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Full text of "Monasticon : an account (based on Spottiswoode's) of all the abbeys, priories, collegiate churches, and hospitals in Scotland, at the Reformation : volume i"

MONASTICON. 



GLASGOW : 
HAY NISBET, PRINTER, TRONGATE. 



Monastic on: 



AN ACCOUNT 



(BASED ON'SPOTTISWOODE'S) 



OF ALL THE 



Churches, mt\ 



IN SCOTLAND, 



[FO H M AT ION 



BY 



REV. J. F. S. GOEDON, D.D., 

ST. ANDREW'S, GLASGOW. 



Bolumc i. 



GLASGOW: JOHN TWEED. MDCCCLXVIII. 



'I am certainly informed that Mr. Spottiswood, of Spottiswood, in 
the neighbourhood of Kelso, and Parish of Westrutlier, has in MS. the 
fullest Account of all the Eeligious Houses in Scotland, their Lands and 
Revenues, that is anywhere to be found; and that his son, Mr. John Spottis- 
wood, Solicitor of Law in London, has been offering the MS., 3 vols. folio, 
to sale." [Letter to Gen. Hutton from Jo. Scotland, Linlithgow t June 8th, 
1790. Penney s Linlitltyoicshire, p. 211.] 




MONASTIC ON. 



MONASTICISM played a great part in the world for upwards of a thousand 
years. It was a chief Agent in changing the Social and Political aspects of 
great Empires. It elevated some of the lowest strata of society, and 
depressed some of the highest. It moulded, controlled, and overturned 
Governments. But, in the course of that stormy millennium, it underwent 
changes as extensive as those which it imposed. Monks were not always 
peacemakers: even the same Convent at the same time sheltered Monks 
who were in fierce controversy as to what a Monk ought to be and do. The 
Monkish garb, like any other, clothed simultaneously some of the noblest 
and some of the meanest spirits that have ever dwelt on earth. In those 
" Dark Ages," albeit amid the flood-tide of barbaric invasion, it was within 
Monastic walls that BIBLES were transcribed by " Monkish " hands, and the 
best Productions of the Fathers of the Church were preserved in " Monkish" 
Libraries whose Catalogues have come down to us; and which are not only 
multifarious but astounding, when we think that the slow process of writing 
was the only means of preserving the labours of an Author. The Illumina- 
tions which embellish the Books used for Divine Homage, make the eyes of 
the Artist to sparkle at their rich colours, designs, and sublimity fresh as 
yesterday. 

The " Venerable Bede " was no contemptible Historian nor Geo- 
metrician : his Commentator, Bridferth, a Monk of Kamsey, was, pro- 
bably, as great a Mathematician as any of the present Age. Boger Bacon 
exhibits an acquaintance not only with the Mathematicians but with the 
Philosophers of Arabia and of Mahommedan Spain, which no man in 
Europe during the last three Centuries has possessed ; and every Scholar 
may be appealed to whether Treatises on these Sciences display ordinary or 

VOL. I. A 



2 MONKS SKILFUL AECHITECTS. 

borrowed Knowledge, in these far-back times. That Metaphysics were 
never more profoundly cultivated than in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
Centuries must be admitted by all who know anything of Albertus Magnus, 
Thomas Aquinas, Alexander Hales, Eoger Bacon, &c. Anselm, a Century 
before Albertus, was as eminent in this Science as he was in Moral 
Philosophy ; and our Libraries contain numerous MSS., the subjects of 
which evince a Metaphysical capacity unequalled in the present day. 

All that can be here done to indicate the services rendered by Monastic 
Institutions to Literature and Civilization, must be fragmentary, for the 
ramifications are numerous. The several Orders possessed men who were 
Geniuses in Architecture: even the ruined Kuins of the hallowed Fanes, which 
adorn our landscapes, indisputably settle this. They were the greatest Koad 
and Bridge-Makers for many an era ; for, while lawless Barons and warlike 
Feudal Chiefs found their safety and glory in inaccessible mountain 
Fortresses and dangerous impassable Footpaths, it was to the interest and 
ingenuity of the Monks that the Faithful were enabled to repair, without 
impediment, to their Abbeys and Churches, the Shrines of which, as an 
Article of Faith, had to be venerated, and the various Ecclesiastical duties 
to be discharged in the Place and Spot where God had chosen for the 
assembly of His Worshippers. Many of these " Monkish " Bridges, having 
survived the Eeligion (as a National Faith) of their founders, and the Cells 
and Cloisters of the glorious Abbeys of those who built them, at the present 
day facilitate the friendly intercourse of man with man; and the interchange 
of cattle, produce, and " goods" sufficiently attest the taste and talents of 
the Religious who drew the working-plans for every key-stone, arch, and 
buttress. And now, while we reap the rich harvest of sacrifice and 
devotion which animated the Benevolence, and drew forth those Alms of the 
Faithful, which render them Photographs of the past and National Heir- 
looms, the stable Buins dotted all over our Land still lift up their heads 
as surviving incorruptible witnesses of the spirit of veneration, and desire 
of the builders to glorify the Eternal upon Earth. In the obscurest 
corners, in the corbels of the darkest newel, and on the summit of the 
loftiest spire, where access is scarcely possible, there are yet displayed as 
much care and finish as the noblest features open to the eyes of admiring 
and criticising tourists. 

Like the history of much else in which there is an admixture of the human 
with the Divine, the history of Monachism is a perpetual see-saw of fall and 
recovery, of corruption and reform. In its early days, the Cloister was 
often the sole refuge of the godly and contemplative from the tyranny of 



THEIR EMPLOYMENTS AND LIVES. 8 

Barbarism unrestrained by law, and of crime unchecked by fear. For a 
time, almost every man who was neither Monk nor Serf, was a wild beast, 
differing from other wild beasts by being two-legged. In that Solitude, the 
increasing "Worship of God led men to ponder on me Unseen, as well as on 
the seen from which they fled. But, in process of time, not a few of the 
crimes and vices which Monks of one generation had fought against in the 
world, the Monks of another generation had sheltered and fostered in the 
Cloister. In the vigorous words of Bishop Aungerville (addressd to the 
Friars of his day), " There used to be an anxious and reverential devotion 
in the culture of books, . . . and the Clergy delighted in communing 
with them as their whole wealth ; for many wrote them out with their own 
hands in the intervals of the Canonical Hours, and gave up the time 
appointed for bodily rest to the fabrication of volumes, those sacred 
treasuries of whose labours, filled with cherubic Letters, are at this day 
resplendent in most Monasteries, to give the knowledge of Salvation to 
Students, and a delectable light to the paths of the Laity. . . . But 
now (we say it with sorrow) base Thersites handles the arms of Achilles ; 
the choicest trappings are thrown away upon lazy asses ; blinking night- 
birds lord it in the nest of eagles ; and the silly kite sits on the perch of 
the hawk. Liber Bacchus is respected, and passes daily and nightly into 
the belly ; Liber Codex is rejected . . . out of reach. Flocks and 
fleeces, crops and barns, gardens and olive-yards, drink and cups, are now 
the lessons and studies of Monks, except of some chosen few, in whom not 
the image, but a slight vestige, of their forefathers remains." 

These earnest reproofs were written in 1334, little more than a 
Centtiry after the awakening trumpet-notes of Francis of Assisi had been 
sounded in the ears of all men, and especially of Monks, with results so 
memorable. [Pkilobiblon, c. v., pp. 33-34.] 

At the dissolution and suppression of Monasteries in 1535-9, the appro- 
priation of the spoil was often as reckless and profligate as the Statutes and 
methods of acquiring it had been unscrupulous. The examples set by the 
" visitors " and " commissioners " were followed by the rabble. Ample 
proofs of ample bribes exist in Correspondence, without any attempt to veil 
or varnish agents or acts. By the demolition of the smaller Monasteries 
alone in England (according to Fuller's Church History, Edit, by Xicholls, 
vol. ii., i>p. 211-50) a clear Kevenue of 30,000 per annum was advanced to 
the Crown, besides 10,000 in plate and moveables. Indeed, King Henry 
VIII., beside his own disposition to munificence won by sacrilegious theft, 
was doubly concerned to be bountiful therein ; first, in honour, for seeing 



4 SEIZURE AND SACRILEGE. 

the Parliament with one breath had blown so much profit unto him, it was 
fitting that some, especially the principal advisers of the business, should, 
with Ruth, glean among the sheaves ; secondly, in policy, for, as he took 
the greater flowers to garnish his own Crown, so he bestowed the lesser buds 
to beautify the Cornets of his Courtiers, who knelt when he knelt, and bowed 
when he winked. 

The fourfold disposal of the Monastic Lands and Revenues, Fuller 
proceeds to explain as being (1) by free gift ; (2) by play or gambling ; 
(8) by exchange; (4) by sale "at such bargains wherein rich meadow 
was sold for barren heath, great oaks for fuel, and farms for revenue 
passed for cottages in reputation." Of all these methods, he cites 
particular examples. Even Antipapal Jno. Bale (afterwards Bishop of 
Ossory), addressing himself to Edward VI., in 1549, writes : " Avarice 
was the other dispatcher which hath made an end both of our Libraries and 
Books, to the no small decay of the Commonwealth. A great number of 
them which purchased those superstitious mansions, reserved of those 
Library Books some to scour the candlesticks, and some to rub their boots ; 
some they sold to the grocers and soap-sellers ; and some they sent over 
the sea to the bookbinders, not in small numbers, but, at times, whole ship- 
fulls, to the wondering of the foreign nations. Yea, the Universities of this 
realm are not all clear in this detestable fact ; but cursed is that belly which 
seeketh to be fed with so ungodly gains, and so deeply shameth his natural 
Country. I know a merchant-man (which shall at this time be nameless) 
that bought the contents of two noble Libraries for Forty Shillings' price 
a shame it is to be spoken. This stuff hath he occupied in the stead of grey 
paper by the space of more than these ten years, and yet he has store enough 
for as many years to come." 

Fuller quotes a portion of this Lamentation of the Reforming 
Bishop, and apostrophises in his quaint way : " The covers of books, 
with curious brass bosses and clasps, intended to protect, proved to betray 
them, being the baits of covetousness. And so, many excellent Authors, 
stripped out of their cases, were left naked, to be buried or thrown 
away. What soul can be so frozen as not to melt into anger hereat? 
What heart, having the least spark of ingenuity, is not hot at this indignity 
offered to literature ? I deny not but that in this heap of books there was 
much rubbish ; legions of lying Legends, good for nothing but fuel ; volumes 
full fraught with superstition, which, notwithstanding, might be useful to 
learned men, except any will deny apothecaries the privilege of keeping 
poison in their shops, when they can make antidotes of them. But, beside 



BAD CONSEQUENCES. 5 

these, what beautiful Bibles, rare Fathers, subtile Schoolmen, useful 
Historians ancient, middle, modern ; what painsful Comments were here 
among them ! What monuments of Mathematics all massacred together ; 
seeing every book with a cross was condemned for Popery, with circles, for 
conjuring! Yea, I may say that then holy Divinity was profaned, Physic 
hurt, and a trespass, yea, a riot, committed on Law itself. And, more 
particularly, the History of former times then and there received a dangerous 
wound, whereof it halts at this day, and, without hope of a perfect cure, 
must go a cripple to the grave." 

Thus fell the old famous Monasteries of our Kingdom, leaving, in the eyes 
and thoughts of many, nothing behind save dull Chronicles and tottering 
Ruins. By more patient Inquirers, however, it will always be borne in 
mind that, amid those dilapidations, good and great men fought a gallant 
and life-long fight amongst their worst enemies and ours ; that true captains 
of men lived and died there, who, after many a hard struggle, won enduring 
victories against brutish violence and emasculating ignorance. 

Now, in Scotland, in not one of its few remaining Abbey Towers exists 
there a single Peal of Bells, whence the passer-by may listen to sweet Chimes 
or solemn Dirges, although he may call to memory that, on the selfsame 
spot, " Bells Consecrated " tolled to Prayer, hundreds of years ago the very 
clappers of which were stolen for greed. Under the shade of those Towers, 
Schools were formed, industry was taught by example, the Holy Eites and 
happy Festivals of the Christian Church were regularly kept ; and, from 
their Battlements, did the Monks look down on many a bloody Fight, in 
which Kings were dethroned and Dynasties were changed. But from the 
adjacent Church the same voice of Petition and of Praise rose at the same 
Hours, day and night, century after century. The continual Offering up of 
the Blessed Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ ever set forth before 
the eye of simple adoring Faith the atoning Sacrifice of the Crucified. Nor will 
the reflection be a useless one, which, on such a Spot, may well cross the 
mind almost with the force of a Revelation, that, even for us of the Nine- 
teenth Century, in yon lonely valley, what was there quietly thought and 
unassumingly done by self-denying and much-contemned Priests, is, at the 
present day, of more momentous concern far, and has more to do with every 
thing that makes it life to live, than all the great Inventions the Steam- 
Engines, and Weaving Looms, Whistling Railway Locomotives, and Reap- 
ing Machines, and all our great Gold Discoveries. [See an excellent Book 
Edwards' Memoirs of the Libraries of the Middle Ages.] 

We cannot but be struck with the progress that has been made of late 



G STRONG PREJUDICES. 

years in breaking down certain old and bigotted Prejudices. The history of 
those Prejudices would form a curious Chapter in the Annals of human 
folly and error. Before the Reformation, of course, Conventual Establish- 
ments had their foes. Their wealth stirred up the envy of some ; the power 
they occasionally conferred on men of humble birth, excited the jealousy of 
others ; and the cases of scandal that were no doubt often occurring, called 
forth the indignation of all. Monks and Nuns were, in fact, liable in tiie 
Middle Ages to exactly the same sort of comments and puns ,as the Clergy now- 
a-days experience at the hands of those who recognise no Pastoral oversight 
nor Priestly admonition, and from the half-educated Editors of Newspapers 
and Magazines, who are necessitated to pander to the tastes of those who read 
and buy their off-hand scribblings. But the ill-feeling they provoked was 
only partial and transient, till the astute but wicked policy of Henry VIII. 
created the great Larceny interest that large body of the upper and middle 
classes whose " godly zeal " against Monasticism was fed, in a greater or 
less degree, by a share in its spoils. Then, as the remembrance of what 
Religious Houses really had been, faded out of the public mind, its place 
was occupied by a phantom compacted of every lie that sheer malice, 
polemical ingenuity, gross ignorance, or morbid fancy could suggest. 

. So strong is Prejudice, that a Monk is pretty generally supposed to 
have been fat, lazy, sensual, and ignorant. The popular voice supplies 
him with a plentiful provision of the good things of this Me, upon which he 
battened in his Cell like a hog in his stye his sole occupation being to recite 
his Breviary, which he could rarely translate or even read with decent 
accuracy. In rare instances he was of a different type he was ascetic and 
intellectual ; but in this case he devoted all his energies to dark and 
'mysterious plots in favour of his Order. Monk and Friar hated enlighten- 
ment, which they instinctively felt would be fatal to their Craft. So, they 
took possession of learning, and imprisoned it in the Cloister; and with 
invitee prepense they delayed for hundreds of years the invention of Printing. 
When at last, in spite of them, Books began to circulate, they added 
the ferocity of tigers to their other amiable qualities, and they persecuted to 
the death every one that dared to dream of striking off the fetters from the 
human mind. Such is the belief of those who love ivy-mantled Abbeys, 
but who detest those who once were their inmates. 

This notion of Monachism served its purpose d mcrveilh till modern 
inquisitiveness took to investigating the ways and works of our forefathers. 
Then it crumbled beneath the touch. Monks were discovered to be the 
Evangelizers of every Country in the world that has received the Faith; 



COMMUNITIES KEQUISITE NOW. 7 

they were the pioneers of Civilization and the nursing Fathers of the Arts ; 
they taught savage wildernesses to blossom as the rose, and tamed the yet 
more savage hordes that had once made them hideous. The Cloister, so far 
from being a Bastile in which human learning was secluded from the 
world, was found to be a Fortress which rolled back the tide of Barbarism. 
Whatever Political power and influence the Monks exercised, was better 
placed in their hands than it would have been in any others, during the 
"Dark Ages." Monasticism was too strong even for iron-handed but wooden- 
headed Chiefs to combat, while strong-hearted Barons often quailed at the 
ban of the Priest ; and it is to it, perhaps, more than anything else, that 
we really owe those triumphs of Civil and Eeligious Liberty which we 
imagine to be the product of our own days. 

Old hypotheses having signally failed, new ones have been invented, 
which are even still less supported by facts. They are to the effect that, 
while Monasticism was everything that was admirable to a certain point, it 
at length accomplished the work which was given it to do ; it then corrupted 
its ways ; and its ultimate extinction was as great a benefit to the com- 
munity as its rise had been. The fact is, that there never was a time so 
early in the History of the Eeligious Orders that they did not exhibit their 
characteristic Vices, or so late that they did not display their characteristic 
Virtues. Monasticism has fared, in short, very much like Christianity itself. 
Whenever its Profession involved the certainty, or in any high degree the 
probability, of Self- Sacrifice, no one sought it but men of earnest and devout 
minds ; and then its career was resplendent with glory. When it conferred 
honours and respectability, it was embraced by a certain proportion of 
Brethren who had neither Vocation nor sincere Piety; and then it grew 
feeble and secular. But it was never deserted by the Grace of God, and its 
Archives teem with more or less successful Keforms. At the worst, it must 
have been a boon to the Country. It was proverbially far better to hold 
under the Crozier than under the Sword. 

The faults of Monasticism had nothing peculiar in them ; they still exist 
among the Clergy or yuan- Clergy of all Denominations. On the other 
hand, the Virtues of the Conventual Life are its own ; and they are Virtues 
which we of the Nineteenth Century cannot afford to dispense with. 
To go on potthering at the Heathenism of our large Towns with our present 
Modes and Systems, is proved a powerless Tekel. Communities of men 
and women who ask for nothing but bare food and raiment, looking for 
their reward in Heaven, are, we believe, the real auxiliaries who are certain 
speedily to make an impression upon the weltering mass of vice and sin. 



8 SEVEN HOUES OF PEAYEE. 

If Monasteries had been Eeformed (as all Institutions occasionally need 
to be), instead of having been swept away, we should not have had to 
bewail, with sorrow and indignation, the venerable Mementoes scattered over 
our Historic country the hallowed Monuments of Works of Mercy over- 
thrown by infuriated violence. Abuses are so far from being necessarily 
incorporated with the Monastic System, that they are most strongly opposed 
thereto ; for, a Monastery is a Society connected by the bonds of strict 
Obedience to certain Eules, and has, as its primary object, the physical, 
moral, and Eeligious improvement of mankind. It should also be borne 
in mind, that the EEFOKMATION proposed to retain and to restore the old 
Faith and Practice, both which encouraged and gloried in the magnificence 
and splendour of Monastic Foundations. There is no more reason to expect 
corruption in Collegiate Houses, Convents, Monasteries, Nunneries, or 
whatever name may be assumed, than there is to anticipate the infectious 
transit of Beelzebub into any of our Academies, Boarding Schools, or 
Universities, or into compounded Congregations at large. Indeed, his 
aerial Highness will also be there anyhow, either by himself, invisibly, or, 
visibly, in some chosen Proxy or Herd well qualified to do his business. 
Besides, the argument which is derivable from past abuses, is rather 
favourable than adverse to the establishment of Monasteries ; for wariness 
and circumspection would mark the conduct of those who were conscious 
that all they said and did were scrutinized by invidious judges. 

The various offices which a Monastic System would require its inmates 
to perform, would afford a suitable training for the Ministry of the Church. 
The want of proper training in Parochial duties has been felt by every one 
who has come a fresh Greenhorn from the University, only to manifest what 
he is a mere Novice in all Pastoral work ; for, as matters at present exist, 
the Deacon executes the Office of a Priest, and the man is made to go 
through the labours of the woman. Our large Towns are at present supplied 
with three or four over-burdened Clergymen attached to one or two 
Denominative Congregations, whose footprints are very soon obliterated, 
through exclusive individual selfishness. It requires no logic to prove 
that " many hands make light work." 

The Canonical Hours, at which the Monastic Bell regularly summoned 
the Monks, were Seven in number : 

1st, Prime, about 6 A.M. 4th, Xones, from 2 to 3 P.M. 

2nd, Tierce, about 9 A.M. 5th, Vespers, about 4 P.M., or later. 

3rd, Sext t about Noon. Cth, Compline, 1 P.M. 

7th, Mntim and Lauds, about Midnight. 



PET ANIMALS. 9 

With trifling variations, all Monks rose to Matins and Lauds, and 
afterwards returned to bed till Prime. After Prime, an assembly of 
the whole body in a particular Koom was held, to say Prayers 
for deceased Benefactors, and to investigate or punish misdemeanour of 
offenders by discipline. The meeting was called a " Chapter." After this, 
Silence commenced. The Service being finished, they retired to the Cloister 
in some Orders to study, in others to pursue manual labour until Sext. 

The Monks dined at 12 precisely. At one time, no doubt, their fare 
was scanty and frugal, but this gave way, in the course of time, to " fat 
things on the lees well refined." While Dinner lasted, they kept silence, and 
listened to one of the Brethren, who read aloud. After Dinner, some time 
was allowed for recreation, which usually consisted in walking about their 
gardens in summer, or sitting around the Eefectory fire in bad weather or in 
winter, chatting, telling stories, or disputing. 

The Monks were fond of keeping Pet Animals. In Monast. Ang., vol. i., 
2K 925, mention is made of a favourite Crane, who was taught to bend- its 
head when the Abbot passed, and at Benediction of Meals; also, to jump on 
one leg. Crows and Magpies were also trained to play antics ; and they not 
seldom caused Rows by having the Indulgence of Ubiquity, and Defiling 
what had been but a short time before " swept and garnished." Experience 
had disciplined these Feathered Householders to look out for the wrathful 
Salutes of the several Monastic Subalterns, for their sudden trespasses. S. 
Gregory kept a gelded Tom Cat, and was very fond of him. Ugutio calls 
him a " certain ingenious Animal, viz., a Mouse- catcher." 

It is worthy of notice that there is no reference, of old, to Dogs having 
been kept in Monasteries. They naturally take a deep interest in human 
affairs ; and might frequently be too vociferous towards suspicious characters 
and uninvited visitors ; and so, the Monks would rather risk the advent of 
burglars, than incessantly to have to cry " couch " to the faithful conservative. 

An hour was also devoted to Chanting or Music, in the Song 
School, and, this being over, those who wished to go beyond the 
precincts of the Monastery were required to kneel before the Superior, 
kiss the hem of his garment, and ask his permission, which was 
seldom refused. Those who remained at home, retired to their Cells to 
read, write, or practise some manual occupation until Vespers. All were 
required to be within doors to sing Compline before Supper, after which they 
withdrew to their Dormitories, and were in bed by 8 P.M. Their beds con- 
sisted of a simply contrived mattress, usually stuffed with straw, chaff, or 
leaves, with a coarse coverlet, but no sheets. At midnight, all were called 

VOL. I. B 



10 FOUK OBDEKS OF INMATES. 

up to Matins and Lauds, by Lay Brethren appointed for the purpose. This 
interruption of sleep was apparently a hardship ; but their regular manner 
of living, together with the absence of excitement and anxiety about worldly 
business, caused them to appear florid and robust, which the outward world 
attributed to over-indulgence. 

They were not permitted to speak until Prime of next day ; and they 
slept in part of their clothes in separate boarded Divisions, where lights 
were kept burning all night. They fasted on Fridays. Occasional Indul- 
gences were granted to them in the form of donations e.g., an extra portion 
of food, beer, or wine, and clothing or bedding, beyond the rule, which were 
generally served out in a place or Hall called, from the Indulgence, " Miseri- 
cord." The sick were allowed the best of what the Monastery possessed. 

The Abbot and his Chaplains occupied separate lodgings, with a distinct 
Establishment, but observed the Monastic Eule. The Chaplains were per- 
petual spies upon the conduct of the Abbot. 

In every Monastery, the Inmates were divided into four Orders, viz. : 
Xwices, Juniors, Seniors, and Sempecttc. Novices or Probationers were those 
who had entered the House, but had not taken the Vow. They usually 
" professed" about the age of sixteen. Juniors bore all the burdens of the 
Choir, Cloister, and Kefectory, until the twenty-fourth year. During the 
next sixteen years they were exonerated from the offices of Chantries, 
Epistle, Gospel, and similar duties, but undertook the labouring business of 
the House. Between forty and fifty years of age, they were called Seniors, 
and were relieved from the duties of the Cellar, Almonry, and Kitchen. In 
their fiftieth year, they became Sempectcs, and lived at their ease in the 
Infirmary, with a lad to wait upon them, and a Junior for a companion. 

The Dress of the Monks was coarse, the chief part consisting of woollen 
stuff manufactured by themselves. The colour of the hood and tunic (white 
or black) indicated at sight the Brotherhood of the wearer. In general, 
they wore neither linen nor stockings; and sandals, with boot-legs and 
wooden soles, sufficed for shoes. 

Bonetti represents the business of the Confessional as often tiresome, 
the greater number of the Penitents repeating the same story over again. 

Particular Officers conducted each Department in Monastic Establish- 
ments. The description which follows is borrowed from the acknowledged 
best Authorities, viz., Du Cange's Glossary (a noble Encyclopedia or 
Dictionary in Latin in 10 thick 4to Volumes explanatory of every 
M.-diuval term), and British Monachism, by Her. Thos. Dudley Foslrooke, pp. 
5GO, 4.to : London, 1817. This latter is, in many parts, an Abridgment of 



MONASTIC OFFICERS. 11 

Du Cancje. Both these Standard Works are rare and dear. My Correspon- 
dent, the Rev. Samuel Fox, Rector of Morley, Derbyshire, is about to 
Publish a new Edition of his " Monks and Monasteries ; being an Account 
of English Monachism" a nice little handy Book. His description of the 
various Conventual Officers and Buildings are taken from Fosbrooke. There 
is one more Authority which I have consulted, now very scarce, viz., " A 
Short History of Monastical Orders, in which the Primitive Institution of 
Monks, their Tempers, Habits, Rules, &c., are treated of. By Gabriel 
d'Emillianne. London : Printed by S. Roycroft,. for Rob. Clavell, at the 
Peacock at the West end of St. Paul's. 1693." 

Under the covert of all these literary Wings I take shelter. 



MONASTIC OFFICERS. 

ABBOT 

Is a Syrian term signifying Father, Abba, and was anciently applied to 
all Monks, but especially to those who were venerable for age or peculiar 
sanctity ; and hence, in process of time, it was restricted in its application 
to the head of the Establishment. The appointment of Abbot was usually 
considered to be vested in the King, although the Benedictine Rule requires 
a previous Election by the Monks; and the power and authority which were 
thus conferred, were very great. Sometimes these Elections were boisterous 
enough. The Office of Installation was grand. All were to do him obeisance 
as he passed. His Chaplains preceded him with lanterns. They were 
Physicians, Illuminators, and, generally, men of natural gifts. The Abbot 
was usually styled the Lord Abbot, or "By Divine Permission," or " By the 
Grace of God, Abbot," &c. Besides the Parliamentary honours to which 
certain Abbots were entitled, they were Sponsors to the children of the 
Blood-Royal. They made Knights, at one time ; they conferred the lesser 
Orders ; they Consecrated Churches and Cemeteries. They rode with 
hawks on their fists ; and bells were rung when they came to visit any of 
their Churches. The state which the Abbots maintained during the 
Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, in their respective Abbeys, was very 
great, and was more like Regal magnificence than the daily life of those who 
had professed themselves dead to the world. Their secular tenures intro- 
duced them into a variety of incongruous offices, such as going to war, 
discharging the duties of itinerant Justices, &c. The public officiating Dress 
of an Abbot consisted of tiie Episcopal Ornaments. The great duty of an 
Abbot was to set an example of obedience to the Rule to which he belonged. 
He was bound to attend Divine Service daily and nightly ; to look after the 
Buildings ; to see that due order was kept ; and that the doors were locked 
and the keys brought to him every night. 

Abbeys, of course, were of varied extent and arrangement, according to 



12 MONASTIC OFFICERS. 

their wealth and importance. The Mitred Abbeys were the most eminent. 
Those who presided over them having, like the Bishops, seats in Parlia- 
ment, by virtue of the Baronies attached to their stations. The larger 
Abbeys usually consisted of two quadrangular Courts of different dimen- 
sions. The north side of the principal quadrangle was the usual site of the 
Abbey Church; and on the other sides were the Refectory, Almonry, 
Chapter House, Dormitory, Locutory or Parlour, Infirmary, Library, Scrip- 
torium, Guest Hall or Hospitium, Kitchen, and other domestic Offices. 
The Abbot's House or Lodging commonly formed one or more sides of the 
smaller quadrangle, and consisted of a complete Mansion, in the style of a 
large Manor House, containing a Hall, Kitchen, and frequently a Chapel. 
Chapels are distinguished from Churches, in having Altars, but no Bap- 
tisteries or Fonts, and being generally subordinate to the former. 

PRIOR. 

The Prior's Stall was at the entrance of the Choir, opposite the 
Abbot's. Whether he assisted in the government of a Monastery, or 
whether he presided over a Priory, he was still subordinate to the Abbot ; 
because all Priories were subject to their respective Abbeys. Consequently, 
the Prior was a sort of Vicegerent of the Abbot, being invested with his 
authority in his absence, and acknowledging the headship of the Abbot 
whenever he chose to visit the Priory. Those Priors who resided in a 
Monastery with a presiding Abbot, had the next rank to him in the 
Choir, Chapter, and Refectory; and were, moreover, provided with an 
apartment for themselves, called the Prior's Lodgings; and were furnished 
with horses and servants. In the absence of the Abbot, the Prior was to 
maintain the discipline of the Abbey. He could imprison delinquents, but 
he could not expel them from the Society. 

The office of Sub-Prior in Abbeys was much the same as that of the 
Prior in his absence ; the Sub-Prior being, in fact, an Assistant to him, and 
his Representative whenever he was not present. The Sub-Prior's Chamber 
was over the Dormitory door, that he might hear if any stirred or went out. 
Dean was the old appellation of Prior : to every ten Monks there was a Prior. 

PRECENTOR, OR CHANTER. 

This office was next in rank to that of Abbot and Prior, and could only 

ailed by a Monk who had been educated in the Monastery from a child. 

t was his duty to correct all mistakes in the Choral Service, which was 

entirely at his disposal ; to distribute the Robes at Festivals ; and to write 

out the Tables of Divine Service for the use of the Monks, as the Choral 

ervice formed a principal part of the Divine Offices. His place was in the 

le of the Choir, and on the right side, and he usually commenced the 

is office, however, extended to other matters besides the direction 

d lead of the Choral Service. In the Processions in the Monastery, 

ling could be done without the Precentor. On the principal Anniver- 

ies, he gave directions to the Cellarer three days before they were 

ally made known. At the decease of a Monk, his name was registered 

ficer in the Obituary. The Archives were under his care; and, in 

short, he was the Head-Librarian. During the Service, the Precentor held 

* hand u kind of musical instrument, made of bone, called a Tabula, 



MONASTIC OFFICEKS. 13 

It is said this instrument was held in the hand, to represent literally the 
expression of the Psalmist, "Praise Him with the Psaltery and Harp." 
(Psalm cl. 3.) It is also said that the Precentor held in his hand a Silver 
Staff during the Service, in imitation of the Staif held by the Israelites, who 
travelled to their own country, eating the Paschal Lamb. 

CELLARER. 

This Officer was entrusted with the general management of the domestic 
affairs of the Abbey or Priory. He had the care of everything relating to the 
food of the Monks, as well as the vessels of the Cellar, Kitchen, and 
Eefectory. He was required to be careful of the healthy, but especially of 
the sick. However, he was not allowed to do any thing of greater moment 
without the advice of the Abbot or Prior. He was to weigh out the bread 
daily, to collect the spoons after dinner, and in so doing, he was to carry the 
Abbot's in his right hand, and the rest in his left! He was also to take 
care that no one sat down before the Abbot or Prior. He was to wait upon 
Visitors and Monks returning from journeys. His Chamber was in the 
Dormitory. 

TREASURER, OR BURSAR. 

His Exchequer was a little stone house, joining upon the Coal-Garth 
(i.e., coal-yard, fold, or enclosure), pertaining to the great Kitchen, a little 
distant from the Dean's Hall stairs. His office was to receive the rents of 
the estates belonging to the House, and all the other Officers of the House 
gave in their accounts to him. He discharged all the servants' wages, and 
paid all the expenses and sums of money laid out upon any works 
appertaining to the Abbey, or that the House was charged withal. His 
Chamber was in the Infirmary, and his meat was served from the great 
Kitchen to his Exchequer. [Davies.] 

SACRISTAN, OR SECRETARIUS. 

It was his duty to uncover the Altar after the Gospel ; to carry a lantern 
before the Priest as he went from the Altar to the Lectern; and after the 
Collect, to put the Text upon the Altar, and either to ring the Bell, or cause 
others to do. it. He had the care of all the Sacred Vessels, and washed 
them at least twice a-week; prepared the Host, provided the Wine, and 
furnished Wafers for the Communicants. He distributed the Candles for 
the Offices. He took charge of all the Vestments, Bells, and Banners. 
The wastings of the Chalices, Corporals, Ampulla, &c., were all poured into 
the Piscina. Every night he was to lock up the keys of every Altar in the 
Church, in the Almonry, where every Monk might find his own key, and go 
to the usual Altar at which he was to say Mass. At the Procession of the 
Eogations, lest the way should be wet or dirty, the Sacristan was to point 
out the way to the Precentor, and the Precentor in like manner was to point 
it out to the Chapter. The Sacristan was to appoint a Sub- Sacristan, who 
was to keep the keys in his absence ; and to see that there was no negligence 
in the time of ringing the Bell. The Sacristan and Sub- Sacristan were to 
sleep in the Church, a privilege which was allowed to no one else, without 
the order or leave of the Abbot or Prior. The Sacristan was to take care 



11 MONASTIC OFFICEES. 

that no nettles or weeds grew in the Churchyard, and that no horse or other 
animal frequented it. He had from the Granary a daily allowance for his 
palfrey; and was allowed, as well as his Deputy, a Solatium or Companion. 
The Sacristan's Chamber was in the Dormitory or Dorter, and he had his 
meat served from the great Kitchen. 



ALMONER. 



This Officer was to find mats in the Choir, Chapter, Cloister, in both 
Parlours, and upon the Dormitory stairs. He was to find the necessaries 
for the Maundy; and at the Eogation Processions, two of his servants were 
to stand at the gate of the House, and give to every Monk a staff made of 
box wood; and the same servants, with the Porter or his man, were to go 
before the Procession, that they might remove all impediments, and prevent 
the people from pressing upon them. He was to purchase annually at 
Christmas, cloth and shoes for Widows, Orphans, and especially Clerks, and 
for those whom he thought to stand most in need. He was not allowed to 
collect any thing at the tables; but if any thing were handed to him, he 
might take it, and devote it to Alms. After dinner, when the Monks retired 
from the Kefectory, he was permitted to go round the tables, and to devote 
to Alms the drink which remained. 

COOK, OR KITCHENER. 

As his name denotes, this official presided over the culinary department 
of the Monastery. He had assistants, some of whom cooked for the Monks, 
and others for the rest of the Household. He sat at meals on the Prior's 
left hand, and gave the license to the Eeader, as well as that of Dining and 
Drinking. Another part of his office was to visit the sick every morning, to 
see what they wanted, and to supply those wants. This office was never 
conferred on any but such as had made the art their study. The Cook 
often got a nickname or contraction, such as Bo, Ank, Cad, &c. 
v 

INFIRMARER. 

He had the care of the sick, and had a particular part of the. Monastery 
appropriated to him for their reception. It was his duty to administer all 
their meals, and to sprinkle Holy Water after Compline upon their beds, 
efore Matins, he went round with a lantern to see if any who were able to 



7 ., J.M.UUV.I.IJ. \j\j ooo JLi ojJJ.V VVI1U \Y6r6 UD16 UO 

rise remained in bed; and he was required to proclaim all negligences to 
the Chapter. He had two Brethren to assist him in taking care of the sick. 
When a Monk was at the point of death, he had warm water ready for the 
corpse. He had the charge of the Bier. The Abbot, with the consent of 
Chapter, was to appoint such a person Infirniarer as might be able, in 
case of sudden accident, to receive the Confession of the sick 



PORTER. 



This office was generally committed to men of mature age and un- 
blameable life He only entered the Kitchen, Eefectory, Infirmary and 
Residence of the Superior, to deliver a message when visitors came He 
always slept at the Gate, and had a horse, tlrnt, as often as the Cellarer 



MONASTIC OFFICEES. 15 

and Superior wished, he might attend their summons, and ride with 
them. He was allowed the service of a boy, who took the key, after 
Curfew, to the Cellarer's bed, and fetched it again in the morning. In 
some accounts, we find that, as soon as the Bell rang for Compline, the 
Porter locked the gates, and carried the keys to the Abbot. 

REFECTIONER. 

He was to take care that the cups and vessels which were used in the 
Eefectory were kept clean, and that the tables were wiped daily. He was 
required, out of his revenues, to provide cups, pots, tablecloths, mats, 
basins, double cloths, candlesticks, towels, and salt-cellars. He was to find 
rushes to lay on the floor of the Eefectory five times in a year. When 
bread was placed before any of the Monks at table, he was to distribute the 
bread and cheese with his own hands. If the Abbot dined in the Eefectory, 
he was required to cause basins, water, and a towel to be placed in the 
Lavatory before dinner; and in the same manner in the Eefectory after 
dinner. The Eefectioner received the wines from the Abbot's cellar as 
often as it was to be distributed in the Convent, and he was required to 
measure it, if necessary. 

CHAMBERLAIN. 

By the Decrees of Lanfranc, he was to find everything necessary for the 
clothes, bedding, cleanliness, and shaving of the Monks. He was to find 
the glass for making and mending the Dormitory windows ; shoeing for the 
horses; gowns, garters, and spurs for the Monks' travelling; and, once a 
year, to have the Dormitory swept, and the straw of the beds changed. 
Three times in the year, viz., at Easter, Christmas, and the Nativity of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, he was required to provide baths for the refreshment of 
Monks' bodies. At the Maundy on Holy Thursday, he was, with the 
assistance of the Almoner and Porter, to introduce the poor; and of these, 
the first were the necessitous parents of the Monks, and afterwards the 
Clerks and Pilgrims, upon each of which he bestowed threepence. Upon 
the loss of a knife or comb, he was to find new ones; he was to provide the 
Novices with razors. He had the use of a Tailor. The Monks were to go 
to the baths when he saw it necessary. He slept in the Dorter. 

HOSPITALLER. 

He received strangers and the wayfaring poor, and provided for their 
entertainment in a room appropriated for them, called the Hospice or Guest 
Chamber. He had annually the best of the old shoes for the visitors who 
wanted slippers. If strange Clerks wished to dine in the Eefectory, he was 
to notify it to the Abbot or Prior, and, upon consent, to instruct them how 
to do. He was to conduct a strange Monk through the Cloister into the 
Church to pray. 

HEBDOMARIES, 

That is, Weekly Officers, was a name given to any of the Monks in 
waiting at table, or in other services, which they performed by weekly turns. 
Such were the Eeaders, who stood at a Desk or Lectern in the Eefectory, 
and read while the others were feeding. 



16 MONASTIC BUILDINGS. 

MONASTIC BUILDINGS. 

Having enumerated the principal Monastic Officers, their Habitations 
claim our next consideration. Their remains bear ample testimony to their 
ancient grandeur, and to the munificent piety of former times. 

A low and sheltered site was usually chosen for an Abbey, and the 
facility for procuring fish had no small influence in the selection. Although 
such situations do not appear to have been the best calculated for promoting 
health, there is something in those sequestered spots marking the former 
existence of an Abbey, which harmonizes with a devout and contemplative 
frame of mind; and it is not taxing our imagination too much, if we suppose 
that this feeling operated upon our forefathers, and led them to found their 
Abbeys in such places as would naturally contribute to promote the end 
which they had in view. The builders were most perfect masters of their 
craft, and the most beautiful of our modern Ecclesiastical Structures are 
mainly indebted for their excellence to the mouldering remains of the Middle 
Ages. 

In many of our Monastic Euins, we meet with perfect specimens of the 
solid, but not inelegant, Norman Style; in others, the transition to the 
Early English is exhibited ; and in the latest Buildings, the Decorated 
Style, with its chaste and flowing ornaments, prevailed. As far as Architec- 
tural taste is concerned, none of the preceding Centuries need blush on 
being compared with the Sixteenth. 

The paramount importance of the Church in the Monastic economy, 
gives that Edifice a priority of claim, in detailing the different Monastic 
Buildings. 

THE CHURCH. 

As the High Altar represented the Church, and had four corners 
(because the Gospel was extended through the four quarters of the globe), 
that shall be first considered. Its dimensions are thus stated by Bishop 
Hakewill: " Allowing them an Altar of three foote and a halfe high, and a 
rising to it from the lower floore of a foote high ; the height of the Altar 
from the lower floore will be foure foote and a halfe, or three cubits, which 
is the measure required in the Leviticall Law, and differs little in height 
from the Altars in forraine parts, or those which are yet stanclinge with us, 
if wee likewise take their height from the lower floore ; which, by reason of 
the continued and easie degrees of ascent to them, may not unfitly be 
counted their basis or foote." The authentic mark of an Altar was its Five 
Crosses. As no Altar could be Consecrated without relics, there was a 
small Stone, called the Sujillum Altaris, by which the aperture for the 
insertion of the relics was closed up by mortar tempered in Holy Water. 
Du Cange says, the Horn of the Altar is the Side, where the Epistle and 



MONASTIC BUILDINGS. 17 

Gospel were read. Symmaclius, Gregory of Tours, and others, mention the 
Ciborium, an arch over the Altar, supported by four lofty columns, in 
imitation of the Propitiatory, which covered the Ark. It was sometimes 
Illuminated and adorned with Tapers. Where there was no Ciborium, a 
mere Canopy hung over the Altar, which was most common; a fine 
Stone Screen, full of niches, being the back of the Altar, from which 
the Canopy projects. Curtains, called the Tetra-velum, were annexed, and 
drawn round, that the Priest might not be confused by view of the 
spectators. Under this Ciborium or Canopy, hung the Piv, or Box, contain- 
ing the Host, commonly a Dove of goldsmith's work, esteemed so sacred, 
that upon the march of hostile armies, it was especially prohibited from 
theft ; and Henry V. delayed his Army for a whole day, to discover the thief 
who had stolen one. A common Altar-piece was a Picture of the General 
Judgment, called llappa Muitdi, and the Passion of Christ. Over the Altai- 
was put the Pallet, carried out against fires; and over the Pall, the Corporal, 
always made of linen, according to an order of Pope Sixtus, A.D. 133. The 
Antepcmlium was a veil which hung before, as the Dorsal behind. At 
the back of and about the Altar were Perticcc., or Beams, ornamented at the 
great Feasts with Reliquaries of ivory, silver, &c. Besides Sedilia, were 
the Stalls, where the officiating Ministers retired, during parts of the Service 
performed by the Choir. Du Cange says, " The Sales Mcijestatis is a seat by 
the side of the Altar, in which the Minister about to Celebrate sits, while 
the Kyrie, Gloria, and Creed are sung ; from whence, as often as he arose, 
the Deacon, removing his hood, or amess, used to comb his hair; although 
that office is now done in the Vestiary, before he comes to the Altar." 

The Altar- Plate stood upon a Side Table called Credence, Crcdcntia, or 
Ministerium. 

Besides these, were the Aharia Aniinaruin, where Masses were said for 
the Dead; rarely attended but by the Priest, a boy to assist him, and, 
perhaps, a relative or two of the deceased. 

LECTERNS, where the Epistle and Gospel were sung, and certain Services 
of the Dead performed. Some Lecterns were made in the shape of an 
Eagle, to designate S. John the Evangelist. The Analogium was a Beading 
Desk of Spanish Metal, cast, over which hung a gilt Eagle with expanded 
wings. It was sometimes taken for the Martyrology, or Necrology, because 
that Book was always laid upon it, to read from it what belonged to the 
Service of the day. 

In the Choir were Candlesticks called Arlores or Trees, with many lights 
rising from the ground. The Statutes of Clugny say, " On the above 
Festivals, in which that Iron Machine is accustomed to be lighted, which is 
commonly called Ezra, because it was illuminated by glass lamps. There 
were also pendent Chandeliers, called Corona. In different parts of the 
Church, sometimes in front of the High Altar, were Hearses, decorated with 
palls, tapers, &c., in memory of deceased great persons. 

The Seats of those who sung in the Choir, consisted of two parts: 
Antica and Posticfi. In the Postica were the Folding Seats, which were 
raised when the Singers were to stand. The folding part afforded a kind of 
seat, called a Misericord. The part Antica made a leaning stock, upon which 
they reclined when the Venia was to be sought. For though Venia was a 
general term for genuflexion, prostration, or similar gesture, there was the 
greater Metarur, very low inclination of the body ; the smaller only bending 
VOL. i. c 



18 MONASTIC BUILDINGS. 

the neck and head. Tims the Oseney Missal says, Let them raise them- 
selves and lift their seats, and lye upon the forms, saying the .Lord s 
Prayer " To understand this, it is necessary to observe, that the beniors 
only leaned upon the forms; the Juniors and the Boys lay prostrate upon 
the pavement opposite the Stalls; for, to be raised to a Forma (the word for 
a Stall) was a promotion. Kneeling cushions and hassocks were common. 
The Monks bowed at the Gloria Patri, except at the Hours of the Blessed 
Mary and sat at all the Psalms, at least in this Service. The Stalls were 
ornamented with Tapestry on Festivals; and the whole Church hung with 
black on Funerals of State ; as were the houses of the deceased, and black 
Curtains over the Pictures. Over the body was put a black Pall, with 
Armorial Escutcheons. 

The Naves of Churches were not always paved, hence the use of rushes, 
according to Cowell, for warmth and better Kneeling. Men used to stand 
on the right hand or South side ; women on the left or North. 

ORGAN. This was of very different form to the modern. The Organist 
was one of the Community. We hear of an Archdeacon playing in the 
Anglo-Saxon. Wulstan, in his Prologue to the Life of S. S within, mentions 
an Organ with twelve pairs of bellows above, fourteen below, four hundred 
pipes, and seventy strong men required to work it. In the Fourteenth 
Century they were very general in Abbeys ; Davies mentions more than one 
in a Church. 

PISCINAS, or SINKS, where the Priest emptied the water he washed his 
hands in, and where flies (because the emblems of unclean thoughts) and 
other deposits in the Chalice in short, all Consecrated waste stuff that 
could be so, were poured out. Du Cange calls it the Font, where the Priest 
washed his hands before he performed the Sacred Offices, in allusion to the 
Psalm, "I will wash my hands in innocency," &c. We order, says an 
ancient Synod, a Font for washing the hands of the Celebrating Priests, 
which may be either affixed to the wall or Pensile, and furnish water with a 
linen pall. Piscinas are sometimes double; sometimes single. 

The LAVATORY is also called the Horn of the Altar, where the Priest 
washed his hands in the Mass. 

LOCKERS, or small Niches, held the Ampullce, or Cruets of Mixed Wine 
and Water for the Altar ; and of Oil for Holy Unction and Chrism. 

PENSILE TABLES, containing Genealogies of buried persons ; number of 
Pardons granted to those who Prayed for the Deceased; Registers of 
Miracles ; Histories ; and duties of the temporary Priests. 

EXCUBITORIA, or apartments for persons who watched the whole night. 
At the shutting of the Church doors, the custom was to toll the greatest of 
our Lady's Bells, forty tolls ; and after, to go to that place and eat and 
drink, and then to walk round and search the Church. 

ROODLOFTS, or Galleries across the Nave, at the entrance of the Chancel 
or Choir, where were the Images of the Crucifixion, SS. Mary and John, 
and sometimes rows of Saints, on either side, and where the Musicians 
played, ^ There is a remarkable similarity in the style of Eoodlofts. The 
Gallery is commonly supported by a cross beam, richly carved with foliage, 
sometimes superbly built ; and underneath runs a Screen of beautiful open 
Tabernacle work. SS. Mary and John were not always the Images which 



MONASTIC BUILDINGS. 19 

accompanied the Crucifix; for we find the four Evangelists substituted 
instead. 

CONFESSIONALS. These are very varied. Some are large Chairs; others 
are Stalls, with oblong holes cut in them; others are arched stone Vaults, 
through which was a passage from the Choir to a Chapel, formerly very 
dark. Here the people stood, the Priest being within the Altar Eails, and 
the voice passing through a wall made hollow for the purpose. 

GALILEES, where the Processions ended; places or peirs aloft, for the 
Abbot's family to view Processions from; lines cut in the pavement to show 
the room to be kept clear for Processions; and circular stones, to mark 
where each should take his stand at such times. In the Nave of the 
Church of York are small circles, engraved on the pavement, marking each 
place in the length of this Nave, which, being twelve times repeated, make 
exactly an English mile. " They showed us twelve holes against the great 
door, with a little peg, which served to mark the miles, to any one chusing 
to measure them, changing every time this peg into a fresh hole, in order 
not to misreckon." [Antiquarian Repository, vol. ii., p. 217.] 

LADY-CHAPELS, or RETRO-CHOIRS. This Chapel was so called, because, 
in general, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. After the Reformation, 
it was often given to the scholars of Free Schools for the purpose of Morning 
Prayers, &c. 

SAINTS' BELLS, the use of which was this, says M. Harding, "We have 
commonly seen the Priest, when he sped him to say his Service, ring the 
Saunce Bell, and speake out aloud, Pater Noster, by which token the people 
were commanded silence, reverence, and devotion." According to Staveley, 
and Warton from him, it was rung when the Priest came to the " Holy, 
Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth, or Trisagium, in order that all persons 
without might fall on their knees in reverence of the Host, then elevated." 
They then bowed the head, spread or elevated the hands, and said, " Salve 
Lux Mundi," &c., Hail Liylit of the World, &c. Erasmus says, "No person 
ever passed by a Church or Cross, without pulling off his hat or bowing. 

TOWERS, for the Juniors to learn the Church Service in. 

TRIFORIA, or upper passages and ways round the Church, for the con- 
venience of suspending tapestry and similar ornaments on Festivals. 

PULPITS, which generally faced the West, that the people's faces, in all 
acts of devotion, might look toward the East, according to the custom of 
the primitive times; the change to the South, or other direction, being a 
reform of the Puritans. A stand for an Hour-glass still remains in many 
Pulpits. 

Davies says, " Every Sunday, a Sermon was Preached in the Galiloy 
from one to three in the afternoon; previous to which, at twelve, the great 
Bell of the Galiley tolled three quarters of an hour, and rung the fourth 
quarter till one o'clock, that the people might have warning to come and 
hear the word of God Preached." The Friars also Preached there, and there 
were Sermons on Saints' Days, and other Solemnities. Some of these 
Sermons were very strange and ridiculous, as the following Extracts will 
show : " A lark is a bird which sings a song proceeding from recollection of 
the benefits of God. For the lark, when she begins to mount, lightly sings 
Dewn, Deum, Deuin ; when she comes a little higher, she sings many times 



20 MONASTIC BUILDINGS. 

7>,w;, many times Demn; when she comes highest of all, she sings entirely 
7V,, M , Thus does the pious soul from gratitude." Similar instances are 
given' of the nightingale. In another it is said, that in these two things, 
the Election of a Monk, and keeping his Eule, the whole of Monastic 
discipline consists; and is like a'great joint in a small dish. They were 
also enlivened with Stories and curious Metaphors. ; < Moreover, it says, 
how wholesome is the obligation of profession, you may by a short story 
learn A father had a sick son, who could not be cured without the Imite 
and cautery. The father asks the lad, whether he would wish to be bound? 
Anxious for his health, he replies tlmt he has no objection to be bound and 
burned. Accordingly he is so ; but no sooner does he feel the knife and 
the file than he storms, rages, and begs to be loosed; but no, says the 
father, not till you are healed. In the same manner acts the Monk, who 
has willingly and knowingly taken the Vows." One of their Metaphors was 
this : "You have seen a man carrying a lighted candle in the open air, and 
guarding it with his hands lest it should be blown out." The Monk's soul 
was the candle, his body the part illuminated: the three winds liable to 
blow it out were the World, the Flesh, and the Devil; the two hands that 
held the light, were Alms and Fasting. A Sermon for the Nuns, upon 
flowers emitting odour, like the lily, is a string of allegorical puns. 
Another, in the manner of the old Black-Letter Story of the " Abbaye of 
the Holy Ghost," originally in Latin by the famous B. Alcock, says, the 
first girl is Chastity, the second Humility, the third is Mercy, and she is 
Collaress, which provides meat and drink ; the fourth is Modesty, and^he is 
mistress of the Novices ; the fifth is the Infirmaress, and she is Patience ; 
the sixth is Obedience. A third Discourse has the following climax: " And 
this is great, greater, greatest; great, to abjure and scorn the world; 
greater, to rejoice in tribulation; greatest, to pant sweetly after God." 

ENCAUSTIC PAVEMENTS were adopted, as an embellishment of the High 
Altar, and before Shrines ; at first exhibiting Scriptural Stories, painted 
upon glazed bricks and tiles of an irregular shape, fitted together as the 
colour suited; and upon the same plan as the stained glass in windows. 
The Arms of Founders and Benefactors were usually inserted, during the 
Middle Centuries, after the Conquest (though doubtless there are earlier 
instances), when many of the greater Abbeys employed kilns for preparing 
them : from which the Conventual and the dependent Parochial Churches 
were supplied. Some have conjectured that the Painted Tiles were made by 
Italian artizans settled in this Country; and, it has been thought, that 
Monks, having acquired the art of painting and preparing them for the kiln, 
in the manner of porcelain, amused their leisure by designing and finishing 
them. The use of these Painted Bricks was confined to Consecrated 
places, almost without exception; and all of them discovered since the 
Keformation have been upon the sites of Convents, preserved either in 
Churches or in Houses. 

MONASTERIES had appendages to their Churches of various kinds. 

CLOISTERS or PIAZZAS, i.e., covered Arcades, generally quadrangles, with 
a jrreen in the midst, were the general resort of the Monks, and were fur- 
niahed with ( brrefr, or pews for writing, and Lavatories. The Day of the 
Month was proclaimed in the Cloister every morning after Prime. 

KEFECTORIES, or FRATERIES, were large wainscotted Refreshment Halls, 



MONASTIC BUILDINGS. 21 

which communicated with the Kitchen. They had above the boards a 
dresser, almonries or cup-boards, and a desk for reading some Legend or 
Saint's Life during dinner. 

CHAPTER-EOOMS, supporting the Eoof with a Stone Pillar in the centre, 
symbolic of Unity, had usually rows of stone benches one above another, a 
crucifix, a reading-desk and bench, and a higher seat for the Abbot. 
All matters of Discipline were discussed here. Kefractory Monks were 
often flogged on that part where tingling sensations are the more sensibly 
effected. A hand-bell was rung behind the delinquent by the dutiful 
Brother whose office it was to apply the twig. Various Penances were 
decreed, in proportion to the Offence. M. Paris mentions the Lantern of 
Penance, which was to be carried publicly. Sometimes an old sack was tied 
round the neck ; drinking water denied by the excrement of a fowl ; walking, 
with naked feet, in their breeches, &c. [Du Cange and Marten. 1 

INFIRMARIES, or HOSPITALS, had a Chapel attached, a lobby or gallery 
for the invalids to walk in, and gardens or courts for their recreation. 
Phlebotomy was in much use in the Middle Ages. The dying sick were 
washed, and received Extreme Unction and the Blessed Sacrament. They 
were attentively cared for before and after decease. The Ceremonial with 
regard to dying Nuns was similar to that of the Monks, except that they 
were Anointed on the throat, above the breast and chin, instead of on the 
navel in males. 

ABBEYS had a Prison for offenders, Guest-Halls, spare Bed-Booms 
(to each a place for necessary retirement), a Clothes Closet, a Parlour, 
a Locutory, and passages leading to Staircases, Cellars, and the Buttery. 

GRANGES were the Farms and Abbatial Eesidences. Abbeys had fine 
Gardens, and Orchards, and Dovecots. The Dorter or Dormitory was 
generally on the west side of the Cloister. Adjoining to the west of the 
Dorter was the Privy, with separate seats, and a little window. Each Monk 
had a little Chamber to himself, with a small window, in which was a desk 
and shelf for books. The Premonstratensians were not to go into bed 
upright, but, sitting down, to turn round. 

On Preparing the Host. 

Du Gauge gives a minute account of the manner of preparing the HOST 
in the BAKEHOUSE. The care of making it lay with the Infirmarer. The 
corn, if possible, was to be selected grain by grain. Then, being put into a 
clean bag, made of good cloth, and used for this purpose only, it was carried 
to the Mill by a servant of good character. When brought there, the 
servant saw that some other corn was ground first, that the flour for the 
Host might not be polluted with any fretts from the Mill. When the flour 
was brought home, the Sacrist was to put a curtain round the vessel and 
place where the flour was to be boulted, and provide a trusty person to do 
this work. *0ne of the servants sprinkled the flour upon a very clean table 
with water, and moulded and kneaded it. The servant who held the irons, 
in which the Host was baked, had his hands covered with rochets ; and also 
while the Host was making and baking; silence was also observed during 
the same processes. The man, however, who held the iron, might, if 
necessary, make short indications to the servant who made the fire and 



22 ORDERS OF THE RELIGIOUS. 

brought the wood, which was to be very dry, and prepared on purpose many 
days before. \TynduVs Eve'sJiam, p. 185.1 

" The Host/' says Du Cange, "before Consecration was called Obtain." 
These Oblate, not Consecrated though blessed on the Altar, were given by 
the Priest, before food in the Refectory, to those Monks who had not 
received the Sacrament. Oblataa of this kind were in the earliest ages made 
in an iron mould, called by the French Oblie, of a small pattern, in the form 
of money ; and these, as well as the Host, were made of the purest flour by 
the Monks themselves, with stated Ceremonies and Prayers, in a Mould, 
marked with characters. Sometimes pious Matrons, whom they used to 
call Sanctinionia, undertook the office of making them, which was without 
leaven. These Unconsecrated Oblata, there is reason to think, were some- 
times placed upon the bosom of the dead. They were baked in a cUbmuis, 
or oven. The Oblata was a name from thence given to very fine bread made 
of flour and water, baked at a fire, in iron presses. The Host, before 
Consecration, was cut in the form of a Cross, by an especial knife, and the 
Vessels in which it was preserved made in the form of small towers. The 
Host was mystically divided into nine parts, called Gloria, &c. It was 
deemed Heresy to make the Host of fermented bread. 



ORDERS OF THE RELIGIOUS. 

All Ecclesiastics belonged either to Regulars or Seculars. The Regulars 
followed the rule of S. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo in Africa, of S. Bonnet, or 
of some private Statutes approved by the Pope ; and lived, slept, and took 
their diet together, under the same roof. They were either Canons, Monks, 
or Friars; and their Houses were called Abbacies, Priories, or Convents. 

The Seculars had their private Rules, composed by their Chapters, or 
borrowed from other Colleges abroad. They lived separately in their 
Cloisters, or in private Houses near to their Churches ; and were governed 
by a Dean (Decamis) or Provost (Pmpositas). 

Those that followed S. Augustine's Rule were 

I. The Regular Canons of S. Augustine (Canonici Regulares), so 
TT mi C fr m their Fonnder or Reformer 28th Aug., A.D. 388. 
he iremonstratenses from Premontre, in France, 6th June, A.D. 

JL 1 1-1 ). 

III. The Red Friars, or De redcmptione captivontmQth Februarv-20th 

November, A.D. 1198. 

IV. The Dominicans or Black Friars-founded 21st Marcn, A.D. 543. 

Canons of S. Anthony founded first, 17th January, A.D. 356. 
Those that foUowed S. Bennet's Rule were 

I. The Benedictines of Marmoutier (Majoris Monastcrii)21si March, 

A.D. 54d. 



THE CANONS-EEGULAE. 23 

II. Of Chiny, named Cluniacenses founded by S. Odo, 18th November, 
A.D. 909. 

III. Of Tyron (Tyronenses), so called from their principal Houses in 

France founded by B. Eobert of Abbeville, A.D. 1109. 

IV. The Cistertians (Cistertienses), or Bernardines A.D. 1098. 

V. Those who were designed of the Convent of Vallis-caulium (Val 
des chonx), in the Diocese of Langres in France A.D. 1193. 

The WHITE FRIARS, or CARMELITES, had their beginning and name from 
Mount Carmel in Syria, renowned for the Dwelling of Elias and Elisha the 
Prophets, who (as they say) were their Founders. Albertus, Patriarch of 
Jerusalem, and Native of the Diocese of Amiens, closed them up in 
Cloisters, and gave them some Eules or Statutes, A.D. 1205; which were 
Confirmed by Pope Honorius III., A.D. 1217, and since, by several of his 
Successors. 

The FRANCISCANS, so named from S. Francis of Assize in Italy, who 
established them A.D. 1206. They followed the Eule that S. Francis com- 
posed for them; and were Confirmed by Pope Innocent III., A.D. 1209. 

The CARTHUSIANS, who were established upon the Carthusian Moun- 
tains, in the Diocese of Grenoble, in the Province of Dauphine, followed 
also their private Constitutions, which were given them by their Founder, 
and approved of by Pope Alexander III., A.D. 1176, and by the Succeeding 
Popes. 

All these Eeligious Orders were either endowed with sufficient Eents 
for maintaining them, or were allowed to Beg for their living. From 
whence arises a new Division of Churchmen, the one called Rented 
Religions, who were endowed with several Mortifications ; the others, Begging 
Friars, or Mendicants, who had little or nothing settled upon them. 

The first were the Canons-Eegular, Monks of different Orders, specified 
above, as Benedictines, Cistertians, Carthusians, Vallis-caulium, and the 
Eed Friars, &c. The others were the Black, Gray, and White Friars. 
[8poUisii'oode.~] 



THE CANONS-EEGULAE. 

THEIR DRESS. 

They wore a white Eobe, with a Eochet (Roclietnm) of fine linen above 
their Gown; a Surplice in Church (Superpdticium); and an Almuce (Lamu- 
tium), formerly on their shoulders, thereafter on their left arm, hanging as 
far down as the ground. This Almuce was of a fine black or gray skin, 
brought from foreign Countries, and frequently lined with Ermine. 



24 THE KULES OF THE CANONS-EEGULAE. 

RULES THEY IOLLOWED. 

S. Augustine's (Bishop of Hippo) Rule I. 

1. That the Monks ought to possess nothing in particular, nor call any 
thing their own. 

2. That the Wealthy, who become Monks, ought to sell what they have, 
and give the money to the Poor. 

3. That those who sue for the Eeligious Habits, ought to pass under 
trial before being admitted. 

4. That the Monks ought to subtract nothing from the Monastery, nor 
receive any thing whatsoever, without the permission of their Superior. 

5. That the Monks ought to communicate to their Superior those points 
of Doctrine which they have heard discoursed of out of the Monastery. 

6. That if any one is stubborn toward his Superior, after the first and 
second correction in secret, he shall be denounced publicly as a Eebel. 

7. If it happens that, in time of Persecution, the Monks are forced to 
retire, they ought immediately to betake themselves to that place where their 
Superior is withdrawn. 

8. If, for the same reason, any Monk hath saved something belonging 
to the Monastery, he shall give it up, as soon as possible, into the hands of 
his Superior. 

9. That the whole Fraternity shall oblige themselves, under their 
hands, to observe this Eule. 

Rule II. 

1. It is there commanded to' love God and our Neighbour, and in what 
order the Monks ought to recite the Psalms, and the rest of their Office. 

2. They ought to employ the first part of the Morning in Manual 
Works, and the rest in Eeading. In the Afternoon, they return again to 
their Work till the Evening. They ought to possess nothing of their own, 
not to murmur, but be obedient in all things to their Superior; to keep 
silence in eating. The Saturday is appointed to provide them with necessary 
things; and it is lawful for them to drink Wine on Sundays. 

3. When they go abroad, they must always go two together. They are 
never to eat out of the Monastery. They ought to be conscientious in what 
they sell, and faithful in what they buy. 

4. They ought not to utter idle words, but work with silence. 

5. Whosoever is negligent in the practice of these Precepts, ought to be 
corrected and beaten; and those who are true observers of them must rejoice, 
and be confident of their Salvation. 

Eule III. 

In the Prologue, the Monks are ordered to love God and their Nei<*li- 
bour, and in the Chapters to observe the following things. 
1. They ought to possess nothing but in common. 

2 The Superior ought to distribute every thing in the Monastery with 
proportion to every one's necessity. 

3 Those who bring with them any thing into the Monastery, ought 
immediately to render it common to all. 

to tem P oral Fortunes and 



THE EULES OF THE CANONS-REGULAR. 25 

5. Those who bring Estates with them into the Monastery, ought not 
therefore to be more puffed up with pride than others. 

6. They ought to honour God in one another, as being become His holy 
Temples. 

7. They must attend to Prayer at Canonical Hours. 

8. The only business at Church is to Pray, and if any have a mind to 
do it out of the time of Canonical Hours, he ought not to be hindered. 

9. They must perform their Prayers with attention, singing only what 
is appointed to be sung. 

10. They ought to apply themselves to Fasting and Abstinence with 
discretion. 

11. If any one of them is not able to Fast, he ought not therefore to 
eat between Meals, unless he be sick. 

12. They must mind what is read to them while they are at their Meals. 

13. None ought to be envious to see the Sick better treated than the 
others are. 

14. None ought to find fault, if somewhat more delicate be given to 
those who are of weaker constitution. 

15. Those who are upon recovery, ought to make use of comfortable 
things. 

1C. When recovered, they ought to return to the common observance. 

17. They ought to be grave and modest in their Habits. 

18. Whether walking or standing still, they ought never to be far from 
their Companion. 

19. They ought to express modesty and steadiness in their outward 
behaviour. 

20. They ought not to cast a lustful eye upon Women, nor wish to be 
seen by them. 

21 . They ought not, being at Church, to harbour any thoughts of Women. 

22. When it is known that a Friar courts any Woman, after having 
been forewarned several times, he ought to be corrected; and if he will not 
submit to correction, he must be turned out of the Monastery. 

23. All Correction must be inflicted with Charity. 

24. They ought not to receive Letters nor Presents in secret. 

25. There must be in the Monastery a Vestry or common place to lay 
up their Habits in; and they must be contented with those Habits that are 
given to them. 

26. All their Works ought to be rendered common. 

27. If some of their Relations send them Clothes, it shall be in the 
power of the Superior to give them to whom he pleaseth. 

28. That he who coucealeth any thing as his own, be proceeded against 
as guilty of Robbery. 

29. They ought to wash their own Clothes, or have them washed by 
others-, with license of their Superior. 

30. The Baths, and all sorts of Medicines, ought to be allowed to the 
Sick, as the Superior and Physicians shall think fit ; and those Friars who 
complain of inward sicknesses must be believed upon their words. 

31. They ought not to go to the Baths, unless in company of two or 
three appointed by their Superior. 

32. The Sick shall be committed to an Attendant, whose care must be 
to demand from the Steward all necessary things for them. 

VOL. I. D 



26 THE RULES OF THE CANONS-REGULAR. 

83. Those who are in any Office, ought to serve their Brethren without 
0Tflfl0iYiflf 

84. There ought to be every day an hour set to take Books out of the 
Library; and it is not permitted at any other time to take any from thence. 

85. Those who have the care of Clothes and Shoes, ought to give them, 
without delay, to those that want them. 

80. The Monks ought to shun all Lawsuits and Contentions. 

87. Those who have done any injury, or given offence to any of their 
Brethren, ought to ask them forgiveness; and spare for nothing to be 
reconciled. 

38. If one have given ill language to another, he ought immediately to 
remedy it with softer words. 

39. If the- Superior hath made use of too hard expressions in giving 
Correction, he is not obliged to beg excuse, for fear of diminishing his 
authority. 

40. 'That they ought to obey him who is Head over them, but especially 
the Elder or Priest, who hath the care of the whole Monastery. 

41. The Superior ought in his Corrections, when his authority is not 
sufficient, to have recourse to that of the Elder or Priest. 

42. That the Superior ought not to pride himself of his Dignity, but 
ought to have all the Qualities of a good Father toward his Inferiors. 

43. That the Monks ought to observe these Rules out of love, and not 
out of slavish fear. 

44. That this Rule ought to be read once a Week, in presence of the 
Monks. 



ABBEY OF SCONE. 27 



THE CANONS-REGULAR AND THEIR MONASTERIES. 

THE Canons-Regular of S. Augustine were brought to Scotland by 
Atelwholphus, Prior of S. Oswald of Nostel in Yorkshire, and 
afterwards Bishop of Carlisle, who established them first at 
Scone, A.D. 1114, at the desire of King Alexander I. They had 
twenty-seven Monasteries in Scotland, which were as follow : 

I. SCONE, or SCOON, A.D. 1114, 

Stands two miles north of Perth, on the east bank of the 
River Tay, on the road to Coupar- Angus. The Abbey Wall, 
as appears from the Foundations which have been dug up, 
enclosed at least twelve Acres of ground. Long before the 
Foundation of this Abbey, Scone was a place of note. Some 
Writers call it the ancient Capital of the Picts : it was certainly 
the chief Seat of the Kings of Scotland as early as the time of 
Kenneth. In the Church of this Abbey (on the site of which 
was built a Parish Church in 1624; but, excepting an Aisle, 
containing an elaborate Marble Monument" to the first Viscount 
David Stormont, this also has been demolished) was kept the 
famous " Fatal Stone" lia-fail or hiiser-stuhl " the ancient 
Coronation Stone of Scotland." The Monkish tradition was, 
that it was the identical Stone which served Jacob for a pillow, 
and was afterwards transported into Spain, where it was used as 
a Seat of Justice by Gothalus, a Contemporary with Moses. 
There is nothing striking in the appearance of this Stone, which 
is now placed below the seat of the Coronation Chair in West- 

* On the north wall of this Aisle stands this fine Monument. It represents the 
inside of a Chapel or Oratory. In the middle is a Statue of liis Lordship in armour, 
as large as life, kneeling on a cushion before an Altar, on which is laid a Book. His 
hands are joined in supplication. Every vein in the face and hands of this Effigy is 
finely executed. The whole is so well done, that the Figure seems to breathe. On 
each side is a man in armour, somewhat smaller than life, but of admirable work- 
manship. The heads are remarkably well done. One is said to represent the 
Marquis of Tullibardine, and the other'the Earl Marischal. Above these are several 
emblematical features; towards the top are. the Arms of the Family; and an Angel 
surmounts the whole. 



MONASTICON. 

Bo 

minster Abbey, with one end or side visible. It is just a dirty 
ie rougl^looking sandstone, measuring 26 inches m length 
S| inches in breadth, and 10* inches m rtnckness Withou 
"pinning our faith" to those Traditions which our forefathers 
found it not at all difficult to believe in (such as the above) we 
may admit the possibility of its being the same Stone on which 
the ancient Kings of Ireland seated themselves when Crowned on 




Representation of the Inauguration of a King, seated and attired in the same 
Vestures as depicted in the Great Seal of Robert I. On the dexter, a Bishop, 
Mitred, is stationed in the act of office ; on the sinister is another vested without 
Mitre. Five other Officials are engaged in the Solemnity. Underneath are 
three Shields : the centre one bears the Arms of Scotland ; the dexter, three 
Pales, for Atholl ; the sinister, two Chevrons, for Stratheame. The background 
is ornamented with a seme of roses. Date of the Seal, probably about 1350. 

8. ECCE SCE TRIXITATIS ET SCI MICHAELIS DE SCONA. 

the Hill of Tara, and which Fergus (the son of Eric), the first 
King of Scotland, took with him when he led the Dalriads to the 
shores of Argyleshire. He himself was Crowned upon it, enclosed 
(as has been said) in the bottom or drawer of an old ugly wooden 



ABBEY OF SCONE. 



29 



Chair; but which looks smart enough when dressed and clothed 
once in half a Century. Our earliest Monarchs made the like 
use of the Stone at Dunstaffnage. It continued there, as the 
Coronation Seat, till the Eeign of Kenneth II., who removed it 
to Scone. Every Scottish King was Crowned and Consecrated 
thereupon till the year 1296, when Edward I. took it to England, 
where, ever since, in the Church of Westminster Abbey, every 




Counter Seal. Representation of the Blessed Trinity : God the Father en- 
throned, exhibiting His Crucified Son over an encircled balcony ; the Holy Dove 
is on right shoulder of the First Person, Figures of the four Evangels surround 
this scene. Below is S. Michael standing 011 the Dragon, environed with the 
Vision of Ezekiel (chap. 1). Circumscription the same as on foregoing Seal. 

British Sovereign has had the Crown placed upon his Koyal Pate 
by Episcopal hands, in the sight "of assembled thousands. A 
Record exists of the expenses attending its removal to its present 
quietus. Edward removed the " Stone of Destiny," for the 
purpose of defeating an ancient Prophecy expressed in the follow- 
ing leonine verse : 



;;<> MONASTICON. 

k - Ni fallat fatum, Scoti, quocunque locatum, 
Invenient lapidem, reguare tenentur ibidem." 

" Unless old prophecies and words are vain, 
Where'er this Stone is found, the Scots shall reign." 

The Prediction was considered as verified when King James 
VI. ascended the English Throne. At the Coronation of 
Alexander III. (the last of that noble dynasty, an infant of eight 
years old), a veteran kilted Highlander, on his bare knees, in 
elevated Gaelic tones, hailed the new-crowned guileless Monarch 
as Alexander MacAlexander, Mac William, MacHenry, Mac- 
David, MacMalcolm, &c., going down and deducing his Koyal 
descent through 56 generations, from Fergus I., up to Scota, 
daughter of Pharaoh, King of Egypt ! 

In the "Liber Ecdesie cle Scon," Published by the "Mait- 
land Club" in 1843, and Edited by Professor Cosmo Innes, 
are contained 233 different Charters, from 
the Foundation of the Abbey by Alexander 
I. in 1114, down to a Gift to "Den Henry 
Abercromby, Prior," of ,416 yearly and 
Victual, with his Chambers under and 
above, retained and built at his own costs, 
from Patrick, Bishop of Moray, and Com- 
mendator of the Abbey of Scone, Dated 
at Spynie, 1570. 

The "Kental" and "Feus" of the 
Abbey (1561) are also Printed in the Ap- 

S. Michael overcoming '. ,, ., * 

the Dragon. On the left is l^ndix to the said Volume. As the Preface, 
a Monk Kneeling and hold- embodies the most recent and accurate 

data, the sequel is taken therefrom. 

The exact Date of the Foundation of this Monastery is 
unknown. According to the Chronicle of Melrose and the 
Foundation Charter, Alexander I. and his wife Sibylla estab- 
lished a colony of Canons-Regular of the Order of S. Augustine, 
brought from the Church of S. Oswald, at Nastlay, near 
Pontefract in Yorkshire. The Culdees, deriving their Institu- 
tions from lona, are supposed to have had an Establishment at 
Scone, prior to this re-formation in 1114 or 1115, Dedicated to 




ABBEY OF SCONE. 



81 



the Holy Trinity; and the new Foundation was dedicated to 
God, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, S. Michael, S. John, 
S. Lawrence, and S. Augustine. At first, the Superiors of 
Scone, as well as of the Mother House of S. Oswald, appear to 
have been Priors, though the new Fpundation was, from the 
beginning, declared independent of the English House. 



CHART OF KING ALEXANDER FOR THE FOUNDING OF THE ABBEY. 



In Nomine Sancte et Induidue 
Trinitatis qua vnus Deus adoratur 
et collitur et creditur. Quia sicut 
Eex et propheta Dauid testatur do- 
mum Dei semper decet saiictitudo 
ego Alexander Dei gratia Eex Scot- 
torum films regis Malcolmi et 
regine Margarete et ego Sibilla 
Eegina Scottorum filia Henrici regis 
Anglie volentes domum Domini 
decorare et habitationem eius exal- 
tare ecclesiam in honorem Sancte 
Trinitatis dedicatam que est in 
Scona concedimiis et tradimus ipsi 
Deo et sancte Marie et sancto 
Micliaeli et sancto Jolianni et 
sancto Laurencio et sancto Augus- 
tino liberam et solutam et quie- 
tam ab omni exactione et inquietu- 
dine a quibus regia dignitas et 
potestas potest earn liberare patro- 
cinare et defendere. Ad Dei igitur 
cultum et honorem dilatandum et 
exaltandum placuit iiobis clericos 
canonicorum professione Deo famu- 
lantes de ecclesia sancti Osuualdi de 
qua fama religiouis nobis innotuit 
honesto proborum virorum consilio 
a dompno Adeluualdo priore requi- 
rere. Quibus ab ipso priore nobis 
concessis omni professione et 
subiectione liberis et solutis curam 
et custodiam prefate ecclesie sic 
commisimus ut ordinem ibi constitu- 
ant ad seruiendum Deo canonico 
secundum regulam sancti Augustini. 
Terras etiam et possessiones et 
consuetudines subscriptas eidem 
ecclesie pro nobismetipsis et pro 
auimabus patrum ct matrum et 



In the Name of the Holy and 
Undivided Trinity, who, as one God, 
is adored, worshipped, and confessed. 
Whereas David, King and Prophet, 
testifieth that Holiness becometh 
God's House for ever, I, Alexander, 
by the grace of God King of the 
Scots, son of King Malcolm and 
Queen Margaret, and I, Sibylla, 
Queen of the Scots, daughter of 
Henry, King of England, wishing to 
adorn the House of the Lord, and to 
make His Dwelling-place magnifical, 
do make grant of the Church dedi- 
cated to the Holy Trinity in Scone, 
and do offer it to God Himself, and 
to S. Mary, and S. Michael, and S. 
John, and S. Lawrence, and S. 
Augustine, free and absolute, and 
exempt from all exaction and inter- 
ference, so far as the Eoyal dignity 
and authority is puissant to free, 
protect, and defend it. Therefore, 
for the extension and exaltation of 
God's worship and honour, it has 
pleased us to demand Clerics of the 
Order of Canons serving God at the 
Church of S. Oswald, the fame of 
whose piety has been signified unto 
us by the faithful report of certain 
honourable men, from Master Adel- 
wald, the Prior ; to whom, granted 
to us by the Prior himself, with all 
due submission and obedience, free 
and without condition, we commit 
the care and custody of the aforesaid 
Church, on this understanding : that 
they there Canonically constitute an 
Order for the serving of God accord- 
ing to the Rule of S. Augustine. 



82 



MONASTICON. 



fratrum et sororum et antecessorum 
et successorum nostrorum fidelium 
jure perpetuo possidendas concedi- 
mus. Et ne quis sacrilegio ausu 
hec violare presumat regio auctori- 
tate huius carte testimonio confir- 
mamus. Terre autem et posses- 
siones liec sunt Infervus cum quin- 
que carucatis terre Benchorin cum 
tribus carucatis terre Fotlieros cum 
vna carucata Kynochtred cum vna 
carucata Fingask cum vna carucata 
Dufrotlmi cum tribus carucatis 
Cleon cum tribus carucatis Liff curn 
sex carucatis Grudiu cum decem 
carucatis Inuergourin cum tribus 
carucatis et quinque rnansiones 
domuum vnam apud Eduenesburg 
et vnam apud Striuelin et vnam 
apud Inuerkethyin et vnam apud 
Perth et vnam apud Aberdon et 
communionem aque de Thei ut in 
ea possint piscari sicut ad opus regis 
et can iinius nauis siue proprie nauis 
fratrum siue illius quern proloquen- 
tur et medietatem coriorum ad 
coquinam regis pertinencium et 
omnes pelles arietinas et agninas 
et medietatem uncti et saginiinis et 
decimarn panum regis ubicunque 
fuerit a nortlio de Lambrenaor. Ego 
Alexander Dei gratia Eex Scottorurn 
propria manu mea liec confirrno et 
sigillo mee ymagiuis liec consigno 
ego Sibilla Dei gratia Kegina Scot- 
torum propria rnanu mea liec 
confirmo ego Gregorius episcopus 
auctoritate Dei et sanctoram Apos- 
tolorum Petri et Pauli et sancti 
Andree Apostoli ne quis liec violare 
presumat sub anathemate confirmo 
ego Cormacus episcopus auctoritate 
Dei et sanctorum Apostolorum 
Petri et Pauli et sancti Andree 
Apostoli ne quis liec violare pre- 
sumat sub anathemate confirmo ego 
Alexander nepos regis Alexandri de 
hiis testimonium perhibeo ego Beth 
conies similiter ego Gospatricius 
Dolfini assensum prebeo ego Mallus 
comes asseusum prebeo ego Madach 



The lands, also, and possessions and 
customs, which are Subscribed, we 
grant in perpetual right of posses- 
sion to the same Church, for our own 
behoof, and in behoof of the souls 
of our fathers and mothers, brothers 
and sisters, and of our ancestors and 
our faithful descendants. And that 
no one may presume to violate these 
by sacrilegious attempt, we confirm 
the testimony of this Chart by Royal 
authority. The lands and posses- 
sions are these : Infervus, with 5 
carucates of land ; Benchorin, with 
8 carucates of land ; Fotlieros, with 
1 carucate ; Kynochtred, with 1 
carucate ; Fingask, with 1 carucate ; 
Dufrothni, with 3 carucates ; Cleon, 
with 3 carucates ; Liff, with 6 caru- 
cates ; Grudin, with 10 carucates ; 
Invergourin, with 3 carucates and 5 
mansion houses one at Edinburgh, 
and one at Stirling, and one at 
Inverkeithing, and one at Perth, and 
one at Aberdeen, and the right to 
the water of Tay to fish in it, as if 
for the King's service, and a basket 
of one boat, whether it be the boat 
of the Brotherhood or one which 
they may hail ; and the half of the 
hides pertaining to the King's kit- 
chen, and all the rams' and lambs' 
skins, and the half of the fat and 
stuffings, and tithes of the King's 
bread, wherever he was north of the 
Lammerrnuirs. I, Alexander, by 
the grace of God King of the Scots, 
confirm this with my own hand, and 
Sign it with my own Seal. I, 
Sibylla, by the grace of God Queen 
of the Scots, confirm this with my 
own hand. I, Gregory, Bishop by 
the authority of God, of the holy 
Apostles Peter and Paul, and of S. 
Andrew the Apostle, that none may 
presume to violate this, confirm it 
under the pain of Anathema. I, 
Cormack, Bishop by the authority 
of God, and of the holy Apostles 
Peter and Paul, and S. Andrew the 
Apostle, that none may presume to 



ABBEY OF SCONE. 



83 



comes assensum prebeo ego Eothri 
comes assensum prebeo ego Gart- 
nach comes assensum prebeo ego 
Dufagan comes assensum prebeo 
huius etiam rei sunt isti alij testes 
Willelmus frater regine Edwardus 
constabularius Gospatricius filius 
Walthef Vsieth Alfricus pincerna 
ego Forn assensum prebeo. 



violate this, confirm it with an 
anathema. I, Alexander, grandson 
of King Alexander, bear witness to 
this. I, Beth, Earl, do the same. 
I, Gospatrick, son of Dolfinus, bear 
witness ; I, Mallus, Earl, bear wit- 
ness ; I, Madach, Earl, bear witness ; 
I, Eothri, Earl, bear witness ; I, 
Gartnoch, Earl, bear witness ; I, 
Dufagan, Earl, bear witness. And 
of this matter these are the other 
witnesses : William, the Queen's 
brother ; Edward, the constabulary; 
Gospatrick, son of Walthef ; Usieth 
Alfricus, the cup-bearer. I, Forn, 
bear witness. 



CHART OF KING ALEXANDER ANENT THE TRIBUTE AND CUSTOM OF ONE BOAT. 



Alexander Dei gratia Eex Scotto- 
rum omnibus mercatoribus Anglie 
salutem Sciatis me dedisse et con- 
cessisse in elimosina ecclesie Sancte 
Trinitatis de Scon et priori fratribus- 
que ibi seruientibus can et consue- 
tudines vnias nauis et ideo uolo et 
firmiter precipio ut omnes merca- 
tores extra regionem Scotie manen- 
tes qui nauem illam cum mercibus 
suis ascendere atque in Sconam 
venire uoluerint pacem meam et 
Dei eundo et redeundo pacemque 
tenendo habeant, et nulli nisi priori 
et fratribus dicte ecclesie de con- 
suetudinibus illius nauis respon- 
deant. Teste Eoberto episcopo 
electo Sanctiandree et Herberto 
cancellario. Apud Perth. 



Alexander, by the grace of God, 
King of the Scots, to all the Mer- 
chants of England, health. Be it 
known to you that I have given and 
granted for charitable use to the 
Church of the Holy Trinity of Scone, 
and to the Prior and Brethren there 
serving [God] , the tribute and cus- 
toms of one boat; and, therefore, I 
wish and firmly enjoin that all 
Merchants living beyond the realms 
of Scotland, wishing to take their 
boat up the Eiver, and come into 
Scone, may have my peace and 
God's, by coming, and returning, 
and preserving peace; and. that to 
no one, unless the Prior and Breth- 
ren of the said Church, are they 
responsible for the privileges of that 
boat. Eobert, Bishop Elect of St. 
Andrews, Witness, and Herbert, the 
Chancellor. At Perth. 



The Abbey of Scone had eleven Churches, viz., Scone, 
Cambusmichael, Kinfauns, Logierait, Blair, Redgorton, Kil- 
spindyrait, Logie, Dundee, Liff, Invergowrie. It was erected 
into a temporal Lordship by King James VI., in favour of Sir 
David Murray, a Cadet of the Family of Tullibardine, in the 
year 1604. 



VOL. I. 



84 MONASTICON. 

FIRST PRIORS OF SCONE. 

1. ROBERT, who was made Bishop of St. Andrews in 1124. TheExtracta 
ex Chronicis Scotia;, in the Advocates 1 Library, says that the first Prior was 
."Robertas Canonicus Sancti Oswaldi de Nostellis in Anglia." 

2. NICOLAS. Died in 1140. 

3. DIONYSIUS, immediately succeeded, and appears as a Witness in a 
Charter of David I., along with John, Bishop of Glasgow. 

4. THOMAS. Died in 1154. Styled Scotm by Fordun, which would 
seem to imply that all the preceding Priors were of the original English 
colony. 

5. ISAAC. Died in 1162. Last Prior. 

ABBOTS. 

1. ROBERT, formerly Canon of Jedburgh, and Prior of Restennet, 
succeeded Prior Isaac, and obtained for himself the rank of an Abbot (1173) 
under Malcolm IV., who, at the same time, recognised the Abbey and 
Church of Scone as the chief seat of Government. The Chapter records the 
recent destruction of the Church by fire, and large Grants are made for its 
reconstruction. Robert, the first Abbot, Died in 1186. 

2. ROBERT, the first Prior, succeeded, but resigned in 1198. 

3. REINBALD was a Witness to the Foundation Charter of Inchaffray in 
1200, and to a Charter of Duncan, Earl of Fife, by which he granted the 
Church of Kilconcath [Kilconquhar in Fife] to the Nuns of North Berwick. 
He was Abbot subsequent to the promotion of William Malvoisin to the See 
of St. Andrews, in 1202. 

4. WILLIAM held the office in 1211 and 1213, and continued till 1225. 

5. PHILIP was Abbot of Scone in 1231-37 and 42. 

6. ROBERT was Abbot in 1244. Resigned in 1270, on account of the 
intolerable persecutions he was subjected to from those of his Convent. 

7. NICHOLAS was Abbot in 1272. Elected to the See of Caithness in 
1273, but returned from Rome, unconfirmed, in 1275. 

8. THOMAS. He did homage to Edward at Perth, on the 24th July, 
1291, and again in 1296. He was Abbot of Scone when it was destroyed by 
the English Army on the 17th August, 1298, after the Battle of Falkirk. 
He assisted at the Coronation of Robert the Bruce, at Scone, on the 27th 
March, 1306. In September, 1306, he was made prisoner by the English 
Army, and sent, along with the Bishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow, to 
England, and confined in fetters. After these events, Edward applied to the 
Pope to sanction the translation of the Abbey of Scone from its position, 
"in the midst of a perverse people." 

9. HENRY, Abbot before 1304, and in 1320. 

10. SIMON, from 1321 to 1326. 

11. ADAM DE CARALE held office on the 12th September, 1335, and was 
t on the last of April, in the 14th year of the Reign of David II. 



ABBEY OF SCONE. 35 

There can be little doubt that the Bull of Benedict XII., conferring on the 
Abbot of Scone the privileges of a Mitred Abbacy, is addressed to Adam, 
though the Abbot's name in it is given as Alexander. In the original it 
must liave stood A. 

12. WILLIAM, Abbot of Scone, occurs from 10th February, 1353, to 1371. 

13. LAWEENCE DE LINDOEIS, Abbot in 1411. He was the first Professor 
of Law at St. Andrews. He is said to have written Examen Hccreticomm 
Lolardonun quos toto reyno execjit. 

14. ADAM DE CEENACH was Consecrated Abbot 25th April, 1418, and 
held office in 1426. " A man of excellent learning and religion." [Forchm.] 

15. WILLIAM, Abbot of Scone, 31st May, 1435. 

16. THOMAS DE CAMERA, Abbot on the 19th May, 1450, and on the 7th 
February, 1456. The Eegister and Chartulary was written during his 
Incumbency. 

17. John was Abbot of Scone in 1465. He was ''Vicar- General" of 
Patrick, Bishop of St. Andrews, 24th February, 1471. He was party to a 
Contract with Henry, Abbot of Dunfermline, in 1479; was Patron of the 
Altarage of S. Dennis, in the Church of Perth, 1484; granted a Feu 
Charter in 1487; and gave Lands near the Church of Eait to Thomas 
Allansone, on the 21st April, 1491. 

18. JAMES was Abbot on the 5th January, 1493, in 1495, 1505, 1506, 
1511, and on the 24th August, 1514. 

19. ALEXANDER STUART, son of Alexander, Duke of Albany, held the 
Abbacy of Scone in commendam, along with the Abbacy of Inchafiray, and 
the Priory of Whithorn ; and continued to hold them after he was promoted 
to the Bishoprick of Moray in 1527. He was Buried at Scone in 1534. 

20. PATRICK HEPBURN, son to Patrick, first Earl of Bothwell, Prior of St. 
Andrews, was promoted to the Bishoprick of Moray in 1535, and, along 
with the Bishoprick, like his Predecessor, held the Abbacy of Scone in 
commendam. 

Some of the earliest Paiiiainents on record were held at 
Scone. Malcolm IV., in a remarkable Charter of the llth year 
of his Reign, granted aid for the restoration of the Abbey recently 
destroyed by fire. For many years there was an intimate 
connexion between the Abbey of Scone and the Diocese of 
Caithness. In the Charter No. 58, Printed in the Book of the 
Church of Scone, alluded to above, is mentioned a grant of one 
mark of silver from Harold of the Orkneys, Shetland, and Caith- 
ness, to God, and S. Michael, and the Canons remaining at 
Scone. And in Charter No. 73, is a Pass granted by Alexander 
II., for a ship of the Abbot, evidently on a northern cruise, and 



86 MONASTICON. 

addressed to the King's Officers of Moray and Caithness. In 
Charters Nos. 2, 96, and 101, incidental notices occur of the 
great Flood or Inundation which destroyed the City of Perth, 
and nearly proved fatal to the Koyal Family, in 1210; and 
evidence is given of the Town of Dunkeld being first granted to 
the Bishop by Alexander II. 

On the 27th June, 1559, the Abbey and other Keligious 
Houses of Scone were burned to the ground by "John Knox, 
and his mob," from Dundee. Yery little even in the way of 
Kuins survived the storm of the "Keformation." 

THE DISTRUCTIOUN OF SCONE. 

In this meantyme, four zealous men, considdering how obstinat, prowde, 
and dispitefull the Bischope of Murray (Patrick Hepburn) had bein befoir; 
how he had threatned the town be his soldiouris and freindis, who lay in 
Skune, thought good that some ordour should be taikin with him and with 
that place, whiche lay neir to the town end. The Lordis wrait unto him 
(for he lay within two myles to Sanct Johnestoun), "That oneles he wald 
cum and assist thame, thay nather culd spair nor save his place." He 
ansuered be his writing, "That he wold cum, and wold do as thay thoght 
expedient; that he wold assist thame with his force, and wald vote with 
thame against the rest of the Clargie in Parliament." Bot becaus this 
ansuer was slaw in cuming, the town of Dundie, partelie offended for the 
slauchter of thair man, and especiallie bearing no goode favour to the said 
Bischope, for that he was and is cheif ennemy to Christ Jesus, and that by 
his counsale alone was Walter Mylne our brother put to death, thay 
marched fordward. To stay thame was first send the Provest of Dundie, 
and his brother Alexander Halyburtoun, Capitane, who litill prevaling, was 
send unto thame Johne Knox; bot befoir his cuming, thay war entered to 
the pulling down of the ydollis and dortour. And albeit the said Maister 
James Halyburtoun, Alexander his brother, and the said Johne, did what in 
thame lay to have stayed the furie of the multitude, yit war thay nocht able 
to put ordour universalie ; and tharfoir thay send for the Lordis, Erie of 
Ergyle, and Lord James, who, cuming with all diligence, laboured to have 
saved the Palace and the Kirk. Bot becaus the multitude had fundin, 
bureid in the Kirk, a great number of idollis, hid of purpose to have 
preserved thame to a bettir day (as the Papistis speak), the townis of Dundie 
and Sanct Johnestoun culd nocht be satisfeit, till that the hole reparatioun 
and ornamentis of the Churche (as thay terme it) war distroyed. And yit 
did the Lordis so travell, that thay saved the Bischopis Palace, with the 
Churche and place, for that nicht : for the two Lordis did nocht depart till 
thay broclit with thame the hole nomber of those that most sought the 



ABBEY OF SCONE. 37 

Biscliopis displesour. The Bischope, greatlie offended that any thing should 
have bein interprised in Keformatioun of his place, asked of the Lordis his 
band and hand-writting, whiche nocht two houris befoir he had send to 
thame. Whiche delivered to his messinger, Sir Adame Brown [This title 
indicates his having been in Priest's Orders] advertisement was gevin, 
that yf any farder displesour chanced unto him, that he should nocht blame 
thame. The Bischopis servandis, that same nycht, began to fortifie the 
place agane, and began to do violence to some that war careing away suche 
baggage as they culd cum by. The Bischopis girnell was keapt the first 
nycht by the laubouris of Johne Knox, who, by exhortatioun, removed suche 
as violentlie wald have maid irruptioun. That same nycht departed from 
Sanct Johnestoun, the Erie of Ergyle, and Lord James, as efter shalbe 
declaired. 

THE CAUS OF THE BURNING OF SCONE. 

The morrow following, some of the poore, in houp of spoyle, and sum 
of Dundie, to considder what was done, passed up to the said Abbay of 
Scone; whairat the Bischopis servandis offended, began to threattene and 
speak proudlie; and, as it was constantlie affermed, one of the Bischopis 
sonis stogged throuch with a rapper one of Dundie, for because he was 
looking in at the girnell door. This brute noysed abrode, the town of 
Dundie was more enraged than befoir, who, putting thame selffis in armour, 
send word to the inhabitants of Sanct Johnestoun, " That onles they should 
support thame to avenge that injurie, that thai should never after that day 
concur with thame in any actioun." The multitud easelie inflambed, gave 
the alarme, and so was that Abbay and Palace appointit to saccage ; in 
doing whairof thay took no lang deliberatioun, bot committed the hole to 
the merciment of fyre ; wharat no small nomber of us war offended, that 
patientlie we culd nocht speak till any that war of Dundie or Sanct 
Johnestoun. 

SPEAKING OF ANE ANCIENT MATRONS- WHEN SCONE WAS BURNING. 

A poore aged matrone, seing the flambe of fyre pass up sa michtelie, 
and perceaving that many war thairat offended, in plane and sober manner 
of speaking, said, "Now I see and understand that Goddis judgementis ar 
just, and that no man is able to save whare he will punische. Since my 
remembrance, this place hath bein nothing ellis bot a den of hooremongaris. 
It is incredible to beleve how many wyffes hath bein adulterat, and virginis 
deflored, by the filthie beastis whiche hath bein fostered in this den; bot 
especiallie by that wicked man who is called the Bischope. Yf all men 
knew alsmuche as I, they wald praise God; and no man wald be offended." 
This woman duelt into the toun, neye unto the Abbay ; at whose wordis war 
many pacifeid; affirming with hir, that it was Goddis just judgement. And 
assuredly, yf the laubouris or travell of any man cud have saved that place, 



88 



MONASTICON. 



it had noclit bein at that tyme destroyed; for men of greattest estimatioim 
lawboured with all diligence for the savetie of it. [Knox's Hist, of Refor- 
mation, Lalmjs Edit., vol. i., p. 359-362.] 

The present "Palace of Scone" (as it is called) was built 
about the beginning of this Century, on the site of the old 
Palace, at an expense of ,70,000, and is the seat of the Earl of 
Mansfield. There is no admittance to the Palace or Grounds, 
without an Order from Lord Mansfield's Agent in Perth. Much 
of the Furniture of the old Palace has been preserved in the new; 
and, among other Kelics, there are a Bed used by James VI., 
and another of crimson velvet, said to have been wrought by 
Queen Mary during her confinement in the Castle of Loch Leven. 

The old Market Cross of the ancient Village of Scone a 
narrow upright stone, 13 feet high, sculptured at the top stands 
in the Park of the Palace. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert 
spent a night here on Tuesday, September, 6th, 1842. 

The Picture Gallery, 160 feet long, occupies the place of the 
old Coronation Hall, where Charles II. was Crowned in 1651 . The 
circumstances of this Coronation are minutely detailed in a small 
quarto, Printed at Aberdeen, titled "The Form and Order of the 
Coronation of Charles the Second, King of Scotland, England, 
and France, and Ireland, as it was acted and done at Scone, the 
first day of January, 1651." Herefrom are given the particulars 

ACCORDING TO THE RITUAL .OF THE PRESBYTERIAN KIRK OF SCOTLAND. 

First, the King's Majesty, in a Prince's Kobe, was conducted from his 
Bedchamber by the Constable on -his right hand, and the Marishal on his 
left hand, to the Chamber of Presence; and there was placed in a Chaire, 
under a cloath of State, by the Lord of Angus, Chambeiiaine appointed by 
the King for that day; and there, after a little repose, the Noble-men, with 
the Commissioners of Barons and Burroues, entred the Hall, and presented 
themselves before his Majestie. 

Thereafter, the Lord Chancellour spoke to the King to this purpose : 
s "'> Yow good HiibjectH de.fi re You may be crowned as the righteous and lawful 
II '-ire of the Croinie of this Kingdome, that You would maintain Religion, as it is 
presently professed and established, confonne to the National Covenant, League 
and Cuminnt, and according to Your Declaration at Dumfermling in Awjmt 
but; J/.so that You would be Graciously pleased to receive them under Your 
HtpftlMM* 1 Protection; to govern e them by Laics of the Kingdome, and to de- 
fend tkm in thnr /,'/,//,/* ,/ Liberties, by Your Royal Power; offering them- 
selves in most humble manner to Your Majestie, with their Voices to bestow Land, 



COKONATION OF CHARLES II. 89 

Life, and ichat else is in their power, for the maintenance of Religion, for the 
safety of Your Majestie's Sacred Person, and maintenance of Your Crowne, 
which they intreate Your Majesty to accept, and 2 )i ' (t y ALMIGHTY GOD, that 
for many years You may happily enjoy the same. 

The King made this answer, I do esteeme the affections of my good 
People more than the Croimes of many Kingdomes, and shall be readie, by 
GOD'S Assistance*, to bestow my Life in their Defence, Wishing to live no longer 
then I may see Religion and this Kingdome flourish in all happincsse. 

Thereafter, the Commissioners of Burroughes and of Barones, and the 
Noble-men, accompanied his Majestie to the Kirk of Scoone, in order and 
rank, according to their quality, two and two. 

The Spurres being carried by the Earle of Eglintoun. 

Next, the Sword by the Earle of Eothes. 

Then the Sceptre by the Earle of Craufurd and Lindesay. 

And the Crown by the Marques of Argile, immediately before the King. 

Then came the King, with the great Constable on his right hand, and 
the great Marishal on his left hand; his train being carried by the Lord 
Ereskine, the Lord Montgomery, the Lord Newbottle, and the Lord Mach- 
lene, four Earles' eldest sonnes, under a Canopie of Crimson Velvet, 
supported by six Earles' sonnes to wit, the Lord Drummond, the Lord 
Carnegie, the Lord Ramsay, the Lord Johnston, the Lord Brechin, the Lord 
Yester; and the six carriers supported by six Noblemen's sonnes. 

Thus the King's Majestie entereth the Kirk. 

The Kirk being fitted, and prepared with a Table, whereupon the 
Honours were laid, and a Chaire set in a fitting place for his Majestie's 
hearing of Sermon, over against the Minister, and another Chaire on the 
other side, where he sat when he received the Crown, before which there was 
a Bench decently covered, as also Seats about for Noble-men, Barons, and 
Burgesses. 

And there being also a Stage, in a fit place erected, of 24 foot square, 
about four foot high from the ground, covered with Carpets, with two stairs, 
one from the West, and another to the East; upon which great Stage there 
was another little Stage erected, some two foot high, ascending by two steps, 
on which the Throne or Chaire of State was set. 

The Kirk thus fittingly prepared, the King's Majesty entereth the same, 
accompanied as aforesaid, and first setteth himself in his Chaire, for hearing 
of Sermon. 

All being quietly composed unto attention, Master ROBERT 
DOUGLAS, Moderator of the Commission of the General Assemblies, after 
calling upon GOD by Prayer, preached the following SERMON : 

2 Kings xi., vers. 12, 17. 

And he brought forth the Kincfs sonne, and put the Crowne upon him, and 
gave him the Testitnonie; and they made him King, and anointed him, and they 
clapt their hands, and said, God save the King. 

And Jehojada made a Covenant between the Lord and the King, and the 
people, that they should be the Lord's people; between the King also and the people. 

Another exemple I give You, yet in recent memory, of Your grand- 
father, King James. He fell to be very young, in a time full of difficulties, 



40 MONASTICON. 

yet there was a godly party in the land, who did put the Crown upon his 
haed. And when he came to some years, He and his people entered in a 
Covenant with God. He was much commended by godly and faithful men, 
comparing him to young Josiah standing at the Altar, renewing a Covenant 
with GOD. And he himself did thank GOD that he was born in a Keformed 
kirk; better reformed then England, for they retained many popish cere- 
monies; yea, better reformed then Geneva, for they kept- some holy dayes; 
Charging his people to be constant, and promising himself to continue in 
that ^Reformation, and to maintain the same. Notwithstanding all this, he 
made a foule defection ; He remembred not the kindnesse of them who had 
held the crown upon his head; yea, he persecuted faithful Ministers for 
opposing that course of defection. He never rested till he had undone 
Presbyterial Government, and kirk Assemblies, setting up Bishops, and 
bringing in Ceremonies, against which formerly he had given large testimony. 
In a word, he layd the foundation, whereupon his sonne, our late King, did 
build much mischiefe to Keligion, all the dayes of his life. 

Sir, I lay this exemple before You, the rather because it is so near 
You, that the guiltiness of the transgression lyeth upon the Throne and 
Family, and it is one of the sinnes for which you have professed humiliation 
very lately. Let it be laid to heart, take warning, requite not faithful men's 
kindnes with persecution; yea, requite not the LOKD so, who hath 
preserved You to this time, and is setting a Crown upon your head ; Kequite 
not the LOED so, with Apostasie and Defection from a sworn Covenant ; But 
be steadfast in the Covenant, as You would give Testimony of Your true 
Humiliation for the Defection of these that went before You. 

I have set up these two exemples before you, as beacons to warne you 
to keep off such dangerous courses, and shall add one for imitation, which, 
if followed, may happily bring with it the blessing of that godly man's 
adherence to God. The exemple is of Hezekiah, who did that which was right 
in the sight of the Lord. (2 Kings, xviii. 5-6.) It is said of him, He trusted 
in the Lord God of Israel, and he clave unto the Lord, and departed not from 
following him, but kept his Commandments. And verse 7, The LOED was with 
him, and lie prospered wither soever he went forth. 

Sir, follow this example, cleave unto the LOED, and depart not from 
following him, and the LOED will be with You, and prosper You wither 
soever You go. To this LOED, from whom we expect a blessing upon this 
daye's work, be glory and praise for ever. Amen. 



EEMON being ended, Prayer was made for a Blessing upon the Doctrine 
delivered. 



S 

The King being to renew the Covenants first the National Covenant, 
then the Solemn League and Covenant, were distinctly read. 

After the reading of these Covenants, the Minister prayed for grace, to 
perform the contents of the Covenants, and for faithful steadfastnesse in the 
Oath of GOD; And then (the Ministers' Commissioners of the General 
Assembly desired to be present, standing before the Pulpit) he ministred the 
Oath unto the King, who, kneeling, and lifting up his right hand, did swear 
in the words following : 

I, Charles, Kintj of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, do assure and 
declart, by ///// Solemn Oath, in the presence of Almighty GOD, the Searcher of 
mi/ attawn* and approbation of the National Covenant, and of the 



COEONATION OF CHAELES II. 41 

Solemn League and Covenant above- written, and faithfully obliedge my self to 
prosecute the ends thereof, in my Station and Calling; and that I, for myself and 
successours, shall consent and agree to all Acts of Parliament enjoyning the 
National Covenant, and the Solemn League and Covenant, and fully establishing 
Presbyterial Governments, the Directory of Worship, Confession of Faith, and 
Catechismes in the Kingdomes of Scotland, as they are approven by the General 
Assemblies of this Kirk, and Parliaments of. this Kingdom; And that I shall give 
my Royal Assent to Acts and Ordinances of Parliament passed, or to be passed, 
enjoyning the same in my other Dominions; And that I shall observe these in my 
own practice and Familie, and shall never make opposition to any of these, or 
endeavour any change thereof. 

After the King had thus Solemnly sworne the National Covenant, the 
League and Covenant, and the King's Oath, subjoyned unto both being 
drawne up in a fayre Parchment, the King did subscribe the same, in 
presence of all. 

Thereafter, the King ascendeth the Stage, and sitteth down in the 
Chaire of State. 

Then the Lords, Great Constable, and Marischal, went to the four 
corners of the Stage, with the Lyon going before them, who spoke to the 
people these words Sirs, I do present unto you the King, CHARLES, the 
Rightful and Undoubted Heir of the Croune and Dignity of this Realm: This day 
is by the Parliament of this Kingdom appointed for his Coronation, And are you 
not willing to have him for your King, and become subject to his Commandments? 

In which action, the King's Majestie stood up, showing himself to the 
people in each corner; And the people expressed their willingnesse by 
chearful acclamations in these words, GOD SAVE THE KING, CHAELES 
THE SECOND. 

Thereafter, the King's Majesty, supported by the Constable and 
Marishal, commeth down from the Stage, and sitteth down in the Chaire, 
where he heard the Sermon. 

The Minister, accompanied with the Ministers before mentioned, 
cometh from the Pulpit toward the King, and requireth, If he was willing to 
take the Oath appointed to be taken at the Coronation. 

The King answered he was most willing. 

Then the Oath of Coronation, as it is contained in the eight Act of the 
first Parliament of King James, being read by the Lion, the Tenour whereof 
followeth : 

Because, that the increase of Virtue, and suppressing of Idolatrie, craveth 
that the Prince and the people be of one perfect Religion, which of God's Mercie is 
now presently iwofcssed within this Realm, therefore it is statuted and ordained by 
our Soveraigne Lord, my Lord Regent, and three Estates of this present Parlia- 
ment, that all Kings, Princes, and Magistrates whatsoever, holding their place, 
which hereafter at any time shall happen to Reigne, and bear rule over this Realme, 
at the time of their Coronation, and receat of their Princely Authority, make their 
Faithful promise, in presence of the Eternal GOD ; That enduring the whole 
course of their lives they shall serve the same Eternal GOD, to the uttermost of 
tiieir power, according as he hath required in His Most Holy Word, revealed and 
contained in the New and Old Testaments; and, according to the same Word, 
shall maintain the true Religion of CHRIST JESUS, the preaching of His Holy 
Word, and due and right ministration of the Sacraments now receaved, and 
preached within this Realme. And shall abolish and gainstand all false religions, 

VOL. I. F 



42 MONASTICON. 

contrary to the same. And shall rule the people committed to their charge accord- 
ing to the will and command of GOD revealed in His foresaid Word, and 
according to the LoveaUe Lawes and Constitutions receaved in this Realm, no 
u-ayes repugnant to the said Word of the Eternal GOD; And shall procure to the 
uttermost of their pou-er, to the kirk of GOD and whole Christian people, true and 
perfect peace in time coming. The Eights and Rents, icith all just Priviledges of 
the Croicn of Scotland, to preserve and keep inviolated; Neither shall they transfer 
nor alienate the same. They shall forbid and represse in all Estates and degrees, 
Rease, Oppression, and all kind of wrong: In all judgements they shall command 
and procure that justice and equity be keeped to all creatures, mtliout exception, 
as the LORD and Father of Mercies be merciful unto them; and out of their 
lands and impyres they shall be careful to roote out all Hereticks, and enemies to 
the True Worship of GOD, that shall be convict ly the true Kirk of GOD, of 
the foresaid crimes; And that they shall faithfully affirme the things above 
uritten, by their Solemn Oath. 

The Minister tendered the Oath unto the King, who, kneeling, and 
holding up his right hand, sware in these words By the Eternal and Almighty 
GOD, Who liveth and reignethfor ever, I shall observe and keep all that is con- 
tained in this Oath. 

This done, the King's Majesty sitteth down in his Chaire, and reposeth 
himself a little. 

Then the King ariseth from his Chaire, and is disrobed, by the Lord 
Great Chamberlain, of the Princely Eobe, wherewith he entered the kirk, 
and is invested by the said Chamberlain in his Royal Robes. 

Thereafter, the King being brought to the Chaire on the North side of 
the kirk, supported as formerly, the Sword was brought by Sir William 
Cockburne, of Langtown, Gentleman Usher, from the table, and delivered 
to the Lyon King of Arms, who giveth it to the Lord Great Constable, who 
putteth the same in the King's hand, saying Sir, Receare this kingly Sword 
for the defence of the Faith of CHRIST, and protection of His kirk, and of the 
true Religion, as it is presently prof essed within this kingdome, and according to 
the National Covenant, and League and Covenant, and for executing Equitie and 
Justice, andforjmnishment of all iniquity and injustice. 

This done, the Great Constable receaveth the Sword from the King, 
and girdeth the same about his side. 

Thereafter, the King sitteth down in his Chaire, and then the Spurres 
were put on him by the Earle Marishal. 

Thereafter, Archibald, Marquis of Argile, having taken the Crown in his 
hands, the Minister prayed to this purpose : 

That the LORD would purge the Croicn from the sinnes and transgressions 
of them that <li<l >-<>igne before Him, that it might be a pure Crou'ne; that GOD 
would settle the Crou-n upon the Kings head; And since men that set it on were 
not able to settle it, that the LORD would put it on and preserve it. And then 
the said Marquis put the Crown on the King's head. 

Which done, the Lyon King of Armes, the Great Constable standing by 

an, causeth an Herauld to call the whole Noblemen, one by one, according 

;heir ranks ; who comming before the King kneeling, and with their hand 

ouching the Crown on the King's head, sware these words By the Eternal 

Almighty GOD, who Uccth and reignethfor ever, I shall support thee to mij 
rmost. And when they had done, then all the Nobility held up their 
hands, and su-are to be loyal and true subjects, and faithful to the Crown. 



COKONATION OF CHAELES II. 43 

The Earle Marislial, with the Lion, going to the four corners of the 
Stage, the Lion proclaimed the Obligatory Oath of the people; And the 
people holding up their hands all the time, did swear by the Eternal and 
Almighty GOD, who Uvcth and reignetli for ever, ice become your Hedge men, and 
truth and Faith shall bear unto you, and live and die idth you, against all 
manner of folkes whatsoever, in your service, according to the National Covenant, 
and Solemn League and Covenant. 

Then did the Earls and Viscounts put on their crowns; and the Lion 
likewise put on his. 

Then did the Lord Chamberlain loose the Sword wherewith the King 
was girded, and draw it, and delivered it drawn into the King's hands; and 
the King put it in the hands of the Great Constable, to carry it naked 
before him. 

Then John, Earle of Craufurd and Lindsay, took the Scepter, and put 
it into the King's right hand, saying Sir, Eeceave this Scepter, the sign of 
Royal Power of the kingdome, that you may Govern your self right, and defend 
all the Christian People committed by GOD to your charge, punishing the wicked, 
and protecting the just. 

Then did the King ascend the Stage, attended by the officers of the 
Crown and Nobility, and was installed in the Eoyal Throne by Archibald, 
Marquis of Argyle, saying Stand and hold fast from hence forth the place 
whereof you are the lawful and righteous Heir, by a long and lineal succession of 
your fathers, which is now delivered unto you, by authority of Almighty GOD. 

When the King was set down upon the Throne, the Minister spoke to 
him a word of Exhortation, as followeth : 

Sir, You are set down upon the Throne in a very difficil time; I shall therefore 
put you in mind of a Scriptural expression of a throne. 1 Chron. xxix. 23, it 
is said, Solomon sate on the throne of the LORD. Sir, you are a King, and a 
King in covenant with the LORD; If you would have the LORD to own you to 
be his king, and your throne to be his throne, I desire you may have some thought 
of this expression. 

1. It is the LORD'S throne. Remember you have a king above you, the 
king of kings, and Lord of Lords, who commandeth thrones; He setteth kings on 
thrones, and dethroneth them at His pleasure; Therefore take a word of advice, 
Be thankful to him who hath brought you thorow many wanderings to set you on 
this throne: Kisse the Sonne, lest He be angrie; and learne to serve Him with 
fear, who is terrible to the kings of the earth. 

2. Your throne is the LORD'S Throne; and your people the LORD'S 
people. Let not your heart be lifted up above your Brethren. (Deutr. xvii. 20.^ 
They are your brethren, not only flesh of your flesh, but brethren by Covenant 
u'ith GOD. Let your Government be refreshing unto them, as the rain on the 
mowen grasse. 

3. Your throne is the LORD'S Throne. Beware of making his throne a 
throne of iniquity; there is such a throne. (Psalm xciv. 20. ) Which frameth 
mischief by a Law, GOD will not own such a throne; It hath no fellowship with 
Him. Sir, there is too much iniquitie upon the throne, by your predecessours, 
who framed mischief e by a Law; such Laws as have been destructive to Religion, 
and grievous to the LORD'S People. You are on the throne, and have the 
Scepter, beware of touching mischievous Lawes therewith; But as the throne is 
the LORD'S throne, let' the Lawes be the LORD's Lawes, agreeable to His 
Word, such as are terrible to evil doers, and comfortable to the Godly, and a 
reliefe to the Poor and oppressed in the Land. 



44 MONASTICON. 

4. The LOED'S throne puttctli you in mind whom you should have above 
the throne. Wicked Counsellours are not for a king upon the LOED'S throne, 
Solomon knew this, who said (Prov. xxv. 5), Take away the wicked from before 
the King, and his throne shall be established in Eighteousnesse ; And Prov. 
20, ver. 8, A king upon the throne, scattereth away all evil with his eyes. 

5. The LOED'S throne putteth you in mind that the Judgements on the 
throne should be th'e Lords. Take the exhortation (Jer. ncxii.), From the beginning 
the Prophet hath a command to go to the house of the king of Judah, and say: 
Hear the Word of the LOBD, King of Judah, that sitteth upon the 
throne, and thy servants and thy people; Execute ye judgement, and 
righteousnesse, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressour ; 
and do no wrong, do no violence to the stranger, the fatherless, nor the 
widow, neither shed innocent blood in this place. If ye do this thing 
indeed, then shall there enter by the gates of this house kings sitting upon 
the throne of David. But if ye will not hear these Words, I swear by My 
Self, sayeth the Lord, this house shall become a desolation. And ver. -7, I 
will prepare destroyers against thee. 

Sir, Destroyers are prepared for the injustice of the throne. I intreat you, 
execute Righteous judgement. If yon doe it not, your house will be a Desolation ; 
But if you do that ichich is right, GOD shall remove the destroyers, and yon shall 
be established on your throne; And there shall yet be Dignitie in your House, for 
your servants and for your people. 

Lastly, If your Throne be the Throne of the LOED, Take a word of 
encouragement against Throne Adversaries. Your enemies are the enemies of 
the LORD'S Throne: Make your peace with GOD in CHRIST, and the LORD 
shall scatter your enemies from the throne; And He shall maynijie you yet in the 
sight of these Nations, and make the misled People submit themselves willingly to 
Your Government. 

SIR, If You use well the LORD'S Throne, on ichich you are set, then the 
two words in the place cited (1 Chron. xxix. 23), Spoken of Solomon sitting on 
the Throne of the LOED, He prospered, and all Israel obeyed him, shall 
belong unto you. Your People shall obey you, in the LOED; and you shall 
prosper in the sight of the Nations round about. 

Then the Lord Chancellour went to the four corners of the Stage, the 
Lyon King of Armes going before him, and proclaimed his Majestie's free 
Pardon to all Breakers of Penal Statutes, and made offer thereof, whereupon 
the People cryed, GOD save the King. 

Then the King, supported by the Great Constable and Marishal, and 
accompanied with the Chancellour, arose from the Throne, and went out at 
a door prepared for the purpose, to a Stage, and showed himself to the 
People without, who clapped with their hands, and cried with a lowd voice 
a long time, GOD save the King. 

Then the King, returning and sitting down upon the Throne, delivered 
the Scepter to the Eaiie of Craufurd and Lindsay, to be carried before him; 
thereafter, 'the Lyon King of Armes rehearsed the Eoyal Line of the Kings 
upward to Fergus the First. 

Then the Lion called the Lords one by one, who, kneeling, and holding 
their hands betwixt the King's hands, did sweare these words By the 
Internal and Almighty GOD, who liveth and rcigneth for ever, I do become your 
Liedge man, and Truth and Faith shall beare unto you, and live and die with 
you, against all manner of Folkes whatsoever, in your service, accord UK/ to the 
National Covenant, and Solemn League and Cocenant. 



CORONATION OF CHARLES II. 45 

And every one of them kissed the King's left cheek. 

When these Solemnities were ended, the Minister, standing before the 
King on his Throne, pronounced this Blessing: 

The Lord bless thee, and save tlice; the Lord hcarc thee in the day of trouble; 
the Name of the God of Jacob defend thee; the Lord send thee helpe from the 
Sanctuary, and strengthen thee out of Sion. Amen. 

After the Blessing pronounced, the Minister went to the Pulpit, and 
had the following Exhortation, the King sitting still upon the Throne. Ye 
have this day a King crowned, and entered into a Covenant with GOD and 
His People: look both King and People that ye keep this Covenant, and 
beware of the breach of it; that ye may be the more careful to keep it, I 
will lay a few things before you. 

I remember when the Solemn League and Covenant was entered by 
both Nations. The Commissionars from England being present in the East 
Kirk of Edinburgh, a" passage w T as cited out of NeJieni. r. 13, which I shall 
now again cite, Xehemiah required an Oath of the Nobles and people to 
restore the mortgaged lands, which they promised to do. After the Oath 
was rendered, in the 13th verse, he did shake his lap, and said, So God 
shake out every man from his house, and from his labour, that performcth not his 
promise, even thus be he shaken out and emptied; and all the Congregation said 
Amen. 

Since that time, many of these who were in Covenant, are shaken out 
of it ; yea, they have shaken of the Covenant, and laid it aside. It is true, 
they are prospering this day, and think that they prosper by laying aside 
the Covenant ; but they will be deceaved, that word spoken then shall not 
fall to the ground; GOD shall shake them out of their possession, and 
empty them for their perfidious breach of Covenant. 

The same I say to King and Nobles, and all that are in Covenant. If 
you break that Covenant, being so solemnly sworn, all these who have 
touched your Crown, and sworn to support it, shall not be able to hold it 
on; but GOD will shake it off, and turn you from the throne. And ye 
Noble-men, who are assistant to the putting on of the Crown, and setting 
the King upon the Throne, if ye shall either assist or advise the King to 
break the Covenant, and overturne the Word of God, he shall shake you out 
of your possessions, and empty you of all your glory. 

Another passage I offer to your serious consideration (Jer. xxxiv. 8). 
After that Zcdeldah had promised to proclaims liberty to all the LORD'S 
People who were servants, and entered into a Covenant, he and his Princes, 
to let them go free, and according to the Oath had let them go ; Afterwards 
they caused the servants to return, and brought them into subjection. 
Verse 11, What followed upon this breach? Verse 15-16, Ye were non- 
turned, and had done right in mi/ sight in proclaiming libertie; but ye turned, and 
made them servants again. And therefore, verse 18, 19, 20, 21, I will give the 
men who have transgressed 3Iy Covenant, who have not performed the Words of 
the Covenant which they made before Me, when they cut the calf in tivain, and 
passed between the parts thereof, I icill even give them into the hands of their 
enemies, into the hand of them that seek their life, even Zedekiah and his Princes. 

If the breach of a Covenant made for the Liberty of Servants was so 
punished, what shall be the punishment of the breach of Covenant for 
Religion, and the Liberty of the people of GOD ? There is nothing more 
terrible to King and Princes then to be given into the hand of enemies that 



46 MONASTICON. 

seek their life. If ye would escape this judgment, let King and Princes keep 
their Covenant made with GOD. Your enemies who seek your life are in 
the land: if ye break the Covenant, it may be feared GOD will give you over 
unto them as a prey; But if ye keep Covenant, it may be expected GOD will 
keep you out of their hands. 

Let not the place ye heard opened be forgotten, for in it ye have an 
exemple of Divine Justice against Joash and the Princes, for breaking that 
COVENANT. (2 Chron. xxiv. 23.) The Princes who intised that breach 
are destroyed; and in the 24th verse it is said, The army of the Syrians came 
with a small company of men, and the LORD delivered a very great hoste in their 
hand, became they had forsaken the LOED GOD of their fathers; So they 
executed judgement against Joash. And verse 25, His own servants conspired 
against him, and slew him on his bed, d'C. 

The Conspiracy of Servants or Subjects against their King is a wicked 
course; But GOD in His Kighteous judgment sufi'ereth Subjects to conspire 
and rebel against their Princes, because they rebel against GOD ; And He 
suffereth Subjects to break the Covenant made with a king, because he 
breaketh the Covenant made with GOD. I may say freely that a chief 
cause of the judgment upon the King's house, hath been the Grand-father's 
breach of Covenant with God, and his Kirk within these kingdoms ; they 
broke Covenant with GOD, and men have broken Covenant with them; 
Yea, most cruelly and perfidiously have invaded the Eoyal Family, and 
trodden upon all Princely Dignity. 

Be wise by their exemple. You are now sitting upon the Throne of 
the kingdom, and your Nobles about you. There is one above you, even 
JESUS, the King of Sion, and I, as His servant, dare not but be free with 
you. I charge you, Sir, in His name, that you keep the Covenant in all 
points. If you shall break this Covenant, and come against His Cause, I 
assure you, the Contraversie is not ended between GOD and your family, 
but will be carried on to the further weakening, if not the overthrow of it ; 
But if you shall keep this Covenant, and befriend the Kingdom of CHRIST, 
it may be from this day GOD shall begin to do you good. Although your 
estate be very weak, GOD is able to raise you, and make you reign, maugre 
the opposition of all your enemies. And howsoever it shall please the 
LORD to dispose, you shall have peace toward GOD, through CHRIST the 
Mediator. 

As for you who are Nobles and Peeres of the Land, your share is great 
in this day of Coronation; ye have come and touched the Crowne, and 
sworn to support it, ye have handled the Sword and Scepter, and have set 
down the King upon his Throne. 

1. I charge you to keep your Covenant with GOD, and see that ye 
never be moved your selves to come against it in any head or article thereof, 
and that ye give no counsel to the King to come against the Doctrine, 
Worship, Government, and Discipline of the Kirk, established in this Land, 
as ye would eschew the judgement of Covenant breakers. If the King, and 
ye who are engaged to support the Crowne, conspire together against the 
kingdom of CHRIST, both ye that do support, and he that is supported, 
will fall together. I presse this the more, because it is a rare thing to see a 
King and great men for CHRIST. In the long Catalogue of Kings, which 
ye have heard recited this day, they will be found few who have been for 
Christ. 



ABBEY OF LOCH TAY. 47 

2. I charge you also, because of your many Oathes to the King, that 
you keep them inviolably. Be faithful to him, according to your Covenant 
the Oathes of GOD are upon you. If directly, or indirectly, ye do any 
thing against his standing, GOD, by whom ye have sworne, will be avenged 
upon you, for the breach of his Oath. 

And now I will shut up all with one word more to You. Sir, You are 
the only Covenanted King with God and his People in the world. Many 
have obstructed Your entry in it. Now, seing the Lord has brought You 
in over all these Obstructions, only observe to do what is contained therein, 
and it shall prove an happy time for You and Your House. And because 
You have entered in times of great Difficultie, wherein small strength 
seemeth to remain with You in the eyes of the world, for recovering your 
just power and greatnesse, therefore take the Counsel which David when he 
was a-dying, gave to his sonne Solomon. (1 King ii. 2-3.) Be strong, and 
show thyself a man; and keep the Charge of the Lord thy GOD, to icalke in Jiis 
Wayes, and keep his Commandments, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou 
doest, and whether soever thou turncst thy self. 

After this Exhortation, the Minister closeth the whole Action with 
Prayer ; and the 20th Psalm being sung, he dismissed the People with the 
Blessing. 

Then did the King's Majesty descend from the Stage, with the Crown 
upon his head ; and receaving again the Scepter in his hand, returned with 
his whole Train, in solemn manner, to his Palace the Sword being carried 
before him. 

THE VALUATION OF THE ABBEY OF SCONE. 

Money, 1140 6s 6$d. Wheat, 16 Chalders, 2 Firlots ; Bear, 73 Chal- 
ders, 12 Bolls, 2 Firlots, 2 Pecks ; Meal, 62 Chalders ; Oats, 18 Chalders, 3 
Bolls ; Salmon, 1 Last. 

Of this Kent, the Book of Assumption says, there is assigned 
to the Convent, consisting of 18 persons, the Prior having double 
allow : 

Money, 352 3s 4rf. Wheat, 6 Chalders, 12 Bolls ; Meal, 7 Chalders, 
1 Boll, 3 Firlots ; Bear, 22 Chalders, 12 Bolls, 2 Firlots. 



II. LOCH TAY, A.D. 1122, (No Seal.) 

Was founded by King Alexander I. in 1122, and was a Cell 
or Priory belonging to Scone. The Kuins upon the Isle, now 
almost shapeless, and overgrown with wood, rose at one time 
into the towers and pinnacles of a Priory, where slumbered the 
remains of Sibylla, daughter of Henry I. of England (Beauclerk), 
and Consort of said Alexander I. of Scotland. Here was the 



48 



MONASTICON. 



scene of the Funeral of the Captain of the Clan Quhele, 
described by Sir Walter Scott in the "Fair Maid of Perth." 

Summoned forth from the Convent by the distant wail of the 
Coronach, heard proceeding from the attendants of the Funeral 
Barge, the Monks began to issue from their lowly Portal, with 
Cross and Banner, and as much of Ecclesiastical state as they 
had the means of displaying; their Bells, at the same time (of 
which the Edifice possessed three), pealing the Death-toll over 
the long Lake, which came to the ears of the multitude, and at 
once hushed the sounds of lamentation. This lovely Isle had 
been deemed of sufficient dignity to be the deposit of the remains 
of the Captain of the Clan Quhele, until the pressing danger 
should permit of his body being conveyed to a distinguished 
Convent in the North, where he was destined ultimately to repose 
with his Ancestry. 

CHAKT OF KING ALEXANDER FOE THE ISLAND OF LOCH TAY. 



Alexander Dei gratia Eex Scot- 
torum episcopis et comitibus necnon 
omnibus fidelibus suis tocius Scocie 
salutem. Notum vobis facio me ad 
honorem Dei et sancte Marie [et] 
omnium Sanctorum pro me et pro 
anima regine Sibille insulam de 
Lochtei perpetuo hire possidendam 
cum omni dominio ad eandem in- 
sulam pertinenti Sancte Trinitati de 
Scon canonice Deo ibi fratribus 
famulantibus dedisse ut ecclesia Dei 
ibi pro me et pro anima regine ibi 
defuncte fabricetur et in liabitu reli- 
gionis deo ibi serviant et hoc do eis 
interim quousque dedero eis aliud 
augmentum vnde locus ille in Dei 
obsequiurn exaltetur. Teste Her- 
berto cancellario. Apud Striuelin. 



Alexander, by the grace of God, 
King of the Scots, to the Bishops and 
Earls, and to all the faithful of the 
whole of Scotland, health. I make 
it known to you that, for the honour 
of God, and S. Mary, and all the 
Saints, I have given for myself, and 
for the soul of Queen Sibylla, the 
Island of Loch Tay, in perpetual 
possession, with all the rights per- 
taining to the same Island, to Holy 
Trinity [Abbey] of Scoon, and to 
the Brotherhood serving God there 
by Monastic Eule, so that a Church 
of God be built there for me ; and 
for the soul of the Queen there 
deceased, and that they serve God 
there in the religious habit. And 
this I grant to them for the present, 
until I shall have given them some 
other augmentation, so that that 
place may be renowned for its 
service of God. Herbert, Chancel- 
lor, Witness. At Stirling. 

The Isle itself forms a beautiful and picturesque object, 
directly in front of the Manse of the Parish of Kenmore, being 



ABBEY OF LOCH TAY. 49 

about a quarter of a mile above the outlet of the Kiver Tay, and 
separated by a narrow channel from the northern margin of the 
Loch, which is about 15 miles long, and from 1 to 2 miles 
broad, and from 15 to 100 fathoms deep. The Island is of an 
elliptical form, and may present a surface of nearly 1J acres. 
Its waters were singularly agitated in 1755, 1784, and 1794, an 
account of which is given in the Edinburgh Philosophical 
Transactions. Ben Lawers, and the still more lofty Ben Mohr, 
tower over all whose peaks retain a dazzling helmet of snow, 
far into the summer, and sometimes during the whole year. 
The Kuins consist now of two long side walls, extending to about 
140 feet, while the two end or gable walls are about 24 feet. 
There are three transverse walls parallel to these, thus dividing 
the Edifice into four compartments, of which the two extreme 
ones appear to have been the smallest. They are surrounded 
and almost hid by a thick belt of fine old sycamores and ashes, 
to which, on the opposite shore, are corresponding trees of 
similar antiquity, together with a few superannuated fruit-trees, 
remnants, probably, of the Priory Garden. Loch Tay abounds 
with salmon, pike, perch, eels, and trout all good for food, and 
pleasant to the eyes of the dexterous Priors, who knew well 
where to pitch their camp. But Lord Breadalbane, of Taymouth 
Castle, in the vicinity, now forbids all fishing within two miles of 
the Kenmore and Killin ends of the Loch, for obvious reasons. 
There is an annual Market or Fair at Kenmore, still called 
"the Market of the Holy Women," in Gaelic, Fiell na m'hau 
maomb. The last residents in the Priory of Loch Tay (it is 
said) were three Nuns, who were in the habit of going once a 
year, on a certain day, to the Parish Church, then at Inchadin 
or Fortingal, opposite Taymouth Castle, and from thence to this 
Fair. This must have been subsequent to 1565, for that was 
the year when a Fair was for the first time held at Kenmore. 
This is settled by a MS., which is in the Library of Taymouth 
Castle, of the nature of a Diary, written by an Ecclesiastic, likely 
the Vicar of Fortingal, several years before the end of the 
Sixteenth Century. At page 44 of this MS., there is this state- 
ment : " Ye yer of God, MVLXV (1565J, ye Margat was halden 

VOL. I. G 



50 MONASTICON. 

and begun at the Kenmor, at the end of Lochthay, and ther was 
na Margat nor Feyr haldyn at Inchadan, quhar it was wynt till 
be haldin; al this don be Collyn Campbell, of Glenurquhay." 
In the interval between the Foundation of the Priory and its last 
occupation by these Good Women, the beautiful Isle must have 
been the scene of some not uninteresting events, gathered from 
the above-noticed Vicar's MS., to wit: "Combusta fuit Insula 
de Lochthay ex negligentia servorum in Sabbato Palmarum, 
ultimo die Martir, anno Domini m quingentesimo nono," i.e., 
The Island of Loch Tay was burned down, from the careless negli- 
gence of servants, on Palm Sunday, the 31st March, 1509. 
"Obitus Mariote Stewart dme de Glenurquhay, xxvi. die Julii 
apd Insulam de Lochthay et sepulta in Finlark a MVXXIIIL," 
i.e., Lady Margott Stuart, of Glenorchy, Died at the Island of 
Loch Tay, the Z6th Jidy, and was Buried in Finlarig, A.D. 1524. 
Finlarig is near Killin, and is one of the ancient Seats of the 
Family of Breadalbane. It is embosomed in a beautiful wood at 
the north-west of Loch Tay, with the Kiver Lochay sweeping 
past its base. The Glenorchy or Breadalbane Family have been 
Buried here from 1513 down to 1834. Fingal's Grave is pointed 
out at Killin, which, in the enthusiastic language of Dr. M'Cul- 
loch, "is the most extraordinary collection of extraordinary 
scenery in Scotland, unlike everything else in the Country, and, 
perhaps, on earth; and a perfect gallery itself, since you cannot 
move three yards without meeting a new landscape. A busy 
artist might draw here a month, and not exhaust it. It is, 
indeed, scarcely possible to conceive so many distinct and marked 
objects collected within so small a space, and all so adapted to 
each other, as always to preserve one character, and, at the same 
time, to produce so endless a number of distinct and beautiful 
landscapes." 

" Sir Duncan Campbell, of Glenurquhay, who succeeded Sir 
Colin in 1480, biggit ye great Hall, Chapel, and Chalmeris, in 
the Isle of Loch Tay." [Black Book of Taymouth.] " Sir 
John Campbell, 5th Laird of Glenurquhay, deceissit in the Isle 
of Loch Tay, in 1550." [Black Book of Taymouth.] 

This Isle has long ceased to be a Place of Religious retire- 



ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 51 

ment, excepting for contemplative summer tourists. It is not, 
however, without inhabitants. Besides being the habitat of some 
swans, which enliven the Lake with their graceful motions, and 
nestle here to hatch their young, the branches of its trees, are 
colonized by rooks, far more numerous and clamorous than were 
the devout Kecluses who occupied the Cells below. 

III. INCHCOLM. A.D. 1123. 

[Read before the Society of Antiquaries by Sir J. Y. Simpson, M.D.] 

Among the Islands scattered along the Firth of Forth, one of 
the most interesting is the ancient Aemonia, Emona, St. Colum- 
ba's Isle, or St. Colme's Inch the modern Inchcolm. The 
Island is not large, being little more than half a mile in length, 
and about 150 yards across at its broadest part. At either 
extremity it is elevated and rocky; while in its intermediate 
portion it is more level, though still very rough and irregular, 
and at one point, a little to the east of the old Monastic 
Buildings, it becomes so flat and narrow, that at high tides the 
waters of the Forth meet over it. Inchcolm lies nearly six miles 
north-west from the Harbour of Granton, or is about eight or 
nine miles distant from Edinburgh; and of the many beautiful 
spots in the vicinity of the Scottish Metropolis, there is perhaps 
none which surpasses this little Island in the charming and 
picturesque character of the Views that are obtained in various 
directions from it. The cheapest and readiest way of access, is 
to hire a Boat from Burntisland : the fare of five shillings takes 
to and fro. 

Though small in its Geographical dimensions, Inchcolm is 
rich in Historical and Archaeological associations. Upwards of 
400 years ago, the Scottish Historian, Walter Bower, the Abbot 
of its Monastery, wrote there his Contributions to the ancient 
History of Scotland. These Contributions by the " Abbas 
Aemonise Insulas" are alluded to by Boece, who wrote nearly a 
Century afterwards, as one of the Works upon which he founded 
his own " Scotorum Histories." [See his Praefatio, p. 2; and 
Lines' Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of Scotland, vol. 



52 MONASTIC0N. 

/., pp. 218 and 228.] Bower, in a versified Colophon, claims the 
merit of having completed eleven out of the sixteen Books com- 
posing the Scotichronicon (lib. xvi., cap. 39 J. At other times, 
Inchcolm was the Seat of War, as when it was pillaged at 
different periods by the English, during the course of the 
Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Centuries. [See Scoti- 
chronicon, lib. xiii., cap. 34 and 37; lib. xiv., cap. 38, d*c.] In 
1547, the Duke of Somerset, after the Battle of Pinkie, seized 
upon Inchcolm as a post commanding ' 'vtterly ye whole vse of 
the Fryth it self, with all the hauens uppon it," and sent as 
"elect Abbot, by God's sufferance, of the Monastery of Sainct 
Coomes Ins," Sir Jhon Luttrell, knight, "with C. hakbutters 
and L. pioners, to kepe his house and land thear, and II. rowe 
barkes, well furnished with municion, and LXX. mariners to 
kepe his waters, whereby (naively remarks Patten) it is thought 
he shall soon becum a prelate of great power. The perfyteness 
of his religion is not alwaies to tarry at home, but sumetime to 
rowe out abrode a visitacion; and when he goithe I haue hard 
say he taketh alweyes his summers in barke with him, which ar 
very open mouthed, and neuer talk but they are harde a mile of, 
so that either for loove of his blessynges, or feare of his cursinges, 
he is lyke to be soouveraigne ouer most of his neighbours." [See 
Patten's Account of The Late Expedicion in Scotlande, dating out 
of the Parsonage of S. Mary Hill, London, in Sir John Dalyell's 
Fragments of Scottish History, pp. 79 and 81.] In Abbot Bower's 
time, the Island seems to have been provided with some means 
of defence against these English attacks; for in his Scotichroni- 
con, in incidentally speaking of the return of the Abbot and his 
Canons in October, 1421, from the Mainland to the Island, it is 
stated that they dared not, in the summer and autumn, live on 
the Island for fear of the English, for, it is added, the Monastery 
at that time was not fortified as it is now, "non enim erant tune, 
quales ut mine, in monasterio munitiones." [Lib. xv., cap. 38.] 
For ages, Inchcolm was the site of an extensive Eeligious 
Institution, and the habitation of numerous Monks. "lona 
itself has not an air of stiller solitude. Here, within view of the 
gay Capital, and with half the riches of the Scotland of earlier 



ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 



53 



days spread around them, the Brethren might look forth from 
their secure Retreat on that busy ambitious world, from which, 
though close at hand, they were effectually severed." [Billings' 
Baronial and Ecclesiastical' Antiquities of Scotland) vol. Hi. Note 
on IncHcolm.} At the beginning of the present Century, it was 
temporarily degraded to the site of a Military Fort, and the 
habitation of a Corps of Artillery. Alex. Campbell, in his 
" Journey through North Britain" (1802), after speaking of a 
Fort in the east part of Inchcolm having a Corps of Artillery 
stationed on it, adds, " so that in lieu of the pious Orisons of holy 
Monks, the orgies of lesser deities are celebrated here by the 
sons of Mars," &c., vol. ii., p. 69. During the plagues and 




BUINS OF INCHCOLM ABBEY. 



epidemics of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, it formed 
sometimes a Lazaretto for the suspected and diseased; and 
during the Reign of James I., it was used as a State Prison for 
the daughter of the Earl' of Ross, and the mother of the Lord of 
the Isles [Bellenden's Translation of Boece's History of Scotland) 
vol. ii., p. 500] "a mannish, implacable woman," as Drummond 
of Hawthornden ungallantly terms her [Works of William 
Drummond) Edinburgh) 1711, p. 7] ; while fifty years later, when 
Patrick Graham, Archbishop of St. Andrews, was "decernit ane 



54 MONASTICON. 

heretique, scismatike, symoniak, and declarit cursit, and con- 
damnit to perpetuall presoun," he was, for this last purpose, 
" first transportit to St. Colmes Insche." 

Punishments more dark and dire than mere Transportation 
to, and Imprisonment upon Inchcolm, have perhaps taken place 
within the bounds of the Island, if we do not altogether misinter- 
pret the history of "a human skeleton standing upright," found 
several years ago immured and built up within the old Ecclesias- 
tic Walls. Nor is this eastern lona, as patronised and protected 
by Saint Columba, and, at one period of his mission to the 
Picts and Scots, his own alleged Dwelling-place, devoid in its 
history of the usual amount of old Monkish Miracles and 
Legends. Fordun's Scotichronicon contains long and elaborate 
details of several of them. When, in 1412, the Earl of Douglas 
thrice essayed to sail out to sea, and was thrice driven back by 
adverse gales, he at last made a pilgrimage to the holy Isle of 
Aemonia, presented an offering to Columba, and forthwith the 
Saint sped him with fair winds to Flanders and home again. 
[Scotichronicon, lib. xv., cap. 23.] When, towards the winter of 
1421, a boat was sent on a Sunday to bring off to the Monastery 
from the Mainland some house provisions and barrels of beer 
brewed at Bernhill, and the crew, exhilarated with liquor, 
hoisted, on their return, a sail, and upset the barge, Sir Peter the 
Canon, who, with five others, was thrown into the water, 
fervently and unceasingly invoked the aid of Columba, and the 
Saint appeared in person to him, and kept Sir Peter afloat for an 
hour and a half by the help of a truss of tow, till the boat of 
Portevin picked up him and two others. [Scotichronicon, lib. xv., 
cap. 38.] When, in 1385, the crew of an English vessel 
sacrilegiously robbed the Island, and tried to burn the Church, 
S. Columba, in answer to the earnest prayers of those who, on 
the neighbouring shore, saw the danger of the Sacred Edifice, 
suddenly shifted round the wind and quenched the flames, while 
the chief of the incendiaries was, within a few hours afterwards, 
struck with madness, and forty of his comrades drowned. 
[Scotichronicon, lib. xv., cap. 48.] When, in 1335, an English 
fleet ravaged the shores of the Forth, and one of their largest 



ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 55 

ships was carrying off from Inchcolm an image of Columba and 
a store of Ecclesiastical plunder, there sprung up such a furious 
tempest around the vessel immediately after she set sail, that she 
drifted helplessly and hopelessly towards the neighbouring Island 
of Inchkeith, and was threatened with destruction on the rocks 
there, till the crew implored pardon of Columba, vowed to him 
restitution of their spoils, and a suitable offering of gold and 
silver, and then they instantly and unexpectedly were lodged safe 
in port. [Scoticlironicon, lib. xiii.,cap. 34.] When, in 1335, the 
navy of King Edward came up the Forth, and "spulyeit" White- 
kirk, in East Lothian, still more summary vengeance was taken 
upon such sacrilege. For "trueth is (says Bellenden) ane 
Inglisman spulyeit all the ornamentis that was on the image of 
our Lady in the Quhite Kirk; and incontinent the crucifix fel 
doun on his head, and dang out his harnis." [Bellenden' 's Trans- 
lation of Hector Boeee's CroniMis, lib. xv., c. 14; vol. ii., p. 446.] 
When, in 1336, some English pirates robbed the Church at 
Dollar which had been sometime previously repaired and 
richly decorated by an Abbot of Aemonia and while they were, 
with their Sacrilegious booty, sailing triumphantly, and with 
music on board, down the Forth, under a favouring and gentle 
west wind, in the twinkling of an eye, and exactly opposite the 
Abbey of Inchcolm, the ship sank to the bottom like a stone. 
Hence, adds the Writer of this Miracle in the Scotichronicon, 
and no doubt that Writer was the Abbot Walter Bower, in 
consequence of these marked retaliating propensities of S. 
Columba, his vengeance against all who trespassed against him 
became proverbial in England ; and instead of calling him, as his 
name seems to have been usually pronounced at the time, S. 
Callum or S. Colam, he was commonly known amongst them as 
S. Quhalme. 

But without dwelling on these and other well-known facts 
and fictions in the History of Inchcolm, it may be stated that this 
Island is one of the few spots in the vicinity of Edinburgh that 
has been rendered Classical by the pen of Shakspeare. In the 
second Scene of the opening Act of the Tragedy of Macbeth, the 
Thane of Ross comes as a hurried messenger from the Field 



50 MONASTICON. 

of Battle to King Duncan, and reports that Duncan's own 
rebellious subjects and the invading Scandinavians had both been 
so completely defeated by his generals, Macbeth and Banquo, 
that the Norwegians craved for peace : 

" Sueno, the Norways Kings, craves composition ; 
Nor would we deign him burial of his men 
Till he disbursed, at Saint Colmes Inch, 
Ten thousand dollars to our general use." 

Inchcolm is the only Island of the east coast of Scotland 
which derives its distinctive designation from the great Scottish 
Saint. But more than one Island on our western shores bears 
the name of S. Columba; as, for example, St. Colme's Isle, in 
Loch Erisort, and St. Colm's Isle in the Minch, in the Lewis; 
the Island of Kolmbkill, at the head of Loch Arkeg, in Inverness- 
shire; Eilean Colm, in the Parish of Tongue; and, above all, 
ICOLMKILL, or IONA itself, the original Seat and subsequent great 
Centre of the Ecclesiastical power of S. Columba and his 
Successors. 

The reference to Inchcolm by Shakspeare becomes more 
interesting when we follow the Poet to the original Historical 
foundations upon which he built his wondrous Tragedy. It is 
well known that Shakspeare derived the incidents for his Story of 
Macbeth from tha"t Translation of Hector Boece's Chronicles of 
Scotland which was Published in England by Eaphael Holinshed 
in 1577. In these Chronicles, Holinshed, or rather Hector 
Boe'ce, after describing the reputed poisoning, with the juice of 
belladonna, of Sueno and his Army, and their subsequent almost 
complete destruction, adds, that shortly afterwards, and, indeed, 
while the Scots were still celebrating this equivocal Contest, 
another Danish host landed at Kinghorn. The fate of this 
second Army is described by Holinshed in the following words : 

" The Scots hauing woone so notable a victorie, after they had gathered 
and diuided the spoile of the field, caused solemne processions to be made 
in all places of the realme, and thanks to be giuen to almightie God, that 
had sent them so faire a day ouer their enimies. But whilest the people 
were thus at their processions, woord was brought that a new fleet of Danes 
was arriued at Kingcorne, sent thither by Canute, King of England, in 



ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 57 

reuenge of his brother Suenos ouerthrow. To resist these enimies, which 
were alreadie landed, and busie in spoiling the countrie, Makbeth and 
Banquho were sent with the Kings authoritie, who hauing with them a 
conuenient power, incoutred the enimies, slue part of them, and chased the 
uA^ to their ships. They that escaped and got once to their ships, 
of Inc^ akbeth for a great summe of gold, that such of their friends as 
were aiaine j,t this last bickering, might be buried in Saint Colmes Inch. 
In memorie whereof, manie old sepultures are yet in the said Inch, there to 
be seene grauen with the armes of the Danes, as the manner of buireng noble 
men still is, and Heretofore hath beene vsed. A peace was also concluded 
at the same time betwixt the Danes and Scotishmen, ratified (as some haue 
written) in this wise : that from thencefoorth the Danes should neuer come 
into Scotland to make anie warres against the Scots by anie maner of 
meanes. And these were the warres that Duncan had with forren enimies, 
in the seuenth yiere of his reigne." [Holimhed's Chronicles, vol. v., >. 268.] 

To this Account of Holinshed, as bearing upon the question 
of the St. Colme's Isle alluded to by Shakspeare, it is only 
necessary to add one remark: Certainly the 
Western lona, with its nine separate Ceme- 
teries, could readily afford fit Burial-place for 
the slain Danes; but it is impossible to believe 
that the defeated and dejected English Army 
would or could carry the dead and decomposing 
bodies of their Chiefs to that remote place of 
sepulture. And, supposing that the dead 
bodies had been embalmed, then it would have 

In Chapter House, been eagier to c them back to the D a m' s n 

Westminster. _ , J _ ... ~ 

territories in England, or even across the Ger- 
man Ocean to Denmark itself, than round by the Pentland Firth 
to the distant Western Island of Icolmkill. On the other hand, 
that St. Colme's Inch, in the Firth of Forth, is the Island alluded 
to, is perfectly certain, from its propinquity to the Seat of War, 
and the point of landing of the new Scandinavian host, namely, 
Kinghorn; the old Town of Wester Kinghorn lying only about 
three or four miles from Inchcolm, and the present Town of the 
same name, or Eastern Kinghorn, being placed about a couple of 
miles further down the coast. 

We might here have adduced another incontrovertible 
argument in favour of this view, by appealing to the statement 

VOL. I. H 




68 MONASTICON/ 

given in the above quotation, of the existence on Inchcolm, in 
Boece's time, of Danish Sepulchral Monuments, provided we felt 
assured that this statement was in itself perfectly correct. But 
before adopting it as such, it is necessary to remember that 
Boece describes the Sculptured Crosses and Stones at Camus- 
tane and Aberlemno, in Forfarshire, as monuments of a Danish 
character also; and whatever may have been the origin and 
objects of these mysteries in Scottish Archaeology, our old and 
numerous Sculptured Stones, with their strange enigmatical 
symbols, we are at least certain that they are not Danish either 
in their source or design, as no Sculptured Stones with these 
peculiar symbols exist in Denmark itself. That Inchcolm con- 
tained one or more of those Sculptured Stones, is proved by a 
small Fragment that still remains, and which was detected a few 
years ago about the Garden Wall. In the quotation given from 
Holinshed's Chronicles, the " old Sepultures there (on Inchcolm) 
to be scene grauen with the armes of the .Danes," are spoken of 
as "manie" in number. Bellenden uses similar language: 
" Thir Danes (he writes) that fled to thair schippis, gaif gret 
sowmes of gold to Makbeth to suffer thair friendis that war slane 
at his jeoperd to be buryit in Sanct Colmes Inche. In memory 
heirof, many auld sepulturis ar yit in the said Inche, gravin with 
armis of Danis." [Bellenden' s Translation of Boece's Croniklis of 
Scotland, lib. xii., 2; vol. ii., p. 258.] In translating this 
passage from Boece, both Holinshed and Bellenden overstate, 
in some degree, the words of their original Author. Boece 
speaks of the Danish Monuments still existing on Inchcolm in 
his day, or about the year 1525, as plural in number, but with- 
out speaking of them as many. After stating that the Danes 
purchased the right of Sepulture for their slain Chiefs (nobiles) 
"in Emonia insula, loca sacro," he adds, "extant et hac cetate 
nohssima Danorum monumenta, lapidibusque insculpta eorum 
insignia." [Scotorum Historic (1526), lib. xii., p. 257.] For a 
long period past only one so called Danish Monument has 
existed on Inchcolm, and is still to be seen there. It is a single 
recumbent block of stone, above five feet long, about a foot 
broad, and one foot nine inches in depth, having a rude 



ABBEY OP INCHCOLM. 



59 



sculptured Figure on its upper surface. In his History of Fife, 
Published in 1710, Sir Bobert Sibbald has both drawn and 
described it. " It is (says he) made like a coffin, and very fierce 
and grim faces are done on both the ends of it. Upon the 
middle stone which supports it, there is the figure of a man 
holding a spear in his hand." [History of Fife and Kinross, p. 
35.] He might have added that, on the corresponding middle 
part of the opposite side, there is sculptured a rude cross; but 
both the cross and "man holding a spear" are cut on the single 
block of stone forming the Monument, and not, as he represents, 

on a separate supporting stone. 
Pennant, in his Tour through 
Scotland in 1772, tells us 
that this "Danish Monument" 
" lies in the south-east [south- 
west] side of the Building (or 
Monastery), on arising ground. 
It is (he adds) of a rigid form, 
and the surface ornamented 
with scale-like figures. At 
each end is the representation 
of a human head." In its 
existing defaced form, the 
sculpture has certainly much 
more the appearance of a recumbent human figure, with a head 
at one end, and the feet at the other, than with a human head at 
either extremity. 

It is well known that, about a Century after the occurrence 
of these Danish Wars, and of the alleged Burial of the Danish 
Chiefs on Inchcolm, or in the first half of the Thirteenth 
Century, there was Founded on this Island, by Alexander I., a 
Monastery, which from time to time was greatly enlarged, and 
well Endowed. The Monastic Buildings remaining on Inchcolm 
at the present day are of very various Dates, and still very 
extensive; and their oblong light-grey mass, surmounted by a 
tall, square, central Tower, forms a striking object in the 
distance, as seen in the summer morning light from the higher 




Seal. [Morton Charters.] 



60 MONASTICON. 

streets and houses of Edinburgh, and from the neighbouring 
shores of the Firth of Forth. The Tower of the Church of 
Inchcolm is so similar in its architectural forms and details to 
that of Icolmkill, that it is evidently a structure nearly, if not 
entirely, of the same age; and the new Choir (novum chorum) 
built to the Church in 1265 [Scoticlironicon, lib. x., c. 20] is 
apparently, as seen by its remaining masonic connections, 
posterior in age to the Tower upon which it abuts. These 
Monastic Buildings have been fortunately protected and preserved 
by their Insular situation, not from the silent and wasting touch 
of time, but from the more ruthless and destructive hand of man. 
The stone-roofed octagonal Chapter-House is one of the most 
beautiful and perfect in Scotland; and the Abbot's House, 
the Cloisters, Refectory, &c., are still comparatively entire. 

Here Sir James Simpson branches off into a very elaborate 
and ingenious disquisition upon a small Building, isolated, at a 
little distance from the remains of the Monastery, which he is 
inclined to believe is of an older Date, and of an earlier age, than 
any part of the Monastery itself. This small Cell forms now, 
with its south side, a portion of the line of the north wall of the 
present Garden. When he first visited the Island of Inchcolm, 
this interesting Building was the abode of two pigs; and, on 
another visit, one cow was its tenant ! In consequence of the 
attention of the Earl of Moray (the Proprietor of the Island) and 
his Factor, Mr. Philipps, having been called thereto, all such 
desecration has been put an end to, and the whole Structure has 
been excellently repaired and restored. 

The Tradition, as told by the " Cicerone" on the Island, is 
that this neglected Outbuilding was the place in which "King 
Alexander lived for three days with the Hermit of Inchcolm." 
There was nothing in the rude architecture and general character 
of the Building to gainsay such a Tradition, but the reverse; 
and, on the contrary, when we turn to the notice of a visit of 
Alexander I. to the Island in 1123, as given by our earliest 
Scotch historians, their Account of the little Chapel or Oratory 
which he found there, perfectly applies to this Building. In 
order to prove this, the History of Alexander's Visit is quoted 



ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 61 

from the " Scotichronicon" of Fordun and Bower, the " Extracta 
e Cronicis Scocie," and the " Scotorum Historia" of Hector 
Boece. [See other similar notices of the visit of Alexander 
I. to Inchcolm in Buchanan's Eerum Scoticarum Historia, lib. 
vii., cap. 27; Leslceus de Rebus Gestis, Scotorum, lib. vi., p. 
219, dc.] 

The Scotichronicon contains the following account of King 
Alexander's adventure and temporary sojourn in Inchcolm : 

" About the year of our Lord 1123, under circumstances not less 
wonderful than miraculous, a Monastery was founded on the Island 
Aemonia, near Inverkeithing. For when the noble and most Christian 
Sovereign Alexander, first of this name, was, in pursuit of some State 
business, making a passage across the Queensferry, suddenly a tremendous 
storm arose, and the fierce south-west wind forced the vessel and sailors to 
make, for safety's sake, for the Island of Aemonia, where at that time lived 
an islander hermit (crcmita insulanus), who, belonging to the service of Saint 
Columba, devoted himself sedulously to his duties at a certain little chapel 
there (ad quondam inibi capettulam), content with such poor food as the milk 
of one cow, and the shell and small sea fishes which he could collect. On 
the hermit's slender stores, the king and his suit of companions, detained by 
the storm, gratefully lived for three consecutive days. But on the day 
before landing, when in very great danger from the sea, and tossed by the 
fury of the tempest, the King despaired of life, he vowed to the Saint, that 
if he should bring him and his companions safe to the Island, he would 
leave on it such a memorial to his honour as would render it a future 
asylum and refuge to sailors and those that were shipwrecked. Therefore, 
it was decided, on this occasion, that he should found there a Monastery of 
Prebendiaries, such as now exists; and this the more so, as he had always 
venerated S. Columba with special honours from his youth; and chiefly 
because his own parents were for several years childless and destitute of the 
solace of offspring, until, beseeching S. Columba with suppliant devotion, 
they gloriously obtained what they sought for so long a time with anxious 
desire." 

The preceding Account of King Alexander's Visit to Inch- 
colm, and his Founding of the Monastery there, occurs in the 
course of the fifth Book (lib. v., cap. 37) of the Scotichronicon, 
without its heing marked whether the passage itself exists in the 
original five Books of Fordun, or in one of the additions made to 
them by the Abbot Walter Bower. In his original portion of 
the History, Fordun himself merely refers to the Foundation of 



62 MONASTICON. 

the Monastery of Inchcolm by Alexander. The first of these 
Writers, John of Fordun, lived, it will be recollected, in the 
Reigns of Eobert II. and III., and wrote about 1380; while 
Walter Bower, the principal Continuator of Fordun's History, 
was Abbot of Inchcolni from 1418 to the date of his Death in 
1449. 

In the Work known under the title of "Extracta e Yarn's 
Cronicis Scocie," there is an Account of Alexander's fortuitous 
Visit to Inchcolm, exactly similar to the above, but in an 
abridged form. Tytler, in his " History of Scotland," supposes 
the " Extracta" to have been written posterior to the time of 
Fordun, and prior to the Date of Bower's Continuation of the 
Scotichronicon, a conjecture which one or more passages in 
the Work entirely disprove. If the opinion of Tytler had been 
correct, it would have been important as a proof that the story 
of the Koyal adventure of Alexander upon Inchcolm was written 
by Fordun, and not by Bower, inasmuch as the two Accounts in 
the Scotichronicon and in the " Extracta" are on this, as on 
most other points, very similar, the "Extracta" being merely 
somewhat curtailed. 

That this very small and antique-looking Edifice is identi- 
cally the little Chapel or Cell spoken of by Fordun and Boe'ce as 
existing on the Island at the time of Alexander's Visit to it, 
upwards of seven Centuries ago, is a matter admitting of great 
probability, but not of perfect legal proof. One or two irre- 
coverable links are wanting in the chain of evidence to make that 
proof complete; and more particularly do we lack for this 
purpose any distinct allusions or notices among our mediaeval 
Annalists, of the existence or character of the Building during 
these intervening seven Centuries, except the notice of it cited 
from the Scotichronicon, "ad quandam inibi capdlulam" written 
by the hand of Walter Bower, and having a reference to the little 
Chapel as it existed and stood about the year 1430, when Bower 
wrote his Additions to Fordun, while living and ruling on Inch- 
colm, as Abbot of its Monastery. 

But various circumstances render it highly probable that this 
old stone-roofed Cell is the ancient Chapel or Oratory in which 



ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 



63 



the Island Hermit (eremita insulanus) lived and worshipped at the 
time of Alexander's Koyal but compulsory Visit in 1123. The 
fact that this little Building is, in its whole architectural style 
and character, evidently far more rude, primitive, and ancient, 
than any of the extensive Monastic Structures existing on the 
Island, answers most fitly and perfectly to the two characteristic 
appellations used respectively in the Scotichronicon and in the 
Historice Scotorum, to designate the Cell or Oratory of the Inch- 
colm Anchorite at the time of King Alexander's three days' sojourn 
on the Island. 

Again, in favour of the view that the existing Building on 
Inchcolm is the actual Chapel or Oratory in which the Insular 

Anchorite lived and worshipped 
there in the Twelfth Century, 
it may be further argued that, 
where they were not constructed 
of perishable materials, it was 
in consonance with the practice 
of these early times, to preserve 
carefully Houses and Buildings 
of Religious note, as hallowed 
Relics. Most of the old Ora- 
tories and Houses raised by the 
early Irish and Scottish Saints 
were undoubtedly built of wat- 
tles, wood, or clay, and other 
perishable materials, and of necessity were soon lost. But when 
of a more solid and permanent construction, they were sometimes 
sedulously preserved, and piously and punctually visited for long 
Centuries as holy Shrines. 

In its whole architectural type and features, the Cell or 
Oratory is manifestly older, and more rude and primitive, than 
any of the diverse Monastic Buildings erected on the Island from 
the Twelfth Century downwards. But more, the Inchcolm Cell 
or Oratory corresponds in all its leading architectural features 
and specialities with the Cells, Oratories, or small Chapels, 
raised from the Sixth and Eighth, down to the Tenth and 




Counter Seal. [Morton Charters.] 



64 MONASTICON. 

Twelfth Centuries in different parts of Ireland, and in some 
districts in Scotland, by the early Irish Ecclesiastics, and their 
Irish or Scoto-Irish disciples and followers. 

Let me add one word more as to the probable or possible age 
of the "Capellula" on Inchcolm. Granting, for a moment, that 
the Building on Inchcolm is the small Chapel existing on the 
Island when visited by King Alexander in 112r>, have we any 
reason to suppose the Structure to be one of a still earlier Date ? 
Inchcolm was apparently a favourite place of Sepulture up 
indeed to comparatively late times;, and may possibly have been 
so in old Pagan times, and previously to the Introduction of 
Christianity into Scotland. The soil of the fields to the west of 
the Monastery is, when turned over, found still full of fragments 
of human bones. Allan de Mortimer, Lord of Aberdour, gave to 
the Abbey of Inchcolm, a moiety of the Lands of his Town of 
Aberdour, for leave of Burial in the Church of the Monastery. 
"Alanus de Mortuo Mari, Miles, Dominus de Abirdaur, dedit 
omnes et tot as dimidietates terrarum Villse suae de Abirdaur, 
Deo et Monachis de Insula Sancti Columbi, pro sepultura sibi et 
posteris suis in Ecclesia dicti Monasterii." [Quoted from i\ie MS. 
Register or Chartulary of the Abbey, by Sir Robert Sibbald, in his 
History of Fife, p. 41.] The same Author adds that, in conse- 
quence of this Grant to the Monastery of Inchcolm for leave of 
Sepulture, the Earl of Murray (who represents " Stewart, Abbot 
of Inchcolm," that sat as a lay Commendator in the Parliament 
of 1560, when the Confession of Faith was approved of) now 
possesses the "wester half of Aberdour." Sir Eobert Sibbald 
further mentions the story that " Alain, the founder, being dead, 
the Monks, carrying his corpse in a coffin of lead, by barge, in 
the night-time, to be interred within their church, some wicked 
Monks did throw the samen in a great deep betwixt the land and 
the Monastery, which to this day, by the neighbouring fishermen 
and salters, is called Mortimer's Deep." He does not give the 
year of the preceding Grant by Alain de Mortimer, but states 
that "the Mortimers had this Lordship by the Marriage of 
Anicea, only daughter and sole heiress of Dominus Joannes de 
Vetere Ponte or Vypont, in anno 1126." It appears to have 



ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 65 

been her husband who made the above Grant. [See Nisbet's 
Heraldry, vol. i., p. 294.] 

In Scottish History, various allusions occur "with regard to 
Persons of note, and especially the Ecclesiastics of Dunkeld, being 
carried for Sepulture to Inchcolm. Thus, in 1272, Kichard of 
Inverkeithing, Chamberlain of Scotland, Died, and his body was 
Buried at Dunkeld, but his Heart was deposited in the Choir of 
the Abbey of Inchcolm. [Scotichronicon, lib. x., c. 30.] In 
Hay's Sacra Scotia, is a description of the Sculptures on this 
Monument in Inchcolm Church, p. 471. In 1173, Richard, 
Chaplain to King William; Died at Cramond, and was Buried in 
Inchcolm. [Mylne's Vitce, p. 6.] In 1210, Richard, Bishop of 
Dunkeld, Died at Cramond, and was Buried in Inchcolm. 
[Scotichronicon, lib. viii., c. 27] And four years afterwards, 
Bishop Leycester Died also at Cramond, and was Buried at Inch- 
colm. [Scotichronicon, lib. ix., c. 27.] In 1265, Richard, 
Bishop of Dunkeld, Built a new Choir in the Church of S. 
Columba on Inchcolm; and, in the following year, the bones of 
three former Bishops of Dunkeld were transferred, and Buried, 
two on the north, and the third on the south side of the Altar in 
this new Choir. [Scotichronicon, lib. x., c. 20, 21. See also the 
Extracta e Cronicis Scocie for other similar notices, pp. 90, 95, 
&c. ; and Mylne's Vitce Dunkeldensis Ecclesice Episcoporum, pp. 6, 
9, 11, &c.] The Danish Chiefs, who, after the Invasion of Fife, 
were Buried in the Cemetery of Inchcolm, were, as we have 
already found, Interred there in the seventh or last year of King 
Duncan's Reign, or in A.D. 1039, nearly a Century before the 
Date of Alexander's Visit to the Island. But if there was, a 
Century before Alexander's Visit, a Place of Burial on the Island, 
there was almost certainly also this or some other Chapel 
attached to the Place, as a Christian Cemetery had, in these 
early times, always a Christian Chapel or Church of some form 
attached to it. The style and architecture of the Building is 
apparently, as stated, as old or even older than this; or, at all 
events, it corresponds to Irish Houses and Oratories that are 
regarded as having been built two or three Centuries before 
the Date even of the Sepulture of the Danes in the Island. 

VOL. I. I 



66 MONASTICON. 

Probably, as in other instances, this old Building or Capellula 
on Inchcolm, served as a " desert," whither the Monks might 
retire for Meditation, without breaking the Fraternal bond. 

The MS. Copy of the Scotichronicon, which belonged to the 
Abbey of Cupar, and which, like the other old MS. of the Scoti- 
chronicon, was written before the end of the Fifteenth Century, 
describes Inchcolm as the temporary abode of S. Columba him- 
self, when he was engaged as a Missionary among the Scots and 
Picts. " There are," observes Father Innes, " still remaining 
many copies of Fordun, with Continuations of his History done 
by different hands. The chief Authors were Walter Bower or 
Bowmaker, Abbot of Inchcolm; Patrick Kussell, a Carthusian 
Monk of Perth ; the Chronicle of Cupar (the Continuation of 
Fordun), attributed to Bishop Elphinstone, in the Bodleian 
Library, and many others. All these were written in the 
Fifteenth Age, or in the time betwixt Fordun and Boe'ce, by the 
best Historians that Scotland then afforded, and unquestionably 
well qualified for searching into, and finding out, what remained 
of ancient MSS. Histories anywhere hidden within the Kingdom, 
and especially in Abbeys and Monasteries, they being all either 
Abbots or the most learned Churchmen or Monks in their 
respective Churches or Monasteries." [Lines' s Critical Inquiry, 
vol. i., p. 228.] In enumerating the Islands of the Firth of 
Forth, Inchcolm is mentioned in the Cupar MS. as "alia insuper 
insula ad occidens distans ab Inchcketh, quse vocatur .ZEmonia, 
inter Edinburch et Inverkethyn: quam quondam incoluit, dum 
Pictis et Scotis fidem prcedicavit, Sanctiis Columba Abbas." [See 
Extract in GoodaWs Edition of the Scotichronicon, vol. i., p. 6 
(foot-note), and in Colgans Trias Thawnaturga, vol. ii., p. 466.] 
We do not know upon what foundation, if any, this statement is 
based; but it is very evidently an allegation upon which no 
great assurance can be placed. Nor, in alluding to this state- 
ment here, is it argued that this Cell might even have served S. 
Columba both as a House and Oratory. 

The nameless Religious Recluse whom Alexander found 
residing on Inchcolm, is described by Fordun and Boe'ce as 
leading there the life of a Hermit (Eremita), though a Follower 



ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 67 

of the Order or Kule of Saint Columba. The Ecclesiastical 
Writers of these early times not unfrequently refer to such self- 
denying and secluded Anchorites. The Irish Annals are full of 
their obits. In Scotland, we have various alleged instances of 
Caves being thus employed as Anchorite or Devotional Cells, and 
some of them still show rudely-cut Altars, Crosses, &c., as the 
so-called Cave of S. Columba on the shores of Loch Killesfort in 
North Knapdale, with an Altar, a Font or Piscina, and a Cross 
cut in the rock [Origines Parochiales, vol. ii., p. 40]; the Cave of 
S. Kieran on Loch Kilkerran in Kantyre [Origines Parochiales, 
vol. ii., p. 12] ; the Cave of S. Ninian on the coast of Wigtown- 
shire [Old Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xvii., p. 594] ; the 
Cave of S. Moloe in Holy Island in the Clyde, with Kunic 
Inscription on its walls [see an Account of them in Dr. Daniel 
Wilson's Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, pp. 531 to 533, &c.] 
The Island of Inchcolm pertains to Fifeshire, and in this single 
County there are at least four Caves that are averred to have 
been the Ketreats which early Christian Devotees and Ascetics 
occupied as temporary Abodes and Oratories, or in which they 
occasionally kept their Holy Vigils ; namely, the Cave at Dun- 
fermline, which bears the name of Malcolm Canmore's devout 
Saxon Queen, S. Margaret, and which is said to have contained 
formerly a Stone Table or Altar, with " something like a 
Crucifix" upon it [Dr. Chalmers' Historical Account of Dunferm- 
linc, vol. i., pp. 88, 89]; the Cave of S. Serf at Dysart (the 
name itself Dysart an instance, in all probability, of the 
" desertum" of the text, p. 485), in which that Saint contested 
successfully in debate (according to the Aberdeen Breviary) with 
the Devil, and expelled him from the spot [see Breviarium Aber- 
donense, Hens. Julii., fol. xv., and Mr. Muirs Notices of Dysart for 
the Maitland Club, p. 3 1 ; the Caves of Caplawchy (Caiplie), on 
the east Fifeshire coast, marked interiorly with rude Crosses, &c., 
and which, according to Wynton, were inhabited for a time by 
" S. Adrian wyth hys cumpany" of disciples [Orygynale Chronykel 
of Scotland, book Hi., c. 8] ; and the Cave of S. Kule at St. 
Andrews, containing a Stone Table or Altar on its east 
side, and on its west side the supposed Sleeping Cell of 



68 MONASTICON. 

the Hermit, excavated out of the rock [Old Statistical Account,- 

vol. xiii.] 

The Breviary of Aberdeen points out that the S. Serf 
received by Adamnan was not the S. Serf of the Dysart Cave, and 
hence also not the baptizer of S. Kentigern at Culross, as told in 
the Legend of his mother, S. Thenew, or S. Thenuh a female 
Saint whose very existence the Presbyterians of Glasgow had so 
entirely lost sight of, that Centuries ago they unsexed the very 
name of the Church dedicated to her in that city, and came to 
speak of it under the uncanonical appellation of St. Enoch's. 
This first S. Serf and S. Adamnan lived two Centuries, at least, 
apart. 

James Stuart, of Beith, a Cadet of the Lord Ochiltree, was 
made Commendator of Inchcolm on the surrender of Henry, 
Abbot of the Monastery, in 1543. His second son, Henry 
Stuart, was, by the special favour of King James VI., created a 
Peer, by the title of Lord St. Colm, in 1611. [Crawford's 
Peerage.] 

VALUATION OF THE ABBEY OF INCHCOLM. 

Money, 426 Pounds Scots = 138 Sterling. Wheat, 2 Chalders, 8 
Bolls, 1 Firlot, 10 Pecks ; Bear, 8 Chalders, 9 Pecks ; Meal, 14 Chalders, 14 
Bolls ; Oats, 11 Chalders, 12 Bolls. 



IV. ST. ANDREWS. A.D. 1144. 

The Priory of Kegular Canons of S. Augustin was formally 
recognised at St. Andrews in 1144, by Charter of Bishop Eobert 
[Reg. Prior. S. Andr., p. 122] ; and, shortly after, one of the 
Fraternity undertook to draw up a Sketch of the History of its 
Church, or Book of Muniments, called "Magnum Registrum," 
partly with a -view to appropriate its past glory, and partly to 
justify the recent reform of its economy. The Writer (probably 
Bishop Robert, or the Prior of the same name) strongly condemns 
the degenerate condition of the Keledei ; and though the picture 
is perhaps overdrawn, as by an unfriendly hand, and occasionally 
indistinct in its representations, it is still a Record of great 
Historical importance. Having adverted to the decay of Religion 



PKIORY OF ST. ANDKEWS. 69 

at St. Andrews, consequent upon the death of S. Kegulus and 
his followers, it proceeds to describe the more recent particulars 
of its Ecclesiastical condition in the following manner : 

" There were kept up, however, in the Church of St. Andrew, such as 
it then was, by Family succession, a Society of thirteen, commonly called 
' Keledei,' whose manner of life was shaped more in accordance with their 
own fancy and human Tradition, than with the Precepts of the holy 
Fathers. Nay, even to the present day their practice continues the same ; 
and though they have some things in common, these are such as are less in 
amount and value, while they individually enjoy the larger and better portion, 
just as each of them happens to receive gifts, either from friends who are 
united to them by some private tie, such as kindred or connexion, or from those 
whose soul-friends, that is, spiritual advisers, they are, or from any other 
source. After they are made Keledei, they are not allowed to keep their wives 
within their lodgings, nor any other women, who might give rise to 
injurious suspicions. Moreover, there were seven Beneficiaries,. who divided 
among themselves the offerings of the Altar ; of which seven portions the 
Bishop used to enjoy but one, and the Hospital another ; the remaining five 
were apportioned to the other five members, who performed no duty what- 
ever, either at Altar or Church, and whose only obligation was to provide, 
after their custom, lodging and entertainment for pilgrims and strangers, 
when more than six chanced to arrive, determining by lot whom and how 
many each of them was to receive. The Hospital, it is to be observed, had 
continual accommodation for a number not exceeding six; but from the 
time that, by God's goodness, it came into the possession of the Canons, till 
the present, it is open to all comers. The above-mentioned Beneficiaries 
were also possessed of their private revenues and property, which, upon 
their death, their wives, whom they openly lived with, and their sons or 
daughters, their relatives, or sons-in-law, used to divide among themselves : 
even the very offerings of the Altar at which they did not serve a pro- 
fanation which one would blush to speak of, if they had not chosen to practise. 
Nor could this monstrous abuse be corrected before the time of Alexander of 
happy memory, a Sovereign of exemplary devotion to God's Holy Church, 
who enriched the Church of the blessed Apostle Andrew with possessions 
and revenues, loaded it with many and valuable gifts, and invested it with 
the liberties, customs, and royalties, which appertained to his royal 
donation. The lands also called 'the Boar's Chase,' which King Hungus 
had presented to God and to the holy Apostle S. Andrew at the time that 
the relics of S. Andrew arrived, but which were subsequently usurped, he 
restored to their possession, with the professed object and understanding 
that a Keligious Society should be established in that Church for the 
maintenance of Divine Worship. Because hitherto there had been no pro- 
vision for the service at the Altar of the blessed Apostle, nor used Mass to 



70 MONASTICON. 

be Celebrated there, except upon the rare occasions that the King or Bishop 
visited the place ; for the Keledei were wont to say their Office, after their 
own fashion, in a nook of a Church, which was very small. Of which Eoyal 
donation, there are many Witnesses surviving to this clay. And it was 
further confirmed by his brother, Earl David, whom the King had constituted 
his heir and successor upon the Throne which he now occupies." 

From this laboured Statement from the "Magnum Bcgistmm," 
we learn that, at some period anterior to 1107, the Ecclesiastical 
Community of Cill-Bighmonaigh i.e., the Church of S. Eegulus 
had become parted into two sections, and that each carried 
with it a portion of the Spiritualities and Temporalities, which we 
may reasonably conceive had been originally combined. One 
party was the Keledei, consisting of a Prior and twelve Brethren, 
who numerically represented the old Foundation, and, as Clerical 
Vicars, performed Divine Service, having official residences, and 
enjoying certain estates, as well as the minor dues of the Sacer- 
dotal Office. With them also, as the Clerical portion of the 
Society, rested the Election of the Bishop, when a vacancy 
occurred in the See. The other party included the Bishop, the 
eleemosynary Establishment, and the Eepresentatives of the 
Abbot and other greater Officers now secularized, yet enjoying, 
by prescription, another portion of the estates, and the greater 
Ecclesiastical dues. The chief censure is directed against these; 
but it is to be taken with some limitation, because the Bishop 
was one of them, and the Hospital represented another. 

In 1144, the Hospital of the Keledei, with its Parsonage or 
Impregnation, was transferred to the Kegular Canons, and they 
were Confirmed in the possession of two more of the Parsonages 
which had already been assigned to them, the Bishop retaining 
his own seventh, thus leaving three of these sinecures in the 
former condition. And matters continued so till 1156, for in 
that year Pope Adrian IV. only Confirmed to the Canons-Kegular 
the Hospital and their two-sevenths. But in that, or one of the 
two following years, the old Impropriators having probably 
dropped by death, resignation, or amotion, Bishop Kobert granted 
to the Canons all the portions, reserving only his own. Finally, 
in 1162-3, Bishop Arnold surrendered his seventh, and thus put 



PEIOEY OF ST. ANDKEWS. 71 

them in possession of the whole. The seven portions were then 
consolidated, and went into a common fund. Thus, in the first 
instance, the Eegular Canons seem to have been established on 
the reversion of the secularized property of the old Foundation. 
There were now two rival Ecclesiastical Bodies in existence 
at St. Andrews one, the old Corporation of secular Priests, who 
were completely thrown into the shade, and shorn of many of 
their Privileges and Possessions ; and the other, that of the 
Eegular Canons, who virtually represented the secularized portion 
of the old Institution, and entered on the enjoyment of their 
estates. But this rivalry or co-existence was very distasteful to 
the chief Authorities, both Lay and Ecclesiastical, as soon became 
manifest. Immediately upon the Foundation of the latter House, 
King David, as he also did in the case of Lochleven, made an 
Ordinance that the Prior and Canons of St. Andrews should 
receive into corporation with them the Keledei of Kilrimont, who 
were to become Canons, together with all their Possessions and 
Kevenues ; that is, provided they would consent to conform to 
Canonical Rule. But in case they should refuse, they were to 
have a life interest in their Possessions ; and, according as they 
dropped, their places were to be filled up on the new Foundation 
by Eegular Canons, whose number was to equal that of the 
existing Keledei ; and that all the Farms, Lands, and Offerings 
of the Keledei should be transferred to the use of the Canons- 
Regular of St. Andrews, in frank and quit almoigne. [See 
Charter, Scotichronicon, vol. ?., page 122.] In 1147, Pope 
Eugenius III. decreed that thenceforward the places of the 
Keledei, according as they became vacant, should be filled with 
Regular Canons. But the Keledei were able to withstand the 
combined efforts of King, Pope, and Bishop ; for we meet with a 
recurrence of this provision under successive Pontiffs till 1248 ; 
and yet we find the Keledei holding their ground. Nay, in 
1160, King Malcolm actually Confirmed them in a portion of 
their Possessions. In 1199, we find them engaged in a Con- 
troversy with the Prior of the other Society, which terminated in 
a compromise, by which the tithes of their own Lands were 
secured to them they, at the same time, quitting claim to all 



72 MONASTICON. 

Parochial Fees and Oblations. They were also Vicars of the 
Church of the Holy Trinity of Kilrimund, which was the Parish 
Church of St. Andrews. And it was not till 1273 that they were 
debarred from the prescriptive right to take part in the Election 
of a Bishop. They met with like treatment in 1279, and again 
in 1297, when William Comyn, the Provost of the Keledei, went 
to Home, and lodged a Protest against the Election then made, 
on the ground of their exclusion; but Boniface VIII. decided 
against him. He appealed again in 1328, but with no better 
success. In 1309, the Keledei were still in possession of their 
Lands in the " Cursus Apri." In 1332, when William Bell was 
chosen Bishop, they were absolutely excluded from taking any 
part in the Election, and the claim does not appear to have been 
ever after revived. Neither does the name " Keledei " occur again 
in existing Records, although the Corporation still continued in 
the enjoyment of their Privileges and Possessions. [Reeves on 
the Culdees, in Trans, of the Eoyal Irish Academy, pp. 155-159.] 

The Buildings of the Priory were situated to the south of the 
Cathedral, and were surrounded on the north, east, and south 
sides by a magnificent Wall, commenced by Prior John Hepburn 
(circa) A.D. 1516. It went from the north-east corner of the 
Cathedral round till it joined the walls of S. Leonard's College 
on the south-west. It remains in a pretty entire state, is nearly 
a mile in length, 20 feet in height, and 4 in breadth. It has 13 
round and square Turrets, in each of which there is a Niche for 
the reception of Images. The Turrets have a Staircase leading 
up to them. One-half of the Wall viz., that part from the 
north-east corner of the Cathedral down to the shore has a 
parapet on each side, as if designed for a pleasant walk. On the 
south-east corner a round Building stands, which is believed to 
have been the Pigeon-house of the Cathedral. 

There were three Gates in the Wall. The one, which is 
both the first and the principal, is called The Pends, and shows 
magnificent architecture, though dilapidated. It is 75 feet long, 
and 16 broad, and has two fine Gothic Arches, one at each end. 
There are distinct marks of three intermediate groined Arches, 
which supported the Floor above. The second Gate is round- 



PEIOEY OF ST. ANDEEWS. 



73 



arched, and on the east side leading to the shore. The third is 
on the south side, and was the one through which carts entered 
with provisions from the country for the Clergy, and with Teind- 
sheaves from the Prior- acres, which lie a little to the south. 
This Gate was built up in modern times with coarse mason-work, 
which was lately removed, and replaced hy an iron railing, 
through which a fine view of the Cathedral Kuins may be had. 




THE PENDS. 



"The Abbey Wall," and the Grounds enclosed (about 20 
Acres), were sold by public auction in the Town Hall, by the 
Commissioners of Woods and Forests, to the United College, at 
the upset price of .2600. 

Of all the Buildings which once stood within the enclosure, 
only a few vestiges remain. Martine, the Secretary of Arch- 
bishop Sharp, mentions that, in his time, there were fourteen 
different Buildings, besides St. Kegulus' and the Cathedral. 

The PRIOR'S HOUSE, called Hospitium Veins, or the Old Inn, 
stood south-east of the Cathedral, and was the residence of the 
Bishops until the Castle was built, and afterwards of the Priors. 
A few vaults still remain, which were lately used as shelters for 
horses. 

The CLOISTER was to the west of this house. In it was held 
the " Senzie Fair," on the second week of Easter. The stalls of 



VOL. I. 



74 MONASTICON. 

the merchants were covered in. The Cloister is now "Priory 
Villa" Garden. Its Hot-house Chimneys are built against the 
south Transept of the Cathedral, and smoke upon the fine old 
mullions ! 

The SENZIE HOUSE was the House of the Sub-Prior, and not 
very long ago was used as an Inn. In Martine's time, it was in 
good condition. The word Senzie is said to signify Consistory 
or Assize; and probably this Ecclesiastical Court may have 
.assembled in the Sub-Prior's House. The "Senzie Fair" was 
evidently so called from being held in the vicinity of this Building. 

The DORTOUR, or DORMITORY of the Monastery, stood between 
the Prior's House and the Cloister, but has completely disappeared. 

The KEFECTORY, or DINING-EOOM, was on the south side of 
the Cloister, and consisted of a Hall 108 feet long, and 28 
feet broad. No vestige of it remains. Its site is now a Garden. 

The GUEST HALL was for the hospitable entertainment of 
Strangers and Pilgrims. It stood within the precincts of S. 
Leonard's College, on the south-west of the road from the Pends 
to the shore. 

The NEW INN, or Novum Hospitium, was erected for the 
Princess Magdalene, the Consort of James V. Her physicians, 
as an antidote to her failing health, advised a residence by the 
healthful shores of St. Andrews. The Building was run up in a 
month, but the poor Queen never came to occupy it. She Died 
suddenly at Holyrood Palace, and the New Inn, 100 years 
afterwards, became the residence of the Archbishop. The eastern 
Gable remains, and may be seen through the south Gateway, on 
the road leading by the Abbey Wall from the Pends to the shore. 

There were other Offices of the Monastery, of which some 
vestiges still remain. There were the Teind Barn, the Abbey 
Mill, and the Granary, the names of which denote their use. 
[Handy Book of St. Andrews, p. 40.] 

PRIORS OF ST. ANDREWS. 

1. EGBERT an English Augustinian Monk. His name occurs fre- 
quently in the lifter of the Priory. Page 42-Pope Innocent II. gives to 
nor Robert and the Canons, liberty to buy various necessaries without 
payment of duty. Page 43 Bishop Robert conveys to Prior Robert the 



PEIOEY OF ST. ANDREWS. 75 

Revenues of Loclileveu Priory, consisting of Lands, Villas, Mills, Tithes, 
certain quantities of cheese, barley, and pigs, from different Farms ; also 
Vestments and Books, or sets of Books, a list of which are given in 
Scotichronicon, paye 126. Page 47 Pope Lucius Confirms to Prior 
Robert and the Canons all their property, A.D. 1144. Page 48 Pope 
Eugenius IIL does the same, and desires that the Regular Canons should 
succeed the Culdees, A.D. 1147. Page 51 Pope Adrian IV., similar to the 
foregoing. He denounces a solemn Curse on all who should Contravene his 
Bull, and pronounces a Blessing on all who should obey it, A.D. 1156. 
Page 189 King David I. Confirms to Prior Robert and the Canons, 
Kininmonth, and a toft in Kilrimund. He was Appointed in 1140, and 
Ruled till his Death in 1162. 

2. WALTER. He had been previously Chanter of the Cathedral. For 
24 years, he Ruled the Monastery with singular good sense. He Resigned, 
1186, from bodily infirmity, but got better two years afterwards. 

8. GILBERT I. was next. At page 40 of the Register, he is mentioned as 
entering into an Agreement with Bernard Fraser and the Heirs of Drem. 
[See page 322 of the Register.] Died 1188. 

4. WALTER again resumed office, having recovered. His name occurs 
in the Pn'ffistcr, as being concerned in leasing out certain Lands and Tithes. 
Pages 306, 323 Prior Walter and the Canons rent to Allan, son of Simon, 
the Land of Kathlac, for seven solidi yearly. Prior Walter and the Canons 
restore to Allan, son of Simon, and his Heirs, the Land of Ketlach, which 
his father gave them, they paying 70 solidi yearly for the same. Lyon says, 
in his History of St. Andrews, vol. ii., p. 268, c. 33, that the above Walter 
resumed office, and Died the same year, 1188 ; and at p. 89, vol. i., that 
" he lived till the end of the Century, and that he was alive in A.D. 1195." 
He was alive then ; for, at page 323 of the Register', we have a Convention 
between Prior Walter and the Canons, and the Abbot and Convent of 
Newbottle, of date A.D. 1195. [See also page 338 of the Register.'] 

5. THOMAS Succeeded, and Died in 1211. He was previously Sub-Prior. 
Fordun says that he was a man " of good conversation, and an example of 
the whole of Religion." In the Preface to the Register, p. xlii., he is 
mentioned as complaining to Pope Innocent III. that the Bishop of 
Dunkeld had thrust an Incumbent into the Parish Church of Meigle, with- 
out the consent of himself and his Convent, its lawful Patrons. Some of 
his Brethren were stirred up against him, on account of his zeal in enforcing 
the Rules of their Order, on which account he chose to withdraw from their 
society, rather than countenance their errors. Accordingly, in A.D. 1211, he 
Resigned his Priorate, and bade Farewell to his Brethren, many of whom 
would have gladly retained him. He shed tears at his departure. He 
retired to the Monastery of Coupar-Angus. His name occurs only once in 
the Register, p. 329 : Agreement between Prior Thomas and the Canons, 
and Gellin, son of Gillecrist Maccussegerai. The latter gets back the Land 
of Scoonie, which he had given in exchange for Gariad ; and the Canons 



76 MONASTICON. 

agree to feed and clothe him, and give him a Chalder of Oats yearly during 
his life. 

6. SIMON, formerly a Canon, as Fordun says, was " a man of honest 
life and laudable conversation." With the consent of the Bishop and his 
Brethren, he Eesigned, and was removed to the inferior Priorate of Loch- 
leven in 1225. From the Register, he seems to have had more than once to 
stand out for his rights. Page 315 A Litigation between iTror Simon and 
the Canons on the one side, and the Archdeacon of St. Andrews on the 
other, was conducted before Bishop Malvoisin and other venerable persons, 
regarding certain Lands. The former a.re to have all the Lands which 
belonged to the Archdeacon within the Boar's Chase ; and the latter to have 
the Land which extends through the Strath towards Dairsey viz., from the 
Cross erected to the memory of Bishop Eoger [Scotichronicon, vol. /., p. 146] , to 
the top of the ridge near the other Cross, and along this ridge, northwards, as 
far as the Eock which divides Balgrove from Strathtyrum, except the Salt- 
pan, with its toft and croft, which belong to the Priory, and the right of 
Pasturage, which belongs to the Burgesses, A.D. 1212. Page 316 Another 
Dispute between Prior Simon and the Canons on the one part, and Master 
Patrick, Master of the Scholars of St. Andrews of the same City, on the 
other, before the Bishop and Archdeacon of Glasgow, regarding certain 
Eents and Kane. The late Bishop Malvoisin, in a Dispute between the 
Priory and the Archdeacon of St. Andrews, had directed that certain Lands 
should remain with the Priory, but that it should pay to the Archdeacon 
and his Successors, for the use of the Poor Scholars of St. Andrews, the 
following Eents viz., from Crigin, 20 Measures of Barley, and 20 Stones of 
Cheese; from Pettendrech, 20 Measures of Barley; from Nevechi, 6 
Measures of Barley, &c., &c. The above Agreement to hold good in the 
present Dispute, and the Scholars to draw the said Eents. Page 320 A 
third Dispute took place between the Abbot and Convent of Holyrood, the 
Brother Hospitalers of Torphichen, and Prior Simon and the Canons, 
regarding the Tithes and Oblations of Ogglisfas. It was agreed that, as the 
said Tithes and Oblations belonged in part to the Priory's Church at 
Linlithgow, the Hospitalers should draw the same, and pay two silver marks 
yearly to the said Priory. Page 322 A fourth Dispute occurred between 
Prior Simon and the Canons, and Bernard Fraser and the Heirs of Drem. 
The latter are to have the Church of Drem, but without prejudice to the 
Mother Church of Haddington ; and to give certain Lands to the Canons, 
and Pasturage to the Chaplain's cattle. 

7. HENRY DE NORHAM, formerly a Canon. Fordun says of him that, 
"leaving the Monastery grievously burdened with debts and expenses," he 
Eesigned in 1236. In the Register, p. 393, we find that Pope Gregory IX. 
commands Henry, Prior of St. Andrews; L., Archdeacon of the same; and 
E., Dean of Fife, to inquire into a complaint made by the Monks of the Isle 
of May, in the Firth of Forth, against the Monks of Scone, about a 
Fishery at Inchfreth [Inchyra] , on the Eiver Tay. Page 175 Prior 



PBIOKY OF ST. ANDKEWS. 77 

Henry and the Canons Confirm to the Canons of Lochleven, the Church 
of Hoterniunesin [Auchtermoonzie] , which Bishop Malvoisin gave them 
for the support of Pilgrims. Page 176 Prior Henry also exempts the 
Hospital near the Bridge of Lochleven for the reception of Pilgrims, from 
the payment of various Tithes, saving the rights of the Church of Portmoak. 
Page 326 Agreement between Prior Henry and the Canons on the one side, 
and the Bishop and Chapter of Moray, the Lady Muriel de Kothes, and the 
Hospital of S. Nicholas 011 the Spey [Boat o' Brig] , on the other, respecting 
the Church of Kothes near by, on the opposite side of the Kiver. This 
Church, with common consent, is given to the above Hospital, on the 
condition of the Priory of St. Andrews receiving from it three marks yearly, 
A.D. 1235. 

8. JOHN WHYTE restored and augmented possessions of the Priory which 
his Predecessors had wasted. He built the Dormitory, Kefectory, and the 
great Hall of the Hospitium. He Died in 1258. It is stated in the Register, 
p. 328, that an Agreement was made between Prior John and the Canons, 
and Duncan de Eamsay, by which the latter was to have his own Chapel, 
and Chaplain, and Clayton, on the condition of his paying One Pound of 
Frankincense yearly to the Priory, and not infringing the rights of the 
Parish of Lathrisk. Pages 329, 331 A Dispute, in the eastern Chapter of 
Lothian, between Prior John and the Canons, and the Master and Monks of 
Haddington, together with the Prioress and Nuns of the same place, 
respecting the Tithes of the King's Garden in that Town. The latter 
declared their quarrel settled with the Priory of St. Andrews, A.D. 1245. 
Page 332 Dispute between Prior John and the Canons, and Duncan, Earl 
of Mar, carried on before the Abbot of Lindores, the Priors of Lindores, and 
the Prior of Isle of May, concerning the Lands and Tithes of Tharflund and 
Miggaveth, in Aberdeenshire, which had been given to the Priory by the 
said Earl's father. The Priory gives up the Tithes to the Incumbent, on 
condition of receiving 10 marks yearly, A.D. 1242. Memorandum. The 
Prior of St. Andrews (John Whyte) held his Court at Dull, in Atholl, near a 
large Stone on the west side of the Vicar's House ; on which day, Colin, son 
of Anegus, and Bridin, his son, and Gylis, his brother, rendered to him their 
homage, as his liege men, A.D. 1244. Page 121 Prior John and the 
Canons give to the Priory of Lochleven certain property near it, reserving to 
themselves the right of appointing the Prior, who shall answer to the 
Bishop de spiritualibus, but to them de tewporalibm, and the observance of 
order, A.D. 1248. 

9. GILBERT II., formerly Treasurer of the Monastery, was Elected its 
Prior in 1258. He was skilled in temporal affairs, but not very learned. 
He is not mentioned by name in the Register; but the following Memorandum 
occurs at page 346 : At the Justiciary Court of Perth, Falletauch appears 
before Freskyn de Moray and others, against Thomas de Lidel, Attorney for 
the Prior (Gilbert II.) and Canons, and gives up to them all right which he 
had to the Land of Drumkarach, A.D. 1260. Died 1263. 



78 



MONASTICON. 



10. JOHN HADDENTON. He built the great Hall at the east part of the 
Priory, near the Cemetery. He held office 40 years. Died 1304. He was 
Buried in the Chapter House, under a Stone with the following Epitaph : 

Corporis efficitur custos hoc petra Johaiinis, 
Quadringinta domiis prior hujus qui fuit annis 
Felix certamen certavit fide fideli 
Pace frui coeli concedat ei Deus. Arnen. 

Translation This Stone guards the body of John, who was for 40 
years the Superior of this House. He successfully fought the 
contest with zeal. God grant him to enjoy the peace of 
the Faithful in Heaven. Amen. 

Register, p. 176 Prior John Haddenton and the Canons give to Peter de 
Campania, the Barony of Kirkness, being part payment of 100 Sterling of 
Pension which Bishop Fraser had engaged to pay him, and which engage- 
ment they are to fulfil to him and his Heirs for 
one year after his death. Page 398 Prior John 
[Haddenton] and Canons give to John de Fitkyll 
and his Heirs, certain Lands in Clackmannan, on 
paying to them two silver marks yearly; each 
Successor in his first year doubling his payment, 
for Ward-holding and other customary Dues. Same 
Page The Prior and Canons state that, though 
they were bound to pay William de Lindsay a 
Pension of 40 Sterling yearly, out of their pro- 
perty of Inchefreth, Petpontin, Eossy, and Fowls, 
yet that, owing to the Invasion of Edward Baliol and 
Henry de Belmont, they could derive no Revenue 
from the said Lands, and so were unable to pay 
their stipulated Pension. Page 405 The Prior 
[John Haddenton] and Canons hold themselves 
dlestick with Candle. A bound to pay Galfred de Berwick, twenty pound, 
Monk is Praying below. gixteen ^^ ^ tenwu, for wine sold and 
A.D.1292. [Chapter House, , ,. , . ,. , , . -,^1 -n 

Westminster] delivered to them by him, A.D. 1291. Page 339 

Gilbert de Ballas gives the Prior [John Haddenton] 

and Canons, a right to construct a Mill-dam on the Kiver Eden at Dairsey, 
A.D. 1288. Pope Nicholas IV. directed the Prior of Arbroath to settle a Dis- 
pute which had arisen between Prior Haddenton and his Chapter on the 
one hand, and David, a Burgess of Berwick, on the other. 

11. ADAM MAUCHANE, formerly Archdeacon of St. Andrews. He was 
for nine years Prior. Died 1313. He was Buried on the right side of the 
grave of Prior Haddenton, his Predecessor. His name occurs only once in 
the Rt><iist<>r when he was Archdeacon, as Witness to a Deed, A.D. 1300. 

12. JOHN DE FORFAR was a former Canon, also Vicar of Lochrife, and 
Bishop Lamberton's Chamberlain. He was Elected Prior by Jot. He built 




On either side of S 
Andrew is an Altar Can 



PRIORY OF ST. ANDREWS. 79 

the Chamber- adjoining the Cloister, which Prior Louden afterwards 
surrounded by a wall. Died 1321. He was the first who was Buried in the 
New Chapter House, which Bishop Lamberton had constructed. His name 
does not appear in the Register. 

13. JOHN DE GOWRY. Fordun says, "Though of a free tongue, and 
incautious of speech, he yet Ruled his Monastery with great skill, prudently 
providing against misfortunes, and, when they befell him, warding them off 
with dexterity. He Died in 1340, and was Buried in the New Chapter 
House. He and his Canons suffered much from the Civil Dissensions. 
When the English attacked the Town of Perth, they razed its Walls and 
Towers ; and the six nearest richest Monasteries were Taxed to rebuild 
them. The proportion which the Priory of St. Andrews had to pay was 280 
silver marks, equal to 2800 Sterling. 

14. WILLIAM DE LOUDEN was Sub-Prior. Fordun says, The works 
he performed, both within and without the Monastery, have made his name 
illustrious. He covered the whole Dormitory with a magnificent Roof; 
beneath, with polished planks, and above with lead. He also roofed the old 
Church of S. Regulus, the eastern Chamber, the four sides of the Cloister, 
and the south part of the Refectory. He caused to be made, at the expense 
of the Monastery, the Curtain which was suspended during Lent between the 
Altar and the Choir, composed of various work, and admirably embroidered 
with figures of men and animals. Moreover, he built the new Ustrina 
[Heating-house] at great labour and expense. The Churches belonging to 
the Monastery in Fife and elsewhere, he roofed with timber, and supplied 
with necessary furniture. Perceiving the Church of Rossieclerach, in 
Gowrie, to be old and insufficient, he built a very handsome one instead of 
it, though not on the same site. This Prior was short of stature, and well 
skilled in learning. He calmly submitted to the great, for the sake of his 
Monastery. He enforced the regular observance of the Rules of his Order ; 
and thus he not only governed, but greatly improved his Monastery, freed 
it from debt, and replenished it with many necessary things, especially with 
100 Volumes for its Library. He Died in 1354, and was Buried near his 
Predecessor, John of Gowry, in the New Chapter House. Register, p. 404 
Prior William and the Canons let the half davoch of land in Cuneveth 
[Laurencekirk] to Andrew Grey, he paying the first year thirteen solidi, 
four denarii ; the second year, sixteen solidi, eight denarii ; the third year, 
twenty solidi, &c. : the said Andrew to build two houses at his own expense, 
and to uphold the marches of the land, A.D. 1347. 

15. THOMAS BISSETT, formerly Sub-Prior. Resigned 1363. Fordun 
says, He was a man of noble family [being the Earl of Fife's nephew] , but 
of still nobler disposition ; for he dearly loved his Brethren, and was no less 
beloved by them. He Ruled the Flock committed to his care as wisely as 
the times would permit. The Lord was with him, and directed all his ways. 
He kept always in mind the Rules and Institutes of the Holy Fathers, 
which he loved and observed, admonishing his Brethren to observe them 



go MONASTICON. 

also. The manners of the Canons he diligently reformed, mildly corrected 
them for their faults, and encouraged the good knowing that hereunto he 
was called. When he had thus for nine years governed his Monastery, he 
fell into bad health, and, fearing that thereby the expenses of the House 
would increase, he Resigned the management of it into the hands of the 
Bishop, but not without the lamentation and expostulation of his Brethren, 
who exclaimed, " Why, father, dost thou desert us ? be favourable, and 
leave us not thus destitute." 

16. STEPHEN DE PAY. Fordun says, He was a venerable man, and 
endowed with all honesty of manners. He received his Confirmation and 
Blessing from the hands of the Bishop [William de Landel] . In stature, he 
was large; in countenance, agreeable ; munificent in everything; and 
beloved by all. After having been Prior for 20 years, and having signalised 
himself in repairing the Cathedral, accidentally burnt in his time, the 
Canons unanimously Elected him to the Episcopate. However, on his 
voyage to Borne for the Papal Confirmation, he was captured by the 
English, and brought to Alnwick, where he Died in 1885 or 1886. [See 

Scotii-lll'nilicoll, rul. /., p. 202.] 

17. ROBERT OF MONTROSE, originally a Canon of the Church, afterwards 
Prior of Lochleven, and Official in the Bishop's Court at St. Andrews. He 
reformed the Discipline of the Monastery, and improved its Buildings. He 
carried on the repairs of the damage done by the fire, and finished, at great 
expense, the new work in the body of the Cathedral Church, as high as the 
roof. Fordun narrates the following interesting particulars : He was a 
man of great knowledge and eloquence, and a distinguished Preacher, an 
upholder of the ancient Discipline, a pattern to the Flock in the Monastery, 
and a good Shepherd to the people ; for he did not despise the people, but 
instructed them, and rendered to every one his due. He did not flatter the 
great, nor fear their threats; he did not oppress the poor, but protected 
them. The errors of those subject to him he did not overlook, but 
corrected ; in all things showing himself respectful to his seniors, mild to 
his juniors, gentle to his Religious Brethren, unyielding to the proud and 
obstinate, condescending to the humble, and tender-hearted to the penitent. 
This being the case, he could truly adopt the language of the Founder of his 
Order, S. Augustine, who, in one of his Epistles, thus speaks : " I dare 
not say that my House is better than the Ark of Noah, where one wicked 
man was found; nor better than Abraham's House, where it is said, ' cast 
out the bondwoman and her son ;' nor better than Isaac's House, concerning 
whose two sons it is said, ' Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated ;' so 
I confess that, from the time I began to serve God, I have found that, as the 
best of men are to be met with in Monasteries, so they not unfrequently 
contain the worst." It happened that Robert of Montrose had, in his 
Monastery, a Monk named Thomas Plater, an undisciplined and turbulent 
man, whom he had often tried, both by threats and promises, but in vain, 
to bring to a sense of his errors. He considered, nevertheless, that he who 



PRIORY OF ST. ANDREWS. 81 

connives at another's fault is guilty of it ; and that impunity is the mother 
of insolence f the root of petulance, and the nurse of error. While he was 
revolving in his mind how he should gain his Brother, the latter, instigated 
by the Devil, was plotting his Superior's destruction. One evening (in 
1393), when the Prior was alone, and was going up, as usual, from the 
Cloister to the Dormitory for the night, Plater, watching his opportunity, 
attacked him, and, drawing a dagger from under his cloak, mortally 
wounded him. He survived only three days ; and, bidding his Brethren 
Farewell, slept in the Lord, and was Buried in the New Chapter House. 
The Parricide was apprehended as he was trying to make his escape. Two 
days after the Prior's Funeral, he was brought forth, clad in a long robe ; 
and, after a solemn Discourse from Walter Trail the Bishop, addressed to 
the Clergy and people, he was thrust bound into perpetual Imprisonment. 
. There, partaking scantily of the bread of grief and the water of affliction, he 
soon Died, and was Buried in a Dunghill. 

18. JAMES BISSETT. Fordun, or rather Walter Bower, the Continuator 
of Fordun, speaks as if he had been personally acquainted with this Prior. 
He goes on in the following complimentary panegyric : This Bissett was 
nephew of the most Keligious Father Thomas Bissett, a former Prior of the 
same Monastery, whose good conduct he so closely intimated that he was 
second to none of his Predecessors. In carrying on the repairs of the 
damage caused by the late fire, he completed the roofing of the Nave of the 
Cathedral and of the Porch, fitted up the Choir with Stalls, and finished the 
Quadrangle of the Cloister. He furnished the whole Monastery with new 
Granaries, Mills, Calefactories (Ustrinas), Piggeries, Barns, and Stables ; 
and provided the two Apartments of the Guest-Hall with Pillars and Glass 
Windows. He paved the exterior and interior Courts of the Monastery; 
and supplied its Mensal Churches, as well as all the other Churches 
dependent upon it, with Vestries, Robes for the Priests, and other useful 
ornaments. He was like a shoot of a true vine which grows into a choice 
tree, and yields, by its abundant fruit, an odour pleasant to God and to man. 
Moreover, he was humble and benignant above all men : to his Brethren 
patient, to the poor compassionate, and that in spiritual as well as temporal 
things. To him it was an object of solicitude that the Altars should shine, 
the Lights be brilliant, the Priests competent for their duties, the Canons 
becoming in their behaviour, the Vessels and Vestments clean and pure, 
and all the Services of the Monastery regularly performed, persuaded that 
in these things lay the honour of God and of His House, the true significa- 
tion of things sacred, the proper employment of the Priests, the devotion of 
the people, and the edification of all. Whatever he could save out of the 
.annual Revenues of the Monastery, he devoted to the improvement of the 
Cathedral, the rites of hospitality, or the use of the poor. Besides this, he 
vigorously sustained several contests, as well distant as domestic, in which 
he was obliged to take a part for the protection of his Monastery. Who that 
VOL. i. L 



82 MONASTICON. 

was adorned with so many virtues would not swell with pride ? Yet he was 
humble ; and, on the foundation of humility, he rose to the summit of 
charity. Who was weak, and he was not weak ? who was offended, and he 
burned not ? In short, he was all things to all the Brethren, that he might 
contribute to the salvation of all. This Prior was tall of stature, sedate in 
manners, and circumspect in all things. And, not to enumerate his other 
virtues, he was grave in. conversation, prudent, affable, and forgiving. He 
loved the humble, and checked the proud. He was not fractious in his 
deeds, nor loose in his behaviour, nor petulant in his words ; but you beheld 
in him the image and personification of probity. But why should I dwell on 
these particulars? For even the Holy Church still proclaims, though I 
were not to mention, his sound judgment, his fertile genius, his retentive 
memory, his flowing eloquence, and his laudable actions. How great and 
good a man he was, let the Eeader of this learn from the surviving Canons, 
and others who knew him during his life. And, doubtless, of him will the 
Canons tell their younger Brethren, that the generation to come may know 
and put their trust in the Lord, and not forget the works of their Prior, but 
diligently search them out. Many of his Disciples, imbued with his spirit, 
attained the height of virtue, and, after his death, were called to the office of 
Pastors or Fathers one of whom became Bishop of Boss ; two, Abbots of 
Scone and Inchcolm respectively; and three were successively Priors of 
Monymusk. Nor need this be wondered at, since, by direction of this 
Prior, two of his Canons were obliged to be Licentiates in Decrees ; five, 
Bachelors in Decrees; and two, Masters in Theology; one of whom after- 
wards succeeded him in the Priorate. Then it was that the cloistered 
Garden of St. Andrews, exposed to the genial influences of the south, as 
much abounded with men illustrious for their virtues, as it was productive 
of natural flowers. The Monastic Union flourished in the Keligious 
Ceremonies, the Canonical Plant was strengthened by the cares of a Martha, 
and seraphic zeal overflowed in theological learning. In the first of these, 
peace and harmony of manners ; in the second, peace and a due proportion 
of study; in the third, peace and progress of merit, sent up a melody 
pleasing to God and to man. Many other good deeds did this Prior perform 
during his life ; for he redeemed the Monastic Lands which had been mort- 
gaged after the great fire of the Cathedral, and left the Monastery not only 
free from debt, but with a plentiful store of iron, lead, planks, timber, coal 
(bituminis), salt, and gold ; and a full concourse of Brethren. He departed 
this life, at a good old age, in the Prior's House, on the morrow of the 
Nativity of S. John Baptist, in the year 1416. He was Prior twenty- 
three years, and was Buried with his Brethren in the New Chapter House. 
He will receive, it is believed, a reward at the resurrection of the just ; for it 
is not probable that the goodness of the great Creator will pass by his 
Keligious labours, who, by the abundance of his benevolence, surpassed the 
expectations of those who were petitioners to him. The following is the 
Epitaph on his Tomb : 



PKIOKY OF ST. ANDEEWS. 83 

Hie Jacobita fulgens velut gemma polita 
In claustri vita vixit velut vir hermita. 

Translation Here lies James Bissett, shining as a polished gem. 
In the life of the Cloister, he lived like a Hermit. 

This Prior's name is found only twice in the Register of the Priory, viz., in 
the Instrument of Perambulation, as performed in the presence of Bishop 
Trail. Prior Bissett is there stated to have been absent at the time on 
business at Home. He is mentioned again, Page 421, as engaging, for him- 
self and Canons, to pay Thomas, Prior of Candida Casa, 20 Scots, failing 
which, their' goods might be distrained. 

James [Bissett] , Prior of St. Andrews, grants to Thomas Stewart, the 
Archdeacon, for the term of his life, " all our Lands of Balgove and Salt- 
cots, with that part of our Meadow of Weldene, which lies on the north side 
of the Eiver, running through the said Meadow (except that part called 
Freremeadow), throughout all the boundaries of the said Lands existing at 
the time of the said Grant, viz., from the said Eiver on the east side of the 
Meadow, and then by the top of the Hill [ridge] towards the north, as far as 
the Eock near which the Stream falls, on the east side of the Buildings of 
Saltcots ; which Eock is the known boundary between the Lands of Balgove 
and Stratyrum, with two acres lying near the Cross called Sluther's Cross, 
and through all the other known boundaries of Balgove and Saltcots on the 
west side, as far as the boundaries of Kincaple and Strakinnes," to be held 
by the said Thomas, he paying yearly for the same 4 lb., 13 solidi, 4 
denarii, A.D. 1405. 

19. WILLIAM DE CAMERA, formerly Sub -Prior. On his way either to or 
from the Pope, to whom he had gone for Confirmation, he was taken ill at 
Bruges, where he Died in 1417, and was Buried there in S. Giles' Church, 
before the Altar of S. Andrew. " The venerable and religious John Lyster, 
Licentiate in Degrees," happened to be with Prior William when he Died. 
Immediately he set off for Spain, where Pope Benedict XHI. held his 
Court (though by this time he had been deposed from the Pontificate), and 
easily obtained from him Bulls of Confirmation to the Priorate. But 
meanwhile, 

20. JAMES HADDENSTON was at Eome, attached to an Embassy at the 
Court there, sent from the Duke of Albany to Pope Martin V. (now 
recognised lawful Pontiff by all Christendom), who Nominated this Hadden- 
ston to the Priorate of St. Andrews, A.D. 1418. His Nomination by his 
Holiness was Confirmed on his return home by the Canons, as well as by 
the Three Estates of the Eealm. In 1425, he returned to Eome, as one of 
several Ambassadors sent there by King James I. [Rotuli Scotia, vol. ii.,p. 
253.] Walter Bower says: After Euling his Monastery wisely for 24 
years, he Died. on the 18th July, 1443, and was honourably Interred in 
the North Wall of the Lady Chapel of the Cathedral Church, with this 
Epitaph : 



8 . 4 MONASTICON. 

Qui docui mores, mundi vitare favores, 
Inter doctores sacros sortitus honores, 
Vermibus hie donor ; et sic ostendere conor, 
Quod sicut ponor, ponitur omnis honor. 

Translation I, who taught morals, and men to shun the favours 
of the world, after having obtained degrees among Doctors of 
Divinity, am here given as a present to the worms : and so I 
endeavoured to show that, as I am laid aside, every honour is 
so too. 

This Prior was a man of middling stature, of a cheerful and rubicund 
countenance, courteous, and fair ; severe in correcting, mild in reproving, 
affable in manners, and prone to compassion ; for he was most bountiful to 
the poor and needy, wherein, as some allege, he was more swayed by 
ostentatious than charitable motives. But let them beware how they judge 
rashly; for I know that he gave liberally to the indigent. Nor did he 
inquire particularly to whom he gave, knowing that God does not so much 
require that he should be deserving who asks, as that he should be charitable 
who gives. He was a hospitable landlord ; and those whom he could not 
satisfy with delicacies, he entertained with Panis Christ i, and a hearty 
welcome. The east Gable of the Cathedral Church he altered by sub- 
stituting the present large Window for three smaller ones. He adorned the 
interior, as well with Carved Stalls as with the Images of the Saints. The 
Nave, which before had been covered in by James Bissett, his Predecessor, of 
good memory, but was still bare and unfurnished, he beautified throughout 
with Glass Windows and Polished Pavement ; as also by supplying Altars, 
Images, and Ornaments. He furnished the Vestry with Eelics at great 
expense, repaired the former ones, and erected Presses for containing them. 
The whole Choir of the Church, the two .Transepts,- two sides of the square 
Cloister, and the Entrance to the Chapter House, he laid with Polished 
Pavement. He, in a great measure, reconstructed the handsome Palace 
(pulchrum et spectabile palatium) within the Court of the Prior's Hospitium, 
the Oratory and its Hall ; as also the Farm-steadings belonging to the 
Monastery, namely, Balony, Pilmore, Segie, and Kinnimoth. By his 
influence with Pope Martin V. and King James, he procured for himself and 
Successors the privilege of wearing the Mitre, Ring, Pastoral Staff, and 
other Pontifical Insignia, in Parliaments, Councils, Synods, and all Public 
Assemblies in Scotland. He amplified the Divine Service in the Celebration 
of Mass in the Chapel of our Lady. In the Faculty of Divinity he 
eminently excelled ; and, as Dean of Theology, installed the Graduates of 
the University. As Inquisitor, he sharply reproved and confuted Heretics 
and Lollards. Being Honorary Chaplain to the Pope, and Collector of 
Annates for Scotland in his behalf, he undertook a Journey to Home at an 
advanced age. In his days, William Bonar, Vicar of St. Andrews, com- 
pleted the Altar and Crucifix in the Nave of the Church, with its solid 
Throne and splendid Images ; and Sub-Prior William de Ballochy improved 



PEIOEY OF ST. ANDEEWS. 85 

the Sleeping Places in the Dormitory. Finally, at the time his Pre- 
decessor William de Camera was Prior, Haldenston, who was then Sub- 
Prior, renewed the Flooring of the Eefectory, on account of all which, 
may his soul and theirs enjoy Everlasting Eest. Amen. 

This Prior's name occurs frequently in the Register. In 1434, he and 
his Canons let to Walter Monypenny the Farm of Balrymont -Easter, for 
nine years, for seven marks Scots yearly, page 423. Again, in 1438, there 
is an Account of a Process conducted by him and his Canons against James 
de Kinninmond, in the presence of certain noUlcs riri, both religious and 
civil. The said James loses his Suit, and is desired to be obedient for the 
future to his Superiors, the Prior and Canons. 

A Denmylne Paper, No. 54, furnishes us with a Protest on the part of 
this Prior, Dated 1431, against the building of a Parish Church in Cupar, 
which the Burgesses of that Town had rashly and contumaciously begun to 
erect, contrary to the consent of the Prior and Canons of St. Andrews, 
their lawful Patrons, A.D. 1431. 

21. WILLIAM BONAK. At this period, Documentary reference is very 
scanty. The Register of the Priory, and the Denmylne or Supplementary Papers 
relating to the Priory, are almost entirely mute about the Ecclesiastical 
affairs of St. Andrews. Likewise the great Chroniclers, Andrew Wyntoun 
and John Fordun, drop their scene. Any Scraps now illustrative of the 
History of the Priors, are to be found in an 8vo MS. in the University 
Library, Edinburgh, written about A.D. 1530. From which we find that 
Bonar succeeded Haddenston A.D. 1443, that he Euled the Priory 19 years 
a simple-minded man, who did many good deeds in his day. He furnished 
and adorned the Library with necessary Books, and expended much in aid 
of the poor. He supplied, at considerable expense, great and small Instru- 
ments for the Choir ; as also the best red Cape or large Hood, woven with 
gold, which is used on the Chief Festivals. He Died A.D. 1462, and was 
Buried at the Aspersarium, where the Holy Water is sprinkled, under the 
Brazen Tablet, on which are engraved Sub suj'dlo ccreo ut apparet ascul- 
tantibus. Denmylne Papers, No. 17 James [Kennedy] , by the grace of 
God, &c., to our beloved Brothers the Sub-Prior and Canons, &c. You 
know that at the time of the departure of William, your venerable Prior, 
to transmarine parts, he fully committed to us your temporal and 
spiritual government; and because we think it for the improvement of 
Divine Worship, and the benefit of our Church, to add to the number 
of your Order, we have consented that you may receive among you 
certain qualified persons, according to the prescribed Eules of your 
Order. Yet we wish not, nor do we mean, by this our consent, to 
create any claim of right to ourselves, or our Successors the Bishops of St. 
Andrews; so far from it, that we are acting in the name, and by the 
authority of your venerable Prior, committed to us by himself. Moreover, 
we hereby engage to exonerate you from all responsibility in the concurrence 
you have given in this matter. In testimony of which, &c. At Inchmur- 



86 MONASTICON. 

tocb, A.D. 1457. Also, No. 55 contains a Grant to Prior Bonar and his 
Canons, Dated A.D. 1445, from George Lauder, Bishop of Argyll, who was 
also Lord of Balcomy, in the East Neuk of Fife, giving them permission to 
take Stones from his Quarry of Cragmore [Craighead] , for the building or 
repair of their Church and Monastery. 

22. DAVID EAMSAY was formerly a Canon of the Priory. The MS. 
referred to above, says that he was a man gentle and much beloved by his 
Brethren, who did many good things, and would have done many more had 
he lived. He furnished the Covering of the Great Altar, and built the 
Library of large square Stones, well polished. He Died in 1469, having 
been Prior 7 years. 

28. WILLIAM CARRON, formerly a Canon. All that we find recorded of 
him is, that he was a simple and devout man. He Died in the year of our 
Salvation, 1482. 

24. JOHN HEPBURN, on the premature death of Archbishop Stewart, 
aspired to the Metropolitan dignity. He . was Elected by the Canons. 

He wrested the Castle of St. Andrews, in 
1514, from the Douglasses, and even 
kept it against a strong force with which 
the Earl of Angus tried to retake it. 
For all this, he was induced to give way 
to the Appointment of Forman by Pope 
Leo X. In 1512, he, in concurrence 
with the Archbishop and King, founded 
the College of S. Leonard's, and en- 
dowed it with the Tithes of the Parish 
of that name ; and also with certain 
Funds belonging to an Hospital situated 
within the precincts of the Monastery, 
which had been erected in very ancient 

f 




The Arms of Scotland are above S. r 

Andrew; and below are the Arms of * *** f S ' AndreW ' 



Hepburn, viz., on a chevron a rose, Jhe attendance of these Pilgrims having 
between two lions counter passant. ff ' the Hos P ltal was afterwards 

A.D. 1506. [8. Salvator's College, St. converte ^ _ into an Asylum for Aged 
Andrews.] Women; it then became a School for 

the education of youth generally ; and 

now at length it was judged expedient to apply the Kevenues to the Endow- 
ment of a College for the study of Philosophy and Theology, in which a 
certain number of poor Students should be instructed gratuitously. 

Prior John Hepburn presided over the Monastery during Archbishop 

Forman's Episcopate, and Died in the same year with the Archbishop 

1522). But being an able Politician, and well acquainted with the state of 

the Country, he exercised considerable sway over the counsels of the Eegent 

Albany, who often consulted him respecting the characters and strength of 



PRIORY OF ST. ANDREWS. 87 

the different factions into which the Scottish Nobility were at that time 
divided. 

Towards the close of his life, he built the extensive and lofty Wall 
which surrounds the Priory and S. Leonard's College, of which the greater 
part is still standing. The reason of its being erected at that particular 
time is not very apparent. This Wall commences at the north-east 
Buttress of the east Gable of the Cathedral, and passes round by the 
Harbour to the foot of the East-burn Wynd. It then runs behind the 
houses on the west side of the Wynd as far as S. Leonard's Hall. The 
remainder no longer exists ; but it formerly extended from the Hall till it 
joined the west Front of the Cathedral. The Wall is about 20 feet high, 
measures nearly a mile in extent, and has 13 round or square Towers, each 
of which has two or three richly canopied Niches, which have long since 
been despoiled of their Images; for to' the Iconoclasts of the Eeformation, 
every saintly resemblance of the human form seemed an object of Idolatry, 
and as such was doomed to destruction. On various parts of the Wall may 
be seen the Arms of the Prior, viz., two lions pulling at a rose, upon a 
chevron, the head of a crosier for a crest, the initials J. H., or sometimes 
P. J. H. (Prior John Hepburn), and the motto ad vitam. One of these has 
the Date 1520. There are three Gateways in the Wall; one at the Harbour, 
another on the south side, and the third is what is called The Pends. This 
last was the main entrance to the Priory, and must have been, when 
complete, a very noble piece of Architecture. It is 77 feet long, and 16 
broad, and consists of two very elegant pointed Arches, one at either 
extremity; and there are evident marks of three intermediate groined 
Arches, which supported Apartments above, where, probably, the Porter and 
other Domestics of the Priory were accommodated. (See Cut at page 73.) 

Boethius, who wrote while the Priory Wall was actually in progress 
viz., in 1522 thus speaks of it and the Monastery generally, as well as of 
the good qualities of its Religious Inmates : The Monastery (coenobium) 
also has been in our times greatly decorated, through the industry of that 
noble and illustrious Coenobiarch, John Hepburn, also called Prior, who 
renewed the Buildings which had become dilapidated, made numerous 
improvements, and, at great expense, adorned the Cathedral, than which 
nothing can be more suitable for Divine Worship. And then he surrounded 
the whole with a Wall, which is strengthened by numerous projecting 
Towers. This Wall also embraces S. Leonard's College, where the Novices 
and others learn the Rudiments of Science under their Preceptors, and are 
instructed in Human and Divine Knowledge, and in the Precepts of 
Religious Obedience, from which source the Monastery itself derives addi- 
tional lustre. 

On one of the Towers of the above-mentioned Wall, near the Harbour, 
is the following Inscription : EECESSOEIS (Precessoris ?) OP. POR. (opus 
porrectum, or, operis portio ?) me PATET HEPBURN EXCOLIT EGREGIUS ORBE 
SALUT ; which probably means, that the illustrious Patrick Hepburn 



88 MONASTICON. 

adorned the work which his Predecessor John had so far constructed, in the 

year . 

Prior John Hephurn was one of those who Tried, and Sentenced to be 
Burned before the Gate of S. Salvator's College, PATRICK HAMILTON. On 
one of the walls of S. Leonard's College is a Monument to this Prior, its 
principal Founder ; but the Stone is quite mouldered away nothing can be 
distinctly made out but the feeble outline of a Shield. S. Leonard's Hall 
has upon it the Arms and Motto of Prior Hepburn, very well executed. 

25. PATRICK HEPBURN, nephew of the former, succeeded. On being 
made Bishop of Moray, he Eesigned the Priorate in 1535. This " Scots 
Worthy" had no less than ten Bastards by different mothers ! Under the 
Great Seal there passed the following Letters of Legitimation : (1) " Johanni 
et Patricis Hepburn bastardis filiis naturalibus Patricii Prioris Sancti 
Andrese." 18th December, 1533. (2) " Legitimatio Adami, Patricii, 
Georgii, Johannis, et Patricii Hepburn, bastardorum filiorum naturalium 
Patricii Episcopi Moraviensis." 4th October, 1545. (3) " Legitimatio 
Jonetae et Agnetis Hepburn, bastardarum filiarum naturalium Patrici 
Moraviensis Episcopi." 14th Maij, 1550. [Reg. May. Sig., lib. xxv., No. 
69; lib. xxix., No. 285; lib. xxx., No. 572 MS. Reg. House.] (4) "Agnes 
Hepburn, another daughter of the late Patrick, Bishop of Moray, was 
also legitimated on 8th February, 1587." \Knox 1 s Works, vol. i., ^. 
41, Notes. Lain g* 8 Edition.] See more of this Lecher under SEE OF 
MORAY. 

26. LORD JAMES STEWART, Earl of Moray, bastard of King James V., 
by Lady Margaret Erskine, daughter of John, fifth Earl of Mar, and fourth 

Lord Erskine. This Lady afterwards Married 
Sir Eobert Douglas of Lochleven, and she 
appears to have had a yearly pension from the 
King of 666 13s U. [Treas. "Exonemtis" in 
September, 1539.] Her son succeeded when a child 
of 5 years of age ; and so Alexander Milne, Abbot 
of Cambuskenneth, was appointed to administer 
for him till he came of age. He was the last 
Prior under the ancient Hierarchy, changed with 
the times, became a zealous plundering " Ee- 
The Arms of Scotland sup- former," applied to his own "comfort" the 
ported by the Initials I. S. Revenues of the Priory of St. Andrews and those 
Above the Shield is the head of the p ri f Pittenweem (of which he wag 

of a Pastoral Staff. Circa n A \ i -, , 

A D 1555 Commendator), plunged headlong into Sacrilege, 

Perjury, and Treason, and was at last shot dead 

at Linlithgow in 1570, leaving not a seed to inherit his " virtues." He 
is Canonized among the " Scots Worthies" for being fruitful in such "good 
works." He gave in the Eental of the Priory in 1561 at about 2200 Scots, 
and nearly 8000 (or 440 Chalders) in grain. So he feathered his Nest 
remarkably well. 




PBIOKY OF ST. ANDEEWS. 



89 



After this, the Commendators, or Titular Priors, i.e., 
" Tulchan Calves,'' were, successively 

27. KOBEKT STEWART, brother of the above, and another bastard of King 
James V. by Euphemia Elphinstone, daughter of Lord Elphinstone. While 
an infant of seven years of age, he had a grant of the Abbacy of Holyrood, in 
1539. He Married Lady Jane Kennedy, eldest daughter of Gilbert, third 
Earl of Cassillis, 14th December, 1561. " The Lord Eobert consumeth with 
love for the Earl of Cassillis' sister." [Bandolph's Letter to Cecil, 2ith Oct., 
1561.] He was " Bishop-Elect of Caithness" in 1542. He held the 
Superiority of the Priory Property, together with a right to their Tithes, 
subject to certain Pensions which he promised to pay out of them, till his 
Death in 1586. 

28. The CROWN in 1587, by the Act of Annexation, got possession of the 
Priory, and kept hold till 1606. 

29. LODOVICK, Duke of Lennox, till 1635. "Episcopacy" was now 
re-established, and the Eevenue of the Archbishopric was taken from this 
Lodovick, and that of the Prio-ry given to him instead, which was erected 
into a temporal Lordship in his favour. 

30. The ARCHBISHOP OF ST. ANDREWS, till King Charles I. purchased the 
Priory in 1635, and annexed it to the Archbishopric of St. Andrews, in com- 
pensation for the loss which it sustained by the erection of the new See of 
Edinburgh. 

81. The UNIVERSITY, till the Eestoration, 1661. 

32. The ARCHBISHOP OF ST. ANDREWS, till the Eevolution, 1688. 

83. The CROWN. Honi soft qul mnl y penw. 



From the Date of the 
Instrument to which this 
Seal is attached, it evidently 
is that of PRIOR JOHN HAD- 
DENTON, No. 10. Angels 
honour the Martyrdom of 
S. Andrew on either side, 
holding an Altar Candle- 
stick with Candle. Under- 
neath is a Monk praying. 
There are twenty- six years 




between the Date of the 
former Seal and this one. 
It is appended to a Charter 
by Adam Eilconcath, grant- 
ing the patronage of the 
Church, of Kilconcath [Kil- 
conquhar] to the Prioress 
and Convent of North Ber- 
wick, A.D. 1266. \Pannmre 
Charters.] 



I acknowledge myself indebted for the Historical Details of 
the Priors to Lyon's History of St. Andrews, throughout: they 
are painsfully compiled from the Eegister of the Priory. 



VOL. I. 



90 MONASTICON. 

VALUATION OF THE PRIORY OF ST. ANDREWS. 

Money, 2237 18s Ud. Wheat, 38 Chalders, 1 Boll, 3 Firlots, 1 Peck ; 
Bear, 132 Chalders, 7 Bolls; Meal, 114 Chalders, 3 Bolls, 1 Peck; Oats, 
151 Chalders, 10 Bolls, 1 Firlot, H Pecks ; Pease and Beans, 3 Chalders, 7 
Bolls. 

The Cells and Priories belonging to St. Andrews (whose 
Priors in Parliament had the precedence of all Abbots and 
Priors, by an Act made by King James I.) were Lochleven, Port- 
moak, Monymusk, the Isle of May, and Pittenweem. 

V. LOCHLEVEN, A.D. 842, 

In the Shire of Kinross, formerly a House belonging to the 
Culdees, in whose place the Canon-Eegulars were introduced by 
the- Bishop of St. Andrews. The Priory was Dedicated to S. 
Serf, or Servanus, a Monk or Pilgrim, who, as is reported, came 
from Canaan to Inchkeith, and got Merkinglass and Culross for 
his Possessions. Brudeus, a Pictish King, Founded this Place in 
honour of him, and gave the Isle of Lochleven to his Culdees ; 
which King David I. bestowed upon St. Andrews, with the other 
Possessions belonging thereto. The Priory is little more than a 
mile south-east from the Castle of Lochleven, in the Loch, the 
Kuins whereof appear as yet. Our famous Historian, Andrew 
Wyntoun, was Prior of this Place. His History, which is in old 
Scottish Metre, is still extant in the Advocates' Library. It was 
Printed and Published in the year 1795, and consists of two 
handsome octavo Volumes. It begins at the Creation of the 
World, and concludes with the Captivity of King James I. in 
England, during whose Keign he Died. [Spottiswoode*] 

Wyntoun appears to have been Born about the middle of the 
long Reign of King David II., as he complains of the infirmities 
of old age when engaged in the first Copy of his " Cronykil" 
which was finished between the 3rd September, 1420, and the 
Keturn of King James from England, in April, 1424. In 1395, 
" Andreas de Wynton, Prior insule lacus de Levin," was present, 
with others, at a Perambulation for dividing the Baronies of 
Kirkness and Lochor, " in presentia serenissimi principis Eoberti 



PEIOEY OF LOCHLEVEN. 91 

Ducis Albanie." In 1406, lie is designed " Canonicus Sancti 
Andree, Prior prioratus insule Sancti Servani infra lacum de 
Levin." These Notices are partly from the Chartulary of St. 
Andrews, and partly from Extracts taken from a quarto Volume 
of Manuscript Collections belonging to Mr. Henry Malcolm, an 
Episcopal Minister at Balingry before the Revolution, who Died 
at Cupar in Fife, about the year 1730. Innes [page 622] 
mentions "several authentick acts or publick instruments" of 
Wyntoun, as Prior from 1395 till 1413, in Extracts from the 
Register of the Priory of St. Andrews, in the possession of the 
Earl of Panmure. These concurring Testimonies make it certain 
that he was Prior in 1395 ; and yet in Extracts from the same 
Register in the Harleian Library, No. 4628, f, 2 b, there is noted 
a Charter, "per Jacobum priorem S. Andree de Loch Leven, 
anno 1396," which must be a mistake; and, indeed, this MS. is 
very carelessly written, so by no means to be set in competition 
with the Copy examined by Innes. [David Macpher son's Preface 
to his Edition of Wyntoun, p. xxi., Notes.] 

A primitive Monastery (Founded on an Island in Loch Leven) 
flourished during several Centuries, and possessed a Chartulary 
or Donation Book, written in Gaelic, an abstract of which, in 
Latin, is preserved in the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews. 
The first Memorandum in the Collection states that, A.D. circ. 
842, Brude, son of Dergard, the last of the Pictish Kings, 
bestowed the Island of Lochleven on God, S. Servan, and the 
Keledean Hermits dwelling there in Conventual Devotion. The 
Gaelic is Loch Lcamhna, i.e., "Lake of the Elm." The River 
Leven flows out of it on the south-east. The Island called the 
Inch, about 70 acres in extent, now included in the Parish of 
Portmoak, contains the site of the primitive Monastery. Also, 
that the said Keledei made over the site of their Cell to the 
Bishop of St. Andrews, upon condition that he would provide 
them with food and raiment ; that Ronan, Monk and Abbot, a 
man of exemplary holiness, on this occasion granted the Place to 
Bishop Fothadh, son of Bren, who was in high repute all through 
Scotland. The Bishop then pronounced a Blessing on all those 
who should uphold this Covenant between him and the Keledei, 



92 MONASTICON. 

and, vice versa, his Curse on all Bishops who should violate or 
retract the same. [Beg. Prior. S. Andr., p. 113.] This is a very 
interesting Eecord, not only as affording a glimpse of the Scottish 
Church, and the Celi-de in particular, at a period where History 
is painfully silent, but as a striking example of undesigned coin- 
cidence between the independent memorials of Scotland and 
Ireland; the latter of which record, at the year 961, "the 
Death of Fothadh mac Brain, Scribe, and Bishop of the Islands 
of Alba." [Annals of the Four Masters, A.C. 961. See Beeves 9 
S. Adamnan's Life of S. Columba, p. 394.] He is the second of the 
recorded Bishops of St. Andrews. 

This is followed by a Grant from the memorable Macbeth, 
son of Tinloch, and his wife Gruoch, daughter of Bodhe (the 
only ancient Kecord of Macbeth's Queen), to the Keledei of 
Lochleven, of certain Lands, one of the boundaries of which was 
the Saxum Hiberniensium. They gave them the Lands of Kirk- 
ness in Kinross- shire, and the villule called Pethmokanne. This 
Grant was made between 1037 and 1054. There is another 
Donation from the same to S. Servan of Lochleven, and the 
Hermits serving God in that place, giving Kirkness free of all 
imposts. 

Malduin, Tuathal, and Modach, son of Malmichel, successive 
Bishops of St. Andrews, appear in their order as the donors of 
Lands and Privileges to the Keledei heremitce* Malduin gives the 
Church of Markinch and its Pertinents, A.D. 1034-55. Tuathal, 
Tuthald, or Twalda, gives the Church of Scoonie and its 
Pertinents, A.D. 1055-59. Modach gives the Church of Hur- 
kyndorath [Auchterderran], A.D. 1059-93. [Beg. Prior. S. Andr., 
Nos. 10, 11, 12.] 

In the early part of S. David's Eeign, one Eobertus Bur- 
gonensis made an attempt to deprive these Keledei of some of 
their Possessions, and the matter was left to arbitration. Upon 
a solemn hearing of the case, the Seniors of Fife, among whom 
was Morrehat, of venerable age and an Irishman, were sworn in 
evidence, and sentence was pronounced by Dufgal films Mocche, 
pro monachis id est Keledcis" for the Monks, that is, the 
Culdees." 



PBIOKY OF LOCHLEVEN. 93 

Lyon, in his History of St. Andrews, vol. ii. 9 p. 278, states 
that " The Culdees complain to King David that one Robert de 
Burgonensis had plundered them. The King sends messengers 
through Fife and Forthrif [the south-west half of the Counties of 
Fife and Kinross formed the territory of Fothribh], and assembles 
Constantine, Earl of Fife, with his followers, Macbeth, Thane of 
Falleland [Falkland], and two (Culdean) Bishops, Budadh and 
Slogadadh, with soldiers. They examine into the complaint, 
and find the Defendant guilty." To this averment, Canon Reeves 
replies [Culdees, p. 247, Note] : "Lyon, understanding Episcopi 
as a nominative plural, unwarrantably creates tivo Culdean 
Bishops, Budadh and Slogadh, who certainly belonged to no fixed 
Dioceses." [Hist. St. Andrews, vol. i., p. 36.] As military 
officers of the Bishop, their names were in excellent keeping 
with their vocation, for Budadh signifies "victorious," and 
Slogadh " a hosier." [Four Masters.] 

A.D. 1037-54, King Macbeth gives, "with the highest 
veneration and devotion to God, and Saint Servanus of Loch- 
leven, and the Hermits serving God there, Bolgyne, i.e., the 
Village of Bolgie or Bogie, on the south bank of the Leven, in 
Parish of Markinch. A.D. 1098-1107, Edgar, son of Malcolm, 
King of Scotland, gave to the foresaid Keledei, Petnemokanne 
[Portmoak]. A.D. 1070-93, King Malcolm and his Queen 
Margaret gave them the Village of Balchristie, in the Parish of 
Balchristie, in the Parish of Newburn, Fife. Ethelred, son of 
King Malcolm, Abbot of Dunkeld, and Earl of Fife, gives them 
Admore [Auchmore], on the Leven, A.D. 1093-1107. [Reg. 
Prior. S. Andr.] 

The fate of the Culdees, however, was sealed about 1145, 
when King David declared that "he had given and granted to 
the Canons of St. Andrews the Island of Lochlevene, that they 
might establish Canonical Order there; and the Keledei who 
shall be found there, if they consent to live as Regulars, shall be 
permitted to remain in society with, and subject to the others; 
but should any of them be disposed to offer resistance, his will 
and pleasure was that such should be expelled from the Island." 
Robert, the English Bishop of St. Andrews, who dictated this 



<J4 



MONASTICON. 



stern Enactment, was not slow to carry its provisions into effect ; 
for, immediately after, lie placed these Keledei in subjection to 
the Canons-Kegular of St. Andrews, and converted their old 
Conventual Possessions into an endowment for his newly erected 
Priory. He even transferred the Ecclesiastical Vestments which 
these Chclede possessed, and their little Library, consisting for 
the most part of Eitual and Patristic Books, the titles of which 
are recited in the instrument. [Rcg Prior. S. Andr. } No. 14, 
and Scotlchronicon, vol. /., p. 126.] 

Thus terminated the separate and independent existence of 
one of the earliest Keligious Foundations in Scotland, which 
probably owed its origin to S. Serf, in the dawn of National 
Christianization ; and after a recorded occupation by Keledean 
Hermits from the Ninth Century down, was, 
before the middle of the Eleventh, brought 
into close connexion with the See of St. 
Andrews, through the influence of one of 
the earliest-recorded Bishops of the Scot- 
tish Church, who was probably a Cele-de 
himself, and allowed to exercise a kind of 
Episcopal superintendence over his own 
community of St. Andrews and the neigh- 
bouring Monasteries foreshadowing a 
function which afterwards developed itself 
in Diocesan Jurisdiction, and eventually 
became invested with Metropolitan pre- 
eminence. 

The History of S. Serb, or Serf, called 
Servanus in Ecclesiastical Writings, and 
Sair in vulgar use, the reputed Founder of 
the ancient Monastery on the Inch of Loch- 
leven, is very obscure; and his Life, the 
only Copy of which now known to exist is 
preserved in Dublin, is full of anachronisms and absurdities. 
[Primate Marsh's Library, Cl. V. 3, Tab. 4, No. 16. It occu- 
pies folios 1 to 6 in the quarto Manuscripts which contains 
Jocelin's Life of S. Kentigern. This may have been the 




S. Serf in the Act of 
Benediction. On the 
sinister is an estoile. 
This Seal is appended 
to an Instrument of 
Composition between 
the Abbey of North 
Berwick and the Con- 
vent of S. Serf, about 
the Tithes of the House 
of the Earl of Fife. 
[ Pan mure Cl a rtct ~s . ] 



PEIOEY OF LOCHLEVEN. 95 

authority from which Archbishop Ussher made his Extracts, 
Brit. Eccl. Antiqq. cap. xv. (Works, vol. vi., pp. 214, 215.J The 
Legend in the Breviary of Aberdeen commemorates Saint 
Servanus at July 1, and adds, "Est et alius sanctus Servanus 
nacione Israleticus, qui temporibus beati Adampnani abbatis in 
insula Petmook multis miraculis claruit, prout gesta per euni in 
ejus vita lucidius complectuntur." Propr. SS. Part Estival. fol. 
16 b a. The insula Petmook is St. Serfs Isle in Lochleven, 
which belongs to the Parish of Portmoak.] He is stated therein 
to have been the son of " Obeth films Eliud," a noble King in 
the land of Canaan, and his wife, " Alpia filia regis Arabie," and 
for 20 years to have been a Bishop in his native country, but 
that subsequently he travelled westwards, and reached Scotland, 
where he received Palladius on his arrival, and became his Fellow- 
labourer. Two points, however, in his History seem to be 
authentic, viz., that he Baptised and Educated S. Kentigern 
of Glasgow, and that Culenros, now Culros, on the Forth, was 
his principal Church, where he Died, at an advanced age, about 
the year 540. "Alma, daughter of the King of Cruithne, was 
mother of Serb, son of Proc, King of Canaan of Egypt ; and he 
is the venerable old man who possesses [i.e., is patron of] Cuilenn- 
ros [Culros] in Srath Hirenn in the Comgells, between Sliabh 
nOchel [the Ochill Hills] and the sea of Giudi [the Frith of 
Forth]." Book of Lccan, fol. 43 bb. The Latin Life points to 
the same position in these words : "Habitent [socii tui] terram 
Fif, et a monte Britannorum ad montem qui dicitur Okhel." 

Of S. Serf's connexion with Lochleven, the earliest evidence 
on record is a little Collection .of Charters now incorporated with 
the Register of St. Andrews. The Compiler states that he judged 
it advisable to set out with brevity, but in a collected and lucid 
form, divested of all Preambles and Verbiage, the Contents of an 
old Volume written " antiquo Scotorum idiomate," relating to 
the Church of S. Servanus of the Island of Lochlevine. This 
Collection had come into the possession of the Priory of St. 
Andrews, when the Island and its appendages were made over to 
that House. The original Record, if now existing, would be of 
extreme value, not only for Historical but Philological purposes, 



96 MONASTICON. 

and would somewhat resemble in nature, but greatly transcend 
in importance, the Gaelic Memoranda which are enrolled in the 
Book of Deir. In its absence, however, we possess a very 
valuable Substitute, viz., Registrum Prioratus S. Andree, which 
has been faithfully Printed by the Bannatyne Club, under the 
able Editorship of Cosmo Innes, and made use of in this Work. 
We have already referred to S. Serf in Scotichronicon, vol. i., 
p. 42. Wyntoun, in his Cronylcil, B. v., C. xiii., L. 1121, 
narrates the Miracles which S. Serf wrought at Tillicoultry, and 
also about his Pet Ram, " which he had fed up of a lamb," and 
used to follow him. This Earn (the Legend says) the Laird of 
Tillicoultry coveted, stole, and " ate him up in pieces small." 
He was not "loath to take an oath" that he neither stole nor 
ate the Earn," whereupon the Earn "bleated in his wayme!" 
The Saint predicted that no Heir born to the Estate of Tillicoul- 
try should ever succeed to it as his patrimonial inheritance ; and 
true it is, that the saw, so far as History affords information, 
has been entirely correct. Scarcely has any Estate in the King- 
dom, of the same extent, so frequently changed owners. During 
the last two Centuries, it has been in the possession of thirteen 
different Families, and in no case has an Heir born to it become 
the Owner. Lord Colville of Culross, raised to the Peerage by 
James VI., after a life of military eminence, withdrew to his 
Estate of Tillicoultry, in retirement and tranquillity, to spend his 
remaining years. Walking one day on a beautiful terrace at the 
north end of Kirkhill, and looking upward towards the boughs of 
an aged hawthorn, he accidentally missed his footing, and, 
falling down the sloping bank of the terrace, was killed on the 
spot. Fourteen years after his Death, which happened in 1620, 
the Estate was sold to Sir William Alexander of Menstry, after- 
wards Earl of Stirling ; four years after whose Death it was sold, 
in 1644, to Sir Alexander Eollo of Duncrub. In 1659, it was 
purchased by Mr. Nicolson of Carnock; in 1701, by Sir Eobert 
Stewart, Lord Tillicoultry, one of the Senators of the College of 
Justice; and, in 1756, by the Honourable Charles Barclay 
Maitland, of the Family of Lauderdale. In 1780, it was acquired 
by James Bruce, Esq., under an Entail transferred to it by Act 



PKIOKY OF LOCHLEVEN. 97 

of Parliament from the Estate of Kinross, previously held by his 
Family under the Entail ; but, remarkably enough, the validity 
of the Entail being afterwards questioned, it was found, by the 
absence of a single expression, to be null and void, and the 
Estate, in 1806, was sold to Duncan Glassford, Esq., who again 
disposed of it, in 1810, to James Erskine, Esq. By Mr. 
Erskine, it was sold, in 1813, to Mr. E. Downie, who sold it in 
the following year to Mr. Wardlaw Kamsay. In 1837, the 
Estate was purchased by Patrick Stirling, Esq., who was killed 
by an accident. His brother, who was not born Heir to the 
Estate, succeeded him ; but, in 1840, sold it to James Anstruther, 
Esq., who again sold it to his brother, Philip Anstruther, Esq., 
the present proprietor. 

Mr. Paton of Dunfermline has, in his interesting Museum,^ 
the ivory head of a Staff, which is said to have been S. Serf's. 
It has many emblematic figures in Scrolls ; and S. Peter, holding 
a fish in his hand, is distinctly discernible on the top. [Roger's 
Week at the Bridge of Allan, p. 116.] 

S. Serf's Chapel in Lochleven is but little known very few 
probably being aware of its existence. It is less than two miles 
distant from Lochleven Castle, which is so frequently visited by 
Tourists. At present the Island is used as pasture land for 
cattle and sheep ; and the old Chapel, having a small addition 
made, about 28 years ago, on its north side, is now (1861) used 
as a stable or shelter for cattle. The Island is fully half a mile 
in length from east to west, and extends to about 80 acres. 
Towards the east end, where the Chapel stands, the ground 
gradually rises to probably about 40 feet above the level of Loch- 
leven. To the east, and also to the westward of the Chapel, are 
to be seen the half-hid Foundations of other Buildings of some 
extent. The Chapel stands due east and west, is 30 feet in 
length by 20 in breadth ; and the Walls 30 inches in thickness, 
and 12 feet in height ; the door having two steps entering from 
the south side, and being about 8 feet high. Less than 30 years 
ago, there was what appeared to have been a Stone Font, not 
quite entire now (1861) nearly effaced on the south Wall, 
inside, at the right side of the door, and about 4J feet from the 

VOL. I. N 



98 MONASTICON. 

ground ; and directly in front of this south Wall of the Chapel, 
and also to the eastward, human bones have been found in great 
quantity, some of them at a depth of about 6 feet. A skull 
found here, apparently of great age, was presented to the Anti- 
quarian Museum, Edinburgh. Several pieces of Painted Glass 
were also found. 

About 30 years ago, when this Chapel was first used for the 
sheltering of cattle, a chimney-stalk, with a small fire-place and 
a cottage roof (now decayed), were added, which certainly have 




CHAPEL, s. SERF'S ISLAND, LOCHLEVEN. 

not improved the appearance of this venerable relic of antiquity. 
The accompanying Cut has been denuded of these Codicils. 
When digging on the east side of the Chapel, a belt of hewn 
stone, laid regularly in a square form from corner to corner, was 
discovered. It was thought there might be a Vault underneath, 
but there was nothing but rubbish found as deep as the digging 
went. A small Hand Millstone, with a hole in it, was at same 
time found here. At the Village of Kinnesswood (the Birthplace 
of the amiable Poet, Michael Bruce, who Died at the age of 21), 
distant about two miles from S. Serf's Island, was a very old 
Manufactory for Parchment. It required seven years' appren- 
ticeship to make this sort of Parchment. When the Monastery 
of Portmoak was destroyed, probably the occupation of the 
Monks, as Manufacturers of Vellum and Parchment, in this 



PRIOBY OF POKTMOAK. 99 

locality, was kept up by some of their " journeymen," to " turn 
the penny." [Paper read by Dr. Annan, Kinross, before the 
Society of Antiquaries.} 

VALUATION OF THE PRIORY OF LOCHLEVEN. 

Money, 111 (Old Money), 36 Currency. Bear, 28 Bolls ; Meal, 72 
Bolls. [MaitlamVs Antiquities.] 



VI. PORTMOAK, A.D. 838, 

So called from S. Moack, situate in S. Servanus' Isle, in the 
Shire of Kinross, on the north side of Lochleven, was Founded by 
Eogasch, King of the Picts, in 838 [Brockie's MS.], and was for- 
merly inhabited by the Culdees. It was Consecrated to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. The Register of the Priory of St. Andrews contains 
two Charters, wherein Ernald and Roger, Bishops of that See, 
give the Church of Portmoak to the Priory. After the Monastery 
of S. Moack was incorporated with the Priory of St. Andrews, 
David Benham, Archbishop, Consecrated a new Church at Port- 
moak to SS. Stephen and Moack, Martyrs, on x Kal. Aug., 
MCCXLIII. [Reg. Prior. S. Andr.] It was united to S. Leonard's 
College by John Winram, Sub-Prior of St. Andrews, the 5th 
Oct., 1570. Spottiswoode says, "Nothing of this Monastery 
remains save the Parish Church." That does not remain now. 

The present Parish Church was built in 1840. Andrew 
Wyntoun, the Chronicler, and John Douglas, the first " Tulchan," 
"Protestant" Archbishop of St. Andrews, were natives of Port- 
moak. Ebenezer Erskine, one of the Founders of the " Secession 
Church" (now, in the changes of life, called the " U.P. Church," 
i.e., " United Presbyterian," a mixture of the " A-uld Lichts" and 
" Relievers "), was Minister here for many years before he " came 
out." The Village of Scotland-well is in this Parish. 

VALUATION OF THE PRIORY OF PORTMOAK. 

Money, 111 13s 4,1. Bear, 1 Chalder, 12 Bolls; Oats, 4 Chalders, 8 
Bolls, 



100 MONASTICON. 

VII. MONYMUSK, A.D. 1080, 

In the Shire of Aberdeen. It was formerly possessed by the 
Culdees. Gilchrist, Earl of Mar, in the Eeign of King William 
the Lion, built here a Priory for the Canon-Regulars of St. 
Andrews. After which the Culdees were turned out of their 
Possessions, which were bestowed upon the Canons of this place 
by the Bishops of St. Andrews. The place was Dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, and was annexed to the Bishopric of Dunblane by 
King James VI., in the year 1617. [Spottiswoode.] 

The Founder of the Church of Monymusk, in Aberdeenshire, 
is said to have been Malcolm III. (Canmore), who, about A.D. 
1080, when proceeding on a military expedition against the 
" Kebels of Murray," happened to come to Monymusk, and there 
learnt that all the north parts of Scotland and the Isles were 
confederate with those of Murray against him, Koss and 
Caithness, with sundry other people thereabout. These not only 
slew his servants and ministers of justice, but, by the assistance 
of MacDuncan, made more hardships and slaughter than were 
heard any time before. MacDuif was sent, with an Army from 
Mar, to punish their cruelties ; but the inhabitants stopped his 
invasion by their money. King Malcolm demanded of his 
Treasurer if any Lands in those "bounds" pertained to the 
Crown, who advertised him that the Barony of Monymusk 
pertained thereto. [Bellenden's Croniklis of Scot., b. xii., ch. xi. 9 
vol. ii., p. 283.] He vowed that if he returned in safety, he 
would make such an offering to God and S. Andrew. 

He overran the District, subdued the enemies of his Crown ; 
and these Lands were, by Charter, conferred about A.D. 1080 
upon the Culdee Church at Monymusk, by King Malcolm, now 
comprising the Parishes of Keig and Monymusk, and a part of 
the Parishes of Oyne, Chapel of Garioch, and Cluny. [Marchie 
terrarum Episcopalium de Kege et Monymusk concessarum 
ecclesie Sancti Andree per Malcolmum Kegem Scotorum pront in 
carta desuper confecta latius continetur. Extractum ex Kegistro 
Sancti Andree per Magistrum Walterum Bannantyn. From a 
Paper in the Charter Chest at Monymusk, in the handwriting of 




PKIOKY OF MONYMUSK. 101 

the Sixteenth Century, collated with an older but less perfect 
Copy, in the Charter Chest at Whitehaugh Etsunt istse Marchie 
quas reliquit Malcolmus Kex propter victoriam ei concessam Deo 
et ecclesie Beate Marie de Monymusk, clans benedictionem Dei et 
Sancte Marie omnibus juro ipsius ecclesie seruantibus. Collec- 
tions for a History of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, 1843. 
Edited by Joseph Kobertson, Esq., for the Spalding Club.] The 
extent of these Lands is considerable, and they are mostly com- 
posed of cultivated ground, unless the half of the Hill of 
Bennochie, which is incapable of cultivation, but is now, for the 
most part, planted with trees, and will form a large forest. The 
united properties represent a quadrilateral figure, the northern 
boundary being about 14 miles in length, bending a little towards 
the south near the east end, the southern line being almost a 





Seal. Blessed Virgin and Child Counter Seal. Cruciform Build- 

seated within a line Niche. ing, with Central Tower, indi- 

cating the Monastery. [Mony- 
musk Charters, A.D. 1550.] 

parallel to it, and about 10 miles in length. The east line 
extends about 11 miles, but is more irregular in its course, and 
bends due eastward to a point, where it meets the Eiver Don, 
near Kemnay Manse. The west line, forming a right angle with 
the northern boundary, measures about twelve miles, and 
describes a tongue with the south line on Corennie Hill, at the 
south-west corner of the quadrangle, the contents of the whole 
figure being about 138 square miles, and the circumference 
upwards of 47 miles. It is intersected by the Eiver Don, which 



102 MONASTICON. 

divides it nearly into two equal parts, entering considerably north 
of the middle of the west boundary, and issuing at the south-east 
comer of this quadrilateral figure. 

The Priory consisted of one Oratory, one Dining-Room, and 
one Dortour or Dormitory, but no Cemetery for Burial. It was 
also endowed still further by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, who 
lived between A.D. 1138 and 1153; by Roger, Earl of Buchan, 
before 1179 [Carta Rogeri Comitis du Bouchan de grano et 
caseo de Foedarg, etc. (forte-ante A.D. 1179). Keledeis de 
Munimusc. Boetius in Malcolmum tertium (f. 2586) ; Buchan. 
rerum Scot. Hist., lib. 27, c. 20. Arclibislwp Spottiswoode's 
"History of the Church of Scotland." Lond., 1672, fol.] ; by 
Gilcrist, Earl of Mar, who bestowed upon it the Churches of 
Loychel, Ruthauen, and Inuernochin or Strathdon, between 1199 
and 1207. [Carta Johannis Aberdonensis Ecclesie ministri 
Canonicis de Munimusc de ecclesiis de Loychel. Ruthauen et 
Inuernochin Liber cartarum. Prior atus S. Andree, pp. 374, 375, 
inter A.D. 1199, et A.D. 1207.] These Possessions bestowed by 
Gilcrist, Earl of Mar, and the Churches of Saint Andrew de 
Afford, Saint Diaconianus de Kege, Saint Marnoc de Loychel, 
and Saint Mary de Nemoth, and all the Lands, Tithes, and 
Pertinents belonging to them, were Confirmed by Pope Innocent, 
between -1198 and 1216. [Litera Domine Pape Innocencii. 
Ibid, pp. 375, 376, inter A.D. 1198 et A.D. 1216. Confirmatio 
Innocencii Pape Priori et Conuentui di Munimusc, &c., A.D. 
1245.] By another Deed of Pope Innocent, the Churches of 
Saint Andrew de Afford, Saint Marnoc de Loychel, Saint 
Diaconianus de Kege, and Saint Andrew de Kindrocht, were 
Confirmed A.D. 1245 to the Priory and Convent of Monymusk. 
[Confirmatio Innocencii Pape Priori et Conuentui de Munimusc 
de ecclesiis Sancti Andree de Afford Sancti Marnoci de Loychel 
Sancti Diaconiani de Kege et Sancti Andree de Kindrocht, A.D. 
1245.] 

This Priory consisted at first of Culdees; but, in A.D. 1211, 
a Complaint was laid before Pope Innocent by William Malvoisin, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, in which he stated that certain Keledei 
who professed to be Canons, and certain others of the Diocese of 



PRIORY OF MONYMUSK. 108 

Aberdeen, in the Town of Monymusk, which pertained to him, 
were endeavouring to establish a system of Regular Canons, con- 
trary to right and his desire. Whereupon, a Commission was 
issued to the Abbots of Melrose and Dryburg, and the Archdeacon 
of Glasgow, empowering them to examine into the case, and 
adjudicate thereon. The Dispute seems to have arisen between 
Bricius or Brice, Prior of the Culdees, and Bishop Malvoisin. 
Accordingly, they held their Convention, and their decision was 
that the twelve Culdees, with their Prior, of which the Priory 
seems to have now consisted, were taken bound to present a leet 
of three to the Bishop of St. Andrews, out of which he was to 
make choice of one, whom he nominated Prior or Master of the 
Culdees, with power to exercise his authority over them, but not 
to alter the Order of Monks or Canons without his consent. 
[Confinnatio Conuensionis inter W. Episcopum Sancti Andree 
et Keledeis de Munimusc. Ibid, and Spalding Club ; Collections 
on the Shire of Aberdeen, pp. 174, 175.] They were to have no 
Churchyard the bodies of such as belonged to it were to be 
Buried in the Churchyard of the Parish Church of Monymusk ; 
and when the Bishop visited Monymusk, they were required to 
meet him in solemn Procession. [Confirmatio Conuensionis 
inter W. Episc. St. Andree et Keledeos de Munimusc, A.D. 
1211.] 

This change seems to have originated in the Culdees them- 
selves, from a sense of their defects. After having submitted to 
the new Regimen, they were not permitted to hold Lands without 
the consent of the Bishop of St. Andrews, or even to acquire 
possession of property to which he had not first given his assent. 
And as the Lands which were the gift of Gilcrist, the Earl of 
Mar, to the Culdees of Monymusk, Dolbethok, and Fornathy, 
had never been given with his permission, they were obliged to 
resign them into the hand of the Bishop. [Confirmatio Conu- 
ensionis inter W. Episcopum Sancti Andree et Keledeos de 
Munimusc, A.D. 1211.] 

The Disputes between the Culdees and Canons-Regular were 
carried on with great acrimony. The Church extended, through 
Innocent III., protection to the Culdees of Monymusk, after they 



104 MONASTICON. 

had become Canons, and Confirmed their Eights and Privileges ; 
and for this the Pope received two Shillings Stg. annually from 
the Priory of Monymusk, now a recognised Cell of St. Andrews. 
[Ad indicium autem hujus protectionis ab apostolica sede percepte 
duos solidos sterlingorum nobis nostrisque successoribus annis 
singulis persoluetis. Datum Yiterbii xii., Kalendas Julii, etc. 
Litera Domini Pape Innocencii inter A.D. 1198 et A.D. 1216. 
Confirmatio Conuensionis inter W. Epis. A.D. 1211.] 

David, Bishop of St. Andrews, before 1253, restored to the 
Prior and Canons of Monymusk, one of the properties which had 
originally been the gift of the Earl of Mar, Dolbethok, with all 
its Pertinents and Privileges, for the support of the poor, and the 
travellers who might wander in that direction a most judicious 
gift, had it not been their own property. [Carta David Episcopi 
Sancti Andree de Dolbethoc inter A.D. 1233 et A.D. 1253. Vid. 
Liber. Cartarum Prioratus S. Andree, p. 369. Spaldiny Clul 
Collections, p. 177.] 

Along with Dolbethok de Loychel, the Lands of Eglismeneyt- 
tok were Confirmed to their possessors by Pope Innocent ; and if 
any one should dare to infringe this Act, or dispossess them, he 
should feel the indignation of the Omnipotent God, and of the 
Apostles Peter and Paul. [Confirmatio ejusdem Innocencii 
Pape de terris de Dolbethoc de Loychel et de Eglismeneyttok, 
A.D. 1245.] 

William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, in A.D. 1300, 
changed the Culdees and Monks of Monymusk into Augustinian 
Canons-Regular, such as were those of the Priory of St. 
Andrews. They now wore their distinguishing Dress. The 
Bishop of St. Andrews, who had now acquired possession of the 
Lands of Keig and Monymusk, and other Culdean properties, 
had them constituted into a Barony or Eegality. He sat as 
Lord Keig and Monymusk in the Scottish Parliament. [Charter 
by Cardinal David Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, to 
George, Earl of Huntly, Cartulary at Gordon Castle, 1543. See 
" Scottish Heroes in the Days of Wallace and Bruce," by Rev. 
Alexander Low, Minister of Keig, vol. ii., Appendix, p. 391.] 



PEIOEY OF MONYMUSK. 105 



PRIORS OF MONYMUSK. 

1. BRICIUS, or BRICE, A.D. 1211, is noticed above as first Prior of the 
Culdees, here recorded in Charter. It appears that in 1496-7, Lord Forbes, 
who afterwards obtained possession of the Lands in Keig, which were 
originally Culdee Lands, and belonged to the Bishop of St. Andrews, had in 
some way to account for the Teinds at this period. A Letter was directed in 
the King's name to the Lord Forbes, Duncan Forbes, and his wife, to have 
no intromissions with the Teinds of Monymusk, pertaining to Master Gavin 
of Douglas, and to charge the Parishioners to pay their Tithes to him and 
his Factors, according to the Prior's Letters, and to summon the said 
persons for the 12th of October. [Lettre for Master Gawane of Douglas, 
" Eegistrum De deliberation Dominorum Consilii."] 

2. STRACHAN was Prior in the Eeign of James IV., whose Priory Church 
was Dedicated to Saint John. He had a "natural daughter," who was 
Married to William Forbes, in Abersnithock, in Monymusk, grandson to Sir 
John Forbes, first Laird of Tolquhon. [Lumsden's Genealogy of Forbes, p. 
35, edit. 1819.] 

3. Dompmts JOHN HAY was a Canon-Eegular at Monymusk in 1524, and 
Master Thomas Sherer was Vicar in that Convent. He delivered with his 
own hand to Thomas Eounald, in Crag, for preservation, a sum of Money, 
and a Silver Girdle, with suitable Armour of the same, a Collar, a Silver 
Cross adorned with Jewels, two small Sleeves, and a Casket or small Chest. 
He was exonerated by a Deed for so doing. [Thomas Eounaldi fatetur se 
recepisse pecuniam et bona prius data. Magistro Thoma Scherer vicario de 
Monymvsk, A.D. 1524. Antiquities of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff. 
Spaldimj Club.] 

4. Dompnns JOHN AKYNHEID. 

5. Dompnus DAVID FARLIE was Prior in 1522. He had been appointed 
Successor to Dompmts John Akynheid, in virtue of an Apostolic injunction, 
for whom was reserved, if not the rights, at least the fruits of the Benefice. 
[Instruments taken upon the Induction of Dene David Farlie into the Priory 
of Monymvsk, the fruits being reserved to Dene John Akyiiheid, the late 
Prior, A.D. 1522.] 

6. THOMAS DAVIDSONS, of Auchinhamperis, the Procurator of the 
venerable Eeligious Father, Dompnus John Akynheid, who enjoyed the 
fruits of the Monastery of Monymusk, which were taxed to the amount of 
twelve pounds [Instrument upon the refusal of the King's Pursuivant to 
receive eight pounds in part payment of the sum of twelve pounds taxed by 
the Lords of Council upon John, Usufructuary of Monymvsk, A.D. 1527] 
had access to the presence of Lord Forbes, who promised that he would 
take possession with his own hand, and defend the Priory and Monastery of 
Monymusk, and the "usufruct" of the same, in all his own causes and 
actions, upon which Thomas took instruments. [In the General Eegister 
House, Edinburgh. Spalding Club : Antiquities of the Counties of Aberdeen 

VOL. i. o 



106 MONASTICON. 

and Banff, vol. iii., p. 486.] For this protection, extended to the Monastery, 
Lord Forbes received from the Prior some privileges and remuneration. 
10th December, 1524. 

7. Dene ALEXANDER SPENS. 

8. Dene EICHAET STRAQUHYNE. 

9. Dene DAVID FAKLIE. A new Seal, which had been made for Dene 
David Farlie, the Prior, was this year (1525) cancelled, and rendered of no 
value in Confirming Deeds, by an instrument which was drawn up in the 
Cemetery of the Priory. [Instrumentum super cassatione noui sigilli 
Monasterii de Monimvsk, A.D. 1525. In General Kegister House, Edin- 
burgh. Spalding Club : Antiquities of the Counties of Aberdeen and Banff, 
vol. iii., p. 487.] 

The Priors were accustomed to give Charters and Tacks upon the 
Lands of the Monastery, and to revoke them. A Deed of this Description, 
which had been given by Dene Alexander Spens, and Dene Eichart Stra- 
quhyne, some time Priors of Monymusk, and Deeds of all other Priors, both 
before and since, and Canons made to Duncane Dauidsone or Thomsone, and 
to Thomas Dauidson, his son, on the Lands of Easter Loquhel and Wester 
Foulis, with the Mill and their Pertinents, were revoked, annulled, and ren- 
dered of none effect. This was done by Dompnus or Dene David Farlie, Prior 
of the Monastery and Abbacy of Monymusk, of the Order of S. Augustine, 
within the Diocese of Aberdeen, with consent and assent of a Keverend 
Father, Dene John Akynheid, and Usufructuare of the same, and also with 
consent of said Monastery. [Cassatioun of the charteris and taldds maid til 
Duncane Dauidsone and Thome Dauidsone, his sone, A.D. 1534.] 

A.D. 1533. The Monastery of Monymusk seems at this time to have 
been in a state of insubordination, and the Prior Farlie, who was a man of 
decision, and strict in the observance of his principles, together with the 
consent of the Monastery, brought a certain process before the Apostolic See 
of Eome, by which the Canonical Obedience due to the Prior was more 
distinctly defined by Pope Adrian VI. The Canons who were called in Court 
were Dene William Wilsone, Andrew Masoune, Patrick Andersoune, James 
Child, and Dene Alane Gait, who promised in all humility the Obedience 
which was due to their Superior. [Instrumentum super obedientia Canoni- 
corum de Monimvsk suo Priori requi sita, A.D. 1533. In Gen. Eegist., 
Edinburgh ; Spaldiny Club : Antiquities of the Counties of Aberdeen and 
Banff, vol. iii., p. 4881 . 

A.D. 1535. This Monastery, which had been amply endowed, was by 
no means deficient in Moral Discipline, and the recent Bull obtained at 
Eome strengthened greatly the hands of the Prior in the discharge of his 
duties as Head of the Convent. Dene Allane Gait, a Canon of the 
Monastery, had published or done something of an offensive nature against 
Dene David Farlie, the Prior. He was called upon to do Penance, which he 
was unwilling to perform. For which reason the Prior charged him by 
Writ, and commanded him under the Form of Precept, in the virtue of the Holy 



PRICEY OF MONYMUSK. 107 

Spirit, to obey. He charged Dene William Wilsone, Superior of the Abbey, to 
pass to Dene Allane Gait, Canon of the same, and command him to keep his 
Chamber in the Dormitour, and pass not forth from it but of necessity ; and 
that he shall be in continual silence with all men, except him that ministers 
to his wants, and that he shall be fed on bread and water and ale. On 
Wednesdays and Fridays he was restricted to his Discipline, and no Bonnet 
was to be seen on his head during Penance, except his Night Bonnet, until, 
through his Penance, Patience, and Humility, he had made recompense to 
God and Religion, and shall be deemed worthy, in our judgment, to be 
released from Penance. " This we command you to do, in virtue of 
Spiritual Obedience, as ye will answer to God, and return this precept, 
given and written with our hand at Monymusk, and duly executed and 
indorsed." [Instruments super Dompno Allano Gait, canonico de Moni- 
mvsk. In Gen. Register, Edinburgh. Appeal to the Apostolic See by Dene 
Alan Gait, Canon of Monymusk, from the Sentence of Dene David Farlie, 
the Prior, &c., A.D. 1535.] 

A.D. 1542. John Forbes, commonly called " Bousteous Johnnie" 
[Lumsden's Genealogy of Forbes, p. 85] at the instance of David, the same 
Prior, was charged before the Sheriff of Aberdeen with occupying and 
labouring four oxengang of the Priory, and Convent Lands of Eglismena- 
thok, and the Court discerned against Forbes. [Antiquities of the Shires of 
Aberdeen and Banff, vol. m.] 

7th April, 1542. The Lordship of Keig and Monymusk, which was 
distinct from the Priory Lands, was bestowed by Charter in Feu on George, 
Earl of Huntly, by David Beaton, Cardinal Archbishop of St. Andrews, and 
Pope's Legate. It consisted of the Baronies of Keig and Monymusk, within 
the Regality of St. Andrews, and County of Aberdeen, and was to be held 
by him and his Heirs in perpetual Feu-Farm, for a payment of a Feu-Rent, 
amounting, with the augmentation of the Rental, to the sum of 800 Scots 
Money. [Charter Dated at St. Andrews, and Subscribed by the Archbishop 
David, Card. lig. St. Andrce, 7 Aprilis, 1542. N.B. This is a most 
accurate and ample deed. Gordon Castle, Cartul, 11.3. 1. See " Scottish 
Heroes in the days of Wallace and Bruce," by Rev. Alexander Low, A.M., 
Minister of Keig, Cor. Mem. of S.A. Scot.] 

The Earl of Huntly and his Heirs were at the same time constituted 
Heritable Bailies of this Lordship of the Church, and were bound to do their 
best endeavour to keep the Marches of Keig and Monymusk. 

10. JOHN ELPHINSTONE, Canon of Aberdeen, and Parson of Invernochty, 
was presented to the Priory of Monymusk in 1542-3, by the Earl of Arran. 
[Epistolcc ReyuHi Scotia, vol. ii.] He was the son of Alexander, Lord 
Elphinstone, and Catherine, daughter to John, Lord Ersldn. 

11. JOHN HAY was sent as Envoy by Queen Mary to Queen Elizabeth, 
in 1545. 

12. ROBERT (fourth son of William, Lord Forbes, by Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir William Keith, of Inverugy), became Prior in 1556. He became a 



108 MONASTICON. 

" Protestant," and Married Agnes, daughter of William Forbes, of Corse, 
and had several children, three of whom were officers in the army. [Lums- 
den's Manuscript Genealogy of Forbes, p. 34. Edition 1819.] 

The Priory of Monymusk, like all other Eoman Catholic 
Institutions, was broken up, and the Lands seized, at the 
" Reformation." Those of Monymusk Parish probably fell into 
the hands of Duncan, son of William Forbes, of Corsinda, who 
had been Infefted by the Canons in certain Lands on the Manor 
or Mains of Monymusk, in Feu-Farm or Heritage. [Carta 
magistri Duncani Forbes de Monymusk de manerie de Monymusk 
per Dauidem Priorem cum consensu sui coadjutoris, A.D. 1549. 
Conformacioun of the Channonis of Monimusc, A.D. 1500, in the 
Charter Chest of Monymusk.] Being in possession of the Mains 
of Monymusk in Feu-Farm, he had less difficulty in obtaining 
possession of that part of Monymusk Parish which belonged to 
the Abbey, when these Church Prizes were agoing ; and it seems 
he built the Manor-House of Monymusk out of the stones of the 
Monastery, and was the Founder of the Family of Forbes of 
Monymusk, Baronet. It appears that this Priory was annexed 
by King James VI., in 1617, to the Bishopric of Dunblane, when 
that Bishop was appointed perpetual Dean of the Chapel Eoyal. 

Of these Church Lands, the proportion appropriated to the 
maintenance of this Priory seems to have been very small, viz., 
the Lands of Abersnithok, Eamestone, Arneedly, and Balvack, 
in the Parish of Monymusk, together with a croft sowing four 
bolls of bear, and pasture land for six horses, and fifteen wethers. 
These lands of the Monastery belonging to Monymusk were those 
which probably fell into the possession of Duncan, son of William 
Forbes, of Corsinda, when the Abbey was abolished at the 
Keformation. A Gymnasium (school) was erected out of the 
Buildings of the Priory. The Buildings of the Monastery, when 
deserted, became ruinous ; and Robert, the Commendator, and, 
by "Divine permission," Prior, considering that the Buildings 
were utterly decayed, and that all the Canons were dead, and 
that a Gymnasium for the young had been erected, bestowed, by 
Charter, on William Forbes, of Monymusk, the son of Duncan 
Forbes, the Feuar of the Manor Lands, all the ruinous Houses 



PEIOEY OF ISLE OF MAY. 109 

of the Monastery, and a Croft of Land sowing four bolls of 
bear, situated to the north-east of the Monastery. [Chart our 
of the ruinouse hous of Monymusk be Kobert Commendatour. 
" Eobertus, Prior Prioratus de Monymusk," sine dato. In the 
Charter Chest at Monymusk.] These Lands were feued for 
twenty-six shillings and eightpence ; the pasture for 6 horses and 
15 sheep for ten shillings Scots annually; the price of the 
Buildings and Gardens amounted to thirty shillings Scots. 
[Chartour of the ruinouse hous of Monymusk be Kobert Com- 
mendatour, sine dato.] The Priory had three Gardens, pro- 
bably an Orchard, Parterre, and Kitchen Garden. 

That part of the Lordship of Keig and Monymusk which is 
situated in the Parish of Keig, afterwards came into the hands of 
Lord Forbes ; and the greater part of it is at this day possessed 
by this Family. Thus these Lands were alienated from the Church 
462 years after they had been bestowed upon the Culdees by King 
Malcolm III., and the Priory suppressed at the Keformation. 

About 20 yards north-east of the (Parish) Church, is to be 
discerned only the place of the Priory, the very Foundation of 
which was entirely dug up about the year 1726, notwithstanding 
the remonstrances of the Keverend Mr. John Burnet, the last 
Episcopal Pastor of this Parish, to the contrary. It has been a 
large Building, and situated in a fruitful soil. It was Dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin. Jam seges ubi Trojafuit. [Description of 
the Parish of Monymusk, in Ruddimaris Edinburgh Magazine for 
1760, p. 367.] (See an excellent Paper on Keig and Mony- 
musk, by Eev. Alex. Low, read before the Society of Antiquaries, 
Edinburgh.) 

VALUATION OF THE PEIOEY OF MONYMUSK 400. 

VIII. ISLE OF MAY, A.D. 870, 

In the Shire of Fife, at the mouth of the Frith of Forth, 
belonged of old to the Monks of Eeading, in Yorkshire ; for whom 
King David I. founded here a Cell or Monastery, and Dedicated 
the place to All the Saints. Afterwards, it was Consecrated to 
the memory of S. Hadrian. It is called by several " The Priory 



110 MONASTICON. 

of S. Ethernau," or S. Colnian. William Lamberton [not 
Lamberton (as Spottiswoode says), nor Frazer (as Martine says), 
but WISHART], Bishop of St. Andrews, purchased it from the 
Abbot of Heading ; and, notwithstanding the complaints made 
thereupon by Edward (Langshanks), King of England, bestowed 
it upon the Canon-Regulars of his Cathedral, which Story is to 
be seen in Prynnc, vol. ///., p. 554. It was of old much 
frequented by barren women, who went thither in pilgrimage, 
and "were always cured by a Recipe possessed by the lusty 
Friars.'" Some of the wives thought that the Air did it. 

This Island, in the mouth of the Frith of Forth, is about a 
mile long, three-quarters of a mile broad, and about three 
miles in circumference. The west or Edinburgh side shows 
bold basaltic cliffs, 150 feet high, and is whitened with the 
deposits of the sea-gulls and kittywaiks, which constantly flock 
and hover at this part. It slopes towards the east or Crail side, 
the usual landing-place. On driving along the highway from 
Anstruther to Crail, The May presents variable shapes and aspects. 
Geologists have speculated that some volcanic rupture severed it 
and the Bass Eock. It is a fine sight to see some 400 fishing- 
boats on their way to the Island, while th sun, on an afternoon 
in June or July, irradiates the whole of the Berwick side of the 
Frith. 

The earliest notice we have of this Priory is in Wyntouris 
Chronicle, B. vi., C. viii. : 

This Constantyne than regnand 65 

Oure ye Scottis in Scotland, 
Saynt Adriane wyth hys Cumpany 
Come of ye Land of Hyrkany, [Orkney] 

And arrywd in-to Fyfe, 

Quhar that thai chesyd to led thar lyf. 70 

At ye Kyng than askyd thai 

Leve to preche ye Crystyn Fay ; [Christian Faith] 
Dai he grantyd wyth gud will, 
And thaire Lyscyng to fullfille, 

And Leif to duell in-to his Land, 75 

Quhare thai couth dies it mayst plesand. 
Dan Adriane wyth hys Cumpany 
To-gydder come to Caplawchy. [Caiplie] 

Dare sum in-to ye He of May 
Chesyd to byde to thare Euday ; [Day of ending] 80 



PKIOBY OF ISLE OF MAY. Ill 

And sum of tliame cliesyd be-northe, 

In steddis sere ye Waiter of Forth. 

At Invery, Saynct Monane, 

Dat of that Cumpany wes ane, 

Chesyd hym sa nere ye Se 85 

Til lede hys lyf : thare endyt he. 

Hiob, Haldane, and Hyngare, 
Off Denmark, this tyme cumyn ware, 
In Scotland wyth gret multitude, 

And wyth thare Powere it oure-yhude. [went over] 90 
In Hethynnes, all lyvyd thai ; 
And in dispyte of Chrystyn Fay, 
In-to ye Land thai slwe mony, 
And put to Dede by Martyr. 

And a-pon haly Thurysday, 95 

Saynt Adriane thai slwe in May, 
Wyth mony of hys Cumpany : 
In-to that haly He thai ly. 

The Gaelic name Magh, or Mai, signifies " level," which The May 
is not, so it is most probably derived from a Gothic word meaning 





ISLE OF MAY, FROM THE FIFE SIDE. 



"rich in pasture," May mutton being famous, and May daisies 
greatly in vogue with excursionists for Garden borders. Boethius, 
lib. x., says : There were at that time [A.D. 870, in the Keign of 
Constantine II., son of Kenneth I.], in those parts of Fife, a 
number of Eeligious men who went about Preaching the Christian 
Faith. Many of them were Killed by the Danes, though a few 



112 "MONASTICON. 

escaped, by lurking among the caverns. But the greater part, 
with Adrian, who was then the Chief Bishop of the Scots 
(Scotorum Maximus Episcopus), that they might avoid this 
Persecution, fled for refuge to the Isle of May, where there was a 
famous Monastery ; but neither the sanctity of the place, nor the 
innocence of the men, could restrain the fury of the Danes, who 
Burnt the Monastery, and cruelly Slaughtered its holy Inmates. 
This is that noble Band of Martyrs, which many persons in our 
times, both in England and Scotland, so highly venerate : so 
that the Isle of May has thereby been rendered illustrious, both 
by the number of Pilgrims who resort thither, and by the 
Miracles which the goodness of God has superadded. There 
have come down to us only these few names of this great body of 
Christians : Adrianus, the venerable Bishop ; Gladianus, or, as 
some call him, Gaius ; Monamus [S. Monan], Archdeacon of St. 
Andrews ; and Stolbrandus, a Bishop. The rest of their names, 
I know not why, have not been preserved. The Breviary of 
Aberdeen says that the above Slaughter took place A.D. 874, and 
that 6000 persons were put to death. Thousands must have 
been, by mistake, put for Hundreds. The latter seems excessive 
and incredible, time and place considered. Even suppose tivo 
nothings were lopped off, the remaining 60 are 10 more than 
King Herod Killed of the Holy Innocents in Bethlehem. Pro- 
bably, S. Adrian and his Religious would defend themselves, and 
slay some of the Danes, whom the Aberdeen Breviary does not 
include ; but we cannot fancy 6000 Religious persons living and 
dying on The May at that time of Day. How, unless by Miracle, 
could they have been housed, fed, and clad ? " The He of May 
decorit with the blude and martirdome of Sanct Adriane and his 
fallowis." [Bellenden.] About 200 years after this, David I. 
re-established a Religious House here, and Gifted it to the Abbey 
of Reading, then recently Founded by his brother-in-law, Henry 
I. It continued in the possession of this English Abbey for 
more than 100 years, when King Alexander III., dreading that 
its situation might enable the English to spy out the defenceless 
parts of the Kingdom, took steps for its re-purchase, which was 
effected by William Wishart, Bishop of St. Andrews, and 



PKIOKY OF ISLE OF MAY. 113 

annexed to the Priory of Pittenweem. During the Century 
which succeeded its Foundation, the House of May was en- 
riched by many Gifts from the Kings of Scotland and the Earls 
of Dunbar, besides other Landowners on both sides of the 
Frith of Forth. From the Earls of Dunbar, the Monks got the 
use of a ship for conveying their necessaries from the Coast. 

Gospatrick, the Earl of Dunbar [from 1147 to 1166], 
Granted to the Monks of May, for their accommodation in com- 
merce, a full toft, near his port of Bele, free of all custom. 
[Chart., May 26.] This toft appears to have been assigned them 
at Dunbar, where they built a House. About 1168, William the 
Lion Confirmed to the Monks of May, " unam mansuram, cum 
tofto, in Dunbar, et applicationem unius navis ad necessaria 
domus sui transportanda, sicut comes Gospatricius eis dedit, et 
rex Malcolmus frater meus eis carta sua confirmavit." They had 
extensive rights of pasturage in the Lammermoors, which in- 
cluded a Stud of Brood Mares ; and, on the opposite Fife Coast, 
they had Grants of Lands and Privileges, including Pittenweem 
and Inverey. 

At the time when Camerarius, or Cameron, wrote, there was 
standing on this Island an extensive Monastery of hewn stone, 
and a Church, to which the Faithful repaired ; and several names 
on the Island preserve the memory of its former inhabitants, 
such as Altarstanes, Pilgrimshaven, Kirchenhaven, where a little 
hamlet is said to have been planted. At one time, some 30 
fishers, with their families, dwelt here, and followed their calling. 

The Minister of Anstruther Wester claims The May as in his 
Parish, and was wont to sail once a year to " preach deliverance 
to the captives ;" while, at the same time, a Collection (averaging 
one shilling) was made for the " Poor of the Parish," according 
to the Entries in the " Visiting Book." 

Several Charters relating to a Cell of the House of May 
at Kindelgros, in the Parish of Ehynd, Perthshire, the memory 
of which has been entirely lost, together with Notices of the 
fortunes of this Ecclesiastical Ketreat, especially in the Six- 
teenth Century, and of the subsequent adaptation of the 
Buildings to domestic uses, were discussed last year before the 

VOL. I. P 



114 MONASTICON. 

Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh, by John Stuart, Esq., of the 
General Register House. He has also recently called the attention 
of the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, to enlist the sympathy of the 
public to restore and preserve the interesting Chapel (of which a 
Woodcut is here given for the first time), now in a state of great 
dilapidation. The Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses, to 
whom The, May belongs, did not consider themselves at liberty 
to expend, even on their own property, so much as a 1 Note, 
from their abundant Light funds, on a Church of unknown 
antiquity, whence the Faith brightly sparkled out in a Dark Age ! 




s. ETHERNAN'S CHAPEL, ISLE OF MAY, EAST SIDE. 
(The Remains ofS. Adrian's Coffin lie within, at the east Gable Window.) 

I have discussed in Scotichronicon, vol. i., p. Ill, the myth 
about the Stone Coffin, half of which floated into the Churchyard 
of West Anstruther, while the other half remains within this 
little Chapel, which is said to have contained S. Adrian's 
corpse. Whether S. Adrian or any other of the early Martyrs can 
claim this Coffin or not, it ought to be better cared for than it now 
unfortunately is. Antiquaries, perhaps, may soon be able to 
ascertain whether the 6000 (?) whom the Danes Murdered, were 
Buried here, or at the Place higher up on the Island now called 
the Churchyard) or Rabbit-warren^ noticed below. 

From 1166-1213, the Prior was Hugo de Mortuo Man 
[of the Dead Sea Mortimer] ; and King William the Lion Con- 
firms to him all the Donations of his Grandfather David, and his 
Brother Malcolm. He Witnesses a Charter from King William 



PRIORY. OF ISLE OF MAY. 115 

about the Election of an Abbot to Scone : Dated at Forfar, 29th 
May. [Liber de Scon, p. 22.] In 1340, Dominus Martinus is 
Prior of The May, as appears from an Instrument between Martin, 
Prior of May, and the Abbot of Scone, before William, Perpetual 
Vicar of the Church of Largo, in the Keign of King David II. 
[Liber de Scon, p. 108.] " In pensionis yeirlie to the Abbot of 
May, IxxixZ/. ixs. viijd. [Liber de Scon, App.] 

At the first Parliament of Baliol, William, Abbot of Eeading, 
petitions for the restoration of the Priory on The May, which had 
been alienated by Robert de Burghgate, late Abbot of the 
Monastery of Eeading, and Predecessor of the present Abbot, 
without the consent of the greater or wiser part of his Monastery, 
in favour of Bishop William Wishart. This Citation Dates 1293. 
The following is a Copy of it : 

The King and Lord Superior of the Kingdom of Scotland, to his 
beloved and faithful son John, the illustrious King of Scotland, saluteni. 
We have learnt from our brothers, Allan de Eston and Hugo de Stoennford, 
Procurators of the Eeligious Abbot and Convent of Eeading, which was 
Founded by the charity of our Predecessors, the Kings of England, that 
David, King of Scotland, of good memory, your Predecessor, invested the 
said Abbey, and the Monks there serving God, and their Successors, with 
the Priory of the Isle of May, in the Diocese of St. Andrews, in your King- 
dom of Scotland, in pure and perpetual charity, on condition that the said 
Monks and their Successors should cause Obits to be performed by their 
Brother Priests for the soul of the said King David, and those of his 
Predecessors and Successors ; and that these Monks have always quietly 
held the said Priory and its Pertinents, in virtue of the above investment, 
till a certain Eobert de Burghgate, late Abbot of the Monastery of Eeading, 
and Predecessor of the present Abbot, alienated the said Priory, without the 
consent of the greater or wiser part of his Monastery, in favour of the 
venerable William [Wishart] , Bishop of St. Andrews, to our prejudice and 
that of our Kingdom ; and that the aforesaid Procurators applied to you, and 
urged you many times that you would be pleased to hear them, and to do 
justice to the Petition which they made to you concerning the said Priory, 
offering to prove their allegations in due form before you ; yet, putting them 
off on the feigned pretext of an appeal from your authority by the said 
Bishop of St. Andrews to the Apostolic See, you refused to proceed farther 
in this business, and denied justice to the said Procurators ; on which 
account they, in the name of the said Eeligious Abbot and Convent, have 
appealed to us, as to the Lord Superior of Scotland, entreating us to do 
them justice in the premises. Seeing, therefore, it is our duty to do justice 



116 MONASTICON. 

to all who seek it at our hands, We require that you appear before us, 
fifteen days after the next Feast of S. Martin, in whatever part of England 
we may then be, to answer to the Complaint and Petition of the said Abbot 
and Convent ; on which day we have also summoned the same persons, in 
order that equal justice may be done to- both parties, as circumstances 
shall be found to require. In testimony of which, &c. At Dantou, 2nd 
September. 

What compensation Bishop Wishart gave for the Priory of 
the Isle of May, is not stated ; but it appears from No. II. of the 
" Denmylne Papers," that it paid sixteen marks annually to its 
parent Monastery of Eeading, which payment was afterwards 
transferred to the Priory of St. Andrews. 

In the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, there is the Original 
Bull of Pope Innocent III., A.D. 1215, empowering the Abbots of 
Arbroath and Lindores, and the Prior of May, to finish a Con- 
troversy which had arisen between the Prior and Convent of St. 
Andrews and the Bishop, concerning the Church of Kossinclerach. 
William the Lion Granted to the Monastery on this Isle a tenth 
of. all the fish caught in its neighbourhood, which must have 
proved the source of considerable revenue, since we are informed 
in a Life of S. Kentigern, or S. Mungo, written about the latter 
end of David I.'s Reign, that fishermen from England and 
Holland visited this important fishing station, which is said at 
that period to have greatly abounded in this article of consumpt. 
"Ab illo quippe tempore in hunc diem, tanta piscium fertilitas 
ibi abundat, ut de omni littore, maris Anglici, Scotici, et a 
Belgicae Gallicse littoribus veniunt gratia piscandi piscatores 
plurimi quos omnes Insula MAY in suis rite suscipit portibus." 
[MS. Bib. Cott. Tit. A, xix., f. 78,6.] Several Charters are 
addressed to these, enjoining them to pay their Tithes and Dues 
to the Monks. 

Mary, daughter of the Duke Guieldeiiand, the Bride of James 
II., in her voyage to Scotland, coasting, not without terror, 
along the inimical English shore, on the sixth day Scotland 
arose to their eager eyes, and they anchored near the Isle of 
May, where there stood a Hermitage and a Chapel sacred to S. 
Andrew [S. Adrian?]. Having paid her devotions, the Queen 



PRIORY OF ISLE OF MAY. 117 

proceeded to Leith, where she was met by many Nobles, &c. 
[Pinfarton, vol. L, p. 208.] 

Spottiswoode says, " King David I. Founded here a Cell or 
Monastery, and Dedicated the place to All the Saints. After- 
wards, it was Consecrated to the memory of S. Hadrian." 

In Abbot Myln's Lives of the Bishops of Dunkeld, "Father 
Lawrence, Prior of the Isle of May, son of Lord Oliphant, whose 
nephew Andrew Herring was," is alluded to as an Arbiter in a 
Dispute about certain Lands. 

In the time of James IV., Andrew Wood, of Largo, got a 
Charter of certain Lands, on condition that he should be ready 
to pilot and convey the King and Queen to visit S. Adrian's 
Chapel. In the Treasurer's Accounts for 1506, the King gave 
an Alms to a Hermit resident on the Island. 



EEGISTER OF THE PRIORY OF ST. ANDREWS. 
PAGE 

379 Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, gives " to God, and the Saints of May, 
and the Monks there serving God," a piece of Land, the boundaries of 
which are described. Bishop Wishart is the first Witness. 

380 The same Earl gives to the same Monks, a cow yearly, which he 
and his ancestors had always received from Lambermoor. Bishop 
Wishart is the first Witness. 

John, son of Michael, gives them a piece of Land in Lambermoor. 

381 The same John gives them another piece of Land. Robert de 
Londer, son of King William, is the first Witness. 

382 William de Beaueyr gives them a piece of Land from his Estate of 
Arderie ; also, his wife's dower, and a servant's portion, at their Death. 

Egou Ruffus gives them a piece of Land at Lingo. 

883 Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, and Justiciary of Scotland, 
gives them, for lighting the Altar of S. Etherinus, a stone of wax, or 
forty denarii, annually, at the market price of St. Andrews. 

884 Agreement between John of Dundemor and the Monks of May. 
The former gives them the Land of Turbrec, in Fife. In return, they 
give him a half silver mark, or sixty malevellos, yearly ; they furnish a 
Glass Lamp in the Church of Ceres, and two gallons of oil, or twelve 
denarii yearly, for ever ; and they employ a Monk to say Masses for 
him, his ancestors, and his heirs, A.D. 1260. 

385 John of Dundemor makes over to them the Land of Turbrec. 

386 Dispute between Henry de Dundemor and the same Monks. He 
claims homage from them for the Land of Turbrec, and, on their 
refusal, seizes one of their horses. W. [Eraser], Bishop of St. 



118 MONASTICON. 

REGISTER OF THE PRIORY OF ST. ANDREWS (continued ). 

J Andrews, being appealed to, decides in favour of the Monks, A.D. 

1285. 

387 Dispute between one Thomas and the same Monks, concerning 
some property in Berwick. This is settled by the Abbots of Scone and 
Lindores, and the Archdeacon of St. Andrews, by command of the 
Pope. 

387 A similar Dispute betwe.eu the same Monks, and those of Beading, 
in Yorkshire, 011 the one side, and one Simon of Berwick on the other, 
which is settled by the same persons. 

388 Gilbert de Barewe gives the same Monks a piece of Land in Barewe, 
near the Hill called Whitelaw. 

889 Prior John and the Monks of May give to Eadner, Chaplain of 

Crail, the above Land of Barewe, for four solidi yearly. 

390 William de Mortuomari [Mortimer] , Official of the Bishop of St. 
Andrews, settles a Dispute between the Monks of May and one Patrick, 
Chaplain of Dunbar, respecting a toft in Dunbar, A.D. 1212. 

391 The Abbot and Prior of Lindores are Commissioned by Pope Alex- 
ander IV. to settle a Dispute between the Monks of Beading (to whom 
the Priory of May then belonged), and a Burgess of Berwick, regarding 
a property in that town, which Dispute they settled accordingly, A.D. 
1261. 

892 The Abbot and Monastery of Dunfermline give the Monks of May 
the Tithes of Balgallin. 

893 A Composition, whereby the Monks of May are allowed to fish at 
Inchefreth (Inchyra), on the Biver Tay. 

The Monks of May, who had the Parish of Bind, on the Biver Tay, 
complain that the Monks of Scone took the Tithe of Fish within the 
limits of their Parish, on some pretended right. Pope Gregory [IX.] 
commands Henry, Prior of St. Andrews ; L., Archdeacon of the same ; 
and B., Dean of Fife, to inquire into the above Complaint. They 
decide that the Monks of Scone, on paying to those of May two silver 
marks annually, shall be allowed to retain their right to the Tithe of 
Fish, A.D. 1231. 

395 Pope Honorius [III.] commands the Abbot and Prior of Melrose, 
and the Dean of Teviotdale, to inquire into a Complaint made by the 
Monks of Dryburgh, Proprietors of the Tithes of Kilrenny, against the 
Monks of May, Proprietors of the Tithes of Anstruther. The former 
complained that, when the latter's boats (naves et navicellaa piscaria?) 
went to fish in the Biver which divided the two Parishes, they ap- 
proached too near the Kilrenny side, and thus robbed them of their 
Tithe of Fish. A Composition is made, whereby the Anstruther boats 
might fish in any part of the Biver, on paying a half silver mark yearly 
to Dryburgh, A.D. 1225. 



PKIOKY OF ISLE OF MAY. 119 

REGISTER OF THE PRIORY OF ST. ANDREWS (continued). 
PAGE 

N.B. What is now the Parish of Anstruther Easter, was at this 
period part of Kilrenny Parish, and consequently the "River" here 
spoken of, is just " The Dreel Burn," which divides it from Anstruther 
Wester; and which " River" is such a mighty Amazon that it is 
now capable of floating a Covey of Ducks the only Fishers to be 
seen at the present day looking after the Tithes in the Dreel, for 
behoof of the Monks of May. If by " Fish," Salmon is meant in the 
Cartulary of Dryburgh, the Arms of the Burgh of West Anster 
(1554-1587) being three Salmon proper, with a fourth stationed as a 
Weather Cock on the Kirk Steeple, would indicate that a Salmon 
Fishing was, of old, at the mouth of the Dreel. On the north side of 
the Dreel, down from the present National Bank, stood the Castle of 
Dreel, the original Residence of the Anstruthers of that Ilk, descended 
from " William of the Candle" (mentioned in Charters), who held the 
Lands of Anstruther in the Reign of David I. 

89G The Prior and Monks of May agree with Malcolm (Pincerna to the 
King), that on every Sunday and the chief Holydays, Divine Service be 
performed in the Chapel of Ricardston, but that the women shall be 
Churched, Confession made, and the Communion administered, at the 
Parish Church of Rindalgross. Malcolm and his family may Com- 
municate in either the Chapel or the Church. 

The Isle of May was, in 1549, granted to Patrick Lear- 
month, of Dairsie, Provost of St. Andrews, because (as the 
Charter bears) it was from its situation so liable to be spoiled by 
hostile fleets, that it had been hitherto a barren and unprofitable 
possession. In 1551, it was acquired by Andrew Balfour, of 
Mountquhanie, and, in 1558, John Forret receives a Charter. 
It then seems to have passed to Allan Lamond, who sold it to 
Cunningham, of Barns. Alexander Cunningham, of Barns, 
appears to have been the first who built a Lighthouse (of coals) 
on The ILay, in 1635. His son, John Cunningham, was, in 
1647, empowered, along with James Maxwell, of Innerwick, to 
levy dues for the maintenance of the light, to the amount of 4s a 
ton on Foreigners, and 2s on Scotch vessels Scots Money. 
Liberty was also given him to build a Lighthouse, and accord- 
ingly he erected a Tower 40 feet high, vaulted at the top, and 
covered with flag-stones. It was on this plea, coupled with the 
Boat plying between The May and Crail with supplies of 
necessaries for the Light Keepers, that Crail, as being the 



120 MONASTICON. 

nearest port, claimed the Isle of May as within its Parochial 
boundaries. But the claim has been relinquished in favour of 
Anstruther Wester, so when a Birth, Marriage, or Death, &c., 
occurs, as a remarkable event, the Dwellers on The May under- 
stand where to apply for the services of the Midwife, the Doctor, 
the Minister, or the Dominie. The unfortunate architect of this 
dumpy square Tower was drowned on his return from The May, 
in a Storm then imagined to have been raised by the Pittemveem 
Witches, who were Burned therefor ! This Tower seems to have 
been erected, at least in part, originally in 1636, which Date was 
over the door, on a Tablet, when I visited the Island in June, 
1865. It is about 50 or 60 feet high, and is used as a Look- 
out for Smugglers by some half-dozen Marines, who are stationed 
here from the Preventive House at Leith. Their greatest punish- 
ment is that they have nothing to do a capital temptation for the 
" One of the olden time." This Home is dismal reeky, but often 
whitewashed, outside and inside, and is filled up with a sloping 
wood-bench for the men to recline upon, ruminate, snooze, and 
smoke tobacco. They are rather chatty, and come to the door 
with their Spy-glass, to enlarge the prospect, for the delight 
of any visitor who vouchsafes to them a quid of Virginian Negro- 
head to encourage the ascent of their contemplations, A ton of 
coals was consumed every night ; and the fire was lighted by live 
coals placed above, on a large square grate. There were three 
attendants, two of whom were on the watch every night. The 
fire required mending every half hour, and in tempestuous nights 
the Keepers were in great peril. In 1661, Sir James Halket, 
of Pitferran, and Sir David Carmichael, of Balmadie, were 
authorised by Act of Parliament to levy dues for the maintenance 
of the light, to the amount of 3s a ton for Foreigners, and Is Qd 
for Natives. These sums are in Scots Money, as above, and are 
equal to 3d and IJd Sterling. Before 1790, this Duty was let 
at .280 Sterling per annum; at that time, it rose to 960 ; and, 
in 1800, it was let at 1500. These Kents are exclusive of the 
cost of keeping the light, &c. In 1791, George Anderson (the 
Keeper), his wife, and five children, were found suffocated from 
the sulphur in the coals. One suckling at the breast was saved, 



PRIORY OF ISLE OF MAY. 121 

who was educated at the Parish School of Grail, and became "a 
joyful mother of children" the native Hay Air, as noticed 
above, being irresistible for the procreation of species. The 
Commissioners of Northern Lights having bought the Island for 
60,000, from the Duchess of Portland, daughter of General 
Scott, of Balcomie, erected, in 1816, a House and Tower, 240 
feet above the level of the sea, having a system of oil lamps and 
reflectors. But, in 1843, this fixed Catoptric light was exchanged 
for the Dioptric system, having but one very powerful Argand 
lamp, with first-class holophotal revolving apparatus. [Wood's 
East Neuk of Fife.} 

Not a bush nor tree will grow on The May. Any ground 
which is cultivated is dyked in for shelter. A one-horse plough 
accomplishes all the husbandry, which the Lighthouse Keeper 
has as a perquisite. The Offices and Stabling are situated in a 
sheltered hollow, and look like a little Castle. The Cocks and 
Hens of the various Tribes of Poultry cohabitant here, and 
are well-bred ; and seemed unusually felicitous on the fine 
morning I landed for the first time. In the several Accounts of 
the Island, it is stated that there is a " Well of fine Water." At 
the upper or chief Lighthouse (an imposing Gothic Building 
resembling a Mansion), there is a fine Pump, but the Water is 
so brackish, that a regular supply has to be fetched inter alia 
by the Commissioners' boat from Crail every fortnight. There 
is a small fresh water Loch (not fine either) to the west, between 
two ravines, and a spacious, deep natural Harbour at the east or 
Crail side, the usual place of landing, as above stated, from 
which there is a considerable acclivity. S. Ethernan's Chapel 
(see Cut) is the first striking object which meets the eye, 
if the Crane at the top of the Harbour be excepted. Any land 
that is under culture is on this side. The chief Lighthouse 
stands on the highest point to the west ; the smaller one (ex- 
hibited in 1844) is lower down, and is only visible towards the 
east, to give warning of the Carr Rock at Fifeness. Details of 
the Light, with Woodcuts, are given in Good Words for 1864, p. 
233. The Commissioners' or Keception Boom is elegant, lofty, 
and well proportioned. The furniture is made of oak. On the 

VOL. I. Q 



122 MONASTICON. 

back of the side-board, and on each of the chairs, is a circular 
carving of a Lighthouse, with the Legend, In salutem omnium, at 
the top ; underneath, Northern Lighthouses. Over the circle is 
Isle of May ; underneath, the Date 1636. The Entry Door to 
the west is rarely opened, on account of the blasts. In front is a 
Sun Dial, within a walled Garden, bearing no fruit. The Time 
Gun at Edinburgh Castle is distinctly heard. Time and Weather 
are carefully attended to, and marked down by good Instruments. 
The Burying Ground is most desolate, and shamefully cared 
for being a Rabbit-iuarren, full of burrows. Although many 
have from time to time found their last Resting-place here, 
only one humble Headstone has the honour to bear witness to 
the romantic Spot. The Epitaph is 

J. 1730 W. 

Here lies 
JOHN WISH ART, 

Husband to Euphemia Horsburgh, 

Who lived on the Island of May, who Died on March 3, 1730, 
Aged 46. Memento mori. 



VALUATION OF THE PKIORY OF ISLE OF MAY. 

No information. 
IX. PlTTENWEEM, 

In the Shire of Fife, was Dedicated to the Virgin Mary, of 
whose Prior we read in 1270, and had a great many Lands 
belonging to it, such as Cairnbriggs, Fawside, Pittotter, Loch- 
end, South Inch, Youngslands, Morton's Acres, Greendykes, 
Easter Grangemuir, Lingo, Crofts of Crail, Mayshiels, with the 
Churches of Rind, in Perthshire, Anstruther Wester, and Pitten- 
weem, now erected into a Regality, called the Regality of Pitten- 
weem, of which the Lairds of Anstruther are heritable Bailies. 
Colonel William Stuart, Captain of his Majesty's Guards, is 
designed Commendator of Pittenweem in 1567. His son, 
Frederick Stuart, was afterwards, by the favour of King James 
VI., raised to the dignity of Lord Pittenweem in 1609; but, 
dying without male issue, the Title and Family became extinct. 
[Spottiswoode.] 



PRIORY OF PITTENWEEM. 123 

This Priory is situated at the east end of the little quaint 
Town, overhanging the Harbour and Shore. The Grounds 
enclosed within the Abbey Walls extended to about two or three 
Acres, and formed a parallelogram. A considerable portion of 
these Walls still exists. The site of the Priory is the most 
choice and commanding, in point of view, in the old Burgh. The 
Buildings appear to have formed the three sides of a quadrangle. 
At the north-east corner of the road called the Abbey Walk, there 
is said to have been a fortified Tower, and an Arch, with steps to 
the top, across the street. The Wall proceeds southward along 
the Abbey Walk (a road leading to the Harbour), until it reaches 
the Saw- Mill and Fish- Curing Premises of Messrs. Welsh, 
Brothers, when it takes a westerly direction along the top of the 
Cliff on which the Town is built, turning northwards when it 
touches the Cove Wynd, and losing itself at the present Town 
Hall. The northern portion of the Wall runs along S. Mary's 
Street, from the Abbey Walk to the High Street, which was, 
perhaps, up to the time when it was taken down, 14 years ago, 
the highest and best preserved portion of the whole. In this 
northern section of the Wall stood the principal outer entrance, 
a Norman Archway, surmounted by the Coat of Arms of one of 
the Abbots, said to be John Forman, afterwards Archbishop of 
St. Andrews. The Wall was reported to have been sufficiently 
broad to admit of two sentinels walking abreast. When S. 
John's Episcopal Chapel was built in 1807, this north Gateway 
was removed, as occupying part of its site ; and the Coat of Arms, 
which is carved on a large stone, and has a long illegible Inscrip- 
tion, was placed on the outside of the middle of the east Wall of 
the Chapel. About 30 or 40 yards west from the Episcopal 
Chapel, and opposite the foot of the Lady Wynd, partly within 
the present Churchyard, stood what was popularly termed the 
Confessional, but which was, in reality, the ancient Chapel of the 
Priory, Dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. To straighten 
the Street, this Chapel was demolished about 20 years ago ! 
It had a flagged stone Roof, was nearly 20 feet square, and the 
Walls from 12 to 14 feet in height. It was used as a Watch- 
Tower in the " resurrectionising " days. There are several large 



124 



MONASTICON. 



fragments of stones, with undecipherable Inscriptions in old 
English character, lying in a heap where it stood. On the south 
side of what is called the Rotten How i.e., Routine or Pro- 
cessional Row there is another lofty Wall, with a Doorway, on 
the Lintel of which is a half- effaced Inscription of two lines 
the legible part of which is " God is Love," and the Date 1661. 
But this Stone is hardly old enough to have formed a portion of 
the entrance of the Hospital of the Priory, which this Wall is 
said to have bounded. The site of the Hospital is now the 
Garden of Mr. Bayne, Postmaster. The whole of this Property 
belonged at one time to Spens of Lathallan. 

Passing by the east side of the Episcopal Chapel, down 
the Avenue, the CHIEF ENTRANCE to the Priory Buildings 
meets the eye. This fine Ruin faces eastward, and is about 30 



PRIORY OF PITTENWEEM. 







ENTEANCE PEIOR'S HALL. 
TO COVE. 



BISHOP LOW. 
GREAT HOUSE, 
PARISH KIRK, 
AND STEEPLE. 



OLD GATE- 
WAY OF 
THE PP.IOBY. 



EPISCOPAL 
CHAPEL. 



feet in height; is built of massive stones, having a row of 
projecting stones or corbels, near the top ; and is mantled with 
ivy. Over its Norman-arched Gateway was a Coat of Arms. 
At the west side (or back), is a flight of stone steps leading to 
its broad top. The lower portion of the steps has disappeared, 
and only the upper part remains. At the foot or west side of 
this Stair, is the " Witch Corner," where the Pittenweem Witches 



PRIOKY OF PITTENWEEM. 125 

were Burned and Buried. I ate the first crop of Potatoes which 
grew on this spot of renown. The second Flat of the Ruin 
seems to have been the Residence or Lodge of the Porter. 
Under the stair above alluded to, there still exists a well built 
Arch, about 14 feet across. This conspicuous Lodge led to the 
" Inner Close," or Paved Court, of the Priory. Several pieces of 
Encaustic Tile have, from time to time, been dug up here. In later 
times, and in Title Deeds, this " Ruin " was called Bailie Hogg's 
Barn. In the Records of the Burgh Court in 1694, a Sentence 
is recorded against one who, in the " Abbey Barn, had most 
inhumanly and cruelly, without any just cause, killed the 
Minister's cow." Bailie Hogg was Factor to the Anstruthers, 
and occupied the Great House of the Priory after the Anstruthers. 
They had it from the Countess of Kellie, whose Jointure-House it 
was ; and the second floor or flat of it was for some time the 
Episcopal Meeting House. The upper floor was let by the 
Anstruthers as a Granary, which encouraged rats to such an 
extent as to necessitate the removal of the Meeting House to the 
upper floor of the Town Residence of the Arnots of Balcormo, in 
the High Street.* There is a 'Trance or Passage to the Court 
of the Priory from Cove Wynd through the Great House " Mrs. 
Hutchison's house," latterly usually termed so from this "knief 
auld wife," as Bishop Low styled her, being long resident here 
as his tenant. She was of the Grahames of Morphie, and was 
the second relict of the Rev. James Hutchison, M.D., " Cauld 
Water Doctor," and Episcopal Clergyman at Cupar. Both are 
Buried at Anstruther Easter. They had one notorious Offspring, 
" Heg," who Married, at a late date, Roberton Wilson, son of 
the Rev. David Wilson, Relief Minister, Pittenweem, and a 
brother of Bishop William Scot Wilson, who, when boys, with 
their mother, for years resided here. A Separation took place. 

* It may be mentioned that, in the middle Floor of this Tenement in High Street, 
is a Room called the Apostles Hall, from the fact of a Wood Carving of the Last 
Supper being over the Fire-place ; some persons alleging that this Carving was 
removed from the Priory, and others maintaining that it was taken from Carnbee 
House. This Domicile consists of three Storeys, a Tower, and Cellars ; the Stair is 
circular, having wide stone steps ; two sections of the House have their landings at 
different levels. 



126 MONASTICON. 

" Meg " Died at Edinburgh, and was Buried beside her parents 
not in the usual way of east and west, but across, north and 
south. She had an elder sister, Ann, who was necessitated, by 
reason of her sister's voice and temperament, for several years to 
reside with her uncle at Laurencekirk, who Willed to her all his 
goods. She Died from the effects of a gig accident, Intestate, 
and "Meg" heired her, who left (on dit) some J05000 to her 
22nd cousin, Viscount Arbuthnot ! She was fond of being a 
Genealogist ! Her brother's children, who would have got the 
chief portion of their Aunt Ann's estate, had she left a Testa- 
ment, came off " second best." I engross these particulars, 
because "Mrs. Margaret Livingston Hutchison" (not Wilson) 
was 35 years resident in the Great House of the Priory, and was 
a Character of Romance in her way. She paid <40 to get her 
Matrimonial name changed to what it is on her Stone. 

County people used the Arched Cellars of the Great House 
as a stable. Bishop Low bought this portion of the Priory 
(including the Ruin or Barn), in 1812, from Thomas Martin, for 
4:01 Thomas Martin bought it from the above-named Bailie 
Gavin Hogg, who was Provost of Pittenweem. It is tenanted 
by herring barrels, which pay rent, and are very quiet 
neighbours. From the interior Court or Quadrangle (now a 
Garden), is a wide turnpike stone stair leading to the top of the 
Great House. One of the steps, from its extreme dampness, 
prognosticates wet weather. There are no proper landings, but 
at every few steps there is a room or two branching off north 
and south. In the east face of this Building, is a very good 
specimen of a Scotch Oriel Window of some pretensions ; while 
the Staircase also projects from the rest of the Wall. The Oriel 
was copied about four or five years ago by E. A. Anderson, of the 
Ordnance Survey, while looking out for ancient designs for the 
proposed repairs of Edinburgh Castle. As before mentioned, 
the middle floor was the Episcopal Chapel in Nonjuring times, 
and the Pulpit stood close by this Window. In the same floor is 
an Arched Eecess in the west Wall, about 6 feet high, and 6 
wide ; the north part joined the east Wall. A very fine view is 
to be had from the upper Windows of this House even " a 



PRIORY OF PITTENWEEM. 127 

prospect beyond the Grave." This was the Habitation of Bishop 
Low's multifarious " Helpers " or Curates. Their low-roofed 
Parlour and small Closet, though as primitive as Monk or 
Hermit could desiderate, were, albeit, wonderfully comfortable, 
when we look back and think upon our Great House Cell. Lady 
Sinclair, of Longformacus, who, for many years, resided at 
Carnbee House, Died in this portion of the Buildings. 

The Rev. John Sym, late of Old Greyfriars, Edinburgh, and 
Assistant, in 1834, to Eev. Charles Addie, took a great interest in 
the Priory, and drew out ingenious and minute Pen and Ink Plans 
for the restoration of the Great House. I often examined these 
Plans 23 years ago. They were stitched up in the form of a 
School Copy Book, and contained some eight or nine leaves, and 
were kept among pieces of twine, old letters, old hose, shirt and 
breeches' buttons, et ccetera, in the bound-in Drawers of the 
Window of the Closet in which Bishop Low Died. Probably 
they, from the way they were kept, would be thought to be mere 
Waste Paper, at the much-needed general Dicht-out of these 
Kepositories. 

The modern Churchyard, or a portion of it, is supposed to be 
the Priory Garden. At the west side of this Great House, the 
Ministers of the Established Kirk are Buried, and some have 
Monuments in the Wall. At the north side, occupied by Office- 
houses, the upper parts of the Wall shew that the Buildings ex- 
tended a good space this way. Immediately to the south of the 
Great House, and adjoining, is the present Town House, the front 
and west Wall of which were rebuilt in 1821. It occupies the site 
of the Prater or Refectory of the Priory. The east Wall (which 
contains another Oriel, now built up), being considered safe, was 
allowed to remain. This portion was presented to the Town by 
the Earl of Kellie in 1821. Still further south, forming a 
portion or corner of the Conventual Buildings, stood what was 
called Bishop Bruce s Library, which has almost entirely dis- 
appeared. The whole of this line of Buildings is probably what 
was called the General House of the Monastery, or the Kesidence 
of the Inferior Brethren. Forming the south portion of the 
Square, is what was the Prior's Hall, latterly the Residence of 



128 MONASTICON. 

Lord Pittenweem, eldest son of the Earl of Kellie. It was 
inhabited by P. Plenderleith, Town-Clerk; and was many 
years the Residence of Bishop Low, who, latterly, bought 
it from W. Baird, Esq., of Elie, with the burden of 10 
annual Feu-Duty, and bequeathed it for an Episcopal Par- 
sonage. This part is best preserved, owing probably to its 
being occupied by respectable tenants. It is three storeys 
high, built on four Arches, one of which seems to have been the 
entrance from the Quadrangle to Cove Wynd. The middle floor 
is said to have been the Prior's Refectory, as the east portion, or 
present " Library," is raised up as a Dais for the Superior. If 
so, it must have formed a lofty, well-proportioned Hall, 12 feet 
high, 16 or 17 wide, and nearly 40 feet long, with four Windows. 
The Walls are upwards of 3 feet thick; and in the south Wall of 
the present Dining Boom, is a small spiral stone Staircase of 10 
steps, leading down to a Cellar or Vault, probably the Wine 
Cellar of the Establishment : Bishop Low used it as such, and 
fitted it with stone shelves, which still remain. This Hall is now 
broken up into three apartments Dining Room, small Bed Room 
(in which Bishop Low Died), and Library. The Windows fronting 
the sea are Oriel, shaved off to modernise them. In the north- 
west corner of the Prior's Hall, is a Press, with a recess, where a 
fluted Stone Pulpit, or Lectern, for the Reader at meals, stood. 
There is said to have been a Passage from the south Buildings 
to the west, entering at this Press Door. Probably this was the 
connexion between the Prior's House and the other parts of the 
Priory Buildings, as a small built-up Window in the south Wall 
seems to have been for lighting this 'Trance. Access to the 
Prior's House from the Quadrangle on the north, was by a Turret 
with a spiral stone Staircase, very narrow, and much worn; 
taken down about five years ago, to make room for the new 
Kitchen and Staircase of the Parsonage the upper floor of 
which consists of three good sized Bed Rooms, the ceilings being 
nearly 10 feet high. Strangers don't sleep soundly for the noise 
of the sea, and the exposed elevation. 

My friend, Mr. David Cook, Writer, Anstruther, Author of 
1 'Annals of Pittenweem," has given me the following interesting 



PKIOBY OF PITTENWEEM. 129 

Notanda : . . . . "I have copied into the Note now 
sent you, a description, from an old Charter, of a House which 
stood in the south-west corner of the present Churchyard. I 
was very much pleased to fall in with that Document, both 
because it casts light on the arrangement in olden times of the 
Priory Buildings, and, still more, because I think it proves con- 
clusively that a Church or Chapel must have stood where the 
present Parish Church stands. Hitherto nobody could tell any- 
thing about this Building. A pair of jambs were found in it 
about the end of last Century, on which knives had been 
sharpened, and it was thence inferred that it must have been 
the Kitchen of the Priory ; but I believe that to be downright 

nonsense 

" The Prior's Hall, or present Episcopal Parsonage, for- 
merly Bishop Low's Kesidence, was termed the New Gallery 
(domus cenobii prioratus, vulgo lie gallerie). On the west was the 
Great House of the Monastery, comprising a Prater, or Kefectory ; 
a Dortour, or Dormitory; a Chapter Chalmer, and Vestries; 
while on the north stood the west Garden of the Priory. The 
space enclosed by these Buildings and Garden was called the 
Inner Close. Beyond this Garden, and separated from it by the 
high Wall which still stands, was the Burying Ground, which 
then occupied only part of the space now enclosed the eastern 
portion having been used as a Garden. A Church or Chapel 
appears to have stood very near the site of the present Parish Church. 
This may be gathered from a Charter, Dated 1549, of a piece of 
Ground for the erection of a Currying House at the back of the 
Dortour and Chapter Chalmer ; that is, in the south-west corner 
of the present Churchyard. That piece of Ground is described 
as ' totum et integrum spatium terrae nrse continens triginta 
pedes in longitudine et totidem in latitudine, facen, ppe. eccliam 
uram de Pettinweyme ex australi parte ejusdem, infra com. viam 
Eegiam que disjungit et separat nri Monasterij stepta aut limites 
vel ambitum ab eadem nfa villa de occidental!, murum nostri 
dicti semeterij* australem, super quo licebit ad infra scripta 
edificia edificanda super edificare ex Boreali, manorem nri dicti 
Monasterij (omissa intervallo quo satis opus fit scalis inter- 

VOL. I. R 



130 MONASTICON. 

ponendis) ex oriental! ; et cloaca sen latrina nri clicti Monastery 
sub directa cum reliqua prefatse terrse ex australi partibus.' 

" In many old Writings, these Buildings are described as 
* the auld Abbey Place of Pettinweyme.' 

"The Building described as the Prior's Hall, is now the 
Kesidence of the Incumbents of S. John's Chapel. 

" The Building which adjoined the Prior's Hall on the west, 
and which was termed the 'New Gallery, is now almost entirely 
demolished. It was in subsequent times Bishop Bruce' 's Library. 
It is a now a corner for rubbish. 

" The present Town Hall occupies the site of the Frater or 
Kefectory of the Priory ; and " Mrs. Hutchison's House," next to 
the Town Hall on the north, was the original Dormitory, Chapter 
Chamber, and Vestries. These Buildings, forming, as has been 
said, the Great House of the Abbey, or the general Kesidence of 
the Inferior Brethren. They were presented to the Town by the 
Earl of Kellie in 1821, when they were taken down for the site 
of the present Town Hall. Subsequently to the Reformation, 
they were feued by the Commendator of the Priory to Scott of 
Abbotshall, who, by Charter in 1588, made a gift of them to the 
Magistrates, Council Burgesses, and Community, who were 'to 
reform and repair the same as they best can, to serve them for 
ane honest, comely, and decent Kirk, and other necessary common 
Office Houses, for the honour, welfare, and decoration of their 
said Town.' In 1591 this Grant was confirmed by Sir William 
Stewart, Commendator of Pittenweem, and subsequently it was 
ratified by the King and Parliament. In place, however, of 
converting these Buildings into a Church, as had been con- 
templated, the Dortour, Chapter Chalmer, and Vestries, were 
'repaint and biggit' into a Manse for the Minister, and the 
Frater into a Grammar- School, Tolbooth, Prison, Weigh-house 
and Custom-house, and other necessary houses for the use of the 
Burgh. Mr. Nicol Dalgleish, the first Incumbent of Pittenweem 
after its erection into a Parish, occupied this "Manse (called the 
' Great House' of the Priory) for twelve years, from 1596 to 1608. 
On his Death, Mr. Wedderburn was appointed his Successor; but 
Mrs. Dalgleish (the widow of the former Incumbent), refused to 



PEIOEY OF PITTENWEEM. 131 

give up the Manse. Legal proceedings were instituted against her, 
and, during their dependence, Lord and Lady Pittenweem ' instrusit 
themselves into the possession,' and challenged the validity of 
the Grants thereof made by the Commendators to the Magis- 
trates, on the ground that the Kirk of Pittenweem was not holden 
or reputed a Parish Kirk, and had not been ratified as such by 
Parliament at the time of the erection of the Temporality in 
favour of Lord Pittenweem, whereby the gift of the Laird of 
Abbotshall became ineffectual. After a lengthened Litigation, 
an arrangement was come to between the parties in 1635, by 
which the Buildings of the old ' Great House ' were divided be- 
tween the disputants the Lords of Erection taking the Manse, 
and the Magistrates the Tolbooth." 

In the south-west corner of the Garden, right in front of the 
Prior's House, is an Inlet to the Cove of Pittenweem. This was 
discovered anew, and re- opened by the Kev. James Crabb (late 
Incumbent of S. John's, Pittenweem, translated to S. Andrew's, 
Brechin, 1866), three or four years ago. A flight of steps leads 
from the Garden to a square Door-way, within which is the Cell 
of S. Fillan, one of the early Anchorites here. The Tradition of 
his luminous Arm is well known, which, like Aladdin's Lamp, 
only required to be rubbed to be useful. It is indeed a deplorable 
loss that his MSS. and Illuminations can nowhere be found. 
Kobert the Bruce ought, in gratitude for his victory at Bannock- 
burn, to have taken better care of this wonderful Arm of S. 
Fillan, which Maurice, the Abbot of Inchaffray, carried in a 
Silver Box, to incite the "breekless soldiers" on to victory. 
The floor of S. Fillan's Cell, which seems to have been a low 
Stone Arch, had given way, and a wooden one is now instead. 
The Stair, cut out of live rock,, leads to the Cove. The Cove 
Wynd, a narrow Lane, about 5 feet broad, with 40 stone steps, 
skirts the west boundary of the Priory, and contains the Outlet 
from the Cove, about 60 feet from the Shore. This Door is in 
the face of the Kock on which the Priory stands. The Kock 
is very rugged, and about 50 feet high. The " Cove," or Cave, 
was, at one period, evidently sea-washed. The rock line of 
the Coast is Pre-Historic. The sea has encroached considerably 



132 MONASTICON. 

within the last two Centuries. Prior's Saddle a rock now under 
wa ter was formerly a landing-place, and had grass growing 
upon it. At the east end of the old Eelief Meeting House is the 
Crossey Heugh the name indicating the stance of a Cross. 

Pittenweem Cove is a striking natural curiosity, and was con- 
veniently fitted for a stealthy ingress and egress for the Keligious, 
who were often Visitors at the adjacent Isle of May, where they 
are supposed to have been careful, by turns, in keeping lights, for 
the safety of the seafaring, from their first settlement. The Cove 
contains a Spring of Water called the " Marble Well of S. 
Fillan." While some old houses were being taken down to build 
the "Prior's Gate" the property of Mr. Andrew Horsburgh, 
London there were found several Stones having Carved Heads, 
evidently Ecclesiastics'. These were carefully placed into the 
Garden Wall ; but a ruthless mason one morning chipped off the 
whole, in order, as he said, to " mak the wa' uniform ! " In the 
centre of the Avenue leading from S. John's Chapel to the present 
Parsonage, and at the south corner of the Kuin, or Priory Gate- 
way, was found, two or three years ago, a deep Well, well built, 
which is now covered over. 

While the Rev. John Parker Lawson was Curate to Bishop 
Low, he discovered in one of the Vaults two Doors, richly carved 
with six Medallions, or Heads of Sovereigns. The Bishop fitted 
them up, together with other oak pieces, into a Press, which he 
bequeathed to the Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh. 

In the "Denmylne or Supplementary Documents" (relating 
to the Priory of St. Andrews, not included in the Register, but 
deposited in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh), No. XL, it 
is stated that the Priories of May and Pittenweem having been 
bought from the Monastery of Reading, and the Priory of May 
having always paid an annual pension of 16 Marks to the said 
Monastery, Bishop Lamberton commands that, for the future, it 
pay the same to the Prior and Canons of St> Andrews. Dated 
St. Andrews, A.D. 1318. 

An. 1503-4 and 1506, Andrew Forman (Archbishop of 
Bourges in France, Bishop of Moray, and Bishop of St. Andrews) 
was Commendator of the Priory of Pittenweem during these 



PEIOEY OF PITTENWEEM. 133 

years. His Arms are built into the east Wall of S. John the 
Evangelist's (Episcopal) Chapel, Pittenweem. 

Charter by the Prior of Pittenweem in favour of John 
Scott, of Pitgordon, and Agnes Moncrieff, his Spouse, of 80 
Acres of Land, which belonged to Thomas Dishington and 
Christina Forman, his Spouse. Dated 20th December, 1512. 
[Miscell. Papers.} 

In 1526, the Lands of the Priory were, by Charter, 
Confirmed by Parliament, united into a free Barony, in favour 
of John Kule, the Prior. This Charter was renewed in 1540. 
Lord James Stewart (at the time only 16 years of age), 
" by Divine permission, Perpetual Commendator of the Monastery 
of St. Andrews," cited and commanded the Prior, Sub-Prior, or 
any Canon of the Priories of Pittenweem and the Isle of May, 
and Dominus John Eoul, Prior of the said Priori/ of Pittenweem^ 
under pain of disobedience and suspension, a first, second, and 
third time, to appear before us, or those deputed by us, in Loco 
Capitular i of St. Andrews, on the third day after receiving this 
Citation, at 10 o'clock A.M., for rendering due obedience to us 
his lawful Superiors, according to the Rules of the Priory of 
Pittenweem, and the Order of S. Augustine, under pain of 
Excommunication and other Ecclesiastical Censures, which he 
may incur by Canon Law and the Eules of the said Order. 
Given under the Secret Seal of our Charter, at our Monastery of 
St. Andrews, 15th March, 1549. In 1543, James V. gave to the 
Prior and Convent of Pittenweem, the Town of Pittenweem, to be 
a free Royal Burgh, it having been made formerly a free Burgh 
of Barony by James III. ; and, in 1547, the Prior and Convent, 
by two Charters, Granted to the Provost, Bailies, Council, Com- 
munity, and Inhabitants, the Burgh, as the same was builded, 
or to have been builded, and the Harbour thereof, and all Moors, 
Mosses, &c., with Liberties and Customs belonging thereto. 

In the Inventory of Title Deeds and other Documents relating 
to the Estates of Elie and Anstruther, contained in six Charter 
Chests, at Elie House, Fifeshire, Bundle L, Box 9, is a "Pre- 
cept of Clare Constat by John [Roul], Prior of Pittenweem, in 
favour of Thomas Dishington, of Ardross, to certain Lands of 



134 MONASTICON. 

Grangenmir, and certain Tenements in Anstruther and Pitten- 
weem. Dated 13th October, 1550. Priory Seal Appended. 
The above Domimis John Eoul, Prior of Pittenweem in 1558, 
now an aged man, received a pension for life as " Usufructuarius 
Prioratus Conventualis Loci de Pittenweem alias Maio nuncu- 
patum." In 1559, he probably Died, and was succeeded by 
the above Lord James Stewart, as " Commendator of St. Andrews 
and Pittenweem." He ("Earl of Murray," one of his titles) 
changed with the times, and applied a large portion of the 
Eevenues of both Priories to his own use. He was shot at 
Linlithgow in 1571, leaving no male issue. He was "Com- 
mendator" at the "Keformation;" but, before his Death, he 
gave the Priory of Pittenweem to Sir James Balfour, of Pitten- 
dreich, who had been a chief actor in the Murder of Darnley. 
For this "job," and the surrender of the Governorship of Edin- 
burgh Castle, he was appointed " Commendator of the Priory of 
Pittenweem," in 1567. James Halyburton, Tutor of Pitcur, and 
cousin of George Halyburton the Laird, afterwards Provost of 
Dundee, became Prior of Pittenweem, on the forfeiture of Sir 
James Balfour, but held the Office only till 1583. He was 
threatened to be put to death on account of Darnley 's Murder.* 

* Mr. James Halyburton, Tutor of Pitcur, was present at the Siege of Broughty 
in 1547-8. He was left in command in certain Companies of Horse. He filled the 
Office of Provost of Dundee for the long period of thirty-three years. This we learn 
from the following Inscription on the Monument erected to his memory within the 
New Church, Dundee. It omits to notice that he held for some years the Titular 
Office of Commendator of the Priory of Pittenweem, I find that, upon the death of 
John Rewll, Prior in 1553, this Benefice was conferred on Lord James Stewart, 
Prior of St. Andrews, of which Pittenweem was a dependency. In the view of 
obtaining possession of the Castle of Edinburgh, Lord James, then Earl of Murray, 
and Regent, resigned the Priory in favour of Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Balfour, at 
the end of August, 1567, who held it in commendam till 1578-9, when " Mag. Jacobus 
Balfour de Pittendreich miles," in the Treasurer's accounts is styled " olim Commen- 
datarius de Pettinwenie." A Presentation " to the Pryorie of Pettenweem, vacant 
through the process and dome of forfaltour ordourlie led aganis Sir James Balfour, 
sumtyme of Pettendreych, knycht, Pryour and possessour of the said Pryorie and 
Abbacie," was granted to Maister James Halyburton, Provost of Dundee, 4th Decem- 
ber, 1579. In the same Register of Presentation to Benefices, on the 26th October, 
1583, we find the Priory and Lands were conferred on the King's favourite, William 
Stewart, " Colonell or Capitaine of his Hienes gard," the same being vacant " be 
deceis of umquhile Sir James Balfour, or be resignation of Mr. James Halyburton, 



PKIOKY OF PITTENWEEM. 185 

In 1572, Maister William Clerk, Minister of Anstruther, 
received a pensioun furth of the Priouric of Pettynweym of 80, 
and ye same from ye Abbey of Dryburgh. His stipend was 
.140, and Maister Johne Foreman, ye Header, had ,20, with the 
Kirkland. [Rcgist. of Minrs., cC-c.] In 1583, William Stewart, 
of Houston, a brother of Stewart of Galston, in Ayrshire, and 
descended from Alan Stewart, of Darnley, Captain in the King's 
Guard, obtained a Charter of the Lands and Priory of Pitten- 
weem, and was afterwards styled " Commendator of Pittenweem." 
The right, however, to the coal on the Lands, which had been 
worked long before the " Reformation," was not conveyed in the 
Charter, but seems to have descended to James Balfour, Prior of 
Charter House. But, in 1594, William Stewart, Dame Isabel 
Hepburn, his wife, and Frederick, their son, acquired from the 
said James Balfour, " heritable fiar of the coal of the Barony of 
Pittenweem, and of two salt pans there," and from Patrick Balfour, 
of Pitcullo (Proprietor of other two salt pans), all the coal of 
Pittenweem. The Salt Pans were of great importance, and their 
Proprietors are carefully registered in the Charters granted from 
time to time in former years by the Prior of Pittenweem. The 
remains of some of them may still be seen on the St. Monan's 
Estate, beneath an old Tower, on which was once a Windmill, 
which pumped up the water for them. In the same year (1594), 

last Priour and Commendatouv thairof," 26th October, 1583. At a later period 
(1016), the Priory and its possessions were erected into a temporal Lordship, by the 
Title of Lord Pittenweem, in favour of Stewart, but the Title became extinct in the 
person of his son. 

PROVOST JAMES HALYBURTON's MONUMENT, NEW CHURCH, WEST-SIDE PULPIT. 

Hie situs est Jacobus Halyburtomis, Patruus nobilis Viri, Georgii Halyburton de 
Pitcur, Militis, qni Prrefecturam Deidoni urbanam fauciter Annos 33 gessit. Obiit 
Anno Dom. 1588. JEtatis sure 70. 



ALECTI 

PRJEFKCTUS 


TAT RLE 
VINPEX 


PUPILLI 
TUTOR 


ECCLESIJE JESU 
ALUMNUS FUTT. 



This Inscription is Translated by Monteith as follows : Here lies James Haly- 
burton, Uncle to an honourable man, Sir George Halyburton, of Pitcur, Knight; who 
for the space of thirty-three years happily administred the Office of Provestship 
within the Town of Dundee. He Died in the year of our Lord 1558. Of his age 70. 

Written on the transverse lines : Provest of Dundee ; Defender of his Country ; 
Protector of the Pupil and Orphan ; and a Son of the Church of Christ Jesus. 
[Knoxs Works, vol. ri.,2>art '2, p. 678, Laing's Edition^} 



186 MONASTICON. 

Stuart receives a Charter to the Lands of Pittenweem and West 
Anstruther, united into the Tenantry of Pittenweem. And, in 
1606, these Lands were constituted into a temporal Lordship in 
favour of Frederick, son "of William Stewart, with the Title of 
Lord Pittenweem ; but, dying without issue, the Title and Family 
became extinct, 





Mr. Cook writes : " The oldest of the Papers sent is a Charter by John Howie, 
Prior of Pittenweem, in favour of James Boswell and Eliz. Hill, his Spouse, Dated 
7th October, 1540, to which the Seal of the Priory had been attached, but which is 
now wanting. The next in Date, 13th January, 1540 (1541), is the large Paper with 
the two Seals attached. It is not a Charter by the Prior of Pittenweem at all, but an 
Instrument -of Ratification and Confirmation of John Howie's Charter, above referred 
to. It is under the hand of Thomas Knox, Notary Public, and bears to have been 
taken by him in the Church of Pittenweem, under the authority of certain high 
Ecclesiastics, named at the commencement of the Document, one of whom was the 
Dean of Restalrig. These Ecclesiastics appear to have constituted a sort of 
Consistorial Court, one of the functions of which seems to have been the Confirmation 
of Grants made by individual Priors and Abbots. You will find that John Howie's 
Charter, above-noted, is copied verbatim into this Instrument. The large Seal 
attached to it, I supposed to be the Seal of the Court ; the smaller one the Seal of the 
Notary. There can be no question that neither of these is the Seal of the Priory of 
Pittenweem. The other Document in your possession, is a Charter in favour of John 
Barclay and Isobel Inglis, his Spouse, Dated 15th November, 1574, by Sir James 
Balfour, of Pittendreich, Commendator of Pittenweem, and the round broken Seal 
attached to it is described as " s'uj ilium nri. (nostri) Monasterij," so that that Seal is 
undoubtedly the Seal of Pittenweem Priory. The two Roman letters on it are the 
Initials of S. Adrian, to whom the CliRpel of the Priory is supposed to have been 
Dedicated, I wish it had been more perfect and more legible. I have suggested 
to Mr. Conolly, that application should be made to the Sea Box of Pittenweem, 
for a search in their Charter Chest for one of those Seals." 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 187 

Excerpts from Inventory of Old Titles and Writs relating to Elie Estate, 
from 1500 to 1853. 

No. 28. Precept of Clare Constat, by William Stewart, Commendator 
of Pittenweem, to Michael Balfour, of Balgarvie, grandson of Michael 
Balfour, of Burley, in Subjects in Pittenweem. Dated 13th Nov., 1595. 

No. 29. Contract between Sir William Houston, Prior of Pittenweem, 
and James Balfour, Prior of Charter House, anent Coal and Salt Pans of 
Pittenweem. Dated April, 1596. 

Priori/ Charts belonging to the Elie Estates. 

1. Chart tilari/, consisting of 166 leaves of Parckment, being Charters 
granted by the Monastery of Pittenweem, from 3rd March, 1533, till 9th 
January, 1556. 

2. Chartnlanj, No. I., commencing 30th July, 1718, and ending 15th 
September, 1787 ; 365 pages. 

3. Chartulanj, No, II., commencing 26th January, 1810, and ending 
18th July, 1839 ; 399 pages. 

4. Chartulanj, No. III., commencing 8th August, 1839, and ending 
30th March, 1850 ; 326 pages. 

5. Chartulanj, No. IV., commencing 1st April, 1850 ; and ending 

; 887 pages. 

THE VALUATION OF THE VICARAGE OF PITTENWEEM 

Is set down at 80 Merks, and of the Priory at 500. (Keith) 
412 12s 8d. Wheat, 4 Chalders, 5 Bolls; Bear, 7 Chalders, 2 Bolls; 
Meal, 4 Chalders, 12 Bolls, 2 Firlots, H Pecks ; Oats, 7 Chalders, 2 Bolls, 1 
Firlot, H Pecks; Pease, 1 Chalder, 11 Bolls; Salt, 24 Chalders. 



X. HOLYKOOD. A.D. 1128. 

The events which have thrown over the Palace of Holyrood 
an Historical and Komantic interest heyond what attaches to any 
other Koyal Kesidence in Britain, have almost obliterated in the 
popular mind the memory of the old Keligious House. 

The Abbey, founded by King David I. .in honour of the Holy 
Cross, and the Blessed Virgin Mary, and All Saints, and endowed 
for Canons-Begular of the Rule of S. Augustin, was begun to be 
built in its present situation A.D. 1128. [Chron. de Mailros. 
Chron. S. Cntcis.} The Convent is said to have been placed at 
first within the Fortress of Edinburgh Castle, which was then, 
and probably for some time before, a Royal Residence [Margaret, 

VOL. I. S 



138 MONASTICON. 

S. David's more Saintly Mother, resided and Died there] ; and 
some of the earliest Possessions bestowed by the Saintly Founder 
on his new Monastery, were the Church of the Castle, and the 
Church of S. Cuthbert, under the Castle Wall, with all their 
Dependencies and Pertinents, among which one Plot of Land 
that had very recently before been given by the King to the latter 
Church, is meted by " the Fountain which rises near the corner 
of the King's Garden, on the road leading to S. Cuthbert's 
Church.'' 

This History of the first situation of the Monastery is at 
variance with the well-known Legend which connects its present 
position with the spot where David had the miraculous escape 
from the enraged Stag, by the intervention of the Holy Cross. 
Bellenden, the Translator of Boece, tells : 

How kyng Dauid past to the huntis on the Croce day in heruest. 
How he was doung fra his hors be ane wyld hart. And how 
he foundit the abbay of Halyrudhons be myracle of the holy 
Croce. 

In the fourt yeir of his regne this nobill prince come to visie the madin 
castell of Edinburgh. At this tyme all the boundis of Scotland wer ful of 
woddis, lesouris, and medois. For the cuntre wes more geuin to store of 
bestiall than ony production of corny s. And about this castell wes ane gret 
forest full of hartis, hyndis, toddis, and siclike maner of beistis. Now wes 
the Eude day curnyn callit the Exaltation of the Croce. And becaus the 
samyn wes ane hie solempne day, the kyng past to his contemplation. Eftir 
that the messis wer done with maist solempnitie and reuerence, comperit 
afore him mony young and insolent baronis of Scotland, rycht desyrous to 
haif sum pleisir and solace be chace of hundis in the said forest. At this 
tyme wes with the kyng ane man of singulare and deuoit lyfe namyt 
Alkwine, channon eftir the ordour of Sanct Augustyne, quhilk wes lang 
tyme confessoure afore to kyng Dauid in Ingland, the tyme that he was erle 
of Huntingtoun and Northumbirland. This religious man dissuadit the 
kyng be mony reasonis to pas to thys huntis. And allegit the day wes so 
solempne be reuerence of the Holy Croce, that he suld gif hym erar for that 
day to contemplation than ony othir exercition. Nochtheles his dissuasionis 
lityll aualit, for the kyng wes finalie so pruokit be inoportune solicitatioun 
of his baronis, that he past nochtwithstandyng the solempnite of thys day to 
his hountis. At last quhen he wes cumyn throw the vail that lyis to the 
gret eist fra the said castell quhare now lyis the Cannogait, the staill past 
throw the wod with sic noyis and dyn of racliis and bugillis, that all the 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 139 

bestis wer raisit fra tliair dennys. Now wes the kyiig cumyu to the fute of 
the crag, and all his nobillis seuerit heir and thair fra hym at thair game 
and solace, quhen suddanlie apperit to his sycht the farest hart that euir 
wes seue afore with leuand creatour. The uoyis and dyn of thys hart 
rynnand (as apperit) with auful and braid tyndis niaid the kyngs hors so 
effrayit that na renyeis mycht hald hym, hot ran per force ouir myre and 
mossis away with the kyng. Nochtheles the hart followit so fast, that he 
dang baith the kyng and his hors to the ground. Than the kyng kest abak 
his hands betuix the tyndis of this hart to haif sauit him fra the strak 
thairof, and the haly Croce slaid incontinent in his handis. The hart fled 
away with gret violence and euaiiist in the same place quhare now springis 
the Eude well. The pepyll riclit affrayitly returnit to hym out of all partis 
of the wod to comfort him efter his trubyll, and fell on kneis^dewotly 
adoryng the haly Croce. For it was not cumyn but sum heuinly prouydence, 
as weill apperis. For thair is na man can schaw of yuhat mater it is of, 
metal or tre. Sone eftir the kyng returnit to his castel. And in the nicht 
following, he was admonist be ane vision in his sleip, to big ane Abbay of 
channonis regular in the same place quhare he gat the Croce. Als sone as 
he was awalkinnit he schew his vision to Alkwine his confessour. And he 
na thing suspendit his gild mind, bot erar inflammit him with maist feruent 
deuotion thairto. The kyng incontinent send his traist seruandis in France 
and Flanderis, and brocht rycht crafty masonis to big this Abbay, syne 
dedicat it in the honour of this haly Croce. This Croce remanit con- 
tinewally in the said Abbay to the tyme of kyng Dauid Bruce, quhilk was 
unhappely tane with it at Durame, quhare it is halden yit in gret veneration. 

It seems, therefore, to be almost a certainty that it was the 
inheritance of this highly-valued Kelic which caused the King to 
Dedicate the Ahhey to the " Holy Eude;" and this supposition 
is strengthened by the fact that David himself presented it to the 
Keligious House which he had Founded. [Holingshed. Hist. 
Scot., p. 177.] It seems not improbable that, being given by 
David to the Canons, while yet resident in the Castle, they con- 
tinued to keep it, for greater security, in their Chapel in that 
Fortress, since it appears among the other Eegalia found in the 
Treasury of the Castle in 1291, in which year it was surrendered 
to Edward I., with all the other emblems of Scottish Nationality, 
but was restored, according to the stipulations of the Treaty of 
Northampton, in 1328. Under the name of " The Black Eude," 
this Eelic was for Ages regarded as the Palladium of Scotland 
and her Kings. Unfortunately, however, David II. carried it 
with him to the fatal Field of Neville's Cross, where, on the 17th 



140 



MONASTICON. 



October, 1346, it fell into the hands of the Conquerors, and for 
Centuries thereafter was exhibited as an object of veneration in 
the "Sowth Alley" of the Cathedral Church of Durham. To 
the Scottish people it must, indeed, have seemed a terrible 
corroboration of the awful potency of the Cross of S. Margaret, 
that, on the very day when it passed from the hands of her 
youthful descendant, he himself, and the flower of his Nobility, 
either perished on the Field, or became the captives of the 
English. 

The " Eood Well" is not now known by that name. But at 
no great distance from the Abbey, is one which bears the marks of 
ancient reverence, and which is yet sometimes visited by a 
Pilgrim of the old Religion. This is S. Margaret's Well, which 
still flows as clear as in the days of S. David. 

There is no reason to doubt that the year 1128 was the Date 
of the commencement of the building of the Abbey on its present 
site. The Charter of Foundation came into possession of the 
City of Edinburgh, upon the citizens acquiring from the noble 
Family of Roxburgh, in 1633, the Possessions of the Abbey. 



CHAET OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 



In nomine Domini nostri Ihesu 
Christi, et in honore Sancte Crucis, 
et Sancte Marie uirginis, omnium- 
que sanctorum. EGO DAUID Dei 
gracia EEX SCOTTORUM, regali aucto- 
ritate, assensu Henrici filij mei, et 
episcoporum regni mei, comitum 
quoque baronumque confirmatione 
et testimonio, clero eciam acquies- 
cente et populo, diuino instinctu, 
omnia subscripta Concedo ECCLESIE 
SANCTE CRUCIS EDWINES-BURGENSI, 
et pace perpetua Confirmo. Hec 
itaque sunt, que ecclesie prefate et 
Canonicis regularibus in eadem Deo 
seruientibus, in liberam et perpetuam 
elimosinam, concedimus ; Ecclesiam 
scilicet Castelli, cum omnibus ap- 
pendicijs et rectitudinibus suis, et 
examen duellii aque et ferri calidi, 
quantum ad ecclesiasticam digni- 
tatem pertinet : Et cum Salectuna, 



In the name of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and in honour of the Holy 
Hood, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and 
All Saints. I, David, by the Grace 
of God, King of the Scots, by my 
Royal authority, with the consent of 
Henry, my son, and the Bishops of 
my Kingdom, with the Confirmation 
and Attestation also of the Earls 
and Barons, the Clergy, moreover, 
and the people assenting, by Divine 
guidance Grant and Confirm in 
peaceable possession to the Church 
of the Holy Eood of Edinburgh, the 
several things hereinafter men- 
tioned : That is to say, I grant to 
the Church foresaid, and to the 
Canons-Eegular serving God in the 
same, in free and perpetual alms, 
the Church of the Castle, with the 
appurtenances and rights thereof ; 
trial by duel, water, and fire ordeal, 



ABBEY OF HOLYltOOD. 



Ill 



per suas rectas diuisaa : Et ecclesiam 
Sancti Cvtliberti, cum parocliia et 
omnibus rebus que eidem Ecclesie 
pertinent ; et cum Kyrchetune per 
rectas diuisas suas, et cum terra in 
qua ipsa ecclesia sita est, et cum 
alia terra que sub Castello iacet ; 
uidelicet, a fonte qui oritar iuxta 
angulum gardini mei per uiam qua 
itur ad ecclesiam Sancti Cvtliberti, 
et ex alia parte sub Castello usque 
quo peruenitur ad unam craggam, 
que est sub eodem Castello uersus 
orientum ; et cum duabus Capellis 
que ad eandem Ecclesiam Sancti 
Cutliberti pertinent, scilicet Cros- 
torpliiu, cum duabus bouatis terre 
et sex acris ; et ilia Capella de 
Libertune cum duabus Bouatis terre 
et cum omnibus decimis et rectitu- 
dim'bus tarn de uiuis quam de mor- 
tuis de Legbernard quas Macbet 
vere eidem ecclesie dedit : Et ego 
concessi eciam ecclesiam de Hereth, 
cum terra que ad eandem ecclesiam 
pertinet, et cum tota terra quam ego 
ei aumentaui et dedi, sicut ministri 
mei et probi homines perambula- 
uerunt et tradiderunt Alwino Ab- 
bati ; cum una salina in Herein, et 
xxvj acris terre. Quam ecclesiam 
et terrain prenominatam, uolo ut 
canonici Sancte Crucis teneant et 
possideant in perpetuum, libere et 
quiete. Et proliibeo firmiter, ne 
aliquis Canonicos siue homines 
eorum, qui in eadem terra maneiit, 
iniuste grauent aut disturbent ; 
neque aliquas operationes, siue aux- 
ilia, siue consuetudines seculares, 
iniuste ab eis exigant. Yolo eciam, 
ut idem Canonici habeant libertatem 
molendini faciendi in eadem terra : 
Et ut habeant in Hereth, omnes 
consuetudines illas et rectitudiiies 
et aeisamenta, uidelicet, in aquis, 
in piscationibus, in pratis, in pas- 
cuis, et in omnibus aliis necessariis 
rebus, sicut melius habuerunt die 
ilia qua illani habui in meo dominio : 
Et Broctunam, cum suis rectis 



so far as pertains to the Ecclesiasti- 
cal dignity; with the Town of 
Saughtoii, and its legal bounds; 
and the Church of S. Cuthbert, and 
the. Parish, and all things pertaining 
to the said Church, and with the 
Kirktown and its bounds, and the 
Land on which the Church stands ; 
and with the other Land lying under 
the Castle ; viz., from the Spring 
which rises near the corner of my 
Garden, by the way which leads to 
the Church of S. Cuthbert, and on 
the other side, under the Castle, as 
far as a crag beneath the said Castle 
towards the east ; with two Chapels 
which belong to the said Church of 
S. Cuthbert, namely Crostorphin, 
with two Bovates * and six Acres of 
Land, and the Chapel of Libberton, 
with two Oxgangs f of Laud, and 
with all the tithes and rights both 
of the living and the dead of Leg- 
bernard, which Macbeth gave to the 
said Church, and I have Confirmed ; 
the Church of Airth, with the Land 
which pertains to the said Church, 
and with all the Land which I have 
added and Granted to it, as my 
officers and good men have peram- 
bulated and delivered the same to 
Alwin the Abbot, with a Saltpan in 
Airth, and 26 Acres of Land, which 
Church and Land before named I 
will that the Canons of the Holy 
Rood shall hold and possess freely 
and peaceably for ever, and I strictly 
prohibit any one from unjustly op- 
pressing or disturbing the Canons, 
or their men who dwell on the said 
Lands, or unjustly exacting from 
them any works, or aids, or secular 
customs. I will also that the said 
Canons shall have liberty to erect a 
Mill on the said Land, and that 
they shall have all the customs and 
rights and easements in Airth 
namely, in waters, in fishings, in 

* Bovate, 15 Acres. 

f Oxgany, same as Bovate. 



142 



MONASTICON. 



diuisis : Et Iimerlet illam, que uici- 
nior est portui, cum rectis diuisis 
suis et cum ipso portu : Et cum 
medietate piscationis ; et cum tota 
decima tocius piscationis que . ad 
ecclesiam Sancti Cutliberti pertinet : 
Et Petendreiam, cum suis rectis 
diuisis : Et Hamere et Fordam, 
cum suis rectis diuisis : Et Hospi- 
tale, cum una carucata terre : Et 
quadraginta solidos de meo burgo de 
Edwinesburg singulis annis : Et 
redditu centum solidoruni singulis 
annis, ad indumenta canoiiicoruin, 
Decano meo de Pert, et hoc de 
primis nauibus que negotiationis 
causa ueniunt ad Pert ; et si forte 
non uenerint, concede prefate Ec- 
clesie de meo redditu de Edwines- 
burg, quadraginta solidos, et de 
Striueline uiginti solidos, et de Pert 
quadraginta solidos : Et unum tof- 
tum in Striueline, et tractum unius 
retis ad piscandum : Et unum tof- 
tum in burgo meo de Edwinesburg, 
liberum et quieturn ab omni con- 
suetudine et exactione : Et unum 
toftum in Berewic, et tractum duo- 
rum retium in Scypwel : Et unum 
toftum in Renifry quinque parti- 
carum, et tractum unius retis ad 
salmones et ibi piscari ad allechtia 
libere : Et prohibeo ne aliquis inde 
a nobis siue ab hominibus nostris 
aliquas consuetudines exigat. Con- 
cedo eciam prefatis Canonicis de 
camera mea singulis annis decem 
libras, ad luminaria ecclesie et ad 
operaciones eiusdeni ecclesie et ad 
reparacionein earundem operatic - 
num imperpetuum. Precipio eciam, 
omnibus ministris nieis et Fores- 
tarijs de Struielin-fire et de Clac- 
manant, quod Abbas e conuentus 
liabeant liberam potestatem in om- 
nibus nemoribus meis et Forestis, 
capiendi tantum de materia quan- 
tum eis placuerit, et uoluerint, ad 
edificacionem ecclesie sue et domo- 
rum suorum et ad quelibet negocia 
sua facienda; et precipio, quod 



meadows, in pastures, and in all 
things necessary, as amply as when 
they were in my own possession ; 
and Broughtoii, with its legal 
bounds, and Inverleith, which is 
near the Harbour, with its legal 
bounds, and the Harbour itself, and 
half of the fishing, and with the 
whole tithe of all the fishing which 
pertains to the Church of S. Cuth- 
bert; and Pittendreich,with its legal 
bounds, and Whitekirk. and For- 
dam, with their bounds, and the 
Hospital, with a Carucate * of Land ; 
and an annuity of forty shillings 
from my Burgh of Edinburgh, and 
an annual rent of one hundred shil- 
lings for the apparel of the Canons 
out of my kain f of Perth, from the 
first merchant ships that come to 
Perth ; and, if by chance such 
should not come, I Grant to the 
said Church, out of my revenue of 
Edinburgh, forty shillings, and of 
Stirling, twenty shillings, and of 
Perth, forty shillings, and a toftj in 
Stirling, and the draught of a fish- 
ing net, and a toft in my Burgh of 
Edinburgh, free and quit of all 
custom and exaction, and a toft in 
Berwick, and the draught of two 
nets in Spytwell, and a toft in Ken- 
frew of five roods, and the draught 
of a net for salmon, and liberty to 
fish there for herring; and I pro- 
hibit any one from exacting any 
customs from you and your men; 
I Grant also to the foresaid Canons 
from my own Chamber, ten pounds 
annually, for lighting and repairing 
the Church in perpetuity ; I com- 
mand also all my servitors and 
foresters in the Counties of Stirling 
and Clackmannan, to give the Ab- 



* Carucate, as much land as a plough 
could till in one year, reckoned at 100 
Acres. 

| Kain, petty Tithes paid to the 
Church. 

I Toft, House or Tenement. 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 



148 



homines eorum, qui ad eorum ne- 
gocia in eisdem nemoribus materiem 
capiunt, meam firmam pacem habe- 
ant, et ita quod non permittatis, 
quod in aliquo disturbentur : Et 
porcos dominios supradicte ecclesie, 
in omnibus nemoribus meis, con- 
cedo esse quietos de padnagio. Con- 
cede eciam prefatis Canonicis, me- 
diatatem sepii et uucti et coriorum 
de occisa de Edwinesburg : Et deci- 
mam de omnibus cetis et marinis 
beluis, que mari eueniunt ab Avin 
usque ad Colbrandespade : Et deci- 
mam omnium placitorum meoruni 
et lucrorum, ab Avin usque ad Col- 
brandespade: Et medietatem rnee 
decime, de ineo cano et de meis 
placitis et lucris, de Kentyr et de 
Errogeil : Et omnes pelles arietinas 
et ouinas et agninas, de Castello et 
de Linlitcu, que moriuntor de meo 
dominio : Et octo cheldras de brasio 
et octo de farina et triginta carratas 
de Buslie de Libertuue ; Et unum 
de meis molendinis de Dene : Et 
decimam molendini de Libertune, et 
de Dene, et noui molendini de 
Edwinesburg : Et Craggenemarf, 
quantum hide habeo in meo domi- 
nio, et quantum Vineth Albus eis 
de eodem Craggo in elimosinam 
dedit. Concede eciam eis herber- 
gare quoddani burgum inter eandem 
Ecclesiam et meum burgum : Et 
concede ut burgenses eorum, liabe- 
ant comniunioiienivendendires suas 
uenales et emendi, in foro meo, 
libere et absque calumpnia et con- 
suetudine, sicut mei proprii bur- 
genses: Et prohibeo, ne aliquis in 
burgo eorum, paneui uel ceruisiam, 
aut pannum, aut aliquid uenale 
capiat per uim, aut sine uoluntate 
burgensium : Concede eciam, Cano- 
nicos esse quietos de theloneo et 
de omni consuetudine, in omnibus 
burgis meis, et per totani terrain 
meani, scilicet de omnibus rebus 
quas ement et uendent : Et proliibeo 
ne aliquis capiat pandum super 



bot and Convent full liberty to take 
out of all my woods and forests as 
much wood as they please and desire 
for the building of their Church and 
Houses and other purposes ; and I 
command that their men who take 
wood from the said forests for their 
use shall have my firm peace, and 
that they shall not be in any way dis- 
turbed ; and I grant also that the lord- 
ship swine of the said Church feeding 
in my woods, shall be free of pan- 
nage." I also Grant to the said Ca- 
nons, one-half of the tallow, lard, and 
hides of the beasts slaughtered in 
Edinburgh, and the tithe of all 
whales and marine animals due to 
me from the Elver Avon as far as 
Cockburnspath, and the tithe of all 
my pleas and profits from the said 
Eiver Avon as far as Cockburnspath, 
and the half of the tithe of my kain, 
and of my pleas and profits of Kin- 
tyre and Argyle ; and the skins of 
all the rams, sheep, and lambs of 
my lordship of the Castle, and of 
Linlithgow, which die naturally, 
and eight Chalders of Malt, and 
eight of Meal, and thirty cartloads 
of the brushwood of Libberton, and 
one of my Mills of Dean, and the 
tenths of my Mill of Libberton and 
of Dean, and of the new Mill of 
Edinburgh, and Craigendsrnark, as 
much as is in my lordship, and as 
much of the said crag as Vineth 
White gave to them in free gift. 
I, moreover, Grant liberty to them 
to found a Burgh between the said 
Church and my Burgh, and that 
their Burgesses have liberty to sell 
and buy in my market freely, and 
without blame or dues, like my own 
Burgesses ; and I prohibit any one 
in my Burgh from taking by force, 
or without consent of the Burgesses, 
their bread, ale, cloth, or other ven- 
dible commodity. I also Grant that 

: ' : Dues levied on swine feeding in the 
lloyal woods upon beech nuts, mast, &c. 



144 



MONASTICON. 



terram Sancte Crucis, nisi Abbas 
eiusdem loci, rectum et ius facere 
recusauerit : Volo autem, ut omnia 
prescripta ita liberaliter et quiete 
teneant sicut ego meas proprias 
terras possideo : Et volo, ut Abbas 
curiam suam, ita liberaliter et quiete 
teneant, sicut ego meas proprias 
terras possideo : Et volo, ut Abbas 
curiam suam, ita libere et plenarie 
et lionorifice habeat, sicut Episco- 
pus Sancti Andree et Abbas de 
Dunfermelin et Abbas de Kelcov, 
curias stias liabeant. His TESTIBUS, 
Rodberto episcopo Sancti Andree, 
Johanne episcopo Glasgvensi, Hen- 
rico, filio meo, Wilelmo nepote meo, 
Eadwardo cancellario, Hereberto 
camerario, Gillimicliael comite, 
Gospatricio fratre Dolfini, Eodberto 
de Monte Acuto, Eodberto de Bur- 
neuile, Petro de Brvs, Normanno 
uicecomite, Oggu, Leising, Gillise, 
Wilelmo de Graham, Turstano de 
Crectune, Blenio archidiacono, Ael- 
frico capellano, Waleranno capel- 
lano. 

[Lib. Cart. Sancte Cntc., p. 3. 
Bawnatyne Club.] 



the Canons be free of all toll and 
custom in all my Burghs, and in all 
my Lands, for everything they buy 
and sell ; and I prohibit every one 
from executing a poinding on the 
Lands of the Holy Rood, except the 
Abbot of that place shall have re- 
fused to do right and justice. I 
will likewise that they hold all the 
before -written subjects as freely and 
quietly as I possess my own Lands, 
and I will that the Abbot shall hold 
his Court as freely, and with as 
ample powers, as the Bishop of St. 
Andrews, the Abbot of Dunfermline, 
and the Abbot of Kelso, hold their 
Courts. Before these Witnesses, 
Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews ; 
John, Bishop of Glasgow; Henry, 
my son ; William, my nephew ; 
Edward the Chancellor; Herbert 
the Chamberlain ; Gillemichael the 
Earl ; Gospatric, brother of Dol- 
phin ; Robert de Montague ; Robert 
de Burneville ; Peter de Bruce ; 
Norman the Sheriff; Oggu; Leis- 
ing ; Gillisse ; William de Graham ; 
Turstan de Creichton ; Blein the 
Archdeacon; ^Elfric the Chaplain; 
Waleran the Chaplain. 



Fordun styles the Abbey " The Monastery of the Crag of the 
Holy Rood," and Joannes Hagustaldensis, the Continuator of 
Simeon of Durham, calls it simply the " Monastery of the Crag." 
David appears, in the first instance, to have located his Canons, 
whom he brought from the Augustinian Monastery of St. An- 
drews, upon, or at the base of, the Castle Eock of Edinburgh, 
and it is difficult to determine the precise period when they 
settled on the meadow below Arthur Seat. The terms of the 
Charter of 1143-7 would seem to imply that they were by that 
time established in their own House ; but Father Hay, Canon of 
St. Genevieve at Paris, in the Eeign of James VII., who made 
an attempt to ascertain the early History of the Abbey, confines 
them to the Rock till the Reign of William the Lion, and, in 
confirmation of this, speaks of the numerous Charters of Malcolm 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 145 

IV., which are Dated " At the Monastery of the Holy Kude, in 
the Castle of Maidens." 

David II., in 1343, presented to the Abbot and Convent the 
Chaplainry of his own Chapel, constituting the Abbot his princi- 
pal Chaplain, with liberty to substitute one of the Canons in his 
room, who should enjoy all the Dues and Oblations pertaining to 
the said Eoyal Chapel a Grant which was Confirmed by Kobert 
III. and other Kings. David II. also erected the whole Lands 
in the possession of the Abbey into a free Regality; and his 
Successor, Robert II., Granted to the Canons a site for a House 
on the Castle Rock, to which they and their dependents might 
betake themselves in time of peril. 

Many important Grants were conferred upon the Abbey 
besides those contained in the Charter of its Founder. Robert, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, Granted the Church of Karreden, with 
two Ploughgates of Land ; Turstan, the son of Leving, Granted 
or Confirmed to " The Church of the Holy Rood of the Castle 
of Maidens" and its Canons, the Church of Levingstone [ecclesia 
de Villa Leving] ; Thor, the son of Swanus, bestowed on them 
all right he had in the Church of Trevernent [Tranent], its Lands, 
Pastures, and Tithes. Willelmus de Veteri Ponte bestowed the 
whole Land of Ogelfas [Ogilface.] At a very early period the 
Monks of Holyrood obtained the Church of Kinnel, with a 
Ploughgate of Land, by the gift of Herbert, the Chamberlain of 
Scotland; and the Church of Paxtuu, and the Church of Bath- 
chet [Bathgate], with a Ploughgate of Land pertaining to it ; but 
this latter Church they afterwards made over to the Monks of 
Newbotle, in exchange for certain Lands in the Carse of Falkirk. 

In the Twelfth Century, Fergus, Lord of Galloway, who 
afterwards became a Monk of Holyrood, and his son, Uchtred, 
were munificent Benefactors of the Abbey. They presented to 
it, among other valuable Grants, the Church of S. Mary and S. 
Bruok of Dunroden, in later times annexed to the Parish of 
Kirkcudbright; the Island of Trahil [now S. Mary's Isle], on 
which was erected the Priory of S. Mary of Trail, a Cell of 
Holyrood ; the Church of Galtweid ; the Church of S. Bridget of 
Blakhet, elsewhere styled Lochblacket [Kirkbride ?], the Church 

VOL. I. T 



146 MONASTICON. 

of S. Cuthbert of Desnesmor [the present Kirkcudbright] ; the 
Church of Tuncgeland ; the Church of Twenhame ; the Church 
of S.- Constantine of Colmanele, alias Kircostintyn, with the 
Chapel of S. Constantine of Egingham ; the Church of S. Andrew, 
or Kirkandrew Balemakethe [Balmaghie] ; the Church of Kele- 
tun, alias Locheletun, and the Church of Kyrkecormac, with the 
Chapel of Balnecros. The four last-mentioned ' Churches or 
Chapels had previously belonged to the Monks of lona. [Lib. 
Cart. Sanct. Crucis, p. 41.] David, the son of Terr, contributed 
to the House the Church of Anewith [Anwoth], with the 
Chapel of Culenes. The Church of Eglysbryth [Falkirk] was an 
early acquisition, as also the Church of Mount Lothian, a Parish 
annexed to Penycuik : the Church of Melginche, with the Land 
called Abthen ; the Chapel of Penteland ; the Church of Boulton 
[a gift of the Family of De Veteriponte or Yipont] ; the Church 
of Eistir Kyngorne ; the Church of Ur ; the Church of S. Con- 
stantine of Crawfurd, with the Chapel of the Castle ; the Church 
of Baru [Barra united to Garvald], and the Church of S. 
Michael of Dalgarenoc. In the ancient Taxation of the Ecclesias- 
tical Benefices in the Archdeaconry of Lothian, found in the 
Treasury of Durham, and written in the Keign of Edward L, 
there appears among the Churches belonging to Holyrood, 
" Ecclesia Sanctse Marise in Campis." [Priory of Coldingham 
(Surtees Volume), Append., cxii.] This was, doubtless, what was 
at a later period the Collegiate Church of S. Mary-in-the-Fields, 
on the site of which the College now stands, and which, under 
the popular name of " Kirk-of- Field," was destined to be so 
tragically associated with the History of some future Occupants 
of Holyrood. When erected into a Collegiate Church, certain 
Eights appear to have been reserved to the Canons to whom it 
originally belonged; for, in 1546, we find Kobert, Commendator 
of Holyrood, presenting George Ker to a Prebend in it, " accord- 
ing to the force and form of the Foundation." 

In 1570, as appears from the Articles presented in that year 
in the General Assembly, against Adam Bothwell, Bishop of 
Orkney, then in possession of the Revenues of the Abbey, 27 
Churches still belonged to the great Monastery of S. David. 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 



147 



In the Abbey Church, there were various Chapels and Altars 
Dedicated to different Saints. The Lady Chapel was, as usual, 
in the Choir at the back of the High Altar [Father Hay. Lib. 
Cart. Sanct. Crucis, p. xxiv.] In the Kecords of the Burgh of 
the Canongate in 1568, however, we read of " Our Ladye altar, 




INTERIOR OF THE ABBEY CHAPEL, LOOKING EAST. 

sumtyme situat within the Abbey Kirk of Halierudhous within 
the Perroche He thereof, to which the 'Ladie land' belonged" 
[Miscellany of Maitland Club, vol. ii., p. 318]; and we read of 
another called " The Abbot's Chapel," to which two silver 



Mn\ \SI-K (ft 

hi-lon^ed. Tlr attached to !li> 

M.I.,.! 1 , II. MI , h.-yond 111.' ( 

uislu .1 from 

n h \- r, and mother nilled "tin /.'.MI- 

init,,- .7/,iw//. r./. iV., />. 24, in the southern ci 

adjoining to tb. Altar, were iho^ of s. \ndiv\\ 

S, Calh.-rini'. Found. -d hy li u'hton, Bishop of Pun- 

Kri.i. \\iio. i.y the aa&ir i ( 

of s. Thomas, near tii' \\ . for ti^ m -oven 

I....T moil, \N!I.> wen t- i-^ ondei UM oontrol of tii<> ch:i]>i:uns 

f the said tw Ms who, upon . : ui.l i' 

were to put on "theii -. nn.l, .U Mass, sit 

\lt.-n- of th Ohapel In khe xiil Comvutual I'luuvh. 
I'.-V. .-,- l:^;. :' waa ;n Altar IViliratod to S. 

rib ride oft] ; i \ltar." /w-' 

//n There was also an Altar Dedicated t 

Mino hy th> Tailors of Edinburgh, and anoth,M- to SS. (Vi^iii 



whose statues were place- \Vearetold. ; 

were erected hy the Trades ivium 

members, who had perfom \\\- i\\ th i 

Land, where, we are ae Ulani, 

Btautlard of tho hold Craftsmen - 

eons ,-vn of Battle, before being suspended over t he 

Altar of 

I 'on., ra:.-d K :-.: .-.>.: . , -: ; ' -,- i>rder. with innnni^rahl,^ priviK^es 
and nnniunuu^ U) tli.Mn and ih.rn- BnoCeSSOn, Henee the Altars 

and Devices upon the Sepulchral Stones that pave the Aisle 

the (Impel 

Badi Ohaplata had -M Merh-; y^rix ; 10 shilling to the 
Canons of said Conventual Church, 
Anniversary * <muly s; D the Choir of the 

fy of his Death yearly, the Placebo and 

eisUd in the frequent rejxtt niout sung 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 149 

with a Mass in the same place on the Jay following, for the 
repose of his soul ; 16 Shillings for eight wax candles to light up 
the Choir, Altars, and Tomb of the Founder; 10 Shillings for 6 
tapers of 3 Ib. weight each, to bo lighted up and burnt at the 
Anniversary of the said Mass; 3 Shillings for ringing the great 
Bell,* and 8 Pennies for ringing the small or Hand-Bells through 
the Towns of Edinburgh and Canongate; 2 Shillings to the 
Bearers of the Torches about the said Altars and Founder's 
Tomb; 36 Shillings for the support of 4 wax candles, to be 
burnt on the said Altars, decently adorned during the first and 
second Vespers, and respective Festivals throughout the year ; 
30 Shillings to be given to 30 poor persons; 10 Shillings for 
Bread and Wine for the Celebration of Masses at the aforesaid 
Altars ; 20 Shillings to repair the Decorations of said Altars ; 8 
Pounds yearly to the Abbot and Canons of the said Monastery, 
us a Feu-Farm or Quit-Rent for the Lands of Lochflat ; and to 
7 poor old men, and their successors, to be lodged in an Alms 
House near to the Abbey of Holyroodhouse aforesaid, 20 Merks 
.1. \Lili. Curt. Stut' i. Crucis. Cli'irt. Mil ilrose.] 

THE INVENTORY 

Of fli,' IV.-/////-///.S inn! < h-inini'iil /' tin' ///'/// .l/l'ii i,f tin' f'iii/i'r/i o/'/A,- 

Mowutery of Hotyrood (written lii/A October, 1183), 

Contained 16 Sets of Chasubles, Albs, Cassocks, and Stoles, of different 
cloths !in<l colours. One Set was called //// /A,,////,-.- S being a Gift, and 
that tin' /;/// of Manckel both being cloth of gold. One Alb of 
ilk, called the " Alb of S. Thomas the Martyr ;" a new Cross of pure 
gold, with 80 precious stones, having a piece of our Lord's Cross ; an old 
silver Cross, with a piece of our Lord's Cross ; a large silver Cross, with a 
foot weighing 180 ounces; a silver Cross for the Sacrament, with a silver 
chain ; one Cross of crystal ; three Texts, of silver, glass, and ivory ; 
Tabernacle of ivory for S. Katherine's Altar ; a silver Arm of S. Augustine, 
with a Bone of the same ; and two Rings weighing 84 ounces. One silver 
PiC-liquary for S. Katherine's Altar, with a Bone of the same, which John 



llll in :i p:irti<:uJ:ir ln;uHr. "Audivit, 

says Bede, "subito in. are MfWN curapame sonum. ;;.tioues exectori pro 

animi-defunctii." &c. [Bedf, HinL, lib. a . cujj. '^3.1 



150 MONASTICON. 

Crunyan, one time Vicar of Ure, made. Twelve Chalices, viz. (1) Of the 
purest gold, with a Paten weighing 46 ounces ; (2) a Chalice of King Robert ; 
(3) a Chalice of King David; (4) a Chalice for the Altar of the Blessed 
Virgin ; (5) a Chalice for S. Andrew's Altar ; (6) a Chalice for S. Katherine's 
Altar ; (7) a Chalice for the Altar of the Holy Cross ; (8) a Chalice of John 
Marschell ; (9) a Chalice of John Weddaill ; (10) another common Chalice ; 
(11) a Chalice for the Parish Altar; (12) a silver Chalice. Two ancient 
silver Candlesticks; four new silver Candlesticks, weighing a stone and 
four pounds ; two silver Candlesticks for the Chapel of the Abbot, of small 
weight ; two brass Candlesticks, and two iron ones, for ferial days. 

The Pontifical Robes of the Abbot, viz. a Mitre, with precious Stones ; 
another Mitre of Damask Work, white colour ; two precious Eramita ; a Pas- 
toral Staff; three Eings ; a Comb of ivory; a silk Girdle ; three silk Palls for 
carrying the Cross, or Blessed Sacrament ; one large silver Eucharist, weigh- 
ing 160 oz. ; besides two Bells, with precious Stones ; a large Cuppa of silver 
for the Sacrament ; a silver Vessel for Holy Water, with a Hyssop ; two 
silver Thuribles, with a silver Censer for the Incense ; two Vials of Silver 
for the High Altar. There are two Vials of Silver for the Altar of the Holy 
Cross ; two Vials of Silver for the Altar of S. Katherine ; and two Vials of 
Silver, with one Text of Silver, an Ivory Image of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
with a silver Foot, and a crystal Vial, with the Oil of S. Andrew, for the 
Altar of S. Andrew. Here follows an Inventory of Copes, viz. One new 
Cope of cloth of gold, blauij coloris ; two Copes of cloth of gold, rubei 
colons, with two silver Ornaments, and one with precious Stones, and 
another without Stones ; one Cope, de cramaseto deanrata, with gold clasps, 
and a Beryl on the breast ; one Cope, de cramaseto, of cloth of gold, having 
a Stag with the Holy Rood on the hood ; one Cope, de cramaseto, interlaced 
with Roses of gold thread; three Copes, de cramaseto vahicie; three Copes 
of Damask Work, white colour; three Copes, vahicie blauij coloris; two 
purple Copes ; one Cope, de camaloto, with another of the same colour ; two 
Copes of cloth of gold, called Douglass ; three Copes, with Chickens woven 
thereupon, of gold thread; three Black Copes for the Dead; four Green 
Copes ; one Green Cope, with gold Orphreys ; one Purple Cope, with dark 
Orphreys, prohamera. For the honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, one large 
Eeparamentum i.e., a Stand or Set; one Cope, with Chasuble and two Tunics ; 
three Albs, three Amices, white, of cloth of gold. Twenty Copes of Damask 
Work, with gold Orphreys, and a Set of other colours, to remain always for 
the use of the said Monastery. [Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. ii., p. 22.] 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 



151 




ABBOTS OF HOLYROOD. 

1. ALWIN was the first Abbot of Holyrood, who Kesigned the Abbacy 

A.D. 1150 [Chroii. S. Crucis] and is 
said to have Died A.D. 1155. [Chalmers 
Caled. Nich. Hist., p. 335.] He was 
the Confessor of King David, and wrote 
a Book of Homilies and Epistles. He is 
mentioned in the Diplom. de Newbotle, p. 
257. 

2. OSBEKT. Died 15 Kal. December, 
1150. [Chron. 8. Cruets.] He wrote the 
Acts of David, the Founder, and was 
Buried before the High Altar, with great 
pomp and solemnity. He Built great 
part of the Monastery, and enriched the 
Church with Vestments and precious 
Vases, and Eelics, enclosed in a silver 
Casket. He also gave an Image of God 
the Father of solid silver. Osbert is not 
in the list of Abbots in the old Bitual 
Book. [Fordun, ad an.] 

3. WILLIAM I. succeeded A.D. 1152. 
[Chron S. Crucis.] He is a frequent 
Witness to Charters during the Keigns 
of Malcolm IV. and William the Lion. 
[Liber de Metros., Reyist. Morav., (&c.~\ 
When he became infirm in body, he 
Vowed to God that he would say the 

Psalter every day. He enclosed the Abbey with a strong Wall. During his 
rule, Fergus, then Lord Galloway, became a Canon of the Abbey, and both 
he and his son, Uchtred, were Benefactors. W'dlelmm abbas Sancta Crucis is 
Wittness to a Chartour of Bichard, Bishop of St. Andrews, confirming to 
Paslay the Churches of Innerwick and Ligerwood, cum pertinentiis. 
[Reyist. de Passelet, p. 116.] 

4. EGBERT is said. to have been Abbot about the time of William the 
Lion. He Granted to the Inhabitants of the newly projected Burgh of the 
Canongate various Privileges, which were Confirmed with additional 
Benefactions by David II., Kobert III., James II., and James III. Those 
Kings Granted to the Bailies and Community, the annuities payable by the 
Burgh, and also the common Moor between the Lands of Broughton on the 
west, and the Lands of Pilrig on the east, on the north side of the road from 
Edinburgh to Leith. 

5. JOHN I. was Abbot of Holyrood A.D. 1173. He is Witness to a Charter 



Appended to Notification by Abbot 
Alwyn,A.D. 1141, Newbotle Charters. 
The Design (Mr H. Laing says) is a 
Church seemingly in the form of a 
Cross of equal dimensions. From 
the centre rises a Tower, crowned 
with a Cupola. This cannot be sup- 
posed to represent the Monastery, 
but probably may indicate the style 
of building at the period. 



152 MONASTICON. 

of Bichard, Bischop of St. Andrews, granting to his Canons the Church of 
Hadington, cum terra de Clerkynton, per rectas di visas. His Charter is 
Confirmed by King William, testibus Hugone Episcopo Sancti Andreae, 
Jocelino Episcopo Glasguensi, Andrea Episcopo Catanensi, Johanne Abbate 
de Kelchowe. 

A.D. 1177. Att which time the Monastery of Holyroodhouse was as 
yet seated in the Castle of Edinburgh, and their Canons were in possession 
of the Buildings of the Nuns, who gave to the Castle the name of " Castellum 
Puellarum." These Nuns had been thrust out of the Castle by S. David, 
and in their place the Canons had been introduced be the Pope's Dispense, 
as fitter to live amongst souldiers. They continued in the Castle dureing 
Malcolm the Fourth his Eeign ; upon which account we have severall 
Charters of that King, Granted apud Monasterium Sanctae Crucis do 
Castello Puellarum. Under King William, who was a great Benefactor to 
Holyroodhouse, I fancie the Canons retired to the place which is now called 
the Abbay ; and upon the first Fundation which was made in honour of the 
Holy Cross, they retaind their first denomination of Holyroodhouse. 
[Father Hay.} 

A.D. 1180. Alexius, a Sub-Deacon, held a Council in the Church of 
the Holy Cross, near Edinburgh. The principal business of this Council 
was the long disputed Consecration of John Scott, Bishop of St. Andrews. 
In A.D. 1189, the first year of the Keign of Kichard I. of England, an 
Assembly of the Scottish Bishops, Kectors of Churches, Nobility, and 
Barons, was held in the Monastery of Holyrood. Richard, who had invited 
William the Lion to his Court at Canterbury, had recognised the complete 
independence of Scotland, fixed the boundaries of the two Kingdoms as they 
were before the captivity of the Scottish King, and Granted him full 
possession of all his fees in the Earldom of Huntingdon! and elsewhere, on 
the same conditions as formerly. It was agreed in this National Convention, 
that William the Lion was to pay 10,000 Merks for this restitution a sum 
supposed to be equivalent to 100,000 Sterling of the present day. Father 
Hay, however, states that the stipulated sum was only 5000 Merks. 

6. WILLIAM I. was Abbot A.D. 1206. During his time, John, Bishop 
of Candida Casa, Resigned his Episcopate, and became one of the Canons. 
He was Buried in the Chapter House, and a Stone, recording his name and 
dignity, was placed on his Grave. [Fordun.] 

7. WALTER, Prior of Inchcolm, succeeded A.D. 1210 ; and Died 2 Ides 
January, A.D. 1217. He was a man renowned for learning and piety, and 
wrote several small Works. 

8. WILLIAM II. was the next Abbot, of whom nothing is recorded but 
his Retirement. 

9. WILLIAM HI., son of Owin, succeeded. On account of his old age and 
infirmities, he Resigned office A.D. 1227, and entered as a Hermit into the 
Island of Inchkeith. But after being there nine weeks, he returned to 



ABBEY OF HOLYEOOD. 158 

Holyrood as a private Monk, and Died soon after. William, Abbot of Edin- 
burgh, occurs in a Charter of Alexander II., Confirming the Lands of New- 
botle, 24th June, 1224. 

10. HELIAS L, or ELIAS, succeeded. He was the son of Nicholas, a 
Priest, pleasant, devout, and affable. He was Buried in S. Mary's Chapel, 
behind the High Altar. He drained the marshes which surrounded the 
Abbey, and Built a Back Wall round the Cemetery. [Father Hay.] 

11. HENRY was probably the next Abbot, who was Nominated Bishop 
of Galloway A.D. 1253, but not Consecrated till 1255. 

12. EALF, or EADULPH, was appointed Abbot next. He is mentioned in 
a Gift of Land at Pittendreich to the Monks of Newbotle. 

13. ADAM, an adherent of the English Party, though zealous Scotch 
Writers have claimed him as a sufferer in the cause of Bruce, and sing his 

praises. He did homage to Edward I. on the 8th July, 
1291 ; and, in the following month, he was employed 
to examine the National Eecords kept in Edinburgh 
Castle. In August, 1296, Adam abbe de Seinte Croiz de 
Edenburnh et le couent de mesme le hi, again did homage to 
Edward I. It was probably in his favour that the Orders 
were Granted for restitution of the Abbey Lands, 2nd 
September, 1296 ; and of certain Corns and Cattle taken 
from the Lands of the Carse, for the supply of Edinburgh 
and Stirling Castles, and the Peel of Linlithgow, 8th 
April, 1310. Dempster writes Alexander for Adam. 

14. HELIAS H., or ELIAS, must have been the 
next Abbot. He is mentioned in a Deed of William 
e u PP e r com- Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, A.D. 1316, who 
partment, the Holy .,, n ' . ,, XT ', ,, 

Face circled with mac ^ e a Composition with Gervase, Abbot of Newbotle, 
nimbus, is in the cen- aoout some Salt Pans. Done at Berwick, 16th July, 
tre of a Cross. Below, Holyrood, in common with Melrose and Dryburgh, felt 
is an Abbot, withCro- the rage of the disappointed Army of Edward II., after 
zier, kneeling before his unsuccessful Invasion in 1322. 
an Altar, upon which 15. SYMON was Abbot of Holyrood on the Vigil 

s set a Chalice. A.D. of s< Barnabas, A.D. 1326. Symon de Wedale, pro- 
Chp.H.JVestm. bably the game man> was Abbot at the game per iod. 

On the 8th of March that year, King Eobert Bruce, who had then glori- 
ously achieved the independence of Scotland, held a Parliament in the 
Abbey, in which was ratified a concord between Eandolph, Earl of Moray, 
afterwards Eegent, and Sir William Oliphant, in connexion with the 
forfeiture of the Lands of William de Monte Alto, and it is probable that the 
Parliaments of the 28th of February and the 17th of March, 1327, assembled 
also in the Abbey. A Parliament was held at Holyrood on the 10th of 
February, 1333-4, when Edward Baliol rendered homage to King Edward 
III. of England, as Superior Lord of Scotland. On the 12th, the Kingdom 
was dismembered, and the National Liberties surrendered, by the ratifica- 
VOL. i. u 




154 



MONASTICON. 



tion of a Treaty between Baliol and Edward, by which the former became 
bound to serve with his forces in the English wars. 

16. JOHN II. succeeded. He occurs as a Witness to three Charters, 1338, 
viz., William de Creighton, William de Livingstone, and Henry de Brade. 

17. BAETHOLOMEW was Abbot in 1342. 

18. THOMAS-. Venerabilis in Christo pater dominus Thomas Dei gratia 
abbas Sanctae Crncis de Edinburgh, is Witness to a Charter of William de 
Douglas dominus ejusdem, Jacobo de Sandilandys et dominae Elionorae de 
Bruys, of the Landis of Wester Caldour. The .same Thomas abbas Sanctae 
Crucis is Witness to a Charter of Confirmation made by David films Walteri, 
" Deo et sancto Servano et vicario ecclesiae de Kynhale de dimidia parte totius 
nemoris de Akydone," Granted to the said Vicar by his mother. His Charter 
is Dated at Edinburgh, " anno gratiae 1347 in festo beati Thomae apostoli." 

On the 8th of May, 1366, a Council was held at Holyrood, in which the 
Scottish Nobles indignantly disclaimed all the pretensions of the English 
King to the Sovereignty of Scotland, and sanctioned an Assessment for the 
annual payments of the ransom of David II. Nothing important occurs in 
the History of the Monastery till 1371, when David II. Died in the Castle of 
Edinburgh, and was Buried near the High Altar in the Abbey Church. In 
1372, Edward III. Granted a safe conduct to certain persons who went from 
Scotland to Flanders, to provide a Stone for the Tomb of David II. 

19. JOHN III. was Abbot llth January, 1372. 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the fourth son 
of Edward III. by Lady Blanch, younger daughter 
and heiress of Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Lan- 
caster, grandson of Edmund, second son of Henry 
III., was hospitably entertained in Holyrood in 
1381, when compelled to flee from his enemies in 
England. 

20. DAVID was Abbot 18th January, the 13th 
year of the Eeign of Eobert II. The Abbey was 
burnt in 1385 by Kichard II., when he invaded 
Scotland, and encamped at Kestalrig ; but it was 
soon repaired. 

21. Dene JOHN IV. of Leith was Abbot the 
8th May, 1886. The last transaction in which 
he appears, is the Indenture of lease of the Canon- 
Attached to a Charter of mills to the Burgh of Edinburgh, Dated 12th 

Abbot John in 1377, to Lord September, 1423. John, Abbot of Holyrudhouse, 

James Douglas, of the Lands is mentioned in a Donation made by David 

Fleming, of Biggar, of Ten Pound made to that 

Abbay, 1392, and in a Confirmation of 20 Marks Sterling Granted to the 
said Abbay by the said David, and Confirmed by the King, 1399. I take 
him to have bin John of Leith, who obtained a Confirmation of the Original 
Charter of the Fundation from King Eobert the 3d. 




ABBEY OF HOLYBOOD. 



155 



John, Abbot of Halyrudhouse, Sanctae Crucis de Edinburgh, is Witness 
to a Charter of Kobert, Duke of Albany, at Perth, 1415, gubernat. an. 10, die 
15 Junij. He Grants thereby to John, Earl of Buchan, the Barony of Kyn- 
edward, upon the resignation of Euphemia Lesly, daughter to Alexander 
Lesly, Earl of Kosse, designed carissima neptis nostra. [Father Hay.] 

Henry IV. spared the Monastery in 1400, on account of the kindness 
of the Abbot and Canons to John of Gaunt, his father, declaring that he 
would allow no violence to be inflicted on an Edifice which his feelings as a 
son enjoined him to respect. 

A.D. 1429. A singular spectacle was witnessed in the Abbey Church. 
Alexander, Earl of Koss and Lord of the Isles, who had enraged James I. 
by ravaging the Crown Lands near Inverness, and burning that Town, and 
whom the King had issued stringent orders to apprehend, suddenly appeared 
in the Church, on the Eve of a solemn Festival, in presence of the King, 
Queen, and Court. He was dressed only in his shirt and drawers, and 
holding a naked sword by the point in his hand, he fell on his knees and 
implored the Koyal clemency. His life was spared, and he was committed 
prisoner to Tantallon Castle, under the charge of the Earl of Angus. 

On 16fch October, 1430, the Queen of James I. was delivered of twin 
Princes in the Abbey, the elder of whom, Alexander, died in infancy. The 
younger was James, who succeeded his father. 

22. PATRICK was Abbot 5th Septem- 
ber, A.D. 1435. On the 25th of March, 
1436-7, James II., who had been Born in 
the Abbey, and was then little more than 
six years old, was conveyed from Edin- 
burgh Castle to the Church of Holyrood, 
and Crowned with great magnificence. 

Another high Ceremony was per- 
formed in the same place in July, 1449, 
when Mary, daughter of the Duke of 
Gueldres, and Queen of James II., was 
Crowned. The Queen was attended by 
the Lord de Vere of Holland, who was 
appointed by Philip the* Good of Bur- 
gundy to conduct his kinswoman to Scot- 
land ; and when she landed at Leith, she 
was received by many of the Nobility } 
and by a large concourse of all ranks, 
who seemed almost Barbarians to the 
polished Burgundians. The Queen, 
mounted on horseback behind the Lord 
de Vere, rode to Edinburgh, and was 




SS. Mary and Mary Magdalene are 
on either side of the Crucifixion. The 



Initials " I. R." stand for Jacobus /., lodged in the Convent of the Grey 
Rex. The Virgin and Child are below. Friars. In the course of a week after her 



156 



MONASTICON. 



arrival, her Nuptials and Coronation were Celebrated in the Abbey Church, 
with all the pomp and ceremony which the rude taste and circumscribed 
means of the Country would permit. [Lesl. Hist.] 

23. JAMES was Abbot 26th April, 1450. A.D. 1460, ten years after- 
wards, the body of King James II. was Buried within the Eoyal Vault. 
He was Killed by the bursting of a cannon at the siege of Koxburgh Castle, 
August 3, in the 30th year of his age, and 23rd of his Eeign. 

24. ARCHIBALD CRAWFURD was the next Abbot, A.D. 1457. [Eotul. Scot. 
He is called Andrew, by mistake of the Kecorder, in 1460. Vol. ii., p. 400, .] 
He was a son of Sir William Crawfurd, of Haining, in the Barony of 
Maxwell : he was first Prior of Halyrudhouse, then Abbot. In 1459, he was 
one of the Commissioners sent to treat with the English at Coventry about 
the prorogation of a truce. In 1474, a Treaty being set on foot, in virtue of 
a Marriage betwixt James, Duke of Kothesay, Earle of Carrik, and Lord 
Cunningham, and Princess Cecile, 3d daughter of King Edward the 4th of 

England, Abbot Crawfurd was one of the Com- 
missioners appointed for Scotland. In 1474, 
he was made Lord High Thresaurer. In 1476, 
the last day of January, he is impowrd by King 
James to receive, in the Church of S. Giles of 
Edinburgh, the 3rd day of February next, the 
soume of 2000 Marks, Inglish Money, owing by 
King Edward the same day, as a part of pay- 
ment of 20,000 Marks, because of Matrimony 
between his only son and heir and Princess 
Cecile. He Died in the beginning of 1483, and 
was succeeded by Eobert Ballantin, of the House 
of Achinoul, a very worthy man. He built the 
Abbay Church from the ground. [Father Hay.~\ 

He built the Abbey Church that now stands, 
about 1460, or thereby. Upon it we see his 
Arms ingraven above thirty times. \Cra\rfurd.~\ 

He added the Buttresses on the Walls of the 
north and south Aisles, and probably built the 




Appended to a Deed of 1477, 
in the Gen. Reg. House, Edin. 



rich Doorway which opens into the north Aisle. 

King James III. passed much of his time at the Abbey ; and, on the 
13th July, 1469, his Nuptials with Margaret of Denmark were Celebrated in 
the Abbey Church, he himself "being of the aige of ticentie yeires, . . . 
and the gentlevoman being bot twel/." For all that, she had a child that 
same year. The Orkney and Shetland Islands were a part of her dowry, 
and, on her Marriage, were made over to Scotland for ever. 

25. EGBERT BELLENDEN, whose virtues are Celebrated by his namesake, 
the Archdean of Moray, and Translator of Boece. He was one of the Com- 
missioners for settling a truce with England, 1486 ; and he was still Abbot, 
13th September, 1498. 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 157 

Dean Kobert Ballentyn was sixteen years Abbat of Holyroodhouse, 
according to the traductor of Boetius. He delt ilke owlk four bowis of wheit, 
and fortie shilling of silver amang pure houshaldaris, and indigent pepil ; he 
brocht hame the gret bellis, the gret brasin fownt,* twintie fowr capis of 
gold and silk ; he maid ane chalice of fine gold, ane eucharist, with sindry 
chalicis of silver ; he theikkit the kirk with leid ; he biggit ane brig of Leith, 
ane othir ouir Glide ; with mony othir gude workis, qwhilkis ware ouir 
prolixt to schaw. Nochttheles he wes sa invyit be sindry othir prelatis, 
becaus he was not gevin to lust and insolence, eftir thair maner, that he left 
the Abbay, and deit ane Chartour-monk. [Bellenden, xii., c. 16.] He was 
Abbot the 18th July, 1493. 

In his time, the Abbey Church was the scene of a high Ceremonial, 
when the Papal Legate and the Abbot of Dunfermline, amid a crowd of 
Scottish Nobles, in name of Pope Julius II., presented King James IV. with 
a purple Crown ornamented with golden flowers, and a Sword, of which the 
hilt and sheath were rich with gold and precious stones, and which, under 
the name of the " Sword of State," is still preserved among the Eegalia of 
Scotland, in the Castle of Edinburgh. [Lesl. Hist.] 

In the year 1493, Abbot Bellenden Founded a Chapel in North Leith, 
Dedicated to S. Ninian, who appears to have been rather a Favourite in 
Scotland. North Leith at that time was rising into some importance, and 
becoming populous ; moreover, the greater portion of the Land on the north 
side of the Estuary of the Water of Leith, called Eudeside, belonged to the 
Abbey, a thing which would have some share in its prosperity, as the 
Church Estates were better managed, and their tenants greatly more com- 
fortable in their worldly circumstances, than those of Lay Landlords. The 
causes moving the Abbot to build this Chapel, independent of the spiritual 
wants of the people, were manifold, as set forth in the Charter of Erection : 
" To the honour of God, the Virgin Mary, and S. Ninian, and for the 
salvation of the souls of the late King James III., and Margaret, his Con- 
sort; for the prosperity of the reigning King James IV., and for the 
salvation of the souls of their Predecessors and Successors; for the Founder's 
own soul, and those of his parents ; for the souls of the Abbots, his Prede- 

* This is probably the Font which Sir Richard Lee, Captain of Pioneers in the 
Hertford Invasion, carried off " in the tumult of the conflagration," and which he 
presented to the Church of S. Alban, with the magniloquent Inscription engraved on 
it, which Camdeii lias preserved. The Scottish Font is made most unpatriotically to 
say [luckily in Latin] " When Leith, an important Town in Scotland, and Edin- 
burgh, the capital City of the Scots, were in flames, Sir Richard Lee, Knight, rescued 
me from the flames, and brought me to England. In gratitude to him for his kind- 
ness, I, who hitherto served only at the Baptism of the children of Kings, do now 
most willingly offer the same service even to the meanest of the English Nation. Lee, 
the Conqueror, hath so commanded. Farewell. A.D. 1543, and 36th of the Reign of 
Henry VIII." This Font was afterwards conquered by the Roundheads, and sold as 
old metal. 



158 MONASTICON. 

cessors and Successors ; for the souls of all those to whom he was any ways 
in debt, or had any way offended, and for the souls of all the faithful and 
deceased Saints." Some idea is afforded of the laxity which had crept into 
the morals of the Clergy at this time by another clause of the Charter of 
this Chapel, quoted as showing how ripe they were for the " Keformation," 
which so speedily overtook them : " If either of the aforesaid Chaplains keep 
a lass or concubine in an open and notorious manner, he shall be degraded." 
In 1606, an Act of Parliament constituted this Chapel the Parish Kirk of 
North Leith ; but having become far too small for that purpose, a new and 
commodious Church was erected, and, in 1826, Abbot Ballantyne's Chapel 
was transformed into a Victual Granary. [Courtey's Holyrood.] 

26. GEORGE CRICHTOUN was Abbot A.D. 1515, and Lord Privy Seal. He 
was promoted to the See of Dunkeld A.D. 1522. 

27. WILLIAM DOUGLAS, Prior of Coldingham, was the next Abbot of 
Holyrood. Died 1528. 

28. EGBERT CAIRNCROSS, Provost of the Collegiate Church of Corstor- 
phin, and Chaplain to King James V.; High Treasurer, September, 1528; 
soon after Abbot of Holyrood. He was turned out of the Treasurer's Office 
in the beginning of the year 1529 ; recovered it, 1537 ; again lost the Office, 
24th March, 1538. In 1538 or 1539, he Vacated his Abbey of Holyrood, on 
being Appointed to the Bishoprick of Ross, which he held, in conjunction 
with the Abbacy of Feme, till his death, 31st November, 1545. Buchanan 
gives him a very bad Certificate. 

In 1537, 6 Id. Jul., Magdalen, daughter of Francis I. of France, Died 
enceinte at the early age of 16, and was Buried within the Eoyal Vault, near 
to King James II. The National grief was intense. James V., her 
husband, Died at Falkland, 14th December, 1542, and was Buried in the 
same Tomb. 

There is preserved in the Advocates' Library, a MS. containing an 
authentic Account of a Search made in the Vault by authorised persons, 
about five years prior to the sacrilegious violation of its mouldering Relics 
of Scottish Royalty. The Narrative of the Inquisition is as follows : 

Upon ye xxiv of January MDCLXXXIIL, by procurement of ye Bischop 
of Dumblayne, I went into ane vault in ye south-east corner of ye Abbey 
Church of Halyrudehouse, and yr. were present, ye Lord Strathnavar and E. 
Forfare, Mr. Robert Scott, minister of ye Abbey, ye Bishop of Dumblayn, 
and some uthers. Wee viewed ye body of King James ye Fyft of Scotland. 
It lyeth within ane wodden coffin, and is coveret wyth ane lead coffin. 
There seemed to be haire upon ye head still. The body was two lengths of 
my staf, with two inches more, that is twae inches and mare above twae 
Scots elne ; for I measured the staf with ane elnwand efterward. 

The body was coloured black with ye balsom that preserved it, which 
was lyke melted pitch. The Earl of Forfare tooke the measure with his staf 
lykeways. There was plates of lead, in several long pieces, louse upon and 
about the coffin, which carried the following inscription, as I took it from 
before the bishop and noblemen in ye isle of ye church : 



ABBEY OF HOLYEOOD. 



159 



ILLVSTRIS SCOTORVM REX JACOBVS EJVS NOMINIS V. ETATIS 

SUE ANNO XXXI REGNI VEEO XXX MORTEM OBIIT IN 
PAL AGIO DE FALKLAND 14 DECEMBRIS ANNO DNI. MDXLII 

cvjvs CORPVS me TRADITVM EST SEPVLTVRE. 

Next ye south wall, in a smaller arch, lay a shorter coffin, with ye 
teeth in ye skull. 

To the little coffin in the narrow arch, seemeth to belong this inscrip- 
tion made out of long pieces of lead in the Saxon character : 



|Jrim0-gemia 



Sftotia, Sponsa fatobi 

A.D. MDXXXVII. OBIIT. 



There was ane piece of a lead crown, upon the syde of whilk I saw two 
floor de leuces gilded ; and upon ye north side of ye coffin lay two children, 
none of the coffins a full elne long, and one of them lying within ane wod 
chest, the other only the lead coffin. 

Upon ye south syde, next the King's body, lay ane gret coffin of lead, 
with the body in it. The muscles of the thigh seemed to be entire ; the 
body not so long as King James the Fyfth, and ye balsam stagnating in sum 
quantity at ye foote of ye coffin ; there appeared no inscription upon ye coffin. 
And at ye east syde of the vaults which was at ye feet of ye other 
coffins, lay a coffin with the skull sawen in two, and ane inscription in small 
letters, gilded upon a square of ye lead coffin, making it to be ye bodye of 
Dame Jane Stewart, Countesse of Aryyle, MDLXXXV, or thereby, for I do not 
well remember ye yeare. The largest coffin, I suld suppose to be that of 
Lord Darnley's, and the short coffin, Queene Magdalene's. 

29. EGBERT, the "natural" son of 
James V., by Eupham Elphinstone, had a 
Grant of the Abbacy while yet seven 
years of age. He joined the "Eeforma- 
tion " in 1559 ; Married in 1561 ; had a 
Grant from his sister, Queen Mary, of 
the Crown Lands of Orkney and Zetland, 
1565 ; a large Grant out of the Queen's 
third of the Abbacy of Holyrood, 1566. 
In 1569, he exchanged his Abbacy with 
Adam, Bishop of Orkney, for the Tempo- 
ralities of that Bishoprick ; and his Lands 
in Orkney and Zetland were erected into 
an Earldom ^in his favour, 28th October, 
1581. 

Spottiswoode, in the year 1567, says : 
Some two days after the Queen was 
committed to Lough-Leven, the Earle of 
Glencairne, with his domesticks, demo- 
lished the Altare of Holyroodhouse, break- 
ing the pictures and defaceing the Orna- 
Matrix in the Antiq. Society, Edin. ments within the same. 




160 MONASTICON. 

30. ADAM BOTHWELL, who acquired the Abbacy of Holyrood by this 
strange transaction, did not find his new Benefice in a less stormy position 
than his old Orcadian territory. His life and character form an important 
part of the History of that troubled period. Of the Articles presented 
against him in the General Assembly, 1570, the fifth was : 

All the said kirkis (the twenty-seven churches of the Abbey), for the 
maist part, wherein Christis evangell may be preachit, are decayit, and made, 
some sheep-falds, and some sa ruinous that nane dare enter into them for 
fear of falling, specially Halyrudhous ; althocht the Bischop of Sanct 
Andrews, in time of Papistry, sequestrat the hail rentis of the said Abbacy, 
becaus only the glassen windows war not halden up and repairit. To which 
article the Bishop answered, " He wes bot of late come to the benefice, and 
the maist part of thir kirkis war pullit doun be sum greedie personis at the 
first beginning of the Eeformation, quhilk hath never been helpit or repairit 
sensyne ; and few of thame may be repairit be his small portion of the 
living ; but specially the Abbay kirk of Halyrudhous, quhilk hath been thir 
twintie yeris bygane ruinous through decay of twa principal pillars, sa that 
nane war assurit under it ; and twa thousand pounds bestowit upon it wald 
not be sufficient to ease men to the hearing of the word and ministration of 
Sacraments. Bot with thair consent, and help of ane established authoritie, 
he wes purposed to provide the means that the superfluous ruinous pairts, to 
wit the queir and croce kirk, micht be disposed be faithfull men to repaire 
the remanent sufficently ; and that he had alsua repairit the kirks of Sanct 
Cuthbert and Libberton, that thai war not in sa good case thir twintie yeris 
bygane. And farder, that ther wes ane order to be usit for reparation of 
kirkis, whereunto the parochiners war oblidged as weil as he ; and whan 
thai concurrit, his support suld not be inlaiking." [The Book of the Kirk, 
ad an.] 

The Bishop appears to have Kesigned his Abbacy in favour of his son 
before 1581. He Died in 1593. 

Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, became Abbot of Holyrudehouse 
after Eobert Steward, base son to King James the Fift by Euphem Elphin- 
stone, who was created Earle of Orkeney and Lord Shetland by King James 
the Sixth, 1581. This Adam was a younger brother to Sir Kichard Both- 
well, Provost of Edinbrugh in Queen Maries time, and a second sone to Sir 
Francis Bothwell, Lord of the Session in King James the Fyfts time, and 
was begotten upon Anna Livingstone, daughter to the Lord Livingstone. 
He married Margaret Murray, and begote upon her John, Francis, William, 
and George Bothwells, and a daughter named Anna, who, by her nurses 
deceit, fell with child to a son of the Earle of Mar. Many offenses were 
layd to his charge, as symoniacall exchange of his Bishoprike of Orkney with 
Holyrudehouse ; his retaining the title of Bishop, and the name of reverend 
father in God ; his desisting from preaching ; his accepting of a place of a 
Lord of the Session. He was deprived of all function in the Ministry for 
solemnizing the Marriage betwixt the Queen and the Earle of Bothwell ; he 
was also delated for occupying a room of a Lord of the Session ; and, in the 
year 1568, it was ordained in a generall meeting, att some convenient time 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 161 

he should confess, upon the Lord's day, att the end of the sermon, in the 
Kirk of Holyrudehouse, his offense for solemnising the Marriage between the 
Queen and the Earle of Bothwell. Mr. Knox, Craig, and Lindsey, were 
appointed, 1570, to try his answers in the Generall Assembly. 

This Bishop is Interred in the Church of the Holy Cross of Edinburgh; 
his Epitaph is ingraven upon a rough Stone, which is seen upon the 
second Pillar on the south side ["Upon the front of the third Pillar 
from the east corner, on the south side :" Theater of Mortality] and hath 
the following words in gilded letters : 

Hie reconditus jacet nobilissimus vir 

D. ADAMUS BOTHUELIUS, Episcopus 

Orcadum et Zethlandiae, Commendatarius Monastery' 

Sanctae Crucis, Senator et Conciliarius 

Kegius, qui obijt anno aetatis suae 72 [67] 

tertio [23] die mensis Augusti anno Domini 1593. 

Translation Here lies Interred Lord Adam Bothwell, a most noble 
man, Bishop of Orkney and Shetland, Commendator of the Mon- 
astery of the Holy Cross, a Lord of Session and Privy Councillor, 
who Died in the 67th year of his age, 23rd day of August, A.D. 1593. 

Upon the same stone ther are some verses that contain but little 
sense. Menteith, in his Theater of Mortality, jj. 52, gives the following 
Translation of these Verses" : " Born of a great Senator, himself a great 

* Menteith does not give the Translation stated by Father Hay, but as follows : 

EPITAPHIUM. 

Nate Seiiatoris magni ; magne ipse Senator ; 
Magni Senatoris, triplice laude, parens; 
Tempore cujus opem poscens ecclesia sensit ; 
Amplexa est cujus cura forensis opem ; 
Vixisti ex animi voto : Jam plenus honorum ; 
Plenus opum, semi jam quoq; plenus, obis 
Sic nihil urna tui, nisi membra senilia celat; 
Teque vetat virtus, vir tua magne mori. 
J. fselix Mortem requie superato suprema, 
Sic Patriss et liberis, fama perennis erit, 
JEternum vive, atque vale. 

M. H. R. 

EPITAPH. 

Thy praise is triple sure ; thyself, thy Sire, 
Thy Son, all Senators whom men admire. 
The stagg'ring State by thee was quickly stay'd, 
The troubled Church from thee got present aid. 
Thou lived'st at thy wish ; thy good old age 
In wealth and honours took thee off the stage. 
Thine aged corpse interred here now lie, 
Thy virtues great forbid your name to die. 
Go, happy soul, and in thy last repose 
Vanquish thou Death, and all its fatal blows 
Thy fragrant fame shall thus eternal be, 
Unto thy country and posteritie. 

VOL. I. X 



162 MONASTICON. 

Senator, and the father of a great Senator, he has triple praise. He helped 
the Church in time of need, and greatly assisted the State. He lived 
according to the dictates of his own mind, and Died full of days, wealth, 
and honour. The Grave holds only his worn-out frame, his virtues forbid 
his memory to die. Happy soul, he conquers death in his last sleep, and 
his renown shall be lasting in his country. Live for ever, and farewell." 
And above the precedent words is his scutchen so represented ; the supporter, 
an Angell at the back of the scutchen, holding it with his two hands, dis- 
played the motto, Obdura adversus imurgentia. Att the foot of the stone the 
following Letters M. K. (M. H. E.) [Father Hay.} 

[Abbot Adam Bothwell's Seal very much resembles Abbot Eobert's.] 

81. JOHN BOTHWELL, the Bishop's eldest son, had a Provision to the 
Abbacy of Holyrood under the Great Seal, 24th February, 1581. He 
succeeded his father as a Lord of Session in 1593. He accompanied King 
James to England. In 1607, the Lands of Dunrod and Kirklands in Kirk- 
cudbright, Alhammer or Whitekirk in Haddington, part of the Abbey 
Property, together with the Monastery of Holyrood itself, were erected into 
the temporal Lordship of Holyroodhouse, in favour of him and his heirs, 
with the place and dignity of a Lord of Parliament, by the title of " Lord 
Holyroodhouse." 

John, Lord Bothwell, succeeded his father in the Abbay ; he Died with- 
out heirs male ; so since his death we hear of none that carried the title of 
Abbot. A part of the Lands fell into the hands of the Earle of Eoxburgh. 
King Charles the First urged that Earle to surrender the superiority of the 
Canongate and Bruchton, which belonged of old to that Abbay. The Earle 
granted with much difficulty what the King required, yet retained the rents 
thereof till such time that he was to receive 211,000 Merks for the same. 

King James the Seventh intended to bestow that place upon our Canons 
of Saint Genoveves. For that effect I began to trait with the Earle of 
Perth, the 29th of May, 1687, att seven of the clock att night, and continued 
the 31 of May, the 2, 4, 13, 16 "days of June. Tewsday the llth of July, 
the keys of the Church were given to my Lord Chancellor, who delivered 
them next morning to the Provost, and gave him fourteen days to take away 
the sets the bedlar had care thereof. The Sunday following, the Abbay 
Parish was transferred to the Lady Tester's Church, and the Minister therof 
preached therin. 

King James designed likewise to make that Church the meeting-place 
of the Knights of Saint Andrew ; and for that effect caused build a curious 
work therein, which was ruined, when almost finished, by the moab of 
Edinburgh, 1688, upon Munday the 10 December ; who destroyed likewise 
his Majestie's Privet Chapell in the Palace, pillaged the Jeswit's Colledge, 
which stood in the Chancellour's appartments, and plundered severall other 
dwellings belonging to the Eoman Catholicks, both in the City and Countrey. 

Part of this house is become the Palace of our Kings, and the Church, 
of late, the Burial Place of our Nobility. Upon Sunday the 22 of January, 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 168 

1688, 1 buried the body of Agnas Irwine, spouse to Captaine Charters, in 
that Church, betwixt five and six of the clock at night ; the Earle of Perth, 
Chancellor, Duke of Gordon, and severall other persons of all ranks present. 
I was in my habit, with surplice and aulmuss ; the ceremony was performed 
after the rites of Eome. She was the first persone since the pretended 
Beformation that was interred publicly after that manner. [Father Hay.] 

The CHRONICLE commenced by the Canons of Holyrood 
[Chronicon Sanctae Crucis, first Published by Wharton, and Re- 
printed for the Bannatyne Club. The part which has been 
preserved comes down only to 1163] and which promised to be 
so valuable to the Historian, unfortunately breaks off at the time 
of their third Abbot ; and even the Indices Sanctorum, and the 
"two Calendars of Benefactors and Brethren, begun from the 
earliest times, and continued by the care of numerous Monks," 
may, when due allowance is made for the magniloquent style of 
the Kecorder, mean nothing more than the united Calendar, 
Martyrology, and Ritual Book, which is fortunately still pre- 
served by Mr Pringle, of Whytbank. It is a large folio Volume 
of 132 leaves of thick vellum, in oak boards covered with 
stamped leather, which resembles the binding of the Sixteenth 
Century. 

No evidence is found that any Chartulary of Grants in favour 
of the Abbey was ever formed. When, however, the period of 
dilapidation arrived, a Register became necessary of the Grants 
by the Abbey ; and we have still extant fragments of it, recording 
Feu Charters, and Leases of Lands, and Tithes, from 1545 to 
1567. [Preserved in the General Register House.] 

The extent of the ancient Possessions of this great Abbey, 
may be gathered from the Charters and Gifts collected in the 
valuable Munimento Ecclesie Sancte Crucis de Edwinesburg (from 
which the present details have been selected, by kind permission), 
though many Writs have undoubtedly been lost; and others, 
recording transactions with the neighbouring Abbey of Newbottle, 
are to be found in its Published Register. To ascertain what 
part of its old Property remained at the "Reformation," is now 
almost impossible. Some information, however, may be derived 
from the imperfect Register of Feu Charters already mentioned ; 



164 MONASTICON. 

and additional assistance is afforded by a series of Stent Rolls, or 
computations for enabling the nominal holder of the Benefice, 
after the "Reformation," to operate his relief in general taxations 
against the real owners of the property. 

The accident which drove the first of the great Lords of 
Galloway to seek refuge in Holyrood, and to conciliate the Royal 
favour by enriching the new Foundation, has given to the 
Charters of the Abbey an additional importance, as forming the 
most ancient Records of the tenure of property in that interesting 
but obscure district. For the Ecclesiastical Antiquary, they 
furnish notices of an ancient Division of the Bishopric of Gallo- 
way into three Deaneries, corresponding apparently with natural 
Divisions of the Country, though only one of these is popularly 
known at the present day. [The Deanery of the known district 
of the Rinnes. The other two are Desnes and Fames, which 
are yet to be explained by the local Antiquary.] The acquisition 
by Holyrood of the four Churches in Galloway, quae ad jus 
Abbaciae cle Hii Golumcliille pertinent, may afford room for much 
speculation. Were these the property of lona, and, if so, how 
could the Sovereign assume the right to dispose of them ? Or 
had the Cluniac Monks, introduced there by King William, 
scruples about holding Benefices cum cum animarum, while the 
other great Monastery of that Order was rapidly acquiring 
Churches all over Scotland ? Spottiswoode, without quoting his 
authority, says the Cluniac Monks of Icolmkill, in the Reign of 
King William, lost all their Benefices cum cum animarum in 
Galloway, which were bestowed upon the Canons of Holyrood; 
the Benedictines not being allowed by their Constitutions to 
perform the duties and functions of a Curate an insufficient 
reason at least for parting with property which might lawfully be 
held even by laymen. Or, lastly, is this a vestige, and the only 
remaining one, of that authority exercised by the Abbots of lona 
over the Churches of a wide district ? It is probable that the 
more ancient Cells and Dependencies of Holyrood in the Hebrides 
- [Crusay and Oronsay, both Foundations of S. Columba ; the 
other Houses of Rowadil and Colonsay, were natural offsets of 
Holyrood, after it had acquired a footing and influence among 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 165 

the Islanders] were at first the property of the venerable Abbey 
of lona, and that they changed owners at the same time with 
these Galloway possessions, though we have no record of their 
acquisition. 

The chief Territories of the Abbey, however, lay nearer home. 
In the Carse of Falkirk, round their Churches of Erth, Kineil, 
and Falkirk; in Livingston, Bathgate, Ogleface, and Kareden, 
they had Possessions of immense extent, and now of immense 
value. On the other side, they had large Grants in Preston, 
Tranent, and Bolton, and the whole Territory of Hamer, the 
name of which has now merged in the more popular one of 
Whitekirk ; while, in the closer vicinity, the Abbey had, from the 
earliest times, the Burgh of Canongait, the Baronies of Brough- 
toun and Inverleith, Sauchton and Sauchtonhall, with large 
Estates, latterly held by their Vassals, in Merchinstoun, Libber- 
ton, and Craigmillar. 

With such an extent of Territory in the fairest Districts of 
Scotland, joined to the Tithes of their numerous Churches, it is 
astonishing to find the Revenue of Holyrood, as given up at the 
" Reformation," amounting only to 2926 8s 6d of Money, with 
116 Chalders of Victual. After all allowance for the imperfect 
cultivation and scanty produce of the soil, and for the admitted 
liberality of the Catholic Churchmen towards their Tenants, with 
the knowledge of the rapid dilapidations which preceded the 
" Reformation," it is still difficult to conjecture how the Revenue 
of their actual Possessions of the Abbey can have been estimated 
so low. 

The Privilege Granted by the Foundation Charter to the 
Abbot, to which the Burgh of Canongait owes its origin, gave 
rise in after times to hot disputes between the City and the 
Burgh of the Abbot. The Proceedings in one suit between them, 
regarding the Privileges of the Burgh of Regality of Canongait, 
have been Printed in the Preface of Liber Cartarum Sancte 
Crucis : Bannatyne Club all about the word Herbergare. 

There are two subjects of great interest on which no informa- 
tion is found in the Collection of the Muniments of Holyrood, 
there is no allusion to the Privileges of the Abbey as a Sanctuary, 



166 MONASTICON. 

nor do we find any Deed referring to the early occupation of the 
Abbey as a Royal Palace. 

With regard to the Sanctuary, notwithstanding the refuge 
and protection afforded to criminals flying to Holy Church, and 
in spite of the arguments that have been founded on the peculiar 
terms of the great Charter of King David, as if the Abbey's 
Privileges of Sanctuary derived their origin from them; it will be 
the mose admitted, the more the subject is investigated, that the 
Sanctuary for debtors is of comparatively modern origin, and is 
founded on the Privileges attached by usage to the Royal 
Residence, unconnected with the ancient protection which the 
Abbey, like other Churches, afforded to criminals. 

Notwithstanding its dangerous neighbourhood to England, 
we find the Abbey of Holyrood, at an early period, capable of 
receiving the retinue of Princes ; and though frequently a prey to 
the savage Wars of the Borders, each time quickly repaired, and 
perhaps each time on a better scale. Some Notices of its various 
fortunes have already been given among Father Hay's Collec- 
tions. A few more will serve to mark the gradual rising of the 
City of Edinburgh into importance, and the increase of Royal 
favour for the neighbouring Monastery as a Residence, until it 
became at length the chief of the Royal Palaces of Scotland. 

Its neighbourhood to England was perhaps the inducement 
to the Baliols to prefer Edinburgh as the Seat of their precarious 
Government. In 1295, John Baliol held a Parliament there. 
In 1333, his son Edward held a Parliament, or rather a Council 
of the disinherited Lords, in the Abbey Chapel. 

John of Gaunt was hospitably entertained in the Abbey, when 
obliged to seek refuge from the turbulent Commons in 1381. 
Richard II., in his predatory Incursion in 1385, burnt Holyrood. 
Yet the Abbey seems to have been restored and inhabited in 
1400, when Henry IV. spared it in his general devastation, 
because his father had refuge there. 

Robert III. seems sometimes to have made Holyrood his 
Residence. James I. occasionally kept his Court there ; and, in 
the Abbey, his Queen was delivered of twin Princes, on the 16th 
October, 1430. The Parliament held at Edinburgh by this 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 167 

Sovereign in 1426, is among the first symptoms of the increased 
consideration and security of the City, which soon led to its 
taking its place as the acknowledged Capital and Seat of 
Government. 

James II. was Born, Crowned, and Married in the Abbey of 
Holyrood; and his Eemains were carried from the disastrous 
scene of his Death, to be Interred in its Chapel in 1460. Of his 
Coronation and Marriage, an Account has been quoted above 
from the rhetorical Historian of Scotland. The former Ceremony 
is more simply recorded by a contemporary Chronicler : "1436, 
wes the coronacioun of king James the secund with the red 
scheik, callit James with the fyr in the face, he beand hot sax 
yer aid and ane half, in the abbay of Halyrudhous, quhar now 
his banys lyis." [Chronicle at the end of Wyntoun MS.] 

James III. resided much at Holyrood; and in the Abbey 
were Solemnised, on the 13th July, 1469, his Nuptials with 
Margaret of Denmark, and the Coronation of the young Queen, 
" in gret dignite." 

Edinburgh had now become the acknowledged Capital of the 
Kingdom; and the preceding Notices show that the adjoining 
Monastery was, even before the Reign of James IV., the usual 
Residence of the Scottish Sovereigns. At what period a Royal 
Dwelling was added, distinct from the Monastic Buildings, it is 
impossible to ascertain. From the well-known taste of James 
III., we naturally look to him as the probable Architect; but it 
is possible the Palace of Holyrood owed its origin to his more 
princely and splendid Successor. 

It is well known that the Treaty of Marriage between James 
IV. and Margaret of England was concluded four years before 
the Marriage itself took place. The intermediate time was 
apparently employed in preparing a Palace fit for the reception 
of the English Princess. 

Thus built or enlarged for the auspicious occasion of his 
Marriage, the Palace of Holyrood continued to be the chief 
Residence of James IV., and he still expended sums of money 
upon "this werk," till near the disastrous termination of his 
life, in 1513. 



168 MONASTICON. 

Two years later, when John, Duke of Albany, arrived in 
Scotland, he also resided in Holyrood, and continued the en- 
largement of "the Kingis Palice of Holyroodhous," as appears 
from entries in the Treasurer's Accounts for the year 1515. 

Holyrood was only an occasional place of Eesidence to James 
V. ; yet, after assuming the reins of Government, he authorised 
various sums of money to he paid for * ' reparatiouns of the 
Kingis Palace besyde Halyrudehouse," or, as it is more frequently 
termed, for "the new werk in the Abbey of Halyrudehouse," 
under the direction of Mr. John Skrymgeour, who was then 
"Master of Works." This Officer's Accounts from 1529 to 
1541, which are in part preserved, would of themselves show 
that the Palace was not erected anew by that Monarch. Athough 
it may not be possible to ascertain what portions of the Building 
belonged to his Keign, it is probable that his "new work" con- 
sisted of the Towers which still remain at the north-west corner 
of the Palace, and on which the words Jac. U. tCX Stotorunt, 
could lately be traced, at the bottom of a Niche. The remaining 
History of Holyrood is very well known. In the Earl of Hert- 
ford's Invasion, the English Army "brent the abbey called Holy 
rode house, and the pallice adjonynge to the same." 

Whether the destruction was not complete, or the Buildings 
had been immediately repaired, we find the Abbey at least 
effectually demolished again, only three years later, in the 
Expedition of the Protector Somerset in 1547: " Thear stode 
south westward, about a quarter of a mile from our campe, a 
monasterie ; they call it Holly roode Abbey. Sir Water Bonham 
and Edward Chamberlayne gat lycense to suppresse it ; whear- 
upon these commissioners, makyng first theyr visitacion thear, 
they found the moonks all gone, but the church and mooch parte 
of the house well covered with leade. Soon after, thei pluct of 
the leade, and had down the bels, which wear but two; and, 
according to the Statute, did somewhat hearby disgrace the hous. 
As touching the moonkes, bicaus they wear gone, thei put them 
to their pencions at large." One of these Bells is now in the 
South-East Tower of St. Paul's Episcopal Chapel, York Place, 
Edinburgh. 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 



169 



What became of the Community of the Abbey of Holyrood- 
house at the destruction of the Monastery by the Earl of Hertford 
does not appear, but we find that one of the Monks named John 
Brand, served many years after the Beformation as Minister 
of the Canongate. Brand was employed by John Hamilton, 




TOWER AND WEST FRONT OP HOLYROOD CHAPEL. 

natural brother of the Earl of Arran, and last Archbishop of St. 
Andrews before the Reformation, to signify to John Knox that 
he ought to be wary in his Reform of the Church, especially as 
to its Temporalities, in regard to which he looked upon the plan 
of annual Deacons for collecting the Church Rents as a dream, 
adding, " Our Highlandmen have a custom, when they will break 



VOL. I. 



170 MONASTICON. 

young colts, to fasten them by the head with strong tethers, one 
of which they keep ever fast till the beast be thoroughly broke. 
The multitude, that beast with many heads, should just be so 
dealt with. Master Knox, I know, esteemeth me not, but he 
shall find what I say turn out true." [Spottiswo&de.] 

It is difficult to understand how the Abbey survived so much 
Burning and Suppressing. Those were not times when either 
Monasteries or Palaces were eagerly re-edificed, and yet we are 
told by Lesly that the "Reformers" once more spoiled the 
Abbey, and damaged the Palace, on the 29th June, 1559. 

We know for certain that Mary made the Palace her Resi- 
dence in 1561 ; and there took place, in rapid succession, the 
chief scenes of her Tragedy. 

The Nave of the Ruined Abbey Church appears to have been 
fitted up as a Chapel Royal previous to the arrival of Queen 
Mary from France in 1561. Upon her return to Scotland, such 
was the intolerant spirit of the "Reformers" in matters of 
Religion, that the Queen's natural brothers James, Prior of St. 
Andrews ; John, Prior of Coldingham ; and Robert, Abbot of 
Holyrood had, on the first day of the Queen being at Public 
Worship, actually to guard the door of the Chapel Royal, to 
preserve the officiating Clergyman from violence while he was 
saying Mass. Among others, John Knox was highly offended at 
this defection, as he termed it, of the Queen's brothers, who had 
turned Protestants, notwithstanding their Catholic-sounding 
Titles; and he and his Party protested warmly against the 
indulgence shown to the Queen. The next day Knox Preached 
a furious Sermon against Popery, wherein he, among other 
absurdities of the like nature, declared " that one Mass was more 
frightful to him than if 10,000 armed enemies were landed in 
any part of the Kingdom." It is impossible to avoid noticing 
the contrast between his violence and intolerance, and the 
dignified moderation exhibited in the conduct of the young 
Queen. Incited by their favourite Preacher, the Mob of Edin- 
burgh made a furious assault upon the Chapel Royal on the 1st 
November, 1561, for the purpose of destroying the Furniture, 
and preventing what they called "Idolatry." The Prior of St. 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 171 

Andrews quieted the tumult by his influence with the people ; 
but other Noblemen then at Court resented it so much, that they 
advised Queen Mary to take a sanguinary revenge for the Insult ; 
the Earl of Huntly even offered to re-establish the Mass in all 
the Northern Counties. The Queen, although she could not but 
sensibly feel the indignity of their conduct, refused to avenge 
herself upon the Mob, and equally rejected Huntly's offer to 
restore Papacy by violence. She contented herself with calling 
Knox before her, demanding of him why he used so much 
violence of invective against those who differed from him in 
opinion, and taxed him with the doctrine in his Book against the 
Government of Women. Knox spoke at great length upon his 
favourite subject, " the Idolatry of the Mass/' and professed that 
he would show to her such reverence as became the Ministers of 
God to show to the superior power. If this interview proved 
totally useless, either in convincing Queen Mary of her " errors" 
in point of Faith, or ineffectual in restraining Knox to a decency 
of expression in Preaching, it yet answered some purpose, as, 
from Knox's bearing in the presence of his Sovereign on this 
occasion, and his usual intrepidity, it was said of him by his 
Admirers, that "he never feared the face of man." The best 
thing, in our judgment, connected with this famous Interview, 
is its furnishing, at the distance of nearly three Centuries, a sub- 
ject for a capital Picture by Allan. 

While the Queen was absent in Fife in 1563, John Knox 
again stirred up the Edinburgh Mob to attack the Abbey Church. 
The Queen's servants at Holyroodhouse were repeatedly insulted 
at his instigation, on account of their Keligion ; and a Priest 
who was performing Mass privately in the Abbey, only saved 
himself from being torn in pieces by flying through a back door. 
Mary, upon hearing of this outrage, was justly incensed to that 
degree that she refused to return to Edinburgh till the Kioters 
were brought to justice ; and she ordered Knox to attend at 
Lochleven to account for his conduct. 

An Interview, which lasted two hours, produced as little good 
as the former. Knox laid it down as a maxim with his Party, 
that they had a right to put to death any Priest found saying Mass. 



172 MONASTICON. 

The Queen asked him, "Will ye allow that they shall take my 
sword in their hand ? " He answered " that the sword of justice 
was God's sword, and that if Princes made not the right use of 
it, the Kulers under them, that fear God, ought to do it." And 
to prove this, he told her that " Samuel spared not to slay Agag, 
the fat and delicate king of Amalek, whom Saul had saved; 
neither spared Elias Jezebel's false prophets and Baal's false 
priests, albeit that King Ahab was present. Phineas was no 
magistrate, and yet lie feared not to strike Zimri and Cozbi in 
the very act of filthy fornication ; he noways doubted but then were 
as much guided by the Spirit of God as .any of these ivere." 
[Knox's History.} According to this precious doctrine, the 
Statutes of the Kingdom were waste paper, and it was lawful for 
every man to do that which was right in his own eyes, provided 
he did it after the example of a Scriptural case, he himself being 
judge of its analogy. 

On the 10th February, 1562, the Queen's natural brother, 
James Stewart, Prior of St. Andrews, was Married, in the Abbey 
Church, to Agnes Keith, daughter of the Earl Marischal. The 
Wedding was Celebrated by a Masquerade in the Palace, and 
other gaieties, which Knox considered a deadly sin, and which he 
rebuked with great virulence. This celebrated person (Stewart) 
has had an almost equal amount of praise and blame from 
Historians. By the " Reforming Party" he was looked to as 
their best Champion, and by them named, after his death, "the 
good Regent Murray;" while by the other Party, he was equally 
hated and feared. It does not redound much to the credit of his 
memory that he was so eager for his sister's condemnation, when 
the unfortunate Queen was at the mercy of her bitterest enemy. 
He was shot in the streets of Linlithgow, in the year 1570, by 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, who, if provocation could ever be 
urged in extenuation of assassination, had unhappily too fair a 
plea of that nature. Hamilton was a staunch adherent of Queen 
Mary, and on the defeat of her Army at Langside, was, along 
with others, deprived of his Estates. His wife, not thinking that 
this Proscription extended to her Patrimony, which had been 
secured to herself as a jointure by a Marriage Contract, was 



ABBEY OF HOLYEOOD. 173 

living without dread upon her Estate, when Murray's favourite, 
who had obtained a gift of Hamilton's property from "the good 
Regent," seized her Jointure, and acted with the most savage 
barbarity, turning the unhappy Lady out of her own house naked 
in a winter night. The Lady lost her reason from the effects of 
this vile usage ; and her husband openly vowed revenge, seeking 
his opportunity for years. He at last effected his purpose, by 
shooting Murray dead with a single bullet, from a window in the 
street of Linlithgow. The Carbine, a little old-fashioned German 
Eifle, with which Hamilton shot Murray, is preserved in the 
possession of the Noble Family of Hamilton, at Hamilton Palace, 
Lanarkshire. 

The Queen was Married to Darnley in the Church of the 
Abbey, 29th July, 1566. There, in the following year, Kizzio 
was Murdered while clinging to her robe for protection. There 
she heard the tumult that proclaimed the destruction of her 
husband. In the Hall of the Palace, on the 15th May, 1567, 
she was Married to Bothwell ; and on the 6th of June, she left 
it, never to return. On the 18th June, 1567, two days after the 
Queen's imprisonment, Glencairne and the Lords of the Congre- 
gation spoiled the Chapel of Holyrood. 

The next information we have of the state of the Chapel, is 
from the Proceedings in the General Assembly of 1570. 

In the Palace were Celebrated the Nuptials of James VI. in 
1589 ; and, in the following year, the Coronation of Anne of 
Denmark, his Queen. 

In 1617, King James VI. ordered the Chapel to be repaired, 
and sent workmen from London, with directions for setting up 
Pictures of the Apostles and other Decorations, which threatened 
to excite a popular commotion ; and the design was abandoned. 

In 1633, Charles I. thoroughly repaired it, as appears from 
an Inscription above the Grand Entrance, and provided it with 
decent Furniture as a Chapel Royal, intending it to be used as 
such by the King's High Commissioner for Scotland in time 
coming. But upon the frustration of the attempt to establish 
" Episcopacy" in Scotland, it was used as the Church of the 
Parish of Holyroodhouse and Canongate till 1687. 



174 MONASTICON. 

The Palace probably remained without alteration or much 
repair from the departure of James VI. to England, down to the 
period of the great Civil War. Cromwell appears 'to have added 
some Building within the Court, which was afterwards removed. 
But after the Eestoration, the Palace was repaired and almost 
rebuilt by Charles II., several of whose Warrants and Letters 
to the Commissioners of the Treasury, on the subject, show 
that the King took a personal interest and direction in the Plans. 

Sir William Bruce, of Kinross, an Architect of considerable 
reputation in Scotland at that period, was the Designer of the 
new Palace, and also the Surveyor of the work ; but the King 
and Lauderdale gave the minutest directions for the disposition 
of each Floor, Staircase, and Apartment of the new Buildings. 
Of the outward Fabric, " his Majesty liked the front very well as 
it was designed, provided the gate where the King's coach is to 
come in be large enough ; as also, he liked the taking doune of 
that narrow upper parte which was built in Cromwell's time." 
On the economy and arrangement of the rest, the King was still 
more minute, even directing " chimneys in the corners of rooms 
where it is not so convenient to set them in any of the sides." 

In 1676, Charles II. granted his Warrant for payment of 
JC4734 Sterling, as the estimated expense of the work necessary 
for completing the Palace and Gardens, and bringing in water to 
the house. The Church seems also to have been repaired by 
that King, who appointed it to be the Chapel Royal, and no 
longer to be used as the Parish Church of the Canongate. 

King James VII. appointed the Great Boom in the Palace, 
designed by his brother for a Council Chamber, to be fitted up 
as his Private Chapel ; and ordered <100 Sterling yearly, for the 
persons employed for the service of the Music there. In the 
same year, the King, grown bolder in the support of his Religion, 
gave directions for fitting up the Abbey Church as a Catholic 
Chapel, and as the Chapel of the Knights of the Thistle. Twelve 
Stalls for the Knights, with a Throne for the Sovereign, and 
appropriate Furniture, were provided; and a beautiful Pavement 
of Marble, in Mosaic, was laid in the Centre Aisle. Over the 
Stalls were the Banners of the Knights. The fragments of the 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 175 

Pillars still manifest that they were painted red and black. Within 
a year from the Date of this Order, the last King of the Stuarts 
had abdicated the Kingdoms of his fathers. 

At the Kevolution, the populace of Edinburgh attacked 
the Church of Holyrood, as a place polluted by the Kites 
of Popery, and despoiled the interior Ornaments, leaving 
nothing but the bare walls. They even broke into the Vaults 
in which lay the bodies of King James V., of Magdalene of 
France (his first Queen), of the Earl of Darnley, and others of 
the Monarchs and Royal Family of Scotland. They broke open 
the lead Coffins, carried off the lids, but left the rest. [Arnot, p. 
253. Sir E. Sibbald had seen those Coffins entire in a Vault in 
the south-east*corner of the Church, on the 24th January, 1683. 
Daly ell's Scottish Poems, p. 26, Note.] 

In 1758, the Chapel was repaired at the expense of the 
Exchequer, but the Roof, injudiciously covered with stone, proved 
too heavy, and fell in, ten years afterwards, during the night 
between the 2d and 3d December, 1768. 

That was the last attempt to restore the Chapel of Holyrood. 
The Ruin seems to have been cleared away in 1776, when, we 
are told, the bodies of James V. and some others were still to be 
seen in their leaden Coffins, and that the head of Queen Magda- 
lene was then entire, and even beautiful. The same Author tells 
us the Coffins, and also the head of Magdalene of France, and 
the skull of Darnley, were stolen, when he visited the Vaults 
again in 1779. 

The Site of the Abbey does not display the usual keen per- 
ception, visible in most cases, in the localities chosen for 
Monasteries. It is situated rather obscurely at the Eastern 
extremity of the central ridge upon which Edinburgh stands, 
and at the base of the rocky eminences of Salisbury Crags and 
Arthur Seat ; but the choice of the Site, according to the 
Legend, was not left to the option of the Monks. 

The Chapel Royal is the only portion of the Abbey Church 
which survived its burning by the English Army, under the Earl 
of Hertford, in the year 1545. This portion was the" Nave of 
the Abbatial Church, and even in its present ruined condition it 



176 MONASTICON. 

is very capable of conveying some idea of the ancient splendour 
of the entire Edifice. When entire the Abbey Church consisted 
of three principal Divisions the Nave or principal Western 
portion, the Choir, and Chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, 
forming the Eastern branch, and the Transept, placed in the 
centre, running North and South, and crossing the line of the 
Nave and Choir at right angles. At the junction of the Nave 
and Choir with the Transept, sprung a lofty square Tower or 
Lantern, built upon four arched Columns, which served also as 
Piers for the lofty central Arches, by which the Nave and Choir 
communicated with each other through the Transept. 

The chief Entrance to the Church was by the present mag- 
nificent Door-way in the West Front, which was flanked on 
either side by a square Tower, of which the North one is still 
remaining. The other was either demolished at the destruction 
of the Abbey by the Earl of Hertford, or has been removed to 
make way for the buildings of the Palace. All that remains of 
the Transept are slight remains of the Columns of its North and 
South limbs, and there is now no vestige of the Choir and Lady 
Chapel, which extended beyond the present Eastern Window as 
far as the space occupied by the length of the Nave. 

There can be no doubt left, after an examination of the Ruins 
of the Chapel Royal, that the Abbey was originally of Norman 
Architecture, upon which various Gothic Styles had been super- 
induced at the different periods when it was either completed or 
restored after its frequent destruction. 

The exterior of the Arch of the Door in the East end of the 
Cloister, in the South Wall of the Chapel Royal, is an example 
of this kind of Arch with its Side Columns. The Columns distin- 
guish it from the Saxon Style, which had no Side Pillars. 

The following is a Summary of the different Styles of Archi- 
tecture now observable in all the portions of these interesting 
Ruins : 

Xorntaii Style. 

The South Wall. The Pillars at the sides of the Arches of the 
Windows distinguish it as belonging to this Style. 

The North Wall. The spectator will readily distinguish the difference 
between the Style of the Wall itself and its supporting Buttresses. 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 177 

The Interlacing Arches and Columns on the Interior of the South and 
North Walls. Many of the Columns are very beautiful, and some resemble 
very closely the Egyptian Style. 

The slight Kemains of the Transept, at the East end of the Nave, show 
that it belonged to this Style. 

The East Door of the Cloister and Window above it in the South Wall. 
This portion is evidently among the earliest built of all the Eemains, and 
there is little reason to doubt of its having been part of King David's Edifice. 

Second Gothic Style. 

Arch of Transept, at Eastern end of the South Aisle. The Capitals of 
the Columns from which this Arch springs, are specially worthy of notice, 
from their beauty of design and elaborate workmanship. 

The Piers or Clustered Columns of the South Aisle, and the Interior of 
the Great Western Door, are also of the Second Gothic Style. 

Third or Florid Gothic Style. 

The Exterior of the Great Western Door. This portion has been 
inserted after the erection of the rest of the Front, as appears by the Centre 
Column between the two Windows in the Upper Compartment being off the 
centre of the Apex of the Arch of the Door, a blunder not likely to have 
occurred had they been erected at the same time. 

Mixed Styles. 

The Windows in the Exterior West Front are a Mixture of the Saxon 
and Norman Styles. 

The North Door and Buttresses are a mixture of 'the Second and Third 
Gothic Styles. 

The West Front of the Chapel is chiefly worthy of notice. 
It consists of a square Tower 52 feet high, on the North side of 
the centre Compartment, which contains the Great Door of the 
flhurch. This Door, in the palmy days of the Abbey, was only 
used on particular occasions and High Festivals. There are 
various styles of Architecture observable here. The Tower is of 
the Norman Order, as appears from its Ornaments, consisting of 
ranges of small Columns and Arches. Its other Ornaments are 
figures of human heads of very fine execution. The Great Door 
belongs decidedly to the Third or Florid Gothic Style. Its Arch 
is adorned with a profusion of ornamental work, and the Pedi- 
ment consists of a row of Angels' heads in carved stone-work, 
supported by a solid square-cut oaken Beam, which was probably 

VOL. I. Z 



178 MONASTICON. 

inserted at the repair of the Chapel by King Charles I. in 1633. 
The portion of the Wall above the Door is a mixture of the 
Saxon and Norman Styles. In it are two large Windows, semi- 
circular in their Arches, and having branching Mullions. This 
portion is probably a remnant of that part of the Abbey which 
was rebuilt after it was burnt by the English under Richard II. 
in 1381. There is a Tablet erected between the Windows, above 
the Door, with the following Inscription : 



HE SHALL BUILD ANE HOUSE 

FOE MY NAME, AND I WILL 

STABLISH THE THRONE 

OF HIS KINGDOM 

FOB EVEB. 



BASILICAM HANG SEMI 

BUTAM CAEOLUS BEX 
OPTIMUS INSTAUBAVIT 

ANNO DONI 
CIO. IOCXXXIII. 



A little to the South side of this Tablet there is yet visible 
the groove in which there stood a Stone Crucifix, indicating the 
Dedication of the Abbey to the Holy Cross ; and on the top of 
the wall were two Turrets, one on either side of this Cross, which 
communicated with each other by a covered Passage. 

A beautiful glimpse of the Interior is obtained through the 
open West Door. The fine effect of the light upon the graceful 
Colonnade in the South, and the Fragments of the North Aisle, 
is admirable. 

Leaving the West Front to the left, we come before the 
North Wall, in which there are also various Styles employed. 
The Wall itself is Norman, and easily distinguished as more 
ancient than its supporting Buttresses, seven in number, and 
ornamented with canopied Niches and Pinnacles, which, with the 
Door, are a mixture of the Second and Third Gothic Styles. 

The Door and Buttresses are part of the renovation made by 
the Abbot Crawfurd towards the end of the Fifteenth Century. 
The Abbot's Arms are sculptured on several of the Buttresses. 
The Door in this Wall was that in common use for all persons 
who were not inmates of the Abbey. It is plentifully ornamented, 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 



179 



but in a far inferior manner to the great West Door. At the 
Eastern extremity the remains of the North Division of the 
Transept are visible. Turning the North-east angle, we come 
in front of the East Wall, consisting of a beautiful Window, 36 
feet long and 20 feet broad, with a smaller Window on either 
side. This Window is a restoration, on a small scale, of the 
great Eastern Window, probably of the Date of King Charles's 
repair in 1633. It is a fair specimen of the Third Gothic Style. 




NORTH SIDE OF HOLYROOD CHAPEL. 



It stands in the great centre Arch of the Transept, next to the 
Nave ; the smaller Windows on each side are inserted into the 
Side Arches, by which the Aisles of the Nave and Choir com- 
municated through the Transept. The Great Window was 
completely restored so late as 1816, when its Kuins were collected 
from the debris around, where they had lain since 1795, when it 
fell down from the effects of a violent gale. 

Some Sculptured Screen Work, of the Third Gothic Style, 



180 MONASTICON. 

has been collected from the rubbish which used to defile the 
Chapel, and placed beneath the Side Windows in this Wall. 

The South Wall has, like every other portion, a variety of 
Styles. These are the Norman and the Florid Gothic. The Wall 
is Norman; the beautiful Flying Buttresses are Florid Gothic, 
and are reckoned a good example of this Style. 

At the East end of the South Aisle, and at the back of the 
square mass of Masonry which surmounts the Koyal Vault, is a 
small Doorway, now built up, which communicated with the old 
Cloisters of the Abbey. This Door and the portion of the Wall 
immediately adjoining it, are the most ancient portion of the 
Edifice now existing, plainly belonging to the last years of the 
Norman or Bomanesque Epoch, and cannot be of later Date than 
1160. The Doorway is composed of a round-headed Arch, with 
zigzag and billet Mouldings, resting on two single shafts, with 
the square Abacus. On the outside of this Aisle, there remains 
the lower Stage of five Flying Buttresses, but they are not very 
elegant in their proportions. They spring from Piers about 10 
feet distant from the Wall, and, crossing what was formerly the 
Hoof of the Cloister, rest against flat Pilasters on the Wall of the 
Aisle. Both from these and the upright Buttresses of the North 
side, there sprung a second Stage, which, spanning the roof of 
the Aisle and Triforium, supported the Wall of the Clerestory. 
Distinct indications of this second Stage of Buttresses are visible 
on the South Wall. In Niches cut in the lower Stage, on either 
side of the Building, are sculptured the Arms of Abbot Crawfurd. 

The Interior of the Chapel is now entered by a Door in the 
North-East corner of the Quadrangle of the Palace. Passing 
through this Door, we step upon the Floor of the Chapel, and 
have before us all that remains of this ancient Abbey Church. 
On the right hand stands the South Aisle ; it is still in a tolerable 
state of preservation, and consists of an Arcade, formed by a 
range of Arches, supported by seven massive Columns, each con- 
sisting of eight slender Pillars, bound as it were together, round 
a thick central Cylinder : each Pillar has a distinct Ornamental 
Capital. This Arcade is altogether in the Second Gothic Style ; 
it will richly repay the spectator to take notice of the difference 



ABBEY OF HOLYEOOD. 181 

between its Style and that of the Side Wall. This Wall is of the 
same Style (the Norman), both in its Interior and Exterior. 
The Capitals of the Ornamental Pillars placed on the Wall are 
exceedingly beautiful. The ornamental work of these Capitals 
is hollowed out in the parts by which the light enters, so as to 
produce a most pleasing effect of light and shade. The Floor of 
this Aisle is composed of Tombstones, many of them belonging 
to the Sepulture of Illustrious Personages, and not a few to sub- 
stantial Burgesses of the Canongate (the Gate of the Canons), 
who lived and Died when the Chapel Koyal was used as the 
Parish Kirk of the Parish of Holyroodhouse and Canongate. Of 
these we shall speak hereafter, and preserve their Epitaphs. 

Of the North Aisle there now remain only two fragments of 
its Colonnade. These enable us to state that it was of the same 
Style as the South. The Wall is ornamented with beautiful 
interlacing Arches, which show in what manner the Pointed Arch 
sprung out of the Semicircular, and also by small Columns with 
sculptured Capitals. Some of these Columns, both in their 
Shafts and Capitals, closely resemble the Egyptian Style. 

There is a second Kange of Columns and Pointed Arches 
above the Colonnade of the South Aisle. The Columns and 
Arches are twice the number of the Range beneath, and, of 
course, smaller in proportion. This Colonnade formed a Gallery 
running the whole length of the Church, which still exists, but is 
shut up to preserve the Groined Roof of the Aisle. There are 
still visible the remains of a third Arcade, which was open to the 
Interior, and contained Windows to light the upper parts of the 
Building ; also, a narrow Gallery, which was continued round the 
Church. 

In the West are the Great Doorway and two small Doors. 
That nearest to the Great Door leads to a Flight of Steps, by 
which we ascend to the Rood Loft. 

The other Door leads into the Tower, which has probably 
been the Belfry and Vestry of the Church. Here is placed a 
Monument to Douglas, Lord Viscount Belhaven. The Tower 
was once much higher than it is now, but its Remains are still in 
good preservation. 



182 MONASTICON. 

Of the Monastic Buildings apart from the Abbey Church, the 
only vestige remaining is a mere fragment of the Embattled 
Gate or Porch, which was taken down in the year 1755. It 
stood in the centre of the Street, at the point where the present 
Bailie Court-House and Jail now stand : these were formerly a 
portion of this Porch, which was of so considerable extent as to 
afford accommodation for the Lodgings of the Keeper of the 
Palace. Traces of its Side Arches may yet be discerned. The 
Monastery, previous to the "Keformation," covered, with its 
Buildings and Offices of every description, the whole space now 
occupied by the Palace with the adjoining Gardens, and was 
surrounded by a Wall, of which a portion may still be seen run- 
ning Eastward at a few paces distance from the Watergate, and 
distinguished by a Circular Turret. 

There was so exact an uniformity in the Structure of these 
Buildings throughout the whole of Britain, and perhaps every- 
where else, that the description of any one conveys an accurate 
idea of all the others. The only difference was in the size of 
the respective Parts, or the nature of their Ornaments, which 
were suited to the means of the respective Establishments, or to 
the taste of their Founders. [See Page 16.] 

Of the entire range of Conventual Buildings devoted to the 
Domestic uses of the Canons, not a vestige has been left. We 
have evidence, however, on the Wall of the South Aisle of the 
Nave of the Church, that it and the West Wall of the adjoining 
Transept formed, as was not uncommon in Monastic Edifices, 
two Sides of the Great Cloister, leaving the others to the 
Chapter House, Kefectory, and other principal Apartments of the 
Establishment. Doorways led into the Cloister from the Eastern 
and Western extremities of the South Aisle, to allow continuous 
egress and ingress to solemn Processions issuing from the Church ; 
and one of these Entrances is still in excellent preservation. 

The Choir and Transepts of the Abbey Church have dis- 
appeared, and the Nave, as it now stands, ruined and roofless, is 
itself almost the sole record of that which is gone. 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 



183 



GROUND PLAN OF HOLYEOOD CHAPEL. 




b 

r* 

_ fen 1 



WEST FRONT, 97 FEET HIGH. 



Eeferences to the Ground-Plan : 

A Nave of the Church, 128 feet long, 62 feet broad. 
BB Side Aisles (North and South), 15 feet broad; Middle Aisle, 29 feet. 

c Cloister. 
DD Original Transept. 

E Altar Window, 34 feet high, 20 feet broad ; height of the East End Wall 

to the Apex, 70 feet. 

FF Doors leading to the Cloister, now walled up. 
GG Two remaining Pillars on the North Side. 

H The Secret Stair, leading to the Rood Loft. 

i A similar one, leading to the Royal Apartment. 

K Belfry Tower, 52 feet high, 23 feet square. 

L North Door or Porch. 

M Main or West Door. 

N Part of the Palace. 



184 MONASTICON. 

GRAVE STONES AND MONUMENTS IN THE ABBEY CHAPEL. 

A large portion of the North and South Aisles are paved with Grave 
Stones of that species or class which was common in Prance and other 
Continental Countries in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries ; and also 
at Katho, Koslin, Seton, Kinkell, Foveran, and various localities in the 
Islands and West Highlands. The Slabs of Holyrood average 8 feet broad, 
and G feet to 7 feet long. Many are mutilated and undecipherable, but a 
number still exist with cognisable Devices of Crosses, Swords, Chalices, 
Coats of Arms, Hammers, &c. Some few have merely an Inscription around 
the Border ; others have a Cross incised with three Steps, with nothing else. 
The oldest legible is A.D. 1655. 

I. One of the Entrances to the Chapel is by a Private Door in the 
North-East corner of the Quadrangle of the Palace. In the Middle of the 
Passage leading from hence to the Interior of the Abbey, is shown a flat 
square Stone, under which the unfortunate Eizzio is said to have been 
Buried; "in order," as it is sarcastically remarked, "that the Queen might 
regularly be indulged with a sight of the Tomb of her lamented Favourite, 
as she passed to and from her Private Devotion." This is merely con- 
jectural, as one Historian has pointed out, so far as he knows, the precise 
Spot where the Italian Musician was Entombed. However, this Stone bears 
every mark of being a Sepulchral Monument. A Shield, with Saxon 
Characters rudely sculptured around it, may be faintly traced ; but whether 
relating to Bizzio is a matter of conjecture. David Rizzio was a native of 
Turin, a Town in the North of Italy. He came to Scotland with the Am- 
bassador from Savoy, and thus got introduced to the Scottish Court. He 
was employed by Queen Mary to sing Bass, and having ingratiated himself 
into her favour by his enchanting Musical powers, was, when the French 
Secretary retired to France, appointed to fill his place. 

II. Proceeding along the West end of the Chapel, the first Monument 
we meet with is a plain Slab upon four other Stones. This Altar-Tomb 
is thus Inscribed : 

Under this Stone, 
Are laid the Remains of 

The late Right Honourable GEORGE, LORD REAY. 

And ELIZABETH FAIRLIE, his Wife, 

In the grave thus undivided, 

As in life they were united 

In that Divine bond 

Of Christian Faith and Love, 

Which ennobled their earthly affection, 

By elevating each view and desire, 

In one undeviatiug course 
Towards another and a better world. 
GEORGE, LORD REAY, Died 27th February, 1768, 

Atfrd 84. 
ELIZABETH, LADY RKAY, Died 10th November, 1800, 

Aged 01. 
This Stone is Inscribed Januaiy, IHK), 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 



185 



In token of grateful respect and affection, 

By their Daughters, 
The HoftoonUa Mrs. 'n. i-'i M LETON, 

Ami the; I loii<mr:il.l,< (JKOH.JINA M'KAv. 

III. A few yards further in the same direction is the "Vestry," 
situated on tho North-West corner of the Ahbey. Here is placed the Mural 
Monument of Robert, Viscount Bolhaven, of which the following is a 
Representation : 






. 




1 



Upon an Alt;ir-Tomb is placed his Lordship's Statue in a recumbent 
posture, tho ri'dit nrm rests upon a cushion which seems to yield to tho 
re ; tin- left li.iml :nisps the pommel of his sword. He is arrayed in 
In li'olx-s of Sfiife, :iinl Hie flowing folds of the drapery have the ease and 
gnwfi of Hi,, finest lt:ili:m Statuaries. His head is encircled with ;i P.m-on 1 ; 
CoronH, ;ind MM- whole li'Mire in very meritorious. The Tomb is formed of 
Parian M;n-h1e, hron-ht iVom Italy. Tho Columns and Colonnades that 
support Mu- Arch,., I fteoess urn of tho CorinMiinn Order. Over tliis Recess is 
|il:ir.'d ;i Shirlil, cli.-iriji'd with MM- Arinorinl rc:ii-iiigs of the Family, viz., A 

lii'i/rl fron'iK'il ini/><Ti//i/, i/iili's; l/ii'r,' ,s/r/r\ of /in- /mint*, nn/i'iit ; llir<'< fiili's 
fawng from ih,- r///,/ ,////,-.s .- \\-iMiin :i, dniihlr tn>ssuro flowered, ;m<l coimlri- 
flowenid, Tin- Slm-M is Hurmountcd l>y u I li-lnici, .<//'//; cn-st, a Wild P.onr 
<':in;dit in Mm clefts of an oak, a chain and lock holding them together: 

VOL. I. 2 A 



186 MONASTICON. 

supported on the dexter side by a naked Savage, wreathed and girdled with 
laurel, holding in his right hand \ Batton, proper ; on the sinister side by a 
Lion, langued and rampant, proper. Motto, "Lock sicker." The Marshal- 
ling of these Arms shows his Lordship's relationship to the Douglasses, 
Earls of Morton. 

Within the Arched Eecess are the following Inscriptions : 

D. O. M. 

Quod reliquum apud nos est, hie Ingenium quod literis cultura 

BeCS^^^gi 2 indent saga citate natura 

Carolo, a Secretioribus Consiliis, et bupplevit 

inter familiares intimi quipe qui et indolis bonitate et candore nulli 

prius HENRICO WALLLZE gratissim, ejusq. cessit facile succendi at dum loquimur 

Stabulis praefect, erat lUo vero fatis facilius defervescere 

ci * r*r ** ^ ab s 

est, singular! favoris gradii acceptus, V1X Acciperetur umcum 

re et honoribus auctus. In juventuti erat. 

NICOLE MORAVLE Abercarnise Comarclio Fide in Regem Pictate in Patriam 

natae ad octodecim non Amplius Menses Officiis in Amicos, charitate in 
imica} uxoris in puerperio simule cum 

fetu extinct* lectissimo consortio 6 S enos nulh SeCUnduS 

fruebatur ingraviscente senectute ab cm in prospens modus et comitas 

Aulico Stripitu (ut morum ilh'c et In adversis Constantia et Magna- 

Malorum temporum pertsesus) se sub- nimitas ad Supremum usque diem 

trahens in patriam reversus est. invaluere 

M ^ **! "us Jannani 

terris et bonis, preeterque testamento 

legavit aequa lance divisis haeredes Supra C!Q. j^CXXXIX 

Scripsit, qui Memoriae ejus JEtatis vero 

Gratitudinis suse u it ra Clymatericum magnum 

Pignus. J T ,. 

H. M P. C. 
[Hoc monumentum poni curamnt.] 

Translated Here are intended the Remains of Robert, Viscount of Belhaven, 
Baron of Spot, &c., Counsellor to King Charles, and most intimately in favour with 
him ; because formerly he had been most dear to Henry, Prince of Wales, and Master 
of his horses. But he being dead, and Charles his brother now reigning, he was made 
Chamberlain to the King's Household, and entertained with a singular degree of 
favour, and advanced to great honours and wealth. In his youth he enjoyed the 
sweet society of Nicolas Murray, daughter to the Baron of Abercairney, his only wife ; 
who lived with him not above 18 months, and Died in child-bed with her child. 
When grievous old age came upon him (as weary of bad times and customs), with- 
drawing himself from the noise of the Court, he returned to his country. He nomi- 
nated Sir Archibald and Sir Robert Douglasses, Barts., sons to his eldest brother, his 
heirs, dividing equally amongst them all his Lands and Goods, except some Legacies ; 
and they erected this Monument to his memory as a token of their gratitude. 

Nature supplied in him by sagacity what his mind wanted of education. He was 
inferior to none in a good capacity and candour ; he would soon be angry, but was as 
soon calmed. This one thing he had in his life, which scarcely could be alike accept- 
able to all ; for loyalty towards his Prince, love to his Country, kindness to his Rela- 
tions, and charity to the Poor, he was singular. In prosperity he was meek and 
moderate; in adversity his constancy and magnanimity prevailed to his very end. 
He Died at Edinburgh the 14th day of January, and from the Incarnation of the 
Messiah 1639, and of his age 66, being the third year above his great Climacteric. 



ABBEY OF HOLYEOOD. 



187 



IV. A Slab with an ornamental Cross, the Stalk of which passes 
through an elegantly formed Chalice. The Base of the Stone is broken, 
and no portion of the Inscription is legible. 

V. A floriated Cross with an ornamental Base. The following is the 
Inscription round the edge of the Stone: "Hie jacet dns. Robertus 
Cheyne, XII. prior hujusce monasterij qui obiit XVII. die Sept. An. Dni. 
MCCCCLV." 

VI. A plain Cross, surrounded by the following Inscription: "Hie 
jacet Marjoria Duncan uxor Thome Duncan qui obiit XVI. die me. Octob. 
A.D. MC***." 

VII. In the centre is a Shield between the Letters M. E., showing a 
Pale charged with a Cross-Crosslet fitchy, issuing out of a Crescent. Below 
the Shield are a Skull and a Bone, and the words, Memento mori. The 
Inscription round the edge of the Stone is "Heir lyes ane honourable 
woman callit Margaret Erskin Lady Alerdes and Dame XVII. July 159*." 

VIII. On this Slab are engraved two large Two-handed Swords, about 
five feet long, and surrounded by a Border of two parallel lines, without 
Date or Inscription. There are several examples elsewhere of a single 
Sword placed by the side of a Cross, but we are not aware of any other 
Stone on which two large Swords appear side by side, without any other 
Device or Inscription to explain the cause of their united presence. It has 
been conjectured, not without probability, that this Slab indicates the 
Resting-place of two Warriors of one House, brothers, or father and son, 
who have fallen on the same Field. 

IX. A floriated Cross, without Date 
or Inscription. 

X. A Stone with the Inscription, 
"Heir lyis ane Honest man Robert Vo- 
therspone, Burgis and Deacon of ye 
Hammermen in ye Canogait, R. V. 1520." 

XI. An imperfect Slab with a plain 
Cross. On the dexter side of the Cross 
is a Mallet surmounted by a Crown ; on 
the sinister side a peculiar and indistinct 
Device. The Inscription is illegible, ex- 
cept the Date, which is 1543. 

XII. The first part of the Legend on 
this Slab goes round the Border of the 
Stone, and the rest runs in parallel lines 
across the Body of it " Heir lyis ye nobil 
and poton Lord James Dovglas, Barnet of 
Cairlell and Torthorall, vha marid Daime 
Elilzabeth Cairlell, air and heritrix yal of; 
vha vas slaine in Edinbvrghe, ye xiiii day 
of Jvly in ye zeier of God 1608. Vas slain 
in 48 ze." 

At the bottom of the Slab is a Shield, 
but, with the exception of three Mullets 
in chief on the dexter side, the Charges 




188 



MONASTICON. 



are obliterated. Originally there were enchased the Arms of the House of 
Douglas, quartered with those of the Noble Family of Carlisle and Tother- 
wald, viz., beneath a chief, charged with three pellets, a saltier proper ; the 
crest resembling a rose, but which is a star of the first order. 

Note. This Lord Douglas, who was only a Territorial Baron, not a 
Peer, was Sir James Douglas of Parkhead, a nephew of the Kegent 
Morton. His Lady was the only child of William, Master of Carlyle, 
who Died in the lifetime of his father, Michael, fourth and last Lord 
Carlyle. In 1596, Sir James killed Captain James Stewart, Earl of 
Arran, and Chancellor of Scotland, an unworthy Favourite of James 
VI., to avenge the wrongs sustained by his uncle, the Eegent. Twelve 
years afterwards, he himself was run through the body on the High 
Street of Edinburgh by William Stewart, the nephew of Arran. Sir 
James's son was created Lord Carlyle of Torthorall in 1609. 

XIII. A plain Cross. On the dexter side, a pair of Compasses over a 
Device which resembles a Book, and on the sinister side, a Carpenter's 
Square over a Mallet. All that is legible of the Inscription is, " Hie jacet 
honorab. Vir Johannes ... et ... Anno dni 1548." 

XIV. At the top of this Stone is the Date 1592. Immediately below 

is a Hammer surmounted by a Crown, 
and having the Letters B. H. on either 
side. Beneath, in the centre of the Slab, 
is a Shield charged with a Ship and 
three Cinquefoils in chief. At the bottom 
are the Skull, Bone, and Memento mori. 
The Inscription round the Border is, 
" Heir lyis ane honest voman calet Marget 
Bakster, spovs to Bartel Hameltvn Dak- 
maker Burges of ye Canengait." 

Proceeding along the North side of 
the Abbey, over a Pavement rich in Saxon 
Characters and Armorial Bearings, though 
now miserably dilapidated, are many 
Graves unknown. 

XV. The first we meet with, a little 
from the Vestry Door, is supposed to have 
belonged to Sir George Sterline of Keir. 
The Inscription was perfect in the time 
of Menteith, who has copied it into his 
Theater of Mortality, though little, or 
almost none of it can be made out at pres- 
ent (1818). 

DOM. 

Here lyeth Dame Margaret Ross, daughter 
to James, 'Lord Ross ; and Dame Margaret 
Scot, daughter of Walter, Lord Buccleugh, and sister to Walter Scot, Earl of 
Buccleugh. She was Married to. Sir George Sterline of Keir, Knight and Chief of 
his name ; and having lived a pattern and paragon for piety, and debonairitie beyond 
her sex and age, when she had accomplished 17 years, she was called from this transi- 
tory life to that eternal, 10 March MDCXXXIII. She left behind her only one 




ABBEY OF HOLYEOOD. 189 

daughter, Margaret, who, in her pure innocency, soon followed her mother, the 11 day 
of May thereafter, when she had been 12 months showen to this world, and here 
lyeth, near unto her, interred. 

D. Georgius Sterline de Keir, eques auratus, families princeps, coniugi dulcisshni 
poni curavit, MDCXXXIII. 

At each corner below five roses, two and two, and one in the centre 
with a Scroll above, bearing over each compartment the following Words 
Mors Sentibus quat. Below is the following Inscription : 

Though marble, porphirie, and mourning touch, 

May praise these spoils ; yet can they not so much ; . 

For beauty lost, and fame, this stone doth close 

One, earth's delight, Heav'n's care, a spotless rose. 

And should'st thou reader but vouchsafe a tear 

Upon it other flow'rs will soon appear, 

Sad violets and hyacinths which grow 

With marks of grief a publick loss to shew. 

XVI. On a neat Monument near the two remaining Pillars on the 
North side, inscribed on a marble oval Tablet, inserted in the Stone, the 
following occurs : 

Sacred George, Lord Saltoun, 

To the Memory of Who Died on the 13th, 

The Eight Honourable And was interred here 

Eleonora On the 18th day of September, 1800, 
Dowager Lady Saltoun, In the 70th year of her age. 

Widow of 

XVII. Next the Wall betwixt the Pillars, on a plain Stone, lying on the 
ground, placed over the Grave of the Earl of Selkirk : 

Dunbar Douglas, Born 1st December, 1722, 

Earl of Selkirk, Died 24th May, 1799. 

XVin. A little to the East of the above Monument, the following 
Inscription appears : 

Under this stone lye the remains Barons of Exchequer, 

of Scotland. 

The Honourable John Maule, Esq. Died the 2d of July, 1781, 

Thirty-two years one of the Aged 75 years. 

XIX. Still farther East : 

To the Memory of Gordon Highlanders, 

John Woodford, Esq., Who Died the 18th April, 1800, 
Late Lieutenant-Colonel Aged years. 

Of the North Fencibles or 

XX. On a Stone lying beside the former, but towards the South : 

The Eight Honourable And sister to 

Lady Elizabeth Wemyss, William, late Earl of Sutherland, 

Widow of the late Honourable Died on the 24th January, 1803, 
James Wemyss of Wemyss, Aged 64 years. 

N.B. The intermediate Stones seem to have been placed over the 
Graves of the more opulent Citizens of the Burgh of Canongate, who 
were formerly Interred here during the Eeign of "Episcopacy" in 
Scotland. 



190 MONASTICON. 

XXI. A little to the North-East is a handsome Monument to George 
Wishart, Bishop of Edinburgh. His Arms are finely cut over the top of an 
Arched Kecess, viz. On a Shield, a Bishop's Mitre, with a Pastoral Staff 
and Cross of coral, saltier ways. Beneath is the following Inscription : 

Hie recubat Celebris Doctor Sophocardius* alter, 

Entheus ille 2oo? Kxfiiotv Agricola. 
Orator fervore pio, facundior olim 

Doctiloquis rapiens pectora dura modis. 
Ternus ut Antistes Wiseheart ita ternus Edinen. 

Candoris columen nobile, semper idem. 
Plus octogenis liinc gens Sophocardia lustris 

Summis hie mitris claruit, atq. tholis : 
Dum cancellarius regni Sophocardius idem, 

Prsesul erat Fani, Regulse, Sanctse, tui. 
Atque ubi pro regno, ad Norham contendit avito 

Brussius, indomita mente manuque potens ; 
Glasguus Robertus erat Sopbocardius alter, 

Pro patria, qui se fortiter opposuit. 
Nee pacis studlis Gulielmo, animisve Roberto, 

Agricola inferior csetera forte prior ; 
Excelsus sine fastu animus, sine fraude benignus 

Largus qui miseris, iiitemerata fides. 
Attica rarafides ; constantia raraq. nullis 

Expugnata, hcet mille petita, malis. 
In regem, obsequii exemplar, civisq. fidelis, 

Antiquam venerans, cum probitate, fidem. 
Omnibus exutum ter, quern proscriptio career 

Exilium, lustris non domuere tribus, 
Ast reduci CAROLO plaudunt ubi regna Secundo 

Doctori Wiseheart insula plaudit ovans. 
Olim ubi captivus, squalenteq. carcere Igesus, 

Anno ster ternos, prsesul. lionorus obit. 
Vixit olympiadas terquinas ; Nestoris annos 

Vovit Edina : obitum Scotia mossta dolet. 
Gestaque Montrosei Latio celebrata, Cothurno : 

Quantula (prob) tanti sunt monumenta viri ! 

Translation in Menteitlia " Tlieater of Mortality." 

Another famous Doctor Wisebeart liere, 
Divine George Wiseheart lies, as may appear ; 
Great orator, with eloquence and zeal, 
Whereby on hardest hearts he did prevail. 
Three Wisehearts Bishops, so the third was he, 
When Bishop of fair Edinbrough's Diocese. 
Candour in him was noble, free of stain ; 
In cases all the same he did remain ; 
Above four hundred years great Wiseheart's name 
For honours has pure and untainted fame ; 
While one thereof both purse and mitre bore, 
Chancellor and Bishop near St. Andrew's choir ; 
And when brave Bruce did for his Nation plead, 
At Norliam, with undaunted band and head, 
Then Robert Wiseheart sat hi Glasgow's chair, 

* Sophocardius, Wiseheart or Wishart ; the true name is Guiscard. They were descended 
from the Guiscards of Normandy, and came with Baliol, their Countryman. [Vide Irvine's 
Mem. Scot., p. 228.] 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 191 

With courage for his bounty singular. 
To these great George was not inferior, 
In peace and war elsewhere superior ; 
High without pride his hounty had no guile, 
His charity to the poor nought could defile ; 
His loyalty untainted faith most rare, 
Athenian faith, was constant everywhere. 
And though an thousand evils did controul, 
None could o'ercome his high and lofty soul 
To King and Country he was faithful still. 

Thrice spoil'd and banish'd for full fifteen years, 
His mind unshaken cheerful still he bears 
Deadly proscription ; nor the nasty gaol 
Could not disturb his great seraphic soul. 
But when the Nation's King, CHARLES THE SECOND, blest, 
On his return from sad exile to rest, 
They then received great Doctor Wiseheart HE 
Was \velcome made by Church and Laity ; 
And where he had been long in prison sore 
He nine years Bishop did them good therefore. 
At length he died in honour ; where his head 
To much hard usage was accustomed. 
He liv'd 'hove seventy years and Edinburgh town 
Wish'd him old Nestor's age in great renown ; 
Yea Scotland, sad with grief, condoled his fall, 
And to his merits gave just funeral. 
Montrose's acts in Latin forth he drew, 
Of one so great, Ah ! monuments so few. 

XXII. On the East side of Bishop Wishart's Monument, a small neat 
Cenotaph, with Pillars of the Corinthian Order, is placed to perpetuate the 
memory of George, 14th Earl of Sutherland. On the top are placed the 
paternal Arms of this illustrious House, quartered with the various Noble 
Families to which they are allied, viz., Gules, three stars within a border, or 
charged with a double treasure , flowered and counter-flowered (as a mark of 
the Koyal descent of the Family from King Kobert I.) Crest, a cat sejant 
proper, on the other department of the Shield quarterly first and fourth ; 
barry of eight argent, and gules, surmounted by a cross floree, second and 
third; azure, three laurel leaves erect; crest, a wolf passant ; motto, Franza 
nonflectes. On the Pillars are placed within circles, Coronets of several of 
the Nobility of Scotland, from whom they deduce their maternal lineage ; 
particularly Gordon-, Lennox, Elphinstone, Perth, and Eglinton. 

D. G. V. SUTHERLANDLE. 

Memorise illustrissimi Domini, Georgii Sutherlandiae comitis et Strathnaverniae, 
&c. Dynastae Sutherlandiae et Strathnaverniae, jure hereditario ; vicecomitis ac 
regalitatis Domini ; ex sigili magni custodibus unius ; regi Gulielmo a secretioribus 
consiliis, decimi noni comitis recta linea oriundi ab ALLAN Sutherlandiaa thano ; quern 
Milcolumbo tertio, haeredi legitimo regnum restituere conantem e medio sustulit 
MAGBETHUS ; cum t}Tannedem occupasset, circum annum rene CHRISTIANA ML VII. 
Hoc famae perennis monumentum deflens posuit vidua, JEANNA VEMIA, filiarum 
DAVIDIS, comitis Vemii, natu maxima ; quoe huic comiti peperit JOANNEM, nunc Suther- 
landiae comitem, et ANNAM ARBUTHNOTI vicecomitissam ; priori vero marito, ARCHI- 
BALDO ANGUSLE comiti filio Marchionis Duglassiorum natu maximo, ARCHIBALDUM 
Forfaro comitem, et MARGAITAEM vicecomiti de KINGSTROUN, in matremomum datam, 
quinque alii hujus Dominae liberi impueres decessenmt. 



192 MONASTICON. 

< 

Natus in arce sua, de Domach 2do, Novembris 1633, denatus Edinburge 4to 
Martii, A.D. MDCCIIL 

Translated To the memory of the most illustrious Lord George, Earl of Suther- 
land, Lord Strathnavar, &c., heritable Sheriff of said Lands, and Lord of the Regality 
thereof ; one of the Keepers of the Great Seal, under the most renowned Prince, KINO 
WILLIAM, one of the Lords of Privy Council, and the 19th Earl in a direct line from 
ALLAN, Thane of Sutherland, whom MACBETH, in the rage of his usurping tyranny, 
about the year of Christ 1057, slew for endeavouring to restore the Kingdom to 
MALCOLM III., lawful heir to the Crown. His mourning widow, JEAN WEMYSS, eldest 
daughter to David, Earl of Wemyss, erected this Monument of lasting fame. 

To the defunct Earl she brought forth John, now Earl of Sutherland, and Anne, 
Viscountess of Arbuthnot. And to her former husband, Archibald, Earl of Angus, 
eldest son to the Marquis of Douglas, she brought forth Archibald, Earl of Forfar, 
and Margaret, given in marriage to the Viscount of Kingstoun. Five other children 
of the said Lady Dowager Died in their nonage. The Earl himself was Born in his 
own Castle of Dornoch, 2d November, 1633, and Died at Edinburgh, 4th March, iTQIf? 3 ' 

Here are also deposited the Remains of William, 17th Earl of Suther- 
land, and his amiable Countess Mary, daughter of William Maxwell, Esq. 
of Preston, Kirkcudbright. His Lordship Died at Bath, June 16th, 1766, 
just after lie had completed his 31st year ; and the Countess, June 1st, 1766, 
in her 26th year, 16 days before the Earl fell a victim to his disorder. 

" They were lovely and pleasant in their lives, 
And in their deaths they were not divided." 

The Bodies of this illustrious and affectionate pair vere brought to 
Scotland, and Interred in one Grave in Holyro.od Abbey, 9tu August, 1766. 

" Beauty and birth a transient being have, 
Virtue alone can triumph o'er the 'grave." 

XXIII. Between this and the East Wall is the Countes > of Eglintoune's 
Monument, originally a most beautiful .Structure, thoigli now (1818) 
miserably dilapidated. The following Inscription, though nenrly obliterated, 
is placed within an Arched Recess : 

D. I. H. of Schattillarot, sometyme 

Here lyes ane Nobil and maist Governour of thif Realme. 

vertuous Ladie, Deame Jeane She deceast in December, 
Hamilton, Countas of Egling- MDXCVI. 

toun, Dochtor to JAMES, Duke 

XXIV. Two yards South from this Monument, is placed a plain Slab, 
with the following Inscription : 

Elizabeth Clavering, 

Aged 10 years. 
Died 29th June, 1799. 

XXV. On the East end of the Abbey, over some fm< carved Gothic 
Niches, is placed a small neat marble Cippus, and four StoE >s placed in the 
ground, with the Letters HEH, to the memory of Henrie ta Drummond, 
daughter of George Hay Drummond, Esq., and son of tli Archbishop of 
York, with a very elegant classical Epitaph, as follows : 

Sacred Son of Robert, Arch ishop of York, 

To the Memory of Who departed ihis life 

Henrietta Elizabeth Hay, Nov. 28, 1 '02, 

Daughter of In the Sixteenth V( ir of her age. 
The Reverend George Hay Drummond, 



ABBEY OF HOLYEOOD. 193 

Too pure and perfect still to linger here, 

Cheer" cl with seraphic visions of the blest, 
Smiling she dried a tender father's tear, 

And poured her spirit forth upon his breast. 
He bends not o'er the mansion of the dead, 

Where loveliness and grace in ruins lie ; 
In sure and certain hope, he lifts his head, 

And faith presents her in her native sky. 

XXVI. A few yards towards the Centre of the Chapel, a plain Slab is 
to the memory of Mary Dunbar, widow of Lord Basil Hamilton, brother to 
the Earl of Selkirk, Inscribed as under : 

MARY DUNBAR, Died May, 1760, 

Widow of Aged 86 years. 

Lord Basil Hamilton. 

The fate of this illustrious Nobleman (Lord Basil Hamilton) was truly 
lamentable. In the autumn of 1701, he fell an untimely victim to his 
humanity. His servant endeavouring to ford the Minnoch (a mountain 
torrent in Galloway, then much swelled by a sudden rain), when, in the 
emphatic language of the country, it was " Jawing a brown speat," was 
dismounted. Lord Basil rushed in and seized him ; but the awful force of 
the torrent swept both man and horse to a watery grave, in sight of his 
lamenting brother, the amiable Earl of Selkirk, and several unavailing 
spectators. 

XXVII. Between this and the Koyal Vault, a neat Monumental Stone, 
with fluted Pilasters and carved Koses, is erected to Thomas Lowe, Esq. of 
Ridley Hall, in Northumberland, with this Inscription : 

Here lies the body of To seek those riches which never can fail, 

Thomas Lowes, Esq., And those pleasures 

Late of Ridley Hall, Which are at God's right hand 

In the county of Northumberland ; For evermore 

One instance among thousands The gracious gift of God, _ 

Of the uncertainty of human life, And to be enjoyed through faith 

And the instability of earthly possessions In Jesus Christ our Saviour. 

And enjoyments. An only Daughter, over whom the deceased 

Born to ample property Had long watched with the tenderest care, 

He for several years experienced And many Friends, who admired 

A distressing reverse of fortune ; His liberal and generous mind, unite 

And no sooner was he restored to In deploring his loss. 

His former affluence, He departed this Life 

Than it pleased Divine Providence On the 18th day of September, 

To withdraw this, together with his life. In the year of our Lord, 1812, and 

Reader, In the 61st year of his Age. 
Be thou taught by this, 

XXVIII. In the South-East corner is the ROYAL VAULT, secured with a 
grated iron door. It is destitute of ornament, and presents no ideas of 
Royal magnificence, but a repulsive dungeon. 

1. Here were deposited the Remains of David II., King of Scotland, 
having meditated, along with the rest of the Christian nations, an expedition 
to the Holy Land, "Ad dominandum paganorum ferocitatem," to subdue 
the haughty ferocity of the Saracens ; but lie was cut off in the 47th 
year of his age, and 39th of his Reign, in the Castle of Edinburgh, and was 
VOL. i. 2s 



194 MONASTICON. 

Buried near to the High Altar in the Monastery of the Holy Eood, A.D. 
MCCCLXXI. Fordun has left a most elaborate Epitaph to his memory, 
which would appear to have been Inscribed upon his Sepulchre, beginning 
as follows : 

Hie Rex sub lapide David inclitus est tumulatus, &c. 

(Here lies the renowned King David under this stone.) 

2. Prince Arthur, third son of James IV., who was slain at the Battle of 
Floddenfield. He Died in the Castle of Edinburgh, 15th July, 1510, aged 
nine months. 

8. James V. of Scotland. Died at the Palace of Falkland, 14th Decem- 
ber, 1542. 

4. His Queen, Magdalen, daughter of Francis I., King of France. Died 
10th July, 1537. [See Pages 158-9.] 

5. Arthur, Duke of Albany, second son of James V. Died at Stirling, 
and was Interred beside his illustrious parent in the Abbey of Holyrood, 
aged eight days. 

G. Henry, Lord Darnley. Murdered 10th February, 15G7, in the 21st 
year of his age. He was pierced by 56 desperate wounds. 

7. Jane, Countess of Archibald, fifth Earl of Argyle, natural daughter of 
James V., by Elizabeth, daughter of John, Lord Carmichael. She was at 
supper with her sister, Queen Mary, when the blood of Bizzio was shed at 
her feet, 9th March, 15GG. She stood Sponsor for Queen Elizabeth at the 
Baptism of James VI., for which she was afterwards condemned by the 
Presbyterian Clergy to do Public Penance in the Church of S. -Giles at 
Edinburgh. Dying without issue, she was enclosed in one of the richest 
coffins ever seen in Scotland, the compartments and Inscriptions being all of 
solid gold, and was Interred beside her Boyal Relatives. 

8. In this Vault are also deposited the Remains of the Duchess de 
Gramont, one of the Blood Royal ; at least one of the Nobles of that 
unfortunate dynasty of the Family of the Bourbons, who remained for a 
considerable time in exile in this Country many of whom had apartments 
assigned them by our Government in the Palace of Holyroodhouse. 

Inscription on a silver plate on the lid of the coffin : 

Louise Francoise Gabrielle Aglae 1708; 

de Polignac, Morte le 80 Mars 
Duchesse de Grammont. IHO:{. 

Nea Paris le 7 Mai 

9. In July, 1848, the body of Mary of Gueldres, the Queen of James 
II., was removed from its original Resting-place in Trinity College Church, 
Edinburgh, which she had Founded (which was then taken down), and 
Re-interred in the Royal Vault. 

XXIX. Next to the Royal Vault is the Burial Place of the Family of 
Roxburgh, in which is Interred Jane, Countess of Roxburgh, daughter of 
Patrick, third Lord Drummond. She was a Lady of the finest accomplish- 
ments, and was on that account preferred, with universal approbation, to the 
important office of Governess to the children of James VI., which she 
executed with applause and satisfaction. She Died October 7, 1G43, and 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 195 

was Interred in the Family Vault. Her Funeral was appointed for the 
rendezvous of the Royalists, who projected that opportunity of assembling 
to massacre the chief Covenanters ; but found their number too inconsider- 
able for the attempt. 

.XXX. Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney. [See Page 161.] 

XXXI. In the Centre of the Southern Aisle, is a plain Altar-Tomb to 
Isabella, Countess-Dowager of Errol, with this Inscription : 

In Memory Which Religion prescribes ; 

of And closed 

i.r.A, In all tlie hopes which it inspires ! 

Countess-Dowager of Errol, This stone is inscribed 

Daughter By her grateful and affectionate Daughter, 

Of Sir Will. Carr, of Etall, Bart., AUGUSTA CARR, Countess of Glasgow. 

And widow of JAMKS, 14th Earl of Errol; She was Bom March 31, 1742, 

Whose life was passed And Died Nov. 3, 1808. 
In the discharge of all the duties 

XXXII. Next the Countess of Errol's Monument is that of 

Ann Mercer, Who Died on the 28th of November, 

Wife of Was interred here 

Richard Mercer, Esq., On the 4th of December, 

Of the Kingdom of Ireland, 1802. 

XXXIII. On the South Wall, opposite to the middle distance between 
the third and fourth Pillars from the East end, is Hay of Easter Kennet's 
Monument, thus Inscribed : " Hie jacet Alexander Hay, do Easter-Kennat, 
clericus registri ; qui obiit 19 Septembris, A.D. 1594." 

XXXIV. West a little from the above, under a plain Slab, lies 
The Honourable Mary Murray, Died 

Daughter of On the IDth December, 1804, 

Lord Edward Murray. Aged 70 years. 

XXXV. In the Passage on the South side of the Chapel, between the 
fourth and fifth Pillars from the West, and immediately below the fifth 
Window from the East, is a very neat carved Stone over Bailie Hunter and 
his wife. He is supposed to have been of the Family of Polmood, in Peebles- 
shire ; and the Arms of that Family are sculptured on the Stone, around 
which is this Inscription : 

Heir lyes Kathrine Norman, 
Thomas Hunter, His Spouse, 

Baillie in Edinburgh, MDCIX. 

and 

The Aisle on the Southern Side of the Abbey Chapel is paved 
with Grave Stones, in a manner similar to that on the North Side. Many 
of them are highly interesting and beautiful, being covered with Sculptures 
of Saxon Characters and Armorial Bearings. Here is a Slab towards the 
West end, having a plain Cross, with a Chalice on the sinister side, evidently 
to mark the Grave of an Ecclesiastic. 

The STONE COFFINS lying along the South Wall were found in the 
Garden in 1857. They probably were the Sarcophagi of Abbots of the 
Monastery. Their Dates may be between A.D. 1200 and 1350. 



196 MONASTICON. 

On this side are deposited the Eemaius of the following illustrious 
Personages ; but whose Monuments have either been destroyed, or who have 
never had any erected to their memory : 

XXXVI. Fergus, Lord or Prince of Galloway, the father of an illus- 
trious House, and who long withstood the power of the Scottish Monarchy. 
He was the Leader of his Countrymen in the Battle of the Standard, A.D. 
1138. He Married a natural daughter of Henry I. of England ; but having 
opposed Malcolm IV. in his nonage, was forced to seek an asylum within 
the Walls of Holyrood, where he Died, and was Interred with all the pomp 
of Monastic solemnity, A.D. 1161. 

XXXVII. John, Bishop of Candida Casa, or Whithorn, in Galloway, 
was contemporary with Alan, Constable of Scotland, in A.D. 1189. He is 
styled by Fordun, " Johannis Galvise insula sublimatus est." He became a 
Monk in the Abbey of Holyrood, A.D. 1206, and Died A.D. 1209. 

XXXVIII. John, Bishop-Elect of Galloway, became an Inmate in this 
House, A.D. 1440, and was Interred within its Cloisters, A.D. 1448. 

XXXIX. Archibald Crawford, Abbot of Holyrood, and Treasurer to 
James III. He spent the greatest part of his princely income in beautifying 
this stately Church, though neither Tomb nor Inscription remain to testify 
to the world that such virtue did exist. 

XL. David Fleming, Lord Biggar and Cmnbernauld, having attended 
Prince James of Scotland to the Bass in Feb., A.D. 1405. After seeing him 
safe on board the Vessel that was to convey him to France, he was, on his 
return home, attacked and killed at Longherdmanstoun, a few miles west 
from Edinburgh, by James Douglas of Balveny, afterwards seventh Earl of 
Douglas, and was Interred in the Abbey Church, where was a splendid 
Monument to his memory, destroyed by the infuriated soldiery in the Crom- 
well Usurpation. His virtues and place of Sepulture are thus narrated by 
the metrical Prior of Lochleven : 

" Sencc Davy Fleming of Cumbernald, 
Lord, a Knycht baith stout ani bald, 
Trowit and livit wcl with the Kyng, 
This ilke glide and gentil Knyclite 
That was baith manfu' leid and wychte 
Mes crnely mangled in liys blude, 
And now is layde in Halyrude." 

He Granted an Annual Eent of 25 Merks Sterling out of his Lands at 
Biggar, to the Monks of this Abbey, pro salute animi sempiterni. [Chart. 
Sauct. Crucis.] 

XLI. Andrew Fairfowl, son of John Fairfowl, of the Town of An- 
struther, was first Chaplain to the Earl of Kothes, then Minister at North 
Leith, and afterwards at Dunse, in Berwickshire. It is reported that King 
Charles II., having heard him preach several times when he was in Scotland 
in 1650, was pleased, upon his Kestoration, to enquire after Mr. Fairfowl, 
and accordingly preferred him to the See of Glasgow, 14th November, 1661, 
where he was specially Consecrated the ensuing year. These Ecclesiastical 
honours he did not long enjoy, having sickened the very day of riding the 



ABBEY OF HOLYROOD. 107 

Parliament, in November, 1663, and Died a few days after. He was 
Interred on the llth of the same month in the Abbey Church of Holyrood- 
house, universally regretted. 

XLII. John Paterson, Bishop of Galloway, was Translated to the See 
of Edinburgh, A.D. 1680, in which he continued till 1687, when he was 
Translated to the Archi-Episcopal See of Glasgow, of which he was Deprived 
at the Revolution. He Died at Edinburgh, on Wednesday, December 8, 
1708, in the 76th year of his age, and was Interred near the Oriel in Holy- 
rood. 

XLIII. The Honourable Lord Robert Kerr. A plain Grave Stone. 

XLIV. George Douglas, natural son of Archibald, Earl of Angus, was 
Bishop of Moray, A.D. 1573, and Died 1580, and was Interred in the 
Cloisters of Holyrood. 

XLV. Judge Smith, one of the English Commissioners during the 
Protectorate of the Duke of Somerset, Died at Inverness, October 6. His 
Corpse was brought to Edinburgh, and Interred in the Abbey Church, 12th 
October, 1657, by Torch-light. 

XLYI. James Sommerville of Drum, a Lieutenant- Colonel in the 
French and Venetian Service, twentieth in descent from Schir Gualtier de 
Sommervil, and tenth Lord of that Ilk, Died at Edinburgh, January 3, 
1677, in the 82d year of his age, and was Interred " by his ladye's syde, in 
the Abbey Church of Hollyrudhouse, maist of the nobilitie and gentrie in 
towne being, with two hundred torches, present at the interrement." 

XL VII. Lady Mary Kerr, daughter of Robert, first Marquis of Lothian, 
and Marchioness of Douglas, and mother of Archibald, first Duke of 
Douglas. She Died at Edinburgh, January 22, 1736, in the 58th year of 
her age. 

XL VIII. Also, in the same Recess, is Buried Lady Jane Douglas, 
daughter of the above. She was Born at Douglas Castle, 17th March, 
1698, and Died at Edinburgh, November 22, 1753, in the 56th year of her 
age. She was Married in 1746 to Sir John Stewart of Grandtully, to whom 
she bore Sholto Thomas Stewart, who Died at Edinburgh, 14th May, 1753, 
in the 5th year of his age, and reposes by the side of his illustrious parent. 

XLIX. Henry David, tenth Earl of Buchan, Died at Walcot, near 
Bath, December 1, 1767, in the 58th year of his age, and was Buried 21st 
December, in the Abbey Church of Holyrood. Also, his Lady, Agnes, 
daughter of Sir James Stewart of Goodtrees ; and their eldest son, David, 
Lord Cardross, who Died at Edinburgh, 4th October, 1747, in the 7th year 
of his age. 

L. Honourable John Lord Drummond, who, on the death of his 
nephew in 1747, assumed the Title of the Duke of Perth. Died at Edin- 
burgh, 27th October, 1757, and was Interred in the Abbey Church. 

LI. Lady Susan Hamilton, third daughter of John, Earl of Ruglen, 
Countess of Cassilis, Died at Barnton, February 8, 1763, in the 64th year of 
her age, and was Buried here. 



198 



MONASTICON. 



LII. The Hon. Francis Hay, second son of Francis, eighth Earl of Errol, 
by Lady Elizabeth Douglas, youngest daughter of "William, Earl of Morton. 
Died March 14, 1632, aged 34, and is Buried in the Nave of the Monastery 
of Holyroodhouse. 

LIU. The Honourable Lady Frances Hay, daughter of James, fourteenth 
Earl of Errol, Died at Edinburgh, 29th August, 1806, in the 34th year of 
her age, and is here Interred. 

LIV. Sir William Hamilton of Whitelaw, one of the Senators of the 
College of Justice, and Lord Justice-Clerk, was interred here, A.D. 1750. 



List of the principal Nobility and Gentry Buried in Holy rood Abbey Chapel, 
but who hare no Monuments. 



John, Lord Bellenden, 

John, Lord Lindores, 

James Carnegie, Earl of Fiiiliaven, 

Lady Helen Anstruther of Anstruther, ... 

Hon. Thomas Hay, Esq., son to the Earl of Errol, ... 

Earl of Dimmore, 

Lord Anstruther, 

Elizabeth, Countess of Crawford, 

Anne York, Lady Newark, ... 

Dame Isobel M'Kenzie, Countess of Seafortli, 

Right Hon. Lord Kinnaird, ... 

David Weimys, Lord Elcho, 

James Douglas, Earl of Morton, 

Lord Semple, 

Sir Alex. Grant of that Ilk, 



The Right Hon. Sir Archibald Sinclair 



Advocate, Lord High 



Sheriff of Edinburgh,. . . 
Lady Margaret Baillie, 
Lady Jane Muir, Countess of Glasgow, .. 
Dame Elizabeth, Lady Cardross, 
Lady Mary M'Kenzie, ... ... '.. 

Lady Mary Drummond, Countess of Marischal, 

William, Lord Forbes, 

Robert Douglas, Earl of Morton, 

Hemy Maule, Earl of Panmure, 

Lady Jane Hutchison, Countess of Ruglen [Rutlierglen] . 

James Lyon Bowes, Earl of Strathmore, 

David Crawford, Esq., principal Clerk of all the Notaries in 

North Britain, 
Lady Henrietta Livingstone, 

Lady Charlotte Cochrane, daughter to the Earl of Dundonald, ... 
Lady Jane Maitland, 
Lady Jane Mercer of Aldie, ... 
J. MDonald, Esq. of Glengarry, 
David Hay, Esq. of Leyo, ... 
Lady Margaret Hamilton of Bolcloim , . . . 

Hon. Miss Anne Botliwell, daughter to Henry, Earl of Bothwell, 
Right Hon. Countess of CassiUs, 
Lady Jane Maitland. 



2<1 Nov. 170(5 

17th Jan. 06 

24th March 07 

22d April 08 

4th Jan. 09 
12th May 10 

3d Feb. 11 
20th Feb. 11 
28th Feb. 13 
18th July 15 

:kl April 15 
llth Dec. 15 
14th Dec. 15 

4th Aug. 16 

22d Aug. 1!) 

24th Aug. 10 

24th June 20 

14th Sept. 24 

1st Feb. 25 

2d Feb. 26 

14th March 21) 
28th June 30 
14th Dec. 30 
25th June 34 

16th March 34 
18th Jan. 35 

28th Feb. 36 

26th May 3!) 

10th Feb. 40 

14th Feb. 47 

17th Dec. 40 

3d Sept. 54 

30th March 60 

22d May 60 

1st Nov. (52 

14th Feb. 63 

6th April (56 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 199 

Lady Catharine Wood, ... ... ... ... 9th Oct. 1770 

James Erskine, Esq. of Mar, Knt. Mar. of Scotland, ... 3d March* 85 

Lady Margaret Murray, daughter to Lord Viscount Storraont, 

and sister to the Earl of Mansfield, ... ... 21st April 85 

David Stewart Moncrief, Esq. of Moredeen, one of the Honour- 
able the Barons of Exchequer, ... ... ... 17th April 90 

Lady Jane Sinclair of Barrock, ... ... ... 5th Dec. 91 

Sir Alexander Hay of Park, ... ... ... ... 4th Feb. 92 

Right Hon. Lady Frances Leslie, ... ... ... (ith Oct. !)2 

Right Hon. Countess of Cassilis, ... ... ... 1st Jan. 94 

Sir William Gordon of Gordonstone, ... ... ... 5th March 95 

Lady Francis Montgomery, ... ... ... ... o oth Jan. 99 

Charles Hamilton, Esq., ... ... ... ... 12th April 1800 

Hon. Mrs. Anstruther of Anstruther, ... ... ... 3d May 14 

The Hon. Miss Euphemia Stewart, ... ... ... 21st Feb. 17 



In the Churchyard of Holyrood are placed a few plain Cippuses, on 
Grave Stones, with the following Inscriptions : 

I. Hie habentur reliquiae Nicolai Patersoni 
Nobilissimo Joanni, inctyto Rothusiae Comiti 

Clarissimo Scotorum proregi, 

a Secretioribus Ministris, 
Obiit postridie Iduum Decebr. MDCLXV. 

Translation Here are deposited the Remains of Nicol Paterson, Secretary to 
the most noble John, Earl of Rothes, illustrious Viceroy of Scotland. He Died the 
30th of December, 10G5. 

To weep for him that's gone is surely folly : 
To rest in hope is best, in spirits holy. 

You see that neither youth, nor strength, nor beauty, 
Can privilege one man from nature's duty. 
Howe'er let none pass by without resent, 
To Death itself for his death doth repent. 

II. On JOHN PATEKSON. 

Memoriae dilictissimi conjugis Joannis Patersoni 
Qui cum suavissimo matriinonii vinculo 
XXXV. plus minus annos transegisset 
Et aliquoties Balivi munere in vico (Canongate) 
Functus esset. Obiit anno Christ! MDCLXIII. 
Apr. XXIII., rctatis LXIII. Amoris et officii ergo 

Monumentum hoc dicavit Agneta Lyall. 
Qua htec ipsa obiit A.D. MDCLXIV. Ap. XXIII. aetatis LXI. 
Ecce Patersoni mortis sicura secunda, 
Mens peregrinantes quae peregaiida monet. 

Translation To the memory of her most beloved husband, John Paterson, who, 
after he had lived about 35 years in the sweet bond of wedlock, and had frequently 
discharged the office of Bailie in the Caiioiigate, Died in the year of Christ 10G3, in 
the 03d j^ear of his age. In token of her love and affection, Agnes Lyell did erect 
this Monument. She also Died April 23, 1004, in the Gist year of her age. 

Lo ! Patersoii's kind ghost redeem'd from hell, 
To sojourners their duty clear doth tell. 



200 MONASTICON. 

Stay passenger ! Consider well, See then to sin thou daily die : 

That thou ere long with me must dwell. So shallt thou live eternallie. 

Endeavour then whilst thou hast breath, And serve the Lord with all thy might : 

HOAV to avoid the second death : The day's far spent fast comes the night. 

For on this moment do depend Mark well, my son, what here you read : 

Torments or pleasures without end. The best advice is from the dead. 

III. Near the above, upon a flat Stone, the following occurs : 

Here lies Mary Moss, daughter to Edward Moss, who 

departed this life in the year of God 1071, 

Aged 18. 

Here lies interred chaste beauty's maid, Transformed now is unto dust, 

In whom death virtue hath betray'd, Had the respect of all in trust. 

Meek, modest, mild, sweet Mary Moss, From wedlock's hope divorced here. 

Perfection's flower in primely bloss, Turn, reader, turn, and drop a tear. 

IV. On a Stone close by, erected to Eichard and Eobert Henderson, is 
Inscribed thus : 

Two bretheren, Hendersons, here lye below, 

Sons to Alexander Henderson Gardiner, 
Struck in the prime of youth by death's sad blow. 

Richard could write and read, Robert could cure. 

Their arts, strength, stature, seemed them to secure 
Longer from this attack ; but we may see 
Nothing impedes the course of destiiiie. 

Richard, died the 30th Nov., 1077. His age 33. 
Robert died 21st June, 1080. His age 23. 

The above Stone was removed about 1804. 

V. On the Eastern Exterior of the Church is placed a small plain 
Tablet, with the following Inscription : 

To the Memory of Anna Fouler. 
Two virtuous hands, one truth expressing tongue, 

A furnished heart with Piety, faith, and love ; 
A fruitful womb, whence hopeful males are sprung ; 
Two lust-free eyes, thoughts tending far above 
The reach of nature, motionless become, 
Rest peaceably into the earthly tomb. 

She died 9th May, 1045, of her age 48. 

VI. A small distance from here, towards the South-East, was placed a 
double Tablet against the Garden Walls of the Palace ; but the Garden 
Wall being removed, it is now placed on the East end of the Chapel, and 
bears a Latin Inscription upon the one side, and an English one on the 
other, as follows : 

D. 0. M. 

Gulielmo Gramo de Hilton, et Margaretae Consorti suae, suisque terrena 
animae, indumenta cum fata vocaverint, hie deponi, concessum fait Oto cal. Sept., 
1046. Hoc in cimeterio conditur hactinus progenies tota ; Alexander, Margareta, 
Maria, una, atque alteri liberi quidem, non posteri sed parentum suorum, ut in morte, 
ita in vita et haereditate ilia ; aeterna antecessores. O quaiii fluxa res Immana, spes 
lubrica et mortalitates snepe prarpostera! O vitae fugacis curriculum breve in quo 
viator haec legens sistis nee sistis ! 



ABBEY OF HOLYKOOD. 



201 



Translation Granted, by permission, to Captain William Graham of Hiltoun, 
and Margaret Stewart, his Spouse, as a place of Sepulture for them and their 
children, in which they may lay down the earthly tabernacle of their souls, when God 
shall call them by death. Here already are Buried their whole offspring, Alexander, 
Margaret, and Mary, and their other children. Not posthumous, but forerunners to 
their parents in death ; as also to an everlasting inheritance to eternal life. O how 
uncertain are all human affairs ! the hope of them perishing, and mortality fleeting 
and transitory. 

Short race of life, by time's all dread command, 
Thou reader, halteth not, though here thou stand. 

On the opposite side of the Stone is the following : 



Mind, Passenger, thy going hence 
From Captain Graham his providence ; 
Nor envy thou this little stone 
Here is no proud Mausoleon ; 
But rather emulate his hopes, 
In which he earth far overtops 
Nilus' vast Pyramids. Lo, here 
A wardrobe for his soul's attire 
He doth provide. He trusts at last 
This coat incarnate not to cast, 



But lay it off. The world may burn 
Yet shall his ashes from his urn 
Muster his outside, and present 
Christ's all monarchick parliament. 

William Graham. 

ANAGKAM. 

Ah me ! I gravel am and dust, 
And to the grave descend I must. 
O painted piece of living clay, 
Man, be not proud of thy short day. 



VII. To the East of the Chapel, on the site of the Choir, stands a 
small neat Monument erected to Alexander Milne, King's Architect for 
Scotland, Inscribed as follows : 

Tarn arte, quam arte. 
A. M. 

In clarissinium virum, Alexandrum Milnum, lapicidam 
Egregium, hie sepultum, Anno Dom. 1643, Feb. 20. 

Siste Hospes ; clams jacet hoc sub marmore Milnus ; 

Dignus cui Pharius, conderet ossa labor : 
Quod vel in sere Myron fudit. vel pinxit Appelles, 

Artifice hoc potuit hie lapicida manu. 

Sex lus^ris tantum vixit (sine labe). senectam 

Prodidit : et mediam clauserat ille diem. 

Translation. 

In this place is Buried a worthy man and an 
Ingenious Mason, Alexander Milne, 20th February, A.D. 1643. 

Stay Passenger, here famous Milne doth rest, 
'Worthy in Egypt's Marble to be drest ; 
What Myron or Appelles could have done 
In brass or paintr} 7 that could he in stone. 
But thretty yeares he (blameless) lived : old age 
He did betray, and in's prime left this stage. 

Eenewed by Eobert Mylne, Architect, MDCCLXXVI. This Monument 
was removed in 1857 to the North-East corner of the Chapel Boyal, and, in 
its place, a flat Tombstone was substituted. 

In Greyfriars' Churchyard is a splendid Monument to John Milne, 
father of him who built the Palace, with a laboured Epitaph, noticing that 
he was sixth Eoyal Master Mason to seven successive Kings of Scotland in a 
direct line. 

VOL. i. 2 c 



202 MONASTICON. 

VIII. John Craw, W.S., Bailie of Holyroodhouse, Died 23d, and was 
Interred in the Chapel Koyal the 30th March, 1816. 

IX. On the East side was the Grave Stone of the Rev. George Lesly, 
Minister of the Church of Holyroodhouse, 1656. 



VALUATION OF THE ABBEY OF HOLYEOOD. 

Money, 2926 8s Qd. Wheat, 27 Chalders, 10 Bolls ; Bear, 40 Chal- 
ders, 9 Bolls ; Oats, 34 Chalders, 15 Bolls, 3 Firlots, 3 Pecks ; Capons, 
501 N. ; Hens, 24 N. ; Salmon, 24 N. ; Salt, 12 Loads ; Swine, 3 N. K. 

The Cells or Priories dependent on the Abbey were S. Mary's 
Isle, in Galloway, whose Prior was a Lord of Parliament; 
Blantyre, in Clydesdale, which must have existed before 1296, 
since "Frere William, Priour de Blauntyr," swore allegiance to 
Edward I. in that year [Ragman Rolls, p. 166] ; Kowadill, in 
the Isle of Herries, said by Spottiswoode to have been Founded 
by one of the M'Leods of Harries ; Colonsay, planted, according 
to the same authority, by the Lord of the Isles, with Canons 
from Holyrood ; and Crusay and Oransay, believed to have been 
originally two of those Island Lamps, lit by the hand of S. 
Columba, to shed a holy light across the Western waters. 

XI. SAINT MARY'S ISLE, Cir. A.D. 1129, 

One mile below Kirkcudbright, in Galloway, was Founded in 
the Keign of Malcolm IV., or rather David I., by Fergus, Lord 
of Galloway, and called " Prior atus Sanctae Mariae de Trayll" 
The Prior hereof was a Lord and Member of Parliament. The 
Lidderdails possessed this Isle for upwards of a Century, who 
derived it from the last Prior of that name, who was said to be 
the first person at the " Reformation" who got the Pope's leave 
to become "Protestant" outwardly, but " Catholic ; ' secretly, in 
order that they of " the true Keligion" might have some wealth 
the better to support the Cause opportunely. This Priory has 
been entirely demolished ; but, near its Site, there remains an 
eight-sided Second- Pointed Font, with an Inscription on the 
Margin, and Animals and Shields sculptured on the Sides. The 



PRIORY OF S. MARY'S ISLE. 203 

Site of the Priory was on a beautiful Peninsula, which is formed 
by the influx of the Sea at the mouth of the Dee, and which 
appears to have been completely insulated in former times by 
every flow of the Tide. This Peninsula was called the Isle of 
Trahill, or Trayl, the Priory Founded on it having been Dedi- 
cated to the Blessed Virgin Mary ; and hence it acquired the 
popular name of S. Mary's Isle. 

Fergus Granted the Isle of Trahil, with the Priory Founded 
on it, to the Monastery of Holyrood, where he Died A.D. 1161 ; 
and the Priory of S. Mary's Isle thus became a dependent Cell 
of Holyrood Abbey. The Grant by Fergus of the Isle of Trahil 
was Confirmed to the Monastery of Holyrood by John, Bishop of 
Galloway, between 1200 and 1206. The Prior of S. Mary's Isle 
was a Lord of Parliament, like other Priors ; and he sat in the 
pretended Parliament of 1560, when the " Confession of Faith " 
was settled under the authority of a doubtful Treaty. Mr. Kobt. 
Eichardson was Presented to the Priory of S. Mary's Isle on the 
30th March, 1558, in the place of Kobert Strivelin, the last 
Prior, deceased. Kichardson was appointed the Koyal Treasurer 
by the Queen Kegent in 1559, and he held that Office till 1571. 
In 1572, the Lands which belonged to the Priory of S. Mary's 
Isle were Granted in Feu Firm, by the Commendator of that 
Priory, to James Lidderdail and Thos. Lidderdail (referred to 
already), and this Grant was Confirmed by a Charter from the 
King, on 4th November, 1573. The Property thus Granted 
consisted of the 2J Mark-Lands called S. Mary's Isle, with the 
Manor, Wood, and Fish-yare [Fishery] of the same; the 10 Mark- 
Lands of Grange, with the Mill, the Mill Lands, and Pertinents ; 
the 10 Mark-Lands of Torrs ; and the 7J- Mark-Lands of Little 
Galtway reserving from this last 8 Acres of Land contiguous to 
the Old Church of Little Galtway, for the use of the Minister. 
This Grant was made by Mr. Kobert Kichardson, Usufructuary, 
and William Rutherford, Commendator, of the Priory of S. 
Mary's Isle. [Privy Seal Reg., xll., 138.] They also Granted in 
1572 to Lidderdail and his son, a Lease for 19 years, from Whit- 
sunday, 1574, of the spiritual Property of the Priory, consisting 
of the Tithes, Revenues, and Lands of the Parish Churches that 



204 



MONASTICON. 



belonged to it, and also the Tithes of the Priory Lands. The 
Parish Churches which belonged to this Priory were those of 
Galtway and of Anworth, in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and 
Kirkmadin, in Wigtonshire. The Priory was surrounded by high 
Walls. The outer Gate stood about three-quarters of a mile 
from the Priory; and the place where it stood is still called the 
Great Cross. The inner Gate led immediately to a group of 
Cells, where the Monks lived ; and the place where it stood is 
called the Little Cross. Every vestige of the Buildings has long 
been obliterated, and the whole of its extensive Site is now occu- 
pied by the fine Seat of the Earl of Selkirk. 

The famous Paul Jones landed on S. Mary's Isle in 1778, 
hoping to take captive the Earl of Selkirk, who happened to be 
absent ; and the Countess could offer no resistance to the plun- 
dering of silver plate, &c. Jones' father was Gardener here. 

CHAET OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE PBIOKY OF TRAIL. 



Hec est Hysteria Fundacionis Prio- 
ratus Insule de Traile, et quo- 
modo Fergusius, magnus Domi- 
nus Galwidie, fundator eiusdem, 
optinuit pacem regis Dauid, et 
dedit eandem insulam et alia domi- 
nia Monasterio Sancte Crucis, et 
in eodem, religiosus effectus, se- 
pultus est. 

Crescenti structura monasterij 
Sancte Crucis prope Edinburgh, per 
sanctum Dauid regem felicissimum, 
contigit Fergusium, comitem et 
magnum dominum Galwidie regie 
maiestati deliquisse, et grauem in- 
currisse offensam, vnde rex nimirum 
commotus,iusticie execucionemcum 
rigore in eum exercere disposuit. 
Hie Fergusius Deo multum deuotus, 
et non obstante culpa casuali com- 
missa, regi semper fidelis, sciens 
regem in execucione iusticie con- 
stantissimum, timuit ualde, et mul- 
tis modis ac diuersis medijs regis 
graciam laborabat recuperare. Tan- 
dem nutu diuino inspiratus, mutato 



This is the History of the Founda- 
tion of the Priory of the Island 
of Trail, and how Fergus, Great 
Lord of Galloway, the Founder 
thereof, obtained pardon from 
King David, and gave that Island 
and other Possessions to the 
Monastery of Holyrood, and how, 
having become one of the Eeli- 
gious, he was Buried therein. 

When the Fabric of the Monas- 
tery of Holyrood, near Edinburgh, 
was progressing under S. David, a 
most happy Monarch, it happened 
that Fergus, Earl and Great Lord 
of Galloway, failed in his duty to 
his Majesty, and committed a griev- 
ous fault ; at which the King, evi- 
dently very angry, determined to 
put the law in force rigorously 
against him. This Fergus, being 
very much devoted to God, and, 
notwithstanding his accidental fault, 
always faithful to the King, know- 
ing that the King was most deter- 
mined in the execution of justice, 
was very much afraid, and in many 



PKIOKY OF S. MARY'S ISLE. 



205 



habitu, et modo secretissimo, Al- 
winum aduenit abbatem monasterij 
Sancte Crucis, regis confessorem et 
secretarium confisum, eius consili- 
um et auxilium habiturus. Abbas 
igitur, super dicto penitente Domino 
Fergusio compaciens, ad optinendam 
eidem regis graciam Deum depre- 
catus est-; et quia sane nouit in re 
gesta pro iusticia fienda regis con- 
stanciana esse terribilem, pro eo 
interpellare temere metuebat. Tan- 
dem utrorumque Fergusij et abbatis 
ingenio compertum est, quod dictus 
Dominus Fergusius habitum claus- 
tralem canonici regularis indueret, 
et sic, Deo dirigente, sub palliata 
supplicacione, una cum fratribus 
regis pacem et offense remissionem 
optinere possit. Hoc eorum pro- 
positum Deo committentes, diem et 
horam prestolantur conuenienciores 
regem in hac re abbate allocuturo. 
Quadam die solito more regem con- 
structores fui egregij monasterij 
visitantem, abbas placenti hora al- 
loquitur, " clementissime princeps 
et fundator, nos licet indigni ora- 
tores et capellani conuentuales, ob 
vulnera nostrarum transgressionum 
spirituali curanda remedio, tue cel- 
situdinis presenciam in capitulo 
plurimum haberesupplicamus." Ad 
hoc clemens princeps summe con- 
tentus, hora capifculari fratribus in 
ordine collocatis, capitulum ingredi- 
tur, sedet in medio, fratribus ad 
ianuam in terram prostratis. Abbas 
sic inquit : "0 graciosissime prin- 
ceps nos oratores tue celsitudinis, 
confitentes nostra delicta, nos reos 
esse et transgressores, in uisceribus 
lehsu Cristi humilime deprecamur, 
ut nobis et nostrum vnicuique omne 
delictum et offensam tue maiestati 
commissam, ex puro corde et sin- 
cere, vna cum benedictione remit- 
tere et conferre dignetur tua celsi- 
tudo benignissima, quatenus in fu- 
turum pro salute et tui regni pros- 
peritate sanctius et deuocius con- 



ways and by various means was 
endeavouring to regain the King's 
favour. At length, being inspired 
by Divine counsel, in a change of 
habit, and in the most secret man- 
ner, he repaired to Alwyn, Abbot 
of the Monastery of Holyrood, the 
King's Confessor and confidential 
Secretary, for advice and assistance. 
The Abbot, therefore, compassiona- 
ting the aforesaid penitent, Lord 
Fergus, prayed to God to obtain the 
Eoyal favour for him ; and because 
he well knew in this case that the 
King's determination for the execu- 
tion of justice was inflexible, he was 
afraid incautiously to intercede in 
his behalf. At last, by the ingenui- 
ty of both Fergus and the Abbot, it 
was contrived that the said Lord 
Fergus should assume the Cloister- 
Habit of a Canon-Regular, and thus, 
God directing, should obtain, along 
with his Brethren, the King's fa- 
vour, and, at the same time, the 
pardon of this offence, through sup- 
plication under a Religious Habit. 
Leaving to God their purpose, they 
wait for a convenient day and 
hour, with the intention of the 
Abbot speaking to the King on this 
matter. One day, as usual, while 
the King was visiting the builders 
of his famous Monastery, the Ab- 
bot, at a seasonable moment, thus 
addresses him " most gracious 
Prince and Founder, we, though 
unworthy petitioners and Conven- 
tual Chaplains, by reason of the 
wounds of our transgressions, to be 
cured only by a spiritual remedy, 
beg to have often the presence of 
your Highness in Chapter." At 
this, the merciful Prince, highly 
pleased, enters the Chapter House, 
when the Brethren were arranged 
in order at the hour of meeting, sits 
down in the middle, the Brethren 
prostrating themselves to the ground 
at the entrance. The Abbot thus 
speaks " most gracious Prince, 



206 



MONASTICON. 



templari et orare mereamur, et in 
signum hums graciose remissionis 
nostrum vnicuique osculum pacis 
impartiri tua dilectetur celsifcudo 
clementissinia." Kex vultu placen- 
tissimo respondit, "Fratres predi- 
lecti, omnia uobis crimina remitto, 
et me vestris oracionibus commen- 
do ;" et statim se erigens de sua 
sede, apprehensa manu abbatis, eum 
osculatus est dicendo, " Pax tibi, 
frater, cum benedictione diuina." 
[Bannatijne Miscellany, vol. ii., pp. 
19-20.] 



we, the petitioners of your High- 
ness, confessing our faults that we 
are guilty and transgressors, most 
humbly beseech thee, in the bowels 
of Jesus Christ, that your most be- 
nignant Highness would condescend 
to pardon us, and every one of us, 
every fault and offence committed 
against your Majesty, with a single 
and unfeigned heart, and at the 
same time bestow upon us your 
blessing, in order that, for the 
future, we may be deserving to 
meditate and pray for the safety of 
your Kingdom more holily and de- 
votedly ; and that your most merci- 
ful Highness would be pleased, in 
token of this gracious pardon, to 
bestow upon every one of us the 
kiss of peace." The King, with a 
most placid countenance, replied 
" Dearly beloved Brethren, I for- 
give you all charges, and commend 
myself to your prayers ;" and im- 
mediately rising from his seat, and 
taking the Abbot by the hand, 
kissed him, saying, "Peace be to 
thee, Brother, with the Divine Bene- 
diction." 



VALUATION OF THE PRIORY OF SAINT MARY'S ISLE. 

Money, 235 4s 4d. [307 11s 4d. Keith.] 



XII. BLANTYRE, A.D. 1295, 

In Clydesdale, was Founded by Alexander II. before 1296 ; 
for, at this time, "Frere William, Prioyr de Blantyr," is a Sub- 
scriber to Bagman's Roll. [Prynne, p. 663.] Walter Stuart, 
Commendator of this place, was Lord Privy Seal in 1595, and, 
shortly after, Treasurer, upon the Master of Glammis' demission. 
He was made a Peer, by the Title of Lord Blantyre, the 10th 
July, 1606, from whom is descended the present Lord Blantyre. 
[Spottiswoodt.] 

"Dean Eobert Couts, Prior of Blantyre, gets License to pass 
to Eome, or to any other place, in Pilgrimage, for three years; 
and liberty to purchase in the Court of Eome, any Benefice, 



PKIOEY OF BLANTYRE. 207 

Kegular or Secular, in Scotland, of the availl of <500 Sterling: 
the year dated Oct. 22nd, 1531." [Riddles' MS. Notes to "Keith."} 

" Though this Parish be but little, yett there was anciently a 
little Priorie situate in it, upon ane precipice, close unto Clyde, 
among pleasant woods, just opposite to the Castle of Bothwell. 
It was ane Cell of the Abbacie of Jedburgh, and Founded by 
King Alexander II., to which these Munks generally retired in 
the tyme of war with the English. The Benefice is but small, 
and was given by King James VI. to Walter Stuart, sone to the 
Laird of Minto, one of his servants, and Thesaurer of Scotland. 
He was first Commendator, and, in anno 1606, was created 

Lord Blantyre Upon the south bank of the Kiver 

stands the Craig of Blantyre, anciently the residence of the 
Priours of Blantyre. . . . . The Lord Blantyre heth ane 
fruitful orchard at the old Priorie, where he is some tymes in use 
to dwell." [Descriptions of the Sheriff cloms of Lanark and Ren- 
frew, compiled about MDCCX. by William Hamilton of Wishaw.] 

Only a tottering fragment of the Priory now remains, perched 
on a wooded Crag three-quarters of a mile from the Village of 
Blantyre, down the Clyde one of Scotland's most picturesque 
and lovely scenes, so much admired by Professor Wilson and the 
Poet Wordsworth. The latter says, in the Notes to his Poems, 
vol. v., p. 379, Edition 1839 "Rock and ruin are so blended 
that it is impossible to separate the one from the other. Nothing 
can be more beautiful than the little remnant of this holy place. 
Elm trees grow out of the walls, and overshadow a small but 
very elegant window. It can scarcely be conceived what a grace 
the Castle of Bothwell and Priory of Blantyre impart to each 
other ; and the Eiver Clyde flows on, smooth and unruffled, 
below, seeming to my thoughts more in harmony with the sober 
and stately images of former times, than if it had roared over a 
rocky channel, forcing its sound upon the ear. It blended 
gently with the warbling of the smaller birds, and the chattering 
of the larger ones, that had made their nests in the Ruins." 

A popular Legend says that Sir William Wallace once took 
shelter in this Priory from a body of his English enemies, and 
astonished them by a dexterous escape from one of its windows 



208 MONASTICON. 

over a precipice. Another Legend asserts the existence of a 
subterranean Passage from the Priory, under the bed of the 
Clyde, across to Bothwell Castle ; and this is used by Miss Jane 
Porter to complicate her Story of the Scottish Chiefs. 

VALUATION OF THE PKIOEY OF BLANTYEE. 

Money, 131 6s ld. [Keith.] 
XIII. BOWADIL, BOWADILL, KOWDIL, Or BODIL, 

In the Isle of Harris, and Shire of Boss, Founded by Macleod 
of Harris. It was situated on the South-East point of that 
Island, on the sea coast, under Ben Bowadill. [Spottiswoode.] 
The Date of its Foundation is unknown, and the earliest notice 
of it seems to be that by Archdeacon Monro, who says, " Within 
the south pairt of this He lyes ane Monastere with a Steipeill, 
quhilke was founded and biggit be M'Cloyd of Harrey, callit 
Boodill." Macfarlane [Geographical Collections] says, " Ther is 
a Paroch Church in Haray cald Bovidil, and a small Tour 
[probably the ' steipeill ' of Monro] in that Town, named after 
the Saint Cleamen; in English, Clement." The Buins of the 
" Priory" (so termed by the Natives) are still in tolerable repair, 
and enclose the Monument of Alexander M'Leod of Harris 
(named Gr attach), a piece of fine Sculpture, in good preservation. 

The Priory Church of S. Clement at Bowdil, in Harris, is a 
small cross-building consisting of Nave and undistinguished 
Chancel, respectively 31 feet 8 inches, and 20 feet 2 inches, in 
length, by 15 feet 2 inches in width ; Transeptal Chapels with 
Pointed Arches of two moulded Orders, opening North and 
South between the Chancel and Nave ; and a square Tower, about 
60 feet high, of four stories, at the West end, of equal breadth 
with the Church. This is conspicuous a far way off. The East 
Window is of three round-headed lights, trefoiled, set under a 
Pointed Arch, with a wheel of six straight spokes in the apex. 
All the Side Windows are small Lancets, some of them foiled in 
the head, and, with the East Window, showing the Scoinson 
Arch within. So far as can be gathered from the ornamental 
features, which are confined to the East Window, the Arches and 



PEIOEY OF EOWADIL. 209 

Kesponds of the Side Chapels, the Tower, and the mural Tombs, 
the work evidently belongs to the Second-Pointed Period, and 
may date from about the end of the Fourteenth Century; 
though, as in the Buildings at lona, the adoption of forms 
resembling Norman and First-Pointed, has given to it an appear- 
ance of greater antiquity. In both Churches the Mouldings and 
Pictorial Sculptures of grotesque Figures, are almost identical 
both in style and subject, and very likely were the work of the 
same hands. There are two nude Figures, which, from their 
analogy to allusions in Oriental Worship, are objects of much 
curiosity to Tourists. One of the Gravestones commemorates a 
Sir Donald Macleod of Berneray, who Married, for the fourth 
time, after he was 80 years of age, and had a numerous family 
from the Marriage. 

Buchanan says the Monastery of Eowdil was built by Alex- 
ander Macleod of Harris; but this is an egregious mistake. 
The Church of the Monastery was only repaired by this Alexander 
Macleod, who Died, as the Inscription on his Tomb bears, 
A.D. 1527. There is not a stone left in the Foundation of the 
Priory. The place of it cannot now be traced, and all we surely 
know of it is that it once has been. The Chartulary seems to 
have been lost amidst the devastations which every where marked 
the progress of our " first Reformers," and the Church was set 
on fire. The Walls, however, of this venerable Pile remained 
almost entire, and were repaired in 1784 by the late patriotic 
Alexander Macleod, Esq. of Harris. Down to this period, it 
was customary with the Natives of Harris to swear by Glaiman- 
morr-a-Boivadill the great Saint Clement of Eodil. After the 
Church was roofed and slated, and the materials for furnishing 
it within laid up in it to a considerable value, it unfortunately 
took fire at night, through the carelessness of the carpenters, who 
had left a live coal in it among the timbers. So zealous, how- 
ever, was this friend of Eeligion and mankind in his design of 
repairing it, that by his orders, and at his expense, it was soon 
after this accident roofed; and it is now, though left unfinished 
since the time of his Death, used as one of the principal 
places in the Parish for celebrating Divine Service. [Parish of 

VOL. I. 2 D 



210 MONASTICON. 

Harris, by Eev. John Macleod, in Statistical Account of Scotland, 
1794.] 

In the South Chapel of the Priory Church, there is a long 
narrow Chest, made of separate Slabs, which is at once the Tomb 
and Coffin of what appears to be a military Ecclesiastic, perhaps 
a Prior of the place. {Characteristics of Old Church Architec- 
ture, &c., in the Mainland and Western Islands of Scotland, 1861.] 

VALUATION OF THE PEIOKY OF EOWADIL. 

No information. 

XIV. CKUSAY, 

In the Western Isles, Founded by S. Columba. [Spottis- 
woode.] S. Columba Founded a Monastery in this Island, but 
nothing remains. I have found this Monastery designated in all 
ancient Catalogues. From the three Monasteries of Crusay, 
Oronsay, and Colonsay, the Family of Argyle receive the Title 
of Lord. [Brockie's MS., pp. 3639, 5037.] 

It would require some Professor of Geography to find out in 
any Map the whereabouts of this Island. It must be very insig- 
nificant at best. I have searched and inquired for it in vain. 

XV. ORONSAY, 

One of the Western Isles in the Shire of Argyle, Founded by 
S. Columba. It gives the Title of Lord to Archibald, Earl of 
Isla. [Spottisivoode.] Oronsay and Colonsay lie 14 miles N.N.W. 
of Port Askaig, in Islay, and are reached from Glasgow by the 
Steamer to Oban. The population of both Islands is nearly 600. 
Lord Colonsay takes his Title herefrom, and has his Mansion in 
the Northern part of the Island. His Lordship most courteously 
gave for MONASTICON a Pencil Sketch of his Seat, in order to 
show the present nature of the Country, of which an Engraving 
is presented. 

The KUINS of the Priory of Oronsay are next to those of 
lona in interest the finest Ecclesiastical Antiquities in the 
Hebrides. The Church and a portion of the Cloisters still 
remain. The Church, Dedicated to S. Oran, and built in the 
Early English Style, is about 60 feet long by 18 wide, and has a 



PKIOKY OF OKONSAY. 



211 



Side Chapel, containing the Tomb of Murchard Makduffie of 
Colonsay, who Died in 1539 [see Cut top of next page] ; and also 




INTERIOR OF OROJTSAY PRIORY CHAPEL. 




EXTERIOR OF ORONSAY PRIORY CHAPEL. 

what is generally styled the Tomb of the Abbot Makduffie, pro- 
bably the Prior of that name above-mentioned. 

From " Martin's Account of the Western Islands," it appears 



212 



MONASTICON. 



that the Side now ruined had been of a construction similar to 
the latter two. The rest of the Buildings are ruinous. 




Near the Church is a Cross, 12 feet high, 1 foot 7 inches 
broad, 5 inches thick, with an Inscription recording the Death 
of Colin, Prior of Orisoi, noticed above. 
The nearly effaced Inscription is at the 
bottom; but these words are traceable 
"Hoc. est. Crux. Colini." Prior. Orisoi." 
This beautiful Cross, bordered with the 
Nail-head Moulding, stands on a Pedestal 
of four high steps, South- West of the 
Priory Church. On the East face, the 
Disk has a radiated circle with a central 
boss; and the Shaft exhibits a profusion 
of twining foliage, enclosed in girdles 
linked to each other, and two animals near 
the bottom. Occupying the Disk and upper 
part of the Shaft, on the West face, is a 
fine Sculpture of the Crucifixion ; follow- 
ing is a deal of elaborated foliage in 
circles. 

The fragment of another Cross, con- 
sisting of about 3 feet of the Stem, is 
standing on a graduated Plinth at the 
East end of the Priory. One of the faces 
is covered with foliage of an elegant pattern ; the other face is 
blank. On the Disk, which is lying loose, there is the Figure 
of an Ecclesiastic within a Trefoil-headed Niche. The parts 
could be united easily ; and a little labour, laid out in giving 




PKIOKY OF OKONSAY. 



213 



a firmer and more dignified basis to the larger Pillar, would 
certainly be no more than it stands in want of and deserves. 

Thomas Pennant, in his " Tour in Scotland, and Voyage 
to the Hebrides, 1772," page 235, has the following remarks : 
" The Church is 59 feet by 18, and contains the Tombs 
of numbers of the ancient Islanders two of Warriors, recum- 
bent, 7 feet long ; a flattery, perhaps, of the Sculptor, to give to 
future Ages exalted notions of their prowess. Besides these, 
are scattered over the Floor lesser Figures of Heroes, Priests, and 
Females the last seemingly of some Order; and near them is 
a Figure cut in stone, of full size, apparently an 
Abbess. In a Side Chapel, beneath an Arch, lies 
an Abbot, of the name of Mac-dufie, with 
two of his fingers elated in the attitude 
of Benediction. In the same place is 
a Stone [see Cut on the left, next page] 
enriched with Foliage, a Stag sur- 
rounded with Dogs, and a Ship with 
full Sail: round is Inscribed, 'Hie jacet 
Murchardus Mac-dufie de Collonsa, An. 
Do. 1539, mense mart. Ora me ille. 
ammen.' This Murchardus is said to 
have been a great Oppressor, and that 
he was Executed, by Order of the Lord 
of the Isles, for his Tyranny. Near his 
Tomb is a long Pole, placed there in 
memory of the Ensign Staff of the 
Family, which had been preserved mi- 
raculously for 200 years. On it (report 
says) depended the fate of the Macdufien Kace, and 
probably the Original perished with this Murchardus. 
Adjoining to the Church is the Cloister, a square of 42 feet. 
One of the Sides of the inner Wall is ruined ; on two of the 
others are seven low Arches, one 7 feet high, including the 
Columns, which are nothing more than two thin Stones (on one 
of these there is an Inscription, which was Copied, but by some 
accident lost) three feet high, with a flat Stone on the top of 



214 



MONASTICON. 



each, serving as a plinth ; and on them two other thin Stones, 
meeting at top, and forming an acute angle, by way of Arch. On 
the Fore-side are five small round Arches : these surround a 
Court of 28 feet 8 inches. The whole of the Cloister part had 
been once covered.* This Form is peculiar (in our part of Europe) 
to this place ; but I am told that the same Form is observed in 
some of those in the Islands of the Archipelago. S. Columba, 
when he left Ireland, made a Vow never to settle 
within sight of his native Country. Accordingly 
when he and his friend Oran landed here, they 
ascended a hill, and Ireland appeared full in view. 
This induced the holy men to make a sudden re- 
treat ; but Oran had the honour of giving name to 

the Island Nearer the Shore, in the 

East side of the Island, is a large conic Tumulus; 
and, on the same plain, a small Cross, 
placed where a Mac-dufie's Corpse is 

said to have rested Oron- 

say is three miles long ; the south part 
low and sandy, the rest high and rocky ; 
is divided from Colonsay by a narrow 
Sound, dry at low water. Oronsay and 
Colonsay might be supposed to be 
Isles of Sanctity ; yet from the ' Refor- 
mation' till within the last six years, 
the Sacrament had been only once administered. 
.... Among the Domestic Fowls, I observed 
Peacocks to thrive well in the Farm at Oronsay. 
So far North has this Indian Bird been naturalized." 
The Cut to the right is given, along with the others, 
by Pennant, as " Tombs in the Monastery of Oran- 
say," but without description. In the centre seem 
two female Religious, holding up their kirtles. Are 
the animals below playful or pugilant ? Pray what is the genus 
of the one on the right ? 

The Priory Church on the little Island of Oronsay, imme- 
diately adjacent to Colonsay, and fordable a-foot from it at 





PRIORY OF ORONSAY. 215 

back-tide, is a narrow Parallelogram without Aisles, internally 
about 78 feet in length. It seems to have been a very plain 
Building, with nothing remarkable in any of its features, except- 
ing a slight similarity here and there to First-Pointed character. 
The Domestic Buildings are on the North and North-East. 
They seem to have been capacious, but are now extensively 
dilapidated, and show nothing of the curious Triangular Arches 
that existed entire in Pennant's time. 

S. Columba is said to have first landed in this Island, and 
most probably may have first Founded the Priory, but which 
may have been afterwards changed by the Lord of the Isles. Its 
subsequent History to the Era of the " Reformation" is unknown. 
Colin, Prior of Orisoi, Died in 1510. There is a Stone Cross 
beside the Priory. The Priory is entered in the Libellus 
Taxatiomim (a Kecord about the Date of 1535), but the Valuation 
is not given. In 1549, Archdeacon Monro says that in " Orwan- 
say there is ane Monastery of Chanons." In 1554, Queen 
Mary addressed a Letter to Pope Julius III., recommending for 
presentation to the Priorate of Orwansay, Sir John Makmvrich, 
a Canon of the Monastery, on the [Resignation of Donald Mac- 
duffie (Donaldus Duphaci), to whom was reserved the Liferent of 
the fruits of the Priory, and who, on the demission or Death of 
Sir John, or the occurrence of a Vacancy in any other way, was 
to have regress to the Priorate. On the 19th April in the same 
year, or in 1555, Queen Mary presented Master Robert Lawmont, 
Chancellor of the Chapel Royal at Stirling, to the Priorate of 
Orosai, then vacant by the Death of Donald Makfee (the same as 
Donaldus Duphaci), and collation to which belonged to Alex- 
ander, Archbishop of Athens, and Bishop of the Isles. In 1592, 
James VI. presented Donaldus Dufacius to the Parsonage and 
Vicarage of Orvinsay, vacant by the Decease of Malcome 
M'Duffie. In 1616, James VI. granted to Andrew, Bishop of 
the Isles, the 5 Marklands of the Isle of Oronsay, 16 s. of Garvolt, 
in Colonsay, the two Corneiks, the East end of Coll, the Lands 
of Skenan, in Jura, and the Lands of Brockaich, Killinew, 
Altshenaig, and Sowie, in Mull, all formerly belonging to the 
Priory of Oronsay, as part of its Patrimony ; and the Lands 



216 MONASTICON. 

called the West end of Coll, extending to 7 " quarters land ;" the 
Lands called Haltyren of Arneish, and others, formerly belonging 
to the Nunnery of Icolmkill, all united into the Tenantry of 
Oronsay. In 1623, William Stirling of Achy 11 had a lease of the 
Teinds of Oronsay from Thomas, Bishop of the Isles. In 1630, 
Andrew, Bishop of Eapho, and Prior of Oronsay, granted to 
Colin Campbell, Eector of Craigness, the Isles of Ilachinive and 
Kilbrandan, with the Parsonage and Vicarage Teinds of the 
same, both which belonged to the Priory. In 1635, Neill, 
Bishop of the Isles, to which Bishoprick the Priory of Oronsay 
was annexed, with the consent of his Dean and Chapter, con- 
firmed the Grant of the Bishop of Eapho. In 1667, the Earldom 
of Argyle, as granted anew to Earl Archibald by Charles II., 
included the Barony of Balweill, in which were included the Isle 
of Oronsay and other Isles, together with the Parsonage and 
Vicarage of that Barony, and of the Isle of Oronsay. 

Father Hay says that he had seen a "Booke of Eites of 
this place in parchment." 

About the year 1700, a precious Stone, said to have been 
taken from a Cross which was on the Altar of the Church, was 
in the possession of the Family of Macduffie. At the same 
period, there stood, about a quarter of a mile from the Church, a 
Cross and Cairn, at which the bodies of the Chiefs of the Clan of 
Macduffie were halted on their way to Burial. [Orig. Paroch.] 

" At this day, the Altar exists, but tumbled together; before 
which the Calvinistic Heretic Inhabitants at set times convene to 
Pray. Only the Cloisters remain, and the Euins of the 
Monastery, which occupy an ample space in circumference." 
[Brockie's MS., p. 3692.] 

VALUATION OF THE PEIOBY OF OKONSAY. 

No information. 
XVI. COLONSAY, 

One of the Western Isles, also in the Shire of Argyle, was an 
Abbey Founded by the Lord of the Isles, the Canons whereof 
were brought from Holyroodhouse. We have little knowledge of 
what passed there, or in the other Isles, not only by their 



ABBEY OF COLONSAY. 217 

distance from the South, but more especially by the loss of their 
Kecords. [Spottiswoode.] 

A Culdee Establishment was Founded in Colonsay, called, 
after S. Oran, Killouran i.e., " the Cell of Oran." 

The Abbey was at Kilouran. Father Hay informs us that 
the name of the Founder had been lost through the mistake of 
Transcribers, or the ignorance or negligence of Librarians ; that 
the Date of the Foundation was illegible, but that the occasion 
of it was a Vow made by the Founder when in imminent danger ; 
that there existed in the Vatican a Letter addressed to the Con- 
vent ; that the first Abbot ruled for seven years, and Died an old 
man, in the odour of sanctity; and that his Successor, after 
ruling for some time, resigned his Office, to the great regret of 
those under his charge, and returned to Holyrood. It is 
traditionally believed that the Abbey of Colonsay, which, in all 
probability, had decayed after the retirement of the second Abbot, 
recorded by Father Hay, was that of which Oronsay was the 
Priory. Part of its Cloisters appear to have remained till about 
the middle of the Eighteenth Century, and the Kuins of the 
Church are still to be seen. [Orig. Paroch.] 

S. Columba Founded a Monastery in this Island in honour of 
S. Oran hence the name among the Inhabitants of Kiloron. 
Even yet, Vestiges of this Monastery remain ; for, besides the 
Euins of the Cloister, are to be seen some of the Cells of the 
Monks ; to the North of which is a pretty large Garden with 
surrounding Walls. But the Church of S. Oran is partly 
destroyed: however, there still stand the Pillars, remarkable 
for their Architecture, as they are after the Church of lona. 
There are also several ancient Monuments, but the Inscrip- 
tions are obliterated ; although I understand that there are 
Tombs of the old Abbots and other great ones that have had no 
Epitaphs. Within the Walls of the Church, there is to be seen 
a Tomb with a Ship in full Sail, together with a Sword and 
Staff, sculptured, seemingly 'the Arms of the Clan M'Duff. To 
the right of this Tomb, there is a Marble Pillar, with the following 
Epitaph: "Hie jacet Malcolumbus Mac-Dume de Collonsay." 
This Monastery was translated from Monks to Canons-Kegular, 

VOL. I. 2 E 



218 



MONASTICON. 



Kegular, in connexion with those at Edinburgh. [Brockie s 
MS., pp. 3689, 5034.] 

VALUATION OF THE ABBEY OF COLONSAY. 

No information. 

XVII. CAMBUSKENNETH, A.D. 1147, 

In the Shire of Clackmannan, was Founded by King David 
I. at this Date. Its Canons were brought from Aroise, near to 
Arras, in the Province of Artois. The Abbots were formerly 
designed, in the Subscription of Charters, " Ablates de Striveling," 
the Abbey being situated about half a mile below Stirling, upon 
the North side of the River Forth. Alexander My In, Abbot of 
this place, was the first President of our Session at the institution 
of the College of Justice by King James V., A.D. 1532, and was 
employed in divers Embassies by him. This Abbacy belongs 
now to Cowan's Hospital, in Stirling, being some time ago 
purchased from the Erskines of Alva. [Spottiswoode.] 

CHAKTER OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 



In nomine Patris, et Filii, et 
Spiritus Sancti, amen. Ego David, 
Dei gratia, Eex Scotorum, assensu 
Henrici filii mei, et Episcoporum 
regni mei, Comitumque et Baromnn, 
confirmatione et testimonio, concede 
ecclesie Sancte Marie de Striveling, 
et canonicis in ea regulariter viven- 
tibus, ea que subscripta sunt, et 
pace perpetua confirmo. Hec itaque 
sunt, que prefate ecclesie concede. 
Terram de Cambuskenneth, et pis- 
caturarn inter eandem terram et 
Pollernase, et unum rete in aqua ; 
terram quoque de Colling, cum 
nemore et suis rectis divisis ; terram 
etiam de Dunbodenum, que est inter 
aquam ejusdem terre et terram de 
Locliing ; quadraginta quoque soli- 
dos de redditu meo de Striveling, et 
canum unius navis, et unam sali- 
nam, et totideni terre quot habet 
una de salinis meis, et decimam 
firme de dominiis meis de Striveling, 
et oblationes que in predicta ecclesie 



In tlie name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, 
Amen. I, David, by the grace of 
God, King of Scots, with the consent 
of Henry, my son, and of the Bishops 
of my Eealm, and with the confir- 
mation and attestation of the Earls 
and Barons, do grant, and confirm 
in perpetual peace, to the Church of 
S. Mary of Striveling, and the 
Canons-Eegular living in it, the 
subjects underwritten. These then 
are the subjects which I grant to the 
said Church : The Land of Cambus- 
kenneth, and the Fishing between 
the same Land and Polmaise, and 
one net in the water ; also the Land 
of Colling, with the wood, and its 
just divisions ; the Land also of 
Tillibody, which is between the 
water of the same Land and the 
Land of Locliing; Forty Shillings 
likewise of my Kevenues of Stirling ; 
and the cane of one ship ; and one 
Salt-pan, and as much Land as 



ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 



219 



oblate fuerint; et insulam que est 
inter Pollemase et Dunbodenum, 
et viginti cudernos de caseis redditus 
mei de Striveling ; eandem quoque 
libertatem et consuetudinem, quam 
ceteris ecclesiis terre rnee concessi 
et confirmavi, eidem ecclesie con- 
cede et confirnio. Volo itaque, ut 
quecunque predicta ecclesia in pre- 
senti possedit, vel in future posses- 
sura est, ita quiete et libere, sicut 
ego prefatas terras possideo, possi- 
deat. Salva defensione regni et 
justitia regali, si Prelatus, aliquo 
impulsu, a justitia exorbitanaverit. 
Hujus confirmationis testes sunt 
Henricus filius Eegis, Kobertus 
Episcopus SancteAndree, Gregorius 
Episcopus Dunkeleden, Herbertus 
Electus de Glasgow, G. Abbas Duin- 

ferraline, Abbas SancteAndree, 

Robertas Prior Saucte Andree, Gil- 
bertus Prior Jeddewart, Edwardus 
Cancellarius, Comes Duncanus, 
Leodolphus de Breckin, Hugo de 
Morville, Herbertus Camerarius, 
Will, de Summerville, Alanas de 
Foulis, William de Lindeff, Wal- 
terus de Kidale. 



belongs to one of my Salt-pans ; 
and the tenth of the Feu-Duty of 
my Lordship of Stirling; and the 
Oblations which shall be offered in 
the foresaid Church ; and the Island 
which is between Polmaise and Til- 
libody ; and twenty cudcrni of cheeses 
of my Kevenues of Stirling I grant 
and confirm; as I also do, to the 
same Church, the liberty and con- 
suetude which I have granted and 
confirmed to the other Churches of 
my Land. I will, therefore, that 
whatever things the foresaid Church 
possesses at present, or may possess 
in future, it do possess as quietly 
and freely as I possess the foresaid 
Lands : saving the defence of my 
Kingdom, and the administration of 
Royal justice, should the Prelate, 
by any impulse, swerve therefrom. 
The Witnesses of this Confirmation 
are Henry, the King's son ; Robert, 
Bishop of St. Andrews ; Gregory, 
Bishop of Dunkeld ; Herbert, Elect 
of Glasgow ; G., Abbot of Dunferni- 

line ; , Abbot of St. Andrews ; 

Robert, Prior of St. Andrews ; Gil- 
bert, Prior of Jeddewart; Edward, 
Chancellor; Earl Duncan; Leo- 
dulph de Brechin; Hugh de Mor- 
ville; Herbert, Chamberlain; Will, 
de Sommerville ; Alan de Foulis ; 
Will, de Lindeff; Walter de Riddel. 



CHARTER FROM POPE URBAN V., IGlH JUNE, 1869. 



Convcntui de Cambuskyneth ord. s. 
Augustini Sancti Audreae diocesis 
quaedam donatio ipsi a rege Sco- 
tiae facta, inserto regio diplomate, 
confirmatur. 

Urbanus Episcopus, etc. Ad 
perpetuam rei memoriam. Hiis, 
que pietatem sapiunt, ac utilitateni 
ecclesiasticarum personarum, pre- 
sertim religiosarum vacantium stu- 
dio pie vite conspiciunt, ut illibata 
permaneant, libenter adicimus apo- 
stolici muniminis firrnitatem. Sane 



A certain Gift, Granted by the King 
of Scotland to the Abbey of Cam- 
buskenneth, of the Order of S. 
Augustine, in the Diocese of St. 
Andrews, is secured to it by the 
King's Letters Patent. 

Urban, Bishop, etc. For the 
everlasting remembrance of the 
transaction. To those who delight 
in piety, and keep in view the 
benefit " of Ecclesiastical persons, 
more especially the benefit of Reli- 
gious persons devoted to the study 
of a life of holiness, that these 



MONASTICON. 



petitio pro parte dilectorum filiorum 
. . . Abbatis et Conventus Monas- 
terii Cambuskenet ordinis sancti 
Augustini sancti Andree diocesis 
petitio continebat, quod dudum 
Carissimus in Christo filius noster 
David Rex Scotie Illustris de pro- 
pria salute cogitans, ac cupiens illi 
aliquid dare de suis, qui sibi con- 
tulit universa, pro sue ac Carissinie 
in Christo filie nostre Margarite 
Eegine Scotie Illustris sue uxoris, 
necnon progenitorum, heredum et 
successorum suorum animarum 
salute ipsis Abbati et Conventui, et 
ipsius Monasterii ecclesie, que sub 
vocabulo beate Marie constructa est, 
annuuni redditum decem librarum 
argenti, eidem Regi de terris De 
la Plane infra Vicecomitatum de 
Striveline dicte diocesis debitum, 
dedit et etiam concessit prout, in 
autenticis litteris inde confectis, 
dicti Eegis sigillo munitis, quarum 
tenorem de verbo ad verbum pre- 
sentibus inseri fecimus, plenius con- 
tinetur. Quare pro parte dictorum 
Abbatis et Conventus fuit nobis 
humiliter supplicatum, ut premissis 
robur confirmationis adicere, ac 
omnem defectuni, si quis forsan in 
eis intervenerit, supplere de benig- 
nitate apostolica dignaremur. Nos 
itaque huiusmodi supplicationibus 
inclinati, donationem et concessio- 
nem huiusmodi, et alia inde secuta, 
rata et grata liabentes, ilia auctori- 
tate apostolica ex certa scientia con- 
firinamus, et presentis script! patro- 
cinio communimus, supplentes om- 
nem defectum, si quis intervenerit 
in eisdem. Tenor autem dictarum 
litterarum talis est. 

David dei gratia Eex Scotorum, 
omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terre sue clericis et laycis, Salutem. 
Sciatis nos divine pietatis intuitu, 
ac pro salute anime nostre, et anime 
Margarete Regine Scotie socie nostre, 
et animarum progenitorum, heredum 
et successorum nostrorum dedisse, 



grants may remain intact, we wil- 
lingly annex the stability of Apos- 
tolic ratification. Whereas a Peti- 
tion on the part of our beloved sons 
. . . the Abbot and Convent of the 
Monastery of Cambuskenneth, of 
the Order of S. Augustine, in the 
Diocese of St. Andrews, set forth 
that, some time ago, our dearly 
beloved son in Christ, David, the 
illustrious King of Scotland, regard- 
ing his own salvation, and wishing 
to render a portion of his means to 
Him who bestowed the whole, for 
the salvation of his own soul, and 
that of his Queen, our dearly be- 
loved daughter in Christ, and also 
for the salvation of his Predecessors, 
Heirs, and Successors, gave and 
granted to the Abbot and Convent 
in their own name, and to the 
Church of that Monastery which 
was built in honour of S. Mary, an 
annual revenue of ten pounds of 
silver due to the same King from the 
Lands of the Meadow, lying down- 
wards from the County of Stirling, 
within the said Diocese, as is more 
fully contained in the authentic 
Documents then drawn out, and 
passed under the said King's Seal, 
a Copy of which we have caused to 
be inserted, word for word, in these 
presents. Wherefore, on the part 
of the said Abbot and Convent, we 
were humbly besought to conde- 
scend, in our Apostolic benignity, 
to annex to the aforesaid the strength 
of Confirmation, and to supply every 
deficiency, should any be found 
therein. We, therefore, favourable 
to Petitions of this kind, with our 
well known Apostolic authority, 
confirm the gift and grant aforesaid, 
regarding these and other proceeds 
therefrom, ratified and acceptable, 
and we fortify them by the present 
Rescript, supplying every defect, if 
any such be found in the same. 
Moreover, the tenor of these Let- 
ters is as follows : 



ABBEY OF OAMBUSKENNETH. 



221 



concessisse, et hac present! carta 
nostra confirmasse deo et ecclesie 
sancte Marie de Cambuskyneth, et 
Canonicis ibidem deo servientibus, 
et in perpetuum servituris, annuum 
redditum nostrum decem librarum 
argenti, nobis de terris De la Plane 
infra Vicecomitatum de Strevelyne 
annuatim debitarum, tenendum et 
habenduni dictis religiosis et eorum 
successoribus de nobis, heredibus et 
successoribus nostrisKegibns Scotie, 
qui pro tempore fuerint, in liberam, 
puram et perpetuani elimosinam 
libere, quiete, plenarie, integre et 
lionorifice, sine contradictione sen 
dimiuutione quacurnque, ex qua- 
curnque causa vel casu proveniente, 
ad cuiuscumque vel quorumcumque 
manus dicte terre De la Plane infra 
Vicecomitatum de Strevelyne, ut 
premittitur , integre vel particulariter 
deveniant imposterum. Volumus 
itaque, et pro nobis, heredibus et 
successoribus nostris perpetuo con- 
cedimus, quod predict! Conventus et 
successores supradictis decem libris 
argenti pacifice gaudeant, annuatim 
liabeant, et integre in perpetuum 
possideant, et si contingat, quod 
absit, quod dni. sen tenentes dic- 
tarum terrarum De la Plane dictas 
decem libras argenti ultra terrninos 
usuales detinuerint, dictis religiosis 
tempore debito solvere recusantes, 
mandamus firmiter et precipimus 
Vicegerent! nostro et Ballivis suis 
de Strevelyne, qui pro tempore fuer- 
int, quod dictos dominos seu tenen- 
tes earumdem terrarum, et omnia 
bona sua mobilia et immobilia ubi- 
curnque inventa, quanto strictius 
poterunt, compellant et distringant, 
quod prefatis Eeligiosis, ut premis- 
sum est, de termino in terminum 
integre persolvant, et plene satisfaci- 
ant super nostrarn plenam forisfac- 
turarn (sic). In cuius rei testimoni- 
um present! carte nostre sigillum 
nostrum precipimus apponi. Testi- 
bus Venerabilibus in Christo patri- 



David, by the grace of God, King 
of Scotland, to all good men within 
his Dominions, Cleric and Lay, 
greeting. Know that, in considera- 
tion of our duty to God, and for the 
salvation of our own soul, and the 
soul of Margaret, Queen of Scot- 
land, our spouse, and for the souls 
of our Ancestors, Heirs, and Suc- 
cessors, we have given and granted, 
and by these presents confirmed, to 
God, and to the Church of S. Mary 
of Cambuskenneth, and to the 
Canons there serving God, and to 
those who are to serve Him in all 
time coming, the yearly rental of 
ten pounds of silver annually due to 
us from the Lands of the Meadow, 
downwards from the County of Stir- 
ling, to be taken and holden by the 
aforesaid Keligious and their Suc- 
cessors, of us, our Heirs, and Suc- 
cessors, Kings of Scotland for the 
time being, that for free, pure, and 
perpetual alms, they may freely, 
peaceably, fully, entirely, and hon- 
ourably, without any opposition or 
diminution, arising from any cause 
or accident whatever, to descend in 
whole and in part to the hands of 
any person or persons of the said 
Lands of the Meadow, downwards 
from the County of Stirling, as 
aforesaid. We will therefore, and 
grant both for ourselves, for our 
Heirs and Successors, perpetually, 
that the aforesaid Community and 
their Successors peaceably enjoy the 
aforesaid ten pounds of silver, and 
that they receive such annually, and 
possess them entirely for ever ; and 
should it happen, which God forbid, 
that the Proprietors or Tenants of 
said Lands of the Meadow, should 
withhold the said ten pounds of silver 
beyond the ordinary terms, refusing 
to pay them at the proper time to 
the saidEeligious,we unhesitatingly 
command and instruct our Man- 
datory and his Bailies of Stirling 
for the time being, to compel the 



222 



MONASTICON. 



bus Willelmo Episcopo Sancti 
Andree, et Patricio Episcopo Bre- 
chinensi Cancellario nostro, Roberto 
Senescallo Scotie, Comite de Stra- 
therne, nepote nostro, Willelmo 
Comite de Douglas, Roberto de 
Erkyne, David de Grahame, et 
Waltero de Halyburton militibus. 

Apud Perth vicesimo quinto die 
mensis Augusti, Anno Eegni nostri 
tricesinio sexto. 

Nulli ergo etc. nostre confirrna- 
tionis et constitutionis infringere 
etc. Datum apud Montemfiasconem 
xvi. Kalendas lulii, Pontificatus 
nostri anno septimo. [Theiner's Vet. 
Hon. Hib. et Scot., p. 336.] 



said Proprietors or Tenants of the 
said Lands, and to distrain all their 
goods, moveable and heritable, 
wherever found, with all rigour, that 
they may fully pay the aforesaid 
Religious, from term to term as 
aforesaid, and amply satisfy them 
upon our full conveyance. In testi- 
mony whereof, we have ordered our 
Seal to be attached to this our 
present Instrument, in presence of 
the Venerable Father in Christ, 
William, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
&c. .... 

At Perth, the 25th August, in the 
36th year of our Reign. 

Let none, therefore, presume to 
contravene our Confirmation and 
Deed, &c. Given at Montefiascone 
the 16th of June, in the 7th year of 
our Pontificate. 



I copied the following in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, 
February 17th, 1868 : 

1. Registrum Monasterii de Cambuskenneth. A formal transumpt of 
all the Charters of the Abbey, which were in danger of destruction from its 
damp situation, obtained by Abbot Alexander Myln (the first President of 
the Court of Session), under the Confirmation of the Great Seal, and with 
the Attestation of Sir James Foulis, Clerk of Register, affixed to each 
Charter, 24th July, 1535. It extends to 166 leaves of vellum, in folio. The 
Charters are arranged as nearly as was practicable in the Alphabetical 
Order of their subjects, and a Table of the Contents is prefixed. The 
Foundation Charter by David I. occurs at folio 6. 

The Register appears to have been the property of the Earl of Mar in 
1693. It is in fine preservation. The Seal is gone ; but the thick cord of 
purple and yellow silk, by which it was originally bound or held together, 
remains. It is now finely and strongly bound in gilt and brown morocco. 

2. Registrum Coenobii de Cambuskenneth, impensis Walteri M'Farlan 
de eodem in ipsius usum transcriptum 1738. A Transcript of the preceding 
Register by Tait M'Farlan's Copyist. The Table of Contents is placed at 
the end of the Transcript. After it are Notices of the Monastery from 
Richard Hay's " Scotia Sacra," and Dalrymple's "Historical Collections;" 
and two Rentals of the Abbey, differing exceedingly. 

3. There is another Copy written in a modern hand. 



I tried to secure what is undernoted for the Glasgow Univer- 



ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 223 



sity Library ; but the modest charge of 12 12s left the bargain 
open for some wealthy Book-worm. 

From Catalogue of Books Published by Thomas Kerslake, Bristol, 1865. Remains 
of the renowned Library collected at Hengwrt, by Robert Yaucjhan, Esq., 
Author of " British Antiquities Revived." 

3863 Monastic Rule of the Abbey of CAMB USKENNETH .-Exegesis 
in Canonem diui Augustini recens aedita, per Fratrem Eobertum EICHAE- 
DINUM, Celebris Ecclesise Cambus Kenalis Canonicum, Lrtet., Chr. Wechel, 
1530, wood cut, 12mo, old binding. 

Dedicated to Alexander MYLNE his Abbot. At the end an address 
' Ivnioribvs confratribus celeberrinioriim coenobiorum CambusKenalis Scou- 
ensis'. ' Alphabeturn Eeligiosoruni, a uenerabili Thoma CAUPIS ordinis 
sancti Augustini'. ' Orationes secundum Ferias'. 

This Author seems to be unknown to TANNER and other British 
Bibliographers. 

From Hengwrt, and perhaps belonged previously to the adjacent 
Abbey of VANNEE Merioneth. 

Besides the subjects mentioned in the Foundation Charter, 
King David made sundry other considerable Donations to the 
Monastery. He conveyed a Grant of the Church of Clack- 
mannan, with 40 Acres of Land, and Priest's Croft near the 
Church ; as also of a Toft at Stirling, and another at Linlithgow, 
together with the Tenth of all the Sums duly payable for obtain- 
ing Decreets in the Courts of Stirlingshire and Callander. At 
another time, he bestowed the Farm of Kettleston, near Linlith- 
gow, together with the Lands of Malar, near Touch, and certain 
Privileges in the Wood of Keltor, now known by the name of 
the Torwood. 

The Original Charter was Confirmed by sundry succeeding 
Monarchs, with the addition of other Lands and Privileges. 
Large Donations were also made by private persons, in so much 
that, in a short time, the Endowments of this Erection became 
very great. Some of those Donations bear that they were 
Granted in puram decmosynam ; others that they were made pro 
salute animce of the Donors. Of the latter sort is a Charter by 
Robert II., 28th February, 1388-9, to S. Lawrence's Altar in 
the Church of Stirling, of a Passage Boat on the Forth, with a 
Croft of Land annexed, "for our salvation, and our children's, as 



224 MONASTICON. 

also for the soul of our late dear Consort, Eupheme, Queen of 
Scotland." [Robertson's Index of Charters.} 

Bulls also were obtained from sundry Popes, protecting the 
Churches, Lands, and other Privileges belonging to the Monas- 
tery, and prohibiting, under pain of Excommunication, all 
persons whatsoever from withholding from the Canons any of 
their just rights, or disturbing them in the possession of them. 

The most curious of those Bulls is that of Pope Celestine 
III., Dated May, 1195, as it enumerates the Possessions and 
Immunities of the Monastery at that time. It protects the Farm 
of Cambuskenneth ; the Lands of Colling ; the Lands of Carsie 
and Bandeath, with the Wood thereof; Tillibotheny ; the Island 
called Kedinche, situated between Tillibotheny and Polmaise; 
the Farm of Kettleston, with its Mills ; the Lands upon the bank 
of the Forth, between Pulmille and the Koad leading down to the 
Ships ; a full Toft or Feu in the Burgh of Stirling, and another 
in Linlithgow ; one Net in the Water of Forth ; twenty Cuderni 
or "Kebbocks" of Cheese out of the King's Kevenues at 
Stirling ; 40 Shillings of the King's Kevenues of the same place ; 
one Salt-pan, and as much Land as belongs to one of the King's 
Salt-pans ; the Church of Clackmannan, with 40 Acres of Land, 
and its Chapels and Toft ; the Fishings of Carsie and Tilli- 
botheny ; the Fishing between Cambuskenneth and Polmaise ; 
the half of the Skins and Tallow of all the beasts slain for the 
King's use at Stirling. 

The preceding Possessions and Privileges were the Donations 
of King David ; those that follow have the names of the several 
Donors prefixed to them. 

From a Grant of King Malcolm IV., grandson and Successor 
of David I., the Mill of Clackmannan, except the multure of the 
King's table, as often as he shall come to that Village ; 50 
Shillings out of the Customs of Perth. 

By a Grant of King William, a full Toft in the Village of 
Perth; the Church of Kinclething, with Lands and other 
Pertinents ; the Church of Tillicoultry, with all its Pertinents ; 
the Church of Kincardine, with the Lands assigned to it, and all 



ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 225 

its Pertinents; the Church of Gleninglefe, or Gleneagles i.e., 
" Glen of the Church" with all pertaining to it. A Confirma- 
tion of Date 1218 i.e., more than 50 years after is recorded, 
in the Chartulary of the Abbey, as having been Granted by 
William (de Bosco, i.e., Wood), Bishop of Dunblane, and Wit- 
nessed by Cormac Malpol, Prior of Culdees, with Michael, Parson 
of Muthil, and Macbeath, his Chaplain. This Deed was executed 
under Alexander II., whose Keign commenced in 1214. 

By a Grant of the Countess Ada, one full Toft in the Burgh 
of Crail, and half a Carucate of Land and common Pasturage in 
Pethcorthing ; one Merk of Silver out of her Kevenues of Crail ; 
one full Toft in the Burgh of Haddington. This Lady was the 
widow of Prince Henry, son of King David, who Died before his 
father. She was a daughter of the Earl of Warren, in England, 
and mother of 'two Scottish Monarchs, viz., Malcolm IV. (sur- 
named the Maiden), and William (surnamed the Lion). This 
Lady's Title was Countess of Northumberland. She Founded 
the Nunnery of Haddington for White Nuns, in 1178. The 
Countess Ada seems to have had the Manor of Athelstaneford as 
a part of her jointure. She Granted its Church, with the Tithes 
and other Dues, to the Cistertian Ladies. [Chalmers' Caledonia, 
vol. ii., p. 516.] The Church of Garvald, with its Pertinents, 
and a Ploughgate of Land adjacent, were Granted to the Nuns, 
who established a Grange near the Church, and formed a Village, 
which thus obtained the name of Nunraiv, where they had a 
Fortalice. [Ibid, vol. ii., pp. 536, 564.] 

By a Grant of Kobert, Bishop of St. Andrews, the Church of 
Egglis i.e., " S. Ninian's" with its Chapels of Dunipace and 
Lethbert, and all its other Chapels and Oratories, and all other 
Pertinents. 

By a Grant of Kichard, Bishop of Dunkeld, Confirmed by the 
King, the Church of Alveth, with its Pertinents. . 

By a Gift of Allan, son of Walter, a full Toft in the Burgh of 
Kenfrew, and one Fishing in the Water of the same Village. He 
was eldest son to Walter, Lord High Steward of Scotland. 
Before his father's death, he is usually designed Alanus films 
Walteri Dapiferi. Upon his father's decease, he succeeded to 

VOL. I. 2 F 



226 MONASTICON. 

the Office of High Steward, and from that time hath the designa- 
tion of Alanus filius Walteri Dapifer. 

By a Grant of Philip de Lunding, half a Carucate of Land, 
with a Meadow pertaining to it in Balcormac ; the Pasturage of 
500 Sheep and 20 Cows, and a Carucate of Land in the Farm 
of Binning. 

By a Grant of Goteline, and William, the son of Thorald, 
Confirmed by the King, the Church of Kirkintilloch, with half a 
Carucate of Land, and all Pertinents. 

From a Grant of Gilbert de Umfraville, two Oxgangs of the 
Lands of Dunipace Chapel. 

This Bull likewise protects to the Monastery the' Tithes of 
all the Lands which the Monks should cultivate with their own 
hands, or which should be cultivated at the expense of the Com- 
munity; as also, the Tithes of all the Beasts reared upon the 
Pastures of the Community; and inhibits all persons from 
exacting these Tithes. It likewise empowers the Fraternity to 
nominate Priests or Vicars to the several Parish Churches 
belonging to them, whom they were to present to the Bishop of 
the Diocese within whose Jurisdiction these Churches lay, that, 
upon finding them qualified, he might Ordain them to the Charge 
of the souls. These Priests were to be answerable to the Bishop 
for the discharge of their Spiritual Functions, but to the Abbot 
for the Temporalities of their respective Churches. It is stated 
by Forbes, as a peculiarity of the Monks of S. Augustine, or 
Canons-Regular, that " they took the charge of Parish Churches, 
and performed Ecclesiastical Functions in any place; whereas 
other Monks seldom discharged these Duties out of their 
Monasteries." 

This Bull, moreover, grants to the Community the privilege 
of performing Divine Service with a low voice, and shut doors, 
without ringing bells, lest they incur a National Interdict. 

Another Bull of Protection was granted by Innocent III. in 
1201, in which sundry parcels of Lands at Innerkeithing, Duneglin, 
and Ayr, are mentioned, which had been Conferred upon the 
Monastery since the Date of Pope Celestine's Bull. 

During the space of 200 years after its erection, the Monas- 



ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 227 

tery was almost every year acquiring fresh additions of wealth 
and power, by Donations of Lands, Tithes, Patronage of Churches, 
and Annuities, proceeding from the liberality of Kings, Earls, 
Bishops, and Barons, besides many rich Oblations which were 
daily made by persons of inferior 'rank. 

From the middle of the Fifteenth Century, there appears a 
visible decline of that liberality to Religious Establishments, 
which, in preceding Ages, had been so vigorously exerted by all 
ranks. Donations became less frequent, and the immense Pos- 
sessions acquired by Cathedrals and Monasteries had begun to be 
considered as public burthens ; for nearly one half of Scotland 
was in the possession of Ecclesiastics. Several Proprietors of 
Land withheld payment of the Tithes due from their Estates, 
until they had been prosecuted, and Decreets obtained against 
them in the Civil Courts. John, Lord Fleming, Chamberlain 
of Scotland, under the Duke of Albany's Regency, in the minority 
of James V., relying, no doubt, upon his great power and 
influence, kept back for seven years payment of the Tithes of his 
Lands in Kirkintilloch, amounting to thirty-three Bolls of Meal, 
and three Bolls of Barley yearly. He was prosecuted at the 
instance of the Community in 1523 ; and made a Composition 
for arrears at the rate of eight shillings four pennies Scots per 
Boll. Much about the same time, the Feuars and Tenants of 
Kilmarnock were prosecuted for the Tithes of their Lands, 
amounting to a large quantity of victual yearly. [Chartulary.] 

Much Civil as well as Sacred business was transacted in 
Religious Houses. In 1308, Sir Neil Campbell, ' Sir Gilbert 
Hay, with other Barons, having met at Cambuskenneth, entered 
into an Association to defend the liberty of their Country, and 
the Title of Robert Bruce to the Scottish Crown, against all 
enemies of whatever Nation ; to -which they not only affixed their 
Subscriptions and Seals, but swore upon the Great Altar. 

The Scottish Kings transacted business almost as often in 
Monasteries as in Palaces. Many Charters are still extant, which 
were granted by different Sovereigns at Cambuskenneth. It was 
also the place of Meeting of sundry Conventions of Parliaments. 



228 MONASTICON. 

From Writs examined by Mr. Chalmers (the Author of 
"Caledonia"), it appears that Edward I. was at " Cambusken- 
neth" on the 1st of November, 1303, and 5th of March, 1304; 
at " Stryvelyn" on the 1st of May and 29th of July ; at " Bogh- 
kener" (Bothkenner) on the 13th of August. In 1301, he had 
been at "Mane well" (Manuel) on the 24th of October, having 
been at "Donypas" on the 14th, and returning thither on the 
29th. [Caledonia, vol. i., pp. 667, 670.] 

In 1326, the whole Clergy, Earls, and Barons, with a great 
number of an inferior rank, having convened in the Abbey, swore 
fealty to David Bruce, as Heir-apparent to the Crown, in 
presence of Kobert, his father ; as also to Eobert Stewart, grand- 
son of the King, as the next Heir, in the event of David's death 
without issue. 

A Marriage was at the same time solemnised between Andrew 
Murray, of Bothwell, and Christian Bruce, sister of King Kobert. 
[For dun, lib. xiii., cap. 12.] 

At that Meeting, too, an Agreement was entered into between 
the King on the one part, and the Earls, Barons, Freeholders, 
and Communities of Burghs on the other, whereby the King 
obtained a Grant, during his life, of the Tenth Penny of all 
the Kevenues belonging to Laymen in the Kingdom, both within 
and without the Burghs. 

It has been observed that this is the first Parliament in which 
Burgesses are mentioned as having a Seat. Under the Feudal 
Governments, that order of men had long been deemed of too 
mean a rank to be allowed a place in the National Councils. In 
England, however, they had formed a part of the Legislative 
power near half a Century before the Keign of Kobert Bruce. 
[Hume's History of England.] The House of Commons, as 
constituting a separate Branch of the Great National Council 
of the English Monarchs, was formed in 1295. There never 
was any such division of the Scottish Parliament. It is not, 
indeed, certain, whether as yet they were considered as a con- 
stituent part of the Legislature in Scotland, or only permitted to 
vote in what immediately concerned themselves, no express 
mention being made of the Three Estates till the next Keign. 



ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 229 

Although they were not, however, in the Keign of Kobert, allowed 
a constant Seat in the National Council, yet the principles of 
both policy and equity suggested to that sage Monarch that, 
when they were to be taxed for the support of Government, they 
should be called to give their consent, by being represented in 
that Diet, at least, of Parliament which taxed them. 




The above is a Fac- Simile of what is supposed to have been the Key Stone 
of the Entrance Arch to the Abbey. It was found near Alloa many years ago, 
and is now preserved by Lord Abercromby in the Ruin of Menstry House. The 
Letters entwined form CAMBUSKENNETH, and also all the Letters of the Alphabet. 

During the Wars with England in the Reign of David Bruce, 
the Monastery was pillaged of all its most valuable Furniture. 
The Books, Vestments, Cups, and Ornaments of the Altar, were 
carried off. In order to the reparation of that loss, William de 
Landel, Bishop of St. Andrews, made a Grant to the Community 
of the Vicarage of Clackmannan. 

In 1559, the Monastery was spoiled, and a great part of the 
Fabric cast down by the " Reformers." Several of the Monks 
" embraced the Reformation." 



230 MONASTICON. 

Monasteries were places of such general resort that they were 
often the stage of Mercantile as well as Sacred transactions. 
The great concourse of people that usually assembled around 
Religious Houses upon Holy Days required refreshment. This 
suggested the idea of a gainful trade to Traffickers, who repaired 
thither, not only with Victuals and Drink, but different other 
articles of Merchandise, which they disposed of amongst the 
crowd. This was the origin of Fairs. Hence Feria, which 
originally signified " Festival," came also to signify "Fair;" 
and the old Fairs have generally their name from some Saint, 
near whose Festival they were held. 

In 1529, a Boat, on its return to Stirling from one of those 
Solemnities at Cambuskenneth, being over-loaded, sank in the 
River. Fifty persons of distinction, besides many others, were 
drowned. [Mackenzie's Lives, vol. ?Y., p. 578.] 

David Panther (as is mentioned below in the List of Abbots) 
was the last Ecclesiastic who possessed the lucrative Abbotship 
of Cambuskenneth. During the commotions which accompanied 
the " Reformation," Church Benefices were seized upon by those 
in power, without any lawful authority. John, Earl of Mar, 
afterwards Regent, had the disposal of the Revenues of Cambus- 
kenneth. He had, during the Reign of James V., been appointed 
Commendator of Inchmahome. After the " Reformation" had 
taken place, one of his nephews, Adam Erskine, was Commen- 
dator of Cambuskenneth. 

After the establishment of the " Reformed Religion," James 
VI., considering himself the proprietor of the Church Lands, 
erected several Abbacies and Priories into Temporal Lordships, 
in behalf of men of interest, or in high favour, who thus came 
to have the same title to those Lands as the Religious Houses 
had formerly. As, however, the Revenues of the Crown had 
suffered greatly from those erections, the Temporalities of all 
Church Benefices were, by Act of Parliament, in 1587, annexed 
to it. James still continued, notwithstanding, to make new 
erections ; but in 1592, they were, by Parliament, declared null, 
with the exception of such as had been made in favour of the 
ennobled members of this body. After the Accession of that 



ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 



281 



Monarch to the Crown of England, the Temporality of Cambus- 
kenneth, together with those of the Ahhey of Dryburgh and the 
Priory of Inchmahome, was conferred on John, Earl of Mar, to 
the end that, in the words of the Grant, " he might be in a better 
condition to provide for his younger sons by Lady Mary Stewart, 
daughter of the Duke of Lennox, and a relation of his Majesty." 
The Barony of Cambuskenneth, in which the Monastery stood, 




TOWER OF CAMBUSKENNETH ABBEY. 



was settled by the Earl upon Alexander Erskine of Alva, his 
brother, whose posterity continued in possession of it till the 
year 1709, when it was purchased by the Town Council of 
Stirling for the benefit of Cowan's Hospital, to which it still 
belongs. 

The Fabric of the Abbey was once large and extensive ; but 
nothing of it now exists except a few broken Walls, and a Tower, 



232 MONASTICON. 

which was the Belfry. Some remains of the Garden are to be 
seen, and the Burial Place where James III. and Queen are 
interred. There is no vestige of the Church. Tradition reports 
that one of the Bells was for some time in the Town of Stirling, 
but that the finest was lost in its passage across the Eiver Forth. 

There were belonging to this Abbey, the Lands of Cam- 
buskenneth Colling, Bandeath, Carsie, Tillibody, Eendinch; 
the Lands of Kettlestone, with Mills ; Lands upon the Forth 
between Pullemiln and the road leading down to the Ships ; 
Tofts at Stirling, Perth, Linlithgow, Haddington, and Kenfrew ; 
40 Acres, with a Toft and Mill in Clackmannan ; Lands at Kin- 
claven ; Lands at Kincardine ; half a Carucate, with a Toft at 
Crail ; half a Carucate, with a Meadow at Balcormac ; a Carucate 
at Binning ; a Carucate in Kirkintilloch ; two Oxgangs in Duni- 
pace ; part of the Lands of Menstrie ; Lands at Innerkeithing, 
Duneglin, and Ayr ; Fintilloch in Strathern ; of Cambusbarron ; 
Maldar, near Touch ; Lands, with Mills, at Arngask ; the Lands 
of Loching. 

The Churches, with their Tithes and Pertinents, belonging to 
Cambuskenneth, were Clackmannan, with its Chapels ; Kink- 
leven, with all its Pertinents ; Tullicultrie ; Kincardine ; Glen- 
leafe ; Egglis, afterwards called Kirktown, and now known by 
.the name of St. Ninian's, with its Chapels of Larbert and Duni- 
pace, and all its other Chapels and Oratories ; Alveth (Alva) ; 
Kirkintilloch ; Tillibody, with its Chapels at Alloa ; Fortiviote ; 
Kilmaronoch ; Kinnoul ; Lecroch (probably Lecropt) ; Arngask. 

The Patronage, likewise, of many of these Churches belonged 
to the Abbey. When a Church was granted to the Monastery, 
the Community drew all the Tithes and other Emoluments, and 
appointed a Vicar to serve the Cure, who had an allowance out 
of the small Tithes. 

Certain Privileges and Casualties belonged to Cambusken- 
neth, viz., Fishing with one Net in the Kiver Forth between 
Cambuskenneth and Polmaise ; the fishings of Carsie and Tilli- 
body ; Fishing with one Net in the Kiver Clyde near Renfrew ; 
one Salt-Pan, with the necessary quantity of Land about it ; the 
half of the Skins and Tallow of the Beasts slain for the King's 



ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 233 

use at Stirling; the Tenth of all Sums paid for obtaining 
Decreets in the Courts of Stirling and Callander ; the Kane or 
Custom of one Ship ; the Tenth of the King's Feu-Duties of the 
Lordship of Stirling ; 40 Shillings yearly out of the Customs of 
Perth ; a common Pasturage in* Pethcorthing ; a Merk of Silver 
out of the Kevenues of Crail ; Pasturage of 500 Sheep and 20 
Cows at Binning ; the Privilege of grazing a certain number of 
Cows at Borland, near Kincardine ; the Tenth of the Feu-Duties 
of Bothkennar, amounting to Six Chalders of Grain, and Eight 
Pounds Five Pence Scots yearly; an additional Chalder of 

Victual- out of Bothkennar, by a Grant 
of Sir William More ; a Pension of 100 
Shillings out of the Church of Blair ; 40 
Shillings out of the King's Kevenues of 
Airth, besides the Tenth of the Feus ; 
10 Pounds out of the Eevenues of Plean ; 
40 Shillings out of the Kevenues of 
Stirling ; 20 Kebbocks of Cheese of the 
Kevenue of Stirling; certain Privileges 
in Torwood ; the Oblations presented to 
the Church of the Monastery, without 
any deduction whatever. 

It is not a new observation that the 
On the lower part of this Lands formerly belonging to Keligious 
Seal is a Shield, bearing on a Houses are generally fertile. It is a 

Fess, between three Mullets, x i i -i. *i.~. i- At. 

as many Roundies. dr. A.D. mi stake, however, to ascribe this to the 
1500. {Chapter Home, West- designing sagacity of the Clergy, as 

leading them to fix on the best spots ; 

for they seldom had the choosing of the Lands conferred upon 
them. The Donors gave such parts of their Estates as they 
judged proper ; and many of those Lands were situated in soils 
far from being naturally fertile. It hence appears that their 
fertility arose, not from any superior quality of soil, but from 
industry and cultivation. - The Monks were skilled in Agricul- 
ture, and well knew how to turn the Donations made to the best 
advantage. Meliorations were carried on at the expense of the 
Community; and, at times, the more robust Members shared 

VOL. I. 2 G 




234 



MONASTICON. 



the toils of Agriculture with their servants. Useful manual 
labour commonly filled up the intervals of Contemplation and 
Devotion. Many Lands of the Kegular Clergy wear the marks 
of industry to this day, being generally well laid down, and free 
of stones. These had been carefully gathered, and are often 
to be seen in heaps around them. The Monastery of Cambus- 

kenneth had a strong Agricultural 
incitement, which, in all probability, 
extended to the other Keligious Com- 
munities. Such Lands as they ren- 
dered arable at their own expense, 
were exempted from paying Tithes 
to any Cathedral, or to any Parochial 
Church. 

Add to this, that Church Lands 
were generally let at moderate Kents, 
to Tenants who were seldom ejected 
when their Leases had expired. Meet- 
ing with so great encouragement, and, 
moreover, being exempted from Mili- 
tary services and other burdens, to 
m, - TT which the Tenants of Laymen were 

The^Upper Compartment con- J 

tains a half-length Figure of the subjected, they applied themselves to 
B. Virgin and infant Jesus, and the cultivation of Farms, of which 

the Lower, an Assemblage of six , -, i i j.i i 

Monks kneeling. [Society of An- the J considered themselves as, in 
tiquaries of Scotland.] some degree, the Proprietors. 

Several Abbots over Scotland complied with the " Reformed 
Religion," and kept possession of their Revenues. At the Death, 
or the Forfeiture of an Abbot, his Possessions were, generally, 
either bestowed in Pensions upon Court Favourites, or erected 
into Temporal Lordships. The private Monks, also, had an 
allotment during life; but it was often so ill paid that many of 
them were reduced to extreme want. 

Duncan Forrester, of Queenshaugh, got the Farm and Lands 
of Cambuskenneth from James VI. Alexander Erskine, son of 
the Earl of Mar, was provided to this Abbey last May, 1608. 
[Riddles' MS. Notes on Keith's Catalogue.] 




ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 



235 




ABBOTS OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 

1. ALFRIDUS or ALFRED was the first Abbot; but of him and his Suc- 
cessors for three Centuries, we have found nothing memorable. 

2. OSBERT, Abbot of Cambuskenneth, succeeded Chancellor Wood, com- 
monly called De Bosco, as Bishop of Dunblane. He probably Died before 
1228. Fordun, Spottiswoode, and Keith, set down his Death in 1231. 

3. Prior RICHARD Witnesses a Deed of the gift of the Land of Drumcrok 
to Inchaffray in 1237. [Brockie's MS., p. 8233.] 

4. JOHN, A.D. 1292. 

[Of the lapse between John and Patrick in the 
Succession of the Abbots, there 
is no account given.] 

5. PATRICK, A.D. 1400. From 
the beginning of the Fifteenth 
Century, we find the Abbots of 
this Place frequently employed in 
important National transactions, 
or advanced to the highest Civil 
offices. The Abbot of Cambus- 
kenneth is named among those 

who, in 1423, were sent into 
[Chapter E land b Murd Duke of M _ 
House, Westminster.} , , , m 

bany, to negotiate a Treaty con- 
cerning the ransom of James I., who had long been 
detained a captive in that Kingdom, and in whose 
liberty the Negotiation terminated. 

6. HENRY, Abbot of Cambuskenneth, after having given proofs of his 
Political abilities in an Embassy to England, was, in 1493, raised to the 
Office of High Treasurer of Scotland, which he held only a short time. The 
cause of his removal from it is not known ; but a Discharge, under the 
Great Seal, of his Intromissions while in that Office, is inserted in the 
Chartulary of the Abbey, under the title of " Acquietancia Henrici abbatis de 
Cambuskenneth, de officio thesaurarii, decimo sexto die mensis Augusti, 
1495." After this he began to restore the Buildings of the Monastery, and 
to adorn the High Altar, made of polished marble, with various sculptured 
Images of the Saints. He rebuilt the Cloister of the Abbey, which had been 
decayed by time ; and also built a large Wing to the Abbey, with fine Cells 
adjoining, for the sick and infirm. He Died in 1502, having held the Office 
above 30 years. [Brockie's MS., p. 8234.] 

7. ANDREW MACBREK, about 1507, received this Monastery in commendam. 

8. DAVID ARNOT, formerly Archdeacon of Lothian, who, after having 
been six years at the head of the Abbey, was, in 1509, preferred to the 
Bishopric of Galloway. 

9. PATRICK PANTHER, or PANTER, was Born at Montrose about 1470, 




Circa A.D. 1400. 
[Chap. Home, West- 
minster^ 



236 MONASTICON. 

and was reckoned one of the most accomplished Scholars of that age, as 
well as an ahle Statesman. He was Secretary to James IV., who also 
raised him to the dignity of a Privy Councillor. To his pen the Latin 
Epistles of that Monarch were indebted for that purity and elegance of style 
which distinguished them from the barbarous composition of the Foreign 
Princes with whom he corresponded. He was also appointed Preceptor to 
the King's "natural son," Alexander Stewart, afterwards Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, whose uncommon progress in Literature is so much celebrated by 
Erasmus, under whose tuition he sometime was. In the minority of James 
V., Panther was thrown into prison upon suspicion of having been concerned 
in treasonable designs against the Duke of Albany (son of the attainted Duke 
of Albany, younger brother of James III.), then Kegent ; but no proof of his 
guilt appearing, he was in a short time released, and pitched upon, together 
with the famous Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, and sundry other 
persons of eminence, to accompany the Duke into France, whither he went 
in 1516, in order to renew the ancient League betwixt that Kingdom and 
Scotland. He was now left Charge des Affaires at the French Court in Paris, 
where he Died in 1519. According to Dempster, he wrote a Book, entitled 
"Politic Observations, " Dedicated to James IV., for whose use it was 
chiefly designed. It is now lost. [Mackenzie on Bishop Leslie. Crawford's 
State Officers.] 

10. ALEXANDER MYLN, who had formerly been a Canon of Dunkeld. He 
had also been Prebend of Monifieth. [Sir James Dalrymple 's Collections, p. 
244.] He was employed in sundry Negotiations with England by James V.; 
.and, when that Monarch' erected the Court of Session in 1532, My In, on 
account of his great knowledge of the Civil and Canon Law, was selected to 
be the first President. He wrote a " History of the Bishops of Dunkeld." 
There is a Copy in the Advocates' Library, and a Transcript in the Library 
of Dunkeld, with an English Translation by the late Eev. Dr. Bisset, 
Minister of Logierait. It has been more than once Eeprinted for the 
Bannatyne Club. He Died in 1542. 

11. DAVID PANTHER, said to have been a nephew, or some other near 
relation, of the above Patrick, was Commendator of this Abbey in the latter 
end of the Eeign of James V., and the minority of Queen Mary. His first 
Office in the Church was that of Vicar of Carstairs, near Lanark ; he was 
afterwards Prior of St. Mary's Isle, in Galloway; next, Commendator of 
Cambuskenneth ; and, last of all, he was raised to the See of Eoss in 
1552. He was an accomplished Scholar, and admirably skilled in the Latin 
language. As he had assisted his friend, Patrick Panther, in penning the 
Letters of James IV., so it is probable that those of James V. were indebted 
to him for their elegance and purity ; for he was principal Secretary of 
State, and a Privy Councillor, in the latter end of that King's Eeign, and 
continued to hold both Offices in the infancy of Queen Mary. He was much 
employed in Foreign Negotiations ; and the ability and success with which 
he managed those public Transactions, gained him a great esteem at Court. 



ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 237 

He Died of a lingering illness at Stirling in 1558. He had been a strenuous 
opposer of the " Reformation." [Nimmo's Stirlingshire, 1817.] 

The following Notice appeared in a Stirling Newspaper about 
three years ago : 

By command of her Majesty the Queen, an elegant Tomb or Monu- 
mental Structure has been Erected on the spot of ground at Cambuskenneth, 
near Stirling, where were found some human Remains, supposed to be those 
of King James III. and his Queen, the Princess Margaret of Denmark. The 
Royal Remains were dug up in the course of some excavations which were 
made in the summer of last year, when the Foundations of the ancient 
Abbey were laid bare. They were deposited in a small Oak Box furnished 
by Sir James E. Alexander, of Westerton, and properly Sealed up. On 
Saturday last, they were Re-interred in a Recess in the Tomb, which has 
just been finished, in presence of John Murrie, Esq., Provost of Stirling; 
Treasurer Rankin ; Councillor Christie ; J. D. Marwick, Esq., Town Clerk, 
Edinburgh ; Mr. William Mackison, Architect, Stirling ; and a number of 
other Gentlemen. The Oak Box, which had been kept in the possession of 
Mr. Mackison was produced, and the Seal having been broken, the Bones 
were laid into the Recess which had been prepared for their reception. 
Provost Murrie then shortly addressed -those present, and in the course of 
his remarks stated that the Memorial did great honour to the best feelings 
of her Majesty. The Structure was highly creditable to the skill and taste 
of the Designer Mr. Matheson, of H.M. Board of Works, Edinburgh and 
also to the Contractor, Mr. Rhynd, Edinburgh. From its beautiful situa- 
tion, surrounded by so many interesting Historical associations, he had no 
doubt the Memorial would prove a great attraction to the numerous strangers 
who annually visited Stirling. It may be stated the Structure is built of 
freestone. It is about 4 feet in height, 8 feet long, 4 feet broad at the 
base, and about 3 feet broad at the top. On the North side the following 
Inscription is cut in raised letters : " This Restoration of the Tomb of her 
Ancestors was executed by command of her Majesty, Queen Victoria, A.D. 
1865." On the South there is the following : " In this Place, near to the 
High Altar of the Abbey of Cambuskenneth, were deposited the Remains of 
James the Third, King of Scots, who Died the llth June, 1488, and of his 
Queen, the Princess Margaret of Denmark." On the West end are the 
Scotch Arms, with the Motto, " Nemo me impune lacessit;" and on the East 
end the Scotch Arms, quartered with those of Denmark, surrounded by a 
Scroll of Thistles. 

A Leaden Badge the Blessed Virgin seated with the Holy 
Child in her lap, and an Angel on either side; diameter, 1J 
inches found near the Kuins of the Abbey, is now in the 
Antiquarian Museum, Edinburgh. 



238 MONASTICON. 

VALUATION OF THE ABBEY OF CAMBUSKENNETH. 

Money 1067 Ss d. [930 18* 4*d. Keith.] Wheat 11 Chalders, 
11 Bolls, 2 Firlots ; Bear 28 Chalders, 12 Bolls, 3 Firlots, 3 Pecks ; Meal 
31 Chalders, 6 Bolls, 3 Firlots, 3* Pecks; Oats 19 Chalders, 15 Bolls, 
3 Firlots, 3i Pecks. 



The Priories belonging to this Abbacy were Insula Sti. 
Colmoci and Kosneth. 

XVIII. INCHMAHOME, or THE ISLE OF SAINT COLMOC, 

Is three and a half miles east of Aberfoyle, in Perthshire. 
It is said to have been Founded by Murdoch, Earl of Monteith, 
who was killed at the Battle of Dupplin, A.D. 1332. But it was 
certainly Founded before his time ; for we find in Prynne's 
Collections, vol. in., p. 653, that " Adam, priour de Lisle de 
Saint Colmoch," swore fealty to Edward L, A.D. 1296, as did 
also Alexander, Earl of Monteith, father to the above Earl 
Murdoch. It was also united by King James IV. to his Eoyal 
Chapel of Stirling. Thereafter it was dissolved from the College, 
and bestowed by King James V. upon John, Lord Erskine, who 
was Commendatory Abbot thereof, and afterwards created Earl 
of Mar by Queen Mary ; and, at the Death of Matthew, Earl of 
Lennox, was chosen Regent, A.D. 1571. 

Although this place be mentioned in most of our old Lists of 
Religious Houses as a distinct Monastery from that of the 
" Insula Sti. Colmoci," yet, for very good reasons, too long to be 
inserted here, I am very apt to believe they were one and the 
same. [Spottiswoode.] 

In confirmation of this opinion, Major- General Hutton, in a 
Letter to the Rev. William MacGregor Stirling, Manse of Port 
(who wrote a 4to Vol., pp. 201, "Notes, Historical and Descrip- 
tive, on the Priory of Inchmahome ; with Introductory Verses, 
and an Appendix of Original Papers, 1815"), says that, "from 
the Seal of the Community affixed to a Grant by the Prior and 
Convent of a Pension to an Organist for the Church of Inchma- 
homo, Dated 1548, he is satisfied that Inchmahomo and Insula 
Sancti Colmoci are one and the same place." 



PBIOKY OF INCHMAHOME. 



239 



The Founder is not known, but it is conjectured that the 
Earls of Monteith planted a Monastery in this Vale ; while some 
Authors opine that it was an early Culdee Establishment, which, 
being laid waste, the Canons of Cambuskenneth began to repair, 
and sent certain Keligious there (Canons-Kegular), who observed 
the Augustinian Eule. But their Discipline gradually becoming 
deficient, and the Canons themselves despised, and being in a 
sense expelled the Island, they came to Cambuskenneth, and had 
the Chapel Royal at Stirling appropriated for their use. The 

renowned Mr. Spottis- 
woode thinks that this 
Monastery is the same 
as that of S. Colme ; 
but I wish that at least 
he would have ad- 
duced probable rea- 
sons for such an asser- 
tion ; for I find that 
this Monastery is men- 
tioned in all Cata- 
logues as a distinct 
one, and that the Mo- 
nastery of S. Colmebe- 
longed to the Benedic- 
tine Order. [Brockie's 
MS., p. 8290.] 

In old Writs, the 
name of a place is 
often spelled six or ten 
different ways ; and so we find Inschemmahame, or Innis-mo-thamh, 
i.e., " Isle of my Rest." In the Deed of Appointment to Walter 
Cumyn, it is called Inchmaquomock ; in Bruce's Writ, Insula 
Sancti Colmoci. It was changed then to Inchmahome, or Inch- 
mahomo, probably a Latinized corruption of the original Gaelic ; 
or it may be a corruption of Saint Colmoc, viz., Ma, "good," 
and Chambe, " Colmocus." 

In the Addenda, by Bowmaker and others, to Fordun's 




In the Upper Compartment is a Design of the B. 
Virgin, sitting with the Infant Jesus, and holding a 
Lily in her right hand. In the Lower is a Figure of 
a Bishop, in Vestments, bestowing the Benediction. 
A.D. 1562. [Marr Charters] 



240 



MONASTICON. 



" Scotichronicon," it is asserted that Murdacus, Earl of Mon- 
teith, was the Founder of the Augustinian Monastery of S. 
Colmocus. [" Monasteria Prioratuum Scotiae, et de eorum 
fundatoribus. .Insula Sancti Colmoci, ordinis Augustini, in 
Menteith, cujus fundator Murdacus Comes ejusdem." Goodall's 
Edition of Fordun, p. 539.] It is, indeed, highly probable that 
Murdoch Monteith, Earl of Monteith (and father of the two 
ladies, to the elder of whom Walter Cumyng, and to the younger, 
Walter Stewart, was Married), brought Monks from Cambusken- 
neth to Inschemachame ; for, from a Document which Mr. Mac- 
Gregor Stirling obtained from Mr. Thomson, the Deputy-Begister 
of Scotland, it appears that, previous to the building of the 
Church, Keligious Men had been settled in the Island. 

With regard to the building of the Church, it may be grati- 
fying to the Eeader to examine the Instrument authorising 
Walter Cumyng, Earl of Monteith, to set about the pious work. 
Only that portion is inserted which relates to the subject of 
investigation. 



Universis Christ! Fidelibus hoc 
scriptum visuris vel audituris Wil- 
lelmus et Galfridus Dei gratia 
Glasguen et Dunkelden Episcopi 
eternana in Domino Salutem. Man- 
datum Domini Papse in hsec verba 
suscepimus : " Gregorius, Episco- 
pus, Servus Servorum Dei, vene- 
rabilibus Fratribus Glasguen et 
Dunkelden Episcopis Salutem et 
Apostolicam Benedictionem Vene- 
rabilis Frater noster Episcopus 
Dunblanen in nostra proposuit pre- 
sentia constitutus ; quod cum olim 
Ecclesia Dunblanen per centum 

annos et amplius vacauisset 

Datum Viterbii tertio Idus Junii 
Pontificatus nostri anno undecimo. 

Hujus igitur auctoritate mandati 
cum tarn dictus Episcopus Dun- 
blanen quam Valterus Cumyng 
comes de Menteth in nostra pre- 
sentia essent constituti, post alter- 
cationes ordinationi nostre se sub- 
jecerunt super omnibus contentioni- 
bus et querelis inter ipsos motis, 



To all the Faithful of Christ, 
about to see or hear this Writing, 
William and Galfred, by the Grace 
of God Bishops of Glasgow and 
Dunkeld, eternal salvation in the 
Lord, We have received the Man- 
date of our Master, the Pope, in 
these words : Gregory, Bishop, the 
Servant of the Servants of God, to 
the Venerable Brothers, the Bishops 
of Glasgow and Dunkeld, Health 
and Apostolical Benediction. Our 
Venerable Brother, the Bishop of 
Dunblane, hath, in our presence, 
represented that, seeing the Church 
of Dunblane in time past had been 
vacant for a hundred years and 
more, &c 

Given at Vitervi, on the third of 
the Ides of June, in the eleventh 
year of our Pontificate. 

By the authority, therefore, of 
this Mandate, seeing the said Bishop 
of Dunblane, as also Walter Cum- 
yng, Earl of Monteith, having ap- 
peared before us, after discussions, 



PKIOKY OF INCHMAHOME. 



241 



vel que aliquo tempore poterint 
super infrascriptis mover! et super 
reformatione status Ecclesie Dun- 
blanen ; Nos habito vero virorum 
prudentium consilio in hunc modum 
inter eos ordinavimus, viz., Quod 
dictus Episcopus Dunblanensis 
nomine Ecclesie sue pro se et suc- 
cessoribus suis omnibus renunciet 
omni juri quod Episcopi vel Ante- 
cessores sui nomine Ecclesise Dun- 
blanen habuerunt vel liabere potu- 
erunt vel poterint in Terris vel 
Denariis receptis de Terris et in 
canis omnibus Ecclesiae et Denariis 
annuatim ab Ecclesiis Comitatus de 
Menteth in quibus dictus comes 
jus obtinet Patronatus, nomine pen- 
sionis perceptis, ut dicebat dictus 
Episcopus, et omnibus querelis ex- 
actionibus vel demandis inter eos 
motis, vel que aliquo tempore ab 
ipso vel antecessoribus suis contra 
dictum Comitem vel antecessores 
suos moveri poterant vel poterunt 
supra predictis ; Ordinavimus etiam, 
Quod licitum sit dicto Comiti et 
successoribus suis, Domum Virorum 
Eeligiosum Ordinis Sancti Augustini 
in Insula de INCHMAQUHOMOK con- 
struere, sine impedimento vel con- 
tradictione dicti Episcopi vel suc- 
cessorum suorum ; Assignavimus 
etiam ex collatione dicti Comitis et 
de voluntate et assensu dicti Epis- 
copi in puram et perpetuam elimo- 
sinam illis Viris Eeligiosis in dicta 
Insula Deo servientibus Ecclesias 
de Lanyn et de dicta insula, cum 
omnibus libertatibus et aisiamentis 
ad dictas Ecclesias pertinentibus, 
Salvis Episcopalibus dicto Episcopo 
et successoribus suis ; Et sciendum 
est, Quod non licebit dicto Episcopo 
vel successoribus suis in dictis 
duabus Ecclesiis perpetuos vicarios 
facere, sed honesti capellani Epis- 
copo presententur qui ipsi de cura 
animarum et de spiritualibus et 
Episcopalibus respondeant. Ordi- 
navimus insuper, ut dictus comes 
VOL. i. 2 



have submitted themselves to our 
appointment in all disputes and 
complaints moved between them, 
or which at any time could or 
might be moved concerning the 
underwritten, and concerning the 
reformation of the Church of Dun- 
blane, We, having taken the ad- 
vice of discreet men, have made our 
appointment between them, in man- 
ner following, viz., That the said 
Bishop of Dunblane, in the name 
of his Church, for himself, and all 
his Successors, shall renounce all 
right which the said Bishops or 
their Predecessors, in name of the 
Church of Dunblane, have, had, or 
might or could have, in Lands, or 
in Money-Kent received from Lands, 
and in all Eevenues and Kents 
annually drawn in name of Pension 
from the Churches of the Earldom 
of Monteith, in which the said Earl 
hath a Eight of Patronage, as al- 
leged by the said Bishop ; together 
with all complaints, exactions, or 
demands moved between them, or 
which at any time by himself have 
been, or could have been, moved 
against the said Earl, or his Prede- 
cessors, in the premises : We have 
also ordained that it shall be lawful 
for the said Earl and his Successors 
to build a house for Eeligious Men 
of the Order of S. Augustine, in the 
Island of INCHMAQUHOMOK, without 
impediment or opposition from the 
said Bishop or his Successors. And, 
moreover, in conformity with the 
collation of the said Earl, and with 
the will and assent of the said 
Bishop, we have assigned, in pure 
and perpetual alms, to these Eeligi- 
ous Men serving God in the said 
Island, the Churches of Leny, and 
of the said Island, with all the 
Liberties and Easements belonging 
to the said Churches, reserving his 
Episcopal rights to the said Bishop 
and his Successors. And be it 
known, that it shall not be lawful 



242 



MONASTICON. 



to the said Bishop or his Successors 
to make perpetual Vicars in the said 
two Churches, but proper Chaplains 
shall he presented to the Bishop, 
who shall be responsible to him for 
the cure of souls, and in Spiritual 
and Episcopal matters. We have, 
moreover, ordained that the said 
Earl, for himself and his Succes- 
sors, shall grant and assign the 
Church of Kippen for a perpetual 
Canonryinthe Church of Dunblane, 
reserving to himself and all his 
Successors, in all time coming, the 
right of presenting to the said 
Canonry as often as it shall happen 
to become vacant. We ordain, in 
like manner, that the said Earl, for 
himself and his Successors, shall 
yield to the said Bishop and his 
Successors, whatever right he has 
in the Church of Callander. That, 
however, this our Ordination may 
remain ratified and unshaken, we 
have adhibited to this Writing our 
own Seals, along with the Seal of 
the said Bishop of Dunblane, before 
these Witnesses in Council at Perth, 
in the year of Grace One Thousand 
Two Hundred and Thirty-Eight, in 
the Octave of the Holy John the 
Baptist, to wit G., Bishop of Aber- 
don ; the Abbots of Aberbroth, and 
of Scone, and of Cambuskenneth, 
and of Inchaffray; Mr. Peter de 
Ramsay; Mr. M., Archdeacon of 
Glasgow ; Mr. W., Dean of -Glas- 
gow ; and many others. 

From the foregoing Document, it would appear that the 
Religious House of Inschemachame was originally in the Diocese 
of Dunblane ; and we are thus enabled, so far, to ascertain the 
extent of this Diocese at that early period, when (as appears 
from the first part of the Voucher now quoted) the Church of 
Dunblane had been a Century since the building of it without a 
Roof. 

That Cardross, in Monteith, belonged to this Priory, appears 
from an Act of Parliament in the Reign of James VI., as well as 



pro se et successoribus suis concedat 
et assignet Ecclesiam de Kippen ad 
perpetuum canonicatum in Ecclesia 
Dunblanensi, Salvo sibi et succes- 
soribus suis omnibus in perpetuum 
jure presentandi ad dictum Canoni- 
catum quotiescunque vacare contige- 
rit; Ordinavimus similiter, ut idem 
comes pro se et successoribus suis 
cedat eidem Episcopo et successori- 
bus suis quicquid juris habuit in 
Ecclesia de Callander. Ut autem 
hec ordinatio nostra rata et incon- 
cussa permaneat, huic scripto Sigilla 
nostra unacum sigillo dicti Episcopi 
Dunblanensis apposuimus, his Tes- 
tibus existentibus in Consilio, apud 
Perth, Anno Gratis Millesimo Du- 
centesimo Tricesimo Octavo in Oc- 
tabus Sancti Joannis Baptisti, 
scilicet G. Episcopo Aberdonen, de 
Aberbroth et de Scone et de Cam- 
buskenneth et de Inchaffray Abbati- 
bus, Magistro Petro De Eamsay, 
Magistro M. Archidecano Glasguen, 
Magistro W. Decano Glasguen et 
multis aliis. 

[From "Notes on the Priory of 
Inchmahome," by Rev. W. M. 
Stirling; from " Regist. Aber- 
broth," where the Bull of Pope 
Gregory is given at length, A.D. 
1238 ; and also from " Liber In- 
side Missarum, p. xxix"~\ 



PEIOEY OF INCHMAHOME. 



243 



from a Charter granted by this Monarch. The Parliamentary 
Act is entitled "Act of Annexation of Forfaultit Landis and 
Rentis to the Crown ;" and the Lands of Cardross and others 
are therein described as the Feu-Lands of Inchmahomo. 

Of the Charter by James VI., granting the Estate and Title 
of Cardross, with the additional privilege of Assignation, and 
Dated Greenwich, 10th June, 1610, the following is an Extract : 
" It is decerned and declared, that all the Lands, &c., which 
formerly belonged to the Priory of Inschemachame, and to the 
Monasteries of Dryburgh and Cambuskenneth, which Benefices 
were possessed by the blood-relations of the Family in all time 

past beyond the memory of 
man, are by us disponed to 
the said Earl of Mar, to his 
heirs-male heritably and as- 
signs. Besides, we create and 
constitute the said John, Earl 
of Mar, and his heirs-male, 
assigns and successors in the 
| \ said Lands and Barony of 

'HALL OF REFECTORY. 

23 by ILpace* 



GOHJECTURAL GROUND PUN OF PRIORY 
1815 




CHURCH AND: CHOIR | ] 

P SO ty 22 pace? 




GARDEN 




Cardross, Free Lords and 
Barons of the same." 

Of the Saint to whom, 
according to the foregoing 
Account (for the Mandate of 
the Bishops of Glasgow and 
Dunkeld takes no notice of 
any such personage), this 
Religious Institution was Dedicated, and who appears in his 
place in the Seal of Inschemachame, Mr. Chalmers, Author of 
"Caledonia," quotes a MS. of Innes, as making mention, in a 
List of the earliest Bishops in Scotland, made up from a MS. 
Calendar and Missal of the Diocese of St. Andrews, which 
belonged to the Viscount Arbuthnot, and from the Printed 
Breviary of Aberdeen, 1509. In this Catalogue where we 
behold S. Madock of Kilmadock, S. Ronan of Kilmaronock, S. 
Blane of Dunblane, and others, making twenty-four in all a 



244 MONASTICON. 

month and a particular day are mentioned in connexion with 
each Bishop, but no year. [Caledonia, vol. i., p. 322.] 

There were at least four Chapels attached to the Priory of 
Inschemachame. One at the East end of the Lake, about a 
furlong North from its outlet, close to the shore ; another at 
Arnchly, "the Field of the Sword," about a mile from the West 
end of the Lake ; a third at Chapellaroch, in the Barony of 
Drummond. An Inventory of the iron work "in all, fourtie- 
six stenchers, eight cleeks, and the iron yait" of this Keligious 
House, made in 1678, is among the Monteith Papers at Gart- 
more. Both the last-mentioned places belong to his Grace the 
Duke of Montrose. And there was a fourth Chapel, at what long 
ago was the Property of the Family of Drummond, Balquahapple. 
All these places (except Arnchly, where the Military circumstance 
has prevailed over the Ecclesiastical), retain the name of Chapel. 
It illustrates the connexion of the Drummonds with Inschema- 
chame that two of the four Chapels attached to the Priory were 
on their Lands. 

Eobert the Bruce was in Inschemachame on the 15th of 
April, 1310, being nearly the intermediate point of time between 
his Coronation and the Battle of Bannockburn. This appears 
from a Writ by him, recorded in the Chartulary of Arbroath. 

In the official Publication of the Index of the Eecord of 
Charters, &c., by different Sovereigns of Scotland, we find that 
David II. grants to the Prior of Inschemachame a Charter for 
the payment of an annual Salary of JC35 Sterling. This circum- 
stance may have caused the Tradition of David I.'s being the 
Founder of the Priory. [" Carta to the Prior of Inchmahome of 
an annual of 700s. Sterling, furth of the Sheriff's Offices of Fyfe 
and Perth." No. XXII., David II., Eobertson's Index of 
Charters.] 

The beauteous Queen Mary, when a child of 5 years, found 
repose in Inschemachame, soon after the disastrous Battle of 
Pinkey, fought on the 10th of September, 1547. [Chalmers, 
Author of " Caledonia."] 

At the request of the Duke of Montrose, the Lands of Card- 
ross were transferred to his Grace, along with the Eastern half 



PEIOEY OF INCHMAHOME: 245 

of the Island, and now -forms part of the Monteith Estate, which 
had before comprehended the Western half of this romantic 
retreat as an Orchard. 

The existing extensive Kuins shew that this Priory was rich 
in Architectural taste, and placed in one of Nature's loveliest 
spots. Embosomed among fine old trees, are still standing one 
elegant Gothic Arch, a considerable portion of Wall, and the 
Dormitory. The Vaults have long been the Burying-place of the 
Grahams of Gartmore. 

In the Choir of the Church are recumbent sculptured Figures 
of the last Earl and Countess, who bore the now dormant Title 
of Monteith. An Engraving of them is in Stirling's Inchmakome, 
noticed above, whose labours have been here used by me. 

One of the Spanish Chesnut Trees in the Island of Inschema- 
chame, measures, at the ground and springing of the branches, ' 
18 feet in circumference. This and several, to the number of 
about a dozen, are said to be above three centuries old; a 
circumstance which was ascertained at the thinning of the 
Timber 100 years since, by counting the rings. 

TALLA, 

In Gaelic, " Hall," or " Great Man's House," corruptly spelled " Tulla" 
in Stobie's Map of Perthshire. Talla is the name of the Island second in 
size in the Lake of Inschemachame. It contains a Seat of the Earls of 
Monteith, in Kuins. 

The House of Talla (apparently built with the stones of the Church of 
Inschemachame) was divided into three Apartments. In the lower Storey 
was " the Hall," latterly furnished with a " Pair of Virginalls," and with 
"my Lord and Ladyes Portraits, and Hingings before them," and " ane 
House-Knock, with the Caise thereof," &c. The Fire-place is still visible in 
the Western Gable. At each end, and (as is indicated by existing appear- 
ances) in upper Storeys, entered respectively by an outer Door in the Gable, 
and not encroaching on the Ground Floor, was a Koom, each containing "a 
Standing Bed," and other corresponding Furniture. In a small Tower 
behind, and communicating with " the Hall," were three Kooms, in three 
different Storeys, the upper of which were accessible by a Staircase at the 
South- West Corner. The Middle Flat, according to an Inventory made on 
the 17th of March, 1692, was "my Ladyes Chamber;" but in another 
Inventory, made after her Death, is set down as " my Lord's." The Ground 
Floor is named " the Laigh Back-Koum." The Attic Storey, in the Inven- 
tory of 1692, is called the Wardrobe ;" but, in that of 1694, is styled "the 



246 



MONASTICON. 



SKETCH OF TALLA. 



Chamber above iny Lord's," and (as appears from the last-mentioned Paper) 
served the double purpose of Wardrobe and Bed Koom. The Apartment 
yclept "the Brew- House Chamber," was on the East side of the Island; 
and, according to both the recently quoted Vouchers, was "hunge with 
green," and furnished with two Beds, one of " green stufTe, with rods and 

pands conforme," the other of "red scarlet 
cloath." " The Brew-House Chamber " was, 
moreover, decorated with a Ked Table Cloth, 
and "a Ked Scarlet Eesting Chair." The 
Brew-House of the noble Family of Mon- 
teith seems to have possessed many attrac- 
tions ; for not only were there above it the 
gorgeous Apartment now described, but 
likewise attached to its steaming sides a 
pair of what were descriptively termed 
" to-falls," set out with three Beds, one 
"brown," and the others "red." On the 
West side of this " snug little Island," were 
the Oven, the Kitchen, and the Servants' 
Apartments built of round land stones. On 
the South, stood, frowning, the highest of 
all the Edifices of Talla, constructed of 
the same rude materials. Its Heraldic 
Devices are partly abstracted, and no Ac- 
count can be given of its Foundation, nor 

indeed of that of any of the more modern Structures adjacent. From 
one of these Devices, where the Crest, representing, as is believed, an 
Eagle coupe, is above a Shield, the Charge of which is not legible, it 
would appear that the oldest Building was erected after the introduction of 
the first-mentioned Emblem into Armorial Bearings. 

DOG ISLE. 

To the Westward of Talla, at the distance of above a furlong, is the 
Dog Isle, not many yards in circumference, said to have been used by the 
Earls as a Kennel. At the West end of the Lake, on the Mainland, were 
their Stables, since razed to the foundation, but still giving their name to the 
ground where they stood. On the Northern shore, around the romantic Hill 
of Coldon, and on the Farm now called Portend, were the Pleasure Grounds 
of these Noblemen, where are yet many stately trees in the Park taste. 
Combined with the more aerial foliage of Inschemachame and Talla, these 
nobles of the vegetable kingdom impart to the scenery a unique and classic 
air, compensating somewhat for the want of that primeval majesty which 
marks the Grampian Lakes, and tempts the Tourist, after having accustomed 
his eye to the exclusive contemplation of them, to exclaim of Inschema- 




PKIOKY OF KOSNETH. 247 

chame (situated as it is, in a Country champaign on all sides but one, and, 
though distant 70 miles, rising only a few feet above the level of the ocean), 
" Qu' il est trop tranquille." 

The climate here is mild. Snow falls in small quantities, and soon 
melts. The Landscape early assumes the livery of Spring, and early acquires 
the appropriate hues of after Seasons. To describe the exquisite beauty of 
Inschemachame and Talla, arrayed in the many-coloured but harmonious 
robe of Autumn, and reflected in "the liquid plain" beneath, that ''stands 
unmoved, pure as the expanse of heaven," to clothe in syllables the soft 
Monastic repose that sends the soul back to the days of yore, and pictures 
to fancy's eye scenes long ere now transacted, were utterly impracticable. 

Seen from Inschemachame, the little Island of Talla, tufted with trees, 
through which ruins peep out, form an interesting middle ground, of which 
Ben Lomond, once, to appearance, the ^Etna of Britain, with some minor 
Mountains, and the House of Gartmore nearer than either, constitute the 
distance. The Western Bay of Inschemachame is often calm even amid the 
raging of the tempest, and affords to the Landscape a fore-ground of no 
ordinary class. 

VALUATION OF THE PKIOKY OF INCHMAHOME. 

Money, 234. [Keith.] Bear 7 Chatters; Meal 59 Chatters, 13 Bolls, 

1 Firlot, 8 Pecks. 

XIX. KOSNETH. 

The ancient Church of Neueth, which is said to have heen 
Dedicated to S. Nicholas, was situated on the Eos or Promontory 
in the District of Neueth. The Church of Kosneth, however, 
was Dedicated, not to S. Nicholas, but to S. Modan, Abbot 
and Confessor, who withdrew from the Monastery at Fal- 
kirk, where he had Converted the surrounding Tribes, "to the 
Western Coast of Scotland, not far from Dunbertane and Loch 
Garloch, in a lonely spot sequestered from men by waves and 
mountains ; there is the Parish Church of Kosneth Dedicated in 
honour of him, and there do his Relics rest in honour, in a Chapel 
of the Cemetery of that Church." [Aberdeen Breviary.] At a 
short distance from the Castle of Rosneth, it stood close by the 
shore, upon the site of the present Church ; and, deriving its 
name from its situation, was, from the earliest Notices of it, 
indifferently called the Church of Neueth, or the Church of Ros- 
neth. At a much later period, the Parish was known as "the 
Parochine without and within the Isle." About 1620, Parlia- 



248 MONASTICON. 

ment was petitioned to transport the Kirk of Rosneth to the 
Lands of Ardinconnel, on the Mainland; and, between 1643 and 
1648, the Boundaries between it and Cardross were settled, and 
the new Parish of Row was erected out of them. 

At what time the Church of Neueth was Founded is uncertain. 
The earliest Notice of it occurs in the Grant which Alwyn, Earl 
of Lennox, made to the Church of Kilpatrick before 1199, and 
which was Witnessed by Michael Gilmodyn, Parson of Neueth. 

Amelec (also called Auleth), a younger son of Alwyn, and 
who seems to have had this District as his inheritance, Granted 
the Church of Rosneth, with all its just Pertinents, in pure and 
perpetual alms, to the Monks of Paisley, to be held by them as 
freely as their other Churches, acquired by gift of the Patrons. 
This Grant was Confirmed by Amelec's brother, Earl Maldoven, 
and subsequently by King Alexander at Trefquer [Traquair], on 
the 12th of March, 1225. 

About the same time, Amelec granted a Salt-Pan in his 
Land of Rosneth to the Monks of Paisley; and to this gift, 
Nevinus, Parson of Neueth, and Gilmothan, son of the Sacristan 
of Neueth, are Witnesses. 

In the settlement of a Dispute which arose between Walter, 
Bishop of Glasgow, and William, Abbot of Paisley, regarding 
the Vicarial Churches held by the Monks in the Diocese of 
Glasgow, and which the Bishop, acting under a recent Statute of 
General Council, was grievously oppressing, it was appointed by 
amicable Compositors, in the Church of Peebles, on Tuesday 
before the Feast of S. Martin, 1227, that the Church of Neueth 
should be ceded to the Monks in proprios usus, and exempted 
from the payment of Procurations, on condition that they should 
present to the Church a fit Secular Chaplain, who should answer 
to the Bishop cle Episcopalians. [Reg. de Passelet, and Orig. 
Paroch, vol. ?'., p. 28.] 

In the time of Congal, S. Modan and his Brethren took up 
their abode here, and erected a remarkable Monastery. He was 
the Father of very many Monks, and an Abbot. Boethius is 
cited to prove that he was probably a Bishop. There seem to 
have been two of this name the senior dwelt here at Rosneth ; 



ABBEY OF JEDBUEGH. 249 

and Boethius, Leslie, and others, say that the younger was an 
Abbot of Dryburgh. The Aberdeen Breviary states that the 
senior S. Modan lived not far from Dumbarton and the Gare 
Loch, at Kosneth, where he was Buried ; and also notices S. 
Modan at length. Rosneth was also called Kilmodin i.e., "the 
Cell of S. Modan." The Monastery was burned by the Danes. 

The Register of Paisley contains the following Charters : 

1. Chart of Amelec, brother of Maldovene, the Earl of Lennox, granting 
the Church of Eosneth to the Monks of Paisley, A.D. 1225. 

2. Confirmation of the above by Maldovene, A.D. 1225. 

3. Confirmation of the above by Alexander, King of Scotland, A.D. 1225. 

4. Chart of Amelec, giving a Salt-Pan in Eosneth, and a Net to catch 
Salmon and other Fish over the whole of the Gare Loch, to the Monks of 
Paisley, about A.D. 1230. 

5. Confirmation of the above by Maldovene, same year. 

6. Chart of Hanel', brother of Maldovene, giving a Salt-Pan in Eosneth 
to the Monks of Paisley, same Date. [Brockie's MS., p. 4051.] 

VALUATION OF THE PEIOEY OF ROSNETH. 

No information. 

XX. JEDBURGH, or JEDWORTH, A.D. 1118, 

In Teviotdale, was an Abbey, Dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, situated on the West side of the River Jed, near to the 
place where it falls into the Eiver Teviot. King David I. 
Founded this Place for Canons brought from Beauvais (Bellova- 
cum), who were there established by Yvo Carnutensis, in a 
Monastery Dedicated to S. Quintine, " in monasterio Sti. Quintini 
Bellovacensis," whereof he was Provost, before he became Bishop 
of Chartres. It was erected into a Temporal Lordship in favour 
of Sir Andrew Ker, of Ferniherst, ancestor to the Marquis of 
Lothian, 2nd February, 1622. [Spottiswoode.] 

In Origines Paroehiales, Jedburgh is spelled 82 different ways. 

Wyntoun, in his Chronicle, dates the Foundation of the 
Abbey in 1118, which, however, was only a Priory till about 
1150. 

Sir James Dalrymple says that he had seen " a Copy of the 
Charter of Foundation by King David," and adds, "All that I 

VOL. I. 2 I 



250 MONASTICON. 

can say of this Abbacy is, that it is probable it was anciently a 
Keligious House or Monastery, and sometimes in the possession 
of the Church of Durham ; and so more of the nature of a 
Dunelmian than Culdean Monastery. It was governed at first 
by a Prior. I think the Priory has been changed to an Abbacy 
about the end of the Keign of King David." 

After that Monarch had Founded the Monastery of S. Mary of 
Jedworde, and established the Augustinian Canons there, he 
Granted or Confirmed to them the said Monastery with all its Per- 
tinents, part of which appears to have been previously Granted by 
the Earls Gospatrick, and which included the Tithes of the Towns 
of the whole Parish, viz., of the two Jeddword, Langton, Nesbyt, 
the Sheriff Gospatrick's Creling, the Tithes of the other Creling 
the Town of Orm the son of Eylav, and of Scrauesburghe. The 
Grant of Gospatrick's Creling was Confirmed to the Canons by 
his Chaplain, who Officiated there ; and the whole Grant of the 
Monastery, with its Possessions, was Confirmed to them between 
1147 and 1152 by Prince Henry, about 1165 by King William 
the Lion, and probably between 1214 and 1249 by King Alex- 
ander II. 

The Charter of King William, which included various extra- 
Parochial Possessions, Confirmed to the Canons the following 
Grants, viz. : Of King David's Grant, the Monastery of Jedde- 
worth with all its Pertinents ; the Chapel also which was Founded 
in the Forest Glade opposite Xernwingeslawe ; the Tithe of the 
King's whole hunting in Theuietedale ; Ulueston, Alnecliue near 
Alnecrumb, Crumesethe, Kapeslawe, with the right Boundaries 
pertaining to these Towns ; one House in the Burgh of Koch- 
burg ; one House in Berewic ; a third House also in the same 
Berewic upon Tuede, with its circumjacent Toft; one Stream 
which is opposite the Island called Tonsmidhop ; Eadwardesle ; 
Pasture for their Cattle along with those of the King ; Timber 
and Wood from his Forests according to their wants, except in 
Quikeheg ; the Multure of the Mill from all the men of Jedde- 
worth ubi castellum est; one Salt-Pan near Streuelin; Kule 
Hereuei, according to its right Boundaries and just Pertinents, 
exchanged for a Ten-Pound Land which the Canons had in 



ABBEY OF JEDBUEGH. 251 

Hardinghestorn. Of the Grant of his brother, King Malcolm, 
the Church of Barton and the Church of Grendon ; and in his 
Burgh of Jeddeworth, one Toft and seven Acres ; and in their 
Houses which they had in his Burgh of Berewic, such liberty 
that none of the King's servants should presume to exact the 
Tuns in which Wine was brought thither by merchants, and 
which were emptied there ; and one Fishing in the Tuede, that, 
namely, which was above the Bridge, which William of Lamberton 
resigned to the King's grandfather. By the Grant of the Sheriff 
Gospatrick, a Ploughgate and a half and three Acres of Land, 
with two Houses in Craaling. By the Grant of Berengarius 
Engain, one Mark of Silver in the Mill of the same Craaling, and 
two Oxgangs of Land, with one Villain and one Toft ; and for 
the maintenance of the Chaplain who should Minister in the 
Chapel of the same Town, other two Oxgangs of Land with 
another Toft ; and one other Toft near the Church. By the 
Grant of David Olifar, the Tithe of the Mill of the same Craaling. 
By the Grant of Orom the son of Eilau, one Ploughgate of Land 
in the other Craaling. By the Grant of Kicharcl Inglis, two Ox- 
gangs of Land in Scrauesburg, and two Oxgangs in Langeton. 
By the Grant of Gamel, the Clerk, Caueruni, given with consent 
of his sons, Osulf and Vghtred. By the Grant of Margaret, the 
wife of Thomas de London, with consent of the same Thomas, 
and of Henry Louel, the son of the same Margaret, Vghtredsxaghe 
with its right Boundaries. By the Grant of Christian, the wife 
of Geruase Kidel, the third part of the Town of Xernwingeslawe. 
By the Grant of Geoffry de Perci, the Church of Oxenham, with 
two Ploughgates of Land, and two Oxgangs adjacent to the same 
Church ; and the Common Pasture and Common Fuel of the 
same Oxenham; and Niwebigginghe, and Pasture and Fuel in 
common with the other men of the same Town of Oxenham, 
which Niwebigginghe, Henry de Perci, after the death of the 
foresaid Geoffry, his brother, Confirmed to the Canons in presence 
of King William's brother, Malcolm. By the Grant of Kadulph, 
the son of Dunegal, and Bethoc, his wife, one Ploughgate of 
Land in Rughechestre, and the Common Pasture of the same 
Town. By the Grant of Turgot of Rossedale, the Eeligious 



252 MONASTICON. 

House of Lidel, with the whole Land adjacent to it ; the Church 
also of Kirchander, with all its Pertinents. By the Grant of Guy 
of Kossedale, with consent of Ealph, his son, forty-two Acres 
between Esch and Lidel, where they meet, and the freedom of 
the Water from the Moat of Lidel to the Church of Lidel. By 
the Grant of Kanulph de Solis, the Church of the Valley of 
Lidel, and the Church of Dodington, near Berton, and half a 
Ploughgate of Land in Nasebith. By the Grant of Geruase 
Eidel, who afterwards became a Canon of Jeddeworth, and of 
Kalph, his brother, the Church of Alboldesle, with all its 
Pertinents and Eights. By the grant of William de Vipont, one 
Ploughgate of the land of his Demesne in Caredene, with the 
Common Easement of the Town. 

In the Keign of King Alexander II., there occurred a Dispute 
between the Bishop of Glasgow (Walter) 
and the Canons of Jedburgh, regarding 
various Churches, which, in 1220, was ter- 
minated by the decision of five Arbiters in 
the Chapel of Nesbite. The decision bore 
in general, " That if at any time the Bishop 
or his Official should regularly pronounce 
sentence against the Canons of Jeddewrde 
or their conversi, it should be reverenced, 
observed, and obeyed, saving the Privileges 
of either party ; that those who were rebel- 
lious and disobedient, should be compelled 

A Female Figure sitting , i -i T P , -, 

before a Lectern, on which to edience by censure oftae Church ; that 
is a Book, which she holds the Chaplain whose duty it was to minister 
open with her left hand, in the Parish Church of Jeddewrde, should 

her right holding the Cro- -, , , ,, _.. .. , . ' ' . , 

zier; her head is inclined Q Presented to the Bishop or his Official, 
upwards, as if engaged in should pay them due Canonical obedience 




r and reverence, as in duty bound, and should 

1220. [Metros Charters.] , . -, 

nave free ingress to the Celebration of Divine 
Service, and to Oil, Chrism, the Holy Eucharist, and all the 
necessary Christian Sacraments ; that the Abbot of Jeddewrde 
should, according to ancient custom, go in person to the Festival 
of the Dedication of the Church of Glasgow, or, if prevented 



ABBEY OF JEDBUEGH. 253 

by any reasonable cause, should send a suitable Procurator, and 
that he should not neglect to attend Synod when summoned." 

At the second Nuptials of Alexander III., who was Married 
at Jedburgh, October 14, 1285, to Jolande, daughter of the 
Count of Dreux, in the midst of the Koyal Banquet, at the 
Theatrical Masque, previously arranged, a Phantom Skeleton 
appeared, gliding among dancers and choristers, the omen of the 
King's approaching death, by a fall from his horse at Kinghorn, 
in Fife. All Annalists note this Incident ; and it is even to be 
found in " Wilson's Tales of the Borders." It occurred while 
John Morel was Abbot. 

During this Century, the Abbey, like many other Monastic 
Foundations, appears to have been a ^Repository of Family 
Charters. Among the Parchments found in the Castle of Edin- 
burgh in 1292, and ordered by Edward I. to be delivered to King 
John Balliol, there was one entitled, "A Letter of William de 
Fentone, Andrew de Bosco, and David de Graham, acknow- 
ledging receipt from Master William Wyscard, Archdeacon of St. 
Andrews, and Chancellor to the King, of certain Documents 
deposited in the Abbey of Geddeworth by umquhile John Biset, 
the son of Sir John Biset." 

John, Abbot of Jeddeworth, in 1290, concurred in the 
proposal of Marriage between the son of Edward I. and Margaret 
of Norway, and, in 1292, had a present of six Stags sent 
him by that Monarch from the Forest of Selkirk, and was present 
at Newcastle when King John Balliol did homage to Edward as 
Overlord of Scotland. In 1296, he, along with his whole Con- 
vent, swore fealty to Edward, and was restored to possession of 
the Conventual Domains. 

In the same year, the English King ordered the Canons of 
Jeddeworth to receive into their Monastery, and support during 
life, " Thomas of Byrdeleye, Clerk," who had been recently 
mutilated by the Scots in Northumberland. 

In the subsequent Wars (1297-1300), the Abbey was plun- 
dered, burnt, and destroyed, the lead was stripped from the Koof 
of the Church, and retained by Sir Kichard Hastings after its 
restoration had been ordered by the King, and the Canons were 



254 MONASTICON. 

reduced to such destitution, that Edward himself gave them -an 
asylum in different Eeligious Houses in England, until their 
Monastery should be repaired. 

King Kohert Bruce, between 1306 and 1329, Confirmed to 
the Canons of Jedburgh the Teinds of the two Jedburghs and 
Langtoun, the Chapel of Nisbet, and the Teinds of Craling, 
granted them by the Earls Gospatrick ; the Teinds of the Parish 
of Jedwart, Langtoun, Nisbet, and Craling, with the Foundation 
of the Chapel thereof (viz., of Craling), granted by King David 
I. ; and the -Charters of Confirmation of Prince Henry, of King 
William, and of King Alexander. From the time of King Kobert 
till the Reformation, the History of the Church of Jedburgh is 
almost a blank. Throughout that period the Monastic Buildings 
frequently sustained injury in times of war, especially at the 
memorable Storming of Jedburgh by the Earl of Surrey in 1523, 
when the Abbey held out against the English for a whole day. 

The Abbey never recovered from the destruction which it 
suffered from Eurie in 1544, when his gunners turned their 
pieces on the Building, which they took and burned. In the 
same year, Hertford laid the Abbey in greater Ruins'. The whole 
Establishment being suppressed at the " Reformation " in 1599, 
its Revenues were afterwards annexed to the Crown ; but part of 
them was enjoyed by the last Abbot, Andrew. Sir Alexander 
Ker, the Laird of Ferniherst (ancestor to the Marquis of 
Lothian), had long exercised the Office and authority of Bailie 
of the Monastery, as well as of the Forest of Jedburgh. In 
1587, the Bailery of the Abbey was continued or restored to the 
same Family by a Grant of James VI. to Sir Andrew Ker ; and, 
in 1622, the entire property of the Lands and Baronies which 
had belonged to the Canons of Jedburgh, was erected into a 
Temporal Lordship, and granted to him, with the Title of Lord 
Jedburgh. [Vide Origines Parochiales, Morton's Annals of Teviot- 
dale, and Jeffrey's History and Antiquities of Roxburghshire.] 

The Abbey Church of Jedburgh, in which the Services were 
conducted by one of the Monks as Chaplain, was the Church of 
the Parish before the Reformation. The Western half of the 
Nave, fitted up in " Modern Style," is still used for modern 



ABBEY OF JEDBUKGH. 255 

purposes. The Abbey, placed on a bank overhanging the little 
River Jed, and in the midst of its beautiful valley, is still seen 
in its original length. The Central Tower still stands, 100 feet 
high, and 30 feet square, with Angular Pinnacles ; where the 
Transept Roofs were low, two Pointed Arches occur. On the 
summit is a double Bell-cot. The view from the top of the 
Tower is charming. It is ascended by a very narrow Stair in 
the South-East corner of the Church, communicating with every 
part of it by deep Passages in the Wall, so that one might go 
round the whole Building unseen by those underneath. The 
Tower is lighted by 17 Windows. The North Transept, which has 
a beautiful Traceried Window, is entire, and has long been set 
apart as a Burial-place for the Family of the Marquis of Lothian, 
the descendant and representative of the Kers of Ferniherst. 
The South Transept has disappeared. But the chief object 
of Architectural interest in this Abbey is the Norman Door, 
which formed the Southern entrance to the Church from the 
Cloisters. This, for the elegance of its workmanship and the 
symmetry of its proportions, is unrivalled. Its Sculptured 
Mouldings, springing from slender shafts, with Capitals richly 
wreathed, exhibit the representations of flowers, men, and 
various animals, executed with surprising minuteness and deli- 
cacy. The Chapter House, Cloisters, and East end of the 
Choir, at the High Altar, are completely gone. There are three 
or four different kinds of Architecture in the Abbey, each 
characteristic of the different Periods when it was built. The 
Minster, for the most part Norman, extends, from East to West, 
230 feet. The Presbytery, 31 feet by 7 feet, is Early English. 

The Domestic Buildings have occupied the South side of the 
Church, and, when entire, formed a large Square, extending to 
the water's edge, where part of the Buildings yet remain, and 
from which issues the Common Sewer of the Offices. Part of 
the Chapter House is still standing, but has been converted into 
modern habitations. Between this part now standing and the 
broken Transept, was the Treasury of the Monks. On the South 
of the Chapter House, nearer to the water, and where there is 
now a Dye-house, was the Library and Scriptorium in which the 



256 MONASTICON. 

old Monks were engaged in copying MSS. About middle way 
between the present Dye-house and the Garden of the Nest 
Academy, stood the Kefectory, where the Monks dined. To the 
West of this was the Parlour or Common Hall, where, at leisure 
hours, the Monks sat and conversed. Next to this, and occupy- 
ing part of the Garden to the West of the Manse Garden, were 
the Kitchens, Offices, Dairy, &c. At the West side of the S'quare 
was the Dormitory in which the Monks slept ; and, farther West, 
the outer Court, consisting of the Infirmary and Almonry. The 
Entrance to this Court was by an embattled Gate-house, and 
was the principal Approach to the Abbey. It now goes by the 
name of Abbey Close. At the head of this Close formerly stood a 
strong Tower, popularly called David's Tower ; but it is highly 
probable that it was the embattled House which guarded the 
Approach to the Abbey. The large Square of the Cloisters, in 
which the Monks often sat or walked, is converted into a Garden 
for the Parish Minister. 

As far as recorded in different Documents, the following (as 
complete as can be made up, but, doubtless, a good many names 
are lost in oblivion) are the 

ABBOTS OF JEDBURGH. 

1. DANIEL appears first on record, who is styled "Prior de Geddwrda" 
in a Charter by King David to the Monastery of Coldingham, Dated 16th 
August, 1139. [Coldingham Charters in Raines North Durham, Nos. 19, 20.] 

2. OSBERT, " Prior de Gedworda," occurs frequently as a Witness to 
Charters by King David, his son Earl Henry, and Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, to Coldingham, Kelso, and other Eeligious Communities. Demp- 
ster says that he was a man of singular integrity and unaffected piety, and 
that he wrote a Treatise, addressed to the King, about the founding of the 
Monastery, its Rules, and the Records of the Acts of the Chapter. He 
styled himself Prior from 1147 till 1150 ; but is called " Abbot of Gedd- 
worth" in Charters by Malcolm IV. He was the first Abbot proper. Osbert 
Died in 1174, according to the Mel rose Chronicle, where he is styled 
"Primus Abbas de Jedwood." 

3. RICHARD, the Cellarer of the Abbe} 7 , who presided till his Death in 
1205, had the reputation of a "Seer"; but no particular Account of his 
frequent Revelations has been preserved. "Whatever may have given rise to 
this doubtful celebrity, he appears to have possessed qualities which 
endeared him to the Monastic Brethren. 



ABBEY OF JEDBUEGH. 257 

4. HUGH, Prior of Eestennet, which was a Cell or dependent Priory, 
used as a place of custody for the Eecords of Jedburgh Abbey against the 
depredations of the Border marauders. 

5. KENNOCH. Dempster, in his Eccles. History of Scotland, speaks of 
one of this name as Abbot of Jedburgh, who, by virtue of his unceasing 
Prayers, prevailed upon the Kings of Scotland and England to maintain 
peace, when their minds were strongly inclined to war, for 10 years. We 
are not informed what time this Abbot lived, but his Festival was kept 
yearly on the 14th November. He is said to have been Abbot in 1000. The 
traditional History respecting him, and the apparently high antiquity of the 
Eemains of the Choir, would seem to dictate that the Abbey had a very 
early existence; but the Melrose Chronicle states Osbert, "primus Abbas," 
" Obiit 1174." Morton makes Kennoch to come in here, like S. Paul, " as 
one born out of due time," and so shall I admit him as No. 5, not as No. 3. 

6. HUGH. We are informed that he Eesigned his Charge in 1239, on 
account of his age and infirmities. 

7. PHILIP, a Canon, who Euled the Abbey 10 years. He Died in 1249. 

8. EGBERT DE GYSEBORN, another of the Canons, and one whose very 
appearance inspired devotion, succeeded, but Died same year. 

9. NICHOLAS was also chosen from among his Brother Canons, and 
Presided over them until 1275, when, disabled by old age, he retired from 
the Pastoral Office, bearing the character of a man of wisdom and prudence. 

10. JOHN MOREL, a Canon, was raised to the Abbot's 
place upon the Eesignation of his Predecessor. Very dis- 
turbed warlike times now set in ; and there is no Eecord 
of the Affairs of the Abbey for a considerable space. 
The Harlequin Spectre, noticed above, occurred in Morel's 
time. 

11. WILLIAM may have been the immediate Successor 
of Morel. He Witnessed a Charter to Melrose Abbey along 

Device of a with William, Abbot of Kelso, who did not attain to that 

Horse, with a Office till after 1314. He Died in 1328. 
Gauntlet above. ^ ROBERT appears to have been the next Abbot. His 

A.D. 1292. [Chap- name ig found ag a Witness i n the Chartulary of Arbroath, 

IninfterT in the y ear8 1322 ' 1325 ' and ln the Chartular y of Kelso m 

13. JOHN about 1338 Witnesses a Grant to the Abbey of Dryburgh. In 
1343, he Witnessed a Confirmatory Charter of King Eobert Bruce to the 
Abbey of Kelso ; and, in 1354, his name occurs among the Witnesses of a 
similar Deed of King Edward III. to the Church of S. James at Eoxburgh. 
In 1376, the affairs of the Convent seem to have been prosperous, as they 
were able to export Wool, the produce of their Estates. 

14. WALTER was concerned in an Agreement, Dated 16th November, 
1444, with the Abbots of Kelso, Melrose, and Dryburgh, respecting the 
Corn Tithes of the Parish of Lessudden. 

VOL. i. 2 K 




258 



MONASTICON. 



15. EGBERT, with the Abbot of Kelso and others, Commissioned by 
James III., holds a Meeting at Alnwick on the 28th September, 1473, for 
the redress of grievances, and settling conditions of peace. 

16. JOHN HALL was appointed Abbot in 1478, on the Presentation of 
the King. His name can be distinctly traced on the "new work" of the 
Abbey, built of reddish stone. The portions of the Edifice built of this 
colour of stone had evidently been the work of Abbot Hall, who filled the 
Office about 25 years. 

] 7. THOMAS was one of the Scotch Commissioners at a Meeting for a 

truce and redress of grievances held at Coldstream on the 25th March, 

1494. Among the matters of complaint exhibited 

by the Scots, were certain trespasses committed 

by Englishmen on the Lands of the Priory of 

Canonby, a Cell of Jedburgh Abbey. 

18. HENRY is Subscribed to Charters Dated 

in 1507, 1508, and 1511. 

19. JOHN HORNE was 
one of the Lords who 
sat in the Parliament 
held at Perth in Novem- 
ber, 1513. He was a 
member of one of the 
most powerful Families 
at that time in Scotland, 
being the son of Alex- 
ander, second Earl of 

6 ' 





the third Earl, who held Be ? ow T s T Slneld 

the Office of Great Cham- ly . first and fourth, a Lion 

berlain of the Kingdom, rampant, for Home; second 

20. ANDREW (in com- and third, three Papingoes, 

SL^^ILj^'SS. wendaw), son to George, for Pepdie of Dunglas; 

Earl of 

of 

at the time of the " Be- 
formation," and was alive in 1578. 



VALUATION OF THE ABBEY OF JEDBURGH. 

Money 974 10s. Wheat 2 Chalders, 2 Bolls ; Bear 23 Chalders ; 
Meal 36 Chalders, 13 Bolls, 1 Firlot, 1 Peck. Omitted Kains and Customs. 



The Cells or Priories belonging to Jedburgh were Restennot 
and Canonby. 



PEIOKY OF BESTENNOT. 259 

XXI. KESTENNOT, or EOSTINOTH, 

In Angus, situated a mile to the North of Forfar, and encom- 
passed with a Loch, except at one Passage, where it had a Draw- 
Bridge. Here all the Papers and precious things belonging to 
Jedburgh were carefully kept. Robert, Prior of this Place, swore 
fealty to Edward Langshanks in 1296, according to Prynne. 
[Spottiswoode.] 

It appears that from the earliest Date down to about the 
close of the Fifteenth Century, the spelling of the name of 
Rostinoth was much the same as that adopted throughout the 
text. After the latter period it assumed the form of Eestennet or 
Bestenneth, which probably gave rise to the common Fable of its 
having been made a Depository of Records and other valuable 
Effects during the Wars of the Independence. More probably, 
however, the name had originated from the physical appearance 
of the District, and, perhaps, has some such meaning as "the 
Island of a flat or level Promontory" at least the Ruins of the 
Priory occupy a small Island, which had been surrounded by 
water in old times, though now joined to the land, and the land, 
in its general aspect, is of a comparatively level character. The 
Loch or Lake of Rostinoth was drained by Mr. Dempster, of 
Dunnichen, towards the close of the last Century, for the 
valuable Marie which it contained. It appears to have been one 
of a chain of Lochs which extended from near Glamis on the 
West, to Red Castle on the East. 

It is said that when S. Boniface came to Scotland about the 
beginning of the Seventh Century, he Founded three Churches 
in Angus. One of these he planted at Invergowrie, on the banks 
of the Tay ; another at Tealing, near Dundee ; and a third at 
Rostinoth, near Forfar ; and it is believed to have been upon the 
site of the old Church of Rostinoth that the Priory was after- 
wards erected. It was situated in the Diocese of St. Andrews, 
Dedicated to S. Peter, and occupied by Canons of the Order of S. 
Augustine. 

Probably the earliest existing Charter to the Priory of Rosti- 
noth is one by King David I., by which he gave the Rents of 



260 MONASTICON. 

certain Thanages, Bondagia, and other Koyal Lands, to the 
Monks. The next authentic Notice of the Priory occurs in the 
time of Malcolm " the Maiden," by whom it was made a Cell of 
the Abbey of Jedburgh, down to which period it was an indepen- 
dent Establishment. The Charter of this Union was Granted at 
Koxburgh between 1159 and 1163, being Witnessed, among 
others, by William and David, brothers of King Malcolm ; by 
Nicholas, the Chamberlain; and by Arnold, Bishop of St. 
Andrews. 

It appears from this Charter that the Possessions and Liberties 
Granted to the Priory were ample. Among these are mentioned 
the Churches of Crachnatharach, Pethefrin, Tealing, Duninald, 
Dysart, and Egglispether, with their Pertinents; the whole 
Teinds of the King's other places in Angus, including those in 
Money, Wool, Chickens, Cheese, and Malt, and those of the Mill 
and Fish Market of Forfar ; also 10s out of Kynaber, the whole 
Teinds of the King's Farms or Lordships of Salorch, Montrose, 
and Kossie ; the Free Passage of Scottewater, or the Firth of 
Forth ; a Toft in each of the Burghs of Perth, Stirling, Edin- 
burgh, and Forfar ; together with a Toft in Salorch, and 20s for 
the light of the Church of Salorch itself, with the King's Salt- 
Pits, and Mill of Montrose. These were all Granted and Con- 
firmed by King Malcolm, along with the Priory of Eostinoth, to 
the Abbey of S. Mary of Jedburgh, for the welfare of the Souls 
of the King's grandfather, David I. ; of his father, Prince Henry; 
of his mother, Ada, daughter of the Earl of Warren and Surrey ; 
and of his three sisters, his Antecessors, and Successors. This 
Charter was afterwards Confirmed by Bishop Arnold, of St. 
Andrews. 

Sometime between 1189 and 1199, during the Chancellorship 
of Hugh, King William the Lion gave to the same House the 
Lands of Ardnequere (supposed to be Cossans) in exchange for 
those of Foffarty, which, with Waters, Woods, and Plains, 
Meadows and Pastures, Muirs and Marshes, were to be held in 
free and perpetual alms by the Prior and Canons. Alexander 
III. also gave . the Tenth of the Hay grown in the Meadows of 
his Forest of Plater, near Finhaven ; and, in 1292, the Priors 



PBIOKY OF KESTENNOT. 261 

craved the King for permission to make a Mill-Dam in the 
adjoining Forest of " la Morleterre," or Murthill. 

As just shown, the Priory of Kostinoth was given by King 
Malcolm to the Abbey of Jedburgh ; and, in 1242, the Chapel of 
Forfar, which was dependent upon, and subject to, the Priory, 
was also given to Jedburgh by David, Bishop of St. Andrews, in 
these terms : 

Be it known to you, universally, that we have Granted by the common 
consent of our Chapter, and Confirmed to the Abbot and Canons of Jed- 
worth, the Church of Kestinot, with the Chapel of Forfar, adjacent to the 
same, and with all Tithes, Eevenues, and Liberties, lawfully belonging to 
the aforesaid Church and Chapel; and that that Chapel, notwithstanding 
any Dedication of it, or of the Burying Ground, or Churchyard of the 
Mother Church of Eestinot, belongs to it by Parochial right, and that it 
remains for ever united to the same as a member. 

In the time of King Robert the Bruce, the Writs of Rosti- 
noth were said to have been " lost and carried off by Wars and 
other accidental causes," and an Inquest was appointed to 
inquire regarding the old Rights and Privileges of the House. 
That Finding contains Notices of the various Lands and other 
Possessions of the Priory from the time of Alexander III., and 
the Revenues were pretty considerable, arising from Lands and 
Patronages, which were scattered over more than twenty of 
the Parishes of Angus. Besides the Revenues of certain Lands, 
the Jurors also found that the Canons were in full possession of 
the curious Privilege of "uplifting on each coming of the King 
to Forfar, for each day he abides there, two loaves of the lord's 
bread, four loaves of the second bread, and six loaves, called 
hugmans ; two flagons of the better ale, two flagons of the second 
ale, and two pairs of messes of each of the three courses from the 
kitchen." Shortly after the Date of this Inquest, Bruce gave the 
Prior and Canons license to cut Wood at all times in his Forest 
of Plater, for the purpose of making Waggons, Carts, Yokes, 
Halters, and the like ; and in Morton's " Monastic Annals of 
Teviotdale," it is stated from the Harleian MSS. that the same 
King gave the Canons the Teinds of the King's Horses and 
Studs, and the third of the Hay of the Forest of Plater. 



262 MONASTICON. 

In 1333, Sir Alexander Lindsay, afterwards of Glenesk, also 
gave an Annuity out of the Barony of Duny to the Priory ; and, 
three years afterwards, James, Bishop of St. Andrews, made over 
to it his whole Lands of Rescobie the Charter of which is 
curious, in so far as it contains a special reservation of the place 
of holding Courts. 

On 10th June, 1344, David II. Confirmed the ancient Grants 
of Kings David, Malcolm, and Alexander, of the second Teinds 
of the SherhTdom of Forfar, execept the Tenth of the great 
Custom of Dundee, called "the Mautoll"; and for the special 
regard which he had to the Priory, as the place where the hones 
of his brother-german, John, were Buried, he farther Granted to 
it 20 Merks Sterling from the great Customs of Dundee. This, 
probably, was the latest Grant which was made to the Priory, if 
we except the Confirmation in 1360 of a previous Gift of an 
annual of J64 out of the Thanedom of Menmuir, by Andrew 
Dempster, of Careston, and William and John Collace, of Balna- 
moon. 

The Ruins of the Priory of Rostinoth are still of considerable 
extent, and have much the same appearance as when described 
by Mr. Ochterlony, of Guynd, about 1682, and when sketched 
by Captain Grose in 1789. George Hawkins Dempster, Esq., 
of Dunnichen, repaired the Walls of the Church some five years 
ago ; the Steeple, two years ago. The Repairs were effected by 
" Steeple Jack," under the superintendence of the Rev. William 
G. Shaw, of Forfar. The Spire is now all pointed with Portland 
Cement. It had suffered from lightning. The greater part of 
the Walls of the Church, or the Building on the East of the 
Tower, are pretty entire, with Remains of the Corbel- Tabling 
and Buttresses. Although the South-East and West Walls of 
the Cloisters are more ruinous, many of the Corbels which 
supported the Beams of the Roof are still to be seen ; also the 
Holes or Niches in which the Posts were inserted which divided 
the Cells. 

This part appears to have been from 50 to 60 feet square ; 
and the Church was about 65 feet long, by about 20 feet broad, 
exclusive of the Tower, and a place called the Vestry, at the 



PEIOEY OF RESTENNOT. 



263 






North-West end of the Church. The Tower, including an 
Octagonal Spire, is about 70 feet high, and the Building appears 
to have been in the First-Pointed Style of Architecture, or that 
which prevailed in Scotland during the Thirteenth Century. The 
Tower appears to be the oldest part, having a plain Saxon 
Doorway. 

The Chapel of the 
Priory is the most inter- 
esting part of the Kuins. 
Its Buttresses have all 
been removed, no doubt 
to build Dykes. The 
Piscina, the Aumbry, and 
the Sedile, are still in 
good preservation. The 
Basin of the old Font 
also exists ; and it was 
usual in the last Century 
for "Episcopalians" in 
the District to carry their 
children, and there be 
Baptized by stealth. 

The Area of the 
Church has long been 
used as the Burial Place 
of the Hunters of Burn- 
side, and the Dempsters 
of Dunnichen. At one 
time the Enclosure con- 
tained Tombstones to dif- 
ferent members of these Families; but owing to the wanton 
mischief of idlers, they have altogether disappeared, having been 
either carried off or destroyed. 

It is interesting to know that in days of yore some ^ of our 
most powerful Princes and Magnates assembled within this 
Monastery to deliberate over matters affecting the welfare of the 
Kingdom, for it is recorded that the Priory was visited both by 




PRIORY TOWER OF RESTEXNOT. 



264 MONASTICON. 

Kobert the Bruce and his son, David II. Here, also, doubtless 
lie the ashes of many personages who, in their day, had been 
remarkable for piety, learning, and other of the ennobling 
qualities of human nature, regarding whom History is silent. 
Still, both Tradition and Kecord affirm that there were at least 
two persons of note Interred here. The first is said to have been 
Ferideth, King of the Picts, who fell at a Battle which was fought 
in this neighbourhood between him and Alpin, King of the Scots. 
According to Boe'ce, Ferideth's Army was defeated, and himself 
killed, and Alpin commanded the body of his opponent to be 
" laid in Christian buriall not farre from Forfaire." 

On this Passage is founded the not improbable conjecture of 
Ferideth's place of Burial having been at Rostinoth. There are, 
however, as before shown, much better grounds for believing that 
at a later" Date, the body of John, a son of King Robert the 
Bruce, was Buried here. This, it need scarcely be added, is a 
peculiarly interesting point, particularly when it is borne in mind 
that the fact of Bruce having had two sons, has hitherto been 
overlooked by Historians ; and, so far as known, the only Record 
of it occurs in the previously noticed Grant of Confirmation by 
David II. to Rostinoth, Dated at Scone on the 10th June, 1844. 

PRIORS OF RESTENNOT. 

1. EGBERT, Prior of Eostinoth, was a Witness to a Charter by which 
Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, Granted to the Canons of that Convent the 
free Election of their Prior ; and on the Death of Isaac, Abbot of Scone, in 
1162, Robert, Prior of Rostinoth, was Elected to that Office. 

2. WILLIAM, who Witnessed several Grants by King William the Lion 
and others, was Prior between 1178 and 1199. 

8. HUGH, Prior of Rostinoth, is said to have become Abbot of Jedburgh 
on the Death of Abbot Ralph, in 1205. 

4. BERENGAR held the Office of Prior, and was present at a Synod at 
Perth, in the Dispute betwixt William, Bishop of St. Andrews, and Duncan 
of Aberbothenoth, 3rd April, 1206, regarding the Lands of the Kirktown of 
Arbuthnott. 

5. GERMAN, as Prior of Rostinoth, Witnessed several Grants to the 
Priory of St. Andrews by William Cumyn, Earl of Buchan, and his Countess 
Marjory, sometime before 1233 ; and in 1227, probably during the time of 
this Prior, we meet with the only trace (so far as is known) of the Seneschal, 
or Steward of the Convent. He is described as "Dnvid, Senescalle de 



PKIOBY OF EESTENNOT. 265 

Kostynoth," and was a Perambulator of the Marches of the Lands in 
Dispute between the Abbey of Arbroath and Kinblethmont. 

6. WILLIAM was Prior in 1264, and a Witness to William of Brechin's 
Foundation Charter of the Hospital, or Maisondieu, of that Town. On 17th 
March, 1289, the Prior of "Kustinoth" was a party to the Letter of the 
Community of Scotland, consenting to the Marriage of Prince Edward of 
England with our Queen Margaret ; and " Eobert, Prior de Rostinnot, et les 
Chanoines" of the Convent, performed homage to King Edward I., at 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, in August, 1296. 

7. BERNARD, Prior of Eostinoth, Witnessed the Resignation of Lands in 
the Town of Aberdeen by Malcolm of Haddington, to the Convent of 
Arbroath, in 1320. 

8. J., Prior of Eostinoth, is a Witness to Henry of Eossy's Charter of 
the third part of the Lands of Inyeney to Walter of Schaklok, 23rd Sept., 
1328; and 

9. JOHN DE ESKDALE (probably the same as above) was Prior in 1330-36. 

10. ALEXANDER appears in a Deed regarding the Titles of the Thanages 
of Monifieth and Menmuir, 27th May, 1347. 

11. "JAMES OFF KETHT, Priour of Eostinoth," probably a Cadet of the 
powerful Family of that name in the Mearns, was present at Forfar on 10th 
January, 1410, when the Duke of Albany decided in favour of the claims of 
the Bishop of Brechin, to half the Pasture of the Muir of Farnell. 

12. WILLIAM LYNDESAY is described as lately Prior of Eostinoth, in a 
Deed of 12th June, 1476, regarding this Priory and the Abbey of Jedburgh. 

13. WILLIAM EUTHERFORD was Prior, 24th October, 1482, and Procu- 
rator in a case before the Lords of Council on the 7th March, 1490. 

Of the Priors of Eostinoth we have no farther notice. On 
1st August, 1560, Andrew, probably the second son of George, 
fourth Lord Home, sat in Parliament as Commendator of Jed- 
burgh and Rostinoth; and on 19th May, 1562, Mariot, relict of 
Lord Home, and mother of the Commendator, had Charters of 
the Dominical Lands of Rostinoth. Her only daughter, Margaret, 
who married Sir Alexander Erskine, of Gogar, appears to have 
inherited Rostinoth; since, on 24th November, 1586, she and her 
husband had a Charter of Confirmation of the " House and En- 
closure of Restenneth." The next Notice of the Property occurs 
in 1606, when Sir Thomas Erskine, afterwards Earl of Kelly, 
eldest surviving son of Lady Erskine (in consideration of certain 
good services which he had done to the King), received a Grant 
from James VI. of " the haill temporal! landis and rentis quhilkis 
pertenit of befoir to the Priorie of Restenneth, being ane cell of 

VOL. I. 2 L 



266 MONASTICON. 

the abbacie of Jedburgh . . . with the richt of the patronage of 
the kirkis of the said Priorie, viz., the kirks of Restenneth, 
Donynald, and Aberlemno, erectit into ane frie baronie." This 
Gift included "the temporall landis and rentis pertening to the 
said priorie, with the place, cloister, zairdis, orchardis, and haill 
boundis within the precinct of the samin." 

The Earl of Kelly does not appear to have long retained the 
Barony of Rostinoth, having been succeeded in it by George 
Fletcher, one of the Balinscho Family, somewhere about 1624-5 ; 
and from his Heirs in 1652, the Patronage of the Kirk of 
Rostinoth-Forfar (as was the name at that late Date) was 
purchased by the Magistrates and Town Council of Forfar. On 
7th September, 1658, Robert Fletcher, of Balinscho, was served 
Heir to his father in the Teinds of Rostinoth ; and, on 12th 
January, 1693, William Hunter succeeded his father, Thomas, 
in the Dominical Lands of Rostinoth, with the Fishings, &c. 
The Property was bought soon after the year 1700 by George 
Dempster, a Merchant and Burgess of Dundee, son of the Rev. 
George Dempster, the last Episcopal Minister of the Parish of 
Monifieth. 

Mr. Andrew Jervise, Author of the "Land of the Lindsays," 
" Memorials of Angus and Mearns," &c., has obligingly permitted 
me to draw the above excellent Details from his latter interesting 
Volume. In the Appendix thereto, is given the Rental of the 
Lands belonging to this Priory. 

VALUATION OF THE PRIORY OF RESTENNOT. 

Money 275 10s Sd. 

XXII. CANONBY, 

A Priory situated upon the River of Esk, in Eskdale, and 
Shire of Dumfries. It is uncertain by whom, or at what time it 
was Founded (? 1165), though we are pretty sure it was before 
the year 1296 ; for then William, Prior of this Convent, swears 
fealty to Edward I., King of England. This Monastery was 
frequently overturned and burnt by the English, and the Prior 
and Canons thereof obliged to abandon their Dwelling during the 



PKIOKY OF CANONBY. 267 

heat of the Wars; by which means, their Records being so 
often destroyed and lost, I can give no further Account of it. 
[Spottiswoode.] 

There are several opinions with regard to the derivation of 
the name Canonby. One traces it to the Saxon word Bie or By, 
signifying a ." habitation" or " station," making the term thus 
denote the Residence of the Canons ; another derives the name 
from the Latin vroTd-Ccenobium, which signifies a " Priory" or 
" Monastery;" a third makes it out from the Greek KO/VO?, 
''common," B/<K, "life," because the Monks lived in common. 

The Religious House of Lidel, Parish of Castletown, recorded 
in the great Charter of Jedburgh Abbey as the gift of Turgot of 
Rossedale, was identical with the Church of Lidel, mentioned 
both in that Charter and in the Chartulary of Glasgow, and was 
afterwards known as the Priory of Cannabie, of which Castle- 
town was a Dependency. The Church of Castletown, so named 
from a Castle (probably that of Liddel) near which it stood, was 
originally known as the Church of S. Martin of the Valley of 
Liddel. [Orig. Paroch.] 

Turgot de Rossedal occupied the District on the Lower Esk. 
He placed the Monastery on the Peninsula which is formed by 
the junction of the Rivers Liddel and Esk, and he Granted to it 
the adjoining Lands, with the Church of Kirkandrews and its 
Pertinents. It obtained also some Lands, and a Fishing on the 
Liddel, from Guido de Rossedal, who was probably the brother 
of the Founder. This Canonry, with its Possessions, were soon 
after Granted by Turgot de Rossedal to the Monks of Jedburgh, 
who thenceforth held it as a Cell of their Monastery. This 
Grant of the Founder was Confirmed by William the Lion, soon 
after his Accession, in 1165. When Turgot transferred his 
Canonry to the Monks of Jedburgh, he called it " Domus de 
Religiosis de Liddal" from its location on the bank of this 
mountain torrent. It soon obtained the name of Canonby (the 
Canons' Residence), and it communicated this appropriate name 
to the Parish Church. 

In Bagimont's Roll, the Prior of Canonby sat in the great 
Parliament at Brigham, in March, 1290. [Rymer.] William the 



268 MONASTICON. 

Prior and his Canons swore fealty to Edward L, at Berwick, in 
August, 1296. [Prynne, vol. Hi., p. 653.] In 1341, the Prior 
and Canons procured from Edward III., a Writ of Protection for 
themselves and their Possessions [Rotuli Scotice, vol. i., p. 615] 
yet were they often ruined by the Border Wars. The Kings 
of England at length claimed them as their own, from ancient 
protection. The unscrupulous Henry VIII. claimed this Priory 
in 1533, as having belonged to the English of old. [Border 
Hist., p. 533. From the transactions of 1296, we may see how 
old there could be any pretence of claim.] Both the Convent 
and the Church of Canonby were destroyed by the English after 
the Battle of Solway Moss, in 1542. The Priory of Canonby 
and the Abbey of Jedburgh, of which it was a Cell, were both 
separated from the Crown, to which they had been annexed by 
the Act of 1587, and granted to Alexander, Earl of Home, in 
1606. He acquired a Charter for them under the Great Seal, 
20th March, 1610, and the whole was ratified in Parliament, 
4th August, 1621, granting anew the same to James, Earl of 
Home. The Earl of Home obtained, as Pertinents of the Priory, 
the Patronage, Tithes, and Lands of the Churches of Canonby 
and Wauchope. The Priory of Canonby, with its Property, 
afterwards passed from the Earl of Home to the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch, in the Eeign of Charles I. 

Some Vestiges of the Convent are still to be traced at Hal- 
green, about half a mile East of the Village of Canonby. The 
ancient Church of Canonby was dedicated to S. Martin. In the 
Churchyard a Chrismatory was dug up some years ago a piece 
of grotesque sculpture. [Chalmers' Caledonia, vol. Hi., p. 152.] 

VALUATION OF THE PRIORY OF CANONBY. 

Money 20 13s 4rf. 

XXIII. INCHAFFBAY, A.D. 1200, 

In Strathern, a Subdivision in the Shire of Perth, was an 
Abbey founded by Gilbert, Earl of Strathern, in this year, the 
Canons whereof were brought from Scone. It was dedicated 
to the memory of S. John the Evangelist. Frere Thomas was 



ABBEY OF INCHAFFKAY. 



269 



Abbot of Inchaffray in the year 1296 ; and Mauritius, Abbot of 
this place, was present with King Eobert the Bruce at Bannock- 
burn, to which he brought, as is reported, the Arm of S. Fillan 
whereof Boethius, lib. xiv., p. 314, and Leslij, lib. vii., p. 232. 
James Drummond, son to David, Lord Drummond, having 
acquired a right to this Monastery from Alexander Gordon, 
Bishop of Galloway, then Commendator thereof, it was by the 
favour of King James VI., in the year 1607, erected to him 
in a Temporal Lordship, by the style of Lord Maderty. 
[Spottiswoode.] 

A few ruined Gables, masses of fallen Wall, a Stone Coffin, 
and an Arched Chamber, are all that remains of the Abbey of 
Inchaffray. It is enclosed 
with a low Stone Fence, 
in the Eastern Division of 
which there are two rudely 
Carved Stones, belonging 
to a comparatively recent 
period of its History. The 
Date, 1608, is still dis- 
cernible on one of them ; 
but some person, anxious 
to afford unmistakeable 
evidence of the antiquity 
of the Abbey, has en- 
deavoured to efface the 
upper stroke of the 6 in 
1608, wishing to make it 
1008. The Ruins are 
surrounded on three sides 
by a corn field the Road 
to Auchterarder passing them on the East. 

InchafFray was Dedicated to the honour of God, the Virgin 
Mary, and S. John the Evangelist. In Charters it is designated 
Insula Missarum, the "Island of Masses," that being the 
signification of the Gaelic name Inchaffray. It is supposed 
that anciently it must have been an Island, and that the Waters 




An. Eagle, emblematic of S. John, with its feet 
on the Legend, In Pncipio erat verbu, " In the 
beginning was the Word." Circumscription 
S' Comune Ecce Sci JohTs Evangeliste De In- 
sula Missarum. 



270 MONASTICON. 

of the Pow, now reduced to a broad, deep Drain, had at one 
time formed a Lake in this District- of Stratherne. 

It is conjectured, on the authority of Fordun, that the same 
Earl Gilbert who built and endowed the Abbey of Inchaffray, 
Founded also the See of Dunblane. Be this as it may, the 
Family of Stratherne, of whom Earl Gilbert was the progenitor, 
"were the only Scotch subjects who could claim the distinction 
of having Founded a Bishopric, and inheriting its Patronage, 
unless we except the great Lords of Galloway, who -appear to 
have renewed the Foundation of the See of S. Ninian." 

The first Charter by Earl Gilbert in favour of the Abbey is 
Witnessed by the Countess Matilda, his wife, and his six sons, 
the last named being Gilchrist, who Died in 1198. Before this, 
the Earl had Founded the House of Inchaffray ; but then, the 
parents having chosen it as the Place of Burial of their son, they 
recorded their sorrow in an extended Foundation and Endow- 
ment of their Monastery. Malis, the Hermit, in whose piety 
and discretion the Founders had all confidence, was to be the 
Head, and to have the selection. The Earl and Countess 
declared their affection for the Place " So much do we love it, 
that we have chosen a Place of Sepulture in it for us and our 
Successors, and have already Buried there our eldest born." 

By its Great Charter, A.D. 1200, this Abbey was endowed 
with the Churches of S. Kattanus of Abruthven, of S. Ethir- 
nanus of Madderty, of S. Patrick of Strogeth, of S. Mechesseok 
of Auchterarder, of S. Beanus of Kinkell; with the Tithe of 
the Earl's Cain and Eents of Wheat, Meal, Malt, Cheese, and 
all Provisions used throughout the year in his Court; with 
Tithe of all Fish brought into his Kitchen, and of the produce 
of his Hunting ; and the Tithe of all the Profits of his Courts 
of Justice, and all Offerings. The Convent had the liberty 
of Fishing in the Peffer, and of Fishing and Birding over all 
the Earl's Lands, Waters, and Lakes. They might take Timber 
for Building and other uses from his Woods, and have their 
Pannage or Mast-Feeding for Pigs, as well as Bark and Fire- 
wood, in whatever places and as much as they chose. Some 
years later, Earl Gilbert granted to the Canons, now seated 



ABBEY OF INCHAFFRAY. 



271 



at Inchaffray, the Church of S. Beanus of Foullis, with the 
"Dower" Land of the Church, and the common Pasturage of 
the Parish, and the Church of the Holy Trinity of Gask, with 
the same privileges. 

In his old age, Earl Gilbert took a second wife, Ysenda, the 
daughter of a Knightly Family of the surname of Gask. A 
Chronicle, which seems to have been written in the Diocese, or 
to be in some other way peculiarly connected with Dunblane, 
records Earl Gilbert's death " Gilbertus fundator canonicorum 
Insule Missarum et episcopatus Dunblanensis, obiit A. P. 1223." 
Earl Gilbert was suc- 
ceeded by his son Ko- 
bert, who was also the 
good Patron of the 
Canons of Inchaffray. 
One of his Charters, 
indeed, savours of some 
estrangement and recon- 
ciliation Earl Kobert, 
in the Church of Stro- 
geth, in the presence of 
Abraham, Bishop of 
Dunblane, Gilbert the 
Archdeacon, and other 
notable Witnesses, binds , 

,. ' Counter SealS. John standing m the Door of a 

towards InilO- Church, holding in his right hand a Palm Branch, 

Cent, the Abbot, that and in his left a Book. Same Circumscription. 

he Will never in all his W atri *> in ^Possession of C. K. Skarpe.} 

life vex the said Abbot, or his Convent, unjustly ; nay, will love 
and every where honour them as his most special friends, and 
will add to the Possessions of their House whatever he may, by 
the counsel of his friends. In particular, he Confirms to them 
the Churches of Gask and Strogeth. 

As early as 1218, the Canons of Inchaffray had reclaimed 
a portion of the vast Marsh in which their "Isle of Masses" 
stood. Nearly 500 years afterwards, the " Heritors upon the 
Pow of Inchaffray" applied to Parliament to appoint Commis- 




272 MONASTICON. 

sioners for draining the whole Marsh for common benefit. The 
Act which followed upon their Petition, dated 9th October, 1696, 
given in the Appendix to the Eegistrum de Inchaffery, is curious, 
as perhaps the single instance of a great Agricultural improve- 
ment effected under the authority of the Scotch Parliament. 

The Abbey of Inchanray, though respectably endowed, does 
not seem to have ranked among the greater Monasteries of 
Scotland. The Abbots, though Prelates of Parliament, occur 
rarely in public affairs, or in the transactions which so frequently 
brought together Churchmen of various Eeligious Houses. We 
have thus only a very few names of the successive Abbots 
preserved. 

ABBOTS OP INCHAFFKAY. 

1. MALIS, a Eeligious Hermit, was the person to whom Earl Gilbert 
committed the selection of the Convent at its first Foundation in 1200, and 
he was the first Head of the House. 

2. INNOCENTIUS appears to have been Head of the House as Prior, and 
was perhaps the first who took the style of Abbot, in the time of Earl Eobert, 
between 1223 and 1231. 

3. ALANUS occurs as Abbot of Inchaffray, from 1258 till 1271. 

4. HUGH, who had been Prior, was afterwards Abbot in 1282-4. 

5. FRERE THOMAS was Abbot in 1296. [Spottiswoode,] 

6. MAURITIUS or MAURICE was the Abbot of Inchaffray who blessed the 
Army of Bruce at Bannockburn (June 24, 1314), to which he is said to have 
brought the Arm of S. Fillan. He was promoted to the See of his own 
Diocese of Dunblane in 1319. Early in his Episcopate, a dispute concern- 
ing the Tithes of Coruton and Atheray, between him and the Abbot of 
Dunfermline, was submitted to the decision of Arbiters, one of whom was 

7. 'CHRISTINUS, Abbot of Inchaffray. 

8. WILLIAM was Abbot on the 17th July, 1370. He must have held the 
Abbey for a long period, or had a Successor of the same Christian name. 

9. WILLIAM FRANKLYN, Abbot, John the Prior, and the whole Convent 
of the Monastery of Inchaffray, in 1398, on the Festival of S. Matthias, are 
Witnesses to a Deed of Jonet de Murreffe, spouse of Alexander de Murreffe, 
of Abercairney, Knight. 

10. GEORGE, Abbot of Inchaffray, on the 25th January, 1468, obliged 
himself to make Lawrence, Lord Oliphant, his Bailie for life of the Lands 
of the Abbacy, within 20 days after he should be admitted to the Spirituality 
by the Ordinary, and by the King to the Temporality of the said Abbacy. 
The Office of Bailie of the Abbey Lands is said to have been in the Family 
of Oliphant during the Reigns of James V., Queen Mary, and James VI. 



ABBEY OF INCHAFFBAY. 273 

11. GAVIN DUNBAE, Archbishop of Glasgow, had, in 1539, the Abbacy 
of Inchaffray in commendam. He Granted to Anthony Murray a Tack of the 
Four Merk-Lands of the Eaith, " for furnishing of our Bulls" probably for 
the expense of his Confirmation in the Abbacy on the 19th May, 1539. 
Before the Tack had run to an end, the Tenure was made perpetual by a 
Feu- Charter of the same Lands of Eaith, and of the Moor of Madderty, 
granted by 

ALEXANDEE, styled " Archbishop of Athens," Postulate of the Isles, 
and Perpetual Commendator of the Monastery of Inchaffray, Dated at 
Inchaffray the 24th December, 1554. This Commendator was Alexander 
Gordon, brother of George, fourth Earl of Huntly, who was defeated in his 
hopes of the Archbishopric of Glasgow, on the Death of Archbishop Dunbar, 
and imperfectly consoled by the high-sounding Title of " Archbishop of 
Athens, in partibus infidelium" the poor See of the Isles to which he was 
provided on the 26th November, 1553, with the Abbacy of Inchaffray in 
commendam. Next year, he was made Commendator also of the Abbacy of 
Icolmkill. In 1558, he was Translated from the Bishopric of the Isles to the 
Diocese of Galloway. He was still styled Postulate of the Isles in 1561, and 
continued to hold his Abbacy till 1564. 

In the General Assembly of the Kirk, convened at Edinburgh the 
25th December, 1567, ALEXANDEE, called "Bishop of Galloway," Com- 
missioner, was accused "that he had not visited these three years bygone 
the Kirks within his Charge ; that he had left off the visiting and planting 
of Kirks, and he haunted Court too much, and had now purchased to be one 
of the Session and Privy Council, which cannot agree with the Office of a 
Pastor or Bishop ; that he had resigned Inchaffray in favour of a young 
child, and set divers Lands in Feu, in prejudice of the Kirk." The Bishop 
of Galloway " granted that he offended in all that was laid to his charge." 
The youth in whose favour he had resigned the Abbacy of Inchaffray, was 
James Drummond of Inverpeffray, the second son of David, second Lord 
Drummond, who was Commendator of Inchaffray on the 13th March, 1556, 
when David, Lord Drummond, acted with him as his Coadjutor. The 
Abbacy of Inchaffray was erected into a Temporal Lordship in his favour, 
and he was created Lord Maderty in 1609. From him is descended the 
Noble Family of Strathallan. 

The ancient Register of the Abbey of Inchaffray has been for 
some time preserved in the Library at Duplin Castle. The 
Bannatyne Club owed to the Earl of Kinnoul the use of the 
Original Register, which enabled the Transcript presented to the 
Club by the late Henry Drummond, M.P., to be collated. The 
Register is an 8vo Volume of 51 leaves of Vellum, in a hand of 
the Fifteenth Century. Eighty-four Charters have been Printed 

VOL. I. 2 M 



274 . MONASTICON. 

in the Liber Insule Missarum, together with a Rental of the 
Abhey, 1563; a Taxt Roll of the Lordschip, 1630; and 47 
" Cartae Kecentiores." The Details incorporated here have 
been carefully collected from the above, with permission. 

VALUATION OF THE ABBEY OF INCHAFFBAY. 

Money 666 13s 4d. [Keith.] 

The Cells or Priories belonging to Inchaffray were Strath- 
fillan, Scarinche, and Abernethy. 

XXIV. STBATHFILLAN, 

Situate on the Water of Dochart, in Breadalbane, a Sub- 
division of the Shire of Perth, was a Priory Founded by King 
Robert the Bruce, and Consecrated to S. Fillan, in consideration 
of the assistance he had from that Saint at the Battle of 
Bannockburn, A.D. 1314. At the Dissolution of Religious 
Houses, this Priory, with all its Revenues and Superiorities, was 
given by the King to Campbell of Glenorchy, ancestor to the 
Earl of Breadalbane, in whose possession it still remains. 
[Spottiswoode.] 

Brockie (MS., p. 8302) devotes several hundred lines to a 
Metrical Ballad on the Battle of Bannockburn, composed by a 
Carmelite Monk, Robert "Bastonumistius," a Poet whom King 
Edward, sure of victory, had brought along with him to chafe 
the Scotch in Rhyme. This Poetical Monk was taken captive at 
the Battle, and necessitated, for his freedom, to turn his Song in 
the reverse strain. 

In the Etterick is The Pool of S. Fillan, immersion in which 
the superstitious long believed was a cure for rheumatic complaints 
and madness. 

An Account of the Crozier of S. Fillan, with Photographs, is 
given in the "Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land," vol. in., p. 233. 

VALUATION OF THE PRIOBY OF STBATHFILLAN (dr. 1575). 

Money 40 Is Qd. 



PEIOEIES OF SCARINCHE AND ABEKNETHY. 275 

XXV. SCABINCHE, 

In the Isle of Lewis, and Shire of Ross, Founded by the 
Macleods of the Lewis, in honour of S. Catan "In honorem 
Sti. Catani, cujus exuvias ibidem asservari traditione acceptum 
est." [Spottiswoode.] 

Macleod was so taken with the manners of the Abbot Maurice 
at the Battle of Bannockburn, that he requested him to come 
and reside at Scarinche, where he erected a Monastery to S. 
Catan, whose Eelics were there. S. Catan was the uncle of S. 
Blane. George Newton, Archdeacon of Dunblane, says, " Sanctus 
Catanus Episcopus, ut solitaries vitse impensius vacaret." Demp- 
ster, Cammerarius, and others, assert that he was Buried in 
Bute. [Brockie's MS., p. 8319.] 

VALUATION OF THE PEIOBY OF SCARINCHE. 

No information. 

XXVI. ABEBNETHY 

Was formerly the chief Seat of the Pictish Kings the 
Metropolis both of the Kingdom and Church of the Picts. It is 
situated near the influx of the Water of Earn into the River Tay; 
and the Collegiate Church there was Dedicated to S. Brigida, 
Bridget, or Bride, an Irishwoman, who Died at Abernethy about 
A.D. 518. Here she found a Retreat with her " Seven Virgins." 
The Pictish Chronicle has ascribed the Foundation of Abernethy 
to Nethan I., A.D. 458, in the 3rd year of his Reign ; the Register 
of the Priory of St. Andrews, to Nethan II., about A.D. 600; 
Fordun and Wyntoun, to Garnat or Garnard, the Predecessor of 
Nethan II. Bede informs us that Nectan III., A.D. 711, wrote 
to Ceolfred, Abbot of Jarrow, in Northumberland, asking for 
Architects to build a Church, which was to be Dedicated to S. 
Peter. His request was complied with, and Masons were sent, 
who erected a Church after the Roman manner. Kenneth III., 
King of Scots, after his complete victory over the Picts, Translated 
this Seat of an Episcopal See to St. Andrews, during the Culdees, 
who had a College here ; for in the Reign of Malcolm Caenmore, 



276 



MONASTICON. 



A.D. 1057, we find mention made of Berbeadh, the Hector of the 
School of Abernethy and the whole University there ; and, to 
testify to the dignity and importance of the Hector's position, we 
find his name mentioned as a Witness to a Deed of the King. 
The Matrix of the Seal of the College, strange to say, was 
found in 1789 in a Garden at Ennis- 
killen, in Ireland, and it was in posses- 
sion of the Honourable James Drum- 
mond of Perth about fifty years ago. It 
bears on one side a Lion rampant, with 
the Inscription, " S. Commune Collegii 
De Abernethe ;" and on the other an 
Abbess (probably S. Bridget), holding a 
Crozier in her right hand; and at her 
feet there is an animal, seemingly a Cow, 
with the Legend or Inscription, " In 
domo Dei ambulavimus cum consensu," 
being the Latin Version of the 14th 
Verse of the 55th Psalm in our Trans- 
lation, " We walked unto the House of 
God in company." [Jameson's History 
of the Culdees.] 

Here are quoted the exact words of the Bounding Clause of 
the Foundation Charter of Nectan the II., A.D. 617. He endows 
the Church at Abernethy with Lands " to the Day of Judgment," 
" cum suis finibus, quae positse sunt a lapide in Apurfeirt, usque 
ad lapidem juxta Caerfull, id est Lethfoss, et inde in altum usque 
ad Athan;" that is, he gave all the Lands "within these 
bounds, to the Stone which is placed in Apurfeirt [? Aberfarg or 
Aberfargie], to the Stone close by Caerfull [Carpow], that is 
Lethfoss, and from thence to the Height at Athan." The Stone 
referred to as being near Carpow, forms the Boundary betwixt 
the Lands of Carpow and Clunie, and is known by the name of 
the "Cloven Stone." Usque ad Athan means "over to the 
Ford." 

The next Notice that we have of Abernethy (save the fact of 
David, King of Scotland, with his son, Henry, having held a 




PEIOKY OF ABEKNETHY. 277 

Court of his Nobles there in the year A.D. 1124), is one, not of 
Endowment, but of Spoliation. We are informed by Jameson, in 
his " History of the Culdees," that when William the Lion 
built the Abbey of Aberbrothock, he Endowed it, somewhere 
betwixt the years 1189 and 1199, with, among other Donations,, 
" the Church of Abernethy, with its Pertinents, viz. the Chapels 
of Dunbolc [Dunbog], Dron and Erolyn [Errol], with the Lands 
of Belach [Balloch] and Pentinlour [Pitlour], and half of all the 
Tithes proceeding from the Abbot of Abernethy, the other half 
the Culdees ['habitunt Keledei,' are the exact words] shall 
possess. The Tithes which belong to the Church of Flisk and to 
the Church of Coultram [Coultrie] are reserved, and those from 
the Lands subject to the authority of the Abbot, which the 
Culdees used to have, viz. Mukedrum [Mugdrum], Kerpul, 
Balchirewell [now erroneously called Broadwell], Baltolly, and of 
Innernethy, from the East side of the Burn." 

The suffering party, to all appearance the Successors of the 
Culdees, did not permit these Tithes and Lands to be wrested 
from them without protesting against the spoliation. They 
appealed to the King. Subsequently, the Pope (Gregory IX.) 
was appealed to. He caused enquiry to be made, and, after 
investigation, in the year 1238 gave orders that a portion at least 
of the Property should be restored. The portion specially con- 
tested was the Tithes from "Petkarry, Petyman, Malcarny, 
Pethorny [Pitgornie], Pethwnegus, Gathanim [Gattaway]." 

The fact of the Croft a little to the East of the Bound Tower 
being still called " The Bishop's Yard," is proof that a Bishop 
must have resided here during the time of the Culdees, though, 
as we know, the Abbot was the supreme Buler. 

We learn from Sibbald's " History of Fife," that in the Keign 
of Kobert I., A.D. 1306, the great Lordship of Abernethy was 
divided, in consequence of Alexander de Abernethy dying without 
male issue. The ancestor of the Earl of Kothes married one of 
the daughters, and through her acquired the Barony of Ballin- 
briech. The Earl of Angus married another, named Margaret, 
and got the Barony of Abernethy ; and it is through this channel 
that the Douglas Family still hold the Superiority of the Lands. 



278 



MONASTICON. 



Many have written about THE BOUND TOWER of Abernethy. 
Cyclopsediasts have borrowed their Accounts from an able Paper 
by K. K. Brash, Architect, Cork, given in the " Proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland," vol. iii., p. 303; from 
Gordon's " Itinerarium Septentrionale," London, 1727 ; from 

Gough, Grose, Chalmers, 
and "Black's History of 
Brechin." The Burgh of 
Abernethy, in Perthshire, 
is 3 miles from New- 
burgh, in Fifeshire, and 
lies at the foot of the 
Ochil Hills, that bound 
Strathearn on the South. 
It lies close to the Kail- 
way Station, from whence 
can be seen its ancient 
Bound Tower, rising grey 
and melancholy above the 
glaring red-tiled roofs of 
the surrounding houses. 
It stands nearly in the 
centre of the Town, and 
in the angle of the Parish 
Churchyard, adjoining the 
Entrance Gate. It is 
partly in the Graveyard 
and partly on the narrow 
road leading up to the 




ROUND TOWER OF ABERNETHY. 



Kirk. It is used as a Bel- 
fry to the Established Kirk. There are timber floors resting on 
the old stone string-courses, which mark the various Storeys, with 
access by ladders from floor to floor. Upon the upper Storey is 
placed a Clock, the Dial of which faces West. Above this is the 
outside, from which, at an elevation of about 80 feet, a fine view 
repays well the " getting up stairs." The materials of which 
this Tower is built are not found in the neighbourhood. It is 



PEIOKY OF ABEKNETHY. 279 

well known that there is only one similar Bound Tower in Scot- 
land, viz., that of Brechin, probably contemporaneous. 

The Date of the erection of Abernethy Tower, or " Steeple," 
as the inhabitants call it, is generally conjectured to be about 
A.D. 1000. Its purpose seems to have been for a Belfry, Beacon, 
or Watch- Tower, as well as a Keep for Ecclesiastical Utensils, 
Plate, Books, MSS., &c., in case of sudden predatory attacks. 
There can be little doubt that these Bound Towers are of Chris- 
tian origin, inasmuch as they are invariably connected with 
Christian Churches ; and the fact that there are no similar 
Towers in any other Country except Ireland, proves that we 
must look for their origin there, and the erection of the one here 
to the time of the most intimate connexion of Scotland with that 
Country. 

In Ireland we find many of the Doors of the Bound Towers 
10, 20, or even 30 feet above the ground Abernethy Tower is 
several feet up clearly showing that this was to render them 
difficult of access, and to be beyond the reach of sudden attack. 
Then the Doorways are only wide enough to admit one person at 
a time Abernethy is only 2 feet 8 inches wide ; and many of 
them in Ireland are so built as to admit of two Doors, an outer 
and an inner, the more effectually to keep out plunderers ; and 
then their height gave deadly effect to a stone dropped from the 
top on the head of an unwary Dane attempting to find an 
entrance. 

Their round form, also, is not without design, for they are 
clearly less easy of demolition than if they had been built square 
or with corners. Besides, many of them are built of solid 
masonry for many feet above the ground, evidently to render 
them more impregnable. 

VALUATION OF THE PRIORY OF ABERNETHY. 

Money 706 11s 2rf. 



MONASTICON. 



THE CANONS OF S. ANTHONY. 



THE Order of S. Anthony 




S. Anthony holding in his right 
hand a Staff, having on the top a 
Tau, and in his left a Book. At 
his left foot is a Pig, with a Bell 
at its neck. A.D. 1519. 




Same Insignia as the other. 
[Original Matrix in the Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh. J 



had only one Monastery in Scotland, 
which was seated at Leith, in the 
Shire of Mid-Lothian, and is now 
called the South-Kirk. The Religi- 
ous hereof were brought from St. 
Anthony of Vienne, in the Province 
of Dauphiny in France, the Resi- 
dence of the Superior- General of 
that Congregation. Their Houses 
were called Hospitals, and their 
Governors Prceceptores. It appears 
by a Charter of Humbertus, Chief or 
General of the Order, in 1446, that 
these of Leith did not live very 
peaceably together. Upon the Com- 
mon Seal of their Chapter they 
carried a S. Anthony, clothed with 
an old Gown or Mantle of an Her- 
mit ; and towards his right foot a 
wild Sow. They followed the Rule 
of S. Augustine, and wore a Black 
Gown with a blue T of stuff on their 
left breast. They had neither an 
Almuce nor a Rochet, whereof the 
Canon-Regulars and Bishops made 
use. [Spottiswoode.] 

In 1089, a contagious sickness 
called the " Sacred Fire," which was 
a kind of dangerous leprosy, having 
spread itself into several parts of 
Europe, those of the Province of 
Vienne in France had at last their 
recourse to the Relics of S. Anthony 
the Egyptian, which were trans- 
ported, as they said, from Constan- 



S. ANTHONY'S, LEITH. 281 

tinople thither by one Joceline, of the House of Poitiers. The 
Papists say that whoever did call upon him was delivered from 
the "Sacred Fire;" and contrairiwise, those who blasphemed, 
or took the name of S. Anthony in vain, were immediately, by 
the Saint's unmerciful vengeance, delivered up to it. This gave 
occasion to one, Gaston Frank, in company with some other 
persons, to institute in 1095 the Religion of S. Anthony, whose 
principal care was to serve those sick who were tormented by the 
" Sacred Fire." He founded a famous Monastery at La Motte, 
Vienne, where liveth the General of this Order. The Papists do 
represent S. Anthony with a Fire kindled at his side, to signify 
by this that he delivers people from the " Sacred Fire." They 
paint, besides, a Hog, near to him, as a sign that he cures the 
beasts of all diseases ; and, to honour him, in several places they 
keep, at common charges, a Hog which they call S. Anthony's 
Hog, and for which they have great veneration. Many others 
will have S. Anthony's Picture upon the walls of their houses, 
hoping by that to be preserved from the Plague. And the 
Italians, who did not know the true signification of the Fire 
painted at his side, thought that he preserved houses also from 
being burnt, and they call upon him on such occasions. 

As for the Anthonian Friars, they know so well to make use 
of the power of their S. Anthony, that when they go a-begging, 
if one does refuse what they ask for, they threaten immediately 
to make the "Sacred Fire" to fall upon him. Therefore the 
poor country people, to avoid the Menaces and Witchcrafts of 
these Monks, present them every year with a good fat hog, 
a-piece. Some Cardinals and Prelates endeavoured to persuade 
Pope Paul the III. to abolish these wretched begging Friars 
" Qusestuarios istos Sancti Anthonii, qui decipiunt Rusticos et 
Simplices, eosque innumeris superstitionibus implicent, de medio 
tollendos esse." But they could not compass their good design ; 
and these Monks do subsist yet to this day in several places, 
though the sickness of S. Anthony's Fire be now very rare. 
[Emillianne's Monastic Orders, p. 127.] 

Maitland observes that "the Vestry of Leith, after the 
1 Reformation,' having purchased the Lands and Properties of 

VOL. I. 2 N 



282 MONASTICON. 

divers Keligious Foundations in Leith and Newhaven, and 
Liberties thereof, King James VI. Granted and Confirmed the 
same by Charter in 1614 for the use of the Poor." King James' 
Hospital stood on the South side of the Kirkgate, nearly oppo- 
site the Giles' Street of the present day, on the Site now occupied 
by what is called The New Tombs. The Funds of this Preceptory, 
and the new Endowment of James, were vested in the Session of 
South Leith, and were for many years appropriated for the 
purposes designed by the original Donor. They now appear to 
have merged into the general Parochial Fund. In the Charter 
granted by King James, is mentioned "All the Croft of Arable 
Land contiguous to S. Anthony's Garden, and also all that place 
and piece of ground whereon the Church and Preceptory of S. 
Anthony of the Knight Templars stood," sufficient evidence 
that the Property between Merrylees' Court, S. Anthony's Lane, 
and the Port in the Kirkgate which, during the Siege in the 
Kegency of Mary of Guise, bore the same name was held, in 
common with Property in most Parishes in Scotland, by the 
Knight Templars. The origin of the Order dates from David 
L, 1124-53. Some Houses in Edinburgh, and one in Leith, 
bore the Badge of the Order a Cross shaped in fashion of the 
letter T, with the motto, "LAVS DEO," to show that they 
held the superiority, but not, as is generally supposed, indicating 
that they themselves occupied the Premises. 

The Monks of the Order were in the custom of rearing Pigs. 
In the Extract from Suger's " Life of Louis le Gros," given in 
the Note to Neander's "Life and Times of S. Bernard," Prince 
Philip having been killed, A.D. 1131, in consequence of a collision 
with a Hog, in one of the Faubourgs of Paris, which caused him 
to be thrown from his horse, it is added "An Order was issued 
forbidding Pigs in future to be kept in the streets ; but the Monks 
of S. Anthony remonstrating against it, were allowed the exclu- 
sive privilege for theirs, on condition of their hanging a Bell round 
the neck of each." The Pigs, indeed, made an important item 
in the Revenues of the Order. " This year," says Guyot de 
Provins, a writer of the thirteenth Century, "their Pigs will 
bring them in 5000 silver Marks ; for there is not a Town or 



S. ANTHONY'S, LEITH. 288 

Castle in France where they are not fed." Some discrepancy 
appears to exist from the Dates. The Order of the Templars was 
suppressed by Pope Clement V. in 1312, previous to the Date of 
this Foundation, who granted a Decreet conveying their entire 
Property in Scotland to the kindred Order the Knight Hos- 
pitallers of S. John of Jerusalem. After the "Keformation," 
1563, Sir James Sandilands, the last Preceptor of the Order, 
resigned the possessions to the Crown, obtained a new Charter, 
and procured them to be erected in his favour into the Barony 
of Torphichen, the largest portion of their Lands being in that 
neighbourhood. He sat in the Scottish Parliament as Lord 
Sanct John, and was employed in several Embassies to the 
English and French Courts. It does not, however, appear that 
the Superiority of S. Anthony's was claimed by him. In the 
struggles connected with the suppression of Monastic Institutions, 
many were lost sight of, and probably that of S. Anthony's, till 
the age of James VI. 

In the Inventory of Deeds, belonging to the Trinity House of 
Leith, is enumerated "Ane charter, granted be Matthew For- 
rester, in favour of the foresaide mariners of Leith, of the said 
lande on y e hospital bankes, and for undercallit y e groundes lying 

in Leith Also said yeird Dated, 26 Julij 

1567. Sealit and subscrivit be the said Mat. Forrester, Pre- 
bander of S. Antoine, near Leith." One of the privileges of the 
Soldier-Monks was " an English gallon of wine out of every tun 
imported." Like good Abbot Boniface, the "vivers," although 
their influence was subdued by S. Anthony in person, do not 
appear to have been neglected. This Perquisite was afterwards 
exacted in the shape of a Money- Commutation by the Session of 
South Leith. Many Entries to this effect occur " 19th Nov. 
1638. The sessioune has ordainit the wyne vintners in Leith to 
paye thair imposts of the wyne to oure sessioune, or otherwise to 
be convenit befoir the kirkis, and than they sail pay thair imposts 
as we ordain." It subsequently forms part of their monthly 
Collection. The Session also elected the Baron Bailie of S. 
Anthony's, who exercised Jurisdiction over Leith and Newhaven, 
combining in his person the Templar- Soldier, Priest, or Moral 



284 



MONASTICON. 



Policeman, holding his Court at will, and giving Sentence 
without appeal ; thus " At Leith, 9th Feb y , 1693. On Mondaye 
last S. Anthoni's Court was helden in this place, and is to be 
keepit att Newheavin w* y e first conveniencie." As formerly 
noticed, it was on the Tower of this Preceptory that the French 
Artillery was placed in 1560. The last Baron Bailie was Thomas 




REMAINS OF THE PRECEPTORY OP 8. ANTHONY'S, LEITH. 



The Office ceased to exist after the Burgh Reform Bill 



Barker. 
of 1833. 

S. Anthony's Chapel, Arthur Seat, has been generally con- 
sidered to have been an Appenage of S. Anthony's Preceptory. 
On this point no authentic Eecord exists. In Billings' " Baronial 
and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland," the Writer states, 



S. ANTHONY'S, LEITH. 285 

part ii., p. 8, " There was in Leith a Convent (?) Dedicated to 
S. Anthony, with which it is probable that this Hermitage was 
connected. By one Tradition it is said to have been merely 
established for the Guardianship of the Sacred Fountain in its 
vicinity. By another, it is said to have been a Post for watching 
Vessels, from the Imposts on which the Abbey of Holyrood 
derived part of its Revenue, and to have thus formed a sort of 
Ecclesiastical Custom-house Station." Grose attributes its 
creation to more pious, if not more disinterested, Motives, saying 
" The situation was undoubtedly chosen with an intention of 
attracting the notice of Seamen coming up the Firth, who, in 
cases of danger, might be induced to make Vows to its Titular 
Saint." [Antiquities of Leith, by D. H. Robertson, M.D., p. 119.] 

" The Rental Buke of Sanct Anthonis and Newhaven " (being 
a curious little Record of the Abbey and Hospital of S. Anthony, 
near Leith) is on Vellum, 8vo, 21 leaves, in the Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh. [Frag. Scoto. Monast., p. 13.] 

Alexander Forrester, reidar at Hailis . . . to be paid 
out of the third of the Hospitale of Sant Anthonis in Leith. 
Williame Balfour, reidar at Leith, his Stipend JC20, to be payit 
as folio wis, viz., Out of the third of the Preceptorie of Sanct 
Anthonis 10, and the rest to be pait be the toun." 1576. [Reg. 
of Minrs., Exhorters, &c. Maitland Club.] 

It is certain that in the renowned Town of Leith there was a 
Monastery of the Canons of S. Anthony, whose Church is now 
entire, excepting the Altars and Sacred Ornaments, which 
modern Calvinists are wont to subvert for the Hustings. The 
Hospital remains, where some Poor are kept, and who Sing 
alternately in the Church, and live very strictly, according to 
Religious Discipline, under the Preceptor. It is not easy at this 
distance of time to say who the Founder was. Some say that 
William Malvoisin, the Bishop of St. Andrews, returning from 
Vienna, first planted here this Order. I have seen the Seal of the 
Chapter. [Brockie gives the description as I have.] Many of the 
Inhabitants of Edinburgh pay a yearly Cess to the Hospital of 
Leith ; for Writers say that the Canons used to come from Leith, 
and live as Recluses within the Chapel, near Holy Rood, then 



286 MONASTICON. 

environed with trees, whose Dues at this day belong to Leith. 
This Monastery had also annexed to it several Parochial 
Churches, among which was the Church of Liston, which, how- 
ever, the Canons were forced to relinquish ahout A.D. 1445. A 
great strife was carried on between the Canons of Leith and the 
Chapter of St. Andrews thereanent ; for, being a Mensal Church, 
it could not have been Granted without the consent of the 
Chapter. The Deed of Eenunciation by Friar Michael Gray, 
Preceptor of the Hospital of S. Anthony, near Leith, is in the 
Advocates' Library, A. 3. 34., fol. 19. Brockie refers to what is 
adduced above by Spottiswoode, as to the want of concord among 
the Canons, and to the Chart of Dissolution by Humbert, 
Preceptor- General of the whole Order at Vienna. [Brockie's 
MS., p. 8498.] 

VALUATION OF S. ANTHONY'S, LEITH. 

Money 211 15s Qd. 



THE EED FKIAKS. 

THE Ked Friars (who pretend to be Canon-Kegulars, notwith- 
standing that that name, which they are willing to assume, is 
strongly controverted by their adversaries) are likewise called 
Trinitij Friars or Mathurines, from their House at Paris, which is 
dedicate to S. Mathurine; as also, "De redemptione captivo- 
rum," their Office being to redeem Christian Captives from 
Turkish slavery. They were Established by S. John of Matha, 
and Felix de Valois, an Anchorite at Cerfroid " apud Cervum 
frigidum in territorio Meldensi" about three miles from Gran- 
dula. Innocent III. approves this Institute, and grants several 
Privileges to the Order, which were confirmed by Pope Innocent 
IV., the 26th November, 1246. S. Thomas of Aquinas and S. 
Antonine commend this Order in their Sums. 

Their Houses were named Hospitals or Ministries, and their 
Superiors Ministers [Ministri]. Their Substance or Rents were 
divided into three parts, one of which was reserved for redeeming 



BED FEIAKS. 287 

Christian Slaves from amongst the Infidels. " Tertia vero pars 
(say their Constitutions) reservetur ad redemptionem captivorum, 
qui sunt incarcerati pro fide Christi a Paganis." 

Their Habit was White, with a Ked and Blue Cross Patee 
upon their Scapular. Their General Chapter was held yearly 
at Whitsunday, "in octavis Pentecostes." Their way of living 
was much conform to that of the Canons of S. Victor at Paris. 
At their first Institution their Superior- General was elective, and 
chosen by the General Chapter. [Spottiswoode.] 

This Order carries the name of its Institutor or Founder, 
who was John of Matha, born in Provence, in France, in 1154. 
He followed his Studies at Aix and at Paris, where he took his 
Degrees ; and being afterwards made Priest, he retired himself 
near Meaux, in a place called Cerfroid, with an Hermit, whose 
name was Felix, with whom he led a solitary life. Having been 
both admonished (as the Papists say) in a Dream to go to Pope 
Innocent III., accordingly they went. This Pope having had 
the same Vision, waited for their coming. A hideous Phantom 
(they say), while he was saying Mass, appeared to him the day 
before, all in white, with a Cross half Ked and half Blue on his 
Breast, holding with his hands two Slaves bound in chains ; and 
this Vision made him resolve to establish an Order, whose care 
should be to go and redeem the Christian Captives detained in 
Slavery by the Infidels. Having then conferred with the two 
Hermits, he made them take an Habit like to that which the 
Phantom appeared in while he was at the Altar; and having 
gathered great Alms, he sent them to redeem with that money 
several Captives ; which undertaking having had a good success, 
many others followed their example, and Monasteries were 
Founded for them, where they professed the Kule of S. Austin. 
Their Order was Confirmed in 1207, under the name of the Ke- 
demption of Captives. John Matha Founded at Kome the 
Convent of S. Thomas of Formis, where he Died in 1214. This 
Order was received in England in 1357, and was called the Order 
of Ingham. Besides the Rule of S. Austin, which they possess, 
they have particular Constitutions approved by Pope Innocent 
III., whereof the following are the chiefest : 



288 MONASTICON. 

Principal Statutes of the Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of 

Captives. 

1. All the Estates or Goods that fall legally to them are to be divided 
into three parts ; the two first whereof shall be employed in Works of 
Charity both towards themselves and those that are in their Service, and 
the third shall be applied for the Eedemption of Captives. 

2. All their Churches ought to be Dedicated to the most Holy Trinity. 
8. They ought to acknowledge the Solicitor or Proctor of the Monastery 

for their Superior, who shall be called Father Minister of the House of the 
Holy Trinity. 

4. They must not ride on Horseback, but on Asses only. 

5. Fasts are ordered four times a Week, unless they be Holy Days. 

6. They ought to eat Flesh only on Sundays and some Holy Days. 

7. All the Alms given to them for the Kedeeming of Captives ought to 
be faithfully employed for that purpose, except only as much as is necessary 
for the charges of their journey. 

The rest of their Constitutions are only about the economy 
of their Convents, the manner of keeping their General Chapters, 
and the election of their Superiors. As for the Church Office, it 
is declared that they ought to conform themselves to the Regular 
Canons of the Abbey of S. Victor at Paris. [Emillianne, p. 135.] 

By a Bull of Pope Innocent III., Dated the 21st June, 1209, 
it appears that they had Six Monasteries in Scotland, whilst he 
was Pope. Thereafter the number increased amongst us ; and 
at the Reformation we find mention of Thirteen Houses, which 
were situate at the following Places : 

I. ABERDEEN, A.D. 1211, 

Founded by King William the Lion, where now the Trades' 
Hospital stands, and Trinity Church. The King gave thereunto 
the Lands of Banchory, Coway, Merellof, a Fishing in Dee and 
Don, with the Mills of Skerthak, Rothemay, Tullifully, and 
Manismuch. [Spottisivoode.] 

Bagman's Roll, A.D. 1296, makes mention of " Frere Huwe 
ministre de 1'ordre de la Trinitie d' Aberdeen," &c. 

This Convent having been formerly King William's Palace, 
built by him A.D. 1181, was given by that Prince, A.D. 1211, to 
the two first Friars of this Order who came into Scotland, being 



EED FEIAES ABEEDEEN. 289 

sent hither by Pope Innocent III., who had Confirmed the 
Institution this year. 

Brockie enumerates among the many noble and pious Monks 
connected with this Order, Kobert Ogilvie and Patrick Gillis, who 
sailed to Africa to redeem the Captives there from the Saracens, 
and who, after visiting the Holy Land, returned here about A.D. 
1248. He also enrols the " Blessed " Alexander Wishart, who 
spoke in reprehensible terms about the vicious lives of several of 
the Bishops, whereat Bishop William [None of this name at the 
Period] was highly displeased, and ordered him to be imprisoned. 
While the Jailor was about to lock the door, the iron Key was 
miraculously bitten through in his hands, and part of it stuck in 
the key-hole. Word was brought to the Bishop, who, terrified, 
forthwith became penitent for his faults! The " Blessed Alex- 
ander" Died A.D. 1227. He wrote six Books on the " Six Days' 
Creation," three Books of " Comments on the Epistle to the 
Komans," and other small Books. His Tomb is in the Eastern 
part of the Choir of the Church, which was frequented by the 
sick and diseased, who found relief. Kichard Wyram, Bishop of 
Sidon, in Phoenicia, was resident here A.D. 1296. He was 
obliged to vacate his See through the tyranny of the Saracens. 
He Died 1306, and was Buried in the Cloister. John Stuart, 
afterwards Bishop of St. Andrews, was one of this Order, and 
resident here. He wrote two Books on the " Apocalypse of S. 
John." [Brockic's MS., pp. 8528, 8574.] . 

Camerarius [Cameron] calls this Convent his Monastery 
monasterium suwn and says that he was going to defend it ; and 
also seems to intimate that he was Prior of it. 



FRIARS. 

GEORGE INNES was probably the first Native of Scotland who was raised 
to the Dignity of a Cardinal. A brief Memoir was written by Bishop John 
Geddes, in the Archaologia Scotica, vol. m., -pp. 130-133. There is a Portrait 
of him, by a Spanish Artist, in the Hall of the Society of Antiquaries, 
Edinburgh. He wrote the following Treatises in Latin : 1. " A Lamenta- 
tion upon the Holy Land;" 2. "A Description of the Destruction of 
Jerusalem ;" 3. " On the Dolours of the Blessed Virgin Mary ;" 4. " On the 
Order of his Monastery." He became a Monk at Aberdeen, but Died abroad. 
VOL. i. 2 o 



290 MONASTICON. 

He was alive in 1414. [Collections on the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, vol. 
i., p. 204.] 

EDWARD KOBINSON was a Monk here in 1417. He was a good Scholar, 
and taught laboriously. He wrote a Volume on " The Defence of the Holy 
Scriptures." [Dempster.] 

PATRICK, a Native of Dornoch, in Sutherland, was Superior of this 
Monastery. When the " Eeformers" entered it with ladders, and destroyed 
right and left with fire and sword, this Monk was slain, by a cut in the fore- 
head, in 1559. [Dempster.] 

FRANCIS, A.D. 1559, one of the Friars here. While the ''Heretics of 
Aberdeen" were furiously debauched, and burning this Monastery, he was 
first stabbed in his bowels by the "Eeformers," then thrown down stairs, 
and, at last, pierced with many wounds, was thrown into the fire. His 
sufferings were endured from the 4th till the 8th December. [Dempster.] 

VALUATION OP TRINITY FRIARS, ABERDEEN. 

Money 54 Is IkZ. 

II. DUNBAK, A.D. 1218, 

In the Shire of Haddington, was Founded hy Patrick, Earl 
of Dunhar and March. The Lands of this Monastery were at 
the " Reformation " granted to George Hume of Friarslands, 
ancestor to Hume of Furde. [Spottisivoode.] 

Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, had two cousins, George and James, 
who sailed to the Holy Land, and were slain by the Turks. 
Earl Patrick saw in a Dream one coming to him imploring his 
aid, whereupon he went to Aberdeen, and gave much gold and 
silver to John Gumming, one of the Order of the Holy Trinity 
there, whom he knew to be very fit in Kedeeming Captives, 
urging him to journey to Algeria to ransom his kinsmen, pro- 
mising, besides, to Found a very large Monastery of that Order. 
After eight months Gumming returned, having reduced the 
number of Captives, whereupon the Earl yielded up one of his 
own Princely Residences, with all his Lands at Musselburgh, and 
appointed John Gumming the first Minister of his Monastery. 
He was a very celebrated Monk, who rescued many of the Irish 
Nobility from the Saracens, and also the Earl of Kildare. He 
was also the first who introduced the Order of Red Friars into 
Ireland, at Altharah, in the Diocese of Limerick, A.D. 1230. 
There was a renowned Alumnus of the Monastery of Dunbar 



BED FEIAES HOUSTON. 291 

Gilbert Dunbar, a relative of the Founder who afterwards was 
refused by Johanna, daughter of the Earl of Galloway. He 
wrote four Books on Heavenly Glory, and Died A.D. 1248. The 
Fanatics of the Heresiarch Knox burnt this Monastery to ashes, 
when all the Documents perished. [Brockie' s MS., p. 8541.] 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, DUNBAR. 

No information. 

III. HOUSTON, A.D. 1226, 

In the Shire of Eenfrew, was Founded at this Date. Friar 
John, Master of the Trinity Hospital of Houston, is made 
mention of A.D. 1296, by Prynne, p. 656. [Spottiswoode.] 

Hugh of Houston, who owned the Lands of that Territory, 
Founded the Order of Trinity Friars here about A.D. 1226. 
Brockie makes out from an " Anonymous Writer" that William 
Meldrum was first " Master" here, and that he was Promoted 
therefrom by Pope Honorius III. to the See of Glasgow ! 
[Brockie s MS., p. 8546.] No such Bishop is upon record. 

In an Aisle adjoining the East end of the Choir are several Sepulchral 
Monuments, particularly a magnificent Tomb of neat workmanship, in Free- 
stone. In front, under a Canopy, resembling an alcove bed, are placed two 
Statues as big as the life. The one is said to be an Effigy of Sir Patrick 
Houston of that Ilk, who Died in the year 1450 ; and the other of 
his lady, Agnes Campbell, who Died in ye year 1456. The one repre- 
senting Sir Patrick is dressed in a Coat of Mail, his head lying on a Pillow, 
and his feet on a Lion with a wide mouth, holding a Lamb in his paws 
under him. The Image of the lady is dressed as in Grave Clothes, neatly 
cut in stone. Both their hands are elevated, as in a Praying or Supplicating 
posture. Kound the Verge of the Tomb there is an Inscription in Saxon 
Capitals, but so much effaced that little of it can be distinctly read. 

Upon the South Wall of the Aisle, there is a large Frame of Timber, on 
which are two Pictures, seemingly done with Oil Colours, but much worn out. 
On the right side, a man, in complete Armour, resembling that of a Knight 
Templar, with an Inscription in Saxon Characters over his head, some 
words of which are effaced "Hie jacet Dominus Joannes Houston de 
eodem miles, qui obiit anno Dom. MCCCC." On the left, a Picture of his 
lady, also much effaced, and over her head the following Inscription : 
"Hie jacet Domina Maria Colquhoun, sponsa quondam dicti Domini 
Joannes, qua3 obiit septimo die mensis Octobris, an. Dom. MCCCC quinto," 



292 MONASTICON. 

Oil the same side of the Aisle is a fine Monument, with a variety of 
Emblematical Figures, part of it fine Freestone, but most of it Stucco. On 
the top is the Image of an old man, with long flowing hair, and a Crown on 
his head, with a loose Kobe, having one foot on a large Globe with a small 
Image on each side, holding a Trumpet to their mouth. Across the Globe is 
a Chain, hanging down on each side and fixed below, where there are, in a 
standing posture, two Images resembling children, each holding a Link of 
the Chain : the one on the right hand has three faces, the other on the left 
hand is blindfolded, as with a cloth bound over the eyes. There are several 
other Figures on the sides, and below the following Inscription: "Hie 
sita est Domina Anna Hamilton, delectissima Domini Patricii Houston, de 
odem, Baronetti, conjux sua, quse obiit tertio die idus Maias, anno salutis 
partae, milesimo sexcentesimo et septuagesimo octavo." [Old Stat. Acct., 
vol. i.,2i. 328.] 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, HOUSTON. 

No information. 

IV. HOUSTON, 

There was an Hospital in East Lothian, Haddingtonshire, 
though the piety of the Founder, and the Site of the Foundation, 
be now equally unknown, as Folly has changed the name of the 
Place which was once devoted by Wisdom. Among the East 
Lothian Gentry who swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick, on 
the 28th August, 1296, was " Friar John, the Master of the 
Trinity Hospital at Howeston." [Prynne, vol. Hi., p. 956. 
This Entry is plainly the same as that under the former 
Houston. Query To which of the two does it refer ?] A 
Writ was soon after issued to the Sheriff of Haddington, 
directing the restoration of the Property of the Holy Trinity at 
Howeston. [Rymer, vol. ii., p. 726.] In Bagimont's Roll, the 
"Magistratus de Howston," in the Deanery of Hadington, is 
rated at J08 ; yet Houston appears as a Provostry in the Books of 
the Priory Seal ; perhaps it had been, in the meantime, converted 
into a Collegiate Church. 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, HOUSTON. 

No information. 

V. SCOTLANDWELL, A.D. 1250, 

Situate on the North side of the Water of Leven, in the 
Shire of Kinross, called in Latin Fons Scotice, was an Hospital, 



BED FKIAES SCOTLAND WELL. 293 

first Founded by William Malvoisine, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
who Died about A.D. 1238 ; which was afterwards bestowed 
upon the Ked Friars, by David de Benham, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, his immediate Successor. His Charter is Dated "in 
crastino Circumcisionis Domini, anno 1250." The Parish Church 
of Moonzie, on the top of a hill to the South of Cairnie, in Fife, 
in the Presbytery of Cupar, with the Parish Church of Carnock, 
in the Presbytery of Dunfermline, belonged to this place. This 
Foundation and Gift occasioned the Kegular Canons of St. 
Andrews to complain to the Pope, that the Bishop had intro- 
duced the Eed Friars into a Parish belonging to them, " eorun- 
dem prioris et capituli neglecto consensu;" whereupon we have 
a Bull of Pope Innocent IV. about A.D. 1250, for preventing such 
enterprises to the prejudice of the Chapter of St. Andrews. The 
Euins of the Church and House are yet to be seen at the foot of 
the Bishop's Hill. [Spottiswoode^] 

From the Cartulary of St. Andrews, it appears that Henry, 
Prior of St. Andrews, Confirms the Gift of Bishop Malvoisin to 
S. Mary's Hospital, Lochleven, of the Church of the Holy Trinity 
of Auchtermuchty, with the Tithes, Lands, and Oblations, &c., 
pertaining to it. Dated at the Church of Berwick. The 
Churches of Berwick and Carnock both belonged to the Eed 
Friars. Before the Trinity Friars came to Scotlandwell, the 
Culdees had possession. Eobert I. often visited these Friars. 
Edward Hadelston of that Ilk, from whom was Prior John 
Hadelston of St. Andrews, was Prior of the Eed Friars here in 
1287. He wrote four Books on the Origin of the Hebrew 
Tongue, and two on Angels. He is Buried in the Monastery. 
[Brockie's MS., p. 8548.] 

11 Feb., 1591. King James VI. dispones to David Arnot, 
eldest son of Andrew Arnot, Minister at Scotland- Well Mano- 
riam de Scotland-Well cum Domibus et cum terris de Kilmagad 
voca* Lieivode, et jacen. infra Eegalitatem Sti. Andrese et vice- 
comitatum de FyfL G.S.B. 38, No. 212. [Middle's MS. Notes.] 

VALUATION OP TRINITY FRIAKS, SCOTLANDWELL. 

Money 102. Bear 2 Chalders, 11 Bolls; Meal 5 Chatters, 11 Bolls, 
3 Firlots, 3i Pecks. 



294 MONASTICON. 

VI. FAILFORD, A.D. 1252, 

In the County of Ayr, Founded at this Date. There is a 
Charter of " Joannes de Graham," designed " Dominus de Thor- 
bolton in Kyle Senescalli," granting, "pro salute animae suae, 
et Isabellae sponsae suae, &c. Deo, et doinui Failefurd, et fratri 
Johanni ministro, et fratribus ordinis sanctissimae Trinitatis et 
Captivorum, jus patronatus et advocationis Ecclesiae de Thor- 
bolton. Datum apud Failefurd, in crastino Epiphaniae Domini, 
anno gratiae 1337." This Charter is Confirmed "apud Dun- 
donald, 5to die mensis Augusti, anno 1368," by John, Lord Kyle 
and Earl of Carrick, who was afterwards King, and was named 
Robert III. [Spottiswoode.] 

In 1252, Andrew Bruce, a noble Baron, Founded a Monas- 
tery of Trinity Friars at Failford. Archibald Spence was the 
first " Minister."- Alexander Deace, Provincial Minister of 
Scotland, held Office here. [Brockie's MS., p. 8500.] 

William Wallace, Minister at Failfurd, brother-german to 
John Wallace of Craigie, got from King James VI., Manoriem 
locum domus et edificia Monasterii de Failfurde cum hortis. 
Epist., 2d June, 1590. [Riddles MS. Notes.] 

Though this Priory was originally in the Parish of Barnweill, 
it is now within the extended bounds of Tarbolton. The Parish 
of Barnweill has been, at least ecclesiastically, suppressed since 
1714, although it still stands in the Cess Books of the County as 
a distinct Parish. Fail Monastery was Founded in 1252, but by 
whom is unknown. It belonged to the Red Friars, who were 
called Mathurincs, from the House Dedicated to S. Mathurine in 
Paris. They were also styled "Fathers of Redemption " (Patres 
de Redemptione Captivorum), it being part of their duty to 
redeem Captives from Slavery. When this Monastery was 
Founded, the Serf system, or Local Slavery, prevailed. The 
Peasantry were sold and bought along with the soil. There are 
many instances of this in the Feudal transfers of Property down 
to a comparatively recent Date. In a Charter of Vendition in 
reference to certain Lands in Girvan Parish, so late as the 29th 
November, 1739, before Feudal jurisdictions were done away 



BED FRIARS FAILFORD. 295 

with, we find the old style of conveyance still retained. So the 
Friars of Fell had a wide field for their benevolent exertions. 

Our early merchant-men suffered greatly from Foreign 
Pirates, and many of our ships' crews were made Captives. Un- 
questionable evidence remains in the Presbytery Books to show 
that the Mission of the Monastery of Fail was carried out long 
after the "Reformation;" e.g., the following Minute: 

Ayr, 3rd August, 1642. This day, William Hunter, Ruling Elder, 
presented two Letters from sundrie Captives of Ayr, now in Salio, taken by 
the Turks, for their Redemption; quhilk being read and considered, the 
Presbytery appointed the Brethren to intimate the sarnyn to their People, 
and desire them to prepare themselves with their charitable contributions to 
the effect foresaid. 

The Principal of the Monastery was styled "Minister," and, 
as Head of the Order, had a Seat in Parliament. From the 
Cartulary of Mebose (with which Fail was associated, by reason 
of no small portion of the Lands of Tarbolton being gifted at an 
early period to the Monks of Melrose), the Author of the 
Statistical Account of Tarbolton Parish has furnished some inter- 
esting Notices in reference to the acquisition of Property by the 
Monks of Melrose and Fail, which are here given. 

The earliest of the "Friars of Faill" seems to have been 
"Brother John," who was the Chief or "Minister" of Failford 
in 1343. There are some Documents extant relating to this 
Brother John and a White Horse. In a Notarial Instrument, 
dated 25th November, 1343, Johannes de Graham, nuper Dominus 
de Tarbolton, confesses that after his Grant to his cousin, Kobert 
de Graham, which Grant had been Confirmed by the Seneschal 
of Scotland, and approved by the Chapter of Glasgow, Brother 
John, Minister of the House of the Holy Trinity at Ffele, in the 
Diocese of Glasgow, had given him a White Horse for the right 
of Patronage to the Church of Tarbolton ; which Horse the said 
Minister John had afterwards forcibly taken away (manu forti 
abstulit) from the said John de Graham. This Confession was 
made at Tarbolton, in the Church, before Thomas de Gedwrath, 
Monk of the Cistercian Order, and others. Another Document, 
entitled Eevocatio Johannis de Graham filii, sets forth that things 



296 MONASTICON. 

which are done through impetuosity of temper and facility of 
disposition are revocable ; that, being ignorant of Law, Brother 
John had, by his flatteries and most pernicious present (71071 sine 
munere pessimo), persuaded him to annul his former Grant to his 
dear cousin ; that he recals this error, and will subject himself, 
as is fitting, to the correction due to his offence. Datum apud 
Tarbolton, 21st February, for the salvation of his soul, and that 
of Emma, his wife. Other two Charters by Robert de Graham 
show that the affair of the White Horse was a straggle betwixt 
the Monks of Melrose and the Friars of Fail for the increase of 
their Patronage and the extension of their Lands John de 
Graham being the dupe of the one set, and Eobert de Graham 
the prey of the other. The Superior, or " Minister," of Fail, by 
his flatteries and the douceur of the White Nag, had prevailed 
with John de Graham to convey to the House of Fail what was 
no longer his to bestow. Neither John de Graham nor Kobert 
de Graham could write his own name : each Charter bears that 
the person granting it had affixed his Seal before Witnesses. 

The Monastery of Fail appears to have been surrounded at 
one time by the Loch. The Gable and part of the Side Wall of 
the Manor-House of the Chief, or " Minister," are still standing. 
There belonged to the Monastery five Parish Churches, viz., 
Barnweill, Symington, and Galston, in Kyle; Torthorwald, in 
Dumfriesshire ; and Inverchoalan, in Argyleshire. 

On the 7th May, 1532, the King granted a Precept for the 
admission of "Fratris Johannis Hamilton, ministri de Fail, ad 
ministralium ejusdem," being appointed thereunto by the Pope. 
[Privy Seal Beg., ix., 107.J On the 9th January, 1537-8, Sir 
James Hamilton of Finnart obtained a Grant of the Temporal 
Kevenues of the Ministry of Fail, which was then vacant by the 
death of John Hamilton, until the lawful appointment of a 
Minister. [Hid xi., 44.] In 1540, Eobert Cunningham, at the 
age of 22, a bastard of William, the Earl of Glencairn, was 
appointed Minister of Failford, vacant by the decease of John 
Hamilton, the last Minister. [Epis. Peg. Scot., u., 86-7.] The 
Minister of Failford, Eobert Cunningham, sat in Parliament 
among the Clergy in 1546 and in 1560. [Act a Parl, ii., 467, 



RED FRIARS PEEBLES. 297 

525.] On the 6th March, 1563-4, Robert Cunningham, the 
Minister of Faill, obtained a yearly pension of 100 from the 
Queen's Casualties during life, or until he be provided with a 
Benefice of 100 Marks yearly. [Privy Seal Reg., xxxii., 40.] 
The Patronage of the Church of Garrel, in Dumfriesshire, appears 
from the above authority [xxxiii., 135] to have belonged to this 
Convent in 1565. William Wallace, Minister of Failfurd during 
the Reign of James VI., Died in 1617; and his son, William, 
seems to have considered this Monastery, and what remained of 
its Property, as his inheritance. In August, 1619, there was a 
Grant to Mr. Walter Whyteford of the Benefice of the Ministrie 
of Failfurd. This Grant was ratified in 1621 by Parliament : 
there was another ratification by Parliament in June, 1633. The 
person who was thus favoured was Dr. Walter Whyteford, one of 
the King's Chaplains, and Sub-Dean of Glasgow. In October, 
1690, William, Earl of Dundonald, was served Heir of his father, 
John, Earl of Dundonald, in the Benefice of Failfurd, " as well 
temporalitie as spiritualitie." [Inquisit. Special., 657.] In this 
Inquisition, the Lands of the Convent are specified. [Chalmers' 
Caledonia, as also Paterson's Ayr.] 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIAKS, FAILFORD (dr. 1562). 

Money 184 6s Sd. Bear 3 Chatters ; Meal 15 Chatters, 4 Bolls ; 
Cheese 80 Stones ; Hoggs (young Sheep) 10 ; Stirks 3 ; Grilse or 
Salmon 2 Dozen. 

When this Eental was given up, " twa puir men" lived in the Convent, 
and had 22 yearly for their subsistence. ''Four auld beid men of the 
Convent," who lived out of the Place, received each of them 11 Bolls of 
Meal, and 12 Bolls of Malt yearly, and 8 Marks each of Habits Silver and 
Eithing Silver. 

VII. PEEBLES. A.D. 1257. 

The Ministry or Cross Church was Founded by King Alex- 
ander III. [See Boethius, lib. xiii., and Joan Major, ad annum 
prcedictum.] King Kobert II. grants to Friar Thomas, designed 
"Capellano suo, pratum regium juxta villam de Peebles." 
And "Frere Thomas, ministere de Sanctae Croix de Peebles," is 
recorded in Pry tine's Collections, p. 662. [Spottiswoode.] 

VOL. I. 2 P 



298 MONASTICON. 

In 1543 the Parish Church of S. Andrew was, by the Munici- 
pal Corporation of the Burgh, and John, Lord Hay of Tester, 
erected into a Collegiate Church, endowed for a Provost, two 
Prebends, and two Choristers. The Prebends, which appear to 
have been Founded in part from the Kevenues of previously 
existing Chantries, had the names of S. Mary, the Holy Cross, 
S. Michael the Archangel, S. Mary major, S. John Baptist, S. 
Mary del Geddes, S. Andrew, S. James, S. Lawrence, and S. 
Christopher. The Endowment made by the Burgh and Lord 
Tester was probably no more than a yearly sum of 24 Merks, 
with a Chamber and a Tard. 

Of the Foundation of the Conventual Church of the Holy Cross 
in Peebles, by Alexander III., John of Fordun gives an ample 
narrative : " In the year of our Lord 1261, the 13th year of the 
Eeign of King Alexander, upon the 9th of May, a magnificent 
and venerable Cross was found at Peblis, in the presence of 
divers honourable men, Priests, Clerks, and Burghers. In what 
year or by what persons it was hidden there, is wholly unknown ; 
but it is supposed to have been buried by certain of the Faithful 
about A.D. 296, when Maximinian's Persecution was raging in 
Britain. In the same place, not long afterwards, there was found 
a Stone Urn, as it were, three or four paces from the spot where 
that glorious Cross was found. It contained the ashes and 
bones of a human body, which seemed to have been dismem- 
bered; but whose relics they were no one yet knows. Some, 
however, there are who think they were the remains of him whose 
name was written on the Stone on which that Holy Cross lay ; 
for on that Stone was graven without, The Place of Saint Nicholas 
the Bishop. In the place where the Cross was found, frequent 
miracles were wrought by it, and are still wrought ; and multi- 
tudes of the people flocked together, and do still devoutly flock, 
making their Oblations and Vows to God. Wherefore, the King, 
by advice of the Bishop of Glasgow, caused a stately Church to 
be built there, in honour of God and the Holy Kood." 

^ The Church thus erected was given to the Red or Trinity 
Friars, whose Ministery or Hospital in Peebles was probably 
coeval with the Building. 



EED FEIAES PEEBLES. . 299 

In 1296, " Frere Thomas, mestre de la Meson de la Seinte 
Croice de Pebbles," swore fealty and homage to Edward I. as 
Overlord of Scotland. Kobert II., in 1390, gave to the Church 
of the Holy Kood of Peebles, to Friar Thomas, the King's Chap- 
lain, and to his Successors serving in the same Church, "the 
Meadow, called the King's Meadow, free of all secular tax or 
burden, and with power to the Chaplain, for the time being, to 
bring it into culture. The Convent is said to have had Grants 
from the Frasers of Neidpath and of East Fenton ; to have pos- 
sessed Houses in Edinburgh, and Land in the Parish of Cramond, 
in Lothian ; and to have received, in 1529, a " House in Dunbar, 
built by Christian Bruce, Countess of Dunbar, and bequeathed 
by her to the Brethren of the Trinity Friars there." But the 
Eental of the "Ministery of Peebles," given up at the Keforma- 
tion by the Minister, Gilbert Brown, Parson of Ketins, makes 
mention only of the Kirk and Kirklands of Ketins (in the Deanery 
of Angus, and Diocese of S. Andrews) ; the Temporal Lands of 
Houston; certain Acres lying above Dunbar; certain Fields 
beside the Cross Kirk of Peebles ; and the King's Meadow. 

The Conventual Buildings, which stood on the North-East 
side of the old Town, at the end of the King's Orchards, are 
described as forming a quadrangle. The Church stood on the 
South side, and measured 102 feet in length, by 32 in width; 
the Side Walls were 24 feet in height, and 3 feet thick. In the 
Fore-Wall of the Church, which had five Windows, there was a 
small Aperture and Arch between the third Window and the 
Door, so constructed as to make it probable to Antiquaries of the 
last Century that the Belies of S. Nicholas and the Holy Cross 
had been deposited there, so that they might be seen as well 
from without as from within the Church. The Cloisters were on 
the West side of the quadrangle, and measured 32 feet in width. 
The Buildings on the other Sides were 14 feet in height, 16 feet 
in width, and Vaulted. [Orig. Paroch, vol. i., p. 229.] 

James Hay, son of William, Lord Hay of Zester, was pro- 
vided to this Benefice for life, 15th January, 1583, then in the 
King's hands by demission of Thomas Hay, Lord Zester's 
brother; and, on his decease, William Stewart, son to James 



800 MONASTICON. 

Stewart of Sheilinglaw, Captain of the King's Guards, was 
provided llth June, 1584. Andrew Hay, nephew to Thomas 
Hay of Smithfield, got the Lands and Crofts lying at the Cross 
Kirk of Peebles, then in the King's hands, by the Act of Annexa- 
tion, 13th March, 1602. [Riddle's MS. Notes.] 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, PEEBLES. 

Money 323 13s 4d. 

VIII. DOENOCH, A.D. 1271, 

In Sutherland, Founded by Sir Patrick Murray. The Lands 
belonging to the Ministry of Berwick were given to this place, 
after the English had possessed themselves of that City. [Spot- 
tiswoode.] Not the smallest vestige of the Building can now be 
traced : the very Site is unknown. 

Some think that long before the Red Friars were established 
here, there was a Culdee Establishment. Sir James Dalrymple 
states, in his Collections, that he has inspected a Charter of King 
David I. to Ronald, Earl of Orkney, from which it appears that 
David founded a Monastery long before this Order was established 
here. [Brockie's MS., p. 8578.] 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, DORNOCH. 

No information. 

IX. BERWICK-UPON-TWEED, A.D. 1214, 

Founded by William the Lion. Friar Adam, 
Minister of the Order of the Trinity Friars of 
Berwick, swears fealty to King Edward I. in 
A.D. 1296. [Spottiswoode.] 

The House was at the Bridge, and its duty 

OurLorlseatedwith T to P ra J for the Passengers, and to profit 
his feet on a Rainbow. * rom their safety. [Wallis' Northumberland, vol. 

On the right is the H., p. 95.] 

fcTg?**! In A ' D - 1267 ' the Fri ^s entered into a 
is the Cross. [Chap, compact with the Prior of Coldingham about 
House, Westminster.] building an Oratory within the Parish of 




BED FKIARS DUNDEE. 301 

the Holy Trinity, in South Berwick. [Chartulary of Colding- 
ham, 72.] 

VALUATION OF TKINITY FRIARS, BERWICK-UPON-TWEED. 

'No information. 

X. DUNDEE, A.D. 1283, 

In the Shire of Angus, Founded by Sir James Lindsay. His 
Charter is Confirmed by King Robert III., " apud Perth, die 24 
Augusti, anno regni sui secundo," i.e., 1392. [Spottiswoode.] 

Sir James Scrimgeour, Provost of Dundee, the Chief of a 
noble and ancient Family, brought the Trinity Friars here about 
A.D. 1283 ; but George Scrimgeour, his grandson, was the first 
Minister. Among the Benefactors, James Lindsay of Glenesk 
ought to be mentioned, who may be said to have been a second 
Founder, as appears from the Charter of Robert III., mentioned 
by Spottiswoode. We find among persons renowned for piety 
and learning resident herein, William Fraser, Bishop of St. 
Andrews. Two notorious Alumni of this Monastery merit enrol- 
ment, viz., Patrick Lindsay and James Ogilvie, who sailed to the 
Holy Land to fight the Saracens, under James Douglas, A.D. 
1330, and who Buried the Heart of Robert the Bruce in the 
Church at Jerusalem (?) While they were about to return to their 
native Country, they were captured by the Turks and Murdered, 
A.D. 1331, as is taken from the Tables of Monasteries. \Brockie' 's 
MS., p. 8584.] 

The Hospital of Dundee was Founded several Centuries ago 
by the Earl of Crawford (Sir James Lindsay), who bequeathed for 
the maintenance of the Poor Citizens of Dundee, certain Buildings 
upon the site of the old Academy at the foot of South Tay Street, 
and some yearly Rents to be used in maintaining them as a 
Poor-House or Maison-Dieu. This Establishment was afterwards 
augmented by Bequests and Donations from other individuals ; 
and Queen Mary, in 1567, granted to the Hospital of Dundee 
the Lands, Tenements, &c., belonging to the Dominican and 
Franciscan Friars, and Grey Sisters, consisting of the present 
Burying Ground and Monastic Buildings to the South, Serres- 
haugh, or Manorgan's Croft, now Hospital Ward, part of the 



302 MONASTICON. 

present Meadows and adjoining Ground. From certain old 
Kecords it would appear that the Lands and Eevenues of the 
Hospital were once much more extensive and valuable than now. 
It is not above seventy years since decayed Burgesses resided in 
the Hospital. The Minister of the Cross Church officiated to 
the Establishment; and he still receives part of his Stipend 
from the Funds of the Institution. It has since been found 
more wise to distribute the Funds to persons residing in their 
own Houses. [Statistical Account, vol. i., p. 51.] 

Sometimes as much as ^500 were paid to decayed Burgesses. 
The Ground on the South side of the Nethergate, extending 
from the Catholic Chapel Eastward to the Sea-Wynd, is said to 
have belonged to the Friars." [Thomson's Hist, of Dundee, p. 326.] 

Kobert III. dissolved the connexion of the Church of 
Ketnes or Kettins from the Maturine Convent of Berwick, and 
annexed it to Sir James Lindsay's Foundation at Dundee, by a 
Charter cited in Robertson's Index, p. 152. He is the only 
Benefactor, except Sir James, on record. 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, DUNDEE. 

No information. 

XI. CROMARTY, or CRENACH, Cir. A.D. 1271, 
In the Shire of Cromarty. A Monastery of this Order was 
Founded here about this Date by a noble Baron of Cromarty, 
Patrick Murray. The first Administrator was David Leslie, who 
afterwards became Bishop of Orkney, and Sat eleven years. 
[None such is elsewhere mentioned.] He Died 1284. Another 
Bishop is adduced to have been an Inmate here Richard Wyram, 
a Doctor of Divinity of Oxford. Pope Boniface VIII. consti- 
tuted him Provincial Minister of Scotland. He was Bishop of 
Sidon, in Phoenicia, but was obliged to vacate his See by the 
oppression of the Saracens. He was resident in this Convent 
A.D. 1296. He Died 12 Kal. April, A.D. 1306, and was Buried 
in the Cloister of the Convent of the Holy Trinity, Aberdeen. 
[BrocUe's MS., p. 8574.] 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, CROMARTY. 

No information. 



BED FEIAES LOCHFEAL, &c. 303 

XII. LOCHFEAL, in the Shire of Ayr. 

XIII. BKECHIN, A.D. 1260, 

In the Shire of Angus. All Tables of Monasteries mention 
that the Convent of Trinity Friars in this Place stood between 
the Bishop's Residence and the House of the Earl of Pan- 
mure. Edward, a Monk of Coupar- Angus, Founded this Order 
here. He was Preferred to the See of Brechin about A.D. 
1260. He, along with Eustathius, Abbot of Arbroath, went bare- 
footed through the Country, Preaching the Gospel. About A.D. 
1362, Francis Kamsay, of a noble Family, willing to lead the 
Keligious life, gave up all his Possessions, and entered this 
Monastery, until he was chosen Bishop of Candida Casa. He 
Died, and was Buried there, A.D. 1402. [Brockie's MS., p. 8580.] 

VALUATION OF TEINITY FRIARS, BRECHIN. 

No information. 

XIV. LUFFNESS, A.D. 1286, 

In the Parish of Aberlady, upon the Firth of Forth, in the 
Shire of East-Lothian. All the Tables of Monasteries evidence 
that a Convent of the Order of the Holy Trinity formerly 
existed here, but they do not give the name of the Founder. 
An anonymous Author states that A.D. 1285, Pope Martin IV. 
Died of an internal disease; and the following year, Alexander 
III., King of Scotland, having been thrown from his horse, 
broke his neck; about which Period this Monastery of Red Friars 
was Founded here. The Earl of Dunbar is said to have been 
the Founder. Frequent mention is made thereof in ancient 
Charters. The Ruins show what a large and seemly Structure 
it was. [Brockie's MS., p. 8589.] 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, LUFFNESS. 

No information. 

XV. DUNET, A.D. 1297. 

An Hospital of Trinity Friars was Founded at this Place, in 
Buchan, Aberdeenshire, by Alexander, the third Earl of Buchan. 
The name is given by Brockie as Dunetum, or Dumenum. 



804 MONASTICON. 

I find, in the Register oj St. Andrews, Eoger, Prior of Dunet, 
Subscribing a Deed of King David. [Brockie's MS., p. 8590.] 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FEIARS, DUNET. 

No information. 

XVI. SOLTRE, A.D. 1164, 

In Mid-Lothian, 10 miles South-East of Edinburgh, on the 
Koad that leads to Kelso. This Hospital was Founded on the 
top of the Hill called Soutrahill, in 1164, by Malcolm IV., King 
of Scotland, for the relief of Pilgrims and poor and sickly people. 
There were some Lands belonging to this Hospital, near to St. 
Leonards, near Edinburgh. Alexander of Soutra is recorded at 
the year 1204, and " Radulphus, magister hospitalis de Soltre," is 
mentioned by Prynne in 1292. John Heriot, Vicar of Soutra, is 
Witness to several Charters in 1467. The Ruins of this Place 
are to be seen on the East side of the High- way as you go from 
Edinburgh to Kelso ; and after you pass the Burn called The 
Backburn of Soutra, a little before you come to the top of the 
Hill where the Hospital stood, there is a Fountain which was 
Dedicated to the Holy Trinity, called by the country people The 
farnty Well, much frequented by sick and diseased persons, 



The following Account of Soltre, from Father R. Augustin 
Hay's " Scotia Sacra," an unpublished Work, compiled in 1700 
(MS., Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, p. 675), may be quoted 
as furnishing some minute particulars regarding the Hospital and 
its locality, which are not elsewhere to be met with : 

Soltria, Sowtry in Lothian, ane Hospital erect for the relief of Pilgrims 
and poor or sickly people, upon Soltry Hills, by Malcolm the 4th, anno 
1164. It is built 12 [about 17] miles besouth Edinburgh, on the Eoad that 
leadeth to Kelso. Alexander of Soutra is mentioned in 1204. Master 
John Hyriotte, Vicar of Soutra, is Witness to some Charters in 1467. 
The present Laird of Sowtry is nam'd Pringle. His Kesidence is att 
Meusdenhead, a mile distant from the Hill. His Buriall Place is in ane 
Isle of the Abbacie, which is now decay'd the Kuins only being con- 
spicuous. The Hospitall stood on the East of the Highway as you come 
from Edinburgh for Kelso; on the West there are att this day some 
Cotter Houses. The Building appears to have been very spacious. About 



BED FEIAKS SOLTEE. 805 

the midle hill, towards Lothian, near to the Highway, there is a Fountain 
called Ternity Well, or Trinity Well. On the South side of the Hill, att 
the foot, there is a small Brook, which divideth Lothian from Lauderdale. 
There is a Village, likewise, distant from the Monastery about a mile and a 
half, nam'd Sowtry ; it is probable it belonged of old to the Hospitall. 

In former times one of the chief Thoroughfares from the 
South led over Soltre or Soutra Hill, on the Western Boundary 
of the County of Haddington. This Hill, about 17 miles from 
Edinburgh, is the highest elevation to the West of that Ridge or 
Chain of Mountains known as the Lammermuir Hills, separating 
Lothian from Lauderdale. It is a dreary part of the Country, 
surrounded by bleak Moorlands, and used to afford only scanty 
Pasture for Sheep, until the modern improvements in Agriculture 
have brought some considerable tracts under cultivation. Near 
the summit of the Hill, or 1184 feet above the level of the Sea, 
was the Site of the ancient Hospital and Church of Soltre. This 
Hospital, Dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was one of those 
Religious Establishments! of which a considerable number existed 
in different parts of the Kingdom during the Middle Ages, having 
been Erected and Endowed not only for stated Religious Service, 
but for the benevolent purpose of maintaining a certain number 
of Indigent and Infirm persons in the surrounding District, and of 
receiving, for a limited period, Pilgrims and other Travellers. 

The Hospital of Soltre is usually said to have been Founded 
by King Malcolm IV. in 1164. For this statement, the oldest 
Authority seems to be the Continuator of Fordun's " Scotichroni- 
con," who wrote about the middle of the Fifteenth Century. His 
words are " Anno 1164, de concilio Walthevi abbatis de Melros, 
rex Malcolmus fundavit nobile monasterium de Cupro in Angus, 
et ante hoc COENOBIUM DE SOLTREY, ad viatores hospitandos." 
But King Malcolm's Charter, which contains a Grant of the 
Lands of Brotherstanes, extending to Lynden on the Road to 
Roxburghe, has no Date, and makes no allusion to the Hospital 
as having been newly Founded. The period of his Reign, how- 
ever, was from May, 1153, to December, 1165. Tradition is 
also favourable to his claims as Founder, as it is alleged he con- 
ferred on Soltre the Privilege of a Sanctuary. A Road through 

VOL. I. 2 Q 



806 MONASTICON. 

Lauderdale (a name given to the Western part of the County of 
Berwick) leading towards Soltre, was known as Malcolm's Euad, 
and traces of it are said to be still visible ; while another Eoad or 
Causeway through the Moors towards Melrose acquired the name 
of the Girthgate girth signifying " an Asylum or Sanctuary," 
and gate, " a Road." The Cross-chain-hill is a small eminence 
or rising ground about half a mile to the South of the Hospital. 
It would appear that along this Hill, and across the Girthgate, 
there had been a Chain, suspended for a considerable way in the 
direction of East and West, to mark the Boundaries of the 
Privileged Ground. 

King Malcolm's Grant of the Lands of Brotherstanes was 
renewed and Confirmed, with extended Privileges, by his brother, 
William the Lion ; while Alexander III. Confirms an unrecorded 
Grant made by his father, Alexander II., of Half a Chalder of 
Oatmeal from the Mill of Peebles. The series of Charters, 
Printed by the Bannatyne Club, records various other Benefactors 
during the Twelfth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth Centuries. 

William, Bishop of St. Andrews (1211-1226), Confirms to 
the Master and Brethren of Soltre, the Church of S. Giles, at 
Ormiston, in East Lothian, with its Kevenue, to their proper use ; 
and likewise the Church of Strathmartin, in Forfarshire. The 
Churches of Lympetlaw and of Wemyss were assigned by 
Kichard Germyne of Lympetlaw and John of Methkill. Among 
other Feudal Barons or neighbouring Landowners, Bequests were 
made by David Olyfard, Richard, son of Michael of Paistoun, 
Thomas of Cranstoun, Duncan of Swanystoun, and Mariot, his 
spouse, Walter of Soltre, a Burgess of Berwick, and John, the 
Marischal of Keith. It is interesting also to find among these 
Benefactors in 1294, a name of peculiar interest in the Literary 
History of Scotland, Thomas of Ercildoun, son and Heir of 
Thomas Rymour of Ercildoun, the celebrated Scottish Poet, 
familiarly known as " Thomas the Rhymer." 

The Original Chartulary is a very small Folio of 27 Leaves 
of Vellum, the last Leaf much mutilated. It belongs to the 
Faculty of Advocates. "Newton's Transcript," which remains 
among the Records of the City of Edinburgh, is a square Folio 



KED FBIAKS SOLTEE. 807 

of 17 Leaves of Vellum, each Page being attested by him in his 
Official capacity as a Notary. None of the Original Charters 
have been preserved. 

In the .Register of Ministers, 1567, William Frank appears as 
Minister of the united Parishes of Sowtra, Fawlaw, and Keith- 
humbye, with a Stipend of ,30 (Scots), and the Vicarage Teinds 
of Keithhumbye. In 1574, the two former places were joined to 
Creichtoun, of which Adam Johnestoun was Minister, with the 
aid of three Headers. The Header at Soutra had an Allowance 
of 20 Merks, with the Kirk-Land, or Glebe. In 1589, a separa- 
tion from Creichtoun took place, and the Parishes of Fala and 
Soutra, although in different Counties, were again united under 
one Minister. [Soutra is in East Lothian, or the County of Had- 
dington ; Fala in Mid-Lothian, or the County of Edinburgh, and 
in the Presbytery of Dalkeith.] This arrangement has continued 
to the present time, Fala becoming the Parish Church, and 
Soutra existing only in name, or in a few scattered houses 
the Population of the two united Parishes, according to the 
Census in 1851, being only 434; the Kental, however, having 
greatly increased. 

The Hospital at Soltre had a Ploughgate, called Futhe- 
wetheris, at Wedale Ford, in Childenchirch, for the Tithes of 
which the Canons of Dryburgh agreed to accept a Pound of 
Pepper and a Pound of Cumin, annually, at Roxburgh Fair, as 
long as it should be cultivated for the proper use of the Hospital. 

Upon the Annexation of Soltre and its Possessions by Mary of 
Gueldres to the Foundation of the Trinity College in 1462, its 
connexion with St. Andrews was dissolved, and it was restored 
by Papal authority to its former state as an Hospital and Parish 
Church, under the charge of a Vicar, who was appointed by the 
Provost of the new Institution. 

The following Chaplains, of the Chaplainry of the Altar of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary below the Parochial Church of Soltra, occur 
in the Charters: Thomas Cairnis, John Fildar, Edward Ked. 
The following Beadmen and Hospitallers also occur : Alexander 
Anderson, Robert Hecquat, William Smyth, Ptobert Watson. 
Vicars, Pensioners of Soltra Thomas Bathcat, John Greif. 



808 MONASTICON. 

Another change befell Soltre after the " Keformation." When 
Trinity College Church and Hospital and its Revenues were 
transferred to the Provost, Magistrates, and Council of Edin- 
burgh, Soutra, as it was then called, having ceased to be 
maintained as a distinct Parish Church, the Place speedily lost 
its importance, and the Buildings fell into ruins. About 10 or 
12 years ago, every Vestige of the Walls and Foundation had 
been dug up and carted away for building Dykes and Farm- 
Steadings in the neighbourhood. Such has too often been the 
fate of many of our old Ecclesiastical Buildings when in Euins, 
and standing in isolated positions ; the Proprietors being 
ignorant or indifferent for their preservation, and the Tenants 
glad to avail themselves of such an easy mode of obtaining 
building materials. There still, however, exists a small Aisle of 
the Church, converted into a Burying Vault, which had a narrow 




SOLTRE AISLE. 



escape, as portions of the Wall had actually been taken down, 
when its Proprietor interfered, and caused it to be restored. It 
formerly belonged to the Pringles of Beatman's Acre, a piece of 
Land adjoining, bestowed, it is said, by James V., in considera- 
tion of a night's hospitality which he had received. 

A Monumental Stone to some of the Family, of a late Date, 
is built into the Gable of this Aisle; and over the Entrance a 
large Stone or Lintel, with the Date and Initials, 
16. D. P. A. E. 86., 

marks, no doubt, the year in which this portion of the old Church 
was so appropriated. 



BED FRIARS SOLTKE. 809 

Mention is made in the various Notices of Soutra of a 
Fountain of excellent water Dedicated to the Holy Trinity, anji 
vulgarly called the Tarnity Well. This Well, we are told, was 
formerly much celebrated and frequented by sick and diseased 
persons. It has also disappeared the ground being under 
tillage, and the water carried off by means of tile -drains. 

The Aisle above-mentioned, which rises near the top of 
the Hill, now serves as a solitary Beacon or Landmark to denote 
the Site of the ancient Hospital and Church of Soltre, which, for 
many an age before Poor-Houses and Infirmaries existed, had 
continued to minister relief to the Sick and Destitute ; while, in 
such a sterile locality, it could not but prove a welcome Place of 
Kefuge for the weary Pilgrim. [Beg. Domus de Soltre, Edited 
by David Laing, LL.D. Bannatyne Club.] 

In Bagman's Boll occurs ' ' Frere Thomas, Ministrie de la 
meron de la Trinite de Soltre del counte de Edenburgh." About 
1488, we find John Heriot, Vicar of Soutra, Subscribing various 
Charters. [Brockie's MS., p. 8581.] 

The Hospital of Soltre was under the Government of a 
Superior, called Magister. It is not possible to furnish a complete 
List of the Masters, but some of their Names have been recorded. 

LIST OF MASTEES. 

1. Sir REGINALD and Sir WILLIAM OF SOLTKE, Chaplains, appear as Wit- 
nesses in a Charter of the end of the Twelfth Century. 

ANDKEW OF SOLTRE, and various other Chaplains, occur at a later Period. 
In 1271, an Inquisition was made regarding a Dispute between the Master 
and Brethren of Soltre and the Inhabitants of Crailing, in Roxburghshire, 
regarding a claim for "a Thrave of Corn in Harvest out of every Plough- 
gate of the Manor." The Cause was determined by an Assize, consisting 
of a Suitor (Sectator), and four persons out of each of the three contiguous 
Manors of Eckford, Upper Crailing, and of Hetoun, who, under the title of 
antiquiores patrice, decided in favour of Soltre. 

2. RADULPHUS, Magister Hospitalis de Soltre, is named in Charter No. 
48, Register Domus de Soultre. He swore fealty to Edward the First in the 
Chapel of Edinburgh Castle, 29th July, 1291. 

3. THOMAS, Master of the Trinity Hospital of Soltre, four years later, 
did homage to the English Monarch at Berwick, 28th August, 1296 ; and in 
return, the said Thomas obtained Precepts to several Sheriffs to restore the 
Estates and Rights of the Hospital. 



810 MONASTICON. 

After an interval of a Century, the next Master we meet 

with was 



4. THOMAS or ALDTON, on the 7th of April, 1401, and again in October, 
1410. 

5. STEPHEN FLEMYNG appears as Master of the Hospital of Soltre, 4th 
of March, 1426-7. 

6. THOMAS LAWDEK occurs in the Charters as Master of the Hospital, 
8th of January, 1437-8. Thomas de Lawedre, designed as Magister Domus 
Hospitalis de Soltre, appears in Charters of the Dates, llth April, 1439, 
2nd March, 1439-40, and 12th November, 1440. In the Kegister of the 
Great Seal, there is also recorded the Litera Provisionis Magistro Thomae 
de Lawdre ad Episcopatum ecclesie Dunkeldensis cum omnibus juribus ad 
illam spectantibus. (Lib. iv., No. 295.) 20th June, 1452. In 1444, he 
Founded a Chaplainry at the Altar of SS. Martin and Thomas, in the Holy 
Cross Aisle of S. Giles' Church, Edinburgh ; and this Endowment was Con- 
firmed by Eoyal Charter in 1450. Lawder was, in 1452, Promoted to the 
See of Dunkeld, as a reward for his services as Preceptor to King James the 
Second: he was then aged about 60. Abbot My In, in his "Lives of the 
Bishops of Dunkeld," who passes a high eulogium on Lawder as a person of 
great ability and piety, states that he was the first to introduce the custom 
of Preaching in his Diocese. Feeling the effects of advanced age, in 1476 
Lawder resigned the See in favour of the Dean, James Livingston, but he 
survived till November, 1481 ; and Myln has recorded the Inscription on his 
Tomb, in the Cathedral Church of Dunkeld. It is probable that Lawder 
had Kesigned his Mastership on the occasion of his being appointed Bishop 
in 1452, as we find 

7. ALAN CANT styled Kector of the Hospital, and Chancellor of the 
Church of St. Andrews, apparently between 1453 and 1455. 

This designation renders it necessary to explain that Soltre Hospital 
was, by authority of Pope Nicholas V., annexed to the Church of St. 
Andrews, as the Benefice of the Chancellor, with the consent of Alan Cant, 
who then became Chancellor. Cant had pursued his studies at the 
University of St. Andrews, where he became a Bachelor of Arts in 1426, 
and a Licentiate in 1430. In 1460, we find that he was deceased, and that 
his Successor was 

8. JOHN TYEY, Bachelor of Decrees. In 1479, John Tyry was one of 
the Masters elected as Assistants to the Kector of the University of St. 
Andrews. 

VALUATION OF TRINITY FRIARS, SOLTRE. 

In the Papal Taxation of Churches and Monasteries in Scotland at the 
end of the Thirteenth Century, is the following Valuation of Soltre: 
Ecclesia ejusdem c s. Cultura ejusdem vj li. xiij s. iiij d. Firma ejusdem 



WHITE FEIABS. 811 

citra mare et ultra xv li. xv s. vij d. Bona Mobilia ejusdem Ixvij s. Lana 
et agri ejusdem x li. ix s. Ecclesia de Ormestone x li. Summa LJ li. iiij s. 
xj d. Decima cij s. v d. ob. qt a . 

Spottiswoode says there were Thirteen Houses of the Eed 
Friars in Scotland : I have found out three more, making 
Sixteen. 



THE PREMONSTRATENSES. 

THE Premonstratenses were so named from their principal 
Monastery " Praemonstratum," in the Diocese of Laon in France, 
which the Monks of this Order pretend was so called from its 
being "Divina revelatione Praemonstratum." This Order is 
also called Cajididus Or do, because their garb is entirely White. 
They followed the Rule of S. Augustine, which, they say, was 
delivered to them in golden letters, from himself, in a Vision ; 
and were Founded by S. Norbert, a German Archbishop of 
Magdeburgh, who obtained for himself and Successors in that See 
the " Title of Primate of Germany." His Order was Confirmed 
by Popes Honorius II. and Innocent III. He retired with some 
companions about the year 1120. [Spottisivoode.] 

Norbert was Born of a very great Family, in the Country of 
Cleves, where his father was Earl of Gennap. He begun the 
establishment of this Order in 1120, at a place which hath been 
called since Premontre, in the Bishopric of Laon, framing a 
mixture of a Monastical and Canonical Life. He followed 
chiefly the Rule of S. Austin ; and his Order was Confirmed by 
Popes Honore II. and Innocent III. He was made after- 
wards Archbishop of Magdbourg, and obtained for that See the 
Title of Primate of Germany. The Monks of Premontre pub- 
lished, after the Death of their Founder, that he had received 
his Rule, curiously bound in gold, from the hand of S. Austin 
himself, who appeared to him one night, and said thus to him 
" Here is the Rule which I have written, and if thy Brethren 
do observe it, they, like my Children, need to fear nothing at 
all in the Day of Judgment." These added moreover, that an 



812 MONASTICON. 

Angel showed to him a Meadow, where he was to build his first 
Monastery, which from thence was called Pre Montre, that is, 
" The Showed Meadow." Their Order spread itself into Syria, 
Normandy, Flanders, England, Spain, and other Countries. They 
wear a White Cassock and a Kochet over it, with a long White 
Cloak. Pope Honorius IV. having granted to the Fathers Car- 
melites the use of a White Plaited Cloak, those of Premontre 
complained of it as of a great scandal and wrong done to them. 
This, notwithstanding, the Carmelites carried in spite of their 
teeth ; and, under pretences of several Apparitions of the Virgin 
Mary, kept their long White Cloaks. The Abbots of several Orders, 
and particularly those of S. Benet, having obtained the Pope's 
permission to Officiate in Pontificalibus, with the Mitre, the 
Crozier Staff, and the Ring, as the " Popish" Bishops do, the 
Abbots of the Order of Premontre refused to make use of these 
" marks of vanity." They agreed together, in case any of them 
were raised to the dignity of a Cardinal, or to the Popedom 
itself, never to leave their Religious Habit, and that none of 
them should accept of any Dignity or Degree whatsoever without 
. having first the License of their General Chapter. They made 
several other Regulations, which they joined to the Rule of S. 
Austin. This Order had, moreover, this peculiar to it, that 
wherever they Founded a Monastery for Men, they had the 
cunning to build another for Women next to it. But the 
infamous Correspondencies which they kept with them, and the 
great scandals that arose from thence, moved Conradus, Prior of 
Martello, a very honest Gentleman, to use his utmost endeavours 
for the Suppressing of those Female Monasteries. They made 
then a Declaration in 1273, by which, after having acknowledged 
that the Women were worse than the most venomous Aspicks 
and Dragons, and that there was no malice comparable to theirs, 
they resolved thenceforward not to look upon them, but as upon 
so many mischievous beasts, and declared they would have no 
more to do with them. 

Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, in England, having undertaken 
to bring the same Reformation into the Monasteries of Premontre 
in his Diocese, wrote concerning it to Innocentius IV.; but 



WHITE FBIABS SOULSEAT. 818 

this Pope, bribed with great sums of Money by the Monks, would 
not consent to it. The Bishop made bold to write to him a 
second time, and had for answer " Brother, thou hast dis- 
charged thy Conscience; why art thou angry at my condescen- 
sion ? I have pardoned them : is thy eye bad because I am 
good ?" This was a neat application of the Holy Scripture ! 
These Monks of Premontre did not apply their minds to study at 
the beginning of their Institution, and therefore were tossed 
about by the other Monks as ignorant Friars ; but now they have 
established Schools amongst them. [Emillianne, p. 130.] 

There were of this Order six Monasteries in Scotland, at the 
following Places, viz., 

I. SOULSEAT, A.D. 1148, 

Called Sedes Animarum, or Monasterium viridis stagni, as it 
was situate in the bosom of a small Lake, in the form of a 
crescent, in Galloway, near Stranraer. S. Malachias [Archbishop 
of Armagh] is said to have Founded here the first Community ; 
which is surely a mistake, for it is certain that the first Religious of 
this Order were brought here directly from Praemontre in France, 
as Johannes le Page relates, in his Biblioth. Praemonst. lib. i., p. 
333. It was the mother of Holywood and Whitehorn, and was 
Founded by Fergus, Lord of Galloway, who became a Canon- 
Eegular in the Abbacy of Holyroodhouse, in A.D. 1160, after he 
had Founded several Abbeys and Religious Places, and endowed 
them with considerable Revenues for the subsistence of the 
Canons or Monks, whom he brought home and settled in Gallo- 
way. [Spottiswoode.] 

Some have attributed the name Sedes Saulis to Saul, the 
first Abbot. The Church was Dedicated to S. John Evangelist. 

An Act of Parliament, enacted in 1487, against purchasing 
Livings at Rome, in violation of the King's privilege, specified 
Saulseat to be one of the Scottish Abbeys " that were not sold 
at the Court of Rome," i.e., the Pope had no right to dispose of 
it, the King having the Appointment, while the Pope had only 
the Confirmation. In July, 1532, David, Abbot of Saulseat, the 
Superior, being about to execute a Commission for visiting and 

VOL. I. 2 E 



814 MONASTICON. 

reforming all the Houses in Scotland of the Premonstratentian 
Order, obtained a Precept from the King, commanding attention 
and obedience to him everywhere, in the execution of the said 
Commission. [Privy Seal Reg. ix., 131.] In 1568, the Abbot, 
with others, signed a Bond in pledge that they would fight for 
Queen Mary. 

Besides the Lands and some other Property, this Abbey had 
only two Parish Churches, viz., Saulseat, and Kirkmaiden in the 
Rhins, whose Tithes and Income formed the best part of the 
Revenues of the Abbey. After the abolition of Religious Houses, 
the Revenues of Saulseat were appropriated to the Parish 
Churches of Kirkmaiden and Saulseat, and to the newly- elected 
Parish of Port Patrick. The Lands which at present constitute 
the Parish of Port Patrick, were formerly called " The Black 
Quarter of the Inch," and till 1628 formed a part of the Parish 
of Inch, having pertained to Soulseat. [Acta Parl. F., 132 ; 
whereby the very name and title of this Abbey were suppressed.] 
This Abbey was in ruins in 1684, when Symson wrote his History 
of Galloway. Only a few of the remains are now visible. Part 
of the Burying- Ground still remains, having some curious Grave- 
Stones, and is occasionally used. [New Stat. Ace. Scot.] 

Saulseat Loch, on the peninsular recess of which stood the 
Abbey, is contiguous to the Railway, 3 miles South-East of 
Stranraer. It is a beautiful sheet of water, of a horse-shoe form, 
nearly a mile long, and finely adorned with wood. 

King James IV. grants a Charter to this Abbey, of the Croft, 
called The Virgin Mary, in the Parish of Kirkmaiden, on the 
resignation of Nevin Agnew of Creith, 16th June, 1493. G.S.B. 
13, No. 75. Mr. John Kennedy, Apparant of Balterson, is 
provided to this Abbey during all the days of his life, 25th 
October, 1598. G.S.B. 41, No. 452. William Adair, Apparant 
of Rinhilt, is provided to this Abbey, 3rd September, 1606. 
G.S.B. 43, No. 39. [Riddle's MS. Notes.] 

The last Abbot of the Monastery of Sausede was John John- 
ston, as appears from a Letter to Cardinal David Beaton from 
Mary, Queen of Scotland, at Edinburgh, Pridie Kal. Maii, 1545. 
Quintin was Abbot here A.D. 1524. Nicholas Gordon was 



WHITE FKIAKS HOLYWOOD. 815 

Translated from this Monastery to be Abbot of Tungland. He 
wrote a Book of Synodal Decrees, and a Collection of Canons 
and Constitutions. He was Vicar- General of the Diocese of 
Dunkeld A.D. 1334. [Brockie's MS., p. 8349.] 

VALUATION OF WHITE FRIARS, SOULSEAT, IN 1562. 

Money 343 13s U (Scots). Meal 13 Chalders, 4 Bolls, 2 Firlots, 2 
Pecks; Bear 7 Chalders, 8 Bolls; Capons 18 Dozen; One Pound of 
Wax for Altar. A subsequent Kental added 6 Chalders of Oats. 

II. HOLYWOOD, A.D. 1180, 

Four miles from Dumfries, called in Latin Monasterium sacri 
nemoris, " the Monastery of the Sacred Grove," and, in the Pope's 
Bulls, Dercongall, " the Oakwood of Congal ;" for Pope Honorius 
III., in his Bull, "datum Keate, 15 Kalend. Januarii, Pontificat. 
sui anno decimo, super controversia inter Walterum Glasguens. 
episcop. et Wilhelmum Paisletens. abbat.," addresses the Bull, 
"Abbati de Dercongall, Glasguens. Dioces." Dungald, "abbe 
de Saint Boyse " (according to Prynne, vol. Hi., p. 653), swears 
fealty to Edward I. of England, anno 1296. Johannes de Sacro 
Bosco, " John of the Holy Bush," who is famous 
for his Astronomical BookZte Splicer a, "On the 
Sphere," is thought by several people of learning 
to have been a professed Keligious of this Place. 
[Spottistvoode.] 

John, Lord of Kirkconnel, who was of the 
Family of Maxwell, is said by Dugdale, in his 
Monasticon, vol. ii., p. 1057, to have Founded 
this Ancient House of Der-Congal or Holywood, 
which must have been before the demise of 
David I. Some suppose that Devergilla or Chapter House, 
Donagilla, daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway, Westminster. 
was the Foundress. She was the wife of John Baliol, Lord of 
Barnard Castle, and mother of John Baliol, declared King of the 
Scots by the decision of Edward I., 17th November, 1292. 

The Abbot of Dercongal sat in the Great Parliament at Brig- 
ham in March, 1290. [Rymer, vol. ii., p. 471.] Dungal, the Abbot 




816 MONASTICON. 

de Sacrobosco, with his Monks, swore fealty to Edward I. at 
Berwick, in August, 1296. [Prynne, vol. Hi., p. 653, who 
blunders the name to Saint Boijse.] Edward immediately issued 
a Writ to his Sheriff of Dumfriesshire to restore the property of 
"Dungal, Abbas de Sacro Nemore." [Eymer, vol. ii., p. 72.] 
In May, 1365, David II. granted a Protection and certain Privi- 
leges to the Abbot and Convent " de Sacro Nemore." [Regist. 
Mag. Sig.j 128.] Archibald Douglas was Abbot of Holywood in 
1493. [Ada Auditorum, p. 175.] 

In 1527, William, Bishop of Glasgow, decided a Controversy 
between the Monks of Melrose and the Monks 
of Dercongal, with regard to the Church and 
Tithes of Dunscore. [Cart. Melros.] 

Thomas Campbell, the last Abbot of Holy- 
wood, was prosecuted by the Kegent Murray for 
assisting Queen Mary after her escape from 
Lochleven, and he was forfeited on the 19th 
August, 1568. 

The Monks of Holywood possessed many 
Chapter House, Lands in Nithsdale and East Galloway, and 
Westminster. they enjoyed a jurisdiction over the whole. 
The Maxwell Family acquired the Office of Bailie to the Abbot, 
whom they protected ; and they obtained the six Merk-Lands of 
Baltersan, with the three Merk-Lands of Gleneslau, as a Fee for 
executing this Office, which continued hereditary till the abolition 
of such Jurisdictions in 1748. 

What remained of the property of this Monastery, after much 
waste, was vested in the King, by the General Annexation Act, 
in 1587. In 1617, an Act of Parliament was passed, dissolving 
the said Annexation as to the whole Temporal Property of the 
Abbey of Holywood, and the Spiritual Property of the same, 
consisting of the Parish Churches of Holywood, Dunscore, Pen- 
pont, Tynron, and Kirkconnel Parsonages and Vicarages, with 
their Tithes and Kevenues ; all in order that the King might 
grant the whole to John Murray of Lochmaben, and his Heirs, 
and might erect the same into a free Barony, to be called The 
Barony of Holywood, for the yearly payment of J020 Scots, in 




WHITE FKIARS HOLYWOOD. 



817 



name of " blench ferm." Accordingly, Murray obtained a Charter 
of the whole, which was ratified in Parliament in 1621. This 
Murray had been about the King from his youth, and was one 
of the Grooms of the Bed-Chamber; and before this he had 
acquired from his Sovereign the Barony of Lochmaben, and other 
property in Dumfriesshire. 

The Abbey of Holywood stood on the South-East Corner of 
the present Church-yard. It was in the form of a Cross, and the 
Chancel was used as the Parish Kirk so late as 1779, when the 
Kemains were appropriated to build the present Structure. The 
Vestiges of the Abbey may be still traced in the Church-yard ; 
and an adjoining Farm has the honour of bearing its sacred name. 
Two of the Bells of the Abbey 
still "ring in" the Protestants 
within the ' * Keformed Fabric. " 
One of the Bells (by an In- 
scription and Date upon it) 
was Consecrated, or rather 
"Baptized," by the Abbot 
John Wrich in 1154. [Chal- 
mers' Caledonia, vol. iii.j p. 
151.] 

Mr. John Johnston, Advo- 
cate, was provided to this Ab- 
bey for life, 15th August, 1600, 
on the demission of Sir James 
Johnston of Dirnskellie. 
G.S.B. 42, No. 186. [Riddle's MS. Notes.] 

Chalmers, in his " Caledonia," vol. iii., p. 153, says "In 
the Reign of Robert I., his brother, Edward Bruce, the Lord of 
Galloway, Founded at the Abbey of Holywood an Hospital and 
a Chapel, which he Endowed with some Lands in Galloway. 
This charitable Establishment having been ruined during the 
Succession War, it was restored in 1372 by Archibald Douglas, 
"the Grim," Lord of Galloway, who again Endowed it with the 
Lands of Crossmichael and Troquire, in Galloway. This 
was sanctioned by Walter, Bishop of Glasgow, and Confirmed by 




A Bird sitting on an Acorn of a Tree. 
Appended to a Lease by Thomas (Campbell), 
Abbot of Holywood, dated 15th Nov., 1557. 



318 MONASTICON. 

Eobert II., on the 2nd June, 1372. [Eeg. Mag. Sig. Bot., vol. 
ii., p. 56.] 

There appears to have been a Druidical Temple here even 
before " the Hermit, S. Congal" [Fest. on 12th May, 1113], fixed 
his Ketreat in the Grove, which has disappeared, while the Druid 
Stones (12 very large granite or whin boulders) retain their old 
position. The Circle is 240 feet in diameter, about half a mile 
to the North- West of the Parish Church. There is a view of 
this Druid Temple in Groses Antiquities, vol. i., p. 169. 

In Adam's Kalendar, at 12th May, there occurs " Sanctus 
Congallus, Abbas de Holy Wood et Confessor in Scotia, sub rege 
Malcolmo II. anno 1113." Brockie (MS., p. 8488) says that, in 
an ancient Missal belonging to Father Thomas Primrose, there 
was inserted, with a Pen, a Collect of or to S. Congal, Abbate 
Sacri Bosci, " Abbot of Holy Bush." From this Confessor 
probably originated the name Kir Connell or KMconnelL 

VALUATION OF WHITE FEIARS, HOLYWOOD, IN 1544. 

Money 700 (Scots). Meal 19 Chalders, 14 Bolls, 8 Firlots ; Bear 
9 Chalders, 3 Bolls ; Malt 1 Chalder. By the plunder of the " Eefor- 
mation," it was reduced to 425, and still more to 395 18s 8d. 



III. WHITHORN, 

Or Candida Casa, as the name was Latinized about 432. 
Fergus, Lord of Galloway, who flourished in the Eeign of King 
David I., Founded here a Priory of this Order, who were Dean 
and Chapter of the Cathedral of the Diocese of Galloway. 
Morice, Prior of this Convent, swore fealty to Edward Lang- 
shanks, King of England, in 1296. This Church was famous 
for the great resort of Pilgrims, who flocked thither from all 
parts to visit S. Ninian's Sepulchre, whom they call commonly 
the first Bishop of Galloway. We had two famous Priors of this 
Place: the one called Gavin Dunbar was Prior here in 1514, 
and afterwards Archbishop of Glasgow; and the other, James 
Beaton, a son of the Family of Balfour in Fife, was first Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, and then of St. Andrews, and Chancellor of 
Scotland. [Spottiswoode.] 



WHITE FKIAKS WHITHOKN. 819 

This Keligious House was Dedicated to S. Martin of Tours, 
the Instructor of S. Ninian, to whom also had been Dedicated 
the Original Church, by S. Ninian, where he was Buried. It is 
doubtful whether his Church stood in the Town of Whithorn, or 
in the Isle of Whithorn, about 3 miles to the South-East : 
the preponderance of evidence is in favour of the latter. It 
seems pretty certain that some of the Kelics of S. Ninian were 
enshrined in the Conventual Church of the Priory Founded in 
the Town of Whithorn ; for in such veneration were the name 
and memory of S. Ninian held, that people of all ranks from 
every part of England, Scotland, and Ireland, performed Pil- 
grimages here to his Shrine. These Pilgrimages were so rooted 
in the practice of the people, that they were continued long after 
the " Reformation," notwithstanding all the inculcations and 
denunciations that the "Preachers" could vociferate anent 
" Chapels, Wells, and Crosses." 

In Summer, 1473, Margaret, Queen of James III., made a 
Pilgrimage to Whithorn, with her attendants, six Ladies of the 
Chamber, who accompanied her, and who were furnished with 
new Livery Gowns on that occasion. 

A long Extract, in small type, is given in " Chalmers' 
Caledonia," vol. iii., pp. 412-413, from the Treasurer's Books 
which remain of James IV. 's Reign, containing Notices of the 
simplicity and manners of those times. Let a few here suffice. 

Throughout James IV. 's Reign, he made frequent Pilgrimages 
to S. Ninian's Shrine at Whithern, generally once a year, and 
frequently twice a year. In September, 1497, the King went 
from Edinburgh on a Pilgrimage to Whithern. He took his 
usual route, by Biggar, through Upper Clydesdale, to Durisdee ; 
and from thence across Nithsdale to S. John's Kirk at Dalus ; 
and from this mountainous Country he went through Galloway 
to Wigton, and thence to Whithern, giving Offerings, Donations, 
and Alms. At Whithern, besides his accustomed Donations, he 
gave <10 for 10 Trentales of Masses for the King. He returned 
through Ayrshire, and through Glasgow to Stirling. In April, 
1501, the King went from Edinburgh on a Pilgrimage to Whit- 
hern.- In passing through Kirkcudbright, he gave to the Priests 



820 MONASTICON. 

20 Shillings, and to the Friars of the same Place, 5 12s, to buy 
an Eucharist. He arrived at Whithern on the 22nd April ; and 
on the same night he made his Offerings at the Town, at the 
Relics, at the High Altar, at the Eood Altar, and at the Chapel 
on the Hill 5 French Crowns, i.e., 3 10s Sterling. He gave 
a French Crown (14s) to the Prior's Luter (the Player on the 
Lute). He returned through Ayr and Glasgow to Stirling. 
April 8th, 1503. The King, returning from Whithern, received 
intelligence, by express, when at Wigton, of his brother's Death, 
John, Earl of Mar. He charged the Priests of Wigton " to 
perform a Dirge and Soul-Mass" for his brother, and paid them 
40s for their pains. May 6th, 1503. The King performed 
another Pilgrimage to Whithern ; and going by Dumfries, on the 
7th May, he made his Offering of 14s in our Lady's Chapel at 
the end of the Town. On setting out from Edinburgh, he 
despatched a Courier to bring the Relic of S. Ninian, which was 
kept at Stirling, to meet the King with it at Whithern. June 
26, 1504. The King was at Whithern, and he bought there, 
for 4s, some Tokens of S. Ninian. June 29. On his return, he 
met and gave Alms to some poor people from Tain, in Ross- 
shire, going on a Pilgrimage to Whithern. This Pilgrim-King 
was literally cut in pieces on Flodden Field, 9th September, 1513. 
November, 1513. The old Earl of Angus, "Bell the Cat," 
who left two of his sons on Flodden Field, made a Pilgrimage to 
Whithern. James V., after he arrived at manhood, appears also 
from the Treasurer's Accounts to have made several Pilgrimages 
to Whithern in 1532 and 1533. 

Long before the time of Symsoris Galloway, the ample 
Buildings of this Priory had been allowed to fall into ruins. In 
1684, the Steeple and the Name were then standing : the Aisles, 
the Cross Church, and the several other Buildings belonging to 
the Priory had fallen. A Century afterwards, nothing more 
remained but the Ruins of one of the Churches ; and the only 
part that continued standing were four Gothic Arches, which 
forms a part of the present Kirk, that stands upon the high 
ground on the West side of the Town of Whithorn. 

The whole Property of this Priory was vested in the King by 



WHITE FEIAES DKYBUKGH. 321 

the General Annexation Act in 1587; and it was afterwards 
Granted by King James to the Bishop of Galloway in 1606, 
when it was annexed to the Kevenues of that See. It was trans- 
ferred to the University of Glasgow in 1641, but was restored to 
the Bishop of Galloway in 1661 ; and it continued to belong to 
that See till the final abolition of Episcopacy in 1689. 

PRIORS OF WHITHORN. 

1. CHRISTIANUS, afterwards Bishop of the See, A.D. 1154. [Richard Hay.] 

2. MAURICE swore fealty to Edward I. A.D. 1296. [Ragman's Roll.] 

3. THOMAS, A.D. 1415, gave, by Deed of Obligation, 20 (Scots) to 
James Bisset, Prior of St. Andrews. 

JOHN, Sub-Prior. 

4. ADAM wrote a Treatise on " The Soliloquy of the Soul." 

5. JAMES BEATON, about A.D. 1503, uncle of the Cardinal, afterwards 
Bishop of Galloway, and Archbishop of Glasgow and St. Andrews. 

6. GAVIN DUNBAR, A.D. 1514, afterwards Archbishop of Glasgow. 

7. MANCOLALYNE, who was present at the Trial of Sir John Borthwick 
for alleged Heresy. 

VALUATION OF WHITE FRIARS, WHITHORN. 

At the " Eeformation " the Eental of the Priory of Whithorn, as returned 
to the Government, amounted to Money, 1016 3s 4d (Scots). Bear 15 
Chatters, 14 Bolls, 3 Firlots ; Meal 51 Chatters, 15 Bolls, 2 Firlots. 

Another Kental was afterwards returned, the amount of which was 
Money, 1159 3s 4rf (Scots). Bear 16 Chatters, 6 Bolls, 3 Firlots ; Meal 
53 Chatters, 9 Bolls, 2 Firlots ; Malt 1 Chatter. 

IV. DRYBURGH, A.D. 1150, 

Situated on the Kiver Tweed, 10 miles from Kelso and 3 
miles from Melrose, in Teviotdale, was a famous Abbey, Founded 
by Hugh de Morville, Lord of Lauderdale and Constable of Scot- 
land, and his wife " Beatrix de Bello Campo" (Beauchamp), in the 
Keign of King David I. The uncle of Hugh de Morville was one of 
the murderers of Thomas a Beckett. [On S. Martin's Day, 1150, 
the Cemetery was Consecrated, that no Demons might haunt it. 
Chron. Mclros.] Walter Stuart, father to King Kobert II., 
Grants to this place the Patronage of the Church of Maxton, 
in the Shire of Koxburgh and Diocese of Glasgow. Kilrenny, 
in Fife, was also given to this Monastery, by Ada, mother to 
VOL. i. 2s 



322 MONASTICON. 

King Malcolm IV. and King William the Lion; and by the 
same Charter she gives them also " dimidiam carrucatam 
terrae de Pitcortyne, et unum toftum in burgo meo de Carole." 
The Author of the Monasticon Hibernicum informs us that there 
were two Monasteries in Ireland which acknowledged the Abbacy 
of Dryburgh for their mother, viz., the Abbacy of Drumcross, in 
the County of Armagh, and the Abbey of Woodburn, in the 
County of Antrim. It was erected into a Temporal Lordship by 
King James VI. in favour of Henry Erskine, a younger son 
of the Earl of Mar, thereafter created Lord Cardross, ancestor to 
the present Earl of Buchan. There is a Chartulary of this 
place, containing all the Charters that were Granted thereto, 
in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. [Spottiswoode.] 

Dryburgh Abbey is situated on the North Bank of the Tweed, 
upon a piece of Haugh Land, around which the Eiver describes 
a Crescent. Dryburgh, from 'the Celtic Daroch-Bruach, signifies 
"the Oak Grove." The venerable reddish Ruins of this Abbey, 
Dedicated to S. Mary, are completely embosomed in wood of 
the richest foliage. The scenery is most interesting, embracing 
wood and water, mountain and rock. The variety is very 
striking, and the whole view gives rise to the most pleasing 
sentiments of religious tranquillity. The Ruins are so over- 
grown with foliage that great difficulty is found in taking 
accurate measurements of them. Everywhere you behold the 
usurpation of Nature over Art. In one roofless Apartment a 
fine Spruce and Holly are to be seen flourishing in the rubbish ; 
in others the Walls are completely covered with Ivy ; and, even 
on the top of some of the Arches, trees have sprung up to a con- 
siderable growth, and there, clustering with the aspiring Pinnacles, 
add character to the Gothic Pile. The beauty of this ruined 
Abbey is not, like those of Kelso and Jedburgh, injured by being 
in part surrounded with common dwellings. [Smith's Descrip- 
tion of Dryburgh Euins in Mortons Annals of Teviotdale. 

David I. is claimed as a co-Founder. It was colonized from 
Alnwick. In 1183, Pope Lucius III. granted permission to the 
Canons of Dryburgh, whenever the Kingdom should be under a 
general Interdict, to Celebrate Divine Service in their Church, in 



WHITE FBIAES DEYBUKGH. 823 

a low voice, with the Doors shut, and without ringing of Bells 
all Excommunicated and Interdicted persons being shut out. 

In 1208, the new Cemetery was Consecrated by William 
Malvoisin, Bishop of St. Andrews. 

The general Privilege of exemption from Episcopal jurisdic- 
tion granted to Monasteries of this Order, appears not to have 
been acknowledged in Scotland, since we find that the Abbots 
of Dryburgh were obliged to attend the Synodal Meetings at 
Haddington, held under the authority of the Bishop of St. 
Andrews. From this Obligation they were released by William 
de Lamberton, who was Bishop from 1298 to 1328. 

In 1332, when the Army of Edward II. was on its retreat, 
the Brotherhood rung the Bells of the Convent for joy at 
their departure, the sound of which made the English soldiers 
return and burn the Abbey in revenge. Kobert the Bruce con- 
tributed liberally towards its repair ; but it has been doubted 
whether it was ever fully restored to its original magnificence. 
This circumstance will account for the intermixture of a later 
Style with the original Norman Architecture. Patrick, one of 
the Canons, who was reckoned among the first men of his age as 
a Philosopher, Divine, Orator, and Poet, lived at this Period, 
and wrote a Poem upon the Destruction of the Monastery, which 
he addressed to the King and to the Superiors of Keligious 
Houses. [Dempster's Hist. Eccles.] 

Certain flagrant disorders which were found to have occurred 
in the Community, but of which the Date is not mentioned, may 
with probability be referred to a Period not many years sub- 
sequent to this. It was found that strife and .debate had existed, 
and blows had been dealt, not only among themselves, but to 
other Keligious. Some of the Brethren had infringed the Kule 
which forbade the possession of private Property; some had 
obtained admission into the Convent by simony ; and others, who 
lay under Censures, had been admitted to Holy Orders. For 
these Offences they had been Excommunicated, and could not be 
lawfully restored without personally appearing at Rome before 
the Pope. The observance of this obligation made matters 
rather worse ; for in so long a journey, during which those under 



324 MONASTICON. 

ban were necessarily removed from notice and control, they 
were apt to fall into irregularities, to wander about at their ease, 
and to contract vagabond habits. These things being stated to 
Pope Gregory XI. (1370-1377), he, in the second year of his 
Pontificate, gave the Abbot power, according to his discretion, to 
Absolve the least guilty, upon due Penance done ; but more 
enormous Offenders were still to be sent to receive Correction 
and Absolution at the Papal Court. [Chart. Dryburg, 96, v.] 

About this time lived Kalph Strode, a distinguished Poet and 
Philosopher, who, in the early part of his career, devoted himself 
to Literary pursuits in this Monastery, whence he was sent, at 
the expense of the King of Scots, to study at Merton College, 
Oxford, of which he became a Fellow. He was a friend of 
Geoffrey Chaucer, who, at the conclusion of his Troilus and 
Cresseide, inscribes that Poem to "the moral Gower," and to 
"the philosophical Strode." He travelled through France and 
Germany into Italy, perhaps in company with that celebrated 
Poet, who was at Milan in 1368, where he became personally 
acquainted with Petrarca. Strode also strode into the Holy 
Land, and wrote an Account of his Journey. By some Writers 
he is represented as a follower, and by others an opponent, of his 
Contemporary, John Wicliffe. The Title of one of his Works, 
and Wicliffe 's Answer to it, prove the latter to be the fact, which 
would have been sufficiently apparent from his having long 
continued a Tutor at Merton College, where Lewis Chaucer, the 
son of his friend, was among his Pupils. His Literary Works, 
according to Dempster, were these: 1, " FabulaB Lepidae, 
versu;" 2, " Consequentiarum Formulae ;" 3, " Sophismalum 
Strophse;" 4, "Itinerarium Teme Sanctse;" 5, "Panegyrici 
versu Patris;" 6, " Summulae Logicales ;" 7, " Phantasma Ka- 
dulphi ;" 8, " Positiones, et xvm. Argumenta, contra Wicliffum 
Hereticum;" 9, " Opuscula." 

From Fabricius, we learn that he belonged to the Order of 
Preaching Friars, and was Poet-Laureate at Oxford. 

Eichard II. set the Abbey on fire in one of his forays in 1385 ; 
and in 1544, Sir George Bowes and Sir Brian Layton, at the 
head of 700 men, once more burned it, saving the Church only. 



WHITE FRIARS DEYBUKGH. 325 

Next year, in September, 1545, we find the Abbot of Dryburgh 
(James Stewart) acting as a Feudal Chief, and, in company with 
other Chieftains, at the head of their followers, crossing the 
Tweed into Northumberland, where, having burned the Village of 
Homcliff, with the corn in it, and attempting to do similar 
damage to other places, they were repulsed with loss by the 
Garrisons of Norham and Berwick, assisted by the warlike 
inhabitants. [Cotton MS.] 

The Church was cruciform, and the Nave and Choir had 
Aisles : the Transept had an Eastern Aisle. There was a 
Presbytery 36 feet long, in the place of a Lady Chapel. The 
Nave was of six Bays ; the Choir of two ; while the Shallow 
Transept extended only one Bay beyond the line of the Nave. 
The Chapter House, Chapel of S. Modan, Eefectory, Kitchen, 
and Dormitories, are Transitional Norman; the Choir and 
Transept were Early English ; and the Nave Early Decorated. 
The latter measured 190 feet by 75 feet. The South front of the 
Transept has five Lancets, within an enclosing Arch. The 
Chapter House, 47 feet by 23 feet, and 20 feet in height, has a 
Double Circle in the Floor to mark the Founder's Grave. 

S. Mary's Aisle is the North Aisle of the Choir, and occupies 
two Bays. In it Sir Walter Scott was Buried on the 26th 
September, 1832. 

There is a singular diversity of levels in this Monastery. 
The Church, which lies along the North side, is on the highest 
level; it requires 10 steps to get down to the level of the Cloisters, 
and as many more to get down to the level of the Chapter House. 

To the South of the Chapter House is the Abbot's Parlour. 
The immense Fire-place was in the upper end, and, when filled 
with Billet-wood, must have been very comfortable in a Winter 
evening, where the Abbot and those of his Monks whose minds 
were of a superior order, enjoyed "the feast of reason, and the 
flow of soul." Immediately South of this Parlour is a large 
Arched Passage, which led from the front of the Abbey towards 
the Village. This Passage is 24 feet long by 13 broad, and 8 
feet high. Above this Passage is the Buttery of the Abbey, 
where the Plate was kept. The small Stair-case from the 



326 MONA8TICON. 

Abbot's Parlour to the Dormitories led through this Chamber; 
and the Door on the top of the Stair is very small, and only 4 
feet high. From the way the Stones are cut, the Door must 
have been iron. There was another Stair-case to the Dormi- 
tories, which went from this Cloister. The Dormitory was 24 
feet by 14. There is one very small Window to it at the East 
end. It has also the remains of a Fire-place. This is the only 
Apartment in the whole Abbey the Stone Pavement of which is 
still entire all of irregular Flag- Stones, in the same way in 
which the Koman Koads were paved. South of ths Passage 
stated above are the remains of the Library, evidently a more 
modern Building than the rest of the Abbey, but of equally, if 
not more, beautiful workmanship. The size of this Library 
appears to have been 24 feet long by 24 broad, and about 18 
feet high. 

The Refectory, or great Dining Hall, occupied the whole 
front of the Abbey facing the South. It was 100 feet long by 30 
broad, and about 60 feet high. At the back Door of the Refec- 
tory was found a very curious Lavatory, beautifully carved all 
round, repeating the same Figure eight times, twice on each side. 
Probably the subject is some Legend a Monster, being the head 
of a Pig to the wings of a Bird, having the body of a Serpent, 
ending in a leaf by w r ay of a tail. The Lead Pipe for letting out 
the Water was attached to this Lavatory. Under the Refectory 
was half a dozen Cellars : the one opposite the Gate-house was 
the Almonry Cellar, where Broken Bread and Meat were given 
to the Poor. Over this Cellar in the Refectory was a Door, still 
entire, which led by a Stair down to the Kitchen ; but the Stair 
and Kitchen are destroyed. The mark of the Roof of the 
Kitchen is still distinctly seen in the West Gable of the Refec- 
tory, outside. 

The Cloisters are to the North of the Refectory. The Walls, 
to the height of 20 feet, are still standing ; but the Arcade is 
destroyed, evidently by fire. The Cloister was 100 feet square, 
and is now an elegant Flower Garden. In the centre there is a 
Statue, by Gowan, on which is inscribed "Inigo Jones, obiit 
Julij, 1652, Mi. 80." There is a very old Inscription, close to 



WHITE FKIAES DRYBUEGH. 327 

the ground, near the Window of the Chapter House, looking into 
the Cloister. Probably it is to the memory of some Monk or 
Mason, employed in the Building. It is only "Hie jacit 
Archabaldus." 

There is a Door in each Corner of the Cloisters. The one at 
the South-East Corner is the Grand Entrance from the front, by 
a flight of 10 steps : this is not used now, as the steps are much 
decayed. The one at the North-East Corner is the Passage from 
the Cloisters into the Church, near S. Modan's Chapel. The 
Door at the South- West Corner is the present Entrance into the 
Cloisters, and at it is by far the most beautiful view of the Abbey. 
The Door at the North- West Corner is to the Dungeons, which 
are upon the West side, where the Peristyles are burnt down, 
intended for a Nunnery ; but there is no record that it was ever 
built. These Dungeons are three in number, and are very 
gloomy ; two are quite entire, and the third is partly in ruins. 
The innermost one is 32 feet long by 12 broad, and 9 feet high. 
The Window or Slit is about 2 inches broad, having an iron bar 
1 inch square. A hole is cut in a solid stone, large enough for 
the largest man's hand, into which the Border predatory Moss- 
trooper's, Prisoner's, or refractory Monk's hand was thrust and 
wedged in. The hole is placed so low that the Prisoner could 
kneel down, but he could neither sit nor lie down. There is a 
Seat at the Window of this inner Dungeon, where Prisoners, not 
contumacious, could sit. There is a square aperture in the Wall 
for Bread and Water, no other provision being allowed to be sent 
to any inmate in such durance vile. 

The following Possessions and Ptevenues were granted to the 
Abbey of Dryburgh : 

King David, by his Charter, confirmed to the Canons the 
Grant of the Church of S. Mary at Dryburghe, with the Chapels, 
Tithes, Offerings, and whatever belonged to it. 

Peter de Haga, in the time of Alexander II., gave them 2 
Oxgangs in Bemerside, with a Messuage and Garden, and 
Pasture for 3 Cows and 20 Sheep ; also, a part of his Forest 
of Flatwood, viz., " Qua3 incipit ad crucem lapideam sitam in 
capite dicti nemoris, descendendo per viam quse vocatur Hors- 



328 MONASTICON. 

mangate, usque ad Mukeforde de Twede, et de Mukeford ascen- 
dendo juxta fossam adhaerentem terrse de Driburgh, usque ad 
magnam viam existentem inter Flatwode et Trepewode, et sic 
totam illam viam usque ad caput de Horsmangate ; cum libero 
intruitu et exitu cum caritagiis et rebus suis, exceptis terris 
seminatis, et pratis non falcatis." 

Mertoun Church belonged to the Canons before 1221, when 
it was confirmed to them by Pope Honorius III. Eoger de 
Quinci, Earl of Winchester, in England, and Great Constable of 
Scotland, who Died in 1200, gave them the whole Fishing of 
the Lake of Mertoun. Alexander de Baliol, Laird of Cavers, 
granted them, in 1271, half of the Wood of Gladiswood, in the 
same Parish, with half of the Woodhead, in Feu or Copyhold, 
for 40 Shillings annually. 

Helias gave them some Land at his Village of Brotherstan- 
syde, extending on the North to the Foss called Wattridike, with 
Pasture for 100 Sheep, 8 Oxen, 4 Cows, and 2 Horses ; also 6 
Acres of Arable Land between Witerig Marsh and Blakeburn. 
Thomas of Brotherstane, gave 6 Acres, with Pasture for 80 
Sheep, 4 Oxen, and 1 Horse. Simon de Wardrobe, who Married 
the daughter of Helias of Brotherstanesyde, gave 18 Acres which 
Helias gave him at his Marriage. Alan, the son of Helen, sister 
of Thomas of Brotherstanesyde, gave a Toft and Croft, and 4 
Acres of Arable Land ; also, 10 Acres beneath, and other 10 
above the way leading to Eokesburg. 

David Olifard gave the Canons a Ploughgate, and Pasture for 
300 Sheep in Smalham. Walter de Moray, in 1278, exempted 
them from Multure for their Corn grown on the above Land, and 
on their ground at Smalham Miln. 

Nenthorn Miln was the gift of Beatrix de Beauchamp. For 
the Tithes thereof the Canons paid half a Mark yearly to the 
Parish Minister. They had also an Acre of Land in Nenthorn. 

King Malcolm IV. gave them half a Ploughgate in Edinham, 
and 2 Marks annual Kent there. They granted this Land to 
the Master and Congregation of the Hospital of S. Leonard at 
Edinham for half a Mark and a Pound of Incense yearly. This 
rent they afterwards exchanged for some Land at Petcorthyn. 



WHITE FRIARS DRYBURGH. 829 

The Nuns of Eccles were bound to pay the Canons half a 
Mark annually, for a Pittance at Christmas, out of the Feus due 
to Thomas of Lessedewyn and his Heirs, for the Land of Hunt- 
rodes, granted to the same Nuns. 

The Canons had some Land on the South side of the 
Cemetery of the Holy Trinity at Berwick, and Five Shillings 
yearly out of some Land in Revenysden, near the Town. In 
1390, when Eobert III. suppressed the Cistertian Nunnery of 
South Berwick, on account of the dissolute lives of the Nuns, 
whose number were in future to be reduced to two, he gave their 
Property to the Convent at Dryburgh. In 1410, Walter Hali- 
burton of Dirlton consented that the Lands in his Barony, 
formerly belonging to the same Nuns, should be annexed to the 
said Abbey. 

Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, gave the Convent a Meadow in 
Fauns. Adam of Fauns gave them a Petary on the South- West 
side of Kingswell. Sir Adam of Gordon gave another Petary. 
Richard, son to Nicolas of Fauns, gave an Acre next the 
Common, on the West side of Southbuttes ; and his sister Ede 
gave half an Acre adjoining. He gave also a Turbary and Pasture. 

Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, gave them two Oxgangs in Ercildon, 
with a Toft and Croft near the way which led up to the Cross 
on the West side of the Town, and Common Pasture for 100 
Sheep, 12 Oxen, 12 Swine, and 2 horses, with Easements ; also 
Hunter's-land, with Common Pasture for 300 Sheep, 4 Oxen, 
and 4 Cows. Alexander, son to Alan Purways, gave a Messuage, 
with Toft and Croft, in the North-East part of Ercildon; a 
Husband-land in the same, viz., 1 Oxgang in Hwytfyld, and 
another in Bromsyde, and, in augmentation, 3 Acres in Quhytlaw, 
an Acre in Pottermeadow, near the Redfurd, and Common 
Pasture, &c. Patrick, Earl of March, Confirmed this gift of 30 
Acres in 1333. 

Earl Patrick of Dunbar gave Elvinesley, bounded by the 
Hedge which reached up to Duneden, and to Resbrygge, whence 
it was limited by Malcolmsrode to Styrkerden, and by Styrkerden 
to the Ledre. He gave them also two and a half Acres in 
Dunbar. 

VOL. I, 2 T 



330 MONASTICON. 

Caddisley, with Pasture in the Forest, was the gift of David 
I. Walter, the son of Alan, gave the adjacent Land of Herdes- 
ley. The Chapel at Caddisley, and the Chapel of S. Leonard, 
both on the West side of the Leder, belonged to the Convent. 
They had 1 Mark yearly out of Birkynside, from Patrick, son to 
the Earl of Dunbar. 

John Baliol, and Devorgilla, his wife, gave them the Church 
of Lauder, upon condition of their maintaining 6 Chaplains to 
pray for them, and their Ancestors and Successors. They had 
an Acre in Lauder, called Alrichesscroftys, and an Acre of 
Meadow. 

Eichard Mautaland gave them Houbenthousyde, in Thirlstane, 
and the Land which had been Walter Gilling's, with Pasture for 
400 Sheep, 60 Cows, and 20 Horses. They had also the Tithes 
of Thirlstane Miln ; the Lands which had been Simon de Smer- 
dale's; Oswin's Land, with Tofts and Crofts, and 20 Acres in 
Briggislet; the Land called Croukes, with the two Meadows 
called Langlethes ; and Brumcrok, situated between Croukes and 
the same Meadows. Snawdoun was Confirmed to them by John, 
son and heir of Eobert Mautland. 

Henry, the son of Samson de Logis, gave them a Toft and 
Croft in Samsonschelis, with Arable Land and Meadow by the 
side of the Brook which divideth his Land from Pilemuir, 
extending from the Stone Cross on its margin Northwards to 
Derestrete ; and also the Land by the side of the Foss, extending 
from the same Stone Cross to the Koad leading to Wenesheud, 
and thence to Broade Scropirburne, and to the Leder, with 
Pasture for 300 Sheep, 60 Cattle, and Easements. They had 
another grant of 2 Crofts and a Toft in Samsonchel, with the 
Meadow between Morelaw and Kaldewell ; and the Arable Land 
and Muir between Morelaw, Kaldewell, Standandstane, and the 
Leder. William de Burncastell gave them a Meadow called 
Flayillis in Logis Samson, and a Muir, and Lousilawe, and 4 
Acres in Flokesflate, for which they were to pay Fourpence 
annually, or a Pound of Pepper, at Koxburgh Fair. 

In 1273, Sir William de Abernethy gave an Annual Kent of 
2 Marks, to be paid out of the Miln of Ulkilston, to buy Wax for 



WHITE FRIAKS DKYBUKGH. 331 

Candles to be used in the Celebration of Mass at Dryburgh. He 
afterwards gave them the Miln itself, with all its Profits. 

Channelkirk Church was given to the Canons by Hugh de 
Morville. When Henry de Mundevilla built the Chapel of Glen- 
gelt, in the Parish of Childenchirch, he guaranteed the Eights 
and Dues of the Parish Church, and gave the Canons of Dryburgh 

3 Acres contiguous to the 7 Acres which they had from his 
Ancestor, Ivo de Veteriponte. John de Sauncler engaged that 
the Eights of the same Church should be faithfully preserved 
when he built a Chapel at Carfrae, and another at Herdmanston; 
and he gave the Canons 2 Acres in Herdmanston, adjacent to 
their Land in Saulton. 

Hugh de Morville gave them the Church of Sawelton. John 
of Saulton, and Agnes, his spouse, gave to the Church of S. 
Michael at Saulton, and the Canons of Dryburgh, its Eectors, 
5 Acres near the East side of the Cross. John Burgulum gave 

4 Acres on the North side of Langlees, with Common Pasture 
and Easements. Henry Stylle gave them an Acre and 4 Bod- 
falls. William de Abernethy, the Laird of Saulton, gave them a 
Messuage, a Brewery, 7 Acres of Arable Land, Pasture for 12 
Cattle, and Fuel in the Muir sufficient for 1 Husbandman. 

John Giffard, Laird of Tester, gave them half a Mark yearly 
out of the Town of Bothans. Alexander de St. Martin gave 
them Langlaw. 

The Patronage of Pencaithland Church was granted by Lady 
Catherine Stewart of Cardross before 1376. 

Sir William de Wallibus (the old Latin form of the names 
Vaux and Wallace) gave them the Church of Golyn, upon the 
condition of their finding two Canons to say Mass for the soul of 
his Lord, King William, in the Chauntry of S. Nicholas, in the 
Isle of Elbottle. He gave them also Stanyaere, consisting of 20 
Acres and a half on the North-East side of the old Castle of 
Elbottle, with Pasture for 300 Sheep and 22 Cattle, and Ease- 
ments in common with the Villagers of Elbottle and Dirleton. 
John de Wallibus, Laird of Dirleton, gave the Convent two 
Crofts in Golyn, and a Meadow. For the privilege of having a 
Chapel at Dirleton, he paid a Stone of Wax yearly to the Mother 



382 MONASTICON. 

Church of Golyn, to which the said Chapel paid also a Pound of 
Frankincense yearly. The Nuns of South Berwick resigned 
their Claim to the Patronage of Golyn Church to the Canons in 
1221. Alexander de Vallibus, in consideration of the danger of 
the times, released them from their obligation to say Mass at 
Elbottle, on condition of their causing the same service to be 
performed for ever by one Canon at Stodfald, and another at 
Dryburgh, for the souls of his Ancestors and Successors. 

King David gave them a Habitation in his Burgh of Caruile 
[Crail], in Fife, with 3 Roods of Ground. 

The Countess Ada, mother of Malcolm IV. and King William, 
gave the Canons the Church of Kilrenny. The Canons claimed 
half of the Dues paid by persons Fishing in Boats in the River 
which divided Kilrenny from the Parish of Anstruther belonging 
to the Monastery in the Isle of May. The Monks of May dis- 
puted this right ; and it was settled, in 1225, that they should 
pay the Canons 1 Mark yearly for the same. Margaret of 
Ardrosse, the wife of Hugh de Perisby, gave them the Land of 
Innergelly in 1281. 

Henry, Laird of Aynestruther, gave them three Shops in the 
East side of the Town of Anstruther, with a Messuage and 
Garden, and some Pasture. 

King David Confirmed to them a Toft without the West Gate 
of the Town of Roxburgh, and some Ground within the Wall of 
the same, with freedom from Taxes and Customs therein. King 
William gave them 20 Shillings yearly out of the Revenues of 
the same Burgh. Beatrix de Beauchamp gave them some Land 
there. Robert de Boneire gave the Canons half of the Land 
which was Edolph's, the Miller, in Heuedegate, for which they 
were to pay to the Nuns of Redesdale Fivepence yearly. They 
had 7 Shillings and Sixpence yearly out of a Burgage in the 
North side of King Street, opposite the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, between the. Blachall on the East, and the Property 
of Peter of Old Roxburgh on the West. Sir William Felton, 
Sheriff of Roxburgh, gave them this Burgage entirely in 1338. 

Philip de Colville gave them two Oxgangs of Land in Hetoun. 

In 1200, the Canons yielded the Claim they had to the 



WHITE FBIABS DBYBUBGH. 333 

Church of Maxton to Sir Hugh de Normanville, for which he 
gave them half a Ploughgate of Land in Newtoun, on the West 
side of Derestrete. Walter, the Steward of Scotland, father of 
Robert II., granted them the same Church, with the Glebe, to 
which he added 4 Acres in Lonecrofts. They were to pay the 
Vicar 10 Pounds yearly, according to the Statute of the Council 
of Scotland. 

The Church of Lessedw} r ne was granted by Richard de 
Loudonia, with Tofts, an Orchard Land, and a Meadow. In 
1252, the Convent of Melros agreed to pay the Canons half a 
Mark yearly at Roxburgh Fair, instead of the Tithes of their 
Land in this Parish. 

John, the son of Yliff, gave them 10 Acres in Ylistoun, viz., 
2 on the East side of the Brook which ran under his Garden, 5 
in Rokflat, and 3 in Greenrig. He made them another grant of 
a Toft and 2 Acres, and an Acre in Greenside, on the East of 
Hairstanes. They acquired also some Land in Ylistoun by 
purchase. 

Ada, the daughter of Hugh de Morville, gave them the Tenths 
of the Miln of Newtoun. Isabella de Merlintoun, the wife of 
William de Bosvill, gave them an Acre in Brokislawe, in the 
same Territory. They had the Chapel of Newtoun, but it was 
claimed by the Canons of Jedburgh, and afterwards yielded to them. 

They had the Patronage of the Church of S. Mary in Etterick 
Forest, in the time of David II. 

David I. granted to the Convent the Church of S. Kentigern 
of Lanark, with the Chapel of Glegern [Cleghorn], which he 
annexed thereto. He gave them, likewise, the Chapel of 
Pedynane [Pettinain], the Grange of Imbirston, or Inglebriston, 
the whole Parish of Nemphlar and Carteland, with the Tithes of 
all his Cattle in the same Villages. Alexander, the Rector of 
Cowanistoun [Covington], gave up to them his Right to the 
Tithes of Clouburn. 

Alexander de Nenham gave the Canons that half Ploughgate 
of Land at Triern, in the Territory of Giffyn, in Cunningham, 
Ayrshire, upon which the Chapel of S. Bridget was situated, and 
which lay along the side of the Brook which runs down from 



834 MONASTICON. 

Starvvele to Triernburn, and is bounded also by the Brook which 
runs down from S. Bridget's Well, with Pasture and Easements, 
in exchange for 4 Oxgangs given them by his father, William, 
and his brother, Kichard. Alan, the son of Koland, the Constable 
of Scotland, Confirmed this Agreement. The Convent granted 
this Land to Alan's Chaplain for 4 Shillings yearly, to be paid at 
Koxburgh Fair, and to his Heirs and Assigns for half a Mark 
yearly. 

The Church, and the Land, Lesser of Sowerby [Sorby], in 
Wigtonshire, was the gift of Kobert de Veteriponte. In 1280, 
the Prior and Convent of Candida Casa agreed to pay 20 Marks 
for the Fruits, Eevenues, and Dues of the Churches of Sowrby 
and Kirkfolan, of which the Abbot and Convent of Dryburgh had 
appointed them Procurators. 

Hugh de Morville gave them the Church of Worgis, in 
Galwey [Borgue, in Kirkcudbrightshire] ; and his wife, Beatrix, 
gave them the Church of Bosjeth. 

Walter, Bishop of Galloway, who Died in 1335, gave the 
Convent the Church of Sembry; and Bishop Gilbert, his Suc- 
cessor, gave them the Church of Vogrie. 

King David exempted them from paying Toll and Customs, 
and gave them a right to take Timber from his Woods for their 
Buildings and other uses. 

In 1242, the Bishop of St. Andrews, in consideration of the 
Charity of the Canons, and the Debts they had incurred in build- 
ing their Monastery, and other expenses, gave them permission to 
enjoy the Kevenues of the Churches under their Patronage within 
his Diocese ; one of their number, approved by him, performing 
the Office of a Vicar in each Parish. 



ABBOTS OF DKYBUKGH. 

1. EOGER, 13th December, 1152. He Kesigned in 1177. He was 
Witness to a Confirmation by the Archdeacon and whole Clergy of Lothian 
of a Composition between Melrose and the Church of Dunbar, in presence 
of Kichard, Bishop of St. Andrews, regarding the Tithes of the Granges of 
Edmundeston and Herteshend. He had three Bulls addressed to himself by 
Pope Alexander III., Confirming Grants to his Abbey, and permitting 
Service there in time of general Interdict. [Cart. Dryburg.] 



WHITE FEIAES DEYBUEGH. 335 

2. GEEAED, the Prior, a "person of much gravity, full of days, of 
fragrant renown, and a most devout worshipper of the Blessed Virgin." 
[Chron. Nelr.] He was Abbot here 32 years, and was Translated in 1209 to 
be Abbot of Alnwick. He had a general Privilege of the Churches, Lands, 
Fishings, Teinds, &c., from Pope Lucius III., in the 3rd year of his Pontifi- 
cate, 1184. 

3. EICHAED, Abbot in 1190. He was one of the Witnesses at a solemn 
Convention between the High Steward's Knights of Innerwick and the 
Abbey of Kelso, made at the Festival of S. Martin next, after Philip, King 
of France, and Kichard, King of England, went to Jerusalem, which was 
A.D. 1190. [Liber de Kelso.] He also Witnessed a Charter of Alan Fitz 
Walter, along with Bishop Joceline of Glasgow. [Liber de Metros.] 

4. ALAN, Abbot in 1196. He had a Confirmation from Pope Celestine 
III., in the first year of his Pontificate, 1196, of the Church of Lessedwyn, 
&c. [Cart. Dryburg.] 

5. GEOFFEEY, or GALFEID, was Abbot in 1203. At Whitsuntide this 
year, he was present, along with William, Bishop of St. Andrews, and many 
other Churchmen and Lay Lords, at the settlement of a Dispute between 
the Monks of Kelso and William de Vipont, which was adjusted by De 
Vipont consenting to discharge the Monks of their obligation to carry the 
Bones of his father from England, and to Bury them in the Churchyard of 
Kelso ; and the Monks agreeing to include his father amongst the list of 
Benefactors to be Prayed for in the Monastery. As one of the Papal 
Delegates, Geoffrey settled a Dispute between Melrose and Sir William de 
Hunum, regarding the Lands of Easawe, after the 2nd November, 1208. 
The Date is fixed by the Consecration of Walter, Bishop of Glasgow, who 
was present. He was removed from Dryburgh, and became Abbot of 
Alnwick, in 1209. 

6. WILLIAM, the Prior, was his Successor at Dryburgh. He was a 
Delegate in the Settlement between St. Andrews and 

the Culdees of Monymusk, 1211-13. [Reffist. Aberdeen, 
vol. ., p. 264.] 

7. HUGH was the name of the Abbot in 1221 and 
1228. In the Lent of 1221, he acted as a Papal Dele- 
gate in the settlement at Edmhani of a Dispute about 
Tithes between the Abbot of Kelso and Alan de Mun- 
degumerie, Knight ; at which settlement were present 
"the whole Chapter of the Merse." He was one of 
six Delegates in 1221, for settling a Controversy 
between Dunferniline and Cupar. In December, 1225, 
his Abbey was engaged in a Dispute with the Prior of 

the Isle of May, in the Firth of Forth, regarding the An Arm vested, hold- 
Tithes of the Church of Kilreuny. Dryburgh claimed a Crozier. Cir. A.D. 
Tithes of Fish, because the Fishing Boats used to lie 1220. [Metros Chars.] 




336 MONASTICON. 

in the middle of the Biver (the Dreel Burn) which divides the Parish of 
Kilrenny, belonging to Dryhurgh, from Anstruther, the Property of The 
May, dropping their anchors and fixing their moorings within the Parish 
of Kilrenny. The Monks of May compounded by paying one Merk yealry. 
[E-eg. Prior. S. Andr., p. 395.] Hugh was Witness to a Composition 
between the Bishop of Glasgow and the Abbey of Kil winning in 1226. He 
is also mentioned as Abbot of Dry burgh in 1228. 

8. HENEY was probably the next Abbot. He is mentioned as such in a 
Charter by Helyas de Brothirstainside, of Lands to the Abbey, without 
Date, but presumed to be about 1230. 

9. WALTER Kesigned Office in 1240. [Chron. Mailr., p. 150.] 

10. JOHN succeeded. He was a Canon of the House. Soon after his 
Election, he assisted at a Compromise between the Monks of Kelso and 
some of their Tenants in Clydesdale. He was present in a Chapter of the 
Clergy of East Lothian at Lauder, on Saturday after the Festival of S. 
Peter's Chains, 1245, when a Dispute was settled between the Priory of St. 
Andrews and the Nuns of Haddington, regarding the Tithes of Stephinstun. 
[Reg. Prior. S. Andr., p. 329.] 

11. OLIVER was Abbot in 1269. On the 6th December, 1262, he was 
Witness to a Charter of William de Alwentun to the Monks of Melrose; 
and seven days later, on the Festival of S. Lucia, he and the Abbot of 
Kelso Witnessed a Grant to the Monks of Melrose, of the Fishings of 
Malcaruistun, for their support and recreation. He was still Abbot in 
1268. [Cliron. Mailr., p. 215.] 

In the course of this Century, two Societies of Canons from this 
Monastery were planted in Ireland one of them in the Abbey of Druin-la- 
croix, or Drumcross, in Armagh, and the other in the Priory of Woodburn, 
in the County of Antrim. 

12. THOMAS was probably next. He granted a Charter of Lands in 
Giffen to Kichard, Chaplain to Alan, Lord of Galloway, without Date, but 
presumed to be about 1270. [Cart. Dr-yburg, 167.] 

13. WILLIAM and the Canons submitted to the usurped dominion of 
Edward I. of England, by taking an oath of fidelity to him at Berwick, on 
the 2nd September, 1296, when the Fraternity of Dryburgh obtained restitu- 
tion of their property, which he had unjustly declared to be forfeited. 
The Letters commanding this restitution were addressed to the Sheriffs of 
Fife, Berwick, Eoxburgh, and Edinburgh. About 1316, Abbot William was 
a Witness to a Grant by William de Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, to 
Kelso, of the Church of Grenlaw, with its Chapels. He also Witnessed a 
Charter of Confirmation by Patrick of Dunbar, Earl of March, to the Abbey 
of Melrose, of the Lands of Eedpath, about the year 1319. In 1324, William 
was still Abbot. In that year he appears as a Witness in a Charter to 
Melrose, of the Patronage of the Church of Ochiltree, and several others. . 
[Liber de Metros, p. 867.] 



WHITE FRIARS DRYBURGH. 



887 





14. ROGER, Abbot of Dryburgh, occurs as a Witness to a Charter, 
granted between 1324 and 1328, by which Sir John de 
Graham Confirmed the whole of Eskdale to the Monks 
of Melrose. [Liber de Melros, p. 843.] 

15. DAVID is Witness to a Charter to Kelso in 
1329; and he is called Abbot in 1338. [Reyist. Glasg., 
p. 244.] 

16. ANDREW is Witness to a Charter, this year, of 

Roger de Auldton, which 
was Confirmed by David II., 
April 1, 1354. [Liber de 
Kelso, p. 887.] 

An Abbot, holding /W HKiE^ii i&\ 17. JOHN is the name of 

in his right hand a 
Book, and in the left a 
Crozier. At the sini- 
ster side is a Crescent ; 
the background orna- 
mented with fleurs-de- 
lis and trefoils. A.D. 

1324. [Melros Clutr- 

t ers -I A full length figure of an 

Abbot, holding the Crozier 
in his right hand, and a Book 
in his left, within a Gothic 
Niche. Cir. A.D. 1369. [Melros 
Charters.] 

the next Abbot On February 29 1898 he was ^^ ^ 

Witness to an Obligation of Archibald M'Dowell Royal Crowllj hoM > g in her 

of Malkarston, for the amount of his Relief r i j lt j ian( j a m^ anc i j n ] ier 

granted by the Crown " to the new werke of the left the Infant Jesus. On the 

Kirke of Melros." On the 8th March, 1410, left of the Virgin is the figure 

John, Abbot of Dryburgh, w.as present when of a Saint, with the Nimbus, 

Henry, Bishop of St. Andrews, Confirmed the holding a Palm Branch. In 

union of the Possessions of the Nuns of South the lower P art of tlie Seal is 

Berwick to Dryburgh. a Monk kneeling. A.D. 1404. 

18. THOMAS, Abbot of Dryburgh, on 23rd 

September, 1434, acted as Papal Delegate in determining upon a Claim 
of Kelso to the Chantry Founded by Roger de Auldton. [Liber de Kelso, 
P. 417.] 

19. JAMES was Abbot of Dryburgh on the 16th November, 1444, when, 
on the occasion of a Dispute between his Abbey and Melrose, concerning 
the great Tithes of the Parish of Lesseduen, in presence of the four Abbots 
of Teviotdale, in the Chapel of S. Mary Magdalene, in the Hospital of 
Rutherford, an ancient Custom was cited ; according to which Disputes 
occurring between any two were to be settled by the Arbitration of the 

VOL. i. 2 u 




888 MONASTICON. 

remaining Abbots ; and Abbot James of Dryburgh. " respondit quod super 
hoc voluit de novo avisare." [Liber de Metros, p. 575.] 

20. WALTER, Abbot of the Abbey of Dryburgh, granted a Tack, Dated 
16th November, 1465, in favour of a " worschipful Squear, William Halibur- 
ton of Mertoun, and Jonet, his spous, of a Plew of Land of the Bouchicoits, 
with their Pertinents, lyand within the Lordship of Smailhame, within the 
Sherifdome of Tevidale." [Cart. Dryburg, p. 278.] On the 4th March, 1466, 
William Craynstoun of Corsby, Knight, as Justiciar besouth Forth specially 
constitute, granted a Commission to Walter, Abbot of Dryburgh, to which 
were Witnesses Sir Alexander Hume of that Ilk, Knight ; James Haig of 
Bemersyde ; Nicholas Forinan of Hutton ; and Mr. Jasper Cranston, Kector 
of Fetteresso. [Crawford's Cardross Notes.] Walter seems to have been 
Abbot on the 31st July, 1473, and on the 1st July, 1476, when he pursued 
Actions before the Lords Auditors, "for ye wranguiss occupatioun of ye 
Lands of Ingilberisgrange by Lord Hamiltoun, ' who dois na wrang ' in so 
doing; and against Adame Edgar of Wedderlye, and Paul Crysty. The 
Lords Auditors differs the matter concerning the said Adame to the said 
resputt, and becaus the said Paul Crysty grantit in presence of the Lords 
that he had twa Letteris and Euidents concerning the Lands of Knockfelde, 
ane with a Sele, and ane vthir with mony Selis," &c. [Acta Anditomm.] 

21. JOHN CRAWFUED was Abbot in 1479. As Canon-Eegular of Dry- 
burgh, he was Incorporated a Member of the University of Glasgow on the 
Morrow of S. Martin, 1476. [Annales Universitatis Glasguensis, p. 51.] 
On the. 6th November, 1479, he pursued an Action against John Dewar, 
for the "ranguiss occupatioun of the Kirklandes of Saltoun." [Acta Dom. 
Cone.] 

22. Dean DAVID DEWAR, a Canon of Dryburgh, and Vicar of Mertoun, 
appears to have claimed to be Abbot after the Death of Walter, and to have 
exercised some of the Privileges of the Office of Abbot, by granting Tacks of 
certain Lands, &c., belonging to the Abbey. Litigations in the Civil Court 
between the respective Lessees of Abbot John Crawford and Dean David 
Dewar, the competing Claimant, appear on record, 26th June, 1480, 23rd 
March, 1481, 26th March, 1482, and 23rd January, 1488. 

23. ANDREW LIDERDALE was Abbot from 1489 till 1506. He Witnesses 
Deeds during these Dates. [CraufunVs Cardross Notes.] 

24. JAMES STEWART (the First) was probably the next Abbot, as on 8th 
July, 1507, a Legitimation was passed at Glasgow in favour of James 
Stewart, Sector of Ancrurn, son natural of the deceased Mr. John Stewart, 
" to qualifie him for being Abbot of Dryburgh." No evidence, however, has 
been found showing that he actually became Abbot in consequence of this 
preparative step. 

25. DAVID FINLAYSON, 1509. He was a Canon-Eegular of Dryburgh in 
1489 ; and there was presented to King James an " Address by the Convent 
of Dryburgh," that he may prefer his being duly Elected Abbot of Dryburgh. 
He before was Eector of Gullayn, 1509. 



WHITE FKIARS DKYBUKGH. 889 

There is no sufficient evidence, however, that after the Death 
or Demission of Abbot Andrew Liderdale, Dryburgh ever had 
another Abbot, properly so called. During the subsequent 
Century that the Abbey continued to exist as a Religious House, 
it was held in commendam. Here follows a List of 

COMMEND ATOES OF DRYBURGH. 

1. ANDREW FOREMAN, a younger son of the Laird of Hatton, Berwick- 
shire. His brother, Sir John Foreman of Dalveine, Married Helen Kuther- 
ford, one of the two co-heiresses of Eutherford of that Ilk, in Teviotdale. He 
was a man of great note and consequence, and was actively concerned in the 
principal affairs of both Church and State in Scotland in the Eeigns of James 
IV. and V., and showed considerable talents and address in bringing them to 
a successful issue. He took an effectual part in the Negotiations for the 
Marriage of these Princes with Margaret, the daughter of Henry VII., in 
1501. In 1512, he was employed in an Embassy to the Court of France, 
and was chiefly instrumental in concluding a Treaty of mutual assistance, 
upon the footing of the ancient League, between the French and Scots. 
[Ridpath. Pitscottie.] In 1498, he was the Pope's Pronotary, and was after- 
wards his Legate a latere. [Rotidi Scotia.] The number of his Ecclesiastical 
Benefices is remarkable. The Monks of the Isle of May acknowledged him 
as their Prior in 1498. He was appointed to the Bishopric of Moray in 
1501 ; and, at the same time, held the Priories of Pittenweem and Colding- 
ham, to which was added, before 1512, the Commendatorship of Dryburgh. 
Through the favour of Louis XII., he was made Archbishop of Bourges, in 
France, in 1513 [Gallia Christiana, torn. ii., p. 94] ; but he had scarcely done 
homage for this Preferment, when, having received intelligence that the 
Archbishop of St. Andrews (Alexander Stuart, natural son of King James 
IV.) had fallen in the Field of Flodden, he hastened to Kome, to solicit the 
vacant See. Leo X., out of his affection, as he professed, for the Scottish 
Nation, and to bind closer the ties of kindness between him and them, had 
already given the See, in commendam, to his nephew, Cardinal Cibo ; but 
having been given to understand that it was repugnant to the feelings of the 
Scots that the highest Ecclesiastical Office in their Land should be held by 
a Foreigner, he cancelled that Appointment, and nominated Foreman to 
this and all the other Benefices enjoyed by the late Archbishop. [Sandoleti, 
Epist. Pont., xxxv.] After much opposition from the influence of rival 
Candidates, one of whom was Gavin Douglas, the Translator of Virgil's 
^Eneid, he was Enthroned in the Cathedral of St. Andrews in 1514, when 
he Kesigned the Sees of Moray and Bourges, and the Priory of Coldingham. 
"When the Duke of Albany came from France, and assumed the Kegency in 
1516, Foreman resigned into his hands, as the Laws of Scotland required, 
all the Benefices which he had hitherto enjoyed only by the Pope's Nomina- 
tion, and was re-appointed only to the See of St. Andrews and the Abbey of 



840 MONASTICON. 

Dimfermline. He Died at, and was Buried in, the latter place in 1522. 
[Morton's Annals, p. 298.] 

The following curious Account of a Banquet, given by Foreman to 
the Pope and Cardinals, occurs in " Pitscottie's History of Scotland," p. 
166 : "When the dinner came, the Pope and his Cardinals placed, and sat 
down according to their Estate, then the use and custom was that, at the 
beginning of meat, he that aught the house and made the banquet should 
say the Grace and bless the meat. And so they required the holy Bishop to 
say the Grace, who was not a good Scholar, and had not good Latin ; but 
began rudely in the Scotch fashion, in this manner, saying, ' Benedicite ;' 
believing that they should have answered ' Dominus.' But they answered 
' Dans,' in the Italian fashion, which put this noble Bishop by his intendi- 
ment, that he wist not how to proceed forward ; but happened out, in good 
Scotch, in this manner, the which they understood not, saying, ' To the 
devil I give you all, false carles, in nomine Patris, Filii, et Spiritus Sancti.' 
'Amen,' quoth they. Then the Bishop and his men leugh. And the Bishop 
shewed the Pope the manner that he was not a good Clerk, and his Car- 
dinals had put him by his intendiment ; and, therefore, he gave them all to 
the Devil in good Scotish ; and then the Pope leugh among the rest." 

Foreman is said to have written 1, "Contra Lutherum ;" 2, "De 
Stoica Philosophia ;" 3, " Collectanea Decretalium." 

2. JAMES OGILVIE, Sector of Kinkell, a son of Sir James Ogilvie of 
Deskford, in Banffshire, was appointed Abbot, or Commendator, by the 
Duke of Albany in 1516. This Sir James was of the Findlater Family. 
He Married Lady Agnes Gordon, daughter of George, Earl of Huntly, by 
whom he had five sons and two daughters 1. Alexander, his Heir; 2. 
James, Abbot of Dryburgh, and Eector of Kinkeldon. He was the first 
Professor of Civil Law in King's College, Aberdeen, and was Elected Bishop ; 
but the Earl of Huntly overawed the Canons, and forced them to Elect 
Alexander Gordon, his kinsman. The Duke of Albany, to console Ogilvie 
and his friends, gave him the above-mentioned Appointments. He was 
employed on several Embassies by the King and Parliament of Scotland, in 
which he conducted himself satisfactorily to both. His second sister 
Married Lord Lovat, the Laird of Macintosh, and Munro of Foulis, and had 
children to all three husbands. His eldest sister Married Sir James Dunbar 
of Westfield. He Died at Paris on the 30th May, 1518, and was Buried 
there in S. Landrus' Church. 

Sir David Erskine, in his " Annals of Dryburgh," p. 21, states that 
Andrew Foreman Eesigned tke Abbacy in favour of his nephew, Eobert 
Freeman, in 1515, but waived his Nomination, supposed to be simonaically, 
on a Compromise with this James Ogilvie. 

3. DAVID HAMILTON, Bishop of Argyle, a natural son of James, Lord 
Hamilton, father of the Earl of Arrau, held the Abbeys of Dryburgh and 
Glenluce in commendam. He Died in 1523. 

4. JAMES STEWART (the Second), a Canon of Glasgow Cathedral, was the 



WHITE FRIAKS DRYBUKGH. 341 

next Abbot-Commeudator. Between this "Abbot" and the Haliburtons of 
Mertoun, there was a feud respecting their right to hold some of the Abbey 
Lands which they claimed. The Dispute was about the Corn-Mill of Dry- 
burgh and its Dues, value 100 Merks yearly (about 5 Sterling) ; the new 
Orchard near the Brew-House ; three Houses in the Town of Dryburgh ; 
common Stable and Corn-House ; cutting Wood and Broom ; and deferring to 
pay the Abbot about 10 Scots (16s 8d), 12 Bolls of Oatmeal, the yearly Teind 
of the Merton Land, with 3 dozen and 9 Kain (Kent, in kind) Fowls or Hens 
of full growth, value 4rf each, &c. The whole matter was submitted to the 
King at Stirling, 8th May, 1535 ; upon whose Decree that the Haliburtons 
should pay use and wont to the Abbot, and that they should be good 
servants, and he a good master to them, second Letters of Summons were 
raised by the Abbot against the Haliburtons' re-possession. Amongst other 
wrongs is mentioned for stamping down Wheat, Hemp, Leeks, Onions, 
Mustard, cutting Fruit-Trees, within the Yard and Place of Dryburgh : value 
of damage done estimated at 20 (Scots). Pacification was not effectual till 
1536, when Walter, the eldest son of David Haliburton, Married Agnes 
Stewart, the Abbot's bastard daughter. The offspring of this Marriage was 
an only daughter, named Elizabeth Haliburton. As this young lady was 
her father's heir, the Haliburtons resolved that she should Marry one of 
her cousins, to keep the property in her Clan. But this did not suit the 
views of the Abbot, who came and carried off by force the intended Bride, 
and Married her to Alexander Erskine, a brother of the Laird of Balgony, a 
relation and follower of his own. From this Marriage sprang the Erskines 
of Shielfield, the Ancestors of the renowned Founders of the " Secession," or 
now "U. P.," Church, Ealph and Ebenezer Erskine. This exploit of the 
Abbot revived the feud betwixt him and the Haliburtons, which ended only 
with the dissolution of the Abbey. 

5. THOMAS ERSKINE was Commendator in 1541, and, from this time, 
the Abbey appears to have been held, almost without interruption, by 
different members of the House of Erskine, until the head of that Family 
obtained an absolute Grant of it, as "part of the Temporal Lordship of 
Cardross, in 1604. During his Benefice, the Abbey and Town of Dryburgh 
were Burnt upon Friday the 7th November, 1544. In the following year, 
1545, the Commendator of Dryburgh took his revenge in an inroad across 
the English Border. On 18th February, 1546, he granted the Teinds of 
Lauder to Mr. Andrew Hume. 

6. JOHN ERSKINE, or STEWART, was Commendator of Dryburgh in 1548, 
on the 12th July of which year he granted a Charter. On the 20th March, 
1544, he granted and Subscribed at Dryburgh a Tack of two Merks of Land 
in Mertoun to Thomas Myll and Walter Myll. [Cart. Dryburg, p. 291.] 

This Commendator has been called an Erskine and a Stewart, without 
any sufficient authority being cited for either of the conflicting statements. 
Thus, the late Earl of Buchan, in a Letter (in " The Bee," vol. iv., p. 160) 
describing Dryburgh, Dated in 1791, states "Of this Abbey, my noble 



342 MONASTICON. 

and truly excellent Ancestor, John. Ersldne, afterwards [Earl of Mar and] 
Eegent of the Scots, was Commendator during the lifetime of his elder 
brothers Kobert and Thomas, Lords Erskine." Eobert, the elder brother, 
was Killed at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547 ; and Thomas, the younger, Died 
in 1551 ; and, according to the above statement, their younger brother, 
John, had been Commendator at these Dates. 

On the other hand, it has been stated that this Commendator was John 
Stewart, " the cousin of Lord Darnley, the husband of Mary, Queen of 
Scots," and that "his Armorial Bearings are still on the Walls of the Abbey, 
above the Private Entrance into the Cloisters for the Monks who had over- 
stayed their time." [Annals and Antiquities of Dryburgh, by the late Sir David 
Erskine of Dryburgh, 1828, p. 27.] The Arms referred to may have been 
those of Abbot James Stewart. The same Author gives a drawing of the 
Arms, under which he calls Abbot John Stewart, not cousin, as. in the 
passage just quoted, but uncle to Lord Darnley. Morton, in his " Annals of 
Teviotdale," has followed this latter statement. 

None of the Charters granted by this Abbot, which have been recovered, 
contain his Surname ; and no authority has been found to show whether 
he was of the Erskine or the Stewart Family. The presumptions are that 
he was of the former. John Erskine, the son of John, Lord Erskine, was 
Commendator of Inchmahomo, 16th August, 1552, and he* was succeeded in 
that Office, in 1556, by his nephew, David Erskine. This David Erskine (it 
will be immediately seen) also became Commendator of Dryburgh about the 
same time ; and the probability is that, after John Erskine succeeded to the 
Title of Lord Erskine, on the Death of his father in 1552, and betook him- 
self to new pursuits and employments, he had Eesigned the Offices of 
Commendator of Dryburgh and Inchmahomo in favour of his nephew, 
David Erskine. Another nephew, Adam Erskine, son of Thomas, Master of 
Erskine, was made Commendator of Cambuskenneth ; and these three 
Religious Houses continued in the Erskine Family, and were ultimately 
erected into the Temporal Lordship of Cardross, in favour of John, Earl of 
Mar. [Cart. Dryburg, Preface, p. ccxiv.] 

7. DAVID ERSKINE, a natural son of Robert, Lord Erskine, by Mrs. 
Jean Home. He and his brother, Adam Erskine, Abbot of Cambuskenneth, 
and Prior of Inchmahome, were Sub-Preceptors, under George Buchanan, 
to the young King of Scots, in 1570. He was made a Privy Councillor in 
1579. The Lands and Revenue of the Abbey were annexed to the Property 
of the Crown of Scotland in 1587. David Erskine, however, continued to 
style himself Perpetual Commendator of Dryburgh in 1580. 

David Erskine is described by Father Hay as "an exceeding modest, 
honest, and shame-faced man." He was of the Reform party, and a 
follower of the Regent Murray. By the Act of Parliament in 1572, 
appointing the young Earl of Mar Governor to James VI. during his 
minority, "the friendis of the House of Erskine Robert, Erll of Buchan; 
David, Commendator of Dryburgh; Alexander Erskine of Gogar; William 



WHITE FRIARS DRYBURGH. 



843 




Douglas of Lochlevin" were named Assistants to the Earl in Office. 

Erskine of Gogar, who was uncle of the Earl, took the charge of the young 

King. On the suggestion of the Regent Morton, Mar turned out his uncle, 

and became Master of the King's person and the Castle of Stirling, in 1578; 

and afterwards, in 1582, he joined the Earl of Gowrie in seizing the King at 

the Raid of Ruthven. In these proceedings of 

his Chief, the "modest and honest" Commen- 

dator David was a participator, with many 

others of the Erskines. They were obliged to 

take refuge in England ; and in the Parliament 

of the 21st August, 1584, they were found guilty 

of Treason and Lese Majesty, and their Estates 

confiscated to the Crown. The Office of Com- 

mendator of Dryburgh, during the Forfeiture 

and absence of David in England, was bestowed 

on another, as 

8. WILLIAM appears in the Records of 
Parliament as Cornmendator of Dryburgh on 
31st July, 1585. He seems to have held the 
Office only for a short period, from the For- 
feiture till the Restoration of David. In Novem- 
ber, 1585, the Earl of Mar and his banished 
friends returned from England with a large 
Force, succeeded in depriving the Earl of Arran 
of his power over the King, and obtained an 
Act, in December following, reversing the 
Sentence of Forfeiture, and restoring Mar and 
his friends to their Honours, Offices, and Estates. 

Thus reponed, DAVID ERSKINE again became Commendator of Dryburgh. 
On the 10th June, 1600, a Lease of Teinds of the Mains of Mertoun was 
granted by David, Commendator of Dryburgh ; and instead of its bearing 
the usual consent of the Convent, it states, as a reason for being granted by 
the Commendator alone, that " all the Convent thairof now being decessit." 
In 1604, James VI. included the Abbacy of Dryburgh in the Temporal 
Lordship and Barony of Cardross, erected in favour of John, Earl of Mar; 
but there was reserved to the Commendator, the Rents, Profits, and Emolu- 
ments of the Lands and others. In virtue of this reservation, David 
continued to grant Leases of certain of the Teinds belonging to the Abbey. 
One of the Leases bears Date 30th May, 1608, being about 50 years after 
the first Lease by him above mentioned, which shows that he had enjoyed 
his Benefice for half a Century. This last Lease bears, in the old form, to 
be with consent of the Convent; although they had all "decessit" at least 
eight years previously. It is subscribed by David alone. The granting of 
this Lease must have been among the last official acts of David Erskine, 
Commendator of Dryburgh, as it is stated in a Deed of Provision by James 



An Abbot, with his right 
hand raised, giving the Bene- 
diction. At each side is a 
Figure kneeling. In the up- 
per part is a Canopy, with a 
small Demi-Figure of the B. 
Virgin and Infant Jesus. 
A.D. 1582. [Marr Charters. 
Laings Scottish Seals.] 



844 MONASTICON. 

VI., Date 81st May, 1608, being only the day after the last-mentioned 
Lease, that the Abbacy was then vacant, and in his Majesty's hands as 
Patron, through the Demission of David. After having been so long 
connected with Dryburgh, he demitted his Office, that it might be provided 
to his kinsman, 

9. HENRY ERSKINE. He was second lawful son of John, Earl of Mar, 
and Lady Mary Stewart, second daughter of Esme, first Duke of Lennox. 
On 81st May, 1608, James VI. granted a Provision \Rey. Mag. Siy. Lib. 
45, No. 196] in favour of this Henry, to be Abbot and Commendator of 
Dryburgh, and Prior of Inchmahomo, to subsist all the days of his life, with 
Seat and Vote in Parliament. 

As already stated, by a Charter Dated 27th March, 1604, James VI. 
granted in favour of John, Earl of Mar, all the Lands, Baronies, Castles, 
Towers, Patronages, &c., which belonged to the Abbeys of Dryburgh and 
Cambuskenneth, and the Priory of Inchmahomo, and erected the same into 
the Lordship and Barony of Cardross. Several Charters passed the Great 
Seal to the same effect, 10th June, 1610; 10th April, 1615; 14th July, 1634. 
The Earl of Mar assigned the Lordship and Peerage of Cardross, on 80th 
January, 1617, to his said second son, Henry, the Commendator of Dry- 
burgh, and to the Heirs-male of his body, reserving his own Life-rent ; but 
Henry having pre-deceased his father in 1628, never enjoyed the Peerage of 
Cardross. He was styled Fiar of Cardross in a Crown Charter, Dated 29th 
March, 1628, shortly before his Death. David Erskine, only son of Henry, 
succeeded to the Peerage of Cardross on the Death of his grandfather in 
1634, and was served Heir to his father on the 17th March, 1637. He had 
a new Charter of Cardross, Dated 10th February, 1664. He Died in 1671. 

Henry, third Lord Cardross, son of David, sold that part and portion 
of the Lordship of Cardross, formerly called the " Abbacie of Dryburgh," to 
Sir Patrick Scott, younger of Ancrum, conform to Disposition and Eental, 
Dated 24th June, 1682. 

Sir Patrick Scott, who was called " Lord of Erection of Cardross," sold 
that part of the Lordship comprehending the Euins of the Abbey of Dry- 
burgh, to Thomas Haliburton of Newmains, Advocate, by Disposition, 
Dated 22nd January, 1700. But there was excepted in this Charter the 
parts of Dryburgh which then belonged to the Erskines of Shielfield, and 
which had never been the Property of Sir Patrick Scott. 

Kobert Haliburton, the second son of Thomas, the Advocate, having 
succeeded to the Estate of Dryburgh, in terms of the destination of the said 
Charter, sold it to Lieut. -Colonel Charles Tod for 5500, by Disposition, 
Dated 15th and 28th September, 1767. 

The Haliburtons of Newmains were the maternal Ancestors of Sir 
Walter Scott, and he has himself stated their connexion with Dryburgh. 
He says: " Eobert Scott of Sandy-knowe Married, in 1728, Barbara 
Haliburton, daughter of Thomas Haliburton of Newmains, an ancient and 
respectable Family in Berwickshire. Among other Patrimonial Possessions, 



WHITE FEIAES TONGLAND. 345 

they enjoyed the part of Dryburgh, now the Property of the Earl of Buchan, 
comprehending the Kuins of the Abbey. My granduncle, Eobert Halibur- 
ton, having no Male Heirs, this Estate, as well as the representation of the 
Family, would have devolved upon my father, and indeed Old Newmains 
had settled it upon him ; but this was prevented by the misfortunes of my 
granduncle, a weak, silly man, who engaged in trade, for which he had 
neither stock nor talents, and became bankrupt. The ancient Patrimony 
was sold for a trifle, about 8000 [5500, as above] ; and my father, who 
might have purchased it with ease, was dissuaded by my grandfather, who 
at that time believed a more advantageous purchase might have been made 
of some Lands which Kaeburn thought of selling. And thus we have 
nothing left of Dryburgh, although my father's maternal Inheritance, but the 
right of stretching our bones, where mine may perhaps be laid ere any eye 
but my own glances over these Pages." [Autobiography of 1808; Lockharfs 
Life, vol. /., p. 66.] 

The Estate of Dryburgh was again sold, in 1786, by Colonel Tod's 
Trustees, to David, late Earl of Buchan, who thus re-acquired the part of 
the Property which had belonged to his Ancestors, the Earl of Mar and the 
Lords Cardross. In 1810, his Lordship executed an 'Entail, in virtue of 
which, on his Death in 1829, his son, the late Sir David Erskine, succeeded 
to Dryburgh, and on whose Death, without issue, in 1837, the present Earl 
of Buchan became the Proprietor. [Cart. Dryburg, Preface.] 

VALUATION OF THE ABBEY OF DRYBURGH. 

Money 912 8s 4d. Wheat 1 Chatter, 14 Bolls, 3 Firlots, 8* Pecks ; 
Meal 22 Chatters, 15 Bolls, 3 Firlots, 8 Pecks ; Bear 24 Chatters, 7 
Bolls, 3 Firlots, 3^ Pecks ; Oats 3 Chatters, 15 Bolls, 1 Firlot. 

Considering the value of Money and Grain in these times, and that of 
the Domain Lands cultivated by the Servants of this Eeligious House, 
which consisted of about 400 Acres of the best Lands in the County, the 
whole yearly Income may be fairly estimated at what would now be equal 
to 1,600 Sterling per annum a goodly support for this House, which does 
not appear at any time to have maintained above 50 Monks; yet by no 
means proportioned to the magnificence of the Structure reared for their 
accommodation. 

V. TONGLAND, A.D. 1189, 

In Galloway, was Founded by Fergus, Lord of Galloway, in 
the Twelfth Century. Alexander, Abbot of Tongland, is one of 
the Subscribers to Bagman's Roll in 1296. Lesly tells us a very 
merry Story of another Abbot of this Place (p. 331), ad annum 
1507, who, undertaking to be in France before the King's 

VOL. I. 2 X 



846 MONASTICON. 

Ambassadors, who were going thither, by flying in the air, and 
accordingly taking his flight from the Walls of the Castle of 
Stirling, met with a reward suitable to the nature of the under- 
taking, by falling and breaking his thigh bones. A like Story is 
related by Randulphus Higdenus, lib. vi., p. 284, ad annum 
Christi, 1065. [Spottiswoode.] 

This Abbey was Founded by Fergus, Lord of Galloway, 
under David I. It was erected near the site of the present 
Church, on a tongue of land which is formed by the junction of 
the Dee and Tarf. The Monks were brought from Cockersand, 
in Lancashire. 

Brockie (MS., p. 8457) says that Mr. John Macgie, Writer, 
Edinburgh, mentions that Caducan, the son of Fergus, the 
Founder, was the first Abbot of Tungland, and that he Died 
shortly after the Battle of Largs, at the time of Alexander II. 
He was Buried before the High Altar in the Choir, near the 
place where he used to Sing. He wrote " The Mirror of 
Christians," and Five Books of Homilies. He was alive in 
1225. 

James Heries, Prior and Abbot of Tungland, repaired his 
Convent, paved the outer Area, and enclosed the whole with a 
high wall. He was the Author of a Work entitled " The Validity 
of Traditions." 

The Abbot of Tungland sat in the Great Parliament at Brig- 
ham in 1290. In 1292, the Abbot of this House was one of 
Baliol's Nominees. In 1296, Alexander, the Abbot of Tung- 
land, with his Monks, swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick. 
In 1235, during the Insurrection, after the Death of Alan, the 
enraged Galloway-men slew the Prior and Sacrist of this Monas- 
tery within the Church. The Monks were chiefly Foreigners, 
whose customs were different from the usages of the Country ; 
and this Insurrection was pointed against strange Lords and 
strange Laws. 

Kobert I. Granted to the Monks of Tungland, S. Michael's 
Kirk of Bamacross. David II. gave them the Advowson of the 
Church of Senwick. 

During the Reign of James IV., who studied Alchemy, an 



WHITE FKIAKS TONGLAND. 347 

Italian, who was an adept at the same Studies, was made Abbot 
of Tungland. He appears to have come to Scotland in 1501, 
and was Abbot of Tungland in March, 1503-4. In the 
Treasurer's Accounts he is called " Maister John, the French 
Leich," and " Maister John, the French Medicinar," and " Abbot 
of Tungland," after he obtained that Appointment. He acquired 
a great deal of money from the King by his Quackery, Alchemy, 
Gambling, and borrowing money, which he never repaid. [See 
the Treasurer's Accounts from 1501 to 1513, passim.] 

In the License which he received to go abroad in 1508, he 
is called " Damiane, Abbot of Tungland." Making himself 
wings, he attempted to fly from the Battlements of Stirling 
Castle, and got the suitable reward for such a Quixotic expedition, 
by falling and breaking the bones of one of his hips ! This 
misadventure took place in 1507. Lesly, a Eoman Catholic 
Historian, minutely narrates his voyage in "yon azure vault." 
In the following year, the Aerial Monk appears to have Jled 
abroad, having got to right where he suffered wrong on the parts 
of the human framework which are more necessary for the 
journeys of the Frog than the Bird. On the 8th September, 1508, 
the King granted a Licence to "Damiane, Abbot of Tungland," 
to pass out of the Kealm, and remain in what place he pleases, at 
Study, or any other lawful occupation, for five years, without 
any injury to his Abbey of Tungland. [Privy Seal Register, vol. 
Hi., p. 187.] He returned again to Scotland long before the time 
of this License elapsed. 

A similar Story about Flying is related by Eandulpluis Hig- 
denus, lib. vi., p. 284, A.D. 1065. Many more than wingless 
Monks are apt to try their art at aerial excursions. Dunbar, 
the Scottish Poet, in a Satire, 'yclept "The Fenzeit Frier of 
Tungland," wherein he jibes at his Alchemy, and brings the 
birds obscene, with hollow screeches, to mock his fall, not 
content with thus deriding the object of his scorn, dreams 
that the Fenzeit Frier shall ascend in air, like a horrible 
Griffin, and, meeting a She-Dragon, shall beget upon her the 
Antichrist ! 

This Monastery had a jurisdiction of Bailery over its whole 



848 MONASTICON. 

Possessions ; and Lord Maxwell, who was the heritable Bailie, 
had the five Pound-Land of Cargen for his Fee. 

In 1516, the Monastery of Tungland was conferred on David 
Arnot, Bishop of Galloway, and it continued with the Prelates of 
this See till the " Reformation. " Mr. William Melvill was 
made Commendator of Tungland by James VI. ; and Melvill was 
so designated when he was appointed a Lord of Session in August, 
1587. He obtained a Grant of the Spirituality of this Abbey in 
November, 1588; and, in December, he obtained, from the 
King's facility, a Pension of 616 18s 4d (Scots), from the 
Revenues of this Abbey and the Bishopric of Galloway. When 
this Bishopric was re-established, and Gavin Hamilton was 
appointed Bishop in 1605, the King Granted to him and his 
Successors this Abbey, with all its Kirks and 
Revenues, reserving to Melvill, the Commendator, 
the benefit of the Grants before stated during 
his life. He Died in 1613, when the Abbey and 
its Revenues went to the Bishop of Galloway, 
who continued to enjoy the whole till " Episco- 
pacy" was overthrown. 

In November, 1641, a Grant was made to the 
Detached Seal University of Glasgow of the whole Property of 
Chapter House, the Bishopric of Galloway, and of the Abbeys 
Westminster. of Tungland, Glenluce, and the Priory of Whit- 
horn, which had all been annexed to it. This Grant was 
ratified in Parliament in November, 1641, when the Bishop of 
Glasgow protested in vain. This was annulled at the Restora- 
tion, when the Bishopric was re-established, and the Bishops of 
this See enjoyed the whole Revenues and Patronage till " Epis- 
copacy" was finally abolished in 1689, when the whole returned 
to the King. These Notices show the grievous changes of 
factious and fanatical times. 

The rubbishy Ruins of this Monastery evince that it must 
have been of considerable extent ; but the country people having 
undermined the various parts of the Buildings for the Freestone, 
the whole fell into scattered heaps. [Chalmers' Caledonia, vol. 
in., p. 302.] 




WHITE FKIAKS FEAKN. 349 

This Abbey, along with Glenluce, is mentioned to be annexed 
to the Bishopric of Galloway. See old Kecords, W. 3., p. 986, 
in Prorogation of Tacks. [Eiddle's MS. Notes.] 

VALUATION OF WHITE FKIARS, TONGLAND. 

Money 206 13s 4d. 

VI. FEARN, A.D. 1227, 

In Eoss, was an Abbacy Founded by Ferquhard, the first 
Earl of Koss, in the Keign of King Alexander II. It was 
annexed to the Bishopric of Eoss in the 20th Parliament of King 
James VI., in 1607, and is frequently called in Charters, 
"Abbacia de Nova Farina." Mr. Patrick Hamilton, Abbot of 
this Place, was the first called in question for Eeligion at the 
dawning of the "Eeformation," and Burnt at the Gate of S. 
Salvator's College in St. Andrews, in 1527. [Spottisivoode.] 

The Abbey is traditionally said to have been first made up of 
Mud. It was* primarily built near the Western extremity of 
Eddertoun, but, owing to the frequent interruptions occasioned 
by the ferocity of the neighbouring Clans, it was removed about 
12 miles South-East of that situation, whence it was afterwards 
styled "Abbacie de Nova Farina;" and the Founder was Buried 
there, under a Tomb surmounted by a Warrior's Effigy, which is 
still pointed out as his. An unsuccessful search was made for 
his Eemains on the 17th September, 1819 ; but it was given up, 
after digging to the depth of 8 feet. 

Pat. Gordon of Letterfourie got a Gift of this Abbey erected 
in the Barony of Fearn, 18th August, 1591. G.S.B. 38, No. 
224. Sir Pat. Murray of Ganyis got a Gift of this Abbey erected 
in the Barony of Ganyis, 1st February, 1597, with power to 
pursue for reduction of all former Grants. G.S.B. 41, No. 315. 
[Riddle's MS. Notes.] 

Forbes (on Tithes) makes 1617 the Date of its Annexation 
to the Bishopric of Eoss. 

The Abbey Church of Fearn has been converted into the 
modern Parish Church, but has been horribly mutilated ; and 
both it and the adjoining Chapels, now used as Tombs, are fast 



850 MONASTICON. 

crumbling into dust. It consisted of Chancel and Nave two 
Chapels to the former, perhaps South Aisle to the latter and is 
nearly wholly First-Pointed. The East end, which is blocked 
off for a Burying Ground to the Balnagown Family, has four 
equal Lancets, and on the South two ; and, as in Tain, the 
Piscina is West of the Sedilia. It is impossible to say how the 
Conventual Buildings were arranged. The South side of the 
Nave, which has been rebuilt, may have had an Aisle; as a little 
out from it, enclosed now in the Shandwick Burying Ground, is 
a Canopied Tomb over the recumbent Figure of an Abbot, having 
a mutilated Inscription in Saxon Letters, and which appears to 
be in its original position. The Choir, still standing, and 
measuring 99 feet by 25J, was used as the Parish Church from 
1628, when the Parish of Fearn was erected, till 1742, when the 
Koof fell in while the people were assembled for Worship, and 
killed 36 persons, and 8 more Died soon after. It appears to 
have been disused till 1772, when it was repaired and again 
used as the Parish Church. Within it there is a Stone Effigy 
of a Warrior, shown as that of Ferquhard, Earl of Koss. In S. 
Michael's Aisle, is the Effigy of Abbot Finlay M'Fead, with the 
Inscription "Hie jacet Finlaius M'Fead, Abbas de Fern, qui 
obiit anno MCCCCLXXXV." 

The Chapels were rather curious. The North one was 
entered from the Chancel by a Middle-Pointed Door, close to 
which is a very small Altar, in the Recess of the East Window. 
The North side has a Middle-Pointed Window of three Lights, 
simply intersecting, but very beautiful : the West one was of two 
Lights, both without Foliations. The Chapel had five Bibs 
of Stone parallel with the Axis of the Church, and was waggon- 
vaulted. A large portion of this Roof has lately fallen in. The 
South Chapel much resembled the other, and had a round-headed 
Canopied Tomb or Altar on the South side. The West Window, 
which is remarkably pretty, is Middle -Pointed, of two Lights ; 
and the East is the same. [Anderson's Guide.} 

LIST OF ABBOTS. 

1. MALCOLM OF GALLOWAY, A.D. 1230, Ruled for 15 years, and, after his 
Death, " was holden amongis the peopill as a Sanct." 



WHITE FEIAES FEAEN. 351 

2. MALCOLM OF NIGG, about 1238-46. During his Kule, Earl Ferquhard 
removed the Abbey to the Parish of Tarbat. 

3. MACHABEUS or MATTELEUS MAKKEESIN, appears between the years 1252 
and 1274, during whose Kule (probably between 1261 and 1264) the Convent 
was established, and its Kegulations Confirmed by Pope Urban IV. He 
was Bishop of Eoss, 1272-74. [Fordnn.] 

4. SIR COLIN, Abbot in 1281. " Colino, Abbate de Nova Fernia," 
Witnesses a Charter in 1298. [Deuchar.] 

5. MARTIN, or MERTEIN, Canon of Whithorn. 

6. JOHN, also Canon of Whithorn. 

7. SIR MARK Eoss, the son of Sir Mark Eoss, became Abbot in 1821. 
He Died about 1350, and was Buried within the Abbey Church. These last 
three were presented by the Prior of Whithorn, being the Mother House. 

In 1336, the Abbey being built only of rough Stones and Clay, and 
appearing ruinous, William, Earl of Eoss, suggested that it should be re- 
built with hewn Stone; and seven Brethren were appointee! to "beg and 
thig" through the Country for Contributions. The re-building was begun 
in 1338 under Abbot Mark. 

8. DONALD PUPILL, or PIPLY, succeeded, who was Elected by the Con- 
vent, and whose Election was Confirmed by the Prior of Whithorn. 
Between the years 1350 and 1372, various Charters are witnessed by Abbot 
Donald; and, in 1372, while he still Euled, the re-building of the Abbey 
was finished. He Died in 1383. 

9. ADAM MONILAW, his Successor, was Abbot in 1398, and Died in 1407. 

10. THOMAS KETHIRNATHIE, or CATTANACH, appears to have succeeded, and 
was appointed by the Prior of Whithorn, who assumed that privilege ; but 
he was rejected by the Convent of Fearn. After Euling for a short time, he 
Eesigned. 

11. FINLAW or FINLAY FERRIER, the nephew or grandson of Sir W. Feriar, 
Vicar of Tayne, who, after having " theikit the Kirk of Feme," Died in 1436. 

12. FINLAY MACFAID succeeded, and was Abbot in 1442. He Died in 
1485, and was Buried within the Abbey Church. [See Page 350, line 20.] 
The King esteemed him so highly, that he and his Descendants were 
allowed to bear the name of Fearn as their Family Surname. 

13. JOHN FEARN succeeded. He built S. Michael's Aisle, on the South 
side of the Church, founded the Dormitory, built the Cloister, and purchased, 
in Flanders, for the Abbey, a Tabernacle and Lettron of Brass, the Organ, 
Chalices, Vestments, and various other Ornaments. He appears to have 
Euled about a year, having Died in 1486. 

14. THOMAS M'CULLOCH succeeded to the Abbacy in 1486, and appears 
in record in 1487 and 1488. He completed the Dormitory, but being 
deprived of the Possessions and Eevenues of the Abbey, except the Mill of 
Fearn and the Town of Mid Geny, by Andrew Stewart, Bishop of Caithness, 
who was appointed Abbot on a false representation to the Pope, he retired 
to Mid Geny, where he built a Chapel. He Died in 1516. 



352 MONASTICON. 

15. PATRICK HAMILTON, mentioned Page 349, " Scotland's first Martyr." 

16. DONALD Koss, of the Family of Dunoon, Argyleshire, was a famous 
Singer. He restored the lapsed Discipline and the decayed Buildings of the 
Monastery. He Died " prematurely," A.D. 1540. 

17. EOBEET CAIRNCROSS, Bishop of Koss, 1539-45, was appointed 
Abbot of Fearn, upon the King's recommendation to the Pope, as the 
Building was out of repair, and the Bishop a wealthy man, and so in a 
capacity to restore the Edifice. He was Provost of Corstorphine, Abbot of 
Holyroodhouse, and Chaplain to King James V. [Holingslied, Keith, d-c.~] 
He Kesigned the Abbacy, 1st April, 1545, and Died shortly after. [Ep. Eey. 
Scot.] 

18. JAMES CAIRNCEOSS acquired the Benefice by Bishop Cairncross's 
Resignation. He was probably his brother or some near relation. He 
enjoyed it only a few months, having also Eesigned that same year. 

Near the Entrance of the Church is this Epigram : " Jacobus Cairn - 
cors Abbas hoc templum finivit, anno MDXLV." [Brockie's MS., p. 4880.] 

19. NICHOLAS Koss, Provost of the Collegiate Church of Tain, was 
appointed in 1546 to the Abbey of Fearn, but seems to have held it as a 
Secular Charge ; for, in the Parliament of 1560, he Sat and Voted for the 
Abolition of the Roman Catholic Keligion in Scotland, and was an avowed 
Protestant. He Died at Fearn in 1569. 

20. THOMAS Koss OF CULNAHAL, Provost of the Collegiate Church of 
Tain, and Vicar of Alness. He was forced, by troubles and oppression from 
the neighbouring Barons, to reside for many years in Forres, during which 
period he received little or no benefit from the Revenues of his Monastery. 
Abbot Ross Married Isobel, daughter of Alexander Kinnaird of Cowbin, 
and, Dying in 1595, was Buried in S. Michael's Aisle at Fearn. 

21. WALTEE Boss OF MOEANGY, son of the preceding. It would appear 
that he was little more than Titular Allot, or Commendator ; for, in 1597, 
the Lands belonging to the Abbey were erected into a Temporal Lordship, 
called the Barony of Geanies, and granted by James VI. to Sir Patrick 
Murray, who was a great Favourite of his ; and, in 1607, all the other 
Lands not contained in that Barony were, by Act of Parliament, annexed 
to the Bishopric of Ross. Whether Abbot Ross, who was not consulted 
in making these arbitrary Grants, was living at that Period, or when he 
Died, is not known. 

VALUATION OF WHITE FRIARS, FEARN. 

Money 165 Is l$d. Bear 30 Chatters, 2 Bolls, 2 Pecks; Oats 
1 Chatter, 6 Bolls. 

In 1792, the Abbot's Lands and Thurlage in the Parish of Fearn 
amounted to upwards of 900 a year. [Old Stat. Ace.] 

All these different Orders followed the Rule of S. Augustine 
and some Private Constitutions. 



THE BENEDICTINES, 858 



THE BENEDICTINES, OE BLACK MONKS. 

S. BENEDICT, or BENNET, Founder of this Order, was the first 
who brought the Monastical life to be esteemed in the West. 
He was Born at Nursi, a Town of Italy, about A.D. 480, and 
established his Followers about the Fifth Century, who were 
sometimes called Benedictines, from the proper name of their 
Founder, and sometimes Black Monks, from the colour of their 
Habit. Berno built a new Monastery near Cluniacum, and began 
to reform the Benedictines about A.D. 940. Thence came the 
Congregation of Cluny. Moreover, the Order of S. Bennet hath 
been the source of several others, who follow the Eule of their 
first Founder. These Monks were either brought from Monas- 
teries depending upon the Abbacy of Fleury la Kiviere, on the 
Elver of Loire, in France, from Tyron, in the Province of Perche, 
or Cluny, in Burgundy ; as also the Cistertians, and those of 
the Congregation of Vallis-caulium, Yal-des-choux, likewise in 
Burgundy. [Spottiswoode.} 

Benet was the son of a Eoman Senator of an Anician Family. 
He was Born at Nursia, in Italy, A.D. 480, and he stole away 
very young from his parents, in the times of the Troubles and 
Wars of the Emperor Justinian, to retire into a Wilderness. He 
made choice of a Desert called Sublac, distant 40 miles from 
Eome, and practised there an Hermetical life, being only assisted 
by a Monk, whose name was Eomanus. He was afterwards 
invited by the Monks of a Monastery in the neighbourhood, to 
come and take upon himself the care of their Society, which he 
did. But these Monks being soon weary of him, and having 
even endeavoured to poison him, he retired himself to Mount 
Cassin, where he pulled down an old Temple of Apollo, and 
built upon its ruins a Monastery for Monks, desirous to establish 
in the West the same manner of living which Basil had begun in 
the East. Pope Gregory (called the Great) has written the Life 
of S. Benet in his Dialogues. Benet Founded himself twelve 
Monasteries, which were endowed and enriched by the liberalities 
of many Eoman Lords and Ladies, particularly that of Mount 

VOL. I. 2 Y 



854 MONASTICON. 

Cassin, which, according to Volateran's Testimony, had yearly a 
Revenue of above 40,000 Golden Crowns, which was a prodigious 
sum of money in those times. Those Monks not only got 
Houses and Farms, but Burghs, Towns, and Provinces. Benet 
Died A.D. 542, in the 62nd year of his age. He wrote a Eule 
for his Monks, which some attribute to Gregory III. It is 
divided into 73 Chapters, and the following is the substance of 
each : 

The Prologue contains an Exhortation of Benet to his Monks to bring 
them into the practice of Obedience, and of these his Eules, by which he 
said they should infallibly eonie to God, and promises if they found any- 
thing hard, the practice thereof will make it easier. S. Benet takes upon 
him the quality of a Master and good Father, who speaks to his Child 
" Hear, my Son, the Precepts of thy Master, and incline thy heart to the 
Admonitions of thy Father," &c. 

Chapter 1. Concerning the four sorts of Monks. 1st, Coenobites, who 
live in a Monastery under the same Eules and Abbot; 2nd, Anaclwrets, or 
Hermits ; 3rd, Sambaitcs, who were a sort of people following only their own 
wills ; 4th, certain Vagabond Monks, who had no place of abode. S. Benet 
declares that his Kule belongs to none but the Coenobites, whom he exalts 
above the rest. 

2. In this is described the good qualities which an Abbot ought to have, 
who in a Monastery represents the person of Jesus Christ. 

3. That in important affairs the Abbot ought to call all his Monks to 
Council, even the youngest, because God often reveals to them what is best. 
And after having heard every one's opinion, he ought to put in execution 
what he shall think best. 

4. Treats of the Instruments of Good Works, which he reduces to 72 
Precepts, which are the most eminent duties of Christian life ; of which the 
first is to love God with all one's heart, and the second to love our Neighbour 
as ourself, &c. S. Benet says that the Monastery is the proper place to put 
them in execution. 

5. Commands Obedience, without delay, to their Superiors. 

G. Commands silence ; and it is added that, for the love which we 
should bear to silence, we ought sometimes to abstain from good and 
edifying Discourses. 

7. This Chapter treats of Humility, of which there are twelve Degrees, 
which S. Benet asserted composed that mysterious Ladder which appeared 
to the Patriarch Jacob. The first Degree of Humility is to fear God, and to 
think Him always present ; the second, not to love to do our own will ; the 
third, to submit to the Superior in all Obedience for the love of God; 
the fourth, to suffer with patience all sorts of injuries for the love of God ; 
the fifth, to discover all most secret faults and sins to the Abbot; the 
sixth, that one ought to be content with the meanest things, and the most 
abject employments; the seventh, to think meanest of oneself; the eighth, 
to do nothing but what the common Eule of the Monastery and the 
example of the Ancients give a precedent for ; the ninth, to speak nothing 



THE BENEDICTINES. 855 

unless being asked; the tenth, not to laugh easily; the eleventh, being 
obliged to speak, to do it without laughter, with gravity, in a few words, 
and a low voice ; the twelfth, a Monk ought not only to be humble in heart, 
but also in behaviour, and that in all places he ought to hang down his head 
and his eyes towards the ground. S. Benet promises to him who shall 
have surmounted all these degrees of Humility, to arrive at that perfect 
Charity which drives away Fear. 

8. Appoints the hour when the Monks ought to rise in the Night to go 
to Church, viz., at the Eighth Hour that is, according to our way of 
reckoning, two hours after Midnight. 

9. Orders the Office and the number of Psalms which the Monks ought 
to sing in the Night, during the Winter. 

10. Orders the same Office for the Night in Summer. 
11 and 12. Settles the Divine Office for Sunday Night. 

13. Appoints the Night Office for the Days of the Week. 

14. Prescribes the Office for Holydays during Night. 

15. In what time they ought to sing Alleluia. 

16. 17, and 18. Ordains the Office of the Church for the Day, and will 
have them every Week Sing through the Psalter. 

19. That the Monks Singing at Church ought to remember they are in 
the presence of God and of his Angels. 

20. That they ought to accompany their Prayers with a profound and 
inward respect. That the Common Prayers ought to be short, and that they 
go out of the Church all together, when the Superior gives the sign. 

21. If the Congregation is numerous, it must be divided by tens, with 
a Dean over each, to be chosen from amongst the Brethren of the best life. 

22. After what manner the Monks ought to Sleep, viz., all in one 
place, or divided into several Eooms by tens or twenties, with their Deans. 
A Lamp must burn in the place where they sleep all night. They ought to 
sleep clothed, with their Girdles on. The 3 T oungest must not have their 
beds near one another, but be mingled with those of the oldest. 

23. If a Monk be rebellious, disobedient, proud, or a murmurer, after 
secret admonitions and public reprehensions, he ought to be Excommuni- 
cated ; and if for all this he does not mend, then to be corporally chastised. 

24. That for light faults they ought to be Excommunicated the Table ; 
that is to say, they must Eat alone, and after the others have done. 

25. That for great faults they be Excommunicated from the Table, 
from the Prayers, and all Assemblies. 

26. That he who, without the permission of his Abbot, keeps company 
with Excommunicated persons, be himself Excommunicated. 

27. What care the Abbot ought to have of those who are Excom- 
municated. 

28. After any one has been mildly and sharply corrected, and does not 
amend, that then the whole Congregation pray for him ; after which, if he 
persist obstinate, that they Expel him the Monastery. 

29. If he that hath been Expelled, returns and promises to amend, that 
they shall receive him thrice, after which he shall be admitted no more. 

80. That Children, and those who understand not what Excommunica- 
tion means, be punished by Fasting, or be Whipt. 

81. The good qualities which the Steward of the Monastery (called by 
him the House of God) ought to have, are here set down. 



856 MONASTICON. 

32. The Abbot ought to commit the Habits and the Goods of the 
Monastery to certain Monks, who shall look well after them, and keep an 
Inventory of them. 

33. The Monks ought to possess nothing at all as their own in 
particular, but every thing in common. 

34. All things ought to be distributed according to every one's 
necessities. 

35. The Monks ought to serve Weekly by turns in the Kitchen and at 
Table. They ought, during their Week, to wash the Feet of the others, and 
on Saturday to clean all the Plates, and the Linen which served to wipe the 
Feet of their Brethren. 

36. Care above all things must be taken of the Monks that are Sick. 
There shall be for them an Apartment by itself, with an Officer to serve 
them. The use of the Baths and of Flesh is permitted to them, till they be 
well. 

37. The austerity of the Rule ought to be moderated to Children and 
old Men, who shall have leave to Breakfast in the morning. 

38. Heading ought to be appointed during their Meals. He who reads 
is to begin on the Sunday, and so to go on the whole Week. Special 
Prayer ought to be made for him at Church, that God would be pleased to 
take away from him the spirit of Pride. The Monks must Eat in silence, 
and, wanting any thing, must ask for it rather by a sign than by word of 
mouth. 

39. Two different Dishes are granted to the Monks at Dinner, with 
some Fruits, and one Pound of Bread, leaving to the direction of the Abbot 
the diminishing or increasing the quantity of their Food according to the 
Season, their labours and ages, and all without any superfluity. He forbids 
eating Meat to all but the Sick. 

40. In this is set down the Measures of Drink, and the Measure of 
Wine, called Hemina, which the Monks were allowed. 

41. Orders the hour for Meals, both for Summer and Winter, at Dinner 
and Supper. 

42. A Spiritual Lecture to be read every Day before Evening Prayers, 
after which they are to be very silent in the Night. 

43. Orders Punishments for those who come late to Church, or to the 
Table, making them to sit in a place appointed for the lazy ones, taking 
from them their portion of Wine, or depriving them of their whole allowance. 

44. Punishments are also ordered for Excommunicated Monks; to wit, 
to Prostrate themselves with their Faces towards the ground without the 
Church-Gate every time that the Friars go to Sing their Prayers. 

45. Those who commit any fault in Singing, ought to humble them- 
selves immediately before all. 

46. Those who commit any fault in any other place, or Break any 
thing, ought to come presently, of their own accord, and accuse themselves 
of their transgression before the Abbot and the Congregation. 

47. The Abbot ought himself to take the care of giving the signal for 
to go to Church, and nobody ought to Sing or Eead there without his leave. 

48. Orders times both for Working and for Reading. Three hours in 
the Morning ought to be employed in Working with their Hands, and as 
many in the Afternoon. They must spend two hours in Reading after the 
Morning Work is over. 



THE BENEDICTINES. 857 

19. Treats of the Observance of Lent, in which time is recommended 
particularly the exercise of all sorts of Virtues, and attributes to Presump- 
tion and Sin all the Penances inflicted without their Superior's leave. 

50. Those Monks who, by reason of their Labouring or taking a Journey, 
cannot meet at Prayer-time with the others, ought to say the same at the 
appointed Hours, wherever they be. 

51. Those Monks who go out upon Business, and can return the same 
day to their Monastery, ought not to Eat abroad without the leave of their 
Abbot ; if they do, they are to be Excommunicated. 

52. The Church ought to be looked upon as a Place only designed for 
Prayer, and accordingly no other use must be made of it. 

53. All Guests or Strangers ought to be received in the Monastery as 
if they were Christ himself. They ought first to go with them to Prayer, 
then to adore Christ in them by an humble Prostration at their Feet, which 
the Abbot and the Monks must Wash. But, above all, they ought to make 
much of the Poor. All the Guests must be admitted at the Abbot's Table, 
iu an Apartment by itself for that purpose, and he ought to Break his Fast to 
keep them company. 

54. The Monks ought to receive neither Letters nor Presents without 
the permission of their Abbot. 

55. The Clothes which the Monks ought to wear. 

56. When there are no Strangers in the Monastery, the Abbot may call 
some of his Monks to his Table. 

57. The Workmen, who live in the Monastery, ought to exercise their 
Arts with all humility, and the Money that comes from their Works must 
be common. 

58. Of the reception of the Novices. They ought to be tried by denials, 
hard words, and other ill usages, some days before they enter the Monastery. 
They ought to make a whole year of Probation, during which time these 
Rules shall be read to them every fourth month, and then they shall be 
admitted to Profess, by which they ought to promise stability amongst the 
Monks, the Conversion of their Lives and Manners, Obedience to God and 
to his Saints ; and if ever they do any thing contrary to these Rules, they 
must expect no less than eternal Damnation. They ought to put, as it 
were, their Seal to this Promise, by saying three times this Verse of the 
118th Psalm " Suscipe me, Domine, secundum eloquiurn tuum, et vivam ; 
et non confundas me ab expectatione mea." After which, they shall go and 
Prostrate themselves at every Monk's feet, and so they are received as 
Monks. They must give their Estates to the Poor, or to the Monastery, 
considering that from that very time they have not the disposal even of 
their own Bodies, and so they must be clothed with the Monastic Habit. 

59. Prescribes the manner of presenting Children to the Monastery, as 
well of the Nobility as of the Poor. The Parents must make the demand in 
behalf of the Child, and present him. to the Altar, by reason they are too 
young to do it themselves. Afterwards the Parents must oblige themselves 
by Oath, and before Witnesses, that they will never give, nor permit to be 
given to them, any temporal Estate, to the end that they may take from 
them all occasion of leaving the Monastery. 

60. If any Priest requires to be Initiated a Monk, after having proved 
him by delays that he be received, they shall make him sit near the Abbot ; 
but he shall be subject to every observance of the Rule, and he ought not to 



358 MONASTICON. 

presume to exercise any Sacerdotal Function without the permission of the 
Abbot. That the same thing be proportionably observed towards the Clerks. 

61. Orders that they permit those Monks that are Strangers, who 
desire to make any stay in the Monastery, to remain there ; and if they 
serve to edification, they may be entreated to fix there their continual abode. 

62. Those Monks who shall, at the request of the Abbot, be Ordained 
Priests, ought not thereupon to grow proud, but shall be subject to the Rule, 
to the Deans, and to those who shall be set over them ; otherwise, after a 
due correction, in the presence of the Bishop, they must be expelled the 
Monastery. 

63. Establishes the Order of Precedence amongst the Monks, which 
shall be according to the time of their Profession. The first comers shall 
have the first place, and the youngest, that is to say, those who come last, 
shall give place in all things to their seniors. 

64. The Abbot must be Elected by all the Congregation, with the 
plurality of voices. The description is given of the good qualities which he 
who is proposed for Election ought to have, and what he ought to consider, 
or do, after being Elected. 

65. The Superior of the Monastery ought to be Elected by the Abbot, 
who may also Depose him in case of Disobedience. 

66. Requires that they give the Office of Porter of the Monastery to a 
wise old man, who can receive and give an answer, that he be diligent to 
open the Gate. And that he may take away from the Monks all pretence of 
going out of the Monastery, he should have, if possible, Water, a Mill, a 
Garden, an Oven, and all other Mechanical Arts, within the Monastery. 

67. The Monks who go a Journey, ought to recommend themselves to 
the Prayer of their Brethren, and they must be Prayed for when they are 
returned, for any transgression they might have committed during the time 
of their being out of the Monastery. 

68. If a Monk be commanded anything impossible, after having repre- 
sented the impossibility of it with all humility to his Superior, yet if he 
persists in his command, the Monk must at last obey, and rely upon the 
assistance of God in the performance of it. 

69. That they ought not to defend or excuse one another's faults in the 
Monastery. 

70. It is not permitted to any one to strike, or to Excommunicate, 
without the permission of the Abbot. Nevertheless, every one may, upon 
occasion, correct the Children with discretion. 

71. The Monks are exhorted also to a mutual Obedience one towards 
another, provided they do not neglect the commands of their Superiors ; and 
if any one of their Superiors be angry with them, they ought to Prostrate 
themselves at his Feet till his anger be over. 

72. That in every thing they do, they ought to be possessed with a good 
zeal, and to esteem nothing above the love of Christ. 

78, S. Benet ends his Rule by saying that all the observances of 
Justice is not contained in it. He exalts the Holy Scriptures, and asserts 
that every Page of the Old, as well as of the New Testament, is a just Rule 
of human life. He recommends to his Monks the reading of the Fathers, 
particularly the Collations of Cassian, and the Rule of S. Basil ; and says 
that his own Rule is no more than a small beginning of Perfection, which 
opens the way to a far greater. \EmilUanne t p. 57.] 



PKIORY OF COLDINGHAM. 859 

Those Monks who had relation to Fleury la Riviere had three 
Convents in this Country, which were situate at the following 
Places : 

I. COLDINGHAM, A.D. 1098, 

In the Shire of Berwick, two miles from Eyemouth, was a 
Priory Founded by King Edgar, in honour of S. Cuthberfc, at 
this Date, who bestowed it upon the Monks of Durham, in 
England. It formerly was a Nunnery, renowned in our History. 
Bede called this place Coludum, and Ptolemy Colania. Hugh, 
Bishop of Biblis, in the Holy Land, obtained of Pope Benedict 
XI. all the Profits and Revenues of this Priory during his life- 
time, after that the Saracens had seized upon his Bishopric ; 
which King Edward I. finding prejudicial to the Crown, stopped, 
and declared the Gift null. [Prynne, vol. in.., p. 1059.] King 
James III. annexed this Place to his Royal Chapel of Stirling, 
and made an Act of Parliament discharging all subjects to 
attempt any thing contrary to this Union under the pain of 
Treason. After his Death, Alexander Stuart, natural son to 
King James IV., was made Commendator hereof, and was 
Killed, with his father, at the Battle oF Flodden, in 1513. The 
last who bore that Title was John Stuart, son to Francis, Earl 
of Bothwell. There are a vast number of Original Charters, 
granted by our Kings, &c., to this Monastery, still extant in the 
Archives of the Church of Durham, an exact List of which is to 
be seen in a MS. in the Advocates' Library. [Spottlswoode.] 

The " Surtees Society" has Printed the Charters of Endow- 
ment of this Priory, together with numerous other Documents of 
a general nature relative to the Monastery, from the early Period 
of Duncan the Usurper to the time of its disjunction -from the 
Church of Durham, in the Fifteenth Century. The two Volumes 
are ably Edited by the Secretary, the Rev. James Raine. 

From the locality of the Priory of Coldingham, and its con- 
nexion with England, its History is of more importance than 
that of any other Border Monastery, inasmuch as, from these 
circumstances, its Inmates became of necessity, from time to 



860 MONASTICON. 

time, implicated in transactions of a character less connected 
with the Monastic Institute than with the public affairs of the 
two Kingdoms. But there are other prominent features in the 
History of this Monastery, which give it a peculiar character, and 
invest it with additional interest. Although locally situated 
within the Territory of Scotland, and Endowed by the Monarchs 
and Nobles of that Kingdom, it was subordinate to the English 
Church, which exercised over it an absolute control, and appro- 
priated to its own use a considerable portion of its Revenues. 
The Church of Coldingham was, therefore, not unnaturally a 
source of jealousy to Scotland in times of peace, and an object of 
open attack in time of war. 

Recent discoveries afford the most conclusive evidence that, 
previous to the erection of the ancient Priory, and almost on the 
same place, there existed a Religious House or Institution of 
this description. In recently excavating the Floor of the Priory, 
now the Parish Church, the workmen came upon the Foundation 
Walls of the more ancient Structure. The whole extent of these 
Foundations was distinctly traceable; and this part of the 
Building appears in the Original, as in the after Erection, to 
have formed the Church of the Monastery, but stretching a few 
feet farther towards the South than the more recent Structure. 
With the exception of the East end, it is of the same form- 
namely, an Oblong Square, of somewhat smaller dimensions 
than the after Priory. The East end consisted of a Circular 
Projection or Apse, in all probability used as the Sanctuary, or 
space for the Altar. The Stone is of the same description as 
that of which the Priory is built, of a reddish colour, and 
supposed to have been brought from a Quarry called Greenheugh, 
in the Parish of Cockburnspath, the nearest place where such 
Stone is now to be found. 

In further proof that the Priory was reared on the Site 
of a more ancient Building, there was found a Stone Coffin 
deposited directly over, and 2 feet above, the Foundation of 
the North Wall. The Coffin was in an entire state, the 
Sides being of rude Stone-work, and the Covering, a Dressed 
Slab, bore the impress of ancient Chisel-work, and is now 



PEIOEY OF COLDINGHAM. 361 

preserved against the Wall to the South of the Archway. From 
the Insignia, among which is a Cock, it must have been some 
person of distinction in the vicinity, and not improbably one of 
the Cockburns of Langton, who possessed a Fortalice at East 
Kenton. We find the name of Cockburn frequently mentioned 
in the ancient Charters of the Priory. A Silver Coin of the 
Keign of James V. was found under the Slab which covered the 
Grave. It seems obvious that this Interment must have taken 
place after the demolition of the more ancient Building, and in 
the Interior of the Church of the Priory, afterwards erected on 
the same Site. These Foundations were not disturbed or visible 
to human eye for nearly 800 years, until 1854, or probably since 
the days of King Edgar, when the Monastery was Founded. So 
early as the year 660, Coldingham is distinguished in History as 
the Site of a Eeligious Establishment of high order. In 1854, 
the Foundations of that Establishment, by whomsoever laid, 
were for the first time discovered, which is noticed in this Work 
under the Nuns who followed the Ptule of S. Francis. 

The Priory of Coldingham is one of Scotland's most ancient 
Monastic Establishments, of which any characteristic fragment 
remains. Founded by King Edgar, in honour of S. Cuthbert, 
A.D. 1098, the Kelics of this once stupendous Structure have now 
braved the ravages of nearly 800 years. 

There is a Legendary Story related by Fordun in his Chroni- 
cle, that as Edgar, with the auxiliary Forces which had been 
supplied to him by William Kufus, was inarching toward Scot- 
land, with the intention of wresting the Sceptre from his 
adversary, he rested at Durham, where, daring the night, he 
received a visit from S. Cuthbert, who encouraged him in his 
Enterprise, and assured him that, if he caused his Banner to be 
carried with him in the Van of his Army, his enemies at the sight 
of the sacred Ensign would flee in terror before him. Edgar, 
accordingly, on the following morning, obtained from the Monas- 
tery the Banner of the Saint, and having displayed it as he had 
been directed, the result corresponded with the Prediction. The 
Soldiery of Donald's Army deserted to the side of him whom they 
had been led forth to oppose. The Usurper himself was taken 

VOL. I. 2 Z 



862 MONASTICON. 

Prisoner, and, his eyes being put out, he was consigned to a 
Dungeon for the brief remainder of his life. To the assistance 
which the King conceived himself to have received from the 
Saint, the Foundation and ample Endowment of the Priory is 
usually ascribed. 

King Edgar attended personally in the Church on the day of 
Consecration to the three Saints, Cuthbert, Mary, and Ebba, 
which, in his Charter, he informs us, "was performed in a 
manner acceptable to the glory of God and his own pleasure." 
At the Altar he Endowed it with " the whole Village of Swinton," 
according to the same Boundaries by which the Saxon Liulf held 
it ; and this they were to enjoy for ever, "exempt from all claims, 
and disposable solely at the pleasure of S. Cuthbert's Monks." 
He at the same time bestowed upon them " twenty-four Beasts for 
re-cultivating the Land of Swinton," and established the same 
terms of peace in going to and returning from Coldingham, as 
was observed at Lindisferne and Norham. He further enjoined 
that the Inhabitants of Coldinghamshire should pay a yearly 
Tribute to the Monks of half a Merk of Silver for every Carucate 
of Land which they possessed. All these Donations, he says, 
he "made for the souls of his father and mother, for the salva- 
tion of his own soul, and that of his brothers and sisters." Among 
the Witnesses to this Charter are Thor Longus, CElfric the 
Butler, Algar and Osbern (Priests), Ligulf of Bamburgh men of 
whose history little or nothing is known. By two distinct 
Charters, he bestowed upon them Paxton, with the Men [Bond- 
men or Slaves], Lands, and Waters, with the Territory extend- 
ing between Cnapdean and Horndean. Along with Coldingham, 
he granted, by another Charter, to S. Cuthbert and his Monks, 
the Mansions or Villages of Aldcambus, Lumsdean, Eenton, 
Reston, Swinewood, two places called Eiton (now Ayton), Pren- 
derguest, Farndun, and Cramesmuthe, with their Lands, Woods, 
Waters, Tolls, Wrecks of Ships, and all Dues belonging to them, 
to be held ever afterwards at their free disposal. He then made 
a more ample Donation to the Monks of S. Cuthberfc, of which 
the Members of our Monastery shared the profits, viz., the 
Mansions of Berwick, Greiden, Leinhalle, Dilsterhalle, Brygham, 



PRIORY OF COLDINGHAM. 363 

Edrem, Chirnesid, Hilton, Blakedir, Chynbrygham [Kimmer- 
gham, in Edrom Parish] , Huton, Fulden, Morthyngton, two 
places called Lamberton, Hadrington, Ffyschewike, Horford, 
Vpsetinton, and Hadynton, with the usual Immunities and Privi- 
leges. In the Preamble to this Charter, Edgar plainly acknow- 
ledges the Feudal Tenure by which he held Lodonium, or 
Lothian, from William Eufus, King of England, respecting which 
there has been so much controversial discussion between the 
Scottish and English Historians. A Supplement informs us 
that it was granted on the 4th of the Calends of September of 
that year, in which "King William, son of the great King 
William," built a new Fortress near Bamburgh, against Eobert, 
Earl of Northumberland. The Donation was made " for the 
souls of his father and mother, his own soul and body, and the 
souls of his brothers, Edward and Duncan." 

At the death of this munificent Prince, Thor Longus, a Saxon 
follower, who had received from him a Grant of Ednam, in Rox- 
burghshire, imitated his Sovereign's example of liberality to the 
Monks. The following is a literal Translation of a singular 
Charter : 

Unto all the sons of Holy Mother Church, Thor Longus, Greeting in 
the Lord. Know ye that Edgar, my Lord, hath given me (Ednaham, a 
Desert, which I have peopled by his assistance and my own money, and 
(there) erected a Church in honour of S. Cuthbert, which Church, with one 
Ploughgate of Laud, I have given to be possessed by God, S. Cuthbert, and 
his Monks, for ever. This Donation I have made for the soul of my Lord, 
King Edgar, and for the souls of his father and mother, and for the Salva- 
tion of his brothers and sisters, and for the Eedemption of my well- beloved 
brother, Lefwin, and for the safety of my own soul and body. And if any 
one shall presume, by any force or fraud, to take this my Gift from the 
aforesaid Saint, and the Monks who serve him, may God Almighty take 
from him the Life of the Heavenly Kingdom, and may he endure Eternal 
Punishment with the Devil and his Angels. Amen. 

The Charters of Edgar's brother and Successor, Alexander, 
surnamed " The Fierce," are ten in number, and are merely 
Confirmations of the Grants already noticed. The Donation of 
the Land between Horndean and Cnapdean, and of Swinton, 
are specially adverted to, and the Prior and Monks are prohibited 



364 MONASTICON. 

from engaging in any Pleas respecting the latter, without pre- 
viously receiving his sanction, either personally or by letter. 

David, Prince of Cumberland and Earl of Northumberland, 
in 1124, ascended the Throne, left vacant by the Decease of his 
brother, Alexander. Notwithstanding that he was engaged, 
during a great part of his Keign, in Wars with England, this 
illustrious Monarch has immortalized his name by the zeal which 
he displayed in the erection and endowment of Keligious Houses 
throughout his Kingdom. During his brother's lifetime he began 
his career of pious munificence, by Founding the Monastery of 
Selkirk, and confirming some of the Donations made to that of 
Coldingham ; and in the course of his Eeign were reared, under 
his auspices, the Abbeys of Holyrood, Melrose, Dryburgh, Jed- 
burgh, Dundrennan, Kinloss, Newbottle, and Cambuskenneth. 
He Founded also the Priory of Lesmahago, and a Convent of 
Cistertian Nuns at B'erwick; Translated the Monks of Selkirk 
to the newly founded Abbey of Kelso, erected the Episcopal Sees 
of Koss and Dunkeld, and conferred upon the Church innumer- 
able Benefactions. 

Before ascending the Throne he decided a dispute which had 
sprung up between the Coldingham Monks and the Drengs of the 
Land of Horndean, upon the testimony of Legal Witnesses, and 
the Charter of his brother Edgar, in favour of the former. 
Drengs were a species of villeyns attached to the soil, and liable 
to be bought and sold along with it. They held their Tenements 
in drengage. [Chalmer's Caledonia.] 

He then Granted the Lands of Swinton, which Edgar had 
given to the Monks, to his soldier Hernulf, to be held of himself 
and S. Cuthbert, by the same tenure by which Liulf, the son of 
Edulf, and Udard, his brother, had formerly possessed it, viz., 
an annual payment to the Monks of Forty Shillings, without any 
other service. This Hernulf or Arnulf was the Founder of the 
ancient family, Swinton of Swinton. 

By a Charter, Dated at Peebles in the third year of his Eeign, 
A.D. 1127, he conferred upon them some valuable Privileges, 
which tended to elevate them considerably in consequence. The 
most important of these was Socna, a Saxon word, which seems 



PEIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 365 

to have implied the power of holding Courts upon their Lands 
for the settlement of Disputes, and the arraignment of Offenders, 
with authority to compel their Vassals to attend and aid the 
Judge in the administration of justice. It has also been sup-- 
posed that those to whom such a Privilege was ceded by the King, 
could compel their Tenants to cultivate the Land as it were with 
soc or plough. The Prior was the Judge who presided in these 
Courts, of which there were three head ones held yearly, which 
are frequently adverted to in the Chartulary. The Chapter 
House of the Abbey appears to have been the place where they 
were most commonly held, though occasional Meetings for this 
purpose were convened at Ayton, and other places throughout 
Coldinghamshire. Thus, in 1198, we find Edward de Aldcam- 
bus pledging himself to produce his four sons at the Plea Courts 
of Coldingham (ad placita de Coldingham), to swear away their 
right to the Village of Auldcambus ; and during the Eeign of 
William the Lion, a similar transaction, relative to Land at 
Kenton, and the Wood of Auldcambus, belonging to David of 
Quixwood, was gone through (in plena curia prsefati prioris, 
(Ernaldi, apud Homelenolle) in Prior (Ernald's full Court at 
Homelinolle a conical eminence close to Coldingham Shore, 
still retaining the name of Homeliknow. In like manner, and 
about the same time, there occurred the "magna placilatio in 
curia de Eyton pro duodecim denariis male receptis per J. Kink- 
borne, nomine sedis unius navis apud Eyemouth," or the great 
Plea in the Court of Ayton, about twelve Pennies unduly received 
by J. Kinkborn for the anchorage of a Ship at Eyemouth. 

The next Privilege bestowed upon the Priory was that of 
Sacca, whereby the Prior could levy Fines, and pass sentence of 
Forfeiture upon Debtors or Delinquents summoned to this Court. 
In the Laws of Edward the Confessor, it is said to have signified 
a Fine imposed upon a Prosecutor who summoned a person to 
trial, and failed in proving the accusation which he had brought 
against him ; or upon one who, being accused, rashly subjected 
himself to trial, and failed in proving his innocence. 

The three other Privileges ceded to it were those of Toll, Team, 
Infangethef, which were also a valuable acquisition. By the first 



866 MONASTICON. 

of these the Monks were empowered to buy and sell without 
paying Toll or Custom for their Merchandise within their Terri- 
tory, with the right of exacting such Custom from others who 
did so ; and by the second they were enabled to dispose of their 
Villains or Slaves in whatever way they thought proper. Infan- 
gethef is supposed to be merely the power of trying thieves or 
robbers detected in the act of committing depredations upon the 
Property, the owner of which possessed that Privilege. It is 
doubtful, however, whether this explanation of the term be not 
too limited. We are rather inclined to believe that it granted 
the powers of punishing as well as trying the culprit. In a 
Charter granted to the Burgesses of Berwick by Queen Eliza- 
beth, it is ordered " that a Gallows be erected, so that the Mayor 
and Bailiffe of Infangethief and Outfangethief may doe justice." 
About half a mile South from the Kuins of the Priory is an 
eminence which is called the Gallow-side, where several human 
Skeletons have been at various times dug up ; but whether the 
Executions of Malefactors here undergone were in virtue of 
sentences passed in the Court of the Priory, or in that of the 
Justiciary of Lothian during his Itinera, or Circuits, we shall not 
pretend to determine. 

It may here also be remarked that a circular Pit, 12 or 
14 feet deep, near the South Door of the present Church, was 
filled up within these few years, which was not improbably the 
Dungeon to which the more offensive class of Criminals were 
consigned, previous to being subjected to trial, or the sentence of 
the Law. 

King David next Granted them the Church of S. Mary at 
Berwick, with the Lands, Tithes, and Eights belonging to it, in 
exchange for the Church of Melrose and its Property. By suc- 
ceeding Charters he bestowed upon the Monks of Colhinheham, 
one Toft with Houses in the Village of Ednam (Edenham), which 
Gilbert, the Priest of Stichel, formerly held of him, at a Rent of 
Two Shillings yearly, exempt from all other services ; a Fishing 
Water which Swain, the Priest of Fishwick, had formerly held 
and cleared from stones ; and unto Edward, Monk of Colding- 
ham, he granted the whole Tithe of Fish in the Fisheries of 



PRIORY OF COLDINGHAM. 367 

Halwarestelle and of all the other Waters justly belonging to the 
Church of Holy Island. The Fishery of Halwarestelle was 
situated at the mouth of the Tweed near Spittal, and is now 
commonly called Hallowstel. 

During the Keign of King David, and his amiable son Henry, 
Earl of Northumberland, many other Grants of property were 
made to this Monastery by wealthy individuals, to most of which 
the former added Charters of Confirmation. 

In presence of Earl Henry, Swain, the Priest of Fishwick, 
appeared at Berwick, and renounced, in favour of the Coldingham 
Monks, Fishwick, with all its Purtenances, the half of Prender- 
guest, with some Land at Coldingham and Lumsdean. 

But from Robert, Archbishop of St. Andrews, they obtained, 
in 1127, a Donation of Privileges of a much more satisfactory 
nature, in a Charter, of which the following is a Translation : 

Unto all faithful men of Holy Mother Church, Clergy and Laity, 
present and to come, Robert, by the Grace of God, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
Greeting. Be it known to you all that, in the presence of our Sovereign 
Lord, King David; Turstin [Thurstin] Archbishop of York; Ranulph 
(Ralph Flarnbard)j Bishop of Durham; the Bishop of Glasgow; and Gau- 
frid, Abbot of S. Albans ; and many others ; we have summoned Algar, 
Prior of S. Cuthbert at Durham, before the Door of the Church of S. John 
the Evangelist at Roxburgh, and there, as far as pertaineth unto our 
Episcopal authority, by attesting and ratifying the present Charter, we have 
Granted and Confirmed the Church of Coldingham to be free and exempt 
for ever from all Claims made by us or our Successors, of 'Custom, Can, or 
Cimeved, and from all services which pertain unto us or our Successors. 
Wherefore we Will, and, by our Episcopal authority, Grant, that the Church 
of Coldingham, and all the Churches and Chapels which in any way 
belonged Canonically to the Church of S. Cuthbert, be henceforth more free 
and exempt from all Episcopal Aids, (C'c., <c., than any other Abbey Church in 
Loudoncum [Lothian] ; and we forbid that any Bishop, Archdeacon, or 
Deacon, hereafter exact any Custom or Aid from them, saving what they 
may voluntarily offer. All this we have done by the request and advice of 
our Lord and King David, and our brother Bishops aforesaid, in love to S. 
Cuthbert and the Brotherhood of the Monks of Durham, on the xvi. of the 
Calends of August, at the Feast of S. Kenelm, the Martyr, in the Year from 
the Incarceration of our Lord, MCXXVII., before these Witnesses our Brother, 
Robert Blahan, Priest of Lintun ; Aldulf, Priest of Haldehamtoce [Aldham- 
stocks] ; Henry, Priest of Leinhale ; Orm, Priest of Ledgareswude [Leger- 
wood] ; and many other Religious men, both Clergy and Laity. 



368 MONASTICON. 

Such were the principal accessions of Property or of Privilege 
acquired by the Priory during the Keign of David I. 

Malcolm IV., who swayed with feeble hand the Scottish 
Sceptre, between the years 1153 and 1165 issued six Charters in 
favour of the Monastery, by which the Monks acquired the 
Privilege of Free Warren, or the right of exclusive hunting within 
their Territory, and of transporting the men of Coldinghamshire 
to the Village to inhabit it. He at the same time prohibited 
them for responding to any Pleas that might be entered against 
them, except in his own presence, or in that of his Chief 
Justiciary, and granted them the liberty of seizing and detaining 
their fugitive Villains wherever they might detect them. 

William the Lion (1165-1214) confirmed the Charters of his 
Predecessor, and augmented their Privileges and Property. He 
prohibited his Justiciaries for illegally maintaining any of the 
men belonging to the Monastery against the Prior or his house, 
and exempted them from a payment of Two Shillings, which his 
Bailiffs of Berwick had been in the habit of exacting. By a 
Charter, Dated at Berwick, he commanded that the following 
Woods should be in the keeping of the Prior and his Monks 
viz., Greenwood, the whole Wood of Eeston, Brockholewood, 
Akeside, and Kirkdeanwood, Harewood, Deanwood, Swinewood, 
Houndwood, with their Groves and Wastes ; prohibited any one 
from Hunting in them, under a penalty of Ten Pounds, without 
permission from the Prior or his Monks ; but allowed his 
Servants at Berwick to take what Wood was necessary for the 
use of the Castle from such part of the Forest as the Prior or his 
Deputies might point out. The greater part of these W T oods 
sheltered the sides of the Vale of the Eye ; and during the Keign 
of William the Lion, between the years 1198 and 1210, Prior 
jiErnald bestowed upon Richard de Renton the Office of Forester, 
with several valuable Emoluments belonging to it, to be held by 
him and his Heirs for ever. He further bestowed upon the 
Monks a Grant of a Toft of Land in his Burgh of Haddington. 

During this Reign, also, Waldeve, Earl of Dunbar, who, in 
1174, was one of the Hostages delivered up to Henry II. of 
England, in accordance with the Treaty of Falaise, to purchase 



PKIOBY OF COLDINGHAM. 869 

the Scottish King's Freedom, confirmed the Charter of Cospat- 
rick respecting Edrom and Nesbit. His son Patrick, who held 
the Earldom of Dunbar for the unusually long period of 50 years, 
followed the example of his ancestors in liberality to the Monks. 
He bestowed upon them the Land which lies between Fogo and 
Swinton ; also that part of Billy which extends between Auchen- 
craw and the two Villages of Reston, and the Village and Lord- 
ship of Swinewood. 

About the same period, William de Veterepont, who held the 
Barony of Langton, in Berwickshire, in conjunction with the 
Northumbrian Roger de Ow, Confirmed to them some Land near 
Horndean, which he acknowledges he had for some years 
previously usurped. From Walter Olifard, who Died in 1242, 
they obtained the right of exacting yearly from the Church of 
Smailholm, in the County of Roxburgh, two Merks and a Half 
of Silver, after the Death of Fulco, the Clerk, to be paid at two 
Terms, the one half at the Feast of S. Martin, the other at that 
of Pentecost. Clarebald de Esseby, his Vassal, granted them 
two Fishing Waters in the River Tweed, viz., one below the 
Garden of Fishwick, and another at Shipeswell. They also 
acquired from William de Mordington another Fishery, with a 
Stilnet at the latter place. William de Bosco, or de Bosch, the 
Chancellor of Scotland, made them a Donation of three Acres of 
Land on the Tay, on the Moor of Carruthers, which afforded 
Pasturage for 100 Sheep, 40 Oxen, 50 Goats, 20 Swine, and 3 
Horses, for an acknowledgment of three Shillings yearly. From 
Ranulf, the Baron of Buncle, they received a Grant of the Lands 
then called Toddehalech, but now Todheugh, on the Whitadder 
(juxta Edere), in the Parish of Edrom. He, at the same time, 
renounced a Claim which he seems to have held over the Woods 
of Brockholes, Harewood, and Deanwood, which, in after years, 
was Confirmed by Margaret, Countess of Mar, in a Charter Dated 
5th January, 1415. 

William de Vaux, Baron of Dirleton, in East Lothian, 
bestowed two Oxgangs of Land in the Territory of Gulane 
[Golan], the situation of which is minutely described in the 
Charter, and a Toft in that Village, situated near the Hospital 

VOL. I. 3 A 



870 MONASTICON. 

of S. John of Jerusalem, for which he was to receive four Pennies 
at the Feast of S. Michael. From Edward, son of Peter, Baron 
of Lastailrig [Kestalrig, near Edinburgh], they obtained two 
Tofts at Eyemouth, and one at Leith, for which he and his Heirs 
were to receive yearly three Teases of Silk Lace (tres teisas de lacio 
sericeo) ; and William Gumming, one of the most distinguished 
characters of his time, made them a yearly Grant of 12 Pounds 
of Wax (petra cerse), for lighting the Church of Coldingham at 
the Festival of S. Cuthbert's Translation, on the 4th September. 
But all of these benevolent individuals were far outvied in 
liberality by David, the Baron of Quixwood, a Territory adjacent 
to Coldinghamshire, in the Parish of Abbey St. Bathans. Be- 
sides endowing the Leper Hospital of Auldcambus, he granted 
to S. Cuthbert, S. Ebb, and the Monks of Coldingham, 26 Acres 
of Land adjacent to it, which he thus describes in one of his 
Grants: 6 Acres under cultivation 'at Leyes, 6 Acres in Milne- 
dales, 3 at Arkilesmidhope, 3 in Hagethornedales and Emunds- 
acre, 1 Acre at Windilawe, 4 at Medwedales, half an Acre at 
Midhope, and another half at Wascel, toward the North, with the 
Toft of an Acre opposite the Garden, near the Kivulet, toward 
the South. He then granted them the whole Land, together 
with a Wood [Perhaps the same Wood of Auldcambus, in after 
years renowned in History as the place which furnished the 
immortal Bruce with materials for the Siege of Berwick, and 
where he indignantly rejected the Bull of the Pope] which he 
possessed upon the Moor of Auldcambus, extending as follows : 
From the top (a primo fonte) of Bertolvisakisclow to Akside- 
burne, from the Eoad of Aksidesclow Westward to Aksideburne, 
in exchange for two Oxgangs of Land, with a Toft and Croft at 
Coldingham. He further, with the consent of his wife and his 
heirs, resigned in their favour all the Property which he had in 
the Village of Auldcambus, for 60 Acres of Land in the Territory 
of Coldingham, 100 Shillings, a Toft and Croft which Waldevus 
Pethun had formerly held, 10 Acres under cultivation with Flowers, 
and a Messuage near the Workshop of Benedict, the Carpenter. 
He finally resigned all his right to the Lands of Auldcambus, 
cultivated and uncultivated, reserving only to himself the Privi- 



PRIORY OF COLDINGHAM. 871 

lege of Pasturing* upon them his Cattle, and of abstracting from 
them as much Bark and Brushwood (pelo et virga) as he might 
require for Building. 

Alexander II. Confirmed the Charter of his Predecessors, 
and exempted the Prior and his Monks from a sum of 20 Merks, 
which they had been in the custom of paying yearly to his 
Exchequer, under the name of Wattinga a Tax which appears 
to have been levied from the Landowners in Scotland for the 
purpose of erecting and maintaining in repair the Government 
Fortresses. He also discharged Robert de Bernham, the Mayor, 
and the Bailiffs of Berwick, from molesting Foreign Merchants 
when on their way to the Priory to purchase the Wool and other 
Commodities belonging to the Monks ; and that no one should 
seize any Property, moveable or unmoveable, belonging to the 
Convent, within the Barony or Lordship of Coldingham, for Debt 
on Forfeiture. He also released " the twelfth Village of Colding- 
hamshire, or that in which the Church is founded," from the aids 
and Military service which had formerly been exacted. 

Alexander III. Confirmed to the Monks their Charter of Free 
Warren and Free Forestry, at Selkirk, 16th June, 1276 ; and, 
during his Reign, by Charter, dated at Chirnside on Friday 
following the Feast of All Saints (1st November), Patrick, Earl of 
Dunbar, restored to them the Wardship of East-Nesbit, with the 
right of disposing of its Heirs in Marriage, reserving to himself 
and his Heirs a Payment of 30 Shillings for the Villages of East- 
Nesbit and Edrom, and the Foreign service due to him for the 
same. He also Confirmed the Grants made to them by his 
Predecessors. 

Robert de Insula, by Deed Dated at Northallerton on the 
6th of the Ides of September, 1279, granted to Henry de Horn- 
castre, the Prior of Coldingham, and to the Monks of that Cell 
for ever, a place for a Habitation in the Village of Holy Island, 
on the North side of " Lamasete," 100 feet in length and breadth, 
for which they were to pay Sixpence yearly at the Exchequer of 
Norham. An Orchard at Holy Island, called Coldingham Walls, 
which was probably the Site of this Edifice, was, in 1541, 
granted by the Crown to the Dean and Chapter of Durham, as 



372 MONASTICON. 

the part of their Endowment. The Coldingham Priors, not 
unfrequently, during troublous times, or when superannuated, 
took up their abode in this Edifice. 

King Robert Bruce, by Charter, at Newbottle, 26th Decem- 
ber, 1328, Conferred upon them the Privilege of taking yearly 
from the Forest of Selkirk, five Stags for Celebrating the Festival 
of S. Cuthbert's Translation. The Game was to be delivered up 
to them by the chief Forester, and transported to the Priory in 
the King's own Wains. He also Confirmed the Charters of 
Kings Edgar and David, &c. In 1295, they also received a 
Charter of Protection from Edward I. of England ; and, in 1305, 
he granted them the Privilege of holding a Weekly Market on 
Wednesday, and a Yearly Fair, which was to commence upon 
the Eve of S. Luke. 

David II. Confirmed his father's Charters, and issued a Writ 
of special Protection to the Prior and his Convent, Dated at 
Scone, 16th June, in the 39th year of his age (1368). Edward 
III. also granted a similar Charter at York; and, on the 6th 
June, 1359, empowered the Prior to grant Leases of his Lands 
and Tenements lying in the County of Berwick to whom he 
chose. He also, by another Charter, gave him permission to 
purchase in England, through his servants, a supply of Victuals 
for the support of the Monks, viz., 100 Quarters of Wheat, 140 
Quarters of Malt and Barley, and 50 Quarters of Oats, with the 
power of conveying them to the Priory by sea or land. 

From James II. and from Henry VI. they also received 
Charters of Protection for their House and Property. 

Robert III. granted a Confirmatory Charter at Linlithgow, 
26th January, 1391 ; and, on the 12th June, 1402, James I. 
took the Prior and his Convent under his special protection. 

The preceding is an enumeration of the Privileges, Posses- 
sions, and Immunities enjoyed by the Monks, of which Grants 
are preserved in the Chartularies. It is probable, however, that 
they possessed many others which have not been so carefully 
recorded. Much of the Land originally conferred upon them 
was let out in Leases of considerable extent. Thus, some time 
before 1333, Richard Whiteworth, the Prior, granted a 20 years' 



PKIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 373 

Lease of the Manor of Fishwick to William de Prenderguest, at 
the Kent of ^20 per annum; and, on the 6th June, 1359, 
Edward III. gave his special License to Prior William de Bam- 
burgh, to let his Farms to Scots as well as English. In more 
recent years, the Chartulary abounds with Deeds connected with 
their Lands disposed of in this way. Besides the Rents thus 
payable, the Tenant was bound to supply a certain number of 
days' Ploughing, and Labourers to assist in the casting of Peats 
for Fuel, and in Hay-making. This service was, however, in 
many cases commuted into money. 

The Revenues of the Monks must have varied at different 
Periods. At one time we find them almost reduced to the 
necessity of abandoning the Monastery for want of nourishment, 
and at another, in the receipt of an Income scarcely equalled by 
any other Religious Establishment in the Kingdom. 

A Charter of Protection granted by Henry VI., Translated 
below, exhibits the deplorable condition to which the Monks 
were on more than one occasion reduced. It is Published in 
Rotuli Scot-ice, vol. ii., p. 298, and headed, " Protectio pro 
monachis Coldynghamiae per utriusque gentis exercitus spoliatis," 

We, the King, unto our Warden of the West and East March, unto 
each of our Captains, Leaders, and Governors- of Men-at-arms, Archers, &c., 
Greeting. On the part of the Prior and Convent at Coldyngham, which is 
a Cell of Durham, we are humbly Petitioned that, as the said Priory is so 
situated with the Land of Scotland ; at one time our own subjects making 
inroads into Scotland, and at another the subjects of Scotland making 
inroads into England, and going down by the aforesaid Priory very 
frequently refresh themselves in the same, and in the Manors and Granges 
pertaining to it, and destroy and consume the Victuals and Animals, as well 
dead as alive, which are ordained and provided for the support of the Prior, 
Convent, and their Domestics, that they have often neither Meat nor Drink 
which they can set before them ; on which account the number of Monks 
who used and ought to serve the Most High (Altissimo) in the same, is 
exceedingly reduced and diminished, and it is probable that, for want of 
Food and due support, it will be wholly abolished, so that Divine Service 
will necessarily cease in the same. From reverence to God, and for the 
promotion and support of His service in the same, we would piously 
sympathize with the probable desolation and destruction of the said Priory 
of Coldyngham, and generously provide in this respect for the security and 
quiet of the Prior and Convent of that Place. That the same Prior and 



874 MONASTICON. 

Monks of Coldyngham may be enabled more quietly to serve the Most High, 
and that they may be preserved from being molested and disturbed by our 
subjects of the Marches of Scotland, by the advice and consent of our 
Council we have taken the Prior and Monks of Coldyngham under our very 
special protection, care, and defence (in protectionem tuitionem et defensio- 
nem nostros maxime specialesj. Therefore, we command you to maintain, 
protect, and defend the Prior and Monks of Coldyngham, their Servants, 
tenants, &c., &c., neither doing to them yourselves, nor suffering to be done 
to them by others, any injury, molestation, loss, &c. And if they have 
incurred any forfeiture or injury, that shall ye cause without delay to be 
corrected and duly reformed. Witness the King at Westminster the xxviii. 
day of November. 

Situated within a District which was the scene of almost 
perpetual Warfare, and the tract by which the Armies of Scot- 
land and England usually penetrated into either Kingdom, the 
Monastery of Coldingham, as might be expected, was not 
exempted from the usual calamities of War. In 1214, King 
John of England having devastated the Counties of York and 
Northumberland, in which were the principal Strongholds of his 
disaffected Barons, resolved to wreak his vengeance upon Alex- 
ander II., the young Scottish Monarch, who had espoused their 
interests. Having stormed Berwick, he marched into Lothian, 
Burnt the Towns of Dunbar and Haddington, and laid waste the 
neighbouring Country. Disappointed in his expectations of 
Plunder, on his retreat he also Pillaged and Burnt the Priory of 
Coldingham. During the succeeding Century, notwithstanding 
that Charters of Protection were Conferred by the Kings of both 
Nations, the Monks were frequently reduced almost to a state of 
destitution, in consequence of the rapacity of their Armies, and 
the equally destructive sallies of the Border Bandits. On several 
occasions, the Prior and some of the Fraternity found it 
expedient to abandon the Convent from this cause, and take 
refuge at Holy Island. Unable longer to hold out against these 
grievances, the Monks entrusted the charge of their Establish- 
ment, about the year 1406, to one of the most powerful Noble- 
men and bravest Warriors of that day, Archibald, Earl of 
Douglas, and afterwards Duke of Turenne ; at the same time 
granting him full power to let their Lands to whomsoever he 
chose, levy their Revenues, and hold Courts for the amercement 



PKIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 375 

and punishment of transgressors ; and for his services he was to 
receive a yearly Pension of 100 (Scots). But this great man 
was too much engaged in the Civil and Military transactions of 
the State to have much time to devote to the interests of the 
poor Monks. He, therefore, in 1406, appointed as his Substi- 
tute or Bailiff, his retainer, Sir Alexander Home of Dunglass, to 
whom he granted a yearly Pension of <20 Scots from his own 
Salary. In this Assignment the Earl styles himself Keeper to 
the Lands and Rents of the Priory. Douglas commanded the 
French and Scottish Army of 14,000 men, at the Battle of 
Verneuil, on the 17th August, 1424, where both himself and 
Sir Alexander were slain. In 1422,. the Knight of Dunglass 
appears to have resigned the Office of Bailiff, when it was con- 
ferred upon his third son, George ; and at a Meeting held at 
Buncle, on the 31st February, 1427, John, Prior of Durham, 
constituted William Douglas, Earl of Angus and Lord of Liddis- 
dale, Special Protector and Defender of the Priory and its Appur- 
tenances. He received for his yearly Salary 113 Merks, which 
was the Rental derived from the Lands of Brockholes, Deanwood, 
and Harewood, as appears from his Letters of Receipt preserved 
in the Chartulary. Sir David Home of Wedderburn was appoin- 
ted Bailiff by the Prior and Chapter of Durham, 16th September, 
1441, but resigned the Office very soon afterwards to his cousin, 
Sir Alexander Home of Dunglass, who was appointed his Suc- 
cessor, with a Pension of <10, on the 4th January of the ensuing 
year. The Knight of Wedderburn made many attempts to be 
reinstated in the Office which he had voluntarily resigned, but 
the Chapter of Durham, on the 16th March, 1449, issued a 
Testimonial, declaring that he had been duly paid and asseithed 
by the late Prior, John Olle, for the time that he had officiated. 
A serious Dispute between these rival Clansmen, attended with 
considerable bloodshed, followed this decision ; and, to procure a 
reconciliation, it was found necessary, during the same year, to 
bestow an equal share of the Emoluments upon both, by appoint- 
ing Sir David and Sir Alexander joint Bailiffs. At the death of 
the latter, in 1456, his son Alexander, who was afterwards 
created Lord Home, was appointed his Successor by the Prior 



876 MONASTICON. 

and Convent, and, in 1465, he was constituted Hereditary Bailiff. 
His Family, who had at this time attained a degree of power 
scarcely surpassed by any other in the Kingdom, and no longer 
placed under the surveillance of the powerful House of Douglas, 
now viewed with invidious eyes the rich Revenues enjoyed by 
the Prior and Monks, and resolved on making them their own. 
Accordingly, they commenced by seriously annoying the new 
Prior Pencher, who had been instituted in the same year as Sir 
Alexander, and afterwards compelled him, with many of the 
Monks, to flee from the Monastery. John and Patrick Home, 
Prebendaries of the Collegiate Church of Dunbar, were appointed 
by their Kinsman, the Bailiff, without consulting the Mother 
Church of Durham, nor yet the Chapter of St. Andrews, to fill 
up the Offices thus left vacant. A Usurpation so unprecedented, 
it may readily be conceived, was by no means passively tolerated. 
Portentous threats, followed by an appeal to the Pope, were 
launched against the intruders in vain. Belying more on their 
military resources than on the justice of their cause, they held 
the Sentence of Excommunication that was pronounced against 
them at defiance. Besides the Bull of Pope Sextus IV., the 
Kings of England and Scotland, Edward IV. and James II., 
issued Precepts against the intruders. For nearly 20 years they 
persisted in their Usurpation. In 1474, however, a powerful 
opponent arose in the Duke of Albany, who was created Earl of 
March, and, as such, began to assert his right to many of the 
Estates and Offices upon the Marches, which the Homes had 
retained unmolested since the forfeiture of their ancient Superiors, 
the Earls of Dunbar. Successful resistance to an individual 
whose authority would be supported by the whole strength of the 
Kingdom, was scarcely to be expected. The Homes, therefore, 
found themselves compelled to make many reluctant concessions, 
and their Chieftain was permitted to retain the Bailiery of Cold- 
ingham, and the Emoluments annexed to it. 

But a blow from another quarter was about to be levelled, 
which threatened to prove equally disastrous to the Homes as to 
the Monastery itself. James III. had, about this Period, caused 
to be erected, at immense expense, a Chapel Royal at Stirling, 



PKIOEY OF COLDINGHAM. 877 

which, in the elegance of its Architecture, and in the number of 
its Functionaries, he designed should eclipse all the other 
Religious Establishments of the Kingdom. But finding that the 
support of this splendid Edifice would bear too heavily upon the 
Royal Revenues, he resolved on raising the necessary supplies by 
the suppression of some other Religious House, and by annexing 
its Property to his favourite Chapel. The Priory of Coldingham, 
for several reasons, appeared to him the most suitable for 
sacrificing to this extravagant project, its Revenues would at 
once supply him with the means of making a Princely Endow- 
ment, and from its being inhabited for the most part by English 
Monks, who, during his own Reign and that of his Predecessors, 
had often showed themselves disaffected to the interests of the 
Nation ; and, from its situation in a part of the Kingdom where 
the executive power of the Laws could with difficulty be applied, 
he conceived that, by dissolving it, he would also confer a great 
boon upon His subjects. Accordingly, in 1485, he laid his 
scheme before the Parliament, who passed an Act of Annexation, 
and despatched the Archbishop of St. Andrews and others to 
Rome to procure the consent of Pope Innocent VIII. The 
Envoys soon returned, bearing with them a Papal Bull, sanction- 
ing the Suppression of the Priory, and enacting that one half of 
its Revenues should be applied to the support of the Chapel 
Royal at Stirling, the remainder to the erection of a Collegiate 
Church at Coldingham. However politic to James and his 
Parliament these enactments may have appeared, by Lord Home 
and his Kinsmen they were considered as acts of the grossest 
injustice, and as such they energetically opposed their enforce- 
ment. The Commissioners despatched by the See of S. Andrews 
to the Priory, for the purpose of formally dissolving it, were 
compelled to retrace their steps at the peril of their lives. Offers 
of Indemnification, and the Denunciations of James and his 
Emissaries, were alternately employed in vain upon the Homes, 
who, from passive resistance, at length broke forth into open 
Rebellion, with the daring design of Dethroning the King. Other 
Malcontents espoused their cause, and rallied round the Standard 
of Rebellion uplifted by the Homes. The Earls of Angus, 
VOL. i. SB 



878 MONASTICON. 

Argyle, and Lennox, Sir Patrick Hepburn of Hailes, the Sheriff 
of Berwickshire, with most of those Barons in the South and 
West, who had anciently been Vassals of the House of Douglas, 
entered eagerly into the Conspiracy, and soon collected together 
followers to the number of 18,000 men. To secure in places of 
strength the two objects dearest to him on earth his Son and 
his Treasure was the first object of James on receiving intelli- 
gence of the formidable force which the Homes and their Allies 
were leading against him. The former he entrusted to Shaw of 
Sauchie, the Governor of Stirling Castle, on whose loyalty he 
placed great reliance ; the other he deposited in the Castle of 
Edinburgh, under the care of one in whom he had equal con- 
fidence. But the hearts of these men were by no means proof 
against the Bribes which the Insurgents held out to them, and 
by which they succeeded in gaining possession of both. The 
newly-created Duke of Montrose, and other Northern Earls, 
with their followers, hastened to the aid of their Sovereign, and 
mustered an Army of about 30,000 men. The hostile Forces 
encountered each other at Sauchie-Burn, near Stirling, on the 
llth June, 1488 ; but no sooner did the King perceive that the 
Troops of the Conspirators were headed by his own Son, than 
the little courage with which nature had fortified him died away. 
Heart-broken he abandoned the Field, where the air already 
reverberated with the victorious acclamations of the foe, fell 
from his horse, and was afterwards stabbed through the heart. 
His Army, already thrown into disorder by the Eebel bowmen, 
and dispirited by their Sovereign's disappearance, made no 
further resistance, but took to flight. 

Such was the lamentable result of James' attempt to alienate 
from the Homes the Kevenues of Coldingham Priory. Their 
Chieftain, the Bailiff, who had acted so prominent a part in the 
Tragedy, did not survive long enough to reap those favours from 
his Sovereign which he expected in reward for his services in 
having elevated him prematurely to the Throne. These, how- 
ever, were copiously showered by the young Monarch upon his 
Successor and Grandson, Alexander, Lord Home, who was 
successively appointed to the high Offices of Lord Chamberlain 



PEIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 379 

for life, a Member of the Privy Council, Captain of Stirling 
Castle, and Warden of the three Scottish Marshes. 

From the period of the Battle of Sauchie, till the commence- 
ment of the following Century, the history of the Priory is 
involved in obscurity, neither the Chartularies nor Parliamentary 
Kecords tending to throw light upon the subject. It is more 
than probable that Lord Home, who enjoyed so many high 
honours, was allowed to retain undisputed possession of it ; as, 
on the 15th November, 1500, the Parliament passed an Act 
confirming to him a third part of its Kevenues. Two years 
before his death, however, on the 8th June, 1504, another Act 
passed, annexing the Priory to the Crown ; and, in 1509, the 
project originally devised by Kobert II. was successfully carried 
into effect. In that year, by Order of Pope Julius II., the 
Monastery was finally withdrawn from the Church of Durham, 
to which it had been subordinate from the time of its Foundation, 
and unalienably annexed to the Abbey of Dunfermline. Under 
this new Jurisdiction it continued till the eventful year 1560, 
when, in common with the other Monastic Establishments of 
Scotland, it sustained a final overthrow. 

The Kemains of the Priory are insignificant indeed, when 
contrasted with its ancient importance as aKeligious House; the 
greater part of the Buildings, which had withstood the ravages of 
time, and the Artillery of the Kegent Arran and of Cromwell, 
having been sacrilegiously applied by the Inhabitants of the 
Village to the construction and repairing of their Houses. The 
Ruins of the Cloisters and other Buildings scattered around the 
Church, are said to have been formerly so extensive and 
labyrinthine, that it was reckoned a feat of no ordinary difficulty 
for a person led among them blind-folded to make his way out 
from among them. The Church of the Monastery, which was 
Dedicated to S. Mary, appears to have been a magnificent 
Structure. It was built in the form of a Cross, the Eemains of 
its Choir exhibiting a beautiful specimen of the Transition from 
the Norman to the Early English Style of Architecture. The 
Foundations of the Walls of its Nave are alone traceable ; but, 
from measurement, its Area is ascertained to have been of the 



880 MONASTICON. 

same dimensions as that of the Choir, viz., 90 feet in length, 
and 25 in breadth. It does not seem to have been situated in a 
direct line with the Choir, but to have diverged a few feet to the 
South a peculiarity observable in the construction of several 
other Abbey Churches, but not very easily accounted for. The 
length of its Transept internally was 41, and its width 34 feet. 
Of this part of the Building two Arches are standing. The largest 
of them is circular, ornamented with coarse Moulding, and 
appears to have been one of the principal Entrances ; the other 
is low and somewhat angular, and probably formed a portion of 
the Aisle of the Transept. The North-West Angle of the Tran- 
sept was fortified by a massive square Tower, which fell about 
100 years ago, and is said to have been upwards of 90 feet high. 
The Exterior of the Northern and Eastern Walls of the Choir, 
which form half of the present Parish Church, present inferiorly 
a series of Norman Arches, arranged in pairs, and decorated with 
Chiffron Moulding, each Arch being united to its fellow mesially 
by one slender circular Column, surmounted by a plain and 
unornamental Capital, and separated from each succeeding pan- 
by a projecting Buttress. The upper part of the Wall indicates a 
more advanced Style of Architecture, in a range of Lancet- 
shaped Windows, with massive Canopies. The Windows inter- 
nally are long, narrow, and nearly elliptical above ; those of the 
North Wall, which are seven in number, having two deep Niches 
about two-thirds of their height intermediate to them, while the 
three Windows of the Eastern Wall have only one separating 
Niche. The Columns of both Arches and Niches are plain and 
clustered. The Capitals, from which the Arch springs, are 
richly adorned with Foliage ; and it is remarkable that, through- 
out the whole range of these Walls, it is impossible to discover 
the Ornaments of one Capital exactly similar to those of another. 
Behind these is an Arcade or Gallery, constructed in the heart 
of the Wall. 

About 80 years ago the Foundations of an octagonal Building, 
of neatly dressed freestone, were discovered 30 yards from the 
Eastern Wall of the Church, which was in all probability the 
Site of the Chapter House, in which the Prior and Convent held 



PEIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 381 

their Courts, and Elected their Officers. Distant about 35 paces 
from the South Wall stand the remains of a very ancient Build- 
ing, bearing the name of Edgar's Walls, which is traditionally 
reported to have been the occasional residence of the Koyal 
Founder of the Priory. It seems from its Foundations to have 
been about 50 feet in length, but only 18 broad. Some detached 
fragments which stood on a spot, now a Garden, at its Western 
extremity, were long known by the name of the King's Stables. 
The situation of the Cloisters, Refectory, and other Buildings, 
can only be conjectured, the ground on which they probably 
stood having been long under cultivation. 

In a Dean a little Westward from the Village, is a Spring of 
excellent Water, called S. Andrew's Well, from which the 
Monastery used to be supplied by leaden Conduits, portions of 
which are occasionally exposed. On several of the eminences in 
the neighbourhood stood in former days a number of Stone 
Crosses, which served to mark the limits of the Sanctuary. None 
of them are still standing, but the places called Cairncross, 
Friarscross, Crosslaw, Whitecross, and Applincross, seem to have 
derived from them their names. 

Before concluding, it will be necessary briefly to notice the 
Churches and Chapels subordinate to the Priory. Besides those 
situated within Coldinghamshire, and already described, the 
Monks possessed 1. The Church of Edrom, of which they 
received a Grant from Cospatrick, Earl of Dunbar, which was 
Confirmed to them by David I. at Roxburgh, in September, 
1139. It was rated in the ancient Taxatio at 100 Merks, being 
more highly assessed than any other Church in the Deanery of 
the Merse, excepting that of Coldingham, which, with its Chapel, 
contributed 120 Merks. 2. The Church of the Holy Trinity at 
Berwick, Founded and Endowed by Anthony Bee, Bishop of 
Durham, between the years 1282 and 1309. William, its Vicar, 
swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick, 24th August, 1296 ; and, 
in 1368, it was agreed that its perpetual Vicar, John de Insula 
sacra, should receive a yearly Stipend of 20 from Robert Wai- 
worth, Prior of Coldingham, or his Successors, with a portion of 
the Wax Tapers bestowed upon the Church at the Feast of the 



382 



MONASTICON. 



Virgin's Purification ; and at the same time the Vicar agreed to 
sustain all Burdens incumbent on the Church, except the expense 
of erecting and repairing the Chancel, which was to devolve on 
the Monks of Coldingham. 3. The Churches of Fishwick and 
Swinton, of which the Monks received a Confirmatory Charter 
from Kobert, Bishop of St. Andrews, in 1250, at Berwick. The 
Donation of the former was afterwards ratified by an inspeximus 
Charter of Robert III. In the Taxatio the Church of Fishwick 
was valued at 30, that of Swinton at 35 Merks. 4. The Church 
of Ednam, in Roxburghshire, Founded by the Saxon, Thor 
Longus, during the Keign of Edgar, with the Chapels of Newton, 
Nenthorn, and Nesbit. 5. The Church of Earlston, or Ersildun, 
granted about the middle of the Twelfth Century by Walter de 
Lindsay to the Monks of Kelso, who, in 1171, exchanged it and 
the Church of S. Lawrence at Berwick, for the Church of Gordon, 
in Berwickshire. 6. The Chapel of Stitchel, regarding which 
the Monks had many Disputes. It was rated at 35 Merks. 7. 
The Church of Smalham, or Smailholm, granted by Walter 
Olifard, Justiciary of Lothian, who Died in 1242. It was rated 
in the Taxatio at 45 Merks. [Can's Coldingham Priory.'] 



LIST OF PEIOES. 

1. SIMON, A.D. 1141, is the first Prior 
on record. He held Office during the Keign 
of David I., and is casually noticed in a 
Charter connected with the Abbey of Dun- 
fermline, and in a Grant made to his grand- 
son by William the Lion. A Toft in Cold- 
ingham, and 26 Acres of Land, are granted 
to Kichard, "nepoti Simonis quondam 
prioris de Coldingham." [History of N. 
Durham, Appendix, p. 12.] His Ketinue is 
said to have coped with any in the Kingdom. 
He occupied the chief and extensive rooms 
in the Priory, and had a Hunting- Seat or 
Tower at Hound wood. 

2. HEEBEET, A.D. 1151-75, was a Church- 
man of more celebrity. When the Nobility 
of Scotland had, in 1174, ingloriously sacri- 
ficed the independence of their Country, by 




A Monk sitting at a Lectern, 
reading. [Dean and Chapter of 
Durham.] 



PKIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 883 

acknowledging Henry II. of England to be Lord Paramount, in order to 
procure the release of King William from captivity, Herbert, and other 
magnanimous Ecclesiastics, stood boldly forward in defence of the Scottish 
Church, whose liberties the English Monarch attempted also to undermine. 
The Names of several of his Successors are all that is known of them. 

3. BERTRAM, A.D. 1188-99, is alluded to in a Kenunciatory Charter of 
Edward de Auldcambus in 1198, and in the Confirmation Charter of 
William the Lion. 

4. ^EBNALD, A.D. 1202-08, attested a Donation to the Monastery of 
Arbroath. The Initial Letter of his Name occurs in a Deed contained in 
the Chartulary of Melrose. 

5. EADULF, or KALPH, A.D. 1209. During the Eeign of King William, 
David de Quixwood did homage to Eadulf, or Ealph, the Prior, and the 
Monks of Coldinghani. 

A most interesting discovery during the excavations at Coldingham 
Priory, was the Tombs of two of the Priors JErnald and Eadulf. They 
were found within a square Apartment, near the West end of the Building ; 
the Foundations of the Apartment, to the height of about 2 feet, being still 
remaining. The Bodies were laid in juxtaposition to each other. The 
Coffins, built of Stones of various forms, obviously fragments of chisel- work, 
were covered with solid Slabs, the one having carved on it, in large and dis- 
tinctly legible characters, 

^EENALDVS. PEIOE. 
And on the other, 

EADVS PEIOE. D.G. COLDINHAM. 

The Bodies were enclosed, the former in Leather, and the latter in Sackcloth, 
neatly formed like a Mummy Case, and perfectly entire, the top part being 
shaped to the form of the head. Alongside of ^Ernald lay a long Hazel or 
Eowan Tree Wand, with the bark upon it, as fresh, to appearance, as if it 
had been cut from the tree only the day before. Upon being lifted, this 
Eod, light as a feather, went to pieces; the largest, about 15 inches long, 
has been preserved. A portion of the side of each Coffin was removed to 
admit of a minute examination of the contents. The Coffin of ^Ernald is 6 
feet 5 inches long, and the Body, including the Case, is 6 feet ; the Stature 
may, therefore, have been 5 feet 10 or 11 inches. During the short period 
these Tombs were open, either curiosity or accident had led to a small 
opening at the head and feet of JErnald ; the former exhibiting the Skull in 
a pulverized state, and the latter demonstrating, what was frequently the 
case among the Ancients, that the Prior had been interred in his Sandals or 
Shoes. The Sole of the Shoe was removed, and is preserved in the small 
Museum of the Priory. It consists of strong Leather, and the stitching 
regularly and well executed. It has evidently borne the pressure of its 
wearer, being hollowed at the bend of the foot, and somewhat worn outside. 
The removal of the Wand and this small piece of Leather was the only 



884 MONASTICON. 

desecration of those Sepulchral Kemains, which had lain undisturbed for the 
long period of nearly six and a half Centuries. They were carefully enclosed 
as formerly, and Iron Gratings have been placed over each Grave to protect 
them against further invasion. Diligent search was made for the discovery 
of similar Eelics, but none other were found. [Hunter's Coldingham, p. 32.] 

6. GAUFEE, or GALFRID, A.D. 1210-14, appears to have been a person 
of considerable erudition. He had previously held the Office of Sacrist, 
during which time he wrote a Metrical History of the Church of Durham, 
under the following Title : " Incipit Liber Gaufridi Sacristae de Colding- 
ham de statu ecclesiaB Dunelmensis, qui incipit ab obitu Willelmi de S. 
Barbara episcopi (1143) usque ad electionem domini Morgan!." It contains 
22 Chapters of very unequal length. About the time of Gaufrid's Sacristan- 
ship, or during the latter half of the Twelfth Century, a Monk of Colding- 
ham, called Eeginald, wrote a Work in Latin on the Miracles of S. Cuthbert, 
which has been Published by the Surtees' Society of Durham. It was 
Dedicated to S. Ethelred, the Abbot of Kievaulx, who furnished Eeginald 
with many of the Legends contained in it. Besides an ample addition to 
the Stories narrated by Bede and other hagiologic Writers of the miraculous 
virtue 'of S. Cuthbert's Eelics in the curing of disease, preservation from 
shipwreck and starvation, the ejection of Demons, &c., it contains many 
passages which tend to throw light upon one of the "darkest" Periods in 
our National History. 

7. THOMAS DE MELSONBY, A.D. 1215-18, appointed a Monk of Durham 
in 1233, succeeded, and held the Priorate for upwards of three years. In 
the Spring of 1218, .he and his Convent were absolved from, the Sentence of 
Excommunication, which they had incurred in common with the other 
Scottish Monasteries, by William, Prior of Durham, and Walter de 
Wisbech, Archdeacon of York, who, by order of the Pope, traversed Scotland 
upon that errand. On their return they halted at the Abbey of Lindores, 
where the Prior was nearly suffocated with smoke, a fire having broke out 
in the Chamber where he slept, through the carelessness and rioting of 
those who had the charge of the Wine. He was with difficulty conveyed to 
Coldingham, where he breathed his last on the 13th May. Prior Melsonby 
was appointed to fill the Office thus left vacant ; and, in 1237, on the 
Promotion of Bishop Poor to the See of Salisbury, he was made Bishop of 
Durham. He was Elected by the unanimous voice of the Monks, without 
consulting the King, who urged no fewer than 17 Objections against his 
Instalment, which are crowded upon a small Sheet of Parchment. One of 
these Objections is ludicrous enough. It accuses him of Homicide, inas- 
much as a certain Eope-Dancer, by his consent and in his presence, 
attempted to walk along a rope stretched between two of the Towers of 
Durham Church, and, in the prosecution of his mad attempt, had fallen to 
the ground and been killed. His other Objections are of a more weighty 
character. He alleged that Melsonby was an enemy to himself and his 
Kingdom, because he had previously been Prior of Coldingham, and had 



PRIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 



885 



taken the Oath of Allegiance to the King of Scots ; and that in the event of 
his becoming Bishop, he would have in his possession many Places of great 
strength on the Borders of Scotland, and be master of a Tract of Sea Coast 
well adapted for landing Forces from France and Flanders. Notwithstanding 
the disapproval of their Sovereign, the Monks maintained the validity of 
their Election, and despatched Melsonby to the Court of Eome to solicit the 
interference of the Pope in his behalf. But while crossing the Channel, he 
was overtaken by the Emissaries of Henry, who forced him to return. On 
the 8th April, 1240, he Resigned 'the Bishopric, and soon afterwards the 
Office of Prior, and retired to Farn Island, which was then the Ketreat of a 
Hermit called Bartholomew. "But Bartholomew's humble "fare and 
austerities," says Mr. Eaine, " soon disgusted the ex-Prior, and sent him 
home again to Durham. After a while, how- 
ever, he returned, conscience-smitten, to the 
Hermit, and was soon afterwards attacked 
by a mortal Disease. Heming, the man who 
watched over him in his last moments, saw 
Choirs of Angels, clad in White Apparel, 
hovering over the Hermitage to receive his 
spirit; and at the same instant of time, 
Bartholomew detected the Devil sitting in a 
corner of the little Mansion, in the shape of 
a Bear, lamenting grievously that the dying 
man had escaped his snares, and was going 
to his reward. Bartholomew, not much 
relishing the presence of such a Guest, 
sprinkled the Beast and the place where he 
was sitting with Holy Water, but without 
effect; at last, however, he dashed at once 
the vessel and its contents full in the face of The B. Virgin seated, holding a 
the Evil One, who straightway disappeared. Globe ensigned with a Cross Patee 
Thomas had by this time breathed his last, in her left hand, her riglit lying on 
and his body was forthwith conveyed over lier *>** The name " ' 

the narrow Channel which separates Farn 
from Bamburgh, and placed in a vehicle, m 
which it was intended to be conveyed to Durham for Sepulture. But the 
horse destined to draw it was lame : this defect, however, was speedily 
remedied by a Miracle. The body, on its road, rested during one of the 
nights of its journey before the Altar of S. Mary's Church in Gateshead, 
and was guarded through the hours of darkness by snow-white Doves which 
hovered over the Coffin, and afforded it their protection. At last it reached 
Durham, and was Buried in the Chapter House." [WJiart. Anrjlia Sacra, 
vol. i., pp. 735, 736, 737. Eaine's 8. Cuthbert, p. 56, where reference is made 
to an anonymous Life of Bartholomew in the British Museum, Harleian 
MSS., p. 4843.] 




MARIA ' 



voi<. 



o C 



38G MONASTICON. 

Thomas de Melsonby appears to have been a man of refined taste. 
Mr. Eaine particularly refers to a Charter granted by him of a Carucate of 
Land in Kenton, as being perhaps one of the most beautiful specimens of 
ancient Caligraphy to be found in the Treasury of Durham. Every other 
Charter in which Prior Thomas is mentioned is very beautifully written ; 
and when it is recollected that some of the finest parts of Durham Cathe- 
dral owe their origin to his munificence, it is more than probable that the 
Caligraphy of those Charters 'which he witnessed was not a work of chance. 

8. THOMAS NISBIT, A.D. 1219-40, the Successor of Melsonby, occurs 
occasionally in the Chartulary as Prior between the above years. On 18th 
June, 1221, he attested the Dower-Charter of Alexander II. at York, grant- 
ing to his Queen Johanna the Baronies of Jedburgh and Lessudden. 
9. ANKETIN occurs 1239. 

10. EICHAKD, 1245. 

11. HENRY, 1253. 

12. HENRY DE SILTON, 1258. 

13. KOGER, 1266. 

14. KOGER DE WOLVISTON, 1275. 

15. HENRY DE HORNCASTRE, A.D. 1276, was Elected to the Priorate about 
this year, when he granted an Annuity of 108 10s. to the Prior of Durham, 
whose services in obtaining his advancement to the Office he thus probably 
endeavoured to recompense. He swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick in 
1291 and 1196, and in return received a Protection for himself and Convent. 
[Rymer's Fcedera, Prynne's Records.} In the Kolls is the following Entry, 

Dated at Eoxburgh, 16th May, 1296 : " Prior de Coldyngharn cum familia 
et propriis rebus suis habet literas regias de protectione sine claus' dur' 
usque ad festurn Sti Michaelis proximo futuro." There is also a Mandate 
to William de Dumfries, 1290-1, requiring him to deliver up to the Prior of 
Coldingham, and Adam de St. Edmunds, Parson of the Church of Eestalrig, 
the property of the late Alan, Bishop of Caithness, to be distributed by them 
for the soul of the said Bishop. Eobert de Greystanes, the Durham Annal- 
ist, relates that Horncastre, previous to his Elevation to the Priorate, 
admiring the uncommon talents and virtues of Eobert de Stichel, a Priest's 
son, procured for him, without his knowledge, a dispensation from the Pope, 
enabling him to be Elected to the Episcopal dignity. He thus became 
Bishop of Durham in 1260. [Rot. Scot., vol. i., pp. 6, 23 ; Aug. Sac., vol. ?'., 
p. 742.] 

16. WILLIAM DE MIDDLETON retired from Office, by reason of old age, in 
1303, in which year he had an Allowance of Meat and Drink granted to him 
by the Prior of Durham, for the remainder of his life. He is said to have 
intruded himself into the Priory "per vim et potestatem Eoberti de Brys 
tempore gueme." [Rot. Scot., vol. i., p. 265.] 

17. WILLIAM DE GRETHAM, A.D. 1304, was Prior at a very critical period, 
when the pompous Anthony Bek, Patriarch of Jerusalem, Presided over the 
See of Durham. The Bishopric of Biblis, in the Holy Land, had been 



PEIOEY OF COLDINGHAM. 387 

seized by the Saracens, and Hugh, the Bishop, reduced to extreme poverty. 
To mortify the pride of the Prior of Coldingham, with whom he was at 
variance, Bek solicited the Pope, Benedict XL, to bestow the Monastery and 
its Kevenues upon the exiled Bishop for life, or till such times as he should 
be enabled to recover possession of his Charge. The Pontiff, instead of 
affording him any relief or maintenance at the Court of Kome, or in any of 
his Italian Churches, issued a Bull of Provision in the terms dictated by 
Bek. Furnished with this singular Instrument, Hugh hastened to England, 
and personally presented it for approval to the King and Parliament 
assembled at Westminster, 5th April, 1305, by whom it was .deservedly 
rejected as unconstitutional and unjust. "In this Bull," says Prynne, 
"we may observe first, the strange injustice of the Pope in supplying the 
poverty of this Bishop with all the Eents, Profits, and Emoluments of this 
Priory, which should relieve and support the Monks therein, and removing 
those placed therein by the Prior (only to collect and distribute them for 
the use of the Priory) without cause or hearsay; secondly, his most 
execrable tyrannical Injunction to put this Bishop into the actual possession 
thereof, and Excommunicate and Interdict all who should oppose him 
therein, without benefit of Appeal, notwithstanding contrary Custom, 
Statutes, or Oath of that Church to the contrary, though corroborated by 
the Confirmation of the See Apostolic, or any other firm assurance, be it by 
Charters of our Kings or Acts of Parliament. And which is more observable, 
notwithstanding any temporal or spiritual privilege or exemptions granted 
to this Priory, or others severally or conjointly by the Popes, and See 
Apostolic, that they should not be Excommunicated, Suspended, or Inter- 
dicted, or their Cells or Livings should be totally exempted from, and not 
liable to, any Provision or Disposition whatsoever of the See Apostolic, 
which might hinder or delay the execution of this monstrous Bull." 

18. HENRY, A.D. 1321. 

19. KICHAKD DE QUIXWOOD, QuiTwoRTH, or WmTwoRTH, was grandson of 
the benevolent Baron of Quixwood, whose liberal Donations to the Monas- 
tery have been already enumerated [page 370]. In 1320 he was summoned 
before the Archbishop of St. Andrews, to answer to a charge of intemperance 
and remissness in the discharge of his Official duties ; and in 1322-3, on the 
representation of the Justiciary of Lothian, he was summoned before the 
Parliament, for having harboured Adam de Paxton, Gaufrid de Goswick, 
Eobert de Hagerston, and other Border Barons who were denounced as 
Traitors and Eebels. It is not certain whether he obeyed this Summons ; 
he appears, however, either to have been ejected or to have Eesigned the 
Priorate in the course of the succeeding year. 

20. EICHARD DE WHITEWORTH, a Monk of Durham, was instituted to the 
Priory by Eobert the Bruce, without the approbation of the Mother Church 
of Durham. [Wardrobe Acts in British Museum.] The latter, however, 
granted him a Provision on his Eesignation. Thus, in the twenty-third 



388 MONASTICON. 

year of his Eeign, we find Eobert the Bruce, by a Charter Dated at Berwick, 
and attested by several of the most distinguished men in the Kingdom, 
confirming "the Donation made by the Prior and Convent of Durham to 
Richard de Wyteworth, Monk, late Keeper of the Priory of Coldingham, of 
40 Merks Sterling, as yearly Eental assigned to him in the Mills of Ayton 
and Fordholm," for the maintenance of himself and a brother Monk in the 
Priory. 

21. ADAM DE PONTEFEACT, having Celebrated Divine Service during the 
period of the Interdict, applied to Cardinal Guacelin for Absolution to him- 
self and his Convent, which he was so fortunate as to obtain in 1328. From 
the Chartulary it appears that he held Office in 1332. Hume of Godscroft 
tells us that while riding between Lindisferne and Coldingham, he was 
pitched from his horse upon his head, and was so seriously injured that he 
never afterwards recovered. 

22. EOBEKT DE GEAYSTANES, S.T.D., 1333. 

23. WILLIAM DE SCACCAEEO, was Excommunicated by the Bishop of 
Durham in 1339, for Incontinence and Embezzling Money belonging to the 
Monastery. 

24. ADAM DE LAMESLEY, 1339. 

25. JOHN FOESOUE, 8th January, 1339-40. 

26. WILLIAM DE SCAEESBUBGH, or SCAEISBEEK, A.D. 1341, Eesigned the 
Priorate in 1354, when he received a provision of meat and drink from John, 
Prior of Durham, and lived during the remainder of his life in retirement at 
Holy Island. 

27. WILLIAM DE BAMBUEGH, who had previously been Prior of Lindis- 
ferne. In 1359, he received a Charter from Edward III. calculated to 
improve the condition of his Monastery, which had suffered seriously during 
the late Wars. In 1362* he was accused of the same fault as his Predeces- 
sor Scaccaro, and expelled from his Charge by Bishop Landell of St. 
Andrews, who appointed in his stead 

28. EOBEET DE WALWOETH, who seems to have deported himself with 
greater propriety, and was accordingly looked upon by his Contemporaries 
with more respect. In 1368, he was appointed by David II. as an eligible 
person for assisting the Commissary of Lauder in the exercise of his new 
functions. [The Commissiarate of Lauder was made to supersede, during 
the Eeigu of David II., the Ecclesiastic Jurisdiction previously exercised by 
the Archbishops of St. Andrews over the Merse. Chalmers Caledonia, vol. ii.] 
In the following year a Dispute, which pended between the Nuns of S. 
Bathans and of Gulane, respecting the Lands of Fenton in East Lothian, 
was submitted to his Decision. His probity and superior qualifications 
induced the Chapter of Durham to Elect him their Prior in 1374. He 
continued to hold that Office till 1390, when he retired from the public 
Services of the Church upon a handsome provision. 

The following Inventory was taken in 1374, when Eobert Wai worth, 



PRIORY OF COLDINGHAM. 389 

then Prior of Coldiiigham, was Promoted to Durham, and the Effects were 
delivered over to his Successor, Eobert Claxton. It is described as " State 
of the House of Coldingham delivered to Kobert Claxton, Prior, by the 
hands of Hugh of Sirrburne, Monk of Durham, on the part of Kobert of 
Walworth, Prior of Durham, in the year 1374 :" 

In the Pantry. 1 Service of Plate ; 1 Platter of Silver, for Spices ; 8 
Dishes, of which two are somewhat broken, and 12 Spoons of Silver, of one 
pattern, with the name of Kobert of Walworth engraved on them ; 6 other 
Silver Spoons, not strong ; also, Salt-holders and Candlesticks sufficient for 
the Hall Table ; also, sufficient Vessels for serving Bread and Beer ; also, 
20 Stones of Cheese ; also, 2 Tweeled Tablecloths ; 1 Tweeled Napkin ; 9 
Tablecloths of Linen, &c., &c. 

In the Kitchen. 1 Kettle for Furnace; 1 Yetling-Pan of 12 Gallons; 2 
ditto of smaller size ; 8 Brass Pots ; 1 Brass Mortar, with Iron Pestle, and 
other Mortars of Stone ; 2 Hand Irons ; 1 Koast Iron ; with other Utensils 
for Cookery. 

In the Brewery. 2 large new Kettles ; 1 small do. ; and other instru- 
ments for Baking, as well as Brewing. 

In the Larder. 25 Oxen and 8 Cows, salted; 24 Salmon, salted; 2 
Casks of White Herrings ; 16 Cod ; 42 Stock-Fish ; 12 Magre, each 500, of 
Ked Herrings ; Vessels and other Utensils sufficient. 

In the Cellar. 1 Pipe of Wine, and half a Pipe of Gascony Wine ; 2 
Pitchers of Pewter ; 4 Pair of Flagons. 

In the Granary. 4 Quarters of Wheat, of home growth ; of Barley, 2 
Chalders and 1 Boll ; of Oats, 10 Chalders, excepting the Sheaves given to 
the Horses of Guests, and also of the Prior, and to Oxen employed in 
cultivation ; also, 2 Casks of White Flour. [Hunter's Coldingham.] 

29. ROBERT CLAXTON, a Durham Monk, succeeded Walworth in the 
Priorate, which he did not hold with so much credit. In 1379, he was 
summoned before William, Bishop of St. Andrews, to answer to several 
serious charges of misconduct adduced against him. He was in the course 
of the ensuing year accused and convicted before the Scottish Parliament of 
Felony, exploring and revealing to the English the King's Councils, and the 
private affairs of the State, and of purloining its Revenues. Fordun, who 
communicates these circumstances regarding him, mistakingly calls him 
William. He was ejected from Office, and expelled from the Kingdom. 
He took refuge at Holy Island, where he seems to have lived in a private 
capacity for several years. From the Account Roll of Holy Island' Priory, 
we learn that Prior Claxton paid at the rate of 2s Qd per week for board and 
lodgings. In the Roll for the year 1380-1, the following Entry occurs: 
"Received of Dom. Robert de Clakston. for sixteen weeks, 40*;" and again 
in 1381-2, " Received for the board (mensa) of Dom. Robert de Clakston, 
4." [Hist. N. Durham, vol. i., p. 109.] In 1379, however, he was elevated 
to the Priorate of that Monastery, which he held till his Death, which 
happened four years afterwards. At the time of Claxton' s expulsion from 
Coldingham, the Priory was in such a state of misrule and desolation, that 



390 MONASTICON. 

Robert II. determined upon withdrawing it from Durham, and annexing it 
to the Abbey of Dunfermline. Accordingly, on the 5th July, 1378, with 
consent of the Bishop of St. Andrews, he issued a Charter to that effect, 
appointing a Colony of Dunfermline Monks to take up their abode in the 
Priory. This Mandate of the King, however, proved insufficient to alienate 
from the See of Durham one of its most ancient and valuable Appendages, 
which was not effected till more than a Century afterwards. 

30. MICHAEL, the name of Claxton's Successor, is alone known. 

81. JOHN STEEL, the ne^xt Prior on record, was a person of some 
consequence. After having Presided in our Monastery for several years, he 
was elevated. to the dignity of Abbot of Lindores, in Fifeshire, as appears 
from a Note to the Cupar MS.., quoted by Fordun in his Chronicle. 

32. JOHN DE AKECLIFF, or OAKCLIFF, was appointed Prior in 1400-1, 
after a long competition with a Monk of Dunfermline called Eichard Mougal. 
During the turbulent Kegency of Albany, he was compelled to abdicate the 
Office, and seek an asylum at Lindisferne, leaving his Convent under the 
protection of the powerful Archibald, Earl of Douglas. Towards the end of 
his life he removed to Durham, where, in 1477, he Died and was Buried. 

In the Inventory of Holy Island Priory, made up at Whitsunday 1401, 
at the death of Prior Claxton, is the following Entry: "In the hands of 
D. John de Aclyf, Prior of Coldingham, there is one Book of Homilies;" 
and again in 1401-2 "Received 6 10s for the board (co' ib's) of the Prior 
of Coldingham, Dom. John Durham, and D. John Stele," two of the Monks, 
who had taken refuge there with Akecliff. [Hist. N. Durham, pp. 114, 115.] 

33. WILLIAM DRAX, or DRAKE, who had been formerly Sacrist, was, by 
Charter Dated at Falkland, 9th May, 1418, admitted to the Temporalities 
of the Priory by Robert, Duke of Albany ; and, in the following year, he 
was formally instituted by Wardlaw, Bishop of St. Andrews. William 
Brown^an eminent Theologian of Dunfermline, strongly opposed his Elec- 
tion; but James I. and his Parliament, assembled at Perth on the 26th 
May, 1424, declared Drax to be in lawful possession of the Priorate. Fordun 
charges him with many crimes of a Sacrilegious nature with having insti- 
gated his Countrymen, the English, to set fire to the Monastery and its 
Offices, in which were contained the Images of the Holy Crucifix, the B. 
Virgin Mary, and all that was calculated to excite veneration. He tells us 
that having so behaved, Drax fled into England, and never dared to re-enter 
the Kingdom while the King lived. The Writer of the Cupar MS. charges 
him with having surreptitiously possessed himself of a red Volume, which 
contained a Register of the Infeftments and Charters belonging to the Priory, 
and of having delivered it up to the English, to the great prejudice of the 
Scots. It also appears that Drax and Alexander Home of Wedderburn 
devised a plan for robbing one James Colstoun, who had been deputed with 
six trusty men of the Realm to transport to England the sum of 2000 
Merks, which were to be delivered up to the King of England on the Tuesday 



PKIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 891 

following the Feast of Pentecost, in 1429. Hayne, the Author to whom we 
are indebted for a knowledge of this plot of our Prior, does not inform us of. 
the purpose to which this large sum was to have been devoted ; but in a 
Note states that the Ambassador to whom the money was assigned, "was, 
near Colbrandspath (Coulbrandispith), attacked by several men on stout 
horses, who inflicted upon the bearers many wounds, and carried off the 
bags (saccos) which contained the treasure, to a strong citadel nigh at hand, 
called Fastcastle (Faulstcastelle)." He was succeeded in 1441, by 

34. JOHN OLL, whose name frequently occurs in the Chartulary, though 
little is known of his history. He was instituted to the Priory by Bishop 
Kennedy of St. Andrews, contrary to the wish of the Abbot of Dunfermline, 
who favoured the pretensions of a Monk belonging to his own Establishment. 
In 1436, when Sir Patrick Hepburn of Hailes held out the Castle of Dunbar 
against his Sovereign, he and several other Borderers were taken Prisoners, 
and compelled to come under certain obligations to the knight, from which 
they were released by a special mandate from James II., Dated at Stirling, 
28th April, in the tenth year of his Keign, 1447 ; and, on the same day the 
King laid an Embargo upon the Knight, prohibiting him, " under all pain 
and offence," from, exacting what they had agreed to give. 

It may be proper to give the contents of another Inventory, somewhat 
different from that already referred to, and which is Dated 10th January, 
1446, and contains the Effects delivered over by Prior Oil to Prior Nesbit : 

In the Church. 1 Cassock; a Cope of one pattern, with 3 Albs for the 
same ; also, a White Cassock, with Stars interwoven of Silk, along with an 
Alb of the same pattern ; also, a Red Cassock, with an Alb for Festivals ; 
also, 2 Tweeled Mantles, with 2 Fronts of Silk, with Arms gilded, for 
covering the Altars ; also, 2 other Mantles for do. ; also, 2 Cups, of which 
one gilded and another silvered ; also, 2 Missals ; also, 1 Portiforium, for 
the use of the Monks at Berwick ; also, 2 Chaunting Books ; 4 Books for 
Office of Sprinkling of Holy Water ; 1 Procession Book ; 1 Book of Legends ; 
1 Book of Collects ; 3 Boxes for holding Christ's Body ; 1 Book of the 
Evangels ; 1 Book for Saints' Festivals ; also, 1 Book in which are con- 
tained the Proverbs of Solomon, Books of Psalrns, Prophecies of Merlin, 
with many other things in the same Book ; 1 Pair of Altar Cloths, ordered 
by William Drake ; also, 1 Ditto, bought by John Oil, the late Prior ; a 
Cup, made of Tin ; a pair of Cruetts ; also, 1 Veil for Lent, with a Cloth 
having the Sepulchre of our Lord depicted on it. 

In the Hall. 4 Tables ; 4 pair of Forms ; 2 Long Forms (Trestle) ; a 
Bench fixed to Wall, with a Back ; 2 Basins, with 2 Washing Stands. 

In the Sleeping Apartments. 1 Bed of green colour, with Tapestry of 
same pattern, with figures of Pelicans and small red Roses woven into it ; 
also, another of same pattern, with Zones and white Flowers ; also, 
another Bed of green colour, without Tapestry; also, a Bed of light 
blood colour ; also, a Bed, with figures of Trees and Pelicans interwoven ; 
several other Beds ; also, 3 pair of (the rest not intelligible), &c., &c.; also, 
1 Coverlid of green colour, with figures of Griffin ; a Dormande ; a Quilt ; a 
Feather Bed ; 3 Curtains ; 4 Dust Pans ; a small Table, with an Iron Lock ; 



392 MONASTICON. 

2 Chests, with Press ; also, in Coldingham, a Chest, with Iron Lock, for 
holding Robes and other things. 

Li Bakehouses. 2 Pipes for the Bowting ; 2 Bowting Clogs ; 2 Mould- 
ing Boards ; 6 Kneading Troughs ; 1 Bound braced of Iron ; 1 Gridiron. 

In Pigstye. 1 Steeping Vat; 2 Firlots, &c., &c. 

In Brewery. 1 Kettle ; 1 Cauldron ; 1 Mash Vat ; 4 Cooling Vats ; 1 
Wort Vat ; 2 Wort Dishes ; 7 Hogsheads ; 6 Barrels for holding Beer, 
&c., &c. 

Then follows an Inventory of Articles in the Kitchen at Berwick, and 
in the Pantry at Coldingham, which it is unnecessary to enumerate. 

From these details, which show the variety of Gowns and Surplices 
worn by the Prior and officiating Priests, the number of Beds, besides other 
Furniture, in the Sleeping Apartments, and the ample Stores of Provisions 
and good cheer in the Kitchen, Larder, Cellar, Brewery, and Farm- Yard, we 
can easily infer what must have been the magnitude and opulence of an 
Establishment of which those were only some of the component parts. 
[Hunter's Coldingham.] 

35. THOMAS AYER succeeded him in 1449. He had, for some years 
previously, been Prior of Holy Island, during which time an accusation 
appears to have been brought against him of being of servile condition. While 
Prior of Coldingham, no notices respecting him are met with. 

36. THOMAS NESBYT, A.D. 1446. 

37. JOHN PENCHER was Instituted by Bishop Kennedy, and received a 
Charter of the Temporalities from James III:, Dated under the great Seal 
at Edinburgh, 23rd October, 1456. Annoyed by the Usurpation of Patrick 
and John Home, two Canons of the Collegiate Church of Dunbar, who, 
supported by the influence of their kinsmen, Lord Home, had intruded 
themselves into the Priory, Pencher found it expedient to abdicate his 
Charge in 1469. 

38. THOMAS HALGHTON, A.D. 1466. 

39. THOMAS WREN, A.D. 1478, a Monk of Durham, who had previously 
been Master of the small Benedictine Cell of Fame Island. This Island, 
situated on the Coast of Northumberland, was long employed as an Hermit- 
age by S. Cuthbert and others, had a small Cell or Priory subordinate to 
Durham erected on it at the beginning of the Thirteenth Century, for the 
accommodation of six Benedictine Monks. After an arduous litigation, he 
had the satisfaction of seeing the Homes expelled from the Priory, and of 
continuing unmolested in the exercise of his Office for upwards of ten years, 
till his Death or Resignation in 1483. 

The remarkable circumstances, hereafter recorded, in which the Priory 
was involved during the next 20 years, may, in some measure, account for 
the obscurity which hangs over the history of its officers during that Period. 
Indeed it has been doubted, whether, for the ensuing 20 years, an Officer, 
holding the title of Prior, presided in the Convent. From the Parliamentary 
Becords, however, it appears that a "Prior of Coldingham" was appointed 



PBIOEY OF COLDINGHAM. 893 

a Member of the Privy Council, 5th June, 1489 ; was present in Parliament 
on the 7th February, 1491, and on the 5th of the same month in 1505. 
Their names are unknown, though it is more than probable that they were 
members of the then powerful House of Home. 

40. ALEXANDER STUART, "natural son" of James IV., in 1509-10, was 
appointed Prior. By a Dispensation from the Pope, he was about the same 
time created Archbishop of St. Andrews, and Abbot of Dunfermline ; and in 
1511, he was Elevated to the dignity of Legate of the Pope and Chancellor 
of Scotland. He is described as having been a most amiable and accom- 
plished youth, well versed in all the branches of Scholarship in vogue at 
that day. By the celebrated Erasmus of Eotterdam, to whom his education 
while on the Continent had been entrusted, his character and talents have 
been depicted in the most glowing and flattering colours. He did not 
survive long to enjoy his well-merited honours, but shared his father's 
hapless fate on the bloody Field of Flodden, in September, 1513. 

41. The Priorate was next conferred upon one of the most eminent 
Churchmen and Politicians of his day ANDREW FORMAN, Bishop of Moray. 
He is said to have been a member of the Family of Forman of Hutton, in 
Berwickshire. While a young man, he assumed the Monastic Habit in the 
Monastery of Arbroath, where he soon began to distinguish himself, not so 
much by his learning or application to Clerical duties, as by his superior 
share of Political sagacity. This, aided by his insinuating manners, intro- 
duced him to the notice of his Sovereign, James IV., by whom he was 
created Bishop of Moray. He also enjoyed the friendship of Louis XII. of 
France, at whose Court he remained for some time as Ambassador. He 
had the merit of negotiating a peace between that Monarch and Pope Julius 
II., for which service the latter rewarded him with the Archbishopric of 
Bourges in France, a Seat in the Sacred College of Cardinals, and, on his 
return to Scotland, with the important Office of Papal Legate. He also was 
appointed Abbot of Dryburgh, and at the death of Alexander Stuart he 
aspired to the Ecclesiastic Dignities then left vacant. The Priorate of 
Coldingham he succeeded in procuring, but he had scarcely held it a year, 
when he Kesigned it in favour of David, the seventh and youngest brother of 
Lord Home. He is said to have done so with a view to conciliating that 
powerful Nobleman's interest in procuring his Promotion to the Arch- 
bishopric of St. Andrews, for which Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, and 
James Hepburn, Prior of the Monastery of St. Andrews, were also Candi- 
dates. Notwithstanding that the former of these had the influence of the 
Queen-Dowager, the latter that of the Chapter and See, Forman, supported 
by the Bull of the new Pope, Leo X., and the influence of Lord Home, was 
Elevated to the opulent Office. 

42. DAVID HOME, his Successor, was included in the Sentence of For- 
feiture passed against his Brothers, and which was reversed in 1516. In the 
following year he fled with them into England, when he returned shortly 

VOL. I. 3D 



394 MONASTICON. 

afterwards under the protection of the Earl of Angus, only to lose his life ; 
for he was Murdered by James Hepburn, aided by Hately of Mellerstan and 
other Borderers, who thought to ingratiate themselves with the Eegent 
Albany by avenging the Assassination of De la Beaute. Godscroft fur- 
nishes us with the following particulars respecting him and his Assassins : 
"David, the youngest, Prior of Coldinghame," says he, "was of a brisk, 
enterprizing genius. Being at a distance from the Court, he both was 
cautious with regard to his own personal safety, and had also frequent 
meetings and consultations with his friends with regard to what was most 
proper to be done. The inquiet minds of his enemies, who had polluted 
their hands with his brothers' blood (Alexander Lord Home, and his brother 
William), thought that they were not safe while he survived. But the 
young man was not obnoxious to the Laws, nor could any pretext be openly 
laid hold of for putting him to death ; and as, on the other hand, he gave 
them no opportunity of doing it privately, it was agreed with James Hep- 
burn of Hailes, his sister's husband, that he should do the horrid deed ; nor 
did the innocence of the youth, or the Sacred bond of affinity or friendship, 
give this wretch the least remorse for perpetrating this most shameful and 
scandalous crime. He invited out the young man to come and chat with 
him; he, dreading no harm, intrusting himself with him, his friend, his 
brother, and an attendant or two, went out upon the invitation, and was 
butchered to the grief of all, and even pitied by some who were partakers of 
the Murder. One of these, in ambiguous and doubtful admonitions, told 
him to mount his swiftest horse, and consult for his safety by night, which, 
he either not understanding or not believing any danger near, was all in 
vain ; so that, while he was off his guard, he was slain by one who, of all 
men, had least reason to do it. He was a young gentleman of a friendly 
and virtuous disposition, and a courteous behaviour ; and, for his humility, 
was in the highest regard with the common people, insomuch that he had 
the title bestowed on him of David the Innocent. But though his death 
was not revenged by his friends, yet the curse of God, as generally hap- 
pens, pursued the Murderer ; the Deity set apart to Himself the glory of 
punishing such wretches. For many years after, when Hepburn had arrived 
at a ripe old age, his body was bowed down and drawn together in such a 
manner that he could not stand but with his face always fixed upon the 
ground, and was reduced to so great want that, being carried to the street 
on a hurdle, he was there necessitate to beg his daily subsistence from pas- 
sengers. This was very much spoken of at the time, and may serve as a 
striking example to posterity. He was even so pitied by his enemies that 
John Home of Blackadder, when he was passing by him, refused to hearken 
to one of his Vassals, who begged to be allowed to take revenge for the 
inhuman Murder of his kinsman David. He, smiling, asked, ' What has he 
done to entitle him to this good office from you ? nay, rather let him live 
this most miserable life, which is worse than death itself.' Nor did the 



PEIOKY OF COLDINGHAM. 



395 



partakers of Ms crime meet with any better fate. Chirnside of East-Nesbit, 
Nesbit of that Ilk, Haitly of Mellerstane, all of them Died in a wretched 
manner, a curse pursued their very memories ; nor are they remembered in 
that Country but with disgrace and detestation for the Murder of the 
Innocent, nor by any other name than the wicked traitors.'' [Lindsay's 
Chronicle of Scotland, p. 238 ; Ridpath's Border Hist., p. 505. MS. History 
of the Homes, ,] 

43. EGBERT BLACKADDER was appointed 
Prior in January, 1519, but was slain, with 
six of his attendants, by his inveterate 
enemy, David Home of Wedderburn, while 
hunting, on the 6th October of the same year. 
Holinshead informs us that the scene of this 
slaughter was the Village of Lamberton, while 
others allege that it occurred at Harecraigs, 
a place on the Banks of the Eye, about a mile 
above the Village of Ayton. 

44. WILLIAM DOUGLAS, brother of Archi- 
bald, Earl of Angus, now seized the Priorate, 
with the aid of the daring Knight of Wedder- 
burn. He was opposed by Patrick Black- 
adder, the cousin of the late Prior, and Arch- 
deacon of Dunblane, who wished to succeed 
his kinsman ; .but this opponent was speedily 
removed by Wedderburn, by whom he was 
slain in a Skirmish at the outskirts of Edin- 
burgh. 




A figure of the Virgin crowned, 
holding the Infant Jesus in her 
arms, within a Gothic Niche, in 
the background of which is sus- 
Prior Douglas, in 1522, was consti- pen ded a Dorsal or Reredos. 



In the lower part, supported by 
a Crozier, is a Shield, bearing 
on a Chevron three Cinque - 
foils. A.D. 1516. [Dalhousie 
Charters] 



tuted, by his brother Angus, Abbot of Holy- 
rood, which gave great offence to the Queen- 
Dowager, whose consent had not been 
solicited. He acted a prominent part in the 
busy scenes of that turbulent period. A 
rupture occurring between Angus and the Homes, the latter used many 
unavailing efforts to expel him from the Priory, over which, however, he 
continued to preside till his Death in 1531. 

45. ADAM, his Successor, whose Surname is unknown, held the Priorate 
till 1541, when, according to Chalmers, he was Translated to the Abbacy of 
Dundrennan, in the County of Dumfries, to make way for 

46. JOHN STUART, " natural son" of James V., who, though a mere 
infant, was created Prior with the consent of the Pope. The King enjoyed 
the Eevenues of Coldingham and the other Abbeys which he had conferred 
upon his sons till their majority, by which, says Lesly, " there came no 
less monie unto his coffers, than did arise out of his kingly inheritance." 
During Prior John's minority, the English, as has already been noticed, 



396 MONASTICON. 

seized, and afterwards burnt the Priory. He Married Lady Jean Hepburn, 
daughter of James, fourth Earl of Bothwell. The Marriage was solemnized 
at Seton, on the 4th January, 1561 Queen Mary honouring the Nuptials 
with her presence. He Died in 1563, when on a Northern Circuit with his 
brother, the Earl of Murray, at Inverness, leaving two sons, Francis and 
John, the former of whom afterwards became Prior. He is described by 
Godscroft as " a man of a mild disposition, who cultivated the greatest 
familiarity with all the Nobles in the County, particularly with Home of 
Wedderburn." 

47. SIR ALEXANDER HOME of Manderston was appointed to the vacant 
Priorate by Queen Mary, whose cause he at first energetically espoused 
against her rebellious Lords. Godscroft states that the Abbacy was 
bestowed upon him, with a view of enabling him to cover the great expenses 
that he incurred in the service of his hapless Princess. He did not, how- 
ever, continue long stedfast to her fallen fortunes, as he appears upon the 
list of those who fell fighting against her at the Battle of Langside, 13th 
May, 1568. He always entertained a numerous retinue, and himself and 
dependants never failed to boast of his greatness. Whatever he did, was 
done with the greatest pomp and ostentation : he alone could cope with 
any Nobleman in the Kingdom, when he gathered together all his forces. 
He did not hold Office till his Death, but in 1565 was succeeded by 

48. FRANCIS STUART, eldest son of the late Prior John Stuart. The 
history of this turbulent individual is well known. King James VI. lavished 
upon him many Honours and Estates, notwithstanding that he was perpetu- 
ally engaged in treasonable intrigues against him. The King created him 
Earl of Bothwell, Constable of Haddington, Sheriff of Berwick, Bailie of 
Lauderdale, and High Admiral of Scotland. In 1595, however, he was 
obliged to flee. the Country, on James' release from the confinement to 
which he had been subjected by him for some weeks in Holyroodhouse. In 
1624 he Died at Naples, in obscurity and want. He was Prior of Colding- 
hain for little more than a year, having in the Spring of 1565-6 Kesigned 
the Priory to 

49. JOHN MAITLAND, second son of Sir Eichard Maitland of Lethington, 
in exchange for the Abbey of Kelso, of which the latter was Commendator. 
Maitland had a Letter of Provision, under the Great Seal of the Priory and 
Monastery of Coldingham, for his life, 8th March, 1565-6. On his father's 
Demise, 16th August, 1567, he was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal, and 
constituted an ordinary Lord of Session, 2nd June, 1568. He was forfeited 
for his adherence to the Queen's party in 1570, deprived of his Offices and 
Benefices, and took refuge in the Castle of Edinburgh. On its surrender in 
1573, he was sent prisoner to Tantallon Castle, but, in February, 1574, the 
Council passed an Act allowing him to remain with Lord High Chancellor 
Somerville, at his House of Couthellie, and two miles thereabout, under 
penalty of 10,000. In February, 1578-9, he was released from captivity, 



PEIOEY OF COLDINGHAM. 397 

and on the following year a Letter of Rehabitation of John Maitland, 
formerly Commendator of Coldingham, passed the Great Seal. He was re- 
appointed Lord of Session, 26th April, 1581, was Knighted, and constituted 
Secretary of State for life, by Letters Patent, Dated 18th May, 1586; and 
by Commission, of Date 31st May, 1586, in consequence of his successful 
exertions to bring about a reconciliation with the exiled Nobles on their 
return to Scotland in the year previous, he was, by King James, appointed 
Keeper of the Great Seal for life, with the title of Vice-Chancellor. In the 
following year, the Earls of Arran and Bothwell made several unsuccessful 
attempts to lower Maitland in the eyes of his Sovereign. He was soon 
afterwards created High Chancellor and a Peer of the Eealm, by the Title 
of Lord Maitland of Thirlestane. He Died on the 3rd October, 1595, and 
was Buried at Haddington, where a splendid Monument, with an Epitaph 
composed by James VI., was erected to his memory. Spottiswoode 
describes him as " a man of rare parts, and of a deep wit, learned, and full 
of courage, and most faithful to his King and Master. No man did ever 
carry himself in his place more wisely, nor sustain it more courageously 
against his enemies." 

50. ALEXANDER, LORD HOME, who had rendered good service to his 
Sovereign in quelling the Insurrections of Bothwell, on the ejection of 
Maitland in 1570, had the Priory and its Kevenues conferred upon him. He 
was Excommunicated by the Church, to which he was compelled to make 
the usual humiliatory concessions. According to Calderwood, " he Sub- 
scribed ye Confession of Faith at Edinburgh, in December, 1593. He 
confessed, in the presence or 1 God and His holy Angels, that he professed 
from his heart the Eeligion of the Kirk here present, whereof he had already 
Subscrivit the Articles before the Presbyterie of Edinburgh, promising to 
defend it to the uttermost ; and abrenounced the Eoman Catholic Eeligioun 
as the Antichristian Eeligion, and directly opposite to the truth of God, 
which he testified by holding up his hand, and solemnly testified before God, 
that he hath no disposition nor indult to Subscrive nor Swear to the above 
Articles. In the Fourteenth Session he craved to be absolved from the 
Sentence of Excommunication. With a Solemn Oath, holding up his right 
hand, he agreed to the Articles, and Signed the same to remove and hold 
out of his Companie all Papists and Traffickers against the true Eeligioun, 
and entertain in his house Mr. Archibald Oswald as his Ordinar Pastor, and 
failing of him, some other, by advice of the Presbyterie of Dunbar ; to resort 
to the hearing of the Word, and to Communicate ; to make his Familie, his 
Tenants, and Servants subject to the Discipline of the Kirk; to repair 
ruinous Kirks, and to provide sufficient Stipends for Ministers within his 
Bounds; to have no intelligence with the Excommunicate Popish Lords, 
Jesuists, Seminary Priests or Trafficking Papists," &c., &c. Birrel tells us 
that he " maid his repentance in the new Kirk before the Assemblie upon 
his knies," upon which the Sentence of Excommunication was removed. 



398 MONASTICON. 

There is reason for supposing, however, that his Lordship's contrition was 
more affected than real. He accompanied the King to England in 1603, 
and two years afterwards was created by him Earl of Home and March. He 
Died 6th April, 1619, when 

51. JOHN STUART, the second son of Francis, Earl of Bothwell, was 
constituted Commendator, and, according to Spottiswoode, he was the last 
who bore that Title. He received a Charter of the Lands and Baronies 
belonging to the Priory united into one Barony, 1621. To support him in 
his extravagant career, he alienated the greater part of the Property thus 
acquired, in small lots, to private individuals ; and the Charters in possession 
of many of the small Proprietors in the neighbourhood were granted by him. 

OTHER OFFICERS. 

The first of the Seneschals on record is GAMELLIN, who lived between 
the years 1166 and 1182. Between 1174 and 
1214, GREGORY, Senescald de Cold., appears; and 
before 1242 EOULAND held the Office. In 1341 
there was an agreement made by the Prior and 
ADAM DE PRENDERGUEST " ubi remittentur varii 
redditus cum Paschwating, assists, &c., in diversis 
locis ad terminum 14 annorum pro restitutione 
decimarum piscariae de Twede et pro executione 
officii senescalli." About 1284 GUALTERUS, and 
in 1412 EOBERTUS, appear as Camerarii. Between 
1166 and 1182 GUILIELMUS, and before 1214 
EICARDUS, were Cellarers ; and intermediate to the 
years 1115 and 1214, LAMBERT, ALDEN, EADULF, 
and WALTER, held the Office of Dapifer. In 1304 
ADAM, fil Gualteri, appears as Hostiarius. Be- 
tween 1174 and 1214 DAVID, ALDEN, and HER- 
A figure of the B. Virgin, VEIUS, and in 1342 GREGORY, officiated as Mare- 

with Crown and Nimbus, gcaUL In 1392.3 HERBERT is set down as Medicus. 

and Infant Jesus in her [Chart. Coldingham; Chart. Dunfermlme; Chalmer's 

arms; the background orna- ~ 7 , 7 .. ,-, 77 ,, c 

, , -,i ? T I-/-Y Caledonia, vol. n.; Rolls of Scottish Parliament. 

mented with foliage. [G. 

Logan, Esq., Teind Office.} voL *H 

VALUATION OF THE PRIORY OF COLDINGHAM. 

Money, 818 10s 9d. Wheat 6 Chalders, 7 Bolls, 3 Firlots, 2 Pecks ; 
Bear 19 Chalders, 12 Bolls, 1 Firlot, 2 Pecks; Oats 66 Chalders, 8 
Bolls, 2 Firlots ; Pease 3 Chalders, 18 Bolls, 2 Firlots ; besides a number 
of Cain, Fowls, and Services. 

For the foregoing Memorabilia) I acknowledge myself indebted 
to Alex. Allan Carr, Surgeon, and to Mr. William King Hunter, 
of Stoneshiel, Authors of "A History of Coldingham Priory." 




ABBEY OF DUNFEBMLINE. 899 

II. DUNFERMLINE, 

A noble Monastery, in the Shire of Fife, situated 4 miles 
above the Queensferry. It was begun by King Malcolm III. (or 
Canmore), and was finished by King Alexander I., surnamed 
"the Fierce." This City is famous for being the Burial-place 
of several of our Kings, and is the place that gave birth to King 
Charles I. It was formerly governed by a Prior ; for Eadmerus 
[Hist. Novel., lib. v. 9 p. 130] speaking of the messengers that 
were sent by the above King Alexander, in 1120, to Radulph, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, for procuring Eadmer to be Bishop of 
St. Andrews, says, "Horum unus quidem Monachus, et Prior 
Ecclesiae Dumfermelinae, Petrus nomine." Perhaps it was then 
an Hospital ; for it is designed in some old MSS. " Monas- 
terium de monte infirmorum." However, King Malcolm and 
King Alexander gave several Lands to this place, which was 
afterwards changed into an Abbey by David I., who brought 
thither thirteen Monks from Canterbury in 1124. Musselburgh 
and Inveresk, with the Parish Church, Mills, and Harbour, were 
given to this Abbey by King Malcolm and his son, S. David. 
Burntisland, called of old Wester Kinghorn, with its Castle and 
Harbour, belonged also to this place, with Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy, 
and several other considerable Towns and Lands mentioned in 
the Chartulary of this place in the Advocates' Library. 

The first Abbot of this Monastery was Gosfridus, of whom 
the History of Florentius Vigorniensis gives the following 
account : ' ' Vir religionis eximiae, Cantuarise prior, Gosfridus 
nomine, Rege Scotorum David petente, et Archiepiscopo Wil- 
helmo annuente, abbas eligitur ad locum in Scotia qui Dun- 
fermlin dicitur : ordinatus est autem a Roberto episcopo Sti 
Andreas anno 1128." This Gosfrid, or Gaufrid, Died in 1154; 
for the Chronicon She Gruels, " ad annum prsedictum," says, 
" Obiit Gaufridus, primus abbas de Dunfermlin, et nepos ejus 
Gaufridus in loco ejus successit." The last Abbot of this place 
was George Durie, Commendator and Archdeacon of St. An- 
drews. The Church and Monastery were Dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, and S. Margaret, Queen of Scotland. It was united to 



400 MONASTICON. 

the Crown by the 189th Act of King James VI. 's thirteenth 
Parliament. 

At the general Dissolution of the Monasteries, Dunfermline 
was first given to Secretary Pitcairn, then to the Master of Gray, 
and in the end was conferred upon Alexander Seton, who was 
first advanced to the honour of a Lord of the Eealm by the Title 
of Lord Urquhart, the 3rd August, 1591, and thereafter was 
created Earl of Dunfermline, the 3rd March, 1605. 

Musselburgh was likewise erected into a Lordship in favour 
of the Lord Thirleston, and excepted from the general annexa- 
tion made in 1587; and, by the same Act, the Conventual 
Brethren of this place, having embraced the Reformation, were 
nowise to be deprived of their portions during their lifetime. 
[Spottiswoode.] 

Dunfermline first makes its appearance in authentic History 
under Date A.D. 1070 ; but although this is the earliest notice of 
it on record, it is by no means to be inferred that it did not exist 
before this Date, as it comes at once into notice as a fortified 
Town, and as a Royal Residence. 

As will be observed in the foregoing, it is mentioned by 
Spottiswoode as probable that Dunfermline had its origin from 
an Hospital founded in the locality, and he notices that "it is 
designed in some old MSS. Monasteriwn de monte infirmorum," 
which means "the Monastery on the hill of the infirm." As 
neither Spottiswoode nor any other Writer on this subject men- 
tions where this old MS. is to be seen, I shall do so, and also 
show that the word or name " infirmorum" has not the slightest 
connexion with either an Infirmary or an Hospital. 

The old MS. above referred to is the Charter known to 
Antiquaries as the Foundation Charter of Dunfermline Abbey, 
granted by Malcolm III., and Margaret, his Consort, the Queen. 
The Original Charter has not been seen since about the year 
1662, but several Transcripts of it have been preserved ; a 
Printed Copy is to be found at page 417 of Eegistrum de Dun- 
fermelyn, Published by the Bannatyne Club in 1842. This 
Charter is held genuine by many of our most eminent Antiquaries, 



ABBEY OF DUNFEBMLINE. 



401 



while it has been disputed by others, and that on very super- 
ficial grounds. For various good reasons, we are of those 
who hold the Charter to be authentic. The beginning of it, 
which is that part of it which embodies the words quoted, is as 
follows : 



In nomine Sancte Trinitatis. Ego 
Malcohnus Dei gracia Scottorum 
basileus, autlioritate regia ac potes- 
tate. Margarete Begine uxoris mee 
episcoporum comitum baronumque 
regni mei confirmatione et testimo- 
nio clero etiam adquiescente que 
pop'ulo. Sciant presentes et futuri 
me fundasse abbaciarn in monte infir- 
morttm in honorem Dei omnipotentis 
et sancte et individue Trinitatis pro 
salute anime niee et omnium ante- 
cessorum meorum et pro salute 
anime Begine Margarete uxoris mee 
et omnium successorum meorum, 
&c. 



In name of the Holy Trinity. I, 
Malcolm, by the grace of God King 
of the Scots, of my Boyal authority 
and power, with the confirmation 
and testimony of Queen Margaret 
my wife, and of the Bishops, Earls, 
and Barons of my Kingdom, the 
Clergy also and the people acqui- 
escing. Let all present and future 
know that I have founded an Abbey 
on the Hill of the infirm, in honour 
of God Almighty, and of the holy 
and undivided Trinity, for the safety 
of my own soul, and of all my 
ancestors, and for the safety of the 
soul of Queen Margaret my wife, 
and of all my Successors, &c. 

As in all early Charters, there is neither Date nor year of the 
Keign affixed to it ; but as Margaret became Malcolm's Consort 
and Queen of Scotland in 1070, and as they both Died in 1093, 
it is obvious that this Charter must have been granted by 
Malcolm and Margaret between 1070-93. The most likely Date 
of it would appear to be between 1070-74. 

In this Charter is found Monte infirmorum, and it will be seen 
presently to what they refer. Dr. E. Henderson, some years 
since, during his readings of the early Charters in Registrum de 
Dunfermekjn, observed that the letters e and i were used indis- 
criminately ; he also observed that the name of the Kivulet, or 
Burn, which sweeps round the base of the Monte, or Hill, on 
which Malcolm IIL's Tower stood, was anciently known as 
"aqua de ferm." [Reg. Chart., 443, p. 335.] On which dis- 
covery, Dr. Henderson at once saw that this "ferm" was the 
key to. unlock and answer the puzzling word infirmorum, or 
infirm. Thus, infirmorum should read infermorum, and conse- 
quently infirm becomes inferm. There can be little or no doubt 
that some early Scribe has been the cause of this blunder, or, if 



VOL. I. 



402 MONASTICON. 

it is not a blunder, then since the letters e and i are used in 
Dunfermline early Charters indiscriminately, why not turn the 
Abhey Scribe's letter i into an e, and make sense of it ? By 
doing so, we shall have Monte infermorum instead of Monte 
infirmorum, meaning " the Hill at or near the Water of Ferm." 
This word ferm is the middle syllable of Dunfermline, and must 
have, from the remotest period, a distinctive feature and natural 
boundary for reference in early Writs, &c. 

It is not improbable but that Monte infermorum was the name 
of Koman Dunfermline, and it is remarkable how close an 
affinity they have to each other. Thus the Roman Monte, and 
the Gaelic Dun, signifies a Hill ; Ferm, the name of the Rivulet. 
Dunferm and Monte inferm therefore means "the Hill at the 
Ferm Water." The last syllable is an affix probably appended 
to the name somewhere about 1100. Line, or as it was 
anciently written, Lyn, refers to the Waterfall on the Ferm 
Eivulet, a little below the Dun, or Tower Hill. Thus, all the 
objects which go to form the name Dunfermline are in close 
proximity. 

The Tower, commonly called " King Malcolm Canmore's 
Tower," and which is undoubtedly the nucleus of Dunfermline, 
stood on the crest of the Monte or Dun, above mentioned. 
There is neither Eecord nor Tradition referring to the Period of 
its erection ; but it is certain that Malcolm III. resided in this 
Tower in 1070, and that within its walls in that year were 
solemnised and celebrated the Marriage and nuptial festivities of 
Malcolm the Third and Margaret his Queen, and it is most likely 
that some, if not the whole, of their children, were Born in it. 
Part of the Foundations of the South and West Walls remain, 
which are thick and strong ; but from the limited space on the 
top of this Hill, for building, the Tower would be of small dimen- 
sions about 50 feet square and about 60 feet in height, two 
Storeys high, with an angular roofed Apartment. The Site of 
the Tower is about 70 feet above the Ferm Burn, which makes a 
graceful curve round its base, throwing Tower-Hill into a minia- 
ture Peninsula. The Tower was deemed impregnable on all sides 
excepting the East, and was on that side defended by a deep dry 



ABBEY OF DUNFEBMLINE. 



403 



Ditch, Drawbridge, and Portcullis. Our early Historian, Fordun, 
in referring to this Stronghold, says, Non homini facilis, vix 
adeunda feris "It is difficult of access to men, scarcely acces- 
sible to wild beasts." 

David L, who ascended the Throne in 1124, was a zealous 
son of the Church. He founded during his Keign many Abbeys, 
Chapels, -Cells, &c., in almost every District in his Dominions. 
As soon as he ascended the Throne, he raised the Church 
of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline to the dignity of an 
Abbey, introduced into it thirteen Monks from Canterbury, and 
nominated Galfridus, or Galfrid, as Abbot. In consequence, 
however, of their being no Consecrated Bishop of St. Andrews at 
this period, Galfrid was not Con- 
secrated Abbot until 1128, on 
the Consecration of Eobert as 
Bishop of St. Andrews. In 
Eegistrum de Dunfermclyn, there 
are 34 Charters and Writs 
granted and confirmed by David 
I. in favour of this Abbey ; and 
every succeeding Monarch down 
to near the period of the 
"Keformation," as well as the 
Nobility and other pious per- 
sons, contributed greatly by Gifts 
of Land, Donations in Money, 
Patronage of Churches and 
Chapels, to enrich this favoured Abbey. 

About 1244, the Abbey was found to be too small for the due 
and convenient performance of the Worship, Rites, and Pro- 
cessions, in consequence of the increase in the number of Monks, 
and of so many Tombs, Altars, &c., which had from time to time 
been erected within it. It was, therefore, by the Abbot and 
Chapter, resolved that an addition or extension should be erected 
in an Easterly direction, in connexion with the old Walls of the 
Abbey. This new Eastern Edifice, united to the original Build- 
ing, was finished and opened with great pomp in 1250, when 




A Font within the Porch of a Church. 
Cir. A.D. 1200. [Dean and Chapter of 
Durham.] 



404 MOKASTICON. 

the Kemains of Malcolm and Margaret were transferred from the 
old Building to the Lady Chapel of the Abbey ; on which occasion 
there was a splendid Procession, carrying the Royal Remains, 
keeping time to "the sounds of the Organ, and the melodious 
notes of the Choir singing in parts." This is known in History 
as the " Translation of S. Margaret." The Procession consisted 
of " ane grate companie," the King and a large gathering being 
present, as also seven Bishops, the Abbots, Monks, and other 
Officials and Dignitaries connected with the Abbey. The 
Original High Altar and other Altars were transferred from the 
old to the new Building. With this new addition, a very large 
Church was formed, having Nave, Choir, Transepts, Lady 
Chapel, Chapter House, Great Lantern Tower, with two Towers 
facing the West. In length from Western Facade to East 
Wall of the Lady Chapel, it was 275 feet; the Nave and 
Choir, 65 feet, and Transepts, 136 feet, outside measurement ; 
each of the Towers on the West was 72 feet in height, and 24 
feet in breadth ; while the great Central or Lantern Tower was 
156 feet high, and 36 feet square. 

The Eastern part of the Abbey Church (the Choir), erected 
in 1250, was totally destroyed by the "Reformers" on 28th 
March, 1560, as also the whole of the Monastery which stood 
immediately to the South of the Abbey, of which last only the 
South Wall and Western Gable, with its beautiful Tracery 
Window, and a Tower above it, remain. 

In 1244 it became a Mitred Abbey. Pope Innocent IV., at 
the request of Alexander II., empowered and authorised the 
Abbot to assume the Mitre, the Ring, and other Pontifical Orna- 
ments ; and in same year, in consideration of the excessive 
coldness of the Climate, he granted to the Monks the privilege of 
wearing Caps, suitable to their Order ; but they were, notwith- 
standing, enjoined to shew proper reverence at the Elevation of 
the Host, and other Ceremonies. 

In 1249, Pope Innocent IV. Canonised Margaret Queen of 
Scotland, Consort of Malcolm III.; he also granted an Indulgence 
of forty days to the Faithful visiting her Shrine on the day of 
her Festival. 



ABBEY OF DUNFEEMLINE. 105 

In 1252, Innocent IV. declared by a Bull that the Abbey 
should not be compelled to pay Debts unless it were proved that 
they had been contracted for its benefit ; and that any Lands or 
other Possessions belonging to it, which had been alienated, 
should be recalled and restored to it. 

In 1300, William de Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, in 
consequence of the high state of Discipline, the praiseworthy 
lives, and the charity of the Monks, in order to render them still 
more fervent, bestowed on them the Vicarage of the Church of 
Dunfermline. 

The Abbey enjoyed a high celebrity, partly on account of its 
possessing the Relics of S. Margaret, the Tutelar Saint, and of 
its being the place of Royal Sepulture, as also from the extent, 
wealth, and magnificence of the Buildings. Matthew of West- 
minster, who visited Dunfermline in the latter end of the 
Thirteenth Century, in referring to its extent, says that its limits 
were so ample as to contain within its precincts three Carucates 
of Land, and so many princely Edifices, that three distinguished 
Sovereigns, with their Retinues, might be with ease accommo- 
dated within its Walls, without inconvenience to one another. 
Of the wealth of the Abbey, some idea may be formed when it is 
mentioned that the greater part of the Lands in the Western, 
part of those in the Southern and Eastern Districts of Fife, as 
also various Lands and Properties in other Counties belonged to 
it, such as Kildun near Dingwall, Buckhaven, Carnbee, New- 
burn, Crail, Kinglassie, Abbotshall, Kirkcaldy, Kinghorn, Burnt- 
island, Kinross, Orwell, Perth, Scone, Bendothy, Kirkmichael, 
Dunkeld, Dollar, Tillicoultry, Clackmannan, Stirling, Logie near 
Stirling, Linlithgow, Cramond, Liberton, Hailes, Mastertown in 
New-bottle, Newton, Inveresk, Musselburgh, Tranent, Hadding- 
ton, Berwick, Coldingham, Roxburgh, Renfrew, Inverkeithing, 
Beath, Saline, Cleish, Carnock, Torryburn, and, of course, 
Dunfermline and District itself. 

Those Properties in Dunfermline District which paid in 
Teinds may be here particularized, as found in " The Rentall 
of the Haill Patrimonie of the Abacie of Dunfermling, gevin 
in. and sus 1 be Allane Cowttis, Chamberlane thairof, &c., 1561 " : 



406 MONASTICON. 

Baudrick (Middle), Hoill, Blacklaw, Cavil, Craigluscar, Clune, 
Craigduckie (East and West), Galrick, Gask, Grassmuiiiand, 
Knockliouse, . Knock, Legattisbrig, Limekilns, Logie, Lathal- 
mond, Dunduff, Drumtuthil, Gellets, Luscar (East and West), 
North and South Millhills, Mortlandbank, Middlebaldridge, 
Meldrum's Mill, Newlands, Outh, North Queensferry, Pitliver, 
Pitreavie, Pitfirrane, Pittencrieff, Pitbauchlie, Pitconnochie, 
Handel's Craigs, Koscobie, S. Margaret's Stone, Touchmill, 
Tinnygask, Fod, North and South Breryhill, Halbank, East 
and West Luscar, Pitdennis, Carnock, Kinneder, Bandrum, 
Saline, Lassodie, Cocklaw, Lathangy, Aiiay, and Spittalfield 
near Inverkei thing. 

The Abbey, also, had a right to the whole Wood, necessary 
for Fuel and Building, within its Jurisdiction; likewise every 
seventh Seal, caught at Kinghorn, after being tithed, and the 
half of the Fat of the Whales that were caught or stranded in 
the Forth, excepting the Tongue. The Abbot had a Ship which 
was exempted from all Custom Duties, and had a right to the 
Queensferry and the Ship of Inverkeithing, on condition that 
those belonging to the Court, as also Strangers and Messengers, 
should be passage free ; and also had the Custom Dues of all 
Vessels entering the Harbour of Inveresk. The Abbot and 
Monks had also Houses, Lands, Annuities, Salt Pans, a Stone 
Mine, and a Coal Pit ; the Skins and Fat of all Animals killed at 
Festivals at Stirling, and were at one time entitled to certain 
Duties from the King's Kitchen ; the first Ships arriving at Perth 
and Stirling paid them 5 Merks of Silver yearly for Vestments. 

They had likewise a tenth of all the Hunting between Lam- 
mermuir and the Tay ; a tenth of all the wild Mares of Fife and 
Fothrif ; a tenth of all the Salt and Iron brought to Dunfermline 
for the use of the King, and a tenth of all the Gold that might 
come to him from Fife and Fothrif; the tenth of the Can payable 
to the King from Fife, Fothrif, and Clackmannan, in Grain, 
Cheese, Malt, Swine, and Eels ; and of all his Lordship's, in 
Corn, Animals, Fishes, and Money. The men belonging to the 
Abbey were exempted from labouring at Castles, Churches, 
Bridges, &c. 



ABBEY OF DUNFERMLINE. 407 

Tlie Abbot was Superior of Lands, the Property of others, 
and received the resignation of his Vassals sitting on their bended 
knees, testifying all due humility. The Abbot and Convent had 
full and unlimited power in exercising all the Eights of Property, 
and was invested with the formidable power of enforcing its 
Eights by Excommunication, which was enforced on several 
occasions. 

In 1587, there was, as is well known, a general annexation 
of Church Property to the Crown by Act of Parliament, from 
which, however, the Abbacy of Dunfermline was exempted. In 
consequence of this exemption, King James VI. gifted the 
Ecclesiastical Domain to Anne of Denmark, his Consort and 
Queen, as a Dowry on his Marriage in 1589, which "Gift was 
confirmed by Act of Parliament and by Crown Charter on 7th 
March, 1593. 

In 1611, Lord Urquhart (then Earl of Dunfermline), obtained 
a Charter from Queen Anne, with the consent of her husband, 
King James VI., proceeding on his own Eesignation, and con- 
taining, among other subjects, the heritable Offices of Bailiary 
and Justiciary of the Lordship and Eegality of Dunfermline, on 
bo tli sides of the Water of Forth. 

In 1637, Charles, second Earl of Dunfermline, son of Alex- 
ander, first Earl of Dunfermline, obtained a Charter under the 
Great Seal from King Charles I., for himself, and as Lord of the 
Lordship of Dunfermline, conferring upon him the same Office, 
with all its Eights and Privileges (excepting those belonging to 
the Bailiary of Musselburgh), which was ratified by the Scottish 
Parliament in 1641. In this latter year he also obtained a 
Crown Lease, afterwards ratified by Act of Parliament in 1663, 
for three nineteen years, commencing in 1639, of the Feu- 
Duties and Teinds of the whole Lordship and Eegality of 
Dunfermline, with the special exception of the Lordship and 
Eegality of Musselburgh, whereby, from this Date, he collected 
at once the whole Payments due by the Vassals of the Lordship, 
having a right to the Feu-Duties pertaining to the Office of 
Bailie, as the holder of that Office, and to the surplus, as Lessee 
of the Crown. 



408 MONASTICON. 

About this period, Lord John Hay, afterwards first Marquis 
of Tweeddale, became engaged in cautionary obligations, partly 
by himself, and partly with the Earl of Callander and others, for 
Charles, Earl of Dunfermline, his uncle, to the extent of 

a million of Merks 
Scots. In the years 
1650 and 1665, he 
applied for and ob- 
tained, with some 
additions, a right, 
by a decree of ap- 
prising, to the Office 
of heritable Bailie, 
and also to the Lease 
of the Feu-Duties 
and Teinds held by 
the Earl of Dun- 
fermline. In 1669, 
he obtained an ab- 
solute Charter under 

On the Obverse Seal is a curious design, probably in- the Great Seal to 

tended to represent the Monastery. A section of the ^e Office of lieii- 
lower part is given, divided into three Arches, supported 

by Spiral Columns. Beneath the first Arch, on the sini- table .Bailie, and to 

ster side, is a Priest at Mass, attended by an Acolyte, the right of the Feu- 

In the next or centre Arch, is a female figure, probably J) u ft es an( J Teinds 
S. Margaret, holding an open Book in her hand, standing 

before a Lectern ; in the dexter Arch is a Monk standing Whereby he Was COn- 

before a Lectern, holding a Book. Above the Roof of the gtituted in his OW11 

Building is a Crescent, an Estoile, and two Birds. perSQn heritable Bai . 

[The Matrix of :the Diverse of the double Chapter Seal Ue Qf the Lordship, 
of Dunfermlme Abbey is preserved in the Library at . r ' 
Oxford. The Matrix of the Reverse was long lost, but and Was duly mleit 
was accidentally discovered a few years ago by the late therein shortly after- 
Mr. Bell of Gateshead, on the top of a barrow-load of war j s 
earth, which a labourer was wheeling there ; but I am 

uncertain in whose possession it is now, as his effects In lOUo, JuOl'd 

would doubtless be sold after his death. Communicated Tweeddale obtained, 

ly E. Colqunoun, Esq., OJa^ow.] ^ ^ ^ ^^ fl 

renewal of the Lease from King William and Mary, for three 
nineteen years, after the expiry of the first Tack, to which, by 




ABBEY OF DUNFERMLINE. 



409 



virtue of his apprising, he had acquired a right, upon ground of 
eminent services done by the then Earl to the Crown, and other 
considerations. 

In 1749, the then Marquis of Tweeddale obtained from King 
George II. a further prorogation" for twenty-seven years, which 
continued to 1780 the Tack-Duty being the whole time only 
100 Merks Scots, or 
5 11s Hd Sterling 
yearly. ' This ]ast 
Lease, like the pre- 
ceding, contained a 
protecting Clause to 
the Marquis of Tweed- 
dale's heritable rights, 
the more necessary in 
consequence that the 
heritable Jurisdiction 
of the Bailiary of Re- 
gality had been abol- 
ished, and reverted to 
the Crown since 1748. 
The Marquis, although 

. On the Reverse Seal are the figures of four Angels 

110 longer performing supporting an Aureole, within which the Saviour, with 
the duties, Still COn- Cruciform Nimbus, is sitting on a Rainbow, his feet 
tinnpfl fo rlvnw f] 1P I'esting on a lesser one, his right hand raised as if call- 

tJ.llU.cU. LU LllclVY tilt? . _. . i -i />i i Y T T>I A* 

ing to Judgment, his left holding an open Book. At 

Emoluments Ol the the dexter side is an Estoile of five points, and above 
Office. In 1780, the tn e sinister hand is a Crescent. Below the Rainbow 
Prnwri T.AHQP in fa is a Quatrefoil on the dexter, and a Cinquefoil on the 

i uease in t- . sinister sid| ^ Inscription _ MOBT1S ET VITE BREV is 

VOUl* 01 the MarqUlS EST vox, ITE VENITE DICET REPROBIS ITEVENITE PEOBIS." 
Of Tweeddale having Gir. A.D. 1590. [Morton Charters.] 

come to an end, he again applied for it, but without success, in 
consequence of a counter application by one of the Vassals of the 
Lordship. The new Lease was granted to the Countess of 
Rothes, the Earl of Elgin, and others. This last Lease being 
one of nineteen years, expired in 1799, but continued to subsist 
by tacit relocation till 1838, when it was terminated by a process 
of removing against Thomas, Earl of Elgin, the only surviving 




VOL. I. 



3r 



410 MONASTIOON, 

Lessee. The Feu and Teind Duties payable to the Crown are 
now under the management and collection of the Commissioners 
of her Majesty's Woods and Forests. 

In 1748, heritable Jurisdictions were abolished, but com- 
pensations were given to all parties concerned, according to the 
opinion of the Court of Session as to the amount of loss during 
life sustained by them, and dl 50,000 was voted by Parliament 
for this purpose, out of which the Marquis of Tweeddale received 
as a solatium the sum of j2,672 7s, as the value of the Bailiary 
of the Regality of Dunfermline, and Mr. Black, his Clerk, 500. 

Within the Walls of the Royal Cemetery in Dunfermline 
Abbey, were Interred the Remains of eight Kings, five Queens, 
seven Princes, and two Princesses of Scotland. Their once 
magnificent Tombs were all destroyed on 28th March, 1560, 
when the Choir of the Abbey and the Monastic Buildings were 
overthrown. Not a vestige of them remains, excepting the lower 
Stones of S. Margaret's Tomb. Modern Historians, when refer- 
ring to the Sites of the Royal Tombs at Dunfermline, have, one 
and all, blundered most sadly. They inform us that the place of 
Royal Sepulture was on the North side, or in the North Transept 
of the Choir of the new Edifice erected in 1250, in consequence 
of their finding in this locality six very large flat Stones. All our 
early Authorities show that the Royal Remains were Interred before 
the Great or High Altar. The position of these Stones being so 
much out of the way, and so much to the North of the High 
Altar, ought to have convinced any one that such could not 
possibly be the site of the "Locum Sepultum Regium" of History. 
Modern Historians, as also other Writers copying from them, 
have further confused the question of the Site, in consequence of 
their supposing that Dunfermline Abbey, from its partial opening 
about 1074 down to the "Reformation" in 1560, had but one 
Great or High Altar. There were two High Altars in the Abbey 
at different and distant periods of time, viz., In the original 
Church or Abbey, now known as "the Auld Kirk," the first 
Great or High Altar stood near its Eastern end from 1074 to 
1250, and before tins Altar were interred the Royal Remains 



ABBEY OF DUNFEHMLINE. 411 

brought to the Abbey between these years. As before noticed, the 
original Building becoming too incommodious for the Services, 
a large new Church was added to the old Building in 1250, 
when the Great or High Altar and other Altars were taken 
down, and new Altars erected in this new Great Eastern Church, 
the new High Altar of which stood near its East end, where it 
remained until the destruction of the Abbey in 1560; and, con- 
sequently, between 1250 and 1560 all the Eoyal Eemains 
Interred in the Abbey were deposited in Sepultures immediately 
in front of it. 

The following Table will show the Eeader the Eoyal Eemains 
Interred in Dunfermline Abbey, with Names, Dates, and before 
what Altar deposited : 

Royal Tianains Interred before the original Great or High Altar, 1047-1250. 



A.D. 

1. DUNCAN II., ............... 1095. 

2. EDGAR, ............... 1107. 

8. MALCOLM, translated from Tweedmouth, (circa) 1109. 

4. ALEXANDER I., ... ... ... ... 1124. 

5. DAVID!., ............... 1154. 

G. MALCOLM IV., ............ 1165. 

QUEENS. 

1. MARGARET, Queen of Malcolm III., ... ... 1093. 

2. ISABELLA, ...... ... ... ... 1120. 

PRINCES. 

1. EDWARD, eldest son of Malcolm III., ... 1093. 

2. ETHELRADE, ... ... ... ... ... 1105. 

3. EDMOND, ............... 1108. 

4. HENRY, son of David I., ... ... ... 1152. 

Interred before the Great or Ilujli Altar of the Church of 1250-1560. 

KINGS. 

1. ALEXANDER III., ............ 1285. 

2. EGBERT BRUCE, ............ 1329. 

QUEENS. 

1. MARGARET, Queen of Alexander III., ... 1274. 

2. ELIZABETH, Queen of Eoberfc L, ...... 1327. 

3. ANNABELLA, Queen of Robert III., ...... 1403. 



412 MONASTICON. 



PRINCES. 



1. ALEXANDER, ... ... ... ... ... 1280. 

2. DAVID, 1280. 

3. EGBERT, 1602. 

PRINCESSES. 

1. CHRISTINA, daughter of Robert Bruce, ... 1356. 

2. MATILDAS, do., do., ... 1366. 

Besides the Eoyal Remains, there were Interred in Dunferm- 
line Abbey the following persons of note and renown : 

MALCOLM, Earl of Fife. 
ANDREW, Bishop of Caithness. 
EARL and COUNTESS OF ATHOL. 
THOMAS RANDOLPH, Earl of Murray, A.D. 1832. 
ROBERT, Duke of Albany, &c. 
ROBERT HENRYSON, " Scholernaister and Poet." 
ROBERT PITCAIRN, Secretary of State. 
WILLIAM SCHAW, " Maister of the ^King's Wark." 
ELIZABETH WARDLAW, Authoress of " Hardy Canute." 
Rev. THOMAS GILLESPIE, founder of the " Relief Church." 
And immediately outside the Walls, the Rev. RALPH ERSKINE, one of the 

chief founders of the " Secession Church." 
Besides a long list of Abbots, Priors, Monks, and Abbey Officials. 

It will thus be seen that, from the number of Royal Remains 
that lie Interred within the venerable Walls of Dunfermline 
Abbey, it may well be called " the Westminster of Scotland." 

It may.be noted that the Abbey Church or Choir, built in 
1250 and destroyed in 1560, was replaced in 1821, by a new 
Church very much out of keeping with its venerable neighbour 
on the West. This new Edifice was founded in 1818, and 
opened for Public Worship at the end of the Summer of 1821. 
The following, inscribed on Parchment, was, along with a few 
Coins of the day, put into a bottle and placed in a cavity of the 
Foundation Stone : 

THIS FOUNDATION STONE 

OF THE 

Jpartef) Cfnirdj of 3Dunfermlme, 

Now to be Rebuilt at the joint expense of the 



ABBEY OF DUNFERMLINE. 413 

Heritors, Magistrates, and Town Council 

of the Burgh, 
On part of the Site of the 

OLD ABBEY CHURCH, 

Founded in the Eleventh Century by 
MALCOLM III. (Canmore), King of Scotland ; 

And afterwards destroyed, 
Partly by the English, under the Eeign of 

EDWARD I. in 1303, and 
Partly at the REFORMATION in 1560, 

WAS LAID 

This 10th day of March, in the year of our 
LORD, 1818, 

and 

In the 58th year of the Reign of GEORGE III., 
King of Great Britain and Ireland, 

By the Right Honourable 

THE EARL OF ELGIN AND KINCARDINE, 

In presence of a numerous meeting of 

Heritors and Magistrates, and Town Council 

of the Burgh. 

It is to be regretted that the Inscription on this Parchment 
Koll is so seriously incorrect. There are two undoubted histori- 
cal errors in the composition, viz., (1) This modern Church, 
founded in 1818, is here said to be built on " part of the Site of 
the old Abbey Church, founded in the Eleventh Century by 
Malcolm III. (Canmore), King of Scotland." This Church of 
1818 does not stand on any part of the ground ever occupied by 
Malcolm Canmore's Church. It stands on part of the ground on 
which the great Eastern Church of 1250 stood, which Church or 
Choir, as previously noticed, was destroyed at the " Eeformation" 
in 1560, and the ruins of which lay scattered about on this Site 
until 1817, when they were cleared away to make room for the 
new Church here commemorated. Malcolm Canmore's, founded 
about 1070, now known as the " Auld Kirk," never occupied any 
more ground than it does at the present day. In 1070, the 
ground East of it, on which the great Edifice of 1250 was built, 
was waste ground, partly a swamp or bog, frequently covered 
with water. (2) It is also stated in this Inscription that Malcolm 



411 MONASTICOX. 

Canmore's Church was " destroyed partly by the English under 
the Reign of Edward I. in 1303, and partly at the Reformation 
in 1560." Malcolm Canmore's Church stands entire to this 
day, and so did the great Eastern Church of 1250 until the year 
1560, when it was not only "partly destroyed" but wholly 
destroyed by the " Reforming Vandals " of 1560. Edward I., 
with part of his train and soldiery, wintered in Dunfermline from 
November 6th, 1303, to February 9th, 1304, on which occasion 
he took possession of the Royal Palace and Monastic Buildings 
for his domicile. At his leaving, on 9th February, 1304, he 
ordered his soldiery to destroy the Palace and the Monastery : 
the Church was kept Sacred, and received no injury. Mathew 
of Westminster, referring to this, says that Edward's soldiery 
" levelled all its splendid Edifices to the ground, sparing from 
the flames the Church only, and a few Lodgings for the Monks." 
The earliest Royal Residence at Dunfermline was the Tower 
in which Malcolm and Margaret's Nuptials were celebrated in 
1070. It is not on record, and there is not even the breath of 
Tradition referring to the time, when the Royal Palace of Dun- 
fermline was built ; but most likely the time would be between 
1230 and 1250. Be this as it may, this Royal Palace and the 
Monastic Buildings were destroyed by fire on 9th February, 1304. 
In consequence of the then disturbed and distracted state of the 
Kingdom, it is not likely that any effort would be made to rebuild 
the destroyed Edifices until after the Battle of Bannockburn in 
1314, when the Country was under the rule of a Scottish Sove- 
reign. It is therefore highly probable that a second Palace and 
a second set of Monastic Buildings would be erected between 
1314 and 1320. At all events, the Palace was so far habitable 
in 1323 as to afford accommodation for the accouchement of 
Elizabeth, Consort and Queen of Robert the Bruce ; for it is 
authentic history that " David II., son of Robert the Bruce, was 
Borne in ye Palais of Dunfermling on ye 5th March, 1323." 
Next to nothing is known of the history of this Palace. It is, 
however, on record that besides David II. having been Born 
within its Walls, James I. was Born in it in 1394. The Princess 
Elizabeth (from whom her present Majesty is descended), eldest 



ABBEY OF DUNFERMLINE. 415 

daughter of Jaines VI., afterwards Queen of Bohemia, was Born 
here in 1596; and it is also the birthplace of that unfortunate 
Monarch, Charles L, who was Born here in 1600. Prince Robert, 
his brother, who died in infancy, was likewise Born here in 1602. 
The Palace was habitable until 1695, when it became ruinous, 
and in 1708 its roof fell in. About the year 1736, the front or 
East Wall being much dilapidated and in ^ dangerous state, was 
removed ; and shortly afterwards the North Gable and an adja- 
cent Building tumbled down, and was also removed, the ruins 
being taken by parties in the Burgh to assist in building new 
and in enlarging old Tenements, &c. So all that now remains 
of the once magnificent Palace of Dunfermline is its West Wall, 
205 feet in length, 59 in height, with Walls 7 feet thick near the 
foundation. This Wall, supported by eight Buttresses, overlooks 
the romantic Glen of PittencrierT, and has a very fine effect when 
seen from the Banks on the opposite side. There is a sunk 
Apartment under the South Wall, now called the "Magazine," 
in consequence of its having been used to store gunpowder in 
during the troublous times of 1715 and 1745 ; but, anciently, 
this apartment was no doubt the King's Cellar for the storage of 
his Wines, &c., and would, as a matter of course, be a place of 
considerable importance when 

" The Kynge sat in Dimfermelyng toune, 
Drynkyng the bluid-reid wynne." 

Above the "Magazine" was the "King's Kitchen," now nearly 
obliterated. Near the North end of the Wall is still to be seen 
the Fire-place of the apartment in which Charles I. was Born. 

In the top of the projecting Window above the entrance to 
the "Magazine," there is a sculptured Stone of a semi-circular 
form, commonly known as the "Annunciation Stone," on which 
is a representation of the Angel Gabriel, with uplifted face, hold- 
ing a Scroll, on which, in Latin and old Saxon characters, are 
the following words and abbreviations : 

AYE GEATIA PLENA DNS TEC. 

That is " Hail, full of grace ; the Lord is with thee." On the 
left is the Virgin Mary, in a kneeling attitude of devotion; a 



41G MONASTICON. 

table stands before her, having on it a Bible, open at Luke i. 38, 
being Mary's answer to the salutation of the Angel. Also, in old 
Saxon letters, and partly abbreviated in Latin, are the words 

ECCE ANCILLA DNI FIAT - MICHE S.V.T. 

That is ' ' Behold the handmaid of the Lord ; be it unto me 
according to Thy Wor,d." And underneath, also in Latin and 
same characters, is the word 

CONFIDO. 

This sculptured Stone was accidentally discovered in 1812, 
during the process of repairs being made on the old Wall. The 
letters were filled up with Lime, which they cleared away, except- 
ing the three first letters of CONFIDO. As the top. of the F is 
much worn, it appears from below as an i ; and the D being 
fashioned somewhat like an o, FIDO appeared to be noo, and was 
at once adopted as the Date of the founding of the Palace. From 
1812 to 1859 it was taken as such, even though it was a puzzle 
to Antiquaries. In 1859, however, the late Mr. Jones wishing 
to have a Photograph from the Stone, ascended on a ladder to 
clear some of the words, and on coming to the supposed Date 
1100, he found something before it, which, on scraping away the 
lime, proved to be the letters CON : noo he at once perceived to 
be FIDO. In this way was successfully unravelled what had for 
nearly half a Century been a " vexed question." 

LIST OF ABBOTS. 

1. GAUFRID I., G ALFRED, GOSFRID, or GEOFFREY, Prior of Christ's Church, 
Canterbury, was Elected first Abbot of Dunfermline in 1128, on the petition 
of David I., in the fourth year of his Eeign, with consent of the Archbishop 
William, and Ordained by Eobert, Bishop of St. Andrews. He is charac- 
terised as a man of singular piety, rir rdiyioim e.viinur. He is Witness to a 
Charter of King David L, granting to the Abbey of Beading, in England, 
Rundalgros, in Perthshire, and to another of Confirmation by King Malcolm 
IV. to the Monks of Kelso, and also to a Charter of Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews (ante 1147). He Died in 1154, and his Obit was annually 
Celebrated on 2nd Ides (or 14th) of October. 

ROGER, Prior, previous to 1153 while Galfrid I. was Abbot, in the Reign 
of King David I. [Reg. Prior. S. Amir., p. 182.] 

2. GAUFRID II., nephew of the former, succeeded A.D. 1154. He 
received a Bull from Pope Alexander III., Dated at Senon, 6th August 



ABBEY OF DUNFERMLINE. 417 

(without year), consenting to him and the Convent having the Church of the 
Holy Trinity of Dunkeld and Lands belonging to it, with the approbation of 
the illustrious King of the Scots (Malcolm IV.), who had granted the same 
Church and Lands to the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline. 

He received another Bull from the same Pope, Dated at Turon on 7th 
June, 1163, and fourth year of his Pontificate, enumerating and confirming 
to him and his Convent the various Churches, Lands, and other Possessions 
previously granted by Kings and faithful Nobles, and confirming even what 
might, in future, be so bestowed, or be otherwise lawfully acquired. He is 
a frequent Witness to several Charters of King Malcolm IV. ; one of these 
is to the Abbey of Scone, in the eleventh year of his Eeign (1164) ; and also 
to several Charters of King William the Lion, in the Register of St. Andrews; 
and to Charters of Arnold and Richard, Bishops of St. Andrews, in the same 
Register. He is noticed in a Conversation between Henry II. of England and 
William, King of Scotland, in 1175. In the same year, in a " Deed for the 
subjection of the Scottish Churches to the English Church," Gaufrid is men- 
tioned along with Herbert, Prior of Coldingham, as " granting that even the 
English Church may have that right in the Church of Scotland, which it 
ought to have % right, and that they will not be against the right of the Eng- 
lish Church;" which was just equivalent to saying in another way, by the 
insertion of the cautious phrase, "quod de jure habere debet," that the 
Church of Scotland was, and always had been, independent of England. 
Accordingly, it was soon after declared to be completely free, as it had been 
before, by a Bull from Pope Clement III. about 1188-9, declaring it to be 
subject to Rome only. Gaufrid Died A.D. 1178. 

GILLEBEIDUS was Vice-Comes, or Sheriff of Dunfermline, before 1178, 
while Galfrid II. was Abbot, in the Reign of King William. [Reg. Prior. S. 
Amir., p. 216.] 

3. ARCHIBALD succeeded in 1178. He is a Witness to Charters of Hugh 
and Roger, Bishops of St. Andrews, in the Register of that Priory. From 
the use of the initial letter only of his name in Instruments, as in the Copy 
of a Charter of Confirmation by King William the Lion, to the Church of 
Mernis [Newton Mearns] , before the Chancellorship of Hugo, between 
1189-98, Alanus has sometimes been given by mistake as the name of the 
Abbot in his time. Archibald received two Bulls from Pope Lucius III., 
the one Dated the 2nd May, 1182, and first of his Pontificate, the other on 
the 14th November, 1184, and fourth of his Pontificate, both of a somewhat 
similar purport to those of Alexander to Gaufrid, being Confirmations of 
Royal and other Grants to the Monastery. There was issued also a Precept 
in his favour by King William the Lion, requiring the Burgh of Haddington 
to pay him three Merks annually, one-half at the Feast of S. Martin, the 
other at that of Pentecost, for lighting the Church of Dunfermline. He 
Died in 1198. 

LA.MBINUS was Prior previous to 1198, while Archibald was Abbot, in 
VOL. i. 3 G 



418 



MONASTICON. 



the time of Earl Duncan, and Keign of King William the Lion. [Reg. 
Prior. S. Andr., p. 353.] 

4. EGBERT DE BERWICK succeeded in 1198. He granted a Charter, 
without Date, for an Acre of Land, &c., on the Northern part of the Esk, at 
Musselburgh, to one Symony Stury, a Burgess there, on condition of 
making a small Payment at the Feast of the Nativity of S. John the 
Baptist; and another, also without Date, to Eobert de Moray, of some 
Lands at Kyndun, near Dingwall, in Boss, for a Payment at the same 
Feast to the Superior of the Cell of Urquhart, in Moray, belonging to the 
Monastery, and for doing due homage and service to the Abbot and Convent. 
He was Deposed for some irregularity, by the Cardinal Legate, John de 
Salerno, at a general Court held at Perth in 1202, towards the end of 
William the Lion's Keign. This was the same Ecclesiastic who, "before 
departing furth of the Bealm, kept a Convention at Perth in 1201, in which 
some Priors were Deposed for taking Orders on Sunday." He is Witness to 
a Charter in the possession of the Pitferrane Family, Dunfermline, beauti- 
fully written, and in good preservation, without Date, containing a Grant by 
the widow of Michael Scott, of the third part of Pethfuran to one of her sons. 

5. PATRICK, who had been Sub-Prior of Durham, and Dean and Prior 

of Canterbury, succeeded in 1202. He is 
Witness in transactions along with William 
de Malvoisin, Bishop of St. Andrews ; and 
"it must have been during his Incumbency 
that that lordly Prelate is said to have levied 
on the Abbey the mulct of no less than two 
Churches [Kinglassie and Hailes, now Coling- 
ton] , for supplying Wine too scantily in the 
Bishop's Chamber, when visiting Dunfermline." 
He is Witness to a Charter, without Date, by 
Alicia, grand- daughter of one Eannulph, grant- 
ing six Acres of Land in Cramond to the 
Monastery ; and he receives from Pope Inno- 
cent III., in 1207, a Bull of Protection in the 
Possessions and Privileges confirmed by the 
second of the Bulls of Pope Lucius III. to 
Abbot Archibald, before noticed, word for 
word, with the additions of the Churches and 
Lands of Molin and Strath ardolf. Patrick 
Died in 1223, which is thus recorded in Dart's 
Obituary of Canterbury " 15 Kal. Oct. Obiit 
Patricius, Abbas de Dumfermelin." 
G. WILLIAM I. succeeded in 1223, who designs himself "Abbot of the 
Church of Christ of Dunfermline." He Died in the same year. 

7. WILLIAM II. succeeded in 1223. He received from the Prior and 




A female figure sitting before 
a Lectern perusing a Book, and 
holding a Crozier in her left 
hand. Cir. A.TX 1202. [Melros 
Charters^] 



ABBEY OF DUNFEEMLINE. 419 

Convent of St. Andrews, a Grant and Confirmation, without Date, of the 
Church of Hailes [in- laudonia, Lothian] , for the support of the Poor and 
Strangers. He appears, along with Hugh, first Abbot of Culross, in a Con- 
troversy between the Monasteries of Culross and Dunfermline, as to certain 
Payments due to the latter for the Church of Abercromby, within the 
Territory of Culross, settled by Composition, Dated in 1227 ; and in an 
Agreement between Thomas of Lastalric and Mr. Richard, Person of Hailes, 
regarding the right to the Mill-Pool of Hailes, &c., Dated in 1226. William 
Died in 1238. 

8. GAUFRID III., " Prior of the same House," succeeded in 1288, and 
Died in 1240. 

9. EGBERT DE KELDELECHT, or KELDELETH, a Monk of the Convent, suc- 
ceeded in 1240, and was afterwards Chancellor of Scotland, towards the end 
of the Eeign of King Alexander II., and in the Minority of King Alexander 
III. In 1244, he obtained for his Convent, from Pope Innocent IV., the 
Privilege of exercising within their Abbey the Functions, and assuming the 
Badges of Bishops, viz., the Mitre, Eing, and other Pontifical Ornaments. 
About 1248, he is Witness to an undated Charter of Sir Eoger de Moubray 
to an ancestor of the Moncrieff Family, granting to him the Lands of Mon- 
crieff, of which the Family of Moubrays were Superiors. In 1250, the year 
of the Coronation of Alexander III., he assisted at the solemn Translation 
of Queen Margaret from an inferior to a more dignified part of the Abbey. 
In 1251, he was suspected of being engaged in the Plot of Alan Durward, 
the Justiciary, for procuring the legitimation of his Lady, sister to the King, 
at the Court of Eome, so as eventually to succeed to the Throne. On this 
becoming known, he resigned the Seals of Office, and retired to his Abbey. 
But, quarrelling with the Monks, who probably treated him with disrespect 
after his disgrace at Court, he in a few weeks after withdrew as a simple 
Monk into the Cistertian Monastery at Newbottle. The charges against him 
as a Chancellor having probably been discredited, he was Elected Abbot of 
Melrose in 1268 or 1269, and Died either three or five years after. Accord- 
ing to Dempster he wrote "De Successione Abbatum de Melros, lib. i. ;" 
"Florilegium Spirituale, lib. i." 

10. JOHN succeeded. He is characterised as "a man of wonderful 
mildness," and is styled in the Chartulary of Paisley, in 1251, " Judge and 
Preserver of the Privileges of Paisley." Having gone to the Court of Eome, 
to negotiate a release from a Papal Interdict, imposed on the Monastery for 
failure of a pecuniary engagement towards promoting the Confirmation of 
Gamelin, the new Bishop of St. Andrews, he Died on the Eoad, at Pontigny, 
in 1256. 

11. MATTHEW, the Cellarer of the Monastery, succeeded in 1256, and 
must have Died or ceased to be Abbot before 1270, in which year, 

12. SIMON, Abbot of Dunfermline, was sent, with William, Earl of Mar, 
as Ambassadors to the King of England, for the recovery of the King's 



420 



MONASTICON. 



Earldom of Huntingdon. He granted Charters of Confirmation for the 
Lands of Balbard (supposed to be in the North-East of Fife), Pitbauchly, in 
Dunfermline Parish, South-East of the Town, and Bendachin, belonging to 
the Church of Dunkeld. He was Deposed by Baiamund [Bagimont] , the 
Papal Legate, in 1275, for obstinacy, and crossness to the poor. 

13. EALPH (EADULPHUS) DE GRENLAW, Sub-Prior, succeeded Simon in 
A.D. 1275, and is described as " mild, cautious, 
and well trained in Monastic Discipline." In 
the first year of his Incumbency, he granted a 
Charter to seven persons (named) to have eight 
oars in the Boats at Queensferry, which belonged 
to the Monastery. In 1280, he granted another 
to Sir Michael Scott of Balweary for the Mill- 
Pool of Kirkaldy, and also entered into a Con- 
vention with him for the same, in which it is 
said "that he and his Heirs shall possess the 
course of the Water running between Balweary 
and Invertule [Invertiel] , and between Balweary 
and the Land of Milneton." This last Deed is 
styled Cyrogmphus, most probably intended for 
Chirographus (Gr. Xs/goy^apov), " Handwriting." 
A beautiful lithographed Fac-simile of the origi- 
nal Document is given in the Register. A Charter 

Within a Gothic Niche is was also given by him for some Lands to William 
of Cramond. In 1291, he swore fealty to King 
Edward I. at Dunfermline, along with many 
others, some of them above the Great Altar, and 




a figure of the Father sitting 
with the Cruciform Nimbus, 
holding between his knees 

the Son extended on the ,-, TT /. ,-, -\ r 

Cross. Above the ri K ht thers m the Cha P ter House f the Monaster y- 
He again did so at Berwick in 1296. 

14. HUGH was Abbot, "by Divine permis- 
sion," in 1309, and also in the seventh year of 
King Eobert I. (1313). He appears, at the former 
Date, as a leading Witness in an "Inquisition 
Beneath, within a Niche, is ma a e by the Eeverend Father in Christ, Lord 
kneeling. A^D. wmiani| by the grace of God, Bishop of St. 



shoulder of the Father is a 
Star, and above the left a 
Pellet within a Crescent. At 
the sides of the Niche are 
the words " ECCLA XPI." 



Andrews, and Master John of Solerium, Clerk 
of the Lord Pope, against the Order of the 
Templars, and two Brethren (named) of that inferior Order, alone remaining 
in the Kingdom of Scotland in their own Habit, by a Mandate of our Most 
Holy Lord Pope Clement V., by Divine Providence, in the Abbacy of the 
Holy Cross of Edinburgh, of the foresaid Kingdom and Bishopric, on the 
15th December, in the year of Grace 1309." Hugh granted two Charters, 
without Date, one relative to Land that belonged to the Shire-Mill of 
Musselburgh, and the other relative to part of Pitbauchly, in Dunfermline 



ABBEY OF DUNFEEMLINE. 421 

Parish, for so much White Lime annually, with an exemption to the persons, 
in whose favour it was given, from coming to the Mill or Smith-Forge of 
the Monastery. 

15. EGBERT DE GRAIL was Abbot in 1316, when Duncan, twelfth Earl of 
Fife, did homage to him in the Monastery, before the Great Altar, for the 
Lands of Cluny, near Kinglassie, Fifeshire, held of the Abbey in capite (in 
chief). He is noticed also in 1323, in a Deed of King Eobert I. given at 
Scone, concerning the Lands of Molyn in Athol, Perthshire ; in a Deed of 
the same King, without Date, concerning the Common of Gatemilk (near 
Kinglassie), and other things; and in another of his, also without Date, 
about Canonical Obedience due to the Bishop of Dunblane, for Teinds from 
Cometon and Airthrey, in the Parish of Logie, Diocese of Dunblane ; and 
farther, on the 10th March, 1327, in a Deed for the distribution of certain 
Charities, arising from provisions used in the Abbey, to be made to the poor 
at the Eleemosynary House without the Gate (at the Manse-Gate, where a 
portion of the old Archway still remains), near to the Chapel of S. Katherine, 
which stood at the West end of the Netherton, for which service the Elee- 
mosynaries received a Grant of said Chapel, and adjacent houses below the 
Bridge, commonly called the Gyrthboic. 

16. ALEXANDER DE BERWICK continued Abbot for twenty-two years from 
1331. He received a Procuratory from King David II., conferring upon 
him certain Privileges in Legal transactions, and a Letter of Obligation 
from the same Monarch, to make certain Payments to him, both in 1335. 
He granted seven Acres of Land to Simon Stury, at Musselburgh, in 1340. 
He appears in an Agreement with James of Dundas about the Queensferry 
Passage in 1342 ; and afterwards in a Deed regarding the Churches of 
Kinross and Orwell, with the approval of Pope Clement VI., granted by the 
Bishop of St. Andrews. Having gone to Eome to solicit a Grant of a 
General Indulgence, he Died on his return at the Village of St. Stephen, in 
Lombardy, in 1353. 

17. JOHN BLACK, Cellarer, was chosen Abbot by the Convent, with the 
License of the King and the Bishops of the Diocese, and is spoken of as an 
excellent Governor of the House ; but 

18. JOHN (III.) OF STRAMIGLAW, a young Monk of the Abbey, then studying 
at Paris, hastened to Avignon, and obtained the Abbacy by Apostolic Bulls. 
John Black yielded to his Eival, and accepted from him first a Pension, and 
afterwards the Priory of Urquhart, in Moray, a Cell of the Abbey. The 
following Story of John obtaining the Abbacy by Apostolical Bulls, as 
related by Fordun's Continuator, is rather curious : 

" At the same time, a certain Monk of this Monastery, John of Strainig- 
law by name, then studying at Paris, and fearing that his Monastery would 
sustain damage on account of the general reservation made by the Supreme 
Pontiff, concerning all the Dignities of those who departed on a journey of 
this sort; lest that Dignity should fall into the hands of a stranger, he 



422 MONASTICON. 

repaired to the Court of Avignon, and obtained the Abbacy of Dumfermelyn 
by Papal Bulls. But these things being heard of, the said Lord John Blak, 
having consulted the Lords Secular and Temporal, pretended that he would 
not give up his Dignity as Abbot even to the Papal Legate himself; but 
having learned the Apostolic Keservation and Collation made to him by 
Papal Bulls, whilst the Apostolical Legate himself was entering the Ceme- 
tery of the Monastery with a few attendants, the aforesaid Abbot, by the 
advice of his Brethren, for the preservation of the indemnity of the 
Monastery, adorned with the Ecclesiastical Vestments, and wearing his 
Mitre, proceeded to meet him, the Convent following him in procession, 
and placed the Mitre on the head of the Apostolical Legate, put the Pastoral 
Staff in his hand, and led him to the Choir and the Altar, singing Te Deum 
Laudamus, with a melodious tone and loud voice, and having made a 
Speech, he, with not less humility than cheerfulness, caused him to be 
Installed ; and he first, with bended knees, rendered his manual Obedience, 
the others following in like manner. To whom, in his turn, the Apostolical 
Legate showed himself grateful, by providing for him an honourable 
Pension ; and he was afterwards Elected to the Priory of Urchard." Which 
same John of Stramiglaw, on account of the Taxation of his Monastery 
made in the Court, paid 50 Merks Sterling to the Apostolic Treasury. It is 
to be noted that he received that Dignity from the liberality of the Apost