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Full text of "The money of the Bible"

The Money of the Bible 



UC-NRLF 




B 3 flTfl EOM 



George C I 



VOORSANGER COLLECTION 

OF THE 

SEMITIC LIBRARY 

O F TH E 

University of California 

GIFT OF 

REV. JACOB VOORSANGER, D.D. 

1906 



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THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



y^ 







Shekel 
Simon Sar-Cochab 



aSg-^atSs of Mb\t lEtnotoleirgt 

XX 

THE 

MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS WOODCUTS 
AND FACSIMILE REPRESENTATIONS 



GEORGE C. WILLIAMSON 

D.LIT., MEMB. NUM. SOC. LOND., ETC. 
AUTHOR OF 'TRADE TOKENS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY,' ETC. 



> • • • • 
.•*,♦• • ' 



FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY 

NEW YORK I CHICAGO 

112 Fifth Avenue i 148 & 150 Madison Street 

The Religious Trad Society ^ London 






L),T-v^— Y~ 



INTRODUCTION 



This little book does not claim to be anything 
more than a hand-book for the Bible student. It is 
intended to supply a want which has been brought 
often and practically to my notice. 

The works on Biblical Numismatics or Jewish coins 
are exhaustive, but are costly, and in many instances 
rare. They are usually written for those already 
learned in the science, and are full of technical infor- 
mation. They are frequently in foreign tongues, and 
abounding in references given in the original Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin. For these and other reasons the 
works to which I refer are of little value to any but 
advanced students. 

Necessarily this book has been a compilation from 
the standard works on the subject, and it is a digest of 
what has been decided by those best qualified to speak 
on this interesting branch of science. No pains have 
been spared to consult the best and the latest author- 
ities, and every work that is known to me on the 



6 INTRODUCTION 

subject has received careful attention. In many cases 
extracts have been made from the writings of those 
who have made Jewish currency a Hfe study, and 
a full and grateful acknowledgement is given, especially 
of my indebtedness to the works of Madden and 
de Saulcy. Without Madden's costly works no student 
can even pretend to study the subject, and his writings 
have been laid under heavy contribution, as the works 
of the greatest authority. A list is appended of the 
chief books that have been consulted, for the use of 
such readers as may desire a fuller knowledge of the 
subject, and to give it a deeper investigation. The 
third book in the list can be recommended as the great 
work on the subject. 

I have written this treatise in easy language, and 
perhaps even over-explained myself, beside trans- 
lating every reference given in the original. It seemed 
necessary in most cases to give the original, as an aid 
to the more highly educated reader ; but the book is 
mainly written for popular use and commended to 
popular attention. 

G. C. W. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction 5 

List of Authorities 9 

List of Illustrations 11 

Chap. I. Uncoined Money of the Old Testament . 13 

II. Coined Money of the Old Testament . 25 

III. Coined Money of the time of the Apocrypha, 

WITH pedigree of THE AsMON^AN DyNASTY . 3 I 

IV. New Testament Money. Coins of the Herods 43 
V. The Coins actually named in the New 

Testament 58 

VI. Coins illustrative of Bible Story . . 80 

Index 95 

List of Scripture References 96 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES 



Greek Testament, — Dean Alford. 

History of Jexvish Coinage. — F. W. Madden. 

Coins of the Jews. — F. W. Madden. 

Recherches sur la numismatique juda^ique. — F. de Saulcy. 

Biblische Numismatik. — Abb£ Cavedoni. 

Dissertationes Numismatum. — Spanheim. 

Geschichte der jUdischen Miinzen. — Levy. 

Numismatica Biblica. — Cavedoni. 

Nuovi stxidi sopra le antiche Monete giudaiche. — Cavedoni. 

Numistnatic Illustrations. — Akerman. 

Numismatique de la Terre Sainte. — F. DE Saulcy. 

De Numis Hebrceo-Samaritanis. — Bayer. 

Dictionary of the Bible (Art. * Money'). — Poole. 

Life of St. Paul. — Cqnybeare. 

Sunday School Teachers' Dictionary. — KiTTO. 

Biblical Cyclopaedia. — Eadie. 

Numerous papers and articles on the subject in the Nui?iis- 
matic Chronicle and Journal, Revue Nu7nis?natique, Numisinatische 
Zeitschrift, Melanges de Numismatique, Berliner Philologische Wo- 
chenschrift, Zeitschrift fur Numisjnatik. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Egyptian weighing money 

Egyptian ring money . 

Gold daric . 

Shekel of the time of Ezra 

Tetradrachm of Alexander 

Tetradrachm of Seleucus I Nicator 

Tetradrachm of Antiochus Euergetes 

Half Shekel (copper) of Simon Maccabseus 

Sixth of Shekel (copper) of Simon Maccabseus 

Coin of John Hyrcanus . 

Coin of Judas Aristobulus 

Coin of Alexander Janneeus 

Coin of Alexander Janngeus (with title of king) 

Coin of Herod I (Year 3 = B.C. 37) 

Coin of Archelaus 

Coin of Herod Antipas (Year 33 = A.D. 29) 
Coin of Herod Philip H (Year 37 = a.d. 33) 
Coin of Herod Agrippa I (Year 6=:A.d. 37) 
Coin of Herod Agrippa I (as Ceesar's friend) 
Coin of Herod Agrippa II . . . 
Coin of Procurator Coponius . 
Coin of Procurator Annius Rufus (Year 4I=a.d. i 
Coin of Pontius Pilate . 
Stater of Augustus 



4) 



PAGE 
15 
16 
26 
28 
32 
32 

33 
35 
36 
40 

41 
41 
42 

44 
46 

48 

49 
52 
52 
53 
55 
55 
56 
61 



12 ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Stater of Rhodes, with flowers . 62 

Coin of Alexander Jannseus 65 

Coin of Augustus . 67 

Coin of Gadara 68 

Coin of Juba, King of Numidia 68 

Denarius or Penny 70 

Coin representing Apollo with the title of Saviour , . -73 

Coins of Eleazar the Priest 80 

Coin of the First Year of the Revolt 81 

Coins of Simon Nasi of the First Year of the Revolt . . .82 

Coin of Simon of the Second Year of the Revolt (Year 67-68) . 82 

Coin of Simon of the Third Year of the Revolt (Year 68-69) . • 83 

Obverses of three Coins of Vespasian 84 

Coins of the Second Revolt 85, 86 

Copper Coin of Hadrian ........ 86 

Phrygian Coin 87 

Tyrian Coins 88 

Phoenician Coin (enlarged) 89 

Coin of Antoninus Pius 89 

Ephesian Coin 90 

Ephesian Charm .......... 91 

Coin of Cyprus 91 

Medals used at Isthmian Games .92 

Coin of Ptolemy Philadelphus 93 

Primitive Symbolical Cross 94 

The Labarum 94 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



CHAPTER I 

UNCOINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 

In considering the money of the Bible it is im- 
portant in the first place to draw a broad line of 
distinction between uncoined and coined money, and 
it will be seen that, with one or two possible excep- 
tions, the money of the Old Testament falls under the 
first of these heads. It will be found, however, as the 
subject is pursued, that for the piece of money to be 
uncoined does not necessarily imply that it has not 
a distinctive and special value, as weighed pieces of 
silver were of frequent and well-recognized use in the 
early times with which the Bible has to do. 

In the Book of Job (xlii. ii) we have what is 
perhaps the earliest reference in the Bible to currency, 
each of his friends giving him when visiting him 



14 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

a piece of money (or silver) and an ear-ring of gold. 
The word used for piece of money in this passage is 
kesitah (nn^'^p). This word occurs three times in the 
Old Testament ; in the above passage in Job, in the 
reference to the purchase of a piece of land by Jacob 
at Shechem for one hundred pieces (Gen. xxxiii. 19), 
and in Joshua xxiv. 32, where the same piece of land 
is again mentioned. It literally means 'a portion,' 
and refers in all probability to a piece of rough 
metal, broken off, but probably having a known and 
recognized value by weight. 

The ear-ring of gold gives a further allusion to 
the use of pieces of metal of known and recognized 
weight, either for purchasing or, until so required, as 
ornaments. The Septuagint version of the Bible 
more accurately translates this phrase a tetradrachm 
of uncoined gold {r^TpahpayjtXOV xpvaov kol acrniovy 

It is clear, as all the friends of the patriarch Job 
gave him the same gift, and that in conjunction with 
a piece of silver, that the ear-ring was representative 
of certain value, and it is equally evident that Job 
used his gifts in the purchase of cattle, as we read 
in the next verse that he was possessed of thousands 
of animals. 

Similar instances of the use of ornaments of gold, 
both as decoration and also as representative of 
wealth, are to be found in the Old Testament. The 
Midianites (Num. xxxi. 50, 51) carried their wealth 
with them in the form of chains, bracelets, ear-rings, 



UNCOINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 15 

and tablets, and the Israelites on leaving Egypt 
spoiled the Egyptians of jewels of silver and jewels 
of gold, obtaining the wages for their long and arduous 
labour in this way (Exod. xii. ^^, ^6). 

These ornaments probably had a distinctive weight, 
which was known and possibly stamped upon them. 
The servant of Abraham gave to Rebekah ' a golden 
ear-ring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets 




EGYPTIAN WEIGHING MONEY. 

for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold ' (Gen. 
xxiv. 22). 

The ancient Egyptians are represented in con- 
temporary paintings as weighing rings of metal, gold, 
and white gold (i. e. silver), and of keeping by them 
vessels containing piles of such weighed rings, each 
having, in all probability, its own distinctive value. 
The illustrations are from Sir Gardner Wilkinson's 



i6 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



work on the Ancient Egyptians, vol. ii. p. 149, and are 
from drawings made in the tombs. 

The money used by the children of Israel when 
they went to purchase corn in Egypt may have been 
of this ring shape, resembling the bronze rings for 
arms and ankles still occasionally found in the bogs 
of Ireland and those used by uncivilized tribes in the 
South Seas. The Israelitish money is spoken of as 
* bundles of money ' (Gen. xlii. ^t^^ and a similar 




EGYPTIAN RING MONEY. 



phrase occurs in the Book of Deuteronomy (Deut. xiv. 
24-26), where the payment of tithe is permitted in 
money instead of kind, when distance prevents the 
journeying of flocks. The passage states, 'then shall 
thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thine 
hand ; ' and this implies the use of ring money, or at all 
events of money in pieces that could be tied or 
fastened together. 



UNCOINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 1 7 

This use of ring money, and its kindred one of 
ornament for the person, representing material and 
available wealth, is spread through many Oriental 
nations, and in places still holds its own. 

Nubia is one of the countries in which ornamental 
ring money is still used, and in the cabinets of the 
Numismatic Society may be seen some interesting 
specimens of Nubian ring money presented to the 
Society by the late Joseph Bonomi. 

Amongst nomadic tribes especially, importance has 
always been attached to the visibility and portability of 
wealth, and ornaments for the use of their women 
offered a convenient form for the gratification of this 
idea. From the ornament being attached to the 
woman, it acquired a sort of taboo character, and inter- 
ference with it was considered as an insult to the 
owner of the female slave. There was the con- 
venience also for making that grand display of material 
property so dear to an Oriental mind, and the further 
advantage of an easy removal and negotiation in case 
of an urgent need. 

Egyptian gold rings are to be seen in the University 
Museum at Leyden, and the same character of orna- 
mental currency may be noted even in European 
countries. 

An Icelandic writer of the twelfth century, Snorro 
Sturleson, speaks of a marriage dowry consisting of 
* three large farms and a gold collar.' Caesar tells us 
that ' the Gauls used for money gold and iron rings of 

6 



1 8 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

certain weight,' and a similar statement he makes in 
relation to Britain. 

Casual mention has already been made of Irish 
ring money. In bronze these rings have been found 
commencing in weight from exactly one half-penny 
weight, and rising in regular proportion from that up 
to twelve ounces. 

The rings are sometimes interlaced in the form of 
a chain, or hooked together by hooks at the end, and 
in some cases they possess flat cymbal-like ends, 
which were intended to be brought firmly together. 
It is therefore not difficult to imagine the meaning of 
the passages mentioned as having reference to the 
use of ring money amongst the ancient Israelites. 

From the very earliest times the precious metals 
were used as representative of wealth. Abraham 
came up from Egypt ' very rich in cattle, in silver 
and in gold ' (Gen. xiii. i and xxiv. '^^, and that this 
bullion was used in commerce there is an early proof 
in Gen. xvii. 13, where money (^91 kesepJi) is spoken 
of as the price of a slave. The purchase by Abraham 
of the Cave of Machpelah for four hundred shekels of 
silver weighed out to Ephron 'current with the 
merchant' (LXX. hoKLfxov iixiropois), is a more im- 
portant example of the same method. 

It is evident that pieces of metal of recognized 
value were re-weighed out by the purchaser to the 
seller of the land, and in the presence of witnesses. 
There are many similar instances of this use of money 



UNCOINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT [9 

by weight. Abimelech gave to Sarah a thousand 
pieces of silver (Gen. xx. 16). The Philistines paid to 
Delilah eleven hundred pieces of silver (Judges xvi. 
5, 18) ; Micah, to his mother, the same amount 
(Judges xvii. 2) ; the Ishmaelites to Joseph's brethren, 
twenty pieces (Gen. xxxvii. 28), and the Syrian to 
Gehazi (2 Kings v. 23) money by weight. 

By the laws of Moses, men and cattle (Lev. xxvii. 3 ; 
Num. iii. 47), the possession of houses and fields 
(Lev. xxvii. 16), purchase of provisions (Deut. ii. 6, 28 
and xiv. 26), and all fines for offences (Exod. xxi. and 
xxii.) were regulated and determined by the value of 
silver. 

The contributions to the Tabernacle (Exod. xxx. 13 
and xxxviii. 26), the sacrifices of animals (Lev. v. 15), 
the redemption of the first-born (Num. iii. 50 and 
xviii. 16), and the payment to the seer (i Sam. ix. 8) 
were similarly regulated by weight of silver. In none 
of these instances is any reference intended to money 
in the form of coin, but to silver by weight. The 
words shekel or talent in every case refer to a weight. 
It must, however, be noted that although there are 
references to a considerable bulk of silver, yet such 
bulk consisted of separate pieces, which although not 
issued by a constituted authority, yet must have 
possessed separate and distinct recognized value. 

Mr. Madden, who is above every one else in this 
country the authority upon this branch of Oriental 
Numismatics, draws particular attention to the 

B 2 



20 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

603,550 half shekels accumulated by the contribution 
of each Israelite for the tabernacle work (Exod. 
xxxviii. 26). Each individual half shekel named in this 
passage could hardly have been separately v^eighed. 

Then again^, in Exod. xxx. 13 we read of a half 
shekel as a contribution for the atonement, ' the rich 
shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less,' 
and in i Sam. ix. 7, 8 we learn that the fourth part 
of a shekel, an individual amount of recognized value, 
was all the silver that the servant of Saul had with 
him with which to pay the seer. Later on we shall 
find that the word shekel, which in every one of the 
foregoing passages is a weight, becomes the name for 
an actual coin. 

Exactly the same change as to the word AS in 
Roman use from weight to coin took place, and an analo- 
gous case is the use in English of the word pound. 

We have therefore in use at this period of time, as 
weight for silver — the shekel, which is estimated to 
have weighed about 9 dwt. Troy, which at ^s. oz. in 
silver would give an approximate value of about %s. 3^., 
the bekah or half the shekel (Exod. xxxviii. 26), the 
third part (Nehem. x. 32), the rebah or fourth part 
(i Sam. ix. 8), and the gerah or twentieth part (Exod. 
xxx. 13). 

It has been objected that no portion of silver of 
definite weight, and therefore value, has ever been 
found in the explorations and excavations that have 
been carried on in the Holy Land; but the probable 



UNCOINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT ai 

reason of this fact, which on the face of it is not easy 
to explain, is that from time to time the money used 
was remelted before a fresh issue of it. Shaphan the 
scribe told King Josiah, in 1 Kings xxii. 9 and 
1 Chron. xxxiv. 17, 'Thy servants have gathered' (or as 
in the Vulgate more accurately, conflaverunt, 'melted ') 
' the money that was found in the house.' The same 
verb is used in Ezek. xxii. 20, where the passage 
speaks of melting metal in a furnace. 

There are two more references to money in the Old 
Testament which require notice, more especially as 
the original makes use in these two passages of two 
separate distinctive words occurring nowhere else in 
the version. 

In I Sam. ii. 36, the prophecy concerning the ulti- 
mate poverty of Eli^s house, speaks of his descendants 
who shall 'come and crouch for a piece of silver.' 
Here the phrase is Agorath keseph (^D3 T\'p^). The 
Septuagint translates the word ojBoXds apyvpCov, and 
does the same in the passages where the word gerah 
occurs in the A. V. (supra, Exod. xxx. 13; Lev. 
xxvii. 25; Num. iii. 47, xviii. 16; Ezek. xlv. 12), 
deriving both phrases from the verb agar (^l^), to 
collect ; and the value of money probably intended by 
the expression is the very least piece of silver known 
in use, the gerah or twentieth part of the shekel even, 
if not less — that is, the coin that would be given to 
a beggar, as in the present day might be expressed by 
the words a sot^ or a farthing. 



22 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

The other reference is in the Psalms, Ixviii. 30, and 
the word used is ratsce keseph (^D? ""r^"^). which appears 
nowhere else in the Bible. The verb rdssdss 
evidently is responsible for the expression ratsee^ 
and literally means to break or crush. The sound of 
the word is supposed to represent the sound of 
breaking. The correct translation of the text is 
probably ' trampling under foot the pieces (or ingots, 
or lumps roughly broken off) of silver/ and the allu- 
sion is probably to rough lumps of metal having an 
approximate known value. 

There is but little mention of gold as a medium 
of commerce in the Old Testament. As ornaments 
having a currency value we have already noticed 
gold in Exod. iii. 22, jewels of gold borrowed from 
the Egyptians, and again in Exod. xii. '^^. Also 
the gifts to Rebekah in Gen. xxiv. 22, and other 
passages of similar character. In Joshua vii. 21 we 
read of a mass of gold in a wedge or tongue-shaped 
block stolen by Achan. Its weight is given at 50 
shekels (yAwo-crai^ \kiav yj)V(jr\v). Naaman took with 
him on his visit to the King of Israel 6,000 shekels of 
gold, and David paid to Oman the Jebusite for his 
threshing-floor 600 shekels of gold by weight (i Chron. 
xxi. 25). Naaman also gave out gold by weight 
(2 Kings V. 5). 

It is doubtful whether the passage in the First 
Book of Chronicles actually relates to gold at all, as in 
2 Sam. xxiv. 24, where the same event is recorded, the 



UNCOINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 27 

phrase used is the more ordinary one for 50 shekels 
of silver. There is a passage in Isaiah naming gold 
(Isa. xlvi. 6), ' They lavish gold out of the bag, and 
weigh silver in the balance,' and another in Job xxviii. 
15, in very similar terms referring to wisdom, ' It 
cannot be gotten for gold, neither shall silver be 
weighed for the price thereof.' Neither of these 
passages refer to coin, but both to gold in the lump 
by weight. 

It is never safe in dealing with the expressions used 
in the Old Testament as regards large sums of money, 
especially in gold, to endeavour to translate them into 
English value. The Oriental mind had a habit of 
extravagance and a love for the use of hyperbole and 
metaphor from the very earliest times, and this must 
be taken into account. It is very doubtful in many 
cases whether anything like Western accuracy is 
intended to be used in Holy Writ, but rather approxi- 
mate and relative terms, and then it must be borne in 
mind that we are without definite data as to the value 
of the precious metals at these remote ages. 

It is very uncertain, for example, what the worth of 
the talent of gold really was. The income of King 
Solomon, it has been pointed out, is stated to have 
been an annual one of 666 talents of gold. If the 
usual estimate is made of 15 talents of silver being equal 
to a talent of gold, as fifteen shekels of silver were to a 
shekel of gold, we have a sum amounting to four millions 
of money per annum, which it must be confessed is 



24 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

a very unlikely sum. The weight probably varied in 
each metal, and the nearest approximate estimate that 
can be formed puts the talent of gold at 131 lbs. weight, 
and the talent of silver at 117 lbs., which would give 
an English value to them of about ;^6,ooo and ;^400 
respectively, and would make the gold and silver 
shekels of the Old Testament worth respectively 
forty shillings and three shillings. 



CHAPTER II 

COINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 

The first mention in the Bible of what is actually 
coined money occurs in various passages in the 
writings of Ezra and Nehemiah {darkemonim^ Ezra 
ii. 68, 69 ; adarkonim^ 'Ezra, viii. 26, 27 ; darkemomm, 
Nehem. vii. 70, 72 ; adarkomm, i Chron. xxix. 7) ; 
and in the Authorized Version the Hebrew words 
adarkomm (Q^^i^nii^^ LXX. xP'^aol x^^'^^oi), and darke- 
mo7izm (D^3iD3"]'n, LXX. ixvaC), are translated by the 
use of the word dram. 

It is generally agreed that these words have 
reference to the Persian coin, the daric, a gold coin 
which probably took its name from the Persian dara, 
signifying king, from the verb dashtan^ imperative ddr^ 
to have, to hold, to possess (hence also Darius). The 
figure on these coins was of the King of Persia, per se, 
and not of any particular king. 

We are now dealing with a time about five hundred 
years before Christ, and as coined money was first 



26 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



struck only some three to four hundred years earlier, 
we naturally expect to find a coin in the daric of 
rude structure and simple device. 

The obverse has the figure of a king kneeling, armed 
with bow and javelin, and the reverse has the incuse 
punch-mark that distinguishes archaic coins, and 
which preceded any device on that side. Our illustra- 
tion is of a double daric. 





GOLD DARIC, 



The coin is of very pure gold, and weighs on the 
average 130 grains, which in comparison with an 
English sovereign of 1 13 grains of gold of lower purity 
would give its approximate value at £ 1 ^s. 

The very word ' sovereign,' applied by us both to 
monarch and coin, is analogous to this word daric, 
deriving its name from dara. These darics were also 
struck in silver, and to the silver darics of Persia 
allusion is probably made in Nehem. v. 15, 'beside 
forty shekels of silver.' 

Artaxerxes in B.C. 458 gave a special commission 
to Ezra, who was just then leaving for Jerusalem, as 
to the gold and silver in the province (Ezra vii. 16- 
18), and the king concluded with these words, 'and 



COINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 27 

whatsoever shall seem good to thee, and to thy 
brethren, to do with the rest of the silver and gold, 
that do after the will of your God.' Upon these 
words the eminent numismatist, M. de Saulcy, founded 
his theory that the coin which is figured on page 28 — 
the shekel with its corresponding half-shekel issued in 
the years i to 5 — was struck by Ezra. The theory 
was accepted by another great writer on the subject, 
Lenormant, and tentatively by Mr. Madden, who in 
later years changed his opinion. These coins, weigh- 
ing in the shekel 220 grains, and in the half-shekel 
no grains, read as follows: 

Obv.—W'\^' b^^ Shekel Israel Shekel of Israel = 
a cup or chalice, and above it the letters ^^ 
\ year 2. 

Rev. — ncnipn D''7Kn"i^ Jemshalaim ha-kedoshah— 
Jerusalem the Holy ; a triple lily. 

The question of the exact position in history of 
these shekels is one of some difficulty, and at present 
there is no authoritative evidence that once for all 
will decide it. 

This is not the place to review the evidence brought 
forward to support the rival theories. M. de Saulcy and 
M. Lenormant place them as issued in Ezra's time, 
Mr. Madden, M. Six, and Dr. Merzbacher attribute 
them to Simon Maccabaeus. Simon is said to have 
reigned in Judaea for eight years, but not to have 
obtained the right of coinage until his fourth year, 
which right again was quickly taken from him. 



28 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



These shekels and half-shekels are of the years i to 
5, while there do exist copper coins of year 4 only^ 
of very different character from the silver, and which 
were almost certainly struck by Simon. I have 
carefully reviewed the evidence for and against, and 
as each writer is responsible for his own conclusions 
only, my attribution of these silver coins is to 
the time of Ezra, and the copper ones of the year 
4 to Simon Maccabaeus. 

Accordingly I place these coins as the earliest 
actual Jewish money. 




SHEKEL OF THE TIME OF EZRA. 



The device on the obverse is usually supposed to 
be the cup or pot of manna laid up in the sanctuary. 
' And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a pot, and put an 
omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before the 
Lord, to be kept for your generations ' (Exod. 
xvi. 2iZ)' 

The device on the reverse is either Aaron's rod 
that ' budded, and brought forth buds, and bloomed 
blossoms, and yielded almonds ' (Num. xvii. 8), and 
which, like the cup of manna, was laid up before the 



COINED MONEY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 29 

Lord (Num. xvii. 10), or else, as Cavedoni first 
suggested, it is a lily : * I will be as the dew unto 
Israel ; he shall grow (i.e. blossom) as the lily' (Hosea 
xiv. 5). The former attribution is the one, however, 
more usually accepted by numismatists, and I accept 
it. It brings both devices into close and intimate 
connexion, and is the more natural explanation. It 
would be precious symbolism to the Jews after their 
exile, reminding them of their history and its great 
and past events, filling them with hope as to future 
prosperity and the restoration of their Temple and 
its worship, and encouraging them in this their 
initial coinage to look forward with hope. It was 
the Temple and the Temple service for which they 
were looking at the time, and every symbol that 
reminded them of the Tabernacle, of historical 
continuity of life and service, and of the earlier pages 
of their history, would be likely to be used by their 
great leader in a time when so much depended upon 
unity of purpose, determination, and faith. 

As already mentioned, there are shekels and half- 
shekels for five years, and every coin bears the cup 
and the rod, while the inscriptions, with very small 
differences, are as given above in the illustration. 

Jerusalem, it will be noted, is termed ' the Holy,' 
a title given to the city from very early times, and, 
it is interesting to note, still retained in its present 
Arabic name El-Kuds, the holy. In Isa. xlviii. 2 
it is spoken of as ' the holy city,' and again Isa. lii. i ; 



30 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

Dan. ix. 24; Joel iii. 17; and, what is more to the 
purpose, in Nehem. xi. i, 18, where at this very 
time we read *to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city.' 
The title was evidently a familiar and a favourite one, 
in use at the very time at which I consider these 
coins were struck, and the coin but took up the 
popular phrase for the city that was so intensely 
beloved by its people. 



CHAPTER III 

COINED MONEY OF THE TIME OF THE APOCRYPHA 

The completion of the Book of Malachi is usually, 
by Bible chronologists, put at 420 B.C., and the period 
from this time down to the opening of the New- 
Testament is partially covered by the books of the 
Apocrypha. 

In ^^2 B.C. the kingdom of Persia was conquered 
by the Napoleon of his time, Alexander the Great ; 
but the Jews not only did not suffer under his rule, 
but had much cause for regret when he died. 
Alexander's coinage was chiefly of gold staters and 
silver tetradrachms, and these coins, especially of the 
latter class, were struck, according to the conqueror's 
custom, in the various countries that he subjugated, as 
typical of the submission of the nations. 

There are coins extant of Alexander struck in 
Palestine at Joppa, Acre, Sycamine in Csesarea, 
and Scythopolis in Samaria, known also as Beth-shan. 

I illustrate a fine tetradrachm of Alexander. At 



3^ 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



the death of Alexander there was considerable dispute 
as to his possessions, and the Jews, whose country lay 




TETRADRACHM OF ALEXANDER. 



between Syria and Egypt, had much cause for com- 
plaint during the internecine struggle. 

For a while their country was harassed by both 
nations, and the coinage used in the land embraces 
that issued by the Seleucidae (Syrians) and the 




TETRADRACHM OF SELEUCUS I NICATOR. 



Ptolemies (Egypt). Of the former series the coin 
I illustrate is a tetradrachm of Seleucus I Nicator^ 



COINED MONEY OF THE APOCRYPHA 



?>?> 



B.C. 312-280, bearing on it the title of the King 
'Seleucus' ZEAEYKOY BAIIAEHI, by and under 
the figure, and under the seat of the chair the letters 
A I, initials of the name Diospolis, where the coin was 
struck, the town being familiarly termed Lydda, and 
named in Acts ix. 32, o^^j 38. These coins of the 
Seleucidae were also struck in Tyre, Sidon, Ascalon 
and other towns. 

The next illustration is of a later Syrian coin 
issued by the King Antiochus VII, surnamed Side- 
tes, or the hunter, and Euergetes, B.C. 138-127. It 
represents on the obverse the head of the king, and 




TETRADRACHM OF ANTIOCHUS EUERGETES. 



on the reverse the words BAZIAEHZ ANTIOXOY 
EYEPrETOY, '(Money) of the King Antiochus 
Euergetes.' This title, meaning benefactor, is of 
peculiar interest, because used by our Lord in Luke 
xxii. 25, when He, speaking of those exercising 
authority, gives them the title of benefactors. The 
device is Minerva holding Victoria. 

It is needless in a work of this kind to review the 
C 



34 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

history of the invasions of Judaea under the Kings 
of Syria and Egypt, and it is well to pass on to the 
revolution of the Jews against their persecutors, led by 
a priest named Mattathias, whose son Judas Maccabaeus 
attained great notoriety, and from whose family came 
the Herodian dynasty. 

This family, in the persons both of the father him- 
self and his two sons, Judas, surnamed Maccabaeus, or 
the Hammerer (^2p'0 ' a hammer '), and Jonathan^ who 
succeeded him, successfully led the Jews against their 
enemies, defeating them over and over again, and 
obtaining from them a measure of liberty. 

The second son, Simon^ who after the death of 
Jonathan formed a treaty with Demetrius II, King of 
Syria, became high priest and leader of the Jews, 
and to him was given the very important right of 
coining money. 

Judaea under Simon enjoyed prosperity and peace. 
In B.C. 140 Demetrius was captured by Mithridates I, 
King of Parthia, and the usurper Tryphon having been 
expelled, Antiochus VII ascended the throne. He at 
once renewed the treaty with Simon^ and he it was, 
whose coin is depicted above, who granted the high 
priest the right of coinage. ' I give thee leave also,' 
says he, ' to coin money for thy country, with thine own 
stamp : Kal e7reVpev//a aoi TTOtijcraL K6\x\xa Ihiov vofjAafjia 
rfj X(iipa (Tov (i Mace. xv. 6). 

The coins issued in accordance with this decree 
were in all probability those of copper issued in the 



COINED MONEY OF THE APOCRYPHA ^S 

fourth year. The shekels of Ezra, in silver^ were still in 
existence, and these coins of Simon were for the half, 
quarter, and sixth parts of a shekel. The decree neither 
states nor implies that no earlier coins were issued. 

The half shekel and the sixth of the shekel are 
illustrated, and putting the Hebrew inscriptions into 
English lettering, I give the inscriptions on all three of 
the coins. 




HALF SHEKEL (COPPER) OF SIMON MACCABEUS. 

Gov. — Shenath arba Chatzi=In the fourth year — 
one-half 
Two bunches of thickly-leaved branches, 
between which is a citron. 
Rev. — Ligullath Zion = The redemption of Zion. 

A palm-tree between two baskets filled with 
dates and other fruits. 

Quarter shekel (not illustrated) — 

Odv. — Shenath arba Rebia=In the fourth year — 
one-quarter. 
Two bundles of branches (lidab). 
Rev. — Ligullath Zion = The redemption of Zion. 
A citron (ethrog). 
X 2 



^6 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 




SIXTH OF SHEKEL (COPPER) OF SIMON MACCAB.iUS. 

Obv. — Shenath arba = In the fourth year. 

A bundle of branches between two citrons. 

Rev. — Ligullath Zion=:The redemption of Zion. 
A cup or chaHce. 

We have already said that the right was given to Simon 
in the fourth year, and very speedily removed from him. 
These coins are known of the fourth year only. 

The palm-tree of Palestine is a symbol of great 
interest. The palm branches are those alluded to in 
connexion with the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. xxiii. 
40), and the baskets with the dates probably refer to 
the first-fruits. The citron, or ethrog, was by custom 
of the Jews carried with the palm branches, or liilab^ 
on the Feast of Tabernacles ; and, as Madden points 
out, the various emblems have reference also to the 
prosperity, peace, and productiveness of the country 
under Simon. One coin is known, countermarked with 
an elephant, the work of the Syrian king, but the series 
have not a feature in common with the older silver 
coinage, save perhaps the cup, which in the copper 
coin is very different in shape, jewelled, and more of 
a temple service vessel than the archaic form of the 
older coinage. 



COINED MONEY OF THE APOCRYPHA 37 

These are clearly the Maccabaean coins. Inasmuch 
as this is not a detailed history of Jewish coinage, 
it will be unnecessary to pass in review every coin 
struck by successive high priests or rulers of the 
Asmonaean dynasty. 

A brief pedigree is appended, however, in order to 
explain the descent of the Herodian dynasty, and to 
guard against a possible confusion between the various 
rulers having the common name of Herod. Of the 
Maccabsean rulers there are coins known of those 
whose names are in italics^ i. e. Simon, as above, 
John Hyrcanus, Judas Aristobulus, Alexander Jan- 
nseus, and his wife Alexandra, Alexander II, and 
Antigonus, and then we come to the Herodian rulers. 

Pedigree showing the Asmonaean Dynasty. 

B.C. 167. 

Mattathias. 

\ 

II I II 

Joannen. Simon. Judas Maccabreus. Eleazar. Jonathan. 

I 
John Hyrcanus. 

I 



I I 

Jndas Aristobulus /= Alexandra Alexander Jaii7iceus =p Alexatidra. 
(Salome). 1 



I . I 

Hyrcanus II. Aristobulus II. 

I I "I 

Alexandra =p Alexander II. Antigonus. 

I 

Mariamne = Herod I. Aristobulus. 



3« 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



o o 

3t 



o 



i-l o . 






1— 1 rH (U 






T" r" 






cup: S 






w- o 












•3 '-I 'rt 






-S.«-^ 












TZi -^ 'B 






QJ — ^ 






Her 

Luk 
nan 






N_^ ■-■ 






.». 




<*- 


^ ^-^ 




°s 




-III 

X <^ ^ 


-^ •§ -i^ "" 


'^^ 
















'^ u c 






-I i S-l 



<s 



— <3 i2" 



g o 






::? sa 



cj X 


•G 57 


»Hr- 


H S 




1 '^ 


tU) . 


■< ^ 


P t« 


ll 



K< 



COINED MONEY OF THE APOCRYPHA 39 

Doubtless the little copper coins issued by these 
pontifical rulers were of great value commercially, 
as they were the only home coinage of the Jews for 
small values. They bear on one side the name of 
the ruler, and on the other a double cornucopia. 

John Hyrcanus succeeded his father in B.C. l^S 
as high priest, but was more a politician than a priest, 
and the struggle at this time on the part of the ruler 
was to assume princely if not kingly power, and to do 
it without offending the prejudices of the Jews, who 
hated the very idea of an independent sovereign. 

With this purpose these rulers associated with their 
title of high priest the so-called senate or confedera- 
tion of the Jews ; but little by little the power left the 
senate and vested in the ruler, who gradually assimi- 
lated his position more and more to that of a king. 

The devices, which on the earliest coins, as has 
been shown, related to the unity of Jewish life with 
its past history, and the sacred character and holiness 
of its service and city — in the later coins to the 
revival of Temple worship, the feasts and ritual of the 
Temple, and the general prosperity of the land when 
'the earth gave her increase' (i Mace. xiv. 8), now 
were of a totally different character. 

The cornucopia and the poppy-head, the Syrian 
anchor and the star, are now found ; and in later 
Herodian days devices of a wholly profane character 
appear. The coin was becoming more and more 
heathen, less and less of the sacred Jewish character, 



40 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

and although up to this time the old sacred language 
had been continued, yet a little while after it will be 
found that even that was gradually dropped. 

A new family of rulers now enters the scene, and 
heathen worship and heathen custom, repudiated by 
the earlier Maccabees, are adopted as part of the 
regular life and type of the Jews. 

The coin of John Hyrcanus depicted may be thus 
described : the long Hebrew inscription, which I 
give in English characters, filling the obverse of the 
coin — 




COIN OF JOHN HYRCANUS. 

Obv. — Jehochanan Hakkohen Haggadol Rosh 
Cheher Hajelmdim = Johanan the High 
Priest and Prince of the Senate of the 
Jews. Within a wreath of olive. 

Rev. — Two cornucopiae, between which is a poppy- 
head. 

Judas Aristobulus, his son, who succeeded him, 
issued but few coins, as he only reigned for one year. 
His coin reads as follows — 

Odv. — Jehtidah Co J ten Gadol Vecheber Hajehudini 
= Judas the High Priest and the Senate 
of the Jews. 

Rev. — Very similar to the last. 



COINED MONEY OF THE APOCRYPHA 



41 



The illustration shows two obverses very slightly 
differing one from the other. 




COIN OF JUDAS ARISTOBULUS. 

Alexander Jannaeus was the next ruler (b. c. 105-78), 
and he at once married Salome (or Alexandra in 
Greek), the wife of his deceased brother Judas. In 
his reign a great rebellion between Pharisees and 
Sadducees took place, which was quelled only after 
great slaughter, and the king was pelted with ethrogs 
( citrons). Two coins struck by this ruler are illustrated, 
as they mark an epoch in Jewish coinage. 

The first is very similar to those already depicted, 
and reads — Jonathan Hakkohen Haggadol Vecheber 
Hajehudim = Jonathan the High Priest and the 
Senate of the Jews. 




COIN OF ALEXANDER JANN^US. 



The other has two new features. The hated name 
of king is boldly assumed, and on the reverse of the 
bilingual coins appears for the first time Greek 



42 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

characters. This coin was probably one of the great 
causes of the revolt to which I have just alluded. 




COIN OF ALEXANDER JANN^US (WlTH TITLE OF KING). 

It is not necessary to review either the events of 
the reigns of the rulers who successively followed 
Jannaeus or the coins issued by them. The time was 
one of insurrection and rebellion. John Hyrcanus II 
sat on the throne on three successive occasions. In 
the intervals his brothers or other relatives drove 
him away and took his place, and then his party 
asserting its supremacy he returned. 

Alexandra, the wife of Jannseus, reigned for a while, 
and after her death her son John Hyrcanus succeeded. 
Aristobulus II, Alexander II, and Antigonus also 
reigned, the latter being defeated in B.C. 37 by 
Herod I, the Idumaean, who had married the niece 
of Antigonus ; and with his death in Rome in B.C. 37 
the Asmonaean dynasty ended, and the first of the 
evil brood of Herods reigned over Judaea. 

There were many coins issued of this period, but 
there is little service in illustrating them, and attention 
must now be directed to the money of the New 
Testament under the Herodian dynasty. 



CHAPTER IV 

NEW TESTAMENT MONEY. COINS OF THE HERODS 

During the reign of the last Asmonaean ruler 
Judge a came fully under the power of Rome, and 
Antigonus with his father and elder brother were 
carried prisoners by Pompey to Rome. Antipater 
the Idumsean, under the Romans, had been actual 
ruler for some time previous to this, and his two. 
sons Phasael and Herod were governing in Jerusalem 
and Galilee. By the help of the Parthians, Antigonus, 
escaping from Rome, regained his throne for a brief 
space; but eventually Jerusalem was again besieged 
and taken. Antigonus was then executed by the 
Romans at Antioch, and Herod I, surnamed the 
Great, permitted as a feudatory vassal to ascend the 
throne. 

The names of Herod and his sons and descendants 
are so familiar to students of Holy Scripture, that 
although the coins they actually issued are not 
specifically named in the New Testament, yet so 
important are the issuers in its history, that it is 



44 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

desirable some reference in detail should be made 
to their coins. The coins depicted show for the first 
time inscriptions wholly in Greek, not Hebrew, char- 
acters, and those of the Herods are of copper only. 

Herod I (surnamed the Great), B.C. 37-4, was the 
builder of the beautiful Temple, and he it was who 
ordered the massacre of the infants at Bethlehem. 
His cruelties were atrocious, and despite the erection 
of the Temple he failed to win the least affection from 
the people over whom he ruled, and died in torment, 
universally hated. 

The coin illustrated is a remarkable piece. 




COIN OF HEROD I (YEAR 3 = B.C. 37). 

On the obverse is a vessel with a bell-shaped cover 
and stand, above it a star, and on either side what are 
probably palm branches. 

The reverse reads BAZIAEHI HPnAOY, and bears 
a tripod, to the left of which are the letters L T signi- 
fying the third year, and to the right the monogram f . 

It is impossible to say what the curious device on 
the obverse actually represents. No one of the many 
writers on the subject have succeeded in determining 



COINS OF THE HERODS 45 

this moot question. Cavedoni with great probability 
suggests that it is the censer carried by the high 
priest once a year on the solemn Day of Atonement 
into the Holy of Holies, and that as Herod con- 
quered Jerusalem on the very Day of Atonement, 
the device would be appropriate, especially as a mark 
of indignity toward the Jews. 

The two palm branches may allude also to this 
victory, or, as Cavedoni again suggests, to the ' two 
olive trees' of Zechariah's vision (Zech. iv. 3, 12). 
The tripod shows Herod's paganizing spirit, and 
was adapted from heathen coins. The year 3, if 
counted from Herod's receipt of the title of King 
of Judaea from the Romans, would make the date 
716 (B.C. '^'j). There is a division of opinion again 
as to the monogram. Cavedoni calls it the Crux 
ansaia, employed both on Egyptian and Assyrian 
monuments as the sign of life. De Saulcy, on the 
contrary, says it is a mark of value, T and P, a 
contraction for TPtas (three), or rather TViyaXKov. 
Nothing now remains to refer to on the coin but 
the star, and this is certainly a remarkable object. 
Cavedoni suggests that, like the censer, it also refers 
to the victory over Jerusalem ; but there is just the 
possibility remaining that it has some connexion 
either with the prophecy as to the arising of a star 
in the East, or to the expectation of some wonderful 
astronomical phenomenon, or merely to an assumption 
by Herod, in ridicule of the position of Him whose 



46 THE MONEY OF TPIE BIBLE 

birth was to be foreshadowed by the appearance of 
a star. It may be equivalent to the announcement 
by Herod of his rulership or messiahship of Israel, 
a profane sneer at Jewish expectations, or the pro- 
phecy which the Jews believed. It is certainly 
interesting to find a large single noticeable star upon 
a coin of Herod. 

Herod Archelaus, of whom Joseph was afraid, came 
to the kingdom upon the death of his father. He 
was, however, only named ethnarch or ruler of 
the nation by Augustus, with the promise of the 
title of king thereafter, if he reigned virtuously. He 
is the only prince of Judaea who bore the title of 
ethnarch, which in 2 Cor. xi. 32 is a title given to 
the King of Damascus : ' The governor under Aretas 
the ethnarch kept the city.' Archelaus reigned over 
Judaea, Idumaea and Samaria. His coin reads as 
follows : — 




COIN OF ARCHELAUS. 

Obv. — HPHAOY, a bunch of grapes and a leaf. 
ie^z;.— E0NAPXOY, a helmet with tuft of feathers 

and cheek pieces. 
Next follows Herod Antipas (B.C. 4-A.D. 39). 
This is Herod the tetrarch (Matt. xiv. 1-3 ; Luke 



COINS OF THE HERODS 47 

iii. I, 19; ix. 7), Herod the king (Matt. xiv. 9), and 
King Herod (Mark vi. 14). 

It was before this king that our Blessed Lord was 
sent for examination when Pilate heard that He was 
a Galilean, as Herod was tetrarch of Galilee. Pilate 
had engaged in several disputes with the Galileans, 
and was not on good terms with Herod. In connexion 
with the transfer of our Blessed Lord to the jurisdic- 
tion of Herod, the long-standing quarrel between 
the procurator and the king was made up, and Herod 
and Pilate again became friends (Luke xxiii. 12). 
This is the monarch whose craftiness is alluded to 
by our Lord in the words, ' Go ye and tell that fox ' 
(Luke xiii. 32). 

He married first the daughter of the Arabian king 
Aretas, but when on a visit to his half-brother Philip, 
he persuaded his brother's wife Herodias to consent 
to a secret union with him. The Arabian princess, 
justly incensed, returned to her father. Herod, under 
the influence of this new wife, whose union with 
him was soon made public, beheaded St. John 
Baptist. Aretas, to revenge the insult to the honour 
of his daughter, made war against Herod, and defeated 
him with great loss, but was compelled by the power 
of Rome to desist from warring against the Roman 
vassal. Herod was the founder and builder of the 
city of Tiberias, named in honour of his patron, 
the evil Emperor Tiberius. After the death of that 
emperor, Herod journeyed to Rome to obtain the 



4<S THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

title of king, which he had already wrongfully assumed, 
but which had been given to his nephew Agrippa I. 
In consequence, however, of the opposition of Agrippa, 
Herod was deprived of his power, and with Herodias, 
who stoutly refused to forsake him in his misfortune, 
was banished to Lyons, and afterwards removing to 
Spain died in that country. 

St. Luke's words in iii. 19, 'for all the evils which 
Herod had done,' attribute many wicked deeds to 
this monarch. Of his fear and perplexity when he 
heard of our Lord, we read in the same Gospel (ix. 7) : 
' Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done 
by Him : and he was perplexed/&c. He it was also who 
endeavoured by his emissaries to persuade our Lord 




COIN OF HEROD ANTIPAS (YEAR 33 = A.D. 29;, 

to flee into Judaea, by the threat that ' Herod wishes 
to kill Thee.' It was of this evil ruler, and of his 
influence, that the note of warning was sounded, 
' Beware of the leaven of Herod ' (Mark viii. 15). 
The coin of Herod Antipas depicted reads : — 
Odz'.—HPix)A0Y TETPAPXOY, a palm branch 

and the letters LAP (year ^^). 
Rev. — T I BE PI AC in two lines within a wreath. 



COINS OF THE HERODS 49 

There is a solitary mention in St. Luke's Gospel 
of Herod Philip II, under the name of Philip the 
tetrarchj ^JtAtTTTroD TeTpapxovrros 'his brother Philip 
tetrarch of Itursea ' (iii. 1); and the reader must be 
very careful not to confuse this tetrarch with the 
Phihp, first husband of Herodias, to whom allusion 
has already been made. 

Philip I, the brother of Antipas, is named three times 
in the Gospels (Matt. xiv. 3, Mark vi. 17, Luke iii. 19), 
in each case the same phrase being used, ' his brother 
Philip's wife.' Of this prince there are no coins known. 

The second Philip named by St. Luke reigned from 




COIN OF HEROD PHILIP II (YEAR 37 = A.D. 33). 

B.C. 4 to A. D. 34. He was the son of Herod I by 
Cleopatra, and he married Salome, daughter of Herod 
Philip I by Herodias. His coins are remarkable 
as bearing the effigy of the Roman emperor, a grave 
infringement of the Mosaic Law ; but they were struck 
at Caesarea Philippi, some distance from Jerusalem, 
and their issuer was hardly the man, as Mr. Madden 
points out, to study the dictates of Mosaic Law when 
anxious to flatter the Roman power. The coin her^ 
represented reads as follows : — 

D 



50 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

Obv. — The head of Tiberius to the right, bare, 
and before it a branch of laurel. 
TIBEPIOC CEBACTOC K AlCAP^Tiberius. 

^^^._0IAinnOY TET[PAPXOY] z= Philip the 
Tetrarch ; a temple, and between the 
columns L A Z (year '7^'/, i.e. A.D. 33-34)- 

The grandson of Herod I, named Herod Agrippa, 
had been, during the lives of the rulers to whom refer- 
ence has already been made, conspiring to obtain their 
kingdom. In high favour at Rome with the emperor, 
he prevented Antipas obtaining the title of king, and 
when Antipas was banished, obtained the rulership 
of Galilee and Peraea. Already he possessed Tracho- 
nitis and two other provinces. In A. D. 41 the Emperor 
Claudius gave him Judaea, Samaria, and Libanus, and 
with these additions he was practically master of 
the entire dominions that had been governed by 
Herod I. He was the son, it will be noted from the 
pedigree, of Aristobulus and Berenice. He was 
a popular sovereign with the Jews, lived constantly 
in Jerusalem, and gave strict attention to the 
observances and regulations of his people. 

It was probably from a desire to increase this 
popularity that he ' stretched forth his hands to vex 
certain of the Church' (Acts xii. i). He it was who 
caused St. James to be beheaded, and threw St. Peter 
into prison ; and the chapter that records these events 
records also his death. At Caesarea, at the great games 
which he arranged in honour of the emperor, he ap- 



COINS OF THE HERODS 5 1 

peared, according to Josephus, in a garment ' made 
wholly of silver, and of a contexture truly wonderful 
.... and the silver of his garment being illuminated 
by the sun shone out after a surprising manner, and 
was resplendent as to spread a horror over those that 
looked intently upon him.' His flatterers saluted 
him as a god, and Josephus adds, ' the king did neither 
rebuke them nor reject their impious flattery.' The 
sacred narrative sums up the conclusion of the tragedy 
in these words : ' And immediately the angel of the 
Lord smote him, because he gave not God the glory : 
and he was eaten of worms, and gave up the ghost ' 
(Acts xii. 23). 

The story appears in Eusebius as well as in Josephus, 
differing only in small details, and it is evident that 
the attack that caused the king's death was very 
sudden, and looked upon both by king and people as 
a Divine rebuke to such gross impiety. The account 
in the Acts of the Apostles should be compared 
with the ninth chapter of the Second Book of Macca- 
bees. The description there is of the terrible death of 
Antiochus Epiphanes of the same fell disease. From 
this king, who, like Herod Agrippa, had termed himself 
a god on his coins, and received the flattering praise of 
his courtiers, came the touching words : Tt is meet to 
be subject unto God, and that a man that is mortal 
should not proudly think of himself as if he were 
God' (2 Mace. ix. 12). 

The strictly Jewish coin depicted of Agrippa bears 
D 2 



52 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



on it a remarkable device. It may be a tent or taber- 
nacle, and have some reference to the Feast of Taber- 
nacles, or, as Levy suggests, with more probability, it 
is an umbrella, the usual sign of dignity in the East. 




COIN OF HEROD AGRIPPA I (YEAR 6 = A.D. 37). 

The coin reads : — 

6>/^7/.— BACIAEOJC ArPinA = King Agrippa; an 

umbrella. 
Rev. — Three ears of corn springing from one stalk, 

and on either side the letters L S (year 6). 

Another coin of Agrippa is depicted, as the title 

that the king gives to himself upon it is the one to 




COIN OF HEROD AGRIPPA I. 

which allusion is made in John xix. 12, 'If thou let 
this Man go, thou art not Caesar's friend.' The 
coin reads : — 

(9<^z/.— BACIAEYC METAC ATPinnAC <t)IAO- 
KAI CAP = King Agrippa, the great lover 
of Caesar ; head of Agrippa to the right. 



COINS OF THE HERODS 



S^ 



Rev.—Y.K\(:k?\K H HPOC [CEBACTH] AIMENI = 

Caesarea near the port of Augustus; 

Fortune standing to the left, holding rudder 

and cornucopia. 

The last prince of the race to whom allusion need 

be made is Agrippa II, A. D. 48-ico. He was the 

son of Herod Agrippa I and Cypros. Claudius gave 

him various tetrarchies with the title of king, and Nero 

augmented his kingdom with possessions in Galilee. 

In A.D. 60, Agrippa II, with his sister Berenice, visited 

the Roman governor Festus at Caesarea, and there 

the Apostle St. Paul was brought before him. At 

this interview Agrippa made the well-known and 

contemptuous remark to St. Paul, ' Thou wilt soon 

persuade me to be a Christian' (Acts xxv. 13; 

xxvi. 2, 28). (Conybeare and Howson, Life of St. 

Paid, ii. 367.) 




COIN OF HEROD AGRIPPA II. 



The coin illustrated was struck by Agri ppa in the 
time of Nero. Agrippa's long reign was coincident 
with that of several emperors of Rome, and his coins 
are therefore found bearing the effigies of several 
emperors. He reigned during the time in which the 
Roman throne was occupied successively by Claudius, 



54 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domi- 
tian, Nerva, Trajan. The coin illustrated reads : — 

Odv.— HEPnH KAl[CAP] = Nero Csesar ; head of 
Nero to the right. 

Rev.—EU\ BACIAE ATPinn NEPH NIE, which 
may be read as, Money of Agrippa struck 
at Neronias. The words are within an 
olive wreath. 

Agrippa changed the name of the town of Caesarea 
Philippi to Neronias, in honour of the emperor his 
patron. 

Ruling side by side with the Herodian princes 
were the procurators or governors whom the Roman 
emperors set over Judsea as their especial repre- 
sentatives. 

It was after the deposition of Archelaus in A. D. 6 
that Judaea proper was reduced to the level of an 
ordinary Roman province. St. Luke's Gospel (ii. i, 2) 
refers to Cyrenius as governor of Syria, which at that 
time was a similar Roman province, having its own 
governor, as Judaea had. 

The Acts of the Apostles (xxiii. 26) gives the names 
of Claudius Felix, and (xxiv. 27) of PorciusFestns ; but 
more important than either of these governors was 
the infamous Pontius Pilate. The rule of the Roman 
governors in Judaea lasted from A. D, 6 to 58, and there 
were but fourteen of them in all. Many of them 
struck coins during their governorship, and these 
coins must have been in constant circulation during 



COINS OF THE HERODS S5 

the time of the life of our Lord. The distinct sub- 
serviency of the governor to Rome and his flattery 
of the reigning emperor is well shown by these coins. 
Coponius was the first procurator, and it was during 
his governorship that our Lord was discovered in the 
Temple hearing the doctors and asking them questions 
(Luke ii. 40-50). His coin is depicted — 




COIN OF PROCURATOR COPONIUS. 

Odv. — KAICAPOC = of Caesar or Caesar's, that is, 
Money of Caesar or Caesar's money ; an ear 
of corn. 
Rev. — L AT {\vKdl3as), year ^^; a palm-tree, from 

which hang bunches of dates. 
The third procurator, Annius Rufus, governed from 
A. D. 12 to 15, and was superseded directly Tiberius 
ascended the throne. This was during the boyhood 
of our Lord. 




COIN OF PROCURATOR ANNIUS RUFUS (YEAR 4I:^=A.D. I4). 

The coin depicted was struck by him in the year 
A. D. 14. It reads — 



56 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



(9^^._KAICAP0C, as above. 

Rev. — A palm-tree with dates and L MA (year 41, 

i. e. A. D. 14). 
The next illustration is of the coin of Pontius 
Pilate. 




COIN OF PONTIUS PILATE. 



(9^z;.— TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC L lS = [Money] of 
Tiberius Caesar, year 16 (a. D. 29.) 

The device is said to be that of a sacred vessel 
presented to the Temple by Tiberius. 

Rev.—\O^K\k KAICAPOC^Money of Julia Caesar; 
three ears of millet bound together. 

Julia was the mother of Tiberius, and possessed at 
the time of Pilate great and exceptional power. 

The coins of the procurators do not exhibit the 
signs and symbols of heathen worship, as those of the 
Herodians did ; but the religious scruples of the Jews 
were considered, and the coins struck bore in most cases 
symbols that would not be abhorrent to the people 
over whom the governors were set. 

Of Felix and Festus the Acts of the Apostles speak. 
Felix was mean and cruel, and his readiness to 
receive a bribe is mentioned in the description of the 
imprisonment of St. Paul (Acts xxiv. 26). His wife 
Drusilla is also named in the narrative, and was 



COINS OF THE HERODS 57 

with him at C^sarea (Acts xxiv. 24). Felix did 
some good service to the country, clearing it of 
impostors, rogues and vagabonds, and to his good 
deeds Tertullus in his oration bore witness (Acts 
xxiv. 2). 

Porcius Festus, with whom Agrippa stayed, suc- 
ceeded Felix in A.D. 60, but died in A. D. 62. 

Albinus and Gessius Florus succeeded him, and 
with the last infamous man the rule of the procurators 
ceased. 

It may be well in the very hasty review that I am 
making of the numismatic history of the Jewish 
people, to delay for a space consideration as to the 
revolts of the Jews against the Roman power that 
followed the rule of Gessius Florus, and led to the 
ultimate conquest of Jerusalem. 

Consideration will now be given to the money 
actually named in the New Testament. 



CHAPTER V 

THE COINS ACTUALLY NAMED IN THE NEW 
TESTAMENT 

There are certain Greek coins named in the New 
Testament that claim first attention. I have ah'eady 
referred to the complicated condition of Jewish money 
in the time of our Lord. Currency must have con- 
sisted of a great variety of coins— money of Greece, 
imperial money of Rome, Herodian money, money 
struck by the Roman procurators, Roman provincial 
money, as of Syria and Antioch, actual Jewish money 
struck by the Asmonaean dynasty and Herodian rulers, 
and very possibly coins, still remaining in occasional 
use, of silver as struck by Ezra. It is the fact that repre- 
sentatives of almost all these varying currencies are 
named in the New Testament, and that some sort of 
adjustment of value existed between one coin and 
another, that renders so puzzling to a novice the allu- 
sions in the New Testament to coins. It may at the 
outset be pointed out that according to the value of 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 59 

silver, a rough table had been drawn up at the time 
of our Lord as to the corresponding value of these 
various coins. Thus : — 

a. A Greek dram or drachma^ the piece of money- 
lost by the woman, was about equal in value to the 
Roman denarms ' penny,' or civil tribute money. 

b. Two of these Greek drams formed a didrachma, 
which was the sacred tribute money (not Roman), the 
payment toward the Temple sustenance, willingly paid 
by every Jew (Matt. xvii. 24). This coin also about 
equalled in value half a shekel, which was the old 
Temple tribute. 

c. Four of the Greek drams formed a tetradrachma^ 
which equalled four denarii (or pennies in the Autho- 
rized Version), the Roman tribute ; or two didrachmas, 
the sacred Jewish tribute ; or one stater, the coin found 
in the fish's mouth (Matt. xvii. 27). 

We therefore arrive at this table of varying equiva- 
lents : — 

1 Greek drachma or dram ^ i Roman denarius or penny. 

2 Greek drachmae or drams — 2 denarii = i didrachma = half a shekel. 

4 Greek drachmae or drams = 4 denarii = i tetradrachma = 2 didrachmae 

= I stater - i shekel. 

To take the unit first. 

The Greek drachma is but once mentioned in the 
New Testament : ' Either what woman having ten 
pieces of silver (6pax/xas SeV-a).' — Luke xv. 8. 

The coin in our currency at the price of silver would 
be in value about eightpence. 



6o THE monp:y of the bible 

This coin, as shown above, is about equal to the 
Roman denarius, penny or tribute money. 

The next coin is the one double in value to the last. 
It is the didrachm or didrachma, equal in value to 
two drachmae or two denarii, and about equal to half 
a Jewish shekel. This was the voluntary, willing 
tribute money of half a shekel paid by the Jews 
towards the sustenance of the Temple (Exod. xxx. 

i3> 15)- 

It is found demanded in the reign of Joash (2 Chron. 
xxiv. 9). On account of the poverty of the people 
it was reduced, in the time of Nehemiah, to a third 
of a shekel (Nehem. x. 32); but it comes back in New 
Testament times to half a shekel, equivalent at that 
time to a didrachma. TTpoo-rjkOov ol ra bibpa)(^fxa kaixj^a- 
voi'T^s Tw Ilerpa) (Matt. xvii. 24, 27). 

This was a tribute not enforced by law, and there- 
fore the words of our Blessed Lord have a marked 
and wonderful significance : ' Of whom do the kings 
of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own 
children or of strangers ? ' Taking the same reckoning 
as adopted heretofore, we may place this coin as worth 
about one shilling and fourpence. 

Next the four- drachm piece claims attention. This 
is equal to four denarii, and about equal to a Jewish 
shekel. It is called a tetradrachm or stater, and is the 
coin found by St. Peter in the mouth of the fish, suffi- 
cient to pay the Temple tribute for two persons. koI 
avoi^as to aT6\xa avrov ^vpi](T€Ls (TTaTijpa (Matt. xvii. 27). 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 6l 

As a proof of the minute accuracy of the evangelist, 
it should be noted that the didrachm had at the time 
fallen into disuse ; and Mr. Poole points out that had 
two didrachmae been found in the fish, the receivers 
of tribute would hardly have accepted them, but the 
stater actually found was their equivalent, and gladly 
taken. The stater illustrated is of Antioch. 




STATER OF AUGUSTUS. 



The obverse reads (translated) ' [Money] of Caesar 
Augustus,' and has the laureated head of the emperor. 

The reverse shows the genius of the city seated 
with her foot upon a figure representing the river- 
god Orontes, and the words the 30th year of the 
victory [i.e. Actium]. The word stater means 
simply standard^ a coin of a certain full and definite 
weight ; and the use of the word in this instance is to 
a scholar very strong evidence that the Gospel of 
St. Matthew was written in about the first century, 
when coins the equivalent of a pure silver tetra- 
drachm were known as staters. 

Another stater which is here illustrated is one of 
the staters of Rhodes, bearing on the obverse the 



62 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



head of Apollo, god of day and patron of the island, 
and on the reverse an opening eastern rose, pohov^ 
a play upon the name of the place 'P0609, engraved on 
the coin as POAIN. The references to the Isle of 
Rhodes in the Acts of the Apostles (xxi. i) and 




STATER OF RHODES, WITH FLOWERS. 



to the maid Rhoda (xii. 13), give an interest to this 
coin, as well as the references in the Bible to the rose — 
The rose of Sharon (Cant ii. i) and 'The desert shall 
blossom as the rose ' (Isa. xxxv. i). The flower that 
is named differs considerably from our English rose. 
The value of a stater in English money according 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 63 

to the scale that I have adopted, may be roughly 
taken at two shillings and eightpence. The lesson 
that our Divine Lord taught specially in the miracle by 
which the stater was produced is a very clear one. ' If 
earthly kings do not receive tribute from their children,' 
would be our Lord's argument to St. Peter, ' then am 
I who am the Son of God excused by their custom 
from paying anything to God. Nevertheless, lest we 
should give them the opportunity to say that I despise 
the Temple and its services, and teach My disciples so 
to do, take the money, and pay for thee and for Me.' 

Once again we find this coin, the tetradrachm, 
stater, or shekel, used in the Gospels. The money 
received for the betrayal of our Blessed Lord 
was thirty pieces of silver {rpiaKovra apyvpia) (Matt, 
xxvi. 15, xxvii. 3, 5, 6, 9). Here are simply used 
the Greek words for silver or money (thirty of silver). 
The Old Testament^gives the explanation, and this 
explanation was first suggested by Mr. Poole. In 
Exod. xxi. 32 the price of blood for one who was killed 
by misadventure was fixed at thirty shekels of silver. 

St. Matthew's Gospel refers the prophecy as to 
the betrayal of our Lord to the prophet Jeremiah. 
This is an error probably on the part of an early 
transcriber, as de Saulcy pointed out that the Syriac 
version of the Gospel gives only the words, ' the 
prophet,' and gives no name. The actual passage 
to which reference is made is in Zech. xi. 12, 13, 
and there reference is clearly made to the shekels in 



64 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

use at that time. In the time of our Lord there were 
no shekels current (save perhaps a few of the old ones), 
although money was reckoned in shekels, very much 
as in the present day reckonings are made in guineas, 
although no coin of the value of a guinea is in use. 
The tetradrachm or stater was, as has been already 
said, nearly equivalent in value to the shekel, and it 
was almost certainly this coin that was intended in the 
passages Matt. xxvi. 15, and xxvii. 3, 5, 6, 9, in which 
the betrayal is named. 

Before leaving the series of Greek coins named in 
the New Testament, there is one more to which 
attention must be given. 

The smallest coin current in Athens was the lepton, 
the seventh part of the chalcus (xaAKoj). The name 
of this Greek coin is twice used in the New Testament, 
both passages describing the gift of the widow into 
the chest at the Temple, and translated ' two mites,' 
AeTrra hvo 6 eort Kobpdvrrjs. It is, however, perfectly 
certain that the actual coins cast into the chest were 
not Greek /epta, inasmuch as the people were not 
permitted to bring any but Jewish coins into the 
Temple precincts. The coins of their conquerors 
were not permitted, and hence the need of the ' tables 
of the money-changers ' (see p. 75). The coins struck 
by the Maccabaean ruler Alexander Jannaeus (B.C. 
105-78), who was known on his coins as Jonathan only, 
were very popular with the Jews for Temple gifts, 
inasmuch as they were so thoroughly Jewish in their 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 65 

inscriptions and devices. The smallest copper coin 
of this prince is probably the one to which allusion is 
made by the Synoptists, Mark xii. 42, Luke xii. 6, 
and xxi. 2. 

The coin is here represented. 




COIN OF ALEXANDER JANN/EUS. 

Obv,— njnr 

anMD 

Jonathan Hakkohen Haggadol Vecheber 
Hajehtidim — Jonathan the High Priest 
and the Confederation (or Senate) of the 
Jews, within a wreath of olive. 
Rev. — Two cornucopiae and a poppy head. 
The Gospels of Ulphilas, the Gothic Bishop of 31 1, 
in rendering the passage Mark xii. 42, give the 
value of the Anglo-Saxon styca and penny. 

tpejen j^ticaj^, *^ if, peop^unj pennin^ep. 

It should be borne in mind, in considering this 
gift of the widow, that it was a voluntary offering, and 
not a tribute, so far at least as any offering to God 
can be voluntary. It may perhaps be taken as a type 
of the offertory of the Church, the contributions of 

E 



66 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

the faithful, the giving to God of His own, laid on His 
altar, a holy oblation acceptable to the Lord. 

Leaving Greek currency, it is well to consider the 
Roman money named in the New Testament ; and 
attention is at once claimed by the words which are 
in the Authorized Version very much mistranslated as 
farthmg. 

In Matt. X. 29 there is the word assarion, trans- 
lated farthings Ovy)i. bvo crrpovBia aaaapCov TTcoA-ctrat ; 
' Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing ? ' 

In Luke xii. 6 is the same word in the Authorized 
Version. The Vulgate gives it more accurately as 
' 7ionne qiiinque passer es veneunt dipo7idio? ' ' Are not 
five sparrows sold for a dipondius (two farthings) ? ' 
as the word here used is the name of the coin 
equivalent to two assaria — that is, a dipo7idius. 

In Matt. V. 26 and Mark xii. 42 ' the uttermost 
farthing,' and ' two mites, which make one farthing,' a 
third word is used, KobpdvTr]9, again translated ' farthing.' 
Here, therefore, are no less than three coins, the as 
or assarion, the dipondius or two-as piece, and the 
quadrans or fourth of an as, all translated with much 
confusion by one English word, farthing. 

The as or assarion was the original Roman coin. 
It was at one time the unit in Roman numeration 
both of weight and currency, and very early ones 
bearing the devices 

Odv. — The head of Janus Bifrons, 

Kev. — The prow of a ship and the figure i, 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 67 

are known weighing nearly a pound each, and struck 
in bronze. 

In process of time the as was reduced in size from 
its unwieldy original character, until after many re- 
ductions, both in size and value, it became a coin of 
about the size of an English halfpenny. The Greeks 
adopted the name of the coin, and used it upon their 
autonomous coins, calling them aaaapLMv. Whether, 
therefore, the coin to which allusion is made in Matt. 
X. 29 was the Greek inscribed coin of Antioch in Syria, 
or the Roman inscribed coin bearing the mystic 
letters S. C. (Senatus consulto), it is not possible with 
an absolute certainty to tell. Illustrations of each are 
given. The first, the Roman coin, is one of Augustus, 




COIN OF AUGUSTUS. 



bearing the emperor's name and titles, and the second 
the Greek inscribed one of Gadara in Decapolis. 

This latter coin is one of peculiar interest, inasmuch 
as Gadara (FAAAPA) was named in Holy Scripture, 
Mark v. i. Issued by a pagan population, it bears 
the head of Nero NEPHN Caesar (KAI)SAP on the 
obverse, and the goddess Astarte on the reverse, 

^ This block has been drawn a little too large. 
E 2 



68 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



holding a garland and cornucopia, and the date 
letters. 




COIN OF GADARA, 



The second word translated ' farthing ' is in Luke 
xii. 6, aa-aapLcov bvo, and here it is quite clear a single 
coin, value two assaria, is intended by the expression. 
The Greek assaria were so issued, but 
although the value of the piece may 
have been i, 2, or 3 assaria, and was so 
designated upon its face, yet in many 
cases the size of the coin altered not, 
and the coin of the largest value was the 
same size as the coin of the smallest. 
An illustration is given of an African 
coin, issued about the time of Julius 
Caesar, in order to show the size of 
the dipondius. 

In the third passage there is a dis- 
tinctively Roman coin mentioned by 
its Greek name. The passages are in 
Matt. V. 26 and Mark xii. 42, and the 
word used is KohpdvT-qs, the Latin quadrans, the fourth 
part of a Roman as. 

Cicero writes that in his time this was the smallest 
Roman coin (Plutarch in Cic. xxix. 26). 




COIN OF JUBA 
KING OF NUMIDIA 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 69 

This coin weighed about 0^^ grains, and may be 
roughly estimated as having a value of about three- 
quarters of a farthing, while the assarion weighed 
about 140 grains, and would have a value of about 
three-quarters of a penny^ and the dipondius was 
worth two assaria. This quadrans was the smallest- 
sized Roman bronze coin, and much smaller than an 
English farthing. 

The Roman penny or denarius is repeatedly named 
in Holy Scripture. 

a. The parable of the unforgiving servant, ' an 
hundred pence,' Matt, xviii. 2S. 

b. The labourers in the vineyard, ' a penny a day,' 
Matt. XX. 2, 9, 10, 33. 

c. The tribute money, 'a penny,' Matt. xxii. 19; 
Mark xii. 15 ; Luke xx. 24. 

d. The feeding of the five thousand^ ' two hundred 
pennyworth of bread,' Mark vi. o^^] ; John vi. 7. 

e. The value of the box of ointment, 'three hundred 
pence,' Mark xiv. 5 ; John xii. 5. 

/. The parable to Simon, 'five hundred pence,' 
' fifty pence,' Luke vii. 41. 
g. The Good Samaritan's gift, 'two pence,' Luke 

h. The price of wheat and barley at the opening of 
the seal in heaven, ' a penny,' Rev. vi. 6. 

There is no doubt whatever as to the coin that is 
here named. In every case it is the Roman denarius, 
and it would have been far better had the translators 



70 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

used this word denarius rather than the misleadincr 
one of penny, as the coin named was in every case of 
silver, and not of copper. One of these denarii is 
here depicted. 




DENARIUS OR PENNY. 



The denarius was the legal and obligatory tribute 
money that the Jews were compelled to pay to their 
conquerors the Romans, and was typical of their 
subjugation and conquest. Tiberius was the emperor 
reigning in Rome at the time that the words of our 
Divine Lord were spoken as to the tribute money 
(see above c), and it is very probable that the coin 
that was presented to the Great Teacher was a coin 
of the reigning emperor. 

The illustration may then depict the coin that was 
brought to our Lord by the Pharisees, and illustrate 
the denarius named in each of the other passages. 
The inscription reads as follows : — 

Odv. — Tl[berius] ' CESAR DIVI AUG[usti] F[ilius] 
AUGUSTUS ; 
that is to say, Tiberius Caesar Augustus, son of the 
god Augustus. 

Rev. — PONTlF[ex] maxim [us] = Pontifex Maximus, 
Chief Priest. 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 7 1 

The missing letters of the abbreviated words are 
supplied in brackets. 

The wonderfully searching reply of the Great 
Teacher to the question that was put to Him is at 
once apparent. If they, the Jews, had by circulating 
and using Roman money bearing upon it the head and 
name of Caesar acknowledged the rule of the Imperial 
Caesar, they had themselves practically answered 
their own ensnaring question. This coin may be taken 
as roughly equivalent in value to about eightpence 
halfpenny of English money. It was the pay of 
a Roman soldier per day, and was considered very 
liberal recompense, if not extravagant pay, in the time 
of our Lord, for an agricultural labourer per day : see 
Matt. XX. 2, 9, lo, 13 (above b\ and Tobit v. 14 for 
a similar passage. It was the usual and chief money of 
account in use at the time, and larger amounts were 
rendered in multiples of denarii (see above d, e^f). Its 
weight was about sixty grains. The reference in the 
Apocalypse is to famine prices of food, the excessive 
taxation, to which Gibbon alludes at length as one of 
the causes of the fall of Rome, having since the time 
of Caracalla produced great scarcity, and but a chaenix, 
or about a quart of wheat, could be obtained for 
a denarius. 

There is another mention of this coin in the New 
Testament that would not be at first noticed. It is 
in the Acts of the Apostles (xix. 19), and the word 
used is apyvpia ^silvers,' translated pieces of silver. 



72 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

There is but little doubt, however, that denarii are 
here intended, and the phrase would be more correctly 
translated using the name of that coin. It is quite 
possible that the ten lost pieces of silver drachms 
or drams {hpaxfJ-as biKa), Luke xv. 8, 9, to which 
allusion has ah'eady been made, may have been 
denarii; because, as I have pointed out, the value at 
that time of the denarius and dram was equivalent. 

The references to the coin cannot fail to bring to 
mind many important thoughts. 

The penitential love of Mary Magdalene (see 
passages e and/), the word of wondrous truth that 
briefly inculcates our duty to God and the State (see 
passages c), the generous gift of the Good Samaritan 
(see passage g), the lavish payment made by the 
Divine Creator to the workers in His vineyard, 
infinitely exceeding their merit or right (see pas- 
sages d), the blessings of temporal and sustaining 
food in hunger, and of spiritual refreshment in His 
Holy Church (see passages d), and the gift of His 
pardoning mercy to us unfaithful and unprofit- 
able servants (see passage a). Many of the New 
Testament coins, as has been wisely said, connect 
our thoughts with distinct teaching in the sayings 
and Hfe of our Blessed Saviour. The shekel calls 
to mind the price paid in the Temple for His 
betrayal. The didrachma. His earnest endeavour to 
reclaim the lost child from sin, under the emblem 
of the lost coin. The lepton, His words as to 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 



n 



worshipping God with our substance, and the duty 
of charity. The stater, the double lesson of willing 
service to God, His house, and His Church, and 
the warning against the covetousness that would for 
gain of silver sacrifice the Lord of Glory ; and the 
denarius, the conscientious submission to the sovereign 
power, not less as an act of brotherly love than as 
distinctively a part of Christianity. 

It may be remarked by the way that the title of 
Saviour or Redeemer was not one of itself unknown 
to the Greeks, although the idea of Divine self- 
sacrifice was not in the least anticipated by them in 
their mythology. 

The following coin, bearing the head of Apollo, 
describes him as Saviour, and reads — AnOAAHN 
SriTHP. 




COIN REPRESENTING APOLLO WITH THE TITLE OF SAVIOUR. 



When the New Testament speaks of money in 
a general sense, it does not always use the same word. 
In the following passages the word used is apyvpiov 
(silver). 



74 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

Matt. XXV. 18-27 — The parable of the talents, the 
word talent being only used as signifying a certain 
weight of silver. 

Matt, xxviii. 12-15 — Money given to the soldiers 
by the elders to prevent the story of the Resurrection 
being spread abroad. 

Mark xiv. 11 ; Luke xxii. 5 — Money promised to 
Judas by the priests. 

Matt. X. 9 ; Luke ix. 3 — Money not to be carried 
by the apostles when on their journey. 

Luke xix. 15-23 — Parable of the ten pieces of 
money (silver). 

Acts vii. 16 — The mention by St. Stephen in his 
address of the purchase by Abraham of the cave 
of Machpelah. 

Acts viii. 20 — St. Peter's words to Simon Magus. 

In Matt. xxvi. 9, the phrase is ' this ointment might 
have sold for vmchl and money is understood ; the 
parallel passages showing that denarii were intended. 

In two passages in St. Mark the word used is xaKKov, 
copper money. 

Mark vi. 8 — The prohibition to the apostles to 
carry money. 

Mark xii. 41 — The gifts to the Treasury. 

This word also occurs in Matt. x. 9, in conjunction 
with the words ' gold and silver.' 

In the former set of passages reference is clearly 
made to silver money — that is to say, to drachms, 
staters, denarii, or the old shekels of Ezra, if any 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 75 

remained ; in the latter passages the Herodian 
copper coinage, or the small and unimportant copper 
money of Greek or Roman issue. The lessons 
impressed by the latter passages may well derive 
an added value by the unimportant character and 
trivial worth of the money to which the evangelist 
alludes. 

In the Acts of the Apostles, the word translated 
' money' in iv. 37, where it was laid by Barnabas 
at the feet of the apostles, should be more strictly 
rendered /r^V^, value ^ full vahie, the amount actually 
obtained, the word used being xpriixa [pretmm). This 
word is used also in its significance of the price or 
value of a man, the price that will obtain favour, 
in the passage where Felix hoped to have received 
a bribe as to the freedom of St. Paul — that is to say, 
to receive his price. Acts xxiv. 26. 

The word apyvpiov is also to be found in four other 
passages, and in all these reference is made to silver 
money, and the word is rightly translated ' silver.' The 
passages are : — 

Acts iii. 6 — ' Silver and gold have I none.' 
Acts XX. y^ — ' I have coveted no man's silver.' 
Jas. V. 3 — ' Your gold and silver is cankered." 
I Pet. i. 18 — 'Corruptible things, as silver and 
gold.' 

Allusion has already been briefly made to a further 
reference to money — the interesting passages as to 
the ' tables of the money-changers.' Mr. Madden was 



76 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

one of the earliest to point out the striking divergence 
between the three words used in the New Testament, 
all of which the Authorized Version translates in 
a similar way. 

In Matt. XXV. 27 is used the word rpa-neCir^s (trape- 
zites, exchangers), and this word is also used by 
St. Luke in xix. 23, where ' paying into the bank ' 
is the translation. Here is seen a word that refers 
to private bankers or money exchangers, and is simply 
derived from the table, rpaTrefa, at which the bankers 
sat, in the same manner as we derive our words bank, 
banker, &c. from the bench of the Italian money- 
changer (e. g. ba7ica I'otta ' broken bench ' in Italian, 
because the money-changer's bench was broken on 
his failure, hence ' bankrupt '). 

The original word rpan^Ca [trapeza) occurs in Matt. 
xxi. 12, Mark xi. 15, and John ii. 15, where reference 
is made to the money-changers in the Temple ; but 
in these passages it simply means the tables at which 
the men sat, and is translated correctly ' tables.' 

The official money-changers, to which reference 
must next be made, had their tables, as did the 
private exchangers ; but it is important to notice 
that Matt. xxv. 27 and Luke xix. 23 refer to the 
private traders, whereas these next passages refer to 
men of a different standing. 

The recognized officials who changed foreign, i.e. 
pagan, money into Jewish money, which alone could 
be used in the Temple, are called by the evangelists 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 77 

St. Matthew and St. Mark ko\\v[3l(7T(ov {kollibiston). 
This word is derived from koWv^os {collybus)^ and the 
collybus was in all probability a tiny silver coin, the 
very smallest piece of silver money in use, but not other- 
wise alluded to in the New Testament. St. John in ii. 
14 and 15 uses another word, Kep/xarioras, and for money 
the similar word to Kkp\xa. This word Kepjuario-ray is 
derived from Kecpco, 'to cut off or cut up small/ the noun 
being cut-up pieces, i.e. small pieces of money. This 
was the official and technical term for those who 
certainly had an official status, as KoAAv^to-r?}? was 
a more ordinary term ; but as St. John clearly alludes 
to a different occasion from that named by the evan- 
gelists St. Matthew and St. Mark, he may be perhaps 
alluding to a public State banker at the Temple, and 
who more than the others would have conceived it his 
right to trade within the holy precincts. 

The necessary changing of the foreign money and 
money of their conquerors into local Jewish money 
had degenerated into a vicious and usurious habit, 
and was carried on at last actually inside the Temple. 
It received the strongest condemnation from our 
Blessed Lord, and by Him the bankers, private, public 
or official, were driven from His Father's house. 

As three words are in the foregoing passages used 
in speaking of the money-changers, so three separate 
words are used in the New Testament in speaking of 
the treasury or treasure. 

1 . The first yaC,Q(^v\aKiov [gazophylacmni]^ from yafy. 



78 THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

' a treasure ' and (pvKaaa-o) ' to keep,' is used in the 
references to the gift of the widow's mite into the 
treasury when our Lord was sitting near by (Mark xii. 
41-43 ; Luke xxi. i ; John viii. 20). The noun yafa 
appears in Acts viii. 27, in speaking of the treasure of 
Candace. 

The similar word in Hebrew appears often in the 
Old Testament for treasures, as for example in Ezra 
V. 17, vi. I, vii. 20 ; Esther iii. 9, iv. 7 ; Ezek. xxvii. 
24, A.V. 'chests'; i Chron. xxviii. 11. It is strictly 
a Persian, and not a Hebrew word, pronounced in 
Persian ganza^ and by the Hebrew, therefore, genez 
(Esther) tj.?. ox g'naz (Ezra) T33. The word occurs also 
in Nehemiah, and often in the Apocryphal books of 
Maccabees. 

2. In Matt, xxvii. 6, speaking of the money 
returned by Judas, the priests said, ' It is not lawful 
to put them into the treasury,' and here the word 
used is Kopl3avav, which again appears in Mark vii. 11, 
' It is Corban,' Kop/Bav. 

The allusion here is, not to the general treasury for 
the Temple service, or for wood, offerings, or incense^ 
but to gifts specially dedicated to God by promise, 
vow, or solemn offering — what would be better under- 
stood by us as an oblation or a gift offered at the 
altar. 

3. The third word is Orjcravpos (thesatirtis), that which 
is laid up, saved, treasured, preserved, from ^eVis d^ 
avpLov, 'laying up for the morrow,' and is used as to 



COINS NAMED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 79 

valuables and treasures of personal, and not dedicated 
property (Matt. ii. 11 ; vi. 19, 20; xii. ^^', xiii. 44, 52; 
xix. 21 ; Mark x. 21 ; Luke vi. 45 ; xii. ^^ ; xviii. 22 ; 
2 Cor. iv. 7 ; Col. ii. 3 ; Heb. xi. 26). 

To conclude on New Testament money, the refer- 
ences to gold must be given. 

Our Lord forbade His disciples to carry gold (Matt. 
x. 9), and St. Peter stated that he possessed none (Acts 
iii. 6). St. Paul assured the disciples that he coveted no 
man's gold (Acts xx. ^^); and there are two references 
to gold in the Epistles (Jas. v. 3 and i Pet. i. 18). 

The references are all to gold money generically, and 
not to a coin. The Roman a7^rez were probably well 
known to the Jews at the time. The talent, it must 
be remembered, was never a coin, but a weight or sum 
of money ; see Matt, xviii. 23-35 ; xxv. 14-30 ; Luke 
xix. 13-24. 



CHAPTER VI 



COINS ILLUSTRATIVE OF BIBLE STORY 



The revolts of the Jews against the Roman power, 
which took place first in A.D. 66, do not concern the 
purpose of this book, as it is not written to describe 
all the coins issued by the Jews as a nation. 




COINS OF ELEAZAR THE PRIEST. 



The first revolt was led by Eleazar, son of Ananias 
the high priest, before whom St. Paul was brought, 
and of whom he said, ' God shall smite thee, thou 
whited wall,' Acts xxiii. 3. The silver and copper 
coins of Eleazar are here depicted. These inscriptions 



COINS ILLUSTRATIVE OF BIBLE STORY 



8l 



are in Hebrew, and refer to the first, second or third 
year of the Redemption or Deliverance of Israel. 

The coins struck by the Sanhedrim bear a repre- 
sentation of the Temple, around which the affection 
of the Jews still lived, and to save which they rallied 
their forces. The Sanhedrim coins are shown below, 




COIN OF THE FIRST YEAR OF THE REVOLT 




COIN OF SIMON UF THE FIRST YEAR OF THE REVOLT. 

with Hebrew inscriptions recording the deliverance of 
Zion, and with the representation of one of the Temple 
vessels of gold or silver. 

Other coins issued in this revolt are shown below, 
merely as illustrative of the period, and for the sake 
of the characteristic Jewish emblems of a vine leaf, 

F 



8a THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 

a lyre, a palm-tree, and Temple vases and vessels 
that appear upon them. 

Coins of Simon Nasi. 




COIN OF SIMON OF THE FIRST YEAR OF THE REVOLT. 




COIN OF SIMON OF THE FIRST YEAR OF THE REVOLT. 




COIN OF SIMON OF THE FIRST YEAR OF THE REVOLT 
(YEAR 67-68). 




COIN OF SIMON OF THE SECOND YEAR OF THE REVOLT 
(YEAR 67-6S). 



COINS ILLUSTRATIVE OF BIBLE STORY 83 




COIN OF SIMON OF THE THIRD YEAR OF THE REVOLT 

(year 6S-69). 

In A.D. 70 Titus besieged Jerusalem, and after 
most heroic defence the city fell, the famine having 
subdued the dauntless energy of its inhabitants. The 
Temple was destroyed, and the sufferings depicted by 
Josephus were of the most terrible character. 

Bearing in mind the occasion upon which our 
Divine Lord wept over the ultimate fate of the Holy 
City, in view of His great prophecy, that ' there shall 
not be left one stone upon another that shall not be 
thrown down,' it may be of interest if specimens are 
given of the Roman coins struck and issued to com- 
memorate the fall of Jerusalem and the capture of the 
city by Vespasian and Titus, 

The illustrations are of the obverses only of three 
coins of Vespasian, and depict the captive Jew and 
Jewess seated in different attitudes of despair. 

In one the Roman emperor or a soldier is standing 
on guard by a captive Jew, and in another the Jew has 
his hands bound behind his back. In two examples 
the palm-tree is shown, and in the third a trophy of 
arms. What a wealth of meaning there is in the terse, 
distinct, defiant inscription, JiidcBa Capta, Captured 
Judaea! The words of the prophet Isaiah (iii. 26), 

F Z 



84 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



'she being desolate shall sit upon the ground,' are 
strikingly illustrated by the devices on these coins. 




OBVERSES OF THREE COINS OF VESPASIAN. 

A further revolt of the Jews during the time of 
Hadrian need not be mentioned, save for one circum- 



COINS ILLUSTRATIVE OF BIBLE STORY 



85 



stance. The leader, Simon Bar Cochab, in A. D. 132 
announced himself as the Messiah, calling himself the 
son of a star (Bar Cochab), and quoting as his 




COINS OF THE SECOND REVOLT, 



warrant the words in Num. xxiv. 17, 'The Star out of 
Jacob.' His coins bear Jewish emblems, the palm- 
tree, lyre, vine-leaf, wheat, grapes, and the Temple, 
and noticeably the star above the Temple ; and some 



86 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



are depicted here, which possess a certain interest. 
The trumpets used in the Temple service appear, it 
will be noticed, on one coin. 




COINS OF THE SECOND REVOLT. 

To complete the desolation of the city after this 
revolt had been subdued, Hadrian built a new city on 
the ruins of Jerusalem, calling it yElia Capitolina, 
erecting a temple in it to Jupiter, forming the district 
into a Roman colony, and so crushing completely the 
ideas and affections of the Jews, and setting their 
dearest traditions and their faith at defiance. 

The copper coin of Hadrian here shown com- 




COPPER COIN OF HADRIAN. 

memorates this outrageous action, and the founding of 
the colony of vElia Capitolina. 



COINS ILLUSTRATIVE OF BIBLE STORY 



«7 



There are certain passages in the Bible which receive 
remarkable confirmation from coins. It is a well- 
known fact that in many instances historical facts 
have their chief illustration in coins, and in a few 
cases coins are almost the only remaining pictorial 
representation of what is known to have existed. 

The historical accuracy of the Bible, and its un- 
failing truth, derive considerable support from the 
coins that remain in existence ; and it will be well to 
briefly point out a few noteworthy instances in which 





PHRYGIAN COIN. 



coins illustrate and ratify statements in Holy Writ. 
A very curious and rare Phrygian coin, struck at 
Apamea (called also Cibotos, an ark) in Phrygia, in 
the reign of Septimus Severus(A.D. 1 93-211), bears 
an illustration of the ark. 

The reverse shows a vessel floating on the water, 
and containing two persons, two others (or the same 
two at another period) standing on dry ground. On 



88 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



the ark is the word NHE (Noah), and above it are the 
dove with an oHve branch and the raven. The raven, 
it will be seen, is resting on the ark, as it did not 
return into the ark, but going to and fro doubtless 
rested on the ark. The tradition preserved in the 
Sibylline books was to the efifect that it was near to 
Apamea that the ark rested. 

"Eo-rt be TL ^pv)(^i7]S cttI riTreipoLo ixekaiviq'S 
''HXLJ3aT0i' TavvjJLTJKes opos 'Apapar be KaXelrat' 
"EvOa ^XejSes \xeyaXov irorapLOv Mapcniao iretfiiJKav 
Tov be K6/3coroj ep-eivev ev vylnqevri Kaprjv(o 
Arj^dvTOiv vbcLTOiV ; 
which may be translated — 

' There is on the mainland of Black Phrygia 
a steep and far-stretching mountain which is called 
Ararat. Here arise the springs of the great river 
Marsyas. Upon its lofty top the ark rested as the 
waters receded.' 





TYRIAN COINS. 



The great god Baal, of frequent mention in the 
Old Testament, is portrayed upon the coins of the 



COINS ILLUSTRATIVE OF BIBLE STORY 



89 



Tyrian isle Cosyra, and the goddess Ashtaroth on 
a coin of Phoenicia. 

In this cut, which is enlarged from the coin, she is 




PHCENICIAN COIN (ENLARGED). 

depicted as erect, holding a staff or sceptre on one 
coin, and in her state car with canopy in the other. 

A coin of Antoninus Pius (a.D. 138) gives a repre- 
sentation of the temple of Mount Gerizim in Samaria, 
mentioned in St. John iv. 20. 




COIN OF ANTONINUS PIUS. 



The inscriptions may be translated : — 

The Emperor Caesar Augustus Antoninus Pius. 
Money of Flavia Neapolis of Palestine in Syria. 



90 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



To illustrate the events described in the 19th chap- 
ter of the Acts of the Apostles two coins may be 
taken. On the first may be read NERHN KAICAP, 
Nero Caesar, and on the reverse (Money) of the 
Ephesians, NEnKOPOl, wardens or keepers of the 
Temple. 

This latter word is translated in verse ^^ as 
' worshippers.' It is the title given to the Ephesians', 
first by themselves and afterwards by others, and 
on which they prided themselves as being keepers. 




EPHESIAN COIN. 



wardens, and guardians of that world-renowned 
Temple. The word strictly means temple-sweeper, 
but was considered a title of high honour. The coin 
above was issued by ^Echmocles Aviola the Pro- 
consul, who exercised authority in A.D. 54-67, during 
the very time at which St. Paul was at Ephesus. He 
is called on the coin avOviraTos, which is the very 
word used in verse 38, and translated ' deputies.' 
The letters E<t> (Eph) stand for Ephesus. The other 
illustration, which, like the first, depicts the Temple of 
Ephesus, is not a coin, but probably one of the silver 



COINS ILLUSTRATIVE OF BIBLE STORY 



91 



charms or mementos that were made by Demetrius 
and others of his craft in large numbers, for visitors 
to the temple to purchase (Acts xix. 24, 25). It bears 




EPHESIAN CHARM. 



the name of the city Ecl^ESinN, and in the repre- 
sentation of the temple is the figure of Diana. 

Both cuts are therefore unconscious illustrations in 




COIN OF CYPRUS. 



their very words and their devices of the genuine 
character of the Bible narrative. 

Another interesting corroboration of the verbal 



92 



THE MONEY OF THE BIBLE 



accuracy of the New Testament can be given from 
a coin of Cyprus. In Acts xiii. 7, Sergius Paulus 
is called proconsul or deputy of Cyprus, the word 
used being again avOviraTos. At that particular 
moment he was so called ; but a few years earlier 
deputies of Cyprus had been called propraetors, and 
not proconsuls. 

At the date of the Bible narrative the title proconsul 
was in force, and a coin of that time struck by Cominus, 
KOMI N 1 01, acting under Claudius Caesar as ruler of 
Cyprus, bears the title ANGYnATOI. 




MEDALS USED AT ISTHMIAN GAMES. 



St. Paul in his Epistles makes frequent mention of 
the great Isthmian games ; see Heb. xii. i ; Phil. ii. 
16, iii. 14, iv. I ; i Cor. iv. 9, ix. 24-27 ; Gal. v. 7; 



COINS ILLUSTR ATiyjE/iOK ^ Bl^i.^^ )^^^^ \ /A 93 

I Tim. iv. 8 ; 2 Tim. ii. 5 ; and three representations 
of medals struck for use at these games may be of 
interest. 

On these medals are shown the wreath of leaves 
given to the victor, the name of the peninsula at 
Corinth at which the games took place, and one of 
the creatures, a crocodile, chained up for use at the 
animal fights and contests that were so popular a part 
of the barbarous sport. 

A coin of Ptolemy Philadelphus, B.C. 28c, in whose 
time the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Greek 
by the Seventy, and the Septuagint (LXX) version 
so obtained, is illustrated. 




COIN OF PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS. 



It shows Ptolemy and Berenice on the obverse, and 
Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoe, their children, on 
the reverse ; the inscription being GEHN AAEA^HN, 
' brother divinities.' 

I may fittingly conclude with two Roman medallions 
bearing upon them the Labarum and the sacred 
monogram of Christ, the ^ Chr(ist), first adopted by 
the Emperor Constantine on his coins and on the 
Roman standards, as a sign that Christianity had 



94 



THE ,,v:-ONFV OF THE BIBLE 



overcome even the paganism of the Roman emperor, 
and had started on the course of continued victory 
which is only to end in the subjugation of the entire 
world to our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 





PRIMITIVE SYMBOLICAL CROSS. 



THE LABARUM. 



INDEX 



Alexander Jannteus, coins of, 41, 42, 65. 

Alexander the Great, coins of, 31. 

Annius Rufus, coin of, 55. 

Antigonus, reign of, 43. 

Antiochus Euergetes, coins of, 32. 

Antoninus Pius, coin of, 89. 

Apollo, head of, on coin, 73. 

Artaxerxes, commission of, 26. 

As, a Roman coin, 66. 

Asmonjean dynasty, pedigree of, 37. 

Augustus, coins of, 61, 67. 

Baal, figure of, on coins, 88. 

Chalcus, a coin, 64. 

Citron, use of, on coins, 36. 

Constantine, coins of, 93. 

Coponius, coin of, 55. 

Copper money, references to, in New 

Testament, 74. 
Cornucopia, the, on coins, 39. 
Cup, use of, on coins, 36. 
Cyprus, coin of, 91. 

Daria, Persian, 25. 
Denarius, the, 69. 
Didrachma, the, 59. 
Dipondius, the, 66. 
Drachma, the, 59. 

Egyptian ring money, 15. 
Eleazar, coins of, 80. 
Ephesian coins, 90. 
Ezra, shekel of time of, 28. 

' Farthing,' the, 66. 
Felix, 56. 

Gadara, coin of. 68. 

Gold, references to, in New Testament, 79. 

Gold, shekels of, 22. 

Hadrian, coin of, 86. 

Half-shekel, the, 20, 27 ; of Simon Macca- 

bjEUS, 35. 
Herod dynasty, the rule of, 42, 43. 
Herod I, coin of, 44. 
Herod Archelaus, coin of, 46. 
Herod Antipas, reign of, 46 ; coin of, 48. 
Herod Philip II, coin of, 49. 
Herod Agrippa I, reign of, 50 ; coins of, 

51, 52. 



Herod Agrippa II, coin of, 53. 

Icelandic money, 17. 
Irish ring money, 18. 
Isthmian coins, 92. 

Jerusalem, the holy, 29. 

John Hyrcanus, rule of, 39; coin of, 40. 

Juba, coin of, 68. 

Judas AristoDulus, coin of, 41. 

Labarum, the, 93. 
Lepton, the, 64. 

Maccabees, the, 34. 
Mite, the widow's, 64. 
Money-changers, 76. 

Nubian ring money, 1 7. 

Palm-tree, the, use of, on coins, 36. 
Penny, Anglo-Saxon, 65 ; Roman, 69. 
Phrygian coin, 87. 
' Piece of silver,' the term, 21. 
Pontius Pilate, coin of, 56. 
Poppy-head, use of, on coins, 39. 
Procurators, rule of, 54. 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, coin of, 93. 

Revolts of the Jews, 80 ; coins of the first, 

80 ; of the second, 85, 86. 
Rhodes, coin of, 61. 
Ring money, 15. 

Sanhedrim, the, coins of, 81. 

Seleucus I, coin of, 32. 

Shekel, the, 20, 27. 

Silver, references to, in New Testament, 

73- 
Simon Nasi, coins of, 82. 
Simon Bar Cochab, coins of, 85. 
Simon Maccaba;us, coins of, 35. 
Stater, the, 60 ; of Augustus, 6i. 

Talent of gold, worth of, 23. 
Temple tribute, the, 60. 
Tetradrachm of Alexander, 32 ; of Seleu- 
cus, 32 ; of Antiochus, 33. 
Tetradrachma, the, 59. 
Tiberius, coin of, 70. 

Vespasian, coins of, 83. 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 



Genesis. 

xiii. 2 18 

XX. 16 19 

xxiv. 22 15, 22 

n 35 18 

xxxiii. 19 14 

xxxvii. 28 19 

xlii. 35 16 

Exodus. 

iii. 22 22 

xii. 35, 36 ....15, 22 

xvi. 32 28 

xxi 19 

n 32 63 

xxii 19 

XXX. 13 ... .19, 20, 21 

,, 13. 15 60 

xxxviii. 26 19, 20 

Leviticus. 

V- 15 19 

xxiii. 40 36 

xxvii. 3, 16 19 

,, 25 21 

Numbers. 

"i-47 21 

n 47. 50 19 

xvii. 8 28 

,, 10 29 

xviii. 16 I9i 21 

xxxi. 50, 51 14 

Deuteronomy. 

ii. 6, 28 19 

xiv. 24-26 ....16, 19 

Joshua. 

vii. 21 22 

xxiv. 32 14 

Judges. 

xvi. 5, 18 19 

xvii. 2 19 

1 Samuel. 

ii. 36 21 

ix. 7, 8 20 

,, 8 19, 20 

2 Samuel. 
xxiv. 24 23 

2 Kings. 

V. 5 22 

«23 19 

xxii. 9 21 

1 Chronicles. 

xxii. 25 22 

xxviii. II 78 

xxix. 7 25 

2 Chronicles. 

xxiv. 9 60 

xxxiv. 17 21 



Ezra. 
ii. 68, 69 25 

V. 17 78 

vi. I 78 

vii. 16-18 26 

,, 20 78 

viii. 26, 27 25 

Nehemiah. 

V. 15 26 

vii. "70, 72 25 

X. 30 20 

,,32 60 

xi. 1, 18 30 

Esther. 
i"-9 7« 

IV. 7 78 

Job. 

xxviii. 15 23 

xlii. II 13 

Psalms. 
Ixviii. 30 22 

Canticles. 
ii. I 62 

Isaiah, 

XXXV. I 62 

xlviii. 2 29 

Hi. I 30 

Ezekiel. 

xxii. 20 21 

xxvii. 24 78 

xlv. 12 21 

Daniel. 
ix. 24 30 

HOSEA. 
xiv. 5 29 

Joel. 
iii- 17 30 

Zechariah. 

iv. 3, 12 45 

xi. 12, 13 63 

Matthew. 

ii.i 38 

„ II 79 

V. 26 66, 68 

vi. 19, 20 79 

X. 9 74, 79 

,,29 66 

xii- 35 79 

xiii. 44, 52........ 79 

XIV. 1,3,9. .38,46,47,49 
xvii. 24, 27.. ..59, 60 

xviii. 23-35 79 

„ 28 69 



Matthew. 

xix. 21 79 

XX. 2,9, 10, 13.. 69,71 

xxi. 12 76 

xxii. 19 69 

XXV. 14-30 79 

,, 18-27 74- 

,1.27 76 

XXVI. 9 74 

M 15 63,64 

xxvii. 3, 5, 6, 9 . . 63, 64 

„ 6 "..78 

xxviii. 12-15 74 

Mark. 

V. 1 67 

vi.8 74 

„ 14 38,47 

„ 17 49 

„ 37 69 

vii. II 78 

viii. 15 48 

x. 21 79 

xi. 15 76 

xii. 15 69 

■, 41 74 

„ 41-43 78 

„ 42.... 65, 66, 68 

xiv. 5 " 69 

., ii 74 

Luke. 

i-5 38 

ii- I, 2 54 

iii. I, 19.. 38,47,48,49 

VI. 45 79 

vii. 41 69 

ix. 3 74 

„ 7 38,47,48 

X. 35 69 

xii. 6 65, 66 

„ 33 •••79 

xiii. 32 47 

XV. 8 59 

XV. 8, 9 72 

xviii. 22 79 

xix. 13-24 79 

„ 15-23 74 

„ 23 76 

XX. 24 69 

xxii. I 65, 78 

» 5 74 

xxiii. 12 47 

John. 

ii- 14, 15 77 

.„ 15 76 

IV. 20 89 

vi. 7 69 

viii. 20 78 

xii. 5 69 

xix. 12 52 



Acts. 

iii- 6 75,79 

iv.. 37 75 

vii. 16 74 

viii. 20 74 

„ 27 78 

ix. 32, 35,38 33 

xii 38 

n I 50 

„ 13 62 

„ 23 SI 

xiii. 7 92 

xix. 19 71 

„ 24,25 91 

XX. 33 75,79 

xxi. I 62 

xxiii. 3 80 

xxiv. 2 S7 

„ 24, 26 56 

„ 26 76 

XXV 38 

„ 13 53 

xxvi 38 

„ 2,28 53 

1 Corinthians. 

iv. 9 92 

ix. 24-27 92 

2 Corinthians. 

iv. 7 79 

xi. 32 46 

Galatians. 
V. 7 93 

Philippians. 

ii. 16 92 

iii. 14 92 

iv. I 92 

Colossians. 

ii^3 79 

1 Timothy. 
iv.8 93 

2 Timothy. 
ii-5 93 

Hebrews. 

xi. 26 79 

xii. I 92 

James. 
V. 3 75,79 

I Peter. 
i- 18 75, 79 

Revelation. 
vi. 6 69 



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