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THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDINS 



CEYLON AND EUEMA. 



Published under the authority of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

EDITED Br LT.-COL. C. T. BINGHAM. 



MOLL use A.X^ 

TESTACELLID^ and ZONITID/E 




The late Dk. W. T. BLANFORD, F.R.S., 



Lt.-Col. H. H. GODWIN-AUSTEN, F.R.S. 



V - I . ' 

LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CALCUTTA AND SIMLA : 
THACKER, SPINK, & CO. 

BURMA : 

MTLES STANDI8H & CO., 
RANGOON. 



BOMBAY : 
THACKER & CO., LIiUITED. 

BERLIN : 

R. FRIEDL.'VXDER & SOHX, 

11 CARLSTKASSE. 



1908. 



FKUtlMAM, 




PRINTED BT TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 







DSro^on of Mollusks 
PREFACE. Sectional Library 



The preseut short volume of the ' Fauna of British India' 
series deals with the families Testacellidse and Zonitidse of 
the Indian Land-MoUusca. This account of these two 
important families of land-shells is founded on the all too 
short manuscript left by the late Dr. Blanford, who in it had 
dealt with the shells chiefly from the conchological side. It 
was fortunate therefore that Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austen, whose 
unique knowledge of Indian MoUusca is well known to 
students of the Indian Fauna, willingly consented to take up 
and complete the malacological part required for the volume. 
This, however, necessitated a re-arrangement of the MS. 
and a considerable amount of further study and dissections, 
all of which retarded the publication of the work. 

C. T. BINGHAM. 

Loudon, 
June 1908. 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS QUOTED IN 
THE SYNONYMY. 



Abh. Ver. Hamb. Abhaudlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwisseii- 
seliaften, herausgegeben voiii Natuvwissenscliaftlichen Verein in Hamburg. 
Hamburg, 1845-1908. 

Act. Soc. Lin. Bord. Aetes do la Societe Linneenne de Bordeaux. {Began 
as the liulletin, 18.30-1845.) Bordeaux, 1831-1908. 

Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. The Qeiu-ra of Recent MoUusca. By Henry 
and Arlhur Adams. London, 1833 1858. 

Albers, Heliceen. Albors, Die Heliceen. 2nd edit. Leipsig, 18G0. 

Am. Jour. Conch. American Journal of Conchology. Philadelphia, 
1865-1872. 

A. M. N. H. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London, 1838- 
1908. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. Annali del Mn.seo Civico di Storia Naturale di 
Genova, 1870-1908. 

Arch. Naturgesch. Archive.s fi'ir Naturgeschichte. Berlin, 1835-1908. 

Beck, Ind. Moll. Index Molhiscorura Musei Prince Christiani Frederici. 
11. Beck. llafniiP, 1837. 

Belanger, Voy. Zool. Voyage aux Indes-Orientales. Zoologie, par 
M. Charles Belanger. Paris, 1831-1834. 

Bost. Jour. N. H. Boston Journal of Natural History. Boston, 1834- 
1863. {Cvnfimtvd us Memoirs, 186G-1908.) 

Bull. Soc. Bordeaux. Sec Act. Soc. Lin. Bord. supra. 

Faun. Geog. Maid. Lac. Is. The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive 
and Lnccadive A rcliipelagos. Cambridge, 1901-1906. 

Fer. Hist. Nat. Ferus.sac et Deshayes, Histoire generale et particuliere 
des Molhisques. Pari.=!, 1820-1851. 

Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. Land and Freshwater Mollusca of India. 
By Lt.-Cul. II. 11. Gudwin-Austen. London, 1882-1907. (In process of 
j)ublication.) 

Gray, Cat. Pulm. B. M. Gray and Pfeiffer, Catalogue of the Pulmonata, 
or Air-breatliiug IMullusca, in ilie British Museum. London, 1855. 

H. 8c T. C. I. llanley and Theobald, Conchologia Indica. London, 187G. 

J. A. S. B. Journal of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta, 1832- 
1908. 



VI WOBKS QUOTED. 

Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. Journal of the Bombay Natural History 
Society. Bombay, 18S6-190S. 

Jour, de Conch. Journal de Oonchyliologie. Paris, 1850-1908. 

Jour. Linn. Soc. Journal of the Proceedings of the Liunean Society. 
London, 1857-1908. 

Jour. Mai. Journal of Malacology. London, 1894-1904. {Commenced as 
' The Conchologist,' London, 1891-1893.) 

Lea, Obs. Observations on the Genus ?7«fo. J.Lea. 13 vols. Philadelphia, 
1832-1874. 

Le Nat. Lo Naturaliste. Paris, 1879-1908. 

Loudon, Mag. N. H. Loudon's Magazine of Natural History. London, 
1829-1830. (Afterwards incorporated with the ' Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History.') 

Mai. Bl. Malakozoologische Blatter als Fortsetzung der Zeitschrift fiir 
Malakozoologie. Cassel, 1854-1888. 

Mart. & Chemn. Syst. Conch.-Cab. Neues systematisches ConcbvHen- 
Cabiuet 1st edit. 12 vols, Niirnberg, 17ti9-lS29. 2ud edit. Niirn- 
berg, 1868 (in progress). 

Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. Memoires de la Societe zoologique de France. 
Paris, 1888-1908. 

Nautilus. The Nautilus, a Monthly Journal devoted to the Intei-ests of 
Conchologists. Philadelphia, 188(3-1908. 

Nev. Hand-1. Hand-list of MoUusca in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
G. NeviU. Calcutta. 1878-1884. 

Nev. Yark. Miss., Mol. Scientific Eesults of the Second Yarkand 
Mission. Calcutta, 1878-1891. (Mollusca, by G. Nevill, 1878.) 

Nev. Yunnan Exped., Mol. Anderson's Zoology of Western Yunnan. 
Mollusca. Species collected on the two expeditions to Western Yunnan. 
G. Nevill. London, 1878-1879. 

Pfr. Mon. Hel. Monographia Heliceorum. 8 vols. L. Pfeiffer. Leipsig, 
1847-1S77. 

Pfr. Nov. Conch. Novitates Conchologicoe. 5 vols. L. Pfeiffer. Cassel. 
1834-1879. 

Pfr. Symb. Mol. Svmbolse ad historiam Heliceorum. L. Pfeiffer. Cassel. 
1841-1840. 

Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 
History. Boston, 1841-1908. 

Proc. Mai. Soc. Proceedings of the Malacological Society. London, 
1893-1908. 

P. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. London, 1830-1908. 

Rv. Conch. Ic. Conchologia Iconica. 20 vols. L. A. Reeve. London, 

1843-1878. 

Rev. et Mag. Zool. Eevue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et appliquee, par 
Guerin-Meneville et Ad. Focillon. Paris, 1849-1879. 



AVORKS QUOTEP. Vll 

Semper, Reis. d. Phil. Eeisen im Archipel der Pliilippinon, von Dr. C. 
Semper. Leipsig unci Wiesbaden, 1868-1883. 

Theob. Cat. Catnlogiie of tlie Shells in t!ie Museum of the Asiatic Societv 
uC Bengal. Calcutta. 1860. 

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. Verhandhmgen der k.-k. zoologiseh- 
bctiuiisrhPH Gesrllsrhan in Wien. Wien, 1852-1908. 

Vidensk. Medd. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Natnrhittoriske 
Furening i Ivjobenhavn. Copenhagen, 1849-1859. 

Zeitschr. Mai. Meuke, Zeitschrii't fur Malakozoologie. Hanover, 1844- 
1852. 

Zool. Jour. Zoological Journal. London. 1824-1835. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX, 



Page 

MOLLUSCA 1 

Class Gasteropoda i 

Order PULMONA.TA 1 

Suborder Geophila or Stylo- 

matophora 1 

Group Ag- 11 at ha 1 



Fauiilv 1. Testacellid^ 



1 



Subfani. 1. Slreptaxina; .... 1 

1. Streptaxis, Gray 1 

1. petiti, Gould 4 

2. bouibax, Bs 4 

o. audamanieus, Bs o 

4. blanfordi, Theob 5 

5. layardianus, Bs 5 

6. burmanicus, Blf. .... 6 

7. pfeifferi, Zelebor 6 

8. solid ulu.'^, Stol 7 

9. exacutus, Gould 8 

10. sankeyi, Bs 8 

11. haiilevanus, Stol 8 

12. obtusiis, *Yo/ 9 

18. theobaldi, Bens 9 

14. daflaeiisLs, G.-A 10 

15. peroteti, Betit 10 

10. footei,W'. lV 7/. ^/Z". . . 11 

17. watsoni, W. ^- H.Blf. . 11 

18. beddoniii, Blf. ...'... 11 

19. concinnus, Blf. 12 

20. scalptus, Blf. 12 

21. cingalensis, Bs 12 



Page 

22. gracili.<?, CoUett 13 

23. lse\is, Blf. 13 

24. ravaiiie, Blf 13 

25. personatus, Blf. 14 

26. pronus, Blf 14 

27. elisa, Gould . , 14 

28. canarieus, Blf. 15 

29. subacutu.s, Blf 15 

30. compressus, Blf 15 

2. Ennea, H. ^- A. Adams. . 16 

1. vara, Bs 16 

2. stenopylis, Bs 17 

3. nagaensis, Blf. 17 

4. blanfordiaiia, G.-A. . . 17 

5. fartoidea, Theob 18 

6. m\\i\Ma,Godivin-Anste)i 18 

7. cylindrelloidea, Stol. . . 18 

8. seatoni, Bed dome .... 19 

9. brevicolli.s, Blf 19 

10. bicolor, Hntton 19 

1 1. niacrodou, Blf. 21 

12. subcostulata,' Blf 21 

13. turricula, Blf 25i 

14. exilis, lilf. 22 

15. pirriei, Pfr 22 

1*^. sculptu, 'Blf 22 

17. beddoniii, 'Blf 23 

18. cauarica, Blf. 23 

19. planguncula, Bs 23 

20. luoerchiana, Neo 24 

Family 2. Zonitid^; 25 

Subfam. 1. Ariophantince . . 2-'j 

1. Ariophanta, DesjnoultJis. . 26 

1. laivipes, Miill 29 

2. laidlayaiia, Bs 30 

3. kadapaensis, Kev 30 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

4. interrupta, Bs 31 

5. immerita, Bl 31 

0. bajadera, Ffr 31 

7. intumescens, Blf. .... 32 

8. canarica, Blf..'. 32 

9. cvsis, Bs 33 

10. thyreus, B.^ 34 

11. seniirugata, Beck .... 3'") 

12. belaiigeri, 7>.s7/ 36 

13. albata, i?//: 37 

14. sisparica, Blf. 37 

15. novella, Ffr 37 

16. ceraria, Bs 37 

17. ligiilata, Fer 38 

18. bistrialis, Beck 39 

19. basilessa. Bs 40 

20. basileus, Bs 41 

21. beddomii, Blf. 42 

22. chenui (Xestiiia), Ffr. 43 

23. Juliana (Xestina), (rvay 44 

24. madera.spaTana,6r'yYH/. . 45 

25. gassii, Blf. 46 

26. solata, Bs 46 

2. Indrella, Godivin-Aiisten . 48 

1. ampulla, Bs 49 

3. Ravana, Godwin-Austen. . 50* 

1. politissima, Ffr 51 

4. Euplecta. Semper 51 

1. layardi, 7y/- 55 

2. siibdecu.ssata, Ffr 55 

3. baconi, Bs 56 

4. acalles, Ffr 56 

5. pulcbella, Blf. 56 

6. semidecussata, Ffr. . . 57 

7. rosamouda, Bs 58 

8. subcastor, Beddome . . 58 

9. travancorica, Bs 58 

10. indica, Ffr 60 

11. albizonata, Dohrn .... 01 

12. emiliaua, Ffr 61 

13. Ifevis, Blf. 62 

14. binoyaensis, Godwin- 

Austen 62 

15. veiTiicula, Ffr (!3 

16. fluctuosa, Blf. 63 

17. prestoni, Godwin- 

Austen 64 

18. scobinoides. Si/kes .... 64 

19. oardeueri, Ffr 40, 64 

20. subopaca, Ffr 65 

21. partita, Ffr 65 

22. trimeni, Jousseaiiine . . 6(5 

23. acuducta, Bs 67 

24. isabellina, Ffr 68 

25. colletti, Sykes 08 

26. cacuminifera, Bs 68 



Page 

27. granulifeva, Blf. 69 

28. hyphasma, Ffr 69 

29. turritella, II.' Ad 70 

30. mucronifera, Blf .... 70 

31 . phidias, Tliorp MS. 

apud Hanley 71 

32. concavospira, Ffr 71 

33. apicata, Blf. .'. 72 

.34. orbiates, Blf. 72 

35. mucosa, IV. ^y H. Blf . 72 

5. Katnadvipia, Godwin- 

Austen 74 

1. irradians, Ffr 76 

2. edgariana, Bs 7(» 

Subfam. 2. Macrochlainyince. . 77 

1. Macrocblamys, Benson . . 77 

1. vesicula, Bs 79 

2. glauca, Bs 80 

3. nuda, Ffr 81 

4. kuluensis, Blf. 81 

5. tugurium, Bs 81 

6. mainwaringi, Godivin- 

Ansten 83 

7. dalingensis, Godwin- 

Austen 83 

8. o^iT^a.Ya,Godwin-Austen 84 

9. damsangensis, Godioin- 

Austen 84 

10. hodgsoni, Bs 85 

U.sequax,Bs 86 

12. seqn'n\s,Godioin-Auste?i 87 

13. superfiua, 5(/". 88 

14. rakaensis, Godwin- 

Au.<iten 88 

15. lubrica, Z?5 89 

16. patane, Bs 89 

17. perfragilis, Godwin- 

Austen 90 

18. richilaensis, Godwin- 

Austen 90 

19. sathilaensis, Godwin- 

Austen 92 

20. zemoensis, Godwin- 

Austen . 93 

21. rorida, Bs 94 

22. darjilingeusis, Nevill . . 94 

23. indica, Godivin-Austen. 95 

24. petvosa, IIutto7i 96 

25. hardwickii, Godtoin- 

Austen 97 

26. subjecta, Bs 98 

27. lecytbis, Bs 98 

28. perplana, Nevill 99 

29. atricolor, Godwin- 

Austen 99 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX, 



XI 



30. castaneo-labiata, God- 

icin- Austen 101 

31. hepatizon, Godwin- 

Austen 102 

32. lata, God win- Austen . . 102 

33. decussala, Bs 102 

34. Ihotaensis, Godwin- 

Austen 103 

35. rubellocincta, Blf. . . 103 

36. bilineata, Godwin- 

Austen 103 

37. iida, Godwin- Austen . . 104 

38. shengoreusis, Godivin- 

Austen. 104 

39. cacharica, Godtvin- 

Austeu 104 

40. salmouea, Ancey .... 106 

41. godwini, Trijon 106 

42. termiim.s, Godwin- 

Austen 106 

43. beata, Godwin- Austen . 107 

44. manipurensis, Godwin- 

Austen 107 

45. fragosus, Godtcin - 

Austen 108 

46. mahadeoensi.s, Godwin- 

Austen 108 

47. hengdaneiLsis, Godwin- 

Austen 108 

48. razamiensis, Godwin- 

Austen 109 

49. lahupaensis, Godwin- 

Austen 109 

50. hriokevl, Godwin- Austen 109 
Sl.plififera, i?//. 110 

52. shisha. Godiv in- Austen 111 

53. nengloensis, Godwi)t- 

Austen Ill 

54. koliaensis, Godwin- 

Austen Ill 

55. roberti, Godwin-Austen 112 

56. tanirensis, Godwin- 

Austen 112 

57. longicauda, Godivin- 

Austen 112 

58. dorani, Godwin-Austen 113 

59. originaria, Godwin- 

Austen 11-! 

60. umbraticola, Godwin- 

Austen 113 

01. sata, Godwin- Aziste7i . . 114 

62. pacata. Godwin-Austen 114 

63. rusticula, Godwiji- 

Austen 114 

64. consepta, Bs 115 

65. petasus, Bs 115 



06. aspides, Bs 116 

67. chaos, Blf. 116 

68. kumahensis, I'heoh. ^• 

Sto! 117 

69. causia, Bs H 7 

70. .^alwinensis, Godwin- 

Austen 118 

71. dngasti, Morcdet .... 118 

72. subpetasus, Godwin- 

Austen 119 

73. uoxia, Blf. 119 

74. nebulosa; ^//. 120 

75. iiotlia, Blf. 120 

70. hypoleuea, Blf 120 

77. spreta,^//... '........ 121 

78. audersoniana, Nevill . . 121 

79. patens, Blf. 121 

80. piuigi, Theobald 122 

81. molecnla, Bs 122 

82. curvilabris, Blf. 123 

83. perpaiila, Bs 123 

84. pauxillula, Bs 124 

85. choiuix, Bs 124 

86. pseiidochoinix, Blf. . . 125 

87. exiil, Theoh. ...'..... 125 

88. .stephus, Bs 127 

89. woodmasoui, Godwin- 

Austen 127 

90. aulopis, Bs . 128 

91. psendaulopis, Godivin- 

Austen 128 

92. io\^\&,nA,Godwin- Austen 1 28 

93. perincouspicua, God- 

tvin-Atisten 129 

94. battiinalvt'iisi.'^, God- 

win-Austen 129 

95. teimicula, H. Ad 130 

96. fragilis, Button 130 

97. lixa. Blf 131 

98. liebescens, Blf. 131 

99. pedina, Bs 132 

100. infausta, Blf 133 

101. umbriiia, Ifr 134 

102. nepas, Bfr 134 

103. woodiaiia. Pfr 135 

104. vutila, Blf. : 135 

105. vallicola, Pfr 136 

106. todanuu, IV. ^' H. Blf 136 

107. penotteti, Pfr 130 

108. prava, Blf'. 137 

1 09. vilipeusa, Bs 137 

110. peringuiidensis, Bedd. . 138 

111. perfiicata, i?s 138 

112. tvatanensis, Jousseaume 138 

113. kandiensis, Godwin- 

Austeti 139 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



114. nelierensis, Bs 139 

115. atoma, Blf. 140 

2. 'Piii'\&te\la,Go(Jirin-Atisten 145 

1. flemincri, P/)- 147 

2. magnitica, Rv. ...... 147 

3. altivaga, Godwin - 

Austen 148 

4. austeniana, Nevill .... 148 

3. Euaustenia, Cockerell .... 148 

1. monticola, Pfr 149 

2. cassida, Button 150 

3. gurbwalensis, Qodwin- 

Austen 151 

4. paurhiensis, Gothvin- 

Austen 152 

5. tlieotaldi, Godwin- 

Austen 152 

4. Syama, Godwin- Austen . . 152 

1. splendens, Hutton. . . . 153 

2. prona, Nevill 154 

3. proua, var. huttoni, 

Godwin- Austen .... 155 

4. promiscua, Godwin- 

Austen 156 

5. masuriensis, Godioin- 

Austen 156 

6. aniiandalei. Godwin- 

Austen 157 

7. theobaldi, Godwin- 

Austen 157 

5. Khasiella, Godwin- Austen 157 

1. vidua, H.^' T 158 

2. climacterica, Bs 160 

3. aiisteni, 5//; 100 

4. oraatissima, Bs 160 

5. paiisa, Bs 161 

6. falcata, Blf. . 161 

7. pingouugensis, Godwiti- 

Austen 162 

8. .semila, i)'s 162 

9. hyba, Bs 162 

10. cliloroplax, Bs 165 

11. Ija^hmirensis, Nevill . . 165 

12. sonamurgensis, Nevill . 166 

13. tandianensis, Theohald. 166 

6. O.xytes, Pfr 166 

1. oxytes, Bs 167 

2. shauensis, Godwin- 

Austen 168 

3. cyclopkx, Bs 168 

4. biaufordi, Theohald . . 168 

5. castor, Theobald 168 

6. poUux, Theobald 169 

7. sylvicola, Blf. 169 

8. orobia, Bs. '. 169 

7, Beusonia, Pfr 171 

1. monticola, Hutton . . 171 



Page 

2. angelica, Pfr 172 

3. jaiuuensis, Theohald . . 173 

4. theobaldiana, Godwin- 

Austen 173 

5. convexa, Rv 174 

6. jacquemonti, v. Mart. . 174 

7. wynnii, Blf. 175 

8. camiira, Bs 175 

9. nepaleiisis, Blf. 177 

8. Daliugia, Godwin-Austen . 177 

1. bhutaneusis, Godwin- 
Austen 178 

Sixbfam. 3. Helicarionince . . 179 

1. Helicarion, Per 179 

2. Cryptaustenia, Cockerell. . 180 

1. succinea, Rv 180 

2. ovata, H. Blf 182 

3. heteroconcba, H. Blf. . 183 

4. verrucosa, Goduiin- 

Austen 183 

5. durrangensis, Godwin- 

Austen 183 

6. zemoensis, Godwin- 

Austen 185 

7. silcbarensis, Godivin- 

Austen 186 

8. g\ohosa.,Godtvin-Austen 187 

9. bensoni, Pfr 187 

10. panclietensis, Godwin- 

Austen 188 

11. papillaspira, Godwin- 

Austen 301 

12. cauefrii, Tap. Canefri. . 301 

3. Eurvcblamys, Godwin- 

Austen. \ 188 

1. platychlamys, ^y. ..188 

2. regulata, Bs 190 

4. Austenia, Nerill 191 

1. gigas, Bs 192 

2. butleri, Godtvin-Austen 194 

3. rcsplendens, Nevill. . . . 194 

4. venusta, Theohald 195 

5. magnifica, Godwin- 

Austen 195 

0. nagaeusis, Godwin - 

Austen 195 

7. cacliarica, Godwin - 

Austen. . . . , 196 

8. solida, Godwin- Auste^i. 196 

9. peguensis, Theohald . . 197 

10. shanensis, Godwin - 
Atisten 197 

11. sikkimensis, Godwin- 
Austen 198 

5. Girasia, Gray 198 

1. bookeri, Gray 200 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 
2. radba, Goihvin- Austen. 201 
'1 ci'ocea, Godwin-Audcn 201 

4. pankabariensis, Godwin- 

Austen 201 

5. dalhousiaj, Godtoin- 

Austcn 202 

(>. burtii, Godwin-Austen. 202 

7. c'mevea,Godwin-Atisten 20o 

8. artiuis, Cocke rell 203 

9. dikrangensis, Godivin- 

Austen 20;) 

6. Cryptogirasia, Cocker ell. . 203 

1. rubra, Godwin-Austen. 

201, 204 

7. Marisella, Gray 204 

1. dussumieri, Gray .... 205 

2. beddomei, Godioin- 

' Austen 206 

8. Pseudaustenia,CocAe/-eW. . 200 

1. atra, Godwin- Austen . . 207 

2. auriformis, Blf. 209 

9. Cryptosoma, Theobald . . 209 

1. praestaiis, Gould 211 

2. inusitatum, Godiuin- 

Austen 211 

3. birmanicum, Phil 212 

4. austeni, Collinye 212 

Subfam. 4. Durgellina; 213 

1. Durgella, Blf. 213 

1 . levicula, Bs 213 

2. is:o^&x9,\fiodioin-Austen 215 

3. conciuua, Godwin- 

Austen 215 

4. erratica, Godwin- 

Austen 216 

5. assamica, Godioin- 

Austen 216 

6. luairangensis, Godxoin- 

Austen 216 

7. salius, Bs 217 

8. seposita, Bs 217 

9. khasiaca, Godwin- 

Austen 218 

2. Ibycus, Heynemann .... 218 

1. tissidens, Heynevianyi. .219 

2. miuutus, Godwin- 

Austen 219 

3. Satiella, Godtoin-Austen. . 221 
1. dekhanensis, Godwin- 
Austen 221 



Page 

2. Christiana), Theobald. . 223 

3. levidonsis, Godwin- 

Austen 223 

4. flexilis, Godwin- Austen 223 

5. compressa, Godwin- 

Austen 224 

.6. perteuuis, Godwin- 

Austen 224 

7. membranacea, Bs 224 

4. Silala, H. Adams 225 

1. infiila, 5s 225 

2. atteg-ia_, Bs 227 

3. vulcania, Godwin- 

Austen 228 

4. culmeu, Blf. 229 

5. confinis, Blf. 229 

6. arx, Bs 229 

7. palmaria, Bs 230 

8. liricincta, Stoliczka . . 230 

9. gratulator, Blf 231 

10. gromatica, Godioin- 

Austen 231 

11. haroldi, Godwin- 

Austen 231 

12. phyllophila, Bs 232 

13. pyramidalis, Sykes. . . . 232 

14. operiens, Sykes ...... 232 

15. balliana, Godtvin- 

Austen 233 

16. phulongensis, Godioin- 

Austen 233 

17. limata, Godwin- Austen. 233 

18. subnana, Godtoin- 

Austen 234 

19. crenicincta, Godioin- 

Austen 234 

20. injussa, W. ^- H. Blf. 234 

21. srimani, Godicin- 

yiusten 235 

22. Y>\a,c'ita.,Gf)dwin-Austen. 235 

23. 'mtonsa,Godwin-Austen. 235 

24. uvida, Godicin-Austen . 235 

25. recondita, Godwin- 

Austen 230 

26. rimicola, Bs 236 

Subfamily position most doubtful*. 
1. Sakiella, Godwin- Austen . 237 

1. houesta, Gould .. 121,238 

2. tenuior, Godtvin- 

Atisten 239 



* [The following nine genera cannut satisfactorily be placed in any of the 
previous subfamilies, and until more is known of the animals of the majority 
of the species they include it is uot advisable to create uew divisions for their 
reception.] 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



2. Holkeio2i, Godivin - 2. 

Austen 239 

1. anceps, Gould 240 j 3. 

2. arata, Blf. 241 I 

3. Sesara, Albers 241 | 4. 

1. infrendeus, Gould .... 243 

2. hungerfordiana, Theo- 5. 

bald 244 

3. ataranensis, Theobald. . 244 0. 

4. mouleyitensis, Gude . 245 

5. bidentifera, Godwin- 

Austen 245 I 

6. episema, P(wso«%. .. . 245 | 8. 

7. pylaica, Bs 245 j 

8. helicifera, W. T. Bkm- 9. 

ford 246 : 

9. niamillaris, W. T. Blan- 10. 

ford..._ 246 

10. basseinensis, W. T. 11. 

Blanford 247 

11. inermis, Theobald .... 247 . 12. 

12. diplodon, Bens 247 ; 

13. luirmeri, Gude 248 i 13. 

14. ingrami, 5//. 248 I 

15. galea, iys 249 14. 

4. Rahula. Godwi?i- Austen. . 249 | 15. 

1. macropleuris, Bs 249 

2. corys, Bs. 251 , 16. 

3. bascauda, Bs 251 | 17. 

4. polypleuris, 5//. .... 252 [ 

5. bascaudula, Godwin- 18. 

Austen 252 

6. daflaensis, Godtvin- 19. 

Austen 252 20. 

7. Ihotaensis, Godtvin- 21. 

Austen • • 253 

8. munipiirensis, Godivin- 22. 

Austen 253 

5. Microcvstiua, Miireh 253 23. 

1. riuki, Morch . 254 

2. moercbiaiia, Godivin- 24. 

Austen 254 

3. warnefordi, Godivin- 25. 

Austen 255 

4. barrietensis, Godivin- 26. 

Austen 255 27. 

5. stewarti, Blanford. . . . 256 28. 

6. biiiteunensis, Godwin- 

Austen 256 29. 

7. sbevaroyana, W. T. 

Blanford 256 30. 

8. lita, Sykes 257 

9. cryptompbalus, God- ^ 31. 

win-Austen 257 

6. Kaliella,^//. 257 32. 

1. barrakporensis, Pfr. . . 2u8 



Page 

sigurensis, Godwin- 
Austen 259 

rissomensis, Godwin- 
Austen 259 

vulcani, Godwin- 
Austen 260 

j aintiaca, Godwin- 
Austen 260 

jaintiaca, var., Godwin- 
Austen 260 

cherraensis, Godwin- 
Austen 260 

manipurensis, Godwin- 
Austen 261 

kliasiaca, Godivin- 
Ansten 261 

costulata, Godwin- 
Austen 261 

subcostulata, Godwin- 
Austen 262 

salicensis, Godwin- 
Austen 262 

aspirans, W. Sf H. 

Blanf. 262 

fastigiata, Hutton .... 263 

eloiigata, Godwin- 
Austen 263 

coUetti, Sykes 263 

gratiosa, Godwin- 
Austen 264 

animula, Godtvin- 
Austen 264 

vagata, E. A. Smith . . 264 

kjellerupi, Morch .... 265 

teiiaensis, Godwin- 
Austen 265 

nagaensis, Godwin- 
Austen 265 

paucistriata, Godwin- 
Austen 266 

ricliilaeiisis, Godwin- 
Austen 266 

ricbilaensis, var., God- 
win-Austen 266 

nana, Hutton 266 

buUula, Hutton 267 

resiuula, Godwin- 
Austen 267 

sikkimensis, Godwin- 
Austen 268 

Ihotaensis, Godwin- 
Austen 268 

shillongeusis, Godwin- 
Austen 268 

flatura, Godwin - 

Austen 269 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

33. flafura, vav., Godtrin- 

Aiisten 289 

34. biuTailensis, (iodwin- 

Austim 270 

35. ruga, Godwin- A usten. . 270 

36. dikrangensis, Godwin- 

Austen 270 

37. nongsteiuensis, God- 

tvin-Austcn 271 

38. bhutanensis, Godwin- 

Austen 271 

30. tirutaua, Godwin- 
Austen 271 

40. cheiinelli, Godwin- 

Austen 272 

41. coiuilus, B/f. 272 

42. peliosanthi, Miirch . . 272 

43. feae, Tapp. Cunefri . . 278 

44. delectabilis, Si/kes .... 273 

45. leithi.aua, Godwin- 

Austen 273 

46. kezamahensis, Godwin- 

Austen 274 

. 47. lailaiigkotensis, God- 
win-Austen 274 

48. nevilli, Godwin - 

Austen 274 

7. Sarania, Godivin- Austen. . 275 
1. kala, Godwin-Austen. . 275 

8. Sarika, Godwin- Austen . . 276 

1. resplendent, Phil 277 

2. burmana, Pfr 278 

0. Taphrospira, IV. T. Blf. . 279 

1. convallata, Bs 279 

2. compluvialis, Blf. .... 280 

3. excavata, Blf. 280 

4. bathycharax, Theob. . . 280 



Subfani. 5. Sophinina; 283 

1. Sophina, Benson 283 

1. calias, Bs 286 

2. scliistostelis, Bs 286 

•">. discoidalis, Stol 288 

4. ronjiingens, Stol 288 

5. furabilis, Bs 288 

6. tbrabilis, var. bensoni, 

Godwin-Austen .... 289 

Subfamily position doubtful*. 

1. IleAm])\ei:tA, Alters 289 

1. uter, Theoljald 291 

2. undosa, Blf. 291 

3. textrina, Bs 292 

4. theodori, Phil 292 

5. g-ordonia', Bs 293 

6. auriettie, Tapp. Cunefri 293 

2. Haughtonia, Godivin- 

A listen 294 

1 . conferta, Pfr 295 

3. Staffordia, Godwin- Austen 296 

1. datlaensis, Godwin- 

Austen 296 

2. daHaensis, var., God- 

win-Austen 299 

3. toruputuensis, Godwin- 

Austen 299 

4. staflbrdi, Godwin- 

Austen 299 

4. Dyakia, Godwin-Austen . . 299 

1. retrnrsa, Gould 300 

Macrochlamys ? 

anoufe, Godwin-Austen . . 302 
planiuscula, Godwin- 
Austen 302 



* [Footnote p. xiii applies to the next four genera.] 



INTEODUCTION. 



By the death of Dr. W. T. Blanford, the late talented Editor of 
the 'Fauna of British India ' series, the writing of the Inti'oduction 
to this volume has devolved on me. 

Up to a few days of his death, 23rd June, 1905, Blanford was 
engaged on this the first volume on the Indian Mollusca, and it 
was with bitter regret he feared he could scarcely be spared to 
complete it. It saddens me now to think that, perhaps, had I 
been able to go up to town oftener in those days and help, the 
work might have progressed faster, but I could not neglect duties 
in the country. 

On commencing the work, now some years ago, Blanford asked 
me if I would assist him in the malacological part while he 
undertook the conchological. With regard to the latter, I may 
safely say there was then no man living who knew the Indian 
Land-Shells and their distribution better than Dr. Blanford, to 
which he added an intimate knowledge of the external form of 
the animal. In a Field Note-book of his I have found many 
valuable drawings and descriptions made from life and have used 
some in this work. In going over his manuscript I could not but 
see what long and laborious work it had entailed with the constant 
use of the microscope as the fresh descriptions of the shells were 
written. 

Since 1877 I have been constantly at work on the internal 
anatomy of the Indian land-shells, having brought home a large 
collection preserved in spirits. To gain some further knowledge, 
particularly of the range of genera, I examined all the material 
I could obtain from Borneo and the Malay Archipelago, the 
Mascarene Islands, Socotra, and Africa. The results of this have 
been published from time to time. Many species obtained by 
Blauford during the last two or three years of his life he placed in 
my hands for examination, so that the generic position of a large 
number of forms is now very fairly arrived at. 

It is a great loss to science that Blanford did not live to put 
together his full and matured ideas on distribution, phylogeny, «&c. 
He was eminently fitted to do this by his extensive knowledge of 
the country, his powers of observation, and his studies in other 
branches of the animal kingdom. I, who really took up the 
collection and study of land-shells at his instigation and owe 
much that I have learnt to him, feel far from equal to the 
task. 

b 



XVlll INTRODUCTION. 

With regard to the shells merely, there is very little more to be 
made known, but a reclassification of the family Zonitidse, based 
upon all the characters of the animal and the shell combined, is 
very desirable. There is so much to be done that it seems even 
now somewhat premature to bring out this volume, the more so 
as it deals principally with the above-mentioned family and 
because our knowledge of the Pulmonata (the Land-Mollusca of 
India) is far behind our knowledge of any other group auiong the 
Invertebrata. This is due to the fact that until comparatively 
recently the shell only, and not the animal that constructs it, 
has been taken into consideration. It is well known that the 
building up of the shell is a process performed invariably in the 
same way by one part of the animal. 

These neglected forms of life are found by those who will 
examine them to differ, generically speaking, widely one from 
the other. It will be seen in the following pages that a very 
large number of them have never been examined at all, so that it 
is still doubtful to what genus many of them should be assigned. 
Any satisfactory conclusion therefore regarding their phylogeny 
is impossible and regarding their distribution most uncertain. 
In examining the shells alone we find in several genera these are 
so extremely alike, the differences so subtle that the eye fails to 
appreciate them. Again, the uncertainty regai'ding habitat is 
increased in some cases by the types being lost ; in others by the 
doubtful authenticity as to habitat of their representatives in 
museums. Occasionally three different species may be found in 
one tablet under the same name, and these from two or more 
localities. In such cases it is only by collecting cU novo in the 
localities where the types were procured that we can be certain of 
absolute and true identification. 

Only the families Testacellidae and Zonitidae are included in 
this volume. 

The classification adopted has been that employed in the 
manuscript left by Dr. W. T. Blanford, which was the subject of 
many conversations and constant correspondence with him. I 
conclude he based it upon the classification used by Paul Fischer 
in his ' Manuel de Conchyliologie ' (1887), one which has to some 
extent been adopted in the arrangement of the molluscan col- 
lections at the Natural History branch of the British Museum. 
With regard to the different genera Dr. Blanford had worked 
through, the order in which some had to be placed had yet to be 
decided ; the last morning's work we did together when he was 
staying with me at Nore, 7th May, 1905, had reference to this 
very point. 

I have given very considerable thought to this question of 
classification and adopted a sequence which is as natural, I trust, 
as our limited knowledge of the animals at the present time will 
permit and as consonant as I can now make it with Blanford's 
views. ■ 

Blanford left the descriptions of three new genera, and I have 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

thought fit to create three more, for the reception of certain 
species which had points in their anatomy differentiating them 
from the species with which they had been placed. 

In that very speciahzed division of the animal kingdom, the 
Land-Mollusca, and particularly in the family Zonitidae, great 
uniformity of the general main structure obtains with at the same 
time A-ery remarkable variation of the several parts, particularly 
those of mastication aud geueration ; it may be safely said that 
in some genera a greater amount of variation is met with in the 
internal organs than is to be fouud in the form of the shell. 
When we come to compare molluscous animals from far distant 
parts of the world, either proceeding from east to west, or from the 
JV^orthern to the Southern Hemisphere, we find each land-area has its 
own distinctive set of genera. Fossil evidence again shows some 
have had in the past a much more extended range, and it becomes 
evident they have gone through a remote, extremely slow, and 
separate evolution. This is, after all, not so remarkable when the 
great antiquity of the Pulmonate Mollusca is considered : land- 
shells extremely like those of the present day go back to the 
Palaeozoic period, being first known from the Devonian, aud to- 
gether with other life on the earth demand many subsequent eras 
for their specialization. 

While the Vertebrates have been classified scientifically by 
their internal anatomy, Invertebrates such as the Mollusca 
have received comparatively desultory notice. For this reason 
Dr. Blanford in arranging for the publication of a volume on the 
Laud-Mollusca decided to incorporate all that was known of the 
animal. 

Man}'- years must elapse before the necessary material can be 
got together to elucidate and advance the knowledge of the 
e;eneric relationship of these Indian laud- shells. In the case of 
the Zonitidse, it happens a large number of very fragile shells are 
found differing very slightly from each other in shell-character, 
yet on examination of the animal such marked differences are 
presented that they have to be placed in separate genera ; in 
fact satisfactory determination is quite uncertain without a 
knowledge of the animal. 

Space will not admit of dealing with the anatomy in any great 
detail ; I have therefore only attempted so much as seems desirable 
to give the collector some idea of the position and function of the 
different parts, from which he A^dll more readily understand that 
the shell alone is of very uncertain value in all questions relating 
to phylogeny or relationship, evolution, and range in connection 
with problems relating to the former distribution of land and sea. 

Body and Foot. 

Animal soft and flexible, covered with an epidermis which in 
the land forms secretes much mucus from an elaborate system of 
not only mucous, but sensory and pigmentary glands, rendering 

62 




j'icr. i,-:-Girasia hooken. Silcbar, Caebar. 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

the surface moist and acutely sensitive to touch and smell. 
Thei'e is no internal bony skeleton assisting in the movements 
of the animal ; all action is produced by a beautiful contractile 
and protrusive muscular system, one part as it were pulling 
against and acting on the other. 

In the MoUusca the primitive plan of structure was a body 
symmetrical to a median vertical plane, the alimentary canal 
running from the mouth at one end to the anal aperture at the 
other. This body had a lower ventral or neural face, an upper 
dorsal or hajmal face, and a right and left side. Only in a few of 
the MoUusca has this symmetry of the body been retained undis- 
turbed, as in the very ancient classes Amphineura, Scaphopoda, 
and Pelecypoda, and the haemal face is not produced into a 
visceral sac ; but in the great majority of mollusks such a 
visceral sac is found. In the Gasteropoda the ventral face 
gives rise to a muscular foot. The structure of this foot is 
important; it shows considerable modification, which renders it of 
much value in classification, according as it has been modified for 
digging, swimming, or creeping as in tlie land forms. 

The dorsal face is generally produced at its margin into a free 
fold, called the mantle or pallium, derived from the primitive 



Explanation of Fig. i. 

A. Diagrainiuatic view of right side, to show the position of the generative 

organs within the body-cavity and that of the rudimentary shell. About 
nat. size. 

B. Simihir view, to show the position of the nervous gangha and a few of the 

nerves radiating from it ; also to show the general plan of the muscular 
system, a i'ew of the main muscles at the position of their attachment 
points, the buccal mass and alimentary system with the salivary glands, 
and tlie position of the branchial chamber and pericardium. About nat. 
size. 

C. The cerebral and pedal ganglia with some of the various nerves, together 

with the main muscles of the buccal mass and eye-tentacles. Viewed 
from above, laid out. Drawn under microscope. X 4'5. 

D. The same, drawn by eye, showing the nerves to middle of the foot (6') and 

position of the buccal mass and oesophagus. Viewed from above. 

E. The left eye-tentacle and oral tentacle, severed from the part in C. Viewed 

from the inside, showing the small retractor basal muscles (m). 



K E. Right eye-tentacle. 
L E. Left eye-tentacle. 
O T. Oral tentacles. 
S G. Salivary glands. 
sd. Salivary ducts. 
Tjn'E. Retractor muscles of eye- 
tentacles. 
rm B. Do. of buccal mass. 
r. Renal organs. 
i. Intestine covered by salivary 

gland. 
j. Jaw. 
h. Heart. 
«w<.ar. Anterior artery. 



sf. Side of foot. 
B. Buccal mass. 
oe. CEsophagus. 
m. Muscles. 

1. Cerebral ganglia. 

2. Pedal ganglia. 

3. J^erve to base of left eye- 

tentacle. 

4. Nerves to lips. 

5. Do. to posterior right side of 

foot. 
6, 6'. Do. to basal edge of foot. 
7. The position of the otocysts. 



XXU IKTRODUCTION. 

shell-gland, the edges of which secrete aud form the shell. 
Between the mantle and the rest of the body is a cavity, the 
pallial chamber, the seat of the respii'atory organs, whicli may 
consist of gills (branchio') , or, as iu the Pulmonates, of a sort of 
lung formed by a network of blood-vessels developed on the roof. 
The pallial margin forms a complete zone with only a small 
aperture for respiratory and excretory purposes, and thus the 
mantle becomes divided into lobes, an anterior left and a posterior 
right, the dorsal lobes being below them. 

Gasteropods with conical or spiral shells, with gills placed in 
front of the heart, and sexes distinct — that is to say, nearly all the 
marine and a large series of terrestrial genera — belong to the order 
Prosobranchia. 

In the Pulmonata, with which this volume deals, the mantle is 
large as well as the unsymmetrically coiled visceral sac, in which 
the intestines, liver, and part of the genital organs lie. The 
mantle-cavity lies on the fore part of the sac, and the anus (a) 
opens at its margin, generally on the right side. Thus in all the 
ordinary Pulmonata the end of the intestine is twisted from its 
primitive position at the hinder end forwards to the right dorsal 
side of the body. 

In the cephalic area all the organs of sense are situated, the 
common generative aperture lying on the right side at a varying 
distance behind the right eye-tentacle. The head or prosoma is 
symmetrical, bearing on the upper side two cylindrical, tapering, 
hollow, reversible tentacles, with swollen or bulbous tips carrying 
the eyes, also two much shorter below them, the oral ; both pairs 
are contractile within the body-cavity. On the anterior "ventral 
side is the mouth, with the more or less solid jaw above and visible 
externally. The radula with its teeth below is not usually seen 
unless when protruded. The mouth is quite distinct from the 
respiratory system and is used for feeding only. The upper lip 
has a ring of rounded tubercles on its edge ; the lower lip is simpler 
and more fleshy, but in certain carnivorous forms the corners are 
produced into lappets. 

The pedal area consists of the muscular foot or podium, and is 
characteristic of the Land-Mollusca and all Gasteropods. It varies 
greatly in size and form in different genera. When fully extended 
the portion behind with respect to the shell or visceral sac may be 
very short, that in front very long, or they may be equal in length. 
It may be either narrow or broad and flat, almost circular, 
possessing thus great power of adhesion to the surface on which 
the animal rests. The foot-sole in the Cyclostomidse is divided 
longitudinally into two portions, and the animal crawls by 
advancing the halves alternately. The sole has either a smooth 
uniform surface or it is divided into three nearly equal parts 
(trifasciate) longitudinally, the central area being the true ambu- 
latory one. This is the type generally found in genera of the 
Zonitidae, and has as well, on the outer side of the foot, a border 
broken up into segments by lines giving it a fringed appearance. 



INTBODUCTION. XXIU 

Above this are the very pronounced parallel peripodial grooves, 
generally two, in a few eases three, broken into oblong spaces 
(vide fig. 38, A, p. 75). The rest of the body is covered with 
papillate tubercles or fine rugosities, separated by deep grooves 
leading from the upper peripodial groove towards the dorsum of 
the foot. The Zouitidas also have a conspicuous caudal mucous 
gland variously formed (fig. 57, C, p. 150). The upper surface of 
the foot behind may be keeled above, .but it is generally rounded. 
Even in those genera of the Zonitidae, such as Girasia (fig. i, 
A, B, p. xx), where the shell has been reduced to a mere membrane, 
the foot never reaches the true slug-like stage found in Limax, 
Avion, &.Q., iu which genera the viscera fill the whole foot to 
its extreme posterior point, or rather the visceral hump is spi'ead 
over the whole dorsal surface of the creeping-organ. The foot in 
the Eastern forms of Zonitidae is solid in form, and their other 
anatomical details present so great a similarity to the component 
parts in the shell-bearing genera from which they have descended, 
that they furnish closer hnks in a chain of evolution than is often 
to be met with. 

The Musculab System. 

The greater mass of the body is a network of muscular tissue 
most perfect and complicated. The larger muscles are very tough, 
ribbon-like, smooth, and shiny. The largest is the shell-muscle 
attaching the animal to the shell, and most of the stronger most 
important muscles are given off" from it. In those species where 
there is only a remnant of a shell and no columella the attach- 
ments of the principal muscles lie around the thickened mantle- 
edge, principally on the posterior margin ; these include the 
buccal retractor and the retractors of the foot and eye-tentacles 
(fig. i, B, C). Some 4 or 5 fine muscles lead from the sides of 
the mouth and pass through the nervous collar in a posterior 
direction. Thei'e is a localized series in the buccal mass known 
as the depressor, protractor, and levator muscles. 

The Nervous System. 

The main mass of the nervous system is situated just behind 
the buccal mass (fig. 2, h, p. 3) and mouth, forming a ring or 
collar {c(j) (fig. 4, nrj, p. 4), through which the alimentary canal 
passes posteriorly. It is made up of paired ganglia, more or less 
united by commissural bands completing the collar. According to 
their position above or below the esophagus ((«), they have been 
termed the cerebral or supra- oesophageal ; the pedal with the 
visceral or parieto-splanchnic, sub-oesophageal. Taking the genus 
Girasia to exemplify the nervous system in the Zonitid® (fig. i, 
C, D), these ganglia are all, as it were, coalesced together, and 
the side connectives are not seen. The several nerves leading 
from the upper or dorsal side of the mass define the cerebral 



XXIV IKTKODUCTION. 

position, while those below show by the direction they take the 
pedal and visceral parts of the ganglionic mass. From the cerebral 
parts nerves lead to the eye and oral tentacles and to the sides 
of the mouth — one (large) to the side of the buccal mass and 
another (smaller) to where the salivary ducts are given off from 
it. From the pedal ganglia numerous nerves, some very minute, 
lead to the sides of the foot, distributed along its edge ; one, 
conspicuous and long, extends to the edge of the mantle on 
the right side. Some of these nerves bifurcate before reaching 
the foot. These visceral nerves thus break up and extend all 
over the body of the animal along the course of the alimeutary 
canal and the generative organs, &c. Laud-Mollusca possess 
sensory organs, and their sense of touch and smell is acute, both 
combined directing them in their search for food and hiding-places. 
The seat of the olfactory organs is the apex of the tentacles, 
more particularly the dorsal pair, but the ciliated surfaces of the 
body round the mouth and respiratory aperture assist in the 
sense of smell. 

Two auditory sacs (otocysts) are usually found situated on the 
anterior side of the cerebral ganglia. They are lined with cilia 
and contain minute calcareous paxlicles, called otoconia, of varied 
forms in different genera and species. 

Alimentaey System. 

The alimentary canal is very long, extending back in a loop 
within the apical whorls of the shell and returning forward to 
the side of the respiratory orifice (fig. i, B). In different genera 
there is considerable difference and complexity in the way in which 
it is coiled. The fore portiou, called the foi-e gut, iucludesjthe buccal 
cavity. The narrow oesophagus or gullet leaves this on the dorsal 
side, passes through the nervous collar, and expands into the crop. 
■Spread upon this are the salivary glands (fig. 2, sg, p. 3), gene- 
rally paired but sometimes coalesced together ; fine ducts, one on 
either side, called the salivary ducts, connect them with the buccal 
cavity (6). The fore gut contracts and again enlarges into the 
mid gut or stomach {st), and here a duct connecting it with the 
anterior {al) and posterior lobes of the liver occurs, and at about 
midway in its length the coils of the intestine buried in the poste- 
rior lobes (^^Z) return again and continue in a long straight 
portion of the rectum to the anus (o), which in shell-bearing 
forms is near the upper and inner angle of the aperture or near 
the junction of the right and left dorsal lobes ; in the more slug- 
like forms {Austenia and Girasia) it is on the side of the body. 
Where the shell has become reduced, as in these two Indian 
genera of the Zonitidae, the viscera never occupy the foot to its 
terminal end, as is seen in Limax and other Palsearctic genera. 

The Buccal Mass. 

This lies. between the nervous ring and the mouth, is a large 
globose muscular sac, on its exterior sides having a wonderful 
system of powerful muscles leading to different parts of the 



INTRODUCTION. XIV 

animal, principally to the shell-muscle, by which the animal can 
move it in every direction, protrusive or otherwise. These 
muscles have been termed the anterior, lateral protractors, and 
pharyngeal or buccal retractors. 

Odontophoee and Jaw. 

Just within the circle of the mouth is the buccal cavity, and on 
the upper anterior side is the solid chitinous jaw set in the strong 
mandibular muscles. In the genera treated of in this work there 
are only a few in which the jaw is absent ; in those possessing it, 
it is sometimes solid, sometimes thin and of oxygnathous type, 
i. e. with a sharp cutting-edge. The jaw serves to press down 
upon, hold, or even cut off what the animal may feed upon. 
Within the buccal cavity on the lower side is a cartilaginous 
globose cushion on the floor of the mouth, the odoutophore ; its 
upper surface is covered with a tough, long, ribbon-like membrane, 
set with rows of minute, recurved, chitinous teeth, extending 
backward to the radular sac. In this last the teeth are formed 
and pass gradually forward as the rows in front become worn 
away. These teeth help, with the edge of the jaw above and 
the action of the lingual protractors and retractors, to the 
rasping off and breaking up of food. The surface of the radiila 
can be folded together, as in the state of rest, or spread out 
laterally over a plane surface. The odontophore is developed 
early in life in some ovoviviparous forms ; the radula is found 
complete in the embryo enclosed in the eggs lying in the 
oviduct. 

The teeth of the I'adula are arranged in rows, generally about a 
hundred — the rows either nearly straight or forming with the 
central tooth at the apex an obtuse angle. The central tooth 
and its neighbouring admedians are usually set upon thin, broad, 
quadrate plates, which merge gradually into lateral teeth rising 
from much narrower plates. The cutting-tooth is sharp-pointed 
and raised well above the basal plate, the whole series forming a 
most perfect natural file. 

In carnivorous genera the teeth are aculeate or scimitar-shaped, 
rising from elongately ovate bases. 

Perhaps one of the most interesting morphological characters 
to be noticed in the radula of these Eastern slug-like mollusks, 
comprising even some with Helicarion-Yike shells, is the existence 
of two very distinct groups or subfamilies, one with a Macroclilamys- 
like radula, the other with a very different polydont one of several 
hundred teeth, all similar in form throughout on very narrow 
basal plates, and rarely having any large admedian, though a few 
intermediate forms occur. 

Organ of Eespiration. 

The respiratory orifice is distinctly seen on the right side of 
the body, lying in a dextral shell near the upper inner angle of 
the aperture, in a slug-like mollusk it is on the right side, in both 



XXVI 



INTEOBUCTION. 




Fig. ii. 

A. Sakiella honeda, enlarged. Dorsal side, viewed from above, to show 
. position of the pericardium (^j), heart with auricle {ah) and veutricle {vh), 

kidney {Jc), pulmonary cavity [pc), liver (I), anu* («), mantle-edge {m). 
A'. Dorsal side, seen from below. Eectum {rev), kidney-opening iko), 
pulmonary vein {l^v), right shell-lobe {rsl), left shell-lobe {hi). 

B. Microcystis amhce, showing embryonic shells within the oviduct, x 9. 

B'. An embryonic shell, showing development of the foot, with eye and 
anal and respiratory orifices. X 44. 

C. Shell of Sitala attegia. Diagram to illustrate the different parts and 

usual measurements. 

D. A spermatophore of Sesara infrendens, much enlarged. After Stoliczka. 

Parts of the shell and ustcal measurements. 



1-7. The a])ical whorl to the 7th 
(the last or body-whorl). 
.5. The antepenultimate whorl. 
6. The penultimate whorl. 

8. The apex. 

9. The umbilical region. 
8-9. The axis. 8-14. Spire. 

10. The aperture : the upper, 
outer, and inner angles of, 
the interval between being 
the wall 01 the aperture. 



11. The peristome and outer 

lip. 

12. The columellar margin. 

13. The suture. 

14. The periphery or keel. 
A-B. Major diameter. 
A-C. Height of shell. 
A-D. Do. of axis. 

E-F. Do. of aperture. 
G-II. Breadth of aperture. 



INTEOBUCTIOJJ. XXVII 

near where the dorsal lobes meet. The pulmonary chamber or 
cavity lies beueath the shell on the left side just behind the upper 
margin of the peristome and continues back for some distance, its 
general shape and size presenting variation in different genera. 
The upper surface is an extremely transparent thin wall, showing, 
in mUst species, a system of small veins luiiting in a main 
pulmonary vein (pv) and forming a respiratory surface by which 
they breathe air directly. On the posterior left side of the 
pulmonary chamber is the pericardium (tig. ii, A, p). 

Heart asb Circulatory System. 

The pericardium (fig. ii, A, p) is a sac lying on the left anterior 
side of the body in dextral shells, adjacent to the branchial cavity 
and close against the renal organ (k), all these lying on the dorsal 
surface of the body. Within it is the heart, composed of a single 
auricle (ah) and a single ventricle (vJi) -. the first receives the blood 
from the respiratory organs, which passes by a short constricted 
valvular passage to the second. A short duct, the aortic trunk, 
follows : it branches iuto two separate veins, the anterior and 
posterior aorta, conveying the generally colourless blood to the 
various organs of the body. Thence it collects in the venous 
sinuses in the foot and viscera and the circumference of the body 
before entering the respiratory (^w) and renal organs (Jc). In 
the former of these oxidation takes place and the blood returns 
to the heart again by the ])ulmonary vein (pv). In the renal 
organ waste products in the blood are taken up, which are thrown 
out by way of a narrow passage (ko) lying parallel to the rectum 
and so on to the anus (a). 

Reproductive Organs. 

The generative orifice is situated close behind the right eye- 
tentacle (fig. i, A, p. xx). The animal is hermaphrodits or monoecious, 
the male and female systems being brought together in one indi- 
vidual, and the animals unite for mutual fecundation. The source 
of the system lies far back in the visceral sac (fig. i, A), where 
buried in the posterior lobe of the liver is the ovo-testis (hg) 
(a mass of cells), on the internal surface of which both ova and 
spermatozoa are produced : the former are rounded cells, the 
latter long and hair-like, with variously-shaped heads massed 
together. From the ovo-testis extends a long duct called the 
hermaphrodite duct (hd), usually very much convoluted, and 
down which the ova and spermatozoa pass. The duct enters the 
albumen-gland {(d<j), an elongate mass, and just before it does so 
there is a small enlargement or sharp bending termed the seminal 
vesicle. The ova here undergo a certain change and are separated 
from the spermatozoa — the one to pass down the oviduct, the 
other down the prostate. 

The oviduct (ov) is of a whitish colour, with large convoluted 
folds. These two coalesced ducts run side by side for a con- 
siderable distance and then separate, the ovo-testis becoming a 



XXVUl INTBODUCTION. 

stout hollow tube, the free oviduct leading onwards to the genital 
aperture {gen.ap), the prostate or sperm-duct becoming a slender 
tube, the vas deferens {vd) carrying the spermatic contents to the 
male organ. We have now reached the vicinity of the head and 
buccal mass. Befoi'e the free oviduct reaches the genital aperture 
it gives off a more or less globose or pear-shaped sac, varying 
much in size ; this is the spermatheca {sp^. It receives, when the 
animals are in coihi,thQ spermatophore, which issues from the male 
organ of the other individual. The male organ {p) consists of a 
muscular reversible sheath or tube extending a short distance from 
the genital aperture backwards, and gives off, generally where it 
doubles back, a strong muscle called the retractor penis muscle. 
The next part contracts into a smaller length of tube, the epi- 
phallus, to which the vas deferens joins after this latter has 
formed a loop forward and close up to the genital aperture. At 
the junction of the vas deferens and the epiphallus is usually a 
caecum-like appendage, the kale-sac, or flagellum when more whip- 
like. AVithiu this the spermatophore is formed. Tet another 
organ, not universally present, remains to complete this com- 
plicated system, viz. the amatorial organ or dart-sac {am.or). It 
is usually tough and muscular, cylindrical in form, with a 
retractor muscle at the distal end ; within it is a pointed style, 
which is protrusive at the genital orifice. This is analogous 
to the calcareous dart of the Helicidse. The male organ and 
adjacent parts is reversible and protruded externally during 
copulation. 

The spermatophore (fig. ii, D) is a complex structure built up 
or moulded within the walls of the flagellum during the period 
of generative activity. It consists of two distinct parts — one 
long and gutter-like, generally spined ; the other a thin-walled 
cylindrical sac in which the spermatozoa passing down the vas 
deferens collect and are retained until transplanted into the 
sperm-sac of another individual to fructify its ova. The spermato- 
phore takes on many various forms in different genera and is as 
yet quite unknown in the great majority of the Land-MoUusca ; 
it would appear to be secreted rapidly and its remains broken up 
are soon alDsorbed and disappear. 

The eggs when laid hatch out naturally by the warmth of the 
atmosphere, but in some genera an ovoviviparous habit has come 
about, aud the eggs are retained in the oviduct (fig. ii, p. xxvi, B, & 
fig. 2, p. 3) and go through the early stage of development there, 
so that the young have well-formed shells and are able to crawl 
about and feed themselves as soon as they are born. 

The shell makes its appearance is very early embryonic life, in 
the form of a little rounded inverted cup or bowl, and as the 
infolded viscera begin their spiral growth it is built up on the free 
outer edge (the peristome). It is deposited by the edge of the 
mantle in different layers, the external either horny or membran- 
aceous ; in many cases it is very hard, glassy, and polished. In 
ovoviviparous genera mentioned above, where the shell attains 



INTKOUUCTIOX. Xxix 

a development of two whorls or so, the subsequent shell-growth 
after birth is well marked by its different texture ; the first whorls 
are generally smoother and are distinguished as the protoconch. 

It is seen that the organs of generation in these creatures are 
very complicated and present great variation, not only shown in 
different genera, but even in detail in different species of the 
same genus. It is only to be expected that the more complicated 
an organ becomes, and the greater the number of its component 
parts, the play and possibility of variation in those parts increases 
in proportion. This diversity of structure is rendered still more 
difficult to observe, owing to the great changes that take place in 
the reproductive organs as the pairing-season approaches, also 
artificially by the means adopted to preserve the animal. If, for 
instance, it is put into too strong spirit, gi-eat shrinking and 
hardening ensues, and the parts assume a shape and size 
very unlike their appearance in life. All this must be allowed 
for in descriptions. Perhaps too much has already been written 
on the form of such an organ as the spermatheca or sperm-sac, 
sometimes empty, at other times distended with one or more 
spermatophores. 



The Mollusca form a very distinct and highly organized division 
of the Invertebrates. They were very early inhabitants of the 
globe; their remains are found in the oldest stratified rocks, their 
shells often most beautifully preserved. It is the knowledge of 
the animals of their living representatives which gives us an insight 
into the conditions under which the difterent formations were 
deposited. It is remarkable to note ho\^' highly organized they 
were so far back in time and how little has been the change since 
then, scarcely more than generic. 

Marine forms are more abundantly represented, and naturallv 
so, than the laud and freshwater. Probably the earliest fresh- 
water form is the ArcJianodon, which closely resembles the modern 
Anodonta (Swan Mussel) and occurs as far back as the Devonian. 
At the close of the same epoch the first land-snails, Strophites and 
Dendropvpa, allied to the Chrysalis Shells (Pupidse), have been 
found in the Plant-beds at St. John, Kew Brunswick. The Coal- 
Measures of the succeeding Carboniferous period have yielded 
further species of Doidro^mpa, a small land-shell (formerly referred 
to Zomtes) closely allied to the liviug Fi/ramidida if not* identical 
with that genus. Also from the same beds come the oldest brackish- 
water snail and freshwater snail belonging to the existing genera 
AmpidJaria and Fhysa respectively, as well as the first repre- 
sentative (Zcqitticlms) of the Auriculid* (the most primitive of the 
Pulmonates), and DaivsoneUa the earliest example of the terrestrial 
Hehcindai. Other freshwater mussels (Unio) appeared in the 
Trias, but the greater number of freshwater snails are first known 
from the Jurassic : PJanorhis, Valvata, Melania (doubtfully frou) 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

the older, but certainly from the later beds of that epoch), with 
Limncea, Vivipara, and others. 

In India the Cretaceous rocks of the South Peniusular area 
are the oldest in which land-shells have been found, and one species 
was identified by Ferd. Stoliczka as being closely related to the 
existing Ceylonese genus Corilla. Further close search in these 
beds will probably result in the discovery of other species and 
thev would be of extreme interest. 

The Intertrappean beds of Southern India contain several 
freshwater genera, and a doubtful Piqxi is recorded from the 
Bombay rocks of that age, and land-shells have been obtained in 
the Lower Intertrappeans referred to Achatiua; here, again, further 
search is wanted, minute forms have probably never been looked 
for. 

Coming down to more recent times, the species of MoUusca 
which have been found in the Sewalik formation are similar to 
those now living : only one land-shell, Piq^a {CyUndrus) insularis, 
a species Avith a range from India to Africa, has hitherto been 
found; others are freshwater forms belonging to Pcdudina, Jlelania, 
AmpuUaria, and Unio. My own experience of the beds in which 
these fossils occur points to the possibility of much more coming 
to lio-ht when they are worked in the careful manner similar beds 
have been in this country and in Europe. 

From the later Tertiaries of the Kashmir Valley (Karewah 
deposits) species of Planorbis and a Heliv (?) occur, but those found 
by me were all flattened by subsequent pressure the beds had 
undergone : this formation, which is extensive, would reward 
further search. 

It must be remembered by those who may use this work that 
the material on which many of the anatomical details here given 
have been drawn up has been very scanty, and frequently founded 
on but a single badly preserved specimen, such, for example, as 
the dried-up animal found within the shell and soaked out ; for in 
most cases the possibility of obtaining additional specimens from 
very inaccessible parts of India was remote in the extreme. 

With regard to the conchological side, the descriptions of the 
genera and species have been drawn up and all measurements 
taken afresh by Dr. Blanford, in most cases from types or from 
typical specimens. The descriptions of the anatomy have been 
abridged and the figures taken from those given by Dr. Ferdinand 
Stoliczka in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' and 
those by me in the ' Land and Freshwater Mollusca of India,' and 
in other papers contributed to various Scientific Societies. The 
distribution, habits, &c. have been taken from the writings of 
W. H. Benson, T. Hutton, F. Stoliczka, H. F. & ^Y. T. Blanford, 
W. Theobald, (r. Nevill, E. Sykes, O. Collett, &c., or based on 
the knowledge of a very large number of species collected by 
myself. 

Though the land-mollusca are not, like birds, butterflies, &c., 
conspicuous to the ordinary observer, yet they are to be found in 



INTEODUCXION. XXXI 

every part of ludia, even on so parched a rock as Aden. Hence 
a few words on where and how to collect them may be of service 
to a naturalist proceeding to the country. These moUusks are by 
no means easy to find at first, and they are naturally much more 
numerous in the rainy season, but with patient search they are to 
be found at other times of the year. On limestone rocks they are 
sometimes conspicuous by their abundance, old shells litter the 
ground. In the forest-clad slopes of. the mountains, particularly 
the northern sunless ravines, they are generally plentiful. Owing 
to the annual burning that takes place, very few are to be found 
in the great grass-tracts of the plains. Their favourite resorts are 
under large stones, old logs lying in the woods, under the decaying 
bark of trees, on the wet lichen-clad bark, on the damp moss near 
waterfalls, on walls, on the leaves of shrubs, the plantain and 
bamboos, under decaying leaves, beneath the surface of the ground 
in the worm-burrows, in the roots of plants, and in the exuviae left 
by floods on river-banks many shells are to be found washed off the 
land. It is a good plan when collecting from shrubs and trees to 
place an open, inverted umbrella beneath and to beat the shrubs 
or boughs above, when the specimens dislodged \^•ill be caught in 
the umbrella. In streams and lakes the surface of the water-plants 
and the decaying stems of reeds and bulrushes should be looked 
over. 

The animal is by no means difficult to dissect, patience and a 
steady hand are all that is required ; to dissect, draw, and mount 
the radula and other parts will take some hours of work, and a 
a microscope is indispensable. In the field the preserving, the 
accurate labelling (which is most important), with necessary notes 
on external characters, colour, &c., are as much as the collector 
can undertake. 

Some parts of India have been well worked, there are others 
where nothing has yet been collected. Among the latter I may 
mention Nepal up to the Kali River; Bhutan east of longitude 89° 
up to the Dafla Country, eastward again the Miri and Mishmi 
Hills ; south of the Brahmaputra River, the Abor and Singpho 
Hills ; south of Manipur, the Lushai and Tipperah Hills, and the 
high range, the Chin Hills, southwards. The Shan States have 
been partially collected in, but there is much to be done in many 
parts of Eastern Burma. On the North-west Frontier, with the 
exception of a species of Fetneus, I have never seen anv land-shells 
from either Swat, Dir, or Chitral. From the Kuram Valley a few 
species have been received ; but since Captain Huttou, in 1842, 
collected in the neighbourhood of the Bolan Pass, the laud-shells 
of the Suliman Range and hills to the south, lying west of the 
Indus, have been disregarded. 

In conclusion, I must not forget to mention those who have 
given much valuable assistance to Dr. W. T. Blanford while the 
work was in preparation and those who have given similar 
aid to myself : to all sincere thanks are due. Among them I 
would particularly mention Mr. Edgar A. Smith, I.S.O., in charge 



XXXU INTRODUCTION. 

of the Mollusca Department of the British Museum, who was 
ever ready to place species at our disposal and often added his 
valuable opinion on the determination or history of the species in 
hand. The late Professor Alfred Newton and Prof. S. P. Harmer 
gave every facility for the examination and loan of specimens 
contained in Benson's typical collection forming part of the 
McAndrew Collection in the University Museum of Zoology, 
Cambridge. Colonel R. H. Beddome placed his fine collection 
and his great knowledge of the Southern Indian land-shells at 
Dr. Blanford's disposal. I have myself to thank him for many 
valuable species preserved in spirit. Messrs. John Ponsonby and 
G. K. Gude's collections have been available for study. I am 
indebted to Mr. B. B. AVoodward for many suggestions relating 
to molluscan anatomy as well as to their geological ancestry. 

Much valuable matei'ial, without which the work would have 
been more incomplete than it is, was received from India collected 
by Messrs. Edgar Thurston in Madras, the late 0. Collett in 
Ceylon, as well as H. B. Preston ; in Southern India and Siam by 
the late W. M. Daly ; in Cachar by P. Ede. The Superintendents 
of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, Col. A. W. Alcock in the first 
instance, and more recently Dr. Annandale, have given very 
valuable aid in collecting and sending home many interesting 
species properly preserved as well as specimens for comparison. 
The late Wm. Theobald placed the whole of his valuable collection 
of spirit-specimens in my hands. 

I sincerely trust that the publication of these two Families, which 
is only a small portion of the Land-Molluscan Fauna of India, will 
lead naturalists resident in or visiting that country to collect and 
study this branch of its Natural Histoi'y : not to be content with 
collecting the shells alone, but to bear in mind whenever they find 
the living animal to preserve it and send it, should they not require 
it for their own examination, to the Indian Museum in Calcutta 
or to the British Museum at home, where sooner or later it will be 
available for the investigation of Malacologists. 



H. H. GODWIN-AUSTEN. 

Nore, July 1908. 



EEEATUM. 
Page 25, fig. 16, Ariophania IcBvipes : transpose letters C and D. 



[MOLLUSCA. 

Class GASTEROPODA. 

Order PULMONATA. 

Suborder GEOPHILA or STYLOMATOPHORA. 

Group AGNATHA. 

Family TESTACELLID^. 

Subfamily STREPTAXINiE.] * 

Animal carnivorous, slug-like or snail-like ; a shell generally 
present, but varying much in form. 'No jaw (hence the group is 
often distinguished as Agnatha). Eadula with numerous rows of 
long, narrow teeth, usually pointed. 

Distribution. Temperate and tropical regions of the world. 

The majority of the genera are African or South American. 
Two are Indian, both shell-bearing. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Shell heliciform, last whorl excentric Streptaxis, p. 1. 

Shell pupiform Ennba, p. 16. 

Genus STREPTAXIS. 

Streptaxis, Gray, Loudon's Mag. N. H. new ser. i, 1837, p. 485 ; 
Stol. J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 159 (anatomy). 

Type, S. nobilis, Gray, from Sierra Leone. 

Range. South-eastern Asia and a few of the islands ; Mascarene 
Islands ; Tropical Africa and South America. Tound in the 
Indian Peninsula to the southward only, in Ceylon, [Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands,] Assam, and Burma, but not in the Himalayas 
except east of Bhutan. 



F'xg.l.— Streptaxis pfeifferi. \. (After Stoliczka.) 

Shell thin hyaline, or thicker alabastrine, heliciform, the last 
whorl or last two whorls excentric, diverging from the axis of the 
upper whoi'ls. 

* In this volume the additions to the MS. as left by Dr. W. T. Blanford 
have been made by Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwiu-Austeu and are placed between 
brackets. 



2 TESTACELLID.E. 

Animal, as in other members of the family, with the anterior 
portion of the body, or neck, much longer than the posterior 
portion, or tail, which is very short. The colour is bright yellow, 
often becoming scarlet on the eye-pedicels and upper portion of 
the head. Upper tentacles or eye-pedicels elongate, lower tentacles 
short. Genital orifice on the right side, near the respiratory 
orifice and at a considerable distance from the tentacle. 

[The description of the internal anatomy is taken from Ferd. 
Stoliczka's paper on the genus : — 

In the main points {vide fig. 2) " the organs are quite similarly 

arranged as in the Helicidse The mantle is above, at the 

pulmonary orifice, considerably produced, receding ventrally, but 
remaining entire. On the inner side it has near the margin an 
elongated, thickened appendage on each side of the pulmonary 
opening. The pulmonary cavity itself is very long, but the lungs 
narrow. The digestive system differs from all Helicidse which I 
have examined by the peculiar development of the buccal parts. 
The mouth is wide, and immediately behind it, where it makes 

an angle, lies the nervous ring Immediately behind the 

nervous ring the buccal parts are produced into a cylindrical 
muscular tube, which extends in a slight curve up to the end of 
the chief retractor muscle of the body, Avhere it is firmly attached 
by a special thick muscle. A few separated threads connect the 
mouth direct Avith the anterior end of the retractor. The ring- 
muscles forming the outer layer of the tube are almost horny, or, 
at least, very tough. The longitudinal muscles forming the 
internal layer are much softer, but considerably thicker." 

This description recalls the buccal mass of Testacella and its 
powerful muscles. It suggests Strej^taxis being carnivorous and 
having a protrusive mouth, enabling it to enter and use the radula 
within the whorls of other snails. Stoliczka pointed out the 
similarity of the teeth of the radula to those of Testacella. There 
are other points of similarity, such as the tube-like clusters of the 
hermaphrodite gland and the form of the male organ (vide 
Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, vol. i. plate i. 
figs. 14 & 16).] 

Genital organs simple, albuminous gland elongate ; herma- 
plirodite gland small, composed of a cluster of tubes, the duct 
long and much twisted. Spermatheca small and globular, with a 
narrow neck [attached to uterus for nearly the whole length]. Vas 
deferens very short. Penis short, muscular, the retractor muscle 
long and thin and attached to the commencement of the penis 
close to the junction of the vas deferens ; no flagellum or kale-sac. 
Eggs large and well developed in the oviduct. 

Eadula long and narrow, composed of numerous rows of simple, 
almost straight and pointed teeth, [40-60 in row,] each furnished 
with a small swelling or projection about halfway between the 
point and the base. The median tooth in each row scarcely 
differs in form from the lateral teeth. The row is curved into an 
arc on each side of the middle, with the concavity in front. 



STREPTAXIS. 



t (.ml 




[Fig. 2. — Anatomy of Strepfaxis ohtusut 



a. Anus. 
ah. Auricle of heart. 
cU. Anterior lobe of liver. 
alg. Albumen -gland. 

h. Buccal mass. See oe, fig. 4. 
br. Retractor of buccal mass. 
c. Cavity where hermaphrodite 
and albumen gland were 
originally situated. 
'"9-' ".9- Cerebral ganglia or nervous 
ring. 
/. Foot. 
gen.ap. Generative aperture. 
hd. Hermaphrodite duct. 
hg. Hermaphrodite gland. 
/. Intestine. 
k. Kidney or renal organ. 



(After Stoliczka.) 

Jco. Kidney-opening. 
m. Mantle. 
ml. Mantle-lobe. 
0. Ovum, 
oe. QEsophagus. 
ov. Oviduct. 
p. Penis. 

2^1. Posterior lobe of liver. 
p.v. Pulmonary vein. 
iiip. Retractor muscle of penis, 
i^g. Salivary gland, chg. Duct of, 
sp. Spermatheca or receptaculum 

seminalis, 
St. Stomach, 

t. Eye-tentacles, 
vd. Vas deferens. 
vh. Ventricle of heart. 




^;^^^^^^ 



Fig. 3. — Radula of Streptaxis obtusus. (After Stoliczka.)] 

b2 



TESTACELLID.E. 




[Fig. 4. — Buccal mass, ganglia, Sec. of Strcpfaais obtitsa, (After Stoliczka.)] 

The measurements of Strepfaxis are the following : — The length 
and breadth are the diameters of the shell as it rests on the body- 
whorl ; the height is that of the shell laid on a flat surface at right 
angles to the other two. 

Forms of this genus are common on the hills of Southern India, 
and several of the species occurring appear to be widely spread 
and very variable. The teeth in the peristome vary in number 
and position, and even the number of the parietal lamella? is not 
always constant, whilst important differences may be found at 
times in the shape of the shell. 

I. Peristome edentulous or nearly so (occasionally a small 
tubercle inside right margin). 

A. Penultimate tvJiorl rcunded or hhintly annulate, not heeled ; 
a single j^arietal lamella. 

a. Dej^ivessedly ovate ; penultimate ivJiorl, seen from beneath, 
extends half its ividth beyond body-ivhorl. 

1. Streptaxis petiti, Goidd (Helix-Streptaxis), Bost. Jour. N. H. iv, 

1844, p. 45G ; Pfr. (Streptaxis) Mon. Hel. i, 1847, p. 8 ; id. t. c. 
vii, 1876, p. 494 ; H. ^- T. C. J. 1876, pi. 8, fio-. 4 ; Nev. Hand-l. i, 
1878, p. 3. 

Shell umbilicated, translucent, whitish, finely, closely, and 
flexuously costulate above, smooth beneath ; spire depressedly 
conoid ; whorls Qh, convex, penultimate whorl subangulate, last 
whorl flatly convex beneath, compressed around the umbilicus; 
aperture a truncated oval ; peristome white, expanded throughout, 
outer margin much curved forward. 

Length 10, breadth 7, height 64 mm. 

Hab. Tavoy and Mergui, Tenasserim ; ? Moulmein. 

2. Streptaxis bombax, Bs. (Helix) A.M.N. H. (8) iii, 1859, p. 186; 

Theoh. J.A.S. B. xxviii, pt. 2, 1859, p. 308 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. 



STREPTAXIS. 



Hel V, 1868, p. 151 ; Stol. (Streptaxis) J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, 1871, 
p. 167 ; Theob. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, 1876, p. 180, pi. 14, fig. G; 
H. ii- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, p. 15, pi. 31, figs. 1, 4 (immature 
shell); id. (Streptaxis) t. c. 1876, p. 03, pi. 156, fig. 9; Nev. 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 3. 

Similar to *S'. petlti, but larger and longer in proportion to the 
breadth, with the penultimate whorl much deeper and rounded at 
the periphery ; last whori subangulately compressed at the base 
behind the peristome, right margin of peristome but shghtly 
arcuate. 

Length 15, breadth 9-5, height 'S-b nun. ; of a similar form 12, 8, 
and 7'5 mm. 

Hah. Moulmein. Some of the immature specimens originally 
called Ileliv homhax were from Phietan, Tenasserim. 

3. Streptaxis andamaniciis, Bs. A. M. X. II. (3) vi, 1860, p. 192 ; 

Ffr. Mon. llel. v, 1868, p. 444; H. 4" T. C. I. 1876, pi. 8, f. 6; 
Nev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p.^2 ; [^Godwin- Austen, P. Z. 8. 1895, p. 443]. 

Shell umbilicated, with arcuate costulate striation above, smooth 
beneath ; whorls 5|, convex above, the penultimate rounded ; 
breadth across body-whorl scarcely greater than across penultimate 
whorl when viewed from below, and last whorl rounded, not com- 
pressed, around the umbilicus ; aperture a truncated oval, slightly 
compressed on the outer edge ; peristome white, expanded, the 
outer border arcuate. 

Length .S, breadth 5^, height 4 mm. 

Hub. Andaman Islands. 

4. Streptaxis blaufordi, Tkeob. J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 245; Neo. 

Hand-l i, 1878, p. 2 (Arakau i\: Pegu). 
Streptaxis blanfordiauus, Stol. J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, 1871, p. 163, 

pi. 7 [fig. 8 (Arakan), fig. 9 (Pegu)] ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, 

p. 494. 
Streptaxis burmauica, H. ^- T. {iiec Blanford) C. I. 1876, pi. 8, fi^. 5. 
[Streptaxis blanfordi, var., Godtvin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 443.J 

Very near S. andamaaiciis, but rather more narrowly umbili- 
cated, slightly compressed around the umbilicus, and usually with 
a distinct tubercle inside the outer border of the peristome, the 
outer margin of which is less arcuate. 

Length 1 h, breadth 5, height scarcely 4 mm. 

This ap[)ears to be merely a variety of IS. aadamanicus. 

Hub. Arrakan, Pegu, Shan States ; Cocos Islands. 

5. Streptaxis layardianus, Bs. A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 90; 

Pfr. Mon. HI. iv, 1859. p. 332 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 495 ; H. ^- T. 
C. I. 1876, pi. 98, figs. 1, 4 ; [Xei: Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 4]. 

Shell perforate, sub umbilicated, striated, whitish ; spire low, 
convex ; whorls 0], convex above, penultimate rounded, the last 



b TESTACELLID.Ii:. 

convex, slightly flattened beneath, very little compressed at the 
base ; aperture subtriangularly semi-oval ; peristome expanded, 
deeply sinuate at the angle, the sinus sometimes terminating in a 
small blunt tubercle on the parietal wall ; a single parietal lamella. 

Length 9^, breadth 7, height 5 mm. 

Hab. The hills of Southern Ceylon. This passes into S. cin~ 
galensis, p. 12. 

D. Dej'iressecUy ovate ; the penultimate wJiorl, seen from below, 
just extends beyond body-wJiorl. 

6. Streptaxis burmanicus, JSlf., Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, 

p. 245, pt. : Blf. J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1865, pp. 81, 105 ; Pfr. Man. 

Hel. v, 1868, p. 444 : id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 494 ; Stol. J. A. S. B. xl, 

pt. 2, 1871. p. 113, pi. 7, figs. 5-7. 
Streptaxis blanfordi, H.^- T. (nee Theobald) C. I. 1876, pi. 8, fig. 10; 

[Nev. Hand-I. i, 1878, p. 2 (Toungoop & Toungliu ; small var. 

Raugoou, 7ide Stol. t. c. pi. 7, figs. 6, 7)]. 
Streptaxis thebawi, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 243. 

Shell umbilicated, finely, closely, and flexuously costulate above, 
smooth beneath, whitish ; spire convex ; whorls 6-6|, slightly 
convex above, the penultimate rounded at the periphery ; last 
whorl much broader than the others, slightly flattened beneath, 




Pig. 5. — Streptaxis lairmanieus. 

very little compressed around the umbilicus. Aperture semi-oval, 
parietal Inmella well developed ; peristome white, expanded, outer 
border boldly arcuate, and with sometimes a small tubercle or tooth 
inside opposite the top of the parietal lamella. This tooth is often 
wanting. 

Length 10, breadth 7^, height 6 mm. ; of a smaller specimen Ih, 
5|, and 4 ; of /S. thebawi 10, 7, and 6. 

Hah. Arrakan and Pegu ; ^S'. thebaivi from Piugoung, Shan 
Hills, Upper Burma. 

7. Streptaxis pfeifFeri, Zelebor, Terh. zool.-lot. Ges. Wien, xvii, 
1867, p. 806 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 444 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, 
p. 495 ; Godicin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 443. 

Streptaxis pfeifieriamis, Stol. J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, 1871, pi. 8, fig. 6 
(animal) ; Nev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 2. 

Var. minor, Mbrch, Jour, de Couch. Oct. 1876, p. 359. Kar Nicobar. 

Var. pumilio, Mbrch, t. e. Oct. 1876, p. 359. Kamorta. 

Similar to S. burmanicus, but with half a whorl less ; the 



STBEPTAXIS. 



sculpture above is finer ; the base around the umbilicus is rounded, 
not compressed; the parietal lamella less developed; the mouth 
more rounded ; the peristome on the outer side much less convex^ 
and neither compressed nor tubercular. 




[Fig. Q.—Streptax'is pfeifferi. X 158 & 296.] 

[The radula has the formula 29 . 1 . 29. The centre toothi is 
smaller than the first and second ; in one specimen examined the 
centre tooth was quite rudimentary.] 

Length 8f, breadth G, height 4i mm. 

Hah. Nicobar Islands ; Camorta, Katchall, Kar Nicobar. 



c. Ovatehj conoid ; penidtimate ivJiorl comj^leteli/ hidden from beneath 
by body-ii'horl, ivhen seen in the direction of the axis of the 
vpper ivhorh. 

8. Streptaxis solidulus, Stol. J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, 1871, p. 106, 
pi. 7, fip. 10; Pfr. Man. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 494; H. <§• T. C. I. 
1876, pi. 98, lig. 7 ; Nev. HancU. i, 1878, p. 3. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, whitish, solid, finely and flexu- 
ously costulate above, smooth beneath ; spire conical ; whorls 6|, 
the upper flatly convex, penultimate rounded at periphery, body- 
whorl by far the largest and deepest, slightly compressed around 
the umbiUcus; aperture semioval, parietal lamella moderate; 
peristome expanded throughout, nearly in one plane, outer margin 
scarcely arcuate. 

Length 12, breadth 9, height 7h mm. 

Hab. Near Moulmein, at Yethebiankoo on the Attaran Rivei . 
Typical locality (Theobald). 



» TESTACELLID^. 

B. Penultimate ivJiorl sharj)ly Iceeled ; shell mucli depressed. 
a. Base of last whorl smooth and polished. 

9. Streptaxis exacutus, Gould, Proc. Post. Soc. N. H. vi, 1856, p. 13 ; 
Pfr. Man. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 331 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 494 ; H.S^r. 
C. I. 1876, pi. 98, figs. 8, 9, 10 ; Nev. Kand-l. i, 1878, p. 3. 

Shell openly umbilicated, whitish, finely and flexuously costulate 
above, less closely on the last whorl, which is smooth beneath, 
except behind the peristome ; spire very low ; whorls 6|, flat above, 
the penultimate with a compressed keel which projects consider- 
ably beyond the last whorl, the latter convex around the umbilicus ; 
breadth of body-whorl, seen from beneath, less than that of 
penultimate ; aperture truncately oval, two parietal lamellae, one 
in the middle of the parietal wall, the other smaller, close to the 
outer angle; peristome white, expanded, very slightly arcuate 
above on the outer border. 

Length 12|, breadth 7^, height 6 mm. 

Hah. Moulmein (Stolic:l-a) : Mergui (2It(s. Cum.). 



b. Shell finely costulate throughout, above and beloiv. 

10. Streptaxis sankeyi, Ps. A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 472; Pfr. 
Mon. IIcl. V, 1868, p. 442 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 494. 
Streptaxis sankeyamis, Stol. J. A. S. P. xl, pt. 2. 1871, p. 167, pi. 7, 
fig-. 14 ; Nev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 3. 

Shell very like that of S. exacutus, but the keel on the penulti- 
mate, though sharp, is not compressed, whilst the body-whorl is 
augulately compressed around the umbilicus. Only a single 
parietal lamella ; columellar border of peristome quite straight. 





Fig. 7. — Streptaxis mnJccyi. 

Length 11^, breadth 7^, height 5| mm. ; a smaller specimen 
measures 10, 6|, and 5^ mm. 

Hah. Farm Caves, near Moulmein (Stoliczl-a) ; Mergui (Mus. 
Cum.). 

11. Streptaxis hanleyanus, Stol J. A. S. P. xl, pt. 2, 1871, p. 168 
pi. 7, fig. 15 ; Pfr. Men. lid. vii, 1876, p. 494. 
Streptaxis sankeyi, H. ^' T. {nee Penson) C. I. 1876, pi. 8, fig. 7 ; 
Nev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 3. 



STBEPTAXIS. y 

Very ne.ar S. sanheyi, but narrower, with the peuuUiinale whorl 
scarcely broader tbaa the last whorl, and with the mouth almost 
rectangular and oblong, tlie outer margin being compressed and 
straight as well as the columellar. (xenerally, too, the present 
v'^pecies is smaller and more depressed. 

Length 7|, breadth 4|, height 4 mm. ; a larger specimen 
measures 10, 7, and 5 mm.; the latter is the form figured as 
'S. sankeyi in the ' Conchologia Indica.' 

Uah Kwengon Hill, near Moulraein {Theobald). 

II. Both parietal margin and inside of peristome tooth-bearing. 

A. Penultimate whorl roundetl. 

a. Glohoxeh/ ovate ; finely costidate above, narroivly umbilicated, 

12. Streptaxis obtusus, <%«/. /. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, 1871, p. 166, pi. 7, 

tigs. 11-13, pi. ^!. figs. 1-4 (anatomy) ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, 
p. 495 ; Glide, Pruc. Mai. Soc. v, 1903, p. 323, pi. 12, figs. 8-10 ; 
Nev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 3. 

Spire low, convex ; whorls 7, flattened above, penultimate whorl 
bluntly subangulate below the middle and scarcely projecting 
beyond the last whorl, which is compressed around the umbilicus, 
and on which the sculpture becomes gradually fainter below ; 
aperture slightly compressed on both sides, rounded externally, 
one parietal lamella with an additional tubercle near the angle ; 
peristome with a small tubercular tooth inside the columellar 
margin, and another, still smaller and sometimes wanting, inside 
the outer margin, which is but slightly arcuate. 

Length 10, breadth 7, height 6k mm. 

Ilab. Chouktalon, a limestone hill south of Moulmein (Theobald). 

b. Depressedly ovate ; striated or smooth. 

a'. Lij) of j^eristoine not continued across parietal margin of 
a2ierture ; 1 or 2 parietal lamelhe. 

b'. Upper surface smooth^ more or less striated. 

13. Streptaxis theobaldi, Hens. A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 187 

Pfr. Man. Ud. v, 1868, p. 449 ; H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 8, tig. 9 
G.-A. J. A. S. n. xlv, pt. 2, 1876, p. 317, pi. 8, fig. 15 ; Nev. 
Hund-l. i, 1878, p. 3. 

Shell arcuately rimate, smooth, whitish, translucent ; spire low, 
convex ; whorls 5-54, convex above; penultimate whorl rouaded, 
not pi'ojecting or scarcely projecting beyond the body-whorl when 
viewed from beneath ; last whorl broader, swollen beneath, com- 
pressed around the umbilicus, rising oa the penultimate whorl 
towards the mouth, with three indentations behind the peristome ; 
aperture subtriangularly semi-ovate, with 7 teeth inside ; peristome 
expanded, deeply cut back at the upper angle, with a lamellar fold 



10 



TESTACELLID^. 



just inside the sinus and a larger elongate lamella in the middle of 
the parietal callus ; of the other teeth three are inside the outer 
lip, the third lying in the curve, and two are columellar. 

Length 6, breadth 4, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Khasi and Naga Hills, south of Assam ; Dafla Hills, west 
of Bhutan, at low elevations {O.-A.) ; N.E. Manipur {Ocjle) ; and 
Bhamo, Upper Burma (Anderson). A very globose broad shell, 
5| mm. long, 44 broad, from the Naga Hills, in Col. Beddome's 
collection, may belong to a distinct form. 

14. Streptaxis daflaensis, G.-A. J. A. S. B. xir, pt. 2, 187G, p. 317, 

pl. 8, fig. 14. 

This species is near S. tlieohaldi, but is slightly larger, with a 
lower spire ; the umbilicus is broader and deeper, and there is only 
one lamella in the middle of the parietal callus, not a second close 
to the augle of the aperture. 

Length 7, breadth 5, heisrht 3^ mm. 

Hah. Near Tanir Peak, Datla Hills, east qf Bhutan, 4000 feet. 

15. Streptaxis peroteti, Petit (RqWx), Bcv. Zool. 1841, p. 100; Pfr. 

3Ion. Hcl. i, 1847, p. 9; id. t. c. (perrolteti) iii, 1853, p. 288: 
id. t. c. (perroteti) vii, p. 49(3; H. <§• T. C. I. 187G, pl. 98, 
figs. 5, 6 ; Blf. J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, 1880, p. 205; Nev. Hand-l. 
5, 1878, p. 4. 
Streptaxis latior, Gude, Vroc. Mai. Soc. v, 1903, p. 323, pl. 12, 
figs. 1-4. 

Shell rimate, rather thiu, smooth and striated above, polished 
beneath, yellowish white; spire convex ; whorls 5^, Hatly couvex 
above, penultimate rounded, projecting beyond the last whorl 
when viewed from below, last whorl flattened at the base, slightly 
broader than penultimate, indented behind the peristome; aperture 
semi-oval, slightly sinuate at angle ; peristome white, expanded ; 
parietal lamellae normally two, close together, converging behind, 
that to the left median and longest, the other sometimes wanting ; 





Fig. 8. — Sfrcpta.Tif j^^i'C^cfi- 

teeth inside peristome three, one on right border, one basal, the 
third columellar (occasionally a small fourth tooth is found in the 
outer margin near the angle). 

Length 10, breadth 6, height 4| mm. ; a smaller specimen 8, 6, 
and Ah mm. 

Hah. Plateau of Nilgiris ; also Anaimalais and hills near 
Tinnevelly. A large variety has been found by Colonel Beddome 
in Ceylon, measuring 9^, Qh-, 4| mm. 



STREPTAXIS. 11 

A variable sliell ; some specimens, apparently fully adult, have 
only one parietal lamella, and the extent to which the penultimate 
whorl, when viewed from below, extends beyond the body-whorl 
varies considerably. To this is due the difference in the proportion 
of length to breadth, shown by the measurements. 

16. Streptaxis footei, JV. ^- If. Blf. J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, p. 358, 

pi. 2, fig. 6 ; Pfr. Mo7i. Hel. v, 1868, p. 448. 

Near S. peroteti, but with only one tooth inside the peristome, 
situated about the middle of the outer margin ; two parietal 
lameirae ; 5 whorls, the penultimate projecting very slightly when 
viewed from belo\\% subumbilicated like S. ivatsoni. 

Length G|, breadth 5, depth 4 mm. 

Hah, Sholamalai Plateau: Pachaimalais, near Salera, 3000 ft. 
A variety from Kalruyan Malai, another hill-group near Salem, 
collected by Colonel Beddome, has an additional basal tooth inside 
the peristome and the parietal lamella near the angle small or 
wanting. 

17. Streptaxis watsoni, ir. ^- H. Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, 

]). 12(); iidnn, t. c. xxx, p. 359, pi. 2, fig. 7 : Pfr. Mon. Hel. v, 
1868, p. 447 ; //. .y T. C. I. 1876, pi. 8," tig-. 8 ; Nev. Hand-l. i, 
1878, p. 4. 

Similar to S. peroteti, but considerably smaller ; w horls 5, um- 
bilicus larger and deeper, peristome more deeply sinuate at the 
angle, parietal lamellae always 2, stronger and further apart, and 
teeth in the peristome more developed, from 3 to 5 in number. 

Length 6, breadth 4i, depth 3 mm. 

Hah. Nilgiris ; Wynaad, Anaimalais. 

18. Streptaxis beddomii, Blf. {Nev. MS.) P. Z. S. 1899, p. 765, 

pi. 50, tigs. 4-7. 
Streptaxis plourostomoides, Gude, Proc, Mai. Soc, v, 1903, p. 324, 
pi. 12, figs. 14-16. 

Distinguished from S. ivatsoni by having a single parietal plait, 
and the teeth inside the peristome differently arranged. There 
are three small equal and equidistant teeth, one halfway down the 
columellar margin, a second farther down, and a third in the base, 
a fourth tooth inside the right margin. Althougli there is only 
one parietal plait, there is sometimes a tubercular swelling on the 
parietal wall at the termination of the sinus of the peristome. 

Length 6, breadth A^, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Anaimalais (Beddome). 

A larger variety with an additional upper tooth in the right 
margin, and with the three equal columellar and basal teeth rather 
nearer together, measuring 7, 5, and 34, has been brought by 
Col. Beddome from near Ivuttalam, Tinnevelly, 4000 feet above 
the sea. This appears to be S. pleurostomoides of Gude. A shell 



12 TESTACELLID^. 

from the "Wynaad measuring 8, 6, and 4 mm. may be a still larger 
form. 

19. Streptaxis concinnus, Blf. J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, 1880, p. 203, 

pi. 2, fig. 11. 

Subumbilicated, smooth, striated, whitish ; spire convex, very 
low ; whorls 5|, convex ; penultimate rounded, completely hidden 
by the broader last whorl when the shell is looked at from beneath 
in the line of the axis of the upper whorls ; last whorl tumid and 
polished below, compressed around the umbilicus anteriorly, con- 
stricted by indentations behind the peristome ; aperture with outer 
and columellar margins nearly straight and converging outwards, 
rounded at the base ; peristome white, expanded, but little curved 
back at the angle : parietal lamellae 2, both elongate, the inner long, 
and bent inside ; teeth in peristome 5, two columellar, one small 
near the umbilicus, the other double ; oue transverse and lamellar 
at the base and two inside the outer margin. 

Length 6|, breadth 4, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Balarangam Hills, Mysore. 

This is very near S. watsorii, but distinguished by the penulti- 
mate whorl not projecting below. 

20. Streptaxis scalptus, Blf. P. Z. S. 1899, p. 766, pi. 50, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Shell subumbilicated, moderately depressed, ovate ; costulately 
striated above, smooth beneath, waxy, whitish ; spire depressedly 
conoid ; whorls 5:^-6, convex ; penultimate rounded, projecting 
less than half its breadth beyond the last whorl when viewed from 
beneath ; last ^horl moderately convex, compressed laterally near 
the aperture, constricted by indentations behind the peristome ; 
aperture semioval, contracted by one or (more often) two parietal 
lamellae and by 3, 4, or 5 subequal palatal teeth, mostcommouly 4, 
one columellar, one distal, and two in the right margin. 

Length 10, breadth 7, height 5| mm. 

Hah. Kolamalai Hills, Salem district (Beddome); Balur in Kadur 
district, Mysore {Daly). 

A specimen from Torna Hill, near Poena, Deccan, measuring 
11| X 8| X 6 mm., may perhaps be referred to this form. 

21. Streptaxis cingalensis, Bs. A. M. X. H. (2) xli, 1853, p. 91 ; 

Bfr. Man. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 333; vii, p. 496; H. S)- T. C. I. 1876, 
pi. 98, figs. 2, 3 ; Kev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 4. 

Similar to 8. layardianns (p. 5), but slightly larger, with the 
last whorl less excentric and rather more convex beneath ; the 
deep sinus in the peristome at the angle always ends in a tubercle 
on the parietal wall, and there are two small tubercular teeth 
inside tlie peristome, one in the middle of the outer margin, 
opposite the ridge of the parietal plait, the other at the base of the 
columellar margin. 



STREPTAXIS. 13 

Length of type 11, breadth Ng, height 5| mm. (Benson); a 
typical specimen lent to me by Mr. Layard measures 10, 7g, and 
5 mm. 

This is, I think, merely a variety of *S'. layanliamts. I have 
seen intermediate forms with rudimentary palatal teeth. 

Huh. Hewagam Korale, S.W. Ceylon. 

A small shell measuring 5| x 4 x 3 from Ohiya, Ceylon, 6000', is 
in Mr. Sykes's collection. It is a miniature of /S'. cinyaletisis. 

22. Streptaxis gracilis, CoUett, Proc Mai. Soc. in, 1898, p. 1. 

Shell subperforate, depressed, smooth, whitish ; spire low ; 
whorls 4^-5, convex above ; the penultimate rounded behind, 
scarcely projecting beyond the last \\horl when seen from below ; 
last whorl convex beneath, slightly compressed around the 
umbihcus : aperture semioval ; peristome slightly expanded, white, 
cut back into a rather deep sinus at the angle ; a single parietal 
lamella, and one palatal tooth at the base of the columellar 
margin. 

[The radula is very long ; the teeth are similar to those of 
S. pfeifferi, only the centre tooth is rather longer in proportion 
to the tirst and second ; the formula is 25 . 1 . 25. The buccal 
mass is as described by Stoliczka.] 

Length 4|, breadth 3|, depth 2| mm. 

Hah. Near Lemastota, L'^va Province, Ceylon. 

23. Streptaxis lasvis, Blf. r. Z. S. 1809, p. 765, pi. 50, tigs. 11, 12. 

Similar to S. burmanicus (p. 6), but smooth and finely striated, 
not costulate above, and with a minute basal tooth inside the 
peristome in all (3) specimens examined ; in one specimen there 
are two teeth. 

Hah. Burma (Beddome). 

24. Streptaxis ravanae, Blf. P. Z. S. 1899, p. 768, pi. 50, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

Shell rimate, minutely perforate, striated ; spire low, convex : 
whorls 7, flattened above, penultimate rounded, only just pro- 
jecting beyond the body-whorl « hen seen from below ; last whorl 
flattened beneath, compressed anteriorly around the umbilicus ; 
aperture semioval, with one parietal plait and 4 (or 5) palatal 
teeth, two on the right margin, one distal and one near the base 
of the columellar border, with a second rudimentary tooth higher 
np ; peristome expanded, cut back into a moderate sinus at the 
angle. 

Length 13;^, breadth 10, height 7 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon. I have long had a specimen, but do not know 
the exact locality. 



14 TESTACELLID.^. 

a". Peristome continued by a thiclc lip, hearing a single re-entering 
y -shaped lamella, across parietal margin. 

25. Streptaxis personatus, Blf. J. A. S. B. xlix, pt. 2, 1880, p. 202, 

1.1. 2, tig. 10. 

Shell unibilicated, smooth, pale yellowish white ; spire depresse'd ; 
whorls 5, slightly convex above, the penultimate rounded, scarcely 
projecting beyond the last, which is slightly compressed ai'ound 
the umbiHcus, constricted and pitted behind the mouth ; aperture 
semioval ; peristome thickened and expanded, continuous across 
the last whorl, with a deej) sinus at the angle and furnished inside 
with a thick ])arietal lamella, two teeth inside the outer, and three 
in the columellar margin, the lower and larger of the teetli inside 
the outer border opposite to top of the parietal lamina. 

Length 5, breadth 4, height 2k mm. 

A larger variety, 6^ mm. long, has only three or four teeth inside 
the peristome, not counting the parietal lamella. 

Hah. Hills near Cum bum, Madura, South India; Peermede, 
Travancore ; Shevroys (Beddome). 

26. Streptaxis pronus, Blf. J. A. S. B. xUx, pt. 2, 1880, p. 204, pi. 2, 

%• 12. 

Near S. personatus, but costulately striated above, and with the 
last whorl very excentric, the penultimate, when seen from below, 
projecting by more than half its breadth ; whorls o|, penultimate 
rounded, last whorl somewhat flattened beneath, sharply compressed 
around the umbilicus, subcostulate within ; aperture elongate, 
truncately oval ; peristome w-hite, expanded, with 4 teeth, 1 colu- 
mellar, 1 basal, and 2 in outer margin, besides the parietal lamella, 
which is curved within and subbitid in front ; the sinus at the 
angle of the peristome well marked, but much less deep than in 
S. personatus. 

Length 6i, breadth 4, depth 3 mm. 

Bab. Hills near Tinnevelly, S. Lidia (Beddome). 



B. Penultimate ivhorl carinate. 

*27. Streptaxis elisa, Goidd, Proc. Bast. Sac. N. H. vi, 1856, p. 13 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. y, 1868, p. 448. 

Shell of moderate size, much distorted and compressed, finely 
striated above, smooth beneath and broadly perforated ; spire 
discoid ; whorls 7|, angulate near the deep suture, the last very 
much extended laterally ; aperture transverse, subquadrate ; peri- 
stome everted, armed inside with 4 teeth cruciformly disposed, a 
small fifth posterior tooth being sometimes added. 

Length half an inch (12| mm.), height one quarter inch (6 mm.) 
(Gould, Lat.). 

Rab. An island in the Mergui Archipelago (Rev. J. Benjamin). 




STREPTAXIS. 15 

28. Streptaxis canaricus, Blf. {Beddome MS.) J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 

pt. 2. 18(59, p. 142, pi. 16, lig. 11; Ffr. Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, 
p. 497; H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 156, figs. 7, 8; Nev. Hand-l. i, 
1878, p. 3. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, finely costulate above and below ; 
spire very low, conical ; whorls 5|, nearly flat, above ; penultimate 

sharply keeled, projecting by more 
than half its width beyond the 
body-whorl, wlien seen from below ; 
last whorl flatly convex beneath, 
compressed around the umbilicus ; 
constricted by indentations behind 

T,. ^ C.J ^ . . the perijstome ; aperture semio\al, 

Fig. 9. — Streptaxis canaricus. ^i . i • ^^ ^• 

° rather broad ; peristome continu- 

ous, expanded, curved back con- 
siderably at the angle, a tliiek, flexuous, deeply re-entering parietal 
lamella, and 6 palatal teeth. 

Length 74, breadth 6, height 3^ mm. 
Hah. South Canara {Beddome). 

29. Streptaxis subacutus, Blf. P. Z. S. 1899, p. 767, pi. oO, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell rimate, perforate, depressedly ovate, solid, with flexuous 
costulate striation above, smooth beneath ; spire depressedly conoid ; 
whorls 6^, flattish, penultimate obtusely keeled, projecting by fully 
half its breadth beneath beyond the last whorl, which is slightly 
convex below, compressed and subangulate near the aperture, 
rugosely striated inside the umbilicus ; indented outside behind 
the peristome ; aperture semioval, with 1 or 2 parietal lamellse, 
the outer small or wanting, and 3 palatal teeth ; peristome 
expanded, moderately curved back at the angle. 

Length 11|, breadth 8, height 6 mm. 

Hab. South Canara (Beddome). 

30. Streptaxis compressus, B/f. J. A. S. B, xlix, pt. 2, 1880, p. 201, 

pi. 2, fig. 13. 

Shell openly subumbilicated, very depressed, striate, translucent, 
dull yellowish ; spire almost flat ; whorls Ah., flattened above, hue 
with the suture impressed, the penultimate whorl bluntly carinate, 
projecting by nearly its whole breadth when seen from beneath, 
last whorl flattened below except near the peristome, where it is 
compressed into a ridge, indented behind the aperture, which is 
nearly semioval, but with the margins converging distally ; peri- 
stome expanded, slightly sinuate at angle ; parietal lamella bifid 
or double ; palatal teeth 4 or 5, two columellar teeth being close 
together and generally united. 

Length 6^, breadth 3|, height 3 mm. 

Hab. Sivagiri Hills, Tinnevelly ; and hills near Cumbum in 
same district. The variety from the latter locality is filiforinly 
striated above and within the umbilicus, and the parietal lamella 
is double. 



16 TESTACELLID.E. 

Genus ENNEA. 

Ennea, H. 8f A. Adams, Oen. Rec. Moll, n, 1858, p. 171 ; Stol. 
J. A. S. B. x], pt. 2, 1871, p. 169 (anatomy of E. {lluttonelld) 
bicolor). 

Type, K bicolor, Hutt. 

Range. Throughout Southern and South-eastern Asia from 
Arabia to Japan and the Philippines ; also Madagascar, with the 
Mascarene Islands, and throughout tropical and Southern Africa. 

Shell pupiform, ovate, cylindrieally ovate or turreted, hyaline in 
structure. All Indian species have plaits or teeth in the aperture, 
and all, except one Nicobar form, are imperforate and arcuately 
rimate. 

Animal like that of Streptaxis. No jaw. Eadula similar ; that of 
Ennea bicolor is long, containing between 80 and 90 rows of teeth, 
with 19 teeth (9.1.9) in each row. The median tooth is short, 
sharply pointed, with an enlarged knob on each side towards the 
base ; the laterals are longer, slightly curved, each with a blunt 
knob ou the outer side ; their size decreases outwardly (Stoliczka). 
According to Morelet, Ennea is viviparous, producing one young 
at a time. 

I. Imperforate, rimate. 

A. Aperture suhaxial, not truncated above, oval, ivitli an accessory, 
nearly circular, portion on the right almost cut off by a parietal 
lamella and a palatal fold or smelling ; peristome white, ex- 
panded, continuous, indented at p)arietal lamella, deeply sinuate 
around sidjtubular accessory portion of aperture. 

a. Peristome united to pemdtimate whorl and partly covering it. 

31. Ennea vara, Bs. (Pupa) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 188; rfr. 
Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 455; G.-A. P. Z. S. 1872, pi. 30, fig. 6; 
Pfr. t.c. vii, 1876, p. 501 ; H. ^ T. C. I. 1876, pi. 100, fig. 3; 
Nev. Hand-l. i. 1878, p. 7. 

Spire elongately ovate, subfusiform, white, strongly ribbed 





Fig. 10. — Ennea vara \, and aperture f. 

vertically ; spire turreted, regularly diminishing, apex obtuse ; 
whorls S, slightly convex, the last much compressed laterally, 



ENNEA. 1 1 

bluntly siibangulate beneath, ascending in front; aperture vertical, 
witlj a slight columellar callosity, but no plait, the accessory 
tubular portion almost halfway down the right margin ; pex'istomo 
broadly expanded. 

Length 5^, breadth 2, length of aperture and peristome nearly 
2 mm. 

Uah. Khasi Hills; Jaintia and N". Cachar Hills {G.-A.). 

32. Ennea stenopylis, Bs. A. M. N. H. (y) v, 18G0, p. 4G0 ; Pfr. 

Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 455 ; G.-A. P. Z. S. 1872, pi. 30, fif . 'S ; 
Pfr. t. c. vii, 187G, p. 501 ; Kev. Hand-l i, 1878, p. 7. 

Shell ovate, somewhat flexuously and obliquely costulate, whitish 
horny ; apex obtuse; whorls Qh, narrow, slightly convex, ante- 
penultimate broadest, last whorl much compressed laterally, in- 
dented externally behind the peristome ; aperture vertical, no 
columellar plait. 

Length 3|, breadth 2|, height ap. 1-^- mm. ; iu another specimen 
length 3|, breadth 2 mm. Benson's type was 3^ and 1^, showing 
much variation. 

Hah. Sikbim, about 4000'; Dafla Hills, Khiisi Hills, Naga 
Hills; Manipur ((?.-^.). 

33. Ennea nagaensis, Blf. {Godwin-Austen MS.) P. Z. S. 1899, 

p. 769, pi. 50, fig. 22. 

Near E. stenopylis, but larger and more elongate, with 7 whorls ; 
and with the broadly expanded peristome of E. vara. Costulation 
fine, close, oblique, and liexuous. 

Length 4|, breadth 2, height of aperture 1| mm. 

Hah. Naga Hills. 

34. Ennea blanfordiana, G.-A. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 515, pi. 30, fig. 4 ; 

Pfr. Mon. Hel vii, 1876, p. 501 ; H. .^- T. C. I. 187G, pi. 100, 
fig. 2. 

vShell cylindrically ovate, obliquely costulate on upper whorls, 
almost smooth and polished on the lower, whitish horny, trans- 
lucent, spire with nearly straight lines, becoming curved near 
apex, which is obtuse ; whorls 8^^, the last two or three some- 
times slightly narrower across the shell than fifth and sixth, the 
last compressed laterally, indented on outer side behind peristome ; 
apcn-ture vertical, with the subtubular accessory portion higher 
up the right margin than in E. stempyUs and E. vara, a small 
tubercle inside dextral margin on the palatal fold, and a deep- 
seated columellar fold. 

Length 7, breadth 2i, length of aperture with peristome 
1^-2 mm. 

Hah. North Cachar, Mahadeo Peak near Asalu, 5700'. A 
smaller variety, measuring 5| mm. in length, was found at Henieo 
Peak in the same district. 



18 TESTACELLIDy^. 

35. Ennea fartoidea, Theob. (Pupa) J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 1870, 

p. 400; Pfr. (Pupa) Man. Hel. viii, 1877, p. 372. 
Pupa (Ennea) fartoides, S. Sf T. C. I. 1876, pi. 100, fig. 5 ; Nev. 
(Ennea-IIuttonella) Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 7. 

Shell scarcely rimate, subcylindrically ovate, obliquely costulate, 
the sculpture becoming fainter or obsolete on the lower whorls ; 
spire as in E. blanforcUana ; whorls 7-8, fourth or fifth broadest, 
the last very little compressed, slightly ascending ; aperture slightly 
inclined, not vertical, no columellar or basal teeth ; the subtubular 
appendage higher than in the last three species, quite at the angle 
of the aperture. 

Length 4, breadth H, height of aperture 1 mm. 

Hah. IShau States, Burma {F. Fedden). 

36. Ennea milium, God win- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, 1876, p. 317, 

pi. 8, fig. 11 (teeth in mouth require correction) ; Blf. P. Z. S. 
1899, pi. 50, figs. 18, 19. 

Like E. fartoidea., but much smaller and with oiily six whorls, 
the upper three obliquely costulate, the lower three smooth, amber- 
coloured ; aperture with a curved parietal plait, three tubercular 
palatal teeth and an internal columellar lamella ; of the palatal 
teeth two are in the right margin, the upper being opposite the 
parietal lamella, and the third in the base is low and broad. 
Peristome white, expanded. 

Length 2|, breadth 1 mm. 

Hab. Sheugorh Peak, 7000', Dafla Hills, north of Assam {G.-A.). 
Only a single specimen known. 

b. Peristome free from pcnidtimate wJiorl. (Diaphoba.) 

37. Ennea cylindrelloidea, Stol. (Ennea-Huttonella) J. A. S. B. xl, 

pt. 2, 1871, p. 171, pi. 7, fig. 4; Pfr. (Ennea) Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, 
p. 507 ; H. cS- T. (Pupa-Ennea) C. I. 1876, pi. 160, fig. 10. 

Shell turreted, finely and closely vertically costulate, except on 
the uppermost whorls ; spire slightly but regularly diminishing, 
apex obtuse, sutures deep ; Avhorls 8, convex, swollen below the 
suture, the last two slightly narrow, the last bluntly keeled at the 
base, free near the aperture, slightly descending ; aperture slightly 
inclined, rounded, the parietal lamella thick and oblique ; peristome 
expanded all round. 

Length 4^7, breadth 1-3, length of aperture 0-9 mm. (SfoUczl-a). 

Hab. Damotha, near Moulmein. 

A specimen in the British Museum from Damotha, presented 
by Dr. Huugerford, approaches the above species in many respects, 
but it is smooth, with the sides of the spire slightly concave above. 
It is 4 mm. long. This is probably an uudescribed form, but it 
looks slightly distorted, so I shall not propose a name for it. 



ENNE.\. 19 

38. Ennea seatoni, Beddome, P. Z. !S. 1891, p. 815, pi. i>9, figs. 15-19. 

Similar to E. ci/lindreUoidea, but coii'^iclerably larger, with 
lOi- 11 whorls, finely, not very closely costulated. The aperture 
is very differently shaped, being oval, considerably higher than 
broad, with the subtubular portion in the riglit upper corner 
ahnost cut off by a vertical parietal lamella and a thickened sub- 
angular plait inside the outer margin ; both of these plaits are 
twisted inside, so as to appear from the aperture like additional 
teeth, there is also an internal obliquely descending columellar 
fold and another external lamella just visible from the front; 
peristome expanded throughout, deeply sinuate at the angle ; 
last whorl free for a short distance behind the peristome, cora- 
pressed and bluntly subangulate at the base. 

Length 9, breadth 2|, height of aperture nearly 2 mm. 

Hab. Limestone rocks east of Mooleyit, near Siam frontier, 
Tenasserim. 

39. Ennea brevicoUis, B/f. P. Z. S. 1899, p. 768, pi. 50, figs. 16, 17. 

Intermediate in size and form between E. ojlindreUoidea and 
E. seaioni, distinguished from the former by larger size, coarser 





Fig. 11. — Ennea hrevicoU is. ?. 

and more distant filiform costulation, and from the latter by its 
differently shaped mouth, which is nearly as broad as high. 
AVhorls 11, all, except the upper three, fihformly costulate, the last 
solute for a short distance and closely costulate where free. ]No 
columellar lamellae. 

Length 8, breadth 2, height of aperture 1^ mm. 

Hah. Moulmein (Theobald). 

B. Aperture semioval or oblong ; generally truncated above. 

a. Shell turreted. (Huttonella.). 

40. Ennea bicolor, Huffoji (Pupa), J. A. S. B. iii, 1834, pp. 80 & 93 ; 
Ifr. (Pupa) Man. Hel ii, 1848, p. 352 ; Bs. (Pupa) A. M. N. H. (2) 
iv, 1849, p. 125 ; Pfr. Man. Hel. It, 1859, p. 342 ; Semper, lieis. 
d. Phil, iii, 1890-94, pi. 8, fig. 14 ; Stol. (Ennea-Huttonella) J. A. 

C2 



20 TESTACELLID^. 

-S. B. xl, pt. 2, 1871, p. 169; Pf,: Mon. Hel vii, 1876, p. 505; 

H. ^' T. (Pupa) C. I. 1876, pi. 100, fig. 6 ; Nev. (Eiinea-Hut- 

tonella) Hand-l. 1878, p. 6. 
Pupa meliita, Gould, Proc. Bast. Soc. N. H. ii, 1846, p. 98. 
Pupa (Ennea) ceylanica, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 9 ; id. Mon. Hel. iv, 

1859, p. 342 ; H. ^- T. C. I. 1870, pi. 100, fig. 4. 

Shell subcylindrically turreted, smooth, polished, translucent, 
yellowish white ; spire slightly attenuate above, apex very obtuse, 
suture impressed, crenulate; whorls 7 (6-8{y), slightly convex, the 
last deeply indented externally and basally behind the peristome ; 
aperture nearly vertical, truncated, semioval, containing four teeth, 
one parietal fold, close to the angle, continuous with the peri- 
stome and running into the columellar side ; the second the largest. 




Fig. Vl.—Ennra Idculor f, and aperture f. 

triangular, on dextral margin of the peristome, opposite the first* ; 
peristome subtubular, the third small and basal, the fourth colu- 
mellar, a curved fold commencing inside and running obliquely 
inwards ; peristome white, expanded, curved back into a sinus at 
the angle. 

Length 7, breadth 2, height of aperture li mm. Other speci- 
mens are smaller; I have adults only 4 mm. long. 

Hub. Almost throughout India, Ceylon, Burma, and Nicobar 
Islands, chiefly in open or cultivated plains, not, as a rule, in 
forest. This shell occurs throughout the greater part of the 
Indian region, also in the Seychelles and Mascarene Islands, and 
in several islands of the West Indies, where it has probably been 
introduced by man. 

The spire varies considerably, some shells being much more 
attenuate above than others. 

[The animal, taken from Stoliczka's description, has a long body, 
laterally strongly compressed, posteriorly shortened, though on 
the whole a little more produced than in Streptaxis., more or less 
distinctly yellowish, on the head reddish ; pedicles long, slightly 
thickened at the end, their external skin is yellow, but the internal 
eye-bearing peduncles are vermilion ; eyes very small ; tentacles 
small, pale reddish ; mantle deep red. The internal anatomy 

* [Stoliczka says, and be examined the animal, " Two of the teeth are placed 
at each side of the posterior (or upper) angle of the mouth, producing a sort of 
canal, in which terminates the ])uImonary orifice and the anus."] 



ENKEA. 



21 



exactly corresponds with that of Streptaxis. The radula is very 
long, "the sides curved up like a sheath of a bamboo-leaf. The 
centre tooth is short, sharply pointed, with a rapidly widened base. 
The adjoining and following teeth are longer and slightly curved, 
decreasing in size outward, and arranged 9.1. 0. It is carni- 
vorous. In January 1897 Mr. Collett took specimens off the 
sea-wall at Galle, Ceylon, preying upon Oj^eas gracilis, which it 
resembles somewhat. The long anterior body, combined with the 
protrusive odontophore, of E. bicolor enables the creature to enter 
and reach the furthest internal whorls of 0. yracilis and other 
shells.] 

41. Ennea macrodon, Blf. J. A. S. B. xlix, 1880, p. 205, pi. 2, fig. 15 

Shell turreted, pale, horny, with fine, close, vertical hair-like 
costulation ; spire diminishing very slightly above, apex obtuse ; 
whorls 7, convex, the last ascending slightly near the aperture, 
not indented; aperture vertical, semioval, obliquely truncated 
above, almost filled up with teeth, consisting of a prominent high 
re-entering subbifid ])arietal plait, a small tubercular tooth in the 
right margin, a large lamelliform obliquely transverse basal tooth 




Fig. 13.— Ennea macrodon. ^, 

inside the lip, and a blunt columellar tooth ; another deep lamella 
running into the shell is seen behind the basal one ; peristome 
white, expanded, sinuate at angle, margins united by a distinct 
callus. 

Length 5, breadth 2, height of aperture 1| mm. 

Hab. Pykiira, Nilgiri Hills. 

Young shells in this and the next five species have the dentition 
of the aperture fully developed. 

42. Ennea subcostulata, Blf. J. A. S. B. xlix, 1880, p. 206, pi. 2, 
fig. 14 (upper fig-.). 

Very near E. macrodon, chiefly distinguished by the filiform 
costulation being almost or quite obsolete. The teeth in the 
aperture are similar but less massive, and in the only adult 
specimen examined tlie broad lamellar basal tooth is replaced by 
two tubercular teeth. 

Length 51, breadth 2, height of aperture \\ mm. 

Hab. Shevroy Hills, fS. India. 



22 TESTAOELLID^. 

43. Ennea turricula, Blf. P. Z. S. 1899, p. 768, pi. 50, figs. 16, 17. 

Distinguished from E. macrodon by having slightly coarser and 
less close filiform costulation, only six whorls, and by the plaits 
inside the mouth being much less developed. In adult shells 
only the parietal plait remains conspicuous, but there are deep- 
seated basal and columellar lamellae : in younger specimens «ith 
the peristome thickened and expanded a small basal tubercle also 
occurs. The transverse basal lamella of E. macrodon is wanting, 
and the parietal plait is simple. 

Length 5, breadth 1| mm. 

Hah. Anaimalai Hills, 4000' ; also S. Canara (Beddome). 

44. Ennea exilis, Blf. J. A. S B. xlix, 1880, p. 207, pi. 2, fig. 14 (lower 

fig. ; all the teeth are wrongly represented). 

Similar to E. macrodon, but much more slender and entirely 
smooth, thin, and translucent, AVhorls 61^-7. The teeth are 
smaller, the parietal lamella bears two knobs, but is not bifid ; 
the basal plait is represented by two tubercular teeth united at 
the base and running obliquely into the shell ; the only internal 
plait is columellar rather than basal, and not directly behind 
the basal tooth ; the columellar and dextral teeth are simply 
tubercular. 

Length 4^, breadth li, length of aperture 1 mm. 

Hah. Balarangam Hills, Mysore. 

4.5. Ennea pirriei, Pfr. (Pupa) P. Z. S. 1854, p. 295 ; id. (Ennea) 
Man. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 341; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 505; H. $>■ T. 
(Pupa-Ennea) C. 1. 1876, pi. 100, fig. 1 ; Nev. (Ennea-PIuttouella) 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 7. 

Shell turreted, ver)^ slightly diminishing above, whitish horny ; 
upper whorls smooth, last two with very fine hair-like costu- 
lation ; apex obtuse ; whorls 7, slightly convex, the last com- 
pressed at the base ; aperture roundly semioval ; peristome white, 
expanded, margins joined by a thick callus, which is deeply in- 
dented above at the place where it bears a parietal lamella running 
into the whorl, there is also a columellar plait running obliquely 
inwards and commencing inside the mouth ; no teeth in the 
basal or dextral margins. 

Length 10, breadth 2^, height of aperture 2 mm. 

Hab. Koondah Hills (Western portion of Nilgiris) (Pirrie). 

46. Ennea sculpta, Blf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 1869, p. 141, pi. 16, fig. 10 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. Vii, 1876, p. 504; H. S>- T. (Pupa-Ennea) C. I. 
1876, pi. 160, fig. 1 ; Nev. (Ennea-Hiittonella) Hand-l. \, 1878, 
p. 7. 

This differs from E. pirriei chiefly in being coarsely ornamented 
with vertical slightly flexuous ribbing throughout except on the 
first two whorls. The callus that unites the margins of the 
peristome is not indented above the parietal lamella which is near 



ENNEA. -^^ 



the anHe. Rid>t margin of peristome slightly arcuate. A deep 
columellar plait and four palatal lamella inside the aperture, not 
easily seen from it. 

Length 8^, breadth 21 height of aperture 2 mm. 

Hah. Puliiey Hills, S.^India {Fairhanlc). 

47 Ennea beddomii, Blf. J. A. S. JS. xlix, 1880, p. 210 ; B/f. P. Z. S. 
1899, p. 770, pi. oO, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell turreted, pale yellowish white, vertically ribbed; spire 
tapering shghtly but regularly above, apex obtuse ; ^vhorls (> 
convex, the last rounded beneath; aperture rounded truncated 
above, with one strongly developed parietal lamella entering 
deeply and a Httle twisted within, and a smaller deep-seated 
columellar fold, two or three small internal palatal teeth and a 
blunt tubercular swelling inside the right margni opposite the 
parietal fold ; peristome white, broadly expanded, continuous, 
curved back at the angle. 

Length 3|, breadth 1^, height of aperture § mm. 

Hab. Sivagiri Hills, near Tinnevelly. 

48 Ennea canarica, Blf. (Beddome MS.) J. A. S. B. xUx, 1880, p. 210 ; 
id. P. Z. S. 1899, p. 770, pi. 50, fig. 25. 

Shell turreted, verticallv ribbed, white; spire regularly di- 
minishing upwards, apex blunt; whorls 6, convex, swollen 
beneath the suture, the last not ascending, rounded beneath ; 
aperture rounded below, cut off in a straight line above, with a 
We parietal lamella and a small palatal swelling, opposite to 
each other, almost cutting off the area near the angle, a large 
internal columellar plait, also a minute parietal and a smal basal 
tooth both inside the mouth ; peristome continuous, thickened, 
broadly expanded, slightly curved back near the angle. 

Length almost 4, breadth 2 mm. 

Hab. South Canara. 

b. SJiell ovate. 

49. Ennea planguncula, Bs. (Pupa) A. M.N^ HA2.) xii, 1863 p. 426 ; 
Pfr (Pupa) Mon. Hel. vi, 1868, p. 329;^. ^- T. {Vn^^) C. I. 
1870, pi. 101, fig. 2 ; id. t. c. pl^l60, fig. 3 (var.) ; Nev. (Lnnea- 
Huttonella) ira«6Z-/. i, 1878, p. 7. r a ^ Tt .aw i«sn 

Ennea stenastoma, Blf. {Beddome MS.) J. A. S. B. xhx, 1880, 
p. 208, pi. 2, fig. 17. 
Shell deeply rimate, cylindrically ovate, whitish, minutely 
obliquely costulate ; spire cylindrical, with the sides straight but 
becoming convex towards the obtuse apex; suture crenulate ; 
whorls 6i slightly convex, the last compressed laterally and 
deeply indente^l on both sides behind the peristome ; apertui-e 
verScal, subaxial, oblong, higl^er than broad, both right and left 
mar-in concave, basal margin convex, the mouth greatly con- 
?^acted by the following large teeth :-(!) a thick parietal told 



24 



TESTACELLID^. 



near the angle and (2) a large tubercular subbifid tooth on the 
right margin, both runniug into the whorl ; also two columellar 
tubercular teeth, the larger just inside the lip, the smaller internal, 
and two small basal teeth right and left ; peristome white, ex- 
panded, sharply curved back at the angle. 




Fig. 14. — Ennca planguncida f, aperture V"- 

Length 3^, breadth 14,, length of aperture 1^ mm. 

Hah. Peninsula of India ; Orissa (Tlieohald) ; Golconda Hills, 
near Vizagapatam and liusellcoonda (Beddome) ; Nerbudda Valley, 
near Hashungabad. 

A smaller variety, with 5| whorls, 3 mm. long, was obtained by 
Col. Beddome from hills near Kurnool. This is the form figured 
in the Conchol. Ind. pi. 160, fig. 3. I have seen a specimen of what 
is ]irobably a variety from Ceylon. The fine oblique costiilatiou 
and sutural crenulation often disappear. 

II. Umbilicated. 

*50. Ennea moercMana, Nev. (Roepstorf MS.) J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, 
p. 130 ; Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, pp. 443, 450. 

Shell deeply but narrowly umbilicated, cylindrically ovate, 
subvertically rather distantly ribbed, white, solid ; apex obtusely 
conoidal; whorls 6|, convex, fourth and fifth broadest, last rounded 
at base, ascending in front, partly covering umbilicus ; aperture 




ig. 15. — Ennea moerchiana \, and view of base. 

vertical, subaxial, rounded, parietal fold vertical, well developed, 
another strong but less prominent fold within right margin, no 
other teeth ; peristome broadly reflected, deeply sinuate above the 
dextral fold. 

Length 4|, breadth 2| mm. 

Hah. Centre of Great Nicobar. 



ZONITIDiE. 



25 



Family ZONlTlDiE. 
Subfamily ARIOPHANTIN.E. 

[The Ariophantiiue form a very distinct subfamily of the Indian 
Mollusca, and are almost exclusively confined to the Peninsular 
area and Ceylon ; only two species are found extending a short 
distance northward into the Gaugetic delta, but have not been 
recorded from that of the Brahmaputra Eiver. The largest Indian 




Fio-. 16. — Afiophanfa Icsvipes. 

A. Genitalia. X 3. 

B. Ditto, part of, .showing spermatheca. . ■,■ e 
0. Portion of male organ near juncLion of vas deferens, showing position ot a 

sperniatophore. 
D. Terminal end of the amatorial organ or dart. 

J). Penis. 
rm. Retractor muscle. 



rmp. Eetractor muscle of penis. 
sp. Spermatheca. 
V. Vagina. 
vd. Vas deferens. 



am.or. Amatorial organ or dart. 
crp. CcBcum musculi retradoris 
penis of Semper. 
d. Dart. 
gen.ap. Generative aperture. 
k. Kale-sac. 
ov. Oviduct. 

land-shells belong to this subfamily. All are large and fine forms, 
both sinistral and dextral ; they vary much in form from solid, 
turbinate, to thin and very globose shells, and to others Ifehcanon- 
like, thin, diaphanous, and membranaceous. 

The generative organs have three marked characters, viz., the 
penis ciEcum (" cjecum musculi retractoris penis " of Semper), 
to which the retractor muscle is attached; a very small pear- 



26 ZON1T1D.E. 

shaped or sessile spermatbeca or sperm-sac, and conformably with 
it a very sliort spermatophore of peculiar form with close-set 
spines, different altogether from that of the MacrocJilammrp. 
Fig. of animal, PL I. figs. 1 & 2.] 

[^Synopsis of Genera. 

1. Abiophanta. 

With sinistral shells, solid or horny and thin ; left dorsal lohe dis- 
tinctly separate in two parts. Most species with aculeate laterals 
in the radula. 

2. NiLGiRiA, Cryptozona, Xestina. 

Dextral shells, mostly solid, and many of large size ; left dorsal 
lobe undivided, or merely slit. 

3. Indrklla. 

Shell Helicarion-\\\ie, large and thin ; a slit in the left dorsal 
lobe ; radula with aculeate laterals. 

4. Ravana. 

Shell thin, depressed, smooth, of the Macroclilamys type ; left 
dorsal lohe divided ; foot truncate. 

5. Eatxadvipia. 

Shell Helicarion-like, few whorls, thin ; animal with both right 
and left shell-lobes ; foot truncate at extremity ; radula very broad ; 
teeth very numerous. 

0. EUPLECTA. 

Shell in most cases carinate and closely wound ; lohe above mucous 
pore more pointed ; dorsal lobe in two distinct parts ; in the male 
organ a muscular band confines a portion in a looped arrangement.] 

Genus ARIOPHANTA. 

Ariophanta, Desmoulim, Bidl. Soc. Bordeaux, iii, 1829, p. 2.3o, pi. 1, 

tigs, l-o ; G.-A. Moll. Ind. i, 1883, p. 133 : id. t. c. ii, 1898, p. 82 ; 

Blf. Froe. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 241. 
Cryptozona, Morch, Jour, de Conch, xx, 1872, p. 334. 
Xestina, Pfeiffer, JB. mal. Ges. v, 1378, p. 257 ; id. Abh. Ver. Hamb. 

vii, 1883, p. 13 ; couf. v. Mart. Zool Rec. xv, 1880, p. 162. 
Nilgiria, G.-A. Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 253; id. t. c. ii, 1898, p. 77, & 

1899, p. 123. 

Type, A. Icevipes (Miill.). 

Eange. The Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 

Shell sinistrorse or dextrorse, perforate or umbilicated, of 
moderate or large size, depressed or globose, striated or decussately 
striated above, smoother beneath ; peristome thin in general, but 
not always, the columellar margin more or less reflected. 

Animal with the body wben extended rather broad and de- 
pressed (broader than that of Macroclilamys). A large mucous 
pore above the flattened posterior extremity of the foot, without 
any horn-shaped lobe above (a small blunt lobe is sometimes 
present) ; peripodial groove well developed, always double ; sole 
broad, not distinctly divided beneath ; upper surface of body with 
oblique striae, those on the head and neck anastomosing and 
forming a distinct tract. The mantle-edge is a narrow band re- 
flected over the peristome. jSTo shell-lobes ; the two dorsal lobes 



ABIOPHANTA. 



27 



are well developed, the left (right in sinistral forms) divided into 
two fa large anterior and a much smaller posterior; m the 
dextral forms, type solata, the left dorsal lobe is continuous, or a 
mere slit divides it into two as in hasUen.s'}. 

In the genitalia there is a kale-sac, often of large size, \\ hich 
receives the vas deferens ; a simple diverticulum or cteciim, varying 




f't^.f 



rpi„ 17 _ \. Ariaphanta lavipes. Jaw and teeth of the radulfi, X 300. 

'' B. Ariophantri immerifa. Jaw and teeth of radula, X Ifw; and niimtle- 

ed^e, viewed from tlie outside and from below, sliowing the 
dorsal lobes, X 3. 

pvs. Parietal side of visceral sac. 
.s^. Shell-lobe. 
pc. Pulmonary cavity] 



anf.nll. Anterior right dorsal lobe. 
post. nil. Posterior right dorsal lobe. 
idl. Left dorsal lobe. 
res.ap. Respiratory a))erture. 

in length, leads from the junction of the kale-sac and penis-sheath 
to the retractor muscle ; the amatorial organ or dart-sac is long 
and more or less cylindrical ; the spermatheca (receptaculura 
seminis) is small, globose, and either sessile or with a short stalk. 
Radula broad, with numerous teeth in each row : rhachidian 
(central) tooth tricuspid, the side cusps small and basal ; the inner 
laterals broad, hi- or tricuspid, forming a hand of varying width 
down the middle of the radula, distinct from the area occupied by 
the outer laterals, which are elongate and uni- or bicuspid and 



28 ZONITID^, 

pass into aculeate pointed marginals. Jaw curved, with a small 
median projection. 

The egg of A. Iwvipes is elliptical, longitudinally sulcated, 
enclosed in a tough membrane, and 4 to 5 mm. in length, 4 to 4g 
in diameter. That of A. interrupta is similar. 

This genus is now regarded as confined to the Indian Peninsula 
and Ceylon, various Burmese and Malay sinistral forms, formerly 
referred to it, being assigned to other genera ; whilst a considerable 
number of dextral Southern Indian and Ceylonese species, formerly 
classed under Xesta and Hemiplecta, or separated as Cryptozona, 
Xestina, or Nilgiria, are now united with the typical sinistral 
forms of Ariophanta into a single genus, the animals being very 
similar in their general anatomy. 

[A'e?/ to Sj^ecies of Ariophanta. 
Section I. Typical, sinistral. (Ariophanta.)] 

A. Shell perforate or very narrowly umbilicated. 
a. Shell solid, not horny. 

a'. Radiila with a narrow central band of only 
17 median teeth; tlie left dorsal lobe divided 

into two distinct parts Icevipes. 

laidlayana. 
kadapaensis. 
h. Horny, brownish, more or less translucent. 
h' . Depressed. 

a" . Kadula with broad central band of 35 to 

55 teeth interrupta. 

immerita. 

b". Globose bajadera. 

intumescens. 

B. Shell openly and deeply umbilicated cysis. 

Subsp. dalyi. 

thyreus. 
Subsp. hetercea. 

Section II. Dextral. (Cryptozona ?) 

A. Colour uniform or nearly so, no spiral bands of 

colour. 

a. Decussated above. 

a', lladula with broad band of median teeth ; left 

dorsal lobe undivided semirugata, 

belangeri. 

b. The whorls transversely striated, not decussated . albata. 

sisjMtrica. 

novella. 

ceraria. 

B. Shell spirally banded with colour more or less 

distinctly. 

a. Decussated but not grooved ligulata. 

bistrialis. 
basilessa. 
gardeneri. 



ATlIOniANTA. 



29 



h. Sculpture of decussating lines and of oblique 

shallow grooves and low ridges basileus. 



Whorls transversely striated, without decussation 
or grooves • 



I. Sinistrorse. (AEioniANTA.) 



heddomii. 

chenui. 
juliann. 
maderaspatuna. 
r/assii. 
solatci. 



A. Perforate or very narroivh/ umlilkated. 

a. Not horny : banded spirally above, or white or broiun throuyhout. 

[a', liadula ivitli a very narroiv band of median teeth. The left 
dorsal lobe divided.'] 

51. Ariophaiita laevipes, MiUl. (Helix) Hist. Ver. ii, P- 22 (1774); 
Ifr. (Helix) Mo7i. Hel. i, 1847, p. 71 ; id. t cm, 18.)3,^p. 75;^^e^- 




(animal) ; ii, p. 81, pi. 80, fig. 5 (anatomy), pi. 82, fig. 4 (radula), 

Helix trifasciata, Chemn., Mart. S,- Chemn. Syst Omch.-Cah J^, 

p. 308, pi. 213, figs. 3018-19 (1795) ; P^. ^<^'^- ^^^■''\^f^'^ 

p. 76; id. t. c. vii" 1876, p. 128; H. ^- T. C. I. 18/6, pi. 131, 

fig. 4. 

Shell depressed, rather thin, obliquely striated and decussated 

with fine spiral lines above, smooth beneath, white or whitish 

with three spiral chestnut bauds ; spire low, conoidal ; \\ horls 5, 




Fig. 18. — Ariophaiita Ixevipcs. \. 

slightly convex, the last rounded beneath, angulate at the peri- 
i)hery, the angulation generally disappearing near the mouth ; 
aperture lunate, diagonal ; peristome in one plane, simple above, 
slightly thickeued and reflected below. 



30 ZO'SITIDJE. 

Major diam. 28, rain. 23|, axis 15 mm. A large flat variety 
from Rajpipla measures 28|, 244, and l'3i. 

Hah. Bombay (common in gardens) ; Eajpipla Hills, east of 
SuraL I have never been able to trace the occurrence of this 
species in Malabar. 

The commonest variety is white with three spiral bauds — oue 
near the suture, one above and one beneath the periphery ; 
but some shells have the ground-colour brownish with darker 
bands, and some are white or dark broMii throughout. The 
parietal wall of the aperture and the area around the umbilicus 
(periomphalus) are never darker than the adjacent portion of the 
last whorl. 

The teeth on the radula have the formula 120 . 2 . 8 . 1 . 8 . 2 . 12U 
(130 . 1 . 130) : the rhachidiau tooth is tricuspid ; the eight inner 
laterals bicuspid and broad, forming a narrower median line than 
in other species of the genus, i. e. 17 teeth to 45 in the latter. 
The admedian teeth ai-e bicuspid up to the 104th. 

52. Ariophanta laidlayana, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) xviii, 1856, 

p. 253 ; Pfv. (Helix) Man. Hd. iv, 185U, p. 31 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, 
p. 96 ; H. .y T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 58, ii^. 3 : Nev. (Naniua- 
Ariophanta) Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 18 ; Godwin- Austen (Helix- 
Ariophanta), J. A. S.B. xlix, 1880, p. 155, pi. 10, fig. 2 (auimal) ; 
id. 3Iol. Ind. i, 1898, p. 140, pi. 34, tig. 3. 

Similar to A. Icevipes, except that the coloured spiral band close 
to the suture is wanting, and that the periomphalus or area 
around the perforation in the base and the parietal or inner wall 
of the aperture are always chestnut, contrasting with the rest of 
the wall. As a rule, too, the present species is less depressed and 
smoother. The coloration varies ; specimens without bands are 
sometimes found, white or brown throughout. 

Major diam. 28, min. 23, axis 15 mm. 

Hab. The hill-country of Western and Southern Bengal, Orissa, 
&c., from the Ganges to south of the Godavari and west to about 
80° E. 

53. Ariophanta kadapaensis. 

Helix nicobarica, Chenin., Mart. Si' Cheimi. Si/.sf. Conc/i.-CaO. ix, 
1, p. 79, pi. 108, figs. 911, 912 (1795) ; Pfr. 'Mo,k He/, i, 1847, 
p. 40; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 75; Blf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 1869, 
^ p. 139 ; H. ^- T. C I. 1876, pi. 52, %. 1. 

Nanina (Ariophanta) kadapaensis, Nev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 19 ; God- 
win-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1898, p. 141. 

Shell globose, obliquely striated, generally with fine impressed 
decussating spiral lines, dull chestnut above, with a white spiral 
band near the suture and another round the pei-iphery, the inner 
borders of the white bands darker, a broad white area round the 
base, periomphalus and parietal wall of aperture dark ; spire 
convexly conoid, apex blunt ; whorls 5.4, slightly convex, the last 
rounded at the peripheiT, swollen below ; aperture diagonal, 
roundly lunate ; peristome small, reflected at the perforation. 



ABIOPHANTA. 31 

Major diam. 40, inin. 35, axis 26 mm. 

JIab. Cuddapali, Madras Presidency (King); Xullamuliays, 
Xurnool {Beddome), uot Xicobars. 

b. Hornij, browni^Ji, more or kss Iransluccnt. 
b . Depressed. 

54. Ariophanta interrupta, /;.<. (Helix) P. z. S. 1834, p. 90 ; id. 

(Helix) Zool. Jour, v, p. 401 (1835) ; Pfr. (lielix) Mon. Hel. i, 
1847, p. 63 ; id. t. c. vii, 187G, p. 125 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1870, 
pi. 27, ti<r. 3 ; Godwin-Austeji, J. A. S. B. xlix, 1880, p. 154, pi. 10, 
fig. 1 (animal) ; id. Mol. Lid. i, 1898, p. 130, pi. 34, iig. 2; £//. 
Proc. Mai. Sue. i\, 1901, p. 244. 
Helix himalayana, Lea, Obs. i, 1831, p. 167, pi. 19, fig. ijQ: Bs. 
A. M. N. H. (3) xi, 1863, p. 88. 

Shell flatly convex above, rather coarsely, obliquely, plicately 
striated and decussated with fine impressed lines, the decussation 
sometimes obsolete, more tumid and smoother beneath ; brownish 
horny, darker below the periphery, and gradually becoming paler 
again beneath ; whorls 4.|, convex above, the last augulate at the 
periphery ; aperture roundly lunate, peristome thin. 

Major diam. 2(3, min. 22|, axis 16 mm. (Calcutta). A large 
depressed variety from Pareshnath measures 32, 27, and 17. 
Animal pinkish grey. 

Hob. Bengal, Behar, Orissa, Ganjam, Golconda Hills ; Vizaga- 
patam. Common in Calcutta [and extends to Jessore]. 

55. Ariophanta immerita, Bl. (Xanina- Ariophanta) J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

1870, p. 17; id. t. c. xUx, 1880, p. 155, pi. 3, fiij. 4 ; Pfr. (Helix) 
Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 128: H. ^ T. (HelixJ C. I. 1876, pi. 150, 
fig. 7 ; Godivin-Auste7i, Mol. Ind. i, 1898, p. 135, pi. 33, fig. 1 
(1883), pi. 82, fig. 6 (radula). 

The "Western race A. imraerita is smoother, with the spiral 
impressed lines nearly or quite obsolete. It has hitherto only 
been found in South Canara. According to Godwin-Austen, 
Moll. Ind. i, p. 135, the outer lateral teeth of the radula are more 
numerous in A. interrupta than in A. immenta, but this is scarcely 
a character that is necessarily of specific value. The number in 
A. interrupta is 40 . 23 . 1 . 23 . 40 (G3 . 1 . 63), so that the median 
row of large teeth is very broad. In A. immerita it is 
25 . 24 . 1 . 24 . 25 (49 . 1 . 49). The rhachidian tooth has a cusp 
on each side, the admedian teeth only one on the outer side; the 
smaller lateral teeth are pointed, without lateral cusps. [See 
fig. 17 B (p. 27) also for the jaw and dorsal lobes.] 

b". Globose. 

56. Ariophanta bajadera, Pfr. (Helix) Zeitschr. Mai. 1850, p. (i9 • 

Bens, (lielix) A. M. X. IL (2) x, 1852, p. 350 : Pfr. (Helix) Mon. 
Hel. iii, 1853, p. 52 ; id. t. c. iv, 1859, p. 250 : id. t. c. vii. 1876, 
p. 370; H. 4- T. (Heli.x) C. I. 1876, pi. 3, fig. 5; Godwin-Austen, 



32 ZONITID^. 

Mol Ind. i, 1898, p. 137; id. t.c. n, 1876, pi. 82, fig. 8 (teeth of 
radula). 
Helix ammonea, Val., Desk, in Fcr. Hist. Nat. i, 1850, p. 197, 
1)1. 37 A, tig. 1 ; Pfr. Mo7i. Hel. iii, 1853, p, 41 ; id. t. c. viii, 1877, 
p. 560. 

Shell thin, translucent, ])ale greenish to brownish horny tlirough- 
out, rather glossy, coarsely plicately striated above, almost smooth 
beneath; spire conoidal, apex obtuse, suture rather deep; whorls 




Fig. 19. — Ariophanta hajadera. 

4-4;^, convex, the last swollen, rounded at the periphery (immature 
shells are subangulate), descending slightly at the mouth ; aper- 
ture diagonal, almost round, lunate; peristome thin, white. 

Major diam. 27|, min. 22, axis 18| mm. 

Hah. The Bombay Presidency, south of the Narbudda, ranging 
east to Nagpur. Common on the Western Ghats near Bombay. 
Not found in Bengal. [Lives on leaves of one or two shrubs. — 
W. T. B.] 

57. Ariophanta intiimescens, Blf. (Nanina-Ariophanta) /. A. S. B. 

XXXV, 1866, p. 32 ; Ffr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 321 ; id. t. c. 
vii, 1876, p. 370 ; H. .*,'• T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. Ill, tig. 6 ; 
Godivin- Austen (Ariophanta), J. A. S. B. xlix, 1880, p. 155; id. 
Mol. Ind. i, 1898, p. 138. 

A large duller shell than A. hajadera, thin, brown, \\ith finer, 
less plicate striation, suture scarcely impressed; whorls 4|, almost 
flat above, the last bluntly angulate at the periphery, descending 
a little at the mouth ; aperture large, rounded. 

Major diam. 32, min. 26, axis 23 mm. 

Hab. Mahableshwar (W. T. B.). 

Teeth of radula 50 . 27 . 1 . 27 . 50 (77 .1 . 77). The teeth are 
like those of A. interrupta, but the adraedian series are tricuspid, 
there being a small tooth on the inner side as well as on the 
outer ; lateral teeth very long and narrow, gradually becoming 
very small on the outer margin. 

58. Ariophanta canarica, Blf. Proc Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 248, pi. 25, 

Ariophanta intumescens, Godivin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlix, 1880, 
pi. X, tig. 4 (animal). 

Shell openly perforate, globosely turbinate, brownish horny, 
rather sohd, closely and rugosely striated, the strise decussated 



ABIOPHANTA. 33 

above by fine subobsolete impressed lines ; spire conoid, apex sub- 
acute ; suture slightly impressed ; whorls 5, almost flat above, 
rapidly increasing, the last keeled at the periphery, descending 
beneath the keel towards the mouth, swollen beneath, somewhat 
compressed around the perforation ; aperture diagonal, rounded ; 
peristome in one plane, slightly thickened and a little expanded in 
adults, columellar margin broadly reflexed. 

Major diam. 30, min. 24|, axis 21 mm. 

Hah. S. Canara (Beddome). 

This shoiild perhaps be considered a race of A. intumescens, from 
which it is distinguished by smaller size, greater thickness, 
especially at the peristome, stronger decussated striation, higher 
and more acute apex, the presence of a keel, and a more open 
umbilicus. A small specimen measures 26, 2U, and 17=1 mm. in 
the three dimensions. 



59. 



B. Openly and deeplij umhilicated. 

Ariophanta cysis, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) ix, 1852, p.404- 
rfi: (Helix) Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 92; iil t. c. iv, 1859, p. 174 • 
id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 277 ; H.^- T. (Helix) C. I. 187G,p. 13, pi. 25, 
fig. 5 ; Godwm-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 139 ; id. t. c. ii 
1898, pi. 82, fig. 7 (teeth of radula). 

Helix aiu-is, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 286 ; id. Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 173. 

Helix cvstis, Rv. Conch. Ic, Helix, pi. 123, no. 737 (1852). 

Helix ampuUarioides, Bv. t. c. pi. 202, no. 1423 (1854). 

Ariophanta dalyi (subsp.), Blf. Proc. Mai. Sac. iii, 1899, p. 280 
figs.; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, p. 128, pi. 98, fig. 4 (1899) 
(genitalia). 

Shell globosely depressed, rather thin, obliquely striated, light 
yellowish bi'own ; spire convex, apex obtuse, suture slightly 
impressed ; whorls 4J, rapidly increasing, convex, the last swollen 
beneath, subangulate at the periphery, not descending near the 
mouth ; aperture diagonal, ovally lunate, the margins converging ; 
peristome thin, columellar margin reflected. 

Major diam. 43, min. 35, axis 23 mm. 

Hab. The typical form is from the western side of the Nilgiris 
(Sispara). A. ampuUarioides is a higher and more globose form 
also from the Nilgiris, said to measure 42 mm. in major diameter by 
26 in height. A. dahji is a small, thin, dark shell from Hadur in 
Mysore, in some respects approaching A. intumoicens. It has a 
whitish band round the periphery and measures 39, 32, and 
22 mm. A. ci/sis has also been obtained by Beddome from the 
Anaimalais. 

Teeth of radula of ojsis 60 . 22 . 1 . 22 . 60. The aduiedians are 
bicuspid, having a cusp on the outer side; only the rhachidian tooth 
is tricuspid, the laterals are aculeate. [In the genitalia the male 
organ is much simpler than in A. Icn'ipes, although of tlie same type. 
The retractor muscle is given off from a stout long caecum, con- 

D 



34 zoKiTiD.i:. 

tinuous with the main sheath below. At the junction of these 

two parts is the kale-sac on a very short tube which the vas 

deferens joins. It is thus strikingly similar to the same part 
in the genus Ratnadvipia.'] 

GO. Ariophanta thyreus, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) ix. 1852, 
p. 405 : Pfr. (Helix) Mo7u Hel. iii, 1853, p. 251 ; id. f. c. vii, 
1876, p. 454; H. Sf T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 27, fig. 6; Blf. 
Proc. Mai Soc. iv, 1901, p. 244. 
Helix ryssolemma, Albers, Zettschr. Mai. 1852, p. 186; Pfr. 
(Helix) Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 634 ; id. Nov. Conch, i, 1854, p. 87, 
pi. 10, figs. 13, 14. 
A.riophanta heteraea (subsp.), Blf. Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 248, 
pi. 25, fig. 2. 

Shell depressed, rather more widely umbilieated than A. cysis, 
and distinguished from that species by having 5-5| whorls 
increasing more slowly, so that the mouth is comparatively much 
smaller, and by the distinctly decussated sculpture above. The 




Fig. 20. — Ariophanta thyreus. 

suture is scarcely impressed, except towards the mouth ; spire 
low, convex. Colour brown horny, with generally a narrow dark 
rufous band below the subangulate periphery. The peristome is 
blunt and frequently thickened. 

Major diam. 33, min. 28, axis 16 mm. A large specimen 
measures 40, 34, and 21 mm. Animal brownish grey, mantle 
paler. 

Hah. Brahmageri (Coorg) ; Nilgiri, Anaimalai and Balarangam 
Hills, S. India. 

Intermediate forms between this shell and A. ci/sis occur. 

A. Tietercea is one of these intermediate forms. It is less 
depressed and thinner than typical tliyreus, and more narrowly 
umbilieated, the sutures are deeper and the sculpture not decus- 
sated. The colour is paler brown, and the narroiv reddish band 
below the periphery is very distinct. 

Major diam. 37, min. 30, axis 21 mm. 

Hah. Sispara, west side of Nilghiris. 

A. rifssohmrna (rJii/solemma) is a large variety v\ith coarse sculp- 
ture, nieasuring 40, 33, and 19 mm. Specimens collected at Sispara 
Ghat, Nilgiri Hills, agree with the description. 



ARIOPHANTA. 35 

II. Dextrorse, (Cbyptozona, Xestijja, or Nilgiuia.) 

A. Colour uniform or nearly so ; no sjnral hands of colour. 

a. Decussated. 

a'. Badxda with hroad hand of median teeth. Left dorsal lohe 
undivided. 



61. Ariophanta semirug-ata, Beck (Galaxis), Ind. p. 42 (1837); 
Pfr. (Helix) Man. Jlet. i, 1847, p. 40; id. t. c. vii, p. 75 ; H. S^- T. 
(ilelix) (J. 1. 1870, pi. 59, fig. 4; ]^ev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 51. 
Helix globulus, Mart. Sf Chemn. Si/st. Conch.- Cah. ix, 2, p. 126, 
pi. 130, tigs. 1159-60 (1786); jiec Miill. Hist. Ver. ii, p. 68 
(1774). 
Galaxis trauquebarica, Fahr. MS.. 1876, Beck, I. c. no descr. ; Pfr. 
(Helix) Mon. llel i, 1847, p. 41 ; id. t. c. vii, p. 75 ; 8tol. (Helix) 
J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, 2, p. 212 (footuote); Godwi?i-Ansfen (Nilgiria), 
Mol. Ind. ii, p. 78, pi. 81 [figs. 3-3 d, animal, genitalia, with 
spermatopbore ; pi. 82, fig. 3, radula (1898)] ; id. t. c. ii, p. 135 
(1899) [pi. 94, tigs. 5-5 e, spermatophore], pi. 98 [figs. 2-2 b, 
anatomy and sculpture]. 

Shell perforate, globose or globosely conoid to depressedly 
globose, pale brownish to whitish, finely decussated above with 
oblique striae and spiral impressed lines, the latter sometimes 
faint or wanting ; smoother below ; suture very little impressed ; 



Fig. 21. — AriopJiania scmirit(/afa. }. 

whorls 5-6, slightly convex, the last large and swollen, generally 
descending near tbe mouth ; apertui'e roundly or ovally lunate ; 
peristome tliin, reflected near the umbilicus. 

Mapr diam. J53, min. 28, height 28 mm. 

Hai). The greater part of the Peninsula of India from the 
Nerbudda and Son southwards, Cutch {StoHcz/ca); also in Northern 
Ceylon. Common in open country. 

A very variable shell, the spire especially varying in elevation. 
An average specimen (figured) from Trichinopoly gives the 
measurements above quoted ; others from the same place measure 
37, 33, 34, and 33, 30, and 35 mm. Another measures 30, 25, 24. 

d2 



36 ZONITID^, 

A. semirugata is a thinner smoother variety ; A. tranqneharica 
thicker, with stronger sculpture, and more globose. 

Animal with a triangular right dorsal lobe to the mantle and a 
long narrow left dorsal lobe. Foot not divided. 

In the genitalia distal portion of penis-sheath very long and 
convolute ; the retractor muscle of the male organ is given off 
from an extremely long diverticulum. A cylindrical kale-sac, 
about as long as the epiphallus. Spermatheca bulbous, on a short 
narrow neck. Dart-sac very large and long. 

Eadula with 54 . 3 . 17 . 1 . 17 . 3 . 54 (74 . 1 . 74) teeth in a row : 
rhachidian tooth tricuspid ; the admedians close to the middle have 
a slight inner cusp, which soon disappears ; the outer cusp is 
persistent on the admedians and on some of the laterals. 



62. Ariophanta belangeri, Desk. (Helix) in Belanger, Voy. Zool. 

p. 4:1 pi. 1, figs. 1-3 (1834); Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. i. 1847, 

p. 69; id. L c. vii, 1876, p. 172; H. ^' T. (HeHx) C. /. 1870, 

pi. 29, fig. 6. 
Helix bombayana, Grat. Act. Soc. Lin. Bord. xi, 1841, p. 406, pi. 1, 

fio-. 1 ; Ffr. Man. Hel. \, 1847, p. 41 ; id. t. c. iii, 1853, p. 76; id. 

Lc. vii, 1876, p. 125 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 29, fig. 5 ; 

E. A. i>mith (Xestina), Farm. Geog. Maid. Lac. Is. 1902, p. 142. 
Helix vitellina, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1848, p. 109; id. Man. Hel. iii, 1853, 

p. 72 ; id. t. c. Vii, 1876, p. 122 ; H. S^ T. (Helix) C. /. 1876, pi. 59, 

figs. 1, 2. 

Shell openly perforate, depressedly globose, obliquely striated, 
and more or less decussated by impressed lines (often obsolete) 
above, smoother below ; pale tawny to purplish or whitish ; spire 
low, convex, suture impressed ; whorls 5-54, convex, the last much 
smaller than in A. semirugata, scarcely descending in front, sub- 
ano-ulate at periphei'y ; aperture roundly lunate ; peristome thin, 
basal and columellar margins slightly reflected. 
Major diam. 46, min. 37, axis 28 mm. 

Hah. Madura, South Arcot, and Malabar, and probably all the 
southernmost part of the peninsula. Auaimalai Hills ; N. Mahlor 
Atoll, Maldives (introduced). 

The i-ecorded locality Bombay is very doubtful. 
The dimensions above given are those of typical A. belangeri, 
from Madura: vitellina is a small variety, measuring 29, 24, and 
18 mm. ; bombayana still smaller (28, 23, 16) ; on the other 
hand, a very large shell from Giugi, South Arcot, measured no 
less than 52, 44, and 31 mm. 

A. belangeri may generally be distinguislied from A. semirugata. 
by more depressed form, less swollen last whorl, and smaller 
aperture. Intermediate forms occur. 



ARIOPHANTA. 37 

b. The whorls transversely striated, not decussated. 

63. Ariophanta albata, Blf. (Xostina) J. A. S. B. 1880, pt. -2, p. 189, 

pi. ;}, tig. ?> ; id. Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 245. 
Helix lucublanda, Ancei/, Le Nat. iii, 1880, p. 293. 

Near A. helamjeri, but thickei' and more coarsely sculptured 
with ratlier irregular oblique impressed grooves : no decussating 
spiral lines ; the colour is white througliout. The shell is inter- 
mediate in form between A. heJangeri and A. maderaspatana. 

Major diam. 29, min. 32|, height 174. 

Hah. Papanassam, in the hills west of Tinnevelly, S. India 
{Beddome). 

64. Ariophanta sisparica, Blf. (Naniua-HemiplectaP) J. A. S. B. 

1806, 2, p. :J4 : Ffr. (Helix) Man. Hel. v, 1868, p. 122 ; H. % T. 
(Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 112, figs. 4, o, 6. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed, rather thin, striated, 
white, with a straw-coloured epidermis, having a dull oily lustre ; 
spire convex, low, suture flat, linear, submarginate ; whorls 4|, 
flatly convex above, the last not descending, bluntly angulate at 
the periphery, more swollen and convex beneath ; aperture oblique, 
subovally lunate, white and pearly inside ; peristome thin, margins 
united by a thin callus, columellar margin curved, briefly reflected. 

Major diam. 37, min. 30, axis 18 mm.; aperture 19 broad, 
16 high. 

Hah. Sispura Ghat, Nilgiri Hills, about 6000'. 

I obtained tvvo specimens of this species in 1864 on the road 
leading down to Sispara Ghat. 

Qb. Ariophanta novella, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1854, p. 60; id. 
(Helix) Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 34; Rv. (Helix) Conch. Ic.no. 1294 ; 
H. ^- T. (Helix) C. 1. 1876, pi. 150, fig. 8. 

Shell obtectly perforate, turbinately depressed, almost lenticular, 
carinate, rather thin, pale horny, striated, not decussated ; spire 
low, conoid, with the sides slightly convex, suture almost flat ; 
whorls 5, nearly flat above, the last convex beneath, sharply keeled, 
the keel gro\\ing blunt near the mouth ; aperture oblique, sub- 
tetragonally lunate; peristome thin, columellar mai^gin curved 
above, almost vertical, briefly reflexed, and partly covering the 
perfoi'ation. 

Major diam. 21, min. 17, axis 10 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon {Thivaites). 

An apparently rare shell, and confined to the hills of South- 
western Ceylon. The colour may be darker when fresh, as shown 
in lieeve's figure. 

OG. Ariophanta ceraria, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853, 
p. 91 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 67 ; IL. ^- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 28, fig. 4. 

Shell obtectly perforate, depressed, uaxy white to pale fulvous 



38 zoi^rnojE. 

horny, with a dull resinous lustre, plicately striated, sometimes 
more or less undulated transversely to the whorls above, and 
decussated by fine subdistant impressed lines, occasionally obso- 
lete, smoother below ; spire convex, suture not impressed ; whorls 
4|-5, rather rapidly increasing, almost flat above, the last more 
convex, keeled at the periphery, the keel often disappearing near 
the mouth, convex below, the convexity below the keel deeper 
than the spire is high ; aperture oblique, subovally lunate ; peri- 
stome thill, columellar margin curved, briefly reflexed, nearly 
covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 22, min. 18, axis 11 mm. 

Jictb. The higher ranges of South-western Ceylon ; Horton 
Plains (Lai/ard) ; Mt. Pedro Talla Galla, above Newara Eliya 
(JI. Nevill). 

[The anatomy is exactly like that of A. chenui and the radula 
has the same formula (see p. 44). The two species have very 
close relationship. A. chenui, however, is from a lower altitude, 
ranging to the coast-line ; whereas cercma is from the higher 
ranges of Ceylon (H. B. Preston), a difference of conditions quite 
suflicient to have brought about dissimilarity in the shells.] 

The figures of this shell by Keeve and Hanley are poor. The 
shape resembles that of A. bistrialis. A. novella is more closely 
wound and the sculpture is different. 

B. Shell s_[nraTly handed tuith colour' more or less distinctly. 
a. Decussated hut not grooved. 

67. Ariophanta ligulata, Fer. (Helix) Hist. iV«f. pi. 31, tig. 2 (1819- 
21) ; Pfr. (Helix) 3Ion. Hel. i, 1847, p. 71 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, 
p. 122 ; H. Sf T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 28, fig. 9 ; Nev. (Nanina- 
PXesta) Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 50; Godioin-Austen (YieWiC), J. A. S. B. 
xlix, 1880, p. 158, t. 11, fig. 3 (acimal) ; id. (Nilgiria) Mol. Ind. 
ii, 1899, p. 123, pi. 98, tigs. 1-1 d (animal, genitalia, and 
sculpture). 
? Nanina turbinata, Beck, Ind. Mol. p. 4 (1837, no descr.) ; Morch 
(Cryptozona), Jour. Conch, xx, 1872, p. 335 ; Pfr. (Helix) Man. 
ml vii, 1876, p. 90. 

Shell narrowly perforate, depressedly globose, finely marked 
with rather flexuous plicate striatiou, faintly decussated with 
subdistant impressed Hues, whitish, generally brownish above the 
jjeriphery and inside each suture, the dark colour forming a spiral 
band with an indistinct inner border ; spire depressedly conoid, 
varying in height, apex acute, suture impressed ; whorls 5|-6i, 
slightly convex, regularly and slowly increasing, the last sub- 
angulate at the peripheiy, convex beneath ; aperture oblique, 
lunate; peristome simple, thin, slightly reflected at the base and 
near the umbilicus. 

Major diam. 26, min. 23, height 17 mm. 

Hah. The eastern portion of Peninsular India ; known localities 
are Patna, Bliagalpur (on the Ganges), Manbhum, Ciittack, 
Madras, and other places in the Caruatic. Except in the height 
of the spire, there is but little variation. 



ABIOPHANTA. 39 

68. Ariophanta bistrialis, Beck (Nauina), Iml. Mol i, p. 2 (1837, 
descr. ); Pfi'- in Chcmn. ocl. 2, 1846, Helix, no. 01, pi. 11, figs. 10, 
11; id. (ilelix) Mon. Hel. i, 1817, p. 71 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, 
p. 122 ; H. S,- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 29, fig. 1 ; Godwin- 
Austen (Nilgiria), 3Iol. Ind. ii, 1898, p. 80, pi. 81, fig. 4 (genitalia), 
pi. 82, fig. 5 (radula). 

Helix ceylanica, Pft: Zeitschr. Mai. 1850, p. 67; id. Mon. Hel. 
iii, 1853, p. 71 ; id. t. c. vii, 1870, p. 122; //. .^- T. C. I. 1876, 
pi. 29, fig. 3 ; Godtvin-Austen (Nilgiria), Mol. Lid. ii, 1898, p. 126 
[(description of animal, genitalia, and radula)]. 

Helix taprobanensis, Dohrn, Med. Bl. vii, 1859, p. 206 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. V, 1868, p. 116 ; H. ^- T. C. 1. 1876, pi. 29, fig. 2. 

? Helix cvix, Bs. A. M. N. H. (3) v, 1800, p. 382 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. v,"l868, p. 236 ; H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 29, fig. 4. " 




Fig. 22. — Ano2)hanta bistrialis. 

Shell perforate, subglobosely depressed, thin, finely striated, 
decussated above with impressed spiral lines, polished below, pale 
horny, encircled by two rufous lines (one or both sometimes 
wanting), with a whitish band between them, the upper line 
continued inside the suture on the upper whorls ; spire low, 
convex ; whorls 4|, nearly flat, rapidly increasing, the last not 
descending, convex beneath ; aperture large, oblique, lunately 
ovate ; peristome thin, with the columellar margin slightly reflected. 

Major diam. 30, min. 25, axis 17 ram. ; aperture 16 bi'oad and 
16 high. 

Hah. Madras Presidency and Ceylon. I found this shell as 
far north as the Gadavari at Dumagudiam, but I have seen 
no specimens from the Malabar coastland. Large specimens 
up to 40 ram. in size have been obtained on the Shevroy Hills by 
Mr. J. E. Henderson. 

The usual South-Indian form (bistrialis) is pale-coloured and 
smooth with two rufous lines ; the common Ceylon form is darker 
in colour with a single line (ceylanica) • but both varieties occur in 
each area, and also shells without any bands : taprobanensis is a 
large rather thick variety from Ceylon ; cyiv is a dwarf form, 
rather globose, generally with the colour-lines faint or wanting, 
from Matelle. 1 have also a specimen from Trincomali. 

Teeth in radula of A. bistrialis 50.2.17.1.17.2.50 
(69 . 1 . 69) ; of the var. ceylanica 62 . 2 . 19 . 1 . 19 . 2 . 62 (83 . 1 . 
83). The inner or admedian laterals, like the rhachidian, are 
tricuspid, gradually losing the side cusps ; outer laterals aculeate. 



40 ZONITIU^. 

69. Ariophanta basilessa, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xv, 1865, 
p. ]] ; Pfr. (Helix) Mun. Hc4. v, 1868, p. 244; H. 8,- T. (Helix) 
a I. 1876, pi. 25, fig. 2, pi. 52, fig. 4. 

Hemiplecta tinostoma, BIf. J. A. S. B. xlix, 1880, p. 187, pi. 3, fig. 1. 

Hemiplecta enisa, Blf. t. c. p. 188, pi. 3, fig. 2. 

Shell narrowly umbilic.atetl, depressed, tliick, covered with a 
yellowish-brown epidermis, beneath the epidermis pale purplish, 
with a narrow whitish band above the ])eriphery, darker and 
browner below the band : sculpture subgranular, formed by striae of 
growth decussated by close, fine, slightly flexuous impressed lines ; 
spire convex, low, suture slightly impressed, more so near the 
mouth ; whorls 4|, the upper nearly flat, the last more convex 
above, moderately tumid below, rounded at the periphery, scarcely 
or not descending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, oblong-ovately 
lunate ; peristome thickened in old shells, especially at the basal 
margin, columellar margin oblique, reflected, partly covering the 
umbilicus and terminating abruptly in a small point. 

Major diam. 45 (a large shell 53), min. 38, axis 24 mm. ; mouth 
23 broad, 17 high. 

Hah. Hills near Kotiyam, Travancore (Dai/), Pulueys and 
Anairaalais, 7000' (Beddome). Not known north of the Palghat 
Gap. 

A. tinostoma is much depressed, with an elongate mouth, having 
the upper and basal margins parallel and the last whorl broad 
near the aperture and subangulate at the periphery. 

Major diam. 49, min. 40, axis 21 mm. ; aperture 26 broad and 
18 high. 

A single specimen was obtained on the Tinnevelly Ghats, east 
of Papanassam, at 5000 feet elevation, by Col. Beddome. 

A. enisa was found, also by Col. Beddome, at an elevation of 
6000 feet on the top of Aghastyamalai, a hill near Cape Comorin, 
between Tinnevelly and Ti avancore. It is smaller and less thick 
than typical A. hasilessa, and the aperture is less elongate. 

Major diaui. 46, min. 38, axis 23 mm.; aperture 24 broad, 19 
high. 

These two forms look very different at first, but they are, I 
think, varieties of A. hasilessa, which, if they are included, inhabits 
the Travancore hills generally ; A. enisa, as noticed under A. clienui, 
passes into that species. 

Ariophanta gardeneri, i/r.* (Helix) Mart. ^- Chemn. Conch.-Cuh. 
ed. 2, 1846, Helix, uo. 703, pi. 112. figs. 12, 13; id. (Helix) 
Mon. Hel. i, 1847, p. 47 ; id. t. e. vii, 1876, p. 87 ; K. S^ T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 84, fig. 7. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, turbinate, solid, yellowish brown to 
dull chestnut, with a narrow pale band round the periphery, sub- 
costulately striated, with a few decussating spiral lines at con- 
siderable regular intervals, these lines, formed of raised points on 
the striae, are continued to the epidermis but are often wanting ; 

* Transferred to Eiqilecta, after dissection of the animal : vide p. 64. 



ABIOPHANTA. 



41 



spire conoida], apex acute, suture impressed; whorls 6^, convex, 
the last rounded at the periphery, not descending; aperture 
oblique, roundly lunate; peristome simple, blunt, the basal 
margin rather thicker, columellar margin brielly produced and 
reflected, nearly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 21, min. lU, axis 14.^ nun.; aperture 10 broad, 
9 higii. 

Hah. Hills of South-western Ceylon, about 400U feet elevation, 
in forest {Gardener, Nevill). 

[From beneath fallen leaves in forest, Uva, 5000 ft. (0. Collett).'] 

[For description of animal, see p. 64.] 

b. Sculidare of deciissatim/ lines and of oblique shallow grooves 
and low ridges. 

70. Ariophanta basileiis, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) vii, 1861, 
p. 81 ; id. t. r. xiii, 1864, p. 407 ; Blf. (Nanina) J. A. S. B. 1866, 
2, p. 39; Pfr. (Helix) Man. Hel. v, 1868, p. 120; id. t.c.Vu, 
1876, p. 124 ; H. **>• T. (Helix) C. I. pi. 25, fig. 7 ; Godioin-Ansten 
(Nilgiria), Proc. Mai. Sue. v, 1902, p. 248, pi. 6 (animal and 
anatomv). 
Helix titanica, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1862, p. 117, pi. 12, fig. 3. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, conoidly depressed, covered with a 
brownish-yellow deciduous epidermis, beneath the epidermis 
white, pinkish towards the apex, surrounded beneath the periphery 
by a broad dark chestnut or blackish band, which is paler below ; 
sculpture consisting of stria? covered by a few impressed spiral 
lines and of irregular, shallow, slightly oblique grooves, often 
more or less obsolete ; spire convexly conoid, apex obtuse, suture 
scarcely impressed; whorls 5|, almost iiat above, the last not 
descending, convex beneath, angulate at the periphery ; aperture 
oblique, ovally lunate; peristome thin, straight, columellar 
margin exparided and briefly reflexed, partly covering the 
umbilicus. 

Major diam. 72, min. 62, axis 38 mm.; aperture 38 broad, 
16 high. 

Hab. Anaimalai teak-forest, 2000-3000 feet above the sea, west 
of the main range of hills. 

A. basihus is the largest of Indian snails. It has not been 
found north of the great gap in the Saliyadri range at Palghiit. 
The shell is very similar totliatof the ^itimese He niijjlecta distincta, 
Pfr., but the animal, for a specimen 'of which I am indebted to 
Mr. Thurston, proves on examination to be a true Ariophanta. 
The genitalia resemble those of A. solata. The radula is very 
broad and the formula for the teeth 56.2.28.1.28.2.56 
(86 . 1 . 86), [which is almost identical with that of A. clienui. 
The centre tooth is tricuspid, the admedian teeth are elongate 
with a cusp on the outer side ; the laterals are aculeate, slightly 
curved in form, they become shorter and more slender, and 
the outermost are blunt and minute, resembling those of Havana 
2wlitissi7na']. 



42 



ZONITIDJi. 








[Fig. 23. — Arityphanta hasileits. 

A. Mantle-margin (7)1), showing dorsal lobes, s, slit between the anterior 

and posterior lobes ; /, foot, sole of. 

B. Animal, shell removed, viewed from left side, showing (;•) renal organ and 

position of heart (h) and amatorial organ within the visceral sac ; also 
the pulmonary vein (pv). 

C. Generative organs, separated out. X 2'3. 

D. Jaw and teeth of the radula at various points in the row. 

For explanation of letters in italics and numbers see figs. 2, o, 4, and i(i.] 



71. Ariophanta beddomii, Blf. (Hemiplecta) A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, 
1874, p. 406 ; H. Sf T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 159, fig. 10. 

Similtir to A. hasileus, of which the present species may be a 
variety, but smaller, thinner, and more depressed. The sculpture 
and coloration are identical with those of some forms of the larger 
shell. 

Major diam. 51, min. 41, axis 24 mm.; aperture 20 broad by 
21 high. 

Hah. Travancore Hills, west side, south of Peermede. 



AEIOPHANTA. 



43 



72. Ariophanta (Xestina) chenui, Pfr. (Helix) Zeitschr. Mai. 1847, 
p. 145; id. (Helix) Man. Hel. i, 1847, p. 438; H. 8,- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 25, fig. 1, pi. 27, flg. 4; Nev. (Nanina-Hemi- 
plecta) Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 47; Godwin- Austen (Nilgiria), Mol. 
Ind. ii, 1898, p. 124, pi. UO, figs. 1-i) (aniiual and anatomy), pi. 98, 
fig. 3 (sculpture). 
Hemiplecta simoni, Jotisseaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. vii, p. 282 
(1894). 

Shell openly perforate, depressed, rather thin, lulvous, with a 
narrow pale hand, often indistinct, ahove the periphery, and a 
darker, ill-defined, rufous-brown band, fading away beneath, 
below the same ; sculpture decussated, striae of growth and 
impressed spiral lines occurring throughout, the upper surface of 
the last whorl marked with shallow, irregular, slightly oblique 
ridges and furrows, resembling hammer-marks on metal ; spire 
low, convex, suture slightly impressed, more towards the mouth ; 
whorls Ak, flattish above, the last more convex, slightly angulate 
at periphery, more swollen below; aperture oblique, ovately 
lunate ; peristome slightly thickened. 

[The right shell-lobe is represented by a very small flap, situated 
near the respiratory aperture; this flap is an expansion on the 
dividing line of the dorsal lobe and narrows backward towards 
the posterior margin of the mantle-zone, which, on the body- 
whorl side and viewed from the inside (that is, the surface next 
the shell), is seen to form a distinct band with an equal breadth 
of 2| ram. contracted. Compare this also with the riglit sheU-lobe 
of liatnadvipia and Ariophanta ligulata. The left shell-lobe is 
also a narrow fillet overlapping the peristome, 2 mm. broad, but 
it has no tongue-like process on the left margin. The right 
dorsal lobe is triangular and ample. The left dorsal lobe is in two 
distinct parts, the anterior being the large.st, and it distinctly 
overlaps the smaller narrower posterior lobe ; in this respect it 
differs from typical Nihjiria solata and other species of the genus, 
where no division of this lobe is found, and yet it is not division 
of the same kind as is seen in Ariophanta Icevipes, &c. 

The generative organs are very similar to those of JSilgimi 
solata. 

The central and median teeth have large cusps on both sides. 
At the 20th tooth the cusps become very smaU, at the 23rd the 
inner disappears, and at the 25th there is no trace of the outer ; 
the laterals are aculeate, tlie marginals are short and bicuspid to 
straight and blunt. The jaw has a flat convexity on the cutting- 
edge. J 

Major diam. 44, min. 30, axis 21 mm. ; aperture 23 broad, 
18 high. 

Bab. Hills of S.W. Ceylon ; Matelle {Layard), Kandy {Bed- 
dome), Ambagamuwa District (Collett). 

The chestnut band below the periphery is sometimes narrow, 
sometimes broader. The eggs are described by Collett as oval, 
pointed at the ends, 8 mm. long and 4 wide, white, soft (uucaicified), 



44 ZONITID.E. 

and sulcated longitudinally. Teeth of radula 58 . 1 . 25 . 1 . 25 . 
1 . 58 (84 . 1 . 84). 

A shell, of which there are in the British Museum three speci- 
mens, collected by Mr. Thwaites, probably near Kandy, has been 
identified by Pfeilfer as a variety of the present species. The 
sculpture is, however, finely decussate, \^ithout the characteristic 
furrowed markings of A. cJiemii, and the shells are scarcely 
distinguishable from the Travancore variety or subspecies of 
A. basilessa already described (p. 40) as A. enisa. 

Hemiplecta simoni is founded on the variety with a slightly 
raised spii-e represented in pi. 27, fig. 4 of Hanley and Theobald's 
' Conchologia Indica.' 

c. Whorls transversely striated, luitJiout decussation or grooves. 

7'S. Ariophanta (Xestina) Juliana, Grai/ (Nanina), P. Z. S. 1834, 
p. 58; Ffr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. i, 1847, p. 44; id. t. c. vii, 1876, 
p. 79 ; //." ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 187(3, pi. 52, fig. 7. 
Helix franoma, Ffr. P. Z. S. 185-3, p. 124; id. Mun. Rel. iv, 1859, 
p. 22; id. t. c. vii, 1870, p. 79; H. .^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. Ill, 
figs. 4-7. 

Hhell openly perforate, depressedly turbinate to couoidly 
depressed, solid, smooth, striated, without decussating spiral 
lines, pale straw-coloured to pink, with a narrow brown or 




Fig. 24. — Ariojilianta jidlana. 

chestnut spiral band below the suture, another, much broader, 
below the periphery, and a circular brown area around the 
umbilicus ; spire convexly conoid, apex blunt, suture slightly 
impressed ; whorls 5, slightly convex above, the last sub- 
angulate at the periphery, moderately swollen below, not descend- 
ing; aperture oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome simple, straight, 
blunt, columellar margin produced and dilated, partly covering 
the perforation. 

Major diam. 48, min. 41, axis 27 mm.; aperture 24 broad, 
20 high. 

Hah. South-western Ceylon. 

The typical form is rosy pink banded with chestnut. H.cjunoma 
is a straw-coloured variety with brown bands, and generally more 
depressed. The type of H. f/anoma measured 51, 41, and 26 mm. 
in the three dimensions; a smaller specimen gives 41, 34, and 20. 



AEIOPHANTA. 45 

This variety has been recorded from Bentota (Nevill) and Cotta, 
uear Colurabo (OoUett), both at the sea-level. 

[The animal of a specimen from Cotta, Ceylon, is externally 
like that of A. lijulata, and, as in that species, there is not the 
slightest sign of a right shell-lobe. The left dorsal lobe is con- 
tinuous, but a slight slit with overlap occurs on it at 16 mm. 
from the respiratory orifice ; this may also be observed in A. chenvi. 
This lobe is very narrow for its whole length. The genitalia are 
typical of the genus Ariophanta. Penis with a long retractor 
ctecum, a small sessile spermatheca ; the araatorial organ long, 
l)ent on itself, with a large blunt point. 

The teeth of the radula are similar to those of A. chenui : 

55 . 1 . 27 . 1 . 27 . ] .55 

83 . 1 . 83] 

74. Ariophanta maderaspatana, Gray (Helix), P. Z. S. 1834, p. 67 ; 
Ffr. (Helix) Mon. Hd. i, 1847, p. 03 ; id. t. c. iv, 1859, p. .54 ; 
id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 118 ; i/. ^ T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 28, fig. 2. 

Shell openly perforate, depressedly globose, thin, rugosely 
striated, dull brownish rufous above, passing into white on the 
inner side of each whorl, paler or whitish beneath, generally with 
a white or whitish band round the periphery, occasionally Avhitish 




Fio-. 25. — AriujjhuiUa luudcruapatann. 

horny throughout, sometimes dark rufous speckled with white ; 
spire depressedly convex ; whorls 5^, convex, the last rather more 
swollen, not subangulate at the periphery in adults ; apertui-e 
oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome simple, thin, very slightly 
expanded, the reflected portion increasing in breadth near the 
perforation. 

Major diam. 32, min. 26, axis 19 mm. 

Hah. The higher parts of Mysore, the Nilgiris, Kolamalais, 
Shevroys, and locally at lower elevations, as on Chittycolum Hill, 
north of Trichinopoly, at about 15U0 feet above the sea. 

An almost uniformly coloured isabelline variety, with more 
convex whorls and impressed suture, occurs above 6000 feet on 
the jSTilgiri and Palni Hills, and has in the first-named locality a 
black mantle and the body light tawny. This is var. /3 of Pfeiffer. 
The common form has both animal and mantle grey. 

[Specimens from the Palni Hills have the mantle of the same 
colour as the rest of the body. The right dorsal lobe is triangular 
in shape, the left broad and continuous from the respiratory orifice 
up to the umbilical region as in A. solata and tmnq^uebarica. 



46 ZONITTD^. 

The male organ has a long caecum, to which the retractor 
muscle is attached, and a short kale-sac. kSpermatophore like that 
of A. tranqueharica. Spermatheca small, globose, on a short 
stalk. A very large stout cylindrical amatorial organ. 

The centre and admedian teeth of the radula are tricuspid as 
in hajadera • the lateral teeth have the outer cusp much below the 
point, which gradually becomes very small, so that the outermost 
appear to be nearly aculeate. The formula is 

38 . 1 . 21 . 1 . 21 . 1 . 38 

60 . 1 . 60] 

75. Ariophanta gassii, BIf. (Beddome MS.) Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, 
p. 249, pi. 25, fig. 3. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, depressedly globose, thin, rugosely 
striated, dark fulvous to pale chestnut above, with usually a dark 
rufous band above the periphery, sharply contracted with a 
whitish peripherial band, more or less defined ; spire low, conoidly 
convex, sutui^e impressed ; whorls 6, convex, the last broader, not 
descending, subangulate at the periphery, convex beneath ; aper- 
ture oblique, subovally hiuate; peristome in mouth white, slightly 
obtuse, columellar margin oblique, very shghtly curved, scarcely 
expanded till close to the umbilical region, where it is abruptly 
and rather broadly re flexed, almost covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 36, min. 29, axis 21 mm. 

Hub. Travancore Ghats, Anaimalais, Pulneys, and perhaps the 
higher ranges generally between the Palghat Gap and Cape 
Comorin. 

Immature specimens of a variety, also from the Travancore 
Ghats, have a lower convex spire, and a well-defined narrow 
white band just above the periphery, with a dark rufous border 
beneath, W'hich fades gradually into the pale lower surface. 
Another vax-iety appears to be indicated by a somewhat depressed 
specimen from the Pulneys in the British Museum. 

This shell is distinguished from A. mader-aspatana by rather 
larger size, narrower perforation, subangulate periphery, darker 
and more uniform coloration, and by the form of the peristome. 
The columellar margin in A. maderaspatana is slightly expanded 
throughout, and the amount of expansion increases gradually at 
the perforation, whilst in A. r/assii there is scarcely any expansion 
till close to the perforation, where the margin is abruptly reflexed. 
It is, however, by no means improbable that the two pass into 
each other. A variety of A. maderaspatana which occurs in open 
ground on the plateau of the Nilgiris should perhaps be referred 
to A. acissii. It is distinguished by the dark colour of the animal 
and shell, the mantle being black. 



76. Ariophanta solata, Bs. (Helix) A. M.N. H. (2) ii, 1848, p. 159 ; 

T1,. ,XT i-.N Ti/r .. rT^i ;;; tqk'j „ ft'7 . ^:j 4- « :., iQf;n „ ^^7(\. 




pi. 80, figs. 1-4 (auatomy), pi. 82, fig. 2 (radula). 
Shell perforate, subglobosely depressed, smooth, striated, 



ABIOPHAKTA. 



47 



thicker than maderas'patana, white, often with a bhiish tinge, 
washed with brownish on the last whorl, with a narro\\-, spiral, 
rufous band inside the suture and traces of other bands, and 
with numerous small, brownish, translucent spots irregularly 
distributed ; spire very low ; w^horls 5|, flatly convex above, the 
last slightly subangulate at the periphery, moderately swollen 
beneath; aperture oblique, lunately ovate, generally rufous withni ; 
peristome simple, thin, columellar margin reflexed. 

Major diam, 26, min. 21, axis 15. 

Hah. Nilgiris. 




[Fig. 26. — Ariophanta solata. 

A. Animal viewed from right side, showing edge of mantle- and dorsal lobes. 

B. Animal viewed from left and front side, showing sole of foot. 

C. Extremity of foot, showing mucous gland. E. Generative (male) organ. 

D. Generative organs. F. Eadula and jaw. 

For explanation of letters in italics and numbers see figs. 2, 3, 4, and 16.] 

[^Animal. The right dorsal lobe is small, the left long, narrow, 
and continuous. Sole of foot not divided ; in spirit puckered and 
wrinkled transversely. The mucous pore is overhung by a slight 
blunt process. 

Peripodial line distinct, above a broad margin. In the genera- 
tive organs the amatorial is solid and cylindrical with a retractor 
muscle ; in the male organ there is a stout and long cascum-like 



48 



ZONITID^. 



process, at the head of which the retractor muscle is given off. 
The spermatheca is short and pear-shaped. The radula teeth are 
arranged : 35 . 2 . 15 . 1 . 15 . 2 . 35, or 52 . 1 . 52. 

The central tooth is strongly tricuspid ; the adjacent teeth are 
hardly tricuspid, only showing an exceedingly tine notch on some 
of the teeth on the inner upper margin ; the laterals do not 
decrease much in size outwards and are evenly bicuspid.] 

Subgenus INDRELLA. 
Indrella, God win- Austen, Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 187, pi. 18. 



post.UU- 




[Fig. 27. — Indrella ampulla. 

Animal with shell removed from right side; head from above: xO'8. The 
genitalia, X I'S ; the jaw and the teeth of the radula, X 144. spr. & sper., 
spermatophore, poeition of; on, muscle attachments; m.r.e.t, muscle 
attachment of right eye tentacle, beneath integument. 
For explanation of letters in italics and numbers see figs. 2, 3, 4, and 16.] 



INDRELLA. 49 

Type, /. ampulla (Bs.). 

Range. AVestern slopes of Syhadri Range in Malabar. 

Shell Vitrina-IWQ., imperforate, with few whorls and a very 
large aperture. 

Animal similar to that of AriopJianfa, but larger, not full}'' 
retractile within the sliell. Mucous pore of moderate size ; no 
distinct overhangiing lobe or a small one. Sole undivided, very 
smooth. ]Vo shell-lobes ; dorsal lobes- well developed, the left 
divided into an anterior and a posterior part by a deep sinus. 
Kale-sac small, receiving the vas deferens; retractor muscle attached 
to long straight caecum given off at the junction of the flagellum 
of the male organ. Spermatheca oval, very short, on a short 
stem. A material organ (dart-sac) stout and long. Jaw straight, 
with a slight convexity ou cutting-edge, no median projection. 
Eadiila broad, with about 100 rows of teeth: 145 . 17 . 1 . 17 . 145; 
median tooth and the 17 on each side (admedians) long, broadly 
pointed, straight-sided, lateral cusps indistinct ; laterals curved, 
aculeate, outer laterals bicuspid. 



77. Indrella ampulla, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) v, 1850, p. 213 ; 
Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 27 ; id. t. c. iv, p. 9 ; id. t. c. 
vii, 1876, p. 57 ; Blf. J. A. S. B. xxxiv, 1866, p. 39 ; H. ^- T. 
(Helix) C. I. pi. 25, tig. 4 ; Nev. (Xanina) Rand-l. i, 1878, p. 54 ; 
Godwin-Austen, Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 187, pi. 18 [auitnal 
and anatomy]. 

Shell imperforate, obliquely ovate, globose, very thin, half the 
thickness consisting of epidermis, marked throughout with plicate 
Hues of growth, crossed by faint impressed spiral lines, and on 




Fig. 28. —Indrella amjnilla. 

the last whorl by shallow irregular furrows, brownish olive, some- 
times darker brown; spire small, convex, obtuse; whorls 3|, 
rapidly increasing, the last much larger, rounded at the periphery 
and beneath ; aperture very large, oblique, roundly oval, the same 
colour within as without, but smooth and glossy ; peristome thin, 
membranaceous, columellar margin much curved inwards. 



50 



ZONITID^. 



Major diam. 50 (a large shell 63), min. 38, axis 30 mm. ; aper- 
ture (obliquely) 32 broad, 30 high. 

Hah. On the western slopes of the Wynaad, Nilgiri, and 
Anaimalai hills at moderate elevations (3000'). 

The animal, as represented in a drawing for which I am in- 
debted to Sir Walter Elliot, is greenish yellow, but according to 
Col. Beddome it is black. It probably varies. Beddome found 
it feedius on larse funsi. 



Genus RAVANA. 
Eavana, Godioin-Austen, Proc. Mai. Sue. iv, 1901, p. 2G1. 
Type, R. 2iolitissima (Pfr.), 
Range. South-western Ceylon. 




[Fig. 29. — Havana poUtissima. 

A. Genitalia, detached, x 3. 

B. Mantle-margin (m) viewed from the left side; lower ingnre from the 

underside, showing dorsal lobes. X 3. 

C. Jaw and teeth of the radula from different parts of the row. X 244. 

D. Extremity of foot with mucous gland. X 5'3. 

E. Buccal mass and salivary glands ; the latter are not in their natural 

position, owing to a twist in the intestine, c;-, crop ; h, buccal mass; 
on, mouth; r.mh, retractor of the buccal mass.] 

Shell like that of Macrochlamys, perforate, depressed, thin, 
smooth, and horny. 



BAY ANA . — EUPLKCTA . 



51 



Animal (of B. politissima) witboat shell-lobes; right dorsal 
lobe moderate, the left divided into a large anterior and a small 
posterior lobe with a wide interval between them. Sole narrow, 
undivided, truncated behind ; mucous pore large, overhung by a 
large lobe. Kale-sac short, curved, rather pointed at the free end, 
receiving tlie vas deferens at about one-third its length from the 
junctioir with the diverticulum leading to the retractor muscle ; 
[retractor muscle attached to a caecum ;] penis-sheath short, distallv 
to the junction sharply bent, the two segments of the bend held 
together by a muscular band ; diverticulum stout, simple. Sper- 
matheca very short. Amatorial organ (dart-sac) very_ large, 
much larger than penis. Jaw arched, with a median projection. 
Eadula broad, with a broad median tract, the teeth-formula being 
56 . 2 . 18 . 1 . 18 . 2 . 56 (76 . 1 . 76) ; rhachidian tooth broad, with 
a large cusp on each side, the 18 inner laterals or admedians each 
with a single well-marked cusp on the outer side ; outer laterals 
narrow, long, aculeate, the outermost marginals very short. 

The only species known was regarded as a Macroclilamys until 
the anatomy was examined. Possibly some other thin, horny, 
depressed shells from S. India or Ceylon belong to the present 
genus. 

78. Ravana politissima, Pfr. (Helix) P Z S 1853, V-^f\if 
(Helix) J/o«. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 45; H. ^- T. (Helix) Ci. 18.6, 
pi. 31, figs. 8, 9 ; Godwin- Austen, Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. -^01, 
pi. 36. 
Shell openly perforate, depressed, thin, polished, greenish or 
castaneous horny, striated beneath the epidermis, and marked 
with faint impressed spiral lines, not perceptible in fresh shells ; 
spire low, obtuse, suture deeply impressed. Whorls 4^-0, convex, 
re<^ularly increasing, the last rounded, not descending ; aperture 
sli^htlv oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome simple, nearly in one 
plane, 'thin, the margins converging, columellar reflected above. 
Major diam. 21, min. 20, axis 11 mm. 

Hah. The hills of South-western Ceylon, at an elevation ot 
about 3000 feet; Pusilawe (Layca-d) ; Wata\sale (Collett). 



Genus EUPLECTA. 




Type, E. suhopaca, Pfr. ^t i n ^i 

Ranqe. The Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. Nearly all the 
species are confined to the neighbourhood of the western coast 
of India and the mountains of S.W. Ceylon. _ 

Shell perforate (rarely imperforate), of moderate size depressed 
turbinate, turbinate or trochiforra, rather closely wound generally 



52 



ZONITID^. 



striated or costulate above, the ribbing decussated by impressed 
lines and in many species bearing rows of small moniliform 
tubercles ; smoother below ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
more or less reflected. 




^^ 



[Fig. 80. — A. Euplecta partita, ^.Q)b. Genitalia, x 3*3 ; part of the male organ 
showing spenuatopliore forming near the junction of the Tas 
deferens, X6; and the dorsal lobes, X 3'3. 

B. Euplecta semidecussaia, p. 57. Jaw, X 6 ; transition and first 

lateral teeth of radula, X 146. 

C. Euplecta. hijioyacnsis, p. 62. Part of generative organs showing 

spermatophore in process of formation, X 9'4. 

D. Euplecta prcBeminens, vide travancorica, p. 59. Shell- and dorsal 

lobes, X 3-3; jaw, x 6, and teeth of the radula, X 276; and 
the extremity of the foot, mucous gland with overhanging lobe, 
X 6. 
For explanation of letters in italics and numbers see figs. 2, 3, 4, and 16.] 



EUPLEOTA. 53 

The shell differs, as a rule, fron that of Arioplwnta by havin<^ 
more whorls and being more closely wound, but there are 
exceptions. Most of the species are carinate. 

Animal externally much like Arioplianta. A large mucous pore 
at the posterior extremity o£ the foot, sometimes with a small 
lobe above it. 8heli-lobes generally wanting, the riglit sometimes 
present in a minute or rudimentary form ; dorsal lobes moderate 
in size, the left in two parts. The sole' indistinctly folded in the 
middle when contracted. 

In the genitalia the most important character to distinguish 
this genus from Ariophanta is the presence of a muscular band, 
given off from the retractor muscle and holding part of the penis 
doubled into a loop. Apart from this looped arrangement, the 
male organ is elongate and .simple, with the retractor muscle 
attached to a longer or shorter straight caecum as in Ariophanta. 
Amatorial oi'gan and other appendages as in Arioplianta. JSperraa- 
theca very short. Vas deferens leading to junction of kale-sac and 
epiphallus. Spermatophore as in Arioplianta. 

Kidney short, Radula [out of 11 species examined, 9 have 
the admedian band of teeth a little more than half as wide as in 
Arioplianta, in proportion o£ 28 : 42 respectively]. Jaw with or 
without median projection. 

[Before commencing the list of species in the genus Euplecta, it 
becomes necessary to refer to the position of one of ISemper's 
types, viz. E. layardi, Pfr., to avoid possible confusion in the 
future. Dr. W. T. Blanford in his MS, makes Helix baconi from 
Moradabad, subdecussata from Bombay, and layardi from Ceylon 
one and the same species — figuring the shell of layardi under the 
name of baconi, this name of Benson's having priority. The very 
little we know of Helix baconi does not bear out this conclusion, 
and I am constrained to keep all three species separate, for reasons 
given further on, as well as our knowing nothing of the animal 
of true H. baconi from Moradabad nor of subdecussata from 
Bombay. Blanford's MS. is as follows under no. 81, Euplecta 
baconi = layardi.'} 

An examination of the type of Benson's Helix baconi has shown 
that it is an immature shell of H. subdecussata, Pfr., which is the 
Indian form of the Ceylonese H. layardi. H. convexiuscula is a 
small form of the same species. Pfeiffer's original description of 
H. layardi was also taken from an immature shell. 

Large specimens fx*om Ceylon measure as much as 18 mm. in 
major diameter ; small shells from Orissa only 12. 

K subdecussata (or rather E. baconi), the Indian form but also 
occurring iia Ceylon, is rather more closely wound than the 
Ceylonese E. layardi, but there is variation in this respect. The 
two, however, may be regai'ded as races or subspecies. 

Specimens from Baticaloa and Hambantote on the east coast of 
Ceylon are fulvous horny. 

The whorls of E. baconi were said in the original description to 
be bordered by a narrow dark rufous baud. This cannot now 
be detected. 



54 ZONITIDiE. 

The animal of E. haeoni is said to have " only a small right lobe 
(? shell-lobe) ; very small projections above the narrow compressed 
mucous gland; furrows of the sole of foot indistinct ; livid colour, 
blackish on the mantle, round the pulmonary orifice " {Stoliczl-a, 
quoted by Nevill, I. c). 

[The best recorded series of the three species in question, with 
accurate localities, is in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and 
Geoffrey Nevill keeps them distinct in his Hand-list. Taking 
his H. haeoni first, we cannot discard Benson's description of the 
whoi'ls being ornamented by a rufous band, althougli, as Blauford 
says, this cannot be detected in the shell bearing this name in the 
McAndrew (Benson's) Collection at Cambridge, This may be due 
to bleaching. Benson's collection, after his death, did not receive 
the care that it should have. " India " was substituted for Benson's 
precise localities ; many of the types are not now to be found, and 
so-called types are not in every case to be depended on, and now 
require to be verified by specimens collected in the typical localities. 

I have before me a book from the Indian Museum Library, 
" Drawings of the Animals of HelicidsB executed under the Super- 
intendence of the late Perd. iStoliczka." Among these is the water- 
colour drawing of the shell and animal from life of a specimen 
taken in the " Botanical Gardens, Calcutta ; got it also from 
Moisraka " : marked " subdecussata ? " in Stolicza's handwriting — 
" N. haeoni, Bs.," entered afterwards, in that of G. Nevill. 

The shell is shown with a rufous baud on the upper whorls, 
which in the present connection is a most important point, because 
no band of this sort is to be seen in EupUcta layardi and the 
closely allied species from Ceylon. Stoliczka's description in this 
book of this animal is as follows: — ^^ suhdecussata?" We must 
remember these notes were slight, made for his own use, and not for 
publication. " Only a small right lobe ; horn above gland small ; 
livid coloured, blackish on the mantle round the pulmonary orifice ; 
pedicles dark; the furrows* on the sole indistinct." 

In JYevill's Hand-list, p. 35, no. 134, Nanina {8itala ?) haeoni, 
Benson, we have not the above original description, but one 
draxAii up by Nevill, partly from the description, partly from the 
drawing ; and Blanford (see above) quotes NeviU's description, 
which is incorrect and unmeaning in this sentence, " very small 
projections above the narrow compressed mucous gland." Nevill 
was looking at the figure, which is a very detailed drawing by the 
native artist, size of life, and he did not make out that the said 
projections were below the hooked gland (which is well seen with 
a lens), and represent the termination of the foot behind on the 
level of the sole. 

Nevill records this species (haeoni) in the collection from 
Benares (2), Moisraka and Calcutta (20), Chandbah (2), Kulu 
Valley ? (1). From Benares, Moratlabad is distant some 350 miles 
further to the north-west, from Calcutta 650 miles. I may remark 
here that these shells had never been compared with the type, the 

* [There are no furrows on the sole. Sole here, I suggest, refers to foot and 
the furrows to the peripodial grooves.] 



EUPLECTA. 55 

single specimen of which Nevill had never seen, so that there is 
very considerable doubt whether his determination is correct. 
Turning next to No. 133, p. 34, Nanina (Sitala?) subdecussata, 
PfeifPer, it is clear that Nevill considered this species distinct from 
No. 134, and he gives as the locality Madras (10) and Pooree 
(Raban, 2); var. (? distinct species) Trichinopoly (1), Stoliczka : 
these had apparently not been compared and verified with the 
species from the typical locality Bombay, on the opposite coast of 
India : so far, this identification is unsatisfactory. No. 128, Nanina 
(Sitala'^) lai/ai-di, Pfr., p. 34 : Nevill's record is all from Ceylon, 
includes shells given by Layard himself, and Nevill clearly distin- 
guished them from No. 133 and No. 134.] 

A. Shell turbinate or subturbinate, thin, horny, finely 
decussated above. 

79. Euplecta layardi, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1851, p. 253 ; id. Mon. 
Hel. iii, 18.5:3, p. 55 ;' id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 101 ; Semper (Euplecta), 
Reise Phil., Wiss. Res. iii, 1870, p. 14, pi. 3, tigs. 3, 4 (anatomy) ; 
H. S,- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 56, figs. 8, 9 ; Net. (Nanina-Sitala) 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 34. 
HeUx couvexiuscula, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 91 ; id. Mon. Hel. iv, 
1859, p. 35 ; H. ^- T. C I. 1876, pi. 128, tigs. 5, 6. 

Shell perforate, depressedly turbinate, thin, whitish horny, 





Fig. 31. — Euplecta layardi. 

finely decussated above with oblique striae and spiral compressed 
lines, the latter occasionally faint or wanting, smoother and 
radiately striated below ; spire conoidal, apex subacute, suture 
slightly impressed ; whorls 6, moderately convex above, the last 
keeled, more or less bluntly, convex beneath ; aperture slightly 
oblique, roundly lunate, sometimes angulate ; peristome thin, 
columellar margin vertical above, briefly reflexed, nearly covering 
the perforation. 

Major diam. 16, min. 13|, height 11 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon, Kandy (Nevill), Baticaloa, Hambantote (Preston). 

80. Euplecta suhdeciissata, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1857, p. 107; id. Mon. 
Hel. iv, 1859, p. 28 ; H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 56, fig. 4 ; Nev. 
(Nanina-Sitala?) Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 34. 

[Shell perforate, turbinate, thin, irregular plicate striation, 
above the spiral lines obsoletely decussate, transparent, glassy 
green ; spire conical, apex obtuse ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the 
last not descending, periphery subcarinate, base convex, polished ; 
aperture oblique, widely lunate ; peristome simple, straight, margins 
remote, columellar scarcely reflected. 



56 ZONITID^. 

Major diam. 14, min. 12, axis 9 mm. 

Hah. Neax' Bombay. 

I have specimens from Poona, from one of which I extracted 
the radula, but could not count the lateral teeth, which were 
broken up. The admedian formula was + 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 + 
(or +14 . 1 . 14 +). Jaw moderately arched, with a central 
projection,] 

A^evill records tliis species from Madras ( W. T. B.) and Pooree 
{Tiahan). 

81. Euplecta ? baconi, B&. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) vi, 1850, p. 251 ; 

Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Rel. iii, 1853, p. 55 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 105; 
H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. pi. 56, fig. 7 ; Nev. (Naniua-Sitala ?) 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 35. 

[Shell narrowly perforate, depressedly turbinate, very thin, 
transparent, pale horny, above slightly shiny, beautifully decussate 
with wavy striation, below polished, radiately striate; spire 
slightly elevated, slowly increasing, apex obtuse, dark ; suture 
impressed : whorls 5, subconvex. tipper surface with a narrow 
dark red band, at last obsolete on the margin, the last subcarinate, 
beneath convex ; aperture subvertical, subquadrately lunate ; ])eri- 
stome acute, columellar margin vertical, rounded on the IJasal 
margin, above very shortly reflected. (Taken from Benson's 
description.) 

Major, diam. 14, min. 13, axis 7 mm. 

Hah. Eare in the Eohilla Country near the town of Moradabad 
(on bank of Guugun Eiver), Northern India {Dr. J. F. Bacon). 

Mr. r. A. Potts, the Assistant Superintendent, University 
Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, replying to my letter regarding 
this species, says: — " We have the type of Helix haconi, Bs. ; it 
shows a narrow fuscous band between the whorls." 

Nevill records this species from Benares and Calcutta ; there is 
considerable doubt as to the accuracy of the identification, and 
until the anatomy of the animal is examined the generic position 
is equally doubtful.] 

82. Euplecta acalles, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1856, p. 327 ; id. (HeHx) 

3Ion. Hel iv, 1859, p. 34 ; //. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 128, 
figs. 1, 4. 

Very similar to E. layardi, but lower in spire, being more 
depressedly turbinate and more sharply carinate. A thin whitish 
horny shell, finely decussated above. 

Major diam. 13, min. 11, axis 7^ »im- 

Hab. Nilgiris {Conway Sliiplaii). This shell does not appear to 
have been obtained by later observers. 

83. Euplecta pulchella, Blf. P. Z. S. 1904, ii, p. 447, pi. 25, fig. 18. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, conoidly depressed, sublenticular, 
rather solid, amber-coloured, decussately striated above and below, 
ornamented above by minute, oblique, granular, flexuous ridges, 



EUPLECr.V. 57 

crossed by impressed spiral lines, smootlier and polished beneath ; 
spire conoidal, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, 
the last descending a little towards the mouth, bluntly angulate 
at the periphery, cotivex beneath, compressed around the per- 
t'oratio)! ; aperture large, diagonal, roundly lunate ; peristome 
thin, arcuate above near last whorl, columellar margin oblique, 
expanded, more broadly above, and thickened, partly covering the 
perforation. 

Major diam. IH, min. 10, height 6| mm. 

Hob. Anaimalai Hills (Beddome). 

This is a peculiar form to be recognized by its large diagonal 
aperture and gtaiuihir sculpture, which is easily seen under a 
good lens. 

Euplecta ? mucosa, W. ^- H. Bif. 

[Transferred to end of this genus, after other doubtful species 
placed in it.] 

B. Depressedly turbinate, or turbinate or lenticular, generally 
sharply keeled, with granular costulation or striatiou on 
upper surface. 

84. Euplecta semidecussata, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1851, p. 252 : id. 
(Helix) Mo7i. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 53; id. t. c. vii, 1870, p. iU5 ; 
H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, i)l. 58, ligs. 1, 2; Nev. (Nanina) 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 29 ; Godivin-Aude7i,MoL Iml. n, 1898, p. 101, 
pi. 97, tigs. 2-2 d (anatomy), pi. 98, fig. 5 (sculptm-e of shell). 
Euplecta transpetata, subsp., Blf. Five. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 249, 
pi. 25, fig. 9. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, depressedly turbinate, white, with 
a fulvous to dull chestnut epidermis, striated, the striation broken 
and decussated by impressed lines, which are less distinct below ; 
spire conoid, apex acute, suture impressed ; whorls 7, slowly 
increasing, convex above, the last not descending, angulate (vary- 
ing from subangulate, or even rounded, to carinate) at the peri- 
phery, more convex below than above; aperture oblique, angulately 
lunate ; peristome straight, slightly obtuse in adults, columellar 
margin briefly reflected, partly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 38, min. 80, axis 19 mm. 

[Aiiimal. iSole of foot not divided, in spirit folded on the central 
line. There is a minute rudiment of a I'ight shell-lobe, the left 
dorsal is in two parts, the anterior very close to the posterior. The 
male organ has a large loop formed by a strong connecting muscle 
a short distance above the generative aperture. The sperraatheca 
is short and globose. Jaw has a very slight central projection 
(iig. 80 B, p. 52). Kadula (fig. 80 B) formula: 

82 . 2 . 19 . 1 . 19 . 2 . 82 
or 103 . 1 . 103] 

Hub. South-western Ceylon ; Kambodde (i\'t'i'«7Z) ; Ambagamuwa 



58 zonitidjE. 

( Colhtt), amongst fallen leaves in forest and scrub ; Travaucore 
hills (Beddome). 

This shell varies in colour, form, and size. The decorticated 
shell is almost white ; the epidermis varies in colour from straw- 
colour to chestnut. The typical form is carinate, but there is a 
variety, usually thicker, the var. solida of Hanley (Conch. Indica, 
pi. 58, fig. 2, p. 27), in which the periphery is subangulate or even 
rounded, and two specimens in Mr. Sykes's cabinet measure re- 
spectively 38, 32, 21 mm., and 32, 29^, 21 in their three dimensions, 
the smaller specimen being much the higher in the spire. 

E. transpetata, the variety from Travancore obtained by Bed- 
dome, is thinner, and chestnut in colour ; it is also of small size, 
the largest specimen measuring 30, 271, and 18| mm. 

*85. Eiiplecta rosamonda, Bs. (HeHx) A. M. N. H. (3) v, 1860, 
p. 381 : Pfr. Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 77 ; H. S,- T. (Helix) C. 1. 1876, 
pi. 59, figs. 5, 6. 

Distinguished from E. semidecussata by being turbinate and 
having a much higher spire. The last whorl is rounded at the 
periphery and tumid below. The upper whorls are more convex 
and the sculpture decussate and granulate. 

Major diam. 37, min. 33, axis 24 mm., according to Benson, 
but the figure in Hanley measures : major diam. 36, axis 27 ; and 
there is one specimen with these dimensions in the McAndrew 
Collection at Cambridge. 

Hab. Matelle (? Matale N. of Kandy), Ceylon (Layard). 

This is in all probability a turbinate variety of E. semidecussata. 

86. Euplecta SUbcastor, Beddome (Nanina), P. Z. S. 1891, p. 313, 

pi. 29, tigs. 1-3. 

Shell perforate, lenticular, sharply keeled, deep fulvous, rugately 
striated above, smoother below, decussated throughout with sub- 
obsolete impressed lines ; spire low, conoid, with convex sides, 
suture scarcely impressed ; whorls 6 1, gradually increasing, almost 
fiat above, the last compressedly keeled, moderately convex below, 
not descending ; aperture oblique, angularly lunate ; peristome 
white, obtuse, columellar margin oblique, curved, very briefly 
reflected above. 

Major diam. 31, min. 28, axis 13| mm. 

Hah. Myhendra Hill, S. Travancore, about 2500'. 

A. shell seut by Mr. W. M. Daly from the Ivadar district of 
Mysore is very similar and may be regarded as a variety. It is 
much smaller, measuring 25 mm. in major diameter. 

87. Euplecta travancorica, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xv, 1865, 

p. 13; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 130; JI. ^- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. .50, fig. 6, pi. 149, fig. 7. 
.P Helix Iseta, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 287; id. Mo)i. Hel. iv, 1859, 



BUPLBCTA. 59 

p. 38; Mv. Conch. Ic. no. 1380; Bs. A. M. N. H. (3) xiii, 

1864, p. 497. 
Eiiplecta pneeminens, Si/kes, Proc. Mai. Soc. iii, 1898, p. 71, pi. 5, 

Hgs. 5, 6; GodiviH-Anstcn, Mol. Ltd. ii, 1899, p. 100, pi. 86, 

figs. 1-7 (iinato'uy). 
Euplecta agastvJE, Bedd. (subsp.), B/f. Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, 

p. 250, pi. 25, tig. 10. 

Shell perforate, turbinately depressed, siibleiiticular, tliiri, horny, 
fiilvoiis, ornaraeiited above with line, oblique, costiilate striation, 
bearing elongate granules arranged iu close spiral lines, smoother 
and more polished, but still decussately striated, below, the spiral 
impressed lines disappearing near the umbilicus : spire low couoid, 
sometimes with concave sides, apex acute, sometimes prominently 




Fig. 32. — -Euplecta travancorica. 

raised and papillar, suture impressed ; whorls 6, regularly in- 
creasing, convex above, the last sharply keeled, not descending, 
swollen below ; aperture oblique, roundly lunate, angulate at keel 
of last whorl ; peristome thin, basal margin regularly curved, 
columellar briefly retiexed above. 

Major diam. 35, min. 30, axis 20 mm. 

Hah. Hills near Kottayam, Travancore (Kohlhoff, Beddome) ; 
Watawala, S.W. Ceylon {CoUett), Ilewahetta, Hiniduu (H. Nevill). 

The measurements are from an adult shell in Col. Beddome's 
Collection. Benson's original type measured 29 mm. iu major 
diameter, but was not adnlt. This shell, now in the Cambridge 
Museum, had the keel white with the colour deeper on each side, 
a coloration found in a few specimens only. 

E. jiraiemineas from S.W. Ceylon is a well-marked form with 
the apex prominent and papillar, and the sides of the spire con- 
sequently concave. The sculpture is a little weaker, especially 
beneath the last wliorl. Other Ceylon specimens in my own and 
my brother's collection connect the two forms. The type of 
E. prceemhiens measured : major diam. 2;S|, axis 15 ram. 

[In a specimen from Watawala {0. CoUett) there is a minute 
right shell-lobe but no left shell-lobe. The right dorsal lobe is 
moderately large, the left in two distinct parts, the posterior long 
and narrow (tig. 30 D, p. 52). The jaw has a central projection 
on a strongly concave edge (fig. 30 D). The teeth of the radula 
(fig. 30 D) are arranged : 54 . 1 . 21 . 1 . 21 . 1 . 54, or 76 . 1 . 76. 
The mucous pore is large, extending to the sole of the foot, which 
is undivided (fig. 30 D).] 



60 ZONITID.K. 

Helix Iceta (Pfr. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 287 ; id. Mon. Hel. iv. p. 38 ; 
Ev. Conch. Ic. no. 1380), from an imknovvn locality, was identified 
by Benson (A. M. N. H. (3) xiii, 1864, p. 497) with shells from 
the Anaimalai Hills. Judging by the figure in Reeve (the species 
is not mentioned in the ' Conchologia Indica ') //. Iceta must have 
been very similar to E. travuncorica, and may have been identical, 
in which case the name Iceta has priority. The type has disap- 
peared, but a specimen in Cambridge from Benson's Collection 
thus named is E. acuducta. 

A variety exists with the keel white as in E. albizonata. It 
is figured by Hanley, C. I. pi. 149, fig. 7. 

E. agastycii is similar to E. travancorica, but thinner, less sharply 
keeled, more swollen below, and more finely sculptured, with the 
lower surface less polished than that of E. travancorica. 

Major diam. 34, min. .30, axis 22| mm. 

Hah. Agastyamalai near Cape Comorin, 4000 feet (Becldome). 

88. Euplecta indica, Pfr. (HeHx) Syvib. in, 1846, p. GG ; id. Mon. 

Hel. i, 1847, p. 80; id. t. r.'vii, 1876, p. 132; Rv. Conch. Ic 

no. 448; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 65, fig. 10; Blf. 

J. A. S. B. 1866, 2, p. 39 ; Nevill (Nauina), Himd-l. i, 1878, 

p. 31. 
Hefix oblita, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 263 : id. Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, 

p. 54 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 100. 
HeHx shiplayi, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 327 ; id. Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, 

p. 38 : H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 131, figs. 7, 10 ; Godivin- Austen, 

Mol. Ind. n, 1898, p. 102. 
Euplecta malabarica, subsp., Blf. Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, p. 250, pi. 25, 

fig. 5 ; E. A. Smith, Fuitn. Geog. Maid. Lac. Is. p. 114. 

Shell perforate, subturbinate, lenticular, rather solid, isabelline 
to fulvous throughout ; ornamented above with slightly arcuate 
costulation, decussated by impressed spiral lines, which are often 
obsolete, each rib bearing raised points or granules at subequal 
distances ; spire conoid, with convex sides ; whorls 5|-6, slowly 




Fig. 33. — Euplecta indicci. 

increasing, convex, the last keeled, smooth beneath and radiately 
striated with a few concentric impressed lines below the keel, 
lower surface moderately swollen ; aperture obhque, angularly 
lunate ; peristome obtuse, white, columellar margin oblique, 
curved, briefly reflexed above. 

Major diam. 22, min. 19, axis 12 mm. 

[The animal of E. sMi)layi has a very minute right shell-lobe ; 
no left shell-lobe. Left dorsal lobe similar to that of E. prce- 
eminens. Formula of radula : 50 . 3 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 3 . 50, or 
65 . 1 . 65. Lateral teeth bicuspid.] 



EUPI.ECTA. Ql 

Hab. Nilgiri, Anaimalai, and Pulni Hills, the Wynaad and 
Western Mysore as f;u- north as the Xadur district; S. Canara ; 
ho lowe^r coun ry of Malabar (Nellumbur, Beypur), Travancore 
(/>«//); Ceylon (Beddome); N. Mahlos Atoll, Ma\diyes( Gardiner) 
A common species on the Nilgiris from near the base to the 
top of the plateau and both on the eastern and western sides • 
also common m places in Malabar. There is considerable varia- 

stuated with distinct spiral impressed lines, and with very small 
granulation whilst typical E. shiplayi is smaller (20, 17 12 mm ^ 
higher in the spire, with stronger file-like sculpture.' A lar^e 
Ailgiri specimen measures in the three dimensions 27, 24 and 
lo mm.; a small variety from Beypore 15|, 14, and 9. ' The 

nh^^hittt^^f . \^'" ''T '"^'^ ^- '"«^-^«'''^«, ^nd appears to 
inhabit the tract of countiy near the Malabur coast as far north 
as Nortli Canara. This is found in the N. Mahlos Atoll, Maldives 
doubtless introduced with plants. ' 

89. Euplecta albizonata, Dohm (HeUx), P. Z s 1858 n 133- 

f(i;-(™^:)5««- Hel. v,1868,p.90; H. ^- T. (Hdix) C.I. 
18/ b, pi. 52, fag. 6. 

Similar to the large variety of E. indica in general form, but 
less sharply keeled and dull chestnut in colour, with, round the 
periphery, a narrow white band, which is conspicuous inside the 
aperture ; area round the umbilicus paler. The suture is deeper 
and the whorls above more convex. 

Major diam. 25, min. 22, height 14 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon (Thivaites) ; Tra^vaucove (Beddome). 

A large Travancore specimen measures 29 mm. in maior dia- 
meter ; height 15. This form probably passes into E. indica. 

VO. Euplecta emiliana, Ffr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1852, p. 83; id Mart 
.y C/u'»m. Syst. Couch.-Cab. ed. 2, Helix, no. 1075 pi 158 

^^^^''^V Hn ^r?'\- ?'^- "'' 1^^'"^' P- '^5; Jiv. Conch. Ic. 
no. 608; H. 4'- T. (Hehx) C. I. 1876, pi. .^6, fio- 10 

Helix cing-alensis, Bs. A. M. N. H. (3) v, 1860, p. 383: Pfr. Mon. 

IM. V, 1868, p. 93 ; H. ^- T. C I. 1876, pi. 54, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell perforate, lenticular, fulvous to isabelline, horny trans- 
lucent, closely and arcuately costulate above, the ribs JDearing 
granular elevations separated from each other by impressed spiral 




Fig. 34. — Euplecta erailiana. 

lines, smooth and radiately striated beneath ; spire conoid, apex 
varying, but generally acute ; whorls G, rather convex above, slowly 
and regularly increasing, the last not descending, sharply keeled 



62 ZONITID^. 

convex beneath ; aperture oblique, angularly lunate ; peristome 
tbiu, upper margin arcuate, basal margin, seen from beneath, 
straight or slightly convex, columellar oblique, briefly reflexed 
above. 

Major diam. 16|, min. 15, axis 9 mm. 

Hah. Hills of South-western Ceylon, Matelle (Layarcl), Bala- 
piti {Nevill), Ambagamua (CoUett), JN'ewara Ellia (F. Laynrd). 

This is the Ceylon representative of E. indica, and, like that 
shell, varies in sculpture, in the sharpness of the keel, and in the 
height of the spire. As a rule, the present form is smaller and 
more closely wound than E. indica, and it appears to be constantly 
distinguished by the peristome, the basal margin of which, viewed 
from beneath, is always concave in E. indica, straight or even 
faintly convex in adults of E. emiliana. 

91. Euplecta Isevis, Blf. Proc Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 257, pi. 25, fig. 8. 

Sliell obtectly perforate, depressedly turbinate, carinate, almost 
lenticular, whitish horny, translucent, the basal surface marked 
with fine, close, concentric, opaque white lines, smooth, minutely 
decussately striated above, radially striated beneath ; spire conoid, 
suture impressed ; whorls 6, convex above, the last sharply 
keeled at the periphery, convex below : aperture slightly oblique, 
angularly lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin vertical 
above, briefly triangularly reflexed, partly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 17, min. 15, axis 9i mm. 

Hah. Ceylon {Yerhury). 

This shell is related to E. emiliana, but is more sharply keeled, 
and differs in its smooth upper surface and in the milky con- 
centric lines on the base. 

92. Euplecta Ijinoyaensis, Godicin-Avsten, Mol. Ind. ii, 1899, p. 103, 

pi. 97, figs. 1-1 d (shell and anatomy) ; Blf. Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 
1901, p. 250, pi. 25, fig. 7. 

Shell perforate, depressedly turbinate, cai-iuate, fulvous horny, 
with the keel whitish, rather thin, finely, closely, and arcuately 
costulate above, the ribs bearing fine granules close together and 
arranged in spiral lines ; spire conoid ; whorls 5, convex above, 
slowly and regularly increasing, the last with a raised prominent 
keel, considerably swollen below the keel, smooth and radiately 
striated ; aperture oblique, roundly lunate, angulate at the peri- 
phery ; peristome simple, columellar margin oblique, slightly 
reflexed at the perforation. 

[Generative organs as in the genus. The muscular caecum 
(crjJ.) is short. In this specimen a spermatophore in process of 
formation was seen and is noticeable as quite unlike those of the 
Macrochlamina) (fig. 30 C, p. 52). It consists of a large elongate 
conoid mass set on one side with minute spines at tlie base, these 
becoming in succession larger above ; where the vas deferens 



EUPLECTA. 63 

unites with the penis is the thin capsule also spined down the 
side, the spines being bihd and arranged in sets of two together. 

The radula was similar to other species of the genus, arranged : 
+ 40 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 40 + 
+ 54 . 1 . 54 + 
Some of the outermost laterals not seeu.j 

Major diam. 12, min. 10, axis 6-5 mm. 

Hah. AVatawala, Ceylon (C'oIIett). 

Distinguished from E. emiliana by fewer whorls, much more 
prominent keel, much"rounder and higher mouth, and by the body- 
whorl being considerably more tumid beneath the keel. 

93. Euplecta verrucula, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1854, p. oO ; id. Man. 

Hel. iv. 1859, p. 40 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 105 ; H. ^' T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 150, fig. 9 ; Blf. Proc. Mul. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 251, 
pi. 25, tig. 6. 
Nigritella nerva, Jousscaume, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii 1894 
p. 275 {Si/kes, Proc. Mai. Soc. iii, 1898, p. 65). ' 

Shell perforate, turbinate, sharply keeled, thin, horny, trans- 
lucent, finely costulate above, each rib bearing about lOelongate 
granules, separated by equidistant impressed spiral hues, lower 
surface polished, radiafely striated ; spire conoidal, apex acute ; 
whorls 6, slightly convex above, the last with a sharp compressed 
kee|, convex beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, angularly lunate ; 
peristome thin, basal and columellar margins curved, the latter 
reflected throughout, more broadly above. 

Major diam. 14, min. 13, axis 8 mm. 

Hab. S.W. Ceylon (Thivaites), Uda Pussellawa, Watawala (Co Z- 
lett) ; Fort McDonald (H. Nevill). 

This has a much higher spire than E. emiliana, and there are 
fewer spiral impressed lines, about 10, on the last whorl. Pfeiffer's 
description was taken from half-grown shells, and these have been 
figured by Eeeve and Hanley. The above description is from 
adults in Air, E. R. Sykes's collection. Specimens from Fort 
McDonald have a white keel. 

94. Euplecta fluctuosa, Blf. Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 251, fig, 1. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, turbinate, carinate, pale horny, 
closely and finely ornamented throughout with flexuous transverse 
rows of granules arranged in spiral lines, the lo\\er surface smooth, 
decussately striated ; spire conoid, apex obtuse, suture impressed • 
whorls 5, convex, the last compressedly keeled, convex below • 
aperture diagonal, approaching a rhomb in form, margins con- 
verging slightly; peristome thin and in one plane, columellar 
margin triangularly reflected. 

Major diam. 11 1, min. 10|, axis 7 mm. 

Hab. Gaisoppa Falls, North Canara. 

This shell is distinguished by its peculiar flexuous and granular 
sculpture, few w horls, and diagonal aperture. 



64 zonitidjE. 

95. Euplecta prestoni, Godwin- Austen, Proc. Mai. Soc. ii, 1897, 

p. 177, pi. 14, figs. 1-1 e (part of anatomy and radula). 

Shell perforate, subturbinate, keeled, thin, fulvous horny, closely 
ornamented with fine oblique filiform costulation above, the ribs 
bearing small granules, from which hair-like spines are developed 
at regular intervals ; spire conoid, apex obtuse, suture impressed. 
Whorls 5, closely wound, convex above, the last compressed below 
the keel at the periphery, convex, smooth, and polished beneath ; 
aperture oblique, angularly lunate, columellar margin vertical 
above, reflected throughout, partly covering the perforation. 

[The dental formula is 28 . lO". 1 . 10 . 28, or 38 . 1 . 38. The 
centre tooth is elongate, with cusps low down on either side ; the 
admedian teeth with a large cusp on the outer side ; the laterals 
bicuspid, the innermost the longest. The jaw has a central 
projection.] 

Major diam. 5-25, min. 4-9, axis 4 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon, Uda Pussellaua {Preston). 

The shell described is immature, and it is possible the full- 
grown shell may be considerably larger. The spines can only be 
seen under a microscope. 

96. Euplecta SCObinoides, Syhes, Proc Mai. Soc ii, 1897, p. 2'34, 

pi. 16, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell perforate, lenticular, dark brownish horny, translucent, 
marked above with fine close arcuate filiform stria?, which are 
granularly decussated by spiral lines lyiug close together towards 
the outside of each whorl, further apart inside, [below smooth, 
with microscopic wavy, longitudinal striae] ; spire low, apex 
blunt, sutures sliglitly impressed ; whorls 5, narrow, slowly 
increasing, plano-convex above, the last sharply keeled, compressed 
beneath the keel, convex, smooth, and polished on the lower sur- 
face ; aperture slightly oblique, narrow, angularly lunate; peristome 
thin, basal margin arcuate, columellar oblique, slightly reflected. 

Major diam. S^, min. 8, axis 4J mm. 

Hah. Ceylon, Watawala (CoUett). 

[97. Euplecta gardeneri, Pfr. (See above, p. 40.) 

The animal with the visceral sac black, probably very dark gi'ey 
in life. Kight dorsal lobe ample, the left in two distinct widely 
separated parts, the posterior long and narrow. A pointed lobe 
over the mucous gland. Sole of foot with no division ; the peri- 
podial margin narrow, tlie parallel grooves above wide apart. In 
the genitaha the penis is looped up for a considerable length by a 
strong muscle encircling the main penis-sheath. The caecum of 
the retractor muscle is long, and there is a shortish blunt kale-sac. 
The spermatheca vei-y small and sessile. Amatorial organ long 
snd large. Jaw curved, with a very slight central projection. 



EUPLECTA. 05 

Radula with the lateral teeth evenly bicuspid ; formula : 
48 . 1 . 14 . 1 . U . 1 . 48 
63 . 1 . 63 

Although the shell is so very different to typical species of the 
genus, both this raduhi with the generative organs are conformable, 
and not with the same characters of Anophanta. I therefore 
have to transfer it from where Blanford placed it to its present 
position in Ev2ilecta.'\ 



C. Globosely conoid or depressed, with rounded periphery. 

98. Euplecta suhopaca, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 18r,3, p. 1^5 ; id. Man. 
Ilel. iv, IS59, p. T).") ;'«7. t. c. vii, 187(5, p. 118. 
Helix corylus, Rv. Conch. Ic. Helix, no. 1439, pi, 204 : H. S,- T. C. I. 
187(>, pi. 150, tig. 3. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, convexly depressed, solid, rufous 
horny (varying from yellowish white to pale chestnut), having a 
silky lustre and line arcuate costulation above, smooth, polished, 
and radiately striated beneath ; spire low, convex to conoid, suture 
scarcely impressed ; whorls 6, closely wound, flatly convex above. 




Fig. 35. — Euplecta subopaca. 

the last broader, rounded at the periphery, convex below; aper- 
ture oblique, lunate ; peristome thin, basal mai'giu straight when 
looked at from beneath, columellar oblique, regularly curved, 
slightly expanded, more broadly at the perforation. 

Major diam. 15, min. 13.4, axis 9 mm. 

Bab. Higher Hills of S~outh-western Ceylon ; Nuwara Eliva 
(G. Nevill); Pedro Talle Galle, 6000' (//. F. B.), Gampala 
(//. Nevill). 



99. Euplecta partita, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 18o3, p. 12-5; id. (Helix) 

Mon. Hel iv, 1859, p. 55; id. t. c. vii, 1876, pp. 118, 532; 

H. L^ T. (HeUx) C. I. 1876, pi. 85, figs. 5, 6; Godwin-Amten, 

Mol. Ind. ii, 1890, p. 98, pi. 87, tigs. 1-1 e (anatomy). 

Helix marcida, Bs. {nee Shuttleworih) A. M. N. 11. (2) xii, 1853, 

p. 92. 
Helix subconoidea, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 51 ; id. Mon. Hel. iv, 
1859, p. 56 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, pp. 118, 532 ; H. ^- T. C. /. 1876, 
p. 36, pi. 85, figs. 7, 10. 

Sliell subobtectly perforate, convexly depressed, rather thin, 
isabelline to yellowish horny, polished, strongly but rather irregu- 
larly transversely rugosely striated above, smooth with radiating 



G6 ZOXITID.'E. 

striation beneath ; spire 1o\a-, apex obtuse : wlioils 0. convex, slowly 
increasing, the last rounded at the periphery, rather flatly convex 
beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, lunate ; peristome thin, basal 
margin a little arcuate, columellar slightly expanded, more broadly 
near the perforation, which is partly covered. 

Major diam. 14|, min. 13. axis 7 mm. 

Hah. 8outh-\\ estern Ceylon ; Ehambodde. Matelle East (NeviU, 
Layard) ; Bolegalle, near Kandy (//. F. B.) ; Eatnapura, Gampola, 
Nuwara Eliya {H. NevUl). Erom Ambagamua {0. Colleit). 

[The animal (tig. 30 A, p. 52) has the left dorsal lobe divided into 
a large anterior and a small elongate narrow posterior portion. 
The lower main sheath of the male organ is veiw short from the 
generative aperture upwards ; it then diminishes in section and is 
folded into a large loop confined by a strong broad muscle. Near 
the return portion of the free loop is a short stout portion, the 
diverticulum or Ccecum, to which the retractor muscle is attached ; 
near the same place is the short kale-sac which the vas deferens 
joins. A very remarkable set of finger-like j)rocesses occur here 
(fig. 30 A), marking the place of formation of the spermatophore 
of pecidiar form (fig. 30 C). The radula fornuda is 

72 .1 . 13 . 1 . 13 . 1 . 72 
80 . 1 . 86 

The laterals are long, curved, and bicuspid, the outer cusp 
considerably below the points of the inner.] 

There has heen some confusion between this and E. suhopacu, 
and it is difficult to determine the types, though the original 
descriptions ai'e perfectly clear. E. jnirtita is a thinner, less 
globose shell than E. suhopaca, with less strong and less regular 
sculpture, and of a different colour. H. suhconoklea \\i\^ founded 
on immature specimens of E. jmrtita. 

A variety with the spire almost or quite fiat, and the last whorl 
subangulate above the periphery, occurs amongst specimens from 
Eatnapura and Nuwara Eliya in Mr. H. Xeviirs collection. 

100. Euplecta trimeni, J<ni.-<seau>ne (Euplectella), 3Ie)n. Soc. Zool. 
France, vii, 1804, p. 270, pi. 4, fig. o. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conoidly depressed, thin, fragile, 
subpellucid, obliquely costulate above, radiately stx-iated beneath, 
pale olivaceous fulvous ; spire low, conoid, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5.|, slightly convex, the last depressedly rounded, scared}' 
descending ; a]5erture oblique, lunate ; pei'istome simple, straight, 
thin, sharp, columellar margin slightly thickened, reflected and 
appressed at the perforatiou, the margins joined by a thin callus. 

Major diam. 10, min. 0, axis 7 mm. 

Hah. IN^uwara Eliya, Ceylon. 

Judging from the above description, translated from the original, 
the single specimen to \\hich the name was given may have been 
a small thin shell of E. si'hoiaca, perhaps immattire. 



EUPLECTA. (J7 



D. Conoidly dei)ri;s.scd and carinate. 

101. Eaplecta acuducta. lis. (rielix) A. M. N. II. (2) v, 1850 
p. 214: Pfr. (Helix) Man. Hel. iii, 18o3, p. 78: id. t. c. iv, 
185!>, p. (J7 ; ? //. .y T. (IlelLx) C. I. I87(i, pl^ 50, fig-. 5. 
Nanina koondmnmif, IJff. J. A. >S. li. 1870, p. 10 pi y fio- l-) ■ 
JI. 4- r. (Helix) C. I. 1870,. pi. 56, figs. 5, ; >/;-. Helix 
(Namna) .!/(;». Hel. vii, 1870, p. 225 ; Nevill (Nanina), mmd-l. i 
1878, p. 2L>. ^' 

Nanina subkoondaensis, God win- Amten {Nevill MS.), Proc. Mai. 
Soc. ii, 1897, ]>. 175 (no description). 

Shell perforate, sublenticular to depressed, carinate, fulvous 
horny, finely striated abo\e and decussated b\- rather close spiral 
impressed lines, similarly marked, but smoother, below ; spire very 
low, conoiilal, suture very slightly impressed : whorls o.i, almost 




Fig. 36. — Eaplecta acuducta. 

flat above, regularly increasing, the last sharply keeled, compressed 
beneath the keel, swollen belou" ; aperture' oblique, angularly 
lunate ; peristome slightly obtuse, white inside, columellar margin 
curved, slightly reflected above. 

Major diam. 25, min. 21, axis 11 mm. 

Hcih. JVilgiris (Jerdon) ; Sispara Ghat, Kundah Hills (W. 
T. 5.); Tinnevelly; Trevandrum (Thcohald) ; Ivadur district, 
Mysore {Daly) ; Ceylon {G. Nevill, H. F. B.). 

The type of E. acaducta, now in Cambridge, is immature; it 
only difl'ers from E. Jcoondaensis in having rather flatter whorls and 
a sharper keel (both characters due partly to immaturity) and in 
having the last whorl slightly broader. 

The shell from the Kadur district of Mysore is sharply keeled 
and subcostulately striated. 

This species varies in height of spire, sharpness of keel, and 
sculpture, and some varieties approach E. indica, others E. travan- 
corica. E. acuducta can be easily distinguished, as a rule, by the 
height of the spire being much less than the depth of the last 
whorl below the keel. 

The animal figured under the present name J. A. S, B. 1882, 2, 
p. 69, pi. 5. fig. 2, is probably, as is pointed out by Godwin-Austen 
{I. c), wrongly identified. 



f2 



68 ZONITID.E. 

102. Euplecta isabellina. Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1854, pi 52 ; id. Mon. 

Hel. iv, 1859, p. 66 ; H. 8f T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 27, fig. 7. 
Helix Isabella, H. ^- T. C. 1. 1876, p. viii ; Nev. (Naniiia) Hand-l i, 
1878, p. 29. 

Shell perforate, depressed, sublenticular, thin, horn)^ translucent, 
straw-coloured to isabelline, striated, the striae interrupted by 
impi'essed lines leaving elongate granules, which form subdis- 
tant spiral bands ; spire convex, its height forming less thau 
half the axis, apex distinct, suture linear, not impressed. Whorls 
5-5^, increasi)ig regularly, flattened above, the last broader than 
in most allied forms, sharply keeled, not descending, swollen 
beneath ; aperture oblique, angularly lunate, subrhomboidal ; 
peristome thin, basal margin regularly curved, columellar margin 
almost vertical above, briefly and broadly reflexed. 

Major diam. 33, nun. 27, axis 15 mm. 

Hah. Hills of South-western Ceylon. 

103. Euplecta CoUetti, Si/kes, Proc. Mai. Soc ii, 1897, p. 234. pi. 16, 

ligs. 5, 6. 

Smaller than E. isahelhna, but closely allied to it. The whorls, 
4i to 5 in number, increase more slowly, and the last M'horl is 
proportionally narrower ; the spiral sculpture so conspicuous on 
E. isabellina is almost obsolete or replaced by fine close spiral 
lines of granules, and the protocoueh is smooth. Colour tawny. 

Major diam. 21, mm. 17|. axis 8| mm. 

Hab. Watawala, Ceylon\CoUett)~ 

This may be immature, and may be a variety of E, isabellina, 
but it is sufficiently distinct to require recognition. 

E. Trochiform. 

a. Sculpture granular. 

104. Euplecta cacuminifera, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) v, 1850, 
p. 214 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 36 ; iv, 1859 ; vii, 1876, 
p. 103 ; H. Sf T. a I. 1876, pi. 54, lig. 2. 

Shell obtectly perforate, trochiform, thin, horny, with fine 
granular sculpture above, ari-anged on the oblique striae of growth 
in spiral longitudinal series, varying slightly and somewhat 
irregularly in size, some series or parts of series of granules being 
larger than others ; spire conoidal with concave sides, apex 
attenuate ; whorls 8, slowly increasing, flat above, the last acutely 
keeled, compressed below the keel, convex beneath, smooth, 
polished and radiately striated ; aperture scarcely oblique, sharply 
angulate at the periphery ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
oblique, triangularly reflected above, partly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 18, min. 16, axis 13 mm. 

Hab. Nilgiri Hills, S. India (Jerdon); Sispara (W. T. B.). 

This shell is easily recognized by its sculpture. 



EUPLECTA. 69 

10."). Euplecta granulifera, Blf. Proc. Mai Soc. iv, p. 252, fig. 5. 

Shell minutely and subobtectly perforate, subturbinately trochi- 
form, thin, horny, ornamented above with numerous minute tubercles, 
close together, somewhat irregular in size, and arranged in both 
spiral and transverse series, smooth and finely striated radiately 
beneath ; spire rather high, conical, apex obtuse, the apical whorls 
smooth, suture impressed : whorls 7, slowly increasing, convex, 
the last filiformly keeled at the periphery, moderately convex 
below ; aperture neai'ly vertical, roundly lunate ; peristome thin, 
the margins converging above, columellar nearly vertical, reflected 
throughout, more broadly above. 

Major diam. G|, min. 5f, axis 5| mm, 

Hab. 2S^. Canara (Bcddome). 

This small species is distinguished at once by its conical spire 
and peculiarly granular sculpture ; the latter, in this and in 
E. cacuiniatfera, consisting, as seen under the microscope, of 
minute hemispherical tubercles arranged in series, but not based 
on ribs as in E. indica, &c. 



b. Scidj[)ture Jinehj decussated. 

10i>. Euplecta hyphasma, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1853, p. 124 ; id. Mon. 
Hel. iv, p. 40 ; vii, p." 105 ; H. S^- T. C. I. 1870, pi. 54, fig. 3 ; 
[Godwin-Austen, Mol. Lid. ii. 1907, p. 186, pi. 114, figs. 1, I a 
(genitalia)]. 

Shell minutely and subobtectly perforate, trochiform, thin, 
whitish to brownish horny, minutely but regularly obliquely 
costulated, the ribs bearing very tine granulation, often difticult 
of detection ; spire conical with straight sides, apex acute, suture 




Euplecta l/i/ij/iasma. 



impressed; whorls 6] to 7. convex above, the last sharply and 
compressedly keeled at the periphery, moderately convex, smooth, 
and polished beneath ; aperture oblique, rhomboidally lunate ; 
peristome thin, acute, columellar margin subvertical above, 
regularly curved below, reflected triangularly at the perforation 
and partly covering it. 

[In a spirit-specimen from Ambagamua the animal is pale 
coloured, tlie dorsal lobes black, with a patch of same colour on 
the sides of the neck and near the extremity of the foot ; peri- 
podial margin broad; the mantle-zone has no shell-lobes. Jaw 
has a slight central projection. 



70 zoisitim:. 

Radula with 81 rows of teeth, arranged : 

48 . 1 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 1 . 48 
."59 . 1 . 59 

The centre ti-icuspid, admedian with cusp on outer side ; laterals 
bicuspid, with points even. 

The male organ is a modified form of that of E. hinoyaensis ; the 
loop is not present, the muscular caecum is longer, the amatorial 
organ is present, and the spermatophore is of the same type.] 

Major diam. 13, min. 12, axis 10^ mm. 

Eab. South-western Ceylon; Kaudy, 2000' {G.Nevill, H. F. B.); 
Saftragam (H. NevUl) ; Ambagamua {0. Collett). 

107- Eiiplecta turritella, //. Ad. Nanina (Rotula) P. Z. S. 1869, 

p. -27.5 ; II. S,- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, p. 36, pi. 86, Hg. 4 ; Jouss. 

Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. vii, 1894, p. 275. 

Nanina (Rotula) conulus, H. Ad.P. Z. S. 1807, p. 307, pi. 19, fig. 10; 

Ffi: Mo)i. Ilel. vii, 1876, p. 69; nee Helix couiilus, Martens, 1864. 

Very near E. hypliasma^ but iu typical shells the spire is higher, 
the sides meeting at a more acute angle, the sculpture is finer and 
the coloration different. The shell is whitish or brownish horny, 
except on the lo^v■e^ ])art of each whorl, where it is reddish, and 
on the last A\"horl there is a chestnut band above and beloM- the 
keel, \Aiiich is itself white. According to Jousseaume, specimens 
occur with the keel also reddish, and some are chestnut-browu 
throughout. 

lAlajor diam. 11, min. 10, axis 9 mm. The height of the axis 
differs from Adams's measurements, but is taken from the shell 
believed to be the type now in the British Museum. 

Hah. Nuwara Eliya. Ceylon (Layard) ; Monaragalla to Eam- 
bodda (i/. NevUJ). 

This form passes into E. hypltasma. 

c. Smooth. 
108. Euplecta? mucronifera, L'lf. Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, p. i'5i>, fig. 3. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, trochiform, thin, milky white, the 
whorls irregularly streaked transversely and spirally with dusky 
horny, neighbourhood of mouth chestnut, covered with a thin 
epidermis above, greenish yellow and thicker beneath, smooth, 
scarcely striated ; spire conoid with concave sides, apex prominent, 
very sliarp, suture linear, not impressed ; whorls 7^, fla,t above, 
the last sharply and compressedly keeled, moderately convex 
beneath; aperture oblique, securiform, dark chestnut iuside ; 
peristome thin, straight, columellar margin descending obliquely, 
briefly reflexed at the perforation. 

Major diam. 18^, min. 16, axis 175 mm. 

]fah. Anaimalai Hills (Beddomc). 



EUPLECXA. 7] 

This s))ecies has the peculiar acumiuate spire of E. cacuminifera, 
but is i)er):"ectly smooth. 

109. Euplecta phidias, r/iorp MS. apiid Hanley (Flelix), H. ^- T. C. I. 
l>-7<'), p. .'y.i. pi. 14!), tig. 4 (no description). 

Shell imperforate, trochiforni, uhite with a thin yellowish 
deciduous epidermis, smooth, tinely striated obliquely, with traces 
of obsolete decussating lines ; spire conical with perfectly straight 
sides, sutures not impressed; whorls G.], perfectly flat above, the 
last sharply keeled, but little convex boieath ; aperture oblique, 
almost diagonal, subrhomboidal ; peristome thiu, columellar 
inargiu sharply reflected above, coveriug the perforation. 

[A specimen from Ivandy. collected by Mr. O. Collett, has a 
pale ochre-coloured foot with a dark patch on the side of the 
neck, the overhanging lobe at extremity of foot conspicuous. 
The pei-ipodial margin very broad, paler than the rest of the 
body, the grooves above very close together. The left dorsal lobe 
a narrow strip, not divided into two lobes. In the genitalia the 
male organ has the distinct loop as in tlie larger species of the 
genus, and with a large araatorial organ. 

Kadula : centre and admedian teeth as usual, the laterals very 
numerous, loiig, curved, evenly bicuspid, becoming verv minute 
on the edge. Arranged thus : 

60 . 1 . 10 . 1 . 10 , 1 . OU 
77 . 1 . 77 

Jaw very strongly arched, \A-ith no central projection.] 

Major diam. is], miu. 16, axis 14 mm. 

Hub. Ceylon, Upper Uva {F. Laijai-d). 

Distinguished by its flat smooth surface and close perforation. 
The animal is unknown of the following three species and their 
generic ])osition is doubtful. 

110. Euplecta? concavospira, Pf,-. (Helix) V.Z.ts. IS-W, p. 124; id 
Mon. lid. iv, p. -.Vl ; vii, p. Oti ; //. c3- T. C. 1. isro, pi. 86, tig-, l. 

Shell subperforate. trochiforu), thin, whitish horny, with a sho-ht 
deciduous yellowish epidermis, flnely and obliquely striated and 
subobsoletely decussated ; spire conical, apex acute, suture but 
little impressed ; whorls 6]-7, plano-convex above, the last sharply 
and compressedly keeled, moderately convex around the perforation 
beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, angularly lunate ; peristome 
acute, columellar margin cur\ed, briefly reflected above, nearly 
covering the perforatiou. 

Major diam. 16, min. 14|, axis 11 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon (Laj/ard) ; Kandy {Simon); Gongala (//. Nevill). 

There is very little if any concavity in the sides of the spire. 
In Hanley's flgure a shell is represented with a narrow^ rufous 
band above the keel, and in the upper whorls above the suture. 



t '1 ZONITID^. 

111. Euplecta? apicata, Blf. [Naniua (Tiocliomorpha)j J. A. S. B. 

1870, 2, p. It), pi. 3, fig. 13 ; Tfr. Mon. IIcl. viii. p. 97 ; H. 4' T. 
a I. 1876, pi. 54, fig. 5. 

This diffei's from E. concavosjnra in having tlie whorls quite flat 
ahove and the suture not impressed, and in the almost complete 
absence of sculpture except slight transverse striation. The 
apex is slightly exserted and the sides of the spire faintly concave. 
The colour is horny, sometimes streaked with opaque white. 

Major diam. 14, min. 13, axis 10 mm. 

Ifab. JNilgiri Hills; Coonoor, Neduwattana, and Avalanche 
(IF. T. B.); Anaimalai (Beddome). 

In some specimens the striation is more distinct, and there are 
traces of spiral sculpture on the upper whorls. 

112. Euplecta? orhiates, Blf. Proc Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 253, fig. 4. 
'^ Euplecta bifasciata, NeviU, Godicin- Austen, Proc. Mai. Soc. ii, 

1897, p. 176 (no description). 

Shell imperforate, trochiform, thin, diaphanous, obliquely 
striated above, radiately and arcuately beneath, covered with a 
deciduous yellowish-fulvous epidermis, thickest below, beneath the 
epidermis whitish horny, with, in some specimens, two rufous 
bands, one above, the other beloM" the keel ; spire conical, sides 
slightly concave, apex pointed, suture not impressed ; whorls 7-71, 
flat above, the last compressedly keeled, slightly convex towards 
the middle beneath ; aperture oblique, subtetragonal, hatchet- 
shaped ; peristome thin, columellar margin vertical above and 
briefly reflexed, covei'ing the perforation. 

Major diam. 14, min. 13, axis 11 mm. 

Ifcd/. Myhendra, Travaucore (Beddome). 

Distinguished from -£*. o/>uY(to by higher spire and im perforation. 
Nevill's MS. name is inappropriate, as the bands are not always 
present. 

113. Euplecta ? mucosa, W. ^11. Blf. (Helix) /. A. S. B. xxx, 1862, 

p. 353, pi. 1. fig. 9, pi. 2. fig. 3: Pfr. (Helix) 3Ion. Hel. 
V, 1868, p. 51 : K. .y 7'. (Helix) C. I. 187G, pi. 90, figs. 5, 6 ; 
Ner. Nauina (Microcystis) Hcmd-/. i, 1878, p. 36. 

Shell imperforate, depressedly turbinate, very thin, pale, and 
more or less yellowish horny, obliquely striated, decussated with 
microscopic spiral (longitudinal) impressed lines on some of the 
inner whorls ; spire conoidal, apex subacute, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5, moderately convex above, the last considerably broader, 
slightly compressed at the periphery, tumidly convex beneath, 
the depth beneath the periphery exceeding the height of the 
spire ; aperture large, oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome straight, 
thin, columellar margin much curved, vertical above and slightly 
reflected, completely closing the perforation. 

Major diam. 8, min. G^, height 5 mm, A large shell measures 
9^x8 X 6 mm. 

Hah. On the upper portion of the jS'ilgiris, Pykara, Coonoor 
Ghat, Seeghoor Grhat, &c., Pidneys {Fairhanh teste NevUl). 



ECPLECTA. 



73 



This shell is clistinguislied from E, la>/anU and E. acctlhs by 
want of perforation and carination and by simpler scnlpture. It 
is also smaller. 

[I have found in one of Dr. W. T. Bianfords field note-boolis 
a very good figure and a long description of the animal of this 
species, which I give verbatim as it is so good, descriptions of this 
sort from life being really of more value than those of the shells. 

" N. mucosa, W. Blf. : Nilgiris. — No linguiform processes to the 
mantle. Mantle rather large. Animal dull orange, mantle yellow. 
Tentacles blackish, with a dark line from the base of each to the 
mantle. The lobe over the nuicous pore very large. Back not 
carinate. Foot broadly margined by a single line. Animal and 
mantle coarsely granulate throughout and \\ ith irregular dots of a 
darker colour on the spaces between the wrinkles and especially 
on the edges of the foot. Animal very active." 

This description is sufficient to enable anyone to recognize the 
species and preserve the animal for dissection. 

Blanl'ord placed it next to E. j'ldchella ; but as there is con- 
siderable doubt whether it belongs to the genus Euplecta, 1 
transfer it to the end among other doubtful species.] 



[Confining comparison to the formvda of the radula in the 
genus Euplecta and the sinistral and dextral forms of Arioplianta. 
marked differentiation is displayed in the far fe^^■er teeth in the 
radula of the first, whereas in the last two divisions the numbei- 
is much greater in the proportion of 28 : 45. In the sinistral and 
dextral species remarkable similarity is found, showing a close 
relationship with each other and a more distant one with Euplecta, 
differences (specific) being confined in Arioplianta more to the 
form of the teeth themselves. To elucidate this. I have taken the 
number of the admedian teeth, including the one or two of 
transition form, of all the species now examined in : 

I. The sinistral Ariophanta'. 
II. The dextral 
III. Euplecta. 

The mean of all these formulae is interesting, sho\^■iug how much 
more numerous the teeth are — that is, how much broader is the 
central band of teeth set on quadrangular plates — in Nos. I. & II. 
than in No. III., thus : — 





1 
Js umber of Total admedian ^ ,, . 1 Total 

species teeth on ,• ^" i ° ' admedian 
*^ . 1 . , , ! lormula. , .i 
examined. one side only, j teeth. 


I. ..i 61 

' vide 
II. . .j 11 ^ names 
1 1 below. 
III. .. 12j 


V,iU '13. 1 .23 4G 
244 22 . 1 . 22 , 44 
152 14.1.14 1 28 



74 zoNiTiB.i':. 

I oxclude from No. I. Ariophanta Li-ri.pes, in which the number 
of the admedian teeth is so far less numerous than in any other 
species of the genus, being only 8 on each side of the centi'al 
lootb, or 16 as compared with 23, and is thus abnormal. From 
No. III. Euplecta I also exclude E. prcneminens (subspecies of 
travancorica) and semidecussata, in which the radula formula is 
22 . 1 . 22 and 21 . 1 . 21 respectively, and thus is like that 
of the dextrorse section of Ariophania. while their generative 
organs appi'oach those of Eaphctci. Both these species range to 
Peninsular India, and thus form a sort of link with the majority 
of the Ariophantina? of that side. The generative organs in other 
species of Ariophanta and Euplecta show an intei'esting develop- 
ment of one towards the other. 

Species included in the above Genera. 

I. ciisis, Inimerita, interrupta, hajadera, Intmnescens, dahji 

{ctjsis var.) : = 6 species. 
II. helan</en, fnstrialis, ceraria, solafa, tranqncliarica, inadxii-as- 
l)atana, *lirfidata, cej/lan/ca, Jidiaiiu = ;/auoma, basileus, 
chenid : = 11 species. 
HI. '*layard't, pludJas, sliiplayl = indica ?, partita, prestoni. 
*subopaca, mtjsorensis, hi)Wi/aejisis, ht/phasma, r/ardcneri, 
Huhdecussata, coUetti : = 12 species.] 



Genus RATNADVIPIA. 

lintuadvipia, Gitchrin-Aiiden, Froc. Mai. Soc. iii, ISOO p. 2o3 : id. 
MoL Lid. n, 1899, p. 93; C'oUinge, Jour. Ma/. 1901, viii, p. 04. 

Type, 21. irradiaas, Pfr. 

Range. Ceylon. 

Shell Vitriaa-Wke, with few whorls, thin, not polished above, 
the outer whorl large. 

Animal large, much larger than the shell. Mantle-edge large, 
surrounding the shell and partly covering it : both the right and 
left shell-lobes produced posteriori}' into tongue-like expansions ; 
dorsal lobes greatly developed, the left dorsal lobe in two parts. 
The dorsum of the body just behind the shell is flat, but it is 
sharply keeled behind. Caudal extremity truncated; mucous pore 
large. Peripheral groove double. Sole with a median groove 
(not always conspicuous), but not di\ided into median and lateral 
tracts. 

Eadula broad, with numerous teeth in each row ; the formula 
is 204 . 23 . 1 . 23 . 204 (227 . 1 . 227). The median band of large 
teeth is very broad, the teeth composing it are simple without 
lateral cusps ; the numerous lalerals are bicuspid, except the outer 
marginals. Jaw with a concave edge witliout median projection. 

* According- to Senipei". 



RATXADVIJMA. 



/O 



Au amiitorial organ (dart- sac) present, large aud cylindrical ; 
no calcareous dart' found, but a short blunt muscular papilla. 
Spermatlieca sessile. The vas deferens passes into a kale-sac, 
which is joined to the penis -sheath, some distance from the 









^■^^<k^ 










^y-^} X^^^<^ 



V^ 








[Fig. 38. — Uutiiudvij)ia irracliaiit'. 

i inimal from viglx side, showing the sliell- and dorsal lobes ; also part of, 
from the left side. The shell-lobes are curled up in the si)U-it.-speeiiuen ; 
the dotted line on visceral sac indicates their extension in life. X l^J. 

B. Part oF genitalia sliowing the typical male organ of Arhiphanta. x3-4. 

0. Jaw and leelli of the radula. x2G8.] 

retractor muscle, by an ei^iphallus : ciecum of penis straight, as in 
Ariophanta. 

This genus differs from Jadrdia chiefly in the possession of 
shell-lobes to the mantle, and in the absence of lateral cusps to 
the teeth of the median bund in the radula. 



76 



ZONITIDA\ 



114. Ratnadvipia irradians, Pfr. (Vitrina) P. Z. S. 1852, p. 156 ; 
ill (Vitrina) Man. Hd. iii," 1853, p. 3; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 14; 
H. 4- T. (Vitrina) C. /. 1876, p. 29, pi. 66, figs. 8, 9 ; Godivin- 
Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1898, p. 93, pi. 85, figs. 1-8 (animal & 
anatomy); Collimje, Jour. M<il. viii, 1901, p. 65, pis. 5, 6 (anatomy). 

Shell imperforate or subperforate, depressed, thin, diaphanous, 
dull browuish horny above, striated and decussated with rather 
uneven impressed lines, rather paler, smooth, and polished beneath; 
spire scarcely raised, suture impressed ; whorls 4, flattened above, 





Fig. o9. — Ba(ju(chipia irradknis. 

rapidly increasing, the last uuich broader than the others, rounded 
at the periphery, convex beneath ; aperture large, very oblique, 
lunately oval; peristome simple, thin, the upper margin arcuate, 
columellar margin regularly curved, briefly reflected close to the 
junction with the body-^^ horl. 

Major diam. 24, min. 19, axis 11 mm. 

Hah. South-western Ceylon, Kandy ( CoUett) ; Peradeniya {Free- 
man). There are specimens in the British Museum said to be 
from Southern India, but the locality is regarded as very doubtful. 



115. Ratnadvipia ? edgariana, Bs. (Vitrina) A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 
1853, p. 93 ; Ffr. (Vitrina) Mo7i. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 792 ; Nev. (Heli- 
cariouj Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 15. 

" Shell much depressed, \ery thin, membranaceous beneath, 
highly polished, pellucid, striated obsoletely and obliquely above, 
ornamented by a few impressed spix'al lines, yellowisli horny ; 
spire rather flat, apex prominent, suture impressed ; ^^"horls JJ, 
rapidly increasing, somewljat flat, the last very convex at the 
periphery ; aperture oblique, ovately lunate. 

" Major diam. 10, minor 8, height 4 mm." {Benson, in Latin,) 

Hah. At Colombo, Hangwelle, and Ratnapura in the island of 
Ceylon. 

It is very difficult to form any idea of the affinities of the 
present species. The presence of spiral impressed lines may 
indicate a relationship with It. irradians. tTnfortunately no 
specimens are available for examination. 



MACROCJILAMYS. / / 

[Ova of Ariojihanta lcev>j)es, Miill. (vide p. 29), 

" Citron-yellow in colour, quite soft, enclosed in a skin, which 
is slightly loose like a hladder | filled, having a tendency to 
assume the form of a prolate spheroid with deep furrows running 
from end to end throughout. Length about 5-6 mm., diam. 
4-4i. Probably all Ariophantas have similar ova." — Extract from 
Dr. ~W. T. BlanforcVs Note-hool:.'] 



[Subfamily MACROCHLOIYIN^. 

Macrochlamyinae, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 25.3 ; ii, 
1907, p. 170. 

Shells of very varied form; shell-lobes present in some genera; 
the free caecum near the retractor muscle of the penis the 
principal distinguishing character, this being, in most cases, more 
or less closely wound. Amatorial organ in some species absent. 
These are given subgeneric rank.] 

Genus MACROCHLAMYS. 

Macrochlamys. Benson, J. ui. S. B. i, 1832, pp. 13, 76; v, 1836, 
p. 3.50 (no description); Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 169; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. X, 2, 1871, p. 246 : Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1, 2, 1881, 
p. 131 ; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883-88, pp. 76-92, 97-122, 
209-215 ; id. t. c. ii, 1899, 1907, pp. 87-90, 136-137, 151-170. 

Nanina, Grcu/, partim, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 58 ; Benson, t. c. p. 89 ; id. 
Zool. Journ. v, 1835, p. 458; Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1, 2, 1881, 
p. 131, 7U'c Risso. 

Tanychlamys, Benson, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 89. 

" Orobia," Albers, Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 57. 

Type, M. petrosa, Hutton. 

Range. JSouth-eastern Asia, including the whole Indian Empire 
except the dry regions of North-western India. 

Shell heliciform, perforate (rarely imperforate), depressed, 
sometimes subglobose or subturbinate, thin, horny, as a rule 
smooth and polished, especially beneath, occasionally distinctly, 
often microscopically, striated or decussately sculptured ; aperture 
lunate ; peristome tliiu, but in a few species internally labiate, 
columellar margin reflected at the perforation. 

Animal large and active, and in the wet season scarcely retractile 
withiii the sliell. Foot narrow, the sole divided, by the arrange- 
ment of the muscles, into three parts, a median and two lateral 
areas, often distinguished by slight differences of colour. The 
mucous pore at the posterior extremity of tlie foot is large and 
overhung by a fleshy horn-like pi-ocess, sometimes of considerable 
length ; peripodial grooves well developed and double, the shallow 
grooves on the surface of the foot above the peripodial groove 
radiate from the shell, those on the back of the neck and back and 



78 zo^iTiD.i:. 

sides of the head forming a distinct tract. Lobes of the mantle 
well developed, the rujlit and left shell-lohes hoth present, short or 
elongate and generally pointed, extending in some species nearly or 
quite to the apex of the shell, and constantly in motion. 

[The left shell-lobe has been found absent in M. atricolor from 
the Muni pur Hills. 

In the genitalia, commencing at the generative apertm'e, the 
penis-sheath is a moderately long cylindrical tube (larger near the 
aperture) as far as the sharp bend at tlie epiphallic portion ; the 
tube continues thence to the retractor-muscle attachment, and 
so far it may be compared with the male organ of Ariophanta. 
It is continuous still f lU'ther, forming a closely-coiled ccecum, tlie 
coil more or less conspicuous or becoming an indistinct muscidar 
mass. In three species from Sikkim the csecum is long, free, and 
uncoiled, probably an early stage in its development. • The 
retractor nuiscfe attachment, in this case, is at the basal end of the 
Ccccum ; the epiphallus is short. The kale-sac is close to the junction 
with it of the vas deferens, and is either a long fiagellum, a short 
divei'ticulum, or a blunt knob. The dart-sac or amatorial organ 
is usually large, long, and cylindrical, the dart muscular. The 
spermatiieca is elongate, more or less club-shaped, sometimes v. ith 
a bulbous termination ; its shape is necessarily dependent on 
whether it is empty or containing one or more spermatophoi-es.] 

The coiled csecum is replaced in if. pedina &c. by a simple 
diverticuliun, to the end of which the retractor muscle is attached 
as iu Ariophanta. [This is a doubtful species of the genus.] 

Odontophore : teeth of similar type to those oi Ariophanta : the 
rhacbidian (central) teeth tricuspid ; the admedians broad, 10-30 
in number, about 100 to 160 in the row, bicuspid or partly (the 
inner teeth) tricuspid, the inner cusp disappearing on the outer 
teeth ; outer laterals narrow and usually with two cusps through- 
out, either both terminal or one on the outside occasionally lower 
down, rin some species the end of each lateral tooth is merely 
notched ; in a few it is aculeate.] 

There has been considerable discussion as to the generic term 
Macrocldamys. It was first published by Benson in 1832. and 
also a specific name 31. indica, but no description was given, and 
in 1834 it was replaced by Tanycldamys, also undescribed, said to 
be the same as Gray's Nanina. In 1847 Gray adopted Macro- 
cJdami/s, Benson, as a subgenus of Stenopus, Ariophanta and 
Nanina being other subgenera, and he named Heli.v vitrinoides as 
the type species of Macrochlamys. The shell probably, and the 
mollusc certainly, called Heli.v vitrinoides by Gray was an Indian 
species, and, as nearly as can be determined, 31. petrosa or 31. per- 
plana. According to the rules of nomenclature generally adopted, 
the term must he accepted as dating from Gray's quotation of it 
in 1847. The Orohia of Albers is identical, being also founded on 
the supposed H. vitrinoides from India [which at that time included 
many different species in Bengal and even pedina of Bombay]. 



MACKOCllLAMYS. 7i) 

Macroclilamys comprises many of the commonest Indian snails, 
and species abound in the damper parts ol' the country. The 
described forms are very numerous, and a great number are un- 
described, but the diii'erences in the shells are so small that in 
many cases the species cannot be readily distinguished by descrip- 
tions or even by figures. Several ot tliose already described and 
named will very probably never be identified again. [The species 
are far better, even easily, distinguishable tlie one from the other 
by the animal, its external characters and internal anatomv. 
Owing to their many enemies and changes from excessive moisture 
to great dryness, it is diflicult to find shells of mature size; on the 
other hand, the immature are abundant, ;nid thus new species 
have in so many cases been created on Ihem ; but sooner or later 
the adult forms turn up.] 

Because of the dilTiculty of recognizing the different forms, the 
species are here arranged according to locality. The microscopic 
sculpture, to which attention has been particularly directed bv 
Lt.-Col. Godwin- Austen, often affords a nieaus of identification. 

[In the Journ. Asiat. iSoc. Bengal, vol. iii, p. S3 (Feb. 18;)2), 
Capt. Thos. Hutton describes the Mirzapur shell and gives a good 
description of the animal, which is recorded from low hills near 
Mirzapur, as //. petrosa, mihi : he mentions the '' two narrow , 
flat, gradually pointed filaments or tentacula, which, when the 
animal is in motion, arc kept constantly playing o\er the surface of 
the shell." To Hutton, therefore, and not to Dr. Gray, belongs 
the credit among English naturalists of having first described the 
animal of this genus and noted the great difference between the 
European and Asiatic forms of Helix as then constituted.] 



A. Species from Himalayas west of Nepal. 
a. Subf/lohose or sahyluhoscJii dej^ressed, not labiate. 

IK). Macrochlamys vesicula. Bs. {Hutton MS.) (Nanina) J. A. S.L'. 
vii, 18.3S. |). iMC. ; ;- id. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (i>) ix, 1852, p. 40() ; 
Hutton (Naniua), J. A. S. B. vi, 1837, p. 931 ; Pfr. Helix 
(Nanina) Mon. Hel. i, 1837, p. 48; id. t. c. iii, 18o3, p. 47: 
H. S)- T. (Ilehx) C. I. 1876, ])1. 63, figs. 0,0; Kovill, Nauina 
(Macroclilamys), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 25. 

Shell perforate, subglobosely depressed, thin, smooth, trans- 
lucent, vitreous, pale, almost whitish horny ; spire low, apex 
acuminate, suture impressed ; whorls G, con\ ex above, the last 
larger, well-rounded at the periphery and tumid beneath ; aper- 
ture very slightly oblique, roundly lunate, about as high as 
broad; peristome very thin, in one plane, columellar margin unich 
curved, vertical above and triangularly reflected at the perforation. 

[Hutton and Benson's original description should be referred to. 
The shell to which this description applies, drawn up by Dr. Blan- 
foi'd, cannot now be picked out from among those under the name 



80 zoMiTiD.i:. 

vesicida in his colieclion. It may have been made from the shells 
named vesicula at Cambridge, or in the Natural History Museum.] 

Major diam. 14, min. 12^, height 7 mm. 

Hab. Near Simla and Mussooree up to about 10,000 feet 
(Huti07i) • I have also specimens from Murree. According to 
Benson, various shells from the plains of India (Eiijmahal &c.) 
belong to this form, and it was upon these specimens that his 
description of 1852 was founded; but the typical form described 
in 1838 was Himalayan and apparently fi'om Simla. Hutton 
also referred to Helix vesicula shells found by him between Mhow 
and Neemuch. These forms from the lowlands of Northern India 
require recomparison ^ith the Himalayan type. The JWinina 
(Maerochlami/s) vesicula of Nevill's Hand-list, i, p. 25, from Eaj- 
mahal and Pareshnath, is probably, as suggested, 31. lecythis. 

M. vesicula is distinguished from M. suhjecta (p. 98) by its lower 
spire, smaller last whorl, and less broad aperture, and generally 
by higher lustre and paler colour. 

[It is possible vesicula of 1838 was M. glauca : only the collection 
of a good series of shells of this type from the Simla and Mussoorie 
Hills at different elevations can settle this point *.] 

117. Macrochlaniys glauca, Bs. MS.; Pfr. (Helix) Symb. ill, 1846, 
p. 6o; id. (Hehx-Nanina) Moit. He'l. i, 1837, p. 48; H. Sf T. 
(Helix) C. I. 1870, pi. 63, fig. 10 ; Nevill (Nauina), Hand-Li, 
1878, p. 25. 

Shell obtectly perforate or subperforate, conoidly subglobose, 
smooth, polished, whitish horny ; spire low conoid, suture im- 
pressed ; Avhorls 5^, convex, the last broader, rounded externally 
and beneath ; aperture subvertical, roundly lunate, broader than 
high ; peristome thin, in one plane, columellar margin vertical 
above and expanded, almost closing the perforation. 

Major diam. 11|, min. 10, height 7 mm. 

Bah. A¥estern Himalayas ; Almorah, Naini Tal ; Mussooree, 
Kotgarh near Simla. 

A smaller shell than M. vesicula, with a larger mouth and the 
perforatioiT nearly closed. 

[Specimen from Bliim Tal (N. Annandale). — Shell : major diam. 
8 mm. Animal : very pale-coloured in spirit, ^ith some fine 
mottling near the extremity of the foot. A small tongue-shaped 
I'ight shell-lobe and very small left shell-lobe. The penis, which 
is only 1*54 mm. in length, shows the coiled caecum very distinctly. 
The radula is as usual ; the laterals evenly bicuspid, tlie last 3 or 4 
on the margin witli a pectinate edge. 

Formula : 35 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 35. 

The species has similar habits to those of Limcuv. 

Mr. Annandale, of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, writing to me 
from Bhim Tal, describes seeing one hanging by a thread of slime, 
about 15 feet long, proceeding from the posterior extremity of the 
foot.] 

* [See remarks at end of genus.] 



MACROCHLAMYS. 81 

118. Macrochlamys niida, Pf,-. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1852, p. 83 ; id. Mart. 
lV CItcniit. >Si/sf. Condi.- Cab. ed. 2, Helix, no. 1102, pi. 161, tigs. IG, 
17; id. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iii, iS-l.-j, p. 48; H. i^- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 187G, pi. -61, tigs. 7, 10 ; Nevill, liand-l. \, 1878, p. 2o. 

Shell scarcely perforate, depressedly subglobose, thin, smooth, 
translucent, pale fulvous horny ; spire conoid, suture impressed : 
whorls 0, convex, the last broad, rounded at the periplierv, inflated 
beneath ; aperture nearly diagonal, roundly lunate, broader than 
high ; peristome thin, margins converging, the right margin 
arcuate above, coluiuellar curved, vertical above and rather broadly 
reflected. 

Major diam. 11, min. 9f, height 7 mm. 

Hal. AWstern Himalayas, Kumaun, Mussooree, Simla (StoUczla, 
teste NeviU). 

The above description is chiefly taken from Pfeifler, as no adult 
shell is available. This form only appears to differ from M.glauca 
in colour and in the oblicjuity of the mouth; if the latter 
character is due to age, as is probable, the two may be varieties 
of one species. 

11!). Macrochlamys kuluensis, BJf. (Nevill, MS.) P. Z. S. 1904, ii, 
p. 442, pi, 2o, tip, .3. . y > J 

Shell openly perforate, subumbilicate, depressedly subglobose, 
thin, translucent, smooth, pale horny^; spire couoidal, suture 
impressed; whorls 5|, convex, the iast much larger, broadly 
rounded at the periphery and tumid beneath ; aperture oblique, 
roundly lunate, about as broad as high ; peristome thin, in one 
plane, columellar margin vertical and triangularly reflected above. 

Major diam. 12, min. 10|, height 7 mm. 

Hah. Kulu. 

This is near M. r/lauca and M. mixla, but distinguished by its 
much more open perforation and rounder mouth. 

B. Species from Eastern Himalayas (Sikhim and Western Bhutan). 

a. Labiate. 

120. Macrochlamys tugurium, Bs. (Helix) A. M. X. H. (2) x, 1852, 
p. 348; Pfr. (Helix) Man. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 636; id. t. c. iv, 
]85!», p. 124; //. .y T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. -ji), fig. lo ; Ker. 
(Xanina) Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 80: Godwiti-Aiisten (Maerocblamvs), 
J. A. S. B. 1882, 2, p. 69, pi. 5, tig. 4 ; id. (Maorochlamvs) Mol. 
Ind. i, 1883, pi. 19, tig. 2 (sliell and aiiinial), pi. 20, tig. 3 (details) ; 
id. t. c. ii, 1907, p. 151, pi. 104, tigs. 1-7. 

Shell perforate, depressedly conoid, sublenticular, thin, fulvous 
horny, dull and closely striated above and more distantly rugate, 
decussated with very fine impressed spiral lines, smoother and 
pohshed beneath ; spire depressedly conoid, suture scarcely im- 
pressed ; whorls 0, flattish, regularly increasing, the last not 
descending, angulate at the periphery, convex beneath; aperture 

G 



S2 ZONIXIDiE. 



oblique, broadly lunate, with rather broad white labiatiou inside ;, 
peristome in one plane, acute, columellar margin curved, slightly 
expanded, briefly reflected above. 




Fig. 40. — Macrocldctiiii/^ fiigurium. 

Maj. diam. 2U, min. 18|, height 12 mm. 

Hah. Sikhim, not rare about Uarjiliug, 4000-7000'. 
[The tirst two or three whorls of the shell show hardly any 
sculpture, thence a very finely decussate surface gradually follows, 
becoming strong towards the aperture ; under a high power the 
cross-striation produces a close series of papillate dots. 

Description of the animal. A specimen from Rissom Peak in the 
Dalino- District, east of the Teesta, which prior to 18G4 formed 
part of the Bhutan State (4600 feet), is as follows : — Ochre 
throughout, the pedal margin very wide, sole of foot divided into 
three equal areas, a very large overhanging lobe at the extremity 
of the foot. There is a large i-ight shell-lobe and a well-developed 
left shell-lobe ; the right neck-lobe is small, the left neck-lobe 
rather narrow^ and succeeded after a short interval by another 
very small lobe close up to the left shell-lobe. The roof of the 
respiratorv cavity is mottled sparsely with black. In a full-grown 
specimen from the same locality the colour was oehraceous, the 
peripodial fringe and sole of the foot with a green tinge. AYhen 
the shell is removed a broad black band is conspicuous near the 
rectum, the membrane of the visceral sac covering the branchial 
cavity is speckled and streaked all over, and one large longitudinal 

streak occurs on about the middle line ; while the integument 
coverin"- the renal organ is black, forming a second, more posterior, 

brownish streak. There is a long pointed lobe over the mucous 

o-land. The right shell-lobe is large and tapering, the left is well 

developed, the dorsal lobes as before described. 

The o-enerative organs were not found at their full state of 

development : the animals were taken in the winter months, still 

there was quite sufficient to show all the important characters. 

In the male organ the retractor muscle is attached to a coiled 

cajcum and there is a moderately long flagellum. The amatorial 

organ is very long, also the spermatheca. 
The jaw has a central projection. 
The teeth of the radula are as is usual in the genus Macro- 

cMamys as regards the centre tooth and admedians, the arrangement 

being as follows : — 

33 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 33 
47 . 1 . 47 

The teeth from the 15th to the ISth inclusive have a cusp on the 



MACEOCHLAMYS. 83 

outer side below the point ; this cusp becomes rapidly very minute, 
and towards the margin the teeth ai*e nearly aculeate, only a very 
minute notch indicating the cusp.] 

liU. Macrochlamys mainwaringi, Godwin- Austen (G. Nevill, MS., 
BensouiaP), J. A. S. B. 1882, p. 09, pi. 5, rig. 3 (auimal) ; Blf. 
Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 182. 
Helix celox, Theohikl (Bs. MS.), J. A. S. B. xxxii, 1863, p. 365 (no 
description). 

Shell perforate, subturbiuately depressed, pale fulvous, thin, 
horny, translucent, dull and not polished above, striated obliquely 
and miniitely decussated with spiral impressed Hnes, which disappear 
on decortiated shells, smoother and polished beneath ; spire de- 
pressedly conical, suture sliglitly impressed; whorls 6-7, regularly 
increasing, the last rounded at the periphery; aperture moderately 
oblique, broad, lunate ; peristome sharp, with a white labiation 
inside, similar labiation, marked by white bands, often found in 
the last whorls, marking the position of peristomes formed during 
growth. 

^lajor diam. 27, min. 23'5, height lo'o mm. 

Hah. 8ikhim : Darjiling, about 7000' ; Kursiong. 

Immature individuals often have a thin portion of the last 
M'horl extending beyond the labiate peristome, which has evidently 
been formed during a period of rest, probably the winter. 

The animal, as shown in Stoliczka's drawing figured by Godwin- 
Austen, is dull brick-red in colour, with a well-marl^ed horn-like 
projection above the mucous pore. No shell-lobes are shown, but 
this may be due to their being small and inconspicuous. At the 
same time the lobes may be wanting, in which case this species 
should probably be referred to Bensonia. 

122. Macrochlamys dalingensis, Godu-in-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 
p. 121, pi. ••'.5, tins. 1-10 (shell and anatomy) ; Blf. Proc. Mai. Soc. 
iv, 1001, p. ISO. 

Very similar to M, mainwaynnrji, but thinner, darker, and with 
the last whorl less tumid beneath the periphery, consequently the 
aperture is not so high ; the sculpture too is rather sti-onger, con- 
sisting of fine, close, almost subcostulati; striae, decussated by fine 
impressed lines ; the striae nodose or papillate under the mici'oscope 
between the intersections. The labiation inside the aperture 
appears to vary and is occasionally wanting. 

Major diam. 24, min. 21, axis 12-5 ? mm. 

Ilab. Damsang, Daling Hills, Bhutan Duars, about 6000' : 
Sikliim, 8ingtam, about oOOO'. 

Animal pale-coloured (in spirits) ; shell-lobes both present, but 
not large. Kadula normal, formula: 45 . 2 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 2 . 45 ; 
marginals almost simple, becoming unevenly bicuspid as they 
approach the admedian teeth. [Tn the generative organs the coiled 
ciccum is well seen, the epiphallus meeting the head of the penis 
close to and on side of it.] 

g2 



84 ZONITIDyE. 

123. Macrochlamys opipara, Goihcin-Austen, MoJ. hid, i, 1883, 
p. 108, pi. 23, fig. 6. 

Shell perforate, subglobosely depressed, less thin than most 
species of the genus, smooth and polished above and below, but 
with minute fine and dose, shallow, longitudinal, impressed lines 
throughout, yellowish chestnut (horny in young specimens) ; spire 
low, conoidal, suture slightly impressed ; whorls 6, convex, the 
last considerably broader, rounded at the periphery, moderately 
tumid beneath; aperture slightly oblique, roundly lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, straight, with a distinct thickening a short distance 
inside the lip, columellar margin curved, obHque, reflected above, 
partly closing the perforation. 

Major diam. 26|, min. 24, height 15 mm. 

A smaller specimen measures i7x 14^ X 12|^. 

Hah. Sikhim: Kursiong, 4000'; Darjihug, 7000'; Tonghu, 
10,000'. 

Apparently not common. The adult form is one of the hand- 
somest shells in the genus. Immature specimens have long been 
known and were regarded by Benson as a variety of ill. Juhrica. 

[124. Macrochlamys damsangensis, Godtvin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 
1907, p. Ub, pi. 105, figs. 2-2/. 

Shell depressedly globose, scarcely perforate, glassy ; sculpture 
indistinct ii-regular longitudinal strise, but quite smooth in places ; 
colour rich sienna-brown, pinkish inside the aperture ; spire 
depressed; suture shallow; whorls 4 (not quite fully grown), 
rather tumid and rapidly increasing ; aperture subvertical, ovate, 
the peristome on outer margin nearly the curve of a true circle. 
Columellar margin weak, subvertical, scarcely reflected. 

Size: maj. diam. 18-5, min. diam. 14-7; alt. axis 6*4, alt. body- 
whorl 6-8 mm. 

Hah. Damsang Peak, Daling District, Bhutan Duars. 
Animal. Has the typical shell-lobes of MacroMamys. The 
specimen dissected was much contracted and hardened by the 
alcohol, so that the mucous gland and lobe above both appear 
small. The sole of the foot is strongly divided into middle and 
lateral areas. The peripodial groove is conspicuous and the 
maro-in broad. The membrane covering the pulmonary cavity is 
of a dark green colour, closely speckled, and above the renal organ 
and heart "is quite black. The specimens were evidently taken in 
the cold season, for the generati\'e organs were found to be ex- 
ceedingly small and contracted and in trying to get thera out were 
broken, yet sufficient was seen to show there was an amatorial 
organ and the general form of the penis. This shows a long kale- 
sac or flagellum and a convolution where the retractor muscle is 
«iven ofl: ; it therefore agrees with the typical form of the caecum 
ui this genus, although its general form must be much altered 
and swollen during the season of reproduction. 



MACKOCnLAMYS. 85 

The jaw has a central projection. 
The radula formula is : 

25 . 1 . IS . 1 . 18 . 1 . 25 = 44 . 1 . 44 

The central tooth is rather narrow, long, tricuspid; the ad- 
median also on narrow plates, Mith one side cusp ; the outer teeth 
are unevenly hicuspid. The breadth of the central portion is far 
greater than that of both the marginal parts. 

This species, as regards its shell, may at a casual glance very 
easily be mistaken for M. ricJnlaensis ; it is, however, a much 
stronger shell and not so globose. The animals are very differently 
coloured, particularly in the distribution of colour; and there is 
great diversity in the generatiAc organs.] 

b. ^ot labiate. 
a'. Snhturhinate. 

125. Macrochlamys hodgsoni, Bs. [Blf. MS., Helix) A. M. iV. H. (3) 

iii, iSo!), p. 2(17 : Pf,-. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 110; H. 8,- T. 
(Helix) C. /. 1876, pi. 31, tigs. 2, 3; Nevill, Nauiua (Micro- 
cystis), Hmicl-l. \, 1878, p. 38; [Godtcm-Ansteu, Mol. Ind. ii, 
1907, p. lo9, pi. 109, figs. 1, 1 « (typical), 2-2 rf]. 

Shell narrowly perforate, depressedly subglobose, thin, smooth, 
dull, very finely and closely decussated under the microscope with 
transverse and flexuous longitudinal striation, pale yellowish 
horny ; spire couoidal, apex obtuse, suture impressed : whorls 5, 
convex, the last rather broader, rounded but very slightly com- 
pressed at the periphery, convex beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, 
rather roundly lunate, broader than high ; peristome thin,columellar 
margin much curved, vertical above, rather broadly triangularly 
reflected. 

Major diam, 7, min. 6, height 44 mm. 

Hah. Sikhim, at low elevations'; Pankabari, 1000'; [hills east 
of Teesta up to 10,0()0'j. 

[From the Kichila Peak I have a large number, some very fine, 
with the same distinguishing sculpture. The largest measures 
8 mm, in major diameter ; and these fresh specimens are all of a 
brown-umber colour, with a slight green tint. I found only very 
young specimens preserved in spirit. Eight and left sheli-lobes 
are present, the last large. Extremity of foot with a long lobe. 
Visceral sac with 4 transverse narrow black streaks. Jaw with 
a central projection ; in the radula the central and admedians 
are narrow and long, one cusp on outer margin ; laterals bicuspid 
and even. Formula: 

50 . 2 , 7 . 1 , 7 , 2 . 50 about 

59 , 1 . 59] 



86 ZO?JITID.^. 

b'. Depressed. 
a'. Sjxiralh/ (Jongitudinalhj) sndptured. 

120. Macro chlamys sequax, Bs. (Helix) A. M. i\. H. (y) iii, 1859, 
p. 1'70; Pfr. (IlelLx) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 118; H. 8f T. 
(Helix) C. 1. 1876, pi. 63, figs. 1, 2, 3; Xei-ill, Haml-l i. 1878, 
p. 23; [Godwin-Austen, Mol. hid. ii, 1907, p. 166, pi. 106, ligs. 1-1 r/ 
(shell, genitalia, and radiila)]. 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, polished, microscopically decus- 
sated, almost papillose]}', with strioe of growth and faint, close, 
waved, longitudinal, impressed lines, yellowisli horny ; spire low^, 
the sides slightly concave, suture impressed ; whorls o, convex, 
rapidly iucreasing, the last broader, rounded at the periphery and 
beneath ; aperture slightly obhque, broadly lunate, much broader 
than liigh ; peristome thin, columellar margin curved, scarcely 
vertical above and briefly reflected. 

Major diam. IS, min. 15, heicrht 4 mm. 

Hah. Darjihng, 4000-7000'." 

The animal has very broad shell-lobes to the mantle, almost 
covering the spire when extended, and the dorsal lobes also are 
very large ; the surface of the mantle is coarsely granular. 

[The material used in the following description was derived 
from several sources : the most reliable as regards this species 
from Dr. W. T. Blanford, collected by him at Darjiling and 
preserved in spirit : also the shells in his collection. When in 
Calcutta in 1877, Mr. G. Nevill placed in my hands a shell 
identitied by him as J/, sequax, which he had just received alive 
from Darjiling, sent by Colonel Mainwaring. I made a careful 
description of the animal at the time in my note-book, which I 
give below ; but unfortunately, to make it complete, I did not 
retain the shell. At the same time I made a drawing, shoA^ing 
the form and position of the right shell-lobe and of the extremity 
of the foot. In Nevill's ' Hand-list,' p. 23, there is a note 
on the animal by Blanford : " A true 3IacrocJdam)/s ; animal 
pale, with back and tentacles black. — W. T. B." Next I had 
from Damsang, east of the Teesta River, some shells very similar 
in general appearance, but smaller than the type shell, Avhich 
I at first took to be sequa.v ; but on closer examination these 
differ in several particulars sufficiently to constitute a new 
species. 

Description of the living animal received from Darjiling : — 

Living animal of sequax ? pale ochraceous throughout, including 
the mantle ; a greenish tint on the neck, pinkish towards extremity 
of foot. Tentacles dark, from the base of w hich run two parallel 
dark lines towards the aperture. From the base of the lower 
tentacle a groove runs diagonally up towards the posterior of the 
neck. Mantle is slightly reflected over the peristome all round 
and to a greater extent on the lower margin, where on the left 
side, at about 0'35 inch or 9 mm. from the umbilicus, a small 



MACROCHLAMYS. 87 

tougue-like process (the left shell-lobe) is given off laterally. 
Close to the upper angle of the aperture a well-developed right 
«hell-lobe is given off horizontally and is often extended for 
"2 inch or 5 mm,, hut never (ihovc the periphery of the shell. 
The posterior part of the foot (in this example) was ornamented 
ivith four diagonal lines, which meet above in an angle ; the 
general surface rugose ; the peripodial margin broad and de- 
tined. The mucous gland overhung by a curved lobe. Length : 
head to shell 0-6 inch, extremity of foot to shell 0-7o : total 
nearly 2 inches. Eye-tentacles long and slender, O'-l inch. 

The following notes were made when dissecting Dr. Blan- 
ford's specimen : — Shell : sculpture smooth, with indistinct fine 
spiral striation. Animal unicolor in spirit ; i)eripodial margin 
broad. The right shell-lobe is a well-developed tongue-like 
process ; the left shell-lobe small. The horn above the mucous 
gland of moderate size, blunt. Generative oi'gans : penis with a 
rather long kale-sac. The retractor muscle is short and thick, 
given off from quite a large coiled caecum. The spermatheca is 
very long. The araatorial organ also very long. The radula was 
extracted nearly complete : formula : 

33 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 33 
47 . 1 . 47 

The admedian teeth have a single cusp on the outer side, the 
marginals are unevenly bicuspid, and those on the outside become 
very minute. 

The jaw has a small central projection.] 

[127. Macrochlamys sequins, Godwin- Audcn, MoJ. Ind. ii, 1907, 
p. lUS, pi. 100, fi;rs. ■2--2>j. 

Shell differs in its characters from that of J/, seqnax ; it_ is 
slightly more solid, globose, with more rounded apex, the major 
axis of the aperiure directed obliquely downward, instead of hori- 
zontally as in 21. sequax. The sculpture of these Damsang shells 
is rather coarse, somewhat wavy, longitudinal striation. Colour 
pale umber-brown. The shell of the specimen dissected had 
4 whorls and was 11 mm. in major diameter, and therefore not 
fully grown. 

The largest specimen measures : major diam. 12-25, alt. axis 
5' 75 mm. 

Locality. Damsang, Daling Hills, W. Bhutan. 

Animal in spirits witli pale foot, black head and tentacles, and 
a slightly darker tint near the extremity of the foot. The right 
shell-lobe is rather short and broad; the left shell-lobe small; 
the left dorsal lobe is in t\\ o ]>arts, one on each side of the left 
«hell-lobe. 

In the generative organs there is not much difference to be 
found when they are compared with those of M. sequax. The 
kale-sac was well developed and shows a spermatophore within it. 



CO ZONITIDiE. 

The teeth of the rackila are of the same form, the formula differing 
shghtly : + . 20 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 20 +. 

The jaw has a nearly straight edge with a slight central 
projection, and differs from sequax from Darjiling.] 

[Macrochlamys sequius, Gochvin-Austm (very vouua), Mol. Ind. ii, 
1907, p. 168, pi. 109, fig. 7. 

Shell depressedly conoid, umbilicated, glassy, rather solid ; 
sculpture fine, but distinct and regular longitudinal strife ; colour 
pale sienna-brown ; spire flatly conoid ; suture shallow ; whorls 
nearly 4, the last well rounded ; aperture ovately lunate, sub- 
vertical ; peristome slightly thickened, columellar margin very 
slightly reflected. 

Size : major diam. 5*0, alt. axis 1-9 mm. 

Localit)/. Darjiliug (ex Coll. Calcutta Museum).] 

128. Macrochlamys superflna, mf. P. Z. S. 1904, ii, p. 442, pi. 25, 
fig. 7 : IGodwhi-Ansten, Mol'. Ind. ii, 1907, p. 162, pi. 109, fig. 6 
(a very young gliell)]. 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, polished, microscopically marked 
with faint, subdistant, longitudinal (spii-al), impressed lines above 
and often below, the spaces between the lines papillate, pale 
yellowish to brownish horny ; spii*e low, suture well impi'essed ; 




Fig. 41. — Macrochlamys sivperfina. 

whorls 6, rather rapidly increasing, the last broader, rounded at 
the periphery and convex beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, sub- 
ovately lunate, broader than high : peristome thin, basal margin 
almost straight when viewed from below, columellar vertical 
above, then obliquely curved, rather broadly reflected at the 
perforation. 

Major diam. 20, min. 17|, height 10 mm. 

Hah. Sikhim. Common in the Upper Teesta Valley about Sing- 
tarn (4000-5000'). 

This somewhat resembles M. sequa,v, but is distinguished by 
larger size and different sculpture. It is also very much like im- 
mature shells of j\I. hd>riea, but may be known by the presence of 
longitudinal sculpture, more numerous whorls, colour, &c. 

[129. Macrochlamys rakaensis, Godivin-Atisten, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, 
p. 104, pi. 110, tigs. 2-2 6. 

Shell subdepressedly globose, very narro\\"ly perforate ; sculpture 



MACROCnLAMYS. 89- 

well marked, fine, regular, longitudiual striatiou, showing even on 
the lower side ; it is a far stronger striation than is seen in 
M. sailiilaensis ; colour pale ashy brown ; spire flatly conoid ; 
suture impressed. Whorls 5, not fully grown ; aperture widely 
lunate, subvert ical ; peristome very tliin ; columellar margin sub- 
vertical, with slight reflection. 

Size: maj. diam. 9-0, alt. axis "Ah mm. 

The coil of tlie spire differs from that of M. sathilaensis. 

Locality, liichila Peak, iihutan frontier. 

Animal. Pale-coloured throughout, with black head and the 
extremity of the foot tinged very slightly darker towards the tip 
of the overhanging lobe. Jjoth the sliell-lobes are very long, 
particularly the right, longer than in any spirit-specimen I have 
ever handled. The right dorsal lobe is small, the left in two 
parts. The lobe over the mucous gland is not very pointed. The 
visceral sac is umber-brown, sparsely mottled in front v\'ith black, 
and a long black streak next the renal organ. 

Generative organs. The coiled caecum is exactly like tliat of the 
typical species. The kale-sac is long. The spermatheca long. 
The radula is like that of allied species in every way (only the 
central tooth and admedians seen) : -f- . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . -f ] 

b'. Smooth. 

130. Macrochlamys lubrica, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. {-2) x, 1852, 
p. 349; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 629; id. i.e. iv, 
1868, p. 44 ; H. S,- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 51, figs. 8, 9 ; 
Goihvin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 118, pi. 24, fig. 7. 

Shell perforate, depressed, smooth, polished, obsoletely striated, 
moderately thin, yellowish to brownish tawny ; spire very low, 
sometimes almost Hat, suture slightly impressed ; whorls 5, convex 
above, the last rather broad, rounded at the periphery, moderately 
convex beneath ; aperture broadly lunate, almost vertical ; peri- 
stome acute, straight, basal portion sometimes slightly thickens and 
white inside, columellar margin curved, slightly reflected above. 

Major diam. 26, min. 21, lieight 12 mm. 

Ha1>. Sikhim, 4000-7000'. Not rare about Darjiling. 

This shell may be known by its smoothness, its few whorls, and 
its broad last whorl. The animal has not been described. 



a^. Conoidly depressed, rugose, transverse (hut no longitudinal) 
sculpture. 

181. Macrochlamys patane, lis. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, 
p. 270: I'fr. (HeUx) Man. ILL r, 1868, p. 113; H. :<,• T. 
(Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 1.30, figs. 5, 6, 7 : Godwin- Austen, Mol. 
Ind. i, 1888, p. 211, pi. 53, fig. 5 (shell). 

Shell perforate, conoidly depressed, thin, pale horny or ochreous 
horny, translucent, dull and rugosely striated across the whorls 



i)0 ZONlTID.i:. 

above, smooth and polished beneath, without longitudinal (spiral) 
sculpture ; spire conoidal, apex blunt, suture impressed ; whorl 6, 
convex, rather closely wound, the last rounded at the peripherj% 
convex beneath ; aperture oblique, rather roundly lunate, broader 
than high ; peristome thin, columellar margin oblique, rather 
broadly reflected at the perforation. 

Major diam. 10, min. 9, height 6 mm. 

Hcdi. Darjiling. 

Distinguished by its shape, rather narrow whorls, and rugose 
striation. 

[132. Macrochlamys ? perfragilis. (iodirln-Austen [Xedll, MS.), 
Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. ItJl, pi. 109, tig. 5. 
Nauina (Microcystis), n. sp. o (Sikliim; coll. Dr. F. Stoliczka), 
JS'eviirs Hand-list, no. 107, p. 39. 

Shell globose, scarcely perforate, thin membranaceous character; 
sculpture very minute, tine regular longitudinal striae ; colour 
sapphire-green ; spire low, apex rounded and blunt ; suture very 
shallow; whorls M, rounded on side, tiat above; aperture broadly 
lunate, vertical ; peristome very thin, columellar margin scarcely 
thickened, subvertical. 

Size : maj. diam. 7'0, min. 6-0, alt. axis 3-8 mm. 

Locality. Sikhim. 

This shell was sent as 167 a, as the type of perfragilis. There 
should be four specimens left in the Calcutta Museum.] 

e. With a free ccecuni to male organ. 

[133. Macrochlamys richilaensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 
]907, p. lo4, pi. lUo, iigs. 1-] _y. 

Shell subdepressedly globose, very narrowly perforate, glassy 
surface, very transparent; sculpture none, transversely crossed 
by regular shallow close furrows ; colour greenish ochre ; spire 
depressed ; suture shallow ; whorls 4, rather rapidly increasing, 
shoA^ing at intervals 3 varices of progressional growth ; aperture 
subvertical, widely lunate ; columellar margin subvertical, not 
thickened and scarcely reflected. The apertui-e was covered with 
a thick membranaceous epiphragm. 

Localitij. liichila Pass, Bhutan frontier (10,370 ft.). 

Size : maj. diam. 18'75, min. 14-75, alt. axis 8'5 mm. 

The animal is dark green near the extremity of the foot. The 
margin as m ell as the sole of the foot is pale ochre in the spirit, 
probably ruddy ochre in life, quite a contrast to the upper part. 
Sole of foot divided. As regards the general form, mucous gland, 
and neck-lobes it is very like M. dalingensis. The apical whorls 
of the visceral sac are blade, s])arsely speckled m ith ochre : where 
the membrane covering the lieax't and kidney commences this 
colouring is reversed ; the ground is pale, openly speckled over 
A\ith ovate black markings and dots, with an undefined baud of 



MACROCHLAMYS. 



91 



same colour near the mantle-zone. A loop oi: the intestine is 
defined in black. 

The jaw has no central projection. 

The radula is nearly the same as in Balingla hhutanensis, only 
that the marginal teeth are much more evenly bicuspid. 



24 



2 . 18 
44 



18 . 2 . 24 
44 




(Fig. 42. — MacrochlaimiK rwhilacnsis. 

A. Animallfroii) spiiMt-?pecimen, shell removed, showing the right shell-lobe, 

&c. X -1. 

B. Generative organs. X 3"4. 

C. Jaw, X 1-, and teeth of radula at different parts of the row, X 27G. 

Macrochlamys cciaoends. 

D. Animal from a spirit-specimen, seen from the right side, shell removed. 

X ;3-4. 

E. Genitalia, incomplete, amatoi-ial organ detached. X '•). 

F. Jaw. X l'V5.] 



92 ZO^'ITID.li. 

The generative organs pi'esent very remarkable variation from 
tj'pical Macrochlamys, partic-ularly in the form of the penis. The 
kale-sac is very long, quite a flagellum, and close to where the retractor 
muscle is given off there is a long free ccecum loosely coiled ; tM» 
undoubtedly represents the closely-ivound ccecuvi in the type species, 
to the side of which the retractor muscle is usually attached. In this 
species the ccecum is quite free, the retractor muscle rising at the base 
of the ccecum itself. The spermatheca is also very long and 
abnormal in form, consisting of a capacious thiu-walled sac at the 
extremity of a thick muscular stalk-like tube, equal in length to 
the sac it terminates in. The amatorial organ is thick and large, 
with a very strong lengthened retractor muscle. 

Here comparison must be made with the generative organs of 
M. sathilaensis and M. zamoensis. In both species the penis 
presents a similar departure from that of typical M. indica ; in 
both the jj»e»js eo'cum is free and loosely coiled, merely kept to- 
gether by a few muscular fibres, whereas in M. indica this caecum 
is closely coiled into a mass impossible to unroll, and this is the 
dominant type over an extensive area of country.] 

[13J:. Macrochlamys sathilaensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. hid. \\, 
1907, p. 1G9, pi. 106, figs. 4-4 c (shell aud anatomy). 

Shell globosely conoid, translucent, delicate structure, nar- 
I'owly umbilicated ; sculpture confined to some very delicate 
tine longitudinal striation near the sutux-e, which dies out, aud the 
rest is perfectly smooth, crossed transversely by ^^■avy furrows ; 
colour pale ochraceous ; spire moderately high, conoid ; suture 
moderately deep; whorls 6, gradually increasing; aperture widely 
lunate, oblique ; peristome very seldom quite perfect. 

Size : maj. diam. 13-5, min. 12*0, alt. axis 6-5 mm. 

Locality. Hichila Peak, Bhutan frontier. 

This shell, which has very much the coloration of M. sequa.v, 
differs altogether in form. It belongs to a group veiy similar one 
to the other, very common, and very variable A\ith locality. 

Animal. Colour throughout pale ; no markings, only a slight 
grey tinge near the head. The withdra\\n tentacles are very 
black, and in life probably show as dark lines on the neck ; pallial 
margin finely streaked. The shell-lobes and extremity of foot as 
in J7. sequius from Damsang ; and the radula is of the same type 
exactly : 

+ 31 . 2 . 11 . 1 . 11 . 2 . 31 -f- 
+ 44 . 1 . 44 -^ 

The smaller teeth near the margin would add another 10 or 15 to 
the above, or about 90 in the row. 

The jaw is well arched, with a large central projection. 

The visceral sac is closelv mottled, and sho\\s dark inside the 
shell. 



MACROCULAMYS. 93 

The penis is quite difFei'ent from that of sequax ; tJie co-cum, 
instead of heing closely coiled, is free, similar in size and length 
to the Iculc-sac; the epiphallus is very short, and just below 
the retractor muscle there is a globose enlargement of the 
penis-tube. The amatorial organ is long. In the free ccecum 
the male organ may be compared to the similar character found in 
M. richilaensis. 

This species was also obtained in the Risetchu Valley, and is 
represented by eight specimens, some of which are rather flatter 
in the spire than the type. Three specimens are from Rissom 
Peak.] 



[135. Macrochlamys zemoensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. i«£?. ii,p. 1G4, 
iUU7, pi. lUU, tigs. 1- 1(J (shell, animal, and anatomy). 

Shell globosely conoid, glassy, fragile, narrowly umbilicated ; 
sculpture quite smooth ; whorls transversely crossed by wavy 
furrows of growth, here and there traces of longitudinal striae 
under higli power ; colour ochraceous with an olive tint, some 
more sieuna-brown than others ; spire rather depressed, apex 
rounded ; suture moderately impressed. Whorls 5, regularly in- 
creasing; aperture broadly lunate ; peristome very thin ; columellar 
margin weak, scarcely reflected. 

yize : maj. diam. 10*0, min. 90 ; alt. axis 4*5 mm. 

Locality. Zemo Samdong, Sikhim, valley of the Lachen, about 
12,000 feet. In the pine-forests. 

Animal with a dark-coloured broad margin to the foot, pale on 
the keel of same, the pallial fringe broad ; the lobe over the 
mucous gland long and pointed; sole of foot well divided. The 
right shell-lobe is large, rather broad at base. There is a small 
narrow left shell-lobe and the left dorsal lobe is in two separate 
parts. The visceral sac is sparsely spotted near the suture, with 
a black band bordering the mantle-zone, and a long black band 
runs parallel to the renal organ. The salivary glands are in one 
compact mass. 

Genitalia. Tlie penis-muscle is attached to a coiled free ccecum, as 
I have noticed in M. richilaensis ; there is a short flagellum where 
the vas deferens joins. The amatorial organ is moderately loug 
and straight. 

The jaw has a central projection. 

The radula formula is 

;3.3 . 1 . . 1 . !) . 1 . lio to -10 
4.") . 1 . 4.J 

The centre tooth is tricuspid ; the admedian teeth have a very small 
inner cusp high up on inside and a larger one lower down on the 
outside ; the marginal teeth are bicuspid, the outer cusp below the 
main one.] 



94 zoNiTiDvi:. 



d. Shells not eccceedimj 6 mvi. 

b". Longitudinalhj striated or sculptured. 

136. Macrochlamys rorida, £s. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859^ 
p. 266 ; Ffr. (Helix) Man. Hel. v, 1868, p. Ill ; Nevill, Naniua 
(Microcystis), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 38 ; \Godun7i- Austen, Mol. Ind. 
n, 1907, p. 160, pi. 109, figs. 3, 3«, 3"J (shell, foot, and mantle- 
zone).] 

Shell subperf orate, globosely depressed, very thin, smooth, 
polished, with traces of lougitudinal striatioii under the micro- 
scope, not always to be detected, but best seen on the penultimate 
whorl above and around the perforation beneath, tawny horn- 
coloured ; spire lo^^', conoidal, suture impressed ; whorls 4.j, 
convex, the last considerably broader, rounded at the periphery, 
convex beneath ; aperture large, oblique, roundly lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, the right margin slightly arcuate above, columellar 
much curved, vertical in the middle, curving to\\ards the right 
margin above, and briefly but rather broadly reflected, so as almost 
to close the perforation. 

Major diam. 5, miu. 4|, height 3| mm. 

Hal>. Darjiling, and Senchal Mountain near Darjiling, 7000- 
8000'. 

The animal was found creeping on shrubs ; it has long mantle- 
lobes and a large lobe above the caudal gland, colour pale. The 
shell may be recognized by its subglobose form. 

[Erom specimen preserved by Dr. W. T. Elanford : — Animal 
dai'k-coloured above : sole of foot and the outer peripodial margin 
pale ill contrast ; between the peripodial grooves dark-coloured, 
as well as the segmental divisions above. Horn above mucous 
pore w ell developed. The left shell-lobe and right shell-lobe both 
long and tongue-like; the left dorsal lobe rather small and 
narrow. 

A fine specimen from Eissom Peak, W. Bhutan, measures in 
major diameter 8 mm. and is dark green in colour.] 

b^. Smooth. 

137. Macrochlamys? darjilingensis, Nevill, MS.; Godioin- Austen, 
Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 88, pi. 17, fig. 11. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, solid, smooth, polished, glassy, 
transversely striated, without longitudinal sculpture, translucent, 
whitish ; spire convex, suture very shallow ; whorls 5, convex 
above, the last rounded at periphery, moderately convex beneath ; 
aperture subvertical, lunate ; peristome obtuse, basal margin arcuate, 
columellar shghtly oblique, much curved, reflected throughout. 

Major diam. 1-5, min. 1'3, height 0-8 mm. 

Hah. Darjiling. 



MACEOCHLAMTS. 



9r> 



C. Species from the Gangetic Valley and Delta. 
a. Depressed or conoidlij depressed. 

138. Macrochlamys indica, Godwin- Auste^i. 

? Ileli.v vitrinoides, Pfr. Mon. Hel. i, 1847, p. 56 ; id t. c. vii, 1870,, 

p. 108, pt. ; id. in Mart. S: Clwmn. Syst. Couch.-Cah. ed. 2, 18.")0, 

pi. 110, tigs. 13, 14, 15 ; Kevin, Nanina (Macrochlamys), Ha.nd-I. 

i, 1878, p. 20 : nee Desh. 
Macrochlamys iudica, Stol. J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 246 (no description) :. 

Godwi7i-Austen, Mol Lid. i, 188.3, pp. 7(), 97, pi. 18, figs. 1-8 

(shell and anatomy), pi. 21, fig. 7 (sculpture), pi. 25, figs. 9, 16 

(mantle-lobes") (1883) : nee Benson. 
Nanina (Macrochlamys) pseudovitrinoides, Xevill,J. A. S.B. 1881, 

p. 132 (no description). 

Shell perforate, depressed, smooth, polished throughout, trans- 
lucent, pale brownish tawny, not distinctly striated, but with 








[Fig. 4.3. — Macro(hla,»),s indica. X 3. 

A. Right side of animal from a spirit-specimen, shell removed. 

B. Edge of mantle, front view, showing shell-lobes and dorsal lobes. 

C. Ditto, viewed from below. 

D. Genitaha. X 3. 

E. Jaw and teeth of the radula. x270.] 

microscopic longitudinal impressed lines, slightly ilexuous and 
not close together ; spire low, conoid, suture slightly impressed ; 



96 zoxiTiD.!:. 

whorls 5g, slightly eomex above, the last uot descending, rounded 
at the periphery, moderately convex beneath ; aperture slightly 
oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome thin in one plane, the colurael- 
lar margin curved, oblique, never quite vertical, carried forward 
and briefly reflected above. 

Major diam. 18|, min. 16, height 8| mm. 

Hah. Lower Bengal, common at Calcutta. This species is also 
said to be found in Nylhet to the eastward and in Orissa to the 
south ; other reported localities ai*e more doubtful. I have seen 
shells closely resembling M. indicn from Karnul and from Ceylon, 
but the sculpture is finer and indistinct. 

Animal purphsh grey not black, elongate ; " the right shell-lobe 
small, the left is narrowly reflected over the edge of the peristome, 
and at the basal side gives off a short tongue-like process " ; right 
dorsal lobe narrow and elongate, the left in two distinct portions. 
In the genitalia a moderately long cylindrical blunt kale-sac is 
given off at the junction of the vas deferens, and the c?ecum of the 
penis, to which the retractor muscle is attached, is sharply coiled. 
The dart-sac is long, the spermatheca short and elongately pear- 
shaped. The radula contains about 88 rows of teeth, with the 
arrangement : 34 . 2 . 9 . 1 . 9 . 2 . 34 (45 . 1 . 45). 

This species and M. pctrosa Avere for a long time identified with 
Helix viirinoides, Desh. (Mag. Zool. 1831, p. 26), a shell of un- 
known origin and described as imperforate. The original figure 
given of H. vitnnoides has no great resemblance to eitlier of the 
Indian species, but Benson's undescribed Macroclilamys indicn, 
identified with the present form by some writers, appears to have 
been the same as Hutton' s Nanina j)etrosa, though, as it was said to 
occur from Calcutta to Cawnpore, it may have comprised the 
present species also. Nevill's N. pseudovitrinoides was not 
described and was only identified as "the common snail" through- 
out the Gangetic Delta and distinct from JV. petrosa. As more 
than one Macrocldamys is common in the Gangetic Delta, it is 
uncertain to which Nevill's name belongs. The first complete 
description of the present species is that by Col. Godwin-Austen, 
and his name M. indica is accepted, although the shell is not the 
same as Benson's J/, indica, \^hich was never described. No 
confusion with Euplccia indica, Pfr. (p. 60), is possible, as that 
belongs to a distinct genus. 

a'. Longitudinal fexuous imjrreb'sed sculpture. 

139. Macrochlamys petrosa, Hutton (Helix?), J. A. S. B. iii, 1834, 
p. 83 ; Pfi: (Helix) Mon. Hel. i, 1847, p. oG ; Bs. (Helix) 
A. M. K. H. (-2) ii, 1848, p. 163 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, 
pi. 88, figs. 7, 1(), pp. viii, 37 ; Nevill, Nanina (Mficrochlam3's), 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. '2\ ; Godiinn-Ai(sten, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, pp. 96, 
99, pi. 19, figs. 1, 1 « (animal), pi. 21. fio-. o (sculpture), pi. 22, 
tig. 1 (shell). 
Helix (Macrochlamys) indicus, Bs. J. A. S'. B, i, 1832, p. 76; a 
mere name, without description. 



MACIiOCnLAMYS. 97 

Nauina vitrinoides, Bs. J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 350; Pfr. (Ilelix) 
Mo7i. H(L iii, l«o3, p. (j2, pt. ; id. t. c. \u, 1876, p. 108, pt. : nee 
Des/iai/e?. 

Shell very similar to that of M. indica, but broader in propor- 
tion to the height, the spire lower, and the lower surface more 
excavated around the perforation, which is larger. The mouth 
is decidedly broader in proportion to its height ; as a rule, too, 
the size is larger and the surface is more polished. Longitudinal 
sculpture faint and often obsolete ; when visible it resembles that 
of il/. indica. 

Major diam. 21, min. 18, height 9 mm. 

Hah. The country south of t'lie Gangetic plain froui Eajmahal 
to Bundelkhaud, especially on hills at Eajmahal, Patharghatta 
near Mirzapur, &c. ^ 

The animal is dark brow n or blackish ; both shell-lobes long 
and pointed ; the lobe above the mucous gland very taperino- and 
pointed. " ° 

h . Veyij fine microscopic strice. 

140. Macrochlamys hardwickii, Godwin- Austen, MoL Ind. i, 1883 

pp. 105-107, pi. 21, fig. 10 (sculpture), pi. 23, tigs. 1-4 (shells); 

pi. 28, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b (anatomy). ' ^ 

Macrochlamys hardwickii, var.* politulus, Godwin- Austen, I. c. 

p. 107. 
Macrochlamys syllietensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 94, 

pi. 21, fig. (sculpture only, no description). 
[ Fide fig. 51 13, p. 133. Genitalia and teeth of the radula.] 

Shell perforate, conoidly depressed to depressed, thin, tawny,, 
with a rather dull, greasy lustre above, more polished beneath' 
very minutely and closely striated longitudinally, the striae only 
visible under a microscope ; spire lo\\-, conoidal, suture slightly 
impressed ; whorls 0, convex, the last broader, rounded at peri- 
phery, convex beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, roundly lunate ; 
peristome thin, in one plane, columellar margin curved, vertical 
above, and rather broadly reflected at the perforation. 
Major diam. IG, min. 14, height 9 mm. 

Hc(b. Lower Bengal, Sylhet, and AVestern Assam. Typical 
specimens were obtained in Calcutta. Shells from Upper Assam 
are, as a rule, rather larger and flatter and are more vitreous. 
These form the xav. jwlitida. 

The shell of M. indica is not easily distinguished except by its 
coarser and much less close longitudinal sculpture ; generallv it is 
rather larger and flatter. 

The animal differs from that of 31. indica in several particulars. 
The body and tentacles are pale grey, the mantle pale ochraceous. 
The shell-lobes are smaller. The spermatheca and kale-sac are 
both considerably longer and the form of the penis is different. 
The radula contains about 109 rows of teeth, arrano-ed thus • 
50 . 1 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 1 . 50 (63 . 1 . 63). ° 



98 ZONITIMi. 



b. Smooth. 



141. Macrochlamys subjecta, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) ix, 1852, 
p. 407 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 48 : JI. S,- T. (Helix) 
a I. 1876, pi. 64, figs. 1, 2, 3 ; Nevill, H(md-l. i, 1878, p. 25. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, conoidly depressed (subglobose), very 
thin, smooth, with a rather oily lustre above, more vitreous 
beneath, pale yellowish amber to yellowish tawny in colour ; spire 
low conoidal, apex rather acute, suture impressed ; whorls ()-'5|, 
convex above, the last considerably broader, well rounded exter- 
nally and beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, roundly lunate, 
broider than high ; peristome veiy thin, in one plane, columellar 
margin much curved, becoming vertical near the perforation and 
triangularly expanded, but very little reflected. 

Major diam. 16, min. 13, height 9 mm. 

Hah. Eajmahal Hills; Orissa ; Cuttack (Theohald, W. T. B.) - 
Oanjam. 

This species may be distinguished from its allies by its broader 
last whorl and larger and broader mouth. 

[Animal from spirit-specimen (Eajmahal) pale in colour, with 
slight coloration near the extremity of the foot, which has a 
hooked overhanging termination. The right shell-lobe is mode- 
rately long, tongue-shaped, and attenuate, the left is very small : 
the left dorsal in two parts, overlapping. The generative organs 
were not in the active stage and were very small. A coiled 
cajcum is present in the penis, and the amatorial organ was 
observed. Teeth of radula of usual form, laterals evenly bicuspid. 
Eormula : 48 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 48, or 60 . 1 . 60. 

Jaw arched, with a central projection.] 

142. Macrochlamys lecythis, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) ix, 1852, 
p. 406 : Pfr. (Helix) Man. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 47 ; H. S)- T. (Helix) 
a I. 1876, pi. 63, tigs. 8, 9. 
Macrochlamvs lecytbis.P, God mn- Austen. Mol. I?2d. i, 1883, pi. 19, 
fig. 5 (animal); ii, 189p, p. 134, pi. 94, figs. 2, 2a, 4 (spermato- 
pliore) [is another species]. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, conoidly depressed (depressedly 
subglobose), thin, polished, smooth, ochraceous horny, sometimes 
olivaceous ; spire conoid, slightly raised, suture deep ; whorls 5-6, 
convex, the last much broader, rounded at the periphery, moderately 
swollen beneath ; aperture oblique, elliptically lunate, decidedlv 
broader than high ; peristome thin, straight, columellar margin 
oblique, triangularly reflected above. 

" Major diam. 14, min. 13, height Sk mm." (Bs.). An immature 
shell measures 11^ x 10 x 6| mm. 

Hah. Eajmahal Hills (5rtcou) ; Parasnath ? 

The typical form appears to pass into one with a rounder mouth 
and vertical columellar margin, Benson's 31. vesicula from Bengal. 
The shells from Assam and the Assam Hills are much stouter 
than those from Western Bengal and may be a different species. 



MACROCHLAMYS. 99 

M. leci/fJtisis known from ,17. snhjecta and 21. vesicida, Benson, 1852, 
by having the aperture distinctly wider than high. [I consider 
vesicula, Es., 1852, = leci/iJiis. This and snhjecta are species so 
extremely close to one another that I doubt their distinctness. 
They cannot be matched with shells of this type from Assam and 
neighbouring hill-ranges.] 

143, Macrochlaniys perplana, Nevill, MS. ; Ood/c in- Austen, Mol. 

Ind. i, 1883, p. 94 (uo description), pi. 19, lig. 4 (animal from 

typical locality, I'arasnath ; copied from Stoliczka's drawings). 
Macrochlamys jaiuiana, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, ]883, jjp. Ill, 

]\2, pi. 26, figs, 7, 8 (shells), pi. 28, figs, 2-2 e (anatomy) ; 

ii, November 1899, p. l-'>4 (spermatophore). 
? Nanina vitrinoides, Strickland, P. Z. S. 1848, p. 142, Moll. pi. 2, 

figs. 1, 2, 
Nanina (Macroclilamjs) n. sp., Nerill, Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 22, no. 23 

[8 sp., Parasnath [ti/pe), coll. Stoliczka : with abridged description 

of animal taken from that by Stoliczka], 
Macrochlamys stricklandi, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 82 

(uo description), pi. 26, fig, 8. [This shell, from Jeypur, differs 

much in form, and may prove to be distinct.] 

Similar to J/, indica, but more depressed and with the spire 
almost flat, the surface smooth, and the perforation larger; whorls 6, 
the last broader; aperture broadly lunate, coliimellar margin but 
little carved, oblique throughout, slightly expanded for some 
distance, more so at the perforation. 

['' Macrochlamys (Parisnath). — Shell of flattened form. Both 
mantle-lobes (i, e. shell-lobes) very long and narrow ; mantle 
greenish, splashed with white. Whole body of a distinct greenish 
tinge ; anterior part, especiall}' on the pedicles and back, black ; 
middle part pale ; posterior part dark above, less dark at the sides." 
In Nevill's handwriting, " i\\ perplana, ISTevill " (p, 4, fig, 11, 
'Drawings of Land Mollusca executed under the Superintendence 
of the late Ferd. Stoliczka '). Indian Museum Library.] 

JMajor diam. 20, min. 17, height 7| mm. 

J lab. Upper part of Parasnath Hill in Western Bengal (TF. 
T. B., JStollczl-a), Panchet Hill near Rauiganj ( W. T. B.), Manbhura 
(F. Ball) ; ? Madhopur, Jeypur (CajA. A. B. Melville). 

Teeth in radula 27 . 15 . 1 . 15 . 27 (42 . 1 . 42) in a Parasnath 
shell ; 38 . ]2 , 1 . 12 , 38 (.50 , 1 . 50) in one from jVJanbhum, 
The outer laterals are not, as in most allied species of Macro- 
chlamys, bicuspid, but they are long and straight ; those inside near 
the inner laterals have a minute Jiotch near the apex ; the inner 
laterals and medians bicuspid as usual, the outer cusp small. 

i). Species from the Assam Hills, Xorth and South of Yallcv. 

a. Labiate. 

144. Macrochlamys atricolor, Godtcin-Austen(B.e\ix-'SAmnii) J. A. 
S. n. 1875, 2, p. 2, pi. 1, fig. 2; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. viu, 
1877, p. 559; Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, pp. 113-117, 

h2 



100 



Z0N1TID.1-, 



pi. 24, tigs. 1-5 (sliells), pi. 2.",, figs. 1-10 (animal), pi. 27, 
figs. 1 & i> (auatomy aud shell). 
Nanina (Macrochlamys) resplendeus, var. atricolov, Kev. Hand-l. \, 
1878, p. 20. 

Shell perforate, depressed, rather less thin than in most species 
of this genus, smooth, polished, colour varying from oehraceous 
horny or pale yello\\ish tawny to chestnut-brown ; spire low, 
conoidal, suture slightly impressed ; whorls 0, convex above, the 




[Fig. 44. — ]\Iacroehh(iitt/s africolor. 

A. Part of animal, spirit-specimen, showing mantle- and shell-lobes. X 1'8. 

B. Ditto, viewed from left side. X 1"S. 

C. Extremity of foot, viewed from behind. X 1'8. 
J). Genitalia. X I'S. 

E. Jaw, X 0, and teeth of radula, X 270.] 

last rounded at the periphery, moderate!}'- convex beneath, im- 
pressed in the middle ; aperture slightly oblique, broadly lunate, 
thinly labiate and white inside; peristome sharp, the basal margin 
arcuate, columellar oblique, briefly retlexed above. 

Major diaiu. 22^, min. i^O, height 11 mm, A large specimen 
from Mauipur measures 28 by 2^-5 mm. 

Hah. North Cachar Hills, higher parts ; Burrail Eange, Naga 
Hills; Manipur Hills; Toruputu Peak, Datla Hills; Khakhyen 



MACROCHLAMYS. 101 

(Kacliin) Hills, Upper Burma. Nevill (/. c.) adds Cachar, Tezpur, 
Assam, Teria and Borpaiii, but these are very doubtful. 

Animal black throughout. Kight shell-lobe well developed, 
left shell-lobe overlapping the edge of the ]ieristome, but wanting 
the tongue-shaped process of JI. indica. Left dorsal lobe in two 
])ortious, right simple. Generative organs as in M. indica ; 
spermatheca very long, kale-sac rounded. Teeth of radula 35 . 3 . 
15 . ] .15.3. 35 (53 . 1 . 53). Similar in form to those of 
J/, indica, but the broad inner laterals or admedians more 
numerous, there being altogether 31 broad teeth in the middle 
instead of J 9. 

In typical shells there is no sculpture, but some small specimens 
refei-red to this sjiecies are longitudinally striated. The identifica- 
tion is not certain. Nevill classed this species as a variety of 
resplendens, which is a much thinner shell, devoid of labiation. 

[There is also considerable difference in the shell-lobes, and 
particularly in the generative organs, and resple miens has been 
placed in another genus.] 

145. Macrochlamys castaneo-labiata, Godicin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 
188-">, p. 1U», pi. 29, tii^s. 1-7 (slieil, -i vars., and auatomy). 
[Vide tig. ^t-'jB, IK lOo.]' 

Shell perforate, subconoidly depressed, rather solid, regularly 
minutely and lirately scul[)tured longitudinally inider a lens, light 
brown to pale ochraceous horny ; spire low conoid, suture im- 
pressed ; whorls 6, convex, the last broader, rounded at the 
periphery, slightly swollen ben(>ath ; aperture subvertical, broadly 
lunate ; peristome thin, strougly labiate inside, often some dis- 
tance within the lip, columellar margiii oblique, briefly expanded 
and rather broadly reflected abo\e, covering the perforation in 
part. 

Major diam. 15;!, min. 14;^, height 74 ram. A smaller specimen 
measures 134 X 1-X 7. Specimens from Manipur Hills measure 
184x154. 

JIab. Burrail llange, Assam. Asalu, Hengdan and Japvo 
Peaks; Naga and Manipur Hills {Godivin-Austea). 

In the animal the shell-lobes are very long and some portions 
of the anatomy are peculiar. The vas deferens leads to a blunt 
swollen tube representing the kale-sac, and this leads to a thick 
csecum, to the side of which the retractor muscle of the penis is 
attached. The ca?cum is not coiled as in typical forms of Macro- 
cldamys. The amatorial organ is large and terminates in a blunt 
rounded end. The spermatheca is long and the free end broader 
and ovate as usual. 

The radula contains about '62 transverse rows of teeth, thus 
arranged : 45 . 2 . 8 . 1 . 8 . 2 . 45 (55 . 1 . 55). The 17 teeth in 
the middle are tricuspid and much broader than the others ; the 
outer laterals are simple elongate teeth, more like those of 
Anojyhanta or Ox'ijtes. The jaw also is far straighter than usual. 



102 ZONITID.^. 

146, Macroclilamys hepatizon, Godu-in- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888^ 

p. 209, pi. 53, figs. 3, 4 (shell). 

Shell perforate, depressed, discoidal, solid, smooth, faintly 
striated transversely, slightly polished, yellowish browu; spire 
flat, suture moderately impressed; whorls 5, rather closely wound, 
the last rounded at the periphery, flatly convex beneath ; aperture 
oblique, lunate ; peristome thickened within on basal margin, 
which is arcuate, columellar margin sinuate, vertical for a short 
distance above and broadly refl.ected. 

Major diam. 14, min. 12|, height 5 mm. 

Hab. Hills north and soutli of Assam Vallej' ; Toruputu Peak, 
Dafla Hills ; Habiang Gdro Hills (Godiv in- Austen). 

This form closely resembles 31, ? consepta from Burma, but the 
whorls are fewer, the size smaller, and tlie colour different. 

147. Macrochlamys lata, Godwin-Aitsten, MoL Ind. i, 1888, p. 20[V 

pi. 53, fig. 8. 

Similar to M. hepatizon, but smaller, milky-white or grey in 
colour ; the spire slightly higher and the aperture more oblique, 
with its upper margin sloping outwards and dow nwards, not 
horizontal. 

Major diam. 9, min. 8*5, height 3"4 mm. 

Hah. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills {Godwin- Austen). 



b. Not labiate. 

14b. Macrochlamys decussata, Bs. (Nanina) J. A. S. B. v, 183G,. 
p. 330; Pfr. (Helix) Man. Hcl. i, 1847, p. 70: id. t. c. iii, 
1853, p. 62; H. S^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1870, pi. 112, figs. 1, 2, 3 ;. 
Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, pi. 19, fig. 6 (animals in coitu), 
pi. 21, fig. 15 (shell-sculpture) (1883). 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, smooth and silky above,, 
polished beneath, under the microscope decussated above with 
slightly flexuous transverse strife and fine impressed lirate longi- 
tudinal lines, radiately and concentrically striated below, fulvous 
horny ; spire but little raised, suture slightly impressed ; whorls 
6-7, slightly convex, regularly increasing, the last subaugulate at 
the periphery in small specimens, rounded in larger shells, base 
moderately swollen : aperture slightly oblique, lunate ; peristome 
thin, simple, upper margin nearly straight, basal subarcuate^ 
columellar inclined, briefly reflexed at the perforation. 

Major diam. 31, min. 27, height 13 mm. 

Hab. Khasi Hills, common at Cherra Punji. 

The type, measuring 25 mm. in major diameter, was subangulate 
at the periphery and possibly immature. 

[The animal has a very long right shell-lobe v.hich can be 
extended to the apex of the shell, the left is far shorter.] 



MACEOCHLAMYS. 103 

]40, Macrochlamys Ihotaensis, Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1883, 
p. 107, pi. 23, fig. 5 (shell) ; id. t. c. ii, 1897, p. 49, 
Macrochlamys inarshalli, Tryon, Man. (Jonch. pt. 2, 1886, p. 101. 

Shell very much like that of J/, decnssata, but having a broader 
last whorl and different sculpture. The longitudinal (concentric) 
striation on the whorls above and below is much stronger than 
the transverse and looks almost costulate under a microscope. 
Subuinbilicate, depressed, thin, dark brownish horny; spire low, 
suture scarcely impressed; whorls 7, flatly convex, the last 
rounded at the periphery, flattened below ; aperture broadly 
lunate, subovate, columellar margin oblique, scarcely reflected. 

Major diam. 23, min. 20, height 104 mm. 

Hab. Lhota Xaga Hills {God win- Austen). 

I have only seen one specimen of this shell, the type, which is 
immature. 

150. Macrochlamys rubellocincta, Bif. (Nanina) J. ^. ^. 5. 1870,2, 

p. 14, pi. ■■;, tio-. 9 ; H. .y T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 51, figs. 5, 6; 
Pfr. Mon. mi. vii, 1876, p. 121. 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, smooth, somewhat polished 
above, more so beneath, finely decussated above with microscopical 
transverse slightly flexuous strite and fine longitudinal impressed 
lines, the latter wanting below; inner half of each whorl whitish 
horny, outer half rufous, the latter colour forming a broad belt 
round the periphery; spire almost flat, suture very shallow; whorls 
6-G4, slightly convex above, the last subangulate at the periphery, 
moderately swollen below; aperture slightly ol)lique, broadly 
lunate ; peristome thin, basal margin subarcuate, columellar 
inclined, reflected briefly above. 

Major diam. 35, min. 31, height 14 mm. A smaller specimen 
measures 31 hy 28 by 12 mm. 

Hah. Habiang Garo Hills (Godwin- Austen). [This shell has 
only been found on the Nummulitic limestone south of the 
Yindku Peak ; the animal was not seen.] 

This is near decassafa, but is distinguished by being much flatter 
above and by its very different coloration and sculpture. 

151. Macrochlamys bilineata, Gudwin-Austcn, J. A. S. B. 1876, 2, 

p. 311 pi. 8, fig. 9. 

Shell imperforate, subglobosely depressed, A'ery thin, trans- 
parent, polished, brownish horny, beneath the microscope very 
minutely and closeh' longitudinally striated, the striation not 
easily seen ; spire low, suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, the 
last well rounded at the periphery and beneath ; apertuie oblique, 
roundly luuatr ; peristome thin, slightly arcuate above and at th'-" 
base, columellar margin curved, vei-tical above, slightly reflected. 

Major diam. 12, min. 10, height 6 nun. 

JIah. Tanir Lau^.pa ridge, 4000' ; Dafla Hills, north of Assam. 
Abundant in forest amongst fallen leaves (Godwin-Austen). 



104 ZOXITI]).E. 

The animal is described as " pale ochraceous ; tentacles black, 
the black extending on to the neck as two very conspicuous well- 
defined parallel linos : the upper part of the foot has also two 
parallel black lines. From the right anterior margin a long 
tongue-like process is given off which reaches, when partly 
extended, up to the apex of the shell." 

152. Macrochlamys llda, Gochmn- Austen, Mill. Lid. ii, 1899, pii. 13.3, 
136, pi. 94, tig. 1 (spermatophore). 

Shell subperf orate, depressed to conoidly depressed, smooth, 
polished, very finely and closely striated spirally (longitudinally) 
throughout under tlie microscope, pale umber-brown ; spire very 
low, convexly conoid, suture iiupressed ; whorls G, convex, slowly 
increasing, the last rather broader, descending slightly towards 
the mouth, rounded at the ])eriphery, convex beneath : aperture 
oblique, lunate ; peristome slightly obtuse in adults, basal margin 
arcuate, columellar oblique, nearly straight, slightly expanded 
throughout, scarcely more so at the junction with the last whorl. 

Major diam. 8|, miu. 7h, height 4| mm. 

Hah. Hills on both sides of Assam Valley. Found by Godwin- 
Austen at Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills, and at the southern base 
of the range ; also in the G;iro, Ivhasi, and Xaga Hills, and in 
Manipur. 

Shells from different localities vary in size, the largest exceeding 
10 mm. in diameter, and in the height of the spire. The species 
may be recognized by its almost or completely closed perforation 
and arcuate basal mai-gin of the peristome, also by the slight 
descent of the last whorl in adults. 

Macrochlamys shengorensis, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 102, 
pi. -22, fig. 5 ; ii, 1907, p. 18o. 

Shell perforate, depressed, brownish tawny, thin, polished, with 
fi^ne, rather close, microscopic lirate longitudinal striation through- 
out above and below ; spire almost flat, suture scarcely impressed ; 
whorls 4| (immature), flat above, the last considerably broader, 
rounded at periphery, flatly convex beneath ; aperture nearly 
vertical, broadly lunate; peristome thin, columellar margin curved, 
oblique, reflected above, partly covering perforation. 

Major diam. 11, min. 10, height 5 mm. 

Hah. Shengor Peak, Dafla Hills {Godwin-Austen). 

Only immature shells are known. These are distinguished by 
flatness and by the lirate concentric sculpture. 

[This has proved to be the young of Staffordla dajlaensis.'] 

153. Macrochlamys cacharica, Godwin-Austen, Mol Ind. i, 1883, 
p. 177, pi. 27. fig. 2 (shell and anatomy). 
[Fig. 4.5 A, p. 10.5.] 

Shell openly perforate, depressed, thin, glassy, smooth, brownish 



MACROCHLAMYS. 



105 



tawny; spire very low, coiioidal, suture slightly impressed; whorls 
0, regularly increasing, convex above, the last scarcely broader, 
rounded at the periphery, Hatly convex beneath ; aperture slightly 
oblique, broadly lunate ; pei-istome thin, basal margin slightly 
arcuate, eolumellar oblique, reflected above. 

Major diam. 19, min. 17o, height S mm. 

JIah. Manipur Hills {Godwin-Austen). 







M^JjM'/i 



[Fig. 45. — Macrochlamys cacharka. 

A. Generative organs, x 3 ; jaw, X "J; and teeth of raclnla, X 270. 

Macrochlami/ii castaneo-labiuta. 

B. Shell and dorsal lobes, X 3, separated fj-oni the animal ; jaw, X 9 ; 

radula, X 25a ; and genitalia, X 3.] 

Yar. (jlauca, paler in colour and larger, last \\horl slightly 
broader. 

Major diam. 224, min. 1U4, height 10 mm. 

Jlah. Harmutti, base of Dafla Hills, Assam (Godwin-Ausien). 

This shell is very similar to M. atrkolor. It is paler in colour 
and larger, the last whorl is rather larger and the base is flatter 



106 ZOXITID.E. 

and there is uo trace of labiation inside the aperture. The anatomy 
diii'ers considerably. There is no dart-sac ; the kale-sac of the 
penis is much longer and the spermatheca short and club-shaped, 
with the terminal poi'tion ovate. The teeth on the radula are 
arranged thus : 38 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 38 (52 . 1 . 52) and rather 
peculiar in shape. 

*154. Macrochlamys salmonea, Ancei/ (Nauiua-Medyla), Ze Nat. ii, 
p. Wd {lb82). 

Shell depressedly convex, shining, thin, horny-ochraceous ; 
spire broadly conical, obtuse ; whorls 5, almost not convex, 
smooth, separated by a shallow suture, rapidly increasing, the 
last Aery large, much ronnded ; umbilicus small ; aperture semi- 
lunar, scarcely oblique, simple, not thickened nor sinuate, briefly 
reflected at the coiumellar margin and deflected at the umbilicus, 
the margins united by a very thin callus. 

Major diam. i2r^, min. 10|, height 8 mm. ; aperture 7 mm. 
broad (Ancey in Latin). 

Hah. Cachar. 

" Easily distinguished from E. hiJineatus, Godwin-Austen, of 
Dafla Hills, by its larger size, more solid shell, its yellow-ochre 
colour, and its less globose form." 

I am unacquainted with this species. 

155. Macrochlamys godwini, Tri/on, Man. Conch, ser. 2. Palm, ii, 
p. 101 (13S0). 
Macrochlamys koliaensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, October 1883, 
p. 119, pi. 26, tigs. 5-5 a (shell), pi. 28, fig. 3 (radula) ; ii, 1898, 
p. 50 : nee M. koliaensis, Godwin- Amten, op. cit. i, Jauuarv 1883, 
p. 80, pi. 17, tig. 6 (shell). 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, transparent, polished, smooth 
(no longitudinal sculpture), brownish horny ; spire very low, 
suture impressed ; whorls 5 (immature), convex, the last broader, 
rounded at periphery, moderately convex beneath ; aperture 
slightly oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin much curved, vertical above, expanded throughout, more 
broadly reflected at the perforation. 

Major diam. 12, min. lO.j, height oh mm. 

Hah. Ivoliaghur on Brahmaputra liiver, Nowgong District, 
Assam {Godwin- Austen). 

The animal is "dusky green; side of foot grey, spotted with 
sienna ; extremity of foot with gland, having an overhanging lobe 
long and pointed." Teeth of radula in i»3 rows, thus arranged : 
42 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 42 (54 . 1 . 54). 

156. Macrochlamys terminus, Godicin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1899, 
pp. 134, 136, pi. 94, figs. 3, 3rt (spermatophore). 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, smooth, polished ; spire very 
low, couvexly conoidal, apex obtuse, suture scarcely impressed, 
shallow ; whorls 6, flatlv convex above, the last broader, rounded 



MACKOCHLAMYS. 



10-; 



at the periphery, convex beneath ; aperture subvertical, broadly 
and ovatelv lunate, margins converging; peristome thin, the basal 
margin slightly arcuate, columellar margin vertical for a short 
distance above, and reflected, then curved and oblique, slightly 
expanded. 

Major diam. 1'2.\, min. 11.4, height mm. 

Hah. Erahmakmid, p]astern Assam ; Siugpho (J/. 0(jle) ; Naga 
and X. Cachar Hills (^Godwin- A^(Sten). 

a'. SJiell (jlohose. 

b'. Stronghj or microscopically striate lonrfitiidinallij. 

[157. Macrochlamys beata, Godivin-Austen, Mol. Lid. ii, 1899, p. 156, 
pi. 106, tigs. 1-1 b. 

fcjhell depressedly globose, rather thin, imperforate; sculpture 
Avavy, strong, regular longitudinal striation, crossed by distant 
lines of growth ; colour olivaceous brown ; spire low, apex rounded ; 
suture shallow; whorls 5, gradually expanding; aperture ovate, 
oblique ; peristome thin ; columellar margin oblique, with a very 
slight reflection. 

Size : maj. diam. 12*0, alt. axis 4-5 mn). 

Locality. "Shengorh Peak, Dafla Hills, 6000 ft. (Godwin-Austen). 

Among specimens of this shell, I noticed one which contained a 
dried-up animal in good preservation. It was put to soak, and 
after 15 days was examined, when the external characters were 
remarkably well seen, even to the peripodial grooves and streaks 
on side of the foot. It has a narrow tongue-like right shell-lobe 
and a similar well-developed left shell-lobe. After further soaking 
in water for 24 days, the amatorial organ was well seen and the 
jaw secured ; the radula was broken up, but after a long search 
over three glass slides which had been hi use I found and mounted 
a portion of it. The central teeth have a cusp on the outer side 
and a small one on the inner apical margin. The admedian are 
all short and straight-sided, not bicuspid, an unusual character. 

The shell-lobes are like those of Macrochlamys, and I jdace it in 
that genus.] 

[15S. Macrochlamys munipiirensis, Godwin- Austen. Mol. Ind. ii, 
1899, p. 15S. 

Shell very globose and conoid, thin, scarcely and finely perforate: 
sculpture smooth and glassy to the eye, yet under high power and 
in good light extremely fine fairly regular striation is visible ; 
colour pale straw with a green tinge ; spire high, conic ; suture 
impressed ; whorls 4|, the last expanding rapidly, well rounded on 
the periphery ; aperture roundly lunate, subvertical ; peristome 
thin ; columella very weak, scarcely any reflection, margin sub- 
oblique. 

Size : maj. diam. 11*5, alt. axis 6-5 mm. 

Locality. "N.E. Munipur Hills {Godivia- Austen). Two specimens 
in lirit. Mus. Nat. History collection.] 



108 ZOXITID.E. 

[159. Macrochlamys fragosus, (iodu-in- Austen, MoL Iml \\, 1899, 
p. 101,1)1. 109, fig. 4. 

Shell scarcely perforate, globose, thiu, translucent ; sculpture 
line microscopical regular longitudinal stria:) ; colour sap-green ; 
spire flath' convex ; suture shallow ; whorls 3^, last swollen and 
rounded at the periphery ; aperture semi-ovate ; columellar margin 
perpendicular, not refiected, weak. 

Size : maj. diain. 6-7, min. 6-0 ; alt. axis 3-5, alt. bodv-whorl 
'2-S min. 

LoccdiUj. Toruputu Peak, Daila Hills (Godwin-Austen). 

The shell ligured has been considerably damaged, but fortunately 
two other specimens should be preserved in the Calcutta Museum. 

Vide Nevill's Hand-list, no. 107, p. 39. 3, from above locality."] 

a". SJieUs depressedhj conoid. 
b". Scidpture shiootli. 

ri60. Macrochlamys mahadeoensis, Godvin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 
1899, p. lo?, pi. 108, tigs. ■Z-;M. 

Shell depressedly globose, thin, not umbilicated ; sculpture 
smooth, crossed by irregular lines of growth ; colour dull olivaceous 
green ; spire flatly conoid ; suture impressed ; whorls 4, the last 
expanding and capacious, rounded on the periphery ; aperture 
flatly ovate, subvertical ; peristome thin ; columellar margin sub- 
oblique. 

Size: maj. diam. 11-5, min. 9-5, alt. axis 5*0 mm. 

Locality. Mahadeo Peak, Bui-rail Eange, near Asalu (Godwin- 
Austen). 

Shell-lobes, from what was left of them, resemble those of typical 
MacrocJi lamys, tongue-like. 

Jaw not found. 

Eadula formula : 

43 . 2 . 10 . ] . 10 . 2 . 43 
55 . 1 . 55 

The centre tooth is tricuspid ; the admediau teeth have a small 
cusp on the inner side just below the main point, with another 
basal cusp on the outside ; the lateral teeth are evenly bicuspid, 
the marginals small. 

In this species the odontophore is of the same type as that of 
Austenia gi;jns, with the inner upper cusp on the admedian teeth.] 

[101. Macrochlamys heiigdanensis, Godicin-Austcn, Mol Lid. ii, 
1899, p. 1.38, pi. 108, ligs. 4-4 b. 

Shell globosely conoid, very thin, transparent, somewhat glassy, 
umbilicated, extremely miuute and hidden ; sculpture, surface 
quite smooth ; colour pale sap-green ; spire subconical, apex 



MACEOCILLAMYS. 100 

elevated, blunl ; suture shallow ; whorls 4} ; aperture suboblique. 
nearly drcular ; peristome very thin; coluuiellar margin sub 
vertical. 

Size: maj. diam. 10'4, alt. axis 5-0 mm. 

Localitij. Heiigdan Peak, North Cachar Hills {Godivin-Austen). 

Animal not seen.] 

[102. Macroclilamys razamiensis, Godtcin-AKsten, Mol. Ind. ii, 
18U9, p. 107, pi. 108, tigs. 2-2 i. 

Shell globose ; umbilicus concealed, very thin and transparent, 
glassy ; sculpture none ; colour pale sap-green ; spire subconoid ; 
suture shallo\N- ; \\horls 5, very convex and rounded on the 
periphery ; aperture ovate, nearly vertical ; peristome very thin ; 
columellar margin oblique. 

Size: maj. diam. 10-25, alt. axis 4-75 mm. 

Locality. Kopamedza Peak, Naga Hills {Godwin- Austen). 

Animal. Shell-lobes present, but not well preserved in the soaked 
specimen. Foot moderately large, gland seen : olivaceous hi 
colour ; sole divided. 

Animal dark-coloured, the shell-lobes still darker. 

Jaw with a central projection. 

Radula has a fornnila : 

yiJ . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 89 
51 . 1 . 51 

Centre tooth bicuspid ; admedian teeth bicuspid ; lateral- 
bicuspid, becoming rapidly minute on the margin.] 

[168. Macrochlamys lahupaensis, Godwin-Ausfen, Mol. Ind. ii, 
1907, p. 159. 

Shell subdepressedly conoid, rounded below, thin, perforation 
fine, nearlv concealed ; sculpture none under high power, crossed 
by many fine wavy lines of growth under eye ; colour pale ashy 
ochre; spire subconic, sides tiat, apex fine; suture impressed; 
whorls oh, closely wound, particularly near the apex : aperture 
widely horizontally lunate, subvertical : peristome both slightly 
thickened and sinuate ; columellar margin oblique and very shghtly 
retlected near the umbilicus. 

Size: maj. diam. 13-0, min. ll'O ; alt. axis 6 mm. 

Locality. Pliunggam,Lahupa-Naga Hills, N.E.Munipur (G-Ww-r/i- 
Aii'Sten).'\ 

[1G4. Macrochlamys hookeri, Godwin-Austen, Md. Ind. ii, 1907. 
p. 163, pi. 109, tig-s 10~10«. 

Shell scarcely perforate, tumidly globose, thin, diaphanous, 
smooth, strong epidermis; colour dull ochraceous ; spire depressedly 
conoid; whorls 4, slightly convex above, rather rapidly increasing ; 
aperture suboblique, ovoid; peristome nearly circular on the 
peripherv ; columellar margin straight, perpendicular, weak. 



110 



ZONITID.^. 



Size : maj. diani. 10-0, min. S-2 : alt. axis 4-0 mm. 

Locality. Cherra Poonjee and in the valley to the east\vard. 

This shell was also found at Jawai, in the Jaintia Hills. I have 
named it after Sir Joseph Hooker, who describes so well in his 
• Himalayan Journals ' the deep valle}^ under Cherra Poonjee.] 

c. Upper surface tr-ansverselu plicate or ribhed. 

165. Macrochlamys ? plicifera, IJlf. J. A. S. B. 1880, 2, p. 197. 

Xaniua plicatula, Blf. J. A. S. B. 1870, 2, p. 13, pi. 3, fig. 7; 
Godioin- Austen, J. A. S. B. 1875, 2, p. 2 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. 
vii, 1876, p. 126; H. S,- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 28, fig. 1 : nee 
N. plicatula, Martens, Nach. d. Mai. Ges. 1869, p. 149. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, depressed, almost lenticular, thin, 
translucent, yellowisli horny, with dull waxy lustre, concentrically 
and subpapillosely striated aboAe and below, plicate near the 
peripherv ; spire low, conoidal, suture very slightly impressed ; 
whorls oh, almost flat above, the last much broader, angulate and 
nodosely plicate at the periphery, swollen truncate, the plications 





Fig. 46. —Macrochlamys plicifera. 

oblique and gradually disappearing on both upper and lower 
surface away from the outer edge ; aperture oblique, roundly 
lunate ; peristome thin, basal margin arcuate, columellar curved, 
vertical and reflected above. 

Major diam. 22^, min. 194, height 10 mm. 

liah. Satunga, A^. Cachar Hills, on limestone rocks {Godwin- 
Aiisten). 

[Animal pale brown, mottled very evenly with umber over the 
head and sides, a distinct line of darker colour down the centre 
of the back ; moderately long gland at extremity of foot, \\liich is 
rather truncate. Two parallel lines run from mantle to the oral 
tentacles, about 1^ inch in length. 

I obtained a large number of this species alive ; no reference is 
made to the presence of shell-lobes in my note-book, in which 
there is, besides, a pencil sketch of the animal's head as far back 
as the dorsal lobe. It is therefore very doubtful if it should be 
])laced in this genus.] 



MACROCnLAMYS. Ill 

16(). Macrochlamys shisha, CT'of//im-yl».sVt'«(Helix-Xanina),J.^-l..S'.i). 
1875, 2, p. 2, pi. 1, tig. 3; Pfr. (Helix) Mo7i. Hel. viii, 1877, 
p. 559. 

Shell obtectly perforate, lenticular, sharply Iveeled, very thin 
and fragile, almost membranaceous beneath, translucent, trans- 
versely and rather obliquely plicate above, smooth beneath, without 
longitudinal sculpture ; spire low conoidal, suture but little im- 
pressed ; whorls 5, slightly convex above, the last considerably 
broader ; sharply and compressedly keeled ; convex beneath ; 
aperture slightly oblique, angulately lunate; peristome thin. 

Major diam. 144, min. 124, height 7 mm. 

Hah. North Khasi Hills, Moyong, Dikrang, 2000' ; Naga Hills, 
Nenglo, in damp forest (Godwin- Austen). 

All the specimens are imperfect beneath, but the types are 
probably adult or nearly so. Animal not observed. 

d. SJtells not exceeding about G mm. (a quarter inch) in diameter. 
(Generic affinities often doubtful.) 

a. Suhglohose or subturhinate. 
a'. /Smooth. 

167. Macrochlamys nengloensis, Godwin-Auste?!. Mol. Lid. \, 1883, 

p. -sG, pi. 17, ligs. 3, o. 

Shell subobtectly pei-forate, depressedly turbinate, smooth, 
without sculpture, faintly polished brownish yellow with an 
olivaceous tinge ; spire conoidal, apex blunt, suture impressed ; 
whorls 54, convex, rather closely wound, the last subangulate at 
the periphery, tumid beneath; aperture oblique, lunate ; peristome 
thin, columellar margin broadly reflected, oblique, almost vertical 
above. 

Major diam. 5, min. 4-5, height 3-5 mm. 

Hah. Nenglo, Naga Hills, and Manipur (Godwin-Austen). 

This appears to be a variety of J/, longicauda. 

168. Macrochlamys koliaensis, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Iml. i, 1883, 

p. SQ, pi. 17, tig. G (shell), nee p. 119. 

Shell imperforate, depressedly turbinate, thin, smooth, not 
highly polished above, more so below, without sculpture, light 
vellowish brown ; spire conoidal, suture impressed ; whorls 6, 
convex, closely wound, the last scarcely larger, rounded at 
periphery, moderately s\Aollen beneath ; aperture subvertical, 
luiuite ; peristome thin, columellar margin oblique, reflected. 

Major diam. 4-5. min. 4, height 2-5 mm. 

Hab. Koliaghur, Nowgong district, Assam, on low hills near 
the Brahmajmtra Eiver {Godiv in- Austen). 

This species is rather more closely wound than M. nengloensis, 
and the last whorl is rounded, not subangulate. 



112 ZOXITIDiE. 

169. Macrochlamys roberti, Godicin- Austen, Mol. Lul. i, 1883, p. 87, 

pi. 17, tig. 17. 

Shell minutely perforate, depressedly turbinate, thin, smooth, 
scarcely poUshed above, more so belo\\', minutely striated trans- 
versely, without spiral (longitudinal) sculpture, bro\\-nish horny ; 
spire conoidal, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; w horls 6, convex, 
rather closely wound, the last roundsd at the periphery, tumid 
below ; aperture subvertical, lunate ; margins converging ; peri- 
stome tbin, columellar margin oblique, curved, almost vertical 
above, rather broadly triangularly reflected. 

Major diam. 4, min. 3-75, height 2-5 mm. 

Hah. Angauluo Peak, G777' ; Burrail Eange, Naga HiDs 
(^Godiuin-A^tsten). 

This is distinguished from M. JcoTiaensts by its ]o\\'er spire and 
by beiug perforate. 

170. Macrochlamys tanirensis, Godioin-Austen, Mol. Iml \, 1883, 

p. 87, pi. 17, fig. 9. 

Shell obtectly perforate, subgiobosely depressed, thin, polished, 
smooth, light yellowish brown ; spire low", convexly conoid, apex 
obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 4|, convex, increasing slouly, 
the last rounded at the periphery, swollen below ; aperture nearly 
vertical, lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin oblique, rather 
broadly reflected. 

Diam. 2-8, height I'To mm. 

Hah. Tanir Peak, Dafla Hills, 4400' {Godwin-Austen). 



b'. LongltudinaUrj striated. 

171. Macrochlamys longicaiida, Gochvin-Ausfen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 

pp. 84, 8.-3, pi. 17, tigs. 1, -2, 2 a, 4 (shells), pi. 20, figs, la-e 
(animal and radula), pi. 21, fig. Ki (sculpture). 

Shell subobtectly perforate, depressedly turbinate, pale horny 
brown to yellowish tawny, not polished above, and under the 
microscope marked with two series of very line oblique stria) at 
right angles to each other (these appear to be wanting in some 
varieties), smooth and polished below; spire low, conical, apex 
obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 5^, regularly increasing, convex 
above, the last angulate at the periphery, tumid beneath ; aperture 
slif'htly oblique, angulately lunate ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin much curved, expanded throughout, vertical and sharply 
reflected at perforation. 

Major diam. 6, min. 5-6, height 4 mm. ; smaller specimens 
measure 4 -to 5 mm. in diameter. 

Hah. Khasi, Jaintia, and North Cachar Hills; Cherra Punji, 
Maotherichan Peak, Jawai, Marangsip Peak, &c. 

Caudal extremity of foot abruptly truncated, lobe above large, 
mucous pore greatly developed. Colour pale, with a dark grey line 



MACROCHLAMYg, 113 

on upper surface to extremity of foot. Shell-lobes present, the 
right tonsjiu'-shaped. Jaw without median projection. Outer 
teeth in radula numerous and bicuspid, nearly twice as numerous 
as in M. tndica, the formula being 76 to 80 . ;3 . 5 . 1 . 5 . 3 . 76 to 
80 (84 . 1 . 84). Middle tooth tricuspid, long, with convex sides, 
the next '> long and bicuspid, having a lateral cusp on the outer 
side only. 

172. Macrochlamys dorani. Godwin-Austm, Mol. Lid. i, ISH.'i p. 87, 

pi.ir, tig. s. 

Shell obtectly perforate, globosely subturbinate, thin, regularly 
minutely subdistantly longitudinally striated beneath the micro- 
scope above and below, light yellowish brown ; spire conoidal, 
apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls .5, convex, the last rather 
larger, rounded at periphery and below; aperture subvertical, 
lunate; peristome thin, coluraellar margin almost vertical above, 
triangularly reflected, the edge projecting slightly convexly above 
the perforation. 

Diam. 'A-2o, height 2 mm. 

Hah. Maotherichan Peak, j\^. Khasi Hills (Godwin- Austen). 

This is near 31. umbraticola, but has a higher spire, more closely 
wound whorls, and a different colour. The microscopic sculpture 
is less close. 

The slight projection in the coluraellar margin above the 
perforation may indicate that this is a Micronjstina. 

173. Macrochlamys originaria, Go(Iu-m-Aii.s/<'n. Mol. Lid. i, 1883, 

p. !)1. pi. 14, fig. 12 (shell). 

Shell perforate, turbinately depressed, smooth, with fine longi- 
tudinal striation, sienna-brown ; spire conoidal, sides convex, 
apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 4|, convex, the last 
slightly snbangulate at the periphery, tumid beneath ; aperture 
subvertical, ovately lunate; peristome thin, columellar margin 
oblique, broadly reflected above. 

Major diam. 2, height about 1-5 mm. 

JJab. Shenghor and Toruputu Peakj?, Dafla Hills, north of 
Assam ( Godivin- Auaten). 

174. Macrochlamys umbraticola, Gudivin-Austm, Moi. ind. i, Ish:;. 

p. 89, pi. 14, figs. 4 (shell), 4rt (sculpture;. 

Shell obtectly perforate, globosely subtui-binate, pale olivaceous 
bi'owu, very mi}nitely regularly spirally (longitudiiuilly) striated 
beneath the microscope above; and below ; spire conv.exh' conoid, 
apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 4.4, convex, the last nor 
descending, rounded at the periphery and beneath ; aperture 
slightly oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome obtuse, in one plane, 
columellar margiji nearly vertical, carried forward and slightly 
reflected, almost or quite covering the perforation. 

I 



114 ZO'ITIDy]'.. 

Mapi- diam. 3-5, min. 3, height 2 mm. 

Hah. Hengdan Peak, North Cachar Hills ; Jatinga Valley and 
Kopamedza Peak (8376'), Naga Hills. 

The type measured 4-3 mm. in major diameter. 

a'. Depressed o>" conoidly depressed. 

b". Longitudinally striated. 

175. Macrochlamys ? sata, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Lid. i, 1883, p. 91, 

pi. 14, fig. 13. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, thin, polished, very finely longi- 
tudinally (spirally) striated under the microscope, pale brownish 
horny; spire very low, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 44, 
convex, the last rouiuled at the periphery, convex beneath ; aper- 
ture nearly vertical, roundly lunate; peristome thin, columellar 
margin oblique. 

Diam. "J, height scarcelv 1 mm. 

Bah. Shenghor Peak (6700') and Toruputu Peak (7322'), Dafla 
Hills in Eastern Himalayas, north of Assam ; one specimen from 
each locality. 

176. Macrochlamys pacata, Godidn-Ausfo), Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 90. 

pi. 14, fig. 10, 

Shell obtectly perforate, almost imperforate, depressed, thin, 
smooth, moderately polished, under the microscope subdistantly 
longitudinally (spirally) striated above and below ; spire very low, 
apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 4|, convex, the last 
rounded at the periphery, somewhat swollen beneath ; aperture 
subovately lunate, slightly oblique ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin much curved, vertical and reflected above, almost covering 
the perforation. 

Major diam. 3, min. 2i, height 1| mm. 

Hah. Lhota Naga Hills. 

The type, apparently the only specimen knoun, is not fully gro\An. 

177. Macrochlamys rusticula, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 

p. sr, pi. 17, tig. 10. 

Shell obtectly perforate, conoidly depressed, thin, smooth, not 
polished above, translucent, pale brown ; spire low, conoidal, 
suture impressed ; whorls 4, convex, the last rather broader, 
rounded at the periphery, flatly convex beneath ; aperture sub- 
ovately lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin oblique. 

Diam. 2-1, height 1 mm. 

Hah. North Khasi Hills. 

The only specimen is probably immature. There is an indistinct 
appearance resembling sculpture under the microscope, but no 
striation can be made out. 



MACROCULAAfYS. 115 

E. Species from Burma, Arakan, and Tenasserim. 

a. Peristome labiate. 

178. Macrochlamys ? consepta, Bs. (IMlx) A. M. N. H. (8) vi, 18fiO, 
p. 190; xi, 18t«, p. 3L>0; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v. 1868, p. 239; 
H. ^- r. (Helix) a. I. 1876, pi. 88, fiors. 5, 6 ; Godwin- Ausf en, Mol. 
hid. i, 1888, p. 209, pi. 53, fig. 1 ; id. 1883, p. 110, pi. 26, fig. 4 
(small var., more globose) ; id. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 241 (small var.). 

Shell subperforate, depressed, almost discoidal,not thin, smooth, 
polished, glassy, whitish horny ; spire almost flat, apex slightly 
raised, suture impressed ; whorls 7, convex, closely wound, the 
last not much broader, rounded at the periphery, slightly convex 
beneath, impressed in the umbilical region ; aperture almost 




I'^iii'- •i7.^^f"crocJif(njiijs ( !) con^rpfa. 

vertical, broadly lunate ; peristome blunt, white and narrowly 
labiate within, basal margin slightly arcuate, columellar oblique, 
expanded and reflected above, almost completely closing the 
perforation. 

Major diam. 18, min. 16, height 7 mm. 

Hah. Damathat near Moulmein, Muleyit Kange (4000') ; Upper 
Burmah ; Shan States ? 

Benson described the type as obsoletely spirally striated, but 
no sculpture can be detected on numerous specimens examined. 
Easilj^ recognized by its almost flat whitish glassy shell. The 
animal is not known and the generic relations are doubtful. 

a.'. Smooth. 

179. Macrochlamys? petasus, Bs. (Helix) A.M.N. H. (8) iii, 1859, 
p. 3SS ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hd. x, 1868, p. 197; H. <!^- T. (Helix) 
('. /. 1876, pi. 89, figs. 8, 9; Nevill, Nanina (Microcystis), 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 35 ; Godiciii- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 210, 
pi. 53, tig. 6 (shell). 

Shell subobtectly perforate, depressed, smooth, jjolished, yel- 
lowish tawny ; spire low, convexly conoid, suture scarcely 
impressed ; whorls 5-6, increasing slowly, flatly convex above, 
the last rounded to slightly subangulate at the periphery, convex 
beneath ; aperture subvertical, broadly lunate ; peristome blunt, 
very narrowly labiate inside at the edge, basal margin slightly 
arcuate, columellar oblique, rather broadly i-eflected above. 

Major diam. 10^, min. 9|, height 5 mm. 

Hah. Phiethan, Tenasserim Valley. I wrongly regarded as 
identical a snail common about Thayetmyo in Pegu and in the 
Arakan llills, now distinguished as M. notha. Nevill refers to 

i2 



116 zonitid.t:. 

this species shells from Arakan, the Assam Hills, and near 
Dai'jiling, but the identification requires further comparison. 

[ Vide p. 35, Nevill's ' Hand-list ' :— 

Only the shells from Phiethan belonp; to this species. 

1 have gone through most of the shells referred to petasiis from 
localities in the Assam Hills and Darjiling, sent home to me by 
Mr. Gr. Nevill ; they all belong to different species ; those recorded 
from Toruputu, Borpani, Tanir Peak, and Dikrang are M. uda, 
Godwin-Austen. 

Same page, " A'ar. (? distinct species)": — 

From places in the Dafla Hills belong to a form _yet to be 
described. 

Same page, ■' Var. (? distinct species)": — 
12 Arakan are suhpetasus, Godwin-Austen. 
Page 36 : — 

2 Borpani. 3 Khasi Hills, 10 Dikrang are hepntizon, Godwin- 
Austen, var. 

3 l^eedoungtoung = subjjetasus, G.-A.] 

180. Macrochlamys ? aspides, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (.3) xi, 1863, 
p. .320: Ffr. (Helix) Mo-n.Hel \, ]808, p. 197 : H. Sf T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 62, figs. 7, 8, 9 ; Theoh. Cat. 1876, p. 17. 

" Shell obtectly perforate, orbiculately depressed, scarcely 
striated, smooth, polished, horny, subdiaphanous : spire somewhat 
convex, flatfish, apex slightly raised ; suture faintly impressed, 
submarginate; whorls 6, very slightly convex, slowly increasing, the 
last finally broader ; aperture oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome 
briefly lying open (very slightly expanded), thickened and white 
inside, broader below, upper margin prominent and much arcuate ; 
basal margin az'cuately bisinuate, columellar very short, slightly 
reflected above, its border narrowly callous." {Bs., Latin.) 

Major diam. 11, min. 9, axis 5 mm. 

JIah. Tenasserim {Theobald). 

Distinguished by the strongly arcuate and thickened basal 
margin of the {>eristome. 

b. Peristome not lahiate. 
181. Macrochlamys chaos, B[f. P. Z. S. 1904, ii, p. 444, pi. 25, fig. 8. 

Shell perforate, conoidly depressed (subglobose), thin, smooth, 
transversely striated, and with microscopic, very fine, close, flexuous, 
longitudinal (spii-al) sculpture, vitreous, pale fulvous or whitish 
horny ; spii-e low, apex acute, suture impressed ; whorls 5^, 
slightly convex, the last broader, rounded externally, convex 
beneath ; aperture oblique, roundly lunate, the breadth exceeding 
the height; peristome very thin, in one plane, columellar margin 
curved, vertical above and briefly triangularly reflected. 

Major diam. 16, min. 14, height 8 mm. A .small specimen 
measures 13x 12x 7 



MACllOCHLAMVS. 117 

llab. Pegu; Thayetmyo; .Upper Burma, Tsingu near Ava 
{W.T.B.). 

This species resembles M. stibjecta (p. 98), but is distinguished 
by being more lustrous and globose, and by its narrower last 
whorl and smaller mouth, as well as by its longitudinal striatioii, 
wliich is sometimes difficult of detection. 

a''. Longltudinully (^splrallij) striated. 

iS2. Macrochlamys kumahensis, Theob. ^' Stol. J. A. s. B. 1872, 
p. 334, pi. 11, tigs. 9, 10 : P//-. (Helix) Mon. Uel. vii, 1876, p. 531 ; 
Xevill (Naniua), Iland-l. i, 1878, p. 25. 
Nauinaramiiensis, A'//'., J\'ei'iV/,£^art(^-/. i,l878, p. 24 (no desci'iption). 

Shell openly perforate, depressed (almost subglobose), thin, 
smooth, polished, with close, minute, longitudinal (concentric) 
striation, only visible under a microscope, above and below, 
yellowish to brownish tawny ; spire low, suture rather well im- 
pressed ; whorls 4|, convex, subangulate outside the suture ; the 
last considerably broader, well rou]ided at the periphery and 
rather tumid below ; aperture oblique, roundly lunate, almost 
circular ; peristome thin, straight, coluinellar margin much curv^ed, 
becoming vertical above, and rather broadly triangularly expanded. 

Major diam. 9|, min. S|, height 54 mm. 

The form named ramriensis (but never described) is slightly 
larger, measuring 10| mm. in diameter, and has a rather larger 
mouth, but, as suggested by Nevill, is not distinguishable. 

Hab. Kumah Hill near SandoeYny, Arakan (Theobald); Eamri 
Island, Arakan coast (W. T. B.). Also recorded from Bhamo, 
the Dafla Hills, and Borpani, Assam, with doubt by JN'evill. [These 
are different species.] 

A well-marked species, somewhat resembling M. subjecla in shape. 

183. Macrochlamys caiisia, Ba. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, 
p. 388 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 118 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) 
C. 1. 1876, pi. 90; figs. 2, 3; Nevill, Nanina (Microcystis), 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 36, no. 142 [from Salwin River is the next 
species]. 

Shell perforate, subglobosely depressed, rather solid, obliquely 
striated and, under the microscope, marked with minute, close, 
spiral (longitudinal) lines, smooth, not highly polished, pale 
yellowish horny, whiter beneath ; spire conoidal, apex obtuse, 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, the last considerably 
broader, rounded at the periphery, moderately swollen beneath ; 
aperture large, oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome thin, straight, 
columellar margin vertical, produced forward around the pei"- 
foration and sharply retlected. 

^lajor diam. Bg, min. Og, height 4 mm. 

Hab. Phiethan, Tenasserim Valley (Theobald); Salwin River 
(Hungerford, teste Nevill). 



118 ZONITID.i;. 

b'. iSubglobosehf de^^'essed. 

a"'. Si)iooth. 

[184. Macrochlamys salwinensis, Gudtcin-Ausfen, Mul.Tnd. n,VM7, 
p. 163, pi. 109, tig. 9. 

Lomlity. 8alwiii Valley. 

Shell globosely conoid, scarcely perforate, quite smooth ; colour 
ochraceous ; spire moderately high, apex rounded ; whorls 5, 
regularly increasing, somewhat convex; aperture oblique, semi- 
ovate ; coluniellar margin vertical ; peristome slightly reflected. 

yize : raaj. diam. 6*7, min. 5*8; alt, axis 3*5, body-whorl 
i2'8 mm. 

Tins shell was sent by Mr. IVevill to me as No. 142, p. 36, of his 
'Hand-list,' JVavina {Microcystw) antsm, Bs., from the Salweeu. 
It agrees very well with the figure in the Conch. Indica (pi. 90, 
iigs. 2, 3), which was possibly a typical specimen, as it is recorded 
on p. 37 as from Phiethan, Tenasserim, and should now be found 
in the McAndrew Collection at Cambridge, among Benson's shells.] 

185. Macrochlamys ? dugasti, Moreld, Jour. Conch. 1891, pp. 25, 239, 
pi. 5, figs. 1, Ir/ ; Blf. Proc. Mai. Soc. v, 1903, p. 275. 
Helix cycloidea, a2nid H. Sf T. C. I. 1878, pi. 88, figs. 8, 9 ; Nevill, 
Nanina (Microcystis), Hand-l. i, p. 36 (1878) ; Theob. (Macro- 
clilamys) Cat. 1876, p. 18 ; Kobelt f Maciochlamys), Mart. ^ 
Chemn. Syst. Conch.-Cah. 1901, p. 1040, pi. 2(i5, tigs. 10, 11 : nee 
Nanina cycloidea, Alters, 3Ial. Bl. iv, 1857, p. 89, pi. 1, tigs. 1-3. 

Shell perforate, subglobosely depressed, deep, thin, horny, 
isabelline, often paler beneath, polished, without longitiidinal 
(spiral) sculpture : spire low, conoidal, suture impressed; whorls 
6-8. closely wound, convex above, the last but little broader, 
much rounded at tiie periphery, not tumid beneath; aperture 





Fig. 48. — Maerochlamys dugasii. 

oblique, sometimes descending slightly, broadly lunate, much 
broader than high ; peristome blunt, a\ hitish, basal margin slightly 
arcuate, columellar obliquely curved, not vertical, brought forward 
and slightly reflected at the perforation. 

[Only a part of the animal has been seen by me in a dried-up 
specimen, on soaking it out. The foot is divided longitudinally 
into three areas ; there were the usual peripodial fringe and 
grooves, and a short overhanging lobe above the mucous pore. 
The jaw is curved slightly, but has no median projection on the 
cutting-edge. The teeth of the radula are arranged in row? 



MACBOCHLAM VS. 1 19 

of 40 . 2 . 9 . 1 . 9 . 2 . 40 (51 . 1 . 51) teetli. The median tootli is 
tricuspid ; the iidmedians liave each a siugle cusp on the outei- 
side ; the marginals are minute and bicuspid. The genitalia could 
not be made out. | 

Major diani. I'd.], min. 12, height 9 mm. 

Hub. Near ]\loulmein (Theobald) ; Phaboo, Halwiu Vallev 
{Hnngerford). Comuion in the Upper Menam Valley and around 
Ching Mai in Siam. 

There is some variation in size and in the height of the spire : 
a small Burmese specimen measures 12, 11, and 7g mm. in its 
three diameters, a large Siamese shell 15, 13g, and 9^. The 
species is easily distinguished from all other Burmese and Indian 
Macrocldaimjs by its great height compared with its diameter. It 
is impossible to identify it with Albers's Naaina cycloidea, which 
measured 20 mm. in major diam. by only 9 in height, and which 
was of uukuow n origin, though supposed to be Himalayan. 

b". Depressed or conoidhj depressed. 

b'". Smooth. 

186. MacrOChlamys Subpetasus, Godwin-Austen {Xevilt, MS.), Mol. 

hid. i, 1888, p. 211, pi. 53, tio-. 7 (shell). 
Helix aspides?, Blf. (nee Bs.) J. A. S. B. 18G5, pt. 2, p. 8(3. 

Shell minutely and subobtectly perforate, convexly depressed, 
polished, smooth, without sculpture, light brown ; spire low, con- 
vexly conoidal, suture slightly impressed ; whorls 6, cou\ex, 
increasing slowly, the last rounded at the periphery, convex 
beneath ; aperture subvertical, lunate ; peristome thin above, 
basal margin slightly obtuse, columellar oblique, much curved, 
slightly expanded, more so near the perforation. 

Major diam. 8, min. Tg, height 4 mm. 

Hab. Arakan Hills on west side near Tongoop, and Bassein 
District, Pegu, west of Bassein liiver. Common. 

187. Macrochlaniys noxia, Blf. P.Z.S. 1904, ii, p. 444, pi. '25, tig. 14. 

Shell minutely and subobtectly perforate, depressed, thin, 
smooth, polished, without sculpture, rufescent brown (light 
chestnut), whitish beneath except near the periphery ; spire very 
low, conoidal, suture impressed ; whorls 6, convex, not increasing 
rapidly, the last rounded at the periphery, convex beneath ; 
aperture slightly oblique, lunate; peristome thin, basal margin 
arcuate, columellar oblique, briefly retiected above. 

Major diam. 9, min. 8, height 4 mm. A large shell measures 
10x9x4.i. 

Hub. Basseiu District, Pegu, west of Bassem Kiver. 

A variety from Akyab in Arakan has 5 whorls and a slightly 
higher spire. 

This is distinguished from M. hypolenca by being more depressed 
and more narrowly perforate, and by the complete want of 
sculpture, and from M, sidpetasus by larger size, lower spire, &c. 



ll'll ZONITID.K. 



])', Loiujitudiimllii strlate<h 

188. Macrochlamys nebulosa, Blf. (Nanina) /. A. S. B. 1865, p. m ; 

Pfr. (Helix) Mou. Hel. y, 1868, p. 79 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. 1. 
187G, pi. V)4, tigs. 8, 9, 10; Nevill, Nanina (Macroclilamy.s), 
If(md-L i, 1878, p. 23. 

Shell perforate, conoidly depressed, sublenticular, thin, pale 
horny, not polished, bat with a didl greasy lusti'e above, more 
polished below, smooth, minutely spirally striated (the strise only 
visible under a microscope) above, not below; spire low, conoid, 
suture im])ressed ; whorls 6, convex, slowly and regularly increasing, 
the liist a little wider, subangulate at the peripherv, angulate in 
young shells, convex beneath : aperture slightly oblique, roundly 
lunate, breadth exceeding height ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin slightly expanded, almost vertical and briefly reflected above. 

Major diam. 12, min. 11, height 6 mm. 

Hab. Northern Pegu ; Akoutoung, S. of Prome, Thayetmyo. 

Chiefly distinguished by its dull greasy lustre above and sub- 
angulate or angulate periphery. 

189. Macrochlamys iiotha, Blf. P. Z. 8. 1904, ii, p. 444, pi. 25, fig. 19. 
Nanina petasus, Blf. {nee Benson) J. A. S. B. 1865, 2, p. 86. 

Shell perforate, depressed, not highly polished, smooth to the 
eye or faintly striated, but vmder the microscope ornamented 
above and belo-\\" with tine close concentric (longitudinal) parallel 
raised lines, which, under a higher power, are found to be rows of 
minute moniliform tubercles, yellowish tawny ; spire loA^■, couoidal, 
apex subacute, suture impressed ; whorls 6-7, slightly convex, 
slowly increasing, the last rounded at the periphery, convex 
beneath ; aperture very slightly oblique, almost vertical, lunate ; 
])eristome thin, basal margin arcuate, columellar slightly expanded, 
very briefly vertical above, then obliquely curved. 

Major diam. 11. 7, min. 10|, height 6 mm. 

Hah. Tongoop Pass, Arakan Hills, and neighbourhood of Thayet- 
myo, Pegu. 

This shell resembles the Tenasserim M. petasas (p. 115) closely 
in shape and colour, and I long regarded the two as identical : but 
J/, notha is distinguished by wanting the labiation of the 
Tenasserim species, by being less polished, and by its sculpture, 
w hich can only be seen under a microscope. 

190. Macrochlamys hypoleuca, Bf. (Nanina) J. A. S. B. 1865,2, 

]). 67 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mo„. Hel. v, 1868, p. 104 : H. ^- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 64, tigs. 6, 7 ; 2\evill (Macvochlamvs), Hand-l. i, 
187S, p. 26. 

Shell openly perforate (narrowly umbilicated), depressed, thin, 
smooth, polished, with very fine microscopic spiral (longitudinal) 
^triation (which is often obsolete) above and below ; chestnut 
above, whitish beneath; spii-e very low, conuidal, suture impressed; 



MAOROClir-.VMYS. 



121 



whorls .3, not increasini,' rapidly, convex, the last rather broader, 
rounded 'at the i)eriphery, convex beneath ; aperture slightly 
oblique, broadly luiuite ; peristome acute, basal margin faintly 
arcuate, columellar margin curved, vertical and reflected above. 

Major diam. 12, min. 10^, height H mm. 

Ilah. Pegu, the types from Akoutoung on the Irrawady below 
Prome; also found" at Thayetmyo,and according to Nevill at 
J3hamo. 

Easily recognized by its ]^)eculiar coloration. The sculpture is 
often obsolete on the" upper surface, but can generally be seea 
beneath by the help oF a microscope. 

191. Macrochlamys spreta, Blf. P.Z.S. 1904, ii,p. 445, pi. 25, fig. 12. 

Shell minutely and subobtectly perforate, depressed, thin, 
smooth, polished, finely striated with microscopical spiral (longi- 
tudinal) impressed lines above and below ; light rufescent brown 
(pale chestnut), w hitish at the base around the perforation ; spire 
low, conoidal, suture shallow; whorls 5, convex, the last rather 
broader, rounded at periphery, convex beneath ; a])erture oblique, 
subovately lunate ; peristome thin, straight, columellar margm 
oblique, slightly reflected. 

Major diam. 8, min. 7, height 3^ mm. 

Hah. Thamandewa, Bassein District, and other places west of 
the Irrawady River in Pegu. 

This resembles M. hiipoleuca and M. noxia in colour and form, 
but is distinguished by its marked longitudinal sculpture as well 
as by its smaller size. 

[192. Macrochlamys andersoniana, XeviU. 

Nanina honesta, car. andersoniana, XeviU : vide Appendix to 

Genus, p. 141. 
M. IionestH, var. tenuior, XeviU, MS. : vide Appendix, p. 141.] 

[Macrochlamys honesta, Gould, which was inserted here in 
l)r. Blanford's MS., is placed in a new subgenus.] 

193. Macrochlamys patens, Blf. P. Z. S. 1904, ii, p. 445, pi. 25, Hg. 15. 

Shell narrow ly l)ut perspectively umbilicate, conoidly depressed, 
sublenticular, smooth, polished, marked with parallel microscopic 
spiral (longitudinal) impressed lines, not close together, but at 
irregular intervals, above and below, tawny brown ; spire conoidal, 
suture slightly impressed; whorls 4^, convex, the last rather 
broader, bluntly angulate at the periphery, convex beneath, com- 
pressed around the umbilicus ; aperture diagonal, subtrapezoidal, 
almost securiform : peristome thin and straight, columellar margin 
oblique, triangulai'ly reflected. 

Major diam. 7, min. 6, heiglit 3.4 mm. 

Ha'b. Irrawady Valley, Pegu ; Thayetmyo, Bassein. 

In many respects "this shell resembles M. hone!<t((. but is 



122 ZONITID^. 

distinguished by its uiubilicus, sculpture, &c., besides its very 
mucb smaller size. 

Animal light grey. A very small lobe overhangs the small 
mucous pore. 

c. Shells not exceeding 6 mm. 
(Greneric position very doubtful.) 

a'. Turbinate. 

1 94. Macrochlamys ? pungi, Theobald (Helix), J. A.S.B. 1859. p. 307 ; 

Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 134 ; H. ^' T. C. 1. 1876, 
pi. 16, tig-. 9 ; NeviU, Naiiina (Microcystis), if rt?2cZ-Z. i, 1878, p. 38 ; 
Godwin- Austen (Macrochlamys ?), Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 90, pi. 14, 
fig. 1 (shell). 
Macrochlamys poongi, Tlieobald, Cat. 1876, p. 19. 

Shell perforate, turbinate, rather thin, chestnut-brown, ^^■ith 
very close microscopic sculpture of tine impressed longitudinal 
lines, hardly visible on the upper whorls ; spire couoidal, suture 
deep ; whorls B^, convex, regularly increasing, the last not 
descending, rounded at the periphery and below ; aperture almost 
vertical, roundly lunate ; peristome thin, right mai-gin slightly 
arcuate, columellar slightly expanded, vertical above and trian- 
gularly reflected. 

Major diam. 6"5, min. 6, height 5 mm. 

Hah. Moulmein (Theobald, Stoliczka). 

Near M. ? molecula, but larger and higher in the spire. The 
measurements are those of a large adult shell ; smaller specimens 
are 5 to mm. across. 

b'. Depressed or conoidlij depressed. 
a". Smooth. 

195. Macrochlamys ? molecula, Ih. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, 

p. 389; Ffr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 69; Stol. (Micro- 
cvstis) J. A. S. B. 1871, 1>, p. 251, pi. 18, figs. 11-13 (anatomy) ; 
H.S,- T. (Helix) C. 7. _ 1876, pi. 32, figs. 8,9; Nevill, Naiiina 
(Microcvstis), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 38 ; Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. 
i, 1882, p. 88, pi. 16, fig. 8 (shell). 

Shell narrowly perfoliate, depressedly conoidal, thin, smooth, 
without longitudinal sculpture, brownish horny, approaching pale 
chestnut in colour; spire low, conoid, with convex sides and 
obtuse apex, suture well imjjressed ; whorls 5-5g, rather closely 
MOund, convex above, the last rounded at the periphery and 
convex beneath ; apertin-e scarcely oblique, broadly lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, straight, columellar margin oblique, slightly curved, 
very brieily reflected above. 

Major diam. 5, min. 4, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Eangoon (Theobald), Moiilmein (Stoliczl-a), common ; also 
Kalima Doung, near Ava ( W. T. B.) ; Assam ? and Khasi Hills ? 
(teste Nevill) ; Lampun, Slam (Daly, see Proc. Mai. Soc. v, p. 275). 
A common and widely distributed form. 

Animal crev to black : foot narrow , sole with t\Ao irrooves. 



MACliOCHLAMYS. 123 

Left mantle-lobe (shell-lobe) reflected over the outer lip, but not 
much produced ; right mantle-lobe above shortly linguate. Tail- 
gland distinct, with a hook-like appendage above. Genitalia 
simple ; no spermatheca nor dart-sac Avas seen ; penis very simple, 
with a small kale-sac at the point where the vas deferens joins. 
Jaw broad, smooth, with a projection in the middle inside. Teeth 
of radula in straight transverse ro-ws of about 120 each; middle 
tooth of each row represented as quinquecuspid *, having two 
lateral cusps on each side, the terminal cusp long, pointed, and 
curved ; inner laterals with two outer lateral cusps and one inner 
one ; outer laterals bicuspid, with an outer basal lateral projection. 
(From Stoliczka's notes.) 

19(3. Macrochlamys ? curvilabris, Blf. P. Z. S. 1904,ii, p. 445, pi. 25, 
lig. 13. 

Shell perforate, depressed, brownish, smooth, polished, scarcely 
striated ; spire very long, suture well impressed ; whorls b^, 
regularly increasing, convex above, the last descending somewhat 
towards the aperture, rounded at the periphery, flatly convex 
beneath ; aperture oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome obtuse, 
white and thickened inside, and much curved, upper margin 
slightly arcuate, basal prominently curved forward in the middle, 
columellar oblique, sliglitly reflected. 

Major diam. 5g, min. 5, height 2 mm. 

Hah. Arakan Hills west of Prome. 

This is the small form, " with the curvature and thickening of 
the peristome exaggerated," mentioned amongst the Burmese 
shells collected by me in 1860-62 (J. A. 8. B. 1865, 2, bottom of 
p. 86). It is almost a miniature of M. as/tides. 

b". Loni/iiudinally striated. 

197. Macrochlamys ? perpaiila, B^. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, 
1». ;;!)0: I'fr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1886, p. 69 ; Nevill, Xanina 
(Microcvstis), Hand-l. \, 1878, p. 37: Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. 
\, 1882, "p. 89, pi. 14, lig. 5. 

Shell minutely perforate, depressedly globose, smooth, not 
])olislied, obliquely striated, and very minutely spirally (longi- 
tudinally) ribbed throughout, uniber-brown ; spire conoidly convex, 
apex blunt, suture impressed ; whorls 4, gradually increasing, 
convex, the last rounded at periphery and below ; aperture 
oblique, lunate ; peristome straight, acute, columellar margin 
oblique, slightly reflected above. 

Major diam. 2, min. 1|, height Ij mm. 

Hah. Phiethan, Tenasserim (TJieohald), Moulmein (>StoliczL-a). 
Nevill refers to this species shells from Thayetmyo, Arakan, 
Darjiling, and Pareshnath [the last two are very unlikely]. 

Allied to J\J. mohcula, but, besides its much smaller size, it is 
more globose {Benson). 

* This uuiT be due tu an error ot observaliun, as in the ease of Siiida 
iii/'idi'. 



124 ZONITIU.T. 



198. MacrocUamys ? pauxillula. /is. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 
185U, p. ;WC); Pfr. (Helix) Man. Hel. v, 1868, p. 119; ? H.^- T. 
(Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 90, tigs. 7, 8, 9; ^^eviU, Nanina (Micro- 
cystis), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 37. 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, brownish horny, polished, 
marked with close, very tine, longitudinal (spiral) lines above 
a)id below; spire convex, suture impressed; whorls 4, convex, 
regularly increasing, the last rounded at periphery and below ; 
aperture oblique, broadly lunate; peristome thin, straight, colu- 
inellar margin curved, expanded and carried slightly forward 
above. 

Major diam. 2|, min, 2|, height 1| mm. 

Hah. Thayetmyo, Pegu (Theobald, W. T. B.); Prome. 

The specimens described above, though somewhat larger, agree 
Avith Benson's description and are from the same locality. The 
shell figured iu the ' Conchologia Indica ' looks difterent, and may 
be M. curvilabris. 

Another form, also from Thayetmyo, is thicker ; it has a 
higher, more convex spire, and stronger concentric striation. 
This may be regarded as a variety. 



F. Species from Andaman and other Islands iu Bay of Bengal, 
a. iJejjressed. 

199. Macrochlamys choinix, Bs. (Helix) A. M. A. H. (3) vii, 1861, 
p. 83 ; Ffr. (Helix) Man. Hel. v, 1868, p. 117 ; H .V T. (Helix) 
C. J. 1876, pi. 51, tig. 1 ; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 102, 
1^1. 22, tig. 6; ii, 1898, p. 48; id. A. M. A. H. (6) ii, 1888, p. 57. 

Shell obtectly perforate, depressed, thin, translucent, scarcely 
striated, smootli, with fine, close, spiral (longitudinal) lines, only 
visible under a strong lens, on the upper surface, brownish hoimy ; 
spire very low, suture scarcely impressed, almost flat ; whorls 5, 
flat above, the inner rather closely coiled, the last broader, sub- 
augulately rounded at the periphery, moderately convex beneath ; 
aperture oblique, large, broadly lunate; peristome sharp, upper 
margin arcuate, columellar much curved, vertical above and briefly 
reflected, partly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 16, min. 14, height 7 mm. 

Hah. Mount Hax-riet, South Andaman. 

Distinguished by few whorls, much broader last whorl, and 
the flattened upper surface. The animal, according to Nevill, is 
very active and throughout black, except the sole of the foot, 
which is white. 

Macrochlamys choinir, var. gigantea, Xevill (G.-A., P. Z. . 
1895, p. 446 ; Mol. lud. ii, p. 48), from South Andaman Island, 
has never beeu described. 



MACROCHLA.MYSS. 125 

200. Macrochlamys pseudochoinix, jnf. p. z. s. 1904 ii p 446 
111. 25, iicr. 10. ■ 

Shell subobtec-tly perforate, depressed, thin, smooth, slightly 
polished, brownish horny, subobsoletely plicitely striated trans- 
versely and marked with fine, close, microscopic, slightly flexuous, 
spiral (longitudinal) lines above and below ; spire very low, suture 
scarcely impressed, almost flat ; whorls 5, rather flat above, the last 
much broader, rounded at the periphery, swollen beneath; aperture 
oblique, subdiagonal, large, subovately lunate ; peristome acute, 
upper margin arcuate, columellar much curved, vertical above, 
briefly reflected, partly covering tlie perforation. 

Major diam. 14, min. 12, height 7 mm. 

Hah. Great Cocos Island, ]3ay of Bengal. 

Near M. choinix, but considerably more tumid beneatli, with 
rather higher spire and much stronger spiral sculpture. The 
aperture is much rounder, being very little broader than high, 
7 X 7-0 mm., whilst in a specimen of M. choinix the dimensions 
are 7 X 8"5 nnn. 



201. Macrochlamys exul, Theob. (Helix) J. A. S. B. ]«64. p '>4o- 
Sfol. (Helix) P. A. S. Ii. 1870, p. 87; H.S; T. (Helix) C. I. 
1876, pi. 62, figs. 1, 2, .3; XevUI, lland-l. i, 1878, p. 28 ; Godu-iii- 
Amten, Mnl. Ind. i, 188-3, p. 103. pi. 22, tig. 3 (shell) ; ii. 1907, 
]). 165, pi. Ill, figs. '2--2d (part ofaiiinirtl, geuitalia, & radula;. 
Orobia (HeHx) andamanensi.s, Tn/on, Am. Jour. Conch, v. 1869-70, 
p. 110, pi. 10, fig. 4 ; Pfr. Man. Hcl. vii, 1876, p. 108.' 

Siiell subobtectly perforate, conoidly depressed, smooth, not 
highly polished, with flne, close, longitudinal striation (sometimes 
itidistinct) under the microscope, translucent, light brownish 
horny; spire low, conoidal, sides rather convex, apex obtuse, 
suture shallow ; wi\orls 6, gradually increasing, the last somewhat 
compressed and very bluntly angulate at the periphery, convex 
beneath: aperture oblique, lunate, almost semioval ; peristome 
thin, columellar margin oblique, triangularly reflected above, 
partly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 15|, min. 1 1, height 74 mm, A large specimen 
measures 17 x 15^ x 8. 

Hah. Port Blair, in South Andaman. 

The height of the spire varies, and innnature specimens appear 
flatter, more closely wound, and much more angulate than adults. 
Such shells appear to be frequently mistaken for M. steplms, but 
may be distinguished by the subangulate periphery and oblique 
aperture. 

[Animal ochraceous in spirit. Foot divided on the sole, extremity 
rounded ; mucous gland large, with a blunt overhanging lobe, 
llight and left shell-lobes are present, the latter apparently larger 
than usual in the genus. In the generative organs the penis has a 
coiled ca?cum ; a long retractor muscle given off from it. The 



126 



zonttiti-t:. 



epiphallus thence to the junction of the vas deferens is very long, 
and at the junction gives off a long kale-sac. The amatorial organ 
is long. The spermathcca consists of an oval sac at the end of a 
thickened stem. 




Fig. 49. — MacroMamys c.rul. 

A. Portions of the mantle-zone showing shell- and dorsal lobes. X3"3. 

B. Generative organs. Xt). 

C. Jaw. Xl8. 

D. Teeth of the radiila. 

Macrochlamys. heafa, 

E. Teeth of the radula. X413. 

Jaw moderately curved, with a slight median projection. 
Radula formula : 

35 . 1 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 1 . 35 
or 46 . 1 . 46 

Central tooth rather short, with small blunt basal cusps ; the 
admedian teeth on quadrate plates, blunt cusps low down on outer 
margin ; the laterals are long, aculeate, and slightly curved, 
becoming very short on the outer margin. 



7k[ACROCnLAMYS. 



127 



This radula is very different from tliat of typical Macrocldamys, 
and so is the genitalia, and if it should be common to all the 
Andaman species it would constitute them a good subsection ._ 

Aculeate laterals have been noticed in the following species : — 
M. laimana ; M. castaneo-Jahi ata ; in M. tngurium the outermost 
teetii ; and in M. dalingensis they are nearly aculeate.] 

202 Macrochlamys stephus, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. II. (3) vii, 1861, 
p. 84 ; lYr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. lOo ; 'f H. S> T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 62, tigs. 4, 5, 6 ; Nevill, Xanina (Macrochlamys), 
liand-l i, 1878, p. 2^ ; Go(hvm-Austen, A. M. N. II. (6) ii, 1888, 
p. 56; id. P. Z. S. 1895, i)p. 441, 446; id. Mol. Lid. ii, 1898, 
p. 50. 
Shell narrowly perforate, depressed, smooth, with faint micro- 
scopic traces of minute, close, spiral (longitudinal) striation, poHshed, 
pale yellowish or greyish brown ; spire very depressedly conoidal, 
suture faintly impressed ; whorls G-7, slightly convex above, in- 
creasing slowly and regularly, the last rounded outside, obtusely 
subangniate above the periphery in immature shells, convex 
beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, lunate ; peristome tbin, upper 
margin straight, basal slightly arcuate, columellar oblitiue, ex- 
panded throughout the greater part of its length, more broadly 

above. ... 

Major diain. 12|, min. 11, height nearly 6 mm. A rather 
smaller specimen with 6 whorls measures 11| X lO-i x5 mm. 

Hab. Mount Harriet, Port Blair, South Andaman Island. 

Benson's type measured only 10 mm. in major diameter. 

The figures in the ' Conchologia Indica ' are not good, and per- 
haps represent a different shell. 31. stephus may be recognized 
by its closely-wound whorls, low spire, and want of distinct 
sculpture under the microscope. 

Animal throughout yellow, except the tentacles, which are 
black, sole of foot also yellow {Nevill). 

[In a specimen recently examined, sent home by Mr. G. Rogers 
from South Andaman Island, a minute left shell-lobe is present, 
contracted and hooked in the spirit-specimen. Preserved in this 
way and brittle, it would very readily be broken off. _ The penis 
has a small coiled ctecum ; the jaw a small central projection. In 
the radula the laterals are slightly curved aculeate teeth, and the 

formula is 

30 . 1 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 1 . 30 

41 . 1 . 41 

in all respects similar to that of M. exul.'] 

*203. Macrochlamys woodmasoni, Godinn-Austen(Nevill,MS.),Mol. 
Lid. i, 1888, p. 209, pi. 53, fig. 2. 
Maf-rochlamys woodmasoniana, Godioin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, 
pp. 441, 446. 
" Shell not quite mature, perforation minute, very depressedly 



128 Z0NITID.5:. 

"■lobose, glassy, rather solid ; sculpture quite smooth ; whorls 6, 
closely wound, flat above, subaugulate above on periphery. 

" Major diam. 9-5, min. S, alt. axis 3-5, body-whorl 2-8 mm." 
(^Godtvin-Austen.) 

Hah. Little Cocos Island, Bay of Bengal. 

The figure represents a discoidal form, not unlike that of 
M. consepta, with a scarcely exserted spire. The shell is deep and 
tumid beneath, and the gi-eatest diameter much nearer to the spire 
than to the base. 

b. DcpressedJii conoid., more or less lenticidar. 

2(»4. Macrochlamys aulopis, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xi, 1863, 
p. 31S; H. vS- r. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 30, tigs. 8, 9; Nevill 
(NauiiiA), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 32. 
Helix aiilopsis, Pfr. Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 93; God win- Ami en 
(Macrochlamys), P. Z. S. 1895, p. 446. 

Shell openly perforate, suburabilicate, depressedly conoid, len- 
ticular, smooth, slightly pohshed, minutely decussated beneath a 
lens by transverse and rather distinct longitudinal lines both 
above and below, thin, translucent, greyish-brown horny ; spire 
conoidal, suture very slightly impressed ; whorls 5, gradually in- 
creasing, flatly convex above, the last sharply carinate at the 
periphery, moderately convex beneath ; aperture oblique, quad- 
rately lunate, subsecuriform ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
slightly oblique, carried forward, and triangularly reflected above. 

Major diam. 12, min. 10, alt. 6 mm. 

Hah. South Andaman Island, not common. 

Animal light grey, mottled with a darker shade {Nevill). Right 
shell-lobe well developed. Teeth on radula -f20 . 8 . 1 . 8 . 20-f 
about. 

205. Macrochlamys pseudaulopis, Godu-in-Aufifen {Nevill, MS.), 

A. M. N. H. (6) ii, 1888, p. 56 ; id. P. Z. S. 1895, p. 447. 

This is distinguished from M. aulopis by rather smaller size, 
hrio-hter and more rufous-brown colour, by the longitudinal 
(spmil) sculpture above and below being less strong, and fine and 
close instead of distant, by the suture being rather deeper, the 
whorls more convex, the last whorl less sharply keeled and more 
swollen beneath, the aperture higher in proportion to the breadth, 
and the columellar margin vertical above and broadly reflected. 

Major diam. 10, min. 8, height 5 mm. 

Hah. South Andaman Island. Common on Mount Harriet 
{Nevill). 

Animal blackish throughout. 

206. Macrochlamys fcrdiana. Godwin-Ausfen {Nevill, MS.), A. M. 

N. H. (G) ii, 1888, p. 56 ; id. P. Z. S. 1895, p. 446. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, depressedly conoid, bluntly keeled, 



MACUOCnLAMYS. 129 

thin, pale yellowish to rufescent horny, not polished above, more 
so beneath, transversely striated and with subobsolete rather dis- 
tant longitudinal (spiral) lines, and obliquely somewhat closely 
irregularly and flexuously rugate abo\e, faintly decussated and 
much smoother below; spire conoidal, the sides convex, apex 
obtuse, suture almost flat ; whorls '), flatly convex above, the 
last rather broader, bluntly angulate at the ])eriphery, slightly 
tumid beneath; aperture oblique, subovately lunate: "peristome 
thin, in one plane, columellar marfjin curved, scarcely vertical 
above and briefly but broadly reflected, partly concealing the per- 
foration. 

Major diam. 18, min. IG, height 10 mm. 

Hah. South Andaman. 

Distinguished by its peculiar wrinkled surface. By this young 
specimens may be separated from 31. 2>seudaulo2ns, which they 
otherwise resemble. 



207. Macrochlamys ? perinconspiena, Godwin- Austeti {Nevill, MS.), 

A. M. X. JI. (U) ii, 1888, p. 57. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, conoidly depressed, sublenticular, 
not very thin, slightly polished above, more brilliantly beneath, 
marked with tine, close, spiral or concentric (longitudinal) im- 
pressed lines above and below, brownish horny ; spire conoidal, 
with tiie sides convex, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 5, 
regularly increasing, convex ; last whorl bluntly angulate at peri- 
l)hery, convex beneath ; aperture oblique, subangulately and 
broadly lunate, subovate ; peristome straight, basal margin mnch 
rounded, columellar vertical, slightly reflected. 

Major diam. 7-5, min. 7, height 4 mm. Smaller shells measure 
X o X 3-5 mm. 

Hah. Little Brother Island, Andaman group. 

This is probably not a Mucrocldamys. 

208. Macrochlamys ? battimalvensis, Godwin-Austen {Nevill, MS.), 

A. M. A. H. (6) ii, 1?88, p. 58. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, depressed, lenticular, compressedly 
carinate, not thin, smooth, finely transversely striated and decus- 
sated with microsco|)ic rather distinct longitudinal impressed lines 
above and below, brownish yellow ; spire low, conoidal, suture 
almost flat; whorls 4.J, flatly convex, the last compressed above 
the prominent keel, more convex beneath, tumid around the deep 
pervious umbihcus ; aperture oblique, subsecuriform ; peristome 
thin (? immature), straight, columellar margin vertical, rather 
broadly reflected. 

Major diam. 9-5, min. 8, height 4 mm. 

Hah. Batti Malve, one of the Nicobar Islands. 

This shell is not like any known Macrochlamys. and the only 
.specimen may be immature. 

K 



130 zoyiTin.T;. 

G. Species from Indian Peninsnla and Ceylon, having !Rajputana, 

Central India, and Chutia Nagpur on the north. 

(Of tJie (greater number tJie generic affinities are douhtfid.) 

a. Suhglohosely dejiressed or suhturhinate. 
a'. Lonijitudinal scidpture present {microscopical). 

209. Macrochlamys ? tenuicula, H. Ad. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 14, pi. 14, 
Ji^. 9 ; Pf. (Helix) Mo7i. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 94; H. ^- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 18t6, pi. 89, figs. 7, 10; Blf. J. A. S. B. 1880, 2, p. 196, 
pi. 2, fig. 8. 

Nanina (Macrochlamys) efiulgens, IsevlU {Blf. MS.), Hand-l. i, 
1878, p. 26. 

Naiiina (Microcystis) tenuicola, Nevill, Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 36 ; Peile 
(Microcystina), Jour. Bom. N. H. Soe. xi, 1897, pp. 133, 262. 

Shell openly perforate, subumbilicate, turbinate, thin, yellow or 
fulvous horny, polished, transparent, striatulate, and under the 
microscope finely decussated on the upper whorls with miiiute, 
close, impressed spiral (longitudinal) lines ; spire subconical, the 
sides slightly convex, apex obtuse, suture slightly impressed ; 
whorls 5g-6, flatly convex above, rather closely wound, the last 
subaugulate at the periphery (distinctly angulate in immature 
shells), convex beneath ; aperture oblique, diagonal in the young, 
roundly lunate ; peristome thin, straight, columellar margin much 
curved and nearly vertical above, turned back at the perforation. 
Major diam. 9, min. 8, height 7 mm. 

Hab. Bombay and the Western Ghats, Khandalla, Saltara, and, 
according to Nevill, Surat. I obtained young specimens in the 
Eajpipla Hills at Dholgaum. 

The animal is nearly black ; foot very long and narrow ; shell- 
lobes to mantle small, pointed ; a large lobe above the mucous 
pore. 

This shell is easily recognized by its turbinate shape. The 
specimen originally described by H. Adams, 6 mm. in diameter, 
was immature. Some shells measure 10 mm. in major diameter. 
The young shell, however, with 4 whorls and the aperture diagonal 
and almost securiform, is thicker than older specimens and has all 
the appearance of an adult shell, the peristome being rather 
blunt. 

b'. JNo longitudinal sculpture. 

210. Macrochlamys fragilis, Hutton (Nanina), /. A. S. B. 1838, 
p. 216; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. i, 1847, p. 48; iv, p. 30; Bens. 
HeHx (Nanina), A. M. N. H. (2) ii, 1848, p. 163. 

Shell openly perforate, subturbinately depressed, thin, polished, 
smooth, pale umber ; spire conoidal, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; 
whorls 4|, convex, the last broader and ventricose, obsoletely 
subangulate at the periphery (more angulate in young), rather flatly 



MACROCnLAAIYS. 131 

convex beneath ; apertuiv^ oblique, subquadrately lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, columellar margin incurved, vertical and ratlier 
broadly reflected above. 

Major diam. 74, miii. 7, height 5 mm. 

Hah. Kirmalliah, about o miles from Neemuch in Central India 
(Hatton). 

The original specimens were found crawling on Dhak or Paliis 
{Butea frondosa), and it is not clear that tliey \\ere mature. The 
description is taken from two immature specimens in the British 
Museum, presented by Capt. Hutton, The diameter of Hutton's 
type was 0-35 in, (9 mm.). The species is allied to M. tenuicula, 
but is more openly perforate and less angulate at the pheriphery, 
besides wanting the longitudinal sculpture of that shell. 

211. Macrochlamys ? lixa, Blf. Nanina (Macrochlamvs ?), /. A. S.B. 
1866, 2, p. 85; Pf'r. (Helix) Man. Hel. v, 1868,' p. 79; H. S,- T. 
(Helix) C. 1. 1876, pL 149, tigs. 5, 6 ; Neviil (Nanina), Iland-l. i, 
1878, p. 26. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, depressedly turbinate, subglobose, 
very thin, above dull, without lustre, and, besides the ordinary 
striation, marked with fine, close, flexuous, transverse impressed 
lines under the microscope, polished beneath, olivaceous or fulvous 
with an olive tinge; spire conoidal, suture impressed; whorls 6, 
convex, the last much broader, rounded at the periphery, tumid 
beneath. Aperture oblique, large, roundly lunate, almost as high 
as broad ; peristome thin, straight, columellar margin slightly 
oblique, nearly vertical above, reflected, not broadly but so as partly 
to cover the perfoi*ation. 

Major diam. 16, min. 14|, height 10 mm. 

Hah. Orissa and Ganjam {Ball, Beddome). The locality origi- 
nally given, Anaimalai Hills, appears to have been a mistake. 



212. Macrochlamys ? hehescens, Blf. Nanina (Macrochlamvs), J. A. 
S. B. 1866. 2, p. 34; Ffr. (Helix) Mo7i. Hel. v, 1868, p. 78; 
//. 4- T. (Helix) O. I. 1876, pi. 149, fig. 1; ? Xevill, Nanina 
(Macrochlamys), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 26. 

Shell scarcely perforate, conoidly depressed, yellowish or fulvous, 
thin, horny, dull (without lustre), marked with very close, micro- 
scopic, impressed, oblique (transverse, somewhat ix'regular and 
wavy) lines above, more jiolished and radiately striated below ; 
spire low, apex rather acute, prominent, subacuminate, suture 
deep ; whorls 5|, rounded, the first narrow, the last much broader, 
very bluntly subangulate at the periphery and tumid beneath ; 
mouth large, nearly vertical. Innately subovate, breadth exceeding 
the height; peristome thin, straight, margins subdistant, united by 
a veiy thin callus, columellar margin nearly vertical above, very 
briefly and broadly roflexed, nearly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 15, min. 12^, height 8| mm. 

k2 



132 zonitidjE. 

Hob. .Teypore, Vizagapatam. The locality origiually gi^en, 
Anaimalai Hills, is erroneous, as in the case of M. infausfa and 
M. lixa. 

This may ])erhaps be a variety of M. lixa, with a lower spire. 



213. Macrochlamys pedina, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xv, 1865, 
p. 13; Ffr. (Helix) Moti. Hel. \, 1868, p. 100; id. vii, 1876, 
pp. 108, 530 ; H. ^ T. C. I. 1876, pi. 51, fig. 3 ; Stol. J. A. 8. B. 
1872, 2, p. 212, footnote ; Godivin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1898, pi. 21, 
fig. 13 (sculpture of inner whorls) ; id. ii, 1907, pp. 87, 133, 
pi. 83 (anatomy) ; Peile (Nanina), Jour. Bum. N. H. Sue. xi, 
1897, p. 133; Kobelt, Nanina (Xestina), Mart. ^- Chemu Syst. 
Conch.- Cab., Zonitidas, 1901, p. 980, pi. 254, figs. 4, 5; id. 
(Macrochlamys) t. c. 1901, p. 1021, pi. 263, fig. 2. 
Helix vitrinoides, Pfr. (pt.), Mart. ^- Chemn. (nee Desk.) Syst. 
Conch.-Cab. 1901, pi. 110, figs. 10-12 (nee 13-15). 

Shell rather openly perforate, conoidly depressed, very thin, 
translucent, polished below, less so above, smooth, without longi- 
tudinal sculpture, but minutely, closely, and flexuously striated, 
transversely on some of the inner whorls, yellowish to fulvous 
horny ; spire very low, but varying in height, suture impressed ; 
whorls 6^, slightly convex above, the last broader, bluntly sub- 
angulate "above the periphery, somewhat tumid beneath; aperture 
sHghtly oblique, rouudly lunate ; peristome very thin, coluuiellar 
margin much curved, vertical and reflected above, partly covering 
the perforation. 

Major diam. 30, min. 25i, height 13.^ mm. Other specimens 
measure 30, 26^, and 15|, and 28, 23, and 13. 




Fig. 50. — Macrochlamys pedina. 

Hab. A considerable part of the Bombay Presidency. Common 
at Bombay and Khandalla, and reported from Cutch {Stoliczka), 
Poena, iSinghar {W. T. B.), Ahmednagar, and South Canara 
(Beddome). The South Canara shell has a higher spire. A very 
similar form, perhaps a variety, is found at Karnul (Beddome). 

Animal pale to dark grey or blackish in colour ; shell-lobes well 
developed, right dorsal lobe ample, left dorsal lobes in two parts. 
Teeth in radula of usual form : 44 . 3 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 3 . 44 (61 . 1 . 61). 
The genitalia differ from those of typical Macrocldamys by the 
c^cum of the male organ not being coiled, [thus resembling much 



MACEOCHLAMYS. 



133 



more that of AriopJianta']. Tlie spermatheca is very long and the 
dart-sac long and cylindrical. 

This is the largest Indian peninsular species. 




Fig. 51. — Macrochlamys pcdina. 

A. Mantle-edges, showing shell- and dorsal lobes. X3. 
Genitalia. X 3. 

Spermatophore. X 3'4. 

Ditto, portion of flume of. X 22-5. 

Macrocldamys hardwickii. 

B. Genitalia. Enlarged about 3 times. 
Teeth of the radula. 



214. Macrochlamys infausta, BIf. Nanina (Macrochlamys), J. A. 
S B. IHCC, 2, p. 3G; Pfr. (Ilelix) Man. Bel. v, 18G8, p. 124; 
M. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 159, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell openly perforate, subumbilicated, conoidly depressed, sub- 
globose, thin, translucent, with a dull greasy lustre above, glassy 



134 zonitid.t:. 

below, brownish tawny; sculpture as in M. hardwickii, the longi- 
tudinal striae very close and minute, only visible under a strong 
lens ; spire low, conoidal, suture impressed ; whorls 6, convex 
above, the last rather broader, rounded at the periphery, tumid 
beneath ; aperture oblique, roundly lunate, margins converging ; 
peristome thin, basal margin subarcuate, coluinellar margin much 
curved, vertical above and rather broadly triangularly expanded 
and carried forward, not reflected. 

Major diam. i!2, min. 20, height 14. Larger specimens mea- 
sured 24i X 22i X 14| and 26 x 23^ x 14^. 

Hah. Eusselconda, Northern Circars, Madras Presidency 
{Traill)-^ Golconda Hills ; Gaujam and Jaipur (Beddome), not 
Auaimalais. 

This resembles M. hardivickii in form and sculpture, but is much 
larger and has a more open umbilicus. It is distinguished from 
M. indiea, J\J. j^t^trosa, and AI. peiylana by more globose form and 
by sculpture. It differs from Jf. pe'c^ina in smaller size, different 
sculpture, rounder periphery, and more open perforation. The 
expanded portion of the columellar margin, viewed from beneath, 
is carried forward almost at right angles to the direction of the 
basal margin. 

The locality originally assigned to this species, the Anaimalai 
Hills, appears to have been given in error, as in the case of 
M. lixa. 

b. Depressed or conoidhj depressed. 
a'. Diameter not exceedimj about 15 mm. 
(May possibly belong to Euryddamys.) 

215. Macrochlamys ? umbrina, Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, 

p. 49 ; K. i^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1870, pi. 89, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

yhell scarcely perforate, conoidly depressed, thin, translucent, 
polished, very finely and closely striated spirally (longitudinally) 
beneath the microscope, brownish tawny ; spire low, conoid, 
suture impressed ; whorls 4|, convex, the last broader, rounded at 
periphery, flatly convex beneath, sunken around the perforation ; 
aperture slightly oblique, lunate ; peristome thin, straight, columellar 
margin oblique, reflected above, almost concealing the perforation. 

Major diam. 8, min. 7, height 4^ mm. 

Hab. Ceylon, Badulla district (Layard). 

216, Macrochlamys? nepas, Ffr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1855, p. 91; id. 

(Helix) Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 24 ; H. ^- T. (HeUx) C. I. 1876, 
pi. 132, tigs. 1, 2. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conoidlv depressed, thin, smooth, 
polished, finely and closely striated spirally (longitudinally) 
beneath the microscope, orange-brown ; spire conoid, suture 
impressed ; whorls 4|, convex, the last broader, rounded at the 
periphery, tumid at base ; aperture subvertical, roundly lunate ; 



M.VCUOCHLAMTS. 135 

peristome thin, straight, coluinellar margin curved, vertical above 
and expanded, narrowly redected. 

Major diam. 7|, min. 6|, height 5 mm. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

The above description is taken from the typical specimens in 
the British Museum, but they differ somewhat in colour and iu 
the shape of the mouth from Pfeiffer's original description. He 
described the shell as purplish browu, and the aperture as bi'oadly 
lunate. 



217. Macrochlamys ? woodiana, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1851, p. 2o4 ; 

id. (HeHx) Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 87 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. /. 187t5, 

pi. 32, iig3. 2, 3 ; Nevillj Jour. Cunchyl. xxvi, 1878, p. 60 ; id. 

Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 22. 
Helix cameola, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 148 ; id. Mon. Hel. iv, 1850, 

p. 47 ; H. 4- r. C. I. 1876, pi. 128, iigs. 2, 3. 
Helix semifusca, apud Pfr, Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 02, pt. : nee 

Deslmyes, vide Nevill, t. c. 

Shell very narrowly umbilicated, depressed, thin, smooth, glassy, 
yellowish to fulvous horny, with very fine indistinct spiral 
striation only visible when highly magnitied ; spire low, conoidal, 
apex rather prominent, suture well impressed ; whorls 6, convex, 
increasing slowly, the last scarcely broader, bluntly subangulate 
at periphery, tlatly convex below ; aperture oblique, broadly 
lunate; pei'istome thin, basal margin slightly arcuate, columellar 
curved, oblique, not retlected over the umbilicus, but carried for- 
ward for a short distance. 

Major diam. 12, min. 11, height 5| mm. 

Hah. Ceylon and Southern India ; Trichinopoly, Kolamalai 
Hills, Arcot ( W. T. B.); Myhendra, Travancore {Beddome). 

A common species in the Carnatic and, apparently, in Ceylon. 
Nevill has shown that the true Helix semifusca of Heshayes, 
supposed to have been brought from Pondicherry, really came 
from Mauritius. At the same time the shell described by Pfeifl'er 
is different from woodiana, as Nevill shows. The types of 
H. woodiana and H. cameola in the British Museum appear to me 
identical. 



218. Macrochlamys ? rutila, Blf. P. Z. S. 1904, ii. p. 443, pi. 25, fig. 1 1 . 

Shell perforate, depressed, glassy, polished, closely, minutely 
and regularly striated longitudinally (spirally) under the micTo- 
scope above and below, light chestnut ; spire very low, suture 
slightly impressed ; whorls G, convex, the last broader, rounded at 
the periphery, convex beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, lunate ; 
peristome thin, upper margin slightly arcuate, basal nearly straight, 
columellar oblique, briefly and ti-iaugularly reflected above. 

Major diam. scarcely lo, min. 13, heiglit mm. 

Hub. Auagundi Shola, Anaimalai Hills {Beddome). 



136 ZONITID.^. 

219. Macrochlamys ? vallicola, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1854, p.2S9; ?f?. 

CUelix) Mo7i. Bel. iv, 1859, "p. 46; 11. ^' T. (Helix) C. J. 1876, 
pi. 11^8, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell perforate, depressed, smooth, highly polished, marked 
with fine, concentric (longitudinal), not very close, and slightly 
impressed lines (only visible under a microscope) above and faintly 
below ; isabelline tawny, whitish beneath ; spire almost flat, 
suture shallow, slightly impressed : whorls 5, slightly convex, the 
last rounded at the periphery, convex below ; aperture subvertical, 
lunate ; peristome thin, straight, columellar margin oblique, ex- 
panded, reflected above. 

Major diam. 12, min. 10, height 5 mm. 

Hob. Ivundah Hills, the \^estern part of the Nilgiris (Pirrie). 

220. MacrocMamys todarum, W. S,- 11. BJf. (Helix) J. A. S. B. xxx, 

1801, p. 353, pi. 1, fi-. 8; Pfr. (Helix) Mm. Hel. v, 1868, 
p. 106 ; H. ^ T. (Helix) C. L 1876, pi. 64, figs. 4, 5 ; Nevill, 
Nauina (Macrochlamys), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 26. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, subturbinately depressed, thin, 
smooth, polished, minutely and closely striated concentrically 
(longitudinally) throughout beneath the microscope, rufescent 
brownish horny ; spire conoid, apex acute, suture impressed ; 
whorls 6, convex, the last considerably broader, rounded at peri- 
phery, convex below ; aperture subvertical, roundly lunate ; 
peristome thin, basal margin slightly arcuate, columellar curved, 
vertical above, triangularly reflected partially covering the per- 
foration. 

[" Animal of Kilgiri specimen very similar to H. vitrinoides 
(i. e. M. indica, petrosa, &c.), and with precisely similar linguiform 
processes to the mantle. Back veiy narrow but not keeled above. 
Animal and mantle black." — Extract from Dr. Blanford's Note-hoolc.'\ 

Major diam. 14, min. 12, height 7^ mva. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills; Pykara, Neddiwuttom, 6000', &c. Also 
reported from other parts of the Nilgiris, from Tinnevelly and 
from the Shevroys. 

221. Macrochlamys? perrotteti, Ffr. (Helix) Zntsckr. Mai. 1851, 

p. V^ ; id. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 63 ; id t. c. vii, 1876, 
p. 110 : id. (Helix) Mart. ^ Chemv. Si/st. Conch.-Cab. 1901, Helix, 
no. 1088, pi. 159, tigs. 41-44 ; W. ^- H. Blf. J. A. S. B. 1861, 
p. 353. 

Shell perforate, depressed, thin, smooth, polished, with extremely 
minute and close microscopic spiral striation, brownish horny ; 
spire very low, conoid, suture slightly impressed ; whorls 5g, 
rather convex, the last rounded at the periphery and flatly con- 
vex beneath ; aperture subvertical, lunate ; peristouae thin, basal 
margin slightly arcuate, columellar oblique, slightly curved, tri- 
angularly exj^anded, but scarcely reflected above. 

Major diam. 8, min. 7, height 4 mm. A smaller form measures 
7x6x3.4. 



MACBOCHLAMYS. 137 

Hah. On the phiteau of the Xilgiris, GOOO-7000' ; Pykara, 
Avalanclie, &c. A common species. Tlie longitudinal sculpture 
is not easily detected. 

Hanley (Conch. Ind. p. vi, footnote 13) states that this species 
is African, but gives no evidence. Pfeiffer in the seventh volume 
of the Mou. Hel., published the same year (1876) as Hanley's work, 
gives the Nilgiris as the only locality. 

222. Macrochlamys ? prava, Blf. P. Z. S. 1904, ii, p. 443, pi. 25, fig. 9. 

Shell perforate, depressed (the axis rather higher in proportion 

to the diameter), thin, smooth, polished, with traces of close, sub- 
obsolete, irregular, longitudinal striation visible under a microscope, 
brownish rufescent ; spire low, couoidal, suture faintly impressed ; 
whorls 5, convex, the last considerably broader, well rouuded at 
the periphery and rather tumid below ; aperture almost vertical. 




Fig. 52. — Macrochlaviys prava. 

subovately lunate, almost circular; peristome thin, straight, 
columellar margin almost vertical, and slightly reflected above, 
curved below. 

Major diam. lOg, min. 9, height 5^ mm. 

Hah. Beypur, Malabar {W. T. B.), Anaimalai Hills (Beddome), 
Travancore. I liave also specimens from Coonoor Ghat, Nilgiri 
Hills, apparently belonging to this form. 

This resembles the Arakanese M. Jcumaheusis, but is slightly 
less globose. 

223. Macrochlamys ? vilipeusa, Bs. (Helix) A. M. H. H. (2) xii, 1853, 
p. 93; Pfr. (Helix) Man. Hd. iv, 1859, p. 49 ; H. cj- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 187C, pi. 89, tigs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell openly and perviously perforate, depressed, translucent, 
smooth, polished, amber-coloured or tawny ; spire slightly convex, 
apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 2, slightly convex above, 
regularly increasing, the last rounded at the periphery, convex 
beneath ; aperture scarcely oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome 
thin, straight, columellar margin much curved, almost vertical 
above aud reflected. 

Major diam. 8, min. 7, height 4 mm. 

Hnh. Ceylon, Mehintali Kock {Layard); Calcad Hills, Travan- 
core {Beddome). 

This species resembles M. nepos, but is distinguished by narrower 
last whorl, lower spix*e, and much more open perforation. 



1,'IS ZONTTIU.i:. 

c. upper Surface transversely plicate or ribbed. 

224. Macrochlamys ? peringundensis, Bedd. P. Z. S. 1891, p. 313, 

pi. 29, tio-s. 13, 14. 

Shell minutely and subobtectly perforate, depressed, sublen- 
ticular, thin, translucent, polished, greenish horny, rather irregu- 
larly and obliquely plicateiy striated above, smooth beneath, very 
minutely (microscopically) sculptured longitudinally above and 
below with fine, close, papillose, irregular lines ; spire low, 
conoidal, the height above the periphery less than that below, 
suture scarcely impressed; whorls 6|, flattened above, the last 
broader, sharply angulate at the periphery, swollen below ; aper- 
ture oblique, augulately lunate ; pei'istoine thin, straight, columellar 
margin curved, vertical and reflected above. 

Major diam. 16, min. 13|, height 8 mm. 

Hab. Peringunda Hill, Anaimalais, 5000'. 

Apparently an ally of 31. pnUcifera, with similar microscopical 
sculpture, but distinguished by the plications not passing over the 
periphery and by other characters. Animal not known. 

d. SJiells not exceeding about 6 mm. (^ inch) in diameter. 
(Generic affinities doubtf id.) 

» a. Depressed, or conoidly depressed. 

b. Smooth. 

225. Macrochlamys? perfucata, Bs. (Helix) A.M.N. H. (2) xii, 

1853, p. 93; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 50. 

" Shell scarcely perforate, depressed, translucent, purplish 
brown, highly polished ; spire slightly raised, suture submar- 
ginate, apex obtuse ; whorls 4, rather convex, closely wound, the 
last rounded, convex beneath ; aperture lunate, scarcely oblique ; 
peristome straight, sharp, columellar margin vertical, gently 
reflected ; umbilicus not pervious. 

"Major diam. 5, min. 3, axis 3 mm." {Benson in Latin.) 

Hab. in the district of Galle, Ceylon {Layard). 

I do not think the Microcystina from Bintenne and Matale 
(1800-2000'), north of the mountain complex in South-western 
Ceylon, can be the same as this species from Galle on the south 
coast, although referred to it by Godwin-Austen (Mol. Ind. ii, 
p. 110, pi. 92, fig. 4). It is quite possible that Benson's type, now 
no longer available, may have been immature, but the diiferences, 
especially in the character of the aperture, are too great to be 
attributed to age alone. 

220. Macrochlamys ? tratanensis, Joussemime (^'itreaj, Mhn. Soc. 
Zool. Fr. vii, 1894, p. 270, pi. 4, %. 11. 

" Shell scarcely perforate, lenticular, depressed, thin, smooth, 
diaphanous, yellowish glassy, pohshed above, below obscurely and 



:macrociila.mvs. 139 

radial ely striated ; spire scarcely raised, suture linear; whorls 4, 
tlepressed, convex, the last but little broader at the base, not 
descending ; aperture nearly vertical, roundly semilunar ; peri- 
stome simple, acute, thin, fragile, colur.iellar margin reflected 
below and almost concealing the small umbilicus. 

" Major diam. 5, uiin. 4, height 2 mm." {Jousseaume in Latin.) 

Hah. Nuwara EUia, Ceylon. 

Probably not adult. The periphery is rounded, not angulate. 
Only two specimens were obtained. This might perhaps be 
M. perfucata, but as it inhabits tlie higher mountains of Ceylon 
it is not safe to identify it with a species living near the sea- 
level. 



b'. LongitudinaUu striated. 

227. Macrochlamys ? kandiensis, Godwin-Austen {NcviU,MS.),Mol. 
Ind. \, ltt8;i, p. 90, pi. 14, tig. 2. 

Shell perforate, conoidly depressed, rather solid, dark chestnut- 
brown, pohshed, finely, rather distantly striated longitudinally 
beneath the microscope above and below ; spire low, couvexly 
conoidal, apex obtuse, suture shallow ; whorls 5, convex, the last 
well rounded at the periphery and moderately convex beneath ; 
aperture slightly oblique, rather broadly lunate ; peristome thin, 
columellar margin oblique, slightly curved and expanded, more 
reflected above. 

Major diam. 3g, min. 3, height 2 mm. 

II ah. Kandy, Ceylon. 



228. Macrochlamys? neherensis, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xiii, 
18t)4, p. L>10: Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 164; H. ^- T. 
(Helixj C. I. 1876, pi. 32, tigs, o, 6; i\"ey. Nanina (Microcystis), 
Hand- 1, i, 1878, p. 38. 

"Shell narrowly and deeply (perspectively) umbilicate, depressed, 
obliquely striatulate, decussated above and below with very close 
spiral or concentric impressed lines; spire slightly convex, apex 
flattened, suture marginate, subcanaliculale ; whorls 5, slightly 
convex, the last rounded at the periphery, convex beneath, exca- 
vated round the umbilicus ; aperture oblique, broadly lunate ; 
peristome thin, straight (in one plane), the margins joined by a 
thin minutely granulate callus; columellar margin subvertical, 
short, slightly reflexed. 

" Major diam. 5, min. 4, axis 2 mm." (Benson in Latin.) 

Hab. Mahableshwar and Khandalla (Fairbank). 

The description is a translation of Benson's Latin one, except 
that I have omitted the term lenticular. I had specimens of this 
shell, but they have been crushed. 



140 ZOSVJCIBJE. 

229. Macrochlamys ? atoma, Blf. {Fairhank, MS.) P. Z. S. 1904, ii, 
p. 443, pi. 25, %. 6. 

Shell openly perforate, depressed, discoidal, rather solid, smooth, 
glassy, longitudinally (spirally) striated above and beneath under 
the microscope with regular, parallel, subdistant, impressed lines, 
whitish horny ; spire very low, almost flat, suture impressed ; 
whorls 3^, regularly increasing, convex above, the last not 
descending, rounded at the periphery, flatly convex beneath ; 
aperture slightly oblique, lunate ; peristome thin, upper and basal 
margins moderately arcuate, columellar margin very oblique, almost 
horizontal, not reflected. 

Major diatu. 1*5, min. 1-2, height O'G mm. 

Hah. Godavari Valley. I have obtained specimens from Paitan 
near Ahmednagar to below the first barrier at Dumagudlon, also 
in the Wardha and Penganga valleys. Found commonly with 
other shells amongst the debris deposited by river-floods and 
marking their highest level. I believe I also obtained this shell in 
the Nerbudda Valley. All specimens obtained were dead and 
usually milky white. 



[Appendix to Macrochlamys. 

No. 116 (p. 79). Macrochlamys vesicula, Bs., should be vesicula, 
Hutton. 

It is impossible now to ascertain on what shell Mr. Benson 
based his first description of this species ; he believed it had a 
Avide geographical range. Unfortunately, the exact locality of 
the shell Ur. Blanford has described is not specified, nor is it now 
to be found among his shells. The Murree specimens (p. 79) are 
distinct. 

The If. vesicula of Hutton, 1837, was certainly Himalayan; he 
speaks of it as occurring from Monee Marjora, on edge of the 
plains, to Simla and the forest of Mahasu, 10,000 feet. He and 
Benson gave it an even greater range, as Dr. Blanford explains, 
p. 80. Thus it was that in 1852, fifteen years later, we find him 
giving an amended description of a shell he found at Soti Durga, 
at head of the Gangetic Delta, under the name H. vesicula. The 
typical specimens are in the McAndrew Collection at Cambridge, 
and now before me, marked Himalaya : but it is not the original 
label, these were all destroyed, and fresh substituted by McAndrew. 
These shells are unmistakably from Lower Bengal, and I can see 
nothing to distinguish them from 31. suhjecta of Eajmahal. 

The two species from between Neemuch and Mhow, recorded 
by Captain Hutton as Nos. 28 & 29, J. A. S. B. 1834, pp. 520-21, 
and of which he gives descriptions of the animals (sufficiently good 
to distinguish tliem when some one finds them again), cannot 



MACROCHLAMYS, 141 

possibly be the saine as the Himalayan //. vesicula. Ilutton, who 
was a very accairate observer, noticed the difference between 
them : he says " they have no tentacular processes on the right 
side, no fleshy hook on the tail." No. 3 Helix of a previous 
paper in same Journal, February 1834, p. 83, was a Macrocldamys, 
and is now known as il/. petrosa : " shell is Hke No. 29, but is 
more polished." 

No. 192 (p. 121). Macrochlamys andersoniana, iVmZZ. 

Nanina honesta, var. andersoniaua, Ncvill, J. A. S. B. 1877, 2, 

p. 16 ; id. Yunnan Expecl, Mol. 1879, p. 874. 
Nanina (Macrochlamys) honesta, var. andersoni, Reeve, C\mch. 2c. 

pi. 84, tig. 4o2 (as Jl. honesta) ; Nev. Hand-list, i, 1878, p. 24. 

Original description :—"■ This, variety is distinguished (from 
typical honesta) by its less depressed shape, it is scarcely if at all 
angled at the periphery (the angulation being very distinct in the 
type form), the peristome not being so broadly reflected over the 
perforation ; the substance and texture, perforation, shape of the 
aperture, and number of whorls are identical." 

Type of var. andersoniana from Ponsee {J. Anderson). 
Diam. 11, axis 6:^ ; apert. alt. 4, diam. 5i mm. 
Nevill records: Hah. Thyetrayo, ^ibsagur, Naga and Khasi 
Hills, Chittagoug and East Cachar, Dalla Hills, &c. i can only 
accept his Upper Burmah localities : Pudupyoo, 2nd Defile Irrawady , 
Nandin, and Ava. Specimens from Bhamo {Anderson) in my 
collection do not agree with the Assam shells, and I doubt the 
identification, many of the shells having been collected by and 
known to me. The" description of the Bhamo shell is as follows : — 
Shell globosely and depressedly conoid, narrowly umbihcated, 
ratlier solid ; sculpture very smooth and glossy, longitudinal 
microstriation ; colour pale horny with a greenish tinge ; spire 
moderately high, sHghtly convex ; suture adpressed ; whorls 4|, 
sides above convex and "well rounded on the periphery, the last 
slightly descending ; aperture oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome 
slightly thickened, straight, reflected considerably over the per- 
foration. 

Size : major diam. 10-3, minor diam. 8-5 ; alt. axis 5-0, alt. body 

whorl 4-0 mm. 

Having examined the animal of M. honesta from Moolayit, 
Tenasserim, I have found considerable differences between it and 
J/, andersoniana, especially in the radula ; this last I consider a 
o-ood species. It was apparently this species, or one very like it, 
which Stoliczka described in the Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1871, 
at the bottom of pp. 249-250, with the figures on pi. xvii. of 
teeth of the radula, tig. 14, and the spermatophore, fig. 13. 

No. 157. Macroclilamys beata, Godwin- Austen. 
Teeth of radula are figun-d on p. 120, fig. 49 E.] 



142 



ZOXTTTD.I'. 



[Key to Species o/Euplecta. 

A. Shell turbinate or siibtarbinate, tliin, lioriiv, finely 

decussated above ." ". layardi. 

fiubdecussafa. 
bacoui. 
acalles. 
pidchclht. 

B. Depressedly turbinate, or turbinate' or lenticulra', 

generall}' sharply keeled, with granular costulation 

or striation on upper surface semirl/'cifssafa. 

rosumonda, 

subcastor. 

travancorica. 

indicu. 

albizonatd. 

enuliana. 

Icevis. 

binoyaensis. 

veiTticula. 
Jiuctnosa. 

prestoni. 

scobinoides. 

gardeneri. 

C. Globosely conoid or depressed, ■with rounded peri- 

phery subopacn. 

partita, 
trinieni. 

1). Conoidly depressed and carinate acuducta. 

isabellina. 
colletti. 

E. Trochiform. 

a. Sculpture granular cacuminifera. 

(/ranulifera. 

b. Sculpture finely decussated liyphasma. 

tiirritella. 

c. Smooth , mucronifera. 

phidias. 
concavo-ipira. 
apicata. 
orbiates. 

F. Depressedly turbinate. 

Finely decussate mucosa.'] 



MAcnociir.A^MVR. 143 



iKcy to Spec'tes of i^[acroc!llalnys. 

A. Species from llinialayas icest of Aepal. 

a. 8ubglobose or subglobosely depressed, not labiate, vesicula. 

(jlaucn. 
ntida. 
kuluensis. 
]{. Species from Easter7i llimaUiyas (Sik/tini and 
Western Bhutan). 

a. Labiate tugurium. 

maimvarinyi. 
dalinyensis. 
opipara. 
damsanyensis. 

b. Not labiate. 

«'. Subturbinate hodgsoni. 

h' . Depressed. 

«-. Spirally (longitudii)ally) sculptureil sequax. 

sequius. 

snperf.ua. 

rakaensis. 

b". Smootli lubrica. 

a^. Conoidly depressed, rugose transverse 

(but no longitudinal) sculpture patane. 

perfrayilis. 

c. Witli free caecum to male organ richilaeytsis. 

sathilaensis. 
zenioensis. 

d. Shells not exceeding 6 mm. 

b^. Longitudinally striated or sculptured . . rorida. 

¥. Smootli darjilifiyerisis. 

C. Species froyn the Gnnyetic Valley and Delta, the 

iV. W. Provinces, and Bengal with Rajmuhal Hills. 

a. Depressed or conoidl}' depressed mdica. 

a'. Longitudinal flexuous impressed sculpture . . petrosa (type). 
v. Very tine microscopic striae hardicickii. 

b. Smooth subjecta. 

lecythis. 
perplana. 

D. Species from the Assain Hills, Xorth and South of 

Valley. 

a. Labiate atricolor. 

castaneo-labiata. 

hepatizvn. 

lata. 

b. Not labiate decussata. 

Ihotaensis. 

ruhellucincfti. 

bilineata. 

uda. 

cacharica. 

salmo7iea. 

yodwini. 

terminus. 



144 ZO'ITID^. 

«'. Shell globose. 

b' . Strousrly or microscopically striate longitu- 
dinally heata. 

miinipurensis. 
frayosus. 
a' . Shell depressedly conoid. 

b" . Smooth iiialiadeoensis. 

hniydanensis. 
razamiensis. 
lahiqicrensis. 
huoheri. 

c. Upper surface transversely plicate or ribbed .... plicifera. 

shisha. 

d. Shells not exceeding about 6 mm. fa quarter 

inch) in diameter. (Generic affinities often 
doubtful.) 
a. Subglobose or subturbinate. 

b. Smooth nemjloensis. 

]c»li<tensis. 

Viiberti. 

tanirensis. 
U. Longitudinally striated! hmgicauda. 

dorani. 

ori(jinarin. 

unihraticola. 
a' . Depressed or conoidly depressed. 

b" . Longitudinally striated sata. 

jxicata. 

rusticula. 
E. Species from Bu7'ma, Arahan, and Tenasserim. 

a. Peristome labiate consepta. 

a'. Smooth peta.'ins. 

asjjides. 

b. Peristome not labiate c/uius. 

a". Longitudinally (spirally) striated ku)na/ie7isis. 

causia. 
b'. Subglobosely depressed. 

a'". Smooth mhmiensis. 

d>(//(tsfi. 
b". Depressed or conoidly depressed. 

b'". Smooth subpetasus. 

iio.via. 

bK Longitudinally striated iiehulosa. 

')i()th(t. 
hypoleuca. 
sprefa. 
patens, 
v. Shells not exceeding 6 mm. 

a! . Turbinate puwji. 

b'. Depressed or conoidly depressed. 

a". Smooth niolecula. 

curvUabris. 

b" . Longitudinally striated pciyaida. 

pau.riUula. 



-M.VCROCHLAMYS. PAEVATELLA. 145 

F. Species from Andaman and other Islands in Bay of 

Bengal, 
a. Depressed choinix. 

pseudochoinix. 

exid. 

stephus. 

rooodmasoni. 
h. Depressedly conoid, more or less lenticular .... aulopis. 

pseudatdopis. 

fordiana. 

perinconspicua. 

battinialvensis. 

G. Species from Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 

a. Subglobosely depressed or subturbinate. 

a'. Longitudinal sculpture present (microscopical), tenuicula. 
1). No longitudinal sculpture frayilis. 

lixa. 

hebescens. 

2)edina. 

infausta. 

b. Depressed or conoidly depressed. 

a. Diameter not exceeding about 15 mm umbrina. 

nepas. 

xooodiana. 

rutila. 

vallicola. 

todarwm. 

perrotteti, 

pra va. 

vilipensa, 

c. Upper surface transversely plicate or ribbed .... perinytmdensis. 

d. Shells not exceeding about 6 mm. (^ inch) in 

diameter. 
a. Depressed or conoidly depressed. 

b. Smooth perfucata. 

tratanensis. 
b' . Longitudinally striated kandiensis. 

neherensis. 

atomaJ\ 



GreniTs PARVATELLA, nor. 

Type, P. fiemingi, Pfr. 

Range. AVesteru Himalayas of Kashmir. 

Shell imperforate and with few whorls, rapidly increasing, as in 
Vitrina. Mouth very oblique and large. Usually a thick oliva- 
ceous epidermis. 

Animal with elongate tongue-shaped shell-lobes, broader than 
in Macrochlamgs, and a pointed lobe above the large mucous poi'e 
at the posterior termination of the foot. The male organ has a 
peculiar disii-like coil, as in Oxgtes orobia and in typical forms of 
Macrochlamgs, to which the retractor muscle is attached. 

This genus has the animal of Macrochlamys, with a Vitrina-\\^e 
shell. 



146 



ZONITID^. 




[Fig. 53. — Fcirvatella flemingi. 

A. A'. Animal, drawn from specimen preserved in spirit. View ofv right and 

left sides. Natural size. ''y 

B. The right shell-lobe and right dorsal lobe. x3. ^ 

C. Part of the genitalia: penis from both sides and amatorial organ. x3*and5'5. 

D. Jaw and teeth of the radula. X 255.] 



P.VRVATELLA. 147 

230. Parvatella flemingi, Pfr. CVitrina) P. Z. S. 1856, p. 324; id. 

(Vitriua) Nov. Conch. \, p. 99, pi. 28, figs. 1-3 ; id. (Vitrina) Mon. 
HeL ir, 1859. p. 790 ; v, 1868, p. 14 ; Nevill (Ilelicarion), Yark. 
Miss., Mol. 1878, p. 14 ; id. (Helicarion) Hand-l. \, 1878, p. 15 ; 
Theobald (Helicarion j, J. A. S. B. 1878, 2, p. 143 ; id. (Ilelicarion) 
op. cit. 1881, 2, p. 45 ; Godwin-Austen (Macrochlamys), Mol. 
Ind. i. 1888, p. 212, pi. 54, figs. 1-1 e (animal and shell; ; 
ii, 1899, p. 133, pi. 87, tigs. 2-2 f/ (spermatopliore) ; [Cockerell, 
Pseudovitrino?, sect. Helicarioninse, type Macrochlamys flemingi, 
Pfr. A. M. N. H. (6) vii, 1891 (sine desc.)]. 
Helicarion austenianus, Theob. J. A. S. B. 1881, p. 45, 7iec Nevill. 

Shell imperforate (sometimes apparently subperforate behind 
the columellar callus), depressedly globose, thin, opaque, not 
polished, having an olivaceous rather silky epidermis, and sculp- 
tured with plicate transverse striae of growth, and with very 
close, minute, longitudinal (spiral) lines, not always easily detected ; 
spire subconoidly convex, apex blunt, suture moderately im- 
pressed ; w^horls 5, convex, somewhat flattened above, the last 
large, rounded at periphery and swollen beneath, base smoother ; 
aperture diagonal. Innately oval, having a pearly lustre within; 
peristome with the epidermis projecting beyond the shell, margins 
converging, arcuately dilated between upper and outer margin, 
columellar deeply curved, meeting penultimate whorl at an obtuse 
angle, reflexed above, forming a callus. 

Major diam. 32, min. 24, height 17 mm. Some shells measure 
as much as 42 x 31 x 20. 

Hah. The ranges around Mari and in Hazara ; common at 
Tandiani {Theobald). The original locality was by some error 
given as " Scind '' ; but the box in the British Museum is marked 
" collected 10,000 feet above the sea on the Murri Hills, 
N. Punjab." AVhether P. jiemincii is found east of the Jhelum 
Eiver is not known. 

The animal differs from other F/<n'«a-like mollusca and much 
resembles Macrochlamys. The shell-lobes of tlie mantle are long 
and pointed ; the mucous pore is large, with a distinct overhanging 
lobe. In the generative organs the male organ is attached to the 
retractor muscle by a disk-like coil, as in Oxytes orohia and most 
species of Macrochlamys. Dart-sac large, spermatheca well deve- 
loped, and a rather large kale-sac. The teeth on the radula 
are thus arranged : 62 . 3 . 24 . 1 . 24 . 3 . 62 (89 . 1 . 89) ; central 
tooth tricuspid, those on each side of it bicuspid ; outermost 
laterals very minute, bicuspid. 

231. Parvatella magnifica, Rv. (Vitrina) Conch. Icon., 1862, Vitrina, 

sp. 17. 

Shell depressed, thin, covered with a thin olivaceous epidermis, 
marked with transverse striae of growth and with fine subobsolete 
spiral lines, scarcely polished above, more so beneath ; spire low, 
convex, suture impressed ; whorls 4|, flatly convex above, the 
last not descending, rounded at periphery and beneath ; aperture 
oblique. Innately oval ; peristome thin, margins converging, upper 

l2 



148 ZONITID.5. 

arcuately dilated at junction with right margin, columellar curved, 
nearly vertical, slightly directed to right, where it meets penul- 
timate whorl, and forming a small callus. 

Major diam. 28|, min. 21, height 13^ mm. 

Hah. Not clearly ascertained, but probably Punjab Hills. One 
specimen marked " Scind," which is not likely. 

232. Parvatella altivaga, God-win-Austen (Macrochlamys), Mol. hid. 

i, 1888, p. 213, pi. 14, fig. 2. 
Helicarion flemingi, var. altivagus, Theob. J. A. S. B. 1878, 2, p. 143. 

Shell depressed, thin, translucent, not polished, transversely 
plicately marked with lines of growth, crossed by traces of fine 
close longitudinal (spiral) lines, olive-brownish ; spire nearly or 
quite flat, suture very slightly impressed ; whorls 5, flat above, 
last much broader, not descending, rounded at periphery ; aperture 
oblique. Innately oval ; peristome simple, margins conyergiug, 
columellar terminating above in a reversed callus. 

Major diam. 30, min. 23, height 13 mm. 

Hah. Uri in the Jhelum Valley, Kashmir. 

A much thinner and flatter shell than P. fiemvngi, and rather 
flatter than P. magnifica. 

233. Parvatella austeniana, Nevill ( Helicarion j, Yark. Miss., Mol. 

1878, p. 14, fio-s. 22, 24 ; id. Hmid^l. i, 1878, p. 15 ; Godwin- 
Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 215, pi. 54, figs. 4, 4a, 46 (shell) 
{nee Theob. J. A. S. B. 1881, p. 45). 
Macrochlamys cassida, Godioin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 214, 
pi. 54, figs. 3, 3 « (shell). 

Shell depressedly globose, moderately thin, covered with a thick 
dark olive epidermis, slightly polished, plicately striated trans- 
versely, without longitudinal striation ; spire convexly conoid, 
apex obtuse, suture impressed; whorls 5, convex, the last large, 
but less broad than in other allied forms, descending in front, 
rounded at periphery, swollen beneath ; aperture almost circular, 
lunate, higher than broad, diagonal ; peristome simple, the epi- 
dermis extending slightly beyond the shell, margins converging, 
arcuate at upper portion of right margin, columellar lip regularly 
curved and meeting the penultimate whorl at an open obtuse 
angle, the upper portion with an appressed callus. 

Major diam. 30, min. 24, height 19 mm. 

Hah. Small specimens measuring 15| mm. in major diameter were 
deBcribed from Sonamarg, in Kashmir, by Nevill. In Godwin- 
Austen's collection is a much larger shell from Uri, Jhelum Valley, 
of which the dimensions are given above. 

[Genus EUAUSTENIA. 

Euaustenise, section of Austenia, Cockerell, A. M. N. H. (6) vii, 
1891, p. 98 (sine desc.) ; Nautilus, xii, 1898, p. 10. 

Shell differs from that of Austenia gifjas in being more heliciform. 



EFAUSTENIA. 149 

shelly, and thin. The animal has large leaf-like right and left 
shell-lobes, which ia life nearly cover the whole of the shell. 
In the genitalia the penis has a coiled caecum near the retractor 
muscle, and is thus similar to Macroclilamys. 

Range. The Western Himalaya to Sikhim, and as far west as 
the Kuram Valley, Trans-Indus.] 



284. Euaustenia monticola, rfr. (Vitrina) P. Z. S. 1848, p. 107 ; id. 

(Vitrina) 3/rm. Hel. ii, 1848, p. 497; Theobald {JieWcavion), J. A. 

S.B. 1878, 2, p. 14.3; Nevill (llelicarion), Yark. Miss., Mol. 1878, 

p. 15 ; id. (Helicariou) Hand-l, i, 1878, p. 15 : nee Reeve, nee H. SfT., 

nee G.-A. 
Vitrina scutella, Bs. A . M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 188, partim ; Pfr. 

Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 498; Rv. Conch. Icon. fig. 13 ; H.^T. C. I. 

187G, pi. 66, figs. 1-4 ; Godivin- Austen (Austeuia), Mol. Ind. i, 

1888, p. 232, pi. 52, figs. 1-1 e [shell and animal of the Murree 

form] ; Cockerell, Euausteniae {section o/" Austenia) , A. M. IS. H. 

(6) vii, 1891, p. 98 (sine desc.) ; id. Nautilus, xii, 1898, p. 10. 
? Austeuia serahanensis, Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 237, 

pi. 54, fig. 4. 

Shell depressed, thin, pellucid, very faintly striated, smooth, 
polished, yellowish horny ; spire flat, apex very slightly prominent, 
suture impressed ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, flattened above, 
the last not descending, rounded at periphery, moderately tumid 
beneath, flattened towards mouth ; apertiu-e oblique, ovately 
lunate ; peristome thin, margins converging, the upper straight 
near the last whorl, then arcuate near right margin, columellar 
sinuate, forming a rounded obtuse angle with basal margin. 

Major diam. 18, min. 13, height 7 mm. 

Hah. JN^orth-west Himalayas eastward to Naini Tal. 

The animal (of A. scutella from Murree) [which I consider 
distinct from monticola of Mussoorie] has well-developed dorsal 
and shell-lobes to the mantle, [and these are quite plain and 
unmottledj. The posterior portion of the foot is very long and 
sharplv keeled above. The odontophore bears the following teeth : 
30 . 2 " 14 . 1 . 14 . 2 . 30 (46 . 1 . 46). 

Pfeiifer described this shell from one of three specimens, 
all smooth, translucent, and depressed shells, still in the British 
Museum. Reeve figured a much more globose form, also in the 
Museum, with a raised spire and different sculpture (apparently 
E. cassida, Bs.). Hanley again figured apparently the same 
species, and Godwin-Austen, misled by Hutton, as pointed out 
by Nevill, has done the same. Theobald also recognized the true 
monticola, which he had received from Benson. Scutella w-as 
named from two different shells, one from Kashmir (Nasmana on 
the Chandrabhaga liiver), the other said to be from Teria Ghat in 
the Khasi Hills. The last is an obscure form not recognized 
since. The Kashmir form differs slightly from E. monticola in 
having its mouth even more lengthened, but it is doubtful whether 
this is constant. I regard the two as identical. 



150 



ZONITID.E. 



235. Euaustenia cassida, Hutton, J. A. S. B. vii, 1838, p. 214 ; Pfr. 
(Viixms) Mon. Hel. \\,1%IS, p. 497; iii,1853, p. 2; i?y. (Vitriim) 
Conch. Icon., Vitrina, fig. 10 ; H. ^- T. (Vitriua) C. I. 1876, 
pi. 152, tigs. 2, 3 ; Nev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. lo ; Theobald, J. A. 
S. B. 1878, 2, p. 14 ; Godwin-Austen (Austenia), Mol. Ind. i, 
1888, p. 214, pi, 54, figs. 3,3 « (shell) [is a large Parvatella 
ansteniana]. 
^'itriua monticola, Rv. Conch. Ic, Vitrina, fig. 11 ; H. ^- T. C. I. 
1876, pi. 152, fig. 1 : Godtvhi-Austen (Austenia), Mol. Ind. i, 
1888, p. 234, pi. 52, fig. 2. 
Helicarion stoliczkanus, Nevill, Yark. Miss., Mol. p. 15, tigs. 19- 
21 ; Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1881, p. 45 ; Godwin-Aitsten (Austenia), 
Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 236, pi. 52, fig. 3 (shel ). 




[Fig. 54. — Eitaustenia cassida. 

A. Animal, drawn from a spirit-specimen, viewed from both the right and 

left side, X2"5; in the first the left shell-lobe is shown contracted and 
rolled up. The genitalia, X 4-5; jaw, Xl2; teeth of the radula, x368; 
and shell, X 2-5. 

Euausfeuia. siuUczLrniits. 

B. Animal looked at from above, x2'5. Specimen from Kaini Tal.] 



EUAUSTENIA. ^^'- 



Shell ovately depressed, thin, translucent, polished when young, 
less so when older, faintly striated, sometimes more densely, pale 
horny ; spire convex, suture impressed ; whorls U, convex, the 
last ascending very sUghtly towards the peristome, rounded at 
periphery, tumid beneath; aperture obhque, ovately hinate ; 
peristome thin, margins converging, upper margin straight at 
first near penultimate whorl, then arcuate, columellar sinuate, 
meeting last whorl at an obtuse angle. 

Major diam. 23^, min. 18, height 11 mm. (much larger speci- 
mens occur, one of the largest measuring 30 x 23 x 13, another 
26|x 20x12). 

Eab. The AYestern Himalayas to Kumaun. 
The type of cassida appears to be from Simla, that of stohcz- 
l-anus from Almorah in Kumaun. It is possible that there are 
two distinguishable forms ; but as stoUczJcanus is quoted by :Nevi_U 
from both Kashmir and Naini Tal, whilst the type of cassula is 
from Simla between the two, it is most likely that all are varieties, 
as was suggested by Nevill. The type of stoliczJcanus measured : 
major diam. 22, height 13 mm. o- i n 

The animal of cassida was described by Hutton [from bimlaj as 
sometimes pale brownish, at others dark grey ; [the shell-lobes in 
both are speckled and the right has a central vein-like dark streakj. 
" Two broad leaf-like processes, running to a point, are spread 
over the shell when the animal is in motion, so as entirely to 
conceal it, and presenting the appearance of a large grey slug with 
a hump-back ; a fleshy anal horn, as in the genus ^^amna. ihe 
last, of course, refers to the lobe above the mucous pore. 

[Formula of a Simla specimen : 33 . 2 . 13 . 1 . 13 . 2 . 33 
(48 . 1 . 48).] 

236. Euaustenia gurhwalensis, Godicin-Austen (Austenia), Mol. Ind. 
ii, 1899, p. 108, pi. 91, figs. 1-1 h (shell, radula, &c.). 

This is very similar to E. cassida, of which it may be a variety, 
but it is distinguished by fine microscopic longitudinal spiral 
striation crossing the plicate ridges of growth. It is more closely 
wound, the last whorl being narrower, and the mouth higher m 
proportion to its width ; but as only a single specimen is available 
for examination, these differences may be more or less ot an 
individual character. There are about U whorls. 

Major diam. 21, min. It), height 10;|. 

Hab. Paurhi, Garhwal, North-western Himalayas. 

A thick dart-sac was found, pointed at the retractor muscle. 
Eadula like that of Austenia gujas. Ehachidian tooth strongly 
tricuspid ; inner laterals bicuspid ; outer laterals pointed, \\ith an 
outer cusp some distance from the point ; outermost teeth minute 
and unicuspid. [Formula : 40 . 2 . 22 . 1 . 22 . 2 . 40 (64 . 1 . 64).] 
[This and the sculpture make it very distinct from the two 
preceding species.] 



152 



ZONITIDJE. 



237. Euaustenia paurhiensis, Gochvin-Austen (Austenia), 3Iol. Ind. 

ii, 1899, p. 109, pi. 91, figs. 2-2 c (shell aud animal). 

Shell ovately depressed, thin, translucent, finely and irregularly 
striated, slightly polished, yellowish horny ; spire convex, apex 
exserted, suture impressed ; whorls 4, tumid, the last rounded at 
periphery and beneath ; aperture oblique, subcircularly lunate ; 
peristome very thin, upper margin nearly straight, columellar 
sinuate, almost vertical on the whole. 

Major diam. 13, miu. lOi, height 6 mm. 

Hah. Paurhi, Garhwal. 

The specimens appear to be young, and may belong to E. cassida. 
The radula showed the following teeth : 36 . 2 . 15 . 1 . 15 . 2 . 36 
(53 . 1 . 53). 

238. Euaustenia theobaldi, Godwin-Austen (Austenia), MoL Ind. i, 

1888, p. 236, pi. 52, tig. 5. 

Shell very similar to E. cassida, but distinctly more globose, 
aperture nearly circular, rather darker in colour. 

Major diam. 19, min. 15, height 10^ mm. 

Idab. Chinab Valley, above the Bichlari Eiver in Kashmir ; 
Dharmsala in the Kangra Valley (Theobald). 

This may possibly be a globose variety of E. cassida. 



Subgenus SYAMA *. 
Type, Macrochlamys prona, G. Nevill. 




[Fig. 55. — tiyama annandalei. 
Part of the genitalia. 
ex. Caecum. 
ep. Epiphallus. 
k. Kale-sac or flagellum. 
ov. Oviduct. 
pr. Prostate. 



p. Male organ. 
rm-p. Eetractor nuiscle of 
male organ. 
sp. Spermatheca. 
vd. Yas deferens.] 



A Sanscrit word for " black." 



STAMA, 153 

Animal mostly very dark coloured, with right and left shell- 
lobes. No amatorial organ in the genitalia ; the male organ as in 
Macroclilamys. 

239. Syama spiendens, Hutton (Xanina), /. A. S. B. vii, 1, 1838, 
p. 215; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. llel. i, 1848, p. 73 ; id. ib. iv, 1859, 
p. 124; H. ^- T. (HelixJ C. I. 1876, pi. 51, fi^s. 7, 10 (is another 
species) ; JVcvill, Naniiia (Beusonia), Iland-l. \, 1878, p. 49' 
(r Panjab) ; id. Naniua (Beusonia) Yark. Miss., MoL 1878, p. 18 ; 
Godtoin- Austen, MoL Ind. i, 1883, p. 100, pi. 21, hg. 3 (sculpture), 
pi. 22, tigs. 4,4 a (shell). 

Shell narrowly perforate, subdiscoidly depressed, smooth, horny, 
brownish tawny above, paler, sometimes whitish, beneath ; radiate 
(transverse striation almost obsolete); concentric longitudinal im- 
pressed lines microscopic, flexuous and irregular ; spire scarcely 
raised, suture very slightly impressed ; whorls 7-8, closely wound. 




Fig. 56. — Si/ama sjjlcndcns. 

almost flat above, the last rounded at the periphery, flatly convex 
below, moderately excavated around the umbilicus ; aperture 
slightly oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome simple, straight, with 
a white callous labiation a short distance inside, columellar margin 
oblique throughout, scarcely reflected at the perforation. 

Major diam. 15^, min. 13|, height G| mm. 

Hab. AVestern Himalayas, near Mussoorie and Simla, at eleva- 
tions of 7000-10,000 ft." {Mutton). The type was from Mahasu, 
near Simla. 

Animal dai'k verdigris-green (Hutton), pale grey (Cr.--i4.). Small 
right and left shell-lobes, the left dorsal lobe divided into two. 
Eadula like that of M. indica: 30 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 30 (44 . 1 . 44) 
{Godivin- Austen). [This description of the animal refers to a 
specimen sent to me as spiendens by Mr. Theobald from Murree, 
possibly one of those referred to in Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1878, 
p. 141, from Uri, Jhelum Valley, Kashmir. The shell of this 
species is very similar to Hauley's figure in the Conch. Indica, 
pi. 51, and very likely the same as the shell Nevill determined as 
spiendens in ' Second Yarkand Mission,' p. 18.] 

Moi'e than one species may be found in collections with this 
name. The shell figured by Ilanley (C. I. pi. 51, tigs. 7, 10) as 
Helix spiendens is not Hutton's original species described by 
Benson. [Is quite a distinct shell, from Murree, described 
below (No. 245) and referred to above.] Hutton in this as in 



354 zaiyiTiD,!:. 

some othei* instances may have used the name for different species 
at different times. [This is much more likely to be a mistake 
made by Hanley. The first specimens I collected at Mussoorie 
were named for me by Captain Hutton and are now in the Xatural 
History Museum, Hutton only knew the typical Mussoorie and 
Simla form ; he had never seen the species from Murree.] 



240. Syama prona, Nevill, Nanina (Macrochlamys), Yark. Miss., Mol. 
1878, p. 17 ; Qoclioin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, i). 103 (desc. 
animal), pi. 22, fig. 2 (shell) ; ii, 1898, p. 48 (radula and jaw). 
Macrochlamys masuriensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 94 
(no description), pi. 21, fig. 8 (sculpture on shell). 

Shell perforate, depressed, almost discoidal, rather solid, light 
tawny or brown, rather dull, not polished, smooth, with moderately 
close, fine, regular, longitudinal strife, sometimes more or less 
papillate ; spire almost flat, suture impressed ; whorls 5-6, flatly 
convex above, the last whorl rather broader, rounded at the peri- 
phery, not swollen beneath ; aperture nearly vertical, broadly 
lunate, with very frequently a thickened I'ib some distance iuside 
the peristome ; the latter is thin, basal margin slightly arcuate, 
columellar oblique, briefly and narrowly reflected. 

Major diam. 16, miu. 14^, height 7 mm. 

Hah. North-western Himalayas. 

Reported from Garhwal, Naini Tal (typical var.), Mussoorie, 
Simla, and Tandiani near Murree. Naini Tal specimens are small, 
only 12 mm. in diameter : the shell of which the dimensions are 
given above Avas from Garhwal; a Mussoorie shell measures 18 x 
16x7 mm., and has distinctly papillate sculpture {M. masuriensis) ; 
smaller shells from Simla measure 14x12x6 mm. and have the 
sculpture not papillate. 

[Much confusion has been found to be the result of starting 
■with the idea that this species, S. prona, had a range extending 
from Naini Tal on the east and even further, from the Dafla Hills 
in Assam (Nevill) westward to Murree. When specimens from 
the several localities on this range are examined together and 
placed side by side the variation is so considerable, it is necessary 
to separate some of these and give them specific rank. 

I have lefl) intact all that Dr. Blanford wrote. His description 
of prona seems to be a general one ; the precise locality of the 
shell described is not indicated, and now it is not possible to find 
the specimen. 

The type of S. prona was from Naini Tal. Nevill's original 
description is as follows : — 

" Whorls six, closely wound, the last only slightly deflected, 
sometimes not at all, in which case, of course, the aperture is 
quite vertical ; spire almost or quite flat ; periphery rounded ; 
umbilicus resembling that of Nanina petrosa, more open than in all 



SYAMA, 155 

the other allied species; horny-brown colour, smooth and polished 
above and below ; margins of aperture distinctly, but slightly 
thickened. Type from Naiui Tal : diam. 12, axis 4|, alt. 5| ; 
apert. lat. 6, alt. 4|- mm." 

I am inclined to think that Nevill did not confine himself when 
writing the above description to a single shell ; he had numerous 
specimens before him from various places and was at the time 
working out Dr. Stoliczka's collection made at Murree, finally 
determining a shell from that place as prona. 

I have recently obtained from Naini Tal {N. Annandale) 
specimens of. exactly the same diameter as Nevill's type. The 
axis is the same, viz. 4-5 mm., but the difference between that 
and the height of the shell is as much as 1*25 mm., clearly 
showing that the specimen was on spire not " almost or quite 
flat," wliieh applies exactly to the Simla form, of -which I have 
9 examples to refer to. 

Description of a shell of this species from KicJiha, Naini Tal : — 
Shell depressedly conoid, solid, shiny, rather closely umbilicated ; 
sculpture quite smooth, with fine transverse lines of growth ; 
colour rich ruddy brown ; spire flatly conoid, apex blunt ; suture 
well impressed ; whorls 5|, well rounded on periphery, gradually 
increasing, rather closely wound ; aperture lunate, nearly vertical 
(indication of an earlier aperture is marked by a pale band) ; 
peristome somewhat thickened, basal margin scarcely sinuate ; 
columellar mai-gin suboblique, very slightly reflected. 

Size (largest specimen) : major diam. 12-25, min. 10*8 ; alt. axis 
5*0, height 6'7o mm. 

Animal with lobe over the mucous pore, very dark grey both on 
foot and dorsal lobes. Both right and left shell-lobes present, 
but short ; visceral sac darker ; renal organ ochre, ochraceous on 
sole of foot. Generative organs : a coiled caecum, to which is 
attached the retractor muscle ; a very long kale-sac ; no amatorial 
organ. 

Central teeth tricuspid ; admedian teeth elongate, narrow, with 
cusp on outer side ; the 12 first marginals bicuspid, the outer cusp 
low down, the next 18 aculeate, and the outer marginals very 
small. Formula : 30 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 30.] 

[241. Syama prona, var. huttoni, Godioin-Atisten, 

Shell well perforate, depressed, almost discoid, base flat, rather 
strong ; sculpture quite smooth ; colour light tawny or light 
brown ; spire scarcely raised above the last whorl, apex rounded ; 
suture impressed; whorls 5, regularly increasing, somewhat closely 
wound, rounded on the periphery ; aperture flatly lunate, nearly 
vertical ; peristome thin, basal margin slightly sinuate ; columellar 
margin oblique, hardly reflected. 

Size : major diam. 13-75, minor 12-0 ; alt. axis 4-75, height 
6-5 mm. 



156 



ZONITIDjE. 



Hah. Simla {Captain T. Hutton): British Museum Natural 
History. This shell was sent home by Capt. Hutton a long time 
ago as H. petrosa, a name afterwards transferred to the species 
found on the hills south of the Ganges. He also considered this 
and the Mussoorie form the same.j 



[242. Syama promiscua, Godwin- Austen. 

Macrochlamys proua, Nev., Theobald, J. A. S. B. \, pt. 2, 1881, 
p. 46. 

Shell hardly perforate, subdiscoid, not very solid ; sculpture 
quite smooth, hues of growth not showing ; colour very pale 
brown, a white band behind the aperture ; spire very low, only 
just above the level of the last whorl, apex rounded; suture 
shallow ; whorls 5|, regularly increasing, the last rounded on the 
periphery ; aperture nearly vertical, broadly lunate ; peristome 
thin, scarcely sinuate on basal margin ; columellar margin very 
oblique, no reflexion. 

Size : major diam. 12-0, min. ll'O ; alt. axis 4*5 mm. 

Hah. Tundiani, near Murree. 

This shell may be distinguished from S. prona by its more 
discoid form, small perforation, and smooth surface. The animal 
is described by Theobald as " long and slender, and dark slaty 
above with long tentacles." His largest specimen of (J whorls 
measured 15 x 13*4 x 7*8 mm.] 



[243. Syama masuriensis, Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 94, 
pi. '2\, tig. 8 (sculpture on shell). 
Macrochlamys prona, id. ib. p. 103, pi. 22, figs. 2,2 a (shell). 

Shell very closely umbilicated, discoidal, base flat ; sculpture 
linear-longitudinal, each line formed by close-sefc papillate dots ; 
colour pale sienna-brown, a darker conspicuous baud of same 
colour near the aperture, progress of growtli is shown by the 
ochraceous bands behind it at intervals ; spire very depressed, 
apex very flattened ; suture adpressed ; whorls 6, regularly in- 
creasing, sides flat above, rounded on the last ; aperture lunate, 
subvertical ; peristome thin, straight, scarcely reflected and very 
obliquely descending on the columellar margin. 

Size : major diam. 18'2, alt. axis 7'0 mm. 

Hah. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya. 

Animal (of the Mussoorie form) very black and long, a very 
sharp-pointed lobe over the mucous gland. Mantle slightly 
reflected over the margin of the peristome, with two right and 
left tongue-shaped expansions, which the animal expands and 
contracts. Animal of specimen from Paurhi in Garhwal also 
black. Teeth of radula 30 . 2 . 10 . 1 . lU . 2 . 30 (or 42 . 1 . 42). 
Admedian teeth long, with a cusp on the outer side; the laterals 
bicuspid, inner point the longest ; the ten or twelve outermost 



SYAMA. KHASIELLA. 157 

very small. Jaw moderately arched, with small central pro- 
jection.] 

[244. Syama annandalei, Godwm-Austen. (Fig. 55, p. 152.) 

Shell perforate, very depressedly conoid, thin, flat on base; 
sculpture quite smooth, lines of growth very fine ; colour dull 
umber-brown ; spire low, apex rather blunt ; suture somewhat 
impressed ; whorls 5|, evenly increasing ; no indication of previous 
apertures as in S. prona ; aperture flatly lunate ; peristome verv 
thin ; columelhir margin A'ery oblique, scarcely any reflection. 

vSize: major diam. 16, miu. 14 ; alt. axis 6*5, height S'o mm. 

Locality. Bijnore {N. Annandale). 

Animal. On removing the shell the visceral sac is black, the 
renal organ wliite, a great contrast with it. 

Genitalia as in S. prona. The retractor muscle is short and 
stout, attached to a well-coiled caecum ; the kale-sac is very long, 
flagellum-like. The sperraatheca elongate (fig. 55), 

[Teeth of radula as in S. prona. Formula : +2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2. 
Marginals lost.] 

[245. Syama ? theobaldi, n. sp. 

Macrochlamys splendens, Hutton, H. Sf T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, 
pi. 51, figs.'7, 10 ; Tlieobald, J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. 2, 1878, p. 141 ; 
Nevill, Yark. Miss., Mol. 1878, p. 18. 

Shell globosely conoid, narrowly umbilicated ; shining surface 
also seen on the basal side ; sculpture somewhat irregular, coarse, 
longitudinal striation ; colour burnt-sienna ; spire subconic, sides 
slightly convex, apex blunt; suture impressed; whorls 6, regularly 
increasing; aperture ovately lunate, subvertical; peristome simple, 
with a Mhite callous labiation just within the aperture: columellar 
margin oblique. 

Animal not seen. 

Size : major diam. 13'25, min. 12, alt. axis 5*5 mm. 

Hah. Murree, Paujab Himalaya ( W. Theobald), Tin?i\\ {StoliczJca). 

Theobald says : — " Colour bright chestnut, with a lustrous 
polish. My lai'gest shell is not quite adult and measures 
15 X 13 X 8 mm. This species occurs rather plentifully in places 
above Uri (Jhelum A^alley), nestling under stones." In all 
probability Mr. Theobald sent this shell home to Mr. Hanley, 
and the latter figured it as Helix splendens in the ' Conch. Indica.' 
The shell agrees very well with the figure.] 

Genus KHASIELLA. 
Khasiella, Godtvin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1899, p. 129. 

Type, K. vidua, Blf. 

Ran'jc. The Eastern Himalayas, the Assam and Arakan Hills, 
and Northern Burma. Perhaps Tenasserim. 

Shell perforate or imperforate, depressed or conoidly turbinate. 



158 ZOIS^ITIDiE. 

keeled or subangiilate at the peripheiy, generally rather thin and in 
typical forms plicate to costulate above, smooth beneath, generally 
closely wound. 

In the typical species, the only one of which the anatomy has 
been described, the right shell-lobe is present, but small ; the left 
dorsal lobe consists of two separate parts. The sole of the foot is 
distinctly divided into three. The mucous gland, which is wider 
and overhung by a lobe, does not extend to the sole of the foot. 

Generative organs. The retractor muscle of the penis is peculiarly 
short and solid and is attached to the flexure of a short free bent 
caecum, which unites with the main organ at some distance from, 
the origin of the latter ; the vas deferens joins the penis close to the 
base of a long, blunt, knobbed kale-sac. Spermatheca long, \vith a 
bulbous end. Amatorial organ moderately developed. 

Odontojiliore as in MacrocJdamys. The middle tooth of each row 
has a well-developed cusp on each side ; the inner laterals are 
bicuspid, having a latei-al cusp on the outer side only ; the outer 
laterals (marginals) are bicuspid at first, then aculeate towards thw 
margin. 

Jaw ^ith a median projection. 

The name KhasieUa ^^■as proposed for a small group of snails 
found in the ranges south of Assam and at the base of the Eastern 
Himalayas, and which had been referred for some time to Euplecta. 
The anatomy, however, is nearer to that of Macrocldamys than to 
that of Enjdecta and Arioplianta, 

A. Imperforate. 

246. Khasiella vidua, H. S^- T. {Blf. MSS.) (Helix) C. I. 1876. pi. 130, 
fios. 2, 3 ; Gochrin-Auste7i, J. A. S. B. 1876, 2, p. 212 : Blf. 
(Euplecta) J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 190, pi. 2, fig. 5 ; Godwm-Au^ten 
(Khasiella), Mol. hid. ii, 1899, p. 129, pi. 100 (anatomy). 
? Helix climacterica, var.? nana, Bs. A. M.N. H. (3)"'iii, 1859, 
p. 392. 

Shell imperforate, conoidly depressed to turbinate, fulvous horny, 
generally paler beneath, ornamented above with oblique, close, 
and arcuate filiform costulate striation, smooth beneath with 
radiating striae ; spire depressedly conoidal to conical, apex rather 
shai'p, suture impressed ; whorls 8, narrow, convex, slowly in- 
creasing in size, the last angulate or subangulate at the periphery, 
scarcely descending, moderately convex below ; aperture oblique, 
lunate ; peristome white, more or less obtuse, with a very slight 
thickening inside, the basal margin arcuate, the columellar oblique, 
gently curved, slightly reflected throughout, more broadly above. 

Major diam. 17, min. 15|, axis 9 mm. 

Hah. The Dafla Hills to north, and Giiro, Khasi, and Naga 
Hills south of Assam {Masters, Godtvin-Austen) ; Chittagong. 

The conoidly depressed form passes into a turbinate variety, 
generally smaller. A specimen of this turbinate variety from the 
Nsiga Hills measures 14, 12i, and 9 mm. in its three diameters. 



KHASIELLA. 



159 



Nevill (Hand-l. i. p. 30) classes this as a variety of K. climacterica, 
but, despite some appearance of passage, the two forms are easily 
distino-uislied, A', climacterica being distinctly keeled and depressed, 
K. viilua angulate to rounded and generally subturbinate. 




[Fig. 57. — Khcmella vidua. 

A. Animal, spirit-specimen, mantle-zone removed. X 3- 

B. Mautle-zone removed, showing the right and dorsal lobes. X 6. 

C. Extremity of foot. X 3-25. 

D. Mantle-zone, showing the right and dorsal lobes posterior dorsal lobe 

turned back. X G. 

E. Shell. X 2-25. 

F. Generative organs. X 3'3 and 6. 

G. Jaw. X 18 ; teeth of radula, X 273.] , 



160 zoNiTiD,?:. 

247. Khasiella climacterica, Bs. (Helix) J. A. S. B. \, 1836, p. 352 ; 
id. A. M. N. H. (-2) ii, 1848, p. 163 : id. (3) iii, 1859, p. 392 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. i, 1848, p. 219; id. iii, 1853, p. 170; id. vii, 1876, 
p. 302 ; Blf. J. A. S. B. 1805, p. 93 ; Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. 
1876, 2, p." 312 ; H. S,- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 55, figs. 4, 5. 
Helix geiton, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 242. 

Shell imperforate, depressedly conoid, keeled, pale horny, 
radiately and closely subcostulate above, smooth beneath, the 
filiform ribbing extending below the keel ; spire low, conical, apex 
rather acute ; whorls 7-8, narrow, closely Avound, flat above, each 
rising slightly above the next at the suture, the last keeled, not 
descending, moderately swollen below ; aperture scarcely oblique, 
narrow, aiigulately lunate, securiform ; peristome obtuse, slightly 
thickened inside, basal margin arcuate, columellar curved, slightly 
expanded, more broadly above, where it finally becomes almost 
vertical. 

Major diam. 21, min. 19, axis 9| mm. 

Hab. Dafla Hills north, and Khasi Hills south of Assam 
(Theobald, Godivin-Avsten, &c.) ; Arakan Toma ; Long Island, 
Bassein Eiver (IF. T. B.). 

This species varies in size and in the height of the spire ; but 
the portion below the keel is generally deeper than the spire is 
high. The Burmese variety is small, depressed, and sharply 
keeled ; the smallest specimen from the Arakan Eange measures 
only ]3|, 12^, and 64 mm, Theobald's H, geiton is a dwarf Khasi 
variety, 13-15 mm. in ma-jor diameter. 

248. Khasiella austeni, Blf. (Nauina) J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 15, pi. 3, 

fig. 10 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 303 ; H. ^- T. (Hefix) 
C. I. 187(3, pi. 50, figs. 8, 9. 

This is distinguished from K. climacterica by smaller size, higher 
spire, much sharper keel, and stronger sculpture above. The 
general shape is almost lenticular, the keel is compressed and 
serrated, and in the inner whorls projects slightly above the 
suture. 

Major diam. 14|, min. ISi, axis 6| mm. 

Hab. Habiang Garo Hills {Oodwin-Austen). 

All these three species pass into each other. 

B. Perforate. 
a. Peripliery rounded or siibangulatc. 

249. Khasiella ornatissima, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859. 

p. 269 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 113; H. S,- T. (Helix) 
C. 1. liS76, pi. 60, fig. 4 : Godivin- Austen, J. A. S. B. 1882, 2, 
p. 70, pi. 5, fig. S (animal). 
Helix auopleuris, Thcobidd {Bs. M>S\, and H. submissa, Bs. MS.), 
J. A. S. B xxxiii, 1864, p. 242 (no description) ; Blf. J. A. S. B. 
xxxiv, 1865, p. 104 ; NecUl, Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 31. 



KIIA8IKLLA. 161 

Shell openly perforate, conoidly depressed, pale horny above, 
regularly and arcuately costulate, smooth, polished, with obsolete 
radiating striation beneath ; spire low but varying somewhat in 
elevation, apex slightly prominent, suture impressed; wliorls 7, 
closely wound, convex above, the last subangulate at the periphery, 
somewhat tumid beneath ; aperture oblique, lunate ; peristome 
white, slightly thickened inside in adults, basal margin straight or 
arcuate, columellar slightly expanded. 

Major diam. 164, min. 15, axis 8^ mm. 

Hah. Pankabari, at base of Sikhim Himalayas {W. T.B.); 
Someysar Hills, north of Gorakpur (Theobald) ; probably foot of 
Himalayas in Nepal and Sikhim. 

Yery similar to the typical depressed form of K. vidua, but 
distinguished by being perforate and by its much stronger and 
more regular sculpture. 

250. Khasiella ? pansa, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. 11. (2) xviii, 1856, p. 252; 

Vfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. ix, 1859, p. 28 ; id. v, 1868, p. 79 ; Blf. 
J.A.S. B. 1865, 2, p. 88 ; K. S, T. C. I. 1876, pi. 56, tig. 1 ; A^evi/l, 
J. A. S. B. 1877, 2, p. 17 ; id. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 28 ; v. Mart. 
(Macrochlamys) Jour. Linn. Soc. xxi, 1889, p. 162. 

Similar to K. omatissima, but thinner, more narrowly perforate, 
and less excavated in the umbilical region, with a rather higher 
spire and finer closer costulate striation above ; there are 7 whorls 
in adults ; the peristome is thin, without any trace of internal 
labiation. 

•Major diam. 164, min. 15, axis 9 mm. 

Hah. The Irrawady Valley from above Ava to below Prome ; 
Sullivan Island, Mergui Archipelago (Anderson). 

251. Khasiella? falcata, Blf. J. A. S. B. 1870, 2, p. 15, pi. 3, fig. 11 ; 

Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 92; H. 4'- T. (Helix) C. 1. 
1876, pi. 54, fig. 10. 

Shell openly perforate, conoidly depressed, thin, horny, with 
fine, oblique, arcuate, subdistant, filiform costulation above, the 
riblets extending to below the periphery, smooth, polished, and 
radiately striated beneath ; spire low, conoidal, suture impressed ; 
whorls 6, convex, rather closely wound, the last broader, sub- 
angulate at the periphery, convex below, concave around the 
umbilicus ; aperture slightly oblique, lunate ; peristome thin, basal 
margin arcuate, columellar nearly vertical and produced forwards 
at the umbilicus. 

Major diam. 13, min. 12, axis 64 mm. 

Hah. Habiang Garo Hills* {Godwin- Austen) ; Upper Burma 
(Fea). 

* [This indicates the southern side of the hills intervening between the 
western boundary of the Khasi Hills and the independent Garo tribes. When 
I was there in 1866, the people were hardly under our rule, but were safe 
to go among ; not so the Garos on their west. I cannot say whether Habiang 
Garo is the Khasi name for these people or whether it is a Garo term.] 

M 



162 zoNiTiD.i; 

A smaller thinner shell than K. ornatissima, with fewer whorls 
and more distant less distinctly costulate sculpture. 

252. Khasiella? pingoungensis, Godwm-Austen (Euplecta), P. Z. S. 

1888, p. 242. 

Shell perforate, conoidly depressed, sublenticular, pale yellowish 
horny, arcuately and filiformly costulate above, the costulation 
passing over the periphery and disappearing on the lower surface, 
which is smooth and polished in the middle ; spire low, conoid, 
apex obtuse, rounded, suture impressed ; whorls 6^, convex, 
rather closely wound, the last bluntly angulate at the periphery, 
convex beneath ; aperture oblique, angularly lunate, margins 
slightly converging ; peristome rather obtuse, upper and basal 
margins arcuate, right margin sinuate, columellar margin almost 
vertical at its insertion and briefly expanded. 

Major diam. 14, min. 13, axis 7 mm. 

Hob. Pingoung, Shan Hills, Burma {Spratt). 

b. Peripliery sharply heeled. 

253. Khasiella serrula, Bs. (Helix) J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 352; Ffr. 

(Helix) Mon. Hel. i, 1848, p. 206 ; id. vii, 1876, p. 291 ; H. 8fT. 
(Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 50, fig. 7. 
Helix bensoni, v. d. Busch, Phil. Abbild. i, 1842-5, p. 11, pi. 1, 
fig. 7. 

Shell openly perforate (narrowly umbilicated), depressedly sub- 
turbinate, almost lenticular, whitish horny, costulately plicate ; 
spire low, conical, apex acute ; whorls 6|-7, slightly convex above 
inside, each with a compressed keel, which projects above the 
suture, the last whorl moderately convex beneath with an acute 
keel, serrated by the transverse plications which ])ass over it to 
the lower surface and there pass into undulating radiate striation ; 
aperture slightly oblique, angulately lunar ; peristome thin, basal 
margin slightly arcuate, and together with the columellar margin 
faintly reflected. 

Major diam. 13, min. 12, axis 7 mm. 

Hah. Khasi Hills (base of). 

254. Khasiella hyba, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) vii, 1861, p. 83 ; 

Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 181 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 
1876, pi. 30, figs. 2, 3; Theobald (Trocfiomorpfia), J. A. S. B. 
1878, 2, p. 143 ; Godioin-Ansten, A. M. N. H. (7) xx, 1907, 
p. 55, figs. 1-5 a. 

Shell openly and perspectively umbilicated, convexly subtrochi- 
form, thin, obliquely, closely, and coarsely plicate, crossed by fine, 
close, subcostulate spiral (longitudinal) striae above, smoother and 
irregularly reticulately striated on base, brownish horny; spire 
convexly conoid, sides convex, apex obtuse, suture linear, scarcely 
impressed ; whorls 7-8, flatly convex above, slowly increasing, the 



KHASIELLA. 



163 




[Fig. 58. — Khasiella hyha, Bs. 

1. Shell. X 4-8. 

2. Side view of raantle-edge from right side, showing the obscure right shell- 

lobe, foot, &c. X 8. 

3. Genitalia. X -t'O. 

3 <?, 3 h. Tlie penis, as seen from two opposite sides, to show the coiled CKcuin 
and position of the retractor muscle attachment, the kale-sac or flagellum, 
&c. X 8. 

3 c. A portion of same organ more enlarged, slightly pressed between two 
ghvss slips and viewed by transmitted light, to show the close-coiled 
caeum ; the dark portion is part of a spermatophore. X 12. 

3 d. Terminal end and distal end of an organ not located in the genitalia and 
with which it may have no connection. X 12. 

4. Jaw. X 24. 

5. Central tooth and three admedian teeth of the radula. X 368. 

6 a. Eighth to eleventh admedian and sixteenth to eighteenth lateral teeth. 



cp. Epiphallus. 

k. Kale-sac or flagellum. 
vd, Vas deferens. 
coe. Caecum. 
p. Penis. 
rmp. Retractor muscle of penis. 



am.or. Amatorial organ. 
pr. Prostate. 
rsl. Right shell-lobe. 
/. Foot. 
vs. Visceral sac. 
ov. Oviduct.] 

m2 



164 ZONITID^. 

last not desceuding, sharply cariuate, compressediy at the base, 
flatly convex beneath, hollowed around the umbilicus ; aperture 
di.gonal, augulately lunate; peristome thin, columellar margin 
oblique, coming forward and slightly expanded around the 
umbilicus. 

Major diam. 13|, min. 13, height 7^ mm. 

Hah. Dakhinkhund, Bari Doab, Western Himalayas (J. D. 
Smithe), between Dalhouse and Chamba {Theohald\ 

A larger variety was obtained by Theobald on the hills 
behind Aijas, east of the Walar Lake, Kashmir : this measures 
17| X 16| X 10 mm. The shell, as both Benson and Theobald 
notice, resembles the Nilgiri Thysanota fjuerini, but, as the latter 
also observed, the animal is a Zonitid. 

[Original description of the animal : — " On removing the shell 
the visceral sac is pale-coloured, sparsely and finely spotted with 
black on the line of the rectum. The foot is short and very narrow, 
indistinctly divided, dark grey ; a distinct mucous gland overhung 
by a blunt lobe, peripodial grooves, and a well-marked fringed 
margin to the foot. There is a small but distinct and serrated 
right shell-lobe, which would spread farther in life ; the left is a 
marginal band on the edge of the peristome. The generative 
organs were of great interest as they wei'e unfolded. The amatorial 
organ is of the usual form ; the penis retractor muscle given off 
from a distinctly coiled caecum at the head of the main penis- 
sheath. There is a long epiphallus thence to the junction of the vas 
deferens, with a long kale-sac adjacent, in which a sperraatophore 
had been developing. The sperraatheca is very long, gradually 
enlarging to the distal end, and contained three spermatophores ; 
these are of the type I have described in various species of Macro- 
cJdamys, Austenia, &c. The flume had no large spines, but very 
minute ones could be detected on the edges of it. The oviduct is 
peculiar, very straight up to the albumen-gland, so was the line of 
the prostate. 

"The jaw is strong and solid, slightly arched into a central 
projection. 

" The radula has the formula 

18 . 2 . 9 . 1 . 9 . 2 . 18 
29 . 1 . 29 

"The teeth are of the usual form in so many genera of the Zoni- 
tidte, the laterals being bicuspid, with the outer cusp below the 
inner, becoming very small on the margin." 

Compared with the type of Khasiella, there is (l)the same small 
obscure right shell-lobe ; (2) the same form of foot and mucous 
gland ; (3) the jaw and radula are precisely alike ; (4) the generative 
oi'gans differ in no appreciable way, merely that the short fi'ee 
ctecum retractoris penis of K. vidua becomes a close-wound coil in 
A'. Iniha. The shells of these two species present at first sight 
considerable differences, but the variation becomes less apparent 



KHASIET.LA. 165 

when K. Jiyha is compared with the sharply-keeled species of this 
genus, such as dimacterica, Bs., austeni, W. T. Blf., and sernda. Bs.] 

Of doubtful affinity, plicate or ribbed above, carinate or 
angulate at periphery. 

a. Perforate. 

*255. Khasiella? chloroplax, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xv, 

18().j, p. 14; Ffr. (Helix) Moh. Hel. v, 1868, p. 80; //. ^- T. 
(Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 82, fio-s. 1, 4; NeviU, Nanina (Rotula), 
Turk. Miss., Mol. 1878, p. 16 ; id. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 33. 

" Shell perforate, subconoidly depressed, thin, plicately striated 
above, slightly striated beneath, very finely decussated, translucent, 
scarcely polished, greenish horny ; spire subconoid, depressed, 
apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, rather 
convex, the last angulate above at the periphery, convex beneath ; 
aperture oblique, angularly lunate ; peristome thin, straight, 
margins widely separate, columellar margin scarcely reflected 
above. 

" Diam. barely 8, axis 4 mm." {Bs.., Latin.) 

Hab. Near Simla {Theobald), near Murree {Stoliezha, teste 
NeviU). 

I have not been able to see a specimen of the Simla form, and 
the shells I have examined from Murree, apparently determined 
by NeviU, do not appear to me to agree with Benson's description 
or Hanley's figure ; they are much higher in the spire and brown, 
not greenish horny, and I cannot detect decussated sculpture. 
It is uncertain whether the type was adult. Some shells from 
Murree, according to NeviU, measui'ed 11 mm. in diameter and 
6 in height. 

In Hanley's figure a compressed keel is shown, the aperture is 
elliptically ovate, and the columellar margin of the peristome is 
much curved and vertical above. 

This and the two next species are referred to Bensonia on 
account of the resemblance of their shells to the larger forms 
B. camura and B. nijoalensis. 

256. Khasiella? kashmirensis, NeviU, Nanina (Rotula), Yark. Miss., 
Mol. 1878, p. 16, pi. tigs. 13-15 ; id. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 33. 

Shell perforate, eonoidly depressed, almost lenticular, carinate, 
thin, plicately striated above, less strongly beneath, the striation 
becoming obsolete towards the umbilicus, not polished, transUicent, 
brown ; spire low, conoidal, suture .slightly impressed ; whorls 5, 
rather convex, slowly increasing, the last sharply keeled, convex 
beneath, not excavated around the umbilicus ; aperture oblique, 
angularly lunate (the angle disappearing in adults) ; peristome 
thin, columellar margin slightly oblique above, curved below. 

Major diam. 7|, min. 6|, height 3| mm. 

Hab. Sonamarg, Kashmir, abundant {StoliczJca). 



166 zonitidte. 

This shell, of which I have only seen imujatui*e specimens, is 
described by ISTevill as being smaller than chloropJax, with more 
closely wound whorls, higher spire, less acute keel, and more 
convex base. The form of chloroplax with which the comparison 
was made was probably that from Murree, aud, as already pointed 
out, it is uncertain whether that form is identical with the Simla 
type. 

*257. Khasiella? SOnamurgensis, Nevill, Nanina (Microcystis), Yark. 
Iliss., Mol. 1878, p. 16, pi. iigs. 16-18 ; id. Hancl-l. i^lSIS, p. 33. 

" Shell small, depressed, thin, horny brown, with the suture 
distinct, roughly, regularly, and closely ribbed above ; sculpture 
of a similar kind, but almost; obsolete, can be traced on the base ; 
whorls 7, closely wound, the last scarcely, if at all, broader than 
the previous one, more or less subangulate at the periphery ,~ 
base convex, distinctly excavated round a deep narrow umbilicus 
(? perforation) ; aperture very shallow, the outer margin distinctly 
thickened, slightly subangulate in the middle ; columella very 
slightly reflected, oblique, evenly rounded, without any angulation 
at the base, in this character resembling N. splendens and differing 
from N. prona. I know of no Indian species like this inter- 
esting little shell ; in shape it somewhat resembles the smooth 
N. woodiana. 

"Diam. 11|, alt. o|, axis 4|, apert. lat. 5^ mm." {Nevill.) 

Hah. Sonamarg, Kashmir {iStoliczlca). 

Dr. Stoliczka noted the presence of a mucous pore. 

b. Umbilicated. 

*258. Khasiella ? tandianensis, Theobald (Trochomorpha), J. A. S. B. 
1881, p. 46. 

" Shell trochiform, keeled, narrowly umbilicated, thin, horny. 
Whorls 6, slowly increasiiig, coarsely striated transversely. Aper- 
ture but slightly oblique, quadrately lunate. Margin (of peristome) 
simple, near the columellar briefly reflected. 

"Major diam. 9*6, height 6*7 mm." (Theobald, in Latin.) 

Hab. Near Tandiaui, Haztira, in woods, at an elevation of 
8500 feet. 

" The animal has a distinct overhanging lobe to the mucus- 
pore. The nearest ally of the shell is perhaps T. hyba, Bs., which 
is found from Chamba to Kashmir." 

Genus OXYTES. 

Oxytes, I'fr. Zeitschr. Mai 1856, p. 138 ; Godtvin- Austen, Mol. Ind. 
i, 1883, p. 123. 

Type, 0. oxytes, Bs. 

Range. Eastern Himalayas, Assam Eanges, Shan States of 
Upper Burma, and Laos country, Siam. 



OXYTES. 167 

Shell geuerally of larf^c size, umbilicate or perforate, depressed, 
in general sharply keeled, smooth, striated. 

As a rule there is no overhanging lobe to the mucous pore, though 
one is present in 0. blanfordi and 0. pollux. Mantle : right dorsal 
lobe triangular, well developed ; left dorsal in two parts, the 
anterior large, the posterior very small; left shell-lohe tvitJiout 
any tongue-liJce 'process, being merely a narrow ribbon reflected 
over the peristome ; rigJit shell-lobe wantinrj. Generative organs : 
hermaphrodite ducts very long, spermatheca elongate ; male organ 
with a short spindle-shaped kale-sac and having the retractor 
muscle attached to a large coiled caecum ; amatorial organ long, 
well developed. 

[Although the shell-lobes are a typical chai^acter of many 
genera of Maerochlamyina?, the coiled caecum is perhaps a more 
important one, and more likely to be persistent. The origin of 
shell-lobes in so many distinct genera seems due to the influence 
of very damp atmospheric conditions in a more or less forest-clad 
country.] 

Middle teeth of radula long, straight, without side cusps or with 
very small representatives of them ; laterals also unicuspid or nearly 
so. The formula in 0. cycloplax is 26 . 11 . 1 . 11 . 2Q^ in 0. orobia 
27 . 15 . 1 . 15 . 27. 

I. Sharply Jceeled, lenticular. 

A. Openly umbilicated. 

259. Oxytes oxytes, Bs. (Helix) J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 351; id. 
JL.M.X.H. (2) V, J 850, p. 215; Pfr. (Helix) Mo7i. Hel. i, 
1848, p. 395 ; id. (Helix) iii, 1853, p. 250 ; id. (Helix) vii, 1876, 
p. 453 ; H. Sf T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 26, fig. 1 ; Nev. Rand-l. i, 
1878, p. 47 ; Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1880, 2, p. 158, pi. 11, 
fig. 2 (animal) ; id. Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 124, pi. 30, figs. 1-3. 
Nanina (Oxytes) fidelis, Fidton, A. M. N. H. (6) xviii, 1896, 
p. 100. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, obliquely striated, brownish horny, 
sometimes with a narrow rufous band below the keel ; spire very 
low, apex rather pointed ; whorls 5|, flattened above, the last 
sharply keeled, slightly swollen beneath ; aperture oblique, angu- 
larly lunate, whitish inside; peristome thin as a rule, thickened in 
old shells, basal margin slightly arcuate and with the columellar 
margin reflected ; umbilicus deep, exposing all the whorls. 

]\lajor diam. 45, min. 37, height 17 mm. 

llab. The ranges south of Assam, also the Dafla Hills to the 
north. 

Some specimens are larger ; Col. Godwin-Austen has one 
measuring 56| mm. in major diameter. 0. fidelis is a dwarf 
variety from the Khasi Hills, measuring 31;|, 27, 12| mm. It 
has 5 whorls and a peculiar, almost granular sculpture above and 
below, caused by the decussation of the striation by impressed fine 
spiral lines. 



168 zoNiTiD.i:. 

260. Oxytes shanensis, Oodwin- Austen, Mol Ind. i, 1883, p. 128. 
Helix blanfordi, Th. J. A. S. B. 1865, p. 275, nee 1859, p. 308 ; 

id. Cat. p. 22. 

This may be a variety of 0. oxytes, from which it is distinguished 
by beiug more compressed and lenticular, and therefore more 
sharply keeled, the umbilicus is slightly smaller and the sculpture 
finer. Only immature specimens are known ; one of these 
measures : major diam. 28, min. 23.^, height 10 mm. 

Hab. Shan States, on Upper Sal win Eiver (Fedcle7i). 

261. Oxytes cycloplax, m. (Hehx) A. M. N. H. (2) x. 1852, p. 318; 

Pfr. Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 181 ; H. f T. C. 1. 1876, pi. 26, fig. 7 ; 
Nev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 48 ; Oodicin-At(ste7i, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 
p. 125, pi. 31, figs. 1-8. 

This is very nearly allied to 0. oxytes ; but it is smaller, less 
sharply keeled, with the keel becoming blunt and obsolete near the 
mouth; the spire is lower, the apex less pointed, the lower surface 
more tumid, and the umbilicus wider. As a rule, the sculpture 
consists of fine, rather flexuous, oblique strise, decussated by 
impressed spiral lines ; but there is some variation in both the 
present species and in 0. oxytes. Colour brownish yellow, with a 
narrow rufous band round the last whorl just below the keel. 

Major diam. 38, min. 324, height 15 mm. 

Hah. Sikhim, 1000-5000\ 

B. Narrowly umbilicated ; umhilicus about 2 mm. across. 

262. Oxytes blanfordi, Theobald (Helix), /. A. S. B. xxviii. 1859, 

p. 308; Ffr. Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 249 ; H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 60, 
tigs. 1, 2,' 3 ; Godicm-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1882, 2, p. 69, pi. 5, fig. 1 
(animal) ; id. Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 128. 

Shell lenticular, sharply keeled, thin, dull chestnut, finely striated, 
with a minute reticulated sculpture under the microscope ; spire 
low, conical ; whorls 5|, flattened, the last much compressed near 
the keel, slightly convex beneath ; aperture oblique, angulately 
lunate ; peristome very thin. 

Major diam. 27, min. 24, height 10 mm. 

Hab. Kursiong, Sikhim, about 3000' above the sea. 

The animal is shown in Stoliczka's drawing, figured by (xodwin- 
Austen, I. c, to have a small but distinct lobe above the mucous 
pore. 

C. Perforate. 

263. Oxytes castor, Theob. (Helix) /. A. S. B. xxvii, 1858, p. 319 ; 

xxviii, 1859, p. SOS ; II. Sr T. C. I. 1876, pi. 26, figs. 3, 6 ; Godioin- 
Aitsten, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 126. 
Nanina cherraeiisis, Blf. J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 14, pi. 3, fig. 8 ; Pfr. 
Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 131. 

Shell lenticular, sharply keeled, thin, smooth, finely striated. 



OXiTES, 



169 



decussated by minute, spiral, impressed lines above and below, 
light ferruginous brown; spire low, conical, apex acute; whorls 
5^-G, regularly increasing, flattened above, the last compressed at 
the keel, slightly convex beneath ; aperture oblique, angularly 
lunate : peristome thin, the basal margin slightly arcuate. 

Major diam. 35, min. 33, height 15 mm. 

Hab. Khasi Hills ; Cherra Punji, Nongklao, Nongkulong, and 
Eastern Garo Hills. 

264. Oxytes poUux, Theob. (Helix) xxvii, 1858, p. 319; _Blf. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, 1870, p. 13 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vii, 1870, p. 132 ; R. ^- T. 
C. I. 187(j, pi. 26, figs.' 2, 5 ; Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. 1880, 
p. 158, pi. 11, fig. 4 (animal) ; id. Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 127. 

Similar to 0. castor except in colour, which is pale horny with a 
lower spire and less marked spiral sculpture. 

Major diam. 35|, min. 32, height 13 mm. 

Hah. Khasi Hills ; Teria Ghat, Nongkulong ; Habiang Garo 
Hills {Theobald and Godwin-Austen). 

The animal is pale yello\dsh ochre. Eye-tentacles thick and 
€lose together at the base and long. A small lobe above the 
mucous pore. Kadula similar to those o£ 0. cydoplax and 0. orohia, 
outer lateral teeth rather longer and more numerous. 

As Godwin-Austen has pointed out, this is probably only a 
colour-variety of 0. castor. 

265. Oxytes sylvicola, BIf. J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 185 ; Gochcin-Austen, 

Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 130. 

Shell depressed, cariuate, not very thin, covered with a thick 
yellowish-brown epidermis, decussated with oblique striation and 
spiral impressed lines ; spire low, conoid ; whorls 54, nearly flat, 
the last moderately swollen beneath, but slightly compressed near 
the keel ; aperture oblique, angularly lunate ; peristome acute, 
slightly thickened inside. 

Major diam. 32, min. 29, height 17 mm. 

Hcib. Burail Eange, Xorth Cachar, and Anghami Naga Hills. 

II. Periphery rounded, not carinate. 

266. Oxytes orohia, Bs. (Helix) A. M. K. H. (2) ii, 1848, p. 158; 

r/r. Mon. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 117 ; vii, 1876, p. 220 ; H. S> T. C. I. 
1876, pi. 28, fi^. 8; Kev. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 48 ; Godwin-Austen, 
J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 157, pi. 11, figs. 1, 1 « ; id. Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 
p. 129, pi. 30, fig. 4, pi. 32, figs. 1-5 (anatomy). 

Shell perforate, depressedly globose, smooth, striated, decussated 
by fine, close, concentric, impressed lines, white, covered with a 
thick, yellowish, horny epidermis, encircled by a narrow dark 
rufous band below the periphery ; spire depressed, convex ; 
whorls 5-5i, slightly convex, the last rounded, sometimes suban- 
gulate at the periphery, swollen beneath ; aperture ovally lunate ; 



170 



^ 



ZONITIDjE. 



f 




Fig. .'iO. — Oxyies orobia. (From Stoliczka's drawing.) 




[Fig. 60. — Oxyies orobia. 

A. Animal, spirit-specimen, shell removed, tbe right and left sides 

showing dorsal lobes. 

B. The posterior left dorsal lobe, enlarged. 
C Genitalia. 

D. Jaw. 

E. Teeth of the radula. X 150. 

F. Extremity of the foot, contracted in spirit, enlarged. 

Oxytes oxytes. 

G. Extremity of foot, drawn from life.] 



OXYTES. BENSONIA.' ^71 

peristome oblique, acute, but thickened inside, basal and columellar 
margins somewhat reflected. 

Major diam. 37, min. 30, height 22 mm. A more depressed 
shell measures 34, 29, and 19 ram. 

Hab. Darjeeling, Sikhim, 7000-8000' in forest. 

This species has the shell of Bensouia; not only is the lip 
thickened inside, but former lips, produced during periods of rest, 
often occur as in B. monticola. Ih the animal the eye-tentacles 
are separated by a wide interval at the base. There is no lobe 
above tlie mucous gland, ^yhich is large. 

Genus BENSONIA. 

Bensonia, Pfr. Mai. Bl. 1855, p. 119 ; Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 
1888, p. 240, pi. 01 (anatomy) ; id. \\, 1901, p. 115, pi. 95 (animal 
and anatomy). 

Type, B. monticola, Hutt. 

Range. Himalayas from Sikhim to Afghanistan. Some Chinese 
species are also referred to this genus, but their animals need 
examination. 

Shell of typical forms perforate, depressed, subdiscoidal, of 
moderate or large size, thin ; aperture lunate ; peristome thin, but 
with a thickened cailosity inside. In most of the species several 
lips remain, like varices, at irregular intervals on the whorls. 

The animal of Bensonia monticola generally resembles externally 
that of Oxytes and AriopJianta, except that there is a broad over- 
hanging lobe above the mucous pore. Mantle: right dorsal lobe 
simple, left divided into two ; no riylit sJiell-lobe ; left shell-lobe simjyUy 
luilhout tongue-shaped process. Generative organs similar to those 
of Oxytes, with the coiled ccecum near retractor muscle ; the dart-sac 
is large and long, and there is a small pointed kale-sac. The 
spermatophore is a long, narrow, chitinous ribbon ending in a 
membranaceous sac with a hard termination. The edge of the 
ribbon bears bifid spikes. 

The teeth of the radula in B. monticola differ from those of 
Oxytes and approach those of Macrochlamys in form. The median 
tooth of each row is strongly tricuspid, the inner laterals, also 
tricuspid, have an inner cusp near the point and an outer cusp 
near the base, the inner cusp is soon lost, the outer cusp disappears 
in about the 36th tooth, and the outer laterals become small 
and unicuspid, the outermost being very minute ; the formula is : 
72 . 19 . 1 . 19 . 72. 

According to Hutton, the eggs of B. monticola are about the 
size of a mustard-seed, oval and greenish white. 

I. Eounded or subangulate at periphery. 

267. Bensonia monticola, Ilutton (Nauina), J. A. S. B. vii, 1, 1838, 
p. 218 : If. .y T. C. I. 1870, pi. 52, fig. 3 ; Theob. J. A. S.B. 1878, 
p. 142; id. ib. ibbl, p. 4U; Godicin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, 
p. 248. 



172 zonitidjE. 

Helix labiata, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 65 ; id. Mon. Hel i, 1848, p. 73 : 
vii, 1876, p. 219 ; H. ^- T. C. 1. 1876, pi. 27, fig. 5 ; Gochcin- 
^Austm, t. c. 1888, p. 247, pi. 61, fig. 5 (anatomy). 

Nauina (Bensonia) monticola, var. murriensis, Nev. Yark. Miss., 
Mol. 1878, p. 17. 

Shell opeulj perforate, depressed, moderately thin, striated, the 
epidermis on the inner whorls more or less distinctly minutely 
decussated, with oblique raised lines, tawny yellow to brown, 
sometimes with a broad rufous spiral band above the periphery, 
the lip chestnut with a broad yellowish border behind, some other 
chestnut and yellow stripes, indicating seasonal arrest of growth, 





Fig. 61. — Bensonia monticola. 

crossing the whorls at irregular intervals ; spire low, conoidal ; 
whorls 6-7, convex, the last rounded at the periphery ; aperture 
oblique, broadly and subovately lunate ; peristome acute, thickened 
inside with a white callosity, columellar margin reflected at the 
umbilicus. 

Major diam. 40, min. 33, height 18 mm. 

Hah. Western Himalayas from Kumaon to Hazara at elevations 
of about 3000-7000 feet, and locally higher; not north of the 
Pir Panjal in Kashmir. 

The deep rufous spiral band occurs in shells otherwise pale- 
coloured, and is common apparently in Kumaon and Mussoorie 
specimens. The fine decussating markings on the inner whorls 
are variable, and appear to be obsolete on some Murree and 
Hazara shells. 

268. Bensonia angelica, Ffr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1856, p. 33 ; id. 
(Helix) Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 123; H ^- T. (Hehx) C.I. 1876, 
pi. 86, fig-s. 5, 6 ; Nev. Naniua (Bensonia), Yark. Miss., Mol. 1878, 
p. 18; Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 252. 

Very near B. ynonticola, but darker in colour, without any 
distinct decussated sculpture, and with numerous varices, often 
3 or 4 in the last whorl. The colour is olivaceous as a rule, some- 
times brown. The types were small (major diam. 31, min. 27, 



BENSONIA. 173 

height 13k mm.), but I have a shell, probably from Kashmir, 
measuriug 45 miu. across. On the other hand, a small variety 
from Chamba, barely adult, measures 23.^x20xllg ram. 

Nah. Eange south of Kashmir; Uri (StoUczl-a) ; Chamba State, 
8000'. 



142; 



269. Bensonia jamueiisis, r/ieob. (Hemiplecta) /. A. S. B. 1878, p. 

Godwin-Austen, Oxytes (Bensonia), yiol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 251, 

This is a smaller shell than B. monticola, finely and flexuously 
striated, decussated with very fine and close spiral lines. It is 
depressed, thin, horny, becoming whitish beneath ; whorls 6, the 
last rounded at the peripliery, flatly convex beneath, the peri- 
stome thickened within, and tlie columellar margin rather broadly 
reflected at the umbilicus. 

Major diam. 26, min. 23, height 12 mm. 

ffab. Tawi Valley, between Chaneni and Udampur, Kashmir. 

This is, perhaps, as Theobald has suggested, a small variety of 
B. monticola, with few or no varices. Under the microscope 
traces of oblique decussating raised lines on the epidermis can be 
made out. 

270. Bensonia theobaldiana, Godtvin- Austen {Nevill, MS.), Mol. Ind. 

i, 1888, p. 251 (no description) ; Kobelt, Nanina (Xestina), Mart. 
^- Chemn. Syst. Conch.-Cab., Nauiuidaj, 1900, p. 980, pi. 264, 
figs. 6, 7. 
Bensonia mimela, Blf. Proc. Mai. Soc. iv, 1901, p. 179, tig. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, conoidly depressed, yellowish brown, 
dull above, polished below, rugately striated, finely decussated 
with close impressed spiral lines throughout ; spire low, conoidal : 
whorls 7, flat, scarcely convex above, the last bluntly atigulate at 
the periphery, convex beneath ; aperture slightly oblitpie, sub- 
angulately lunate ; peristome thin, with the usual internal callosity, 
which shows through the shell ; former lips at irregular intervals, 
as in B. monticola. 

Major diam. 271, min. 23|, height 15 mm. 

JIab. IN'arkaiida'E.Is.E. of Simla; Ivulu. 

Distinguished from B. monticola by smaller size, flatter whorls, 
angulate periphery, different sculpture, and less oblique mouth. 
A depressed form of B. theobaldiana occurs on the Chor, S.E. of 
Simla. A specimen in Col. Beddome's possession, with 6| whorls, 
measures major diam. 19, axis 8| mm. 

The locality Kudiu quoted by Kobelt for his Nanina theobaldiana 
is a mistake for Kulu. This and the two preceding species may 
be varieties of B. monticola. 

A single specimen of a shell, apparently belonging to Bensonia, 
was obtained by Col. Beddome in the South Canara G-hats. It is 
doubtful if the single example obtained is adult, and without a 
knowledge of the auimal it would be unsafe to decide as to its 



X74 zonitidjE. 

generic relations, as no Bensonia is known from Peninsular India. 
The following is a short description : — 

Shell perforate, depressed, dark fulvous, with a narrow chestnut 
stripe below the periphery, striated, finely and closely decussated ; 
protoconch with undulating transverse striation ; spire convex ; 
whorls 4, convex above, the last angulate above the periphery, 
convexly swollen below ; aperture obhque, roundly lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, chestnut, with a white thickened lip inside. 

Major diam. 19|, min. 16i, height 10| mm. 
' This resembles B. theohaldiana, but has fewer whorls and is 
more angulate. 

271. Bensonia convexa, Ev. (Helix) Co7icI{. Ic. 1852, pi. 127, fig. 762 ; 
H. Sf T. C. I. 1876, pi. 86, figs. 1-4 ; Godwin- Austen, Mol. Lid. i, 
1888, p. 252. .. _ 

? Helix monticola, Ffr. Man. Hel. i, 1848, p. 130; id. ^^u, 18/6, 
p. 220 : ncc Hutton. 

Shell subob1:ectly perforate, depressed, horny, thin, striated, 
minutely decussated above and below by fine, impressed, spiral, 
close lines ; spire depressedly conoid ; Avhorls 6-6|, flatly convex, 
the last slightly compressed externally ; aperture oblique, broadly 
lunate ; peristome thin, with a broad white callous thickening 
inside ; lio remains of varices except close to the mouth. 

Major diam. l^, min. 14|, height 9 mm. 

Hah. Kumaun, Nagtiba Eange, north of Mussoorie, 9000' 
(Godwin- Austen); Simla. 

Animal light brownish green, brown near head ; tentacles 
greenish grey; foot rather short (Godivin- Austen) . 

272, Bensonia jacquemonti, v. Ma)-t. (Naniua) Mai. Bl. xvi, 1869, 
p 75 ; Pfr. Nov. Conch, iv, p. 48, no. 720, pi. 118 ; id. Mon. Hel. 
vii, 1876, p. 220 ; Nev. Turk. 3Iiss., Mol. 1878, p. 18; id. Iland-l. 
i i878, p. 49 ; {var. kurramensis) Godtvin-Austen, Mol. 2nd. ii, 
1899, p. 115, pi. 95, figs. 1-1 i (auimal and anatomy) ; Kobelt, 
Nanina (Xestiua), Mart. Sf Chemn. Syst. Conch.-Cab,, Nauiuidfe, 
1901, p. 997, pi. 258, figs. 7, 9. 

Shell perforate, depressed, smooth, finely striated, white and 
porcellanic or horny, sometimes encircled by a rufous band above 
the periphery and inside the suture ; spire very low but couoidal ; 
Avhorls 5i, slightly convex, increasing slowly, the last rounded 
at the periphery, moderately convex beneath; aperture slightly 
oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome thin, thickened inside, basal 
]naro-in' slightly arcuate, columellar reflected a little at the per- 
foration. 

Major diam. 17, min. 15, height 10 mm. 

Hah. Murree {Stoliczhi) ; Salt Eauge, Punjab (Theobald). 

This is probably the species figured in the atlas to Jacquemont's 
' Voyage,' pi. 16, fig. 2. 



BENSONIA. 175 

273. Bensonia wynnii, inf. (Macrochlamys) J. A. S. B. 1880, 2, p. 197, 

pi. 3, fig. 5 ; Oodwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1899, p. 118, pi. 95, 
figs. 2-2 h, 8, 8a; Kobelt, Nanina (Xestina), Mart. ^ Chemn. 
Syst. Conch.- Cab., Naninidae, 1901, p. 996, pi. 258, figs. 4, 6. 

Very similar to B. jacquemonli, but distinguished by having the 
mouth much more oblique, diagonal in fact, and consequently 
larger, with the basal margin of the peristome straight, not 
arcuate, and with no ti'ace of internal thickening. 

Major diam. 19, min. 17|, height 9;^ ram. 

The aperture measures 10 1 by 9~ mm. ; in a specimen of 
B.jacquemontii of about the same size 10 by 7. 

Hab. Mui-ree ( Wynne) ; Cherat, near Peshawar ; Kuram Valley ; 
Kandahar. 

II. Shell keeled at periphery. 

274. Bensonia camura, Bs. A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 269 (Helix) • 

Pfr. Man. Hoi v, 1868, p. 180 : H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 55, fig. 2 ; 
Nevill, Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 30 (Nanina) ; ? Godwin-Austen, J. A. 
S. B. 1882, 2, p. 71, pi. 5, fig. 5, animal (Euplecta.?^) ; id. Mol. 
Ind. ii, 1907, p. 147, pi. 101, figs. 1-7 (animal & anatomy). 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, couoidly depressed, sublenticular, 
carinate, translucent, horny, obliquely rugosely plicate, and beneath 
the microscope minutely obliquely rugate, the rugae intersecting 
the coarse striae at an acute angle, lower surface smoother, but 
still minutely obliquely decussated with raised lines ; spire de- 
pressedly conoid, sides flattened, suture very little impressed ; 
whorls 6^, scarcely convex above, the last with a compressed keel, 
rounded beneath ; aperture oblique, angulately lunate ; peristome 
thin, with a slight white thickened callus inside not always present, 
the basal margin arcuate. 

Major diam. 20, min. 18|, height 10 mm. 

Hab. Sikhim, 7000-12,000 feet. 

Some specimens are larger. The compressed keel in the young 
is file-like. The shell resembles that of Macrochlamys tugurium. 
but is far more sharply keeled and different in sculpture. The 
animal is grey ; sole broadly margined, and has, if the published 
figure be correct, a very small lobe above the mucous pore : this 
lobe I failed to detect. 

[Mr. W. Kobert's collection, from llissom Peak, Cheungtano-, at 
the junction of the Lachen and Lachung Rivers, and Zemo 
Samdong, in mid-Sikhim, has cleared up much that was doubtful 
regarding both the generic position and range of tliis species. The 
animal (in spirit) is ochraceous ; on removing the shell there is a 
remarkable resemblance in the markings of the integumelat or roof 
of the pulmonary cavity and renal organ to that of Macrochlami/s 
tugurium, a broad patch near to rectum, and a longitudinal streak 
in the middle line, gradually widening and increasing in intensity 
backwards up to the renal organ ; above this it is half black, half 
white; the rest of the surface is spotted and streaked with 
greenish black. This greenish tint pervades the whole of the 



176 



ZONITID,^. 



whorls of the visceral sac and gives to the shell a similar tone of 
coloration. There are no shell-lobes, and by this character alone, 
without looking at any other, the genus and species may be 
recognized. The dorsal lobes are very much reduced in size, 
having regard to the size of the animal. The foot is not divided 
on the sole. 

The lobe over the mucous gland is very small ; the peripodial 
fringe is very small, below the usual parallel grooves. 

The generative organs. The penis has a coiled caecum, to the 
side of which the retractor muscle is attached ; the kale-sac is 




[Fig. 62. — Bensovia caniura. 

A. Part of the auimal, showing right dorsal lobe- 

B. Genitalia. X 2-4. 

C. Jaw. X 9. 

D. Teeth of the radula. X 276. 



X2. 



E. Shell. Nat. size. 



Bensonia wynnii. 



Bensovia Jacquemonfi, var. Jiurramensis. 

F. Dorsal lobes. X 3. 

Gr. Extremity of foot, side view, contracted in spirit. X 3. 

„ „ -viewed from above from life. Enlarged. 

H. Outermost lateral teeth of radula. X 276. 
I. Genitalia. X 6.] 



BENSONIA. — DALINGIA. 177 

short ; the amatorial organ long and much twisted, and the two 
organs, as packed within the animal, lie respectively on the right 
and left sides. The spermafcheca is very long. The genitalia are 
not at their full development : they would at the pairing-season 
be much more swollen. 

There is a central projection to the jaw. 

The radula shows the formula 

+ 25 . 2 . 17 . 1 . 17 . 2 . 25 -I- 
+ 44 . 1 . 44 + 

About twelve of the outermost teeth are very minute ; bicuspid 
teeth follow, the inner cusp being much the longest. The centre 
tooth is tricuspid, the admedians bicuspid, the outer small cusp 
situated rather lower than usual from the main point. 

The absence of the shell-lobes and the long spermatheca place 
this species in the genus Bensonia. I would point out the 
very interesting resemblance it has to Macrochlamys turgurium, 
inhabiting the same area— externally noticeable in the coloured 
border to the peristome and the markings of the body seen 
through the shell ; internally in the generative organs ; showing 
how closely Bensonia approaches Macrochlamys.'] 

275. Beusonia nepalensis, Blf. (Nevill, MS.) P. Z. S. 1904, ii,p.441, 
pi. 25, fig. 1 ; Nevill, Hand-l. i, 1878, no. 67, p. 27. 

Shell openly perforate, conoidly depressed, sublenticular, thin, 
oblKjuely and rugosely phcate above, smoother and striated below, 
without any decussating lines ; spire depressedly conoid, suture 
slightly impressed ; whorls 6, convex, regularly increasing, the 
last not descending, keeled at the periphery, the keel becoming 
blunter near the aperture, tumid below; aperture oblique, roundly 
lunate, the margins converging ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
regularly curved, vertical above, reflected throughout, broadly at 
the perforation. 

Major diam. 23|, min. 21, height 12 mm. 

Hub. Khatmandu, Nepal. Types in the British Museum 
i^Godivin- Austen). 

This shell is near B. camura, but is distinguished by a lower 
spire, smaller umbilicus, stronger sculpture, and the absence of 
decussating striation, and by less acute carination. The animal is 
not known. 

[Subgenus DALINGIA. 
Dalingia, Godtvin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. 149. 

Type, B. bhutanensis, God win- Austen. 

Range. Hitherto found only on the Sikhim-Bhutau frontier. 

8liell depressedly conoid, tumid, thin and delicate ; whorls few. 
Animal has no shell-lobes ; there are three peripodial grooves (a 
very unusual character). The retractor muscle of the male organ 
given oif from a large oval mass. No amatorial organ.] 

N 



178 ZONITID.E. 

[276. Dalingia bhutanensis, Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, 
p. 149, pi. 102, figs. 1-6 (shell and anatomy). 

Shell depressedly conoid, very narrowly umbilicated, allowing 
the passage of a fine bristle, thus the umbilicus is almost hidden. 
Sculpture, to the eye, transverse wavy lines of growth ; under 
lens, longitudinal furrows are seen crossed by narrower ones, 
breaking the surface into irregular decussation. Colour rich 
olivaceous brown. Spire low, apex flatly conoid ; suture im- 
pressed. Whorls 4, tumid, convex ; aperture widely lunate, 
peristome thin. 

Size : major diam. 20*5 mm.; alt. axis 9'5 mm., alt. body- whorl 
10*5 mm. 

Locality. Eicliila Peak, on the Sikhim-Bhutan frontier. 

Animal can retire completely Avithin the shell, and the speci- 
mens had been taken during hibernation, for the aperture was 
covered with a strong epiphragm, tough and transparent. It is 
dark-coloured. Sole of foot with a distinct central area. There 
are no shell-lohes ; the left dorsal lobe is divided. 

The peripodial margin is broad, bordered above ivitli a double row 
of oblong tubercles, or, in other ivords, there are three imrallel grooves 
instead of the usual tivo. 

Generative organs. The amatorial organ is absent. The retractor 
muscle of the male organ is given off from the head of a large 
ovate swollen mass, which corresponds to the coiled mass seen in 
Oxytes orobia. There is a short flagellum or kale-sac. The sper- 
matheca is moderately long and consists of an ovate membranous 
portion situated on a lower thick muscular tube ; the albumen- 
gland was small ; the hei'maphrodite-duct extremely convoluted. 

Jaw with a large central projection. 

The radula has this formula : — 

40 . 2 . 17 . 1 . 17 . 2. 40 
59 . 1 . 59 

The central tooth is tricuspid, the admedians also tricuspid, the 
inner well developed and standing higher than the outer, which is 
the largest. The marginals are curved, bicuspid, the outer cusp 
below the inner. 

Of this species there were only two specimens in the B. M. 
collection with similar sculpture on the shell — one, an adult, from 
which the above description has been made, and another much 
younger example left in the shell ; the pallial margin and markings 
on the visceral sac are the same in both. 

The anatomy of this animal is very unlike that of those with 
similar shells. 

It is remarkably like another in its shell-character inhabiting 
the vicinity of the same peak, Eichila. On first sorting- 
out of a quart-bottle of shells from this locality I placed them 
together ; on a second sorting I noticed considerable difference 
in the sculpture when this was looked at under a high power, 
combined with a modification in the form of the shell, of that 



HELICARIOX. 



179 



indefinable nature one is so often confronted with in sliells of 
this type. Finally, on dissection, one {rkhilaensis) was found to 
be a Macroclilamys wdth the characteristic shell-lobes ; the other 
(bJintanensis), above described, had none, and, besides, very different 
genitalia with no amatorial organ, thus representing two quite dis- 
tinct genera.] 



[Subfamily HELICARIONIN^. 

Helicarioninae, Gochcin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 14G. 

Typical genus, Helicarion, Fer. 

Range. Australia, Indo-Malay, Japan, China, islands of the 
Pacific, and \^estward to Siam, Burma, and India. 

This large subfamily contains many well-defined and interesting 
generic divisions. The similarity of the shells of many species to 
those of the palsearctic genus FitHna led at first to their being 
placed by authors in that very distinct genus. The animal has 
broad shell-lobes more or less covering the shell, and a tail-gland 
is characteristic of the subfamily. The generative organs are 
simple, the amatorial organ absent in many. The jaw is oxy- 
gnathous. The radula ranges from one similar to that of the 
Macrochlamijince, with teeth 80-100 in the row, laterals bicuspid, 
occasionally tricuspid, to another with very numerous teeth, as 
many as 300-400, in the row, of simpler form, with a minute 
central tooth, and approaching but not so pectinated as those 
of the Durcjellince. The animals difi'er widely from each other in 
the different genera. The shells are of a rudimentary type, 
thin, delicate, few-whorled, and are of little use in generic 
determination.] 

[Genus HELICARION. 

Helicarion, Fer. Prod. {Hist. Nat.) p. 23 (1821). 
Austenia, partim, Godwin-AusteJi, Mol. Ind. i, 188.3, p. 148. 

Type, H. cuvieri, Fer., from Australia. 

Range. Indo-Malay and Australasian Regions. 

In the type genus the animal has the keel of the foot flattened. 
In the generative organs the amatorial organ is absent, the penis 
is attenuate, a long epiphallus and a very long kale-sac. The shell 
of 2^ whorls, the last much expanded and more closely wound 
near the protoconch than in the Indian forms of the subfamily. 

In Helicarion various authors have placed quite a large assem- 
blage of species, some of which, as the animals have become known, 
have very rightly been made the types of new genera. The shells 
vary in form from that of the type species //. cuvieri, and while all 
are thin, more or less membranaceous, some are even helicoid with 
high spire and with four or five whorls. South-African forms 
placed in Helicarion, such as H.hndsonice, Benson, depart much from 
the typical form. Perl)aps the most distinctive group are those 

n2 



180 ZO^ITJD JE. 

possessing a solid or tubular calcareous dart, of which Parmanon 
o£ Java &c. may be taken as the type. IS^one have hitherto been 
recorded from India, but they may be looked for in Eastern 
Burma. Many such genera are now known (Parmarion, M'lcro- 
^larmarion, Collingea, Wiegmannia, Parmunculns, Crypioseviehis, 
Philipinnella, ParmeJIa, &c.) which might well constitute a sub- 
family — the Parmarionina;. Genera such as Damayaniia, also 
haying' calcareous darts, approach species of the subfamily Durgel- 
lino', the radula having very numerous and similar teeth in the 
row. 

In Parmarion and allied forms, such as Damayaniia, the deve- 
lopment of the mantle which envelops the shell in life appears 
to have had its origin on the margin of the mantle-zone, and 
extended from its periphery equally and inwardly to the central 
slit in some and carried further to a complete covering in others. 
It has not been derived from distinct right and left shell-lobes 
as in Austenia and Girasia, and these terms are not therefore 
applicable.] 

[Genus CRYPTAUSTENIA. 

Cr^-ptaustenia, Cocherell,A. M. N. H. (3)_ vii, 1891, p. 99 (no 
description : as a section of Helicarion) ; id. Nautilus, xii, 1898, 
p. 10. 

Type, C. succinea, Eeeve. 

Range. Sikhim and Eastern Himalaya ; Lower Bengal and to 
Cachar.] 

Shell imperforate, thin, diaphanous, smooth, depressed ; whorls 
3-41, rapidly increasing, the last large and rounded ; aperture 
large, oblique ; peristome simple, more or less membranaceous. 

The animal has the shell-lobes of the mantle broad but divided 
from each other and almost or quite concealijig the shell when 
fully expanded. The dorsal lobes cover much less of the back of 
the foot than in the latter genus. Peripodial groove and mucous 
pore strongly developed, a projecting lobe above tlie latter. 
Genitalia cMefiy distinguished from Macrochlamys hy the absence 
of a coil for the attachment of the retractor vmscle of the penis. 
Radula with a tricuspid rhachidian tooth and rather numerous broad 
inner laterals hi- or tricuspid, together with a much smaller number 
of outer pointed bicuspid laterals than in typical Girasia, and the 
outer cusp of these is outside remote from the end. 

This group is at once distingtiished by its shell from Girasia 
and Austenia. It chiefly differs from Vitrina by having a mucous 
pore, and the genitalia are quite different. 

a. Species from the Eastern Himalayas. 

277. Cryptaustenia succinea, Rv. (Vitrina) Conch. Ic. Vitrina, 1862, 
pi. ii, tig. 8 ; //. <S- T. (Vitrina) C. /. 1876, pi. 75, tigs. 7, 10. 
Vitrina planospira, Bs. A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 271 ; Pfr. 
Man. Hel. \, 1868, p. 14 ; Goihcin-Austen (Austenia), Mol. hid. 



CETPTAUSTEXIA. 



181 



i, 1883, p. 149, pi. 36, figs. 1-5 (animal and shell), pi. 38, figs. 1-1 h 
(anatomy) ; id. ii, 1899, p. 93, pi. 91, fig. 4 (dart-sac) ; id. 
(Eurychlainvs) t. c. ii, p. 109 ; Cooker ell (Ciyptaustenia), 
A. M. N. Ii. (6) vii, 1891, p. 99 ; id. Nautilus, xii, 1898, p. 10 : 
nee V. planospira, Pfr. 1853. 

Shell ovately depressed, periphery roundly oval, thiu, smooth, 
not highly polished, translucent, horny ; spire convex, flat above, 



B 



rsl 











[Fig. 63, — Cryptaustenia. succinea, Ev. 

A. Animal di'awn from life. Nat. size.' 

B. Animal from a spirit-specimen : viewed from the right and left 

sides. X 2. 

C. Genitalia. X 7. 

D. Teeth of the radula. X 328. 

E. Jaw. X 10-5.] 



apex not exserted, suture shallow ; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, 
the last descending very slightly near the aperture, rounded at 



182 ZONIXIDJE. 

the periphery, convex beneath ; aperture oblique, ovately lunate,, 
margins converging, the upper curved forward, columellar deeply 
sinuate. 

Major diam. 14, min. 11, height 6 mm. A large variety 
measures 19| x 15| x 8 mm. 

Hah. Sikhim at low elevations, Pankabari, Eangun Yalley, 
Nampok, Eangpo near Tumlung ; Damsang Peak, Daliug District, 
Bhutan. 

A drawing of the animal by Stoliczka is published in Godwin- 
Austen's ' Mollusca of India,' and shows that the resemblance to 
C. he?isoni is very great. There are the same broad shell-lobes, 
strongly papillose, covering the greater part of the shell. The 
foot has a linear gland behind with a slight overhanging lobe, and 
the sole is divided into a central area with two lateral margins. 
The teeth of the radula are thus arranged: 50 . 1 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 1 . 50 
(65 . 1 . 65), and resemble those of MacroMamys indica. 

The animal in most of its characters clearly resembles Eury- 
cJdamys pJatycMamys, and is accordingly placed in the genus 
Eurychlamys by Godwin-Austen. The shell, however, differs con- 
siderably. The present form has a dart-sac, which E. platychlamys 
wants ; but this may not be a very important difference. 

278. Cryptaustenia ovata, H. Blf. (Helicarion) J. A. S. B 1871, 2, 
p. 44, pi. 2, fig. 9 ; Pfr. (Vitrina) Mon. Hel. vii, p. 10; Godwin- 
Austen (HeUcarion), J. A. S. B. 1876, 2, p. 312 ; Nevill (Heli- 
carion), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 14. 

Shell depressed with an ovate periphery, diaphanous, dark 
horny, smooth, polished ; spire almost flat, apex scarcely exserted, 
suture impressed ; whorls 34, rapidly increasing, the last slighth' 
descending; aperture oblique, ovately lunate, margins converging ; 
upper margin of peristome arcuate, columellar regularly sinuate, 
snbvertical. 

Major diam. 11*5, min. 9, alt. 5 mm. Another specimen 
measures 135 x 10 x 6 mm. 

Hah. JSTear Darjiling (Stoliczlrt). Other localities in Bengal, 
mentioned by Nevill in his ' Hand-list,' are, as Godwin-Austen 
has shown, very probably due to this shell being confounded with 
A. j^anchefensis. 

" Distinguished from H. salius, Bs. sp. (with which it is asso- 
ciated), by its larger size, more depressed form, and simple peristome, 
not recurved at the columella. On the other hand, it is smaller, 
more solid, and more globular than H. pJanospira, Bs. sp. Prom 
H. scutella, Bs. sp., and JI. hensoni, Pfr. sp., it differs by its 
greater solidity, its highly polished surface, and the less rapid 
increase of the last whorl. It is also smaller than the former of 
these species." 

It is far from improbable that this shell also belongs to the 
genus Dnrgelhi. 



CKYPTAITSTENIA. 183 

279. Cryptaustenia heteroconcha, H. Blf. (Helicarion) J. A. S. B. 

1871, -2, p. 45, pi. 2, tigs. 8-8 b ; Pfr. (Vitrina) Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, 
p. 10 ; H. Sf T. (Vitrina) C. I. 1876, pi. 152, figs. 8, 9. 

" Shell much depressed, with an oval periphery, thin, diaphanous, 
menibrauaeeous beneath, yellowish horny, greenish towards the 
aperture, polished, arcuately obsoletely striate, irregularly subcos- 
tulate towards the aperture ; spire flattened, the apex scarcely 
exserted ; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, the last dilated, scarcely 
descending ; suture subimpressed, margined with white ; aperture 
very oblique, oblong-ovate ; anterior margin of the pei'istome 
strongly arcuate, right margin subundulate, basal margin mem- 
branaceous. 

"Major diam. 17, min. 11, axis 5 mm. Height of aperture 8, 
breadth 11 mm. 

" Hab. Near Darjiling." {H. F. Blanford, in Latin.) 

The height of the shell in the figure, measured from the base, is 
about 8 mm. 

280. Cryptaustenia verrucosa, Godwm-Austen, Helicarion (Ho- 

plites), /. A. 6'. B. 1876, 2, p. 313, pi. 8, fig. 6. 
[Vide i^g. 6^ A, -p. 184.] 

Shell thin and glassy, with about 4 whorls. 

" Animal dull purplish grey ; mantle-lobes, which can cover the 
entire shell, are very minutely mottled, and have a finely papillate 
surface. On the posterior margin are six blunt and wart-like pro- 
cesses, arranged three on the right and three on the left side . . . 
The mucous gland is lai-ger and the upper lobe well pointed. 
. . . The mantle is divided into three lobes, one of rectangular 
outline is on the anterior left margin. The shell when the animal 
is in motion is very slightly exposed. 

" Total length 1*25", mantle 0"60", mantle to extremity of foot 
0-50", tentacles 0-20". 

" Hab. Under Tornputu Peak at 4000 feet. Found on decaying 
wood during damp weather." {Godwin- Austen.) 

The animal, well figured in the original paper, is evidently 
similar to C. bensoni and C. succinea, and has the same papillose 
shell-lobes. 

[281. Cryptaustenia durraiigensis, Godwin-Austm (Austeuia), Mol. 
Lid. ii, 1907, p. 172, pi. 108, figs. 5-5 b (shell), pi. Ill, figs. 7-7 c 
(part animal and radula). 

Durrang District, Assam. 

Shell depressedly globose, not umbilicated ; sculpture none, 
surface glossy, crossed transversely by tine lines of growth ; colour 
straw-colour ; spire very low, rounded, suture shallow ; whorls 
2;J, expansive ; aperture very oval, oblique ; peristome thin, 
narrowly edged with white, columellar margin nearly vertical. 

Size : major diam. 10"5, alt. axis 3"8 mm. 

Animal (from a soaked specimen). Colour olivaceous with 
mottlings on the foot ; the membrane of the branchial cavity has 



184 



ZONITID^. 




B 


















[Fig. 64. 

A. Cryptaustenia verrucosa, viewed from above and the right side : 

drawn from life. 

B. Girasia cinerca, drawn from life. 

C. Austenia nagaensis : sketch from life of upper side of the mantle, 

and the right side to show the shell-lobes and shell of same. 

D. Cryptogirasia rubra : the animal from different sides, extremity of 

foot enlarged, drawn from life ; shell magnified and natural size.] 



CRYPXAUSTENIA. 185 

a margin of black ou the side of the elongate kidney and tiie 
visceral sac is darkly mottled. The mucous gland linear, extremity 
of foot square. Shell-lobes black, the riglit shell-lobe broad and 
spreading along the side of the body-whorl ; the left shell-lobe 
also a broad lappet and elongately triangular in shape. The male 
organ resembles that of Austeaia gigas, aud the amatorial organ is 
larger. 

Jaw with a very small central projection. 

Kadula has the formula : 

70 . 2 15 . 1 . 15 . 2 . 70 

87 . 1 . 87 ■ 

The central tooth and the admediau teeth are of the usual form : 
the central tooth as drawn is malformed or broken, it is only the 
remnant of the usual tricuspid form ; the laterals are evenly 
bicuspid.] 

[282. CryptailStenia zemoensis, Godwin-Austen (Au?tenia), iWo/. Ind. 
ii, 1907, p. 171, pi. 107, figs. 4-9. 

Locality. Zemo Samdong, Sikkim ( W. Robert). 

Shell rather depressedly globose, thin and membranous ; sculp- 
ture none, a smooth shiny epidermis ; colour ochraceous with a 
green tinge ; spire low, rounded, apex just raised above the next 
whorl ; whorls 3, gradually increasiug, tlie last rounded and tumid ; 
aperture and peristome not seen (broken below). 

Its form is very similar to a species from Darjiling in Dr. W. 
T. Blanford's collection, figured ou pi. 37, figs. 2, 2 a, vol. i. 
p. 152 (Mol. Ind.), as Austenia ? saKus, Bs., var., a smaller or more 
solid shell. 

Size : major diam. 11*3, alt. axis 6 mm. 

The shell is of the type of A. planospira, but may be distin- 
guished at once by the coil of the whorls, there being more of 
them. The shell is so thin and delicate, I found it impossible to 
detach it from the animals preserved in spirit. 

Animal. Of similar form to A. plaaospira ; the principal dif- 
ference is noticeable in the shell-lobes, which in this species are 
quite smooth, whereas in planospira they are strongly papillate. 
The left shell-lobe shows a scalloped edge, with furrows running 
inwards towards the edge of the mantle. The left dorsal lobe is 
distinctly in two parts. The sides of the foot and mautle-lobes 
are mottled, but not strongly, and one specimen shows this only 
slightly on the shell-lobes. The sole of the foot is divided, but 
the segmental lines on the side do not extend across the central 
portion as in A. gigas and other species. The fringe of the foot 
is paler than the rest of the animal, from the peripodial groove to 
the edge of the foot. 

The generative organs are . interesting, because in the penis 
there is a solid coiled rounded mass at the main bend, from which 
the retractor muscle is given off, and in this respect this species 



186 ZONITIDiE. 

shows an approach to MacroMamys ; yet again in this connection 
there is also a well-developed kale-sac or flagellum at the point of 
junction of the vas deferens. The amatorial organ is short and 
blunt at the outer end ; in this respect it is like that seen in the 
genitalia of Austenia planospira. The spermatheca is apparently 
long, only a part, perhaps half, is left, a portion having been 
broken off in dissection. 

The jaw was arched, solid, and ^ith a strong central projection. 

The radula has the formula : 

25 . 16 . 1 . 16 . 25 
41 . 1 . 41 

The teeth are similar in form to those of C. bensoni of Calcutta^ 
the outer cusp lying low down, up to the extreme marginals.] 

[283. Cryptaustenia silcharensis, Godivin- Austen (Austenia), Mol. 
Ind. ii, 1907, p. 170, jil. 107, figs. 1-3 c (shell, animal, and 
anatomy). 

Locality. Near Silchar, Cachar {F. Ede). 

Shell. The description of C. bensoni will apply generally. It is 
bright and shining, of a straw-colour. Three whorls, these are 
flatter above than in that species, making the aperture wider 
horizontally to the axis ; viewed from above, the last whorl spreads 
and widens outwards as it nears the aperture. 

Size : maj. diam. 0*95, alt. axis 0"35 mm. 

Animal. Preserved in spirit is pale vinous, greyer on the shell- 
lobes ; on the side of the foot, just above the peripodial groove, are 
a series of isolated dark blotches. The foot is long behind, narrow 
compressed at the sides, and terminating in a long hooked point 
overhanging the narrow slit of the mucous gland. The sole is 
very distinctly divided. The peripodial groove and margin not 
so distinctly marked as in some species. The right and left shell- 
lobes are remarkably developed, particularly the former ; broad 
and expanding, in life evidently covering the whole shell, they 
have a beautiful papillate surface. The length of this specimen 
(contracted) is 2-25 mm. 

Genitalia. The amatorial organ is long and cylindrical, tapering 
gradually to the retractor muscle. The penis is bent sharply 
■where the long retractor muscle is given oif, then there is a short 
swollen part where the spermatophore would be formed, and this 
narrows to the vas deferens. The spermatheca is moderately 
long. 

The jaw has a central projection. 

The radula has the formula: 

52 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 52 
64 . 1 . 64 

Similar to that of C. bensoni, and the teeth are of the same 
tricuspid type shown in plate 38, fig. 2, vol. i, Mol. Ind.] 



CEYPTACrSTENIA. 187 

284, Cryptaiistenia globosa, Godwin-Austen, Helix (Nanina), J. A. 

S. B. lf^76, 2, p. 312 ; id. (Austenia) Mol Ind. i, p. 153, pi. 37, 
figs. 5-6 i (shell). 

Shell depressedly subglobose, thin, transparent glossy, scarcely 
striated, ^^■hitish horny ; spire slightly raised, suture impressed ; 
whorls 34, convex, the last not descending above, broadly rounded 
at periphery, expanded below ; aperture oblique, lunately circular; 
margins converging, columellar roundly sinuate. 

Major diam. 9-i-, min. 1^, height S^ mm. 

Hah. Summit of Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills, north of Assam 
{^Godwin-Austen^. 

More globose and with a rounder mouth than the allied forms. 
Animal dark grey, with the lobe over the gland much hooked. 

b. Species from Bengal. 

285. Cryptaiistenia bensoni, Pfr. (Vitrina) P. Z. S. 1848, p. 107 ; id. 

(Vitrina) Mon. Mel. ii, 1848, p. 497 ; H. ^- T. (Vitrina) C. I. 
1876, pi. 65, figs. '1-4 ; Godwin- Ausf en (Austenia), Mol. Ind. '\, 
1883, p. 150, pi. 36, figs. 6, 7 (shell and animal extended). 
Austenia bensoni, var. sylhetensis, Godwin- Austen, I. c. pi. 38, fig. 3. 

Shell depressed, thin, faintly striated, polished, translucent, 
pale horny ; spire scarcely raised, obtuse, suture very slightly 
impressed ; whorls 3|, slightly convex, the last scarcely depressed; 
aperture oblique, lunately subovate ; peristome simple, thin, the 
margins converging, the upper slightly curved forward, the 
columellar sharply curved upwards, inclined forward beyond the 
vertical. 

Major diam. 10, min. S, depth oh mm. (The original type 
measured 12 x 9| x 6 mm.) 

Hah. Bengal, Calcutta, Jessore, Chandanagore. Not rare in 
the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

Animal dull greenish grey or very pale olive with some large 
irregular blotches ; sole of foot white in the middle, dusky on 
each side. The shell-lobes of the mantle almost or entirely cover 
the shell and are rough, being covered with small papillae. The 
teeth on the radula are : 45 . 3 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 3 . 45 (60 . 1 . GO) ; all 
the 15 inner laterals are tricuspid, the outer bicuspid and pointed, 
the second outer cusp not being near the end. 

Godwin-Austen has described as a variety C. bensoni, var. stjl- 
hetensis, from a wood on the banks of the Soorma River in Sylhet, 
between Atgaon and Chatak. Although the shell does not differ 
greatly, the radula has 04 . 2 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 2 . 64 (80 . 1 . 80) teeth, 
the outermost of which show signs of pectination, as in DurgeUa. 
The animal is light yellowish green and creeps about with the 
caudal termination of the foot raised in the air. 



188 ZOKI CID.E. 

286. Cryptausfceuia pancheteiisis, Godwin-Austin (Austenia), Mol. 
Ind. I, 1883, p. 153, pi. 37, figs. 3-3 h (shell). 

Shell very similar to C. bensoni, but the shell is thicker, and 
the last whorl descends near the aperture. 

Major diam. 10;^, min, 8, height 5 mm, 
Z^Hab. Panchet Hill, W. of Eaniganj, Bengal (W. T. B.). 
God win- Austen suggests that specimens from Eajmahal, Sikrigali, 
and Patna in Bengal, referred by Nevill in his ' Hand-list ' to 
A. ovata, may be the same as the Panchet shell. 



[Genus EURYCHLAMYS. 

Eurycblamys, Godwin- Austen, Proc. Malacoloq. Soc. vol. ill, July 
1899, p. 250 (no description) ; id. Mol. Ind. li, 1899, p. 90. 

Type, E. jjlatucMamys, W. T. Blf . 

Range. Southern India and Ceylon. 

Original description : — " The shell-lobes are elongate and broad, 
more or less papillate, enveloping the shell. The left dorsal is 
divided into two lobes, the posterior one narrow. Lobe above 
mucous gland overhanging. Foot long and narrow behind, the 
sole with a simple straight sheath, the retractor muscle attached 
at the end, and above a small bulbous enlargement where the 
vas deferens joins. The amatorial organ is absent. The jaw has 
a central projection. The central tooth is tricuspid, the admedian 
bicuspid, the laterals evenly bicuspid (from 70 to 60 on each 
side)."] 

287. Eurychlamys platychlamys, Blf. J. A. S. B. 1880, 2, p. 195, 
pi. 2, fig. 9 ; Godioin-Austea (Eurychlamys), Mol. Ind. ii, 1899, 
p. 90, pi. 84, figs. 1-1 e (animal and auatomy). 
Nauina (Microcystina) perrotteti, Peile, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 
p. 134 (1897) : 7iec Ffeifer. 

Shell openly perforate, conoidly depressed, thin, smooth, 
polished, translucent, fulvous horny ; spire low, convexly conoidal, 
apex obtuse, suture scarcely impressed, almost flat ; whorls 5, 
slightly convex, the last rounded at the periphery, convex beneath ; 
aperture oblique, subovately lunate ; peristome thin, outer margin 
sinuate, basal straight, columellar oblique, slightly expanded 
throughout, more broadly above. 

Major diam. 11, min. 9-i, height 5^ mm. (a large specimen 
measures 14 x 12 x 6^ mm.). 

Hab. Bombay and neighbourhood. 

A variety larger and with a lower spire occurs at Champanir, 
near Broach. A shell measures 16xl3|x7 mm.; others are 
even larger. 

The animal is dai'k grey and has remarkably broad shell-lobes, 
which cover a great part of the spire, sometimes nearly the whole, 




[Fig. 65. — Eurychlamys 2^latychlamys. 

A. Animal with shell removed, viewed from both the right and left 

sides, showing the shell- and dorsal lobes. X 4'5. 

B. Shell. X 2-4. 0. Jaw. x 12. 

D. Different parts of the genitalia. X i'o and X 12. 

Eurychlamys regulata. 

E. Animal (spirit-specimen), seen from right side. X 3'4. Right 

shell-lobe turned down, siiowing inside surface. 
E'. Ditto. X 2-5. Showing position of right sliell-lobe in life. 
F: Shell. X 2-4. G-. Lobes of the mantle. X 3. 

H. The penis. X 8. 
I. Jaw and teeth of the radula. X 12 and X 36;?.] 



190 zoNiTiD^s:. 

when extended. Left dorsal lobe bifid, the posterior portion 
narrow. Mucous gland with a small rounded overhanging lobe 
above. Foot long and narrow, the sole divided into median and 
marginal areas. In the genitalia the male organ is a simple, short, 
bulbous sheath, the retractor muscle is attached to the side, with- 
out any caecum, and the vas deferens enters at a short distance 
from the retractor without distinct kale-sac. Spermatheca of 
moderate length, subcylindrical ; amatorial organ (dart-sac) 
wanting. 

In the radula the median tooth has a strong cusp on each side 
about halfway down ; the inner laterals have an upper inner lateral 
cusp and an outer lower one ; outer laterals bicuspid, the outer 
cusp below the inner. Teeth in a row : 45 . 2 . 12 . 1. 12 . 2 . 45 
(59 . 1 . 59). Jaw with a projection in the middle inside. 

On account of the remarkable mantle-lobes and genitalia, 
Col. Godwin- Austen made this species the type of a subgenus 
EurycJilamys, to which probably several South Indian and Ceylouese 
forms should be referred. The division is fully justified. [At 
present only this and the next species are known to belong to it. 
The animals of so many species from S. India remain to be 
examined.] 

288. Eurychlamys regiilata, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) v, 1860, 
p. 383 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iv. p. 125 ; H. S,- T. (Helix) C. I. 
1876, pi. 31, figs. 5, 6 ; Godwin-Austen (Eurychlamys), Mol. hid. 
ii, 1899, p. 92, pi. 84, figs. 2 a-g ; Kohelt, in Mart. 8f Chemn. Syst. 
Conch.-Cah. ed. 2, Naninid^, 1901, p. 1028, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell scarcely perforate, subglobosely depressed, tliin, obliquely 
obsoletely striated, very neatly ornamented throughout with fine 
parallel spiral impressed lines, rather further apart above than 
below, brownish horny, translucent, highly polished : spire 
depressedly conoidal, apex rather obtuse, suture impressed, but 
shallow ; whorls 31, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last 
broader, slightly compressed at the periphery, more convex 
beneath ; aperture large, oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome 
straight, acute, columellar margin curved, vertical above and 
rather broadly subtriangularly reflected over the perforation, 
margins remote. 

Major diam. 10, min. 8^, axis 51 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon, Kaluganga in East Matelle, Ivatukellekande 
(Layard), and BaduUa (CoUett). 

Animal very similar to that of E. pjatycldamys : foot long beliind 
the shell, lobe over the mucous gland elongate ; shell-lobes broad, 
almost or completely covering the shell wlien extended. Penis a 
simple long sheath without ceecum or other appendage, the vas 
deferens joining it very near the retractor muscle. TN'o dart-sac. 
Teeth on radula thus arranged : 55 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 55 (69 . 1 . 69). 
Median tooth tricuspid ; lateral cusps basal, inner laterals bicuspid 



EUBTCHLAMYS. AUSTENIA. 191 

with one cusp on the outer side ; outer laterals witli two even 
termiual cusps as usual in Macrochlamys. 

[To this genus may belong such forms as umhrina, nejpas, 
luoodiana, &c., provisionally placed in Macrochlamys.'] 



Genus AUSTENIA. 

Austeuia, Nevill {suhgenus of Helicarion), Iland-l. i, 1878, p. 16; 

Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, pp. 294, 298 ; id. Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 

p. 148, 1888, p. 228. 
Girasia, partim, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 21(5. 
Cryptibycus, Cocherell, A. M. N. H. (.''.) vii, 1891, p. 99 ; id. Nautilus, 

xii, 1898, p. 10 (no description). 

Type, A. gigcs, Bs. 

Range. The Himalaya, Assam, and Burma. 
Shell imperforate, ovate, of one to two whorls, very thin as a 
rule, often glassy ; aperture very large, more or less ovate ; pei-istome 
thin, almost membranaceous. 

Animal large, not retractile within the shell. The lobes of the 
mantle are united around the shell, and when the animal is 
extended they cover much of the anterior part of the foot and 
the greater part of the shell. Each shell-lobe is roundly 
expanded upon the shell, not elongate as in Macroclilamys. In 
some forms, as A. magnifica, the shell is nearly or quite concealed 
by the mantle-lobes, as in Girasia, while in the type a considerable 
portion remains exposed. 

Hinder extremity of foot long, sharply carinate above and 
truncate behind by a large linear mucous pore, above which there 
is sometimes an overhanging lobe. Pei'ipodial groove very distinct. 
Sole of the foot divided into three longitudinal areas. 

Genital aperture, as usual, behind the outer base of the right 
tentacle. The details of the generative organs much resemble 
those of MacrocJdami/s, except that near the retractor muscle of 
the male organ there is neither caecum nor coil. A large dart-sac 
is present and a long cylindrical spermatheca. 

In the radula, which nnich resembles that of Macrochlamys, 
the rhachidian is tricuspid, and the admedian teeth are broad and 
bicuspid or tricuspid. The outer laterals are long and pointed, 
with an additional cusp low down on the outer margin, and 
which disappears on the outermost teeth. This differs from the 
form of the outer marginals in Girasia. 

The genus Austeuia is intermediate between Macrochlamys and 
Girasia and distinguished from all by its ovate ear-shaped shell. 
It is less slug-like than Girasia, its shell being well formed and, 
as a rule, less covered by the mantle. It is represented in the 
Indian Peninsula by the genus Psemhiustenia, which has a similar 
shell, but several differences in the animal. 



192 



ZONITID.'E. 



289. Austenia gigas, Bs. (Vitrina) J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 350 ; ? Bfr. 
(Vitriua) Moyi. Hel. ii, 1848, p. 496 ; Blf. (Vitrina) J. A. S. B. 
xxxiv, 2, 1865, p. 95; Godicin-Austen (Ilelicarion), /. A. S. B. 
1875, p. 6, pi. 3 (animal extended) ; H. S,- T. (Vitrina) C. I. 1876, 
p. 29, pi. 66, lio-s. 2, 3; Nevill, Helicarion (Austenia), Hand-l. 
i, 3878, p. 16; Godivin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294, pis. 24, 25, 
26, 27 ; id. Mol. Lid. i, 1883, p. 148, 1888, p. 228, pi. 55, figs. 3-4 b 
(sliell and animal), pi. 60, figs. 1,1a (animal extended), pi. 62, 
fig. 8 (radula) ; vol. ii, 1899, i^ls. 89, 90 (genitalia). 

Shell thin, polished, subovately depressed, faintly striated, oliva- 
ceous horny; spire small, flat, projecting beyond the peristome, 





Fig. 66. — Austenia gigas, Bs. 

suture impressed; whorls about 2, very rapidly increasing, the 
last depressed above, occupying the greater part of the shell ; 
aperture very large and oblique, ovate, the margins nearly meeting, 
the columellar strongly arcuate. 

Major diam. 30, min. 17, alt. 10 mm. A large specimen 
measiires 40 x 25 x 12 mm. 

Bob. Khasi Hills, common about Teria Ghat. Allied species in 
Arakan Eange, west of Prome, and Kyouk Phyu and Eamri 
Island. 



ATTSTENIA. 



193 



The length of the animal, when fully extended, is about 
6 inches. A considerable portion of the shell remains exposed 
(this doubtless varies in extent). The teetli of the radula are 
thus arranged : 69 . 3 . 22 . 1 . 22 . 3 . 69 (94 . 1 . 94) ; the number 
of broad inner lateral (admedian) teeth being very larse. The 
rhachidian tooth is bluntly tricuspid, the next 6 on each side have 




[Fig. 67. — Austenia gigas. 

A. Auiraal from a spirit-specimeu, viewed from both the right, and left sides, 

showing shell- and dorsal lobes ; in the former, cav. is the posterior end 
of the cavity in the foot occupied by the internal organs. 

B. Genitalia: the sperinatiicca filled with spermatophores. 

C. A spermatophore taken from the sperinatheca. 

D. Penis, showing spermatophore in process of formation. 

E. Jaw and teeth of the radula.] 

o 



194 



ZONITID.E. 



only a blunt outer cusp, afterwards an inner cusp becomes visible. 
The outer laterals bicuspid, with a long point and an additional 
cusp low down on the outer side ; the extreme mai'ginals are 
simple unicuspid teeth. 

The general colour of the animal as represented in the figures 
is an umber-brown, the furrows on the upper surface being 
darker. 

290. Austenia butleri, Godtom- Austen (Girasia), Mol. Ind. i, 1888, 

p. 226, pi. 60, fig. 7 ; id. op. cit. ii, 1899, p. 108, pi. 90, figs. 5-10. 
Helicarion gigas, Bs., small Tar., J.A.S.B. xliv, 1875, p. 0, pi. 3 

(smaller figure, animal extended). 
Austenia gigas, var. minor, Godtcin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294, 

pi. 24, figs. 3-6, 9, pi. 25, figs. 1-5, pi. 26, figs. 1, 5, 8, pi. 27, 

tigs. 8-10 (animal, shell, and anatomy). 

This differs from A. gigas in smaller size and in the different 
colour of the animal, which is " dark ochre-brown, with very dark 




Fig. 68. — Austenia butleri. 

marking, particularly noticeable along the margin of the foot." 
The neck-lobe of tlae mantle is represented as spotted in the 
figure and a broad dark line in front of it, down each side of 
the neck. Animal represented as about 3^ inches long when 
extended. 

Major diam. of shell 21*5, min. 18 mm. 

Hah. Between Samuguting and Kohima, Naga Hills {Godwin- 
Austen). 

Teeth in the radula 32 . 3 . 18 . 1 . 18 . 3 . 32 (53 . 1 . 53), or 
considerably fewer than in A. gigas. 

*291. Austenia resplendens, Necill (Helicarion), J. A. S. B. xhi, 2, 
1877, p. 23 ; id. Ynmum E.rped., Mol. p. 883, pi. 80, figs. 6, 6 « ; 
id. J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, 2, p. 129, pi. 5, fig. 24 ; Nevill, Hehcarion 
(Austenia), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 16 ; G. Tapp. Cancfri, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Gen. xxvii, 1889, p. 315. 

This is described as resembling A. gigas, but as being a little 
thinner and more membranaceous ; it is at once distinguished from 
it by its flatter, more ear-like, and appressed shape. 

Major diam. 22, min. 14, depth 8 mm. 

Hah. Sawady and Bhamo, Upper Burma {Dr. John Anderson). 

Judging by the figure, this shell appears to have about half a 
revolution more than A. gigas. 



AUSTENIA. 195 

*292. Austenia venusta, 77//;o;;«7fZ (Vitrina?), J. A. S. B. 1870, 2, 
p. 400; Pfr. (Vitrina) Mon. IM. vii, 1870, p. -.512; H. ^ T. 
(Vitriiia) C. I. 1870, pi. 152, Hg. o ; Godioin- Austen, Mol. Lid. 
i, 1888, p. 237, pi. 59, fig. 5 (shell). 

" Shell ovatelj ear-shaped, scarcely convex above, diaphanous, 
very thin, polished, subrugosely striated, bright yellowish brown ; 
vphorls i|, rapidly increasing; aperture very broad. 

" Major diam. -30, min. 17, height -10 inch (7| x 4 x 2.j mm.). 

" Hub. Near Chuegaley Tsekan, between Proine and Tongoop." 
{Theoh. in Latin.) 

The figure shows that this is very similar to J. glrjas, though 
only about a third the size, and it may be the young, as A. girjas 
is said to be found in the Arakan Range. The shell from 
Ponsee in Yunnan, referred to this species by Nevill (J. A. S. B. 
1877, 2, p. 24), is shown by Godwin-Austen to be different. 

*293. Austenia niagnifica, Godwin- Atisten ^' Nevill (Ilelicarion), 
J. A. S. B. 1877, 2, p. 24 ; JSteviU, Helicarion (Austeuia), Hand~L 
i, 1878, p. 16 ; Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294, pi. 24, 
figs. 1, 2 (auimal); Nerill, Helicarion (Austenia), J.A.S.B. 
1881, 2, p. 129, pi. o, fig. 2-3 (shell) ; Godzcin-Austen (Girasia), 
Mol. Lid. i, 1888, p. 225, pi. 56, figs. 1, 2, 3 (animal), 4, 5 (shell). 
Ilelicarion (Austenia) fete, Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxvii, 
1889, p. 313, pi. 9, figs. 1-7. ' 

Shell very similar to that of A. gif/as, but much larger, of a 
brown, not a green colour, with the body-whorl much more flatly 
expanded, aud the spire less convoluted and more depressed; also, 
looked at from underneath, very much less of the reflected body- 
whorl is visible. 

Major diam. 46, axis 11^, aperture 40i by 29^ mm. 

Hah. Teng-Yue-Chow or Momein in Yunnan, at 5500 feet 
(Anderson) ; near Bhamo (Fea). 

The lobes of the mantle ai-e united around the shell, which is 
completely covered when the animal is alive, and only a small 
portion exposed when the mantle is contracted in spirit. The line 
uniting tlie shell-lobes is distinctly seen. The mantle also covers 
much of the upper surface of the foot. [In this respect the 
animal is like that of Girasia, and is the reason why I placed it in 
that genus, the shell being different.] Mucous pore very long ; 
spermatheca, as figured by Tappoue Canefri, is very large ; other 
generative organs as in Girasia generally. 

In the radula the teeth of the middle row are as usual ; the 
outer laterals bicuspid, long, curved, aud pointed, the outer cusp 
much below the apex. 

294. Austenia nagaensis, Godwin- Austen (Ilelicavion), J. A. S. B. 
xliv, 2, p. 5, pi. 2, figs. 3-3 c (shell and parts of animal) ; id. 
(Girasia) P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294; id. (Girasia) Mol. Lid. i, p. 224, 
pi. 61, figs. .3-3 c (shell and parts of animal). 
[FiV/eHg. 64C, p. 184.] 

Shell very thin, membranaceous, ovate, apex forming a coil, not 

o2 



196 ZONITIDiE. 

projecting from the side ; much broader than Girasia hooJcet'i,. 
covered with an olive epidermis showing lines of growth. 

Major diam. about 22, min. about l-l- mm. 

Aunnal ochre-colour, prettily mottled and dotted with a darker 
shade of the same ; the mantle covers nearly the whole shell ; a 
narrow white line commencing near the posterior margin of the 
slit disclosing the shell extends rouiid towards the respiratory 
orifice on the right-hand side, and in front another line curves 
round to the left anterior side. Length about 3 inches. 

Hab. Angami Naga Hills, Assam. 

205. Austenia cacharica, Godnm- Atisten (Gii'dsin), Mol. Ind. i, 1888,. 

p. 210, pi. 59, figs. 4, 4(1 (animal aud shell), pi. 62, %. 5 (teeth). 

Helicavion solidum, Godwin- Austen (partim), J. A. S. B. 1875, 2, 

p. 6, pi. 2, figs. 5-5 c (animal and shell), nee P. Z. S. 1872, p. 518. 

Shell oval, fairly solid, smooth, shining, colour pale olive ; apex 
small, not projecting, very closely wound ; whorls about 1| ; 
aperture ovate, occupying nearl}' the whole shell, only about a 
ninth being taken up by the reflected whorl, columellar margin 
evenly sinuate. 

Major diam. 11, min. 6^, height about 3 mm. 

Hah. North Cachar Hills : Kohima, Dunsiri Valley. 

Animal dark umber to pinkish grey, much speclded throughout, 
and with black lines on the side of the foot. Dorsal lobe ample, 
extending round to the left posterior side ; right dorsal lobe rather 
small. The right sliell-lobe is expanded over the apex, but is 
hardly connected behind ; the left sliell-lobe is narrow and laps 
over the peristome, but does not join the other lobe. The 
posterior margin and apex of the shell rests in a V-sliaped de- 
pression of the ridge of the foot, and the hinder part of the foot 
thence to the mucous gland is very short. 

The teeth of the radula are thus arranged : 40 . 15 . 1 . 1.3 . 40 
(55 . 1 . 55). The inner laterals (admedians) have a well-formed 
cusp on the outer basal side ; the outer laterals are very pointed 
and curved, with the outer cusp quite basal. 



296. Austenia SOlida, Godwin- Austen, Helicaiiim (Iloplites), P. Z. S. 
1S72, p. 518, pi. .'SO, fig. 10 (shell); H. ^- T. (Vitrina) C. I. 1876, 
pi. 152, fig. 6 ; Godtcin-Austen (Girasia), MoL Ind. i, p. 241. 

Shell close to A. cacharica, but considerably stronger and the 
apex thicker. The columellar margin of the peristome is much 
incurved. 

Major diam. 14|-, min. 9, height 4| mm. A smaller specimen 
measures 9 mm. in major diameter. 

Hah. Hengdan Peak, North Cachar Hills. 

This may be the same as the last, but the shell shows slight 
differences. The animal is not known. 



ATJSTENIA. 197 

297. Austenia pegiiensis, Theu/uil'l (Yitvma), J. A. 6'. £. xxxiii, 1864, 
p. 244 ; //. cV T. (Vitriua) C. /. 1876, pi. 65, figs. 2, 3 ; jyevill, 
Ilelicarion (Austenia), Hund-l. i, 1878, p. 16; Godwin-Austen 
(Girasia), Mol. Lid. i, 1888, p. 227, pi. vj9, tigs. 6-6 l> (animal), 
6 c, 6d (shell) ; Colh'iif/e (Girasia), Joia: Mai. ix, 1902, p. 7(). 

Shell rather more solid than usual, semiovate, with the apex, 
which is very tliick, projecting, polished, pale oliA-aceous or yel- 
lowish ; spire flat, suture rather deeply impressed ; about 1| 
■\vhorls ; aperture occupying almost the whole lower surface; 




Fig. &^.~ Aii!>fenia pci/uensis. 



margin of peristome very convex, except near apex, u-here it is 
straight or slightly concave, inner portion of deeply concave 
columellar margin thickened in some shells. 

Major diam. 16, min. 10, height ;14 mm. 

Hab. Pegu. Near the town of Pegu, and also on the west of 
the Irrawady in tlie Bassein district, and probably in the Arakan 
Hills farther north ; Meetan, Tenasserim (Fea) ■ also, according to 
Colliuge, the Malay Peninsula, Belimbiug, State of Ligeh. 

The animal has a granulate mantle, the shell-lobes almost com- 
pletely covering the shell when expanded. The mantle and its 
lobes are exactly as in Austenia girjas. The posterior part of the 
shell rests in a depression of the hinder part of the foot, though 
this is not so distinctly V-shaped nor so deep as in Girasia hooheri. 
Colour brown, ma.ntle greyer and mottled, sides of the foot 
speckled with dark grey. Length of animal (when crawling) 
about 3 inches. Jaw and radula as in Austenia </i(/as. Teeth of 
radula 32 . 3 . IS . 1 . IS . 3 . 32 (53 . 1 . 53). 



29S. Austenia shanensis, God win- Austen (Girasia), Mol. hid. i\, 1899, 
p. 107, pi. 91, figs, '•j-da (shell and animal). 

Shell ovate, convex above, polished, olivaceous hornv ; apex 
solid, flat, projecting less than in A. per/uensis, suture impressed ; 
Avhorls li ; aperture ovate, covering nearly the whole of the shell 



198 zonitidjE. 

beneath, margin of peristome convex almost throughout, becoming 
straight on margin near apex only. 

Major diam. 11, min. 7, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Shan Hills, Burma, east of Port Stedman ( Woodthorpe). 

Animal dark grey, similar in form to Austenia pegxiensis. In the 
odontophore the inner laterals are bicuspid, the outer cusp far 
below the apical as in A. gigas, the outermost laterals small and 
unicuspid. 

*299. Austenia Sikkimensis, Godwin-Austen, Girasia (Ibycus), Mol. 
Ind. i, 1888, p. 239, pi. 59, figs. 2,2a (animal), 2 6 (shell); 
Cockerel! (Girasia), A. M. N. H. (6) vii, 1891, p. 106. 
Girasia (Ibycus) sikkimensis, var. maiuwaringi, Godwin-Austen, 
Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 240, pi. 59, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b (animal) ; Nevill, 
Kand-l. i, 1878, p. 16, no. 37, H. (Austenia) n. sp. 

Shell (from figure) ovate, the apex small, not projecting, much 
resembling the shell of Austenia cacharica. 

Major diam. 9^ mm. (from figure). 

Hah. Independent Sikhim, 9500 feet ; Chungthung, on the 
Chakang Stream. Var. mainwaringi from Darjiling. 

" The animal, from the spirit-specimen, appears to be of a 
pinkish grey when living. The mantle finely papillate and finely 
sprinkled with small black spots, a few similar distant markings 
on the side of the foot behind." 

The var. maimvaringi must have been very dark-coloured when 
living, the mantle-lobes are finely papillate throughout. The foot 
is very short behind and cut off square. 

In the odontophore the middle tooth of the radula is strongly 
tricuspid, the inner laterals as usual, the outer as in gigas, 
bicuspid, the inner point much longer than the other. The 
extreme outside laterals are very small. 

This species has been regarded as allied to (or identical with) 
HycKS fissidens, Heynemauu, but the teeth of the radiila appear 
to be very different. [The teeth of I.jissidens are very similar to 
those of the genus Leptodontarion of Sarasin.] 



Genus GIRASIA. 

Girasia, Grai/, Cat. Pulm. Brit. Mus. p. 61 (1855) ; Godtvin- Austen,. 

Mol. Ind.'i, 1888, p. 216. 
Hoplites, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, p. 244 (1864). 

Type, G. hooheri, Gray. 

Range. Himalayas and Assam. 

Shell ovate, usually membranaceous, with a more or less 
thickened apex, sometimes rudimentary, usually with an oliva- 
ceous epidermis ; apex white. 

" Animal slug-like, long, mantle largely developed ; shell and 
dorsal lobes are united all round, and the shell is entirely covered 




[Fig. 70. — Girasia kookeri, Gray. 

A. View of right, left, aucl dorsal sides: drawn from a spirit-specimen. 
# nat. size. 

A' Position of »he\\- and dorsal lobes. Nat. size. The former grown together 
on tlie line running from the res.ap. ; left dorsal h)be turned back to 
show the position of the respiratory and anal orifices. 



B. Generative organs, f nat. size. 
B'. Do., part of. X 3. 

C. The shell. | nat. size. 

al.a. Albumen-gland. 
a.or. Anal orifice. 
am.or. Amatorial organ. 

ci'p. Caecum of the retractor penis. 
./'. Foot. 
/•. Kale-sac. 
gen.ajy. Generative aperture. 
Idl. Left dor.sal lobe. 



B''. Spermatophore. X 3. 

D. Jaw, enlarged, and radula. X 138. 

E. Girasia crocca, Godwin- Austen. 

Isl. Left shell-lobe. 

ov. Oviduct. 
i ot. Ovo-test's. 

rmf. Retractor muscle of penis. 

rm. Retractor muscle. 

rsl. Right shell-lobe. 
! rdl. Right dorsal lobe. 
; pr. Prostate.] 



200 zonitiDjE, 

by the former, with the exception of a narrow area on the posterior 
left margin. From, the anterior right margin of this area a well- 
marked cicatricial line runs forward to just above the respiratory 
and anal orifices, and marks the usual distinct division of the shell- 
lobes in IJelicanon and DurgeUa and their complete separation, as 
in Macrochlamys, into a left (frontal) and right (posterior). The 
dorsal lobes are di\aded diagonally forward from the respiratory 
orifice into a large left dorsal lobe and (behind and adjacent to the 
orifices) a smaller right dorsal lobe ; on the extreme posterior side 
a shght beading marks the junction of these lobes with the shell- 
lobes above. This portion of the animal is sunk into a deep, 
V-shaped, smooth, and unwrinkled depression in the back, where 
the dorsal ridge of the foot terminates suddenly. Extremity of 
the foot truncate, with a large linear mucous gland ; the pedal 
(peripodial) line is very distinct. 

" I'oot divided longitudinally into three subequal median and 
lateral areas." {Godivin- Austen.) 

Grenitalia as in Austenia gigas. Eadula with tricuspid rhachidian 
tooth, the broader inner laterals usually bicuspid and the outer 
laterals with two cusps each, both terminal, thus diflering from 
those in Macrochlamgs, Austenia, and Helicarion. 



300. Girasia hookeri, Gra;/, Cat. Pulm. Brit. Mus. p. 61 (1855) ; 

Godtcm- Austen, P. Z. 8. 1880, p. 291, pi. 27 ; id. Mol. Ind. \, 

1888, p. 219, pi. 55, figs. 1-1 b, 2-2b (animal and shell), pi. 60, 

figs. 3, 4, 5 (animal in motion), pi. 62, fig. 1 (teeth) ; ii, 1899, 

p. 104, pi. 88 (spermatophore). 
Helicarion (Hoplites) theobaldi, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1872, 

p. 517. 
Helicarion shillocgense, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B, 1875, 2, p. 4, 

pi. 2,_fig. 1. 
Helicarion hrunneum, Godivin-Aiisten, J. A. S. B. 1875, 2, p. 5, 

pi. 2, fig. 2 ; Nevill (Parmarion), Hand-l. i. 1878, p. 13. 
Girasia extranea, Cockerell, A. M. N. H. (6) yii, 1891, p. 104 : nee 

Limax extraneus, Fer. 
Girasia depressa, subsp. of G. extranea, CocJiereU, I. c. 

Shell oblong, membranaceous and soft, with a thin olivaceous 
epidermis, curled up so as to form an incipient spire at one end, 
drawn out into a broad ribbon-like stripe at the other. Length 
about 20 mm. 

Animal varying from pale yellowish dull grey or pale brown to 
ochraceous or dark umber-brown, sometimes spotted on mantle. 
The mantle-lobes completely cover the shell, at times leaving a 
small area exposed ; they also cover a considerable portion of the 
animal in front of the shell. Length of animal 3 to 4 inches. 

Teeth in radula thus arranged : 95 . 2 . 18 . 1 . 18 . 2 . 95 
(115 . 1 . 115). Of the broad teeth in the middle of the row the 
rhachidian has three cusps, the admedian two, one on the outer 
margin ; all the outer laterals are bicuspid, the two cusps being 
terminal. 



GIRASIA. 201 

301, Girasia radha, Godwin-Austen, llelicariou (Hoplites), J. A S. B. 

187(3, 2, p. 311, pi. 8, fig. 4 (animal crawling) ; id. MoL Lid. i, 
1888, p. 222, pi. 60, figs. 6, 6 a (animal). 

Shell membrauaceous, polished, a long strip with a projecting 
point at one end, not forming a distinct spire ; colour greenish 
brown ; margin of peristome convex, becoming concave on the 
side near the apex. 

Major diam. 16| mm. 

Hah. Banks of Radha Pokri (tank), near Narrainpur, Darrang 
District, Assam (Godivin- Austen). 

Animal rich ochre, sparsely dappled with grey-black on the 
mantle and tail. Length when extended 3 inches, mantle 1-3. 

Xear G. hookeri. Shell more rudimentary and colour different. 
The mantle quite conceals the shell and covers the animal as far 
the head, 

[Girasia? rubra, Godwin-Austen, transferred to genus Ci'iipto- 
girasia, p. 204,] 

302, Girasia crocea, Godtoin- Austen, Helicarion (Hoplites), P. Z. S. 

1872, p. ol 7, pi. 30, figs. 9, 9 « (animal crawling and shell) ; Nevill 
(Parmariou ), Hcmd-l. i, 1878, p. 13 ; Godwin-Amten, Mol. Ind. 
i, 1888, p. 223, pi. 60, fig. 2 (animal), pi, 62, fig. 6 (radula). 

Shell very thin, fiat, rudimentary, horny translucent, with a 
broad band of dark green from the apex to the edge of the mem- 
brauaceous peristome; apex pointed and projecting, without 
any distinct coil ; peristome convex throughout, except where it 
approaches the apex, when it becomes concave. 

Major diam, 18, min. 8 mm. 

Hob. Valleys below Cherra Punji, Khasi Hills. Pound creeping 
on high grass near Teria Ghat {Godwin-Austen). 

Animal a fine bright saffron-yellow colour, mantle mottled with 
pale yellow ; outside edge of foot very pale yellow and almost 
white below ; extremity of foot truncate, with a gland as in 
Austenia rjigas. Length of animal 2| to 3 inches, 

Odontophore quite peculiar. The middle tooth has three sub- 
equal cusps, all at the extremity, the next 9 on each side have a 
small outer cusp ; the outer teeth are throughout evenly bicuspid, 
decreasing in size to the outermost laterals. They are thus 
arranged : 100 . 9 , 1 . 9 . 100 (109 , 1 . 109), This is quite 
different from any Girasia, and the only similar arrangement is 
found in Durgella khasiaca. 

303, Girasia pankabariensis, Gudivin- Austen, Mol Ind. \, 1888, 

p. 225, pi. 59, figs. 1 -1 c (animal), 

"Animal with the right and left mantle-lobes united; the 
mantle appears to be slightly speckled. The shell is deeply sunk 



202 



ZOXITIDyE. 



in a depression, the ridge of the foot behind being on a level with 
the shell. Generative organs immature." 

Length of specimen in spirit about an inch. 

Hah. Pankabari, at foot of Himalayas, Sikhim. 

Teeth in radula + 100 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 16 . 2 . 100+ ( + 118 . 1 . 118). 
All gradually decreasing in size from centre to margin. Jaw 
straight, with a very slight central projection. 



*304. Girasia dalhousiae, Godidn- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 224, 
pi. 01, figs. 1, 1 « (animal), pi. 62, figs. 4, 4 a (jaw and teeth). 

" The shell is of an olive-brown colour, convex above, oval on 
the periphery, membranaceous, broader than in the type or in 
G. crocea, with a very thin white shell}' lining. 

" Major diam. 13, minor 8 mm." 

Hab. Dalhousie, Chamba Hills, west Himalayas (Theobald). 

" The animal in spirit is of a pale ochre tint, with no markings 
of any kind. The mantle as in typical Girasia, the thin shell 
showing in an oval opening of the shell-lobes." Length in spirit 
30 mm. 

Eadula thus arranged : 128 . 2 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 2 . 128 (144 . 1 . 144). 
Ehachidian tooth very narrow, long and tricuspid ; inner laterals 
much curved and tricuspid, the inner cusp indistinct, points 
directed rather outwards ; outer laterals bicuspid, the outer cusp 
lai-ger and rounder in form than the inner. Jaws with a very 
slight central projection. The teeth differ from those of the more 
Eastern species. 



*305, Girasia burtii, Godwin- Austen, Helicarion (Hoplites), ,/. A. S. B. 
1876, p. 314, pi. 8, fio'. 6 (shell) ; id. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294 ; id. 
Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 222, pi. 61, fio-. 2 (shell), pi. 62, figs. 3, 3 a, 
3 b (teeth of radula, jaw, and genitalia ; these are by error 
marked G. radha). 

Shell dull white, very horny in texture, the apex scarcely 
developed, outline rounded above. Major diam. 0"30" (8 mm.). 
The shell is figured as oval in shape, with the apex turned over in 
the middle, not towards one side as in many foi'ms of Girasia. 

Bab. Borelli Tea-garden, near Tezpur, Assam (Burt) ; also 
Paniputer Tea-garden, north of the Brahmaputra River in the same 
district. 

Animal grey-brown in colour, measuring : mantle to head 0-4 
inch, mantle 0-8, mantle to extremity of foot 0-5, or total length 
when moving 1'5 inches. 

Jaw curved, no central projection, llhachidian teeth narrow 
and long, tricuspid ; inner laterals bicuspid, the cusps low down 
on outer side; outer laterals evenly bicuspid. Doth cusps terminal. 
In each row 186 . 2 . 6 . 1 . 6 . 2 ."186 (194 . 1 . 194), being 6 or 
more than in G. liooleri. 



GIEASIA. — CRYPTOGIRASI.V. 



203 



*306. Girasia? cinerea, Gochvin-Austen, UeWcaiion (Hoplites), /. A. 
S. B. 187(), p. .'J14, pi. 8, fip. 2 (animal) ; id. Mol. Ind. i, 1888, 
p. 241, pi. GO, fig. 8 (animal). 
[r«/e%. (54 r>, p. 184.] 

Shell not described. "Animal vvlioii fully extended long and 
narrow ; colour dusky grey ; mantle with a papillated sui-t'ace 
slightly spotted, the spotting being coarser on the body and tail. 
Tentacles (eye-pedicels) short and blunt, with the oral (tentacles) 
very close below them. 

''Length 0-75, mantle 0-4 (18i x 10| mm.)." 

Hah. On the Darpang River, "at foot of the Dafla Hills, under 
old logs in the forest (Gochvin-Austen) . 

This species may be recognized by its bluish-grey colour and 
small size, 

307. Girasia affinis, CocA-ere/l, A. 31. N. H. (G) vii, 1891, p. lOG. 
The shell in an alcoholic specimen is almost completely covered 

by the mantle, except a small space 3| mm. across. Both foot and 
mantle spotted with dark grey, and the whole length, when con- 
tracted in alcohol, is 42 mm. The posterior portion of the foot is 
very high and sharply ridged. The shell is evidently soft and 
membranaceous. 

Hah. Pegu (Theobald). 

308. Girasia ? dikrangensis, Godwin- AvMen (Testacella ?), J. A. S. B. 

1876, 2, p. 814, pi. 8, fig. 7 ; Ncvill (Parmacella ? ), Hand-l.i^ 
1878, p. 13. 

Shell ovate, slightly convex above, concave below, the apex 
inclined towards the left, but not involute nor forming a closed 
whorl ; just below the apex there is an appearance as if one margin 
of the peristome were folded over the opposite one. The apex does 
not extend beyond the columellar margin of the peristome. 

Major diam. 12, min. 6|, height 2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Hah. Pachitah, Dikrang Eiver, Dafla Hills, Assam (Godwin- 
Austen). 

Only two dead shells have been found. 

[Tlie shell is very different from that of Girasia, being far more 
solid. It is placed here provisionally until living examples are 
obtained.] 

[Genus CRYPTOGIRASIA. 

Cryptogirasia, Cockerell, A. M. X. H. (G) vii, 1891, p. 09 (no 
description). 

Type, Girasia? rubra, Godwin-Austen, only kno\\n from the 
Anghami Naga Hills. 

Animal the most slug-like of any of the Indian forms, the shell 
being completely covered by the mantle and the shell itself reduced 
to an oval disk, the posterior end of the mantle resting in a 



204 ZONITID^. 

V-shaped depression. The extremity of the foot with a long soft 
overhanging lobe. Internal anatomy not known. It is repre- 
sented by a single species, but no doubt others will be found on 
the eastern frontiers, Eurmah, &c.] 

509. Cryptogirasia rubra, Godicm- Austen (Parmariou), J. A. S. B. 
1.S75, 2, p. 6, pi. 2, figs. 4-4 c (animal crawliug- aud shell) ; id. 
Mol. Lid. i, 1888, p. 228, pi. 61, figs. 4a-4 d (animal and shell). 
[FiV/^'fig. 64 D, p. 184.] 

Shell quite rudimentary, a small oval shelly disk about 3^ mm. 
long. 

Hah. Kohima, Aughami iVaga Hills {Godiv in- Austen). 

" Animal of a fine orange-pink, grey on underside of the foot ; 
tentacles short ; mantle entirely covering the shell, with only a 
slight trace of a longitudinal opening running back from the 
anterior left side ; three parallel bands of greenish grey along the 
back of the neck, the eye-tentacles being of the same colour. The 
gland at extremity of foot with a long overhanging lobe." 

Length of animal when moving 1"8 inches (45 mm.). 

The generic relations of this animal are doubtful. 

Genus MARIJELLA. 

^larisella, Gray, Cat. Pulm. B. M. pt. 1, 1855, p. 62 ; Webb, Pioc. 

Mai. Soc. iii, 1898, p. 151 ; Godtcin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1899, 

p. 113. 
Tennentia, Humbert, Rev. et Mar/. Zool. 1862, p. 427, pi. 17. 
Vega, Westerlund, Ve(ja-Exped. iv, 1887, p. 188, pi. ii. 
Dekhania, Godwin- Atisten, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 242, pis. 52 & 62. 

Type, M. dussumieri, Gniy. 

Range. Western Ghats, from Mahableshwar southwards, and 
hill-country of Ceylon. 

Shell internal, solid, ovate, convex above, flatly concave beneath, 
with a small apex, not coiled, lying on the right side as seen from 
about near the eiid. 

Animal very similar to that of Girasia, but the lobes of the 
mantle united into an oval shield, tricarinate above and completely 
covering the shell, only a small pinhole-like orifice [near the pos- 
terior end] being left open. Froju this small orifice a distinct 
line or cicatrix runs to the respiratory aperture on the right 
side, [marking the dividing line of the right and left shell-lobes]. 
The mantle extends for\A ard over the neck, but not behind the 
shield, which is sunk behind in a depression of the back. The 
body behind the shield is shai ply keeled above and terminates in a 
large mucous pore. Peripodial groove distinct as usual, but narrow, 
and sole tripartite longitudinally. 

(ienitalia and odontophore much resembling those of Girasia. 
The dart-sac is long and cylindrical. There is a large swelling 
of the free oviduct (ovitheca) just beyond the point where the 
vas deferens is given off. The spermatheca is rather irregularly 
ovate, and increases in size when containing numerous spermato- 



MAUIiELLA, 



205 



phores, as in figure. The penis is provided with a small kale-sac 
and gives off a short cseciun ; the retractor muscle is attached to 
the bend. 

The radula has a broad band of wider median teeth, tricuspid as 
a rule, and these pass into bicuspid outer laterals, with the two 
cusps subequal and terminal as in Girasia. 

From Crivania the present genus is separated b)^ its almost im- 
perforate shield, the more solid shell of different form, and by 
several small distinctions in the genitalia. 




[Fig. 71. — Mari(sUa clussumien. 
Dark olivaceous-wreen specimen. 

A. Animal, view of right side and from above, x I'S. 

B. Siiell. xa-4. 

Black specimen. 

C. Genitalia. x2, 

C. Spermatopbore. x3'4. 

MaricBUa heddomei. 

D. Shell. Xl-S.] 

310. Marisella dussiimieri, Gray, Cat. Pulm. B. J/. 185.5, p. 63 

Fischer (^'ique.^nelia), Journ. Conchyl. 185G, p. 290, pi. 3, fig. 18 ; 
Webb, Proc. Med. iSoc. iii, 1878, p. \o'd, pi. U, figs. J--0 (animal, 
shell, and anatomy) ; CockereU, Nautilus, xii, 1898, p. 9 ; Godxoin- 
Austi7i, Mai. Lid. ii, 1899, p. 113, pi. 93, figs. 1-1 e, 2-2 c 
(animal, shell, and anatomy). 



206 ZONlTlDyE, 

Teiineiitia tliwaitesi, Humbert, liev. et Mat/. Zool. l^Q'l, p. 42, pi. 17, 

fig. 1 ; Se7}iper', Reise Philip., Wiss. Res. 1870, p. 7. 
Vega nordensliioldi, Westerlund, Ve(/a-Uxj)ed.iv,lSS7,\i. 188, pi. 2. 

Shell in general thin, slightly convex, ovate, white, the apex 
forming a email point at the right side and near the posterior end, 
not involute. 

Hub. The Western Grhats as far north as the Kadur district of 
Mysore and perhaps to Mahableshwar. Hill-tracts of Ceylon. 
The original locality was Mahe, a French town between Calicut 
and Cannanore on the Malabar coast, and not, as was supposed, 
Mahe in the Seychelles Islands. 

Animal yellowish brown or olivaceous, sometimes almost black, 
and generally mottled \\ith dark blotches. 

[The mantle has two narrow raised ridges on the shell-lobes, 
one running from the little shell-aperture round the left margin 
of the shell, the other towards the respiratory orifice on the right 
margin.] 

The size appears to vary up to about 8 inches in length. 

Teeth of radula in one specimen 88 . 3 . 20 . 1 . 20 . 3 . 88 Tl] 1 . 
1 . Ill), in another 95 . 2 . 18 . 1 . 18 . 2 . 95 (115 . 1 . 115). ^ 

A species of this genus was found by me at Mahableshwar. It 
was less than 2 inches in length and the shell is only 7 mm. loug. 
It may have been a young specimen of M. dussumieri or a smaller 
species. 

311. Marisella beddomei, Godwin- Austen, Girasia (Dekhaoia), Mol. 
Ind. \, 1888, p. 243, pi. 58, figs. 1-1 b (animal), 2^2 b (shell), 
pi. G2, figs. 7-7 « (jaw and radula), var. nigra, pi. 58, fig. 5, 
var. maculosa, pi. 58, fig. 4, var. fig. 6 ; Webb, Froc. Mai. Soc. iii, 
1898, p. 154, pi. 9, fig. 7. 

Shell thinner than in M. dussumieri, shelly, flat and smooth 
beneath, white, with close, concentric lines of growth. 

Length of a specimen 12, breadth 6| mm. 

Hob. Travancore Hills. 

Animal varying greatly in colour from uniform ochre to deep 
grey-black or spotted ; [no raised ridges on the shell-lobes] ; ex- 
ternally similar to M. dussumieri, but larger, about 4 inches in 
length when fully extended, and having more numerous teeth in 
the radula, the number in a row being 122 . 5 . 21 . 1 . 21 . 5 . 122 
(148 . 1 . 148), and the shape differing somewhat. There are also 
differences in the genitalia, the spermatheca and the expansion 
in the free oviduct (ovitheca) having different forms. 

Genus PSEUDAUSTENIA. 

Pseudaustenia, Cockerell, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 225 (no description) ; 
A. M. N. H. (6) vii, 1891, p. 99. 

Type, P. atra, Godwin-Austen. 

Range. Hills of Southern India, Nilgiris, and Travancore. 
Shell oblong or ovate, ear-shaped, flat above ; apex slightly 
involute ; none of the whorls enclosed beneath, the whole shell 



PSEUDAUSTKNIA. 207 

lying open to the apex, and a slightly raised division alone sepa- 
rating the apical whorl. 

Animal with shell-lobes turned over the shell and coalescing 
round it, not covering it when preserved in spirit. Eight shell- 
lobe extending back towards apex, then terminating in a rounded 
end. Left shell-lobe continuous with right anteriorly, but separate 
behind. The left dorsal or neck-lobe covers a considerable part 
of the neck and extends along the left side to btdiind the shell. 
Back of foot behind the mantle flattened, not keeled, divided an- 
teriorlv into two well-developed lappets, forndug between them a 
deep V-shaped depression, in which the shell and mantle are sunk. 
The posterior end of the foot terminates in a small linear mucous 
pore, overlumg by a small lobe, the peripodial groove well marked ; 
sole of foot tripartite longitudinall3^ 

After removing the shell the uppermost of the visceral sac 
whorls are seen to be more developed in the animal than is usual 
in slug-Kke forms, the small hooked jjrocess of the liver-lobes 
[filling the apex of the shell] being much better developed than in 
Girasia. In the genitalia there is no dart-sac, the spermatheca is 
a globular sac on a tube ; the male organ is simple, bent on itself at 
the retractor muscle, on the proximal side of which it is consider- 
ably expanded to form the spermatophore (fig. 72) just beyond 
the junction of the vas deferens, but there is no kale-sac or 
flagellum, nor is there any caecum leading to the retractor 
muscle. 

[Radula 24 . 1 . 19 . 1 . 19 . 1 . 24 (44 . 1 . 44)]. The broader 
teeth in the middle elongate and tricuspid ; the outer teeth small 
and bicuspid, only one cusp terminal. 

This is distinguished from the African genus Africarion by its 
very different shell, its back lappets, and by the form of the 
male organ, which in Africarion [is much more simple, the vas 
deferens joining the shaft of the penis at the retractor muscle, 
there being no epiphallus. It differs materially from Austenia 
and Girasia in the shell, the absence of the amatorial organ, and 
the general form of the male organ, which has a 2)enis papilla. 
Neither has it any relationship to Ibycus nor Parma cochlea as put 
forward by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell (P. Z. S. 1891), the first genus 
being shown by its radula to belong to the Dunjellino'. The 
internal anatomy of Parmacochlea is in many points juost unlike 
that of Pseudcmstenia atra.'] 



312. Pseudaustenia atra, Godicin-Austen (Africarion), Mol. hid. 
I, 1888, p. 244, pi. 57, fi^s. 1-6 (animal, anatomy, and shells) ; 
vars. aterrima, cinerea, and castanea, I. c. p. 245. 

Shell ovate, slightly convex above, concave below, smooth, 
covered with a straw-coloured or green membranaceous epidermis, 
which overlaps the peristome to a considerable extent; whorls 14, 
the apex, as in Austenia, is flat. All the lower surface of the shell 



208 



ZONITIDjE. 



is open, and only a slight projecting ridge of shell separates the 
whole of the apex. 

Length 12, breadth 7, about 2 mm. high. 

Hah. Travancore and Tinnevelly Hills {BeOdome). 







'"- '""'^^P .— -'-7^^'^J^ 




[Fig. 72. — Pseudmidenia atra. 

A. View of right side. X 1'8. Shell removed. 

B. View of dorsal side. X 1"8. 

C. View of leftside. X 1-8. 

D. Portion of sole of foot. X 1'8. 

E. Shell of. X 1-8. 

F. Male organ, showing spermatophore (sjjer.) in process of formation. 

X3. ^ 

Pseudaustenia aierrima. 
A'. Animal, seen from behind ; shell not removed, showing the 

membrauaceous peristome and the dorsal lappets. X TS. 
B'. Sbell. X o. Eight side and interior views. 
C. Genitalia. X 1-8. 
U'. Jaw. X 0.] 

Animal varying from chestnut or pale grey to black, more or 
less mottled and handed. Length, when living, about 50 mm. 



PSECDAUSTKXIxV. — CRVI'TOSOMA. 209 

{2 inches) ; the hinder part of the foot long and narrow, witli a 
small niiicous pore overhung by a small lobe. The foot is distinctly 
divided into three longitudinally. Radula 24 . 1 . 19 . 1 . 19 . 1 . 24 
(44 . 1 . 44). 

313. Pseudaustenia aiiriformis, Blf. (Vitrina) J. A. S. B. 1866, 2, 
p. o(j; I'fr. (^'itl•i^a) Mun. Hel. Vj 1868, p. 15 ; Nevill (Helicarion), 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 16 ; Godwin- Austen (Africaiion), Mol. Ind. i, 
1888, p. 245, pi. 57, fig-. 7 (shell). 

Shell very depressed, oblong-ovate, very thin, smooth, convex 
without, with a greenish membranaceous epidermis, which pro- 
jects beyond the peristome, nucleus paler ; spire flat, about 1| 




Fig. 73. — Pseudausfenia aiiriformis. 

whorls. Aperture occupying the whole lower surface of the shell 
and exposing the interior to the apex. 

Length 13, breadth S, height 2^ mm. 

Hah. Sispara Ghat, Xilgiri Hills. 

Animal not known. The shell differs from that of P. atm by 
being more oblong and less elliptical, and by the smaller apex, 
the outline of which projects beyond the margin of the peristome. 

Genus CRYPTOSOMA. 

Cryptosoma, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxvi, 18.57, p. 252 ; Godioin- 
'Aiisten, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 14, pi. 4 (animal, shell, and details of 
anatomy) ; ii, 1898, p. 50 (anatomy). 

Type, C. prcestans, Gould. 

Range. Burma, Siam, and Southern China to Hong-Kong. 

Shell imperforate and with few whorls, like that of Vitrina, 
and only differing from Helicarion in being thicker, in the last 
whorl descending, and especially in having a stronger peristome, 
which, in tlie dry season, is furnished with an epiphragm. 

Animal retractile within the shell. The lobes of the mantle 
are small as compared \Aith those of Criiptaustenia, and cover a small 
part of the shell ; right and left shell-lobes united at the back of the 
shell. A large gland at the posterior termination of the foot without 
any overhanging lobe. Peripodial groove well developed ; sole of 
foot in three longitudinal divisions. ■ Generative organs much as 
in Austenia ; amatorial organ very large, spermatheca cylindrical. 
Odontophore with much morenumerous lateral teeth than in Indian 

p 



210 



ZONlTIDiE. 







[Fig. 74. — Cryjitosoma p-(sstans, Goiild. 

A. Animal, drawn from life. Nat. size. 
B, B, B. Animal, from a spirit-specimen. Enlarged. Seen from the 
right and left sides, also part of dorsal side, showing junc- 
tion of the right and left shell-lobes behind the visceral 
sac (tvs). 
C, C. Generative organs. 

D. Jaw and teeth of the radula, from centre to the 12th ; the 
100th tooth and 5 adjacent, and one of the outermost.] 



0EYPT0S03IA. 211 

forms of Helicarionince ; rhachidiau tootli broad, with a small basal 
cusp on each side; inner laterals usually bicuspid, with the cusps 
on the outer side far from the apex ; outer laterals with two 
subequal terminal cusps. This is scarcely worth generic rank, 
but the typical forms are easily recognized. The outer teeth in 
the radula differ considerably from those of Cryptaustenia and 
Austenia, and approach in character those of Girasia. 

314. CryptOSOma praestans, Gould (Vitrina), Bost. Jour. N. H. iv, 

lb43, p. 4r)«;, pi. 24, fig-. 2 ; Pfr. (Vitrina) Mon. Hel. ii, 1848, 
p. 497 ; Theob. J. A. S. B. xxvi, 18o7, p. 252 ; H. S)- T. (Vitrina) 
C I. 1876, pi. 65, fig-s. 5, G; Nevill, Helicarion (Cryptosoma), 
J. A. S. B. xlvi. 1877, 2, p. 2o ; id. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 14; 
Godivin- Austen. Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 14, pi. 4. 
Austenia ? khyouugensis, Godicin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 241. 

Shell depressedly globose, rather solid, translucent, covered 
with an epidermis, having when fresh a resinous lustre, trans- 
versely striated, without spiral sculpture, pale greenish horny to 
brownish ; spire very low, convex, apex not exserted, suture 
almost flat ; whorls 3|, slightly convex above, the last much 
larger, descending considerably to\\-ards the peristome, rounded 
at the periphery, rather swollen beneath ; aperture very oblique, 
slightly contracted, almost semioval, breadth exceeding height ; 
peristome not very thin, upper margin slightly arcuate, columellar 
curved throughout, receding, and meeting the penultimate whorl 
almost in a line, at a very open obtuse angle. 

Major diam. 22, min. 17, height 12 mm. 

Mab. Mergui, !^[oulmein, Martaban, Tenasserim Valley, Shan 
States ( Woodthorpe) ; Sawady and second defile of the Irra\\ady, 
Upper Burma (Anderson) ; Upper Siam {Dcdy). 

The rows in the radula ai'e about 100 in number, each consisting 
of about 260 teeth, thus arranged : 120 . 2 . 7 . 1 . 7 . 2 . 120 
(129 . 1 . 129). In the outermost laterals the cusps at the end 
disappear, and the teeth have blunt almost square terminations, 
[their form in this case perhaps due to being worn down]. 

The form from the Shan Hills, to which the name hhyoungensis 
was applied, is a little more depressed than the Moulmein shell, 
measuriug 20xlo|xl0 mm., but there does not appear to be 
any other difference. Other specimens from the Shan States are 
larger and measure 31 x 24 x 15 mm. 

The original type was described as spirally striate. No spiral 
striation can be found in shells from Moulmein or further north, 
but there are some subobsolete traces of spiral lines in Siam 
shells. 

315. Cryptosoma inusitatiim, Godicin- Austen, Mol Ind. ii, 1898, 

p. 51.pl. 70, tigs. 1-8. 

Shell depressedly globose, thin, polished, smooth, with indistinct 
lines of growth, brown in colour ; spire low, convex, apex not 

p2 



212 ZOWITIDJl. 

projecting, suture almost flat ; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, flatly 
convex, the last descending in front, rounded at the periphery ; 
aperture Innately ovate, very oblique ; peristome thin, margins 
converging. 

Major diam. 25, min. 19^, height 14 mm. Other specimens 
measure 29i mm. in major diameter. 

Hah. Eas~tern Burma, about 300 miles ]S".E. of Moulmein 
( Woodthorpe). 

The animal is much like that of C. jjrcestans, the left shell-lobe 
covered with large oval tubercles intermixed with smaller, some 
pale-coloured, some black. The dart-sac is very large and attached 
by strong muscles almost throughout its length. The radula con- 
tains 132 rows of teeth, thus arranged : 140 . 3 . 17 . 1 . 17 . 3 . 140 
(160 . 1 . 160), and the teeth are differently formed from those 
of C. j^rcestans, the admedians more numerous, and the outer 
terminally bicuspid throughout. 

316. Cryptosoma ? 'birmaiiiciim, Phil. Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1847, p. 65 ; Pfr. 

Mon. Hel. ii, 1848, p. 498 ; H. S,- T. a I. 1876, p. 61, pi. 152, 
tig. 7 ; Nevill (Helicarion), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 14. 

Shell depressedly globose, thin, pellucid, very smooth and 
polished, pale horny ; spire low, suture slightly impressed ; 
whorls 3|, convex, the last rounded at the periphery, descending 
in front f aperture oblique, roundly lunate, broader than high ; 
peristome thin. 

Major diam. 11, min. 8, height 5^ mm. 

Hab. jS'ear Mergui {Plulippi). 

There are two specimens of shells with this name in the British 
Museum. Though they differ a little from Philippi's and Pfeiffer's 
descriptions they agree, on the whole, fairly. 

317. Cryptosoma austeni, ColUnge, Jour. Mai vii, 1898, p. 2, pi. 1, 

tigs. 1-5. 

" Shell : apex depressed, thin, strife definite, brownish or horn 
colour." Whorls 3^. 

Animal light yellowish brown, darker on the head and posterior 
dorsum, which latter is shortly keeled. Eight shell-lobe well- 
developed, left lobe very large. . . . Caudal mucous pore large, with 
no overhanging groove. . . . Foot-sole divided. Length of animal 
(in alcohol) 22*5 mm. 

Hah. ? Sent from Calcutta, but probably derived from some other 
place. 

In a brief account of the anatomy it is pointed out that the 
generative organs differ in several points from those of C. prcestans. 
[The shell is very unlike that of Cryptosoma ; more like that of 
Cryptanstenia hensoni.'] 



DTTEGELLA. 



213 



[Subfamily DURGELLIN^. 

Durgellinffi, Godwin- Austeyi, Mol. Ind. i, 1888, p. 253 (typical 

genus Durfjella) ; ii. 1898, p. 60. 

Shell globose or much depressed, thin, often membranaceous. 
Auimal with ample shell-lobes on both sides, nearly concealing the 
shell in life. The amatorial organ' is present in some genera, 
absent in others. The radula is very broad, with a great number 
of similar, closely-packed, curved teeth on narrow plates, in some 
species as many as 400-500, either plain or with a pectinate side. 
Jaw generally thin and weak, stouter in some.] 

Genus DURGELLA. 

Durgella, Blf. A. M. N. H. (3) xi, 1803, p. 81; Godicin- Austen, 
Jour. Lin'n. Soc, Zool. xv, 1881, p. 291 (anatomy) ; id. Mol. Ind. 
i, 1883, p. 142 ; ii. 1898, p. 60 ; ii, 1907, p. 205. 

Type. D. levicida, Bs. 

Eanr/e. Probably the greater part of the ludo-Malay Eegion. 

Shell thin, Fi^/-tH«-like, of four whorls, with a large oblique 
mouth. 

Lobes of the mantle partially covering the shell when expanded, 
the right shell-lobe being broad and triangular, the left also 
triangular and reflected over the edge of the shell from near the 
respiratory orifice. Dorsal lobes moderate. A broad peripodial 
fringe ; the mucous pore is well developed, with a large overhanging 
lobe ; sole divided into 3 parts longitudinally. In the generative 
organs a dart-sac is large and usually present, sometimes absent ; 
the spermatheca is of moderate size, wide at the base, then con- 
stricted, and broader again at the end ; there is no distinct kale-sac, 
though an expansion may be noticed at the junction of the vas 
deferens. 

The jaw is thin, membranaceous, almost straight on the cutting- 
edge. The odontopliore is broader than long, \Aith a minute 
rhachidian tooth, generally unicuspid; the lateral teeth are 
excessively numerous, there being no broad plates near the 
middle, but a gradual diminution takes place in size from the 
innermost to the outermost tooth, all having a serrated curved 
edge with numerous cusps. 

a. Typical forms from Eastern Himalaya, Assam, and Burma. 

318. Durgella levicula, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 391 ; 
Blf A M. y. H. (3) xi. 1863, p. 81 ; id. (Nauina) J. A. S. B. 
1865, 2, p. 67 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mo?i. Hel. v, 1868, p. 48; H. ^- T. 
(Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 90, tigs. 1,4; Godicin-Auden, Jour. Linn. 
Soc, Zool. XV, 1881, p. 291 (anatomy) ; Nevill (Naniua), Hand-l. 
i, 1878, p. 26 ; Godmit-Austen, Mol. 2nd. i, 1883, p. 142 ; id. t. c. 
ii, 1898, p. 61, pi. 76, figs. 1-6 (anatomy). 

Shell subperforate or very narrowly perforate, globosely de- 



214 



ZONITIDiE. 



pressed, thin, almost smooth, more or less polished, translucent, 
whitish horny, in some cases faintly striated with subobsolete spiral 
lines ; spire convex, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 3|, 
rapidly increasing, the last rounded at periphery, moderately 
tumid beneath ; aperture oblique, large, roundly lunate ; peristome 
thin, slightly arcuate above, columellar margin subvertical, slightly 
reflected. 

Major diam. 8^, min. 7, height 5 mm. 




^^ 



[Fig. 75. — BiirgcUa levkiila. 

A. Animal, view of right side. From a spirit-specimen. 

B. Ditto, left side. Ditto, much enlarged. 

C. Extremity of foot and lobe abore mucous gland, as in life. 

D. Jaw, X 3, and teeth of radula, the centre and aduiedian. 

E. The generative organs. X 6. 

F. Shell, with sutural spiral. X 3.] 

Hah. Tenasserim : Phie Than, Methan at base of Mule-it 
Range, &c. This or closely allied forms are found in Pegu, 
also Balasore Hills, Orissa (TF. T. B.) ; Golconda iu jN'orth- 
eastern Madras {Beddome). 

Animal pale ochre, with a dusky line on the upper part of the 



DUEGELLA. 215 

extremity of the foot, also on the neck, tentacles moderately 
long. 

JMantle-lobes moderately developed. Spermatbeca thick, short, 
and wide at the base, with a swollen wide terminal portion. 
Dart-sac large, cylindrical, but twisted in form. The vas deferens 
joins the male organ close to the retractor muscle ; without 
kale-sac. 

The teeth in the radiila exceed 170 . 1 . 170 : the rliachidian tooth 
is very minute; the laterals very numerous and closely set together, 
their upper edge serrated with 5 or G points each, and they 
diminish gradually in size outwards. There are upwards of a 
hundred rows of teeth in the odontophore. The jaw is very thin 
and membranaceous, nearly straight in front. 

[319. Durgella rogersi, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Lid. ii, 1907, p. 205, 
pi. 11"), figs. 4, 4 a, pi. 116, figs. 7, 7 a. 

Shell globose, very thin, membranaceous : it was impossible to 
remove the animal preserved in .spirit without tearing it. AVhorls 
Sg ; colour pale straw, apex flatly rounded. 

Hah. Paphunta Valley, South Andamans {G. Borjers). 

Animal about 20 mm., contracted in spirit. Foot long behind, 
pointed, keeled, narrow ; sole divided ; peripodial grooves with 
parallel streaking running fi'om them to the margin of the foot. 
A fairly large rounded right shell-lobe rising on the side of the right 
dorsal lobe ; the left shell-lobe smaller than the right, rounded on 
the margin ; both shell-lobes somewhat thickened, pale-coloured, 
unmarked, and smooth. 

The genitalia were not, unfortunately, got out in a state for 
description. The penis is simple, like that of D. levicida ; no 
amatorial organ seen. 

Jaw veiy thin, almost straight in front, only a slight convexity 
in the middle. 

Radula consists of an enormous number of teeth ; there are at 
least 500 in the row, and 70 rows can be counted. It was got out 
in a nearly perfect state, but the filmy edges got folded under it ; 
and it is most difficult when this occurs to spread them out again, 
rendering counting impossible. The teeth are more numerous in 
this radula and more minute than in any I have seen hitherto ; 
they are in form of similar type to those of Dair/ella levicida and 
mairanr/ensis, of Tenasserim and the Khasi Hills respectively, but 
still closer to the outermost teeth of Durgella ? sumbaensis, G.-A, 
(vide Mol. Ind. vol. ii, pi. 79, fig. 8 h), which may possibly belong 
to Lainprocijstis, and points to this last genus having a position 
rather with the subfamily Durgellime than any other.] 

320. Durgella concinna, sp. n. 

Nanina levicula, JJlf. J. A. S. B. 1865, 2, p. 87, pt. ; Kevill, Hand-l. 
i, 1878, p. 26, pt. : nee Bs. 

Shell subperforate, depressedly globose, fairly solid, smooth, with 



216 ZONITID^. 

a resinous lustre, translucent, pale, almost whitish horny ; spire 
low, convex, apex obtuse, suture shallow; whorls 3|, rapidly 
increasing, slightly convex above, the last ascending near the 
mouth, rounded at periphery, rather tumid beneath ; aperture 
oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome thin, margins converging, 
columellar curved, vertical above, slightly reflected. 

Major diam. 7, min. 6, height 4 mm. 

Hah. Thayet Myo, Prome, and Akauktoung in Upper Pegu. 

This is distinguished from D. levicula by being much more solid,^ 
by lower spire, and much smaller mouth, the diameter of which 
measures 3| mm. in a specimen 7 mm. in major diameter, whilst 
in a D. levicula of similar size it is over 4. 

321. Durgella erratica, Gochvin-Atisten(A.\x&\Q\-n&),P. Z. S. 1888, p. 241. 
Nanina levicula, Blf. J.A.S. B. 1865, 2, p. 87, pt. ; Nevill, Hand-l 
i, 1878, p. 26, pt.": nee Bs. 

Shell openly perforate, globosely depressed, thin, translucent, 
smooth, slightly polished, pale amber or brownish ; spire nearly 
flat, slightly convex, suture shallow ; whorls 3^-4, rapidly in- 
creasing, flatly convex above, the last much larger, scarcely 
descending in front, rounded at the periphery, convex beneath ; 
aperture oblique, diagonal, ovately lunate ; peristome thin, upper 
margin slightly depressed, columellar oblique, reflected. 

Major diam. 8, min. 7, height 4 mm. 

Hah. Pingoung, Shan Hills, Burma {8pratt) ; Basseiu District, 
Pegu(TF. T. B.). Distinguished from D. levicula by more open 
perforation, a rather thicker shell, and a smaller mouth. 

*322. Durgella assamica, Goduin-Amten, Jour. Linn. Soc, Zool. xv, 
1881, p. 294, pi. 20, figs. .5, 6, 8, pi. 21, figs. 2, 4, 4 «, 6 ; id. Mol. 
Ind. ii, 1898. p. 63, pi. 77, figs. 1-6 (shell and anatomv). 
[ Vide fig. 76, B-B 4, p. 220.] 

Shell imperforate, subglobosely depressed, thin, membranaceous, 
smooth, olive-brown ; spire low, suture impressed ; whorls 4, 
rapidly increasing ; aperture ovately lunate, oblique ; peristome 
thin. 

Major diam. 9'5, min. 8*2, height (from figure) 5 mm. 

Hah. Paniputer tea-garden near Tezpur, Assam (Lvmsden). 

No dart-sac found in the two specimens examined. Sperma- 
theca longer than in JJ. levicula. A large overhanging lobe to 
the mucous pore. Peripodial lines strongly marked and triple. 
Odontophore as in D, levicula. 

*323, Durgella mairangensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1898, 
p. 64, pi. 77, figs. 7-11 (shell, details of anatomy, and radula). 
Helicarion salius, Godwi?i- Austen, J. A. S. B. 1876, 2, p. 313: 
nee Bs. 

Shell globosely depressed, thin, smooth, shining, pale straw- 
colour ; spire very low, almost flat, suture shallow ; whorls 3, the 
last rounded, tumid beneath ; aperture oblique, descending, ovately 



DURGELLA, 217 

lunate, columellar margin oblique until close to last Mhorl, where 
it becomes vertical, slightly thickened, and reflected. 

Major diam. 7*5, min. 6, height (from figure) 3-7''3 mm. 

Eah. Mairang, North Kbasi Hills {Godwin- Aiisttn). 

Animal pale yellowish, rather more orange on foot, a dusky 
line on upper surface of extremity of foot. Length about 0*6 inch. 
Dart-sac present ; spermatheca rather short. Eows of the 
odontophore A\ith 320 . 1 , 320 teeth, which are larger than in 
D. levicula. 

This is very near D. salius, and has the same habit of jumpiug 
when touched. 

324. Durgella salius, Rs. (Vitrina) A. M. K. H. (3) iii, 18o9, p. 189 ; 
Pfr. (Vitrina) Mon. Hel. iv, 18"j9. p. 799 ; H. i,- T. (Vitrina) C. I. 
1876, pi. 65, tigs. 8, 9 ; IS'emll (Helicarion), Hand-L i, 1878, p. 14 \ 
Goduin-Austen (Austeuia), Mol. Ind. \, 1883, p. 152, pi. 37, fig. 1 ; 
id. t. c. ii, 1898, p. 65, 

Shell imperfor;.te, subglobosely depressed, not very thin, smooth, 
more or less polished, sometimes indistinctly closely striated, 
translucent, pale yellowish ocliraceous ; spire scarcely convex, 
apex not prominent, suture very slightly impressed ; whorls 3|, 
rather flattened above, the last sometimes descending a little in 
front, rounded at periphery and beneath ; aperture oblique, 
Innately subovate ; peristome not very thin, margins converging, 
upper very slightly arcuate, columellar sinuate, rounded, sub- 
vertical above. 

Major diam. Qg, min. 7, height 4| mm. 

Hah. Khasi Hills, Teria Ghat ; Lower Himalayas of Sikhim, 
common at Pankabari. 

Animal not examined. In one shell there is part of an epi- 
phragm remaining. Col. Godwin- Austen has suggested (Mol. 
Ind. ii, p. 65) that this species belongs to Dan/eUa. The name is 
derived from the jumpiug habits of the animal. 

*325. Durgella ? seposita, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 267 ; 
Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 51. 

" Shell imperforate, conoidly subglobose, thin, obsoletely 
obliquely striated, white, covered with a horny epidermis ; 
spire low, conoidal, apex obtuse, suture slightly impressed ; 
whorls 3, scarcely convex above, the last large, ventricose, 
forming almost the whole shell, area around the umbilicus 
slightly hollowed ; aperture large, oblique, roundly lunate ; 
peristome thin, straight, columellar margin descending with a 
curve, scarcely expanded. 

"Major diam. 7, min, 5^, axis 5 mm,; length of aperture 4|, 
breadth 4." (Benson, in Latin,) 

Hah. Near Darjiling. 

Although Sikhim has been very thoroughly searched since this 
species was named, no other specimens liave been found, and 



218 zoxiTiD.i:. 

there must remain some doubt as to whether there may not have 
been an error in the locality, or whether the solitary specimen 
procured was not the young of some better-known shell. Two 
specimens from Theobald's Collection, now in the British Museum, 
do not agree satisfactorily with the original description. 

b. Aberrant form. 

*326. Durgella khasiaca, God win- Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1883, p. 145, 
pi. -39, figs. 7, 7 a, 7 b, S, 8 a, 8 b (shell, jaw, and radula). 

" Shell depressedly ovate, thin, horny, shiny, smooth, with 
close, flue, transverse lines of growth ; colour pale ochraceous 
olive ; spire very depressed, liatly convex, suture abaUow ; 
whorls 3, rapidly increasing ; aperture oblique, flatly ovate ; 
columellar margin but weakly developed." (Godivin-Austen.) 

Major diam. 6-7, min. 5, height (from figure) 3 mm. 

Bab. AVest Khasi Hills. 

The radula is very remarkable ; it contains 250 . 1 . 250 teeth in 
120 rows : the rhachidian is elongate, with three terminal equal- 
sized points ; the lateral teeth are all alike, much curved and 
terminally bicmspid, the outer point slightly in advance of the 
inner. AH decrease gradually in size outwards. Jaw thin and 
horny, nearly straight in front. 

There is some slight resemblance to the radula of this species in 
Girasia crocea, but both shell and animal are very different. 

Genus IBYCUS. 

Ibycus, Heynemann, Mai. Bliitt. x, 1862, p. 142. 
LeptodoDtarion, subf/. of Helicariou, described by Paul *§• Fritz 
Sarasin, Land-Mulliis'ken von Celebes, p. 124 (1899). 

Type, I. Jissidens, Heynemann. 

Range. Sikhim. 

The original type of this genus was a spirit-specimen in very 
bad condition, all the posterior half of the body, half the mantle, 
and part of the shell having been lost. The radula shows re- 
markable characters. There is no median row of broader plates 
as in so many Limacid^e ; the rhachidian tooth is much broader at 
the base than at the point, the shovel-like point rising up like a 
spoon. The side teeth have two cusps, each projecting forward 
and connected with a plate behind, and pass gradually into rather 
smaller but similar teeth, each side of a row running backward 
from the middle tooth, "so as to resemble a flight of cranes." 
The jaw has a projecting median process, as generally seen in 
Macroclilarinjs, thus differing from other species of the Durgellina;. 

With this remai'kable form Col. Godwin-Austen's Durgella 
minuta may perhaps be connected, as it has a somewhat similar 
I'adula. 

[The shell of the type species is verj' difl'erent from that of minuta, 



IBYCUS. 219 

being conoid, of 34 to 4 whorls, and the Sarasius do not describe the 
internal anatomy, which may prove very different from Ihycus. I 
give figures of the radula of both Leptodontarion albacuminatus and 
L. coriaceus (fig. 76, D, E, p. 220). Leptodontarion should be 
included in the subfamily DurgelUncn.'] 

327. Ibycus fissidens, Heynemann, Med. Blatt. x, 18G2, p. 142, pi. 1, 

tig. 3 (radula). 
[ Vide fig-. 70, C, p. 220.] 

Shell imperfect, convex, horny-leathery, bi'ittle, translucent, 
amber-coloured, highly polislied, with neat lines of growth. It is 
shovel-shaped, with the apical portion wanting, and may be part of 
a shell like that of Girasia. 

The breathing-orifice appears to lie far forward. A mantle 
covers the anterior half of the body and, as in Limax, is united 
with the sole. Surface of the mantle distinctly tubercular. Jaw 
with a prominent centre. 

Radula as described under the genus. No size mentioned. 
The shell, if figured of natural size, may have been half an inch 
long, and the whole animal possibly 2 inches, but this is un- 
certain. 

Bab. Sikhim, at a height of 5600 feet (ScMagintiveit). It should 
be remembered that some of the Schlagintweit collections, from 
Sikhim especially, were wrongly labelled. 

328. Ibycus minutUS, Godioiji-Austen (Helicarion), J. A. S. B. 1876, 

2, p. 313, pi. S, fig. 1 ; id. (Uurgella) Mol. hid. i, 1883, p. 144, 
pi. 39, figs. 1-6 (shell, animal, radula, &c.). 
[Vide fig. 76, A- A 5, p. 220.] 

Shell imperforate, depressed, ovate, translucent, smooth, polished, 
lower portion membranaceous, brownish with an olive tinge ; 
spire nearly flat, suture impressed ; whorls 2|, rapidly increasing, 
the last rounded at periphery, slightly flattened beneath ; aperture 
very oblique, diagonal, lunate, roundly ovate ; peristome thin, 
max'gins converging, columellar above slightly inclined to the right. 

Major diam. 7, min. 5, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Under Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills, also Jaintia Hills and 
Noa Dehing, Assam {Godivln- Austen). 

Animal, when alive, pale horny ; tentacles and line from them 
to the mantle dark-coloured, also a dark line down the upper 
surface of the foot behind the mantle. Lobes of mantle just 
covering the edge of the shell. The anterior portion of the body 
is much shorter than the posterior portion. Total length about 
0"7 inch. A well-marked hooked process above the mucous 
gland. The middle portion of the sole of the foot is black 
throughout. 

Radula with a straight unicuspid rhachidian tooth, increasing in 
width near the base, and numerous curved lateral bicuspid teeth, 
similar in form to each other and gradually decreasing in size as 
they are inclined backwards on each side of the central tooth. 
There is thus a very considerable likeness to the arrangement in 




[Fig. 76. — Hiycus mimdus. 

A. Animal, from life, natural size, right side yiew. 

A 1. Ditto, from spirit-specimen, right side yiew. X 4. 
A 2. Ditto, extremity of foot in life. A 4. Shell. X 2-4. 

A 3. Jaw. X 20. A 5. Teeth of the radula. X about 625. 

Durgella assamica. 

B. Mantle-zone, removed from animal to show the shell- and dorsal 

lobes: enlarged. Bl. The genitalia : much eulai-ged. 

B2. Portion of side of foot, to show the three peripodial grooves. 
B 3. Three teeth of the radula. B 4. Jaw. X 15. 

C. Ibycns fissidcns, teeth of radula (after Hevnemann). 

D. Leptodontarion albacumivatus Rafter P.& F. Sarasin) : highly magnified. 

E. coriaceus (ditto) : ditto.] 



IBYCUS. SATIELLA. 221 

Ihycus. [There was sufficient to show in the generative organs the 
presence of the ainatorial organ and simple form of male organ.J 

Animal not differing much from Dtm/ella. Col. Grodwin- Austen 
has called attention to the similarity of the radula in the Assam 
and Celebes shells of the genera Ibt/cus and Leptodontarion. 

Teeth in the radula 190 . 1 . 190 in each row. Jaw slightly- 
arched, without a median projection. 



Genus SATIELLA *. 
[Fig. 77, p. 222.] 

Type, S. deJclmnensis, Godwin- Austen. 

Ranr/e. Southern India. 

Shell very thin and membranaceous, Vitrina-like, depressedly 
globose or depressed, with few whorls and a large mouth. 

Mantle with well-developed shell-lobes extending over the shell. 
Behind the shell the foot is generally carinate and ends posteriorly 
in a long lobe, on the under side of which is the mucous pore. 
The sole has a median and two lateral tracts, clearh^ divided. 
There is no dart-sac or ainatorial organ ; the spermatheca is club- 
shaped, a pear-shaped or cylindrical body with a narrow neck 
opening into the oviduct. The vas deferens expands gradually into 
a wider portion (epiphallus ?) leading to the short caecum, to which 
the retractor muscle is attached. 

Teeth very numerous, in S. levidensis (fig. 77, F) 350 to 400 on 
each side of the rhachidians ; the median and admedian teeth 
appear to be bicuspid, whilst some of the outer teeth have a 
multicuspid outer edge like that of a saw. 

Both the shell and radula differ considerably from those of 
Durfjella. 



329. Satiella dekhanensis, Godicin-Austen (Durgrella"), Mol. Ind. ii, 
189S, p. 68, pi. 78, figs. 1-2 d (shell and animal) ; var. bicolor, 
tigs. 3—5 (shell, auimal, and generative organs). 
[Fig. 77, A, B.] 

Shell very thin, quite membranaceous and soft, depressed, 
translucent, smooth, polished, I'ich sienna-brown in colour ; spire 
low, apex flat, suture linear; whorls 3|, the last large, sometimes 
angulateat periphery (perhaps through pressure); aperture Innately 
ovate ; peristome very thin. 

Major diam. 18-5, min. 15, height about 8 mm. 

Hah. Travancore, in Southern India. 

The shell is so soft that it is difficult to say whether the peri- 
phery is subangulate or not. 

Animal (fig. 77, A) with a narrow foot, sharply keeled behind, and 

* From "Sati ' or '• Durga," also known as " Parvati." 



222 



ZO>"ITID.i;, 



a pointed lobe overlying the narrow linear mucous gland. Shell- 
lobes (B) ample and probabl}' in life cover the whole shell ; they are 
smooth and paler than the remainder of the animal; they are not 
continuous round the back of the shell as in Austenia. Animal 
grey or pale ruddy ochre. Jaw (D) soft and horny, straight 
in front. Teeth very numerous ; central tooth minute, pointed ; 
lateral teeth serrated ; minute as in S. levidensis. 

In the genitalia (C) no dart-sac ; a penis papilla (E). The 
spermatheca is a moderately long blunt sac, attached by a short 
stem. The retractor muscle of the penis is very strong, given off 
where the vas deferens joins ; no trace of a kale-sac or tlagellum. 




[Fig. 77. — Satidla dekhanensi^. 

A. Animal, view of the right and left sides, life-size, and extremity of foot 

from beneath, X G. From spirit-specimen. 

B. Mantle-zone detached from the animal, showing shell- and dorsal lobes. 

Satiella dckhanensis, var. bicolor. 

C. Generative organs. X 3. 

D. Jaw. X 18. 

Satiella levidensis, 

E. Male organ opened ont on side, X 3. 

F. Central tooth and admedians, X 276, and four admedian teeth still 

more enlarged.] 



►S.VTIELLA. 223 

330. Satiella christianaB, Theobald (Yhiimn). J. A. S. B. x\\iii, 1864 

p. i'4o; //. .y T. (Vitriua) C. I. Is76, pi. 06, fio-s. 7, 10; Nevil'l 
(Helicarion), Hand-l. \, 1878, p. 14 : Godwin-Austen, A. M. N. H. 
(5) viii, 1881, p. 377 ; id. (Durg-ella) Mol. Ind. ii, 1898, p. 65, 
pi. 79, figs. 1-5 (shell, animal, and anatomical details). 

Shell imperforate, globosely depressed, thin, translucent, smooth, 
polished, pale yellowish horny ; spire almost fiat, suture impressed ; 
whorls 3|-, convex, rapidly increasing, the last rounded at peri- 
phery, swollen below ; aperture oblique, roundly lunate : peristome 
thin, slightly arcuate above, columellar margin subverfical. 

Major diam. 13, miu. 11, height S mm. A smaller specimen is 
10x5x 6 mm. 

Hah. Andaman Islands, Port Blair. 

Animal in spirit-specimen about 1 h niches long. AVhole body 
dark, with the shell-lobes conspicuously pale-coloured. Shell- 
lobes of mantle large. Xo dart-sac ; the spermatheca long and 
small, expanding at the end into a large pear-shaped sac. 

In each row of the radula there is a very minute rhachidian 
tooth, terminally bicuspid, fo]lo\^ed by curved bicuspid laterals, 
towards the margin these laterals show the pectiniform edges 
characteristic of the genus. Jaw straight, \\ith a slightlv convex 
edge. 

It will be seen that the teeth of this radula differ considerably 
from those of S. levicula and its allies. 

331. Satiella levidensis, Godwin- Avsten (Durg-ella), Mol. Ind. ii, 

1898. p. 78, pi. GS, figs. 6-9 (shell, animal, and radula). 
[Fig. 77, E, F.] 

This is distinguished from S. dekhanensis by its much hio-her 
spire, globose form, and smaller size ; whorl's 4 ; the spire is 
exserted and blunt ; surface smooth, colour pale green and 
ochraceous. 

Major diam. 10-5, axis (not height) 5-5 mm. Another speci- 
men measures 13 x 10| x 7 mm. 

Hah. Tinnevelly Hills, Travancore. 

Animal like S. delclmnensis. The lingual ribbon consists of 
about GS rows, each of about 350 to 400 . 1 . 350 to 400 teeth, very 
closely packed. The rhachidian tooth is small, unicuspid : lateral 
teeth long, uniform, and terminally bicuspid, the outermost beino- 
serrated on the outer side below the bicuspid apex. Jaw leathery 
as in S. del-haneusis. 

These South-Indian species are most nearly allied to the 
Andaman S. cJiristiance, 

332. Satiella flexilis, sp. u. 

Shell imperforate, subglobosely depressed, very soft and flexible, 
scarcely retaining its shape, smooth, moderately polished, diapha- 
nous, pale greenish ; spire low, but apex slightly prominent, blunt, 
suture shallow ; whorls 4i, convex, the last rounded at the 



224 ZONITIDiE. 

periphery, slightly tumid beneath ; aperture oblique, lunately 
semiovate ; peristome thin, upper margin slightly arcuate, colu- 
mellar curved, subvertical above. 

Major diam. 13, min. 10|, height about 64 mm. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills (Beddome). A shelf from Sispara Ghat, 
collected by myself, is apparently the same. 

This is more tumid than S. jyertcnuls or S. levidensis and is 
even thinner and more flexible. It can easily be recognized by its 
greenish colour. 

333. Satiella compressa, sp. n. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, thin, membranaceous, slightly 
flexible, smooth, with obsolete transverse striatiou, pale rufescent 
brown ; spire A'ery low, conoidal, apex subacute, suture scarcely 
impressed. Whorls 4|, flatly convex above, the last bluntly sub- 
angulate at the periphery, somewhat flattened beneath ; aperture 
oblique, lunately and subangulately ovate ; peristome thin, upper 
margin arcuate, coluraellar oblique. 

Major diam. 17j, min. 14|, height 6| mm. 

ffab. Tirrhiot Ghat, Wynaad. 

This is easily recognized by its large size and compressed shape. 

334. Satiella pertenuis, sp. n. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, very thin, submembranaceous, 
smooth, not highly polished, pale yellowish brown ; spire scarcely 
raised, but apex prominent, papillar ; suture shallow ; whorls 5, 
at first closely wound, then increasing more rapidly, flatly convex, 
the last subangulate above the periphery, then rounded, more 
tumid beneath ; aperture oblique, lunately ovate ; peristome thin, 
columellar margin obliquely curved, finally vertical above. 

Major diam. 15^, min. 12|, height about 6| mm. 

Hab. Wynaad (Beddome). 

This is considerably larger than S. levidensis and with an 
additional whorl. The last whorl, too, is broadei% 

*335. Satiella membranacea, Bs. (Vitrina) A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 
1853. p. 93 ; Pfr. (Vitrina) Mo7i. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 792 ; H. ^- T. 
(Vitrina) C. L 1876, pi. 152, fig. 10. 

" Shell much depressed, submembranaceous, obsoletely obliquely 
striated, strife very close towards the apex, pellucid, greenish 
horny, polished, slightly convex above, apex flattened, suture 
scarcely marginate ; whorls 3|, rapidly increasing, the last broad 
in front, flattened beneath, rounded at the narrow periphery ; 
aperture oblique, ovate, the upper mai'gin arcuate forwards. 

"Major diam. 11, min. S, height 4 mm."' (Benson, in Latin.) 

Hah. Balcadua (apparently a pass of this name), Ceylon. 

I have not seen this shell, which is evidently an ally of 
S. del-hanensis, but much more depressed. 



SITALA. 



Geuus SITALA. 



Sitala, H. Adams, P. Z. S. I860, p. 408. 
Conulema, StoUczka, J. A. S. B, 1871, 2, p. 236. 
Sitala, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 25. 

Type, 'S'. infula, Bs. 

Range. Indo- Malay Eegiou. 

" (Shell conoidal, thin, consisting of many, usually spirally-ribbed 
or striated whorls ; base convex, narrowly or indistinctly um- 
bilicated; margin of the aperture thin, not expanded; outer 
simple." (Stoliczl-a.) 

Typical examples of the genus are more or less trochiform and 
horny, and, as a rule, surrounded by spiral costulation. A large 
number of small species may belong either to this genus or to 
KaUella, or possibly to other forms. As a rule, those referred to 
Sitala are distinguished by spiral sculpture, sometimes very fine 
aud only visible under a microscope. But in some cases the 
characters of the radula, despite the presence of spiral sculpture, 
have caused the species to be referred to KaUella. 

" Animal (of typical species) narrow, long (generally equal to 
twice the greater diameter of the shell) ; pedicles long, tentacles 
much shorter ; lateral line (peripodial groove) distinct, the margin 
beneath it smooth ; gland at the end of foot large, superseded by 
a distinct horn ; sole grooved ; two shell- and two dorsal lobes to 
the mantle, all of them small and with no separately produced 
appendages, but shghtly extended on either end ; genital organs 
with or without an amatorial gland ; a simple appendix to the 
penis, produced into the penis retractor ; receptaculum seminis 
(spermatheca) terminating with a bulging end, bedded in the 
posterior portion of the oviduct aud prostata. Jaw thin, trans- 
parent, smooth, indistinctly or finely concentrically striated in the 
middle. Eadula large, consisting of numerous (above 100) trans- 
verse rows, each with very numerous (300 to above 400) teeth, a 
very few median teeth being conspicuously larger than the laterals, 
which are narrow, pectiniform, and very gradually decreasing in 
width ." {Stoliczlca. ) 

Unfortiiuately the animal of only two species (infula and 
attegia) has been examined. These differ in the presence or 
absence of a dart-sac or amatorial organ. 

A. Typical, subtrochiform or turbinate, spirally ribbed. 

a. Columella sUgJitly reflected. 

Sitala infula, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) ii, 1848, p. 160 ; Pfr. 
( Hehx) Mon. Hel iii, 1853, p. 58 ; id. vii, 1876, p. 103 ; StoUczka 
(Couiilema), J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, p. 239, pi. 18, fis-s. .5-9 (shell, 
animal, aud anatomy) ; 1873, 2, p. 16, footnote ; H. 4- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 54, tig. 9 ; Xevill, Nauiua (Sitala), Hand-l. i, 1878, 
p. 33 ; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 26, pi. 8, figs. 1-1/ 
(jiheU, animal, and anatomy). 



336. 



226 



ZONITIDJ. 



Helix tiu-biniformis, Bs. J. A. S. B. vii, 1838, p. 218 (no description): 
nee Pfr. 1839, 

Shell subperforate, subtrochiforiu, thin, not polisbed above, 
faintly striated obliquely, with longitudinal (spiral) raised lines 
often obsolete on the lower whorls, and finer ribbing intercalated 
between them, translucent, greyish horny; spire conical, suture 



B 




»-«' M 






3^1M^^ 




[Fig. 78. — Sitala wfula. 

A. Animal from life (after Stoliczka). 

B. Mantle-zone, showing shell- and dorsal lobes (after S'toliczka). Enlarged. 

C. Jaw. X 30. 

D. Teeth of radula. x 475. 

E. Generative organs (after Stoliczha). Enlarged. 

Sitala aitecjla. 

F. Generative organs (after Stoliczka). 

Sttala vulcania. 

G. Part of the generative organs. X 3"4.] 



SITALA. 227 

impressed; whorls 6, convex, the last angulate, the augulatiou 
disappearing near the mouth, base slightly convex, smoother, 
marked with radiating stria) and impressed subdistant concentric 
lines ; aperture subquadrately Innate, very little oblique ; peristome 
simple, straight, columellar margin subvertical, becoming vertical 
above, and slightly reflected. 

Major (liam. 7-7, min. 7, height 7 mm. 

Hah. Throughout Bengal and Orissa. Eecorded from Calcutta, 
Murshidebad, Jtiauiganj, liajmehal Hills, Patharghatta in Behar, 
and Talchir in Orissa. Specimens from the last named have 
7 whorls, and measure 8 mm. in major diameter and 7k in height. 
Nevill includes specimens from Arakan, Bassein, and' Mouhnein 
in Burma. Shells are also said to have been found at Poona and 
in parts of Southern India, but this requires confirmation. 

Animal leaden grey with a pinkish tinge, spotted and striped 
darker. No dart-sac. The vas deferens joins the male organ on 
the distal side of the retractor muscle, being slightly expanded 
near the penis, but without kale-sac or other appendix," and there 
is a distinct ctecum to the muscular attachment. 

Jaw finely striated, arched, scarcely projecting in the middle. 
Eadula containing 150 .3.1.3. 150 [Stol.) — 120 .3.1.3. 120 
{O.-A.) — teeth in each row, about 100 rows being present; the 
seven median teeth are conspicuously larger than the others and 
bicuspid, the laterals pointed with 2-5 cusps on the outer side. 

337. Sitala attegia, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 184 ; 
Theobald (Helix), J. A. S. B. xxvi, 1857, p. 250; i^)-. (Helix) 
Mon. Hel v, 1868, p. 91 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 104 ; StoUczka 
(Conulema), J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, p. 237, pi. 18, figs. 1-4 (anatomy) ; 
H. .S- T. (Helix) C. 1. 1876, pi. 86, tigs. 6, 7 ; Nevill, Nauina 
(Sitala), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 33 ; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1882, 
p. 29, pi. 8, figs. 2-2/ (shell and anatomy). 

Shell narrowly perforate, subtrochiform, thin, obliquely striated, 
and with longitudinal (spiral) subdistant raised lines, stronger on 
upper whorls, with minute flexuous striation interposed (the latter 
only seen under a microscope), translucent, pale yellowish or 
brownish horny ; spire conical, suture impressed ; whorls 7-7^, 
convex, slowly increasing, the last carinate, convex beneath, 
radiately striate, and marked \\\i\\ distant concentric impressed 
lines; aperture oblique, subquadrately lunate; peristome thin, 
straight, columellar margin vertical, broadly triangularly reflected, 
partly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 10, min. 9, height 9 mm. Some specimens are 
V2h mm. in diameter and 10| high ; others are as small as 6 mm. 
in diameter. 

Hah. Throughout Pegu and Tenasserim, and in Upper Burma, 
also being found at Bhamo, according to Nevill. Eecorded also 
from Ava,Prome,Akouktoung,Moulmein, Ataran Valley, Phiethan, 
Tenasserim Valley, Mergui, and, according to Nevill, Preparis 

q2 



228 ZONITID.I. 

Island. Specimens have also been received from the Andamans 
(var. cadelli, Nev. MS.) and the Nicobars. 

The shell in this species varies much ; some are thin and horny 
with the spiral ribbing almost obsolete, in other cases the shells 
are thicker and the ribbing strong throughout. From S. infula it 
is distinguished by more open perforation and by lower spire. It 
is also, as a rule, much larger, with more numerous whorls. 

Animal dull whitish, ridge of posterior part of foot grey, mantle- 
lobes hght or sometimes pinkish grey, inner part of mantle with 
spots and stripes of dark pigment. The dart-sac is present and 
consists of a strong, tough, twisted tube ; speinnatheca club-shaped, 
swollen at the end, then narrowing to a tube, and again swollen 
near the orifice ; vas deferens short and thin, expanding before 
joining the penis, which is connected with the retractor muscle by 
a long coecum. Jaw semicircular, scarcely projecting in the middle 
of the concave edge. Teeth of radula 200 .2.1.2. 200, in about 
100 rows, middle'tooth long, tricuspid ? (too many cusps are re- 
presented in Stoliczka"s figure ; he probably made the drawing by 
eye and not with a sufficiently powerful microscope), the next two 
broader, but passing into the narrower admediau, having one cusp 
in the outer edge ; the marginals are serrated on the outer edge. 

[338. Sitala vulcania, sp. n. 

Loccdity. Narkondam Island, Bay of Bengal {G. Rogers, Oct. 
1904). 

It is interesting to find this genus on this small volcanic cone, 
lying some 85 miles east of the JS'orth Andaman Island. I have 
compared it with S. attegia, var. cadelli. Nev. MS., from the 
S. Andamans. There is considerable dilference in form ; the 
Narkoudam shell is moi-e sharply keeled than cadelli or typical 
attegia, and the whorls are more convex, the spire less high. 
Considerable difference is found in the sculpture : in the Andaman 
S. cadelli there is very fine irregular striation on the last whorl, 
with very regular distinct liration on the apical whorls ; in the 
other, vulcania, there is coarse irregular striation on the last 
whorl, indistinct liration on the apical whorls, with sUght indica- 
tion of same on the basal side. The animal was in a very good 
state of preservation. Foot divided, the usual peripodial grooves, 
and broad fringe below. Head darkish grey, also keel of foot. 
There is a very minute right shell-lobe. 

The generative organs agree very well with Stoliczka's description 
and figure of Sitala infida, Bs. ■ The penis and spermatheca are 
exactly the same, and the amatorial organ is absent, as in that 
species. 

The radula I was fortunate in extracting complete ; it is very 
broad, having a large number of teeth in one row, the formula 
being 

210 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 210 
212 . 1 . 212 



SIXALA. 229 

It is also curious to tiud that this radula is ahuost the counter- 
part of Sitala atteijia, as described by Stohczka {vide J. A. S. B. 
vol. xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 2'38), but Stoliczka's Hgures of the teeth of 
this genus are very misleading.] 

339. Sitala culmen, J](f. (Nanina) J. A. S. B. 1805, 2, p. 72 : Pfr. 

(Ilehx) Moll. Hei.T, 1868, p. 94. : Godivin- Austen, Mol. Lid. i, 
1882, p. 31, pi. 8, fig. 4 (shell). 

Shell very minutely perforate, trochiform, thin, pale brownish 
horny, translucent, obliquely striated, and with fine raised, rather 
distant, spiral lines, closer together near the base of each whorl ; 
8 or 9 may be counted on the lo\\er whorls, some stronger than 
others ; spire conical, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 6, 
convex, the last sharply keeled at the periphery, slightly convex 
beneath, marked with radiating strise and fine concentric impressed 
lines ; aperture slightly oblique, subquadrately lunate ; peristome 
simple, thin, columellar margin vertical, triangularly reflected. 

Major diam. 5|, min. 5^, height ok mm. 

Hah. Pegu, Akouktoung on Irrawady Eiver, and banks of 
Hsanda Hyoung, west of Henzada. 

Stoliezka referred this shell to S.attegia, and Nevillto S.infula. 
It is distinguished, however, both by smaller size, higher spire, 
and stronger sculpture. 

340. Sitala confinis, Blf. (Xaniua) /. A. S. B. I860, 2, p. 71 : -^V. 

(Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 83; H. S)- T. (Hehx) C. I. 1876, 
pi. 159, tig. 8 ; Godtcin- Austen, Mol. Lid. i, 1882, p. 32, pi. 10, 
tig. 2 (shell). 

Shell narrowly perforate, subtrochiform, thin, marked with 3 to 
4 distant spiral ribs on each, \\horl, and obliquely striated, whitish 
horny ; spire conical, with the sides flat, apex slightly obtuse,, 
suture impressed. Whorls 7-7^, the upper slightly convex, the 
lower nearly flat, last whorl sharply keeled, convex beneath, and 
finely radiately striated ; aperture slightly oblique, subquadrately 
lunate : peristome thin, straight, columellar margin subvertical, 
triangularly reflexed. 

Major diam. lOi, min. 94, height 9 mm. 

H(d>. Thayet Myo and Ava ; Burma. 

From infuJa, attegia, and culiuen this species is distinguished by 
stronger sculpture, and from aiw by the sides of the spire being 
straight, not concave. 

341. Sitala arx, Bs. (Helix) .4. .1/. X. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 184: Theob. 

(Helix) J. A. S. B. 1857, p. 250 ; Pfr. (Helix) 3Ion. Hel. v,. 
1868, p. 90 ; H. 4- T. (HeUx) C. /. 1876, pi. 54, tig. 8. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conical, thin, faintly obliquely striated, 
and each whorl surrounded by about 4 strong, raised, thread-like 
ribs, smooth beneath, translucent, pale brownish horny ; spire 
conoidal, the sides considerably concave, suture scarcely impressed^ 



230 ZOXITIDiE. 

apex acute ; whorls Tg, the upper somewhat convex, the lower 
flat, the last acutely keeled, slightly convex beneath ; aperture 
oblique, subtrapezoidal ; peristome straight, thin, columellar margin 
slightly oblique, triangularly reflected. 

Major diam. 10, min. 9, height 8 mm. 

Hah. Therapuin or Therapon Hill, Tenasserim Yalley. 

Distinguished from all allied forms by the concave sides of the 
spire and the strong spiral costulation. 

342. Sitala palmaria, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xiii, 1804, p. 137 ; 

Pfv. Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 75 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, 
pi. 30, figs. 6, 6 ; Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 35, 
pi. 10, fig. 3. 

Shell perforate, subturbinate, marked with spiral ridges, o or 6 
on the lowest whorl, 4 on the next higher, and with fine oblique 
regular raised lines above, smooth with radiating striae beneath, 
whitish horny ; spire conoid, with convex sides, apex obtuse, 
smooth, suture impressed ; whorls 5|, convex, the last carinate, 
moderately convex beneath ; aperture oblique, angularly lunate ; 
peristome thin, straight, columellar margin broadly expanded 
above. 

Major diam. 7, min. 6|, height 5 mm. 

Hub. Nundydroog, in Mysore {Benson), and Wynaad (Beddome). 

The above is taken from a typical specimen fully grown received 
from Benson. The original type had 6| whorls and 7 spiral ribs 
and measured 8| x 8 x 6 mm. 

343. Sitala liricincta, StoUczM (Conulema), J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, 

p. 241, pi. 18, fig. 10 ; Pfr. (Hehx) Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 104 ; 
H. S,- T. (Helix) C. 1. 1876, pi. 132, fig. 7; NeviU, Nanina 
(Sitala), Hcmd-l. i, 1878, p. 34; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 
1882, p. 34. 

Shell subobtectly and minutely perforate, turbinate, spirally 
iirate, with about 4 strong ribs on each whorl, 5 or 6 on the lowest 
whorl, smoother on the base, with a few concentric raised lines 
near the periphery, oehraceous horny ; spire conical, sides slightly 
convex, apex obtuse, suture impressed; whorls 6|, convex, the 
last with a sharp rib representing a keel, but not distinctly angu- 
late, convex beneath ; aperture nearly vertical, almost semicircularly 
lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin slightly oblique, almost 
vertical and reflected, with a slight projection in front of the 
perforation. 

Major diam. 6, min. 5|, height 5 mm. (Stoliczka gives 
6-4x 6x5-8.) 

Hah. On the banks of the Ataran Eiver, near Moulmein. 

Near S. palmaria, but the spiral ribs are more distant and 
stronger, the last whorl is less distinctly keeled, the spire is higher, 
and the whorls more numerous. The animal has not been examined 
in either species. 



SIT.VLA. 



231 



The small projecting point of the reflected columellar margin of 
the peristome tends to recall that in Mkrocystina. 

b. Columella strongly reflected, thickened, and twisted, 

344, Sitala? gratulator, Blf. (Nanina) /. A. S •^'- 1'^^' 2 p. 72 ; 
Pfr. (Helix) Mun. Hel. v, 1868, p. 94; H. ^- T. (Helix) CI. 
1876, pi. 10, fio-. 2: 2\'eviU, Nanina (Sitala), Hand-l. i, 18/8, 
p. d;Godicin- Austen, Mol. Lid. i, 1832, p. 42, pi. 10, figs. 1, 1 a, 
1 b (shell). 
Shell perforate, trochiform, not very thin, obliquely striated and 
ornamented with strong spiral (longitudinal) raised lines above 
and more finely concentrically lined and radiately striate beneath, 
pale brownish horny ; about 6 or 7 ribs on last whorl ; spire 
conical, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 5|, slowly and 
regularly increasing, convex, the last cariuate at the periphery, 
flatly convex beneath ; aperture diagonal, subtrapezoidal, breadth 
exceeding height ; peristome thin, margins united by a callus, basal 
sinuate, columellar ^forming a right angle with basal,_ reflected and 
thickened above and passing half round the perforation. 
Maior diam. 5, min. 4-5, height 4 mm. 

Hah. Irrawady Yalley, Pegu. Common about Thayet Myo, also 
at Akoulitoung and Henzada. 

The aniraafhas a small mucous pore at the posterior end ot the 
foot, and a small lobe overhanging the mucous pore. The eye- 
tentacles are long. These characters agree with those of S. mfula. 
The very oblique mouth and twisted columella, however, may point 
to generic diflerences. 

B. Small shells of douhtful affinity, all under 6 mm. in diameter. 

a. Carinate, suhperf orate or narroivly perforate. 

345. Sitala gromatica, Godicin-Ausfen, Mol.Ind.\,\SS2, p. 32, pi. 10, 
fig, 5 (shell). 

Shell subperforate, pyramidal, trochiform, obliquely striated and 
spirally ribbed, with about 10 fine, thread-like, subdistant raised 
lines closer together below near the suture, umber-brown ; spire 
conical, sides nearlv flat, suture shallow ; whorls 7, convex, the 
last carinate at periphery, lower surface slightly convex, radiately 
and concentrically striated; aperture oblique, subquadrately lunate; 
peristome thin, columellar margin oblique, reflected. 

Major diam. 3^, height 3 mm. 

Hab. ]Manipvir, North Cachar, and Khasi Hills. 

346. Sitala haroldi, Godicin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 33, pi. 10, 

tig. 7 ^shell) ; id. t. c. ii, 1898, p. 47 ; id. P. Z. S. l&9o, p. 448. 

Shell "subperforate, trochiform, finely spirally lirate, about 10 

spiral lines on the lo\\er whorls, radiately and concentrically striate 

on the base, brownish horny; spire conical, sides flat, suture 



232 zoKiTiD,^;. 

shallow ; ^^•horls 7, slightly convex, the last carinate j nearly flat 
beneath ; aperture oblique, subrhomboiclal ; peristome thin, colu- 
mellar margin oblique, forming an angle with basal. 

Diam. 3|, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Andaman Islands ; South Andaman and Little Brother 
Island ; also said to have been found on Katchall in the Nicobars. 

A small distinctly trochiform shell with line spiral sculpture. 

[This is the species unnamed, Nanina (Microciistis), No. 200, 
p. 41, Xevil], Hand-L i, and probably Xo. 20S, p.'42.] 

347. Sitala? phyllophila, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xi, 1863, 

p. 320: Pfr. (HeHx) Mmi. Hel. \, 1868, p. 80 ; H. S,- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 61, tig. 10 ; NeviU, Naniua (Microcystis), Hand-L 
i, 1878, p. 41. 

" Shell scarcely perforate, trochiform, thin, silky above, obliquely 
striated, polished beneath, under the microscope ornamented, both 
above and below, with minute, close, undulating spiral striation, 
translucent, pale horny ; spire conical, apex rather sharp, suture 
somewhat impressed ; whorls 6|, convex, the last carinate ; aper- 
ture oblique, subquadrately lunate ; peristome simple, straight, 
sharp, columellar margin vertical, reflected, broader above, partly 
covering the perforation. 

" Major diam. 5, min. 4^, axis 5 mm." {Benson, in Latin.) 

Hab. Badulla and Kandy, Ceylon. 

This is near S, infula, but distinguished by the closely-set 
undulate stria3 instead of subremote spiral lines. 

348. Sitala? pyramidalis, Si/kes, Proc. Mai Sac. iii, 1898, p. 70,. 

pi. o, figs. 19, -20. 

"Shell narrowly but perspectively umbilicated, small, depressedly 
pyramidal, pale horny, slightly covered with an epidermis, apex 
rather obtuse ; whorls 7, plano-convex, the first smooth, the others 
spirally ribbed, the last with 4 to 6 ribs, keeled at the periphery, 
convex at the base, radiately striated, smooth : suture impressed, 
aperture angularly lunate ; peristome simple, straight. 

" Diam. 5, height 3*4 mm." (Si/l-es, in Latin.) 

Hab. Lower Ambagamuwa, Ceylon {CoUdt). 

349. Sitala ? operiens, Si/kes, Proc. Mai. Soc. iii, 1898, p. 70, pi. 6, 

fig.li>. 

Shell narrowly perforate, very small, elevately conoid, brownish 
horny, covered with a brown epidermis, apex rather acute ; 
whorls 6, beneath the epidermis microscopically engraved with 
numerous spiral lines, the last keeled at tht; periphery, subconvex 
at the base, radiately striated, smooth ; suture subimpressed ; 
aperture ovately lunate ; peristome simple, straight, columellar 
margin slightly reflected at the perforation. 

" Diam. 2-5, height 2-5 mm." (SyJies, in Latin.) 

Hah. LTva Pussellawa, Ceylon (H. Preston). 



SIIALA. 233- 

"The sculpture is not visil)U^ until the periostracum has been 
rubbed oil." 

b. Carinate and umbilicated. 

350. Sitala? balliana, Godioin-Austen {Nevill, MS.), Mol. Iml. i, 

1882, p. 74, pi. 15, fig. 2 (shell) ; ii, 1898, p. 48. 

Shell umbilicated, trochiform, obliquely, finely, regularly striated, 
spirally costulate, with 4 to 5 strong ribs on each whorl, umber- 
brown ; spire conical, not high, apex blunt, sides slightly convex, 
suture impressed ; \^ horls 5, convex, the last with a raised keel, 
slightly convex beneath ; aperture subquadraugular, oblique ; peri- 
stome slightly thickened, columelkvr margin oblique, becoming 
vertical above, slightly reflected. 

Diam. 3.^, height 2| mm. 

Hub. Hills near Gaujam, Madras Presidency {Ball). 

[This is No. 103, Nanina {Microcystis), n. sp., INTev. Hand-1. i, 
1878, p. 41, type.] 

C. Rounded or sidjaiir/ulate. 

351. Sitala? phulongensis, Godiviy^-Amfen, Mol Ind. i, 1882, p. 34, 

pi. 10, tig. 4 (shell) ; id. ii, 1898, p. 48. 

Shell narrowly perforate, elongately conical, subtui'reted, spirally 
Urate, with 6 to 7 longitudinal ribs on each whorl, obliquely 
striated, Avith radiating and close concentric striation on the base, 
brownish horny ; spire rather high, conical, sides slightly convex, 
suture impressed ; whorls 54. convex, the last not distinctly 
carinate, convex beneath ; aperture oblique, almost semicircular ; 
peristome thin, columellar margin vertical, slightly reflected. 

Diam. 2, height 2*25 mm. 

Hah. Khasi Hills. Cherra Pungi, and Phulong. 

This is higher in tbe spire than most of its allies. The lingual 
ribbon resembles that of Dvrgella : it has a minute rhachidian tooth 
and a great number of multicuspid laterals, all similar; the jaw, 
too, is almost straight. 

\_S. infida and attegia approach Dunjella in the form of the lateral 
teeth, only they have from 7 to 5 central teeth on broad plates.] 

352. Sitala? limata, Godicin- Austen, Mul. Ind. i, 1882. p. 34, pi. 10, 

lig. 9 (shell). 

Shell subperforate, elongately subtrochiform, finely spirally 
lirate, having about 6 longitudinal ribs on last whorl, closely 
concentrically striated on base, bro\\nish horny ; spire conical, 
sides convex, apex blunt, suture shghtly impressed ; whorls 5, 
convex, the last not carinate, convex beneath ; aperture vertical, 
subquadrately semicircular ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
vertical, slightly thickened and reflected. 

Major diam. 1|, height 1| mm. 

Hah. Thamandeva, baseof Arakan Eauge, Basseiu District, Pegu 
{W. T. Blanford). 



234 



ZOMlIJDiE. 



353. Sitala? subnaiia, Godwiti-Austen {Xevill, MS.), Mol. Lid. i, 
1882, p. 75, pi. 14, tig, 6 (sliell). 

Shell subperf orate, conoid, obliquely striated and decussated by 
fine, rather close, impressed spiral (longitudinal) lines, pale brown ; 
spire conical, rather low, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 4|, 
convex, the last subangulate, flatly convex beneath ; aperture 
obhque, semiluuate; peristome thin, columellar margin slightly 
oblique and reflected. 

Diam. 2|, height 1| mm. 

Hab. Jessore in Bengal. 

A small, low conoid shell, subangulate at the periphery. 

35-i. Sitala? crenicincta, Godwin- Austen, Mol Ltd. i, 1883, p. 75, 
pi. 13, flg. 2 (shell), p. 145, pi. 38, figs, 4, 4 a (teeth of radula). 

Shell perforate, depressedly turbinate, thin, obliquely striatec 
and decussated with fine, rather close impressed lines both above 
and belo\^-, brownish horny ; when fresh with two spiral parallel 
rows of fine hairs ; spire conoidal, apex obtuse, suture well im- 
pressed ; whorls 4, convex, the last rounded at the periphei^ ; 
aperture oblique, semiovately lunate ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin vertical. 

Diam. 2-25, height 1-b mva. A larger variety from 3Iairang 
measures 2*7 by 1-75 mm. 

[The radula is very similar to that of Kaliella harrdlcporensis, 
bnt the outer laterals are not tricuspid. The centre tooth is very 
large, tricuspid, pointed, broad and long ; the admedian teeth are 
bicuspid, the outer cusp near the base, while in the outermost 
3 or 4 it nearly disappears. Few teeth in the row. Formula : 
18 to 20 . 5 . 1 . 5 . 18 to 20, or 25 . 1 . 2b. A variety, slightly 
larger and very narrowdv perforate, from wood at Mairaug, Ivhasi 
Hills.] 

Hah. Khasi, Jaintia, and JSTaga Hills ; Marangsip Peak, Jawai, 
Teria Ghat, Shilloug, c*cc. {Godivin- Austen). 

The close impressed lines give the idea of raised ribs between 
them, especially on the upper whorls. 

355. Sitala ? injussa, W. S,- H. Blf. (Helix) /. A. S. B. 1861. xxx, 
p. 356, pLl, fig. 13; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 81; 
H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 132, figs. 5, 6 ; Nevill, Nanina 
(Microcj'stis), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 38 ; Godivin- Austen, Mol. Lid. 
i, 1882, p. 38, p)l. 9, fig. 5. 

Shell subperforate, angulately turbinate, thin, marked with 
rather close, slightly wavy, impressed lines above and below, only 
visible under a microscope, crossed by fine oblique striae of growth, 
brownish horny ; spire conical, suture impressed ; whorls 5|, 
slightly convex, the last angulate at the periphery, moderately 
convex beneath, the angulation disappearing near the mouth ; 
aperture oblique, subquadrately lunate ; peristome simple, straight, 
margins converging, columellar vertical, moderately triangularly 
reflected. 



SITALA. 235 

Major diaia. 4, min. 3|, height 3^ mm. 

Huh. Coonoor Ghat, ^'ilgiris, and the Wynaad. Prom the latter 
some specimens measure about 4| mm. lu diameter. 
This shell is somewhat like Macrochlamys rhnicola. 

35G. Sitala? srimaili, Giuhcin- Austen, Mol, Lid. \, 1882, p. 41, \\\. 9, 
iig. 7 (shell). 

Shell minutely perforate, depressedly turbinate, coarsely obliquely 
striated, with 4 or 5 indistinct spiral (longitudinal) ribs, concen- 
trically ribbed beneath, brown horny ; spire conoid, aj^ex blunt, 
suture well impressed ; whorls 5, convex, the last rounded ; aper- 
ture lunate ; columellar margin of peristome oblique, slightly 
reflected. 

Diam. 2J, height 1| mm. 

Hah. Mauipur. 

*3o7. Sitala ? placita, Godicin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 74, pi. 14, 
tig. 3 (sliell). 

" Shell, perforation concealed, globosely conoid : sculpture, 
distant longitudinal ribbing, on the base far apart and well 
raised ; colour pale horny ; spire rather high, conic, apex blunt, 
suture impressed ; whorls 4|, convex, last well rounded on 
periphery ; aperture ovate or semicircular ; columellar margin 
suboblique. 

" Major diam. 2-S, alt. axis 2 mm."' (Godwin- Austen.) 

Hah. Khasi Hills and Manipur, one specimen from each locality 
(Godwin-Austen). 

The measurements of the figure are : maj. diam. 3, height 
1'7 mm. 

The shell in its form resembles S. ? srimani, but is not so flat at 
the base. 

358. Sitala ? intoiisa, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 75, pi. 13, 

tig. 1 (shell). 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressedly turbinate, obliquely 
striated, and decussated by close, finely impressed, longitudinal 
(spiral) lines above and below, closer on apical whorls, wider on 
the base, yellowish brown ; spire conoid, apex obtuse, suture well 
impressed ; whorls 5, rounded, the last whorl broader, rounded at 
the periphery and below ; aperture oblique, semioA'ate ; peristome 
straight, columellar margin oblique, slightly reflected. 

Diam. 3|, height 2i mm. 

Hah. Marangsip Peak, Khasi Hills (Godwin- Austen). 

Said to be hirsute when fresh. 

35U. Sitala? uvida, Godwin-Austen, Mol. 7h(Z. i, 1883, p. 74, pi. 13, 

fig. 5 (shell). 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressedly turbinate, obliquely 



236 zoNiTiD.^;. 

striated, the striation decussated bv close, finely impressed, longi- 
tudinal spiral lines above and below, yello^^"ish brown ; spire 
conoid, apex obtuse, suture deep ; whorls 5, rounded, slowly 
increasing in size, the last rounded at the periphery and beneath ; 
aperture oblique, diagonal, seniiovate ; peristome straight, colu- 
mellar margin oblique, slightly reflected. 

Diam. 2|, height 1| mm. 

Hab. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills and Jatinga Valley, North Cachar 
Hills {Godwin- Austen). 

Near S. srimani, but the spiral sculpture is different and much 
finer, the shape of the aperture, too, differs considerably. 

360. Sitala? recoiadita, Godinn-Austen, Mol. Ind. I, 1883, p. 75, 

pi. 13, fig. 4 (shell). 

Shell narrowly and subobtectly perforate, depressedly turbinate, 
obliquely subcostulate above, on the base finely and closely marked 
with impressed concentric lines, pale brownish horny; spire conoid, 
low, apex blunt, suture well impressed ; whorls 4|, convex, the 
last subaugulate at the periphery, convex beneath ; aperture 
oblique, roundly lunate; peristome thin, columellar margin oblique, 
slightly reflected. 

Diam. 2h, height 1| mm. 

Hah. Ealiang, North Jaintia Hills ; Jav.ai, Khasi Hills (Gochvin- 
Austen). 

The sculpture is peculiar, oblique, and subcostulate above, con- 
centric only below. 

d. Lo7ir/itudinalli/ striated. 

361. Sitala? rimicola, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859. p. 266 ; 

Tfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v. 1868, p. 71 ; H. .y T. (HeUx) C. I. 
1870, pi. 61, fig. 1 ; Godtcin-Austen (Sitala), Mol. Ind. i, 1882, 
p. 36, pi. 9, figs. 2, 3, & 4 (shells from Mussoorie, Darjiling, and 
Khasi Hills) ; ii, 1898, p. 48. 

Shell subperforate, turbinate, giobosely conical, thin, fragile, 
finely obliquely striated and decussated, ^^'ith close very fine 
longitudinal impressed lines above and below, translucent, pale 
brownish horny; spire conical, apex obtuse, suture impressed; 
whorls 6, convex, the last larger, rounded (sometimes subangulate) 
at periphery, convex beneath ; aperture oblique, semicircularly 
lunate ; peristome thin, straight, columellar margin vertical, 
reflected. 

Major diam. 4;^, min. 4, height 4 mm. 

Hab. Landour and Nag Tiba range near Mussoorie in "Western 
Himalayas ; Darjiling 4000', and various places in the Anghami 
and Lhota Naga, Khasi, and Garo Hills south of Assam; Durrang, 
Assam. Specimens from Sikhim are subaugulate ; those from 
Khasi Hills rather larger, from 5 to 5| mm. in diameter. 

[Dr. Blauford placed this species in Macrocldamys with, doubt ; 
I retain it in Sitala. The animal is unknown.] 



SAKIELLA. 



237 



[The sTpecies Jionesta was inc\\ided in Ifacrochlauvfs by Dr. Blauford 
(vide p. 121). I have placed it in a new genus, SaHelkt, following 
Stoliczka, who considered it .sufficiently distinct to put it in the 
genus DurrjeUa, the anatomy of the type of which, levicida, was 
not then known and which differs materially.] 

[Genus SAKIELLA. 

Type, S. Jioiiesfa. 
Range. Pegu and Tenasseriui. 

Differs from MacrocMannjs in the form of the teeth of the 
radula and the formula, the number of the teeth in the row being 




[Fig. 79. — Holkeion anccps. 

A. Mantle-zone removed, showing shell- and dorsal lobes. (After Stoliczka.) 

B. The generative organs. (After Stoliczka.) 

B'. The male organ, X 18. From a Mergui specimen (Ct.-A.). 
:, C. Teeth of the radula, X 270. Ditto. 
ID. Jaw, X 18. Ditto. 

Sakiella honesta. 

E. Extremity of foot. From Muleit range, near Movdmein. 
; F. Mantle-zone, part of, showing shell- and dorsal lobes. Ditto. 

G. A spermatophore. From a specimen from Burmah assigned to honesta, 
i" C more probably that of M. ander^oniana, Xerill. (After Stoliczka.) 
; H. Jaw. From a Muleit specimen. 
; I. Teeth of the radida. From two Muleit specimens.] 



238 zoxiTiD^. 

three times as numerous. The shell has the aperture peculiarly 
oblique. The shell-lobes are as in Macrochlamys. The genitalia 
have not been satisfactorily worked out, owing to lack of material 
properly preserved.] 

362. Sakiella honesta, Gould (Helix), Proc Bost. Soc N. IT. ii, 1846, 
p 9'J: Pfr. (Helix) Mo)i. Hel. i, 1847, p. 57; id. t. c. iv, 1859, 
p. 63 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 19 ; Blf. (Naniua) J. A. S. B. 1865, 2, 
p 87 ; Stol. Macrochi.amvs (Dnrgella), ./. A. S. B. 1871, p. 248, 
pi. 17, tigs. 6 & 6 a ; JEf. k T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 90, tig. 10 ; 
Kevill, Jsanina (Macrochlamys), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 24 ; Godwin- 
Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 'p. 142, pi. 19, figs. 7-7 b (details of 
animal); v. Mart. Naniua (Durgella), Jour. Linn. Soc. xxi, 1889, 
p. 162. 
[ Vide fig. 79, E-I.] 

Shell narrowly and subobtectly perforate, depressed, orbiculate, 
smooth, polished, straw-coloured or whitish horny, translucent ; 
spire depressedly conoid, apex blunt, papillate ; whorls 5, slightly 
conYex above, regularly increasing in size, the last usually 
desceudin<^ somewhat at the mouth, subangulate at the periphery, 
convex beneath ; aperture diagonal, broadly lunate ; peristome 
thin, the upper margin (in adults) arcuate, columellar not quite 
vertical above, broadly reflected and slightly thickened, nearly 
covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 11|, miu. 10, height 6 mm. 

Hah. Throughout Pegu and Tenasserim. The type was from 

Tavoy. 

The concentric or longitudinal sculpture of fine close impressed 
lines observed around the perforation by Gould and Stoliczka is 
easily seen under a microscope in young shells, but not, as a rule, 
in adults. The subangulation at the periphery varies ; in the 
typical form the aperture is angulately lunate. 

Nevill's var. andei'soniana [(vide Appendix to Macrochlamys, 
p. 141)] is larger, the subangulation of the periphery is slighter, 
often scarcely perceptible. It measures 13 x llh X 7 in an average 
specimen. It occurs in Pegu with the typical variety, and appears 
to be the only form found to the northward and in Assam. The 
var. tenuior (undescribed) is said to be from Preparis Island, north 
of the Andamans. [Both these are separated as distinct species.] 

The genitalia are said to be of the usual type, and the spermata- 
pliore, figured bv Stoliczka, is long, terminating at one end in a 
trumpet-shaped aperture, and at the other in a sac, and furnished 
near the former end with horny branching appendages. The jaw 
is narrow and smooth, with (or, as shown in Godwin-Austen's 
flfyure [this was of S. Iwnesta'], without) an obtuse median projec- 
tion. The radula has about 23 broad teeth in the middle, with 
30 to 35 narrow laterals (30 . 11 . 1 . 11 . 30) ; the middle tooth 
tricuspid, the admedian becoming bicuspid, the outer laterals bi- 
cuspid with the points directed outwards. [All this refers to 
Macrochlamys andersoniana (vide p. 141).] 



SAKIELLA. nOLKEION, 239 

[From Stoliczka's description (J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 249): — 

"The animal o£ the Moulmein A-ariety is narrow, very long, pale 
white, pedicles and the termination of the tentacles leaden grey, 
as well as the upper part of the foot posteriorly ; the tail-gland is 
superseded by a very distinct hooli ; the mantle-lobes are well deve- 
loped, both the upper portions being reflected over tlie shell. By 
some accident, however, my spirit-specimens were lost and I am, 
therefore, unable at present to give sufficient details regarding the 
anatomy of this species." 

The descriptions which follow at t]ie bottom of pp. 249 & 250 
refer to the animal, anatomy, spermatophore, jaw, and radula of 
a species from Burma collected by Dr. Anderson, evidently Macro- 
chlamys honesta, var. andersoniana, Xev., which is a distinct 
species (vide suprct, p. 141, no. 192). 

The animal (three species observed) from Mule-it Mountain near 
Moulmein is pale-coloured, a dark line on the upper side of the 
foot, with three or four conspicuous black spots on the side above 
the peripodial grooves ; these spots when extended in life would 
appear as dark streaks. The right shell-lobe is long, narrow, and 
pointed, and there is a small tongue-like left shell-lobe. The 
visceral sac is spotted, the spots arranged in four parallel rows. 
The genitalia were not well seen, but the amatorial organ was 
present and the spermatheca was not very long. The jaw is 
moderately arched, with no median projection. The radula is 
remarkable for the very large number of teeth in the row. The 
centre tooth is on an elongate narrow plate, tricuspid ; the first 
admedians on similar plates, with a single small cusp much below 
the points ; the laterals are all alike, becoming smaller towards 
the margin and unevenly bicuspid ; the formula being 153 . 1 . 153, 
or 307 in the row. The jaw and radula are quite distinct from 
Stoliczka's figures on plate 17, figs. 10 & 14, J. A. S. B., and 
Semper's pi. 5, fig. 20, Eeis. Phil. 1870.] 

[363. Sakiella ? temiior, Godivin-Aicsten; Nevill, MS. 

Macrochlamvs honesta, var. teuuior, Godtcin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1895, 
pp. 441, 446; Nevill, MS.; id. Hand-list, i, 1878, p. 24, l6th 
line from bottom of pape, vav. of honesta. (8. Moulmein (type 
var.), coll. Dr. F. Stoliczka and W.Theobald; 6. Preparis Island, 
coll. Stoliczka.) 

These shells are in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and I have 
not been able to see them.] 

[Genus HOLKEION. 

Type, H. anceps, Gould. 

Bawje. Upper Burma, Moulmein, Mergui, and Northern Siam. 

Stoliczka places anceps in the genus liotida, not considering 
it sufficiently like Maci-ochlamijs to leave it in that genus. The 
shell differs very much in character, being sharply carinated at 
the periphery; the whorls numerous, narrow, llattened, and 



240 ZOXITID-^. 

sculptured above, smooth and polished on base ; narrowly or not 
perforated. Although possessing shell-lobes, the position of the 
right shell-lobe is below the inner upper angle of the peristome, 
and plays only over the lower surface of the shell — a position 
different from that in Macroclilamys. The animal has a very 
hooked lobe above the mucous pore. 

The differences between this genus and JlncrocJilamys are shoAA^n 
in the description of the animal of H. anccjis below.] 

364. Holkeion anceps, Gould (CaracoUa), Bost. Jour. N. H. i\, 1844, 
p. 454, pi. 24, fig. 4; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. \, 1847, p. 80; 
H. 4- T. (Helix) C. 1. 1876, pi. 30, fig. 1 ; Stol. (Rotula) J. A. S. B. 
1871, 2, p. 233, pi. 17, figs. 1-3 (anatomy); v. Mart. Nanina 
(Rotularia), JoMr. iiwji. Soc. xxi, 1889, p. 161; Gochoin-Austen, 
Proe. Mai. Soc. ii, 1897, p. 174. 
[F^■^efig. 79, A-D, p. 237.] 

Shell scarcely perforate, lenticular, sharply keeled, pale horny, 
dull and obliquely plicately striated above, polished and with fine 
radiating striation beneath, no longitudinal sculpture ; spire low, 
conoidal, suture not impressed, bordered by a more or less distinct 
line inside ; whorls 6, almost flat above, increasing slowly, the last 




Fig. 80. — Holkeion anceps. 

very little broader than the penultimate, convex beneath, com- 
pressed beneath the keel ; aperture slightly oblique, angulately 
lunate ; peristome thin, basal margin faintly arcuate, columellar 
oblique, briefly reflected above. 

Major diam. 16, min. 14|, height 7| mm. 

Hah. Tenasserim; Mergui, Tavoy, and Moulmein ; also Sullivan 
Island, Mergui Archipelago, and Northern Siam. 

[Found generally on trees and bushes (SfoUczka).'] 

Animal dark grey with a distinct greenish tinge. Sole divided 
loncfitudinally into three tracts, that in the middle broader than 
the others. Tail-gland with slightly thickened edges and a small 
hook-like appendage above. The left shell-lobe (fig. 79, A) has below 
the angular periphery a Ungulate process, reflected over the basal 
part of the peristome, and ends A^ith another shorter process near 
the shell-retractor; the right shell-lobe has a lingulate process 
next to the pulmonary opening, and another broader one covering 
the columellar lip. Dorsal lobe well developed. Genitalia (B, B') 
rather peculiar ; the dart-sac or amatorial organ is very thick 
and provided with a strong pointed papilla. Spermatheca very 
lono- and slender. Vas deferens leading to a kale-sac, which gives 
off an elongate flagellar appendage close to the junction and leads 
to the bend of the penis, to which the retractor muscle is attached. 



IIOLKEIOX. — SESARA. 241 

There is no trace of the coiled ctecum found in typical forms of 
Macroclilamiis. 

The jaw (D) is rather angularly semilunar, smooth, very con- 
cave in the middle. Kadula of ahout 75 rows, with about 
135 teeth in a row {po . 12 . 1 . 12 . 55) : the median and admedian 
rows tricuspid and broad, with the middle cusps prolonged ; 
laterals bicuspid, curved outwards and very pointed. These details 
are taken from Stoliczka's description, [which is very accurate, but 
the teeth of the radula are not well drawn]. 

[Specimens from Mergui sent me by Mr. Theobold which I have 
dissected confirm Ferdinand Stoliczka's descriptions, with the ex- 
ception of the radula, in which the median teeth are quite plain 
and straight-sided, without any trace of the usual cusps, the outer 
teeth being bicuspid.] 

3G5. Holkeion arata, Blf. Nanina (Rotula), P. Z. -S". 1869, p. 448; 
Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. vii, 187G, p. 302 ; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. I. 
1876, pi. 84, figs. 8, 9, 10 ; Nevill, Nauina (ilotula), J. A. S. B. 1877, 
2, p. 15. 

Similar to H. anceps, but much larger, and with considerably 
stronger plicate oblique sculpture above and radiating striaa 
beneath, not polished below ; whorls 7, slightly convex above, 
the last rather less swollen beneath than in H. anceps and some- 
what more sunken around the perforation. 

Major diam. 22, min. 20, height 10 mm. Some specimens are 
even larger. 

Hah. Bhamo, Upper Burma. A smaller variety was obtained 
at Ponsee in Yunnan [var. minor of Blanford]. 

Genus SESARA. 

Sesara, Albers, Heliceen, ed. 2, 1860, p. 91 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 
1871, 2, p. 242. 

Type, S. infrendens, Gould. [Fig. 81, D-D 2, p. 242.] 

Ramje. From the Khasi Hills to Burma and Tavoy, also Western 
Siam. 

" Shell perforate or imperforate, conoidly depressed, turbinate 
or trochiform ; typical forms transversely costulale or costulately 
striated above, smooth and polished below. Several of the species 
have teeth in the apertui*e. 

"Animal (of S. infrendens and S. pyJaica) long and with a narrow 
foot ; the terminal gland distinct, and a small hooked and pointed 
appendage above it. The sole has tuo longitudinal grooves, rather 
close together, the median portion narrower than each of the outer 
parts. The mantle-edge is nearly entire; the left shell-lobe is 
below internally considerably thickened, the left dorsal lobe is very 
small or almost obsolete ; the right shell-lobe thin and somewhat 
convex, but without separate appendage." (Stoliczka.) 

Genitalia (from Stoliczka's description) (fig. 81, D). The re- 

R 




Fig. 81. — Kaliella harrakporensis. 
Part of the genitalia. X 9. A 2. Outermost laterals. X 938. 

Tteth of the radula. X 938. 

Microcystina rinki. 
B. Extremity of the foot. X 6. B 2. Jaw. X 38. 

B 1. Mantle-edge with dorsal lobes. B 3. Teeth of the radula. X 908. 

Microcystina bintennensii. 
0. Right edge of the mantle, right shell- and dorsal lobes. X 18. 
C 1. The male organ. X 18. 

Scsara infrcndens. 
D. The genitalia (after Stoliczka), much enlarged. Spermatophores within 

the spermatheca. 
D 1. Jaw. D 2. Teeth of the radula. 



SESAEA. 243 

tractor muscle is attached to the penis some distance (the lenp;th 
of the epiphallus) beyond the junction of the vas deferens, which 
enters at the base of an appendage corresponding with the kale- 
sac (1-) ; this sac is about equal in length to the distance between the 
junction of the vas deferens and the retractor muscle. No caecum of 
the penis. A very long spermatheca, in which three spermato- 
phores of the type usually seen in Macroclilamys and its allies were 
found. No dart-sac. 

The jaw (D 1) is narrowed, smooth, with an obtuse projection 
in the middle of the concave side. The radula (D 2) is composed 
of about 60 transverse series, with the approximate formula : 
50 . 10 , 1 . 10 . 50. Median tootli small, without lateral cusps, the 
ten laterals on each side larger than the median tooth, those near 
the median tooth bicuspid, having a large outer cusp, those towards 
the exterior tricuspid ; outer laterals bicuspid, with an outer denticle 
near the base, which disappears in the narrow marginal teeth. 

All the species referred to this generic group are of small size. 
It is an open question whether S. diphdon and its allies should be 
included ; they are arranged here provisionally until their animals 
are known. The shells of the typical form closely resemble those 
of North-American Helicida? of the genus Triodopsis. 

A. Conoidly depressed or subturbinate, costulate or siibcostidate 
above, imperforate or narrowly 'perforate. 

a. Teeth in aperture. 

a'. Three palatal teeth. 

366. Sesara infrendens, Gould (Helix), Bost. Jour. N. H. iv, 1844, 
p. 453, pi. i'4, tiir. 6 ; Pfr. Man. Hel. \, 1848, p. 152 ; id. vii, 1876, 
p. 27G; Stoliczha, J.' A. S. B. 1871, p. 242, pi. 16, figs. 4-10 
( aiiatomv) ; Pfeffhr, JB. mah Ges. v, 1878, p. 272 ; id. Arch. d. 
Natun/esch. xliv, 1878, p. 425. pi. 13, fig. 10. 

Helix ca'pessens, Bs. A. M. N. H. (2) xviii, 1856, p. 250 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. iv, 1859, p. 194 ; id. vii, 1876, p. 306 ; H. Sf T. C. I. 1876, 
pi. 60, fig. 5. 

Helix tickelli, Theobald, J. A. S. B. xxviii, 1859, p. 306 ; H. S,- T. 
C. I. 1876, pi. 15, fig. 3. 

[Fig. 81, D-D 2.] 

Shell imperforate, depressedly conoid, tawny, arcuately costulate 
above, the ribbing passing over the periphery and gradually dis- 
appearing below\ Spire conoid with convex sides, suture im- 
pressed ; w'horls 7, convex, slowing increasing, the last more or less 
angulated or carinate at the periphery, or sometimes rounded, 
moderately convex beneath, slightly hollow in the middle ; aperture 
slightly oblique, narrow, with three teeth on the basal margin ; 
peristome slightly thickened, basal margin arcuate. 

Major diam. 10, min. 9, axis 5 mm. 

Hah. Moulmein and Tavoy. 

This shell varies in height of spire, in the roundness or carina- 
tion of the periphery, and in the teeth. Usually the latter are 
subequal and nearly equidistant, the middle one being often nearer 

s2 



244 zoiciTiD^. 

to the outer than to the iuuer. lu the variety ticheUi the middle 
and outer teeth are close together and united at the base ; this 
form is also rather small and sharply keeled. In capessens, which 
is also keeled and somewhat depressed (Benson's three measure- 
ments are 9, 8, and 4 mm.), the teeth are equidistant. 

367. Sesara hiingerfordiana, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1876, p. 184, 
pi. 14, fig. 1. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, sublenticular, pale yellowish 
horny, finely, closely, and costulately striated above, the ribbing 
passing over the keel and disappearing on the lower surface, the 
interior portion of which is smooth and polished; spire low, suture 
scarcely impressed ; whorls 6, flattened above, slowly increasing, 
the last descending for about one-third of its course, sharply and 
compressedly keeled, moderately convex beneath, excavated in the 
middle, the keel finely serrated ; aperture very slightly oblique, 
elongate, margins diverging, joined by a callus ; peristome thick- 
ened inside, the basal margin arcuate and bearing three subequal 
and equidistant teeth, the two outer united by a low lamella, 
the thickening inside the upper and columellar margins also 
lamelliform. 

Major diam. llj, miu. 11, axis 5 mm. 

Hah. Mizantoung on the 8alwin, near Moulmein. 

Distinguished by its lenticular form, sharp keel, and descending 
last whorl. 

b'. Palatal teeth 2. 

368. Sesara ataranensis, Theobald (Nanina), J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 401, 
pi. 17, fig. 7 ; Pp: Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 578 ; H. S,- T. C. I. 

1876, pi. 84, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell imperforate, lenticular, pale chestnut or tawny, costulately 
striated above, the striation conspicuously more distant on the 
outer whorls, closer on the inner, and wanting on the innermost ; 
spire convexly conoid, suture not impressed ; whorls 7, almost fiat 
above, the last with a compressed keel, moderately convex beneath, 
the costulate striation passing below the keel and disappearing 
crradually on the lower surface, which towards the middle is 
excavated and polished; aperture nearly vertical, angulate ex- 
ternally, narrow and contracted by lamellae, one in the upper 
margin increasing in height externally and joining by its base a 
second, large and almost semicircular, concave in front, which 
occupied half the basal margin, a third smaller and re-entering, 
nearer the columellar area ; peristome white, thickened inside, 
basal margin arcuate. 

Major diam. 9, min. S|, axis 4 mm. 

Hab. Banks of Ataran River, not far from Moulmein. 

Distinguished from S. infrendens by finer sculpture, a sharp keel, 
and very different dentition. 



SESAKA. 245 

309. Sesara mouleyitensis, Gude, Jour. Mul. viii, 1901, p. 15. 

Nearly allied to S. ataranensis, and having a similar aperture and 
the same teeth, but larger, couoidly depressed instead of lenticular, 
and with rounded periphery ; basal margin of peristome strongly 
arcuate, and periomplialus much excavated, whilst the last whorl 
descends beneath penultimate as in S. hunrjerfordiana. 

Major diam. 10, height b^ mm. 

Hub. Muleyit, almost due east of Moulmein. 

370. Sesara bidentifera, Godtvin-Austen ( W. T. Blanford, MS.). 

Shell imperforate, depressedly conoid, rather solid, yellowish 
tawny, arcuately and costulately striated above, the stride passing 
below the periphery and disappearing on the lower surface, which 
is smooth and polished; spire conoid with convex sides, suture 
impressed; Avhorls 7, increasing slowly, almost flat, scarcely 
convex, the last bluntly keeled at the periphery, convex beneath, 
excavated in the middle; aperture oblique, trapezoidal, with its 
margins diverging ; peristome with white labiations inside, the basal 
margin arcuate, armed with two subequal teeth, columellar margin 
oblique, slightly expanded. 

Major diam. 8, min, 7|, axis 5 mm. 

Hab. Muleyit, \\est of Moulmien. at 4000 feet elevation 
{Limborci). 

A small form with two simple palatal teeth. 

c'. A shujle palatal tooth and a columellar fold. 

371. Sesara ? episema, Ponsonhy, Proc. Mai. Soc. i, 1894, p. 56, figs. 
Shell imperforate, conoidly depressed, thin, brownish horny, 

subarcuately and costulately striated above, the riblets (sharp and 
rather irregular) passing over the periphery ; lower surface, except 
near periphery, smooth, polished, radiately striated; spire low, 
conoid, with convex sides, suture impressed; whorls 7, convex, 
closely wound, the last bluntly angulate at the periphery, convex 
beneath, excavated in middle ; aperture oblique, almost a rhomboid, 
with a conical tooth in the middle of the basal margin, and a re- 
entering spiral lamina on the columellar ; peristome M-hite, obtuse, 
columellar margin oblique, scarcely reflected. 

Major diam. 174, min. 16, axis 9| mm. 

Hab. Hills South of Assam, precise locahty doubtful ; Asalu, 
in AVestern ]S^aga Hills ? 

b. Aperture contracted hj a parietal and a palatal lamella. 

372. Sesara pylaica, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) xviii, 1856, p. 249, 

(;i) IV, is.y.t, p. 9.5 (auimal) ; Ffr. Man. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 164 : 
id. i. c. vu, 1876, p. 268 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, p 245 • 
S. 4- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 15, fig. 2. '^ 



246 ZONITID.D. 

Shell imperforate, conoidly depressed, rather solid, tawny 
whitish on the perioinphalus below, trausYersely costnlate, the 
ribbing disappearing at the apex, and also on the whitish portion 
of the lower surface, though continued below the periphery ; 
spire low, conoid, suture impressed ; whorls 1-1 h, narrow, the 
last descending a little close to the aperture, subangulate to 
angulate at the periphery, convex beneath, slightly hollow in the 
middle ; aperture oblique, narrow, curved, contracted by a thick 
parietal lamella, and by another palatal inside the peristome, 
extending from its external angle to its columellar insertion ; 
peristome white, thickened. 

Major diam. 9, min. 8, axis 5 mm. 

Hah. Farm Caves, Moulmein. 

A shell with a remarkable aperture, resembling that of the 
North- American Helix Jiirsuta ? 

The foot is very narrow, the posterior portion especially so, and 
it is truncated behind. There is a small mucous pore and a small 
lobe above it. The mantle-lobes are short, not extending over 
the surface of the shell. Upper tentacles long, lower short. 

c. Aperture edentulous. 

373. Sesara helicifera, W. T. Blanford (Nanina), J. A. S. B. 1865, 

p. 68 ; Pfr. Man. Hel. \, 1868, p. 241 ; H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, 
pi. 50, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell imperforate when adult, but witli a deep umbilical hollow, 
perforate in the young, tui'binate, rather thin, horny, fulvous, 
finely, closely, subarcuately, and obliquely costulate above, the 
costulation passing over the periphery and merging into I'adiating 
striations on the lower surface, which is smooth and polished ; 
spire conoid with convex sides, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; 
whorls 7|, closely wound, convex above, the last angulate at the 
periphery (keeled in the young), flatly convex beneath, with one 
or more irregular indentations, mostly opaque white from internal 
callus, at a distance of half a whorl from the mouth ; aperture 
oblique lunate, about twice as broad as high, with a spiral lamina 
on the columellar margin, extending into the whorls ; peristome 
simple, basal margin slightly ai'cuate, columellar oblique. 

Major diam. 10, min. 9, axis 7 mm. 

Hab. Arakan Range west of Prome, Burma. 

Animal dark above, almost black, sole paler. Mucous pore very 
small, but with a lobe above. 

374. Sesara mamillaris, W. T. Blanford (iVauina), J. A. S. B. I860, 

p. 69; Pfr. Mon. Hel. v, 1808, p. 88; H. S,- T. C. I. 1876, 
pi. 50, figs. 1, 2 ; Kevill, Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 54. 

Similar to S. helicifera, except that the base is perforate and the 
columellar lamina and indentations on the lower surface are 
wanting in adults, though they are found in young shells, also 



SESARA. 247 

that the spu-e is lower and the apex slightly acuminate, the base 
flatter and the periphery of the basal whorl keeled. 

Major diam. 10|, miu. 10, axis 6^ mm. 

Hab. Akoutoung, south of Prome, Pegu(T7". T. B.), and Arakan 
Hills (Kurz). 

The animal has a small mucous pore and small projecting lobe 
above it. 

375. Sesara basseiuensis, W. T. Blanford (Nauina), J. A. S. B. 1865, 

p. 70 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p'. 89 ; H. <§• T. C. 1. 1876, pi. 30, 

fig. 7. 

Similar to S. JieJicifem, but perforate, with a less excavated 
umbilical region and without any spiral fold on the columellar 
margin or indentations on the lower surface. Distinguished from 
S. mamillaris by higher spire, non-acuminate apex, rounded base, 
and moi'e rounded peripher3^ 

Major diam. 11, uiiu. 10, axis 8 mm. 

Hah. Southern part of Arakan Range in Basseiu district of 
Pegu. 

B. Depressed, carinate, smooth, edentulous. 

376. Sesara? inermis, Theobald,!. A. S. B. 1870, 2, p. 184, pi. 14, 

tier -^ 

Shell minutely perforate, depressed, sublenticular, amber- 
coloured, horny, smooth, polished, finely obliquely striated above, 
subobsoletely and radiately beneath ; spire very low, suture 
impressed ; whorls 64, convex, the outer whorls flattened extern- 
ally, the last not descending, striately and compressedly keeled, 
moderately convex below ; aperture neai'ly vertical, rather narrow, 
sharply angulate at the periphery, without teeth ; peristome 
white, thickened inside, basal margin strongly arcuate, columellar 
rather sharply curved and vertical at its insertion, scarcely re- 
flected. 

Major diam. nearly 12, min. nearly 11, axis 5 mm. 

Hah. Salwin Valley, near Moulmein. 

A species of somewhat doubtful affinities. 

C. Trochlfonn, smooth, imperforate or narrowly perforate. 
a. A palatal tooth present. 

377. Sesara? diplodon, Bens. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, 

p. 187 ; Ffr. Mon. Hel v, 1868, p. 256 ; H. S,- T. C. I. 1876, 
pi. 60, fi<r. 8; Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1876, 2, p. 312; 
Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1877, 2, p. 17; id. Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 53 
(pt.). 

Shell minutely perforate, trochiform, thin, smooth, finely 
striated and decussated with close microscopic spiral lines through- 
out, polished beneath, pale horny ; spire almost conical, varj'ing 



248 ZONITID^. 

in height, the sides shghtly convex, apex rather obtuse, suture 
shghtly impressed, distinctly inarginate ; whorls 7, increasing 
slowly, convex, the last not descending, sbarply and filiformly 
keeled, moderately convex below the keel, impressed in the 
umbilical I'egion, raised into a slightly compressed longitudinal 
ridge, with a hollow outside it near the basal margin of the peri- 
stome ; aperture oblique, trapezoidal, with three palatal teeth, the 
inner subcolumellar, small and conical, the outer lamellar, entering 
deeply and curved, the portion near the peristome and the inner- 
most portion higher in general than the intervening part ; peristome 
white, obtuse, sharply angulate at the periphery and less sharply 
in the middle of the arcuate basal margin, columellar margin 
straight, oblique. 

Major diam. 65, min. 5|, axis 5 mm. 

Hah. Dafla Hills and Hill-ranges south of Assam at low eleva- 
tions, Chittagong. 

The relative distribution of this and of the next two species is 
not well known, but one or the other is found from Assam and 
Yunnan to Pegu, the Little Cocos Is., and Preparis. 

The shell varies in size and in the height of the spire. 



37s. Sesara ? harmeri, Gude, Jour. Mai. vii, 1900, p. 139, figs. 1, 2. 

Similar to S. ? diplodon, but distinguished by having the basal 
surface simply convex behind the aperture, not pinclied up iuto a 
ridge in the middle, and hollow near the periphery ; also in having 
the outer palatal tooth much shorter and simple, without the inner 
raised portion. 

[Major diam. 6'75, min. 6"25, alt. 5 mm., of shell described.] 

Hah. Ivhasi Hills. 



379. Sesara ? ingrami, Bif. (Helix) H. 4- T. C. I. 1876, pi. CO, figs. 9, 
10; Blf. J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 193. 
Nanina (Sesara) diplodon, Nevill, Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 53, pt. 

Very similar to S. ? diplodon, but imperforate and with three 
palatal teeth, all lamellar. Two are close to the peristome, tliat 
on the columellar side is small and runs obliquely inwards ; the 
outer is in the middle of the basal margin, where it begins as a 
thickening inside the lip, then it is sharply curved and passes 
towards the interior of the whorls ; the third is behind the second, 
it is curved and transversely placed at some distance within the 
aperture ; all are visible through the shell beneath. 

Major diam. 6^, min. 6, alt. 4| mm. 

Hah. Arakan Eange and probably Pegu. 

The animal has a small mucous pore with a small lobe above it, 
not quite at the end of the foot, which is flattened posterioi'ly. 



SESAllA. KAHULA. 



b. Aperture iviiJiout teeth. 



249 



380. Sesara? galea. Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 388; 
l[fr. Mon. Hd. v, 1868, p. 264; H. ^- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 54, 

tig. 7. 
? Sesara harmed, var. auodouta, Gude, Jour. MaL \n, 1900, p. 140, 
figs, o, 6. 

This species also closely resembles^', ? diplodon, but the apertui'e 
is edentulous and the base flatter; the spire, too, is rather 
lower. 

Major diam. (according to Beuson) nearly 9, min. 8, axis 
5^ mm. 
~ Hah. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills. 

The shell called S. ? harmeri, var. anodonta, has a descending 
last whorl near the mouth, wliilst H. gcdea was described as having 
the last whorl not descending ; the spire, too, in the latter is 
lower : but it appears probable that the two are identical. 

[Genus RAHULA. 
Eahula, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. 216, pi. 117. 

Type, R. macroplenris, Bs. 

Range. Eastern Himalaya ; Khasi and Xaga Hills ; and Arakan. 

Shell elongately pyramidal or conically trochit'orm ; basal side 
flat, deeply umbilicated, subangulate around the umbilicus ; apex 
pointed or rounded ; costulation strong, close or distant, more or 
less absent on the apical whorls. AVhorls 6-8, more or less 
cariuate on the keel of the last.] 

[381. Raliiila macropleuris, Bs. 

Helix macropleuris, Bs. A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 265 ; Pfr. 
Mvn. Hel. V, 1868, p. 183 ; H. 8)- T. C. I. 1876, p. 37, pi. 87, 
fig. 10 ; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii. 1907, p. 216, pi. 103, fig. 1 
(shell). 

Kaliella (sec. B) macropleuris, Theoh. Suppl. Cat. p. 20. 

Nanina (Microcystis ?) macropleuris, Aevill, Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 42. 

Hah. Eissom Peak, 6410 ft. 

Shell figured in Mol. Ind. 

Major diam. 3-75, alt. 4-7o-5-8 mm. 

Original description : — " Testa sidtaperte umhilicata, attenuato- 
j^yramidata, ohliciue minute arcuato-striata, superne costis remotis 
elevatis arcuatis munita, decorticata, albida, nitidula ; spira pyra- 
midali, superne attenuata, apice papillari, pjapilla Iceviori, sutura 
carinato-marginata ; anfractihus 8, convexiiisculis, tdtimo non de- 
scendente, filoso-carinato, subtus plamdato., versus aperturam con- 
vexiuscido, circa umhilicum p)rofundissimmn, anguste perspectivum, 
angidato ; apertura ohliqua?, transversa, quadrata, peinstomate 
tenui, recto, margine columeUari lata, eccp)(insiusculo. 

" Diam. major 5, minor 4|, long, bk mill. 

" Habitat in valle Eungun [Eungnu], prope Darjihng, rarissime. 



250 



ZONITID^. 



" This shell is au exaggeration of the hascauda type of the 
Khasia Hills, with a more remote costulation aud lengthened 
attenuate spire. The aperture of the single dead specimen col- 
lected by Mr. W. T. Blanford is not in the best condition." 

Several specimens of this pretty species occur among the shells 
collected by Mr. W. Kobert in the hills east of the Teesta Eiver 
also an allied form from Damsang.] 

[Benson described a species as allied to macropleuris, viz. II. corys. 
This single dead specimen I find is in the Blanford Collection, 
which he presented by will to the Natural History Museum. The 
specimen has suffered much since Benson described it, and it is 






Fig. 82. 

A. Baliula cori/s, Bs. Type. Young shell, X 9. 

B. Apex of specimen No. 34, BlanforcVs Collection, named macrojileuris, X 9. 

C. Apex of B. //laeropleuris, Bs., X 9. 

D. li. cor//s, Bs., Damsang, X 6. 

E. Ditto,\litto, X 3. 

now only 2 mm. in length ; the aperture and last whorls gone. I 
give a drawing of this (fig. 82, A); also one of the apex of a true 
macropleuris and the Damsang specimen — the three enlarged to 
the same amount. I cannot see any appreciable difference be- 
tween the apex of corys (fig. 82, A) and specimen No. 3-1 (fig. 82, B). 
The suture is marginate near the apex ; the costulation at remote 
intervals does not begin until the fourth or fifth whorl. I refer 
this form to Benson's H. corys. 

The apex of typical macropleuris (fig. 82, C), it will be seen, is 
distinctly filose at the suture, even at the third whorl ; and the 
side of the spire is fiatter, very different to fig. 82, A & B. 



BAHULA. 



251 



The shell from Dainsaug (fig. S2, 1) & E), which I consider co/7/s, 
differs considerably in other characters from macropleuris. In 
this last the spire is pyramidal, with flat sides, as in pi. 103, 
Sg. 1, Mol. Ind. ii. ; in corys (fig. 82, D & E) the spire contracts 
more rapidly above the antepenultimate whorl, and the sides 
are decidedly concave. The distant costulatiou is stronger ; the 
base is flatter ; the columellar margin broader; the aperture is 
quadrate and smaller; while the umbilicus is also smaller (vide 
Benson's description, below).] 

[3S2. Rahiila corys, Bs. 

Helix corys, Bs. A. M. N. II. iii, 1859, p. 265. 
Kaliella (sec. B) corvs, Theob. Suppl. Cat. p. 20. 
Eahula corys, Gochoin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. 218, fig. 1 
(type), fig. 4 (shell). 

Original description : — " Testa perfomta, elongato-pi/mmidali, 
oblique confertim minutiasime costidato-striata, cdbida, non nitente ; 
spira ancjaste pyrainid(di, apice obtusiusmlo, sutura impressa ; an- 
fractibas 54, conve.viuscidis, idtimo ad peripheriamfiloso-carinaio, basi 
planiusada ; apertura obliqua ?, quadrata, lonf/itudiiie latitudinem 
cfquante, peristomate tenui, recto, marrjine columellari verticali, longe 
vix expansiuscido. 

" Diam. 2, long. 3 mill. 

" Habitat in valle Eungun [Eungnu], prope Darjiling, rarissime 
occurreus. 

" A single dead specimen occurred to Mr. W. T. Blanford. 
This minute shell is of a type allied to the last-described species 
in form, but is very differeutly sculptured. Its more pointed, 
not papillate apex, and the absence of costulatiou at somewhat 
remote intervals, and of a marginate suture, through so many 
whorls, prove that it is not the young of macropleuris. From the 
clear horn-coloured Helix fastigiata, Hutton, of the Western 
Himalaya, it may be known by its narrower spire, decided sculp- 
ture, minute size, the absence of a marginate suture, and by its 
perforate base ; and from the dark-coloured H. barralcporensis, Pfr., 
of the Sikkim Terai, by the first three characters."] 



383. Rahula hascauda, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii. 1859, p. 186 ; 
Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 2.56; H. .V T. (Helix) C. I. 
1876, pi. 16, fig. 1; Nevill (y^-Aninii?), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 42; 
[Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. 218, pi. 117, figs. 1, 
la, 3, 3« (shells).] 

Shell very deeply umbilicated, subtrochiformly conoid, orna- 
mented with oblique rather distant raised ribs above, less raised, 
closer and flexuous below, rufous horny ; spire conical, apex 
obtuse, suture well impressed ; whorls (ik, convex, slowing increas- 
ing, the last not descending with a raised keel at the periphery, 
convex beneath, subaugulate around the umbilicus; aperture 



252 zoNiTiD.i:. 

slightly oblique, verj' roundly luuate ; peristome thin, coluniellar 
and part of the basal margin slightly expanded. 

Major diam. 4, miu. 3|, height 3| mm. 

Hah. Khasi, Jaintia, and Naga Hills. 

The above measurements are from a Ivhasi Hill specimen. 

Benson's type from Terai Ghat measured 4i x 4x 4 mm. This 
and the next two somewhat resemble Khasiella hyha (no. 254, 
p. 162). 

384. Rahula polypleuris, BIf. (Helix) J. A. S. B. 1865, 2, p. 76; 
Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel v, 1868, p. 136. 
Helix pachypleuris, Pfr. 3Ion. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 138 ; [Godwin- 
Austen, Mol. Ind. ii,"l907, p. 219, jjI. 117, tig. 2]. 

This shell is very near R. hascauda, but the sculpture is finer 
and closer, though still regularly costulate ribbing, the spire is 
lower and the umbilicus rather more open. 

Major diam. 4, minor 3|, height 3. 

Hah. Arakan Hills, Pegu. 

A shell from the Jyntia Hills agrees better with this than with 
the Khasi B. bascauda. This is in favour of ISevill's view that 
the two are varieties of one form. 

[385. Rahula bascaudula, God^cin-Austen, MoL Lid. ii, 1907, p. 219, 
pi. 117, fig. 7 (shell). 

Original description : — Shell ver}^ openly umbilicated, trochiform, 
flat on base, sharply keeled, with fine carination ; sculpture very 
close fine costulation, oblique ; colour chestnut-brown ; spire 
conoid, apex rather blunt, sides very slightly convex ; suture 
impressed. AVhoi-ls 6 ; aperture quadrate ; peristome thin, angu- 
late on lower outer margin, columellar margin subvertical. 

Size : major diam. 4*50, alt. axis 3-0 mm. 

Hab. Eisett chu and Kichila Peak, Baling District. 

This shell is very close to that of E. hascauda ; but placed side 
by side these differences are to be noted : a blunter spire, side of 
spire more convex, and principally in the umbilicus being very 
much wider.] 

[386. Rahula daflaensis, Godidn-AusteH, Mol. Ind. ii. 1907, p. 220, 
pi. 117, fig. 5 (shell). 

Original description : — Shell deeply umbilicated, globosely 
conoid ; sculpture distant, raised, oblique, sinuate costulation ; 
colour pale sienna-brown ; spire conic, sides slightly convex ;, 
suture moderately impressed. Whorls 7, convex, indistinctly 
angular at the periphery near aperture ; aperture semiovate ; 
peristome thin, the columellar margin scarcely thickened. 

Size : major diam. 4-2, alt. axis 3*0 mm. 

Hab. Dikrang Valley, Dafia Hills {Godwin- Austen). 

This interesting form can at once be distinguished by the 
absence of the lirate keel of B. hascauda and its allies.] 



EAHLLA. — MICROCYSTIXA. 253 

[387. Raliula Ihotaensis, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. l'20, 
pi. 117, tig. (shell). 

Shell openly and deeply umbilicated, pyramidal, base very flat, 
sharply keeled and cariuate ; sculpture, costulation close and 
regular, oblique and sinuate, extendiug to the basal side ; colour 
rich bi'owu (burnt-sienna) ; spire conical, apex pointed, sides 
slightly convex ; suture fairly impressed, with a thin liration. 
"Whorls 7, slightly convex ; aperture quadrate, oblique ; peristome 
thin, angulate on the lower outer margin ; columellar margin 
subvertical, not thickened, slightly reflected. 

Size : major diam. 5-0, alt. axis 4-9 mm. 

Hah. Lhota Naga Hills, Assam (Chennell). 

This is a larger species than the type, and can be distinguished 
by the more pointed apex, pyramidal form, and very flat base, and 
the costulation is much closer and finer.] 

[388. Rahllla mimipurensis, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. 220, 
pi. 117, tig. 4 (shell). 

Original description : — Shell globosely conic, deeply umbilicated, 
rounded below the keel, the liration on which terminates at the 
penultimate whorl ; sculpture distant, very strong and very 
regular costulation ; colour pale grey, the ribbing showing bright 
brown ; spire conoid, side nearly flat ; apex rounded ; suture 
impressed. Whorls 6, regular, sides very convex ; aperture semi- 
circular ; peristome fairly thickened, columellar margin subvertical. 

Size : major diam. 3-5, alt. axis 2-25 mm. 

Hab. Manipur Hills, north-east of valley {Godwin- Austen). 

This is a very distinct little species and the smallest of the 
genus. I have only found one specimen as yet among the minute 
Helices I collected in the Munipur Hills.] 

Genus MICROCYSTINA. 

Micvocystina, Morch, Jour. (Jonchyl. xxiv, 1876, p. 357 ; Godtcin- 
Ausien Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 11 (shells and anatomv) ; ii, 1899, 
p. no. in , , 

Type, M. rinlci, Mcirch. 

Range. The greater part of the Indo-Malayan Eegion, but 
within British Indian limits recorded only from the Andaman and 
jN'icobar Islands, Ceylon, Southern India, and Western Bengal. 

Shell thin, horny, depressed to globosely depressed, and only 
distinguished from MacrocMamys by having the columellar margin 
of the peristome more broadly reflected and furnished ^\•ith a 
projecting angular process \\hich covers the perforation partially 
or wholly. All Indian forms exhibit microscopic longitudinal 
striation. 

Animal imperfectly known, somewhat similar to MacrocMamys 
as regards the right shell-lobes and mucous gland, with an 



254 zoNiTid. 

overhangiug pointed process as iu that genus. In the genitalia it 
differs from MacrocliJamys in that the male organ is simple and 
the retractor muscle is attached without any caecum. The dart- 
sac "was observed in M. rinli, but not in 31. bintennensis. In the 
former it was shorter than the spermatheca, which was an elongate 
sac. 

Further detailed examination of the animal of the Andaman and 
Nicobar species is desirable. 

A. Species from Nicohar Islands. 

389. Microcystina rinki, Mdrch (Nanina), Jown. Conchyl. XX, 1872, 
p. 311 ; xxiv, 1876, p. 356 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mo7i. Hel. vii, 1876, 
p. 142; Nevill, Naiiiua (Microcystis), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 39; 
Godioin- Austen, Mol. hid. i, 1882", p. 12, pi. 3, figs. 1-7 (shell aud 
anatomy). 
IVide tig. 81, B-B 3, p. 242.] 

Shell very narrowly and obtectly perforate, convesly depressed, 
thin, smooth, highly polished, with fine, longitudinal, parallel, 
microscopical striation above and below ; brownish horny, rather 
paler and whitish beneath ; spire convexly conoid, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5, convex, the last descending slightly and gradually towards 
the mouth, rounded at the periphery, tumid beneath ; aperture 
oblique, lunate ; peristome thin, coluraellar margin oblique, thicker, 
and rather broadly reflected, with a salient angular process nearly 
closing the perforation. 

Major diam. 5"5, min. 5, height 3'5 mm. 

Hah. The Nicobar Islands. Recorded from Great Nicobar 
(Morcli), Little Nicobar (Busch), Katchal Camorta, Car Nicohar, 
and Teressa (de Ea'pstorff). 

In the animal the left dorsal lobe is in two parts. The dart-sac 
is present. The teeth on the radula are 35 to 40 . 2 . 7 . 1 7.2. 
35 to 40, or about 47 . 1 . 47 : the inner laterals broad, elongate, 
and sharp, each with one cusp on the outside, none inside ; outer 
laterals each with two terminal blunt cusps. 



B. S2^ecies from Andaman Islands. 

390. Microcystina moerchiana, Godwin-Austen (Nevill, MS.), Mol. 
Ind. i, 1.^82, p. 13, pi. 3, tis. 9 (shelD ; ii. 1898, p. 47. 
IMicrocystin.". liochstetteri, G'odicin-Austc7i, A. M. N. H. (6) ii, 
1888, p. 57. 

Shell imperforate, conoidly depressed, thin smooth, highly 
polished, very finely and closely striated longitudinally beneath 
the microscope, brownish horny, paler beneath around the umbilical 
region ; spire conoidal, apex obtuse, suture almost flat, scarcely 
impressed ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last not descending, 
rounded at periphery, rather tumid beneath ; aperture very slightly 



MICEOCYSTINA. ZOO 

oblique, rather broadly lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
broadly reflected, vertical for a short distance above, the salient 
process closing the perforatioii of the shell. 

Major diam. 7|, min. 7, height 4i mm. 

Hab. Koudul Island, jSicobar Group ; north coast of Gi'eat 
Nicobar. 

This is the largest species yet described from the Nicobar or 
Andaman Islands. 

391. Microcystina waniefordi, Godivin- Austen {Nevill, MS.), Mol. 

hid. i, 1882, p. 13, pi. 3, ligs. 8, 8 o (shell and sculpture) ; ii, 1898, 
p. 47 ; id. P. Z. S. 1895, p. 447. 

Shell obtectly perforate (almost imperforate), depressed, thin, 
pohshed, smooth, with very fine, close, and regular, longitudinal, 
microscopic striation, umber-brown ; spire low, conoidal, suture 
shallow ; whorls 5, convex, the last rounded at periphery, convex 
beneath ; aperture nearly vertical, lunate ; peristome thin, colu- 
mellar margin oblique, reflected, and with an angular projection 
which nearly closes the perforation. 

Major diam. 4, min. 3|, height 2 mm. 

Hah. Port Blair and the Brothers, Andaman Islands. 

'• Jaw very curved, central projection well developed. Animal 
black, with well-developed right shell-lobe, and large lobe over the 
mucous gland." (Godivin- Austen.) 

392. Microcystina harrietensis, Godtoin-Austen {Nevill, MS.), 31ol. 

Ind. i, 18b2, p. 13, pi. 3, tigs. 11, 11 a (shell and sculpture). 

Shell imperforate, subglobosely depressed, smooth, not highly 
polished, with longitudinal, distinct, rather distant striation 
throughout under the microscope, umber-brown ; spire conoidal, 
convex at the sides, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 5, 
convex, slightly increasing, the last not descending, rounded at 
periphery and beneath ; aperture stvbvertical, lunate ; peristome 
thin, reflected, with an angulate projecting process covering the 
perforation of the shell. 

Major diam. 2-3, axis 1*3 mm. 

Hab. Mount Harriet, Port Blair, S. zVndaman Island. 

393. Microcystina stewarti, Blanford (stuarti, Godwin-Austen, 3IS.), 

P. Z. S. 1904, ii, p. 44(j, pi. 25, tig. 10 (shell). 

Shell imperforate or subperforate, convexly depressed, very thin, 
smooth, highly polished, with faint transverse lines of growth and 
very fine, parallel, not very close, longitudinal, microscopic striation 
above and below, yellowish brown ; spire low, convexly conoid, 
suture scarcely impressed ; whorls nearly 5, flatly convex above, 
the last not descending, roimded at the periphery, convex below ; 
aperture oblique, lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin 



256 zoNiTiD.i;. 

oblique, reflected above into an angulate process that closes the 
perforation. 

Major diam. 4^, min. 4, height 2| mm. 

Hah. Andaman Islands. 

This form is near M. rinhi, from the Nicobars, but it is smaller, 
rather thinner, more closely wound, and imperforate. The spiral 
sculpture is less strong and less regular. 

[Xamed after General Sir Donald Stewart, at one time Governor 
of the Andaman Islands. J/, stuarti was adopted by Blanford in 
error.] 

C. Species from Peninsular India and Ceylon. 

394. Microcystina hintennensis. 

Microcystina perfucata, var. bintenneusis, Gochi-in- Austen, Mol. 

lnd.''n, 1899, p. 110, pi. 92, figs. 3-3 i (shell aod anatomy). 
Microcystina perfucata, £s. ; Godwin-Austen, t. c. p. 110, pi. 92, 

fi'i-. 4 (columella of shell) : nee Helix perfucata, Bs. 
[FtV/efig. 81, C,C1, p. 242.] 

Shell obtectly perforate, depressed, translucent, polished, very 
finely, closely, and faintly spirally striated under the microscope, 
most distinctly on the upper whorls, rich deep brown ; spire low, 
convexly conoidal, apex obtuse, suture shallow; whorls 4^-5|, 
conves,'the last broader, rounded at the periphery, convex beneath ; 
aperture oblique, elliptically lunate ; peristome thin, in one plane, 
columellar margin oblique, slightly curved, reflected and angulately 
projecting above, partly covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 6^, min. 5|, height 3 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon, Bintenne (Collett) ; Badulla, 2000', Matale, 1800' 
(Collett) ; tnmhaWa (Collett). 

In the animal the mucous gland is linear, with the end of the 
foot projecting above it. Peripodial margin broad ; sole divided. 
Rio-ht shell-lobe present; no left shell-lobe; left dorsal lobe in two 
separate flaps. Jaw with a large projection in the middle. Teeth 
30 . 1 . 8 . 1 . 8 . 1 . 30 (39 . 1 . 39). Male organ a simple straight 
sheath tapering above to the retractor muscle, and apparently 
destitute of kale-sac. According to the figure the vas deferens 
joins the penis on the distal side of the retractor muscle. [This 
is only apparent ; the retractor muscle is very long and extends to 
the junction of the vas deferens.] 

This cannot be the same as Maerochlamys perfucata, Bs., from 
Galle, though the two were united by Godwin-Austen. Benson's 
species has four closely-wound whorls, the aperture scarcely oblique, 
and the columellar margin vertical. 

395. Microcystina shevaroyana, W. T. Blanford, P. Z. S. 1904, ii, 

p. 446, pi. 25, fig. 17. 

Shell rather openly and perviously perforate, conoidly depressed, 
thin, translucent, ambei'-coloured, polished, with very minute, 
close, and rather flexuous longitudinal (concentric) striation above 



MICEOCTSTINA. KALIELLA. 257 

and below ; spire conoidal, slightly raised, suture impressed ; 
whorls 6, convex above, the last rounded at the periphery, rather 
flatly convex beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, rather broadly 
lunate ; peristome thin, the upper and basal margins faintly 
arcuate, columellar oblique, obtuse, expanded and shghtly reflected 
above, with a very shght salient angle, not always recognizable, 
near the perforation. 

Major diam. 8^, min. 7|, height 4 mm. 

Ifab. Shevaroy Hills, Madras Presidency (Daly). 

Near M. hintennensis, but larger and distinguished bv more 
open perforation, much paler colour, and more numerous whorls. 

There is also much resemblance to Macroclilamijs viUpensa, but 
that has only five whorls, and a differently-shaped aperture and 
columellar margin. 

396. Microcystina lita, Sykes, Proc Mai. Soc iii, 1898, p. 70, pi. 5, 
figs. 10, 11 ; Godwin- Austin, Mol. Lid. ii, 1899, p. Ill, pi. 92, 
figs. 1-] c (shell aud sculpture). 

Shell narrowly and obtectly perforate, convexly depressed, thin, 
smooth, polished, under the microscope rather distantly striated 
with spiral (longitudinal) impressed lines above and below, pale 
tawny ; spire convex, obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls4|, increasing 
regularly, the last rounded at the periphery aud convex beneath ; 
aperture slight]}^ oblique, lunate; peristome thin, columellar margin 
vertical above, slightly reflected and thickened, with a small and 
blunt salient angle. 

Diam. 3'4, height 2 mm. 

Hab. Ambagamuwa (CoUett). 

*397. Microcystina cryptomphalus, Godtvin-Ansten {Nevill, MS.), 
Mol. Ltd. I. 1882, p. 13, pi. iii, fig. 10 (shell and sculpture). 

Shell perforate, conoidly depressed, flat on base, marked with 
fine, regular, parallel, spiral (longitudinal), impressed lines under 
the microscope, pale brown ; spire conoidal ; whorls 5, regularly 
increasing, aperture lunate; peristome thin, reflected and angulate 
at columellar mai'gin. 

Major diam. 3*1, axis 1*5. (Description chiefly copied from 
original.) 

Hab. Pareshnath Hill, Western Bengal, 4480'. 

Genus KALIELLA. 

KaUella, Blf. A. M. N. H. (3) xi, 1803, p. 83; StoL J. A. S.'JB. xl 
2, 1871, p. 237 ; Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, pp. 1-10, 19-24, 
1883, pp. G8-73, 140 ; id. t. c. ii, 1907, pp. 174-177. 

Type, K. barralcporensis, Pfr. [Fig. 81, A-A 2, p. 242.] 

Range. Indo-Malay and Mascarene Eegions. 

Shell narrowly perforate or imperforate, conical and when 



258 ZONITID^. 

typical trochiform, small, thin, horny, as a rule obliquely sub- 
costulate or striated, and not spirally above ; ^^^horls increasing 
slowly, the last very little larger; peristome thin. 

The auimal of only one species, K. harrakpo7'ensis, is known and 
this very imperfectly. It is much like that of Sitala, and has a 
distinct caudal gland with a lobe above it. There is, however, no 
dart-sac, and there is a pear-shaped kale-sac at the junction of 
the vas deferens with the penis ; no caecum leads to the retractor 
muscle, which is attached to a fold. The spermatheca has not 
been described. The radula differs from that of Sitala in the 
small number of teeth in each row (67 in K. harraTcporensis, 
against 307 in S. infula or 405 in -S^. attegia) and in the larger 
number of broad admedian teeth. 

Unfortunately so few animals have been examined that the 
generic position of several species included in the genus must 
remain very doubtful ; this is more especially the case with those 
allied to K. ? nana. It is quite uncertain whether several of the 
small forms attributed to Sitala should not be assigned to the 
present genus and vice versa, nor can any hne be drawn to dis- 
criminate between the small shells of those two genera and the 
smaller species included in MacrocMamys. 

I. Imperforate or narroivly perforate. 

A. TrocJiiform, carinate at periphery . 

a. Height and diameter nearly equal. 

398. Kaliella barrakporensis, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1852, p. 156 ; id. 
(Helix) Man. Hel. iii, 1853, p. 59 ; id. t. c. \\, 1859, p. 33 ; id. t. c. 
V, 1868, p. 86 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 100; Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. 
(3) iii, 1859, p. 272 ; W. S,- H. Blf. J. A. S. B. xxx, 1861, 
p. 358 ; Blf. A. M. N. H. (3) xi, 1863, p. 83 ; Stol. J. A. S. B. 
xl, 2, 1871, p. 237 ; H. ^- T. (HeUx) C. I. 1876, pi. 87, fig. 7 ; 
Nevill, Nanina (Microcystis), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 41; Theobald, 
J. A. S. B. 1878, 2, p. 142 ; Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, 
pp. 2, 19, pi. 1, figs. 1-4 (shell), pi. 2, tig. 1 (shell), pi. 5, fig. 11 
(radula) ; 1883, p. 146, pi. 38, tig. 5 (genitalia). 
Helix sivalensis, Sutton, MS. ; Bs. I. c. ; Godiuin-Austen, Mol. Ind. 
i, 1882, pi. 1, tigs. 3, 3 a, pi. 2, fig. 1 (shells). 

Shell subperforate, pyramidally trochiform, thin, obliquely 
striated [or rather microscopically costulately ribbed] above, con- 
centrically and fairly closely marked with impressed lines on the 
base, smooth, translucent, horny brown ; spire conical, sides very 
slightly convex, suture impressed ; whorls 6, convex, slowly 
increasing, the last keeled, not descending, slightly convex beneath ; 
aperture oblique, subquadrately lunate ; peristome simple, thin, 
straight ; columellar margin slightly oblique, reflected, concealing 
perforation. 

Diam. 3^, height 3| according to Pfeiffer, but varying, and 
height often less than diameter. 



KALIELLA. 259 

i/rt6. Himalayas, Bengal, Deccan, S. India, Burma?, Ceylon, 
Madagascar. Localities recorded are: Kashmir (Theobald); Mus- 
soorie, 7000 feet (God win- Austen) ; Doon below Landour (Uutton) ; 
Sikhim, Pankabari, and Rangnu valley ( W. T. Blanford), and 
Titalya (Bacon) ; Pareslinath Hill and Patarghatta (Stoliczha) ; 
Barrackpore (Bacon) ; near Calcutta (StoUczka, Nevill) ; Khandalla 
near Bombay (IF. T. B.); Madras (liamanan); Kalryenmullay 
Hills near Salem (Poote) ; Pedro Talle Galle, Ceylon (?) ; Barisal, 
Bengal (Godwin- Austen). Nevill also quotes shells from Teria 
Ghat, Thayet Myo, Prome, and Pegu, but these may belong to 
other nominal forms. Several specimens have, however, been 
obtained from Madagascar ; and, from this locality, they cannot 
have been introduced by man. The occuri'ence of this shell in 
Lower Bengal has been doubted, but both Stoliczka and Nevill 
found it near Calcutta. Shells from Bhore Ghat (Khandalla) are 
intermediate betu'een K. harrakporensis and K. sigurensis. 

Animal of a pale colour, with a distinct gland at the extremity 
of the foot, overhung by a well-defined lobe. Mantle-lobes not 
observed. Parts of the genitalia are figured in the ' Land and 
Freshwater Mollusca of India,' showing the small pear-shaped 
kale-sac [see also fig. 81, A, p. 242, supnX]. [The teeth of the radula 
are peculiar — from the small number of broad plated admediau 
teeth in the row, all tricuspid, the outer cusps both basal, the 
central point long; the laterals are narrow, much curved, and also 
tricuspid; the outermost minute and tricuspid, — with this formula ; 

26 . 7 . 1 . 7 . 26 (33 . 1 . 33).] 



399. Kaliella sigurensis, Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. .5, 
pi. 1, iig. 11 (shell). 

This only differs from K. harrahporensis in having distinctly 
oblique radiating strise on the base and not concentric microscopical 
impressed lines. In all probability the two pass into each other, 
an intermediate form having already been noted from Khandalla 
near Bombay. 

Hah. Sigur Ghat and Neddiwatam Ghat, Nilgiri Hills. 



[400. Kaliella rissomensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol hid. ii, 1907, p. 174, 
pi. 103, fig. 9 (shell). 

Localitij. Eissom Peak, Richila Peak, and Damsang Peak, Daling 
District. 

Original description : — This shell is like A', sivalensis in general 
form, but placed alongside of it under the microscope difference is 
apparent in proportion of diameter to height of spire and form cf 
columellar margin. The sculpture is also coarser. 

Size: maj. diam. 3-5, alt. axis 2-6 mm.] 

s2 



260 ZONITIDJ]:. 

401. Kaliella vulcani, Godivin-Austei^, Mol Ind. \, 1882, p. 6, pi. 1, 

fig. 13 (shell). 

This only differs from K. harralcporensis in having slightly- 
convex sides to the spire, a blunter apex, and rather more rounded 
■\vhorls. 

Diam. 3, height 2k mm. 

Hah. Puppa-doung near Pagan, Upper Burma (TF. T. B.). 

The only shell is not in good condition, and in better preserved 
specimens there might be concentric striation on the base. It is 
probably a variety of K. barrahjiorensis. 

402. Kaliella jaintiaca, Godidn-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 7, pi. 2, 

fig. 4 (shell). 

Shell subperf orate, trochiform, thin, very minutely obliquely 
striated, and ^^■ith very fine concentric striae on base, pale horny 
brown ; spire conical, sides nearly straight, apex obtuse, suture 
impressed ; whorls 5|, convex, the last sharply keeled, convex 
below ; aperture slightly oblique, angulately lunate ; peristome 
thin, columellar margin vertical. 

Diam. 3^^, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Marangsip Peak (5350') and Sherfaisip Peak (5600'), 
South Jaintia Hills. 

This is near harrahporensis, but the spire is lower and more 
convex at the side, and the base is more tumid and the aperture 
higher and more open. 

[403. Kaliella jaintiaca, var., Godtvin-Austen, Mol. Lid. ii, 1907, 
p. 174, pi. 103, fig. 10 (shell). 

Locality. Hengdan Peak, N. Cachar Hills {Godivin- Austen). 

Original description : — The typical species was found by me 
on Marangsip Peak, Jaintia Hills, at 5350 feet. The species now 
figured is from the Naga Hills and is the nearest approach I can 
find to it, yet it differs somewhat, particularly at the columellar 
mai'gin, which is more oblique.] 

404. Kaliella cherraensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 4, 

pi. 1, fig. 5 (shell) (72ec Nanina cherraensis, Blf. J. A. S. B. 1870, 
p. 14). 

Shell narrowly perforate, high trochiform, thin, obliquely 
striated, with microscopic parallel impressed lines above, below 
decussated with radiating and concentric strife, brownish horny ; 
spire conoidal, ratlier high, sides convex, apex obtuse, suture im- 
pressed ; whorls 6, flatly convex above, the last carinate, almost 
flat beneath ; aperture oblique, subquadrately lunate ; peristome 
thin, columellar margin oblique, reflected. 

Diam. 3, height 34 mm. 

Hah. Garo, Khasi, and Naga Hills to south of Assam, and 
Dafla Hills to north. 



KALIELLA. 



261 



carinate bise sliohfl, f -i ^^^ convex, the last sharply 

A. <«^.»-r,„s of Southern India." (God,oin-l,"Z) ^ ° 

Dmra. 2-25, height 2-75 mm. 
Jiab. Xorth Khasi, common. 

harit'^rdJedSttfr '^-T'^'f """ '"«'">»««« by not 

and bP „r :f o:tn\,tso''.^;;f.^-eLs:?'^ ""™""' "■^°*- 
po!!S;z::Sd^:^Kie\s 

-Diam. 2|, height 3 mm. 



262 



ZOXITID.€. 



Hah. Tauir Eidge, Dafla Hills, N. of Assam, also Hengdan 
Peak, North Cachar Hills S. of the Assam valley {Godwin-Austen). 
Distinguished by its well-marked costulation." 

408. Kaliella SUbcostulata, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 8, 
pi. 2, iig. 6 (shell). 

This is very near costulata, but the ribbing is not quite so 
regular or so strong, the concentric striation on the base is more 
distant, the shell is smaller, the whorls are convex, and the suture 
well impressed. 

Diam. 24, height 2,^ mm. 

Hab. North Khasi Hills. 



*409. Kaliella salicensis, Godtvin- Austen, Proc. Mai. Soc. ii, 1897, 
p. 178, pi. U, fig. .3 (shell). 

"Shell perforate, conical ; sculpture irregular, coarse, transverse 
ribbing ; periostracum umber-coloured ; spire conic, flat-sided, suture 
very shallow ; whorls 7, sides rather flat ; aperture quadrate, 
straight below ; peristome suboblique, columellar margin reflected. 

"Size: major diam. 2-8 ; alt. 3." {Godwin- Austen.) 

Hnh. Uda Pussalawa, Ceylon {H. B. Preston). 

" The whorls of this species do not increase in breadth so much 
as in K. han-al-porensis ; the fine regular transverse sculpture is 
absent, rougher irregular ribs taking its place. The base of the 
Ceylon shell is not so brond, in proportion to the height of the 
spire, as in the Bengal species." 

This is of much the same shape as K. harralcporensis ; the last 
whorl is sharply keeled. 



b. Height much exceeding diameter. 

410. Kaliella aspirans, W. ^- H. Bhmf. (Helix) J. A. S.B.xxx, 1861, 
p. 35.-), pi. 1, fio-. 12 ; Pfr. (Helix) Man. Hel. x, 1868, p. 81 ; 
H. ^ T. (Helix) C. /. "1876, pi. 16, fig. 4; I^'eviU, Hand-l. i, 
1878, p. 41 ; Godtvin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 6, pi. 1, 
fig. 12 (shell). 

Shell subperforate (subobtectly perforate), pyramidal, elevately 
conical, thin, scarcely striated, smooth, not polished, translucent, 
brownish horny ; spire high, conical, sides almost straight, apex 
obtuse, suture shallow ; whorls 7, slightly convex, the last keeled, 
but not sharply ; aperture nearly vertical, semicircularly lunate ; 
peristome thin, straight, columellar margin vertical, reflected, 
concealing the perforation. 

Diam. 2, length 3 mm. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills, Pykara. 

This is near K. fastigiata, but smaller, and higher in proportiou 
to the diameter. 



KALIELLA. 263 

411. Kaliella fastigiata, Jlutton (Helix), J. A. S. B. vii, 1838, p. 217 ; 

rfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. i, 1848, p. 37 ; id. t. c. iii, 1853, p. 40; 
Bens. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 272 ; H. Sf T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1870, pi. 16, fig. 5 ; Nevill, Nanina (Microcystis), Hand-l, i, 
1878, p. 40; Theob. J. A. S. B. 1881, 2, p. 40; ^Godwi?i-Ajiste)i, 
Mol. Lid. i, 1882, pp. 8, 21, pi. 2, fig. 8 (shell). 

Shell imperforate (subperforate), high trochiform, thin, finely 
striated under the microscope, with impressed slightly oblique 
lines above, no concentric striatiou on base, pale brownish horny ; 
spire pyramidal, sides very little convex, suture slightly impressed ; 
whorls 7|-, slightly convex, the last sharply carinate, flatly convex 
below ; aperture nearly vertical, angulately lunate ; peristome 
thin, margins nearly parallel, columellar vertical, triangularly 
reflected. 

Diam. 3, height 4 mm. 

Hah. Western Himalayas ; Simla (Jlutton) ; Landour and Mus- 
soorie above 5000' and beyond 7000' {Benson) ; Hazara {Theobald). 
Nevill adds Darjiling, Dafla Hills, Naga Hills, and Arakan Hills, 
but the three last are open to question. 

The animal is described by Hutton as greyish. It is found on 
dead leaves at Simla, and when in motion carries its shell upright. 
According to Benson, at Mnssoorie and Landour it was procured 
creeping on the large wet leaves of Saxifvaga ciliata, in damp and 
shady situations having a northern aspect. 

412. Kaliella elongata, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 9, pi. 2, 

tig. 9 (shell). 

Shell subperforate, very elongately pyramidal, rather irregularly 
obliquely ribbed above, almost smooth beneath, pale horny browTi; 
spire very high, sides convex, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; 
whorls 9|, convex, the last carinate, flatly convex beneath ; 
aperture slightly oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome thin, outer 
margin sinuate, columellar vertical, rather broadly reflected. 

Diam. 3, height 5i mm. 

Nab. Raliang, Jyntea Hills. 

I have only seen one specimen of this shell, which is much 
more elongate than any other species of the genus. 

*413. Kaliella COlletti, Si/kes, Jour. Mai. vii, 1899, p. 30, pi. 2, fig. 1. 

" Shell subperforate, elongately pyramidal, horny, smooth, apex 
yellow, rather acute, the base subimpressed in the umbilical 
region ; whorls 8, flattened, the first rapidly, the remainder slowly 
increasing, beneath the lens obscurely striated transversely, suture 
impi'essed; aperture quadrate, right margin thin, columellar sub- 
reflexed. 

"Diam. 2-1, height 3"85 mm.'*' (Si/Jces, in Latin.) 
Hab. Binoya (3600'), Ambagamuwa, Ceylon; on bamboo, orange, 
and mango trees (CoUett). 



264 zo]NiTiD,E. 

Sides of the spire strongly convex. The figure represents the 
mouth as nearly semicircular. 

B. Turbinate, carinate. 
[Mostly of doubtful affinity, anatomy not known.] 

414. Kaliella gratiosa, Godwin- Austen, Mol. hid i, 1882, p. 9, pi. 2, 

fig. 10. 

Shell subobtectly perforate, turbinate, globosely conoid, finely, 
transversely, and obliquelj^ ribbed above, minutely concentrically 
striated and radiately ribbed on the base, pale horny brown ; spire 
conoid, apex blunt, suture well impressed ; whorls 5|, convex, 
the last with a raised keel at the periphery, tumidly convex 
beneath ; aperture slightly oblique (?), semicircularly lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, columellar margin oblique, refiected at the perforation. 

Diam. 3|, height 2| mm. 

Hah. Kopamedza Peak, Angami Naga Hills, 8375' [Gochuin- 
Aifsten). 

It is very doubtful whether any one of the specimens examined 
is adult. 

415. Kaliella animula, Godicin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 2.3, 

pi. 5, fig-. 1. 

Shell imperforate, turbinate, no distinct ornamentation, but in- 
distinctly and obliquely sculptured under the microscope, and 
subobsoietely, very minutely, longitudinally striated above and 
below, pale horny brown ; spire conoid, sides convex, apex obtuse, 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, the last augulately keeled, 
tumidly convex beneath ; aperture sub vertical, large, subquad- 
rately lunate, columellar margin reflected. 

Diam. 2|, height 2 mm. 

Hah. Khasi Hills {Godivhi- Austen). 

Neither of the two specimens is perfect, nor, so far as can be 
judged, adult. 

416. Kaliella [?] vagata, E. A. Smith (Sitala), Faun. Gear/, Maid. Lac. 

Arch, i, pt. ii, 1902, pp. 142, 145 [shell and radula figured by 
Godwin- Austen]. 

Shell minutely and subobtectly perforated, obtusely turbinate, 
thin, fuscous brown, decussated by oblique fine striae of growth 
and by minute spiral lines, above and below ; spire moderately 
raised, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, regularly 
increasing, the last sharply angulate at the periphery, convex 
beneath ; aperture oblique, lunate ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin vertical, rather broadly reflexed, partly covering the 
umbilicus. 

Major diam. 3, min. 2|, height 2| mm. 

Hal. Minicoi Island, between the Laccadives and Maldives. 



KA.LIELLA. 



265 



Probably introduced, like other shells of those islands, from the 
Malabar coast. 

The teeth of the radula number : 

32 . 6 . 1 . G . 32 (38 . 1 . 38). 

The admedian teeth, like the rliachidian, have a long median cusp 
and lateral cusps as in K. harraJqwrensls, &c. [The internal 
anatomy has not been seen, it therefore can only be placed in 
this genus with doubt.] 

*417. Kaliella [?] kjellerupi, 3Idrch (Nanina), Juiu: Conchjl. xx, 
1872, p. 310 ; Pfr. f Helix) Man. Hel. viii, 1877, p. 72 ; Godwin- 
Austen (Sitala), P.Z. S. 1895, p. 442. 

" Shell imperforate, turbinate, keeled, yellowish, smooth ; spire 
conoid, apex obtuse, flattened, base convex, very smooth, suture 
very narrowly marginate ; whorls 5, slightly convex, increasing 
slowly, nearly equal in size, the last not descending; striae of 
growth not prominent, irregular; aperture rhomboidally lunate, 
columellar margin thickened, subreflected. 

" Diam. maj. 6, axis nearly 4 mm." (Morch, in Latin.) 

Hab. Great Nicobar. 

418. Kaliella teriaensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 10, 

pi. 2, fig. 12 (shell). 

Shell subperforate, depressedly subtrochiform, almost smooth, 
with extremely fine oblique ribbing on upper whorls only seen 
under microscope, the base smooth, bleached, probably when 
fresh brownish ; spire conical, sides straight, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5, convex, the last sharply keeled, convex below ; aperture 
nearly vertical, securiform, subquadrately lunate ; peristome thin, 
columellar margin oblique. 

Diam. 3*7, height 2 mm. 

Hah. Teria Ghat, at southern base of Khasi Hills (Godwin- 
Austen). 

419. Kaliella nagaensis, Godicin-Austcn, Mol. Ind. \, 1882, p. 9, 

pi. 2, lig. 11 (shell). 

Shell imperforate, trochiform, marked above with fine oblique 
ribbing only visible under the microscope, and with radiating 
lines on base, pale horny brown ; spire conical, sides straight, 
suture impressed ; whorls 6, convex, the last carinate, with a 
slightly raised keel, rather flat below ; aperture slightly oblique, 
angulately lunate; peristome thin, the columellar margin thickened 
and reflected, rounded below, briefly vertical abo\"e. 

Diam. 3|, height 2.^ mm. 

Ilah. Kopamedza Peak (8375') and Naga Hills. [Dikrang 
Valley, Dafla Hills, and Barowli Gorge north of Tezpur (Godivin- 
Austen).'] 



266 zonitidje. 

The spire is considerabl,y higher thau in K. teriaensis, and lower 
than in K. harrahjporensis and its allies. 

[420, Kaliella paucistriata, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, 
p. 174, pi. 103, lig. 10 (shell). 

Locality. Dikrang Valley, Dafla Hills {Gochvin-Austeti). 

Original description : — Shell keeled, depressedly pyramidal ; 
sculpture microspiral striation with coarse, irregular, distant, 
transverse costulation, the same shown on the basal side ; colour 
very pale ochre ; spire moderately high, sides flat ; suture shallow. 
Whorls 5, sides flatly convex ; aperture not complete, probably 
quadrate ; peristome thin ; columella broken. 

Size : maj. diam. 3-8, alt. axis 2 mm. 

The form of this shell is very like that of K. nagaensis, but has 
different sculpture.] 

[421. Kaliella richilaensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. 175, 
pi. 103, tigs. 2, 2 b. 

Locality. Eichila Peak, Bhutan frontier, 10,370 feet (TP'. Robert). 

Original description : — Shell globosely conoid, very rounded 
below, very narrowly umbilicated ; sculpture, transverse distant 
costulation, rather fine, not regular ; colour pale sienua-brown ; 
spire moderately high, sides flat, apex blunt, suture impressed; 
whorls 5, keeled on the last, but with no carination, flatly convex ; 
aperture narrowly lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
nearly perpendicular, reflected near the umbilicus. 

Size : maj. diam. 3-3, alt. axis 1*8 mm. 

Somewhat of the form of K. nagaensis ; it is, however, a smaller 
shell and the sculpture is not so fine and regular as in that 
species.] 

[422. Kaliella richilaensis, var., Godwin-Austen, Mol. Lid. ii, 1907, 
p. 175, pi. 103, fig. 2 a. 

Locality. Eichila Peak, Bhutan frontier, 10,^10 ieeX{W. Robert). 

Original descriptio7i : — Shell globosely conoid, not umbilicated, 
covered with a strong epidermis ; sculpture very regular fine 
costulation; colour strong sienna tint; spire moderately high, 
conoid, apex rounded, suture shallow ; whorls 5, rather flatly 
convex ; aperture narrowly lunate ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin sub vertical, but very slightly reflected. 

Size : maj. diam. 3-6, alt. axis 2-2 mm.] 

C. Turbinate or globosely conoid, not carinate. 

423. Kaliella ? nana, Ilntton (Helix), J. A. S. B. vii, 1838, p. 218 ; 
Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. i. 1848, p. 31; H. ^- T. (Helix) C. L 
1876, pi. 61, figs. 7, 8, 9 ; Kevill, Nauina (Microoystis), Hand-l. 



KALIELLA. 267 

i, 1878, p. 38; Godtvin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 21, pi. 5, 
fig-. () (shell) ; ii, 1898, p. 47. 
Helix buUula, Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 72, nee 
Jfutton. 

Shell obtectly perforate, globosely conoid, smooth, under the 
microscope finely obliquely ribbed above, and with radiating lines 
on base, pale horny brown ; spire conoid, sides convex, apex 
obtuse, suture w-ell impressed ; whorls 5^^, convex, closely wound, 
the last rounded at periphery and below ; aperture nearly vertical, 
lunate ; peristome simple, coliimellar margin oblique, reflected, 
concealing perforation, 

Diam. 2-3, height 2 mm. 

Bab. jS^.W. Himalayas ; Simla, Kulu, Mussoorie ; Darjiling. 
Nevill adds Moisraka, Midnapur district, Calcutta (Botanical 
Gardens), and Pt. Canning: [very doubtful if it is the same 
species]. 

Hutton notes that this form is common at Simla and that the 
colour of the animal is dark grey. Of the animal found in 
Calcutta, Stoliczka notes (quoted by Nevill) that it has a small 
gland with a short horn above and no mantle-lobes. 

The process on the columellar lip of the peristome which covers 
the perforation resembles that of Microcystina. It is best seen in 
very old shells. 

424. Kaliella ? bullula, Hutton (Helix), J. A. S. B. vii, 1838. p. 218; 
Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. i, 1848, p. 86 ; H ^- T. (Helix) C. 1. 1876, 
pi. 61, tigs. 2, 3; Nevill, Nanina (Microcystis), Hand-l. i, 1878, 
p. 37; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1882, p. 23, pi. 5, figs. 4, 5 
(shell). 

Shell subperforate, turbinate, globosely conoid, smooth, under 
the microscope seen to be ornamented by fine oblique ribbing 
above and indistinct subobsolete concentric striae on base, pale 
horny; spire conoid, apex obtuse, suture impressed; whorls 5, 
convex, the last subangulate at periphery, descending slightly in 
front, convex beneath ; aperture subvertical, broadly lunate ; 
columellar margin oblique, slightly reflected. 

Diam. 4, height 3 mm. 

Hah. Western Himalayas ; Simla. Kulu, Chor, Landour, 
Mussoorie, Kumaun. 

The type was obtained amongst dead leaves at Simla. The 
shell described by Pfeiffer as this species (Mon. Hel. iv, p. 86) 
was not bullula but nana. 

42-5. Kaliella? resinula, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 22, pi. o, 
lige. 7, 8 (shell). 

Shell obtectly perforate, globosely conoid, very finely and closely 
transversely costulately striated, the sculpture microscopical and 
often obsolete, pale brownish horny ; spire conoid, rather high. 



268 



ZOJflTID-i;. 



sides strongly couvex, apex obtuse, suture deep ; whorls 6|, 
convex, the last larger, rounded at periphery, convex beneath ; 
aperture semieircularly lunate, nearly vertical ; peristome thin, 
columellar margin rather broadly reflected, covering perforation. 

Diam. 2*25, height 2-1 mm. 

Hah. Khasi Hills. 

This is very near A', nana, but higher and with an additional 
whorl. 

*426. Kaliella? sikkimensis, Godioin-Austen {Nevill, MS.), Mol. Ind. 
i, 1888, p. 22, pi. 5, fig. 9 (sheU) ; id. t. c. ii, 1907, p. 175, pi. 103, 
fio-. 4 (shell). 

This is another close ally of K. nana and K. rcsimda, and has 
nearly the same dimensions as the latter ; it is even more globose, 
the sides of the spire more convex, and with the last whorl 
proportionately larger. I have not seen a specimen- 

Hah. Sikhim. 

[Locallti/. Shell figured (pi. 103) is from the Eisett chu Valley, 
South Sikhim ( W. Robert). 

Original description: — Shell glohosely conoid, scarcely perforate; 
sculpture very fine, close, regular, transverse striation ; colour 
pale sienna-brown ; spire conical, less than the major diameter, 
apex blunt, sides convex, suture moderately imjiressed ; whorls 6, 
rather couvex, closely wound ; aperture narrowly lunate, vertical ; 
peristome thin, columellar margin oblique and but slightly 
i'eflected. 

Size: maj. diam. 1*9, alt. axis 1'6 mm. 

This pretty little shell, of which the type described by me is in 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta, appears to be fairly numei'ousin the 
deep hot valleys of Sikhim.] 

427. Kaliella ? Ihotaensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1882, p. 22, 
pi. 5, fig. 2 (shell). 

Shell imperforate, convesly conoid, depressedly subturbinate, 
with fine subcostulate transverse striation under the microscope, 
often obsolete, radiately striate beneath, pale brown ; spii-e conoid, 
sides convex, apex obtuse, suture impressed; whorls 5|, convex, 
the last subangulate at periphery, rounded below ; aperture 
oblique, roundly lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
vertical, reflected. 

Diam. 2-2, height 1'7 mm. 

Hah. Lhota Naga Hills. 

This is also allied to A', nana, but has a much lower spire. 

[428. Kaliella? sMllongeilsis, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, 
p. 176, pi. 10;J, fig. o (shell). 

Locality. Shillong, Khasi Hills {Oodw in- Austen). Two specimens 
were found. 



KALIELLA. 269 

Original description: — Shell globosely couoid, very narrowly 
umbilicated, rounded below; sculphire very fine, regular trans- 
verse ribbing; colour umber-brown; spire less than breadth, 
apex blunt ; suture well impressed ; whorls 5.|, rather closely 
Avound, sides convex ; aperture lunate, suboblique ; peristome 
thin, scarcely reflected, columellar margin suboblique. 

Size : maj. diam. 2-1, alt. axis 1*4 mm. 

Compared with A'. IJwtaensis, this shell is smaller and the 
whorls much more convex ; with typical Jtaturo, it is larger, but 
the whorls do not increase in the same way and in the same 
proportion ; and the same may be said of the very similar shell 
from the Sikhim frontier, \\hich differs in having a larger body- 
whorl and larger aperture ; they all, in fact, merge into one 
another.] 



429. Kaliella ? flatura, Godivin-Austen, Mol Ind. i, 1882, p. 23, pi. o, 
fig-. 10 (shell). 

Shell perforate, convexly conoid, subturbinate, ver}' finely 
costulately striated under the microscope, the sculpture generally 
obsolete, below marked with curved radiating stria^, horny brown ; 
spire conoid, sides convex, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; whorls 5, 
convex, last broader, rounded at periphery and below ; aperture 
semicii'cularly ovate, subvertical; peristome thin, columellar margin 
vertical and reflected. 

Diam. 2, height 1'5 mm. 

Hah. Manipur. 

This has a deeper suture and a broader last whorl than the 
species of the K. nana section generally. 



[430. Kaliella? flatura, var., Godtvin- Austen, Mol Lid. ii, 1907, 
p. 170, pi. 103, tig. 3 (shell). 
Kaliella flatura, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1882, p. 23, pi. 5, 
fig. 10. 

Locality. Richila Peak, 10,370 feet, on Darjihng-Bhutan 
frontier ( W. Eoheri), also Eisett chu Valley and Damsang. 

Original description : — Shell globosely conoid, umbilicated ; 
sculpture very minute, transverse ribbing, only visible under high 
power, smooth to eye and not so regular on the last whorl as it 
is on the rest of the whorls ; colour pale ochre ; spire, sides 
slightly convex, apex rounded, suture well impressed ; whorls 5, 
very convex ; aperture semilunate ; ])eristome thin, columellar 
mai'gin suboblique and slightly reflected. 

Size : maj. diam. 2"25, alt. axis 3 '30 mm. 

It is interesting to find this minute shell in the Eastern 
Himalaya, so extremely close in form to that I found in Munipur, 
the sculpture on the last whorl not being so regular as in the 
type ; it is similar above.] 



270 ZONITIDJE. 

D. Lenticular, sharplii heeled, decussated. 

431. Kaliella ? burrailensis, Godioin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 70, 
pi. 15, figs. 5, 5 a, 5 b (shell). 

Shell minutely perforate, lenticular, thin, transversely obliquely 
ribbed and decussated by rather irregular striation above, below 
radiately and more strongly but very irregularly concentrically 
ribbed, pale horny ; spire low, conoidal, sides convex, sutui-e very 
shallow, apex slightly prominent ; whorls 5|, flat above, the last 
keeled, convex beneath, not so prominent as the spire ; aperture 
subvertical, angulately lunate, narrow ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin oblique. 

Diam. 5, whole height 2*6 mm. 

Hab. Burrail Eange, Naga Hills. 

Distinguished by minute perforation from the umbilicate 
K. Icezamahensis and lailangkotensis, also by sculpture and other 
characters. 



432. Kaliella ? ruga, Godvnn-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 70, pi. 15, 
tig. 4 (shell). 

Shell perforate, sublenticular, transversely ribbed and decussated 
by impressed lines above and below, pale horny ; spire low, 
conoid, suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, the last sharply 
angulate, tumid below, more swollen than the spire is above the 
keel ; a small pitted mark behind the lower margin of peristome, 
showing inside the aperture as a minute plait, not always con- 
spicuous, as in Sesara helicifera ; aperture subvertical, angularly 
lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin very oblique. 

Diam. 3, height 2 mm. 

Hob. Phiinggam, Lahiipa Naga Hills, and Shiroifurar Peak, 
N.E. Munipur, 9000 ft. 



E. Shell conoidal, carinate, with a long narrow aperture. 

[433. Kaliella? dikrangensis, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Lid. i, 1883, 
p. 72, pi. 16, fig. 3 (shell). 

Original description: — Shell globosely conoid, keeled, imper- 
forate, much rounded below ; sculpture very microscopic, transverse 
regular costulation, the finest I have seen ; colour pale amber ; 
spire pyramidal, sides nearly flat, apex well rounded, suture 
moderately impressed ; whorls 6, closely wound ; aperture nar- 
rowly quadrate ; columellar margin strong, perpendicular, with a 
slight protuberance on the inner margin. 

Major diam. 1-G, height 1-1 mm. 

Hah. Dikrang Valley, Dafla Hills {Godwin- Austen). 

This shell, of which I only possess one example, is similar in 
form and comes nearest to K. ? nongsteinensis (Jainta Hills), but 



KALIELLA. 271 

is very much smaller, the spire less conoid, and much more 
rounded below. The sculpture is similar to that of Kaliella, 

jN'othing is known of the anatomy of these very minute 
species.] 

43-4. Kaliella? nongsteinensis, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 
p. 72, pi. 16, tig. 2 (shell). 

Shell imperforate, conoid, subtrocbiform, under a powerful 
microscope costulately striate, pale brownish ; spire conoidal, 
rather high, sides convex, apex obtuse, suture shallow ; whorls 8, 
closely wound, slightly convex, the last carinate, projecting in the 
middle around the umbihcal region, rather flat outside near the 
keel ; aperture narrow, rectangular, oblique to the axis of the shell ; 
peristome ? 

Diam. 2, height 1"7 mm. 

Hah. Maotherichan Peak, N. Khasi. 



[435. Kaliella bhutanensis, Godicin-Austm, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, p. 106, 
pi. 103, fig. 7 (shell;. 

Locality. Damsang, Baling District, Western Bhutan Hills. 

Original description : — Shell conical, perforate, flatly rounded 
on base, keeled ; sculpture microscopic, transverse, irregular lines 
of growth, these are well shown on the basal side ; colour pale 
dull ochreous ; spire high, with convex sides, apex blunt ; suture 
very shallow ; whorls 8, closely wound, flat-sided ; aperture 
narrowly quadrate; peristome thin, columellar margin short, 
nearly vertical. 

Size : maj. diam, 2-23, alt. axis 1'6 mm. 

Its nearest ally is K. nongsteinensis, of the North-western Khasi 
Hills ; but it is broader on the keel in proportion to height of 
spire and much flatter on the base.] 

436, Kaliella? tirutana, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1883, p. 72, 
pi, 16, figs. 4, 5 (shell). 

Shell imperforate, conoidal, with the area below the carination 
prominent, smooth, whitish horny (? bleached) ; spire conoidal, 
sides slightly convex, apex obtuse, suture shallow; whorls 6, 
convex, closely wound, narrow, the last keeled, flattened, but 
inclined below keel, and projecting considerably in the umbilical 
region ; aperture narrow across, but long, almost rectangular, and 
elongate in a line oblique to the axis; peristome with columellar 
margin straight, oblique, and reflected. 

Diam. 14, height 1\ mm. 

This resembles nongsteinensis, but is smaller, and has fewer 
whorls and a less convex spire. It has the same rectangular 
mouth inclined to the axis of the shell. 



272 zoNiTiD-ii). 

437. Kaliella ? chennelli, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1883, p. 73, 

pi. 16, fig. 1 (shell). 

Shell imperforate, depressedly conoid, lenticular, finely trans- 
versely striated above, below radiately striated with traces of 
concentric lines, pale horny brown ; spire conoid, sides flat, suture 
shallow ; whorls 65, closely wound, almost flat above, the last 
cax'inate, convex below, lower surface not so prominent as the 
spire ; aperture vertical, narrow, subquadrangular ; peristome 
thin, columellar margin slightly oblique, reflected. 

Diam. 3|, height 2 mm. 

Hah. Lhota Naga Hills. 

This is distinguished by its numerous whorls and narro\i 
elongate aperture. It is said to be finely haiiy when fresh. 

r. All tlie ivhorls carinate in middle, last tvJiorl bicarinate. 

438. Kaliella? conulus, w'. T. Blanford (Nanina), J. A. S. B. 1865, 2, 

p. 73 ; Pfr. (HeUx) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 89 ; H. S,- T. (Helix) 
C. 1. 1876, p. 129, figs. 5, 6 ; Nevill, Nanina (Microcystis), Hand-l. 
i, 1878, p. 41 ; Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 71, i)l. 15, 
figs. 6, 6 a (shell). 

Shell imperforate (subperfoi'ate), turreted, thin, translucent, 
marked with oblique, sinuous, subfiliform, costulate striation, and 
on the base with radiating strias and very fine spiral lines, white 
horny ; spire conical, apex rather obtuse, suture deep ; whorls 6, 
very convex, keeled in the middle, the keel very fine, raised, 
thread-like, and white ; the last whorl bicarinate, the second spiral 
keel being below the periphery, flatly convex beneath ; aperture 
oblique, rhomboidally lunate, about equally broad and high ; 
peristome thin, columellar margin nearly vertical, very briefly 
reflexed at the penultimate whorl. 

Diam. 1|, height 2 mm. 

Hah. Phoung-do, near Taunguj), Arakan ( IF. T. Blanford) ; 
Jatinga Valley, North Cachar Hills, and Manipur {Godivin- 
Austen). 

This form stands alone, no near ally having been found. It 
may have relations to the Andaman Sitala ? homfrayi and 
S. subhilirata, now referred to PJiilalanla . 

439. Kaliella? peliosanthi, Miirch, Helix (Kaliella), Vidensk. Medd. 

xi, 1872, p. 13 ; Godwin-Austeii, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 92. 

" Shell very minute, trochiform, obtectly perforate ; ^^hods 44, 
angulate in the middle, spirally lineate ; lines of gro^^■th prominent, 
at regular distances : the last whorl bicarinate, flat and smooth at 
the base, the umbilicus narrow and oblique ; epidermis very thin, 
hairy on the keels; aperture rhombic, columellar margin subdentate. 

"Diam. 1^, height li mm." {Morch, in Latin.) 

Hah. Calcutta. 



KALIBLLA. 273 

Found on leaves of Peliosanihes teta from the Harbour of 
Calcutta. Said to be somewhat siniilar to K. conulxs, but much 
smaller. 



II. Umbilicated. 

*440. Kaliella ? fese, Tap. Canefri; Ann. 3Ii(s. Civ. Gen. xxvii, 1889, 
p. 321, pi. 8, figs. 7, 8. 

" Shell deeply umbilicated, conical, trochiform, pale horny ; 
spire conical, apex obtuse ; whorls about 7, subconvex, ornamented 
with minute oblique regular striae, divided by impressed sutures, 
the last not descending in front, obtusely carinate at periphery, 
convex beneath ; aperture roundly lunate, obscurely subquadrate ; 
peristome simple, slightly expanded below, margins remote, 
columellar reflected below umbilicus. 

"Major diam. 9, miu. 8|, height 8 mm." (Ta^). Can., in 
Latin.) 

Hub. Mount Mouleyit, Burma, East of Molmein (Fea). 

*441. Kaliella delectabilis, Si/kes, Proc. Mai. Soc. iii, 1898, p. 70, 
pi. .5, tig-. 7 ; Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1883, pi. 93, fig. 4 
(sculpture only). 

" Shell ovately conoid, narrowly but perspectively umbihcated, 
horny, smooth ; whorls 6, convex, under the lens microscopically 
striated transversely (longitudinally), the last carinate at the 
periphery, inflated beneath : apex smooth, sutm-e impressed ; 
aperture semiluuate, columellar margin of peristome reflected. 

"Diam. 2-8, height 3 mm." 

Hah. Ambagamuwa, Ceylon (Collett). 

*442. Kaliella? leithiana, Godtoin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, p. 71, 
pi. 16, figs. 0, 6 a, 6b; Si/Jces, Proc. Mai. Soc. iii, 1898, p. 71. 
? Plectopvlis eug-enii, Jones, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vii, 1894, 

p. 277." 

" Shell narrowly umbilicated, discoid, keeled, base flat ; sculpture 
covered with an olivaceous epidermis, irregular transverse lines of 
growth ; spire very depressedly conoid, sides flat, apex blunt ; 
whorls 6|, all very equal in breadth, flat; aperture elongate, 
narrow, perpendicular ; peristome thin, columellar margin upright, 
short. 

" Major diam. 7, alt. axis 2-4 mm." {Godivin- Austen.) (Height 
2*7 mm. from figure.) 

Hah. Ceylon. 

The shell is represented in the figure as lenticular with a 
prominent keel, and may at once be recognized by its very narrow 
angulate mouth. As the specimen was purchased from the late 
Dr. Leith's collection and the locality depended on his having 
marked the same on a card, the habitat may not be quite certain, 

T 



274 zo>^iTiD.i:. 

for it is not probable that Dr. Leith himself collected in Ceylon, 
and the shell does not resemble other Ceylonese or S. Indian forms. 

443. Kaliella? kezamahensis, Godtoin-Atcsten, MoL Ind. i, 1883, 

p. 69, pi. 15, figs. 3, 3 a (shell), p. 146, pi. 40, fig. 10 (radula and 
spermatophore). 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, depressedly trochlform, decussated 
above by oblique and spiral ribbing, below by radiating and con- 
centric, the transverse (oblique or radiating) close, the spii'al 
more distant, pale horny ; spire conoid, apex obtuse, suture 
slightly impressed ; whorls 5, flatly convex above, the last sharply 
keeled, almost flat beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, subtrape- 
zoidal. angulately lunate ; peristome thin, curved back on right 
margin, columellar margin very oblique, scarcely reflected. 

Diam. 4-25, height 2*5 mm. 

Hah. Ivezamah, Anghami Naga Hills ; Gaziphima, Naga Hills 
( Godivin- Austen), 

The lingual ribbon which has been extracted from a dried 
individual closely resembles that of K. lalJanr/l-otensis. The 
formula is 25 . 6 . 1 . 6 . 25 (31 . 1 , 31) ; rhachidian and admedians 
tricuspid; laterals bicuspid, with the outer cusp far back, not 
near the terminal one. The laterals difl'er from those of K. har- 
ralcporensis . 

444. Kaliella? lailangkotensis, Godivin- Austen, MoL Lid. i, 1883, 

p. 68, pi. 15, fig. 1 (shell), pi. :?0, figs. 2, 2 a (jaw and radula). 

Shell narrowly and deeply umbilicated, sublenticular, decussated 
with transverse and longitudinal ribbing above and below, the 
concentric (longitudinal) sculpture disappearing near the umbilicus, 
pale brownish ; spire low, conoidal, sides convex, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5, convex, the last angulate at periphery, convex below ; 
aperture slightly oblique, angulately lunate; peristome thin, 
columellar margin oblique. 

Diam. 4*3, height 2-3 mm. 

Bah. Lailangkote, Khasi Hills, common, also at Mairang, Teria 
Ghat, Maotherichan Peak, and Mokarsa. 

The lingual ribbon is very similar to that of K. Jcezamahensis, 
and the formula is 26 . 2 . 5 . 1 . 5 . 2 . 26 (33 . 1 . 33). The 
lo\Aer surface is much more tumid than in that species, mouth 
broader, &c. 

III. Suhtitrhinate, whorls rapidly mcreasinr/. 

445. Kaliella ? nevilli, Godwin-Austen, MoL Ind. i, 1883. p. 70, pi. 13, 

fig. 6. 

Shell umbilicated, depressedly conoid, subturbinate, thin, rugately 
subcostulate transversely, radiately striated below, periphery 
furnished with hairs, pale brownish horny ; spire conoid, apex 



KALIELLA. — SARAMA. 275 

prominent, suture impressed ; whorls 4|, convex, the last slightly 
angulate at periphery, rather tumid beiow ; aperture oblique, 
roundly lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin vertical, 
slightly reflected above. 

Mapr diam. 7, min. G, height 3| mm. 

Hah. Darjiling. 

The relations of this shell are very doubtful. It cannot be a 
Kulidla to judge by the shell. 

[Genus SARAMA *. 

Type, S. Jcala. 

Bange. Hill-ranges south of Sikhim. 

The animal of the type species, and the only one of the 
genus as yet known, is remarkable for its very dark coloration. 
The shell-lobes are as in Macrochlamys, the right narro^^• and 
tongue-like. The type differs from Macrochlumys in the three 
following important characters : — 

] . The absence of the amatorial organ ; 2. The absence of the 
coiled ceecum near the retractor muscle of the penis ; 3. Form of 
the spermatophore, v.hich is short and with spines on the side of 
the capsule. To these may be added the form of the jaw, which 
is very straight on the cutting-edge.] 

440. Sarama kala, Godwin-Auste7i(M&cvoc\\\&my&), Mol. Lid. i, 1883, 
p. 108, pi. 40, figs. 1-9 (shell and anatomy) ; ii, p. 135 (spermato- 
phore). 
[Tw/efig. 83, p. 276.] 

Shell minutely perforate, conoidly depressed, thin, translucent, 
polished, with very fine, close, longitudinal (spiral) striation 
throughout under the microscope, pale greyish horny ; spire low, 
conoidal t, the sides straight, suture slightly impressed ; whorls 5, 
slightly convex, the last rounded at the periphery and below ; 
aperture nearly vertical, lunate ; peristome very thin, columellar 
margin subvertical above, rather bi'oadly triangularly reflected. 

Major diam. 8*5, min. 7, height 4 mm. 

Uah. Damsang Peak, Dahng Hills, "Western Bhutan {^Y. 
Eohert). 

Animal very dark-coloured above ; pedal margin and sole pale. 
No dart-sac and no caecum to the penis, the retractor muscle being 
attached directly to head of penis and epiphallus. Teeth on radula 
40 . 2 . 8 . 1 . 8 . 2 . 40 (50 . 1 . 50) : median tooth tricuspid ; inner 
laterals with a single basal cusp on the outer side, outer laterals 
bicuspid. [The jaw is abnormal, being very straight on the cutting- 
edge.] 

Not one of the specimens examined appears completely adult. 
This species may be found in Sikhim and the mountains of Bhutan. 

* [Sanskrit "the dawn " ; " Hermes " in Greek.] 

t [The spire is higher thiiu it is represented in plate 40 of the ' Mollusca of 
India.' [This, the type, was outlined with the aid of camera lucida. The 
height of spire is a Tery variable eliaracter in nianv of these species.] 

t2 



276 




[Fig. S3. — Sarama Jcala. 

A. Animal, spirit-specimen, views of right and left sides, shell removed. X 4. 

B. Edge of mantle, left shell-lobe, and left dorsal lobes. X 7. 

C. Generative organs. X 4. 

D. The penis, with a spermatophore forming in the epiphallus. X 7. 
B. The spermatbeca, containing a perfect spermatophore. X 12. 

F. Jaw and teeth of the radula. X 340.] 

[Genus SARIKA. 

Orobia resplendens, Albers, Die Heliceen, 1860, p. 58. 
Nanina (Macrochlamys), G. Nevill, Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 20. 
Sarika, Godivin-Austen, Mol. hid. \i, 1907, p. 179. 

Type, S. resplendens, Phil. 

Range. Tenasserim to Siam. 

Original description : — Shell depressed, flat od base, smooth, 
shining ; whorls very closely wound and regularly increasing. 

Animal with riglit and left mantle-lobes as in Macroclilamys. 
Generative organs differ, the retractor muscle of the penis is very 
large and given off directly at the head of that organ ; no coiled 
caecum ; amatorial organ long, with a rounded terminal knob. 
Spermatophore spineless.] 



SARIK.V. 277 

447. Sarika resplendens, Phil. (Helix) Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1846, 
p. 192; I'fr. (Helix) in. Mart, i^'- Chemn. Conch.-Cab. ed. 2, 
no. iii<^, pi. lit), figs. 7-9; id. (Helix) Mon. lid. i, 1848, p. 56; 
H. S^- T. (Plelix) C. I. 1876, pi. ol, fig. 4; Nevill, Nanina 
(Macrochlaniys), Iland-l. i, 1878, p. 20, pt. ; Godwin-Austen, 
Mol. Ind. i, 1883, pp. 109, 110, pi. 26, figs. 1-3 (shells) ; id. t. c. 
ii, 1898, p. 49; [ii, 1907, p. 179, pi. 111. figs. 3, So (genitalia'), 
pi. 116, figs. 2-2 h (shell aud dorsal lobes and radula)] ; v. Mart. 
Jour. Linn. Soc. xxi, 1889, p. 162. 
Helix subcornea, apud Hcmlei/, C. I. 1876, pi. 149, figs. 2, 3 : nee 
Pfr. 

Shell perforate, depressed, smooth, polished throughout, thin, 
pale, yellowish tawny, without longitudinal sculpture ; spire very 
low, suture well impressed ; whorls 7, convex, regularly increasing, 
the last rounded at the periphery and convex, slightly flattened 
beneath, deeply impressed in the middle ; aperture nearly vertical, 




[Fig. 84. — Sarika re&j)lendens. 

A. Mantle-edge detached from the animal, shell- and dorsal lobes. 

B. The genitalia. 

C. Anterior end of the aniatorial organ. 

D. Teetli of tbe radula. 

E. Jaw.] 

broadly lunate ; peristome thin, almost straight, basal margin 
I'aintly arcuate, columellar oblique, briefly reflected above. 

Major diam. 254, miu. 23|, height 12 mm. 

Hah. Mergui, Tenasserim ; Mergui Archipelago ; also Siam and 
Cambodia. 

In the animal both shell-lobes are well developed, as in Macro- 
Mamys indiea. Neck-lobes small. There is a long flagellum-like 



1 i O ZONITIDiE. 

kalc-sac, a long spermatheca, and a large dart-sac or amatorial 
organ. The formula for the radula is : 42 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 42 
(54 . 1 . 54). [The jaw has no central projection.] 

[External characters, such as the shell-lobes present, led me in 
1898 (Mol. Ind.) to place this species in Maerocldamys, but it 
differs in many respects from the typical Indian species of that 
genus. Further material received since has shown the internal 
anatomy to be very different. 

The penis-sheath enlarges upwards from the generative aper- 
ture to the broad, rather flat, and long retractor muscle. The 
epi phallus is long, and where it is joined by the vas deferens 
a kalk-sac nearly as long is given ofl^. Within the length of the 
epipliallus in this specimen a spermatophore was in an advanced 
stage of development, the sac of which is indicated by the swelling 
close to the vas deferens. The spermatheca is very long, a 
narrow tube swelling into an elongate, pear-shaped, thin-walled 
sac. This contained a single perfectly formed spermatophore. 
The amatorial organ is very large and thickened, the free end 
terminating in a very blunt globose knob. The rest of the 
generative organs do not call for any special mention. 

The spermatophore differs in detail from any I have yet been 
fortunate to come across {vide spermatheca, tig. 84, B); the flume is 
very long, quite free of spines on the side, 2 or 3 large ones only 
at the base of the capsule, which is elongately oval, with very 
transparent sides and Avith the usual cap-like terminal end. It is 
thus on the mould of spermatophores of species of the genera 
Oirasia and Austenia &c., but shows very interesting variation in 
minor detail, supporting the conclusion I have arrived at, that 
this species resplendens cannot be retained in MacrocMamys, but 
forms a good aud distinct genus. 

The animals of resphndens and of the Siamese species S.pumicata, 
Morelet, are much nearer that of Xesta type citrina, but the concho- 
logical differences are very great. The closely-wound depressed 
shell of resplendens and its allies presents characters which cannot 
be overlooked, and they help considerably in separating this group 
of the Zonitidse fi'om MacrocMamys on one hand and Xcsta on 
the other.] 

Hanley's figure (C. I. pi. 51, fig. 4) agrees fairly with Pfeiffer's 
aud would appear to be some other species. Eeeve's figure 
(Conch. Ic. no. 430) is something different. Many different 
shells are found in various collections under this name. The 
description above is from a Mergui specimen in Col. Godwin- 
Austen's Collection. 

448. Sarika burmana, Pfr. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1857, p. 107 ; id. Mon. 
Hel. iv, 1859, p. 42 ; H. 8f T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, p. vii. 
Helix acerra, Bs. A. 31. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 389; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel V, 1868, p. 100 ; H. 4; T. C. I. 1876, pi. 51, fig. 2 ; v. Mart. 
(Macrochlamys) Jour. Li7in. Sac. xxi, 1889, p. 162 ; Kobelt 
(Macrocblatnys), Mart. ${ Chonn. Syst. Conch.-Cab. ed. 2, 1901, 
Naninidaj, p. "1020, pi. 263, fig. 1. 



SARIKA. — TAPUliOSPXllA. 279 

Shell perforate, depressed, rather solid, without sculpture, 
\\hite, with a brownish-yellow band above the periphery and 
inside the suture ; spire low, conoid, suture scarcely impressed ; 
whorls 7, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last rounded at 
the peripliery and convex beneath ; aperture oblique, broadly 
lunate ; peristouio blunt, slightly thickened, columellar margin 
oblique and slightly curved throughout, reflected above. 

Major diam. 25, min. 23, height 12 mm. 

Hah. Mergui, Burma ; Mergui Archipelago {Ayiderson). 

Hauley has united burmaim and acerra. The spiral band of 
the former has not been observed in the latter, which is slightly 
larger and more depressed : 28 x 25 x 11 mm. 

Genus TAPHROSPIRA. 

Taphrospira, W. T. BJf. P. Z. S. 190.5, p. 441 : [Godwui-Austen, 
Mol. Ind. ii, p. 177, pi. Ill, figs. 1-1/ (animal and anatomy)]. 

Type, T. coavallata, Bs. 

Range. Assam Hills, Burma, Tenasserim, and the Andaman 
Islands. 

Shell depressed, thin, horny, resembhng MacrocJdunujs, but with 
a deep groove just outside the suture throughout the whorls. 

Anatomy not known. 

[For a long time the position shells of this form should fill has 
been one of considerable doubt ; it was placed provisionally in 
Macroclilamys. Tajihrosjnni proves to be a very distinct genus, 
not only by shell-character, on which Dr. W. T. JBlanford founded 
it, but also still more conclusively on the character of the animal. 
It is like MacrocJdamys only as regards the right shell-lobe ; the 
ample left shell-lobe resembles that of species of Ausienia. The 
absence of the amatorial organ is the strongest point which 
differentiates it both from Maa-oMamys and Austenia. The penis 
is more like Austenia than typical Macroclilamijs, so also is the 
spermatophore.j 

449. Taphrospira convallata, Z?.s. (Helix) ^. M. N. II. (2) xviii, 1856, 
p. 250 ; Ffr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 40 ; //. 4- T. (Helix) 
C. /. 1876, pi. 88, figs. 2, 3 ; Nevill (Xauina), Hand-l. i, 1878, 
p. 28 ; V. Mart. Jour. Linn. Soc. xxi, 1889, p. 162, 

Shell minutely perforate, subglobosely depressed, thin, smooth, 
greyish horny ; spire depressedly conoid, suture deeply but not 
broadly canaliculate ; whorls 6-7, closely wound, all except the 
innermost sharply angulate above near the suture, the last 
rounded, not descending, convex below; aperture scarcely obliquo, 
lunate, angulate above and with an indentation corresponding to 
the sutural canal ; peristome thin, slightly arcuate externally and 
basally, columellar margin oblique, slightly expanded throughout, 
more broadly above. 

Major diam. 144, min. 13, height 8 mm. 



280 ZONITID.^. 

Hah. Tenasserim Valley, Therapon Hill {Theobald)-, Mergui 
Archipelago {Anderson). Nevill adds Pegu, but evidently in error. 

Animal not known. No fresh specimen is available, and it is 
uncertain whether microscopic striatiou occurs. A large shell 
measures 16, 144, and 8| mm. 

450. Taphrospira compluvialis, Blf. (Nanina) J. A. S. B. 1865, 2, 
p. G6; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 103; Blf. P. Z. S. 1904, 
ii, p. 442, pi. 25, lig. 4. 

Shell perforate, subglobosely depressed, thin, pale horny, 
translucent, with very fine, close, microscopic, longitudinal striation 
above and below ; spire very low, suture deeply and broadly 
canaliculate ; whorls 4|, sharply angulate above at edge of sutural 
groove, the last descending somewhat towards the mouth, rounded, 
at the periphery and convex beneath ; aperture oblique, roundly 
lunate, about as high as broad, angular and emargiuate above at 
the suture ; peristome thin, scarcely sinuate, columellar margin 
much curved, expanded, vertical, and more broadly reflected above. 

Major diam. 10, min. 9, height 6| mm. 

Hah. Arakan Hills, west side. 

Distinguished from T. convaUata by fewer whorls, much broader 
sutural channel, more oblique and rounder aperture, &c. The 
animal is very dark in colour, and resembles Macrochlamys 
generally, but its anatomy has not been examined. 



451. Taphrospira excavata, Blf. P. Z. S. 1904, ii, p. 441, pi. 25, fig. 3. 
Helix compluvialis, H. 8)- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 88, tigs. 1, 4; ^^evm 

(Nanina), Iland-l. i, 1878, p. 27, pt. : 7icc Naniua compluvialis, 
Blf. 1865. 

Shell similar to that of T. compluvialis, but larger and more 
globose, the microscopic longitudinal strise on the Avhorls are 
farther apart and shallower. The aperture is large and rouud and 
the columellar margin only expanded at the perforation, the mouth 
is less oblique than in T. compluvialis and there is little or no 
descent of the last whorl. Whorls 5. 

Major diam. 15, min. 13, height 9 mm. 

Hah. North Cachai', Asix\\x {Godiuin- Austen); also Khasi Hills 
and Assam {Nevill). 

452. Taphrospira bathycharax, Bs. MS.-. Theob. Cat. p. 17 (no 

description) ; Gochvin-Avsten, A. M. A. H. (6) ii, 1888, p. 56 ; 
id. P. Z. S. 1895, p. 441 ; Fulton, Jour. Mai. x, p. 99 (1903). 
Macrochlamys subconvallata, Fulton, I. c. 

Resembles T. compluvialis, but is much more depressed. Shell 
perforate, depressed, thin, brownish horny, polished, very finely 
and closely longitudinally striated above and below ; spire 
very low, suture broadly canaliculate ; whorls 5-5|, the last not 



TAPHEOSPTUA.. 



281 




[Fig. 85. — Taphrospira hathycharax. 

A. Animal, spirit-specimen, viewed from right and left sides, showing 

the large left shell-lobe, the latter turned down, exposing the 
under surface. X 3'6. 

B. The mantle-edge, with the left dorsal lobe, viewed from beneath. 

x6-4. 

C. Genitalia, the spermatheca containing sperm atophores. X 6"4. 

D. Spermatophores. X 19'2. 

E. Jaw and teeth of the radula. X 368.] 



282 ZONITID^. 

descending ; aperture much lower than in T. comjiluvialis, 
eolumellar margin of peristome oblique. 

Major diam. 11, min. 10, height 5 mm. 

Hab. South Andaman, Port Blair. 

[The animal of Taphrosjnra hathycharax, Bs. MS., a close ally 
of T. convallata, Bs., from the South Andaman Island, is as 
follows : — 

Animal ochraceous, dark grey on the extremity of foot ; mucous 
gland overhung by a pointed termination. Sole of foot divided ; 
usual peripodial grooves with a broad margin below. 

The right shell-lobe is long and fairly broad at base, and in life 
probably very extensible over the shell. The left shell-lobe is 
very broad and smooth and must spread over a large surface of 
the shell. The dorsal lobes are all small, the left in two parts, 
the posterior situated under the left shell-lobe and distant from 
tii.e anterior lobe. The wall of the branchial chamber is sparsely 
spotted. The animal examined was in an excellent state of preser- 
vation, the generative organs at their full maturitj'". The most 
notable thing is the absence of the amatorial organ. The penis 
is elongate, there is a short kale-sac contiguous to the junction 
of the vas deferens, followed by a moderately long epiphallus, up 
to the penis, nniscle retractor ; there is no cascum, the tube bends 
on itself and soon expands into a convoluted mass with an indis- 
tinct coiled appearance when looked at with transmitted light, 
thence it becomes much narrower and leads away towards the 
generative aperture. The above swollen aperture looks as if we 
had here the representative of the coiled caecum of Macrochlamys 
much modified and separated from the retractor muscle. The 
spermatheca is elongate, and contains three spermatophores 
beautifully preserved ; the walls of the sac were of necessity much 
stretched and transparent. The uterus and ovo-testis do not call 
for any attention. 

The spermatophore recalls that of Austenia r/ir/as. The flume 
is very long with a bunch of fine bifid delicate spines at its basal 
end ; for about two-thirds of its length it is straight-edged and 
spineless, six spines then occur at very equal distances apart, up 
to the junction of the flume and capsule, which is long and 
cylindrical, terminating in a thin whip-hke appendage, but the 
cap-like end of the capsule seen in other species is not present in 
this one. The most striking feature of this spermatophore is 
the large single antler-like process at the terminal end of the 
flume, having six points, and these again bifid, very similar in this 
respect to A. gigas. 

Jaw semicircular, with a central projection. 

The radula formula is 

+ 18. 2. 9. 1.9. 2. 18-1- 
+ 29 . 1 . 29 -I- 

Central tooth tricuspid, admedians bicuspid, of usual form in 
MacrocJdamys.~\ 



SOPHIN.l, 



283 



[Subfamily SOPPIININ.E. 

The single genus SojyJiina. 

The form of the shell with its more or less developed umbilical 
keel, together with the very dilfereut type of radula, distinguishes 
it from the preceding subfamilies. 

The animal possesses ample broad right and left shell-lobes, 
also a very large and entire left dorsal lobe. Tlie radula presents 
teeth of similar shape throughout the row, pyramidal in shape, 
sharply pointed, springing from an obtusely rounded basal plate. 
There are 80-100 teeth in the row.] 

Genus SOPHINA. 

Sophiua, Benso7i, A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 473 ; id. t. .. (3) v, 
1860, p. 26 ; id. t. c. (3) xi, 1863, p. 323 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 1871, 
2, p. 252; [Godioin-Austen, Mol. Iml ii, 1907, p. 221, pi. 115, 
rigs. 5, 5 rt (animal), pi. 116, fig-. 3 (anatomy)]. 

Type, *S^. calias, Bs. 
Range. Tenasserim Provinces. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed or globosely depressed, thui, horny, 
generally resembling Macrochlamijs except that the columella is 




[Fig. 86. — SopJtina s<.-kisfostelis. 

A. Animal viewed from the right and left sides, shell remoyed to show 

shell- and dorsal lobes. X t-4. 

B. Genitalia. X 1"4. 

C Jaw, enlarged (after Stoliczka). 

D. Teeth of radula (ditto), 5th'and 14th, lateral view of.] 



284 ZONITID.^. 

thickened, formiDg a sharp angle Avith the basal margin of the 
peristome, and with a notch at the angle from which a keel rune 
round the umbilicus. 

The animal (taken from Stoliczka's description of S. calias, 
? S. schistostelis) is fully retractile within the shell. The foot is 
elongate, very narrow, with a distinct peripodial groove, the 
posterior end obliquely truncate, occupied by a large high gland, 
above which is a distinct horn-like appendage. The sole has 
two longitudinal grooves dividing it into three subequal parts, 
the middle rather narrower than the other two. Eye-pedicels 
about half the length of the body ; tentacles about one-fourth the 
length of the eye-pedicels. 

Mantle conspicuously thickened near the margin. The left shell- 
lobe is very large, entire, reflected OA'er the edge of the outer 
lips of the shell and below considerably produced. The right lobe 
is divided into two parts : the upper is licguate, narrowly produced 
and covering the base of the shell, partially also extending on to 
the upper surface of the penultimate whorl, as in Macrochlamys ; 
the lower portion is shorter, somewhat folded and reflected over 
the columellar lip. The dorsal lobes are Avell developed and entire. 
Genital opening at the upper somewhat outer base of the right 
eye-pedicel. 

The general anatomical structure offers nothing very peculiar. 
The kidney is an elongate, rather granular than plicated gland, 
placed at the side of the heart ; it possesses a special long duct 
accompanying the rectus and terminating a little short of the 
anus. 

[Stoliczka thus describes the genitalia : — 

" The genital organs chiefly occupy the anterior part of the 
body. The arrow-sac is short and thick, with an enclosed, thick, 
pointed papilla. The uterus, accompanied by the prostata, is very 
long, thick, the former has a yellowish colour with a greenish 
tinge, the latter is purely white ; terminal albuminous gland of 
moderate size, slightly thickened ; hermaphrodite gland large, 
rather flatly depressed, connected with the uterus by a long 
twisted duct. The vas deferens branches off' a short distance from 
the hermaphrodite opening : in about three-fifths of its length 
from its origin it has a long pointed appendage, consisting of 
strong tissue, filled with minute, elhptical, calcareous secretions ; 
this appendage is attached by a special muscle close to the place 
of attachment of the arrow-sac ; the last two-fifths of the vas 
deferens gradually widens and towards the end the simple tube 
consists internally of remarkably soft muscular tissue, but there is 
iio papilla present. The receptaculum seminis is a globular gland, 
attached to a long slightly twisted string, originating from the 
oviduct quite close to the hermaphrodite opening." 

It is apparent from this description and the figure that 
accompanies it that these organs were not at their full state of 
development, and were long and string-like in appearance. Those 
dissected lately by me were in a much more advanced stage (see 



SOPHIJiTA. 285 

fig. 87). The sperinatheca is globular at the free end, but on a 
strong thick base. The vas deferens is given off from a bulbous 
expansion of the penis-tube close below the junction of the thick 
strong retractor muscle. The shaft of the male organ to the 
generative aperture is peculiarly long. The amatorial organ is 
short and thick with well-developed pointed papilla. 

"The jaw of calias is broadly semilunar, thin, apparently smooth, 
but when moderately enlarged and viewed in transparent light a 
distinct concentric striation is percej^tible, and there are some very 
minute radiating lines to be observed near the middle part. 

" The radula is elongately quadrangular, consisting of about 35 
to 50 transverse rows of teeth, meeting at sharp angles in the 
middle line ; there are about 80-100 teeth in each row. They are 
all of a similar shape, pyramidal, sharply pointed and attenuated 
in the front, gradually becoming wider and terminating with an 
obtusely rounded base. The middle tooth is slightly contracted 
below tlie middle, it is symmetrical ; the laterals are gradually more 
bent outwards on either side and possess on the outer side near the 
point a rounded and angular projection ; the angle appears to be 
directed posteriorly ; the outermost teeth are quite simple. The 
teeth of S. discoidalls aud conjungens are exactly similar to those 
of calias, only comparatively smaller." (Stoliczha.) 

The genus SopJiina is perhaps the most interesting in the family 
Zonitidse; it is the most aberrant of all I have examined. It 
presents departure from the ordinaiy type, particularly from those 
which the form of the shell recalls. The most striking character 
is the radula; there is nothing approaching the peculiar simple 
form of the teeth in any known genus of the family. Xext, the 
large, broad, left dorsal lobe, entire for its whole length, without 
a trace of a slit. This cliaracter is that of an old Peninsular India 
group met with in Ariophanta {NUghiria) solata, AriopJianta 
tranqnebarica, and with a slight slit about halfway in Xestina 
ligulata, basileus, and chemd. The peculiar structure of the 
columellar margin is probably due to this mantle-lobe and the large 
left shell-lobe combined ; the latter being tongue-like and extendino- 
far back, it would be close to and play around the umbilicus. 

With regard to the distribution of Sophina, it is an interesting 
point whether it is the remnant of a genus at one period more 
widely spread than it is at present along the narrow belt of the 
Tenasserim coast, or whether it is of more recent and local develop- 
ment. The former seems to me to be the most likely, although 
there is no Indian genus at present known with which it can be 
linked up. It is the associate, as Stoliczka points out, writing of 
the physical features of Moulmein, of several very peculiar "and 
interesting genera, which are known now to range further than 
when be wrote. There is a large extent of country yet to be 
explored to the northward, and species related to Sophina may be 
looked for on the flanks of the great gneissic backbone of the 
Malay Peninsula, and away into the Shan country and Upper 
Burma.] 



286 ZONITIDiE. 

[453. SopMna calias, B^. (Ilelix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 472 ; 

id. op. cit. (8) V, 1860, p. 26; Pfr. (Helix) Mo>«. Hel. v, 1868, 

p. 112 ; H. 8r T. C. I. 1876, pi. 147, figs. 2, 3 ; Nevill, Nanina 

(Sopliina) Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 52. 
Sophina discoidalis, Stol. J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, p. 258, pi. 19, figs. 5, 

11, 12; lyr. Helix (Sopliina), Mo7i. Hel. vii, 1876, p. 117; 

H. S,' T. C. I. 1876, pi. 147, fig. 7 ; Nevill, Hmid-l. i, 1878, p. 52 
Sopliina scliistostelis, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, p. 473 

(3) V, 1860, p. 27 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. iii ; id. 

t. c. Tii. 1876, p. 116; H. S>- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 147, figs. 5, 6 

Nevill, Nanina (Sophina), Hnnd-l. i, 1878, p. 52. 
Sophina calias, Stol. J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, p. 225, pi. 19, figs. 1-4 & 

7-9 (anatomy and shell). 
Fig. 87, A, A'. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressedly orbiculate,solid,obliquely 
striated, pale horny; spire flat, apex slightly raised, obtuse, suture 
marginate ; whorls 5, convex, moderately increasing, the last 
rounded at the circumference, below slightly convex ; aperture 
broadly lunate, suboblique ; peristome sti-aight, acute, the colu- 
mellar margin obHquely descending, thickened, slightly reflected, 
at base narrowly notched, extremity o£ notch keeled umbilicately, 
forming a gradual spiral receding within the narrow umbilicus. 
Large species : major diam. 15, min. 13-5, alt. axis 6 mm. 
Ordinary size : ,, „ 9, „ 7"5, „ „ 4 ,, 
Eah. Near Moulmein at the Farm Caves and Tavoy {Theobald) , 
The specimens from Tavoy are very solid and milky white in 
colour. The adult shell always shows two periods of growth, the 
position of the old aperture showing as a varix on the last 
whorl.] 

[454. Sophina schistostelis, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) iii, 1859, 

p. 473, (3) v. 1860, p. 27; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. Ill; 

id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 116 ; H. 4- T. (Sophina) C. I. 1876, pi. 147, 

fiffs. 5, 6; Nevill, Nanina (Sophina), Hand-l. \, 1878, p. 52. 

Sophina calias, Stol. J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, p. 225, pi. 19, figs. 1-4 & 

7-9 (anatomv and shell). 
Vide fig. 86, p.' 283 ; tig. 87, B, B'. 

Shell perforate, globosely depressed, thin, smooth, irregularly 
transversely striate, translucent, shiny, pale horny ; spire short, 
apex slightly elevated, obtuse, suture impressed and marginate ; 
whorls 4;i-5|, above and below sKghtly convex, rounded on the 
last ; apertur'e subrotundately lunate ; peristome thin, straight ; 
columellar margin vertical, thickened slightly, forming with the 
basal margin of the peristome a deep notch or cleft, compressed 
into a sharp keel round the umbilicus and retreating within it. 

Specimen described: major diam. 16, min. 13-5, axis 8-5 mm. 
(Specimen described by Benson.) 

Hah. Near Moulmein. 

This species can be determined at once by the deep cleft, which 
is longer and deeper than in any other species of the genus.] 



SOPHINA. 



287 




[Fig. 87. — Species of Sophina. 

A. Sophina caluis. X 3. 
A'. Coluiiiellar margin and notch witli nmbilical keel of same. X 8'25. 

B, B'. Sophina schistostelis. 

C, C '. ,, discoidalis. 

D, D'. „ conjungens. 

E, E '. „ forabilis, var. bensoni, 

F, F'. „ forabilis. 

F''. „ „ showing notch. 

c, columellar margin ; /), peristome ; />:, umbilical keel ; n, notch.] 



288 ZOXITIDiE. 

[455. Sophina discoidalis, Stol. J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, p. 258, pi. 19, 

figs. 5, 11, 12; Pfr. Helix (Sophina), Mon. Hel. vii, 1876, 
p. 117 ; H. Sf- T. (Sophina) C. /. 187G, pi. 147, .fig. 7 ; Nevill, 
Nanina (Sophina), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 52, 
Fig. 87, C, C, p. 287. 

Shell depressed, subdiscoid, openly umbilicated, circular in 
shape, thin, pale horny, sometimes with a rufous baud near the 
periphery; whorls 5-5 1, closely and regularly wound, slightly 
convex, transverse striae very minute and close, suture depressed, 
and below the suture spiral impressed lines not very distinct, 
apes a little prominent ; aperture semilunate, subvertical, the 
columellar margin short, thickened, oblique, reflected slightly at 
the base, with a shallow notch, forming a pronounced sharp keel 
within the umbilicus, seen perspectively and regularly to the apex. 

Sp. B.M. : major diara. 10*5, min. 9'5, axis 4*5 mm. 

Hah. Moulmein Limestone Hills, Ataran Eiver (Theobald).'] 



[456. Sophina conjungens, Stol. J. A. S. B. 1871, 2, p. 257, pi. 19, 
figs. 6, 13 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. y\\, 1876, p. 118 ; H. 8f T. 
(Sophina) C. 1. 1876, pi. 147, figs. 8, 9 ; Nevill, Nanina (Sophina), 
Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 52. 
Fig. 87, D, D'. 

Shell globosely orbiculate, slightly depressed, thin, transparent, 
openly umbilicated ; sculpture none, transverse lines of growth ; 
colour horny pale sienna tint ; spire depressedly conic ; suture 
shallow ; whorls 5, very convex, tumid, increasing regularly ; 
aperture ovately lunate, oblique; peristome thin; columellar margin 
nearly vertical, slightly reflected, thin, very feebly notched at base 
at junction of the peristome, forming an indistinct umbilical 
keel. 

Specimen in British Museum, from Stoliczka : major diam. 12, 
min. 10^, alt. axis 5 mm. 

Locality. South of Moulmein.] 

[457. Sophina forabilis, Benson, A. M. N. H. (.3) iii, 1859, p. 389 
(emend, char.), p. 473; Pfr. (HeUx) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 112 ; 
H. ^- T. (Sophina) C. J. 1876, pi. 147, figs. 1, 4; Nevill, 
Nanina (Sophina), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 52. 
Fig. 87, F-F". 

Shell semiglobosely conoid, very openly and perspectively um- 
bilicated, transversely striate ; sculpture under high power very 
fine longitudinal striation on the upper whorls, beneath and 
around the umbilical keel the striae become quite coarse and 
distant ; colour horny brown ; spire conoidly depressed, apex 
rising slightly, subobtuse ; whorls 5i-6, convex, rather rapidly 
increasing, rounded on the periphery, aperture roundly and 
obliquely lunate ; peristome vertical, acute ; columella sinuate, 
somewhat thickened, at the junction with the peristome is a fold 



SOPniXA. — HEMIPLECTA. 289 

or slioi't close cleft forming a very sharp keel, continuous up the 
umbilicus. 

Size specimen figured : major diam, 8, min. 7*5, alt. 4 mm. 

Large spec, in Brit. Mus. : „ „ 9, „ 8-5, „ 4 „ 

Ilah. Damotha, near Moulmein. Figured specimen from the 
Godwin-Austen collection : received fx*om Stoliczka. 

This species may be known from all others of this genus by 
the coarse spiral striation on the basal side.] 

[458. Sophina forabilis, var. bensoni. Vide fig. 87, E, E'. 

Shell globosely conoid, uiiibilicated ; surface smooth, not polished ; 
colour umber-brown ; spire depressedly conoid, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5, increasing regularly, the last two rather more rapidly, 
rounded on the periphery; aperture ovately lunate, oblique, 
columellar margin subvertical, very slightly thickened, forming a 
sharp angle with the peristome, but no notch, the angle continued 
perspectively as a blunt keel within the umbilicus. 

Size: major diam. 7*5, min. 6-5, height axis 4 mm. 

Hah. Damotha, near Moulmein (Sioliczka). 

Three specimens of this shell received by me from Eerd. Stoliczka 
in the same tube with >S^. forabilis, but the absence of striation in 
the umbilical region and the different form of umbilical keel are 
sufficient to distinguish the species. It is very close to S. conjungens, 
but much smaller. Several examples named forabilis in the British 
Museum collection agree with this form.] 

Genus HEMIPLECTA. 

Hemiplecta, Alters, Reliceen, 1850, p. GO; Godwin-Austen, Mol. 
hid. ii, 1898, p. 70. 

Type, H. humplireysiana. Lea, from Singapore. [Fig. 88, A-D.] 

Range. Burma, Siam, the Malay Peninsula and part of the 
Malay Archipelago. Species from the peninsula of India formerly 
referred to this genus are now known to belong to Ariophanta. 

Shell perforate or umbilicated, subterminate or depressed, rather 
sohd; whorls regularly increasing; aperture lunate; peristome 
obtuse, sometimes more or less thickened. 

Animal with both right and left shell-lobes developed, but small ; 
dorsal lobes large, the left divided into two parts. ^Mucous pore 
large, sometimes with an overhanging lobe above. Foot divided 
longitudinally beneath. 

In the generative organs the dart-sac is very large and cylin- 
drical, the spermatheca small and pear-shaped ; the retracted 
muscle of the penis attached at about two-thirds of the length from 
the distal extremity to the junction of the vas deferens, without 
any free caecum. jSTo kale-sac. 

Kadula long and broad, with many teeth in a row. In 
H. humplireysiana Godwin- Austen found 1653 rows, each contain- 
ing 125 . 2 . 20 . 1 . 20 . 2 . 125 (147 . 1 . 147) teeth. The 



290 



ZONITID.i:. 



median and adinedian are almost triangular, without distinct 
lateral cusps. The outer laterals are unicuspid at first, bat soon 
become bicuspid and towards the margin are small and narrow. 

As the animals of the Burmese forms referred to Hemiplecta, 
with the exception of H. uter, are imperfectly known or un- 
known, it is doubtful whether all belong to the present genus. 




[Fig. 88. — Hemiplecia kuiyqyhret/siana. 

A. Animal, spirit-specimen, viewed from left side, X 1'8. 

B. Ditto, ditto, viewed from the anterior and lower side, X 1' 
0. Genitalia, natural size. 

D, Teeth of the radula, X 276 ; jaw, X 6. 



Hemijplecta uter. 
E. Teeth of the radula, X 276 ; jaw, X 6.] 



HEMIPLECTA.. 291 



A. Subturbinate. 

459. Hemiplecta Uter, Theobald (Helix), J. A. S. B. xxviii, 1859, 

p. 30.5 ; Ffr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 1868, p. 227 ; H. i^' T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1870, pi. oO, rigs. 7, 8; Nevill (^^m\m), Hand-l. i, 1878, 
p. 30 ; Godioin- Austen, Mol. hid. ii, 1898, p. 77, pi. 82, rigs. 1-1 d 
(raclula). 
[Fig. 88, E.j 

Shell openly perforate, depressedly turbinate, thin, yellowish 
white, ornamented with lines of growth obliquely crossed by small 
flexuous irregular ridges and furrows, which disappear a little 
below the periphery, the lower surface being smooth and finely de- 
cussated ; spire conoidal, apex acute, suture impressed ; whorls 5, 
slightly convex above, the last scarcely descending, keeled at the 
periphery, rounded below ; aperture oblique, roundly lunate, about 
as broad as high ; peristome thin, straight, columeUar margin 
vertical above and triangularlj'' reflected. 

Major diam. 27, min. 24, height 17 mm. 

Hab. Near Moulmein and hills west of Toungoo {Theohald). 

Animal with a very small lobe above the mucous pore. Small 
shell-lobes to mantle. Teeth of radula similar to those of 
H. humpTireysiana : 77 . 38 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 38 . 77 (125 . 1 . 125). 

B. Dei~)ressed. 

460. Hemiplecta undosa, BIf. (Nauiua) J. A. S. B. 1865, 2, p. 68 ; 

r/r. (Helix) Mon. Hel. v, 18G8, p. 161 ; M. ^- T. (HeHx) C. I. 
1870, pi. 3, figs. 2, 3 ; Nevill, Nanina (Hemiplecta), Hand-l. i, 
1878, p. 47. 

Shell rather narrowly umbilicated, conoidly depressed, rather 
solid, whitish, in dead shells marked above by oblique strice, crossed 
by irregular series of close spiral (longitudinal) impressed lines, 
smoother beneath, the concentric lines becoming fainter below the 
periphery ; spire low, conoid, apex obtuse, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5, rather rapidly increasing, convex above, the last broader, 
subangulate at the periphery, rounded beneath ; aperture diagonal, 
roundly lunate, as broad as high ; peristome simple, straight, 
columellar margin oblique, slightly carried forward and reflected 
above. 

Major diam. 36, min. 31, height 21 mm. 

Hah. Shan Hills, east of Mandalay, Burma. 

This species somewhat resembles the Singapore //. humphreysiana 
in form and sculpture. Only dead decorticated specimens were 
originally obtained, but fresh shells may have a yellowish or 
brownish epidermis. Hanley's figure represents a shell with 
strong oblique sculpture, a distinct keel at the periphery, and yel- 
lowish in colour, and may represent a distinct species or variety. 

H. zimmai/ensis, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 241, from 
Zimme (Chieng Mai) in Siam, is a large umber-brown species, 2^ 

L-2 



292 zunitiDjK. 

inches in diameter, and allied to the common Siamese Hemiphcta 
distincta, Pfr., of which it may be a variety. No specimens have 
hitherto been obtained within Bi'itish territory in Tenasserim, but 
it is not improbable that, like other Siamese shells, it may be 
found. 

461. Hemiplecta ? textrina, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (2) xviii, 1866, 

p. 252 ; Pfr. ( Helix) Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, p. 58 ; Mf. (Nanina) 
J. A. S. B. 1865, 2, p. 87 ; //. if T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 52, 
figs. 2, 5; Nevill (Nauiiia), Hand-l. i, 1878, p. 32 ; Godwin-Austen 
(Macrochlamys), Mol. Ind. i. 1883, pi. 21, fig. 37 (sculpture). 

Shell perforate, depressed to conoidly depressed, rather thin, 
pale rufescent to whitish horny, the whorls transversely striated 
above and decussated with fine impressed spiral lines, smoother 
beneath, and the decussating liues gradually disappearing on the 
base towards the perforation ; spire varying from very low to 
depressedly conoid, suture slightly impressed; whorls 5^-6|, 
flattish, gradually increasing, the last varying from subangulate 
to distinctly angulate at the periphery, generally slightly angulate, 
convex beneath ; aperture slightly oblique, broadly lunate ; peri- 
stome obtuse, slightly thickened and opaque white inside ; basal 
margin almost straight, slightly arcuate, columellar short, sinuate, 
oblique, moderately reflected above. 

Major diam. 29, min. 25, axis 15 mm. 

Hah. Western Pegu and Arakan as far north as Akyab. 

The animal has a small lobe above the mucous caudal gland, 
and the foot is flatter than in Macrochlamys. Colour light grey ; 
genitalia and radula undescribed. 

A large shell measures 36, 31, and 18 mm., a small one, with the 
spire higher than usual, 25, 22, and 14^. Shells from the neigh- 
bourhood of Thayetmyo and Prome have the periphery much 
less angulate than those from Bassein. 

This species and //. theodori may possibly belong to Macro- 
chlamys, but they are more probably members of the present genus 
or nearly allied to it. 

462. Hemiplecta theodori, Phil. (Helix) Zeitschr. Mai. 1846, p. 191 ; 

Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. i, 1848, p. 70 ; id. t. c. vii, 1876, p. 122 ; 
H. tf T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 59, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell openly perforate, depressed, sublenticular, pale yellowish 
tawny, rather thin, subcostulately striated, the stria) decussated 
by spiral (longitudinal) impressed lines ; spire low, apex obtuse, 
suture impressed ; whorls 6-6^, convex above, the last bluntly 
angulate at the periphery, descending near the mouth in adults, 
moderately tumid beneath ; aperture oblique, almost diagonal, 
broadly lunate ; peristome white, slightly thickened inside, outer 
margin broadly sinuate, columellar curved, oblique, briefly reflected 
above. 

Major diam. (of adult from Ataran) 26^, min. 24, height 



HEMIPLECTA. 293 

13 mm. Another specimen measures 24 x 21 x 10| ; au immature 
shell from Mergui 27 X 23| x 13. 

Hah. Mergui {Pliilippi), Taiiglaw, Teuasserim valley ; Ataraa 
Valley {Theobald) ; top oi" Muleyit {Fea). 

The type described by Philippi a])pears to have been immature, 
as was certainly the shell figured by Pfeiiier in Mart. & Chemn. 
Conch. -Cab. 2nd ed. no. 687, pi. 110,' tigs. 1-3. The two specimens 
obtained by Theobald from Ataran, now in the British Museum, 
ai'e probably the first adult shells described. 

This species is distinguished from //. textrina by much coarser 
sculpture, descending last whorl, and more oblique and small 
aperture. 

463. Hemiplecta ? gordoniae, Bs. (Helix) A. M. N. H. (3) xi, 18G.3, 

p. 87 ; Ffr. (HeHx) Man. Hel. v, 18G8, p. 402 ; IL S^- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1870, pi. 27, hg. 42. 

Shell perforate, orbiculate, depressed, rather thin, whitish, above 
obliquely striated on inner whorls, plicate on outer whorls, beneath 
smooth, radiately striated, and decussated by subdistant concentric 
impressed lines ; spire almost flat, apex slightly raised, obtuse, 
suture impressed ; whorls 7, slowly increasing, slightly convex, 
outer whorls concave outside near suture, the last sharply and 
compressedly keeled, not descending ; aperture nearly vertical, 
broad, angularly lunate ; peristome obtuse, white, slightly thick- 
ened inside, basal margin arcuate, columellar short, slightly reflected 
at perforation. 

Major diam. 33, min. 30, axis 11 mm. 

Hah. Nidoung Toung, Ataran Valley, near Moulmein. 

The altinities of this species are very doubtful, and it may belong 
to the Helicidae. 

464. Hemiplecta ? auriettae, Tapp. Canpfri, Nanina (Macrochlamys), 

Ann. Mas. Civ. Gen. xxvii, 1889, p. 318, pi. 8, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, suborbiculately depressed, sub- 
angulate at the periphery, rather thin, closely and stz'ongly decus- 
sated above, silky, olivaceous, glossy beneath, paler, and radiately 
striated ; spire but little raised, apex obtuse ; whorls 6|, slowly- 
increasing, the last not descending, slightly flattened at the base ; 
aperture slightly oblique, regularly ovately lunate ; peristome 
simple, acute, margins remote, columellar oblique, briefly reflected 
over the umbilicus above at its insertion. 

Major diam. 24, min. 21, height 10^ mm. 

Hal. Muleyit, Teuasserim, at about 6000 feet elevation (F(?rt, 
Beddome). 

The suture is lightly impressed and not as represented in the 
figure. The sculpture resembles that of Euplecta indica. 
§^The aflinities of the species are doubtful ; it may belong to the 
Helicidaj. 



29J: 



ZOJflTID^. 



Genus HAUGHTONIA. 

Subgenus Ilauglitonia, Godwin- Austen, Mol. Ind. ii. 1899, p. 120. 

Type, H. conferta, Pfr. 
Bange. The Andaman Islands. 

Shell perforate, subglobose, rather solid, with a thick epidermis 
and distinct spiral striation ; whorls about 5 ; apei'ture oblique ; 









^.fO'/?/^ 



[Fig. 89. — Havghfonia conferta. 

A. Animal, viewed from the right side. X I'T. 

B. The mantle-edge and dorsal lobes detached. X 1'5. 

C. The mantle-edge in Tioinity of the respiratory orifice, showing the 

rudimentary right snell-lobe. X 6'8. 

D. Genitalia. X 1-9. 

E. The male organ, from two diffei'eut sides. X 1'4. 

F. The jaw. X 6. 

G. Teeth of the radula. X 18?,] 



HAUGHTOITIA, 295 

peristome straight, in one plane, slightly thickened within, 
coluniellar margin with a small tooth-like swelling. 

Animal with a short foot behind, the sole not divided, mucous 
pore large, no overhanging lobe. Eight shell-lobe rudimentary, 
left wanting, anterior left dorsal lobe distinctly separate from the 
posterior. Male organ bent on itself, to which bend the retractor 
muscle is attached, a long tube connecting this bend with the small 
globose kale-sac ; penis distally to the bend forming a short tube 
leading to a swollen bulbous portion, to which succeeds a short 
broad sheath adjoining the genital aperture. Dart-sac or ama- 
torial organ long and cylindi*ical ; spermatheca small, pear-shaped, 
on a stalk. 

Eadula with a broad median row of large teeth, somewhat as in 
Hemi]plecta densa, but with fewer outer laterals : 

21 . 2 . 20 . 1 . 20 . 2 . 21 (43 . 1 . 43) 

Median tooth almost straight-sided, with only an indication of 
lateral cusps ; inner laterals without inner cusps and with outer 
cusps slightly developed, outer laterals bicuspid. 

This genus differs from HemijAectn in the foot not being divided 
beneath, in the want of shell-lobes, the characters of the male 
organ, and the much less numerous lateral teeth on the radula. 
The shell recalls certain Seychelle and Mascarene species (StijJodon 
unidentata, Erejpta stylodon), but the animals do not appear to have 
been described. 



465. Haughtonia conferta, Pf,-. (Helix) P. Z. S. 1856, p. 328 ; id. 
Man. Hel. \x, 1859, p. 18:'.; Godtcin-Auste7i{^\ixssioiii),J. A. S. B. 
1882, 2, p. 70, pi. 5, fig. 6 (animal); id. Helix (Ehvsota), P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 442; id. Mol. Iml. ii, 1899, p. 120, pi. 99," figs. 1-8 (ani- 
mal and anatomv). 
Helix haughtoni, Bs. A. M. N. E. (3) xi, 1863, p. 87 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. V, 1868, p. 92; H. 8>- T. C. I. 1876, pi. 28, fig.'S ; Stol. 
J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 87 ; Nevill, Nanina (Khyssota), Hand-l. i, 
1878, p. 46. 
Rhyssota chambertinii, Try on, Am. Jour. Conch, v, 1869, p. 109, 
pi. 19, fig. 2. 

Shell perforate, subumbilicate, depressedly conoidal, subtur- 
binate, solid, whitish with a thick yellowish-brown epidermis, 
sculptured with oblique lines of growth and fine, close, flexuoua 
spiral stria3 above and below ; spire conoidal, apex obtuse, suture 
impressed ; whorls 5, slightly convex above, the last flatter, angu- 
late at the periphery, rounded beneath, compressed around the 
umbilicus ; aperture diagonal, roundly lunate, subquadraugular ; 
peristome in one plane, obtuse, slightly thickened inside, the 
columellar margin oblique throughout, thickened and bearing a 
small tooth in towards the base, briefly reflected above. 

Major diam. 34, min. 29, height 19 mm. 

Ilab. South Andaman Island, Mount Harriet, living on the 
ground. 



296 ZONITID.?E. 

[" Animal dark brown, reddish at the pedicles. Mantle thick, 
greyish brown, freckled with white ; body very rour;h ; pedal row 
very distinct and the elongated tubercles whitish, basal edge pale 
greyish brown. Tail- gland distinct, surrounded by a swollen 
edge." {Stoliczka, attached to his drawing of the animal.)] 



[Genus STAFFORDIA. 

StafFordia, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. n, 1907, p. 184. 

Type, 8. dafaensis, Godwin- Austen. 

Range. Datla Hills. 

Animal. Foot pointed, no gland, peripodial margin simple with 
a narrow pale margin; right and left shell-lobes present, both 
small. Generative organs : dart-sac small, globose, with a long 
cord-like attachment to the coronal gland ; penis simple ; sperma- 
theca long. Eadula with aculeate laterals. 

The Dafla Hills, in which this very aberrant mollusk was 
found, lie on and north of lat. 27° and between long. 93° 10' and 
93° 50', at the base of the Eastern Himalaya. Nothing like it 
has been as yet found in any part of India or Burma. 

The shell of this species is an instance of how shell-character 
may be misleading in classification. So like is it to many species 
of true Macroclilamys, any conchologist would place it in that 
genus. 

In a paper on the Helicidse (Zonitidae) collected during the 
expedition into the Dafla Hills, Assam (Jouru. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, vol. xlv, pt. 2, 1876), occurs the first notice of the type 
species.] 



[466. Staffordia daflaensis, Godunn-Austen. 

Helix lubrica, Bs. ? ; Godiv in- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlr, 2, 1876, 
p. 311, pi. 8, fig. 9 ; id. (Macrochlamys) MoL Ind. i, 1883, pi. 21, 
fig. 6 (sculptm-e) ; id. t. c. ii, 1907, p. 185, pi. 113, figs. 1-1 i. 

Macrochlamys shengorensis, Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1883, 
p. 102, pi. 22, fig. 5 (young shell). 

Original description : — Shell depressedly tumidly conoid, umbi- 
licated, solid, rather flat on base. Sculpture very regular, longi- 
tudinal, sharply defined, broad-ridged ribbing. Colour rich 
olivaceous with ochre tint. Spire low, sides convex. Suture 
shallow, adpressed. Whorls 6, rapidly increasing, the last rounded; 
aperture broadly ovate, oblique, milky white within ; peristome 
acute, sinuous above and slightly so below, much reflected at 
umbilical margin ; columellar margin very oblique and descending. 

Major diam. Minor diam. Alt. axis. Alt. b.-w. 
Largest size : 23-5 20-0 9--1 7-8 mm. 

Smaller size: 18-8 16-2 8-0 5-8 „ 

Hob. Shengorh Peak, Dafla Hills, 7000 ft. (Godtvin-Austen). 



STAIFORDIA. 



29^ 



It was an abundant species in the Dafla Hills, varying much in 
colour and size, often being of a pale ochraceous-grey tint. On 
Toruputu Peak it occurred also with the same characteristic 
sculpture, but thinner in structure. 

" Animal. Fore part of foot and head, as well as the tentacles, 
dark slate ; extremity of foot pointed (no gland visible, fig. 90, B), 
pale grey, edged light fleshy ; sole of foot dark orange ; mantle 
very slightly reflected in front, with no tongue-shaped process. 

"Length 2-0" ; tentacles 0-5" ; shell, major diam. 0-9.5".'" 




Staffordia daflaensis. 



A. Animal from right side, showing the right dorsal lobe. X 3"4. 

A '. Animal from left side, the left dorsal lobe and part of the branchial wall 

removed, showing the male organ and position of its )-etractor muscle 

attachment. X 3"4. 
E. Head and extremity of foot, from drawings from life. 

C. Extremity of foot, from spirit- specimen. X o'i. 

D. Jaw, X y, and teeth of radula, X 270. 

E. Generative organs, X 3-5. cor.ffhi., coronal gland ; d, dart. 
E'. Do. X 3'5. First specimen dissected.] 



298 ZONITIDJE. 

The only part of this original description which was wrong 
relates to the tongue-shaped process or shell-lobes : these were 
seen to be present in the second specimen soaked out ; they are 
small, particularly the right, and might easily be overlooked in 
life. This had clearly a pointed foot, not divided beloAv as in 
Macrocldamys, with an indistinct central fold, no peripodial 
grooves, very dark grey, a rather smooth surface with a pale 
narrow peripodial border. 

From the two soaked-out specimens I have been able to make 
out much more of the genitalia than the first alone presented, 
which was incomplete (fig. 90, E'). 

The generative organs are most interesting and fall in with the 
dissimilarity to Zonitoid genera, such as Macroclilamys, presented 
in the external characters. They are altogether different from 
any species of Indian Land Molhisca I have hitherto seen, 
particularly in the form of the dart-sac. The penis is a simple 
tube bent on itself near the short retractor muscle. The sperma- 
theca is long and ample. The oviduct in both cases was destroyed, 
but in the second specimen the junction of the vas deferens was 
intact. The dart-sac is short, rounded at the distal end, and on 
being opened out a blunt leathery solid dart was disclosed. 
Attached to the head of the dart-sac at its central point is a tube 
of great length : in the first specimen this is thin at first, then 
SAvelling out much larger in several coils, and again becoming 
thinner ; in the second specimen this rope-like tube is more 
uniform in size, much coiled together where it is attached to a 
glandular mass, this was much broken up, but a large portion 
was seen enveloping a part of the spermatheca. 

This long rope-like attachment to the dart-sac, which in the 
first specimen had no attachment, left very much that was 
doubtful as to what it could be ; the second specimen clears this 
up, and we are presented with an amatorial organ similar in its 
main points to that met with in the genus Byalia, particularly 
in that of I), striata var., described by me in the 'Proceedings 
of the Malacological Society,' vol. vii, pt. 2, June 1906. 
This is an extremely interesting point of resemblance — con- 
fined to one organ, and yet not shared in by several important 
characters. In Byalia there is a large mucous pore, and the 
peripodial margin is fringed as in the Zonitidse generally. There 
are no shell-lobes either. There are minor details in the genitalia 
which may be noted : the spermatheca in DyaMa is very small, 
the dart is calcareous. The radula is of the same type in both, 
the laterals being aculeate. The penis in both is of the same 
simple type. The radula of the Dafla form has 98 rows of teeth 
and the formula 

55 . 1 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 1 . 55 
68 . 1 . 68 

The centre tooth is tricuspid, the admedians also tricuspid, the 
inner cusp high up, the outer one lower down ; the 13th tooth 



aXAITOEDIA. DY.VKIA. 299 

has uo uotcli. All the laterals are shortish aculeate teeth, becoming 
very small on the margin. 

The jaw is large, solid, convex on the edge, and rather straight 
in the centre as opposed to the usual central projection.] 

[467, StafFordia daflaensis, var., Godivin-Austcm, Mol. Ind. W, 1907, 
p. 185, pi. 113, fig. 2 (shell). ' 

Original description : — Shell : sculpture coarse longitudinal 
ribbing, rather irregular ; colour ochraceous olive-green. 

Size: maj. diaui. l(>-4, min. 14-8; alt. axis 8-0, alt. b.-w. 6-5 mm.] 



[468. Staffordia toruputiiensis, Godtvin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1907, 
p. 18o, pi. 113, tig. 3 (sheU). 

Original description : — Shell not fully grown ; sculpture very 
smooth, with a thick shining epidermis with indistinct striation ; 
colour light ochraceous olive-green. 

Size : maj. diam. 16-5, min. 14-0 ; alt. axis 7"25 mm. 

Hah. Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills.] 



[469. Staffordia staffordi. Godioin-Aia^ten, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, pi. 21, 
tig. 14 (sculpture) ; id. t. c. ii, 1907, p. 185, pi. 113, fig. 4 (shell). 

Original description : — Shell : umbilicus almost hidden, mode- 
rately solid, with a thick epidermis, very globosely conoid, rounded 
below ; sculpture small, elongate papillae arranged longitudinally, 
and differing from all the other species collected in the Dalla 
Hills ; colour olivaceous ochre ; spire low ; suture shallow ; whorls 
5, sides convex above, rather flattened on the periphery of the 
last whorl ; aperture lunate, narrow, subvertical, milky white 
within, rounded below; peristome thin, slightly sinuate below, and 
neai'ly vertical near the columella. 

Size: maj. diam. 15-2, min. 13*2; alt. axis 7'8, alt. b.-w. 6-0 mm. 

Hah. Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills, 7000 ft. 

The shell is not adult, but the sculpture is so peculiar I have 
been obliged to designate the species, which I have named after 
the Brigadier-General who commanded the Expedition.] 



Genus DYAKIA. 

Dyakia, Oodxoin- Austen, F. Z. S. 1891, p. 29, pi. 5, figs. 4-4 c, 5-6 6 

(generative organs). 
Semperia, Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. ii, 1898, p. 82, 

Type, D. hngonis, Pfr., from Borneo. 

Range. From Tenasserim throughout the greater part of the 
Malay Archipelago. 

This genus is chiefly distinguished from Ariophanta by the 
characters of the radula, and especially by having bicuspid 



300 ZONITID.E. 

marginals, each with two subequal points. The central tooth 
is either tricuspid with large lateral cusps close to the apex, or 
devoid of lateral cusps. Lateral teeth bicuspid. In a specimen of 
JJ. retrorsa there were on each side 12 inner lateral teeth and 45 
marginals. The jaw had no inner median projection. 

[The generative organs, as shown in the type, are peculiar, the 
amatorial organ having a bunch of secretory glands at the free end 
and a long slender calcareous dart.] 



470. Dyakia ? retrorsa, Gould (Helix), Bost. Jour. N. If. Iv, 1844, 
p. 455, pi. 24, fig. 4 ; Pfi: (Helix) Moji. Hel. i, 1843, p. 76 : id. 
t. c. vii, 1876, p. 128 ; M. .^- T. (Helix) C. I. 1876, pi. 25, fig. 6 ; 
Godxoin- Austen (Ariopbanta), Mol. Ind. i, 1883, pp. 133, 136, 
pi. 34, fig:^. 4-8 ; id. (Semperia) t. c. ii, 1898, p. 82 ; v. Mart. 
Nauiua (Hemiplecta), Jorir. Linn. Soc. xxi, 1889, p. 161. 
Helix saccata, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 49 ; id. Mon. Hel. iv, 1859, 
p. 30; id. t. e. vii, 1876, p. 96; Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 
1880, 2, p. 153. 

Shell sinistral, narrowly imibihcated, thin, obliquely striated 
and marked, on the last whorl especially, above and below, with 
fine spiral, slightly undulating wrinkles ; spire conoidal, with an 
acute apex, suture emarginate ; whorls 2|, rapidly increasing, 
flatly convex above, the last compressedly keeled at the periphery, 
swollen beneath, not descending ; aperture diagonal, ovally lunate; 
peristome thin. 

Major diam. 45, min. 36, height 23 mm, 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Tavoy and Mergui ; Mergui Archipelago. 

[The generative organs of D. ? retrorsa have not yet been 
examined, and it is to be seen whether they conform to the sinistral 
type species (D. hugonis of Borneo) or not.] 



[Dr. Blanford's manuscript included the genera Parmacella and 
Vitrina, both of which I consider will be better brought into the 
volume on the Helicidse, and after Trocliomorplia, which I trust 
may follow next in the 'Fauna of British India' (Mollusca). In 
the genus Vitrina are included three species : pellucida, a typical 
species, and two othefs which cannot be said to be so, viz. 
jyapillasjm^a, Godwin- Austen, from the Khasi Hills, and canefrii= 
birmanica, Tappai^one Canefri; it was this naturalist who con- 
sidered a specifes obtained by M. Tea at Bhamo to be the same as 
Austenia papiUaspira. I would call attention to the fact that 
the Bhamo shell was never compared with the type in my col- 
lection, and that it is by no means certain the animals are alike, 
that of the Ivhasi form being unknown, while the Bhamo species 
is described as having no mucous pore, and for this reason alone 



A.PPENDIX.. 



301 



it was placed in Vitrina. For the present, and until more is 
known of the Khasi Hill si)ecies, it is safer to place it na the 
genus Cryptaustenia, after No. 280, p. 188. 

I cannot believe these tropical forms are related to, or that 
their anatomy is comi)arable with, that of the Palfoarctic genus 
Vitrina on the ground of a single character, viz. a pointed foot. 

William Theobald (J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 401) describes a Vitrina 
ataranensis from the river of that name in Martaban and which 
Nevill placed, I think rightly as far as the knowledge^ we possess, 
ill the genus Vitrinopsis of Semper, Hand-1. i, p. 17. I have a 
sinole specimen of this species received from Theobald, of which I 
ha\^e made a drawing. It has a long very pointed foot, and 
apparently no mucous gland ; but as in some of these forms the 
foot tapers to an overhanging lobe, very much concealing the slit 
of the mucous gland below, it is very difficult in a badly-preserved 
hardened spirit-specimen to tell whether a mucous pore is present 
or not : ataranensis has ample right and left shell-lobes. This 
being the only specimen known, except the single one m the 
Calcutta Museum, I have not attempted to cut it up.] 



APPENDIX. 

To follow No. 286, p. 188 :— 

286 a Cryptaustenia ? papillaspir a, Godwin-Austen (Austenia) , Mol. 
Ind. 1, p. 153, pi. 37, tigs. 4-4 b (1883) ; G. Tapp. Vanefn 
(Helicarion), Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxvii, p. 316 (1889). 

Shell depressedlv subglobose, very thin, transparent, smooth, 
pohshed, light horny ; spire scarcely raised, but apex prominent, 
nipple-shaped, suture shghtly impressed; whorls 3, convex; 
aperture oblique, lunately oval, margins converging, upper arcuate, 
columellar broadly sinuate. 

Maior diam. 10^, min. 8, height 5| mm. 

Rah. North Khasi Hills (Godwin-Austen); Bhamo (Fea). 

This differs from allied forms in the raised prominent apex. 

According to Signer Canefri, this has no mucous pore, but the 
tail ends in a point. The animal jumps about when disturbed, as 
salius does. 

*286 b. Cryptaustenia? canefrii. 

Vitrina birmauica, Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geyi. xxvii, 
p. 316 (1889), nee Philippi. 

" Shell imperforate, globose, thin, pellucid, very poUshed, pale 
amber ; apex slightly exserted, obtuse ; whorls 4, irregularly 



302 zois^iTiD.?:, 

wound, the last large, globose, all separated by a deep suture and 
an impressed serrulate line ; surface smooth, marked by striae and 
obsolete waved furrows throughout its length ; aperture round, 
lunate, broad, columellar margin incurved, slightly reflexed at 
the base. 

" Major diam. 10, min. 7f mm. 

" Animal blackish grey above, anterior lobes with black lines ; 
sole of foot pale, often divided by a paler median zone." {T. 
Canefri, in Latin.) 

Hab. Near Bhamo, 



[The next two species were included in Macrochlamys by 
Blanford. I place them here because planiuscula certainly is more 
likely to belong to the Helicidse. Until the animals are examined 
it is impossible to know what their affinities are.] 



Depressed or coyioicUy depressed. 
Longitudinally striated. 

Macrochlamys ? anonae, Godioin-Austen, Mol. Ind. \, 1883, p. 91, 
pi. 14, tig. 8 ; ii, 1898, p. 48. 

Shell openly perforate, subumbilicate, convexly depressed, rather 
solid, finely striated longitudinally under the microscope, yellowish 
brown ; spire couA^ex, suture slightly impressed ; whorls 3|, 
convex, the last rounded at the periphery and moderately convex 
beneath ; aperture oblique, lunate ; peristome obtuse, columellar 
margin oblique. 

Major diam. 11, height 0-6 mm. 

Hah. Calcutta ; found on custard-apples. 

The description is from the types in the British Museum 
(Godwin-Austen collection). It is possible that they are 
immature. 



Shells not exceeding about 6 millimetres {a quarter of an inch) 
in diameter. (Generic affinities often doubtful.) 

Sidjglobose or siddurbinate. 

Smooth, 

Macrochlamys? planiuscula, Button (Helix), J. A. S. B. \\i, 1838, 
p. 218 ; Pfr. (Helix) Mon. Hel. \, 1848, p. 60; H. cS'- T. (Helix) 
C. I. 1876, pi. 32, tigs. 7, 10 ; Godivin-Austen, Mol. Ind. i, 1883, 
p. 88, pi. 16, fig. 7. 

Shell obtectly perforate, subglobosely depressed, smooth, without 
sculpture of any kind, translucent, scarcely polished above, more 



APPENDIX. 303 

SO beneath, liglit brown ; spire convexly conoidal, suture slightl)'- 
impressed ; \vhorIs 4|, convex, slowly increasing, the last rounded 
at periphery, tumid beneath ; aperture subvertical, lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, basal margin arcuate, eolumellar oblique, reflected, 
covering the perforation. 

Major diam. 2-5, min. 2-3, height 1*5 mm. 

Bah. Simla, Landour, Mussoorie, amongst dead leaves {Godwin- 
Austen). 

The description is taken from a Mussoorie specimen. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



acalles (Eu]jlecta), 56. 
aoerra (Helix), 278. 
acutlucta (Euplecta), 67. 
affinis (Girasia), "203. 
agastysE (Euplecta), 59. 
Agnatha, 1. 

alhata (Ariophanta), 37. 
albizouata (Euplecta), 

61. 
altivaga(Parvatella), 148. 
aminmiea (Helix), 32. 
ampulla (Imlrella), 49. 
ainpullarioides (Helix), 

33. 
ancops (Holkeion), 240. 
aiidainanensis (Orobia), 

iL'.j. 
aiidaiiianicus (Streptaxis), 

5. 
audersoniaua (Macro- 

chlaniys), 121, 141. 
angelica (Beusonia), 172. 
aiiiimila (Kaliella), 2()4. 
aiinandalei (Syama), 

157. 
anona? (Macrochlaiiiys), 

302. 
anopleuris (Helix), 160. 
a])icata (Ku])lecta), 72. 
arata (Holkeion), 241. 
Ariupiianta, 26. 
AriophantiiuB, 25. 
arx (Sitala), 229. 
aspides (Helix), 1 19. 
aapides (JMacroclilaniys), 

116. 
aspirans (Kaliella). 262. 
assamica (Hiirgella), 216. 
ataraneiisis (Sesara), 244. 
atoma (Macroclilaniys), 

140. 
alra (Psoudaiistcuia) 

207. 



atra, var. aterrinia 

(Pseudaustenia), 207. 
atra, var. castaiiea 

(rseudaiisteuia), 207. 
atra, var. cinerea (Pseud- 
austenia), 207. 
alricolor (Macro- 

clilamys), 99. 
attegia (Sitala), 227. 
aulopis (Helix), 128. 
au!o])is (Macroclilamys), 

128. 
aurietta; (Ileinipleeta), 

293. 
auriformis (P.seud- 

austenia), 209. 
auris (Helix), 33. 
austeni (Cryptosoma), 

212. 
austeni (Klia.siella), 160. 
Austenia, 179, 191. 
austeniana (Parvatella), 

148. 
austenianus (Ilelicarion), 

147. 



baconi (Euplecta), 56. 
biijadera (Ario)>lianta), 

31. 
balliaiia (Sitala), 233. 
barrakporensis (Kaliella), 

258. 
bascauda (Raliula), 251. 
bascaudula (liahula), 

252. 
basilessa (Arioijhanta), 

40. 
basileus (Ariophania), 41. 
basHcinensis (Sesara), 

247. 
biitliycbarax (Taphru- 

spira), 280. 



battimalvensis (Macro- 
clilamys), 129. 
beata (Macrocblamys), 

107. 
beddoniei (MaritcUa), 

206. 
beddoinei, var. maculosa 

(Marirella), 206. 
beddoniei. var. nigra 

(iMari;ella), 20(5. 
beddi)iiiii (Ariophanta), 

42. 
beddoniii (Eniiea), 23. 
boddomii (Streptaxis), 

11. 
belangeri (Ariophanta), 

36. 
bensoni (Cryptaustenia), 

187. 
bensoni (Helix), 162. 
bensoni, var. sylhetonsis 

(Austenia), 187. 
Beusonia, 171. 
bhutaneu.-sis (Dalingia), 

178. 
bhutanensis (Kaliella), 

271. 
bicolor (Enuea), 16, 19. 
bidentil'era (Sosara), 

245. 
bifasciata (Euplecta), 72. 
bilineata(Macrochlaniys), 

103. 
binoyaeusis (Euplecta), 

62. 
bintenuensis (Micro- 

cystina), 256. 
birtuanica (Vilrina), .301. 
birmanicum (Crj'pto- 

soma), 212. 
bistrialis (Arioi)hanta), 

39. 
blanfordi (Helix), 168. 



300 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



blanfordi (Oxytes), lfi3. 

blanfordi (Streptaxis), 5, 
6. 

blanfordiana (Ennea), 17. 

blanfordianus (Strep- 
taxis), 5. 

bombax (Streptaxis), 4. 

bombayana (Helix), 3(5. 

brevicollis (Ennea), 19. 

brunneum (Helicarion), 
200. 

bullula (Helix), 267. 

bullula (Kaliella), 2(i7. 

biirmana (Sarika), 278. 

burmanica (Streptaxis), 
5. 

burmanicus (Streptaxis), 
6. 

burrailensis (Kaliella), 
270. 

burtii (Grirasia), 202. 

butleri (Austenia), 194. 

cacharica (Austenia), 

196. 
cacharica (Macro- 

chlaruys), 104. 
cacuminifera (Euplecta), 

68. 
calias (Sophina), 286. 
camura (Bensonia), 175. 
canarica (Ariophanta), 

32. 
canarica (Ennea), 23. 
canaricus (Streptaxis). 

15. 
caiiefrii (Crvptaiistenia), 

301. 
capessens (Helix), 243. 
carneola (Helix), 135. 
cassida (Euaustenia), 

1.50. 
cassida (Macrochlamys), 

148. 
castaneo-labiata (Mac-ro- 

chlarays), 101. 
castor (Oxytes), 168. 
causia (Macrochlamys), 

117. 
celox (Helix), 83. 
ceraria (Ariophanta), 37. 
eeylanica (Ennea) (Pupa), 

20. 
eeylanica (Helix), 39. 
chanibertinii (Uhyssota), 

295. 
chaos (Macrochlamys), 

116. 
chennelli (Kaliella), 272. 
cheniii (Xestina) (Ario- 
phanta), 43. 



cherraensis (Kaliella), 

260. 
chen-aensis (Nanina), 

168. 
chloroplax (Khasiella), 

165. 
choinix (Macrochlamys), 

124. 
christianie (Satiella), 

223. 
cinerea (Girasia), 203. 
cingaiensis (Helix), 61. 
cingalensis (Streptaxis), 

12, 
cliinacterica (Khasiella), 

160. 
climacterica, var. nana 

(HeUx), 1.58. 
coUetti (Euplecta), 68. 
colletti (Kaliella), 263. 
compluvialis (Helix), 

280. 
compluvialis (Taphro- 

spira), 280. 
conipressa (Satiella), 224. 
compressus (Streptaxis), 

1.5. 
conoavospira (Euplecta), 

71. 
concinna (Dnrgella), 215. 
concinnus (Streptaxis), 

12. 
conferta (Haughtouia), 

295. 
confiuis (Sitala), 229. 
conjungens (Sophina), 

288. 
consepta (Macrochlamys), 

115. 
Conulema, 225. 
ctinulus (Kaliella), 272. 
conulus (Eotula) (Na- 

nina), 70. 
con vallata (Taphrospira ) , 

279. 
convexa (Bensonia), 

174. 
convexiuscula (Helix), 

55, 
corylus (Helix), 65. 
corys (Helix), 251. 
corys (Kaliella), 251. 
corys (Rahula), 251. 
costulata (Kaliella), 261. 
crenioincta (Sitala), 234. 
crocea (Girasia), 201. 
Cryptaustenia, 180. 
Cryptibycus, 191. 
Cryptogirasia, 203. 
oryptomphalus (Micro- 
cystina), 257. 



Cryptosoma, 209. 

Cryptozona, 26. 

cuhnen (Sitala), 229. 

curvilabris (Macro- 
chlamys), 123. 

cuvieri (Helicarion), 179. 

cycloidea (Helix), 118. 

cycloidea (Nanina), 118. 

cycloplax (Oxytes), 168. 

cyix (Helix), 39. 

cyliudrelloidea (Ennea), 
18. 

cysis (Ariophanta), 33. 

cystis (Helix), 33. 

daflaensip (Rahula), 2.52. 

daflaensis (Staffordia), 
296, 299. 

dailnensis (Streptiixis), 
10. 

dalhousias (Girasia), 202. 

dalingensis (Macro- 
chlamys), 83. 

]")alingia, 177. 

dalyi (Arioplir.nta), 33. 

damsaugensis (Macro- 
chlamys), 84. 

darjiliugensis (Macro- 
chlamys), 94. 

decuisata (Macro- 
chlamys), 102. 

dekhaneusis (Satiella), 
221. 

Dekhania, 204. 

delectabilis (Kaliella), 
273. 

depressa (Girasia), 200. 

dikrangensis (Girasia), 
203. 

dikrangen.sis (Kaliella), 
270. 

di]"ilodon (Sesara?), 247. 

diplodon (Sesara) (Na- 
nina), 248. 

discoidalis (Sophina), 
288. 

dorani (Macrochlamys), 
113. 

dugasti (Macrochlam vs), 
118. 

Hurgella, 213. 

Durgellinro, 213. 

durrangensis (Cryptaus- 
tenia), 183. 

dussumieri (Marirella), 
205. 

Dyakia, 299. 

edgariana (Ratnadvipia), 

76. 



ALPlIABKrrCAL INDEX. 



30^ 



elTultiens (Macroclilamys) 

(Nanina), 130. 
plisa (Streptaxis), 14. 
elongata (Kaliella). 203. 
eniiliana (Euplecta), 61. 
enisa (Ilemiplecta), 40. 
Ennea, IG. 

episema (Scsara), 245. 
erratiea (Diirgella), 216. 
I']iiaii.stt>iiia, 148. 
b]iiaiisteuia% 148. 
eugenii (Flectopjlis), 

273. 
Euplecta, 51. 
Eurychlaniys, 188. 
exacntus (Streptaxis), 8. 
excavata (Tapbrospira), 

280. 
cxilis (Ennea), 22. 
extranea (Girasia), 200. 
exul (Macroclilauiys), 

125. 

falcata (Khasiclla), 161. 
J'artoidca (Ennea), 18. 
f'artoides (Ennea) (Pupa), 

18. 
fastigiata (Kaliella), 

263. 
feiB (Austenia) (Heli- 

carion), 195. 
fex (Kaliella), 273. 
firlelis (Oxytes) (Nanina), 

167. 
flssidens (Ibycus), 219. 
flatura (Kaliella). 269. 
flatura, var. (Kaliella), 

269. 
fleniingi (Parvatella), 

147. 
flemingi, var. altivagiis 

(Ilelicarion), 148. 
flexilis (Satiella), 223. 
Huctiiosa (Euplecta), 63. 
footei (Streptaxis), 11. 
Ibrabilis (Sophina), 288. 
forabilis, var. bensoni 

(Sophina), 289. 
f()rdiana(Macrochlamys), 

128. 
fragilis (Macroehlamya\ 

130. 
fragosus (Macroclila- 
mys), 108. 

galea (Sesara ?), 249. 
ganoma (Helix), 44. 
gardeneri (Ariophanta), 

40. 
gardeneri (Euplecta), 64. 
ijassii (Ariophanta), 46. 



Gasteropoda, 1. 
geiton (Helix), 160. 
Geophila, 1. 
gigas (Austenia), 192. 
gigas (Heliearion), 194. 
gigas, var. minor (Aus- 
tenia), 194. 
Girasia, 191, 198. 
glauca (MacTochlamys), 

80. 
globosa (Cryptaustenia), 

187. 
globulus (Helix), 35. 
godvvini (Macrochiamys), 

106. 
gordonise (Hemiplecta), 

293. 
gracilis (Streptaxis), 13. 
granulifera (Euplecta), 

69. 
gratiosa (Kaliella). 264. 
gratulator(Sitala?), 231. 
gromatica (Sitala), 231. 
gurliwalcnsis (Euaus- 

tenia), 151. 



hanleyanus (Streptaxis), 
8. 

hardwickii (Maci'O- 
chlaniys), 97. 

hardwickii, wtr. politulus 
(Macrochiamys), 97. 

liarmori (Sesara), 248. 

harmeri, var. anodouta 
(Sesara). 249. 

haroldi (Sitala). 231. 

harrietensis (Microcys- 
tina), 2.55. 

iiaughtoui (Helix), 295. 

Ilaugiitonia, 294. 

hebescens (Macro- 
chiamys?), 131. 

Heliearion, 179. 

Hclicarioninse, 179. 

helieifera (Sesara), 246. 

Hemiplecta, 289. 

hengdanensis (Macro- 
chiamys), 108. 

hepatizon (Macro- 
chiamys), 102. 

hetersEa (Ariophanta), 
34. 

heteroconcha (Crypt- 
austenia), 183. 

himalayana (Helix), 31. 

hochstetteri (Micro- 
cystina), 254. 

hodgsoni (Macro- 
chiamys), 85. 

Holkeiou, 239. 



honesta (Macrochiamys) 
121. 

honesta (Sakiella), 238. 

honesta, var. andersoni 
(Macroclilamys) (Nan- 
ina), 141. 

honesta, var. ander- 
.soniana (Nanina), 121, 
141. 

honesta, var. tenuior 
(Macrochiamys), 121, 
239. 

hookeri (Girasia), 200. 

hookeri (Macrochia- 
mys), 109. 

Hoplites, 198. 

Imgonis (Dyakia), 299. 

humphrevsiana (Hemi- 
plecta)^ 289. 

hungerfordiana (Sesara), 
244. 

hyba (Khasiella), 162. 

liyphasma (Euplecta), 
69. 

liypoleuca (Macro- 
chiamys), 120. 

Ibyctis, 218. 

imniei"ita (Ariophanta), 

31. 
indica (Euplecta), 60. 
indica (Macrochiamys), 

95. 
indicus (Macrochiamys) 

(Helix), 96. 
ludrella, 48. 
inermis (Sesara), 247. 
infausta (Macrochlaniyfi), 

133. 
infreudens (Sesara), 

243. 
infula (Sitala), 225. 
ingrami (Sesara), 248. 
injussa (Sitala), 234. 
interrupta (Ariophanta), 

31. 
intonsa (Sitala), 235. 
intumescens (Ario- 
phanta), 33. 
inusitatum (Crypto- 

soma). 211. 
irradians (Ratnadvipia), 

76. 
isabella (Helix), 68. 
isabellina (Euplecta), 

68. 

jacquemonti (Bensonia), 

174. 
jainiana (Macrochiamys), 

99. 



308 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



jaintiaca (Xaliella), 260. 
jaintiaca, var. (Kaliella), 

260. 
janmensis (Bensonia), 

173. 
Juliana (Xeftina) (Ario- 

phanta), 44. 



kadapaensis (Ario- 

phanta), 30. 
kala (Sarama), 275. 
Kaliella, 257. 
kandiensis (Macro- 

chlamys), 139. 
kashmirensis (Khasiella), 

165. 
kezaniahensis (Kaliella), 

274. 
khasiaca (Durgella), 

218. 
khasiaca (Kaliella), 261. 
Khasiella, 157. 
khvoungensis (Aiistenia), 

211. 
kjellerupi (Kaliella), 

265. 
koliaensis (Macro- 

chlainys), 106, 111. 
koondaensis (Nanina), 

67. 
kiiluensis (Macro- 

chlamys), 81. 
kumahensis (Macro- 

chlamys), 117. 



labiata (Helix), 172. 
lajta (Helix), 58. 
laivipes (Ariophanta), 

26, 29. 
Isevis (Euplecta), 62. 
Iffivis (Streptaxis), 13. 
lahupaensis (Macro- 

chlamys), 109. 
laidlayana (Ariophanta), 

30." 
lailangkotensis (Kali- 
ella). 274. 
lata (Maerochlamys), 

102. 
latior (Streptaxis), 10. 
layardi (Euplecta), 65. 
layardianus (Streptaxis), 

5. 
lecythis (Maerochlamys), 

98. 
leithiana (Kaliella), 273. 
Leptodontarion, 218. 
levieula (Durgella), 

213. 



levieula (Nanina), 215, 
216. 

levidensis (Satiella), 
223. 

Ihotaeusis (Kaliella), 
268. 

Ihotaensis (Maero- 
chlamys), 103. 

Ihotaensis (Eahula), 253. 

ligLilata (Ariophanta), 
38. 

limata(Sitala?), 233. 

liricincta (Sitala). 230. 

lita (Microcystina), 257. 

lixa (Maerochlamys), 
131. 

longicauda (Maero- 
chlamys), 112. 

lubrica (Helix), 296. 

lubrica (Maerochlamys), 
89. 

lucublanda (Helix), 37. 



Macrochlamyince, 77. 

Maerochlamys, 77- 

macrodon (Ennea), 21. 

macropleuris (Helix), 
249. 

macropleuris (Kaliella), 
249. 

macropleuris (Micro- 
cystis) (Nanina), 249. 

macropleuris (Rahula), 
249. 

niaderaspatana (Ario- 
phanta), 45. 

magnifica (Austenia), 
195. 

magnifica (Parvatella), 
147. 

uiahadeoensis (Maero- 
chlamys), 108. 

mainwaringi (Maero- 
chlamys), 83. 

niairangensis (Durgella), 
216. 

malabarica (Euplecta), 
60. 

mamillaris (Sesara), 246. 

nianipurensis (Kaliella). 
261. 

niarcida (Helix), 65. 

Marisella, 204. 

marshalli (Maero- 
chlamys), 103. 

niasuriensis (Maero- 
chlamys), 154. 

masuriensis (Syama), 
156. 

mellita (Pupa), 20. 



membranacea (Satiella), 
224. 

Microcystina, 25.3. 

milium (Ennea), 18. 

mimela (Bensonia), 173. 

minor (Streptaxis), 6. 

minutus (Ibycus), 219. 

moerchiana (Ennea), 24. 

moerchiana (Micro- 
cystina), 254. 

molecula (Maero- 
chlamys), 122. 

monticola (Bensonia), 
171. 

monticola (Enaustenia), 
149. 

monticola (Helix), 174. 

monticola, var. murrien- 
sis(Bensonia)(Naninii), 
172. 

monticola (Vitrina), 150. 

mouleyitensis (Sesara), 
245. 

mucosa (Euplecta), 57, 
72. 

mucronifera (Euplecta), 
70. 

munipurensis (Maero- 
chlamys), 107. 

numipurensis (llahula), 
253. 



n. sp. (Nanina) (Maero- 
chlamys), 99. 

n. sp. (Nanina) (Micro- 
cystis). 90. 

nagaensis (Austenia), 
195. 

nagaensis (Ennea), 17. 

nagaensis (Kaliella), 
265. 

nana (Kaliella), 266. 

Nanina, 77, 276. 

nebulosa(Macrochlamys), 
120. 

neherensis (Maero- 
chlamys), 139. 

nengloensis (Maero- 
chlamys), 111. 

laepalensis (Bensonia), 
177. 

nepas (Maerochlamys), 
134. 

nerva (Nigritella), 63. 

nevilli (Kaliella), 274. 

nicobarica (Helix), 30. 

Nilgiria, 26. 

nobilis (Streptaxis), 1. 

nongsteinensis (Kaliella), 
271. 



ALPII-VnETICAL IXDEX. 



309 



norclensliioldi (Vega), 

20(). 
not ha (Macroclilamvs), 

l:>0. 
novella (Arioplmnia), 37. 
noxia (iVIacroelilamvs), 

1 19. 
mida (Macrocblaiuys), 

81. 

oblita (Helix), 60. 
obtusus (Streptaxis), 9. 
operiens (Sitala), '232. 
opipara (Macrochlamys), 

84. 
orbiates (Euplecta), 72. 
originaria (Macro- 

chlaiijys), llS. 
ornatissima (Kliasiella), 

IBO. 
Orobia, 77. 
orobia (Oxytes), 169. 
ovata (Grvptausteiiia), 

182. ^ 
Oxytes, 166. 
oxytes (Oxytes), 167. 

pacata (Macrochlamys), 
114. 

pachvpleuris (Helix), 
2o"2. 

palmaria (Sitala), 2.30. 

pankabariensis (Girasia), 
201. 

panclietensis (Crypt- 
austenia), 188. 

pansa (Khasiella), 161. 

papillaspira (Cryptaus- 
tenia), 301. 

partita (Euplecta), 65. 

Parvatella, 145. 

patane (Macrochlamys), 
89. 

patens (Macrochlamys), 
121. 

paucistriata (Kaliella), 
26(5. 

panrbiensis(Euaustenia), 
1.52. 

pauxillula (Macro- 
chlamys), 124. 

pedina (Macrochlamys), 
132. 

peguensis (Austen ia), 
197. 

peliosanthi (Kaliella). 
272. 

perfragilis (Macro- 
chlamys), 90. 

perfucata (Macro- 
chlamys), 138. 



perfucata (Microcystina), 
256. 

perfucata, far. binten- 
neiisis (Microcystina), 
256. 

perinconspicua (Macro- 
chlamys), 129. 

peringundensis (Macro- 
chlamys), 138. 

peroteti (Stre]itaxis), 10. 

perpaula (Macro- 
chlamys?), 123. 

perplana (Macro- 
chlamys), 99. 

perrotteti ( Macro- 
chlamys), 136. 

perrotteti (Microcystina) 
(Nanina), 188. 

personatus (Streptaxis), 
14. 

pertenuis (Satiella), 224. 

petasus (Macrochlamys), 
ll.'j. 

petasus (Nanina), 120. 

petit i (Streptaxis), 4. 

petrosa (Macrochlamys), 
77, 96. 

pfeifferi (Streptaxis), 6. 

pfeifferianus (Streptaxis), 
6. 

phidias (Euplecta), 71. 

phulongensis (Sitala), 
233. 

phyllophila (Sitala), 232. 

pingoungensis (Khaei- 
elW, 162. 

pirriei (Ennea), 22. 

placita (Sitala ?), 235. 

planguiicula (Ennea), 23. 

planiuscula (Macro- 
chlamys), 302. 

planospii-a (Vitrina), 
189. 

platychlamys (Eury- 
chlamys), 188. 

pleurostomoides (Strep- 
taxis), 11. 

plicatula (Nanina), 110. 

plicifera (Macrochlamys), 
110. 

politissima (Eavana), 50, 
51. 

])ollux (Oxytes), 169. 

polvplcuris (Rahula), 
252. 

poongi (Macrochlamys), 
122. 

prireminens (Euplecta), 
59. 

pra-stans (Crvptosoma), 
211. 



prava (Macrochlamys), 
137. 

prestoni (Euplecta), 64. 

promiscua (Syama), 156. 

prona (Macrochlamys), 
152, 156. 

prona (Syama), 154. 

prona, var. huttoni 
(Syama), 155. 

pronus (Streptaxis), 14. 

pseudaulopis (Macro- 
chlamys), 128. 

Pseudaustenia, 206. 

pseudochoinix (Macro- 
chlamys), 125. 

pseudovitrinoides(Macro- 
chlarays) (Nanina), 95. 

pulchella (Euplecta), 5(>. 

Fulmonata, 1. 

pmnilio (Streptaxis), 6. 

puugi (Macrochlamys ?), 
122. 

pylaica (Sesara), 245. 

pyramidalis (Sitala ?), 
232. 



radiia (Girasia), 201. 

Kahula, 249. 

rakaensis (Macro- 
chlamys), 88. 

ramriensis (Nanina), 
117. 

Eatnadvipia, 74. 

Ravana, .50. 

ravanse (Streptaxis), 13. 

razamiensis (Macro- 
chlamys), 109. 

recondita (Sitala), 236. 

rcgulata (Eurychlamys), 
190. 

resinula (TCaliella). 2f'>7. 

resplendens (Austenia), 
194. 

resplendens (Orobia), 
276. 

resplendens (Sarika), 
276, 277. 

resplendens, wr. atricolor 
(Macrochlamys) (Na- 
nina), 100. 

retrorsa (Dyakia), 300. 

richilaensis (Kaliella), 
2(i6. 

richilaensis, var. (Kali- 
ella), 266. 

richilaensis (Macro- 
chlamys), 90. 

riraicola (Sitala?), 236. 

rinki (Microcystina), 
254. 



310 



ALPnABETICAL INDEX, 



rissomensis (Kaliella), 

259. , 

robei-ti (Macrocblamys), 

112. 
rogersi (Durgella), 215. 
rorida (Macrochlaiiijs), 

94. 
rosamonda (Euplecta), 

58. 
rubellocincta (Macro- 

clilamys), 103. 
rubra (Cryptogirasia), 

204. 
rubra (Girasia), 201. 
ruga (Kaliella), 270. 
rusticula (Macro- 

chlamys), 114. 
rutila (Macrocblamys), 

135. 
ryssolemma (Helix), 34. 

saccata (Helix), 300. 
Sakiella, 237. 
salicensis (Kaliella), 202. 
salius (Durgella). 217. 
salius (Helicarion), 216. 
saluionea (Maeru- 

cblamys), 106. 
salwiiiensis (Macro- 
cblamys), 118. 
saukeyanus (Streptaxis), 

8. 
sankeyi (Streptaxis), 8. 
Sarama, 275. 
Sarika, 276. 
sata (Macrocblamys), 

114. 
satbilaensis (Macro- 

clilainys), 92. 
Satiella, 221. 
scalptus (Streptaxis), 12. 
scbistostelis (Sophina), 

286. 
scobinoides (Euplecta), 

64. 
sculpta (Eniiea), 22. 
scutella (Vitrina), 149. 
seatoui (Ennea), 19. 
semidecussata (Euplecta), 

57. 
semifusca (Helix), 135. 
semirngata (Ariopbanta), 

35. 
Seraperia, 299. 
seposita (Durgella), 217. 
sequax (Macrocblamys), 

86. 
sequius (Macrocblamys), 

87, 88. 
Berahanensis (Auslenia), 

149. 



serrula (Kbasiella), 162. 
Sesara, 241. 

sbanensis (Austenia), 197. 
sbanensis (Osytes), 168. 
shengorensis (Macro- 
cblamys), 104, 296. 
sbevaroyana (Microcys- 

tina), 256. 
sbillongense (Helicarion), 

200. 
sbillongensis (Kaliella), 

268. 
sbisba (Macrocblamye), 

111. 
sigurensis (Kaliella), 259. 
sikkiiuensis (Austenia), 

198. 
sikkimensis (Kaliella), 

268. 
sikkiniensis,?'(7f.mainwar- 

ingi (Ibycue) (Gira.sia), 

198. 
silcbarensis (Cryptaus- 

tenia), 186. 
simoni (Heniiplecta), 4.3. 
sisparica (Ariopbanta), 

37. 
Sitala, 225. 

sivaleueis (Helix), 258. 
solata (Ariopbanta), 46. 
solida (Austenia), 196. 
solidulus (Sti-eptaxis), 7. 
solidum (Helicarion), 

196. 
sonamurgensis (Khasi- 

ella), 166. 
Sopbina, 283. 
Sopbininw, 283. 
splendens (Macro- 
cblamys), 157. 
splendens (Syama), 153. 
spreta (Macrocblamys), 

121. 
sriraani (Sitala), 235. 
staffordi (Staffoi-dia), 299. 
Staffordia, 296. 
stenastoma (Eunea), 2.3. 
stenopylis (Ennea), 17. 
stepbus (Macrocblamys), 

127. 
stewarti (Microcystina), 

255. 
stoliczkanus (Helicarion), 

1.50. 
Streptaxina-, 1. 
Streptaxis, 1. 
stricklandi (Macro- 
cblamys), 99. 
Stylomato})bora, 1. 
subacutiis (Streptaxis), 

15. 



subcastor (Eujjlecta), 5S. 

subcouoidea (Helix), ()5. 

subconvallata (Macro- 
cblamys), 280. 

subcornea (Helix), 277. 

subcostulata (Ennea), 21. 

subcostulata (Kaliella), 
2(>2. 

Bubdecussata (Euplecta), 
,55. 

subjecta (Macrocblamys), 
98. 

Bubkoondaensis (Nanina), 
67. 

subnana (Sitala?), 234. 

subopaea (Euplecta), 51, 
65. 

subpetasus (Macro- 
cblamys), 119. 

succiiiea /Cryptaustenia), 
180. 

supertlua (Macro- 
cblamys), 88. 

Syama, 152. 

sylhetensis (Macro- 
cblamys), 97. 

sylvicola (Oxytes), 169. 

tandianensis (Kbasiella), 
ir,6. 

tanirensis (Macro- 
cblamys), 112. 

Tanyclilaiuys, 77. 

TapbrosjDira, 279. 

taprobanensis (Helix), 39. 

1'ennentia, 204. 

tenuicola (Microcystis) 
(Xanina), 130. 

tenuicula (Macro- 
eblamys), 130. 

tenuior (Sakiella), 239. 

teriaensis (Kaliella), 265. 

terminus (Macro- 
cblamys), 106. 

Testacell'id;v, 1. 

textrina (Heniiplecta), 
292. 

tbebawi (Streptaxis), 6. 

tbeobaldi (Euaustenia), 
152. 

tbeobaldi (Hoplites) 
(Helicarion), 200. 

tbeobaldi (Streptaxis), 9. 

tbeobaldi (Syama), 157. 

tbeobaldiana (Eensonia), 
173. 

tbeodori (Heniiplecta), 
292. 

tbwaitesi (Teunentia), 
206. 

Ibyreus (Ariopbanta), 34. 



Ar.niABKTIC.VL INDEX. 



311 



fcickelli (Ilolix), 243. 
tinostoma (Hemiplecfca), 

40. 
tirutana (Kaliella), 271. 
titanica (Helix), 41. 
todarum (Macro- 

cblamys), 13G. 
toruputueiisis (Staf- 

fordia), 299. 
trail quebarica (Galaxis), 

35. 
transpetata (Euplecta), 

57. 
tratanensis (Macro- 

clilamys), 138. 
travancorica (Euplecta), 

58. 
trifasciata (Helix), 29. 
trimeni (Euplecta), 6G. 
tuguriuui (Macro- 

clilamys), 81. 
tiirbinata (Nanina), 38. 
turbiniforuiis (Helix), 

22(5. 
turricula (Ennea), 22. 
turritella (Euplecta), 70. 



uda (Macrochlamys), 

104. 
umbraticola (Macro- 

chlamys), llo. 
uuibrina (Macro- 

chlarays?), 134. 
undosa (Hemiplecta), 

291. 
uter (Hemiplecta), 291. 
U7ida (Sitala), 238. 



vagata (Kaliella), 2(i4. 
vallicola(Maci'ochlainys), 

136. 
vara (Ennea), 16. 
Vega, 204. 

venusta (Austenia), 195. 
verrucosa (Cryptaus- 

tenia), 183. 
verrucula (Euplecta), 6.3. 
vesieula (Macrocblauiys), 

79, 140. 
vidua (Khasiella), 1.58. 
vll i pousa( Macrochlain va), 

137. 



vitellina (Helix), 36. 
vitrinoides (Helix), 95, 

132. 
vitrinoides (Nanina), 97, 

99. 
vulcani (Kaliella), 260. 
vulcania (Sitala), 228. 

warnefordi (Microcys- 
tina), 255. 

watsoni (Streptaxis), 11. 

woodiana (Macro- 
cblamys), 135. 

woodmasoni (Macro- 
cblamys), 127. 

woodmasoniana (Macro- 
cblauiys), 127. 

wynnii (Bensonia), 175. 

Xestina, 26. 

zemoensis (Cryptaus- 

tenia), 185. 
zemoensis (Macro- 

cblamys), 93. 
ZonitidiB. 25. 



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