. . . . . . 175 

10. aiiserina, Theob 175 

11. tbeobaldi, Gude 176 

Gen. 5. Aiiipliidroimus, Alters . 177 

1. janus, Pfr 178 

2. iitricallosus, Gld 179 

3. moniliferus, Gld 180 

4. syllieticius Rv 180 

5. masoiii, G.-A 181 

(i. lepidus, Gld 181 

7. sinensis, Bs 182 

var. vicaria, Fult l!;3 

var. gracilis, F'uU 184 

8. aiidamauicus, H. ^y T. . . 184 

Subgon. 2. Beddomea, Xevill 185 

9. trifasciatup, Gm 187 

var. rufopicta, Us 188 

10. boutipe, t'hemn 188 

11. phvsalis, Bs 189 

12. albizonatis, Rv 189 

var. simoiii, Juuss. . . 190 

13. intermedins, Pfr 191 

14. cevlaiiicus, Pfi- 191 

15. calcadeusis, Blf. 192 

Geu. 6. Apatetes, Gude 193 

1. bourdilluui, Thevb 193 



VIU 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 
Gen. 7. Gauesella, Blf. 193 

1. acris, i;.^ 194 

'1. scenoma, Bs 195 

3. capitium, i)V 196 

var. haiiola, Bs 197 

4. galea, Bs 198 

Subtam. 4. Helicince 198 

Gen. 1. Eulota, Hurtmann .... 198 

1. bolus, i,'s 199 

2. cestus, Bs 200 

3. similaris, Fcr 200 

4. exti'Lisa, Tapp 202 

5. zoroaster, Theob 202 

(5. schanoruiu, MUdff. .... 203 

7. scalptuiita, Bs 203 

8. pilidiou, Bs 204 

9. pegiieiidis, Bs 205 

10. radicicola, Bs 205 

var. elatior, Mts 200 

Geu. 2. Catbaica, Mlhlff. .... 207 

iSubgeii. 1. Campy locatbaica, 

Andreac 207 

1. inataiaiien?is, i\''ey 208 

2. phasozona, Mis 208 

3. bactriaua, Hutt 209 

var. buniiauica, Gitde . 209 

Geu. 3. l'lectot^opi!^, von Mar- 
tens 210 

1. button!, iy...... ...... 211 

var. savadien.<is, iSei'. 211 

var. radlevi, Jouss. . . 212 

2. oldbami, Bs 212 

3. nutans, Gude 213 

4. tapeina, Bs 214 

var. tbeobaldiana, 

Tapp 216 

var. akowtougensis, 

Theoh 216 

var. perplanata, Nev. 216 

var. bbamoensis, Nev. 217 

5. arakauensis, Theob 503 

Gen. 4. JE^^iaitx., von Martens. . 217 

1 . i)bayrei, Theob 218 

2. catostoma, Blf. 219 

3. emensa, G.-A 220 

4. clara, G.-A 220 

5. mitanensis, G.-A 221 

6. congener, Brest 221 

7. coeni, Brest 222 



Page 
Gen. 5. Vallonia, Risso 222 

1. pulcbella, Midi 223 

2. co.stata, Milll 225 

3. ladakensis, Nev 226 

4. miserrima, Gude 227 

Fam. 6. Enid^ 228 

Gen. 1. Ena, Turton 228 

Subgen. 1. Mirus, Alders . . 230 

1. ceratina, Bv 230 

2. nilagirica, Bfr 231 

3. proletaria, P/> 232 

4. banlevana, Kob 232 

5. stalix", Bs 233 

6. vicaria, Blf. 234 

7. panes, Bs 234 

8. .suiitbei, Bs 235 

Subgen. 2. Subzebriuus, Jf'es- 

terlund . 236 

9. vibex, Kilst 236 

10. linterse, Kob 237 

11. boysiana, Rv 238 

12. arcuata, Kilst 239 

13. nivicola, Bv 240 

14. buttoni, Bfr 241 

15. eous, Bv . 242 

16. kunawurensis, Bv 242 

17. candelaris, Bfr 243 

18. siudica, Bv 245 

19. domina, Bs 245 

20. longstatti, Gude 246 

21. ereniita, Bv 247 

22. salsicola, Bs 248 

23. coelebs, Bfr 249 

24. pretiosa, Bv 250 

25. niainwaringiana, Nev. . . 251 

var. tumida, Gude . . 252 
var. domiuula, Gude . 253 

26. rutistrigata, Bv 253 

var. gracilis, II. ^- T. . 254 

Subgen. 3. Serina, Gredler . . 254 

27. tandianiensis, Kob 255 

28. kuluensis, Kob 255 

29. beddonieana, Nev 250 

var. typica, Theob. . . 256 

var. turrita, Theoh. . . 256 

var. pusilla, Tlteob. . . 256 

30. hazarica, Gude 257 

31. nevilliana, Theob 258 



STSTEMATTC INDEX. 



Gen. 2. riipoides, Pfi-iffer 



. 2o9 



I. ccenopictus, Hntt 2o9 

•2. lard"U8, Pfr 261 

3. tutulus, liv 261 

(len. 3. Cerastiis, von Martens . 262 

1. abvssiiuciis, Pfr 263 

2. fanl.anki, Pfr 264 

3. nuilabariciis, Pfr 264 

4. jerdoni, Rv 265 

var. redfieldi, Pfr. . . 2C.6 

5. moussonianus, Pet 267 

6. segregatus, Rv 26S 

7. densus, Pfr 269 

8. distans, Pfr 270 

var. charbonnieri, Pfr. 271 



Gen 



4. I\achisellus, 
gnat 



Boiiryui- 



I'age 

4. miniula, Bs 292 

6. seiiula, Jh 293 

(leii. 4. Boysidia, Ancey 293 

1. plicidens, Bs 294 

2. salwiniana, Theob 295 

Gen. 5. Uovsia, Pfeiffer 290 

1. boy si, Pfr 297 

Gen. 6. Ilypselostoma. Benson . 298 

1 . tubiterum, Bs 298 

2. bensonianuni, B/f. .... 299 

3. dayanuni, Stol 300 

Faiu 8. C'LAUsiLiiDiE 301 



•>7l Gen. 1. Clau.'^ilia, Drajxirnaud 301 



1. admiibratus, Pfr 272 1 

2. trutta, B(f. 273 1 

3. beni^alensi-s, Lam 274 | 

4. pvpeterniissus, B/f. .... 275 i 

5. ptilcher, Graj/ 276 

6. punctatus, Ant 277 

Gen. o. Edouardia, Gnde .... 280 

I. orbus, Blf. 280 

Fani. 7. Pupillidje 281 

(4 en. 1. Pupilla, Tnrfon 281 

1. miueoriim, L 282 

var. asiatica, Mlldjf. . . 283 

2. eurina, Bs 283 

3. seriola, Bs 284 

4. diopsis, Bs 284 

5. gutta, Bs .... 285 

6. barrackporeusis, Gude. . 285 

7. cinghalensi.«, Gude .... 286 

8. muscerda, Bs 286 

9. tilosn, Theob. 3,- Stol. . . 2^7 
10. brevicostis, Bs 288 

II. saiemensis, Blf. 289 

Gen. 2. Columella, Westerlund 

(^Sphy radium, auct.) . . 40 

1. himalayanum, Bs 41 



Gen. 3. Bifidaria, St.erki 

1. bathyodon, Bs.. . 

2. huttoniana, Bs. 

3. avaniea, Bs 



290 

290 
291 
292 



Subgen. 1. Plia^dusa, 7/. lV .1. 

Adams 305 



Sect, 
1. 



1. Euphajdusa, Boettyer 

bacillum, M. ($• T. 

waageni, Stol 

ios, Bs 

ceylanica, Bs 

theobaldi, B/f. 

bianiauica, Gude 

uionticola., Rlf. 

arakana, Stol 

leniani, Gude 



305 

305 
307 
308 
309 
310 
311 
311 
312 
313 



Sect. 2. Pseudonenia, 

Boettyer 314 

10. gouldiaua. Pfr 314 

var. magna, Gu</e .... 316 

11. andersoniana, J///fi/ . . . 317 

12. gracilior, H. cV T 318 

13. insignia, Gld 319 

14. fiisiformis, Blf. 321 

15. ferruginea, Blf. 322 

16. asaluensis, B/f. 323 

17. loxostonia, Bs 324 

18. nevilliaua, Al/ldf. 325 

19 sbanica, G.-A 326 

20. wuellerstorfi, Zel 327 

21 . nicobarica, Gude 328 

Subgen. 2. Garnieria, Bour- 

guiynat 329 

22. tuba, Hani 330 

13. nia^onJ, Iheob.. 331 

h 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 
Subgen. 3. Oospira, Blunford. 332 

24. bulbils, Bs 332 

2o. philippiatia, Pfr 333 

26. ovata, Blf. .' 334 

27. stoliczkana, Si/kes .... 330 

28. vespa, Glcl 336 

Subgen. 4. CylindropliiBdusa, 

Boett<Jer 337 

29. cylindrica, Pfr 337 

30. tiirritella, Sowb 339 



Fain. 9. Achatinid.ii: 339 

Subfam. 1. Achatiniim' 339 

Geu. 1. Achatina, Lmnarck . . 339 

1. fusca, let- 340 

Subfam. 2. Stenor/yrina- 341 

Geu. 1. Subulina, Beck 341 

1. octoua, B)-u(/ 341 

Gen. 2. Bacilluni, Theohald . . 343 

1. dafiaense, G.-A 343 

2. erosuni, Blf. 344 

3. theobaldi, Hani. 344 

4. casiacum. Ro 345 

6. muspratti, Gude 346 

6. obtusum,^//: 347 

7. orthoceras, G.-A 3-18 

var. austeni, Fits 348 

Geu. 3. Curvella, Chaper 348 

1. sikkiniensis, Jtr 349 

2. blanfordi, Gude 350 

3. scrobiculata, Blf. 350 

4. pusilla, Blf. ..'. 351 

5. puta, Bs 351 

6. plicifera, Blf. 352 

7. muuipurensis, G.-A. . . 352 

8. kbasiana, G.-A 353 

Gen. 4. Opeas, Alters 354 

1. gracile, Ilutt 355 

var. panayensis, Pfr. . 357 

vai". cereus, Bv 357 

2. pre.stoni, Sykes 358 

3. innocens, Fred 358 

4. latebricola, Rv 358 



Page 

5. uiaviiB, Jouss 359 

<). uevilli, G.-A 360 

7. lavardi, Bs 360 

8. .sykesi, Pils 361 

9. ? pusilla, H.Ad 361 

(Ten. 5. Prosopeas, March .... 362 

1. bebes, Blf. 362 

2. tevebrale, Theob 363 

3. walkei-i, Bs 363 

4. pealei, Tn/on 364 

5. haughtoiii, Bs 364 

6. achate.-^, March 365 

7. roepstorffi, Mnrch .... 366 

Geu. 6. Zootecus, Westerlund . . 366 

1. insularis, Ehrh. ...... 367 

2. estelhis, Bs 369 

3. pei'tica, Bs 370 

4. polygyratus, Rn 370 

5. pull us, Grny 371 

<>. agrensis, Kurr 372 

7. chion, Pfr 373 



Faiu. 10. Ferussacid.*: 373 

Gen. 1. Cfecilioide-s, Herrmann- 
sen 373 

Subgen. 1. Geostilbia, CV-o*'^e. 374 

1. balanus, Rv 374 

2. beusoui, Gude 375 

Gen. 2. Coilostele, Benson .... 370 

1. scalaris, Bs 376 

Geu. 3. Glessula, von Mortens. 377 

1. tenuispira, Bs 378 

2. liaculina, Blf. 379 

3. pertenuis, Blf. 380 

var. major, Blf. 381 

4. sbiplayi, Pfr 381 

5. nilagirica, Rv 382 

6. bebes, Pfr 382 

7. fairbanki, Bs 383 

8. vadalica,7?s 384 

9. tamulica, Blf. 385 

10. perrotteti, Pfr 386 

11. praelustris, Bs 386 

12. huegeli, Pfr 387 

13. burrailensis, G.-A 387 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XI 



14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 
•21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 



28. 

29. 

SO. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 

46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 



Page 

bntleri, G.-A 388 

chessoni, Bs 388 

tornen^^is. Blf. 389 

subtornensis, Gude .... 390 

textilis, B/f. 390 

subserena, liedd 391 

iiidicii, Gude 39:i 

senator, Hani 39-'> 

isis, Hani 393 

snb])eri-ottet\, Bi'dd, . . . . 394 

canarica, Jiedd. 394 

auaniuUica, Blf. 395 

iuoruata, r/r 395 

var. minor, Bedd 395 

lankana, Fils 396 

subinornata, Bedd 396 

var. minor, Bedd 397 

reynelli, Giule 397 

var. iiiimitis, Gude . . 398 

beddomei, B/f. 398 

pallen.s, Bedd ••'.99 

prestoni, Gude 400 

bollampattiana, Han!.. . 401 

pnrabilis, Bs 402 

fusca, Ffr 402 

ceylanica, Pfr 403 

piincto^allana, Pfr 403 

iiitena, Grai/ 404 

fulgens, Pfr 405 

panajtlia, "/>.s' 406 

.Serena, /A' 406 

siuhila, Prest 407 

lavardi, Pih 407 

deshavesi, Pfr 408 

pachycheila, Bs 409 

var. taprobanica, Pils. 409 

pyraniis, B.f 409 

leptnspira, Bs 410 

.«i.-*parica, Gude. 410 

tenuite.sta, Gude 411 

notijrena, Bs 412 

sari.ssa, Bs 412 

veruina, Bs 413 

ha.stula, Bs 414 

corro.'^ula, Pfr 414 

blanda, Gude 415 

ben.soniana, Pfr 415 

tinntnellica, Gude .... 416 

travancorica, Gude .... 417 

jeyporensis, Bedd. . . . 417 

jerdoni. Rv 418 

sinphuren.>ii,s, Blf. .... 418 

amentum, Rv 419 

ganjamen.sis, Gude .... 420 

taenia, Bs 421 



65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 



71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 

76. 

77. 



80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 

93. 
94. 

95. 
96. 

97. 



Pai^e 

illustri.s, G.-A 421 

botelliis, Bs 422 

orophila, ^r 423 

arthini, Bs 423 

oreas, Rv 424 

p8eudorea.s, Nev 425 

var. sLibdesliavesiana, 

Nev ■ 425 

cra.s,silabris, Bs 426 

uaj;i, Pils 426 

or;)bia, Bs 427 

scriitillu.s, Bs 427 

gemma, Rv 428 

var. friur.entum, Rv. . . 429 

crassula, Rv 429 

piilla, ij'/f. 430 

malabarica, Gude 4.30 

paupercula, Blf. 431 

var. nana, Bedd 431 

sattaraensis, H. ^- T. . . 432 

capillacea, Ifr 432 

cclletta3, Sy'kes 433 

subjerdoni, Bedd 434 

gracilis, Bedd 434 

neglecta, Gude 435 

pusilla. Bedd 436 

courtallica, Gude 436 

nmllorum, ^//. 437 

blaiifordiana, Nco 437 

peguensis, Blf. 438 

brevis, Pfr. '. 4:?9 

filo.-^a, Blf. 440 

var. exigua, Gude. . . . 441 

subfilosa, Bedd 441 

lyrata, Blf. 441 

var. matheranica, Blf. 442 

rugata, Blf. 442 

latestnata, Mlldff. 443 

simoni, Jouss 444 



Gen. 4. Y)\^o\ni\.^is,Jousseanme. 444 
1. cinsralensis. Bs 444 



Fam. 11. SucciNHD^ 445 

(ten. 1. SwccmvA. DrapuriKvid . 445 

1. indica, Pfr 447 

2. plicata, lilf 448 

3. rntilaufi, Blf. 448 

4. godivariana. Gude .... 449 

5. collina, 21. 8,- T. 449 

var. aurantiaca, Blf.. . 450 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Pafi-e 

G. girnarica, Theoh 451 

var. virideseens, Gude. 451 

7. rugosa, r/r 451 

8. semiserica, Gld 452 

9. baconi, Pfr 452 

10. daucina, Pfr 453 

11. crassinuclea, Pfr 453 

12. vitrea, Pfr. .'. 454 

13. hanleyi, Gude 455 

14. subgranosa, Pfr 456' 

15. bensoni, Pfr. '. . 456 

16. ceylaniea,"P/)-. 456 



('len. 2. Litliotis,, Blanford .... 457 

1. rupicola, Blf. 458 

2. tumida, Blf 459 

var. subcostulata, Blf. 460 

Gen. 3. Camptoceras, Benson . . 460 

1. terebra, Bs 461 

2. au&teni, //. F. Blf. 462 

3. lineatum, H. F. Blf. . . 463 

Gen. 4. Caiiiptouyx, Benson . . 465 
1. tlieobaldi, Bs 465 



Fain. 10. Vagintjlid^ 



Page- 

. 481 



Gsn. 1. Vagmuius, 7'V'?'. .. ... 481 

1. alte, Jer 4821' 

2. fi'auenfeldi, JSemj) 483 

3. teiupletoni, Humh 484 

4. maculatut:. Tempi 485 

5. reticulatus, West 487 

6. sarasinoiuiii, Simr 487 

7. birmanicus, Theoh 487 

8. proximus, Tapp 489 

9. audersonianus, Tapp. . . 490 
10. giganteus, G.-A 491 

Gen. 2. Leonardia, Tapparone 

Canefvi 49ii 

1. nevilliaua, Tapp 492: 



Fam. 11. Janeli ID.E 



Am 



Gen. 1. Ilvalimax, H. 8f A. 

Adams 496; 

Snbgen. 1. Jarava, G.-A. . . 497 

1. andamanica, G.-A 498 

var. pHUctulata, C'kll. . 501 

2. reinhardti, March .... 501 

3. viiidis, Theob. 501 



ERRATxl. 



ye 38, delete Pupisoma seriola. 

94, 7th line from the bottom, /o?- Shiroifurar read the Shiroifurai 

Peak. 
97, 4th line, fm' Lauier River read Lanier River., 
105, 4th line from the bottom, after Shiroifurar add Peak. 
343, 15th line from the bottom, for Bacillum daflaensis read 

BacUlum daflaense. 
350, 11th line from the bottom, for Curvella scrohiculattis read 

Curvella scrobmdafa. 
301, 14th line from the bottom, for Opeas ? pusillus read Opeas ' 

vusillum. 



Family TROCHOMORPHID.E. 

Genus TROCHOMORPHA, Albers. 

Trochomorpha, Albers, Die Ileliceen, ISoO, p. 116; Martens, Die 
Heliceen (ed. 2), p. 60; ibid,, Preuss. Exp. Ost-Asien, Zool. Theil, 
ii, 1867, p. 245 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. I87;i, p. 20; Pilsbry, Man. 
Couch, (ser. 2), ix, 189.">, p. 1 ; Godwin-Austen, Proc. Malac. iSoc. 
Louduu, i, 18!)o, p. 284. 

Type, lldlv trocMformls, Fer., from Tahiti. 

Range. India, Burma, Andaman and Nicobar Islands; Farther 
India and adjacent islands ; Chnia and Formosa ; Japan and 
Loo-Choo Islands ; Malaysia ; Philippine Islands ; New Guinea, 
Admiralty and Louisiade Archi|>elagoes ; Pelew, Caroline, Mar- 
shall, Solomon, New Hebrides, Fiji, Navigator, Tonga, Society, 
and Sandwich Islands. 

Original (hscription : — " Testa trochiforrais, plerumque aperta 
umbilicata, aiigulata vel carinata, apice obtusa, striatula, opaca, 
subsolida, f u^ca, concolor vel fasciata ; anfr. 5-8, supra et infra 
plauati ; apertura depressa, obliijua, seeunforniis vel angustius 
lunata, peristoma recrum, simplex, margine columellare ssepius 
paulum incrassato, sensim in basalem transeunte. 

Maxilli laevis, arcuata, medio sajpius rostrata. Pallium non 
ultra aperturam testse productum.'* (Martens, 1867.) 

The genus Trochomorpha was established by Albers in 1850. 
He included sixteen species, not only of Asiatic and Polynesian 
origin, but also one from Central America, two from the Ber- 
mudas, and one from the Canary Islands. Of the sixteen species, 
eleven have since been referred to other genera. No type was 
mentioned. In 1860 von Martens, in the revised edition of 
Albers' work, gave a list of 31 species, having eliminated some 
and added a number of others, comprising several which have no 
ailinity with the genus He indicated trochiformis as the type. 
In the ' Preuss. Exp. Ost-Asien ' he amended and amplified the 
description, which bears evidence of a better conception of the 
limits of the group. It was, however, left for Prof. Pilsbry, in 
his epoch-maliiiig work on the Helicidiv., to place the genus 
on a sound and permanent basis by giving anatomical details of 
several forms, and enumerating all the species known at the time. 
Althouo'h including it in his work on llelicidoi, he distinctly states 
that he considers Trochomorpha " a somewhat aberrant genus of 
Zonitidce." Further anatomical details of the genus were con- 
tributed in 1895 by Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen, who, however, 
retains the subgeneric name Discus, which, as Pilsbry has demon- 
strated, is not available in this group, Fit/.inger having previously 
employed it for If. rotundata and its allies, so that Videna of 
Albers has to be employed instead. 

B 



2 TROCHOMOKPHID.E. 

I append anatomical details copied from Pilsbiy's work 
referred to : — 

" Animal : Toot long and rather narrow; sole flat, with no trace 
of lo7igitudinal division ; parapodial groove distinct, bounding a 
wide vertically grooved foot margin, and having a shallower 
groove above it. Tail depressed above, rounded behind, ivithout a 
mucus gland. Back with several indistinct longitudinal rows of 
granules ; sides irregularly granular. Shell lappets none ; but 
mantle having a wide body-lappet on the right and a small one 
on the left. Lung orifice to the left of the superior angle of 
aperture. 

" Genitalia simple, the penis moderately long, somewhat twisted, 
the retractor muscle and vas deferens entering at the apex. 
Npermatheca on a short duct. Orifice of genitalia near the pedal 
groove, below and slightly back of the right eye-peduncle. Kight 
eye-peduncle retracted between branches of genitalia. Kidney 
long and narrow. 

" In T. castra and T. timorensis the duct of the sperniatheca is 
very long. In all other features of genitalia, jaw, and teeth they 
resemble the typical Trochomorphas. The length of this duct 
may warrant the retention of the section Sivella, Blanf. 

" Jaw arcuate, smooth, with a small median projection, or none. 
" Eadula : central and lateral teeth having the strong mesocones 
projecting ivell over the p>osterior borders of their basal plates, and 
lacking ecto- and entocones. Outer lateral teeth at first sinuated 
outside, the sinuation increasing to a denticle on the transition 
teeth, and ascending on the mesocone to form the long hijid cusps of 
the marginal teeth, which become very oblique. 

" AViegmann has recently dissected a specimen of 

T. planorhis,Ijess. (Weber's Zool. Ergebn. Reise Niederl. Ost- 
Indien, iii, p. 152, ]b9;3). This species shows the lower portion 
of the vas deferens to be dilated beyond the axis of the penis, 
where the retractor muscle is inserted. The vagina is much 
swollen between the lower end of the uterus and the opening 
of the spermatheca duct, and at the upper end of this swollen 
portion there is inside a whitish gland formed of the one-celled 
club-shaped follicles. This internal vaginal gland has not been 
noticed in other species. JStoliczka has published the anatomy of 
T. castra and 'I', timorensis (Jouru. As. Soc. Bengal, xlii), finding 
these species to have the structure of typical Trocliomorpha except 
for the very long duct of the spermatheca." {Pilshry.) 

Godwin-Austen investigated the anatomy of T. trilineatus and 
gives the following details : 

" Animal. — Has no overhanging lobe at the extremity of the 
foot : the slit of the mucous gland cannot be discerned owing, 
possibly, to the contracted state of the spirit specimen, though th« 
wide pallial fringe and the shape of the extremity of the foot 
point undoubtedly to its presence. The animal is black in colour, 
with a pale foot beneath, and above the ])allial margin is finely 
papillate. The jaw has a central projection. The radula lias 



TROCHO:MOEPnA. «"> 

the teeth arranged +9:11:1:11:9+? It was unfortunately 
imperfect on both the lateral sides, where tlie teeth are very 
small. The twenty-two centrals ai'e plain straight-sided teeth, 
the centre tooth not so broad as those on either side ; the laterals 
are curved, short, and evenly bicuspid. 

"The generative organs. — The vas deferens joins the male organ 
below the retractor muscle attachment, and at its junction is 
closely coiled upon itself ; this was seen in two specimens dis- 
sected. The spermatheca is only of moderate length, and thus 
these organs have a very distinct construction to that which 
Stoliczka describes .in Sivella castra. The other parts of the 
generative organs do not call for any special mention.'' 

Subgenus SIVELLA, Blanford. 

Sivella, Blanford, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xi, 18G3, p. 86 ; Pilsbry, Man. 
Conch, ser. '2, ix, 1893, p. 3. 

Type, Helix castra, Benson. 

Range. India and China. 

Shell depressed, acutely keeled, thin ; umbilicus wide. Sper- 
matheca with a long duct. 

The only species of this group which appears to have been 
examined anatomically is the type. Godwin-Austen states (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1895, p. 450): — "It differs in every respect from 
Discus \yidena\ represented by hicolor, sidcipes, &c." As he 
refers all the forms from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to 
Discus, and as conchologically the two subgenera are indistin- 
guishable, the only logical conclusion appears to be that the con- 
tinental species should be classed under Sivella and the insular 
ones placed in Videna, until an examination of the soft parts shall 
prove the contrary'. 

1. Trochoniorpha castra, Benson. 

JMLv castra, Benson, A.M. X. II. ser. 2, x, 1852, p. 349; Keeve, 
Conch. Icon, vii, 18o3, pi. 172, tig. 1100; Hanley & Theobald, 
Conch. India, 1872, pi. 83, figs. 1-3. 

Trochomorpha castra, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 1873, p. 21, pi. i, figs. 14- 
16 (shell), pi. ii, tigs. 7-9 (anat.) ; Nevill, Ilaud List, i, 1878, p. 56 ; 
Marten.-^, Conch. Mitth. ii, 1883, p. 130; CoUinge, Jouru. Malac. 
ix, 1902, p. 81. 

Sivella castra, Blanford, A.M.N. II. ser. :}, xi, 1863, p. 86; Godwin- 
Austen, Proc. Mai. Soc. London, i, 1895, p. 284, pi. ix, fig. 5 
(anatomv). 

Trochomorpha ( Videna) castra, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Xomencl. llelic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 84. 

Helix {Trochojyiorpha) castra, Tryou, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, 
p. 84, pi. 16, figs. 5-7. 

Original description : — '* T. mediocriter umbilicata, depres- 
sissimo-conica, tenuis, exiliter oblique acuto-striatida, cornea ; 
spira ad apicem obtusa, sutura marginatis ; anfr. oh planulati, 

b2 



4 TEOCHOMORPHID^. 

ultimo ad peripberiam acutissime carinato, subtus planiusculo ; 
apertura oblique subquadrata, margine acuto. 

" Diam. maj. 12, inin. 10|, axis 4 mill." 

Hab. Sikkiiu : Darjeeling {Trotter, Stoliczha cj- Maimvarinr/). 
India : Sinkip Island ( Wood-Maso7i) ; Calcutta (StoUczka 6f Nevill); 
Sibsagar {Peal)-, Khasi Hills aud Dafla Hills, Assam {Godtvin- 
Austen); Naga Hills {CJiennell) ; CIieiTapooujee, Assam (native 
collector, m}'' collection). Burma : Arakan Hills {Kurz) ; Pegu 
{Stoliczlca). Straits Settlements : Penang {Stoliczla) ; Salang 
( Weher) ; Kwala Aring, Kelautan, Malay Peninsula {Skeat Ex- 
pedition). 

JS^evill records an unnamed variety of tbis species (collected by 
Wood-Mason) from Soutb Andaman Island (Hand List, i, 1878, 
p. 56). Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen, who received a specimen from 
the same collector, believes this to be an immature T. sanis (P. Z. 8. 
1895, p. 449). 

2. Trochomorpha ceryx, Benson. 

Hclir ceryx, Benson, A.INI. N. H. ser. 3, iii, 18o9, p. 184 (reprint, 

P,l). 
Helix ( Trochomorpha) caryx (eiT. tvp.)? Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. '1, 

iii, 1887, p. 75. 
Trochomorpha caryx, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1893, p. 4. 

Original description: — " Testa pei^forata. turbinato-conica, tenui, 
iiitidula, oblique striatula, lii'is pluribus remotis, striisque coii- 
fertissimis interpositus spiralibus sculpta, transluceute, albida, 
fasciis duabus latis fuscis, supei-iori prope suturam, altera infra 
peripberiam, ornata ; spira attenuato-conica, apice obtusiusculo ; 
anfractibus 4 convexiusculis, ultimo medio carinato ; apertura 
obliqua, rotundata, peristomate tenui, acuto, margine columellari 
verticali anguste reflexo, perforationem subtegente. 

" Diam. maj. 6, min. 5, axis 5 mill." 

Hah. Burma : Pie Thau, Tenasserim. 

3. Trochomorplia billeana, Hforcli. 

Naninn ( Videna) billeana, Murch, Jouru. Conchyl. 1872, p. .310; ibid., 

1876, p. 355. 
Discus hilliana, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 

Original description : — " T. substantia dura, unicolor f usca, per- 
spective umbilicata, depressa, subdiscoidea, acutissime carinata ; 
striae iiicrementi obsoletse, linese spirales vix detegendse ; supra 
parum elevata ; sutura linearis, expansa ; anfra. 5| planiusculi, 
pone suturam (vel aciem) excavati, nltimus vix descendeus, basi 
convexiusculus. Apertura rbombea, peristomate subobliquo, 
margine subiucressato, labro obliquo, obsolete sinuato. 

" Diam. maj. 13, min. llj, axis 4 mill." 

Hah. Nicobar Islands: Nancowri, Great and Little Nicobar 
{Reinhardt) ; Camorta {Roepstorff). 

The form collected at Camorta is distinguisbed by Morch as 



TROCHOMOBPHA. 5 

var. /3, and is stated to be of a brown colour, witb a tliinner shell. 
The species differs from T. sulcipes principally by the narrower 
whorls, but the shell is also more solid, the umbilicus is narrower, 
the keel is sharper owing to the whorls being excavated above 
and below, while the spiral striae are less numerous and more 
indistinct. 

4. Trocliomorpha frauenfeldi, Zelehor. 

Helix frauenfeldi, I'feiffer &; Zelebor, \'er]i. K.K. zool.-bot. Ges. 

xvii,'l867, p. 80o. 
Trochomorpha ? frauenfeldi, Frauenfeld, Verb. K.K. zool.-bot. Ges. 

xix, 1869, p. 8U7. 
JRotula fraue^ifehli, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 441. 

Orvjinal description: — "T. perforata, lenticularis, acute carinata, 
tenuis, oblique conferte costuhito-striato, parum nitida, trans- 
lucida, cornea ; spira parum elevata, vertice obtuso ; sutura 
linearis ; anfr. 5 regulariter accrescentes, phiniusculi, ultimus non 
descendens, infra carinam levissime crenulatam convexus, laevior, 
nitidus ; apertura obliqua, rhombeo-lunaris ; perist. simplex, 
rectum, margine basali arcuato, ad insertionem breviter triaugu- 
latim I'eflexo. 

" Diam. maj. 10, min. 14, alt. 6 mill." 

Hah. Nicobar Islands {Zelehor) ; Great Sicohax {Godivin-Aiisten). 

5. Trochomorpha galerus, Benson. 

Helix (jalerus, Benson, A. M. X. II. ser. 2, xviii, 1856, p. 96 ; Hanley 
& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1872, pi. So, fip-s. 5 & 0. 

Trochomorpha easfra, var. galerus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 56. 

Trochiimorpha {Ni(/ritella) galerus, Pfeiffer iS: Clessin, Nomencl, Helic, 
Viv. 1881, p. 81". 

Helix {Trochomorpha) galerus, Trj'on, Man. Concb. ser. 2, iii, 1887, 
p. 75, pi. 14, ligs. 2 & 3. 

Original description : — " Testa umbilicata, subconoidea-depressa, 
lenticulari, pallide cornea, confertissime oblique striata, striis 
spiralibus exiguis decussata? ; spira depresse conoidea, sutura 
impressa, apice obtusiusculo ; aufr. 5 lente acrescentibus, con- 
vexiusculus, ultimo aniice niajori, non descendente, peripberia 
acute carinato, marginato, subrus convexiusculo, margine peri- 
omphali obtuse nngulato ; umbilico jirofundo, subanguste per- 
spectivo; apertura subsecuriformi ; peristomate acuto, marginibus 
distantibus, columellari brevi, superue retlexiusculo. 

" Diam. maj. 9. min. 8, axis 4 mill." 

Hah. Ceylon : Rogama {E. L. fjayard). 

6. Trochomorpha hyptiocyclos, Benson. 

Helix hgptiocgclos, Benson, A. :\I. N. H. ser. ?,, xi, 1868, p. 89. 
Patulu (Gonyodiscus) hyptiocyclos, Pfeilier & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 92. 

Original descriptions : — " II. testa latissime umbilicata, orbi- 



6 TKOCHOMOEPHID^. 

culato-planata, planorbiformi, depressa, fragili, oblique striatula 
trauslucente, polita, olivaceo-cornea ; spira concaviiiscula, apice 
foveolato, suturis profundis ; anfvactibus 4|, gradatim incres- 
centibus, utrinque convexis, ultimo convexiuseulo, peripheria 
subcarinata ; apertura valde obliqua, elliptico-lnnata ; peristomate 
tenui, acuto, maginibus conniventibus, callo tenui jiinctis. 

" Diam. uiaj. 6, uiin. 5, alt. 1^ mill." 

Hah. Ceylon : Eort M'Donald (Layard). 

7. Trochomorpha percompressa, Blanford. 

Hdix (Sivclla) jJcfcompressa , Blanford, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 448. 
Trochomorpha jjerconipressa, Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1877, p. 15; ibid., in 

Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. W. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 873, pi. 80, 

fig. 7 ; ibid.. Hand List, i, 1878, p. 56 ; ibid., J. A. S. B. 1881, pt. 2, 

p. 133, pi. 5, tig. 22. 
Helix {Trochomorjiha) percompressa, Tryon, Man. Couch, ser, 2, iii, 

1887, p. 84, id. 16, figs. 8-10. 

Original description: — "Testa aperta et pervie umbilicata, 
perdepressa, lentieularis, tenuis, cornea, acutissime cariiiata, 
nitida, striis increment! oblique curvatis notata. Spira fere plana, 
apice vix exserto, sutura impressa marginata. Anfr. 5, convexi, 
ultimus carina mediana acuta utrinque compressa instructis, circa 
umbilicum tumidior, non descendeus. Apertura parum obliqua, 
securitormis ; peristoma tenue, rectum. 

"Diam. maj. 12, miu. 10|, axis 3 mill." 

Hah. Burma : Bbamo (Anderson) • 2nd Iravaddy Defile (An- 
derson). 

Subgenus VIDENA, H. 4- A. Adams. 

Videna, H. & A. Adams, Gen. llec. Moll, ii, 1858, p. 15 (as sub- 
geiuis of Zo7utes), proposed in lieu oi Discus, Albers, 1850, not of 
Fitzinger, 1833; Martens, Preuss. Exp. Ost-Asien, Zool. Theil, ii, 
1867, p. 247 (second group of Trochoviorpha) ; Pilsbrv, Man. 
Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1893, p. 3. 

Type not indicated. Eirst species HeliA' heclciana, Pfeiffer. 

Range. Islands East of British India, Malaysia, China, Japan, 
Philippines, New Guinea. 

Original description : — " Shell widely umbilicated, discoidal, 
keeled, flat, or slightly elevated above, convex at the base, last 
whorl slightly deflexed at the aperture; peristome simple, acute, 
or slightly marginate, the margins arcuated." (Adams.) 

8. Trocliomorpha andamanica (Ncvill), Godwin-Austen. 

Discus andamanica (Xevill), Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 448. 
Trochomorpha ( Videna) andamanica, Fulton, A. M. N. H. ser. 6, 
XX, 1897, p. 212, pi. 6, fig. 4. 

" Shell subcircular, light yellowish brown ; umbilicus \\ ide 
funnel-shaped and sharply angled; whorls 6|, slowly increasing, 



TROCHOMORPIIA. i 

suture bordered with a depressed and well-defined narrow margin, 
obliquely striated by growth-lines abo\e and below, last whorl 
compressed at the margin and acutely keeled; aperture very 
oblique, lip slightly thit-kened. 

" Maj. diani. 14 millim., height 4| millim., width of umbilicus 
o millim.'' {Fulton.) 

Hah. Andaman Islands : Port Blair. 

9. Trochomorpha bicolor, Martens. 

Trochfimorpha bicolor, Martens, Moiiatsber. Kon. Akad. Wiss. 

ileiliu, 18G4, p. 267 ; ibid., Preuss. Exp. Ost-Asien, Zool. Theil, ii, 

1867, p. 252, pi. 13, fig. 2; Nevill, lland List, ii, 1878, p. 57. 
Naniiia ( Videna) bicolor, Miirch, Jouru. Concliyl- 1876, p. 356. 
Helix ( Trochomorpha) bicolor, Tryou, Man. Concli. ser. 2, iii, 1887, 

p. 82, pi. 16, figs. 83-85. 
Hiscns bicolor, Uodwin-Austeu, Proc. Malac Soc. London, i, 1895, 

p. -2Sr,, pi. 10. tig. 3 (anatomy) ; ibid., P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 
Trochomurplia ( Videna) bicolor, PfeiHer &; Clessin, Nonieuel. Ilelic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 83; Wiegmann, Abh. Senck. Naturf. Ges. xxiv, 

1898, p. 419, pi. 27, figs.'l-18 (anatomy). 

Original description : — " Testa modice umbilicata, depresse 
conica, carinata, striatula, nitida, supra lineis spiralibus subtilibus 
sculpta, castanea, zona suturali, carina et regioue umbilicali 
albidis ; spira altitudine varians ; aiil'r. 51-6, convexiuscuii, 
ultimus peripheria cariuatus et basi pro])e umbilicum subangulatus, 
antice baud descendens ; apertura diagonalis, securiformis ; peri- 
stoma rectum, acutum, margine basali arcuato. 

" Diam. maj. 13, min. 12, alt. 5-6, apert. long. 5, lat. 4 mill."' 
Hah. Nicobar Islands : Teressa and Katchal {lioejjstorf ) ; 
I'reparis Island (var.) (Wood- Mason) ■ Malaysia : Sumatra, 
Borneo, Lombok. 

10. Trochomorpha iopharynx, March. 

JS'anina {Videna) iopharynx, Miirch, Journ. Conchyl. 1876, p. 356. 
Discus iopharynx, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 

Original description'. — " T. depressa, late umbilicata, brunnea, 
linea, suturali subtilissima, alba ; stria) incrementi irregularis, 
rudes, prsesertem superue ; labio crassiusculo, faucibus violascen- 
tibus, iridescentibus. 

" Diam. maj. 16 millim. ; diam. min. 14; alt. 8." 

Hah. Nicobar Islands ; Katchal {Roepstorpf). 

Based on a single specimen. Mijrch states that Troclioniorpha 
iimorensis. Martens, gives a good idea of this species, but that the 
figure given by von Martens (Ost-As. pi. 13, fig. 6) shows a mucli 
narrower umbilicus. 

11. Trochomorpha lardea, Martens. 

Helix zolli/tfjeri, Mousson {non Pfeiffer), Zollinger, Natuuilc 
Tijdschr. Nederl. Indie, xxi, 1860, p. 317 (noni. nud.). 



O TROOHOMORPHIDjE. 

Trochomorpha lardea, Martens, Monatsber. Kou. Akad. Wiss. 

Berlin, 18(i4, p. 207 ; ibid.. Preiiss. Exp. Ost-Asien, Zool. Tbeil. 

ii, 18()7, p. 251, pi. 13, fig. o ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 57. 
Helix { Trochomorphci) lardea, Tryon, Man. Concb. ser. 2, iii, 1887, 

p. 88, pi. ]0, figs. 93-95. 
Trochomorpha ( Viile7ia) lardea, Kobelt, Abb. Senck. Naturf. Ges. 

xxiv, 1898, p. 54; Wiegmann, torn. cit. p. 415, pi. 2(3, figs. 24-34 

(anatomy). 

Original description: — "Testa modice umbilicata, depresse 
conica, carinata, striatula, nitida, supra lineis spiralibus subtilibus 
sculpta, castanea, zona suturali, carina et regione umbilicali 
albidis ; spiraaltitudine variaus ; anfr. 5|-6, convexiusculi, ultiraus 
peripberia cariiiatus et basi prope umbiliciim subangulatus, antice 
baud de^cendens ; apertura diagonalis, securitornus ; peristoma 
rectum, acutum, margine basaJi arcuato. 

"Diam. nia,]. 13, min. 12, alt. 5-6, apert. long. 5. lat. 4 mill." 
Hab. WiGohaLY \ii\?L\\(\.-^ {Stoliczlca^ Rocpstorff). Malaysia: Ceram, 
Buru, Amboina, Halmabeira. 



12. Trochomorpha pseudosanis, Fulton. 

Discus 2)seiidosanis (Nevill), Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442 

(iioni. nud.). 
Trochomorplia { Vidcna^ pseudosanis (Nevill), Fulton, A. M. N. H. 

ser. 0, XX, 1897, p. 213, pi. 6, fig. 5. 

Original description: — "Shell openly vnnbilicate, dark brown, 
obliquely striated above and below; Avhorls 5^, slowly increasing, 
suture with a narrow well- defined margin, last wborl sbarply 
keeled ; aperture oblique ; peristome scarcely thickened. 

" Maj. diam. 13 millim., beight 5 millim., widtb of umbilicus 
4 millim.'" 

Nab. Andaman Islands : Port Blair. 



13. Trochomorpha saiiis, Benson. 

Helix satiis, Benson, A. M. N. IT. ser. 3, vii, 1861, p. 84; Hanley & 

Tbeobald, Concb. Ind. 1872, pi. 83, figs. 4 & 7. 
Trochomorpha sanis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 56. 
Helix (Trochomorpha) sanis, Trvon, Man. Concb. ser. 2, iii, 1887, • 

p. 84, pi. 16, figs. 3, 4. 
Discus sanis, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 

Original description : — "H. testamediocriter umbilicata, conoidea- 
orbiculata, depressissima, lenticulari, oblique subarcuatim striatula, 
subgraiiulata, cornea ; spira parum elevata, conoideo-depressa, 
apice obtuso, sutura impressiuscula, marginata ; anfracfibus 5^, 
subplanulatis, ultimo carina mediana acuta utrinque compressa 
munito, subtus convexiusculo; apertura obliqua, securiformi ; 
peristomate recto, acuto ; umbilico inl'undibuliformis. 
" Diam. niaj. 11, minor 10, axis 3g mill." 
Hab. Andaman Islands : Port Blair {Nevill, Eoepstorff). 



TROCHOMORPHA. 9 

14. Trochomorpha siibnigritella, Beddome. 

Trochomorpha .subiiu/rifella, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1891, p. ni4, pi. 29, 
figs. 4-G ; Pilsbiy, Man. Couch, ser. 2, viii, 189;J, p. 127, pi. 43, 
tigs. 44-46. 

Discus suhmjrltella, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 

Orvjinal description : — " Shell moderately umbilicate, depressedly 
turbinate, quite rounded at the apex; vvhoi'ls 6, very gradually 
increasing, faintly striated, the last sharply angled at tho 
periphery, nearly flat on the underside ; aperture oblique, sub- 
quadrate ; peristome simple, the margins distant ; colour a rich 
dark brown, shining below. 

"Diameter k inch [=12-75 mm.], height f\ incli [ = 8 n^.m.] 

"This species recalls the Pacific forms of the genus rather than 
the Indian ones, its nearest ally being T. uigritella, which, how- 
ever, is a larger shell with the last whorl much broader." 

Hah. Andaman Islands (i/^tt/*</e)/orf/) ; South Andaman ((?ocZwi»- 
Ansten). 



15. Trochomorpha sulcipes, March. 

Nanina (Videna) sulcipes, Mcirch, .Tourn. Conchyl. 1872, p. 309. 
Discus sulcipes, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 189o, p. 442. 
Troc/iomorpha sulcipes, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 57. 

Original description : — " T. tenuis, unicolor fusca, perspective 
umbilicata, depressa, subdiscoidea, acute cariuata ; striae iucre- 
menti expressae praesertim superne ; spiraliter obsolete lirata ; 
spira vix elevata ; sutura linearis, marginata ; anfr. 5^ convexi- 
usculi, ultimus descendens, basi convexiusculus ; apertura reni- 
forniis, peristomate obliquo, niargiue supero incrassato, infero 
reflexo ; labio recto, tuberculo (morbo?) obsoletissimo. 

"Diam. maj. 13 mill, min. 11 ; axis 5 mill." 

Hah. JS'icobar Islands {Stoliczlca, Roepstorff) ; Nancovvry (Rein- 
liardt). 



Var. major, March, torn. cit. p. 309. 

"T. major, tenuior, planior ; peristoma teiiue (nondum com- 
pletiim?) ; anfr, ult. vix descendens, umbilico majore. 

"Diam. maj. 15 mill., min. 12; axis fere 5 mill." 

Hah. Great and Little Nicobar (Jieinhardt). 

" Animal solt^a pedis sulco mediano loiigitudiuali postice coch- 
leariformi excavata ; uotaeum sulco profundo, peripherico postice 
carinato. Porus caudalis, ut mihi videtur, vix cornutus (ex 
specim. in spiritu conservato). T. feta? anlr. primi tres brunnei 
serie macularum albarum." 

T. sanis, Bens., differs in having the spire nearly plai.e, and in 
the growth-lines on the upper side being much stronger. 



10 ENDODOIsTID.1;. 

IG. Trochomorplia trilineata, M'drcli. 

Hanina (Videna) sulcipes,xa.\-. trilineata, Murcli, Journ. Conchvl. 

1876, p. 355. 
Discus sulcipcs, var. trilineata, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 
Discus trilineatus, Godwin-Austen, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, i, 

1895, p. 285, pi. 19, fig. 2 (anatomy). 

This form was originally described as a variety of T. sidcipes, 
a)id a very short description of it was given by Morch : " T. pallida, 
carina Candida, ntrinque linea brunnea." Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen 
in P. Z. S. 1895, also considered it a varietal form only, but in Proc. 
Malac. Hoc. London he raised it to specific rank, at the same time 
giving an account of its anatomy. There is a discrepancy as to 
habitat, for in the latter paper he mentions Great Nicobar, whereas 
in the former Camorta is indicated, which corresponds with the 
original locality given by Morch. 

Hab. Nicobar Islands : Camorta {Roepstorff). 



Family ENDODONTID.^, Pihhry. 
Subfamily THYSANOTIN^, Godwin- Austen. 

Genus THYSANOTA, Albers. 

Thysanota (as section of Kanimi), Albers & Martens, Die Heliceen, 
ed. 2, 18G0, p. 63 ; (as section of Trochomorpha) Pfeiffer, Malak. 
Bllitt. xxiv, 1877, p. 7 ; (as section of Etilota) Pilsbry, Man. 
Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, p. 207 ; Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, ii, 
1907, p. 189. 

Type, Helix gxierini, Pfeiffer. 

Range. Southern India and Ceylon. 

Original description : — " Testa anguste umbilicata, trochiformis, 
tenuis ; aufractus 7^ vix convexiusculi, basi carinati, pilis rigidis 
ciliati, ultimus interne subplanatus, medio impressus ,; apertura 
angulato-lunaris ; peristoma simplex, acutum, margine columellari 
brevissime expansiusculo." 

Until the anatomy of T. crinigera was investigated by Lt.-Col. 
Godwin-Austen in 1907, and its relation to Endodontidse estab- 
lished, the systematic position of the genus had remained uncertain. 
Von Martens placed it between Rotida and Nigritella, Pfeiffer 
classed it under Trocliomorpha, while Prof. Pilsbry with some 
doubt considered it as having affinity with Plectotropis, and he 
therefoi-e ranged it under Eidota as a section, lliysanota, Phila- 
lanka, and Ruthvenia, on conchological grounds alone, form a very 
natural group, as proposed by Godwin-Austen (subfamily Thy- 
sanotinse), and one wonders how this idea has not occurred to 
anyone before. 

17. Thysanota tabida, Pfeiffer. 

Helix tabida, V^eifiev, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1855, p. 106; ibid.,Novit. 
Conch, ser. 1, i, 1855, p. 46, pi. 12, tigs. 11, 12. 



THTSAK^OTA. 11 

Trochomorpha tabicla, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, IS^jo, p. 132. 
Naiiina {Tlu/sanota) tahida, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 54. 
Ryssotu tahida, J'ieitfer& Clessin, Nouiencl. Helic. Viv. J881, p. 53. 
Trucho)nurpha ( TJu/sanota) tahida, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 94, pi. 19, figs. 97, 98. 
Eulota {Thysanota) tahida, Pilsbiy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, 

p. 208. 

Original description : — " T. augustissirae umbilicata, turbinata, 
solidula, cout'erte rugoso-striata, sub epidermide decidiia, fuscida 
alba ; spira convexo-conica, acutiuscula ; aiifr. 8 lentissime accres- 
centes, vix coiivexiusculi, ultimus non descendens, peripheria 
subangulatus, superue couvexus, basi planiusculus ; aperfcura vix 
obliqua, depressa, subaugulato-luuaris ; perist. simplex, rectum, 
margine basali versus insertiouem leviter iucrassato. 

" Diam. maj. 17^, niin. 16, alt. 11 mill." 

J/ah. India : jNilgiris. 

Pfeiffer recognized the affinity between the present species and 
2\ ijaeriai. It is, however, larger than the latter and not keeled, 
while the whorls are more tumid and the umbilicus is narrower ; 
the aperture is also different, being rather semilunate, the colu- 
mellar margin ascending more obliquely. 

18. Thysanota guerini, Pfeiffer. 

Helix (juerini, Pfeiffer, llev. Zool. 1842, p. 304 ; ibid., in Philippi, 

Abb. Beschr. Conchyl. i, 1843, p. 12, pi. 3, hg. 6; ibid., Conch. 

Cab., Heliceen, ii, 1853, p. 121, pL 87, figs. 15, 16 ; lieeve, Couch. 

Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 85, fig. 457 ; Hauley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1870, pi. 55, iig. 1. 
Nanina {Thysanota) qHerini, Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1800, 

p. 63; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 54. 
Trochomorpha guerini, Kobelt, 111. Conch. Buch. 1879, pi. 68, fig. 11. 
Trochomorpha {Thysanota) guerini, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Noniencl. 

Helic. Yiv. 1881, p. 82. 
Helix {Thysanota) t/iierini, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, 

p. 93, pi. 18, figs. 95, 96. 
JEulota {Thysanota) guerini, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, 

p. 208. 
Thysanota guerini, Godwin- Austen, Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 188. 

Original description : — " T. umbilicata, trochiformis, epidermide 
fusca, rugosa induta ; anfr. 7| vix convexiusculi, basi carinati ; 
carina pilis confertis dense ciliata ; basis convexiuscula ; umbilicus 
angnstissimus, pervius ; apertura lata, lunaris ; peristoma simplex, 
marginibus callo teuuissimo, nitido junctis. 

"Diam. maj. 16, niin. 15, alt. 10 mill." 

Hah. India: JN'ilgiries {Ferrottet, Blanford) ; Anamnlhys {Bed- 
dome). 

In his original description, Pfeiffer gave the following dimen- 
sions : Diam. 22, alt. 13 mill. Subsequently (Mon. Helic. Viv. i, 
1847, p. 118), the measurements quoted above were indicated 
without reference to the previous figures. I assume the later 
ones to be correct. 



12 



END0D0NTID.5:. 



19. Thysanota flavida, Gudc. 

Thijsanotajlavida, Glide, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, xi, 1914, p. 52, 
text-figure. 

Original descri^Uion :- -" Shell narrowly umbilicate, depressed 
trochifonn, finely plicate-striate, pale yellowish-corneous. Spire 
subconvex, suture impressed, apex obtuse. AVho;-ls fi^, increasing 
slowly and regularly, convex above and below, carinated, the carina 
exserted, except in the protocouch, with a raised spiral thread a 
sliort distance above the carina and densely crowded with im- 
pressed spiral lines, more distinct on the under than on the upper 
side ; the carina and spiral thread fringed with deciduous coarse 
cuticular processes, resembling flattened hairs. A])erture oblique, 
securiform : peristome acute, the outer inaririn subconvex, basal 
arcuate, columellar almost vertical, slightly dilated. 

"Major diam. 12, minor ll'S mm.; alt. 7 mm." 

Hab. India : Nilgiries (Beddome). 

A specimen received from the late Col. Beddome as T. crinigera. 





Fig. 1. — Thysanota flavida. (From Proc. Malac. Soc. London.) 

proved upon examination to differ from that species in being more 
i-onvex and more elevated in the spire, in the whorls being more 
convex, and in the narrow umbilicus ; the keel is also more ex- 
serted, while the plicate transverse striae are much less pronounced, 
those in crinigera being almost lamellate. Mr. Ponsonby possesses 
two immature specimens which I also refer to the new species. 
They were likewise received from Col. Beddome as crinigera and, 
although labelled only South India, are probably from the same 
locality. 

20, Thysanota crinigera, Benson. 

Helix crinigera, Benson, A. W. N. H. ser. 2, v, 18o0, p. 214 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. ]25, tig. 746; Hanley & Theobald, 
Conch. lud. 1870, pi. 60, fig. 7. 

Thysanota crinigera, Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 189, 
pi. 112, fig. 2 (anatomy). 

Original description : — " T. anguste umbilicata, depresso-trochi- 
formis, cornea, radiato-costulata ; apex obtusiusculus ; anfr. 6-6| 
vix convexiusculi,linea unica elevata supersuturali minuti, ultimas 
carinatus ; carina suturaque pilis elongatis ciliatis ; basis plani- 
uscula, ad umbilicum compressiuscula, lineis impressis concentricis 
frequentibus ornata ; apertiira obliqua, angulato-lunaris, securi- 
formis ; perist. simplex, acutuni. 

" Diam. maj. 12^, min. 12, alt. 6^ mill." 



THYSAKOTA. 13 

Hah. India : Nilgiries {Jerdon). 

Nevill originally regarded crinigera as an immature form of 
guerini (Hand List, i, 1878, p. 54). According to Lt.-Col. Godwin- 
Austen (I. c. p. 190), he subsequently considered it distinct. In 
this he was, judging from the descriptions, quite justified. The 
shell of T. crinigera, besides being smaller, is more depressed, has 
more flattened whorls, and the raised spiral line above the peri- 
phery is a conspicuous feature which is lacking in T. guerini. 

21. Thysanota eumita, SyTces. 

Thysiwota (?) eumita, Sykes, Proc. Make. Soc. London, iii, 1898, 
p. 72, pi. 5, figs. 17, 18; Godwin- Austen, Moll. India, ii, 1907, 
p. 188. 

Original description: — "Testa depi-esso-conica, anguste umbili- 
cata, coi-neo-virescens, depresso-trochiformis, apice obtusulo ; 
sutura impressa ; aufr. 5-5|, plano-convexi, linea unica spiralis 
supersuturalis muniti, transversim subtiliter striata, ultimus 
carinatus, carina suturaque pilis elongatis ciliatis ornata, basi 
subinflatus; apertura angulato-lunai'is ; peristoma simplex, rectum. 

".Diam. 4*2 mm.; alt.^2 mm." 

Hah. Ceylon: Ambagamuwa ; Badulla (Co?/(?i^O- 

Is said to resemble a young T. guerini, but is more trochiform 
and not so convex. 

22. Thysanota hispida, Syl-es. 

Thysanota hispida, Sykes, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, 1898, 
p. 160, pi. 10, fig. 2; Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, ii, 1907, 
p. 188. 

Original description : — •" Testa trochiformis, periostraco fusco, 
rugoso, induta, basi impressa, umbilicus augustus, pervius ; apex 
mediocris, applanatus ; anfr. Q-Q]^, convexi, lira unica spiraliter 
sculpti, ultimus basi carinatus, lira carinaque pilis longis dense 
notatiB, apertura lata, lunaris ; peristoma simplex, marginibus 
callo tenuissimo junctis. 

" Diam. max. 8, alt. 5 mm." 

Hah. Ceylon: Haputale (CoZZgi^). 

Differs from T. guerini in shape and size ; the single spiral 
thread is clothed with club-shaped hairs. 

23. Thysanota elegans, Preston. 

Thysanota clegans, Preston, Eec. Ind. Mus. iii, 1909, p. 135, pi. 22, 
fig. 19. 

Original description : — " Shell trochiform, rimate, vitreous, 
yellowish white ; whorls 6, the first two rounded, spirally striate, 
the remainder sculptured with fine spiral Hues crossed by coarser, 
transverse, arcuate striae and bearing a strong, peripheral, hairy 
liration, the last whorl sharply cariuate at the base ; base of shell 



] 4 ENDODONTIDjE. 

spirally striate only ; sutures deeply impressed : umbilicus very 
narrow ; peristome simple ; apertiu*e narrow subluuate. 

'• Diam. maj. l-o mm. ; alt. 1*75 mm.'*' 

Hah. Ceylon : L"da Pussellawa. 

Mr. Preston compares this species with T. Jiisjrida, Sykes, from 
which it differs by its much smaller size and more graceful form, 
while the spiral and .ircuate transverse striae, which characterize 
his shell, are lacking in the latter. 

Genus GLYPTAULAX *, g. n. 

Shell discoid, umbilicated, \\ith close revolving line and sulca- 
tions, decussated by oblique costul^e. Anatomy unknown. 
Type, Helix ai-tijiciosa, Benson. 
Eange. Burma. 

23 a. Glyptaulax artificiosa, Benson. 

Helix artificiosa, Benson, A. M N. IT. ser. 2, xviii, 1856, p. 249 : 
Pfeiffer, Novit. Conch, ser. 1, i, ISOO, p. 131, pi. 36, figs. 8-10 ; 
Ihuiley & Theobald, Conch. Tnd. 1870, pi. 55. tig. 3. 

Heli.v [Patiila (Punctum)) artificiosa, Trvou, 31aii. Concb. ser. 2, 
iii, 1887, p. 33, pi. 7, fig. 82. 

Xanina artificiosa, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 54. 

Original description: — "Testa anguste umbilicata, orbiculata, 
discoidea, nitidiuscula, superne liris confertis sulcisque profundis 
spiraiibus, costulisque confertis obliquis decussata, subtus liris 
remotioribus striisque radiatis ornata, pallide cornea; spira planu- 
lata (interdum omnino planata), apice vix elevato, ohtuso ; sutura 
profunda; anfractibus 6^ convexiuscuh, lente accrescentes, ultimu.s 
superne subangulatus, subtus convexus ; apertura vix obliqua, 
subanguste lunaris ; peristomate acuto. leviter sinuato, margine 
dextro arcuato, crenulato, columellari brevissimo et basali sub- 
stricto leviter reflexis. 

"Diam. maj. 14. miu. 12, ait. 5 mill." 

Hab. Burma: Teuassevim (IVieohald). 

The species is unlike any other known to us and its .systematic 
position is doubtful. The anatomy is unknown. It is placed 
provisionally in the subfamily Thysauotinie between Thijsanota 
and Philalanlca. 

Genus PHILALANKA, Godwin-Austen. 

Philalanka, Godwin-Austen, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, 1898, 
p. 11 (as subgenus of Endodonta) ; ibid., Moll. India, ii, 1907, 
p. 190. 

Original description: — "Shell small, many-whorled, pyramidal 
or trochiform with a single liration, unicoloured. Jaw composed 
of numerous squarish plates. Basal plates of teeth of the radula 

* ■jXi'-rw curved, and ai'XoS fLirrow. 



PHILALAIVKA. 15 

square or oblong; central teeth tricusj)icl, laterals multicuspid. 
No mucous gland at the extremity of the foot, Genei'ative 
organs simple. No araatorial organ and no accessory organs." 
Type, P. secessa, Godwin-Austen. 

Ean;/e. South India and Ceylon ; Islands off the West Coast oF 
Sumatra. 

In describing the type species, Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen alludes 
to the interesting fact that this is the first record of the occurrence 
in India of this group of shells. He further states that " nothing 
like it has been found to the east of the Bay of Bengal, on the 
North-east frontier, or in Burma, but the possibility of its being 
a casual inti'oduction is removed by the discovery of another allied 
species in the south of the Indian Peninsula by Colonel Bi^ddome." 
Since the foregoing remarks were written two species have, how- 
ever, been discovered in the Batu Islands off the West Coast of 
Sumatra. Thev were subsequently described and figured in the 
' MoUusca of India,' part 10, where two other Cingalese species, 
])reviouslv referred to Microci/stis and Maci-ochJamys respectively 
are included in Philalanl-a. 

24. Philalanka bilirata, Blanford. 

Helix bilirafa, Blanford, .1. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 352, pi. i, fig. 7. 
Nanina (Sitala) bilirata, Tryon, Man. Couch, ser. 2, ii, 1886, p. 56. 
Sitala bilirafa, Godwin- Austen, Moll. India, i, 188:?, p. 40. 

Ori'iiiud description : — " Testa perforata, globosa, turbiuata, 
solidiuscula, cornea, transverse striata ; spira couoidea, apice 
obtusula. Anfr. 7 angusti, sensim accrescentes : superiores 
carina una supramediana muniti, ultimus ad peripheriaui acute 
bicarinatus, subtus tumidus. Apertnra subverticalis, angulato 
lunaris, perist. rectum, margiuibus distautibus, columellari brevi, 
verticali, reflexo. 

"Diam. maj. (^, min. 5, axis 4| mm.*' 

Hab. India : Slievroy and Kolamuliie Hills. 

Is stated to differ from P. mononema, Benson, in the rounded 
base and less elevated spire. 

25. Philalanka siibbilirata, Godwin-Austen. 

Sitala subbilirata (Nevill MS.), Godwin-Austen, Moll. ludia, i, 1882, 

p. 39,1)1. 10, fig. 11; var. fig. 12. 
Nanina (Sitala) subbilirata, Tryou, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ii, 1886, 

p. 56, pi. 25, tig. 28. 

Original description : — " Shell depressly conoid, rather openly 
perforate, covered with a strong epidermis ; sculptnre, very fine 
loni^itudinal ribbing, well seen on base, crossed by irregular lines 
of gr(5^'th; colour dull ochraceous brown ; spire flatly conoid, apex 
flat ; whorls 5, with a fine rib on the periphery of the last whorl, 
with a single intermediate one above it, sides flat from the suture 
to this, slightly convex above ; aperture ovate, subvertical ; 



16 ENDODONTID.^. 

peristome rather thickened ; cokimellar margin slightly oblique, 
not reflected. 

" Major diam. 2-7, alt. axis 1-3 mm." 

Eah. Andaman Islands : Little Brother Island (iWi't'ZZ) ; Batte 
Malve. 

The shell shown in fig. 12 of plate 10 of Moll. India, from Batte 
Malve, was sent to Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen by Nevill from 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta, as no. 206, Sagdinella didrichsenii , 
Morch, with a note attached, " I doubt it being this species." 
He found that it agrees well with typical subbilirata from Little 
Brother, except that the shell was not so well grown, and the 
apex flatter. 

26. Philalanka ? liratula, Pfeifer. 

Helix A>r(^«/r/, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 135 ; ibid., Malak. Bliitt. 

\n, 1860, p. 234 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. lud. 1875, pi. 150, 

figs. 5, 6. 
Naniua [Thalassm) liratula, Pfeiffer Sc Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 47. 
Charopa ( T/udcissia) lirctUda, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ii, 1886, 

p. 215, pi. 63, tigs. 74, 75. 

Origincd descrij^tion : — " T. uinbilicata, trochiformis, tenuiscula, 
striata et liris filiformibus subconfertis cincta, diaphana, oleoso- 
micans, pallide corneo-lutescens ; spira conica, apice obtusa ; 
sutura impressa ; anfr. 7-^, convexiuseuh, ultimus angulatus, non 
descendens, basi laevior, convexior; apertura vix oblqua, sub- 
angulato-lunaris ; perist. simplex, rectum, margins columellari 
declivi, juxta umbilicum perangustum subdilatato. 

"Diam. maj. 6, min. 5i, alt. 4 mill." 

Hah. Ceylon (Thicaites). 

Placed here provisionally with some doubt as to its systematic 
position. 

27. Philalanka homfrayi, Godivin- Austen. 

Situla homfruyi, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 448, tig. A. 

Origival description : — " Shell dextral, pyramidal, turreted, flat 
on base, impertorate ; sculpture coarse transverse striation, with 




Fig. 2.—P/alalavAa homfrayi, X 12. (From P.Z.S.) 

two ribs on the periphery and fine spiral close ribbing on the 
apical whorls ; colour horny grey ; spire conic ; apex blunt and 
papillate ; suture shallow ; whorls 4^, sides angulate, a strong 
raised rib on the periphery of the last whorl, and another similar 



PHILALANKA. 17 

rib above it at the angulation of the whorl, above the vertical 
portion ; aperture ovately quadrate, very oblique ; peristome thin, 
sliglitly thickened ; columellar margin vertical. 

" Major diam, 1*4, alt. axis 1'4 mm." 

Hab. Andaman Islands : South Andaman {Roepstorff). 

Differs from P. tricarinata in the pyramidal form and smaller, 
narrower aperture. 

28. Philalanka tricarinata, Blnnfonl. 

Helix tn'cdrhiata, Blaiiford, .T. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 355, pi. i, 
fig. 10; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 129, figs. 7,10. 

Sitala tricarinata, Godwin-Austen, Moil. ludia, i, 1882, p. 39, 
pi. 10, tig. 10. 

Nanina (Sitala) tricarinata, Tryon, ]Man. Couch, ser. 2, ii, 1886, 
p. 55, pi. 25, fig. 25. 

Orif/itial description : — " Testa aperte perforata, depresso tur- 
binata, tenuis, pallide cornea, oblique striatula, subtus obsolete 
decussala, spira conoidea, apice planulata, perobtusa, sutura 
impressa. Anfr. 4 couvexi, superne carinis duobus fililormibus 
i-incti ; ultimus tribus medianis circumdatus, non descendens, 
subtus rotundatus. Apertura snbverticalis, rotundato-lunaris ; 
peristoma rectum, acutum, marginibus distantibus, sinistro nou 
reflexo. 

" Diam. 1|, alt. 1 mm." 

Hah. India : Nilgiri Hills, Pykara (BJanford). 

A very small form, readily distinguishable by the median revolving 
lira being at the periphery, one being below and the other above 
the periphery. 

29. Philalanka quinquelirata, Gude. 

Philalanka quinqnelirata, Gude, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, xi, 1914, 
p. 51, text-figure. 

Original description. — " Shell dextral, pyramidal, narrowly per- 
forate, pale yellowish corneous, semi-translucent, covered with a 



Fig. 3. — Philalanlri quinqucUrata. (From Proe. Malac. Soc. London.) 

deciduous cuticle ; finely and closely striated, the striae being 
llcxuous on the base, where there are also traces of excessively 
minute si)irals. Spire convex, apex obtuse, suture deep. Whorls 
(i, tumid above, inflated below, increasing slowly and regularly, 
with five fine spiral lirse, one at the periphery, the other four 
between it and the suture ; the last whorl not descending in 

o 



18 ENDODOKTID.E. 

front. Aperture nearly vertical, semiluuate ; peristome tliiu, the 
lower margin slightly," the columellar margin strongly reflected 
and partly overhanging the narrow perforation.'* (Glide.) 

Diam. 5-25, alt. 4*25 mm. 

Bab. India: Anamullay Hills (5^cZtZome). 

Eive specimens— labelled tricarinata, Blanford — received by 
Mr. Ponsonby from the late Col. Beddome, proved upon examina- 
tion to be quite distinct, and to differ, in fact, from all other 
known forms. My own collection contains two specimens from 
the same source. 

Philalanhi qainquelimta is much larger than P. tricarinata 
which measurers less than 2 mm. and possesses, moreover, only 
three revolving lira), the lowest of which is below the periphery, 
whereas in tlie present species it is peripheral. The perforation 
of P. tricarinata is proportionately wider and the columellar 
margin is not reflected, while the aperture is higher in proportion 
to its ^^ idth than is the case in P. quinqudirata. 



30. Philalanka ? lamcabensis, Jousseaume. 

Pledopylis latncabetms, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 

1894, p. 278, pi. 4, %. 8. 
Pledopylis ? lamcabensis, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. v, 1898, p. 1/ 1 , 

tig. 91 (copied from Jousseaume). 

" Shell subperforate, trochiform, stout, somewhat thin, striated 
and surrounded on the last whorl by three thread-like ridges. 




Fig. 4. — Fhilalanka ? lajrwabciisi.-^ (after Jousseaume). 

diaphanous, shining, corneous white, apex obtuse, suture im- 
pressed, crenulate ; whorls 7^, flattened, the last angulate, not 
descending ; base more convex, radiately striate ; aperture scarcely 
oblique, subaugulate, lunate; peristome simple, straight, colu- 
mellar margin sloping, near the umbilicus narrowly dilated. 

" Diam. 4, alt. 3 mill." 

Hah. Ceylon : Nuwara Eliya (Sirnon). 

Described as a species of Plectopylis, the absence of any 
mention of internal folds or denticles makes the generic reference 
extremely questionable. Mr. Sykes doubtfully suggests (Proc. 
Malac. Soc. London, iii, 1898, p. 71) that it belongs to the genus 
Sitala ; this I consider improbable. The aspect of the shell, 
especially the excavated umbilical region, would rather suggest the 
genus Philalanka. 



PHIL ALASKA. 19 

31 . Philalanka secessa, Godwin-Austen. 

Pkilalanka secessa, Godwin-Austen, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, 
1898, p. 11, pi. 1, tig. 1 (shell), fig-. 2 (jinimal), tigs. 3-5 (anatomy) ; 
ibid., Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 191. 

Orifjinal description : — •' Shell pyramidal, base convex, narrowly 
umbiiicated. Sculpture: fine, irregular, costulate transverse lines ; 
a single lirate band follows the angulation of the whorl through- 
out, with another on and above the suture ; on the underside a)i 
exceedingly fine striation may be seen under a high power ( x 60). 
Colour pale ochraceous, with a greenish tinge. Spire conic, sides 
nearly flat; apex blunt. Suture shallow, with a thread-like 
liration. Whorls 8, narrow, sides very slightly convex below the 
liration, flat from that to the suture. Aperture semilunate, 
narrow, vertical. Peristome thin, slightly reflected on the 
columellar side, which is subobliqiie. 

" Maj. diam. 7, alt. axis 6 mm." (Godivln- Austen.) 

Hah. Ceylon: Ambegamua (Co?Zei<). 

32. Philalanka daghoba, Blanford. 

IMix diujhoha, Blanford, J. A. S.B. xxx, 1861, p. 356, pi. 2, fig. 2; 

lianley .V' Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 150, fig. 10. 
Pattdd {Actinaria) div/hoha, Pfeifier & Clessin, Xomencl. Ilelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 99. 
Helix (Patida {Actinaria)) dayhuba, Tryon, 'Maw. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 60, pi. 13, fig-. 60. 
Sesava daghoba, Gude, Journ. Malac. vii, 1900, p. 142. 

Original description: — "Testa anguste perforata, depresse conoidea, 
oblique striata spiraliter sulcata, carinata, suturse impressa?. 
Anfr. 7-8 lente accresceutes subconvexi, ultimus non descendens, 
valde carinatus, infra convexus, laevis, ad umbilicum vix impressus. 
Apertura subrecta, depressa securiformis. Peristoma acutum ad 
umbilicum reflexnm, iiitus 2 dentibns palatalibus munitum. 

''Diam. maj. 6, miu. 5"3, alt. 3 mm.; apert. alt. 1*() mm." 
{Blanford.) 

Hah. South India : PatchamuUay and Kalryenmullay Hills 
{Foote). 

Tfie shell is stated by Blanford to be nearly allied to H. retifera, 
Pfr., but to be distinguished from that species by its minute 
u;nbilicus and by the form, number, and position of the internal 
teeth, which in //. daghoha are small and compressed, bnt noi 
lamelliform, and are situated very near the edge of the peristome. 
The absence of parietal lamella?, however, indicates that the 
afiinity of the present species must be looked for among sueli 
forms as secessa, G.-A., and hilirata, Blanf., rather than retifera, 
Pfr. The position of the teeth near the peristome induced the 
present writer in 1900 to include the species in Sesara, but the 
late W. T. Blanford, in a letter dated Sept. 23rd, 1900, pointed 
out that daghoha, together with p^'''''''f«'"'< and hidenticidata, might 
belong to PhilalanJca, and as Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen is ol 
the same opinion as regards daghoha, I have included it here. 

c2 



20 EXDODOXTID^i:. 

Unfortunutely I have been unable to find Blanford's type-specimen 
and the shells I have seen, jmrportinj^ to represent the species, 
have the palatal teeth mucli further back, so that I entertain 
doubts as to their identity. 

33. Philalanka pirrieana, Pfeiffer. 

Helix pirrieana, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 5o ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

vii, 1854, pi. 191, fip-. 1.341 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1870, pi. 87, figs. 5, 6. 
Helix (Acti?iaria) pirrieana, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 128. 
Helix {Lao7na) pirrieana, Trvon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, 

p. 68, pi. 13, fi<r. 58. 
Sesara pirrieana, Glide, Journ. Malac. vii, 1900, p. 142. 

Original description : — " T. perforata, globoso-conica, tenuis, 
laevigata (sub lente vix striatula), pellucida, cornea ; spira convexo- 
conica, acutiuscula ; sutura impressa, marginafa; anfr. 7-8 con- 
vexiusculi, angustissimi, ultimus carinatus, uon descendens, basi 
convexus, intus ter bidenticulatus : denticulis subsequalibus, extus 
pellueentibus ; apertura vix obliqua, depressa, angulato-lunaris, 
denticiilorum pare antico coarctata ; perist. simplex, rectum, 
margine columellari ad perforationem apertam dilalato, reflexo. 

" Diam. niaj. 5, uiin. 4|, alt. 4 mill." {I'f^^jf^r.) 

Hah. India : AValaghat, Koondah Mts., near Calicut (Pirrie). 

An examination of the type has convinced me that the late 
AV. T. Blanford was perfectly justified in his surmise, as recorded 
under P. ddfjhoba, that this species should be also referred to 
Philalanka. 

34. Philalanka bidenticulata, Benson. 

Helix bidenticulata, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, ix, 1852, p. 405; 

lieeve, Conch. Icon, vii, \fioZ, pi. 174, fig. 1184; Hanlev & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 60, fig. 6. 
Helix (Actinaria) bidenticulata , Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, 

p. 1-28. 
Helix {Laoma) bidenticulata, Tryon, Man. Couch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, 

p. 69, pi. 13, fig. 59. 
Sesara bidenticulata, Gude, Journ. Malac. vii, 1900, p. 142. 

Ori(/inal description : — "Testa perforata, depresso-conica, obsolete 
radiato-striata, albida (decorticata) ; spira subconicn, apice obtuso, 
sutura impressa : anfractibus 6, arete convoluti, convexis, omnibus 
superne lineis duabus sequidistautibus, elevatiusculis instruct!, 
ultimo cariuato, subtus convexo ; apertura arete securiformi, 
verticali ; peristomatis margine superiori brevissimo, columellari 
oblique descendente, expanso, superne reflexo, basali arcuato, 
dentibus duobus minutis distantibus, submargiualibus, dextro 
prominentiore, munito; perforatione pervia. 

"Diam. maj. 3, min. 2i|, axis 2| mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India: SUgiris {Jer don). 

Cf. remarks under P. daglioha, ante [). 19. 



PIIIL.VLAXKA. 21 



35. Philalanka trifilosa, Pfeiffer. 

UdLv trifilom, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 18o;J, p. ]-2n. 

Helix {Trochomo)-j)ha) trifUosa, PfeillV;!-, .Malak. P>liilt. ii, I80G, 
p. 132. 

Original description: — " T. perforata, depresse trochiforiai-, 
tenuis, radiato-striafca, acute carinata, \'\x nitidula, pallide cerea ; 
spira coaoidea, apice liyaliiia obtusula; sutura marginata; anfr. 
6|, convexiusculi, arete convoluti, superue carinis 3 filiformibus 
muuiti, ultimus non descendens, basi coavexior, nitidus; apertura 
verticalis, depressa, augulato-lunaris ; perist. rectum, acutum, 
marginibus remotis, supero brevissirao, basali leviter arcuato, 
coluinellari decliv'i, .superne dilatato, reflexo. 

•' Diam. maj. 5|, niin. 5, alt. 3| mill." 

1 1 ah. Ceylon (Tluvaites). 

This species, described from the Cuming Collection, has never 
been figured. Unfortunately, in spite of a diligent search for the 
type, Mr. E. A. Smith, until lately Assistant- Keeper of Zoology 
at the Natural History Museum, has failed to trace its where- 
abouts. 



3(;. Philalanka ? mononema, Bemon. 

Helix mononemd, Benson, A. M. X. II. ser. 2, xii, 1853, p. 92 ; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1854, pi. 191, fig. 1339; Hanley & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 87, figs. 2 & 3. 
Helix ( Tvochomorpha) mononema, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 185<>, 

p. 132. 
Nanina {Microcystis) mononema, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 41. 
Sitala mononema, Gorlwiu-Austen, Moll. India, i, 1882, p. 41, pi. 9, 

fig. 6 ; Trvon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ii, 1880, p. 57 {monomcna, err. 

typ.), pi. 25, Hg. 33. 
Philalanka r" mononema, Godwin-Austen, Proc. Malac. 80c. London, 

iii, 1898, p. 12. 

Orir/inal descrijition : — " T. angustissime perforata, trochi- 
formis, radiato-striatula, corneo-albida, parum nitida, translucens; 
spira conica, apice acutiusculo ; sutura distincta ; anfr. 0|-7 sub- 
aequales, superne convexiusculi, filo uuico elevato, tenui, mediano 
cincti, ultimus acute filoso-carinatus, subtus subplanulatus ; 
apertura verticalis, depresse securiformis ; perist. rectum, acutum, 
marginibus distantibus, columellari brevi, vertical], reflexo, per- 
forationem subtegente. 

'•Diam. maj. 5, min. 4|, alt. 44 mill." (Benson.) 

Bab. Ceylon: Heneratgodde (Z^frya/rZ) ; Balapiti (A'evi/Z). 

Kesembles P. secessa in shape, but is somewhat smaller and 
with a more convex spire. The figin-e given of the species by 
Godwin-Austen differs considerably from that of Keeve, but is 
more like the one in Conch. Ind. 



22 E>'DODOXTIDA\ 

37, Philalanka bolampattiensis, Godtvin-Ausien. 

Philalanka holampnttiensis, Godwin-Austen, Proc. Malac. «oc. 
London, iii, 1898, p. 13, pi. 1, fig. 6. 

Original description: — "Shell depressedlj conoid, rounded and 
\\ idely umbilicated below, keeled. Sculpture : a single liration is 
situated about one-third the breadth of the whorl on the upper 
side, following the sutural thread, which commences on the keel ; 
fine vertical irregular lines of growth. Colour pale horny. Spire 
depressedly pyramidal, sides flattened, apex flatly rounded. Suture 
well marked. Whorls 6, convex below the liration, flat above it. 
Aperture narrow, semilunate. Peristome somewhat thickened, 
columellar margin reflected and very oblicpie. 

"Maj. diam. 5, alt. axis 2*6 mm." [Godivin-Austeu.) 

Hah. India: Bolampatti Hills (5ecZcifo)»e). 

AYhile possessing the principal characteristics of the type s])ecie.s 
from Ceylon it has a more depressed form, agreeing in this respect 
with the other Cingalese species subsequently referred to the 
genus. 

38. Philalanka febrilis, Blanford. 

Helix- fehrilis, Blanford, J. A. 8. B. xxx, 1861, p. 357, pi. a, fig. 4 ; 

Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 129, fig. 4. 
Sitala febrilis, Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, i, 1882, p. 38. 
Naniria (Sitala) fehrilis, Tivou, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ii, 1886, p. 55, 

pi. 25, fig. 24. ' 

Original description : — " Testa angustissime perforata, globoso- 
tiirbinata, spiraliter lirata. Spira subelevata, convexa, apice 
obtusa. Suturis valde impressis. Anfr. 4| convex! ; ultimus nou 
descendens, ad peripheriam subdepressus infra planate rotunclatus, 
lievis. Apertura obliqua, oblonga. Peristoma rectum, acutiuti, 
ad basin expansiusculum, marginibus remotis, columellari breviter 
reflexo. 

"Diam. mn], lv">, min. 1"3, alt. 1-25 mm. ; apert. alt. ()'6 mm.' 
( Blanford.) 

Hah. India : Kalryenmullay Hills (Foote). 

This species is stated to bear a general resemblance to tnearinaia, 
but to be readily distinguishable by its higher spire, the absence 
of the characteristic triple carination, and the flatness of its basal 
surface. 

3(«. Philalanka tertiana, Blanford. 

Helix tertiana, Blanford, .1. A. S. B. xxx. 1861, p. 355, pi. 1, fiu'. 11 ; 

Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 10, fig. 10. 
Sitala ? tertiana, Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, i, 1882, p. 40, pi. 9, 

fi-. 9. 
Nanina (Sitala) tertiana, Trvon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ii, 1886, p. 56, 

pi. 25, fig. 29. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, depresse tnrbiuata, 



THILALANKA. 2',i 

tenuis, pallide cornea, striatiila ; spira conoidea, apice obtusa, 
sutura inipressa. Ant'r. G aiigusti, convexi, ultimiis baud descen- 
dens, subtus rotundatus. Apertura subverticalis, rotundato 
lunaris ; peristoma simplex, raarginibus distantibus, columellari 
reflexiusculo. 

" Diam. maj. 2|, miu. 2^, alt. 1| mm." {Blanford.) 
Hah. India: Nilgiri Hills, Pykara and Neddiwuttora. 

4u. Philalanka thwaitesi, Pfciffer. 

Helix thwaitesi, I'feilier, P. Z. S. ISoS, p. li-"); Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

vii, 18.54, pi. 191, fig. 13.36; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind, 

187.J, pi. li>S, lijrs. 7-10. 
Helix (Microcijtitis) thwaitesi, Pfeiffer, ^lalak. Bliitt. ii, 1850, 

p. 123. 
Nanina {Microo/s/is) thwditesi, Tryou, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ii, 1886, 

p. 118, pi. 39," fig. 5. 
Microci/stis nuicara, Jousseaurae, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 27.3. 
Philalanka thwaitesi, Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 193, 

pi. 112, fig. 1 (jaw & radula). 

Ofiginal description: — "T. aperte perforata, convexo-depressa, 
si riatula nitida, cereo-hvalina ; spira breviter conoidea, obtusula ; 
sutura profunda, submargiuata ; anfr. 6| convexi, arete convoluti, 
iiltimus non descendens, basi iiiHatus ; apertura verticalis, lunaris ; 
perist. rectum, acutum, margine cohimellari aicuatim oblique 
dt'sceudente, ad perforationeni vix dilatato. 

" Diam. raaj. o, miu. 4.|, alt. 3 mill." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. Ceylon (Thwaites) ; Nuwara-EIiya (^'w»o«) ; Ambagamu\va 
(CoUeti). 

Under a strong lens the shell is seen to be densely covered with 
si)iral stria?. Mr. E. Ii. Sykes established the fact (Proc. Malac. 
Soc. London, iii, 1898, ]).6o)xha.t 3Iicrocifstis nnwara, Jousseaume, 
and the present species are identical. Jousseaume, in fact, based 
his species upon the figure of tjiwaiiesi in Conch. Icon., which 
was drawn from Pfeiffer's type. 

lit.-Col. Godvxin-Austen investigated the anatomy and describes 
the genitalia, but he gives no figures. 

\'ar. suavis, Jonsseauine. 

Microcystis suavis, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 
p. 273, pi. 4, fig. 3 ; Collett, J. A. S. B. Cevlon Branch, xv, 1897 
(1898), p, 12. _ 

Microcystis thwaitesi, var. suavis, Sykes, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
iii, 1898, p. 65. 

Differs from the typical form in having a slightly more depressed 
spire, a somewliat larger umbilicus, and in the mouth being some- 
what different in shape. 

Hah. Ceylon : Nuwara Eliya {Simon); Ambaganmwa (Collett). 



24 ENDODONTICS. 

41. Philalanka depressa, Preston. 

Microcustis thivaitesi, var. depressa, Preston, Rec. Iiid. Mu^. iii, 
1909, p. 135, pi. 22, fig. 6. 

Shell depressed-conoid, almost lenticular, pale corneous, trans- 
lucent, shining, very finely striated and with excessively minute 
spirals ; spire much depressed, suture deep. Whorls 4^, strongly 
convex, closely wound. Aperture vertical, reniform ; peristome 
acute, upper margin ascending at first, outer and basal evenly 
arcu:ite, cokimeliar slightly dilated, vertical, 

Diam. 3"5, alt. 2 mm. 

Bah. Ceylon: Uda Pussellavva (F>'<;«^o;i). 

Mr. Preston considers this form a variety of thivaitesi, stating 
that, except in the depressed spire, it appears to be normal. The 
figure certainly bears out this view, but it must ha\e been very 
badly drawn. A specimen, received by me from the authoi-, 
differs from thivaitesi in several important respects, and the fore- 
going description has been drawn up from it. The shell is much 
more depressed, being almost lenticular ; the whorls are much 
more convex above, the umbilicus is much wider, distinctly showing 
all the whorls ; on the other hand, the region round the umbilicus 
is not excavated as in thivaitesi, and the mouth is also different, 
being reniform, not lunate. The whole shell has, in fact, a totally 
different aspect, and I have no hesitation in according it specific 
rank. 

42. Philalanka circumsculpta, Si/l-es. 

Microcytitis thwnitesi (non PfeiU'er), Jousseaume, Mt*m. See. Zool. 

France, vii, 1894, p. 272. 
Macrochlaniys ? cirvumsculpta, Svkes, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, ii, 

1897, p. 2'3r>, pi. 1(), figs. 3 & 4 ; op. cit. iii, 1898, p. 65. 
Philalanka circumsculpta, Godwin -Austen, Moll. Ind. ii, 1907, 

p. 194. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, convexo - depressa, 
nitida, cereo-hyalina ; spira breviter conoidea, apice obtusa ; 
sutura impressa; anfr. 5, convexi, arteconvoluti, obsolete spiraliter 
lirati, ullimus non descendens, basi inflatus; apertura lunaris ; 
peristoma rectum, acutum, niai-gine columellari ad perforationem 
dilatato, subrefiexo. 

" JJiam. max. 5, min. 4-7 n)m. ; alt. 3 mm.'' (fSi/l-cs.) 

Bab. Ceylon: Wataw ida ( CoUett) ; Nuwara-Eliya (/SVmo/;). 

" This species is nearly related to the Belix thivaitesi of Pfeift'er 
(which is also obsoletely spirally lirate), but may be at once dis- 
tinguished by the fact that its breadth is greater in proportion to 
the number of whorls. The umbilicus is also slightly smaller in 
the present species, the spire is not so much raised in proportion, 
and the nucleus is larger. The sculpture is stronger than in 
B. thivaitesi, and a few of the stronger lines of growth intersect 
the revolving lirae, thus giving the shell a decussated appearance 
under a lens." 



PUILALAXKA. IIUTHVENIA. 25 

Lt.-Col. God win- Austen exiuniued the iinimal of a specimen 
received from Mr. Collett. He discovered two embryonic shells 
inside it, thus establisliing the fact tliat the species is ovo-vivi- 
parous, a feature which it probably shares \\irh other species of 
the jrenus. 



43. Pliilalanka? sinhila, Godwin- Aitsten. 

Latnproci/diii ? sinhila, Godwin- Austen, I'roc. Malac. Soc. London, 
ii, 1897, p. 178, pi. 14, fig. 2. 

Original description : — " Shell globose, solid for its size, scarcel\ 
umbilicated ; sculpture smooth, with a strong periostracum : 
colour ? (bleached). Spire low, depressedly conic, apex very 
blunt; suture shallow; whorls 5, closely wound, regularly 
increasing. Aperture narrowly lunate, vertical; peristome simple ; 
columellar margin suboblique. 

" Maj. diam. 3"t) ; alt. axis 1 mm." (^Godwin- Austen.) 

Hcd). Ceylon : Uda Pussellawa, Watawala (Preston). 

A specimen received from Mr. Preston enables me to supple- 
ment the foregoing description in one respect, namely, as regards 
colour, which is pale corneous. It also shows distinct microscopic 
spirals, and agrees therefore with the other members of this 
group, a fact which induces me to include it here. 



Genus RUTHVENIA, Gnde. 

Austenia, (nide. Science (iossip, n. s. iii. 1807, p. -"JOO, not Austeuia, 

Nevill (1878). 
Sykesia, Gude, torn. cit. p. ',y.j2 ; ibid, vi, 1899, p. 149, not St/kesui, 

Pomel (1883) ; Godwin-Austeu, Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 196. 
Ruthvenia, Glide, Troc. Malac. Soc. London, ix, 1911, p. 271. 

Dextral, shell translucent, with straight acute edges, acutely 
keeled, with one or more fringed spiral lirse. Parietal and palatal 
armature present. 

Type, Helix clathratida, Pfeiffer. 

llanqe. Southern India and Ceylon. 



Keij to the Species. 

A. One transverse parietal plate. 

a. Notched about the middle, a short support poste- 

riorly above. Habitat, Ceylon. 
a. U uibilious wide, ribs and liraj prominent .... clatliratula. 
/3. Umbilicus narrower, ribs and lirte obsolete . . y. compressa. 

b. Not notched. 

a. Straijrht, without support, umbilicus still nar- 
rower. Habitat, India clathratidoide'' 

/3. Sinuous, wit h a short support anteriorly above ; 

umbilicus still narrower. Habitat, India . . retifera. 



26 E>DODO>'TID.i:. 

J>. 'JVo transrerse parietal plates. 

a. Shell flattened, no fold below umbilical angula- 

tiou, umbilicus still narrower. Habitat, Cejlon. caliyitiosa. 

b. Shell conoid, with a double fringe of curved 

hairs ; a horizontal fold below umbilical angu- 
lation : umbilicus still narrower. Narrowest 
of all. Habitat, Ceylon biciliafd. 

44. Ruthvenia retifera. Pfciffer. 

Heli.v retifera. Pfeifler, P. Z. S 1845, p. 73 : Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 

1853, pi. 173, tig. 1170 : Hanley & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1874, 

pi. 87, figs. 8 cS: 9. 
Helix (P/ecfopr/Iis r) retifera, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70. 
Helix {Plectopylis) retifera, Trvou, Man. Conch, ser. 2. ill, 1887. 

p. 161, pi. 34, tigs. 63, 64. ■ 
Plectopylis retifera, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 146: 

Gude. Science Gossip, x. s. iii, 1897, p. 301, tig. 43 (shell and 

armature). 
Plectopylis {Si/kesia) retifera, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. vi, 1899. 

p. 149. 

Original description : — " T. umbilicata, obtuse trochiformi>, 

stiirito-plicatula, lineis nonuullis concentricis elevatis reticulata. 

carinata, diaphana, sericina, pallide cornea; spira ele\ata, obtusa ; 

aiil'r. 6| planiusculi, ultimus basi subplanus, striatus ; umbilicus 

ruediocris, pervius ; apertura dt-pressa, securit'ormis ; perist. 

simplex, acutum, margine supero brevi, basali plane arcuate, 
" Uiam. niaj. 7, min. 6|, alt. 4 mill." {Pftlffer.) 
Hah. India: '^Wgw'i^ {Metcalf, Jerdon) ; Xoouoor Ghat {Blan- 

ford, Nevill) ; Tinnevelly Hills {Beddome): Sbevroy Hills (5?««/'i!»'(/); 

Mysore (Parry). 



,# 




Fig. 5. — Euthvciiia retifera. 

The parietal armature consists of a single, strong, vertical plate, 
sligbtly sinuate, but not notched, giving off a slight support 
anteriorly a little below the uppi-r extremity (see fig. 5 c, 
wliicli shows both the parietal and palatal armatures from the 
posterior side). The palatal armature — as in all the members 
of the group — is distinctly visible through the shell-wall, 
and consists of two series of denticles, the upper series being 
composed of : posteriorly, a strong, short, vertical flattened tooth, 
and, anteriorly, a minute, horizontally elongated denticle, in a 
line with the base of the posterior tooth ; the lower series is com- 
posed of : posteriorly, a smaller, flattened, A'ertical tooth, aiid 



liL'THVKMA. 27 

auteriorly, in ii line with its upper extremity, a ininute, hori- 
zontally elongated denticle, and, in a line with its base, a larger 
denticle, elongated obliqiu^ly. Above the periphery occurs, in 
addition, a small, horizontal denticle, and below the umbilical 
Mngulatiou a short horizontal fold. The two specimens figured 
are in Mr. Ponsonby's collection. That shown in fig. 5 h is not 
(juite mature, the uewly-tonned palatal armature consisting of 
only one horizontal and two vertical denticles. The late 
Col. Eeddome's collection contains a large series of this species 
from the Tinuevelly JJills ; of these, nine full-grown specimens 
possess only one set of denticles ; five not quite full-grown 
specimens are each provided with two sets of denticles, the older 
being complete, while the newly-formed sets consist of one, two, 
or three denticles ; four immature specimens have only one set of 
denticles ; ten other immature shells possess each two sets of 
denticles. Of the latter, three have the older set complete and the 
newer set partly formed, five have the older set incomplete (partly 
absorbed) and the new set complete; while, finally, the two 
remainiiig specimens have both sets complete. It may, therefore, 
be safely inferred that the older set does not become absorbed 
until the new set is completed. In a few instances I have 
observed that the two lower anterior denticles have become 
fused. 

4.5. Rutlivenia clathratuloides, (lade. 

Plectopi/Usdatliratiiloides, Gude. Science Gossip, x. s. iii. 1897, p. 332, 

tig, 44. 
Pfectopylis (Si/kesut) vlathratuloides, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 149. 
Sykesifi clat/iratn/oidex, Godwin-Au.steu, Moill. India, ii, 1907, p. 199. 

Ofif/iiicd description : — " Shell depressed conical, moderately 
nmbilicated, pale corneous, translucent, finely and regularly pli- 
cated by raised ribs above, finely and closely ribbed and a little 
shining below ; whorls 5^ slowly increasing, slightly convex, 
suture impressed. Periphery with an acute compressed keel, 
above which revolve two raised spiral ridges, the lower provided 
with a fringe of coarse hairs. Aperture subquadrate ; peristome 
simple, a little thickened. Umbilicus deep and moderately wide. 
Parietal armature, one strong, vertical, simple plate. Palalal 
armature in two series ; upper series with one posterior, vertical, 
conical tooth and one minute anterior denticle ; lower sei-ies, with 
one posterior, vertical tooth and a small anterior denticle : in 
addition, one elongated horizontal fold below the umbilical 
angulation and a small fold above the peripheral angulation. 

" Diam. maj. (i, min. 5-5. ; alt. 3-5 mm." (Gude.) 

Sab. India : Anamullay Hills ; Madura {Beddome). 

The present species differs from li. cluihratida in being more 
elevated, in having a narrower umbilicus, and in being less shining 
and more tumid below, while from li. retiftra it differs in the less 
elevated spire and the wider umbilicus; it is, in fact, intermediate 



28 



ENDODONTIC. 



between these two species. The parietal armature consists of a 
simple, strong, vertical plate, which is not notched, and is with- 
out supports (see fig. 6 cZ). The palatal armature is in two 
series, the first (upper) series consisting ot" a posterior vertical 




Fig. 6. — Ruthvenia clathrattdoidcs. 

tooth and a minute anterior denticle ; the second (lower) series 
being composed of a posterior vertical tooth and a small anterior 
denticle; below the umbilical angulation there is, besides, an 
elongated horizontal fold, and above the peripheral angulation a 
small fold (see tig. 6, which shows the base of the shell with 
the palatal armature visible through the shell-wall). The speci- 
men figured is one of the Anamullay Hills specimens in the late 
Colonel Beddome's collection. iSix specimens from JMadura, India, 
also in that collection, I refer to this new form ; four of these are 
immature and exhibit two sets of armatures, as is the case iti 
immature specimens of R. retifera. 

Wlien describing this species in 1897, I hazarded the opinion 
that the specimens referred to under Plectopijlis datliratida by 
Xexill (Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70) as having been collected in 
.Sikkim by 8tohczka might pertain to my species. Lt.-Col. Godwin- 
Austen, however, rejects this surmise and thinks that there has 
been some mixing of specimens. He states that he has never 
8een the species in undoubted Darjeeling collections, such as 
Jilanford's and his own. I am quite prepared to admit the force 
of this argument, and it is, in fact, extremely improbable that a 
species should occur in two localities so widely separated and so 
different faunistically as Sikkim and the southern part of the 
Indian Peninsula or Cevlon. 



4(j. Ruthvenia clathratula, Pfeiffer. 

Helix clathratula, Pfeiffer, Zeits. Malak. vii, 1850. p. 67 ; Reeve,. 

Oonch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 65, fig. ^36 ; Pfeiffer, Conch. Cab. 

Ilehceen, iii, 185:^, p. 310, pi. 127, figs. 17-20 ; Hanley & Theobald 

Conch, liid. 1875, pi. 132, figs. 1-4. 
Helix {Plectopylis) clathratula, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70: 

Try on, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 161, pi. 34, figs. 72, 73. 
Plectopylis clathratula, Jousseanme, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 

1894, p. 277. 
riectopijlis (Austenia) clathratula, Gnde, Science Gossip, n. s. iii. 

1897, p. 300, fig. 42 (shell and armature). 



RUTHVEXIA. 



29 



riectopylis (Si/fccsia) clathratnla, Glide, op. cit. vi, 1899, p, 149. 
Helix puteoln.<!, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xii, 1853, p. 92 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon, vii, 1854, pi. 190, tig. 13.'U. 

Oi'iginal description :~''T. late umbilicata, leuticularis, acute 
carinata, superne liris elevatis (in quovis anfractu 2) et co.stis 
distinctis clathrata, parum nitens, cornea ; spira parum elevata, 
obtusiuscula : anfract. 5 subteqiiales, vix convexiu.sculi, ultimus 
basi radiato-striatus, circa uinbilicuni subinilatus ; apertiira verti- 
cah's, angusta, anj^ulato-lunaris ; perist. simplex, rectuDi, acutum. 

" Diam. maj. 5i, min. 5, alt. 2| mill.'' (Pfeiffer.) 

Bab. Ceylon : ~Kandy, Balapiti, Badiilla* {Blanforcl, Layard, 
NevilT) ; Ambagamuwa (Collett) ; Balcadua {Simo7i)l 

When first described by Pfeiffer the habitat was unknown. 

Benson, in IS.IS, described what he thought, was a new species 
under the name of BcHx jndeohis, from Balcadua, Ceylon. Pfeiffer 
recorded this name as a synonym of his species (Moii. Helic. Viv. 
iv, JS59, p. 110) and Benson himself subsequently pointed out the 
identity of the two (A. M. X. H. ser. 3, v, 1860,"p. 247). 




Ficr. 



-ButJtvenia clafhrafula. 



The parietal armature consists of a single, sliglitly oblique, 
vertical plate, which is slightly twisted and a little notched in the 
middle, and gives off posteriorly aliove an obliquely ascendiuo- 
support (see fig, 7 d, which shows the shell with part of the 
outer wail removed). The palatal armature appears to be some- 
what variable, and consists of various denticles, arranged 
principally in two horizontal series, midway between the periphery 
and the umbilicus. In the specimen fio;ured, which is in 
Mr. Ponsonby's collection, the first series consists of : posteriorly, 
a short, strong, flattened vertical tooth, and anteriorly, two short, 
slight, horizontal denticles, separated by a short space : the second 
series consists of : posteriorly, a short, flattened, vertical tooth, a 
little smaller than the one above it, and, anteriorly, a short, 
obhque, curved denticle. Below these two series is a longer, but 
thin, horizontal fold, coincident with the umbilical angulation, 
while above the vertical tooth of the first series is a minute, 
horizontal denticle, coincident with the peripheral keel. The 
specimen measures 5 millimetres in diameter. (Fig. 7 a shows 
both armatures from the posterior side, the anterior palatal 
denticles being hidden by the posterior teeth ; fig. 7 6 pives the 
anterior view of both armatures, but the posterior tooth of the 
first series is here hidden by the parietal plate ; fig. 7 c shows 



30 ENDODONTID.TD. 

the palatal folds as they appear from below the shell-wall ; all the 
figures are enlarged.) Two specimens in my collection — measuring, 
major diameter (5 millimetres, minor diameter 5'5, axis 3 milli- 
metres — have the anterior portion of the first series consisting of 
four horizontal denticles, the first two close together, the third a 
little smaller and further distant, and the fourth still smaller and 
still further distant ; the anterior portion of the second series 
possesses, in addition to the oblique curved denticle, a slight, 
straight, horizontal denticle. Another specimen, also in ray 
collection, measuring 5*5 millimetres in diameter, has three hori- 
zontal denticles in the first series, while the second series is similar 
to that in my other two specimens. It possesses, however, in 
addition, one posterior and two anterior denticles of a previous 
set, separated from the mature set by a distance of 1 millimetre. 

Var. compressa, Syl-es. 

PlcctoptjUs (Si/ke.tia) clathratuJa, var. row^y^r^'.s.sv/, Sykes, I'roc. Midac. 
Soc. London, iii, 1898, p. 72, pi. o, tigs. 1-5, ] 4 ; Gtuie, Science 
Gossip, N. s. vi, 1899, p. 75, tig. 101. 

Differs from the type in being more elevated, in the more con- 
vex spire and the narrower umbilicus, while the raised ribs are 
scarcely visible. The armature is similar to that of the type. 




Thithvenia vlaihrotuJa vai-. cvmprc 



The specimen figured is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection : it measures 
5 millimetres in diameter, altitude 2-5 millimetres. 
Hah. Ceylon : Ambagamuwa (C'oUett). 

47. Ruthvenia caliginosa, SyJces. 

IHectopylis (Si/kesia) caliyinosa, Sykes, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudon, 
iii, 1898, p. 72, pi. 5, figs. 21, 22 ; Glide, Science Gossip, n. .s. vi. 
1899, p. 7o, tig. 100 (shell and armature). 

Original description : — " Testa mediocriter umbilicata, lenti- 
cularis, acute carinata, superne costulis obscuris remotis ornata. 
parum nitens, corneo-brunnea, apice niagno, obtuso; sutui'a bene 
impressa; anfr. 5, plano-convexi, lente accrescentes, ultimus basi 
inflatus, radiato-striatus ; apertura verticalis, angusta, angulato- 
lunaris ; peristoma simplex, acutum ; pliciB et dentes sicut (?) in 
J', dathratuku sed dentes palatales pauci. 

"Alt. 2-9, diam. 6 mm." (Si/kes.) 

Hah. Ceylon : Ambagamuwa {0. Collett). 

" Shell slightly more elevated than P. clatJiratula, whorls a litth- 
flatter, base more inflated, the umbilicus being little more than 



RUTHVEXIA. 



a I 



half tlie size, colour inort; bi'o\\'n ; the spiral lirae are absent, save 
for a faint trace above the suture of a single one, and the costa; 
almost obsolete ; the armature appears to be very similar, save that 
the palatal denticles are onl}^ three or four in number." (Sylrs.) 
The parietal armature consists of two simple, subvertical plates 
w hich are somewhat tliickened and truncate at the lower, and 
attenuated at the upper extremities ; these plates are separated by a 
distance of a quarterof awhorl,and the posterior one is the stronger 
(see fig. 9 '/, which shows the parietal wall with its two plates). 




irJ} 



Fig. 9. — Buthvciiia calijinoaa. 

The palatal armature is in two vertical series : the anterior series 
consists of an obliquely ascending short quadrate tooth near the 
periphery, and below this an obliquely descending lanielliforni 
tooth, with a slight, horizontally elongated denticle below its 
posterior extremity ; the posterior series is similar to the anterior 
one, but the teeth are stronger and thicker in the former, while 
there is in addition a horizontally elongated denticle on the 
anterior side of the upper tooth. The specimen shown in 
tig. 9 a-c measures G millimetres in diameter, alt. 3 millimetres, 
and is in the collection of Mr. Ponsonby. The armatures are 
figured from the type-specimen in the collection of Mr. Sykes, who 
kindly permitted me to open the shell for the examination of the 
armature. 



48. Ruthvenia biciliata, Pfelff'er. 

Helix biciliata, PfeitJer, P. Z. S. 18oo, p. 112; Ilanlev & Theobald, 

Conch. Tnd. 1875, pi. 159, figs. 1 Sz 4. 
Xaiiina {Honiplecta) biciliata. Pfeitler, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 185(5, 

p. 121. 
Jlacroclilami/s biciliata, Pfeifter & Clessin, Nomencl Ilelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 45. 
Na7iina (Kaliella) biciliata, Trvon, Man. Couch, ser. 2, ii, 1880, 

p.67, pi. 28, tigs. 7 &8. 
Plcctopylis (Si/kcsia) bicilata, Sj'kes, Proc. Malac. See. London, iii, 

1898, pp.66 & 160; Giide, Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 1899, p. Ki, 

fig. 99 (shell and ;irniature). 
Sylcesia biciliata, Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 19(1, 

pi. 112, tig. ;3 (anatomy). 



32 



ENDODONTID.E, 



Original description: — " T. perforata, coiivexo-lenticularis, 
tenuis, pellucicla, cornea, oblique plicata, biearinata : carinis pilis 
longis ciliatis ; spira parum elevata, vertici subtili ; anfr. 4^ 
sealares, ultimus aiitice non descendens, basi vix convexus ; 
a])ertura subobliqiia, depresse secviriformis ; perist. simplex, 
n^etura, niarginibus subparallelis, columellari vix reflexiusculo. 

" Diam. maj. 7|, miu. (H, alt. 31 mill." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. Ceylon (8Vmnei-); Hapiitale (C'o?Zgi;,) ; Patapoila (Preston). 

The systematic position of this species remained uncertain for 
.H long time, the shell having been referred by various authors to 
such different genera as Hemiplecta, Macrocldamys, and Kaliella. 
In 1898, Mr. Sykes, in identifying some shells — collected by 
Mr. Preston in Ceylon — as Helix biciliata, referred the species to 
'Sykesia, a section of Plectopylis proposed by me in 1897 for the 
reception of Helix clathratula and H. retifera. When classifying 
all the known species of Pleciopylis in 1899, I stated that when 
the anatomy of the forms referred to this section should come to 
be investigated, they would probably be found to differ so widel}' 
from typical Pleciopylis that the section would rank as a separate 
genus. This has since been demonstrated to be the case by 
Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen, who has examined the animal of biciliata, 
and has found, moreover, that it has close affinity with the 
genus Thysanotu, placed, with some doubt, under Evlota by 
Prof. Pilsbry, but \Ahich appears to pertain to the Eadodoatida;. 




Fis;. 10. — Buthvcnia hiciliata. 



The parietal armature consists of two simple obliquely ascendingf 
folds, separated by a distance of half a whorl, having the upper 
extremities somewhat attenuated and the lower truncate (see 
tig. 10 d, which shows the parietal wall with its two folds). The 
palatal armature is composed of : first, a short, horizontal fold 
l:)elow the periphery, a little further back but in a line with it a 
strong lamelliform denticle, ascending obliquely ; secondly, three 
denticles in a line horizontally and about equidistant, the posterior 
one strongest ; thirdly, a short slight horizontal fold near the 
lower suture, rising near the aperture and revolving as far as the 
second denticle {cf. fig. 10 e, which shows the inside of the outer 



PUPISOMA.. 33 

wall witli the palatal armature). The sliell shown in figs. 10 a-c 
is one collected by the late O. Collett, and is in Mr. Ponsonby's 
collection, while the armatures exhibited in figs. 10 ''? and e are 
drawn from a specimen brought home by Mr. Preston and which 
is in Mr. Sykes's possession. 

Genus PUPISOMA, Stoliczka. 

Pupisomn, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1873, p. 32 ; Nevill, Hand List, 
i, 1878, p. W2 ; vou MiillendorfF, Nachr. Blatt., D. Malak. Ges. xx, 
1888, p. 109; ibid., Ber. Seiick. naturf. (xes. 1890, p. 223; Pilsbry, 
Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. .52 ; Godwin-Austen, Land and 
Freshw. Moll. India, ii, 19] 0, p. .300 (jaw and radula). 

" Shell minute, thin, brown, perforated ; varying from pupi- 
form, almost cylindrical, to globose-conoidal ; apex obtuse ; whorls 
rounded, with delicate, irregular, cuticular riblets. Apei-ture ob- 
lique, truncate-oval or rounded, the lip thin, simple or a little 
expanded, broadly dilated at the columella, nearly closing the 
umbilical perforation ; the colnmellar edge sometimes slightly 
projecting, but hardly dentate," {Filsbry.) 

" The animals have very short pedicles and barely a trace of 
tentacles. They genei-ally live on wood." {Stoliczka.) 

Genitalia unknown. 

" Radula exceedingly small ; formula {P. miccyla) : 

8.6.1.6.8 
14 . 1 . 14, 

" The centre tooth is smaller than those on eitlier side, it is 
tricuspid, the main point long, those on the side basal and wide 
apart. The admedian teeth are also tricuspid with indication on 
the fourth and fifth of two cusps on the outer side. The laterals 
are on lono- narrow plates, with four teeth alternately long and 
short. The jaw is composed of about eighteen vertical plates, not 
overlapping each other, each plate being separated by a very 
narrow clear space. The cutting-edge is sharply defined. Under 
the highest power it seemed apparent that these plates divided at 
the base and merged gradually into muscular tissue.'' {Godwin- 
Austen.) 

Type, Pupa lignicola, Stoliczka. 

Range. India, Ceylon, Borneo, Philippines, Japan, S. Africa. 

Stoliczka regarded the group as a subgenus of Piqm, while 
von Mdllendorff, in 1888, raised it to generic rank, provisionally 
placino- it between Buliminus and Pupa, but two years later he 
referred it to the Fruticicola series in proximity to Acanthimila 
and Zoogenites. Pilsbry, not without some doubt, considered it a 
subgenus, a modification of Pyramidula, comparable to the Ameri- 
can o-roup Pti/chopatula. He did not, however, include it in his 
synopsis of families, etc. {vide Index to the Helices, 1895, 



34 ENDODONTID.i:. 

p. 122). Godwin-Austen, finally, again raised it to generic rank 
in the Endodontidce. He added descriptions o£ two new species, 
the radula of one being figured as well as the jaw and radula of 
P. miccifla. The latter lie found so similar to those parts of Phila- 
lanJca thwnitesi that he was led to place Pupisoma in the same 
subfamily Thysanotince, next to Philalanlca. With regard to the 
animal of Pupisoma miccyla, he further states that the foot is short 
and too small to see any details of its anatomy, but that upon the 
minute animal being pressed out between covering-glasses, the 
eyes w'ere found to be conspicuous, connected with a short dark 
streak representing the retractor muscle. He is of opinion that 
in life they probably merely reach the surface of the integument. 
Nearly every animal examined contained three embryonic shells, 
some in an advanced stage of development, showing the apex 
of the shell, and being very large compared with the parent 
animal. 

Mr. Burnup also records its ovoviviparous character, many of 
the specimens of P. orcula and P. jajwnicum, taken in South 
Africa, being found to contain one young mollusc furnished with 
a shell, and some few containing two, one much larger than the 
other. 

The presence of the genus in such widely separated localities as 
Japan and 8outh Africa — even so far inland as Rhodesia — is very 
remarkable. I am inclined to think, however, that this cannot be 
its natural range but that these two species — orcula and japoni- 
cum — owe their distribution to the agency of man, having probably 
been carried with plants, for Mr. Burnup states that they are found 
not only on the trunks, branches, and leaves of native shrubs and 
trees in woods, but on orange and apple trees in orchards as well. 
Benson, when describing P. orcula, states the shells occurred in 
mango-groves, but in his description of P. miccyla he mentions that 
it was found oia the bark of an orange tree, while Lt.-Col. Godwin- 
Austen also records the taking of a shell on an aurnntiaceous 
plant in India (Land and Freshw. Moll. India, ii, 1910, p. 301), 
and others on orange trees in Ceylon (op. cit. p. 303), so that it 
may be presumed that these creatures do occur on cultivated plants 
and may thus be transported from one country to another. 

49. Pupisoma lignicola, StoUczka. 

Pupa liff7ucola, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 171, pi. 7, fig. 3. 
Pupa ( I'u/)isonta) lignicola, ibid., op. cit. xlii, 1873, p. 32 ; Nevill, 

Hand List, i, 1878. p. 192 ; Kobelt, Illustr. Conchy!. Buch, ii, 

1878, p. 281, pi. 85, tig. 4.3; Godwin-Austen, Land and Freshw. 

Moll. India, ii, 1910, p. 300. 
Pyramidula {Pupisoma) lignicola, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 52, pi. 14, figs. 41, 42. 

Original description; — "Pupa testa breviter tumide - ovata, 
subconira, cornea, vix rimata, apice obtusa ; anfractibus 4|, 
couvexiusculis, costulis modice distantibus, transversalibus, paulo 



I'UPISOMA. 35 

arcuatis, noiinunqiiam striis tenuioribus alteniantibus, tectis, ad 
basin convecain obsoletis ; apertiira subrotimdata : labio teiiuis- 
simo, levi ; rarissiino denticulo parvulo mediaiio iiistructo ; labro 
externo tenui, paululuin tlilatato, edentulo, in antractuni penulti- 
muin vix asceudente ; columella ad basin sensiin expansiuscula, 
regionem uiiibilicalem tegente, torta, infra subdenticulata. 
" Diaui. niaj. I'o ; d. miu. 1*2; alt. 2 min." (Stoliczka.) 
Hah. Burma : Moulmein {Stoliczka) ; Rangoon {Humjerford). 
"The animal is grey with somewhat darker, very short pedicles 
and almost obsolete tentacles. The cohiinella of the shell is at the 
base peculiarly expanded, flattened, somewhat twisted, producing 
at the lower part a small denticle. The species was found on old 
masonry of the Great Pagoda at Moulmein, and on the opposite 
bank of the river at Martaban on similar wooden structures." 
{StoUezka.) 

Var. unideutata, Godivin- Austen. 

Pupa lignicola, toothed variety, Stoliczka, J. A. S. E. xl, 1871, 
p. 172 ; Flanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 160, iig. 6. 

Pupisoma lignicola, var. unidentaia, Godwin-Austen, Land & Freshw. 
Moll. India, ii, 1910, p. 300. 

Stoliczka when describing the type states that " out of a great 
number of specimens only one was met with which has a small 
tooth about the middle of the inner or parietal lip." Hanley and 
Theobald in figuring the toothed variety do not mention its source 
but give the habitat Moulmein, so that it is probable the shell 
illustrated is the one recorded by Stoliczka. 

50. Pupisoma constrictum, Godivin- Austen. 

Pupa (Pupisoma) constrictus, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 4i">0, 

Orixjinal description : — " Shell turbinate, perforate ; sculpture 
minutely costulate above, from the swollen portion forwards the 
surface is smoother ; colour, pale ochraceous ; spire conic ; sides 
flat ; apex pointed ; suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, at the 
distance of half a turn in the spiral behind the aperture there is a 
sharp swelling of the whorl, marking apparently the position of 
the previous aperture, but this is not seen in any of the whorls 
above; aperture ovate, oblique; peristome much thickened and 
reflected, united by a thin callus on the body- whorl ; sinuate 
below and on outer margin. 

" Major diam. 2*1 ; alt. axis 2*2 mm." (Godwin-Austen.) 

Hah. Andaman Islands : Port Blair, South Andaman. 

" Animal not yet seen, and it is difficult to say where this species 
shouKl find generic position. 1 sorted out from a tube full of 
minute shells eight specimens of this very curious and interesting 
species. Its sculpture is like that of Pupisoma liynicola, Stol., 

d2 



36 



ENDODOKTID.i;. 



from Moulmein, and I think it better to place it near this than to 
create a new genus for it, which I at first intended ; I think it 
best, however, to wait until someone else can examine the animal." 
{Godwin-Austen.) 

It will be seen from the foregoing that Lt.-Col. Godwin- Austen 






Fig. 11. — Pupiso7na const licf urn. (From P. Z. S.) 

had some doubts as to the generic position of the species. Since, 
however, in contour as well as sculpture it accords well with the 
other members of the group, it may be retained here until an 
examination of the soft parts shall prove other relationship. In 
his synopsis of the Indian forms, in Land and Freshw. Moll. 
India, ii, 1910, p. 300, Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen does not include 
the present species. 



51. Pupisoma orcula, Benson. 

Helix orcula, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, vi, 1850, p. 251 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon, vii, 1853, pi. 174, fig. 1176 ; PfeifFer, Conch. Cab., 
Helix, iii, 1854, p. 357, pi. 136, fig. 18 ; Hanley & Theobald, 
Conch Ind. 1874, pi. 87, figs. 1 , 4. 

Pupa {Pupisoma) orcula, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 192. 

Hyalinia {Conii/us) orcula, Pfeifi'er & Clessin, Nomeucl. Helic. Viv. 
1881, p. 73. 

Zonites {Hi/alinia (Cotitdus)) orcula, Trvon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 
1887, p. 177, pi. 53, fig. 67. 

Pyramidula {Pupisoma) orcula, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 
p. 52. 

Pupisoma orcula, Godwin-Austen, Land & Freshw. Moll. ludia, ii, 
1910, p. 301 ; Hirase, Conch. Mag. iii, 1909, p. 26, pi. 9, figs. 30, 
31 ; Bm-nup, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, x, 1912, p. 45: Conolly, 
Ann. S. Air. Mus. xi, 1912, p. 159. 

Original description : — " Testa vix perforata, conico-globosa, 
cornea, translucente, scabra, oblique irregulariter costulato- 
striatissima ; apice obtuso ; anfractibus 3| convexis, ultimo 
rotundato, sutura profunda ; apertura obliqua rotundata spiram 
vix aequante ; peristomate tenui acuto ; margiue columellari 
reflexo, perforationem semitegente. 

"Diam. 2, axis 2 mill." {Benson.) 

Hah. India: between Jounpore and Benares, Dinapore (5«conj, 
and whole route from Barrackpore, in Bengal, to borders of ISikkini 



PUPISOMA. 37 

and thence to Chuprah in Beliar. Lucknow and Behar (under 
bark of trees, Mainwarmg) ; N.W. Bengal {SioUczTca). Japan 
(Hirase). S. Africa : Cape, Natal, Transvaal, Ehodesia {Burnup, 
Gonolly, and others). 

I have already in the description of the genus referred to the 
remarkable distribution of this species and given my reasons for 
attributing its presence in such widely separated localities as 
Japan and South Africa to the agency of man. 

52. Pupisoma evezardi, Blanford. 

Pupa evezardi, (Blauford) Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, 

pi. 101, figs. 5, 6. 
Pupa {Pupisoma) evezardi, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 192; 

Bkndford, J. A. S. B. xlix, 1880, p. 199. 
Pupisoma evezardi, Godwin-Austen, Land & Freshw. Moll. India, 

ii, 1910, p. 301. 

Original description :—'' Tdfiin imperforata, vix subrimata, 
conoideo-ovata, tenuis, cornea, lineis elevatis irregularibus fili- 
formibus obliquis ornata. Spira snbtus subcylindracea, superne 
conoidea, latetibus convexis, apice obtuso, sutura impressa. Anfr. 
4i, convexi, regulariter crescentes, ultimus parum major, peri- 
pheria atque basi rotundatus, baud antice descendens. Apertura 
diagonalis, truncato-rotunda, edentula ; peristoma tenue, rectum, 
expansiusculum, marginibus couniventibas, columellari verticah, 
ad basin subtorto, adnato-reflexo, regionem umbilicalpm tegente. 

" Long. 2|, diam. fere 2, long. ap. 1 mm." {Blanford.) 

Hah. *India : Khandalla, between Bombay and Poona 
(Evezard). ... 

" Shell imperforate, with scarcely even a trace of nmation m 
the umbilical region, conoidly ovate," thin, horny, with raised hair- 
like oblique lines, ratber irregularly disposed, on all the whorls. 
Spire nearly cvlindrical below, conoidal above, the sides convex, 
apex blunt, suture impressed. Wborls 4|, convex; increasing in 
size regularly; the last but little larger than the penultimate, 
rounded at the periphery and below, not descending in front. 
Aperture diagonal, nearly circular, but truncated above, without 
teeth ; peristome thin, all in one plane, slightly expanded, margins 
converging ; columellar vertical above, slightly twisted below, re- 
flected and united to the whorl so as completely to cover the 

umbilicus. . r^ i ^ ■ 

" If the form represented by Hanley m the Conchologia 
Indica' be precisely the same as that described above, I am 
inclined to question the locality given, " Singhur " or, as 
Mr. Theobald prefers writing it, " Synghar," presumably Smgarh 
near Poona. The original specimens were found by Col. Evezard 
at Karkalla, near Khandalla, at the head of the Bor-Ghat ; 
and I suspect that Hanley's figure was taken from one of them. 
There are two or three alHed forms found in the Sybadri range 



38 ENDODONTID^. 

and the Nilgiris, forms that do not appear hitherto to have been 
described. 

" .... P. lignkola, a form very closely resembliug P. evezardi, 
but rather shorter and less ovate." {Blanford.) 

53. Pupisoma seriola, Benson. 

Ennea seriolu, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 359 (iiom. nud.). 
Pupa seriola, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xii. 1863, p. 427; Hanlev 

& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 101, fig.' 8. 
Pupa (Pupisoma), No. 54, n. sp., Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 192. 
Piipa {Piqiilla) seriola, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 354. 
Pitpiso7na seriola, Godwin- Austen, Land & Freshw. jMoU. India, ii, 

1910, p. 301. 

Original description : — " P. testa vix perforata, ovato-oblonga, 
subcylindracea, oblique striatula, sericina, flavescente, cornea, 
spira oblonga, apice obtusiusculo, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 5, 
superioribus convesis, ultimo convexiusculo antiee vix ascendente ; 
apertura subovata, superne angulata, dente 1 parietali mediano 
remotiusculo iiiduta ; peristomatis marginibus callo tenui junctis, 
dextro vix, cohimellari superne late expanse." (Benson.) 

Long. 2|, diam. 1^ mill. 

Hab. India: Cattsmk, Or'issa (Theobald) ; Dai'jeeling, Terai, and 
Nawade near Muddapur (Maimvaring). 

The species is included here with some doubt. Benson alluded 
to the fact that Blanford considered it an Ennea, but he regarded 
it as having more affinity with Bidimus. He also stated that in 
one of the specimens the parietal lamina was not apparent. 
Hanley and Theobald observe that the type having been smashed, 
and an imperfect photograph alone preserved, they cannot vouch 
for the correctness of the figure. Although they do not expressly 
state the fact, the natural inference is that their illustration has 
been prepared from this photograph. 

54. Pupisoma miccyla, Benson. 

Helix micci/la, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, v, 1860, p. 384 : Hanley 

& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 129, figs. 8, 9. ^ 
Hyalinia (Conulus) miccyla, I'feifler & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

"Viv. 1881, p. 73. 
Zonites {Hi/alinia (Conuhis)) miccyla, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ii, 

1886, p. 176, pi. .53, tig. 64. 
Pyramidula (Pupisoma) miccyla, Pilsbrv. Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

"1894, p. 52. 
Ernstia miccyla, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 271. 
Pupiso7na micci/la, Godwin-Austen, Land & Fresliw. Moll. India, 

ii, 1910, p. 301, pi. 132, tigs. 1, 1% lb (shell), fig. 1^ (teeth of 

radula),tig. 1'' (jaw). 

Original description: — "Testa imperforata, globoso-conoidea, 
tenui, striatula, uitidula, fusco-coruea, translucente ; spii*a trun- 



PUPI80MA. 3& 

cato-conica, sutura impressa, apice obtusissirao ; anfractibus 4, 
convexis, ultimo globoso, antice seiisim descendente ; apertura 
lunato-rotundata, obliqua, peristomate acuto, margine dextro 
arcuato, columellari acuto, vertical!, cum basali angulum fere 
rectum efformante." (Benson.) 

Long. Ik, diam. 1 mill. 

Hab. Ceylon: MateWe {Layard),Wa.t?iwa\si (Collett). 

Benson recognized its affinity to P. orcula, stating that P. mic- 
cyla is smaller, destitute of the peculiar sculpture of that species, 
and distinguished by its very obtuse apex and by the formation of 
the columellar lip. Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen, wlio received from 
the late O. CoUett a number of shells with the soft parts preserved 
in formalin, states that micci/la is smaller than lignicola, has a 
wreater number of whorls, and is more attenuate than orcella, 
while the transverse .strite of the cuticle appear to be more 
reo-ular. These specimens enabled him to examine and figure the 
jaw and radula, and thus to fix the systematic position of the 
group. 

55. Papisoma cacharicum, Godwin-Austen. 

Pupiso7na cacharica, Godwin- Austen, Land & Freshw. Moll. India, 
ii, 1910, p. 303, pi. 13-2, fig. 4. 

Original description : — " Shell scarcely perforate, globosely 
conoid, vexT tumid, corneous ; sculpture, spiral striation, crossed 
by fine close thread-like ribbing; colour pale umber-brown; 
spire moderately high, conic, apex blunt ; suture open ; whorls 
3i, rapidly increasing, very convex ; aperture nearly circular, 
obhque ; peristome thin, columellar margin perpendicular, re- 
flected." (Godiuin- Austen.) 

Major diam. 1-33, alt. 1*5 mill. 

Hab. India: 8\lchav {Wood-31ason). 

The species is based on specimens sent for determination by 
Dr. Ainiandale from the Indian Museum. They were accompanied 
by the following notes : — " From the branches of a Pepul tree, 
in scars and other shallow cavities, opposite the Deputy Com- 
missioner's Ciitchery, Silchar, 3,4.81. Only one pair of short, 
thick, blunt, sausage-shaped tentacles, at the upper extremity of 
which the black eye-spots are placed. Animal semitransparent, 
grevish, milky white below, above grey; retractor muscles pf 
tentacles very plainly visible through integument. No tail- 
gland." 

56. Pupisoma loiigstaffae, Godwin- Austen. 

Pupisoma lomjstaffi, Godwin-Austen, Land & Freshw. Moll. India, 
ii, 1910, p. 303, pi. 132, figs. 3 (shell), 3^ (jaw), 3b (radula). 

Original description : — " Shell imperforate, very globosely 
conoid; sculpture, a smooth epidermis, with very fine, somewhat 
distant costulation ; colour pale brown ; spire depressed ; whorls 3, 



40 ElfDODONTID^. 

very tumid and well rounded on the periphery ; aperture nearly 
circular ; peristome thin ; columellar margin thickened and 
slightly reflected and extending as a callus on to the last whorl." 
( Godwin- Austen.) 

Hab. Ceylon : Kaudy (il/rs. Longsta-ff^). 

" This shell is more globose than P. miccyla and not so high in 
the spire, AAhich tapers more rapidly. It is also costulate, as in 
the Pupisoma figured on plate 132, fig. 2, a single specimen of 
which was sent to me by Mr. Sykes, and cannot now be found. 
Mrs. Longstaff w rites : — " Numerous on palm, Florence Hotel 
Garden, Kandy. Animal, body light grey, only one pair of 
tentacles, dark. Tail pointed." 

" I was fortunate in seeing the radula in the first specimen 
I examined. Nothing could be seen of the genitalia. The 
mantle-zone was simple, with no shell-lobes. 

' There are not many teeth in the row, only some 15 or 16 ; 
all are large quadrate plates. The central tricuspid, the ad- 
medians and laterals bicuspid, the inner cus]) long, the outer small 
and basal. The jaw was crumpled up, and being so miuute was 
not well seen, but it appeared to be smooth.' (Godwin- Austen.) 



Genus SPHYRADIUM, Charpentier. 

SphyracUum, Charpentier, Xeue Denkschr. Allg. Schweiz. Gesella. 

Naturw. i, 1887, 2nd art. p. 15 (as section of Pupa)-, Sterki, 

Nautilus, X, 1896, p. 75. 
Paludinella, Lowe, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 206. 
Edenttdina, Clessin, Deuts. Excurs. Moll. Fauna, 1876, pp. 189, 208 

(non Pfeitt'er, 1856, sect. Ennea). 
Columella, Westerlund, Fauna Palaarct. iii, 1887, p. 125. 

Range. Europe ; North America ; India. 

Shell cylindrical, pupoid ; aperture radial ; peristome simple, 
straight, with thin margins. 

Anatomy unknown. 

" Jaw low, composed of distinct plates. Eadula with the teeth 
comparatively small, their cusps very short and small ; transverse 
rows of teeth in edentidimi varying from 116 to 127, each row 
containing r+21 (20). The centrals are tricuspid, the laterals 
all bicuspid except the last, which is a minute nodule; in the 
others there is no difference of laterals and marginals, but that 
the plates of attachment become shorter towards the margins and 
evanescent in the outer teeth. The radula is 0-55 mill, long, 
0-14 wide." (Sterl-i.) 

The species constituting the group S/Jn/radiiim were for a long 
time regarded as pertaining to Puj>a until Dr. Sterki, in 1896, 
from an examination of the radula and jaw of S. edentidum, came 
to the conclusion that 8j)liyradiuin was more nearly allied to 
Punctum. On concJiological ground.'^ he had already previously 
held the opinion that it had no affinity with Pupa. He alludes 



SPHYKADIUM. — PYRAMIDULA. 41 

to the analogous case of " Pupa " neozelanica, Pfr., which has 
much the same form of shell and was shown by Mr. buter, a few 
years previously, to be a member of the Charojpidce. 

56 a. Sphyradium himalayanum, Benson. 

Pupa himalaya7ia (Ilutton), Beuson, A. M N H. ser. 3, xii, 
1863 p 428; Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 18/5, pi. iUi, 
fio-. 4 ; Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 146. 
Pupa {Sphyradinm) himalayana, PfeifFer & Clessm, ^omenc]. 
Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 352. 
Original description :—'' V . testa rimato-perforata, ovato-ob- 
longa, subcylindracea, oblique minutissime costulata, translucente, 
pallida cornea; spira obloiiga, apice obtuso, sutura impressa ; 
anfraetibus 7,brevibus, eonvexis, ultimo antice leviter ascendente ; 
apertura rotundato-ovata, edentata ; peristomate tenui, margme 
expansiusculo, dextro super ne leviter antice progrediente. 
(^Benson.) 

Alt. 2, diap.T. 1 mill. ^ . •, -r, 

Hah. India: Simla and Mussoori (Hutton) ; Panjal Kange, 

Kashmir (Theohald). -.it? •^.- v. 

Four specimens in the Theobald collection, m the liritish 
Museum, have enabled me to satisfy myself that this species is 
in all probability congeneric with S. edentidum. 

Subfamily PYRAMIDULINtE. 
Genus PYRAMIDULA, Fitzim/er. 

Pm-amidula, Fitzinger, System. Verz. Oesterr.vork Weichth 1833 
'p 95 ; Westerluad, Fauna Palaarct., Binnenconchyl. i, 1889, p. iU 
(as eroup of Patida) ; Pilsbiy. Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 18t)3, p. 4l, 
pi. 40, Bgs. 40, 46 (animal), pi. 11, figs. 17-28 (anatomy). 

Type, Helix rupestris, Drap. 

Range. Northern Temperate Land Area. 

"Shell openly umbilicated, varying in contour from flattened 
and disk-hke to conoidal. Generally opaque, often rib-striate. 
Unicoloured, spirally banded or flammulate. AVhorls subcyhn- 
drical or keeled, the" apex generally smooth. Aperture rounded- 
lunate ; lip simple and thin. • 7 /• , -.7 

" Animal having the sole imdivided ; lateral margin of the pot witii 
a distinct border boundedhy a groove, the grooves meeting above the 
tail. No caudal mucous pore. Eye-peduncles long and slender. 

" Genital system lacking all accessory organs ; vas deferens and 
retractor muscle inserted near or at the apex of the penis ; duct 
of the spermatheca very long ; hermaphrodite duct very long, but 
shortened by its extreme convolution. 

"Jaw arcuate, its component lamince generally compactly 
soldered, and indicated only by fine striae which diverge shghtly 
from the middle. 



42 EXDODONTID^. 

" Eadula (1) having only the mesocones developed upon central 
and inner lateral teeth, or (2) having the centrals tricuspid, 
laterals hicuspid lacking the entocones, marginal teeth similar but 
with short basal-plates ; tliis being the usual form. In some 
species the marginal teeth are multicuspid by the splitting of 
their ectocones. 

"The dentition as usual, shows considerable variation, even in 
species otherwise closely related. As a general rule, the lateral 
teeth completely lack entocones, differing in this respect from 
Trachycystis and the Endodonta-Charopa series ; but in the 
section Helicodiscus, entocones are well developed. The dentition 
is quite unlike Trachycystis in the form of the marginal teeth. 

" The genus Pyramidtda consists of dull-coloured ground-living 
snails, species of which occur over the whole northern temperate 
land area. Its nearest relatives are CJiaropa, Trachycystis, and 
Stejjhanoda, genera occupying the southern temperate regions of 
Australasia, Africa, and Soutli America respectively. All may be 
regarded as the remnants of an early fauna, now replaced in the 
tropics, and to a large extent in temperate regions also, by higher 
groups of Helices. The latter differ widely from these Patuloid 
genera in lacking parapodial grooves, in the solid, ribbed jaw, 
complex genital system, and other features. 

" In treating of the subgenus Patida it will be shown that that 
name is not available as a designation for the present genus as a 
whole. Pyramidida is the earliest name, and should be accepted. 
It may be objected that no diagnosis of Pyramidida was published 
by Fitzinger, but the same may be said of Beck's genera. Let 
those who repudiate Beck's names cast the first stone at 
Fitzinger ! " (Pilsbry.) 



Section Pthamiul'la, Fitzinyer, s. str. 
Pyramidida, Fitzinger, op. cit., p. 95 ; Pilsbry, toni. cit., p. 43. 

Type, Helix rupestris, Drap. 

Ranye. Europe and Central Asia. 

" Shell minute, openly umbilicated, with pyramidal spire and 
obtuse smooth apex. Whorls tubular, obliquely striated. Aper- 
ture round or nearly so ; lip simple. 

" Jaw arcuate, finely striated vertically. 

" Eadula having the central teeth uuicuspid, the side cusps 
being represented by a slight sinuation. Laterals bicuspid. 
Marginals with low wide basal-plate, the inner bearing two cusps, 
the outer becoming multicuspid by splitting of the cusps. 

"This section differs from Gonyodiscus and Patulastra in having 
the spire conically elevated, and from the former in lacking 
rib-striae." (Pilsbry.) 

Only two species are known from the Indian Peninsula, and a 
doubtful one from Ceylon, these being the most southern outliers 
of the section. 



PYBAMIDULA. 43 

57. Pyramidula humilis, Benson. 

Keli.r Immilis (Hutton), Benson, J. A. S. B. vii, 1838, p. 217 ; 

l*feiffei\ Mon. Helic. Viv. i, 1847, p. 106 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

vii, 1851, pi. 133, fig. 825; Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., Heliceen, iii, 

1853, p. 322, pi. 129, fig. 28 ; Hanley & Theobakl, Conch. Ind. 

1874, pi. 61, figs. 4-6. 
Helix (Patula) liKinilis, Pfeifi'er, Malak. Blatt, ii, 1856, p. 125 ; 

Nevill, Sci. Kes. Second Yarkand Miss. 1878, Molhisca, p. 18; 

ibid.. Hand List, i, 1878, p. 66. 
Vallo7iia humilis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 47. 
Patula (Discus) hnmilis, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 90. 
Helix {Patula (Discus)) Inirailis, Tryon, Man. Conch, sor. 2, iii, 1887, 

p. 22, pi. 3, tigs. 4-6. 
Pyramidula (s. s.) humilis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1893, p. 44, 

Original description : — " Testa parvula, convexo-depressa, cor- 
nea, late et profunda umbilicata ; anfractibus quinque rotuiidatis, 
ultimo subangulato, penultimo aperturam circularem vix inter- 
ruuipente ; peri t re mate acuto. 

" Diam. 0-125 poll."' [=3 mill.]. {Benson.) 

Hah. India: Ghur, near Simla (StoUczka) ; Landour (lleeve) ; 
Simla (StoUczka, Oldham) : Murree (^StoUczka) ; Taudiana 
(Theobald). 

58. Pyramidula euomphalus, Blanford. 

Helix euomphalus, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 354 ; Pfeiffer, 

Mon. Helic. Viv. v, 1868, p. 138. 
Helix euo7nphalos, Hanliiy & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, p. 52, 

pi. 129, figs. 1-3. 
Patula (Patulastra) euomphalus, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 87. 
Helix (Patula) (Punctum)) euomphahts, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 32, pi. 7, figs. 75-77. 
Pip-amidula (s. s.) euomphalus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

'1893, p. 44. 

Original description : — " Testa mediocriter umbilicata, sub- 
turbinata, depressa, fulvo-cornea, tenuis, oblique striata; spira 
conoidea, apice obtusa, sutura valde impressa. Anfr. 4 rotundati, 
sensim accrescentes, ultimus vix desceudens, subteres. Apertura 
obliqua, rotiindato lunaris ; peristoma simplex, rectum, marginibu3 
distantibus, siiiistro baud reflexo. Umbilicum perspectiviim. 

"Diam. maj. 2, min. 1|, alt. 1 mm." (Blanford.) 

Hah. India : near Pykara, Nilgiri Hills (Blanford). 

" This shell in its form somewhat resembles a minute H. tapeina, 
Bens., vvitli more rounded whorls, deeper sutures, and a non- 
expanded lip.'" (Blanford.) 

The species was not figured by Blanford, as he states that 
unfortunately the specimen, forwarded to him by his brother for 
that purpose, was crushed before it reached him. Hanley and 
Theobald, however, give a representation of the shell, the specimen 
figured probably originating from the same source. 



44 HELICIBiE. 

59. Pyramidula? halyi, Jousseaume. 

Trichia halyi, Jousseanine, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, p. 271, 
pi. 4, fig. 2. 

Original description : — " Testa parva, late et prof unde umbili- 
cata, globoso-conica, irregulariter striatula, vix nitida, subopaca, 
corneo fusca, spii'a conoidea, apice obtusa ; aufr. 4 rotundati, 
sutura profunda separati, ultinnis iion descendens, superne 
planulatus ; apertura perobliqiia, subcireularis ; perist. simplex, 
acutum, rectum, margine umbilicari uon reflexo. 

"Diam. et alt. 1*5 mm." (Jousseaume.) 

Hah. Ceylou : Nuwara Eli>a (/SzHion). 

This species, referred to Trichia by Jousseaume — a genus 
certainly not represented within the limits of the Indian Empire 
— I place here not without some doubt, but no other genus 
appears so well fitted for its reception, and we have already two 
species in the Indian Peninsula, one of them in the Nilgiri Hills, 
and since the fauna of Ceylon shows many traces of affinity with 
that of Southern India, the extension of the genus to Ceylon 
offers no insuperable difficulties. One of Jousseaume's figures — 
that showing the inferior side — has been drawn by the artist as 
a sinistral shell, the other two figures being correctly shown 
as dextral. 



Family HELICID^, Pilshry. 

Subfamily ACAVIN^, Pilsbnj. 

Genus ACAVUS, Montfort. 

Acavus, Moutfort, Conch. Syst. ii, 1810, p. 234 ; Semper, lleisen 
Arch. Philippinen, Wiss. Re.s. 2, iii, 1870, p. 99 (anatomy)'; 
Sarasin, Ergebn. Xaturw. Forsch. Ceylon, i, 1888 (embryoloo:y) ; 
Binuey, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. iii, 1884, p. 92 (dentition) ; Pilsbry, 
Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 153 ; Randies, Proc. Malac. Soc. 
London, iv, 1900, p. 103 (anatomy). 

Oliffospira, Aucey, Conch. Exch. ii, 1887, p. 22. 

Acavella, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, p. 288, 

Type, Helix hcemastoma, Linne. 

Range. Ceylon. 

" Shell imperforate, globose depressed or globose trochoidal, 
solid, bright coloured. Whorls less than 5, rapidly increasing, 
the several earlier forming the nuclear or emhrijonic shell, which is 
about one-third the diameter of the adult. Last whorl deflexed in 
front. Aperture A^ery oblique, the lip vividhj coloured, and broadly 
expanded : columellar margin long, obliquely descending, hroadlg 
flattened, the cohuuellar lip adnate. 

" Animal with undivided sole and no pedal grooves ; lung and 



ACATTJS. 45 

Jcidney very short, the latter [former ?J opening at the base of the 
kidney. Body-lobes of the mantle present, of moderate or small 
size. 

" Jaw strong, low arcuate, entirely smooth, without median 
projection. 

" Eadula having the teeth all unicuspid. 

" Genital system having no accessory organs. Penis having 
terminal retractor, the interior with two longitudinal pilasters 
below, with a very short, imperforate papilla at their base, at the 
base of which the vas deferens enters. Spermatheca on a vert/ 
short duct. Eggs very large, oval, hard-shelled. 

"The genus Acaviis comprises Ceylonese Helices of large size 
and superb colouring. The shell is capacious, with a broad, polished 
lip of vivid red, lihic, or intense black hue. The young shells at 
the time of their extrusion from the egg are bright coloured, with 
round periphery, and are about one-third the size of the adult. 
The teeth are all unicuspid, but the marginals have shorter cusps 
than in Hellcophcmta or Panda ; and the shell differs from these 
groups in its broad columellar lip and brilliant colouring. They 
are arboreal in habit." (Filsbry.) 



60. Acavus hsemastoma, Linne. 

Helix hcemastomu. Liun^, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, i, 1758, p. 773 ; 

Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll. 1821, pi. 32^, figs. 1, 2, 5; Wood, 

Index Testae. 1825, pi. 34, tig. 127 ; Donovan, Natural Repos. 

iv, 1834, pi. 132 ; Sowerbv, Conch. Man. 1839, tig. 267 ; Hart- 

niauu, Gastr. Schweiz, iii, 1844, pi. 56, tigs. 1-5 ; Pfeiffer, Conch. - 

Cab., Heliceen, i, 1846, i^. 31, pi. 3, tigs. 1,2; Chenu, lllustr. 

Conchyl. 1851, Helix, pi. 3, figs. 18, 19 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 

1852, pi. 71, tig. 366; Adams, Genera, 1858, pi. 77, fig. 6a ; 

Semper, Reisen Arch. Philippinen, 2, iii, 1870, p. 99, pi. 12, 

figs. 8-10 (anatomv); Ilauley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876! 

pi. 127, tig. 2 : Kobelt, Ilkistr. Conch. Buch, 1879, pi. 68, fig. 10 ; 

Woodward, Man. Moll. ed. 4, 1880, pi. 12, tig. 1 ; Trvon, Struct 

Conch, iii. 1884, p. 45, pi. 95, tig. 75. 
Acavus Jiemastomus, Montfort, Conch. Syst. ii, 1810, p. 235, pi. 59; 

Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, p. 287. 
Helix {Acavus) hccmastoma, Beck, Index, 1838, p. 37 ; Nevill, 

Hand List, i, 1878, p. 80 ; Westerlund, Vega Exp. Vetensk. Jakt. 

iv, 1887, p. 141. 
Acavus hcBmustoma, Adams, Genera Moll, ii, 1858, p. 195, pi. 77, 

tig. 6 a. 
Helix {Macroon {Acavus)) hcemastoma, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser *^, 

vi, 1890, p. 78, pi. 18, figs. 22-25. 
Acavus hcemastomus, Chenu, Man. Conchyl. i, 1860, pi. 34, fig. 127 ; 

Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 154, pi. 38, fig. 1 (shell), 

pi. 48* fig. 14, pi. 50, fig. 3 (anatomy) ; Randies, Proc. Malac. 

Soc. London, iv, 1900, p. 103, pi. 9, figs. 9, 12 (anatomy). 

" Shell globose-conical, white, brown above and usually brown 
around the umbilicus ; aperture very oblique ; columella not 
truncated where it joins the basal lip. 



46 HELlCID.i;. 

" The shell is solid and opaque, with rounded periphery and 
conoidal spire. It is porcelaneous white, but dull, not polished 
when in a natural condition; the whole surface above the peri- 
phery is usually of a reddish-brown hue, becoming paler of a 
brownish flesh-colour on the embryonic three whorls, and pink on 
the inner two ; at and below the periphery there is a white zone 
which covers the base, or is hniited by a brown tract upon the 
umbilical region ; the suture is often edged by a white line. The 
surface has rather rude but inconspicuous lines of growth, and 
under a strong lens is seen to be covered by a dense minute 
pattern of incised criss-cross scratches ; the embryonic whorls 
have radiating subregular striaj, cut by subobsolete spiral engraved 
lines. Whorls nearly 5, convex, the last flattened and sloping 
above, a little descending in front. Aperture very oblique, 
oblong-truncate, white inside, showing faintly the bands of outer 
surface. Entire peristome broadly reflexed, of a bright pinkish- 
red colour typically ; columellar margin long, oblique, very broadly 
expanded and adnate to the base, flat, with a curved excavation at 
the place of the umbilicus ; parietal wall covered by a heavy callus 
of the same colour as the lip." {Filsbry.) 
Major diam. 49, min. 3S mm. ; alt. 39 mm. 
Hah. Ceylon {Blanford, NeviJl, Collett) ; Galle (Simon). 
Morch records the species from Coromandel (Journ. Conch vl. 
XX, 1872, p. 336), and Benson states that it occurs in the Nico- 
bars as well as Ceylon (A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xviii, 1856, p. 97). 
As neither of these records has ever been confirmed, and as, more- 
over, the genus is believed to be confined to Ceylon, tliese two 
reputed habitats may without hesitation be disregarded. 

The banding varies to some extent in this species, and, assuming 
the normal bands to be five, as in the Palsearctic Cqums, the most 
common form is represented by the following foi'mula : (123)05 or 
(1 2 3) ; a specimen in my collection exhibits only two bands — 
12 — while another appears to have the five bands confluent 
in two series, thus : (1 2 3) (4 5), which is also the case with the 
shell figured in Conch. Ind. pi. 127, fig. 2. Lastly, a shell I 
received from Col. Parry shows four thin bands, 123 05, the 
second band being a mere thread. 1 also possess several specimens 
without any bands. Analogous arrangements obtain in the var. 
melanotrcKjus, specimens in mv collection providing the following 
formulas: 1(2 3)0 0, (12 3)0 0, r(2 3)0 0. 



Var. melanotragus. Bom. 

Helix tnelanot7-agvs, Boru, Index, 1778, p. 400; ibid., Test. Mus. 
Cffis, Vindob. 1780, p. 388; Pfeifler, Conch.-Cab., Heliceen, i, 
1846, p. 32, pi. 3, %s. 4, •> ; Chenu, Illustr. Conciivl. 1851, pi. 5, 
fig. 2; llanley & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1875, pi. 127, tig. 3. 

Acavus melanotragus, Adnms, Genera Moll, ii, 1858, p. 195 ; 
Jousseaume, Meir. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, p. 287. 

Helix {Acavus} melanotragus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 80. 



ACAVUS. 47 

Helix (Acavus) heemastoma, var. inelanotvaqus., Nevill, J. A. S. B. 

1, 1881, p. 133. 
Helix (Macroon (Acavus)) hceviastoma, vai*. melanotraqus, Pilsbry, 

Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1890, p. 79, pi. 18, fig. 24. 
Acavus h<emastornus, var. melanotrayus, Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, 

ix, 1894, p. 154. 

" Peristome and a broad band across the parietal wall black ; 
a white spot at the insertion of the columella. 

" This variety is nearly as abundant as the typical red-lipped 
form." {Pilsbry.) 

The colouring of the bands is darknr than usually obtains in 
the typical form, being a blackish brown. 

Hah. Ceylon {NeviU, Blanford): Kandy (Simon). 

Var. conus, Pilsbry. 

Helix {Macroon (Acatms)) hcemastomns, var. conus, Pilsbry, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1890, p. 79, pi. 16, fig. 7. 
Acavus lucmastomus, var. conus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 154. 

Original description : — " More elevated than the type, with 
which it agrees in the colour of the outside. The entire peri- 
stome, columella, and a broad band across the parietal w^all are a 
beautiful lilac or purple colour ; a rather deep excavation at the 
place of the umbilicus. 

" Diam. 35, alt. 36 mill." (Pilsbry.) 

Var. concolor, Pilsbry. 

Helix hesjnastoma, var. concolor, Pilsbry, Nautilus, iv, 1890, p. 59. 
Acavus hcsmastoma, var. concolor, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 
1890, p. 303. 

Oriyinal description :— " Unicoloured chestnut all over, the two 
earlier whorls and a narrow umbilical crescent pink ; lip and 
parietal wall red. No spiral white zones or bands. Eorm 
normal." (Pilsbry.) 

61. Acavus fastosus, Albers. 

Helix fastosa, Albers, Malak. Bljitt. i, 1854, p. 213; Pfeiffer, Novit, 

Conch, ser. 1, i, 1855, p. 40, pi. 11, figs. 1, 2; Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. 

Viv. iv, 1859, p. 197 ; Hauley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, 

pi. 127, fig. 5. 
Helix melanotragus, Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll. 1821, pi. 32 b, 

tigs. 2, 3, 4 {non Born). 
Helix {Acaims) fastosn, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 144. 
Heliv (Acavus) fast uosa, Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 172. 
Helix {Macroon (Acavus)) fastosa, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 

1890, p. 79, pi. 16, figs. 5,"6. 
Acavus fattosus, Pilsbiy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 154. 

Original description : — " T. imperforata, globoso-coniea, regu- 
lariter confertim striata, albida, oblique fulvo-strigata et multi- 



HELICIDiE. 



fasciata ; spira conica, obtusula ; aiifr. 4^ convexiusculi, rapide 
accrescentes, ultiinus aiitice descendens, peripheria obsoletissime 
subangulatus ; aperturi diagonalis, oblique oblonga, intus alba; 
perist. hepaticnm, marginibus callo uigro-castaneo nitido, intrante 
junctis, supero leviter arcuato, expanse et reflexiusculo, columellari 
declivi, plauo, perdilatato, adnato. 

"Diam. maj. 38, min. 30, alt. 27 mill." (Albers.) 
Nearly allied to A. Jicemastoma, but appears to differ in being 
less solid, having more convex whorls — the base being decidedly 
more convex, but not gibbous behind the columellar margin as 
in hcemastoma, while the lip is reflexed but not expanded as in the 
latter. The numerous narrow encircling bands also distinguish 
it. A specimen, however, acquired by me from the H. Nevill 
collection, exhibits two blackish-brown zones above the periphery — 
one narrow, under the suture, and the other broad, separated 
from the first by a narrow light zone and extending to the 
periphery — as often observed in Jiamiastoma. In addition there 
are below the periphery five more or less distinct linear bands. 
These zones and bands may be indicated by the following formula : 
1(23)^'^^'^. This shell is well represented by figs. 3 and 4 on 
plate 32 b of Perussac's work, except that these shoAv an additional 
linear band between the two dark zones. 

When desrribing the shell, Albers gave the Malay Peninsula 
as habitat. This was already called in question by Pfeiffer in 1855, 
while in 1859 he definitely indicated Ceylon as its origin. 

62. Acaviis prosperus, Albers. 

Helix jirospera, Albers, Malak. Blatt. iv, 1857, p. 93, pi. 1, figs. 7, 
8 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 150, fig. 4. 

Helix (Acavtis) jyrospera, Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860 
p. 172. 

Helix (Maeroon (Acavus)) pi-ospera, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 
vi, 1890, p. 80, pi. 17, figs. 14, 15. 

Acavus prosperus, Pilsbry, ibid, ix, 1894, p. 154. 

Original description : — " Testa imperforata, orbiculato-globosa, 
solida, distincte striata, unicolor castaneo-purpurascens ; spira 
parum prominens, globosula, vertice rosea ; anfraetus 4 convexi, 
modice accrescentes, ultimus antice non protractus, niediocriter 
descendens ; apertura obliqua, oblongo-lunaris, basi rotundata, 
intus lactea ; peristoma purpureum, expansum, breviter reflexum, 
maro-ine dextro luedio inflexiusculo, superue arcuato, columellari 
stricto, dilatato, vix excavato, sensini in basalem transeunte ; 
paries aperturalis callo purpureo obductus. 

"Diam. maj. 44, min. 34, alt. 25 millim." (Albers.) 

Hah. Ceylon. 

It is stated to differ from A. hcemastoma in being more globose, 
the depressed spire, rounded above, not conical, and in being 
uuicolorous. 



ACAVUS. 



49 



63. Acavus phoenix, Pfdffer. 

Helix pluvnir, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. i, 1854, p. 53 ; Hanley & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, id. Vll, fi<-. G. 
Helix melanotracjus, Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll. 1821, pi. 32 b, fifx. 6 

(var. a); Donovan, Natural. Repos. iv, 1834, pi. 133; Pfeiffer, 

Couch.-Cab., Ileliceen, i, 184G, pp. x & 32, pi. 3, fig. 3, pi. 7, 

fig's. 9, 10; Uheim, lUiistr. Conchyl.*, 1851, pi. 5, fig. 1; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 71, fig. 367. 
Helix {Acavt(s) melnnotragus, Beck, Index, 1838, p. 37. 
Helix (Macroon {Acavu/i)) 2)ha'nix, Pilsbry, Man, Conch, ser. 2, 

vi, 1890, p. 80, pi. 17, figs. 10-12. 
Acavus pha-nix, Adams, Genera Moll, ii, 1858, p. 195 ; Pilsbry, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 154, pi. 50, fig. 5 (radula), fig. 4 {e^^) ; 

Randies, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iv, 1900, p. 103, pi. 9, tigs. 1, 

4, 13 (anatomy). 

Original description : — " T. imperforata, globoso-conoidea, tenui- 
uscula, leviter rugata, subunicolor castauea, vel fusco, roseo et 
luteo radiatim variegata, non fasciata, rarius roseo-albida ; spira 
brevis, convexo-conoidea, vertice subtili, obtuso, albido ; sutura 
mediocris, plerumque fusco marginata ; aiifr. 4 convexi, rapide 
accrescentes, ultimus veutrosus, plerumque spiraliter obsolete 
sulcatus, antice inflatus, sensim desceudens ; apertura perobliqua, 
truncato-oblonga, intus lactea ; perist. late expansum et reflexum, 
castaneo-limbatum, niargiuibus callo albo, extus castaneo- 
niarginato, junetis, dextro superne arcuato, columellari declivi, 
substricto, antice subtruncato, sursum perdilatato, piano. 

" Diam. maj. 58, min. 43, alt. 38 mill." (Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. Ceylon (Blanford, Kevill). 

Readily distinguished from A. Jmmastoma by its larger size, 
the more inflated wliorls, and rather more depressed spire. The 
bands or zones of that species are usually lacking, but 1 have 
before me two specimens from the H. Nevill collection which 
show a snbsutural and two supra-peripheral bands, the former 
and one of the latter very distinct for the greater part but dis- 
appearing on the latter half of the last whorl. Many specimens 
from the same collection are transversely streaked, others are 
much paler with brown peristome, some being almost white with 
rosy lip, and one is an albino having a pure white peristome. 

From yl. superhus and A. greviUei it may be separated at once 
by the more globose body-whorl and the less truncated columellar 
plate. 

G4. Acavus snperbus, Pfeiffer. 

Helix snperba, Pfeiffer, Zeitschr. Malak. vii, 1850, p. 71 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 71, fiff. 368; Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., 
Heliceen, iii, 1853, p. 342, pi. 133, tigs. 1,2; Hanley & Theobald, 
Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 127, tig. 4. 

* This work contains two different plates of Helix numbered 5 and two 
numbered 8. 



50 HELICID^. 

Helix xAcnvm) mperha, Pfeiffer, Malali. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 144; 

NeviU, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 80. 
Acavus superbus, Adams, Genera Moll, ii, 1858, p. 195; Pilsbiy, 

Man. Concli. ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 154; Randies, Proc. Malac. Soc. 

London, Yi, 1900, p. 103, pi. 9, figs. 3, 14 (anatomy). 
Heliv {Macroon (Acavus)) superba, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 

1890, p. 81, pi. 16, figs. 3, 4. 

Original description. — " T. imperforata, semigloboso-turbinata, 
solida, irreg-Lilariter malleata et cingulis obtusis parum elevatis 
muaita, baud nitida, opaca, castanea ; spira brevis, conoidea, 
apice obtusiusculo pallida ; sutura luediocris ; anfr. vix 4 rapide 
accrescentes, vix coiivexiusculi, ultimas peripheria subangulatus, 
basi planus, antice desceudeiis ; apertura perobliqua, angusta, 
oblonga, intus coerulescens, uitida ; perist. album, fusco-limbatum, 
late expansLim, incrassato-reflexum, margiuibus subparallelis, 
callo crasso junctis, columellai-i calloso, perdilatato, plauo, 
iutroi-sum dente transverse usque ad marginem dextnim producto, 
mvinito. 

" Diam. maj. 55, miu. 40, alt. 35 mill." {Pfeiffer.) 
Hah. Ceylon {NeviU, Gardener). 

This handsome species may readily be separated from licema- 
stoma, phoenix, fasiosus, and prosperus by the more pronounced 
angulation of the periphery. The back of the body-whorl is 
provided with some obliquely descending malleations, a feature 
lacking in the other species, and the columellar plate is also 
broader in most specimens. In some the lip, which varies from 
light or dark brown to deep rose, is white on the inner edge, 
while I possess two specimens from the H. Nevill collection with 
a pure white lip ; these two shells are, moreover, remarkable in 
not being unicolorous, the earlier whorls and the first two-thirds 
of the last whorl exhibiting dark brown bands on a light ground, 
regre&ented by the formula 2 3(4 5), all these bands becoming 
confluent on the latter portion of the last wliorl. 



Var. grevillei, Pfeiffer. 

Helix qrevillel, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 185G, p. 387, pi. 36, fig. 8; ibid., 

Novit. Conch, ser. 1, i, 1858, p. 108, pi. 30, figs. 6, 7; Hanley & 

Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1875, pi. 127, tig. 7. 
Helix (Acavus) grevilUi Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 172 ; 

Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. SO. 
Helix (Macroon (Acavus)) superba, var. qrevillei, Pilsbrv, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1890, p. 82, pi. 12, figs. 47, 48. 

The peristome, parietal callus, and columellar plate are blackish 
brown in most specimens, but in a shell from the H. Nevill 
collection they are jet-black, the shell itself being greyish-black. 
In other respects this form cannot be separated from typical 
A. superbus. 



ACATUS. 51 

Yar. roseolabiata, Nevill. 
Helix supevha, Ilanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 187o, pi. 127, 

fio-. 4. 
Helix (Acavus) superha, var. roseolabiata, Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, 

Heliv (Macrobn {Acnvus)) superba, var. roseolabiata, Pilsbrv, Man. 
Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1890, p. 8l>, pi. 16, figs. 1, 2. 
Like the last it can only be separated from typical A. superbus 
by the colour of the lip, which varies from pale to a brilliant deep 
rose. 

Go. Acavus waltoni, lieeve. 

Helix mltoni, lieeve, P. Z. S. 1842, p. 49 ; ibid., Conch. System, ii, 

1842, pi. 106, tig. 23. 
Helix loaltoni, Pleifier, Mon. Helic. Yiv. i, 1847, p. 19; Ferussac, 

Hist. Nat. Moll. p. 303, pi. 93, figs. 1,2; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

vii 18o2, pi. 72, fig. 372; Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab.,IIeliceen, ii, 1853, 

p. 267, pi. 121, fig8. 1-3 ; Chenii, Man. Couchyl. i, 1859, p. 453, 

figs. 3383, 3385 ; Fiiruier, Vie & Mceurs des Anim. 1866, p. 385, 

fio-s. 204, 205; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 127, 

fifr. 1 ; Sarasin, Ergebu. Naturw. Forscli. Ceylon, 1, heft 2, 1888 

pp. 35-69, pi. G-8 (embryology). 
Heliv (Ac'tcus) waltoni, Albers, Die Heliceen, 18o0, p. 100 ; Nevill, 

Hand List, i, 1878, p. 81 ; Cooke, Cambr. Nat. Hist, iii, 1895, 

p. 304, tig. 204. 
Oliqospira waltoni, Ancey, Conch. Exch. u, 188/ , p. 22. 
Heliv {Macroon {Acavus)) wultoiii, Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, vi, 

1890, p. 83, pi. 18, figs. 20, 21. ^ 

Acacella waltoni, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, va, 1894, 

p. 288. 
Acavus valtoni, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 154. 
Acavus icaltoni. Handles, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iv, 1900, 

p. 103, pi. 9, tigs. 6 (radula), 10, 15 (anatomy). 

Ori(jinal description :— " Hel. testa ovata, depressa, aufractibus 
ventricosiusciilis, ultimo superne productiore, rubido-fusca, radiis 
loiigitudinalibus obsolete picta ; epidermide tenui, peculiariter 
maculosa, induta : apertura subquadrato-ovali, margiuibus uiger- 
rimis disjuiictis ; labro acutissime reliexo." {lieeve.) 

Major diam. 48-59, minor 32-39 mm., alt. 30-31-5 mm. 

Jlah. Ceylon. 

The hydrophanous patches of the pcriostracum are very 
characteristic of the species and, while being almost obsolete in 
some specimens, form definite patterns in others ; in one specimen 
in my collection they are disposed in spiral bands, in another 
they form obliquely descending patches above and spiral bands 
below the peripliery, while in a third shell they are so crowded 
as practically to cover nearly the whole of the surface. Tlie 
peristome and parietal band "vary from a deep blackish to liglit 
purplish brown. The sculpture also varies considerably ; the 
earlier whorls have the transverse striae cut into granules by 
the incised spirals, a feature which in some shells is equally 
pronounced on the body-whorl, but in others becomes almost 

B 2 



52 heltcim:. 

obsolete ; in some the body-whorl is more or less malleated in 
places, in others it is covered with spiral furrows. 

Yar. polei, Collett. 

Acavus (Oliffosjnra) poleii, Collett, J. Ceylou Br. R. A. S. xv, 1899, 

p. 153, tigs. A, B (shell), C (eog). 
Acavus polei, Kaiidles, Proc. Malac. Soc. LondoD, iv, 1900, p. lOo, 

pi. 9, figs. 7, 11, 16 (anatomy). 

Eab. Ceylon : Udagania (Pole). 

The only character differentiating this form from A. waIto7ii 
appears to be the white peristome and parietal callus. Some 
anatomical differences are indicated by Mr. Eandles, but I doubt 
tiiese being of sufficient diagnostic value. 

66. Acavus skinneri, Beeve. 

Helix skinneri, Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 18."34, pi. 197, fig. 1387 ; 




pi. 12, fig. 7 (anatomy), pi. 1*3, fig. o (radula). 
Helix (Acavus) skinneri, Pfeiffer. Malak. Bhttt. ii, 1856, p. 144 ; 

Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 81. 
Acavus skinneri, Frauenfeld, Verli. K.-K. zool.-bot. Ges. xix, 1869, 
p. 876; Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 154, pi. 50, 
figs. 1, 8, 26 (anatomv, etc.) ; Randies, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
iv, 1900, p. 103, pi. 9, fig. 5 (anatomy). 
Oliqospirn skinneri, Ancey, Conch. Exch. ii, 1887, p. 22. 
Helix {Macrolin {Acavus)), Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1890, 

p. 84, pi. 18, figs. 17-19. 
Acavella skinneri, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vu, 1894, 
p. 288. 
Original clescnjition : — " Shell subglobosely depressed, thick, 
solid, very obliquely produced towards the aperture, everywhere 
minutely granulated, spirally broadly superficially grooved, livid 
chestnut, spirally freckled with a fulvous epidermis, disposed in 
hieroglyphic spots ; spire short, rose-colour beneath, small ; 
suture impressed ; whorls three to four, last whorl very much 
the largest ; aperture subquadrately oblong, lip externally broadly 
thickened, interiorly densely callous, continuous over the bodv- 
whorl, eA-erywhere deep purple-violet." (Reeve.) 

Major diam. 31-38, min. 22-26 mm. ; alt. 17-22 mm. 
Hah. Ceylon (Skinner) ; Upper Ouavah (Layard). 
The species is characterized by the callous growth on the 
outside of the peristome, evidently formed by the accumulation 
of the reflexed portion of the lip. In a specimen in my collection 
this growth measures 8 mm. in width. The numerous spiral 
ridf^es on the body-whorl appear to be a constant character. The 
earlier whorls have the same decussating incised spirals as in 
A. tvaltoni, but the body-whorl is very finely and regularly 
granulated, the granules being arranged in quincunx. 



GORILLA. 



53 



Subfamily CORILLIN.E. 

Genus CORILLA, Adams. 

Gorilla, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, p. 208 ; Semper, Eeisen 
Arch. Pbilippinen, Wiss. Res. 2, iii, 1870, p. 100 (anatomy) ; 
Pilsbry, Man. Couch., ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 147 (anatomy) ; Gude, 
Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, pp. 88, 126 (armature); Pilsbry, 
Proc. Mai. Soc. London, vi, 1905, p. 288 (anatomy) ; Godwin - 
Austen, Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 199 (anatomy). 

Atopa, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 90 (in part). 

" Shell i^lanorhoid, wiili nearly plane spire and hroadhj open 
umbilicus, the contour subcircular or oblong ; rather solid, striated 
above, brown or yellow. Whorls 5-5|, the last deflected in front. 
Aperture oblique, tlie Up hroadhj reflexed or recurved, its ends 
distant ; parietal wall smooth or armed with a strong entering 
lamella, luterior of the last wborl either without laminae or 
obstructed by a series of blades nearh/ parallel to the direction of 
the whorls, hut having no transverse harriers. 

" Toot (of C. erronea) with undivided sole and without pedal 
grooves. No mantle lappets. Kidney very short. 

" Jaw entirely smooth. Radula with about 79-85 teetb in a 
transverse row. Central tooth not smaller than the laterals, 
having a single cusp, shorter than the basal plate. Laterals 
similar but asymmetrical. Marginals having a large, simple, 
oblique cusp longer than the square basal plate. 

"Genital system elongated, with no accessory organs on the 
female side. Spermatheca having a long duct, which branches 
into a very long Jiacjellum-like diverticidum, containing a cylindrical 
spermatophore,\vhich extended from the end of the diverticulum 
to the vagina. Penis short, swollen distally, continued in the 
vas deferens upon which the penis retractor is situated, the distal 
end of the retractor being inserted, on the uterus. This species 
[C. erronea'] is ovoviviparous, the uterus in the individual figured 
containing two young, having a membranous shell of about 
5 mill, diam., and more than 3 whorls. 

" The shell differs from that of Plectopylis in lacking internal 
barriers transversely obstructing the passage. AVhen internal 
lamellse are present in Corilla they run parallel to the sutures or 
nearly so, as in Pohjggratia. The central teeth are not smaller 
than the laterals as in 'Plectopglis, and there are further diflferences 
in the genitalia." (Pilsbry.) 

TiPE, Helix erronea, Albers. 

Range. Ceylon ; Southern India (1 species). 

When examining the soft parts of Corilla humberti in 1905, Prof. 
Pilsbry found that the additional data obtained threw no light upon 
the affinities of the groups with other Helicidse. He further states 
that the suspicion he formerly entertained that Corilla might be 
related to the Macroiigona is negatived by the knowledge we now 



54 HELIClD.i:. 

have of the lungs of both groups ; and that we do not yet know 
enough of the anatomy of Plectopylis, Stegodera, or TrmimatopJiom, 
to demonstrate any relationship between them and CoriJIa, though 
it is natural to suppose that these genera stand together. The 
genus, so far as we now know, stands by itself, lie says, and for 
it alone a subfamily Corillinse must be erected, which for the 
present might be placed next to the Cama^ninge. 

Lt.-Col. God win- Austen, on the other hand, considers that the 
generative organs in Gorilla are remarkably similar to those of 
Fleciojpylis, while another striking character common to both 
genera is found in the liver. 

Albers in 1850 established the genus Atopa for the reception of 
three species previously classed in Heliv, i. e. acJiaiina, Gray, 
refur/a, Gould, and rivolii, Desh. The name being preoccupied in 
Coleoptera (Fabricius, in Paykull, Faun. Suec. ii, 1799, p, 116). 
H. and A. Adams in 1855 proposed Gorilla in lieu, adding a fourth 
species, erronea, Alb. No type was indicated, but the first of the 
species enumerated being acJiatina, the name Gorilla would, under 
a strict application of the law of prioi'ity, have to be assigned to 
Helicc achatina and its allies, while Plectopylis would become a 
synonym. No useful purpose, however, would be served by such 
a process ; on the contrary, much confusion would arise, and it 
therefore appears advisable to accept the status of these two 
genera as defined by Benson and Pilsbry. 

The genus Gorilla is especially remarkable from the fact that 

the immature shells are provided with barriers which invariably 

differ from those found in full-grown ones. The parietal folds 

are not formed until the sliell approaches completion, while the 

palatal lamellae of immature shells are always much larger, being 

almost triangular, overlapping, and reaching nearly to the ])arietal 

wall. From what we know of the retention of ancestral characters 

in young individuals, as explained by Darwin (' Origin of Species,' 

sixth edition, p. 388), it may, I think, safely be assumed that the 

immature form of barriers found in the young shells represents 

the form of lamelljB which were possessed by the prog(mitors 

from which the existing armed members of the genus have sprung. 

Consequently, those species A\hich have to some extent retained 

such characters in the adult stage (i. e. Gorilla anax and 

G. heddomece) are the older forms ; while those species Avhich 

have diverged most in the adult state (?". e. the group of C erronea) 

are of more recent origin. A singular fact in this connection is 

that whereas in the adult state G. adamsi possesses no armature, 

immature shells are provided \\\t\\ five palatal lamella?, the same 

as obtains in the other members of the genus. When publishing 

my observations on the armature of the various species of Gorilla 

in 1896 I was ignorant of this fact and I am not aware that this 

has e^er been pointed out. Among a number of shells in various 

stages of growth, sent to me by the late O. Collett, were several 

young specimens of G. adamsi, and upon opening these I 

discovered that they were furnished with palatal lamella? similar 



GORILLA. 55 

in shape and size to those previously observed in the other 
species. One specimen having completed nearlj' three whorls 
was ]n-ovided with these barriers at the beginning of the third 
(post-embryonic) whorl. The natural inference is therefore that 
these lamellae are formed almost immediately after the young 
animal is born. 

That structures of this nature serve as a means of defence 
against the attacks of carnivorous insects and similar creatures 
was suggested as long ago as 1829 by Guilding, who, in speaking 
of the teeth and lamin® of the Pupidse, observed that " they may 
answer the purpose of an operculum to keep out enemies, while 
they afford no obstacle to the motions of the soft and yielding 
body of the animal " (Zool. Joui-n. iv, 1829, p. 168, footnote). 
Of much interest in this connection is a note by Lt.-Col. Godwin- 
Austin, who, in a paper on tlie genus P/ectopj/lis, states that 
" when breaking up a number of shells to expose the barriers and 
ascertain if their characters were constant, I was greatly interested 
to find in two instances the presence of small insects that had 
become fixed between the teeth." He further remarks that those 
shells posssessing such bars to the predatory visits of insects, such 
as cei'tain kinds of beetles, ants, or even leeches, all of which 
swarm in the forests where the shells are found, would have the 
best chance of surviving (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 611). 

A careful examination of a number of immature shells, moreover, 
has revealed the fact that a new set of prjatal lamellae is formed 
on the completion of each half of a whorl, after which the 
previous set is absorbed by the animal. I have observed several 
specimens which contained two sets of barriers at a distance of 
half a whoi'l ; in some cases the older set had almost vanished, 
only the foundations of the lamellae being visible from the outside 
through the shell-wall. 

The fact that C. adamsi upon reaching maturity dispenses with 
armature gives some scope for speculation. Without being 
acquainted with the local conditions it is of course im])ossible to 
solve the problem, but it may be surmised that the absence of 
predatory insects may have produced this result and that the 
formation of barriers in the immature shells is simply tue survival 
of an ancestral character. 

Key to the Sf)ecies. 

A. Mature shell icitlumt internal folds. 

a. Shell larger, diameter 29 mm adamsi. 

b. Shell smaller, diameter 22 mm v. hinidunensis. 

B. Shell tvith internal folds. 

a. Palatal folds oblique. 

a. Two parietal folds beddomece. 

/3. Three parietal folds anax. 

b. Palatal folds horizontal. 

a. One parietal fold humbcrii. 

!3. Two parietal folds odontuphora. 



56 HELICID.5;. 

y. Three parietal folds. 

*. Shell elliptic, palatal folds short, second 
scarcely curved. 
t. Lip much reflected. 

§. Two upper palatal folds terminating 

near the peristome eolletti. 

§§. Palatal folds terminating further 

back carahinata. 

tt. Lip little reflected. 

§. Shell strongly and regularly ribbed. . gudei. 
§§. Shell more faintly and irregularly 
ribbed. 

1. Third palatal fold almost hori- 

zontal erronea. 

2. Folds very short, nearer aperture, 

third palatal fold very oblique,^ 

ascending v. erronella. 

**. Shell rounded, palatal folds longer, 

second much curved fi'y^f- 

67. Gorilla adamsi, nom. mut. 

Helix charpentieri, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1853, p. 127 (non Helix char- 

j)entieri, Scholtz, Schlesien's Laud- und Wasser-Moll. 1843, p. i'8) ; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 18o4, pi. 185, fig. 1285 ; Hanlev & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 14, flg. 1 ; Brot, Journ. Conchyl. 

xii, 1864, p. 22, pi. 2, flg. 11. 
Corilhi charpentieri, Frauenfeld, Verb. K.-K. zool.-bot. Ges. xix, 

18C9, p. 876 ; Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 88, 

fig. 1. 
Helix {Corilhi) c/mrpentieri, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70. 
Helix (Atopa) charpentieri, Trvon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, 

p. 156, pi. 33, figs. 9, 10. 

Original description : — " Testa umbilicata, discoidea, solidula, 
oblique costato-striata, parum nitida, virenti-cornea ; spira regu- 
lari, plana ; anfractibus 5^, lente accrescentibiis, raodice convexis, 




Fig. \2.— Conlla adaimi. 

ultimo rotundato, antice profunde descendente ; umbilico lato, 
conico, subirregulari ; apertura fere borizoiitali, rotundato-lunari, 
intus albida, prorsus edentiila ; peristomate albo, undique late 
expanse et reflexo, marginibus convergentibus, infero ad inser- 
tionem attenuato." (Pfeiffer.) 

Diam. maj. 27^, mia. 22, alt. 9 mill. 

Hah. Ceylon (Laijard, Collett); Nanu Oya jungle (Preston). 

Among all the known species of Corilla the pi'esent one is 



CORILLA. 57 

unique as being devoid of banners in the mature shell. "When 
publishing my series of articles on the Armature of Helicoid 
Land-sliells in Science Gossip, n. s. vol. iii, 1896, et seq. I simply 
recorded that Corilla charpentieri [C. adamsi^ was devoid of 
armature (torn. cit. p. 88). I was not then aware of the remark- 
able fact that this statement only applies to full-grown shells and 
that at earlier stages the species is furnished with palatal laminae 
similar to those found in immature shells of the other species of 
Corilla, except that they are less oblique and consequently less 
overlapping. Among a number of shells I received in 1896 from 
the late O. Oollett and subsequently from Mr. H. B. Preston, 
Avere several specimens of Corilla adamsi in various stages of 
growth, and upon opening some of the latter I was astonished to 
discover the palatal barriers. These occurred in specimens which 
had only four whorls, others possessed them where 4^ whorls had 
been completed, while some had two sets of barriers, in one of 
Avhich the earlier set had been partly absorbed. 

Apart from the absence of barriers in mature shells. Gorilla 
adamsi is readily distinguished from all its congeners by its more 
rounded outline, its higher axis, the regular and coarser ribs. In 
colour it varies from pale corneous to dark chestnut. 

Owing to the fact that Helix charpentieri of Scholtz (1843) 
antedates Pfeiffer's name (1853) I have been reluctantly compelled 
to change the latter. I have associated with the species the 
name of the brothers Adams who proposed the name Corilla. 

A'ar. hinidunensis, Nevill. 

Corilla hitiidunensis, Nevill, Enum. Ilelic. Pneum. Ceylon, 1871, 

P- 1- 
Corilla charpentieri, var. hinidunensis, Pilsbrv, Man. Concli. ser. 2, 

ix, 1894, p. 148, pi. 41, tigs. 23-25 5 ^ude, Science Gossip, n. s. 

iii, 1896, p. 127, tig. 15. 




Fig. 13. — Corilla adamsi, var. hinkhmcnsis. 

The late Col. Beddome favoured me with the loan of a specimen 
received from Nevill, for the purpose of illustration. This speci- 
men is here reproduced. It measures 22 millim. in diameter. 

68. Corilla beddomese, Hanley. 

Helix (PleGto2)i/lis) beddomecs, Ilanley, Conch. Ind. 1875, p. 60 (no 

description), pi. 150, figs. 1, 2. 
Plectopylis beddomei, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, sev. 2, ix, Index, 1895, 

p. 121. 
Corilla beddomcce, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 127, 

fios. 1.3, 14. 



58 



HELICID.li. 



Shell widely umbilicated, rotundate, discoid, somewhat thin, 
dark chestnut or blackish brown, irregularly costate, on the last 
whorl the costsc are iuterraingled here and there with obliquely 
descending wrinkles, dull above, shining below. Spire plane, 
suture a little impressed. Whorls 5i-6, flattened above, tumid 
below, bluntly carinated above the periphery, a few traces of 
spiral sculpture on the lower surface; the last dilated towards 
the mouth, shortly and abruptly descending in front. Aperture 
oblique, almost subhorizontal, elliptic-ovate ; peristome livid, 
thickened and reflected, upper margin nearly straight, outer 
curved, lower straight with a subquadrate callus, columellar very 
short, obliquely ascending ; a slight ridge on the parietal callus 
connecting the margins of the peristome and giving off a long, 
sinuous, entering fold, ascending at first, the posterior extremity 
descending, below this occurs a shorter, free, flexuous, horizontal 
fold. Palatal folds 4, the first (upper) slightly ascending towards 
the aperture, and considerably attenuated anteriorly, the second 





Fig. 14. — Cor ilia heddvmccB (type). 



Fig. 15. — Corilla heddomece, 
small variety. 



and third shorter, more elevated and more oblique, the fourth 
subparallel with the lo^\er suture. 

Major diam. 17'5-20, minor 14-16, alt. 6-6-5 mm. 
Hah. Ceylon ; Haycock Mountain (Beddome) ; Ambegamuwa, 
AVatawala, Newara Eliya (Collett). 

This shell was formerly extremely rare in collections, but the 
late O. Collett sent considerable numbers of it to England. 
Prof. Pilsbry, in referring the species to Plectopylis, was probably 
guided by its external characters. The absence of vertical or 
transverse barriers on the parietal \\all, however, amply warrants 
its inclusion in Corilla. It differs in appearance from the other 
species, being wrinkled, thinner in texture, and much flattened 
above, iig. 14 shows the type in the late Col. Beddome's col- 
lection. It measures 20 mm. in diameter. A small variety, from 
"Watawala, in Mr. Ponsonby's collection, is shown in fig. 15. It 
is less coarsely \vrinkied than the type, and is also paler and 
smaller, measuring only 16 mm. in diameter. Fig. 15 e, which 



GORILLA. 



59 



represents the shell with the outer wall removed, discloses the 
fact that only two parietal folds are present, corresponding to 
the median and lower folds of the species possessing three folds ; 
both are visible from the aperture (see fig. 15 b). The median 
fold reaches to the parietal callus, and is long and irregularly 
flexuons, while the lower fold is very short. Of the four palatal 
lamella;, the first and second only are visible from the aperture. 
The first, second, and third are broad, and ascend obliquely 
parallel to each other, while the fourth is smaller, narrower, and 
revolves horizontally, parallel with the lower suture. Pig. ]5« 
shows all six barriers from behind their inner terminations. 

69, Gorilla anax, Benson. 

Helix ana.v, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, xv, 1865, p. 12; Hanley & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 57, figs. 1-3. 
JIeli.v (Corilin) anax, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70. 
Helix {Atopa) ^rm.r, Tryon, Man. Couch, ser, 2, iii, 1887, p. 157, 

pi. 33, figs. 16-18. 
Corilla anax, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 148 ; Gude, 

Science Gossip, n.'s. iii, 1896, p. 126, fig. 12 (shell and armature). 

Original descriiition. — " H. testa late umbilicata, subovato 
discoidea, utrinque concava, solidula, superue oblique costulato- 
striata, subtus striata, nitidiuscula, fusco-castanea, subtus Isetiore ; 
spira immersa, apice elevatiuscula, sutura subprofunda; anfracti- 
bus 5, primis eouvexiuscnlis, ultimo convexo, antice descendente, 
dilatato, deflexo, ad diametrum minorem angustiore ; apertura 
perobliqua, rotundato-oblonga, lamellis 2, parietalibus, albis, 
superiore longe intrante, sinuata,inferiore obliqua sinuata,breviore, 
ab apertura remotiuscula, palatalibus 3, longiusculis, subprofundis 
obliquis parallelis ab apertura conspicuis extus perlucentibus 
coarctata ; peristomate cseruleo-albido, subcallosa, breviter reflexi- 
usculo, marginibus callo albido junctis, inferiore subdentato- 
incrassata. 

"Diam. maj. 23, min. 17^, axis 8 mill., apertura lata vix 10, 
longa 9 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Travancore ; Anaraullay Hills (Bcddome). 

This is the only species of Corilla known to occur outside 
Ceylon, being found in the southern part of India. It is of a 
dark chocolate colour, and possesses three parietal and four 
palatal plates. Fig. 1 6 a shows the entire sliell, four of the plates — 
two parietal and two palatal— being visible from the aperture. 
The parietal plates are much broader than in the other species, the 
first curves upwards, while the second reaches as far as the parietal 
callus ; but, unlike those of the other species, they are separate. 
The third parietal plate is almost horizontal, with but a slight curve, 
as will be seen on reference to fig. 16 c, the specimen being there 
figured with the outer wall removed. Fig. 16 cZ shows the same 
shell with part of the outer wall broken away, and the plates are 
shown as they appear from behind their inner terminations. The 



60 HELICIDiE. 

palatal plates also are seen to be much broader than in tlie other 
species, and the three upper ones are much more oblique, re- 
sembling in this respect the immature plates found by me in three 
of the other species. In fig. 16 e a portion of the last whorl is 
drawn, in which the palatal plates nos. 1, 2, and 3 are shown as 
they appear through the shell, while fig. 16 6 shows the entire 
shell from below with palatal plates nos. 3 and 4 shining through. 
The late Col. Beddome lent me several adult examples of this 
species for examiuation, one of which is of interest from the fact 
that it exhibits, in addition to the mature armature, immature 
plates which are identical in form and position with those I found 
in an adult shell of Corilla odontophora. With these adult 
examples was an immature shell with three whorls completed, 





Fig. IG. — Ccrtlla ana.r. 

which is specially noteworthy in that it possesses two sets of 
immature plates, one near the end of the third whorl, aud the 
other a little beyond the place where 2?,- whorls have been 
completed. It may therefore safely be inferred that the plates 
are not absorbed till after completion of the new ones, and it will 
be remembered that this is not an isolated case, for two sets of 
plates have been observed by me in a full-grown specimen of 
Corilla odontopliora, and Col. Beddome lent me a shell of this 
last-named species, identical in this respect. He informed me 
that he collected his specimens of Corilla anax in the Anamullay 
Hills, in the Coimbatore District of South India, in moist woods, 
at ^000 feet elevation, where it was very abundant on and under 
dead logs. 

The specimen shown in fig. 16 is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection. 

70. Corilla gudei, Sylces. 

Corilla gudei, Sykes, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, ii, 1897, p. 234, 
pi. 16, figs. 8-10 ; Godwin-Au.5ten, Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 199, 
pi. 114, fig. 3 (anatomy). 

Original description : — " Size and shape similar to those of 



COEILLA. 61 

C. erronea ; the last whorl, however, more descending and more 
contracted at the spot where the lamellae show most conspicuously 
through the shell. Sculpture nearly as strongly marked on the 
lower as on the upper surface ; C. gudci differin,^ thereby from 
all other known Ceylon forms akin to it and recalling the Indian 
C. ancLV. Outer lip slightly more refiexed than in C\ erronea ; the 
mouth not so drawn out and slightly more rounded. Palatal and 
parietal lamelite the same in number as in C. erronea, but somewhat 
shorter ; differing also in situation by being more nearly parallel, 
especially (counting from above) the second and third palatal 
ones. Umbilical area more impi'essed in the present species. 
Colour a little lighter than in C. erronea ; a few specimens have a 
rosy tint. 

" Long. 23-22, lat. 16-17, alt. 7-6-5 mm." (S>/l-es.) 

Hah. Ceylon : Karunegala (Collett). 

"As compared with C. anacc, the present species differs in 
having one whorl more, the whorls being more flattened above, 
the lip more reflected, and the last whorl not so inflated or 
pi'oduced." (Syl-es.) 

In addition to the differentiating features referred to by 
Mr. Sykes, C. r/iidei, in spite of the fact that it possesses nearly a 
whole whorl more than C. anax, is about 5 mm. shorter in 
its major diameter, the ribs are a little coarser and more widely 
spaced, and the mouth is much less dilated transversely. The 
second and third palatal lamellie, moreover, are much less oblique 
and nearer the aperture. 

A number of immature shells of various sizes, received from 
the late 0. Collett, possess the immature barriers, similar to those 
observed by me in all the other species of Corilla. One specimen 
has nearly three whorls completed and is provided with the usual 
five palatal lamellte about one-quarter of a whorl beyond the post- 
embryonic whorl. 

71. Corilla humberti, Brot. 

Helix humberti, Brot, Journ. Conelivl. xii, 1864, p. 21, pi. 2, fi<>s. 5, 
6 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch, liad. 1876, pi. 159, tig. 9. 

Helix (Corilla) htimberti, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70. 

Helix (Atopa) humberti, Tryou, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 156, 
pi. 33, figs. 22, 23. 

Corilla humberti, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 148 ; 
Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iii, 1896, p. 92, fig. 11 (shell and 
armature) ; Pilsbrv, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vi, 1905, p. 288, 
lA. 13, figs. 1-3, pi. 14, figs. 10-12 (anatomy). 

Original description : — " T. late et profunde umbilicata, dis- 
coidea, subirregularis, solidula, superne costulato-striata, subtus 
vix striatula, nitida, unicolor olivaceo-fusca ; spira plana. Anfr. 5 
vix convexiusculi, ultimus antice descendens. Apertura obliqua, 
obtuse cordata, lamella una parietali, central!, valida, sinuata et 
palatali una profunda, brevi (extus baud conspicua) coarctata. 



62 HELICID.I. 

Peristoma dilute olivaceo-fuscum, eallosiim, brevissime reflexum ; 
marginibus callo elevato junctis, supero siibdentato, infero dente 
quadrato munito. 

" Diam. raaj. 25, min. 20, alt. 9 mill." {Brot.) 

Hah. Ceylon {Humbert, Collett) ; Newara Eliya and Watawala 
(Preston). . . 

Differs from all other species of Corilla, except cliarpentieri 
and beddomece, in being more rounded in outline. From the former 
it is easily distinguished by its smaller size and in being a trifle 
more excentrie, while from the latter it may readily be separated 
bv the rounded whorls. In colour it varies from blackish brown 
to olivaceous corneous. J^evill * threw some doubt on the cor- 
rectness of Brot's figure of the species. When studying these 




Fig. 17. — Corilla humhcrti. 

shells in 1896, I applied to Dr. Brot for the loan of his type and 
he was good enough to comply with my request. I was thereby 
enabled to confirm Benson's conjecture that the origiual figure 
was slightly misleading, as the basal palatal fold appeared to be 
-joined to the suture, owing to the position in which the shell had 
been placed, but on tilting it from the left side, the fold was found 
to be quite unconnected with the suture, and 1 was therefore in a 
position to give a more correct figure, which is now reproduced. 
This fold corresponds with the fourth in the other species, while 
the parietal fold corresponds with the second of the others. An 
examination of several specimens received subsequently from the 
late O. Collett and from Mr. Preston, has, ho\ve\er, revealed the 
fact that the palatal fold is by no means a constant feature, for 
these specimens, without exception, are devoid of all palatal folds. 
A few' exhibit traces (visible from witliout) of an immature set of 
oblique folds on the penultimate whorl, but the folds themselves 
have been absorbed. 

72. Corilla odontophora, Benson. 

Heliv {Corilla) odontophora, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser, 3, xv, 
1865, p. 175; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70. 

Helix odontophora, Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 57, 
fios. 4-6. 



* A. M. N. H. ser. 7, xvi, 1865, p. 175. 



GORILLA. 



63 



Helix (Aiopa) odontophora, Tryon, Man. Couch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, 

p. 157, pi. 33, ligs. 24-26. 
Corilla odontophora, Pilsbiy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 148 ; 

Glide, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 91, tig. 10 (shell and 

armature). 

Original description : — " H. testa late umbilieata, rotundato- vel 
ovato-discoidea, solidula, castanea vel rufescenti-lutea, supenie 
subplanulata, oblique tenuiter costulato-striata, subtiis valde 
coucava, striata, uitida ; spira planiuscula, versus apicem obtusum 
elevatiore, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 4, primis convexiusculis, 
ultimo antice convexiore, tuni desceudeute, dilatato-deflexo, subtiis 
valde inflato ; apertura perobliqua, obtuse subcordata, lamellis 2 
parietalibus (superiore louge iutrante curvata, inferiore sub- 
parallela, breviore, subcurvata, ab apertura remotiuscula), pala- 
talibus 4 brevibus semiluuaribus vel sinuatis (omnibus integris ab 
apertura conspicuis, extus perlucentibus) coarctata ; peristomate 
purpurascenti-albido vel castaneo, calloso, bi'eviter reflexo, margi- 
nibus superiore et inferiore subdentato-incrassatis. 

" Diam. maj. 22-26, min. 17-19, alt. 7-8 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Ceylou : Port McDonald {Layard) ; Uda PussellaAva 
(Preston). 

The figure given of C. edontopJiora in Couch. Ind. pi. 57, fig. 4, 
and copied in Tryou's work, pi. 33, fig. 24, is somewhat misleading, 
as it evidently represents an immature specimen, although no 
reference is made to this fact. The figures now reproduced 
illustrate a specimen in Mr. Ponsouby's collection. On reference 
to fig. 18 b it will be seen that only two parietal folds are 





Fig. 18. — Corilla odontophora. 



present. Fig. 18 c exhibits the barriers as seen from behind their 
inner terminations, and it will be observed that there are four 
palatal folds, the upper three (visible through the shell-wall) are 
shown in figs. 18 (? and 18^, while fig. 18 a exhibits the under- 
side of the shell with the third and fourth folds showing through. 
They are much shorter and less flexuous than in either C. erronea 
or C. frijce and, as stated by Benson, are entirely visible from the 
aperture. Another point to be noted is that the outer termin- 
ations {i. e. nearest the aperture) of the upper three palatal folds 



64 



HELICIDJB. 



form an oblique line ])arallel with the peristome, the first one 
being nearest the aperture, whereas in C. trronea^u^ C. frijcBihex 
form a semi-circle, the second fold being nearest the aperture. 
The shell of C. odontophora is more regularly and less coarsely 
ribbed than that of C. erronea, and is larger, although composed 
of only from 4 to 4^ whorls, while the other two species possess 
5 whorls. It further differs from C. erronea in that the last whorl 
is moi'e deflected in front, more tumid, aud then suddenly con- 
tracted behind the jieristome, more resembling C. frj/ce in these 
respects, as also in the presence of a quadrate tooth on the basal 
margin of the peristome. This specimen, moreover, although 
adult, exhibits the immature form of palatal folds (see fig. 18 «) 
immediately behind the callus of tiie mouth ; the folds themselves, 
however, have already been absorbed. 

73. Gorilla fryae, Gnde. 

Gorilla fryce, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 89, figs. 2, 
4, 5, b. 

Original description : — " Testa late umbilicata, ovato-rotundata, 
discoidea, solidula, rufo-castanea, planulata, oblique costulata, 
subtus valde concava, striata, pernitida ; spira plana, sutura vix 
impressa. Anfr. 5, \'\x convexiusculi, inter suturam et peri- 
pheriam valde angulati, ultimus subtus ornatur striis spiralibus 
quae secundum latus lineis vel rugis impressis obliquis decussantur ; 
antice convexior, valde dilatatus, profunde descendens. Apertura 
obliqua, obtuse subcordata, lamellis 3 parietales (media elongata, 
validaque, laterales minores, profundaeque). 4 palatales flexuosa?, 
longuloe, perlucentes, 3 ab apertura visibiles. Peristoma exalbido 
purpurescens, vel rufo-castaneus, callosum valde reflexum, margo 
superior sub-dentate crassior, inferior dente valido atquae 
quadrato arniatur. 

" Diam. maj. 26, min. 20, alt. 8 nmi." {Gude.) 
Hah. Ceylon : Albion Estate, Lindula Districts {Mrs. Fry) ; 
Ambegamuwa {CoUett). 




Y\S. 12.— Corillafri,(P. 



CorUla fryoi differs from C. erronea in being more rounded in 
outhne, larger, darker in colour and more shining beneath, the 
ribs are more regular and less coarse ; the whorls are less convex, 
almost flattened and distinctly angulated, almost keeled, midway 
between the suture and the periphery, while the suture is less 



GORILLA. 65 

impressed ; the last whorl is more constricted, and suddenly 
widens towards the a]ierture, becoming again constricted behind 
the peristome, and it is more deeply deflected iu front ; the mouth 
is much less oblique, the palatal folds are longer and more 
flexuous, and the tooth on the basal edge of the peristome is 
longer and more quadrate ; in this latter respect, as well as in 
contour and shape, it more resembles C. odoniophora. [Fig. 20 h 
shows the barriers from behind, a piece of the shell-wall having 
been broken away.] A reference to fig. 20 a, which exhibits the 
parietal folds, will explain why the upper fold is invisible from 
the aperture, being hidden by the median fold with which it unites 
about the middle. Figs. 19 6 and 19 c show that the palatal folds 
are distinctly visible through the shell-wall. The specimens de- 
lineated in figs. 19, 20, and 21 are all mature and being composed 
of five whorls, it follows that the barriers are placed near the end 
of the fifth whorl. In fig. 20 c the second palatal fold is shown 
by itself, the upper convex line indicating its attachment to the 
siiell-w^all. 





a b c 

Fig. 20. — CoriUafrijfP. 

An im.raature specimen was found to contain five palatal plates 
in the fourth whorl, the upper four being much broader and more 
elevated than those in mature shells, reaching nearly to tlie inner 
wall ; they overlap, being placed close together, slanting obhquely 




Fig. L'l. — Corilla fri/ce, immature, X -• 

upwards, but scarcely curving ; the fifth (lowest) is very short 
and narrow and corresponds in position to the fourth fold in the 
full-grown shells. Fig. 21 shows the four upper plates as seen 
through the shell-wall. A still younger shell received from the 
late Mr. Collett possessed a set of these immature barriers at the 
beginning of the third whorl, a short distance from the nepionic 
part of the shell, demonstrating that the animal begins to form 
these structures almost directly after being hatched. 



60 



IIELICID.E. 



74. Gorilla erronea, Alhers. 

Helix rivoli, Pfeiffer (uoii Desliayes), Mou. Ilelie. Vi v. i, 1S48, p. 407; 
Keeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 78, tig. 413 ; Pfeifter, Coiich.- 
Cab., Heliceeii, ii, 1852, p. 238, pi. 112, fiirs. 16-19; iii, 1853, 
pi. 160, iigs. 8-11, 14, 15. 

Helix erronea. Albers, Zeits. ^lalak. x, 1853, p. 107 ; Kobelt, 
Illust. Concli. Buch, 1879, pi. (58, fig. 37; Brot, Journ. Conchyl. 
xii, 1864, pi. 2, figs. 7-9. 

Anchistoniu (Corilla) erroneum, Adams, Gen. llec. Moll, ii, 1855, 
p. 208. 

Corilla erronea, Frauenfeld, Verb. K. K. zool.-bot. Ges. xix, 1869, 
p. 876 ; Semper, Reisen Arch. Philippinen, Wiss. Res. 2, iii, 
1870, p. 100, pi. 12, fig. 18, pi. 16, fig. 4 (anatomy); Pilsbry, 
Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 148, pi. 41, fig. 19 (armature), 
pi. 42, figs. 37, 38 (anatomy) ; Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iii, 
1896, p. 89, fig. 3, p. 90, fig. 7 (shell and armature). 

Helix (Corilla) erronea, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70. 

Helix (Atopa) erronea, Try on, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 157, 
pi. 33, figs. 19-21. 

Orujinal description : — " Testa latissime umbilicata, oblongo- 
discoidea, superne plana, irregulariter costulato-striata, f iisca, basi 
lajvigata, fusco-olivacea, nitidissima ; anfractus 5, ultimus in 
latere testce sinistro aiigustatus, autice dilatatus, paululum des- 
cendens; apertura obliqua, obtuse obcordata, iutus margaritacea, 
4-]amellata ; laraellis tribus in pariete aperturali, media valida, 
promiuens, laterales breviores, profundae, lamella palatalis singula 
pi'ofunda. interstitio inter lamellam ventralemmediam et sinistraui 
opposita ; peristoma callosum, breviter reflexum, marginibus callo 
medioeri cum lamina ventrali media confluente, junctis, basali 
callo oblongo, dentiformi incrassato. 

"Diaro. maj. 15, min. 18, alt. 7 millim." (Alhers.) 
Hah. Ceylon : Xewara-Eliya (Nevill, Blanfonl). 

a b 





Fig. 22. — Corilla frya. 




Fig. 23. — Cm-illa erronea 



CORILLA. 67 

The palatal plates al'e disposed in much the same manner as in 
C. fryce, but they are shorter and less curved (see fig. 23 (?), 
which shows a portion of the iinier side of the outer wall with the 
palatal plates in situ. The parietal folds are almost identical in 
shape and position with those in fri/oi (see fig. '2'de) but they are 
shorter and the union of the first and second (upper and median) 
folds is not so complete. The specimen shown in fig. 2'de is of 
interest on account of a small adventitious denticle between the 
second and third folds. 

Var. erronella, Gude. 

Corilla erronea, var. erronella, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 
1896, p. 127, tig. 16. 

Mucli smaller and thinner tlian C. crronea, and the palatal 
laniellaj nuich shorter and placed much nearer the mouth of the 
shell. The outer terminations of the parietal folds and the whole 
of the thin upper palatal lamellae are visible from the aperture 
(see fig. 24 a). The third palatal lamella, which in (J. erronea is 




Fig. 24. — Corilla erronea. Tar. erronella. 

nearly horizontal, is here strongly oblique and ascending, while the 
fourth readies nearly to the jjeristome (see fig. 24 c). Known 
from a unique specimen in the late Col. Beddoine's collection. 
He received it with the MS. name C, erroneUa, Nevill. 

75. Corilla carahinata, Ferussac. 

Helicodouta carahinata, Ferussac, Tabl. Syst. Lima§ous, 1821, p. G8, 

n. 109. 
Helix carahinata, Ferussac, Plist. Nat. Moll., Expl. Planches, 1822, 




pi. 12, fig. 8. 

Tfeli.c rivolii, Deshayes, Encycl. Metli., Vers, ii, 18.']0, p. 208; ibid. ' 
in Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll, i, 1839, p. 7 ; Pfeifter, Couch.-Cab., 
rieliceen, iii, 1853, p. 489, pi. 160, tigs. 12, 13 ; Peeve, Conch. 
Icon, vii, 18.j4, pi. IS-j, tig. 1284; Chenu, Encycl. Hist. Nat., 
Moll. 18o8, p. 133, figs. 7-9; Brot, Journ. Couchvl. xii, 1864, 
pi. 2, tig. 10 ; Hauley & Theobald, Conch. lud. 1870^ pi. 14, fig. 2. 

Helix (Atopa) rovolii, err. typ., Albers, Die lleliceen, 18.50, p. 90. 

Anchistmna {Atopa~) rivolii, Chenu, Man. Conchyl. i, 1860, p. 463, 
figs. 3452-54. 

Helix {Corilla) rivolii, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70. 

r2 



68 



HBLICID.'E. 



Corilla rivolii, Frauenfeld, Verb. K. K. zool.-bot. Ges. xix, 1869, 

p. 87(3; TiTon, Struct. Concli. iii, 1884, p. 33, pi. 94, fio-. 24; 

Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 148, pi. 41, figs. 20-22 ; 

Glide, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1890, p. 91, figs. 8, 9 (shell and 

armature). 
Helix (Atopa) rivolii, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 156, 

pi. 33, figs. 11, 12. 

Original description : — " H. testa alba, vitrea, utroque latere 
concavo-planulata, ellip.soidea ; spira irregular], superne striata, 
inferue Isevigata ; anl'ractibus gjratis, ultimo majore, ad a|oerturam 
depressis ; apertura dilatata, tuba3formi obliqua, rotundato-semi- 
lunari, intus quinquedentata; dente coUumellari alteris longiore." 

Major diam. 23-25, minor 16-5-17, alt. 6-25-7 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon {Templeton) ; Kandy (NevilJ, Preston). 

"When describing Helix rivolii in 1830 Desbayes was probably 
unaware of tbe fact tbat the shell figured by Ferussac as Hellv 
carabinata Mas identical with his o^^•n. In 1838, however, when 
editing the second edition of Lamarck's ' Animaux sans Yertebres,' 
he ackno\\ledges Ferussac's name and relegates rivolii to the 
synonymy, reversing the process when editing Ferussac's Hist. 
Nat. Moll. (vol. i, p. 7, 1839), where he states that doubtless 
Ferussac had provisionally so-named the species, and that he has 
searched the dictionaries in vain for the meaning of the word 
carabinata. For this reason he thought it advisable to retain for 
the species the name he liad himself proposed for it in 1830. 
While a fe\\- of the older authors adopted Ferussac's name, every 
one dealing with the species since 1850 lias recognized Desbayes' 
designation. Although Ferussac did not give a description and 
livx-aison x, containing plate 51 B (numbered 101 in some copies) 
on Avhich the species is figured, had no text with it, two sheets 
of ' Explication des Planches ' were issued \\\\\\ livraison xvi in 
1822 *, on page iii of which the name H. carabinata duly occurs. 

Under these circumstances Ferussac's name must be adopted. 





Fig. 25. — Corilla carahlnata. 



b ,1 \m 

Fig. 26. — Corilla carahinaia imm&tnre. 



In fig. 25 a the parietal and palatal barriers are exposed from 
behind, while fig. 25 & shoA\s the median parietal fold joining the 
callus at the aperture and the anterior terminations of the upper 



* A copy of this is in my possession. 



CORILLA.. PLKCTOPYLIS. 



69 



and lower folds. In lig. 20 two immature specimens are de- 
lineated of which a-e exhihit one with four whorls completed, 
having live immature palatal plates. In fig. 26 e and / the daggei 
indicates the place where the barriers occur, m the former at the 
end of the fourth whorl and in the latter where only 3| whor s 
have been completed. I also possess one specimen of 2| whorls 
which is provided with a set of barriers at the end of 2^ wliorls, 
distant about | whorl from the nepionic shell. Except in size 
these barriers do not differ from those in the other immature 
shells. 

76. Gorilla coUetti, S)/l-es. 

Gorilla colletti, Svkes. Proc. Malac. Soc. London, ii, 1897, p. 233, 
pi. 10, tigs, ii-is. 

Oriqinal description:— ''Shaiie strongly recalling that of C.rivoUi, 
but the new species is much smaller in size. Sculpture also 
similar in nature, but finer and more closely set. The mouth in 
the present species not so much contracted and not quite so 
descending ; the lip not nearly so reflexed and thickened. The 
palatal and parietal lamellae are the same in number in both 
species, but in C. collmi the former approach more nearly to the 
iip especially the upper two. Of the parietal lamellae, the upper 
and lower are more nearly parallel, and not so convergent, while 
the middle one is much shorter than in C. rivohi, and does not 
enter so far into the shell. 

" Long. 21-21-25, lat. 14-15-5, alt. 6-5-75 mm. {>SifL-es.) 

Hab. Ceylon : Balangoda (Collett). 

Genus PLECTOPYLIS, Benson. 

Plectopyli-^ (section of Helix), Benson, A. iM. N. H. ser 3, v, 1860, 
p -yU; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 217: Pilsbry, Man. 
Conch, sor. 2, ix, 1894, p. 143 ; Gude, Science Gossip N. svi, 
1899, pp. 147, 174 ; Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, u, 1907, p. -Ul. 

Type, Helix achatina (Grray), Pfeiffer [bensoni, Gude]. 

Ramie. N.E. ludia, Burma, Tonkin, South and Central China, 
and Loo Choo Archipelago. 

''Shell depressed, ivith flat or low-conical spire and large 
w»i6i7ic«s, destral or sinistral; solid or thin, the upper surface 
(generally sculptured with spiral lines, hirsute in the young. 
Aperture half-round or lunate, oblique, the hp reflexed, its end 
o-enerally joined by an elevated parietal callus, which usually 
bears an entering lamella. Interior of the last whorl ohstructed 
hij a barrier composed of a transverse plate or pUtes on the parutat 
ivall, and several transverse or longitudinal denticles or plates on 
the outer wall. „ , 

" Foot short, rarely equalling in length the diameter ot tne 



70 HELICIB.i:. 

shell ; tentacles very short, eye pedicles of moderate length. 
Mantle-edge thin, with small right and left hody-lappets. Pul- 
monary cavity small. Kidney lai'ge, triangular. 

"Jaw very thin, horny, arched, with a small anterior median 
projection ; it is marked transversely with a great number of 
more or less distant grooves which divaricate in the centre. 
Eadula of moderate Avidth, long, composed of about 100 trans- 
verse more or less V-shaped rows of 60-70 teeth. Central tooth 
smaller, sometimes much smaller, than the laterals, vei'y narrow, the 
reflection small, with three slender cusps. Lateral teeth with 
a large inner cusp and simple or bifid outer cusp, aud a minute 
inner cusp. 

" Genital system having the duct of the spermatheca long. An 
organ of unknown homology (either a dart sack, a diverticulum 
of the spermatheca, or an appendicula) enters the vagina just 
above the opening of the spermatheca duct. Uterus contaiuing 
few large eggs. Penis simple, receiving tlie vas deferens aud the 
penis retractor at its apex, the latter attached distally to the floor 
of the lung cavity." {Filsbry.) 

Stoliczka was the first to investigate the anatomy of Plectoj)yUs 
(1871), four species, achatina [hensoni], c>/claspis, pinacis, and 
macromphalus, forming the subject of his memoir. It was not until 
thirty-six years subsequently (1907) that Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen 
followed with an account of the anatomy of P. cyclaspis. Stoliczka 
states that on the whole the form of the body closely resembles 
that of Clausilia, and that a comparison of the interior organiz- 
ation of the two genera also indicate their close relation. The 
jaw he found similar in structure but different in shape. Much 
greater, he continues, is the similarity of the Plectopylis jaw to 
that of Cylindrella, with the exception that the median pi'ojection 
is wanting in the latter. The arrangement of the teeth of 
P. achatina \l:>ensoni7\ and P. cyclaspis he also found to agree with 
that of Cylindrella in the very small size of the centre tooth, but 
this was not found to be a constant character. In P. pinacis the 
centre tooth Avas larger and more of a shape similar to that of the 
lateral teeth, which, however, in all the species he found to retain 
distinctly the helicoid character. 

Godwin-Austen found in P. c.yclaspris the penis simple, like that 
of Corilla, but very short in comparison A\ith the great length of 
the rest of the genitalia and other organs occupying the closely- 
wound many-whorled shell. He states that the vagina soon de- 
velops into the thin-walled oviduct, which was found occupied 
by aboi;t a dozen embryonic shells in various stages of develop- 
ment, the anterior ones, very well grown, showed the coiled visceral 
sac, and were covered with minute calcareous granules. The 
spermatheca Avas a thin cord A\ith a sac-like expansion at the 
free end. The hermaphrodite duct was long, convolute, and 
lying attached to the side of the albumen-gland. 

Tl)e intestine was long and cord-like, the salivary glands small 



PLECTOPYLIS. 71 

and elongate, the heiirt situated one whole whorl behind tlie 
aperture, and lying below the oval-shaped kidney. The oviduct 
was packed close to the heart. 

The jaw he found very thin and delicate, composed of 24 
elongate plates which slightly overlap, the central plates being the 
largest. These plates were attached to a mass of muscular tissue , 
or, in other words, this muscular tissue merged into the more 
solid plates ; in this respect there being a similarity to the jaw 
of Bmcinea ; the resemblance to the jaw of Th»fsanota fjuerini 
being still greater. 

The teeth of the radula are stated to be thus disposed : 
12.9.1.9.12 or 21.1 .21. 

The. centre tooth is stated to be small, on a narrow oblong 
plate; the plates of the admedian teeth nearly square, there being 
an indication of a duplication followed by fusing of parts, the 
square plate being divided into a long inner oblong portion and a 
shorter outer oblong portion with a well-defined rounded upper 
outer angle. At the 10th tooth the very long inner cusp of the 
9th tooth he found to become bicuspid into blunt rounded points, 
the biscuspid form ^^ith a single small cusp outside it continuing 
to the outermost teeth. This type of radula, he notes, is peculiar 
to tlie genera TIn/sanofa, SyJcesia [Ruthvenia'], and PhilalanJai, to 
a greater or less extent with modification of the central and 
admedian teeth. 

Stoliczka raised Plectopylis to generic rank, but Prof. Pilsbry 
in 1890 made it a section of Ileluc. In 1894, however, he also 
accoi'tled it generic stjitus and in his Index to the Helicidae, 1895, 
p. 124, it was placed between the groups Macroogona and Teleo- 
phallogona. He there included two Chinese groups of uncertain 
affinity — Traujnatophora and Ster/odera, each containing one 
species — but as nothing is known of their anatomy, and as, more- 
over, they are devoid of the armature characteristic of Phctopylis, 
their inclusion is hardly warranted. 

In 1899 the present ^\ riter divided the genus into seven sections, 
one of which — Sijl-esia [Ruthvenia'] has since been shown to have 
affinity with Thnsanota and Philalanla and which has already been 
dealt with {ante p. 25). Another section — Enteroi^Ja.v, proposed 
for the reception of three Philippine Island species — will probably 
share a similar fate when the soft parts come to be examined. 

Benson had already noted that Pleciopylis ucliathm \hensom'\ 
wasovoviviparous, and this was found to be the case witli all four 
species examined by Stoliczka. I have also observed this fact in 
a specimen of P. lissochlamys. 

As regards the question concerning the probable primordial 
form from which the existing species have been evolved, this 
is very problematical, as no fossil forms are known. Stoliczka, 
it is true, desci'ibed three species of fossil Helices, which he 
referred to the section Anchistoma [=Gotiostowa'], stating 
that they had affinity with Plectopylis and CoriJla (Cretaceous 



72 



HELICIBjB. 



Fauna of Southern India, ii, 1868, p, 9 et seq.). Nevill, who 
examined these fossils, however, was of opinion that their appear- 
ance did not warrant this theory (J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 128). 

It is likewise almost impossible to judge as to which of the 
known forms are tlie most archaic, since the armature of immature 
specimens, so far as they have come under my observation, throw 
no light on the subject, as they do in the case of Corilla ; except 
in size and in the length of the folds, the barriers of mature and 
immature shells are almost identical. There is one exception in 
this respect, i. e. Plectopylis woodthorpei, in which the palatal folds 
of the anterior series are only found in mature specimens. It 
may, however, be assumed that the simple armatures preceded the 
more complicated structures, and on this assumption P. hensoni 
and its allies, with their couiplex parietal barriers, must be 
regarded as the most recent ; while in another direction, P. plecto- 
stoma and its congeners, with their biserial palatal folds, have 
presumably been evolved from some monoserial predecessor, of 
which P. soiuerhyi may be taken as a less modified representation. 

The distribution of the genus is somewhat peculiar. The 
centre of distribution appears to be Lower Burma, especially 
Pegu and Tenasserim ; while no species occur to the south-east, 
the whole of 8iam and Cochin China being blanks. Going east 
the Burmese Shan States and Laos each possess one species, 
while Tonkin has a considerable number. L^pper Burma con- 
tributes one species from the Bhamo district — P. andersom, one 
from Munipur — P. munipureusis, and three species in the south — 
p)erarcta, ponsonbiji, and ivoodtliorpei. Assam has fourteen species. 
Going west we find another blank tract until we reach Sikkim, 
the western limit of the genus, where there are five species. 
Eastern Thibet pi-ovidesa single form, P. alphonsi, while Southern 
and Central China, including Hongkong, produce no less than 
seventeen species, and a single outlier occurs in the Loo Choo 
Islands. 

Key to the Species. 

I. Section Endothyka, Gude, 
(Third Section of Benson.) 

Sinistral. Umbilicus moderate. Palatal folds horizontal or oblique. 

Type, P. plectostoma. 

Range, Sikkim, Assam, Burma. 

A. Palatal folds in one series. 

a. Shell 14-15 mm., horizontal fold below parietal 

plate pinacis. 

h. Shell not exceeding 9 mm., horizontal fold absent, sowerbyi. 

B. Palatal folds in two series. 

a. Parietal plate without denticles fuUoni. 

b. Parietal plate with one denticle posteriorly inacrompludns. 

c. Parietal plate with two denticles posteriorly. 



PLECTOPYLIS. 73 

a. Shell not exceeding G mm. 

* One upper and one basal palatal fold. 

t A sliort ln)rizontal fold above parietal plate, blandn. 

tt Horizontal fold none minor. 

•** Only one basal palatal fold hanlvyi. 

,3. Shell" S-10 mm. 

* Parietal plate gives oft anteriorly a horizontal 

fold from npper extreniitj' ; one short hori- 
zontal fold below lilectostoma. 

■■** No horizontal fold proceeding from parietal 

plate ; two short horizontal folds below . . affinis. 



II. Section Cheks^cia, Giuh. 
(Second Section of Benson.) 

Sinistral or dextral. Umbilicus wide. Palatal folds horizontal or 
oblique, sometimes with one oblique or vertical lamina. 

Type, P. leiojMs. 

Range. From Assam through Upper Burma and Laos to Teuasserim. 

1. Dextral. 

A. Transverse parietal plate simple. 

a. Free horizontal parietal folds none. 
a. Palatal folds six. 

* Connected by a transverse ridge ; shell 27 mm. ogJei. 

** Not connected ; shell l'4-26 mm nnder^oni. 

/3. Palatal folds^/^w; shell 11 mm serica. 

y. Palatal folds seven with two denticles laomontana. 

h. A free interrupted horizontal fold in front of 
parietal plate ; palatal folds six, four inner 
united by a vertical ridge, seven denticles 
posteriorly ausfeni. 

B. Transverse parietal plate givin? off anteriorly above 

a short liorizontal fold, witli a denticle below plate. 

Palatal folds six ; shell 10-11 mm mnnipurensis. 

C. Transverse parietal plate giving off anteriorly ic/ozt- 

a lo7ig horizontal fold. 
ti. With a median liorizontal fold contittuous to the 

peristome ; shell 20 mm bracliydisciis. 

h. With a median honzontal fold interrupted ; shell 

\() mm de.vtrorsa. 

2. Simstral. 
A. Parietal plate simple. 

a. Horizontal fold below transverse parietal plate, 
short. 

a. No median fold muspratti. 

fi. A long median fold present. 

* A third short horizontal fold between upper 

and lower paiietal folds, 
t Palatal folds all horizontal ; shell 10 mm.. . perurcta. 
tt Four palatal folds horizontal, two oblique ; 

shell 12 mm hengtungensis. 



74 HELICID.E. 

ttt Palatal folds, one vertical, rest horizontal ; 

shell 7"5 mm shiroie)2sis. 

*"* No third fold present 7iagaensis. 

h. Horizontal fold below transverse parietal j)late 

long, joined to apertural rid^e pernerfe. 

c. Three short horizontal folds in front of transverse 

parietal plate, none below it refuga. 

B. Transverse parietal plate giving otf anteriorly below 

a short horizontal fold ; a long median and a long- 
lower fold present, joined to apertural ridge. 

a. Palatal folds : all horizontal shanensis. 

h. Palatal folds : one oblique, rest horizontal leiophis. 

C. Transverse parietal plate giving off anteriorly below 

a short horizontal fold, two short free horizontal 
folds above the latter, and a long one below joining 
the apertural ridge hrahma. 



IIT. Section Endoplon, Gude. 
Dextral. Palatal folds horizontal, oblique, or almost vertical. 
Type, P. h-achyplecta. 
Range. Burma, Tonkin. 

Shell flattened. 

n. Two vertical parietal plates brachyplecta. 

h. One vertical parietal plate with two denticles in 

front smithiana. 



W. Section Plectopylis, s. s. Qucle. 
(Typical Section of Benson.) 

Sinistral. Shell flattened. Palatal armature : one vertical lamina 
with three horizontal folds above, one below. 

Type, P. bensoni. 

Range. Burma. 

A. Two transverse parietal plates. 

a. Parietal plates parallel ; upper horizontal palatal 
fold bisected. Shell less than 20 mm. 
a. Median parietal fold truncate, not joined to 

apertural ridge ponsonbyi. 

(3. Median parietal fold not truncate, joined to 

apertural ridge lissochlamys. 

h. Parietal plates divergent ; upper horizontal palatal 

fold not bisected. Shell more than 20 mm magna. 

c. Anterior parietal plate giving off a long horizontal 
fold above, and 
a. A short one below, half the length of upper ; 

palatal folds in two series ivoodthorpei. 

/3. Lower fold one-quarter of the length of upper ; 

palatal folds in one series leiicochila. 

. Three transverse parietal plates feddeni. 



PLECTOPYLIS. , i> 

C. Parietal plate ramified. 

(I. Shell acutely keeled. I'arietal fold trifiircate : a 

short horizontal fold uear aperture ci/clasjm. 

h. Shell not keeled. Parietal fold trifurcate. 

«. No horizontal fold below parietal plate, a free 

interrupted horizontal fold in front cnirnsi, 

/3. Pai'ietal fold giving oft' anteriorly an interrupted 
horizontal fold ; a short horizontal fold below 

plate linterfc. 

y. Parietal fold giving oft" anteriorlv a continuous 
fold. 

* Shell thin harenorum. 

** Shell thick. 

t Upper arm of parietal fold longest, lower 

horizontal fold united to apertural ridge . ropercussa. 
•+t Lower arm longest, lower horizontal fold 
not united to apertural ridge. 
§ Whorls much flattened, umbilicus very 

shallow cmyuhui. 

§§ "Whorls less flattened, umbilicus deeper . bensuni. 



I. Section Endothyea, Gude. 
EndGthyra, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Sinistral. Umbilicns moderate. Palatal folds horizontal or 
oblique. 

Type, Hellv (Plectopijlis) plectostoma, Benson. 

llanqt. Sikkim, A-^sain, Burma. 



77. Plectopylis minor, Godzv in- Austen. 

Helix (Plectopylis) oninor. Godwin- Austen, A. M. N. H. ser. 5. iv, 

1879, p. 164 ; ibid., J. A.. S. B. Ixiv, 1895, pi. 7, fig. Z (shell and 

animal). 
? Helix {Plectopylis) macromphalus, var. minor, Blanford, J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, 1870, p. 18. 
Plectopylis minor, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iv, 1897, p. 11, fig. 47 

(shell and armature). 
Plectoptylis (Endothyra) ininor, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original descrijjtion : — " Shell sinistral, openly urabilicated, dis- 
coidal, hirsute. Sculptui'e coarse, with irregular transverse 
ribbing ; colour pale umber, with regularly disposed broadish 
transverse bars of sienna brown; spire flat, only the first three 
whorls slightly rising above the others ; suture shallow. Whorls 5, 
subangular on the periphery of the last, which has four distinct 
rows of short hairs, entire at the point. Aperture oblique, slightly 
descending ; peristome lunate, slightly flattened on the upper 
outer margin, but very little reflected, the inner margins connected 
with a distinct ridge on the painetal side. 



16 



HELICID.i:, 



"The parietal vertical lamiua is simple, with no distinct hori- 
zontal plica below it, as in macroraplialus ; the palatal plicae are 
six in front, four behind, the basal one in front thin and longer 
than the others." (Godirin-Aitsten.) 

Diam. maj. 5, miuor 4 millim ; alt. 2-o millim. 

Hab. Sikkiiu: Dnrjeeling (XeviU, Stoliczl-a, Ilunr/erford); Eun- 
gun Valley (Blanford) ; India: Naga Hills (Beddome) ; Laiseu 
Peak, Munipur (Godwin- Atisten). 

Lt.-Col. Godwin- Austen, in describing the present species, 
expi'epses the opinion that it is doubtless the form minor of 
P. macromjilmlus alluded to by Blanford in J. A. S. B. 1870, 
p. 18. 

The parietal armature consists of a strong vertical plate, a little 
deflesed below anteriorly, having posteriorly two minute denticles, 




one above and one belo\^•. A very thin, free horizontal fold occurs 
below the vertical plate, revolving as far as the parietal ridge at 
the aperture, where it becomes much atteiuiated (see tig. 27/) ; 
this fold appears to be somewhat variable, for in a specimen in 
Mr. Pousonby's collection, shown in tig. 27 1, it is very short, and 
scarcely extends beyond the vertical plate ; \\h\\e in another 
specimen, also in Mr. Ponsonby's collection, sliown in fig 27 d, it 
is absent altogether. Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen, in his description 
of the species, states : " Parietal vertical lamina simple, with no 
distinct horizontal plica below it." 



PLECTOPYLIS. 77 

_ The palatal arinature is iu two series ; the auterior series con- 
sists of four thiu horizontal folds, and the posterior series of six 
horizontal folds, the tirst of which is very minute, the next four a 
little broader and shorter tlian those of the anterior series, the 
fourth or fifth a little dehexed posteriorly, and the sixth very 
small and thin (see fig. 27 f/). The specimen shown in figs. 27a-e 
is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection, the one depicted in figs. 27/" and g 
is in my own collection, while that delineated iu figs. 21h-l also 
belongs to Mr. Ponsonby, M-ho informs me that it was obtained 
from Mr. Hungerford, labelled 1\ pleciostoma from Sikkim. Au 
immature specimen in my collection, with four wliorls completed, 
has the armature near the end of the fourth whorl and, except 
being smaller, identical with that of a mature shell. A specimen 
in the late Col. Beddome's collection, from the Naga Hills, labelled 
with the MS. name P. minuta, Bedd., I also refer to the present 
species : it is, however, a little smaller, measuring only 4 millim. in 
diameter ; it is also a httle more raised in the spire, and is more 
shining and darker. 



78. Plectopylis hanleyi, Godwin-Austen. 

Helix (Plectopylis) hemlei/i, Godwin-Austen, A. M, N. 11. ser. 5, iv, 

1879, p. 164. 
Plectopylis hanleyi, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. \, 1899, p. 240. 
Plectopylis [Endothyrd) hanleyi, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, j). 148. 

Orhjinal description :—"■ ^\\q[\ sinistral, depressedly conoid, 
openly umbihcated, probably hirsute when young. Sculpture 
coarse, irregular, transverse ridges. Colour uniform ochraceous. 
Spire conoidal ; apex blunt, smooth. Suture well marked. 
AVhorls six, close-wound, convex ; aperture semicircular, di- 
agonal ; peristome somewhat thickened, white, with a thin 
callus on the parietal margin [wall(?)] not to the extent of a 
ridge. 

"Major diameter, 5-5 ; minor diameter, 5 ; altitude, 3 millim. 

"Parietal vertical lamina simple; palatal plicje in two ro\\s, 
four long in front, four sliort behind, and one basal long. 

" This shell is very distinct ; it has somewhat the form of 
P. pleciostoma, but is not so angular on the periphery, while the 
internal plication is quite different, besides being so much smaller 
in size.'"' (Oodtvin- Austen.) 

Hah. Sikkim ? 

No figure of this shell has been published, and the only speci- 
men known was in the collection of the late Sylvauus Hanlev. 
My endeavours to trace its whereabouts have proved unsuccessful, 

79. Plectopylis blanda, Gude. 

Plectopylis hkmda, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iv, 1898, p. 264, 
fig. 70 ; ibid. Journ. Malac. vii, 1899, p. 34, fig. 11. 



78 



HELICIDJE. 



Plectoj)i/Us (Endothyra) blanda, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. \i, 1899, 
p. 148. 

Orir/iiial description : — " Shell sinistral, depressed conical, widely 
and deeply umbilicated, wliitish-corneous, finely and i-egularly 
ribbed. Spire conical, apex prominent, suture distinctly im- 
pressed. "Whorls 6, tnmid above, rounded below, increasing very 
slowly and regularly, the last not descending in front, angulated 
above the periphery and around the wide perspective umbilicus. 
The cuticle is produced into deciduous hairs on the ribs, forming 
spiral rows. Aperture oblique, lunate, a little flattened on the 
upper, outer margin. Peristome white, a little thickened and 
reflexed, the margins united by a slight, flexuous ridge on the 
parietal callus. Parietal wall with a strong, vei-tical plate, slightly 
deflected anteriorly and having two minute denticles posterioi-ly, 
the upper elongated vertically, the lower horizontally. A very 
thin horizontal fold occurs below the vertical plate and a very 








/ 

Fig. 28. — Plectojnjlis hianda. 



short fold above it. Palatal folds in two series ; the anterior 
consisting of six thin horizontal folds, the first and sixth a 
little shorter and placed a little further back than the other 
four ; the posterior series consists of four very short folds or 
denticles. 

•' Major diam. 0, minor 5 millim. ; alt. o millim."' {Gude.) 

Hah. Assam : Naga Hills. 

Differs from P. minor in being larger and more elevated, and in 
liaviutr a wider and deeper umbihcus. The parietal armatui-e 
differs in having an additional fold above the vertical plate, and 
tlie anterior denticles are almost united to this fold. The palatal 
armature differs in the posterior folds being very short and almost 
reduced to denticles. Fig. 28 d gives the posterior view of the 
two armatures, e shoves the inside of the outer wall with the 
J'olds and denticles, and /' a portion of the parietal wall with 
the plates, folds, and denticles in situ. All the figures are enlarged. 



PLECTOPTLIS. 



79 



80. Plectopylis macromphalus, Blanfonh 

Ileliv {Plectopylis^ macromphalm, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, 

p. 17, pi. 3, "tig. 14; Godwiii-Austeu, P. Z. S. 1874, pi. 73, tig. 1 

(armature). 
Helix macromphulus, Haulev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 18/4, pi. 80, 

figs. 8-10; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 71 ; Try 011, Mau. Conch. 

ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 160, pi. 34, tigs. 65-68. 
Plectopylis macromphalus, Pilsbry, ibid, ix, 1894, p. 14(i; Gude, 

Science Gossip, n. s. iv, 1897, p. 10, tig. 46 (armature). 
Plectopylis {Endothynt) macromphalus, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1809, p. 148. 

Original description: — "Testa siiiistrorsa, late umbilicata, de- 
pressa, discoidea, tenuiuscula, pallido-eornea, superue plicis areuatis 
obliquis incrementi et liris spiralibus decussata, ad peripheriam et 
sabtus fere laevis, striatvda ; striis uonnuUis spiralibus circa um- 
bilicum aliquando distinguendis ; spira plana; apice vix emergente ; 
sutura leviter iinpressa. Aufr. 4|-5| planulati, arete voluti ; 
ultimus vix latior, supra peripheriam sub-angulatus, ad latus atque 
subtus convexus, antice leviter descendens. Apertura irregulariter 
lunaris, superne compressa, diagonalis ; peristoma albido-labiatum, 
parum inerassatum, reflexiusculum, marginibus convergeiitibus, 




b 
Fig. 29. — Plectopylis macromphaht)<. 

callo tenui junctis, externo supra peripheriam arcuato. Plicatio 
interna persimilis ei Helids imiacis et //. plectostomatis ; e 
lamina unica parietal!, verticali et plica tenui longuiscula basali, 
atque plicis 5 palatalibus : basali tenui simplici, ceteris duplicibus, 
constaus. 

"Diam. maj. 6|, min. oh, alt. 2| mm." {Blanford.) 
Hah. Assam: Mairung, Khasi Hills {Godwin- Austen); Dafla 
Hills {Godwin-Austen); Naga Hills {ChenneJl). 

The parietal armature (see iig. 29 a) consists of a strong vertical 
plate, which has a minute, slightly elongated, horizontal denticle 
posteriorly to its lower extremity. The palatal armature is in two 
series (see fig. 29 b, which shows the inside of the outer wall). 
The anterior series is composed of four short, broad, flattened, 
straight horizontal folds. The posterior series consists of six 
narrow horizontal folds, which are shorter tlian those of the 
anterior series ; the fourth and fifth are a little obliquely de- 
pressed posteriorly. The specimen is in Mr. Ponsonby's collec- 
tion, and measures (5 millimetres in diameter. Two specimens 
in my collection also measure G millimetres in diameter. 



80 



HELICID.B. 



81. Plectopylis sower byi, Gude. 

Pledopylis sowcrbi/i, Glide, Science Gossip, n. s. v. 1899, p. 239, 

fig. 93 (shell and armature). 
Plectopylis {E7iihthijra) so2verbyi, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description : — " Shell sinistral, widely umbilicated, dis- 
coid, dark corneous, regularly ribbed and radiately distantly 
plaited, strongly decussated above by spiral ribs, less distinctly 
so below. Whorls six, narrow, increasing slowly and regularly, 
somewhat flattened above and rounded below, the last not de- 
scending in front. Six or seven spiral ridges, probably, when 
fresh, bearing rows of hairs, pass round the whole of the body- 
whorl, the first just above the slightly angular periphery, the 
others below it. Aperture ear-shaped ; peristome slightly tinted 
with rosy-pink, scarcely thickened, and a little reflexed ; the 
upper outer margin a little depressed ; parietal callus slight, 




d « / 

Fig. 30. — Plectopylis sotcerhyi. 



without raised ridge at the aperture. Umbilicus deep and wide. 
The parietal armature consists of a strong vertical plate, provided 
at its lower extremity with a short support anteriorly, and a small 
denticle posteriorly. The palatal armature is composed of six 
more or less horizontal folds, the first very slight and short, near 
the suture, the four next longer and more elevated, a little deflexed 
posteriorly, the sixth slight and very short."' (Gude.) 

Major diam. 7-9, minor G*25-7'-") mill. ; alt. 3'75-4*75 mill. 

JIab. Assam : Khasi Hills. 

P. soiverbyi is closely allied to P. pJedostoma, from which it can 
at once be distinguished by the following characters : it is flatter, 
being less raised in the spire ; the umbilicus is more open ; there 
are only six whorls, the last not descending in front ; the peri- 
stome is scarcely thickened and not much reflexed, and there is 
no raised ridge on the parietal callus. In the armature there are 
also important differences : the vertical parietal plate in P. iiilecto- 
stoma gives off from its upper extremity anteriorly a horizontal 



PLBCTOPTLIS. 81 

fold, which is absent in P. soiuerh)/i, where the plate in question 
is only provided with a support anteriorly and a denticle pos- 
teriorly below, and there is no horizontal fold below it ; so that 
in this respect the present species differs from both its allies (see 
iig. 30/, which shows part ot the parietal wall with its armature). 
The palatal armature is in one series, and consists of six horizontal 
folds. The lirst fold is very short and slight ; the second longest ; 
the third, fourth, and fifth each a little shorter than its prede- 
cessor ; the sixth slight and very short (see tig. 30 e, which shows 
the inside of the outer wall with its folds). All the figures are 
enlarged. 



82. Plectopylis plectostoma, Benson. 

Ileii.v plectostoma, Jieusou, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 351 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon, vii, 18r)2, pi. 129, fig-. 78:2; PfeitTer, Conch.-Cab., 
Heliceen, i, 1846, p. 367, pi. 64, %s. 19-21 ; Nevill, Hand List, 
1878, i, p. 71 ; Ilanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 13, 
fig. 2. 

Helix i Plectopyli.s) plecfost,o7)ia, Benson. A. M. N. II. ser. 3, v, 1860, 
p. 247 ; Blauford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865. p. 194 ; Godwin- 
Austen, P. Z. 8. 1874, p. 612, pi. 73, fig. 2 (armature). 

Helix {Atopu (PlectojM/lM)) plectostoma, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 
iii, 1887, p. 160, pi. 34, tigs. 69, 70. 

Plectopylis plectostoma, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iii, 1897, 
p. 274, fig. 39. 

Plectopylis [Endotlixjr a) plectostoma, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description : — " T. reversa, depresso-conoidea, subtus 
tumida; spira essertiuscula ; anfr. 5 supra planati. radiatini plicati, 
rugis transversis decussati, ultiraus aiigulatus : angulo subtus 
marginato ; apertura lunata, plica (ut in //. personata) iuterdum 
inconspicua, ultimo anfractui adhserente ; umbilicus profundus, 
anfractns plerosque exhibens." {Benson.) 

Diara. maj. 9. min. 8 ; alt. 4*5 mm. 

Hah. India: Naga Hills (ChenneU) ; Dafla Hills, Khasi Hills 
(Godwin- Austen) . Burma : Arakan Hills [Kurz) ; Tongoop 
(Ingram) ■ Basseiu, Pegu (Blauford) ; Sylhet (Nevill). ISikkim : 
Darjeeling (Blanford, Stoliczl'u, Alainwaring). 

A caret ul scrutiny of a number of shells in various collections 
revealed the fact that two different forms, one with and one 
without a horizontal fold given off from the parietal vertical plate, 
have been included under P. p)l€ctostoma, and it became tiierefore 
necessary to decide which of the two conformed to Benson's type 
in the Museum of Zoology at Cambridge. In 1897, through the 
kindness of Dr. 8. F. Harmer, then in charge of the Museum, 1 
was able to examine the type specimens, one of which I figured in 
' Science Gossip,' and which is now reproduced. Although 
Benson's reference to the armature in his amended description 
(1860), " lamina 1 parietali verticali, simplici, lamellis nullis 
munita," inclined me to conjecture that the form without the 

G 



82 HBLICID^, 

horizontal fold was the true P. plectostoma, the examinatiou of 
the types did not bear out this view. All the shells of the Benson 
collection labelled Darjeeling, which are without doubt the types of 
the species, belong to the form with the horizontal fold, and this 
form must, therefore, be taken as ihe true P. plectostoma. The in- 
spection of a large series of the two forms enabled me to obtain 
a fairly accurate idea as to the constancy of both forms and to 
draw up an amended description, which is now reproduced. 

Shell sinistral, disk-shaped, more or less dark corneous brown, 
opaque, with a conical spire, deeply but somewhat narrowly 
unibilicated ; it is composed of seven narrow, closely aud regularlv 
coiled whorls, which increase slowly and are a little rounded above 
and below ; the last whorl scarcely widens near the aperture and 
shortly descends in front. The shell is radiately plicate and 
granulated by coarse spiral sculpture above, and decussated below, 
while the cuticle is thick and distinctly raised into distant 
transverse plaits. Five lines of scattered hairs, placed on raised 
ridges, pass round the whole length of the body-whorl, the first on 
the periphery, the second a little below it, the third, fourth, and 
fifth wider apart, the last being close to the umbilical angulation. 





a be 

Fig. 31. — Plectcypylis plectostoma. 

The aperture is broadly ear-shaped ; the peristome is whitish or 
rufous, thickened and reflexed, the upper margin widely arcuate ; 
the raised ridge of the parietal callus is scarcely curved, and not 
perceptibly separated from the margins of the peristome. The 
parietal armature consists of a strong vertical plate which gives 
off anteriorly a strong, obliquely ascending support below and a 
horizontal fold above, slightly notched at the junction : on the 
posterior side of the plate are found two minute denticles, one 
near the upper and one near the lower extremitv. A single, very 
short, free horizontal fold is found below the plate. The palatal 
armature consists of: first, a thin, short, horizontal fold close to 
the suture ; secondly, a thin but longer and broader fold opposite 
the upper extremity of the vertical parietal plate, slightly indented 
in the middle, witli the posterior extremity shortly reflected at an 
angle of 100° ; thirdly, a similar shortly reflected horizontal fold, 
notched in the middle, and then suddenly deflected vertically ; 
fourthly, a short, thin, broad fold, which has posteriorly to it 
an almost vertically deflected short broad fold ; fifthly, a similar 
short horizontal fold, which has also posteriorly a short, broad, 



PLECT0PYLI8. 83 

descending fold, a little more oblique than the previous one ; and 
sixthly, a very short and narrow horizontal fold near the lower 
suture, situate below the space between the two preceding series. 
Fig, 31 a is from one of the type specimens ; it measures, major 
diameter, 9 millimetres ; minor diameter, 8 millimetres ; axis, 
5 milhmetres. Two otlier of these specimens measure 8"5 milli- 
metres, and one 8 millimetres in diameter. Fig. 31 i, showing the 
parietal wall with its armature by itself, and fig. 31 c, showing the 
inside of the outer wall with its pahital folds, are from a spe- 
cimen in my collection, from the Khasi Hills ; it measures — 
major diameter, 8"5 ; minor diameter, 7'2o ; axis, 4*5 millim. 
The specimens of this form range from 8 to 9 millimetres in 
diameter. 

Var^ tricarinata, Gudt. 

Plectopylis plectostonia, var. tricarinata, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. 
iii, 1897, p. 275 ; ibid., Journ, Malac. vi, 1897, p. 45, fig. 2. 

Differs from the type in being larger and more conical, in 
having the periphery acutely keeled, and in having three raised 
ridges between the periphery and the suture, revolving as far as 
the fourth whorl. 

Diam. major 10, minor 9 mm. ; axis 6 mm. 

Hah. Bengal {Benson) ; Khasi Hills (H. F. Blanford). 

This variety is based on two specimens from the Benson 
collection, labelled Bengal. The shell is shown enlarged in 




Fig. 32. — Plectopylis plectostonia, var. tricarinata. 

fig. 32 a, while a portion of the last whorl, more enlarged, is 
depicted in fig. 32 h. The Blanford collection — now in the 
British Museum — also contains a specimen collected in the Khasi 
Hills by the late H. F. Blanford. 

Var. exserta, Gude. 

Plectopylis plectostonia, var. exserta, Gude, .lourn. Malac. viii, 1901 > 
p. 49, fig. 5. 

Differs from the type in the peripheral keel being exserted. 
The shell is also larger and more solid. More than thirty 
specimens were received from a native collector. 

g2 



84 HELICID.«. 

Diaiu. major 10*5, minoi' 9'75min. ; alt. 7 mm. 

Hah. Assiiin : Khasi Hills. 

Fig. 33 d shows the outline of the spire enlarged. 




K? 



z b c d 

Fig. 33. — Plecto2yyKs jjfectosfoma, var. exserfa. 



83. Plectopylis affinis, Gude. 

riectopylis affinis, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1897, p. 276, 

fig. 41 (sbell and armature). 
Plectopylis {Endothyra) affinis, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description : — " Shell sinistral, somewhat widely um- 
bilicated, disk-shaped, pale yellowish corneous, translucent, 
radiately plicate, decussated by spiral lines above, smoother and 
shining below. Whorls 7, narrow, increasing slowly, the last 
widening towards the aperture, and descending a little in front, 
rounded above, flattened below ; four lines of soft pilose hairs 
pass round the whole length of the body-whorl, the first on the 
angulated periphei'v, the second a little below it, the third midway 
between the second and fourth, which is near the umbilicus. 
Aperture ear-shaped, elongated vertically ; peristome white, 
thickened and reflexed, upper margin a little depressed ; the 
raised flexuous ridge on the parietal callus is separated from the 
margins by a slight notch. Umbilicus deep and moderately wide. 
The parietal armature consists of a vertical plate with two short 
supports anteriorly, one above and one below, and two elongated 
denticles posteriorly, one above and one below ; two free, short, 
horizontal folds in a line occur below the vertical plate. The 
palatal armature is composed of six folds, the first and sixth short, 
thin and horizontal, the others longer and broader ; the second a 
little indented in the middle, with tlie posterior termination raised 
obliquely ; the third is notched in the middle, and deflects 
obliquely posteriorly ; the fourth and fifth are in two series 
separated by a short space, the anterior portion straight and 
horizontal, the posterior portion crescent-shaped and obliquely 
descending." (Gude.) 

Diam. major 10, min. 9 mm. ; alt. 5"5 mm. 

Hab. Assam : Khasi Hills. 

Plectojyylis affinis had previously been confused with P. plecto- 
stoma. It differs in being larger and much paler in colour, in having 
four instead of five rows of hairs, which are not placed on raised 
ridges as in that species ; the cuticle is much thinner and not 
plaited, while the spiral sculpture is less coarse above and scarcely 



PLBCTOPYLIS. 85 

perceptible below, where the shell is also more shining than 
in P. plectostoma. It is translucent and the armature is 
distinctly visible through its wall, while the aperture is more 
narrowed laterally and the upper margin of the peristome is less 
arcuate, being a little inflected. The umbilicus is also wider 
and scarcely angulated, while the base is much more flattened. 
The ridge of the parietal callus is more raised and more curved. 
The parietal armature consists of a vertical plate with a very short 
support anteriorly at the upper and lower extremities, but without 
the horizontal fold above as in P. plectostoma. The two denticles 





\:i 



d 

Fig. 34. — Plectopylis affinis. 

on the posterior side are larger and more elongated, and below 
the vei'tical plate are two short, thin, horizontal folds in a line 
with each other (see tig. 34 d, wiiich shows the parietal wall by 
itself ; and fig. 34 c, which shows both armatures from the posterior 
side). The palatal armature is similar to that of P. plectostoma, 
but the posterior portions of the third, fourth, and fifth folds, 
instead of being straight and almost vertical, are crescent-shaped 
and oblique (see tig. 34 6, which shows the palatal folds as they 
appear through the shell-wall); an additional semi-circular fold, 
posterior to, but a little above, the fifth fold, occurs in this 
shell ; this, however, 1 have not observed in any of the other 
specimens. Fig. 34 « shows the entire shell enlarged. My 
specimens were obtained from Mr. Fulton some years ago ; the 
twenty-five further specimens from the same locality, sent to me 
for inspection by him, range from 9 to 11 milhmetres in diameter. 
Two immature specimens in my collection are composed of five 
and a half whorls; one of these has the immature barriers 
complete, but the palatal folds are very short and the posterior 
oblique portions of the fourth and fifth folds are almost straight 
instead of crescent-shaped ; externally a slight trace of previous 
folds can be discerned ; in the other specimen the last immature 
folds are similar to those of the fii'st specimen, but the remains of 
a previous set are in a less advanced stage of disintegration. 



86 HHLICIDiE. 

84. Plectopylis pinacis, Benson. 

Helix pinacis, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, iii, 1859, p. 268 ; Hanley 

& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 13, fig. 5; 1874, pi. 84, 

figp. 1, 4. 
Helix {Plectopi/lis) pinacis, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, v, 1860, 

p. 247; Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, pi. 74, fig. 1 (armature) ; 

Xevill, Hand List, i, 187H, p. 71: G odwin- Austen, J. A. S B. 

xliv, 1875, pi. 7, fig. 2 (shell and animal). 
Helix (Atopa {Plect(ypylis)) pinacis, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 159, pi. 34, figs. 53-55. 
Plectopylis pinacis, Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 146 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1897, p. 206, fig. 32 (shell and 

armature) ; Godwin-Austen, Moll. India, ii, 1907, p. 203, pi. 114, 

fig. 2 (anatomy). 
Plectopr/lis (Undothyra) jnnacis, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 1890, 

p. 148. 
Helir {Corilla) pettos, Martens, Malak. Blatt. xv, 1868, p. 158. 
Helix pettos, Pfeifter, Novit. Conch, ser. 1, iii, 1869, p. 462, pi. 101, 

figs. 7-9. 

Original description : — " Testa siuistrorsa, late umbilicata, orbi- 
culato-depressa, superne oblique scabre plicato-striata, liris con- 
fertis spiralibus, subtus striis obliquis fiexuosis striisque spiralibus 
decussata, cornea, epiderinide fusca, scabra (junioris ad carinam 
prsesertim hispida) iuduta; spira planata, vix elevatiuscula, apice 
planato, sutura leviter impressa ; anfractibus 7| planulatis, lente 
et arete accrescentibus, ultimo antice breviter descendenle, superne 
subcarinato, subtus valde convexo, circa umbilicuu) profundum, 
perspectivum, conicuni, eompressiusculo ; apertura valde obliqua, 
luuari, peristomate expansiusculo, reflexo, albido, marginibus callo 
brevi, laminari, elevatiusculo, sinuato junctis. 

" Diam. niaj. 14, min. 12|, axis 4| mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Sikkira : Darjeeling (Blanford, Stoliczka, Mainwarintj) ; 
Eungun, Pankabari (Blanford) ; Eungmaval (Blanford) ; 
Damsang ( Oodwin-A usten). 

Nevill was tlie first to suspect that Helix (Corilla) pettos was 
identical with Plectopylis ^^in^K^is- The type of the former, which 
is in the " Konigliche Museum tiir ISTaturkunde," Berlin, was 
forwarded to me for inspection in 1897 by the late Dr. von 
Martens, with permission to open the shell for the purpose of 
examining its armature, which enabled me to satisfy myself that 
the two species were in fact identical, both as regards armature 
and shell characters. 

The parietal armature (fig. 35 o) consists of a single strong 
vertical plate, which is strongly abruptly deflected anteriorly 
at the lower extremity, and gives off posteriorly a club-shaped 
support ; the upper extremity gives off two slight supports, one 
on either side, the posterior one horizontal, and the anterior 
one a little lower, oblique, and very short ; a little below the 
posterior support occurs a small denticle ; a free, thin horizontal 
fold is found below the vertical plate ; see also fig. 35 a, which 



PLECTOPYLI8. 



87 



shows the shell with a portion of the outer wall removed, exposing 
the parietal and palatal armatures from the anterior side, and 
fi^. 35 h, which shows the folds from the posterior aide. The 
palatal armature consists of : first, a thin horizontal fold near the 
suture ; secondlv, a stronger horizontal fold, deflected in the 
middle ; thirdly and fourthly, two shorter, but stronger, equal and 
])arallel folds descendhig obliquely ; fifthly a crescent-shaped fold 
placed oblicjuely with the concave side facing the aperture (the 
lower surfaces of these folds are seen in fig. 35 a, their upper 




Fig. 35. — Flcctopylis piiiacis. 

surfaces in fig. 35 b) ; sixthly, a smaller horizontal fold, which 
becomes attenuated posteriorly (see fig. 35 d) ; two minute, 
elongated denticles, one belo^^- the other, and placed at right 
angles to each other, occur between the first and second folds, near 
their posterior terminations. The specimen figured is from 
Uarjeeling, and is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection ; it measures 15 
millimetres in diameter. A specimen in my collection, also from 
Darjeeling, measures 14 millimetres. Lt.-Col. Godwin- Austen's 
figure, quoted supra, shows a short free horizontal fold above the 
vertical parietal plate ; no trace of this fold can be seen in either 
of the two specimens examined, neither does it occur in the 
specimen in the Berlin Museum. 



85. Plectopylis fultoni, Godwm-Ausien. 

Helix {Plectopylis) fultoni, Godwin-Austen, A. M. N. H. ser. 6, x, 

1892, p. 800. 
Plectopylis fultoni, Tilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 146, 

pi. 40, figs. 13-15 (shell); Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, 

p. 178, tig. 23 (shell and armature). 
Plectopylis {Endothyr a) fultoni, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description :— " Shell sinistral, keeled, widely umbili- 
cated, subglobosely discoidal ; colour pale ochraceous ; sculpture a 



88 



HBLICIDiE. 



fine close flaxy epidermal striation, with four lines of long hairs 
arranged upon the periphery of the body-whorl — two closely 
adjacent and running with the keel above, one around the 
umbilical depression, and one intermediate. Spire depressedly 
convex, suture well marked, apex rounded. Whorls seven, closely 
wound, side of the last very oblique belo^^' and flattened, becoming 
rounder near the aperture, where it descends very slightly. 
Aperture wide, semi-ovate, very oblique, and slightly reflected 
on the margin. Peristome not thickened, continuous over the 
parietal side. The internal barriers are not visible on looking 
into the aperture. The parietal vertical lamina is simple, with 
only a slight horizontal support above on the posterior side ■^ a 
very short double-knobbed horizontal parietal lamella is situated 
imn)ediately below it. Palatal plicae double, in two rows, the two 
apical or highest in position being united together by a low ridge ; 
the posterior row are somewhat obliquely arranged." (Gochvin- 
Ansten.) 

Major diam. 20, min. 17*3 millim. ; alt. axis 8-5 millim. 

Ilab. Assam : Khasi Hills. 

Plectopylis f\dtoni is allied on the one hand to P. andersoni, the 
parietal armature being almost identical, while the arrangement 
and structure of the palatal folds connect it on the other hand 
\\ith P. plectostoma. The parietal armature consists of a single 
strong vertical plate (see flg. 36 a). Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen, 
in describing the armature, states that the parietal plate ha» only 
a shght horizontal support above on the posterior side ; in speci- 
mens in my possession, however, this plate has a similar support 
below ; these supports consist of a tooth united to the vertical 




a 

b 

Fig. 36. — Plectopi/lis f niton i. 

plate by a slight callosity. Below this is a short thin horizontal 
plate, a little indented in the middle. Tlie palatal armature (see 
tig. 36 b) consists of : first, a short horizontal fold, close to and 
parallel with the suture ; secondly, a longer and stouter horizontal 
flexuous fold ; thirdly, another horizontal fold, slightly indented 
in the middle and deflected posteriorly at an obtuse angle : fourthly 
and fifthly, two series each of two short horizontal folds, the 
anterior ones slightly oblique, with their lower ends towards the 
ajierture, and the posterior ones deflected at an obtuse angle 
posteriorly ; and sixthly, near the base, a short slightly bent fold, 
with the convex side turned towards the lower suture. The 
specimen figured, which is not quite mature, bears a second 



PLECTOPTLIS. 



89 



vertical plate on the parietal wall (see fig. 36 a), which appears 
to be the remnant of the immature barriers formed before the 
completion of the shell. A young specimen in my collection, 
composed of five whorls, possesses the armature a little beyond 
the place where four and a balf whorls have been completed ; the 
barriers are almost identical with the mature ones, except that 
the folds are smaller and the second and third palatal folds are 
deeply bilobed. A still younger specimen of only four whorls has 
the armature near the place when three and a half whorls have 
been completed. 

II. Section Chers^cia, Gude. 

Chersaecia, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Sinistral or dextral. Umbilicus wide. Palatal folds horizontal 
or oblique. Sometimes with one oblique or vertical plate. 
Type, Helix leiopJiis, Benson. 
Range. Assam, through Upper Burma and Laos to Tenasserim. 

86. Plectopylis muspratti, Gude. 

Pledopylis muspratti, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iv, 1897, p. 10, 
fijr. 45 (shell and armature) ; ibid., Journ. Make, vii, 1898, p. 7, 
fi-. .-3. 

Plectopylis {Chersaecia^ muspratti, Gnde, Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 
1899, ij. 148. 

Original description : — " Shell sinistral, discoid, widely and 
deeply umbilicated, pale corneous, streaked transversely with dull 




Fig. 37. — Plectopylis muspraifi. 

brown ; finely striated and decussated with spiral lines which are 
very] distinct on the upper surface, but less so below. Suture 



90 HELICID.E. 

impressed, spire a little conical. Whorls six and a half, scarcely 
convex, slowly increasing, the last widening towards the aperture, 
slightly angular above, descending suddenly in front, and a little 
constricted behind the peristome. Aperture roundly lunate; 
peristome white, thickened and reflexed, margins converging. 
Parietal callus with a strongly raised flexuous ridge, which is 
separated from both margins by a little notch. Umbilicus ^^ide 
and deep. Parietal wall with a short entei'ing flexuous fold 
united to the ridge at the aperture, becoming attenuated inwardly, 
and at one-third of the circumference from the aperture, \a ith a 
strong, crescent-shaped vertical plate, which is suddenly deflected 
posteriorly at the lower extremity ; below this, on the anterior 
side, occurs a very short, horizontal fold. Palatal folds six, 
horizontal, short ; the first free, with a small denticle posteriorly ; 
tlie second, third, fourth, and fifth connected with each other by a 
vertical ridge, which deflects below Ihe fifth fold posteriorly and 
terminates in a small, oblique denticle ; the sixth again free. 

*' Major diam. K3 nun., min. 11 nun., alt. G mm." (Gitde 

Hah. Assam : Naga Hills. 

P. miispratti somewhat resembles P. n((f/aetisis, but the armature 
is quite different. Fig. 37 d gives the posterior view of the 
parietal and palatal armatures, while fig. 37 f exhibits the inner 
wall with the parietal folds, and fig. 37/ the inside of the outer 
wall with the palatal armature. 

87. Plectopylis austeni, Gude. 

Plectopylis austeni, Gucle, Science Gossip, n, s. vi, 1899, p. 15, fig. 97. 
Plectopylis (Chersaecia) tnisteni, Gude, tom. cit. p. 148. 

Original description: — "Shell sinistral, discoid, widely um- 
bilicated, ochreous corneous, covered with a deciduous velvety 
cuticle ; finely and closely ribbed, decussated by raised spiral 
lines, rather distant on the upper side. One of these spiral lines 
forms a ridge or keel on the upper angle of the whorls above the 
periphery, revolving above the suture as far as the third whorl. 
Spire concave, apex a little raised, suture strongly impressed. 
Whorls 64, flattened above, rounded below, obsoletely angulated 
around the umbilicus ; increasing slowly at first, the last widen- 
ing rather suddenly, and descending half the width of the whorl 
in front ; aperture oblique, cordate. Peristome white, strongly 
thickened and reflexed, the margins united by a strong raised 
flexuous concave ridge, slightly notched at the junctions above 
and below. Umbilicus wide and rather shallow. 

" Parietal armature consisting of a short median horizontal fold 
close to the apertural ridge, and a second, longer and farther back, 
rather elevated posteriorly, gradually descending on the shell-wall 
anteriorly ; below its posterior extremity occurs a small denticle ; 
still farther back is found a strong vertical crescent-shaped 
plate, the upper and lower extremities of which are deflected 
posteriorly. 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



91 



" Palatal armature composed of six short horizontal folds, the 
first longest, near the suture, provided at its posterior extremity 
with an elongated denticle; the second, third, fourth, and titth a 
little obliquely depressed posteriorly u here they are united by a 
slight vertical ridge, which is continued above the second and 
below the fifth folds ; on the posterior side occur fa ve elongated 
denticles, the four lower of which correspond to the tour tolds, 





Fig. 38. — Plectopylis ansfevi. 



while the fifth is situate near the upper extremity of the vertical 
ridge ; the sixth fold is near the lower suture, and has also an 
elongated denticle posteriorly.'' {Gude.) 

Major diam. 17'5-lb», minor 14-7o-16-5 mm. ; alt. 0-6 mm. 

ir«6. Assam: DiyungYalley,Singpho((9r/?g). 

The present species is allied to F. ocjlei, but can readily be 
distinguished by its concave spire, being besides much smaller 
and much more flattened. In its parietal armature it difters m 
haviua a short and a long median horizontal fold and a denticle in 
froiit^of the vertical plate, all of which structures are absent in 
P. Of/lei. A comparison of the figures will_ also reveal differences 
in the palatal armatures of these two species. 

Plectopylis austeni has further, as regards palatal armature, 
some affinity with P. muspratti, but the latter is dextral and the 
parietal armature is quite different, as is also the general shape 

of the shell. . w, ..1 11*- 

An immature specimen, which accompanied the three adult ones 
from which the description was drawn up, has only bk whorls 
completed, and is interesting from the fact that it possesses two 
sets of armature, a quarter of a whorl distant from each other; 
these differ considerably from the mature barriers, the parietal 
armature consisting of only the vertical plate and a very short, 
slight horizontal fold in front of it, while the palatal armature is 
similar to that of mature shells, except that the folds, ridge, and 
denticles are very small and slight. 



92 



HELIOID^, 



88. Plectopylis oglei, Godwin-Austen. 

Helix {Plectopylis) oglei, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, 

p. 3, pi. 1, tig. 2 (shell and parietal armature). 
Helix {Atopa {Plectopylis)) oqlei, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 159, pi. 36, tigs. 29-31. 
Plectopylis oglei, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 146; Gude, 

Science Gossip, n. s. iv, 1898, p. 263, fig. 68 (shell and armature). 
Plectopylis (Chersaecia) oglei, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original descrijition: — "Shell dextral, widely umbilicated, sub- 
diseoid, dull pale brown with close-set sienna markings crossing the 
whorls. Epidermis thick and nacreous, and somewhat rough. 
Apex flat but slightly concave, the whorls rising regularly. 
"Whorls 8, the last descends slightly near the aperture, which is 
very oblique and ovate. Peristome slightly reflected, white, con- 
tinuous on the body-whorl, but not strongly developed. Palatal 




Fig. 39. — Flcctopylis oglei. 



teeth 6, 3rd, 4th, and 5tli equal, 6th longer, double. On the 
parietal side is one single vertical lamina with buttress-like sup- 
ports on posterior side above and below." {Godwin- Austen). 

Major diam. 27, minor 2o mm. ; alt. 8 mm. 

JIab. Assam : Sadiya {Ogle). 

The parietal armature consists of a single strong vertical plate, 
which gives oft' posteriorly two short ridges, one at the upper and 
one at the lower extremity (see fig. 39 d, which gives an enlarged 
view of a specimen ^-ith the outer wall removed). The palatal 
armature consists of six horizontal folds: the first, near the 
suture, very short and thin ; the second, third, fourth, fifth, and 



PLECTOPYLIS. 93 

sixth bilobed or bisected about the middle, where a slight vertical 
ridge couneots their posterior portions ; the posterior portion of 
the second fold is siuuous, somewhat S-shaped; the third, fourth, 
and fifth are slightly defieeted posteriorly ; the sixth is very un- 
equally bisected, the posterior portion being less than a thii*d the 
length of the anterior portion, which is I'aised at fii'st and then 
suddenly deflected (see fig. 39 g, which shows the inside of the 
outer wall of the shell enlarged). The illustrations were made 
from the type specimens in the collection of Lt.-Col. Godwin- 
Austen, who kindly lent them for examination. Figs. 39 e-g 
(enlarged), are taken from a specimen not qnite full-grown ; 
e shows the parietal and palatal armatures from the anterior 
side ; /" their posterior aspect, and g the inside of the outer wall 
with its folds. This specimen exhibits the remains of a previous 
parietal plate, one quarter of a whorl behind the permanent one. 
Fig. 39 h shows the inside of the outer shell-wall of the specimen 
depicted in fig. 39 d, the armature of which is incomplete, a 
portion having been broken away. Two immature specimens in 
different stages of growth exhibit armatures identical in all respects 
with those illustrated, except that the palatal folds are less bilobed. 
The species under consideration is allied to P. serica, but it 
is larger, and presents considerable differences in the palatal 
armature. 



89. Plectopylis serica, Godwin- Austen. 

Helix {Plectopylis) serica, Godwin-Austeii, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 608, 

pi. 73, fig-. 5 (shell and armature). 
Helix sericata, Hauler & Theobald, Conch. Tnd. 187-3, pi J-"!*^ 

figs. 8, 9. 
Helix (Atopa {Pleefopylis)) serica, Trvon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. ir)9, pi. 34, tigs. 4Q^'y2. 
Plectopylis serica, Tilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 14(); Gude, 

Science Gcssip, n. s. iii, 1897, p. 205, fig. 31 (shell and armature). 
Plectopylis (Chersaecia) serica, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description : — " Shell dextral, very openly umbilicated, 
discoid, pale horny brown, very flat above, with regular narrow 
oblique bands of brown crossing the whorls. Epidermis thin. 
The apex very slightly higher than the adjacent and outer whorls. 
Whorls 7, narrow and closely wound, flat above, the last de- 
scending near the aperture, which is diagonal ; outer margin cir- 
cular : peristome white, reflected, continuous on the bodv-whorl 
or parietal margin. The palatal teeth, six in number, are situated 
rather more than one-third the circumference from the aperture : 
and, counting from above downwards, the first is very minute, 
the 4tb, 5th, and 6th largest. On the parietal side of the whorl 
there is one single vertical lamina with short bifurcations or 
supports above and below." {Godwin- Austen.) 

Major diam. 12-5, minor 11 mm.: alt. 4 mm. 

Hah. India : Hengdan and Kopamedza Eidge, 5,000 ft, Burrail 



94 



HBLICID.K. 



Eange, jN'aga Hills {Godivin-A listen) ■ North Cachar (//. F. 
Blanford). 

Lt.-Col. Godwiu- Austen records the fact that one of the 
several specimens he opened, for the purpose of examining the 
internal barriers, contained two vertical parietal lamellae, a re- 
duplication of structure to which he thinks is clearly due the more 
compound forms of the plicas and lamellae in the Burmese species. 
I am inclined to think, however, that the second lamella to which 
he refers must be the remains of an earlier set of barriers as I 
have so frequently observed in other species, these earlier sets 
being gradually absorbed after the completion of the later sets. 
He states that it is essentially a forest species, found among dead 
leaves and moss. 

The parietal armature consists of a single vertical plate, which 
descends a little obliquely towards the aperture ; the upper ex- 
tremity gives off on both sides a very short support, and at the 




o be 

Fig. 40. — Plcctopylis serica. 

lower extremity, also on both sides, a stronger support, the 
anterior one being a little lower than the posterior one (see 
fif. 40rt). The palatal armature consists of five more or less 
oblique horizontal folds ; the first is longest, flexuous, and de- 
scends a little posteriorly, the second is horizontal, and bifurcates 
posteriorly, the upper arm straight, the lower descending obliquely; 
the third, shorter, at first proceeding horizontally, about the 
middle deflecting obhquely at an angle of about 100 degrees ; the 
fourth is a little longer, ascends a little at first and then deflects 
posteriorly at an angle of 90 degrees ; the fifth is shortest, hori- 
zontal, near the lower suture and parallel to it (see fig. 40 6, which 
shows the armatures, parietal and palatal, from the posterior side, 
and fig. 40 c, which shows the inside of the outer wall, with its 
palatal folds : all the figures are enlarged). Lt.-Col. Godwin- 
Austen {pp. cit. p. G08) mentions six palatal folds, and his figure 
shows a small one near the upper suture, of which, however, 
no trace is found in the specimen now figured, which is from 
Shiroifurar, and is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection; it measures 
11 millimetres in diameter. 



90. Plectopylis munipurensis, Godwin- Austen. 

Heli.v (Plectopylis) munipurensis, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, 

p 610, pi. 7;J, iijr. 6 (shell and armature). 
Helix (Atopa {Plectopylis)) munipurenMs, Trvon, Man. Couch. 

ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 160, pi. 34, fig.s. 56-58. 



PLECTOPrLIS. 



J?5 



Plecto}yylis munipurensi'^, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 
p. 146 ; Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iv, 1898, p. 263, fig. 69 (shell 
and armature). 

Plectopylis (Chersaecia) viunipurensis, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description. — " Shell dexti'al, openly umbilicated, 
tumidly discoid, thick, pale ochry -brown, with distant spots of 
colour on the upper surface. Umbilicus open and deep. Spire 
very depressedly conoid, suture shallow. Whorls 7, flat, the 
last narrowly constricted just behind the aperture and descending 
very slightly. At the upper and o^^ter margin of the aperture 
is a slight compression giving a waved outline to the lip. 
Aperture very oblique, semicircular ; peristome slightly reflected, 
white, a low narrow, curvilinear ridge joining the margins. The 
parietal vertical lamina is situated one-third of the circumference 
from the mouth, having an attached anterior short horizontal 
process equal to its length ; short supports on the posterior 




Fig. 41. — Plectopylis mimipureiisis. 

extremity and curving slightly forwards on the lower. Palatal 
teeth 7, the lirst and upper minute, the second, third, fourth, 
and fifth horizontal, the second being the longest, sixth minute, 
seventh rather lengthened, horizontal, backed by a single isolated 
small tooth." (^Godivin- Austen.) 

Major diam. lO-o-ll, minor 9-9-5 mm. ; alt. 5 mm. 

Bah. Burma: Ihang Y ollej, ^Innipur (God win- Austen). 

The parietal armature consists of a single, strong, vertical plate, 
which is obliquely deflected towards the aperture ; it has two 
slight supports posteriori}' — the lower a little deflected, the 
ujiper obliquely raised — and gives off anteriorly, at the upper 
extremity, a long, slightly raised ridge ; a minute denticle occurs 
just below the vertical plate (see fig. ild, which gives an enlarged 
view of the shell with a portion of the outer wall removed). The 
palatal armature consists of six more or less horizontal folds : 
the first very minute near the suture ; the second Ions: and 
desceuding a little obliquely towards the middle, with the posterior 
end suddenly raised ; the third and fourth also descending a little 



96 



HELICIDvB. 



obliquely, their posterior extremities dilated, almost bifurcated ; 
the fifth also descending a little, its posterior termination 
suddenly deflected ; the sixth, horizontal, with a minute denticle 
above, and an elongated one a little farther back, below the 
posterior termination of the fold (see fig. 41 g, \vhieh shows the 
inside of the outer wall of the shell). The figures are from 
the type specimens in the collection of Lt.-Col. God win- Austen, 
who obligingly lent them to me for this purpose. 

rigs. 41 a-c are of natural size, while figs. 41 d-g are enlarged ; 
e shows the armatures from the anterior and / from the posterior 
side, wliile g exhibits the inside of the outer shell-wall with the 
palatal barriers in situ. 

91. Plectopylis nagaensis, Godtvin- Austen. 

Helix (Plectopylis) nagaensis, God\vin-A.usten, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 600, 

pi. 73, fig. 4 (armature). 
Helix (Atopa (Plectopylis)) Jiayaensts, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 161, pi. 35, figs. 78, 79. 
Plectopylis nagaensis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 140 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iii, 1897, p. 206, fig. 33 (shell arid 

armature). 
Plectopylis [Chersaecia) nagaensis.! Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description. — " Shell sinistral, widely umbilicated, 
discoid, dull ochry-brown, epidermis thick and coarsely striate ; 
above depressedly pyramidal. Whorls 7, flat, narrow, and those 
near apex closely wound, the last very descending near mouth. 
Aperture diagonal, broadly lunvdar, outer margin well rounded, 




Fig. 42. — Plectopylh nagaensis. 

peristome very thick, white, reflected. A thick ridge on the 
parietal side, separated by sHght indentations, connects the 
inner margins ; and from the middle of this runs back a 
long horizontal lamella, terminating close to, but not connected 
with, the single vertical lamina ; this is thick and bifurcate below, 
tapering above and curving backwards ; a short free lamella is 



PLEOTOPYLIS. 97 

situated immediately under it. Palatal plicae 0, horizontal, the 
first and upper small, the remainder about equal in size. 

"Major diam. 12, minor 11 mm.; alt. 6 mm." {Godivin-Austen.) 

JJab. India : Prowi, head of the Lanier liiver, Naga Hills, 
Assam. 

A dwarfed variety is mentioned by Lt.-Col. Grodwin-iVusten, 
I. c. p. 610, from Sikhami, on the lowest part of the main water- 
shed of the Burrail, measuring only : major diam. 8, minor 
6 '75 mm. ; alt. 3 mm. 

The parietal armature consists of a strong vertical plate, a 
little deflected posteriorly at the lower extremity, where it 
terminates in a short strong ridge ; it also has a short support 
a little higher up on the anterior side, and another short ridge 
on the posterior side at tlie upper extremity. Below this plate 
is a free tliin horizontal fold, and a little above the middle of the 
plate, a short distance from it, rises a strong horizontal plate, 
which runs parallel with the whorl, and descends a little at the 
aperture, where it is united with the raised ridge of the parietal 
callus (see fig. 42 a and b, which show the shell with part of the 
outer wall removed). 

The palatal armature consists of : first, a thin bilobed horizontal 
fold near the upper suture ; secondly, a stronger horizontal fold, 
with a small deiiticle at its posterior termination (between these 
two folds, in a line with their posterior terminations, occurs a 
minute denticle) ; thirdly, a horizontal fold, descending a little 
posteriorly, where it is slightly notched ; fourthly, a similar 
horizontal fold deflected posteriorly at first, then slightly 
raised and notched ; fifthly, a shorter but stronger horizontal 
fold with the posterior end more strongly deflected, and also 
slightly notched ; sixthly, a thinner but longer horizontal fold 
near the lower suture, attenuated anteriorly (see fig. 42 J, which 
shows the inner side of the outer shell-wall with its palatal folds). 

Between the posterior terminations of the fifth and sixth folds 
occurs a very slight thin fold extending much further posteriorly 
than the main folds ; this may prove not to be constant ; it is 
not mentioned by Lt.-Col. God win- Austen in his description. 
The specimen figured is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection, and, 
measures : major diam. 11'5, minor, 10 mm. ; alt. 5"5 mm. 



92. Plectopylis kengtungensis, Gude. 

Flectopylis {Cherscecia) kengtwigensis, Gude, Proc. IMalac. Soc. 
London, xi, 1914, p. 54, with text-figure. 

Oriqinal description : — " Shell sinistral, widely umbilicated, 
discoid, corneous. Whorls 6|, narrow, increasing slowly and 
regularly, somewhat flattened above, rounded below, the last 
abruptly and shortly descending in front and slightly dilated at 
the mouth. Spire a little raised, suture impressed. Aperture 
obovate, peristome slightly thickened and reflected ; upper margin 
nearly straight, outer rounded, columellar ascending ; parietal 

n 



98 



HELICID^. 



callus with a raised flexuous ridge slightly notched at the juuctious 
above and below. 

"Parietal armature (fig. 43 6) composed of a vertical plate, 
deflexed posteriorly above, with a short obliquely ascending ridge 
below, projecting on both sides ; a long horizontal fold rises a 
short distance from the vertical plate, running parallel with the 
whorl and joining the raised ridge at the aperture; below this 
occurs a second, but very short fold, 2 mm. long, also rising 
close to the vertical plate and in a line with its lower extremity ; 
below the vertical plate runs a third, but very thin and slight 
horizontal fold close to the lower suture and joining the ridge at 
the aperture. The palatal armature (tig. 43 a) consists of : first, 
a thin bilobed horizontal fold near the upper suture ; next, two 
horizontal rather thin elevated folds, followed by two stouter 
aad rather less elevated folds, obliquely ascending towards the 
mouth ; and lastly, a thin horizontal fold near the lower suture, 




Fit'. 43. — Vlectopylis kevgtungensis. (From Proc. Malac. Soc, London.) 

lont^er than the others and gradually attenuated anteriorly ; all, 
except the first fold, are provided postei-iorly with a slight 
denticle, while a low transverse ridge unites their posterior 
terminations. Fig. 43 c gives the posterior view of the parietal 
and palatal barriers." (Gude.) 

Major diam. 12, minor 10, alt. 4-75 mm. 

Hab. E. Burma : Ivengtung ( Woodihorpe). 

Three specimens in the Godwin-Austen collection, British 
Museum, were found upon examination to be closely allied to 
P. naqaensls, G.-A. The new species, however, is more depressed 
and lacks the spiral sculpture of its ally which also has the 
barriers placed nearer the aperture, and the third, fourth, and 
fifth palatal folds more oblique, while l-engtangensis possesses a 
short horizontal median fold which is absent in nagaensis. It also 
resembles P. muspratti, Gude, in having the palatal folds united 
posteriorly by a low ridge and in having the barriers at the same 
distance from the aperture, but in the latter species the palatal 
folds are much shorter and stouter and it lacks the long horizontal 
parietal fold as well as the short median fold, being only provided 
Avith a short fold at the aperture. 



PLECTOPYLI«. 99 

93. Plectopylis leiophis, Benson. 

Helix (Plectopylis) leiophis, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, v, 1860, 
p. 246 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 94 ; Godwin-Austen, 
P. Z.S. 1874, pi. 74, tig. 2 (shell and armature) ; Tr^-on, Struct. 
Couch, iii, 1884, p. 33, pi. 94, iig. 25. 

Helix (Atopa (Plectojnjlis)) leiophis, Tryon, Man. Couch, ser. 2, iii, 
1887, p. 163, pi. 35, Hgs. 88, 89. 

Plectopylis leiophis, Pilsbr}', Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 145 ; Gude, 
Scieuce Gossip, N. s. v, 1898, p. 10, tig. 76 (shell and armature). 

Plectojnjlis (Chersaecia) leiophis, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Helix refiuja, PfeifFer in Philippi, Abb. Beschr. Conchyl. iii, 1847, 
Helix, p. 2, pi. 10, fig. 4 ; ibid., Conch.-Cab., Ileliceen, i, 1848, 
p. 383, pi. 66, tigs. 21-23 ; Eeeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 82, 
tig. 436; Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxvi, 1857, p. 249; Hanley & 
Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 13, tig. 8 (non Gould). 

Helix {Plectopylis) pseudophis (Blanford), Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 
1874, p. 610, pi. 74, fig. 3 (shell and armature). 

Helix {Atopa {Plectopylis)) pseudophis, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 
1887, p. 162, pi. 35,' iigs. 80, 81. 

Plectopylis jjseudophis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 146; 
Gude, Scieuce Gossip, n. 8. iv, 1897, p. 170, tig. 62 (shell and 
armature) ; v, 1898, p. 17, fig. 77 (armature). 

Plectopi/lis leiophis {= pseudophis), Gude, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
viii, 1908, p. 88. 

Original description :— " Testa sinistrorsa, late et profuude 
umbilicata, subdiscoidea, superne planata, interdum omuiuo plana 
vix solidula, oblique et arcuatira rugoso-striata, lineis nonuullis 
spiralibus decussata, sub epidermide scabra, f usco-cornea, albida ; 
spirae apiee vix elevatiusculo Itevigato, sutura inipressa ; anfractibus 
5g-6| angustis, ultimo supra peripheriam angulato, aiitice valde 
deflexo, basi rotuudata, apertura valde obliqua subhorizontali, 
lunari, peristomate retiexo albido, marginibus lamina sinuosa 
elevata, medio lamellam profunde iutranteni, usque ad januam 
attingeutem emittente junctis. Janua pliciformi fauciali prima 
I'emota ; lamina 1 parietali verticali simplici forti lamellam apei*- 
turalem valde elongatam superne emittente, infra earn lamellis 
duabus brevibus (a lamina spatio brevi separatis) muuita ; plicis 
(> palatalibus intrantibus, quinta robustiore obliqua. 

"Diam. major 11-14, minor 8-11-5, alt. 3-f) mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Burma: Kwadouk, Tliyet-Myo (Benson); Akoutoung 
{Blanford). 

Lt."-Col. Godwin-Austen stated (P. Z. S. 1875, p. 44) that 
P. leiophis was identical with Gould's Helix refuj/a, basing this 
identification on the specimens in the British Museum, so labelled 
by Cuming. Upon compai-ing the latter with Benson's type 
specimens, obligingly lent to me in 1898 by Dr. S. ¥. Harmer, 
then in charge of the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, 
I found they were indeed identical, but tlie specimens in the 
British Museum had been wrongly identified by Cuming and 
Pfeiffer. They formed the subject of the illustrations purporting 
to represent ff. refuga in Pliilippi's work, quoted above, in 
Keeve's Conch. Icon., and in Conch.-Cab. All these figures 
must, therefore, be referred to P. leiophis. 

h2 



100 HELICID.^E. 

Lt.-Col. Godwin- Austen in 1874 described and figured Plecto- 
pylis pseudo])his which he considered to be allied to P. perarcta, 
evidently overlooking its close relationship with P. leiophis, as 
pointed ovit by me in 1897 and 1898 when I investigated these 
forms. The principal points of difference alleged between the 
two supposed species appear to be the following : in P. leioplds 
the parietal vertical plate is rounded in outline, in pseudopTiis it 
is toothed ; in the former the lower parietal liorizoutal fold is 
continuous, in the latter it is interrupted; leiojiliis has a very 
short horizontal fold between the long upper and the shorter 
lower parietal fold, a feature lacking in pseudo2)his ; while, lastly, 
the latter was said to be more elevated in the spire. I was at 
first inclined to regard these differences as specifically valid, more 
especially as I had not been able to examine the barriers of 
P. pseudophis when dealing with that species in 1897, and had to 
rely upon Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen's figure. In 1898 the Eev, 
Ashington Bulleu, since deceased, favoured me with a specimen 
which accorded with P. pseudopliis in every respect except that 
it had an additional short fold between the loug upper and the 
shorter lower horizontal parietal fold, resembling leiophis in that 
feature, but, as I pointed out at the time, this character appeared 
to be iuconstant in that species. In 1908, however, I I'eceived 
three specimens o£ PlectopyJis from Mr. Robert Cairns, which at 
first I was incHned to regard as an undescribed form intermediate 
between the two species. This led me carefully to examine once 
more all the specimens of leiophis in my collection, which had 
considerably increased since first I studied these structures. 
This examination proved to me conclusively that the features 
differentiating the two alleged species are inconstant, for while 
some specimens have the elevated spire and the toothed outline 
of the vertical lamina of P. pseudopliis, and possess the short fold 
between the two other horizontal folds, stated to characterize P.leio- 
pihis, others, again, have a depressed spire, although the vertical 
lamina is toothed in a varying degree, being entire in some. The 
palatal armature is identical in all the specimens examined. It 
appears, therefore, that no constant character differentiates 
P. leiophis and P. 2'>seudophis and the two must consequently be 
united under one name. fig. 46 a represents a specimen, labelled 
pseiidophis, in the British Museum, while figs. 46 b and c are 
copied from Godwin-Austen's original figures. The shell drawn 
in fig. 44 rt is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection, showing the anterior 
view of the two armatures, b represents the posterior aspect of 
these, while c shows the pai'ietal wall with its vertical lamina and 
horizontal folds. Finally figs. 45 a and b exhibit the parietal 
and palatal armatures respectively of the shell I received from 
the late Rev. Ashington Bullen, which I had referred to 
P. pseudopliis. 

The armature of P. leiophis may now be described as follows : — 

The parietal barriers comprise: a strong vertical lamina, toothed 

or entire, angular above, where it gives off posteriorly an abruptly 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



101 



descending short ridge, while below it deflects obliquely and gives 
off on the anterior side a comparatively short horizontal fold ; a 
long free horizontal fold rises close to the vertical plate, a little 
below its upper extremity, revolving parallel with the whorl as 
far as the aperture, when 'it unites with the ridge on the parietal 
callus ; between these two folds sometimes occurs a very short, 
free, horizontal fold ; (one immature specimen in my collection 
possesses in addition an elongated denticle between tliis short 
fold and the long upper fold)/ A very thin, free, horizontal fold 






Fig. 44. — TlectojyyUs Iciophis. 




Fig. 45. — Flectapylls leiophis. 





. 46. — Plccfopyll!^ psciidopMs. {a, 
original ; h and c, after Godwin- 
Ansten.) 



rises below the vertical plate, running close to the lower suture 
and terminating near the apertural ridge. 

The palatal armature consists of : lirst, a short thin horizontal 
fold near the suture ; secondly, a longer horizontal fold, somewhat 
deflected posteriorly, with an additional short wedge-like fold 
attached to it, which has posteriorly, a little above it, a small 
denticle; thirdly, a shorter horizontal fold widened towards the 
posterior extremity, then suddenly attenuated and indented, and 
Anally again widened a little ; fourthly, a short, slightly curved 
horizontal fold, descending a little posteriorly, also slightly 



102 HELICID.^. 

attenuated and indented near tlie posterior extreiuitj ; fifthly, a 
crescent-shaped, sub-vertical fold (the concave side being towards 
the aperture and the lower suture), with a small denticle near its 
posterior estreinit}' ; and sixthly, a longer curved horizontal fold, 
having its upper edge reflected towards tlie fifth fold, and 
possessing a small denticle near its posterior extremity. 



94. Plectopylis refuga, Gould. 

Helix refiiya, Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 1846, p. 99. 
Helix {Corilla) rufwja, Gould, Otia Conch. 18G2, p. 198. 
Plectopylis refiiya, Blanford, Ikitish Burma Gazetteer, i, 1879, 

p. 709 ; Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. v, 1898, p. 15, fig. 75 (shell 

and armature). 
Plectopylis {Chersaecia) refutja, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description : — " Testa sinistrorsa, discoidea, supra plana, 
infra concava, viridi-cornea : anfr. (i arete volutis, confertim 
striatis, ultimo prope apertui'am deflexo ; sutura impressa ; apertura 
perobliqua, subcordiformi, peristomate albo, reflexo, callo sinuoso 
connexo ; I'auce lamella alba, ilexuosa, ad anfractuin penultimum 
volvente. 

" Diani. 5 [=]5-25 ram.]; alt. 4 pall. [=5 mm.]," (Goidd.) 

Bab. Burma: Tavoj (Goidd) ; Tenassevim, 'Pegu (Blanford). 

Plectopylis refuga has long been confused with P. leiophis and 
the two Mere by most authors regarded as identical. This con- 
fusion arose from the fact that the figures, purporting to represent 
the former, given by Pbilippi, Pfeiffer, and Reeve, were based on 
the specimens in the Cuming collection, now in the British 
Museum, and, as 1 have already stated when discussing P. leiophis, 
wrongly identified as P. refuga by lieeve and Pfeiffer, as careful 
comparison with Benson's types has proved to me. The short 
description given of the species by Gould might apply equally well 
to several distinct shells and is insufficient to enable us to 
determine which form he had before him. 

The type specimens of this and t\^'0 other species of Plectopylis 
described by Gould — repercussa and anguina — being in the 
possession of the New York .State Museum, I requested the loan 
of them in 1898, but the Trustees decided not to let the specimens 
go out of the countr}'. Dr. Merrill, the Director of the Museum, 
however, veiy obligingly had the sliells photographed and their 
armature sketched for me, and tliese Mere reproduced in ' Science 
Gossip ' at the time, the same figures doing service on the present 
occasion. Dr. Bagg, Dr. Merrill's assistant, kindly communicated 
the following notes concerning P. refuga : 

" Helix refuga, Gould, catalogue number, 271 ; original number, 
A, 562. Two earliest volutions smooth, remainder of shell very 
finely striated and hairy. Outer volution on lower side angular. 
Greater diameter nearly | inch [=19 mm.]; smaller diameter, 
^^ inch [=14 mm.]; alt. -^ inch [=4 mm.]; length of horizontal 



PLEOTOPYLIS. 



103 



fold at aperture, j% inch [=5 mm.]. Basal denticle [i.e. vertical 
parietal plate j cup-shaped." 

A discrepancy occurs bet^^•een the measurements originally given 
by Gould and those supplied by Dr. Bagg ; as the diameter indi- 
cated by the former, however, agrees with that of the photographs, 
allowance being made for their enlargement, Gould's measure- 
ments must, I think, be accepted as correct. 

From figs. 47 d and e, which have been copied from Dr. Bagg's 
sketches, it appears that the parietal armature consists of a 
strong vertical plate which is concave posteriorly ; on the posterior 






»(iI3 



Fig. 47. — Pledojiylis refuga. 

side there are three short horizontal folds, the upper longest, the 
median shortest ; a short horizontal fold at the aperture is united 
to the flexuous ridge (see fig. 47<?, which shows the parietal wall) ; 
while the palatal armature appears to consist of six folds : the 
first three short and horizontal ; the fourth strong, vertical, 
slightly indented about the middle ; the fifth and sixth horizontal 
and thin (see fig. 47 d, which gives the posterior aspect of both 
armatures). Tigs. 47 a-c are reproduced from the photographs of 
the type specimens, enlarged two diameters. 



95. Plectopylis perrierse, Gude. 

Plectopylis perrierue, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iv, 1898, p. 231, 
tig, t)7 (shell and armature) ; ibid., Journ. Malac. vii, 1898, p. 14, 
fig. 10. 

Plectopylis (Chersaecia) perrieraej Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 
1899, p. 148. 

Original description: — " Shell sinistral, discoid, widely and deeply 
umbilicated, pale corneous, very finely and regularly striated, and 
decussated by spiral lines. Suture slightly impressed, spire 



104 



HELICIDJS. 



flattened, apex a little raised. Whorls six to seven, increasing 
slowly and regularly, flattened above, rounded below, the last 
angulated above the periphery and round the umbilicus, and 
descending shortly and abruptly in front. Aperture heart-shaped ; 
peristome white, scarcely thickened, a little reflected ; the mar- 
gins united by an elevated sinuous ridge on the parietal callus, 
notched at the lower junction. Umbilicus wide and deep. Parietal 
wall with a thin vertical plate, strongly deflected posteriorly 
below, and giving off a short horizontal ridge at the upper 
extremity on each side ; a long horizontal flexuous fold rises 
close to the upper extremity of this plate on the anterior side, 
descending suddenly at first, then ascending gradually, and after- 
wards gradually descending, following the deflection of the last 
whorl, becoming united to the ridge at the aperture ; a second, 
shorter, horizontal fold occurs below this one, rising close to the 




Fig. 48. — Flectopylis pcrrierce. 

lower extremity of the vertical plate, proceeding horizontally at 
first, and then ascending a little ; another very thiu fold rises 
below the vertical plate, running parallel to the lower suture as 
far as the aperture, where it unites with the ridge. Palatal folds, 
five ; the first, rather long and thin, near to and parallel with the 
suture, with a deep indentation near the posterior extremity, 
dividing it into two unequal parts ; the second, horizontal, a little 
deflected posteriorly, with an elongated denticle posteriorly, and a 
second, smallei-, one above the first ; the third fold much shorter, 
strongly curved downwards posteriorly, with a minute denticle 
posteriorly ; the fourth fold vertical with an obliquely descending 
ridge posteriorly at the upper extremity, and bifurcated at the 
lower extremity, the anterior arm of the bifurcation the shorter ; 
a minute denticle occurs near the ridge at the upper extremity 
and a second one near the middle, both on the posterior side ; 
the fifth fold is thin, horizontal, and strongly deflected on both 
sides." (Glide.) 



PLECTOPTLIS. 



105 



Major diam. 15, minor 12 mm. ; alt. 5 mm. 

Hah. Burma: Thyet-Myo, Pegu; Kyengdwen Valley, N.W. 
Burma {Ogle). 

In contour tliis species resembles PUctopylis perarcta, but the 
shell is much larger. The parietal armature further couuects it 
A\ ith the species just named, but the palatal armature is more like 
that of P. leiophis. 

The specimen figured, and one in the late Miss Linter's 
collection, have the measurements given in the diagnosis, but my 
second specimen measures only 12-5 millimetres in diameter. 
Figs. 48 a-c show the shell in three different aspects, natural 
size ; figs. 48 d-f are enlarged ; d shows the parietal and palatal 
armatures from the posterior side ; /, the inside of the outer wall 
with the palatal folds and denticles ; and e, the parietal wall with 
its plate and folds. 

Two specimens collected by Ogle, in the (lodwiu-Austen 
collection, now in the British Museum, I refer to tliis species. 

9G. Plectopylis shiroiensis, Godivin- Austen. 

Heliv (Plectopylis) shiroimsis, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 609, 

pi. 73, iig. 3 (shell and armature). 
Helix shiroiensis, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 187o, pi. 159, 

%. 7. 
Helix (Atopa (Plectopi/lis)) shiroiensis, Tryon, Man. Couch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 163, pi. 35, fig. 90. 
Plectopylis shiroie7isis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 14o ; 

Glide, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 155, fig. 20 (shell and 

armature), toni. cit. p. 204. 
Plectopylis (Chersaecia) shiroiensis, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Orirjinal description :—'■' '^\\e\\ sinistral, openly umbilicated, 
discoidal, thin, light brown, very finely striated. Apex flatly 
convex; suture slightly impressed; umbilicus open and deep. 
Whorls 6, the last rounded, sharply compressed on the lower part 
behind the aperture and descending to it. Aperture broadly 
lunate, very oblique ; peristome wliite, continuous, reflected. 
From the centre of the parietal ridge completing the peristome a 
lamella runs up that side of the whorl for three-sevenths^ of the 
circumference towards the parietal plication, but does not join it; 
and here a short free horizontal lamella lies parallel to and below 
it. The parietal vertical lamina is simple, with one short support 
at the lower anterior end ; and below this is another, free, narrow, 
horizontal lamella. Palatal teeth consist of 4, that are horizontal ; 
the 4th is long, narrow, and curving inwards. Between the 3rd 
and 4th is a vertical double-notched tooth, evidently a compound 
and x'epresentative of two very oblique plicae." {Godwin- Austen.) 

Major diam. 8, minor 7 mm. ; alt. 4 mm. 

Bah. India: Shiroifurar, N.E. of Munipur. 

P. shiroiensis is allied to P. perarcta, and is likewise sinistral but 
the shell is smaller, it is more raised in the spire and the last whorl 
is deflected in front. There are also differences in the armature : 



106 HELICID.E. 

of the parietal barriers the principal horizontal lamella is more 
flexuous, being somewhat raised towards the vertical plate as well 
as towards the aperture before its final deflection at its junction 
Avith the parietal callus ; it is also much broader. The second 
horizontal plate is likewise broader and flexuous, xA'hile both are a 
little further distant from the vertical plate (see tig. 49 a). The 
vertical plate is smaller and is rounded at its upper extremity, 
while it is not deflected posteriorly below, as is the case in i^erarcta. 
There are, besides, two small very short ridges given off from 
the extremities of the vertical plate on its posterior side, and the 
third horizontal is a little longer, as well as more flexuous. The 
chief difference, however, is in the palatal barriers, as may be seen 
on refei'ence to figs. 49 h-d. The first fold is horizontal, small, 
and bilobed, close to the suture ; then come t\x'o horizontal folds. 






Fig. 49. — Tlectopylis shiroiensis. 

small but comparatively broad ; next a broad and strong vertical 
bilobed lamella, giving off on the posterior side two short ridges 
from the base of the lobes, and finally below this a small but broad 
hoi'izontal fold with a small denticle a little above and posterior to 
it. Fig. 49 b shows the barriers from the side of the aperture and 
fig. 49 d from behind. The specimen figured is in Mr, Ponsonby's 
collection. 

97. Plectopylis perarcta, Bhnford. 

Helix (Plectopylis) perarcta, Elaiiford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, ]865, p. 75 ; 

(-todwin-Austeu, P. Z. S. 1874, pi. 74, tig. 4 (shell and armatm-e) ; 

ibid., op. cit. 1888, p. 243. 
Helix perarcta, Pfeiffer, Novit. Conch, ser. 1, iii. 1869, p. 502, pi. 108, 

figs. 13-^15 ; Hauloy & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 13, tig. 3. 
Helix (Atopa [Plectopylis)) perarcta, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 162, pi. 35," li-s. 91-95. 
Plectopylis perarcta, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix. 1894, p. 146 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 155, tig-. 19. 
Plectopylis {Chersaecia) perarcta, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Oricjincd description. — "Shell sinistral, widely umbilicated, discoid, 
rather thin, white, transversely sinuously striated, with faintly 



PLEOTOPYLIS. 107 

marked decussating spiral lines above and below. Apex minutely 
granulate, slightly raised above the Hat spire, suture rather deeply 
impressed. AVhorls 6, convex above and at the periphery, the 
last a little compressed behind the mouth, descendiug suddenly to 
the aperture, which is oblique and roundly lunate ; peristome 
white, expanded all round ; margins joined by a somewhat curved 
ridge, from the centre of which a lamella runs up the whorl 
towards the parietal pHcation, which, however, it does not join. 
The parietal vertical lamina is single, simple, rather short, slightly 
curved, with a rudimentary transverse plait at the top. Two 
free horizontal lamellae occur beneath that running to the aper- 
ture, the lowest being the longest and thinnest, and running back 
beneath the base of tlie vertical lamina. Palatal teeth G, all 
horizontal except the 4th and 5th, which are slightly oblique. 
Umbilicus open, deep, exposing all the whorls. 

"Major diam. 11, minor 9 mm.; alt. 4 mm." (Blanforcl.) 
Hah. Upper Burma : Mya Leit Doung, near Ava {Blanforcl) ; 
Hlindet {Spratt, Coll. Ponsonh)/). 

The specitnen here figured is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection and 
measures 10 millim. in diameter. The parietal armature is com- 
posed of a broad vertical plate, angulated above, but gradually 
decreasing towards the base, where it is also slightly deflected 
posteriorly. A horizontal lamella rises anteriorly about its middle, 
very close to it, yet distinctly separate (see fig. 50 a), proceeding 
parallel to the whorl, deflecting with it to\\'ards the aperture and 
joining the raised flexuous bilobed ridge of the parietal callus, 
which is separate from the peristome (see fig. 50 c). Another 
horizontal but very short lamella, below the principal one, also 
rises close to the vertical plate ; a short free horizontal lamella is 



>^!>>o 





b 

Fig. 50. — Tlectopylis perareia. 




seen belo\\ the vertical plate, but it does not pass beyond it 
posteriorly (see fig. 50 a ; this third horizontal lamella is also 
shown sideways in figs. 50 h and c). Lt.-Col. Godwin- Austen, 



Soe. Bengal, xlviii (1S79), p. 2), he informs us that that species 
resembles P. perarcta in this respect. The specimen here figured, 
however, has the principal horizontal lamella continuous, a fact 
which induced me at first to doubt the specific identity of the shell 



108 HELICID^. 

figured by me with P. perarcta^ but as the second horizontal 
lamella is joined to the vertical plate in P. pseudoiihis, and in my 
specimen this lamella is quite tree, as stated to be the case in 
P. perarcta, it is evident that my shell is not P. pseudopliis ; more- 
over, Mr, Blanford, in describing the shell, states that from the 
centre of the curved ridge at the aperture, " a lamella runs up the 
whorl towards the parietal plication." It may, therefore, safely 
be assumed that in the type specimen the liorizontal lamella is 
jiot interrupted, and the question arises whether the shell figured 
by Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen was perfect in having the hori- 
zontal plate interrupted in the manner described. The palatal 
armature is simple, and consists of four short, somewhat strong 
horizontal folds, equidistant and parallel, with a smaller one above, 
close to the suture, and two small ones in a line with each other 
below, also near the suture (see figs. 50 h and c, the former figure 
showing the posterior, and the latter the anterior ends of the 
folds; of the two bottom folds only one is visible in either 
figure). 

98. Plectopylis brachydiscus, Godwin- Austen. 

Helix (Pkctopi/lis) brachi/discns, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlviii, 

1879, p. 2, pi. 1, tig. 1 (shell and parietal armature). 
Helix [Atojya {Plectopylis)) brachydiscus/^vjow, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 162, pi. 86, figs. 32-31. 
Plectopylis brachydiscus, Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 146 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 154, fig. 18 (shell and 

armature). 
Plectopylis {Chersaecia) brachydiscus, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Ori(jincd description : — " Shell dextral, umbilicus very open and 
shallow, very discoid, rather strong, dull umber-broA\n, epidermis 
thick with a cloth-like texture, finely and beautifully ribbed longi- 
tudinally ; in young fresh shells the upper outer margin is closely 
set with a strong x-egular epidermal fringe about -075 inches long. 
Spire quite flat, approaching the concave in some specimens, the 
apex itself having a subpapillate form. Whorls 7, the last rather 
flat on the side and angular above, descending at the aperture, 
which is very oblique and oblate. Peristome strongly refiected, 
thickened, white, the margins connected by a well raised ridge, 
notched above and below, A long horizontal lamella is given off 
from the upper middle portion of this towards the vertical parietal 
lamina, but only extends for 0-20 inches, then terminates, but at 
•15 inches is again developed, becoming thicker and higher as it 
approaches the vertical lamina and ending just short of it, in this 
I'espect being similar to P. perarcta. 

" The parietal vertical lamina is pointed above and gives off from 
the lower basal end a short lamella towards the aperture, and a 
very slight short thin, free lamina is to be seen just below the 
vertical barriers. Palatal teeth simple, six, the 2ud, 3rd, 4th, and 
5th are the best developed, the let and last are small, 2nd the 
longest." ( Godwin- Austen.) 



PLECTOPYLIS. 109 

Major diam. 21-24, minor 17-21-5 mm. ; alt. 6-7 mm. 

Ilah. Lower Burma : Mule-it rauge, east of Moulmain 
(Limborg). . . 

The shell forming the subject of the present illustration is m 
Mr. Ponsonby's collection and, being old and weatherworn, does 
not possess the marginal fringe of hairs referred to and shown in 
Godwin-Austen's figure. 

The parietal callus has a strong, raised, flexuous ridge, separated 
from the peristome by a notch above and below, and has, in 
addition, about the middle, a free lamella, 3 millim. long (see 
tig. 51 a). The parietal armature further consists of a broad, 
vertical plate, angulated above, and giving off at its lower end, 






a he 

Fig. 51.— Plcc(opi/l is brachydisctts. 

towards the aperture, a horizontal plate, 4 millimetres long, which 
slopes abruptly towards the parietal wall and gradually loses itself, 
while on the posterior side there is a very short ridge abruptly sloping 
obliquely downwards (see figs. 51 a and h) ; about the middle of 
the vertical plate a free horizontal plate occurs, about 7 millimetres 
lono', separated from the vertical plate by a distance of 1 milli- 
metre, decreasing in height as it approaches the aperture, and then 
suddenly terminating (see fig. 51 a). The palatal armature is very 
curious (see fig. 51 c, which shows it in situ), and consists of six 
folds ; the first straight and horizontal ; the second also straight 
and horizontal, but with a small bifurcation at the posterior end ; 
the third partly horizontal and deflecting posteriorly at an obtuse 
angle ; the fourth very short horizontally, descending vertically 
for a short distance and then deflecting posteriorly ; the tifth very 
short, flexuous, and nearly vertical ; while, finally, the sixth is 
again almost horizontal. A little below, and to the left of the sixth 
fold is a small tooth, while above, posteriorly to the first fold, and 
almost in a line with the bifurcation of the second fold, are three 
minute teeth. 

In looking through the British Museum collection I came 
across two immature specimens, which are of interest from the 
fact that the armature differs in some important particulars from 
the mature type. The parietal vertical plate in these specimens 
is sinuous in outline at the upper part, and at its lower extremity 
gives off anteriorly a horizontal fold 3 mm. long, which slopes 
abruptly and slightly ascends the parietal wall towards the upper 
suture ; on the posterior side it is furnished with a short ridge ; a 
very short horizontal fold occurs between this vertical plate and 



110 



HELICIDjE. 



the lower suture. The free horizontal plate has not yet been 
formed. About 3 mm. behind the vertical parietal plate is found 
the remnant of a previous barrier, almost absorbed. The palatal 
folds are similar to those of mature specimens, but the second is 
not bifurcate. 



99. Plectopylis dextrorsa, Benson. 

Helix {Plectopylis) rcfwja, var. dextrorsa, Bensou, A. M. N. H. 

ser. .3, V, 1860, p. 4.' 
Helix refiiga, var. dextrorsa, Hanley & Theobald, Couch, lud. 1870, 

pi. 13", fig. 9. 
Helix (Atopa (Plectopylis)) refuqa, var. dextrorsa, Trj'ou, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 104, pi. 35, fig. 2. 
Helix (Plectopylis) dextrorsa, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 44. 
Plectopylis dextrorsa, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 145 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 156, fig. 21. 
Plectopylis (Chersaecia) dextrorsa, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original descrijyiion : — " Januapliciformi fauciali prima remota; 
lamina 1 parietali magna verticali simplice antice lamellam 1 in- 
feriorem elongatiusculam eniittente, lamella superioi*e valde 
elongata aperturse laminam parietalem non omnino attingente, 
plica basali obsoleta; plicis palatalibus intrantibus 6, tribus 
superioribus et basali elongatis siiuiosis, quarta et quinta brevibus, 
postice plicis obliquis distinctis munitis." (Benson.) 

Major diam. 17, minor 14 mm. ; alt. 5 mm. 

Bab. Lower Burma : Phye-than, Tenasserim Valley (Benson). 

Oi'iginally described by Benson as a variety of P. reftiga, it was 
raised to specific rank by Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen in 1875, who 
stated that it was very close to P. vseudoplds [^ = leiophls\ but his 






Fig. 52. — Plcetojyylis dextrorsa. 

figure of that species— copied ante p. 101, fig. 4G — does not bear 
out this view, and after careful comparison I came to consider its 
nearest ally to be P. brachij discus. The shell, however, is smaller 
than in that species, measuring 16 millim, in diameter, and there 



PLECTOPTLIS. Ill 

are important differences in the armature of the two. In the 
present species the pai'ietal vertical plate is rounded at the top 
and forms a short ridge posterioi-h'', while another much smaller 
ridge is formed at the base, first proceeding a little horizontally 
and then becoming deflected towards the lower suture (see 
fig. 52 a) ; the jjrincipal horizontal fold begins at a little distance 
from the vertical plate as in P. hraclnjdiscus, hut it is placed above 
the middle and therefore nearer the upper suture than in that 
species, and instead of revolving parallel with the suture, it bends 
upwards a little and proceeds without interruption as far as its 
junction with the raised ridge of the parietal callus (see tig. 52 a) 
at the aperture, whereas in its ally this is interrupted. Differences 
in the palatal armature will be observed on reference to fig. 52?>, 
where the inner side of the shell-wall bearing the folds and 
denticles is shown. The first fold is long and horizontal ; the 
second is also horizontal and bifurcates as in the other species ; 
next come two sei'ies of three folds each, the anterior ones hori- 
zontal, the posterior ones smaller and descending obliquely ; and 
lastly we find a strong broad denticle parallel with and near to 
the lower suture, with a smaller one posteriorly in a line with it. 
Fig. 52 c shows the barriers — parietal and palatal — from the 
posterior side. All the figures are based on a specimen in 
Mr. Ponsonby's collection. The Benson collection in the Uni- 
versity Museum of Zoologj^ Cambridge, contains four specimens 
of P. dextrorsw, they measure 17 mm. in diameter. 



100. Plectopylis shanensis, StoUczka. 

Plectopj/lis shanensis, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1873, p. 170. 
Helix [Plectopi/lis) shanensis. Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 187o, 

pi. 149, _fig^. 8, 9 (shell) ; Nev'ill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 71 

{shmoensis). 
Helix {Atopa (Plecfoj/i/lis)) shanensis. Try on, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 162, pi. 3ti,'iigs. 10, 11. 
Helix {Plectopylis) U-ilamellaris, Godwin-Austei], P. Z. S. ]875, p. 43. 
Plectopi/lis shanensis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 146 ; 

Glide, Science GosBip, N. s. iv, 1897, p. 36, fig. 48 ; vi, 1899, p. 77, 

tig. 105 (shell and armatnre). 
Plectopylis {Chersaecia) shanensis, Gude, op. cit. vii, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description : — " PI. testa planorbulari, pallide fusca, 
apice minutissime exserto, pallido ; anfractibus 6i, augustis, sutura 
indistincte marginata junctis, primis 2| ad tribus minute riigulosis, 
caeteris transversim oblique striatis atque concentrice obsolete 
striolatis, ultimo ad peripheriam subrotundato, infra paululum 
augustiore, ad aperturam modice deflexo ; umbilico spatioso, 
anfractus omnes sutura distincte marginata separates exhibente ; 
apertura angulum circiter 55^ attingentem cum axi formante. 
peristomate undique expansiusculo atque incrassato, margaritaceo 
lutescente, circumdata, ad utramque terminationem labii subangu- 
lati profunde incisa ; iabio plicis tribus distinctis instructo, plica 



112 



HELICIDiE. 



mediana crassissima, ea atque infera inulto tenuiore usque ad 
peristoma extensis, tertia interposita a margine remote evauescente, 
sed usque ad laminam interuam verticalem, circiter tertiam partetn 
unius circuitus a margine apertui-ali distautem exteusa; ultimo 
anfractu intus supra laminam verticalem antice plicis sex erassius- 
cidis, postice plicis decem brevioribus atque tenuioribus instructo. 

" Diam. maj. 21-5, min. 17, et 6-5 diam. aut alt. aperturte 7"5 mm. 

"Diam. spec, secundi minoris sunt: 18"5, 15, 5-8, G-6 mm." 
{Stoliczla .) 

Hah. Burma : Slian States (StoUczl-a) ; Ivuengan, Pegu 
(Theobald). 

The two shells collected by Theobald, which were discovered by 
Godwin-Austen and Nevill in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and 
described as a new species under the name of trilamelJaris by 
Godwin- Austen, were subsequently found by him to be identical 
with Stoliczka's species (J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, p. 2). 

The parietal armature consists of a strong horizontal median 
fold, revolving over nearly half of the outer whorl, and united to 
the ridge at the aperture, but it is free posteriorly. A short 
distance beyond it occurs a strong vertical lunate plate, which is 
deflected posteriorly below, where it gives off a short support; on 
the anterior side of this vertical plate, also below, a strong hori- 
zontal fold is given off, extending a little over half the length of 




Fig. 53. — Plec/oj»/lis shanc7mg. 

the median fold. A third horizontal thin fold, close to the lower 
suture, commences just below the vertical plate, and is united to 
the ridge at the aperture (see fig. 53 d, which shows the shell 
with the outer wall removed, and fig. 53 b, wliich gives the 
posterior view of the parietal and palatal armature). All three 
horizontal folds are visible from the aperture as seen in fig. 53 a. 
The palatal armature is in two series: the anterior series consists 
of six thin horizontal subequal folds, while the posterior series is 
composed of nine short denticles arranged in a vertical row (see 
fig. 53 c which shows the inside of the outer wall). The specimen 
figured is in the British Museum, and measures — major diam. 
19-5 mm. ; minor diam. 15-5 mm.: alt. 6 mm.; it is from the 
Shan States. A specimen in the McAndrew collection in the 
University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, labelled Plectopylis 
repercussa, proved on examination to pertain to the species now 
under consideration. It measures — major diam. 20 mm. ; minor 
diam. 15 mm. ; alt. 6 ram. 



PLECT0PTLI8. 



113 



101. Plectopylis brahma, Godwin-Austen. 

Helix {Plectopylis) brahma, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, 

p. 3, pi. 1, tig. 3 (shell and armature). 
Helix {Atopa {Plectojrylis)) brahma, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 164, pi. 36, figs. 35-37. 
Plectopylis brahma, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 145 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iv, 1897, p. 170, fig. 63 (shell and 

armature). 
Plectopylis (Chersaecia) brahma, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description: — "Shell sinistral, rather closely umbili- 
cated, discoidal, pale ochry-brown, finely and regularly striate. 
Apex flat, yet slightly convex. Whorls 7, last angular above 
and rounded below, slightly compressed behind the aperture and 
hardly descending. Aperture luuate, oblique. Peristome slightly 
reflected and thickened, white, continued as a callus on the body- 
whorl. 

" Internal structure complicated ; the parietal vertical lamina is 
strong and gives off a short horizontal lamella at the lower end ; 
above this are two other and parallel /r^e lamellae (in three cases 
out of twelve I examined, the upper lamella was united to the 
vertical barrier, but this does not affect the order of position and 




Fig. 54. — Plectopylis brahma. 

arrangement of all those processes in this species), both short, the 
lower being the best developed ; the upper is occasionally united 
to the upper end of the vertical barrier. There is a very thin 
thread-like lower free lamella extending to the peristome and 
uniting with the parietal callus. The palatal plicoi are arranged 
in two rows, those of the anterior row are few and large, four in 
number, the two upper long, narrow, and adjacent, the 3rd is 
a flattened dome-like mass, the 4th is long and curving inwards. 
Behind this at a short distance is the second row, consistino- 
of fourteen very minute, closely arranged, thin, longer or shorter 
tooth-like processes, those on the upper side being shghtly the 
largest." ( Godivin- Austen.) 

Major diam. 9, minor 8"5 mm. ; alt. 5 mm. 
Hab. Assam : Brahmakhund (Ogle). 

Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen states that in external form the present 
species resembles P. shiroiensis, from which it may be distin- 
guished by the coarser periostracum and more regular striation, 
while the last whorl is not constricted near the aperture. The 
parietal armature consists of a strong vertical plate having a short 

I 



114 HELICID^. 

support posteriorly above and below, and giving off anteriorly at 
the lower extremity a short horizontal fold ; above this are two 
free longer horizontal folds, the upper one rising close to the 
vertical plate, the lower one longer and rising a little further from 
the vertical fold. A minute denticle occurs between the second 
and third horizontal folds, and a horizontally elongated denticle 
above the upper extremity of the vertical fold ; a very thin slight 
fold runs near to and parallel with the lower suture, uniting with 
the ridge at the aperture (see fig. 54 c, which shows the parietal 
wall with its folds). The palatal armature is in two series, the 
anterior one consisting of four elongated horizontal folds, the 
second and third being separated by a wider space than the 
others, while the posterior series is composed of thirteen or four- 
teen miuvite denticles arranged close together, some a little 
elongated. The shell figured is in the British Museum. It 
measures — major diam. 8, minor 6"5 mm. ; alt, 4*5. mm. 

102. Plectopylis andersoni, Blanford. 

Helix (Plectopylii) andersoni, Blanford, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 448 ; 

Godwiu-Austen, ibid. 1874, p. (il5, pi. 74, fig. 9 (armature) ; 

Nevill in Anderson, Zool. Res. Two Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 

1878, p. 876 ; Tapparone Cauefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, ser. 2, 

vii, 1889, p. 323. 
Helix anderso7ii, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 112 

figs. 8. 9. 
Helix (Atopa (Plectopylis)) andersoni, Tryon, Man. Concli. ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 161, pi. 34, fip-. 71, pi. 35, figs. 74-75. 
Plectopylis andersoni, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 146 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1896, p. 154, fig. 17. 
Plectopylis (C/tersaecia) andersoni, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original descrlpllon : — " Testa dextrorsa, latissime umbilicata, 
discoidea, solidula, albida, epidermide ci"assula fusca, interdum ad 
peripheriam laciniatim fimbriata, induta, sub epidermide decussato- 
striata, lineis spiralibus supra distinctis, infra subobsoletis. Spira 
plana, apice vix prominente, sutura subimpressa. Anfr. 7^-8, 
angusti, arete convoluti, supra planulati, infra in umbilico con- 
vexiusculi, ultimus superne ad peripheriam angidatus, subtus 
tumidus et circa umbilicum pervium, omnes anfractus monstran- 
tem, obtuse compressus, pone aperturam leviter decendens, juxta 
peristoma constrictus. Apertura perobliqua, rotundato-lunaris ; 
peristoma album, uudique expansum, superne ad extremam peri- 
pheriam leviter augulatim porrectum, marginibus lamella curvata, 
ad ambas extremitates incisa junctis, lamina intranti nulla. Janiia 
interna remota, ad ^ anfractuum ab apertura sita, e plica unica 
verticali parietali, 4 palatalibus horizoutalibus, harum tribus in- 
ferioribus A^ersus extremitates altioribus, medio humilibus, postice 
subbifidis, una basali etiam horizontali simplici constans. 
" Diam. maj. 26, min. 23, alt. 8^ mill." (Blanford.) 
Ilah. Upper Burma : Bhamo, Ava {Anderson, Fea) ; Yunnan : 
Hoetone {Anderson). 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



115 



The shell is solid, disc-shaped, measuring 24 to 26 millimetres 
in diameter, of a light brown colour, with alternating streaks of 
a lighter shade on the upper surface. It is composed of eight 
M'horls, distinctly ribbed above and below, and very regularly 
decussated above by raised spiral lines reaching as far as the apex 
of the shell, the base is also spirally sculptured, but the sculpture 
is less distinct ; the mouth of the shell is unarmed, but the parietal 
callus forms a raised curved ridge which is distinctly free at both 
ends from the peristome. The armature, which is comparatively 
simple, occurs a little beyond the middle of the last whorl, and 
consists of a simple strong vertical plate on the parietal wall (see 
iig. 55 rt), giving off at its upper extremity a very small horizontal 
tooth on the posterior side and a short horizontal lamella, 
1-5 millimetres long, on the anterior side, while at its lower 
extremity there is a slight callus on the posterior side. The 
vertical parietal plate is shown sideways in fig. 55 h, where also 




Fig. 55. — Plectopylis andersoni. 

the palatal teetfa are seen as they appear from the posterior side. 
Fig. 55 c gives the inside view of the outer wall, exhibiting the 
palatal armature, which consists of four principal horizontal 
lamellae terminating posteriorly in a triangular conical tooth ; 
above these are ; first a minute tooth, aud secondly, higher up, a 
small fold near the suture, while at the base of the palatal wall are 
also : first a minute tooth, and secondly, nearer the suture, a small 
fold. The specimen figured is in Mr. Ponsonby's collection. 

III. Section Endoplon, Gude. 

Endoplon, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Dextral. Palatal folds horizontal, oblique, or almost vertical. 
Type, Helix (Plecfop)jUs) hradujplecta, Benson. 
Range. Burma, Tonkin. 



103. Plectopylis smithiana, Oude. 

Plectopylis smithiana, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iii, 1897 

tig. 38 (shell and armature). 
Plectopylis {Endoplon) smithiana, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 

I 2 



r4, 



148. 



116 



HELICID^. 



Original description : — " Shell dextral, discoid, widely umbili- 
cated, rufous brown, coarsely and regularly ribbed, with scarcely 
visible microscopic sculpture above, but strongly decussated with 
spiral lines below, suture impressed. Whorls 6, convex, slowly 
increasing, the last rapidly widening towards the aperture, not 
angulated above, shortly descending in front. Aperture sub- 
triangular ; peristome light brown, a little thickened and reflexed, 
the margins converging ; parietal callus with a strongly raised 
flexuous ridge, separated from both margins of the peristome. 
Umbilicus very wide but shallow. Parietal wall, with an entering 
flexuous horizontal fold, united to the ridge at the aperture, and 
at one-third of the circumference from the aperture with one 
crescent-shaped vertical plate, which has two small denticles, one 
above and one below, on the anterior side. Palatal folds 6, the 
first and sixth thin and horizontal, the other four short, broad, 
and oblique." {Gude.) 

Major diam. 27, minor 21 mm. ; alt. 10 mm. 

Hob. Burma: Attaram. 




Fig. 56.— Plectopylis smiihiana. 

Two specimens in the Theobald collection in the British 
Museum, labelled P. hrachyplecta, in spite of some external reseir.- 
blance to that species, presented sufficient difl'ereuces tc induce 
me to suspect that they were quite distinct, and upon opening- 
one of them the difference in the armature quite confirmed this 
suspicion. 

F. smithiana differs from P. Irachyplecta in being larger and 
darker in colour. The ribs are coarser and the whorls more 
convex ; the last whorl is not angulated above, and it \^idens 
more towards the aperture. The pei-istome is less thickened and 
more reflected, and the ridge of the parietal callus less stout but 
more raised, while the umbilicus is wider and much more shallo\^'. 
The horizontal parietal fold deflects more at the aperture, and 
there is only one vertical plate (see fig. 56 d), which is crescent- 



PLECTOPYLIS. 117 

shaped, with the convex side towards the aperture ; on its anterior 
side, in place of a second vertical plate as in P. hracliyplecta, are 
found two elongated, oblique, converging denticles, one above and 
one below. The palatal armature is similar to that of P. hracliy- 
plecta. Pig. 56 d, which shows the parietal wall, is from one of 
the specimens in the British Museum. Figs. 56 a-c are drawn 
from a specimen, labelled Attaram, obligingly lent to me by the late 
Miss Linter, of Arragon Close, Twickenham, who informed me 
tliat she received it from Mr. Theobald. This was also labelled 
P.h'achyplecta,hut I had no hesitation in referring it to P. smithiana. 
It measures — major diam. 26; minor 21 mm.; alt. 9 mm. 

104. Plectopylis brachyplecta, Benson. 

Hi'lix {Plectopylis) hracliyplecta, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xi, 

1863, p. 319 ; God win- Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, pi. 74, fig. 8 (arma- 

tare) ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 72. 
Helix hracliyplecta, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 57, 

lijis. 7, 10. 
Helix (Atopa (Plectopylis)) hracliyplecta, Tryon, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 163, pi. 35, figs. 76, 77, 82, 83. 
Plectopylis hrachyplecta, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, .ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 145 ; 

Glide, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1897, p. 246, fig. 37 (shell and 

armature). 
Plectopylis {Endoploti) hracliyplecta, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Oriyinal description : — " H. testa dextrorsa, late umbilicata, dis- 
coidea, obesiuscula, minute arcuato-striata, striis minutissimis 
spirahbus obsolete decussata, opaca, non nitida, rubescenti- 
castanea, superne saturatiore, circum apicem succinea ; spira 
planata, apice vix prominente, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 6, 
lente accrescentibus, convexiusculis, ultimo rotundato, superne 
prope suturam subangulato, antice descendente ; apertura obliqua, 
rotundato-lunari. subauriculata, intus lilacina ; peristomate ex- 
pansiusculo, rufo-castaneo, marginibus remote convergentibus, 
plica arcuata prominente parietali jnnctis, lamina longiuscula 
subascendente e medio plicae intus recedente, plicis 2 parietalibus 
remotis vei'ticalibus, quarum externa arcuata internaque curvata, 
laminis 6 remotioribus palatalibus, quarvim superiore et basali 
tenuibus et 4 medianis incrassatis, foveatis ; umbilico lato, concavo. 

" Diam. maj. 22, min. 18, axis 8 mill." {Benson.) 

Hah. Burma : Moulmain (Gordon) • Attaran Valley (Theolxdd). 

The shell is disk-shaped, widely umbilicated, dull reddish chest- 
nut, with amber-coloured apex, paler below, finely and regularly 
ribbed, and decussated by minute spiral sculpture. It is composed 
of six or six and a half more or less convex whorls, which increase 
slowly, the last being rounded and subangulated above, near the 
suture, and shortly and abruptly descending in front. The aper- 
ture is ear-shaped, and the peristome brown, strongly thickened 
and a little reflected, its slightly converging margins being joined 
by a thickened curved ridge, which is slightly notched at the 
junctions above and below. A strong entering flexuous fold is 



118 



lIELICIDiE. 



given off from the parietal ridge, revolving over less than a quarter 
of a wliorl. The parietal armature further consists of two strong, 
vertical, slightly cur\ed, parallel plates ; the anterior one has a 
short horizontal support posteriorly below, and a strong hori- 
zontal ridge anteriorly above ; the posterior one gives ofi' on the 
posterior side two short supports, one above and one below. A 
short, free horizontal fold occurs below the vertical plates. 
Fig. 57 d shows the parietal wall with its plates and the fold, 
while fig. 57/ gives the anterior view of both parietal and palatal 
armatures. The palatal armature consists of : first, a thin hori- 
zontal fold near the suture ; next, four short, broad, oblique, 
nearly parallel folds, whose lower concave sides face the aperture ; 
finally, a short thin horizontal fold near the lower suture. A 
little above the second fold and united to its posterior extremity 
occurs a very short straight fold, while another short, slight 
oblique fold is found between the posterior ends of the fifth and 




Fig. 57. — Plectopylis brach?/plecfci. 

sixth folds. (See fig. 57<?, which shows the inside of the outer 
wall with its palatal folds.) Figs. 57 d-f are from one of the 
type specimens from Moulmain in the Mc Andrew collection of 
the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, the slieils having 
been lent for this purpose by Dr. S. F. Harmer. It measures- 
major diam. 22, minor IS mm. ; alt. 8 mm. 

Among the shells of the genus Plectopylis in the British Museum, 
I found two specimens in the Theobald collection, labelled Plecto- 
pylis claihratula, Benson, from Balcadua, Ceylon. I am not 
aware that Mr. Benson ever published this name, but Dr. PfeifFer 
described a species belonging to RutJwenia—a section formerly 
believed to pertain to Plectopylis, but now known to have affinity 
with Endodonts — from Ceylon, under that name. As no species 
of Plectopylis has ever been found in Ceylon, it is probable that 
there is a mistake in the locality, and it is" certain that the name 
IS wrong. Judging from the external resemblances to Plectopylis 



PLECIOPYLIS. 119 

hrachyplecta, I suspected that these shells would prove to pertiiin 
to that species, and having obtained permission from Mr. Edgar 
Smith, tfie late Assistant Keeper, to open one of the shells, I was 
enabled to confirm my suspicion, for the armature proved to be 
identical with that of P. hrachyplecta. One of these specimens is 
shown in three different positions in figs. 57 a-c. It measures- 
major diam. 22, minor 18-5 mm.; alt. 8 mm. 



IV. Section Plectoptlis, s. s., GucU. 

(Typical section of Benson.) 

Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Sinistral, shell flattened. Palatal armature : one vertical plate 
with three horizontal folds above, one below. 
Type, Plectopylis hensoni, Gude. 

Range. Burma. 

105. Plectopylis ponsonbyi, Oodivin- Austen. 

Helix (Plectopylis) ponsonbyi, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, 

p. 24.3. 
Plectopylis ponsotibyi, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 144, 

pi. 40, figs. 9-12 (shell and armature); Gude, Science Go.ssip. 

N. s. iii, 1896, p. 178, fig. 22 (shell and armature). 
Plectopylis (s. s.) jJ07isonbyi, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Orif/inal description: — "Shell sinistral, widely umbilicated, 
discoid, solid ; sculpture, wavy thread-like lines of growth ; colour 
pale brown ; spire flat, 24 whorls at apex slightly raised above the 
succeeding whorls ; suture very shallow ; whorls 7, closely wound 
and flat ; aperture very oblique, descending, horizontally ovate ; 
peristome thickened, reflected, the margins connected by a well- 
developed ridge, and with slight notches at the inner angles. 

"Major diam. 17"5, minor 14, alt. 5 mm." (Godivin- Austen.) 

Hah. Upper Burma : Hlindet (Spratt). 

The shell is sinistral, disk-shaped, flattened above, with the apex 
a little raised, composed of six and a half whorls, closely and 
regularly coiled, rounded and gradually increasing ; it is regularly 
and finely ribbed, and has the last whorl deflected in front ; the 
parietal callus has a raised flexuous ridge, which is separate above 
and below from the peristome. From the aperture may be dis- 
cerned a short, free, slightly curved, parietal fold, which follows 
the deflection of the last whorl (see tig. 58 a). The parietal 
armature further consists of two strong vertical plates, the 
posterior one of which is the longer of the two ; it gives off 
posteriorly at the upper extremity a very short horizontal ridge, 
and at the lower extremity another short, but stronger, ridge, 
which descends obliquely ; the anterior plate is shorter but much 
stronger and thicker than the posterior one, and it gives off two 



120 HELICIDiE. 

strong ridges, one from the upper and one from the lower 
extremity, gradually decreasing in height. Below these two 
vertical plates there is a very thin horizontal fold terminating 
posteriorly a little beyond the posterior vertical plate, and ante- 
riorly becoming attenuated till it is scarcely visible at the parietal 
ridge, to which, however, it is united. In the figure referred to, 
I regret to find this horizontal fold is wrongly shown as termin- 
ating a little beyond the anterior vertical plate. The palatal 
armature consists of : first, a thin horizontal lamina, parallel with 
and near to the suture, a little broader in the middle ; secondly, 
a somewhat stouter lamina, slanting downwards a little posteriorly, 
also a little broader in the middle, and abruptly decreasing 
anteriorly, but very slowly posteriorly, where it is slightly in- 
dented ; thirdly, a similar lamina, slanting a little more posteriorly, 




Fig. 58. — Flcciopylis ponsonbyi. 



with a slight indentation ; fourthly, a stout bilobed vertical 
lamina, giving oif anteriorly at the upper extremity a very slight 
ridge and posteriorly from the base of each lobe a short ridge; 
fifthly, a horizontal fold parallel with and near to the lower 
suture, raised in the middle, with the apical portion reflexed and 
angular ; it has a very small denticle on the posterior side. 
Another very small denticle is situated a little below the first 
horizontal lamina, about its middle, erroneously shown in a line 
with it in fig. 58 d. Fig. 58 h shows the Avhole of the armature 
from the side of the aperture, fig. 58 c the same from behind and 
fig. 58 d the inside of the outer shell- wall with the palatal folds 
(all magnified) ; while fig. 58 e exhibits the shell restored, from 
above, natural size. The type specimen is in Mr. Ponsonby's 
collection and measures 18 mm. in diameter. A specimen sent 
to me for examination by the late Dr. von MoUendorff, labelled 
P. refiuja^ proved to pertain to the present species ; it measures 
21, 17, and 7 mm. respectively, and the fold at the aperture is 
longer and nearer to the ridge than is the case in the type. 



PLBCTOPTLIS. 



121 



106. Plectopylis lissochlainys, Gude. 

Plectopylis Ussochlamys, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iv, 1897, p. 70, 
fig. 53 (shell and armature); Journ. Malac vii, 1898, p. 11, 

Plectopi/lis (s. s.) Ussochlamys, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 1899, 
p. 148. 

Original description :— " Shell sinistral, solid, discoid, widely and 
deeply umbilicated, polished, corneous, finely and regularly ribbed, 
decussated with minute spiral sculpture above. Suture impressed, 
apex a little raised, spire depressed. Whorls 7, rounded, in- 
creasing slowly, the last twice as wide as the penultimate, widening 
towards the aperture, but not constricted behind the peristome. 
Aperture rounded, elliptical ; peristome white, rather thin, re- 
flexed ; margins a little converging. Parietal callus with a raised 
flexuous ridge separated from both margins of the peristome by a 
little notch. Umbilicus wide and deep. Parietal wall with a 
short, entering, flexuous horizontal fold, which runs close up to 
the ridge at the aperture, and at one-third oh' the circumference 
from the mouth there are two rather thin transverse parallel 
lamina? descending obliquely backwards, the posterior one longest 
and with a short ridge posteriorly both at the upper and the 
lower extremity ; the anterior one with a longer ridge anteriorly 
at the upper extremity, and two short but stouter ridges at the 
lower extremity, one anteriorly and one posteriorly ; below these 
laminte occurs a thin horizontal fold close to the lower suture, 
becoming attenuated but distinctly perceptible at the aperture, 
where it unites with the flexuous ridge. Palatal folds 5, the three 
upper horizontal, thin, the first and second with a denticle 
posteriorly ; the fourth vertical, the upper part deflected anteriorly, 
the lower part deflected posteriorly, with two denticles posteriorly, 
one about the middle and one near the lower extremity ; the fifth 
short, horizontal, indented at the middle, with a slight curved 
denticle posteriorly. 

" Diam. major 19-20, minor 16-17 mm. ; alt. 6-7 mm." {Gude.) 

llah. Burma. 

The present species was based upon two unnamed specimens 
from Burma sent to me by the late Miss Linter. Among a 
number of Plectopylis forwarded to me for inspection by the late 
Dr. von Mollendorff were two shells labelled P. refiuja which 
proved to be identical with Miss Linter's shells. P. lissocldamys 
differs from P. magna in being much smaller and shining, as well 
as paler in colour ; in shape and texture it resembles P. pidvinaris 
which, ho\vever, is dextral and has a totally dilferent armature. 
It is allied to P. ponsonhiji but is more solid, darker coloured, and 
more coarsely ribbed, while the last two whorls increase more 
suddenly, and the last is not constricted behind the peristome as 
is the case in that species. The two parietal lamina^ moreover, 
are much thinner (see fig. 59 e) and the anterior ridges of the 
anterior lamina are much shorter and slighter ; they are parallel, 



122 



KELICIDJS. 



not convergent as iu P. magna. A comparison of the figures will 
indicate diii'ereaces iu the palatal armatures of these two species. 

The type specimen is here figured and is in my collection ; 
it measures 19 mm. in diameter. Figs. 59 a-c are natural size, 





£ 



n 



/ 

Fig. 59. — Flcctojjylis lissochlamys. 

while figs. 59 d-f are magnified. Fig. 59 d shows the parietal 
and palatal barriers from the posterior side ; fig. 59 ^ a part of 
the parietal wall with its lamiuae and fold ; and fig. 59/ the 
inside of the outer shell-wall with its folds and denticles. 



107. Plectopylis magna, Gudn. 

Plectopt/lis inaijna, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iv, 1897, p. 70, 
fig. 52 (shell and armature) ; Journ. Malac. vii, 1898, p. 9, fig. 7. 
PlectopiiUs (s. s.) mayna, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. vi, 1899, 
p. 148. 

Original description : — " Shell sinistral, solid, discoid, widely and 
deeply umbilicated, horny brown, finely and regularly ribbed. 
Suture slightly impressed, spire depressed, apex scarcely raised. 
Whorls 71, a little rounded above, tumid below, increasing very 
slowly, the last widening a little towards the aperture, descending 
somewhat slowly in front, and a little constricted behind the 
peristome. Aperture elliptical, peristome white, thickened and 
reflexed, mai-gins scarcely converging. Parietal callus with a 
raised flexuous ridge, separated from both margins of the peristome 
by a little notch. Umbilicus wide and deep. Parietal wall with 
a short, entering, flexuous, horizontal fold, which terminates at a 
distance of two millimetres from the parietal ridge at the aperture, 
and having at one-third of the circumference from the aperture 
two strong transverse plates ; the posterior one the longer, 
vertical, and a little flexuous, giving ofi' a short, obliquely raised 
ridge posteriorly above, and a short, strong, obliquely deflected 
ridge posteriorly below ; the anterior one oblique, the upper ex- 
tremity converging towards the posterior plate, where it gives off 
posteriorly a short, strong ridge, and anteriorly a strong, longer 
ridge, which becomes attenuated ; at the lower extremity it gives 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



123 



off two short, strong ridges, one posteriorly and one anteriorly ; 
below these plates occurs a thin told, close to the lower suture, 
revolving as far as the apertui-e, where it unites with the flexuous 
ridge. Palatal folds 5 ; the three upper horizontal ; the first 
straight and having an elongated denticle below it at about the 
middle ; the second a little deflected posteriorly ; the third short, 
crescent-shaped; the fourth vertical, flexuous; the fifth horizontal, 
abruptly deflected anteriorly above and posteriorly below. Poste- 
riorly between the first and fifth folds occur six denticles, placed 
vertically in a row, the first in a line with the elongated denticle 
below the first fold, the second a little above and the third a little 
below the second fold, the fourth in a line with the upper 
exti'emity, the fifth near the middle, and the sixth a little below 
the lower extremity of the vertical fold. 

"Major diam. 22-5-25, minor 18-5-21 ; alt. 8 mm." {Gnde.) 

Hah. Burma : Taunghu, Pegu. 





Fig. 60. — I'lcdopt/Hs magna. 



Like the last species, the present form was based upon material 
sent to me by the late Miss Linter and found among a miscel- 
laneous collection of Phctoijylis from Burma. A shell in the 
possession of Mr. E. R. Sykes, labelled P. acJiatina, was also 
referred to this species. Subsequently I discovered two specimens 
in the late W. T. Blanford's collection, labelled " Taunghu, Pegu ; 
H. P. Blanford." I have also seen two specimens collected by 
Theobald, which are now^ in the possession of Mason's College, 
Birmingham, and which were labelled P. rej>ercussa ; the latter 
measure respectively : 23*5, 19'5, 9 mm. and 25, 20, 9 mm. 

Plectojyi/Us mac/na differs from P. ponsonbi/iin being much larger, 
more solid, and darker in colour, in having one whorl more, in the 



]24 HELICID.E. 

last whorl descending less abruptly, and in the whorls being more 
rounded. There are also differences in the armature, i. e. the two 
parietal vertical laminae are convergent above, and the posterior 
one is considerably longer than the anterior one (see tig. 60 e), 
while in Plectopylis ponsonhi'i they are almost equal and parallel ; 
the anterior lamina gives off anteriorly below a short, stout ridge, 
not a distinct fold as in P. ponsonhyi, and the thin fold near the 
lower suture is distinctly continued to the ridge at the aperture, 
without becoming attenuated ; the two upper palatal horizontal 
folds are much thinner, the third is very short and crescent-shaped, 
and the vertical fold is not bilobed, while there are several more 
denticles posteriorly (see fig. 60/, which shows the inside of the 
outer wall). The type specimen figured is in my collection and 
measures 25 mm. in diameter, a second specimen measuring 
22-5 mm. A third specimen, from the same source, is not quite 
mature, the ridge on the parietal callus at the aperture not having 
been formed, but tlie armature is identical with that of the mature 
shells. Figs. 60 a, 6, c, and e are of natural size, while d and / 
are magnified. 

108. Plectopylis woodthorpei, Gude. 

Plectopylis woodtJiorpei, Gude, Science Gossip, x. s. vi, 1899, p. 15, 

fig. 98 (shell and armatm-e). 
Plectopylis (s. s.) woodthorpei, Gude, torn. cit. p. 148. 

Original description : — " Shell dextral, discoid, widely and deeply 
umbilicated, dark corneous, finely and regularly ribbed, closely 
decussated by microscopic spiral lines. Spire conical, apex pro- 
minent, suture impressed. Whorls 6^, increasing slowly and 
regularly, flattened above, tumid below, the last scarcely wider 
than the penultimate, bluntly keeled above the periphery, widening 
a little towards the aperture, descending deeply in front. 
Aperture oblique, cordate ; peristome whitish, strongly thickened 
and reflexed, the margins united by a strongly raised flexuous 
ridge, which is coucave in the middle, and notched at the junctions 
above and below. 

" Parietal armature consisting of two nearly parallel vertical 
laminae, the posterior one longer, slightly reflected posteriorly at its 
lower extremity, and provided posteriorly at the upper extremity 
with a slight ridge ; the anterior lamina shorter, giving off a hori- 
zontal fold anteriorly at each extremity, the lower less than half 
the length of the upper, ascending obliquely ; the upper revolving 
almost parallel with the suture, following the deflection of the 
whorl, and joining the ridge at the aperture. Below the posterior 
vertical lamina rises a free, thin, horizontal fold, at first consider- 
ably elevated above the shell-wall, but suddenly becoming attenu- 
ated and thread-like, running parallel with the lower suture, as 
far as the aperture where it is joined to the ridge on the parietal 
callus. Palatal armature in two series, the posterior series con- 
sisting of: first, a long thin horizontal fold near the suture; 



PLBCTOPTLIS. 



125 



secondly, a very long horizontal fold, extending anteriorly beyon.l 
the folds of the second series, with an elevated compressed denticle 
posteriorly ; thirdly, a verv short horizontal fold, deflected post- 
eriorly ; foiirthlv, a strong vertical lamina, with an indentation at 
the middle, giving off posteriorly at its lower extremity an obhquely 
descendincr ridge, and provided at the same place with a small 
denticle ; "at the base of the upper lobe of the vertical lamina on 
the posterior side occurs a slight swelling, while on the same side 
from its upper extremity runs a short ridge, connecting this 





?^ 




Fig. Ql.—Plectop!/lis woodtkorpei. 

lamina with the third horizontal fold; fifthly, a long thin hori- 
7„ntil fold near the lower suture. The anterior series consists of 
three thin horizontal folds, the first longest the tlurd shortest, all 
three descending a little anteriorly." (Gude.) 

Maior diam. 8-75-10, minor 7-25-8 mm.; alt. 3-2o-4 mm. 

nab. Burma: Y ort iitedm^n (Woodthorpe). ,, . , . 

Three specimens— two mature, one young— collected by the 
Ute Col Woodthorpe, K.E, -after whom the species is named, 
were communicated bv Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen and are now in 



126 HELICID^. 

the British Museum. The species is a very interesting one, 
forming as it does a connecting link between the two sections 
Chersoicia and PlectopnUs s. s. On the one hand it resembles 
P. ponsonhyi in the posterior portion of the palatal armature (see 
fig. 61 /■), and P. leucochila in the parietal barriers (see fig. 61 e) ; it 
differs," however, from the other members of this group in having 
a series of liorizontal folds anteriorly to the vertical palatal lamina. 
On the other hand this biseriate character of the palatal armature 
unites it with the group of P. plectostoma. In outward appearance 
the shell of P. woodtliorpei much resembles P. sliiroiensis but it is 
much larger. The immature specimen referred to, which has 
nearly six whorls formed, has the armature incomplete, and is in- 
structive as possibly throwing some light upon the evolution of 
these structures. The parietal armature here possesses the two 
vertical laminae, but the horizontal folds given off by the anterior 
lamina are very short, being only one-quarter of the length of those 
in the mature shells ; the thin fold near the lower suture is not 
compressed into a lamellar fold below the vertical laminae, as is the 
case in the full-grown shells, and it rises much farther back (see 
fig. 61 rj, which shows portion of the parietal wall with its armature). 
Of the palatal armature, only the posterior series of processes is 
present, the anterior series having still to be formed ; a fact cleai-ly 
pointing to the more recent origin of the biseriate forms. The 
vertical lamina is distinctly divided into two subequal portions, in 
consequence of the indentation in the middle being carried down 
to the base of the lamina ; the ridge connecting the upper ex- 
tremity of the vertical lamina with the short horizontal fold above 
it is absent, but in its stead occui-s near the latter a little denticle, 
while posteriorly to the upper half of the vertical lamina is found 
a distinct denticle, corresponding to the slight swelling in the same 
place, mentioned in the diagnosis (see fig. 61 h, which shows the 
inside of the palatal wall with its armature). 

109. Plectopylis leucochila, Gude. 

Pk'ctopylis leucochila^, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. iv, 1898, p. 231, 

tig. 06 ; ibid. p. 264 (leucochila). 
Plectopylis (s. s.) leucochila, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description : — " Shell sinistral, rather solid, discoid, 
deeply and perspectively umbilicated, pale yellowish corneous, 
finely and regularly ribbed, ornamented with minute spiral 
sculpture. Suture almost linear, spire depressed, apex scarcely 
raised. AVhorls seven to seven and a half, a little rounded above, 
rather tumid below, increasing slowly and regularly, the last 
descending abruptly and rather deeply in front. Aperture 
round]}' oval ; peristome white, a little thickened and strongly 
reflexed, the margins a little converging; parietal callus with a 
slightly raised flexuous ridge, separated from both margins of the 
peristome by a little notch. Umbilicus deep, widely perspective. 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



127 



Parietal wall with two transverse oblique laminae converging 
upwards, the posterior one rather thin, slightly sinuous, and 
having a short ridge posteriorly at the upper and lower extremities, 
the anterior one shorter, but much stronger and stouter, having 
an ascending ridge posteriorly above and a short stout support 
posteriorly below ; on the anterior side are found two strong 
horizontal folds, the lower stout and short and becoming suddenly 
attenuated ; the upper fold long, rather thinner, following the 
deflection of the last whorl and terminating close to the ridge at 
the aperture, but not being united to it ; a very thin horizontal 
fold rises below the transverse Laminse close to the lower suture, 
runs parallel with it, and terminates at the ridge at the aperture. 
Palatal folds, 5 : the first near the suture, straight and nearly 
horizontal ; the second a little more oblique and deflected poste- 
riorly ; the third nearly horizontal, but more deflected posteriorly; 
all three have a slight indentation near the posterior extremity 
forming a bead-like termination ; the fourth is vertical, deflected 
a little anteriorly above and posteriorly below, having posteriorly 





Fig. 62. —Plectopylis leucochila. 

a small denticle near the lower extremity and another about the 
middle ; the fifth is near the lower suture, horizontal and deflected 
at both extremities." (Gude.) 

Major diam. 15-17, minor 12-14 mm. ; alt. G-7 mm. 

Hab. Burma. 

Five specimens received from Mr. Fulton as P. JeiopMs proved 
upon examination to be distinct, and to belong, in fact, to a 
dift'ererit section of the genus. 

Plectopylis leucochila is allied to P. ponsonhiji, but difiers from 
it in the more raised spire and in having a deeper and more 
per-spective umbilicus. In the armature it differs from the other 
members of the group of P. ponsonhiji in having the upper parietal 
fold uninterrupted. Figs. 62 «-c show the shell in three different 
aspects, natural size, \vhile figs. 02 d and e are enlarged ; the 
former shows the parietal wall with its laminas and folds, and the 
latter the inside of the outer wall with tlie folds and denticles. 

A specimen in the Blauford collection, labelled " H. F. Blan- 
ford," I refer to this species. 



128 



HELICID.f;. 



110. Plectopylis^feddeni, Blanford. 

Helix {Plectopylis) feddeiii, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 75 ; 

Godwin-Austen/P. Z. S. 1874, p. 611, pi. 74, fig. 7 (parietal 

armature) ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 71 ; Tapparone Canefri, 

Ann. Mas. Civ. Genova, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 47. 
Helix feddeni, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 131, 

figs. 1-3. 
Helix {Atopa {Plectopylis)) feddeni, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 163, pi. 35, figs. 84-87. 
Plectoiiylis feddeni, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 145 ; 

Glide, Science Gossip, N. s. iv, 1897, p. 171, fig. 64 ; vi, 1899, 

p. 76, fig. 104. 
Plectopylis (s. s.) feddeni, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description : — "Shell sinistrorse, very widely umbilicated, 
discoid, flat above, thin, dull white, marked by rather irregular 
oblique sculpture both above and below. Spire quite flat, apex 
not rising above the surface, suture impressed. Whorls 6^-7, 
narrow and closely wound, slightly convex above ; the last much 
broader, rounded at the periphery and beneath, descending 








/ 

Fig. 63. — 'Plectopylis feddeni. 

abruptly close to the mouth. Umbilicus shallow, exposing all 
the whorls. Aperture more nearly horizontal than vertical, 
subcircularly lunate. Peristome slightly thickened, expanded 
throughout,' margins joined by a rib, from the centre of whicli 
a lamina sometimes runs up to the parietal plication, but is 
frequently interrupted a short distance within the aperture, and 
is alwaysthioker and higher near the mouth than farther back. 
Parietal plication consisting of a vertical lamina in front, and a 
second, shghtjy oblique, just behind; the first giving out tlie 
interrupted lamina runniug to the aperture from the top, and a 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



129 



shorter horizoutal lamella from the bottom ; the hinder with small 
re-entering supports above and below. Beneath both is a narrow 
free thread-like horizontal lamella. Palatal teeth 5 : 1st, 2nd, 
3rd, and 5th horizontal, 4th vertical and stouter than the others ; 
1st and 2nd longer than the remainder," {Blanfonl.) 

Major diam. 16, minor 13 mm. ; alt. 4:5 mm. 

Hah. Burma : Prome (Fedden, Blanford, JTungerford, Fea) ; 
Thjet-Myo (Blanford). 

Ill, Plectopylis cairusi, Gude. 

Fkctopylis cavtisi, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. v, ]898, p. 17], 

fig. 90 (shell and armature). 
Plectopylis (s. s.) cairnsi, Gude, op. cit, vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Orifjinal description : — " Shell sinistrorse, discoid, solid, widely 
umbilicated, yellowish corneous, finely and regularly ribbed, and 
decussated with microscopic spiral lines. Spire depressed, apex 
scarcely prominent, suture distinctly impressed ; whorls 54, 
tumid above, rounded below, increasing slowly and regularly, the 




[^E^ 




e f g 

Fig. 64. — Plectopylis cairim. 

last descending moderately in front ; aperture oblique, cordate, 
a little inflexed at the upper outer margin. Peristome wliite, 
strongly thickened and reflexed ; the margins united by a strong 
raised tiexuous ridge on the parietal callus, notched at the 
junctions above and below. Parietal wall with a strong median 
fold given off from the apertural ridge, revolving round about 
a quarter of the last whorl, but interrupted at the middle ; near 
its posterior extremity occurs a branched fold in the form of the 
Gi'eek letter X, i. e. an obliquely ascending fold, haying anteriorly 



130 HELICID.E. 

at its lower extremity a slightly ascending ridge and posteriorly 
a short support ; it is deflected horizontally at its upper extremity, 
and at about its middle it gives off an obliquely descending arm, 
which deflects horizontally at its lower extremity. Palatal folds 
Ave : the flrst, thin, horizontal, near the suture, a little indented 
and reflexed opposite the upper extremity of the oblique parietal 
fold ; the second, horizontal, a little shorter and deflected 
posteriorly, provided with a small denticle a little above its 
posterior extremity ; the third, still shorter, but broader, hori- 
zontal, crescent-shaped, its concave side towards the fourth, which 
is vertical, very strong, inclined towards the aperture ; near its 
lower extremity on the posterior side occurs a minute denticle ; 
the fifth is horizontal, short and very thin." (Gucle.) 

Major diam. 18'5, minor 15-5 mm. ; alt. 6 mm. 

Hab. Probably Burma. 

P. cairnsi is flatter and more rounded in outline than F. be^isoni ; 
the whorls are more rounded and not angulated, the last whorl 
widens less at the aperture, the suture is more impressed, the 
umbilicus less deep, and the peristome is white. The parietal 
armature differs from that of P. bensoni and its allies in the 
median fold being interrupted in the middle and separated from 
the branched portion «hich is in the form of the Greek letter A, 
and in the total absence of the horizontal fold near the lower 
suture (see fig. 64 rf, enlarged, which shows the parietal wall with 
its folds). In the palatal armature there are also some minor 
differences : the first horizontal fold is indented opposite the 
upper arm of the branched parietal fold, a feature I have not 
observed in any other species ; the vertical plate is also much 
narrower than in P. bensoni, leaving more space for the soft 
parts of the animal to emerge (see fig. 64^, which shows both 
armatui-es from the anterior side, and fig. 64 /, from the posterior 
side, both enlarged) ; and, finally, the denticle behind the fifth 
horizontal fold, present in every other known species of the 
group of P. bensoni, is absent (see fig. 64 r/, enlarged, which 
shows the inside of the outer wall with the palatal armature 
in situ). The figures are all based on the type which is in my 
collection. 



112. Plectopylis cyclaspis, Benson. 

Helix catinus, Beusou, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, iii, 1859, p. 185 (non 
H. catinus, Pfeifi'er, 185G). 

Helix cyclaspis, Bensou, torn. cit. p. 273 ; Ilanlej^ & Theobald, 
Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 13, fig. 10. 

Helix {Plectojyylis) cj/claspis, Bensou, op. cit. v, 1860, p. 245 ; Godwin- 
Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, pi. 74, fig-. 10 (palatal armature) ; Nevill, 
Hand List, i, 1878, p. 72. 

Helix {Atopa {Plectopylis)) cyclaspis, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 
1887, p. 164, pi. 35, fig. 9. 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



131 



Plectopylis cijclaspis, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 222, pi. 15, 
figs. 4-6 (anatomy etc.) ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 
p. 144, pi. 42, figs. 34-36 (anatomy etc.) ; Gude, Science Gossip, 
N.s. iii, 1897, p. 244, fig. 34 (shell and armature). 

Plectopylis (s. s.) cyclaspis, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Helix revoliita, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. xiv, 1867, p. 64. 

Original description : — " Testa sinistrorsa, late umbilicata, 
lenticulari-depressa, laevigata, superne demum oblique rugata, 
fuscescente ; spira depresse conoidea, apice obtuso, sutura 
marginata ; anfractibus 7| lente crescentibus, superne planulatis, 
ultimo non descendente, acute carinato, carina corapressiuscula, 
basi convexa, circa umbilicum profundum perspectivum sub- 
angulata ; apertura perobliqua, rotundato-lunari, peristomate 
expanso, reflexo, superne prope carinam prominente, angulato, 
marginibus lamina valde elevata lameUam breviter intrantem 
emittente junctis, 

"Diam. maj. 18, minor 16, axis 6| millim." (Benson.) 

Sab. Burma: Moulmain {Theohahl, Stoliczl-a); Damsang and 
Eissom Peak {Godwin- Austen). 

A well defined species which may at once be separated from 
all its congeners by the keeled periphery. Helix revoluta was 
described by Pfeiffer as from the Andaman Islands. Unfortu- 
nately, I have been unsuccessful in tracing the whereabouts of the 
specimens from which the diagnosis was drawn up, as Mr. Smith, 
who kindly searched the collection in the British Museum, has 
been unable to find them there ; and the late Professor Boettger 
informed me that they are not in the Pfeiffer collection acquired 




Fig. 65. — Plectopylis cyclaspis. 

by Dr. Dobrn. This is all the more to be regretted as no Plecto- 
pylis has since been discovered in the Andaman Islands. The 
late Mr. Stoliczka (J. A S. B. xl, 1871, p. 223) was of opinion that 
this shell could hardly be distinct from Plectopylis cyclaspis, his 
specimens of which agreed perfectly with the measurements given 
by Dr. Pfeiffer. He adds that amongst many thousands of shells 
from the Andaman Islands, he never received P. cyclaspis and he 

k2 



132 HBLICID.1;, 

doubted its occurrence there as much as that of P. bensoni, 
recorded by Tryon in Proe. Asiat. Soc. 1870, p. 88. 

The peristome of P. cyclasjtis is thickened and reflexed and its 
margins are united by a raised ridge ; the parietal callus bears 
a short, strong, horizontal, entering fold, visible in its entirety 
from the aperture (see fig. 65 a). The parietal armature consists 
of a strong and very complicated ramified lamina, which ascends 
obliquely from the side of the aperture near to the suture, where 
it bifurcates, one arm — the upper one — ascending a little, then 
proceeding horizontally and finally becomes attenuated ; the lower 
and stronger one descends obliquely at an angle of 45° for about 
half its length, then deflects almost vertically and gives off 
posteriorly at its base a short strong support. The lower ex- 
tremity of the main lamina also gives off anteriorly a short strong 
support. Below the lamina is a free, short, horizontal fold. The 
specimen shown with the outer wall removed in fig. 656 is not quite 
mature, and it possesses the former barrier, which is evideatly 
in course of absorption, as the second descending arm has almost 
disappeared, and the lower free fold is also very slight. 

The palatal armature consists of five folds : the first thin, near 
to and ahnost parallel with the upper suture ; the second, broad 
and flexuous, descending obliquely posteriorly, half above and 
half below the peripheral keel ; the third also broad and somewhat 
crescent-shaped ; the fourth very strong, broad, and vertical, and 
intercalating with the main stem and lower branch of the parietal 
lamina; the fifth thin, horizontal, and parallel with the lower 
suture. Fig. 65 c shows the parietal and palatal barriers from 
the anterior side, while fig. 65 d exhibits the inside of the outer 
wall with its palatal folds. At the base of the vertical palatal fold 
on the right side — i. e. posteriorly — occurs a small denticle, 
shown erroneously on the left side. Fig. 65 a shows a mature 
specimen, and is of natural size ; the other figures are all magnified. 
Both specimens are from Moulmain and are in Mr. Ponsonby's 
collection. The mature shell measures ; major diam. 17, minor 
14-5, alt. 7 mm. 

113. Plectopylis karenorum, Blanford. 

Helix {Plectopylis) karenorum, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, 

p. 73 ; Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, pi. 74, fig. 5 (shell and 

armature). 
Kelix karenorum, Pfeitfer, Novit. Conch, ser. 1. iii, 1869, p. 503, 

pi. 1U8, figs. 16-18; Ilanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, 

pi. 13, fig. 6. 
Helix {Atopa (Plecfopi/lis)) karenorum, Tryon, Man, Conch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 164, pi. 35, figs. 96-100. 
Plectopylis karenorum, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 145 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. iii, 1887, p. 244, fig. 35. 
Plectopylis (s. s.) karenorum, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Origincd description: — "Shell sinistrorse, very widely umbili- 
cated, discoid, flat above, solid, white, with rather irregular oblique 



PLECTOPYHS. 



]33 



pale chestnut streaks crossing the whorls, transverselv and 
sinuously striated with decussating spiral lines above and below ; 
epidermis thin, horny. Apex minutely granulate or sub-granulate, 
almost imperceptibly raised above the flat spire; suture not 
impressed, very narrowly marginate. Whorls 6, narrow and 
closely wound, flat above ; the last angulate above the periphery, 
rounded beneath, descending close to the mouth, very slightly 
compressed behind the same. Umbilicus very shallow, exposing 
all the whorls, aperture diagonal, truncately subcircular ; peristome 
white, reflexed throughout, margins joined by a raised bar, from 
the centre of which a lamina passes up the parietal side of the 
whorl to the plication, which lies at about i the circumference of 
the whorl from the mouth, and resembles that of Helix achatina. 
Gray ; the parietal transverse lamina being simple and oblique 
above, then bifurcating, giving off the lamina which runs to the 
mouth, and two short basal supports. A thread-like lamina also 
runs along the extreme base of the parietal side of the whorl, and 
joins the aperture. Palatal teeth 5, the upper 3 and the lowest 
longitudinal, the uppermost very long and thin, the 4th vertical, 
corresponding to the fork in the parietal lamina. 

"Major diam. 13-18, minor 11-15 mm.; axis 4-5 mm." 
{Blanford.) 

Hah. Burma : Banks of Tsanda Khyoung, near Kaintha village, 
and Banks of Nungatho Khyoung, Henzada district, Pegu 
{Blanford) ; Myanoung, Arakan Hills (Blmiford). 

The parietal armature consists of a long horizontal fold, united 
to the ridge at the aperture, and proceeding parallel with the last 




Fig. 66. —Plectopylis /iarenornm. 

whorl for a quarter of its length, at which point it gives off a 
shortly descending arm ; it then rises obliquely for a short distance 
and finally bifurcates, the lower arm of the bifurcation being the 
longer, and obliquely descending, while the upper arm is slightly 
curved backwards ; the single arm first mentioned has posteriorly at 
its lower termination a short obliquely descending ridge, and a little 
higher up anteriorly a stronger obliquely ascending ridge, while the 
lower arm of the bifurcation has posteriorly at its lower termination 



134 HELICID^. 

a short obliquely descending ridge (see fig. 66 a). Below this 
complicated plate there is a free, thin horizontal fold close to the 
lower suture, also united to the ridge at the aperture (see also 
tig. 66 b, which shows both armatures from the side of the 
aperture, and fig. 66 c, which gives their posterior view). The 
palatal armature consists of : first, a thiu and long horizontal fold 
parallel with and near the suture ; secondly, another thin but 
shorter fold which at first proceeds horizontally, then suddenly 
deflects posteriorly with a slight curve backwards, a small denticle 
occurring posteriorly in a line with the main horizontal portion ; 
thirdly, a short, somewhat stouter, crescent-shaped fold, with its 
concave side facing the aperture and lower suture ; fourthly, a 
strong vertical fold, with two minute denticles posteriorly near its 
lower end ; and fifthly, a thin horizontal fold, slightly deflected in 
the middle (see fig. 66 d, which shows the inside of the outer wall). 
The specimen figured is in the collection of Mr. Ponsonb}' ; it 
measures 13*5 millim. iu diameter. 

In looking over the specimens of Plectopj/lis of the McAndrew 
collection in the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, I 
found three specimens labelled Plectopylis hunnani, Benson, 
doubtless a misspelling for P. hurmanica, one of Mr. Benson's 
MS. names. On comparing them with Plectopylis karenorum, I 
found them to belong to that species. As I have reason to think 
that P. karenorum exists in some collections under the name of 
P. hurmanica, and as, moreover, this name was never, to my 
knowledge, published by Mr. Benson, I have thought it useful to 
mention the above fact. 

114. Plectopylis linterae, Mdllendorff. 

Plectopylis linterae, Mollendorff, Nacbr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. xxix, 
1897, p. 28 ; Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. v, 1898, p. 170, fig. 88. 
Plectoiiylis (s. s.) Iinte7-ae, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Oriyinal description : — " T. sinistrorsa, latissima umbilicata, 
discoidea, solidula, subtiliter plicato-striata, lineis spiralibus tenui- 
bus decussata, luteoflava, strigis castaneis regulariter variegata ; 
spira vix prominula. Anfractus 6 leute accreacentes, planiusculi, 
ultimus supra peripheriam subdistincte angulatus, tum convex- 
iusculus, circa umbilicum subangulatus, antice breviter deflexus. 
Apertura maxime obliqua, oblique cordiformis ; peristoma sat 
expansum, reflexum, valde incrassatum, albo-labiatum, marginibus 
callo vallido elevato continuis. Lamella parietalis marginem 
attingens, intus producta, in tertia parte anfractus lamellam 
transversam duplicatam attiugens; lamellae palatales 4, superue 2 
spirales quarum supera longior, tum verticalis 1 longa, denique 
iiifera spiralis brevis. 

" Diam. 16-5, alt. 6-5 mm." {Mollendorff.) 

Hah. Burma: Pegu, Moulmain. 

The shell is sinistral, solid, discoid, widely umbilicated, pale 
yellow, transversely streaked and flammulated with chestnut, 
finely and regularly ribbed, smoother below, decussated with 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



135 



microscopic spiral lines. The spire is slightly conical, the apex 
scarcely produced, and the suture linear. Whorls 6, increasing 
slowly and regularly, a little flattened above and rounded below ; 
the last slightly angulated above the periphery and around the 
umbilicus, and descending rather abruptly and deeply in front. 
The aperture is oblique, heart-shaped. The peristome is white, 
thickened and strongly reflexed ; its margins are united by a 
strong flexuous raised ridge on the parietal callus. 

The parietal armature is composed of a slight median hori- 
zontal fold, which proceeds from the apertural ridge, is interrupted 
for a short distance and then continues parallel with the suture 
for about a quarter of the last whorl ; it then gives off a shortly 
descending, slightly reflexed arm, which is provided anteriorly at 
the lower extremity with a short horizontal ridge ; the fold then 




Fi''. 67. — Plectopylis lintercB. 

rises obliquelv for a short distance and finally bifurcates ; the 
lower arm of the bifurcation is the longer, and descends obliquely, 
its lower extremity being provided posteriorly with a short 
horizontal ridge; the upper arm at flrst continues to ascend 
obliquely, then' deflects horizontally close to the suture ; a short, 
free, thin, horizontal fold occurs below the two lower arms, not 
extending beyond on either side (see fig. 68 d, which shows the 
parietal wall with its folds). ^ . . 

The palatal armature consists of : first, a thin long horizontal 
fold near the suture and parallel with it ; secondly, a shorter but 
stronger broad horizontal fold, which deflects a little and la 
slightly indented posteriorly ; thirdly, a still shorter, broad, 
straight horizontal fold ; fourthly, a strong broad vertical lamina 
which intercalates between the two lower arms of the parietal 
fold ; this lamina is inclined towards the aperture, and its edge is 
thickened and reflexed ; near its lower extremity on the posterior 
side occurs a strong little denticle, which is elongated horizontally ; 
fifthly, a short thin horizontal fold close to the lower suture, 
having an elongated denticle a little above its posterior extremity. 
The species is closely allied to PhctoptjUs bensoni, but the spire 
of the present shell' is much more raised, the umbilicus is much 
deeper, and the whorls more rounded. In the armature this 
species further differs from P. bensoni in the median parietal fold 
being interrupted and much slighter, the branched portion being 
relatively mucli more elevated ; the lower free horizontal parietal 
fold is very short, so that this part of the armature, while differing 
from the typical forms of P. bensoni, recalls the condition which 



136 



HELICIDiE. 



obtains in the var. hreviplica of that species. The specimen 
figured, AAhich I received from tlie late Miss Linter, was labelled 
with the habitat, " Moulraain." It measures: major diam. 16, 
minor 13 mm, ; alt. 6 mm. Another shell from the same source 
measures 12-25, 10-5, and 5 mm. respectively. 

Var. fusca, Gude. 

Plectopylis liiiterite, var. fusca, Gude, Science Gossip, N. s. v, 1898, 
p. 170, fig. 89. 

Differs from the type in being unicolorous dark brown, a little 
paler below, in being thinner in texture, and in the peristome 
being livid. 

Major diam. ll-o-lG, miuor 12-5-13-5 mm. ; alt. 5-5-6 mm. 

Hah. Burma. 

A shell in Mr. Ponsonby's collection, which was labelled 
P. pacliystoma, var. minor, I was unable to separate specifically 
from P. linterce. It differs, however, from the typical form of 




d e f 

Fig. 68. — Plectopylis linter^, yar.Jusca. 

that species in being of a unicolorous dark brown, in the peri- 
stome being livid instead of white, and in the shell being thinner 
in texture. The armatures are identical in both forms. ¥ig. 68 d 
shows the parietal wall with its folds, while fig. 68 e gives the 
anterior, and fig. 68/ the posterior aspect of both sets of barriers 
(enlarged). Tigs. 68 a-c show the entire shell (natural size). 

Tour specimens from the Attaran Valley, in the Theobald 
collection, British Museum, agree with Mr. Ponsonby's shell, 
except in size, measuring 16 mm. in diameter. 



115. Plectopylis anguina, Goidd. 

Helix anguina, Gould, Proc. Boston See. Nat. Ilist. ii, 1847, p. 218; 

llanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 13, tip-. 7. 
Plectopylis anyuina, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 218 ; Pilsbry, 

Mau. Concb. sei*. 2, ix, 1891, p. 145; Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. 

V, 1898, p. 75, fig-. 79 (shell and armature). 
Helix (^Plectopylis) anguina, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 72. 



PLECTOPTLia. 



13' 



Helix {Atopa {PlectopijUs)) am/mna, Tryou, INIan. Conch, sor. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 165, pi. 35, fig. 6. ' 
Plectopylis (s. s.) amjuina, Glide, Science Gossip, N. s. vi, 1899 

p. 148. 

Original description : — " Testa sinistrorsa, distorta, planorboidea, 
glabra, fusco-castanea ; infra radiatim flammulata, vix concava ; 
spira planulata ; anfr. 5| convexiusculis, ultimo ad peripheriam 
sub-angulato ; apertura despecta, perobliqua, semi-elliptica, peri- 
stomate rufo, revoluto, callo angulato baud appresso, coDJuncto ; 
lamella alba secundum anfractum penultimum intro-volvente. 



alt. 



poll. [=6*25 mm.]." 



Diam. 1 poll. [=25'5 mm.]; 
(^Gould.) 

Hah. Burma: Manko, Tavoy {Vinton); Kuengau (Theobald); 
Sgwagakin, Salween Valley (Coll. Ponsunhy), 

By some authorities this species has been considered identical 
with P. bensoni. It appears, however, to be perfectly distinct. 

The shell is sinistral, much flattened, discoid, varying in colour 
from corneous to dark chestnut; below it is usually paler and 







Fig. 69. — Plectopylis anguina. 

flammulated with dark chestnut ; it is finely striated and de- 
cussated by microscopic spiral lines. The spire is depressed, the 
suture linear. Whorls o|, regularly coiled, increasing slowly and 
gradually; slightly flattened above and rounded below. The last 
whorl is slightly angulated at the periphery, widening rather 
suddenly at the aperture, deeply deflected in front, and somewhat 
constricted behind the peristome. The umbilicus is extremely 
shallow ; in a specimen in ray collection it is only 1*5 mm. in 
depth. The aperture is nearly horizontal, cordate ; the peristome 
livid or pale brown, a little thickened and much reflexed. A 



138 



HELICID^. 



sinuous raised ridge on the parietal wall at the aperture connects 
the margins of the peristome ; at the junctions above and below, 
however, there are slight notches. The armature is similar in 
most respects to that of P. reperciissa, but it is less solid and 
heavy; Vae lower Vivm oi the bifurcation on the parietal wall is 
longer than the upper, and the thin free horizontal fold near the 
lower suture is not united to the ridge at the aperture and does 
not proceed beyond the lower arm of the hifurcation as is the case 
in P. reperciissa. The upper fold of the palatal armature is much 
shorter than in that species, terminating posteriorly at the same 
point as the slioi'ter upper arm of the parietal bifurcation ; the 
second and fiftli horizontal palatal folds are much shorter an- 
teriorly than in P. repercussa ; while the vertical palatal lamina 
(the fourth) is broader, but less stout and less inclined towards 
the aperture than in that species. 

The specimen shown in figs. 69 d and e is from Moulmain and 
is in my collection. It measures : major diam. 28, minor 22, 
alt. 7"5 mm. I'ig. 69/ shows the posterior aspect of its parietal 
and palatal armature. Figs. 69 a-c are reproduced from photo- 
graphs (natui-al size) of Gould's types in the N'ew York State 
Museum, Dr. Bagg having supplied the following notes : " Ileliv 
unguina, Gould. Catalogue number, 251 ; Original number, 
A 558. The shell is somewhat banded by brownish and white 
alternating, but not in all specimens." 



116. Plectopylis bensoni, Gude, nom. mut. 

Helix achatina (Grav), Pfeiffer, Zeits. Malak. ii, 1845, p. 86 ; Benson, 
A. M. N. H. ser. 3, iv, 1859, p. 69 ; Kobelt, 111, Conch. 13uch, 
ii, 1879, pi. 71, tig. 9. 

Helir (Plectopylis) achatina, ]5enson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, v, 1860, 




ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 47. 
Helix {Atopa (Plectopylis)) achatina, Tryon, Miin. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 165, pi. 35, tio-g. 3_5^ 7^ 8. 
Plectopylis achatina, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 221, pi. 15, 

figs. 1-3 (auatomy) ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 145 ; 

Gude, Science Gossip, n. s.\-, 1898, p. 114, tigs. 80-82. 
Plectopylis (s. s.) achatina, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Original description: — "T. siuistrorsa, latissima umbilicata, 
depressissima, discoidea, laevigata, superne rufa, albido maculata 
et flammata, basi pallida; spira plana, medio vix elevatiuscula ; 
anfr. 6| subplanulati, ultimus a latere subcompressus, antice 
subito deflexus ; apertura subhorizontalis, oblongo-subcircularis ; 
perist. fusculum, undique expansnm et reflexum, marginibus 
lamina prominente, lamellam profunde intrantem emittente 
junctis. 

" Diam. major. 31, minor 24, alt. S^ mill."' (Pfeifer.) 



PLECTOPTLIB, 



139 



Hah. Burma: Mergui (PJiilippi); Moulmain (StoliczJca, Theo- 
bald, Fea); Nattoung (Theobald); Pha-thinz (Eungerford). 

The name Helix adiatina having previously been employed 
(Potiez & Miehaud, Galerie de Douai, i, 1838, p. G8), it is neces- 
sary to apply another designation to the shell hitherto known as 
Plectopylis achat'ina, and I have much pleasure in associating with 
it the name of the naturalist wTio created the genus Plectopylis. 

The shell is sinistrorse, disk-shaped, very widely umbiUcated, of 
various shades of chestnut, usually paler and sometimes flammu- 
lated below, irregularly and finely striated. The apex is usually, 
but not invariably, raised shghtly above the plane of the whorls. 
There are six or six and a half whorls, which increase gradually, 
and are more or less flattened above and tumid below ; the first 
three and a half are smooth or nearly so, while the next two are 




Fig. 70. — Plcctopi/lis bensoni. 

somewhat coarsely striated and strongly decussated by spiral 
lines, less distinct on the upper side of the last whorl, obsolete at 
its side, but reappearing in the umbilical region. The last whorl 
is bluntly keeled above and subangulated at the periphery ; this 
whorl suddenly widens at the aperture w-here it is deeply 
deflected. The aperture is almost horizontal, elliptic cordate, 
while the peristome is thickened and strongly reflected, livid or 
purplish-brown in colour, never ivhite; the margins are united by 
a raised sinuous ridge, slightly notched at the junctions above 
and below. The parietal armature is of the same type as that of 
F. repercussa, but the loiver arm of the bifurcation is the longer of 
the two (see fig. 70 c, which shows part of the parietal wall with 
tlie posterior portion of its armature), and the lower free hori- 
zontal fold close to the lower suture does not reach as far as the 
apertural ridge, and does not extend beyond the loiver arm of the 
bifurcation and its posterior supjwrt. Y\g. 70 a gives the anterior 



140 



HELICID-E. 



and fig. 70 b the posterior aspect of both armatures. The palatal 
armature is also similar to that of F. repercussa, but the first 
horizontal fold is shorter in the present species correspondingly 
with the reduction in the upper arm of the bifurcation of the 
parietal armature, while the vertical lamina is less strong and its 
edge less thickened. Pleciopylis repercussa is, generally speaking, 
a more solid and larger shell, always lighter in colour than 
P. bensoni, while its white peristome will at once distinguish it 
from the latter species. The lower horizontal parietal fold in 
P. repercussa is always distinctly united to the apertural ridge, 
whereas in P. bensoni this fold is not visible from the aperture. 
That these characters are constant, I have reason to believe from 
having opened sixteen or eighteen specimens without finding any 
variation in these respects. The specimen shown in figs. 70 a 
and h measures : major diam. 22, minor 17, alt. 7 mm., while the 



.!^f} 





Fig. 71. — Pleciopylis bensoni, juv. 

one shown in figs. 70 c^-f measures 27: 21: 8 mm.; both are 
from Moulmain, and are in my collection. Another specimen in 
my collection shows no trace of the ridge at the aperture, but is 
in all other respects like the mature shells. In figs. 71 a-d 
I have shown an immature shell, received from Mr. J. E. Cooper, 
of Highgate ; it has only four whorls completed, and is only 
furnished with the posterior portion of the parietal armature (see 
fig. 71 a), but the palatal armature is quite complete, though 
correspondingly reduced in size ; an earlier set of barriers is 





ah c 

Fig. 72. — Plectopylis bensoni, ]\.i7. 

found three-quarters of a whorl further back ; the parietal folds 
of this set have been entirely absorbed, but of the palatal folds 
there are only three, the second and third horizontal, and the 
vertical fold ; this is shown in fig. 71 b in situ, while its anterior 
aspect is given in fig. 71 c ; the two arrows in fig. 71 d indicate 
the respective positions of the two sets of barriers. In the 



PLECTOPYLIS. 141 

McAndrew collection, University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, 
is a tablet with three shells, labelled " jVanina laojthis, tvpe, 
Benson Coll." ; but subsequently altered in pencil to " P. Jeio- 
ji>his{?y' I refer these specimens without hesitation to immature 
forms of PUctopylis beiisoni ; one of them is shown in tigs. 72 a-c. 
This specimen has four and a half whorls completed, and pos- 
sesses the immature barriers half a whorl from the aperture. 
The parietal armature is composed of only a crescent- shaped 
vertical lamina, corresponding to the upper and lower bifurcation 
of the main horizontal fold (see fig. 72 h), while the palatal 
armature, as it is seen from the outside through the shell-wall, is 
shown in fig. 72 c (enlarged) ; there are only three folds, i. e. the 
second and third horizontal ones, which are very short and de- 
fiected posteriorly, and the vertical fold, with a posterior ridge or 
support below ; the arrow in fig. 72 a indicates the position of 
this set of barriers. The specimen measures 11 : 10 : 6 mm. ; 
the first three and a half whorls are ribbed, the last whorl only 
showing spiral sculpture. The cuticle is plaited transversely, 
and the whorl is angulated above, at the periphery, and be- 
low it; the periphery showing traces of a fringe of laciniae. 
Below the aperture are found some traces of another set of 
barriers. The other two specimens referred to measure 9*5 : 8"o : 
5 mm. ; the armature is one-half of a whorl from the aperture, 
and there are traces of an older set one-quarter of a whorl farther 
back ; the upper and the peripheral keels are provided with a 
fringe of lacinife. These immature specimens are very interesting 
and instructive, as they tend to indicate the various stages 
through which the armatures pass in their evolution from simple 
to complicated barriers. 

Stohczka remarks (J. A. S.B. xl (1871), p. 221) that Plecto- 
pylis acliatina [bensoni^ is "extremely common on all the limestone 
iiills about Moulmain. Among thousands of specimens not one 
dextrorse variety was met with. The larger specimens I have 
seen measured in the longer diameter 35 millimetres, but speci- 
mens of half that size, and even smaller than that, often have 
all the appearance of being full-grown." As it is so abundant 
a species, it is not surprising that it is so frequently seen in 
collections. It is the most variable of all the species of 
Plectopylis. 

The following varieties may be distinguished. 

Var. repercussoides, Giule. 

Plectopylis achatina, var. repercussoides^ Gude, Science Gossip 
N. s. V, 1S99, p. 333, 

This variety is intermediate between typical P. lensoni and 
P. re2^ercussa, having the contour and the white peristome of the 
latter, but the armature of the former. It further differs from 
typical P. bensoni in being angulated above at the periphery and 
below around the umbilicus, a feature it shares with P. repercussa. 



142 HELIOIDiE. 

In colour the shell is chestnut-brown above, while the umbilical 
region is white, in which it resembles the variety infrafasciata. 
The present variety is based on a shell in my collection, but 
the Museum of Mason's College, Birmingham, possesses three 
specimens identical with it. 

Tar. infrafasciata, Gude. 

Helix achatina, PfeifFer, Conch.-Cab., Heliceen, i, 1848, p. 382, 
pi. 66, fio-s. 28-30 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 57, 
figs. 8, 9. 

Plectopylis achatina, var. infrafasciata, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. 
V, 1898, p. 133, fig. 84. 

Differs from the type in being more rounded in contour, and in 
the last whorl not widening at the aperture ; the umbilicus is 
more shallow and the peristome more flattened and reflexed ; the 
right margin is a little depressed ; the shell is blackish or purplish 
brown above, with a white or bluish white band below, reaching 
from the umbilical angulation to the lo\^er suture ; the peristome 
is purplish brown, the left margin being paler. 

Major diam. 22, minor 18 mm. ; alt. 8 mm. 

Hah. Burma : Moulmain ; Mergui {Philippi). 

Plectopylis hensoni, var. infrafasciata, is still darker than the 




c 

Fig. 73. — Plectopylis bensoni, Tar. infrafasciata. 

variety ohesa, being of a blackish or purplish brown. Like that 
variety it is rounded in contour, but it is larger and more flattened ; 
while the umbilicus is a little more shallow and the peristome 
more flattened and reflexed than in the type. The peristome is 
livid purplish in colour, the left margin being paler and the right 
margin a little inflected. A whitish or bluish-white band below 
reaches from the umbilical angulation to the lower suture. The 
armature is similar to that of the type, but the horizontal parietal 
fold near the lower suture is visible from the aperture and ter- 
minates close to the ridge. The specimen figured was received 
by me from the late Eobert Cairns. Four specimens in the 
collection of the late E. L. Layard and one specimen in the 
McAndrew collection (the latter labelled " Plectopylis refiiga ") 
all belong to this form. The late Robert Cairns also sent me for 



PLECTOPYHS. 143 

inspection a specimen measuring 21 mm. in diameter, and four 
immature shells, in various stages of growth, all showing sets of 
barriers similar to that of the immature Plectopylis hensoni shown 
in fig. 71 a. 

Yar. castanea, Gude. 

Plectopylis achatina, var. castanea, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. v, 
1898, p. 134, fig. 86. 

Differs from the type in being smaller in diameter and pro- 
portionately higher ; it is darker in colour, being blackish-brown 
above and a little paler below. It resembles the variety ohesa in 
being more rounded in outHne, in the last whorl not widening 
suddenly at the aperture, in the sloping underside, and in the 
median parietal fold not reaching quite to the apertural ridge ; 
the last 2i whorls are more strongly decussated above and below 
than in any other form. An obsolete keel is visible at the 
periphery. 

Major diam. 21, minor 19 mm. ; alt. 8 mm. 

Hah. Burma. 

The variety castanea is darker than the other forms of P. hensoni 




Fig. 74. — Plectopylis hensoni, var. castanea. 

except the variety infrafasciata, being of a blackish-brown above, 
a little paler below. It is, however, larger than that variety, and 
does not possess the white band below ; the umbilicus is also 
much deeper, the shell beiug in that respect more like the variety 
ohesa, which it also resembles in the sloping underside ; the 
aperture is proportionately larger than in that variety. The 
spiral lines on the last 2^ whorls are visible without the aid of a 
lens. The specimen figured was received by me from the late 
Miss Linter. 



Yar. obesa, Gude 

Plectojjylis achat 
p. 115, fig. 83. 

Differs from the type in being more compressed and higher in 



Plectopylis achatina, var. obesa, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. v, 1898 
p. 115, fig. 83. 



144 



HELIClD.i:. 



proportion to the diameter ; in the last Avhorl not widening 
suddenly at the aperture, and in the lower side sloping from the 
periphery to the umbilical angulation; the right margin of the 
peristome is depressed ; the umbilicus is deeper, and the hori- 
zontal median parietal fold does not quite reach the apertural 
ridge. The shell is darker in colour and moi-e strongly ribbed. 

Major diam. 19, minor 15 mm. ; alt. 7 mm. 

Hob. Burma : Moulmain. 

The variety ohesa is darker in colour than the type, being of a 
fuscous chestnut. It is more compressed and distinctly ribbed ; 
the shell is higher in proportion to the diameter, and the umbilicus 




Fig. 75. — Plcctojyylis bensoni, var. obena. 

is deeper ; the last whorl does not widen suddenly, and the right 
margin of the peristome is depressed, the aperture being conse- 
quently somewhat ear-shaped ; the lower side slopes from the 
peripheral region to the umbilical angulation. The armature 
does not differ materially from that of the type, except that the 
median horizontal parietal fold does not quite reach the apertural 
ridge. Six specimens were received by me from the late Miss 
Linter, five of these being more or less decorticated. 



venusta, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. v, 



Var. venusta, Gudc. 

Flectopylis achatina, var. 
1898, p. 134, lig. 8.5. 

Differs from the type and the other varieties in being smaller. 
It resembles the variety ohesa iu the deeper umbilicus, in the 
sloping underside, in the comparative height of the shell, and in 
the median parietal fold not reaching the apertural ridge, but the 
last whorl widens more, as in the type. In colour it is pale 
yellowish-white, flammulated with chestnut above aud at the side. 
The peristome is livid brown, the left margin paler, the right 
margin a little depressed. 

Major diam. 17, minor 14 mm. ; alt. 7 mm. 

Hah. Burma. 

The variety venusta is smaller than any form of P. hensoni I 
have seen. It is pale yellowish-white in colour, flammulated with 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



145 



chestnut above and at the sides. The specimen figured was received 
by me as Plectopylis paclnj stoma, Theobald ; but as I am not aware 
tliat this name was ever pubUshed I consider it expedient to 
discard the name altogether. A specimen in the collection of the 




6 c 

Fig. 76. — Plectojnjlis ben^oni, var. venusta. 

late Dr. von Mollendorff, likewise labelled P. paclnjstoma, I am 
unable to separate from the present variety, although it shows no 
flammulatiou and the peristome is white ; in other respects it is 
identical. 



Var, breviplica, Gude. 

Plectojnjlis achatina, var. breviplica, Gude, Science Gossip n s v 
1898, p. 134, fig. 87. w • • r 

Differs from the type and all the other known varieties by the 
much more shallow umbilicus. It i-esembles the variety infra- 
fasciata in outline, but it is of a uniform dark brown, with a 
somewhat polished surface, and the last whorl widens more 
suddenly at the aperture. The basal horizontal parietal fold is 
very short, not extending on either side beyond the two lower 
arms of the main median fold ; the first palatal horizontal fold is 
considerably more elevated than in the other forms, and is bilobed • 
the second and third horizontal folds are also more elevated the 
latter fold has a short fold above its posterior portion ; the vertical 
lamina is also more elevated, and in place of the usual denticle 
posteriorly to its lower extremity is an elevated ridge, quite united 
to the plate. 

Major diam. 19, miuor 16 mm. ; alt. 7 mm. 

Hub. Burma. 

Plectopylis bensoni. var. breviplica has a much shallower umbilicus 
and is thinner and more fragile than any other form of P. bensoni 
known to me. It is somewhat like the variety infrafasciata, but 
it is devoid of the white band ou the lower side ; the last whorl 
also widens a little more than in that variety, but is less deflected, 
and the aperture is more sloping from top to base ; there are also 
important differences in the armature, the lower horizontal parietal 
fold being very short, not extending on either side beyond the 



146 



HELICID^. 



two lower arms of the main fold (see fiir. 77 c, which shows part 
of the parietal wall with its folds). Of the palatal armature, the 
lirst, secoud, and third folds are more elevated ; the first is bilobed, 
and above the posterior portion of the second occurs a very short 
additional fold. The vertical lamina is also more elevated, and in 






b c 

Fig. 77. — Tlectopylis hcJi>>oni, var. hreviplica. 

place of the usual denticle posteriorly to its lower extremity is 
found an elevated ridge quite united to the plate. Fig. 77 a shows 
the anterior and fig. 77 h the posterior aspect of both armatures. 
The specimen figured is in the collection of Mr. Ponsonby. 



117. Plectopylis repercussa, Gould. 

Helix repercussa, Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, 1856, p. 11; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 13, tig. 4. 
Helix {Ph'ctopylis) repercussa, Stoliczlia, J . A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 218 ; 

Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 72. 
Plectopylis repercussa, Gude, Science Gossip, n. s. v, 1898, p. 74, 

fig. 78. 
Plectopylis (s. s.) repercussa, Gude, op. cit. vi, 1899, p. 148. 

Oriqinal description: — "T. siuistrorsa, discoidea, supra planulata, 
infra concava, plicato-striata etlineis volventibus superne inscalpta, 
castanea ; anfr. utroque + , ultimo vix augulato, prope apertiiram 
defiecto ; apertura despiciens, oblique lunata, peritremate retlexo, 
postice callo augulato juucto ; lamellis palatinis duabus intro 
volventibus, quarum una ad angulum inconspicua. 

Diam. 1 [=25-5 mm.], alt. ^ poll. [=7-7o mm.]." 

Hah. Burma : Tavoy and Mergui {Benjamin) ; Moulmain 
{Theolald, StoUczl-a). 

The diagnosis by Gould is somewhat vague, and as the species 
was not illustrated, subsequent authors considered it to be 
synonymous with P. bensoni, from which species, however, it 
differs in outward appearance as well as iu its armature. The 
shell is sinistrorse, disk-shaped, pale corneous, finely striated, the 
upper side being strongly decussated by spiral lines, almost 



PLECTOPYLIS. 



147 



obsolete at the side, but reappearing in the umbilical region. 
The spire is a little raised, the suture linear. There are seven 
regularly coiled whorls, which increase slowly and gradually, and 
are flattened above and tumid below. The last whorl is tri- 
carinated, one keel being at the periphery, one above, and another 
below (in young shells tliese keels are provided with a fringe of 
coarse hairs) ; this whorl widens suddenly at the aperture, where 
it is deeply deflected. The aperture is almost horizontal, elliptic 
cordate ; the peristome white, thickened, and strongly reflected ; 
the margins united by a raised flexuous ridge, slightly notched 
above and below at the junctions. The parietal armature is very 







wm 1 






Fig. 78. — Plectopylis repcrcussa. 

complicated, being of the same type as in Plecto/)ijlis Icarcnovmn. 
These two species, together with PJectojiijlis bensoni, P. aiKjulaa, 
and P. Uutero', form a distinct group, connected with the group 
of P. ponsonhiji by a transition form, P. cairnsi. A long, stout, 
horizontal median fold, given ott' at the apertural ridge, proceeds 
parallel with the last whorl for a quarter of the length of that 
whorl, when it gives off a shortly descending, slightly reflected 

l2 



148 HELICID.E. 

arm, provided anteriorly at the lo\\er extremity with a short, 
abi'uptly desceDding horizontal ridge ; the fold then rises obliquely 
for a short distance, and finally biturcates ; the lower arm of the 
hifurcation the shorter, and descending almost vertically ; it is 
provided posteriorly with a short horizontal ridge at its lower 
extremity ; the upper arm at first ascends obliquely, then proceeds 
horizontally close to the suture, and gradually attenuates. Below 
these complicated structures, thei-e is a free, thin, horizontal fold 
close to and parallel with the lower suture, aud extending from 
the aperture to a little beyond the lower arm of the bifurcation 
and its posterior support (see fig. 78 e, which shows part of the 
parietal wall). At the aperture this fold is distinctly united to the 
transverse sinuous ridr/e (see fig. 7Sd). The palatal armature con- 
sists of : first, a strong long horizontal fold near the suture and 
parallel with it, as well as « iih the posterior portion of the upper 
arm of the parietal bifurcation, A\ith which it terminates at the 
same point posteriorly ; secondly, a shorter, but much stronger 
and broader horizontal fold, which deflects with a sharp curve 
posteriorly, having a little above its posterior termination, and 
almost in a line with its anterior portion, a slight elongated 
horizontal denticle ; thirdly, a very short, but strong and broad 
crescent-shaped fold, deflected at both extremities ; fourthly, facing 
the concave side of the last-mentioned fold, is a very strong and 
broad vertical lamina, strongly inclined towards the aperture, with 
a much reflected and thickened edge ; this lamina intercalates 
between the two lower arms of the parietal armature ; on the 
posterior side of the lamina and near its lo^er extremity occurs a 
stout little denticle, and a little lower and still farther back is 
found a slight elongated swelling, not amounting to a fold or 
denticle (yet present in all four mature specimens, as Mell as in 
an immature one, examined by me) ; fifthly, a thin horizontal 
fold, the anterior part straight, but cui-ved in the posterior half, 
with the concave side facing the vertical lamnia (see fig. 78/, 
enlarged, which shows the inuer side of the palatal wall with its 
folds and denticles). Figs. 7Sff-i (also enlarged) show an 
immature specimen of 5^ whorls, in Mr. Ponsonby's collection ; 
the armature is almost identical with that of the mature specimens, 
but the main median parietal fold is \ery short and does not rise 
from the aperture, while the denticle in front of the lower part of 
the palatal vertical lamina is very strongly developed, and it is 
united to it so as to form a steep ridge. A second set of barriers, 
identical in every respect except in being a little smaller, occurs 
in this specimen | of a whorl further back. The mature specimen 
shown in fig. 78 tZ is also in tlie collection of Mr. Ponsonby, 
and measures: major diam. 31, minor 24, alt. 9 mm.; while 
the immature specimen measures 17 mm. in diameter. Three 
specimens in my collection measure respectively 29 : 23 : 9 mm. ; 
25 : 20 : 8*5 mm. ; 23 : 18 : 7*5 mm. The types of the species are 
in the 'New York State Museum, at Albany, N.T., and are shown 



PLECTOPTLIS. — CAMiEJfA. 149 

in figs. 78 a-c, which are reproduced from the photograph kindly 
supplied by Dr. Merrill. The following particulars are taken from 
Dr. Bagg's notes wliich accompanied the photographs : " Beliv 
repercussa, Gould. Burmah. Catalogue No,, 236 ; original No., 
A 564. Major diameter, Ig inch [=28-5 millimetres]; minor 
diameter, g inch [=22 millimetres] ; altitude, y\ inch [ = 8 milli- 
metres]; greatest diameter of aperture, -^^ inch [ = 11 milli- 
metres]." Gould states that the species was taken in the Mergui 
Archipelago. 



Subfamily CAIM/ENIN^. 

Genus CAM^ENA (Albers), PlJshnj. 

Camcena, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 8o, iu part; Martens, 
Die Ileliceeu, ed. 2, 18G0, p. 165 ; Pilsbrv, Man. Couch, ser. 2, 
vi, 1891, p. 197 ; viii, 1893, p. 265 ; ix, 1894, p. 101 ; ibid., Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelpliia, 1892, p. 398 (anatomy). 

Eucochlias, Theobald iu Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 81. 

TiPE, Helix cicatrkosa, Midler. 

llange. Southern China to Burma and southward. 

" Shell rather large, varying from depressed-globose or conoidal 
to elevated and short pupiform ; dextral or sinistral, solid, yellow 
or brown usually encircled by chestnut bands or lines. Surface 
closely malleated or luruikled all over ; whorls about 5-5^, the 
upper ones flattened, the last subglobose or carinated ; peristome 
expanded or reflected, its ends not converging, colvtmellar margin 
dilated over or partly over the narrow umbilicus. The columella 
is rounded. The nuclear slhell is rather large (about one-fifth the 
diameter of the shell), consisting of 2-2| whorls, its junction 
with the aftergrowth marked by a (generally) distinct line. The 
young shells are acutely carinated. 

" Animal having the sole very indisthicthj tripartite ; lateral 
edges of foot ivith no trace of a foot-margin^ sides of foot granulated 
in irregular pattern, the tail rather long, rounded above, ivith an 
indistinct slighthj impressed longitudinal median line ; anteriorly 
there are a few indistinct longitudinal grooves from mantle to 
head. Mantle-margin with a small triangular right body -lappet, 
and a longer left one. 

"Jaw arcuate, strong, typically with numerous, strong, sepa- 
rated ribs. 

"Dentition: Central and lateral teeth having the inesocones only 
developed, the cusps large, cutting-points small. Marginal teeth 
with a long, oblique, bifid mesocone united at the base with 
the ectocone, which becomes bifid on the outer teeth. 

" Genitalia : Vestibule short ; penis stout, continued above in 
an e^nphallus, in ivhich the retractor and then the vas deferens is 
inserted, and terminating in jJagellum ; penis corrugated within. 



150 HELIOIDiE. 

and having a large papilla at its apex. Vagina stout, bound to 
the body-wall by v, band of muscles ; duct of the spermatheta 
long." '(Pilsbri/) 

118. Camsena noetlingi, von Martens. 

Helix {Camena) noetlinqi, von Martens, Naclir. Blatt Dents. MaL-'k. 

Ges. xxix, 1897, p. IIS. 
Helix (Camcena) noetlinyi, von Martens. Arch. Natnroes. 1899, 

p. 32, pi. 4, fig. 1. 

Oriffinal description : — " T. sinistroi sa, auguste umbilicata, sub- 
depressa, confertim tenuiter striolata, fuscescenti-fulva, unicolor ; 
aufr. 4i, sat celeriter crescentes, priores 1| Iseves, supra valde 
convexi, sequentes leviter couvexi, spiram depresse conoideam 
efficientes, ultinius ad peripheriam subangulato-rotundatus, infra 
magis convexus. Apertura valdc obliqua, lunato seiuiovata, peri- 
stomate expanso, cra.ssiuscule albolabiato, uiargine supero paulum 
arcuato, rapide in basalem valde arcuatum transeuute, marg, 
columellari arcuatini ascendente, superne dilatato et reflexo, 
umbilici partem tertiam tegente, callo parietali tenuissinio, fauce 
fuscente. 

" Diam. maj. 28, min, 24, alt. 21, apert. diam. 18, Lit. obliqua 
15 mm." {von Martens.) 

Eah. Upper Burma ; Pyawbwe, Tamettsin District {JSotlhuj). 

The author states that Camana noeilinr/i resembles C. cicatricosa, 
but lacks the sculpture of that species. The soft parts were 
examined by Herr Fr. Wiegmann who stated that they indicate 
an odontognathous Helicoid with llnplogonous genitalia, agreeing 
with Caincena. 

119. Camsena ochthoplax, Benson. 

Helix ochtJio2)lax, Benson, A.M. N. H. ser. 3, vi, 1860, p. 190; 

Hanley k Theobald. Conch. Ind. 1870, p. 13, pi. 26, fig. 4 

{octhoplux) : Jilanford, J. A. 8. 15. xxxix, 1870, p. 24. 
Nanina {Oxytes) ochtJwjjlax, Tiyou, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ii, 1886, 

p. 129, pi. 43, fig. 30 ; ? Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Helix, \, 1904, 

p. 1145, pi. 287, fig. 1. 
Helix {Canicvnn) ocWwphi.r, Pilsbry, Man. Conch., ser. 2, vi, 1891, 

p. 202, pi. 61, figs. 23. 24. " 

Helix {Eucochlens) oc/it/ioj)hix. Nevill, Hand Li.<t, i, 1878, p. 81 ; 

Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. P.. Ixiv, 1895, p. lo2, pi. 7, fig. 1. 
Helix {Plumia) ochthoplax, Martens, Arch. Naturges. Ixv, i, 1899, 

p. 33. 
Camccna ochthoj)lax, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 104. 

Original description : — " Testa profuude et anguste subobtecte 
umbilicata, depressa, superne convexa, subtus corivexiore, solidi- 
uscula, oblique rugoso-striata, obsolete granulata, rugis nonuullis 
obsoletis spiralibus distantibus subtus confertioribus decussata, 
rufo-castanea : spira valde obtusa, sutura lineari, dennim impressi- 
uscula; anfractibus 5 planiusculis, idtimo antice couvexiusculo ; 



CAM^NA. 151 

peripheria cai'inata, carina autice mitiore; apertura obliqua, 
quadi'ato-lunari, peristoiuate expanse, albido, marginibus callo 
tenui arcuato juuctis, basali reflexiusculo, incrassato, antice 
arcuato, columellari brevi, declivi, reflexo, sinuato, umbilicum 
subtegente. 

"Diam. maj. 54, minor 46, axis 26 mill." (Benson.) 

Bah. India ; Moyang, Kliasi Hills, and Asaloo, North Cacliar 
(Godwin- Austen) ; tipper Burma: Maingkhwan, Hukong Valley 
(Noilinff). Pegu ? 

The type was said to be from Pegu, but Blanford thought the 
locality was in all probability erroneous, the shell having never 
been met with either by Theobald, Pedden, or himself. Nevill 
places the following note by Blanford on record: — "A true Helix, 
nearly black, \^ith pale tawny markings, surface granulate ; jaw 
grooved." 

The species resembles C. Ulmtris in its general characters, but 
is more depressed and umbilicated. The sculpture is less distinct, 
while the lip is expanded but not reflexed. Pilsbry states that as 
C. ochiliopla.v is a genuine Caniama of the cicatricosa type, Eiicochlias 
must be regarded as an absolute synonym of Camcena. 



120. Camsena saturnia, Gould. 

Helix saturnia, Gould, Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist, ii, 1845, p. 98; 

ibid., Otia Conch. 1862, p. 198; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1870, pi. 25, tig. 3. 
Helix (Phania) saturnia, von Martens, Die Ileliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 157. 
Helix {Camcena) satiiriiia, Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, vi, 1891, 

p. 203, pi. 60, fig. 5. 
Hemiplecta ? saturnia, Godwin-Austen, Moll. fnd. ii, 1898, p. 73. 
Camcena satiiriiia, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 104. 

Original description : — " Testa magna, lenticularis, pallide 
rubido-coruea, ad peripheriam costato-carinata, late et profunde 
umbilicata ; anfractibus 5 planulati ; spira depresso-conica ; 
sutura profunda, marginata ; subtus convexa, costuJis obsoletis 
cincta ; apertura ampla, rhomboidea, peristomati revoluto.'' 

" Major diam. 47, minor 39. alt. 28 mm, ; apert. lat. 20, alt. 
15 mm." (Gould.) 

Hah. Burma: Tavoy (i/rtson) ; Tenasserim (T/<eo6«Z(^). 

Shell perspectively umbilicated, depressed-conoid, distantly 
plicate-striate, buff corneous. Spire depressed, suture shallow, 
apex obtuse. Whorls 4|, granulated, increasing rapidly, sub- 
planate, slightly sulcate above the suture; the last obtusely keeled, 
slightly compressed above and below the keel, the latter half 
becoming more convex above towards the mouth, slightly dilated 
at the aperture ; the base flattened, sloping from the periphery 
to the umbilicus, becoming more convex towards the mouth, 
angulated around the deep funnel-shaped umbilicus, and exhibiting 



162 HBLICID^. 

traces of spiral sulci ; aperture subrhomboid, peristome pinkish, 
margins approaching, reflexed, upper and outer curved, basal 
nearly straight, columellar thickened, strongly reflexed and 
triangularly dilated over the umbilicus. 

The species was originally found at Tavoy, but a specimen is in 
the British Museum collection, taken by Theobald at Tenasserira. 
Although this shell is in a worn condition and appears to have 
been varnished, it has enabled me to amplify Gould's original 
meagre description. Opinions as to its systematic position have 
been considerably at variance. Von Martens referred the species 
to Phania \^=Fyrocli'dus], and Godwin-Austen to Eemiplecta^ 
whereas Pilsbry places it (correctly I think) in Camcena. Its 
nearest ally appears to be Camcena vanhuensis, Smith. 

A second specimen in the British Museum, forming part oE the 
Cuming collection, is also dead and worn, but has been preserved 
in its natural condition. The base is ornamented with spiral 
sulci and the shell is considerably larger than the one in the 
Theobald collection, measuring : — Major diam. 53, minor 45, 
alt. 32 mm. 



Genus OREOBBA, Fihhrn. 

Oreohba, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 109 (as subeenus ? 

oi ObOa). 
Janira, Alters, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 124 ; non Janira, Leach, 

181.3 (Crustacea), Oken, 1815 (Acalepha), Schumacher, 1817 

(3Iolhisea). 

Type, Uelic codonodes, Pfeiffer. 

Range. jMicobar Islands. 

"Shell globose-conoidal, bullet - sha^ied, composed of about 
5 w^horls which are carinated in mature shells ; the embryonal 
portion not differentiated ; last whorl deflexed in front. Surface 
shining, microscopicalhj spiralhj striated. Aperture truncate- 
rounded ; entii'e lip well rsflexed, at the columella expanded 
partly over the narrow umbilicus, and armed with a callous tooth 
on the inner edge." (PilsLr)/.) 

Animal unknown. 



121. Oreobba codonodes, Pfeiffer. 

Helix codonodeg, Pfeiffer, P.Z. S. 1846, p. 112; Pteeve, Conch. 
Icon, vii, 1851, pi. 22, tip-. 91; Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., HelLv, 
ii, 1853, p. 2.32, pi. 11 1; figs. 15, 16; iii, 1854, pi. 128, 
tigs. 3, 4 ; Kobelt, 111. Conchyl. Each, ii, 1879, pL 78, 
figs. 19, 20. 

Helix {Janira) codonodes, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 124; 
Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 115. 

Stylodonta (Ja?iira) codonodes, Chenu, Man. Couch)'l. i, 1860, 
p. 451, fig. 33G3. 



OBEOBB A . — PL ANISPIIIA . 



153 



Helicostiila {Janira) codonodes, Morch, Jouru. Conchyl. xx, 1872, 

p. 312. 
Helix (Obba) codonodes, Pilsbry, Mau. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1891, 

p. 236, pi. TjS, figs. 8, 9, 10. 
Obba (Oreobba) codonodes, Pilsbrv, Man, Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 

p. 109, pi. 19, fig. 11. 

Original description : — " T. umbilicata,,. globoso-conoiclea, solida, 
oblique striatula, lineis spiralibus confertis subtilissime sculpta, 
nitida, al-ba vel straminea, castaneo 1-2 fasciata ; spira cam- 
panulata, apice obtusiuscula ; aufr. 5| vix convexi, ultimus antice 
descendens, basi juxta aperturam gibboso-subconstrictus; apertura 
obliqua, subquadrang'ulari-rotuudata ; perist. iucrassatum, re- 
flexum, niarginibus subapproximatis, callo iiitido junctis, colu- 
mellari iutus protuberautia dentiformi inunito, extus dilatato, 
pateute, sinuoso. 

"Diam. maj. 20, niin. 17, alt. 17 mill." (Pfeifer.) 

Hub. Nicobar Islands : Car Nicobar {Kjellerup), Camorta, Great 
Nicobar {Roepstorff, Wood-Mason, Stoliczlca, PUlippi); Kondul 
(Moepstorff, Wood-Mason, Stoliczlca). 

Tlie species varies considerably in stature, the height of some 
specimens equalling tlie major diameter. Morch describes three 
varieties : minor, suhcijlindrica (height 27 mm.), and edenhda 
(height 28 mm.), while Godwin-Austen enumerates in addition : 
efasciata, subcarinata, and albolabris, all nomina nuda of Nevill. 
MiJrch also mentions a unicolorous form from Car Nicobar, which 
is probably Nevill's efasciata. 

Genus PLANISPIRA, Beck. 

Planispira, Beck, Index Moll. 1838, p. 29; Pilsbry, Man. Concli. 
ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 110. 

Subgenus TRACHIA, AJhers. 

Trachia, (Albers) von Martens, Die Ileliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 160; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 223 (anatomy) ; Pilsbry, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 114, pi. 32, figs. 44, 45 ; pi. 34, tigs. 4-6 ; 

pi. 42, fig. 39 (anatomy). 
Eurystoma, Albers, Die" Ileliceen, 1850, p. 126 (nou Piafinesque, 

1818). 

Type, IleVuv asperellcc, Pfeiffer. 

Range. India, Burma, Ceylon, Mergui Archipelago, Andaman 
Islands. 

" Shell varying from discoidal to depressed-globose, umbihcate, 
the surface rather roughly sculptured, hairy when young, micro- 
scopically granulated, sometimes ribbed when adult ; the apex 
typically showing no distinct sculpture. Last tvJiorl strongly 
dejlexed in front. Aperture very oblique, small, the lip well 
expanded, reflexed below, the terminations approaching and some- 
times connected by a raised callus. 



154 



HELICID-i:, 



" Animal (of P. delihrata) having the left body -lappet of the 
mouth represented by a simple thickening ; right lappet reaching 
anteriorly over the back and rapidly becoming narrower below. 
In P. vittata the sole is distinctly tripartite. 

"Jaw arcuate, the entire anterior surface ribbed, the seven 
median ribs stronger. In P. vittata there are five very high 
ribs, strongly dentieulating the margin. 

"Eadula (of P. delihrata) very long, with 124 transverse rows 
of 22 (to 18) 20 . 1 . 20 . 18 (to 22) teeth. Central and inner 
lateral teeth with a large mesocone and obsolete side cutting- 
points ; outer laterals and marginal teeth with the ectocone 
developed. In P. vittata the formula is about the same ; central 
and inner 14 laterals unicuspid ; outer laterals with an ectocone. 
At the 25th tooth the mesocone becomes bifid, and outwardly the 
bifid mesocone becomes shorter, the outermost marginals having 
three subequal cusps. 

" Genitalia having the female side free from all accessory 
organs, the duct of the spermatheca very long. Penis terminating 
in an epiphallus, near the root of which the retractor is in- 
serted ; epiphallus long, terminating in a short fiagellum and 
the vas deferens. The genitalia of P. vittata are similar ; penis 
with a spirally coiled fiagellum. In P. 2yenangevsis the penis bears 
an epiphallus ending in a short fiagellum, and has an accessory 
sack, perhaps an 'appendix.' 

" These shells are characterized by the deeply descending whorl 
at the aperture, and the strongly converging ends of the lip. 
The anatomy is in essential agreement with either Chloritis or 
Phmispira, although the strong ribbing of the jaw is most like 
the former group. On the other hand, the general form of the 
shell, the deep descent of the last whorl to the very oblique 
aperture and the system of colouring, agree more nearly with 
Planispira. The sculptiu'e of the shell varies considerably in the 
different species. The more typical, such as fallaciosa, nilagirica, 
2~>ioxima, as well as vittata exhibit an apparently smooth apex ; 
but propinqna, tanqueri/i, and a few others, show an excessively 
fine quincuncial punctulation of the apical whorls, such as occurs 
in Chloritis, in combination with the characteristic shell contour 
of Trachia. Until we know by the examination of numerous 
species, how and to what extent the characters of jaw and 
genitalia are correlated with the above-mentioned shell structures, 
no consistent zoologist \^ill be justified in drawing rigid lines of 
demarcation between the Chloritis and Planispiras of South- 
Eastern Asia. It is better to recognize frankly that in this area 
the two groups are represented by some forms which, so far as 
shell characters show, are undifferentiated or separated by feeble 
characters only." (Pilshrjf.) 

Stoliczka was of opinion that fallaciosa, rvginosa, nilagerica, 
vittata, proxihia, mid crassicostata pertain to Planispira, s. s., but 
Pilsbry refers them, correctly I think, to the subgenus Trachia 
and I have followed him in this I'espect. 



PLANISPIRA. 155 

122. Planispira al"bicostis, Pfeiffer. 

Helix alhicostk, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 134 ; Malak. Bliitt. vii, 

1861, p. 238. . ^^ ^ ^^ ,. ^„ 

HeUx {Tmehia) alhlcosfis, Pfeiffer .^' Clessin, Noraencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 181. ^ , 

Planispira (Trachia) albicostis, Pilsbry, INlau. Couch, ser. J, ix, 

1894, p. 116. 
Oriqiaal descriptiuii :— " T. sublate umbilicatn, depressa, tenuis, 
granulato-i-ijgosa et pilis brevibus obsita, cornea, costulis obliquis 
albidis mimita; spira paruin elevata ; anfr. 4 convexiuscuh, 
ultimus supei-ue subangulatus, supra angulum leviter sulcatus, 
antice deflexus ; apertura perobliqua, ovalis ; perist. tenue, mar- 
ginibus fere coutiguis, supero expansiusculo, basali breviter 
reflexo. 

" Diam. maj. 9^, uiin. 8, alt. 4i mill.'' (Pfeifcr.) 
Hah. India : Ahinednuggar. 

The species bears a superiicial reseuiblauce to P. crassicostata, 
but in the latter tbe c-osta? are much more prominent and more 
widely spaced, the umbilicus is a Htrle more contracted, and the 
periphery is acutely keeled, the keel being pinched above and 
below, and, owing to the strong costa;, it is crenulate, whereas in 
P. albicostis the periphery is simply angulated with a shallow 
furrow above it. The principal character, however, differentiating 
the two species is the presence in P. albicostis of crowded short 
hairs, placed on raised tubercles, arranged in rows which obliquely 
intersect the lines of growth. 

123. Planispira asperella, Pfeiffer. 

Helix asperella, Pfeiffer, Symb. Hist. Helic. iii, 1846, p. 78; 
Peeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 125, fig. 752 ; Pfeiffer, Conch.- 
Cab., Helix, ii, 1853, p. 93, pi. 82, figs. 22-25 ; Hanley & 
Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 131, figs. 8, 9; Kobelt, 111. 
Conch. Buch, ii, 1879, pi. 76, fig. 7. 

Helix {Planispira) asperella, Nevill, Hand List, i, 18/8, p. //. 

Heliv (Trachia) asperella, Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 
p. 160 ; Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 62, pi. 14, 
fig. 58. ^ . 

Planispira (Trachia) asperella, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 
1894, p. 116, pi. 19, fig. 25 (shell) ; pi. 34, fig. 4 (radula). 

Helix granif era, Benson, MS. 

Original description : — " T. umbilicata, depressa, granulis 
minutis undique exasperata, sordide albida, fasciis rutis vane 
cingulata; spira vix elevata; anfr. 4 planiusculi, ultimus basi 
con^vexus, antice parum descendens, juxta umbilicum mediocrem, 
infundibuliformem subcompressus ; apertura obliqua, lata, sub- 
orbicularis ; perist. undique expansum, marginibus approximatis, 
callo tenui juuctis." {Pfeifcr.) 

Major diam. 13-1 G, uiinor 10-13, alt. 6^-8] mm. 

Bah. India : Bundelkhund (Benson) ; Chanda (Nevill). 



156 helicid;e. 

Resembles Chloritis propinqua, Pfr., but may be distinguished 
by the roughened granules. The bands vary considerably, but the 
commonest form appears to be one with a dark, well-defined, 
supra-peripheral band, with two paler linear ones above it and 
four or five narrower and paler ones below it. Specimens without 
bands also occur 



124. Planispira atkinsoni, Theohald. 

Helix atkinsoni, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxviii. 18o9, p. 305 ; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 15, fig. 9, 1874, 

pi. 84," figs. 2, 3. 
Heli.r {Trachia) atkinsoni, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, 

p. 56, pi. 12, hgs. 83-85. 
Planispira {Trachia) atkinsoni, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 116. 

Original description : — " Testa depressa, infundibuli-forme- 
nmbilicata, lineis transversis rugose striata, lineisque spiralibus 
obscure leviter decussata, obtuse carinata, sordide albida (forsan 
in meliore specimine cornea) semitranslucente, sutura impressa. 
Anfract. 5 convexiusculis, aj)ertura obliqua. Perist. leviter 
incrassato, non reflexo. 

"Diam. 0-54, alt. 0-20." (Theohald.) 

Hah. Burma: Moulmain {Atkinson)-. Tenasserim (Beddome). 

A specimen collected at Tenasserim, X'eceived from the late 
Col. Beddome, enables me to supplement the above meagre 
description, which must have been dra\\"n up from a dead and 
worn specimen. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, lenticulai", pale fuscous ; suture 
shallow but well marked ; whorls 5, slightly convex, increasing 
slowly and regularly, the last slightly dilated at the mouth ; the 
apical whorl shining, very finely rugosely striated, the striae 
intersected by spiral lines, the transverse striae becoming more 
accentuated and the spiral lines becoming deeply incised as the 
growth of the shell proceeds, the former being cut into sub- 
quadrate gi'anules by the latter on the later vvhorls, giving the 
upper and outer side of the shell a rough rasp-like texture; 
the spiral incised lines cease somewhat abruptly a short distance 
below the periphery, and the transverse striaj also almost dis- 
appear on the underside, which is thei'efore almost smooth and 
shining. Aperture oblique, subquadrate-ovate, margins of the 
peristome approaching, upper sinuate, inflected, acute, the others 
slightly thickened and reflexed ; outer regularly curved, basal 
almost straight, columellar ascending ; umbilicus funicular. 

Major diam. 12, minor 10, alt. 4'7o mm. 

The species, if cori'ectly referred to Trachia, is a somewhat 
abnormal member of this group owing to its coarsely granulated 
upper and lateral surface and the acute inflected upper margin of 
the peristome. 



PLANISPIRA. 157 

125. Planispira contracta, Benson. 

Helix contracta (Ilutton) Benson, A. M. N. fl. ser. 3, xiii, 1864, 

p. 137 ; Hauley k Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1870, pi. .55, tigs. 

8 & 9. 
Helix {Planisinra) contracta^ Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 77. 
Helix {Trachia) contracta, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 181. 
Helix {Plectotropis (Trachia)) contracta, Try on, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 65, pi. 14, figs. 61, 62. 
Planispira I Trachia) contracta, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, i.\, 

1894, p. 116. 

Original descrijjfioti : — " H. testa late umbilicata, depressa, 
cliscoidea, oblique striatula, laevigata, nitidida, albida, fascia 
rufesceute supra anguluiu superiorem ciucta ; spira plauata, 
apice vix elevatiore, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 4, sensim 
accresceutibus, coiivexiusculis, ultimo supra periplieriaiu com- 
pressiusculo subaugulato, antice latiore oblique descendeute, subtus 
convexo, utnbilicum mediocrem, medio anguste excavatuui, sutu- 
raque brevi profunda munitum circumstaute ; apertura valde 
obliqua, lata, ovato-lunari ; peristomate non continue, superne 
expausiusculo, subhorizontali, infra reflexiusculo, marginibus 
conniventibus approximatis. 

" Diam. maj. 13, niin. 10, alt. 4 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. ludia : • Malwa : Pooree, Bhagulpur {liaban) ; Ijenares 
{Mainivaring) ; Delhi, lioorkee ( Wood-Mason). 

Apparently a rare species, intermediate between P. nilagerica 
and P. asperella. 

126. Planispira fallaciosa, Ferussac. 

Helix (Helicella) fallaciosa, Ferussac, Tabl. Syst., Lima^ons, 1821, 

p. 43 (nom. nud.) : ibid.. Hist. Nat. Moll. 1832, pi. 71, figs. 1-3, 

Expl. PI. p. iii (Livr. xxviii). 
Helix fallaciosa, Pfeitfer, Symb. Hist. Helic. ii, 1842, p. 27 ; 

Deshayes in Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll, i, 1850, p. 54 ; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 85, tig. 459 ; PteiHer, Conch.-Cab., 

Helix, ii, 1853, p. 93, pi. 82, tigs. 18-21 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 85, tigs. 8, 9. 
Helix [Camcena] fallaciosa, Chenu, Man. Conchyl. i, 1860, p. 455, 

fig. 3397. 
Helix (Trachia) fallaciosa, von Marten?, Die Helic. ed. 2, 1800, 

p. 160. 
Helix (Planispira) fcdlaciosa , Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 77. 
Helix (Plectotropis (Trachia)) fallaciosa, Tryon, Man. Couch. 

ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 64, pi. 14, figs. 68, 69. 
Planispira (Trachia) fallaciosa, Pihhry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 116. 
Trachia fallaciosa, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 285. 

" H. testa orbiculato-depressa, diseoidea, laevigata, alba, fusco- 
zonata ; anfractibus planiusculis, ultimo cyliudraceo, aliquando 



158 HEIilCIB^. 

Ruperne obtuse angulato ; basi umbilico angusto perforate ; 
apertuva ovato-transversa ; marginibus albis, reflexis, coujunctis. 

" Diam. 17, axis 7 mm." {Deshayes.) 

The foregoing short diagnosis is amplified, from specimens in 
my own collection, as follows : — 

Shell perspectively umbilicated, depressed-conoid, from whitish 
to pale or dark fuscous, unicolorous or variously banded with 
brown. Apex scarcely raised, spire depressed, suture linear. 
AVhorls 4-4|, finely striated, densely and minutely granulated, 
rather flattened above, subangulated at the periphery, convex 
below, angulated around the umbilicus ; the last suddenly dilated 
towards the mouth, shortly and abruptly descending in front, 
constricted below behind the peristome. Aperture ovate - 
rotundate, margins approaching, united by a thin callus on the 
parietal wall; peristome rather thin, slightly expanded and 
reflexed, upper and outer margins curved, basal margin nearly 
straight, columellar curved, triangularly dilated and slightly 
overhanging the umbilicus, which shows nearly half of the 
penultimate whorl. 

Major diam. ll~lo'5, minor 9-12-5, alt. 5*5-8 mm. 

Hal). India : Coimbatore (LescJtenavlt) ; Trichinopoly (Bhoi- 
fonl). Ceylon {Templetou, Blanfonl, NeviU). 

An elegant species, apparently not uncommon. It is uni- 
colorous or variously ornamented with bands ; the commonest 
form seems to be the one with a rather broad supra-peripheral 
band, one or two narrow ones alcove and several (five or six) 
below it ; occasionally a broad infra-peripheral baud occurs. 



127. Planispira crassicostata, Benson. 

Helix crassicostata, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, ii, 1848, p. 159 ; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 125, ^^. 747; Hanlev & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 50, fig. 10. 
Helix {Planispira) crassicostata, Nevill, Hand l^ist, i. 1878, p. 77. 
Helix (Trachia) ruginosa, var. crassicostata^ I'feift'er & Clessin, 

Nomencl. llelic. Viv. 1881, p. 181. 
Helix {Plectotropis {Trachia)) rw/inosa, xn\: crassicostata, Tryow. 

Man. Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 64, pi. 14, fig. 67. 
Planisjnra ( Trachia) rnginosa, var. crassicostata, Pilsbrv, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, iy, 1894, p. 116. 

Original description : — " T. late umbilicata, depresso-planata, 
albida. plicis validis irregularibus obliquis, juxta carinam incras- 
satis, munita ; spira? apice la^vigato, vix elevato ; anfractibus 
4 plauatis, ultimo carinato, subtus valde convexo, antice deflexo ; 
umbilico infundibuliformi ; apertura subhorizontali, transverse 
ovato-rotundata, marginibus coiuiiventibus reflexis, callo brevi 
junctis. 

" Diam. maj. 13, min. 10, axis 4 mill." {Benson.) 

Hah. India : fS. India {Jerdon) • Poena {Blanford, Fairhanh). 



PLAIS^ISPIRA. 159 

128. Planispira colletti, Beddome. 

Helix {lianispim) colletti, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 314, pi. 29, 

tigs. 7-9. 
Chloritis {Trichochloritis) colletti, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2. viii, 

1893, p. 274, pi. 51, tigs. 36-38; ix, 1894, p. 124. 

Original description : — " Shell openly, umbilicate, orbiculato- 
depressed, rather thin ; spire nearly flat ; whorls 5, the last 
obsoletely angulate at the periphery, not descending, very promi- 
nently and coarsely striated obliquely ; colonr light fawn, with a 
dark band at the periphery ; aperture somewhat oblique. Innately 
suborbicular ; peristome simple, very slightly reflexed, margins 
not joined." {Beddome.) 

Major diam. 19, minor 16, alt. 9"5 mm. Width of umbilicus 
5 mm. 

Bab. Burma : Shan States (Boxedl). 

129. Planispira footei, Stoliczka. 

Trachia footei, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1873, p. 170. 
Heli.v footei, Haulev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 149, 
tig. io. 

Ileli.v {Planispira) footei, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 77. 

Helix (Plectotropis {Trachia) footei, Trvon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iv, 1888, p. 64, pi. 14, tig. 84. 
Planispira {Trachia) footei^ Vilsbvy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 

p. 116. 

Original description : — " Trachia testa albida, orbiculata, supra 
deplanata, infra inflata, versus medium angustata, perspective 
modice umbilicata, undique dense granuhfera ; anfractibus 4 ad 
4-5, gradatum accrescentibus, primis duobus aut tribus convexius- 
culis, transversim striatis, cteteris magis deplanatis, transversim 
costulis inaequalibus et obliquis ornatis, ultimo ad peripheriam 
valde carinato, costulis in carina evanesceutibus, ad aperturam 
valde descendente atque fere omnino deflexo ; basi circa umbili- 
cum rotundate subangulata, similariter costulata, costulis usque ad 
peripheriam extensis ; aperturafere horizontaliter deflexa, margine 
dilatato fere undique libero, ad angulum umbilici angustissime 
adnato, circumdata. 

" Diam. niaj. 13-3, diam. min. 11-2, alt. totius testa;; 6, altitudo 
apert. cum peristomate 5-5, ejusdem latitudo 6'S mm." (StoUczl-a.) 

Hah. India : Belgaum, Bombay Presid. (Stoliczka). 
F > Allied to P. crasslcostata, but with more elevated spire and 
anffulated around the umbilicus. 



130. Planispira nilagerica, Pfelffer. 

Helix nilayerica, Pfeitler, P. Z. S. 1845, p. 130; ibid., in Philippi, 
Abb. Beschr. ii. 1846, Heli.v, p. 87, pi. 7, tig. 11 ; IJeeve, Conch. 



160 HELICIDiE. 

Icou. Tii. 1852, pi. 84, fig. 460; Pfeifter, Concb.-Cab., Helix, ii, 

1853, p. 92, pi. 82, figs. 15-17 ; Hauley & Theobald, Conch. lud. 

1870, pi. 55, figs. G, 7. 
Heli.r {Trachiii) nilcKjirica, yon Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2,1860, 

p. 160. 
Helix (Plcmispira) nilarjirica, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 77. 
Helix {Plectotropis {Trachict)) niUu/herica, Tryon, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 65, pi. 14, figs. 70, 71. 
Planispira (Trachia) nilagirica, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 116. 

Original description: — "T. late umbilicata, depressa, discoidea, 
striata, coriieo-albida, linea rufa supra peripberiam cincta ; spira 
planiuscula ; anfr. 5 convexiusculi, lente accrescentes, ultiinus 
antice abrupte deflexus : umbilicus latissimus, anfractum penulti- 
nium late monstrans, medio augustus, pervius ; apertura parAa, 
borizontalis. rotuudato-ovalis ; perist. coutinuum, album, sub- 
labiatum, reflexiim." (Pfeifcr.) 

Diam. maj. 10-75-14-5, min. 8-75-12, alt. 3-5-5-5 mill. 

Bab. India : Nilgiries (Blanford) ; Trichiuopolj' (Blanford). 

A distinct and well marked species, the convolute character ofc" 
the underside of the shell strongly resembling many of the North- 
American species of Poh/gyra, such as P. cereolns. The supra- 
peripheral band mentioned in the original diagnosis is frequently 
absent, and many specimens instead have the latter portion of the 
last -whorl dark fulvous, while others again exhibit transverse, 
alternately light and dark bands, or they may be uniformly pale 
ochraceous. The shell is densely, minutely granulated under 
the deciduous cuticle, which, wheu fresh, bears very short, stiff, 
densely crowded hairs, neither of which fact is referred to in the 
diagnosis. 



131. Planispira nagporensis, Pftiffer. 

Helix nagporensis, PfeifFer, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 135 : Malak. ibid., 

Blatt. vii (1860), 1861, p. 235. 
Helix {Patula (Patidastra)) ncu/jjorensis, l*feifler& Clessin, Nomencl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 90. 

Original description : — " T. latLssime umbilicata, depressa, 
tenuiuscula, oblique striata, opaca, carneo-albida ; spira medio vix 





Fi"-. 79. — Planispira iiagporensis. 

prominula ; anfr. 4 vix convexiusculi, ultimas subtus vix latior, 
antice deflexus et subtus subconsti-ictus ; apertura perobliqua, 



PLAIflSPIKA. 161 

transverse ovalis : perist. tenue, marginibus convergentibus, 
supero recto, basali breviter reflexo. 

"Diaiu. maj. 10, miii. 8, alt. 4 mill." (Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : JVagpore {Jerdon). 

This species appears to have escaped all the recorders as, with 
the exception of Pfeift'er's aud Clessin's ' Nomenclator," the name 
does not figure ia any text-book or fannal list. It is allied to 
P. nilagerica, and may indeed be only a variety of that species. 
The last whorl, however, is not contracted below behind the 
peristome, the umbilicus is narrower and does not show as many 
whorls, while the aperture is nearly horizontal and the margins 
are not coutiiuioas. In colour it is corneous white, A specimen 
in the Cuming collection measures 13'5 : 11 : 4 mm. 

The species — hitherto unfigured — is now illustrated from the 
type in the British Museum. 

132. Planispira ruginosa, Ferussac. 

Helix (Helicella) ruginosa, Ferussac, Tabl. Svst., Lima^ons, 182], 

p. 43 (uom. nud.) ; ibid., Hist. Nat. Moll. '1832, pi. 71, fig. 4, 

Expl. PL p. iii (Livr. xxviii). 
Helix ruciinosa, Deshayes in Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll, i, 1839, 

p. 38 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 125, fig. 748 ; Pfeifter, 

Conch.-Cab., Helix, ii, 1853, p. 60, pi. 76, figs. 7-10 ; Ilanley & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 85, figs. 2, 3. 
Helix {Traehia) ruyinosa, von Martens, Die Ilelic. ed. 2, 1860^ 

p. 160. 
Helix {Pla/iispira) ruginosa, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 77. 
Helix {Plectotropis (Traehia)) ruginosa, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iv, 1888, p. 63, pi. 14, figs. 65-60. 
Planispira {Traehia) ruginosa, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 116. 

'•• H. testa subdiscoidea, supra plana, ad peripheriam subangu- 
lata, subtus convexa, late umbilicata, alba, lineis fuscis bicincta ; 
anf ractibus lougitudinaliter rugoso-plicatis, rugis, plurisque irregu- 
laribus ; apei'tura ovato-rotundata, perobliqua ; marginibus albis, 
continuis. 

"Diam. 11, alt. G mm." (Desha j/es.) 

Hah. India : Bengal (Leschenault) ; Trichinopoly (Blanford) ; 
Madura (Beddome). 

Allied to P. asperella, but with more elevated spire and not so 
smooth. 

133. Planispira sordida, Pfeiffcr. 

Helix sordida, Pfeiffer, Symb. Hist. Ilelic. ii, 1842, p. 39. 
Planispira (Traehia) sordida, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 
p. 110. 

Oriffinal description : — " T. perforata, globoso-depressa, striis 
incrementi rugosa, epidermide sordide cornea iuduta, obtuse cari- 
nata ; spira depressa ; anfr. 4| vix convexiusculis, ultimo subtus 

M 



162 HELICID^. 

inflate ; umbilico angustissimo, nou pervio ; apex'tura lunato- 
rotundata ; perist. simplice, reflexiusculo. 

" Diam. 11, alt. 7 mill." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Pondicberry. 

Known only from Pfeiffer's description. I have not seen 
specimens. 

134. Planispira proxima, Femssac. 

Helix {Helicella) jyvoxima, F6russac, Tabl. Syst., Limacons, 1821, 

p. 43 (nom. luid.) ; ibid., Hist. Nat. Moll. 1832, pi.' 71, fig. 5, 

Expl. PI. p. iii (Livr. xxviii). 
Helix proxima, IJesbayes in Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll, i, 1839, 

p. 29 ; Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., Helix, ii, 1853, p. 58, pi. 76, figs. 4-6 ; 

Reeve, Concb. Icon, vii, ]8o4, pi. 210, tig. 1487; Hanley & 

Tbeobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 28, tig. 5. 
Helix {Planispira) proxima, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 77. 
Helix (Trachia) proxima, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881", p. 181. 
Helix ( Plectotropis (Trachia)) proxima, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iv, 1888, p. 63, pi. 14, fig. 72. 
Planispira (Trachia) proxima, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 116. 

Original description : — " H. testa orbiculato-depressa, albo- 
fncesceute, obscure striata, late umbilicata ; ultimo anfractu cylin- 
draceo ; apertura ovato-rotundata ; margine albo, reflexo ; peri- 
stomate continuo." (Deshayes.) 

Two specimens — labelled: Anamullay Forest, Nilgiries — 
forming part of the Cnming collection in the British Museum, 
enable me to supplement the foregoing brief diagnosis. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, depressed-conoid, finely striated, 
here and there showing traces of minute spirals ; whitish, be- 
coming pale fawn-colonred on the last whorl, mouth dark fuscous ; 
unicolorous or variously ornamented with darlt or pale brown 
bands. Whorls 5|, convex above, flattened below, increasing 
rather rapidly, the last dilated towards the mouth. Spire de- 
pressed, apex obtuse, suture rather deep. Aperture elliptic- 
ovate, margins approaching, united by a thin callus on the 
parietal wall ; peristome somewhat thickened ; upper margin 
broadly expanded, scarcely reflected, with an acute edge, regularly 
curved ; outer margin curved, expanded and slightly reflected, 
basal margin strongly reflected, straight, columellar margin 
ascending, broadly triangularly dilated and overhanging the 
moderate umbilicus, which shows half of the penultimate whorl, 
when it suddenly becomes contracted. 

Major diam. 21, minor 17, alt. 12 mm. 

Hab. India: Coimbatore (Leschenault) ; Pulney Hills (Fair- 
bank) ; Trichinopoly (Stoliczl-a) • Anamullay Forest, IVilgiries 
(Mus. Criming). 

Like several other species of the subgenus TracJiia, F. proxima 
exhibits bands variable in size and number. I have not seen any 



PLANI9PIRA. 163 

unicolorous forms, tlie shells of the Cuming collection in the 
British Museum showing a hroad supra-peripheral hand which 
ascends the spire and is visible above the suture on all the 
whorls, while below the periphery several narrow bands occur. 
The shells figured by Ferussac, Pfeiffer, and in Conch. Ind. are 
bandless. 

135. Planispira ^ armstrongi, Smith. 

Hdi.f (Plectotropis) armatront/i, Smith, Proc. !Malac. Soc. London, 
i, 1895, p. 219, text-figure.' 

Original deserljdion : — '• Testa depresse conica, in medio acute 
carinata, late umbilicata, solidiuscula, albida, zona purpureo-rufa 
latiuscula, spiram ascendente, supra ornata ; spira breviter conica, 
ad apicem obtusa ; anfractus G-Q^r lente et regulariter accresceutes 
leviter convexiusculi, supra suturam perspicue luarginati, costulis 
confertis obliquis arcuatis et pulcherrimegrauulatis ornati, ultimus 
infra carinaui subserratam convexiusculus, prope cariuam im- 
pressus, costulis vel plicis curvatim radiantibus granulatis insti-ue- 
tus, antice paulo descendeus, circa umbiHcum perspectivum 
I'otundatus ; apertura angulariter lunata, obliqua, in feme recedens, 
zona externa supra carina picta ; peristoma superne tenue, leviter 
expansum, obhquum, vix arcuatum, margine inferiore valde 
arcuato, paulo incrassato, subreflexo, supero callo crasso recto 
juncto. 

" Diam. niaj. 28, inin 25, alt. 14 mm. ; apertura 7 longa, 
11 lata." (.Smith.) 

Hub. Burma (Armsirong). 

" Tlie costulations on the upper surface become stronger as the 
shell increases, and the granules are also stronger upon the body- 
whorl than upon the rest of the spire. The acute periphery has 
a finely scalloped appearance when the shell is viewed from above 
or below." (Smilh.) 

The present species stands somewhat isolated in the Indian 
and Burmese fuuna, rather recalHng some species of Pleurodonte 
(section Caracolas), such as P. honiii, Pfr., and P. bizonal is, Desh., 
from tbe West Indies. In form it approaclies nearest to Plani- 
spira {Trachia) trocJialia, Benson, from the Andaman Islands, but 
that species has a narrower umbilicus and the margins of the 
peristome are not united by a raised ridge on the parietal wall, 
and it also lacks the strongly granulated transverse costje of 
P. armstrongi. 

It is not without hesitation it is placed in Planispira in the sub- 
genus Trachia, but until specimens with the soft parts are taken, 
and their examiuatiou shall prove the contrary, this appears to be 
the only course to adopt. Mr. Smith referred the species to 
Plectotropis, but in this view I am unable to concur, as I do not 
know any species of that group possessing so solid a sliell and 
with such coarse granulated costal. 

M 2 



164 HELICID^. 

] 36. Planispira trochalia, Benson. 

Helix trochalia. Benson, A. M. N. ir. ser. 3, vii, 1861, p. 82; 

Hanley & Theobald, Concli. Ind. 1870, pi. 28, fig. 7 ; Stoliczka, 

Proc. A. S. B. 1870, p. 87 ; Pilsbrv, Man. Concli. ser. 2, vii, 1891, 

p. 88, pi. 18, tigs. 67, 68. 
A7npelita (Helix) bigshyi, Tryon, Amer. Journ. Conch, v, 18G9, 

p. 110, pi. 10, fig. 3. _ 

Helix {Planispira) trochalia, Nevill, Hand l^ist, i, 1878, p. 77. 
Planispira (Trachia) trochalia, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, pp. 115, 116, pi. 34, figs. 4, 5 (faw and radula). 
Planispira trochalia, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 

Original description : — " H. testa anguste iimbilicata, solidius- 
cula, orbiculato-conoidea, subtrochiforini, irregulariter arcuato- 
striatula, striis nonnullis prominentioribus, castanea, apicem versus 
albida ; spira conoidea, apice valde obtuso, sutura levitei* impressa ; 
anfractibus 5, primis convexiusculis, cajteris planiusculis, ultimo 
acute eompresso-cariuato, antice breviter descendente, subtUvS 
convexo ; apertura obliqua, elliptico-lunata ; pei'istomate tenui, 
undique expanse concolori, marginibus subconniventibus, colu- 
mellari dilatato, umbilicum profundum semitegente." (Benson.) 

Diaui. inaj. 17-5-23-5, min. 15-5-20-5, alt. 12-15 mill. 

Hab. Andaman Islands : Port Blair (Haughton). 

A peculiar form readily recognized by its trocboid spire. No 
reference is made in the description to the fact that the last whorl 
is suddenly contracted behind the peristome, nor to the presence 
of a hydrophanous cuticle. The shell, moreover, is covered above 
and below — except at the protoconch, which is smooth and 
shining — with excessively minute and densely crowded, wavy, 
spiral lines ; the base has in addition a few distant spirals. In 
colour the species varies from pale fuscous to chestnut. Godwin- 
Austen mentions a variety, conico-elata — one of Nevill's MS. 
names — but gives no definition. 



137. Planispira vittata, Midler. 

Helix vittata, Miiller, Verm. terr. fluv. ii, 1774, p. 76; Wood, 
Index Test. 1825, pi. 34, fig. 93 ; Orbigny, Diet. Hist. Nat. Atlas, 
iii, 1849, pi. 19, figs. 3, 4 ; l)eshaves in Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll, 
i, 1850, p. 233; Chenu, lllustr' Conchyl., Helix, 1851, pi. 10, 
figs. 6, 7 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. vii. 1852, pi. 78, fig. 412 ; Pfeiffer, 
Conch.-Cab., Helix, i, 1853, p. 329, pi. 58, figs. 15, 16, 18, 19 ; 
Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875. pi. 130, fig. 10 ; Kobelt, 
Illustr. Conch. Buch, ii, 1879, pi. 73, fi"-. 21. 

Helix (Helico(/ena) vittata, Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll. 1822, pi. 25 A, 
fig. 9, pi. 26, figs. 4-6. 

Helix spinolce, Villa, Disp. Syst. Conch. 1841, p. 55. 

Helix zonula, Wood, Index Test. Suppl. 1828, pi. 7, fig. 8. 

Helix {Planispira) vittata, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 76. 

Helix {Eurystoma) vittata, Albers, Die Helic. 1850, p. 126 ; Trvon, 
Struct. Conch, iii, 1884, p. 40, pi. 95, fig. 58; Tryon, Man. 
Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 120, pi. 33, figs. 59, 60, 62; Godwin- 



PLANIBPTRA, 



165 



Austen, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vi, 1904, p. 48, pi. 4 

(anatomy). 
Planispira {Trachia) vittata, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 

p. 115 (anatomy), p. 116, pi. 19, iig. 24 (.shell). _ 

Eury.^toma vittata, Jousseaiime, Mem. Soc. Zool. In-ance, vii, 1894, 

p." 286. 

Shell perforate, depressed-conoid, solid, whitish or yellowish 
corneous, usually ornameuted with various narrow and broad 
yellow or brown'bands, from 1 to 10 in number ; nepionic whorls 
smooth, shining, pale fuscous or blackish brown, the remaining 
whorls finely and irregularly striated, minutely granulated and 
occasionally slightly wrinkled in places. Spire convex, suture 
impressed, apex obtuse. Whorls 4^-5, subplanulate or convex 
above, tumid belo\\-, increasing slowly and regularly, the last 
suddenly dilated towards the mouth and deeply descending m 
front. Aperture obovate, oblique, usually black or dark brown, 
occasionally pale fuscous ; margins convergent, united by a 
sinuous callus on the parietal wall ; peristome a little thickened, 
rather Avidely expanded and reflexed, usually of the same colour 
as the mouth, but sometimes edged with a paler colour, and 
occasionally whitish or yellowish ; upper and outer margin 
regularly curved, basal margin nearly straight, columellar margin 
strongly dilated and reftexed, overhanging the umbilicus. 

Major diam. 22-28, minor 17-5-21-5, alt. 15-19 mm. 

Hah. ludia: Tranquebar, Coromandel {Moirh) ; Trichinopoly 
(Blanford) ; Malabar ; Travancore. Ceylon {Stoliczka, Nevill). 

A somewhat variable shell, especially as regards banding.^^ A 
single specimen in the Indian Museum labelled " Java " is 
recorded by Nevill, but this record must be based either on a 
wrongly identified shell or, which is far more likely, on an 
accidental mixing of labels. 

Var. albina, Grateloiq-). 

Helix vittata, var. albina, Grateloup, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, xi, 

1840, p. 401, pi. l,fig-. 19. 
Helix vittata, var., Pfeilier, Conch.-Cab., Helix, i, 18o3, p. 330, 

pi. 58, fig. 17. 
Helix {Eunjdoma) vittata, var. spinolcc (non Villa), Tiyon, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 120, pi. 33, iig. 61. 
rianispira {Trachia) vittata, var. spinola; Pilsbry, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, ix, 1894, pi. 19, fig. 23. 

Differs from the typical form in being smaller, without bands, 
and in the aperture being less dilated transversely. 

Major diam. 22. minor 16, alt. 15 mm. 

The shell figured by Tryon (copied from Conch.-Cab.), and the 
one by Pilsbry as spiuolff, do not agree with tlie description of 
JleliA' sjnnola;hy Villa, wliich differs simply from the type by its 
smaller size and less numerous bands. 



166 HELICIDiE. 

138. Planispira shanica, Beddome. 

Helix shanica, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 314, pi. 29, figs. 10-12. 
Chloritis ( Trichochloritis) shanica, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, viii, 
1893, p. 275, pi. 51, figs. 39-41 ; ix, 1894, p. 124. 

Original descrii^tion : — " Shell naiTosvly umbiliciite, depressedly 
turbiuate, rather solid ; whorls 5, gradually increasing, rather 
convex, the last subangulate at the periphery, slightly descending 
towards the mouth, all furnished with a hue oblique striation, 
more prominent on the last whorl ; colour a light fa\\n, darker at 
the apex of the shell and near the mouth, a narrow dark band 
just above the periphery ; aperture oblique, rotundately lunar ; 
peristome slightly reflexed, dark fawn-coloured, the margins 
distinct." (Beddome.) 

Major diam. 14, minor VS, alt 9"5 mm. 

Ilab. Burma : Shan States (Bo.vall). 

A close examination of the type, in the British Museum, has 
convinced me that this species is a TracMa, not a Chloritis. There 
is no sign of any hair-scars. In the original desci'iption the shell 
is said to be finely striated, the striae being more prominent on 
the last whorl. I find, however, that the last whorl is distinctly 
plicate-striate, almost ribbed, approaching P. crassicostata in this 
respect. 

139. Planispira fritillata, Benson. 

Helix fritillata, Benson, A. M.N.H. ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 320; 

Ilanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, pi, 8(i, figs. 8-10. 
Helix [Patula (Punctum)) fritillata, Trvou, Man. Couch, ser. 2, 

ill, 1887, p. 33, pi. 22, figs. 17-19. 

Original descrij^tion: — " H. testa perspective umbilicata,depresso- 
subconoidea, arcuatim costuiato-striata, subtus Iseviore polita, 
superne striis confertis spiralibus impressis decussata, interstitiis 
conspicue quadrato-granulatis, pallide cornea ; spira couvexa, 
subconoidea, apice obtuso, laevigato, sutura profunda ; anfracti- 
bus 6, angustis, lente accrescentibus, convexis, ultimo demum 
latiusculo, extus depresso, antice vix descendente, subtus valde 
convexo, circa umbilicum excavato ; apertura obliqua, oblique 
semiovato-lunata, peristomat(^ superne tenui, valde arcuato, subtus 
breviter expansiusculo, arcuato, extus marginato, marginibus 
remotioribus. 

" Diam. maj. 13, min. 12, axis 7 mill." (Benson.) 

Hab. Burma, Pegu. 

Genus CHLOHITIS, Bed: 

Chloritis, Beck, Index Moll. 1838, p. 29; Gray, P.Z. S. 1847, 
p. 172 ; Albers, Die Ilelic. 1850, p. 91 ; von Martens, ibid, 
ed. 2, 18130, p. 161; Mullendoi-ff, P.Z. S. 1891, p. 335; Pilsbry, 
Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1891, p. 242; viii, 1893, p. 270; ix, 
1894, p. 117, pi. 28, figs. 1, 2 (anatomy; C. porteri). 



CHL0KIT18 



167 



Eriyonp., Albers, Die Helic. 1850, p. 92 ; Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. 

ii, 1855, p. 202. .. -,-,^- oAo 

Semicornu (Klein), Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. \i, looo, p. 202. 

"Shell varying from discoidal and biconcave to depressed 
subglobose with convex spire ; the apical whorl flattened or 
sunken, and showing under a lens rec/ulurh/ arrawjed granules 
or hair-points, which often persist over the whole shell. Aperture 
lunate, the lip reflexed. 

" Animal with undivided sole, the edges of the foot lacking a 
foot border ; sides irregularly granulated ; tail rounded, above 
luith an impressed longitudinal median line; back from mantle to 
head having a few longitudinal grooves. Mantle edge bearing a 
small right body-lappet. 

'' Jaw strong and ribbed. Eadula having the middle cusp only 
developed on central and inner lateral teeth, the cutting points 
about as long as the basal plates ; side cusps completely absent, 
but represented by small cutting points. Lateral teeth with 
a lono-, oblique, bifid mesocone and a small ectocone. 

"denital system characterised by the lack of dart-sack or 
other accessory organs on the female side, the spermatheca duct 
rather long and closely bound to the uterus. Penis without 
appendi.x, its cavity containing at the apex an imperforate fleshy 
papilla, situated beside the opening of the epiphallus ; epiphallus 
long, the penis retractor inserted upon it; terminating m a 
flagellum and vas deferens." (Pilsbr>/.) 

140. Chloritis bifoveata, Benson. 

Hellr bifoveata, Benson, A. M. N. £1. ser. 2, xviii, 1856, p. 251 ; 

Ilanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 14, fag. 8. 
Helix (CJdoritis) bifoveata, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1891, 

p. 245, pi. 50, tig. "between 36 and 42. _ 

adoritis {rrichochloritis) bifoveata, Pilsbry, op. cit. ix, 1894, p. 1.4. 

Original description :— " T. umbilicata, subglobosa, utrinque 
concava, oblique striata et minutissime granulata, luteo-fusca, 
translucens ; spira profuude excavata, perspective umbilicitormis ; 
anfr. Ah angusti, convexi, recedentes, ultimus promiuens, mflatus, 
superne compressus, cseteros occultans, subtus circa uinbihcum 
mediocrem perspectivum compresse angulatus ; apertura verticahs, 
longissima, utrinque testam superans, angustissime lunata, superne 
et inferne subangulata ; perist. simplex, acutum, expansiusculum, 
inarginibus remotis convergentibus, columellari brevi, subverticali, 

leviter expanso. ^. , . • 

"Diam. maj. 10, min. 9, alt. 6 mill.; long, apert. /, lat. vix 

2 mill." (Benson.) 

Hab. Burma: Therabuiu, Tenasserim Valley (Theobald). ^ 

A peculiar form, readilv recognized by the sunken spire, in 

which feature it approximates such species as C. ungxdma, from 

Ceram, and C. unguindina, from Burn, while the umbilicus much 

resembles that of 0. biconcava from China, 



168 HBLICID^. 



Section Trichochloeitis, Pilshnj. 

Trichochloritis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1891, p. 267; ix, 
1894, p. 123 ; Wiegmann in Weber, Zool. Forsch. Reise Niederl. 
Ost-Indien, iii, 1893, p. 189, pi. 13, fig. 10 (anatomy; C. crassula). 

" Shell depressed, rather thin, the spire low-convex or flat, the 
base generally obtnsely angled around the umbiHcus. Epidermis 
not deciduous ; apex and the whole shell hirsute or marked by 
hair-scars arranged in regular lines ; lip thin, expanded or 
narrowly reflexed." 

Type, Helix hreviscta, Pfr. 

Range : Southern China to Borneo. 

Prof. Pilsbry states (/. c.) that the anatomy is unknown, 
although in the next paragrapli he refers to the genital system 
of G. crassula having been figured by Wiegmann, and he proceeds 
to compare this Avith that of C. porteri which, he says, it re- 
sembles " except that the enlargement at the apex of the penis 
is long and curved — so long that Wiegmann calls it a penis gland, 
although in my opinion it is not glandular, but simply a pouch- 
like enlargement of the penis for the accommodation of a large 
imperforate papilla." 

He continues: "The epiphallus bears the retractor, and is 
continued beyond the insertion of the vas deferens in a short 
flagellum. The duct of the spermatheca is much and abruptly 
swollen at the base and the swelling is doubtfully interpreted 
as a dart-sack and mucus gland by Wiegmann, who did not 
open it, however. If his view is correct, the species must be an 
Eidotella ; but I prefer to consider the structure as a mere 
muscular enlargement of the spermatheca-duct, probably with 
plicate internal walls, such as is often found in the Jfelices. The 
union of dart-sack with spermatheca-duct would be an extremely 
unusual character, if confirmed." 

Pilsbry, «hile admitting tliat the sections of Chloritis appear 
to intergrade by rather easy stages throughout, retains the name 
Trkliochloritis for the group of small, thin species having the 
same distribution as Canuena, and of the Indian species he includes 
in it hemiopta^ proplnqua, shanica, coHetti *, and bifoveakt, while 
delibrata, gahata, and helferi, which Mijllendorff on conchological 
grounds included in Chloritis, he refers to Trochia. The generative 
organs of delibrata, as figured by Pilsbry, show scarcely any dif- 
ference from those of Chloritis, except that in the latter the cavity 
of the penis contains an imperforate fleshy papilla at the apex. 
Under these circumstances I prefer to follow Mcillendorif in 
his classification. 



* skanica and colletti, the types of which I liave examined, certainly have 
no immediate affinity with Chloritis, being undoubtedly Trachias. 



CHLOEITTS. 169 

141. Chloritis propinqua, Pfeiffer. 

Kelix propinqua, PfeiiFer, P.Z.S. 1857, p. 109; ibid. Novit. Conch. 

ser. 1, iii, 1869, p. 498, pi. 107, figs. 15-17 ; Ilanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 30, fig. 10.' 
Helix uniciiicta (Bens. MS.), Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, 

p. 242 (uom. uud.) ; Blanford, op. cit. xxxiv, 1805, p. 104. 
Helix (Flectot?-opis (Trachia)) propinqua, Tryon, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 63, pi. 14, figs. 55-57. 
Chloritis (Triclwchloritis) pi'^'jujiqua, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

ix, 1894, p. 124. 
Helix (Planispira) propinqua, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 79; 

Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. Ixiv, 1895, p. 156, pi. 7, fig. 4. 
Helix [Trichochlorifis) propi7iqiia, Peile, Jo inn. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

8oc. xi, 1897, p. 134 ; Blanford, op. cit. xii, 1899, p. 326. 

Original descrijHion : — " T. umbilicata, globoso-depressa, tenuis, 
striatula, albida aut pallide fuscula, fascia 1 augusta castanea 
supra medium ornata ; spira brevissime conoidea ; anfr. 4-5 
couvexiusculi, ultimas rotundatus, antice defiexus ; umbilicus 
angustus, pervius ; apertui'a diagoiialis, lunato-subcircularis ; 
perist. album, sublabiatum, marginibus convergeutibus, undique 
late expansis." {Pfei^er.) 

Diam. maj, 14-19, min. 11-5-15^, alt. 7^-9| mm. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, depressed-couoid, shining under 
a deciduous cuticle, white, with a reddish-brown, supra-peripheral 
baud. Whorls 4|, increasing slowlj^ finely striated, flattened 
above, convex below, subaugulated around the umbilicus; the 
last Avidening rather suddenly towards* the mouth, slightly 
constricted above behind the peristome, shortly descending in 
front ; protoconch microscopically granulated, the later whorls 
densely crowded with minute hair-scars arranged in quincunx and 
usually disappearing in weathered specimens on the last whorl, 
which is slightly and sparsely spirally AM-iukled in places below. 
Aperture oblique, obovate, margins approaching, united by a thiu 
callus on the parietal wall ; peristome white, thickened and 
reflexed ; upper, outer, and basal margins regularly curved, 
columellar margin ascending, triangularly dilated and slightly 
overhanging the deep umbilicus, which at first is moderately 
wide, showing half of the penultimate whorl, when it becomes 
suddenly contracted. 

The above description is drawn up from a specimen, from 
Poona, in my collection. 

Major diam. 19, minor 15, alt. 11 mm. 

Hub. India: Bombay, Satara (Pi?i?e); Broach, Khaudala, Poena, 
Mahableshwar {Blanford); Belgoan (Foote) ; Ganjam (Beddome) ; 
Pulney Hill (TheobaJd). 

The Theobald collection in the British Museum contains four 
specimens from Pulney Hill and labelled //. fallaeiosa, which 
without hesitation I refer to C. propinqua. These measure : 
major diam. 14-5-10"5, minor ll'75-l;i"5, alt. S'5-9"5 mm. They 
exhibit tlie hair-scars over the whole surface of the shell, but 
another specimen from Poona, in the same collection, shows the 



170 HELICID^. 

hair-scars only in places, the last whorl being totally devoid of 
them. This appears to be the case when the shell is considerably 
worn and has completely lost the periostracum. I have seen 
unhanded specimens in Major Peile's collection. 

142. Chloritis helferi, Benson. 

Helix helferi, Beuson, A. M.N. H. ser. 3, vi, 1860, p. 191 ; Hanlev & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 29, figs. 8, 9. 
Helix {Trachiu) helferi, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 181. 
Helix [Plectotropis [Trachiu)) helferi, Trj'on, Mau. Conch, ser. 2, 

iv, 1888, p. 63, pi. 14, figs. 59, 60. 
rianispira (Trachia) helferi, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 

p. 116. 
Plimisjnra helferi, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1805, pp. 442, 449. 

Original description : — " Testa profunda et anguste perspective 
umbilicata, orbiculata, siibdepressa, oblique striatula, foveolis 
conspersa, sub epidermide rufescente, sparsim hispida, albida, 
fascia rufa angusta superne ornata ; spira depresse conoidea, 
apice valde obtuso, sutura impressa, submarginata ; anfractibus 
4| convexiiisculis, angustis, leiite accrescentibus, ultimo antice 
descendeute, supra peripheriam obsolete angulato, circa nrabilicum 
subito excavatum compressiusculo ; apertura obliqua, transverse 
ovato-lunata, peristomate undique expanso, raarginibus approxi- 
matis, callo tenui junctis. 

" Diam. major V2, minor 10, axis 6 mill." (Benson.) 

Bab. Andaman Islands. 

This species was stated by Benson to be nearly related to 
asperella and fallaciosa, but in build and texture it certainly 
approximates much more to C. gahata. Two specimens in my 
collection, one of which is efasciate, have the periostracum in a 
well preserved condition, and show the rather sparsely distributed 
hairs detected by Benson, " on the portion of the caducous 
epidermis remaining in the single specimen received for examina- 
tion." Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen records (l. c.) the finding in 
de Roepstorff's collection from the Xicobars of a young shell of 
this species, but he considers this habitat I'equires confirmation, 
as it might have got among them accidentally. 

143. Chloritis leithi, Giule. 

Chloritis {Trichoehloritis) leithi, Gude, Proc. Malac. See. London, 
xi, 1914, p. 53, text-figure. 

Original description: — "Shell rather widely umbilicated, de- 
pressed-conoid, thin, transparent, corneous, with a narrow chestnut 
supra-peripheral band, finely plicate-striate, somewhat sparsely 
covered with soft hairs placed in pits and arranged in quincunx. 
Spire low, apex sunken, suture deep. Whorls 4, convex above, 
tumid below, increasing rapidly, the last exceeding in width the 
total of the other three, dilated at the mouth, not constricted 



CHLORITIS. 



171 



behind the peristome, shortly but deeply descending in front, 
subangulated around the umbilicus, which is rather \\ ide at first, 
showing the greater part of the penultimate whorl, when it 
suddenly contracts, leaving only a very narrow perforation. 
Aperture subcircular, margins approaching ; peristome scarcely 
thickened, expanded but not reflexed ; the columellar margin 
triangularly dilated and slightly overhanging the umbilicus. 

Major diam. 14'5, minor llS, ait. 7 mm." (Glide.) 

Hah. India : Bombay (Leith). 

From 0. helferi, an Andaman species, C. leithi differs in being 
much thinner in texture, in having the hairs, which are larger 
and softer, much more crowded, and in being coiled differently 





Fig. SO.— CIt lor i^ is Icifhi. (From Proe. Malac. Soc. London.) 

as it has the last whorl proportionately wider. It also bears 
some superficial resemblance to Ghloritis 2»'opinqua, but that 
species is a much stouter shell, with a more elevated spii'e, while 
in C. leithi the umbilicus, although wider at first, becomes 
more contracted. There are two other shells in the British 
Museum also collected by Dr. Leith, but they are slightly 
damaged. A specimen in Mr. Ponsouby's colle(?tion is a trifle 
smaller than the type, measuring 14 : 10-75 : 6'75 mm. 

None of the specuuens is quite adult, the peristome apparently 
not having been quite completed. 

144. Chloritis wimberleyi, Gochv la- Austen. 

Planispira juiinherleyi, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 449. 

Original description : — " Shell depressedly orbiculate, narrowly 
umbilicated, very finely hirsute ; sculpture, ^^•hen tiiis is abraded 
the surface is covered with minute regular papillation, which is 
much coarser than that of //. helferi ; colour horny-gvey : spire 
rounded ; apex rounded ; suture impi*essed ; wliorls 4, not fully 
developed, slightly convex ; aperture and peristome probably 
slightly expanded and reflected. 

" Maj. diam. 10*2, miu. 8*9 ; alt. axis 5*7 mm. 

" Hab. Nicobars. 

" The species is nearest to //. helferi, but may be distinguished 
by its narrower umbilicus and the great difference in sculpture, 
and the whorls above are not so flat. This is probably No. 102 
of Nevill's Hand List (p. 76), collected by Ferd. Stoliczka." 
(^Godwin- Austen.) 



172 HELICID,?:. 

145. Chloritis delibrata, Benson. 

Helix delibratus, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 352. 

Helix delibrata, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, ii, 1848, p. 162 ; 

Blanford, J.A. S. B. xxxiv, I860, p. 89 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. lud. 1870, pi. 14, fig. 10 ; Nevill in Anderson, Zool. 

Results Exp. W. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 873. 
Trachia delibrata, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 225, pi. 16, 

figs. 1-3 (anatomy). 
Helix {Planispira) delibrata, Nevill, Hand List, 1878, p. 76. 
Helix {Trachia) delibrata, Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Genova, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 325. 
Helix {Plectotrojns (Trachia)) delibrata, Tvvou, Mem. Conch, ser. 2, 

iv, 1888, p. 64, pi. 14, tig. 75. 
Planispira {Trachia) delibrata, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 116, pi. 32, figs. 44, 45 (anatomy). 
Chloritis {Trichochloritis) delibrata, Gude, Proc. Malac. Soc. 

London, vii, 1906, p. 115. 

Shell discoid, rather widely urabilieated, thin, semi-transparent, 
pale fuscous or ochraceous, finely striated, sliining under a velvety 
cuticle, covered in the fresh condition with close-set stiff bristles 
arranged in quincunx. Spire plane, apex depressed or immersed, 
suture deep. Whorls 3:|-4, convex, subangulated around the 
umbilicus, increasing rather suddenly, the last twice as wide as 
the penultimate, slightly dilated towards the mouth, slightly 
gibbous below behind the peristome, shortly and abruptly 
descending in front. Aperture oblique, obovate-auriculate, 
margins approaching; peristome white or pale fulvous, scarcely 
thickened, reflexed ; upper margin ascending at first, curved ; 
outer and basal regularly curA'ed, columellar obliquely ascending, 
triangularly dilated and overhanging the umbilicus, which shows 
half of the penultimate whorl, when it suddenly contracts. 

Major diam. 17-22, minor 14-17, alt. 8-10-5 mm. 

Hah. India : Sylhet ; Assam {Stoliczl-a, Peal) : Darjeeling 
{Stoliczka, Maimvaring); Khasi Hills and Dafla Hills {Godivin- 
Atisten). Burma : Bhamo (Anderson) ; Tbagata Juva, Mouleyit 
Mt. (Fea). 

Apparently a common shell, having been collected by several 
naturalists. The original diagnosis by Benson is very short and 
might apply to several allied forms — a very unusual occurrence 
with Benson's species. The above description is drawn up from 
a number of specimens collected for the wi'iter by a native in the 
Khasi Hills. 

The following varieties are admitted : — 

Var. procumbens, Gould. 

Helix procumbe7is, Gould, Boston Journ. jSat. Hist, iv, 1844, 
p. 453, pi. 24, tig. 1 ; Philippi, Abb. Beschr. Couchyl. iii, 1847, 
Helix, p. 3, pi. 10, fig. 5 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. ^2, 
fig. 435. 

Helix delibrata, Pfeiffer, Conch. -Cab., Helix, iv, 1854, p. 352, 
pi. 135, tigs. 8, 9. 

Helix delibrata, \ax. procumbens, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 76. 

Differs from the type in having the last whorl more dilated 



CHLORITIS. 173 

towards the mouth and more deeply descending in front ; the 
spire is more raised and the umbilicus narrower. 

Hah. Burma : Tavoy and Moulmain {StoUczlca) ; Bassein and 
Arakan Hills (Blanford, Ktirz). 

Var. fasciata, Godwin-Austen. 

Helix delibrata, var. fasciata, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xliv, 

1875, p. 1, pi. 1, tig. 1. 
Helix {Plectotroj)is {Trachia)) delibrata, var. fasciata, Trvon, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 64, pi. 14, fig. 76. 

Variously ornamented with brown bands. The commonest 
form appears to be one with a single supra-peripheral band. 

Hah. India: W. Khasi Hills ((ro(^ic'Ui-yl«sien) ; 8ibsagar (Pm?). 

Var. khasiensis, NevilJ. 

Helix delibrata, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 14, 

Helix {Trachia) delibrata, var. khasiensis, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 
1877, p. 21. 

Characterized by the raised and rounded whorls, less open 
umbilicus and contracted aperture, 
Hah. India: Khasi Hills, Naga Hills. 

146. CMoritis gabata, Gould. 

Helix (Caracollu) gabata, Gould, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist, iv, 

1844, p. 454, pi. 24, fig. 9. 
Helix gabata, lieeve. Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 127, fig. 766 ; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 14, fig. 4 ; Pfeitler, 

Conch.-Cab., Helix, iii, 1881, p. 482, pi. 159, figs. 15-17. 
Plectotropis gabata, Wallace, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 408. 
Trachia gabata, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 228. 
Helix {Flanispira) gabata, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 70. 
Helix {Philidora) gabata, von Martens, Journ. liinn. Soc. London, 

xxi, 1887, p. 162. 
Helix (Flectotropis) gabata, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, 

p. 57, pi. 14, fig. 82. 
Helix {Trachia) gabata, Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Genova, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 325. 
Planispira {Trachia) qabata, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, 

p. 116. ■ 

CMoritis {Trichochloritis) gabata, Gude, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 

vii, 1906, p. 115. 

Original description: — "Testa albido-cornea, supra planulata, 
infra valde convexa, late et profunde umbilicata ; anfr. 4i, leviter 
striatis, ultimo carina castanea circumdato ; apei'tura subquadrata, 
labro albo reflexo. 

" Shell pale horn-color, shining, showing about four and a 
half whorls above, which compose a nearly discoidal spire ; suture 
distinct ; the last whorl somewhat channelled near the periphery, 
which consists of a prominent, obtuse, compressed, chestnut- 
coloui-ed carina, fully developed to the lip ; beneath, greatly 



174 HELICID^. 

convex, descending suddenly into a broad, deep, tunnel-sliaped 
mnbilicus, passing nearly through the shell ; surface faintly 
marked by the striae of growth ; aperture rendered somewhat 
(juadrangular by the junction of the lips, and the two angles at 
the keel, and the ridge at the umbilicus ; lip white, reflected, 
commencing below the keel, then rising to a level with it. 

Diam. 4 inch [ = 20*25 mm.] ; height less than ^ inch 
[ = 10 mm.]." (Gould.) 

Hah. Burma : Tavoy {Gould) ; Moulmain (Stolkzica, Feci), var. 
India : Kha^i Hills (Stoliczka) ; Cachar {Godivin- Austen). 

A well-marked species, characterized by the flattened spire and 
carinated whorls. 

Wallace mentions the species from Menado, Celebes (P. Z. S. 
1865, p. 408) but this record was based on a mistaken identifica- 
tion. The Celebes form has since been made the type of another 
species — pilisparsa — by von Martens (Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Naturf. Fr. 
Berlin, 1885, p. 192). " 

Var. merguiensis, Philippi. 

Helix merguiensis, Philippi, Zelts. Malak. iii, 1846, p. 192 ; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon, vii, 1854, pi. 177, fig. 1205; Ilanley & Theobald, 

Couch. lud. 1870, pi. 14, fig. 7. 
Helix (Plectotropis) qahata ( = merguiensis), Tiyou, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 57, pi. 14, fig. 88. 
Planispira {Trachia) qahata, var. merguiensis, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 116. 

Hah. Burma : Mergui {Fliilippi) ; Mergui Archipelago, King 
Island {Anderson). 

Differs from typical rjahata in having the spire raised, the 
supra-peripheral keel less acute and more compressed, the 
umbilicus narro\A'er, and the margins of the peristome more 
reflexed. 

147. Chloritis hemiopta, Benson. 

Helix hemiopta, Benson, A. M. N, H. .ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 318 ; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 30, fig. 4, pi. 53, tig. 8 ; 

Pfeitler, Novit. Conch, v, 1877, p. 37, pi. 143, tigs. 1-8 ; Dohrn, 

Couch.-Cab., Helix, iv, 1894, p. 578, pi. 170, tigs. 5-7. 
Helix (Planispira) hemiopta, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 78. 
Helix (Obba (Neocepolis)) hemiopta, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 
1891, p. 238, pi. 31, tigs. 21, 25, pi. 64, tigs. 67-72. 
Chloritis ( Trichochloritis) keniiopta, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 124. 
Planispira hemiopta, Godmn-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 

Original description : — " II. testa anguste umbilicata, depresso- 
conoidea, vix striatula, laeviuscula, miuutissime granulata, opaca, 
albida ; anfractu ultimo superne castanea, versus peripheriam 
suturiatore ; spira convexo-conoidea, apice obtuso, sutura vix 
impressa ; anfractibus 4^, convexiusculis, sensim acrescentibus, 
ultimo superne prope peripheriam obtuse angulatam concavi- 



cnLORiTis. 175 

usculo, subtiis convexiusciilo ; apertura obliqna, subquadi-ato- 
lunata, intus concolore, peristomate expausiusculo, superne antice 
arciiato, subtus breviter reflexo, mai-ginibus remotis, columellari 
supenie valde dilatato, umbilicum subtegente. 

"Diain. inaj. 16, niin. 13], axis 10 mm/' (Benson.) 
Hah. Andaman Islands : Port T31air (Stoliczlca, Nevill, Wood- 
Mason, Koepsiorff). 

A ratber striking species of Tricliocldorltis, exhibiting a con- 
siderable amonnt of rariation as regards ornamentation and color- 
ation. Pfeiffer figni'es several distinct forms. Lt.-Col. Godwin- 
Austen mentions two varieties (unifasciata and albina, both M8. 
names of Nevill). The commonest form appears to be the one 
with a dark chestnut or blackish-brown peripheral band. The 
colour of the shell is usually white, but some forms have the 
penultimate and last whorls reddish brown or dark fuscous above 
the periphery, with or without the peripheral band, or the two 
whorls may be entirely fuscous. White shells without band also 
occur. The last whorl, moreover, is characterized by a girdle- 
like swelling at the periphery bounded above by a corresponding 
depression, while the upper part of the whorl again is inflated. 
The peristome is usually white, but when the last whorl is 
entirely dark brown it is reddish violet. 

148. Chloritis cyclotrema, Benson. 

Helix cyclotrema, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 88 ; Hauley 

& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. :?8, fig-. 10. 
Arioplumta cyclotrema, Theobald, Cat. Shells Brit. India, 1876, 

p. 22. 
Nanina {Ariopha?ita) ci/clotrema, Trvon, ^lan. Conch, ser, 2, ii, 

1886, p. 17, pi. 2, fig. 22. 
Heli.v (Planlspira or Track ia) cyclotrema, Blanford, Proc. Mulac. 

Soc. Loudon, iii, 1899, p. 283. 

Original description: — " H. testa sinistrorsa, obtecte umbilicata, 
conoideo-suhglobosa, oblique striatula, granulata, sub epidermide 
cornea, albida ; spira conoidea, apice obtuso, subfoveata, suturis 
impressis ; anfractibus 4], convexis, gradatim crescentibus, ultimo 
ad peripheriara obtuse angulato, unifasciato, antice lato, h:)nge 
descendente, subtus convexo ; apertura valde obliqua, rotundata, 
peristomate dilatato, reflexiusculo, marginibus couniveutibus, 
approximatis, callo brevi junctis, columellari late auriculato um- 
bilicum celante. 

"Diam. maj. 22, min. 18, axis 11 mm."' (Benson.) 
Hah. India: Sumeysur, base of Himalayas (Theohakl). 

149. Chloritis anserina. Theobald. 

Heliv anserinn, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1866, p. 276 (nom. 

nud.) ; ibid, xxxix, 1870, p. 39") (noni. nud.). 
Heliv anserina, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 187o, pi. 112, 

tigs. 7 & 10. 



176 HELICID^. 

Shell narrowly umbiliccited, depressed-globose, pale corneous, 
finely striated transversely, densely covered with hair-scars arranged 
in quincunx ; spire depressed, apex obtuse, suture linear. Whorls 5, 
convex, increasing rather rapidly, the last much dilated towards 
the mouth and slightly constricted behind the peristome, the base 
inflated towards the mouth, not augulated at the periphery or 
around the umbilicus. Aperture broadly auriculate ; margins 
slightly appi'oaching, united by a thin flexuous callus on the 
parietal wall ; peristome wliite, thickened, and reflexed, upper 
margin nearly straight, outer and basal curved, columellar ver- 
tical, broadly triangularly dilated and reflexed over the narrow 
umbilicus. 

Major diam. 30, minor 25, alt. 18"5 mm.; apert. width 13, 
height 14 mm. 

Hah. Burma : Shan States (Fedden). 

The species, although well illustrated in Conch. Ind., has never 
been described. The above description is drawn up from the 
shell — probably the type— in the Theobald collection in the 
British Museum. 1 have adopted the later spelling of the specific 
name, the earlier one in the J. A. S. B., in both cases, being 
evidently due to a printer's error. 

This and the next species bear a striking resemblance to 
C. franciscanorum, Gredler, a Chinese form. 

150. Chloritis theobaldi, Gude. 

Chloritis ( Trichochloritis) theohaldi, Gude, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudou, 
xi, 1914, p. 54, text-figure. 

Oriqincd description : — " Shell moderately umbilicated, depressed- 
conoid, pale corneous, with a very faint supra-peripheral band, 
finely striated transversely, and densely covered with hair-scars 
arranged in quincunx. Spire conoid, apex prominent, suture 
rather deep. Whorls oh, convex, increasing slowly and regularly, 
the last widening towards the mouth, not constricted behind the 
peristome, slightly angulated at the periphery at first, the angu- 
lation disappearing near the mouth ; augulated around the deep 
umbilicus, which shows nearly the whole of the penultimate whorl. 
Aperture subcircular, margins distant, united by a thin sinuous 
callus on the parietal wall ; peristome white, thickened and shortly 
reflexed ; margins regularly curved, columellar ascending, trian- 
gularly dilated, and slightly overhanging the umbilicus. 

"Major diam. 24-5, minor 21, alt. 16 mm.; apert. width 10, 
height O'o mm," {Gude.) 

ilah. Burma : Shan States (type) ; Bhamo. 

The shell on which this species is based occurred with the 
specimen of C. anserina in the Theobald collection. It difi'ers 
from the latter in having a more conical spire and a wider 
umbilicus, the base is less inflated, and in consequence the aper- 
ture is more dilated laterally. It is also differently coiled, for, 
although it measures one-fifth less in its diameter, it possesses 



OHLORITIS. — AMPHIDE0MU3. 177 

half a whorl more; the hair-scars, moreover, are much finer and 
more crowded, while the presence of a supra-peripheral band, 
although only a faint one, still further differentiates it from 
G. anserina. 





Fig. 81. — Chloritis theobaldi. (From Proc. Malac. Soc. London.) 

A specimen in the Hungerford collection of the British Museum 
I also refer to C. theobaldi. It is a trifle smaller than the type, 
measuring 24 : 20 : 15 mm., and exhibits a very faint trace only of 
the supra-peripheral band near the peristome. 

The two species approach C. francisccmomm, Gredler, a Chinese 
form. C. theobaldi especially bears a striking resemblance, but 
has the umbilicus a little more contracted, the spii-e is relatively 
higher, and the aperture is less dilated laterally, while the 
columellar margin ascends less obliquely ; the hair-scars are also 
finer. 

Genus AMPHIDROMUS, Albers. 

Amphidromus, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 138 (in part) ; Pfeiffer, 
Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 146 (in part) ; von Martens, Die Heliceen, 
ed. 2, 1860, p. 184; ibid., Preuss. Exp. Ost-Asien, Zool. Theil, ii, 
1867, pp. 77 & 332 ; Semper, Reisen, Arch. Philipp. 2te Theil, 
vol. iii, 1877, p. 146 ; Fulton, A. M. N. H. ser. 6, xvii, 1890, p. 66 ; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 127. 

Type, Helix perversa, Linn. 

Range. India (Sylhet), Burma, Farther India, Malay Archipelago, 
and Philippine Islands. 

" Shell of moderate size, dextral or sinistral, long-ovate, with 
6-8 moderately convex whorls ; smooth (rarely ribbed) and light or 
bright-colored, yellow predominating, often with green or brown 
streaks, flames, or bands. Apical whorls smootli or obsoletely 
pitted. Aperture somewhat oblique, ovate, not contracted by teeth 
or folds ; peristome more or less thickened, expanded, or reflexed, 
the columellar margin reflexed, with a very weak fold or none. 

"Jaw thin and weak, with flat ribs crenulating the edges. 
Kadula with broad V-shaped rows, the teeth of ' arboreal ' type, 
with the side cusps brought near the median cusp, all the cus[)s 
broad ; outwai'dly the side cusps are split. Kidney extremely long 
and narrow, with reflexed ureter and closed secondary ureter. 
Genitalia of typically epiphallogonous structure; receptaculum 



178 HBLIOIDiE. 

seininis on a long, simple duct ; penis short, with the retractor 
muscle inserted low, and ending in a flagellum and the vas 
deferens. Nervous and retractor systems Helicine." (Pilsbry.) 

The genus Amphidromus as originally proposed by Albers 
included several species since then referred to Helicostyla. Von 
Martens was the first correctly to define the group, which owes 
its name " to the peculiar circumstance that several species occur 
either dextral or sinisti'al, with equal frequency ; others are 
sinistral only, still others dextral." Many of the species were 
originally described as Bulimi, while the group remained to be 
considered as a section of the genus Bulhnus, until Pilsbry in 1900 
proved that the genus did not belong to "the Bulimulidce, but to 
that group of Uelicidce called EpipJmUogona, of which tlie genera 
CJdoritis, Obba, Plauispira, and Papuina are leading members." 

The Indian region contains but a limited number of species, 
which is not surprising when we bear in mind the fact that it is on 
the confines of the area of distribution of the genus. 

Bulimus andamanensis (coll. Moussou) has been referred to by 
von Martens in Preuss. Exp. Ost-Asien, 1867, p. 339, as from tlie 
Andaman Islands ; it was described and figured hy Pfeiffer in 
Novit. Couch, ser. 1, iv, 1871, p. 35, pi. 116, figs. 7-10, and 
referred to Amphidromus inversus as a small form by Pilsbrv (Man. 
Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 169, pi. 56, figs. 94-97). Pfeiffer 
himself stated that it approached B. inversus, and might perhaps 
be regai'ded as a dwarf variety. Fulton states (A. M. N. H. ser. 6, 
xvii, 1896, p. 70) that the small form of A. inversus has been 
found at Sarawak and Sirhassen Island by Everett, and as no 
Amphidromus has been found in the Andaman Islands by recent 
collectors, it must be assumed that the record is based on an error, 
probably due to a mixing of labels. 

151. Amphidromus j anus, P/ei^er. 

Bulimus janus, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 85; ibid., Conch.-Cab., 
Bulimus, 1854, p. 156, pi. 48, figs. 1-4 ; Gassies, Act. Soc. Linn. 
Bordeaux, xxiv, 1861, p. 253, pi. 5, fig. 5. 

Btdimus (^Amphidromus) j'anics, Pfeifi'er, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, 
p. 147 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, p. xi, and foot- 
note 1, pi. 19, fig. 5 (atricallosus in explan. plates, p. 10). 

Cochlostyla {Canistrum) janus, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855 
p. 143. 

Aviphidromtis janus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 126; Pilsbry, 
Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 156, pi. 58, figs. 14-18. 

Original description : — " B. testa imperforata, dextrorsa vel sini- 
strorsa, subfusifornii-oblonga, solida, vix nitidiila, lutea fasciis 3 
extus opaee viridibus, intus nitide atro-castaneis, peristoma non 
attiugentibus, basali latissima, varicibusque castaneis sparsis ornata ; 
spira conica, acutiuscula ; anfractibus 6-7 convexiuscuhs, ultimo 
-I longitudinis subsequante, basi attenuato ; columella verticalis, 
stricta ; apertura obliqua, semiovalis, basi subangulata ; peristo- 



AMPHIDEOMUS. 179 

mate subincrassato, breviter reflexo, albo, marginibus callo nigro- 
castaneo junctis. 

" Long. 47, diam. 20 mill." (Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. Burma: Tavoy, Mergui (r7<eo6aM). 

Pfeiffer, when describing the species, gave the habitat " New 
Hebrides" from information supplied by Cuming, whose " habitats" 
have on so many occasions proved erroneous or unreliable. 
Gassies attributed the species to New Caledonia, also on the 
strength of a specimen, so-labelled, received by him from Cuming ! 
Both these localities may be ignored and Burma taken to be the 
true habitat, the species having been collected at Mergui by 
Theobald, as recorded by Nevill in his ' Hand List of Mollusca in 
the Indian Museum.' The shell, moreover, figured in Conch. Ind. 
as atricallosus, from Tavoy, has been referred — correctly I think — 
to the present species by Pilsbry, who considers that it " stands 
•quite alone for an Amphidromus, having no close companions." 

152. Amphidromus atricallosus, Gould. 

Bulimns atricallosus, Gould, Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist, i, 1844, 
p. 140; ibid., Boston Journ. Nat. Hist, iv, 1844, p. 467, pi. 24, 
fig. 3 ; Deshayes in Ft5russac, Hist. Nat. Moll, ii, part 2, 1851, 
p. 51, pi. 130, figs. 9, 10. 

Bidimus perversus, var. 5, Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 308 ; 
ibid.. Couch. -Cab., Bidimus, 1854, p. vi, pi. 40, figs. 10, 11. 

Bulimus {AmjMdromus) atricallosus, von Martens, Preuss. Exp. Ost- 
Asien, Zool. Theil, ii, 1867, p. 77 ; ibid., Conch. Mitth. ii, 1883, 
pp. 130, 131; ibid., Journ. Linn. See. London, xxi, 1887, p. 163. 

Amphidromus atricallosus, Semper, Reisen Arch. Philipp. 2te Theil, 
iii, 1877, p. 147, pi. 16, f. 20 (teeth) ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 
p. 126; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 165, pi. 58, 
ti;f3. 19-21. 

Amphidromus perversus, v&r. atricallosa, Fulton, A.M. N. H. ser. 6, 
xvii, 1896, p. 69. 

Bulimus eques, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. iv, 1857, p. 158. 

Original description : — "Testa solida, iinperforata, oblongo-ovata, 
vix striata, sulphurea ; anfr. 7 convexiusculis, ad suturam con- 
strictis ; apertura luuato-ovali, basi sub-effusa, labro albo, reflexo, 
marginibus callo atro junctis. 

'• Long. 2^, lat. 1 poll." 

" Shell imperforate, elongated ovate, solid, smooth, and shining, 
■of a sulphur-yellow colour ; whorls seven, moderately convex, 
somewhat girt in near the suture ; last whorl nearly two-thirds 
the length of the shell; aperture ovate-lunate, somewhat angular 
at liase, and slightly effuse ; lips white, widely revolute, not 
flattened ; columella white, the callus uniting the extremities of 
the peristome, and, as far within the shell as can be seen, pitchy- 
black ; from the midst of it, extending across the penult, whorl, is 
.a line of the same color, showing the termination of a former 
stage of growth. 

" Length 2^ [ = 59 mm.] ; breadth 1 inch [ = 25 mm.]." (Gould.) 

n2 



180 HELICID^. 

Hah. Burma : Tavoy (Mason) ; Mergui forest and King Island 
(Anderson). Salanga (Weber) ; Penang (Martens) ; Saigoon (Mus. 
Cuming, Semper). 

Both dextral and sinistral shells occur, but the former appear to 
be more common than the latter. 

153. Ampliidromus moniliferus, Gould. 

Bulimiis moniliferus, Gould, Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist, ii, 1846, 

p. 99; ibid., Otia Concli. 1862, p. 198. 
Bulhnus (Amphidromus) moniliferus, Pfeiifer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, 

p. 147; von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 185. 
Am[jJiidromus moniliferus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 126 ; 

Fulton, A. M. N. H. ser. 6, xvii, 1896, p. 90, pi. 7, fig. 9; 

Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 179, pi. 62, figs. 73, 74. 
Bulitnus theobaldiamis, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xix, 1857, 

p. ,329 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 19, fig. 10 ; 

1876, p. xi, and footnote 8. 
Am])hidromus theobaldianus, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 187, 

pi. 14, fig. 8. 
Amphidromus schomburghi, var. theobaldi, NeviU, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 126. 
Buliminus (Rhachis) theobaldianus, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Pam. Buli- 

minidae, 1900, p. 672, pi. 102, fig. 14. 

Original description: — "Testa conico-oblongata, plerumque sini- 
strorsa, laevis, luteo-cinerea flammulis longitudinalibus, fascia 
suturali lineari, et fascia subsuturali interrupta fuscis ; regione 
umbilicali fusca, fascia lutea divisa ; aufr. 7, ultimo subcariuato ; 
apertura subovata, basi angulata, sub-effusa ; labro reflexo, rubro- 
purpureo, ad columellam dilatato ; fauce purpurea. 

" Long. Ii [=30-5 mm.] ; lat. /_ poll. [ = 17'75 mm.]." (Gotdd.) 

Hah. Burma: Tavoy (ilfason). 

154. Amphidromus sylheticus, Reeve. 

Bulimus sylheticus. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 1849, pi. 77, fig. 564 ; 

Pfeiffer, Couch.-Cab., Bulimus, 1853, p. 68, pi. 20, figs. 25, 26 ; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 19, fig. 9; Godwin- 
Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1870, p. 316._ 
Bulimus (Amphidromus) sylheticus, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, 

p. 147. 
Amphidromus sinensis, var. sylhetica (Benson), Nevill, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 127. 
Amphidromtis si/lheticus, Fulton, A. M. N. H. ser. 6, xvii, 1896, 

p. 79 ; Pilsbiy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 189, pi. 63, 

tigs. 97, 98. 

*' Shell sinistral, umbilicate, ovate-conic, polished, striatulate, the 
first whorl weakly puuctulate ; greenish-yellow below the periphery, 
paler above, fading on the spire, tlie early whorls and apex whitish. 
Whorls 5A, slightly convex, the last but weakly convex above, very 
convex, full, and sack-like below. Aperture ovate, oblique, slightlv 
brown or ochre-tinted within ; the peristome ivhite, rejiexed ; 



AMPHIDEOMUS. 181 

columella tvith sliglitly convex inner edr/e, broadly dilated, guttered 
at its union tvith the body of the shell ; the dilated edge overhanging 
a rather large umbilicus, and a little thickened where it passes 
upon the parietal wall. Parietal callus thin and translucent." 
{Pilshry.) 

Alt. 26, diam. 15, longest axis of aperture 14 mm. 

Alt. 24, diam. 14, longest axis of aperture 12'o mm. 

Hah. India : southern slopes of Khasi and Garo Hills, Assam 
( Godwin- Austen). 

Attributed to Sylhet, Eastern Himalayas, by Reeve. Lt.-Col. 
Godwin-Austen states that its habifat is the southern slopes of the 
Khasi and Garo Hills, whereas Sylhet is a district in the plains of 
Lower Bengal, south of the Khasi Hills, and the specific name is, 
therefore, as Godwin-Austen points out, unfortunately misleading 
and inappropriate. 

The distinctly greenish-yellow colour of the lower portion, the 
sack-like base, and the sort of gutter at the root of the columella 
are said to be characteristic features. 

155. Amphidromus masoni, Godwin-Austen. 

Bulimus masoni, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 316. 
Amphidromus masoni, Fulton, A. M.N. H. ser. 6, xvii, 1896, p. 81, 

pi. 6, fig. 2 ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 189, pi. 62, 

fig. 72. 
Amphidromus dafinensxs (Godwin-Austen), Nevill, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 127 (uom. uud.). 

Original description : — " Shell sinistral, acuminately oblong, 
thick, side of spire rather flat, whorls 7, smooth and shiny, under 
lens finely and spirally striate, colour sea-green, intenser below the 
keel, paling towards the apex, the columella dark purple, a narrow 
fillet of same colour borders the suture closely below, commencing 
at the upper and outer angle of the aperture. Aperture oval, 
angular above, lip slightly reflected. The last whorl slightly 
keeled." ( Godwin- Austen.) 

Alt. 1'2 [=30-5 mm.], major diam. 0*5 inch [=12-7o mm,]. 

Hah. India: Dihiri Parbat, Uafla Hills, Assam {Godwxn-Austen). 

'• Similar in fox*m to A. sylheticus, but the latter shell is smaller 
exhibits no trace of spiral striation, has its surface more polished, 
while the columellar margin and outer lip are pure white ; and in 
dozens I have collected no trace of band is ever seen. In colour 
too sylheticus differs in being lemon-yellow with a greenish tinge 
on the body-whorl." (Godwin- Austen.) 

156. Amphidromus lepidus, Gould. 

Bulimus lepidus, Gould, Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist, vi, ]856, 
p. 12; ibid., Otia Conch. 18G2, p. 219; ^Hanley & Theobald, 
Conch. Ind. 1872, pi. 84, fig. 6. 

Amphidromus lepidus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 190, 
pi. 63, fig. 99. 



182 HELICID^. 

Original description : — " T. parva, plerumque sinistra, vix per- 
forata, ovato-conica, elevata, polita, citrina ; anfr. 6 convexis, 
ultimo ventricoso ; sutura beue impressa ; apertura subcircularis ; 
peristoinate albo, reflexo, ad columellam dilatato, extremitatibus 
approximatis." 

" Axis I [ = 22-5 mm.], diam. ^ poll. [=12-5 mm.]." (Gould.) 

Hab. Mergui Archipelago {Benjamin). 

" A pretty shell, grouping ■with Icevus, adamsi, and monilifera^ 
but smaller, proportionally shorter and more ventricose, and 
diflFering entirely in colouring, texture, and the broadly rounded 
form of the aperture.'*' 

Mr. Fulton considers lepidus and syVieticus identical. Ha 
states * that the types of both are in the British Museum. A shell, 
labelled lepidus, is certainly marked "type" in the same hand- 
writing, but the word "type" thei'e is undoubtedly meant in the 
sense of "typical form,'' as the type on Mhich Gould based his 
description is in the Albany Museum. The same label bears the 
name sylheticus in Pfeiffer's handwriting. 

Prof. Pilsbry is of opinion that as sylheticus is a species of the 
hills, and lepidus inhabits a region rather different faunally, the 
latter should be allowed to stand pending further comparisons of a 
good series of the Mergui form vA-ith Eeeve's species. A. lepidus has 
a more pyramidal shape. Hanley and Theobald while admitting 
that the two forms approximate observe that Gould's shell is- 
shorter, with more rounded whorls, and lacks the notch at the 
commencement of the pillar-lip. 

157. Amphidromus sinensis, Benson. 

Bidimns sinensis, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 2, vii, 1851, p. 264; 

Pfeifler, Coucb.-Cab., BiUivms, 1853, p. 67, pi. 20, figs. 1, 2; 

Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 94. 
Bulimus {Amphidroimis) sinensis, Pleit!er, Malak. Blfitt. ii, 1856, 

p. 147 ; vou Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 185. 
Ainjyhidroimis sinensis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 126 ; Fulton, 

A. M. N. H. ser. 6, xvii, 1896, p. 80 ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

xiii, 1900, p. 190, pi. 62, figs. 64, 65. 

Original descrijition : — "Testa perforata sinistrorsa, ovata-conica, 
glabra, lutescente, subtus purpureo-castaueo bifasciata ; spira 
conica, apice obtusiusculo ; anfractibus 5| convexiusculis, ultimo 
spiram sequante, fasciis submediani basalique intra apei'turam pro- 
ductis ; columella subtorta ; apertura obliqua, oblique ovata, peri- 
stomate planato-reflexo, livide purpureo, postice livide fusco, 
marginibus callo albido vix junctis, columellari albido breviter 
superne dilatato. 

" Long. 30, lat. 18 mill. ; long, apert. 16, lat. 12 mill." (Benson.) 
Hab. Burma: Vegu (2 heobald,iSicliczJia),'Prome, Tongoop, Akyab 
(Blanford); India : Khasi Hills (Nevill). S. China (Cantor). 

* A. M. N. H. ser. 6, xvii, 1896, p. 80. 



AMPHIDEOMUS. 183 

Mr. Fulton states that the type of this species cannot be found 
in the Benson collection, in the Cambridge Museum, and Prof. 
Pilsbrj suggests that it may not have been returned by Pfeiffer 
and is now perhaps in Dohrn's collection. As Pfeiffer, however, 
distinctly states that the type is in the J3enson collection (Mon. 
Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 320), and as, moreover, the Benson 
collection has experienced many vicissitudes, so that some other 
types likewise are not traceable, the more likely explanation, in 
my opinion, is that the shell must have gone astray. 

A. sinevsis is said to resemble A. sylheticus in the globose base 
and groove at root of the columella, but to differ in being stouter 
in form, two-banded below, and with a brown streak behind the 
lip, which is said to be pale lilac. 

I possess, however, two specimens from Laos, received in 
exchange from the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt a./M.', which 
are ochreous yellow on the last whorl and bandless ; one exhibits 
a very narro\\' dnrk brown patch occupying the groove at the root 
of the columella and extending a short way behind the basal lip ; 
it can also distinctly be traced beneath the parietal callus around 
the columellar fold. This specimen has a white lip. 



Var. vicaria, Fulton. 

Buliinus sinensis, Forbes & Hanley, Conch, lud. 1870, pi. 21, 

tiga. 5, 6. 
Amphidroinus sinensis, var. vicm-ia, Fulton, A. M. N. H. ser. 6, 

xvii, 1896, p. 80 ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, p. 191 

(vicarius), pi. 62, tigs. 67-69. 

" In most collections as sinensis, from which it differs in being 
not so broad in proportion to its length and in coloration. It is 
broader than sylheticus, and instead of being of an uniform green 
colour, it is yellow, with two (sometimes three) more or less 
distinct dark brown hands encircling lower part of last whorl. 
This variety varies a great deal in size and form. I give here the 
dimensions of two specimens out of a series in the British Museum : 
Long. 33 ram., maj. diani. 17 mm. ; long. 21 ram., raaj. diam. 
14 ram." (Fulton.) 

Hah. Burma : Pegu ; Chittagong. 

With regard to its being " not so broad in proportion to its 
length," this is a character not always to be relied upon, as I possess 
a specimen, received from Mr. Fulton, which measures ; Long. 20, 
diam. 12 mm. The same remark applies to its relative proportion 
as compared with A. sylheticus, as will be seen from the following 
observation. 

" A specimen from Chittagong (fig. 69) is more slender than 
A. sylheticus, not ' baggy ' below, and almost white with a faint 
ochre band above each of the purple-black ones. The apical whorls 
are corneous-Avhite, and weakly punctate, and there is a perceptible 
groove at the root of the columella. The peristome is pure white. 



184 helicidjE. 

and there is no dark stripe behind the lip. Alt. 26, diam. 14-5, 
longest axis of aperture 13 mill." {Pilshry.) 

Var. gracilis, Fulton. 
Amphidronms sinensis, var. gracilis, Fulton, A. M. N. H. ser._6, 
xvii, 1896, p. 80, pi. 6, tig. 10; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiu, 
1900, p. 192, pi. 62, fig. 71. 
"A very narrow solid form; pale yellow, with two purple- 
brown bands at lower part of last whorl ; the third and fourth 
whorls encircled Avitli four rows of light brown spots ; Up and 
columella thickened and expanded." {Fulton.) 

Pilsbry suggests that this form may belong nearer A. flavus-, 
but gracilis is much more slender and has a more elongated 
aperture. 

Hab. Burma : Pegu. 

158. Amphidromus andamanicus, ffanley ^ Tlieohald. 

Bulimus andamanicus (Thorp MS.), Hanley & Theobald, Conch. 

Ind. 1875, p. 59, pi. 148, tig. 10. 
Amphidromus sp., Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 127, no. 2L 
Amphidromus andamanicus, var. nicobarica (Nevill MS.), Godwm- 

Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 450. 
Atnphidro7nus furcillatus, var. andamanica, Fulton, A. M. N. H. 

ser. 6, xvii, 1896, p. 77. 
Amphidromus andamanicus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiii, 1900, 

p. 217, pi. 66, fig. 41. 

Shell sinistral, elongate-conoid, smooth and glossy, finely striated 
and covered \\ iih close minute spirals ; the protoconch white or 
buff-white with a pale or dark brown apex, the later whorls pale 
or dark buff, marked with transverse (sometimes oblique) broad 
dark brown or blackish bars, some of which are occasionally forked 
at the upper extremity ; they increase in width and become more 
distant on the later whorls, but on the last whorl decrease and 
become more crowded, the lower half of the whorl being covered 
by two rather broad spii-al bands, one infra-peripheral and the 
other placed around the columella, the two sometimes coalescing ; 
the latter part of the last whorl is sometimes covered with light or 
dark green which is occasionally disposed in transverse streaks ; a 
narrow brown sub-sutural band, edged with white, ascends the 
greater part of the spire. Whorls Q-Q^, convex. Aperture semi- 
ovate, three-sevenths the length of the shell ; peristome white, 
rather thin, slightly expanded, not reflexed ; parietal callus very 
thin ; columella white, vertical, straight, making a distinct angle 
with the basal margin, reflexed and adnate at the insertion, leaving 
a slight narrow slit of the umbilicus. 

Length 35, diam. 19 mm. ; height of aperture 15, width 8-5 mm. 

Length 30, diam. 16-5 mm.; height of aperture 13, width 
7'5 mm. 



AMPHIDEOMUS. 185 

Hah. Andaman Islands : Cocos Island and Port Blair ( Oodivin- 
Aiisten); Mt. Harriet, Andaman Island {Roepstorf , Nevill, 
Stoliczlcd). Nicobar Islands : Katcball (Stoliczka). 

This species has not previously been described and is known 
only from the figure in Conch. Ind. copied by Pilsbry. The 
above description is drawn up from a number of specimens in my 
own collection. Mr. Fulton considers it variety of A. furcillatus, 
Mousson, a Javanese shell, but Prof. Pilsbry, while admitting that 
the similarity in coloiu'ing to tliat species and A. quadmsi, from 
Balabac, is remarkable, thinks it inadvisable, on account of the 
widely separated localities, to unite (indanianicus with either. I 
do not, however, consider the similarity in colouring particularly 
striking, as in the other two species the prevailing ground-colour 
is a bright yellow, and I have never seen the infra-peripheral and 
columellar bands, so characteristic a feature in A. andamanicus, in 
either. A. furcillatus, moreover, is a more slender species and 
has the columella more oblique and the aperture proportionally 
less high. 

On the other handi A. pictns, Fulton, also from Java, bears a 
striking resemblance in its pattern of marking to the Andaman 
shell, having several of the transverse bars forked above and 
exhibiting likewise the infra-peripheral and columellar spiral 
bands. It has also the same conical contour, but lacks the green 
colouring on the last whorl frequently seen in A. andamanicus, 

Lt.-Col. Godwin- Austen, in discussing the form from the 
Nicobar group, states that "it is somewhat larger than Andaman 
shells, and in colour is far paler and with few markings, and those 
pale. These differences might not hold good in a large series." 



Subgenus Beddomea, NevUl. 

Amphidrnimis, subgenus Beddomea, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 
p. 127 ; Pilsbry, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudon, iv, 1901, p. 158, pi. 16 
(anatomy); ibid., Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiv, 1901, p. 1, pi. 2, 
figs. 21-23 (anatomy). 

Type, Bidimus ceylanicus, Pfeiffer. 

Range. Southern India and Ceylon. 

" Shell umbilicate or perforate, oblong-conic, often carinated at 
the periphery, \^ bite or \\\\\\ brown bands or streaks ; aperture 
usually quite obhque ; peristome reflexed. 

"Genitalia of typically epiphallogonous type, the flagellum 
longer than and the ephiphallus about as long as the penis. 
Duct of the oblong or ovate spermatheca lengthened, more than 
double the length of the penis. Penis with a large apical 
papilla. 

" Lung having the pulmonary vein without large branches, the 
venation densest on the intestinal side and near the pneumostoma, 
weak or well developed on the cardiac side. Kidney long and 



186 HBLICIDiE. 

narrow, naarly or quite the length of the pericardium. Ureter 
reflexed, the secondary ureter a closed tube. 

" Muscles : Retractor of the penis inserted on the diaphragm 
as usual. The pharyngeal retractor is united to the right ocular 
and pedal band far forward ; the left ocular muscle passes to the 
right of the genitalia, not between the male and female branches. 

"Jaw well arched, thin, with its lower margin crenulated by 
10-14 flat ribs, M'hich seem separated by narrow intervals in the 
median part, but are contiguous or overlapping towards the ends. 
It is similar to that of some species of Pajjuina, intermediate 
between the plaited and the ribbed types. 

" Eadula of the usual form in Helicidse. The transverse rows, 
of teeth bent at a wide angle in the middle. Ehachidian and 
admedian teeth with single, long, broadly rounded cusps. These 
pass by a gradual transition to the lateral type, in which the tooth 
is inclined and bears a three-lobed cusp. 

" The shell does not have the brilliant coloring of many 
Amphidi-onms, and is minutely punctulate, at least on the spire. 
The area of distribution is separated from that of true Amplii- 
dromus. I have elsewhere shown that Beddomea agrees with 
AmjMdrovins in the long, band-like kidney, the pattern of lung- 
venation, the arrangement of the muscles (except the eyes and 
retractors), the reproductive system, and the jaw. It differs from 
Amphidromus in having the eye retractor muscles to the right of, 
instead of between the branches of the genitalia, in having the 
cusps of the teeth of the median fold of the radula broadly 
rounded aud simple instead of deeply cloven into three cusps, as 
all the side-teeth are in the restricted group of AinpJiidromns ; and 
finally in having the radula longer than in Avphidromv.s. 

" In view of the general agreement, it scarcely seems well- 
advised to accord Beddomea higher rank than that of a subgenus 
of Ampliidromus. None of the three structural differences 
mentioned is of much importance, though I do not doubt that 
they will prove constant in Beddomea. "When some of the species 
of AmjpJndromKs which are conchologically nearest Beddomea 
(such as A, sylheticus) come to be examined, transitions may not 
unlikely be found in the dentition. In the long flagellum, 
Beddomea is more like the larger, amphidrome species of Amplii- 
dromus than the smaller, invariably sinistral species, which, so far 
as known, have this organ much shorter." {Pilsbry.) 



Key to the Species. 

Solid and opaque, variegated with brown bands or 
stripes. 

a. Shell elongate-conoid trifasciatus 

b. Shell pyramidal bontice. 

Rather thin, very pale or white, without dark 

markings. 



AMPHIDEOMTJS. 1°' 



a. Periphery rounded ceylanicm. 

b. Periphery angular. . ,. 

b' Shell elongate-conoid, whorU convex .... intennedim. 

b\ Shell pyramidal, whorls flattened phi/salis. 

c. Periphery strongly cariuate. -^^^^u,. 

cM)e.xtral ; Ceylon albtzonafus 

c\ Sinistral; Southern India . calcadenns. 

159. Ampliidronius trifasciatus, Gmelin. 

Helix trifasciatus tranquebarica, Chemnitz, Conch.-Cab. ix, part 2, 

178G, p. 155, pi. 134, figs. 1215 , . -..on x, '\(M^ 

Helix trifasciata, Gmelm, Syst. Nat i, part 6, J'^O p. 364 
Bulimustrificsciatus, Bruguiere, Encycl. ^ |th )ers, i 1789, 

p. 317; Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, J5w/»nws, 1848 pi. 39, fag 237. 

kiffei', Conch.-Cab., Bidinucs l8o3, p. 50, pi 10 fa|- 6, 7 var. 

pi 41 fi.'-s 16, 17 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xi, 18o3, p. 22b, 

kanleyl Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 21 fig. 3 , 

Bnlimus(Amphidro77ius) i.z7«.«cm««s, Pteitier, Malak. Blatt. a, 18o6, 

Buiilims (Cerastus) trifasciatus, von Martens, Die Ileliceen, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 232 ; Nevill, Hand Li^t, i, 18/8, p. 132. 
Amphidromus trifasciatus, Jousseaume,M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vu, 

BuUminus ffe'ddo^nea) trifasciatus, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. BuU- 

minidae, 1900, p. 677, pi. 102, fig. 22. , ., ^ „ , ^^^ „ 

Amphidromus {Beddomea) trifasciatus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, eer. 2, 

B^Zk^'r^f£<!attklSi^^^^^ 

B}abnLl'cei,ianims,n^^M & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, p. 11, 

Bflimimtf(Bed}hl^^^^^^ Kobeltj Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 

minidae, 1900, pi. 103, tigs 5, 6. ^., , ^ m.Up Snr- 

Amphidromus {Beddomea) ceylamcus, Pilsbry, Proc, Malac. Soc. 

London,iv,1901,p. 159,pl. 16,fig.3(,iaw). 

^m//,««6- fuscoventris, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 2, xvui, 18o6, p. 96 

(=juv:). 

"T unibllicata, ovato-oblonga, solidula, minutissiraa striatula, 

nitida albida, fulvido-nebulosa, fasciis plunbus (plerumque S) 

castaneis ornata; spira conica, acutiuscula; anfr. 6 planiusculi, 

ultimus 4 longitudinis jcquans ; columella subrecta ; apertura 

ovalis; perist. album, late expansum, margme columellan dilatato, 

patente." {Pfeifer.) ,-,•„, - i„f„ " 

" Lono- 27 diam. 13 mill. Ap. intus 11 mill, longa, / lata. 
Hah India: Tranquebar {Chemnitz) \:^. Ceylon: Tamanka 
(Layard) ; Matella, Colombo, Uda Pussellawa {Collett). 

The species varies in size. I possess specimens 30 mm long, 
16 mm in diameter. One has the upper two bauds confluent, 
forming a broad zone which ascends the whole spire ; another 
shows one distinct narrow band, with two indistinct ones on 
either side on the upper portion of the latter part of the last whorl. 



188 HELIOIDJE. 

while the lower portion is ornamented with a broad dark brown 
band below the peripheral white girdle and a narrow one around 
the umbilicus. Another specimen is almost unicolorous white 
with a narrow brown band around the umbilicus. The original 
habitat — Tranquebar — recorded by Chemnitz, I consider extremely 
doubtful. It is a well known fact that formerly less importance 
was attached to locality than is the case at the present day. 

Var. rufopicta, Benson. 

Bulhnus 7-tifopictus, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xviii, 1856, 

p. 96 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pl._21, fig. 10. 
Bulhnus {Cerastus) rtifupictus, Nevill, Hand List, ii, 1878, p. 132. 
Ainphidromus rtifopictus, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 

1894, p. 295. 
Buliminus {Beddomea) rufopicttis, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 

rainidae, 1900, p. 670, pi. 102, fig. 11. 
At)iphidromus (Beddomea) trifasciatus, var. rufopictus, Pilsbry, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, xiv, 1901, p. 5, pi. 1, fig. 9. 

Smaller than typical trifasciata and having the upper portion of 
the spire usually streaked transversely. 

Hab. Ceylon: Aknramhode (Lay arc!) ; K.andY (CoUett). 



160. Amphidromus bontise, Chemnitz. 

Helix hontia, Chemnitz, Conch.-Cab. ix, part 2, 1786, p. 156, pi. 134, 

figs. 1216, 1217. 
Bulimus hontia, Gray, Ann. Philos., N. s. ix, 1825, p. 414. 
Bulimus bontiae, Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., Bulimus, 1841, pi. 10, 

figs. 8, 9 ; 1853, p. 51 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, Bulimus, 1848, 

pi. 48, fig. 315 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, p. 34, 

pi. 80, fig. o. 
Amphidromus {Beddomea) hontice, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 128. 
Buliminus (Beddomea) bontiae, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 

minidae, 1900, p. 669, pi. 102, fig. 10. 
Rhachis bontiae, Kobelt & MoUeudorff, Naclir. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 

1903, p. 37. 

Shell narrowly perforate, ovate-conoid, thin, faintly striated 
transversely, with microscopic impressed spiral lines above and 
below, white, with three narrow pale brown bands, the middle 
one at the periphery. Spire conoid, apex acute, suture shallow. 
"Whorls 5, slightly convex ; the last venti-icose, scarcely descending 
in front, equalling in height the remainder of the spire, at first 
subangulate at the periphery, becoming rounded towards the 
mouth. Aperture pyriform-obovate ; peristome thin, margins 
slightly expanded, columellar margin dilated and reflexed over the 
narrow perforation of the umbilicus. 

Long. 28, diam. 18 mm. 

Hah. India : Bengal {Konvj) ; Southern India (Jerdon, 
StoliczJca). 



AMPHIDBOMUS. 189 

This species in contour approximates most nearly to A. physalis, 
but the shell is thiuneraud is ornamented with narrow pale brown 
spiral fasciic. The specimen figui'ed in Conch. Ind. only possesses 
two bands, whereas the type, figured by Chemnitz, has three. 
The shell depicted by Keeve, from Benson's collection, is also 
encircled by three bauds. The specimen in the Benson collection 
— presumably the one figured by Eeeve- — kindly forwarded to me 
for inspection by Dr. L. Doncaster, in charge of the University 
Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, has somewhat deteriorated, having 
a considerable hole in the body-whorl and two small ones near the 
parietal callus ; the peristome is also damaged. This is probably 
owing to its having been stuck on a tablet. The above diagnosis 
has been drawn up from this shell. 

161. Amphidromus physalis, Benson. 

Bulimus physalis, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xix, ]8o7, p. 828 ; 

Blanford, J. A. S. B., xxxv, 1866, p. 38; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch, [nd. 1870, pi. 21, fig. 9. 
Helix ( Geotrochus) physalis, von Martens, Die lleliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 168. 
Amphidromus {Beddomea) physalis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 127 ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiv, 1901, p. 8, pi. 1, 

fig. 13. 
Helix ( Corasia) physalis, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. llelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 200. 
Bidiminus (Beddomea) physalis, Kobelt, Conch. -Cab., Fam. Buli- 

minidae, 1900, p. 678, pi. 103, fig. 1. 

Original description : — " Testa subobtecte perforata, ovato-conica, 
tenuiuscula, oblique striatula, albida, niteute ; spira conica, apice 
obtusato ; sutura leviter impressa ; anfractibus 5| superne sub- 
planatis, primis granulatis, caeteris striis spiralibus minutissimis 
decussatis, ultimo tumidiusculo ^ longitudinis aequaute, ad peri- 
pheriam plerumque angulato, apertura ainpla, obliqua, truucato- 
pyriformi ; perisfomate expanso, marginibus refiexis, callo tenui 
junctis, columellari superne latissimo, appresso, oblique leviter 
iuipresso, umbilicum angustum pervium fere tegente." (Benson.) 

Long. 27-28, diam. 1(5-17 mm. ; long. ap. 14-16, lat. 9-10 mill. 

Ilab. India : Khoonda Ghat, Nilgiris (Jerdon) ; Anamullay 
Hills (Beddorne). 

" Well distinguished from the Cingalese species : alhizonatus, 
ceylanicus, and intermedius, by its ventricose form, the more ample 
aperture, and the mode of sculpture. A perfect specimen in the 
Museum of Indian House and a young one from Dr. Jerdon have 
the periphery angulate, an adult specimen of Dr. Jerdon's being 
deficient in this feature." (Benson.) 

162. Amphidromus alhizonatus, Reeve. 

Bulimus alhizonatus, Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, Bulimus, 1849, pi. 81, 
fig. tJ04 ; Pfeifler, Mou. Ilelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 330 ; ibid., Conch.- 
Cab., Bulimus, 1854, p. 155, pi. 49, figs. 1, 2; Ilauley & Theobald, 
Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 21, fig. 8. 



190 HELICID^. 

Bulimus ceylanicus, var. albizonatus, Layard, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xi, 

1853, p. 226. 
Helix {Geotrochus) albizonata, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 168. 
Bulimus [Amphidromus) albizonatus, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, 

p. 147. 
Amphidi'omus (^Beddoinea) albizonatus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 127 : Pilsbry, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iv, 1901, p. 159, pi. 16, 

fig-s. ] , 5 (anatomy) ; ibid., Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiv, 1901, p. 7, pi. 1, 

fio-s. 14-16. 
Cochlostyla {Phenqtis) albizonata, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 2i0. 
Bnliminus (Beddotnea) albizonaius, Kobelt, Concb.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 

niinidae, 1900, p. 680, pi. 103, fig. 4. 

" T. perforata, elongato-conica, solidiuscula, oblique striatula, vix 
iiitidula, sub epiderinide pallide straminea albida : spira conica, 
obtusa ; sutura subiuarginata ; anfr. 6 plani, ultimus spira paulo 
brevior, infra medium acute angulatus et albo zouatus ; columella 
leviter arcuata ; apertura obliqua, truncato-ovalis, .subtetragona ; 
perist. late expansura, margiuibus subparallelis, callo teuui junctis. 

" Long. 24, diam. 15 mill. Ap. c, perist. 13'5 mill, longa, 10 lata." 

{Pfeiffer-) 

Hah. Ceylon (Nevill) ; Matella (Layard) ; Galle (Reeve) ; 
Udagama (Collett). 

In discussing the present species, Prof. Pilsbry states "numerous 
specimens before me are smaller than Reeve's type, measuring 
from length 29, diam. 18, to length 23, diam. 14 mill. The thin 
cuticle is more or less yellow tinted beneath, and the periphery 
either marked by a white line or not. The angle is frequently 
almost completeh/ obsolete on the face of the whorl, even when 
strong on the back. The spire is punctulate or densely sub- 
grnnulose, at least above, but not on the last whorl." 

He continues " Kobelt (Couch. -Cab. p. 680) states that he gives 
the figure from Conch. Icon, on his plate 103, fig. 4, but he 
evidentlv did not do so." Here Pilsbry confuses Conch, Icon, with 
Conch, ind., for Dr. Kobelt states that his figui'e is copied from 
the latter, and a comparison with that work at once establishes 
the fact that the figure there given constituted the basis of his 
illustration. 

Var. simoni, Jousscaume. 

Phenqus simoni, Jousseaume, M^m. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 296, pi. 4, fig. 7. 
Amphidronius {Beddomea) albizonatus, var. simoni, Pilsbry, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, xiv, 1901, p. 7, pi. 1, figs. 17, 18. 

Is said to differ from typical albizonatus in having one whorl 
less, a more prominent keel, more flattened whorls, in the shell 
Toeing white, and in the absence of a white keel-zone. Pilsbry 
figures a shell from Udagama, received by him from Collett. I 
have not seen authentic specimens, but the vai'iety does not appear 
to me to be well differentiated. 



AMPHIDEOMUS. 191 



163. Amphidroinus intermedius, Pfeiffer. 

Buliinus intermedius, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 291 ; ibid., Novit. 

Conch, ser. 1, i, 185o, p. 30, pi. 8, iigs. 10, 11 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 19, tigs. 6, 8. 
Helix ( Geotrochus) mesogena (nom. mut.), von Martens, Die Heliceen, 

ed. 2, 1860, p. 168. 
Bulimm [Amphidromits) intertnediuSf Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 

18o6, p. 147. 
Amphidroinus ( Beddomea) intermedius, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 127 ; PiLsbry, Proc. Malac. See. London, iv, 1901, p. 158, pi. 16, 

tigs. 2, 4, 6, 7 (an^ttoray). 
Cochlosfyla {Phemjus) intermedia, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 210. 
Buliminus {Beddomea) intermedius, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fani. Buli- 

minidae, 1900, p. 079, pi. 103, tigs. 2, 3. 
Amphidromus (Beddomea) cet/lanicus, var. intermedius, Pilsbrv, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, xiv, 1901, p. G, pi. 1, tigs. 10-12. 

Orir/inal description : — " T. perforata, elongato-couica, solidula, 
-oblique striatula et punctiirata, nitida, alba ; spira conica, 
obtusiila; sutura levis, simplex; anfr. 6 planiusculi, ultinius |- 
longitudinis subae(iuans, iufra medium subangulatus, basi turgidus ; 
columella leviter plicata, subrecedens ; apertura obliqua, truucato- 
ovalis ; perist. sublate expansum, reflexiuscukim, marginibus callo 
tenui juuctis, columellari piano, dilatato, triangular!. 

" Long. 34, diam. 10 mill., ap. c. perist. 17 mill, longa, intus 8 
lata." (Pfeiffer.) 

Hob. Ceylon (Thwaites, Xevill). 

A. intermedius is more angulate at tbe peripbery than 
A. ceylanicus, the apex is more obtuse and the columellar margin 
more triangularly dilated and flattened. 

164. Amphidromus ceylanicus, Pfeiffer. 

Buliinus ceylanicus, Pfeiffer, Symb. Hist. Helic. iii, 1846, p. 83 ; 

ibid., Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 59 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 

Bulimus, 1848, pi. 43, fig. 274 ; Deshayes in Ferussac, Hist. 

Nat. Moll, ii, part 2, 1851, p. 7G, pi. 145, figs. 5, 6 ; Lavard, 

A. M. N. 11. ser. 2, xi, 1853, p. 226; llanley & Theobald, Conch. 

lud. 1870, pi. 21, fig. 2. 
Bulimus {Amphidromus) ceylanicus, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, 

p. 139. 
Helix { Geotrochus) ceylanica, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 168. 
Amphidromus {Beddomea) ceylanicus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 127; Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiv, 1901, p. 6, pi. 1, 

tig. 7. 
Cochlostyla {Phengus) ceylanica, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 210. 
Buliminus {Beddomea) ceylanicus, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fani. Biili- 

miuidae, 1900, p. 080 (excl. figures). 

Original description : — " T. aperte perforata, ovato-conica, solida, 
-oblique striatula, nitidula, alba; spira conica, acutiuscula; anfr. 6 



192 HELICID^. 

planiuseuli, ultimus |- longifcudinis subaequans ; columella leviter 
arcuata ; apertura truncato-ovalis ; perist. late expansum, 
reflexiusculum, margiue columellari dilatato, reflexo, patente." 
{Pfeiffer.) 

Long. 27, diam. 14 mm. 

Hob. Ceylou {Templeton) ; S. Prov. {Nevill). 

165. Amphidromus calcadensis, Blanford. 

Bulimus calcadensis (Beddome MS.), Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
1870, p. 18 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 148, 
figs. 2, 3. 

Geotrochus calcadensis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 187, pi. 14, 

%• 7- . . , 

Amphidromus {Beddnmea) calcadensis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 127 ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xiv, 1901, p. 9, pi. 1, figs. 19, 

20. 
Cochlostyla (Phengus) calcadensis, PfeifFer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. i881, p. 210. 
Buliminus (Beddomea) calcadejisis, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 

minidae, 1900, p. 681, pi. 103, figs. 7, 8. 

Original description : — " Testa sinistrorsa, sub-obtecte perforata, 
elevato trochiformis, solidula, striatula, albida, epidermide fulva ? 
(vel flavescenti, forsan varie colorata) obtecta ; spira conica ; apice 
obtuso ; sutura irapressa. Aufr. bk convexi, regulariter crescentes, 
ultimus y longitudinis siib-aequaus, carinatus, subtus convexus, 
antice tumidior. Apertura diagoualis, sub-rbomboidea ; peristoma 
non incrassatum, expansiusculum, marginibus distantibus, callo 
tenui juuctis, columellari triangulatim reflexo, perforationem fere 
tegente. 

"Loug. 23, diam. 17 mm., ap. c. perist. 11 mill, longa, intus 8 
lata." {Blanford.) 

Hah. India : Calcad Hills, Travancore {Beddome). 

" Of this peculiar sinistral heliciform Bulimus a solitary 
specimen, much weathered but perfect, was found by Major 
Beddome. It is evidently a coloured shell but only traces of the 
epidermis remaining. It is allied to B. albizonatus, Hv., and 
B. intermedius, Pfr., of Ceylon, but is sinistral and has a shorter, 
more conical form." {Blanford.) 

A specimen in the Theobald collection in the British Museum, 
probably the one figured in Conch. Ind., although also rather 
weathered, has the periostracum intact on some parts of the last 
whorl and exhibits traces of extremely minute spiral sculpture, a 
feature also observed in other species of Beddomea. The peri- 
pheral keel is ornamented with a narrow pale brown band which 
can be traced some distance up the spire, and the protocouch is 
pale fuscous. It measures : length 19, diam. 14-5 mm. 



APATETES. — GAXESELLA, 193 

Genus APATETES,* g. n. 
Shell conoid, rather thin, carinate, covered perforate. 

1(>6. Apatetes bourdilloni, Theobald. 

Corasia bourdillonii, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1870, p. 18o, pi. 15, 

%•."• . . : . 

Nanina bourdilloni, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. .",0. 
Cochlosf 1/1(1 (Corasia) bourdillonii, Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, vii, 
1891, p. 127, pi. 33, fig. oo. 

Ori(/inal description : — " Testa couoidea, obtecto-perforata, 
carinata, tenui, polita, albida, translucente, sub epideruiide pallida 
straniiuea et decidua lineis exilissimis flexuosis spiraliter ornata. 
Anfraetibus 4|, oeleriter crescentibus, ad apicem mainniillatum 
paulo convexis, sed ultimo supra planato et circa unibilicuni paido 
intlato. Apertura magna subquadrata ; marginibus simplicibus 
calio tenuissimo junctis. 

"Diam. maj.25-4, miu. 19'5, alt. l-i-8, aperturae alt. 16, ejusdem 
lat. 14 mm." {Theobald.) 

Hah. India : Trevandrum, prov. Travaucore {Theobald). 

As Prof. Pilsbry correctly observes : "judging from the sharp lip, 
as well as the locality, this is no Corasia. It may prove to be a 
Nanina." Pending further information he, however, considered it 
advisable to retain it tbere, although in a'^oI. is of the Manual of 
Conchology he does not include it in the genus. Its position is 
veiy uncertain, and it is not at all improbable that the thin, 
sharp, peristome is an indication that tlie specimens are not full- 
grown. I was at first inclined to regard it as a member of the 
genus Euplecla, but the elevated conoid spire and its superficial, 
incised, close, wavy spirals — so totally different from the sharply 
cut, decussating spirals to be observed in that genus — are features 
which do not, I consider, permit its inclusion thei-e. The texture 
of the shell rather approaches that exhibited by the subgenus 
Bcddomea and I, therefore, propose to place this new genus 
provisionally next to uimphidromus. 

Genus GANESELLA, Blanford. 

Ganeselta, Blanford, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 86 ; Pilsbrv, 

Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 168, pi. 60, figs. 1,2, frontispiece, 

figs. 1, 2 (anatomy) (G. japonica). 
Satsumti, A. Adams, A. M. N. H. ser. 4, i, 1868, p. 463 ; Kobelt in 

Sempei', Keiseu Philipp. x, 1906, p. 53. 
Trochomorphouh'S. Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. SO. 
Fruticutrochus, Kobelt, Fauna Moll, Extrainar. Japoniae, 1879, 

p. 48. 

Type, Helix capitiiim, Benson. 

* a7rari]Tt]s, a deceiver. 



194) HEUCID,€. 

Range. India and Farther India to China and Japan, Malay 
Archipelago and PhiKppine Islands. 

"Shell more or less trochiform, umbilicated (or rarely imper- 
forate), rather thin ; light colonred, plain or with a peripheral 
line ; surface A\ith growth-lines only or densely spirally striate ,- 
whorls Ah to 6, the last a little descending in front. Aperture 
oval or angular-lunate, oblique, toothless or with ablunt coluraellar 
fold ; lip expanded, broadly dilated at eolumellar insertion. 

" Animal (of G. japonica) with the foot very long and narroxVy 
sole not distinctly tripartite ; upper surface finely and feebly 
granular, back with a pair of dorsal grooves, no facial grooves ; 
tail narrow, long, ivith a median Jongiiudinal groove above. 

" Jaw arcuate, with about 9 ribs denticulating the lower margin. 

" Eadula of the type usual in ground snails. Middle tooth with 
mesocone only developed, shorter than basal plate, side-cusps 
represented bv slight lateral extensions. Laterals similar but with 
the cusp longer. Marginals with oblique, bifid inner cusp and an 
ectocone. 

" Genital system having the penis long and twisted, ending in a 
curved blind sack with corrugated inner walls ; epiphallus long, 
bearing the retractor, terminating in a flagellum and the vas 
deferens. Vo.gina extremely long, the spermatheca duct inserted 
hiwh. Spermatheca oblong, on a stout duct, neither duct nor 
bulb being bound to uterus. Xo dart sack or mucus glands." 
iPilshry.) 



167. Ganesella acris, Benson. 

Helix acris, Beii^ou, A. M. K. H. ser. 3, iii, 1859, p. 387 ; Ilanley 

& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 54, fig. G. 
Helix {Trochumorphoides) acris, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 

1876, p. 312 ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 80. 
Helix (Patida {Trochomorphu)) «cm, Tryon, Man. Concli. ser. 2. ill, 

1887, p. 74, pi. 14, fig. ]. 
Ganesella acris, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 170. 
Helix puellula (Benson, MS.), Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1858, 

p. 319 (nom. nud.). 

Original description : — " Testa anguste umbilicata, elevato- 
conica, trochiformi, oblique striatula, obsolete granulosa, subtus 
minutissime spiraliter striata, albida ; spira elongato-conica, 
lateribus planis, apice obtusiusculo, sutura leviter impressa ; 
anfractibus 6| planulatis, ultimo vix descendente, ad peripheriam 
acute carinato, basi planiusculo ; apertura valde obhqua, tetragono- 
lunata, peristomate superne expansiusculo, subtus expanso, 
reflexiusculo, margine columellari late angulato-reflexo, umbilicuiii 
parti m celante. 

" Diam. maj. 10, min. 9, axis 9 mill." (Benson.) 
Hah. India: Khasi Hills, Teria Ghat (Theobald, Godivin- 
Aasfen); Naga Hills {Roberts); Dafla Hills (Godiuin- Austen). 



QANESELLA. 195 

Benson states that it approaelies the larger H. rapitmm, of the 
hill region south of the (Tangetic angle ; but besides the absence 
of the pecuHar colouring of that species, it is distinguished by its 
more elongate and regular conical form and by the flatter base. 
He continues, " I had affixed tlie MS. name of imeUula to this 
shell in my report to Mr. Theobald; but on account of its 
similarity to //. ;j?ff??rt of the late Mr. AV. J. Broderip, I have 
deemed it advisable to adopt a more distinct and expressive 
designation on publishing a description." 

The shell Benson had before him when describing the species 
was much weathered, and he thought that the sculpture and colour 
might eventually require an amended description. He referred to 
a fault rufous tint, not to be detected elsewhere, towards the 
termination of the keel. A specimen in my collection, with the 
periostracum in excellent condition, enables me to confirm this and 
to supplement the description in this respect. The shell is whitish 
corneous and the keel has a narrow rufous border above and below ; 
this can be traced a long way up the spire. 

Dautzenberg and Fischer * unite with the present species a shell 
from Tonkin ])reviously described by them as Satsuma lantenoisi. 
Another form from Perak, described by Crosse as Helix {Geotrcchus) 
jieralensis, they consider merely a variety of G. acn's. 

168. Ganesella scenoma, Benson. 

Helix scenoma, Benson, A. M. N. IP. ser. .3, xi, 186-3. p. 319- 
Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. .53, fig. 5, var.'fio-'s. 3 4" 

Helix (Planispim) scenoma, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 79. ' ' 

Helix {Geotrochus) scenoma, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Noniencl. Ilelic 
Viv. 1881, p. 193: Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Miis. Civ. Geneva 
ser. 2, vii, 1899, p. 32-"). ' 

Helix (:! Satsuma) scenoma, I'ilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser '^ vii 189] 
p. 83, pi. 18, fig. .54, var. fio-. 53.' ' ' ' 

Ganesella scenoma, Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, p. 170. 

Original clescrij)tio7i : — '^ R, testa anguste infundibuliformi- 
umbilicata, subgloboso-conoidea, oblique irregulariter striata, striis 
minutissimis spiralibus decussata, sub epidermide cornea albida, 
carina interdum fascia rufo-castanea ornata ; spira conoidea, apice 
obtusiusculo, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 0, convexiu'sculis, 
ultimo antice vix descendente, ad peripheriam obtuse subcompresso- 
carinato, subtus convexo, circa umbilicum compresso; apertura 
obliqua, subquadrato-lunata, peristomate expansiusculo, marline 
columellari rellexiusculo." (Benson.) ^ 

Diam. maj. 16, min. 14, axis 11 mill. 

H((b. Burma: Mouhnain (Benson, Fea): Peo-u (TJieobahl 
Nevill). ' - o {^neooauf, 



* Journ. Couchyl. Jvi, 1908, p. 183. 



196 HELICID.E. 

The most depressed of all the Indian forms of OaneseJIa, some- 
what resembling the Siamese G. rostrella. The peripheral baud is 
sometimes absent. A slightly more elongated variety is figured in 
Conch. Ind. (pi. 53, figs. 3, 4). 

Some shells labelled H. iiilidion, in the Theobald collection, 
British Museum, proved upon examination to pertain to the 
present species. One of these, measuring 15 : 13 : 9-25 mm., has 
the peripheral band on the pinched keel, but the others are without 
the band ; they are all more depressed than typical scenoma, while 
the umbilicus is somewhat narrower. 



109. Gauesella capitium, Benson. 

Helix capitimn, Benson, A. M. X. II. ser. 2, ii, 1848, p. 160 ; 

Iveeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 125, tig. 749 ; Pfeiifer, Couch.- 

Cab., Helix, iii, 1854, p. 291, pi. 125, ligs. 3, 4; Ilanley & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 14, tig-. 5 ; Morelet, Ser. Conch. 

iv, 1875, p. 254. 
Nanina {IVvchomorpJia) cajntium, yonMartens, Die lleliceen, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 61. 
Helix (Planispira) capitium, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 78. 
Helix (Ganesella) ccqntium, Nevill in Anderson, Zool. lies. Two 

Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 880. 
Trochomorpha (Nigritella) capitium, PfeifFer & Clessin, Nomencl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 81. 
Helix (Patula (Trochomoip/ia)) capitium, Trvon, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 74, pi. 14, tig. t)'J. 
Trochomorp/in capitium, Morelet, Journ. Conehyl. xxxvii, 1889, 

p. 125; P. Fischer, Bull. Soc. Hist. Xat. Autun, iv, 1891, 

p. 108. 
Ganesella capitium, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1894, p. 170, 

pi. 55, fig. 18 ; Blanford, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudon, v, 1903, 

p. 278. 
Eulota {Ganesella) hariola, subsp. carinella, Molleudorlt', Nachr. 

Blatt I). Malak. Ges. xxxiv, 1902, p. 158. 

Orl(/inaI description: — "Testa perforata, globoso-conica, sub- 
trochiformi, laevigata, absque nitore,rufescente cornea, subdiaphana, 
opaciter albido-laciniato-strigataet marmorata ; spira couica, apice 
obtuso; anfractibus 5| convexiiisculis, ultimo carina filiformi 
cincto, basi convexa ; sutura impressa, marginata ; apertura 
rotuudato-tetragona ; peristomate recto, supra expansiusculo, infra 
subreflexo ; margine columeilari late reflexo perforationem semi- 
tegente." (Benson.) 

Diam. maj. 14, min. 13, axis 11 mm. 

Hcd). India : Sikrigali, Behar {Boys). Upper Burma : Ava 
(Blanford), Kabyuet and Kalawat (Anderson). Siam (Bocourt, 
Pavie, Dah/, Itoehelcn, Fruhstorfer). Cambodia (Moidwt, specimens 
in Cuming Coll. Brit. Mus.). 

A brightly coloured species, the dark brown cuticle being 
irregularly covered by flammulated streaks of opaque creamy white. 



GANESELLA. 197 

This briglit coloration would naturally lead to the inference that 
the animal is of arboreal habit and it is not, therefore, surprising 
to find that Blaiiford recoi'ds with regard to hariola — a closely 
allied form — that it is found chietly on trees. A feature, to which 
no refereuce appears to have been made by any writer, is the 
presence, not only on the protocouch but as far as the third whorl, 
of densely crowded, minute pits, apparentl}- arranged in obliquely 
descending spirals. I have not observed these pits beyond 
the third whorl in any specimen to which I have had access. 
Milllendorii records specimens from Siam measuring 16*8 mm. 
in diameter, thus considerably exceeding the type. 

Var. hariola, Benson. 

Heli.c Jiariola, Bensou, A. M. X. II. ser. 2, xviii, ISoG, p. 251 ; 

Pfeifier, Novit. Conch, ser. 1, i, 18(30, p. 134, pi. 36, figs. 21. 22 ; 

Blauford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 93; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 14, fig-. 6. 
Helix {I'lanispira) cupitium, var. hariola, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 78. 
Helix {Patula {Trochomorpha]) capitium, var. hariola, Trvon, ]\Ian. 

Conch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, p. 74, pi. 14, fio-. 100. 
Helix (Ganesella) hariola, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 242 

( + Vcar. cfln'««^« as of Blanford) ; Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mas. 

Civ. Geuova, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 328. 
Ganesella capitium, var. hariola, PilsbiT, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1894, p. 170. 
Helix {Ganosella) hariola, von Martens, Arch. Naturg. Ixv, i, 1899, 

p. 32. 

Hah. Burma: ThyefMyoiTheohald):, VYome {Anderson); Puppa 
Hill, near Pagan (Blauford) ; Khagan and Hlindet (Sprat t) ; 
'Prome (Fea); Pyinthia near Mandalay (AofZin^c) ; Northern Chin 
Hills (Watson, specimens Brit. Mus,). 

This form resembles G. capitium in colouring and marking 
and appears to be distinguished ptirely by its rounded periphery. 
Its claim to varietal rank is even questionable, since connecting 
links occur. Blauford collected at Puppa Hill an intermediate 
form between the carinate stage and typical hariola, while von 
Martens states that Notling brought home from Pyinthia, a place 
28 miles from Mandalay, three specimens, one of which was 
distinctly keeled, the second angulated, and the third with 
completely rounded periphery. Godwin-Austen in his paper on 
Spratt's shells states that two specimens were collected, one like 
the type and the other keeled, whicli he called var. carinata of 
W. T. Blanford's collection. I am not aware that Blanford ever 
published this varietal name and it may be assumed that this form 
is typical capitium. Nevill in his Hand List records specimens 
from South India taken by Stoliczka. Although this naturalist 
was admittedly careful I cannot help thinking that some error 
must have crept in, and until confirmed by other collectors 1 
think it advisable to discard this record. 



198 HELICIM). 

1 70. Ganesella galea, Benson. 

Ile'ix galea, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, iii, 1859, p. 388; Hanlev 

& Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1870, pi. 54, fig. 7. 
Nanina (Sesara) f/alea, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 53. 
Trochomorpha {Niyritella) galea, Pfeifter &: Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 82. 
Helix {Pattcla {Trochomorpha)) galea, Tryou, Man. Concli, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 75, pi. 14, tig. 4. 
Ganesella galea, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, i.x, 1895, p. 170. 

Original description: — " Testa vix perforata, conica, trochiformi, 
oblique striatula, striisconfertissimisspiralibus granulosis decussata, 
albida (decorticata) ; spira regulariter conica, apice acutiusculo, 
sutura impressiiiscula, submargiuata ; anfractibus 7, superioribus 
convexiusculis, turn planulatis, ultimo uon descendeute, acute 
carinato, subtus plauulato, prope carinam leviter excavato ; 
apertura valde obliqua, transversa, anguste angulari-luuata, 
peristomatis margine superiori recto, basali arcuato, intus 
incrassato, columellari superne reflexiusculo perforationem sub- 
tegente." 

*' Diam. maj. vix 9, niin. 8, axis 5| mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India: Teria Gliat (TJieohald) ■ Naga and Khasi Hills 
(Godivin- Austen, W. Roberts). 

The systematic position of this species is somewhat uncertain. 
Nevill referred it to Sesara, a genus with which it does jiot seem 
to have any affinity. Pfeiffer and Clessin included it in 
Trochomorpha, which appears equally wide of tbe mark. Professor 
Pilsbry, with his usual acumen, in placing it in Ganesella, has 
shown a truer appreciation of its relationship as far as shell- 
characters enable us to judge. Nevertheless the microscopic, but 
distinctly strong, decussation of the upper side is somewhat 
abnormal in the genus, but until an examination of the animal 
shall prove the contrary I consider it advisable to retain the species 
in Ganesella. The only specimen I have seen is in the Theobald 
collection and agrees well with Benson's description, except that 
the last whorl is shortly and abruptly deflected in front. Like 
the type this shell is much decorticated, and it is probably one of 
the original lot. 

Subfamily HELICIN^E 
Genus EULOTA, Hartmann. 

Eulota, Hartmann, Erd- und Siissw. Gastr. Scliweiz, 1842, p. 179; 
MiillendortT, Nachr. Blatt D. Malak. Ges. xxiv, 1892, p. 87; 
Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, sev. 2, ix, 1895, pp. 200. 202, pi. 65, 
figs. 1-6, pi. 66, figs. 18-24 (anatomy). 

Type, Helix fruticum, Miiller. 

Range. Asia. Central Europe (one species). 

" Shell globose-conoid or globose-depressed, umbilicated, rather 



EULOTA. 199 

thin, the surface smootliish, generally with minute spiral striic ; 
colour varying from sub-translucent white to light brown or 
yellowish, often with a supra-peripheral band (rarely several 
bands). Whorls 5-6, convex, the last hardly descending in 
front. Aperture round-lunate, toothless ; peristome thickened 
within and expanded, dilated at columellar insertion. 

"Jaw arched, with 4-11 ribs denticulating the concave margin. 

" Radula of E. frutimra having the median cusp of middle 
teeth as long as basal plate, side cusps subobsolete. Laterals 
with longer mesocones. Marginals with long bitid inner and 
on the outer ones bitid outer cusps. 

" Genitalia : penis short, swollen, passing into a long epi- 
phallus which receives vas deferens and retractor, but laclcs 
Jlagelliim. Dart sack globose, containing a round, conical dart, 
and communicating at base with an empty accessory sack which 
bears the mucus glands ; these consist of 2-4 oval glands, closely 
bound together, and flattened on their adjacent sides, their ducts 
uniting into one canal which opens into the accessory sack. 
Duct of spermatheca long, inserted high on vagina. 

" Eidota is here used for a considerable number of oriental 
snails having essentially the organisation of the European 
E. fruticam. The penis lacks flagellum ; the dart sack generally 
bears an accessory empty sack into which the many- or few- 
lobed mucus gland empties ; and the dart is round in section 
or but little tlatteued, the shell being globose with conoidal, 
though low, spire.*' {PiUbnj.) 

171. Eulota bolus, Benson. 

llr!ix bolus, Benson, A. M.N. II. (2) xviii, 1856, p. 252; Theohald, 
J. A. S. B. xxvi, 1857, p. 242 ; Blanford, op. cit. xxxiv, 1865, 
p. 89; ILmley & Theobald, Couch. Iiid. 1870, pi. 53, fig. 7. 

Ilcli.v (Dorcasia) bolus, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 
p. 107 ; Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 1877, p. 22 ; ibid, in Anderson, 
Zool. Res. Two Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 881 ; Tapparone 
Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 327 ; Tryon, 
Man. Couch, ser. 2, iii, 1887, pi. 48, fig. 77. 

IMix (Planispira) bolus, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 80. 

Original description : — " Testa anguste umlulicata, globosa, 
tenuis, oblique striatula, strns minutissimis confertissimis spira- 
libus sub lente sculpta, nitidula, translucens, pallide cornea, inter- 
du2i fascia unica rufa supra peripheriam ornata ; spira couoidea, 
apice obtusiuscula ; sutura leviter impressa ; anfr. 5 convexiusculi, 
ultimus non descendens, iuflatus ; apertnra vix obliqua, rotundato- 
lunaris ; peristomate tenue, expansiusculum, albidum, margine 
columellari latiore, superne umbilicum semitegente. 

"Diam. maj. 14-15^, min. 12-14, alt. lOi-lU mill. Apert. 
majoris 9 mill, longa, 8 lata." (Benson.) 

hah. Burma: Prome {Theobald, Fea), Thyet Myo (StoIiczl-a\ 
Pagan (Anderson). China : Ponsee and Sanda, Tunnan (Anderson). 



200 IIELTCID.l'. 

172. Eulota cestus, Benson. 

Helix cestus, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 353 ; ibid., A. M. N. H. 

ser. 2, ii, 1848, p. lQ-2 : Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 125, 

fig. 751 ; Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., HcUx, i, 1853, p. 339, pi. 60, 

figs. 19, 20 ; Mabille & Lemesle, Journ. Conchvl. 1866, p. 127 ; 

llanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 29, fig. 7. 
Helix (I)orcasia) cestus, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 107. 
Helix (Trachea) cestus, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1870, 

p. 312. 
Helix {Pkmispira ) cestus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 80. 
Helix (Helicella (Dorcasia)) cestus, Trvon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 206, pi. 47, figs. 31, 32. 
Eulota (s. s.) cestus, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, p. 204. 

Orif/inal description, amended : — " Testa perforata, subdepresso- 
conoidea, fuscescente-cornea, subplicato-striata, supra angulum 
castaneo-uuizonata ; spira subconoidea, apice obtusato ; anfract- 
ibus 5, leviter convexis, supra planulata, ultimi peripheria 
angulata, basi convexiuscula ; apertiira obliqua, depreSvSa, minima 
transversa (altitudine latitudinem aequante), rotundato-lunari, 
superne labro-antrorsum arcuato, expansiusculo, margine colum- 
ellari basalique reflexis illo dilatato, perforationem semitegente. 

" The greater narrowness of the perforation which is nearly 
concealed by the reflected columellar lip, the more obtuse apex, 
more planulate whorls, less convex base, the oblique, sinuous, and 
less transverse depressed aperture and the more angular periphery, 
serve, independently of colour, to distinguish H. cestus from any 
of the varieties of H. siviilaris.'' (Benson 1848.) 

Major diam. 13-25-16-5, min. 11-5-15-25 mm. ; alt. 8-75- 
12 mm. 

Hah. India: Sylhet, Assam {Maimvaring, my collection); 
Durrang Plains, Dafla Hills, Assam (Godwin- Austen). Cambodia : 
Moth-Kasa (Mahille tj- Lemesle). 

Pfeiifer originally considered H. cestus to be synonymous with 
H. similaris (Mon.Helic. Yiv. i, 1848, p. 336), but subsequently 
modified his opinion, stating that he had been misled by speci- 
mens received under that name from China and which proved 
to pertain to H. similaris (op. cit. iii, 1853, p. 228). Tryon also 
thought it was perhaps only a variety of that species. Etdota 
cestus appears to me quite distinct, however, as it can readily be 
separated from the numerous forms of E. similaris by several 
characters, as pointed out by Benson in his amended description. 
The species, in fact, rather resembles Planispira slianica in shape 
and contour, but it is not plicate, the umbilicus is narrower, the 
peristome moi'e expanded and the columellar lip more reflected. 

173. Eulota similaris, Ferussac. 

Helix {Helicella) similaris, Ferussac, Tabl. Syst. LimaQons, 1822,, 
no. 262 (-(-« unicolor, /3 zonvlata) (noni. uud.). 



EULOTA. 



201 



Heliv {Helicoqena) simihris, F^russRC, Hist. Nat. Moll. |ivr. xv, 

1822, pi. 25 b, tig-. 1 (var. a), iig. 4 (var. Q), livr. xxiu, 18-32, 

pi. 27 A, figs. 1-3 (vav.). . 

Helix mnilaris, Desliaves in Ferussac, Hist. ^at. Moll. ], i^siU, 

p. 171; Blanfoid, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 88; Hanley & 

Theobald. Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 53. fig. 1. 
Helix (Fndicicola) siniilaris, Albers, Die Heliceen, 18o0, p. /U; 

Collett, J. A. S. B. Cevlon Branch,'xv, 1904, p. 12. 
Heii.r {Dorcasia) similaris, von JMarteus, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 18bU, 

p 107 ; Nevill in Anderson, Zool. Kes. Two Exped. SV est. 

Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 880 ; Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Genova, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 320. _ . ,o-o 

Helix {P/anispira) sijnilaris, Nevill, Hand List, i, 18/8, p. <9. 
Helix (Fruficicola {Dorcasia)) similaris, Tryou, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii,1887, p. 205,pl.46, figs. 27-30. . 

Fndicicola similaris, Jonsseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. 1 rauce, vii, iiiJi, 

EiiJota (s. s.) similaris, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, P- 205. 
Helix (Helicoqena) addita, Ferussac, Tabl. Syst. Lima9ons, 1822, 

p. 71 (67), 'no. 38 bis; ibid.. Hist. Nat. Moll. \nr. xv, 1822, 

pi. 25 B, figs. 2, 3. 
Helix trausluce72s, King, Zool. Journ. v, 1830, p. 339. 
Helix tcoodiana, Lea, Trans. Philos. 8oc. Philadelphia, v, 18o7, 

p. 57, pi. 19, fig. 69. 
Helix epixantha, Pfeifi^er, Zeits. Malak. vii. 1850, p. 70; ibid., 

Conch.-Cab., Helix, iii, 1854, p. 349, pi. 134, tigs. 13-15. 

Original description:—''^, testa subdepresso-globosa, minute 
striata, diaphana, pallide cornea, unicolore vel rufo-umzonata ; 
spira niagis minusve elata; aufractibus convexiusculis, ultimo 
basi convexo, perforata ; apertura rotundato-lunari ; penstomate 
albo, reflexo, niargine coluuiellari subdilatato. 

"Diam. maj. 16. min. 14, alt. 12 mm."' {Deshayes). 

Hah. India': Benoal {Eeeve^. Burma: Prome, Pagan, and 
Bahmo Sanda {Anderson); Beeling (StoUczl-a) ; Thyet Myo 
{Tapparone). Ceylon: IS'awalapitiya {Simon); Ambagamuwa 
{Collett). 

]S'o otber land mollusc has so wide a geographic range as 
Eidota similaris. It is probably indigenous in Central and 
Southern China, Burma, Cochin Chiua, Siam, the Malay 
Peninsula and Singapore, Java, Celebes, Timor, and the Phihp- 
pine Islands, but, " by the unconscious intervention of commerce 
it has become colonized," as Prof. Pilsbry remarks, in Japan, 
Formosa, Hongkong; Bengal; Ascension, Eodriguez, Keunion 
(Bourbon), -Alauritius, the Seychelles, the Comoros, Madagascar, 
and Natal ; New Soutli Wales; the Sandwich Islands; Bermuda, 
Cuba, and ]3arbados ; Brazil and Argentina. Deshayes was, 
1 bel'ieve, the first to draw attention to its wide distribution 
when he questioned if there was another instance of a terrestrial 
mollusc occurring in so many remote habitats, adding that it 
would be of great interest to examine the animals from the 
various localities, so as to make sure that they belouged_ to the 
same species. It has long been considered that it owed its wide 



202 HELiciD.i:. 

rauge to its having been distributed ^ith coffee plants, but this 
tlieory has recently been called in question. Prof. Pilsbry thinks 
that it has followed the cultivation of sugar-cane, and this appears 
to be a rather plausible theory, seeing that in many places it is 
commonly found on the borders of cane-fields. 

The bibliography of Euloia slmilaris is very voluminous and 
1 have confined myself to the essential portion of it with reference 
to the geographical limits of this work. A number of varieties 
have been established, but these have also been disregarded as 
they likewise are outside the scope of the Fauna of British India. 
Deshayes included under the synonymy of slmilaris, Helix cestus, 
Benson, but in this I do not consider he was justified, since the 
latter appears to me quite distinct, as already stated when dealing 
with that species. 

174. Eulota extrusa, Tapparoae. 

Helix similaris, var., Hanley & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1870, pi. 53, 

fig. 2. 
Helix (Dorcasia) extrusa, Tapparoue Cauefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Geneva, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. .326. 
Helix (Eulota) extrusa, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, viii, 1893, 

p. 218, pi. .54, tig. 100. 
Eulota (s. s.) extrusa, Pilsbiy, op. cit. ix, 1895, p. 204. 

Original description: — " H. testa anguste umbilicata, sub- 
globosa, corueo-alba, pellucida, per longitudinem oblique striata, 
lineis tenuissimis appressis sub lente conspicuis, basi precipue 
spiraliter exarata ; spira conoidea, parum elevata, apice obtusius- 
culo. Anfractibi;s 5, regulariter accrescentes, convexiusculi, 
sutura impressa, subirregulari sejuncti ; ultimus magnus, sub- 
globosus, antice vix descendens, ad peripheriam interdum per- 
obscure subangulatus. Apertura rotundato-lunata, parum obliqua ; 
peristoma simplex, acutum, basi subrefiexum, marginibus remotis ; 
coluraellari dilataro, reflexo, umbilici mediam partem obtegente. 

"Diam. maj. 1.5, min. 13; alt. 10 a 11 mill." {Tapparone.) 

Hah. Burma : Katha, Upper Irrawaddy {Fea). 

17o. Eulota Zoroaster, Theobald. 

Helix Zoroaster, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxviii, 1859, p. 306 ; Blanford, 

op. cit. xxxiv, 1805, p. 88 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1874, pi. 86, figs. 2, 3 (var. concolor). 
Helix (Dorcasia) zoroasier, Nevill in Anderson, Zool. Res. Two 

Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 881. 
Helix {Plaiiispira) zoroaster, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 79. 
Helix (Helicella (Dorcasia)) zoroaster. Try on, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 211, pi. 48, tig. 93. 
Eulota (s. s.) zoroaster, Pilsbr\-, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, p. 205. 

Original description : — " Testa umbilicata, depresso-globosa, 
minute striata, cornea, ad peripheriam rufo unifasciata (interdum 



EULOTA. 



203 



non cincta, pallide cornea sive vitrea). Anfract. 5. Apertura 

parum obliqua, rotundato lunari. Perist. tenui, reflexiusculo. 
" Diam. 0-G2 [=16 ram.] ; alt. 0-34 [ = 9 mm.]." {Theobald.) 
Hah. Burma : Banks of Irrawaddy, between Ava and Prorae 

{Theolahl); Prome, Tl)yet Myo, Tsagain, Pagan, Manwyne 

{Anderson, Blanford). 

176. Eulota schanoruin, Mdllendorff. 

Euhta schanorum, MoUeudorff, Nadu-. Blatt D, Malak. Ges. xxxi, 
1899, p. IGo. 

Original description: — " T. anguste et semiobtecte umbilicata, 
conoideo-globosa aut globoso-conoidea, solidula, leviter striata, 
spiraliter minnte lineata, pallide luteo-cornea. Spira plus 
miuusve conoidea. Anfr, 5^-6 modice convexi, ultimus snpra 
medium obtuse subangulatus, antice breviter descendens, circa 
umbilicum sat distincte angulatus. Apertui-a modice obliqua, 
subcircularis, sat excisa, peristoma modice expansum, intus 
sublabiatum, margo columellaris superue valde dilatatus, umbilicum 
medium obtegens. 

" Diam. 24-5, alt. IS, apart, lat. 15, long. 13-5, alt. 12 mm. 

" „ 21-5, „ 23, „ „ 13-5, „ 12, „ 10-25 mm." 
{Mdllendorf). 

Hah. Burma : Shan States {Himr/erford) ; Kalow, S. Shan 
States {Struhell). 




Fig. 82. — Eulota schanonun. 

I have not seen the species but Dr. Fritz Haas of Frankfurt 
a/M. has been good enough to supply me with photographs of 
the type, in tlie Senckenbergiscbes Museum, from whicli the 
accompanying illustrations have been reproduced. 



177. Eulota scalptnrita, Benson. 

Helix scalptnrita (Bensou), Theobald. J. A. S. B. xxvi, 1857, p. 248 

(nom. nud.); Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, iii. 1859, p. 391; 

Blanford, J. A. S. B, xxxiv, 1865, p. 88; Ilanley & Theobald, 

Couch, liid. 1870, pi. 53, tig. 9. 
Helix (I'lanispira) sculpturita, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 79 

Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 242. 



204 IIELICIDiE. 

Helix (Acusfa {Fruticicola)) scalptttrita , Pfeiffer & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 119. 
Hi'lix {Helicella {Dorcasia)) scalpUirita, Tryoii, Man. (Jouch. ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 211, pi. 48, fig. 94. 
Helix {Dorcasia) scalpturita, Nevill in Anderson, Zool. Res. Two 

Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 881 ; Tapparoue Canefri, Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Geneva, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 51. 
Huhta (s. s.) scalpturita, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, 

p. 205. 

Original description : — " Testa umbilicata, globoso-depressa, 
striatula, confertim spiraliter acuducto-striata, nitidiuscula, albida, 
versus apiceni et antice pallide rufescente, aliquando nnifasciata ; 
spira conoidea,apice obtuso, sutura inipressa ; anfractibus 5| sensim 
accrescentibus, convexiusculis, ultimo rotuudato, autice paruin 
breviter descendente ; apertura obliqua, rotundato-lunata, peri- 
stomate tenui, expansiusculo, niargiiie coluiuellari dilatato-expanso, 
umbilicum augustum profundum partim celante." 

"Diam. uiaj. 22, min. 19, axis 14 mill." 

" Var. depressior : Diam. maj. 20|, min. 18, axis 11 mill."' 
(^Benson.) 

Hah. Burma: Ava {Oldham)'. Tsagain, Ava, and Ma'ndalay 
{Blanford, Anderson) ; Maudalay {Fea) ; Shan Hills (Godwin- 
Austen) ; Thyet Myo or Prome (Theobald). 

Benson, in describing the species, states that " independently 
of size, colour and greater solidity, there would be little to 
distinguish this shell from the true H. si^nihnis, Fer., were it 
not for its peculiar sculpture." The comparison, to my mind, 
is not a happy one as scalpturita, apart from its sculpture, has a 
totally different contour. Benson also refers to a still moi'e- 
depressed, and smaller, variety than tliat of m hich the measure- 
ment is given, found by Mr. Theobald at Thyet Myo or Prome, 
but he gives no dimensions. I possess some specimens from Ava 
which measure : diam. maj. 18"5, min. 16'5, axis 10 mm. On 
the other hand, the British Museum contains specimens, from 
the Upper Irrawaddy, measui'ing : — 28 : 24 : 22 mm., and some 
shells from Pegu without the peripheral band. 

ITS, Eulota pilidion, Benson. 

Helix pilidion, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3. vi, 1860, p. 191 ; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Lid. 1870, pi. 53, fig. 6. 
Helix iPlanispirct) pilidion, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878. p. 80. 
Heli.r (C'ajnaena) pilidion, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 191 ; Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geuova, ser. 2, 

vii, 1889, p. 326 (jnliodon). 
Heli.r {Enhadra) j)ilidion, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1890, 

p. 114, pi. 31, iig. 20. 
Eulota (s, s.) 2)ilidion, Pilsbry, op. cit. ix, 1895, p. 204. 

Original description : — " Testa anguste umbilicata, subgloboso- 
conoidea, tenuissima, Icevigata, leviter striatula, striis remotius- 
culis elevatioribus corneo-fuscis, alteris confertissiniis spiralibus 
decussantibus, translucente, albida, fascia unica peripherica rufa 



EULOTA. 



205 



ornata • spira conoldea, apice obtusiusciilo, sutura leviter 
impressa; anfractibus 4,1, sensim accrescsntibus, convexiusculis, 
ultimo antice vix descendente, sul)tus convexo ; apertura obliqua, 
qiiadrato-lunata ; peristomate acuto, tenui, undique expansiusculo, 
margiuibus reraotis, subconniveiitibus, callo teuiu juuctis, colu- 
mellari latiore triaugulato-expanso." 

"Diain. maj. 16, min. VA, axis 9 mill." (Benson.) 
Hah. Burma: Pegu {Benson); East of Moiilmain {>Stohczka) ; 
Teuasserim (Davison) : Bhamo (Fea). Cambodia (Morclet). 

This appeai-s to be a rare species. I have uot seen specimens. 
Some shells in the Theobald collection, British Museum, were 
labelled H. pilidion, but upon examination they proved to be 
Ganesella scenoma. 

179. Etilota peguensis, Benson. 

Helix pef/uensis, Benson, A. M. N. H. sor. 3, vi, I860, p. 192 ; 
Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 89 ; Hanley i^ Theobald, 
Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 58, fig-. 6. , ^ • . • -.q-o -q 

Helix (Plamspira) pef/uensis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 18/8 p. 'y- 
Helix (Euhadru) pef/uensis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 189U, 

Hulota (s. s.) 2}eguensis, Pilsbry, op. cit. ix, 1895, p. 204. 

Original description :—'' Testn anguste umbilicata, globoso- 
depressa, solidiuscula, oblique rugoso-striatula. nitidiuscula, trans- 
lucente, rufocornea, obscure unifasciata ; spira conoidea, apice 
obtuso, sutura profundiuscula, rugose submarginata ; aufractibus 5, 
vix convexis, lente accresceutibus, ultimo rotundato, supra peri- 
pheriam obtuse angulato, antice leviter descendente, circa 
umbilicum compressiusculo ; apertura obliqua, rotundato-lunari, 
peristomate expansiusculo, livide albido-violaceo, marginibus 
remotis subconuiventibus, columellari expanse, reflexiusculo, 
umbilicum leviter occultante. 

" Diam. maj. 20, min. 18, axis 13 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Burma: Sheoay-Gheen, Pegu (Haughton), Thyet Myo, 
Pegu (Theohald). . 

" The umbilicus is wider in some specimens than in others, and 
the angle above the periphery is variable, and occasionally more 
pronou'iiced. In dead specimens the livid violaceous colour of the 
aperture and lip is changed into wliite, and the obscure fuscous 
band at the periphery is scarcely to be detected." (Benson.) 

J80. Eulota radicicola, Benson. 

Helix radicicola, Benson, A. M. N. 11. ser. 2, ii, 1848, p. 161 ; 

Keeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 125, lig. 733; I'leitier tonch.- 

Cab., i/e/«', iii, 1854, p. 379, pi. 141, tigs. 13, 14; ILinley & 

Theobald,Conch. Ind. 1874,pl. 62,tifr. 10. 
Helix (Helicella (Dorcasia)) rndicicvla, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii 1887, p. 210, pi. 48, tig. 85. 
JEnlota (a. a.) radicicola, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1905, p. 205. 



206 HELICID.'E. 

OriyinaJ description : — " Testa perforata, subglobosa, tenui, 
virescente-cornea, trauslucente, subtus niticliori, radiato-striata, 
striis concentris delicatissimis decussantibus ; spira elata conoidea, 
apice obtuso ; anfractibus 4 convexis, ultimo obtuse augulato ; 
apertura obliqua, subquadrato-rotundata ; peristomate recto 
(acuto), margiiie columellari verticaliter descendente, supra late 
reflexo, perforationem semitegente. 

" Diam. luaj. 10 mm.; axis 7 mill." (Benson.) 

Hab. India : Landour {Bacon, Benson) ; Mussoorie {Hvtton) ; 
^im\a. {Theohald); ^\kk\m {Beddome). 

The Benson collection at Cambridge contains a tablet with 
six specimens, the largest of which measures : diam. 11*5, 
alt. 10"75 mm., the smaller ones being immature. No locality 
is recorded on the tablet and it is rather doubtful whether the 
type is one of them. A specimen in the Theobald collection of 
the British Museum, from Simla, is likewise not quite mature, 
the peristome not being quite developed. It measures: 11 : 9 : 
11 mm. 

A^ar. elatior, Martens. 

Heli.r (Arioiita) elatiur, von Martens, Malak. Bliitt. xv, 1868, 

p. 157. 
Helix elatiur, Pfeiffer, Novit. Conch, ser. 1, iii, 1869, p. 461, 

pi. 101, tigs. 4-G. 
Heli.r {Plcinif!2)ira) radicicola, Hutton, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 78 ( = H. elatior, Martens). 
Helic {Fruticicula {Dorcasia)) elatior, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iii, 

1887, p. 210, pi. 52, figs. 14-15. 
Euloiu (s. s.) elatior, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, p. 204. 

Original descrij^tion : — " Testa subobtecte perforata, globoso- 
conica, striatula et malleata, uitidula, pallide viridi-flavida fascies 
2 pallide fuscis latis picta ; spira elevata, conica acutiuscula ; 
anfr. 5, convexiuscula, ultimus rotundatus, antice paulum des- 
cendens ; columella recta, crassa ; apertura diagonalis, truncato- 
ovalis ; peristoma incrassatum, breviter patulum album, margine 
columellari paulum arcuato, supra dilatato, perforationem uuixima 
e parte tegente. 

"Diam. maj. 15|, min. 13, alt. 15; apert. lat. = alt., Sk mill." 
(von Martens.) 

Hab. Himalaya. 

Dr. Thiele, the Director of the Konigl.-Zool. Museum, Berlin, 
has obligingly sent me the type of von Mai'ten's Helix elatior for 
inspection, and a careful examination has convinced me that it can 
at the most be only regarded as a variety of E. radicicola. It is 
certainly a larger and more solid shell than typical radicicola, the 
peristome is distinctly thickened and expanded, but scarcely 
reflexed, while the columellar margin is broadly dilated and 
refiexed, almost completely closing the umbilicus, a mere slit 
being left, scarcely large enough to admit a very fine needle. On 
some of the whorls very minute spirals can be detected with a 



EULOIA. — ^CATHAICA. 207 

strong lens, while the last quarter of tlie penultimate and the 
whole of the last whorl is more or less regularly malleated, giving 
the appearance here and there of being furnished with spiral or 
obliquely descending ridges. The shell, moreover, is ornamented 
with two pale fuscous bands, one comparatively narrow, midway 
between the suture and periphery, the other practically covering 
the base of the shell from the periphery downwards, but becoming 
rather diffused about the umbilicus. 

A specimen from JSikkim, in the Beddome collection, agrees 
fairly well with elatior, but it is without the bands and is 
subangulated at the periphery except towards the mouth. It is 
also a trifle broader in proportion, measuring 16"5 mm. in diameter, 
alt. 15 mm. 

Genus CATHAICA, Mollendorff. 

Cathaica, Mollendorff, Jahrb. J). Malak. Ges. xi, 1884, p. 339 (as 
group of Helix) ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, viii, 1893, p. 204 
(as section of Helix), ix, 1895, p. 205 (as section of Eidota) ; 
Andreae, Mitt. IJoemer Mus., no. 12, 1900, p. 2; Mollendorff. 
Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, iv, 1899, p. 101 ; 
ibid., op. cit., vi (1901), 1902, p. 302. 

Type, Helix fascial a, Drap. {=i^)jrrhozona, Phil.). 

liaiige. North and Middle China, Central Asia, Kashmir and 
Burma. 

" Testa umbilicata, depressa, striis vel costis ruditer sculpta, 
anfr. 5-7, convexiusculi, ultimus plerumque ad peripheriam 
angulatus vel carinatus, apertura obliqua, peristoma intus in- 
crassatum margine supero plerumque recto, externo et infero 
plus minusve expansis, columellari dilatato." (Mollendorff.) 

"Animal with the tail rounded above, no longitudinal groove. 
Sole indistinctly tripartite. 

"Jaw arcuate, with 3 to 7 weak ribs. 

" Eadula with blunt mesocones on median and lateral teeth : 
mari;iuals with the ectocone simple or bifid. 

"(Jrenitalia: penis slender, ending in a long retractor and tlie 
terminal vas deferens. Dart sack large, opening into atrium, one 
dense cluster of about 10 club-shaped, glandular mucus glands 
inserted near its base. Spermatheca duct long.'' (PilshrT/.) 



Subgenus CAMPYLOCATHAICA, Andreae. 

Campylocathaica, Andrea?, Mitt. Eoemer Mus. no. 12, 1900, p. 5; 
Mollendorff. Ann. Mus. Zool, Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, vi 
(1901), 1902, p. 30G. 

Type, Helix przeivahTcii, von Martens. 

liaiiije. Central Asia and Burma. 

Shell less solid than in the subgenera EucatJiaica and 



208 HELICID.1:. 

Pliocathaica, frequently with translucent patches or dappled with 
brown. Aperture more oblique than in Eacathaica, the reflexed 
margin less thickened within, the tooth, characteristic of Cathaica, 
but faintly indicated, generally only present in the smaller forms. 
The last whorl shows an indication of an angulation at the upper 
portion. Frequently two brown bands are present, which oc- 
casionally are partly dissolved or interrupted. {Andreae.) 

181. Cathaica mataianensis, Nev'dl. 

Helix (Fruticicola) mataianensis, Nevill, Scient. Res. Seeoud Yar- 

kand Mission, 1878, p. 3, figs. 7-9. 
Helix {TracJtia) mataianensis^ von Martens, M6in. Acad. Imp. Sci. 

St. Petersburg, ser. 7, xxx, no. 11, 1882, p. 49. 
Helix (Plectotropis (Fseudiberus)) mataie)isis (err. tvp.)) Tryon, 

Man. Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 89, pi. 12, figs. 6-8. 
Eulota {Pseudiherus) mataianensis, Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, ix, 

1895, p. 207. 
Cathaica { Pseud iberus') mataianensis, Audreae, Mitt. Roemer Mus, 

no. 12, 1900, p. 5. 
Cathaica (Campi/hcathaica) mataianensis, MilUendorff, Ann. Mus. 

Zool. A.cad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, vi (1901), 1902, p. 306. 

Original description : — " Shell a little smaller than H. plectotropis, 
in many respects a good deal resembliug it, but of much thinner 
and more delicate texture; openly umbilicate, depressedly conoidal ; 
whorls five and a half, with excavated suture and without a raised 
keel, in both of which respects it materially differs from the 
preceding [^H. pUctotropis], last whorls with a medium-sized keel, 
base convex, above sculptured irregularly, with more or less strongly 
developed ribs, beneath sculpture obsolete, almost smooth ; wdiite, 
irregularly mottled with pale horn colour, apex horn brown ; 
aperture ovate, subangulate at peripher}^ almost as high as broad ; 
peristome lightly reflexed, columella expanded. 

"Diam. 13'5, alt. 7 mm. ; apert. diam. 6"75, alt. 6"75 mm. 

Hah. Kashmir: Mataian, Dras Valley, at 11,200 ft. 

" Unfortunately most are quite young shells, only one or two 
being sufficiently full grown to show the reflexed outer lip. 
Stoliczka describes the animal in his journal as ' uniform greenish 
dusky, no trace of a tail gland, the body very short, the postei'ior 
pai"t of the foot shorter than the anterior.' " [Nevill.) 



182. Cathaica phseozona, von JIarfens. 

Helix phaeozona, von Martens, Imp. Obsh. Lvubi. Estest. Antrop. 

Etnoghr. xi, part 1, 1874, p. 13, pi. 1, fig. 8" (sliellj, pi. 3, fig. 39 

(radula). 
Helix {Fruticicola) phaozona, Nevill, Sci. Pes. Second Yarkand 

Mission. 1878, p. 2, figs. 1-3; ibid., Hand List, i, 1878, p. 92 ; 

von Martens, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, ser. 7, xxx, 

no. 11, 1882, p. 11, pi. 2, figs. 10, 11. 



CATHAICA. 209 

Helix {Helicella {Dorcasia)) phceozona, Try on, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 205, pi. 46, figs. 25, 2(5. 
Helix {Eulota) phaeozona, Kobelt, Rossmassler's Iconogr., Neue 

Folge, vi, 1893, p. 75, pi. 1(59, fig. 1087. 
Eulota (Eulota) phceozona, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, 

p. 204. 
Helicella {Theba) phceozona, ibid., op. cit.. 1895, p. 266. 
Cathaica phceozona, Mollendortf, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. 

St. Petersburg, iv, 1899, p. 126. 
Helix phceozona, Wiegmann, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. 

St. Petersburg, v, 1900, p. 131 (anatomy). 

Original description : — " Testa anguste umbilicata, conoiclea, 
semiglobosa, ruditer striata, lineis spiralibus subtilissimis confertis, 
alba, fascia unica latiuscula, castanea, peripherica ; spira conoidea ; 
anfractus 5|, convexiiisculi, ultimas basi convexus, antice vix 
descendens ; apei'tura parum obliqua, lunato-rotuiulata ; peristoma 
leviter iucrassatum, margine supero recto, basali patulo, columellari 
dilatato patente." {Mar-tens.) 

Diain. maj. 14-17, min. 11-5-14-5, alt. 8-14'5, apert. lat. 7-8-5, 
alt. 6*5-7 mm. 

Hah. Turkistan (FedtscJienl-o, Przeivahlci, StoUczka). India : 
Hunza, Kashmir (Comvay). 

Five specimens — of which only two are adult — collected at 
Hunza, Kashmir, and presented to the British Museum in 1893 
by Mr. "W. M. Conway, I refer to von Martens's species. They 
are smaller and more depressed than the shells figured by von 
Martens and Nevill, measuring 14 : 11-5 : 8*5 mm. respectivelv, 
but both authors state that the species varies considerably in this 
respect, the latter recording a depressed variety from Pasrobat, 
west of Yai'kand, measuring : diam. IG, alt. 14'5 mm. 

183. Cathaica bactriana, Hutton. 
Var. burmanica, var. nov. 

Heliv bactriana, Hutton, J. A. S. B. xviii, 1849, p. 651 ; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon, vii, 1854, pi. 195, fig. 1376; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 130, tigs. 1, 4. 
Helix (Fruticicola) bactriana, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 93. 
Helix (Helicella (Dorcasia)) bactriana, Tryon, Man. Couch, ser. 2, 

iii, 1887, p. 212, pi. 49, figs. 13, 14. 
Eulota (Eulota) bactriana, Pilsbry, Man. Conch.' ser. 2, ix, 1895, 

p. 204. 

Original description: — "Animal straw coloured, with the superior 
tentacula very long and black ; shell carried obliquely horizontal ; 
foot short and rather tapering posteriorly. 

" Shell fuscous or pale earthy brown, but varying to reddish 
brown, and in some to sandy brown ; in living specimens dotted 
over with darker spots or blotches from the animal being apparent 
through it ; subglobose ; spire obtuse, scarcely exserted ; whorls 6 ; 
aperture ovate-lunate, oblique; whorls obliquely and finely wrinkled 

p 



210 HELICID^. 

with the strife of growth ; peristome acute, pillar lip partially re- 
flected over the umbilicus; a strong white rib within the aperture, 
showing usuaUy a rufous band externally, umbilicus moderate, 
exposing a portion of the penultimate whorl. Some have a pale 
line along the periphery of the body whorl, which is slightly 
angular. 

"Diameter y^^ inch [ = 15 mm.]." (Hutton.) 
Hah. Afghanistan, Caudahar (Button), type. Burma {Cuming 
Coll.), var. 

The var. biirmanica differs from the type in being more de- 
pressed, more widely umbilicated, in having the periphery sub- 
angulated and the basal margin of the peristome nearly straight 
and obliquely ascending towards the columellar margin. The 
s])ecimen in the Cuming collection of the British Museum, upon 
v^hich this new variety is based, is also considerably paler than 
the type, but, notwithstanding, shows the peripheral pale band 
distinctly. 

Genus PLECTOTROPIS, Martens. 

Then, Albers, Die Heliceeii, 1850, p. 118 (not Then, Coleoptera, 
Mulsant, 1846). 

Plectotropis, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 121, as 
section of Helix ; Pilsbry, Man. Concli. ser. 2, ix, 1895, p. 208, as 
section of Eulota, pi. 65, figs. 13, 14, pi. 66, tigs. 33, 34 (anatomy). 

Type, Helix elegantissima, Pfeiffer. 

Range. India, Burma, Farther India, Japan, China and adjacent 
Islands, south to the Malay Archipelago. 

" Shell depressed and carinated, widely umbilicated, dull and 
brown, with more or less shaggy cuticle and usually a peripheral 
fringe of hairs ; whorls numerous (5 to 8), narrow and slowly 
increasing. Aperture small, angulate-lunar, oblique; lip narrowly 
expanded, reflexed below. 

" Jaw high-arched, with many (10-19) ribs, more or less 
denticulating the basal margin. 

" Eadula having the middle tooth without side cusps, but with 
a lateral bulging, middle cusps about the length of basal plate ; 
laterals with a small ectocone. Marginals with the long inner 
cusp bifid, ectocone split into two. 

" Genitalia ; penis rather long, epiphallus short, strongly bent 
at the attachment of retractor, continued in a rather short, blunt 
flagellum. Dart sack large, containing a long, slightly curved 
dart, lens-shaped in section. Mucus gland inserted high on dart 
sack, divided into two glandular branches which are wide, flattened 
and rather incoherent, the dart sack and glands bound loosely to 
vagina. Duct of spermatlieca very long and slender, without 
diverticulum, bound to oviduct." (Pilsbj-j/.) 

The species constituting the group of Plectotropis appear to me 
60 well characterized conchologically that it is hei'e accorded 



PLECTOTEOPIS. 



211 



generic rank. Without in any way presuming to criticise Prof 
Piisbrv's views, the concliological characters seem to be correlated 
with certain anatomical details. In Pledotropis a flagellum occurs 
which is wanting in Eidota s.s. In the former the epiphallus is 
long and the duct of the spermatheca is bound to the oviduct, in 
the latter it is inserted high on the vagina and the epiphallus is 
short. In Plectotropis the jaw possesses 10-19 ribs, in Eulota it 
is provided with only 4-11 ribs. 

184. Plectotropis huttoni, Pfeiffer. 

Helix ovbicula, Uutton, J. A. S. B. vii, 1838, p. 271 (non H. orbicula, 

aSl^'Si"? Pfeiffer, Symb. Hist Helic. ii, 1842, p. 82; ib^, 
Men. Helic. Viv. i, 1848, p. 202 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, yu 18o2 
dI I'^Q iio-. 786; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, I860 p 89; 
Hanlev'& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 15, fig. 8; Theobald, 
J A. S. B., xxxix, 1870, p. 395; Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., Helix, in, 
1881, V. 399, pi. 144, fi^s. 9, 10. , 

Fruticicola Jmttoni, Theobald, J. A. S. B xlvu, 18j8 p. 144. 
Helir (Plectotropis) huttoni, Nevill, Hand List, 1, 18/8, p. / 3; iryon, 

Man. Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888^ p. 54, pi. 11, fig. 56. 
JEtdota {Plectotropis) huttoni, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 189o, 
p. 209. 
"T umbilicata, orbiculato-convexiuscula, subdiaphana, palhde- 
cornea epiderniide scabra induta ; auf r. 6 convexiusculi, ultimus 
aneulatus, antice vix descendens ; umbilicus latiusculus, per- 
spectivus; apertura obUqua, lunato-rotundata ; perist. simplex, 
marginibus conniventibus, dextro recto, basali breviter reflexo, 
columellari subdilatato, patente." {Pfeiffer.) 
"Diam. maj. 10, min. 9, alt. b\ mill." 

Hah India- Simla and Laudour {Hvtion, Siohczka, Oldham); 
Darieeling (Stoliczl-a, Mahmaring); Kashmir {Theobald); Na,ga 
Hills {Boherts); Dafla Hills (OWi.m-^«sim); Shevroy Hills, 
(my collection). Burma: Upper Salween Valley {Fedden); 
Puppa Hills, near Ava {Blanford). China: Ponsee, lunnan 
i^Anderson). 

Yar. savadiensis, Xevill. 
Heluv (Plectotropis) huttoni, var. savadiensis, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 
1877, p. 20 ; ibid., Hand List, i, 1878, p. 73 ; ibid, jn Anderson, 
Zool.'llea. Two Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 879. 

Diam. 125, axis 5-25 mm. 

Hah. Upper Burma: Saw ady {Anderson). 

Differs from the type by its more raised spire, stouter texture, 
and less 01)611 umbilicus. Xevill considers the shell represented 
in Conch. Ind. pi. 15, fig. 8, not to be a typical specimen from 
the North-West Himalayas, but rather a specimen from Darjeehng. 
The former, he states, is a smaller, more rounded, and less solid 
shell scarcely keeled at the periphery, with a higher spire and 

p2 



212 HELICID^. 

less produced aperture. The Darjeeling specimen measures: diam. 
12*25, axis 5*25 mm. Specimens from Darjeeling iu my collection 
measure : diam. 10*5, axis 5, but they are distinctly keeled. A 
form found by Dr. Anderson abundantly at Ponsee and Ava is 
said to be nearer the Darjeeling form ; the spire being slightly 
higher, with the apex more central. 

A variety is recorded by Nevill (Hand List, i, 1878, p. 74) 
from Great Cocos Island (StoUczka) and Little Cocos Island ( Wood- 
Mason), but no characters or dimensions are mentioned. 

Var. radleyi, Jousseaume. 

Hiigromia i-adleyi, .Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 284, pi. 4, fig. 6. 
Helix huttoni, var. radleyi, Sykes, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudon, iii, 1898, 

p. 161. 

Diam. 9-2-11, alt. 4-6-5 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon : JSTuwara-Eliya (Simon), Uda Pussellavva (OoUett). 

Scarcely separable from typical huttoni, but it appears to be 
smaller, more elevated in the spire, and somewhat more closely 
coiled. I possess specimens from Uda Pussellawa, measuring : 
diam. 10-5, alt. 5-5 mm., being intermediate, therefore, between 
Jousseaume's and Sykes' specimens as regards elevation of spire. 
Nevill records a variety (Hand List, i, 1878, p. 73J from Fort 
McDonald, Ceylon, which is probably identical with Jousseaume's 
variety. 

185. Plectotropis oldhami, Benson. 

Helix ohlhami (Benson), Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxvi, 1857, p. 248 

(nom. nud.) ; Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, iii, 1859, p. 185 ; 

Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 89 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Couch. Ind. 1870, pi. 15, fig. 7. 
Helix {uE(/ista) oldhami, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 122. 
Helix {Plectotropis) oldhami, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 73; ibid., 

in Anderson, Zool. lies. Two Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 878. 
Helix {Plectotropis {^t/ista)) oldhami, Tryoa, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iv, 1888, p. 61, pi. 13" fig. 25. 
Eulota (Plectotropis) oldhami, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, 

p. 209. 

Original description : — " Testa late umbilicata, orbiculato-de- 
pressa, teuui, oblique irregulariter flexuoso-striata, cornea?; spira 
vix elevata, vel depressissime conoidea, apice exsertiusculo, obtuso, 
sutura impressa; anfractibus 6g lente crescentibus, plauulatis, 
ultimo antice breviter rapide descendente, superne obtuse cari- 
nato, subtus convexo, circa umbilicuni profundum perspectivum 
augulato; aperturaobliqua, subcirculari, peristomate expausiusculo, 
reflexiusculo, marginibus conniventibus, approximatis." 

"Diam. major 13, minor 11, axis 6 mill." (Benson.) 



PLECIOTEOPIS. 213 

Hah. Burma: Ava (OldJiam, Andersoti); between Prorne and 
Tougoop, Arakan Hills {Blanford); Pegu (StoUczJca). India: 
Assam {StoliczJca). 

When describing the species Benson referred to //. ocidus as its 
nearest ally. It is, however, much nearer to tapeina, from which 
it may be distinguished by the wider and more open umbilicus, the 
slightly blunter periphery, more depressed spii'e, and more closely 
coiled whorls, for although considerably smaller in size it possesses 
a Avhorl more. A third specimen on the same tablet in the 
Benson collection, in fact, I refer to P. tapeina, var. alvivton- 
gensis; while measuring 16 mm. in diameter, it is only composed 
of 5| whorls, the last whorl is less deflected in front and a 
little less angulated at the periphery, although the whorls are 
more flattened. This variety appears to approximate still nearer 
to P. oldhami, although usually more depressed in the spire, less 
deflected in front, and possessing only five whorls. The latter, 
however, is invariably more angulated around the umbilicus than 
either P. tapeina or its vai'iety akoivtongensis. 

The shell recorded by Blanford * as U. oldhami from Siam is 
quite distinct and belongs to Trachia, being nearer to nilagerica. 



180. Plectotropis nutans, Gude. 

Plectotropis nutans, Gude, Proc. Malac. See. London, xi, 1914, 
p. •')5, text-figiu-e. 

Original description : — " Shell depi'essed conoid, rather widely 
and perspectively umbilicated, thin, light corneous under a pale 
yellowish deciduous cuticle, finely and irregularly striated, 
very minutely spirally striated above, the base covered with 
much coarser, incised, slightly Avavy spirals. Spire low, suture 
linear, apex acute. Whorls 5|-o|, increasing slowly and regularly 
at first, the last rather suddenly ; flattened above, the last convex 
below, keeled at the periphery, the keel being rather pinched 
above and below, angulated around the umbilicus, not dilated at 
the mouth, very shortly and slightly descending in front. Aperture 
oblique, subhastate, margins approaching, united by a very thin 
callus on the parietal wall; peristome rather thin, scarcely thickened, 
but distinctly expanded, slightly reflexed ; upper margin sHghtly 
curved, forming an obtuse angle with the outer margin, which is 
also slightly curved, the basal margin strongly curved, slightly 
angulated at the junction with the columellar margin, which is 
almost straight, ascending obliquely, triangularly dilated, but not 
overhanging the umbilicus." {Gude.) 

Major diam. 16-5-17, minor 14-14*5 ; alt. 8 mm. 

Hab. India : Habiang, Garo Hills {Godwin- Austen) ; West 
Khasia, Assam {Beddome). 

* Proc. Malac. Soc. London, v, 1903, p. 278. 



214 HELICID^. 

In shape P. nutans somewhat resembles the var. tlieohaldiana of 
P. tapeina, but the shell is much thinner, the whorls are more 
flattened above and less tumid below, the keel is more pronounced 
and pinched and the aperture quite different. The principal char- 
acter, however, separating it from P. tapeina and its varieties lies in 
the absence of cuticular granules or squamae and in the deciduous 
cuticle. I found specimens in Mr. Leman's collection and in the 
British Museum — both the Blanford and the general collection — 
with the MS. name Trachia nutans, Blf. 





Fig. 83. — Plectotropis nutans. 
(From Proc. Malac. Soc. London.) 

The specimen in the general collection is a trifle larger, 
measuring 18 mm. in diameter, and more solid, while the last 
whorl descends for a considerable distance, but this does not seem 
to me to be a normal feature. Mr. Ponsonby possesses two 
specimens, received from Lt. -Col. Godwin-Austen, labelled "Habi- 
ang, Garo." One of these also measures 18 mm. in diameter and 
it has the aperture more dilated and the basal and columellar 
margins more curved than the other specimens I have seen. 

187. Plectotropis tapeina, Benson. 

Helix tapeina, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 352; ibid., A. M. N. H. 

ix, 1842, p. 486 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, vii, 1852, pi. 125, fig. 750 ; 

PfeifFer, Conch.-Cab.. Helix, iii, 1854, p. 334, pi. 131, figs. 14, 15 ; 

Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 89 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 15, fig. G ; Nevill in Anderson, Zool. Bes. 

Two Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 876. 
Helix Imttoni, var. tapeina, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, 

p. 312. 
Helix {Plectotropis) tapeina, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 74 ; 

Tapparoue Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, ser. 2, vii, 1889, 

p. 324 ; Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 53, pi. 12, 

fig. 71. 
Eidota {Plectotropis) tapeina, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1896, 

p. 209. 

Original description : — " Testa subconoidea, supra convexa, 
subtus tumida ; epidermide minutissime corrugata ; periphseria 
angulata, peristomate non continuo, subreflexo. Umbihco medi- 
ocri, prof undo ; omnes anfractus exhibente." {Benson.) 

"Diam. 0-6 polh [ = 15 mm.]." 



PLEOTOTROPIB. 215 

Hah. India : Silhet (Benson) ; Khasi Hills, Assam {Godwin- 
Austen, StoliczJca) , Cherrapoonjee, Assam (Andei-son) ; Harmutti, 
Dafla Hills {Godiuin- Austen, Stoliczica). Burma: Prome {Fea). 

The species varies considerably in size, specimens from Cherra- 
poonjee, in the writer's possession, sent by a native collector, 
ranging from ll"5-105-6 to 16-o-14"75-9"5 mm. A specimen in 
the Benson collection is abnormally high in the spire, measuring : 
diam. ll'o, alt. 8*75 mm. 

P. topeina has been confused with P. rotatoria, v. d. Busch, a 
Java species, and P. trichotropis, Pfr., a Chinese form. Nevill, in 
fact, records a variety rotatoria, Buchanan (apparently a misprint 
for V. d. Busch), from Bhamo, Manwyne, and Shan Hills near 
Ava, and Assam. P. rotatoria, however, is quite distinct, having 
more flattened whorls, a sharp keel at the periphery, and a deeper 
and wider umbilicus. Tapparoue Canefri recognised that the 
form recorded as var. rotatoria was distinct from that species, and 
he separated the Burmese form, thus named, as P. theobaJdiana. 

Nevill regarded akoivtongensis and rotatoria as doubtfully sepa- 
rable *, thinking the differences might " be merely perhaps 
incidental to individuals, and not even to local races." 

In the same paper (p. 19) he refers some specimens taken by 
Godwin-Austen in the Khasi Hills to P. trichotropis, Pfr., stating 
his belief that one of them is represented by pi. 15, fig. 4, of 
Conch. Ind. 

I do not think this Chinese species occurs in the Indian region, 
and am firmly convinced that Nevill wrongly identified his speci- 
mens. P. tricliotropis, A\hich bears no resemblance to the figure 
quoted, has a more trochoid spire, the whorls are more flattened 
above and the suture is consequently much shallower, while the 
whorls below are much more inflated ; the keel is more pronounced 
and situate higher up, and is, moreover, ornamented with a fringe, 
a feature I have never observed in any of the Assam or Burma 
shells, in however fresh condition. The aperture further diff'ers 
in being less dilated transversely, being in fact almost auriculate, 
and the columellar margin is more oblique and, being straight, it 
forms an obtuse angle with the basal margin. The umbilicus, too, 
although not wider is more open and distinctly angulated. The 
sculpture, finally, is also quite diff"erent in tricliotropis, consisting 
of elongated squamte, both above and below. 

Nevill further mentions a variety suhcatostoma from the Naga 
Hills and Bhamo t, but he gives no description. 

The shell reproduced on plate 15, fig. G, of Conch. Ind. has the 
last whorl descending for some distance below the periphery of 
the penultimate whorl. Although similar forms frequently occur 
I do not consider this typical, the normal form having the last 
whorl abruptly deflexed in front. 



* J. A. S. B. xlvi, 1877, p. 17. 
t Hand List, i, 1878, p. 74. 



216 HELICIO^. 

Var. theobaldiana, Tajyparone Oanefri. 

Helix rotatoria, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxviii, 1859, p. 318 ; Blanford, 

J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 89 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1870, pi. 15, tig. 5 (non H. rotatoria, v. d. Busch). 
Helix (Plectotropis) tapeina, var. rotatoria (Buchanan !), Nevill, 

Hand List, i, 1878, p. 74. 
Helix {Plectotropis) tapeina, var. rotatoria, Trjon, Man. Conch. 

ser. 2, iv, 1888, p. 54, pi. 12, tig. 77. 
Helix {Plectotropis) theobaldiana, Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. 

Civ. Genova, ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 324. 

I have already showu that the form referred to rotatoria by 
Theobald is quite distinct from the Java species. From typical 
tapeina it differs iu having the whorls flattened, and in the 
periphery being sharply keeled as far as the aperture. In size it 
varies considerably like the type, specimens in my possession, 
from Cherrapoonjee, received from a native collector, ranging 
from diam. maj. 11*5, min. 10*5, alt. 6 mm. to 17 : 15 : 8-5 mm. 

JIab. Burma: Teria Ghat {Theobald), Manwyne and Bhamo 
(Anderson), Shan Hills, near Ava (Blanford) ; Upper Irrawaddy 
(Fea). India : Assam (Stoliczka). 

Var. akowtongensis, Theobald. 

Helix akowtongensis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxviii, 1859, p. 306. 
Helix akoiiton(/ensis, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 89; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 15, tig. 4. 
Helix {Plectotropis) tapeina, var. akoutongensis, Nevill, J. A. S. B. 

xlvi, 1877, p. 17; ibid, in Anderson, Zool. Ees. Tvpo Exped. West. 

Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 876 ; ibid.. Hand List, i, 1878, p. 74. 
Helix {Plectotropis) akoivtongensis, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, iv, 

1888, p. 57, pi. 12, tig. 73. 
Eulota {Plectotropis) ahoutonf/ensis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1895, p. 209. 

Diam. 13-5-14-5, alt. 5-5-6-25 mm. 

Hab. Burma : Akovvtong, Pegu, banks of Irrawaddy (Theobald)^ 
Thyet Myo {Blanford), Ava and Tsagain (Anderson). 

Differs from typical tapeina in being more depressed in the 
spire, consequently more widely umbilicated, and in the last 
whorl being more deflexed in front, while the peripheral keel is 
also more acute and the aperture more transverse. The elongated 
granules of the periostracum, moreover, are much more pronounced 
and coarser. 

Var. perplanata, Nevill. 

Helix {Plectotropis) perplanata, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 1877, p. 19 ; 

ibid.. Hand List, i, 1878, p. 73 ; ibid, in Anderson, Zool. Res. Two 

Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 878. 
Helix {A^gista) perplanata, Nevill, J. A. S.B. 1, 1881, p. 133, pi. 5, 

fig. 21. 
Helix {Plectotropis) pei-planata, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 1888, 

p. 57, pi. 13, figs. 49-51. 



PLECTOTROPIS. — ^GISTA. 217 

Eulota (Plectotropis) perplanata, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 
1895, p. 209. 

When first publishing the name, Nevill was undecided whether 
it was a distinct form, a variety of H. trichotropis, or of //. tapeina 
(near var. rotatoria). I have ah'eady stated my reasons for con- 
sidering that neither P. trichotropis nor P. rotatoria occur within 
the limits of the Indian region, and I regard //. perplanata simply 
as a form closely allied to the variety ahoivtongensis, from which it 
may be separated by the larger diameter and the more depressed 
spire. 

Var. bhamoensis, Nevill. 

Helix {Plectotropis) tapeina, yhy. bhamoensis, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 
1877, p. 18 ; ibid., in Anderson, Zool. lies. Two Exped. West. 
Yunnan, 1878, p. 877. 

" Distinguished from typical H. tapeina by the last whorl, which 
is only slightly angular and not distinctly keeled ; the aperture is 
smaller and less produced, while the columellar margin is slightly 
oblique and angular at the base. It is smoother and less depressed 
than the var. rotatoria, with squarer aperture and without the 
acute keel at the periphery. The raised spire and angulate (not 
keeled) periphery agree with those of H. phaijrei; it is, however, 
smoother, less openly umbilicated, with more contracted aperture 
and less developed sculpture than that species. This variety 
connects H. tapeina almost insensibly with H. catosfoma and its 
varieties. Plate 15, fig. 10 of Conch. Ind. is much more like it 
than H. aral-aneiisis." (Nevill.) 

Diam. 12"5, axis 65 mm. 

Ilab. Burma: Bhamo (Anderson). India: Naga Hills (ffocZwin- 
Austen). 

1 have not seen any specimen answering to Nevill's definition 
of this variety, and it is somewhat difficult to understand what he 
means when he states that it differs from tapeina " by the last 
whorl, which is slightly angular and not distinctly keeled," winding 
up with the statement that " plate 15, fig. 10, of Conch. Ind. is 
much more like it than ff. aral-anensis," seeing that the figure 
referred to is distinctly keeled. 

Geuus iEGISTA, von Martens. 

jEgista (Albers), von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 121. 
jEgista, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1S95, p. 210, as section of 
Eulota, pi. 65, fig. 10 (jaw), fig. 9 (radula). 

Type, Helix oculus, Pfeiffer. 

Range. India, Burma, Farther India, Japan, China and 
adjacent islands, south to the Malay Archipelago. 

" Shell depressed and broadly umbilicated, solid, striated ; 
brown, unicolored or with a light peripheral band ; spire low, 
composed of many narrow whorls, the last not keeled, descending 



218 



HELICIDJE. 



in front. Aperture round lunar, oblique, peristome toothless, 
narrowly expanded, somewhat thickened within, reflexed at base, 
ends couveririnof. 

" External anatomy and genitalia unknown. Jaw arcuate, with 
about 6 wide, low, but separated ribs. Radala showing the same 
characters described for Plectotropis, but tlie outer marginals have 
the ectocone bifid. 

" Shells of this section differ from Pledotropis in lacking the 
peripheral keel and in the smoother surface, but there are some 
intermediate species. It has the same geographic range, extend- 
ing northwards to Kiusiu Island, Japan. The jaw of the only 
species examined has fewer ribs than in Plfctotro2ns, but this is not 
likely to prove a constant difference." {Pilshry.) 



188. JEgista phayrei, Theobald. 

Helix pliayrei, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxviii, 1859, p. 306; Blanford, 

J. A. 8. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 90 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1870, pi. 15, tig. 1. 
Helix {Plectotropis) pJiayrei, Nevill in Anderson, Zool. Res. Two 

Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 879 ; Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iv, 1888, p. 55, pi. 12, fig. 78. 
Helix ( Camaena) phayrei^ Pfeiffer <& Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 191. 
Helix (Euhadra) phayrei, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, vi, 1890, 

p. 114, pi. 32, fig. 53. 
Eulota [ALgista) phayrei, Pilsbry, op. cit. ix, 1895, p. 210. 

Original description : — " Testa lenticulari, infundibuliforme-um- 
bilicata, obtuse-carinata, lineis transversis flexuosis et confluenti- 
bus fortiter striata ; anfract. 6, convexiusculis, sutura impressa, 
apertura obliqua, subquadrata. Perist. tenui, reflexinsculo. 

"Diam. 0-68 [ = 17 mm.], alt. 0-30 [=7-75 mm.]." (Theobald.) 

Hah. Burma : between Ava and Prome, banks of Irrawaddy 
{Oldham). 

Three specimens, from Ava, in the late Col. Beddome's collec- 
tion, kindly placed at my disposal by Mr. Leman, its ])re5ent 
owner, enable me to supplement the somewhat meagre original 
description. 

Shell depressed conoid, moderately but deeply umbilicated, 
rather solid, fuscous corneous, coarsely striated and densely 
covered with elongate papillcc, which coincide more or less with 
the striae. Spire depressed, suture rather shallow, apex acute. 
Whorls 5|-6, increasing slowly and regularly, flattened, the last 
convex below, angidated at the periphery and around the um- 
bilicus, slightly dilated towards tlie mouth, not perceptibly 
descending or deflexed in front. Aperture oblique, ovate-circulai', 
margins slightly approaching, united by a thin callus on the 
])arietal wall ; peristome a little thickened and shortly reflexed ; 
upper, outer, and basal margins regularly curved, columellar 
margin forming a slight angle with the basal margin, obliquely 



iEGISTA. 



219 



ascending, triangularly dilated, scarcely reflexed over the um- 
bilicus, which is funiculate and u^.oderately wide, exhibiting the 
whole of the penultimate whorl. Major diam. 15-17, minor 13-5- 



penu 
15 mm. ; alt. 7*25-9 mm 



189. JEgista catostoma, Blanford. 

Helix {Trarhiu) catostoma, Blanford, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 447 ; Haiiley 

& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 56, figs. 2, 3. ^ 
Helix (Plec/otropis) catostoma, Nevill in Anderson, Zool.Hes.Two 

Exped. West. Yunnan, i, 1878, p. 878 ; ibid.. Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 73. 
Helix (Plectotroins [Atgista)) catostoma, Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

iv, 1888, p. 62, pi. 13, figs. 36, 37. . 

Eulota {Plectotropis) catostoma, Pilsbry, IMan. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 

1895, p. 209. 

Original description •.—^' Test^i late umbilicata, depressa, sub- 
discoidea, cornea, tenuis, striata. Spira depresso-convexa, sutura 
leviter impressa. Autr. 7, convexi, arete convoluti, ultimus 
rotundatus, circa urabilicum subcompressus, antice abrupte de- 
flexus, valde descendeus, pone aperturam subconstrictus. Apertura 
fere horizontalis, truncato-ovata ; peristoma album, reflexum, 
antice et postice prope anfractum penultimatum arcuatum, mar- 
ginibus subdistanter convergentibus, callo tenui junctis ; umbilicus 
latissimus pervius." (Blanford.) 

Maj. diam. 16-18, min. 14-5-16, alt. 8-5-9'5 mm. 

Hah. India: Dihing, Khasi Hills ((?oc^m'n-^«s<en) ; Naga Hills 
{Chennell). Burma : Bhamo {Hunger ford). China : Ponsee, 
Yunnan (Anderson). 

Blanford called it a peculiar form, resembling H. oldhami, but 
Avith the mouth somewhat as in ff. nilagirica. In contour it 
certainly somewhat assimilates with the former, but the mouth I 
consider more hke that of atkinsoni. The last whorl suddenly 
and deeply descends in front, the superior margin of the peristome 
is sinuous in outline, projecting forward in the middle. In a 
specimen I received from the late Col. Beddome the base of the 
last whorl is decidedly flattened for a short distance behind the 
peristome and the basal margin is accordingly almost straight, with 
a dentiform callus on the inner side. Mr. Ponsonby possesses a 
similar specimen also received from Col. Beddome, and both agree 
well with the figure in Conch. Ind. in this respect as they do in 
size, the major diameter being only 13-5 mm. The junction of 
the basal and columellar margins forms nearly a right angle and 
the aperture may in fact be called subquadrate. Two specimens 
in the Britisli Museum, however, collected by Hungerford at 
Bhamo, do not possess the flattened base, nor the denticle on the 
basal margin of the peristome, but have the mouth gibbous behind 
tlie peristome. These distinctly show spiral strite below the 
periostracum, regular above and irregular below the periphery, 



220 HELIOID^. 

the peristracum itself bearing elongate papillae. One of these 
specimens measures 18 : 16 : 9*5 mm. and the other 16*5 : 14'5 : 
8'5 mm. 

190. iEgista emensa, Godwin-Austen. 

Helix ( Trachia) e^nensus, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 242. 
Eulota (Plectotropis) emensus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, eer. 2, ix, 1895, 
p. 209. 

Original description : — " Shell subdiscoid, widely umbilicated ; 
sculpture ill-defined irregidar transverse striation ; colour horny 
or pale ochraceous ; spire subconoid, apex blunt ; suture shallow ; 
whorls 7, regular, flat, closely wound, the last descending 





Fig. 84. — Mgista emensa. 

suddenly, subangulate on periphery ; aperture nearly circular, 
oblique ; peristome much reflected below, the margins joined by 
callus on body-whorl. 

" Size : maj. diam. 13'5, min. 11-8, alt. axis 4*8 mm." (Godivin- 
Austen.) 

Hah. Burma : Hlindet (Spratt). 

" This species belongs to the A^dely distributed group in this 
part of India represented by II. nJcoutongensis, oldhami, etc. This 
form is much smaller, and differs sufficiently from all the species 
I know." 

The present species is allied to P. catostoma, but the last whorl 
is less deflexed in front and keeled at the periphery instead ot* 
angulated, the upper portion being slightly impressed above the 
keel. It further differs from that species by the umbilicus being 
not quite so infundibuliform and a little wider, showing more of 
the penultimate whorl. The periostracum is papillate. 

The above figures have been prepared from the type in the 
British Museum. 

191. .ffigista clara, Godwin- Austen. 

Helix {Trachia) clartis, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 242. 
Euloin {Plectotropis) clarus^ Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, 
p. 209. 

Original description : — " Shell subdiscoid, openly umbilicated ; 
sculpture irregular, close transverse striation ; colour white (but 
both specimens are bleached) ; spire depressedly conical, apex 
rounded ; suture shallow ; whorls 5, flat subangulate on periphery, 
the last slightly descending; aperture oval, very oblique; peri- 
stome thin, slightly reflected. 



^aisTA. 221 

" Size : maj. diam. 9-5, niiu. 8*5, alt. axis 4 mm." (Godwin- 
Austen.) 

Hah. Burma : Hlindet {S2)raU). 

"This species belongs to the Ileliv huttoni group of shells, but 
is quite distinct, especially in the sliape of the aperture." 

A specimen in my collection is distinctly papillate and pale 






Fig. 85. — Mgista clara. 

corneous. It has a peripheral keel slightly impressed above and 
below and is subangulated around the wide open umbilicus. It is, 
moreover, a trifle larger than the type, measuring 10 mm. in 
diameter. 

The above figures have been prepared from the type in the 
British Museum. 

192. Mgista mitanensis, Gochvin-Austen. 

Helix (yEffista) mitanensis, Godwin- Austen, A. M. N. H. ser. 6, iii, 

1889, p. 108. 
Helix {Aiqista) mitanensis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, viii, 1893, 

p. 195. ■ 
Eulota (Flectotropts) mitanensis, Pilsbry, op. cit. ix, 1895, p. 209. 

Original description : — " Shell globosely pj^ramidal, openly um- 
bilicated ; sculpture smooth, the shell covered with a thick 
epidermis, having a finely papillate structure ; colour dark olive- 
green or pale umber ; spire conic, high, apex blunt ; suture 
impressed ; whorls 6, rather convex and rounded below, the last 
descending abruptly at the aperture ; aperture circular ; peristome 
strong, white, with a sinuate margin above; columellar margin 
oblique." 

"■ Diam. maj. 10-9 ; min. 9'-l ; alt. axis 6-7 ; body-whorl 0'2 mm." 

Hab. Burma : Mitan, under Mouleyit Eange, Moulmein 
(Limborg). 

" Animal with dark tentacles, long and fine ; body papillate 
near the head, pale, dusky on the upper surface ; foot sliort 
behind and pointed. In some specimens the head and tentacles 
were jet-black, the rest of the body pale indigo." {Godwin- 
Austen.) 



193. .ffigista congener, Preston 

A^ffista congener, Prestou, Pi 
text-figure. 

Original description : — " Shell differing from Helix catostoma in 



Mgista congener, Prestou, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, xi, 1914, p. 20, 
text-fiffure. 



222 HELICID^. 

its more exserted spire and niuch narrower umbilicus, and in the 
shape of the aperture, which is much more open and circular in 
that species." (Preston.) 

"Major diain. 12, min. 10 mm. ; alt. 10 mm, Apert. alt. 4*25, 
diam, 3-5 mm. (type)." 

Sab. India : Naga Hills. 

" The series of this shell which I have before me varies con- 
siderably in diameter." {Preston.) 

The foregoing meagre description may be supplemented from 
the type in the British Museum as follows :— 

Shell depressed trochoid, light corneous, finely and rather 
regularly striated, the upper side in places covered with excessively 
minute spiral strife, more distinct on the lower side. Apex 
obtuse, spire depressed, suture deep. AVhorls 6, increasing 
slowly and regularly, slightly convex, obscurely angulated at the 
periphery, somewhat flattened below and obscurely angulated 
around the umbilicus, last whorl dilated towards the mouth, 
shortly descending in front. Aperture ovate-rotundate, oblique, 
peristome white, slightly thickened, shortly reflexed ; margins 
approaching, columellar slightly dilated. IJrabilicus wide, per- 
spective. 

jEgista mitanensis is proportionately much higher in the axis 
and the umbilicus, consequently, is more contracted ; it has the 
periphery keeled and is darker in colour. The measurements of the 
type of j'Egista congener, including the peristome, are as follows : — 
major diam. 11, minor 10, alt. 6 mm. 



194. ^gista coeni, Preston. 

jEgista coeni, Preston, Proc. Malac. See. Loudon, xi, 1914, p. 19, 
text-figure. 

Original description : — " Shell broadly turbinate, dark I'eddish 
brown ; whorls G, regularly increasing, not very convex, marked 
with closely-set, oblique growth striae ; base of shell also marked 
with lines of growth and very finely spirally striate ; suture well 
marked ; umbilicus wide and deep ; columella whitish, diaphanous, 
rather broadly expanded above, obliquely descending ; labrum not 
thickened, narrowly refl.exed ; aperture obliquely subcircular." 
{Preston.) 

]Maj. diam. 9*5, min. 8"25 mm. ; alt. 6 mm. 

Ifah. India : Naga Hills. 



Genus VALLONIA, Risso. 

F«Zfo«2ii,Risso, Hist. Nat. Eurnpem^rid.iv, 1826, p, 101; Westerhmd, 
Fauna Palaarct. Binnenconch. i, 1889, pp. 2, 14 ; Sterki, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1893, p. 234 (jaw and dentition) ; 



VALLONIA. 



223 



ibid., Man. Conch, ser. 2, viii, 1893, p. 247 ; Pilsbry, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, ix, 1895, p. 282, pi. 70, fig. 29 (jaw), fi-. 38 

(radula), ph (j3, tigs. 9, 10 (genitalia). 
Luccna, Hartmanu iu Sturm, IJeutschlands Fauna, vi, part 6, 1821, 

p. 40 (lion Oken, 1815) ; Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Nat. Moll. 

France, ii, 1856, p. 140. 
Ample.cis, Brown, 111. Conch. Great Britain, 1827, expl. pi. 41 ; 

Amplexits, ibid., ed. 2, 1844, p. 45. 
Zurama (Leach), Turton, Man. 1831, p. 64. 
Chilostoma (partiin), Fitzinger, Beitr. Landesk. Oesterreichs, iii, 

1833, p. 98. 
Cirdnaria (partim), Beck, Index Moll. 1838, p. 23. 
Glaphyra (partim), Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 87. 

Type, Beliv pulchella, Miiller. 

Bange. ISTortb America south to Texas ; Japan, China, India ; 
Europe, Northern Africa, and Atlantic Islands. 

" iShell minute, openly and ividely umh'dicate, depressed, the 
spire low-convex, consisting of 3-4| whorls, color light and 
uniform; surface smooth or ribbed; periphery rounded; last 
whorl usually descending in front. Aperture oblique, circular or 
short-oval ; peristome continuous or nearly so, expanded or rejiexed, 
often thickened within. 

" Foot small, short, wnth no pedal grooves ; edge of sole some- 
what crenulated; sole undivided; eye-peduncles cylindrical, not 
enlarged distally : tentacles short ; labial lobes well developed. 

'■ Jaw arcuate, with a slight median projection or none, sculp- 
tured with numerous (18 to 25) crowded, low riblets, denticulating 
the margins, 

" Kadula having 23 to 33 teeth in a transverse row. Median 
teeth decidedly narrower than laterals, tricuspid, the mesocone not 
half as lony as hasal plate, side cusps smaller. Laterals with large 
square basal plates, the mesocone extending to its edge, ectocone 
small. Marginal teeth wide and low, multicuspid. 

" Grenitalia having the penis short, with terminal retractor ; 
epiphallus short, bearing a iiagellum. Dart sack present, single, 
contiiiuing a straight, bladeless dart. No mucus glands. Duct 
of spermatheca long, branchless." {Pilshry.) 



195 Vallonia pulcheUa, Mailer. 

Melix /ji</t7u'Z/«, Miiller, Term. Terr. Fluv. Hist, ii, 1774, p. 30; 

Rossniassler, Iconogr. ii, 1838, fig. 440; Binnev, Boston Journ. 

Nat. Hist, iii, 1840, p. 375, pi. 9, fig. 2 ; ibid., Terr. Moll. 

United States, i, 1851, pi. 9, figs. 7-9 (anatomy), iii, 1857, pi. 17, 

fig. 1 (shell) ; Lehmann, Leb. Schnecken Stettins, 1873, p. 90, 

pi. 11, fig. 30 (anatomy). 
Helix {Aniplexis) 2f(ihidosus, Brown, 111. Conch. 1827, pi. 41, 

fiss. 76, 77. 
Helix (Amplexits) pulchella, Brown, 111. Conch, ed. 2, 1844, p. 46, 

pi. 14. tigs. 76, 77. 
Helix {Glaphyra) pulchella, Albers, Hie Heliceen, 1850, p. 87. 



224 HELIOIDiE. 

Helix ( Vallonia) pnlcMla, Yon Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 
p. 101 ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 75. 

Vallonia pulchella, W. G. Binney, Terr. Moll. United States, v, 
1878, p. 344, pi. 17, fig. 1 ; Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, 
p. 144 ; Stevki, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1893, p. 246, 
pi. 8, figs. A, G (radula), H, I, K, L (jaw) ; ibid., Man. Conch, 
ser. 2, viii, 1893, p. 248, pi. 32, figs. 1-6 ; Pilsbry, op. cit. ix, 
1895, p. 283, pi. 55, figs. 31, 32. 

Original description: — "Helix testa umbilicata, subdepressa, 
alba, glabra, apertura circinnata ; labro tereti, reflexo. 

" Testa tota alba, glabra, subpellucida, supra planiuscula, subtus 
aliquantum couvexa. Vertex testae, dum limax earn inhabitat, 
luteolus. Anfractus vix quatuor, subtus uuicus, Apertura fere 
circularis, limbo elevato, tereti, reflexo. Teste quidem striata est, 
at strise nncroscopio tantum visibilis." (3IuUer.) 

The above cursory description has been supplemented by Sterki 
in his admirable and exhaustive treatment of the genus Vallonia 
as follows : — 

" Moderately iimbilicated, more widely for the last half whorl ; 
convex or depressed conic above ; straiu colored, transparent, 
withjine and dense stria; which are more regular at the suture and 
umbilicus ; smooth at the nucleus ; whorls 3-|-4, rather rapidly 
increasing, vith a moderately deep suture, the last comparatively 
large, well rounded, little expanded towards the aperture, not 
descending in front, or slightly so at the suture. Aperture 
moderately oblique and inclined, forming five-sixths of a circle; 
2)eristome abruptly everted, with a strong ivliite lip, thinner at 
either end." 

Greater diam. 2*4, lesser 2 ; alt. 1-2 mm. 

Hah. Circumboreal Europe ; IVorthern and Eastern Asia, as far 
south as Kashmir; jNTorthern Africa; the Azores and Madeira; 
greater part of North America. 

" The last whorl is slightly ascending or descending in front, in 
a good part of the specimens. Sometimes the shell is whitish, 
milky-opaque, in living examples ; this seems to be a local varia- 
tion,' as all the specimens in certain places show this peculiarity. 
The size of the shell varies from 2-1 to 2-7 greater diam., 2-4 
being the average. 

" Jaw rather strongly curved, with obtuse ends ; no median 
projection on the cutting edge, which is denticulated, corresponding 
to the 10-20 rather sharp, longitudinal ribs, quite irregular in 
size, course, and distribution, but wanting at the side ends of the 
jaw. The radula has 65-68 transverse ro\vs of 27 teeth; of the 
five laterals the fifth has a small plate and the ectodont double 
pointed." 

There is nothing to be added to this excellent account. I have 
refrained from giving the complete bibliography of the species, 
or the whole synonymy, as this would not serve any useful 
purpose. 



TALLOXIA. 225 

196. Vallonia costata, Mailer. 

Helix costata, Miiller, Verm. Terr. Fluv. Hist, ii, 1774, p. 30; 

Rossmjissler, Iconofjr. ii, 1888, tig:. 4o9 ; Chenu, Man. Conchyl. 

i, part 2, 1860, p. 4o2, tig. 3868. 
Helii- (A'lnjjlexis) crenelles, ]h'o\\n, 111. Conch. 1821, pi. 41, figs. 78, 

79. 
Helix {Amplextts) erenella, ibid., ed. 2,' 1844, p. 45, pi. 14, fi<?s. 78, 

79. 
Heliv {Gluphyrn) costata, Albers, Die lleliceen, 1850, p. 87. 
Helix ( Vallonia) puJcheUa, var. costata, von Marten.s, Die lleliceen, 

ed. 2, 1800, p. 101 ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 75. 
Vallonia costata, Theobald, .1. A. 8. B. xlvii, 187b, p. 144 ; Sterlci, 

Proc. Ac;id. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 189.8, p. 259, pi. 8, tig. C 

(radula), N (jaw); ibid., Man. Conch, ser. 2, viii, 1893, p. 252, 

pi. 32, tigs. 18-22, 27, pi. 33, fig. 54. 

Oritjinal description : — " Helix testa subdepressa, umbilicata, 
cinerea ; spiris costatis ; apertura circulari ; labro albo reflexo. 

" Testa convexiiiscula, opaca, supra fuscescens, subtus pallida. 
Anfracius quatuor externa costati, sive plicis transversis armati ; 
in niajori anf ractii triginta mimeravi ; hie subtus glaber est. 
Apertura circularis ; vix duodecima peripherige pars ab anfractu 
o])i)Osito interseeatur, cum in antecedente fere quarta. Costa?, si 
testa lutnini obvertatur, in sola apertura transparent. Labrtmi 
album, planum, reflexum.'' (Miiller.) 

" Moderately uinbilicated, more widely so for the last half 
wliorl, depressed convex above, or nearly flat ; greyish to light or 
reddish horn colored, with rather regularly set memhranous ribs 
and finer striie bet\^een them ; nucleus with tine revolving lines. 
AVhorls 3.7, slightly flattened above and below the periphery, at 
the circumference soir.e\Aliat angular, with a dee/) suture, rather 
rapidly increasing ; the last whorl expanding to the aperture 
shortly and modeiately descendiiu/ in front, more so at the suture 
than on the back. Aperture rather oblique and inclined, almost 
circular, a little flattened above, ends of margin much approximat- 
ing, slightly protracted and auricled, connected by a thin callus ; 
peristome strowjhj and abruptly everted, with a stronr/ white lip." 

Greater diain. 25, lesser 2"1, alt. 1-1 mm. 

Hab. Circumboreal Europe ; Northern and Eastern Asia, as 
far south as Kashmir ; Northern Africa ; greater part of North 
America. 

" Jaw rather curved. Kadula with (59-72 transverse rows of 
27 or 29 teeth ; 5 perfect laterals, on wliich the cusps are com- 
paratively small, especially the ectodonts. On the marginals the 
(3-7 cusps stand immediately on the plate, not on a common 
base. 

" V. costata has, by most authors, been regarded as a variety of 
pidchella ; but it is sufliciently different to be distinguished at first 
sight ; the less elevated spire, with the deeper suture, the whorls 
not so well rounded, the last descending in front, the more oblique 
and more circular aperture with approximate margins, characterize 

Q 



226 HELICID^. 

quite a different shell, even if we omit mention of the most 
conspicuous feature of fresh specimens, the membranous ribs, 
which this species has in common with a number of other forms 
of this group and the next [group of F. cyclophovella]. Between 
each pair of these ribs are 3 to 6 fiuer strife ; and under the 
microscope very fine lines are seen, nearly parallel to the lines of 
growth at the suture, while on the periphery they are variously 
intercrossing. The nucleus, or embryoual whorls, bear a number 
of microscopic revolving lines, in this as well as in the other species 
of this group. 

" F. costata is rather variable. The largest measure 2*7, the 
smallest 2'1 mm. greater diameter. Always the sutural part of 
the last whorl descends more to tlie aperture tlian the back or 
peripheral part of the whorl, and sometimes the latter keeps 
exactly in the horizontal direction to the very margin of the lip. 
The number of ribs was found to be from 23-35 in the type. 
Some forms differ so much that they are to be considered varieties." 
{Sterki.) 



197. Vallonia ladakensis, Nevill. 

Helix ( Vallonia) ladacensis, Nevill, Scient. Results Second Yarkaud 

Mission, Mollusca, 1878, p. 4 ; von Martens, M^m. Acad. Imp. 

Sci. St. Petersburg, ser. 7, xxx, no. 11, 1882, p. 3, pi. 3, fig. 3. 
Helix ( Vallonia) pulchella, var. ladakensis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 75. 
Vallonia ladacensis, Sterki, Man. Conch, ser. 2, viii, 1893, p. 260, 

pi. 56, figs. 19-21; Mollendorf=f, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. 

Sci. St. Petersburg, iv, 1899, p. 142. 

Original description : — " I have long separated this form, which 
can be distinguished from all the varieties of H. costata at a glance 
by its much more open umbilicus, at least half as open again ; it 
is a much larger shell than typical H. costata, about the same size 
(a trifle larger) as the above described var. asiatica ; the sculpture 
is finer, closer together, and more beautifully regular ; the spire 
is flatter, the suture more excavated ; the base is scarcely, if at 
all, subangulate near the umbilicus, as it is in so marked a way in 
the preceding ; one of the best characteristics of H. ladacensis is 
the considerably higher and more expanded aperture with a cor- 
responding less oblique columella ; the umbilicus is so much more 
open that the whorls within can be clearly traced up to the apex 
itself." (Nevill.) 

Diam. 3^, alt. Ik mm. 

Hab. India : Kashmir, Mataian, Dras Valley, Ladak (StoUczlri), 
Leh, Ladak (StoliczJca) ; Spiti, Punjab {Stoliczka). W. Tibet 
(Sioliczka), Turkestan : Tian-shan Mountains {Potanin). 



VALLONIA. 



227 



198. Vallonia miserrima, Gmle. 

Vallonia miserrhna, Glide, Proc. Make, Soc. London, vii, 1907, 
p. 307, text-figures. 

Orirjinal description : — •' Shell widely umbilicated, depi'essed 
turbiuate, greyish white, translucent^ nepionic whorls smooth, 
the remainder finely and closely ribbed. Spire depressed, apex 
obtuse, suture deep. Whorls nearly 4, tumid, not sloping towards 
the umbilicus, increasing regularly, except the last quarter whorl, 
which widens suddenly, descending deeply in front and dilated 
behind the peristome. Aperture obovate, oblique ; margins con- 
vergent, united by a thin callus on the parietal wall ; peristome 
thin, slightly expanded and reflexed ; margins evenly rounded, 





Fig. 86. — Vallonia riiiserrima. (From Proc. Malac. Soc. London.) 

columellar margin triangularly dilated and impinging upon the 
wide open umbilicus." (Gude.) 

Diam. major 3, min. 2-5 mm. 

JIab. India : Anamullay Hills (Beddome). 

This form is allied to V. ladaA-ensis, Nevill, but it is more 
excentric than that species, and the last whorl descends more 
deeply in front, the whorls are more tumid, the body-whorl is 
more compressed, the suture deeper, and the last quarter whorl 
is more dilated, while the umbilicus is more open and the colu- 
mellar margin more dilated. 

The shells from which this species was described were collected 
by the late Col. Beddome in the early sixties of last century in 
the interior of the Anamullay Hills, at an elevation of about 
.'3000 feet. When in 1907 he handed the shells to me for 
description, he informed me that no European had visited the 
locality previously. jSTo Vallonia had at that time been recorded 
so far south in Asia, and the occurrence in Southern India of a 
species belonging to so typically palaearctic and nearctic a genus 
is somewhat disconcerting, especially since, in view of the fact 
that Beddome was the first European to visit the locality, the 
possibility of its introduction with plants is excluded. 



q2 



228 enidjE, 



Family ENID^. 

Genus ENA, Tvrton. 

Una (Leach MS.), Turton, Manual, 1831, p. 80: Gray, in Turton, 
Man. Ed. n. 1840, p. 181. 

Bulimina, Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. Auim. Evert, ser. 1, Moll. 
1831 ; decas prima, signature d. fourth page (non JBulimina, 
D'Orbigny, 1826). 

Buliminus, 13eok, Index Mollusc. 1839, p. 68 ; von Martens, Die 
Ileliceen, ed. 2. I860, p. 228; Lebmann, Leb. Schn. Stettins, 
1873, p. 130: Hesse, Jahrb. Deuts. Malak. Ges. xii, 1885, p. 48 
(anatomy): Westerlund, Fauna Palaarct. iii, 1887, p. 1; von 
Martens, Bescb. Weicbtb. Deutscb-Ost-Afrikas, 1897, p. 59 ; 
Jacobi, Journ. Coll. Sci. Tokyo, xii, 1898, p. 76, pi. 6, figs. 113- 
115 (anatomy); Wiegmann, Ann. Mus. Zool. St. Petersburg, vi, 
1901, p. 220 '(anatomy) ; Beck, Jenaische Zeit. Nat. xlviii, 1912, 
p. 187 (anatomy). 

Type, Bulimus montanus, Di'aparnaud. 

Range. Europe, Africa, Continental Asia. 

Shell perforate, from shortly ovate and ovate-conoid to fusiform- 
cylindrical. Aperture elongate, generally equalling ^ or ;| of the 
total height ; peristome simple or thickened, straight, expanded, 
or reflexed, the margins usually connected by a thin callus, with 
or without a denticle near the upper margin ; columellar margin 
straight. 

Animal (E. ohscura) elongate-ovate, scarcely attenuated in 
front, almost truncate, tail elongate, pointed ; greyish-yellow, 
A^ith dark grey head, back, and tentacles ; the latter frequently 
giving off two dark stripes which run along the back. 

Jaw semicircular, slightly curved, with about 20 fine ribs 
denticulating the margins. Eadula leaf -like anteriorly, attenuated 
posteriorly, bearing 50 longitudinal and 125 transverse rows of 
teeth. Middle tooth smaller than the laterals, M'ith square basal 
plate and hooked middle cusp, which is sharp, conical, simple. 
Laterals with a pointed base and one or two short side cusps. 

Genitalia : the hermaphrodite gland is of the usual form, the 
long chain-like ovisperm duct connecting it with the uterus, from 
the base of which the vas deferens proceeds to the penis. The 
penis is of peculiar shape, its lower portion being attenuated 
towards the cloaca, and becoming dilated distally; the latter short, 
stout portion divides into two branches, the one proceeding up- 
wards at a right angle, when it suddenly becomes twisted and, 
forming another right angle, continues in a horizontal direction, 
terminating in a rounded bulb, the latter receives the vas deferens. 
The rather long retractor muscle is attached to the lower part of 
the vertical portion. The other branch at first proceeds in the 
same direction, then curves upwards at an obtuse angle, decreasing 



EN A. 229 

in size and becoming filiform, undulating, and terminating in a 
curved, thin, long and club-shaped flagellum. The albumen gland 
is elongate, lingulate ; the uterus broad, strongly wrinkled, the 
vagina in length almost equalling the uterus. The vagina 
branches above the penis, but on the other side, into the 
sperraatheca duct, which is moderately, long and strong, equalling 
the vagina in length and terminating in the spermatheca. 
(Lehmann.) 

Jacobi, in his paper entitled " Japanische Besclialte Pulmo- 
naten"*, when dealing with the Japanese Biiliniinus reiniamis, 
Kobelt — referred to the subgenias Mines by Mollendorfi: — alludes 
to the fact that Lehmann had already drawn attention to the 
presence in Baliniinus [^Ena'] ohscurus of a peculiar organ — the 
appendix — proceeding from the penis close to the atrium. In 
reiniamis this organ is also present but possesses some special 
characters. AVhile having the same diameter and possessing 
equally solid walls as in obscwus, it is here only one-third its 
length, while at its apex, after suddenly becoming attenuated it 
is produced into an enormous flagellum equalling in length the 
whole genital apparatus and slightly swollen at the extremity. 
The appendix proper, near its contracted portion, is covered 
internally with a mucous membrane, invested with an epithelium. 
A little below this a powerful retractor muscle is attached. From 
various considerations Jacobi comes to the astounding conclusion 
that this organ is homologovi.s to a second penis. AVhile admitting 
that cases of duplication of the sexual organs are unknown in 
Mollusca, he refers to the presence of a double penis in many 
snakes ! A far more rational interpretation of this organ is 
provided by Dr. Simroth, in a footnote on page 82 of Jacobi's 
paper, where he suggests that it is a dart sac with dart glands and 
retractor muscle, but without dart, as it is known to occur in 
Urocijclus and Parmarlon. 

The Indian species of Ena have a somewhat remarkable distri- 
bution and those referred to the subgenera Suhzebrinus and Serina 
at least must, I think, be regarded as immigrants from the 
Pala3arctic region; the former, numbering eighteen species, show 
a close affinity with Afghan, Turkestan, and Tibetan forms, while 
the latter, comprising only five species, are probably more nearly 
related to Chinese members of the group. Both subgenera are 
confined to the uortli-western portion of India. The subgenus 
31in(s, on the other hand, has three species in Ceylon, and two 
occurring both in South(!rn India and Assam, one of the latter 
having also been recorded from the Shan States, while only two 
have been described from Xorth-AV'estern India. To judge from 
its distribution this subgenus must therefore be regarded as 
endemic. 



* Joiirn. Coll. Sci., Tokyo, xii, 1898, p. 76. 



230 ENiD^. 

None of the Indian species appears to have had its anatomy 
investigated and their reference to these three subgenera is, there- 
fore, based purely on conchological grounds. 

It is somewhat surprising to find that many continental 
raalacologists continue to use the name Btdimimis for the genus 
in spite of the fact that as far back as 1903 Mr. B. B. Woodward 
had pointed out * that this name is preoccupied and that Una 
must be adopted in its stead. The only exception to this, to 
my knowledge, appears to be l)r. J. Thiele. Kobelt in 1900 
and Mollendorff in 1902, indeed, have already used the name Ena 
but only in its restricted sense, i. e. for the group of montanus 
for which in 1850 Albers proposed Merdigerus. 

Sugenus MIRUS, Alters. 

Minis, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 184 (as section oi Bulimus) ; 
Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, p. 165 ; Cheuu, Man. Conchyl. 
i, 1860, p. 442 (as subgenus of Chomhiis) ; Mollendoiff, Aun. 
Mas. Zool. St. Petersburg, vi, 1902, p. 314 ; Kobelt & Mollendorff, 
Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 55 (as subgenus of 
Buliminus). 

Type, Bulimus cantori, Philippi. 

Eange. Central Asia, India, China. 

Shell riraateiy perforate, subcylindrical, or convexly-cylindrical, 
last whorl anteriorly slightly ascending; columella arcuate, 
aperture ovate ; peristome expanded, callused within, the margins, 
united by a more or less thick callus, with or without a denticle 
near the upper margin. 

Anatomy unknown. 

199. Ena ceratina, Keeve. 

Bulimns cevatinus (Benson), Keeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Bulimus, 

pi. 77, tig. 569 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. llelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 352 ; 

ibid.. Couch. -Cab., Bulimus, 1853, p. 77, pi. 21, tigs. 6, 7. 
Bulimus (Lna) ceratimis, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 153. 
Bulimus ca-lehs, var. ceratina, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1874, pi. 80, tig. 2. 
Buliminus {Petraeus) coelebs, var. ceratina, Nevill, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 134. 
Bulimina {Ena) ceratina, Pfeift'er & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv, 

1881, p. 289. 

Onginal description : — " Shell acuminately oblong, thin, com- 
pressly umbilicated, whorls six to seven in number, convex, some- 
what obscurely irregularly striated in a grooved manner, columella 
broadly vertically reflected, aperture rather small, nearly orbicular; 
transparent horny." {Reeve.) 

Long. 14, diam. 7 mm, {ex icon.). 

* Journ, Concliol. x, 1903, p, 358. 



ENA. 231 

Hah. India : Almorah, Kumaon, N.W. Prov. {Boys). 

This species is allied to E. nilar/irica, Pieiifer, but is considerably 
smallei' in size with a more conoid spire and a smaller aperture. 
The Theobald collection comprises specimens measuring 14 x 5-5 
mm. and 12-5 X 6-2.5 mm,, the former being marked with transverse 
hydrophanous streaks. 

200. Ena nilagirica, Pfeiffer. 

Bulimus nilayiricus, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 41 ; ibid., Mon. 
Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 119; Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1848, 

Bulimus, pi. 46, tig. 291 {nilayaricus) ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. 

XXXV, 18G6, p. o8 ; ibid., xxxix, 1870, p. 24 ; Theobald, torn. cit. 

p. 395; Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 317. 
Bulimulus {Ena) nilagiricus, Adams, Geu. Pee. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 160. 
Bulimus {Una) nilagiricus, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 153. 
Buliminus {Petraeus) nilaf/iricus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 135. 
Bulimina {Eiia) nilagirica, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 291. 
Buliminus {Subzehrinus) nilagiricus, Kobelt, Conch. -Cab., Fam. 

Buliminidae, 1902, p. 950, pi. 133, fig. 5. 

Original descriiiition : — "Bui. testa rimato-perforata, oblongo- 
turrita, solida, opaca, lineis impressis confertissimis subundulatis 
obsolete sculpta, fusca, albido oblique strigata ; spira regulariter 
turrita, apice obtusiusoulo ; anfractibus 8 vix convexiusculis, 
ultimo 1 longitudinis suba?quante, basi subcompresso ; apertura 
ovali ; peristomate expanso, late albo-labiato, margine dextro 
superne subangulato, columellari usque ad basin dilatato, 
patente. 

" Long. 28|,[?] diaui. 8 mm." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Nilgiris, Anamullays (Blanford) ; Khasi Hills, 
Dafla Hills {Godivin- Austen) -., 8hau States {Theobald); Pulney 
Hills {Fairhanlc). 

Xevill, in Hand List, i, p. 135, enumerates, but does not 
describe, two varieties — elongata and indneyana. 

The shell figured as niluriiricus in Conch. Iiid. does not pertain 
to Pfeitt'er's species and has been separated by Kobelt as 
B. hanleyanus. 

The length indicated by Pfeiffer in the original description — 
28| mm. — is probably a misprint for 18|, since of three specimens 
from the Cuming collection, mounted on a tablet which bears a 
label in Pfeiffer's writing, two measure 19-5x8 mm. and the 
third is 17'5 mm. long with a diameter of G mm. They are 
marked with some transverse, whitish, diaphanous streaks and 
bear very close, incised, wavy spirals, two features not mentioned 
in the diagnosis. In the Beddome collection are some shells 
ranging from 10-25 x 6-25 to 15 x mm. 

E. nilagirica differs from E. ceratina in having a more slender 
spire, and a greater number of whorls; the aperture is less dilated, 
and the upper and outer margins of the peristome are less curved. 



232 ENID^. 



201. Ena proletaria, Pfeifer. 

Bultmus proktarius, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 292 ; ibid., Mon. 

Helic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 417 ; Ilanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1874, pi. 80, fig. 3. 
Bulimus {Ena) proletarius, Pfeitfer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1850, 

p. 158. 
Bulimus {Ena) proletarius, NeviU, Enum. Helic. Ceylon, 1871, 

Buliminus (Petraeus) proletarius, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 135. 
Bulimina {Ena) proletaria, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 289. 
Eiia ]iroletaria, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, iv, 1894, 

p. 297. 
5?«/»«jw»5(^w«);jro/eteym.s,Kobelt, Conch.-Cab.,Fam.Buliminidae, 

1900, p. 673, pi. 102, tig. 16. 

Original description : — " B. testa compresse umbilicata, oblongo- 
turrita, soliduln, subleute minutissirae graiiulata, nitidula, corneo- 
fusca ; spira elongata, obtusula ; anfract. 7, couvexis, ultimo 5 
longitudinis vix superante, antice subasceudente, basi subcom- 
presso ; apertura vix obliqua, obloiiga ; perist. albo-Iabiata, 
inarginibus approximatis, dextro expauso, superne perarcuato, 
columellari dihitato, patente. 

" Long. 15, diain. 6 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Ceylou : Matelle East {Layard) • Bintenue (Coll. 
Ponsonby). 

E. proletaria is allied to E. nilagirlca and E. hanleyana, but has 
the whorls more tumid than either, the spire is less convex and 
the spiral lines are a little coarser and not quite so close. The 
single specimen I have seen is in the Cuming collection, in all 
probability the type. 



202. Ena hanleyana, Kohelt. 

Bulimus nilagiricus, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 23, 
tig. 3 (not B. nilagiricus, Pfeitier) ; Molleud ovfF coll., ex 
Beddome. 

Buliminus (Ena) lumlcyanus, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 
minidae, 1902, p. 931, pi. 131, tigs. 3-5. 

Original description : — " Testa rimato-perforata, ovato-conica, 
solidula, sat ruditer oblique striata vel costellato-striata, obsolet- 
issime granulata, baud nitida, sub-epidermide fusca decidua albido- 
cornea. iSpira conica, lateribus vix convesiusculis, apice obtuso, 
laevi, nitido. Anfractus 7-7i convexiuscuii, sutura imjiressa inter 
inferos subcrenulata discreti, ultimus postice ^ altitudinis parum 
superans, basi rotundatus, subcompressus, antice ascendens. 
Apertura irregulariter ovata, alata, intus albido-cornea ; peristoma 
acutum, expansum sed baud reflexum, marginibus subparallelis, 
distantibus, baud junctis, externo supra tautum oblique versus 



BNA. 



233 



axiu protracto, dein vix iircuato, basali cum columellari brevi 
triangiilari patente, intus obsolete plicit'ero aiigulum fonnunte. 

*' Alt. Ifro, diaui. T'o, alt, ap. 0, lat. 5 mill.' (KoUJt.) 

Bab. India: ^i\g\v\s (Beddome). 

This species is based upon specimens in tlie Mollendorff col- 
lection, received as E. nilagirica from the late Col. Beddonie. The 
figure in Conch. Ind., supposed to represent that species, and 
copied by Kobelt, is also ret'ei-red to it. In looking through the 
Beddome collection, by kind permission of Mr. Leman its present 
owner, 1 found a box with several specimens labelled nilar/inca, 
seven of which agree with Jianleydva and range in size between 
14x7 and 12-25x7 mm. The Theobald collection also yielded 
two shells of this form from the Nilgiris, the larger measuring 
15 X 6-5 and the smaller 13-75 x 5 mm. 

E. hcmhi/ana differs from nilar/irica principally in the shorter 
spire and broader base, the fewer whorls, and relatively larger 
aperture ; the umbilicus is also more open, but it agrees in being 
similarly provided with close incised spirals, more or less obsolete 
in places. 

203. Ena stalix, Benson. 

BulimuK stalix, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 322; 

rfeifier, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 61 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Iiid. 1870, pi. 22, fig\ 3. 
Bidimus 
Buliminus 
Bidimina (Ena) stalix, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Aomenci. lleUc. Viv. 

1881, p. 289. 
Ena stalir, Jousseaume, Mom. Soe. Zool. France, vu, 1894, 

p. 297. 
Buliminus {Ena) stalix, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buhmmidae, 

1900, p. 673, pi. 102, fig. 15. 
Buliminus (Subzebrinus) stalix, Kobelt & Mollendorff, Nachr. 

Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 49. 

Original description: — " B. testa rimato- perforata, oblongo- 
conica, solidiuscula, oblique irregulariter plicatulato-striata, 
epidermide spiraliter confertissime striulata, castanea, strigis 
obliquis, sutura, basi apiceque albidis ; spira elongato-conica, apice 
obtusiusculo, sutura impressiuscula, nonnuuquam marginata ; 
anfractibus 7, convexiusculis, ultimo ad basin compressiusculo, 
antice vix ascendente ; apertura subobliqua, anguste pyriformi, 
intus castanea, peristomate sensim dilatato, vix reflexiusculo, 
albido, marginibus i-emotis, non conniventibus, columellari lato, 
callo obliquo superne castaneo junctis. 

"Long. 20, diam. 7 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Cevlon : Upper Ourah {F. Layard) ; Nuwara Eliya 
{Simon); Borlande {Theobald); Uva, 6000 feet {coll. Ponsonhj). 

Another form of the group of E. nilarjirica, but the shell is 
smaller than that species and the sculpture much coarser. In the 



. liid. 1870, pi. TJ, tig. o. 

(Ena) stalix, Nevill, Enum. Ilelic. Ceylon, 1871, p. 3. 
<is {Peiraeus) stalix, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 13o. ^ 
% (Ena) sta/ix, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Xomencl. Ilelic. Vi 



234 ENIDJE, 

Theobald collection is a shell taken at Borlande, Ceylon, which 
agrees Mith the figure in Conch. Ind. and is probably the one 
from which the illustration was made. 

204. Ena vicaria, BJavford. 

Bulimus vicarivs, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xixix, 1870, p. 18, pi. 3, 

tig. 15 ; Theobald, torn. cit. p. 395; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. 

lud. 1872, pi. 22, fig. 2; Pfeiffer, Mou. Plelic. Viv. viii, 1877, 

P- 87. 
Buliminus (Petraeus) vicarius, Kevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 135. 
Bulimma (Ena) vicaria, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 291. 
Buliminus {Napaeus) vicarius, Kobeit, Conch. -Cab., Fam. Buli- 

minidae, 1899, p. 566, pi. 88, figs. 22, 23. 
Bvliniinus {Svbzebrinus) vicarius, Kobeit & MoUendorff, Nachr. 

Dents. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 49. 

Original descripion : — " Testa profunde rimata, oblongo- 
turrita, tenuiuscula, opaca, fulvescente-castanea, oblique striatula, 
lineis minutis confertissimis flexuosis subobsolete decussata ; spira 
turrita, lateribus convexis ; apice obtuso ; sutura impressa. Anfr. 
8 couvexi, ultimus \ longitudinis sub-jequans, basi subcompressus, 
antice sub-ascendens. Apertura fere verticalis, truncato-ovalis ; 
peristoma undique expansuiu, album, marginibus convergentibus 
callo tenui junctis, columella!'! verticali. 

"Long. 15, diam. 5, apert. cum perist. 5, longa, 4 lata." 
(Blanford.) 

Hah. India : Habiang, Garo Hills and Khasi Hills, Assam 
( Godivin- Austen). 

"The nearest ally to this shell is /A nilagaricus, Pfr., which, 
singularly enough, also occiirs in the Khasi Hills, having been 
found by Major Godwin-Austen. The present form is distin- 
guished by greater slenderness and smaller mouth." (Blanford.) 

Its nearest ally I consider E. staliv, from which it may be 
distinguished by the more contracted last whorl and the very fine 
sculpture. In the Theobald collection are two shells, one from 
Nairn Tal, and the other from the Shan States, without jjrecise 
indication of locality. 

205. Ena panos, Benson. 

Bulimus jxmos, Benson, A, M. N. II. ser. 2, xii, 1853, p. 94 ; 

Pfeifler, Mon. Helic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 417. 
Bulimus (Ena) panos, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt, ii, 1856, p. 153 ; 

Nevill, Enum. Helic. Ceylon, 1871, p. 3. 
Buliminus (Petrceus) in-oletarius var. panos, Nevill, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 135. 
Bidimina (Ena) panos. Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Yiv. 

1881, p. 289. 
Ena panos, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, p. 297. 

Orifjhwl description : — " Testa rimata, ovato-oblonga, subrugose 
striata, cornea, spira elongato-conica, sutura mediocri, apice 



EXA. 



235 



obtuso ; anfractibus 6| convexiusculis, ultimo * long, aequante, 
antice sub-ascendente, apertura ovata, edentula ; peristomate 



Fig. 87. — I'Jia panos. %. 

expausiusculo, acuto, margiuibus conniventibus, columellari 
breviter dilatato, albido. 

"Long. 11, diaiu. 5 mill." {Benson.) 
Hab. Ceylou : Nalande {Layard) ; Ceylon [Nevill). 
Appears like a small form ot" E. proletarian but the base is not 
so broad as in that species. I have only seen a single specimen, 
which is in the Theobald collection and is from Nalande, the type 
locality ; as the species has not hitherto been illustrated I take 
the opportunity of giving two views of this shell. 



206. Ena smithei, Benson. 

£ifli}nus smithei, Benson, A.M.N. U. ser. 3, xv, 1865, p. 15; 

Pfeifter, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi. 1868, p. 56 ; Ilanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 20, fig. 3. 
Nupceus smitJiii, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 146. 
Kapceus smithei, Theobakl, op. cit. 1, 1881, p. 48. 
Bitliminus (Fetraeiis) sjnithei, ISevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 135. 
Bulimina {Ena) smithei, I'feiffer & Clessin, Xoniencl. Helic. Viv. 

188Lp. -^88. 
Buliviinus {Ena) smithi, Kobelt, Conch. -Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 

1900, p. 682, pi. 103, fig. 10. 
Buliminns (Subzebrinn") smithei, Kobelt & Miilleudovff, Naclir. 

Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 49. 

Original description: — "Testa perforata, ovato-oblonga, ir- 
regulariter rugoso-striata, striis tenuibus phis minusve decussata, 
sub epidermide cornea albida, non nitente ; spira oblongo-turrita 
lateribus convexiusculis ; apice obtusiusculo, sutura impressa ; 
anfractibus 7|, convexiusculis, ultimo antice leviter ascendeute ; 
apertura vix obliqua, subovata, peristomate tenui reflexiusculo, 
margiuibus callo tenui junctis, columellari perforationem sub- 
tegente. 

" Long. 13, diam. 5, aptrt. long. 4, lat. 3^ mill."' {Benson.) 

Hah. India : Hills on right side of the river Sutlej, Punjab 
{Smithe); Fagoo {Theobald); Naini Tal {Stolic:l-a); Jhilum 
Valley, Kashmir and Mari [Murree], Punjab {Theobald). 

The present species is related to E. vicaria, but it is more 
cylindrical in contour, w ith less convex spire and more contracted 



236 ENIDJE. 

aperture, owing to the right margin of the peristome being more 
inflexed. 

A single shell in the Tlieobald collection, from the N.W. 
Himalayas, is probably the one on which the figure in Conch. 
Ind. is based. 

Subgenus SUBZEBRINUS, Westerlund. 

Suhzebrimis, Westerluud, Fauna Palaiirct. iii, 1887, p. CO (as section 
of Buliminus) ; Mcilleudorff, Ann. Mus. Zool. St. Petersburg, vi, 
1902, p. 327 (as subgenus of Buli7nimts) ; Wiegmann, torn. cit. 
p. 241 (auatomy) ; Kobelt & Miillendorff, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. 
Ges. 1903, p. 47. 

Ttpe : (first species) BuUmns eremitus, Reeve. 

Range. Central Asia, India, China, Japan. 

Shell subcylindrical, whitish, generally transversely streaked 
with pale brown ; margins of peristome united by a more or less 
strong callus, with or without a denticle near the upper margin. 

Jaw aulacognathous, distinctly dilated towards the sides. 

Radula with 61-89 teeth, corresponding in most species to the 
formula t^t-j — ■, +, ., , — r? but in a few to -^ . 

l-.j obsol- ' 1-J obsol. 1 

Genitalia: the spermatheca duct, including the diverticulum, 
after sepai'ating from the ovisperm duct, which is contiguous to 
both, reaches far beyond the albumen gland, frequently being 
twice, in some cases three times, the combined length of the 
albumen gland and ovisperm duct. 

The neck of the uterus, which in the genus usually exceeds the 
vagina in length, is here practically twice as long, in one case 
i^B. melinostoma) more than three times its length. B. dolicJio- 
stoma, in which, on the contrary, the vagina is about one-third, 
longer than the neck of the uterus, is an exception in this respect. 
The penis is moderately long, attaining only from two-thirds to 
three-quarters of the length of the spermatheca duct and diverti- 
culum. The appendix is somewhat longer than the penis and 
reaches beyond the albumen gland. In one species, however 
{B. melinostoma), the appendix is about one-third shorter than the 
penis, agreeing in this respect with the section Pnpinidius. As 
compared with the ovisperm duct, including the albumen gland, 
the appendix is from 1^ to 2^ times as long. A rudimentary 
ctecum, situate about the middle of the penis, appears as a diminu- 
tive tubercle. In one species {B. melinostoma) it is wanting. 
( Wiecjmann.) 

207. Ena vibex, Kllster. 

Bulimus vibex (Iluttou), Kiister, Conch.-Cab., BulimuK, 1845, p. 57, 
pi. 17, tigs. 5, 6 ; Pleiffer, Men. Helic. Viv. ii_, 1848, p. 118 ; 
Reeve, Concli. Icou. v, 1848, Buliminus, pi. 47, lig. 299; Hanley 
& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 20, lig. 5 (? var.), pi. 22, fig. 8 
(var.), pi. 23, tig. 2. 

Bulimulus {Ena) vibex, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, p. 161. 



ENA. 237 

Bulimus {Ejia) vibex, PfeifFei', Malak. Bljitt. ii, 1866, p. 154. 
Buliminus {Napaens) vibex, von Martens, Die lleliceen, ed. 2, 1860, ■ 

p. 234. 
Buliminus (Petraeus) vibex, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 136. 
Buli^nina [Ena) vibex, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nooiencl. Ilelic. Viv. 1881, 

p. 291. 
Buliminus (Eim) vihex, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Biiliminidap, 

1900, p. 68.'}, pi. 103, figs. 11-13. 
Buliminus {Huhzebrinus) vibex, Kobelt & 3l6llendorff, Nachr. 

Dents. Malak. Cles. 1903, p. 49. 

Original description : — " B. testa sinistrorsa, rimato-perforata, 
ovato-cylindracea, apice attenuata, tenuiuscula, oblique striata, 
liviclo-coruea, anfractibiis 8 vix convexiusculis, angustis ; siitura 
profunda ; apertura rotundato-trigona, oblique truncata, intus 
tlavida ; peristoinate sublabiato, reflexo, plumbeo, margine acuto ; 
coluniellari dilatato.'"' (Kiister.) 

" Long. 11, diam. medio 4i rail!., ap, 3| mill. longa, intus 2 lata." 
(Pfeiffer.) 

Ilab. India : Simla (Hatton, Stoliczka), Landour (Benson), Mus- 
soorie (Nevill). 

A series of tweuty-seven specimens of E. vihex in the British 
Museum fi-om Simla, received from Hutton, range in size from 
12x4-5 mm. to 11 x 4 mm,, while a specimen in the Cuming 
collection, Avithout habitat, measures : length 16, diam. 5-5 mm. 



Fig. SS.—Ena vibex. %. 

The shell here figured is one of a batch from Landour, acquired 
by purchase in 1848 by the British Museum, and measures 
ll'o x3*5 mm. 

E. vihex, E. linterip, E. hoysiana, E. arcuata, E. nivicola, and 
E. hiittoni form a rather homogeneous group in the genus, charac- 
terized by the opacjue white transverse streaks on a dark corneous 
or fuscous ground, the sinistral convolutions, and the compara- 
tively short stature, none of the species exceeding 20 mm. in 
length. As regards contour, E. vihex and E. nivicola are the two 
extremes of the series, the former being the most cylindrical and 
the latter the most ventricose in outline. 

208. Ena linterae, Kobelt. 

Buliminus (Xapaeus) linterae, Kobelt. Coucb.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 

niinidae, 1899, p. 560, pi. 88, figs. 6, 7. 
Buliminus {Suhzebrinus) linterae, Kobelt .fc Mollendorff, NacLi- 

Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1900, p. 48. 



238 E]^idjE, 

Original descripiion : — "Testa sinistrorsa, profunde rimata, 
cylindracea, ruditer suboblique striatula vel striate costata, griseo- 
alba, in aufractibus superis corueo obsolete strigata, summo rufo- 
cornea. Spira supra conico-attenuata, apice acutiusculo. An- 
fractus 9 vix eonvexiusculi, leniter ac regulariter crescentes, sutura 
inipressa, inter inferos submargiaata discreti, ultimus basi rotund- 
atus, postice altitudinis \ vix siiperans, antice vix ascendens. 
Apertura subsemicircularis, albida ; peristoma album, undique 
expansum, acutuin, tenue, tenuisaime labiatum, mai'ginibus baud 
junctis, columellari parum dilatato, patente, cum pariete apertu- 
rali angulum distiucte formante. 

" Alt. 10. diam. aufr. ult. 7'5, alt. apert. 6*5 mm." (Kohelt.) 

Hah. ? Northern India. 

The specimens on which the species is based were sent to 
Dr. Kobelt by the late Miss Linter as B. arcuatus, var., but the 
form is evidently nearer to E. vibex, from which it differs by its 
more slender, more cylindrical shape and the more distinct sculp- 
ture ; the markings are also more distinct and the aperture is 
proportionately larger and wider. The Theobald collection in the 
British Museum contains three specimens from Mahasu, \^hich I 
refer to E. linterce ; they range in size from 15*5 x 6'5 to 20 X 
8 ram. 

209. Ena hoysiana, Reeve. 

BuUnws boysianus (Benson), Reeve, Conch. Icon. v. 1849, Bulimus, 

pi. 78, tig. 576 ; Pfeiffer, Men. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 432 ; ibid., 

Concli.-Oab., Btdimus, 1853, p. C9, pi. 20, figs. 9, 10 ; ITanley & 

Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1872, pi. 22, tig. 6. 
BuHvius {Bulimiilus) boysiajius, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, 

p. 161. 
Bulimimis (Petraeus) boysianus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 136. 
Bulimina (Chondruld) boysiana, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 296. 
BuUviinus boysianus, Westerlund, Fauna Palaiirct. Binnenconchyl. 

iii, 1887, p. 74; ibid., Svn. Moll. Extramar. Reg. Palasarct. i, 

1897, p. 13. 
Buliminus ( Chondrulopsis) boysianus, Westerlund, Katal. Palaarct. 

Binuenconcb. 1890, p. 92. 
Buliminus (Subzehrinus) boysianus, Kohelt & Mijllendorff, Nachr. 

Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 47. 

Original descriptio7i: — "Shell cylindrically oblong, sinistral, 
scarcely umbilicated, whorls eight in number, convex, rather 
coarsely striated, very finely plicated at the sutures, minutely 
decussated beneath the lens with spiral lines ; horny brown, varie- 
gated with waved opake-white lines." {Reeve.') 

Length 19, diam. 8 mm. {ex icon.). 

Hah. India : Kumaon, W. Himalayas {Boys) ; Naini Tal 
{Stoliczha, Nevill) ; Darjeeling {coll. Ponsonhy). 

I have not seen specimens ; the type, like so many of Benson's, 
has apparently gone astray. Judging from the figures the species 



BNA. 239 

is intermediate between E. arcuata and E. vibeA\ being less convex 
in outline than the former, while the latter is more fusiform. 
The shell figured by Eeeve, which must be regarded as the type, 
is larger than the specimens represented in Conch. Ind. and 
Conch. -Cab., which measure only 17x7 mm. 

210. Ena arcuata, KHster. 

Bulwius arctuiius {Hutton) , Kiister, Conch.-Cab., Bulimus, ]845» 

p. .56, pi. 17, figs. 1, 2 ; Pfeiffer, IMon. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 118 ; 

Iveeve, Couch. Icon, v, 1849, Bulimus, pi. 67, fig. 478 ; llau- 

ley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 20, fig. 2 ; var., fig. 7. 
Bulimulus (Ena) arcuatus, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 18.55, p. 160. 
Bulimus (Ena) arcuatiis, Pfeifier, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 154. 
Buliminus (Nai)aetis) arcuatus, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 2'J4. 
NapcBiis arcuatus, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 145. 
Bulimiyius ( I'etraeus) arcuatus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 136. 
Bulimina (E7ia) arcuata, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 291. 
Buliminus (Ena) arcuatus. Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 

1900, p. 684, pi. 10:3, figs. 14, 15. 
Buliminus (Subzehrinus) arcuatus, Kobelt & Mollendorff, Nachr. 

Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 47. 

Original description :— " B. testa sinistrorsa, rimata, ovato- 
conica, tenuiuscula, subnitida, miuutissime costulato-striata, 
corneo-flava, lutescenti-arcuatiin fasciata; anfractibus 7 convexi- 
usculis ; apertura oblongo-ovali, iutus flava ; peristomate ])allide- 
corneo, margine sinistro arcuato, columellari breviter dilatato." 
(Kuster.) 

Length 15 mm.; diam. 6 mm. (Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India: Himalayas (;;. cZ. ^wsc/t) ; Mahassu, "W. Himalayas 
(Hutfon); Kashmir {Theobald); Simla and Narkandi {Oldham, 
Stoliczka). 




Fig. ^^.—Ena arcuata. I. 

Kobelt gives a poor copy of the figure in Conch. Ind., repi'e- 
senting E. nivicola, which is supposed to be cospecific with 
arcuata, but which is certainly distinct. Pfeiffer and Clessin 
quote Pupa sylvatica, of Hutton, as a variety of arcuata, with 
Bidimus nivicola as a synonym. The habitat " Moulmain " given 
in Conch. Ind., Theobald points out, is an error. Ena arcuata 



240 ENiD^. 

has a more convex spire than E. vihex, and the body-whorl is pro- 
portionately larger. From E. nivicola, on the other hand, it may 
be distinguished by its less globose form ; it is, in fact, inter- 
mediate between these two species. Although the latter has been 
regai'ded by some authors as merely a variety of arcuata, I con- 
sider them quite distinct. Of the two first-named considerable 
series have passed tlirough my hand, and I have never hesitated 
to which form to refer them. 

The specimen here figured is ane of three in the Cuming collec- 
tion labelled " India " ; it measures 13-25 x 5 mm. 

The name arcuata has a rather peculiar history. A tablet in 
the British Museum, with twenty-six specimens received from 
Hutton in 185G, bears on its back the following legend, appa- 
rently copied from Hutton's letter or label : — " Pfeiff'er mistook 
ornatus for arcuatus. Ornaius being preoccupied I changed it to 
s^/lvaticus, but the mischief is done." This accounts for the fact 
that Pfeiffer cjuotes Pupa sylvatica as a synonym. The largest of 
this .series measures 16 X 7 mm. and the smallest 12x5-25 mm. 
Another shell in the British Museum, from Simla, measures 17-5 x 
8-25 mm., while four specimens from Mukraj, Salt Eange, which 
I also refer to the present species, are rather different from all I 
have seen, being of a chalky white, with pale corneous transverse 
streaks; these range in size between 18 x 7'5 mm. and 16 x 
6-25 mm. 



211. Ena nivicola, lieeve. 

BuUmtis 7iivicola (Benson), Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Bulimus, 
pi. 69, fig-. 496 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 22, 

fig-- 9- ' .... 

Bulimina (Ena) arcuata, var. sylvatica (=mvicola), PfeitFer & 

Clessin, Nomeiicl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 291. 

Original description : — " Shell cylindrically ovate, stout, ventri- 
cose, sinistral, compressly umbilicated, whorls seven in number, 
convex, obliquely striated, somewhat obscurely crenulated at the 
sutures, columella rather broad, appressed, aperture small, lip 
slightly expanded ; red-brown, marked here and there with 
irregularly interrupted oblique white streaks, covered with, a thin 
yellowish epidermis." {Reeve.) 

Length 1 1, diam. 5-75 mm. (ex icon.). 

Hah. India : Liti Pass, W. Himalayas, 14,000 feet {Hutton). 

" Mr. Benson is of opinion that this species, distinguished b}^ 
its stout cylindrical form and reversed growth, which has been 
upwards of twelve years in his collection, is the Pupa sylvatica of 
Hutton, described in M'Clelland's Journal for January 1841, as 
beino- found among juniper bushes at Burrenda Pass, and of 
which the name is preoccupied in the present genus to which this 
species strictly belongs. It is remarkable for its stout cylindrical 
form and reversed growth." {Beeve.) 



ENA. 241 

After some considerable search I have succeeded in tracing 
Hutton's name Pupa si/hatica, referred to by Eeeve when de- 
scribing and illustrating Eiia nivicola, and by Pfeiffer*, both on 
the authority of Benson, neither having seen the original. The 
complete reference is as follows : — Calcutta Journal of Natural 
History (Edited by McClelland), i, 1S41, p. 479. No question of 
priority, however, is involved, since no description is given by 
Hutton ; but on account of Eeeve's misleading statement — " Piqnt 
sylvatica of Hutton, 'described' in M'Clelland's Journal for 
January 1841"— I have thought it useful to place this fact on 
record. 




Fig. 00. — Ena nivicola. |. 

E. nivicola is the most ventricose member of the group. The 
British Museum possesses six specimens received from Hutton 
and labelled " Snowy Range." Some of these exceed the type in 
their dimensions, ranging in size from ll*5x6'5mm. to 12x6 
and 14 X 7 mm. 

The shell hei'e figured is one of six from the Snowy Eauge 
received by tlie British Museum from Hutton in 1856. 

212. Ena huttoni, P/^?^rt-. 

Bulimus ei/lindricus (Iliictou), Kiister, Couch. -Cab., Bulimus, 184.") 
explanation of i)late on cover, pi. 17, figy. 3, 4 (not Bulimm 
cylindricus, Gray, 1825, not Bulitnus cylindricus, ]^lenke, 1830). 

Bulimus huttoni, Pfeiffer, Svmb. Hist. Helic. iii, 1846, p. 55, noni 
mut. ; ibid., Mon. Helic. Viv. ii. 1848, p. 118; Kiister, Conch, - 
Cab., Bulimus, 1853, p. 57. 

Bulimus {Ena) huttoni, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 154. 

Bidiminus {Suhzehrinus) huttoni, Kobelt & Mullendorft", Nachr 
Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 48. 

Original description: — "T. sinistrorsa, rimato-perforata, oblongo- 
conica, oblique ruguloso-striata, cornea ; spiru oblonga, apice 
attenuata, obtnsiuscula ; anfr. 7 convexiusculi, ultimus f longitu- 
dinis subaequans ; cokimella arcuata ; apertura ovalis, iutus fulves- 
cens ; perist. vix sublabiatum, margine exteriore vix expansiusculo, 
flexuosa, columellari dilatato, reflexo, 

" Long. 15, diam. 6 mill. Ap. 6 mill, longa, o lata." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India. 



* Mod. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 350. 



242 ENID^. 

Intermediate between E. vihex and E. arcuata, being more 
convex in the spire than the former and more cylindrical than the 
latter. 

213. Ena ecus, Reeve. 

Bulimus eoits, Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, I80O, Bidiinus, pi. 86*, 
tig. 640; Pfeifter, Men. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 361. 

£tili7nina (Petraeus) coa, Pfeiffer & Olessiu, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 
1881, p. 1^87. 

£iilimi?ms{?) eous, Kobelt, Concb.-Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 1902, 
p. 951, pi. 133, tig. 6. 

Original description : — " Shell cylindrically oblong, rather stout, 
compressly umbilicated, whorls six in number, convexly flattened, 
columella vertical, broadly dilated, aperture nearlj^ orbicular, pro- 
duced, margins joined together by a lamina ; white." {Reeve.) 

Long. 28, diam. 13 mm. {ex icon.). 

Hah. India {Griffitlis). 

Said by Reeve to be allied to B. grijithi, but the figure does not 
exhibit much resemblance to that species, beiug much shorter in 
the spire and having a much less dilated aperture. I have not 
seen specimens, having failed in tracing the type. 

214. Ena kunawurensis. Reeve. 

Bulimus ktincnourensis (Hutton), Reeve, Conch. Icon. v. 1849, 

Bulimus, pi. 62, fig. 426 ; Pfeifter, Men. Helic. Viv. iii. 1853, 

p. 349 ; ibid., Conch.-Cab., Bulimus, 1853, p. 68, pi. 20, figs. 3, 4 ; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 19, fig. 3. 
Bulimulus {Ena) kunawurensis, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 160. 
Bulimus (Ena) kunawurensis, Pfeitfer, ]\Ialak, Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 154. 
Buliminus {Petraeus) kunawurensis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 136. 
Bulimina (Zebrina) hmawurensis, Pfeifter & Clessin, Nomencl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 294. 
Bulvninus kunau'ure7isis, Westerlund, Fauna Paliiarct. Binnen- 

concbyl. iii, 1887, p. 73 ; ibid., Syn. Moll. Extiamar. Reg. Palae- 

arct. i, 1897, p. 12; ibid., Katal. Palaarct. Binnenconcli. 1890, 

p. 92. 
Buliminus {Suhzehrinus) kunawurensis, Kobelt & Mollendorff", 

Naclir. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 48. 

Originiil description : — " Shell elongately turreted, sinistral, 
compressly umbilicated, whorls twelve in number, smooth or 
obscurely roughly striated, minutely crenulated at the sutures, 
aperture small, lip and columella expanded ; brownish horny 
colour, marked here and there ivith opake white streaks, lip 
snow-white within." {Reeve.) 

Long. 36, diam. 9 mm. {ex icon.). 

"Long. 34, diam. 7| mill. Ap. 8 mill, longa, intus 4 lata." 
{Pfeifer.) 

* The text accompanying plate 86 is marked 76 owing to a printer's error. 



ENA. 243 

Hob. Tibet: Cliiiii, Kunawur ; banks of the Sutlej {IJutton). 
India : Landour, W. Himalayas {Theobald). 

The species varies considerably in length. The type, according 
to lleeve's figure, measures 30 mm., the shell illustrated bv 
Hanley & Theobald being 31 mm. long, while a specimen from 
Chini in the Theobald collection only reaches 27*o mm. in length, 
with a diameter of 7'5 mm. Hutton's five specimens from 
Kunawur, in the British Museum, range fronr31 x 9 to 28 x 7 mm. 
Two shells in the Cuming collection are fulvous-corneous, strongly 
strealsed transversely with greyish white. 

E. hunawurensis has the earlier whorls very finely spirallv 
striated, the spirals becoming obsolete on the later whorls. From 
E. candelaris it nuiy be separated by its more cylindrical shape 
and the smaller aperture ; it also has the peristome less thick- 
ened, v^dth acule edges, and the outer margin is less curved. 

A small specimen from Kunavvar, received by the British 
Museum from Hutton, approaches E. slndica iu form, but that 
species is uiore tapering towards the apex. 



215. Ena candelaris, Ffeiffer. 

Bulimus candchtris,Viii\^eY, P. Z. S. 184G, p. 40 ; ibid., Mon. Helic, 

Viv. ii, 1848. p. 127 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Btdimus, 

pi. 60, fig. 408 ; Hanley & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1872, pi. 19, 

tig. 2. 
Ihilhnulus candelaris, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 18-j5, p. lo9. 
Jiidinws {Ena) candelaris, Pfeifter, ^hilak. Bliitt. ii, \SiHS, p. I.j2. 
Jiuliminus candelaris, von Martens, Malak. Blatt. xv, 1868, p. 160 ; 

Ancey, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, iii, 1886, p. 19 ; Westerhmd, 

Fauna Palaavct. Biunenconchyl. iii, 1887, p. 74; Aucev, l^ull. 

Soc. Zool. France, xviii, 1893, p. 42; Westerhmd, Syn. Moll. 

Extramar. Reg. Palsearct. i, 1897, p. 12 ; ibid., Katal.'Palaaict. 

Binnenconcb. 1890, p. 92 
Napceus candelaris, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 144. 
Bulinunus {Peiraeas) candelaris, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 136. 
Buliinina ( Petraeus) candelaris, Pfeifter & Clessin, Nomeucl. Helic. 

Yiv. 1881, p. 288. 
Buliminas (Nopaeus) candelaris, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fani. Buli- 

niinidae, 1899, p. o61, pi. 88, figs. 8-12; ibid., in Rossmassler, 

Iconogr., N. F. ix, 1899, p. 21, tig.s. 1604-5. 
Buliminus (Subzebrinus) candelaris, Kobelt & Moilendorft, Nachr. 

Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 47. 

Original descripiion : — " Bid. testa sinistrorsa, ])rofunde rimata, 
cylindracea, apice sensim attenuata, acutiusculo, suboblique 
striatulo, sordide albo ; anfractibus planiusculis, ultimo minus 
oblique descendente, ^ longitudinis vix ajquante, has; subrotiin 
date; apertura semiovali, intus nitida, alba; peristomate albo, 
undique expanso, marginibus callo tenui junctis, columellari dila- 
tato, patente. 

"Long. 27, diam. S mill." (Ffeiffer.) 

Hab. India: Fort Lockhart, N.W. India {Watson); Jhilum 

e2 



244 ENID,!:. 

Valley, above Kokala {Theobald): Kashmir (AtJcinson); Takhl-i- 
Siiliman (Thomson) ; Tiiiali {Stoliczl-a). Tibet (Ffeiffer). 

When first described by Pfeiffer its habitat was unknown. In 
1859, however, he recorded Tibet (Mon. Helic. Yiv. iv, p. 426) as 
its native country, without stating the source of his information. 
Benson (A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xix, 1857, p. 327) gave Takht-i- 
Suliman, Kashmir, as habitat, while Theobald (J. A. S. B. 1878, 
p. 144) mentioned it as common about Mari and in various places 
in Kashmir, usually above 6000 feet, but occasionally lower. He 
further states that 

"Sinistral shells are most numerous, but dextral ones also 
occur not rarely. My largest sinistral shell measures 35-6 x 
9*2 and my smallest 27*7 X 8*7 mm. The dextral shells are 
smaller, ranging from 33 x 8*8 to 24 x 8-5 mm. The shells 
vary somewhat in a large series, in tumidity and in the 
attenuation of the spire, and eveu iu the number of whorls, 
a remark which applies to all the species of the genus, and 
proves the risk of creating new species from single examples. 
" I do not think that iV. domina, B., can be separated, as 
the main distinction seems to be in the textui'e of the shell ; 
but in tliis group the texture varies from horny and sub- 
diaphanous, in which the striped markings are conspicuous, 
to creamy porcellanous, in \^ hicli they are more or less if not 
wholly oi)Solete. The diiSerence too in this respect is con- 
siderable between the living and dead shells, and largely 
depends (unless I am much mistaken) on tlis conditions of 
climate and alimentation under which the animal lived. 

" A slender form is seen in places, with a thinner shell 

than the type, and indicating a passage to N. l-munvarensis, 

Hutton. A typical example of this variety measures 2G'5 x 

8 mill." 

B. candelaris and B. d.omina are, to my mind, two perfectly 

distinct and valid species, notwithstanding Theobald's observations 

to the contrary. The latter species, apart from its markings, is 

much more convex in outline than the former with its attenuated 

spire. It is, of course, possible that Theobald had not seen the 

true domiiia. 

The Theobald collection in the British Museum contains even 
smaller sinistral specimens than those referred to by Theobald ; 
they measure 21-5 x7'5 mm., and are from the Jhilum Valley 
above Kokala. Dextral shells from the same locality are also 
present. Theobald's Kashmir specimens range from 36 x S^o mm. 
to 24 X 8-5, both dextral and sinistral. 

Dr. Kobelt records three shells from Northern India, in the 
Mollendorff collection, measuring 29 mm. in length, and being 
slightlv angulated. He observes that some shells have corneous 
transverse streaks on the upper whorls, a feature \\hich I have 
likewise noticed in some specimens. 



EXA. 245 



216. Ena sindica, Reeve. 

Balimits Atudicus (Benson), Reeve, Couch. Icon, v, 1848, Bulimtis, 

pi. 47, tig. .-503 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. llelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 3oo; ibid., 

Conch. -Ciib., L'ulimns, lSo3, p. 7], pi. 20, tigs. 23, 24 ; llanley & 

'J'heobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 20, tig-. 0. 
BuUmus {Ena) sindicus, Pieiffer, Malak. iiliitt. ii, 1850, p. 153. 
Buliminun {Petraens) smdiciis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 134. 
Napceus sindicus, Theobald, J. A. 8. 13. xlvii, 1878, p. 145. 
BuUmina {Zebri/ia) sindica, Pfeiller ifc Clessin. Nomeucl. Ilelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 294. 
Bidiminus .sindicus, Ancey, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, iii, 1886, 

p. 49; .Vucey, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xviii, 1893, p. 43 ; Wester- 

luiid, Katal. Paliiarct. Binnenconchyl. 1890, p. 92 ; ibid., Syn. 

Moll. Extraniar. Keg. PaUearct. i, 1897, p. 11. 
Bulimiiius {Ckondndojjsis) sindicus, Westerlund, Fauna Palaiirct. 

Biunenconchyl. iii, 1887, p. 72. 
Buliminus (Ena) sindicus, Ivobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. liuliminidae, 

1901, p. 685, pi. 103, tig. 17 (corrected to Subzebrinus on p. 1007 j 

(1902). 
Buliminus (Subzebrinus) sindicus, Kobelt & ^liillendorlf, Nachr. 

Ueuts. 3Ialak. Ges. 1903, p. 49. 

Oriijinal descrijdion : — " Shell cylindricaHy elougated, broadly 
uiiibilicated, whorls nine in number, flatly convex, smooth or con- 
centrically .striated, aperture small, lip and columella expanded, 
but slightly reflected; greyish white, here ajid there obliquely 
marked with pellucid streaks." (Reeve.) 

Ilab. India : near the head- waters of the Sinde {Benson) ; 
Sub-Himalayan Range, left bank of Sutlej {JJutton) ; Uarjeehug 
{Hank;/ ^- Theobald):, Jhilum Valley, Kashmir and Salt Kange 
{Theobald); Maudi {Stoliczlm); Kussial Ghat, Punjab (Theobald). 
Afghanistan: Khyber Pass (Barr) ; Cherat (Ancey). 

The present species and E. kunawurensis are closely related, 
but whereas the latter is sinistral, E. sindica is dextral and has 
the last whorl proportionately much higher. The Theobald 
collection contains shells from various localities, those from the 
liills between theSutlej and the Jumna being transversely streaked 
with a rufous tint and constituting a connecting-hnk with E. ruji- 
strirjata, but the latter has a more ocinvex spire and its aperture 
is not so high; they measure 24 x 7'5 mm. Others from the 
Salt Range vary in dimensions between 21 x 7'o to 17xO-o mm. 
A shell from Kussial Ghat, Punjab, measures 19-5x0 mm., while 
two pure white Kashmir specimens attain a length of 32 mm. 
Mith a diameter of 10 miu. 



217. Ena domina, Benson. 

Bulimusdomiita, Benson, .\. M. N. II. ser. 2, xix, 1857, p. 327 ; 

Pfeitler, Mon. Helic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 425; llanley & Theobald, 

Couch, lud. 1870, pi. 22, fig. 5. 
Buliminus (Petraeus) domina^ Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 136. 



246 ENIDiE. 

Bnlimina (Zebrina) domina, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Ilelic. 

Viv. 1881, p. L^94. 
Napceus domitiu, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 47. 
Buliyninus dominus, A\'esterlund. Fauna Palaarct. Biuneiiconchyl. 

iii, 1887, p. 74 ; ibid., Katal. Palaarct. Binnenconcli. 1890, p. 92 ; 

ibid., Svn. Moll. E.\tiauiar. Reg. PaUearct. i, 1897, p. 13. 
BidiniiNKs (?) doviina. Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fain. Bidiminidae, 

1900, p. (.584, pi. 10.3, fip-. 16. 
Buliminus (Sudzebriniis) dumina, Kobelt & MuUendorff, Nachr. 

Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 48. 

Original descrijjtion : — " Testa sinistrorsa, riniato-perforata, 
ovato-cylindrica, oblique striatiila, albida, strigis obliquis rul'o- 
corneis picta ; spira cylindrica, siiperne celeriter atteiiuata, apice 
acutiusculo ; sutura impressa ; anfractibus 8 convexiusculis, 
ultimo f testae vix sequaiite, basi rotandata ; apertura vix obliqua, 
semiovali ; peristomate imdiqueexpanso, marginibus conniventibus, 
callo brevi junctis, sinistro supenie arcuato, columelJari dilatato. 

" Loug. 23, diani. 9 mill., loug. ap. 9, lar. G mill." {Benson.) 

Hah. India: Kaslimii* (Z/«(^?/ Gomm)\ Murree, Kashmir [Theo- 
lald) ; Tandiaiii, Ilazara, Punjab {Theobcdd). 

According to Theobald the present species cannot be separated 
from E. canddaris, Pl'eiffer, as he considered the main distinction 
to be in the texture of the shell. A careful examination of a con- 
siderable number of the two species, however, has convinced me 
that they can be readily distinguished, not by the texture, but by 
the shape of the shell, domina having a much greater diameter in 
proportion to its length, v^liile it is also much more marked with 
dark transverse streaks, candelaris being generalh" of a chalky white, 
only the upper whorls occasionally being variegated in this manner. 

The Theobald collection contains dextral forms of E. domina, 
from Tandiani, Ilazara, a station at an elevation of 5000 feet, and 
sinistral specimens from Mari [Murree]. The former range from 
29"o X 9-5 to 26-0 x 9-2r) mm., and tlie latter measure 30'5 x 10 mm. 
There are besides in the British Museum two shells collected by 
Major Sprat t at Lundi Kotal. 

218. Ena iongstaffi, sp. n. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, fusiform-pyramidal, white, shining, 
distantly and irregularly striated, the striie crossed by obsolete 
spirals. Whorls 9, the protoconch — consisting of 2 whorls — 
smooth and polished, rather convex, the remainder more flattened, 
increasing rather rapidly, the last slightly ascending, equalling i 
of the spire. Spire subconoid, suture shallow. Aperture scarcely 
oblique, obovate ; margins connivent, united by a thin callus on 
the parietal wall ; peristome slightly thickened, expanded, and 
refiexed, with acute edges ; upper, outer, and basal margins regu- 
larly curved ; colnmellar margin vertical, triangularly dilated ; 
umbilicus narrow, rimate, subangulated around the base of the 
shell. 



EN A. 



247 



Length 31, diameter 12 mm.; aperture diam. 11-5, height 
8 mm. ^^ ^^ '■' 

Hah. India: Samana Tsuk (6740 feet), near Upper Kuram 
Valley, N.W. Frontier Prov. {Dr. T. G. Longstaff.) Type in 
the British Museum. 

This new species is allied to E. grlffithi, Eeeve, from Atghamstan 
I was, in fact, at first inclined to regard it merely as a variety ot 
that species. Although possessing one whorl more, it is con- 
siderably shorter than qnfflthi, which measures 40 mm. m length, 
it is less slender in the spire, the last whorl is relatively smaller, 
and the aperture is much less expanded, especially towards the 





Fig. ^\.—Fn% longdaffi. f. 

base E. lomistaffi also bears traces of affinity to eremita, Reeve, 
and E. domina, Benson, but may readily be distinguished from 
either by its less conoid, more attenuated spire. From E. can- 
delans, PfeifPer, another aUied form, it differs m the greater 
relative length of the last whorl, the conoid spire, the widened 
aperture, and the more developed peristome. 

Dr Longstaff, who collected the shell in 1906, presented tve 
specimens, which range in size from 31x12 ram. (type) to 
26 X 11-75 mm. . 

The illustrations represent the type in the British Museum. 



219. Ena eremita, Reeve. 

£ulimm eremita (Benson), Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, m9 Bulimm, 
pi 78 fio- 573; Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab. Buhmus, l«.)d, p. 71, 
pl"20'fios 21,22; ibid., Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853. p. 356; 
Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 23, fig. 6; Aucey, 
Bull. Soc. Malac. France, iii, 1886, p. 35. _ 

Bidimus {Ena) eremita, PfeiiFer, Malak. Bliitt. u, 1856, p. 153. 



248 EKiD^. 

Buliminus eremita, von Martens, Malak. Bliitt. xv, 1868, p. 161 ; 
ibid., Imp. Obsh. Lyubi. Estest. Antiop. Etnoghr. xi, part 1, 
1874, p. 18, pi. 2, fig-. 13; Ancey, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xviii, 
1893, p. 43; Westerluud, Syu.Moll. Extramar. Reg. Palsearct. i, 
1897, p. 7. 

Buliminus (Petraeus) eremita, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 134. 

Buliinina (Petraeus) eremita, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 1^87. 

Buliminus (Subzehrinus) eremita, NVesterlund, Fauna Palaarct. 
Binnenconchyl. iii, 1887, p. 60; ibid., Katal. Palaarct. Binnen- 
couch. 1890, p, 90 ; Kobelt in Rossmassler, Iconogr. iv, 1876, 
p. 62. pi. 135, fig. 1330, New Series, iii, 1888, pp. 38, 39, pi. 100, 
figs. 574, 575, 578, x, 1903, p. 55, pi. 291, fig. 1872; ibid., 
Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 1902, p. 951, pi. 133, fig. 7. 

Pupa spelaa, Hutton, J. A. S. B. xviii, 1849, p. 653. 

Original description: — " Shell cyliiidrically oblong, rather deeply 
urabilicated, whorls eight in number, convex, obscurely rather 
irregularly striated, aperture obliquely produced, columella broad, 
lip a little expanded ; bluish white." {Reeve.) 

Long. 18-22, diani. 7*5-9 nun. 

Hah. India: Salt Eange, Punjab {Theobald) ; Subathor, near 
Simla (Hutton) ; Luudi Kotal {iSpratt). Tibet {J\lus. Cuming). 
Afghanistan : Bolan Pass {Hutton). 

Two specimens in the British Museum labelled " Pujxi speltm, 
Bolan Pass," received from Capt. Hutton, have convinced me that 
this form is cospecific with Bulimus eremita. They are indeed a 
trifle darker in colour and have the outer margin of the peri- 
stome not quite so much curved, but these slight differences are 
insufficient for separating the two foi-ms. Both names having 
been published in 1849, 1 was at first uncertain which had priority. 
The sheet accompanying plate 78 of the Conchologia Iconica is 
dated September 1849, and although I have been unable to trace 
the actual date on ^^ hich the ])art of the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society, containing Hutton's description, was issued, Mr. C. D. 
Sherborn informs me that it was certainly after September. 
Under these circumstances Reeve's name must be adopted for the 
species. 

Ena eremita varies considerably, and some forms approach 
E. sindica on the one hand, and E. sahicola on the other. It has, 
however, a larger diameter in proportion to its length than the 
former, and is less convex in the spire than the latter. 



220. Ena salsicola, Benson. 

Bulimus salsicola, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 2, xix, 1857, p. 327 ; 

Pfeifier, Mon. Helic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 423 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. lud. 1870, pi. 20, fig. 8. 
Buliminus (Petraeus) salsicola, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 134. 
Bulimina (Petraeus) salsicola, Pfeiffer «& Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 287. 



ENA. 249 

BuU)ninus {Napaeus) salsicola, Kobelt, Conch. -Cab., Fain. Bulimi- 

nidae, 1899, p. 564, pi. 88, figs. 17, 18. 
Buliminus (Subzebrinus) saUicola, Kobelt & Mullendorff, Xachr. 

Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 49. 

Original description : — " Testa rimata, ovato-cylindrica, tenui, 
sarsuin conica, lasviuscula, oblique .obsolete striatula, albida, 
inaculis quibusdam translucentibus obseuris notata ; sutura im- 
pressiuscula ; apice subpapillari, obtiisiusculo ; anl'ractibus 6^ 
planiusculis, ultimo \ testae superante, subtus pi'ope rimam com- 
pressiusculo ; apertura vix obliqiia, truucato-ovata ; peristomate 
plane reflexo, marginibus conniventibus, dextro arcuate, callo 
parietal! brevissimo, cras.siuseulo, tuberculum obsoletum angu- 
lareni exhibeute, junctis. 

"Long. IS, diam. 8 mill., long, apert. S, diam. mill." 
{Be)ison.) 

Hah. India: 'Pente\)Oio\m\i {Theobald) ; Salt Eange (TA('o?^a?c?). 
" It is possible that this shell may exhibit coloured markings, 
like those of some other Punjab species, B.pretiosus, siiidicus, etc., 
when in tine condition. It has a strong resemblance in I'orm to 
the larger B. berihdoti, Ptr., and is also allied to the Levantine 
B, ehrenbergiy (Benson.) 

The type of E. sahicola appears to have shared the fate of 
several other Bensonian types, for Dr. Doneaster informs me that 
it cannot be found. When Benson compared this species with 
B. bertlu'loti he must have overlooked eremita, to which it bears a 
far greater resemblance ; it has, however, a more convex spii'e 
than the latter. It also approaches domina, but is not so strongly 
sculptured, while it is more distinctly subangulated around the 
umbilicus, which is also more open. Several specimens in the 
Theobald collection, from the Salt Range, Punjab, measure 
22 X 10 mm. and 21 x 9*75 mm. 

The shell figured by Dr. Kobelt in Conch.-Cab. is different 
from that in Concli. Ind., and possesses one whorl more. 

221. Ena ccelebs, Pfeiffer. 

Bulimus cmlcbs (Bensoul, Pfeifter, Symb. Ilist. Ilelic. iii, 1846, 
p. 83; ibid., Mon. Ilelic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 119; Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. V. 1848, Bulimus, pi. 47, fig. 301 : ibid., 1849, pi. 69, 
fig. 498, juv. : Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., Bulimus, 1856, p. 260, 
pL 70, fig,». V2, 13; Ilaidey & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1874, 
pi. 80, fig. 1. 

Bulimus [Merdifjerus) coelebs, Albers, Die Ileliceen, 1850, p. 180. 

Bulimulus (Ena) coelebs, Adams, Gen. Kec. Mull, ii, 1855, p. 160. 

Bulimus (Ena) coelebs, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt, ii. 1856, p. 153. 

Buliminus (Napaeus) coelebs, von Martens, Die Ileliceen, ed. 2, 
1860, p. 234. 

Buliminus (Petraevs) coelebs, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 134. 

Napceus coelebs, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 145. 

Bulimina (Ena) coelebs, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 
1881, p. 290. 



250 ENID.^, 

Bulindnus (Una) coelehs, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fani. Buliminidae, 
1901, p. 687, pi. 103, fig. 21 (corrected to Stibzehrinus on 
page 1007) (1902). 
Bulhnimis {Suhzebrinus) coelebs, Kobelt & MollendorfF, Nachr. 
Dents. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 47. 

Original description : — " T. profunde rimata, oblongo-acuniinata, 
tenuis, striatula, lineis conl'ertis, spiralibus sub lente decussatula, 
pallide cornea, diaphana, sti'igis obliquis, albidis, opacis variegata ; 
anfr. 7-8 vix couvexiusculi, uJtimus -|- longitudinis subsequans, 
basi turgido-subconipressus; apertura OA'alis ; perist. tenue, ex- 
pansuni, intus sublabiatnm, marginibus subcouniventibus, colu- 
mellari brevi, dilatato, pafeiite. 

" Long. 20, diam. 7| mill." (Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Mussoorie {Hutton) ; Almorali, N.W. Prov. 
{Pfeirff-er) ; Naini Tal {Stoliczlca) ; Kumaon, W. Himalayas 
(Benson); Kashmir (Theobald). 

Ena ccelehs resembles E. domina in outline, but it is smaller, 
thinner in texture, and its sculpture is less coarse. It is provided 
with dense \va\y spirals like E. pi'etiosa, hut has a more contracted 
a|)erture than that species, and the peristome is more expanded, 
while the spire is more convex. The British Museum possesses 
fifteen specimens collected by Hutton at Mussoorie, measuring : 
long. 18-19, diam. 7 mm., and twelve shells from Almorah, 
received from the same naturalist, i-anging in size from 17"5 x 8*25 
to 15x8 mm. 



222. Ena pretiosa, lieeve. 

Bulimus pretiosus (Cantor), Reeve, Conch. Icon. v. 1849, Bulimvs, 

pi. 83, fig. 619; Pfeiffer, Men. Ilelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 351 ; 

ibid., Conch.-Cab., Bulimus, 1853, p. 70, pi. 20, figs. 27,28; 

Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 23, fig. 7. 
Bulimulus {Ena) ^n-etiosvs, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 161. 
Bulimus (Ena) pretiosus, Pfeifl^er, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 153. 
Btdiminus [Petraeiis) pretiosus. Nevill, fland List, i, 1878, p. 134. 
Napceus pretiosus, Theobald, .1. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 14G. 
Bulimina (Ena) pretiosa. Pfeiffer & Olessin, Nomeiicl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 291. 
Buliminus (Subzebrinus) pretiosus, Kobelt & MoUendorff', Nachr. 

Dents. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 49. 

Original description : — " Shell cylindrically ovate, compressly 
umbilicated, whorls smooth or finely striated, columella broadly 
vertically dilated, aperture rather small, nearly orbicular, lip 
thinly reflected ; pale horny, transparent, waved with numerous 
opake-white streaks." (Reeve.) 

Long. 21, diam. 10 mm. (e.v icon.). 

Hah. India : Chillianwalla, Banks of Jhilum, Kashmir (Cantor); 
Jhilum A^alley (Theobald) ; Tinali (Stoliczla). 

Theobald states that the species occurs sparingly throughout 
tlie Jhilum Valley below XJri, but is nowhere common except 



EN A. 



251 



about Kathai fort on the right bank, where it is abundant, 
although he saw only dead shells. He further observes that its 
range unist be very limited, not having noticed it to the eastward, 
or anywhere in the cis-Iiavi country. 

E. pretiosa has a close afHnity w ith such species as E. eremita 
and E. ccelebs, but is more conoid in tlie spire than the former 
and considerably smaller than the latter, being also differently 
marked. From E. rvJisU-i(/ata, another ally, it may be separated 
by the broader base and the more convex spire. Three specimens 
in the Theobald collection are from the type locality. ^They 
agree with Eeeve's figure, except in size, measuring 16x7'o mm. 
They are rather thin in texture, and are densely covered with 
excessively minute, wavy spirals, a feature not mentioned in the 
original description. The upper margin of the peristome strongly 
arches forward. In the British Museum are also five specimens 
collected by Major tSpratt at Lundi Kotal. These range in size 
between 21 x 8, 18-o x 7, and 16 x 7 mm. 

223. Ena mainwaringiana, Nevilh 

Buliminus (Pctrceus) maimmringianus, Nevill, Sci. Ees. Second 

Yarkand iNIiss., Moll. 1878, p. 19, tig. 28. ^ 
Napa^is mainwaringianvs, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 4*. 
Buliminus {Stibzebrinus) maimmrinfiianus, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., 

Fam, Bulimiuidae, 1902, p. 937, pi. 132, tigs. 1, 2. 

Original description : — " Narrowly and superficially rimate, 
subcylindrically conical, of stout, smooth, and polished substance; 
striated, striae less oblique than in the preceding [stoliczlanus], 
fewer and more regular, not crowded together in the same way, 
here and there one more developed than the others, with inter- 
mediate ones more or less obsolete ; light horny-brown, variegated 
with opaque white markings, as in B. jrreiiosus ; these markings 
are fewer, of a moi-e zigzag, broader, and more irregular nature 
than those of the preceding ; spire produced, apex scarcely 
obtuse ; whorls 7, the three apical ones unusually short compared 
with the others, last whorl compressed; aperture very small, 
almost as broad as high, peristome pure white, outer margin con- 
siderably thickened ; columella very broadly reflected, straighter 
than in"^ the preceding, slightly subangulate, instead of rounded, 
at base. 

"Long. 10, diam. 4| (last whorl to base of aperture, 5|) ; 
apert. alt. 3|, lat. 3 mm." 

Hah. India : Murree (StoUczl-a) ; Pakli Valley, Tandiani Hills, 
4000-5000 ft. (Theobald): Lundi Kotal (Sivatt). 

" There is no Indian species with which I can compare this 
species. As to shape, the nearest I know of are some small 
dwarf forms of Cylindrvs insidaris ; the species is, however, next 
allied to B. pretiosus and B. rufistrif/atvs.' (KevilL) 

Theobald collected what he took to be a variety of this shell on 
the hills north-west of the Pakli Valley from 4000 to 5000 feet, 



252 



ENID.«. 



where he says it is not rare locally. He continues, " It has one 
whorl less than the type (which is described as having 7), but is 
slightly larger, a dilference probably due to the lesser elevation at 
which uiy specimens lived. Shell with sis whorls, outer edge of 
aperture not quite so convex, or full, as in Nevill's plate. In 
most other respects corresponding wdth the description of the 
type. The surface under a lens displays a microscopically de- 
cussated sculpture, not mentioned in the type. Two varieties 
occur : var. major, long. 15, lat. 6'2 mill. ; var. intermedia, 
long. 12, lat. 4-4. This last I do not term ' minor ' as it is 
actually larger that the type from Mari." 





Fig. 92. — E?ia mainwarinijiana, hxrge form. ?,. 

The species is characterized by the large body-whorl and the 
strong decussated sculpture. It varies in size like most of the 
members of the group. Dr. Kobelt records specimens from 
Tandiani, in the Mbllendorff collection, 14-5 x7'5 mm., while the 
Theobald collection contains shells from the same localit)% measui'- 
ing from 13*75x5 to 11x45 mm. The same collection com- 
prises a series from the Jhilum Valley, above Kohala, considerably 
larger than typical inaimvaringiana. Two of these are here 
figured ; they have the following dimensions : — 16-5 x 8*5 and 
15x7 mm.; while two others appear sufficiently distinct to base 
two new varieties upon them. 

A^ar. tumida, nov. 

Twice the length of the type and nearly three times its 
diameter. 




Fig. 93. — Ena /naiiiwamigiana, var. tumida. i. 
Long. 21-5, diam. 11 mm. 



EKA. 



25;i 



Var. dominula, nov. 

Twice the length o£ the type and more than twice its diameter, 




Fig. 94. — Ena mainwaringiana, var. doiniimla. %. 
Long. 21-5, diam. 9-5 mm. 

224. Ena rufistrigata. Reeve. 

Bulimus nifistriyatus (Bensou), Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, 
Bidimus, pi. 78, fig. 570; Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, 
p. 350 ; ibid., Conch.-Cab., Bulijnus, 1853, p. 69, pi. 20, figs. 29, 
30, pi. 21, figs. 16, 17 ; Hanley & Theobald, Couch. Ind."l870, 
pi. 23, fig. 10. 

Bulimuhis [Ena) ni/istrit/ati(s, Adams, Gen. Eec. Moll, ii, 1855, 
p. 161. 

Bulimus {Ena) rufistriff edits, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. ii. 1856, p. 153. 

Buliminus rufistrujatus, von Martens, Malak. Bliitt. xv. 1868, 

P- 158. 
Buliminus {Petraeus) rufistricfcitus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 134. 
Napeeus riifistrigntus, Theobald, J. A. S. B, xlvii, 1878, p. 146; 

Westerlund, Katal. Paliiarct. Binnenconch. 1890, p. 91 ; ibid.. 

Sjn. Moll. Extramar. lieg. Paleearct. i, 1897, p. 11. 
Buliminus nrftstriqahcs, Koljelt in Eossmassler, Iconogr. vii. 1880. 

p. 44, pi. 198, figs. 1991-1993. 
Bulimijia (Ena) rufistrigata, Pfeiffer & Olassin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 290. 
Buliminus (Chondi'ulopsis) rufistrigatus, Westerlund, Fauna 

Palaarct. Binnencouchjd. iii, 1887, p. 70. 
Buliminus (Subzebriinis) rujistrigatus. Kobelt & Molleudorff, 

Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 49. 

Orifjinal description : — " Shell cylindrically oblong, compressly 
umbilicated, whorls eight in number, flatly convex, smooth, 
minutely crenulated at the sutures, aperture rather small, neaxdy 
orbicular ; fulvous horny, in-egularly finely streaked with opake- 
white." {Reeve.) 

Long. 17, diam. 7 mm. {ex icon.). 

Hah. India : base of the lower range of the Himalayas, between 



254 ENID^. 

tlie rivers Jumna and Siitlej (Hutton) ; Jhilum Valley {Stoliczka). 
Common on the outer hills from the Jumna to the Indus 
[Kashmir] {Theobald) ; Lundi Kotal (Sprati). 

" Communicated to Mr. Benson by Capt. Hutton with the title 
Pupa strigata, of which the specific name is occupied in the present 
genus/' {Reeve.) 

Hanley considers rujisiri{/atus a somewhat doubtful species 
(Conch. Ind. p. 12), running into pretiosus and eremita, while 
Theobald (J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 146) states that " closely 
allied to this species and with difficulty separable in a large series, 
are eremita, siiidicus, salsicola, and spelams." 

Var. gracilis (Benson), Hanley ^ Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, 
p. 10, pi. 20, fig. 4 ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 134. 

Smaller and slenderer than the type. Length 11 mm. 
Hab. India: Kashmir (/SioZicr^-rt) ; l\.n]i.erhsLt[ (Theobald). 

With the foregoing ohservatious I entirely associate myself, 
but would exclude spelceus, as being absolutely synonymous ^\■ith 
eremita, while I would add domina. With the large series of these 
species before me I have experienced great difficulty in defining 
their limits. On the whole, I would consider rufistrigata as 
being the smallest of the group and distinguishable from eremita 
by the more convex spire. Like most of the other members of 
the group, it occurs in sinistral as well as dextral specimens, the 
former being represented by a shell in the British Museum, 
collected at Simla by Hutton, and measuring 17x7 mm., together 
with three dextral ones. The species has also been found at 
Lundi Kotal by Major Spratt. The variety gracilis, again, con- 
nects the species with E. beddomiana, but differs principally from 
that species in having the last wliorl proportionately larger. 
Five specimens of this variety from Kakerhati are in the Theobald 
collection. 

Subgenus SERINA, Gredler. 

Serinn, Gredler, Gymuasialprogr. Bozeu, 1898, p. 10 (as Genus) ; 
MoUendorff', Ann. Mus. Zool. St. Petersburg, vi, 1902, p. 356 
(as Subgenus of BuUminus) ; Wiegmaun, torn. cit. p. 270 
(anatomy) ; Kobelt & MiJllendorff, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 
1903, p. 58. 

Type : (first species) Serbia cathaica, Gredler. 

Range : China, India. 

Shell more or less cybJidrical-turreted, many-whorled ; whorls 
convex, aperture oblong-roluuaate, peristome widely expanded, 
scarcelv reflexed, margins united by a distinct callus. 

Jaw scarcely or not at all dilated towards the sides. 

Radula transverse, wdth 41-18 teeth, of which the central and 
the first 4 or 5 laterals are in some species unicuspid, sometimes 
showing rudiments of outer side cusps. 



I 



ENA.. 255 

Genital system approaching the general type of Papinidius, 
Fetrceomastus, and Subzebrhms, being especially characterised by 
the unusual length of the spermatlieca duct which, after separating 
from the ovisperm duct, with its diverticulum reaches far beyond 
the albumen gland, greatly exceeding the latter together with 
the ovisperm duct in length, in some species even 4;| or 5 times. 
The appendix of the penis, on the Other hand, is much shorter, 
not reaching as far as the albumen gland, and attaining only i or 
at most I the length of the penis. {Wlegmann.) 



225. Ena tandianiensis, Kohelt (emend.). 

Jiuliminns (Subzebrinus) tandjanensis, Kobelt, Conch. -Cab. 
Fam. Buliminidae, 1902, p. 939, pi. 132, figs. 5, G. 

Original description : — " Testa angusta rimata, ovato-conica, 
tenuiuscula, striatula, albida, strigis fuscis crebris ornata, summo 
luteo-fusco. ISpira regulariter conica lateribus vix convexius- 
culis, apice submaraillato ; sutura linearis, anfractus 7 vix con- 
vexiusculi leuiter accrescentes, ultimus major, postice altitudinis 
I superans, basi rotuadatus, initio obscure subangulatus, antice 
baud ascendens. Apertura vix obliqua, truncato-ovalis, intus 
strigis translueentibus ; peristoma acutum, tenuiter albolabiatum, 
expansum, margiiiibus vix convergentibus, baud juuctis, colu- 
mellari brevi, subarcuato. 

" Alt. 10-5, diam. max. 5-5, alt. apert. obi. 4-5 mm." {Kobelt.) 

Hah. India: Taiidiaiii Hills, Punjab. 

This species has affinity with E. kuluensis, but possesses a 
shorter, more conoid spire, composed of seven whorls, whereas in 
kuluensis eight whorls may be counted. The aperture of tandia- 
niensis is also more dilated. It is quite possible that with larger 
series the two forms will be found to intergrade insensibly. 



226. Ena kuluensis, Kobelt. 

Buliminus (Subzebrhitis) kuluemis, Kobelt, Concli.-Cab., Fam Buli- 
miuidiB, 1902, p. 938, pi. 132, figs. 3, 4. 

Original description: — "Testa breviter rimata, ovato-turrita 
subfusiformis, obsoleta striatula, tenuiuscula, parum niteus, albida 
strigis fuscis subregulariter picta, summo fusco. Spira primum 
cylindrica, dein conica, apice obtusulo ; sutura linearis, parum 
impressa. Anfractus 8 lente ac regulariter crescentes, ultimus 
postice f altitudinis occupans, subcylindricus, basi rotundatus, 
antice vix ascendens. Apertura fere vertiealis, ovata, parum 
lunata ; peristoma tenue, expansum, marginibus vix connivea- 
tibus, externo et basali albolabiatis, columellari vix dilatato. 

" Alt. l;3, diam. max. 5, alt. apert. obi. 4 mm." {Kobelt.) 

Hab. India : Kulu, W. Himalayas. 



256 ENID^. 

Received by MoUendorff from the late Miss Linter as B. rufo- 
strigatus var. gracilis. 

Pive specimens in the Theobald collection, from Kakerhati, I 
refer to E. Iculuensis. It is shorter and more conoid than rufi- 
strigata. 

227. Ena beddomeana, Nevill. 

Buliminus (Petireus) beddomeamis, Nevill, Sci. Res. Second Yar- 

kaud Miss., Mollusca, 1878, p. L^O, tig. 29. 
Napcius beddomeamis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1, 1881 , p. 47. 
Buliminus (Subzebrinus) beddomeamis (Nevill), Kobelt, Conch .- 

Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 1902, p. 9-39, pi. 132, figs. 15, 16. 

Original description : — " This is a very interesting species, 
resembling somewhat, in shape of the whorls and aperture, 
B. smithei, ' Conchologia Indica,' pi. xx, fig. 3, but it is still 
nearer B. eremita, Bens., I. c. fig. 8, from which its produced 
spire, narrower whorls, and nperture easily distinguish it. 
Narrowly rimate, subcylindricall}^ turreted, of solid, scarcely 
polished substance ; closely, obliquely striate, strise more regular 
and crowded together than in the two preceding forms [stolicz- 
Tcamis and maimvaringianus] ; of a very pale horn-colour, only 




i 
a ^ 6 

Fig. 95. — Ena heddomiana, var. turrifa. f . 

here and there discernible, on account of the crowded stride, 
which are of a chalk-white colour ; spire much produced, apex 
obtuse ; whorls 10, increasing very gradually and regularly, last 
whorl compressed; aperture very small, peristome white, outer 
margin broadly reflected, vezw slightly arcuate (much as in pi. xx, 
tig. 3, 1, c); columella dilated, obliquely rounded at base. 

"Long. 13f, diam. 4f (last whorl to base of aperture, 5); 
apert. alt. 3^, lat. 2| mm." (Nevill) 

Hah. India : Murree, Punjab {Nevill) ; Taudiaui, llazara 
(Theobald) ; Campbellpur (Terhurg). 

Three varieties are indicated by Theobald as occurring at Tan- 
diani, the hill station of Hazara, the most northern portion of the 
Punjab and bordering on Kashmir, where he says the species is 
rather common. The varieties he mentions are : var. typica, 
10 whorls, long. 12'4, lat. 2-6 mill.; var. turrita, 11 whorls,' 
long. 12-4, lat. 3 mill.; var. pusilla, 9 whorls, long. 8-5, lat. 



EX A. 257 

2-5 mill. The var. turrita is here illustrated from a specimen in 
the Theobald collection in the British Museum, fig. 95 c, showing 
the aperture enlarged. Theobald further states that it is the 
most aberrant species of the genus, and that the flat expanded 
peristome, it sometimes displays, suggests a relationship to some 
Pupct, such as P. ccenojncta. 

Kobelt, when describing and figuring the species, appears to 
have been ignorant of the fact that a description and figure of it 
had already been published by Nevill. Kobelt's specimen is some- 
what smaller than iS"eviirs type, the dimensions of the former 
being given as : alt 10, diam. 4, ap. alt. 3 mm. 

The Theobald collection contains four specimens which may 
be considered typical, having ton whorls and measuring 12 mm. 
in length ; these are from Kakerhati, on the Simla Eoad. Four 
other shells have nine whorls, and measure 9 mm. in length, 
and may be referred to Theobald's var. 'pusilla ; they agree with 
Kobelt's figures based on specimens from Tandiani in the Mtillen- 
dorfli' collection, while, finally, four more specimens of eleven 
whorls, from Tandiani, pertain to the var. turrita; one measures 
13-25 X 3-5 ram., and another, which is here figured, has the 
following dimensions : length 11 25, diam. 3-5 mm. The British 
Museum further possesses a specimen of the latter variety, 
collected by Major Yerbury at Campbellpur, situate to the 
south-west of the Hazara Hills. 

228. Ena hazarica, sp. n. 

Shell turreted-fusiform, finely obliquely striated, pale corneous, 
rather solid. AVhorLs 11, slightly convex, increasing slowly and 
regularly, the last scarcely wider than the penultimate, slightly 




Fig. 96. — Ena hazarica. %. 

ascending near the aperture. Spire straight, apex blunt, suture 
impressed. Aperture subquadrate-ovate, margins distant, united 
by a callus on the parietal wall, with a denticle near the upper 
margin ; peristome thickened, strongly and flatly expanded, upper, 
outer, and basal margins evenly curved, columellar margin tri- 
angularly dilated, slightly curved, forming an obtuse angle with 
the basal uiargin. Umbilicus contracted, leaving only a narrow 
perforation. 

Length 13, diam. 2-75 mm. 

s 



258 ENID^. 

Hah. India: Tandiani, Hazara, N.W. Frontier (Theobald). 
Type in the British Museum. 

The shell on which this new species is based occurred with 
several specimens of E. beddomiana, var. turrita in the Theobald 
collection. It differs from that form in the more slowly in- 
creasing whorls, the last being scarcely wider than the penultimate, 
and in the smaller aperture ; it also differs in its dimensions, the 
length being a little greater and the diameter somewhat smaller, 
while the peristome is more expanded but not reflexed. The shell 
consequently has quite a different facies, and can be readily picked 
out from among its congeners. 

Tandiani, the spot where the shell was taken in company with 
E. beddomiana, is the hill station situate in the Hazara hills, near 
the Afghan frontier, at an elevation of 8500 feet, where the pre- 
vailing rock appears to be limestone*. 

Figs. 96, a & b, give the front and back view of the shell, while 
fig. 96 c shows the aperture. 

229. Ena nevilliana, Theobald. 

Peronceus nevillianus, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 48. 
Buliminus {Ena) nevillianus, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Bulimiuidae, 

1902, p. 880, pi. 128, figs. 1, 2. 
Buliminus {Subzebrinus) nevillianus, ibid. tom. cit. p. 1045. 

Original description. — " Testa turrita, rimata, costanea [cas- 
tanea], anfr. 8 ad 9 convexiusculis, transverse plicatis, lineisque 
spiralibus leviter decussatis, ultimo brevissime ascendenle. Aper- 
tura oblonga, verticali. Margine palUdo, simplici, expansiusculo, 
et juxta columellam breviter reflexo. 

" Long. 15-7. lat. 4-1 mill., ad long. 11-9, lat. 4 mill." {Theo- 
bald.) 

Hah. India: Tandiani, Hazara hills, Punjab, 8500 it. {Theobald); 
Lundi Khotal {Sjrratt). 





Fig. 97.— Ena nevilliana. Shell |, sculpture \. 

The species had remained unfigured until Dr. Kobelt illustrated 
it from a specimen in the Mollendorff collection. The shell is 
strongly irregularly costulate-striate, the striae being cut by coarse 
incised spirals ; it is dark fuscous in colour, not flammulated. 



* Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 47. 



PUPOiDES. 259 

The Theobald collection contains two batches of the present 
species, both from Tandiani ; one of four specimens was duly so 
labelled by Theobald and marked type. One of these is shown, 
together with the enlarged sculpture, in fig. 97 a. The second 
batch consists of five shells which were unnamed by Theobald ; 
although the spirals cutting the transverse ribs are not quite so 
far apart as in the other shells, and the resulting bead-like sculp- 
ture is consequently not quite so coarse, I have no hesitation in 
referring this form likewise to E. nevilUaiia. One shell is depicted 
in fig, 97 b. 

Genus PUPOIDES, Pfeifer. 
Pupoides, Pfeiflfer, Malak. Blatt. i, 1854, p. 192 (as section oi Bulimics, 




MoUendorff, Nachr. Deuts. Malak, Ges. 1903, p. 70. 
Lcucochila, vou Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 296 (as section 

of Pupa). 
Leucochiloides, Pfeifler & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 292 

(as subsection of Eiia) . 

Type, (first species) Bulimus nitidulus, Pfeiffer. 

Range. Southern Asia, Equatorial Africa, Australasia, North 
America, Antilles, and South America. 

Shell small, elongate-ovate, rather smooth, corneous ; spire 
elongate, conoid; whorls 5|-75, convex, the last ascending in 
front ; aperture provided with a parietal lamella ; peristome widely 
and flatly expanded, reflexed, acute, margins approximating-, 
united by a callus, edentulous. 

Some Australian and African species are sinistral, one — P. con- 
trarius. Smith — being amphidrome. 

Anatomy unknown. 

230. Pupoides ccenopictus, Butto,i. 

No. 7, Pupa, Ilutton, .T. A. S. B. iii, 1834, p. 85 ; No. 7, Pupa 
(mihi) ccenopicta ?, ibid., torn. cit. p. 93. 

Bulimus ccenopictus, Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Bulimus, pi. 69 
fig. 492 ; Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, iv, 1849, p. 127 ; Pfeiffer' 
Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 349 ; ibid., Couch.-Cab., Bulimus 
1854, p. 152, pi. 39, figs. 17-19 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 
1865, p. 94 ; ibid., op. cit. xlv, 1875, p. 45 ; Hanley & Theobald 
Oonch. Ind. 1870, pi. 2.3, fig. 9. 

Bulimulus {Ena) ccenopictus, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855 
p. 160. ' 

Bulimus {Napaeus) coenopictns, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856 
p. 153. ' 

Pupa coenopicta, Morelet, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, iii, 1872, p. 200. 

Pupa {Leucochila) ccenopictus, Nevill, J. A. S, B. xlvi, 1877, p. 23 ; 
ibid., Hand List, i, 1878, p. 193 [ccenopicta) ; ibid., in Anderson, 
Zool. Res. Exp. W. Yunnan, i, 1879, p. 882 {coenopicta) ■ Peile 
Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. xi, 1908, p. 131, ' 

s2 



260 KNIDiE. 

Perotueus cccnopictns, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 144. 
Bulimina {Ena (Lt-ncochiloides)) coenopida, Pt'eifter & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 292. 
Bulhnmus [Leucochiloides) coenopicta, Tryon, Struct. Syst. Conch. 

iii, 1884, p. 54, pi. 99, %. 65. 
Buliminus canopicUis, Ancey, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xviii, 1893, 

p. 42. 
Pupoides coenopictus, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 1902, 

p. 918, pi. 130, figs. 22, 23. 
Bidiminus (Pujja) fallax, Jickeli, Sitz. Bar. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin, 

1873, p. 6. 
BuUmhms (Ncqmeus) fallu.v (Say), Jickeli, Nova Acta K. Leop.- 

Carol. Akad. Naturf. xxxvii", 1874, p. 97, pi. 2, fig. 1 (jaw), pi. G, 

fig-. 1 (shell), 

Oricjinal description:— '■'■ Shell about 2i Hues in length ; whorls 8 ; 
spire rather obtuse ; colour brown ; aperture rounded, margins 
reflected and interrupted by the body-whorl. 

" Animal with four tentacles, buttoned at the tips, the upper 
pair longest and bearing the eyes at the summit ; colour blackish." 
{Iluiton, 1834.) 

" Shell cylindrico-pyramidal, with 6 whorls, minutely striate ; 
body-whorl ventricose, the others gradually tapering to an obtuse 
apex ; aperture ovato-lunate, lips sub-reflected and white within ; 
a single tooth at the junction of the outer lip with the body-whorl ; 
colour brown." (Hutton, 1849.) 
Length 4-4*5, diam. nearly 2 mm. 

Hab. India: Salt Eange, Kashmir, N.W. Punjab {TheohaJd) ; 
Agra (Hutton); Delhi, lioorkee (Wood-Mason); Patna {Main- 
warinq) ; Kutch (Stoliczlm) ; Trichinopoly, Erode {Blanford, 
Fairhanh) ; Travancore (Beddome) ; Dinapore, Kurual (Bacon) ; 
Bombay Is. (Peile, West) ; Ceylon (Nevill, Beddome). Afghanistan 
(Hutton, Laidlaw). Abyssinia (Blanford). 

In colour the shell varies from pale and dark corneous to fulvous, 
in some cases even rufous ; it is usually more or less shining, and 
there are from to 7 whorls, some specimens have a more elongate 
spire than others and the body-whorl is somewhat ventricose. In 
a small percentage of shells the parietal denticle near the upper 
margin of the peristome is obsolete or even entirely wanting. 

Jickeli has united under the collective name of Bidiniimis 
(jya2Kieris) faUa.v, Stay ,])ractica\\y all the forms of the genus known 
to him at the time of writing, stating that the different species 
have been based on characters which may occur in specimens from 
the same locality. Bourguignat, as might have been anticipated 
strongly protested against this method of uniting forms from the 
four quarters of the globe under a common designation and pro- 
ceeded to add another new species *. While admitting that the 
various forms closely approximate each otliei-, on geographical 
grounds alone I must consider it advisable to separate them,Mhile, 

* Ami. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 6. xv, art. 2, 1883, p. 62. 



PUPOIDES. 261 

moreover, a careful scrutiny of large series of specimens has con- 
vinced me that P. fdllax and P. ccenopictus, at least, may readily 
be separated by the characters of the peristome, which m fallax i's 
much more strongly developed, thickened, and expanded, and has 
the upper margin more deflexed towards the body-whorl, forming 
an obtuse angle with the outer margin which is but slightly 
curved, whereas in aenopicta the upper and outer margins together 
form a regular curve. 



231. Pupoides lardeus, Pfdffer. 

Bulimus lardeus, Pfeifier, P. Z. S. 1 852, p. lo7 ; ibid., Mon. Helic. 

Viv. iii, 1853, p. 348 ; ibid., Conch.-Cab., Buliimcs, 18.54, p. 151, 

pi. 39, tigs. 14-16. 
Bulimulus {Naixeus) lardeus, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 162. 
Bulimus (Napaeus) lardeus, Pfeifter, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 153. 
Buliminus (Napaeus) lardeus.xon Martens, Die Heliceen.ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 234. 
Buliminus {Leucochiloides) lardeus, Kobelt, 111. Conchyl. Buch, ii, 

1878, p. 273, pi. 84, fig. 12. 
Bulimina (Una {Leucochiloides)) lardea, Pfeifter & Clessin, Nomencl. 

IleUc. Viv. 1881, p. 292. 
Pupoides lardeus, Kobelt, Couch.- Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 1902, 

p. 918. 

Original description : — " B. testa subperforata, oblougo-ovata, 
solidula, striata, lardeo-micante, rufo-coruea; spira convexo- 
turrita, apice obtusa ; anfract. 6, convexiusculis, ultimo 4 longi- 
tudiuis vix superante, basi subcompresso ; apex-tura subverticali, 
truncato-ovali ; perist. intus labiato, subangulatim pateute mar- 
ginibus remotis, callo teuui juxta insertiouem dextri obsolete 
pliciferi junctis. 

" Long. oJ, diam. 2i mill." (Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India. 

The Cuming collection in the British Museum contains five 
specimens of Pupoides lardeus. This form, which is perhaps only 
a variety of P. amopictus, is larger, possessing one more whorl, 
and is more conoid in the spire. 



232. Pupoides tutulus, lleeve. 

Bulimus tutulus (Benson), Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Bulimus, 

pi. 84, fig. 625. 
Pupa tutula, Kiister, Conch.-Cab., Pupa, 1852, p. 133, 'pi. 17, 

tigs. 8-10 ; I'feirter, Mon. llelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 535 ; Hanley & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 156, fig. 0. 
Pupa (Pupilla) tutula, Adams, Gen. Rcc. Moll, ii, 1855, p. 170 ; 

l»teifter, Malak. Bljitt. ii, 1856, p. 176. 
Pupa {Leucochila) tutula, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 194 (=P. 

camopicta, var.) ; Pfeifter & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881. 

p. 351. 



262 ENID.E. 

Pupoides tutulus. Kobelt & MolleudorfF, Nachr, Deuts. Malak. Ges. 
1903, p. 71. 

Original description : — " Shell conical, rather broad at the base, 
compressly umbilicated, whorls six iu number, rounded, very 
minutely striated, columella broadly vertically dilated, with a small 
callosity above, aperture nearly round, lip slightly reflected ; light 
chestnut, somewhat horny, callosity white." {Reeve.) 

Long. 5|, diam. 3 mill. Ap. 2 mill, longa, Ig lata. (Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Humeerpore, Buudelkhund {Benson) ; Delhi and 
K^agpore ( Wood- Mason) ; Kutch and 8ind {Stoliczlca, Blanford) ; 
Patna {Maimvaring). 

Reeve, in illustrating the species, makes no mention of the fact 
that his figure is enlarged, which is especially misleading owing to 
his invariable habit of omitting all measurement in the ' Conchologia 
Iconica.' There is, indeed, a note at the bottom of the page 
stating, "All exceedingly minute," but this is apt to be over- 
looked. As 1 have not seen any specimens I have been obliged 
to quote Pfeiffer's measurements taken from Benson's shells. 
Pupoides iutidns differs from its congeners at a first glance by its 
much broader base. 



Genus CERASTUS, von Martens. 

Cerastus (Albers), von Marteus, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 232 (as 
section oi Buliminus) ; Jickeli, Nova Acta K. Leop.-Carol. Akad. 
Naturf. xxxvii, no. 1, 1874, p. 103, pi. 2, fig. 2 (jaw and radula, 
Bidimimis abyssinicus) ; Scliacko, in Mobius, Beitr. Meeresf. 
Mauritius u. Seychellen, 1880, p. 340 (radula of abyssinicus) ; 
Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Ileiic. Viv. 1881, p. 286 ; Kobelt 
& MoUendorff, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1903, p. 40 (genus). 

Type, (first species) Bidimus distans, Pfeiffer. 

Range. India, Africa. 

Shell rimate, ovate, costulate or striate, thin, corneous ; whorls 
6-7 convex, last whorl about equalling the spire ; aperture 
rotundate- ovate, peristome reflexed, margins approaching, united 
by a thin callus. 

Jaw 1"5 mm. across, slightly curved, yellowish corneous, strong, 
and exhibiting distinct, fairly regular lines of growth, which are 
crossed by stronger transverse strise, which under a more powerful 
lens appear as irregular fine riblets. {Jickeli.) 

Eadula 4 mm. long, 1*5 mm. broad, tapering anteriorly, with 
133 transverse rows, which ascend towards the margin, then 
descend and terminate horizontally. Longitudinal rows from 91 
to 101. Central tooth varying from 0030 to 0'036 mm. in length. 
Laterals characterized by prominent cutting edges on either side, 
and a basal plate elongated posteriorly and projecting somewhat 
wing-like towards the outer side. (Jickeli.) 

Grenitalia unknown. 



CBRASTUS, 263 

233. Cerastus abyssinicus, Pfeiffer. 

Buliminus habessinicus (Ruppell), Beck, Index Moll. 1838, p. 68 

(nom. nud.). 
Bulimus abyssi7iicus (Riipp.), PfeiiFer, Zeit. Malak. ii, 1845, p. 157 ; 

ibid., Moil. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 110; Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 

1848, Bulimus, pi. 46, fig. 290 ; Pfeiffer, Concb.-Cab., Bulimus, 

1854, p. 149, pi. 39, figs. 6, 7 ; Pfeirter, Mou. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, 

p. 55 ; Morelet, Voy. Welwitsch, Moll. 1868, p. 40; ibid., Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Genova, iii, 1872, p. 197 ; Haiiley & Theobald, Conch. 

Ind. 1870, pi. 21, tig. 1 ; Bourguignat, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. ser. 6, 

XV, 1883, art. 2, p. 55, pi. 9, fig. 59 ; ibid., Moll. Afr. Equat. 

1889, p. 50. 
Bitlitnus {Petraeus) abyssinicus, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 184; 

PfeiflFer, Malak, Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 154. 
Bulimulus {Petrceus) abyssinicus, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 162. ^ 

Buliminus abyssinicus, var. venfrosa, Martens, Malak. Bliitt. xvi, 

1869, p. 210. 
Buliminus {Petraeus) abyssinicus, Jickeli, Nova Acta K. Leop.-Carol. 

Akad. Naturf. xxxvii, no. 1, 1874, p. 103, pi. 2, tig. 9 (javsr and 

radula), pi. 5, fig. 2 (shell). 
Buliminus {Cerastus) abt/ssinicus, Kobelt, Illustr. Conchyl. Buch, 

ii, 1878, p. 273, pi. 84," tig. 6 ; PoUouera, Boll. Mus. Zool Torino, 

xiii, 1898, no. 313, p. 6. 
Bulimina (Cerasttis) abyssinica, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 286. 
Buliminus ( Cerastus) abessynicus, Kobelt, Conch. -Cab., Fam. Buli- 

minidae, 1899, p. 532, pi 84, figs. 9-12. 
Cerastus abessinicus, Kobelt & Mollendorft, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. 

Ges. 1903, p. 40. 
Buliininus abyssinicus, var., Peile, Journ. Bombav Nat. Hist. Soc. xi, 
1908, p. 131. 

Original description: — "Testa rimato-perforata, ovato-acuminata, 
tenui, regulariter et confertim arcuato costata, diaphana, corneo- 
albida ; spira elongata, conica ; anfr. 7, convexis, ultimo ^ longi- 
tudinis subsequante ; columella subrecta, intus subtorta ; apertura 
obloQgo-ovali ; perist. acuto, margiue dextro arcuato, breviter ex- 
panse, columellari dilatato, patente. 

"Long. 21, diam. 11 mill." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. ludia: Malwa {Theobatd) : Manda, Nerbudda Valley 
{Blanford) ; Poona {Beddome) ; Bombay Island {Peile). Abyssinia 
{Blanford, JicJceli, Bourguignat). 

The occurrence of this species in such widely separated countries 
is somewhat startling, but may be accounted for by the intro- 
duction into India with plants. In a letter to Pfeiffer (^recorded 
in Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, p. 55) Benson suggested that it had been 
imported with Adansonia digitata. 

The shell appears to vary to a certain extent, and some of the 
specimens figured by Jickeli seem to be immature. This same 
author suggested that Bulimus Jiarrisi, Keeve, is identical, but 
Reeve's figure does not bear out this contention. 

C. abyssinicus is closely related to C. distans but the shell is 



264 ENIDiE. 

more diaphanous, the spire is shorter, the body-whorl is more in- 
flated and the ribs are more distant. The interstices between the 
costse are closely and minutely spirally striated. The figure in 
Conch. Ind. shows a more elongated spire, the last whorl is less 
swollen and the aperture narrower than in typical ahyssinica. 

In size the species varies from 20x12 and 19x11*5 to 
16 X 10-5 mm. 



23-1. Cerastus fairbanki, Pfeiffer. 

Bulimusfairbanki, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 109 ; ibid., Mon. Helic. 

Viv. iv, 1859, p. 410 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, 

pi. 20, tig. 9. 
Bidiminus ( Cerastus) scalaris (Ilairburn), von Martens, Die Heli- 

ceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 232. 
Buliminus {Cerastus) fairbanki, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 133 ; 

Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 1900, p. 677, pi. 102, 

Bulimina {Cerastus) fairbanJii, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomeucl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 280. 
Cerastus fairbanki, Kobelt & Molleudorft', Nachr. Deuts. Malak. 

Ges. 1903, p. 40. 

Original description : — " T. anguste et compresse umbilicata, 
ovato-coiiica, tenuuiscula, conferte striata et costis irregulariter 
distantibus compressis subarcuatis sculpta, sub lente exilissime 
spiraliter striata, baud nitens, fulvescenti-albida ; spira conica, 
apice obtusa ; anfr. 6 convexi, ultimus spira vix brevior, juxta 
umbilicum compressus ; apertura parum obliqua, elliptico-ovalis ; 
perist. album, marginibus conniventibus dextro mediocriter ex- 
panso, coiumellari stricto, late patente. 

" Long. 19, diam. 9| mill." (Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Ahmednuggar {FairhanTc). 

This is the best characterized of all the Indian species of 
Cerastus, on account of the prominent and widely spaced ribs, 
which are about 2 mm. apart. Five specimens in the Beddome 
collection, from Alimednuggar, the type-locality, show that two 
forms may be recognized. Tlie one typical, broadly conoid, the 
other with more elongated spire and narrower base ; the ribs are 
neither quite so widely nor so i-egularly spaced, and the form 
would almost constitute a passage to 0. distans. 

235. Cerastus malabaricus, Pfeiffer. 

BuUmus malabaricus, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. iv, 1857, p. 156 ; ibid., 

]\[oii. Helic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 411. 
Bidiminus {Cerastus) deccanensis (Blanford), Nevill, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 133 (nom. mut.). 
Bidimina {Cerastus) malabarica, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881. p. 286. 
Cerastus malabarims, Kobelt & Mollendorff, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. 

Ges. 1903, p. 41. 



CEBASTUS. 265 

Original description : — " T. anguste umbilicata, conico-ovata, 
solidula, conferte striata, pariim nitida, sordide albida; spira 
elongato-conica, apice obtusa ; anfr, 6 convexi, ultimus f longi- 
tudinis subaequans, juxta umbilicum leviter compressus ; apertura 
obliqua, angulato-ovalis ; perist. teiiue, niarginibus approximatis, 
callo tenuissimo, superne tuberculifero junctis, dextro perarcuato, 
breviter expanse, columellari dilatato, breviter pateute. 

"Long. 14, diam. 7i mill. Ap. 6k mill, longa, 4 lata." 
{Pfeiffer.) 

Hab. India : Ahmednuggar, Deccan {Fairhanh, Blanford). 

The species never having been figured, I have taken the 
opportunit)^ of illustrating the type in the Cuming collection. 
The shell bears some resemblance to that of G. redfieldi, Pfeiffer, 
being similar in shape, but it is smaller and has a narrower 
umbilicus. It is furnished with very fine spirals on the body- 
whorl, where the transverse striae are less distinct than on the 
other portions of the shell. 





Fig. 98. — Ccraslii.'i malaharicus. f. 

I have seen five specimens in the Beddome collection, also from 
Ahmednuggar, which ai-e a trifle larger than the type, measuring 
15x0 mm., and are a little more fuscous, with the body-whorl 
not quite so tumid. 

Blanford appears to have found it necessary to alter the specific 
name* on the plea that the habitat is not in Malabar, as Pfeifier 
erroneously thought, but in the Deccan. In view of the admitted 
fact, however, that a specific name is intended to '' designate, not 
to describe," I have found it expedient to disregard the latter name 
and to revert to Pfeiffer's original designation. 

236. Cerastiis jerdoni, lieeve. 

Bulimus jerdoni (Benson), Reeve, Ooiicli. Icon, v, 1848, Bulimus, 

pi. 46,'%. L^97; Pfeitler, Men. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p 335; 

ibid., Conch. -Cab., Btdimus, 1853, p. 73, pi. 20, tigs. 11, 12. 
Bidimus {Petraeus) jerdoni, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 154. 
Buli7ninus (Cerastns) jerdoni, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 132 ; 

Kobelt, Concb.-Cab'., Fani. Bulimiuidae, 1902, p. 893, pi. 127, 

fi"s. 17, 18. 



* Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 133. 



266 ENID^. 

Bulimina (Cerastus) jerdoni, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 286. 
Cerastus jerdoni, Kobelt & Mollendortf, Naclir. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 

1903, p. 40. 

Original description: — "Shell somewhat shortly ovate, largely 
umbilicated, spire rather shoi't, acuminated, whorls six in number, 
swollen, rounded, columella broadly reflected, aperture nearly 
orbicular, lip expanded, scarcely reflected ; dirty olive-brown." 
(^Reeve.) 

Long. 18, diam. ll'o mill, {ex icon.). 

Bah. India : Deccan (Benson) ; Poona (Blanforcl). 

A shell from Ahmednuggar in the Benson collection, kindly sent 
for inspection by Dr. L. Don caster, agrees with Eeeve's flgure, 
except in being paler in colour, which may be due to fading, and 
the outer margin of the peristome being narrower and damaged, 
probably as the result of rough handling. I am consequently 
disposed to regard this specimen as the type. The form figured 
by Hanley and Theobald is larger and with a less convex spire, 
and I refer this to the var. redfieldi, Pfeiffer. 

The species differs from C. densus, Pfeiffer, in being of shorter 
and stouter build, of thinner texture, more finely, not plicately, 
striated, and in being covered with rather close, wavy spirals. 

Var. redfieldi, Pfeiffer. 

Bulimus redfieldi^ Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. i, 1854, p. 66. 

Bulimus jerdoni, var. redfieldi, Pfeiffer, Moo. Helic. Viv. iv, 1859, 

p. 410.' 
Btdimus jerdoni, Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 21, 

fig-- 7. ■ 
Bulimina (Cerastus) 'jerdoni, var. redfieldi, Pfeiffer & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 286. 

Original description : — " T. profunde et compresse umbilicata, 
ovato-conica, tenuis, oblique coufertim striata, pellucida, parum 
nitens, cereo-albida ; spira conica, apice obtusa ; anfr, 6 convexi, 
ultimus spiram aequans, infra suturam subturgidus, juxta umbiHcum 
compressus ; columella fere verticalis, medio introrsum subplicata; 
apertura obliqua, truncato-ovalis ; perist. tenue, marginibus con- 
vergentibus, dextro perarcuato, expanso, subdilatato, columellari 
lato, patente. 

" Long. 20, diam. 11 mill. Ap. 10 mill, longa, intus 5k lata." 
{Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Ahmednuggar (Redfield) ; Poona (Beddome). 

Described originally as a distinct species, evidently before he 
had seen C. jerdoni, Pfeiffer subsequently reduced it to varietal 
rank. The shell figured by Hanley and Theobald as jerdoni I 
refer to this variety. Three specimens from Ahmednuggar in the 
Cuming collection, accompanied by a label bearing the legend 
" B. jerdoni " in Pfeiffer's handwriting, also agree with the de- 
scription and dimensions of redfieldi. The Beddome collection 



CERASTUS. 267 

further comprises five specimens from Poona. These range in 
dimensions from 21x12 to 19x11-5 mm., and have the trans- 
verse striae more pronounced and more regular than is the case in 
typical jerdoni ; the spiral incised lines, on the other hand, are 
not so wavy and not quite so apparent, while the peristome is 
more expanded, the columellar margin especially being verv 
broadly triangular. 

237. Cerastus moussonianus, Petit. 

BiiUinus moussonianus, Petit, Journ. Conchvl. ii, 1851, p. 266, pi. 7, 

fig. 4 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 346 ; Hanley & 

Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 21, fig-. 4. 
Buliminus (Cerastus) moussoiiianus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 132; Kobelt, Coneh.-Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 1900, p. 676, 

pi. 102, tig. 21 : torn. cit. 1902, p. 892, pi. 127, figs. 12-16. 
BuUmina { Cerastus) vioussoniatia, FMSev & Clessin, Mon. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 286. 
Cerastus moussonianus, Kobelt & MollendoriF, Nachr. Deuts Malak 

Ges. 1903, p. 41. 
Buliminus moussonianus, Peile, Journ. Bombay Nat Hist. Soc xi 

1908, p. 131. ^ ' ' 

Orirjinal description : — " B. testa ovato-ventricosa, tenui, trans- 
lucida, umbilicata, pallide cornea ; spira conica ; anfractibus senis 
convexis, longitudinaliter minuteque striatis ; striis obliquis ; 
apertura subrotundata ; labro tenui, expanso, subreflexo ; um- 
bilico parvo. 

" Long. 16, larg. 9 mill." {Petit.) 

Hah. India: Bombay (C7tar6oH?nVr) ; Ahmednuggar (Fairiawl-) ; 
Baroach, Khandala, and Surat {Blanford, FairhanJc) ; Sholapur 
{West); Bombay Island {Peile); Kutch {Stoliczl-a). 

Petit states that it is near B. ah>/ssiniais, but shorter and not 




Fig. 99. — Cerastus moussonianus, var. SLell 5, sculpture f. 

as widely umbilicated, while Kobelt considers it probably a variety 
of that species. Pfeiffer and Clessin, on the other "hand, are 
rather inclined to regard it as synonymous with B. cliar- 
honnieri, Pfr. 

To judge from Petit's original figures I must consider it nearer 
to C. abyssinicus, but it has a more inflated body-whorl and the 
ribs appear more crouded. From C. charbonnieri it may be 



268 ENiD^. 

separated by the shorter, more compressed spire, and from 
C. distans by the shorter spire, the broader base, and the coarser 
and more distant ribs, while, on the other hand, it agrees with 
C. densus in having the columellar margin of the peristome broadly 
and triangularly dilated, forming a distinct angle with the basal 
margin. 

I here figure a shell (fig. 99) in the British Museum from 
Sholapur, Central India, received from Arthur A. West, which 
has a more elongated spire than typical moussonianus, measuring 
18x11 "5 mm. and somewhat approaches C. distans in shape, 
while fig. 100 represents another specimen in the British 
Museum, labelled " India " only ; the latter approximates closely 
to Petit's original figure, except in being a trifle smaller, measuring 
15-5 X 10*5 mm. 




Fig. 100. — Cerastii» moussonianus. Shell |, sculpture f. 

Three speennens in the Cuming collection, collected by Pairbank 
at Ahmednuggar, are labelled moussonianus, Pfeiffer ; they are 
larger than the type, being 18 mm. long. 

238. Cerastus segregatus, Reeve. 

BuUitms scjjrer/atus (Bensou), Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Bulimus, 

pi. 79, tig. 587; Pfeitfer, Men. Helic. Viv. iii, '^Sr^^, p. 440 ; 

ibid., Conch.-Cab., Bulimus, 1853, p. 77, pi. 21, Hgs. 8, 9 ; Ilanley 

& Theobald, Concb. lud. 1874, pi. 80, fig. 10. 
Bulimus {Napaeus) seyrcgatus, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1850, 

p. 153. 
Bulimititis segregatus, var. minor, vou Mavteus, Imp. Obsli. Lyubi. 

Estest. Antrop. Etnoghr. xi, part i, 1874, p. 'I\, pi. 2, fig. 1(3. 
Naixeus segregatus, Theobald, J. A. H. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 145. 
Bulimina {Fachnodus) segreyata, Pfeiffer & Olessin, Nomencl. 

Ilelic. Viv. 1881, p. 284. 
Buliminus segregatus, Ancey, Bull. See. Malac. France, iii, 1886, 

p. 46 ; Westerlund, Fauna Paliiarct. Binnenconchjd. iii, 1887, 

p. 72; ibid., Katal. Palaarct. Binnenconch. 1890, p. 92 ; ibid., 

Syn. Moll. Extrainar. Peg. Palaarct. i, 1897, p. 11. 
Buliminus (^C/iondrulo^ysis) segreijatus, Westerlund, Fauna Palaarct. 

iii, 1887, p. 72. 
Buliminus {Ena ?) segregatus, Kobelt, Couch.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 

minidae, 1901, p. 687, pi. 103, fig. 20, corrected to (Subzebrinus) 

on page 1007 (1902). 

Original descrijition : — " Shell ovately conical, somewhat pyra- 
midal, rather swollen at the base, umbilicated, whorls seven in 



CERASTUS. 269 

number, convex, obliquely striated, columella broad, vertical, 
aporture small, rounded, lip thin; dull horny." (lieeve.) 

Long. 11, diani. 6 mm. {e,v icon.). 

Hah. India : Simla {Benson) ; Chinab Valley, Kashmir (var. 
piisllhis, Theobald). Turkestan : Hills near Schachimardan (var. 
minor, Fedtsclienko). 

Theobald recoi-ds the finding in Kashmir of a single specimen 
of what seemed to him a variety of segregatus, but it had an ab- 
normal look about it. It measured ll"2x5 mm. and had the 
ordinary horny appearance of ccelehs and its allies. A smaller 
form, which he names var. pusiUus, he also considered to pertain 
to this species and was far from rare in the Chinab Valley above 
6000 feet. It only measured 9 x 3*8 mm. Pfeiffer records the 
following measurements from shells in the Benson collection : — 
Long. 13, diam. 7 mm. A^. 5 mm. longa, 3-5 lata. 

I have not seen specimens, and the type appears to be lost. 



239. Cerastus densus, P/^?^er. 

Btilimus (Pctraeus) densus, Pfeifter, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 1-54. 
Bulimus densus, I'feift'er, Mon. Helic. \iv. iv, 1859, p. 424 : ibid., 

Novit. Oonch. ser. 1, iii, 1868, p. 377, pi. 87, figs. 2.5, 26; 

Ilaiiley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 79, fig. 6. 
Buliminus ( Cerasttts) densus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 286 ; 

Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. J^uhminidae, 1901, p. 686, pi. 103, 

Bulimina {Cerasttis) densa, Pfeifler & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 286. 
Cerastus densus, Kobelt & MoUendorff, Nachr. Bents. Malak. Ges. 

1903, p. 40, 

Original description : — " T. profunde rimata, subperforata, ovato- 
conica, solidula, dense costulato-striata, vix iiitidula, pallide caruea; 
spira conica, obtusiuscula ; sutura obsolete marginata ; anfr. 6, 
convexiusculi, ultimus spira vix bi'evior, basi compressus ; colu- 
mella leviter arcuata ; apertura parum obliqua, elliptico-ovalis; 
perist. albo-labiatum, marginibus conniventibus, dextro arcuato, 
expanso, coluuiellari late patente. 

"Long. 20, diam. 10 mill. Ap. c. perist. 10 mill, longa, 74 
lata." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Malabar {Fairbanh) ; Ahuiednuggar {Blanford) ; 
Poona {Stoliczlcu). 

Pfeiffer indicates a var. /3 " elongatus, basi subangulatus ; long. 
24^, diam. 10 miU." 

The Beddome collection contains five specimens, from Ahmed- 
nuggar, which were labelled ji'erf^m", but which, without hesitation, 
I refer to densus. 

C densus dif^ars h'om C.jerdoni in having a more attenuated 
spire, the whorls increase less rapidly, and the lip, while more 
thickened, is less refiexed. The sculpture is also different, the 
transverse strije being a trifie coarser and more regularly spaced, 



270 ekiDji;. 

especially on the last whorl, and the spirals are much less in 
evidence, being not only much more minute, but more or less 
obsolete. 

A specimen in the British Museum, acquired by purchase, from 
Bombay and labelled B. fairhanki, I also refer to the present 
species. 



240. Cerastus distans, Pfeiffer. 

Buliinus distans, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 331 ; ibid., Mon. Helic. 

Viv. iv, 1859, p. 409. _ 
Buliminus {Cerastus) distans, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 232 ; Kobelt, Oonch.-Cab., Fam. Buliminidae, 1902, 

p. 966. 
Bulimina (Cerastus) distans, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Yiv. 1881, p. 286. 
Cerastus distans. Kobelt & MoUendorff, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 

1903, p. 40. 

Original description : — " T. compresse-umbilicata, ovato-conica, 
tenuiuscula, costis subarcuatis, chordseformibus, subdistantibus 
sculpta, subdiaphana, albida ; spira elevato-conica, obtusula ; 
anfr. 7 convexi, ultimus 4 longitudinis subaequans, basi rotun- 
datus ; columella prof unde subtorta ; apertura parum obliqua, 
acuminato-subovalis ; perist. tenue, marginibus convergentibus, 
dextro breviter expanso, columellari dilatato, patente. 

" Long. 22;^, diam. 10;^ mill. Ap. 10 mill, longa, 5| lata." 
(Pfeifer.) 

Hah. India : Poena {Beddome). Karak I., Persian Gulf {Mus. 
Cuming). 

The present species and C. diarhonnieri, both as from Karak 
Island, in the Persian Gulf, wei'e described by Pfeiffer in the 
same paper, being based upon specimens in the Cuming 
collection. After a careful examination of the types of both, now 
in the British Mnseum, I am unable to separate the two forms 
specifically, the only differences between them being that char- 
honnieri has one whorl less and is a smaller shell, its dimensions 
being : length 15, diam. 8 mm. ; ap. 7 mm. long. 4*5 wide, while 
the ribs are finer and more crowded. It can, at the most, be only 
regarded as a variety. Prom C. ahyssinicus it differs in being of a 
more solid texture, in having a more elongated spire, and in the 
ribs being more crowded. 

Although Pfeiffer mentioned only the habitat Karak Island for 
C distans, von Martens recorded the fact that Albers" collection 
contained specimens labelled Malabar. Providing the latter term be 
understood in its wider application, as in the case of C. malaharicus, 
there would be no inherent improbability in its occurrence farther 
north in India and I was, therefore, not surprised to find several 
specimens from Poona in the Beddome collection which, although 
erroneously labelled jerdoni, were absolutely undistinguishable 



CEBASTTIS. — EACHISELLUS. 271 

from the type of distans. They range in size from 19 x 10 to 
18*5 X 9 mm. Pfeiffer in describing Bulimiis distans alluded to 
the fact that it differed from £. ahyssinicus in its more elongated 
spire and the sculpture. 




Fig. 101. — Ccrastus distans. Shell |, sculpture f . 

As neither C. distans nor 0. charhonnieri has been illustrated 
before, I add figures of the two from the types in the Cuming 
collection, with an enlarged view of the sculpture of the former. 

Var. charhonnieri, Pfeiffer. 

Bulimus charhonnieri, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1856, p 331 ; ibid., Mon. 
Helic. Viv. iv, 1869, p. 410. 




Fig. 1 02. — Ccrastus charboim icri. 



G-enus RACHISELLUS, Bourguignat. 

RachisellKs, Boui'guignat, Moll. Afr. Equat. 1889, p. 68 ; Thiele, 

Wiss. Ergebn. Ueuts. Zentr.-Afr. Exp. iii, Zool. 1911, p. i>01. 
Rhachisellus, Connolly, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xi, 1912, p. 164. 

Type, Bulimus punctatus, Anton. 

Range. India, Tropical Africa. 

Shell elongate-oblong, last whorl shorter than the spire, 
attenuated at the base ; umbilical perforation open and deep, 
more or less covered by the much reflexed columellar margin, the 
base of the last whorl subangulated around the umbilicus. Upper, 
outer, and basal margins of peristome straight, acute, not thickened 
or reflected. 



272 ekidjE. 

The straight, acute margins of the peristome, gWing the shell 
an Achatinoid aspect, so difiereut from typical Ena, are a 
character sufficient, iu my opinion, to warrant the retention of 
the o-roup as a separate genus, and I therefore follow Bour- 
guignat's lead in this respect. 

The radula closely approximates that of Ena ohscura, according 
to Scliacko *. A specimen of B. punctatus from Tette is reported 
on by him as follows : — Central tricuspid, very small ; laterals, 
stronf , with a large, obliquely truncate central plate ; marginals 
very abundant, with 7 side cusps. 

This genus, establislied in 1889 by Bourguignat, had been uni- 
versally relegated to the synonymy of EacMs, Albers {EJiachis, 
Pfeiiie'r and von Martens), but recently Dr. Thiele t has stated 
that an examination of the radula of punctatus has satisfied him 
that this species does not pertain to the latter genus but to Ena 
in its wider sense. He consec^uently revives Bachisellus but 
reduces it to a subgenus of Ena. Although von Martens indi- 
cated punctatus as the type of the former, at the same time, 
following in Pfeiffer's footsteps, altering its orthography to 
Rhachis, Dr. Thiele points out that as this species was not in- 
cluded by Albers in 1850 when the section Rachis was established 
by him, with Bulimus pallens, Jonas, as first species, the latter 
must be regarded as type. 

241. Rachisellus adumbratus, Pfeiffer. 

Bulimus adumbratus, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 291; ibid., Mon. 

Ilelic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 472; Plauley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1876, pi. 148, fig. 8. 
Bidhnus {Rhachis) adumbratus, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, 

p. 161. 
Bidiminus (Rhachis) adumbratus, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 

i860, p. 231 : Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 130 ; Kobelt, Conch.- 

Cab., Fara. Buliniinidae, 1900, p. 675, pi. 102, fig. 19. 
Bulimus adumbratus, Nevill, Enum. Ilelic. Cevlon, 1871, p. 3. 
BuUmina (Rachis) adumbrata, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomeucl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 285. 
Rachis adumhratus, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 296. 
Rhachis adumbratus, Kobelt & MollendorfF, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. 

Ges. 1903, p. 37. 

Oriqinal description : — " T. subobtecte perforata, ovato-conica, 
solidula, laevigata, albido et roseo adumbrata, strigis distantibus 
roseo-fuseis et punctis sparsis pellucidis signata ; spira conica, 
apice acuta, nigra; anfr. 6 vix convexiusculi, ultimus spira paullo 
brevior, basi rotundatus, fascia 1 castanea notatus ; columella 
subverticalis ; apertura obhqua, oblongo-ovalis ; perist. simplex, 



* In Mobius, Beitr. Meeresfauna Ins. Mauritius u. Seychellen, 1880, p. 340. 
t Wiss. Ergebn. Deuts. Zentr.-Afr. Exp. iii, Zool. 1911, p. 201. 



RVCHISELLIS. 273 

rectum, margiiu' ccluuiellari papyi'ueeo, foriiicatim reflexo, 
subaduato. 

" Long. 20, diam. 9i mill. Ap. 9| mill, longa, 6 lata." {Pfeiffer. ) 

Hab. Ceylon (Xevill). 



242. Racbisellus trutta, Bkcnford. 

Uulimus trutta, Blauford, J. A. S. 13. xxxv, 186(>, p. 42 : Pfeiffer, 

Moil. Ilelic. Viv. vi, 18b8, p. l2o; Hauler & Theobald, Concli. 

Ind. 1874, pi. 80, fig. 4. 
BuUmiini.s (liliachis) trutta, Nevill. Hand List, i, 1878, p. 131; 

Kobelt, Uoncli.-Cub., Fam. Huliminidae, 1900, p. G68, pi. lOi'. 

fig-. 20. 
liuiimina {liachis) trutta, Pfeiffer & Clessiii, Nomencl. llelic. ^ iv. 

1881, p. -280. 
lihachis trutta, Kobelt & MoUeiidoiff, Naclir. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 

1903, p. 39. 

Ongincd description : — " Shell perforated, couically ovate, tliin, 
finely striated, light yellowish, with two spiral rows of sub-distant 
chestnut spots, sub-quadrate in form, on all the whorls, and two 
spiral chestnut stripes, the lower sometimes very faint, upon the 
last whorl below the periphery. Spire conical, apex acute, sutures 
impressed. Whorls og, convex. Aperture nearly oval, slightly 
oblique. Peristome thin, margins united by a thin callus, colu- 
mellar margin vertical, narrowly reilexed, the reliexed portion 
meeting the penultimate whorl at an angle. 

" Length 14, diam. 9 millim. Aperture 7 mill, long, 4^ broad." 
{^Blanford.) 

IJab. India : Anamullay Hills {Beddome, BJanford), 

" There is some doubt whether the shells above described be 
adult. They have a somewhat immature appearance, but all the 
specimens sent, four in number, ai'e of precisely the same size, and 
the thin peristome is characteristic of the group of Bidimvs 
Bengalensis, to which the present species belongs. From that 
species and its allies, it is eas^ily distinguished by its short conical 
form." {Blanford.) 

Most of the specimens of this species I have seen are larger 
than the type. Three shells in the British Museum measure 
19 X 10-5 mm., two in the Theobald collection IS x 10 mm. ; while 
live specimens in the Beddome collection range from 16x10 to 
12'.j X 8 mm., the latter being immature. All possess the two 
narrow, chestnut, spiral infra-peripheral bands and the two supra- 
peripheral spiral rows of subquadrate spots, referred to in the 
original diagnosis. 

The species appears to be confined to the Anamullay Hills, as I 
have neither seen specimens from any other locality nor traced 
any record of such. 



274 ENIDiE. 

2-13. Rachisellus bengalensis, Lamarck. 

Bulinw» hengalensis, Lamarck, Auira. sans Vert, vi, part 2, 1822, 

p. 124; L)eshayes, ibid., ed. 2, viii, 1838, p. 23.3; Delessert, 

Recueil Coq. 1841, pi. 28, fio-. 4 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, 

1848, p. 194; Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1848, Bulivms, pi. 4.5, 

tig. 289 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 80, tig. 7 ; 

ibid., 1875, pi. i48, fig. 6. 
Bulimus {Mesembrinus) benr/alensis, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, 

p. 158. 
Bulimus (Bhackis) benr/alensis, von Martens, Die Heliceeu, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 231. 
Buliminus (Bhachis) benr/alensis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 130); 

Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Bulimiuidae, 1900, p. 668, pi. 102, 

tigs. 8, 9. 
Bulimina (Bachis) benr/alensis, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl, Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 28o. 
Buliminus (JRachis) benr/alensis, .Tousseaume, M^m. Soc. Zool. 

France, vii, 1894, p. 296 ; Peile, Journ. Bombav Nat. Hist. Soc. 

xi, 1908, p. 131. 
Bhaehis benr/alensis, Kobelt & Mollendorff, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. 

Ges. 1903, p. 37. 

" H. testa ovato-acuta, perforata, tenui, diaphaua, glabra, albo- 
lutescente, fusco-fasciata, ultimo anfractu subventricoso, bifasciato; 
suturis linea nigra margiiiatis ; labro subreflexo." (Deshayes.) 

Long. 10 lin. 

Hab. India : Bengal (DcsJiriyes) ; Bombay (Peile) ; Chittagoug 
{Raban) ; Raneegunge (StoUczka) ; Chandernagore, Calcutta, 
Barrackpore {NcvilJ, Mainwaring) ; Bengal and AnamuUays 
{Beclclome). 

The foregoiug brief description may be supplemented as 
follows : — 

Shell perforated, ovate - acute, thin, diaphanous, smooth, 
yellowish-white, usually encircled by two, rarely three, bands, 
"one bordering the suture. Spire conical, apex acute, black. 
Whorls 6, slightly flattened, the last convex, about equalling the 
remainder of the shell in height. Aperture spacious, oval ; peri- 
stome simple, acute, columellar margin dilated. 

Long. 22, diain. 3 mm. 

The present species may be distinguished from its nearest ally — 
R. prceter missus — by its broader base and more conoid spire. It 
is, besides, usually paler in colour and is furnished with dense 
minute spirals, a feature 1 have not observed in the other species. 
It is thinner iu texture than either E. puklier or E. adumbratus. 
The third and fourth bands are most persistent, but many speci- 
mens have the second band represented by a thin line. Seven 
specimens from the Anamidlays, in the Beddome collection, 
labelled prcetermissa, I refer to bengalensis. The Theobald 
collection contains six specimens, labelled Bengal, three of which 
are immature and possess four bands ; three others have three 
bands interrupted transversely, the third becoming entire towards 
the aperture. 



RACHISELLUS. 275 

244, Rachisellus prseter missus, Blanford. 

Bulimus jtnrtcnni.'i.'inti, lilauford, J. A. >S. B. xxx, 1861, p. .360; 

Pfeiflfer, Moii. llclic. Viv. vi, 18()8, p. l.'U ; Ilanlev & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 19, tig. 4. 
Buliminus (Ehachis) ^ircetenmssus, Nevill, ILiikI List, i, 1878, 

p. lao. 

Jri/limina (Itachis) pyaetennissa, PfeiiTei' & Clessin, Noniencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 2S.-,. 
Buliminu>i {lihachis) praetermissus, Kobelt, Couch. -Cab., Fam. 

I'.iilimiuidae, 1900, p. 070, pi. ^0l^ fig. U. 
lihachis pruetennissits, Kobelt & MolleiulorfF, Nachr. Ueuts. Malak. 

Ges. 1903, p. 38. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, oblongo-conica, tenuis, 
nitida, striata, hiteo-albida, varie riifo vel fusco spiraliter fasciata 
et transverse strigata, pleruinque uni- vel trifasciata, interdum 
unicolor albida. Spira conica, apice aciitiiiscula plerumque nigra. 
Anfr. 7 convexiusculi, ultimas * longitudinis suba?quans, basi 
rotiuulatus, Apertura vix oblifpia, subovalis ; peristoma siuiplex, 
rectum, margine coluraellari verticali, fornicatim retlexo. 

"Long. 19, diam. 10 inm. Ap. 8 alta, o.j lata." {Blanford.) 

Hah. India: Orissa {Blanford, Stoliczka, Theobald); Salem 
district {ICinff)- Bengal {Oldham); Bombay {Leith); Madura 
Hills {Beddome). 

"This species is intermediate between B. mavortins, Eeeve, and 
B. punctatus, Anton, on the one hand, and B. Benxjalensis, Lara., 
on the other. It resembles the two first-named iu form, but 
differs from both in the absence of the transparent spots on the 
whorls. It is less solid than B. mavortius and broader in pro- 
portion to its length than B. pvnctatns. From B. Bengaletisis it is 
distinguished by its small moutii and by less tumidity. It varies 
considerably in marking, of which we have the following 
varieties : — 

"1. Yellowish white throughout; apex the same. 

" 2. Yellowish white with a single brown stripe round the 
lower portion of the last whorl ; apex white. 

" 3, LTpper whorls transversely obliquely striped with pale 
reddish lines ; last whorl purplish, with a dark brown stripe round 
the lower portion. Apex black. 

" 4. Yellowish white, two pale reddish brown lines round the 
lower portion of the last whorl, the upper running along the 
suture above. The upper part of the whorls obliquely striped 
with interrupted streaks of the same colour. Apex black. 

" 5. Three rather broadish and irregular brown stripes around 
the last whorl; two on the upper ones, becoming purplish black 
near the apex ; apex black. 

" 6. 3 stripes of dark brown on the lower whorl, 2 on the upper 
ones. Apex black. Similar to the marking in B. Benr/alensis. 

" We have no specimens with more than 3 stripes around the 
last whorl. 

t2 



276 ekidte. 

" 7. Whorls obliquely and undulately striped with brown, one 
stripe round tlie lower part of the last \\ liorl. future near the 
top purplish black ; apex black. 

" Specimens of />'. prcvtermissus were first found by ourselves 
5 years ago in tbe tributary mehals of Cuttack, in Orissa ; and 
were by us long considered as a variety of B. Bemjalensis. The 
first six varieties came thence ; No. 7, whicb is rather more highly 
coloured, occurs amongst the shells sent from S. India by 
Mr. King, who found it on detached hills, N.E. of Conaniputty, 
in the Salem district." {W. T. and H. F. Blanford.) 

liachisellus prcetermissus is allied to R. bem/alensis but iias a 
narrower base and a more slender spire. It appears rather more 
variable as regards banding than any of the other Indian species 
of liachiscUus. Among a number in the Beddome collection, from 
the Madura Hills, occur two shells which possess four bauds, more 
or less interrupted by transverse streaks, especially the upper 
three, and a faint indication of a fifth band around the umbilicus. 
Pour others have only the fourth (sub-peripheral), while a fifth 
has in addition a broad pale reddish zone between the suture 
and tbe periphery, apparently the result of the fusion of the first 
three bands, and a coloured columella. One specimen is bandless. 
All are subangulated at the periphery. Another batch in the 
same collection, labelled S. India, contains two uubanded shells, 
one of which is of a pale fuscous colour, becoming darker towards 
the aperture, especially below the periphery. A third specimen 
is ornamented with six bauds, three of which — interrupted — are 
supra-peripheral, and three infra-peripheral, the fourth rather 
broad and eutire, dark chestnut, the fifth narrower, paler, and 
interrupted, the sixth darker and broader, entire, and giving off 
a paler fuscous zone reaching as far as the umbilicus. The 
Theobald collection in the British Museum comprises two shells 
from Orissa, which measure 22x12-5 mm. and have the third and 
fourth bands faint and interrupted. Two specimens, collected at 
Bombay by A. H. Leitli, are labelled mavoriins, var. ; these I refer 
to i>rcetermissus. 

245. Rachisellus pulcher, Gray. 

Bidimus pulcher, Gray, Ann. Philo8. new series, ix, 18i^5, p. 414 i 

rfeiffer, Mod. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 210. 
Heli'.r jndclira, Wood, Index Test., Suppl. 1828, pi. 7, fig. 19. 
Bulinms vuimrtius, Keeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Bidimus, pi. 77, 

fif. 561 ; PfeifFer, Concb.-Cab., Bidimus, 1853, p. 74, pi. 20, 

figs. 13, 14; ibid., Mon. HeHc. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 423: Nevill, 

Enum. Ilelic. Ceylon, 1871, p. 3 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. 

Ind. 187G, pi. 148, fig-. 5. 
Buliminus {Rhachis) viavortius, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 231. 
Buliminus {F/iachis) ptdche? , Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 130; 

Kobelt, Concb.-Cab., Fam. Bufiminidfte, 1900, p. 671, pi. 102,. 

tier. 13. 



jtAcnisBLLUS. 277 

JiuUmiiKi (Rachl^) j.ulchm, Pfeifler & Clessiu, Xomeucl. Ilelic. 

Viv. 1881, p. -28.',. 
Ithachis pvlchni, Kobelt & Molleudoiff, Naclir. Dents. Miilak. Ges. 

190;J, p. 88. 

Ofhjiiud description :--'' Tesin ovato-conica, tenuis, albida ; 
fasciis tribus pnrpureo-fuscis ornata; aiifractibus convexiusculis. 
Peristomate simplici, labio interiori roseo." (Gmi/.) 

Jiength 23, diaiii. 10 mill. Ap. 10 X mill. 

Hab. Ceylon (Gardiner, Benson, Laijard); lialapiti {Xevill). 
India : Triclnnopoly ; Travancore and Tinnevelly (Beddome). 

When tirst described by Gray its habitat was unknown, and it 
Avas believed by Pfeiffer to be an African species until Benson 
sent him authentic Cingalese specimens. 

The type of Bulimus mavortius. Reeve, which is in the British 
Museum, measures 14-5 x 7-25 mm., and is more slender of spire 
than pnhlter, Gray, so that it is perhaps advisable to disrin- 
guish this form as a variety. All the specimens possess three 
bands, one peripheral, one below and one above the periphery. 
'The two forms are more solid than any of tlie other Indian species 
of Rachisellus. The Cuming collection contains three specimens, 
collected by Mr. Gai'diner, which are more or less speckled and 
have only two bands, one at the ])eriphery and the other below, 
agreeing in this respect with the shell tigured in Conch. Ind. as 
mavortius (copied by Kobelt as piilcher) ; in addition they are 
ornamented with a diffused ])ink internal patch on the columella. 
Another shell in the British Museum also possesses two similar 
bands, while a second specimen is without bands but has the four 
apical whorls blackish purple. These measure 22 x 10 mm. Pour 
sliells in the Beddome collection are yellowish white, with a few 
scattered freckles and only one band, tiie third (infra-peripheral) 
of a bright pink. Four"^ others, from Travancore, in the same 
collection, are provided with four bands (two supra-peripheral), 
the iipper one not reaching to the aperture and the other three 
being more or less interrupted by transverse streaks to\Aards the 
margin. These bands are all bright pink and the columella is 
similarly coloured. The apical wliorls are purplish black, which 
colour becomes gradually diffused lower down. Lastly, of four 
specimens from Tinnevelly, also in the Beddome collection, two 
have the usual three bands and two are i^rovided only with the 
peripheral and one infra-peripheral band of a chestnut colour. 

240. Rachisellus punctatus, Anton. 

Jhdhnm pioictatus, Anton, Verz. Conch. 18:59, p. 42; Pfeiffer, 
.Mon. Ilehc. Viv. ii, 1848, p. L>12 ; IJeeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, 
BuUmiis, pi. O."), fi}>-. 4o2; Deshaves, in IVmssac, Hist. Nat. 
Moll, ii, part l>, 18."')1, p. 80, pi. \'u , fif>-s. 7, 8 ; Pfeiller, Conch.- 
Cab., BuUmii.'^, \SnA, p. 1>29, pi. 02, ti<>s. 22-24; 3Iorelet, Ser. 
Ooncliyl. livr. 2"^% I860, p. 06; Ilanley & Theobald, Conch. 
Ind. 1870, pi. 20. fig. 10. 



!^78 EKiD.i;. 

Bulmms {Rhachis) pundatiis, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 185G, 

p. 161 ; Trjou, Struct. Syst. ConcJi. iii, 1884, j). 49, pi. 99, fig. 62. 
Buliminus {lihachis) jnmctatits, von Martens, Die Ileliceen, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 231 ; ibid., Malak. Pdatt. vi. 1860, p. 212 ; ibid., in von 

der Decken, lleiseu in Ost-Afrika, iii, Abth. 1, 1869, p. 59; 

Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 130 ; Kobelt, Illustr. Conchyl. 

Biich, ii. 1878, p. 273, pi. 84, fig. 14. 
Bulii)mms jmiictahts, von Martens, Kaclir. Dents, Malali. Ges. 

1869, p. 153. 
Bulimus imnctatus, Nevill, Enum. Helic. Ceylon, 1871, p. 3. 
lihachis pimctatits, Schacko, in Mobius, Beitr. Meeresfanna Ins. 

Mauritius u. 8eychellen, 1880, p. 340 (radula); Smith, Fauna 

and Geogr. Maldive and Laccadive Arch, i, part 2, 1902, p. 143. 
Bulimina (liachis) 2y^*nctata, Pfeiffer «& Clessin, Nomencl. Plelic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 285. 
Rachisellus inmctatus, Bourguignat, Moll. Afr. Equat. 1889, p. 69 ; 

Thiele, Wiss. Ergebn. Deuts. Zentr.-y\fr. Exp. iii, Zool. 1911, 

p. 201. 
JRachis puuctatus, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 297. 
Rhachis pmictata, Kobelt & MtiUendorft", Naelir. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 

1903, p. 38. 
Bnlimimis {Rachis) punctatus, Peile. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soc. xi, 1908, p. 131. 
Bulimus soiutus, Benson MS. quoted by Pfeiffer and Deshayes. 
Bulimus solattis, Benson MS. quoted by Peeve. 

Orujinal description: — " Oval-coiiisch, Gewinde niiissig laug ; 
6 tiaclie AViiidungen; wenig gliinzend, glatt, weiss, feiu braun 
puiictirt, auf der Mitte del' letzteu AV^indung ein schiuales braunes 
Band, Wirbelspitze scliwarz, gliinzend ; durcUbobrt ; Miiiidung 
laug oval ; Mundsaum scharl ; Spiudel uiit eiuem Bliittchen 
belegt." {Anton.) 

Length 10, diaui. 5 inm. Apert. 4"5 niai. long, '6 broad. 

Hah. India: Bundelkbund {Benson, Jerdon, Mus. Cam.); 
Oolooberiali, near Calcutta and Benares {Mainivaring) ; Madras 
{Henderson) ; Pooua, Ahmeduuggar {Blanford) ; Trichinopoly, 
NuUauiuUays {Blanford)-, Travancore {Beddome); Orissa {Ball); 
Bombay Island (Pfi/f, West), Ceylou {Lui/ard, jYevill). Laccadive 
Archipelago (>SV«n?<?;/ Gardiner Exp.). Africa: Zanzibar {Vesco, 
von der l)ecl-en, Br aims) ; Mozambique: Tette and Querimba 
Island {Peters) ; Benguella {Ansorge). 

No habitat was given origiually by Anton, Benson being the 
first to identify specimens as B. punctatus from Bundelkhund and 
Ceylon as recorded by Pfeiffer and Beeve. Many other Indian 
lo(!alities were indicated subsequently by Nevill, while in 1860 
von Martens and Morelet recorded specimens from Zanzibar, the 
former adding Mozambique in 1S69. He mentioned that shells 
from Zanzibar were contained in Albers' collection, but they were 
labelled B. Femssaci, Dunker, adding that the true West African 
fcrnssaci, indeed, scarcely differs from punctatus, except in the 
white coloration and pale apex. He draws attention, however, to 
the fact that Pfeiffer attributes a corneous apex to punctatus^ 



KACHISELLL'S. 279 

wliereas the descriptions by Anton and Eeeve agree with bis 
specimens from Mozambique and Ceylon in liaving a black or 
bluckit^h apex. The specimens from Querimba Island, he states, 
are somewhat larger — 15 mill, long and 7 broad — and are more 
whitish than those from Tette. The shells recorded in 1860 by 
von Martens were obtained from Herr W. Brauns, an oil manu- 
facturer, who picked them out, together with many other species, 
from Sesamum seed received in large quantities from Zanzibar. 
In addition to normal specimens, he observed one form, very 
conspicuous on account of the width and size of the aperture, the 
measui'ements being: length 22'5 mm., maj. diam. 8, length of 
aperture 7, but which otherwise agreed with punctatun, more 
especially as regards coloration and markings. Amongst numerous 
specimens of this species he invariably found but a single distinct 
band, but frequently in addition some ill-defined band-like shading 
at the base. Again, in dealing with R. ferussacl*,\\e alludes to 
its close resemblance to E. African and Indian specimens of 
It. puHctatus, stating that the latter is somewhat more slender, but 
differs especially in the last whorl and the aperture, the colouring 
and marking being similar, although a little darker. 

With regard to banding, li. inmctatiis is certainly the most 
constant, as among the numerous specimens which have passed 
through my hands, I have not in a single instance observed the 
one infra-peripheral band missing, but occasionally it is interrupted 
by the transverse streaks. Now and again there may be an indi- 
cation of a second band below it, as in some shells from Pulney 
received by Mr. Leman from the lute Robert Cairns' collection ; 
the same may be observed in some shells obtained by the Stanley 
Grardiner Expedition in S. Mahlos Atoll, Maldive Archipelago. 
Many specimens from Travancore are strongly marked with 
transverse fuscous streaks. 8ome shells received by the British 
Museum from Hutton, from the plains of India, are characterized 
by a dark zone on the columella. In size R. ])unctatus varies 
considerably : Hutton's shells measuring 13 x 6 mm., some 
Bombay specimens received from A. A. West 14*5 x 5*5 mm., 
others from Bundelkhund in the Cuming collection reaching 
15x6 mm., and shells from JMadras, sent by J. E. Henderson, 
16x6 mm., while thi'ee specimens collected by Pirrie in the 
Koondah Mountains attain 21 x9 mm. The latter were labelled 
B.ferussaci by Pfeiffer. Einally, it appears worth while to place 
on record three specimens collected in Benguella by Dr. Ansorge, 
and acquired by the British Museum. These can only be distin- 
guished from typical imnctata by the larger size — the largest 
measuring 23 X 11"5 mm. — and by the more distinctly angulated 
umbilicus. They are creamy white with a pale fuscous infra- 
peripheral band and minute spots. 

* Jahrb. Dents. Malak. Ges. ix, 1882, p. 247. 



280 EN'iD.i;. 



Geuus EDOUARDIA (nom. hint.). 

Conulinus, von Martens, Naclir. Dents. Malak. Ges. xxvii, 189o, 
p. 180 (section of Bnliminus, for B. Uganda, hildehrandti, and 
metula, no definition), not Conuliua, Bronn, 183o ; ibid., Bescli. 
Weiclith. Deutsch-Ost-Afiikas, 1897, p. (54 (as section of Bidi- 
minus, type B. contdus, Pfeitferj. 

Type, BaUmiis conulus, Pfeiffer. 

Range. East Africa. India (one species). 

Kounded conical, with comparatively small last whorl, weak 
sculpture ; generally brown, often somewhat shining ; pei-istome 
with outer and lower margins straight ; columellar margin reflexed, 
frequently rather oblique in relation to the axis, without fold. 

Anatomy unknown. 

The name Comdina, proposed by Bronn in 1835 for a genus of 
Poiyzoa, being easily confused with Comdiaus, I feel compelled to 
change the latter and I have associated with the genus the first 
name of that able malacologist, the late Professor Edouard von 
Martens, for so many years in charge of the Mollusca section of 
the Berlin Museum. To this genus I refer the only known 
species from India, which does not assimilate with any known 
Indian group, but closely approximates, conchologically, to the 
African forms. At the outset there is nothing improbable about 
this distribution of the genus in view of the fact that India aud 
East Afx'ica share, besides, such species as Cerastus ahyssinicus, 
Pupoides coenojnctus, and Zooteeus insidaris. 

247. Edoiiardia orhus, Blanford. 

Bulimus urhis, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 301, pi. l,fio-. 14 ; 

Pfeiffer, Men. Ilelic. Viv. vi, 1808, p. loO; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 20, fig. l._ 
Buliminus (Bhachis) orbiis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 1-30; 

Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Biiliniinidae, llJOO, p. 667, pi. 102, 

fi-. 7. 
BuUmina (Hapalns) orba. Pfeiffer & Clessin, Xoniencl. Ilelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 299. 

Original description: — "Testa subperforata, oblongo-turi'ita, 
cornea, tenuis, oblique striatula ; spira conica, apice ohtusiuscula, 
sutura impressa. Anfr. 7 convexi, ultimus g longitudinis 
snba^quans. Apertura obliqua, rotundato-ovalis ; peristoma 
simplex, i*ectum, marginibus convergentibus, dextro arcuato, ad 
anfr. penultimum valde antice porrecto, columellari breviter 
reflexo, perforationem suhtegente. 

" Long. 10, diam. 5 mm. Ap. 3| alta, 2;^ lata." {Blanford.) 

Hah. India : Cullygoody, near Trichinopoly {Blanford) ; Poona 
and Ahmednuii-gar {Blanford, Fairhanl-). 

"We are not acquainted with any Indian type of Bulimus \o 
which the shell can be compared. Its horny texture, elevated. 



PUPILLIU^K, 281 

conical spire, and rouiuletl luoutli, witli the upper niargiu of Ihe 
tliin peristome running to a considerable distance forward along 
the penultimate wliorl, form a very peculiar combination of 
characters." (IF. T. cj- U. F. Blanford.) 

Three specimens in the Cuming collection liave 7j whorls, one 
measuring 13-5x6 mm.: they :ire- dark greyish corneous, and 
finely obliquely striated. Two shells in the Theobald collection, 
without locality, have 6| whorls and measure 9 mm. in length, 
while three others from Ahmednuggar, in the same collection, are 
pale corneous and measure lo*5x(J mm. The British Museum 
possesses, besides, two specimens from Poona, reeeived in 1868 
from A. AVest ; these are also pale corneous. 



Family PUPILLID.E. 

Genus PUPILLA, Tarton. 

Fupilla (Leach), in Turton, Man. Land and FresUw. Shells, 1831, 
p. 99 ; Eeck, Index Moll. 1838, p. 83 (as snbgenns of Pupa) ; 
Pfeifler, Malak. Jjliitt. ii, 1856, p. 176 (as section of Pupa)-, von 
Martens, l^ie Heliceen, ed. 2, 18(i0, p. :?90 (as subgenus) ; 
Locard, Prod. Malac. Fran^aise, 1882,]). 173; ibid., Coq. terr. de 
France, 1894, p. 327; Ball, Xautihis, xvii, 1904, p. 115; 
Cockerell, op. cit. xviii, 1905, p. 104; Pilsbry, toni. cit. pp. 105 
& 116; Dall. tom. cit. p. 114 ; Ivennard & Woodward. List Brit. 
Nou-Marine'MoU. 1914, p. 2. 

Pupa, Draparnand, 1801, and subserpient authors (not Pupa, 
Humphrey, 1797, Bolten, 1798, Lamarck, 1801) ; Lehmann, Leb. 
Schn. Musch. Steltins, 1873, p. 144, pi. 14, fig. 50 (anatomy 
P. musconan). 

Janmiiu, V>. V>. Woodward. .Tourn. Conch, x, 1903, pp. 354,360 
(not Jaminia, Risso, 1826). 

Type, Turbo viuscornm. Linne. 

Range. Europe, Asia, Africa. 

Shell small, shortly cylindrico-ovate, frequently rather solid ; 
spire convex, apex obtuse ; whorls compact, the last not or 
scarcely wider than the penultimate. xlperture semi-ovate, 
usually ^\ith one or more denticles and occasionally w ith spiral 
folds. Umbilicus oblique, narrow. 

The name Pupa was used almost universally for this genus until, 
in 1903, Mr. B. B. Woodward pointed out that it was nor available 
for this group, when he substituted Jaminia for it. J)r. Dall, 
Prof. Cockerell, and Prof. Pilsbry subsequently shed additional 
light upon the subject, establishing the fact that Jannnia 
could not be used in lieu of Pupa either, but that PupUla. first pub- 
lished by Turton in 1831, had to be adopted, and this course 
was followed by M. Louis Germain in Moll, de la France et 
des regions voisines, ii, 1913, p. 184, and by Kennard and 



282 PUPILLID.!!:. 

AVoodward, in their 'List of British Non-Marine Monusca,'(1914). 
The name FiqnUa, liad, indeed, ah'eady previously been used 
geuerically, i. e., by Morse in 1864, and Locard in 1882, but only 
in its restricted sense for P. muscorum and its immediate allies. 

" Animal usually slender, body attenuated posteriorly, the eye- 
bearing tentacles moderately' long, cyhndrical, somewhat thickened 
at the extremities, the lower tentacles very small. 

"Jaw (P. muscorum) flatly semilunate, with pointed angles, 
almost horizontal, the convex margin slightly thickened, trans- 
parent, whitish yellow, without perceptible striation, very short 
and narrow. 

" Eadula foliolate anteriorly, stalked posteriorly, 4 mm. long, 
g mm. wide, with 31 longitudinal and 90 transverse rows of teeth. 
The central tooth equals the lateral in size, is symmetrical, with 
truncated base and tri-cuspid. The middle cusp is broadly 
conoid, the side cusps small but pronouuced. The laterals 
become bi-cuspid, and in the outer longitudinal rows comb-like 
3-4 cuspid. 

" The hermaphrodite gland is connected by a filiform winding 
hermaphrodite duct with the spermoduct. The latter proceeds by 
the side of the uterus taking up the vas deferens, which is 1*5 mm. 
long and enters the penis distally, the latter being prolonged into 
a whip-like appendix, 2 mm. long. A short retractor muscle 
pi'oceeds from the penis below the junction of the latter with the 
appendix. The penis is cylindrical for 0*5 mm. of its length 
below the retractor muscle, and close to its entering the cloaca, it 
is provided with a second whip-like appendix 1"5 mm. in length, 
which is cylindrically dilated below, then becomes filiform, and 
again dilates, its terminal portion being long club-shaped. The 
albumen gland is broadly Ungulate, short ; the uterus broad, ^ith 
a moderately long vagina into which the stalk of the ovate 
spermatheca terminates." (Lehmann.) 

Tlie Indian forms, unfortunately, have not been investigated 
anatomicall}^ at least nothing has been published on the subject. 

Two species — P. brevicostis and P. saleiueneasis — will, I believe, 
when they come to be examined, be found to differ from typical 
Pajni^fi. 



248. Pupilla muscorum, Linnc. 

Turbo muscormii, Linne, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1758, p. 767. 

Heli.v muscorum, Mliller, Venn. Terr. Fluv. ii, 1774, p. 105. 

Puixt muscorum, Lamarck, Anim. sans vert, vi, part il, 1822, 
p. Ill ; Deshayes. Encycl. Meth., Vers, ii, 18.30, p. 405; ibid., 
Anim. sans vert. ed. 2, viii, 1838, p. 180; Kiister, Conch. -Cab., 
Pupa, 1841, p. 12, pi. 2, figs. 1-5 ; PfeifFer, Men. llelic. Viv. ii, 
1848, p. yil ; Hanlev, Ipsa Linn. Conch. 1855, p. 352, pi. 4, 
fio-. 6 ; Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 146 ; Pilsbry, Naiit. 
V, 1891, p. 45. 



PUPILLA. 283 

Fupa mav(jinatu, Draparnaud, Tabl. Moll. France, 1801, p. 58 ; 

ibid., Hist. Nat. Moll. France, 1805, p. 01, pi. 3, figs. 36-38 ; 

Turton, Man. Land k Freshw. Shells British Islands, 1831, 

p. 99. 
Pupillu marginata (Leach), Turton, op. cit. p. 99 (as synonym of 

Pupa maryhiata). 
Pupa (Pupilla) marc/inata, Grav'iu Turton, op. cit. new edit. 1840, 

p. 196, pi. 7, fig. 79. 
Papilla badia (Adams), Morse, Jouru. Portland Soc. Xat. Hist, i, 

1864, p. 37, fig. 89 (shell), fig. 91 (jaw), pi. 10, fig. 92 (radula). 
Pupilla muscorum, Morse, torn. cit. p. 37, fig. 90. 
Papilla muscorum, Germain, Moll. France & Reg. Vols, ii, 1913, 

p. 185 ; Kennard & Woodward, List Brit. Non- Marine Moll. 

1914, p. 8. 

Shell perforate, subcylindrical, rather solid, opuque, light brown 
or yellowish corneous, finely and closely striated. Spire short, 
apex obtuse, suture moderately deep. Whorls 6-7, increasing 
slowly and regularly, the last rather suddenly, slightly convex. 
Aperture roundly ovate, truncated above ; peristome thickened and 
margins reflexed, with a stroug whitish rib or crest externally, the 
margins approaching and united by a thin parietal callus, upper 
margin shortly curved, outer and basal margins rounded, columellar 
margin obliquely ascending, almost straight. The parietal wall 
is usually provided with a small denticle. Umbilicus narrow. 

Length 3-3-25 mm., diam. 1*75 mm. 

Hah. Circumpolar. 



Yar. asiatica, Mollendorff. 

Piqnlla muscorum, subsp. asiatica, Mollendorff, Ann. Mus. Zool. 
Aoad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, vi (1901), 1902, p. 381. 

•' Always toothless, usually more slender, palatal crest less 
developed." {Mollendorff. ) 

Hah. India : Kashmir (Theohald) ; W. Himalayas (Stoliczl-a). 
Central Asia (Stoliczl-a, Potanin, FedtscJienJco, Przewalslci). China 
{Potanin, Loczy, Mollendorff). 

The shells recoi'ded by Theobald as Pupa muscorum, from 
Kashmir, probably belong here. 

249. Pupilla eurina, Benson. 

Pupa eurina, Benson, A. M. X. H. ser. 3, xiii, 1864, p. 139 ; 

Pfeitfer, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 300; llanlev & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 101, tig. 7. 
Pupa (Pupilla) eurina, Pfeiff'er & Clessin, Noniencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 353. 

Original description : — "P. testa perforata, ovato-cylindrica, 
solidiuscula, suboblique striatula, ruto-castanea, nitidula ; spira 
ovato-cylindrica, apice obtuso, sutura impressa, submarginata : 
anfractibus 7-7^,, convexis, ultimo antice ascendente; apertura 



284 pupiLLiD.i;. 

semiovata, subobliqua, edeutula ; ])eristomate expansiusculo, albiclo, 
mai'gine dextro extus postice int-rassato. 

•' Long. 2k, diam. ] mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Tribeni Ghat, Nepal {TheohaJd). 

Eight .specimens from the Benson collection at Cambridge, sent 
to me for inspection by Dr. L, Doncaster, agree with tlie figure of 
the species in Conch. Ind., but the columellar margin is more 
obliquely ascending than is shown in the figure. They vary in 
length between 3 and 3-5 mm. The shell somewhat resembles a 
large P. serlola. 

250. Pupilla seriola, Benson. 

Ennea seriola, IJlauford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 18(31, p. 359 (nom. 

mid.). 
Papa seriola, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. o, xii, 18G3, p. 427 ; 

Bleitier, Mon. llelic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 304 ; Ilanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 101, fig. 8. 
Piqm {Pupilla) seriola, Pfeifier & Cles.'^in, Xomencl. Ilelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 354. 

Ori(jinal description : — " P. testa vix perforata, ovato-oblonga, 
subcylindrica, oblique striatula, sericiua, flavescente, cornea ; spira 
oblonga, a))ice obtusiusculo, sutvu-a impressa ; anfractibus 5, 
superioribus convexis, ultimo convexiusculo, antice vix ascendente ; 
apertura siibovata, superne angidata, dente I parietali mediano 
remotiusculo induta ; peristomatis marginibus callo teniii junctis, 
dextro vix, columellari superne late expanso. 

"Long. 24, diam. Ig millim."' (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Orissa, Cuttack {Theobald). 

I have not seen tliis species. Judging from the figure in 
Conch. Ind. it is allied to P. eurina, Benson. 



251. Pupilla diopsis, Benson. 

Pupa diopsis, Benson, A. 31. N. II. ser. 3, xii, 1863, p. 427 ; 

I'feitfer, Mon. llelic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 300 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 101, fio-. 10. 
Papa (Pupilla) diopsis, Pfeifler & Clessin, Xoniencl. llelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 354. 

Original description : — "P. testa perforata, oblongo-ovata, oblique 
striatula, striis nonnulis remotis elevatiusculis, sub epidermide 
cornea albida ; spira oblonga, versus apicem obtusiusculum 
couoidea, sutura impressiuscula ; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, 
ultimo antice leviter ascendente ; apertura oblongo-ovata, superne 
angulata, bidentula, plica parietali mediana angusta oblique 
intrante denteque columellari obhquo remoto superne munita ; 
peristomate tenui, margine dextro simplici recto, columellari 
expanso. 

"Long. 2, diam. 1 mill." (Benson.) 

Ilah. India : Nerbudda "\'alley. 



PUPILLA. 



285 



252. Papilla gutta, Benson. 

Fiona fiutta, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, xiii, 1804, p. 13S ; 
I'feitfer, Mou. lielic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 298: ILuiley & riu^obiild, 
Couch. Ind. 1875, pi. 101, lig. 9; Tlieobuld, J. A. S. P,. xlvn, 

1878, p. 14(1 , ir r \- 

Pupa {Pupil/a) f/utta, PfeilVer & Clessio, Nomeiicl. Uelic. \ iv. 
1881, p. oo.-]. 

Original description :— " P. testa obsolete rimata, oblougo-ovata, 
Igevigata, teiuii, pallide cornea, translucente ; spira obtuse ovata, 
sutm-a iinpi-essa; aul'ractibus 4|, couvexiusculis, ultimo antice vix 
asceiideute ; apertura obliqua, edentula, angulato-rotundata ; 
peristomatis inarginibus reiuotis, dextro recto, acuto, columellan 
expansiusciilo. 

"Long. 1.^, diam. 1 iiiill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India : tSpiti Valley, Kuuawur (Benson). 

" P. Jiimalai/ana, liuttoii, an elongate and strongly sculptured 
shell, is tlie only edentate species previously described from tlie 
Himalayan Eegion." (Benson.) 

I have not seen this species. The shell figured m Conch, ind. 
does not look as if mature, and the tact that liensou in his 
diagnosis describes the right margin of the peristome as " straight, 
acute," makes it appear that tlie same remark applies tothe type. 
It does not seem to have much affinity with Sjfhi/radium hinia- 
lai/anum (ante p. 41). 

253. Pu.pilla barrackporensis, nom. mut. 

Pupa indica, Pfeitter, P. Z. S. 1854, p, 295 (not Pupa indica, 

Benson, 1849) ; Pfeitler, Mon. tielic. Viv. iv, 1859, p." 079 ; 

llanley & Theobald, Conch, hid. 1876, pi. 160, tig. 8 ; Sowerby, 

Conclu Icon, xx, 1876, Pupa, pi. 7, tiji". Oo. 
Pupa (Pupilla) indica, Pfeifter, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 17< , 

rteifier & Clessin, Nomencl. Ilelic. Viv. 1881, p. 355. 

Oriqinal description : — " P. testa breviter rimata, cylindraeeo- 
ovata," tenui, levissime striatula, oleoso-micante, fulvo-cornea ; 
spira apice conoideo-rotundata ; anfract. 5, superis 3 convexis, 
peuultimo planiore, ultimo .I longitudinis formante, basi compresso, 
antice biscrobiculato ; apertura vix obliciua, oblonga, dentibus 
4 coarctata : 1 plictoformi parietali, 1 columellari, 2 profundus, 
brevibus palatahbus ; perist. albido, breviter expanso. 

" Long. 2, diam. 1 mill." (Ffeiffer.) 

Rah. India : Barrackpore. 

The name FajM indica, proposed by Pfeifter in 1854, is not 
available for the present species having already been employed by 
Benson in 1849, and I have therefore been obliged to substitute a 

new one. 

The McAndrew collection at Cambridge contams several 
specimens labelled hrevicostis, but which I refer without hesitation 
to the present species, having compared them with the type in the 
Cumin"- collection. iS'evill, when stating that he considered these 



286 PUPILLID.'E. 

two species identical * may possibly have had specimens of 
harracfqwrensis [indica, Pfr., uon Benson] labelled hrevicostis 
before him, and A\as thus misled. The two are perfectly distinct 
as will be seen on comparison of the figures. 

254. Pupilla cinghalensis, sp. n. 

Shell narrowly perforate, almost rimate,cyliudrical-ovate, rather 
solid, very minutely striatulate, the earlier whorls corneous, tlie 
later ones rufous. Spire convex, apex obtuse, suture impressed. 
AVhorls 5, slightly convex, the last flattened and scrobiculate 
behind the peristome, shortly ascending, slightly compressed and 
subangulated around the extremely narrow perforation of the 
umbilicus. Aperture oblique, broadly obovate, furnished with 
seven denticles : 2 compressed, elongate, on the parietal wall, 
2 very minute and deeply seated, on the columella, 3 also very 



1 \ 




Fig. 103. — Pupilla cmyhalcnaU. 

minute and deeply seated, on the palatal wall. Peristome rufous, 
slightly thickened and reflexed ; outer margin slightly inflexed, 
basal margin rounded, columellar margin obliquely ascending and 
slightly dilated above. 

Long. 2, diam. 1 mm. 

Hah. Cevlou. Type in the British Museum. 

This new species is based on a specimen from Ceylon, without 
precise indication of habitat, acquired by ii)e some years ago at a 
sale. It differs from P. hai-rackjwrensis, its nearest ally, in 
having seven instead of four denticles in the aperture, and in 
having the peristome fulvous instead of white. 

255. Pupilla muscerda, Benson. 

Pupa muscerda, Benson, A. M, N. H. ser. 2, xli, 1853, p. 94 ; 

I'feiffer, Mon. Hehc. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 680: Nevill, Enum. 

Helic. Ceylon, 1871, p. 3; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

187G, pi. 160, fig. 2; Sower by, Conch. Icon, xx, 1876, Ptqm, 

pi. 7, tig-. 56. 
Papa {Pupilla) muscerda, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 177 ; 

Pfeiffer & Clessin, Noniencl. Ilelic. Viv. 1881, p. 355. 
Pupa {Vertigo) muscerda, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 198. 
Original description : — " Testa rimata, ovato-oblonga, striatula, 
cornea, spira elongata, apice obtuso ; anfractibus 5|-6, couvexius- 

* Hand List, i, p. 197. 



PUPILLA, 287 

culis, ultimo tertiam partem testae sequante, vix aseeudente ; 
apertura ovata, tricleiitata, |ieristomate expanse, acuto, marginibus 
conniveiitibus, columellari dilatato, albido, plica parietali 1, 
columellari 1, profuiidiusculis, dente palatali 1, depi-esso, obtuso. 

"Long. 4, diam. 1| mill." {Benson.) 

Hah. Ceylon : Cape Pedro (Lcii/ard) ; Baticalva {Preston) ; 
JafEna {Linter). India : Erode {Becldome). 

" In old posts and on Palmyra trees {Borassn^ flahelliformis).'^ 

The present species resembles ccenopicta in shape and contour, 
but can be readily distinguished by the more acute apex, the 
slightly inflexed outer margin, and especially by the presence of 
the teeth in the aperture. In the Beddome collection I found a 
considerable number intermixed with Pupoides cosnopicta, collected 
at Erode. Th.e British Museum contains four specimens from 
Cape Pedro, which are probably a part of the original lot, as they 
are accompanied by a label in the late Edgar Layard's hand- 
writing ; one of these measures 4-5 mm. in length. There are, 
besides, six shells presented by Mr. H. B. Preston, who collected 
them at Baticalva. I have also seen five specimens in the late 
Miss Linter's collection, now in the Eoyal Albert Memorial 
Museum, Exeter, which, with other shells in the same collection, 
were kiiidly forw arded to me by the curator, Mr. F. R. Rowley. 
These measure 4-25 x 2 mm., and are labelled " Jaffna.'' 

256. Pupilla filosa, Theobald 4" Stolkzka. 

Pupa jilom, Theobuld & Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 187i>, p. 33.3, 
pi. 11, tig. 8; Hauley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 160, 
tig. 5; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 1876, Piqxi, pi. 7, tig. 59 ; 
Pi'eiffer, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 401. 

Pupa {Verti(/u)fUos(i, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 196. 

Pupa ( Vestiyo {Alaea)) Jilosa, PfeifFer & Clessin, XoniencL Ilelic. 
Yiv. 1881, p. 359. 

Orif/inal description : — " P. testa o\'ato-cylindracea, cornea, 
pellucida, apice obtusiuscula, rimate umbilicata; anfractibus 
4^k convexiusculis, sutura simplici junctis, transversini striis 
cuticularibus, obliquis, filiformibus oruatis ; ultimo spira breviore, 
hasi vix angustato, convexiusculo ; apertura subquadrangulari, 
recta, intus deutibus quinque instructa, labro undique paulo 
expansiusculo, atque incrassato, infra suturam subangulato, ad 
latus dentibus duohus parvis profunde sitis instructo : labio 
tenuissinio, prope medium dentibus pliciformibus duohus 
approximatis, antiore multo minore, prsedito ; coliuuella uni- 
dentata. 

" Long. 2, diam. max. 1 mm. ; apert. cum perist. 0-75 longa. 
antice 0-55, postice 0*75 mm. lata." {Theobald Sf Stoliczl-a.) 

Hob. Burma: Arakan [^Theobald). 

" A well marked species, both by its peculiarly subcylindrical 
shape and by the denticulations of the apertural margins ; it is 
not uncommon on the Arakan coast." 



288 pupiLLiD.i;. 

In addition, tlie strong and close costulation diiferentiates 
P.filosa from its nearest allies. 

257. Pupilla brevicostis, Benson. 

Pupa brevicostis, Beosou, A. M. N. II. ser. 2, iv, 1819, p. 127 ; 

Kiister, Conch.-Cab., Piqni, 1852, p. 136, pi. 17, tigs. 20-22 ; 

Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 560. 
Vertigo {Al<ta) brevicostis, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, p. 172. 
Pupa ( Vertigo) brevicostis, Pfeitter, Maliik. Bltitt. ii, 1856, p. 177 ; 

Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 197. 
Pupa (Pupilla) brevicostis, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 355. 

Original description ; — " T. rimato-perforata, cjlindraceo-ovata, 
cornea, apice obtuso ; anfrac'cibns 4|, longitudine celeriter 
crescentibus ; ultimo antice nou ascendente, g longitudinis testse 
sequante, superioribns eonve.xis, superne remote semicostulatis, 
idtimo et penultimo subplanulatis, dimidioque inferior! cseterorum 
sericeis, inutius ; apertura rotundato-ovata, 5-6 plicata ; plica 1 
angubiri, brevi : secunda parietali, proiundiore, obliqua ; coluniel- 
lari unica ; palatalibus 2-3 profundis : peristomate expanso, 
siibreflexo. 

"Long. 1-2 mill., lat. vix 1 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Barrackpore, Bengal (Bacon). 

"Taken by Dr. J. F. Bacon on the trunk of a tamarind tree at 
the Cantonment of Barrackpore, near Calcutta, during the rainy 
season of 1848. Out of several individuals forwarded to me 
overland, by letter in a quill, two reached me alive, and creeping 
about wlien supplied \^•ith moisture enabled me to verify their 
affinities. The lower pair of tentacula is deficient or incon- 
spicuous, as in Vertigo ; the u])per pair carry the eyes at their 
summits : the shell is often carried at an angle of 45°."' (Benson.) 




Fig 10-i.— Pupilla brevicostis. \^. 

Nevill (Hand List, i, p. 107) was of opinion that Pupa indica, 
PEeiifer \ljarraclcporensis, mihi] and the present species were 
identical. A comparison of specimens does not bear out this 
view, as Pfeiifer's species is larger arid more cylindrical, the suture 
is deeper, it lias half a whorl more, and is provided only with 
four plicae in the apertum. 

The figure given by Kiister is not a very good representation of 
the shell, and as this is the only one published I have considered 
it desirable once more to illustrate the species from a specimen in 



PUPILLA. 289 

the Cuming collection in the British Museum, measuring 
1*75 X 1*1 mm. The type cannot, unfortunately, be found, 
Dr. Doncaster informing me that a diligent search for it has 
proved fruitless. The species is characterized by the lamellate 
strife and the short spire as compared with the diameter. 

The true position of this species is somewhat doubtful. Adams, 
Pfeiffer, and Nevill placed it in Vertigo, doubtless owing to 
Benson's observation that " the lower pair of tentacula is deficient 
or inconspicuous, as in Vertigo." As the latter is characterized by 
the absence of the lower pair of tentacles and Benson does not 
definitely state that these organs are absent in the species, the 
reference to Vertigo does not seem warranted, es])ecially since the 
shell does not, as regards texture, shnpe, and conformation, 
assimilate well with the other forms of that genus. Pfeiffer 
appears to have modified his original opinion, for in the ' Nomen- 
clator' the species was placed in the section PupilJa of the genus 
Pupa. While its inclusion in the group of P. inuscorum is out of 
the question, hrevicostis may be retained in the genus Papilla in 
its wider sense, as now understood, until an investigation of its 
anatomy shall prove the contrary. 



25S. Pupilla salemensis, Blanford. 

Ennea salemensis, Blauford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 359, 

Ptipa salemejisis, Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, 18G8, p. 318 ; Hanley 

& Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 160, fig. 9. 
Pupa salemnnensis. Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 1876, Pupa, pi. 7, 

Pujia {Pupilla) salemensis, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Noinenci. Helic. Viv. 
1881, p. 3.-)4. 

Original description : — " Testa rimata, ovato-oblonga, oblique 
striata, fulvida : spira elevata, conoidea, apice obtuso : sutura 
impressa ; anfr. 4g ; superiores couvexiusculi, inferiores sub- 
planulati, ultimus pone aperturam medio excavatus, i longitudinis 
subaequans, antice arcuatim ascendens, juxta suturam et infra 
compressus. Apertura reniformis : columella recedens, superne 
callosa. Dentes parietales 2 compressi. Peristoma expansum, 
labio externo flexuose excavato 1 dentato. 

"Long. 1*6, diam. maj. 1, apert. alt. 0'6 mm." (Blanford.) • 

Hah. India : Kalryen Hills {Foote). 

" This little shell belongs to a type distinct from that of Ennea 
pirriei and the other 8. Indian species, and is more closely allied 
to the Cuttack sp. E. seriola. Prom this it is distinguished by its 
more conoidal form and the possession of two well-developed 
parietal, and one palatal tooth, whereas the Cuttack shell has but 
one minute parietal tooth. Moreover, the mouth is smaller and 
more constricted. Two specimens were received from Mr. Poote, 
both somewhat weathered." {Blanford.) 



290 PUPILLID-I. 

Benson states * that it has more affinity with Ballmus. In one 
of the two specimens received by him the parietal hxmina was 
not apparent. I have not seen specimens, but to judge from the 
figure in Conch. Ind. neither Blanfoi'd nor Benson appears to me 
to have been happy in their comparison, as salemensis seems much 
nearer to brevicostis. 



Genus BIFIDARIA, SterJci. 

Bijidaria, Sterki, Nautihis, vi, 1892, pp. 4, 99 (as subgenus of Pupa) ; 
Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1900, p. 590 (as genus 
oi Pupidce). 

Type, (1st species) Pupa hordeacea, Gabb. 

Range. North and Central America, North Coast of South 
America, West Indies, Bermudas, Eastern Asia, Islands of the 
Pacific and Indian Seas. 

Shell small, few exceeding 3 mm. in height, varying in shape 
from cylindric and turriculate, to conic and ovoid. Colour 
lighter or deeper corneous, chestnut or whitish. Surface smooth, 
polished, finely striate, or with fine ribs. Parietal lamella more 
or less complex, composed of a parietalis — inner — and supra- 
parietalis — outer, or angular — almost separate, side by side in 
some species, united to almost a simple one in others, com- 
paratively small in some, the supraparietal very small or almost 
obsolete in others. The coluuiellar lamella, equally constant, is 
generally also somewliat complex. Typical inferior and superior 
palatal plicae always present, sometimes quite small, as a rule 
deep-seated, never reaching the margin ; in some species one 
or the other is in a peculiar oblique position. Generally, but not 
always, there is a tootli or short fold at the base. In many 
species additional dentiform or lamelliforin plicae, sometimes veiy 
small, are found ; one on the ])arietal wall, between the parietal 
and the columella, constant or inconstant, one above the upper 
palatal, one between the two palatals, inconstant. {Sterki.) 

259. Bifidaria bathyodon, Benson. 

Pupa bathyodon, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xii, 1863, p. 426 ; 

Pfeiffer, Men. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 326; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 100, fig. 7 ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 1876, 

Piqxc, pi. 4, fig. 33, pi. 16, fig. 152. 
Ptipa (Scopelophila) bathyodon, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 192. 
Piqm {Pupilla) bathyodon, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Yiv. 

1881, p. 355. 

Original description : — " P. testa profunde rimato-perforata, 
ovato-conica, oblique striatula, fusco-cornea, translucente ; spira 

* A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xii, 1863, p. 428. 



BIFIDARIA. 291 

conica, npice obtuso, sutura sub profunda; anfi'actibus 5, convexis, 
ultimo antice aseendente circa umbilicum exeavatum compressius- 
ciilo; apertura quadrato-ovata, marginibus, expansis subreflexis con- 
coloribus callo parietuli expanse superne junctis, 4-dentata, dente 
parietali 1 entrante majore, i)alatalibus 2 niiuutis remotiusculis, 
columellari 1 profundo. 

"Alt. 3, diaoi. 2 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Teluk Sendur, near Hoshungabad, not far from 
the Nerbudda River {Theobald) ; Mul River, Western India 
(Theohald). 

This appears to be a rare form. I have not seen s])ecimens. 
Benson in his diagnosis states that there are four denticles, one 
being columellar, but the figure in Conch. lud. shows five, two of 
which are situate on the columella. 



200. Bifidaria huttoniana, Benson. 

Pupa huttoniana, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, iv, 1849, p. 126 ; 

Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 550 ; Hauley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 101, fig. 3 ; Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 

1878, p. 146. 
Pupa (Pujnlla) huttoniana, Adams, Gen. liec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 169. 
Pupa {Leiosti/la) hnttuniana, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 176. 
Pupa ( Vertif/o) huttoniana, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 197. 
Carychium boysianum, Benson {fide Stoliczka), MS., Nevill, Hand 

List, i, 1878, p. 197. 
Pupa {Vertigo {Alaea)) huttoniana, Pfeiffer &; Clessin, Nomeucl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 358. 

Orhjinal description : — " Testa I'imata, ovato-obliqua, subcj'lin- 
dracea, hyalina, glabra, apice obtuso ; anfractibus 5, convexis ; 
apertura ovato-rotundata, quinqueplicata ; peristomate expansi- 
usculo, marginibus callo tenui junctis ; plica unica irregulari, 
sinnata, parietalis, columellaribus duobus, palatalibus duobus 
profundis. 

"Long. Ig mill., lat. vix 1 mill." {Benson.) 

Hah. India: Simla (7/m<<oh) ; ^iwA {Blanford) ; Kashmir and 
Deccan {Sioliczka) ; Ahmednuggar {Theobald); Wadale {Fair- 
bank); Kashmir: Panjal Range (I'/teoftrtZcZ). 

Some shells from Simla in the Theobald collection are referred 
here with some doubt. Tlie parietal plica is bifid and in some 
specimens there is an additional plica nearer the columella ; 
others have only one columellar plica. The shells range in 
length from 1*75 to 2 mm. A number of himalayana from 
Simla, presented to the British Museum by Hutton in J 856, 
comprised a specimen of huttoniana. The Beddome collection 
also contains ten shells of huttoniana collected in Kashmir by 
Stoliczka; these have likewise a bifid parietal plica, while a single 
columellar plica occurs in some and two in others. 

tj2 



292 PUPILLID.Ti. 

261. Bifidaria avanica, Benson. 

Pupa avanica, Benson, A. M. N. FT. ser. 3, xii, 1863, p. 428 ; Blanford, 
J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 95 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, 
p. 335 ; Hanley & Theobald, Concb. lud. 1876, pi. 160, fig. 7 : 
Sowerby, Conch. Icon. xx. 1876, Pupa, pi. 7, fig. 60 

Pupa [Vertigo) avanica, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 197. 

Pupa {Papilla) avanica, PfeiflBr & Clessiu, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 
1881, p. 355. 

Original description : — " P. testa umbiiicata, ovato-oblonga, sub- 
cylindrica, vix striatula, nitida, fusco-cornea, traiisliicente ; spira 
oblonga, versus apicem obtusiusculiim couica, sutura valde irn- 
pressa ; anfractibus 5^, subconvexis, ultimo antice asceudente ; 
apertura ovata, superne obtnsa sexdeutata, plica parietali 1 
duplicata, iutrante, deutibus columellaribus 2 prot'uudis et 
palatalibus 3 profundis niuiiita ; peristomate undique expanse, 
margiuibus tenuibus callo parietali lato juuctis. 

" Loug. 2g, diam. 1^ mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Burma: A\a {Theohald) ; Mandalay [Blanford). 

The species is characterized by the very convex whorls and the 
deep suture, resembling mimida iu that respect, but it is more 
conoid and the last whorl becomes more contracted, while in 
mimida the aperture is more rotundate. A specimen in the 
Hungerford collection in the British Museum shows a slight 
additional parietal denticle nearer the columella. A shell in the 
Beddome collection has only two palatal plicae. 

262. Bifidaria mimula, Benson. 

Pupa minmla, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xii, 1853, p. 95 ; Pfeifler, 
Mon. Helic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 676 ; Nevill, Ennm. Helic. Ceylon, 
1871, p. 3 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 160, tig. 4 ; 
Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 1876, Pupa, pi. 7, tig. 61. 

Pupa [Leiosti/la) mimula, Pfeiffer, Malak. Eliitt. ii, 1850, p. 170. 

PujM ( Vertif/o) miinula, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 198. 

Pupa [Vertifjo [Alaea)) mimida, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 358. 

Original description: — "Testa riniata, ovato-oblonga, subcylin- 
dracea, oblique tenuiter plicatula, pallide cornea, apice obtuse, 
sutura prot'undiuscula ; anfractibus 5, couvexis, ultimo vix ascen- 
dente ; apertura ovata, verticalis, 5-plicata, peristomate tenui, 
expanso, marginibus callo tenui expanso juuctis, plica 1 intrante, 
majuscula, parietali, 1 columellari, 1 basali profunda, 2 palatalibus 
profundis. 

" Long. 2, diam. 1 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Ceylon : Cape Pedro (Layard). 

"Nearly allied to and somewhat larger than the Himalayan 
P. huttoni, Nobis." (Benson.) 

A well-cbaracterized form. The parietal lamella is compressed 
and largest of all, the columellar one being somewhat smaller, 
while the three palatals are very minute. I have seen four 



BiriDAllIA. — BOTSIDIA. 



293 



specimens in the British Museum, recently acquired by purchase, 
Avhich are from Cape Pedro, and are accompanied by a label m 
the late Edgar Layard's handwriting ; they are in all probability 
some of the original lot. There are, besides, three shells in the 
Hungerford collection and eight in the Theobald collection, so 
that the species appears fairly common. 

203. Bifidaria serrula, Benson. 

Fupa ^ernda, Bensou, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xii, 1863, p. 427 ; Pfeiffer, 

Mou. Ilelic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 319. 
Pupa {Vertnjo (Alaea)) serrula, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Nomencl. Helic. 

Yiv. 1881, p. 3o8. 

Ori'/inal description : — " P. testa rimata, ovato-conica, oblonga, 
oblique subcostulato-striata, albida ; spira elongato-comca, apice 
obtuso ; sutura profunda crenulata ; anfractibiis 5, supenoribus 
valde convexis, ultimo antice ascendente ; apertura quadrato- 
ovata, sexdentata, lamina parietali 1 subduplici, columellari 1 
superiore deuteque minuto inferiore, dente miniito basali ; pala- 
tah 1 superiore lamiuaque inferiore profunda munita ; peri- 
stomate undique expanso, marginibus tenuibus callo lato superne 
junctis. 

" Long. 2, diam. f mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Central India {Theobald). 

Is stated by Pfeiffer to be similar to P. mlmida. I have not 
seen any specimens ; the type, like so many other of Benson's 
shells, having apparently gone astray. It appears to be a rare 
species. 

Genus BOYSIDIA, Ancei/. 
Boysidia, Ancey, Le ^^ aturaliste, No. 47, 1881, p. 373 (as section 

Gredlerielia, Mulleiidorff, .labrb. Deuts. Malak. Ges. xi, 1884, p. 179 

(for Pupa hunana). 
Bensomlla, Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1900, p. 591, 

footuote. 

Type, Pupa dorsata, Ancey. 

Ranqe. India, Farther India, China, Malaysia. 

Shell minute, rimate, conoid, with closely coiled, convex whorls, 
last whorl ascending in front, dilated towards the aperture, 
tumid below. Aperture armed with several pliese or lamella?. 
Peristome continuous. 

Anatomy unknown. 

Ancey, in describing Pupa dorsata, from China, states that it 
pertains 'to the Asiatic group of P. plicidens. He proceeds :— 
'•Benson found a certain resemblance or rather estabhsheda 
connection between these forms and the species of a certain 
group (Boi/sia), equallv peculiar to Asia. These Pupas appear 
to me to constitute a" distinct section, which I propose to name 
Boyiidia, on account of the resemblance to the genus referred to. 



294 prpiLLiDjE. 

Prof. Pilsbry in proposing the subgenus Bensonella in 1900, 
with Piqm plicidens as type, seems to have ignored the fact that 
Aucey had already included the species in the section Boysidia, 
established for the reception of l^iqM dorsata, for he makes no 
allusion to it, although on the next page he reduces Boysidia to a 
subgenus under Hypselostoma, a procedure in which 1 am unable 
to follow him, for I believe a greater affinity exists between 
plicidens and hunana tlian between the latter and the genus 
Hypselostoma. 

Besides the two species referred to, some other Chinese forms 
belong here, i.e. Pupa hunana, Gredler*, P. stropliostoma, Mollen- 
dorfft, P. anr/tdina, Gredler ±. 

264. Boysidia plicidens, Benson. 

Pupa jjlicidens, BenKOu, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, iv, 1849, p. 126 ; Kiister, 

Conch.-Cab., Pupa, J 852, p. 136, pi. 17, figs. 23, 24; Pfeiffer, 

Men. Ilelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 553 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. 

lud. 1874, pi. 100, fig. 8 ; ISowerby, Conch. Icou. xx, 1876, Pupa, 

pi. 16, fig. 151. 
Vertiyo ( Odontoct/ckis) plicidens, Adams, Gen. Eec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 173. 
Pu})a (Scopelophila) j^Uddois, von ^lartens, Die Ileliceen, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 296. 
Pupa (Scarabella) plicidens, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1876, p. 175. 
Pupn {Odontocyclas) jdiddens, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 350. 
Pupa (Boysidia) plicidens, Aucey, Le Naturaliste, No. 47, 1881, 

p. 373. 
Btfidaria {Bensonella) plicidens, Pilsbrv. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philadelphia, 1900, p. .591. 
Ju\. ? =IIi/drocena ynilium (P>ensun), Godwin-Austen, P. Z.S. 1872, 

p. 515, pi. 30, fig. 3. 

Origincd descnpfwn : — " T. umbilicata, ovato-conica, subtrochi- 
formi, glabriuscula, obscure striata, cornea ; anfractibus quinque 
convexis, ultimo ventricoso, antice ascendente, ad basin tumido ; 
sutura impressa : apice obtuso ; apertura irregulavi subtriangulari, 
9-plicata ; peristomate continuo, sinuato, expanse, marginibus 
callo appi'esso expanso junctis : dextro medio extus impresso. 
intus tuberculato-incrassato ; plicis parietalibus 3, quarum 2 
.superioribus elongatis, columellari dentiformi, unica, palatalibus 
5, quarum 2 sub-basalibus, minutis ; margine basali extus callo 
prsedito ; umbilico angusto. 

"Long. 2, lat. 1;^ mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Landour {Hutton) : Mussoorie ; Cberra Poonjee, 
Assam {Godwin- Avsten). 



* Gredler, Jahrb. Deuts. Malak. Ges. viii. 1881, d. 23, pi. 1, fig. 5; Heude, 
Moll. Terr. Vail. Fl. Bleu, 1882, p. 76, pi. 18, lig. 2'5. 

t Jahrb. Deuts. Malak. Ges. xii, 1885, p. 395, pi. 11, fig. 23. 
+ Concliyl. Fauna von China, viii, 1885, p. 7. 



BOYSIDIA. 



295 



"This shell is very peculiarly formed, and seems to indicate 
the transition from Pupa to Anostoma. The animal has four 
tentacula, the superior pair bearing the percipient points or eyes, 
the inferior very short. The foot is hyaline, the tentacula and 
neck fuscous. The shell is carried horizontally." {Benson.) 

The only known Indian form of .this genus. It somewhat re- 
sembles Ihipselostoma bensoni, but is more conoid, the umbilicus 
is a mere' puncture, too small even to admit a bristle, and tlie 
last whorl is much less dilated towards the aperture. Of _ the 
three parietal lamella?, the two principal ones are deeply entering; 
the upper or outer runs as far as the margin of the peristome ; 
the second is compressed, much more elevated anteriorly, being 
triangular, and terminates a little furtlier from the peristome: 
the third (inner) or infra- parietal is very small and deep-seated. 
The palatal denticles are rather deep-seated, elongated, com- 
pressed, and usually five in number, ttie three upper largest, 
the other two basal, minute, especially the fifth ; another com- 
pressed elongated denticle occurs on the columella. All these are 
distinctly visible through the shell-wall from the outside. In 
addition' there is a small conical denticle on the edge of the 
outer margin of the peristome, with a corresponding scrobi- 
culation on the outer side. This latter feature is not mentioned 

by Benson. ti • • i 

The species appears fairly common, for the British Museum 
possesses forty speciuiens from Mussoorie presented by Hutton, 
fifteen specimens from Landour, and in the Theobald collection 
there are seven shells from Cherra Poonjee. The McAudre\\- 
collection also contains a considerable number. 

265. Boysidia salwiniana, Theobald. 

Pupa sahviniana, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1871, p. 400; 

Hanlev & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1874, pi. 100, fig. 9 ; Sowerby, 

Conch. Icon, xx, 1876, Pupa, pi. 16, ho:. 150; Pfeifler, Mou. 

Helic. Yiv. viii, 1877, p. 403. 
Pupa {Scopelophila) sahviniana, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 18v /, p. 2:} ; 

ibid., Ilaud List, i, 1878, p. 192 ; ibid., in Audersou, Zool. lies. 

Two Exp. W. Yunnan, i, 1879, p. 882. 
Pupa (Pupilla) sahviniaiio, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Xomeucl. Helic. ^ iv. 

1881, p. 355. 
Pupa salwineana, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 244. 

Original description : — " Testa pyramidata, rimata, fusco-cornea, 
epidermide Itevi induta ; anfractibus 6, convexiusculis, sutura 
impressa junctis, ultimo ad aperturam breviter ascendente ; aper- 
tura rotunde oblonga, parum dilatata et tertiam longitudinis 
superante, dentibus quinque, albidis instructa : dente primo 
parietali magno, lamellari, mediano, alteroque parietali minimo 
juxta suturam posito, tertio parvo umbilicum juxta, quarto 
(piintoque in iabro submediauo et ad basin sitis, modicis, a^qui- 
distantibus ; Iabro simplici, non retiexo. 



296 PLPILLID-E. 

"Long. '16 [=4 mm.], lat. -09 [=2-25 jnni.], apeiiurae alt, 
•06 une. [ = l-25 iniu.J." {Theobald.) 

Hah. Burma: Shan States {Fedden); Bliaiiio {Anderson). 
Pingoung, Shan Hills {GodAvin- Austen). 

Theobald states that the species resembles P. Lathy odon, Benson, 
but is more aciiminately and regularly pyramidal. 1 have not 
seen hathyodon, but to judge by the figures in Conch. Ind. the 
comparison is not a happy one. B. sahviniana appears to me to 
assimilate rather with pUcidens. The spire, however, is more 
attenuated, and the shell is about twice as large. There is also 
an inflection of the right (outer) margin of the peristome, which 
is continued as a horizontal superficial groove on the outer wall, 
corresponding with an elongated horizontal fold on the inside of 
the right margin, a feature which still farther tends to connect 
this species with pUcidens, and induces me to place it in the 
genus Boysidia. 

Two specimens in the Beddome collection (British Museum), 
labelled Burma, ai'e rather larger than the type, measuring 
5*2 X 3"5 mm. including the peristome. 

Godwin-Austen, who records it fi-om Pingoung, Shan Hills, 
at an altitude of 2500 feet, mentions that the only perfect 
specimen found was bleached, but a smaller imperfect one was 
covered with a brown epidermis. He calls it a very beautiful 
little shell, which undoubtedly it is. 

Genus BOYSIA, Pfeifer. 

Boysia, Pfeitfer, Zeit. Malak. vi, 1849, p. 105; ibid., Mou. Helic. 

Viv. iii, 1853, p. o'lS; ibid., Conch. -Cab. Helix, u, 1853, p. 6; 

Adams, Gen. Eec. Moll, ii, 1855, p. 167 ; Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1, 

1881, p. 128; Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, 

p. 343. 
Hypostoma, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 130 (non Hypostonia, 

Ivudolphi, 1809, Vermes, non Hypostoma, auct. [Hypostomus, 

Lacepede, 1803), non Hypostoma, Gray, 1841, Ecbinod.). 
Hypotremu, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 304 (noui. 

mut. as section oi Pupa). 

Type, B. hoysi, Pfeiffer. 

Range. India. 

Shell globose-conoid, thin, rimale, last whorl arcuately ascend- 
ing ; aperture oblique, directed upwards, subrotundate, con- 
tinuous, edentulate. 

Anatomy unknown. 

The only known species of this genus has had a somewhat 
checkered career. Described originally by Pfeiffer in 1846 as 
Tomogeres boysii (evidently a misprint for Tomigerus), it was in 
1847 transferred by the same author to Anostoma, both the 
generic and specific designation being apparently suggested by 
Benson, who published the name in 1848. Pfeiffer having 
arrived at the conclusion in 1849 that the species could not be 
retained in Anostoma, created the genus Boysia for its reception, 



BOTSIA. 297 

placing it near Puixt. At the same time he altered the speeiiic 
name to hensoni, to do which he had no right and for which, 
moreover, there was no iieed. Curiously enough, witli one 
exception, every subsequent author who has referred to the 
species has acquiesced in this arbitrary procedure. In 1850, 
Albers, unaware apparently that Pfeiifer had already proposed a 
new genus, introduced Hupostoma, placing it between Anosioma 
and Tomigeras. The name having already been employed in 
three different classes in zoology, von Martens, in 1860, altered 
it to JTypotvema, at the same time reducing it to a section 
of Pupa. 

In 1807 Stoliczka described a fossil shell, from a cretaceous 
fresh-water deposit in the Xortli-Easterii Alps, under the name 
of Boi/sia Iteussii*. Xevill in referring to this fossil f states that 
it is a well characterized form and considers, judging from the 
figure, that it is possibly correctly referred to Boynia. 

With all due deference to the weighty opinion of so eminent a 
naturalist as Stoliczka or that of Nevill, I do not think the 
association of two such different forms in one genus a very 
happy one. The recent Indian shell has the aperture on the 
same level as the penultimate whorl, forming not a rectangle 
but a very acute angle, and on the last whorl the mouth is 
vertical, whereas the European cretaceous shell has the mouth 
inclined at a very acute angle. iSandberger certainly had a much 
truer ])erception of its alHnity, I believe, when he referred the 
fossil to the genus Strophostoma t. 

Quite recently Professor Cockerell has also referred two Tertiary 
species from Wyoming, U.S.A., to the genus i)'oy*/rt §. One of 
these, B. pkenacodorum, to judge from the figure, beai's a striking 
resemblance to the Indian recent species. I am inclined to 
think, however, that tliis is simply a case of convergence. For 
another closely allied form he creates a new genus, Protohoysia. 

•2r)6. Boysia boysi, Pfeiffer. 

Tomoiierea boysii {Anostovia) (IJensoii), Pfeit{er, Symb. Hist. Helic. 

iii,'jS4t), p. 82. 
Anmtuma boysii (Benson), Pfeiffer, Mou. Ilelic. Viv. i, 1847, p. 2; 

Benson, A". ^l. N. H. ser. 2, ii, 1848, p. 104. 
Boysia bensoni, Pfeitier, Zeit. JMalak. vi, 1849, p. lOo ; ibid.. Concli.- 

Cab., Heli.r, ii, 185,'5, j). 0, pi. 101, tigs. 2o-28 ; Adums, Ueii. l^ec. 

Moll, ii, 18oo, p. 1()7, pi. 7(i, tig. 2 ; Pfeitier, Malak. lUiilt. ii, 1850, 

p. 172; Hanley .t Theobald, Concli. Ind. 1870, pi. 8, tig. 1; 

PfeifTer & Clessin, Xomencl. flelic. ^'iv. 1881, p. ;i4o : Trvon, 

Struct. Syst. Conch, iii, 1884, p. .>5, ]>!. 100, tig. 98. 
Hyposfoma boysii, Alber.s, Die Ileliceen, 1850, p. 130. 
I'upa (Hypotrema) boysii, von Martens, Die Ileliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 305. 

* Sitz.-Ber. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, xxxviii, 18.J9, p. -\^?>, pi. 1, fig. 17. 

■I- J. A. S.B. 1, 1881, p. 128. 

} Land- und Sussw. Concli. Vorwelt, 1871, p. 80, pi. o. fig. 12. 

§ Bull. Aiuer. Mus. Nat. Hist. !New York, xxxiii, 1914, p. 324. 



298 PUPILLID^. 

Pupa (Boi/sia) be^isoni, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 194. 
Boysia boysii, Kobelt, Illiisti-. Conchvl. Buch, ii, 1878, p. ''17%, 
pi. 85, iig. 10. 

Original description : — " T. areuato-i'iinuta, coiupresso-couica, 
tenuis, laevigata, diaphana, pallide coruea ; spira oblique conoiden, 
obtusiuscula ; anfr. 5 convexi, ultinuis arcuatim ad niargineiu 
superiorum autepenultimi ascendens ; apertura subtriangulari- 
rotundata, edentula ; perist. subsimplex, expansiusculum, mar- 
ginibus lamiua breviter soluta junctis. 

" Diam. niaj. 3^, alt. 3 mill." {Pfeijfer.) 

Bab. India: Chittore, Eajputana, and Azmere(J5o»/s); Xerbudda 
Valley (Nevill, Stoliczka). 

The Cuming collection contains two specimens from Bengal, 
while there are some shells from Maudata, on the Nerbudda, 
in the Theobald collection. The latter are smaller than the 
type, their dimensions being : — major diam, 2-5, minor 2, alt. 
2*5 mm. 

Genus HYPSELOSTOMA, Benson. 

Tanystoma, Beusou, A. M. N. II. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, p. 130. 
Hypselostoma, Benson, torn. cit. p. 342 (nom. nuit.) ; Fischer, Man. 

Conchyl. 1885, p. 478; Pilsbrv, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

1900, p. 592. 

Type, Tanystoma tubiferum, Benson. 

Hawfc. Burma, Farther India, China, Malaysia, Philippine 
Islands, and Loo Choo Archipelago. 

Shell deeply umbilicate, depressed, conoid, wliorls few, the last 
solute, twisted ; aperture oblique or horizontal on a level with 
the apex, denticulate. 

Anatomy unknown. 

A peculiar genus of Mollusca, the type of which is, as 
Prof. Pilsbry aptly observes, one of the most extreme modi- 
fications and not a fair criterion. He considered the genus 
rather nearer to Xesoimpa and even TorqvUla than to Bifidarin. 

Burma has produced three species, the other two, unlike the 
type, having the aperture but slightly oblique, almost vertical, 
instead of horizontal, in a plane with the apex. 

267, Hypselostoma tubiferum, Benson. 

Tanystoma tubiferum, Benson, A. M.N. H. ser. 2, xvii, 1856, p. 130. 

Hypselostoma tuherifernm, Adams, Gen. Moll, ii, 1858, p. 640, 
pi. 138, fig. 4; Pfeitter, Novit. Conch, ser. 1, i, 1860, p. 130, 
pi. 36, hgs. 1-4; Blanford, .1. A. S. B. xxxii, 1863, p. 326; 
Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 173, pi. 7, tig. 1 (animal) ; 
Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 8, fig. 3; Kobelt, 
Illustr. Conchvl. Buch, ii, 1878, p. 278, pi. 85, fig. 44; Tryon, 
Struct. Svst. Conch, iii, 1884, p. 56. pi. 100, tig. 99; Cooke, 
Cambr. Nat. Hist, iii, 1895, p. 302, fig.' 202 a. 

Pupa {Hypselostoma) tuhiferu, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p, 193. 

Original description : — " Testa depresso-conoidea, radiato-striata, 



HTPSELOSTOMA. 



299 



couica, sutura excavata, spira breviter conoidea, apice obtusiusculo ; 
anfractibiis u, convexis, ultimo tubaui protractam, sursum tortain, 
altioreni quaui apice, ett'ormante, ad periplucriam valide et obtuse 
carinato, superne baltea tumida, a periphjeria siilco prof undo 
separata, munito, subtus couvexo, margine umbilici aperti pcr- 
spectivi angidato, angulo usque ad aperturam extendente ; apertura 
horizontali sursum spectaute, 6-7 dentata, deutibus lamelli- 
formibus duabus parietalibus, supera validiori duplicata, inferiori 
minore profunda, I columellari mediocri, 4 palatalibus, quarum 
siiperiori duplic:ita tertiaque raajoribus ; peristomate libero, valde 
expanso, rellexiusculo. 

"Diam. maj. 4, min. 3, axis 2 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Jiurma: Thy et Mio (Dlan ford, Theobald, OhUiam) ; Mya 
Leit Doung, Tsagyen Hills, and Pegu as far south as lienzada 
{Blanford). 

The animal of H. tuhifernm has been observed both by Blanford 
and Stoiiczka. The latter gave a figure and described the speci- 
mens seen as •' pale grey ; they bad the eye pedicles rather more 
elongated than usuafly in species of Ftipa, and more resembling 
those of fleliv; the tentacles at the base of the rostrum were 
very minute, both blackish. The rostrum itself is thick and very 
minutely notched at the front edge. The foot is short, ovately 
elongated, roundly truncate posteriorly. The animal, when 
moving, carries its shell in a reverse position. On the whole it 
greatly resembles that of Anosioma, as iigured by Fischer in 
Journ. de Conch, for 1869, vol. ix, pi. xi, tigs. 1, 2." 

Hypselostoma tvhifenun is the largest and most dejn-essed of the 
Burmese forms of the genu?. It is, moreover, readily separated 
from its congeners by the aperture being horizontal and on a 
level with the spire. The parietal entering lamellae are some- 
times bideutate. The species appears to be fairly common and 
occurs in many collections. Some specimens in the Cuming and 
Theobald collections are somewhat larger than the type, measuring: 
major diam. 4-25, minor 3-10, alt. 3*5 nun. 

268. Hypselostoma bensoniauum, Blanford. 

Hijpselodoma hemonianunu Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxii, 1863, p. 'VIH ; 
I'feiffer, Men. lielic. Viv. v, 1868, p. 437 ; Hanley & Theobald, 
Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 8, fig. 2; Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 314. 

Pupa {Hypselostoma) bensoni, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 193. 

Original description :—-" Shell moderately umbilicated, turbinate, 
not distinctly striated, thin, horny. Spire conical, apex papillar 
and with the axis oblique, suture deep. Whorls 4, the upper ones 
flatteneil, the last bulging below the suture, and again at the 
periphery (where it bears a prominent rounded keel), rounded 
beneath, and compressed towards the umbilicus. It rises some- 
what towards the mouth, which is round, nearly vertical, 
slightly turned upwards, free from the other whorls, and furnished 



•500 PUPILLID.i:. 

inside with 5 lamellar teeth, 4 of which are equidistant aud 
opposite to each other, at the upper and lower corners of the 
mouth, so as to form a partial St. Andrew's cross, while the fifth, 
which is smaller, is close to aud above that at the upper corner of 
the parietal margin. Peristome fi-ee, simple, broadly expanded 
and trumpet-shaped."' (Blanford.) 

Major diam. '3, minor 2-2, alt. 2 mm. Diam. of peristome 
1 mm. 

Jlab. Burma : Mya Leit Doung, Ava {Blanford, Oldham). 

" The differences between this shell and Hi/jiselostoma tuhiferum, 
Benson, hitherto the only known species of tlie genus, are 
luimerous. That shell has the spire scarcely exserted, while 
the last whorl ascends so much that the mouth, which is hori- 
zontal, IS on a level with the apex. In the present species the 
spire is conical, the mouth nearly vertical, and the last whorl 
only ascends very slightly. In JI. tuhiferum also, there are more 
teeth in the mouth, they are situated further back from the 
aperture, and are somewhat differently disposed, the upper two 
lamellae being produced in front of the others, and forming an 
imperfect tube. There are also minor differences in striation, 
mnbilicus, etc. Nevertheless the general appearance of the two 
species is strikingly similar, and the peculiar shape of tlieir whorls 
and mouth recalls those of the Brazilian genus Anostoma, Lam." 
{Blanford.) 

8ome specimens in the Theobald collection measure : major 
diam. 3, min. 2, alt. 2 mm. (including the peristome). 

269. Hypselostoina dayanum, Stolkzl-a. 

Hypselostoma dayanum, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 172, pi. 7, 
■fi^'. -2; Ilanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. U7, fig. 10; 
rfeiffer, Mon." Ilelic. Viv. vii, 1876, p. 488; PfeitTer & Clessin, 
Xomencl. Ilelic. Viv. 1S81, p. 344. 

Pupa {Hypselostoma) dayana, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, j). 193. 

Original dt'scri]itioa : — "Hypselostoma testa minuta, conoidea, 
solidiila, pallide brunnea, apice obtusiuscula, late profundeque 
perspective umbilicata ; anfractibus 4, convexis, suturis profundis 
sejunctis, primo kevigato, submannnillato, ceteris striis incrementi 
subobsoletis notatis, ultimo maximo, fere plane voluto, supra ad 
peripheriam subangulato, deinde sensim aiigustiore et ad marginem 
umbilici rursus obtuse angulato ; apertura fere verticali, vix 
descendente, conspicuiter dilatata, subcirculari; inarginibus junctis, 
intus crassiusculis et plicose dentatis ; labio adnato modice ex- 
pansiusculo, bidentato, dente superiore majore; labro six-dentato ; 
dentibus duobus in regione columellari sitis subdistantibus, alteris 
duobus, in margine exteruo, similariter inter se remotis, sed 
duobus in marg. basali sitis approximatis, parvis. 
"Diam. maj. I'l, d. min. 0-8 : altitudo 1 mm." 
Hah. Burma : Uamotha near Moulmain. [StoliczTca.) 
"It is the third kuo^n species of the genus. In general form 



CLAUSILIID.-E. 301 

it resembles Bianford's H. Bensonianum from near Axa, but 
differs in the shape of tlie last whorl, and in the dentition of 
the aperture. The latter is in both species almost vertical, not 
turned entirely upwards, as in the type of the genus, //. tuhi- 
femm. As regards form, the present species indicates still more 
distinctly the aftinities of Hypselostoma to Pupa, than does 
//. Bensonianum.'' (Stoliczlca.) 

In addition to the fore-mentioned differentiating characters 
H. dayanum may at once be distinguished by its smaller size, 
being the smallest member of the group. It appears to be a rare 
species and I have not seen any specimens. 



Family CLAUSILIID^. 

Grenus CLAUSILIA, Draparnaud. 

Claudlia, Di-apariiautl, Hist. Nat. Moll. Terr. Fluv. Frauce, 1805, 
pp. 24, 29 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 173 (anatomy) : 
Eoettger, ralieontogr. 3rd Suppl. 1877 ; ibid., 17 & 18 Ber. 
Ofteubacher Ver. Naturw, 1878, Mitt. p. 18 ; Wiegmaiin, Jahrb. 
Deuts. Malak. Ges. v, 1878, p. 157 (anatomy). 

Type, (first species) Turho bidens, Linn. 

Range. India, Ceylon and Nicobars, Farther India, China, 
Japan, Malay Archipelago ; Asia Minor ; Northern Africa, 
Madeira; Europe; South America and Porto Eico. 

Shell sinistral m the great majority of species (invariably so in 
the Indian forms), cylindrical or fusiform, more or less solid, 
usually striated or ribbed transversely, generally more strongly so 
behind the aperture ; spire usually turreted. with acute or obtuse 
ape.x; aperture small, usually pear-shaped, sometimes subquadrate- 
ovate, sometimes with a sinus at the upper angle, provided with 
two spiral entering folds usually on the parietal hp, the lower 
sometuiies on the outer lip, both contiiuied internally as far as the 
seat of attachment of the pedicle of the clausilium ; the upper 
follows the spiral convolution of the columella and becomes the 
columellar fold (inferior lamella of Pfeiffer) ; a second fold further 
back, known as the subcolumellar (columellar of Kossmassler) 
fold, its termination sometimes visible from the aperture ; these 
two folds form a long tlexuous groove, slightly dilated to\\ards 
the aperture, but further down becoming again contracted. In 
addition there is a curved tlexuous, tongue- shaped, elastic plate, 
known as the clausilium, which higher up becomes contracted 
into a narrow twisted pedicle, its distal extremity attaclied to the 
inner shell-wall, between the distal extremities of the columellar 
and subcolumellar folds, the groove between these, lower down, 
receiving the clausilium as it is pushed to one side by the animal's 
extrusion, lu addition to these processes there are a varving 



302 clausiliibjE. 

number of palatal plicae behind the aperture, and usually showing 
through the shell-wall. In some species two of these plicse have 
their posterior extremities curved and approximating, ultimately- 
uniting and forming the so-called lunella. Peristome continuous. 
Umbilicus usually very slight, and consisting of a narrow, 
oblique slit behind tlie colamellar margin. 

" The animal of CI. pMUppiana is black with a greenish tinge 
on the posterior part of the body, which is covered with rather 
coarse warts; the pedicles are moderately elongated, pinkish, 
slightly swollen at the tips which bear the small eyes centrally ; 
tentacles very short, but distinct; foot moderately elongated, 
strong, posteriorly obtusely pointed. 

" The mantle has a free entire edge, and is internally somewhat 
thickened, especially on either side of the pulmonary orifice. At 
the place of the labial fold the edge is simply grooved. Corre- 
sponding to tlie columellar rib the groove is much stronger and 
deeper, extending Avith free raised edges to the mantle-margin. 
The lower (or anterior) of these lamellar edges is semicircularly 
enlarged, and towards the end folded over ; it secretes the 
columellar fold, with its internal laminar projection for the 
support of the clausilium. The upper (or posterior) edge is 
smaller and evidently secretes the clausihum ; it becomes folded 
over the former when the animal protrudes out of its shell. 

"As regards the internal structui'e there is nothing very 
distinct from the anatomy of the Helicid.i;. 

" The pulmonary cavity is narrow and long, the mantle 
forming it being rather thick and of a deep pinkish black 
colour. The kidney is of a large sub-triangular form, and one 
portion of it almost entirely envelopes the heart. The mouth is 
small and the salivary glands lie immediately behind it, covering 
the anterior part of the aUmentary canal, while in most Helicid^ 
they are on long peduncles and situated at the lower anterior 
base of the stomach. The oral parts and the saUvary glands are 
pinkish grey. The intestines make only a slight bend, and the 
rectum is accompanied by a very narrow albuminous gland, along 
which also the duct leading from the kidney appears to lie. 

" The retractor muscle of the body is divided in two very broad 
and strong parts ; they are attached to the anterior end of the 
foot, below tlie mouth, and divide posteriorly again into several 
thin branches. The retractor muscles, supporting the buccal 
parts, are shorter and also bipartite. The nervous ganglion ring 
lies immediately behind the mouth and is covered up by the 
anterior part of the salivary glands ; it is very thin and gives only 
a few very thin branches to tlie lips, the pedicles and to the 
generative organs. The small extent of the nervous system is 
very striking, as compared with the same organs in the Helicid,!; 
and Zo^'iTiu.E. 

" The generative organs fill the anterior part of the body 
nearly entirely. The uterus is comparatively thin, of grey colour : 
the albuminous gland, attached to it, very large, nearly as long 



CLAUSILIA. 303 

as the uterus, and more than double its thickness. The recepta- 
culum seminis is an oval pedunculated gland, lying either along 
the uterus, or obliquely across the body, a short distance below 
the hermaphrodite opening, enveloped in soft tissue. It is pro- 
vided with a long appendage, attached along the uterus, and equal 
in length to it. This appendage contains an orange coloured, 
tough flagellum, filled with a whitisli substance, and possibly 
represents the arrow (or armatorial) sac. 

" I have not observed the presence of spermatozoa in the so- 
called ' receptaculum seminis ' ; it was tilled with flattened 
transparent bodies and some colouring matter. The vas deferens 
branches off about half way from the uterus, makes a few twists, 
attaches itself to the tissue just below the hermaphrodite opening, 
and then shortly after becomes thickened, being at this place 
fixed with a small and thin retractile muscle. The penis makes 
three distinct twists, or almost coils ; it is very long and the 
terminal half is more thickened than the other ; it ends with a 
thin flagelhmi. 

" The jaw is semilunar, narrow, thin, concentrically very finely 
and radiately distantly and indistinctly, striated, the anterior 
concave edge is nearly perfectly entire. 

" The radula is long, moderately narrow, consisting of about 80 
transverse, slightly angular series of teeth, there being 53 teeth in 
each series. The centre tooth is smaller than the adjoining, with 
a simple, inflected and pointed tip ; it is contracted towards the 
base. The 14 inner laterals are longer and stronger than the 12 
outer laterals. They are all tri-cuspid ; at first the median cusp 
is by far the largest, gradually the lateral increase in size, 
while at the same time the median cusp decreases, until on the 
outermost lateral teeth, the three cusps are almost equal. On 
the whole the form of the teeth agrees better with that of the 
Helicid^ than with the Zoxitid.i:. The dental formula is 12 + 
14_1_14+12." (StoUczka.) 

The characteristic and peculiar feature of the present genus— - 
the clausilium — has been described by several auMiors. The first 
to draw attention to it appears to be Daubenton * who referred 
to it as an " opercule a ressort." Miiiler t was tlie next to give a 
short description of it under Helix [^ClausiUci] hidens, but more 
elaborate accounts were given by J. 8. Miller J, l)r. Gi-av §, 
Caillaud '; and Fischer^, the latter two elucidating their observ- 
ations with figures. Finally a lucid description, illustrated bv 
elaborate figures, bv E. A. Smith and B. 13. Woodward ** will be 



* Hist, et Mem. Acad. Soi. Paris, 1743. p. 47. 

t Verm. Terr. Fluv. ii. 1774, p. 117. 

+ Ann. Philos. n. s., iii, 1822, p. 378. 

§ Zool. Journ. i, 1824, p. 212. 

II Jouru. Conchyl. iv. 1853, p. 420, pi. 13. figs. 1-4. 

•I Man. Conchvl. 1883, pp. 484, 48.5. figs. 251-255. 

** Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, r, 1890, p. 209. 



304 CLAUSILIID.'E. 

found very useful. While the animal is retracted within its shell 
the elastic pedicle causes the clausiliuin to rest against the sub- 
columellar fold on the inner side and against the shorter palatal 
plicae or the lunella, when present, on the outer side, the anterior 
angle of its inner margin slightly projecting inwardly over the 
sabcolumellar fold, an arrangement whicli effectively prevents the 
clausilium being forced to one side from without, thus securing 
the animal against intruding enemies. During extrusion of the 
animal the clausilium is pushed sideways into the groove between 
the coliimellar and subcoluniellar folds, only its anterior portion 
being pressed slightly forward at the dilated part of the groove. 
The clausilium may, therefore, be regarded to act as a sliding door, 
and while closed during retraction of the animal, the spaces 
between the palatal plicai are sufficient to admit air for breathing 
purposes. This peculiar sliding action of the clausilium I have 
not seen referred to by an}- of the authors mentioned, which may, 
perhaps, be explained by the fact that the species which have 
served as a basis for investigation are rather small and their 
examination is consequently somewhat difficult. This difficulty 
may be overcome by utilizing some of the larger Japanese forms — 
such as C. martensi, Herkl., and 0. valida, PfeifEer. By the aid 
of a watchmaker's eye-glass and a needle mounted in a pen- 
holder, the action of the clausilium can be observed with ease and 
accuracy. The various folds do not in every species rise at the 
same point. In some the lower palatal fold rises some distance 
below the columellar and the subcolumellar folds, in others again 
the latter rises half way between the other two. The point where 
the pedicle of the clausilium is attached to the shell-wall, however, 
is invariably above the termination of any of the folds, at least in 
all the species — both Indian and extra-Indian — which I have 
examined. In all the Indian forms the clausilium has the margins 
entire, but in some PaUiearctic species the margin has a short siiais 
on the outer side and in others again, the anterior margin is in 
addition bidenticulate. Five species belonging to the Palaearctic 
subgenus Alopia, i. e. haueri, cyclostoma, glauca, livida, and lactea, 
are \\ithoat clausilium. I must own that at first I entertained 
considerable doubt as to this, but having by the kind permission of 
the authorities at the British Museum opened specimens of the 
species in question, I have satisfied myself that this is actually 
the case. 

The distribution of the genus Clausilia within the limits of the 
Indian Empire is somewhat peculiar. Eleven species are known 
from India but these are all confined to the norlh, especially the 
Himalayan I'egion, while none occurs in the whole of sou1:hern 
India, but a single species is known from Ceylon. Burma has 
no less than fourteen species, while two are found in the Nicobars 
and the ^Mergui Archipelago has one. 

A large number of sections or subgenera have been established : 
one of these — Oospira, with five species — is confined to Burma, 



CLAUSILIA, 305 

and auotlier — Garmeria—hns two species in Burma, one in Cliina 
and one in Cambodia. The remainder of the Indian Clausilias 
belong to three sections, Fseudonenia having twelve species, Euphn',- 
dusa claiming nine, and GyUndvoplmdusa with two. Boettger 
established a subsection AcropUmlnsa, for the reception "'of 
C. monticola and 0. arnhana, hut without having seen specimens 
for investigation. As this subsection appears to me of doubtful 
vahie I ha\e included the species in Eapha'dusa. 

Subgenus PH.ffiDUSA, //. c|- A. Adams. 

P/i(r;dnsa, Adams, (ieu. llec. Moll, ii, 18.55, p. 184 (first species 
Clausilia cuchinchiiumsis, I'feifter) ; von Martens, Die (leliceeii 
ed. 2, 1860, p. 274 (type C. corticina v. d. Busch) : Boettg-er' 
Palgeontographica, 3rd suppl. 1877, p, •'54; rfeifler & Clessin. 
Nomeucl. Ilelic. Viv. 1881, p. .390. 

" Sliell smooth, more or less solid, yellowish or rufo-corneous ; 
lunule none or, very rarely, obsolete ; spiral lamella usually dis- 
joined ; last whorl appressed, rounded at the base ; perikome 
continuous, free." {Adams.) 

Section Eltpii.euusa, Boettger. 

Euphaedusa, Boettgfer, Palteontographica, .'ird suppl. 1877, p. 57 ; 
ibid., Ber. OfFenbuchev Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 53 (first 
species C. hacillum) ; Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic Viv 
1881, p. 390. ■ 

Type, Clausilia hacillum, Hanley & Theobald. 

^anc/e. India, Burma, China, Japan, Malay Archipelago. 

Clausilium very wide;, frequently subquadrate, somewhat dilated 
below, strongly curved backwards belo\A-, acuminate towards the 
middle. Upper parietal plica long, below it a smaller one united 
with the rudimentary, interrupted, or small lunella (rarely absent) 
which at its lower extremity sends off posteriorly a small branch. 
The upper parietal fold is marginal and nearlv vertical, deeply 
eutering; the lower parietal fold approaching the upper, more or 
less spirally twisted ; the subcolumellar more or less immersed. 
Aperture subvertical, usually i)yriform, with strongly thickened' 
margins. The small shell has convex whorls, a deep suture, is 
usually thin, shining, and cornecms, smooth or finelv striated, 
rarely finely ribbed. 



270. Clausilia bacillum. /fanJe>/ cj- Theobald. 

Clausilia iynuta, Theobald, J. A. S. B. x.wii, 1858, p 3'>1 
(noni. nud.). ' ^ 

Clausilia hacillum (Benson), Hanley & Theobald, Couch. lud 
1870, p). L>4, tig. 1 (lion Theobald) ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xxj 

X 



306 CLATJSILIID.^. 

1875, Clausilia, pi. G, fig. 48 ; PfeifFer, Mon. Helic. Viv. viii, 

1877, p. 503. 

Chmsi/ia (? Medora) hacillum, Blauford, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, 

p. I'OO, pi. 9, fig. 3 ; Stoliczka, torn. cit. p. 207. 
Clausilia {P/iaedusa) bacillum (Theobald), Nevill, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. ISi; Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ.Genova, ser. 2, 
vii, 1889, p. 328. 

Clausilia {Fhaednsa (JEuphaedusa)) hacillum^ Boettger, Ber. Offen- 
baclier Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 53; Pfeifer & Clessin, 
Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. .390. 

"Testa subrimata, fusiformis, solidula, glabra, vix striatiila, 
nitidula, superficie ssepe in exemplis veteribus erosa, albido- vel 
cereo-cornea ; spira superne regulariter atteuiiata ; apice obtuso, 
papillari ; sutura simplice impressa. Anfr. 9 couvexi, ultinius 
validus striatus, pone aperturam vix conipressus ; apertura 
verticalis, piriformi-oblonga, lamella siipera validiori, columellari 
antice vix conspicua, parum torta, intus subl'urcata ; luuella 
distincta, plicis palatalibus 2, suturse parallelibus, supera elongata, 
altera brevi, a lunella vix disjuncta. Peristoma continuum, 
solutura, album, breviter expansum et incrassatum, margine 
parietali vix sinuate. 

" Long. 15, antr. penult, diam. 3'5 mm. ; apart, cum peristomate 
3-33 longa, 2-33 ]nm. lata." (Blanfonl.) 

Hab. India: Nanclai, Ivhasi W\\\s {Theohald, Godivin-Aiisten); 
Naga Hills (Chennell) ; Asalu, Cachar (Oochvin- Austen) ; Burma: 
Schegoo {Feci). 

" The species varies considerably both in the form and length 
of the shell. The specimen figured may be taken as the type, 
but others longer and slenderer are quite as common, they vei'y 
closely resemble TJieohcddi in form, differing from it by their 
smooth shining surface. One of the most slender specimens 
measures : total length 15, thickness 3 mm. ; it has 10^ whorls 
and is much attenuated towards the apex. 

" The representation in the ' Conch. Indica ' must evidently be 
taken as that of true hacillum, of which, the authors of that 
work say, two specimens were known at that time : one in Benson's 
and the other in Theobald's collection. These are the two 
specimens to which Theobald (J. A. S. B. 1858, p. 321) refers 
under the name of ignota, as a provisional name, while tlie single 
specimen which he quotes 1. c. as ' C. bacillum, B.' is a somewhat 
worn CI. asahiensis, and hence Theobald's reference that the 
species is of the type of C. insignis. I have carefully examined 
with Mr. Theobald his type specimens, and the question as regards 
the synonymy may be considered as settled ; the species must 
stand as recorded by Blanford." (StoliczJca.) 



CLAUSILIA. o07 

271. Clausilia waageni, Stoliczha. 

C'/ausi/iu iv(ta(jeni, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 209, pi. 9, 
tig. 19; rfeitler, Mon. TIelic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 520; Theobald, 
.1. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 147 ; ibid., op. cit. 1, 1881, p. 48. 

Clauailia (Phaednsa) icduyeni, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 185. 

CUnmlin (Phaednsa (Euphaedasa)) tvaaycni, Boettper, Ber. Otieii- 
bacher Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. .jo; Weiffer & Clessin, 
Xoiueucl. llelic. Viv. 1881, p. 391. 

Original description : — " CI. testa conoideo-turrita, corueo- 
fusca, apice obtusiuscula, sub-rimata; anfractibus 11, paulo 
convexis, sutura siiuplici junctis, lateraliter apicem versus paulu- 
lum concava ; omninis trans versim oblique cont'ertiin costulato- 
striatis, ultimo antecedente vix latiore, prope aperturam costulato, 
basi pauluin coutracto, convexiusculo ; apertura rerticali, postice 
(vel supra) angulata ; peritreinate modice iucrassato, vix expanso, 
albesceute, autice recedente, interno soluto, autice rectiusculo, 
biplicato, plica postica (aut superiore) brevi, altera vix coiispicua ; 
lunella distiucta, plica longa, temiissiina superposita, altera brevi, 
a termiuatione supera luuella; baud separata. 

" Long, tota 18, diam.4; long, apert. obliq. 4, ejusdem lat. 
2*7 mm." {StoUczl-a.) 

Hub. India: Chaugligalli, near Murree, AV. Himalayas, alt. 
9000 feet ( Waageu, StoUczka) ; 'landiani, Hazara (IVieobald). 

" This is the most westei'ly known species ot" the genus in 
India. A single, but perfect, specimen was found by Dr. W. 
Waageu, together with CI. ci/liudrica, under the bush of an old 
tree at the above mentioned locality. The nearest allied species 
is 0. ids, but the larger size of the shell, comparative shortness of 
the two last whorls, larger and more straight aperture readily 
distinguish this new form." {>StoliczLu.) 

The author in referring to C. ios as the nearest ally of this 
species, appears to have overlooked O. nionticoJa, described by 
Blanford in the same paper, a form which has still closer affinity 
with it. From this it differs in having the upper part of the 
spire less attenuated and the striae are a little coarser. 

Four specimens, from Tandiaui, in the Theobald collection are 
somewhat larger than the type, their length being 19"o mm. 
Having, by kind permission of the authorities at the British 
Museum, o])ened one of tiiese shells, I am in a position to report 
on tlie internal armature. The upper parietal fold is interrupted 
and the inner portion becomes more elevated, gradually decreasing 
again as it ascends. The subcolumellar fold rises about the 
beginning of the last whorl close to the columella and becomes a 
rather broad flexuous fold at once, terminating even more abruptly 
at a distance of about 0'25 mm. behind the peristome, half-way 
between the termination of the columellar fold and the lunella. 
The columellar fold rises a little higher up at tlie connuencement 
of the last whorl and continues as a fine thread for about half a 
whorl, when it suddenly increases in height and becomes a flexuous 

x2 



308 CLAUSILIID7E. 

fold, following tlie winding of the columella and together with the 
subcolumellar fold forms a groove — somewhat ^ider towards the 
base — into Avhich the clausiliuni slides when pushed to one side 
by the animal's extrusion. The pedicle of the clausilium rises 
about the beginning of the penultimate whorl. The upper 
parietal fold rises nearly one quarter of a whorl lower than the 
subcolumellar fold and becomes a broad fold at once. The 
palatal plicsB 1 find are not quite as described by Stoliczka, there 



r 



/ 

Fig. 105. — Clausilia waageni. 
(Showing inside of last whorl with the palatal plica.) 

being no true lunella, although, looking from the outside, it some- 
what resembles one. The upper plica is, as usual, long and runs 
parallel with the suture ; the second plica is short and parallel 
with the upper; between them occurs a short denticle almost 
uniting them, and from the anterior termination of the second 
plica a nearly vertical plica runs down, forming a right angle, 
with a slight oblique support posteriorly from its free lower 
extremity and terminating close to the subcolumellar fold near 
the aperture. Pig. 105 shows the inner side of the last whorl 
A\ ith the palatal pliciB in situ. 

272. Clausilia ios, Benson. 

Clausilia iijs, Beuson, A. M. N. H. ser. 1', x, 1852, p. 351 ; Godwiu- 

Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. :!18, pi. 8, fig. 13. 
Clausilia jiis, Pfeift'er, Mon. Hehc. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 612. 
Clausilia ios, TIaiilev & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1870, pi. 24, fig. 10. 
Clausilia (? Medor'a) ios, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 200, 

pi. 9, fig. 2. 
Clausilia Jos, Sowerby, Conch. Icon. xx. 1875, Clausilia, pi, S, 

fig. 75 ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 184. 
Clausilia {Fhacdusa {Euphaedusa)) joes, Boettger, Ber. Ofleubacliev 

Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 53; Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. 

Hehc. Viv. 1881, p. 391. 

Orhjinal description: — "Testa vix rimatn, fusiformi, oblique 
costuiato-striata, pallide cornea, spira gradatim atteuuata, apice 
obtusiusculo ; anfractibus 8-9, vix convexiusculis, ultimo ad basin 
rotundato, antice fortius remotiusque costulato ; apertura pyri- 
formi, lamellis subtequalibus, inferiori furcata ; plicis palatalibus 
duabus, 1™''^ longissima, a sutura remotiori, 2"'^^ obliqua, brevi, 
a lunella satis distincta, interdum vix divisa, subcolumellari 
immersa, peristomate continue, superne solute, uudiqiie breviter 
retiexo. 

" Long. 13, diam. 3, apert. long. 3, lat. 2 mill" (Benson.) 



CL-VUSILIA. 



309 



Ifah. India: Uarjeeliiig, Sikkim {Trotter, StoUczIca, Mainivarimj, 
Blanford); Blmtaii {Blanford) • Dafla Hills, Assam (Godtvin- 
Ansteti). 

" Hah. Teinpei-ate regions of Sikkim and Eutan, in the Eastei-n 
Jlimahiyas, from about 5000 to OOOO feet. It doubtless also 
exists in Nipal. It is generally met with at the roots of oaks and 
other large trees. 

" In this species, as was noticed by Mr. Benson, the lunule 
is sometimes broken up into short oblique plaits above, and con- 
sequently the number of palatal plicae varies. Sometimes there is 
only the long lamellar plait above the lunule, in other specimens 
there ai'e, besides the long one, two short plieix;." {Blanford.) 

Clausilia ion a])pears to be one of the commonest species, to 
judge by the iiumber of specimens in collections. There are shells 
in the British Museum, presented by Blanford in 1860, which 
have 10 whorls —therefore with one whorl more than Blanford's 
type — and measure 13-5x3 mm. Four specimens in the Cuming 
collection, also of 10 whorls, attain a length of 14 mm. The 
Beddome collection is particularly well supplied, as I have counted 
no less than two dozen : these are from Darjeeling. The species 
somewhat resembles C. theobaldl but it is smaller and the palatal 
plicfe are nearer the aperture. 

273. Clausilia ceylanica, Benson. 

Clandlia cei/lanica, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 89 ; 

Pfeitfer, Mon. llelic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 427 ; Nevill, Enum. Helic. 

Cevlon, 1871. p. 3 ; 1 liinlev & Theobald, Conch, ind. 1875, pi. 118, 

tig'l. 
Clausilia (? Medora) ceylanica, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, 

p.201,pl. 9,lig. 4. 
Clausilia (Phaedusa) ceijlanica, Xevill, Hand List, i, 18/8, p. 184. 
Clausilia {Phaedusa ( Euphaedusa)) ceylanica, Boett^er, Ber. Oflfen- 

bacher Ver. Xatm-w. 1878, Mitt. p. 53 ; Pfeitfer & Clessiu, 

Nomencl. llelic. Viv. 1881 , p. 391. 
Euphcedusa ceylanica, .Toiisseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 

1894, p. 290. 

Orif/inal descrijHion : — " C. testa vix rimata, f usiformi, oblique 
confertissime costulata, costulis nonnullis uudulatis, fuscescenti- 
olivacea ; spira gradatim attenuata, lateribus convexiusculis, apice 
obtusiusculo, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 8, convexiusculis, ultimo 
ad basin rotundato ; apertuia subobliqua, pyriformi, lamellis 
contiguis, iuferiore valde exserta, torta, plicis palatalibus 2, 
subsequalibus, eloiigatis, columellari immersa ; peristomate con- 
tinuo, superne soluto, undique subexpanso, reflexiusculo. 

•• Long. 12, diam. 21 mill., apert. long. 3. lat. 2 mill." {Benson.) 

J Jab. Ceylon (//. Nevill) ; Fort McDonald {La yard). 

" Found" by Mr. F. Layard at an altitude of 4500 feet in the 
central mountain mass of Ceylon. The nearest Indian ally in 
form is the Darjiling C. ios, from which it may at once be 



310 CLAUSILIID^-. 

distinguished by its sculpture, texture, and the internal plicae." 
(Jknson.) 

Blanford, Allien figuring Clausilia cej/htnica, states that Benson, 
in describing the species, overlooked the lunule, which is as well 
developed as in C. ios and C. haciUv/iii. 

The only known species from Ceylon. In addition to the 
features mentioned by Benson it may be said to be characterized 
by the short upper parietal fold. The shell figured by Hanley and 
Theobald has been presented to the British Museum by 
Mr. Harvey. It is a trifle more convex than Benson's type, its 
diameter being 3 mm., whereas Benson, in his original description, 
mentions 2*5 mm. Like most species of Clausilia it varies some- 
what in size, for two specimens in the Beddome collection, both 
of eight whorls, measure 10-5x2'75 mm. and 11x3 mm. 
respectively. 



274. Clausilia tlieobaldi, Blanford. 

Clausilia (? Medora) theohahli, Blanford, .1. A. S. B. xli, 1872, 

p. 201, pi. y, fig. 5. 
Clausilia theohahli, Pfeitter, Mou. llelic. \ iv. viii, 1877, p. 521. 
Clausilia (P/inedusa {EiqyJmedusa)) tlieobaldi, Boettger, lier. Ofien- 

baclier Yer. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 5o ; Pfeitter & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 391. 

Original description : — " Testa rimata, fusiformi turrita, cornea, 
coufertim flexuose costulata, transluceus. iSpira turrita, sensim 
attenuata, lateribus superne subrectis, apice acutiusculo, sutura 
impressa. Anfr. 11 convexi, antepenult! m us et penultimus 
majores, ultimus juxta suturam tumidiusculus infra plicam 
2:)alatalem superam compressus, subtus rotundatus. Apertura vix 
obliqua, piriformis, lamellis approxiniatis, mediocribus, supera 
acuta, infera immersa, lunella distincta, plicis palatalibus 2, supera 
elongata, altera brevi. Peristoma rectum, expansum, solutuni, 
margine palatali baud sinuato. 

"Long. 22, diam. 3"5 mm.; apert. 3'5 nun. longa, 2*6 lata." 
{Blanford.) 

Hah. Burma: Tonghu {Theohald. Blanford); Mai-i, Araknn 
Coast {Theobald). 

There are two specimens in the Theobald collection in the 
British Museum, from hills to the east of Tonghu, the type 
locality, whose length is less than that indicated in the original 
description, the dimensions being 17"75 x 3'5 mm. although they 
possess half a whorl more. The figure gi\en by Blanford in 
J. A. S. B. is still smaller, measuring only 16 mm. The Beddome 
collection also contains specimens which reach only 17 mm. in 
length, the diameter, nevertheless, being 3-5 mm. In the Theobald 
collection I found three shells labelled " aralana, 8toliczka, Mai-i, 
Arakan Coast,'" one of which undoubtedly belongs to the present 
species. 



CLAUSILIA. 311 

Blanford in his diagnosis only mentions two palatal folds, but I 
have found a third, wliich, however, is not visible without opening 
the shell. 

275. Clausula biirmanica, sp. u. 

Shell riiuate, fusiform, fuscous, translucent, very closely in- 
vested with fine wavy stria?, traversed by rather irregular, 
somewhat indistinct spirals. Spire turreted, gradually attenuated, 
tlie sides not concave ; apex acute ; suture impressed. Whorls 11|, 
convex, last scarcely narrower than penultimate, not compressed 
below upper palatal plica. Aperture vertical, snbquadrate. 
Parietal folds rather distant, the upper not interrupted, lower 
rather elongated before entering. Palatal plica? three, upper long, 
parallel with the suture ; the other two curved, almost meeting 
posteriorly, rather distant, one being close to the upper plica, 
the other nearer the aperture. Peristome solute, the margins 
expanded and reliexed, outer margin descending obliquely. 

Long. 21, diam. 4 mm. 

Hah. Burma: Toughu {Tlieohald). 

IVpe in the British Museum. 




Fig. lOG. — Clausilia hurmanica. 

The specimen upon which this new species is based occurred 
with two shells of Clausilia theohaldi, from which it differs by the 
much more wavy, closer, and finer striae, the presence of spirals, 
and the snbquadrate aperture ; the two lower palatal plicae, 
moreover, instead of being straight and rather close together, as 
in tlieohaldi, are rather distant and curved, their posterior termina- 
tions neai'ly meeting, as seen in fig. 106 6, which shows the inside 
of the last whorl witb the palatal plicae in situ ; finally, the last 
whorl is not compressed below tlie upper palatal plica, the parietal 
folds are more distant, the upper is not interrupted and the lower 
longer before entering, proceeding horizontally. 

The Hungerford collection in the British Museum contains tw o 
specimens from Bhamo, which 1 also refer to this new species ; 
they possess twelve whorls. 

27(3. Clausilia monticola, Blanford. 

Clausilia {Plucdusa) monticola fGodwin-Austen, MS.), Blanford, 
J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 204, pi. 0, fig. 13 ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 
1878, p. 18:i. 



312 CLAUSILIIl).!;. 

Clttusilia monticola, Ilaiiley & Theobald, Coucli. Ind. 187o, pi. 118, 
tig. 7 ; rfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 467. 

Clausilia {Phaedusa (Acrophaedusa)) monticola, Boettger, Ber. 
Oftenbacher Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 57 ; Pfeift'er & Olessin, 
Nomeucl. Helic. Yiv. 1881, p. 392. 

Original description : — " Testa rimata, exills, elougata, f usiformi- 
subulata, soHdula, brunnea vel brunnescente-grisea, parum niticla ; 
superficie ssepe erosa ; spirse lateribus antice rectis, apicem 
papillarem versus coneaviusculis ; sutura simpbce, iinpressa. 
An£r. 13 couvexi, primi 4 fere cylindrici, antepenultimiis vix quam 
penultiraus major, ultimus ad basin rotundatus, baud compressus. 
Apertura piriformis, fere verficalis, lanielLa palatali siuistrorsim 
deflexa, acuta ; columebari subprofunda ; lunella uuUa, pUcis 
palatalibus fere parallelis 6-7, supera valde elougata. Peristoma 
continuum, vix solutum, leviter sinuatum, superne repandum, 
expansiiiscubim, mediocriter incrassatum, album, margine parietali 
leviter sinuate. 

"Long. 2l, diam. anfr. penult. 4 mm.; apart, cum perist. 
3-66 longa, 2-66 lata." {Blanfovd.) 

Hah. India : Eurrail Hills, Assam ; Nortb Cachar, alt. 0500 ft. 
( Godivin- Austen) . 

" This species is well distinguished from its allies by its slender 
shape and numerous whorls.*' {Blanford.) 

The relatively long last whorl and the strongly reflexed and 
expanded right and basal margins of the peristome are also 
striking features separating it from the other Indian Clausilias. 
It bears some resemblance to C. ivcuKjeni but the upper portion 
of the spire is more slender and attenuated. A specimen from 
the Hauley collection, presented to the British Museum by 
Mr. Harvey, is presumably the one figured in Conch. Ind., but it 
has the aperture more pear-shaped than is shown in the figure, 
the outer margin being more curved. It possesses 14 whorls and 
measures 22 mm. The figure given by Blanford and Stoliczka in 
J. A. S. B. is more accurate. A shell with no precise habitat, 
presented to the British Museum in 1S69 by Dr. Horsfield, and 
labelled C. crjlindrica, is pei'haps a small form of C. monticola. It 
has 12 whoi-ls and measures 10x3 mm. Two specimens from 
North Cachar in the Beddome collection are both composed of 12 
whorls, and have a diameter of 3-75 mm., but whereas one 
measures 21 mm. the other only attains a length of 18-5 mm. 

277. Clausilia arakana, Stoliczla. 

Clausilia aralama (Theobald), Stoli'-zka, J. A. S. B. xfi, 1872, 
p. 210, pi. 9, fig. 20; Ilanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, 
pi. 118, figs. 8, 9; Sowerbv, Conch. Icon, xx, 1875, Clausilia, 
pi. 9, fig. 78 ; Pfeifier, Mon. Helic. Yiv. viii, 1877, p, 467. 

Clausilia {Fhaedusa) arakana, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 183. 

Clausilia {Phaedusa (Acn^jhaedusa)) arakana, Boettger, Ber. 
Oftenbacher Ver. Xaturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 57 ; Pfeifier & Clessin, 
Nomencl. Helic. Yiv. 1881, p. 392. 



CLAUSILIA. 



313 



Ori(jinal description:—'' CI. testa straiiiineo-albida,subf usiforme- 
turrita, apice atteuuata, aperturam versus subaugustata, non 
rimata; anfractibus 10-12, pauluincoiivexiusculis,siitura profunda 
simplici junctis, traiisversim oblique capillaceo stnolatis ; apertura 
rectiuscula, sub-rectangulari, antice subrotuiulata, margiuibus 
iiioclice dilatatis et iucrassatis, labio breviter libero, fere recto, 
biplicato, pJica autica (seu inferiore) valde oblique iutrante ; plicis 
palatalibus quiuque, fere a-quidistantibus et inter se parallelis, 
supera lougissinia, cteteris suba3qualibus. 

"Long. 17-20; Jat. 3-8-4; long, apert. 4-4-4, lat. 3-3-2 mm." 
{IStoliczka.) 

Hub. Burma: Tonghu and Iiills S.E. of Akyab, Arakau, and 
Mai-i, Sandoway district {Theohald). 

" This is the new Arakan species to wbicli Mr. Blauford alludes 
at p. 205, when speaking of Gl. monticola ; it differs from tbis 
last by its more fusiform instead of conoidally turreted shape, its 
thinner texture, larger aperture and somewhat differently arranged 
palatal folds, 1 have given illustrations of a shorter form with 
ten whorls, and of anotiier with twelve whorls ; the former is a 
single specimen from the hills «.E. of Akyab, the other was 
collected by Mr. Theobald at Mai-i, in the Sandoway district. 
These two 'forms represent the extreme variations which were 
noticed among a large number of specimens." {Stoliczlca.) 

Two shells, from Mai-i, in the Theobald collection, measure 
20x4 mm., and distinctly show the five palatal plicae indicated in 
the diagnosis. 

278. Clausilia lemani, sp. n. 

Shell rimate, fusiform, fuscous corneous, rather solid, opaque, 
tinelv striate, closely ribbed behind the aperture on the last whorl, 
some indistinct, very tine spirals perceptible on the later whorls. 
Spire turreted, the 'sides slightly concave ; apex slightly obtuse; 
suture shallow, especially on the later whorls. Whorls 11, the 




Fio;. 107. — Clausilia Ici 



earlier slightly convex, the later ones ilattened, the last but little 
narrower than the penultimate, with a shallow furrow below the 
lower palatal plica behind the peristome and gibbous around the 
umbilical slit. Aperture a little oblique, subovate. Parietal folds 
rather close togeiher, upper not interrupted, lower deilexed 
towards the columella and descending with the columellar margin. 
Palatal plicae three, rather near the aperture, tlie upper rather 



314 CLAUSILIIDiE, 

short, parallel with the suture ; the .second very short, parallel 
with the upper; the third louger and oblique, entirely visible from 
the aperture. Peristome slightly thickened, not expanded and 
but little reflexed, the parietal margin not solute, without sinus at 
the upper parietal fold, columellar margin curved, obhquely 
descending, basal margin curved, outer margin a little inflexed. 

Long. 16, diam. 4*2 mm. 

Hah. Burma : Arakan. 

Type in Mr. Lemau's collection. 

Two specimens in the late Colonel Beddome's collection, now 
in the possession of Mr. G. C. Leman, were labelled C. arakanensis, 
but upon examination they proved to be quite distinct, and in 
basing a new species upon them I have much pleasure in asso- 
ciating with the new form tlie name of Mr. Leman, who upon 
several occasions has readily given me access to this important 
collection, so rich especially in Indian and Burmese sliells. 

The new species, while allied to C. arajcanensis, may readily be 
separated by its more convex spire, its more obtuse ape.\, and the 
more closely coiled whorls, for although shells of 10 whorls of 
C. arakanensis measure 17 nun. in length, C. hmani u ith 11 whorls 
only attains lt> mm.; the shell, moreover, is striated, not ribbed. 
The palatal plica? are also less in number, and instead of all being 
parallel, the lowest is nearly vertical, and they are all much 
nearer the aperture. 

Section Pseudonenia, Boettger. 

Pseudoneniu, Boettger, PalieontooTaphica, 3rd suppl. 1877, p. 59 ; 
ibid., Ber. Otienbacher Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 89 (first 
spbcies C. qouldiimu) ; Pfeiii'er & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 
1881, p. .•]9'l. 

TiPB, Clausilia gouldiana, Pfeiffer. 

Range. India, Burma, China, Japan, Malay Archipelago. 

Clausilium attenuated below, tlie blade somewhat elongated and 
dilated below. The palatal plica? varying in number, the upper 
rather long. Lunula nearly always absent. The upper parietal 
fold more or less oblique, subcolumellar fold hidden. Aperture 
large, protracted below, the right upper margin always more or 
less sinuate towards the upper parietal fold, the peristome strongly 
expanded and reflexed. The shell has few whorls, usually an acute 
apex, is corneous and more or less hnely striated. 

279. Clausilia gouldiana, Pfeiffer. 

Clausilia gouldiana, Pfeifter, Malak. Blatt. iii, 1857, p. 259 ; ibid., 
Mou. lielic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 724; ibid., Novit. Couch, ser. 1, i, 
1860, p. 123; Hanley & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1875, pl.^llS, 
tigs. 2, 3 ; Sowerbv/ Conch. Icon, xx, 1875, Clausilia, pi. 16, 
fig. 148. 



OLAUSILIA. 



315 



Clausilia (PJicedusa) gouldiana, Blanford, J. A. S. Ji. xli, 18/ 2, 

p. 203, pi. 9, fig. 10; Stoliczka, torn. cit. p. 208. 
Clausilia {Fhaediisa {I'seudonenia)) c/ouldiana, Bot-ttger, Ber. Otteu- 

bacher Ver. Natiirw. 1878, Mitt. p. o-i ; rieiffer & Clessm, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 148. 

Orhjinal description:— ''T. leviter ninata, fusiformis, solida, 
conferiissiuie capillaceo-striata, sericea, rubicunda ; spiia sursum 
regulariter attenuata, apice alba, obtusula ; anfr. 11-11|, summi 
convexi, sequentes planiores, ultimus angustatus, basi non com- 
pressus; apertura piriformis; lamellae mediocres, infera alte 
asoendens; lunella nulla; plicae palatales 5-6, supera 1 elougata, 
4-5 brevissimae, subparallelae, locum lunellae obtinentis ; sub- 
columellaris iuconspicua ; perist. continuum, roseum, intus 
callosum, imdique expausum et reflexiusculum, margine supero 
repando. 

" Long. 24.i, diam. infia medium 6 mill. Ap. oblique tere 
6 mill, bnga, 4= lata." {Pfeiffer.) 

Ilah. Burma : Mergui {Gould) ; Moulmain {Blanford) : 

Phaloung and Zwagahm {Theobald, Huw/erford); Tenasserim and 

Salweeu Valley {Beddome); Getliebian ku and V\vdhoi\gk\.\{TheohaU). 

Is stated by Pfeiffer to be very closely allied to CI. insignis, 

Gould, and philipinana, but well distinguished. 

Stoliczka observes that it is also " one of the most variable 
species, both in colour and form. Young specimens are either 
brown or of a beautiful rosy tinge; older shells, after they become 
solidified, either retain the brown or pink colour, or the hp 
becomes vellowish-brown or perfectly white ; the 3-5 top-whorls 
are always white. The form differs from fusiform to highly 
turreted, as may be indicated by the following measurements :— 
a. long. 2?,, lat. 0, long, apert. 5-2, ej. hit. 4-2 mm. 
h. „ 28, „ 0-3, „ „ ^'2, „ „ 5 „ 

c. „ 32, ,, 0-5, „ „ 6, „ ,, 5 „ 
All three specimens are from Moulmain: a is almost exactly 
identical with Pfeiffer's original figure of the species ; h and c are 
a wlnte aud a vellowisli lipped variety from Mr. Theobald's 
collection ; c has an almost abnormally small aperture as compared 
with the length of the shell." 

A fairly common species. Tlie Cuming collection contains three 
specimens from Mergui, with pale rufous pink peristome and com- 
posed of I0.i and 11 whorls. There art; several specimens in the 
Theobald collection: three from Moulmain, with IQi whorls, 
measure 26x0-75 mm.; three from Phabougku, with 11 Jr and 12 
whorls, reach a length of 26-5 mm., with a diameter of only 
Gmm.; three from Gethebian Ku, with iO| and lU whorls, 
measure 25x6 mm.; while three more from Zwagabin, near 
Moulmain, have a pink mouth and possess 11 whorls but only 
attain a length of 22 mm., with a diameter of 5*5 mm. In the 
Beddome collection I found a specimen from the Salween Valley, 
pale fuscous in colour with a pink mouth, with 10 whorls, 



'ilO clausiliib.t;. 

measuring 22x6 mm., and three shells from Tenasserim, also 
pale fuscous, but more solid in texture, composed of 11 whorls, 
and measuring 25 x 6, 25 x 6''23, and 24 x 6-25 ram. respectively. 
Finally, the late Miss Linter's collection, now in the Exeter 
Museum, yielded two specimens from Phabougku, one of a 
decided pink colour, with pale pink peristome, each of 11 whorls, 
and measuring 21-5 x 6 mm. 

ClausUia r/ouldmna is closely allied to C. insiijnis, but may be 
distinguished by its smaller size, smaller aperture, and lighter 
colour, but more especially by the more acute apex, a feature by 
which it may readily be separated from its ally. The 3 or 4 
apical whorls also are usually white or pale corneous. The whorls 
increase very slowly at iirst, then rather rapidly, the upper part 
of the spire, consequently, being more concave ; the later whorls 
are rather more convex than in insujnis. There are from four to 
six palatal plicae, the lirst always long, the others vary in length 
but are very short compai'atively ; they may be equal in length or 
the second and fifth may be longer and the tiiird and fourth very 
short, or they may gradually deci'ease in length. 




Fig. 108. — ClausUia goiildiaiia (Harvey collection). 

The shell figured in Conch. Ind. pi. 118, figs. 2 & 8, which has 
been presented to the National collection by Mr. Harvey, is rather 
short and ventricose ; it possesses 0| whorls, and measures 
2:3-5x0 mm. This, according to Hanley and Theobald, may be 
hisignis of Gould not of Pfeiffer, but I prefer to regard it as a 
form of f/oiddlana. 

1 give a figure of this shell and a view of the inside of the 
last whorl, with the palatal plicae in situ. The upper plica 
(partly shown) is long, near to and parallel with the suture, the 
second is stouter, its anterior extremity curving obliquely down- 
Avards ; the third very short, oblique ; the fourth a trifle longer, 
also oblique ; the fifth still longer, nearly vertical, its anterior 
extremity giving off a slight ridge below near tlie subcolumellar 
fold. 

Var. magna, nov. 

Differs from the type in being less ventricose. A specimen 
from Moulmain, in the Theobald collection, possesses 13| whorls, 
and measures 32 mm. in lene;th with a diameter of 0'5 mm. 



CLAUSILIA, 317 



Tliere are seven palatal plicfc : llie upper long, near to and parallel 
with the suture, the second one ([uarter of the lengtli of the 
upper, the third still shorter hut parallel with the first two ; the 
fourtli ver}' short and obHque ; the fifth considerably longer, 
oblique, with a short support below near its posterior extremity ; 
the sixth also oblique and bifurcate posteriorly ; the seventh 
curved, near the parietal mai'gin of the peristome. This shell is 
here delineated. 




i 
Fig. 109. — Clausilia gouldiana var. macpia. 

A second specimen from Phaboo, in the Hungerford collection, 
measures 12-5 x 6 mm. and possesses 12|| whorls. 

280. Clausilia andersoniana, Mollendorff. 

Clausilia {Pseudoiieniu) undersoiiiana, MiiUeiulorfi', J. A. S. R li 
pt. 2, 1882, p. 12, pi. 1, fig. 12. ■ ' 

Ori(/inal description: — "Testa veutriculoso-fusiformis, solidula, 
subtilissime striatula, fei^e laevigata, pallide corneo-fusca, apice 
obtusiusculo ; anfr. 10 convexiusculi, ultimus valde attenuatus, 
subtus rotundatus, distinctius striatus ; apertura parum obliqua, 
obli(]U(' piriformis, peristoma continuum, valde solutum, expansum, 
reHexiusculum, pallide corneum. Lamella parietalis supera obliqua, 
sat valida, cum spirali continua, infera crassa ante marginem 
. subabrupte desinens, subcolumellaris immersa. Plica princi})alis 
valde elongata. palatales tres subveutrales, divergentes, iufima 
arcuata. Clausilium ? 

" Alt. 20, lat. 4, apert. long. 4^, lat. Sj nun.'' (MHI/endorf.) 

Hah. Mergui Archipelago {Aiulerson). 

" Nearly related to insignis, Gould. Diflfers by the smaller size, 
less ventricose shape, the number of whorls 10 instead of 9, the 
more elongate and oblique aperture, the freer and more protruding 
peristome, and its paler colouring and by the closing apparatus. 
The latter is much more immersed inasmuch as the palatal plaits 
of CL insignis are lateral, while those in the new species arc 
nearly ventral and are, together with the inner end of the verv 



318 CLAUSILUD.E. 

long principal plait, conspicuous in the penultimate whorl above 
the aperture. Besides, the number of palatal plaits is only three 
against five of CI. insignis." (MdUendorff.) 

A doubtful species not seen by me. J udginf]; from the figure it 
is more nearly related to C . gouldiana than to insignis. Specimens 
of the former from Mergui, in the British Museum (Cuming col- 
lection), resemble it, but they ai*e a trifle more veutricose and of a 
pinkish colour ; they are composed of 10^ whorls and measure 
23 mm. It should be borne in mind that C. gouldiana varies 
considerably, and I strongly suspect that Mollendorff's species will 
not stand the test of comparison of actual specimens. 

281. Clausilia gracilior, Hanley Sf Theobald. 

Clausilia insignis, vav (/racilior, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 
1870, p. 12, pi. 24, fig. 3. 

Shell subrimate, fusiform, turreted, rather solid, pale corneous, 
finely and closely striated, the striae coarser and more distant 
behind the aperture, some minute spirals on the later whorls. 
Spire turreted, apex obtuse, suture impressed. Whorls 9, slightly 
convex, increasing slowly, last whorl but little narrower than 
penultimate, flattened near the suture, not compressed below the 
upper palatal plica. Aperture slightly receding below, pear- 
shaped ; parietal folds rather distant, the upper compressed, 
elevated at first, becoming depressed after entering, and again 
more elevated higher up, the lower very stout, obliquely entering. 




Fig. 1 10. — Clausilia gracilior. 

Palatal plicae 5, the upper long and parallel with the suture, the 
second about one-third the length of the upper, parallel at first, 
its anterior extremity deflexed, the third and fourth very short, 
oblique, the fifth a little longer, curved, about parallel with the 
lower suture; the fourth and fifth folds, as well as the sub- 
columellar fold and the anterior part of the clausilium, are visible 
from the aperture. Peristome thickened, expanded, and reflexed, 
solute, the parietal margin with a slight sinus at the upper 
parietal fold. 

Long. 26, diam. 5 mm. 

Hab. Burma: Moulmain. 



CLAUSILIA, 319 

Haiiley, when figuring this form, considered it a variety of 
CI. insignis, and in his explanation of plates indicated Pfeiffer as 
being responsible ior the name gracilior, giving the following 
reference : " Claasilia insignis, var. ^rrtci^ior, Pfeiffer (as of Grould), 
Mon. Hflic. vol. 3, p. 5S9 ; Novit. Conch, vol. i." Now, Pfeitfer, 
at the place cited, simply quotes Olausilia insignis, Gould, giving 
a description based upon a specimen in the Cuming collection, but 
he mentions no variety whatever, and in Xovit. Conch, vol. i, 
pi. 34, tigs. 15-17, illustrates typical insignis. The present form 
I consider quite distinct from Gould's and worthy of specific 
rank. It is more cylindrical in shape, the apical whorls increasing 
more gradually, the last whorl is not obliquely deflexed, the 
aperture is more dilated, and the parietal margin of the peristome 
is more widened and sinuous, while the shell is pale corneous not 
dark chestnut. 

The shell figured by Hanley and Theobald having been pre- 
sented to the British Museum by Mr. Harvey, I have taken the 
opportunity of giving a more faithful representation of it, 
together witii an enlarged view of the last whorl showing the 
palatal plicae. As, moreover, it was never described, I have also 
added a full description. 



282. Clausilia insignis, Gould. 

Clausilia insignis, Gould, Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist, i, 1844, 
p. 140 ; ibid., Boston, Journ. Nat. Hist, iv, 1844. p. 4.58, pi. 24, 
fio-. 8 ; Pfeifter, Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 42.3 ; ibid., Zeits. 
Malak. vi, 1849, p. 94; ibid., Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 589; 
ibid., Novit. Conch, ser. 1, i. 1860, p. 122, pi. 34, figs. 15-17; 
ibid.. Conch. Cab., Clausilia, 1861, p. 300, pi. .34, figs. 10, 11 ; 
llanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 24, fig. 2 ; Sowerbv, 
Conch. Icon, xx, 1875, Clausilia, pi. 6, fig. 53, pU 7, fisr. 53 6. 

Clausilia (Phaedusa) insignis, Pfeifi'er, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 180 ; 
von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 275 ; Blanford, 
J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 204, pi. 9, fig. 11 (insignis of Gould), 
fig. 12 {insignis of Pfeifferj ; Stoliczka, torn. cit. p. 208. 

Clausilia {Phaedusa {Pseudonenia)) insignis, Boettger, Ber. GfFen- 
bacher Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 55; Pfeiffer & Cle.ssin, 
Noiuencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 391. 

Original descri[)tion : — " Testa fusiformi, sinistrorsa, solida, 
castanea ; anfr. 9 convexis, leviter striatis, apertura purpurea, 
rotundata, lamellis duabus fortibus postice, et quiuque tenuibus 
per testam apparentibus, intus instructa ; labro valde reflexo. 

" Shell reversed, solid, large, fusiform, ventricose, of a dark 
chestnut-brown ; whoids eight, convex, very delicately and regu- 
larly striated, shining, summit mamillated ; aperture ovate, 
broadly rounded in front, with a sinus behind, produced by one of 
the two large folds which are there found ; on breaking away 
half of a A olution, we find five other very delicate laminae, which 
may be seen externally, by looking at the umbilical aspect of the 



320 CLAUSILTID,!;. 

shell ; tlie posterior one is near the suture and extends nearly a 
whole volution ; the others intervene at nearlj^ regular intervals, 
between it and the umbilicus ; throat purplish ; lip very broad, 
flattened, white, tinted with purple. 

" Length 1 inch [= 25-25 mm.], breadth i of an inch 
[=5 mm.]." {Govld.) 

Hah. Burma : Tavoy {Gould) ; Tethebian, near Moulmain 
(StoUczl-a) • Tenasserim (Beddome) ; Zwagabin (Theobald); Kargan, 
near Moulmain (Theobald). 

There is a discrepancy with regard to the number of whorls 
between Grould's latin diagnosis and his English description, the 
former stating that there are nine, whereas the latter mentions 
eight. The figure of the shell, although not very clear, rather 
favours the former. 

Stoliczka also refers to a slight discrepancy undoubtedly exist- 
ing between Gould's original figure and description. 

" He states the number of whorls to be 8 or 9, and the apex 
' mamillated,' while the figure shews it shortly pointed ; then again 
he gives ' length 1 inch, breadth I of an inch.' The original 
figure (whether enlarged or not, it is not stated) represents a 
shell of 28 mm. in length and 7 in thickness ; the second dimen- 
sion is, therefore, only one fourth of the total length, instead of 
one fifth ; if the latter were the case, the shell would be an 
extremely slender one, and comparing it with goiddianu, as a shell 
of the same type, I would prefer to consider Gould's figure as 
more probably correct than his measurement. IS'ow, allowing 
for these discrepancies in Gould's original statements, I am 
inclined to think that Pfeiffer's species is very closely allied to, if 
not exactly identical with, true insignis, but Hanley and Theobald's 
figures certainly seem to be somewhat different from both the 
preceding ; however, they do not exclude the possibility of repre- 
senting mere variations of one and the same species. Whether 
the form of the aperture in Gould's original figure is slightly 
exaggerated or not, I think the great expansion of the outer lip 
is decidedly somewhat abnormal, and setting aside this point the 
remaining difierences between the shells figured as hisif/nis are 
not greater than those between the different varieties of lo.vo- 
stoma or goiddiana." 

In order to try and solve the question raised by Stoliczka, as 
to the discrepancy between Gould's figure and description, I 
applied to Dr. John M. Clarke, the Director of the Albany State 
Museum, but to my regret that gentleman informs me under 
date of July 1, 1914, that no specimens of Clavsilia insignis can be 
found in the collection. He states that no such species is listed 
in the catalogue of the Gould collection prepared by Dr. Gould's 
daughter, and as this catalogue is an approximately accurate list 
of the shells delivered when the collection was purchased in 18G7, 
he thinks that they probably never had the type of that species. 

Olausilia insignis appears to be fairly common, and I have 



CLAUSILIA. 321 

seen a considerable series, but 1 have not observed the same 
amount ot variation as in Clansilia gouUiana. Jt has close 
atiinitj uith the latter, but may at once be distinguished bv the 
more obtuse apex, the apical wl.orls being stouter and increasing 
at once, not gradually as in r/ouldiana, the upper part of the 
spire IS consequently more cylindrical and not concave. The 
number of whorls ranges between 8i and 10, and the palatal 
plicae vary in number from five to seven, the last being more 
nearly vertical than in rjoiddiana. The shell is generally of more 
solid texture, darker, and unicolorous, not whitish or pale 
corneous, as in its ally, and the peristome dark. 
1 u^^, ^i'? ^"oiing collection I found two shells from Tavoy 
labelled by Pfeiffer, which are rufous corneous, with the (varly 
Mhorls paler; one has 9i whorls, and measures 2G x (ro mm the 
other has 10 whorls, and attains a length of 27-5 mm 'the 
diameter being the same as in the first. Another tablet in the 
Cuming collection bears three shells, also from Tavoy, which are 
pale corneous Mith the peristome almost white, one 6f which has 
10 whorls and measures 2Q x f> mm., but a second with 9 whorls 
does not exceed 24-5 mm. in length, although its diameter is also 
bmm. Ihe Eeddome collection contains four specimens, very 
solid and dark chestnut in colour, with a dark fuscous peristome : 
one of 81 whorls measures 26x7 mm., another of 9 whorls is 
-/ X 7 mm., while the other two have each 9| whorls aud measure 
respectively 28x7 and 30x6-5 mm. Lastly, a variety from 
Zvvagabin in the Theobald collection is pale 'corneous and less 
ventricose than the type, possesses 10 whorls and measures 
2/ x 6 mm. 

283. Clausilia fusiformis, Blanford. 

(^^'"f!j^f>fiformzsB J. A. S. B. xx:.iv, 1865, p. 80- 

rnn5r\ ^'-il-n '■ 7':^7\^^^^' P- 41^5 Hanley & Theobald,' 
Conch. Ind. 18.0 pi. 24, fig. 6; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx 
18/5, Clau,vha, pi. 7, bg. 62 ; Pfeiffer, Men. Helic. Viv. viii 
lo/ / , p. 4()4. ' 

Clausilia iPhcedusa) fusiformis, Blanford, J. A S B xli 1879 
p. 203, pi 9, fio, 9; Ne.ni, Hand List, i,'l878, p 183. ' ' 

Ummha (Phaedusa {Pseudonenia)) fusiforinis, Boettger, Ber. 
Oftenbacher\er.^aturw 1878, Mitt. p. 54 ; Pfeiffer & Clessin, 
JNomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 391. ^^^o*", 

Original description :-^^ ^heW not rimate, fusiform, horny 
thm, white ; obliquely, very closely and finely costulately striated 
throughout Spire diminishing slowly at first above the middle 
then rapidly attenuate towards the acute apex ; suture simnle' 
scarcely impressed, deeper towards the apex. Whorls 9 convex 
above flattened below, the last very little narrower than the 
penutimate. Aperture semioval (nearly semicircular): uoner 
parietal plait very fine ; internal palatal teeth 7, the uppermost 
by tar the longest. Peristome thin, expanded, not continuous 



322 CLAUSILIID^. 

the margins being distant, and united by a thin callus ; columellar 
margin straight and very long posteriorly. 

" Length 23, diameter 6 mm." {Blanford.) 

Hah. Burma : Arakan hills, west of Henzada {Blanford) ; Pegu 
(Theohald). 

' But a solitary specimen was met with belonging to this form, 
which is more tumid in the centre than any of its allies, C. in- 
signis, Gould, etc. The non-continuity of the peristome may be 
due to immaturity in the specimen found. The shape of the 
mouth may also possibly be slightly modified in older examples, 
but the general form doubtless remains the same, and is alone 
sufficient to distinguish the species." (Blanford.) 

The shell figured in Concli. Ind. has been presented, with other 
shells from the Hanley collection, to the British Museum by 
Mr, Harvey ; it measures 22-5 x 6 mm. Three specimens in the 
Theobald collection have a length of 23 mm. and a diameter of 
6-5 mm., while the Beddome collection contains two specimens 
measuring 23 X 6-5 mm. All are from the Arakan Hills. The 
species tends to connect C. insignis with such forms as C. i:>liilip- 
piana, C. ovata., and C. bidbus, but it is more acuminate and lacks 
the very obtuse apex of the section Oosjm-a, to which these species 
belong. The upper parietal fold occurs on the outer edge of 
the parietal margin of the peristome, the lower and the sub- 
columellar folds only reach the inner edge ; there are six palatal 
plicae, the upper long, the other five short. 

284. Clausilia ferruginea, Blanford. 

Clausilia {Phcedusa) ferruginea, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, 

p. 202, pi. 9, fig. 7 : Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 184 (incl. var. 

tumida). 
Clausilia fe miff inea, Ilauley «fc Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 118, 

figs. 5, 6; Pfeifter, Mou. Ilelic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 466. 
Clausilia i Phaedusa) (Fseudonenia)) ferruginea, Boettger, Bar. 

Offenbacher Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 64 ; Pfeiffer & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Ilelic. Viv. 1881, p. 391. 

Original description : — " Testa subrimata, elongato-fusiformis, 
solida, fere glabra, striatula, baud nitida, sordida et interdum 
pallide ferruginea ; spira alta, lateribus sursum subrectis, apice 
obtuso papillari, sutura impressa, valde crenulata. Anfr. 11 con- 
vexi, ultimus capillaceo-striatus, basi rotundatus. Apertura fere 
verticalis, subtrapezoidalis, marginibus lateralibus fere parallelis, 
basali rotundato ; lamella supera acuta, sinistrorsim iuflexa, 
columellari mediocri, plicis palatalibus circa 5, supera elongata, 
baud procul ab apertura desineute, suturse parallela, caeteris magis 
obliquis curvatisque. Peristoma continuum, album, expansum, 
parum incrassatum, margine supero repando, leviter sinuato. 

"Long. 30, diam. 55 mm.; apert. cum perist. 6*5 longa, 
4-66 lata." {Blanford.) 

Hah. India : Naga Hills, Assam (Masters). 

" Var. tumida, anfractibus ultimus aperturaque majoribus. 



CLAUSILIA. 323 

" Long, circa 33, diam. 6-5 mm. ; apert. 7 longa, 5 lata." 
{Blanford.) 

Hah. India : Gologhat, Assam (Masters, Theobald) ; N^orth 
Cachar {Godwin- Austen) ; jS^aga Hills (Chennell). 

" This fine species, the largest hitherto found in Assam or the 
Himalayas, resembles C. loxostoma ■ in its strongly crenulated 
sutures and in form, but differs in its larger size and more 
numerous whorls. It was first found by Mr. Masters in 1860, 
in the hills south of Gologhat, together with Spiraculum mastersi 
and other interesting shells. The more tumid variety has lately 
been obtained in Xorth Cachar by Major Godwin-Austen." 
(Blanford.) 

The Beddome collection contains two specimens, one of which 
is decollated, but the second is entire, and while, like the type, 
compoj^ed of eleven whorls, it only measures 27 x 5"2o mm. In 
the Theobald collection is a shell from Gologhat, where the species 
was first discovered. 

285. Clausilia asaluensis, Blanford. 

Clausilia (Phcedusa) asaluensis (Godwin- Austen), Blanford, 

J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 202, pi. 9, fig. 8. 
Clausilia asaluensis, Hanley & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1876, pi. 159, 

tig. .5 ; Peiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 466. 
Clausilia (Phaedusa) asaluensis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 181. 
Clausilia (Phaedusa {Pseudonenia)) asaluensis, Boettger, Bar. 

Offeubacher Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 54 ; Pfeiffer & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 391. 

Original descrijjtion: — "Testa non rimata, fusiformi-turrita, 
alba vel pallide castanea, solidula, striata, ad aufractus duos 
ultimos capillaceo-striata. Spira sensim attenuata lateribus su- 
perne concaviusculis, apice obtusiusculo, sutura impressa, con- 
fertim minuteque crenulata. Anfr. 12-13, convexi, antepenul- 
timus maximus, penultimus parum minor, ultimus ad latus 
corapressus, ad basin rotundatus. Apertura subverticalis, piri- 
formis, lamella supera compressa, columellari immersa, lunella 
nulla, plica palatali supera elongata, suturae parallela, secunda 
etiam parallela, mediocri, caeteris obliquis, Pei'istoma leviter 
sinuatum, album, incrassatum, continuum, breviter solutum. 

" Long. 23*5, diam. 5 mm. ; apert. c. perist. 5 longa, 3"66 lata." 
(Blanford.) 

Hah. India: Asalu, North Cachar, alt. 7000 feet (Godwin- 
Austen)) Khasi Hills (Theohald). 

" This species is easily distinguished from both C. loxostoma 
and G.ferniginea by its more numerous whorls and finely crenu- 
late sutures. In size it is intermediate between the two, some 
specimens being as much as 26 mm., or rather more than an inch 
in length." (Blanford.) 

Claimlia asaluensis is, as might be inferred from Blanford's 
remarks, although he does not actually say so, intermediate in its 
characters between C. loxostoma and C. ferruginea, the sutures 

t2 



324 OLAUSILIIDiE, 

being finely creuulate. The Beddome collection comprises two 
specimens from North Cachar, which were labelled monticola, but 
■which without hesitation I refer to asaluensis. One of these 
is composed of twelve whorls and measures 24x4 mm., while the 
other, which is a trifle more ventricose, has only eleven whorls, 
and attains a length of but 21 mm,, although its diameter reaches 
4 mm. The Theobald collection, on the other hand, \\ as found 
to contain a shell labelled '' bacillum, Theobald (non Benson)" 
from the Khasi Hills, which also pertains to the present species. 
It has twelve whorls and is a trifle more ventricose than the type, 
for although its length is 22 mm., its diameter attains 4*75 mm. 

286. Claiisilia loxostoma, Benson. 

Clansilia loxostoma, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 353 ; Pfeiffer, 

Mou. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 404; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. 

Ind. 1870, pi. 24, fig. 7. 
Clansilia bengaknsis (v. d. Busch), Pfeiffer, Symb. ii, 1842, p. 60; 

Kiister, Conch.-Cab., Chmsilia, 1847, p. 24, pi. 2, figs. 11-13. 
Clansilia {Phcpdusa) loxostoma, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 18'55, 

p. 184; Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 180; Blanford, 

J. A. S. B. xb, 1872, p. 201, pi. 9, fig. 6; Stoliczka, torn. cit. 

p. 208; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 184. 
Clansilia (P/iaedvsa {Pseudonenia)) loxostoma, Boettger, Ber. 

Oftenbacber Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 55; Pfeiffer & Ulessin, 

NomencL Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 391. 

Original description : — " Testa sinistrorsa, fusiformi, medio- 
veutricosa, corneo-grisescente ; anfractibus, couvexis, Isevigatis, 
striis obsoletis ; suturis confertissime crenulatis ; apertura elon- 
gata, obUqua, bi-plicata, supra angustiori, infra dilatata, peris- 
tomate reflexo ; columella prsearcuata. 

" Long. 0-85 poll." [21-5 mm.]. (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Sylhet {Benson) ; Bengal (Pfeiffer) ; Teria Ghat 
(Godwin- Austen, Theobald):, Naga Hills (Beddome); Cherra- 
pooujee, Assam (Cantor:, native collector, my collection). 

" Out of a collection of 32 European Clausilia' I find none with 
a similar obliquity of mouth, from which character I have named 
the species. The outer lip projects beyond the plane of the 
aperture. The crenulations of the sutures differ altogether from 
the papillary appearance which is common to several species, such 
as papilhiris, alboguttata, etc., and they are not elongated as in 
C. nitida.'' (Benson.) 

Nevill (Hand List, i, p. 184), mentions but does not desci-ibe a 
var. striatacostata collected by Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen at Teria 
Ghat, while Stoliczka states that " a white solid variety occurs on 
the Khasi Hills ; in form it tolerably agrees with Blanford's 
flo-. 6 h, plate 9 ; some specimens are, however, still a little 
thicker, and the transverse costulation on all the whorls is very 
distinct, while the crenulation along the suture is generally not 
so coarse as in typical loxostoma, though evidently stronger than 



CLAU8ILIA. 325 

iu asaluetisis, which latter also differs by a more slender shape 
and smaller aperture." This form is referred to by Clessin as 
var. sol'uHor, Stoliczka (Nomencl. p. 391), although Stoliczka did 
not so name it. 

Blanford states that the species varies considerably in form, 
some specimens being much more fusiform than others. He 
figures three varieties, of which he considers the first as the 
typical form. He further states that "the locality usually 
assigned to this shell, Bengal, conveys a false impression, as 
neither this nor any other Clausilia is found in the plains of 
India. Teria Ghat, the locality mentioned iu the ' Conchologia 
Indica,' is at the southern base of the Khasi Hills, and the shell 
is found at many places along the range, from the base up to 
a height of, I believe, 4000 or 5000 feet. Major Grodwin-Austen 
sent me this species from Habiang on the Khasi plateau. I do not 
know if C. loxostoma occurs also on the northern or Assam flank 
of the range ; ] have never seen specimens from any place in that 
direction, and as the climate is much drier, many of the shells 
common on the southern watershed are wanting to the north." 

When describing CI. beiu/alensis in 1842, Pffeifer appears to 
have been unaware of the fact that Benson's species, published in 
1836, was identical. In 1848*, however, he recognized that the 
two were inseparable, and he relegated bengalensis to the synonymy 
of loxostoma. 

The crenulations at the suture are rather distant in some 
specimens and the shell varies, not only in form, as referred to by 
Blanford, but also in size. A couple of shells from the Naga 
Hills, having nine whorls, measure 23 x 5 mm. and 25'5 x 5*5 mm. 
The palatal folds — not mentioned by Benson — are five or six in 
number, and are distinctly visible from the aperture. Again, 
three shells from Teria Ghat, in the Theobald collection, com- 
posed of 9i whorls, measure 24*5 x 5'25 mm. On the other hand, 
some shells from Cherra-poonjee collected by Cantor, and now in 
the British Museum, only reach a length of 20*5 mm. 



287. Clausilia nevilliana, M'ollendorff. 

Clattsilia uevilliana, MoUendorff, J. A. S. B. li, part 2, 1882, p. 11, 
pi. 1, t]g. 11 ; Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 443. 

Original description : — " Testa elongato fusiformis, subtiliter 
oblique striatula, fusca, aitidula ; anfr. 10 convexiusculi, apertura 
mediocris, fere verticalis, elongato-pirifoi-mis, sinido recto per- 
longo, peristoma continuum, solutuni, tenue, brevissimeexpansum, 
superne profunde sinuatum fere angulatum. Lamella supera 
obliqua, marginalis, valida cum lamella spirali continua, infera a 
supera valde remota, spiraliter recedens, brevissime conspicua. 



* Mod. Helic. Viv. ii, p. 405. 



326 CLAUSIL1ID.E. 

Plica principalis loiiga, palatales duae majores profundae, ventrales 
(antice intuenti supra aperturam conspicuse), lunella nulla. Clau- 
silium ? (non vidi). 

" Alt. 20, lat. 4, apert, long. 4, lat. 3 mill." {Mdlhndorf.) 

Hah. Nicobar Islands : 'Kz.movt'A (Roepstorff). 

"Nearly related to Cl.javana. Pfr., and should find its place 
in Bottger's second section of Pha'dusa (Pseudonenia), and in the 
fifth subgroup of CI. javana." 

I have not seen this species, but judging from the figures it 
appears to have a much more obtuse apex than Clausiha ivueller- 
storffi, also a Nicobar form. 

288. Clausula shanica, Godwin- Auskn. 

Clmmlia {Pseudonenia) shanica, Godwin-Austen. P. Z. S. 1888, 
p. 244. 

Original description: — "Testa breviter rimata, fusiformi-clavata, 
corneo-grisea.. solidula ; spira concavo-turrita, valde elongata ; 
apex miuutus, acutissimus. Anfr. 13|^, lentissime acci'escentes, 
convexiusculi, sutura impressa disjunct!, subtiliter striati, ultimus 
penultimo pariim major, subtus leviter atteuuatus, cervice rotun- 
datus. Apert. parva, obliqua, late piriformis ; perist. continuum, 
breviter solutum, expansiusculum. Lamellae modicse, conipressae, 
approximatse ; supera raarginalis, parum alta, intus liumillima, 
cum spirali ut videtur continua ; infera sublimis, subhorizontaliter 




Fig. l\\.— Clmmlia shanica. Fig. U2.— Clatmlia shanica. 
(Type specimen.) 

in mediam aperturam prosilieus, antice in denticulum desinens, a 
basi intuenti valde spiraliter torta ; subcolumellaris subemersa, 
oblique intuenti distiuctissima. Plica principalis profunda, late- 
ralis, in apertura antice vix^conspicua ; palatales 2, altera supera, 
principali approximata et parallela, altera infera cum clausilio 
perspicuo lunellum lateralem, magis minusve distinctum, fiu- 
gente." 

" Alt. 19i, diam. 4 mm.; alt. apert, 3|, lat. apert. 2| mm." 

Rab. Burma : near Pingouug, Shang Hills, 2500 feet (Boettger). 

It would appear that the foregoing description is the joint 

production of the late Professor Oscar Boettger and Mr. John 

Ponsonby, for Lt.-Col, Godwin-Austen places it in inverted 

commas,' and adds "This description is somewhat amended by 



OLAUSILIA. 327 

Mr. Ponsonby from one by Dr. Boetto;er, who considered it to 
be allied to C. affinis of the Naga Hills. On comparison it proves 
to be very different in every way." 

In fio-.' 112 a specimen in the British Museum from the Shan 
States Is delineated, tig. 112 h showing the inside of the last 
whorl with the palatal plicae in si^u, while fig. Ill shows the type, 
which has the apex broken off. 

289. Clausilia wuellerstorfi, Zdehor. 

Clausilia wullerstorfi, Zelebor, Verb. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. xvii, 

1867, p. 806 ; Pfeift'er, Mon. Helic. \\x. vi, 1868, p. 41 1 . 
Delima loullenstorffi, Frauenfeld, Verb. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. xix, 

186D, p. 875. ■ 
Clausilia {Phaeclusa) {Hemijjhaedusa)) wullerstorfi, Boettger, i3er. 

Offenbacber Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 59 ; Pfeiffer & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Yiv. 1881, p. ^94. 
Clausilia {Phaedusa) wiillerstorffi, Godwm- Austen, P. Z. b. 1895, 

p. 443. 

Ch'iginal description :— " T. vix rimata, fusiformi-turrita, tenuis, 
confertim oblique striata, sericina, pellucida, rufo-cornea ; spira 
sensim attenuata, vertice obtusulo ; sutura subsimplex ; anfr. 10 
modice convexi, apicales Isevigati, ultimus basi rotundatus, antice 
dense costulato-striatus ; apertura vix obliqua, subtriangulari- 
piriformis ; lamell® parvulse, supera marginalia, infere substricte 
adscendens ; lunella nulla ; plicae palatales 3, suprema elongata, 



Fig. llo. — Clausilia wuellerstorfi. 

secunda mediocris, tertia brevis ; subcolumellaris inconspicua ; 
perist. continuum, breviter solutum, superno cum lamella supera 
sinulum rotundatum formans, undique breviter expausum, margins 
externo fere rectiliueari. 

" Long. 19, diam. 4| mm. ; aperturae long. 4|, lat. 3i mm." 
(Zelebor.) 

Hub. Nicobar Islands (Novara Exped.); Kamorta, JNaucoury 
{Godtvin-Austen). 

This appears to be a rare shell, the only specimen I have 
seen being the tvpe, which is in the Vienna Museum, and has 
been kindly lent by Dr. Sturany. I avail myself of the oppor- 
tunity to give a figure of it, tlie species not having been hitherto 
illustrated. The shell is not quite mature, the peristome having 



328 CLATJSILIID.^. 

only just been formed, and the margins are consequently not 
thickened or dilated, while there is a sinus at the upper parietal 
fold. The walls of the shell also are thin and translucent. 



290. Clausilia nicobarica, sp. n. 

Shell rimate, fusiform, fuscous, very closely invested with fine 
slightly wavy stria;, more prominent and wavy on the last whorl, 
and showing traces here and there of indistinct spirals. Spire 
turreted, gi'adually attenuated, the sides almost straight ; apex 
acute ; suture superficial. Whorls IQi, slightly convex, the last 
considerably narrower than the penultimate. Aperture oblique, 
the basal margin curving forward, pyriform. Parietal folds diver- 
gent, the upper interrupted, rather slight and low ; the lower 
more elevated and stouter, deflesed towards the right margin, 
not reaching the edge of the peristome. Palatal plicae two, the 
upper long, parallel with the suture ; the lower close to the upper, 
short, curved. Peristome solute, the margins expanded and 




Fig. 114. — Clausilia nicobarica. 

reflexed, scarcely thickened, left margin descending obliquely 
outwards, parietal margin without a sinus at the upper fold. 

Long. 24-5, diam. 5-2 mm. 

Hab. Nicobar Islands. Type in Mr. Leman's collection. 

The shell upon which this new species is based occurred in the 
Beddome collection, and was labelled wuelleistor/i, but it is quite 
distinct. It differs in being darker, more solid and opaque, and 
is also considei'ably larger, although it only possesses one half 
whorl more than ivuellerstorfi ; the aperture is larger and of a 
different shape, the left margin descending outwardly, besides 
being obliquely directed forward below, whereas in its ally it is 
directed backwards. The parietal margin of the peristome has 
no sinus at the upper fold, the latter, moreover, being interrupted, 
while the lower fold approaches nearer to the uppei*, is stouter 
and more elevated, aud obliquely deflexed towards the right 
margin, but does not reach the edge of the peristome, as is the 
case in the other species. Lastly, there are only two, instead of 
three, palatal plicae. 



CLAUSILIA. 329 



Subgenus GARNIERIA, Bourguicjnat. 

Garnierin, Bourguignat, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 6, v, 1877, art. 4, p. 2 ; 
Gredler, Drei Neue Clausilia-Arten aus China, Bozen, 1883, 
p. 1 (as section of Clmisilia) ; ibid., Jahrb. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 
xi, 1884, p. 147 ; ]N[ullendorff, op. cit. xiii, 1886, p. 207 ; ibid., 
Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. xxx,- 1898, p. 77 (as subgenus of 
Clausilia). 

Type, Clausilia mouhoti, Pfeiffer. 

Range. Burma, Farther India, China. 

Last whoi'l produced, with the umbiUcal slit above the parietal 
margin of tlie peristome, which is sokite and more or less hori- 
zontal ; aperture wider than high, with extended wing-hke margins. 
Clausilium visible from the aperture, more or less doubled on itself 
lengthwise, forming a deep gutter, the proximal end truncate 
with a slight indentation {mouhoti) or tongue-shaped with a more 
or less shallow groove, the proximal end pointed and faintly 
tubercled (ardouiniana, orientalis, tuba), s\idlng over the columellar 
fold, not between the columellar and subcolumellar folds or only 
partly so. Upper palatal plica, which is comparatively short, and 
lunella visible from the aperture. 

Bourguignat considered the clausilium of C. mouhoti so funda- 
mentally distinct from that in typical Clausilia, that he created a 
separate genus for the reception of this and a few allied forms. 
While admitting that this structure in mouhoti is very remarkable 
it should be borne in mind that it is only this species which, so 
far as known at present, exhibits this extreme form of clausilium 
and that the other species form connecting links with the normal 
character in this respect, and although the produced last whorl, 
the transversely dilated, almost subquadrate aperture, the almost 
horizontal and solute parietal margin and the wing-like expansion 
of the other thin margins of the peristome, constitute well- 
marked features, sufficient to warrant the species thus character- 
ized being segregated from their whilom congeners, I do not 
regard them of generic value. Gredler and Mollendorif were 
evidently of the same opinion, a fact which induces me all the 
more readily to reduce Garnieria to subgeneric rank. 

Only two known species occur in Burma, while MollendorfF 
in 1898, in addition enumerated ten species : trachelostrojjiha, 
Mollendorff , and /hc Ztsi, Gredler, from China ; schomburgi, Schmacker 
& Boettger, from Hainan ; ardouiniana, Heude, orientalis, Mabille, 
and liorrida, Mabille, from Tonkin ; mouhoti, Pfeiffer, massiei 
Morlet, and dautzenbergi, Morlet, from Laos and Cambodia ; 
rugifera from Annam. To these may be added dorri, Bav. & 
Dautz., giardi, H, Fischer, and messageri, Bav. & Dautz., from 
Tonkin. 



330 clausiliiDjE. 

291. Clausilia tuba, Hanhy. 

Clmmlia tuba, Hanley, A. M. N. H. ser. 4, i, 1868, p. 343; 

Hcanley & Theobald, Conch. lud. 1870, pi. 24, fig. 9 ; Sowerby, 

Conch. Icon, xx, 1875, Clausilia, pi. 8, fig. 72 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. 

Helic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 540; Boettger, Ber. Ofteubacher Ver. 

Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 80 (inc. seel). 
Clatisilia (PJiaedusa il£emij)liaedusa)) tuba, Pfeift'er & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 394. 
Clausilia {Garnieria) tuba, MciUendorff, Jahrb. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 

xiii, 1886, p. 207 ; ibid., Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. xxx, 1898, 

p. 77. 

Original description. — "Testa (pro genere) magna, sub- 
cylindraceo-fusiformis, apicem versus cylindracea, albido-cornea, 
unicolor, tenuis, subdiapbana, baud riraata, lineis elevatis vix 
continuis et (prsesertim in anfractu ultimo, ubi remotiores fiunt) 
oblique corrugata. Anfraetibus 10-12, sutura profunda et 
minime crenata divisi ; apicales unice convexi, subsequales ; 
caeteri convexi, et satis rapide creseentes ; penultimus major, 
altior ; ultimus curvatus, verticaliter descendens, infra suturam 




Fig. lir>. — Clausilia tuba. 

submarginatam subcoarctatus, denique insigniter dilatatus, basi 
rotundata nequaquam cristatus. Apertura permagna, soluta, 
porrecta, subcordato-rotundata, iiudique patentissima. Peristoma 
continuum, late expansum ; lamella supera conspicua, angusta, 
arcuatim .subverticalis ; lamella iufera adjacens, obliqua, magisque 
profunda; plica subcolumellaris parvula, verticalis ; plica palatalis 
(si sit ulla) labrum baud attingens ; lunella opacitate conspicua. 

" Long. \l poll. [=31-5 mm.]." (Hanleij.) 

Hah. Burma : Upper Salween Valley, Shaa States (Fedden). 

Apparently a rare species. It resembles an exaggerated C. 
masoni with wing-like margins of the peristome, but the sub- 
columellar fold does not reach so far and is placed lower on the 
columellar margin. Tbe lunella is almost united to the palatal 
plica above and to the subcolumellar fold near the inner edge 
of the peristome below. Hauley stated that it most closely re- 
sembles the American C. epistomium, not a very happy comparison. 
It certainly has much closer affinity with C. masoni, while it also 



CLAUSILIA. 



331 



bears some resemblance to C. orientalis, Mab. but is less inflated 
about the middle. I have only seen two specimens which are 
in the British Museum. One of these is the type figured m 
Conch. Ind., measuring 33-5 x 5-75 mm., presented by Mr. Harvey 
who acquired the Hanlev collection by purchase. Hanley's figure 
is enlarged (43 mm. length), although there is no indication of 
tliis fac° on the plate. The other shell (here figured with 
its detached clausilium and the palatal plicse) is in the Theobald 
collection and is composed of 12^ whorls, measuring 32x5-75 mm. 
The latter is a very fine specimen, possessing a peristome with 
more expanded margins. 



292. Clausilia masoni, Theobald. 

Clmmlia masoni, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, part 2, 1864, p. 246 ; 

Ilaidey & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1870, pi. 24, fig. 8 ; Sowevby, 

Couch. Icon. XX, Clausilia, 1875, pi. 8, tig. 69 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. 

Helic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 540. 

Clausilia (? JVenia) masoni, Blauford, J. A. S. B. xli, 18/2, p. lOb, 

pi. 9, fig. 18. ^^ 

Clausilia {Phaedusa) masoni, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 184. _ 
Clausilia {Phaedusa {Hemiphaedusa)) masoni, Pfeiffer & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 394. 
Clausilia (Garnieria) masoni. MoUendorft', Jahrb. Deuts. Malak. 
Ges. xiii, 1886, p. 207 ; ibid., Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. xxx, 
1898, p. 77. 
Orirjinal description :—'' Testa arcuato-rimata, fusiformi, tenui, 
costulato-striata, pallide castanea. Apice intacto. Sutura ex- 
cavata. Anfractibus decem, sub-planatis, ultimo angustiore, supra 
aperturam fortiter striato, juxtaque suturam fossa, laminae interi- 
oris cursum monstrante, notata. Lunella distincta ; interdum 
uon. Lamellis quinque, duabus parietalibus tenuibus, distinctis, 
intus conniA-entibus ; reliquorum binis fortibus ad aperturam 
divergentibus ; tertia post lunellam valde tenui, inconspicua. 
Apertura rotundato-auriformi-soluta. Peristoraate expanse, 
reflexiusculo. 

"Longit. 21 ad. 29 mm. lat. 4 ad. 5 mm." {Theobald.) 
Hah. Burma : Toughu {Theobald). 

In the present species three folds are visible on the upper 
or parietal margin of the peristome, for in addition to the two 
parietal folds, present in most species, tlie subcolumellar fold here 
also reaches the inside margin, while the upper palatal plica runs 
close to the peristome. Of the two parietal folds the upper 
terminates at the outer edge of the peristome, but the lower does 
not reach quite so far. The clausilium is likewise visible for the 
greater portion of its length upon looking into the aperture. 
Clausilia masoni is characterized by the rather distant, fine, 
plicate-striate ribs, whicli are especially prominent on the latter 
half of the last whorl. 



332 . CLAUS1LIID.E. 



Subgenus OOSPIRA, Blanford. 

Oospii-a, Blauford, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. "200 (type Clausilia 
philippiana, Pieitier) ; Boettger, PaliSOutogTapliica, 3rd siippl. 
1877, p. 64 (as section of Phaedusa) ; ibid., Ber. Offenbacher Ver. 
Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 56; Pfeifter & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 392. 

Type, Clausilia pliilippiana, Pfeiffer. 

Range. Burma. 

" Shell with but few whorls, usually live or six, and of a 
peculiar more or less oval form with a very blunt apex. Lunula 
wanting, palatal plaits as in Phaedusa. 

" The known shells of this section are solid deeply coloured 
Clausiliae, smooth or with very slight sculpture. So far as is 
hitherto known, the type is peculiar to Martaban and Tenasserim." 
{^Blanford.) 



293. Clausilia bulbus, Benson. 

Clnusilia hulhns, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 321 ; 

Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 4(j9 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 24, fig. 5; Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 

1875, Clausilia, pi. 6, tig. 51. 
Clausilia (Oospira) bulbus, Blauford, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 206, 

pi. 9, fig. 16. 
Clausilia {Phaedusa {Oospira)) bulbus, Boettger, Ber. Offenbacher 

Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 56 ; I'feiff'er & Clessin, Nomencl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 392. 

Original description : — " C. testa sinistrorsa, vix rimata, oblongo- 
obovata, pupiformi, regulariter oblique striata, rubenti-ferruginea ; 
spira obovata, super ne veutricosa, versus apicem obtusum con- 
camerata, sutura impressa ; aufractibus bh, convexiusculis, primis 
rapideaccrescentibus,antepenultimo tumido, penultimo angustiore, 
pone aperturam obliqua, oblique auriformi, peristomate continuo, 
margine late expanso, reflexiusculo, albido-rubente, lamella 
superiore acuta, prominente, longe, intus intrante, spirali, infera 
forti, oblique spiraliter asceudente, subcolumellari immersa ; plicis 
palatalibus 7, superiore valde elongata, late erecta, intus cum 
lamella superiore rimam angustam efformante, 6 inferioribus 
brevibus, subparallelibus, luuella nulla. 

"Diam. anfract. antepenvxltimi 9, ultimi supra aperturam 5, 
axis 23 mill. ; ap. (oblique), longa 8, lata 7 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. Burma : Banks of the Attaran Eiver, near Moulmain. 

" This most singular form in the genus was found by Col. 
Eobert Gordon. The bulbous pupiform figure of the shell at 
once distinguishes it from CI. philippiana, Pfr., an inhabitant of 
the Parm Caves, as wnW as from any other known species. The 
upper lamella runs spirally up the aperture, forming a narrow slit 
between it and the upper knife-like plica." {Benson.) 



CLAUSILIA. 333 

Clausilia hidhus resembles a large ovata, but the striae are much 
coarser and farther apart, and there are a few coarse distant 
spirals, while the last whorl becomes more attenuated behind the 
peristome. The only shell of bulbus I have seen is from Moulmain 
in the National collection ; it is 25 mm. in length, the penultimate 
whorl measuring 9*5 and the last whorl 5'5 mm. This species, 
C. phiUppiana and C. ovata constitute a natural group, character- 
ized by the very convex spire and the very obtuse apex. 

294. Clausilia philippiana, Pfeiffer. 

Clausilia philijjpiatut, Pfeiffer, Zeits. Malak. iv, 1847, p. 69 ; ibid., 

Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 423 ; ibid., Couch.-C.ib., Clausilia, 

1850, p. 100, pi. 11, tigs. 7-9 ; Ilanlej & Theobald, Conch. Tnd. 

1875, pi. 118, fig. 10 ; Sowerby, Concli. Icon, xx, 1875, Clausilia, 

pi. 4, tig. 35. 
Clausilia {Phcpdusa) philippiana, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 184 ; Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 180 ; von Martens, 

Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 275. 
Clausilia (Phedusa) pliilippiana, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, 

p. 174, pi. 6, figs. 7-10 (anatomy). 
Clausilia (Oospira) philippiajia, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, 

p. 205, pi. 9, fig. 14; Kobelt, Conchyl. Buch, ii, 1878, p. 289, 

pi. 86, fig. 29 ; Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, 

ser. 2, vii, 1889, p. 329. 
Clausilia (Phaedusa ( Oospira)) philippiana, Boettger, Bar. OfFen- 

bacher Yer. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 56; Pfeifier & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. \i\. 1881, p. 392. 

Original description : — " T. vix rimata, abbreviato-fusiformis, 
crassa, solida, subtilissime striatula, castanea ; spira ventrosa, apice 
obtusissima ; anfr. 6, primi '^ planiusculi, penultimus convexus, 
ultimus angustior, basi rotundatus ; apertura verticalis, oblique 
semiovahs ; lamellae validae, approximatae ; plica lunata imperfecta 
vel obsoleta, palatalis 1 longa, suturae parallela, columellaris im- 
mersa ; perist. crassum, continuum, superne subadnatum, 
marginibus late expansis, columellari perobliquo, externo 
strictiusculo, 

" Long. 21, diam. 7| mill. ; ap. oblique 7 mm. longa, 5 lata."' 
{Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. Burma : Mergui {Phillppi) ; Farm Caves, Moulmain 
(StoUczl-a, Theobald, Hungerford, Fea) ; Attaran Valley and 
Tenassei'im {Theobald). Mergui Archipelago : Sullivan Island 
{Anderson fide Tap)parone Canefri). 

Clausilia philippiana forms a connecting link between C. bulbus 
and C. ovata, differing from the latter in the length being greater 
in proportion to the diameter, in the upper part of the spire being 
more slender, and in the wider aperture, while it is decidedly less 
ventricose about the middle than the former. The palatal plicae 
vary from seven to nine in number, the first being very long, the 
second about half the length of the first, and the remainder very 
short ; they are all nearly parallel. 



334 CLAUSILIID^. 

The specimen figured by Hauley has been presented to the 
British Museum by Mr. Harvey ; it is composed of 6| whorls 
and measures 26 x 8 25 mm. Tliree shells in the Cuming collection, 
from Moulmain, range in size between 22-5 mm. and 23 mm. and 
in diameter from 7-'io mm. to 8 mm. The Theobald collection 
contains shells also from Moulmain and Mergui, of 6 and G| 
whorls, m.easuring 21-5 x 7*5 and 25'5 x 8 mm. respectively. 
Lastly some specimens in the Beddome collection are blackish 
brown in colour, varying in length from 21-5 to 23'5 mm., and in 
diameter from G'25 to 7"5 mm. 



295. Clausilia ovata, Blanfonl. 

Clausilia (Oos/nra) ovata, Rlanford, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 206, 

pi. 9, fig. 17 ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 183. 
Clausilia ovata, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. 118, 

fig. 4; Sowei'bv, Conch. Icon, xx, 1875, Clausilia, pi. 7, fig. 60; 

Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 469. 
Clausilia (P/iacdusa (Oospira)) ovata, Boettger, Ber. Offenbaclier 

Ver. Natm'w. 1878, Mitt. p. 56 ; Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. 

Helic. Yiv. 1881, p. 392. 

Original description : — " Testa vix subrimata, elongata-ovata, 
pupiformis, intense rufo-ferrugiiiea, regulariter confertiiuque 
striata; spira tumida, apice convexo, sutura parum im])ressa, 
Anfr. 5'5 convexiusculi, primi rapide accrescentes, antepeiuiltimus 
maximus, penultimus vix minor, ultimus ad basin rotundatns. 
Apertura auriformis, fere verticalis, juxfa anfractum penultiraum 
repanda, lamella supera acuta, antice validiore, fere vertical!, 
iufera stricta ; lunella nulla, plicis palatalibus 7, supera producta, 
in faucH aperturos conspicua, sutuvoe parallela, secunda curvata, 
cseteris brevibus obliquis. 

"Long. 19, diam. 7 mm.; apert. oblique 6 longa, 4-5 lata." 
(Blanford.) 

Hah. Burma: Xattouug near Moulmain {Theobald):, Attaran 
Valley (Hung erf or d). 

" It is more ovate than C. Philippiana aud C. vespa, smaller 
and less tumid than C. bidbus." (JJlanford.) 

In addition to the differentiating characters alluded to by 
Blauford, C. ovata has a shorter spire which increases more 
suddenly than in philippiana, the whorls are less tumid, and it 
possesses fine spirals, which are lacking in its ally. There are 
some shells in the British Museum from Pathingtouu, Attaran 
Valley, measuring 18 x 6-75 mm., others from Nattoui]g, the type 
locality, and Moulmain have the spire still more convex, the 
former having a diameter of 7 mm. with a length of 17'75 mm., 
and the latter being 18x8 mm. The shell figured by Hanley is 
also in the National collection, having been presented by 
Mr. Harvey ; it measures 18 x 7 mm. 



CLAUSILIA. 335 

296. Claiisilia stoliczkana, Si/kes. 

Ciansilia (Oofspira) vespa, Blanford ife Stoliczka (non (4ould), 

J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, pp. 20.J & 209, p). 9, tigs. 15, 15 «. 
Clausilia vespa, Pfeiti'er, Alon. Ilelic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 468. 
Clausilia {Oospira) stoliczkana, Sykes, The Couchologist, ii, 1893, 

p. im. 

Orir/inal description: — "CI. testa ovato-cylinclricea, ad apicem 
obtusa, albida, medio subiuflata, ultimo anfractu sensim atteuuata, 
haud riinata, fusco-castaiiea ; aufractibus sex, couvexiusculis, 
sutura simplicijuuctis, trail sversim oblique et coufertissime strio- 
latis ; apertura subovata, postice rotuiidate subaugulata, antice 
late sub-e£fusa, iutus violaceo-rufa, peritremate modice expanso, 
interno oblique fere recto, libero ; lamellae sub-paralleke, fuscse, 
ad marginem attingentes ; plicae palatales 8-9, suprema (princi- 
palis) longa, alterae breviores et inter se valde inaequales. 

"Alt. 25 millim., lat. 7 niillim. ; apert. alt. 6j niillim., lat. 
5 millim." (Stoliczka.) 

Bab. Burma : Tavoy. 

The above description o£ what Blanford and Stoliczka regarded 
as Gould's Clausilia vesjya, is copied by Mr. Sykes, who considered 
that neither the description nor the figures represented Gould's 
species. He observes " The specimen figured by Mr. Stoliczka is, 
I believe, one which has been since received by the British 
Museum from Mr. Tlieobald. There are two species in the British 
Museum under the name of vespa, Gould ; one which I regard as 
really that species from the Hungerford collection, and the other 
from Mr. Theobald, which I regard as the species and specimen 
described and figured by Mr. Stoliczka. What the shell is which 
is figured by Dr. Blaudford [Blanford] as vespa is, the absence of 
description makes it hard to say ; Dr. Blandford himself says it is 
hard to separate from philippiana , and it is probably only an 
elongated specimen of that species."' 

He states that Gould's description is very brief, which he 
then quotes, and continues " The description will not fit Mr. 
Stoliczka's shell, as in this latter the colour is not ' intense ritfa,^ 
the apex is blunt not ' anfr. a/>icalibus cito descresceatibus,' i. e., 
resembles the end of a cylinder rather than the point of a cone, 
no whorl can be said to he ^ corpidentus,^ the suture is not ^ vi.v 
marginata,' but simple, the aperture is not ^ovata' but subovate, 
the lip is not ' late rejlexus ' or ' rufasJ 

" On the other hand, so far as it goes, Gould's description 
does fit the Hungerford shell, which is not very blunt in the 
apex like the others of the Oospira section, which is a dusky red, 
like />7iilippiana, and has a very tiiick and expanded dark lip. 

" I therefore consider Mr. Stoliczka's shell as not vespa ; it 
is as far as I know, an undescribed species, and I adopt his 
description of it and call it Stoliczkana." 

An examination of the shell in the Theobald collection, upon 
which Mr. Sykes has based his new species, has convinced me that 



336 CLAUSILIID^. 

as regards outline, it fits Blanford's figui'e (fig. 15) better than 
Stoliczka's (fig. 15 a) but in the former the striae appear more 
distant, and it shows rather more sinus at the upper parietal fold. 

297. Clausilia vespa, Gould. 

Clausilia vespa, Gould, Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc. vi, 1859, 
p. 13; ibid., Otia Conch. 1862, p. 220; Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. 
Viv. vi, 1868, p. 409 ; Sykes, The Conchologist, ii, 1893, p. 166, 
3 text-fio-ures, 

Clausilia ( Oospira) vespa, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 183. 

Original description : — " T. solida, sinistrorsa, vesppeformis, 
deflecta, Isevis, intense rufa : anfr. 6, anteriori raptim attenuate, 
proximo corpulento apicalibus cito descrescentibus ; sutura im- 
pressa vix marginata ; apertura ovata ; columella biplieata ; 
peritremate late reflexo, rufo. 

"Long. 1 [ = 25-25 mm.], lat. f^ poll. [ = 7'5 mm.].*' {Gould.) 

Hah. Burma : Tavoy {Mason) ; Hooden Koo, Salween Valley 
{Hungerford) ; Tenasserim (? Mason). 

Mr. Sykes, as already stated under C. stoliczJaina, has pointed 
out that the shell described and figured by Stoliczka and Blanford 
as 0. vespa — which he believes has been received by the British 
Museum from Mr. Theobald — difiers in several respects from 
Gould's species, and he regards it as a new form. On the other 
hand a shell in the British Museum, from the Hungerford col- 
lection, he believes to be the true vespa and adds a diagnosis, 
based upon this specimen, to supplement the very brief description 
by Gould. His diagnosis is as follows : — 

" CI. testa solida, sinistrorsa, fusiformis, medio inflata, apex 
obtusiuscula, subtile et indistincte decussata, hand nitida, intense 
rufa, ad apicem pallidior ; anfr. 6, apicales cito decrescentes, 
penultimus et ante penultimus inflati, corpulenti ; sutura impressa 
vix marginata ; apertura ovata, peritremate late et valde reflexo, 
rufo ; lamella superior valida, obliqua, rufa, fere ad marginem 
attingens, 1. inferior valida rufa subparallela ; plicoe palatales 5-6, 
suprema (principalis) longa, secunda brevior, descendens, reliquie 
parvae, subaequales descendentes. 

"Alt. 27 millim., lat. 8 millim. ; apert. alt. 7 millim., lat. 
5 1 millim, 

'" CI. vespa, Gould, must be withdrawn from the Oospira 
section both on the ground of shape and its sculpture (an indis- 
tinct decussation) and CI. stoliczkana should take its place." 
{Si/l-es.) 

Through the courtesy of Dr. John M. Clarke, the Director of 
the State Museum of Albany, N.T., I have been able to examine 
one of the two specimens of Gould's C. vespa, and I am in a 
position to confirm Mr. Sykes' surmise that the shell figured as 
vespa by Stoliczka is quite different from Gould's species. The 
specimen sent to me by Dr. Clarke is smaller than the one in the 
Hungerford collection, figured by Mr. Sykes, measuring: length 25, 



CLAUSILIA. 337 

breadth 7*6 niiu. and, except in being' rather weatherworn, it 
completely resembles the latter. Dr. Clarke infoi'ms me that 
the second Gouldian specimen is ahnost exactly like the one 
sent, except that it is a trifle shorter and stouter, measuring 
24x8 mm., the last whorl especially being proportionately shorter 
and less contracted, although there is very little difference in the 
apertures. I have taken the opportunity of giving an illustration 
of: Gould's shell. 




Fig. IIG. — ClausiUa vespa. 
(From one of Gould's original specimens.) 

I am unable to follow Mr. Sykes when he states that C. vespa 
must be removed from the Oospira section, for in spite of the 
fact that in establishing this section Blanford described the apex 
as very blunt, and that vespa has the apex rather acute, the whole 
aspect and consistency of the shell of vespa resemble those of 
the other members of the group to such an extent that 1 prefer to 
retain it as a member of the section, abnormal only in the apex. 

Subgenus CYLINDROPHJEDUSA, Boettgcr. 

Cijlindrophafdma, Boettger, Palseoutographica, 3rd suppl. 1877, 
p. 64 ; Ber. Ottenbacher Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 42 (only 
species Clausilia cylindrica) ; PfeifFer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 392. 

Type, Clausilia et/Undrica, Pfeiffer. 

Range. India. 

Principal fold long, palatal plicae 2 aequidistant, deep seated. 
Lunella absent. Upper parietal lamella oblique, marginal, con- 
tiguous with the spiral fold ; lower parietal lamella almost straight, 
ascending obliquely, becoming bifurcate inside. Subcolumellar 
fold very deep-seated, not visible from outside. Aperture small, 
rhomboid-ovate, the margins of the peristome scarcely thickened 
and slightly refiexed. Shell small, usually decollate, almost 
cylindrical, with slowly increasing whorls, corneous, striated or 
costulate-striate. 

298. Clausilia cylindrica, Pfeiffer. 

Clausilia cylindrica (Gray), Pfeifter, Symb. Hist. Helic. iii, 1846, 
p. 93 ; ibid., Men. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 428 ; ibid., op. cit. iii, 
1853, p. 590 ; ibid., Zeit. Malak. vi, 1849, p. 95; Kiister, Conch.- 



338 clausiliid.t;. 

Cab., Ckmsilia, 1850, p. 101, pi. 11, figs. 12-10 ; Blaiiford, J. A. 

S. B. xli, 1872, p. 199, pi. 9, iig. 1 ; Stoliczka, torn. cit. p. 207 ; 

)Sowerby, Conch. Icou. xx, 1875, Clausilia, pi. 2, fig. 18; 

Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 146 ; ibid., op. cit. 1, 1881, 

p. 48. 
Clausilia (Phaedusa) ci/lindrica, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 185. 
Clausilia {Phaedusa {Ci/lindi-op/taedusa)) cylindrica, Boettger, Ber. 

Ofteubacher Ver. Naturw. 1878, Mitt. p. 57 ; Pfeiffer & Clessin, 

Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 893. 
Clausilia elegans (Hutton M.S.) Pfeifter, Zeit. Malak. vi, 1849, 

p. 95 (as s\'nouym of C. cylindrica). 

" T. subriinata, adalta pleruinque trmicata, siibcyliiidrica, 
oblique striata, nitide cornea vel rufeseens ; sutura submargiuata ; 
anfr. superst. 6-7 subaequales, ultimus autice costulato-striatus,^ 
basi rotuudatus ; apertui-a subverticalis, pyrit'ormis ; lamellae 
parvulae, conuiventes, infera substricte asceiidens, superne furcata; 
luuella nulla; plicae palatales 3 parallelae, summa elongata, 
reliquae breves, subcolumellaris inconspicua ; perist. coutinuuni,^ 
A'ix solutum, albidum, breviter reflexum. 

"Long, (trunc.) 13, diam. 3 millim. ; ap. 3 mm. louga, 2 lata." 
{Pfeiffer, 1853.) 

Hah. India: Landour (6-'jw/) ; Mussoorie (Beddome); Dharin- 
sala, east of the llavi {Theobald, 1878); Tandiani and Mari 
[Murree], Punjab {Theobald, 1881) ; Murree (Sloliczka) ; Naini Tal 
and iiim\ii (Stoliczl-a, Oldham); Tezpur, Assam {Stoliczka). 



Fig. 117. — Clausilia cylindrica. 

" The figure in the ' Couchologia Indica ' is that of a specimen 
which, although adult, has retained its apex. This is a very rare 
occurrence. The figure now given represents the shell as it is 
usually found. 

" Three palatal plaits, the upper elongate, are always present, 
and beneath them there is occasionally to be found a rudi- 
mentary hmella. The characters both of the shell and of the 
internal plication differ \\idely from those of typical Pho'dusa, in 
which sub-genus I do not think that the present species can be 
included. It stands by itself, and I am inclined to look upon it 
as the type of a peculiar section." {Blanford.) 

The species seems to be fairly common since I have seen large 
numbers in various collections. As mentioned by Blanford, the 
shells are nearly always decollated. It is rather surprising that 
in drawing attention to the specimen figured by Hauley & 
Theobald he failed to notice that the figure in question does not 



ACHAT] XID,^. 339f 

represent cylindrica, but quite a distinct form which has since 
been sepanited and named Chiusiliu turritella by Sowerby. 
Amongst the numerous specimens of C. cjflindrica examined by 
nie the only entire shells I have seen are two in my own col- 
lection, which were acquired many years ago amongst a miscel- 
laneous lot at a sale. One of these is now figured. It is composed 
of 14: whorls, the first seven being' opacpie white, owning to the 
withdrawal of the animal from that portion of the shell. That 
this is a case of true decollation I have !>atisHed n)yself by 
examining numerous shells with six or seven whorls ; in each case 
the newly formed apex could distinctly be seen. 

2{)9. Clausula turritella. Sowerhy. 

Claiiiilia cylbulrivn, Ilaiilev & Theobald (non Pfeiffer), Conch. Ind, 

1870, p. 12, pi. i>4, tig-. 4. 
Clausilia turritella, Sowerby, Conch. Icon, xx, 187-5, C'lausilia, 

pi. 7, tig-. 65. 
Clausilia elegans, Iluiton, MS. 

Original descrijition : — "Shell yellow, very narrow elongated, 
pyramidal ; whorls 14, slowly increasing, rather convex, last 
oblong : aperture oblong, ratlier square, with a single plait over 
the columella, columella straight.'" (Soiverbi/.) 

Long ](r75 mm. (ex icon.). 

Bah. India : Landour. 

The shell from Landour figured by Hanley &. Theobald as 
Clausilia ci/lindrica of Gray, copied by Sowerby, is altogether 
different from that sj)ecies as described and figured by Pfeiffer, so 
that Sowerby was quite justified in giving it a new name. In 
iurntella the whorls are more convex, the aperture is much 
narrower and higher, and the shell much paler in colour. It is 
rather unfortunate that the whereabouts of Hanley's specimen is 
unknown. It was not amongst the shells from Hanley's collection 
presented to the British Musemn by Mr. Harvey. 



Family ACHATINID.E. 
Subfamily ACHATININ.^. 

Genus ACHATINA, Lamarck. 

Achatina, Lamarck, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat, Paris, An vii (1799), 
p. 75; I'ischcr, Man. Conchyl. 1883, p. 486; I'ilsbrv, Man. 
Conch, ser. 2, xvii, 1904, p. 1. 

Type, Btdla achatina, Linne. 

liange. Tropical Africa (one si)ecies naturalized in India). 
Shell ovate or oblong, with conic spire and small apex, two or 
three earliest schorls smooth, formin.of a trocbiform luicleus, obtuse 

z 2 



'J40 achatiniDjE. 

at the apex. Aperture ovate, the outer lip unexpanded ; columella 
concave or straight, truncate as though cut off below. 

Eeproduction oviparous, the eggs small, oval and pale yellow, 
numerous. 



300. Achatina fulica, Femssac. 

Helix fulica, Ferussac, Tabl. Syst. Lima^-ous, 1821, p. 49 (p. 53 of 
some editions), no. 347 (noni. nud.) ; ibid.. Hist. Nat. Moll, 
pi. 124 A, lio-. 1, pi. 12.5, ficjs. 3-5. 

Achatina fulica, iJeshayes, Anim. sans vert. ed. 2, viii, 1838, 
p. 297, footnote ; Pleiii'er, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 254 : 
Heeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Achatina, pi. 2, fig. 8, pi. 3, fig. 8 h; 
Deshayes in Ferussae, Hist. Nat. Moll, ii, part 2, 1851, p. 162 ; 
Benson, Journ. Couchyl. vii, 1858, p. 206 ; Semper, lleisen Arch. 
Philippinen, Landmoll. 1873, p. 143, pi. 12, fig. 17 (anatomy) ; 
Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 145; Kobelt, 111. Conchyl. Buch, 
ai, 1878, p. 262, pi. 81, fig. 1 ; Bourgiiignat, Moll. Afrique Equat. 
1889, p. 76 ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xvii, 1904, p. 55, 
pis. 36, 37; Annandale, Rec. Ind. Mas. i, 1907, p. 176. 

Achatina {Achatinus) ftdica, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 266. 

Shell ovate-conoid, pale yellowish, streaked transversely with 
ibrown, somewhat glossy, more or less irregularly decussated with 
tine spirals, except on the last whorl. Spire convex, suture im- 
pressed, apex acute. Whorls 8, convex, the last nearly equalHng 
half the entire length of the shell. Aperture elliptic ovate, white 
or pale lilac within ; peristome straight, acute, the margins con- 
nected by a callus on the parietal wall ; columella slightly concave, 
truncate. 

Length 94, diam. 45 mm. ; apert. 48 mm. (Calcutta specimens). 

Hah. India: Calcutta (introduced) {Nevill). Madagascar; 
Mascarenes ; Seychelles ; Comoro Islands ; Zanzibar. 

A native of: Madagascar, Achatina fulica was, according to 
Lesson, introduced in Mauritius and Bourbon. In addition, it 
has been recorded from the Seychelles, the Comoro Islands, and 
Zanzibar. Although not being, strictly speaking, a native of 
India, it has been thought advisable to include it since it appears 
to have established itself thoroughly. 

The history of its earlier trans^iort is not known, but Benson 
has placed on record how he carried living specimens from the 
Mauritius to Calcutta, where they were turned loose. After his 
return to England he received news that it had multiplied in 
neighbouring estates and was spreading. Hutton took some 
specimens from Calcutta to Mussoorie, where they continued to 
breed, but a severe winter exterminated them. Dr. Annandale 
reports that it is common in gardens in Calcutta and neighbour- 
hood, and that it is said to be spreading in other parts of India. 
Pilsbry figures a shell from the Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 



SUBULIXA. 341 



Subfamily STENOGYRIN.E. 

Geuus SUBULINA, Beck. 

Subulina, Beck, Index Moll. 18.'»7,p. 76 (in part); Uray, P. Z. S. 
1847, p. 177; Hernnanusen, Ind. Gen. Malac. ii, 184'J, p. 522;. 
rilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, pp. 71, 220. 

Type, Balimas octonus, liruguiere. 

Itawje. Tropical America and Africa ; one species — odona — - 
introduced into India. 

" Shell iiiiperfurate at all stages of growth, narrow, turrited, or 
subulate, tliin, corneous or brownish, usually more or less trans- 
lucent; apex obtuse, rounded; the embryonic shell either smooth,. 
l)licate below the sutures or vertically ribbed. Last whorl angular 
or rounded at the periphery. Aperture small, oblique, ovate, the 
columella concave above, oliliiiuelj/ ur ahrujtthj truncate at base. Eggs 
with a calcareous, oblately spheroidal capsule. 

" Beck originally proposed the name JSubulina for the following 
species : — (i) A', cyanostoma Eiipp., (2) tuvritellata Desh., (3) stria- 
tella Kang, (4) malaguetana Eang, (5) monoceros Beck, {Q) propinqua 
Beck, (7) terebrasfer Lam., (8) octona Ch., (9) crotalariae Schum., 
(10) carinulata Beck, (11) jmpaefonnis Beck, (12) S. ? sericata Beck, 
The first species of the list was made type of Homorus by Albers, 
1850; species 6, 10, 11, 12, are nude names; 7 is an Obeliscus; 
2 and 4 are species of uncertain generic relationships ; leaving 
species 3, 5, 8, 9 to represent the group of S. octona. Gray in 
1847 and Herrmannsen, 1849, agreed in selecting as type of 
Subulina the commonest and best known species, S. octona — a 
course approved by practii-ally all later writers who have 
recognized tlie group."' {Pihbr;/.) 



301. Subulina octona, Bruguiere. 

lJiili)nu!< ()cto)ms, Briiguiere, ImicvcI. Mt^tli., Vers, i, 17^9, p. 325. 

Achatina octona^ Gray, Ann. Philos. x. s. ix, 1825, p. 414 ; Meuke, 
Syn.Metli. ed. 2, 18;{0, p. 29; Potiez & Michaud, Galerie Douai, 
i, 18o8, p. 129, pi. 11, tigs. 18, 14; Orbigny in Ramon de la 
Sagra, Hist. lis. pol. nat. Cuba, Moll, i, 1841, p. 168, pi. 11, 
tigs. 4, 6; I'feiffer, Mon. Ilelic. Yiv. ii, 1848, p. 260; Ueeve, 
Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Achulinn, pi. 17, tig. 84 ; Sowerby, Couch, 
Mail. 1852, lig. 514; Pfeiller, Couch.-Cab., Achatina, 1854, p. 342, 
pi. 37, tigs. 19, 20. 

Subulina octona, Beck, Index Moll. 1838, p. 77; Adams, Gen. Pec. 
Moll, ii, 1855, p. 1 10, pi. 71 , tig. 3 a ; Pilsbry, Man. CJonch. ser. 2, 
xviii, 1906, p. 72, pi. 12, tigs. 8, 9; p. 222, pi. 39, titrs. 28-37, 
39,40. 

Stenugyra (Subulina) octona, Kobelt, llhistr. Conchyl. liuch, ii, 
1878, p. 276, pi. 84, tig. 29 ; Pfeitfer l\: Clessin, Noniencl. Ilelic. 
Yiv. 1881, p. 326. 



342 ACHATINID^. 

Sf.ennr/yru octona, Peile, Jourii. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. xii, 1909, 

p. 785. 
Subu/wn crotallaria (Schumaclier), ^liircli, Jourii. C'oiiclivl. 1872, 

p. 3.37. 

On'r/inal descrijition : — "Bulitnus, testa cylindrica,tuiTita, cornea, 
aufractibus octo, apice obtnso. 

" La coquille ii'est point ombiliquee ni perforce, elle est cvlin- 
drique, turriculce, rousse, transparente et composee de huit tours 
presque applatis, qui sont separes par des sutures profondes. Le 
sommet de la spire est obtus ou arroiidi, il est ordinaireuient ])lus 
transparent que les tours inferieurs et tres fragile. Leur super- 
ficie est luisante et marquee de quelques stries lougitudinales, 
ecartees, qui sont les traces des accroissemens successifs de la 
coquille. Son epiderme est brun, niais facile a enlever, excepte 
dans les sutures ou il en reste toujours assez pour y paroitre comme 
une ligne spirale noiratre. L'ouverture est ovale, una fois plus 
iongue que large, elle est un pen oblique, ar'rondie a son extromite 
inferieure et retrecie au bout superieure. La levre droite est 
simple, fcros mince et tranchante, la gauche manque tout-a-fait, 
mais sa region est lisse, tres luissante et aussi diapbane que les 
trois derniers tours du sommet." {Bruguiere.) 

"Shell thin, translucent, j^ellowish corneous, turrited, almost 
regularly tapering to the obtuse summit, very glossy, rather 
coarsely and irregularly striatulate. Whorls 9, quite convex, 
separated by a deeply impressed suture, the first three turns of 
which are regularly crenulated by a border of short folds. On 
the later whorls it is also irregularly crenulate in places. Last 
whorl rounded. Aperture oblique, ovate ; columella concave 
above, obliquely truncate at its base." (Pilshri/.) 
Length 15-0-19, diam, 4-4'5 mm. 

Bah. India: T ranquehnv {Spe7i(/ler iide MiJrch); Ji omh^y [PeUe, 
Beddome coll.). Ceylon [Colletf). 

" Reproduction begins before the shell has attained two-thirds 
its maximum size, and usually several eggs may be seen through 
the shell within the penultimate whorl. The egg-capsules are 
hard-shelled, white and flattened, measuring l-8xl"5 mm." 
[Pilsbri/.) 

Suhnlina octona is certainly one of the most widely distributed 
molluscs, being found not only in the Western Hemisphere, 
believed to be its original home, but also in the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere, haviug apparently followed in the wake of tropical and 
subtropical cultivation. Prof. Pilsbry has examined numerous 
specimens from the West Indies, Xorth and South America, 
West Africa, the Seychelles, Ceylon, Sumatra, and Ternate, and 
he is satisfied of their identity. The species has also been recorded 
from East Africa, Mauritius, many other East Indian islands. New 
Caledonia, and as far as the New Hebrides, while its occurrence 
in hot-houses in Europe and North America lends colour to the 
theory of its dispersal through cultivation. 



BACILLUM. 343 

Bnigaiere's description is not very clear and I have therefore 
added the diagnosis given by Pilsbry in his admirable account of 
the s])ecies. The bibliography covers more than two octavo pages, 
but I liave limited myself to the principal references and those 
having any bearing on its occurrence in the Indian region. 

The Beddome collection in the British Museum contains, 
amongst specimens from numerous Avidely separated localities, 
three shells from Bombay, composed of ten whorls and measuring 
19 mm, in length. 



Genus BACILLUM:, Theobald. 

Bacillum, Theobald in ITanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, p. 17 
(as subgenus oH Achat ina for A. ohtusa, Blanford, and A. casiaca, 
BcHSon) ; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 1. 

Type, Acliatina casiaca., Benson. 

Range. Eastern India. 

" Shell rather large, solid, imperforate, turrited, many-wborled, 
a little conti'aeted near the obtuse, rounded summit, the em- 
bryonic shell cyliudric ; sculpture of vertical rib-strise beginning 
somewhere upon the first whorl : the post-embryonic whorls being 
obliquely, regularly rib-striate. Aperture oblique, Achatinoid, 
the columella concave, truncate at the base, outer lip simple. 
Internal axis slender, strongly sigmoid within each whorl. Soft 
anatomy unknown." (Pihbnj.) 

" This group would hardly be thought distinct from Homorus, 
were it not well separated geographically from that African genus, 
at least in the recent fauna. Almost the sole distinguishing feature 
is the stronger sculpture of Bacillum. Both groups ai'e merely 
large and solid forms of the Suballiia type, so far as the sbells are 
concerned." (Pilsbrij.) 

302. Bacillum daflaensis, Godwin- Austen. 

Glessula dajlaensis, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, LS76, p. ."ilG, 
pi. 8, fig. 10. 

Original description : — " Shell elongately turreted, thick, ob- 
liquely striate, covered with a thick olive-green epidermis with a 
few dark streaks. Spire turreted, slightly convex in outline, apex 
blunt ; whorls 11, rather flat, specimens with the apex preserved 
shewing erosion of the surface. Suture well marked. Aperture 
oblique, suboval, pale grey. Peristome acute, columellar margin 
slightly curved and but little thickened. 

''Alt. 1-9 [=48 mm.], major diam. 0-41 [ = 10-o mm.], alt. 
ap. 0*42 [ = 11 mm.]." {Godwin- Austen.) 

Hab. India : Shengorh Peak, Dafla Hills {Godwin- Austen). 

"This shell woidd appear to have a close connection with 
G. erosa, II. Blf., from Darjiling, but its much longer form. 



344 ACHATIKID^. 

greater number of whorls, and the different colour of its epi- 
dermis (which is uniform throughout), at once distinguish it. As 
in G. erosa, the position of the former apertures is distinctly 
indicated on the whorls." (Gochuin-Austen.) 

This species appears to have been overlooked by Pilsbry when 
monographing the genus in the Manual of Concholog}'. 

303. Bacillum erosum, Blanford. 

Glessula erosa, Blauford, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 43, pi. 2, fig. 7 ; 

Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 172; Pfeifter & Clessiu, Nomencl. 

Ilelic. Viv. 188], p. 331. 
Achatina {Electra) erosa, Hanlej &. Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, 

Pl- 78, fig. 5. _ 
AcJiatma erosa, Pfeifi'er, Men. Ilelic. Viv, viii, 1877, p. 283. 
Bacilluvi erosum, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 4, pl. 1. 

figs. 9-11. 

Original description : — " Testa elongato-turrita, crassula, parum 
nitens, baud diapbaua, longitudinaliter oblique striata, epidermide 
fusco-straminea induta. JSpira turrita, lateribus convexiusculis ; 
apice truncato. Anfractus apicales carentes ; superstates 7 sub- 
planati ; superioi"es plerumque plus miuusve decorticata at erosi ; 
sutura impressa. Peristoma simplex, acutum. Columella leniter 
arcuata, ad basin oblique truncata. 

" Alt. 35, diam, 10, aperturae alt. 10, lat. 5 mm. 

" Alt. 30, diam. 10"5, aperturae alt. 10, lat. 5 mm. 

"Alt, 34, diam. 9, aperturae alt. 9, lat. 5 mm." {Blanford.) 

Hah. Sikkim : Darjeeling (Atl-insou J,- Stoliczl-a). 

"This species is easily distinguished from its local associate 
G. tenuispira, Bens., by its thickness and opacity, and by the 
character of the surface, which has none of the vitreous lustre 
so characteristic of the genus. The upper whorls are generally 
much eroded ; the lower, which retain the epidermis, are of a 
dark straw colour with darker oblique bands at intervals, ap- 
parently marking stages of growth. Under a lens very tine dark 
spiral lines are also perceptible. I received several specimens of 
this shell in 1863 from Mr. W. S. Atkinson, but it has not hitherto 
been described. It appears to be a rare species. Dr. Stoliczka 
only got two specimens in forest at the waterfall about 1000 feet 
below Darjeeling." (Blanford.) 

The only specimen I have seen is one presented by Dr. Joseph 
Hooker to the British Museum, and probably collected by him 
during his famous travels in the Sikkim Himalayas. This shell is 
decollated, seven whorls remaining, and it measures : length 
38 mm., diameter 12 mm. 

304. Bacillum theobaldi, Hanleii. 

Achatina (Electra) theobaldi, Hanlej' MS., llanlev & Theobald, 
Conch. Ind. 1870, p. 9, pl. 17, tig. 5. 



BACILLUM. 345 

Achafina {G'lesmht) theohahU, Theobald, J. A. S. 15. xxxix, 1871, 

p. 39.") (no description). 
Achatina tlwohaldi, Pfoiffer, Mon. Tlelic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 290. _ 
Stemxufva (Glessida) thcohaldiana, Nevill, Ilaiul List, i, 1878, 

p. 172. 
Stenoqyra (Sufmluui) theobaldi, VkiW'vv &: Clessin, Noniencl. Helic. 

ViV. 1881, p. 327. 
Bacillum theobaldi, Pilsbrv, Man. Caiicli. .ser. 2, xviu, lUOC, p. 4. pi. 1, 

tig. 8. 

Orif/inal description : — " I)iffer.s from A. cassiaca, ot which it 
has been cousidered a variety, by its smoothness, more convex 
whorls, &c." {Hanleij 4' Theobald.) 

Long, 42, diam. maj. 11 mm. {ex icon.). 

I have not seen specimens. 

305. Bacillum casiacum, Iteeve. 

Achatina cassiaca (Benson), Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Achatina, 

pi. 17, tio-. 8o; Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 499; ibid., 

Conch.-Cab., Bidimus, 18o6, p. 310, pi. 25, tig._l. 
Subidina cassiaca, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, p. 110. 
Achatina (Subulina) cassiaca, Pfeiffer, Malak. Rliitt. ii, 1.^56, 

p. 169. ' 
Achatina [Bacilluin) cassiaca, Theobald, Conch. Ind. 18/0, p. 17, 

pi. 36, lio-. 5. 
Achatina casiaca, tiodwiu-Austen, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 517, tootnote. 
Glessida casiaca, Godwin-Auste.i, J. A, S. B. xliv, 1875, p. 3; xlv, 

1876, p. 316. . 

Stenoyyra (Glessida) casiaca, Nevill, Hand List, i, 18/8, p. 1'2. 
Stenoff'i/ra {Subulina) cassiaca, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Hehc. 

Viv. 1881, p. 327. 
Bacillum cassiacum, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 190(), p. 3, 

pi. 1, figs. 5-7. 

Orifjlnal descriptioH: — "Shell elongately subulate, apex some- 
wbat papillary, whorls fourtiieu to fifteen in number. Hat, 
obliquely very closely and somewhat rudely sculptured with 
rib-like "striae, sutures impressed. Columella arched, abruptly 
truncated ; whitish, covered with a tliiu olive-brown epidermis. 
The rib-like striie of this fine species, contributed by Mr. Benson, 
have an oblique plicate growth." (Beeve.) 

Ilah. India: Naga Hills (/i'o/>e;-?s) ; Toruputu, Xaga Hills and 
Dafla Hills {Godwin- Austen) ; X. Cachar Hills {Filshrij). 

Eeeve, when describing and figuring the species, attributed it 
to the Cassia [Khasi] Hills, but Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen states 
(P. Z. S. 1872, p. 517, footnote) that he obtained itin the Xaga 
Hills, never in the Khasi. Later he again referred to it (J. A . S. B. 
xlix, 1875, p. 3) saying that he suspected Griffith's specimens were 
obtained in the Naga Hills and sent to Benson, who imagined 
they were from the Khasi Hills. 



346 



ACHATIXIDjE. 



The Beddome colleclion oontains four specimens, from the Naga 
Hills, wliich have the followiug dimensions ; — 

1°. Length 64 mm., diam. 12 mm. (14 wliorls). 

2°. „ 74*5 mm., „ 12'5 mm. (14 wliorls, apex broken). 

3*^. ,, 74 mm., ,, 13-5 mm. (15 whorls). 

Tiie first shows the remains of an epiphragm and contained a 
spherical calcareous egg 2-7 mm. in diameter; two of the shells 
are provided with a thick callus on the parietal wall, one forming 
a raised ridge. 

There are besides in the British Museum, from the Khasi Hills, 
four specimens measuring 58 x 11 mm. 

306. Bacillum muspratti, sp. n. 

Shell elongate-turrite, solid, dull, closely and irregularly striated, 
showing indistinct traces of spirals, covered with a deciduous straw- 



^w: 



\^^ 



JFig. 118. — Bacillum musj^ratii. 



coloured cuticle. Spire elongate with straight sides, suture rather 
shallow, apex obtuse. Whorls 10^, flattened, increasing slowly at 
first, then rather suddenly, the last whorl equalling about i of the 



IJACILLUM. 347 

entire length of tlie sliell. Aperture oblique, pyriforiii, peristome 
thickened, not reflexed or expanded, the niargnis united by a thick 
callus on the parietal wall ; outer margin curving forward, basal 
margin slightly arcuate, columella curved, only slightly truncate. 

Length 59, diam. 12 mm. ; apert. height 13, width (5 mm. 

Ilah. India : Naga Hills, Assam (Beddome). 

Type in the British Museum. 

Differs from B. casiacum in the smaller number of whorls, which 
increase more i-apidly, in the absence of costse, and in the apical 
portion being more acuminate. 

A single unnamed specimen in the Beddome collection I also 
refer to this species. It is in a rat^her worn state, but the later 
■vvhorls show a portion of the periostracum in fair condition. 



307. Bacillum obtusum, Blaaford. 

Achatina (Glessula) obtusa, Blanford, V. Z. S. 1869, p. 449. 
Acliatina {Bacillum) obtusa, Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, 

pi. ;3G, tig. 6. 
Achatina obtusa, Pteitler, Mon. Helic. \iv. viii, 1877, p. 290. 
Glessula obtusa, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 1877, p. 25 ; ibid., in 

Anderson, Zool. Res. Exp. W. Yunnan, i, 1879, p. 886. 
Stenogyra (Subidina) obtusa, Pfeifter & (Jlessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 327. 
BucUlum obtusum, Pilsbry, ^NFan. Couch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 1, 

pi. 1, tig. 1. 

Oriyinal description : — " Testa elongato-turrita, albido-cornea, 
cerea, solidiuscula, confertim flexuose plicato-striata, infra suturam 
plicata. Spira elongata, ad apicem subcylindracea, apice perobtuso 
papillari, sutura vix impressa subcorrugata. Anfr. 12-14, fere 
planulati, ultimus ad peripheriam subangulatus. Apertura obliqua, 
subovata ; peristoma simplex, 7-ectum. 

"Long. 48-52, diam. 10-11; ap. long. 10-11, lat. 5-5^ mill.; 
apex 3 mill, latus." (Blanford.) 

Hah. Burma : Bhamo {Anderson). 

"Very close to A. cassiaca Bens., but distinguished by finer 
sculpture, narrower and less numerous whorls, and much more 
obtuse apex." [Blanford.) 

On close examination B. obtusum looks quite distinct from 
casiacum, owing to the spire being concave near the apex ; this 
arises from the fact that^ the first and second whorls are a trifle 
wider than the third and fourth, and the apex consequently 
becomes very obtuse. The later whorls increase very slowly and 
regularly. The base is also broader proportionately than in 
B. casiaca. 

The Theobald collection contains three specimens from the type 
locality measuring 51 x 11 mm. 



348 ACHATISID.E. 

308. Eacillum orthoceras, Goclwia-Austeu. 

Glessula orthoceras, Godwin-Austeu, J. A. S. B. xliv, 1875, p. 2, 

pi. 1, fig. 4 ; op. cit. xlv, 1876, p. 310. 
Achatina orthoceras, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 159, 

Steno(/yra (Glessulti) orthoceras, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 172. 
Stenoqyra (Subulina) orthoceras, Pfeiffei" & Clessin, Xomencl. Ilelic. 

Viv! 1881, p. 327. 
Bacillnm orthoceras, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 2, 

pi. 1, tigs. 2, 3, 12. 

Original description. — " Shell very slender and elongate, pale 
grey or white, very finely and regularly ribbed throiigliout, very 
solid, apex blunt ; whorls 13-14, slightly rounded, suture well 
impressed ; aperture oblique, rounded below, outer lip sliarply 
edged and continued as a well developed callus upon the strong 
thickened coluinellar margin. 

"Length 2-32 [59 mm.], major diam. 0*4 inch [10 mm.].'' 
{^Godwin- Austen.) 

Hah. India: AV. Khasi Hills; Nongumlai ; Laudomodo (God- 
win-Austen) ; Harmutti, Datla Hills {Godivin- Austen). 

" The species can at once be distinguished fi'om G. casiaea, 
Bens., by its white colour and by the absence of the dark brown 
epidermis that covers the latter; the whorls also are much n)ore 
rounded, whereas in casiaea they are neai'ly flat.'' (Godivin- 
Austen.) 

In addition to the differentiating characters noted by Godwin- 
Austen, orthoceras has a narrower base and the costse are finer and 
more crowded, 

Var. austeni, Pilshrt/. 

Bacillnm orthoceras auste7ii (subsp.), Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, 
xviii, 1906, p. 3, pi. 1, tig. 4, 

Original description : — " Shell with the gi'ey color, deficient 
cuticle and convex wiiorls of B. orthoceras, but lunch more rapidly 
tapering, the last whorl being much wider ; striation coarser. 
Spire straightly tapering, very slender above. The early whorls 
are broken from the type specimen, 9| remaining. Length 
(broken) 53*8, diam. 12, length ot aperture 12-5 mm,"' (Pilsbri/.) 

Hah. India : Naga Hills, 

Genus CURVELLA, Chaper. 

Ilapcdus, Albers, Die ileliceen, 1850, p, 140 (section of BidimuSy 
only species B, grateloupi, Pfeifi'er) ; von 31artens, Die Ileliceen, 
ed. 2, 1800, p. 238: non Hapalus, Billberg, 1820 (Coleopteni). 

Curvella, Chaper, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, x, 1885, p. 49; Pilsbry, 
Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 46. 

Type, 0. sulcata, Chaper. 

Range. India, China, Philippine Islands, West, East, and South 
Africa. 



CURTELLA. 349 

" Coqnille regulierement conique, mince, iioii ombiliquee, recou- 
verte d'lin epidenue trcs mince, luisanr, olivatre ; de cinq a six 
tours de spire, pen globuleux. ornes de stries ou cotes d'accroisse- 
ment, columelle droite ou courbe ; ouverture a, bords trancliants : 
bord columellaire legerement etale en arriere ; bord externe forte- 
raent arque en avant dans sa partie moyenne, se recourbant 
brusquement en sens contraire vers sa base de facon que la suture 
€n soit fortement reportee en arriere." (Chaper.) 

" This genus is separated from Opeas by tbe forwardly arched 
outer lip, the shorter, wider contour, and usually smaller number 
of wliorl^. The columella is frequently sinuous. In some cases 
the separation from Opeas seems somowhat arbitrary, and the 
boundaries of the two groups in detail are still unsettled. Tlie 
species were considered Bulimi in the older classifications, but 
there is no doubt that they are Achatinoid. 

" Central tooth of the radula narrow, laterals tricuspid. Eepro- 
duction is by globular eggs, small and calcareous-shelled, as in the 
■closely related group Opeas." (Pilsbri/.) 



309. Curvella sikkimensis, lieeve. 

Bulimus sikkhnensis. Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1850, Btilimus, pi. 87, 

fio-. 651 (jnv.); Pfeift'er, Men. Helic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 436; 

ibid., Conch. -Cab., Bulimus, 1853, p. 78, pi. 21, figs. 10, 11 : 

Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, v, 1860, p. 464; Hanlev & Theobald. 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 19, tig. 7. 
Bulhina (liJuic/iis) sikkimensis, PfeifFer, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1850, 

p. 161. 
Ilupahcs sikkimeufis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 174. 
Ste?io(/i/ra {Spira.vis (Nofhus)) sikkijiiensis, Pfeifler tS: Clessin. 

Noniencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 324. 
Curvella sikkimensis, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 66. 

pi. 9, figs. 59, 00. 

Oriffinal description : — " Shell ovate, somewhat inflated, spire 
rather short, obtuse at the apex, whorls four in number, the last 
much the largest, concentrically finely striated, sutures im- 
pressed, columella slightly twisted, thinly reflected, aperture 
oblong, slightly sinuated at the upper part, pale olive, semi- 
transparent.'" (Beeve.) 

Hah. India : Darjeeling, Sikkini {Benson, Blanford, StoUczlca, 
Mainwarimj). 

" The sliell figured in ' Conchologia Iconica ' as Bulimus sikkim- 
ensis, Keeve, proves to be an extremely young specimen of a fine 
Spiraxis, of which an example with seven whorls, was obtained at 
Darjeeling by Mr. W. T. Blanford, measuring 27 mill, in lengtli 
by nearly 10 in diameter.'* (Benson.) 

Four specimens in the British Museum measure only 17 mm. 
in length, with a diameter of G-5 mm., but these are "probably 
immature. 



350 achatinim:. 

310. Curvella Wanfordi, sp. n. 

Shell elongate-conoid, rather soliti, finely and closely striated^ 
dull, greenish corneous. Spire narrow conoid, with straight 
sides ; suture shallow ; apex acute. Whorls Ti, flattened, 
increasing rapidly, the last equalling f the entire length of the 
shell. Aperture elliptic-reniform, pei'istonie thin, the margins 
united by a thin callus on the parietal wall ; outer margin nearlj'- 
vertical and straight, basal margin curved, columellar margin 
retiexed, much twisted. 

Length 27-5, diam. 10 mm. ; apert. height 11, width 4 mm. 




Fig. 119. — Curvella hlanfordi. \, 

Hah. India : Darjeeling, Siklcim ( W. T. Blanford). Type in 
the British Museum. 

A specimen in the British ■Museum, presented by the late W. 
T. Blanford in 1860, was labelled Bulimus sikkimensis, but differs 
from that species in the sinuous cohnnella, the flattened whorls^ 
and the covered umbilicus ; it is besides a largel- shell. It may 
be separated also from Curvella mun'qmrensis by the more flattened 
whorls and the more twisted columella. 



311. Curvella scrobiculatus, Blanford. 

Bulimus scrobiculatus, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 77 ; 

Pfeiffer, Moii. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 151; Hanley it Theobald^ 

Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 79, fig. 9. 
Buhmina {Hapnlus) scrohiculatu, Pfeiffer & Cle>sia, Noineiicl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 300. 
Hapalus scrobiculatus^ Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 175. 

OrUjincd description : — "Shell subobteetly perforated, turritedly 
ovate, thin, horny, yellowish white, marked with vertical, sub- 
arcuate, rather irregular, closely set, raised lines. Spire turrited, 
apex obtuse, suture simple, impressed. AVhorls 6, convex, the 



CURVELLA. 351 

last rounded beneath. Aperture verticnl, truncately ovate ; peri- 
stome simple, thin ; right margin considerably curved forwards ; 
cokimellar vertical, curving to tlie left near the base, frequently 
straight, rather broadly reliexed. 

"Length 7, diam. 3| mill., length of apert. 'A^ mill." 
(Blanford.) 

J/ah. Burma: Pegu, west of the Irawaddy (Blanford). 

" The nearest ally of this species is its congener B. putns, Bens., 
which inhabits the same localities, and differs in its gre^iter 
tumidity and less marked sculpture. ■ There is, however, nuich 
variation in the first named character, and despite the great 
difference between the two forms in general, there is some 
appearance of a passage. Two specimens of B. putus which I 
possess, measuring respectively 7 and S| millem. in length, are 
both 5 millem. in diameter. Both these shew a tendency to a 
passage to Spiraxis." {Blanford.) 

I have seen two specimens in the British Museum which 
measure 6 mm. in length with a diameter of 3'5 mm., but they 
are probably immature. 

312. Curvella pusilla, Blanford. 

Spiralis pusilla, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, LSGo, p. 78; I'feiffer, 

3lon. Ilelic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 192 ; Hauley .\: Theobald, Conch. 

Ind. 1874, pi. 79, fig. 8. 
Hapalus piisillus, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 174. 
iite.nogyra {Spiraxis {l^uspira.vis)) pusilla, Pf'eifter & Clessiu, 

Xomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 324. 
Curvella pusilla, PJlsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 190G. p. (34, 

pi. 9, fig. 48. 

Orif/inal description : — " Shell imperforate, ovate, thin, horny, 
yellowish white, costulately striated. Spire oonically pyramidal ; 
sides straight ; apex rather acute ; suture impressed. Whorls 5, 
convex ; the last longer than the spire (ratio = 4: 3) and rounded 
beneath. Apei-ture rather oblique, subpyriform ; peristome simple, 
acute, much curved forwards on the right margin ; columella 
scarcely twisted, reilexed, appressed on the whorl. 

" Length 6, diam. 3g, length of aperture 3| mill."' (Blanford.) 

Hab. Burma: Prome, Pegu (5/«H/b/-tZ). 

"I am not quite sure if all of tlie few specimens I possess of 
this peculiar small form came from Akoutoung, or whether some 
may not be from Thayet Myo. The shell resembles voung 
specimens of Buliuius imtus, Bens., so closely, that it can onlv be 
distinguished by the absence of any perforation." (Blanford.) 

313. Curvella puta, Benson. 

Bulimus putus, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xix, 1857, p. 030; 
Pfeifler, Mon. Plelic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 502 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. 
xxxiv, 1865, p. 94; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 80, 
tiff. 9. 



352 ACHATINID>B. 

Jlapulus jmtiis, Nevill, liiind List, i, 1878, p. 175. 

JBiflimiiKt {Hapalus) piita, Pfeifler & Clessiii, Nomencl. Ilelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 299. 
Buliminus (?) putiis, Kobelt, Concli.-Cab., Fam. Rulimiuidae, 1901, 
' p. 689, pi. 103, i\o: 23. 

Original description: — "Testa perforata, ovato-acuta, teniii, 
striatula, sub epideriuide tenui cornea albida ; spira conica, apice 
obtusiusculo, sutura satis irapressa ; anfractibus 6 convexis, 
ultimo dimidium testae vix superante ; apertura vertioali, semi- 
ovali majuscula : peristomate acuto, recto, margine columellari 
reflexiusculo. 

"Long. 7, diam. vix 5 mill., long, apert, vix 4, diam. 24 mill." 
{Benson.) 

Hah. Burma: Tavoy {Theobald); Akoutoung, Thyet Myo, and 
Basseiu District (Blanford). 

31-1. Curvella plicifera, Blanford. 

Btilimus plicifer, Blauford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, I860, p. 77; PfeifFer, 

Moil. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. lol ; Ilaiilev & Theobald, Conch. 

Ind. 1874, pi. 80, tig-. 8. 
Bidimina {Hapalus) plicifera, Pfeiffer k Clessiu, Nomeucl. Ilelic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 300. ., ^ 
Bidiniinus (? 11. s.) plicifer, Kobelt, Conch. -Cab., Fam. liuliminidae, 

1901, p. 688, pi. 103, iig. 22. 
Curvella j^Hcifera. Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 63, 

pi. 9, tig. 45. 

Origincd description. — " Shell obtectly perforated, ovately conical, 
rather thin, liorny, tinely striated. Spire conical, apex obtuse ; 
suture niarginate, scarcely impressed. Whorls 5, pianulately 
convex above, the last longer than the spire, somewhat tumid, 
rounded at the base. Aperture vertical, truucately oval, sub- 
pyriform ; peristome simple ; right margin curved forwards ; 
columellar callous, subvertical, slightly curved, rather broadly 
retlexed ; margins united by a callus bearing a small entering 
lamella about the centre. 

"Length 9, diam. 5.^ mill.; apert. 5 mill, high, 24 broad." 
(Blanford.) 

Hah. Burma: Thyet Myo. Pegu. (Blanford); Fvome ( 'Theobald). 

" A more tumid shell than B. ^^^dus, Bens., and easily dis- 
tino-uished from all other Indian and Burmese forms of the genus 
by the re-entering parietal plait." {Blanford.) 

' Pilsbry places it in Curvella \\'ith some doubt, stating that its 
systematic position is uncertain. 

315. Curvella muuipurensis, Godtvin-Austen. 

Bulimus {Harp(dus) munijjurenm, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1872. 

p. 516, pi. 30, fig\ 8. 
Bulimus {Hapalus) viunipurensis, Hauley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1876, pi. 148, figs. 1, 4. 



CURVELLA. 353 

BulhnuH mimipurensis, Pfeifier, Mon. Ilelic. A'iv. viii, 1877, 

p. 182. 
JIapahis mmiipurcnsis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 174. 
Bulimina (Hnpciliiti) inumpiirensis, Pfeitfer & Clessin, Nomeucl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 299. 
Cnrrel/a mnnipureufsix, Pilsbry, Mau. Concb. ser. 2, xviii, 1906, 

p. ()0, pi. 9, figs, ol, o2. 

Orir/inal description : — " 81iell rimute, elongately turreted, thin, 
covered with a pale ocbre or straw-coloured epidermis, and 
strongly and obliquely striated ; spire turreted, apex blunt ; 
whorls 7t7, convex, siitin-e strongly impressed ; a])erture oblique, 
rounded below, milky white inside; peristome acute, outer and 
upper margin arched well forward ; coluinellar margin straiglit, 
strong, and slightly twisted forward ; a thin white callus on the 
parietal margin. Animal pale orange, fainter tint above the head ; 
foot sliort ; eye-peduncles short, sw'ollen at the base, lower ten- 
tacles very short blunt projections. 

"Alt. 0-S8 inch [ = 22-25 mm.], diam. 0-30 [=7*5 mm.]; apert. 
alt. 0-35 [=9 mm.], lat. 0-17 [ = 4-25 mm.]." {Godwin- Austen.) 

Hah. India: Hengdan Peak, 7000 ft. On the Munipur 
boundary ( Godwin- Austen), 

This species is intermediate between C. silckimensis and 
C. khislana, but it has the last whorl proportionately much wider 
than the latter, nearly equalling half of the entire length of the 
shell. The shell is firmly plicate-striate and decussated. Two 
specimens in the British Museum measure 16x6-5 mm. 

316. Curvella khasiana, Godivin- Austen. 

IhiliniKs {Ilarpalus) khasianus, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1872 

p. ol6, pi. oO, fig. 7. 
Bulimus i^Hnrpaltis) khasiacus, Godwiu-Austen, .T. A. S. B. xlv 

1876, p. 317. 
Bulimus (Hapalns) 7,-/iasi(uii(s, Hanle}^ & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

If57(;, pi. 148, fig. 7. 
Bulimns khasianm, Pfeifier, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 183. 
HaiHilus k/umanvs, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 174. 
Btilimi/m (Hapalus) hhasiima, Pfeitfer c*c Clessin, NoniencI Ilelic 

Viv. 1881, p. 299. 
Curvella khasiana, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p 6o 

pi. 9, figs. 53-55, 58. ' ' f , 

Orif/inal description: — "Shell subperforate, ovatelv turreted or 
acutely ovate, thin, diaphanous, fresh specimens often glossy, 
becoming dull white or pale straw-colour with age; rainutelv 
striated under lens ; spire conical, apex blunt, suture moderate"; 
whorls 6-7, slightly convex, the body-whorl large and tinnid : 
apertiu-e vertical, semi-oval ; peristome simple, sharp, rounded 
and arched considerably forward at the upper angle ; the columella 
is curved forward from behind, and the margin slightly reflected. 

"Alt. 0-59 inch [ = 14-75 mm.], diam. 0-28 [ = 7 mm.], apert. 
diam. 0-16 i =4 mm.], alt. 0-29 [=7"25 mm.]. Large sp. 

2a 



354 ACHATINID,!). 

"Alt. 0-41 inch [ = 10*5 mm.], diam. 0-20 [ = 5 mm.], apert. 
diam. 0-12 [ = 3 mm.], alt. 0-23 [ = 6 mm.]. 

" Animal with a short foot, pointed behind, pale yellow tint ; 
eye-tentacles dark to the base, lower very short." {Godwin- 
Austen.) 

Hah, India: Khasi, Jaintia, and jSTaga HWla {Godwin- Austen):, 
Dikrang Valley, Dafla Hills, 2500 ft. {Godwin- Austen) ; Naga 
Hills {lioberts) ; Darjeeling, Sikkim {Stoliczka). 

" It aj)pears to be very close to Bid. ^>»<i(S, Bens., from Tavoy. 
Specimens differ very much in size from different collections. 
The shell is very finelv developed in the high parts of the North 
Cachar Hills at 600(3-7000 feet (fig. 7). At Cherra Poonjee it 
assumes a more tumid form (fig. 7 a), and it is very frequently 
dwarfed to the length of only 0-36 inch [ = 9 mm.], especially in 
its lower habitats; but these variations are not of sufficient 
specific importance." {Godivin- Austen.) 

Jousseaume expressed the opinion* that C. khasianus and 
C. munipurensis are identical in form. A glance at the figures 
will convince anyone that this suggestion is not borne out by 
facts. 

The British Museum possesses four specimens from the Khasi 
Hills, measuring 12x5-5 mm. 



Genus OPEAS, Alhers. 

Opeas, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 175 (as subgenus oi Bvlinnts), 
first species Bulimus sitbula, Pfeifter : Martens, Die lleliceen, 
ed. 2, 18G0, p. 265 (as subgenus of Stenogyra), type Helix 
goodalii, Miller : Crosse & Fischer, Miss. Scient. Mexique, Moll. 
i, 1877, p. 592 ;'Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 122. 

Type, Bidimus stwida, Pfeiffer. 

Range. Throughout tropical and subtropical regions, except 
Australia. 

" Shell small, thin, turrite, usually perforate, with large, obtuse, 
rounded apex and convex or flattened whorls, corneous or 
yellox^'ish. Embryonic whorls smooth. Aperture small, ovate, 
the outer lip thin, usually arched forward, columella straight or 
concave, not sinuous, the columellar lip reflexed, curving into the 
basal lip and not toothed or truncate below. Oviparous, the 
egg-capsules large and spheroidal. 

" Opens contains small, thin, ovi])arous stenogyriiie snails w ith 
the apex large, obtuse, rounded and smooth, and the columellar 
margin reflexed, rounded below, or at least not distinctly truncate. 
The species are spread throughout tropical and subtropical 
reo-ions, but as yet none is known from Australia. A few species 
colonize freely, and have spread wherever commerce reaches in 
suitable climates. Others, restricted to special stations not to be 

* Bull. Soc. Zool. France, x, 1885, p. xxii. 



OPE AS. 355 

found in cultivated areas, are as local as most other laud snails. 
Owing to the similarity of the shells, their determination is 
difficult, and demands the greatest application. 

" Opeas stands very close to the groups Prosojieas and Curv-cUa. 
The former diifers by merely such minor features as the rougher, 
often minutely lameilose sculpture, the greater size and flatter 
whorls, but these give the shell a rather different aspect. CurveUa 
in its typical form diifers by the short and Bulimoid shape ; but 
some of tlie species are arbitrarily referred to one or the other 
genus. The distinction between Opeas and Gtirvella is by no 
means convincing ; yet even small differences have significance 
which may usefully be recognized in dealing with large groups of 
similar species. 

" Opeas and Sahulina begin to reproduce before the shell 
has attained its full size, usually when it is about two-thirds 
growu. 

" In many species two forms co-exist in the same colony, 
a more slender and a stouter ; all other features remaining the 
same. Intermediate contoni's usually occur if a large gathering 
is at hand. This dimorphism must be kept in mind, especially 
when dealing \\ith small sets. 

"Excepting a few forms spread by commerce or other means, 
the Old and New World species are distinct. Most of the 
Eastern forms belong to typical Opeas. 

" Several species in each hemisphere have been enabled, b} 
their hardiness and adaptability to life in cultivated areas, to 
colonize over a large part of the tropical and subtropical zones. 
There cannot be much doubt that the carriage of living plants 
from place to place has been a chief factor in the dispersal of 
Opeas .... and other snails as well. The habits of these forms 
are such that they find practically the same environment anywhere 
in zones of similar temperature, and their spread from new 
centres is often very rapid. Opeas r/racile is probably the most 
widely distributed land siuiil in the world." (Pihbr)/.) 

I have quoted at some length from the admirable account of 
this difficult genus by Professor Pilsbry, which sets forth all the 
known facts in an extremely lucid fashion. His observations 
witli regard to dimorphism — to which he is, I believe, the first to 
draw attention — are particnlarly valuable, and should be borne in 
mind by every couchologist when about to describe supposed new- 
species. 

317. Opeas gracile, Hutton. 

Xi). 5, BulimiisV, Hutton, .1. A. S. B. iii, 1834, p. 84; No. o, 
Biilimn^'i (mihi) (jracilis'r, ibid., torn. cit. p. 93; Pfeiffer, Moii. 
Ilelic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 157 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Buli- 
mns, pi. 69, tig. 49o; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 94 ; 
Pfeiffer, Conch.-Cab., BuUntuK, 1853, p. 79, pi. 21, figs. 18, 19; 
Ilanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1 870. pi, 23, fig. 4 ; Godwin- 
Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 317. 

2.v2 



350 ACHATIXID.1-. 

Bulimm yOpeas) gmcilis, Pfeiffer, Malalc. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. lo6. _ 
Steno(/i/ra [Opea's) (jracilis, vou Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. '2, 1860, 

p. ^o ; Nevill, J. A. vS. \^. xlvi, 1877, p. 25 ; ibid., Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 164 ; ibid., Zool. Re,?. Exp. AV. Yunnan, i, 1879, p. 885 ; 

Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 321. 
Spiraxis f/mcilis, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 362. 
Stenogyr'a (jracilk, von Marteus, Preuss. Exp. Ost-Asien, Zool. 

Theil, ii, 1867, p. 375, pi. 19, tig. 5, pi. 22, tig-. 13 ; Westerlund, 

Vega Exp. Vetensk. Jakt. iv. 1887, p. 187 ; Peile, Jouru. 

Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. xi, 1908, p. 131. 
Opeds f/racil/'s, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 146 ; Godwin- 

Austeu, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 443 ; Collett, J. A. S. Ceylon, xv, 1898, 

p. 17 ; Smith, Fauna and Geogr. Maldive Sc Laccadive Arch, i, 

part 2, 1902, p. 141. 
Opeas r/racile, MoUendorrt', P. Z. S. 1894, p. 151 : I'ilsbry, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 125, pi. 18, tigs. 3-6. 
Bulimm indicus, Pfeitier, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 40; ibid., Mou. Ilelic. 

Viv. ii, 1848, p. 157. 
Opeas iudicHs, Dautzenberg & Fischer, Journ. Conchyl. liii, 1905, 

p. 102. 
02}eas apex, Mousson, var. nicobarica, Mlireh, Journ. Conchvl. 1872, 

p. 313. 

Original descrijHioa : — " Shell transparent, thin and pale 
coloured or rather colourless ; spire gradually tapering ; whorls 
12, body-whorl equal to the two preceding ones ; length 6i lines*. 
Aperture longer than broad, semi-ovate ; pillar-lip straight and 
slightly reflected ; right lip edged." {Hutton.) 

Hah. India: Mirzapore (iTu^on) ; Calcutta, Kajinehal, Chandipal, 
Patna {NeviU, Maimuaring) ; Erode, Poona, Bombay (Bla7ifon/, 
Fairhcml-); Bombav Island {Peile); Assam (Stoliczl-a) ; Khasi 
Hills {Adams); Dafla Hills {God win- Austen); Madras {Blanford); 
Kashmir {llieohald) ; Naini Tal, Salt Eange, Koorkee {StoUczla). 
Burma : Zwagabin, Arakan, Rangoon, Moulmain (Stolic:l-a, 
Theobald) ; Tsagain, Bhamo (Anderson) ; -i\ a, Pegu, Arakan, 
Moulmain {Blanford). Ceylon : Point de Galle {Martens, Vega 
Exyed.) ; Ambagamuwa (Collett). Andaman Group (StoUezha, 
Nevill) ; Port Blair (Godwin- Austen). Nicobar Group : Teressa 
(Godivin-Aiisten); JN'ancoury (Mdrcli). Laccadive Islands (Stanleg 
Gardiner). Samui Islands (Mdllendorff). 

In addition to the foregoing localities within the Indian region, 
the species has been recorded from China, Formosa, and Japan, 
the Malay Archipelago, the Mascarenes, and Polynesia. The 
bibliography liere quoted is limited to its bearing on the Indian 
Fauna, and' I have omitted all references to iti^ occurrence outside 
the Indian region. Tlie bibliography, including varieties, contained 
in the Manual of Conchology, comprises upwards of two whole 
pages. Pilsbrv includes 0. subida, Pfeiffer, under its synonymy, 
but the identity of the two forms I do not consider has been 
established, and 1 jirefer to confine the designation of 0. gracile 

* I have only one of this length, the generality being about 5 lines. It has 
also 12 whorls, vrhile the others have about 9 or 10. 



OPE AS. 357 

to tlie Old World form, retaining 0. suhnla for the American 
shells. 

The British Museum possesses specimens receiv'ed from Button 
who collected them at Mirza])ore; these measure 13-5 x 3'5 mm. 
My own collection contains specimens composed of nine whorls 
and measuring 13 mm. in length. One of these contained four 
spherical calcareous eggs 0-75 in diameter. Major Peile has 
collected the species at Eassein and Bombay Island, some of the 
latter having the periostracum in a beautiful fresh state, a rather 
rare occurrence. 



Yar. panayensis, Pfeiffa-. 

BuUmiis paudi/oisis, Pfeifter, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 3."> ; ibid., Mon. 
Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 1.50. 

S'fenof/i/ra panayensiti, von Martens, Preuss. Exp. Ost-Asien. Zool. 
Th'eil, ii, 1867, pp. 83, 376, pi. 22, fis-. 8; Tapparone Canefri, 
Ann. Mils. Civ. Genova, xix, 1883, p. 87 ; ib., xx, 1884, p. 144 ; 
Semper, Reisen Arch. Philipp. -2^^ Teil, iii, 188r,, p. 137, pi. 8, 
fig. 15 (shell), pi. 11, tig-. 17 (anat.), fig-. 21 (dentition) : Wester- 
lund, Vega Exped. Vetensk. Jakt. iv, 1887, p. 187: Hidalgo^ 
Jouru. Conclivl. xxxvi, 1888, p. 34 ; Fischer & Dautzenberg, 
Mission Pavie" iii, 1904, p. 411. 

Stenof/yra (Opea.s) jxnica/ensis, Pfeiffer i^t Clessin, Xomencl. Helic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 321 ; von Martens in Max AVeber, Zool. Ergebn. 
Reise Niederl. Ost-Indien, ii, 1891, p. 243. 

Opens (/racile, var. panayensis, Pilsbiv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 
1906, p. 131, pi. 18, figs. 1, 2. 

Original descnpHon : — " Bui. testa imperforatn, subulata, tenui, 
laevigata, pehucida, cereo-hyaliua; spira elongata, apice obtuso ; 
anfractibus 8, latis, vix convexiusculis, ultimo | longitudinis vix 
wquante, columella brevi, strictiuscula ; apertura ovali-oblonga, 
basi subangulata ; peristomate simplice, recto, margine columellari 
breviter redexo. appresso. 

" Long. 11, diam. 2| mill." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. Ceylon : Point de Galle ( Westerland). 

Said to have a general distribution from Indo-China to the 
Moluccas and Aru Islands. Collected in Ceylon by the Vega 
Expedition. 



A'ar. cereus, Reeve. 

Bulinius cereus, Peeve, Conch. Icon, v, Bultmus, 1849, .=:p. oOl, 

Achat ina, pi. 17, fig. 81. 
Bulimus (/racilis, var. 'r' cereiis, Pfeiffer, Alon. Iltjlic. \\\ . 1853, 

p. 399. ■ 
Stexoip/ra (Opens) gracilis, var. cereus, Pfeifter Jt Clessiii, Xomencl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 321. 
Opens gracile, var. cereus, Pilsbrv, Man. Concli. ser. 2, xviii, 1906, 

pp. 127, 128, pi. 18, lig. 7. 

Original description : — " Shell subulate, umbilicated, thin, whorls 



358 ACIIATIXID^. 

ten in number, convex, arcuately couceutrically striated, columella 
reflected, aperture small, lip simple; transparent straw-colour. 

"Whorls appear more convex than in B. (/racilis." (Reeve.) 

Hah. India : Moradabad. 

31S. Opeas prestoni, Syl-es. 

Oj)eas presto?!), Sykes, Proc. INIaluc. Soc. London, ill, 1898, p. 73 

pi. 5, %. 4. 
Opeas viauritianxvi, var. prestoni, Pilsbrv, Man. Couch, ser. '2, 

xviii, 1906, p. 134, pi. 17, figs. 98-100. 

Origimd description : — " T. subperforata, elongato-cyliudrica, 
ti'auslucida, tenuis, cornea vel cereo-cornea, apice obtusiusculo ; 
anfr. 8|, plano-convexi, longitudinaliter lineis incrementibus 
striati, ultinuis ^V longitudinis subsequans, sutura bene impressa, 
apertura elongato-ovata ; peristoma simplex, acutum, margine 
columellari ad basim breviter retiexo, perforationem fere tegente. 

" Alt. 11, diam. 3-25 mm. , alt. ap. 3, lat, ap. 1-S mm." [Si/Jces.) 

Hah. Ceylon: Uda Pussellawa (Fres'^oji). 

" The apex is uuich more obtuse and the earlier wborls are 
broader than 0. gracilis, and the shell generally is more cylindrical 
and not so needle-shaped ; it appears to be variable in colour. 
[ have given the dimeusions of an average specimen ; one found 
by Mr. Preston measures alt. 14, diam. 4 mm.'' (Sgl-es.) 

310. Opeas innocens, Preston. 

Opens innocens, Preston, Ilec. Indian Mus. v, 1910, p. 33, fig. 2. 

Original (hscripytion : — " Shell bluntly subulate, ^^■hitish, thin ; 
M'horls 8, flat, rather sharpl}' shouldered above and below, trans- 
versely striate with lines of growth ; sutures deeply impressed : 
columella descending in a slight curve, extending above into a 
thick, parietal callus which joins the margin of the lip above ; 
labrum acute, simple, aperture elongatelj' ovate. 

"Altitude 5*5, diam. major 1*25, apert. alt. '75, diam. •25 mm."' 
(Preston.) 

Hcd). Burma : Khayon Cave, near Moulmain (Annandale). 

Appears to be closely related to, if not identical with, 0. graciJe. 

320. Opeas latebricola, Beeve. 

Bulimus latebricola (Benson), Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, £?//t- 
mux, pi. 80, fig. o7-2: Pfeitler, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 401 : 
ibid., Concli.-Cab., Btdi)itus, 1853, p. 74, pi. 20, figs. 5,6; Ilanlev 
>S: Theobald, Conch, hid. 1874, pi. 79, fig. 7. 

Bvlinms (Opeas) latebricola, Pfeifier, jMalak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 156. 

Steno(/yra I?) latebricola, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 174. 

BuUndua (Hapalus') latebricola, Pfeifier & Cle.<^sin, Nomeucl. Ilelic. 
Viv. 1881, p. 299. 

Opeas latebricola, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2. xviii, 1906, p. 162, 
pi. 19, figs. 20, 23. 



OPEA.S. 359 

Original description : — " Shell acuminately oblong, compressly 
umbilicated, whorls six in number, somewhat rounded, smooth, or 
concentriealh' sti-iated; transparent straw-colour, polished. A 
very delicately coloured, transparent species." [Reeve.) 

Hab. India : Landour, Western Himalayas {Benson) ^ Dai'jeeliug 
{Blanford, StoliczJca, Mainwaring) ; ivhasi and Dafla Hills {Godivin- 
Austen). 

The above cursory description is supplemented by Pfeiffer as 
follows : — 

" T, subperforata, turrito-oblonga, tenuicula, striatula, vix 
nitidiila, diaphana, albido-straminea ; spira turrita, apice obtusius- 
cula ; anfr. 6-6| vix convexi, ultimus ^ longitudinis paulo superans, 
basi rotundatus ; columella substricta, verticalis, oblouga ; perist. 
simplex, rectum, margiuibus subparallelis, columellari anguste 
reflexo. 

"Long. 7g, diam. 3 mill. Ap. 2| mill, longa, 1| lata." 
{Pfeiffer.) 

The British Museum possesses five specimens from Landour, 
received from the Indian Museum, which are smooth and polished, 
and very finely striated, while the columella has a slight, revolving 
plait, to which neither Reeve nor Pfeiffer makes any reference. 
These specimens only measure 5*5 mm. in length, whereas the 
shell figured by Eeeve has an indicated length of 7 mm. Prof. 
Pilsbry considers the species related to 0. layardi, but the latter 
has the outer margin of the peristome inflected, a feature lacking 
in 0. Jatebricola. 



321. Opeas mariae, Jousseaume, 

Opens iiiarice, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 
p. 290, pi. 4. fig. 9 ; Pilsbrv, Mao. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, 
p. 159, pi. 4,' fig-. 9. 

Original descri^ytion : — " Testa subperforata, elongato-turrita, 
solidula, opaca, arcuatim striata, alba, epiteste flavido-alba, vix 
niteus, spira elongata, apice obtusa, sutura immersa, crenulata ; 
anfr. 8, convexiusculi, ultimus A longitudinem sequans ; apertura 
oblongo-ovalis, superne oblique truncata; perist. simplex acutura ; 
margiue dextro superne depresso, fere recto, columellari ad 
suturam late dilatato-reflexo, perforationis partem formante. 

"Long. 9 mill. ; diam. 2 mill." {Jousseaume.) 

Hah. Ceylon : Kandy {Simon). 

Mr. Sykes suggests (Proc. Malac. 8oc. London, iii, 1898, p. 73) 
that it is "suspiciously near" to 0. graciJe, but Jousseaume's 
figures do not bear out this contention, as the whorls are much 
more flattened and proportionately higher, while the outer lip of 
the peristome is considerably more straightened. 



360 ACHATINIU,^. 

822. Opeas nevilli, Godwin-Austen. 

Opeas nevilli, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 315, pi. 8, 

fig. 12. 
Sfenogyra {Oj}eas) nemllt, " G. Ad.' , Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p 165. 

Original description : — '■'■ ^heW turretecl, very elongate, pale, 
silky with a green tinge, older specimens of a pale straw- colour, 
covered with a thin epidermis, beautifully striate under lens. 
Whorls 11-12, moderately rounded and very gradually diminishing 
in size to the apex, Mliieh is blunt ; suture impressed ; aperture 
angular above, outer lip thin. 

"Alt. 0-55" [ = 14 mm.], major diam. OlO" [ = 2-5 mm.]. 
Largest specimen 0-90" [ = 23 mm.]." {Godwin- Austen.) 

Hah. India: Dafla Hills, Assam ((?ocZ«'in-^«,s<eu). 

"■ Tliis very delicate elongate shell was common on Toruputu 
Peak, but far finer specimens, equal in size to the figure, were 
obtained on the banks of the Pichola Nulla out in the plains. 
I am not satisfied with this fi.gure ; the whorls being i-ather too 
fiat and the apex too sharp." (Godtvin- Austen.) 

Prof. Pilsbry (Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 157) states, 
'• Nevill in his Hand List Ind. Mus. i, p. 165, lists Stenogyra 
(Opeas) nevilli, G. Ad., from the Dafla Hills. It is undescribed 
and unknown to me." The " Gr. Ad." in Nevill's Hand List is 
evidently a printer's error for '* G.-A." and this probably put 
Pilsbry off the track. 

323. Opeas layardi, Benson. 

SjnrcLvis layardi, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 90 ; Pfeiffer, 

Mou. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 190 ; Haulev & Theobald. Couch. 

Ind. 1874, pi. 79, figs, 2, 3. 
Steno(/yru (■f) lai/ardi, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 174. 
Stenoffijra (Spira.tifi (Euspiraxiti)) hn/ardi, Pt'aifter & Clessiu, 

Nomencl. HeHc. Viv. 1881, p. 323. 
Euspiraxis layardi, .Jousseauuie, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 291. 
Opeag lai/ardi, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 158, pi. 4, 

figs. 1!), 20; pi. 16; figs. S2, 83. 
Opeas {Toniopeas) lai/ardi, Pilsbry, 1. c. p. 123. 

Original description : — " S. testa imperforate, elongato-turrita, 
tenui, arcuato-striatula, albida, epidermide tenui polita cornea 
induta ; spii'a elongata, apice obtuso, sutura ])rofui]diuscula, nou- 
nunquam eroso-dentata ; anfractibus Tg, convexis, ultimo pone 
columellam impresso ; apertnra oblonga, elongato-ovata, superne 
angustata ; peristomate tenui, acnto ; labro arciiato, mai'gine 
columellai'i iucrassato, modice torto. 

"Long. 12^, diam. 4 mill.; ap. long. 4, diam. vix 2 mill." 
(Benson.) 

Bah. Cevlon : Moopana, BaduUa, Kandookare(irtyfnYZ); Caltura 
(Nevill). 



OPEAS. 361 

The species is referred to Oiieas: by Pilsbry witli some doubt, 
who considers that " tlie subtruncate, calloused columella recalls 
Torta.vis, yet the delicacy of the shell, its small apex, and the 
oviparous reproduction, are characters of Opens. It is probably 
related to 0. avenacea, Morel., javanicum, K-ve., etc., which have 
the coluuiella similarly truncate."' 

I have only seen one specimen, which is in the British Museum. 
It is I'l-om Kaiidy and measures: length l(r5 nun., diani. 
4-25 mm. 

324. Opeas sykesi, PUshnj. 

Ojnas si/kcsi, Pilsbrv, MiUi. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1900, p. l-')7. pi. 2\, 
tigs, i, 2. 

Oru/iiud description: — "Shell perforate, resembling 0. (/mcile 
in sculpture, but with the whorls much shorter, more compactly 
coiled, more mimerous in shells of the same length. Spire 
straightly and regularly tapering to the small apex. Wliorls 
87 to 10, the endjryonic U smooth except for a minute subsutural 
radial striation, which becoming stronger on tlie post-embryonic 
whorls, produce a fine, irregularly developed creuulaliou of the 
suture, the latter becoming smooth again lower down. Later 
whorls somewhat flattened. Suture well impressed. Aperture 
vertical, mucJb shorter than in O.cjracile; outer lip weakly arcuate, 
a little arched forward ; basal margin well arched ; columella 
rather straightened, the edge reflexed. 

" Length 11 , diam. 34, aperture 29 mm. ; ^^ hods 8|. 

" Length 12*9, diam. 3-5, aperture 3*1 ; whorls 10." (PiJsbrif.) 

Ilah. Ceylon. 

" This form is readily selected from among 0. (p-acile by its 
short w-horls and small, wider mouth, with a deep bay where the 
columella joins the parietal wall. I do not see, in the great 
number of 0. r/rucile before me, anv approach to this form." 
{Filshnj.) 



325. Opeas ? pusillus, //. Adams. 

BuUmulus (^Ena) piixilliis, II. Adams, P. Z. S. 1867, p. '307, pi. 19, 

- ^- ^^- . . . 

Sfenofiyra pusillus, Nevill, Enum. Helic. Ceylon, 1871, p. o. 

Buliums {Bulinmlus) pusillus, Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. viii. 1877, 

p. ISO. 
BuUmulus {Leptomerus) pusillus, Pfeiffer & Clessin, N(Miiencl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 234. 
Ena pusilla, Jousseaunie, !Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii. 1894. 

p. 297. 

Original description: — '" 13. testa sinistrorsa, rimato-perforata, 
cyliudfico-lurrita, tenui, iuicqualiter striata, vix nitidula. olivaceo- 
fusca ; spira elongata, sursum parum attenua^a, a])ice obtusiuscula, 
sutura distiucta ; anfr. 7, convexiusculis, ultimo g longitudiuis vix 



;J62 ACHATINIU.I^. 

jBquaute, basi rotundato ; apertura verticali, semiovali ; perist. 
recto, margine columellari subverticali, superne dilatato, patente, 

" Long. 5, diam. 2 mill." {H. Adams.) 

Hah. Ceylon ; Matelle {F. La<jard). 



Fig. 120. — Opeai^? ■pusiUus. (Enlarged.) 
(From P. Z. S.) 

" Peculiar from being, at least so far as I know, the only sinistral 
land-shell that has yet been met with in the island." (//. Adams.) 

Eeferred witli some doubt to Opeas ; it certainly has nothing to 
do witii Ena. It may possibly be a monstrosity. I give a copy 
of Adams's figure. 

Genus PEOSOPEAS, Mdrch. 

Proso2)eas, Morch, Jouru. Concliyl. 1876, p. 358, as section oi Bulimus 
for B. roepstorji, Morcli, and li. achates, Morch (no description) ; 
Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 14. 

Type, Bulimus roepstorffi, Morch. 

Rancje. Farther India, including Malay Peninsula, Andaman 
and Xicobar Islands, China, Malay Archipelago, Philippine 
Islands. 

" Shell Stenogyi'oid, of moderate or large size, imperforate or 
nearly so, with rather small, semiglobose apex, the first two whorls 
typically smooth (but i-ibbed in the s. g. Faropeas), later whorls 
verj^ densdy sculptured ivith fine oblique strice ivhich are arched 
funuard above and retracted to the suture. Aperture ovate ; colu- 
mella straight or concave, continuous with the basal margin below, 
slightly or not folded above, with a reflexed, aduate margin. 
Axis slender, straight or nearly so. Reproduction by globular, 
calcareous-shelled eggs, as in Opeas. 

326. Prosopeas hebes, Blanford. 

>Sjjira.(is Jie/ws, JHanford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 361, pi. 1, 

fig. 15 ; Pfeitier, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. I'JO ; Ilanley & 

Theobald, Conch. lud. 1874, pi. 79, fig. 10. 
Steno(/yra (Opeas) hebes, Nevill, Fland List, i, 1878, p. 166. 
Stenoyi/ra (Spiralis {Fusjnra.ris}) Jiebes, Pfeifter & Clessin,Nomencl. 

IleHc. Viv. 1881, p. 323. 
Prosopeas 7iebes, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, s^er. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 32, 

pi. 12, %. 6. 

Orlyiaal description : — "Testa i mperforata, turrita, cornea, rugoso- 



PROJSOPEAS. • 3Go 

striata; spira subulata, apice perobtusa, sutura all)ido-iiiarginata. 
Anfr. 7 paruiu convexi, ultimus ^ longiludiiiis sukequaus, bas^i 
rotiiiidatus. Columella paruiii callos>a, vix subtorta, brevis. Aper- 
tiira fei-e verticalis, elougato ovalis ; peristoma simplex, rectum, 
margine dextro superne arcuato. 

"Long. 15, diam. 4 mm.; ap. 4] alta, l-* lata." (Blanford.) 

Hab. India : Nilgiris. 

"The above are the dimensions of the largest specimen found. 
It is, however, possible tiiat this shell may attain a greater size. 
The sole Indian species to which it appears to be related is 
Sp. {Bid.) gracilis, llutt., from which, however, it niay be easily 
distinguished by its very obtuse apex, less numerous whorls, etc." 
{Blanford.) 

327. Prosopeas terebrale, TheoJxdd. 

Stenoqyra [Opcas) terchridit<, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1871, 
p. -iul ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 106 ; Pfeiffev k Clessin. 
Nouiencl. Ilelic. Viv. 1881, p. li'Il. 

Bulinmti {Stenoc/yra) terehralis, Pfeiffer, Men. Ilelic. ^'iv. viii, 1877, 
p. loo. 

Prosopem terehrale, I'ilsbry, Man. Couch, .ser. 2, xviii, 190t), p. 31. 

Original deitcription : — " Testa elongala, imperforata, tenui, 
<;ornea, uon polita, anfractibus lOj, depresse convexis, sutura 
impressa junctis, confertim striatis ; ultimo tertiam longitudinis 
vix nequante, epidermide scabra ; perist. acuto, margine columel- 
la.ri bi'evissime retiexo, leviter toito. 

"Long, testje -95 [ = 24 mm.] ; lat. max. '17 [=4-5 mm.), alt. 
aperturse '22 unc." [ = 5*75 ram."|. (Theobald.) 

Hah. Burma : Shan States (Fedden). 

■328. Prosopeas walkeri, Benson. 

Spira.vis walkeri, Beuson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, xi, 1863, p. 90; 
Pt'eitler, Moii. neUc. Yiv. vi, 1868, p. 189; Ilanlev vfc Theobald, 
Concli. Ind. 1874, pi. 79, iig. 4. 

Opeas walkeri, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1871, p. 39.') ; Godwin- 
Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 443 ; Blanford, Proc. Malac. tJoc. Loudon, 
V, 1903, p. 280. 

Ste)iu(jyra [Opeus) walkeri, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 165. 

Stcnoffyra {Spiralis {Jiufpiraxis)) u-(dkeri, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, 
Xo'meucl. Ilelic. Viv. 1881, p. 323. 

Prosopeas walkeri, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 190(), p. 29, 
pi. 0, tig. 70. 

Original description : — " !S. testa, imperforata, cylindraceo-turrita, 
arcuato-striatissima, sub epidermide albida, spira gracili, apice 
obtuso, sutura ])rofundiuscula ; anfractibus 9, convexiusculis ; 
apertura obliqua, elliptica ; margine dextro tenui, acute, superne 
■arcuato, columellari calloso, subito revoluto. 

*'Long. 14, diam. 3| mill." (Benson.) 



364 ACIIATINID.E. 

Hah. Aiidainan Islands: Port Blair {Haiujhton) ; Cocos Island, 
Andaman Island (Stoliczl-a). Burma: 8han States (Fedden). 
Siam : Lampun {Daly). 

Some specimens from Port Blair, presented by E. MacAndrew 
to the British Museum, are smaller than the type, for, although 
possessing nine whorls, they measure only 12x3 mm. 

329. Prosopeas pealei, Tryon. 

Opens {Bulimus) pealei, Tryon, Anier. Jouru. Coucli. v, 1S69, p. 110, 

pi. 10, tig. 5. ■ _ 
Bulinms pealet, Pieifter, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. li'8. 
Stenoyyra (Spiraxis {Euspiraxis)) pealei. Pfeifl'er & Clessin, Nomencl. 

Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 323. 
Prosojieas pealei, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 190(\ p. 29, 

pi. G, figs. 80, 81. 

Origiual descrijjtion : — "Shell turreted elongate, slender, rather 
solid; whorls eight, flatly convex, suture slight; apex papillary; 
aperture ovate, small ; lip simple ; columella perpendicular, form- 
ing an angle with the lip at the base. Light greenish horn-color, 
white within. 

"Length 35, diam. 9 mill." (Tryon.) 

Hab. Andaman Islands. 

•' Resembles Bidimus elongatidus, Pfr,, but may be distinguished 
from it by the whoiLs being less convex and the columella straight 
instead of incurved.'' (Tryon.) 

The type-specimen is ligured by Pilsbry, who states that it 
differs from P. haughioni, Bens., to which it has been referred as 
a synonym, by the nou-sinuous columella, which does not form 
an angle with the parietal wall, by the narrower mouth, more 
numerous whorls and slenderer shape. He further compares it 
with tlie var. oxynter of Benson, which, while nearly as slender 
as pealei, differs by having the columella at an angle with the 
I)arietal wall. 

330. Prosopeas haughtoni, Benson. 

Spiralis iiauqJitoni, ]3enson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3. xi, 1803, p. 90; 

Pfeiffor, Men. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 189 ; Ilanlev & Theobald, 

Conch. lud. 1870, pi. 19, tig. 1. 
Sfenof/ijra (rrosopeas) han(//)tu7ii, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 173 ; 

Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 189."), p. 443. 
Stenoyi/ra {Spiraxis {Euspiraxis)) hamihioni, Pfeiffer & Clessin, 

Nomencl. IleHc. Viv. 1881, p. 323. 
Prosopeas haiu/htoni, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 28, 

pi. 6, figs. 76, 78, 79. 

Original descrijjtion : — " S. testa imperforata, oblongo-conica, 
subturrita, solida, striata, versus suturam et apicem costulato- 
striaUi, albida, epidermide olivacea minutissime corrugata induta; 
spira elongato-conica, versus apicem obtusiusculum subito at- 
tenuata, sutiira impressa ; anfractibus 7, vix convexiuscnlis, sub- 



puosoPEAS. 365 

plauulatus, ultimo ad peripheriam subangulato ; apertura vix 
obliqua, ovato-elliptica, iutus cceruleo-albida, luargiiie dextro tenui, 
acuto, coluuiellari calloso, ])lanato, expaiisiufscido, versus basin 
leviter emarginato, mai-ti;inibus callo tenui expanse junctis. 

"Long. 20-30, diani. 10-11 mill.; ap. long, li, lat. 5 mill." 
{Benson.) 

Hah. Andaman Islands : Port Blair {] ftmgliton) ; Andaman 
Island (tStoliczl'a, lloepstorff., Xevill). 

"Two typical examples of this species before me measure: 
length 27, diam. 10"7, length ot: aperture 10"o mm., and 28, 11, 
lO'T mm., botli liaving a trifle over seven whorls. Tbey are solid, 
strong shells, nearly denuded of the thin, olivaceous-yellow cuticle. 
The columella is distinctly sigmoid, and the ])arietal callus arising 
from it is whollv appressed at the edge, not raised seam-like as in 
P.pealei:' {Filshry.) 

Var. oxynter, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xi, 1S63, p. 90 ; 
Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1874, pi. 79, fig. 5 (var. un- 
named) ; Pilsbiy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906, p. 28, pi. G, 
figs. 77, 82-84. 

" Testa elongato-turrita, graciliore. Long. 30, diam. 8 mill. 
There is a tendency in the stouter form to \'erge towards the 
variety which I have called oxynter, although tlie extreme speci- 
mens might be considered as separate species." (Benson.) 

Hah. Andaman Islands : Port Blair (Haur/Jdon). 

Two specimens referable to this form are figured by Pilsbry. 
He states that " the cuticle is dark olive. They diiffer from 
F. peaJei chiefly in the shape and direction of the columellar 
margin, which is less sinuous than in F. liauyhtoni. Length 34, 
<liam. 10, length of aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 8.^." 

331. Prosopeas achates, March. 

Bulimus (Frosoj)eas) ac/ia/cs, Moich. .Tourn. Conchyl. 1875, p. 359. 
IStenofiyra {Froso^ycas) achates, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 173. 
Stenoqyra (Opens) acliates, Pieitler & Clessin, Xomeiicl. Helic. Viv 

188i, p. 320. 
Prosopeas achates, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. '2, xviii, 1906, p. 27, 

pi. 12, figs. 4, 5. 

Oriylnal description :■ — "Differt a pra^eedente [B. (Fr.) roepstorji] 
testa minore, abbreviata, obtecte perforata. 

" Long. 14 mill. ; lat. 5 ; long. ap. circ. 6." (MorcJi.) 

Hah. Nicobar Islands {Stoliczha) ; Ivamorta, Kancouri {Koep- 
•storff) ; Kamorta, Katchal, var. /3 {Roepstorff) ; Nancouri, var. y 
{Boepstorff). 

Morch quotes Stenoyyra achatinacea, Pfeifl'er, as a synonvm, 
without, as Prof. Pilsbry aptly says, explanation of so irregular a 
•course. The latter figures a Xicobar shell which he considers to 
'be referable to Morch's form, " It is rather obese below, sub- 



306 ACHATINID.E. 

regularly tapering to the obtuse, smooth apex, sculptured with- 
narrow, spaced, thread-like riblets which curve forwards above the 
periphery and are much weaker below it. Whorls slightly more 
than seven, moderately convex. The aperture is long, the outer 
lip arched forward above, and the columella reflexed narrowly,, 
leaving a narrow umbilical fissure. Length 13-3, diam. 4-5, length 
of aperture o'O mm. 

" This form seems to differ from P. achatlnaceion by its larger 
aperture." (Pilshy.) 

Nevill also was of opinion that it differed from the latter (Hand 
List, i, 1878, p. 173). 

Morch records a variety /5 from Kamorta, Katchal, as smaller,, 
rather smooth, lengtli 11, width 9, length of aperture 5 mm., and 
a var. y, from iSTancouri, as rather solid, length 13, width 4^^ 
length of aperture 4 mm. 

332. Prosopeas roepstorfti, March (era.). 

Jiidiinus {Prosopeas) roe})storJi, Morel), Journ. Conchvl. 1870, p. 358.. 
Stenogyva (Prosopeas) roepdo)-ffi, Nevill, Ilaiul List, i, 1878, p. 17-3. 
Stenoifyra {Opens) r6pstorJi,V^<i\iXe\- k Clessin, Nomencl. llelic. Viv. 

1881, p. 320. 
Prosopeas roepstorfi, Pilsbry, Mau. Couch, ser. 2, xviii, 190G, p. 27,. 

pi. 3, figs. 97-99. 

Oriqlnal description: — '■ Stenor/i/ra elonc/aiida, " Pfr.," Martens^ 
1. c. [Preuss. Ex]). 0.st-Asien, Zool, ii, 1867] p_. 379, t. 22, f. 12, 
affinis, sed differt : T. straminea, costulato-striata, suturis pro- 
fundis ; apertura dilatata, t'ere ficiformi, faucibus albis, columella 
torta, imperforata. 

"Long. 22.4 inillim., diam. G; long, apert. 7.;^." (Morch.) 

Hah. Xicobar Islands (/S7oZifr/t«); li^movi^ {Roepstorff); Little 
Coco Island ( Wood-Mason). 

The species remained uuillustrated until ProF. Pilsbry figured 
a specimen. It contains " nearly 8 whorls, the first globose 
and smooth, the rest moderately convex and sculptured with 
forwardiv arcuate, thread-like striae. The aperture is quite 
oblique, long and narrow, the thin outer Up arched forward, the 
columellar lip narrowly reflexed above and imperfectly appressed. 
The columella is concave, slightly folded at the upper insertion. 
Length 10, diam, 4-7, length of aperture 5-2 mm." 



Genus ZOOTECUS, Westerhuid. 

ZootecHs, Westerlund, Fauna Palaarct. Biuneucoucliyl. iii, 1887,. 
pp. 3, 75 ; Martens, Arch. Xaturo;. Ixi. 1895, 1, p. 10;B, pi. 8, 
tiff.*. 5, 6 (jaw and radula, Stenoc/yra insu/aris), figs. 7, 8 (St. 
p7dla) ; Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2. xviii, 1906, p. 104. 

Ckilo(/ymnus, J omsenume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, p. 289^ 

Shell rather small, pale or white, perforate, pvjnform, cylindrie 



KOOTECUS. 



367 



with couic summit or cylindric tapering, composed of 7 to 10 
compacthj coiled whorls, the last rounded below ; smate or decus- 
sate, olossy. Summit conk, entire, the protoconch striate like the 
following whorls, not bulbous. Axis slender and straight, narrowly 
perforated throughout. Aperture small, widely ovate, the pen- 
storm thichened, blunt, columellar margin straight or concave, with 
reflexed edge, continuous with the basal hp. Eeproduction 
viviparous. Dentition Acliatinoid.'" (Pilsbry.) 

Type, Pupa insuhrris. 

Range. Cape Verd Isles and the Sahara eastward to Arabia, 
India, and Burma, chiefly in arid or barren regions. 

" A group of small, Pupiform snails, largely eremitic in habits, 
.generally occurring in large numbers, and varying \N'ithin wide 
Emits in size and degree of taper. Most gatherings from one 
place show shorter and longer individuals, as in Holospira and 
Cerion ; the diameter remaining more constant for any one colony. 
The proportion of diameter to length is therefore individually 
\ariable. There is a good deal of local variation in size and 
texture, and hence a superabundance of names. 

" The group was instituted by Westerlund as a section of 
Bidlminm. Kobelt, in his great "monograph of the Bidiminidce, 
also leaves Zootecus therein, though uncertain as to its position. 
Bourc'uic^nat struck nearer the mark in referring the species to 
liwntna'^ for I find the dentition to be of the Stenogyroid type. 
It is, however, not closely related to Rumina, which differs 
markedly by its smooth, globose protoconch and attenuated, 
cylindric, subsequent neanie whorls. Miebeclia is perhaj^s the 
nearest akin to Zootecus. Opeas and its brood belong to another 
Hue of differentiation. 

" Captain Hutton found the large Indian form {jndlus) to be 
A'iviparous, three or four young shells lying in the oviduct. I 
have confirmed this by opening dry shells of Z. insularis. The 
young are ovate-conic, perforate, of two or three whorls, and hke 
the adults have the columella entire below, 

"There seems to be only two well-marked species, but 
Z insidaris has a multitude of local races." {Pilsbry.) 

Von Martens figured and described the ]aw and radula of 
Zootecus insularis and Z. pullus, attributing them to the genus 
Stcno(/yra. He observes, moreover, that the name Zootecus should 
be spelled Zootocus, but this procedure is inadvisable as the name 
wouhl in that case clash with Zootoca, AVagler, 1830 (Eeptilia), 
and I prefer, therefore, to adopt Westerlund's mode of spelling, as 
Pilsbry has done. 

333. Zootecus insularis, Ehrenberg. 

Pupa insularis. ]]hrenbei'g, Symb. Phys. Anim. Evert, ser. 1, Moll. 
1831, decas prima, .signaUire d, third page ; Pfeiffer, Mou. Hehc. 
Viv. ii, 1848, p. 307. 



368 ACHATINlD.i;. 

Xo. 6, o-enus Pupa, Hutton, J. A. S. B. iii, 1834, p. 85 ; No. 0, 

Fapa {viUii) cylindrical ? ibid., torn. cit. p. 93. 
Bulimus (Cylind rus) insuluris, Albers, Die Ileliceen, 1850, p. 180. 
Bulimus insuluris, Pfeifter, Men. Ilelic. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 403; ibid., 

Conch.-Cab., Bulimus, 1854, p. 125, pi. 36, figs. 26-28 ; Ilanley 

vt Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 22, fig. 10 ; Bourguignat, Aun. 

Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 0, xv, 1883, art. 2, p. 05. 
Chondrus {Mastus) insularis, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 165. 
Buliminus {Cylindrus) insularis, .lickeli. Nova Acta K. Loop. -Carol. 

Akad. Wiss. xxxvii, no. 1, 1874, p. 108, pi. 5, fig. 4; Kobelt, 

Conchyl. Buch, ii, 1878, p. 273, pi. 84, tig. 21. 
Fupa (C'i/li)idru:i) insukmit, Nevill, J. A. S. B. xlvi, 1877, p. 22 ; 

ibid., Hand List, i, 1878, p. 195 ; ibid., in Anderson, Zool. Res. 

Exp. W. Ynnnan, i, 1879, p. 882. 
Cylindrits insularis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 146. 
Bulimina {Mastus) insularis, Pfeifl'er, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1851, 

p. 293. 
Rumina insularis, Bourguignat, MoU.Choa, 1885, p. 22 ; Jousseaume. 

Bull. Soc. Malac. France, vi, 1889, p. 359. 
Buliminus (Zootccus) insularis, Westerlund, Fauna Palfiarct. Binnen- 

conchyl. iii, 1887, p. 75 ; Katal. Palaarct. Binnenconch. 1890, 

p. 92. 
Buliminvs insularis, Polloiiera, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital. xiii, 1888, 

p. 70 ; von Martens, Nachr. Deuts. Malak. Ges. 1889, p. 151 ; 

Smith, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudon, i, 1894, p. 142. 
C7iiloffi/mnus insiilaris, Jousseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 

1894, p. 289. 
Stenof/yra insularis, von Martens, Arch. Naturg. Ixi, 1895, 1, ]). 103, 

pi. 8, figs. 5, 6 (jaw and radula). 
Buliminus (Mastus) insularis, Pollonera, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 

xiii, 1898, no. 313, p. 6; Peile, Jouru. Bonibav Nat. Hist. Sue. 

xi, 1908, p. 131. 
Zovtecus insularis, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 1906. p. 106, 

pi. 26, fig. 21. 

Ori(jinal description : — " FKpa insularis, subcylindricni, apice 
attenuata, subaciita, uitida, albido-cornea, subtilissime transverse 
striata, striis apicem versus aiigastioribus, pellueida, apertura 
semiovata, margine paiduluui reliexo, leviter calloso ; anfractibus 
7 ad 8, tribas priniis diametro suba^qualibus. 

"Max. sp. long. 5| lin., lat. lif, 8 spirse aiifr. Alia sp. 5| long., 
1| lata, anfr. 7." (Ehrenberg.) 

Bab. Camerau Island, Hed Sea (type locality, Elirenberg). 
India : Delhi, Bundeikund {Hanley Sf Theobald) ; Kudapab, Tinali 
(Stoliczl-a) ; Patiia (Mainiuaring) ; Nortbern and Central India 
(Theobald, Hutton) ; Saharunpore ( Wood-Mason); Kutcli and Sind 
(Stolic:7ca, Blanford) ; Poona (Blanford, Fairbanlc) ; kSalt Range 
and LakeSambhur (Theobald, Wynne); Biirwani Hills (Blanford); 
Eajputana (Hackett) ; Kasbniir (Theobald) ; Bombay Island (Peile) ; 
Tricbinopoli (Nevill, Blanford). Burma: ^-agan (Anderson, Nevill). 
Ceylon (Nevill, Blanford, Simon). 

Zootecus insularis and its varieties bave a very wide range out- 
side tbe Indian region, extending, according to Pilsbry, from the 



ZOOTECU8. 369 

Cape Verde Islands and Senegambia eastward to Egypt, Abys- 
sinia, Southern Arabia, to Beluchistan. To the soiuewliat cursory 
original description, he adds the following particulars. "The 
sculpture consists of fine, close, subvertical striae, a little bent near 
the suture, and intersected by several (usually three to six) very 
narrow smooth spiral hands. These may be obsolete on the last 
whorl or two, though usually persistent. The whorls are mode- 
rately convex, the last ascending a trifle to the aperture. Tlie 
outer lip is somewhat thickened inside, giving the appearance of a 
low white welt behind it externally. The edge itself is obtuse 
but not expanded. The coluraellar margin is dilated, thickened, 
and arches over the very small umbilicus. The species is exces- 
sively variable, but the typical form is small, specimens measuring 
as follows : — 

" Length 10, diam. above a])erture 3*8 mm., whorls 83. 

" Length 9, diam. above aperture 3-3 mm., whorls 7i. 

"Length 8, diam. above aperture 3-2 mm., whorls 7|. 

" This small form is common in Arabia and India. The shell is 
thinner and usually more whitish-corneous, less opaque-white than 
the lai'ge forms. 

"Shells of the same general type but more robust have been 
found in both Africa and India, and numerous nominal species 
have been based upon them. It is quite likely that some of these 
may be found to be local races worthy of recognition by name." 

334. Zootecus estelliis, Benson. 

Bulimus estellus, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. -2, xix, 1857, p. 327 ; 

Pfeifler, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 462; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Iiid. 1870, pi. 22, tig-. 4. 
Pupa (C'l/limh-us) insulan.s, vav. estellus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 195. 
Bulitnina {Mastus) estellu, Pfeifier & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. "N'iv. 

18Sl,p. 293. 
BuUminKs (Zootecus) esfelhis, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fam. Buli- 

uiinidae, 1900, p. 675, pi. 102, figs. 16, 17. 

Original description : — " Testa arete perforata, oblonga, cylin- 
drica, subremote spiraliter sulcidosa, interstitiis confertissime 
costulato-striolatis, albida; spira cylindrica, apice conico, acuti- 
usculo ; sutara impressa ; anfractibus 8 vix convexiusculis, ultimo 
anlice ascendente, 5 testae parumsequante, basi circa perforationem 
leviter impressa ; apertura verticali, angulato-ovali, peristoraate 
obtuso, margine columellari verticali, incrassato-retlexo. 

"Long. 18, diam. G mill." {Benson.) 

Hah. India : Sind (Baker) ; Kudapah ; Ijalmir, Jodhpoie 
{Stoliczka). 

" At once distinguishable from the allied B. pulhis, Gray, by its 
stouter form, and by the ascent of the last whorl near the 
aperture." (Benson.) 

2b 



370 ACHATINID^. 

335. Zootecus pertica, Benson. 

Bulimus pertica, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 2, xix, 1857, p. 328 ; 

Pleiffer, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. iv, 1859, p. 462 ; Hanley & Theobald, 

Conch. Ind. 1870, pi. 22, fig. 7. 
Pupa {Cylindrus) pertica, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 297. 
Bulimina (Mastns) jjertica, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 293. 
Bulimimis (Zootecus) pertica, Kobelt, Conch.-Cal)., Fani. Buli- 

minidae, 1900, p. 082, pi. 103, fig-. 9. 
Zootecus insularis, var. pertica, Pilsbiy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 

1906, p. 113, pi. 26, fig. 23. 

Original description : — " Testa impei-forata, exacte cylindrica, 
elongatissinia, confertissime arcuato-striolata, sulcis nonuullis in- 
conspicuis spiraliter sculpta, alba ; spira cylindrica, apice conico, 
obtusiuseulo : sutura impressa ; anfractibus 10 subplaiiulatis, 
ultimo i testae sequante, antice leviter descendente, basi rotimdata ; 
apertura valde obliqua, pyriformi ; peristoinate teiiiii, margiiie 
basali incrassato, subeffuso, columellari expanse, appresso. 

" Long. 20, diam. 5 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India (Baker); Sind (Hanley Sf TlieohaJd). 

At once distinguisbable from Z. 'pidlus and its allies by its 
lengthened cylindrical form, its slenderness, and by the obliquity 
of \he aperture. It may be considered as tlie extreme form of the 
series. According to Nevill it is based on an abnormal specimen 
of Z, polygyratus. 



336. Zootecus polygyratus, Reeve. 

Bulimus poJyyyratus, Reeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, Bulimus, pi. 79, 

fig. 578 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Yiv. iii, 1853, p. 404 ; Issel, Mem. 

Real. Accad. Sci. Torino, ser. 2, xxiii, 1866, p. 416. 
Chondrus (Mastus) poJyyyratus, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 1855, 

p. 165. 
Bulimus {Cylindrus) polyyyratns, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, 

p. 155. 
Mastus poJyyyratus, Chenu, Man. Conchyl. i, I860, p. 442, fig. 3246. 
Pupa (Cylindrus) insularis, var. jwlyyyrata, Nevill, Hand List, i, 

1878, p. 195. 
Bidimina (Mastus) polygyrata, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 293. 
Rumina polyyyrata, Ancev, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, iii, 1886, 

p. 63. 
Zootecus polipniratus, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab.,Fam. Buliminidae, 1902, 

p. 947, ph 132, figs. 20, 27. 
Zootecus insular t(.s, var. polycjratus, Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 

1906, p. 113, pi. 26, fig. 31. 

Original description : — " Shell pyramidally turreted, minutely um- 
bilicated, whorls nine to ten in number, rather narrow, rounded, 
finely plicatelv striated, columella reflected, aperture small, lip 
simple; bluisli-white." (Reeve.) 



ZOOTECUS. 371 

Hah. India : Rolira Hills, Sine! {Bkinford). Beluchistan : 
Gwadar (SZan/ojvZ). Persia: Bendes Abbas (/sseZ). Arabia: Aden 
{Blaiif'ord). 

When described and figured by Reeve the habitat was unknown. 
It is more cylindrical than Z. insularis, forming a connecting link 
between that and Z. perticn. The type, which is in the British 
Museum, is composed of 94 whorls and measures : length 12 mm., 
diameter 4 nun. 



;3;57. Zootecus puUus, Gray. 

Bulimus pullns, Gray, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 6(5; Th. Miiller, Svn. Test. 

Viv. Anno 1834 pvomulg-., 183(5, p. 15 ; PfeiHer, Men. Ilelic. Viv. 

ii, 1848, p. 162 ; lleeve, Concb. Icon, v, 1849, Bulhnus, pi. 07, 

lig. 476 ; Jilanlbid, J. A. 8. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 94 ; Adams, Journ. 

Couch, vii, 1892, p. 81. 
Pupa, No. 6, Hutton, J. A. S. B. iii, 1834, p. 85. 
rupa cyUndncal?, Huttou, J. A. S. B. iii, 1834, p. 93. 
Pupa indica (Benson), llutton (uom. mut.) (not P. indica, Pfeiffer, 

1854), J. A. S. B. xviii, 1849, p. 653. 
Bulimus (Opens) pul/us, Albers, Die lleliceen, 1850, p. 175. 
Pupa (Ci/lindrus) pulla, von Martens, Die lleliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 297'; ibid., Malak. Bliitt. xv, 1868, p. 160 ( = P. cylindnca, 

llutton). 
Bulimina (Mastus) pulla, Pfeiiier & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 293. 
Rumina imlla, Ancey, J3iill. Soc. Malac. France, iii, 1886, p. 61. 
Steno(jyra 2ndla, von ^lartens, Arch. Naturg. Ixi, 1895, ] , p. 103, 

pi. 8, fig.s. 7, 8 (jaw and radula). 
Zootecus insularis, var. pullus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii, 

1900, p. 110, pi. 2(5, figs. 26-28. 

Original description : — " Bui. testa ovata, subcylindrica, sub- 
imperforata, pellucida, albida, tenuiter striata, apiee conico, obtusi- 
usculo, pellucido ; anfractibus novem vel decern vix elevatis ; 
apertura parva, subrotunda, semilunata ; labiis siibincrassatis 
rotundatis. 

" Axis 10, diam. 4j lin.'" {Cxray.) 

Hah. India: Bank of Ganges (i?oyZe, teste J/«ZZe>-); Axa [Blan- 
ford) ; Delhi, Bnndelkliund {Reeve) ; Kutch, Agra, Trichinopoli 
{B.M.). 

Gray, who omitted to indicate the habitat when describing the 
species, states that it resembles B. kincjU, but is more solid and has 
a dai'k apex and pillar. His brief description may be supplemented 
by Hutton's observations on the species in 1849, when he sub- 
stituted the MS. name Pupa indica of Benson for P. cylindrica 
proposed by himself in 1834, on account of the latter name having 
previously been employed by Michaud. 

" The large variety has 9-10 whorls ; is cylindriform and tapers 
suddenly to an obtuse apex ; colour of Uving shells pale fuscous or 
earthy, but generally white ; whorls closely wrinkled by coarse 
waving lines of increase ; in fresh specimens faintly scored with 

2b 2 



372 ACHA-TINID^, 

obsolete longitudinal furrows ; shell wide, polished, thick and 
opaque. Aperture subquadrufce, margins tliickened and subre- 
flected ; varying from \^ to |-| inches in length. Animal dusky ; 
ovo-viviparous. 

" Var. A, — This is in all i-espects a perfect miniature of the 
foregoing, but it never seems to have more than eight whorls, and 
seldom exceeds ^ an inch in length, it is far less ventricose and 
generally shows the obsolete longitudinal furrows more plainly. 
This variety occurs both in India and near Quettah in 
Afghanistan. 

" Var. B. — With the general sculpture of the last, but shorter, 
seldom exceeding -^-^ of an inch ; whorls ventricose and spire more 
suddenly obtuse than either of the foregoing : \\ifch scarcely more 
than half the length of P. indica, it still rivals it in breadth, and 
the longitudinal furrows appear to be constant and better defined. 
Whorls usually seven in number, rarely eight." (Mutton.) 

Specimens from Kutch, presented by A- T. Daniel to the 
British Museum, possess 9| whorls and measure lGx5 mm.; 
others, composed of eight whorls, only reach a length of 14 mm., 
with a diameter of 5 mm. 



338. Zootecus agrensis, Kun: * 

Bulimus agrensis, Kurr, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, p. 107; Pfeiffer, 

Novit. Conch, ser. 1, i, 1856, p. 57, pi. 10, figs. 9, 10 ; ibid., Mon. 

Helic. Yiv. iv, 1859, p. 463 ; Haiilev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1870, pi. 23, tig. 1. _ ' 

BuUmns (Ct/lincJrus) atjretisis, Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, p. 155. 
Pupa {Cyli7idrus) agrensis, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, I860, 

p. 297. 
Bulimina (Mastus) agrensis, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 293. 
Buliminus {Zootecus) ar/retisis, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Fain. Buli- 

minidae, 1901, p. 686; pi. 103, fi^. 19. 
Zootecus visularis, var. agrensis, Pilsbrv, Man. Couch, ser. 2, xviii, 

1906, p. Ill, pi. 26, figs. 24, 25. 

Original description: — " T. perforata, cylindraceo-turrita, laevi- 
gata, uitida, alba ; spira elongata, sursum sensim attennata, apice 
acutiuscula ; sutura impressa ; anfr. convexiusculi, ad suturam 
striati, ultimus g longitudinis non attingens, antice subascendens, 
basi rotundatus ; apertura verticalis, rotundato-lunaris ; perist. 
simplex, rectum, margine dextro leviter arcuato, columellari sub- 
verticali, anguste foriiicatim reflexo. 

" Long. 46, diam. G mill. ; ap. 5 mill, longa, 3^ lata." (JCnrr.) 

Hah. India : Agra (Kurr). 

Apparently a rare species, which differs from Z. insidaris in 
being smoother and in having the later whorls distantly radiately 
plicate-striate ; the aperture is also a little more transversely 
elongate. 



FERUSSACID^i:. 373 

339. Zootecus chion, rfeiffer. 

Bulimus chiott, Pfeilier, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 332 ; ibid., Mon. Helic. 

Viv. iv, 18oU, p. 463; llauley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, 

pi. 22, iig. 1 ; Adams, Joimi. Conch, vii, 1892, p. 81. 
Pupa (Cylindrus) chion, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 

p. 297. 
Pupa {Cylindrus) insularis, var. ckiou, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. 195. 
Bulimina {Mastus) chiou. Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 293. 
Rumina c/iio?], Ancey, Bull. Soe. Malac. France, iii, 1886, p. 60. 
Mastus chion, Ancey, Bull. Soc. Zool. P'rance, xviii, 1893, p. 44. 
Buliminus (Zootecus) chion, Kobelt, Conch.-Cab., Faro. Buliminidae, 

1900, p. 67o, pi. 102, tig. 18. 
Zootecus insula) is, forma chion. Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, xviii, 

1906, p. 112, pi. 26, tig. 32. 

Oi'ic/inal description : — " B. testa perforata, oblouga, solida, 
striatula, alba ; spira elougata, in conum acutiusculum terniinata ; 
aiifr. 7-8 uiodice convexis, ultimus ^ longitudinis paulo siiperaute. 
antice subaseendeiite, basi rotundato ; apertura verticalis, ovato- 
lunari ; perist. calloso, marginibus callo juuetis, cohmiellari brevi, 
substricto, dilatato, patente. 

" Long. 12, diani. 5i mill. Ap. oblique 4^ mill, longa, fere 3 
lata." (PtViffn:) 

Hah. India : Kurrachee, Punjab {Shipley, Stoliczka, Adams) ; 
Kutch, and 8oliman Range (iStoliczka) : Umarkote, Sind {Blan- 
fonl) ; Saharunpore ( Wood-2Iason). Afghanistan (Ancey). 

Specimens from Hyderabad, presented by Dr. Falconer to the 
British Museum, measure 14x6 mm. 

Pfeiffer mentions a var. p. " Gracilinr, minor; long. 11, diam. 
4 mill." 



Family lERUSSACID.E. 

Genus CECILIOIDES, Herrmannsen. 

Acicula, Risso, Hist. Nat. Europe Merid. iv, 1826, p. 81 [ehurneu 

only species), nou Acicula, Hartmann, 1821. 
Caccilioides, Herrmannsen, Ind. Gen. Malac. i, 1846, p. 150, for 

Cecilioidcs, Ferussac. 
Ccccilioides, Smith, Journ. Conch, vi, 1891, p. 342 ; Pilsbry, Man. 

Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1908, p. 1. 
Ccecilianclla, Bourguignat, Rev. Mag. Zool. viii, 1856, p. 378 ; Fagot, 

Bull. Soc. Malac. France, iv, 1887, p. 49; Norman, A. M. N. H. 

ser. 6, vi, 1890, p. 337. 
Aciculina, Westerlund, Fauna Palaarkt. Binnenconch. iii, 1887, 

p. 175 (as section of Ccecilianella). 

Type, Buccinum acicula, Miiller. 

Eancje. India and most tropical and subtropical counti-ies and 
Europe. 



374 FEEL'SSAClD-i:. 

" The shell is imperforate, very small and slender, very nar- 
rowly lanceolate, with obtuse, rounded, smooth apex ; smooth, 
fragile, transparent (weathering to opaque white) ; aperture 
usually less than half the total length, piriform ; outer lip arching 
forward in the middle, acute ; columella concave, more or less 
distinctly truncate at base, usually somewhat calloused. Animal 
blind, or at least without pigmented eyes. Jaw composed of many 
narrow plaits. Eadula with 11, 1, 11 teeth in C. acicula, 18, 1, 18 
in C. gundlachi, the central tooth much smaller than the laterals, 
with a tricuspid reflection. Laterals symmetrical, tricuspid. 
Marginal leeth low, v\ide, with two lovi' denticulate cusps. The 
genitalia, as figured by Lehmann for C. acicula, have the duct of 
the sperjnatheca very short. An appendix, enlarged at the end, 
is terminal on the penis. There is also a short accessory organ 
anteriorly to the penis." (Pilshr)/.) 



Subgenus GEOSTILEIA, Cro.^se. 

Geostilbia, Crosse, Journ. Conchyl. xv, 1867, p. 184 ; Pilsbry, Man. 
Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1908, p. 43 (as section of (kecilioides). 

Type, G. caledonica, Crosse. 

Range. India, Philippine Islands, New Caledonia, Hawaiian 
Islands, "West Indies, ISew Jersey, St. Helena, East Africa, 
Mauritius, Seychelles, Comoro Group, jSTossi Be. 

Differs from typical Ccvcilioides in having the columella not 
distinctly truncate, and having the outer lip thickened. 

The subgenus consists of a small number of species, some of 
them of doubtful status. Two species are known from India. 
Some seem to owe their distribution to tropical cultivation, 
possibly that of sugar-cane, in a manner similar to that of Opeas 
(/racile and Siibulina ociona. 

340. Caecilioides balanus, Ileeve. 

Achatina balanus (Benson), ReeAe, Conch. Icon, v, 1850. AcJtatina, 
pi. 20, fig. 109; Pfeitter, Mou. HeHc. Viv. iii, 1853, p. 506; 
ibid., Conch.-Cab., BuUnms, 1860, p. 315, pi. 2b, figs. 18, 19; 
Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xiii, 18(i4, p. 137 ; Hanley & Theo- 
bald, Conch. Ind. 1875, pi. lOi', htr. 10: Blanford, J. A. S. B. 
xlv, 1875, p. 43. 

Glandina balanus, Morelet, Journ. Conchyl. iii, 1852, p. 34. 

Oleacina {Ferussacia) balanus, Adams, Gen. liec. Moll, ii, 1855, 
p. 106. 

Achatina {Caecilioides) balanus, Pfeiffer, MalcJc. Blatt. ii, 1856, 
p. 170. 

Cionella (Acicula) balanus, von Martens. Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, 
p. 261. 

Francesia balanus, Paladillie. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, iii, 1872, 

Caecilianella {Geostilbia) btdanus, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 162, 
Geostilbia balanus, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 147. 



C.^CILIOIDES. 



375 



Ciondla {CeciUoides) halamis, Pfeiffer & Cles^in, Nomencl. Ilelic. 

Viv. 1881,p. 3;5o. ,r r, , o 

aecilioides (GeoKfillmi) balanus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. J, xx, 

1908, p. 46, pi. 4, Mg?. ()0, 61. 

Original description :— " «lieH evlindrically oblong, somewhat 
fusiform, whorls four in number, smooth, shining, apex obtuse 
columelhi arched, truncated, aperture small; dull wliite. (lieeve.) 

Hah. India: Agra (Boys); Uanks of the Jumna, near Humeer- 
pore, Buudelkhuud (Benson) : Kattiwar, near Agra (Theobald) ; 
beccau and Sind (Blanford, Theobald) ; Kashmu- (Theobald). 

"T subcvlindraceo-acicularis, laevigata, hyahna ; spira sub- 
cylindracea,'vix attenuata, obtusa ; anfr. 4 planiiisouli ultimus 
i longitudinis subaequans, basi dilatatus ; columella substricte 
recedeus, ad basin aperturae late angulato-ovahs vix truncata ; 
perist. simplex, rectum, acutum. 

" "Loner. ;3, diam. vix 1 mill. ; ap. 1^ mill, longa.' (Pfe'ffer.) 

Blanford was of opinion * that the shell described by Crosse as 
Gtostilbia caledonica t, from New Caledonia, was co-specific with 
halanus, but the figure of the former does not lend any colour 
to this view. 

341. Csecilioides bensoni, sp. n. 

Shell narrowly cylindrico-conoid, almost fusiform, rather thm, 
opaque white, smooth aud glossy. Spire narrow, with straight 
sides ; suture linear, submarginate ; ai)ex obtuse. Whorls 6, 
flattened, increasing slowly at first, the last four very rapidly. 



Fig. 121. — Ceecilioides bensoni. 

Aperture oblique, pvriform, the margins united by a thm callus 
on the parietal wall; peristome slightly thickened; outer margin 
straight, obliquely descentling and curving forward ; basal margin 
regularly curved : columella slightly curved and t>lightly truncate. 

Length 5, diam. 1-25 mm. 

//a6. India : Plains. Type in the British Museum. 

This new species differs from C. balanus, besides being con- 



* J. A. S. B. xliv, 1875, p. 43. 

t Journ. Concbyl. xv, 1867. p. 186, pi. 7. fig. 4. 



376 FERrssACiD.T;. 

siderably larger, in having a widei* base, and the whorls increase 
less rapidly ot first, while the basal margin of the aperture is more 
curved. 

Genus COILOSTELE, Benson. 

Coilostele, Benson, A. M. N. H, ser. 3, xiii, 1864, p. 136 ; Pilsbrv, 

Man. Conch, ser. 2, xix, J 908, p. 338. 
Coelosiele, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1875, p. 42. 
Coelestele, Bovu-giiignat, Descr. div. Esp. Ccalestele et Paladilhia, 1880, 

p. 6. 

Type, C. sccdaris, Benson. 

Range. India, Aden, Syria, Abyssinia, Egypt, Southern Spain. 
Mexico (? introduced). 

"Shell minute (3 to 4 ram. long), fragile, somewhat transparent, 
imperforate, long and narrow, snbci/Iindric, or tapering slightly to 
the verij ohUise rounded summit, composed of (3 to 8 flattened 
whorls separated by deep sutures, the lirst 2| or 3 whorls smooth, 
the rest either smooth, striate, or ribbed. Aperture small, oblong, 
more or less oblique, the outer lip usually expanded slightly in 
fully adult shells, straight in profile. Columella having a low 
fold at its junction with the parietal wall. Internal jjc^rtitions 
ahsorhed in adult shells, leaving only the internal spiral cord along 
the sutures. Soft anatomy unknown. 

" A genus of uncertain position, remarkable for the cylindrical 
shape of the minute, fragile, slender shell, and the absorption of 
the internal partitions, which I have verified in C. tampicolensis. 
They have been found up to this time only as dead shells in the 
drift debris of rivers and streams, where they occur in great pro- 
fusion though it seems quite locally. Nothing is known of the 
life-history or soft parts.'" {Pilshry.) 

The genus has a rather remarkable distribution. The occur- 
rence, however, in Mexico of a single species may be due to 
importation from Spain, as suggested by Prof. Pilsbiy. A fossil 
species front the Eocene of Italy has been referred to Coilostele *, 
and, if correctl}'^ so assigned, the centre of the distribution of the 
genus may possibly be that region. 

342. Coilostele scalaris, Benson. 

Coilostele scalaris, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xiii, 1864, p. 136 ; 
Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 156, tig. 5; Pilsbry, 
Man. Conch, ser. 2, xix, 1908, p. 339, pi. 50, firr. 3. 

Cadostele scalaris, Blanford. J. A. S. B. xlv, 1875^^ p. 42 ; Theobald, 
op. cit. xlvii, 1878, p. 147 ; Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 162 ; 
Tryon, Struct. Syst. Conch, iii, 1884, p. 95, pi. 102, fig. 79. 

Coelestele scalaris, Bourguignat, Descr. div. Esp. Coelestele et Pala- 
dilhia, 1880, p. 10. 



* Coclostele cocaeiia, Opjjenheim, Zeit.s. Dents. Geol. Gesells. xlvii, 1895 
p. 119, pi. 3, fig. 10. 



COILOSTELE, — GLJiSSULA. 377 

Original description : — " C testa impei'forata, elongato-cylin- 
drica, lievi, liyalina, nitida; spira elongata, gvadatim scalariter 
atteuuata, apiee obtiiso, sutiira profunda: ;iiifractibus 6, con- 
vexiusculis, superne obtuse angulatis, penultiino cylindraceo; 
apertura subobliqua, semiovata, subpyril'oruii ; poristoniate tenui, 
recto, niarginibus reniotis, margine coluniellari ci'assiusculo, plica 
si)irali obliqua elongata superne intrante niunito. 

" Long. 3, diam. vix 1 mm. A pert. |, lata 4 mm." (Benson.) 

llah. India: Humeerpore, Bundelkhund, banks of Jumna and 
]Jet\va Rivers [Benson) ■ Kasbmir (Theobald) ; Sind (Bhnford). 

Tbe Britisb Museum contains three specimens, tbe only ones 
1 bave seen, labelled " Xortberu India"; tbey measure : length 
4 mm., diam. 1%5 mm. 



Genus GLESSULA, von Marteiis. 

Electru. Albers. Die Heliceeu, 1850, p. 194 (us section oi Achntina), 
onl}- species, A. ccylanica (iion Electru, Lam. 1816, uon Electro., 
Steph. 1829. iiou Elect ra, Loew, 1845); Adams. Gen. Kec. Moll, 
ii, 1855, p. 105 (as subgenus of Oleacinu) ; Pfeifter, Malak. Blatt. 
ii, 1856, p. 168 (as section o{ Achatina). 

Glessida, von Martens. Die Ileliceen, ed. 2, 1860. p. 254 ( as sub- 
genus of CioiiellaK tvpe ^-i. (femma, Benson; Pfeirter & Clessin, 
Mou. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 329; Nevill, Hand List. i. 1878, p. 160 
(as subgenus of Stenogi/ra) ; Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
vii, 1906, p. 160; Pilsbry, Man. Coucli. ser. 2, xx, 1908. p. 50, 
pi. 15, figs. 2, 3 (anatomy). 

Type, Achatina ceiflanica, Pfeifter. 

Range. India, Ceylon and Burma, Soutb-AVestern China, Farther 
India ; Sumatra, Java, and Borneo ; East and West Africa. 

" Tbe shell is imperforate, ovate-conic or turrite, brown or 
corneous-brown, glossy, and usual])' witbout strong sculpture ; 
apex obtuse. Aperture irregularly oval ; outer lip unexpanded, 
acute or blunt ; columella short, more or less deeply concave, 
abruptly truncate at tbe base. 

" Sole without distinct median area ; no jjedal margin ; an outer 
mantle lobe on the left side. Kidney very long, band-like. 
Genitalia peculiar ; there is a feather-like gland where the vas 
deferens enters the penis. The latter contains a short conic, 
perforated papilla, and two longitudinal folds. The prostrate 
gland of the hermaphrodite duct consists of entirely separated 
narrow follicles, as in Achatina. The spennatbeca lias a short 
duct. Litems containing several large sliells with fully 2 whorls. 

"The jaw is very finely striate, almost smooth. Eadula has 
about 110 t<»etb in a transverse row, Tbe central tooth is very 
small, tricuspid ; laterals with three cusps ; outer marginal teeth 
very finely 3- or 4-cusi)ed (G. orophila, from Madras, according 
to Semper). 

" Glessida was associated with " Gionella " (that is tbe Ferus- 
8ACID-E as herein understood) by Professor von Martens in 1860. 



378 rEiiussACiD.T;. 

Various otlier authors, both before and since, have thought the 
group Achatinoid, belonging to " Stenoyyra '" in the former wide 
hmits of that term. ^Ve know too little of its anatomy to give a 
definite opinion, but the presence of a glandular appendage 
(appendix or flagellum) at the end of the penis is a feature unlike 
any AcJiatinidce. The homology of this appendage is not certain, 
however. The position of the ureter is unknown. ] have been 
unable to obtain alcoholic material necessary for an investigation 
of the relations of Glessvla to Suhulina, Homorvs. BaciUmu, and 
Pseudorfhssida. 

" In most (but perhaps not all) species, the lip becomes slightly 
blunt and smooth in fully adult shells, thereby differing from 
Subtdina, which has an acute lip at all stages of growth. 

" In O. oropliUa, (Semper found in the uterus 4 large embryos 
with shells having fully two whorls, and a small one with u half 
whorl and very large caudal vesicle. Various other species have 
been found to be viviparous, while others bring forth globular 
eggs like tiiose of SidmUna. Like that genus, also, the Glessidcn 
reproduce before attaining full size, 

" Glessida has been studied mainly by specialists on the Indian 
fauna. Benson, W. T. Blanford, Eeddome, and Godwin-xiuslen 
have chiefly contributed to the literature. JJlauford's ' Contri- 
butions to Indian Malacology,' contniued through man}' years of 
the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, contain a great mass 
of information on this genus, as on many others of the Indian 
fauna. 11 anley and Theobald illustrated most of the types of 
Benson, amongst others, in their ' Conchologia Indica,' Finally, 
Colonel II. H. Beddoine has recently reviewed the genus in his 
' Xotes on Indian and Ceylouese Species of GJessxdaJ 

" From the purely couchological standpoint we may be said to 
liave an extensive knowledge of Glessida, yet \arious characters of 
the first importance have been neglected. Tlie e-mhryonic v'Jwrls 
of the tyi>es mast all be re-e.vamined, and their scidjdiire described. 
Our ignorance of the embryonic sculpture of many forms prevents 
any natural classification of the species. The surface of the later 
whorls in all the species should be examined under high power, 
since some species have a miiiute sculpture not visible with an 
ordinary hand-lens. 

" J\"o fossil species of Glesstda are known to me.'* (Filsbry.) 

343. Glessula tenuispira, Benson. 

Aclintina temnsjnra, Benson, J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. Sr)^ ; Pfeiffer, 
Moil. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 262; Eeeve, Conch. Icon, v, 1849, 
Achatina, pi. 16, tig. 76 ; Benson, A. M. IS. H. ser. 3, v, 1860, 
p. 464 : Pfeitier, Conch.-Cab., Bulimiis, 1860, p. 310, pi. 2o, 
ligs. 6, 7 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 95. 

Suhulinu t.enuisjnra, Adams, Gen. Bee. Moll, ii, 1855, p. 110. 

Achatina (S/fbulhia) tcmn'sjnra, Pfeitler, Malak. Bliitt. ii, 1856, 
p. 169. 



GLESSULA. '37 i^ 

Achatina {Electra) tenuispiru, Ilanlev & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 

1870, pi. ;:16, fig. 8. 
Stenof/i/ra ( Glessula) tenuispira, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 169. 
Steitu(/yra (Safmlina) fenMispira,'Pieiffer Sc Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. .•527. 
O/ossula temiisinra, Beddome, Proc. Malac. 8oc. London, vii, ]900, 

p. 1(50: Pilsbrv, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 88, pi. 9, 

figs. 1,4. 

Original description : — " Teshi elongato-turrita, cornea, lougi- 
tudinaliter striata, versus apieein attenuata, coliimnari ; anfractu 
ultimo interdum fasciis qiiibusdain albidis trausversis ornata, 
suturis impressis ; apice obtuso. 

"Long, i poll. [=25 mill] circiter, lat. 0-55 [ = 14 mill.]." 
(IJenson.) 

Hal). India: Sylliet {Benson); Darjeeling (SloUc:tl'a, Blanford, 
6,- Mainwarin;/); N. Canara (Beddome); Khasi and Dafla Hills 
(Godwin-Austen). Burma: Akoutong and further south (Blan- 
ford); banks of Irawaddy ('fheobald). 

The measurement given by Benson — width 0*55 inch— is 
evidently a lapsus or a printer's error for 0-25, as the Cumingian 
specimens measure 7 mill., i. e. a trifle over ^ inch, the length 
being 28 mill., a little exceeding one inch, therefore. 

Manv specimens found in collections are evidently immature. 
The Beddome collection contains a shell, composed of fourteen 
whorls, which measures 41-5 mm. in length and !' mm. in diameter. 



344. Glessula baculina, Blanford. 

Glessula hacnlmn, JUanford, J. A. S. P.. xl, 1871, p. 4-3, pi. 2, 

fig. 6 ; Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, liKXi, p. 160. 
Achatina (Electra) havulina, Hanley & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 

1874, pl. 78, fig. 6. 
Achatina /jaculina, Pfeifler, Mou. Helic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 2i)l. 
Steno(/!/ra (Glessula) baculina, Nevill, Hand List, i. 1878, p. 170. 
Stenut/yra (Sulndina) baculina, Pfeifier ^: Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv.' 1881, p. 327. 
Glessula tenuispira. \ai: baculina, Pilsbrv, Man. Couch, ser. 2, xx, 

1909, p. 88, pl. 9, fig. 2. 



Original description : — " Testa elongato-turrita, gracilis, tenui- 
uscula, oblique striata, fusco vel fulvo cornea, epidermide nitescente 
induta. Spira turrita, apice obtusulo. Anfractus 13.V, parum 
convexi ; inferiores subicquales ; sutura impressa, minute denti- 
culata. Apertura obliqua, ovato-triangularis ; peristoma simplex, 
acutum. Columella abrupte arcuata, oblique producta, ad basin 
verticaliter truncata." (Blanford.) 

Alt. ;}S mm.; diam. 6-5-7-r) mm. Apertura^ : alt. 7, lat. 4 mm. 

/Iul>. Sikkim Himalayas, Khersiong (,'StoUczl.a) ; Darjeeling 
(Blanford, Malnvaring) ; Khasi Hills (Godwin- Austen). 

" This species appears to have escaped the notice of all previous 
collectors in 8ikkim ; it was found in association with its near 



3S0 FEIirSSACID.E. 

ally G. tenulspira, Bens., by Dr. Stoliczka during a recent visit. 
It is easily distinguished from the latter species by its slenderness 
(the diameter being i of the length), and the comparative narrow- 
ness of its whorls ; moreover, b}^ the form of the columella, the 
lower part of which is bent abruptly almost at right angles with 
the slope of the inner lip; while in G. tenuispim, G. erosa, and 
other allied forms, the curvature is at the utmost obtuse. Speci- 
mens, the shell of which has been slightly Meathered, shew fine 
spiral markings, but these are not visible unless the shell has 
become somewhat opaque. The animal is dark leaden grey, some- 
what paler at the sides of the foot." {Blai\ford.) 

Beddome thought this only a more slender form of temdspira, 
and Pilsbry reduced it to varietal rank, but I consider hacidina 
sufficiently distinct to retain it as a species. The shell is more 
cylindrical and more strongly striated than tenuispira, while it is 
distinguished from shiplayi in being more shining and in having 
the whorls more flattened. 

A specimen from Darjeeling, in the Beddome collection, is 
composed of 12i whorls and measures 32 x mm. 



345. Glessula pertenuis, Blanford. 

Achat ina peyteniiis^ ])lanford, .T. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, p. 79; 

Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, ]868, p. 237. 
Achatinn {Electra) pcvteiiuis, lianley & Theobald, Conch. lud. 

1870, pi. 18, fig. 5. 
Stenojiyra {Glessula) pertenuis, Xevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 169. 
Steiioqr/ra (Subidina) pertenuis, Pfeiffer & Clessiu, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv." 1881, p. 327. 
Glessula pertenuis, Beddome, Proc. ^lalac. Soc. London, vii, 1906, 

p. 160. 
Glessula tenuispira, var. pertenuis, Pilsbvv, Man. Conch. i?er. 2, xx, 

1909, p. 89, pi. 9, fig. 3. 

Orhjlual descrtpiioii : — " Shell very slender, turrited, thin, light 
horny, ])olished, closely, minutely, and rather irregularly striated. 
Spire subulate, somewhat acuminate towards the blunt apex ; 
suture impressed, subcrenulate. Whorls 11-12, convex, the last 
about i the length of the spire. Aperture oblique, ovately 
pyriform, ])eristome thin, margins united by a thin callus, colu- 
mella moderately curved, obliquely truncated." (Blanford.) 

Length 20, diam. 4\, length of aperture 4 mm. 

Hah. Bvarma : Tongoop, Arakan (Blanford) ; Arakan (StoliczJca) ; 
Akoutong (Theobald) ; Thyet ~Slyo (Hungerford). India: Assam 
(Stoliczlri) ; Garo Hills (Godivln- Austen) . 

" A much more slender species than A. tenuispira, Bens, (a 
variety of which also abounds in parts of Pegu), though there are 
signs of a passage. The present appears to replace A. tenuispjira 
in Arakan and Bassein. Mr. Benson, to whom I sent a specimen, 
observes that it is intermediate between A. tenuispira and 
A. hashda, Bens." (Blanford.) 



GLESSULA. 381 

Beddome considered this species probably an immature form of 
tenuispira, and Pilsbry regards it as a variety. The more flattened 
whorls and the acuiiiinate upper portion of the spire, however, 
appear to me to warrant its being accorded specitic rank. 

Var. major, Blanford. 

Length 26i mm. ; diameter 6 ; length of aperture 0. Of an- 
other specimen : length 23 mm. ; diameter 5| ; length of 
aperture 5^ mm. 

Hah. Burma : Pyema Khyoung, Bassein district, Pegu. 



346. Glessiila shiplayi, Pfdffer. 

Achatina (Snbulina) shiphnji, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bljitt. ii, 1855, 

p. 169. 
Achatina sliiplayi, Pfeiffer, Novit. Conch, ser. 1, i, 1850, p. 8i^, 

pi. 22, figs. 13, 14 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 364. 
Achatina {Electra) shii)layi, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, 

pi. 36, fi<,^ 9. 
Stenogyra {Glessula) shiplaiji, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 168. 
Stcnoyyra {Subuli^ia) shiplayi, Pfeifler & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 326. 
Glessida shiplayi. Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc, London, vii, 1906, 

p. 161; Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 61, i)l. 9, 

tig- 8. 

Original description : — " T. turrita, tenuissima, sublaevigata, 
pellucida, nitida, cornea ; spira regvdariter attenuata, apiee obtusa ; 
sutura substriata; anfr. 13 convexi, ultimus i longitudinis paulo 
superans, rotuiidatus, distinctus striatus ; t-olumella substricte 
procedens, basi sublate trunc-ata; apertura parum^ obliqua, 
rotundato-ovalis : perist. rectum ten uissimuui." {Pfeiffer.) 

Long. 25^, diam. G^ mill. Ap. 5| mill, longa, 3i lata. 

Hah. India : Isilgiri Hills (Shijjlai/, Nevill) ; Patchaniully and 
Kalryenmullay Hills {Blanford) ; Shevroy Hills {Beddome). 

Beddome states that full-grown specimens were very rarely 
found by him, " though young, half-, aud three-quarter-grown 
ones are most abundant on the Nilgiris. This and some other 
species certainly breed before tlie shell attains full size or a 
hardened peristome, as I have taken eggs from such shells. The 
peristome differs much in mature specimens, sometimes being 
very thick and solid, sometimes quite thin, but, even then, firm 
and not breaking or becoming jagged at the least touch, which is 
the sign that the shell has not finished its growth. Full-grown 
examples of shiplayi are very like tenuispira, but smaller. The 
species is, in fact, intermediate between the latter and haculina, 
but the whorls are more convex and increase more suddenly than 
is the case in either of the other two species. It also runs 
nilagirica very closely, but the latter has a stronger sculpture, and 
is broader at the base." 



382 FERUSSACID^. 

347. Glessula nilagirica, Beeve (em.). 

Achatina nllwjai'ka (Benson), Reeve, Concli. Icon, v, 1850, pi. :^1, 

fig- «7. 
Achatina perrotteti, var. nilayirica., Pfeiffer, 3Ion. Ilelic. Viv. iii, 

1853, p. 494. 
Acltatina perrotteti, var., I'feiiFer, Conch.-Cab., BuUmiit<, 18G0, 

p. 324, pi. 25, tigs. 2, 3. 
Avhatina {Electra) perrotteti^ lianlev & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1870, pi. 35, fig. 6 {non Pfr.). 
Httnocjyra (Glessula) nilagirica^ Nevill, J. A. 8. B. 1, 1881, p. 136, 

pi. 5, fig. 15. 
Glessula perroiteti, var. nilagirica^ Pfeiffer & Clessin, Mou. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 330. 
Gk'ssnla nilagirica, Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, 1906, 

p. 161. 
Glessula nilagarica, Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 90, 

pi. 9, fig. 5. 

Original description : — " Sliell pyi^auiidally turreted, whorls 
ten in number, convex, very finely crenulated at the sutures, then 
striated, columella rather deeply arched, aperture small ; brown- 
horny." {Reeve.) 

Hah. India : Nilgiris {Jerdoii). 

" The shell I take to be this species is the one described by 
Nevill. I collected it both on the Nilgiris and NullamuUays 
(Kuriiool). It is of the same length and has the same number of 
whorls as sliiplayi., and is very like the full-grown shell of that 
species, only it has a more prominent striation, and is considerably 
broader towards the base. The young shell is conical from a broad 
base, the young of ship>lc(yi being much more cylindrical. If 
lieeve's figure, copied by jN'evill, is tin's species, it must be a small 
form of it. It is more probably perrotieti.'" {Beddome.) 



1868, 



348. Glessula hebes, Pfeiffer. 

Achatitm hebes (lilanford), Pfeiffer, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. vi, 18( 

p. 230 ; Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1876, pi. 159, fig. 2. 
Glessula hebes, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 21, pi. 3, 

fig. 21 ; Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii. 1906, p. 161 ; 

PiUbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1908, p. 02, pi. 9, fig. 6. 
Achatina (Glessula) hebes, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1870, 

p. 315. 
Stenoggra (Glesstda) hebes, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 167. 
Stenoggra (Subulina) hebes, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 326. 

OriqvMd description : — " T, ventroso-turrita, pertenuis, irregu- 
lariter, praesertim ad suturam striata, pelhicida, sericina, fulvo- 
coruea ; spira elongata, apice obtusa ; sutura impi-essa ; anfr. 10 
convexiusculi, ultimus \ longitudinis subaequans, basi rotundatus ; 
apertura verticalis, rhombeo-elliptica ; columella perarcuata, 
oblique anguste tx-uncata ; perist. simplex, tenue. 



glesstjla. 383 

"Long. 17, diam. 5 mill. Ap. oblique 41 longa, 2'^ lata." 
{Pfeifer.) 

fJab. India: Deo Ghat, Poona (Etwzard) ; Shevroy Jlills 
(Jkddome) ; Dafla Hills {Qodivin- Austen) ; Pulnoy Hills {Fair- 
hanJc); Koonoor Pass (XeviU); Ma.hah\es\\\\ar (Beddome). 

Wlien tirst described by Pfeiffer he was unaware of the habitat 
of the species, although the specimens ' were forwarded direct to 
Cuming by Major Evezard. Two years after J31anford again 
described the species, aud, as his diagnosis is based on better and 
more ample material, I append it. 

" Testa sub-cylindricoturrita, tenuis, pallido-cornea, translucens, 
polita, striatula; spira elevata, subtus sub-eylindrica, lateribus 
versus apicem obtusum convexis ; sutura impressa. Anfr. 9-10| 
convexi, regulariter crescentes, ultimus brevis, |-i longitudinis 
subaequans. Apertura ovato-oblougo, parum obliqua ; peristoma 
tenue ; columella valde arcuata, antice oblique truncata. 
" Long. 17-22, diam. 5 mill. Ap. 4-4| longa, 2^-3 lata. 
" The nearest ally to this species appears to be G. tamidica,Vl. 
and H. Blanf., from near Trichonopoli, which is distinguished 
by greater diameter in proportion to the length, aud a more 
regularly tapering spire. Intermediate forms ma}' hereafter be 
found, however. 

•' A specimen from the Shevroy Hills, near Salem in Southern 
India, sent to me by Major Beddome, only differs from G. hehes in 
being longer aud slightly more attenuate towards the apex. It 
has 13 whorls." {Blanford.) 

Beddome expressed considerable doubt as to its distinctness 
from G. fairbanki, stating that all the specimens of G. hehes he had 
seen were young, with unformed lip. He adds : " If full grown, 
or nearly so, it must be a nnich smaller species than shipJwji. It 
runs the young of that species rather closely, but the apex is 
generally blunter. Specimens collected by me on the Shevroys 
are i-eferred here by Blanford ; they are, however, immature, and 
appear rather to belong to fairhanhi, if that species is distinct, 

which I doubt Hanley's figure of liehes hns the tapering 

apex of young sliipla>ji and is unlike my type of hehes.'' 

Glessula hehes has the whorls more narrowly coiled than fair- 
hanki ; other differences are indicated under the latter. The 
figure given by Blanford is rather poor, the strite being more pro- 
nounced. Two specimens from the Shevroy Hills, in the Beddome 
collection, possess 9 o- whorls, one measures only 12 mm. and the 
other 13 mm. 



349. Glessula fairhanki, Benson. 

Achatina fairban/./, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, xv, ISG'), p. 14} 

Pfeiffer, Men. lleiic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 232. 
Achatina {Eledni) fairbanki, Hanley & Theobald, Conch. Ind. 1870, 

pi. 18, fig. 3. 



384 EEEUSSACID^. 

Ste)toffyra (Subulina) f(drbanki,Pieifiev k Clessin, Nomencl. Ilelic. 

Viv. 1881, p. 326. 
Glessula fairbanid, Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudon, vii, 1906, 

p. 162; Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1908, p. 63, pi. 9, 

fig. 7. 

Original description : — " A. testa subcyliudraceo-turrita, stria- 
tula, obsolete et minutissime spiraliter decussata, polita, trans- 
lucente, luteo-cornea ; spira versus apicein ad latera subconvexa, 
vertice obtuso, sutura distincte impressa ; anfractibus 8, sub- 
convexis, brevibus, 4 ultimis in diametro lente accrescentibus, 
ultimo subtus rotundato \ longitudinis aequante ; apertura sub- 
obliqua, ovata, superue subtusque angulata, marginibus callo 
juuctis, coluniellari leviter arcuato, oblique truncato, dextro 
basalique tenuibus. 

" Long. 12, lat. 4 mill. Apert., long, 3, lat, 2^ mill.*' (Benson.) 

Hah. India : Mahableshvvar (Fairhcml-). 

" The nearest JS'ilgiri form is A. corrostda, Pfr. The more 
cylindrical form below, the sculpture, shorter whorls, &c., safely 
distinguish it." (Benson.) 

"A type-specimen sent me from Mahableshwar by Mr. Fair- 
bank, and a few other examples I have seen in the Benson 
collection and elsewliere, are all young shells with unformed lips. 
It is smaller than hehes, but I cannot point out how it differs 
otherwise.'* (Beddome.) 

While agreeing that the two forms are closely alUed, they 
appear to me sufficiently distinct to be retained as separate 
species. G. hehes is not only proportionately larger but the last 
whorl is shorter in proportion to the spire than is the case in 
fairhanli, a feature which would still further be emphasized if one 
or two whorls \vere added to the latter, whereas the reverse 
would be the case if it were an immature form of hehes. 
Glessula fairhanhi differs from G. hehes principally in the convex 
upper part of the spire which becomes cylindrical at the last 
three whorls. It further differs in being more polished, in tlie 
striae being much finer, and in the whorls being less closely 
coiled; all, except the last whorl, show numerous opaque, 
narrow, spiral lines. Hanley's figure of the species is very 
good. 

A specimen in the British Museum, from the type-locality, 
possesses 8| whorls, but it has the same dimensions as the 
type. 

Major Peile possesses a single specimen from Mahableshwar 
composed of eight whorls. 

350. Glessula vadalica, Benson. 

Achat ina vadaUca, Benson, A. M. N. II. ser. 3, xv, 1865, p. \'): 

Pfeilfer, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 229. 
Achatiym (Electra) vadaUca, Hanley ifc Theobald, Conch. lud. 1870. 

pi. 3o, fig. 5. 



GLESSULA. 385 

Stenogyra {Glesstda) vadalica, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 168. 
Gkssitla vadalica, Pfeiffer & Olessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, 

p. .'531; Beddoiue, Proc. Malac. Soc. Londou, vii, 1906, p. 162; 

Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1908, p. 64, pi. 9, fig. 11, 

Original description : — "A. testa turrito-elongata, striatula, 
soliclula, polita, traiiHliicente, luteo-cornea ; spira versus apicem 
convexiusculo-turrita, apice obtusiusculo, sutura impressa; an- 
fractibus 11, convexis, brevibus, siipet-ioribus costulato-striatis ; 
ultimo subtus I'otundato, i longitudinis vix gequaute; apertura 
vix obliqua, elliptico-ovata, margiiiibus callo junctis, columellari 
leviter arcuato, albido, oblique truncato, dextro basalique tenuibus. 

" Lono;. 34, diam. 9 mill. Apert., long. 8, lat. 5 mill." (Benson.) 

Hah. India : A¥adale, near Ahraednuggar (Fairhank). 

" The convex sides of the upper part of the spire, the shorter 
whorls, with the sculpture and polish of this shell, distinguish it 
as well from the Nilgiri A. perrotteti as from the neighbouring 
A. notii/ena, which has an attenuate spire and costulate sculpture 
in all the whorls." (Benson.) 

In addition to the above differentiating characters, the last 
whorl of vadalica is more tumid at the base, while in perrotteti it 
is more sloping towards the columella. 

351. Glessula tamulica, Blanford. 

Achafina taviidica, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 362; 

Pfeifter, IMon. Helic Viv. vi, 1868, p. 232. 
Achatina (E/ectra) tamulica, Hanley Sc Theobald, Conch. Ind. 

1870, pi. 17, fio-. 9. 
Stenor/yra (Glessula) tamtdica, Xevill, Hand List, i. 1878, p. 108. 
Stenogyra (SubuUna) tamulica, Pfeiffev & Clessiu, Nomencl. Ilelir. 

Viv.' 1881, p. 326. 
Glessula tamnlica, Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, 1906, 

p. 162 ; Pil,-:^bry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1908, p. 64, pi. 9, 

fig. 12. 

Original description : — " Testa turrita, tenuis, pellucida, nitida, 
cornea, striatula ; spira regulariter attenuata, apice obtusa ; 
aufr. 10 convexi, ultimus i longitudinis paulo superans, rotuu- 
datus ; columella valde arcuata, oblique truncata. Apertura 
parum obliqua, subovalis ; peristoma simplex, tenue, marginibus 
callo tenuissimo junctis. 

"Long. 20, diam. 6 mm. Ap. 5| alta, 3 lata." (Blanfo'rd.) 

Hah. India : Cullagoody, near Trichinopoli (Blanford). 

" Near shiplayi, Pfr., but distinguished by the smaller number 
of whorls, more obtuse apex, etc."' (Blanford.) 

Beddome states that Blanford's types, his own specimens 
received from him, and all other specimens he has seen are not 
mature, the lip being quite fragile, and he considers it very near 
vadalica, having all the appearance of being the young of that 
species. 

While agreeing with Beddome that its affinity is with vadalica, 
rather than with shiplayi, I do not think tamulica can be the 

2c 



386 FERUSSACID.B. 

immature form of the former, being considerably broader at the 
base, a feature which would be emphasized if another whorl were 
added. The later whorls, moreover, increase more rapidly than 
in vadalica, which is more conoid, with straiglit sides to the 
spire. 

352. Glessula perrotteti, Pfeifer. 

Ackatuitt perroteti, Pfeiffer, Revue Zool. 1842, p. 305; ibid., Symb. 

Hist. Helic. ii, 1842, p. 59. 
Glondina perroteti, Philippi, Abb. Bescbr. Conchy], i, 1844, p. 135, 

Gkaidina, pi. 1, fig. 12. 
Achatiyia perrotteti^ Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 260; 

ibid., Concb.-Cab., Bulimus, 1800, p. 324, pi. 26, figs. 16, 17. 
Achatina (Subulina) perrotteti, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 195. 
Oleacina {Electra) }yerrotteti^ Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. ii. 1855, 

p. 106. 
Achntina (Electra) 2^^>'>''^ii<^ih Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. ii, 1856, 

p. 168. 
Cionella (Glessula) i^erroteti, von Martens, Die Heliceen, ed. 2, 

1860, p. 254. 
Stenof/yra (Glessula) j)eroftett, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 168, 

ibid., J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 137, pi. 5, figs. 17, 17 o. 
Glessula perrotteti, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Noiuencl. Helic. Yiv. 1881, 

p. 330; Beddome. Proc. Malac. See. London, vii, 1906, p. 162 ; 

Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 65, pi. 9, figs. 9, 10. 

Original description : — " Testa elongato-conica, apice obtusius- 
cula, nitide cornea, diaphaua ; sutura profunda ; anfractibus con- 
vexiusculis, ultimo tertiam longitudinis partem sequante ; columella 
valde incurvata, abrupte truncata, apertura ovali. 

" Long. 25, diam. 11 mill." {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Nilgiris (Perrottd) ; JSTeddoowutton, Mlgiris 
{Blanford) ; Pulney Hills (Beddome). 

353. Glessula prselustris, Benson. 

Achatina prcclustris, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, v, 1860, p. 462 ; 

Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 221. 
Achatina (Electra) pradustris, Hanley & Theobald, Concb. Ind. 

1870, pi. 17, fig. 6; var. fig. 7. 
Stenoqyra (Glessula) praelustris, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, 

p. i71. 
Glessula prcelustris, Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 

1881, p. 329 ; Jousseaume, M(5m. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 293 ; Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, 1906, p. 162 ; 

Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 68, pi. 9, figs. 15, 16 ; 

Anuandale, Rec. Indian Mus. vii, 1912, p. 33. 

Orif/tnal description : — •' Testa ovato-oblonga, pei'tenui, fragili, 
irregulariter plicato-striata, nitente, pallide luteo-cornea ; spira 
pyramidata, apice obtuse, sutura profundiuscula, subcrenulata ; 
anfractibus 8| convexiusculis, superua prope suturam tumidius- 
culis ; ultimo 5 testse superante, subinflato ; apertura verticali. 



GLESSULA. 387 

semiovali, latiuscula, columella subrecta, vix curvata, basi oblique 
truncata, peristomate recto, acuto. 

" Long. 33, diam. 17 mill. ; aperfc. 15 mill, longa, 9 lata." 
(Benson.) 

Hah. India : Midnapore, Balasore, and Cuttack, prov. Orissa 
{Theobald); Ganjani and Eaueegunge {Ball, /StoliczJca) ; Parestiath 
Hills, W. Bengal {Annandale) ; Orissa and Granjam districts, 
E. Madras (Beddome). 

354. Glessula huegeli, Pfeiffer. 

Achatina hU(/eli,Vfeifier, Svmb. Hist. Ilelic.ii, 1842, p. 58 ; Philippi, 

Abb. Beschr. Conchyl. "i, 1844, p. 135, Glandina, pi. 1, fiy. 8 ; 

Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, 1848, p. 259 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

V, 1849, Achatma, pi. 15, tig. 68 ; Pfeiffer, Couch.-Cab., Bidimus, 

1860, p. 334, pi. 29, figs. 2, 3. 
Achatina {Archachntina) hugelii, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1850, 

p. 190. 
Oleacvia {Electra) Imyeli, Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. ii. 1855, p. 105. 




1881, 
p. 331 ; Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudon, vii, 1906, p. 162 ; 
Pilsbiy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 91, pi. 9, tigs. 13, 14. 

Orlr/iiial deseription : — " T. ovato-turrita, pallide cornea, longi- 
tudinaliter striata, nitida, fragili ; spira elongata, apice obtusius- 
cula ; sutura profunda ; anfr. 10-11 planiusculis, ultimo | longi- 
tudiuis subaequante; apertura oblongo-elliptica; columella valde 
arcuata ; perist. simplice, acuto. 

" Long, 37, diam. 13 mill."' {Pfeiffer.) 

Hah. India : Kashmir {von IPiigel). 

When first described its origin was unknown. Kashmir was 
first given as its habitat by Hanley and Theobald. The species 
is allied to G. cJiessoni, but it is more solid in texture. The 
Cuming collection contains three specimens from Kashmir, with 
a label in Pfeilfer's handwriting. 

355. Glessula burrailensis, Godivin-Austen. 

Glessula burrailensis, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xliv, 1875. p. 3, 
pi. 1, fig. 6; Pfeiffer & Clessin, Nouiencl. Helic. Viv. 1881,' 
p. 329; Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, 1906, p. 163; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 92, pi. 7, figs. 9, 10. 

Achatina burrailensis, Pfeiffer, Mon. Helic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 277, 

Orir/inal description :— " Shell turreted elongate, solid, in fresh 
state brown and lustrous, finely longitudinally striated; whorls 10, 
]-ather flat, suture sliallow, apex blunt ; aperture subvertical, 
fusiform, angular above, peristome very thick, paler brown on 
margin, columella strong. 

"Alt. 1-37 [=34-75 mm.], major diam, 0-4 inch [ = 10 mm.]." 
(Godwin- At(ste7i.) 

2c2 



388 TERUSSACID.E. 

Hah. India : Peak of Khiinho, Eastern Ijiirrnil Kange ; Japvo, 
7000 ft. 

" This species is an extremely elongate solid form of the 
crassilahris section of Glessnla, and one of the most distinct." 
(^Gochvin-Aitsten.) 

Erom cJiessoni it differs apparently in ha\'ing a more obtuse 
apex, while from huegeli it may be distinguislied by the more 
flattened \Ahorls and the concave npper part of the spire. I have 
not seen any specimens. 

350. Glessiila butleri, Godwin- Austen. 

Glessnla butleri, Godwin-Austeu, J. A. 8. B. xliv, 1875, p. 4, pi. 1, 
fig. 7; Pfeifter & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, p. 330 ; 
Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii. 1900, p. 163 ; Pilsbrv, 
Man. Couch, sev. 2. xx, 1909, p. 92. pi. 11. tigs. 1, 2. 
Achatina butleri, Pfeitler, Mon. Helic. Mv. viii, 1877, p. 278. 

Original description :— " Shell elongately turreted, very thin 
and brittle, tumid, pale corneous, glassy, very minutely striated, 
apex very blunt ; whoi'ls S, rather rounded, suture deep, body- 
whorl swollen and capacious ; aperture vertical, pear-shaped, lip 
rather thin. 

"Alt. 1'13 [ = 29 mm.], major diam. 0'45 inch [ = 11'25 mm.]." 
( Godiuin-A usten .) 

Hah. India : Eastern Burrail Eange, 6000 ft. 

A species I have not seen. It is apparently rare. 

357. Glessnla chessoni, Benson. 

Achatina chessoni, Benson, A. M. N. IJ. ser. 3, v, 1860, p. 462; 

Pfeifter, 31on. Hehc. Viv. 1868, p. 222. 
Achatina (Electra) chessoni, Hanlev & Theobald, Conch. lud. 1872, 

pi. 17. fig, 8. 
Stenogyra (Glessida) chessoni, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 167. 
Glessiila chessoni, Pfeifter & Clessin, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, 

p. 329 ; Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, 1906, p. 163 ; 

Pilsbry, Man. Couch, ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 68, pi. 11, tig. G. 

Original description : — "Testa OA'ato-tnrrita, superne attenuata, 
scabre plicato-striata, striis minutissimis confertis obsoletis spirali- 
bus decussata, fulvo-cornea, vel purpureo-fusca, transluceute, 
nitidnla ; spira turrita, apicem versus obtusiusculum attenuata, 
sutura impressa, crenulata ; anfractibus 11 1 convexiusculis, ultimo 
^ testae superante intlatiusculo ; apertura subverticali, semiovali, 
latiuscula, cokimella subrecta, albido-callosa, basi vix oblique 
truucata, peristomate recto, tenui." (Benson.) 

Long. 37, diam. 15 mill. ; apert. 14 mill, longa, 8 lata. 

Hah. India: Mahablesliwar Hills (C7<e*son, j^7;go?>«Z(/) ; Igatpuri 
(Stoliczl-a) ; Torna and Purandhar (Blanford, Fairhanl-) ; North 
Canara forests and Sircee (Beddome). 

This species is allied to G. huegeli but the spire has a more 
acuminate apex with concave sides and a broader base ; it is also 
thinner in texture and the suture is more crenulate. 



GLESSULA. 389 

A shell in the Theohald collectiou, from Mahableshwar, is in 
very tresh condition and shows rather irregular incised spirals. 
Three specimens from tlie same locality, in the Cuming collection, 
are darker in colour; they measure 30xl0'o mm. The lieddome 
collection contaius three shells from Poona, one of which has 
IH whorls and measures 34x1- mm., while another possesses 
12 whorls and attains a length of 30*5 mm., with a diameter of 
onlv 11 mm. 



358. Glessula tornensis, Blanford. 

Glesmla tornensis, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 22, 
pi. ;3, fig. 22; I'feiffei- .^- Clessin, Nomencl Ilelic. Viv. 1881, 
p. o-jO; Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loudon, vii, 190G, p. 163 ; 
Bilsbvy, Mau. Concli. ser. 2, xx, 1909, p. 09, pi. J I, tigs. '6, 4. 

Achutina {Electra) tornensis, Ilanley & Theobald, Conch, lud . 
1874, pi. 78, lig. o. 

AeJiafina tornensis, Pfeifier, Mon. Ilelic. Viv. viii, 1877, p. 278. 

Stenot/yra {Glessula) tornensis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 167. 

Original description : — " Testa ovato oblonga, tenuiuscula, levi- 
gata, nitida, polita, sub-obsolete striatula, fulvo cornea ; spira 
elongato couoidea, lateribus convexis ; apice valde obtuso ; sutura 
impressa, superne sub-corrugata. Anfr. 7-7^ convexi, ultimus j? 
longitudinis superans, subtus rotundatus. Apertiu'asub-verticalis, 
oblongo semiovalis ; peristoma rectum, teuue, marginibus callo 
tenui junctis ; columella valde arcuata, albescens, antice fere 
verticaliter truncata. 

'• Long. 2.3, diam. 14 mill. ; apert. oblique 12 mill, longa, 7 lata." 
(Blanford.) 

H(d>. India : Torna Hill, Poona (Euezard, Blanford) ; Anamul- 
lays, Tinnevelly, and Travaucoi-e Ghats (Beddome). 

" This rather fine species abounds on the hill mentioned, where 
it has been procured in large numbers by Major Evezard. I only 
found a few specimens myself. It is amongst the finest of the 
species of Western India. In form it is remarkably similar to 
(J. textilis, W. Blauf., from the Ananuillay hills, but it entii'ely 
Mants the coloured markings of that species." {Blanford.) 

Beddome observes in connection with the species : "My 
Travancore specimens were hibelled subtornensis by Nevill, but I 
cannot see how they differ. I took a very beautiful dark chocolate- 
coloured variety on the Calcad Hills in Tinnevelly." 

I have been unable to find the Travancore specimens referred 
to by Beddome, but of three Anamullay shells, labelled suh- 
iornensis, two undoubtedly pertain to G. tornensis, while the third, 
which differs in several respects, has been made the type of 
subtornensis. 

Four specimens from Poona, also in the Beddome collection, 
range in size from 27 X 13'5 nun. to 26 x 14 mm., while two shells 
from Torna Hill, in the Theobald collection, measure 2Q-o x 14 mm. 



390 FEEU.SSACID.'E. 

359. Glessula subtoniensis, sp. n. 

81iell oblong-conoid, rather thin, transhicent, very finely striated, 
smooth and strongly polished, pale corneous. Spire conoid, with 
straight sides : suture impressed, subcrenulate ; apex rather pro- 
minent, very slightly obtuse, almost acute. Whorls 8, scarcely 
convex, sliglitly shouldered above, increasing rather slowlj^ and 
regularly at first, the last three rather suddenly ; last whorl 
nearly equalling in width f of the entire length of the shell. 
Aperture subvertical, broadly truncately semi-oval ; peristome 
scarcely thickened, outer margin scarcely curved and descending 
nearly vertically, basal margin deeply curbed : columella arcuate, 
forming an obtuse angle at the junction \\ ith the parietal wall, 
very obliquely truncate at the base ; the margins united by a thin 
callus. 

Length 26-5 mm., diam. 15 mm. 

Hah. India : AnamuUays {Bcddomc). Type in the British 
Museum. 




Fig. 122. — Ghsfula mhfor)icusis. 

Differs from G. tomensis in having a much more acute apex 
and a broader base; the spire in consequence is acuminate in the 
upper part instead of convex as in its ally. The earlier whorls 
are also more closely coiled, and the suture is less distinctly 
crenulate ; finally the shell is less solid and more shining. 

I found three shells, labelled siihtornensis, Nevill, MS., in the 
Beddome collection. Two of these, however, proved to be simply 
tomensis, while the third has been made the type of the new 
species. 

360. Glessula textilis, Blanford. 

Achntina textilis, Blanford. J. A. S. B. xxxv. 1866. p. 41 ; PfeifFer. 

Mon. Helic. Viv. vi, 1868, p. 220. 
Achatina (Electra) textilis, Hanlev & Theobald, Couch. Ind. 1870, 

pi. 17, tig. 10. 
Stenoyyra [Glessula) textilis, Nevill, Hand List, i, 1878, p. 168. 
Glessula textilis, Pieiffer & Clessiii, Nomencl. Helic. Viv. 1881, 

p. 329 ; Beddome. Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, 1906, p. 163 ; 

Pilsbiy, Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx, 1?09, p. 69, pi. IL figs. 6, 7. 

Original description. — " Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, trans- 
lucent, striated near the suture, smooth, polished, dark chestnut 



GLESSULA. 



391 



witli close vertical and liorizontiil lines of a greyisli-ycUow colour, 
varying in breadth and resembling the threads of an irregularly 
woven dotli. Spire elongated, conoidal with convex sides, apex 
obtuse, sutures impressed. Whorls 7, convex, the last about f of 
the entire length, roundeil beneath. Aperture vertical, truncately 
semioval, milky within ; peristome slightly thickened, white, right 
margin sliiihtly shuiate towards the base, columella deeply curved, 
obliquely truncated beneath, margins united by a thin callus. 

"Length 26, diam. 13 millim. Aperture 10\ mill, long, 
7 broad."' (Blanford.) 

Hah. India : Ananuillay Hills, 6000 ft. {Beddome, Stoliczlca) ; 
Pulney Hills {Fairhanlc) ; Tinnevelly and Travancore Ghats, South 
Canara {Beddome); Mahableshwar (Peile). 

" This is the only indigenous Indian Acliatina with which I am 
acquainted, possessing coloured markings. In form it approaches 
some of the Ceylon AcJiatince, and also an undescribed Deccan 
species." (Blanford.) 

" Varies in diameter from 10 to 14 mm. I have specimens 
from the Tinnevelly Grhats in which the textile colouring is reduced 
to a single narrow band on each of the thi-ee lower whorls, or is 
entirely obsolete."' (Beddome.) 

The species is variously ornamented with dark spiral bands and 
lines, but occasionally specimens occur without either. One shell 
from South Canara, in the Beddome collection, exhibits some 
indistinct spiral lines and in addition some opaque transverse lines. 
Another shell from the Pulney Hills, in the same collection, 
measures : length 30 mm., diameter 13-5 mm., while two speci- 
mens from Tinnevelly are dark fuscous, without bands but with a 
narrow pale sublateral zone; they consist of 6^ whorls and 
measure 25-5 x 14 mm. 

361. Glessula siibserena, Beddome. 

Glessula suhserona, Beddome, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, 1906, 

p. 166, pi. 15, tig. 7. 
Glesmla jcyporenais Pilsbrv (nou Beddome), Man. Conch, ser. 2, 

XX, 1909" p. 75, pi. 8, figs. 13, U. 

Original description : — '* Testa ovato-turrita, solidiiiscula, politis- 
siina, obsolete striatula, fulvo-cornea, pellucida ; spira subturrita, 
apice obtusato ; sutura impressa, marginata, crenulata ; anfractus 
7 planiusculi, ultimus i longitudinis vix a?quans ; apertura semi- 
ovalis ; columella valde arcuata, albido-callosa, marginibus callo 
junctis, ad basin abrupta et oblique truncata. 

"Long. 22, diam. 11 mm.; a[)ertura 10 mm. longa, 5 lata.'" 
(Beddome.) 

Hah. India : Peerraede (Travancore), Sispara, Nilgiris, S. Canara, 
and AnamuUays (Beddome). 

"■ The last whorl is longer, and the spire less elevated than in 
the Ceylonese serena, and the whorls, especially the upper ones, 
are less convex." (Beddome.) 



392 FERUSSACID.E, 

Prof. Pilsbry, in copying Beddome's Hgures, has unfortunately 
interchanged the mimerals on the plate of the present species and 
G. jeyporensis. 

G. suhserena is allied to G. textilis but is deA'oid of the spiral 
bands and lines of the latter. 

The Beddome collection contains several shells from the type- 
locality and tvo from Sispara. one of which is dark fuscous and a 
little more conoid than the type ; it has 6^ whorls and measures 
21x1 1*25 mm. The same collection contains three specimens 
which were labelled G. inormtta, from S. Canara, but which per- 
tain to the present species. Of these two, composed of 6J whorls, 
measure 20 x 9 mm., while the third, of 7+ whorls, attains a length 
of 25 mm., with a diameter of 11 mm. 



362. Glessula indica, sp. n. 

Shell obloug-conoid, rather thin, transluceut, finely striated, 
smooth, slightly pohshed,pale corneous. Spire elongate conoidal, 
with straight sides, suture rather deep, apex acute. Whorls 9, 
convex, increasing rather slowly and regularly, last whorl less 
than f of entire length. Apeilure vertical, truncately semi-oval ; 
peristome slightly thickene