Skip to main content

Full text of "The Monist"

See other formats


This Js a digital copy of a book thai was preserved for generalions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as part of a projecl 
lo make Ihe world's books discoverable online. 

[I has sal's' ived long enough for Ihe copyright to expire and the booklo enter the public domaLn. A public domam book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright tenn has expired. Whelhera book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth oF history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Mai'ks, notations and other marginalia present in Ihe original volume will appear in this file - a reminder oF this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a Iibrai7 and finally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud lo partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong lo the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have laken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parlies, including placing lechnicaJ reslrictions on autonialed querying. 
We also ask Ihal you: 

+ Make non-commenia! iise of tha jiies We designed Google Book Search for us^ by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
persona], non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from auTornated qtte/ying Do not send automaled queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
Iranslation, optical character recognilion or other areas where access lo a large araouut of text is helpfuL please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials For Ihese pur|X}ses and may be able to help. 

+ Mainraln atliiburion The Google "walermark" you see on each file is essenlial for informing people about this project and helping I hem find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep jT legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Do not assume thai jusl 
because we believe a book is in Ihe public domain For users in the United Slates, that the work is also in Ihe public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyrighl varies fivim country to counlr\'. and we caji*l ofFer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume thai a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any maimer 
anywhere in the world- Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google*s mission is lo organize the world's information and lo make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through Ihe full text of this book on Ihe web 

at http : / /books ■ google , com/ 







The Monist 






The Open Couht Publishing Co. 

AUG 5 18* 




eriam F^iiic*^ By Thomu B. Frc«ics ,. , ,.„..,.,,.,,.,.. 41 

An4cli«uuLjf, WliM Du<k^ MuQ ^ Editor. jl-f 

An£A(^ial S»l<irrlfio And fhn Mftrriae** Pmblvm Ry Kinm M fit«a]«y 51 

Clifford 00 ihr Sinil ia Saiur*. Prubwor Br F C CnnylHUrn , 309 

CoDHrvALkxi gJ 3|iint <ind tbf OrJipo nV C;>ntcicmMi?«L Thv, 3t Ftaocm C 

RuaMll ,,, , 357 

CriTDBaJ Si'CffHtim. Ob 8yJ TMIwriI. ^ . 5^ 

GruhMioD, The Cootloulty <jf Thr ^cltmctr of l,inifaa£p vmos Tbi* Science 
<;rf Ltfr, A* it^CKOlcd bjr Tfot F^ hUt UOlIcr lUid Prof. C, ) UmdMc^ 

&iiu>r 7« 

Facu«u! M«a(ht S>nil«li By Km&i Macb , . i^ 

LiltT^ kaikf} A ^iuiDoi By Letatt Uolfow Jr. ,-..-...,,. ,... -,, 110 

LotficAl Thwry. TiK Pnviu PaiIhm of Bv Jnhe Dtwf ( 

Uac-c Scpan, Tbc. By Htm^aa Scliuttit. 4>7 

Mechaaxitl tarcatioa, Tbc K«w CivlliMtioQ Depend* oa By W, T, Hvtii. 17I 

Untal E\^itii«i. Ad OU Sptcutdion in a S*xr Liflbt B)' C UojA Morgan, i^i 

MHuI. Tbr l^vof hK*--'»»J» ^ Peirf*. 5jj 

Uonisai. Oar The l'nn(];4ett ol a CouMtnt UbIuit WorU-View Br 

BnwIUoacI ; «•! 

KeottMUy. Mr Cb*rla£. Pcirce's OaaUactn oa ih« bocthae cJ Liilor. ..- }fio 

K«0«nHj, Tb«D«irtk*c4^ KJummed ifj* Oui^ ^ Peir«« , yi 

F«y<tricil UoQMn. Uj Kijauod MMH^OUefy i}M 

RtUfka MtA Progcim. tocrtprccol b>' iba LUe ukd Lom Work of Wukcn 

MuLWillaC^ By ^ovcvk D. Cuav-a> i<j 

SpcatCT. Ur, oa tbc Elhin of KaaI Hdiw .,.,. >it 

Tbrnfliia Tin — iIim An Tt^rv-^? Edtter , r, .-p.-» tlj 

TltO«|%l aod LjofiBfi Br G«ori« Jote Kocnuua ffr 

Will acid R^MCfl By B Boanqwt 14 



France. By Ludeo Arreat, .,,,,., 266, iSG, 583 

France. The Iniellectual Awalienmg of the Langue D'Oc. By Theodore 

Stanton. .,..,.,.....,.,..,. 95 

Germany. Christian Ufer .,...,.,.,,.,.,..,,,,..„,...< lOi* sjt. ^gS. 593 


Cleigy'3 Dnly o£ Allegiance to Dogma and the Struggle between World- 

Conceptions. Editor. ,.,.., 278 

Comte and Turgot. Prof. Schaarscbmidt, ..,..,. ,, -.,..,,.,,.,. . 611 

Evolution and Langu^ei Comment on the Discussion on. By F, Mat 

Miiller a86 

Haeckers Monism. Professor, Editor 598 

James's Psycholt^y, Observations oQ Some Points ia. By W, L. Wor- 
cester. 417 

Littr^p A Defense of. By Louis Belrose Jr 403 

Liitre'fi. Emile, Positivism. A Reply. Editor 410 

Logical Theory, The Future Position of. Edward T. Diron. 606 

Mind, The Nature of and the Meaning of Reality. Editor. 4^4 

Monism and Mechanicaliam : Comments upon Prof. Ernst Haeckel'a Po- 
sition. Editor 438 

Peirce, Mr. Charles S.. on Necessity. Editor 44Z 

Religion of Science. The. Editor. , , 600 

Thought and Language, A letter by G. J. Romanes 40a 

Thought-forms. The Origin of. Editor ............................... iti 


Aveuarius, Richard. Drr nten^thiuhe IVeitbegri^^ ...,.,...,,... 451 

Baldwin. James Mark. Handbook of Psythology ...,,.. 467 

Bembeim. Nypnetism^, Suggeiiion, Psythotkerapu 465 

Coruillj C. H. EinUifung in dm ahe Tfttanieni. 443 

Curtis, Mattoon Monroe. An OufUn^ 0/ Loeke's Ethitai PhUasophy joo 

Delabarre, Edmund Burke. Utber Bnufgungsemp^ndungen 297 

Delboeuf. J, Les Fites de Montpeiiier 131 

Dillmann. Edmund. Eine neue Darsteliung d^r Leibnizisrhen Monaden- 

Ukrg auf Grand der Quillen 460 

Dixon, Edward T. The Foundationt of Geometry 116 

Erhardt, Franz. D^r ^atz votn Orundf ah Prinzip ties Sfhiieiseru . . ..... 631 

Gruber, Hermann. Der PesitivUnius j'oti Tode August Comte" s bit auf 

UNsere Tage fiS^j-iSgi),, 133 

HolzmaaUi H, J. Synoptiker. Aposteigesekukie 287 

Hilbbe-Schleiden. Dai Daiein ah Lusi, Leid und Liebe 468 

Husserl, E. G. Philosophic der Arithrtutik. ,.,.,...,..,.... ....,, 627 


Koeoig, Edmund. Die Enfwi<teiung d^s Causaiprobiems in der PhiiBsaphie 

siil Kant ..,....,,,-,.....,..-,,,,..,,,--,,-,-,,- ^ <,-,,-,,,-,, ^ ,. . 457 

Laaswiti, Kurd. Seifet^loien. 47 1 

Loeb. Jacques, (Infer suchungen zur physiologisihen Morpkohgie der Thiere 4GB 
Lombroso. C. L. NovtifiUi ffeeherches de Psythiatrie et D" Anthropoiegie 

CriminetU 6iS 

Lyoa9» Daniel. Christianity and InfallibiHty 629 

Mach, E. GrundHss der Maturiehre fiir die oberen Classen der Mitiel- 

ifhuien. , G17 

MiiDaterberg, Hugo, S<hriften der Geseilsiha/t fiir psychoi&gische Por- 

iihurtg , 289- 

Paszkowski. Wilhelm. Die Sedeu/mig der iheehgisthen Vorsteliungen fiir 

die Ethik 453 

Fearsou, Karl- The CraiiiNiar cf Science 623 

Pellegrini, Pietro. Diritto Scciale Tentalivo in Beaa. . 198 

Roberty, E. de, Agn&sticisme. 631 

Roberty. E, de. La Phiiosopkie du Siede 293 

Y RomaUBST George John- Darwin and After Darzvin. .................. 61 2 

Schmidkuuz, HaaSr Psyehoiogie der Suggestion 464 

Scbrflder, Eruat Voriesungen iiher die Algebra der Logik G18 

Schurraaun. Jacob Gould. Belief in God 121 

Schxvarz. Hermann. Das Wahrnehmungsproblem vom Standpunkte des 

Physikers, des Physiologen und des Philosophen ^ 455 

Scripture, E. W. Ueber den assodativen Verlauf der Vorsteliungen. ..... 137 

Selh. Audrew. The Present Pi}sition 0/ the PHihsifpfiiial Stient^s ....... . 450 

Toy, Crawford HowelK Judaism and Christianity 123 

Van Bemmeleu, P, Le A'iAiiisvie Sdentifique 19S 

Whilneyn William Dwighl. ^fax MUller and the Science of Language. . . . 4^ 

WLw, Isaac M. Prcrtaos to Holy Writ. ....^... 134 

Ziehen, Th. Leitfaden der phyiiohgisthen Psyckohgie in 14 Vortesungen. 461 

PERIODICALS 140-160 ; 303-320 ; 472-480 ; &34'*40 


K'^ni and Spencer. Reprinted arlicles rdaiive lo Mr. Spencer's eatitnaie 
of Kani. {In No. 4 of this volume.) 

VOUe. No. 4. 

JULY. 189^ 



£Atit': Dft. Paiti, C4Si)«. 



Eorrot jj* 


EatTOt - - . - ybta 

Lnwuirv CoNMsroHCinci: 

Prkooo- LuolcB Arrest— Germmir. ChrUlijui Uf«r 3I5 

DjvauiK Tonc»- 

Tbo RdlfEioo cf Science Ed^or - ■ «oo 
Tbe Falun P««tioD ol Logicd Ttttay- Kiv^anl T Dhop 606 

Coalv and TUrgoi. Prof Sobuncbraid* &ti 

|iaKi1*hi* rnr J'f 01»it*i ClHHn ikvf Miii<h<Tmlii*, D^ '^ ^ Wni, ;i.ii>.' 
MaaTtllM JUcrwribH 4a F'ochiairl* vi U ArHmrciinlaulBCrlminpI]* Mr /vsjf, C- ^ 

fc»lt--'T1l• GtHiirjii a( fWftnrn i\r i^ef. Kur[rrftB'$ it f'Jv--PhJl»iOVt)l* 4*r 
h^mtl-^ Bt /^p *. <- /7W"W, p ».r.-Ch'i"ipnt'> t-id fr]f*)lib*hiy »- ft«»#T,; 

Aval Mm*rdi, p, b^i — Af n<«EiCLuitfl. Ify A tff AV'^rr, p bj i 

PlllWirALK ...-.--- ftj^ 

/«kKliiffl Mr Pin^vlniiv vifil P1iT>J-Jki(ht ilvr SLiiimuicaiiC- t> <»)«. — VlorlvtJaJin- 
t€tff\tt Iflf Wlfcl*i™eb>flilth* »'hl|inapJ>ra, p fil^.^rhlLUifpblarh* ll afl Af ab'TTe. fJ- 

%— <TV* Awpiicait JvurcAl nt E^i^ctivlotc p F^j' --Kt^ije I'Lilntoplibjuei p. 437. — 
maul rilautm l P^ichr^loiFil. p 0^ — iiIjkI. p rs^Fi — JnitrniUanaJ jannikJ df Kimt-^ 
^4 tiV'— Tbt pfa>to»QpliiQ«l lUvttw. p. friv--- Tttt NflA World p. ft^g — 

LibltWMi. KAat uid S]VD«r- Heprinlcd arttdw ntativv m Mr, Spaocar'n 


W^ir* ft C^ 

FMt^ Brvsmo'^^llc^rlln - May^ A MDtlpr— Tnrifi unA Pnl^rnio: Carlo CUtUKO 

Thc Open Court PLblishing Co. 

Copyright, 1892, 


The OrRN Court PusuaHJNC' Co. 

Vou IL 


No. u 


1: PRi;si:xT RxsrrioN ov locical thi^ory. 


THE rpmarkflhlr f«ct in ih^ inmllecnift) tifr- of tO^ay is the con- 
irfidiciicTti in which it ir critAnKlcd, On otip hnml wc havt; an 
l-Cwwmotis Oevclopmcnt (>l ACicntic. both m spec iolisa lion of tncthod 
'ind a ecu m dial ion mI tnnictial ; ilf» cJiti:rt«ion and tliomij|ch>gomg ap- 
plication lo all rangcfi of exjxTTicnce^ What we tlioiild cxpoct from 
«uch A movctHL-nt. woidd ^c^m lo btr corttidvncc of iittcIlJKcncc in 
itKll ; and n corrcapondini^ on^aniiiation of knowlcd|;t:. givins «>nic 
^tiidt- and *itip[wrl li> Miv TIif* Hliaui^t ihin^ is ihnl iii&l<^ad of thin 
we bai'^i probably, the gTOA<i?«t appMreni disorganisation of author- 
ity as to intellectual maiEors that ihir world h&& over ^ecn ; whrk 
the pievAJcnC attitude and creed of scicntil^c men is philoiiophk a^- 
nottiioiKm. or difihHJrf in ihrrr nwn nn'ihf*d wh^n it rnmrti 10 fimda- 
mofitnl oiactcrft. Such a t>'pical representative ol trtodem science 
as Mf. Husdey virtually laughs 10 licorn the saj^Rention o( Mr^ Fred- 
crir llaiTiiton th^it »i:Lent:e should or could become ko oigaitJKrd h§ 
to give any *upporT. ar^y atifhorilativr viay, to liJe. 

Now I do not intend to disuift* this apparent contradiction. It 
seems to 01c obTioua cnoi]|;h that the contradiction is due to the 
fjict that MJiencv lta» ^oi lai euuu>;li alutig no thai il^ iirt^aiivt^ alti- 
tude towards previous codes of lile isevfdent. while its own positive 
principle of reconstruction ia not y«t evident, But without urging 
Ilu9 vicA' upon the reader 1 wish 10 ask how and where in the prc' 
vailtng confusion loicicAl theory, as a synop&is of the mirthods and 

lypicjil lorriK of mtcUigencc, ^EatkIs. Logical theory at ortcc reflects 
uml iiiiti'^fonns ihr? c-xiMmi^ >caui^ of uiJitirrv intv^lti^cru;!] at ;iiiy 
period. It rellecu it, for logical tl:cory i* only ihe express. Ibc 
overt cOTi9ciouan«»» on Chu part oE intoUteenc^ oE its own attitude, 
prevAJIm^ spirit, h tiunfiEoriiis it. because tliU express conKious' 
nv*^ niftWr*! inr**llifipnfp Icnnw where ii sitandi, nink<*s it aware of its 
strength and oi Hh we^krteiu, and by delintng ii to itsdl forces ii 10 
iftLc up new and more adcqtictc place. 

Tl i^obviouv, then, tlut av the ptcvailiiK indinrncr in the in- 
tc^hifCEual wfitlii to-day i* science, ibo the prpvailin;^ inffiicncp in log- 
icnl theory must be the cndcuvor to account ior, to jnt^tifyj or at 
lea?!t to reckon with this scicotiJic spirit. And y«t il there 1.1 »iich 
cnntuxion an we hivt; indicated, iliax tliert: h nho manile^ted sume 
chaoc in logical Ih^ory. a« 10 the tnie nature and method of «cu-iic«^ 
Wi:rc it othct^is«, wfrro there aic pret^ent a logical theory aderjuatc 
I<j Hut apccific and detailed prficlical results of ^len^e, f^clciicc aud 
scU^raitic meii would he con^cio^i& of ihemM:1ves, and woidd Ih? con. 
£dent in iht^ir work and attitndc. 

Thc cspcciiil prolilcm of [o[;ic. tx^ the theory of scientific method. 
IS the relation of fact and lliought to each other, of reality and 
ihonRhl- It is, however, diffcn-nti^ttrd from thrr mptJiphysical lhp^ry 
oj knowledge, Logic doc» not inquire into the ultimate m/aMtigoi 
liict and thought, nor into their u.'timau relntionn to one another. It 
wmply take?* them Irom the iiltiuide ul science itaeU, it^ l>u»ine»» 
b^ing> not ih^ JTisii^caiion nor TFfniaiinn of this attitude, but it« de^ 
velopment into explicit doctrine- Fact meana to logic no uorv. but 
certainly no leas, Chan Jt meins to the special sciences; JE it» the 
snhjecT'inattcr undei investifiaiion* undci coDsi deration ; it is that ^ 
which we art trying to make out iThonjitht too means to logic I 
what it meant to licicnce : method. It is che attitude and form 
which intelligence tidceTi in reference to fact— to its si[lijcct-mattCL\ 
whether in inquiry, toiperinienl. calcubtion, or M;ilemeni-j 

Logic, Then, wonid have for il* eMenlial problem the concidcr- 
tion of the various typical nielhods and guiding principle:; whicli 
thought assumes In its effort to delect, master, and repurt bct^ It 
U presupposed here that therr Is some sort of friniiul and intriniie 

THt mrjtKST posiTJds iiflt>cii!At TlTKinrv. 

connociion of ixc-i atiiI ihoaghi ; i)i;«t ihjnkin^, in «bon, it nothing 
but the Inct in its process of trandaticn Iroin brut« impremou lo 
loccoi nicftninE£. 

Dui llic iDomcnt viicli n jnc^uppu^itiun it» nUltd, luncty-cmc 
pencons out o( a hundred Oikit; tbat wc havi? phinged. c^ airti^o. 
Jrocn The certainty ol scienco into iti« clouiJUnd of mctaph}-sic. Add 
yet just this conciiplion of ific rckiJoQ of ilioufifit (m^-thoJ) to fact 
<vu1)j«cl'm«Cter> 16 t^kt-ii ftjr ^jaiacd in every bcitrniiftc invcMteailoo 
ftnd concltJtlon. Hers, theft, w« have in outline the present pc»si- 
lk>n of JogiC' II if^ Ehat any nticmpt lo stale, in ^cncrnl, or to wcrk 
oiii, in detail, the principle of ihc intrin^c stnd fniitfti] relation of 
fact and thonghl ^vhich sciennc iftitiunjl cnniu^iitiiK rt^fTcciinn* cnn< 
elflnily empfoyii in pmctice, teems *'nielaphy«icar* or even ahdurd. 
Why is thift? The ani^wer to thi? qucs^tion will (five tlio fillinRLip of 
tbc millinc \\i^\. ptcnetilcd, 

The chief Ciiuve lh tfiat <iup<*r4EiCton v/hicli SX\\\ haUIn enthralk'd 
«0 muc^ ol modern ihought^I mean formal logic. And x\ Hut 
E«em9 like af>plyiDg & havd nAino to what, at hoet uiid at wont, if 
only Jill Jnl€'llL%:ttiul gyiuiiJiiTtic. I tan only sa> lliat fuiiiml Ic^^jc 
W«m9 lo n»e TO bp, -it pr^spni, /r>ft( fl fin^i^ mahmtn in philosophy. 
It is tru9 onoufih UiAt nohody now lalceft the technical subject of 
formal loi^'c vco" *cHou»ly— unlcs* here and there some bcUtcd 
*'pfofefW"t.'' Il i* true that \\ \9> ^eiLc^t.tlly rde^'ated to the position 
of a cnbjcct which, (or some unclear reason, it ref-nrded jis *■ diKCi- 
pliiutr>' " to a young man's (education < juBI Afi ccrtuip olhci branches 
are re||[ardcd &» elegant accoinphnhmcnts ii; a younf; womiui*it lin- 
i«hm|(. Bui while the Mihjett \\st\\ &s a doLliiiie oi htience hatiDy 
rank« very high, th'> conception of thought which is al the bottom 
od formal logic aiiil dominutes th« d^W///'^/, and regulates iht; doc- 
trine and the method <A alJ those who draw their inspiration from 
thp P.*ii^fiil^ Any hook of formal X^^xc. will tell us \i\\^X thifi con- 
ception ol thotight it '. that thntight is a faculty or an entity existing 
in the mind, apart from Eact^ and that it hari itn own hxed foTm>> 
with which fact* have nothmg to do— except in so far aa they p.iAa 
under the yoke-. Jevonn puts il lhi» way: "JtHE as wi* th|j« fa- 
mihady r«s:ognice the diHerence o( form and siihsunce in common 

T«E M0XI51-. 

UiniEiltltr thics«, mi ve may jib«PTVt* in logic, thai ihe form of an ar< 
gumcnt is one thint;, quite distinct from th^ various subjc^cU or 
matter wh^ch loav be treated in ihal form/' * 

Pi i>fcnM>r Stuck varicv thc^ i;oud old tunc in this way: ''In 
every act al tTionght we may Jtsiin^iiiHh two things — (i^ the chject 
thought ahoiit. ♦>) the way in which The minU Ihtnks oi it. The 
first i» called ihc Mnttcr: the second the Form of Thoijff;ht. Now 
funiml , . . hj*;ic is contcemeU only with the wny h\ whicli the mind 
ihlnlfS, and l^as nothing lo do witli the particalar obj«ci(. thought 


^It 19 assumeil. iix fine. t1ia( thought has a nature of its ovra in- 
d^-pendem of fact* or <%Tih|erT" matter ; that ihisi thought. /»i^r t/, hA4 
C^rtniD lorni«, and that ihcrie forma ar« not forms which tlic lacta 
themselves lake, vAryinii; with the facts, but are rigid frames into 
which the facts are lo be scIt 

Now all of thi« conception — the nocjnn that the mind has a fac- 
ulty cf thought apart from things, the notion chat thU faculty id 
ccnsiructed, in and of il$clf, u'lih a fixed framework, the notion t]iat 
thinking is thf imprt*iinR nf ihi*i fixed fr^tmrwork on snmr nnyieldinfj 
matter callerl pnnicular oE>}ectSr or facts^all of this conception ap^ 
pears to mc as hiiehly scholaalic. ?i« the laM »trug^Ic of medtf^vnlism 
lo hold thaitfihi in *nhjection 10 ftiilhority. Nothing is more «iir- 
prininR ihnn the fact that while it i< fashionahk to rpj^ct, with grcai 
ficorn. a\] The results ard special methods of &chola(;ticisnir il£ foiin- 
dalion»1onc should still be accepted as the comer-stone of ihr edi- 
fice of modern doi^rrine, Ir rs siilf more Mjr]»risine when wi- reflect 
that the foundation'«ione is eohcrcnc only with the media-'val tupcr- 
stnicturc. The scholastics ivhcn they held that the method of 
tJioiight was a f4Ciiliy pur^^uinK luowii method jipiirt trtmi the ctjittse 
of things were at lea*tconai*tent. They did not conceive iliat thought 
was free, that intellifjcncc had ri^hi^, nor ttiat there was possible 
OCJcnce independent of data authoritatively laid down. RcaJJy hc' 
licria^ what (hey professed. — ttuU thought was fiuniciliin^ m st,^^ 



they bcM ih^t it mitsA be ±uj>plle<l with a fixed t>ody of dogmatic 
lict, fiQin Uiulition, frnin icvdatioti — frwn external atitltont}'. Tlie/ 
bftid that ihought in iu n'OTk^ng* i* cxjnfiiwd to eiEiiiciiTig from thit 
dogmatic bod)- ol lac( wh.ii j& alreaidy contnined m it. And to ro' 
Arranging tlic matL-rial dntl its iiuplications, Tocxumnic tl:cmif/rrW, 
lo leM it»CTnth: lo ^iip|>03e Ueali tiiEtlli^eiiCL- culiIO cuI Ioo^ bom 
fhi» body of ■utlu>rity nnd go scraighr to nAiure, to hisror}' ksell, to 
tind the tnith; to budd up n Iroc and ind«pE::ndcn[ «^icnco — to this 
point ol inc<^ieucy mediaeval scholastic i«ru never attamed. To 
pr^teUini ilie freedom oi ihmitelii, the rejection of all external au- 
lliority. th« right dnd xh* power of ihoughi to g«t at tnith for itself, 
ind yet continui; to define lhoiii:ht &^ o f»cit1cv apart frotn fact, vaa 
rearrved foi zni^Jctii eulijitlilenmciH - Aiid ncit Jt not soiiiuwhiLl otJt 
of my present scope. I should hkp lo show that ntO[l*?m culture is 
lliLis a prepared victim lor the nkilivl dialectician of th« rcaccJonar>- 
arm/' H the modern ^fi(£fisf does noE fall a prc>' to the cohorts of 
llie army of eicicrna) Authority, it is noL beE;au«e n h9« any rcco^- 
niied methods or an>' rec^gnivod crilcrion by which it can jii«iify 
in rataini; the «' banner ot the Iree spirit/' It iis ^^iniply the obfti^ 
nalc bidwark of outer fact. l>uilt up piecemeal hy science, that pro- 
t*cw \u\ 

The two main lorcec, which huve been :it work against the for- 
mula oE formal logic, are "inductive'^ or empirical lot;ic on one 
ttde, and the «a-cjdlcd "irauftcendentJil " logic, fin the other. Of 
thcce two> the influence of induciive logic in vapping in pr;ictical 
lashion and popular rv^ult^ Iht- acittiority of AylJogt^'tic \q^\c has un- 
dotibtcdly l>een much tlie gieatetH 1 propotte, brieFly. to give cer- 
tain resisorw for holding, hoirevM, that the induetEVi? logic doe* not 
Inmish OS nntli the aeodtd ih^iy ol the relation of tliought and 
fact. To ahow tlit» ade<|ttBtoly would demand the criticism of in- 
ductive logic tn the detail of ji^ methods, in oid«u Co ^Xxoye where it 
comes ihott. Aft this 14 Impos^thlo^ I shall now cofif ne myself to a 
couple ol gi>neral considerations. 

To l>cgin with, then, the empirical logic virtually continues the 
ccoception of thouEht as in itself pnipcy and formal which rharac- 
nteriaes Mhotasctc logic. It thus has really no theor\ which differ- 

THB 1I0»1*T, 

(rntiaiedli, AGi^irdEiho nataroof tboughi iUoH, from forma] Icglc- 
I cannot scci for otamplc, wii«t ctiiArrd tlic nio^t stringent tiphoJdcr 
nf formal logic can have with Mill a^ ic llii? Intttr's theoTy fff the 
^j'lloRism. MiU't thcfjrj- Tft TJniiTilly siJMpIy a theory rcgftrdintt the 
formnlJi^n oi the ninjor prcmiw— rcRnrHinft the process by wMch wc 
lorinuUtc the siatcmcui iht^z All Sis P. Ni>w, if we once accept 
iht? KyllfigUlk position, 1hi« procr'Aii licftoiicciclr the «copp and prob- 
lem of formaJ logic. It U not an aflnir of what Jcvort calls the form 
of argument at aU, hut Mniply oi l\\c. mnttc^r. the particular facts 
which make the fi1iin|£ of the Mr^timert, I do not see thai it is any 
part of Che business of forma] logic to tell where the m»jor premiss 
oofne^i Irom, not how it is get. And, on the other hand, when it 
ooraes to the munipulaEion of tlic data contained in the pieiniss. 
Mill munt fid] back npim the syltogistic Kigk. MiJl's theory. »o far 
» the thought -He meat is concerned, presupposes the syllogistic 
theor^'. And it Chi« ihtorv* on its AidCi does not presuppose some- 
thing like Mill's inductivt' iheory. it is simply becau:^ the lo^kiaii. 
jtfi a jihifauyjih^r, mny prHpr "innntionalisni " in "rmpiricijim-" He 
may held, that is, that the content of some major premt£se« i£ given 
by direct 'intuition" rather than gathered from u^ipcncnce. But 
/ in either cam:, this consMcralion of i]jr ^ciKce of (he content of ihe 
prcmiftii belongs not to forrial logic, bin lo ineraphysiCB, 

U, then, the theory of the &yllogJem is incorrect in its assump^ 
tiona as to the relation of fact and thought, the fndiictive logic must 
he similarly in error lr*f:i"cflT advnntage over the old scholastic 
lo^ic IJcs not in it& logic as stich, hut in somtlhing back t>i th? 
logic—in its Account of the derivation of the material of judgment, 
iWhaCever tlic defects of Locke's or Mill's Hccaum of experience* 
^ny theory which srmehow prcMipposi^s a fir^f'h.nnd contact of mind 
and (act t^Ihough it br; only in isoUied, atomic sensniion&T is surely 
preferable to a theory which fall.f back on tradition, or on the de> 
livoy of du|;ma uieiiponMble ttf any in tell factual critid^m. Rnt in 
iis account of the derivation of the material of judgment, inductive 
iojiic tft still hampered by ilie scholastic conception of thouF^ht. 
Thouelii, bcinE conliocd to the rigid framework in which the material 
i» manipulated after bcio^ obiained, \s txoliided frojo nil «hare in 



XHt fUE4i:XT |H»IT10M or LOGICAL TllEi>RV. 

the i;»ihcnnf( of RiatcfinL Ths result in ihat thi« maivftftl, having 
no intnnsu: thouf^ht-siilc, shrinks into a more or k»# BCcidcntoJ ab' 
Micialiijn ol more; (jr ti^vt shifting miit tt;iM«]Cory incniul sCalcfJ 

I nhall not ti«n ti> arguf tlwi, on this (Ernnnd, the "imhictivc" 
logic deprives licknco ol its most distinctive ^cicntinc fcatiirc»— the 
periD^ncncc and objcciivicy of its truths. I think no one cm deny 
ibdl there is at least an ti^ftan/tl gap la^twern the actii^il rrfiiitt nf 
con-crtfte science and thefic rc«iilts :is ih^y stand .ifter the touch of 
iho inUiJCtive lo^ic— that the ncctssity ond gencrnht)- ol science 
HVni rather to have been expUined nwAy, thiirt explained. J think 
ma&l of th<? inductive logician* themselves (while endeavcirinu lo 
|ac<Qunt for ihiH appari^nt neceBsily ad generated throa^-li a»oc:al]Oiii 
^vouKl admit that somvlJiin^ oi mencc »ums. iii icist» to have been 
lost, and thai the threat reanon Un piitting-up willi thi^ Iciiw Ift that 
ihf inducttv^ logLC iit the scJe aliemAliv« to a dogmatic tntuitioi^' 
atiani and to arbitrary Hpinninif-out oJ d /wrr concepts. 

Certainly «» [cin|^ a? ihijui;hi i» conceived aiter the lashiou oJ 
liytlogiscic logfc. ac a scheme furnished md fixed in Etvelf. npart 
ron) reshty, ko long gcientihc men muHt protvit a^'Ainvt allowing 
tJtoui^ht any part or lot In "icicntific proct'diire. So long some >uch 
mthiui tf/><r>ijiifi m ih^x jjiven hy VTill must he re^urtifxl lo in order 10 
[fxplain scioniific niechcdt itnd refills. Bui, on thi* other h^nd^ if 
BCl^olaBtic Jdeft ot ihoufchi be ihid aomothtng having its choraclor 
apAfl troni fact is once eivcn up* the cause which &t present crampa 
ihff logic nf ^cirnrp incn the Ingir nf irrmarirtnnlisTn and rtiipirirism 
ifl also giv«n up. And ihi» brrngs us to tho other point in ^citcrai 
rciCardins tlic inductive or cn^piriaul loific. Il is not atWctly a lo£ic 
at oil hut a me1«phyeic« Jl doc« not hesin with the fact of «cicpcc, 
the fact of ihr fruitful ini^vnry into fact by JntcllifjcTiee, at all. !t 
doos T\t>it stnniDK JTon this tact annl^iic the vanouf^ mctbodfi and 
lypca which lhou«ht mu»i take upon ii«c]f in order to maintain this 
fniitful inqniry. On the conirary, ic hci;in« with tenKations. and 
.pndeavorv by a theory «i knowledge on theba^icof ften«ationa]isrn to 
^btiital up the stnicture oi cognition, ordinary and scicntilic. 1 nm 
not concerned here uitb the truth of <icn:sdiionali»m a« a metaphys- 
ical llieory ol knowWd^e, nor with the ad^iiacy of the notion of 


mz uoMisr. 


scntalion ailvAncrd by Mill- It is cnouj^h Erom tUc lot^ical point of 
view lo pom! oul ibai ftticli a Oieory i^ not logic— ihat logic do<>s 
nol deal with tomi^thing ^a/jt of Ihv fact ol science, but with l\\e 
Qiulyiiji of scicrtihc mctl^od si% such- And ii il lorcing maUcfli to 
indicate ihftt this rettral fmm logic to mclaph>?ut i:> abo c;aiuei! L^' 
,the «y)k>giMic noEion o* thought ? Fonnal tho^ight, with Its for- 
mtiJu^ lor *impl>" unfolding a t'i^'<=" raatertiU, it, of no n&e tn dciencc- 
The;jc in, ihcrcforc. iht need of »omt' iimchintry to taker Uic place 
cf 1l]i>iL(;h^ And this is found ta st^ii^aiion and in **L'X])orieiice" 
according to the peculiar notion of expi^hence current in iho induC' 
tivG logic, 

\]\t a word, iheu (willioul aiicTuptint^ to sliuw the insurticicat;y 
of inductive logic a« th^ theory of science by reference to irs irrai- 
mmt of s[wc)fic points) inductive toRic doM aot meet our nned^ be- 
cat»Q i( is laot & froc. unprejudiced inquiry into the special forms 
and methods of science^ starnngfronnhraccnal sciences thcn^scUcs, 
It is founded ^nd built up with ccmsilaDi references la the scholastic 
notion of thoufiht) Where tt is not affected po&itjvcJy by it, it is 
tttiU nffectcd ty Il« reaction from it. lostead of denying once for 
nil validity fiT pven ^rnsp in rhe noTion orf rhmlciriK as a s|>ecjnl, 
apart process, and then beK^tnning a tree, ontiampercd examination 
with an eye »in)>k to the fact of science tlsclf, it retains Thia concep- 
tion of ihouifhi AS valid in a certain depftrtment. and thtn sct> out 
to find linmcthina in littpply thv gap in annrher departmt*ni- And 
thus wc haw the ur^uaJ division of inductive and deductive; logic, 
inductive beiag interpreted as cn^pirical and particular, deductive 
a» ityllo^istic and formal. Tliey artr conntcrjutrt and correlative 
theontn, the.' two sides oi ihi.* notion of the sepnrateness of fact and 
thought ; ihc^y stand and full together. 

*'TTauncei:deutat*' lo^ic, while a^ually conceived as utterly 
opposed in spirit and in re^idts to inductive logic, has yet been one 
with it m L'ndwa\'OTing to abolish lormal logic a^ the sufficient method 
«nd criterion of scientific truth. ) ^ay this alchoiigh well aware that 
inductive logic is usually conceived a^ spi^citically '^^citiniifiCT" 
while th^ transcdndenial movement is regarded as the especial foe 
of science— as a Mated attempt to rL'slore an u/wz-ZschoInstictsni, 

rrtt PKfc^bVl H»»IT10W u|- U>OJCAL iHEOffr. 

and in find a ndiPinK- for e^ahiiig tiQcTi out tii pun- tbanght. Tbn 
i« l>ccati«e ifthcn the <■ tninKC«n(i<nitaJ '* school Ulks ol thought, ol 
tbc nynihctic and objective cHarnctcr of ttiou^bt. ol the pa-t^iUilrty 
of dltatining aiiNt^lutc tritth througli tbtiu^tit. uuJ u] ihr onlolc^ic«i 
v;ilue oi thotighl. it is undcr^iood m nipjiTiin^ tbougtii in (be old, 
thokutic Mrnsu, a proct:«3 apurt ;kn<l hxt?d in iltielt, and yet some- 
how erolving truib out of itn own inner being, out oi itit own en- 
cloved raminadonv, Bi-it im tlie cowirarj. ibe very meaning *>( 
■" traiwcendenUljsm " i% not only ihat it i* tmpo^^ible lo g«t valid 
truth from tbc evolution of Ihou^bt in the ^cholulic *unve. but tiut 
ifacfc \% DO »uch tlictiifbt at ali Proccncs of inteUigeiicc vrliidi 
have th^it nature 6xed in thems#^lve*. apart from ta<:t and having io 
be cKtemaiiy dppbeil to (act, are pure myths lo h>s scliooi. Type* 
of thotight ore simply tbc varJout» lornuv which reality progressively 
takes as ii i^ juogtesi^ively mastered !» to its mi^.tning, — that is, nn- 
,dintood, Methodi r>f thought ave ^iittpLy ih4* various active atii- 
'tucks into uh}ch intcHigcnci: puis ittieU in urdor to detect ajid gztiip 
the fa4:t. bifrte^d vf ngUi. muulds lliey are Hcutible adaptations^. 
MettHxIs of thoTigtit fit fatt more closely and r^spodisively than a 
worn ftJovo lies ih^ hand. They are only the ideal evolution e/ the 
fftct. — and l>>- * ^ ideal " i* here niruut simpiy the e^vlution of i*<:t 
tnio meaning. 

H this is a (airdescnptioQof what the " tnu^iiCendeiilal " school 
meana by thought, it is evident that it ia a co-woiker with tlie spirit 
atid infem oi "iinluvlive" \o\i,'n:. lis siite aitcnipl iti tu gel hM of 
and leport the pf^iuppoitiUcn and rationale of science ; iis practical 
iiint ia to lay t>are and exhibit the method of science so that the true 
seu oi fiuihority— that U. the aulbcjrity. the laMit^, of Initb— shall 
be- lorever fiianifrsT. It has Hiinply t^onr a step further than ■- in- 
dvciive ' logic. an<l thrown uverbrjarU once for all tliv scholastic 
idea od IbouRht- Thih baa cnable<l it to atait anew, and to form its 
tbcor> of ihouehl siintply by fullcjwin;; the {rrmciple« cf Oic actual 
pTDCf^ftos by which man hm. thui: far in hi«tory% divcovered and 
poesofiMd laci. 

1 flhall not attempt here any defence of tire " ttan^ccndental ' 
logic ; 1 slutll noi even atieinpl to thcw tJiat the interi>reiaf ion of it 



whkh I hftv« given above is correci. It muflC go> for Ui^ preHcnt, 
simply as my inUividn^l unclcrftltnOine oi th« mallei. Simply uk- 
ing T?)is viL'W o( "iraii*ittn[I(^nial"' lii||;ir foryfiiiitet!, I wish, in order 
to cc^niplei^ our notion oi tlir* present p<)%Lt]OEi ol logic, to contficler 
the r«aaon» which liavc thun fur prevented, say, the Hci^chon lo^ic 
from ^ctliii^ any papulur held — lium i;f tliiiy rctu^nitioii (rum nclcii' 
tlAc men a«. it lean in principle, a Jair sut*Mncnt of their own bisic 
presuppo^ilioo and method. 

The iir»t of thcM! Teaaon:^ is that tlie popular anuprclicosion ol 
the "tranHcenfltntal'* inovcmt-nl is arr^^sieil nt Kant and has never 
gone on to Hcgd, Hegel, it is true, overshadowed Kani entirely 
for a conaidcrahle period. But the Hegelian rci^imc wa? partly 
pj'iolechnical rjiilirr than sciKrtilic in dioi^itict : and, pailly. mi \hi 
AS ic WHS fttienEific, it exhausted itself in ttimliiating various detailed 
scientific movcmcnls — us in tht- history oi political ruli^ion. art, etc. 
In thene hncs. li vfc iruNt even to those who have no Uilh in the 
Hej^elian n^ethud or priiiciplev the iiiovemeut fi>ui>d sumcr practical 
esccuse for being. But the result of the case waa and iis preeeni 
^tntiis is — that because tho principle of Hciicl vras, for ihc time, lo»t 
cither in display uf di&lui:tical firewuiku^ ui tji appli(;4tioi; lo specific 
isnbjectft, the principle \\&e]i has never met wiih any ^f^t^ra/ invosti- 
KAtion- Tho immense amount of labor spent on Kant during th^ 
past twenty ycais ha» made method and principle familiar, if not 
accfpinhlc. lo dir body of mvn callinc ihrnisrlvcii rduc.Alcd, And 
thiis^ fio fftr a* its ontcome ie concerned, ;hc irangccn dental move- 
ment still halts wiih Kant, 

Now, at the CApciiu; of secniing to plunge myself deeper in ab- 
laiitdTty ihfln I have alrrady gone, I mnst &»y that ihe Kanrion prin- 
ciple IS by fnr more *^tran»iccndcntar' in the llsu.iI interprclation of 
that term — more a firiffrt\ more given to emphaAiainR some special 
function of siomp «pcr-ial ihought-|TDWpr — than the Hegelian. A* 
against the n^itnl opinion thai while some; compromise heiween 
science and Kant ii^ possihlc, the licicntific spirit and Hct^el ore at 
antipodes it *ip|>CMrK lo cnc; tlint it i^ Kant who docs violence to 
science, while Hege) (I «peak of his essential method and not o( any 
particular renulti is; the quintessence of the scienlihc spirit. Let me 

TMK PXK«l^!Vr PUMn'JOX fIT rOGICrM^ TMKii)*!^. 

I r 

«a4«tivor to give some rrnfions inr ihis belief. Kan: Mflirs from tli*' 
accepiod scholastic conception of thou^iht. KanI never t^roama, lof i 
moment, ol qucstionin£ ihceAielencc ot m special facuUy of thouchi 
wftli itsovn pe>culi£tr an<l dxctl forms. He Maic^ ^ad re^ute^ [liai 
ihoucthi in jis«ll exifiis npnrt from fftct anJ occvif Jee il^elf v/hh i»c\ 
KJvcn lo it irom withovl- KAni, ii is uuct Kives the death blow lo 
Kltolaslici^m by pointing out ihai such a faculty of thought li purely 
n Italy lie— that it KJmply unfolds the m^iti^HsiI givt-rr. trhdhci ihac 
matcTJal bo tiue at laluc, having no method of nrrtvirg nt truth, ^nd 
no teat for dctcrn^mins: Cruih. Thin fact once clearly recognised, 
dogmatic raiionalisni, or ihcattrnipt to get uiiih from llio "Iok'^^bI" 
oiwd^ifi of concepU waK forever de^iroyed. Tl^e tt-ay WiU opened 
Eor AD iadependcnt cxotninntion ^i the actiinl mcchcd ol scicrcc. 

Dut while Klin I revealed once tor all the JnTpossibilityof gciiing 
Irutb^ af laying hnld of reality, by the seholastic method^ he itliU re- 
taiticxi that conception of thought- He denied, not ita vx»tence, 
but its worth its iclatei to tmth. What waj> the re«H]t } Ju»c thia : 
when he came lo hU Cixaminatiiin ^criiidsmf of kn»wlt:df;c?. it fc-ll 
apart at once into two separate factors, an a f^ri^ri and a pesUri^ri^ 
For if Kant tindft. a& ag;itnHC the J<)^inalic rationali:;!, that lomial 
thout^ht uuinot i;ive knuwlrdfc. be al*tu fiiidit, a« againtit the Kccp< 
tical empiricisit. thai unreluied seiis^ticn c::innnt give kiio^\'Led^e- 
H«Te tooi instead of denying* m i&fo^ the existence of unrelated «en- 
MtioD. he contented himsolf with denying its functional value lor 
knowledge. Unrelated st:n«idtiun and formal tliought ^tf MiiipJy tlie 
complementary halves of each other- Admit the one, and the odier 
is its neces«ary coucterpurt- 

Kant niiiKt notv piece loKcCher his two separated frtciors. Sen* 
cation, unrvlnted manifold of aenfiaiicn, x^Sktrr, thotiifht, ]f;elAtcd, 
analytic thought, is kfrt. Neither is; knowledge in iltdf. What 
more natural than to put them together, and hold th^C knoulcdife is 
tlic imioo of a mailter ur vttiff* ol R-nKaiiotLt. otomir in them%eK'e«, 
no one band, and a form, or regulating principle of thought, empty 
in itsetl. on tl^v other? Wc have two elements, both exirttini; in 
iaoJation. and yet botli u^leah for all purposes of knowl«lgc- Com- 
bine iheni, and pre»to. there i* science. 


tKs «(>jfit*r. 

Such n "traRKccndcniali^m *' os this may well Mick in th& 
crop tsf scientific nico. For consider what is involved in il : an a' 
/rhn fa*^lor on one «tdp, and an rj ^t>il/rii>ri^ on the other. Karl, 
Irom one ixjirtt ot view, seems ihui^ (o have simply comhinod iho 
wcalincsscs ol cmpirici«n) And nitionalisnr He still contidiKra t»| 
talk of cxpc-iiniicr il«r-lf ak pattiriitAr and conimgeni, and Hr-mpA 
that it givu« a basis for any universal laut. Adde from hisn effort tn 
the ■* KriGik dcr L'rthcd^Uir&ft" to overcome hi^ original scparatiot), 
special ^cicntiflc laws Ate to him only mori: or less extensive gen- 
vralbuilionK (rDm experir^rice — a« much co to him as to Locke, 
MtlL Scientific men indi^ci). have ;>ccui:toined themselves to thia 
ilero^tion of their ovrn methods and re.%ult9H and« as -jnductivc" 
kigicians. ituhil^e in it t{\iitr. ftrely ibcniselvcv But ^x\ tt priarf clC'- 
mtnt, supplied b)' 5 chon^Iit fixed and separate-* scientific men caa-j 
not do away with- Nor dt> I knew any reason why they should. 

It li coming ^hort. in my opinion, of the tiill staliirc of science 
to tre-'ut it a^ a qtiantrtivc? anc! varying gtnrralisatiun of contingent 
particulars, but Ihis, at lc&«l, leaves what science there is free and 
unhindered Bnt ^r/r/irnr' elements supplied from oitlsidc the factj 
itself, ti /rii'ri rltititnin ^omduru' entering' into the fact from wilhocit 
and conlroUiug it — this is to yive up the very spirit of scipnce. For 
if science mcnns anything, it is that our ideas, our judgments may 
ID sonic device reflect and lepqrt the fact itself, Scieuoe means, 
on ono }i;]ni|, tlial thon^hl h free to nllack and ^et hfild of il^ stit> 
]ect matter, and, on the other, tJiat fad iS iree to break ihrougli 
into tlioujc[ht ; free to impress itscll' — or rather to express itself — in 
intclligei^ue widioiit viltalion or dellectioa, Scientidc men are true 
to the instinct of the scientific *j>iT)i in fighting shy of a diicinct ^ 
prwri factar Aupplicd to fact Irom the mind, Apriorism ol this ooit 
mvist seem like an cfiort to crump the freedom of intelligence iind 
of iflci, ro bring ihom under the yoke of fiited, external form*- 

Now in H&a«l there rs no tiich conception oJ thought and of a 
frhru ae i^ found in K&nt- Kant formnlatc^ Che conception ol 
thoMKht us objijctivi;, \\\%\ he incerpretcd this as jm-aning (hat ihotixht 
subjVcTivc in itfifllf btc^ma Abj(^CTjvs when synthetic of a given sense- 
manifold. When HcKol calls thought objective he means just what 


TBR pREfiKSfT potmox or lOClCAt T»KO«r. 


he sa>'s that there is no special, apavi tacullyoi thought belongnig 
to and o(ierAteU by M mni^ cxisune ^c-pai^ii; Uom the outer iroild. 
Wtiut Htg^I tiipans hy ohj^ctlv-f^ thouglu \^ x\\e meaning, th<^ ftigntfi- 
ctrtct ol ttit? (act Itself ; and by methods of tlioiiglit he und^rsiaod^ 
■imply the procesies in nhich this meaninic of fact la cvolv^. 

TIjvic ha& Uccv* of Ule. considerable 4iiM;uMion uf ibt- place 
ind fiindioii of "frifliioi'i"* in knoulrdRf*, This itUcEi^on irt Eng- 
lish apQcuUljon, at leaet. t^ntj^ to turr Ur^ciy about Thorns HiU 
Groeii'9 reconstruction oif Kancianifini. I consider it unfortunate 
ihal chi^ discu^simi ba« iRkcn the form of a dcbaii; Iwlweer^em- 
pirictsm an<1 Kantianism Thr qEir^iion nd knowlo^i^c* has thii4 come 
CO be whether or not certain relations me si^pplied by thouji;ht to 
t^QsaiionB in order to make aq onlcrly whole out of the latter, chao- 
tic in ihr^rifiHvrK. Now vrhrn HrgrI talks of relntie^nc of thought 
(not chat he miikcs much ti%c oE jiist this term) he me!^n« no «uch 
ft^I^rate iormji. Relations of ihtiURht nrc, to Hegel, ihc typical 
forms of mi^anir^S which the sivibjpct' matter i«tke« in it* v*no«s pro* 
rofiftivo fiAfE^ of bein^ underctood. And thU it: what a /'rUn 
Tueans from A Hegcliftn ^landpomt. It is not -vome clement i« 
kuowJcdce ; some addition of thought 'to eKpencnce* It je* expc- 
ficnct' iiftcif in lis skt»k*icin, in iht- m;iiti feiiTurrt of [tk £r«raework, 

"Refutations'* of Hegc;!. then^ which attempt to «how that 
" thouicHt *' in ii*clf is empty, that it waits for content from CJtpe- 
rirnce* ihat it cannot by any manipulation irvolve truth out of itself 
arc, if taken ait hiviu^ reli*vanc« to Ht^gel, «iirply meaningloi*. 
Hcf^el begins tvhcre Ihcite ar^o^ers leave oft. Accepting all that ibcy 
CAn Kayt he goe?i one ste(3 hirthcr. and denies that there ifl any ^uch 
"thought" at all xnywhPie in fL-xiUirm-e. The qiseHtion of the re- 
latioot or "categories of ihoughi " i« jnst the qui-stion ol the broad 
and main aspects of fact as that fact corned to be understood. 

For example. Kaiil v\ould prove the *i firhrri duiracter and 
validity of the principle of rflusacion hy *ihowrng that without il 
science m impossible, that it helps "mflko e<p€ri6nc«-" Now. in 
terms, Hecel's justirication of this rcJation would be the same ; he 
too would sjiow ibai the fabric of experience imphes and demandK 
the cau»al relation. Bui in Kant'n cafic^ the jiietjfication oi the 



pnnciplv ©r causality hy rcfcrcucc Ei> Uiv possibility of cxpL-rieucc 
incan^ that tlionghl niiiet romimiatly injpcr this prmctpl« *>/v> ex» 
pcTJonce CO keep jt item di^appcarirleC ' tliAi cAtpcnenco must t>c 
Cf^nslAQCly braced and icinfoKcil by the synthetic action ol thoui^ht 
or 11 tvill collapse. In sJion^ tbt* need of i;xi>erienc«' for ihis prin* 
cipic of causation njoars Iw ncod for a ccTCain st^ppon oui«i<]« it-! 
self- iBtil Hegel's ticmoufiiratjon of the validiEv of the catisaf 
pTiiiciple lb siiLi^^ly pomiiitg uiil tU^t tiic uliuk si]ppoiL» tlic pari, 
nbilc tho pan helps moke the whole. That h lo sajf, Hegel^.; 
nrlo^cucv is not to somn ontsislc naion of thoiiffht in ninintnining 
fact as an object of knowledge; It is to the cnitic stiructtirc of fact' 
it«c1f. Mis corttcniinn is simply that the stnicnire of fact itself, o( 
the fliibjeet- matter of knowledge, is such that in one oJ its phases it 
presents necessarily the aspect of causality. And if this word "no*i 
cessarlly " ^ivcs pause, il niiist he it'iiic^riiltL-icd whiil tlie source of') 
This nccr^sity is, II doesfffl/ li^in thepriuciple tif causation //rf// it 
lieJ> in the nbole tact, the whole subject matter of knowlcdf^e- U 
IS ehc wme aott of necessity as when wc say that a complete mao 
mtisr h-nve au cj'e ; i. e.. it is the naitirr cif thr hum;in nr^anUni lo 
develop and sustain Ihis organ, while the organ, in turn^ contributes 
to and thus helps consliluic the organism.] 

It is then evident thai ttic i^ue^Eion Lipon which the "refuU< 
tioTi" of Hegt'l inrns i^ not in showing that formal "thoiiii;ht'* can* 
not give birib to trutJi except through the Iructiiying touch of «xpe< . 
ricnce. Th:; <piestion is dimply wht^tUcr fact— the subject' matter f 
of knowlt-dgi!^» such ns He^el pie^ent^ iL U it, lu ^cnttntl^ a 
counvret«d system a« he tictds it to be ? And. H a system, doet iu 
in partj^uinr. present such ph:iscs isuch relations, caiegories) a» 
Hej^c'l *hvws forth? Tlmse are objective fjiicMions pure and sim- 
ple : questions identical, in kind, with the question whether the con- 
Blitulion of FZtneo&e is what £ome ch^-mist claims to hav? found it< 
\Thisy then, is why I conceive Hegel— cotifclv apart from the 
value iii any special resulls — to represent the qi[intc^^ni:c oE the 
scieniilie spirir, Ue deni<rs not only the pn»ibiliiy of getting tniih 
out of a formal, apart rhmighip hut he denies the existence of any 
faculty of thoui:ht which is other ihnn the expression ol faict itself. 

TllK PRl^vtVl eOftmOX uMOCtEUl Tniuiftv. 


H>A oonteniion t« not that ''ihought," in ih« echolafettc sen^o, has 
<inloloickaf v^lidityp but tJiat facl, reality is si^JficAnt, Cvcn. thcii, 
if il WCTC stiowfi llisi Hcud ifi jpicny mii^'h all wroii; as to ihtr tipc- 
cUI meanings which hp findw lo mstltc up i)ir i^i^rif cancc nl reality, 
hi$ mftin principk ^vou]d be uniirponched until it w«ro shown that 
Uct ha» not a ^ysti^indtic, or inicrconnecied, meaiiintf, but i« o mere 
hrnlsi-podlif* cf frai^inrm^i, Whdlirr rhr ^rirnriftc lijiiriT wmild hsvf 
any intewsl in tuch a hodB<ipoilK<^ may, at leapt, bi^ questioned-] 

Haviag dcftll at such Icnsih wiib ihc fifsl reason why «* yet the 
■'tianscc^dental" movement has found no overt ctKtitrsccncc ftkh 
thp lictrmlfic, wr may dna! brlf^fly with ihi* Tcmaitiing rpa&on* In 
the second place ihcn, the rationnliiy oi fact had not been suffi- 
ciently rcftlifted in detjiil in the c^irly decides of the century to 
aHtnii of 1b^ prinripir* ni the " iran«riTn(irnt;i1 " moverairnt bc*ing 
othorwiftc ihiin mi»iinderi>tood. That in to «Ay, the <kvclopmnni 
iod* ntorc pAriicuUrly, ihc applicAtion of science lo ihc »pecilic 
f^t^cf the world wn* then compaiutivdy nidiniculary. On nccouni 
<4 ihis t&cJc of ftcicmific discovery and appllcatiotir the world pT«- 
sented itself to man's consctousrtc^ si> il hiank. or nt least as only 
Muflyi'f (UcaninKt and not as il^^lf ^ignLlicani, The result wa& that 
HeKcl miitt lie inCeqirttHl siibjt'ccively. Tlit- tlifliaillic'K in ihr way 
ol conceivinf; tt M-orld, upon which science had not yet expended its 
encfsics in detail, oa an on;ani#m of ?ci^ni^cftnt relations and hcnp 
mgt^ Ki^Tc %o fCrrat. th^t HeiEelS jitEt-m].>c to point uut ihewir !^ij£n]fi- 
Caoi lypt* and function* i* immanent in renlity wa* inevitably mifi- 
construed as an ativitipt, on licgers part, to prove that n r*yticm of 
pnrely ''subjective" ihoii^'htn could somehow be so tnanipniaicd a» 
lo gi't objptlivfly valid rtxiills. 

He^el. in oilier wordsi. anticipated somewhat the actual exit 
come ol tlie scientific movement- >loKevcT sii^nificnnt fact may be, 

* tl thodld bv nadiTftoad that in lb* pm-ioui djtcDHrion an tnr aa it r«lal«t la 
Hjnt ] hmVK ukea bim av his lownt i«trDB— IhoAc ot locical scirctfiksLKcDcy. So 
bt ts Kfroi dot* ticn lucccedin Inrcino li^mKcrt from hi^MWu^lpni^itjcit]— the r3< 

IB the VTBW iltmilv AiitlbuDnl lu bitti u inrviuhlr, Tint ih.-it tfir Uutnyw^T of Knni 
bi Id Rukir tt^ ihnuKlvrrlannm .r ^rt,T// limpl) in ilitr um^r ol hcma Uft% own 
anaiomf i«d pbyviOKnooiy I chcruM not <icny. 


ho^cvfrr Inic rt may be tliat an apari facLiIty of ihoughi in an bh 
siiictSt). KoAfver t:(:-rtairi il iiiny br Hi;il ihcit iiir no tt'fil ty;»es or 
mHhocls of ihoughi ai sll excepting Those of the object>matter it^lf 
Afi it conies TO bo ui^dcrstood. vol Co man this objeccive signi&cAoc* 
cAnnot be real till be Iuib matle it cW in the details oi scientific pro- 
c^^^^ffS and m.i^/ it applle^t ^clrnrp in irvirrnion. Hegol'i? «lftn<l- 
point vTdLS, iher«lore, of necessity obacuro^ Whan the fiignificsxit 
chAracler of fact was not yet opened up tn detail, a incthod whicb 
wcrVed mion the baiis ibat the only jiossiblp thought is the rcflcc- 
Tion nf ihp tigniliciinc^ of fftct, had no chance of fair intcrpreifltjon^ 
And thug it w^« (and lar^eJy th) (hat wlicn He^cl speaks of objec- 
tive ihoiifiht and its rcUiions. be i» undei^ttood as havii;g the ordi' 
nary concrpzion of thoHgbi (thai k,.nf thnughi ;is *i pnncly «t^a- 
rate and subjective faculty), and yet at trying to provi? that this 
opart fnculty ba$ sornc rriysirriciiA povrcr of cvolvmg inith. 

The (jiieslioEi which now confronts us. ihcieForc:, a^ to Uic 
preftPTil place of logic ifi just this ■ Has ihe application of urit^ntifie 
thought lo ihc world e! fact gone far enough to that tve can speak, 
without itccmini; tsirainedp of the rationality of fact ? Whcti we speak 
ti( thct r.iliniialiiy, of iht itiiriiisic int^JiTtiiig «f fact, can these ic^rmit 
be underittcod in their direct and obvious sense, and not in any re- 
mote, or m^r^/y metaphysical sen^e? HikB the theoietical considera- 
tion of cnlure in il^ tktoilctl sliidy. has pructitj! invention, as tbc 
trtanilf^Htation til ih<? TaliuiiHiity of UcT, yonr? j:ii f [iou<^h so fhar this; 
vignihcance haft become, or could l>ecom« with some eUort. a» teal 
and objective a material of study aa are molecules and vibrations? 

It sctfiLiH to rut that we are iilieady at iWis ?ilai;c, ot ate at the 
point of getting to u> Without arguing this qii(<stion, however, 
(which, indeed, can be proved only by acting upon it. onJy ^jwi**- 
/antivt'y I would point out Ehat ihe constant detailed work of science 
t»l*on ihe ^vo^1d in theory ami in invention, must in time ytvt that 
world an evident nieanin^ in human consciousness, What prevents 
scientific men from now rcaJising this fact, is that they arc stiU 
idraid of certain " tiaiiscifiidenl*' rnlitit's azid forci^s ; afraid that if 
they rela* iheir hosuh'ty to meiaphysicr some one will spring; upon 
then! the old achoJasttc scheme of external, f^upcrnnturfjl imreali- 


ties. To those who take the prevailing agnosticism not as a thing, 
but as a symptom, this agnosticism means just this : The whole set 
of external, or non-immanent entities, is now on the point of falling 
away, of dissolving. We got just so far. popularly, as holding that 
they are unknowable. In other words, they arc crowded lo the ex- 
treme verge. One push more, and off they go. The popular con- 
sciousness will hold not only that they are unknowable, but that 
they are not. 

What then ? Science freed from its fear of an external and 
dogmatic metaphysic, will iose its fear of metaphysic. Having un- 
questioned and free possession of its own domain, that of knowledge 
and of fact, it will also be free to build up the intrinsic metaphysic 
of this domain- It will be free to ask after the structure of mean- 
ings which makes up the skeleton of this world of knowledge. The 
moment this point is reached, the speculative critical logic worked 
out in the development of Kantian ideas, and the positive, specific 
work of the scientific spirit will be at one. It will be seen that this 
logic is no revived, redecked scholasticism, but a complete aban- 
donment of scholasticism ] that it deals simply with the inner ana- 
tomy of the realm of scientific reality, and has simply endeavored, 
with however much of anticipation, to dissect and lay bare, at large 
and in general, the features of the same subject-matter, which the 
positive sciences have been occupying themselves with in particular 
and in detail. 

That we are almost at the point of such conflux, a point where 
the general, and therefore somewhat abstract lines of critical logic 
will run in to the particular, and therefore somewhat isolated, lines 
of positive science, is, in my opinion, the present position of logical 

John Dewkv. 


IT has always been, 1 think, the practice in civilised society to 
speak of reason or good sense as in some way infii^encing ac- 
tion. And of course it must do so, if, as we s^ippose, it forms the 
radical distinction t>etween man and the lower animals^ '* Be rea- 
sonable," we say, in reference lo action no less than to speculation. 
*' Wisdom and blood," says Shakespeare, "combating iu so tender 
a body, we have ten proofs to one that blood hath the victory,"' 
Blood here means passion. How does wisdom or knowledge com- 
bat passion? I do not say that wisdom and knowledge mean the 
same thing, but if they do not, we should like to know the differ- 
ence between them. 

In this prevalent notion of the conRict between reason and de- 
sire, it may be observed that reason is. as a rule, supposed to be 
negative or prohibitive. "Be reasonable" generally means "give 
up something you want very much." According to one account, 
the inward monitor of Socrates was always negative, and throughout 
moral philosophy, and especially throughout moralising philosophy, 
which is not quite the same thing, you find the point of view that rea- 
son conflicts with desire, and has in fact for its function very much to 
prevent you doing or caring about whatever you very particularly 
want to do or incline to care about. This is what gives rtse to the 
state of things satirised in the old saying "Any young man would 
rather face an imputation on his moral character than an imputation 
on his hor'^ematiship," If moral character means a sort of detach- 
ment from everything, this feeling is both natural and justifiable. 
The popular interpretation of Aristotle leans, in the direction of this 

mix AKO ^^AS4>K, 


_idca about rcttion, in so tar as tbe cooceptwn cE the reason seem* 
coniKcted with comiiiou-pUce Rotion» about tlic evils of ea- 
cos, tuongly r^im-wnlej in Greek proverbial ^iliilmopby. If was 
easy to add' to ih^te ideui th*> inception ol tlitf (^vilt of delect, 
which 35 htile more tlian a vcrbttl rL-fintmcfit on the other. These 
qiij4iit^tiitiv« expriSK»;oii4 havn not luach uieiiiuni; in moiaJity. tJn' 
questionably. I ihtnk. tho popuUr itsp^ct ot tlie Amtotelian doc- 
trine is an ideu ih^t you ought not 10 throw yoiirii*H v«ry dec:ply 
into diiythiug. Rc^sou U. in fthort. according to ihcM tnorulistic 
conceptions, though net according io Axi^loilc'H fundjimi-'ntal view, 
a ftorr of check upon desire and littk move. 

This ac^aiiiix^ chainclcr of roason vkiII, 1 hop?< explain itself 
away a& wc piuccicd. The piiuiaiy poinl un whi^li I want to iu>iKt 
1ft not why reason k thus irpsTcd as ne^jfltive, hnt how it com^« that 
r^uoo Cftn be supposed to conflict with or coiirr<jJ iLesiro at all, I 
apeak for the pret^cnt of Desire, notofWilln heeait&e the meaning 
of desire is clearer : ^vl>ere«& ii ih s do(ibt> iiniil w.' have explained 
tbo nature 0I active ronton, whAi Will i», nnd whetlinr it is di»- 
tinfctti^luible from desire. 

Now. on ibc other h-ind, there Js a ^cotcncc o( Anstotle " la- 
Tfrllif^encc x% *iich movcit nothing," and this *icrms in rome home to 
ti« (|Uite B9 naturally 3E the idea that renton controU action^ All 
plHifi or aDAn>hi|CiionK in«tancc5 of rcnnon or rcasonini: or intclli- 
grnce, %mn to deal with diKco^'ery of fact, conched in n form which 
iG CApabte of tnith and faliii^hood- For our puqiott- we ni^^y trcsi 
il as elahoTaic pctccption. whether direct or ns^i&ted throtJtch in- 
ference, ftuch a» cakiilAtion^ CftlcuEation i» the old mcAnin^ of 
reawining. lioth in Greek and Latin- 
How do we get acrcvji from perception or calculation to any- 
tbiQR that can interfere with desire? 

Of cotirM* tliere i* a rneetin)d>oIiit in the idei that uttendv de- 
sire- Human destte, at least, E^ not l^Hnd It Ja deaire of «oroe- 
thing, which i» belore the nirnd as an idea: and in the en^e of dc 
»re whkh i»«nr»in action this T^omc thing must he mentatly ?»pecilied 
in rwpeet of the lurticolar means needed to biirtg it ahonl. Anil 
olao, the end ov putpo«e which it d«»ired f«r iti uwo aake. is. in thft 



connection of CAU?tc flt:<l efJcct, itacJf ci't- fiaiQ a mcana to othei rc- 
ftiilli itif iftfiniftim. more or Ic** oJ which aw- foremen hy tlit peraon 
n-hc acts. Thiiit thv act. as fully pre«en1(HJ to llitf mintl in idea, iv 
a cortiplicHtion ot cxicmai circumtLtaiicce, vrhicli art' idcfilly dialiO' 
guiahedi iuppoftiiii; the act to be rcflt?ctcd on. ^.9 ti;i;an!i. rcali?«ation 
ol the purpose, and iof^^een consequ^iicea both of Cite means and 
of the loaiisatton ol the purput^e. 

Il is, 1 think, all-imptirtant to rcuicmbt^r. thei these dbtinctlond 
are itiAiFnciicns of reluiio:] lo the acting Mibject, dr^wn ver^ lightly 
hy the acting siLbjuct on Th« shifting fcurlace o( a complicated set of 
resuh*! prcr?M-nl4:d in idcu, and are ncit at nil complete distinctions. 
dnd lend Oi cm waives vriy rrjitlily lo aeU'ilctL'ptiuu. Wt sliall »w 
the impnrtanrr of ihii rrinark directly. 

In the m«anilnie, hore w« havo ono way in which reasonings 
about fact do help to Riodify our acllon»> It wc know dlMincily 
what A\c de»iire. swy, a wirt-k's holiday, ihri ic is tcHsonlng about 
matierf of fact that will tell im whni wp ntusl do tdgel ii, an^i, in 
pert, what the rceiilts will be both of our getting il and ol what i^-c 
do to get it. Now for phiioM>ph]cal pLjpo^^c^ we need not considci 
rhf* frjr***;rMi rfint,i'']i:rnro-t ^pftrnlelv They mnsi rank, morally, 
as means. That ifi lo ^ay, tbey are something which you have to 
take into the bargain in ordcx to get what v-o^i want. They come in 
with ;il1 the other ciicuni»^tanccs in dclermming whether you like 
Ihe at'tion or not. 

Now is tAii connection bciw^cn action and reason what wc have 
in mind when we say thai a person ought to act reasonably, or that 
reason cotidials desire? Do we iinder«1;ind by actiny reaaoiijihly, 
that aummins some one part of the ims^ined cjicuintTances to rep- 
resent the purpose, the agent hai i;ot all the meanti to it. an<] the 
loieseen CDn>eqLience5 of it. and the interdependence of the pari>ol 
the purpot^e itself, set out in a connection which it truly perceived 
or scientifically inferred? 

\Vf do sometimes appear to mean this. We say ; it is unrea- 
sonable tLi a^k mt lo be at lh«? «tiktion at nine wlifrn iht* Iriiin doi^s 
not start till Ten. It iv unrea:u>nabte, yoamay a»y, on the^rotincl that 
the nioan» demanded of me arc not, acientifically ipc^ikmg. neces- 




9«ry la 1\k imd agrt-cd upuit. Still more wc ^triiild pruDounce il^ 
unreason;! bU to 3<lopi any m«ana w^icl actually dvCoau your pur- 
pose ; which could only happen, one would ttiink. eith^-r ffoiu moral 
acli-dcc<:pt)OD, ijr m complicAlod raatlcra wlxic llic mcfinn arc dlt^ 
putabl«. This M^cond <:a4« do<>4 not tnait^r icj ii»; th«- ittsi carrier 
ua a bttio further, because it auggms ihat what you call Eli« mean^ 
may really contain your purpose-, or one of your purpo»o», perhaps 
iiicucmMml witli diiullir^i. Tti^ liat^ftnrycd iriuiui|)[r r>l bL^lJisli cliaiity 
h as good a C3«e of tlii« unreal on ab1en«f.« aa can b« found. The 
giltt which i» proktifrud to bo meroly a raoaas to tho good <4 aa^ 
otbci. is uudcr all the conditions a mcajis contrary to tliac fooiJ. 
srtui U givon bpc^ATiKo tT |{TaiJiir4 an TmptiUi^ nf lh<* drMiaT> fi inighl 
aoocn, in thi^ cas« again, a fair explanation to pronoitRc<r such con- 
duct unrcaaonablc merely because the means adopted are scicu- 
tifically speaking inconsiMenc with ihe vn6 pioptified. We fiiighl 
boar in mini), howp^-^r, ihat ue nccm to havr doiccird h<^rr- a prob- 
able cordict of nndt, not merely ol means to an end^ 

Admitting, (hen, for the moment. tbAt vve hold conduct to be 
itnrra«onablr if thr pt^rr-f^plitin. implied in it, of ihr n>1aiion bertwrt^n 
mcana, enda^ and coni^c<picn<o« ii^ flagrnntly faUc. do vec adntit con- 
duct to be rcfitiWRoblc f/jw//y hccdU:\c tbc intellectual perception in 
quc?^tion i« clear and trut:? T.iking tiiitb tn ii»oidJuary st^nsc, as 
truth of ftimpU? face, we^ mtwt deny thtn. I may Icnow perfectly well 
that *o much wine wilJ make me dnmk, and may drink it with thftt 
obj<:ct and with that result, and yet no one will pronounce this a 
leauinahle accinn. thcn^li my judgment of fact« and re-^ults was us 
inie and reasonable as could be. It may be, however, that in a 
lar|;er i«nse true jud^imtnt involves rtaaonablc action. 

Thuj it docn cot iicem tliat truth ol pcxteption or correctness 
d4 calculaticm as to the Lf)nueE:iion fif the circiiEiiMHnct-H which are 
prowQtied in tlie jde« of an act are tiulheient to make the act rea«on^ 
lUc, although serious bitmdcra in the perception or calculation 
teem tu make the act Ahich implies them urut^iitsonabli?- I even 
d<Mihi w|icih<*T thf" last clause uas rtghily liiatr-d. I was obliged to 
t^y ^grtimt errors ifricus blunders. For it acems doubtful whether 
a ptircty intellectual eiror, or blmidcr of pcrcepitOD. does make an 


rni: uovter- 

oct " unrMiBonAblfl," which owii^ to audi a blunder r^i^ses its niArk. 
1 incline to ttiink that the rcAAOG why wt arc forced* in »\ic1i caae» 
fl* 1 have iniiianciN;^ lo lay siress or* ilic y/^^/4!if*;v of iJn^ hluiKJrr, is 
thfli 11 nmki?s ufi siift|>cct ^If-rlr^cpption cr moral nag]«^ci on the part 
of the AfCent, m«k«e us suspect, an other words, chat the inconsis- 
tency between means and ends was noi owing to mere intelieclual 
mi»;jij(lpmrni, hnr wn* a<lAE>l('H wttIi nprn nr panidlly nprn ryrv I 
<io not think that \ jMifuf/f call niy friend unreofionabic for u^niing 
to meet at the xtdtion nn honr before the departure of the traja, if 
he could show me t'tt^iafide ^round^ ^hich i[i«t<ic him imuKinc that 
It wa* necettarj' it\ arrivf' no early. I mi^ht in that ca«p ihink him 
mislakcn, but should not venture to call him unrcaii tenable, unless 
his mistake seemed ao obvious that I thought it was committed on 
purpcjae, that i», was not an intellectual mistake at alL Wli<.-n I 
call hitn unre^sonublc, pcrh:ips T rvaHy suspect he is making a claiim 
on my time to meet some private corveniencc ol his own — to *tvoid 
a crowd or to make sure tii iKimc particular carrijt^ei which ! do not 
care ahoui — and therefore pi?rh*p4 ii may after all b^ his /wrji^Jtr 
dial ] think unreasonable' 

But there [*, one ifrcat doctrine of reasonableness which does 
reduce it ttj a (turnliuii ol futf^nn and cmls »\^*^ ll^^l is tbe doctrine 
that everything else is a m^an« to pleflsure, whether that of the 
iificni or that of fO\ sentient hoinRs. 1 do not want to discuss He- 
donism psychologically just now, t only v^ani to use it a^ nn illus- 
tration tif nnr way in which intelligence may be aliened to control 
action- The ultimate theory would then be that this uniform pur- 
pose, pleasure, is s nniural or obvious, or, so to speak, a giPftt pur 
pose, and all diThnite action is at has tieen prescribed by the 
inlclligt-ntt- licalinfl with maittr nf fact, as a menus to the realita' 
tion of thi» given [nirposc. 

Then reasorabJc action would mean wh«vt our reasonint; and 
pen^rptive powers, df?aHnR with matters of fact, |ironnimce to make 
for pleasure, snd unreat^onable action would lie all that does not. 
Here, though I wish to av^d hackneyed criticism, 1 must note that 
there is a certain dilHcidty tn gelling a[:rus& from the idea of one*s 
own pleasure to that of either pr-nple's pleasure as a ratursl pur* 

win. hxi) it^eOV. 


jtoftu, 9nO somelimeft ui- lind the contenEion that any jiwrftOD'!^ pleas- 
ure 13 H rcasiffaS/t j^ifrfi&sf lo any petson, which. Jrke ^evcmJ icdicJi- 
lion« tiHonr, uf(e% u4 out of tlit^ connection beiw«?en r«aabon aind the 
[llwre c&lculslion ol meaiis 10 an end, 

Apart into thb, L have, lor our object, only to reter back to 
|}ie auttpkioji with whJth wc le^mJi^d these UitttiDctiirnit between 
mpitn% i>nds, and con<ipqii'*oces, in the presented idea of an nction, 
The burden ot proof be^ on tlio6« who limit the uspecte in and ior 
which activiti«» or results cHxt be or outfht to be debired. If wc «ay 
that the whole <;omplex oJ our moral life is a mean^ to a partial 
though m^rowary mcicJent in it, it soems to m^ thai w* are putting 
the cart before ihc hor«e. If you could rcuily ^Ay '■ moral life ia 
the meaiih, and picasaiv a, llic cud" then it wl3uU1 foljow ihat, 
fthniJd r-alcnlaiion tril yon thai moral hfp waft not the mom r-ffrcinat 
SMiAns. you wotild not prefer it. N'ow this oJd orgLim^nt mny be 
pronounced unfnir r^n (he tCronnd that it puts tin iiikpo«>iblc case ; 
}tifX like ihc t'.fiiiQicr''|ntrslii>ii whith Js askt-d h^ iht opposiii.- side. 
*'If morality led only to inerea£ed pain, would you prefer it then?** 
Still, if thcfte two questions tOj^cthcr brinK out the Inct that pleafture 
ta an incidernt of « whole complex of functio:i» And Aclivitics whkb 
wp ciiiiDoj suppose lo br separatffll from ]t, wl- d« gel ihi* miicii re- 
aiUti that there » no Erm ground for diilinKitithirkg part of Ihcf com- 
plex n» the end Irom the rc5t as the means. And it seem« clear, 
alao. that we diHerentialc plca&;irc:i !H kiKtf according In thc^ activi' 
rie& which they accompany, juvt av we have can«tant]y found that 
the vocally rueanft diticrrenciates and <]ualit)e!i the so-called piir 

Thus T du not think that it is posHilde lo repn^Mrnt the reaaon* 
'abl«n«st of a<:tion aa cou^ittting in \\m guidance by rij<ht caiculation 
oJ the mouns to an end, not even to the alJen^ed simple and universal 
cud of plcj,?iuit\ At the Mime lirnc. this %iew h^s une essential eJe- 
meni of U'lrh, ih;it i^ the recr^^iiton that a poaiiive impulse or 
claiRi can only b« GombaI«d or dHvaled by a positive impulse or 
dunk. The vicA' coi^s m> far indeed na lo say that one form of a 
rikcral impulse can only be combated by anoihvr form of that same 
impulae through the di<crv*p3ncy of the alternative m^nna 10 its at- 


ruz ttoKisT. 

tftinmcnt. However ibis may be. so much docs seem clear, vix. 
tbul r«i«>naiilcncKf& cAiinot lic> a» popiiUt language tends to make 
it, somethmg pnnrly nryaTivt- and pnihi^Jilix'e. Us Tit^isitive -Jipt^ct 
must be sccoudsxty^ and according to Ihc Miggc^tions JurnUlnfd l>y 
the notions wc bavc been cxnmining. murvt arise out ol a discrepancy 
l>tftwt?L-n IwoxeUof mvAiis In the s»mr iickrtuwlcdgei) at acruepted 
end^ This I think i« lolid ground, uu f;ir ttuit wt are botinil to d«' 
duc« the* nt^i^utivti side ol reamoiiablcnesj^ trom a pctnitive nature, 
whether A gdiciat rclaciun tt> cue and ihc J»amc purpose* or rclatlooa 
ID different pur|io^r^». Wc! hav^ leanu, on the other hand, lo dis- 
trust xha abifc^kite distinction b&iw^'vn m^ans nrd ^nd- 

3. Mow I turn lor a inomcni to what 1 niav describe a« *,'imi 
of r«ttsoiidblctic&ft. 1 will iicft call them "A priori pxtac\\..c^," *ic- 
rAiis4- Mich art ptprp«;«ion miMts a i^itr^rion nboni the natiirr r «- 
pcTinnc« which doi;^ not concern the point belore \i&. But i do 
ircftt thcni fl* cbflrdclcrkMic of ti view which cs^plains reasonable- 
ncHt rathrr hy ndrrs tbAii by purposes ; and tt si^Ciiiis lo follow from 
thit th;)t the nilo miif^ be alfcfied to be seH-evidcntn becaiu;c if d^ey 
wcrc derivative* ibcy would most nalxirnlly be dcrivDtivc *Tom pur 
posrv liiil in the hiHtor>- of ^pcctitation of course the ^amc prin- 
ciplf niiiy bt fpto mm ended 4i une liine n^ an;do^<iU!t t an axiom 
of the reasoning powct, and al another time as involved in the pur^ 
posc^ which are Tccoi,-niacd aa i^ood. Even the Tiainc writer niAy 
combine bolh view?*. 

Now if ntch pririciple*& are supported as cotiitituijng the tea- 
ttonableneca oi action, either because conneciud with the predcnii- 
nance ol tlie speculative intdligcncc. or becnuac of an analogy be- 
Twt^fn Hurb pnnciplfK Jind uny axioms accepiable tii t1i<? speculative 
intciligeTiCL'. t believe that tbi«»upponof ihem is due to a sheer 

I iahe two unly. a^ illu>tratiuns, one uf each type I have men- 

i-*lato» It K*n!nie to me. corstantly Jail* to disliiiguiish between 
ibc rcatiouablctican ol conduct, and Uic reason a Ucucss of abvtr^ct 
reasoning, ilint t^. ol the scieniirtc intellect- To the mtiral ].»hiIo«- 
oph«r, scientific or theoretical iaterest and activity are one intercut 

WILL AE«I> liE>30«. 


und acttvit}^ nmovis otiicrs -, »tid the TCA«a^abknc» oi activity !? not 
iTiuaTMt by piinutng an aciiviiy of RSiHOTiaUlt^iieid- It mwri' be niifte 
unreasonable, in rhe moral tfnu*, (o punut- ubctmci r«a!U>mng «» a 
vi>CACion ID life. When vc ^ay that in every msin Ihc reason ^liould 
be uppermost^ vre 60 nut mc^n rhat ever^' man alittuM devote him' 
Htf to inielt^tiial pLinuiTc. Pbto knou-s ihU, a^, in a «9nse, he 
Icnovrv tverylhin;^ ; but h*^ us<m aU urgucnifnts (or hi« purpose, and 
Among ollicrs 1 tJiink he allows il to be ^uppoMfU that occupation 
with tntifllt^cuial matl«r la in a nu>fal ftensc a prijdontiiiAni:!^ ol tlie 
rvifion, [ may inatine^ his alteinpi to prove thai in>ll(ctu»l 
pl«asur«s fttc tIil* pJcasanlcst. more c^ccrally tvilJi rofororc« to hh 
aiui itt- iitakluj^ ibe ^illrinpi, ubith in [ -tupjAuc^er to rccoiikmcnJ ir< 
idlectiibl ocrupatioi as pn^'^min^nily rcBfionabl*' in ihr moffll 
Miita. To this I say No ; if and in as lar ne tli« inference in mnant 
to rtjst upon an idcntificatioa of scientific with moral rcAsonobic- 
ncKSt t think it a sheer confusion. It is like ^»yin^ thai b^cauve a 
doctor hail to tlo v\\h th^- pr[>riotion of hciaLrh, ihrrrfort ii it a 
healthy proEcwion to be a doctor. But Plato's anciinicnt chows 
how tirt^nitly tblft id c a appealed to him, because he even rocpm- 
memU inrpllrrtiial plpa^iiTrs nn iTw' ^cfirf* ni thHr shrrr pbraiaint- 
aeu, imp yin^: rot only intellcciiia] occupation it rcafionnblc- 
ncm in the moral itcn^c. h^jc that intellectual opcupiation, even triicn 
choH^n by way of fclf -indulgence, is ttill f easonablcncTA in the mora] 
MTittL Of confer thr matter in complteaTed by a itiibttantiv« eon- 
oectionp the dci^roc of which is mactcr of opimDn, Lrtwecn the two 
Chiags, like that bctvrcen being a pbynicinn ard leading a healthy 
laf& Inieltecluii) cKrrciH? ami ambition bavt; a definite iiiilueiice on 
certain eapacittev concvnuMl in the reasonable wilL But it cannot 
be^made -yat. that a tendency to ilic more inicUcctiial occupations 
ja in itavK a tendency to moral rca.nDDableiiCMi. Moid! le^winable- 
ness muii be a (;en<*rat cKaracierittic oi moral action, not ijuarao- 
twnl \vy %i^e special content ol any form of activity, 

Kcxt I have to dircust a principk which in ad^'ocated aa an ex- 
pression of ib^ morally reaMinable, on the ^ronnd of having a 
BOort <A analogy to a^veral maxims or axioms of the intell«ctttal 
w«rtd> It u^ to b^ said chat justice is like « square ; or that the^ 


riflliicic:^ of AH action i^oosiMA in its coiifoimiiyto ccxlaia 4:icinal 
j»ropottionK iiiiprrswd xipon ihc worl<I by Goil. 1 takf fine rn*>tc 
modern foim of itiese pnncipfc« a» a t>-pc ol ilicm oil. Bcnthmn 
wd, " One 10 only to count for one/' and Lt is a mere aniplircaiion 
pf thifi vhi^n Mr. Sidgwick xiismuins i' I umicrslaiKl him, ihal it is 
objt-ciiv«ly rcasrinable net lo prefer my owii ]iilcrc«t or pIcAfiiire 
itimply bccnii£*c! it i^ my owti, io thnt of ^onic one alac. ThJ^ phn^ 
ciplc seem* IO mc a commendable expression «f mor^l JLidirnient, 
and [ do not think that it is needless or empty. Thc^n? is a fmnouc 
passage in Middlcmnrch where the heroine, in a matter which 
acutely toijchcs her own fcchngs« thinks to herself. " Now how 
ithoEtld [ am if [ coiM crmpi^l my own p^in tu be iilent. ami meiely 
consider what is hest for tlie lives of all the persons concerned in 
Ui« situatron ?'* That J nupposcMfi a coi^erclc rendering of what 
tl^is principle mt?an&. 

Kill if we look closer, we see ils weak side, ll i^ negative. Jind 
consequently abstract. You are not to heed your own feelings un* 
Zees ihcy arc such thai you would heed ihcm if they were tiorac one's 
cUc in the sjime circiiinslarces. Thi^ ainuunLs to no nioie llian 
saying. "We believe there is alwaj-s, under ail drtumstance*. a 
right course," tC is stnctJy parallel to the theoretical prmciples of 
nniformity or CausAlion. "Wc liehcvc Chat there is an expUnalion 
for eveiyihing ; that nothing changes without some reason," Tliese 
$n uficJuL inxxJms if they make us look lor th« explanutton, and ao 
the other iis a useful maxim, if it makes us look (or the iii;ht courac. 
But it really falls betwt^en two ^toolH- It is not capable, a^ intel- 
lectual iheoreins are, of accurate developm&nt and application by 
measuronient and analysis, Vet on the other hand it mak««i no 
special appcu) to any special content, or tendency of reasonableness 
cmhodiffd in definite end?- It i^ neither iheurettcally fertile, nor fa 
it a deacription of a praciicnl influence. 

It i» u wdl-known phenomenon that tliosc who su^i^cst maxims 
oi nioial diAioEus of thi<t kind as deJinin^ moral r<-a?{unableiie^*» arc 
apt IO ho reduced to assuming a parriculfir impulse, io)d off to a««i«t 
or obey the roa&on^ Such are Plato's -'Spirilod*' cicmont in th« 
soul, Hani's levcrence, Mi, Sidgwick's general desire to do what is 

WILL ANii itrAm)\. 


reA»i>KUib!c> This scvins to me lo be ciesiini; a fulu vvhich hatt no 
poMth-4- conicni. And therefore Ins not th« eharftcivr of a hiiman 
puq>obr, and then imigmJTiR an impiiUo lo oboy it th« nature of 
which 15 not accounted for iti rclcJcncc lo Any pUn of life. b»t timat 
■impJy be ptopoiiiHlcrd as nn JAciJAlrH fnc-i- 

It kept EUfCgci^tin^ it«elf to tiK above that ro-ason^iblcneiiA could 
not be t borough ]y cxpUincd on the bnsis of a diMlnction between 
tncan» And end, bcuiiiK^ act^ial ends arc noi simple and unifnTni. 
but an? obx'ioti^ly qiulitiL-d by the %o-ciUcd miran*, or coniext of 
circling iiauce. We Agreed, however, that what is; rcuonable tnuKt 
be so in vinuc oE a positive contcnl, whether a9 mcAn% or perhaps, 
;ik end. jind Uiat its Dr?gative oi imiihitiftivr expect must mm from 
the eonrtict oi two such positive contentt. 

\Ve have m this section looked at two interpri-'tationii ol moral 
renM>]iablenea9 apparently stiggc»te(3 by atialogic* with intellectual 
l«aM>ning« or principles, arid we could nor dtny thai eac?i oi iheni 
had a certain uppraranct? □( truth, but one M;emed to eonltine the 
content with the form, the other to conaiat of a form without any 

y [f fugge«t« Itself therefore that moral reaionableneit mti*t 
be a chainkctcibtie wliicb wc aticnbe to purposes of action. Then 
i^re get a variety of positive content, without relying on tlie dintinc- 
tioti betvbtvn means and end; while tlje abstract principle* which 
we feel to be reasonable fall into Iheir right place a* very yenera) 
descrtplicns of a purpose or scheme of life which can be celled 

But the idea of a reasonable purpose requires explsmation. 

First, it is trreconcilublc; wiih abstraci HedoiuBm. Vou cannot 
have any relatione within « nin^le and uniform purpose, and reason 
always involves neljcioiis. 

S^ondlyi it i6 not the moat iatellectual purpose, the purpose 
that haa most lo do with reaaoninf;. t have tried toexpUinchls 
Thirdly, it /tfiuch A life or purpcseas possesses a aelf-con«i«ient 
itlatiot) of ihc parts to the whole. Thia t» the ^neral cbarncter- 
Utic ol any reasonable totality fan reasonable, and it is this which 


forms the general characteristic of reasonable purpose ^ua red- 
son able. 

Then what is che meaning of the self -consistent relation of parts 
to the whole in the case of a human scheme of life? 

We cannot demand that our specific purposes should he related 
consciously to the purpose of the universe ; because the universe as 
a whole is the object of theoretical knowledge only, and this does 
not furnish us with the idea of a concrete purpose at alL It seems 
then that the whole^ by consistency with which human purpose is 
or is not reasonable, must be the whole of existing human purpose^ 
taken of course as moving in a certain direction, owinf; to the modi- 
fication continuall}' introduced through the progressive realisation 
of purposes. I do not see that more than this can be said without 
entering upon the analj^sis of the actual structure of the moral world, 
of society and of history. What is important seems to me to be 
that we cannot construct the reasonable world of morality from a 
theoretical view of men in general and of nature. We have to take 
it as it is, and are then perhaps able to show that it is an organised 
movement in the direction of self-consistency of purpose. 

Is there not more than one kind or type of self -consistency 
possible, as when self-indulgence is restricted simply within the 
bounds of health and decency ? This is the question whether con- 
sistency demands completeness, i. e. whether mere omission de- 
stroys consistency. It has often been discussed, and I suppose the 
general answer is that assuming the unity iff the total meral movemcni, 
any elements omitted in any portion of the movement must uiti' 
mately have their revenge by producing disturbance. 

Then if we ask what after all is the relation of the theoretical 
reason fo the reasonable will or moral reason, the only answer 
seems to be that the moral reason, in the individual or in the race, 
is the boil}' of intellectual ideas which are In fact predominant as 
purposes in either, having become predominant by the power the}" 
have shown of crushing out or adjusting to themselves the active 
associations of all other ideas. And the power is what might be 
described as logical power l that is to say it depends on the range 

WILt AkD ltCA«OK. 


H lid Ocplh which euablcb t>iw \^ca lo include in ItAclf aa in a «iyMctti 
^r»at vamty of minor purpo»e«. 

The inrcllcci as sxtcH is \oj ntoraliiy in the first imtaiKc aimply 
tlic medium in itvliicli Oic moral world or conitrnt oC iht moral worl^I 
»>xist* : and nlitch iWrWore f onvi^'i* lo that content its own tv-t ii liaf 
character odsy«c«m »ad tolality. Th«n, furth^, in theoreiicAJ »- 
flcctiort on ihc moml world, 1 imftKine thtix we rroti'cc this prcdomi' 
fiJiKr of i<lrw*» wbii.h liave orjjiaiiiMn^ i^owcr. ftml wr fiMiin: to eji- 
prpsK thi^ pr*^domionncr tiMch predicatpft as important, right, good, 
Afid lh« whole of thoMT jiLiienicnte we must call wiiKlom &« oppoaod 
to knowledge. Bui 1 c^maoc nivscK see how tfiesc or any iudgmcnts 
ran hr jiul^mrniK of jhr mnral Tcanon, They ^eeni to me to hp, a« 
|L<Iff[»oni«r ncccftfiarily jiidciTnonifH of the theoretic reason dealing 
with the fftctB of the morel wctld. Bitl then ihcre i« the futthcr 
complication that thefie judRments ih(*nniplv<*s, forniinR the conlctit 
of Jnte'll^ctiial id^^Bt. may, if they have ftrj;an«inK pnwrr, Iwcome 
actively prrrfommAnt, and ihen ajtain they will lotm n p^rlioa o( 
ihc actual mora! world a^ scnctAl idea* or cluc*. incitinff to ihe re- 
live >rarch for concrete k]f.nK which arf- conrordant with llicm. In 
thi% Cjise they are ttai acEing ^t jud^nivnts. which are tnie and faJce, 
but ovily as dorpirtaat contents. It b one IhinR lo }\i^i;e that there 
n a tisht in the moral world, and aituther thing ttj be rnantcred 1>y 
the right ill one*« own mtnd. 

If I ain aakod, what I mean l*y the predominance of dominant 
idcfts, which I allege to form tht content of the reasonable will, [ 
biail fioni t}ic |HJsiti(wi t3i;it every iJeh woiiUI produce action if un- 
r-hecked, simply by siiggesiions wliich through associativa repro- 
d^ictioni^ call »p the nrcC4sar>' moveiTicnt^ Desire nviy. I Uli^vc, 
or may not Jutcr^cne, ntt a ^Ute of tension between a pain of w«nt 
And a pleasure pTtxiucHed hy an idea All tliai isesseniifil, it appears 
to mtt, i» this tde« uhkh can sn^aeet nn aetion. 

In the fornned life ol a civilised man the orKflftisttig ideas have 
lOQ]^ ssscrlcd their prctiojiiinani power* And in every moment crush 
out counflevt inrnidert each of which has in it'idf suggestions quite 
capable of leading to nction^ In childhodcl or in»niiy the yielding 
to every niC£esiion ia a matic of what if called chsence or \0Q9 of 


will -, that 15, not the loss of a genfta/ power to check minor sug- 
gestions, but of perfectl)' definite habitual purposes which check 
them as a matter of course. 

This view sounds no doubt like an iron Determinism, and ! am 
not much concerned to defend it from that imputation. After all, if 
we are determined hy the content of our own minds, why then 1 
suppose we determine ourselves. And trivial examples of indiffer- 
ent alternatives such as*'I can blow out this candle or not as I 
please" seem to me very poor representatives of the moral wiH, 
compared with the necessary pressure of an over -mastering idea 
which drives the man up to the point of saying, "This is what must 
he decisive with one like me, and 1 have no alternative." We feel, 
as we say, that **we shall have to do it." AJmost all really serious 
action, it seems to me, is of this type. And if I have read at all 
correctly this lesson of the new psychology wliich owes its origin 
largely to Herbart^ it is an instructive meeting of extremes, that 
the most anal3'^tic of psychologies should more than ever represent 
the individual as the incarnation of a progressive order in ideas, 



TIILi^K \% in the hi:itorv ol jumfMudc-ncc no more sii^niJicant 
c\cnc ibau llkt^ fuLjiidaliuEi oj ilii? hifttuiJC4l Mrhinil by Onxuv 
Hugo aad Cail von Savigny. JurTspnidenc^, up to that time, vr« 
not a »;iciiC4f, at leAst not a science in the modetD acceptation oi the 
tcfoi. It wa> an an. which ihc practical Uwyct Icdnivd ftnil cm- 
ploy<^ tn strict con k>r nitty witti practical traditioiifi, wilhuut rellc-ct- 
ing on the reaaons in viniie of wlitch a tojEftl norm or « soctaJ tn»tt- 
tntLoD existed. The only pari ol jurii^pTudcnce oi m sdentiJic ten- 
<]ent.y vats xhv: ^iliLlu^ophy of Luw, This Idtttrr biaacli lud. smce 
Hugo Grotuis^ emancipnteii ixs^\i from the chtirch. but it haJ ad- 
TAOC^ DO Ijinhar than lo eubstituiv tor lh« will of God, i<\ which 
fonucrty ngbt And wtohk had been traced, ch<: principle of human 
naiitre. and to found i.;pon i1h' social irslincK of man a systtrm of 
natural law, — an rdeai jtin^prudeniial Ktatf! b^ rt-incTicp to uhich 
poQicive lawb were tested in respeci of their conformity with the 
kically i\%hl And the ideally wronfi. Thi« fimdamcntat cunci-'plioii 
of ihp «**tllial rharacri^r ni law w^n only stiRhtly mndil^ed by ihe 
9ab«ttiution ol the human reason for human nature. The rationii] 
tfy^teon^ cf juri^pnulencc also derived the Male and tIic law Ir^ni the 
tpdivklLialjty of man. vspccully from ihc Hocjal traits nf this indi- 
vidudtity^ and definite notions and primnpIcR were thnR enunciated 
from which ntatc and bw were deductively conRiriicicd, 

The hiMorical ^hoo3 hni introduced a change in all ihift. It 
afforded thr tegal pfaciitipner the potKi1>itity of seeing ihat thv law 


THE Hosier. 

which h« applied "^sb lh« «Iowly riptinad ptoduct o1 ii covrtic ol d& 

vclopmtnt ihai extended m-cr many ceiitunta. ar»*l il aHcrdcd di 

j>!iT]osciphic^l jiiTifitic iiujuirer llie pfissibility of iiTiilvr^Ciindin^. tUiit 

ch« law w«« noi founded on ifnmiitalilr ideat and principles, bull 

t>»it il ivaa a producl ot the creative mind o[ a nAtton. that thi±t prO"{ 

duct w«ssuUici: Led topEouesscsuf uau»formal]i>nauddcvi!lupnitniUi 

fln<1 did rtni admh of ri^giMaiiriri bv the individti^tl ri^a44>r of a ^tngto' 

philoeophkal jrnjuirer lint while ihe Jij&toryof Jaw has b«»coiiie 1l\ 

tinivci8Ally rccog^niaed discipline in ihc science of jurisprudence, iht 

applicarfun at ils nnderlying pnrtr-iplcs lo Out philoi^i^phy of law haE 

fli$ y«ri by no nieJirt^ been nnivers^Uy carried out. On ihr» coarrary," 

the rcAson stiJl pUya an extensive r6Tc as foundation And eroJu-j 

Ironary pitnciple; and to a great cedent the history of law and ilu 


philfMophy of law slJll purine their stilitary ways h^ imlrjwndcrkt 

hrarchcfi of knowledge^ 

In recent timc^ throni;h ihc influence of cthnoIoR>\ jurispr^i-j 
df^icr Uhs entered on n new epoch, A new bi;ini;b ol the scienc4^ 
of law ha« arisen tn Hurope, the so-cidlcd ethnological jurispnirj 
dcncc, and hen tdrcady found in Germany, Austria, Italy. France, 
Dclgium, and Holland, enthusiastic Mipportcrv Ethnology, as it 
IK known, is tliL' scif-nce: tlut h-is for iht? ';id>ject of it£inv4?^ligacion& 
the totality ol phenomena of social life of all the puoplc^ of thtt 
earth, and which makes tiae, in this investigation, of the methods 
of inductive inquiry exdti:uvcly employed by phyMCjd :tiid n^itiiTdl 
Kknce. After tliv- science of «<thnojcgy had Hdvanc«?d Eo a certain 
point, the exten»on of ethnological inquiry to the domain of jurii 
prndtfncc followed as of courMi 

To a ct-rtain eiciL-ni the; invefitigaiions ci Ehi^ history of law had' 
prepared the way for ethnological juris-prudence. The inductive 
method was common to both- The idea of a history ol the dcvcl- 
opmeut of law Wfts no lon^ei straD^c to junB^irudence. Only thefl 
conra^o wn^ warning ifi siljow the ey*^ rn range over th€ legal <y»- 
teni& of all the peopEes of the iglobo, ^n^tead ol. ^e. before, re^trict- 
tntc it lo very natrow limilSn The historical invcsiieation of law 
hej^an in Europe with the history of the Roman law. Thereupon 
ft was immediately ontendrd to the Gcrmsnic laws of Evirope, «0 

mivntnr:n'Ai. jtr«i%r«vxiKn!K. 



thai now all Wesc-fvtiropeAn pcopt« fvwsM^ a highly deietopea) 
litetovy ci taw ol Iheir onn. K^ccaUy, ako, tbc hUitoT>- c4 Slavonic 

Whfrea& tn r^«'r> ra»r here it va6 s qiicciion ol thr M>urcrs of 
IswB that «iaod In immcdute hiiitorical connection vith the pro- 
vaiJiaiE systcaro of Europe, iun»pru<tcntlal mvcsiij[atvon was slowly 
extended lo fuon: iconoic elhnicaJ Iicld4^ Tliv 6fM impubc in thisi 
dJ»ctton cann«» Imm comparjtivr philotngy. Thi* «cl^»ce Uad sue- 
c««dcd m tracing the laDgvagcs of cxlendcd f:roup«o4 pcop)c« back 
lo common primJlivc tonfuc^ Anions thc»c primitive lonfucs the 
Aryan, the common ori^inAl liinsu.isv of ihc Inda-Grrmantc group 
od nations ^^^ occtipinl the attpntion of imiuircn;, and th« lav ol 
this Rn^up of naliont thus became the hr^i object ol invc^tiKation ol 
a comparative jtiri^rudcncc cxtcmSing licyond the more rtttrkted 
]irovince«t ot the hUlory of law. The province* at Cinfco-ltiilir. 
Gennanic, Slavic* Celtic, Iraoic, and Indian law were investigated 
with respect lo a common ongin. and various agreement:! and ra- 
I riotu deviations were discoveied. In very rvcent timei llie hiMt% of 
I th« Arm«nhn(^ and ih<^ Oi^re^ In i1>o r^tteatTi^ have t«i<ii addM 
I 10 the laws ot th« Ar)'anfip and liie taw«oi the Afghans wiU prol>uUy 
L won follow ihcac. 

^^b A mimlicr of more rt-motc provinces ol Uw ha\e altut been en* 
f^^ ter^d upon, In connecii<in niih ihef^loffJcaK phil^lcgical, and connate 
in(|uirict- Thiis, particulArly, in connection with bihhcal invc^tigt' 
lion tJ^c Uraclitic law, in conncciion v>ith the »tudy of Arabic the 
IftJamiirc, in contieciJon with ihc decipherment of the hirmglyphic 
writings the Old'Egy3>tian, in conneciion with the decipherment ol 
the ciincifonn inscnplion^ tht- Soi.iincria.n and t^ie A»vynanBahy- 
Ionian, and in connection with Mtiolu^y tlie law of China. In very 
recent times the J:ipuneM^ law has al«o lieen treated- 

In the \nv<^ of all Uiesa peoples, by the side of many peculiar- 
ities. li-erc al&o found many phenomena of Irequcnt and univeml 

After the scj4>nce of law hid so far extended ita activity in thifi 
direction, it w&« a 6naJ «tcp only that ethnological jurisprudence 
tooii when ii declared thai the »ubjec: of juristic science W4» the 


)nv<^Kti|iJitiotiol t]'iie\»v%ota//\ht^. pcojiltTii oi Ihr (*anh And yrl rnic 
Ktcp wniE perhaps a moru iinpoiUnt oac tlun ;^U that ha<l hilhorto 
Lucn talfcn^ ^or a con»i<1crdblc ^roup of peoples^ had up to then 
bircii cmtirdx neglected by the ftckncc of Jaw, iinmcly llic ancivili^cd 
peoplr^K. ihi? HO'calltil pr]int!ive ptople* or r/afurr6ik^r. And ]mit 
iIm; U^A^ol lii^Mtfiavigeslurniahtfd the rnoftt leinarfcabltr disclosures. 
Tticy tahibilcJ tvtO'whcrc tilt moat Alnii^ttlur pArallf I phenomena. 
And madtt \i j>0K%il)lr to npi*n up a cornpJrlct rurly hi^rory of ihr lav, 
and to bring to litjbt p«rJodK o£ jural devclopmca:t oi which the hiii^ 
tory nl civilised pcopio» has pmcrvcd but n few un intelligible; re- 
mains KthtioUij^jcAl jun!>priLdencc \i^ tbua able lo vupply coiujiJe' 
menlikr}' inlorniatioo hi m jwint ^^h«»^e the thtcid* of the hittoryof law 
an ItMt in tl\tt ohacurity o\ i*arly ttrna^. 

The toudiiion of iimil liJc in thtriit primitive periods is very 
■hti^uIhi, Nu JuiIhiU: phtliiMiplii-r ha*4 tvL^r ii^hl<-d cm iht tdta ih^il 
piiinttivc loan cojid (rxj^x with such jural concept ion • a« he actuutly 
do«3. That which othiiolof^ical jurispiudcrnco hnA brought to light 
m lliia coiiiK'ciicii is soiiiethioE absolutely nc-w and a^toi^ialiinf;. 
^om^tUing Th;it no brondini; hrftin cnuld have ever d^vploped out ol 
any id«a or principle^ Intlund, it ie &o ^tr-in^e thai it could doC b« 
conceived at all if wc did noi hnvc it bdorc our eyes To-d^y amoni; 
savage litbcs- 

Th<^ c<^l(^ftinR of thr biw*j ai uTifiviliRrd pf^nplpt cnn^litiitCTS an 
in<iopfTndcnt t;ifik ol dhnt^loRicel ]uri a prudence. In this* wny the 
laClcr science will fill up the traps which historical juri^pnidential 
inqnirj IpIi cipt-n in our knowlril^c? oI the jural life of man. But 
mon? imporlant than all. ptrliap*. will vfthnolcigieu] juritiprudence 
become for Uic future duvclopmcnt ol the philosophy ol Inw. In 
thin connection it ^ucv hand in hand with tJie sociological tendency 
which duminate* our lime and ha* its surest foundation In (Ethnol- 

Die priinc si^'nificancc of cchnoloeical jurUprudcncc bcs in the 
fact ihdl it is an cthnolu^ical suence. 

At fir*! pThnoIo«y wafi a purely empirical ^j^nce. It garh&red 
tos«th(^r nil rhr attainable phcnonienft of ethnic exiat«tiCG, and Mpa- 
rstcly. ai lir«i, amtin;; ^in;;lc peoples And uibcs* After an eattetuivt; 





crMK^ij^oiCjit. ji;ri^i>rci>c7ccg. 


oi Duit«rml had atcumuljit«<l m %lm auttm^r, tb« di«cover>- 
m mailf! tlut ia many provinces of ctlmo-^ucial Uie, c!i)>«:ially la 
It* piovincrw of ttrlik^lon. law. and morals, e>|>t*ctally aUo in all 
roxincc^ oi 9ckia\ ciistomt phenomena of es^'niially similar cluU' 
iter prostrated thcm^K'i» amonjE a ktc&i ni^mbcr of pt^opZcB in tJi« 
LMTufwIiujii uetthef any ori|rJn&l Uibal iclationfiliip nor ^iiy infu- 
iwin QU nniton inm ihf* mhr-r roiild hr ^^Aiimrfl : nnd. cudoiis 
"toaytfl^feW^v Ircttiontiylho moat sinKnlAr phcncm^naj ci winch 
one would hAvc ihoiicht «t fir^l shnt Ihcy had sprunR trovn ihc ii>- 
dfvidiuiliiy of a dclcrininalc i>coplt. Thin discovery of universal 
dhnographic parallels wah all tbr morr ftnrprisTn^ in vU^vj oi t)i9 
^pfact lh*i hJHotical special inquirj-, whoac province up to then hud 
fbccii L-ssciili<illy nalional life, had pUced cspccUl cniph»«& on out- 
wardly prominrnc rvrnu ncfitrnriK in a diffrfEUt fnrm in rv«ry ria- 
tiotir whcrrflt phcnom(>nn thai ftppcurcii uniformly amonj; ihc rfil- 
(ercm n4tlion5 were litllc noticed. People had therefore Kro^n 
Acciit^inrnod to regard rvuiy nstioii u» \omcthlng exii^ling hy [(^elf 
^■skd peculiar ID ittclf, and. pnrticidarly. had ako declared it 03 £ft- 
^KdfllisviMe to employ phenomena oE the lije ol one nation to explain 
^HOrTc^pcndinK phenomcnji of the life ol another ndJlioi;^ 
^P The diwoverj' of cthni>nniphica! parjilleU led to wholly differoni 
idcaH- It became clear that n grvat portion of human iithnicfll 9X- 
iMcncc w*» not founded in the peculiar chArnctcr o! particiilar pco- 
plcf^, liiLl in the dii^t^ctetof the human r-Lcr?. in ihr iinivrr^Al nature 
d man. AnJ H becimt in, addition clt^ir that that which repcAttd 
Itself everywhere on the earth* which was therefore an cxprcMJOn 
of the universal human, was nomethin^^ entirely diffcrcni Ifom that 
which previtnitt philnnophy had dechLr^rd to ]>e rht- hcfiislI human^ It 
abo liecame clear, at the samo tinit<, tliai the rtationti thought t|uice 
diflercntfy Irom what the individual man did. WitI: this, however, 
the fonmliition tti the entire prt^viou^ j>hiiut»t>phy w^^ ithaken. If 
ih« iJcioTD of modem eilinology is correct, namely ihai it is not n-^ 
^^|ltat thinkr biit r' that i^rrkt in u/,* wu ahall no longor \>t able to 
^pKpbia our i&aturt from our co&»CLOu«n<^3», from ourc^o, from our 

THE uo?<isr, 

reason, bill tvc shaW have to ptmtuc ihii momentous "Tl*' that 
ihinlts. in i]^. jirid si\wv wv^ tdnool finU it in m^ wr ^yaH bare Ui i^^arch 
for ii intfaJf ./u^ \\\ The «K^>r4^&aionB Ol ihe human soul in the lite o( 
llnj race. 

Tliis 19 ihc fund a mental idea of modern ethnology- It *eckti to 
CoTI*»ri alt tlip expression?* of ilif liiimnTi sotil in ilip life nf the* *ipccie*i> 
ftnd from tli«m to derive it£ inlcrcnccst ai; lo the n.ttiirc^ nf maii^ U 
rcfj-atdfi cthTiic existence A« the prccipilMc of human psychical ex- 
mcncc, ami u.o\ mcfdy of thnt purl of \X which is conscious bill 
alio ol That \v\Ti of it whicli iv iinconsrious, ihar which is; irac- 
oeftubJd Co inlrot&pectivv obvtTvalioa. that which \s not 1hou(;hI. but 
19 merely lived. It cnlarffcs ztcconlingly the domain of p5YchoJoi;y. 
Vp-hich wan n^strictcd hitheitu to tlic aiiitlybia uf xhi: human cuiiaciouit- 
ocss, by the incorporailon of an additional liomsiin unmeasured In 

Thci^c genera] conccpttone of cthnoloey «irc «lso deternnrative 
for the science of eihnologicjil jurispnidencf;, ami froir this results 
lie peculiarity a« contrasted with the o^her hranchec of juristic 

Hthnolof^ical jurisprudence places thc! centre of gravity of the 
Kcience uf law noi likt? ihtf pn?viouK jutiKtic philosophy lu the indi- 
vidual }ural conscioi]snt*5s^ but in the law viewed as a province of 
ethnic eKistcncc. It rc^urU^ the laws of th<- naiiona as the prccipi' 
laics of that which i» now active and htis been Aticivcas jural instinct 
in ih(? rmirr- human racfr. Tr ai&nmcs ihRT whm all ihr phmomfrnn 
of law in iho lifo of the natiooi; have been lixedr an infinitely more 
valuable ninicrinl v^ilE hv dfnwn ih<^rrfrom nd^pCed to the discloAnre 
of thr TLiiluEc oE Iaw th^n t^otild hiiM? ever in the world been aC' 
quired by an analy^U of the individual jural consciousness. Il does 
not regard the individual jLtral con^cioui^neu a& soinething innate 
in man and cjtempt from the nltcrini^ cffcctti of time, but as a pro- 
duct o) lite wicial C(lm]itioTt^ in which [hf? individiuil ha^ i^rown up. 
ft assumes, therefore, that the indixiduan'^™'**^"*^"'"'^*"**'* change* 
with n chang-c of the social conditions, so that a mjin who grow» up 
under different social conditjonts possesses a different jiirfll pcrccp- 
tioTiH Thta assumption, if we compare iht: expii;ssions of ibe jura) 




con«cii>ii«uc3S oi fftcef Jow in ihc »c«le cf culture with those of civil- 
i«K! p«o|ilc-s, i« OM- that cannot hr cKcap^^ We have only lo rccsll 
to mind Ihe irresistible (orce with which the jural sense of peoples 
thftl live untlcr cUti coratitutionn dt-'nmnd vcuKeancc of blood, 
vhcTeas this species oi xvinliMtiurt no Imii^er t-xi>tK in ciLir jural rcm^ 
Kcioucni;^ of to-day- Thut t)i«re are hundrvdit and ihoct);ands of 
]ural in«tinct± and ooncepliona which are present at certain sca|;e^ 
ol civiJisatiun niid dl.t^ppcir eutin^ly ai cithtia^ 

Elhriolo^^ita! jun^jnTidF^nce !her<-*ior*r a*4iiines, ihat ih*^ jnristic 
philosopher who b>ft at th« foundation ot hiit tiysitviia essentially liis 
own ]urai con3ciou»nc»s. »4niply enunciates therewith a system of 
Uw that an>wcri ptrrlmps to tlie tuiiCiU tontcptiom ol htn lime and 
his p«op]4-, htit u'hich CXIT1 in no ^ense lay claim to a value beyond 

Quit« different, on ihc other hand, arc niattcr& conditioned 
when the inc|ijirer h^s before hini ihe laws of all the peoples of tlie 
«sith from the lowest to tht: highefti- Here ho hits in his po»«»ion 
ft picture ot the \\ira\ coni^cioiifnc^s of ihc rnind of butnanity, which 
id no lonscr subject lo alteration, but which* to the eJitout timt Hit 
ilrvHoptnTfit of humin jural life haii Jidvanrnd, i% compkie 

For the CKociLtion of ju t;ii^k cthnoloffical juriAprudcncc first 
require* a collection of the laws of nil the people* oi the oAnh. 
Each Doic of thcJK laws iM>f equAl value to cthnol^isical jumpTu- 
dence in so far at the jural consciousness of humanity has found 
cxprcsi^ion in it in any form, l^sLpecinlly dust^rvinf^ of coriiideratioQ 
arc the laws of the so-CftUed savage peoples that have been so much 
neglected and contemned liitTierto ; soiioe [liey brin^ to light the jrtraJ 
con«cioitsi;ess of humanity in its germinal stage*, and since higher 
formation!! arc invariably best understood when we know their first 

The 3olidfi«t bjisis for ethnological jurisprudence would be for* 
Dialled by a monographic creatmet^l csf the Uw of every single tnbe 
and people oi the cflrth. By such monographic treatments the en- 
tire MJCiAtl (rr^aniudtlon of a given trilie or people wonltl be exhibited 
in flU iu complicated feclprocal relations, and we should be able to 
follow tlie law in all the ihousauda ol minute nLmilicaiion» that coa- 



nect it with xhv remainmg province* of aitlonal lilc^ But «uch % 
moDo^^rophic treatment of the Jaw of all llic n«tioi» of the cArih is 
it^companit'ii t\'Ith ^rc^t clIHiCLilLio. and th'i^ pati of the lAf^k of the 
s4:iMiCff oi Ijiw }i;iN ;<t y«I liet^n iinnlt^rt^iktn only to a liniilPd cxti^iit. 

The cocdLtion oJ aflairtf is Ixfst in ihisrespecl whvfv the nations 
ihemaefves httvc collected and compiled tht;ir le|;al custom* in books 
ol kwH, But ^U1:h coUectiuns nsc foiuitl only 4tnoiig pcopio that 
deserve to «omt? ovi^tii the appt^llaiion of dvili^ed peojtbs- Ainc>D^ 
iflc ^ivixX majority of pt*opk'B iht^ law is sjmply practiced and handed 
down by otnl tr^idition, 90 tbat hen; tlic le^oJ cualoms must be col- 
lected by members oi foreign civilised naiions, — a very difTlctilt 
UboT And one tfiat can be accompUKhe<l only by pvrson^ wh^iv take 
up their abode permanently am on ^ the races ic iiucHtion and become 
thoroughly (jiiailiatt with ihetr language and h4bit*i of life. 

ColleciionH of this character we possess unfonunaioly only to a 
v«ry limilud «?&lent> and our knowledge accordingly of the law of 
iincivihscd peoples is still very meagre. Even the books of law 
poiiseased hy ihe varioii*; peoplrs havp nor all hern made AX'attab!^ 
CO juri£iic science, I0 part th^ry have not yet been printed, and in 
part ihcy have not yet brcn iTonsIatcd into a i^cncrally understood 
lanKnJ4f;e- Consideiflblc tiint will yrt hi? reipiirrd hi-foie the cxisifni! 
material ha» been made wholly acce^sible. 

Not before the legal customs of all the peoples of the earth 
h&Tc been collected will ethnological Jcrisprndcncc be in a posittOA 
to furnifth n snccessful snlniTon of the taiik it hus set iiselff — the task 
namely of a causal analysis of ail the phenomena oi the jural life of 
the human race. Yet to a certain extent this task may be under- 
taken al present, even with jv relatively Ifmited store of material. 

The startiug'point lor rllL- ethno-jurislic irvestigaiion of the 
plienonienu ot jural life Is furnished by the et lino -juristic paiallel»t 
lefifal customs thai are found uniformly appearing among the rations^ 
without there btiinK any reason to assume that one natron has re* 
ceived them from another. L.ei^:il customs of t\us character are in 
part -lo universally diffused over iht earth that tliey may he char- 
acterised Oh a cormnou po;ciession of maiikind ; in part they uppeui 
4pof adicalty amoii^ unrelated peoples; in pari I hey are retliieted 




to more limits doaiAitk?. The moat iiupciiani kgAl ciifilouw «« 
TboMJiliat havctinivf3^ 4lMcmmaiioD; £or berch may be Assumed 
that ih«y are a necessary cmiination of ihr social ^rde r^f human 
life- Legal cmsiohis thai occur only sporadically, bm appear tini- 
lomaly aitiOinic unrelated peoples, muM likewise t>c fcKAr<tcd as the 
products of tbc utiivcr&al natuic of man. yet only a^ «uch tliat tan 
ari«e undrr drfiniic rorrlitinnA of rxiAiencn- Legal ititKlomu thai 
occur only in limited othnoloc;ica] domains wilt haw to be refcrrod 
to the pcciiJinr character ol dchnilc ptropk^ and trihc^^ Lc^'ai in- 
iJitiaion« tit univcTftjil character arc fnr example, the form« lA mar- 
riage by raptiirc and puTchftne ot the bride, blcxid- vengeance, the 
ngbl of refuge, the sy^tcmt o1 compoftition, ordeals, o;ith^ ond «o 
forth. Almost universal ore the levitate, and the betrothal of chil' 
dreti. Sporadically am on^; imrelatc-d pc-rjp]es appear: the seietire 
of the corpse of tlie debtor Jor debt ; eitecution by fostmg. whereby 
the crcKiitor briTif^n prcj^ure to bear upon h]« debtor by having him 
Usi a dcfuiile {lenotJ of time belme hi^ dwdliiig ; the custum of the 
chief doing combat with his grown up «on, to whom the command 
of Ihe tribe pauses if he conquers his father ; and no lortb^* Frc- 
(|ttent]y it is the mo«t cunous customs th;it thus rt;cur. amcn^; peo- 
ples ihai :Lre coinplirtely sepafaied fir^m each oiheT by uceunn and 
iaaccvHbibJe mountain rangea and have unijuestiunably never been 
in commumcation with each other. 

The explanation c^f thc^ cihnO'iutiatic panvilel phenomena i» 
in pan not vpry difTTruli, ina^-Tnitrfi hs many of ihrm can hf Trarpd 
back to fill od fotms of eocxal or^anitalion^ Th^is, ^or (rxampJc, a 
whole Kroiip of uaivcr^lly rccurnne lopcal cu!^tom« ifl associated 
wilh tfie peculiar fonniition lA llie clan-constitiiiionN and clan-law 
which H'gularly appears amonR uncivilised jiecplc* :ind chaiacter- 
rfticall)- diifcrs from the fonn of political organisation himibjir to 
the present age. Many legal cuHtoma arc al»o based on rthgioue 
cUDceptTons And social customii. «ind thdr expliiation in bueh KJttxA 
is freqtientiy v^ry diffirLitt 

Tl* renJci will fim! a bnc! sunty of i!i< tlhrnj-iufiiuc paratltU aj^pufifia 
lb« vvinui ptupiv oi the cailh, in r irejiiiM uf mLnc eailtled C'f^r Ji'r Amf- 
^UftmJiKtn K^kmmttrufkt/l flH^ll, pp. 17 I071. 


A complete explanation of all the legal customs of all the peo- 
ples of the earth with respect to their social causes would exhaust 
the work of ethnological jurisprudence as a^ ethnological discipline. 
But in the same way that the acquisitions of ethnology are in their 
turn utilisable towards the constitution of a universal philosophs', 
to which they will impart perhaps an entirely different character, 
so will the results of ethnological jurisprudence be in their turn 
utilisable towards the constitution of a universal science of law and 
for the philosophy of law, in which probably, through its means 
also, a powerful change will be inaugurated. These are the ideas, 
traced in their most general characters, that may be regarded as the 
fundamental ones in "ethnological jurisprudence." 

Alhekt Hermann Post. 


*OTHINO >o lh)« country' nppcan to tlu; smikg^r more iiriri- 
caic Jiix) iocxpJtcnHIc than our ;vi1iiic«. Tlic dilfcrcni i>«r< 
tiVs. twu 1>ii; OC1C6 aiid »cveiii! Utile oeic^i, ihc vmIous niAchiEir^, 
cniincy. «EArr, And n;tlional, ihr "Ikhstv" * ' hrrlrrs/' And "work***^" 
irtSAfit (uch a conluMoa ot idcac ai>d a tcmiinolof^ fio varied, that it 
i» OTiJy aflcf many year* that the iofcidnct bc^inn to comprehend 
our f^}->lcni o( sotcrnmcnl aiMl the |>r]iM;ipk% imderljinc out |>olincal 
mov«meQtG^ Indeed, tlic majority of Am^ricanit ihemttdrec are no 
;tcT ofi amS have do dear perception o1 Ihc part they are plnyini; 
u the adniintitratioci of afiaim or the ethical cHccts of the bftJlot idiich 
th^y n<i1. A**l( lltP urdtnary roter why he iiipporiH the 4:niHlid4tv^( 
ol a certain pany and you wili An<t that hifl reasons are reducibJe to 
lew ooQcretc tact». and an: rarely governed by any g«Mnil prin- 

In thp Southern starp^ the vast nwjcriiyol the whites are demo- 
ns ihroagh op[>ofeitio» lo iho ropublican potny v^hieh lought the 
irar and deprived thcro of ihcir »Uvc^ The nef^fxrcs on the Oliver 
hand arc rcp«)bl>caii» because ii i^ to that party ihey ove their frev- 
dotn. and fwom it they eiqicct protection for ihemiieitves in the e^er- 
ciM! ot ibcfT politkal righb; and the b]usainj{« ol opportuailj- tor 
education. The politicaJ question there bccjome* a race queatvon, 
utterly regantleaec of the principku( iK'hich the two great parties trpre- 
«enl. Let there be a complete change o[ platforms and i)ie result 
would he prectacly the «uue as it ha» been for iJie pait genexution — 
Ihe South would »lill temata <leniocratic, and the totes of thdr prrft- 
fdential electors would siiU be ca^t fof the candidates ol that p^rty. 


THK 190 N I ST. 

more <-s\>ec\aUy lrieh> Iidlunsr nntl Gcrmftri!^, inti»oncod to somo 
extent l>v the fact lli»i a Inr^c niinibcr of these foreigners are Roman 
Calholk's anH iIiae ihcu- is ui imeasy suspicion im the |iari of scmic 
Amcricotis ihai the Catbolk church i^ hostile to the Sipirii oi de- 
iitocracy, a suspicion net entirely unloun<kd tl one »hoiiM judge 
Wcly by tTic sitymgg and doings of ?iamc of the pTc]»tC5 of that 
chiir<'hfcir the p;i^i l«riy yriirsi- This " Kriow-nothitig" Ncmnnetil 
it onu time threattftied to Gr«;atv a solid loreign vciit in opposition. 
t jcrTn»ins and Irish united tiitdor the protecting wind's of Tflmmany 
J Kill .ird. aided by olergytiicii who hoped to obtain pvrl o! the state 
rducaiioiiA] fund fOT the<ir privati^ parochi;^] schools, formed a strong 
My to the iiitioEiuJ deniouratic party- Haj»piiy pr^jiidicM of race 
and religion arc dyin^' out and neither pany can now ciainj a mo- 
riii|)oly of Uie foragn vote. Sltfinge as it may seem, howpver* the 
itiih and German el«meaiiif so rec«nily the ohjects of proscrip' 
tiun ihcmneivcn, have in late ycjtr^ bucomc embittered ui:auiftt the 
CliintTtC- To l)je patient ]iidu?tlry ul the Muu^olldii iimin^iaiits in 
dne the litilldin^; of the Pacific railroads, when ii would have been 
iinposnihle to obl^nn white labor, and the cnftivation iind develop- 
mcnt of (he Pdcifie nju>t slate*, Con^rew was icrruriiscd into paas' 
in^ Ihe liiw eKchidirg all Chinefie UhDrers. It WRS more than tucvt 
prejudice which contributed to this hatred of the Chiof^^'. Tl:« chief 
reason for Chini^^t: t^xeh^^^ion was an economic ono- Grcfit masses 
ol labuic'i> fefir(.-d i\ia\ tht' Chinese by ImimgnUing tn va^i iiunibcm 
would drpiu* th**m of work hy takinj; their places ^i lower wageft, 
and, having Gho ballot, they dictated to Congreas the lorms of the 
Anli<Chiri<;se Act- 

The alit-n rontrsrl Ubnr law is a meaf^ute conceived in tht^ same 
spirit and diri*ctpd agftinst rhc hinnH of laborers abroad by American 
contractors^ who conid tlins displace their c^mployi^^ at lower WQftca 
by nunflarians* or Polcv. or Rti^ians, ignorant of the language of 
this fonniry and whcisi- rnmpensjition i:oijld Uf. tlie moTT^ e;tMly re- 
duced ty a bare mamtenance, and who in Sickness or nld a^e could 
be turned out on the roud» to die without co»tin^ the contructor any 
contraction of h'n ba<ik account- There wm i^omc excuse for this 


AsfRXK-jix pouric». 


liiw. or Al IcAst for llic fvclin^ ^hicJi projnptGci ii. Ahcti ihc mincis 
of a wl^l« fiociioa cnulrl be cviclvd and the^' and llii-ir families maJt; 
to suHcff Ihc pangfi ot i;lt>w litanation becaueu the ownert of the co^lJ 
lA9d« found they could nhUin huincin niAchincs at a kn« c<;?it from 
atiToad- It MT»% nnttiral ibjit iHe? luliott^tv ^Inmld ikinaml n luvr which 
offered some immr^diati; rrli«f even ai th<f ntlc of meeting unong i^-ith 
%tfTonf;. ntther than that tht^y should iL!Tt«iTif>t to regulate atf:^irs oil Si\> 
nlfacl ptinci[)lc^ uJ jnstitc whilt ibtir stomach* wcrc^ empty iiixl tlicir 
wh~ive4 and tbiUlten Wf^re dying lui wtirit of sul^cieiit uoufinhiiitTit' 
That IveUfig. howtfver, i« al&o vauitthmg and An^eiicaii workingnicn 
re beginning to «cc thul the increaae in population, native-bom as 
well AH tlut iin|Joittd by contratl, is ?ttc?adity adding to the niimlicr 
of competitor* ard Inupring the rat^ of usages, TTwir Biicniion 11$ 
h«comirtg more and moro directed to the openinff ot new opjx^rv 
tUQjItcs (or vrork lalhcr ihan to ihc restricting of the number of 

Another da^ft of mpn, if rhi-y v-oic ai a\\, do ea on no gcncnil 
principle of public ^-^tarcn b^it solely for their cwn Advantage qt 
the cj(pcn»c of their fcUovr men. Thc»c are to be foimd anionc the 
rich mani]fa(-iuri?r>, ihi? coal, urtd iron, ami railway kin^ and the 
manipulators of the crops of the nation. Rarely coitin^ a ballot in 
pcrjiofl. ihcy give ncticc to their thoiMiinti^ of cniploy^s that if the 
latter do not mppijrt the candJdaieK ot tlie pari)- which chcy happen 
to favor, the employ^** [>lace» vrill be given to more pliant flervantfi. 
These men ore n.i non parti^^an os the mor-l ardent Tcfomicr could 
m*h. Ouc of theni- a lew years ayo when iHJtstioiittl by an inves- 
tigating committee of the Ni.-w York stale le^if^JAture, mild- <'In m 
rcpubtkan district I wati a ittonj; repiitiJican ; in tt democratic dis- 
trict 1 vras dctnocrniic ; and in donhtfiil iJislricts I wos doubtful, but 
in politkn I was an Erie ntiiroad man rvciy lime." Another faniouK 
man of the i;ame type faid he hid no politico; that he ton nd it 
cheaper to buy up one set ol Ic^ii^latoni after they were elected than 
to pureba^c l^-o sets of candidate? before election, The-3e corrupt 
rwtfT. L-ounling llwir u'e:tllh by ten* of niilliotiK, influcrinng state 
logivdaiurec and tiie national Conj^refecv and throninf; iheir weight 
into I'reskientiol campaign*^ constitute the chief ■'dangerous cja*^" 



in the L'niUTil Slsipa tV'tUy. fdr [uuji^ ihirtiU*mii^ lu l!it^ pt^ruiiuitMicy 
of fr«c iimiluticns than the anarchists whn were Iianged at CliicagOr 

Thoii Ehoroaro iJw illy-p^kid employes oF xUr-hc men whodi> Ihoir 
biddin£ &x ihi; polU, voting lor the candiJaU's oi ihcir masters 
PTomi»Jt' rpf oflicc- i>r pAirnrsi^c liirrs olhc^rb iiKo the: siipjxirt of nnc; 
party or the; otIicT. Laistly cc^mc the poor4?f;t of the poor who live ta 
the most mUcraMc tenement hoiiscci, or when sinKle hive in the bift 
lodging -hotiM:» which ate found dtictly in New Vorl^ and Chicago. 
A ion o\ coal dt a barrel of flour i^ ihc bribe lu the foniierp f rui^uentl 
^Hvcmti through th« medium ol tht poor wretch's wife who does not 
cor« ior politics but sees a very matcrml ad%-anlnKe in the food or 
fud otftMuO by ill' wirnl worker. 'Hie l(jdi^iui;4iouse voters, paid by 
drinks of whiskev or dollar Wilts, until tw^enily in New Vork were 
niarsjialled in &qiiadfl ol twenty or thirty eaHy on the morning! of 
electron dfiy, given chcir balloTs and compelled to hold tlkc^ Aloft 
betwiren iht? thumbHnd lorefinKet cf ihr ri^hi hi\nA so that the heeler 
or paid *icrvBnl of some political faciion tniuhl watch xhem fioni lh« 
rnomcnt they took their place in the line ot voCcm until tlieir ballot* 
^ere handed to the election in»pcctor» and dropped In the box. Both 
paitii-'; winic iit^uc'h fraiwU nui] rlirir henchmen dirt^-tly rotintenaticr 
and auivt in thum but the party thai happens to be in tht? majority 
in any locality is usually Ihc one most family. The result is that the 
minority ^tfect-t great virtue and loudly denounces the conniption of 
its (jppurenL«. 

Ai>icin^ those who do vote ou principle are the prohibitionists, 
the ^ffcen backers, the adhcTcnts of ephciiicTaJ labor parties and the 
aociali«tt». The anaidiist!* gt^nerally itiraiu fium votin^L becauMs 
xhoy do loi believe in any govemmetii by force and say thai an «n* 
JI};hicnod public opinion will luad the pc-nplo to dispense with ftuch 
things as ilie army and navy and police and law courts. Tbo so- 
ciatiKiK ort^iiionally voirt fer thfr men of other parties tvhom they 
think Tcprc^ent the worst nicaiJurcA, in ordvr the eocner, sis tli#y^ 
frankly ftvow. to prodi^cc rcvolntiooRry conditions] which they cx- 
pcct uotild ii^aist them greatly in their propa^aritUr The probibi- 
tioni«t«, greenbarkr-rs, end labor men each tal^e a panin) view ai po- 
litical economy. The first sec Ehc evils and degradation arising from 




intemperance and tliink that vvcrytliin^ dse must xicld tc ihcoac 
coiwkkfation of the abotition o* ihe \ninat traffic. The i^anacrcA of 
tin* |^recnl>jLok«R» cx>n4ifits in the d«fctniction oi Ui« monopoly ol the 
currency nou- on)oy<rU bj the rtatioiial baalfs. Thv labor men have 
Jifferctii shibboJetlis ai different timca Hich a^ tliv prevention of 
t-hi]d labor in farTnri«>9, an right-lioLir wofk-iay anil thv like* — nieaii- 
urcs wh^ch n>ighi vti*Kt ^mo r^ikf bin arc mini^T niaitt^rs comfxirccl 
wiiJi the Krcai social problem of Hxk ircreav: oi povi^rty in tlic niid»l 
(if ilie gr^^aiest proi]i)cliv€ encreJe^ uhicli iliv world h^isi e^svr «rwn, a 
probJ^m which is rapi<^ty coming to ih« front and ovunthadowing all 

&UI ihe^c minor iitu^^nKiit^ Ijdrttly produce a ripple tm xhv %ut- 
iacf of OUT (wjiiirji] watrre Thcrr- nrp Ortly PJ^o parties worthy of 
tho naino in the United Stat<i« to-day, a« Ihtrrc liavt- been but two 
ever since the days of Ttjomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. 
TlMfir parlies ^,f> on forminR platforms cUli^fty oil the theory- of of- 
te-nding ih^ Je^sc ntimhrr of voicrt and phrasing ibt!ir d^daraiion^ in 
van^c terms which may be explained one way in one part of the 
couDU) and anodier w^y in another pan. Stidi id d cuntory view 
tyi ihc fi*^ld oi Amrrican |if^liiic»i tn-<lay, 

Jt may f«cm that I have made out a pretty lind indfclment of 
corruption nfEalnM our polltica and that the view of ibe cynic la cor- 
fcci thai AmcEJcan potiticn arc denpcratcly wickcti and tb<^ie is no 
health tn thfni. But llif moral foicp* which art' operating in the 
world are !onunatdy not dependent upon ll>c chan^jcahlc mcthodsor 
the >elluh objects of n^cn- Tt tn hezn in America, perhaps more than 
au>> where eiMf, that tile luiluial Iawk uf !>uci4] develojimrnt havip 
lullesi play. It is here that the e\y>kition o4 politic* r^ workini; itself 
out irceiy. untiammclkd by tradition or custom. It la here that the 
altimatie »deal of politics will fii^t be reached When the frainf^pKof 
like Declsraiion of Ind^-pendent^c formnUt^d their proposition that 
governments derive their j»st powers from the consent of the f^ov- 
emed, a step in the right direction was taken— a Mcp thai waii in ac- 
cortianee with our old Saxon iradifions* yei for tlw funt itmr in thv 
wovtd'ft history made on an extended ocattr. to l>ise human govern- 
tnont on the principles of natural law. And through all the viciisi' 

lie UQVti 

tu(Ics of our country', its fllmcclc lor Independence, iu war foiTJ 
KlictAiioii or II* r.umniccrc, Its Li\il cojiflki i^likJt wtiuM liH^frdi! 
nicmhcrpii any othrrr rmtion, or would haic \qU onr »ifciion ihc «ii3 
jciftatcd cffflft of the other^ through o dicpiilcd prosidcDtiiil ol«ctioa] 
which fltr»incd the written conMJInlion to tX^ \itmo8t. the lEieAl moral 
fnffc ni Ti^tuinl law has hrrn ;^orkTns, nciw ihtniitih oni* p^iy, now 
throu;ih another. gathcHnR impctitK ua it k^c^k and giving prf^mi^ 
ftlwii>^ of bcCE^r times to comC' 

[t i% 1(1 thubroiid view that all the petty [hlevcncsand f^tnvjnj 
for plate and powrr tink into utter inti^nificance. The people iJa] 
4tiU tulc. TJiey nvay slca^ for a time hut are sutp. sooner or later, 
to a»*erC Uicir rightfi in accordance with the in^tiiicts of the h»inait 
lUtiid, which aie i;oad autl uoi Iwd. A» louf; aa tlie stifFra^^t* «haTL', 
^xisf It J3 Tpasofiflhly cwiain That rhrs American government, "of ih< 
peoploi by the people, tor the people," ^hftll not perish Irom tbe^ 
earth. If the uealtliy moropoliMe coidd contiol the suffraiie, ths- 
pn^^lM-Titf nii^hr tx- difieicnl, Tlw fre-cdom of the voicr has beei 
impdirod to a certain pvtont hui the Amc^riean |scopTe with <]iiich atl- 
dtincts have aiivakencd to the danger Tlic Austrntian t^vMetn of 
voujig, \vhich secure* *«crccyond freedom fioni intimidation and a\- 
mriKi pxiingm«hEW lirilfrry ji; now bi^rotninE verj- poj«dar. Ftfi««a( 
of the stntei; have adopted it and the other twenty nine wiH, no 
douhtr follfkvr tlic:ir r.H^mple in a few year*. JJilI the introtiuctioit of 
mtfl*-iJrc*^ U'J ii* r^trtliliviiiiK-iit puscnicd ihc: cuiioii* iinomaly of be- 
iDg oppoi;ed by detnocrati; in Kome localities; and by rep;ihlicaQft in 
other};, both for partisan reaj^on^, constiCtitionDl and high moral pre-^ 
tcxta hctJig of coni^c, advanced' When il hccomca the gencial Idw^ 
it will do more thari anycbina elue to purify electoral metbodfi. 

Lintirely above the quojslton ol mcthotUp however, there arc COT- 
tain principlcii Involved in Anieiicait ])otitlcii which ichccomciiof die 
highest im^HirtniiCP to rom prt^hrud and wbidi furnish tl^e key tn th« 
apparently inexplicable confusion. These principles, it seem* to mo, 
are reducible to two. which may be likcmed tt) the centripetal aod 
centrifni^al lorce» m nature^ A& both arc needed for the atabUity of~ 
thr:* physical universe. *.t\ botli the centralising and decenEralisin^ 
tendenciei^ in fiolitics are nece»ary lor the co-ordination ol iht- slate. 

iMi:»civ PoriTlcs. 


It ift tn the free play o^ iht^ Jorc««, c»ch in tU proper si>h(;rt.\ tint 
lic^ the ii»fttirftnc« 0I thv peipetuily ol AmcncAP jruttitulicni^ but 
A% (he itlejtl bjji nut yet b(.vtj ic4chc[]i iIh; )n;tcticiiJ fc»;iU i» thol niie 
tendency tiegiii^ t<; act. ai liisf legiliTttJilirly. then (fom llw Ai|;gfAiiil- 
iMimeDt of powcrf and tbu **cohesive force of public plum)*,'?*' die 
ajdmioiatrmton of eovcrnmcni allcmpc to Mtctch it unduly, the op- 
pobitioo coQiCh to power aii^ the same »1ory !s icpe^ted. Id each 
oaw the librral pxriy MirciirdK ihr rAnsi^r^Ativi-, Arc« ai ltn<i wiu-ly, 
m corrupted li>' the Kubtlc temptalione of pUce nml powcft and 
wialiicifl 10 retain both, it bccomcK opposed to change and bt^ct» a 
Dcw conKcrvaiiKin* while new librt^Ll^ ari^c on a hikchri pt.iiti: of t*\o- 
Intioa to coatiotic tbt* nrver-erdin^ i.iriii;^lE.-. And it niiiHt hi: rccol- 
Icctcd that the ooiuervative part>' ot each f^enenition is iar more 
libera] iHaii the one which It displaced, lhik:i gi^-ing ann^iancc of pet' 
pciiint pTogrr**. 

IbiH hatt been the t/pitome ol all Ammcan bj»lor)-: each party 
icovcnimciiii by whatcvcT uam? it may hnvc been known, haji been 
tibcral in ootaptri^un with it!i ]>rcdecev>oT and conservalive ns lo ils 
m.ucct-^i/09. \\li4>n Ws^hin^ton art^Jinhe^ his athiiini illation if wa« 
xv> doubt togard^d in Europe a^ bighJy rtAolulioiury and unarchisttc. 
But ttuch a cla3& eovcrnoicnt, with Lawi of eittaij and »Javcr>'. And 
cruel gittnisitmcnl^ for p4:tty oBcnccs, a» exi^tted xhen. would not be 
lokratetl for a sinRle ypar at th<* prrseni time Thcmas Julforwm 
who fouudcd ihc democratic party, then called tW republican, wa?^ 
A coniLJ^cnt ofponetil of ntiMocracy and pcr»on>ilIy was ri man fat in 
Advana: of hi» lime, bul ttic>»t ol liis fcjtlowtTw woith! he bomtml if 
they alioidi! now cotne back to evrtb and tee Ihe pcnvers ptwsetHetl 
h>- the ceiwnd (-ovcnuDcnt to-day, ncci^;i!tar>'< le»;ilimalc powers, 
wJthotil which the aiaiih ol xIk aatkm cxjuM noL lie iii^baiitUleted loi 
m %tn^\r Hvek. 'ribe United Sucl^s noon got rid ol laws ol eniaxl and 
ihe 4^aNi«bcd churches. The democracy came to pow^r and held 
ii nearly nixiy vcais. Lone contiiTuanoe in office endeared its po^- 
0c>^on lo that ptriy whiU.- the vlt>- ^ruwUi uf liicr nuliuu* froao Ave 
millions 10 thiny-one millions, demanded chan^^ft in infernal policy 
whieh K^ere not lorthcominf:, Thcrv were not lacking stsna M pop%i- 
Lir dJKontent In f&40 the dcmocraia mo% tlKir tint defeat, and loi 

TflB woHtsr. 


ihiec or four prc^idtnlial Icfiiis tlic votes vibrated bciwccrn ihc iit;iii- 
r>cnittt *iiel tlir whJs*' Bur the latter were m>i tiniic*! oei r rnimiMenr 
policy. They nccdod a iirinciplc. The principle \fas s-httpiug tts^lt 
Slavery-, which hud l>ci;:i abolisKcd in the Nc^rthcrn ittatci, was grad- 
ually »tt<:ot{lht:j]iii£ in thcr SoutlL Tht deniucrats forgot, or lather 
mofiC of tl^em rttrver }earni?J, thjir Xtue democracy knows no discinc- 
Iioo ol color. Tlw abohriom&i£ wtre denounced by press and pidptt 
at) bocialifit^, aa iht disturlxTM of public order, iia bksplicmcr* 
against the very law of God contained in Holy Writ- The people, 
however, rclnrnrd lo powor th^se Kflnic ^ocialiMs and ihe intiitution ^H 
of chattel eUvcrj^ was dcoincd- Thnt would have been the case in ^" 
any event, bul the civil war precipitated it, jusiasmany otiici uajusl 
wars in history hnve Ti^iiltrd in diKFtsUihlishing thf? vicry in^EiTurians 
to jicrpetuattj which the wars wert inade. 

'Ilic republican purly ^landly and patnoticall^' fulfilled its rnis> 
lion, Uy deforces, however, the cnurmuns destruction of wcalih 
dtirinji the war und th^ hejtvy <\ebi entailed 1^ it, created a hunleii* 
Bome «}'Stein of taxation which substituted selMntere^i ior i>atriot- 
hm. Dulles were laid upon imports from abroa^i heavier than thoM: 
which fojiiLcd ont: of tlic i:hief caum:!^ for the icvi>U of the cdonies 
against GrrnT nrirnin. Tlipf;eduiws(>Tiabled AitiericAn niAnitfRCturen make on AraoricftnsoiJlhe&anieclassof goods that were imporle^j 
and chAFKc the ^ianie price as thf: imported goods enhanced by the 
duly, of cmiise pockcfinj^ for ilieniselvt^ ihc extra i*ro|il which the^^ 
tariff aided them to obtain from consumers. The quickeat wfty tfr^H 
wraith wan to start some mftnufacCurc, f^et the govcmn^cnt to put « 
ZA\ on similar ArEicle% imported and pochel the dl^erence. or to get 
an internal revenue nicaiufp pattml mxing a rcTt:xin line of domestic 
^oodR, pay the tax in the Brvt tnittance xad tJien charge it to thecOD- 
sumer» with of courite 4 j;ood commission ndded for patriotic scr- 
vitei. As long as the yovemmenl had wurk for every man who r-nnld 
shoulder a mn*iket. thL* perniciou* eifect of the syiiten wss not clearly 
seen, Bitl when the war waa over nnd otio millLon men returned to 
productive avocations, wages began to Ealh Tlicn the question ot\ 
tAi^aiion inevtubly camt- co ihc from and ha^ now become llie living 
i»i*iuc of the hour. The needk of the sufirajje is again vihraring, the 




ri?piihlicjin )uirty 1i;is tiM-n ilrpiivcd «i{ p<)wi;r for fuui ymra ami !lie 
democratic Prviiidcnt cri]>ka£iM:() t)i« iftHuc by ^Jutthiog tli« qut^ftion 
oi Orifi reform to the lorcKrouncEp His rv election was duk-uloil* 
hut the ifticstion ilk dcLiBtcd with moic vi^or tluin ever, ami aU h^i;ii5 
pcnnt lo alMoliilt^ ffr« inidt^ Asontr of llie cerUTniits of ihr future^ 
judfiios trom tlic UtE CcDgres^ional elecEtoae, the p9optf< hnv* %x 
Innt tumcil their inces in ihc riKhl direction. 

U will be noticed iIihI %*ko rltiLi^'iitfi, which f hfiw i:dll(^(I ihe 
centripetal and the ci'ntritugal* hav^ been prtrdomlnant in -ihaping 
Aniencan politics, lliey may be termed the soci&tJstic and the an' 
aichiMiC forces. Socialiam claims ihc direction oi everything by a 
strong Cf'mrftlified pftvirmmpn:, AnarrhiM* sny wiih ihp drmnrrar^, 
•' That govwnment is best u-bich governs least/' and logicalK ^rgud 
lor the &l>olttion of all KcA'crnmerit. Now, the riKbt or wrong oj these 
principles depends itpnn their application. Only the most rabid nn- 
arfhi*( wnuld nbjcci to the Post Offictv f^f instanre. and few t-oc'tsi]- 
iiitp^vciM claim that the state has aright to rcRuI.iton irtE^n'scJothing 
or hh religion. It is on the qucAtien a5 to what MiHjccts these piincipies 
should Ife apiilitrd thai all aiir Aintrrican parties arisr^ The early ird* 
craliattwcrreiociutiviie rnlhat ihey believtdin a strong Lentral ^evern- 
mcntand m retcf;a1iri; us kw thingti a? |>o^ible to the states, l^esi' 
flentjefferaon introduced the anarchistic or cenlrifu^al princliile of dc- 
centralMation and individual ism. as the nafiun giew. it was se«u 
ihat this QTOught ir>iusiice. especially in the matter ci slaven' which 
wa« a violation ol human rights, however the different iftatcs might 
regard it. Then the socialirstic or centripetal principle begaji to act 
and idavery i]lHHpp<^<ircrd. Now it i^n-ms; likely rhat fbr individualistir 
pnnciple wdJ af^ain become dcminant in nn iitempi to abolish all 
fiscal restrictions upon trade. After this may [ollow the socjali&tic 
principle of ^tate owncinliip ul railways am! ttrle^rapb^. Perhap!^ this 
wiJl be the work of ihe new political forceu evidently gatherinR. aa 
loreabadowed by the Karrnersi Alliance, alter the breakinj; up nf 
pftTtiea and alter the democrats, having given n* free trade, will have 
r^^nmed their natural |>osilion of conservatives. Then, in the remoti^r 
Ittltire. may come the anarchistic principle of the removal of llie 
restrictpons against Icniale siifirf^go. And so it will go on, first one 


rac K0KI£1\ 

^>ririciplo aclini; arul hiihllicf; itscnission, ihcn the; other, each bring 
ing the nalLi>n Lo & higher pUnc of ^>iugtc:i3 and uniting it tnorc aiid 
niore cTosHy with tht^ grami upivant mjirth of the hiiirian racr. 

What it thi*, iillvr iill ^ It i« nut sociali«n. It is iiot anarchy. 
It in neither <lcmocrcic^^ nor icpuhlicamMn. it is EVOLUTION- It 
i]Dt*> rot depend on the tempoifiry succttfis i>l party ui^vemmnit^ fur 
its action^ Ie don: iiol cvim ^cTf^ly r^^nll from ciir unique po^^ition 
or our mdc-pvndc^nce H-rested trom brtai Bntam. Back ol it lie the 
bruiKl prmcjplescjC Diltivh liberty, of comnioQ law, uf M&goa Cliarta 
won from King John tin the plains of Himnymede. Back of It is ihe 
^eat wave of <le?motracy arivin^ out of thi> ifarkTi?«rS of tho Middle 
A^us Back o( it arc the ]n]unc:ti6n3 of Hiin o[ Galilee who tuught 
tlw uaUual law as uu man ever tau^'llt Iwioii;- Back ol it is Rouiod 
JiiTi^pnidenc* »nd Greek an tivd ciiltnrp and the early eHon& of the 
■days when Cadntu^ HonRht tHo nlphflhci to ICurape with hi?i PhoD- 
hici^n colony. Indeed, bnck of it lie* ihc primeval impuUc ol the 
ftr^C maiij Goi] -f.'iidnwL'd. 'ijir'tlc^cL'mlvd, who stood upon his feet 
and bcffftr to think- We may cuTvy our thoughts «ti]) further to the 
limes when the red r-unli^ht firiiC iihcTed thraui;h the thick clouds 
iipoQ an UTiinh,ihi1cd ivorld. and Mil) hirthcr may we go in thought 
into ihe uf^irs of frttfrniiy, and iiss*tri witli fullT^'^i confidente that the 
principles of progre»K today working themselves out in politic* arc 
but the rejection of the divine ideals founded in the Inws of nature- 

Can the course of Midi progress he turned t>ack ? Can we (Ie* 
4patr of iJie fittnrt in (hr ItghT ol all the past? H not the gen<^ral 
mov'emoni onward and opwaT<l? Will not the eneera at ephenieraJ 
pha«e» ol our American politics pft»» away with the inddcnis which 
ihcy ju§ily condemn, while the principles of progress remain forever? 

Thomas B. Pbe^ton. 







rangomvntfi Ix^twccn men and wamcn whicli hare in vi«w 
chsracl^rr oj <i!l:^r]nf;:. ThiR i^ opposed to natural nctcctioEi which 
j& uicrfrl}' iniiiinctivc iiiilclcnlofjicjil imion with one of the opposite 
««3e as inipvll^d by wnimal pa!c«ion t^r romantic love, AH ftcKtial 
unioo ftmong the lower animals u by luttiral adcction ; ihey do not 
forecast consiccjucntci, and by ctwifornnn^ to Icnown Inws dctcmirie 
consciiticncev Ainocii; ihti \tt*,vt racc^ of m<^ii iialiital vduciinti in 
lh« sole or «t leatt dominani factor in marital mattvrt. but ac ci\< 
jliaation advanovtt ^riilicial avkctioa becom«^K a itiote* and more pow- 
erful element, A trul)' tliotichliuJ and inivlli^^iil man jn our day in 
view of ii:amH^e will uiom can.-ftdly ton^ultrr hi>i own life jiist^ry 
and ttiai ol his parents snd ancestors, and aliio thai of his intended 
partner and h<rr nacestor*. as lo physical or mental disease, which 
mi^hc be iiaiided down lo lliv iwuv oC tliv propu^d unioiL He 

*1b an anici* Ui TV^ ^r/Ho lor Junr, it^, I vii<t«avorwi lo pbiQiy att lorlli 
tbv nofw^I ul •uciiTiy from iti Io^qI rleinrcln t> the KrEKt^^al id.iii«»tc in our K>diU 
liie. ai4 m *hfTW thsi (tir T»p»rtJy lif* m h dinriiiirh appUrniinn nt wrirrifr (o liumao 
bfwiiinfc Juil hov this afplifaiion v4t lo b^ rnj)d« 1 did rioi «ut«, fcr I dLd ool 
lacl»le ihi* id the acoycol ray di*:ujflion Mr. Sicad m Mi AVi-hfii- #/ ^^'iVvj 
fot Jol>H [*<p, and Mf WjiIUm m thn Stpiemtn-r t'ottaifkify A'rti^t- anA Orioli« 
pi'piai.rf SfiriPf^ JfmtA/j, iB<jo» bavn ilruMti inliTvnci* on iftj* fOint vhich I am ttot 
prcpAmd L'-» ^lou. Mr. Scr^d «p<4lt« in bf Adlinr^ Atail in trkt of '- murdc, laulUa- 
llan <:« impriwDiTiptit " as ihr nHfthcds vhicb [ Mm ai, jiDd Mr WdU^ce TCFntTka 
QpoQ iny \•^ryrt ■■ ifcat <iicli inlerfrrenn with perwo*! froHlom to mit^vrt Ki dM^Xy 
lil«c^aj[ iTHliTriJiuil bHjjpipcu will iictfr be iL(kr|ilKl \tY ihc mnjijrilr i>f anv catWD, 
ta if ^ti*ih1 vtiidIe! ni«vpT (# tnbiniito] I0 liy rhr Tnmfirit> withniji x lifc-and^taih 
«mf[|;l« ' li v^mi iiKLimbtni ihtn tm iti« Tt> tiaie morp clvarly whcki 1 DodprMkad 
bj jiiljfKul velrelioci, ud ^hai lizfrmi of ii arv muai «iipedtiot At ibe pfBufot lime 


T>fl HOXiST. 

hvoulO nou for intiidiKC. many int^ a laDiily -Ahkh has a icnOcfQcy 
la consiimptioD or m«»nily, for this woulil b<r a crime againii lii» 
pOi««bile dcscoTirlanCfr- Further, this ^rowlh of ArtiBcial scludion 
wttb llic profcrcHA ot «oci<.'ty is manifest noi only a:^ regards indiviO- 
iiaI 8CUOTI hilt by stnt** regulation. Even in b^rbarniu si»l4?s it 40on 
becon^vfi evjdeni to the leaders ihaF H strong hoaLchy m^a m lo be 
ha<I to defend and maintain the nation, sirict attention must be paid 
1u tlirr Lhrtrrtclci of ll^u^r wlio [iiuriy. En Sparta ^ml oilitT aniiuiit 
«tAt^8 this princtpJo was rocognised, and modfrri governnt^nXK seek 
in meny more or lo§s indirect vt&ys to crcour^f^e marrtaj^ir l>otVk-e«n 
ihc most 111. ao thai good citisenfi and vrmLors may be laiscd up (o 
*wrve thp star** All ihis n*piilatif>n of ninrriago by r-itbrr jni'livid- 
ual or atat^ action whicli looke to the character ot oKspring J Ctrrm 
anificiaL aclccu'on. 

In the evoliiTLon of man »» & raiRinal animal ariificjal fiolcction 
wilt more and moTf prcvAJ^ and hiinian hrt^rdin^ will bf'cotn* a ihwil 
doiui«d art' M^n is al^vnys arEiticiftl,* nnd it \s his goal to become 
ill alJ liib liJc unaalural and thoTi>ughIy attfid. There can uUiraalely 
bii no faiur^'/ffiff policy a«i to marriage or any oihtr in^iimtion. The 
hirtory ol n^arriAf^c ir the hittorj' of the gradual retlremetiC of nat- 
ur*l selection ; but art has tonic in here more slowly than in other 
rHation:^ iii life owin^i to trcnicndmis conscrvaiisni itnd the ptjwcr of 
human pn^ion, But the lime hn« now eome whc'n man muct tnoro 
than ever before attend by artiftcial selection— thai \¥^ purposed 
care— to the perpetuation ol the species in the line? of its Ituc aO* 
vahcrm^nt, spiritual achievement, I chi noi now see how the fu^ 
eefiftity of artificial selection can be Bnin^aid by any one who lakes a 
broad view of the evolution of the race. 

The melhodrt cj ^rtilicid vdectioti aie cither negali'h^. i\hith 
Tt^Htniin ihi? iintit 1n>in propagaEinj^. oi ^njsitivf?, which enconrngv 
tJie At to piopagater The mot^t radical ni^gatjve method i« mutila^ 
tioni and is employed by man with the lower animals and vrith 
blavc^. bnt this plan coultl haidly be used by civilised society 


* Br nriilicidi | uoifrrttAiid ool what i» uDnaiural cr agnvnil QMurc bui ihat 
which Lb jiufr COC3C.L0US di-liLcTicioa more in accord v\\\i ih? }aav» jf Dniurc, li 
ft nighff clegr« or Iht nMiml. 

AttTtriCiAt 3fiLK('noX AtCD niK aiAllRlAOC monLEtt. 


loT humui brocfliDg. rmpviKinnKnt tcai|iomnly rcMnuid some 
cUi<ir!t oi society (rom ])trpetuaTiiJg iliem selves, Prt-vendon at con- 
cation i« at pfeseni mostly a volontaT^' means, but ACcomi^iAliBs 
tbo cJiKiiAalion of boih til and un^i. Cclibftcy of monlf and nun. of 
bachelor Mttd maid* tvoi:k» also in both dinxtionA. In many Indirect 
vtAy^ fiocier)' discourager from marrinfH' ibo^r whom it 'iiippo^ft lo 
b« unlit as tasted by u-oalib, rank, or birth. 

It is noi^ hoi«tcvcr, so much by ihc extension of any ncfcat^vc 
methods, tiui lalhc-r by posftive iiiean^ that artificial sckciinn may 
br btt% employed. I ivitl mention three fornix by which hnniAn 
bfwiinfc miflht Itc matcri.illy advanccd. 

By common law imd cLt^Com the wife ^^uncndcrs hcr^l phy>- 
ically n» tnhmii and morally xa nhry ihr husband. ThU is not for 
the sio«t pan hari^hly and literally carried out in civiUsed coiintrica i 
atil! there is a VtUi dcnl of oppression which i» hidden from all c)'C3» 
and vliich is ofLcii ]>aKsivuiy receivct^ by woincn as hvr rij;htliil lot, 
Thi* again in a luhject upon which delicacy ^ — iicrhap* unwfue— for- 
bida free discuuion, but its buirinf; is manifest. H ivomen have 
the cfkoicc to bear or not to bear, and »hc with educated conscience 
chxHHe by fitnr» of itfT^pnng. a large and pr>\^-rrfiil rlrnirni ni nn\- 
ficial sekclior may be introduced. Again alJ govrmnienti^ have 
faw» concerning marrtai^e which act In ^ncral toward E!ncourai;lnK 
tlie iit, Ccitain conditiotis art lo ;i|;c, etc., being fulfiUed. the vtate 
grants a miirriitt**^ litenct-. and public o[>imon might f^iiMly be led To 
malce the rcqutremt-nls more slrin^em^ An a physician has fiu|; 
^c^ied lo me a certificate of health from an approved. medical ea- 
aminer mishi be ret^mred ol all ai>|]l)i:ant-& for Ic-gal marriagi*. Thia 
wouJd certainty be a itrong tuvasure of artifjcial selection, and would 
save much misery »|>nni;;]nt; from if^^orance and vice. It surety 
secmtt >caiCcLy fillini; iLal ih^se who cannot pava an examinatiijn 
for life insurance In^ly contract marriage ivith view to inti«- 

But the plan of artificial ««lection which deems to me n^oil 
feasible at the prc^ciu uxat would be volnntaty a&sociationa of men 
and 4omen who Und lliemseKes to learn and api^Iy the latts ol hi'- 
rvdity in their mama^ relatione, to »^ot: ior t^xpen guidance, and 
in all their Ufe to live not merely purely, but according: to lea^on and 


THK MClJTlfn'. 

ttcipflc**, Hirrdity ftocT*"iip* ol ihis mamp which should /svor mar- 
riages only bciwccn mcinherK u'oijW iiluniotoly b«coaic 9 ralioiial 
arif^iocracy. and erne and good blood would he pcrpcliiaicd Jii ihc 
bol manner, Tlirrrc Is uiuch, Indcicil, ti> Ih* done: in llic scirici: of 
hcTE^dity. especially as regards 3awi; of trflni;niiqEion of mental and 
monU <iual)tic5,' bui still wc have even now a suffidcnt bnsia of 
knowlct!|fc to mAke the cxpcrimcnl well worth tiying- 

Many objeciiuiii <:nn btt raised ta Mich 'sdiciiic*. For inMarcr. 
ii wiU be 4<iid that th«y might assure vs of obtaiiung men cl Caient, 
but wv !ihf>iild loTE^ver Ioho men of genius. If nuch aociclic3 were in 
vo^ue iu the Eliiabctliuii pt^riud. we im^lit never hitvi: had a Sliakc^ 
«peare. What iikejihood that a scientific expert wuuM advice the 
inarnage of John Shakcapert; and Mary Arden! 1 an&wer iJial we 
sJiould have had a do£cn Shakt^pcres inntcaid oi one. The Jaw oJ 
[fu^ jiru<liicTiMr of i^(rTiiu*(e« is rot beyatul lininan krn, Maud Sv if 
rnily a gcniiiB in horsetlenh, but she came into th« world in ao for- 
liiiioiis or ifiBtinctivc way^ but by scionli^c brecdir^. The Applica- 
bility of similar foresight in breeding men would produce genitives 
in atmndijnc^- h may not he ac£■l:mpl^^htd in an rxacilj' analogous 
manner, an cxpc>rt leading; around eminent men to " make the sea- 
son,'' but the annlof^DUisprDClicalrcsult^i will ncverlhelcs?^ be obtained. 

Anolher objection which mi^hl be tirijed is that any :iuch ticheme 
wotild seririiiitly diminitli pfn>uUtK)n- Trir: hiil wliai thoughtful 
man applies Ihc nnmencaJ le*t to the projjrcss of the race : It i% 
not (juantily of ciiueus but iiuality. which ccni^titutcs the true great- 
ness of stale.t^ The oiunlin^ uf hejidti instead uf what is In hcaitU, 
i« a mistake into whtch dnnociac]«« are peculiarly apt to fall. Were 
all men exactly i:qual a cvnsua would ht a tnic te?t. hut couMdcrinj; 
the lre:neii^vu;i' inequalities in humanity it is sheer fully for a coun* 
try to glory in tlie number of its* adherentH, or a sect in the number 
o4 iiB adherents, or a tiiy iu the uumberof its citizenf^. Civiliflaiiona 
arc weighed down and uUimatcly crushed b\ the dead weifiht oi the 
mab^efi. Tli<: biirbaiiiin is not without but within th<: ^i^ili^atitiD. 
By recent inquines in New York and Chicago ih*^ ^iluma app^fir to 


*S*e my r«niafi» oa ihi* folai in AWur/. Oct. 31, tas^ 

AfEiiria^i. »cucTu>.N A»p mi: marru^f. phohi-rm. 


be hw tinier att iiroliJic ab ibe mo^t arlMotiAtk- poniuatt; auil nhik 
good may cdnn^ from th«- Iowihi bom, and bftd from ih« highest 
bom. HtilJ ihf* chancer arc dccMcdly tn favor ol the hif;h born- A 
tew ri«G Above the level of their birili, a few Binh bclc^w it, but the 
^rrai niajorfty of men rrmAin For Ehrrir Hvck tm rlit- ifrnrT^al Irv^l cf 
ftociely in which Ihcy w<}r« ham. The United States wouhl be a 
fireatfir lution with,ooq choice inhabiinnts than with len times 
iOpOOO,ooo of the ill brrd And low bred, Athcii?^ \yy the vulgar test 
of niiml»cr* n'as but ji *niall *ind tnciin city, biit in Inie greatn«ai as 
revf*a]<?cl in far rt-'achiog ftpintual power, she stands in the v«ry forc- 

Ai^iD it uhill bti objected iha: sjdriitilic ^chernv^ fur humnn 
breeding woidd inevitably dt*ttroy ihat beauiiliJ flower of Qinfttiau 
eivdiftatioiif the poetry and romance ol love- Sentiment and chivalry 
would nit}ier. and brutality and cold CiikuUtlon woidd nupplant a)] 
tender ^nd re^iTR'd emotion, I shoidd an^wi'i ihai cl^e trntr i«^ne- 
meni which refit^^s lo obiriide rhe thirtg& ot flvnat, and tru^ purity 
which refnfte» to cJwdl on them aaUciousIy. are perfectly compatible 
w^h flic iti\h:6i kimwJediie lud the cou^iiucnt action. Lutili-ity 
breiedfi hc^ upon a half Iriirtwli'dxr ar^niif^d In diihioiis wnys. A 
6«nouB practical »ci<rniihe treatment oi thi^ fiuhJL-ct will not glority 
the flesh with llic fierce ^no of Walt Wliilmac. oof, with the Zola 
ftchool, dwell npon animalism with the morbid detail of a heated 
imftRination ; hxti it will briiiK tntn the rloarr-^l tiRbt ihr lawn of «ex 
BOd ll)c fulc?4 for the development of the human nco into the pcricct 
man. These taw» of nature, which scien<:c vcveals arclaw^of duly 
and lawxof Gnri, and when onrrnpprrpHaird a« Mith by Rlhicsand 
Retiqion. th<!y wiU become the ba^iR lor all that ii; hifl[h in emotion 
and chivaliou* in Action. 

In that moAl vital of maiirrs, bcirnan brcc^lmK. man '\t^ far be- 
hind hit progrefift in all other cphefeft of action ; but here an elai^ 
where Science mu^t crnler, not tc destroy but to iulH), to bnild up 
manhood ami womanhood Into the perfected relatione which Ciin 
(inly come from rational action, ilbiminati^d liy complete knowledge, 
atid «9ncliGne<t by nobleit ventinrenl. 

THOrC.HT AMI [.Axnr.VGn. 

IHAVIv read wicli interest Prol, Ma* MuUcr'b papier ar the alKii-c 
siibjvcl in the ciiuciiL Uf^u^' ul The MoHiit^ jiuL uiily bi^citii^c x\ 
ift tn brgr- pqrt Hevdied Eo a tonsidrrmtion nf my nwn work on " Men' 
tal EvolutjoHt ' l>iit «ttl] more because the cxpUnatii^ris which it 9U^ 
plies ti>uchin4; ccriam pninc? of disagreement between us appear to 
i^Iio^ ihdl I biivc nut misrtrpcEisc^ittcd his ^l^lciiicni»> <7vcn if^ a& ht 
aU«{{eu, \ have misApprehtmded his moamngi;- 

The work to which allusion has jttst been made was pubUahed 
ia iB33p and. a^ \&x as I am awirc. it is only now that Prof- Man 
Mflllcr hi« xotighl :a Hitei my dews *s then? cxjircssed. Hrnrr 
we in;ty tatn: il ttiat his answer is. at all events^ well matured. Fur- 
thcTmorc, wc may take it. Iiom the tonv in which his answer if oon^ 
vcyccj. that he crrdjt> me with bavitif; had at least an huiiot desire 
to understand, ami accurately to represent, his meaning in all the 
places whore 1 haive ventured to criticise it. It appearG, however, 
that at all events in one impoTtant respect 1 have betrayed "a com- 
plete niiiatjprchcinsxon "' of Ini* mraniny — ^Xt.. wiih reference to hi« 
^•liieoiy of ihe origin o( rotits" {The Mfimxt^ p. $>^2y. and it is ior 
the purpone oi correcting' this misapprehension that he has pub- 
lished the latter half of his present paper. My reply, therefore, 
iniiHt takff the lorm oi excuiiing myself (or the complete misappre- 
hensions which are aliened. 

It ia desirable at the outact to omphasiac a distinction which 1 
wub careful to draw in my work on " Menial Evolution in M«n "^ 
that, namely, between philology and philosophy- A man may be 
an excelltjnt authority on the " Science ol Language,*' and ytx but 

muv^H't Axu LA^nUAoe, 


wry in<!ilIi?rf!Tit writer nn thr ''Sciirncc of Thotight/' On tb«? 
ocbcf band, a man mn>' know nothing at fint hand louching the 
ipccAl province of a philologist, anil ncvcrtbcleioi he fully capnhlc 
ai criiiciMUg nbal a pliilolo^i^i has piiblisJLCfl In the wa^ of Iticoicl- 
ical Jcductioiw from his facu— especially where ihc«c dcxlnctionft 
quit tbe sphere; 01 philology, and soar into that of Daivinian, or 
aoti' Darwinian, circulation. This dintincticn. Indeed, between the 
panicvilar science of philology ami tbv (^eiiE^ral scojir of pbili]«c>phy, 
Prol. Max Mullcr himKcIl Tecogni^ejfi wb^re hctayii: "While the 
studcnl oj Ungiiagc seem* tome to have n perfect right to treat 
Lbc roots ol Ungiiagi! av iiliimate facts. It it d^flkuli for ibc pbilos- 
ciplwr not to look bt-yond." {T^f Mitwtr. p. 579-3 Ncvcrthclc**.- he 
cofoplains ai mc bccaur>e, while accepting ell hir* philological tncts 
upon hi» authority a» a phitologint (9^avc in ¥0 far as they are not 
pltd by other phi]olug)«l«t- f have lw*n obHg«?d to cxpre«N dJu- 
t Irovn not a few of biv theoretical deductionc— especially, as t 
have already indicated, where thc«u have reference to the gencml 
doctrine* of R-voluiion uv applied to tbcf mind cif man. Dot how, [ 
may avk. could a treatke be written on '*Menia] Evolution in Man/' 
or '*The Origin of Human Facidty/* without considering the r^' 
■ttltft which have been gained by the science of (on^p,arJiCive phi- 
lology ^ Or how can it be maintained tliaCn in orr!er to deal with 
thee*! rcftultii in relation to the general theory' of deicent, a writer 
mutt fir«i of all himself become an authority' in that particular sci- 
ence ? Al any rate, I deemed it enou^li ftir iht? only pur]Ki»tcv which 
L had in %'iew> to read at1c*ntively all the leading autlionliefi in this 
fGicnce, and* alter extracting from them the information upon niat- 
ter> of Cact winch their researches had establiKhed. to vhow wluit I 
regarded as llw hearing fjj rbtse facts upfm ibt- tbeorj- of mental 
evoLutiou, Nor can I plead guiitj' to ihe charge of arrogant pre- 
Sttinption. which tbc following words appear to convey ; 


Wo MC tn hii CAM hon dn^roai !l n fcva aad vboOD claim Ic tpeak wilh 
ily (a knt b*m «p«cifc) Enbjoet, <» vimlur* to wyt^k wtib Jiutbafil^r <m vihjvfbi 
hia OMU Profi>«Bor Rrvmitn'V hflt, no t^miht. nraA unvrsl hcaatn en philolnff 
^aad pUosnpbf. tiui be i% aoi lufhcirnTly inic«r of his mbjoct te liHve thr^ oifhn«t 
If u> ipcok oC mca lihe S(oir4, Hiiilvr, llerben Spmccr, uj My nuchiiue of 


-TAit ucncnrr. 

Hobbco. >rith an air o( ^penotiiy Thai is cniiiel/ oni of place " I '/'^e .\feniit. 

Now that 



booki I 

aupenOTiEy occurs in 
must cjeay— and this U & maitCT ol lact, Noiri is alluded to only 
with refeTcrice to hla thcDT> of the orijifitj cf language. whtch'I go 
fnrthf^r in ai^r+'pTing than doe* any ' ' fihilosopher"' or '* ptiilologist." 
u'lth the ALQgLe ^xcepUon of )^tQi. Mik Mij]l«r himecir HuiiJey ta 
mentioned In several places 44 & lending autliorUy on oD&tomical 
niaitrrs, where my argument requifes an authoritative statement 
"upon them. H*?rtjtrt Siwncer, curiounly enough. x% never men* 
lioni^d al alJ ; whilt Hobbcs is mimc<! only occe, and then as sut*' 
Caiuink;. tiy A --^hrewit ;it]Al>!iiKp" nn upii^ion which ] diii advoctitii)^ 
bj' quotations Irom recognised authorities in philoiophy. TmJy, 
iherelore, it would be well tcT mycntic '■ to »y nothing ot Hobbes"; 
and better still \\ \i^ hid loukcd al my inJeA before cc^ndcmmng my 
vtippoirted trt'ditTiR'zil of Heibi'iT Spencer. Hrixley, ant! Noiri*. As it 
is. Ills altuajon to these names *^\% entirely out of place " 

But even apart irora this particularly untcftunatti aUusicn* his 
mure general tliiii^e a.^ to my " veEilujinii^ tu a^JL-ak h n thou tat ively 
on subjects not his [uiy] own." t^ equally out ol |ilncr. The fol- 
lowing iH my mtToduction to the chapter on Comparative Phjlologyr 
and 1 cannot sec that it betokens any "air o( Miperlority *' : 

" In ni^w TUTRJrn \n ihit impofiant htflncfe of my ctibjvft J iTi:iy T»ir:»ri(, *■ 
hminf, (har, Ukp all v\\e scicbcn, phUolagy fan he cDliivTirei only by thcw U'ba dfr- 
vntc tbtmfifflvM ipecIjiUy 10 the puipow. My function, t&crefcire. will bew be ihat 
Lif Bisretf ]>ui(iui{ [ulLrilitf lEictiifiin i^iutts uf ;rhilLi]ot;j[:jjl mGiicU lu f^i a> iba* 
hika hitherto pmct«cl<dL und ^ ins lu these result* Appcur w idc ta have Mty bur- 
iaU upon thfi ' i>ri|{in of hvimAD faculiy/ Bvinn (bun myHlf cbligvd to T*ly upea 
auiHirity, uhtn? 1 ^nd ibai itirhnritii^ nr* in ir«mt1icr, [ will tiThir :i%'akI rh* pi-nnli 
til diHUffwmrni. r»r elm 4ift(e whfii hai tti Iw 5^iH ^ni IkitH ^iil-n o( ih<r qu«tion 
I5u] Ab«n; I And ibat aJI conipcteot mthoiiEics an 'n aubbloniul ACTH^^aL. I «in 
not burden my oipos^tioa b) uutoloiifcAt cjuotaiitiiu,^' 

■ « 

Hnving thu^ dixpai^rsJ nf » meirly prTKond mallet. I may pnss 
on to my juiitL6cation of the "complete mi«appreheni:iori ' into 
which [ have fallen with rcitpcci to Prof. Max MuIIc^rS work on the 
" Science of Thonghu" 




In the first place he tells ua 

' Od pBw? so? Mr. ftomaa?« »>^ ibai I ptofe*, a» « mult of thofc Tvceitt re* 
•evche*. la ba^'ercOuced ihe nuinhef cJ Sitakhni ro^ia lo i:i ! virIi I hAd. 3>uc 
the ainnb«Tol roaui io S4a»krit Htundtu yvt itt rkboul Soo : (he cumber laiol «laicli 
b^ 4pnik« kt ibn Dumhitr Af cianc«pu HpEwfld by ihm* rtimt, many nl Ihnp c^m- 
v#>iafe Thfi 4«in». AT riMrly Ifaff urn* idn" (TjI/ .I/aau/, p 5fi| J 

Now ic Tfi <.]t)fTe trui^ chat on page* ^tf I made the us(^riii>iic 
which i» here cliaWenged; bui as 1 inmieUmely go cii lo bp«jLk re- 
peaicdly d thv "nuniber i2i" set being -'tbc number of conc«pU 
vxpnesed by the rooi^" — and aciiialTy guotc ai li-ngih ilii^ whole 
191 concpt* ^ith ProJ. Max M^'iIIt^r^ owti heiidiog. — I am rot atire 
tfiat fhc point i* worlh iJtc stress wtuch j*i now laid ttpor: U. Ncv< 
crthele^d. I ma> cx]>Uiii why in Uiisulk; pasbA%c I u^il the "Aojd 
"toow." £n<iTeiid ol The word "concepce/* Bri^y, the only rensi^n 
wne hccsuMj, according to Prof, Mfix Mullor's theory of the origm 
of roois, h occmed i^ lue virtually tlie sumi: ihinc^. from a ^sycho- 
locicAl point of victv, whether we speak ol Ihc reduclton in qtieN- 
tioti » p^TTaming to rooi« ot to concepts. For, accordinft io the 
theovy. " every root embodies a conocpii" or is the obverse side of 
A concept. Caii6cqtieiu]> , if the StLUbkrii laiiEiiage pic&eiits iomv 
ftoo roo^i;, while ii ik rxprrRiiiv? of only ui crmccpis, thr balance of 
the 8oo roots miifit hw conccrntxl in conveying the SAmv^ or nc^^rly 
the i<4rnG. ideas — u VtoU Max M(4l]cr himself enpressly Asserts ia 
the iihovc <)ijn|nCion fiom T/t^ Affniii. Iiidrfd, iho wh'iU- ohjrct of 
his psychoiofjicfll annlytis of liripinitiic mots wa* to prove that Biich 
IP the ease ; and. therefore, that the i^i roots which serve to con- 
vey the i-it concepts are the only roots/eijuiied for eIic purposes of 
commiiniration in Sanskrit spnpch. No dmihi it U'OtiW havr tJrrn 
better il I had stated all thii; in rny hook; hut even if its oniiM^icn 
led to olncariiy, I can rtuircely see that on this Account there cculd 
have been a **misrrptP*riitalion" where there wnn crrtainly mi 
••mtMfiprpheniioD.'^ For, a* already stated. I spoke of " I3i roots" 
only once, wbtlc; 1 allnded to *'t2i concept?" many timi'» and 
usually, morccver. in inverted commas. LaMly. it may be ob^ 
served iJat, followin]^ hh theory corceraing the "oriijln of rooit," 
Prol, Max Midler him&frlf to iar identifies roots with concepts aa to 


THr MOJflflrt", 

Iwflti one ci hi* lUu. in largr rjipitn It— HOOTS OK CONCEPTS^ 
Thorcforc' in ikying ihat he profcssn^i to hnvc rcducci! iho psy- 
choIoiTicoUy efficient dements of Sanskrit speech lo 1 2 1 constiliicnls, 
it <li() noi Appear to me thul I was dcpnitiiig Jmiu his own tcmii' 
nology when in one pnssage V £pr:>ke of 1hes« 121 consiiiuc»t« a« 
rootR. wJiilc cvcr>-wherc dsc I ^pokc of them as conccpts^ ■' Give 
U3^" he fay>, "iiboiJt Sea tool^. And wc can explain the largest 
diciinnnry ; give 11 ^ a htm i 111 rnntcpt-i, «im] we can ac^rontil Inr the 
feloOTOot^-" (■•ScitMice ol ThoiiRht," p- 551.) Well, if this^ is &o, 
the Koo root« (1. c. phonetically ^ncparablc cicmcnt^) have been re- 
dticeil lo ibc T21 "concepts or lootit" (i. c, pxycholoKically ^>ar- 
ablc ciemt'tits). My critic cartnot bolb have his cake and eat il. 
Either he must cbiiie l>y thu philologicfil mcitntng oE ^ root, as the 
ultimate rcMilt of philological anaiyaU ; or ctKC he mu»t abide by his 
own philosfiphiLMl in^anin^ of a ronC, an the E>nib<vlimrTm oi a con- 
ceT>i. Uncjfjr the lormet deltmlion Iliery Aili be aiwut boo roots ol 
Sanskrit ; imilcT the latter dchnition, and Accoiding to hz» naalysis, 
there will be only 111. 

The next point with re^'ard to which '■con;pItly nitsapprehen- 
^ion " i» atlcsed may bei»t be presented by my critic's own ivords* 

" Profnior Ronitrtn ihirlia I1 ticcnoarf torcriiark ihnC ' then cOHWpti cTi> D«l 
Mpmeci iho idMtioD of pnmitivd miu^'l I nvvcr aid they did, 1 B»v«r prflccdvd 
o? be a«f)iia(nipd wtth ibc idffltion oi pnTniitt« man All 1 nrnmrairw) wa* thAf. 
mnkiiiR illowanct for obscure w>:trdfi every ihoughl, Ih4l nl the !owoit iiv4(e ak 
well 4» Lil itic ui^Bl iiiiEiulv philiAuphci . uu tx: c\|jici>Kd mIlL Ihcic buo ri>ui3i, OEllt 
trttced buck to thctc iJi ccmccpDi * {T^Atr .1A<h<i'. p 304-) 

Now, il is perhaps needless 10 say, I am extremely glnd to Icam 
that fruch wt\ii cliu nicitninfE inlcnilcd i but 1 Crtisi Ih^t Ibc fotlowing 
qiioiuiioaa will furnish a suHicicnt ckcusc for my mifiuaLlcisl^ndiii^ 
of It: 

*' I hop* tbai tbo«e ^ho aiIJ carefully quiziin* ih» rr^ulIsM which I ha^ ar- 
rive! will admil thai ihvy pro^^o by ovL^rwhc<Imit)£ rviclpnc? ihni the mquiingt of 
TOOIB nrv rtalij uhat wc npKted rhtm to b». and Lbai tticy rxpren [he primllns 
■ocIaT new of prtmltive vrcUt man, *nd ihe m»lM mor* or irm clai*ly AnodaTed 
with nuch nci«^' ("Science of Tluiuvhin" p. 403*1 

ruoi-'cuT «:«)> lanouagk. 



From lhi» it appears thai tf Prof, Max Miilkr nc\ct pfuft^bcd 
to be Acqiuimeil with the iileation ^i f^rimsiiv^ mar, h<* Ax^ pro1««ft 
!0 have provof), by ovcruhclminff evidences, a very JarK<f Licqviaiu- 
tancc, cot only ivitb chc tdcaiicn, but bIao with prtmitivf^ acca oE 
primitive Sff^M idhr. Pouihiy hk iir()iinmUnr^ wiih Uaxh ihi^f 
fnati«ni \% v^ry much more incimntc Chan minfi ; hut as I hftv# al- 
ways lal:ci> rC tG Itc Tixtiially ccnnin thai "primitive mnn *' was 
"tocial ^ in hi» hahttKH 1 sbouM like to IcArn ihr; r<^ASonf^ which havr 
inducrd my critic to beh'evf* in a i;ti]l morr? " primiti\*c rnan/' who 
waa addicted to a solitary mode ot life. Kor, othcrwisft^^ the only 
divciDction on which hiA criticism appctm lo rent i» « dtstir>clion 
without a differrtce. 

Again h« «ay£t 

"TbcSclmcci^l Thought iihvium ur< (Iml cvriv tliiiiitElii lla>AE etor cruMcd tHv 
miBd Cif iD«n nc he traced bock Ut *b(Mt %-4\ tiDtple concBpU" tf Ibid. p. 41S,] 

And that thu word ' ■ man " hf re it not intended tacitly to ex- 
cJutk " primitive ttiiitx " (whether ^-soc^al " or »Jo]iCary), I sathcrcd 
from the fact of the lai concept* in Quci^iion being tabi^Iatcd under 
the beading, In l««r rupitiiN. TUK ll'J ORKHNAL CONCnPTS. 
For. if the word "orjjjinal " here wa* intended to mean original 
only with reference to the San ftk tit langua4:c, why dtd the writer 
follow it u|) with brK MAtement ii bout the Science of Thought, aasviring 
ufi that ^7Vfj thought which had jvw cr^iased the mind <yi man could 
be tntttd ^aik to thcu? ta: original conccfitK? 

Lastly, not only by f>uch particular pASsages was ) letl lo Mip' 
that the writer was referrirg lo ■■ primitivr^ man " wlicii he wiis 

ing about "primitive social man," etc ; hut siill more w'at I led 
lo »iippoM thU by the whcile drift x%x\ti tenor of hiti worlf. l-or what 
would l>e the tenne of all hi^ disquiEhi lionet upon the impcirtAnce of 
linguitiiic Hcienre In its reUtion to the theory M evuhttion. if bv in- 
leaded to restrict bis inferences to the r/n/'m-i/Z/e'./ condition of man, 
which 'an he allowa) muiit have been the condition of the speakers 
i>f Sanskrit ? Clearly, tf thrs wiie hi* jnltnllon, there would have 
been «<* tense in all thieve dis<initjtion* ; and therefore, h«re again, 
my critic cannot botJ^ preserve his cake and consume it. Either 
t«l him adopt the position which he takes up in Tht Meniit^ as a 


tHt MtilciSl. 

philol^RisI pure and simple^ who ■■ ncrver pretended to he ccquointcd 
with ihc ideation of frrimitive man," who refuses to go 1>c>oiid ihc 
"fnci*"' of iht *■ Srirnce of Language," or tfi ?;peculatf? upon their 
thcorclical relatione lo the " Science ol Thoujjhf": or else Icl him 
do a» he doe« in hi» publi^^hetl works — superimpose upon bi^ tunc- 
ti(»ns AS a " ^ludctit tif L^m^uai^v " the functions of a "Phtloao* 
pher/" freely <p<?cu]ni<r upon " the origin ol root*,' elibontely srgise 
Ihe whoJe psycliology ol ''i;oncept*/" and strenuously en doavor to 
«1if>w that " Uaguagc Is the Rubicon of mmd/' which not only now, 
bne ai All times, ha* sepaniieil man from ihe lower Animals^ as a 
being inj-ateriou* in origin, if noc unique m kind. 

Heit ive ure tuld : 
^'Praleuor homui«dwdhoQ wtiai hr caUsihe ImeTeump ientnre nl all f«ot«~ 

rwtt ubuUn^Tcncrally employ Lbc inlVTiUivcuf Ihe pArlicipIc, "toio^" or "jlOJiac''; 
hut tht'y h:k\'ff Hialocl ii£biii and *g«,ia thnt a tooi c«tn to ba a root ■■ iood «■ il » 
UArd in .1 w-ntfim " v/^<^ M*vriir. p JS^.) 

Now, by a " verb " J iindcTKiniid a word that signifies ^ilhot an 
Action or n f<tatc: and by a ''root" I uodcrslivDcl — here a^^rccmg 
with Pror Man Miillcr h!n^»eiE — '* en element of human fipeeth, " so 
far »« Ms. h;t« hrc-n hiiherco redxicf^'d by philnlogical analyeis. 
Ai^in, L hold — in thti; nl^o agreeing witli hiRi — thfit ** a9 aocn as a 
root is used for prcdicatii^c it becomes a word, whether outwardly 
it is changed or iim." (''Stitiiice of Tliouglit," ji, 44*^-) Well, if 
we arc agret^d upon theiie poinU, I do not see how there can bf ^ny 
"concr&diction in terms" when I stated the fact "of all rooto 
being vferbs." 

In ihe fin;! place, if one wi-re to agnrt with Prof. Mat Mi^Il^r 
himself in holding Hiat originally everj- root was "pomcthinK roaJ- 
somcthing that won actually U!ied in conversation" (Ibid^ p- 420), 
there cuii he no co-ntnu!iction m tenns if we trani^late ibis tnio uy- 
infe' that uriginally ♦•very root was a word — for thf mere quibble that 
nol until U was spoken did the rooE become n word does not affect 
the matter* cuy more llian lE we were tu &ay tbt satiie of any woid 
now in iiw, which haa given birth to a i>rogeny of other wcriJfl. Bqi 
even if we disagree wiUi ProL Max MuUer, and tuppo^ that roots 


motrcHT jdtv LAXCt'Jwit- 


arc merely "(>1lui]<:Uc rlvuieau." or ihc re^ldu^l tfAiia^i uf n i^tiJUp 
of origioaJly aJlled words, w» should Mill be correct in sdiying thai 
the *'C4>acGpT6" which thoy "embody" are all concopta which now 
admtl cl bciim cxFMXf^cd an cquivalcat words. 

So nuich for ih<- '^cnniradiciion in irnrifi," wliich U &lkg«d lo 
arise if W9 &pcnk of roou us arA<n//. Touching tho «c-cond point, or 
the accunc>' of saying that tht- Hord^ which rools express arc alwAVft 
«rrM m>' dcfeocc is &iiflicirrtily riisy. Foi to say, as my critii; say*, 
thiit *'>n giving ihf nncaning e>f rooti; ^chcibrw generally employ ihr 
mfimtive or th<^ pamciplc," appears to mc a ino«t un philosophical 
obwrvation, sidcc J1 jt^ipcars to iniiicAic thai in the opJQTOJi of iH 
wnt(*r thr RiRnififaTirr nf a vvrU i\ bur convpntionally gTwn tn a roor 
by ihc vftrii*! (orm into which ii h ihrnwr by «cho]ar»- Bhi the i-tct 
is that, even if they iticdt scholaie could rarely deprive ft root of ita 
(i^nific^nce ass verb, no matter into what verbal form ilicy might 
choow to throw it. Take any root at random, such as HA H'g^. 
However much vc. may rirg the changes, na *' to go," " ^oing/' 
'*fi^*^'" <^ ^ ia^po^ible to get rid of the fuudaniciUdl si^uiricaiicc 
of tbr rooi aft a vrrh. An(l alihnngh ii is, oif course, possible to 
t«lvcl a foot which prot^rntA ii nion^ o<]^iivocal irttt^Tpri^iation- th«< 
cafics in which ihi^ c«n he done are, compnrfttivcZy spcahinc. noi 
nuiDciouft. and apparently Dcvcr stich a»> to excliide the probahility 
of ii« having primarily conveyed the force of a verb> For in«iftncc, 
HUJR t^f^il, may berRttnrd<id ojthcro^ a vorb or a coun-siihaianlivc; 
but lie cannot »^^ that ilicre j« ^uyihinK to lendci more piobabic 
th^ view €A ihe- rncil having hern oriRinally pxprr-v^ivi* of a fall ihan 
oi the flciol Ulling; and inai;mnch a& there do not appear to beany 
roots tvhkh tan only have originally had the force of nouns or ad- 
j*^ciivr*, while ihirrp iiie sn niany which am only have ongiiially 
had \\\^ Xca^c of verht, wi^ may f^iirly ronrkiid<: that in the accidcn- 
Caflv more oejuivocal en«ci; the rootn were likewise originally cxpros' 
aivv of actions oc d Elates. For, if not* why are iliere not aa nian>' 
rr»or« which r onv^-y snch meaninf^ft a& iky, or Hut (which never ran 
liavc bad c£|uivalcaiit in the forms i>l verbic)^ afi there are rnotK \\V.^ 
HA. where we cannol doubt that the meaninK ftotn the fir»t miint 
have 1>een the meaning of a verb ^ 

THC uoNisr. 

t tm tlic nicTc surprised at th» head of Fioi- Mjix Mullcr*» criti- 
tlnni, becftiiST- il lielini^* Ui |)»l" very fhSfiiti- tif Ins own ihtruiy Iix^lIi' 
ing '* the fyriginoi roou," thai iii^y ifinsi all cn^nally haveconve>*«J 
the m»nin^ oi verbs. Thcsixrfore irom end lo end oJ his own book 
he coniitaiiti/ alludes lt> roota ascjtpraa^tivc of "actions"; never BS 
pxpre««ive tt\ objects or quaLiiir-s For inMftnrp - 

'Ail, or dftulv nil. ibc roots ol Sanskrit or rathrc of l>ic Ar^nn lain]]>- tn ^fD' 
cnlt fivprn^ ki wc ihall ««, belt, und noro pnrli? ularly the coDiroooni bCE« per- 
f^reaedby cn«m1i«n(](»prmltlt-a«cieiy ' I'Scieoceol Thoij^i."p. *7»,) 

And even in TAf M^tiitf article JKolf th^ fiame ihiQg is 6Ute<l 

"\^ [11 n*rn(nnlv*r ihnr n mcHl ranfiil ptyrhnlr^imt nniily^n hid Ivd Narr' lo 
ib« crtnduiica thai the ^arxa of all concepi lotwl tbuuEbi wer« u^ bo fcGud la tlu 
coEbcluuine?^ uC t>ur owd rcpvutcd actv. And IcI 119 place bv th« »idp □£ ihj4, ibe 
Mctl oaccrt.ii.iocji tACt thfliibe ijvrmKJ ctL coucopiionnl Lnciuifo, what wv c>H reou, 
oxpwM wilt (*# •»c*plloB* th« r*pmTftrf «(■ o( men." (/'*■' JJ*}Htrl, p. jSo,} 


" Wr Win uLth ih« fui thai rbf^rMt bulk of a tufuiito c^^okicu of vonjtf, 
(lenvi?fl, arcordinft 10 1li« ciririf^i mlrH, not from orm. bol, trom ani^Mibtt nxju 
No nne denfA ibii. Wc folkiw thli up wlih a locond Fact thai nearly all the rnou 
c«|tTG3A uu ul iiiFU^ Nu oacdettic* ttmL" tp, fSiJ 1 

Vt-ry weK tli«n. 1 submit tbui Ihe only real dUlinctioii bcr|u-een 
I'rof. Mast MuIIcr's rcndcnni; o( ihin *' fact," and my own rendering 
of il, conniat% in my having added "states" to "act»," an<] obiicTV* 
Iri^ thAil then the LOiiip;ir»live1y f^w oiitfttanding tooiH m^ay lip :n* 
eluded with the " n«aily all" under the one category ot "verbs/' 

Por the diistinction which he drav^rb in Tkc M^m'st is not a real 
dncliiicdoj] : it i» inndy a verl^l dihtinctiun. 

Here it i^ ^ 

"If FroloBor Itumaoc^ approve (>f vy ifi>iiijj thnl locti fttocd (oirfiriy pafX ol' 
speech, juft u th< moaoayllnbif c^'preHions of children do, t ca.n DD);r ^^J ihar. if 1 
evar ujd »x 1 ciprcued m^'srlf iDct^itectly. A root no^cv tiandi lor any part <rf 
fpe«Ch, bcCAUHi AA *oon di U laa part oj cpnch i( is Do Jangcr a tijoI " (7'h1^ .Vi«Bi>/, 

This, as I have previously observed, is merely a quibble^ 11 
CJrii;i:tally wery root wa> --^omvChiai; real, somethini; us^ed in con- 
versation." uriginally all root* *wertT n/nnh, in just the Mme iLenwe 


THmfOHT Ayin i.Atnjt:iCK, 


H4 "th*- moQosylUbfC «>xprestiov]i ot cliiMTen " aw wonU- And if 
'- t>carly nW ib^^ac toota oppress the 4cts of man," while raont (li not 
aU) the ouutdiiding residuum vcre ftitpatcuiiy cxprcmivc of «uic&, 
it follo«-s thai the rcoi>^ in qti4?«klioii wiTe tk^I orly wcrnl^, hut :-rrAi- 
And in fiUiingthig ■'fjict '' I supposed that 1 was bui loMowing Prof> 
MaK M«1kr's Matcmcnt of it. where lie conatitutea it the philobi;- 
kd bjiaih of hr» thcur> on tlic "origin oj rut;U"— vie. iliat all raxju 
Bfimtg iTom toiinclt^ made hy ■* primitive social niRn '' when engaged 
in ihw"^ocMafff." But, while ncceplmi^ Ihis lact, 1 objected to the 
tlMcry raised upon it, because the latter did not cuntiidei thiit ro(>t» 
which orijeinally bad the force of verbs must have LMfrn more tikely 
to have fiurvircd. nnJ no 10 have come down to m^ Chan those which 
m^y oriRipally hove had the siicniricancc of any othei parts ol 
speech. And it wa^only in oidci to supply ihis TunhM cunnidcTu- 
tion that t alJudf^d to the •- fact " at &1L 

We come next to some di^pfirngini; r(*m;irkt^ opnn *' bibles^" 
" parrots," and the lower animals generally ( TA^ Mtwirfp pp. 586 7). 
Prol- Max Muller "refuses to argue" with mct '*or any oilier phi^ 
lottopher* cither in the nursery or the menagerie-** So 1m- ri, A§ a 
philolo^iftt, of c<mn;e, he in auniredly right ■ no one would e\peet 
him u> to argtte. But hr ^ philoiiophcr, who has written a large 
book or the ^'Science of Thought," he i* no leas assuredly wrong. 
And one may he p^iTdcirird ftir wumlethiK ui rbi^ intentionally o^trich- 
likc attitude on the part of a philosopher — who is '^goiog beyond the 
orifliD of roots" with inspect to the hiodnmcntal f^tms^ ol the Mga 
making lAClilty. 

Agiin, my critic appenrs to fmaginr^ iTiat I am a siipporter of 
tlw oiiomatopoctic Ibeory -to rhe «xlvnt ol rcgiirdin^ a// buman Ian- 
guagc a» having oiigioatcd in imitations oJ natural »umid». (7W 
JVinffj/, pp, 586-7-) But uver and ovvi ugaia 1 bav<* -iiated ilval 
thi« i» not my view. I helle\'e. imli^^d, that there is a very large 
ainount od truth in thia theory ; LuC 1 d^^cm it on oil groiinds moHt 
impfob«blc thM Uic principle of imitation has been the ivt/y principle 
concerned in the origin of speech. I liave ar^tjed that prol^bly 


THE 310M9T. 

many other principles niu«E have been concerned, includinc the 
'■<yner(5**tk '* principle »ugge»1eil by Noirf, and entlmtiantically 
Adopted by my critic a% alonv suf^cjcnt to caipbin the whole problem 
oHhc ori^'in of speech- -and this altJiough it is dearly but ■ par- 
tkul^T bmnch of the general onomatopoetic tht-ory^ Heince, 90 far 
aK I am concernwl, it <loe» noi signify one iota ii-htriher any given 
root owed iIb vzt^tn to ihe principle ol iintlMion. or \o «oine other of 
ibc t:eiicral pnitcipki! Ahich \ bc'licvc Co hiLvc been cOELCcmcd in 
iht.- birth of nrticiilaic language. And^ ij possible, still Ipm does it 
dignity whether or not in the d<?vrlopm*ni of any given word, such 
«9 --thunder," the orijfinal toqe ^oimd hs« boor altorvrards imita- 
ti\x-l> inudificO. "fioiti A fccliiik; llml it should be ^o/* Then: mat- 
ters are no doubt nt importances Wiithin ihe foiirrnrnprR of philology; 
but in relation to th« ** biological theory*' of descent tliey prewct 
wj importance at all 
Yei I am told ■- 

ai diSoTiontinifi^ by various ^afliAoi nnd ])rrliKC9< ntii ^xprfwinf; the concept f>f 
ttrotchiQfl la ■oth voida a« /^Aifj, /cw. l^fnU'^u. thunJ/f^ /uiik, itntti'. thin, should 
ool mpridle wiih fhp Snr-no of l^nKunip* " {Tkr M^niii. pp 5^>9-9 } 

Doti!>t1csfi, But fts no word of this applies to me, I may be per- 
nrtiilod lo observe ihat if any cn« wlio has read my book can possi- 
bly suppose ihiit it Joes, he should not meddle with the Science of 

In conclusion, if It be the cate thai \ have completely mii»p- 
prehended Prof, Max Muilcr with regard to the points which he hna 
meotiooed, — and all of which I have row considered,— have 1 not 
furnished siifficicrLt juntl fixation ? Even new [ cannot see in vrhat 
respects it is poa»ibl? lo amend any subsequent edition of my book, 
£o ati to correct the miEupprc^bensions which arc alleged. But 
attho]j|;h my 'Mni^tat^es" are thus f^r from ^' clear'* I am glad to 
have fiHd (hi^ ojijioit unify of publicly dii:cii»mg them with Prof. 
Max MGller, if only lor the take of adding the following remark*. 

Bo it oli^ort'od. in the first place, that whatcxer may be thon^ht 

rWlUrSKT A?lll iJlKnUACK. 


of ihr fonrgoing "jtiMificutimn/' — whr-chcT it hi* h^i) xh^t ihe m[«- 
apprchcssionit ara iliic I0 imbij^iiity on the one sitjc or to obtii» 
nc** on the <rihcr. — M Icnsc ii is ccruin that ihc mi-^spprchensjons 
coniplAinci) fjf all havr rrfcrcncr 10 iKjimi* of no injponftnc*" whni- 
soever AS regards iho gcncr;il ihcoty of dcs^ccnc. avcn although ^mo 
oi them >fc not nlco^clhcr without impoitaiicc n-t tc^•^rd% the p«r' 
ckulftr «cicxtcc of philology^ Tht]> is i:^ qi^ltc imniAlcTuI. so far a& 
the doctrine of Mtt^tai Rvi^ulum i* concerned^ whrtlier wc saj' thai 
the roots of Santkni atc 8cxj, phiJolc^gically speakmg, or 1 Jt, p«y- 
choIoicicftLly tpcallin;:. Asoin, ft5 soon as it i* cxplnincd by Prof. 
Max Mfillrr that by hi% '* tii original conccptsi" lie nieatix ihr num- 
ber of concepts '"Original" only as rcgarclii the ^aniikrit lan^iijaRe; 
that by ''primitive social man'* he mean? only the ^cmi civiiiacci pro- 
genitors oi the lndo-t£uropcan race ; that by"cver3' thought that 
ever crossnl the mimi of man " admitting orf being •■ traced back to 
aboot lai simple; concepts, '' he meanit no morv tlian (hat «uch iK 
Ihc case as regards the recent and highly evolved Aryan branch of 
the Iniman v^pecieH: — wliea unct; all this isexptjiiacdp it bi?rm]ic!K 
evidc'ni that thus tar there tan be no differetice oJ opinion between 
tilt. For m that case he is not duahiig with *■ the Ungin ol Human 
Faculty," either in regiird to languagi: or to thought ; he is con^idcr- 
ing merely the higher inlWe^cence ol hutli. Once more, whether 
atl. or nearly ali, the root* of Sanskrit can properly be calied tf^rJs, 
and. if so. whctlRT we mu»E not go stiU turthf;r and cull thnn nrhs, 
— 4lie»e aie que^lionit ul nieit teiiuiuijlo^y. If the logts wtn: ori|;- 
Inmlly •■ut«d in convijr^aiion/" and if^ ft** rhns ii^d, ihcj' were, ^■rfith 
but few doubtful exceptions, ail expre«siv« of '^acts" or <'Gtat«s." 
It becomes mere verbal liair-splilting to chalfenKc ihc propriety of 
94ytiis ibac Ehe roots ni^rc originally vL^b^^ Ai all i-venis the matter 
has noihiftg 10 do with th* g^n^ral <iii«filion of man's derivafiva 
OfiEiB' Lastly, the sanic has 10 be said of the purely philological 
question as to how fai the principle of imitation has obtained ici tlie 
flr^t formfltion of ihefir archaic "wnrdv."or "rnoi%-" For. archaic 
tbotigh they t>c in a pliiloloKtcal ncn^e, in a phylologtcnl ticnae tbay 
At« thimc* of yesterday, and so on scarcely be said to have any 
direct rrfaiionat all to ** the origin ^jf speech/' or thcrise of articu- 


1-I1C »oyjST, 

kte flifin mfikmfc- Thi« hns to be inferred itoin obi^cfvcitions in the 
' tncTiagctic.*' us distinguished Erom research in tlic library; and 
(he fad dial Prof MiiY MTiIler expre?*ly rchis*s to Ktvt* tnt Ihe 
pltfo^vire cf his company where the bt'st maCffnaJB for studying ihc 
really "primitive;" condition of the aienmakin^' faculty arc to be 
met wUh» merely renders more im|K)^ilil(? thjin C!vc-r any n-a! colli- 
sion l>r?tw(r0n hi^ IiDguiBiic i^tucSies on the out tide, ami tny ** bio- 
Jogicol theory'" on the other. 

But although it thuii appears suHidt^ntly cvidc^Dt that my " mi»* 
;ipprr^h(!n*tioT]5 " of his Hngui^ric concln^itons are as uniinpurinni in 
r«?Iation to the theory o( descent as they are few— and. I think, ako 
cjtcu^ublc — ^in thcm»clTC5t it h impossible to doubt that far bcJow the 
level oi Sanakril roiit^^ and lar beyond the ranee of philotoi^icxl 
tc'mnc^, there is a wide difference ol opirion between 119. For when 
he passes from the -'Science ol Laii^uago" to xhc ^'Science of 
Thoughi/'— vrheo be ijuits hia sphere its a philologist to enter that 
of the philo*fOplier, — -he persistently *Lrid fonsi&^ieiitly at^riiiii that 
Vihm hecaUs^the old barrier boiwccn man and beast "rnnaiDS* 
and thai he is as yet unable to perceive how it can ever be removed. 
ThJfT barrier ul course is prtUit-aiivc language — tlic- obverse side of 
conccpEJoaal thoiighti and the Ami opiuinn thus eiprcssed by 50 
eminent a philolo);j»l is not only of weighl firr x/, but is rendere<4 
more soon account of the manifest freedom from prejudice with 
which it h as&ociaied, It h on thi« s^ccoutiE cha.t 1 devoted so much 
space in my book on *■ Mental Evolution" to a consideration of his 
views ^ and therefore I am sorry that his present reply has not been 
directed lo meeting my crltici^nis on this realJy important matter of 
phiiosophic;il doctrine, rather than to indicating ■■misapprehension*" 
wit}i ret'ard to such merely trivial matteri; ol a purely philological 
kmd as those which I have here been dealing with. But perhaps 
at some future time he n^aygiveme the^ bt<Tieftt of his criticlBtn uiion 
my work a* a whole, or not merely on the fringes of such detaik as 
really have no bearing on the objects of that work. 

And, if he should ever see his way Lo doin^ thia, f am quite 
sure that ihe discussion would be one of a friendly character. For 
the pointE at laane would alJ have reference to that large and vagtio 



domsin of ipecubtive theoty touchiag "tltt origirc fti human fac- 
ulty," where it is inuvitabk — nnd, in my jGtilgTDCnti even dcmrable — 
ibut wide Jifference^ oi oj>)tiiun ^b■JtIld ubtain. We aie but a\ iItc 
comint^ncf^rn^nt nJ a great ami tibscure |»rub]eiii. whi(.^}i only in uur 
own ^neraiicn has been priwented by ibe science of biologj' lo the 
coDtempIatiOD of phllosopby. Tlicrcforc it wontd be foJIy intlecd if 
iuiy man were \v re^uid bi% vvta upJuluuH upon it d» oiber than ]jio- 
visional -and even ntore foolish if he were to introduce any *■ m/tim 
and tti§im into tht-sn: discus^ioca-" 

Thu& 1 invite Prof. Max MGller to state cho pounds of h[»»- 
aerilon in Thf Mfiisr, ihat "all tlie facts of fcal language are 
Against" me assn advocate of uhA< bo calift tbc biologjcai ibeoryof 
the dcvcIoi>mcii<fll oTifiin of maot This thcor>'i be «ays, '^derives 
no support whatever from tbe Science of Lanifua£c-" I be]te\ei 
on lihe other hand, thai these are wholly tinwarrantt^d ataiement&; 
and thftl the Science cA LangiuiRe docn ijiipport ihc thooTy in 
qiiCition lo A» high a degree as is poj^iblc frotn the nature ol the 
caiw. On nrcmmi nt 1hi?t gittal differenct- nE cijiinian, t feh, when 
writing my book, that I iihoLild be doing but scant justice to tho 
matitrod )ud|;mcrt ai so etmatnt a philolo^iAt if J did not carcFcilly 
conuder alJ tlial he Iiad written u^jun the subject. And so^ as J 
have itaid, I devoted more of my book to a consideration of bis 
views tlian to those ot any other philologist: and while accepting 
his scicnii6c fads on his attthoriiy as a philologint. I nevertheless 
fell Tt incunil3ent on mt; to !chow why his philoaiiphic^il drtliiciions, 
vrbere diey had icfervnce lu the theory ol descent^ appeared lo me 
by no means ol equivalent value* This distinction, as 1 observed 
at llie commencement of the inescnt article, in vureJ) a le^iuniate 
distinction; antl I shoufJ be sorry intlted if anything that I have 
ev^f said can appear inoonsisieni with the genuine admiration 
which is due to Prof, Mnat Mullcr as "a student of language." or 
wjth tbc no less f^enuinc c3Cccm which I have the bent re^tton for 
■inif is due to him as a friend, 

Gboucb. J, RouAVtii. 




\ LL Ehe; :icicncv!» form, or at k&st qii);1iC to torm» cnc threat 
'~\ system, cutmjnatin^ in llic science oi >cicn(;c». Therdorc i( 
i* more than doubi/ul how any wrience could vxist without b^ing 
somehow in ccmtact with other eciencea ; and lU oi them must »1And 
m some relation lo pbiloaophy- It iw necessary that each »ciCDCC 
bhotild drv^loj) in lulalivi^ (ff lli^ Dtlivr *tL^iirni.Ta. 
We c^fiot expect to decide, (or inacjince, chemical problems by 
physical or purely mechanical laws belore 'A'c liavc carcliiUy aoarched 
the calurc anU conditions of chemical processes. But as aooD as 
this hji5 bet'H done we can oKpecT thai a campsTifitin h^-lwrrn the 
reculie d two or more sciences will throw new light upon the tub> 
jccl-niatlcr on both aides- Solomon says : *' To everything there is 
e scA'^on 'ini! a lUnt^ lo ^wr^ purjicsc iinilt^r the heavr^ii/' Thus 
the sciences fiavc to gto'w, nach one on its own grounds, ard when 
they have reached a certain state oJ maturity, they will coalesce 
with t»c\\ other. And two sciences will by their coiile^cence fertilise 
the nuc ihr other so as to produce u new department which may by 
and by develop into a special science. 

Now it appears to the nrinitiated as il the spinttial world oJ >ci> 
encc were in eyciy respect ditfetcnt from the world oi objective le* 
alitirfi around lis. While in ihe world of bodily realitjf^ lhe4tni|fglG 


T>IK cnSiTrNtllV OF E.VULin tOK. 


citMcoci; lb fcjii|;bt t*teriitfl \tciicii i» iiiit^poacd to ict^u lu the nh- 
cred halls of intell^ciuaJ aspirations. S^ys the German poet; 

//■Iff rn y/(w A'ttMiH^ tl^tifH fUA Jit A^'ftr, 

^^ This la true only in a very limited sense. liJcaa &Te the moi»l 
^ incolersni heings im^iginahle^ The struggle for* irxistonce Is raging 
as trercely in the in1e]I«clual realm a? in ilie world of reahtiee, aod 
^^iicrc al^ the law th&t the tiltedt will survive hotiU <cod, 
^^■^ Far be it iroiti iit to <!i'nottnc<r rliis ^Tdtu of i^errral warfare, for 
^Tfll^nigh it ia hard on iho«c who succunih. it ift the mearts by which 
evolttlion becomed po»sible ; and evolution in the doincin of ftciuucc 
meaiiH a nearer approach to tiulh^ If in llic evuliitioii of tbuuglu 
two noighlioTJng wience^ hav* tleveloped so far as to nieet» a strug- 
gle witi en&ue. The ideaa on the two sid«s will have to fiicht before 
they coalesce. It is natuial tliat different »ctejitist& took at things 
from tliffereiit stamlpoinia, Thty hav<^ ili'vcToped a icrminolo^ 
which exactly suJT« their purpose arid thus tlie r^prescniaiives of 
ibo (liHcrcnt acicAcca are often Like people of a diflt^rcnt uaiionality. 
I Tbcy do ooc undcrstaud each oilici because they speak dlKercDt 
, Uaguageft- Morrnx'er ih^y haur iit^l iinfri>f|]trnily a drff<^r<^nt re* 
1 ligion -f Chat mcanG, ihcir ideas abovii truth and the tc«1 of truth ap- 
pear to be different and aomotimca they rcijiard one Another ae 
no better ihau huaihens. The battle is unavoidable, and consid- 
oring all in all. thi- haitlr {« dr*irablc, it fihould not l>c avoided. 
The fittest Co survive txiins :hc truest, the whole prcKre«*ol acicncc 
ibrough the «irut:filc for existence anions idc^s consists in the ap- 
prnarh to imrh, 

[I mAy be ohjrctcd thai there arc pcaccmakeif^ who will rccoD< 
cilc the coDtendinK parties. True. And it is further inic that the 
aim of evciy war is pence. But h pc«c(tjTi*ikcT t^^n ht: successful 
on]y if hia mind i« broad enough lo lei the whole battle be foughl 
out within him^lf. The bnltlc icttell i« and will remain unavoidable- 
Idea »t4ad» a£ain»l idea, ird the mcnul prcr.e<(« t>f rejection i^ 
noditog but a tiru^^^le ot conflicting id^at which taket phicr? in onr 
a^nd Ihc luunc mind. The aim of all reflcclion i» tli« settlement of 
the conflicl, io that all ideoA will ai^ree. The two parties disoppciLr 



ja one ; errors axe ^tv^n up, and that wfaicli i^ consistent only witl 
rcniamn In c^EJter wtirUs Dunliun inak» roam lot Monism. 

Jl i& n. good Hi^n ol lliu titiios that n buttk 1ms begun to n^e 
l>ctwc«:n the 90-cdikfi naiural sciences ^inU Uk -icicncc ol ]iLn];uA£e- 
Thc oki Hvg4*]iaiL iJistindioti b^lwr?^n ih? Gnf/rxwiUfrtuAa/frn >n(l 
thd JVaiurwui^*ts/Ma//^ has tst^en stJirendered ; and Prot- F- Max 
Mfillcr was amoiic the forcinoat to inculcntc the truth that philolog)- 
is 4 lUUtffil bi^iciKc, If |»tiilotoi;y is M jMti.ttd] ?»ctc[i<;c It caEinut he bul 
that !!« i^iibioct ol invctitigaiion i» a pari ol naEurc and as »uch it 
standi in close rolation to other parii^ of nature. Ono and the same 
thine Tnny be thtr subjc^ct of invctticatJon of diffcrc^nt sciences. One 
and rhi* ^ainc plant may he nn ohjrct cf observation ro thr physi- 
olof^i«t, to th« botnniKE. to th^ drui;glst. lo the physician, and to tht 
chemist. Their Mundpoints and their purposes being different, they 
will bring to lislit vct>' dilferc^ni lesults, and if these icsolt^ ftte 
contra difrtory amnng each otlv^r the cnrflici 15 At hard II CAnnot 
be «hiikcd hut must be dccLdi?d by an honest and square hghL \Vc 
have wltncaacd of Utc 0. convict between philology and anthropol- 
o^y com:ernLni; Lhr (iriyin of lite AiynN and it koks as if thii^ con- 
flict *^iU couuibuie much to promote our knowledge of the oldest 
hiMory ol munkmdH a.!thoitgh the la;it word hixs not as yet been 
spoken; adhuc suh judtct fis fit. 

Wc arc now confronted with 11 conliict twtwccn Philoloijy and 
Bioloi^y. The first .■»kirmi9he% have bocii loughl by two men who 
are ^ntiitt<l lo *peiik, each on^ in behalf of his ftcitnce. Prof. F. 
Mas MulItT Liund^ up Jor philoiof^y and Frol. George John Ko' 
manes for biology. 

Professor Koinono^ tnkc^ It for panted Ihnt thv rational mind 
of tiian hds devclopcxj i^raduAlly from the lower atage of the brute. 
Hu says in his book '-McritBl Evo3iiiion in MaHj" p. ijfi'^ 

" The wheleolijACT of Thnse chMpten hut bcfin ta sluivi. ihjiT on ptyrtinlogrcal 

ItiuuiiiilK it u» abuoilautly uiu11i|iiUtD liuvr lUtf cuncciirtiMl JsUgt of iJtuiliMi may lisve 
been (tradjiUy c^cKrd frorp ihr? rttPptUBl—thff rownt of farming i>«eral, or icul^ 
coonptmil kdMt. from ttie powtr ot k-ttn\tig pariicuJat and generic idHLS. Dm i( 
il ceiild be thown — or »veD i-flncJerrd in any dt£r« ?r«UD»t>1e— Ibat thii diuincily 
hum-in powM at forming xniy genvral Ideas anur //' h^p wiiH the tm birrb of 

TNK uokhnuitv tn- nxnurnuK. 


anicaUnr vpmdL abvtviJI)' <ay«hcir« o&aVnv wc^hA bcdcoiroimi^ tbn hutntn 
■usd voiiM boJiovD (Q pif!99]U * qo«hijr cti0eteDUii oHitiii — «ad. ihorvforv* tt 
Idod— ftom «II liv L^<r orderxJ iDteUiKcntc the law c' coatlauily nonld be kfi' 
Mn*ptp«il M ibv LtimodJ phfiu:. jui tmpatubl* gvlf <rouM be 6.^od bct^wa tbe 

And Fro(. Mas Muller criiTciie* th*^ partition o( Profvsior Ro- 
mance in an article? oit I hougJit anil Languu^'O {TA^ M^mt^^ VoJ. K 
No. 4, p. 582); he sayn: 

'* kdy iMrard fmnd, I'fDJnKir l^crnianw. bbor* 10 ftbon chit th«» i« id un- 

*«rr ^Ic^rty and conffKH ^er}- factT«il> chAi the cEit«t diiTicutiy jn ihi« wolucioir 11 
UaSHB^ uid all iltJti fjuifvatir ftnpdJoi Kc irCca ^«n f>vJ ui rvnuwo ibai buflsi 
bctwDca tR«si And tnaa, , . ProfcAAOC Kooutno b. 1 bdfcrr, * mwi emintni bl- 
doflM- Bod iIh aiailc ol DnrwiA \> void !■> lt*«c Ullaa cm Uk abouUcr^ For bv 
U Enm ma to i«iitun to chticiiw hit biological twi*. Bui wi Ms in blk cfta* bow 

Ie iff oot at all my intention \o appcax on the batllcr-ticid !i% a 
pcac«mal(cr between thcte two general*, or to settle the problen^t 
that nhac Irom the conHict between philology and biology. Thai 
wiU be better done by tbc parties concerned. <ind 1 am rather in- 
dined to *peak wiili Sdiillet fthcn bt- tUtmgln ai the Mniggle be- 
twe4^n the Eraiuceiidenl;ili»t philosopher and the empirical nalur- 
aliftt : 

*' EMMt^ be beiwwn you! Vr^ur .-ilUaiicr woiilri nnt he m rimr jr-T 

Tbotigb yau may ivFamic now. Truth will be r*>iind lij yoar HUfdi ' 

1^1 I luok forward witli gic4t iaivrest Cu further di&cuasiuu;! which 
will bring out with more c1vam«!<9:i i\w positions of botli parliet, am! 

i it i» not impoiiaiblv that both T>art[ts a.s soon as they have hotter un- 
derstood each (Jtber. uill aui^c: mtich better tlian either of them ea- 

I peeled. Bill it rnay Lie penmlti^d me Irj make n lew coininenlft 
upon a itropofiiiion ch^ i» involved xn this conBJci, which, how 
ever, prcpcrly conaidored. i> ni:ithcr of a phiiologicat nor a biologi' 
caU naiuKv Tliia i* the idea ol the L-untiiiii]t> ui evolution. Prof. 
Max Mfijler Aay^ ^ornewheie That> it a U^rwiman means aa evolu- 
tionist, he hfid been a Durwinian long before Darwin, "Hour a 
student oi llie H:ience of lani^uage." be ^yi^ "can be anything but 


THE UOKtf r 

an evoJtitioniftt in to mc utterly unin(«lligibl^" So there i& no 
doubt About his bcinfi an cvoIuiJonisi a? much a* I'rofcsjtor Ro- 
matir*. lint Ihe question ts. Wlial mrins t^volutioni^E ? Is he an 
evolutirnivt who believes in a pi**crmrfll c*voluiioii Ifiterrupl^d h^xe 
ard there by acts of special ercAiion ? In my c4>Dc«plion oC the 
term. «n cvobitioni&l believes In evolution wlivicvcr lljcie In lU^ Had 
this involves rlif? wholt-salc rejeciioti of specinf-crraiicn aei^ *s well 
a£ of the ide^ ihm any being or organism (the orKADUin of language 
incIuHcd) could cvct have made its appearance in full Krovfth aDtl 
matDriLvor that any phenomenon of life could present a break in ihe 
coniinUTty of evoh:lior. 

The Greek myth Cells uR tbot the Goddess of ReASOOi the blue- 
e^'cd Pallas Athene* was not born like other gods aad niortjUa itD 
the natural way nf a alnw drrvelopment- She jumped oiii of ih« 
head oi Xeiis full armod in nil het heaiit^' and gifted with the powers 
of her itnusual ac^coniplishnicnls. Is this myih inic after all? Does 
tile Lo(;o5i ol nttioniil iboiLght prr^iiem us uilh ah tnfilancv in which 
the development proces:; hat been i n term p led ? If eo, wc ahall 
have to abandon the evolution theory a.-: a theory' and return to the 
oJd'fashioned view of special -creation acts. The difference between 
ihese two viewv i* rxot of dt^ree. but uf kim[. He who acctpt* the 
{.Tinciple of evolution as the law of life abandons forever Ihe idea 
of >pecial and unconnected bcf^innings an much £i9 that of special- 
creation actA. f[c caunut wiUi conM^tEency believe in an evolution 
with iiit(^rrupCions» !or the thtory of evoKition (s serviceable only if 
t^volution its conceived as conlinuouii. i'rof^ Max MuUer of course 
boa a right to define and use the word evolutiomat as he »ees 5i. but 
if he fXcTtnlen ci>ntinMiTy from rht- idr»a of ev<jb:lioM, we declare that 
he hafi taken out tht qLiiue*sence of Us meaning and the cere cf ItK 

Why Ibis h bO, wc shall in*w biicily discuhb. 

The fvobnion rhf»pry hits hcen Rr^dnally i1^vi*]nprt^ by enJT 
pirical invoetig'ilionB and it owes its all but universal acceptance 
to the crcat niaf^ of a ^//rrtt/ri evidence JurnJ^hcd by the naiural 
sciences- It rosi« Tieverthelcs^ upon a better and safer foundation 
than isolated inKtaneci; of hap-hfiiard experience, Ira foiindft[ion 1% 

THE CO^TlXinTY Of KVOLtmu^- 



qDHfricd oiil of anoihcr aim) raon: rdJable maiciial- T1» cvolulion 
theocy r««t« upon the gionnd of if priori arKum^nti:- 

By a firirrt wc lio not tindc«aland anvibinR myKtenoin^ but nun- 
ply M]<h cofnilion as poascf^c^ universality ftnd ncccsstiy- ThAtcog' 
nilion iHiicJi if» in p<HKn&ion of univr-fKnlity And nrmuiiy it. ako 
called form>l ooflnition. Tho formal KcieaccK (for ittfltancv ncith' 
metre, RiAtbcmnlJCii. pure lf>Kk* nnd pure xncchniiic«) icivc us infor- 
mation About sitcU truth* M Arc npplicaSlfr. hcc^ii»c they Arr purely 
formal, to llic lora^Al condictooii of anything ^rd ^vetrthini; pofi- 
fiibic- Uccaisfie wc know ^for^^n/f that the purely formal laws 
wilJ hold fiood under .ill condilioll^ Kani called their forniuJAted 
tliparrms "» priori." AH the ohjrcilioTiii to the idea of apriority 
made by John Stuart Mill and other crnpirici«u Are due to their mi(}- 
interpretation el the term.* 

Mr. Mill vrai mixiakcn t^hcu he thought KahI meant a priitri 
jDPgTiiiionc were innate idea* whkh ciime to man from tphi^n-* un- 

ill. The very (irst sentence of K^mt't "Critique ol i'ure Kca- 
90d" prove* that Kant kncvr of no other knowledge than that which 
brisinK with cx}prrience, Kant Kny^, *'That all our knowlc^dgr? be- 
^\n^ with experience t)n;re can be no doubt." But our kncwfpJge 
coit»;st9 o1 two etemcnlv, vis, the cmpmcal and the lormaJ^ The 
former besus always the character of thi; special 4nd incidental, the 
lattt^r o1 ilie unifersal mqJ neeeiAary. The forrner i^ «misoryp betng 
f;imist]«Hl by the seriAe^. ih« latter id properly menial originating in 
and with the action of the mind in dealing ^ith *icn»c-malcr]BK in 
arranifjat; tltt-iii diid brint^ini; tliein iutu ceitj^iu rcUiioDa, 

Formal knnwWge i* dfflereni in kind from empiricBf knowl- 
edge^ The rule " twice two Is (oitr " wiU hold good tor all possible 
caM>, but the Gtatcincnt ^' A ^wan is while "' doc^ not hold ^ood lor 
all possible cases, European sw^ns as a rule are white, but Aus- 
tralian awaas are black, and for all wc know, wa might lind ^wana 
that are bh>c, or red, or yellow. Bniptrical knowledge is full of 
exceptions, forma) knowlcdi^c is rigid, there )s iio eKceplion to any 
mile <A formal knowlcdge. 

*ronipara itw wtkle T^ Ori^ «/ T^ufkt-F^rmt hg the [fT«9FDi cnmberp 
flodtr ikM capdan -'Ph«fH Topics ' 


AIl formal knawWg<r lias dpv^lop^d by ficgrees- The hi*t' 
of the Kcicnccv of mmhematici^, logic, arithmetic, and also of the 
natural sciences hiraishcs «t;6ictcnl evidence, T3ic ionu^l pact of 
iliK natural »cienc«fi» liy Kani caIIi^iI r^inr J/a/urr^'iumuAa/i, consists 
nf such co^itionA a« c{«? law of caoBa Ami i*ff«cc «£id the Uvr of th« 
coiUicrvdticm of ra^ilccr and crctgy. The lormuUtJOD of :licso lavr* 
has been ivccomplishctl iflcr nmcli acd caicfol eitipirk^I invcs- 
ligaiion^ Ar^d it irotild not he [iihtnvJse, Thr lutlrr law wa9 
etftborated in its full clearse&s long alter Kant. The law oj caitutit)^ 
iiad the Iaw of the coascrvation of matter \nd cncffity nrc purely 
fennel, they iuc not sen&r-inipref^ioits and tla not cuitUiu any sen- 
sory L'leiQ4rnts- They ;ire general rules oi univmal appacabtlity 
which be^ng rigidly univei^al and vilhoi:! exceptions artr oecc^sAiy 
under all conditionn. Before ia^ make any experiment we can know 
thai xhey will Imld \^'M^(\ ir the experiment, hulef^tl nil our cx|>pri* 
mvntiu^ i& baM;d tipon line suppoMtion that tht law of cnu«ation 
holds ^oo<l and that there cun be neither an increase noi a decrease 
of matter aikI energy. 

The mistuVe made by the soolled iranscendeRtalist^ i£ tbis, 
tlat ihey cunnider lormjJ thought as having an 3nde]>endent exist- 
ence, being ready at hand before coi^nition U possible* while in fact 
[( IS a i>ATX of cu^nition which at least in its g^rm is present ill ^vtrry 
actnal evp<?rience. 

Thv Tlieory of evolution is not more nnd not Iras a. fonuat prin* 
ciple tljbu ihc U^M of t;dusation and die Idw u( tbe ^oii?iC!i valJon of 
maiTcr ard energy Tndcf^d ii i* norhing but thp same thing applied 
to a speciail case- The theory of avolution is ihe principle of th« 
tionscmatioo o{ matter and ener^ applied to llic province of life. 
The theory of evoluiion denies ih*f jm&iibility ol hpL'tfal sets of 
creation There cannoi comf? aomelhing out of nolhirg. And tho 
new creations that actually originate daily before our cyea Arc not 
creations fioiij nothing, chcy *rc sinipl> li^nsformatlons. There 
was a rim<* on earth in which no living being existed, neither plaitt 
nor EiT^iiiiaL How did life originate? Our an&wer is, It did not 
originate out of nothing, btil it evolved. Non-organised matter or- 
ganised. That non organiseil mntlet mii^t contain the elcincutairy 



im OMcnxCTTv or rvot-urioM. 


cvmiitioiia of o«Kaiii>c<t life i« a conclusion wlikh vt^ c«niiot cHc^jn: 
Irom <Mir |Knnt oJ view ; and which )4 futly And &atii;j9Ctont>' corrob- 
ontijd by our duly exporicnoc that water, corlht nnd sir tmdrr tlm 
sun'i jfifli>cncc arc i^Wngcd i»to nhcai ; and uhcdt ia iKunuUclurcd 
Into thr tire^^d ift'hj<^1i nourif^hi^s mnn ttjtd Mitiiainq \iW \^it^ Non- 
organiwd pjinkks of msttor ftrc congtantly bung cfganit^d in liv- 
ing oriCAniams and displace the vrorn-ont maicriab in ihcrf tissues — 
not ofkv aiOBi oj the lacier rcniaJpJui^ fnr k^c^^ ><^ '^ lieftllhy liiinK 

Tbe Ih*of7o1 cvoliition may be called An hypoibe»i8, An as- 
^uxnpliort. a prc»\iTi']i>lion- But Itt ihat case we must sny with Mill 
rhai ihr ruh? twicr two is fotir J* alws a mrrr araaimpiirn Tlir pa-i- 
dcocc tor tli« latter U not stronger than that lor the former. Mill 
doclarcH ihal after all twice two mi^ht somewhere be five- Exactly 
so and noi otbvfiri^c evolution qiIkIie be somewhat; iniernipti*<l, so 
chat toTncihing woulj oHRinai<? out of nothing imtesd of evolving 
Itohi other ihi&K^ through iranEformatton. 

Prof, Max Mailer speaks very i^rcA»ticaI)y about ilic spc^-ihli.-*i^ 
man, ihp A^Mtt a/afut who ia Mippnu-tl to hf* ihe ancestor of llie prvs- 
«nt man. H« «aya <L c.^ p- 5^5); 

'Of Ihr //nw j.W/nrf. the ipCEChteu prutfcnilor ttt Ifoitf la/inti. mfih whfim 

Prof. Max MOIIpt also comlemns all eff<^rts of ^ipproarhing the 
problem ol the crif^in cjI UnKii;igc through ebservation of children 
acid animals^ The totraet he calls " nursery philology" the UlEer 
'■ cnrnaRrrir f>«ycholcigy/' And U Is certainly true lh<it thr pToblrm 
oC the origin ct language canaot b« solved Ironi ol>5cr\'ation« of 
children or anirnnls, because the problem liev in another field. 
The problem u not livw a ready made Idu^ua^e itt triin»{ertcd U|M>n 
ihc grou-ing mind ol a baby but how speechle«a beingt developed 
into speaking beingi. And all the intelligenoo of clever animals is 
still very different from the lational ihouKhi of man. Thia is trtie, 
lUt it i« alw> tni^ ih;il ("oulI obstTvaiion*^ of animal psychology and 
ol nursery pbilolog)* will throw some light upon the evoJntion 
of rational though t 

■nie Mo^tFT- 

Prof. Mas HQ1I« saj*^ 

" llovf cui 4t attfinpl W reilb« i^hat puou ^llfab the mind o( bd HQifrwl ? 

.-^ve tiiA know abialE)i«ly nofhmg," 

\Xv arc (ully aware of ihe (acl thai the proble-m of ih^ origin of 
luigtuige ift quite didcTi-nl Irom the prt^bJontfi of animal psychology. 
A s^hilioa of the Utter, which arc cKlrcmcly complex anJ difficult, 
vould iiol lit^fp tiv to 9uNe the former- This bdn^ tuiiceded wa 
can nevertheless &eo no roasor why animal p&ycholog^y shoultl he 
condcTt:iiL-<l and fflven \xf^ a^ ft hi>p«lcss tafilt. 

It is not triw: liiat "ift« cin know abKiluiely oothin^ about virliat 
pa*tf»*i in the mind oi an animal." It is in)e wr catinot ve the ani- 
mals' feelings and thouj^hts, hut we can se« thoir actions which re- 
veal th<ir kvlin^^ a» rnnch as find sometin^cs even plainer chaji tlic 
speech of our hrtiiher man revf-als his ihoiit^ltis. Mi^ht we nni say 
with ihp same r^a^nn, **We spr only ihc pTirifd hook of a scientist 
(which ie act oicprcssion of liifi views m much as the bohavior cf an 
animal es of lis feelings) but wc c*n hnow absolutely nothitiiC about 
whar |Wifi»iPs in the mintl rf thai sCTruti^t. All wp r^n do U to judgf" 
from analogy "} And shouLd wc on that account give upall reading 
Arfd studyiug tind also all arguing' with others^? 

Animal iiKychnlogy i^ not only justified aa a science, but we can 
even hope that cflrtoct fihsprvACfons of animal intrlligrncp will assist 
u$ m correctly undcrrstanding Ihe higher intelligence of human 
thought. Ani^ *'that some usefid hints may be taken from watch- 
ing children is not denied" liy Prot. Max Mftller either, althougli 
thin little concession appears only in the shape of a short foot-nolc. 
The Jtoaw a/alms is by no means a merely mythical hgurc. lor ac- 
cording to the law of evolutwn man must have dc;vcloped out of a 
heing lower than the present man. His iirst aueestor must have 
hccn simple lile-subi^tancc something like that of the amceba- H« 
must have passed thronfh a long period in which he waztnotCi^pablc 
of anit:Lil;il(^ speech, Thiit wr kiiow nothing ji^itlitniljit iibiiut the 
kfiHia attjiifs is no proof against his existence. Moreover every infant 
is an actual real Acmt' j/a/ui. a speechless man, or should wc accord- 
ing [o Prof. Mnx Mullet class our babies amun^ the brutes? 



I'rof. Max MuHtr aaj» (7"*^ Moattf, p. 585>; 

"II llVo PfcfpteoT KomjinH, wc bepn with Ihv 'inmtfnie prr«timptLGn llul 
ih«tf* 1urtb»rfi DO kctorrupf ton in tti(?il««TlfiprnentQTpriVF»« in rhe ci^nru of ptyctio- 
lueji:jLl liiswty. \hv protctt ul UnfUAfic CH^iuck:^ fur authintr . tbc vrr> l^^ ttui □■> 
Aniaul huBiTT lurmcd * UaH;uliKiC, t« put oiidc tiioply oaaa iaa(«TlUDAC« (tocidcai " 

The tl]«or>' of evolution nj;tLtly midcnitood is no prceumption 
ID ll>e (IM14I strn^e uf tire? wcjid- It i?!^ tio inure a ]rrtsum|itimi tiian 
10 tay thai ^omtrihin^ cannot cotxw frum nothmg. And wtut is 
■' the protctK of iunicungt" which ivoiild dbprove thv continuity oi 
evolution? Tlut rational or human thought h !f0»iciliine mi g<ii<ris, 
thai it 14 iliflcK^nE in kiiu) anil roi tti ttegrt^r frum hnite intelligence; 
ihai tftfiguAge lAan impa^^ahlv harrier between man and bruttt> b#ing 
ihc Rubicon which no ether animal hss cro&aed- Vcr>' wclL Wc 
a^reu cniiroly uriih ^W thtr^r piu^ubitimi^- lluiiiau rcabou is diifcrcat 
in kind Jrom hnil*? iTit<^lh^cncc fln<^ human rrfli4r>n has d^irtflopod 
fiucJi SB i1 la through lanRtinf^e only- Nay rf:ason is Unpiai^e. Noird 
is fiiiht when he &aya. Man thinks hecaa^c Imt spcaka. fiul the 
Ruhicon of tAnx<iAfCi' wait n<»i ftn jit)iwhitHy iinjMt*t*iAhl(r hMrrim Thr 
Bpmchlose ancestor ol man, whcthcrr we call him k^mv aialm of an- 
thropoid, or even man ape, hus GTOR»c<i it, and havintc croaficd it he 
liccanic lli« C'^ai of ihc Animal crcAtJon, 

Prof, Max Milller'K thcrory of Ihc tdimiiiy of language and 
chouKhc * \% so vAltiablc because il bridge* the f;ap between the ra- 
tional 9phcf c of man and the noE-yct rational sphere of the brute 
crearion. It eupbiuK ihr origin nf reiaMin, The origin of rcjison in 
the world ol living betag* is explairwi a» soon as the oii^'in of lan- 
ffuo^e is understood, for reason develops with language and rational 
thought i?4 notliini^ tnil rational »peech^ If the ovi^in of language 
were An unlatfujiiiahlf- niyM<^ty, PtoI. Ma> Mf]]lrr'<i view of ihtf idtni- 
tt^- ol language ami thought would tote all pvacticai importance. 

The prppositioQ of the identity ol lanietiage and thought is a 
verv radical idea : il \% tlu? fundi ujciilal ixtea of nionistu- In ■ moie 
gtfTwra) form it wai 6m prcmourKi^J by GiordaDo Bnino, who uys 

* I aboutd prrli* 10 ipnk of rh« onennn or fnwpuablcroc ot itiouj^fet aad 
lampotcv. bat uoca Prol Msx Uilll*r bufe feoBiutaily ckpUuaed huuelL t v** bcm 
bisicfni "' hdt— iiy " ia ibcwawof lasfparsblciHOsat ilhuMdty Prvf. Max Uiflar. 

rrilB MONiST. 


Komcwhcrcr thai, if wc could put tlic soul of d man into lb 
guniEixi of an animal, say tii z i;Tiikp. il would ccst^c to hf- » himnan 
toul ;L>id become the fioul ci a finakc. Speech would be changed 
into a hissini;, in accnrdancc with the xnnkc's organs for uttcriD^ 
sounds. And in ihc same way all tlie feelings, all the concepts, &JI 
th« desires and ]nclination« — in vliort the whoie psychical life would] 
be that ol a &nal(e. 

Thouglu is the «oul o! larguagc. As there are no ghost-souls^ 
*o there are no ghost'thovi^htf^- And the soul is not soniethin^ dis- 
tinct from the organism. It is the lorin of th«* organism. It happens 
in lairy-tnles thai tlic Prince is iranaformt'd mto u Irog, but if n fairy 
ctuiM iransfciim a man into a irag, his soul would ctiiaiidy also lur~ 
come £1 (rog-soul Language is the visible organism of the inris^j 
ible thought, an<t a^ ie language, exactly so is tlioughc 

The ;>roblein how lanj^uafc has developed wa* fir^t answered 
by the ononiatopoeijc ihetiry, *- lltL* bow-wow tlieory " as Max MiiUer 
calls it- Language wa» conceived £s an echo of nature, ae a reBevrl 
action that lukes placa in a living and ienVm^ beiiij;. Vet this tlieory 
hud lu bo abdiidoiicd. because an hisioncal invcsti^atiuu of lanj^tiage f 
proved Thar words wJTh very few exceptiont^ w'*rc not imitations of ^ 
OKt^rziaJ sound Ah Vol lh« spirit of inveuigaiion was not daunted 
by this defeat, and the bow-wow theory reappeared in a modiliedfl 
form. Language was still tonsidcrc<l ah a irflct iirljon ; however. 
It wfli; conceived to be a reflex whith re-echoed thr imprettionft of 
naturnl phenomena as Ihey had atfected man. This was the cx- 
ckix^ation theory which seeks Che origin of language in the *' ohs 
ami alls." the STijhs and shouts of a feeling mind, Ptnf. Mai Mnllrtr 
calls: chiB theory '^ the pooh-pooh tb<?ory/" Thin theory had alto to 
be discarded because it was in conflict with the actual facts of thrcvo 
lution of ianguage. Next Noiif and Prof^Max MQlIei came with ihrirfl 
theory, called by Notrf " the synergasiic theory." which conceives 
language as the expression ol common work, also called iyy Noir( v 
the Lo^os theory, Che sympathetic theor>', and the causality theory- V 
Prof. MaK Mflller in ordei to friiestnU anyderideisol this theory aug- 
gesit calling' n "the yohe-ho theory." yo-he-bo being the sailors* 
song when engaged in somo common woik a? hoisting or hauling. 


THE cosrixciiv OF irvotLTiox. 


tad it iSt »0 far «a w« cah fiee. ik>i ia cooAkl with any hiacortcal or 
ihiLoloi^icdl factit But :& Iionor of tlic inventors ol tho onoinato- 

'poetic ihoory il maM 1« it'cocniMrd tbat tfw n&am JJca (ji the >-0'hc- 

bo lhi*ofy i* (l*e ^^w*" a» (h^l of thr Imw-wow ihiH>ry. T\w mnin 

idea \% tliifi : LAngiia^e did not ori^aate in man't mind out of lEsell 
some m>'stcnoti« way rci>Tc«cnlin|C a brenk in ih<r coniinnity of 
tititkm. hMi il U A 4^ciuin rclln-AClion of livJng and feeling bctngi 

ttking place in conwfjucncf^ of rxicrti:«1 «timnli- Thi^ retlcx-aciion 
'er if, not direct, but indirect. It in not that of a singfo being, 

ft i» the rcllcsi-MMion of n whole society* ensaiccd \n coniDicm woik. 

It devtU>iw*d in cnrp.«?qutiitc of llwh ciitiirmm -irtiviiy und ifimii^h 

tlioir want oi intercvmm uni cation - 

Prof. Max Miiller charges nsainfit the cvoUitionixi, tlint "the 
v«ry fact that no animal ha* vvtr ftirnif^d a iniTK^^S'^ i* P^'t aftide 
simply a« an onforlutiuti: accidenl-" is lhi» a Uir reprelicaiiion? 
I» tiot ihe fact that nc aaiinal. except nian, cro»Aed the Rubicon of 
langiiasc ^uitt: adiaEtnct jtioblera^ And atveptink^ Pfu1e;»ti(>T Noir^*^ 
ificory ol the oH^m of lungitagr whirh cott^den speech at tHe pro* 
<lucl ot a common activity accompanLod by what may be called 
^/uMffr f^ttcfmtfaat, 1 »cc very good reasona why either animiiL^i did 
fiot c1t*v4.'lop lan|:ua^c- First, iIigtc is no animal, with the sole ex- 
ception perhaps of anu nnd bircii, Thai lives in socieiie*^ Some o{ 
^cm bvc iu hcT<is, bm ihcfc i^ a rtcaI diflcrcnce bct^i^ecn a herd 
and B society- This dlfleicncc is Hist a difference of dv^rec, but 
gradually il brcome^ a dilTerirnce ol kind. Secondly, animaU have 
no Offcanit to work with, while ntan hi!ihandE» and wr ntny add, 
thirdly, thai no animal, not even the parrot, hers the ean^c power of 

ProL Ludm'ig Notr« arrceptn without equivocation the idea that 
the apeechtens ancestor of man became a ratioral being by develop' 
tng lanRiaage and I via% alwnyn under (he iniprcuion that Prof. Max 
MOlli^r agree<l with hii liFr? Iriend not only concr'iiKn^ ihe ideiitiiy 
of language and reaaoQ. l^tit aUo concerning th^ origin of reaaon. 
Dul il l^of. Max MuUcT agrccA with Nolr^, why <iov« He object to 



Ihe continuity ci «voh;t>i>ii u'hich as he ticates hi a private letter to 
us is "only a ticAuiiful posliilaic"? 

Now ibtrc arc inilurd f^as which prove that the Kobicon of rea- 
son IB not *o impftftsablt- m animai« as Prof. Max Miillcr innke^ us 
bclte\*CT. i.^ uft hear Soiti on the eubfcct' He <^xfiUinB most 
logically thai man pcrfornif his niany labcrs and ha& become ft civU- 
iscil hrin;; only wiih ibr bf^Ip of bn^uagc, by naminj^ ihin(t<; and 
handling <h«iii in hie mind, Noir^ says ; 

'*It ojt bo gt^ptiicAlIy ibovn, ho^» idoa» miLy rffp r coot f«r man tti«TOl« of 
thmf^x noil : how man tua ncqitifAl ih* pow*r nf c^mlnnlng ifl hb mgifxumiw 

r.itulty ilm mc'Ait roniulimljfffCTh. iinil ihtErnliY liH^ hircn h\\]-' tci ntcoinpliPth ths cnt*t 
Enir:4(;lL"4 ut burnHJi ijiJijmei juxJ cL>iiLtLtifEcc But all (liJH u'uuld W uLtvil^ iiMOO' 
C*i'KabU wilbout GOBcepte vrhidi Impart lo porctpt» ihdr boity »nd telf-dopttQil- 
on(«^ titrin^c aHciLii sod mnlliply thnf ratic^inl conn»iTiii:kii llfmr:^ altc^ no auimal 
cat* p*i^raiJvaiii> a flnftl** ttrp tit»70iirl,/r/r^nj prrri*pnvp rvprPMrtilaiioP, ran never 
si^apc from The cnxuTrAiDt with urhlch Nature riTctimiicnbA ih? narroiw t^hera of 
lt« w»ntk. UuiurUioaldyH howntr, in appaicDC contraveiuion 0I vhb tuIc, aou lo 
tbc |:ffo*E;itr cUv iiATfy uFi ft 'cKulftT' 00(1 fhcthofllul ipociCf at jtKrkuHurc, koqj livi> 
%tcck tmii [|<jm«(icD hkf vfti tiuy. ihvy have L«id cauglH 1« tonvBrttlwoit imd 
tcciAl knivTtiiinmitaU □! v 4)Li:trttr o( ur^ bonr'x duntiua — Gud uv* titv ciiuk ? * 

Thiw pB.(!mge is lull of hunor, and Ihc humor it cli^htl^' tnin* 
ffled with a coraicjil anger and sell irony. There is a line theory 
ciccdlcnt in every respect worked out in nil ita details by tbc Pro* 
feKi^or ;in(1 now he find* :i ftrw Irtrtes of facts which po^«ess the im- 
pudence not to adapt iliem stives to the Iheory. " Gi^tf h^ss^r' s,'" 
»iilhs Noir(, for it )» not hi& fault that the ants accomplish ihings 
which ihey uitj^bi niU to. 4nd ibe ^'oud fvirc^ U called u^x^n to adapt 
nature u-iih more rigtd£cy to the Fro1e4!Mr'ft theuriei, 

Is thurc net an obvious rc'nHoa why aril» aiand -jo hi^h in their 
perform aiice» ^ Are not ant>t bOcJal bcines more »^ th^n any olhvi 
animal? We aie if^noranl slill of nil their means of commtmi* 
cation- Bm that t hoy have nomn means of comn^unicacion floems 
to be an calAbli^hcd iact When anls from different liJUa but of the 

* T^t Lf^i Tikfmy. hy Ludwig Zf oirf. TmDibUcI from ihc CenxMia 7^ Of^m 
Cfi»''. liL p 211/). EnK^ish irooHlbtioiiB of Noir^'s niMt imporUni dnidci con- 
»rrtng iheori|cin of laiii;iiaf(r, bavc appotred la Not- 3J, I37. i3<p, i|i. 141 of 7'^/ 




ftam« kind sive«Arh oiher battle, ic h^ijkpena not tinfreqiiently iliat 
a t^'arrioc Aitflck!^ ancilicr warrior oi Xht* some peoplo moai RerccJy. 
bul both let %o a* ftooa a* llicy touch rach olhcr with ihclf fcdcra. ■ 
I rEfr^iin from tt^tliii^ Morics ^houL ilic lifi: of iitvHK wi^n^lcdtiJ crea- 
tures- partly bec^us? onu wi^tl-jtuihcniicaicd report l^ aiil^icieni lor 
our purpose ani) partly bccaiisc J Timet :^tjppo9c that mo^l of my 
rt!:tf<li*i?> aie fdiiuliar uilh ihc fcicls a^ i»re»aiicd by DaiuNi. Lub- 
bock, Foro-1, Hubirr, aiiil m;iny oih^rft 1 will add only nne oli^vr- 
X'alion ^'Mch i^ ao iar as 1 knew undiRpnti^d. II cLnK ot a tpecial 
land rob Ehc larvjcof anothcrklnd and cducAEc tbcm ae thctr blares, 
the slavefi will id case of war or clanger ttaail by thcrr rnaslecs 
ev«n against tbcir <^wn folkt. They <^vid«ntiy speak ihp !finguag« 
of the liilJ VI which they hove been r«iscd- 

Profcftaor Forcl siicccMfully niiidc the cxpcnmcEit, with the a»- 
siatAnc* of ant-runrfl, of nitmg Toj^pihrT Rpvcrnl kiru^t nf ant^ from 
L)kc lanir of ho^iilc specie?!^. The fcT^^ioui; AmAA^rnA and ihr ^an- 
fjuiucjT dul DOC ^how nny cnntity towArd their commdev of the Pra- 
ten«kand Huia. Wh<-n Net ni lilH?rty ami triitn^fc^rrrd to u new rrn- 
dcnccihcy remained to^'eiherandbehavudexactly asif theynaCisrally 
belonged tof^clher- Ami this cxperiint-nt may he ifuotcd to cotrob- 
oratv tl>c |tmi>o%iii(in oi I'jol. Max- Mullci thfil ''thoiii^hi i« thicker 
than blo(vl"t 

Now it would be a deipcTjitft case for Profei^or Noir£ to main- 
lain hi^ theory m the (ace of thcst^ fact*- if by lantn^affe we have to 
understand \<kA ii^jiif* tjtily. Vet the idta of hi* and alio of l*fof. 
Max Mnller't ih^or)^ con»i«i4 in the iritth that thoughts cannot mslk 
about like ghoHtB in bodiless nudity : they are a ftVHIem ot notation. 
A« >HcI] they are &ymbohscrd in sif^a and art iiiAcparablc from their 
«tgnc^ These sign>i are sounds with men, and ^y u-nnis we nrtler- 
fitand usually »oiind-RymhoU. But there arc clhor &y«iemft ol noiu- 

* TWl aoiv uvajBiutjicAlr ^mttt crihili udtn iIji-iiukIi thnir ■Jilrciii*e ItOD unde- 

ScKpc Attn pooscat ia ihoir viHiMjititun-ot^aifi m kind of a niiilo the wund of <4bidi» 
huAv^vr. It ficxcepiibic 1^ the bucnnn car ooly In ibo PoDoraanci- 

( Sop TKfft Lt\tit'*t tn i\f S\um<t '/ t^^'ig^Ag*- P 47' The Qpca Court Pi*b- 
|Uhia« Col. Chkav^ 


Ttin »OX»T. 

tioabcvidcftvocAl&ien^and ilicy utc (or llint reason ^sotlc^csUa^uagt 
than speech. We have reason 10 hclie^'e thai ants are £q fx^^^ea- 
wn oi symbolical signfi And ibat mo«l of them are communfciled 

through ihdr focLera. 

Profc*i*or Romanes describes (he orlj^iti o( idcaa (in the Mcond 
chapici of •»MeniAl Evolurion in Man," p, 33) fn tho (ollouing 
V'ay ; 

'*^ii«i IM Mf Ck\]1on't riffitiiad «f *up«riniptHing «n thf* iatn« wnsiitw plate a 
Dumber c4 mclividvial imaen jfi^-vt riM W a blRmdrd photograph, whar^in Mch ol 
(he intJivMual consiiinfiii* i» pafiiftlly anrl propwHinniilly rcpip«irTnt<l ; » in the 
fTMlEiic utUvl ^ mcmoni nurii«ou!i inuflci of pit^viotit prn:epuoii&«iiv fuacd Eo 
Kcihcr ii]li>49Aiijcle«iDC<ptioa. w)i[ch tbraaUaibAS (l ooinpo^lc picture, or gUm- 
rrprctenlnlion. 4>l ihctn ib> oonatitucol tcnng^ MumovDr. 10 tht C4v of ■ KflulivB 
p1at« it i» Dnij thovo pairlicular ifUAgv v^btcla {ir«Aaal inor* or ]«u nuirmrouii poiaia 
of n ^'oihlanc ifi-it aifmii nf Imitijf lliua bl^ndnfl inin 11 di^rinrt phnlnKnph : anil vt 
In tbt^c;kvof the miml. h in only ihri4(i p^niritlnr uluiq which admit of b«riD£ ruo 
KUClJlifE in a do^ itiiit can k^ ta ci>a4(ilutv n c)?ai cuDc^iiu 

Professor RomAne^ calU siich a composite piciure of seaa^'im- 
prossions ae mual be supposed to c^tiei to tlic anlmo] biain "a re- 
cent *' »nd lie distinguishes il frorii "tiieconccpl " ^>f Jiian, He &a>'6: 
" Krcf^prion me;ins a faking again- . , . Tht-Tvonl ■ rccept ' is m"**!! to 
be appropriate to the dasa of ideas in question, because in r«coiving 
such idcaa the mind is p-isiiivc/' Ry "concept" however lie u is- 
der&iands "that kind of uornpnsile idea whiL:li is ivm!eT*nl ixigsibir 
only by ihe aid (?f Ungiugc or by the process of naming abfitrac- 
lions ns fibstracticnn/^' 

We agree with Profc^^tiK^r Romanes in the main poini. vtz. thftt 
the process of r-vohili«n must he cnnsidcrcd as "ninremipird, htii 
we cannot agree wilh him on several minor points, f 

We must express our doubt concerning the propriety ol cnJltng 
the mind passive when iccciving impressions. Evciy single netisa- 
tion i« an flctivt? procpsc. just as inueh Lisa reflex motion, and it may 

■ Prolr LTo^ Mnrgnn intrnduo^t awvpral nt-w lifrcnp, wbich «p«in uHl ooined* 
The mrDial ptodud whkh i» ciUcJ Ibc oUjnittI »enac Uc uiHa 'ctiHiirutl" , tl» 
moil pToiTilncni feniuri^ in b f4>mri(i4jr^ Hrriw^'lmjijjp, h^ cbIIa rJiir "prnl^iminiifit" ; 
and it ibif prcdoinitmnl in n^mi-'l nnd wlntrd l^y AlMtr.icfion h«ca]]kit in " wJaIo " 

f An rmpAfiiul c:rir]ti»mof I Vtfpvirir KArn^iniH h pctAiiiiin hat hfn mail* by Prof- 
Ltoyd MurgBQ in hi» raccnl work ^ifipuwf J.t/f ahi/ /n/^Z/^^vw. 


ntr ctiXTixfrrr or tvotrnoN, 


be ooaridcrcd *s a rcAcitoo liuA iJikcs pUcc in mpociftc U> the fitim* 
nJus of ihe impTAsioa- Coocvpcion of coutac i« al«ci an ActK'e pro- 
c«s«* «ft4 coE>cepU, the producCfi ot conception. evUbltfib a imv 
dcponmcAt u3 the fuind. '-^oir^, ituotcid tiy IVof. Max Mdllkr. 
my*^ *AU trecfi btlhrtto mca hy mc Irjivt; in my tinAgi[>aHon a 
miated iniagCf a kiod of idoftl preocctatJoo of a tree, QiitM differcfil 
from this is my co€iccj>t, «iiicb is ncrct an imairc' "• 

And thiK is Uu& 

We have on anoiher occasion mplained thai «er)iuitiofi£ are 
tteoftc-imprcfision*. which have acquired meaning. f Ra>'^ oI t^ht are 
reflected from an ohjcct and fall upon the tcttna of an c>-c. Hens 
they iifDducr a diMiirbancr of ner\ou^ Milwrance uhicrh ik irann* 
mined to the brain where it is fell ait tlie image «ay of a tree- Noot 
the ether -waves are not rai^ht, but a certain lorm of clher wavoficof' 
vnipoiMlM to a certain bnn of flight, and ihc tatter conies to stand 
lor tile forrncr. 7ht^ mfntid ptctiin- ol a trte become a *ymbnl for 
B vpecial object outride ol us and it is projected to tlie plncc xikbefe 
experience ha;i taught uft to c«pcct that object. In naming objecEa 
we ruf^eal llie prucesis of expfes&a^g by »yinbot«L SeiiKUionK are 
EV-mboUp jiDd a»me» are symbuU of lymboU. The nacui- and con- 
cept tree iv not the compotiitc pKttirc ol all the trectt t haxc accn, 
but it IS t)ic symbol of thia composite picture of aenne-lmpressionat 
5M.'n4aiiona an- like the chords ol a pidino and the concr^ptft are like 
the keys. The key U Jifferent in k>rtd from the chord which 1>e- 
]on^» to it. When I touch the key the cJiotd mU souikI : when 1 
pionouucc a aamc the LunipuMle ^m^atiuii uX all it^ aualo^ou^ 
m^morif^ will be awskcned. 

Can there be any qiiostion that (difference in kind can r^ri^inatc 
hy deiftces ? t^Ecf^M^r ftoniAm.K uhc^ ihir [ihi-i^c **t)iflerent xn kind" 
afi lynonyTnoti* with "different in oriBir " and therefore dcclarea 
that tmioaa reason and ammal intelligence are *'diHerent in degree" 

Tliis quotation Uroquotcd from Titrt. Lkrfd MofflHD, Amimai tJfu'aJ Int^i' 


only. The word ^*kind," it is true, is at least as vague as the word 
species and a naturalist may often be doubtful where to draw the 
line. Man and monkey are different in kind, and they are also more 
different in origin than Carl Vogt assumedf for man is not the de- 
scendant of any of the monkey famihes now existent. But this does 
not disprove that they are of a still remoter common origin or at 
least that they originated in the same way in some amceboid form 
as simple life-substance. 

New formations which originate through combining are as much 
new creations, i. e. things new in kind, as if they were produced 
through special-creation acts of God which are said to be creations 
out of nothing and not mere transformations. 

Man builds houses out of bricks and timbers. Is not the house 
something different in kind from the trees and the clay from which 
the materials have been taken? Is not the boiler of a steam-engine 
different in purpose and accordingly also different in kind from a 
tea-kettle? Is not every invention something different in kind? 
And is not the same true of the products of thought? Is not a tri- 
angle something different in kind from a line? And the origin of 
the former is not more miraculous than that of the latter. A triangle 
is more complex than a Hue. but its existence in the mind is not 
more of a mystery than the existence of the line. Difference in 
kind need not include difference of origin. Harmony is different 
in kind from melody. Notes in succession produce meiody, while 
simultaneous notes produce harmony. In either case it is simply a 
matter of combination. 

Professor Romanes when speaking of the passivity of sense- 
impressions seems to think of the unconsciousness of the process. 
We are not conscious of the transformation of impressions into sen- 
sations while we can become aware of our efforts to change the 
sense-material into concepts. Yet the nature of mind is throughout 
activity. And no one has perhaps insisted more stronglyon the activ- 
ity of mind than Prof. Max MuUer. But Prof, Max MiJller distin- 
guishes between the activity of the mind and the ego which as he 
supposes performs that activity. He says ("Science of Thought," 
P- 63): 



"Wc think of 11 mirul dnclliaii in « body, unci wc vcm find <>iirfclvtia ia llt« 
Bbidil of paj^^hoto^icjil luylbak^. Let x\ 1»a clmrl<r ua<t43r>(cxifL IharoLlnn^ Ihjit by 
Mittd J miaD nn^hing I^iit tbiat wirkin^ whifh m^niiif no vifhin. •mhradDg Hn«x- 
tion. ppTOTinicin. cuiKvptinn. aii'l n4mjn|{, a* <mJT at ib« v>rkWH mor^of onmbiD' 
UUC VXl wpAiaiibc ihp muTiA of Ibsw procc4«» Ecu ibe puipour uf u«>k dj^covpry, 

"Dot li M^od i*i iu be (be iiAinc of ihe nvrk. ^hat 11 [g be cbeniLiaa of ih* 
■worlicr .* ti b oot ^t lb» Self, for Ibe Sell. &□ the hlghM bcdh, ia a spfciniof 
ooly. not a worker , l>ai 11 iit uhat wc ma^ cAtl tIid Kao, at pcnonBiiDi^ lh« Self ; 11 
b *hfll ftlhffT philrt*iph*r* meon by the Muprm, ol uhifb, a* vp UialJ *iW. there 
V« ttiAEiy Ijit in call IIiKtrrfiift iIle; wi^rlicf vrhu Aiirtt Khc vttttk t>| (he minil in la 

Aii<l ilk another passage (I- c, p, 553) be spcak» of the eimplicily 
of tile monon : 

"If then thr ^irurf** cif thriii{fhi it if* wmpfr .I'l «j« t-ivv. nni I«*i ciuiplr ai 
tflOBt (h<:] Ih4i of iponb. u Follcrwv thai the annplkiivd apt^i^tu' wbiob had 
bom pastulalvd by ffiosi pbiJctiophon iot tbo pvrforTnarcic of ihouchi in Ii3 vniiouf 
apbtrw of muilfntalion eddbI make room for much ptnifi«r muhiiifry Inaitvud 
«f iPlullioft, liueiltcf, uiKLsniAbdiag, aiiad. reaaoiiH b«^i>J>(. judgmeni, ojid lU the 
tmt, «* mil rtoiiy notjiiog but a ulf-fonndoiu MruioHn i^rable fd chttoi^ti^ nl! 
tkti b hUfiplriil t>v (he «ea)ko iatci pL-rtcpi)t <i»Eirrpb>. And nxima Tlirw^ cbjtiitiiiii 
Brij Ik icv'^^'I'I'^^I *^ tujuGiljiiiK vriy LJhuivdlui^x. Muti wc iiuty KrMfiiiv ^uy ^luni- 
bor cf twnrerm and f&ciihiia ior ibe pcHonnancc of tbam/' 

"Crani n Unnon cipnar-inuii <^E Itmni^, and conncicun lhiirfi{'>rM cA ibi> Lmyncd 
Bud# (ipi^n It vt Ehp rbAiiKw prvKluc^vl in 11 by och^r Moni whi^h 11 r^ntix, urH\ w 
nqairr linlti morr lovxpbin all ihAt y/« ar** accnitonifMl locnli ThouGhi ~ 

Tli€ continuity of evolution naturally holdt» good according to 
Uaa MGlkr for llic njttural iiian> bat not for the Self. 

How it ihit* Is ihf* ninnnr prrh.ip*i ronrHvfrt a*i nm-nRfiiraf 
or outside of nainrr. Hardly. For Prof. Max MuUer ^pcakt of th« 
object aUo aa bciti;£ n monoid, * If ihr: object) are sa much mooa as 
the (ubicctK ihc i«i;ie lawi. itiikTii luikl tjotxi for boib, ami tlu- miIi- 
ject-monon miKt b^ ^iippnvrl lo he art nhjeci-monon if consittrr^cl 
in its rcJaiitin to other object -nioiia^ 

U Prof Max Mikllci~*» protcsi agftSiiii ihc coniiiiiiit^ of cvolittioLs 
is nm h?^fird npmi T^^■ Hnaliim of n:iri]r;i1 anH ("xfra "natural mona, 
what can it mean ivhcti he say^ that evolution does not hold good 
for the Self ? 

*[.. Ck, P' aBr "Sc much abouilbc subject ot ibe tntnea. Wbnt imv about 
flu obJMrs *r <he mmwf 


TVtr. univiicT^ 

If xhf S^lf i6 contrived as s motion, i. e. something "sli^nr" 
Uico an atomic iiint, it can havu no evolution- l^voJution i^ chanfio 
t>i form ihrough llic production pf new coiiri£:urHtioii». A nionon or 
an isol^ied Lin>t considered by iisdf cannot cvolvit. It js ks it i-vcT 
h^ft bc«n And will be— a mcnon. 

If this is Prof. Mnx MflUcr's mcnninfi:, wc muse n*Ic, How docs 
he know thai the firlf i« ji nionon and t^At object arc ciiona? Do 
ihcy nnl, if so rontpivrd, lirrnnii- hij^bly ntyfiTctioini riilitic«? Nrw 
n^ona arc constantly bom into thi^ world. Whence do Citey come? 
1% every birth of a child the new creation of another monon by the 
CTcaEor. who %o dis^tfihuto t\it babu m the wotld that like babe» 
arc yiven to like iJ>r<?ni's thu* ]>rodiici£ig the wrong ]iiipre^!tioTi of 
herudjiy w well aa oJ a coDtitiiuty ol evolution ? The idea of ex- 
plainini^ all the dCtlviticd of the mind by the po?ituUtL* of a conscious 
moTion is vrry siiiipk' indeed, but ilie pioblem^ which woijIJ aii?i^ 
Jrom this posti^laK* arc <*]ctrfmd)' complex, and it ^ocnis tf* lis tliat 
after all the propo^iiron of evoliition is by lar the ^implcet aolutlon 
of ull the ditFicuLtics.* 

Mmd fls ftv cr,nrp\vp Jr !«; rhn proHiici of rvrjfiinnn. Mmd has 
boon evoivud in a world which (judging troni it^ product i must he 
conceived as bcinic freighted not ou\y with energy but also wiili eIio 


' Vroi Mql MLUler tit a icrc^t Jiliriirtr of Kint diid so am 1. Uut it appcftn lo 
ITIP That wetlini'r >*TeaTl^ m wTiut iatc afcepi (f^ th« f<«j«tiiUjj| itar^hin^or iTvmAiHr t 
&Dd 1 ^TPiLf wil]m|{l) Ihut PfLit Max MUJIcr han prcucrvoi ihc doctriDaof Kjst 
, mote fitithriilly ili«u I, I luvd atiumj^ipij ui jiiixTeruitt^ I^hek If I <im C4Lllrd a 
Karttan [and 1 cit nni ohjEiTl in i^r nan^v. on tff ttminty I atn prtiu^ of ill it u li^ 
CAuu t proceed ir-yri] Kant and I Aitrmpl lo frvxrva Ibe eptfit ul ICfuii's phUosupby 
lAlLa iluii hi> ilucUttiE-A Fui tlir biW uf the h^Uii df Kjiiliim ^itiJImnLdiy I Imvc 
tnv mj'M-lf ufg'^d t'i*iirrnnfl**r lh» idi^n of ihr thing-m-ti^HF sv ^nmmhirg nnkni^W' 
aVf<< Vfiii, Mfii MiillTr Had prc>4<.'r\i?r) in hie p^iilc^mp^iv (fitriiich m lliA Stuwuf*-/ 
TAi'uc'*f\ ihr DmuMU'ikh llirtiry. UdietiiiB iu iliitiK* la-lhcmirlvo In- \i\u\\ cpOE- 

ol ibc jujuI. 

J havr hmiied myiwlf la ibp pn&eat ftnic1« io ihr priacipleoj ccntianHr in 
•ToliiTion at a poinipt divrr^rict- briuwn Pnrit, Mav MHtWand ihr vieuidvfmded 
by 7V .VtfW//. If I aliemptcd ai prcif^ci i^cmcr into tfu pbilowphical pfciMcm 

<j| lliiiijfh-iti'lhnmhclvnk I iJjtmId be ulili^prLl Uh laa tLJi? riiucli lEii; imLiriK-? al my 
rvad'n Hiir at I arr r<>nvinr*fl (hii lbf» rpimttn ol nur f1iflnr*nr« mih Wof Mai 
MliT]i-T tciiacrrainR [b« conlmuilv o£ ovalution 1k» dc-«ptf nill, I intend lo Ireat the 
subject lA (biDKi<ia<lbcnkicLvc::> Jd a Cuiute Dumber, 

7MR L'0»1i:4VrTT Olt EVOLCTION. 


dtcauaiity ol kdiux. Mind* »it wc know it lu t'^perience. in na 
lOnoB, no indiviftibk nnjt> bui a unitary cyetena ci fe«lmss and 
lOughtft prcMjiiccd lliroLigli exiornal impr«!i»iofift upon oni^ part of 
10 world by iht rcsi of the wocld wbkli surround* it Mind i* «ii 
Viirnct tfrrm ; ii dor-*i not ilcnorr- a pan of the worW, bill a certain 
lality oE fl pan oi tti«' world, viz. tlw WLin^ and tboughu ol Gpe> 
«l kinda ol orcantsms- Mind is produced througli cjitcrnal Jm- 
ic«sii>n>* hill it docs not coni^i*! ntefcly nf CKtcritAl impics*iion^ 
[tnd, ttfi we have staled Itcforr, h nnt paosive; it is nclivet. U con- 
ftts of the rcaction« which take place in response to iinprc««ion£ 
vd alAO ol the accumutatcit products of these rcaciion^- Thu» 
ttsry mine! >» tbt- concentmled effect of ibc whulc co^ino* iiiion nnc 
lecial pftrt of t}i« covniot, not a« it laket pUce in one moment, btit 
( ii hA9 taken place in u definite and continuout period np to date, 
be accunmi^ticn of llic^e eflectv makes the mind grow and expand 
id the sj^ieni ol fhi* growth conHtiiutts ils specific cliaracter. We 
m A% little think of the rnind as appearmg ^uddenty by an act of 
.iCcM croAttoa aa uc can think that an oak tree can he created out 
J notliiu^ OT ihai it can cms: vvitlioui ptevjoua ^ro,wih. Tlic law o( 
^niinuity hnlrts f^ood nit much in ihr realm t>( the hnmaii mini! »i^ 
Wttin ot animaJ and plant-litu. 

So iat Vfc have home in mind the philu«ophical and Kieixific 
^tonly of the coniimiiiyof rvohiijrn, Therr la Another afipcci 
rer of no Less mportancc. that 1^ the rdigiouit view ol the «iib- 
)Ct. Wc do not believe ihal science and religion arc two difflcrcni 
pbereft nf ihon^hi and ih^t Homttthing may 1m; true in xcimte which 
. not true in religion^ ^ince the theory of evolution has rcvo- 
ltioni»cd almost aII our sciences, wc ask, what infiuence mnst 
lis change ol lUou^hi exercif>e upt^n tcligion ? Is not tlie religions 
lea of God deaboyed and the whole s^itcm of religion overturned ? 
^ Wc think not. An old and very powerlul »>^stem of theology 
Iich has been considered as oiUicdox for centurie:^ will become 
ntenahle as «ooii as The idea til e\'ohittun nud the conlintiily ol ero- 
itiOD are recognised in their ttueeping importance ; but religion it- 
eU will enter into a new pha^e of evolution and llie idea of God 



will not ly? cflfti a^uln ana mnn? ^mpc^r^tifinn nf ihr T>4rk Arc^. ii 
will be pLtriHcfd And appC::Lr in a gecntcr >iid Mibltmcr* in n noblttt, 
hiKlicr. find in a truer conccpljon than ever bciorc. 

The idea of God is an h[&Coficf4] beirloikri l^ jijim iigC3>> Th<: 
rtUgioiift man and the philosopher of idl timci hive In«l lo put into 
it ihoir bi^hc^t, their bu^t, their Rrandeai, and their purest emotions 
fl9 well nn thnu^bt^- And these tbou^ht.t ^erc doe n^cjininglcKi. ihey 
wt-re nut mtfre fancier. Thry contained (lie i;niniessence of tljpir 
conception concerning th;it l^ature of reality which bix£ produced us 
iktt living, thinking, and nspirin^ be;ng«. and which ntill promptu iis 
to aspire to hi|?her ainiv The world wbith has produi;cd other 
b^ing* and tnirselvi-s, c^innot tj^ and is not a meaniagies^ cungwcs 
of niat(;ria] parCioLefc in motion. It is a living cosmne. It is a grand 
hurmonioun univor^e pregnant with mind, and notliing in h is suf- 
ffrred to exl^l (or any Ipiiglh of tinit' but th;jt whith cniiforms tty its 
laws; anU th^iT which conlorms to its law^ tve caU moral. 

The idea of God, howe\-er, as it is ccmnionly taught lO our 
scboola ia lull of pagan notii^nb, and the very paganism of the pieHent 
Gnd'idps 113 often si(ppo<ied tn be if* deepest and holiest me^ming. 
No wonder that atheism increases with ibe pragreas ot science *. And 
why should not AChcisin increase, if it i» truer tlian a supcr»tiliou!t 
ibei^in? AtbeUn^i I believe will increase more and more unttj theism 
tg cleansed of its pagan notions. Bnt atheism will not come to stay, 
for atheism is a mere negative view and negations have no strength 
lu livci They hdie potvci to criticist; and they will strvc as a leaven 
in ihe dongh. ThHr purpose is the pnrifioaiion of the positive 
viows- Nogstions will pass away as soon as their purpose is inl- 

Tlif? old pagsn conception (now considered as orlhodo>^ placet 
God in ihc dark nooka and crevices of our knowledge. Wherever 
adcncc fails and wherever cur inquiring mind is entangled in prob- 
leius wliii.lL we cdiMiot Impe lu bulve. wheievei the (.uuitiiulty uf Utt- 
tntp and of the ordor of natnre is hidden from onr intellecmal slight, 
tbc so-called orthodox believer comes forib and doclares: "This is 
a holy place. Here is the finifcr of God'^ special jnierforotic^ ! ** 
Consider what a degrading view of God this ts ! The place of dark- 



iirM i» conceived fls ail uctual break in tlie oidn t>l ttkc iiii^rM iitd 
thk httstk i« MippcArd CO bo a *ij>ccifll revelation of God 1 U we 
tnjjit in tnilh, wc need noE fihur ihc Ij^ht o£ ecicncc arid the Gr>d oE 
science — Id contiAdiMmction 10 the pa^on notion oE God— fcvcilU 
liimsRlf in thr difirxrvrrirs of science. Gnd livrs ici in darkness hiil 
in light. And htftcxifitencv ia proved noi Ehfoiif[h tha breaks in na- 
ture (which we can be sure do not oxisl^ and wherever they appear 
arc due lo onr igTii:>rancc> liviC throiii-h the t>rder c*f nAiiire, lor God 
/V th« order of nntiire^ God is that power thtnn^Ti wliiab wd exi«t 
OS livjcfC, ihinkmtf. and ai*piring bninfci;, and tn which we have to 
conform in order to lirc- 

When Darwin siwrakt of "Mifeai having been originally htea thr d 
into 2 few loftnA or into one fiy tke Crfn/nr," he either nses allegor- 
ical bnKucf^e or he nican» that the beginning; of life was on act of 
ftpecjfl] creation. He appiiiently means the latter and is in this re* 
ffpecl net a coniiiitmit cvfjhiiioniftt. Dan^in was ^rt^t as a reformer 
ol natural science, but id theology he still stood upon the old stand- 
point, lie c»\h God to rescue where science fails- The Creator 
did not <ni|;inally Uu^the life into the Dri;anbm, hcit hi;* bteatb Is 
convlinlly en*oiiIing all living btings. Now suiijiose there «er** or 
tlicre could be eaceptions lo the law ol cauvalion, ia the coniieTvution 
of matter and energy, or to the continuity of evolution, would that 
not ralli«r he > diawback in natiare? Ate the palches on a coat 
belter proof that it was made by a tailor than the whole coat ? Any 
kind of thcolonEv which *»till rccocnUcs special- creation acts, or mir- 
aclriii or Irae^lts iu evolnlluu. wl* do not bt^iituti? Ilj «ay, is nut yel 
free from paganism, for it still atick« tnche religions conception of the 
iBcdicino-maii that God is a fcroat niaj^ician. The God of the mcdi- 
chie^mar lives in the realm of the unknown and lie iippear« in nran'a 
imat;maiion where the litfht ol science faih. The God of science 
however it iho God of truth, and evidence ol hie eaistence ia not 
found in the darkncsa of ignorance but tn the Ucht of knowlud^e. 
God's bcinfi is nut rccognibcd !n the ficcuiiut: cxcepiiuns 10 i:atural 
law%, but in tb4* natural laws t]ien]ii<>lves- God's rvisi»DCff \s not 
pfoved by our inflbklity to trAce here or there the order of cans* 
Mnd effect, as if a disorder in the \vofld made it divine ; on the con- 


TKff ticixv<rr. 

tTAry th<? niily rntian;Ll i^roiim^ of a f^irh in Gnd Ik the irreffngiibtf! 
connic ordci of th«; universe?. It i£ tnic thuX wc hnvc to ftivc up 
the idcft of a pcTsona] Cjo^l, but J3 not n siipcrpertcofial Uod i^rcatcr 
lIuiEi the idcil nhicb we Iiavc male iinio oLir ciwji likcucNst? 

TliL' God oi science is pprfiip* more in Agreement with the l>ib- 
fical God than the God oi dogmatic thcolcgy. The imerprclQtions 
of 1)iblic4L pas-saiEcfi wliich are lut present ceoeraUy considered ax 
or(hi]du% arc? (iimrely from lUtL >iHii(l^iiiiit of iinpurtiat cKi-^elic%) 
iintc?n:ib]«. Tha fifs! chapter ol GenevH has not one wokI about 
apociid-crealion act^ Neither the Elohmi nor the Jaliveh Adonai 
account dccUrefi that la the beginnmi,; there had heeii Nothiiiff. 
Both arcoimt*i iC^ji. Chap. [ i to 11 3, and 1!. 3 ot wjl ,) agre« 
that God " shiij>«d" the worlds The word fiftraA (to sJiape, to form, 
to niflltc) is nowhere uscJ in the sense of creatine 01.1l of iiothiii£. 
The Psalmist says. -'By the wcid of tlit Ltjrd were ilw heavens 
made,'* which wag so interpreted in the N«w TeslamenE that it 
meant "by tho logos," and the go^el of St, John Adda ual ^eos 
tf*- 6 Xoyos. I c. and the woid wa^ God. Lottos means rattoruil 
spff'rh OT rfflson, nnrl thr- wnrM-rranon ihroM^h which thp heavvas 
were miide cari moan only Ihe co&niic order oi the universe- Tht^ 
idea of St- John's thotisht out to its ultimate conclusJons iiiean^ 

Thrrc U a common error that scientific progress is danReroiiff 
CO religion. Scientifii:. progress is dangerous I0 fiiipersttticin only. 
HcliEion (i. e. true religion) is not ha^cd upon our igaoiancc. but 
upon out knowledge; it is not a child of tlie durkness hut of the 
light, andTarthfar Ircm beinf^ a mere belief, i- e. iheim|WrCect knowl- 
ed^'C ol an opinion for uhich no proof irt lorihcomini;, i» applied 
knowlcdiie. it is knowletli;c plus the toiilidcntc that this* kiiovh ledge 
can be made ihe hasis of ethics and the supreme rule for leeulatin^ 
onr conduct in life, Tho hlatoryof religion hma b^en and ih KtilL a cod- 
stont ptirihcation of onf reli|rioLis tdca^, and the crucible in which the 
religioii!t idcii^ are ptLii5cd is science. We arc slowly but c^^nMantiy 
progTPU^ing towani a high religions ideal and iHa id(*ul i« a co«micAt 
rehgion free from the pa^an notions so severely crtticiiied by Chmt 
and yut ^o carefully preserved by the Christian churchc!^- Thb 



THE ttmristiiv or Ev<.ut'i«oy, 


ccHinical rt?1igian will be the; rdiginn of scirticc-. Il uiill roi cqtiiuki 
ol religious iiidilf«rrnn^ nor ol a tol«rAtion ol jiny and every opinion 
oa 15 sio cJtc-'r crronvouHly proclaimi-'d •la the id^aJ of liberalism. OrL 
the coDtrmy itu'jil.bc in a certain vcii^c the; mo^i orthodox relit^ron, 
for tXft m^xini will be to ^innd on thi* iniih anri noihinf; bui the 
inith. Ad<I Ihe int:U is not st all indiil^ront or loj^^rant. I'lie tnitJi 
ifl citrctncTy inlalcrant nrd suftcrs no crroi bcsJcfc it, AllhotiKh, as & 
ni^ittcr ol ^^iirtc. the Initli i& vcrry iciWAnt h\ sa i^t ah it saiicIjoiih 
no Vkolvncc but i?mptoy« only tho i;pirttuAl swctd of ccnvictioti by 
ar^in>cnt aad \o^ic^\ prooj. 

Wc hftvc given up ihc idea of special Act» of crcAlioii ns (he 
csiUIng forth < 1i m: on nix tiddly of Nutnelhing out o1 tioihin)^. We 
cocicc:ve the whole world as an orderly t:o%mtyi, well regubted by 
lawv and evolving the ICTins *^i ble in agreement with its Jnwn. Is 
llitfre lenv divinity in n comhuh th^n in il l\xli chaotic world In whidi 
■God nmkffs exceptions And connictacis hi^^ own ordiiiunfis? In the 
idea of crc.ition teM ictigious if it coa«cs to mean an originaiion of 
tioniiGChing oviT of nothtnii? la not man at least juat aa wonderful 
if CTFolved «cp by step olh oI the du*t of the earth through iniiu- 
m4mi1)1(< MA^r^ in ihr- fonji procpus of evolution a»i if he wrrrr niarl^ 
<|jrcctly out of clay ? And it there Ickc divinity in hift foiiI, in he 
«ny ies% shaped unto the imai^c of Gcd because hi^ growth took 
plAcc Acc^ordinG to natiiiAl laws? Natural lawx in the conception 
^f purifinl rrhf^ion. ot the religion (jf scieTEre^ me nothitl^^ hut the 
ideat» of God, eternal And immutable^, and lornmlatod by »cient)&l5 
Dol on the ground of «pc!C4ftl revelations but on llie ground vi the 
uQivcr^al and u nth Amicable, and lliiouK^bo^it Ljun^ibteiit ttrwlation 
of Cod in h]« workb. 

The science of lAngnngc and ihc science of lift hic two impor- 
tant hi^hioadtt to the cof-ri:tion of truth. That t>oth i;cienccfl will be 
■consistent wUh each other, that ihvic results wdl finally he :iecn to 
hannonise perfectly in beyond all doubt and also that their bearing,' 
upon religious idea* will contribiitp niuch to Iheir puiification^ 
Prof- F. Max Muller and Prof. George John KomAoea are two great 

tiara, each one i> a leader in his own branch ot knowledge, and 


where ihey come in conflict, il appears to us, that they rather com- 
plement than refute each other Both are strong Monists, although 
emphasising different sides of Monistic truth and we feel convinced 
that their very differences will help us to elaborate more fully and 
clearly and more comprehensively the great truth of Monism — of 
that Monism which will more and more be recognised as the corner- 
stone of science and also of the rchgion of science. 






IHAVE offvcr stxn mcutioneii in your pcnodicaJ publicatiooft the 
Ji^Ttff J^4 J^yrcAtts: and pctlwps 1 kIjuiiIU never haxK licoid oi 
ibe perifxliral iti^'sell H t \\tt\ not ht«-n in thtft interi^strng okl city, 
«nd if my eyv Ua6 n<)l chanced on ih« litlo o( on4} of th« uTticI« ci 
J recent number Advertised in a. local jcuroaL "Un Ari^gcoia 
^iidtFiii dt?i Etalh-UniH U'Aiiifiiqiw: Pient Sonic" wjis tlic^ titk 
ihut niiTsctird tny ail«iilion itrvl Ojiu^d rut* lo procure ;i cu^y, which 
1 bav« found interesting in more nnvft th«n on^ 

The publication Lft a vfdl'pnntcd ijuartcrJy oC ty> ytn^e^, and 
luH conipletpd 4ome lime* «)iic^ i)w si.'coiid ye^ii of it^ (^.xJUenct^. lln 
lull EitK'i&lftlolIoW4 : tC^t^ue Jfi /^rtr^^i it Jf i^ J'ratUf m/ritfiatt^/^, 

Vw iV/^f. Tbt fijuiidcfii o( tlic ifciicidkaJ aic the ktc Juuts Sj^caz^, 
» Oi'ani m«ch voner^icd in ihe^*- pon«i, and Dr- F. Gxknicov. its 
prcs«nl editor 

Th« 4VsH>ciAiiou PyT^n^enne. of wtiicJi. as wc have just seen, 
ibn AVtfif/ is ihe organ, i« an ACilvp und sigriftcstnt organ isstf or. 
Hcr<r arc s^>mo of itfi atms. Whiitr it r«cogiitsft4i the gt^atnet^ of 
ibc CftpilA), ParH, it «dvoc«lcs dvccntralUfition* by "showinn tlisi 
^orLcis living in ilw provJci^b arc as c^pfitde as others, iViottKli en- 
joying k(f snppon nnd htnds^ 10 a^d »r llic bnildtrif; up of the flrcat 
«o«ntilK odi6c« of franco/' Tho imporl:inc« nnd holdnfr^s of this 



d«cUrAtion can scaixfly he appreciated by Iho^o' who have not 
brcAthcU for «oinc time the cKccssivdy monojKiLiatic citr»os{kht:rc of 
chc French capital, whirli li*h Ijccn so b-incful lo so roanj nattaTial 
tnlercsii^ The A^RnciAtion would al^o act as n mcanb of union be- 
tween the various lonrnctl nncictiot oi the South, Chc Midi, ard thus 
render ti po&flbic to oriEani»c an auiLUAl Ccnicrcss " for the disCiiA- 
*iiOTi Hr^ iWcrnsp of rlit dfsnil 'irlcnrifir., tmlii^triaT. and romnii^friAl 
qiicfilion* which coiiccm Saiithcm Fiance'' 

Here n-cK« broughtoiit&till more precisely thftt rivalry between 
tlic South and North, chatacteirl^tic of most tLaiiciii. and which pre* 
Sf n1» such cnrioiT** a^jiects jn Ihe pavl ami present hi^l<wy of Friinc*^, 

I iwvei weary ul quietly noting, while m the South, iht? dchght 
ful contempt Vfhlch the mMtiUamu^ nhow for their Pflrisiaa fellow 
coanUymcxn The alhei Jay al dinni-rp fur inslance. I ht^urd u learned 
prole«w>f ol on« ol the Southern Univ^rtitie^ dcff^nding ihu Southern 
acc«at and preferrtp^* it to "iht Pansiaii ncccat/* as he put it. Hut 
I wouU need pai^ea of your »paci^ lo develop ihin line uf thuuyhi. 
Suffice it to fiay h^re rhai th*- As8oei>itiuTi Pyr^^m^entie and itie cr^'an the 
Ji^.it^ tf^i /yy^tir^s intend lo prove, and hi»ve KucceeJed tr proving, 
if wc may judge by ihia numb<:r of the Hft-uf and by the account of 
tlitr pLoi.«edin^s ul ihe fiiHl Coiitr[t'Hs uf iIil' A?tsticiatii.»ri, pLit:e<] at 
the head of tho nunibor, that there are creditable savanrs «nd «ound 
leaminf; outside of the witlh of Victor Hii^o'a -'Vill«; Luniiijru." 

Another objccl of ihc Asfiociation would be dear ro Casl^Jar'a 
hpart. 1 givf? it iti full: "To rruinvr ntor;iIly the grand l'}T«n««Mil 
curtain ind to oHcr the hnnd of friffud^hip to s nation justly proad 
ol it.4 parii, whose interests touch our own. and which ha,s the ^£hl> 
brcaiL^c of the illustriciis sghjs of Cataloni^L, Aragcjn, and Navarre, 
i(y vaVv p;in in ;in iufell^^rtual and I'yrenpciin assfciation baced on 
science,^' Thii; \% a paiapbra^ oi Louis XIVs famcufi remark enn^ 
cernjng the l^yrenees. when he placed h\% j^ittxaWoxi on th<: tlironc 
of Spuin, Nfjr t:au one he surprised at the sironj; atfei^lEOii which 
binds Southern France to the Iberian penimula. The grand moun- 
toios, the " I'yrencean curtain/* which separate the two countries, 
ore always in Mght, their &now-capped peaks glitlerinif in the Min; 
ihe \^t\om^ paiais, especially the dialect of Phi]» rescmldc ihe Span- 



mh mofc than Ihcy do the French toniguc : Spanii;h money in ioiaicd 
on jou at ihc »hop9. ititii pictiJt»[|itc Spani»li tnotintaineciK Jeu^ ai 
IMfCuliHT chann to th« f^auniry Uirs. whilt ibr nitiuii i« ever on ih« 
cv« cf 3 pionuDciaineiito. destined to give Co Spain the; reptiblican 
maUivtioDs ol Fr^occ. 

But to teturn Li> Pikkre. Si)ti-£ who in iiw c:aL;se^ ^iitl suiurg 
|koini of thU lercCT'- CommAn^flnt Treapailltf'^ oulogi»tic biographical 
filcctch i^ of slltfhi inicrcAt to Anx-fican rraLkrs who can hud diiu' 
vvltcrc a fuUcr aii<l incqc exact dccouni oJ the brilliam bui idthcr 
di«appoimiDic career of the once fftmoti^ Franco-Louisiana slates, 
man- M^ Trcj^pailU'^^ reference to ^'Oid Hickory'* as "ite immortal 
Jackson," hJR statement that the American pi?^ple is full of prciu- 
dicctaffainsC the Frciich race, his mctamorphojtini: New Hiimp&liirc'a 
oo\y l*friid(^nl into Pierre Fmncklir, and snnu^ other <iniilar slipji 
can be oveilookcd, Cor this essay oHen a ^trikiriE example ol Iho 
dominant idea of the N^rve^ the Asflociation and patriotic Southern- 
cift generally,— the t^imilicatknt oE the ^rcat men and {{real actkins 
ol U»e »unny Scuih, the "Midi enM>leilI*-" 

And I must ainiit, lorei^ner thouKb 1 am^ IhaE 1 share much ot 
\ht% cDthiinia^m fod^ perMrn!i and diin^5 meridional, and efipcclaLly 
for tht Ultei. Wliat a Urul this in tor hislorical nnd arrh;toloHical 
Ktudy I Take this numbtr of tJw Jft-zn^ Jet Pyr^rtfts, lor inKtance : it 
ia lull of it Herc» for exftntple* are the title* of three ol the papers 
read at tlie fir^t Con^^reru of i}ir Aa^iocJaiion Pyr^n^enne, to which 
Congrest I referred above- "Tlie Doinitian (toad fiom Narbonne 
to Fcrpiearin." "'rbt Third Cmitiir^' School ol Sculpture mSouliiem 
GauI." and *'Thc Roman Road from Narbouac to Carcassonne/' 
Tlwr« aT« sevenr] anodes in ihr Kr^'trt about the University of Tou- 
louse, U''fiii:h iv stalled to Ixr th« oldest in France after that of PaiiBn 
having bcto founded in 1319. more than two hundred and jiity ycar» 
b«fofc Uie diftcovety of America- The law i^chui^l even amidaieti 
14^9 and its foiindaiion is lost in thp obscurity of ihc ^rnriy crnMirics 
ol the Christian era- Anoihvfr article hi^gin« the publicAiion ol a h^E 
of tfic profc6Gois at the law schooL The ^rsl recorded uamc dates 
from laj). When one finds snch themes as thc«: oa every band, 
Rom«, Gaul, ih« Atrddle Ages, and feudalism bt^come almost living 


THE >IO»lSkl-. 

rft4li1if-_s. And how inc^Khuunaihly rkh LAEiKtic!(ioc if^ in these* ti*> 
mmdcrii oi the distant patt^ 

And th« patojiior dL;ilc:ctn of this pan of FrAcicc arc noi thclcASt 
aiick'nt iirid intctesclng ^utiji^cl^ for $Iiidy. Wi:jiidrr i& often exjirr^siicd 
thit ihu Hn^li^j of America dxffc^rs &o slighil}' horn the- Eaglioh of 
Enf^and, with throe thousand mdc^ of ocean i^Gparating Ihc two 
countries. The wonder incrca?ic?i when yo\i find ihat here In Laiig^ic- 
doc The saciie |i;l1ijis difF<^r?« in >iTm]e |i:irlitijUr^ fruMTi tciwn lu Inwn 
Let me f;r&t intention some big diHerenceK :md thtn louch upon eome 
minor ones. H you Uihe the train which leaves Toulouse at aWtii 
half past eleven in the morning, you will arrive al Pan at half past 
four During the^e five hours on a pr<?tTy slow train you have packed 
from one patois 1o another. Th^ lower classes of Toulouse cannot 
uuderMfind the lower classes of Pnu, And if you conlipuc in the 
same train, at aboiit half p^si eight yon reacli Maul^on* In ihe French 
Bssquc Provinces, where the ivjpiilatc of noiiher Toulouse nor Pau 
could cfirry on s convcrsaijon w.ih the populace cf Maul6on. Thus 
a niac hours' ride of about 175 miles on an accomniodaiion irain 
Cflrrirfi yon through n region where French i* the vernacular of the 
«idiicAlrd riafifies and is the oJ^cial lanffiia^Cr hut wh^ie the gre<lt 
ma» of ihc populaiioa is- divided into three groups, each spc&kLni; 
a different diiilrcE. 

The modifieaEionii which the same patois undergoes In neijihlior- 
fng localities i« not le«fi curious though of course not &0 radical. 
Roughly ^peakini^ it may he fiaid that the 5amc pfxtois is spoken from 
Mont|ie]lier to BurUeaux and fnnn Toulouse well up into the crntre 
of France, which em braces thv region where prevailed the Languc d'oc 
Ironi which the pruacnt putois is derived. But, while n peAMiDl 
could ntflkc liimscli uudej^tu^^d throut^houl ihis wide territory, his 
ear would often h^ perplexed by more tlnin one i^tran^jc word and 
phra^' 1 was once told on the Hiviera that the patois of Menton 
diffcrL-d considcrablv from thai of Nice and thai this was particularly 
ihr Lflfcc hcfo(e ilic LuiiMiuttitJU of the Cornitlir road and the railway, 
when fl drniTpn *>f the former place could reach tin? biter city only 
by douhlinfir Cape Martin under sail. I do not know how true this 
KtatGiocnt i«, bill 1 believe it to be correct, alter 4 wupcrAcial actudy 



on these samo Lint^ wjfick I havo ju«l made in the I>6paninent oE 
the Tarn, ooc of ihc loosl Isolated portiona of Upper Lan^ueiloc. 
I finJ ihai the patois of lowns as ncvir logciher. ah are Svk Yofk. 
Newark, Pancrson, Nyack and TaTryicwn, for example, dilJers, noi, 
perhaps, in [is conscructtos but in its vocabulary. Let mc give acme 
examples^ Thus, potato, whicl^ Ja tmffff at Coidi.-s, becomes irufo 
ar Ctfc^tn^ PiAritHff, ihr wrtrd pmplriyerl in e>i«> SolitK East pnd of 
th« D^pATtmcni ic aUo hcnrd at CAt^trRn^ hut ii<:vrir ac Cordcfi, u-hich 
tft in the North Wcsi end oi tbc Dciiorimcnt, Cjii^Ercs bcln^ about ia 
the tcMtc. Dog is ait[nvi and t^ rx ConSrs, and ^vus ai Castres. {At 
MonipcllJ«r, in a conci|;notii Dt-j)aTtm4!nt it ic ischi, while m Pau they 
say ftfv, which approaches very ncftr the Latin.) Fig is /'furcff hi 
Caftrcs »nd iasoit ai Cordcs. Ikocim tt^^'taaiirii ai Castrcs and /-u- 
jCri/u at Cotdrfi- I havi* aim notrd ihr f<i]l[jwing [lifErnrnre ht^twr&n 
the Tarn patois and tliat of Pais> The /of the (ormer always be- 
comeji an aspirated h in the latter. Thn*. /(Mft. woman (Castrcs) is 
Afiitw at Pau: J-^vr^^^ pitchlufk (^Caslrc^^ h^untf (Piiii>; /t*an fonn- 
uin (Cftctreft) i.ivfr (Paii) 

A compariAQD tA this patoitt with the French sft regards the 
spelling of gcoj^phtcal names rcvcaU a (act that would somc' 
what <lani|Nrn ih« ardor of uur fitcnd Colnnel Stiephnid. of New 
Vork> in hi& effort to force the gAzecoers to give geographical namc!t 
AS they are written in the countries where they are found. One 
might have thought that sucli near neighbors a« the Lan^e d*ml tind 
the t^ng[iic d'oc wo»i1d havrrnnic tn somf miirinfll nndpTStanding on 
this poini ami that ihe llc-do-Frnncc wontd have accoE>ted Ihe spoU- 
iag ol LanRUedoc. But not 90. The townn and nvcr« of this part 
of France look n* difletcnl in French awl jwiois printed pR^es and 
«cmnd a< difft-r^ntly when pronouncf^l l>y pdticatrd Qtid pra^ant 
months a% do the to^vn^ and riven^ ol ItaEy when nccn in Italian ^r^d, 
Enffli^h book* or when npokcn by Americans and Italinns. Thu» 
Touloii^D ticcamr TduIoum-: Ca!(tni9i, Cafttrci : DourgnnH, Dmirgne: 
Carcasftotino. Carcai^tonne : Narbouno. Narhonne ; Blllofranco, Ville- 
Iranche : Labaoii. Lavaur : Uibicii^ Vivters ; Boou, Vour; Abrayrou, 
Aveyron ; Cordos, Cordes. etc. 

Ttiese ]Taioi«. these dtalecE^of iheold Lan^ied*oc, are awakening 


lUE klOKIlfr. 

juot noih- iucrc^aing inicrt-M in Ih^ literary circleK ol tJw MtJt, tor i1 is 
only ti'itlim i cccni ycais iIiaI ihc Frtuch has appc^rci) lo tiireaicn (heir 
exiinciion. The ^ipri-Atl i»f t):r." railTOfld *ij;stci)i and c^iprciallj tht- 
wi<le dcvc)<»|>menlof the primary schoo! tiTif*' ihr J*Hvcntci( ihc Third 
Republic, arc dealing deadly bloxv^ tit tlicftc popiiUr diakas- But 
they arc siill Ear from moribiwd. I ha^-c frc^iiLcnily been told ilut 
I'vrn lo-daj, rmc ^nimlil^K now •iml tl«rri rn old jiraMntK livirg up in 
tlic itoUtcd Bbck Mounuin, a spur of ihu C^vcnnet. atnti which 
divides tipper from Lower Lan^icdoc, who cling to ^f, aUhoiiKh 
e^ or tf/iT. or ihc Trench tri/i nnd Si\ nrtr the camtiusi ^iflirnijttivc jnr- 
liclc« of the pntuiH. 

[t lukii olivQ h;Lppeticd lo mc tthen lakicfi a constitutiODol to aide 
my way itcd discover that I am aJUrcvsiing a pcrftoa Who noillicr nn* 
dcrsUTida nur ;»ptf:ihs Frnidi. thtmt^h, as a nilt;, all ptmattiilb umlet- 
^tand French and die vaal ni:^only can vpe:tk the [aci^iiage too. but 
aJter a nithi-r w>rty laehionH A foreigner finds ax knui one coiolcrt 
in «U Odi3^ in Lan^ucdtjc he ascs ihcaatiuaal tuiii^ue mor;; currc-ctly 
ihan thousands of native born Frf^nchiiien E Kor is ihe- knowj^df^^of 
patois confined to the ptai^nntry or the working classes ol ihc lowns- 
Tlic i^Mr^rtrntf. wilh-CJcccc(lin((K' rare txociitfons, ore <\\\\\*: a: home 
(n it^ '^nd tii^ (.hildip^i ul dti* iiolnlily [.jflcii [irttltltr wiUi llu^ii jK'Jisant 
nurcc mori; oAsily in paioift than in tlic polished speech of their par- 
enW. During a poiiiical cankparcn, it i« a very common thing (or a 
would'bc drpiicy to addic^h country voters in their iamtliar dialect, 
therdiy gaininf^ ihr favnr nnt nlnne of x\\^- /eJrhes ; wliiir. during 
this same period of electoral excLtcmcnt, the tocal papers pul^livh al* 
most daily editonalr^ written in patois. In himdredsol rural churches 
tlic short ^ermun alter ciiily ma«K [% priMclied in patuiN tird many ft 
time 1 \yAV^ found uiy»elf inmini^ with HiiT]>Tise when I heard French 
spoken in the streets of Languc'docian towns of coneidc^rablr size- 

Thcrc was a lime vrher the govcrnincnE and the ruJinK cLtMCS 
of LancuciJuL iuclf sUove lo cradicali; the^t^ di^ilecis ai>d lo £ub£tr> 
lule Frpnrh for them. The aim wa« Ji patriotic one greater national 
unity, it was believed, would thus be secured. But thai period ha» 
gone by. and at present there U a strong tendency to presetAe (rom 
destruction these lingidaiic souvenirs of a rapidly fading past, "WIihi 



llic cxtxhuiiAHic /fif^rff wjiild ilo fot Piuvi^3v^, ijit'y ditJ Ihcir dj&cl- 

pte« And imiiatotft in Lan^icdoc would do for the dtnlccu of Souih 

We«lcni France- At th« Congr^t d'P^tiid^^ l^nf^ncdDCicnncs;, held 

recently ilI Moivlpcllicr oricof ihc members proposed that the French 

langiiiiKe s^hould hr lauglil in thc;|)tiiniit>'5^chuolKlhr<»iKl)lbrrnrdi]im 

^hc the langttc d'oc* The £i>gg««tion is not «o chiRieriCiU Jtc it ap< 

^■Hte to be at first Niiftb* Eor otic ot the K'^^t^^t ^i^d never ending 

^^mcuhiesof ihe country schoo]mJl^tc^ in thi« pnri of France is to 

tr>ch Ilia «choUr* ihe rhret- K's by mean* of Ihe French, which is a 

Joreign tongue to mnely-nine o^it of a hundred of them. One i% not 

surprised, therefore, to find that onv of the renolution» pai5cd by 

Uiis saint Cotigrc** Uitcei* up the plan proiajstd tc the paper ju»l rt- 

ferre^t to. and d(.-darp% in favor oi " the iitllinaijon of the Ungue d'oc 

for teachm^ French in the primary schools." 

At a receot vittiuE; t>f the General Council of tJie Bordeaux Uni- 
Llion was passed csllitrg for the creation of a 4:hair of 
;tiag»t^" In explanation of this tcmi. the Gtr^ttJt, 
le leading Bordeaux newspaper, says: "Besides pvin^ in^itructiOTi 
' JO Spani^li. oiiv of the labors of die professor would bi^ lo Ivach our 
Soiilh Wpttpm dijilj'Cis in whfrh thf mn^r impnttani histnriral docu- 
ments of ihiR pan of the country were drawn up diirini;; ^cverAl cen- 
turies." The editor then Roes on to say: "If the Sin Ic doc4 not 
led able lo found this chair, will not some private individual comc 
lonnrd and imitate the rtample of Jamr« E. Qark, who rec(*mly 
established at Worcester, Mau^t ^ umver5it>' endowed with a cap 
i1«] of in. 500.000?" 

S^vsiking of priuuiry schooU rentiiids m« of a cnriouj^ fact which 
[uently altricleJ my attention In Languedoc this winter In 
tnher part of France perhaps was it no common for a town to 
%u^'K up annind x cattle : for this ttr^ion waa terribly harried by the 
WfiTK of Reti^'ion. and tlie poor peasants weie forced to *eek the 
protection ol tome lord. In order to rtndo* them mow impregnahk, 
^^be^e c»t}es were generally built on ttcnne hi|j;h hill. So now one 
^Bte^ on every hand decaying hamlets surrounding niini?<l castles left 
almoftt desetted on the verj' crown ol fioni<> p^TamidAl mount, while 
llie busy town of to-ilay has dc^candcrd to (he more acco^ibk bn&o 

lOa ' THE MONtST. 

of the hill. But since the advent of the Third Republic and the 
grand impetus given to primary instruction, these abandoned castles 
have taken a new lease of life, and been converted into school build- 
ings. The other day during an hour's drive in Upper Languedoc I 
saw two of these old useless feudal piles consecrated to popular 
nineteenth century education. What a train of reflections is thus 
suggested! Within the very same walis where some proud ignorant 
seignior once lorded it over his humble vassals, the descendants of 
these serfs, still speaking the tongue of their oppressed ancestors, 
but enjoying all the liberties then usurped by their masters, are now 
being instructed in branchesof knowledge of which the feudal knight 
had scarcely an inkling- What a revolution was that of ^89! 

THtoDORF, Stanton. 

UttluHv cmtKKKmrrnrsrcK. 




Tl^e ftcit^ce of un(hr<>t'<}|i]gy cbimKp ;i* wc Vnow, in havi- di*- 
icover^^d, that The \anous epoch* oE hklory arc marked noT only by 
charactcTirtic religious, poJiticaU sucinl. and literary conditio nti» but 
not uoficquently aliiu by paUituUr JoTin» of diaciuc; and it is the 
opinion of emiTkt^nt medical unthurilitrH ihal neivouft And inrntal 
diMases con&iitiiLo the -pathoio^icalk^iturv'' ot modero civilis*- 
tioii. ThtSi oE cour»c. Is ooi to be undcniood as meaniuK that 
diflcaaes of l)u!» character have not appeared m pieviuun epochs. 
biH simply tUax ihcy occur with tinQsual frequency at the present 
day and in iinii&tiAlly Kravo iormfi. 

A book itcaiiKg of tlie affijction of the age ought lu ccuiii on a 
IgcHrclR of tcftdifTK, Atid ti will br all the more de*^rving of such if 
thoroagbly and iikilfully tLlfilfi iu piirpoi^e of hclding i^p the mir- 
r 10 the time an^ of impartint; the light and jidvicc rr^uited in 
th]6 diitllcr. Thiff hiTJft bcc:i done in an cxctllcnl maiineT by the 
k of the Bremen alienist Dr. Stuou, entitled />if JJiairfiJt d/s 
Cmw^/j— £iW FMkrfK a« praktuek^y Lthe^tSTi^eishtity \vhich has just 
appeared in its second aikI cniargcJ edition. LcipKic, E- H^ Mayer. 
Thi* tHMik ]« distinynbhed from the m^ijoriiy of vimibiT recent piib- 
I Itcationv intended ior a greater prjblic by its reUtive iJ^oroDt^hncss. 
^^bt must be churactertsed as thorough and comprehcnsivuT also, in 
^^^ com pari 9C>n with the older and int^re belebiatcd wurk, which il» title 
^^ at once suneeHtv pEi.iCHiEa^LKHE\S Didittib ifer Sf//e. The thar- 
^^ftct^roltbe book is not ''purely psychological/' cverlooking the 
f hi^h importance of (he influence of the body, as wns the cast with 
I Beneke ; uur Jueb it Ie±in tou'uid:^ the*itii|^ cif fi Ht'iEiiotli and 
L ]d«rl«r; no j doe? i he author ireat liis subject from an excIusivHy 
' medical point of view : the work» in Uct, ie anthropological in ch^r- 
•cccn Its content* posM^n chieiiy in (wo respects Ktcat interest : 
4) from a universal human point of view, in thai it affords us a 


gla.nce into the awftil abys^^^ ol life, in the company of an e^xpcrt 
guide who tells us how these depths ate to be avoided, or at last 
givc» cunsolulirm to tho:ic whoM; vray leads iieee^anl> tlitoiish 
them : and (2) from a pedafcogica] poinl c^f view, in thai il directs 
Attention to the heredity' oi th(; rnorbid confilitutions and abnormal 
itic9 thnt oppofit^ obstacles to education or may become nach If im- 
jjro|jerly lituttd- 

It i$ ot>viou« that morbid mental diKj^otidoni^ miut be ralceti 
into account in all work of education and instruction, if wc wi»h to 
avoid an ct^tc^iuu^ violation of the univcr^iiily KCOf;ni>ed icquirc 
mem tu re^^rd irdividiuilily. And (rom this point oi view the book 
ol Du ScholB will awaken in readers who hav« anything fo do 4t all 
with education^ ihc dtsire to Icaro more about the nature of morbid 
mental life iu tht- youui< than h ^iit'seiUed iu this lieatlsit: dchtiiied 
for a large public^ 

SucJi a wiab would have had to rcmam unsatiahod aix yoare ago. 
when the Distfii^ tfrs Gmia first uppearetln Jl is Iiuch Engli^li 
physicians pflrticidflrly. like Wir^L Conolly, Maiwlsley, and othert, 
had A long timrr previously directed fltiontiori to cha inorl>id ph«' 
nomcna ol inlf^nt pt^ychic life, but their wor]<, hkc thai of ihcir 
French and German piofessJoual aasociales, licb bmrcd In nirdicil 
magazines and volumes not GA«]ly accessLblc^ The fiffit to apply 
himaclf lo the work needed in this condition of JlHairswas Prof^aaor 
EMMisr.iiAU^, who digested rtrd cullected ail the mfttcrinl, tliua 5u[h 
plirJ, ill ;i compendious work bearing ihctirlr /?j>/K^fA^/A^* JJA 
rtingtn tffs Ximtftaders, Tubingen, Laupp, 18R7. The fact ind«wd 
is not to he left iinrecof^ni^cd that the hool(. irk ao f^r as it may be 
[iscd by those who h-ivc not hjid a niedjcal training, possesses two de- 
fect*. — tiefect*, however, for whirh the author cannot be cen«ured- 
In the liiat place, it is intended for phyi;Lcmnfi only^ and \t, iherelofe, 
on account of the many technical ccrms if u^^c^, at times not unl- 
formty inltllijiiblt?- Tu the serious student, however, who pnsKr*iws 
the previouis psychological and phy^iologicaj knowledge mo&C india^ 
pensable, it presents no difficnltiefi of too great magnitude. The 
second defect likewise spring* from the purpose of the work- ll 
consists la the fact that, cxceplinf^- a few occnsional referenccfl and 

UTGhARV <:uii»ii:spovtiCKC&> 


^Hpdntt, the pedagogical aspect ol the quctition ts not consjciered- Fcd- 
ftj^ocints. litte, Aie ccinfrwilcd with n ptoblem whicb muat be iloIvoc!, 
and of which ihr soliitton will cvrt.'\]rly not hf vl lhair\\i.\e^-i la^k. 
Tlip writer oi these lioes his approjdwtl one aspect taf Chitt^iuvittioo 
in a iFcatUe ol bis entitled Nfrt^Hl^l vtJ J/A/c^trwrzU^anjCt WioS' 

^Bfaulen. 189U, EH ihc caiirite of w!ilcli vtuily be Uah arrived at ihe 

^^KenvKtion thai an imporlanT factor t^ lai-kinK i^ nrodern peilAgogics 

^Knd thv training ol teachers. 'li\t^ conviction he hnu put into wordft 
ID uioCher trcatlsMr, Gfuifjsfvru^gm in JrrSc^tiU, WiGhbadon. 1891, 

^^Mth wtiKl liucceas it n^niaim fur ihe [uture 10 «ay. 

^^ Tvo yearft aft«r th<^ appcar:inceot Enimirighaus's work s tt&iii- 

UtioD m-fta published to Ocnnftny of a French book oJ a similar 

character. Dtr irr^imt im Kin^tsoUer, by Dt, pAUL MOREJhU, 

aut)kOri«^ «diCioii by Dr D^m^trio Galatii, SttiitgArt, 1889, Fer- 

drnsfid En^c, publif^her- Unlortun^icly. MorcAu, &s his own ptct- 

ace reveals, did not know, nhcu he wrote bia book, ol tlic c^iHtcucc 

of the Gi.*fmaik work, — a circiiniMancu ibatha^ not tirtii without n^ 

^«tcabl« conftei|Uciica4. T&ksn in conjunction wah [ho woik of 

CmminiEhaus. however. Morc^ou's book poj»scMC!i, on account of tb« 

Dtimc-ioiis iiiorbitl case.-?) it ^ivcs. a bigli valuta : iiUlioiigh it cannot 

Iwar romparlson uith the Iormt<r work in richness of malarial And 

lamiliArity with the LiletAtuf e ol the subject, and much lests ao in the 

4»y^h«loKical Ircatincat of tho subjccl. where Emtninghau» is in- 

COViparahly subtler and more profmind^ 

A 1r»tise thai is closeJy related, in point of subject matteri on 
ihc one haiiul 10 the works of Emminghius and Morcau, aiid on the 
either to the books lA Vnsyvi {DU S^^/t ifa Kinrits) iAti^\ Peiei </-« 

I ^wMi fr^mt>m ittfwvf iif /Vji/ifirf and Vtn/attl Jt ireii a te/: tins) on 
Yhe <1«v clop men t ol childrcui has junt boco publi?ih^ by u Lctpsic 

, X Cflcher under the lUle of Dk Perii^itiiSt m drr EnU^uktiaitg dtr 

^^rr^ehtiKj:, hy Gvstav SiCGEkTt Ltnpsic, rK9i, H. VoiRtlandcr. The 
author endeavors, ma very inlcresting m*inncr wc muM Admit, to 
^how ihai, in the development of the child, latling ttarvi; in rt.-gu]ar 
alternate succp^or occur of mtrntal and phj-tica! buoyancy on th« 

one hand ^nd depression on the otJicr, of moral cxnltntion, likewise, 


aad moral tubtinlcnoc, Th« Eundameatal causae jol thi* periodical '^ 
aiternation, ol the general existence of which nijmrrcii& proofs arc 
ailtlucetl. f* supposed to lie m th*^ ;ijt!^riinft' i^tFengEhrning flmi re* 
JaxaiiOD ot the iadividual's forces of action, brouifht on by the ox- 
pcndxturv and reproduction of energy; additionat dmcrminAtive 
cdUHtN acLclerative as weTl m* ret^inbtory, miit fmind in intcictmrsv 
yj'uh the world anti wilh other buman beings. We may call the 
former the indhidual and the latter the socinl cause of the phenom* 
cna oi penudiclty. En the applicalion of his icsult» to juvenile 
i?duc;ilion iht? ;iuthc3r amves .i| some F^r-reuchtng pTopositiwia of 
reform, the considcralion of which, however, we thaH have to leave 
to the pedagogical prcsx^ 

We vhiill have tii preserve the same attltmle with rei;ard to a 
new work of the well-kcown Lev}>sic professor Dr Sthcupell — 
Dk pa,fi)!^giscfi^ J^atMi/gU ffi/^r dU Lchrf Vi^tt tfcrr FehUrn dtt Kt*td^r^ 
Lcipaic, i8go, Vcrlag von Geotg Bi'Jhinc Nathfolger. We must re- 
fer here to This otherwise hij^hiy deserving liook only in one respect, 
where we have occasion for censure. The author doe$ not in his 
exposition* sufficiently take account of the intimate connection be- 
tween physical iiml ineiiLal pliemniienit, and the cotiM:(pieiM,e %ji tliia 
\% among other things that he exciuJes pathological menial condi- 
tions {the physical cau^9 of which ho jb forced to admit) afi a mat- 
ter of principle from the pcdajjo^Ii: system and cunsigns them en- 
ttrely into the diar^r of tlie physician, in uur treame mentioned 
we have explained why this is not allowable, fis well ae, in cdditioa, 
wh&t portion of duty devolves on Ehc teacher in the consideraijon 
of l|]C^epatho1uu;iLd]nie(italcv;Ltdil!cjiib. SEriLmt>el''s aLi^takesprine^ 
from the fact that he conceives with Herbari the essential object of 
education to be intellectual culture. Allowinf; that Kerbart cannot 
be taken to ta&k for entertaining this conception, wc may yet d&- 
niand gf Sirumpel! the recognition of the tc^uIis of recent phyiiio- 
logical p^yehoingy to the extent at least of perceiving' thai ptychicaj 
;incl physical phcnomenn arc r?iv if not the samt. Hvcn the oppo< 
nentsof Monism dare not overlook this truth, — a truth moreover 
that admits very well of reconciliation with the Herbartian plural- 
ism to which Strumpell is devoted. 

t.tTKltARV eOR&tfiP<>NDlvNrC. 


\V« might die here numerous pathciogtcal conditions of miad 
thai very plainly spring from ph)-aical causes and to which the in- 
structor has lo give attention just as much as Ehcr phybician. [n- 
fit«ad, however, ol citing paniculsr cae«, wf will refer to ihree lic- 
tUs troaliees ihat are in ihc hichost doKroo inMructive on this poinCi 
Dot only foi [cachcib CKcludivdy baE also for all who have to do 
with ehfldren. Or Maximiiuv Rhk^^fv, uppoinlist in rfi'*ofls/»s of 
lh« float and throat at Frankfon on <h« Main, has pubJi&hod ai the 
house of Leopold Vosa in Hamhuri; (it^) a brochure entitled 

rti^Miifhti^ttg jf^r t/tjrttvi hfrv4trgfhfn>i^u Gf^^fhititU' and G^i^ift- 
ssknf^ike. A treatise of IJkc characccr is thai of Dr. mcd. Li:h£' 
MAKX of Duisburif. enEiiJcd Ut^fir dtn ukUdiuhen Einfiuss ilrt Mm~ 
^r/zir yatfttatlimiing nu/itir kSrpertUh^ untfgtixfigf KntttrieMuBg tf^.r 
JCm^tf Bickiddr \^^^ Anders Vcrla^H Both trcntiscs coninm, 
aiDOOtr otiicr things rot to be considered here, insEructivc exatnploa 
of ihc rise and disappearaNC^- tif that ninrhid mvTttal cnndliioii to 
which Hack fir et dirtcicd notic« in Germany but which «lftcwhcra 
became known through tbe researches of the Dutch physiciori Guyc 
by the nunic of Afrviesia wisu/ij. The ihiid Irciilisc is by Dr, med. 
Rai» WirciiUAVK, Jip«^ciahst for nc^TVoiisdtf^rnftcft al Bnintifl/ick, and 
ticarK U^c ttCLe Sinie u'j^ffia'^Hff V^ifstniti^fitfemif tts IVM^d, t.elp«ie, 
1890. Veriag Ton Gcorg Thicme. By St. Vilua's dince (Get. PaO' 

C/4tftfl) we iindersiAnd ihe disease of whJch the well-known symptom* 
mnt involuntary mu«,cular iwitchings usuftlly accompanied by severe 
or Jifcht psychical disturbance^ known in medicine by the name of 
cAiVfw mintir and *Attf f*i rAuAmiia, and somelimcs occurring in epi- 
^emica. At the school in Wildhjid the ntiinh*?r tii the nfHicrtd chil- 
dren rose in Ihc course ot lime to twenty- six. Wicchmann expat jatca 
•t leni^ in his book on the character of the contagion, and arrives 
thmuish an exbuuslivr tifie of t)ic? cjiisting lilenitui« on t)ie aubject at 
the reauk. that there wa* present in the indivxlual children attacked 
stibfltantiaUy a pbysicitl predisposttion, an un^i^iMe nervous system. 
A» tlie first childrci: attacked wcie not removed, the convulsi\e mo- 
tions victe scon and pcTtepiually taken up by ihe other cliildren^ 
who were jiist npproachmg the period of piiheriy snd labored under 

THE MOfffSr 

hcncdiinry prcdifpo^ilion*. "Once xhcsc images had entered per- 
cppm-iUy inia the iinvliibk bfain< t)iey l^ccamc tompptrni to operate 
OS stimuli and to be tratii&Juted into involuntary muscular motions 
The co:iclu»Loii of my letter may be taken up with the di»cu 
nioii ol A ttcatiae that deMrrvea a nomewhal mute detailed coo>iden 
tion Tlie director of ihe RoyAl Wfint^inbergian Sute En«ane Asylum 
jt Zwielaltc-n, Ur- t''- L- A' KocH, who niroatiy posftcsfte^ eminvnt 
repute in the domain of pnydiiatr)-. haa ju^t piiL^Uahed the (ir&t part 
ol a new work called Dif fiiyckffptirfiuthfii Min^truYrttgkfittn — ^rsfe. 

Mn^rrrr^r/ij^M/i'rt^ KAV^ni>biir>{, if*9U Vorlag von Otto Maicr. In 
this wotk the auihoi L-Atcuds the devclopmcut of Urc ideas \n; stuin« 
tim*- previously Oiiilined in his RuttimrBifi 0/ J^ehiatry, setond «!i* 
lioa, 1869. In the expression '^pftychopathi^chc Minderwcrtigkoiten'* 
(psychopAlhical secondary fnctor^) Koch emhrAccs nil those p^y- 
chrcal Jiie^ularttlt-:^, 1>c they iifituial or Aciiiiticd, ^flcciing ihe life of 
the human per^finality, which (hoii^h in th<^ ■il^ve^le£t ca<«« ev«n not 
amounting; to actual mental disorders, yet in the most favorablft ia 
StnnecA 1^0 adeci. the persorL^ afHjcted with them thai they appear ad 
larkmjf the fidl possessiun nf mtrin;;! ronnaliiy ^nd rapaoiiy, Pri- 
marily, of course, the treatise is intended for phyfiictans, and tha 
author counts on the crntitude of this profession in so l^r as he ha» 
undertaken to put in independent fcirm the sc|iarate facts formerly 
scattered over the whole domain of psychiatry, to free them froni. 
other ncuTo an<l psyche pathological subjects, and to unite them 
into one apecial i^roup o{ pathological states, Uut the author aUo 
counts on Ins hiMik bein^ used by the fo|Jrtseritntivca of niher pro* 
fesiioMi. by pastors, Uilors, teachers, juiists. sociologists* hisioriana, 
and the like, and indcL^d with pedcci justice. 

The aavets of souls, if they had mastered Lo a sligJit degieo- 
evtn the comprelicnsion of the psychopatliJcaJ sccondarj" factors, 
woiilj be astonirJied to sec Iiow many people there arc in the case 
of whom medicine la more effective against "^pirituaJ " vexationft 
than pantural advice, and thaE often such advice^ tieinu out^^uided 
and fttarting from faUe a»uniptLOn^ does harm only* They would 
aee in the peculiarity of rhe rehgious needs and tribulations ol TUAixy 



Lrr>r,HAKr U)KN|{!»Ht?dl>K3«C-^. 


A TUJiQ ■ p^ychopathnto^irA] fthftormnliiy ; thry woiilil ccnnr lo un* 
doffitand how th^ oihctfwif^c iinintcllisil^Ic lKidn«« dl mfuiy afiothvr 
ha» its »ourcc in « patliotORicnl bn^i^ , ihcy wouki not rccnrd kXid 
liuil as AhsoluicTy goocl, nit>n;ovrr, ninrty *'Kood iinpiiliiev" ; — «!1 
tM& ihey wouM fiml out IE ihny had l(»imc<! to noxc ami coinprohcrul 
what ihc import is of such persons hc'mf^ dc^cndc<l Irom neurotic 
ancestors* of ihcjr exhibiting ixilp^iblc indicoiions of dcKciicraltoii, 
Jind hftving aNo fx^bsipa inii;inc. idiniio, wbim^iral, and rpikpcicsiE 
brother* and sinners- Th^y would lurihermorc perloclly compw- 
bead, tliAt in the case of people wbo itrc dcaccndod from healthy 
ponmis, bui who froin bctng in times past happy and joyiul CTirfs' 
iiAn&ar«aow«tnigebnR with diKtraciiorvsof «oiib it wurooft«R batter 
\\i^\ EO intfuirc after the state of their orRflna of digestion. And tllcy 
%vo«Ud Ik able to dca} ittiitc diHcrently from formerly willi inaiiy & 
aoul •rtruited to th^ir care, prrbapi ft!«n morr easily lo conqiipr or 
nt loa«»t 10 endure, some secret btjrden of their owr Jivos, The im- 
port of tlic book lor the educator i» easily inferrible from Uie remarks 
n]Ad«. Por (hp jnri^^r, who hnfi to dr-al Wfiih ihe problems n( »c- 
couBtability and Itw adminiater^Dg of punish ni en 1, iti importancis it 
rnanifcst' Sociology, 100, the deeper it enters into its problctna. 
will not be able to dl^^iH-ri^r with p^ycbcpniboloKy, am) in thts f^eld 
ii taprtcifi^ly ihc psycho path ical f^ceondary IacIots that eminently 
deiruand attention. In that which eoncerna iU connection with hit- 
tory wc nrcd only mention the namca of Lombroso, Bniiiiiiiiichaua 
{Atifftiuivr i^tyihapaiM^g-if \ and MObitis (jfiwf/rjjwj AVrfwi/z/'/z^v- 
sikifkif), to point otit ihc impoMfinec of a work Ithc- that l>efor« uftt 
Wg rceorontcnd it vritbout reserve to all whom it touches. 

Alienburc, July, 1891. 

Cult Ufkb. 


SOME debts there are that make the debtor proud ; 
So ours to him, who could philosophise 
With common -sense, and swocp from starry skies 
The brain-spun webs that darken like a cloud. 

We loved him, for his highest thoughts avowed 
Our own akin and less than ours allies; 
Born of the common soil but born to rise 

And light the labor of the laurel -browed. 

Justice he traced to truth; morality^ 

Back to the brutish primal needs of man ; 
And stood himself for aU the best might be. 

He wrought in words, a faithful artisan; 
And lived to shame their loutish mockery 

Whose virtue ended where his own began. 

Louis Belrose, Jr. 




Ottlio, adi-jucra in uaouf k« m«iil nmtibvtitlVu] vi, 15) 1I10 f □IJdwIue propo- 
aJlioQ coooenribiE Cb« or^ia of ib« form» uf ihouKhl; *' JUI ilte foimi of ibuiitrlii 
fiBvr cniciiuln] in the ilniRslB ^ot ll'Eo nol othcrw lac than ihe forma of orj^Aiibm*-" 
ThU ki tonher uploUttd in IhefcJlotfiik^ wDi«iic« '. " ThoBO coi&ccptiocii which tre 
called « priffTi. ktt tahcricot: ilicy b«va h«eA ne^nuAhty uaed by ihff prfm&rivw 
ifclnUnf OTKUilfoii uid ore pr^w in ibdr {fikpruiilnn imniodijiicly prvhoiil Vke i1]p>' 
karc liceu iptiiiH! by irxjwiic^ice WULrfui tiJiy kiit/wlo]^ lor iimuucKi *>i bijuct' 
Apd tinic so »etk» ED poMibIc - Kconlinitly ihclr coDCtption la pcrhapn ihv oLdv»t 
and lh*r«Ccr* it sppnw apnonatio " 


Wc igToe with Dr. PoIi>a^^ thai Ihousbl-ft^rizife K'r^w fiAlunll^ and tbftt tta«y 
|fK3v vueh M ihtyarf. ol naobAJTy In mirnftinidn formal thought, wiih ilK lO^CJill*! 
t/ firif/i IhnorvmL U rtnrivMl frnm llw Ihrmghr-fnrm* bj ■lH(raf:linn {S** " Fun- 
dftmntil Pru^bliriiu " p|> iiV-60. Lh* cli;f|iir'r Fvrm 4]iil Formal Thou^hil If if tiid 
b>tapo«abUforqEh«>fihouiEhHoTm>tohiiL'*cifi(:i(wijgdtogtthcf ^itbthowwhicb Ht 
pa«M*>«iiprBMnt, tibd i\ may bi^ paraa|he1ic«lly twnarVed ibLi wt-do oot conndcr il 
M pOHJbl*: but '/il l)iid bv*n poHibl*. ue do nol deny ihat all iho other ihou^ht- 
tarmi *cmld have goop to thtf wall. I^*y wnild hJiv« perlbbed in Ihs vEruKglp fiV 
dimeco ftnd c3ur [Tietcni ihouirhE'CornifcfitnncviiuliI TiJtvRMurHvAl In Ihin we Hir^Olt 
villi Dr. I^Jt<mic, and m OAtunluL ai*j be MtiBfJcii wilh ihis ^Url^intuL bcwiw il 
■nffita forr hit [jiirpoKs- The rBcoK"'*^ov 0' t^c objecli^'c isHdity of tlie Iaw* <4 
fonul thddjtht it ill thml tlw flpteialivt u-ml* frjr thit irr ihnl brnnch of nciwtic*' 
Bai <hit nrAfnitipr it noi i|iiHirLi?n[ fr>r th«r pbiliwoplior H** hav (a ncitln^iand ih'* 
fireblcn ttby the* tubjoctkvo !>■* cd purity fann«1 itioiishl poMni an nbv^uiir Jind 
■n cb)«:titv laltdilf Ua die vdtM of real miiii^iicc^- He muii undersimiil not oalr 
hen ihc«iEtii'Jorfq»CTi|;iiui«<l. but aIkj iAh> lad un whmt K'^^nd the Iavi of (armnl 
IboQH^t tf* CAnudvred AJi nacffuary mJ univvm] IniCbi^ T be question of Lfatir 


•IHK M(tyi»l. 

iiiifjr »m\ fjovfth n of tncumlHry iniporunctf coa^iuird wJlh ibrqunriJi^ dT lli«tr 

lickljir and iipTtc-iii> 

Mr I-Icrbctt Spencer bAn mrde ihc ume prL>piHJiJi:iD ai Dr. Pctoni^ aiHd U^ 

iTlviduAl, bill '1 fi-sf'iian to the nm '' tn cthrr wor^J^ aprioriiy rniitl tvnpUln^ 
by horeillty A clojj; Nlfinat COLint b«Aii4A none M hit anrcAiurt bAi« cvbt oaunicd. 
tul a chthi hm t\\tj fMbtjIty tu Icatd ivurtiiui; Lvuium: J-nniiiDcrHblff Jiutaton of lu9 
hnvc e^iiDrc^ atifl bli t^run poMOMW ft prcditpntitjnn to EcArncfxmtinjc ciuil^. Cod- 
Cfmine i>ur 4ppf vhcndon d v^ev-nlMiiont which vnprwivnl » natb^mniic:!! tb»o- 
nnt *ppe«[' i-^ »< nMtitary uad arft callvd «t frit^i. Mr, Spvac*! uf» : 

cnirr TPlaLicniiHX ihrvdimbV^nrvTcpri tie iritdn nm t<n ELt th"]]]. lommihn hJinFirjiai^lan 
«•(■»■'* bftiitl. ti'Miiruciod tc •■ItiMrit^ \}y b^ikiliUKiliP r-iiKin* Iji««r»;<, toii^lvM ■nartifvl harila 
mliJcb linvB iliub HZriiiiRl.fd'l luipltci vtjtvl-i latLt «iiyiicruiiituiivbat]iLik ckAi4>e>l byibU In- 
f«fli(i>« hBArl Hhnrt H ikfltVHtnfK^, ta thKYirlaniiam^i^Mifna nuinf th#mt«nl fai «pprafiBn«lnn ef 
*|i*et T*l*ii»it<4 irii|)lT lUfb ■pff4hBn«l»itt in ih* paai T>y Ik Anii**i4r* «Dd ^n iha faiar* by ■■ 

Man'H flbJIicy to lenrn cpuniin$ u inhoritod, nnd tborc nay be mnra oi !««• of 
il ia dittrfpnE propip. Mith^naiical tal^ni it inti*ni*<tl jntf uk murb si mtuical 
»Ienr or nrhpr fafuliiu. But ibr pbiJonophic^l iiiniion concrfninR ih^ npnodty 
of maitwmaiScflJ iheorem* hai noihinK wbitt^vr lo do wirh ihc oriRici of fnnthr^ 
mAlLcd Uknt- Wbca Me, ^jcikci ilci:JaicA ih^i ui^riorllv U bul ^n Lnbcfited 
HpoKt-rlonty, tbb II cquivakai \xaA is imaadcil tu be equivAlcnf u ao aclual denial 
of nil apncrily. Hit vvry utplnnAtian provn tbai hv tl«M not tai; (h« real prol>J«in. 
jtnd m (h« Drn* u-iy 1>r I^fomi^ dvarlnokH ii nntiri^ly. Tb* phikubipbieU |iTr4i]iHn 
of ibi? apriority i* rwi an bi^iiorirfll prtib|*»m. It (■^nioi hP dolvtrt hy iracinie ih^ 
ttvgLuUga vf thouebt^Woin. The pbilowpber doci uot ath how dJd ihuuiEbl'furnii 
orifEiDALf. bui wtiy do we altnbutc io the IJk^\-l of formal tboufibt n«c«uly amd oai' 
vK«llly and on ^vhai ground cnn »t jusiity wuf oMumpiion * 

Mr, SpvncBT cocttpam our upprthM&ioQ d apoce-retatiolU la L>ur iDhftrittd 
hliMt trt v,t!ii^ wiTb our hHm^* iMvl rn *nlk ^{ih tmr Uri Thx*^ riimrMrlinn ts 
RilAl<Ai1ii)|( Mild mHp|iTii|m»t^ That viy. ^raxp ujtli f^ut liurid* unci vnlk wjib our 
f«cl in indiUolal Tb^rc «n? unJRiaU who havn dvTobpvd otbor bmba Ibr ibc 
Mcoe porpoH*. Tbdrc Arc mcinkoys who jEraAp Micb Ibtir (qUi an-1 thr- olvpbam 
aracpc with faii roav Tb*r« it ng uwHtity aad no univcruliiy m oijr prcdnptHt- 
iiortor grnfipln^ wjvh mr badda Ti-f thfrf* rsidn n»«tuy and luUwriatity in 
ihn l«wft nl formal ihoiiRhr v» thai wK^rfrvRr ATiimnK dflvat^p raiioni4l rbc^nifht ir« 
^iciiLirt: ttiflt u> tbrtii iviluc tvtv will Mlw7y^ «quA] {qut lUfrt at raucb <u ildos ip ul 
Kowvvor IbiTy ma^ be d^fkrcnl in ^hcr T«vpccu : iber rnty be utinftvd croftLorv^ w 
ni«ybv •oroevirTint like oar ^rv\f. lU«y mitrbnvcdflvflloppfloihcrbodiJy ilniciorM ihan 
WT can [lr>aiii or.natKnh*lf<u th^rr anihmvi>c. ibfriT loaic.and ih«ir mathoiBaiioivill 
m nil ««arDilal«be viacily lbp«ni«Ltnim Th«rcftreaniriitlt whou thnuifht-loniu 


invcvse loncsL 


«ie vol ju bnthlr dtivlo^ivtj iw io irhr. l^ai ihere «ic im inisab in wbucn tbt> iir« 

mlidoal croanraa eaa br touod whijtt n-aun diOon Etcri oun To tbam *tao twice 
tVftt will b« four 


Kuki dtd not cftU Hie lornaJ Jb«* <i ^tfff Ln urtlar to cbaraL-lvriw lb«cn ^n in< 
njim iflK)^ buv Ktrnply Ui rfrnorr lh>I fhffir validll^ U nKTHtUT^ niul nniviTu] If 1 
have » Bklk iwicradirtinntr iif iwu miln, I kaaw " bvCotr-hufhl ^ li. p d/rr>rfi tl^^c i 
ifaaD fawn Xq witlk ^lU mJIfv^^^mo li«faw I bare (n«da tba nctaal «ip»tieiic«. AnJ 
lhi> vond«rfuT qualLijr<J Etvtnji iaf^rmiiioo Wc>rffbiin<d i» ctiiracicnxic ul aII tlto 
Uw« ol ff-rm^ though!. i| is cartMD thai our «btliiy ot appl>int; Ibe lawi of foroifll 
IhoUgbt hfiit t»cn ttCt\UkTed by pvpefterm m ihe rjtcc as u«I| aa in Iti* indivittud. 
Bol tlieir nnrAHtfy hnMnda with tiprrirnce In u> lor *inl3 « it* rftcugniiinn it (hi* 
ImSitpcdqaMfr ^cmilitiLJii of .^Ll iiiriEicHliuJ c!i|iciiciiiT — j c ul kcirni*. Thr tawi cf 
loroal ibcujE^I md oui rf^coiinition of Ihr^ir ncc«mlyiiad nnivnruljt) ulJim, "ipfi- 
Miey 't u« lb* orjean i>f nny ami al] tcivuitific ccjjniiion. Tbc mvlhods o\ ih^ 
■C M^Cf uv *uct ntaturioj: met rouniinK b&iod apod Ibr- Icutb llial tb» Jauvi <4' 
mnannnir ind n^uniint are unaltprabfr iiifl UTLfailltiKTy rchiibk. We knou bnfore. 
b«nd U»i ibey will boM k^xx^ f^i ^^1' [xmiblc i:>uu- 

Oui npalecitccd EiiillcuniuEiih kulHtr* 1^ pjwc ibrit tlic Unin uf (uinml tbcjuiEht 
tlftee wilb (be Iaw> of ncluitl aUtencv, aatl Kent's vbw to cotaidvT fbcm ■> mnrel/ 
■abJactiVH %nd nM objaeti^* Appcttn to nn uatvciiblv W« mar furly a>iuitlQr 
Cftni n uibjMTfvtMin u a thing nt Ih* paijit And lli«i agrMmvnt rrf thfi fnririK of 
cti|iClHi<7 »iib tbr formn rtt ntb}nt'n-\ty n ra»i(j ■•tfilsiTtittd whan *e braf in mind 
tbat iha ibldldaK subjiTCi in a ^tt »f ibc <jbirtu%t] ucrld I; ia but xutiunl Uiac tlic 
fonu 9< nuicnc* arvimproBtd apoo tbo ibloklniE >ubj«ct ^^ fomucl ibouf^bL 

Yei ihe 4]Lie«lioi) of ihr necTHKir; AAd uni^vnality of t1i« huwof form f«mA]iu, 
Can ue compifaend why ih^ It^m ol objHiive rvatiTy ac welt u o( njbjectiv* 
iboufbt ttavA be tncb sis tbcy are, and mtabi tbey nor ju*: an veil be dlllercDi 9 u 
ihik <|Ur9iLiidi lo^iiirujili; 4iid cue it be aiitMvicJ? Wc »*)? Yo^ the iiuoljun ik iei[ili< 
caAU Hsi citn Itc iintw«ndr 

AS Itw IflMii of fcrmal thought nre product* of thoughl-opuratiomi vbich ar# 
fcMftI Oft no (tibfrr phnnpln [ban that n1 EdmitTly l-Y^ -f) At ■mn ah rhinking 
b«#iigi hava d«vrkiprfl to thai i1«irTt!« of ibnoicbi-jibiliiT in which tjii^y arr ablv ia 
4aaJ with ik« Hbmiaci itlca ol pur« forat, thay cut maVv amnuuctjona cd pure 
lonv%, So lon^ as ihcK coaslnictiOAi of pgre forms nfO made CQiuiaicaily uiil 
coneotlr |L o> ih atrkl agrccraent wjtb [he prlncipJe of idoMtty). they wtU be lonod 
la bold gowl to n)hiy and we cftc it /nvj-^^belore w* have made Fhr actual ev' 
pBriwca fly ob Ihtlr appheaMlily 

Tb« lB«t cd pun lurnu (foiinh of thousht a» h«I1 u forma ol ealitcncc) can 
aatiBfacicrily b* pvo^vd lu aftyunc whu ackoo^kdita (be prlottplc ol idcnitty. Tho 


nit MOKIfl'. 

priDcipU of idimlily ii aoi Mi momf^lina but it iB Ih* guntntiimA itAuai*ni d tb« 
iijfnpl»( ilmtii^hl-opnTiitinn. ^^-h■fyl if ttni^lovprl wiih rviniiKi'oc)', can f«rvv at a ral« 
lor olbpT ami (xinrc ctimpW Eliniji[h["Op-raHon! Cnji5i«rrc>i it the fOoditMin rd 
ihoatht. ContMcDGy producca ordvr. atvi wdu L» tbe moai cbniiicteTUtlc ieoturecf 
tbouKht- Wecrmtcmmcpflr* lottn Id 9oinc6e6&lie wvay. i« iofltAOCC in countioic *b 
pcail 4 udU (wc o&IHl ' anc") Now uo crtdic La ihc some dcAniM wuj o^Aia « 
pun lonn, w« a^iUn poirf a iiQiU** *g«tti (Ul 11 '-Ofl«")- ta to Eu at Iba** two 
' rtftr* " *rf ihi- prtvliifT of th* um* operaiinn ihey wiU lie thr i*fr*' Jifii u* «xprA« 

Wh^. for Iba ukp ol Anaitmnoc in the pnji:4!M 4>r Abviijict thmi^t, iv« e»o ftad 
objcCM to rapi«HKil o(ir pure forms, niniiLurly ru «o :i!jAL:ut m tmplnvad i-yr noaJsl- 
ing lit* 3^aD([iaind r^f a chilrl i» Ibirnin^ Bnlhtm^Mc. th^diitimiliniy nE (ti^ abj««ci 
Li nf nn afcoum Tin- pmpoBUion of Chpir Mr^nm/ hi-i no rHemicp w Itn- maifral 
nbftTf Ifi bui ic Ehc opt-TTitiun Tud a^vrjiliotis ii^ng MXHtrAiti^ xo some ii>eckl Jtad 
dirtlmts QicUiud euCllv llie mcie, ihdr producisaic also r*actly ihe ume, 4Q<I (lie 
rvAt ii not |x> bo miadod, twcaiHP va have iia our nbAmctioii purpoacly oftcludoJ 
ovvrj'thinri o[*t 

H*rf< iA not thft pliWA \Q thaw tha pjilpANo DdvAniaQot of tb« rrltfthndftAt mt> 
fitrnri Thnunbi iml utpwiAlIy <jf tbr jtbhCfiici Ihiiui^hl'dpfinukim wilb pufr form* 
It li su^cirdt lu clutatlcriic iL« uiHm principle vt ^mccdiisr Wc loay 4Im> pat' 
aniheti»U> rvmvik tbat from cui pi^niiion we irn no IfuiifCT in nec«i of «wom«oitbv 
^ fnatb(^mari» or lii any^ n(h>^ lorrDJil ^cmnr*. Thv cIaia of Eoimtal vcitQCM m 
O^riJiin menljil opfrMinrv vin pmitint- pun- lormt, nml roEnbniinie «<pqrt»m|^ and 
raconiblnttiK them Tbv sobjcci mattor of forttiiil ic[eDCtB cotiiltis Iti the pmrhXM 
of these lippfitioni To (iwmiiUic iomt cl Jjc urapiltti jiroducia m «ickiin* It ■ 
oitftUkc ^A^jcb bu bci?n poiniE^J uui by Humknn GrbstnAnii in hi» .^wjc^^vwi^i- 

Wp nr« struck Lnd o^'i-ri^wiHl svHh <h« cfninjc orrfvt »1 Alt narurfl p4*nom*nft 
vrhirh. :ih ^innrw l«kch^ k proliin^rl Ehrniii^h the rt|;i>1i1y nf thrt rfirRiil Uuv nf 
euitericv^ Tli« planvlsry 4y«l«ni «iib tin rojeul«rJty vl tnotkrii whieb lA «pllv of 
ill miiny cc<iiiplTcatJoi3B ha» b«on £oraulat«d byKopkrin rimi tinpio Uw3 tiaa 
object o( wundur ti> ui. ThUoTdorof natur»ia ihr «ain« ordor u tli«fTuid hnr- 
mgay ihai prtvail* in RMtbomatics and all the iMhtr f ormaJ icivncM, Tb* moAt 
Cfimph^ied lAWt id boih. fcrmi ol natirrp and lormKof ihnuKhT arc noil^tn^E boT 
gcniTriiUuiEoni of ipccLiI apptLcjillouft of ibc principle of idi^ntiiy iil u:imv kiiui of 
ittliou thHl (*kei pU(c. Whili: liic finW uf tbc oUjccLive wcirkl ocilca ouf wlki- 
drr wc cjkn midvrslEiiii.1 Ihc Ardcr of lb« 9ubi»ftive w^rld nf tbuu^ltt-fcvna n&d 
knnw tbai, bt^n^ ibe product c4 cerium dicqE^I optraiiotis icroTding li> ttiB pricetpl* 
of idnnmy ii rnuM bv n rrsIttT r)f i^ournv Tlui^ the IncrinKir fl0ri<Ai»ily nl (hit liu^ 
of OUT rbiiuifbi-fiJTins tth-f^ us n clcit i«] clii* irtirlnAic necoviiiy nt ih* bimi rif nftiim 







T^ law of i]i« contmntion ol aailof and tavrjor u nothicr InJi am appHc*- 
U4* of ibf ptio<Ap1it of idtnut} lo aatur* a« a vho[* Aad ih« law of cauw tnd 
«B«t u iffBtn af(>rn1lnF^^ only of the tnu n| th? fonn^rvAiidn ot mAiipr anil cocrey 
Tht knv od cAnvxUan u a !armuU wblcb matmalni tbat tbcrc li Idcntiiy ta diRct' 
WCP Suoir muiiua prodais a cbaoKv o( lonn- There U icwnJioKlr a Uineimt 
4tsK nficT rhe molitrh iliAft Ircfi^rr Vc( Eh* loul unoufll of matter fend cncrcy 
noxinA iVur *xat. Tttit it ihe iddnEiE^ IQ th« thftAg*. David HolM uid viih him 
Jofcv 5tu*ri Hill and tlw tmpmdiH nuiuad'Tiitcrcv] iho ppoblnDi ^ cAiiwkhon In- 
?>mS <if cmnidarinir cattiw fttid effect u »imi cvintmLKH]* prccnw IhAi h1jrnj|j| lif an- 
'etfied they ocdwdcdd cjuso and «fici.-i «p»rAi«Jy and .-itiemptnl n »TtiEb«slt fa 
«Ukic<i W thi> miatkko, c&Dtcii u iKell m qAmU vren defiavd to ba objvcu Hume 
>«j4 cauH afflii oHocI otv obJHis IoIJo^vIdr onu Afloihcr. Ckai» bov«v«r it a pro- 
««■■, ti II a Enotioa, i chanier iti&t i;>kpt pl»«. an e%Bni that hippcnt, ii ii cov a 
ibl9f A«rd oBeci l« the produet of nucb n pfoceu E-:jreev in a «p«iiil frirm, s) 
■pKial «iAtc of ibiai^t, i ipcd^^l corinRitmii-m. 1)ui lun ihv ui-itf^iii] ttt whldk [fain 
cooiqpjnlion cunut*. A ccitein pcJkiiti iiiKLidiitiKl into the ■t^mn^.^J (Js liviof b«- 
Mf prod»c«t oertain m^EKnn in ihs hovreU, called cramptt whicB ra^y ^aAlly prove 
faUl. Oba chkTitfe prrKtiic** olhrr rbAn^^i^ arfl ihfir prciuct k i new itatr of ihin^e 
which It aciyjmiuiii#<1 viih pnin !ind vnd^ in <lM.iih It iv vron;t in rail frrychnme 
ibe Cttvie aoHl a dnJ moust llie eltcci Bui if we cat! sirfchofnp tbv cantc and a 
doid iDottM^ Ibc «fle«t, we cniix forevflr despair of acU'ibr ihr pn^bkni uf CAUhkiii'a 
hj tt redwedoA folhc i>HnoIplc of identity, tor fltrychntDci i« oot er all idcnttcal vitix 
a dHd fnoete Nc fauie ^4 the iBinc ihinjir at itt fBpcl and <ve can by aty trtviuiti 
libmtif^r OiiAe anil HTeci And y«i Tht prknnpic i.f klfMiiity hi^lil* ^iiul. Tim jiW' 
my l« c^fuwioa ii ihc coniictvslioii uf inullur Aiid riiruhrv in J clumye nf fdna. 

I( he» bcvQ nuinljiinird tlml ibe Inw tif chi^»c jinil eflcct luuld never bi; prov^ . 
h i* eiibce an mntte jden pricr,tti cipcricncc jSchupenhauer nnd Schopenhaqer'n 
iBterpeeuiioD ol Kinil or il i> an auumption derived Irani etperiencv n( whfcli 
i«inr# *tpr<n'-nri* i* vn n% yni ethMniilJid) i/sv camnl knr>w whHh^r ii mlj hoU 
(c«d focrticrij- 5 MitJf In cx}MiradifAinciinD ii> ibfeo vifTu* tvo tnnintAia thai the 
iBwof laufcandefiecican Baiitiactoiily bo proredto inyuae who auxpu (be prlo* 
dplc «J tdcniiif So far es ihe pfinciplo of idutity it rcCojEndpd, all ihc lL>ni]al 
l«vt« are uftt^uivocollr 4ctemiined. or popularly eiipreuarl iLicy are u ibey are* 
Ifaey w4ll r«Aau) e^and cannc>( beofhrrvkH. ijify are ncceaury All the dtimmat- 
mg Ciftanaairi U«^ tbn proocdute of anoprmiL^n^TR ^t fiwih, mt (joti'^niAPAn *vrrir« 
anpmatblc; lev tlie uoU'^fuimal vIcmcuU mc eiilmttxl, an J LlierofvtT ttjn mull will 
be ta one c**e JdM a« il ie in uay ulher. Thai it c*n « //i'iti be iCaled that f^mal 
biei *ilt «!««]• boM good 

The qeettoB Hmi bien raieid ^ Wheitier cir nnl our knowlf^^e of tbo apricprtFy 
r4 tawnut lav* m iiule|)vnr1«int nf mpffrimctf We Annuvr - In a vrri^fn teom it is 



drpenilent upcB Hpfricncr, in Aoo^bcr il i* not HitlorLCnllj mad cvotiitioonrilj it 
It ct«p«9d«i: Tipcn «tt»Ti«ncff A utor* al innumcnil-ile tixi»riflncni bu (a Ijp |faii»d 
t>tfnr« a ntional ertfluiv u;iJ] (m ahU tn mnk* f hti ulnTrMcticin of pi^m Icnnt A« 
«oi>n u i1ilKftUe« is acuinrd. man m<inotif<i> wotM la hIrnaelJ. Ht can now eoi* 
;»»mitf:ni uithln himteir »tib Liitiuiul Jraa^vv for idhadcp wiifa nuiubcls , tc COfl 
c*1cuUJc, Hiiiaciiral cpcriiicoifl with pure Jcrm nrc c^Ued "pure 1h«U«tLl" adiI 
"pure thoti^c" b oov dppOMd to ->Jifwri«3i:« tbtougb the »&»&/' Tke wofd 
"•uptTifncc" ucurdinnl^ » used in t^o wayfl; it hit n broad ftod A OAjrrotf OMia- 
iEif In jit hroflrl If nu if itimm uiy acrjuEtiilfin of Icnowled^ gannnilly. to ftt« 
TUirtoMr WAIT II Rtennit kQi>wlril|{& JLO[|uIml ihroLigli Ibc KnttMiCElviiy «Idb«, Oar 
kuowIpJitc cf ibc npriority oi furinul In-v* rent* laixm oiptfricnce in iU bfoml ■«i*e. 
l>d[ uci upon flxpcricnc* in iu narrow hvniw- Wv C4i] mrtvr dDri\« ihsidfat cC ne-' 
I3«cidiy from ^n*f -i lapr ma iiyK John Siciirt Mill in nJKring innata tdPt* «a« oo 
oihrr u'ay ihAii t/> fl«-rivf* lh^ fiwir;!! Inwi fmin nvp^rienr? (lakinf; h^rt nprnt'TK* 
it ttie brcod ttnact. Yet lie iliO nut make a (iL^Tii^ctlotJ bf^iwi-pn lormal Lhouchi atiiX 
>cckftc-cripciieacv. Kc ccpnaidcicd chc nature of HDH-crtprr^ence a) lypJc^J fur iill 
«pcf JcrtCC- And tHiii, nijain, lakUg nperieoce in ihe nnrrovf acntc of ihe term, 
ho \t'iu Irom hii pr«fnlAu perfectly ; 01 tined m rejwting Ihe i<4u q1 no^oiitf'. If 
Ihc prfv!Hii fd cxotc ond trflfci i^ rEAtly a lyniheMn of iwo rhmic^ rt-prcbffQtdd tn 
|iivr> (lifTtirvAi fcrfthC-iiDprfsaluiJH Cullowini^ rath uElicr, [brii Initeixl wr tiMvr an fiur- 
antM tliAi tl^c a^me seLiuencTSt w ill a.lwavi Ije LrlrsHr>c!d . Hml ibtrtc rruiy lio wmlds 
in ^bich tJitf 1»n af cau^itv <lnc± ticii operate Mill Mtn nil the contequcncn of 
liifi mJalabv. h« i:onc«(lBd IrcEly thai \^e me not jastilifld in auumiuK tha.1 twice two 
will >Ma5^ h<f Mur - many ihonsands of tuperitnces am in lU Invrir, bni vr^ CUI- 
nm b* at <il] mnr tbxi no cavf xvJII pv-^rr happen in «bicti twici* 1*0 raalivvltvp 

Tbc (dou of cauHkhy and of ttia fOD6crv4iuou ol maUvr iind enQfK> *^ Oo\ <^ic- 
ttved Jroni «AperlcEico b ibe nnrrow hcbv of cbe word, not Iroca naso^ipcncAc^ 
but Irom eiper^ence in ihe uidtr eensv cf lh« word. i. c from HGait'Oitpenenc* «r- 
fangSiti wiih itie aaisiBnce oF tormAl Inwt. We thould not tof^i (hat mere tvttt^ 
m^mritncr «xtAU only in niir abiTTBCi ttanight lt\ reedliy all (cnH-e^perlcnr^ m 
IL-U[iu]i»t it If. hiMipAfAlde Tiuui iIb form. Form nnil ibc Tnwi iif fcnin «r« bo< 
^DiJiclli in|( purrly incdtnl vrhicb la Lianfiferti^l Eo the woiLd ul rEiilily. tnrm a vciIDp- 
ihing mill, ii is »b]0cCive, il ia a quality oi Ihe facts and lbs tboniht^foTm* of nand 
tf* A pnrr and a product ol the farmsi ^tructun- of the univtrv 

Tlieldp:i(o( raufAll4>r( and of ihr rorrrivrvati^n of iriJitior and onfrKjrxre not 
prior 10 dporiencc. ibcy ue a p*ji of ntpffrlencv, 1- e. expffrieuce in ifa« iHidfr tdue 
Tbe^ ut Qoi pari of ibe aensceipeiicDce. bui the rutdts of our eftp«rimeoiU w^ 
purdy formal ihougbi -operation*, iuid boin;; the vimi inttmiTaent of OT^^tA of (ogKi- 
uoa (bey tr« lti« condition o4 til methodical «penenc«. 


UlVtHVK IflHC*, 


[ft MtbLSi-KOPOSiriON U>Tlt«A«Lfif 

ictka^ IlV w« ill siiK^i that -j x i will »ik1w a11 circuirtttAnrcit tn*\vf 4, 
Wr lojtfct Mr MUI'b iJ«ii l1:ial ihPiT: tnty bv fl^va a p(miJ^lii> oi lh« 
Uticr !■ onr 4Kp(Ciancf TOtMj du* i& a /rj/eri^i «p«rienc« vhJcb havens b«an 
r«p«il«d »a ofvrn io tht tiv«B «if ouf aaoMMn is now gg fiml)' fooi«d lo our min^ 
that uie irufEi'^^ '< 10 b«Dec««ckry acd 'i ffu^h ' X<if c^^rCiiDly act l"hp rtxie- 
rteocM of our ncc in the Htmeiflf? lor IIEr hM pmlnced out aMtii^ of thought but 
h h» oolhiag \n lit] rtiib ihc fl|Jtiuiiiir ul (lie p(L>duit» vt iutinil thuu^ltl-upn^Uua*- 
A »tMeaic&l<if fctrmit] tlmufttii >ucb u " Iwicc luum^u fouf /' £«aDDt t>e cgmpA^ 
«a MiilDD«ni*edi«Qii4-up*TvnD*nLch u ttuiau^r but ■ invHl cuv«. Tkcre may 
b# A miHDKit in vhich Ilia U4l» or uti^fitr will b* biTMr Tn oiir lungui* ThiH it ^ult« 
IHwiM* B\\% fn tty thai twii> ivia fnlithl in i!iit Farnm nr in any nlhur vnrM. fa 
Mr .Mill maintuib, intkc ftvr T5 Tiuujt^ntu-tfl, >uii] Ibt* iKviibiliiy vi Orli imumpikxi 
cABuai bc|>lkCpJ \^ oDf Ildc iOlH ihr |X)9p't<iikic« of i^xLiaonfLnan ii^ fiKCtpiional 

tMMM I ^t ptm 1 -^ t TIifHiiini ilcbIIoI "dnur ~ . Etn^l *vhni uecaj] hvt 11 44* r 
TonalBUlailucihccipcritEioaa Xa might imiduco tliu rcMih 5, btLiailmiicuDdiiicGft 
urbkch b4t« been cicludcil. Pure fgrnuAR ni:>( [ike ntLiiiitla wtiith iQultipN , ifary 
&rc u>4 regain vuch u llifj hatv bocA poiLal. When wc put i^vo niaicLiAJt jatQ m 
gbn and than add <»<! elhar ama^ba*^ it i« i^iiil* poMibU that in lb* maao tim*«a* 
ol th'* ^ni 4M ha<i dit^rvl inrrt ivti In ihaf ra^r mi* wmiM biitv 'ivi* amrrbn^ hiii 
ihe r^ratioQ z X 7 cii]r>r»( brcvd any additional unfts » u ro producp :> irrm«r 
flomber ibm Ih? wtn oCt<f*ft4-^ ^<rt can ve let jmy of the*o untu diwp- 
pr«J into sAuf^tt. H} u ti» predueo ibc roult Jh wUbuul comfaiiim^ lomc inoon.- 
■itUftc? in vnr (liougbt'Op«miion% tor tlia pro-ludbot tiur ib^qght'OpDruianfe crv 
tigld and mmt remain atrrtiastbcy hbvo bwnpotiwi, Tlwym not Uktnuilt bloutd 
witb Utii^Xj but pUTf fHmi Anil nnrhin^ tim [Him fomut 

tlcm ojuM M(. J9b[j SiuArt Mifl ustjIuoK w joliubTer it conirasi «b thHt bf- 
iwno fonnal bito^lodKc And ■? hk <vpBncncB ? He m> appareaily prejodjoed 
ttfllJD»i Ibntrnn "npn(iri> " which m wd finely conf««a i» a \«ry poor and ioadvquara 
Mprwiiiin Mf. Mtl[ hkoiwlf ii--itp< Ihv cautrof bUprvjudk* in hii autob;oaTaphj', 
Ha Wyi 

-1>«B» I'M mtj iidjiA. Itriincp ar tia*«T^ In rli4 liiimui ntcri. wtilFh, in cM«r wtinMii Pot 
4u lavfun iMl li> orifln tboulil beidcTEfc) lauir Atliu kourr^ Ehaij ci^cnoae*^" 

Vtr. MUl wilt Jiutlyaiu{i«ntt«d Jigsinu nnytbhigjf fritrt for in biciinift It had 
bvoonv cmloauiy «[iLciriK''^E>^iiJ ^JiiltAu^ba* bi cliikp<jf> nil |>til ^uptTfttlllLiiit Abu;b 
OOttU cut b« pTCitvd by r]i(>vtirni;E jn a prion, Mr, Mill cciniLnucH 

" Wlkairv«i i]i*T l>Hihf pcKilfiL i^Inf vIaiju* pblloibpLir iff ilifu^ iw^nrEi. WU liti^Ir pQt- 
■ibla M «BaECfriB» ibe nl«rJii4<« ^r « r^lu nj>if . Tri«AOii'inihurruiht eKfrcatcotliii mtoJ Day 


THC MO»l»T. 

Vtf Tl!>r Bi'l t<r lIlIb ih«n*i cvviy jiivaioi'ie beHct 4a'l ev«ri iuiaint Ttcliu. iX iMilcli iht utiklji ii 
iiul f«lii*(Ql>»j»c) II iiublfld lo dT*p«ri«i» Willi ili* dbll^-irian fif jiiBllF)tikc i1««lf bf nUDii, «nd I* 
«recmJ intcliKCwci jkll-tttHf l«oI r»a<b«( and lutitlYrntticn- Tbciii nfr^itrwiit nab utuinikiaBi 
ilxnltfd l«i ronKGiBtfot til d«cp-fe<Bi«il preMli:c*s" 

W? apprccUlE the carnv ot Mr. Mdl's proiuctEccH but we cuiivoi ^urm with 
him. And Mr- Milt b mUtakea when W^ iiaAeinn ihai ^ njcciion of npilodtr will 
bbotbh fobe dociriacA«Qd lupcraiLiit^na- On ihc cuntrAT>. ThoroccigaltloA of nb- 
»o]ut« necCBily bflMd upon Eh« iinivvrsaJjt^' oi formatL ibDUght wtll alam Ifo «iif* 
bA^L« of scTenfe rhmugh itrhich vc ran T^Jof 1 fn'mti /'t/ff rh^ WTorn preff^Hfitom of 
«u[>tfi3lJlionsEuiJpfeitL]o-5cience If w«as§um<^ wiili Mr Mill ihhl 4.11 fi:rniHJ kmiwl- 
nlRC paitjikfa iif tht eiaEuee r>( aeiiae-«-i|]cnci;LC iTml itirrc in no ^ificreuc9 bctwr*n 
Ihe i\vr<H no general judjcmcni wnuM bo .illo^nblD nnti thn iilon of noenBly would bo 
inadmifiti blc' I'fiefi? cnnfie'juen(rd art :tccc^i^ by Mill In that cu* tDCt^noo 
uipuld lr«r* >tt I'ilue iiTifl philo*f<ph>- w<^uH h' vifftoiir fnijnrlaTioti Thr njosi atK 
lard superiiiiion tfouid noi be rejocicd aa-b;tnJ on ihc Kioiind o( bdufi contmn' w> 
ihkL ^htcli ihruuKli loiih And utltct lurm*! icicncci Irni^ Ijccq fuuntl lo be neocaaftfy 
PLnd H coEuicniPiilJoii cl nay lUpcmtJtion c^ Ihc pArl of veicjiuc uculd bo mi?rc <ut(^ 
gjince, Pacudc-iictiuics v/ould hn%'o Iho btmc riybi with true *ciqo«- 

Ir it obviotiM Itiat flilhout hMa^ oMi|Epd 10 Gjntptier th« ■priority of fonnal 
!*iw* iw inirntn. wf oi*r*il trni Jirrw^f [he rnnstftjufrMie nf Mr MiH a philiTsophy W^ 
uiu and wtr do ipuiu thr itlea uf Mt^cssiiy und wr cui^sidf 1 11 as (be comtfi'siot]? 

of all KIOPCA 


W» h»\«t to b* rm [lEirfluSTd Ifst we iqtT«1iicH snme mysticfll element mio 
idta nl nwm^ty Then- in noibLng rnyniicui ntigul riF?ces]:y ^occssii) meatk* 
ibat a cenum opotmlon. it ii iflfltaclly Ihc mhio apernlioQ u auolbet nie. wiQ 
prodace eucily the ume r««ult When wc pcait lhv unJis iwife, wo iball ba^« 
lb« vame muU as whan wo potiit one uaiT ffiur timet , an<1 ue Ciill tbia thuIi lour. 
We ihaJ] rtACh the ufne product wbMovtr we repeaE Ili« «ani« op«rcituui Kftow- 
ItiK Ihrat »e thflll alwaj'S reach the same ra.uU. we ran, w /»rt,jfj tor befcrollAarl) and 
wlib crTtaiiiiy. tlirlerminu Ihe rt:^iih td cr^tiain upcMlJcm* iiflcT we have olcuIaUj- 
%ott9 Ibn^u^ti the B«m£ cpetaiiona fcjr jill jxitiible cftio* tad afidcr At!) iRMttiniiil^ 
ConditiosB. Tbvia purfect npHcrily wTlh ui upfAilui^ ccrlAJnty iMfcuribleonly in ih« 
domain ol toTiml thought is natnrai Th' rteitHt^n m ili^i we kmivv nitr fhmiifht- forme 
eihbauili^y Tfaey ooniain noibing hnr ihattwhirh ha^ h«An prndinliMl ftbniil ilmn 
Otir «enae'esp«rleiice ticwrvet ii always piecvnimT and ntvut «xb«usUvp 

CoEupiFbeoai'-'iL J9 ociuaNy j iiacinjc oi form r?]tiit«ii* nnd » formulaiin^ (bieai 
in coDdK aiaiencnttt- ThoicJenLbt'i work it bu^d upon tbeinit(bod(oftn«o*a^ 
jni: and ccunime |i e iho mcihodt of iDrmal Mi«nc^M| And hr rini3«rt.i1(«« lo akKW 
tbfll orrtain phenomena, clKlrrem la 4c>mp rnprcr*, are rlip Mine tn nllitT retpeC«K« 
ihai iheir ucncncvi cah be hUied In a cuniprebemi\« aj^d cxmi formuli. in iti^ 





iv*y br QUf ts 04t tbcir <lci«riniaiog iac%an ia (emu ol toniD«3 thoushi {for intUcicc 
i& nimbcm> «o lb«l w« enn comput* tbcsi uud pro^CT theca nc«4rdl(ty to Ihftir 
dtfttminias 1*ctof«, «> tbAt v>« caa know, accnrrling In thi>ir CDnihtion* iluit ihvy 
ttlTl lie always u ihay are. 

Tfac imppruntp (d forinal iliuuulit la piiiainuum in ticiciKraiiil (bt problem 
aUuui liit DMCHiif «hi(h ftiiA(beaii:i ibclawi ^:A fc^rmfil iboufCbi ii 1b« fDiiduaHitAl 
pfoM«n of phi1<m>pby. 

Tli*r« V* fBiay pbilouphtrv. iUlL troiiblififl ihcmfclvH lo to^vt liie problem 
in eh* iMbSoa Af SchnprfihAHftr or at Mill cr [orrkin^ iifi^n llin pruTiJi^m as tnjutv- 
■bU W« do nm dnulil tbat ibe noluiion hric prrwiilcil U llir only piiotlhle iii)1u' 
lion wfaicb A» 9QO& « il i* undpnilovd will dniH a Ktncml occcpinriqr 

Hm< tl bv ftddnl tJial tha ^tdutJon ol thjn fundanicfninl prvhJcnn doa< nui in- 
volv# ib« ready tolutionft «f aJJ oth«r minor probl«n»> Oh tio> W« all knoa th«t 
Ibrjotuiloci <if ccie probl^TD i» oaly i ilrppivfi-^ionp lor atii^Linjt <flht^f prohremt 
Tlw pOttibilitlH ^f process nreu LinMniifod Ai Tbr »rop« of ci>CDKIon^ LlRtil on 
(bi* (vQciiil ftubScct icivD u^bupc iliul ^r kh^ill huci-ved io lliiowiuij liiftiL alto tipun 
olbvT aubjecia which iirr Mill hhTdtjfTcd to ihc plii](AUphic«E ir^quirrt in iiuprnc- 
timblft darfcB«n 

VI Mor»E«N uocia 

The pniblDni of modara loi;ic ii ttboilorn no other problvm llun ihot oi hz^raul 
cJiaai^hl and oJ lh(^ cirij;tr> o\ ihocijihi-rorins ProfcMor Drw*^ in (be otctlliMil Huy 
ubicb 4ppt«r« Aft the learltnii arUcleol thu oumbtr ibji - "Any book ol logic will 
t«n iM mhu ihU contq^ltf TT of Ibouichl h : ibRt thonflhl l« ft llculiy or an ttnilty 
fniHrmu id (hit ciiml ApNil fnim fuciMftoi! >)iJ4t it ha«ili^ own flkifrl furmh wirli whidi 
faciv have (wtbitic w di>'tficcpl in m !■( a* tlic) pou uotkr tbc ^fik? Thia ib 
lb«Dld c<>nc«ption al |hi7Lii{h|, rii^btLy cnticwid by PmfriMjr D<i«ey, lor. dotaly ooii- 
iBdvrvd if turo* otjl !■> b* titiAlicti? Hnw*i'iv. u <oan at a pri>p'^ilioi3 ■■ rrcoi;- 
Dtacd U> (onibiQ <it io mi upoir diinlmm, ii tvrnnt** ft pmblpni Thv probEem ol 
(Divlrni k^lc U. Hov GUI we arrlre ai a owcliilc eoacpptlon d kig1& ho* r-an v* rkl 
ounalvaci (be duitliicii uii the ^jne mdc (J f^cU mri rci EAtivudTitdil by ihr nmtlxjd 
at ihiftinhvtvnra and un tlv othvt ^lUf ul miDil >iitb JUciiipIv iliuiiKbt-l^rTnii a*- 
cHanalBf £acbi to it* ovn cainrc- 

Oar vnlution d ihr diflicLilty Uat b^vn prnpovd^ m lb* ^•■n^v nndinvil by Fr^ 
I«Mor Drwey. rn rtanrtam^'ntJil ProTiTrmt Viulr^tioi I'wiry. jccnnlin^ in onr 
ciptaUcn, larlRbt when tie «>? ibcr? id do nicb a tbini; ai trukHcndcnialthouEbt-ar 
pun ihsOttbL iboucht b> ICkEI And then; b noaocb aibLoj; dit^i u fiKi. cimlo 
imtlcnal cbacuc lact< The world oi face, iodood» U a D»mn aeid no ^haua there 
a*v«tf vat a chaoi and oavar will bes cbtot^ fo« ibe lt«a<4tonn art ao aaavebal 
4arl ihtf mnn ^hftraftrtitll'^ fctmrcof ihc vottA 

faa tberv be m^y i^amUm how ihc unlpr liunil io lhiiU|{fal-[arm<i oriKinaii^ in 
a vr^kj ia wbieh the inorganic aad unfn^int mineral cryaiAJZao in a fc^ln tbapa 


TTti uotnrr. 

nnuirfling tt> itnrt rtiAlhHTiAf iral tim. i p ihr Iiia o1 form ' A tvorld in which 
<b« pUa\ x^w^ jjdi (•itminiM- ilijtri irrord^nf Co ftrin maihrmjitlejil Itvi butldln^ 
ii,p fDolB jud ucDi and Lcdvob md pciolfl inj iLaini^iss ocil ill i:>lt]cr cudjiUJi abcdieni 
to a o«riAio plan which uill vary a^ccrdin^ to clrcuoiaiaacai, but OiriJiiiiliout cos 
iKMTti Willi ThQ pnncrplet oi ff^rmil lA«t ' Caa tbera b» uty qiM»Llaa ib«i in tfai* 
"AiOTld d cotmic barmii^r^f ihoii^hi'forrtit uUI dt-^'elop in iMtiQg b«ifi|fB M > micro- 
CDKin bihllilitiig tbf: wme tei^ulDrKir and conformity id \Avr ai do in Il»k worl^ Atl 
olhri III iiijfv uuini Kilt viil iruriiuiirr? Obi [ia:v-^ I. r mtntf\y ftirnuii. Lhodicl^l ii a<D 
AbtUACtijD which wrvn ilir pur|xnr of compfrbiDTi^n And bo >t the coa^epi 
'*miiEE«r." b*TiDfC that vhich prnSuHi iw n tg -i Tii f r t w » iooB. Tbcrvare no ouch fchoM* 
» pirv malbrr or ptim Ihfiighu m rvaJily, 

Mcrd<>rQ Iruic. fo Ur ils wi? cnrcMvr It to fcr n^l, Is bf no nifans an oi«ntirow 
oE the old fijnnil Lc^iflc. ECTicratly oIIkI AiitloiolUn. 1l U simply an amendment 
made in ord«r locikdude ui crroDwu* mtervicUEiua And to u modern OMlhc- 
naatica noL 4o oiuch a molat^on da nn cxicouonuf ihpold BiiclidtnnsjvB*^- 1* 
it B ftfvoluEiun oal> a^aiDiit a CPrUiQ iiLOcWflr coacopfton ot maibomatict a«cotdiitB 
10 which thit ocfaiCL^ ji uid eo rrrtr upc^c luiomtt, Theu- AiinmaraproAtnilrts ib«o- 
lute iruLlL— un^irovaliJf^ iaciiiiipTHhiintiEbli'. And mjiierioiiH * 

Ttic mnici tf bill dI imiciiMn t« Lh^t [tfulity fitriTJ" t>ar intllviaitilD wbt4«md 4II 
our ccmr^rpU awv imnr nb^iroctioDK rfprovti^tinii i^^tnin pnrtv or <«rtiLin Uniarea oJ 
ih« «ihi>lv, Ai«ooa SI w* trj' to tbinh of »ay ol ihvn ub things in ifavniKlv^ea «c 
bprornp ifiv^^IvptI in inMiirirAhlr- f^Tirra^-jirfionv li .ifip^An 3i if ih'* forntil id- 
cnut contaiDol iotac truths wbcch nete ^ibsotuTt aad indf^pendf m of nctu^ milJIj 
I3iu fi^L ouy one Iblnkof aaynnmbcr. oT sui ), ^dbc will luvu niul tbat ccraomved 
vt uJaolutci bdn^ they arc mr*4iinglcu aod iiaitii:^k>kble 

Thib )■ not ("by ihiuaumbonarfl phantcmi*, but thtit cEmcwvcd au iilwDl«ta bt- 
iTi|> 1b»y Atv phafitoma Nambfriiand all formlcfirtcvpu r»pm*nl «3ni«ifaUig 
mil, tlii^y ivpTHvni pun* hntn% Am) fiiTin 1«»h inucb a pjirt And fe»rar» ol TAVllty 
a* 11 lOHitfir mil} vnviKjr r c- 

* ttitlUmW 'JttrtllUlLll, UUO ot lllB TVUiUlQIl uf OLutFEII lUtlllBQ^IIElU. bn Ullsd XtlOllJtV 10 

(lai> iiiii ilav I^iiE^llil liul d( r^L«dr«i cQi^ctpilou o( ih« fLkiiilaMtirii] lumptt of i>i4(beiDttte4 ibtn 
bii 111 Jjifin-iiDvlirtiialaiott aini iri{G([>i<icTh. GiBftfuianu k*y* in Uu <fF('rf«4i«i**^>ir>l'f ,- " Prvio 

Ibb ioipuUllai] »I (4|Lf94fldl(Ut Ulon* «Uli »iLLln«f| CtfhiopK IC44clld ]<ii»J«0ir, hoHt^fVn la f«v*. 

£u<lt-l Jrir-^purtivil thtfnrmai ■mnnf ltf« pfivPHrsm '.n'lrt/iii'm- witil* h* t«ijikrti«4tb« Uiui *■ 
^inniou i.-iitkr«i4Lii> <hi4'i**i It j^ipuI — v t>f<Kaii]i(i|t ivhiolf tton on iho ptrrof h1i coABMOioiAfv 
WB1 na Imriifpt iinilffixvDdH jind llkptvLn* viin mnrlTn miilivniaiirUikt. iinrnThii^mnlT rnrVfiDAF^. 
biimei Iff tilt I lute lo^kCftTlan. At t mmtr <fMici. tliv >bitr«ciiD«rl]Udi af ihiTntirniirA) ^t*4r* 
kiJW noBiJuim ftia|L"'^uuifli1 Iran rD< !>'■ f>v», VuT, IJ So 7;^.* /^tmarim rJt^ J^'^wi^mr^^m 





Andon«r "nieolog^o*! Srraltiarjp for the Yttw iS^o By /a*'** CamM Sf^wr- 

Tblmuod fiajcc PiiifcuKir iif Pliiliatijilit in CikiicU tTiilvEiMily. ndcr Incinu 
tfa« hiMmcsl nriiciD uu! ilcvrilcpmtinE o( (ho belief in God, igepn w— hh conrictioa 
%hz% llHpvbiaBol lbs nodurn tbciat Ponnihlt in the union of the Aryan sBil Sonitic 
modM Ol iiTl«rpP*ltD|C *"*t:Tn^ WiiihuM Ibrn baw "ftnynttiAiiHCFl tK« F.iihrrof nil 
Inis Tith (b« crounr! i^f all nniur? fhit » ibp h>;kiihnls 6pvcl<iped m th« 
Ln« of the IccLur^dclitctpJb? l'>gfcuOT Schurm-ui la^^t yiru before the Aiiilm«T 
Tba:A:4(Ji«1 Scii)iaAr> on tlic Winhlcr bjuadAliciq, tbti Uatu Ihc ixmleola it tbv 
prcKitl volume Tbc tlioun erabodiod in ibot hypuib^-uii ia culled by Ibe ^iiLhoi 
(ru/ir./.N-L»/an<, b#ci.iLi« wbilo il is btmtd «fi the tacEh of ibo uni«4no ftnd Hkhw oI 
bunun nsiiuv. Ihi^ irnivirv muttt b# inrrrr^^med In vhA ttrma nf nmn. *nd nni man 
in iC^^ lirmi* ol Elm ijnivmru jUriatytti thtt iini\Brv it (ItoifvUomwKiLiHfijiiHtu- 
Alitr ntai\k lEuLn ui xlttt An^j p«rKO« tUncc Jkalbrpponsniic [heum U tliv 
dooriorol * Su^mc D«iD|E "wbou itraiind both «E DaitJi«uid ofnijia^ butwhote 
MMPCe u vol naioral bai iprntunl " 

BeBciTo c^nstiierifi^ ihe evtdc^cv lor (hit bypotLi«is» tet □■ «c« whai (he Antbi>r 
bu in ur «iib rderence ic ihe Idfckcd] clumc[«r oF tbe bcZicf tn Ciod Kif vhRuv 
tb<< ij^m''/'j''jrv — uf viiii-lL be Udti uoder iu tbeec hJKiiifiuilii-iLiii uh rcfefrimc^ EtiT 
melbol tif knuulodicc:, ihc nbjocl of kiKiulcdfcc^ nml (hit mbjeci vl kcvwIc^Mc — iii 
aoi oonntODt wilh ibe iiisfiht iatu n«(qr«ud tbe oAn«|i;ution of bnowlHlgc sained 
by the NvWORva ntMboil cd bypoTbnh^t and trrihciTKiai- Scirjiee. an nppnuftd 1o 
pun fAMBonmalisni. SMimni thut wh^c h^i noi <inifinriivil in rhr ivrci^cDt tub- 
j«cf Is ob^ocu^tiy nnl, uid il posmlam the unjvmalliy ol Uv in □more, i positt- 
Utc iiitkkh ia [be expiwuCA oF n conviction oE "cbe unity apd unh«ria1 itncr <ab- 
aeeiioaa4 all rtaliiy-" The objective world dnnoi bo Mnde™<03d sviiboui rcfi>renc< 
l4i Msr «iVD cAiucLOU* npen*DCl^. and u ibc oaI> r*ably uo koow Ifcra the uai»4a ia 
a tpiritu*] *■/»», *t|l-«iBici»-i4 ipiril muii brr aacril^ |r> the ant uUlmiii' rmliiy 
KbiBf vtkuoee *cksicc luiunica. m thiL ^ihicb vilJ iloue \Atiify ihp nv^miurannL 
erf iwilF io Ibc miiti ^ cbaaiec 



Ii rolgbi b* objected t«t*. tbm the e^ioflf* to iukti ot t ifdritiuJ /^ requiraA 
JVO0I baforalbvl n! % nniueriiil *i»irit « « orlrt-ioijl can li*» inJetrwl ftem il. Th» 
tMbor lalfn Ili« ultiiirnu cif Iht '^u fcir ^rit^icvd, 1 coiinr whjrh ix fjuitfl Jillowjiblo 
from ihc ilidsiJc itAodj^iljJt, «ltbcrusb, in th« tnae of whni ip now kncnvn as ip tbe 
diuolution ol tbe 0£0 oador abitormbl conditions oi xhn otnAnhm, doi tcicntiAc^ 
Hft\'icig mode that onnrnpiion and ijjfvrrvd ib« tHisiance of God tram thai of lb* 
hnniAn cpiiit, ihe author ^«pEain>ih0i aaiutf of iT]« one by rvfonnor lotbnt od tb# 
other. He icl[ft us, ibai the Arriic tpirk )i identical, wltlijo the Ijinlii of In nuhfc 

wttti tbc inljnilc i-piriL ticcaua? il iB An ffv, a^ad ittAl in Oic r^i- wc have, uu( ravfvLy 
* m<id« uf the divine actively, bdl a put ol Tb« di^^QC cuencc Sucb bciOK Ibc 
cflAC. the nuthor bas no iliOicuhy in inlnrmg tbv OlFfLbulM o( Cod froai iho p4ic- 
aomfiii:t vihibirerl by ta»ti Tftm God it n Ufd ol rlghMMitfitfu twouiv ib* fnoral 
C^fiHdcy in the fiumaa t,|>frji muni hAvff im ^rriiiuil 111 the infiniir Spiril Af^O 
anivcTsil bunvvuliTnc:?< or lovt n thv iJi^i) l>I wliicb biujiLin inonilit> b ttm rttnliA- 
liou ; bonce we muBT conc*ivr of lUir Spirit of ibf iinivnrw as * God of lo*o 

Wq do i^ol 1bin1< ilip iinhor't Anal <oncluBii>ii, tHm "thv pb»aointfnn both ol 
ihe LiAlvcno and of human litp rvt]uirr iti^ ThinUinji mind 10 paviulai* jl Supromv 
Ground ol things wbli^b vjc ure mittPed ra dnfrtTir i% trli'traitcian* Sptrii amj tov* 
^EiiC FftibcT, " i* warranicd by bb picmhi^^ Hue m^t CAn Accepi tbc subemcni tbti 
uui kauvilEd^E of Cod mmi E:oQEmu« to ttrow WLlh c^ur kcuwiciljtc oJ enaa Attd a«- 
tuTB Throuflb Ibaonloaocac «c know Him, but thedit!lcu)ty it to Snierpr«l tbc 
rffvvlarinn Lift it !iH ndrnillad aluo tb»l tb« and of cature ifl Iha prodnctiun tS coab. 
and th^r whai im r«r«irrvd Tn by tb« fiuthr>r At TbtfbiimnnHpirir m ' rhv i^rgtn of ihai 
cummDnkaiicm of God wbich is [lie end n£ the univnw." Tbin doM aoi ia rvalliy 
Ihrou any lihihi □□ [bt iiolurr ijf Got). Tlio u(rr>oBl itiai ton bifujd is ^al, asK^U 
ut t>r£jiiitiiTi poaseaAinc c«riAin fuDctions» tbc univone, vio^^od ai God, mnil bftvc 
ftn orgnnic uicioaod with luactioaB *-i'/ffSf"u<ttMf[ to ib«e vibibitod by Eh« huDi«o 

Thp author o r*fl«nning In support of ibe N^Eet In God an <^uae or ground of 
<liE vhvHd, ami tiir rcAtiiimij |juf |h}tiG in Ibc wuilcl a vpr> iujiBnirju He HfniRa lliat 
the crr-HtlonMl fnrm nf ibc qr^umcnl Erom caunaUty is iniiuHc^crr tl wtlivfict tbc 
d<n'oticmnI ooodrt nt a c^ri^tin fJdHi of vvonULpun^, but wbnt ihi mliipout, m» vroll 
W tbo tcifDtific, J7ontCMiu«nf«« dnnvidB » a God "b«r« in rhfiMrorld^ noi lh«rvoat* 
ddf of \x or msliinjs fr " li b:i« hot x^t h»n ihcwn ih;ii ibr unitenfo bu hail a be- 
^acinii: tn itmc- and tli? ajuuineni U favac uf ihc cLcrixiiy ol majlor eiidi with on 
&svar4noe ol tho «i«niity of ipirit alone. Spirit m the ciein.i] rea1ii>, and astute 
ll3««n3nimaiiifuiation. :ho ladcrbfin^oo morciDpArabie fram the former "tbaa 
ihcEpokpn »ord [rom ih? Thoufchi it tymbolisn " The fautal relaiton li hovevar. 
Btaolorely necpewiary (or onr appTehensEon of the (acu nf th*^ tiniverM. ui4 »* li 
cannot be iaicrprnicd wlibciul aintrAilit^lEiin tkn an ACtiun twiwcvo indopondeai 
bfiiniCT, it muni Ixa fupJgined ■> tht oicrnal Llvpeadvncir ol the wi^rM upon Oo«|, 
ThUtmplit* ibai God moflC bo voliiional ai ^aelJ a« tBLf-contcioo*; "l9r without 



bduK KKVlCitrs, 


»ill Iter* could b« no jidivity, nu ffflkifni cAUMiJ^n, tui riievtu) Liniror^ Thv 
uoivvn* b tbm Ihv vtemjl ripm«iaii n( the ijlit-irs »i3], Itui uhai Js thr pujpinc 
n«li«e4 in enarion * TheA<iivj(y<4 ibv djvia«wi1^ prtcluikii the noiJon of * blindJy 
wortBg nanre A* craaiion i* ib« cii^rral cell-nvtilatioiv of G«d. ih« *upr(Mn« and 
pffrfonrflTrd cnii oi nfl Ibinfii mint l« rhr (-tory rif Cifvl. Hiil man ii indlftprnuiMc 
lor the attiicmeQi of Cod't eJ^^iY' ^<? tberefon ihc end al a«iDre ai a rr^TlKd 
Mbu— cJ dfvinc iJca> i> ihe procluciioc cf mui. The voliiioiui] tnd mIwIurcluI 
ftrpuncfkU ** ifaui 9Ut«] by tb« AUlh^t Arrecnaiilcnl wilb the tbrory of cvoliiEion 
iWt«lop«d h} Darwin, buf 1h«y rtny b* ombaieadl ott olhn grouadii Donn«cl*d with 
ilv Cfladifien* a! Ih* •vitMoc* df Cod « out with Ntlur*. With thii ahwrvaiLAn, 
•« caul iwi* PrcrfowHT Schorman'i wnc didtiglitftil tvmik which, aldvuiuh for the 
rcAsMu «F bivp kUitod Qoi coocli^HJiT. ptcwqi* iHtf ibvititic ar^mcDi wiih ktm,! 
<i]«ftra«v ftDd ia in «tron£»i i<i€m^ tt. 

JiTD4ntH jMir C*tti9TM«iTi. A SktKh oi ib« rroEm^ d Tbouchi from OM Tou- 

ThlM work is asoihcr CDntribooon to Ibfti j^nvinc^ hiiiorr which b *lcio« con- 
p«ta9teoitDpui AD^iratinilrtfciioa En i\ the Author uD^ukptt to gtv* lO Account 
«^ th* gfTHHMol Cbrrsiianilf u a chlkl of Judaiim 

It MBan to b* dw iheiAt i^t ihff author ihAi ibue nonfppriruMtiud bdinfit thnr 
chvDiL'Lciitc ftiiy fcirni (<f icli|tii>n itir mihci ilrlniLiijii^l \rt [!ie wxial nvutulitJii Ihttq 
thai Ibo 4oc»l procTMs hnd iis fcnruio ajfi dctenninpd hy ihr rviJutinn of ides* 
ADiooft urbich Ui» r«iHpou» ■d*aii ar» vptclnlly influvniii] In his intnujoftion I1» 
ABlh^tf tktlchn oa\ hi* vi<w M rhr a^nml \sv.-t nt wial prcyrHi aa itir i^nvar* 
r^ted lo rvllflu^m ihciiiffat Hv notion in bi^iciry ihr irrdvncy ol nhnic rphglcna 
lo fli« vnir lo or lu develop icta uiikvcr««l icllEicna, and arxuv thai Cbri^iJao^ty l» 
datkail to dvefCpomr «J1 iu rivAli And ptcv^il umvcriAnr This liind dI a ci^odiCL' 
mo ■» * lUtDfd ce« (9 i^il^m from ihc th«orT rJi4i the chiuflctcr of ihouf^bt » d«- 
t«nnn«d by vociftl «ircia«ulftn«« ud jm^'rui But if 31 b« mi« thai ifa« ifivcisJ 
rmir^ /irf fhft •vftlniiftn of ihnught Hcd it* rhuraf tfrixrlr form «! my ftpfprh i* ^i^ 
termlnfid by onnn thai trc DnciiDtmiTud hy vcixl cnculiiiitriA. that »fi liMwfvQ 
UtoiAchi Ajad Kicitftr tfaduitbi is tb« tnuivrlat factor, iboa invito Aoethor coodnakio 
fDAv eniur Kvi th^dobitabl? natar*cf lb« majn tlicffv of th» worb doM boI docb 
dciraci from ibc ,^«ai Ftcdlmcp of ibr vovL in KmvnJ. A> > tiialoryol di* vvoli^ 
itatt ct |«wuh ndiitiouc foncrphont asd btflirit from tb' wry Ani antll tIw '■tot* 
H«famc«l ti Chrkiftaoll), if ti ia the hiehesi deEfer Inicmilnir and ImCTUCtiTv. 

AflBT « diictuuuit ol ihc iJldtlBiv tA the Jcw>AAi]tbc levnutfoa ol UiFCBDcin. 
tbc author proceeds ID de*erfbc in tuil d«UiU the amarc ^eneib tad muiabn^A* of 
ihm cordiDJtl nhgioM docttiAaa a« they rcvtaUd theatitflvcA to tbo Unollto. Jewtsh. 
and nrly Chr^Miaa iailght Th« «nfire body of the riaia i» tnisprtied in cod* 
«oimiK« vilb lb* aodcTB «ciantific Mka cJ ibc (rrtinjc Eiatttrt of loCJtty jam b 


Tllfc Ht>K!*t- 

rtKATcLtd M th* mfkuer spirii ibai cratiftiJ ib« Chriiiiu Cfaurch. and P«iiL whoot 
irany wouJd utstBll as tli* rcnl luihof ot th^Htnc ts ixoiiTrliTiKfy ir]>«n '>nlT a tecuod 
plAt^r 4liiQt4B(h«r 11 may bt uid itiJU PfolfHor 1~oy hat ^tv«n iit a RiiHf i'al'Piblr cocv- 

rrll>utiofi lo rdLjtlifU* bi:<(ory aad lo tbc Kicntlflc Imcrpf cLJiitoQ of (Tie uroc iwA 

PkriiiiOK TO IfOi-V Whit. Eiral>MBhing. ati HociitiwnM ry RviclMin-. th* Auihor* 
shfpv Daiic. rvrm^ and Cuninciu tl cncrb oC lu Ji^sln. and the AmUcQikity of 
U117 E^Ulcuch ISy /i.'fi/ .V. h''i*' CintinnatJ {{oImtl CWld C&. iBoi. 
TUbbt luOC Wk«- the prrajdeat of ihv Hebrew Union Collest^ ^ C^ttfilVUtCi ' 
juid ihe Nmor nf Oftlicidui Jud^am in An^vfiti*.. pr«*cnu la tbc "PronuMto Holj 
Wrti" ft review of (be OiblicAl hooXs witb coramoQU ** to ihair AutboiLuciEy utd 
iho Irmw in wl:iicti Ihey war« wnitOB, H«i'iag rodd theta '^baokioixlwary word 
thpr#ol in tha uri|{in«] Cor a l*Tm oF tixfy^ii >««», t w fmm tifiyhood b|> ti> hi« 
tii\*nfy-]tpfimi1 (lirthdAjr. nnd hnvlfiie " Ar«iti4int^ hlntnlf wilh xH ih^xnt-ittnt tvr- 
t]LirT!» und n^inuiDaiJiiin und k liineii iiuttioci uf tliF miHlrrc tmnFLlaiiotiFi mid ccm- 
mvQiar^m of Iho Diblc' Ebv outhor ii Qntiilc<d to b? bn*tx1 ItfibbJ Wbo ia a MttA 
itiDDDihciqc And tie iJDclArm. "God only did crrfllti liKht oitiof darkodM! OHQ ^AA' 
adt produce intlh oui ot hctioa, unices in bi« »lf-dalunoii problvmaiic trutb vattti- 
As hirti. All sa'rallfll ((i^mi of rruih hiin«1 under Ibe t^^itcVsiWrl of nciiiVi ind 4^ 
ccpih>n cifc prciblf-m^lLC at lieAl. if noE mppori^ Ijy ^lutborLUlJvr carKilkirHfin " 
Tbjh in truit. All Irucb depends apvd vciiAuiliuu Wc ciuuX>I iimkc Itctli^ bi^i 
muni hnd it, Hc muHi be atilc lo ciirmU>r4tf ii. mi^l the ccirruborAnlii of truLb are 
itt atiibotitj Pr. Wiai*'« i<]«a ot u crjiro^^oraot ii diflcranl from ourm, fan nf* r 
**t3n tm^ ran ^pnb rnntcienlictmily iH JtiMv truth (wf^if* tiA Imnwt thai iti^ bahtc 
3B ITOT. an'^ wpwMlly in r^ hisinric-nJ diniii " Thin n-wmp* ly indiMW tJiHt u-* mu>vi 
bavo 1 bfllifif j» (be milh of ibc Diblr bvfct? ac icik-nlijciLlcr it am^ dial laotal 
truths, ihc ethia, the philr>»phy oi ihc bibfe depaod upon ila hiilorical ^U- Wc 
rninot Ko K> fir with ihc author q1 the Prona». Dr Wire tAjt ■' Tbc «-i«lc« 
CommonEy called Modem bibticnl CriliciEmH ^^lualtf NrftJilivc Cnhcifm ^Tiicb 
TnninrKliiB on [fae Mren^iLi of unvclentlAc ttivthndi ihai ihe ?c]iu;eucb k* not onn' 
jjtttcd tif LLiiKLnd MiDuit iiiulci inl, uu Pkit-Trait mi^ Daviili^n, iki i^vvetlA Sjlvnoiiic 
tbe hi^l'jtttii] Inxik* iii: uiihihturicAlH ibr pri}phecii» uGre ^trjlteu |xat folum, lb«r« 
wBft no rvwtntion, inaf^ntic^ni ot pr^phocy, raum mlto mnintnin that ttM Bibla la 
a coEniv^<TiU(n rjf piouK i^i* mvnn inipinu* frnudi^ ivilfol dwirptinnv, onicriipob>oi 
TDiireprewiiiulioos ' l>r VVi»* ihnujLht if [if"Cttwiiry to cnett Nriiitivn Criiicinn 
iviib tbe dDcunvninry evidpnce iiud (ot ibia parpon he wrore tiii rroiiaoi vrhiGli 
m ic be UJ catranoe-tuN la ihe Templq of QibliciL] Truth Wc do not Mo vtitb 
the Do^ativinin of certain biblhfal «nutt, far ue beliotc that bbtoncal j&re*!^' 
rtooi hA^« proved Inrge p^rtioni ot the fenfateach te be Mouif . leveral ptalntk to b« 
DavUlifin, and tbehlttortcjjl books to 4^001^11 atma^li history an many oM hkttorlC*] 
btnok* citntttla Wc Lvbevi-- tli>iL ilic>' hate to be Judifeil and kCELTcbed and ci^n- 
rccntfrl jiiU AH iniicb and in tbe lame >pirit of »;ie[i1illc inqairy aavur pliilotofiaL* 





pftAd upon the u<cpiuic« or reiccik^ ot ihcic or those h^iiondl Abtn m->i i» it 
iWOWTftfy lo coasid«r the Hcbrau prt^pbot* a* apoclal revrbnoni i^t CoJ, lo ooBln- 
AittBrficn id th» dltlm* rcT»l»riaA id nftrim itad iha hitiarf ot mankind ia g^nm} 
Ii may br ttut «nnufh ittt ibr onliiwlra GixI'IiIc-aoT MiraoihvEitrndvpvnd* niv^n (h« 
bcUrf ia tpc«Ul molaikiD ttud ij[v(^ und ii ih ^Iki tint ib«t lawt uf tbr Bil>' 
lic>i GTiriciaot bM bfco dnmctiiiv wid neiEAtive But th«r« n « w«r pov^ble t»^ 
twiH bMb naadftoinu vhJch m-ny b? cillrd pnniii^^ cHt>oini Thit pcvilii^p crili 
dvraalUmpU tfmtiriflr*iaftd ih*?vrfy hi* an4m«ampKot th*-nlO r*liainn, ii attvmptfl 
toonnpr#bMid t&e belief ot ilip onbodot acii fcri«ru# ir in ili« urmc of 4ri«j)ce^ 
L fi od nttooal And dear ibousht, RcUiht'n !i cermlalir not a mere fraud or a vjda 
iJX^thm. it it AS idc«l wbicb developed ajtltii*11y vnt M ccct^iu aocdt of ni«a And 
lb* oc«u!itioti« of tiKiDly Tbai nlifpc^ut idnti, MpQcLolljF tfav idoit cd Ccd tin Eh* 
counic pu«4t vtbkb rppnuanu fba mcral lutbctily, >.r* no rnarv ncHoinn, it proutd 
b)r ihvir karvival, ntitt tbiw i*li*> fii»]ipvir in avt'liMifin ^hnuld nul Iw dliiuT fn thr f:<cT 
llui tberv in winettainK icixxl, HmrthinB irutr. >uincihfnie kvcEl adaptnl lo surroand- 
\mfjt in ttdivton. To tio^ tbnR «lrd]?iols<d injtii ond ictJodTwaa vrbkh tuDiiiiuie Lbe 
liffl cf rtfligioa b noi nkcru avgaliTv cmjripim. Heie poAiiv« criiifi«n. and ii is aoi ai 
alJ iKOwfltT for tboae who aspire m (liis dirvctton. 10 bvlttve in any hiatoncoi 
dnra. or tn ipf!CLa] r»velaiicnf^ or in pn^ptirc^iH. or in ihp pers^nnlity of Uotl. but 
Kliaplj ID tnwt in ttmh. Truiti l* the only wiy of i.ilvntlon t\cn rJloiij^h tt (nAy 

The DOQluiUoi Ibr biodk aliciv ihal lh« lUadpoinr ol ilie amhur doc* nnt Wad 
btm ro IliH Edbi iraiFs oE ih« nalurai du^'alopniimt ol hi* rtligionr Sn, lor iD»r:incv, 
Scdomon't nricuuhum is ticullrnily cimir:iilf*r| ivitli Eh* npirii which nDtniCwtfii it- 
9f\t in ibr Judgm n« xvpll at iht> f^fiphrtt Tb? auchur cif Ihn Jorlfm w:is an niil- 
apoiA tbcutnuc d«mocrAl "Hv liicrall) pours oui hi» abbgiicac«(d Uie tnoQ- 
arch^<ial aati-ibeocricic imtEiiaiion in norrsiinc ih« siory oE the firil giDTpcr Abi- 
m«loC&, tho sett L)[ OidccD. . . Untirel) diricruri on ihc UhriUi^o and ifoAtaaty ol 
iJio itt^ tppeodicfs, mdeatly vritisn by another ouihor. who etincs fan aoifnosity 
to tba 4»HVt«ifc fomi of em'Fmnipnf hy saving taor limn 'la tTiuRs dajs ihnre 
wa> noMnit tn Iwad.' to vbicb hn .idda tKricn ~«vitry man did wbai aacmod ti^iit 
is bis mftht'"(p- «61, " The ScJomcnic rtbica i> a connnaaLary <m the U«aic 
vibicA an by mion tindvntood. - r Maa'H hnavrlodga of eibienl doctrina i* idon- 
tKj4 «i<h bis ka^vlMljtf fif l^vl'i moral arinbutH, and all mor^l obhgalion baa its 
roM fra Ibe Motaic Cn^-idH " Acrr»rr1>n|E to Solonum "»iarinrn havri iipnn 

and rooted in che f«r of JchD\'#ib with ihe rei'eatpd raatrrlat before tb^m isas aJI' 
4USiiBca!. Ailbuul dity foiibr^r ipcviat uiridrs uf a/iy piirpbcU This peculiar rS' 
twoaLa^n brcuftbi apon bim fha treof propbais axd rmbbli" {p^ tiiV 

Soma f«vi«-4er» <4 IV \Vi»'s booh will fwiibably Acfl fauli wllb him that b« 
has UkfD liilW Lf any sfcouni al ihc muliii of mcwlfrn tiLblit^ii immtguiooa And 
thl* fca a fflrvoBs fault in oui timaa where U ucma 10 be nu«niia1 for a scbolar and 


rttft ucicrtr. 

jinrhnr tn hav# rMi^ lhi» v«ty Ulisi Vhin^ft piiblifilUKl -in ji vahijtict whU^ ati acquaint^ 
«nc« vriib ihv viifvt gE tlifi denial otA nuihottiir^ ii c(ii»idiTr«d unnecnuiry . ti 
4ppQiJB Ibai Dr. Wivr did aot int»Jid to pTcwal bit \ic^^ 91 iiillclsmi <■[ ftftd 
bin annnin to ibe laicai biblical in\«iiBMioD» Ii cn«r«vttt be ihu iuU tto4 
bimlliftr With TOboy of ihtm. GnatmR Diit U bv a tiuh cf Ui« baok It U, owctf- 
ihclns, rrlfeshm^ (a ut ru rind ati author utu> bat actiiAlly roi^ sntl ei» ou^l^id^ 
fAfflllUr «lth Ml thf^Dldiourcvt Dlibrtubjcctbcls wTliin^ upon ignc 

Tut FouxD^rtON^ or G»(mjCTitit l^y fidv*ar,i r. Ditva. Cambrtilje iKi 
Ddgbtoa. Udl A Co. ]»gi 

Thu <A<irk i«djvldtd Inio ihm pbrci. thn hriii cmntiiiiin^ iiif h <]cf irinca o| pay- 
cbolo^y tnd U^gIcoa Ibi^AUlbof deems- aojnd julcI ukCuI toi \>h puipohci. Ibe4ac<idil 
cibiliitini; thi: *utbof'> ">ubtccli«c theory of ijQi»iiclr> deduced tiom the ivso fua- 
"diimcntAl ooQccplv /r'fiV<^4 and tit'^t'rti" nod Ihc third ' i>n tbc apptiubilitjr ol 
'*tbi« I^ovyoing aut^Ktivv ytomplry Ut ihv y«omatr}' ol malfrinl k^ucv/' 

in hit yiTf^»i'r ihr ^tilhjvr t-nprm-jw hin rlriirr th*! lhn«p whn mtifiKi* hii work 
ihall " cimvidrr cM4?vortc-iM> " (vriAtn quFtiloni rebiritifi lo his ihror; oT dcrtmiloa. 
bo ilu? (ioJiniuonti and vdona pjracrJbed by bim. u> bt> projlt of propoAtloa» Jirul to 
ibe "«bicciKV appbMt^unt" uf his ihrn: axiom) 

G«om«tr/ taty be Mudivd tor twu duiiiaci purpcmtd. lasithpr <r\ uhich aecw- 
u.rily iavolvM t^ oihcr Urtloiii thw iiiu iM nutity ihv diKifil tc* ol th« J^pc^l 
iJiciilEy It it plainly \ {utrtt mntbnd n) «Tudy fo [virt- nivt rh» d^finitinnt. atifim*. 
|io*iu1att<i, |]iiii)r«inH, prcJUlam^ ukI difitiuuHUaiiunit itf Euclid or any simUar ten- 
bx)k- Praciiul rraoiirccfl and KromciricAi infcrmadc^ii can be acquired much Lel- 
l«r »d mor« mpidly br a course of mMbanicaL dnwinE ^ith h^re «nd there a maro 
or !«•■ lcio» nplinnlion ol the K>^undt and rcaBoM Lhat A'ajTim Ihe ff«om«trie«i 
dfkctrtnsi. ihui ^Y intant of fb« Kucltdlan cour» Under wicb a ntechod ct uinrne- 
llon tbc ftLulcTUi would nirtdy fccrt £il> rc^l doDbt a» in ch? irnib erf hikucunictricftl 


Btit wbiiti: ibc pArxoiouDt jjim u thv tmLniDft oi ihc reuihiii ihfi EuGhdum riffor 
U nil imporlEtni- Honcv tbu peri<jf (ion <jf th^l uvthod by Ibu dikoovvry sod cvrbfi- 
«sUan nt Ihe nlilfntie ^jroufld* on which, nnd thn princEpies liy which it mny li» 
iiQfdhlRLl liymitntHl iCHlIy Mncl in rm^iVAiiry atvX iiiTiciViiL Hrvjufrnci* vilhouc prnunifi- 
tkuu^rt lolljwy, i»Hti <?b|ecl of ihv nical mtrnientctDt miKerm losdvncc. lopbUoHjpby* 
and Locuhiira in f^nnoiraJ. For il is svvll Itnown that hoMcvfr Rood art accoudl di^ 
jnvniary teeometr^ mny kivc ol itt oDperfttruGlUtD 1^ rtpporis ^vqq of ite (oUBdA- 
liont orpaLl Vftty tar tram uii^fariori' 

KcfieaiDd and iirenuout cITortt hat^e b«cn mndis, and by [be mi»i compttent nf 
our IHC? 1*^ dtacuvn HJ^d i^ntifY [lie Uuc hUtc of ibt; ujic i^i inipn.! Lu Lbr two- 
meincfti CouodntiuDiH ia i^rdci Ihtil Ihc ^luilt cdifii;c cjt ihnt tcicncc ilull di»p|«} 
dirouflhOdl Ihe vrnte thoTuuLE^iyom^ oui»uiiy nnd tu^civncy iHai diiCiAB^Ahay it u 

b^oK hKView!i. 


The 4UKbor ol i^ *ork usdtr Tvvi«w b piniHtdod ih4i hp ii tujw iibt« io pei-' 

"buMi fctfih in Itiift f^xjk 4 /'^^/W,^ uMtfri ud Clui OMUcquvDlly lb« more h u 
"diuiLSKl and cnildwd th« morF trnnlf iifll it brcotnp «iuhlUbcd ' H« tal» 
bb MJiiul upoa L«vo fuiudjiTiea;*] ccmcvpci, f^'^^i'tr-n xd<X -Vrr-Y/iv. ubicli he (IcAdca 
DM ciptiviltj tml " impli^alv ~ Tbii \adi lu la coDiMcr tut tnt qucvtiu) 4Ad bu 
ibecry ol dedmiioo. 

The onilwiE4uiiicai9 thjtl iovolvc the foundAliDOa vi deinciii^i'y ueuuictr)' -nrc 
Ruijilir' if B'^i wholly, tba«e whicb tovaUv the gcncfAl probtcraa ol dcfmiEion, Sow 
A d|&B(»D ife Ibv enlif citioD of ibc purpon vl h tattim by mviuuL cf a iiEjitiun»ni «r 
ft OMMpincy oF «tii*fnii»u nrmEftiry and «uR)ci«*nl tn That itQrf Hiir umvt arv 
connHDniB ahsri^uiriy nrro?vuir> for lEw rnrniiiicn of »ny fUt^meDt. <io (hai ibe 
abotv dofnUdaQ of a def ciiioii mar bv mtAinl Lbaa A dsliniiioii U the cvnifka- 
ikn (it ihc pUEpori ^f one Dante by tnmt\9*:-{ other nanim, ncCHa>ir> uid ^ufficlcDl 
ta«eflify The purpon of iht c«c deiSncd. lividmily (h?n, <iefritiioD con only load 
itft bum ftune lo unw in nnooritDe proctfK, or to tome uodsflaiCil* imm^ or to 
tome nifnr thai i4t^ ^ hr-tv v> l^iv ondeAnctt . and the f^uoi^i^C nrifei OQ what 
•cfft cidnkitin ihiUl VIC tftkif out »tAr>d id ulliouto Kfuiiiidk? 

Omt imtUryr untnrrt* Uiia qunf inn a* toUibwc . " Th* pn^panndar of ii vtntliFic 
"Ibr'^' ilk M"l "f cntf Thf I'lficcipvl (ri tmch hi* riuiUr% u> Hpvftk. il n onlv nrttrviciry 
" Idt bim lo ddiii<^ tbv ttMxn t^u^mi to bi) Kif^ntt ur ilioaii Lu which lir vi^Tie-s Io 
"tnacb p«catiar [pnmnc*, Ilo nay tbercforo aibutdd Lhat th« noaaiitieii of &1I 
" oibcT wcTtk are knoKc to hU rKidi«r« " 

He then propovada that "all thai ii loxicUty required For Adcfiniiion la oM 
"or noTB uBcrtiooa nlih rtfcard lo tb« word to be dvAtied of IB* actTibutea." pro- 
vltfad ^' iFu^^ ire noi demomtrabFy tnrompatihle <vlth faf h cihcr ' 

AUhoEigb ovr author oacoivoa ihM logtcU eo^poteD(fl raqulio no moiv ibi^B 
Itiia lor t 90od rlefiniriun. he yei j^att no ta nnurir, that " il Tha deAnltlOQ it lo 
"loffra rbe hali ol i dariuctivf vlntcr it it fiiFlbtr advluhle Ihai ihr Hurriiun* 
"tboaM be ^udr^ciHlETtl ' viid Ihni ' wlictc it in iihleijibJ Uj iteliiiD h term wbcmr 
*' diooaiioa in elrtnd) knci«zi. il ia further Ticc«*«firy not only thai Lh« ucMTtJi^inii 
" thoii^ be coniaoa1> accepttif ^i truii with rmpc^t ii> ii. hin that rhry nhniiM ii- 
"•nici 'be mtanincr ol thr lerm Maciiy to iu flcc*pJcd rlimnTahfln, nenher tnort 
"iinr Itt. ADd ftbould do»)ta ihe i^mplnt rn^mn^r ihni can bt dAl«Qd. " 

li u upon tlui ih<v>rT of daliniUcn ihai our aoihor raqu4*ta ol bit arittc« a 
"catcfionol ~ an«««rinhi*fi(^r ciiir«iian, " lio yr\ii af<vp( iT>e reqairemeci* 1 have 
" laid dom Car a toslcal flrAaUlon ' 111 noT pleiac naie whtch of ihctc you object 
" to, «fcy yuu iibjecl lo il. Hod «ki&l ^ou ivuubl prupnc tv aubvtilulc fuf il.T 

^are n it 4 " aiegorir^al ' aniwcr thAt li mrumed and vacr nita tt U ihr 
toMVtr fd dcAnttion dui la put Ld ib«u«. we wiiJi that vur amtiaL: Imd beat taorv 
dcAoiie nod tiad »«de ^ propoaition* beilcr wiBah>le. for we rauu proEpeat ilutt wc 


THK «oyrsT- 

ri?l£arrt rtiir«f<lv«t obl^sfd to anunvr to what tr? van tml c«iif4iv« lo be ihe antbor* 

>Vt Ju nui conceive thai lie iciEArtli ii u iifLfjfcfrr to Ji dclUtJiioc that the dv- 
nittiig ttMcriloD^ should bt ciprcMcd " ^n ib« slaplcst manacrihjkt cut bedcvutii," 
We hflve uIao lo Uk« hiA uae of tb« #cc<d ' ' rMirici " at imporiinf complMroa u 
*A«J1 u limiutiuei, and bit uaoof lli« wonl "nquifvmaou " sh mt«Kli ng <xmdk Upa* 

ir w« are riebi in oui tiULlvrr^tAnitinc of ih« iD«iiitiui!» of our author bv cimtt 
^]amt'jnj »ans Jinu the dflAiihlloii erf a asmo ihcit hai no dcauiAituu already 
l(iiowt> end thai is noi to form lb? baah of o dcduciivc flciencc, Bcouid ibe deAo^ 
Uon of n DDmt thai hM no dctioiniion already btvown bet which n Ic form the bui« 
ol A deduf ilTp HieocD Thir^, Ihp tlonnlili:!!) cl a name rhii hiu a ri«fioiATion already 
kcioifn hut wttJcb It not tu form lite basiit <tt * ilcduciJVE acEcuce, jJQe! lourih the 
deliujlinu iJ h Uiuui: thtti liiUiE iltUkutnliuu n-li&idv tiiuwu mid l» to Ltriii llic lirii«jii 
of JI <icdi)i:tivc ncicncG 

[n t)ui Idunh oun our atithcr dtfomic it t«r|uitit* lor a logic:^l dpHDit^nn thai 
Ihwv HhnU fin maflH ima ^r mom iMDrlionn vboiit th# tohjvci of dwliniiion that an> 
uoi dvinoTiNirably incoRipnHblf wiiti on* innlh^T, thflt are Imlapendeni of one am- 
Olbo", ihii iire toininonl¥ iic»pL«l u Irue ia respt'ci lo Itie subject de6lwd and itul 
*-realricr' ibe mconiDfE of the n^ine under dcfini tion atxtij loif>*coop(od do&oiA- 

It aaDfn* Fo uh that l^n Icui requlTemeiif ditpenaei vttih (he n«ceali^ Of AH Ilia 
T«ikT iTuw hKvr proviflnl an 9H«»<T[ion nr a i^l »l MunloniL ihnr dr>ln f>et eodl- 
pivtv and: IJmil ttiv [rtnnijlnc ft Ihct nubjiKt ut definiliuj] caaicllr (o iu propsr d«ii(^ 
ulion tbil ii 9 tUfitiiiiojj in fuU. It tinplifu iliM ibc ttc^iiiniE Mncrtignt ure «U ccD' 
Bisleni wjlh one tovolbor, nnd in <iHe nn/ asncrtinn is dvpiindvni uptin nne or nert 
of Ihe THt lh«1 ia a circumtlDno) whol!}' imraai#nal. iJrtit f^^ tmitiU nm tttcttmt. 

AjEAm, wTiAt It II io be »>inmon1y afcepTed ;i5 True > Dom Io)eI^ aomp«neaee 
• depend oa the nliertnc luiet oi our knowledge or on tbe fluciuailooi of cplnlno ? 
Wa> « whale lo^JcalU detuned hk a fiah hefc^e %ve learned tbaE Si waa a mamnul ? 

Tbe Ihird rue allocs nf ihc appUcaiioQ of the loaie cumdeat u tboi mado 
upofi lli« fourih, Bui ia lliu tirsi and u^coad aui» the doetntiet dt ihe aulhot w 
wall &a hia tuppfwitioDs arr i*ry tiotahle Hesiipjv>»ea i lie anomaly of Qainaa xnth- 
oul any known ileiLDtaliou, \yy which he ma>' mesa ihow which have n^i applicaitofl 
whnlevrr In iispniil ri^ ^iich he in-Lip^TUnilH tlial Lhcy may he mivcq h l»KicaI dnfi' 
ni(ion by nAkiEiR one or isriou* consiaCcsi auertiozia na Applicable Ic thoni or i« 
tbeir aitribai*!. 

■'Tb*prooJ of the pudrtinB vdll b* found in Ih* lurinB. " "'' "^"^ anihor »yt- 
So lei US siy ihfli a trof i mAV be perceived whenever our nEietitJon \'i rscited, ud 
ihai liofis flrc i>f mulllludLDCiU!! viirleiy, Dl> iheae aueruoDs coastiLuiie a lo^kal 
dcAnicion ? It i> a prime r^uitite tor a definLlion ihat the deliaJnE aseertion or a*- 
aortiona «hal] have a meaning, which ia the aame aa loaay thai nAin» mutt bff 

liOttK KKVlKWifc. 


ifcm wtiicb it iDt«K5vd lo be Uflfiii«<l' la «iIict word^, B^aw nni nol nonwoM tnuiil 
be pcoduoiHl ia xhw mind Ihal contiitvn th# lirbniiinn Ptrbapt. b^wtvor, our 
aniMr fDifin^lt nich ^tinlf a« eleciridry. or spirit, or tn&gy. 

HvcauKol thfi CQn»(3pnirJon« ahow iodivaiitd andoiben ^e oumol UccefM the 
■■Iteor't ni^nirpfTiMiH fnr » loffkiral dHiniT}cn u a whitla. Tiomir ol ihcm ar* Ea 
icme ol till cam unQrcraurv vhil^ ulied loiceLher Du^y tuppLy no Cirv meuM 
whncb; tiraolivlh? H^'crj] piubknucJ UcJVailiUiiL- 

TbrautPiurt lublecilve theory of «e(*rTictfy ii plfltnly ihc ouigwvflti oT hUeon- 

Rticr^ihinf of caa>ca|iiAncic in hinoDay depends upuD Ihe wofit of tbis con- 
«r|>t ai a fHRivtrit^ E^dnditiDn. ConiiU]pri4i,( thi^djqADLgvBwmt Itint hns beoa 
«ii4lM iifn^nihit mir'tpl by miniiTriiiv vrriiTv ol givwt gt^tiififncal rank wp nAlu- 
nll>' look lor CEMiiidtT^iiloiJi icmOiQL: lo rrmuvc ihe tUicndli tbai bai befnlli^n ihM 
■Mkm Unie^ul boivf vpr of iha kfc HtkL ilii: iikat (hiliiablt; ki of lirciilAt defiai- 
lionk DiriM^ijua ii dtllncd by 0,Jm;<LoD in ibc lqiaI 4iitrftctU]$ vmy, (bun. 

^ A dlrrciioD ro»]r tkc tonorLrrd lo be iadicALcd by aauiin^ isvci puiaLjt aa ib(« 
trvOiun fpaoi tiae t^lbff olhcf-" 

113nf4lit]flc a| ?h« wrpl (UnicMon ff'r u»pin i;rtuneir> b frt(»lrf! in iiHsm- 
imi^xirl An El nil 111141 ly UKitl il mtMi» at hiA>x iin-a^ diMiuci l»Jl clowly 
bvod^Btd iKHionif which bacomc confiiKd in ihotiicbc u;d ^xprcmioo tmlMs the 
aul v>]jcitoi» cnrrr ii EakDC In (li^iiiiKuUli ihum Whim wv Hp«fil! of (be dirociioa 
44 OHO fk^ml ffL>m nnorhiiiT trt n\ th4> din^Eu^n irrm titir p^int to anodivr wo moaja 
ihp ttniifllil oA'ttfiu or fron^nss or tn-ans which out bran to llM- alter : la othnr 
vordft A f d«]iom uf i&piirttUciik Add sir»til£hl mrdULon \Vben ftjcalo we tpnik of 
lW dinvligo III * muiiEiii *c iulciiil ibr iciiicbfjJLc lUuiKbE wn>Do( iLk |iruicMikm, 
wlucb u Bot % nliitun but an AtChbuTc oJ (he luotloa* Whsa tliU iiK«in we «pnk 
dj iha tHrf<t»n of 1 \iv.<t vc mDcQ iti htraigbE i>^^ ccoapartd or u ct>inpaf nbl* 
■ftb oihvt aciual nr ^i^Bnibln CJirrellfiErH 4^'bicb Ek ai^Aift ■ ft'lMlioa but noE iwoeva- 
rilf tke an« nJAtinn w tbut tlmt nliiHLiii t]<t*rpn iwo pt^iritt. 

Ib all thr^t xawanttiff/i tbn mrticn nl itrughla'Mk » ioi-cilvtil, and ccpuI^ u* «a^ 
in Noi cri firaiftaiJi.iHa bmf dirrviii''*^ aiir] ihon ijjmrijija srnti hoidvjg fanrin TlukiiiEbi 
tbU M*v of the ttvrd. unskir a noun ctf it. mi tbii a dirrctioa woobl laiead tbe 
utuc B « kXfftlcbtPtCB and no aore, il mijcbt obbila a ubiCu] jEc«motric (enn «xid 

Tad«nfl« tiweiiUi;bi fiftl(^fit>p aUnvltint : A lior » fl tpuv boundary tbai 
tnd«f]9tldj Irtng tint nor oihenvtse of ioy curriii- Tt»n, a riirotCloB it u Mam 
t^t b«lm>u ibiT piiiath llut tfuiiad Aay BNhigiiecI pAfcel cf II do c<i|>)' of taid 
pftTcel UpraJble^ 


11IC VlOBt[ST. 

Dui ffircction purporU V> oiir aocKnr the locooil pi tha aiuniosi abov* m^ 
foftlik n-iTiK^)'. ihtf md^AAiif itmiitht voom nf tba prococ«i«i of n moticii. D«Aaica 
fUrcvU rl a direclion Ibut undetttood am irlvolTCsl with tvciori 

New the nMloa of nralj^mfrH u «.fr«r (he iictiria« oJ pomi nd Mnt rhn no4 
fuadAineniii] <>nf oE gDoniriry ind Ilic oqc which a pilio&ifrthci ihc ini)»Z proiriinej^ 
ta^ abcful, ti in tlio iiitcnpuxr ificriii* (ml ji^v ilEfmiliLin u( ■ vci;iL'r vi ol Ihc lur- 
lioo nbicli oiir*tJthi3r ttecim w importunt. ,\ii siniisbtiit?** i> attribuinblet oiiL|r 
Tn Watm m^ ling thin^ vhicH » lino miv I'wjTn^cii it thxL** iki dlfftirBricd n'hvthvr 

Tbn lj AbiotiiiHy n«^ttiary belcTD thr* lonnilMiliiiT^ or lEeometry c&q bmbvUn^j 

Out Hullicir Jcfinoii ttrniglil liae tliu:i: " A tiraifihl Uae U« (W3lj0uou« >cr» 
■^oE ponti utitDding fr«m mch ol Ihem in Ibv avnc tW4> dfrocif oo*-*' Wliut ktn! 
i:if a ibiaQ a cnatinuoiE^ ■■(]«< of poit^tn may W uc trir C(>( ifild bnC a:h a point ii 
i:1^hn?<1 iri b* "J portLnii nl m^ll'^r -.n nm^ill th;it l<>r Ihr- |iiir[mM- in hHitil vnnjitin» 

"of po«ldocu wiihJc It may bc> nri^lccied " u« lake it tbu tx unSx^ti line U » om* 
limioni »mit9 qF parUcIca ^f maiiar. The "pufpuov in hand " la ih»cas« mativf 
tiOQfKi bn the purpoAr af lEconiQlrr, 

In ddmln^ nn aiigle our (xilhor flnt Uj»» down ihal "The dlflerrnc* l>«iw«ca 

"of »n inrlin«iii-in tH<-Ali*d nr lUi;/^ 

CuutklirriDB ibm [| jb (Iit ifuniiutf cr Hir? amburlbjii rsvtfty BiriiiKM lii><!' Iiastn-o 
oonimty dJT«ci>cna Ibo m^^mrt of wlio» inclinatjoj; 15 no ant^< of ont huiidraJ 
aod t4|thly dtfirnH. ntt jdUtsiDB a itotlhoasT southwesi line lukliiiE an mjI w»r laic 
and wondar if tha iijjbi ha.nd iij^i^gf an^tU it r^aWy tvii on^lH rtcconlmg to whotkef 
or nol ih(? direcEloiit boih pAH fo ihc tefl or hoih fnin 10 tbc rl^l or ^a«i one h> 
tbc left and lite oLtier bi ibr rlt^bt 

Wcie tlibt 411 Lirdiitnfv wiEfk wc raiKlit rci^Hnl il .i^diie ([> the auihui iDfiotJce 
ihe laaar cioccllcncich «rliir.1i cbnmcEcrite it, in npiteof the dfJcctt uthich *R ftodica- 
Bbl on our fiulbttf *vid«it1r rulitt. tli# aramvnt dijEnUr "f tha tirpjc chalUai^ 
anil il« tinjfithr impnrrann- rlrmand^ nnnparin^ rrrjfum, Mr U'hn ofTeri lo a- 
«TniCT Ibe worfd on Cbc fciimd;itiDn>t of ifrcirnptry dr^tfi his Kword and Uzrowi jiuttf 
tb« scjibUud. iLuiJ 1tkcadQb£hi> clidiDploubc ivillvcoiK loKCcpiADy favor, prittnf 
only »Eich Jtbcccu aa he aha) I lohc ni tU? poiDt of on cSlcftcr of trcfttrntnC that »n* 
qtiort n[J compeivAt and cfludiJ triiiciiTa, 

Slringvat JU on tvch tarmH n( codTVhI aa aulhor wha u a worthy compviJor m 
Tbft l^bl r<f ipncimftirir rmciirrb r-tn If whN rnnrmi with ibfm m tbi> |ii*rrvpTiri]> tbait 
ib« vary ntuv ccjnditiuu* ajjply in full forcr^ (u tbu DotnineniB of his cniki^ 

Th« aiiihor it uodoubtodl/aQ able miA und a ckue ihUker. Itc fao* <unc«n- 
tratod bia luad upoo a wort^ thai it -worth ibo onntjsy of a Ufciiinc Bui vr tauM 
confab our jad^nwdL to be thai in I'ptio of hit c-^ipai^iiy ^sd px-idcnl dcvoHon halMa 
coTM ihori of Lb« high THulf to which tie hikfi Afljiifcd, fia>. 

ftooK n^.vtsyr^. 


We fanv iHTfl a chuinditE iiariAtivc br Ific; w^H'^nami I'lufnooc ai ilur L'pi* 
itf o4 U^cv cJ liii ttail lo ihc l^lrt of MoiKpetlier. upid-ruilteii ui i;nAf rne^ujre 
la nmluB ihc perunal ■i;i|iiaifiCiiic« of M DLun^ic the cnttr in ihv AVvir^ J^^tUn' 
^^^I^H/ £(i ilif adthar'fi werV ' ' 1^ mati^Mv bniictt \» mMi«rv vtvAnt« ' Hit dcafflp- 
^Hon fftvrfl i>r ihe fttu which nntfJCHl ibe il\th ocatmu)' of the Unlveriily ct %(iirI- 

V^^raocc L bfti u ?kl D<ltxRal viyt thai he WiLi morv cutivui lu become acfiiiiiinlcd 
*ith moQ tbAii vjth pldceiv wlifll hv telln uk About Lb4 lormflf Kill b« Iha man hi- 

^^F Thr AEibOT. vllh th« roitifwCKiDh of 1j1» ir>ur. C<Jtil4 n^l iiii»i Nancry wjtllioui 
aMippwcMwf "ibp cartas ia ifi* icifbico of hypaoliBtn" thm. An vroDuai td 
vh«i ho Mvand hcvrd litv^ th<^ author il;iv oppntivrttiT of ivpmciiiK "Th«[ bpdoe* 

^iM rcfioH lori^tfolfiHS on iwakm^ ^it rhirjicivhiiiic of pnifnunJ hjp&odi^ and thai 

^^hfvrwttco in aifUDsi tbtcdicxfityof ^riFTiinal «iiAj^irr¥i nnim tbo«iih]«cr ti<nxa. 

^^UUly liKlfnrd ~ Tbrf^inai MnoipcMicmtminpiiCR] utth A rc1i)Eiou« wvkcr m Ibe 
CAtbfdrxl. d«rinK nhkh iliv ttubir}). M Jc C^ljf i^iv*, pruni:hn) d scin(> u libntiil 
>b bsr, IbM >L DcflxruJ ifainkk the time i» *riUing v^bvti Ihe diucb will dciitoa-' 
ttntH thai Mo«A« wi« ihu |iici;iit»r <jf Danvm- A( ffni l.'itivortjtr rvc«pEfi>D which 
lollouvd. M D«J|hi>uI Bini^bt nat ^nianit Iha pio(aah>rh li>r hia ln4D<l M- Daariqc, 
wVnn b« kmri ftftiirfft Ahi»R fn! Ti# bAnI Imni bifir mimflll. Ihjn mnd dark, bol 
QiM CoaniL ia Mccnbum with tbi? i.r>naJ rulv jet such cau^i^ ihui btf wan cill. robm 
Bod (aIt tn thr couf K of iluir i^ibsA^itcnl convriFatrod^ ]h< iao ["luff ?w?rt mule 
ihuiunt coAfrildKrt. ht. Diwr^c (troieMtas itui hu (tvc viXBiigB *aa muaic. Add 
tbAl he vAs (mparinf a vork ob ibe |Mf<t4ici)o£^ of iho miuicUa : while M- DollHimf 
iaJ4irct«1 hw IriKiI thul lir »*** %hirot ti> reply t» ht> crhicumM " J-t iTMii^nv EinMa 
n la Dutir^c' «-hujitp," aiitt ihiit fir «imM thrtiw Ihr Knt^fR*! Iifhl4tfi rbf ivigia^ 
nrkkti WAS idiH vlvoaTO. ul 1jf« jmil dratli. If tlv frnhil i.Uvfs Proh^sur tss ilo 
CW W in»y br ibr JirM urmp lb« Vn^At rcfertcd |q m bi* o^-n wodi : "Tho 
ducrr^vry t>I ib« caiiw »i d»ih coald noi fail to Attun* iba immormliu of lit authof 

a BkiUdil a^iflB It Ihe CBiue of .t diwaK h kaowrt R a already ivicu^nprerl 

MuaEpdhcr via buujfed ilaiini; the I^ick wliti ibi? picH^cv i-l HdmhuJtc. t<i 
nr^Dfln tiol fc? DKbcvol ieitUias^r wubM hii-c bvcD cdi6d?il iLc (uti oT >ffCjLiuuc in 
Ur vuRic ol the tc-nifpt noIicniticK Nnmbcl^aa he, nn tbc trnc hctn ol cbr o&- 
cnioa, aaU vhAa ai th* iifliciil Fvcvptiou^ an ihn Prwidral c4 ilic NapiMic 'hikiDf 
hii bjMiil aivl t^tng4 trv (raoTiiv w-ptiIi tonrncinr tfvhl^ hfi«w1_ llrlmhnlTr rwvivnl 
la rHpDOflp a poltci ovaricn of af^ntve. M. IMtxrof mH «rf Ih t cocsniial ipfH; 
ta iIk noltuiv ctf /otikiKy. M Sabjtivr whi> hu 4 Ubotalof^ al Co[Dr Tlifltr 
virwicw CrvcviLl nvrc la lynipuhy ThcT iijEmtl in allttiiini; Jro-dooi not oo\y 1^ 
IW P^BTt^r inhnati *&d lo htlerkir aaloialA utd plonit. bci even to 10 called Moi. 



Ei:tr!niM , liaviiij; 4rdvis1 4t bS« vicwi fnim rclUciuuA t-nntiilcraiiotii* Hi; ciCfd U^ 
DALirinc ■> tByidfE. "Tbc rcivu vf clcfciirtmium iit noi in tlm iibjCLtivc vn>j|]| : it* 
hmpini etiiftudk ittbli over caFurc orily ufbr bavirig tocrn (ucrcificd ot-or iWufthi 

cvi'lrntJy nil " idrlAritTRiiniHl" tiy nxirnf Hr h*4Arritjr tirmpjihrvi^l wilh ih# tfndt-nu 
in all ihdi dvmoatira lions of f iTcx^umi . altliuuiEti ooeol ihotn BHUinvd i scmewhit 
aerluus characlcr Dinint; in the open iiir mtli M MilUud iFi« auUi^jr <d ^n ailkle 
in llm AWff /^Ai^t^/ki^tn on non Euclidmn jn^fluyuy. he Mm prepared ti> ulk 
mELthflinntkA, The «inToandLngi w«riD dw much Corbloi. however, And in rccslJiaf 
fbo ujctc he cfiti, - Tfi The ricvil wi»h phiionfiptiy iild mBtherantir* i I cinncii rocall 
whaE uc tahl , In tay rcmemlnAfLCn. t rve only btoumln^r fsca, 1 bur attXy tUo io- 
dttiinci InjmLk of^ty/' M, DdbiAuf> lympalhacic lunirv w ft1;(jva ts ibe f^c^ 
^hicli Hr (ftxirrl^i itioi wild unlmrtU tn C(nnfir>ciiir'nE mwn (iA<^Fnnrf«fT]ili«rwiih him 

Oup of thv principal cbjoci« i:if th^ auihorn jiTarn<^y wai lo «v» M. Gibrial 
TitrdCv ''ODeot th4?inotl7iro1ihrEiniii>njiitiolpnhL]fiflEitn l'runc». it cot m bur«p«.' 
vhn riH^rir>t ai SorlM Alter qnoitnii pftwioH fnoir an arfjclr nf M 1\-irde oti So- 
dal Daivlnbm, whicb iip[icaicLl in Oie jT'itiw /'*ii\>i(i/A4</ftf^ M DdUcnf twndiltt 
ihui nothbx I* more alimciivR and m ibe mtmc tjvic mere fnt;>^in|t iIiar the fud- 
inn ^' ^^' lArnrIci*, M. Tjrdti in "iho locumr^iiiva Itinl ciLvncB jrr}D to the end of yixir 
joameT aero* couuitin by litriH wild, a^ricuhiiral, mduKirinl, piclu»«iL]ue . but 
witliniir giving yniy limt^ rr r^ml aii<1 admin*," UrifiBfriiSB la M, Tarria'^aciib* 
vritJciBmi of LumtTuw and hii iheoTiui. iIit? nuihur sayrt. ~ ti ii luii ihU he Birftm 
thff pttfudoHbinkcr \hith furinidjvtilc bluw^ btii be miiLtn bim diijp Kftfiliy Ic ihtf 
groand. " The 1-rench publi<i»i ■&« in if^*t>iJkn ibc unrcc of *i>cial life. aOid ho 
hoi btfon lonff epjffflgod m devulcping the idcfl, lu the i^roif impofunt* d' which M. 
Oe1bft-rjr br'art ^itrt^M althnu^h h^f oh^nctn Hi rhi* iiiie uhtch M 'I'nrclf^ maVt^ cX 
icrmn r^kpii fnwo mj*rhentftlii..H. pbynicv nud biok>jf>. (u riproA bis* *Licii4ajfioil 
vjcwH On tbr: ijumiiuti »f frivcvii]] ih^rir ^vj(« ek; aiciccMierji ^bbcmub iW l»itcr 
in A dflirrrainUt. hr IvMu^i^ in p* n^l rt^pc^nnlliibty, 4^ ihe gmunJ oJ pemoiinl idcn- 
litV . ihr dit^MB^ p«rvcm or the mndnian >i no lorrgvT him«vir, in w>ucb thtyddfr 
fron ihp cnmiifaJ. 

We fan tfiy nothing ol M D^lbaufi vttlr (o ih(f faconi f^ ihr? I'am 11er« 
Wit» (vptcim) A Lix^rd wbiuh <!ihplayrd. Mhcn ci^in pikreil y^\\h a Spaniih Ijtaiil la 
cnplivity wilii il. h* mjcb diflriencc iJi El^nrncicr jn caulil be loLnii LcIaccd Iw» 
tncn ch{4m al hazard, Tliii aiitlior concliirlt^ An amnAiof description ot (he lutnU 
tS thit iwD cupiiven by rvogiinrir-ii'lmit ih(*ir hittory Eo thif p^JiticiunK and tb«t hifb> 
riiint nf I'T^Tirp and Spoir, ^* lilii>Ij lo tKrr>w light i>n iKil ^t iln'pprjpJff^ihTirt'^ft'M 
We IcnvTT M TVlbfrut, whoar book of HVr!ii(y-Aire pit^n may bv aHid to b« ■* lull 
qI Inisrrriiirn niiittT t. an t'ta i^ i>f meatn with qjuiin;; hi* pmJscript , "On the il*)- 
iba-t ([me tiucs nppur 1 March ti?(ji| llteSpaninb lijjLTd hd> (iuolly cul oil hii^iM^e 
ChAfactur and IiUevvn id iba faitiiidpi nt thci French. Hfloctof imitalioa.'' U, 






B^ //tfpnitm Cruder, S. J- Froihufu ira EPrciij:Ai3 llefdci^icfac Vcr^ 

intltf of Po*itivi*m. which tTii irvipunrf in fA*Opnt i't>ttrt. N<v tj^. 
b « Jesuit uul IL 111 maiifr ol oaorsv Uiatalt Lh^Ucuhe idate« >tl 
the tlucUiim l)G CAplfliM aic npineotoi frum fb< tlADtirotal cf llumaa Cftltiolt- 
avn- Tlu booklet u n( GrMt itopofiiuuc Id w fj^r a» vvc Imm Uiruu^K il vhai as 
li<A Cathdic mind (binle« tr-f ibdl f4«tDt movem«n| ai phikflophy which lii^ 
calM liy th# o^UctivB Ti»we }>oellivHin Th« (mflbfid pur«d«it b^ H-fmatin 
Ibrr If mint rr-mEnm^rii^.tbfn Kr- ^Liln f<irt^ ind L^itoli't nl^i-iiwlAiilly wi Jh Ld tn| 
the *iir>OL4 philov:<librl^ ^ix'oii fm difmirlvc^ Ik ipt ixuilr}i;]Jt3il vhh the 4aU gl 
hb««fi optDian, yet bt a««v \\ niih nicli a divrttioD thai Romaa CathioUc* cao 
bc<!««te IhormifEbly acquEU tiled wJih vnlid«l vkviv withouc *u(!onnff fn iHeJr faith, 
llic bmfc cofHcVf ot two piirfi <tf Thp l^'u^riui^rn nt ihr <fhoor« in coiiom* 
tioQ wAthCAmii' «Di) nf ihc fulltvUiJc tncvemeiit cKiul^eonhnew^calK- Tho 

Hiul vf Pcnilm'iti,' *« l}uitnJin utila hiiTi, ih ciLAiricIfiikod nh 4 |iliilu1iij£ii;jJ jfEtiiiit, 

Alihovfh Iw hn4 chfiatfa thii ra^lirAl prciottion, vbich hE?A«v«rb« ab«nitanod wlf. 

lAd alUloliirl) hr fv(-Ar<lAl lh* prf«pa||Anc]d of th* pn4;tiv» phtlotopliy a« hit 1if«- 

HTk. all hi* tiilenit U> m tli'-mf^cimn nt ipficui mvi-tiiRadnn m (hp iil^oarr, hn- 

nrtcsl, and lltifaLuic ndd*. nnd the ednioe of (be Knoncb dkiti^aary rrmain« U% 

msio •chicvcjiicul. 

. Conitc: hid nd BominnUd a >ucce*ior wbi> ilhiuM in hi* pliicc Iw the I^iri^ttttr 

^^Hv /ini/itiii9M, ISttTf liul fdrldttf^I ibit honor on iLucount oi tiiii i|i]ArTclt wilh 

^^Cwnir in which ht> invrngly 4idnd wtth Madam' Tjiimf' 3^*111111 h*r ri'Kl>and After 

J Catn^'t draih y l^fiir? vav rJ>*atii1 an i t^inptinhry dlrrrrtor ni!K] hr hjVt k^pt ttui 

aKce ri'vTi a\act vibich Lie cundocit vtcb itinarlLililc d^voikn aa*} LiasclfubiiEas. 

AhWnuch wUliom i^L^pcriy binncir be propgw:^ uut %o Use (be poiilUUlic fujid* 

unlll he Ii0d>bawn bjoixk throiigh hia «4rk voriby uf ukicii; itirTVi, He ckeaoul ■ 

^HlBEiiy li^iiiK far hiEni-clF l^j H^^^ag lopunu to raiEhomfttiCB, :ind dat^w all tha 

^^Kv< of bit iirm* li> tb« muu9|{4irB(^iit 'iT HOil ib« pn^paj^HT^du for Ihti I'ntitit-r Churcb. 

^^■k K ^wotfEtTf dr« Aad^flrtnt. Am^ini. Robiavt. sad oibi»n— all of ibpn u ibn nv 

^^KiTM Ittinks sitariKo iv^pli?, \»joo^rT vcthuHLUili. and. lo utc an eiprcuive 

PHkericanisn, rcc^ilar crattkt Lack of space prcivnis lU from rc^ap^tuUiinjc (heir 

ctnmoi^mt, chinr ucramoDU. fcetivAl*. pilennafivi. (ntmoriulk and «thcr form* of 

tt Thrir H-holc bctianor provn rbat ihvy art and viH r«v»ir) tofidvl ifoKUtn 

idlfci aoit Jt larmld h»ve tjs«n wiser If Ihcy hid n»T Ttfi The rb«rrh 11 aM 

R iXMltrattCfiflbodiiiiy cnLmUuilcv in Lhi? (UHtivisitJi; niyxlf^ry idCointv'ti idta oF 

^' VifKivMvther" |l V'^r '1^^"| ivbich jicukJiux tv t^liKr i« Jsvtiucd tu tthn«l# 

inlercuntw b«lw«iin tha ieutt^ whild Audiflrcni. Lajdrfi|iin, and tbt DruliU) 

■lic& cloavljr to CoRit*'« vidw ■•in r*pn**Fn| paammm accEimilly conaivwl 


I HE M0M5T. 

uudcr llic Ctufho qE A vtrKta-nkuibci.'^ Gcacrnl Lcmw KLm h fm «s to aay "Wr 
pnicr to Ik ftn^Kcd Upon ivjili St Piul ^ ihc uWricf uuv fiithfulnn* ic^wjrd 

Auihftn^l d*i*nr1t 3|taiEi«t Lufillii tb# diplnmaiic iciion ai Cant*'* vith Itw C;«n' 

nal of tbr J«r4uit4 civtceniir>(E 3J\ nlliarre Iwrwtfpn iVmiiWJsni aad C«i1io]icnTn 
PcEtilvlim. be i^y^ invit«9 all who ba^'o c«>9a3 lu believe w GvU lu IvconiQ poea- 
CivUUp biiciEladuCM«tJUioMwboil[Ubclkv«b God ui luro CLibt>iEc», tbuaoiAh- 
ifiK nn jilliurjce pouiblt uf ihf dikcrplmei] A^iinsl lh< noa 'disciplined. 

II thb JoamL Canoral »«r hah tiL^m^Hulj- Ci)iU]d«rvd lll< obr h« ttOEild p«Th*p« 
hjiv« accBptV'l II; fnr rhur* ih tia dfiulit (but b* w^mlil I^ava jnA(t« Uie bMier hfttgtaa 
M uLl lli>' r1iH~iplmi* mv hlinuM sty i*, oi^ h'm mlIv 

The Eiiffliftb icfuup of Oiimi^iLn TcftiliviMs canBivift mutoly of Fr, H«rriK«. 
Rjefcard CoAg^rf^c^ Coorjif Eliot ikaA \iitt»»KUttwr Manwon. Tbv wcood poft «C 
iba br)4>h vhicb irvnUoF i^r* pmid^iniic rni7v«in*tit nntaiditof thv p4«iti»4la^«chixilf 
In KnjElnml. I^rontp, liprmaByatid o'her roimirn?* wilt lir Ipm intflTf^hrij ro ir^a- 
thill am! Amerlcui rvadan partly bocauie tbesubjea Abetter kcifiwD nibiHTi ponly 
btcauBC our ikLitlior U ^ppirenUy more UmiUar ^Eih hli I'rciich than viiU hi» 
HQiclitb AULii'cth. *Thc ftocood pAfE bE>^in> ^ilti J<>hp Su^ml Uill nod llcrtiert 
Sfcac4r. h mralJoni B^in. Lvwe*, CritnctYl, Muudnle^* Darwin. SuU^. NotEuma^ 
HukIhv, ] vTidall Citllcinl'i. viti^ ii tikaiichptl in (iiic^u Jmni but in unch * w*>- Ihaf 
iE appfjim )fni[Mi|tip A*( Fmrirh |irHiTivi*u ciuuidr ib« AcbivJt iirii Ruuilionn!! 
TitDC, Riboi. l'>?uJI^. Uuyuu, ChaHn Kicbei. J. Luy^. CI, firtuJitil. h»(1 Koljenj. 
1l ifl oorr«ilv 4Aid c/f Kiboi [hot bb dfjciriac of pcrsonalilv i* moM <b«rACMr- 
lAlic cf \i\ti I'Kwfl. The L4Dliy ot a ^cmonnlhj in Ike j*i:o don nof ^row ffMn kbovv 
downubuni* bni tram below upu'^irds. bui Unibur \p niifelakaD in layirutol Chdrl« 
Kkchvt, fhi^ cdjror or The AVt*<' S^^uffjifur. rhat he repr«uDtt about the um« Hni 
a» Tb- Rilrtil- Rjcbcf* publication ion Eetc^^lbk: vtifcntncnui In MhiiJi br coeiA- 
dcntly bclLnm, wotikl iirvfir l/c cciunlvn.iitccil bv HilM>i 

A:* ihc firit Gcrmiin poAitivisT mmcnEkined F.tiKcn DUbnnjr Itidil, Lmhk 1-uif.v, 
Vailiin^rancl Avtnanuii arw diapnafld of toffiBEbvr la Ebu mmt Icllowinn cbapter. 

The Lllilr chnpr« h^rlftl X<irJ^mfrint ip 171) tCTiwsHiiEof itvo anfl a bklf 
poiia bvjEli>* vitb the word^; "Acdoi^uie to ili^ teBiiniciiiy of G. Stanley IIaII phi- 
looophvJn ibc netv world is in \xa s<Midj(^TiD(;'<:]t^lh« Mill I'm J^h A'tn^f^rtjAwA/H}. l%- 
loKiphvrt ovor ih#rc are u raro a> tjiali*! in Ircliuid \S'^^/-ih_^/ji i« A'^rr^^fmi f 
F<rT ici«ntlflc lOMrucUcra in lTi« Unitfll ^sl« are uied u i^atditi; itari Tipmctf. 


*, "A f»|irH^itifir 1ft r^n^LitTltnH^rnmmp illrivtioirni i^nmni* \ftt I'moplrt At U Vl*>t^ 
Mtiv"—Camr« tu AqdilEiviii. ib«bTliM Sf. fHUl tiij iMu^ 1^, iM,r i 

t Ctiol phUcBDpliDn. It )■ true, xre rai* in Amcrtco, pH'haii» rDr4r thim iB Carvp*. ?jt««r- 

ovcphicil rtiibi all DV'i ritii rountty. ifid Hi* riu[v at plulotoitliii^al fJiltu^rti 1 m at l9«%i uti^Bl 
AD iEUa ilila ar ihc AiIaueEo *« it Putir. 


HOilK KCVltW. 


|,ud«kiA^ A man nnknoun to fana. whil» Colonal ]j?^r»olE ia oM n^ntlorifd bl lA. 
U li lakinamnl that J D li«ll, a fucdvccor in Nvw Vork had procIainH^ ibtBOiific 
ooapMnea «l IMih m (Tamctt tn 7'/ Af.iJfm TUi^trr-^^ loanuit which w« h&^'ft 
nevev «o?a aor rtcr htuM o( Tlie MKieiiu fi^r (^thiciLl ctilEurc xtc cliiU'ti.tvtihril ju 
dvonac "u |jur«j^ lutlmul io]>h(i'u» " Mbilc ia fdcl li^lEljiiiI (cIih"'!!. tlir frlij^iiiA q\ 
Ktcoc; *ncl pliilotoiphj. mt fi \io>ik'n of nthlci ii u rigorouily TcJKlDd tiy IVo ^ tunr 
AiH^t [u iDir ^Of^kf ic rnlif[in|], iiiiil mom IFuq hull of tha (utc and 4 htif p^m** 
itfrttr'l Vkilh a maianir ;i(ncl:ifnaTinn of ihA Sn^n-nHi^Fi (irami OinrniitrnW ^Ui^rl 

rfke. of WMbioAion. «rtau4i |inurhA ih« brrlwf rn an ijukntiwiitik Hcirl and d^ 
■—noCT Aibdvn. 

The bookloi clo«i9 wtih ikf foJlowinc i«nt?ao«« : "The full ftnd Irue pcefliv- 
tan b cobodk*! in the Catholic Cburch Tb« divino rvvelation wbicb »h* raprv- 
hhu i» tbjLt which h truly fmiJ . . irqfy au» . . . tritly pnctke - , iruJy r>rnLaJc 

truly irHful. T^*d«inpMt root. hnwuvM^ ^nil llifl mmt rb^ntml nHruti' of all 
nuv (ttidlivUm 4lb)s in •Tmcli«d for b> rvikOD ii ucll as bj nvriuiun) is col ihn 
ivlAiiiie bui tb« nbwluiv '^ 

ticrr H< coiMrlu-ltf oarnnrkcw oi iho book. Wt hnvo howvrir lo add b few 
Mord* uktch coAcera /'^^ ^itHif/ »4*]1 » all lb» putkcAliouoE Tb^ Open Court 
PnUufclna ^'f^ HermBnn C^nibn mefltiont in hm hnok /'V Opn Conri nnd |i« 
editor inKirthar with ibc oof IfliM fcr ciIiIdjiJ cDliiirp Wc hflvr« ei^neht^ cluir^- 
trrwij uur vimt Ht (imiitvihiu miil an uiutiii^ui, bul wr ttj(i:il hI t\m maiic ilmi' iIimI 
our poMliritm bid nothiog U>de utEb C<mitii t^r "sith .xny one iif Comte's dii^iplo * 
Tboy batit >wi(b iho uIp Ptcapiion of Tribal nnti I should hf«tlM«i ii> ctll btm a 
Cocvttfsn) c<iniiilHi»il litilr i1 apyiSinje <f> t^ie iormain-u nf our vi^vev Uin fiiTn* 
ro>iltrf«in It :r nrxri and ptprrvitc woni and up liavr adoprrd It twc-iUH likro in 
Ib profkM mouiniE k nprcKCU Ibc true principle uf raudcrn pbtUaiiphv- lluv- 
CTTT ac cuanoi lyfrrv uitli ^iv of the furid.inLcuiiil tenet* ciLhrr vt CotnU oe <y\ bi« 
meat povitivutic jie<l moat icioolkfic ilijcipir l.itirdt Comic luwcll uLiLtTiiiT« 
ladicsl Jjgnomkn Ihvy riip«al affim ucd aipiin that '*W« can katna ootbmg ;ibout 
£r«t aad ftotl miiv« Prvsiiiv** pin li«nphy dt-n i^^ nnihir^ Ami ninintmni nnihinf ^' 
^^Mgtoie tit otir i-i>w or thtr »ut>J«t ihiR aiTiiuilo it riilirr nire^i^^^ iban p^vitrv- 

llm BkuK rlmninq [■nirm '-la»« nmDnK rlir pflftTlvJvr^imttilnor rJiApotiitViaUr tfrinolt, hai 
Vdf TiL |Ub«, bdl al»T CfUTNU, POjItWc, Halicdv, tjid .^lljcit. Huw luucli Lbcy ««c tijllup|kt«l 
liVitaCaEti^Lliirtf vi lUir C<jimp-tjfiu« P?KliM«iit ti itiflirvli id tar K i*(BriBJii iliiiMDciTf ot 
<livl»*«oUb«*T*m>ii<|it<«(i'>l tUt MMif iivik III 4licHjiit n') *hiU Ur vf4t»uiii Cvn'ir Ittibviy 
waa ini ■ tfrtv-l O^Kipke «f Comic, titi he hwh ffOnbittU qoiqnlj C«iblb t Uv ^ iti? i>i*e« 
■■MF* <*M'k Uittr ¥? <1>t ^7* *M H««rlmjE«« £«[iB*r*«hiikidi trti |4iruQVVikO»4bf Taij^DEi bui 
■!■« kjB M*"^"^**"- i4«eliTi<i|r ih>i C'm>i« vak •■ill tiiiiuia^*^ ^if iii*t«phj«lciHD, tB4 IhtV llw 
Im b*t«nnl[. itkd M» al the iipVmiWBnl*, h*1 in b*t toihin***-! *Ih. 

' Wr »«bti«S in ihtt >HiMi^ft « *-nnvr in Ifitij* Di>r"«(*4 If.iu Brr^lEc h'M*i Mi^ |l*lre*«U« 
fOllatnM wbO «llcrHl4£ Ip^flbtfl alHh Hf- t'ml lUrituci ra«L|LtiMtC L«£lBm iv flaCC*. XV* 
Ur. |l«lrv«*'t |i»*n> «4 tn *t|H»t4|vi> wr V1J4 ptiiimla at^rl a'ipniraijuq Itv*ri1 * ■nA4»r 


THE MoyrsT. 

JiffrTi'liliMm It ^mimln vriy pliilnwi|ihii:a4l tL>fi[jipik of thr iniCfufHtiilitj tif lir^l hud 
liD.l1 cauft*:^ tiul Lhc vvi>' tti;ni» "litnt uiusn" and "fiiinl causov" air ni^At qoin- 
HD>ifa1 andsvLfciMitradLCiDryconoeptfts |Soa "Pn&rlaEnenul rn>blei»« " fi^, SS ^/>. 
EUiid i«r| CtKnte and Liitr^ Ifnatfiiio lo hav« dovqu^md niPiaptt>-bni, but Id fact 
lb«f brpthowoniliiiiilof mFrif^tiyftdJifit Tbcy b^hirvcln Itit^^hocKof m^tipbyvict 
iLt AtT<in|[ly aa nomc Tnrdiij'tit] miit<lK bclfevfr in dnviU bur qr& nlrvid lo vn»tl(? with 
lltoni, tfKiiiiihc; la thtty muiiiLjiiu tlirh' iviri4^i}iyfeiLi4] ](f>(i*l* l4uijoI bfi CLidi|uricJ. 

Cijmioaa I't^iiliYbm. opccijwllk' v:> it i» rcptcncnLciS by U(ir^, tAuniU muinl* £1 
ool «idaiivoly of Ibeductrioa lo "1o(a3CUphyttC4ikJoD«" (wbich Utter inelii4e«ihe 

ntijocE of r«Ugjeiuufnnhip> anfl liinitt m^iiHna* tn p<niU\>e itmm Tbuc>fbc i>n*a««i aJ 
Ibf HuifnOH, n uniULry w(iTTcl-i;<)r]C(*|Mjr>ii ih kwt^ U'l tbi? birrarcUr nl Ehv tciEnccA 
»bid) wtf to Mrv« ai a lutniiiuiv for phifanphx J4 mbvr a Bummiait up of tb« 
sic^tr ot Vcowledfc than a s^iTflni of (be bcicacn c^KibitinK ihojr or^mc cf^i^lb. 
It it irt inseiiiar^ mlh«r ihan'n plan lo guide wimcc in ill further cvMiitian It \i 
$.tt AQfttomy TBlber thitn a phy^keloigy. Iot Iho very lite and ipLrll of the icIcncM h 
ntliAjnij Ami '^iiuiil'? Eh^ fiLTi- riT tbr hi^rrArrhy nF [he vioncrt thTi- K Ifwniitg 
ariiuiKl 111] iwfi]l viiQuLbinii '^LiiLc' difTurcjiL jii tu iciliirc. liki; ad infinite ticmn nur- 
ruondinit 4 forlofc iftT«aiI. ibc unkimwntilfl Ar*l Ami finjil cjiaHn E Tbui wbicb i» 
cillpil by fopmoT pttibvio^htm " metapbyniM/" whicb i«*1 ih« aama timir ibe a- 
MncK nl r(«lip<an, it by nn mfansviihvr DDl(nnwnl}1«i 01 iadiflotfvnt Tl •• not Vrtao- 
ihipg twynnd. tmcnvthinfl ^t irAmutidani*. il it th* tfry nr« of lb? wi^rkl anri onr re- 
tlltloi)« ami pliiltnophtcal opinion* an hot oniy af a iliearflilcal mTcrcit Thty are 
ibc nh&iQ JaLtirii of uur Uvrs u)i <h U ih? luni: lua wJI Uti^iriQiLic tbc JiinCJiAol 
Qiir dcvaiopratat Ihkl iW U to^ ba* nof bctd »ifflcteai1y rcooj^fiiHd, And «« 
ueuld tUAf^tn m tbi4 tunriAtiifm lb.ti 1 history of the IfDiiDd SutM abculd Liv vfil- 
IdP 10 poimoiil tliit (hp polineandmrly "I iht' cmidify jik! iti rwimliliraTiitm ira 
n»ihiii}( liitt lhn'ijiiilic4Ei'»ri uI im rrlifEiiiLj* |irmrip1p« srirT nf tbi* Pitrit^n rAnvtrtrnt 
ut rvli|[Jous mdviiTddeiibr. Th« tiitturic trowtb of ibo t^jlonm rpmiiined fojibful 
lo Ihb maxim 'rh<^ rvlij^ioti of n (nun nnct of a naiion ib ibr; muai irupurbuit tbiiut 
la Ihc idTTia ^wfLy (b« slructiiro of a »c<t predcKiraiJnr^ the whole plant, aod tbt 
an^le^Df crytralliulioa logutbti v^Jlh ihe bhapc o( tbo (^hipi'midnua fron wbfcb 
lh« pnH« of cf>*|»UisaTlon mrta, will riiriormiftft ihr hirmah'on of tb* whf»l« 

Httficffpticfll fiiEiradt trd Llttrt 10 wbat h« and hU friarriii cill " tolnr^ncr " 
Llltrt * wife ow» a rtevmn t^flfholii! and hii dMiighn'r lant *«Uir?itrtrt in h^ ra^-iTbrrA 
fmilb. He litul iittmiitml Lu cipUbi t[i hut bJstJr^Wflof ihr lubjnn whpa ahebftd 
rcacbcd ronluHty, and \vnvr- thr choice tf> hc^r fitit vrhcn tbe momtal came, b* 
dBclarBl Ihnt "Iho cufrriiniTnt %vju not worth ibo tMrvwhicb Jt would raii>c," Out 
vLVw iif "iri|«ntnrit" it ndinlly diiTrr^nr Whai4V«r Ihe tmih (nay b« U hhouM 
bfl 9(rn£Elwl Fur, cent ic ever so maiay iMTSor paint. 




Wtf ciOEioi s^mpaibkac wiih LiiircS nmhod of convtmciitw tthio npw Ihv 
ouimitc ^ULd trvual instilu;!*, ibc furmrt |ptL-3ucirr^ ti;oti&in, llii? Urrr iiliiuUia, 
EMKrtlUC* mn. aay« Liiir^. u much as id?ni« ihn mull nl brnia pTiX>cwsH in Cijvi' 
■tqf^ c * of vitarnal HDprvui^nb and " (h« MfuKglc bDiwe«n boib kiod« of wnolioa 
OmL* «]k thr iQnr*! Ilfn ' t4ttri^ trjefu itif^ i-voliittcn (Fii^of^ and itt dilrmpti rr> 
plAin Mbtrs (^H* GTubsri hook p< 3q j lU^inj; i^pTiiTdrtl out vkkU o( ctbloi 
tulm DcC4i»iuQ*» it ih HufGcwiit hcfc u kULic IbriC we vnuider Liltr^^t Alteiopl 
u t fflilur<> Wo CJinnot cvcm ndopt the K-callcd "|in>rtii'r ma(bo<l." vi which 
Ijltr^ *^y* " Whi>pv«r adnpit ihiv ni«ttiod in a peniiiviKt 9iid whrtlli*r h« mcIbidwI- 
«dcCM thetfcC OT nou al<OAdi«cip1* of Co^nt^^ Whoxrpr «[npTo7« jinnthvr method 
t* H mpTEiphyrtciJio. If 14 Tbi? »iif«T mnik liy which ?i f:»n»ful intml wiU ilwHmi- 
a«lc uh^L bdcKig* lo Uic poinkve phikagfitiy Jixtl vhai ifi foiti^n to ii.~ What is 
Iha BK4hod * Sat* Ltltrf^ *'ll ia «Q «chno«bditDd princrpb u( poAilivc vdcfioe 
ihM tmhipfral CUD tmhlnlct! ihrouf;h rc^iomn^ J/^>^Vf^-w/4rr, Tlic worM cunnol 
ba^V**^ ^ Liltrr in E:tppCBv*cl in vA^alTml -i /''r,'ri urgumieiitf- Hvrmviri CiTatttt 
ia tha pfWif p " Thn pnntlivit mpthnd r« itmhn4rjn.1 hv a!) Ihn nipn^Jtrmt^tivm 
of ibv hn«t of ttviiitffil hffTfi dJKUvwr^. All o1 Ihrm inii^rl eo build u^i ihffrsyt- 
lom* viih Lh« c4cfLi»jun ^f HboloMic. tniiti;:(JV7!> of K^fiiUD, UnKBlun. ur *0t 
Uri 9pv«uUdoat afler {uvrelr 'sc^Mittfic ' tDolhodn npon ihe founAuioiD of Ihe 
U <kf ttp^ritnco." W* rviiaialy joitnd io build our u»r]d oon«pilan ^'u^ion th« 
IacU oI rv^rti-QC*-* " bu< ihr icoci itaporTunt U<U ainon^ tb«Mn ere ilicir forinaj »* 
bitoeu And ib«K fomiAl rdAiioni whi^n rAprbwntcd In thouthi am rxncdy ihAi ffle- 
BCBl «1rith Kmit cAllcd n/'^'r. Tht? inifikC'iJi-inrut afford* dK thi* biLihlini; ^Iijnr«. 
bot ilid <■ /^r.'n cicntcial rcpircjdiU ihc tncjriAr with(>uE ^Hjc^ »c cooM doI build. 
So much ilo te« nppQW thin onfr-fftdod phi1imO]>by whii^h tJikr* i^t ntEHKl up>a whHt 
■A WTOEHlf (fllltd tlw piirvJy tcii^qtific m>tihr<J, that oqt viivw^ li^vt; hnn oIIhJ |bf> 

lowpbf of Form, and jitHtlj^ for hnrin t« ihiiT fr!<:tLiirc o\ ihp wcrrld shirEi mnlrn 
ol tt ■ tDMiuiB and formnl tbouKht b ibe cnjCiLD o/ oui oomprtlitD^on. ^iJf- 



Ifly £. «'. Stnft/^. M. A., Fellow of Clark UnSciAity Lcip*iK Wilhelm 
Baffdniuin- i^gi. 
Tbi^ evAy of (oj pAGts UiAiacicibfi nhnt cucEtlently <onir of llir prLiccediD^i 
mrthod^of iVoIfsor SVuudCs p^ifdhJuxitdl lAl-trnroiy. Tbr *ijlhi^, a din- 
ol Wundt, IB A [uitli« Aravrictn whu «udict3 in BptIiti, Zurich. na*i I^ipiig. 
And twV hia degree of UdcIot oO the groiiTtd of thi4 dtuenalion Thd objvcl of 
the trratlK It noi ka murh to uIvras to ft^nnulAlr rhe [irohifTn nl fh(< :fti%r>r'iaiivn 
uiuiicirf LMDLctH)^ And ihc Aolhin bLfpnt ilml hi a tmiirw (irauvr hi- will be Able [v 
propouml t^ ibwn bflKd upon the IacIa hirre r^lotcd 

The atparinwatt vtvrv ouda with th" uvivbuiCfl cd w*(i fricrndn, AOinnjE ihfrm 
G#nBA9 MradvitN, a riiicTfiT of philoviphy. ■ docf^ 'd oipcttritir, and a iea<hcf. 
Tbci vrr«of dlfl^mit taatkotJitity. I&rm GprmAnt. titw^ RMfuv, one jApantto. one 


rtie MoviBT. 

Bogljahmna Crom tbc C«pe^ (ind Iwo Anwricam, llie adi^or included Tlie appii 
»!(» uied «V44 «> 4rTAfi]^od tb*i tb« prfuu opciMtvil upon (At ■□ tb« darlc, betora 
hull wiM 1 jitntdof HnHind ((!a« iiirrtf4^i<pTm^ fmm i fuinero an Jmogt «tilch *«t 
•ijKfeiMf! for Uviir vcrxiilft Ficinrvn nf aW >iiid>L Cfilor^, ftiiil plctinty priced wordt 
turrp U9»d. Tot olbpr piKiwioini'inv^iifiti Ibtfubverver mjih >1»j hchtoil jo :hc dufc 
Scnrcral JQ^lru'tneQU tor proclutifatc wmiiU wv« rudy nn ■ xMc Tattefrao 
nflocled by liqitldtvbich Ibv ponon i»pr»Md npiia bod to drialc, and th* ■to** of 
T(>ifcii «« ihvnniiaiod Thrrtri^h hdniliufi him oirdi Tn whirt) wmt^ wnslJ nhjivtt hiil 
t>ecn flit4ii:hrij The auibar wan panl^ Cfperjiior. partly obwrver i e- ihe pcrua 
opcuipJ upon. Ths idcM cvokEii <1)nxi£h ihe leniC'lmpieuion* prodaccd io ihia 
kv;i>v lie cnumitraiccl in tibttUr Eiithi in Ihc onJcr iu %vhkll (llcv ftruaCr 

Amc^nil lhi^<]XpvrLniiintii raudfl in rtiiii w^ijr wa find ijiio kiml kvliich l»oi sp^ofd 
intnr«4l. Sit Willum Haiaillon mtAw ihv mnArk iv Iiu LitcltiriH on Mvbplijucii 
That unooniicKMii irifu* miiy «<rv^A a>( rnnTiM^tirTtt linlci hfiAivn Tvn H^ajt fiThi^wiu 
unauocliitcil lit r^ptucmnl his view in ihe fGtlowiiit: u-ay l^i ,/, /t. C. be lAree 
id^Ak, J tl^Q Qijt iiuj;j{Bi i". trui both lire m^^ai^d wiib fi. Ii hiippqat ib«( /f is 
dirccUy followoi by C' \b coukJouuiui. la luc:]) a duo -F may recoil ^ Uld /^ aaj 
ncall I'p bai IJ beln^ a mrifflMiw riii^H^ot wtwuijw itit.^fA^/^- dod hot tatei coD' 
BcioiiAnnu Thun Thr id<fA nl The mauni Hon f.isnioFUl cillfld Inta H tETiLltan'i inird 
llie ik>Mfm ol PruMJAU cHiiulion. StilnDjttciiU rcfli^-^Uun Utiifhl hinillui ho Itatfl 
jiifet UN Hitn [^tmcmd ji OnmiiiiL Tlii? icixillpctiuij ■■[ iliq plate ihnib AAocutvd 
A-itli rliA idra;^— A Gcmnn. C<^rtniinv^ PruwiA- Ttma idf:A« ^cre Tcio ifucnk lo oalBi 
G4>iu.cii}utncH yfi Ebo>- ruit<akeni?d t.^Mhtt idtn wbich did •iitM ccmuiiDuaiiiaita, ihi9 

ThKisnmrmniUEPiiloflnf Hanulwu'^but [Jr Sprijnurf pfrjiWittiruchbyactnil 
upchmcm. He lixtli &uaI» coatabiiau wjoie simple woids. »ac;l] a» Minscn, Ociiia. 
KoHUav, Dlwk, etc , uid oUo Jjipaaesv vorda in Rorana cborMter* IlAifA, UiTOk 
lUKU, Kunu. Tu BwHfr w«fd wn" »ltiieb3j aniilber Jnpan«e word ta Japaortc 
cbitrACtBft MO ebjiE lh« *xjti0 chRr*cior 9pp«arvd od Hama, pud BLu^fn , Hf-ro 4sd 
Mvi»r,H: JtJfEi.T Ami llitHrM : Kirnii >n4 Kouhxh Tbt vtnr^t. v^rmhava tvioito 
M tQ lEivv a 4trun|><<t imptnnior Tlii- Jupanttia itraiVm^ii 4>th excluOol fron 
ibcm niwriiDDiiitf. uiid iodi^ud. t1ii* ciakuuwc Jipaan« Uuiactrr^ wbkli iA<v««raI; 
dimly or uoT at all remfMnbetcd, ovokej the coTR^pondinjE vords; llm^Mvaot; 
Kf^'Ku— KohfiK\; BLiiME^HAhA- *tc- Dr, ScrlpiTire odds: "Thefi* iiiaKJjiilobi 
u/vT*' UivcilvMJtrr. tha ^jlwrvier imnifLnwI ihem lo lip ivriinij{. andcmild find no rtf«tun 
fur tb# invnliintxry flffHtiLrnnci* nt ih^ wf^tth* He hud not ibonghi 141 iM ct thn rm^ 
n«(;ti[iie liiikv" 

It ApT^nn that tho linkv in % ih^n of concopta nood not be aU contdooia ood 
Ui* nnilt of hi! »«]>«riaen(e m Ihk IJn* i« formuUiBd by Dr, Scriptim an tciillotvt: 
X concept App«r<oiv«d can hrmp lEiuEber conovpr into ib« Foennol ciiTt»nniunf*« nL 
iboufh ii uat nrvpr uKtctaTTHl wtih II. iF rbm Arcoibrr p^j^hii: Tllptnt^^lt«o^ctler 
dcjncA or even ouutdc of i:i;iniutcti«ne*t vhjcb *n cijisnectcd wUb licitb^praw^idail 




ikit there Arc ni> otltor c1t«icnu MraD^cT iban ihcK^ Tbc <0ett ol ihc uDccAuioua 
UdIi Wwet<r n Eputti weaker than Ihal whicfc m ni consctani. 

Pages 71-101 vc devoted l> Ibe tnivftt^Aticnt of ;b« Alt<r'«(t4ci oL cmccpts, 
Thft pluquvn«aa at ideailon bting Ftcffcmirly rufnpim. w« omccr usuin« liur rtxo 
jiIiTwa III n tt>cAlU:il ri:pfL>c]ii(X'iI i:iinccpl t* Anjtla^ouh lo Lbr- orlifiiul k^&i A v;n- 

Hi pttTi* And even Iho conccfto am a whole mfty bv aItctqJ- The frooev ii diffcicnt 
accordis^ In cL'cum>t:iDc*«i Thv Tiniai*'^*^ c^n^^fipfn JiHitr Iroin ih«ir iih^inuU, 41} 
IB llu<<If<fr^ fil ihi* CfiUHtinutii^vi nf rltr wholft ijIt-I Ui in (he clf*|£rr«* »1 lb" fnn- 

■ioiunii«« ^ it* puiiii aiming (htniwJw, Ij) in form. <v\ot. ntlvfinnH. rtc . Ul in 
dpraiioD. la ordM lu BtTrid Ihv miitni^hv^init jn0uro« at 1i> chcorwa wa 
■wgtrt 10 ftvctiid nil kiodfl of lPtm> viijERPidv? <jf ■ ihi?ijry Bi>d stick cLohI^ Ic a odniplo 
4)Mfrrlpila«orf«cH. ThcT^Jora Dr ScnpiunprcipoaM ca<ttKanltiJCh word* A* '^rc 
lcotk«t, tcfTcditccioiH cewvU'elc,. »nd iutfi!**t* th* tetm "iltcT^!r«i " Vel h« 
Midi. qurtlSag from Wuivlt. ' ibuc attfr^fle^l* iticninrJvci jifr u Uttrc tdnu jtt (he 
cffeclk ^ijtlgcDd uponocfva itai) itiukIb bt dici eke chu Ijecallrd jivlifUmF wilL" 

Mffno veartan lev di)ci^rotnii>nC md Kbvald uy Ihiil 1I10 r«>iu1tc4 ihtf .ifter-flfltict* jm 
iihs< s* ft *ra!ly s^a** hy rhn Dinw rJ "iliupcwilion " And n rvrviro ilivjvwiUrpn i« 
iT t ^lopr t l ancordinf la iht Ua (rf rhe ctrnterriEiixi c»{ frrra in Hrint im»i:iur**. 
(SoF ' Thr ffcjol nt Uan/' pp 414^14,1 

Dr. ScriptMrciB Inib? > cro^d^tatioD of his obaor\i>(ri>ii4 loihc followitit: Mal«- 
■«nt " Eftdi coQccpi if cofl4iiLon«iI ihri^ueh thv oAocuof ih« olmaiaLt of iho 
pf Li m tuv of fonvrioninfM anfl ihp Bf rti'pltMls ol manjr<tf not of hill jipevioutt 

Thii result U noa 4;uiiipaiib4r vhitli iha Lliccn ^ rcproduvtioa Dow almost iml- 
varatlly aiCoq^Md bv ih« aiac>cia lion pay LhEjEucr- Wun<fi >*p, "If only MTttBin 
■tdaV <DaHfU«er« rcne-^Ddn *»r niiBlHt«?f*^i*.lJ*"pJain %*by ta ibafn9qifiry<piclurv 
CKTUla el«niB9!a at jt locmDr rvpfvducticin jir? BtitnLau , l>[ir w*«oiil<l net uplain 
r«l)r llw tilvnianui nT » cvmorpl rhMTti^A ^ nffrn iiU!tliT!tli*i>ly >«tt findnM) ihHe9<i« 
Tkik k ii(i|ia«n. i* i>vi»iljJ(* imli 1«auto a ruvniuvT'iiJctanr and oibtn cif * kindred 
aalftfe «naet rvch uiher mutUAjl)." 

Ttti* *il] 5od npJ«utinn >n tti« tollowjne ttiparimeni The olMervcr >oa a 
<lc>^ am^ Ibifil* ol a crnui^ which b« uw a ^oar ago Th«rt it aa dirwl aHoda^ 
1100 betmn The plcmrE ol fhp dog and ih*^ *ip«ial remmiittnc^ <it thai circii* via- 
iMd P )Cnr fiRD^ The auoctatfani «iu l(vm«l ai thf- mi'tmeiu. Fonn«r aenmian* 
of tluK* hw tlimi 4ftei-e1?<xU jkild lliit k^iccijil iiuiiiiiiHccfJcc nMJt Irx^iilitodr 

Dr. Scnptare meunmina IhtE iloHdiofja jua«i4ii^^ ih^oiy contaiiu lev many 
'|iypo*fc*cfcaJ «l»mHivta , it pTdtuppoHa tucultin of ih# unl lo join liln «ilh lik# and 


MIND, July, 1391, No. LXIIl. 


Thk P*«fici tn UP P*YCK»>UJi*Y. By ^. II' Srrif/trrf^ 

&C]|opevjifiuiiR^flCniTii:i:^v nr Ka>t. liy "'. C^x/iiv/*. 

Dih^ii>MOi« . On 1I1C OriijEU nf Miuii. u) Hj A' WafMit^rk i fi] Ry TM. 
y -V-A' C^atil; Th* frt-rhnpftl *.jf Kitornil l£ra1iiy By Trnf y .U^o*^* 

vcLo^mtJilol Tbtforcjgy in GvrinaDy " K«yruuti "Scupv und M«tbc<ll of i^ 
liEkaJ l£c4Qomy"; LtbnMnn'i "Dw IlvpnoM u;id tiliv dtoih icrwundten 
nonntlcn iSuvciode." 

.\a ^l K4cnco ircfttn I" A iircflC Client, vf tile tnine ulijcclSn tliry t-u Lc »*p<i- 
raied only aOCHidifiB tc* fl^Jiv rht-y Ur-.\\. Tlimy* f>n Ifii* pfi«iL-ip[r, Mr. Stiif«»ri' Ji- 

lic Sciencn The Sprd^l icJ«jl» at?, t, tbt Miiihrmjucj] dci?iKn. truJila^ Ibe 
//fftiii nf All «perlcn»: II. Ibp HlirnomcnAl Scjprcr^ ffmtmi; ol iho ^.ui/rif/i of i^l 
txperieacc: Ihe vicond ctAtu ih duUtetd inl» Iha PhyiiotL Kciunctv, which EroHl «i- 
|M:riuncu fioni tiv tibjiTCdvrt (iiiit:» miiO MfiiLxI ScifeiiccH, wl^ich ifvat rxi>«ri<ncc from 
1(4 4nl>jfi:iitv< KtA^ 'J'hn K'niip M M»<niil Srim^r^ it bm HivMmI. aMnrrliQ^c to 
W[i[i4Ji^4 cchfrnv, \i\\o ihc wirncviof iriL^aEiil pracF4ai:a. Pi>^boiuj£lca.l dcicncea , llie 
9Li[!Eita L.i( itiatUl |.frmlui:l>, PhiluUiKitFit SlJciico < hhiJ (tin »cir(it<T<ol infcivjj Uiv 
V"lffpmi*ni. 1 1 iHEitritA] *4ri*iifP"i FVyrhnlouy ma ififlnr»ol mrrul phrmiiTii*na hi« 
ti l^n-foM rtrlation 10 th^ phvitco^ ncir'^ciTa k U com pUnir alary ic [hrm. a oecv^^ 
ij.iv aDXLli'U) , Ebcy tre co^ut^Lriuciiurf lo ix. acnworin i^i pshvi lj^rlo;^Sf al lovmi- 
K^fiun STm'** iir mini! ftl«ay* ftnuin *.[flN"^ *il miml ; thi-y ranfioi h* n*n|vpil into 
mclii>ahaf |mrlidp< pi mjiltcr unJ ilin li (ttndfimrnlAl nhittm thtit jiv^fiAf//^«*»-<frr<vir 
nr'f/r^i/ inffurnn or fir itt^arntnt f'v "ittffM/f-Jifjh'mfHo. l]ui we arv jtifttifipd ta 
laikini- abnni a ntnoiu itimulATion bn^oaitnii 3 pefrepi, a nmuoliar fonvrticlion 
follcrwing no AC I of vflU, m log am wc remombcr that (bcK ■» o«ly kuLai^ium* for 
hiiikmmn Lf(tK»|iiir«. Plitfiiokiiiy in^'t'■tliK4ll1^ iicivi^iiH<;b;in]cn , FTnyclujIciiEy. lapo- 
ul chLitif::'-* i I'hyHiolo^K^'il l'«ychnli>;jy, rh^ rphtion>( lx*(wrT*n th** ivv», MontAl 
phcnorDcni nre cjf Iwc kindv mental pruccuoi nnJ mcntiil producH P4T<:1i<il[i|ty 
i* thv icliuiceuf mcnui proiifWK ; It wckk thr riAtI Upsiiriiilinn imtl cuplHUAlinn of} 
thv (ipnmiifinit of our innwr irKpi-riMicc- Th« r*bnnn aE Piycheilagy la riiilo«opbf'i 



rfom ibi» ^rmnii-ni nf (Tia rrtylu M iH oihrt" «ciHiC'>« Eft fl4TAbli*h a tjftCflin nS rh» 

«■<« ihAi unJtftlJ* nil cKLqirrn*. I <■ a ibnoi? of <h< iinivww. inalviUl »[i4 
Alt« lb? jicnfijJ i-triDcittlFa tinier 1>*fii cli^lcrcnLnrd by iiitfiaph>'*ict. pllj- 

n (ua^iilptnl J p^ft ^rf |iliihi^ij>lj!r. Iml an 11 Kt«?cJJi1 Kirnct\ lrviMti£ mrntai pio- 
o4iif< irnm n^ twrt vviriipttini, it *% riiflmn Irt-on pii^holngv aca n^rieraJ ccwficv 
irroilK^ mod. nbticni M (uLad anil iDAiK^r, cir-t ttam (be «aoJ]T?icil of pbtki>»' 
^ftf, Tbp Ultrr »hmilij ln» ImiiieO Philnufj/lik;*l P»3rcTioT«(j . Thi- rulftluju uC 
Pt^ltiil<ify 10 E-Oi[ir rirp'nf!* rm wti:it Thv 1ai(*r ii, l.o/ic i« a kc^vrop ftl ihrvoflht, 
bat |bi:«fhl it tlto » tutkjtcl i>l ptycbotoO\ PiycholoRj treal^ ihcjuflhikAa w? 
Ihink tbem , L< •!(■(- u wvf ouj^l^r UMtimk ih'.-iu H'tcLi ol ihe kcirncM HpimEi-mDlugr. 
1b# doclrin« <»l Icfi'iwWyc nnd Mh tiivlolftgy. thf ilurtnn* i^f ninthjn!* trf»U M 
1bou|E^I for iuowti di«rrici p«rp>M^ Thi* iL^rmtr rlp^i*froif><? i*|jiii ttc inilh *fl , 
Ehp laxvvT t^nir^tminta hov wrr ouiihi [o think Thf didactic v kmom >i£l- of two 
Uedi ihv v<rtie*« ut thr ifr^mrr^l priiici[ik-h or irTidw i4> be r»btL»QL-i] and tTtittci- 
(DO-Jk ci4 Iht RitaB« lo Althin llirjK cnila \niim|| the foirtinr i> Cfdcinral PrdA|Coj;r< 

wliicH dcLrrintncb ilir cniS lo bf «jiiielii for in pJuc^iiun PMcboloi;y lumisbci 
Ihv fooD^itioa o( tKi H ibp b:(«nci* nl R^npr^l prdas^ijEy jn^^»& vbich of tb»« fftcH 
uc ^Eaovbk, id much ihc lamc w^r ^* cpiAErnioLijiKv juil>;c* wbjih arc true 

In A lurmcr Atiidr T'V'H^ Xu ^<u Mr Miiixhull thuwrtl IbhC T^tfjtKure Jtnii 
Pain ar« prinitiv* c]v:ilitif« vthidv unflrr prA^-wr cmiclilinm friv appvir ^'iih rnif 
ch<4it wbalf^xTr b< iT^coni^nl lit 1^*1* iindi ih<ii all Ihr mjuM rioiablc pleu' 
{Mia ih«>rtr^ ic;i3' IQ lliir tint ititunc* [>c placed in fcjiir Kfoupi, rt'-irrmmcd tijr 
Ibv fltrnphkuaol cnU^a kiQ<l4 ut pliiULirn or pun An iik3rfUn:(1icinaF pfidHi]ri*-pair 
tbH>ri«« nbnvi, jSfif that thrTA i« a Rriirral .if rrj-mcnt, ivilh bui fw di»rnLinf 
TOtccii. ibai all pltiiurr I4 at boii>?m the uint ihinc, and thii ill pain In lii m- 
««Doe U A Mo^Ic pcr^b'iEoBKil plt4^'noiTvDi.>iD< ind EurilttfT ihai pk^utarr^ und painK 
4rv unifinble : .'^v.**/ Ibit ib<iF iire tcrlitib fiii:th to niLtkrd in rx|irrLvnt« an Lo 
totT twTirtni*' lb* ha*UHf thr infiJiTrity iif plt-a*uTf*|uin Tlircrrin, Mr MarnliaL 

Ipnvvrtit l» coniidnr Iht 1br<iry Ibat "lh^ aciivily ol tbe oi^ao irl JOy contedl II 
plfidcot b pleMUfuLk, il lOcin^iCDt \» p^lofitl.*' lie cuacliuks tfcftl pkauurr* Aod 
fninh »in» inniivnl wilh thf nuirltiv^cofirtUioDJi nf Ihr BCl[*r <irff*n »mt lnji- J<i«p 
llv prrjncipl* ihat "all p1«uvur0-p;\in pti«iiamtna arn dKlvrminrvI by Ihc JWlJOa IQ 
ibr \>rK*ii> cun^omjLiaEoEihc c-r<iiicioa> tiaiiL. a rrtnipd yo The auiriii^v tundllioD^ 
ol thr or^xni^ at iBi? tJm^ oi ibruiioa/' The dill^pTi'^r brtHiTrn ihr liyprrnormnl' 
Hy of p4in imd vl plckiurd. turun upiin Lhn litcl ibiit plAuiire: u <^blAJn(>d whrro 
llw onc*^ bu brwn r,2if^ Rcil in ji] urnAn wfiith i« lomrlijim 'ictjit rnuDs 
fltorajijtol «<krTC}' dfTivpd from bfncil tuppLy ; and ;irtiDti kfirr rp«r mi^ant ih^ u>f 
ol ib^od rbergj. liut ah uiion ot an ovi^\d after mt ^ivai » pay^bic ixiottfOt 
whacli Vi plfuitttraldc^ «r liav^ Ihi^ n'.-rhiiiK liijuihewA , "PIcMtpure n cx|>rricatnl 
whrrn'^r ibf pbyuciil Aftion whirb df<li*ritimiH rb* mntpnl invftlvi** iIm* 114^ of 
»«o«d floret the rn«4utton ^1 potrXiEial mio a<mal «ne<Ry : or ia olhcr word). 
nfiOE^n itic caerNv lavoJvdt in tijc rp^tioa 10 a siimaluk ik k'^^p' '■;) -tmuuul 
ihan fkr fTv«^ (if lh(f tilma1a« ^ Hy a Biinilnr proem nf nuumin^ wv nbcata 
th« bjpoitk'vit : *' Pain it utpcrlrnct^d wheiEwwr iha phynir-il ortinn v-hich dH«r- 
rnin«4 tbe content a u rdatpJ to ibt top^i1r uf nuirimt-cit il^l ih? EnifrKy invobvd 
m fTv r^ictiL'fl tu the ttiEniilut \% It-ci in atuntini ihin tlv ^ncrGy of tht? MlmuliU " 
IVa nuiy alaoMy in gunsral. ' Pt&uuri.' aoA pain ore primElLv« qualitiv* of isfchic 



imuH wHc^ dfv det*nnibfil bf i1n> rrlivkin b&Twe?^ irllTrly ind CApacKy In Tba 
or(:*jiaH ihf iciivttin of vhtiich itfc coommfiflnea t-l iht pAydScui* ' Mr MitrnhHtl 
]iitv wL|i[ilii?* ihi* i'yt:-}iii\titiKil iiircr|iri'i4ria[i i>f thi* |ih)r«KjlD|ri^ phi-rxKT'rfik ai- 
It^ilaiEl cin ihv i^Wtun^ ot K>^' n(ii3 »| ICkIikI, ind ol Ihr paiii irl (ll^nifiioo nr 
hlndenrd nctiv^Ty. He ccndiidot rho prr^vdC arid* vhh thu nlnlcnicfit <liat i|i« 
phytLO'Ll ci>DCumiinutt at ^)v4^^iv^hi iilic-iuinirui ar? to Ik' taattd ta i;c4cnU 
^Q^LliLiu CI11UUIC7B io ill pii:«P***t atiicLi Mc nT I lit bliiib ul oOf c^tQiCLOD* liftf ; and 
itiAt Ihi" 1^ ^drrnhnrnml l>ir Innxir*prcti>'f unal^vU ol pU'tiBuro hivI p*jn\. Mr 
Mmluill 1 uln (1c>u nc^t up[>^r ta u>i ut.-i lin|ip) wluik-ti or ibrr prciblertn. 

Th(?DbJrtiu1 Mr Caldi^Hrt ptip^r it to t^plsirti K^oimm idruu^^i S<h«iprfi- 

ramie t» ibc i^>aciu«iiiii thiii h':trit't- (ntlf mil L!i•fcrl^^r}. )[ivni ru ibi* "^^Ihctic/' 
<i^t lh.1t Spac* tind Tim^ w*t- Vno^x-n by ii« ,r /w-fi. The principl* of CaovalUf 
!■ Ihc oolj fUiBcoi i>l vilue hi? find* >n the "Analyfic/' and n maclt 9ifn|ricr jic- 
(oirnl c»tik1 tmvp- Wmi alien uf il- Tim ~ DUlix^lc" rrpntiFnU thr Ide^iivr tidn 

inOT? umpU. In l'l^k'4 tf-mi rro^rt^d if if inimH-triH t^i\ii:f «f fbrivjojc, bv lli* 
Aiiriliuiloh of A nrumriidl Crrnlt^in lo man. GiiupdUJiiuv for bii phfaomrtial ii«<>- 
«A^y (t villi mi rkMiuD, "ihtT itit" hmuJant <>t vi/tur i^ nut nf ifiitf iB<7i~ld ""; SiEtEioueb 
tlhr A' <i'. frwtl l', in only nn appliiTJiiic^n !» fiibir"[Tf Ihi: i>rmcipTr^ uliruitf- rPDClml 
In ibv ii>ti'*rprif ihp Ptirr Rf^vm iirh"i^iihjiiif-r finrU thp /' (/ I.'rt*/i/iJrt^f to 
Cotif^tti ib# cb4ract*ri»Tii: fl^Erct hV KaTkl'v vcbok* LhiLmcpb;^ — Ihr mjinuiff front 
IndJrii'^.l imtckiJ ^>1 dirrct Lcowled^C- Lutly, ihc criTlcinm of the TelQ>1;»fCic«l 
Jtl(.t|!nlmL iiii]> hIkjvm wbiu llit A' J. f. I' thtrttAy ihhciwivi, lli^ hLibjfrclivily f*f 
<Hh^( w naj (3]1 tbir (>ntfito|iicul cat>g[<r>(«. Accordion ^^ ^tio^matattmr. the 
cbicf irodracf of ihc JOinlkan pliili>Hipb) 14 lof4Lab1>th "thr; loijil diirm't^ \it llic 
renl Hnil (ho ^df*l." The Idral ht i^iplaini ai '"Ihe vliJble, ipnilal nppHU4tirw 
STitfc tb*' Liuulifitffc [hiT JifB |^c*r«i^«1 ouit." JnJ lb« Hi-al Afcibv " rbini^-ia-tAd-Enr- 
llntE." -Lvbifh it Ihr Ti^aIuv iindnlTinM uiJ rlHii^'imiciiniL ibi- ^^rarlil n( itKpii'nrDcc. 
and. *4 ^fi^h a ml :iml P^il 4 li_r|v»ih^(i<ril tnur^ Schrjp-ijlKiTipr npTft tfhfak« ol 
fl in il)f plural nd Khr>|dopd, nnd iv ki^i-p^ coi^qivTriily Ilj a rnL>tiiilK p^nt of vl«w 
Hr vy^ "The wnt m >vhjtb Kiini iTiK^pducrd audi n ihiuK'iii'iT^f JL\nd >oiiihl <i> 
rvLMEidlfl it wLib bi>( pbibi«pphy wiih ttxilty ' Tbin rmicrTu* KanT*« nvthod. 
njininbi vhicli Si:hopij(ib.mi>r dir^ti ibv fiill !'■;<* c^l hit cntjcmm. Tb^ luikd^' 
mcaul piiudplc ol KiiDL^f fn?ibLKl ^bopvnbAuci uUicf lo b« Ibc sudint; konu in- 
dirfPl frflveii™ knnwlnt!^ Philoftsphv ts (<ft Kani n wlmreol fiimcrplioat vhilr 
for bimvlf it 1*3 lei^Eic* i» concf pticiiu ; phikitophy brinfj i, (nncpfKaiJi«#4 Oir 
fitiirrvJii^J tloif intent af our hnnvrird^, Scboprrnbnucr wi nil Kiii[> tfrri>Tf cou- 
»ain*d tn ih<* bjllowiTig voTrnfif from ilie A' -^ r. r - II I nalre ja^v Jll tfiooghl ~ 
{ihrouifb ihcscia-ifforiinf. "Critn vinpinc^il bDowled^t, ibarp rrm^nk AbkiiLuiul)* no 
knii^iic'djE" i^i -iP •tt^lnl. htr ibfoiiH^i merr |M-i-k:cp]K'>UH tLi>lbJi3|C Ai n^l it thu»|[)it^'' 
Tn ^ndwivniinE to cnniirurr a pbilnvphy niii nf pi:fp raffirrptinn* K»M ti^llnl Vfk 
*a\s'v ihc piublcm. m lickvins thf tbinj£^iD^ith-]( l«h ■''Ti hi» b^ndt Tinn pro^^d to 
£i:bi»]iriib«iui'i iIiaL (be julll iif .ibnlitiLl n^flrttiuu wjk ^I'-api| 4A lb? p«tb vf phl- 
Iriu-phy. Mr r.ikl^rll .-b-niufi M Sfhi>|MmbfiiiHr> ^rjiIrrTi'^iiF tbxi Ih* "Jl(lhi>tlc* 
lA K4t>rt only divCAvrty, tvi ^^ ibr "JliMihfiic" aho^-v ihc Lr-ndtno^ ta conooptoM 
obriincticQ, hU visA «t Space and Tinnr b t^f ultciiic imptiftuLCc. tlJ»afltNr 
" l4Tgir. '' nf lb* K d r V ib»i Schopi-fihaurr'* rriiici^m i** muivhaUy and fec- 
oinlly ni(.^iT rrjcTicnl llii [iviw ^ dia«<r<nl ncrminl aE tho fuDclirtat of [bv Seed, tc 
l«ciiac uUi>evUhv ibe faculiy-diiiincliom of Kim : bt iiHociAiA Kini'i t«mhy ot 



t>fulFmaB4lN4C""<)<^^'*h S«nn* ami the Mtrpi^of Caom with lt» 4pal*»'lamporiil 
vt ivici-tk'il iixiAiKtiiuu u4 ibc vfariUt «ih1 bcUk (be uchri rtn^u CAlfc^-iic* lu 
tM nii'ic hUnti *iTnV>«i. pUT mtn a <it»mi- ihrr.L-^h K^ni* IrtiP <*! ^ytn^ctry . »«1, 
f(*txiVhIly ht txiMa lCi>ni'i ifv<»DDi of T4«vi-ca Lo b« uti^dy (^ilbn, -led ^(ibvlJIUMv 
bi- oHp LlixiT:Firol ilir [];'Jii-Ukcir fur Kuci^t Ehrpv t13«^l vt K^scc. tlf R«*- 

■ad cf fcn^wtfilC L*) v*r d CdiicfTilE'^n rt hlra, the untlrr Jnr conrcfiinim kheI '<><nii 
hrliLC uf crfUT^r daivr^ fri^in I'^rnpijun KcAntiitiL Lun^Wjcc tr an Jilnm^tluQ 
ttown fvrcnivd iTiovlnlge, anc ill knuulnliir, ac SctiofrhTiaii^r tjii«, u ontcBAUff 
■ad la itwlf pcioipU\«- The confu*ini in ICint't nccoiual cf ibn ELrtncort cstRriDK 
inin kviirlftdr'. i« SchnprnhamrrS rmTinn ttfJ hiililins tTim K^mt r«i> iwly ha*B bud 
th« tundapiMiiiil pnncrpl* of Iih tnrlhc<i iTii[vrfc<lly piwni in hit inmd Hi« 
%tu^lr «Illh(ithT b rrUliDK iln dcnicnii of inow^nlK'^ lu cacb ciVicJ jJmc ficm ihe 
fid ihil hp jn liih Ihimghl bkriiHl ibr c jii-{^uie» u> vimc^^friunh ihir'-iJi^h wjmi nf 
»ft e^pliat uml ptrxiiMnt T#fT|{n("L-n n( ihp ctnlurr nl r«Tfi>plEon Schtip-inhaiirr 

cbjracivtUc : the perrepiiul , the mntlwrnatlfjl. iUp lo^LiJil *ndtht Hhlcil in ordrr. 
Thfl cAirftiTin hfi? all ulMif-JciioHii, L«t nni c<^«itw|-'Iic>ci* or uotx-t* Cnocvption* 
■If n fudicuLir kind of *1nmr(inn« ktnd ^nnro ratrgCori;'! ' (ocpnccptttin* •'i^Uf-utt 
ffiatitun t-ciirmpotiil, hHi cr> raiei-nnei rnlj rrlmiLtw or form* ICnimlr-ljtQ (pnH»T» 
lo tb* dettcUofl ot rtlaliofu «i^ilag b*<ve«D (U» 4lf1creat pUavs oT ivClJotia ^ ifae 
pcfOCfHiul ulalmuura, ll^c fliBrrcDcf m |iuc<]icil (bJA^h bciniL Ibat laame Ate im- 
OMdMldy Kul c«hi»r* only ni«J[Hr<»lj jTrrfPiird Thr irui* teawcm n( SchciptfohaDcr* 
rwoU ffom th* mrtho^ o' cctncepnoc ie ir> br fomi'l m the dilijculiin in vhi^h h« 
Ml WiBMlf ln>iJi«l |>v Ibc lipoid u( SubjoLlUv rdciliiriL rh*|n»«jpihv. lie w?*, 
1e« UTirrk tM tlu* T!iiftn'in'{t*i-|f tml hn <*?!* K*m thit Cmn rhc !<!<»■ fn^iTiinf liut 
ihc fd«.L foJlo^>v, aircf ih<> pijth M Kvlli'iicm or binov]*^^ in f.lrmj^ ^a Fh" j^cth 
ol ptiikiH^y. IL'd ^chopriihkiucr l«pt eluti: Iiuf t^i hi^ ruJInu ihni knoMlt^rl^ » 
orl^iiiJill; an<] in iXivH prrcf-pElc^r. Iiir vuuld not h^vi^ mnJiinlnnl ttijr ihc Acrld i« 
i«y v4ca- The Thttm rif-iiha^r it tfac hhKc!c>ri C4it l>r Ihir ticHoclitQ i>r Abttmctinfj 
ilDiltTXHDiIiac Midi toth KdDt anJ Sibcipviih^u^r it s^ ptinjntjlv iuwnrrd lu fn 
HlI vf ihr dilhtiillj- bn-d of a bcbH li) XQ A^KTTiiiHffin or urirtoin^, nmi u fl is a 
f>ufe m«nuJ 6ctba. vc nuv i*felf ih^y tliml Ihrre ji nn^ <ii?li >l>Ins in ntbty. 

Mr W4U4hCbck finth lliriiii|£in ijf auihie in m rbvthiiiiiwl iiupulw in niJUE. Tbif 
■rsivc lit fhvlbm cirim fmrn rho (jwr^t appvttT^ fp^r ^vtcui^ nhTh nvnn in 
rliyihiDiul lon« owibe lo H>cidc];ioiLl aa urlt ht j>iti'(hi:ilr>;!]cil cnndiiioAE On ih« 
on*^ tuntL ilif:«e n ibc KX-id tluintrcr ul (Jiimiiivc Hiiu*^, tuui^Ui>c ■■ Eiumbci *A 
pnlnrmrn ta fcrt in crincvrT On ih* i-lfiT bJrml, *>iir pfTocpJiim if f iimv rtlm fcirw 
tOKilvo « pr^-iCriKt i^ inl#U«ction. b>' miTuii* cf which The mind in ablr Et^oompri^- 
h«U(l ilvin U9ii ubol?. Since [D(JU< j» |jrc>Juc:nJ not mt-irlj umc AudtDtiTv !□![■(»' 
sldfl ind rvprtsLlonH but ilv> irr iiri]i*r (it rvnV<- ffflriinn. il mtuc riinittm ihc^ '^nali- 
lieq of tiioc'ordvT vnd ihythcn Mr Flrrbri Spir^irvr'^ ihvnry tA rbv oh^n dT Iho 
f:intf^|j(f^jtulutinFrciKiisai(I lontford ilu? mmvc vuJid rapUnaiiLiin h nltwvui- 
plnftnptri3ninrrbi|ttLtrtf^^vHlariC>ni>>^D*' fMv«<]ing*li0Mif4:^urn^rlf'vifiiniMiAi(* 
oc«d«. in wbkh pUy of «ll kind* Ijxlm it> riK- Wv «wv cur muucul (iif uli; tu ilir 
tinir^cax r-tlhu itiaa loouj Mnic uf bmrjui:. TW [KTCitii^ji c<f pvlkuJui lunca 
srhd tnnr* fJan a vprr Itvv pari, if Hiy. in pnmitiw mii«ic In almijKt *U th* rx- 
■ n ptfr f M ra iihfd hj cthDolfjKy ur kv \hax n>ii^c ■* ihv ttprtwim r»f cmoiic^i]. *bicli 
b alw tvic <jL Ihv wuriv» vf biiriun iHi^ruh^ Mt Sjirui^-i it vitil iv Ip wroDx. tiow- 
«tv«, in ifcinkin^ tbal aoiical modulation oriHiaatw in ttu modulkl iftEu ef ftpeccli 


TKr MnwiST. 

■0i]uJ-in«t»pbvr» aud onunulopwiii, m:[y rdtsinbl* piiiiiilivti municAl torw^ Ntivtir- 
tbtloH. ID vrly HTiuiJMijnn uf duiinci tvtiv^ atit] intlbunci v>ui3idn tRiat to b«T« 
taken pbice, noi a>:i irAnillifJi fnnni llip our ii!i prior ro fhe rXhCTU t114Vn^1n|^ 


FmrMHiir CAtlnll f^lijpuiit thHl Tbn rhMnriiu r>r D^rwH iinil Spunrvr rm th# firicin 

MTi LbAi Li ihouid tukvf (iktn pldcf As io S(n:DiL«r'9 e^Aplkkriiiiiaa vi b^HhuDy. be 

affirm* ihiT h amoiitits lo b^ylnjj <lui hannnni a'^yts pTcatiirp hpcftime ii lAplcAiwiai. 

ColuIL >|AEf?Fi itiM inihjc u [i(jr n>i4^4»iniT]it»1v »uii|iu>i«d, x cmibn cfE the ifiimi^M- 
tkM), frfi?r ihAn the oihet am froir ;i phjxlc^j bnuf, tun U raih^ a A\sc<^-^y ami 
fedvtelopmcDL AIL ihc coinbinairon* ot maitc arc laEeni in iho uuDiift ot cMttrB, 
ami i!)c hiittgry uF muiuc Ivjin wltticu to tlic K^i^l^itl iHlaplittii cf tuch uh aic laor* 
r*miit*" Th* (!iff^n*nf* in vniri'* ri^iHon tltrt n«TM"i-< prr^'-m. snrl ih** jfnnii*niir 
eiDOlional vllfdc nl ttiHiio nrv 4iiv to thv faci tb«i mubk ivprntn rbn cnintioa of 
[be l]tEin>iJi \LiiL.VH u»iPA and<lc^dc>piDjj ihvx cocubiodtit-i;) of tunn vbbjch llic mice 
invh «hiTi mHvwJ liy ^orf^iw nnfl jtiy, clptpair sod puiilution 

Ht- ih* Ci^j^iifMf cil K?fCe<niJL] L^'ulity, Proii*aoi Bufduia inibint iha ■DioffihiaE 
which ACLiiiclm io v>tiiv prr-irTiUiJo-it it) vinur d vtbkli m« adiibuLr nulh}- to 
[hem : ^hllp othf!ri, nuE h--tvinic Ihif ^r^ptfici'Mii, nrp di^rrMiii?!! liLarneiricaUy o|i. 

of thp EOfiliLv of 40 iiriiiitc l« iu Lmtc|if ddt^ncc uE ibc ^ill ; (o Mothar clx*v ib« a^ 
«ffic>pnr H inlijfvtinn ici tlit* \^'iEI If u^ miV^ h tli^iiticiican t>f iwivn ■ m<<mmy' 
Oovtflcitni \yi rnliry thai Jn, Hi? tpomi^lbit^ts ab^uT n mi^itior^ *Vwh lend* u* lo lip 
licire it iijprwnu jj iTu] cj^iviicm?— >tuil 4 9cJU<ii-LuUkU M>c-tliuciJt Th>iL i>. Uic cii- 
rpTinn f>f p«*cot «^MlbniU tmlilv vir ii-r ihjit IhiiM! Tw<i kTmU<^f T*iiliiy *1ifi*T in 
their TrlaTirin ic? ibit wtll A prv«t<iii tinaiblp rinliry i* n---i imdirr ihit fmcitml of any 
wLH, but jL LUtfiDury cotlEi<;<e(]( n ^ubjwt?] dJ wilt, lu ibc rviise iliLit -wearc able t» 
gpr fhr Ltrinn? Df(jjii nt a ftnurton hv rppeaitTis ihr fi*riri nt ^^Tuniaty miiaculAr 
>4nu<tJot]w whtt^i yytib jiioiDciutdd villi it m ii^ but eipaTii^itCi' Th-m it^etnory' 
QOfllicirjil af cxlflinM (r-ility mmt l» di*;inKuiHhrJ frcma ilit ct^oSitirin of iiH-mory 
11«p]f : th* lal(i"r liHnit rhn frvlmg (hal Ji^ miafiiri htvn in f?nitib-ioii*nn« hplbro, 
I. c- ftCfgcllioo. wi aoi»H' t*( limilbniy, \ iruo memofy U 40 imigo which 1 irao 
fcl )U vrill tjy J iLithi of mcniLrty-u-vtuctuU^, iiiiil vrliivb. when jcoC, it fuitlicE nuliject 

1. No. 4. 


Thv Modern CohcIVtiOV of ivi Si^lwecR or Rnt^lt^OS. Bf ProL HAw^rd 

Thk Kl iiciiiJNs or Krmc u. Thu-jh*-. tty Prol. Jttm* if Ifythp. 

Tiw MoBAunv oj' Nations By Pryt 'f. A'. ^V/p^-. 

I 3^ Mim-'h ScifTKiE ^F Enif^Loov. By /imi^ ft^dr/ 

Vrrr *Nt» l«iinF*in'v By ff. if A/i^. 

l^ilB Ppot^BBH op Po^tTLC4L Ecoftoirv «i>cs AbiAH Swttm By Ah*iv<fi tr 



DiaaneHoVi : The Mornl Aspect of '^Tlps' and "QrunUht " By Vitftttutr 
tad J /faHJi/i0 

vArp iD(l Mccl, iflio ilir ykfU ot millet iuttflUi luul IjIi*- Tbr ittivL ol thi' un^Ly of 
makiiKl tu« *tihtn ih* Utl rf>nrnry hHmrn* un alirtKl tntitnciiv^ firnuppcnMiaa 
uf all cLivlLdfll ntcD. Ii b44 ep^tiit aptiTttntitJi:] io ihc hiti^nr ol rclitflira. 1u a 

tiffl vr d^Tdfeticwffl ifivoU** fl dvhaiiv iiLiuuilf to*ftri^Jt ihc nriimafr prohUm <if bo 
■ABU life. Thr taoAm idv4> oi tbr Eir£.t43>t unity and throrE^oic r^^otuligaof 
nwin (fifViialiJy fon>p'! u* lo *»^ fur ihpnnc ^wiHrrpli- fjf lilc *hlcb 1»»|nving 

Trofeuvr l!*>k|* irmiiki- iliai i*i> LtytMiiona nifly be luUil , (i| Wby i» a 
that jnjr <1t*i<urtwnci! in rllikjil viaxTuUlioa m ^mci' LirJUK^ iiiro up in urmh xhoiK 
th* «0««r<)vncrw ^ 13 f Why ih ihrrv *urh :i tvrifltinrt ^vfn in tfw4-ijlnltvr Hliici 19 
briuK lis ibn^ptin min hnrmnny buJ ?<ympiiity witb -ptHCEkAl ' problcmit^ The 
prrlintnafj «Mvpt ib the diaiinctioa bviivnrD tcipncr:' and i\n The aim of tf Inarv 
4 ti) 6od <fliiJ*a . (h* Btifi uf AFi lo pn^ucc vmlt bj nimi( ^ ihvic cm^ But 
nn BMy be divided cn4ri pf<tdllf Iivt? Bid ptBCtKAl firl, EvL^ry cunHklnrnlfcn of (Iv 
■cnpv 9mA aint iif rihir^ kIkiv> ii in \tr btiib ^i Hi'Srnrr Jind jjh ;iri Ai^ a vipnc^^ it 
iffld<aTim lo 'iplain ■icrr>'rhin}r . ^k an an. tn rt-tliir u>inp[Sm|; |l« {ompJiciittDiu 
w lliu> i^oEoM. Eihkcs may bL- ■> vicndc in iv-\y diflttncc rctmiuaik li^int ii Li^tiii 
in b1ii>* llbe KritfriAt o,>uc(rpliLiD \bhj<.Li wUl inlxicr ihr vAiicitih imtlivrt iu^luAlly 
I^VitfniOB tiiiinan cunJofi fr> tiaiiy Sre AncH^. it aimi> to thnvf tfu* i^il (h-ii ou^hl 
iitnuLly i*^ c^rrro c^mduci, 4ind Ihin ib tbr hiipr^ini' ot>irrt of cihJr« fn • ki«ocv 

tn trtBt^r^ io (iir McvjiliLy of Nutiunv E'lvftwur Surlry Kiyi ihat ihr- Trlnt^imn 
ct \ht \tanf. Aiplornaiic or miEiiarj, with olbrr ilam m^ <*« coptLpAivfl ^iili ihv 
trUlioQs cf OOQ tDdi^Jduol Lu uivlher, bui Ihe ivo kLs (*f relntittfi* iLre nol ihr 
^$.mv A crimp h no act punbibiitilc hy liiw. ttml il tB aljitiird llu-rrifiirf U> ippnli n*( 
^ Ihr 4I4EV. uling lt>s^]ly. cnuld cnmmit b trimp Uui tf ih*lt rvavi in h? a crime 
ii wottTd br u THDcb xin uHi^nw ;i>;niiiti nor^lii) (» b^fr^re TBkrlion lo >which ihr 
Uic<i kar« ngi (CDh-mrd and uul&ir (diiiiiuQ C4nnt>l be rcM^tUcd m Ihdi, a* «i>mi' 
BiipfKAT Inrliv^dni] moralii) bi-ct^met mtirtl ^Mtth naiifinjl mi^rabiy ubw tbcxi> 
ihroiijfb whoTTj Ihc aUkii? ocu Brt J<n- tbcm>L^lvri jifid for iboii own ieirrfHtf^ mvtfBd 
ijf tut ibr Lvitnirinn kcvbJ Wji^m h rmijtm ilif hMI? i» abuvr xlJ lodividuaLi, but 
ilipri'' x\ Tv^ fj*T-f*K|fcirnbnn «ip#-f»"» pfiwinr nvn n--iiifL(i* Whai r^^1nlnb n a Kvnml 
obl'tEAbott UpciD 4lnic4 ta uhwrw jailki; la itirir <l(oliDj;i wllh iifQc nootbcT- Kd- 
IJuaBl !Dur4lkly tllflri^ (TLifii jodiviiiu.ll (iMfabl) iTi ibftt u QdUin'ii Tirvi duty RiHy Ih- 
*4ii3 ic tr fa llxfir Thrf# 11 AiMi-lHvlin^u, ilivr* ii "nly ivunrtiitPTi, m lU f^ctig' 
ni^ipg ihfi iact ud utinjt upon it Tfac intrrcubrnr nf nMioiiA c^a oaly rr^cb • 
tall mauDrv oC di;t«1oi>iniri3i uader a ccitamoD morjJ laWn «bicb letXJSDito Ihe 
nchiBdl oftMainnD at oT fizjnB) \nUiP with ihr right* of Any uthi»r 

3If Wnrd paieu om. tbal Mill, ia hit cxpfnilioo cif wbmi bt callrid F.iholoRy, 
or til* Htncl Stii'^tr of HomHn KaimrH rrpraird in #11 ibr munof his Louie. ' 
fftn^rk^ tbal Klhnlnj^ min* hMl prnii-fHrl flr<Ui(-Trvf ty I'hf tiUBol the (orm&Clwn 
cJ fb'trjctrr '^re dvrivEiii^f Uw4, r^tuUit^ frhSni the ^acrpl luwid mmd^ nod 
UT to 1* ubttioed b> dirOuLinj; thmi fmni IhuM' ):*'ivnTrfl bi«* ' Tbrr^ wm rf wnni 
c4cI*«MiflBh xn Mib'4<rin«i'piir^ 111 ;iT] inJividujiXl. Tbf anFitm l>i li Sv]f prrvrd. mt 
bi« cwD adriMic-s. "ihr ml xinfntilinE b'tK-k" lo htn p4y(ba^c^icBl ibcoiy. [n 
^«OU«io« ibr iaftufracr cf r«iniirkibk mto Mill Bfltn«« ibat "vbiteiicr d^pcodk 


tMK unviscT. 

tyo tbp pi*riih3rili^ of infiiriiluaU. rL>mhinHl utth iIhf amil^nuul Itii? jvkiIi 
ihcr hiiid. U nrC^Hfirily Ircnpl^lr <>l tvibi; foresirrD ' ' t\'hrii we ttc^frpl to 7«ci- 
Eunu- Ibc Inil ucQCE ot clrcumtuucn va^i. wr muil nficn know tiiiw die 
curc'iiTiitluccifH urj]wu Id H^iti.—lbi* pununA] nr^URltnn *n to oy w h^iUi>ally iAc«l- 

Lq Ibc fiiaLD. UX4 Mr. Dlj^h, liu etiiis iaLiiria.Ltly Jn. oi at jic iDeeponfalr »i 
tvClten <ir polvoiisjiiy of, th-? prrion u a wholi^, aoit fo d^Kouta^ II tBlodT«ci>«r- 
■pff fhe pcmiOH •ad tiiaUmuUEil. (hcrtfon:. to dtK{wrji^i.ti^ h» soodaciw oa wrti 
At ihiH pi>int llir dhUTtmnl hIii iiikti viu* 4ml iitiinuTHlily lifcunip* iu«>ruLbI ii> a lA 
tionnl milLiiinii Immnriilicv i* rninr ^iifvimcf h\in|E mtJnl agpn'K Vifr nay 1>* il^^ 
llCcd »[hp fprndingoE Ibe forcnof QTtf'iova lile lolhe dottimvbL of U*n*oral cft- 

Mr- Krancm W. ^Jettmin wlio Iwgjitt th^ •(nJy of IVilitical Hcraiunsj w*vBtf 
y«orm Ago, whrn hu q'lu MihtotD. ci^'u* in thin iniclv liiv vi«wH on ib« uvil* ol l>a4' 
(eounr Id Eaiebnd^ 

Mff Kranliliii ttiinki "\he iuhjvcr4v# UHinaof vonh and rtrntiTi^^ uhir^h dtft- 
Itcs^iiLklii^ft (he pfupk isi ihw ixiuntcv wiU be mjurcd ^j' "gWmis fcca Ui v]Xi iofcm 
tn* vhflo Jliry ix^Lliiim *«im' M'tviLi lyt whitli iliry jiir Icrt wukIii Vw br) »lhr^mi*« 
v^ll paid " ThdE rh^ matliT knnt "ubvkliiii- t*thir« iv appacr^ni (rnm Vhr Inri l^aF 
ui Japod a ivtilly difl^rcDl Mtnimral pffvaib The tdiii^r. Trof. )»iah koycir 
tUDdFT ihr ftiKiiaiuit i>l J U) hi coDtmcuilD^ on Mr*. KrAnkH[i'» couimuoicj-LJuu, 
ttttVT ffffpTTing to ihf tv||» of Ehv G»fnxan co*lrtm of Tiiokgiilil art dctiiilwl I17 v. 
Ihcnnfi, Hsi^a ihaL i( it hfiTini (ho miLshood oF aur wmrTA i^ "tip'* ihvm ih* nit%- 
chivf should \v (HqI by (jTktanJned df^icn vuch u v. Jbrilnjc pfopoaca. And iioi by 
individual iftion <riii]Jd*lphla Ta'rrtraeniit'jf /pji^wrfJ .1/ ^.ftjy/, :6oi Ch»1&Ul 


rONrENTS: June. Jftgi Xo ihT>. 

fly A Ht}ur.Un 

NcTi;* Ai Dnu/MiOAA Qu'ui-cs gyu lA VitVMOU^at Gattvuui ? 
i>ttr.tmJ {,4* I'.r.'*} 

CONTESTS: Jul;. i«9i- W«u tfl?. 
La Notion DV Liuitg ■;■ MATKCMATigtii^^ 1)y O- Mifinii/f, 
CoiiP lyoiTi. suw L'Hi^niAK DH tA PHEi.nCi.)p»ii(r WW KifUnm |1|. b>' A y^Hfi 
Lifr Rc7i*ncRb E>A LA riuuu-onnK vr. i-'lfjpti Py /* A'-v^'m*/ 

M- flniiT^nn TB/i«wt tli* nuulai*, ci attaciaiyon pmpottd t>y vbrioua Mjvhol- 
oRiata, and ihc Eactcm which imtr»<ii« to five fortes lo iU>i:cJ*tiuBa Wtindl al 
AniUDiE p»>Uiuli>EblA luu tlie Kicat merit of nol fildttnji LUaiuml wnuiirfftKinaftUAl' 
oppoalUon The Uvt cf idnjlogy Am ulmuat (he tfimA ak lIii>«b nf pb>«ifi , ^nd llk- 
Xnv of 4Aih3ctiiiinn ottnht to ht tnjn nm only Eor idtAf. bui fur kepkAtmiu itiid fur 
objecis M. 3n(irJoD a conduction U itiAt ttip th«>ry of iht ABwcJAlimn nl id#a« tet 
hl<h«rio brpn trrarol from a roo tuL>|«iJVf ind idcafifttic point of i-ivw H* u^utd 
autflEJlubc for the ihc^iir)' u1 •tr^rtftiiifn (t[ idcH » [hc<>iy of n a^fittr od pbenoman^ 
which concfpTiiiii hn (hinV> tn^ruT ^ifrlain^ thn pmct«H. • 

vhoved thai »Eiutioi] is the mnalatlop toio l«rni» of Ck3nKiou>n««» of ihai wtiicl 




IiJarrA hom 1W objcctit^ pgiol ol ticw. u m raclioa of tho orctiaiaai. m h 
khoAe, i«an etciCTn^l imprpwiott S«k»tlo» nre fhp jiTfiliKiMp cWTir-m of ibv 
^r<^k>c l^fe. Th«r <iiomkuiF Ihr raalin^ which ibe mind ntod^rvi nrnbtiret 
«iii]cJk«iauimii5iDKtutbDtrtcUtion»H «4ii,a1>kuribv4tUU«- TbikUcbfonuEiHlEf'-Ily 
ptACrior Ilk triihiEiLin^ whicb lm« nn iilloctlvi? (sigis Tbr fcattJi;!^ fori i*tp(in Jinn 
1o ihv KOil tr«^ti#Pt «mt3itinnt Iwrmn* mrm* und mivTv rapid onn! miEJucinqtiUv*, 
" *tjf h riaD*laft4 onfv pbiiioto^icdl sulca ciE.i ^uHTickni diifKU^ji," tiA9 aot time 
let jippnr Htrc we have a frflts-act la nn inierirediai* font wbcfv reactions 
tahm a tim« mftci«rtt lor tlxsm lu Iw cunnriQut ili-r ln^^J^^M:ltlaI Atnin, Jo u>ich th* 
■IniTaci natna ol the rnKli'tiUii] fncultv tt.i^ bE)?n livcn, Imvfl Victh TiTflrrrnCi'ilioa 
opcntM bF<we--i uiUMbli^ and iniriJ'vrTU'Ll Inctv until thry hMin in hvrtin*: lo two 
irTBducibJc l^cuLim bul tho uitef JecTual s1nt« ■ir? jetq'^^ oq tbo tPiNsiblo stiict, 
«n(1 jKlhuuich iIk v^Afi dcvc1up> >u sfcully ih^l (il<: KiLHtjrliI> Ap|icAFt like: n puiA' 
sill!', rbr UlttT 1^ tbr pihniinr trunk *iUl ihit-K^jh ii ihc i;nift iqi^ti h} a kim1 f.>f 
«ciOti»iwi <T«iioii S«nu1>on« arp mmvnipdi atitira^viflnt tnil nolhicie more A 
vcttHikja acicr (>iT9«ot« Uicll in ibeadull con^ honsntw wiihuut « lirond ol ijitUri' 
laSAPPtly *vAkn] reUtiofik ThfTc is Hesvir atoolEiEe eitrhiMfin lierurtfli pfTMiptlon 
and tttttntles rhw m* l^^'o aUtAai which (HhoIvb ijitD awfli othai, which hiw bo 
fUltnvncf^ ID nittarr. uaA nbicli kfc Htpm^blD crtly in (ion J^(>:>)mr1} ipnliiaE 
ih«T arc no mpuHTmoi. nnlj iirwc»pli<m» mon* or Ipw ocmipJn !t w*ri**iion ihn 
^enis cil (bivniS ta con*irlerv<l in it»ll u ithuiiE raftrefico lo irt rdatiunt : in prrc«plico 
aiivdioa n pnUI chUHr Ui ilic n^Uriim* Bm nc»k«Uun chi»iM uiily tin i:itii>cH»*- 
npv«^ M If e>iri nr«~'T r'ntrr rlirrrrly mtft iiiEnllrrdLnl rnn xirLirLitin^ I11JI oni) ihfimjih 
Ul« lUTc ot rtai*inbr>i^c« Lv>-rt trnvaiicn «n fir m «v jtc ctmtLilr c( 11 is putvtj 
Jcit, «nJ *T cJleCtuiilc i>UE menial funatrucUunh ^luE «Uh «?i|MtioUri. Irul vyitb Oni 
rwnrtnlflTifir-r* fif *rn**lifiU4 BuT ihft rofc frf unHitior i* iHH inifri- frMfiriprl. 
Uowivr rapid it* Biglii acrir^ cmiKciitiUKnai* it iiulacttnftauxly pn>t'Dk*i« ihp nv^ 
nicmbrancitol niimflroiu Bcnmlion* of H^frrcnrrt and ios«mblnncm «iih Anterior 
■ccuuioni. If 1^ iin iiccailoiL tor ihli. and TLolhioe tnorv. To 1w fvrrsvRl. a uA' 
«atiDA muM b* lolt^iAvd by lonuiioni diflcrant Irom ifwll. Tb« tnicut i*!!^ rvlm 
llcni of FfneinblAiiic IjcIukij heiiKjiliona am) rcw^mhUl'tcA bcLmccn rcliilicmf il 
fJamt itipn tb^ {"luni unriivnK nnil nT>*AnLh(<4 i(tr-lf Thr i^Aiiiiuiinn hn^ hn*i\ 
firc>Kfniui«, b(ii ai all tUK'-* (h* pr:>c«diirr i» itiki? ; it i>inw«c« iti di«fnj^fiin^ rv- 
RKoilMiintvk >u(f ui Ini ULukcd br diuimtl'iritid . iblt 19 thr univci^ pnxirdLirir 
<4 i>v miciil ind Ibd eandition tlur /ntf nin nt iFiaji^hl 

In hi(ArTict# on Cfit/TA/ P&ffw^-'i^. M DurandliloGroftltncniintm of M Ch 
Kiirltct'^Mlideon ibi> Bubjrcl ^hich appf^ivd in thr April bUiDbcTol the AVvm- 
^it/.»'*-f*t^u^. pranit oai ihAl Ki^het In app]}iQjE (be term ''RRnera! anatomy" to 
th« AAMamy of tbe Ci**uek< and ''»ped«l aoAiomy " V> Ow aaAroiny ul th« organ*. 
cFvvrlcdked Lbv I»cl ibui v"»''*r'''yi' *nd t^thihtr wlmn u*vl Iv mvi»n:»a lh» I wo op- 
poUtc Hile« of a viFnfT <.npi 'f M rHaiiiMii of ahn(r»ci. nommal rfii«n«:1iM] ind hot 
r«al nib(n>ton Thu*. by t^ecetril cbemittry 14 latendpd tbc conndtraMfm uf ihc 
btgli«r Li*iH ir<'«ci»iuK Uic uiulrtifW •iL.tiuui ul tvUi^t :li« iJiic (i^i ilir uLhcr, wLihI' 
flvprihai ri>>' h*. inrt <t"* nvnilra ui rnmpfMilinii whifli mmil' rhnrHnim fr>r "Jirh n( 
tbeM Ceocrai pb^nolrvy thckuld 1w. tbifiv'Irii-F, xhn phiL-k«->]>bi' nl ih» ^i^nca ol 
tlie Iiifii.lkin> od life. ih#i ^n 10 >a>. iIlv hl<;Tiei Um rmbrAcmie all tbeK »aciuu> par- 
ncnlar lunetkvn : tptetal phj-tlolocy hni'in>r frr iit citijKt Thf-v pariicular Icinf'iont 
IB vbm I" pr<>p« l4«iicti of than and diklinguiLbn il Irom th«i oltcn Ph^molo^y 
hu rcferrucF. bi^«ver. lu tbe v^Ebrt aaiiiiAl» >« vaII » niBD. aE4 aliu W pIftDbk, 4nd 
Wnei*lbe(ennflF(ifTal ph>^inlaE5' ha«bv«o applied id ibe pbymalofn'^omtna^ fo 



til livin(( bctagt kad ifir>etal phydioloiey to ihnr wMf Fi citoMnm Ibc vihoui «ninaJ 

3 ret ihiiH lyAirivr [iti>'vnli>|:ihU h^xr m^ilrr^ TtlHr uhrof ilir Urm ifriirrnl jJ]>iiiolT>g:>' 

3ii^[ havp Irf I ihp ITU* gpumt |ilitid^lnfl7 unri^cnj^nuHl ami iinnain^fl In condu- 

tn ibr (urni of a dbUuu lU- M Milh-md THrcLi l>i? gUiccriatiA mjidc tu (hr culioa 
cd Hmir in MalhinTnatictc The qEiMhun whcihvr tu h«vt u limiL, f<n xnytUna^ vari' 
cbk, U oci »r^oa^fDo» with allniniajL a Hmii. u cocsidcrrd b conarcdaa vilb 
Zfflo'i ptoblcm of AchHlM and the idtioIap, iht st-rici H>luUon <* wMcb » nui ihm 
AchlUct wiEl Dtvur uvrftalcv fho (itfiDibc, bai ihar ho uill not ovr-riahB ii on lhi« tido 
cf < ■pill kiltmleU ■( d cU^UikCi- nt ^^ nt t^ nirlir (fuiTL Ibc Dlfirtinif-fx^n!. wilhiu ■ 
Itpriml rquil li> U' nf ii ^t^crmd rrrnimmrinfi ;il lli^ iTJ^MnT 'if ^iHtlmv. T'< Ibr oS 
jocti^fl ihal by ilt ivty nature Oie bmii f jr»[iJ>i to aii.-iiiip?rl. a« whpti? Ihe limit tDd 
the yfifbblc elcmml which mdciji^Jlcly ftfj|M-ortch^!> it Me rMcntmJl^ diffefcpt. it ii 
trfiHc^l [|]»I whi^i ft i.irinbir H>-(nrtii Iehh a huiix, ihih Wniii^jit En a ^vtfii'ifr and (h« 
limiT u ^ ^luiiniiiyc^ \\it f.nm« kitirl. quaiiti Iming npiflneti^iJ, In thp prnpcvatJaD ; 
ihc tcrhRih of Lhr tircumfncncc it (he llrriL cif Eh? T^ritnri^rv oif tbr iotcdbcd ^If- 
CPDL ibe iJinli Is n qUJinrUy oE tbe Unii? kliu!. Ibal of EcnHT^ It U nni hKcOAty Ut 
know **'hoihTt Thff defmitlott accurdM with fonlity. M. Mllhiiwl tbua tliowt by rofifr- 
«ncr ]i> ibr pmixitikA ijf a:) unfinuLnl >«tii'»t cif lji>4;rilifit! (H^tiion* kdcI iW corrv-' 
5p<iTi(lirjfl nmimscnhH polya-mv that iwn Micb ^prirt of eT*im--rrica) lffii(ihi4 til^— 
(yiiiA the iw|ULrcd condlTions cnn atw ayt kv conri^vrtfl A.« dc^lininA a ncu Ic^gili. 
:kktpc-rii-rT r^i ull Lbc r»~«l »ini! mfcrk>r 1" ill the otfaois, As to its cibTf^acc, U cbd 
\hl Hilly l]i»t ;l iKii^tll •'ktiu niil> n^ flrrlrTiiimfl, ]<■■ liiTiltr^l . timl a stntpnf [rn(lh_ 
a pnriici;br longih hits a njibr ii^ ptlii. proi-idtd ibnt itiv pmpifl-r ic?« ^i quaiiiht 
svhkb <4^|]dUioa i[ piTc uui ctiotrAcIuriui^ The c-4rD<:t ol mAtlicoaiical vp^ic^ 
brr;u1rh Icn^i^ i* iii^ly ttto cfiDWat at their d^-finiiiori!* M^tbrnuilic* ovtr* iu « 
iHtvnd' 1(1 fh# coHjJtidt) fsl cri^tm^ Un it»?lf !i world ul hriiiyuH Then* i«a [Utij*— - 
grntr ni it|jiniLirt iti Lo whtilicr inconiracnsuTablKn sbcmlJ Ijt n-ptrw-utctl by Icocihe* 
CT bynumrncal ^ymholv hiil ihr divrrEi<ncp ii it Ijvic rrtu^of lb? vndltvi ducuulGOiB. 
whkch rho nciioiK of inhntty ud cmnt^nu^ly bnvt rained omonfi matbamiLli^iAU- 

PhiltiM>pbic lliuuichi, kAfi M. Liiitfiu. pTnenikt in RumJM. in iln |ih*I faiiicr|'. 
> trry [XKir i;(ini1itLiin rhilniHtpliy ilntvi in>i «yJKi. iiiiJi^n tliM nstniit Iw |£lii?D to 
nuch mciral pr»o»pt«- or i|ijmp*lic rtccrnmrniiaiiQCiA ok ^vp find in " tli# invlructi^ " 
tA a Vlftdiojr Mononif-Ktuc or iU thr " Domiinuui " Tb<T riunian cnfiiij w^s c^mli- 
^fiUdttl uKalnv ihr! Ilbtrijrft nf ihnUKbi, rrgnnlLng Klentv anil phUoifiphy utib ron- 
IrimpT und buJy drDsicI Th*nt .in during Ih* Kfiddia AftA> in chv rwtt ol Kurcp*^ 
thr <:nd ii? Aiiaiun Ki i*bicb aIJ [rtTiffrri npTc 3t)U>r[|iiMLt«i, wn* l!w wifoiy o( il*c »oui 
t( wnt ijnly wiih lYlPi ihp Groat Ihar Th^iEftt lork a (rrer flij;bT, rtoiwlthtcandifif 
tht rcftiriciioni ihnl it bad still i»> mpport. Tht Litil* Hus«i(m» wor* ibc Tmi lo 
luru tuvt-4nlA Mir^tein inut rut; lion In tirdcr tij iticet thr ]r9iujEA. wbn4prp^ml Itl 
KuMb nVniit ilm middli* -if ihfl ii*itb omtnry, with ihp arai* fhpy ti^«d, ccIidIaitIc 
phHouppby w» rntrodiiovd imri thi? <>oU(<Kr> of IVrrq Mobita, ii< Kiel Arifriotlc **» 
lukern AB kcuidc and iIlf tcAchi^ »->!& in LjLtii, Ujiil^r AIckj^ M;khutl(fviu.b, iHljunsL 
n^iiarftl, jtnd mor^l philr«4>phy began lo 1)^ Uii^hl in ^ ft^rmnl mannir »r ilir AtAti' 
vmy uf Moiicu#, Piitvr IHh Grv9( ordtfrii£ an irniKTiUnc p]nc4> M ^ B'^vn lo rhttortt 
And dial«ciic>, and ibv mrnLiinTi oE kj^it. ih^xb^bK^ -^nd nLfUpb^i.m in the pm- 
lETammr nf iPip Xcadprry. ta 1753 lopii: mpt^iphyvlrt, ^ind iriDralliy cnterni rnlo 
the teftchiftg of phili»*f>phy at ibc Vnivpfi-lly. In [h* i8ib century twc curmnti of 
idnvH RjMriifeticd (hcniKdiet. cf whith Mmir jitb CE^nnecied wilh rnytiiciam. othen 






\tk the iAiliiDflc« ol FTtfdcb philoioph}' The Icrmvt l>ec4inc 4i«od*lod, Ihriiugli 

Lirinf:! knowhwI^S* of (if^it, <kf narun*, inii nf man, nf Iv^omn^ a liMirr (.'hriitun. 

l»iiAr citLicA, and n tionier tAiaily hiud Kovikof and ^bwciite iDuadod ihe 

"Su^iety ul itiG Pirnid* uf fiiii(tm:iiuji/' aitd tLri»(Jt;li illicit tvul a itiafn [it (nniml 

Dttd iwhi^iiEit tpiHikh u'i>rr pu!3liAhf<d (ct ffitiriliutinn in ]i1hc»4 at tn»mirrirm Tho 

•Q0u«o« of ill' French "phi^owpbrn" of ib* ["ihccolorj was pT«poD<^rBni m 

Kuuu m the >ci:i>Eid hjitl of thr iSth century Vuluuiz^niLvyiTl tbc i^Teaiai Ijvor, 

&A<1 hi* riHic^uTL Witt irri^iiTiiil FnM>thfiii]jhT pcnpFrafai fhr nx^cltr clu-^wui aati 

«tiMi conamtii'* nod rrliaiuim man <i«ni*d mirndvt m tho tourria nf hiu£>r>'. con- 

Viiloted rTllcif>ti u n poliLU:^! Ititiruneai, uiiA ziiuOcnl ibc iifiLarance and cuplAliy 

<^ ib4 cler!B:>'- Un ihe happpntng of the Fi^'nch ravolution Cathi-Tine vliU fri|thiieiioc1 

«nkl tu^ ficcu^ooa raaxatjm imaiiiBi thoai: who Aithird tn utc frudom cJ ihoiijihl 

QuaiiMDKrf pcdaiiLJiGT licld a tftval placv ia ibv iboUichisol CatlicriDc- Sbc 

^:onnit«4 ihe taro ol prdigoglc rHontit lo liciilti, who «hcwd llm iruo rdaOitlaa \a 

■hill which tinitot ibc dciTlopnicul uF (he body* of the iiiinil» am! vf ihr lienii , fjiti 

9bi BHiral 'liinvnil mich: tJ>)L»\r ihr firnt fiEacif Ali^tand'r I Tp-rniablith^ |111i^t' 

■KOphic hlnHrdlmm and umsht in r-i<iti* minr^^r in «-<i;]1. eci>nomic, ^cd pclitJcnt 

^Tfucstioes. the Lini^-^r^iir -^ Mij»n>w dii> fmriEiLQjKil, ub J liqc u| ihc Utultic* in- 

«7ludi-fl ihkfmaiic jojI moT^i ifift>|rtj;y. ihoirf*itlral nm1 pfafitraC phil<»j*iiib>' finlnral. 

yKjtitif*! nnd pc^mlar tijiba Philf^^ophy xUa ninblEhliid it»»lf In tha nput nnitrr- 

^Wlir^ of Kharkof. Kani, nad rrirnbu't; C\n ntwdtwcrv pOHcucd wiib m^re 

Hiring nlra« and i^i|l:iiis tcndencln, polLttcil. mnral, idtcioui, nrrptlcal led ro thn 

^cabJi^mMit of BUfnerfiui K<rvt iiscietiK whow ituhag poitut wat Ibe maiiimic 

^Itararr AtiOUt 1G16, Schrutlci bA<t inlmLucxl into the Igrugn luLl^-fv. a B(Mtit of 

^0 * iaopoJtrw) hiJm:ttiJty Fr^«T '*aw in tho iDtlsir* 1 m^nit ofincirat pdLiotli'^, Ih? 

til ci*v vduc>iiion. In oMvr ro be roctiipd at a mtuon. it wjii nrcrc^ry to 

ttiroqKh ccTUin ■ <on»«f»iiLiM," ti» <<l>i*iu trriiiiiii "drj(rer»uE knu^kdur ' 

ABtccf itii->H -^ronwrmtiFtl " Uy fr^lPt W4i^ ^(i^mnHki wri<i. noimilml-in^Vni hix 

aiv«tici<^ -naBimbuad vilti thf> princtpWof ih* kc^rJatinn On ih# r«A<linn undar 

WiotT^ Gkii^lf yn Ihf ^llni^Ic^ vi ^mlAn: io^LiucUur, »clrr>cr vtu jfjVfrii a QiV3ljc*il 

*od. ftod rebiriiai wji dfcbrt^l to U' thfi *apT»mr vimt r Th»i ^irftfn* which 

OMiU do iBJufj- 1u r^hgii^Ei, nx ^tdngy, Wivrv dithnr dincardriiL ir directri] l» tv 

lautthi 4C{4Ddiaic ti* ib<' 4p<Hl td Ifdly SrriplLJtT A» to philoHDpby. the iriichiiia 

of iBoril pbiEoiophy. whlib don aoi ■pptirAir moralli) front the filtti, w» alaae 

Allowvil Ths maliacAcf iho KjiaE-ioj) Jicob «v>ipv fnrbiddnD. ail cuntorniag *e«fl> 

dUtikni* theurio- Is c^nctal, in ihr- unn'crftiiiT**, dLtrinn ihr fit^i yoji uf tl>o nitie- 

tasib nofurr Hi** <ihjfH^i« nf phdjtvaphir ^Eiirly tt^T* xomrvvhM vagnr Tbr niitny^ 

ih* viMWc*. of pJucalion, i>1 thr mdividnal cbaracim <>f pojplr*, catbual 

tk litKuuiws oa iirc *ll}, ua the iij;bt» uf d^taon, uii iticipbil and tuicE^ cd bii- 

TnMrr aod Vi-IUniiiii inirc^Iui^rl ihr TiiTman phil»ii>^tli> uml prindpnlly Ihal 

ol Sehnllifif. which ItrcAmf in lunt* h>rt cbu lo^vr t^hich put in mLjvvmc-ni idn^u on 

the iifil7pvaii?Di;c sind (hi? Lujiiunalily of titihuliou Ttic nuHt lUdcaE ctamploD 

«l Sfhr:IFing« divinur ^j» Odott^'tkv wtiriKo etii^rnaT pvnonaftty mjirkf funoiAly 

Ihft id«A ontrrlAini^J ot |ihdo»uphT and philiwophen bvivhwa ift^'^unil 1^4) A 

pbilowpbrc «wk tt^ifPH-mcd Ma vtit n| rinn;knttc FnuM, 1ndirt£ a kiod uf lifviltf- 

tcfrfll from conmoi] rnntuJ* H he norupir^ hjmnrll **Th phyiioal irc^rpt, thp 

llotfcipbtr ^u Rcu4^ A> Ifae «|iul of n »K«rrt aiib tvrrtblp ^j^crs }|. 

inn orodcidQ hi^ jxocDl aiticlc with * ^UlcU kI thn liln AuJ pbiknupby uf 

ihlCh. who rHi hH rH'^n t<i ^1 Pvlrr^t^dru fri^m Ji thrnn y^trh mjf thfnvch 



tturcpfi wTDM a dJiwriaiiort on ptiiTiuophy, la which hi! eiipliianl ibe ctet-ctof m^T 
r)l Cvm^^t by ih^ doable a^non ckl <'./Of/>- and /r?triPi/j-, tha oQ* tHirig cici», tU 
glhrr pruducl Ic f Si) GoHtcb UU|:hl ;n Itse Uaivcrtilr '■'KiCh pit>chL<l43iir. avd 
melAph^c*. jiiul Iftler h« re>c«i%'PEl jLulhcirU) (n I^Hch Ihe: 1ii<ir<ii> iif philowp^Vi to 
«&hi;h hir KJitv* in ti!»*Hf rhafacfr^ in icTptrilancr mrh thr inftifueijoi^t of hm 1i4«r- 
afdhjcal tupvrion. In hfif'fi>i<vp'i [tdchjac he lnlLini«1 hit fnctula ^Uo tifc jjb^Oi- 
ophy iti Schellinij. In^lluii ymr hr publiihrtl a "HiiiUir) jjT PhUiMnphic Syitrmx" 
tbit 4pp«aFikDC« of which ^rai ft rare nc'voJiy m the Kuuuyn Scinnltfic Wwltl. K« 
■iiitjiic^b«nt]]r pdbJmhrJ v^vml t^ihitT wi^rki. bul Lhv mnnu^Cfipi of one on the 
" Philcscphy ol ihr lIKiciy of Kumanuir, " which co^i him much Tubor ^i^at dr- 
tffuyi-rl bj> liTp 'I'ht- Tn«nl i.^r CiilKch ti (o hn^v <wuh«L io iHlJbliali m KuuU pbi- 
Ic^ophy I" nifMifr llcLiMiiKuirtf Id rUc iiuily el philc«vti3H ihr whulr 'ocTctuimJUa 
of ttifi wJpnmh, 1>ui trup )»liiJtiNcifiHi: litumLrtlisK ih ihA kmivlnl)^ ii| ih^? uMly fFom 
which mr-rnal ph^ncim^na.flnw M l.:iiini« B:tt-Han Ldklym^ O^Jfloh* ^' Pici«r« 
M Waa/' wfbcrc. beforp M KtaonjvKr, hr u^mf freedom. -'[| can tiaelf boRio ao 
ratirc *etirt oC phenomena, wlilch ^ft thi-n tin-kwi iij««ilii:f in thi? rdrtiiim* old*- 
]3«Arl4n», ihat ii 1o uy an Ehv nuCfwaTy uni ol a voIudUtv firiDciplf*." Galiicb 
()<L«f^ieB iu oci^iiivy n qmnll pUr^io thp ipiDoral hiHtocy nf thr phjlosophr ol huniAn- 
ilj. IE Elicrie nLiiffd brrfcrr htia a tcienc? o\ th? tclabom of (he nul tUid Ihn body. 
h* wBt at leatt one o( the Unt io elaboraie a pro^irpma ol what ii caKad lo-4ay 

M. Rrv°'M]il fin*)*! Ihr vniri^t^ pif ihv (ihiliiviphy nt Inctin In India inrif^ ai 
iUry apfwjir in ;kll their limplicily aixi primiiiw rhara«(t<r in ihr Kij|'V«da. itw 
vtry andeiil (oLWUun ut luarj^LcaL hycuna a! the UrtihinaaA. The whoJe dudriaa 
implinl tiy both thii V^dit; cu3l iinl ihr leti or iJu.' hymuiL ii. rctumni In 4 ifnw ef 
Lb* Uig Vvda, "Eaffh d^y tlia utm* liquid fiMn And dvWDd* ; iha miisv \\vity lb« 
«arlh. ibr fire* ci thr. McriBcc vivily the %\y " The tibntions dealincd lo lecd ihc 
Are ol ■Eicnfce and whkh ctmii^lrd of inflnrnm^ible liquids, such j» the r^n^a tt 
clarthH biiUcT bera pound out rnch titne thqr ilii^ umUce uat c»1abrat*d into 
ibe Ainii^pbrrc (lif ihc iliY)-hUEBc liU they inaindiii^cd- la likf in^Dittir lut liquid 
and ififiif fiKJcU hlihIuih iIi^ JiTr tit m;m. Thr lAhntr ir1Jt;iouh CMici'plion nf ifip Vf' 
die vp^vh <onticU chAn in Lhr idna <if an «<nf]lpAi ii'^-tf/ui, oi n pirprinaL rkCh*ng« 
of the rkmenti of i\ic m an imnu^nko bod^ svbich ka ilir anivciic, «vhu>c arlriial 
c-j;nTrr It flir ufflfii^c. noil the Arc tbe motor, \he dlMi^buirr, ftiul idi to wf the 
brain ^t*Jirii Felit Alcaq i U 

KEVUE DE L'HYPNOTISME. Ajnih itigi. No. m-. 5tli VEAR> 


|i| AccoiJcMKMVikT pa»a i,'Br3*xuT3»Hii. By J?a Frai/trnt and A^. y. fM^ii^t 
U) AcconcitituiVT TKNOivr i.K fvouwiiiL HvnfOTiQi I. Uy Iir AT fr. Al^Vf^ 

l^r fittn^rr \/e Krit^ft^i. {^y D)hCl.uJJj>iii kr rtj^Jtvi^i a . La Nutnliua 

*lpnii I'hypniitihm*! By xJiiUidi ia Ti»urtUe%\\A H CfjiHritHrnu \y Rkci'KIL 
en Faith: Contrjbutiuiti n I'applicaiion de U lhvr>pru[ir|»e tu^ji-r4iit«. Ry 
/>' /*, Tiiw iV/rfw. Iloit obKivanttas d'atcuuchcmcui liiirv Juulrin *ua» 
J influence di? rhypnotiKm* By Or. MiifU D&f^r^V^tity^. Beviti Bihi^iO- 

* Dr Fraiponi iarmin«r«4 hit in1*r«ating mt-mnir vtith Ih* remarlr thai aavf> nn- 
d#r very fj^cfplicflifll ci'<;«m*lancr'. *i wbea ihr "uhjVct in very *tD*ilive or hw 



rcuiu la accoacbmciLL U. DelbiEUl rrkrs la 1 pnviurfpi in ilv- c«w al a pa- 
litta (IctcrlbHl in bi^ wrUtd^i^ by ibv laiilKl }. » aDd *UTr« ilmt fan- ncuiach- 
nKi>1 coa^roi* him id btt ti«w of the r'']e uf thr l^niia, nbitb b* rv^iifdb mi a tntjA- 
vratlac ^nil inhibftinjE [*rc>'i an^ ninv(|'>'''*l1y ^^ ihenpnicifi r\|it>^«d by him (n 

KB «fT«!»lHc asJ i^ An LCiriEiafi<l1(!Ci- 

MM d* In FouTPUr nnfl Cailii'IinrJii omflim thr rniftt'limidfultawn Imm r*- 
^vorchn aiii<J« by lh>iin lur t^r^ittamir ChkfoaiH thdl siilrLlii3t> U wlit<(p<] during ih* 
hypootk ilreF^ «nd ihtrt^n ibal b>-pnolJ«m a a pMhoiottiGo} coadi\\on iParis - 
170 Rue SitOl<Ai»aiQc I 



WtLim.U Wir>lt>r» "SVfTKV tUl PlllL05i>MHa." B^ planiUi I'ti'fMi I. 

KKcft?«>i3osLH - lijA. tVaUl^. J-'Avevii dc Ik mcmplLiMLiiic f^nidi^r ttat t'n- 

Kriiik d«T Ttinvn Vcmiinft. By /- A^tt*/ ijj Roric^ht (ibvr i)i*nf>r« Er- 
ichoiDiiaifiOD 4a* dem GetfJett Jcr Gn^hichie del ,\r*ihculi, By A A»'*i;- 
*w*j«B ffl C b*rkiinktr. Hut I^Hblcm d#f M^icnr in flrr ^iiKhihchon Phi- 
loufiliic. By F. AW,»#-/. 
Lf 1 1 « «\r LiHHbHi^ni . 

Jobitnn VcUioIi ooniinuas hia revi«w of WllhoLm Waadt'* "SyMem of Fbl- 
ktt^jr Vtot. C, Scluuinctiinidi rrliklwR FoufUeci vifw of a futurr mrupbyilo 
u iMipd upon «i.p*tk«nc«, itom ifav K^nii-tn •inmlpoinE Dr. K K^nitf npUitt* 
■ilb lulseirfii acrTOK^^ thn lutiliii (>f VnmljQlitr IJI hjs Imkl Aiicmpt oE tefiilii^K 
Kacri'i " Cmirju* ut frrrr Kp«*rin anri lif t'Aiil Naiorp il>i? ortiicr, dir\<iT« »n 
tfticle lt> I'rot V\^mmt Htvirmkcr'* 1>coli "Uiw Prablrni 'itr Mnirfie in d«r 
Gnnzbttchcfi Philu^upliien " in '"bich ihe Jiuthur ictt futtli thut tfxe prtiMcm ut niai- 
l«r (« nai a liniitnl irrcililrm, l>iii ill' nutn IciUJ r4 all ihrqi* r|un«inph which tu%p 
nrfcvMK^ t^ ihi? «Eiti40r# if criicnfl cnuaa of vntoij pbvaomcoa which in it% njiliirv 
b ititfcieol tram coDKicuaCeu. The prublcTDi oT circho'phviic* 4nd uf ih« th«ury 
rd ficfiEliicv «rc mE>J(;rti ind vr«n; nnknmm in tlw unrinnu Thvir tiandpriSni rc- 
nMOvd (hnwithoul tbil cf rvsUun, A r^otnc of Ibu vibwh of Grv«k pliilotophtn 
Itoat Tbaln dowti ti(>ibr Slffw Ilainuittpt MJi-ui 

T^ luirTinie ■rTtcI« u df^vctiofT rolkvthri neUliDQ to Sfiino» anil hts phlli^- 
■jpLltfaJ world-4;uDf4ptian. 

Gwibr'v pbiliAophiciU mid TclJMi"ti* opiaiuat vt antatr,\\v of t}rr %tvJiti^t intrr* 
«a<,fovCa>*v1-'i'chi'. iEii*rhilr1 nf rutiimn iht* hiitlnnt i^nv* nf the worfl, rvprrvirnit a 
KenivA iK>i tflch at our Rti^I c<ji]io(ii|>t-<mfy 0?fairc Lombroso coocpivn bim lo be. 
I r 4 ifi^Lfs vl [he iibDLtfmAl niAQ nnil A liiniloif ioMOG pcmoi, litiL kiiuh pU A^ittn 
H fn^n-l^af |iy ihn TityRun, i r nn ftlm^f^AUy nnrmxl mmi, d injtn ttbAAo mffll- 
l«aci*> 1m in a rA» b&noony of bitEbEy (Jfivwl(jpf<1 |i#Ff«cimnft- net in *<cvntridlfi«. 
Goeiiieft vCMioUicilla were noi *urK ox iduic p(Lvndr<l ih*Jt tbmc cf aneiDGc poo- 
pb: biM h* hid more i«n«r. more humor, mora (trpth- and taarr *p*rit Wdf, 
CoDlte ■• • «0B ol niLn kad n 4 lyf« of utt onuiuAlly t>f.Tfdcl mxin w^n ■ jwrt, a 

THB M0N19T. 

lUjiiLtcil tifi^, ill in uuc, 4iKt ilic i>^iEiikinH uf [hk MiHn i[i the Ec]iiii.*'plKikr^iitiic4l 
finlj khn^v Hi Ei'mM iJihl itiAy icf'nnl with mm ni i rhlhf r^J nuKir* 

Gwihc'i philoiQphicii) vjpvk# vi?rv ntronKly^ miliionc«d by Spinon yt^ aoi » 
u if Spi(](*'A Im^ impxpimi his virv upoj] Gortbc- Giw;litf h^ppcocd to lead 
Sp<rtf>F>'% ' Kl^iirn' \uhll« i<tlll tmmmnfp tn mind anfl Mt hkRiulf p.)wrTlu11y ii- 
timzicdby Fb« npnii oi ibftbwb, " Wbiil t may lukwioadauL o( or irtlo thut ^vork." 
hp writca. "I i^imld ^ji* »iy ^cclju'ij Vi:L T t.itim] ,i |»ii. ifKUtiEJii of nir pawiiMU. 
A |!f>Mi 1T14I frw vmtd iijkiit tliF urnnuil nml mural wf>rl'] v?i?mt<H lo optn Mom* 
ffiy f^«. llifli airiiiiep ooatencti "//r >'*'■ /.'rv; C*--{ fii'/t tt*-/ J-r^trff/*/ f7&J t* fft^ 
Aifft If '4t^t"t ' wab jll lU piciuiho hilU unidiuuiru Titled jilI mt IhimcbU, Tti br 
unwl^i^ m flvr'i'yitiinK und mtni *fi m (nvp anJ fiii»ndfchr|> aixh mj hi^h**! <L#li^hi, 
m^ mdiirn, mj pmcuci^ la iKm ihfi buld nfrfir^ivttrin of Inivr vmn ' If I Icnc cbn. 
^( u nojir 'jf Lb^ bu?kiD«n' tacir iLiibr frojii ni br^rt lu aJdiUoD tu iblv it inuti 
be rpco^nttrd ihni iht rririfti tntimatf aflnbinAMon^ rr«iili fruin contrATiM Tbr all- 
pvrviulini; c:a]mn<itf vX Sjiindrfi contTJUttrtd ■h'llb my «xcilD<3 ntpintlioEM, lii« niAt|j«- 
DuitJLal (Eif'Lbtid uiiia cuudtwpari c>f ni> immtic^I tbonjflimikiiil Imlni*! " In dpiaou^ 
docinn* t^i nnnMaity Gwrbr iounit rnmCfirl fnnwrninit mnn* rlrppruipntt? upon fhe 
Mitid- v^urld which c4Uicd bini vir mucU pam It b proliub^p itmr Ihv UwcniK Kn 
tctu-'T uf tlir trbei>LiiL>J] from pH-ihinnit (tjinu^lj ;i cb-.iL- iiiNiijrrbFLinigLi H ibiru] wd> 
vny ivmpntbirEir tr> l-^Hhi- Fur ii Li a <:bum[-t'ninf.- fpiMirp M )\%% |io«(ry ihat chey 
werv 4:onf?»io<i> at well ^f- Itbcmtion* of 4II th/ii moved aqJ diiiufbr^ ham- A> 
*(K>n ^ Cincibc u-a» able u- ijiv? Itj bimihRlf u dc4iT nccnuni cincrrniiiit Ihal nhicb 
bad ifl«<rr(<fl bix tnul mvl j>[ «i:>'?n un bK miilit j(iti' k j^rif-iical rfrrni tn it ah ihii ti 
bocoino wmDihi(i(E in>Upcn<]i.<ni nnd nutmili^ of tuni, bi^ ciiidpj. lU :hi> viiiw of Spi- 
ooza's dociiine o\ Ufwrnu^yi Ironi pjuloni ibt' peace and liberty ot hU loui^ 
Yef Spxnota'i dottrm* ol iMtfiiBmy wii u muiophvAiCfll concoplioa Ct^jtb* IrMU- 
EcTTinl it inh-i Eh< cJnmjiina of pncljcil cthJck, thdit Rivinit rJiw bj hin Lilck of roiiiER*- 
don GiTTitii- wfitOD ill tb<T bi^iE>tiiLiniE uf jbn likiccnth Ixjok of " Wahibeli and 
Hkhlnrifi " ' Owr ;>b>i>c^] M wplt uour KfCiiNkfc. ci»ioin(» Kabilt, worldly wit- 
ddOk, phi1o!top|i>. (cbxiou, even ut4itv iucidcnul c^cnu. evcivlbiajc dcrn«itiiih of u* 
ibAT wr UKiukl i'i??tiKii ciurxdvi?* Sli iruuy lbiri>E>i wliiiili mohl inLnTmicnlly Ivilnnjr 
to lit w* ar* tiol :i1lnwi-d En lipt-x^op Th:it nf ihf i^iilrr wntlrl uhirb vbf wane «« a 
complrm^fil of our ivniLiro is inK^n aw;i(< fod nifiny tbini^ri nbich oir foKijsn (o m 
rind 4llujiT»«il>le arc tbriAQ upoo uk Wr ,ire depjIvHl of c^erythtna llial »* b*** 
urith JiihcuUy ACi^uireiJ, ul a«#r>lbing ibai u Irmndly and bof^w W4 fully compfv- 
bend JL ur find <]iiriie}iv* obliiitrrrl t<- mrrrttifrr rttt ttry ff*-fjn^iitv. tiTVt piocffDMl 

and 611^11^ ^a t» vaHnny. " I'ruFeswr Sthn«i:t^ uy^ ibni Gocthr's prnciicrol m- 

Igiui^oD f;av? him BoloiCv uhtn bo t«][ low^pLriicd c^rtcornirtg cbo bmii« af bornui 
wtllitiM 41I1I wiihiciK 'od bf}pin>L ind bi* rCftiKnatiun wn* 4> a nmllcr of piinciplc a 
trfiitl (WMn:kliifii. A piitiinl ratiKti^iiion I^aiIh in ihr T*"Aimi«1i<' mitrrv 'ALlt« 
ranifj, " yiil (b«> IriFAl r«i»iMnatinii aftorrln in mni?f )>r<ar^ and proHucn thfti "ur of 
(tcnce, '" trt^ f¥ifitiiniaf! «s Go«tb« cilb lb whicb wrruuiidj u> Mbcn icadian Spi' 

Dos vt Gcvlhc'v mjuirtih ih quilu li^pimuTUlic, Gc^th* tayn {Mar. m*.4 H*fi 
Ahik. Tj, "Howhf^ doc1«rr« bicuHlf lo br frte wdl Iwl hifnwLf j^l od» deprndm 
bat h? who dam u> dpcUfe himieir ^Iqiendcai, feeli hlm»ir frw " 

G^lha rejenied [he iJ^A nf n pnnonikJ and irunhvcddiit Deity whidt wu urged 
■o *lii>iiiilf upon liini by Lai jtrv R^vctJnjt [^latrr'H vic^^ bfl Mjh (if«i4/i^ jmi^ 
/tfj^ »u' ] " 1 utfiirod bjn m accord wjib tny RcaUtm which is inborn m wdl 




«■ Aoqalrod ihai nao it hut pleanl Ucd ind Saiarc 10 nub« mc ^ 1 am, 1 (pum 
reaun to<" Tbeonprffmoh ^' Uod and Sxtiuc' u««n Atiodglyo] Sploott^h "Uhm 

b»f! aJki mad* a virinfe impmtitin upcn Gwihp N'^^orilivLcta Uo wu divaiktiod 
■Hllk the t^Lfii cif Frrncli ffiAterLAltam llrsd^i. " Jltiw cnipiv ami WW In ihi« 
■Ml aib«i«:if' iwllLifhi JLi vtttrl (hr r^^rlh wirh aU iU liirmh 4riJ thr hr^jivrii vHh nil 
itt *lAi« difappacir U^iElnroiily ia ^^itd lf> «:«iKt bum^ in ranHoii Erom i^vnrilv to 
«t«mity. Ihiq» pioiJucins- 10 the rifibi jnd La the kfi vi(hoLi( fiinhtii aA^j aU the lii' 
ftonmblt pbMompTia ol t*inc ■ Cioethc* v\ev' oj ' GcxI and DAliire " *lirt nm 
iltay Iba Dailf »k tiich. T»ut uiiMiTLlinl tioih m thu tvAw of l^pmon*. In Ehin wnA» 
OofUiv >ni#rT4«trJ ilti; Hniiirnt^t , ^i lAv"* I'nwr/ tvniri /tvf f^ttr, ut tltrnj i/ntm 
f^mfra am4t~^jt Jtf/iifi'/ .'VAi/i'-'tfr, {u/trrt f/j^w ui Pf^t ^urm aittait "-v *t4tl l^ut. 
Tbe Ui*B Nl«i. *'*f a min wi«bffd thai Go4 khonld l(>«v him «n rcturix. h« would 
vuli ih*t Gal be nol Goii " 11 n corolEftT^ outy Ui Ibc inipcrH.>i:]j|] cuJii^rpTicu uf Spi> 
Kora^4 jvBi'BiiTbropimj^rphi*^! D^ilj Wr mnnnf unri »* miiu ni-tr Think nf frMa^ 
a butS4» bvfniE *h.> |ik« n irnrArch (taLh Im^^fimol th'>ifl uho An> biihful nM 
90 much Id ibtidiviDc lfl«i i-t rltiii^i huV to G^d pcr>on*]ly 

Cortbe A^od lu hu viav> ot Spirn*iii »iih ilonlufn who 10 a ItKoi to JaoJii 
vrltn . ' The irrw'vi' iVt^>, mj ilc^t J-iiotri, in nil kiUlL-v^Jimr/iklic *i)rKt«iEiH \% ittAt 
God it «uppL.ik«l VI fw III* fi'MiT ^*f /vr/n**^ Eh* r-aitv of iJI phpnrim-^i^ 1 cj'ph*^, 
•a atafraci i<iu wbi^h wr hn^ fomulnt'^d llauTvcr, Ihat is doI t» accord^Qi; 
I0 Sp^mia. God ii f> U£in ihr dku ml apU active ujiiiy vhLclL aa^ii lo IU«U 
*l A«i ibfli I am. uid iball bo in ail the rhnngry nl Enj phi^nomeoa thai uhieh I 
afaall be ' Whm jnou mon, loy deir fcllo-pw. hv An cii^irrcc OEittido of ih« woHi}, 
f du ccd ■ndmLiai If God dwi noi vii<ii in [be woild, utnj ludnd, erVfrrj-wbere 
D«ih«r>li«d ID hit loiitiij ;tnit cnitrny, ht (l<wt h^t nUr bi ill Tht limltitton of 
pCT*a(>4lilr thx* nol bciofii; lo the inlbile tvttt>;, Kiece a pcnoa ^HicinAio wilfi uit 
by lifitEttlvm a* ■ khiil uf meiiuj m -ih ^11 i(tfi£ikF)[Ali! di Iviniih uhtiiir ii:j»-ily i» on- 
ilcwvd witFi thr iltv.tioD of Linity ^ A mniiihrafmn fi Sfututji'i mww coniiiu in tb« 
ncof^ lion oi ihe creative bclitiiy which ll«rd?r Aitribulci to God. In anctber 
lEticc lu JiitfiK Herdei MTliei- t'Vou tviSih Gud Id the »hupc i>E man like a Irieiid 
lAbotbiaka oF jnu Comtidi ihai m lliat <ate he Piiiiti thrnh luim^nty of yov. If 
Im i* psriJ*! (4 you hr will he partial jf^innt oiherv F.tpinin to mc nby you ii«<d 

tip be buman II? »pralu io you. he allocti y-aa. ibrouch ill uohle mea who 
U* or^kQi in^i [itott %a fhm^h hit r^rAan of ofk^vc. ibt- k^urt at hm iptriiual 
ticAj hUcely liqiuU'm. I mumt ciin(<^9 (hai rhik pbilo^ophy nmha me ckcced 
tP^y bin'y CWvflir hut iraiil S|ii]in;u nimx- ymir depdiiuir jitiil it m a tiW catr 
to n* it^x h* ha« rqnr^k-i-il him ««itacElv ai 1 do " 

livtif^r nv\ a clero-man nnd he brM rht hiflinj podiion of liLt cbarch, bemg 
l>«f«fl4nLtn<:4Pi Gonirt'il Wijnid the proleHJini "Ute cliurchca ot lo^ay cilbcr in 

^dylaad (K ia Gciuuiiiy Imto mjiii fiu ^ ibun tikf Hrrdcr '* 

^H GccUm <cnCtiTTeJ wilb Hcrdorn Ihai Lhe idea olan «trainundftn« Deiiy tut oe 
iBDK, 40 crtiivdi-God A p.iwi-tlm Ai^d ALi lomauioi GuS aJcne in a TraJity H« ;tuia 
ID itip TKHilh ol f«tHt lb« (olkiwiri^ liiir«^ 

'■ Tl"* Grtit th»i i" i^y hr*#f( •■ *i*ntO 
)lrc«uai>( cti-iiuwcvttntj (kjtit«" 



^iimtfli C7nirzi9i m madv bjr <iovitr \a ibc foUowioi: Uott which art latind ntot^mt 
thm Zf*«/ Atm/K. Pari "rti. ^ 

- t-ift «*eiti Id BMth reltfilal b«dr 

lirxl Hit lit >«lf-i*li*n<4 rtfid* 

Awl r:t>irij( wf >|t*B t» l«|tit 

hVmt (trctct tfltoiiFlv roam, 
tfiCioui^iiirl imnriH In tir-:in;7 roniiTUCiran 

Thfi fTvttL, (li« JhiJi, lF<jik tf* bl*ta*ilt 

MhiiTta t0ulbi h«(*»il, i|»ipU»«ureliiio". 

/, t. TV, Jf^jwitf riwAir.' 

Thl!( fjuolatmn howexifr evpriTM^ Faufir'^ dnpAir nnil nni Goelht*'^ pliilomph- 
ioal view I( U iruff tl^at Goeihe hu nade a few uttiranm whkh cavor of agoos- 
WAism, bur mofil of tlicm vrr cipEcmivE uf rlir iitcA ibM >^v Ou ncvtT be [hi<iUKh 
with uui vrisdniu ; wnty d^v; w^liiih-in pr<ipii*irH Dfiv iirrililirmH 

/*W',r>-^. ■IT. 

I Will out IhhIikm^ tfhiv cflJitfHlon- 
V^'carBclcatinxwiihiirebkiM *iilwnHnl4EeHilaB^1 

l{o4» liETlc Goi^thc W4fe i» nccoiO *hh ihc vJC4 i>f modom u(A»iJct»m er pbr 
iKunrrnjilinni. iIiaE wr know ihf» duuiliU nf nittLirv nalv md not her ian^dir. cul b* 

" ^**4rf *> W'lbin Uott mnkTiftl mind 

Thnr* Mfti-Mvl t'*ri ra«- m whf^m all* Iti« 
rtEf O-it^r then f tvetilra." 

Ifl in»w« to ihfi pgnofciic urntinn'TiI «! ihi- fa mow nBEurnhtT. Gocihr oRilvai 

Pbillailia* ttfvK ihmi, 
■ \fvl re-" iir f>^w^f^**J * ' 
TD(nv,iiiT rrifnd.iriil it>xay tind 
Kf-i>tii[ iliift iioi. vvc iii>w 
Whm* vr *■ tta th«i w 
Wiibtu uiuti rtlinj* bv. 

*a!piptill»inaiLlAi»lffiT Ml' KnAr. 



,Mi*l Ui Ht; will Itbitrd At^oid. 
%ann ih«n(4ntl ihaiiurnl Min*« Or hhf* 

Shr ^IUTW4 not tt^mtJ. kno^t nol ^^itll, 
F« B^ «■ »IJ tn ojir- 

trui tbnu. 
l^nmhriWriti tliidtq^^ *Qir trill 

Wc fAigbt to be«T jft miTid ihul Clociht >«» na phil<ixjphFr in Ibv vlHc: MtHr 
D^ ihr vf^d J3jdij| niJt ^li^m|>Mo lT>ivF9»>7lrm thvi sliouldbr trtv frona f odiruHt- 

ihr ttnirihof UirrnmiirHirniiM^/' Wi\\ in #iM>ihrr pljinr "Mnn mtiAl WM fill Uj ch^ 
s^lirif fhit uh*l wi'm* inciompn*hi>ntrM^t«mnprr<1trii*ibU. livjthvnviJit hauiMlid 

TbsulMoi «vDl«lken uai ifce haMt of Go«lhc'« IdcA of inftiurujji)'. Here 
ftlftj far rPVkkiii* is •uxi:>i~d nUh llciJcr 'thLi ti;u1 |i|Lipcntt] in bin " Mafi« f(>r » 
PMUiwfiiy of tbp Hitinry tiF MunViml hiii rirwuj^ ih» t1f»*]iipnvfii nf WiriH* by 
Jrfrw*^ Oo^rb* vtnt+trnm Rocii- iS** "Hr*t|»r'* SacHasi," *<1. Dilai/«T. Trnali' 
k«. 170. 4. P ir > lli>» miiti* J tvjoy llcnlcr'4 Idcuiv' I tin sti»f«:cJyripiCifc 
Smnr I cupfn no Mimiab. ihfi |v1r. i^r prosprti of fniiluTr nolUiifin| n h^ m* 
tht dMrvkl Go«p#l ' 

OomIm'* iJ*tt ol 1^ uiul in not cIittfLy worMd out in ili ptaiktKipliiciJ atp«<3t 
He *pah» <it KttU M od nn^i^i uncT lirlic^n in n TnifEralioia tyt ibo vnul "I am 
iDft, ' Ovtiir hhI to PilL ^ 1 bkv« brrn hetp vimtr thoiH^iSEl ttms 4ful «iprct 10 
func 9f;*tti tomo f houidnd umea ' 

G<itt|iit *«M tvry dc<iilnl InpAciinil acdvUilc*] rHftoCJ*. Govilip ilf^tlilHil f ram 
by iBirodsaAf a •<ro<m mil ol iodivHlujiliun ioio SfHOfliA'kmvBttinr 

fCvtiycnvnc* U<* in pnrpvo in Ic^kL) 
And NHUi 1« ib« Um produci d oo(i«iuiIt highar ovaJvicg N*tim»->J^ MtU 

••Jm4i ^ih*"^ iJfi^^^ r//f'^/-Wi-n .Vir/4if K^ur*'* inCfiiliOia afonrdiiijc l^'^*^'''^^'* 
lA io produce <aa^nQ( If Tncrr pn1«' er«rur»^ lie n>i: "Emjifflu^ Nicurc 
Ig AID Kimrvlw l^lovp ihr r<«ii1ullf* taliloofflfrCMilU *fauMl«ng'M>.V<4V^ Witll 
ibli ^(ril i)ifuut(h«tl kLr^jjp^aiVTt i>f tier jLciavitv kluTcimlJUUv* ir. pljiy no i»lu id^ 
Actfijr 5lo4', (''^Lri. uiTimiil, rr^^wviliviK in rp^k^l ifi \uth hjuariliriT vmrurfit »fajn 
»J »gntt nml whr> on tfJ utipihcr m^n himwlf u mil btii i v^'T>|i]ifr for 3 f)iEbrr 
ktn. " Pejilh vru to G«<bc< oo dnlnaciba but ■ diBocJuiiua. A dmrHtioo «i 
4nlfcdu^a afififQrcd u la impcunibLUty lo bini. And bu ldA« i^f immnruliiy wts 
MM o*v el ««lict9» a|t*r S&tth bul «4 ■ cflnttDviwl odiviiy. 1q lb* y«ar iSaj 
>tb# ilfvUrtvl '-41 Ch'Ei>ccl1or ron Mi^llrr ^'GAtprivtir in ct. KinrTrr von Mlllfr." 
Vt). that W iibaulil nur kim^ whni in do villi rtx i minf-»mlity in ntnrh hr vrniM 
findsHT Ia«2tuidrj3nd«ewijiftien]|i#t loconqurr |H«idft)bcf){: Gvorg W«itf } 

• m t^tmM' f ^ M i ^v rt'irr. 



2EITSCinin-T Tl'R ri>yCH01-00IU UNDrUVSlOI-OGIE 

0> £. JkMMntj; 



Un&QR DU U,sTLn^ii[viAEt«rTtAiih;.iciu>JT rvan cleiki Ziito 
vuiUdlVc^ Mitlmluiig By A, SiXm^r^rrfn , 

I j-TT v)t 4r TJiit vkir n r 

Prof— or A Mcini^njt itiHcufiwi Ch. v, KbrrnCf^Irt n jitIic1i> "Ui*brr GvMall- 
^ualtclwi " ' aiMinK rbr iv»uli« of I1J4 own tniv^LJizitious %uvtim«^ to liini hy \hi% 
«nay llhr«iftlA »T»irr< troin Profcuor KTnrrh « j^niiftlrlmilon 0I ni£Uiv ami mekKly 

WhflE Aic fiKbir uml in(i[ti,h' in ihrmiclwA? Ain ihr} Bnvn^I) 11 cijniljDiiJilHin df 

^IfHifmlH or ;ir*" rhi*y w-jm^Tlnrig in mntr:"1i*hfirlii«i to f Ji«(f (•i«'m^Tit*, Komi*ltitnf 
ffliirrly nw > Mdoiiict and ftftutos snya Bhr^nfi-lt, run Ir uk LfAnipovcd ihAi 
not iay one of Itcir uiU^t^l ekfiimi* will fcinjinf Thu* ihr lioiiUillv <-if fii(H«c* 
to apacn M wall w nf liine* U timMb^nff 'lifl^rpni fro«i tin' iimnarityof lh*ir #1*^ 
mirnife: thfi^ muni bo «kin«1hii&g diHirrcql ihno ihcir mviir hum. TbUi» 'lb* li^uro^ 
quHiti " or Gcifa/rjgH^Jijiift. rniij EhrrbfrU rli»liiiit»ii»la*'» buiwofn IwuLiods. tU 
thovefvf nmtrijtli'>*»"of <pncv, abirh lipc.illt[t) /^•WHC'/^f//^/lanl1^a| Katimjfttait*^ 
In ddditJOD 10 (he«« ara clitcuttcd ihr rigarr-(|Ualitici (^i s^DEa^ioue and of mnor 
•ppc'Ccpliou Ehrtuf'lii prupi^iark rlic p9kj ch(>]ij|CL<^l qtictliuq vUdlicT llirv lijur*- 
<lU*Htiph art- ifl]fTb*i1liLli*ly jivi»n in^ilipi wiih iliKJr fiMmfUilntm or wlirlhfv th«>r 

ihe Cormrr poHiMlit/ J*rofr4h>' Mcmonf ^ho?? Hork bas lirf'Q m mnilvr lii^c^ 
tpferiio tiUanick ' Ph,inusi(-vorsidliinBUiiia Phnmasic' f rind criiidspt 1 he term 

II1C Cn-HkHD icnti FHHJ^rouHt x:« 'L c;ijr(rUlivr c-xpi i-Viit jii of " rtUiiuli TIlFfV li 
nd iWutiijn wlilKiHt trmiilrtiiy -itid ]«><hdnnic;il piprfifncr* iuh JktCuidl) (o deal 
«A-]ih C4>?npl» ^l* Ljnly. Mvlndy aod iSputv arr imfntt (of Ihr l<9Uliry of the l&utt^ 

II na^ i>r Thai ue nm Linduly prcji^flici^J in Irvot or our n«VD tcrmtcio^insjr. bin 
h MwtTiK tn (IK tliM lh^ (ixpTttanion "Form' will pravi> tci b# Ch-> nuMf sip|Emprial« 
wrd Torro ii tLfi[hi.-f quality nor c|U.-iiili(y< but form uin prijdkic« <]Vfl]Lli?t. Let 
ilic »aiiii! quAiiilcL My of chemicjf oleraenti- i^ofnbjue la dlflcrcoi (ormi. and »« 
■hall o^rata tobkiitnon %vlEta difltfi^Dt 'juniiuct Fl^ufv and EOvlody ifr ipBcU) 
liimbtol li-irm FurniM i>]i3Aj^t in .iml iniK'^mlf^ (hnniKit Cf>aiLiiiiUinn, ajkI tllc uaii) 
prnthjml iLifrn^h 't iifrTMl fiir]Ti>('.cimbJri:itii)n ih HcUiAilEy «nmfiihinc (ifw. .Vi iriucb 
vo !■ if II wpTu a ipeci^il-tTMiion ;»:( Thm wondi-rCnl pcw*f o( form rnikn iho 
arad> of form All-Efnpurrnnl 10 tl! brfcntlw» uf ■cirticr- A Pc^lccl uf vht? ^rudy of 
form will ^rul f^iibr^r ici m«|pr!nlhin wfmn Bu^rict ^jekI moilan Arr canoifivf^ m ihfi 
CDlyqu&li(y'pis>li:iciD|( fkcKin, ea tu ajEnoiiifinm a^fmrn u adfpn icquiry provt4 Ri.iiirr Anil motion «rr nuC eiofiiciFm lo »p1nia ihc moM «B«Dtia] ptopertle» u4 
ib« objvcti □! mvcsctipitcio- We cuicoc Judtfc (mm fbe pment orilcic hov iniiclr 

f ERimilLAL^. 


ifcb •ud BldiMiuiE ATE in uTiniMrtby willi cKir >t«a(lpotpt. bai vr c«ii tcr Ibjl 
thfrir vflofH lira tn iht «&«# Jirr^ lii^n 

T^ tr<Qfid Artkir it b rrioiadrr br l*r<>f C fUanifd fi{ Monlcli '» Prof \V 
\VwDdt'4 irpl)' lo bit ^^rilic |Yufo»r Slumpf ccm^jUiDq t^f Wuui^I ihm tit- it;noitd 

cbaib cJ duicrtiou jiad inHinuHiiuai 

F Sirhumiinu giubli^irM hh tvuilu Tri^Aidiriu w tikilnliiv Ufi ihr ilifEvtmc hf 
twwrn tvuEt'^i ^i^anTtlifi^ ill iTin*- Iff f*niphtynfl a rhrnnnf^r.ipri ntnrlifirrl in loo 
rcApeciA frajB Wiiadl'»cbronc|:niph Firvi h? (tplacrd the c\pcn&tv? fhrononiDter 
\rf t ueailfcK^vtiCFl juid mirutlLKr^ rfri]'» i^mT^-aiukrrH trbicli, 4* br ihinU, in 
haodktf w »*IT Aft mnr* prrdv ihin Wnnrtu lim-'fnBflirr ^i^hnminD'H f«nlw 
•KTVO *tll> >bi^ rrfohncl PrDlvJiAiir Miuh iihoviDfi n rnrtxiinnin fji n 3 — 04 •rfondi, 



Kocfi vtHUkt, tu PlatohV TivhKtm p. 5» K— (> 5* B. By CJ'rifmi ft^n^r^r^ 
Duu GvuT£ ^^!i PCI Kkbaliuxu d» LavnHs iZuHU<lef lt«d4cilciA I 3y 
ff'. friv. 

The publistien and editors of TAf McmtK nrc nol Homan Cuihallcs oad wr 
«)^pM« fhit (hi niJi](im) oF oOf r«Dder«i»rv not oiih^r Bni all rhr morv iiippt^rii 
to ut nrcc4>*rv ii> kiilIc a* n niiAVUi vi ]%ii|itc ih^i Ihr RtiiTutn C«ihulic puMicti- 
tinQfr tl It Ihciw* whicH jLt'uvtriTly ahlI nirilT'««n3}y rrjir^wDT Rcimni) CA<bo1ic 
Ibouptiil arp far lUfvrior ii^ ihnr analAcom l'rfiTni:^ni <^i*m|tci4^TU* Th» iMtcr 
■re debating ihcir particulir iMiiB/iniiiTmft and do ncH sc^oi l'> be iDirri?9(c<I in the 
pgO [ WT* of ihFir limcA Thr) do Dt>t ricvJ ll^r diH^ovcrriEt ol hCitvcv or Ihr \irvtH 
of |)hiIo*dph*r«- Ihv^ In* 10 u ^torM -A ihmi uita It ti ^liRifrdoE 4-ith Knm.-jn 
CjLlholic*' .Tbrprrwot mnAiirLDr prcktra rKtt ili^v liJt^-r ihinkmnmnpnE ibtm vho 
k»«p abfCAii crl rtip ikmr. Ii ii rmr ib^ii ibnr i» ruchrp dt*<cipliQe In rli?«ani[>cl 
Roma* Carliotiri wliijzh iTinn \hf\^ rhampinrn out frnim Inr^ rTiH|LLtTy in a co'Cota 
<fiT*^li^iO f-joccfnioi: »iMBr fumlfimcnifll tmci*. but wi(h »!l lJii» «^i*ciiilin» m-rji 
ilfiAK H bcOdid-iTiindrdiirxi tn jri^i^kiov tbi' dlnrr^Tkr piotilc;tris of ni(ii1i*rn vrirnr.r ^ncl 
^iioaofkhy 3Tid brrnginKlhfm inTii bvrmnny with tti* Komin rsihnhr fiilh 

The P^'A'r^/Air<*^f Jmirfv^A it jniblUhed by ihp (j^ftt-* r;«^//'«H*rt// •od «d- 
IMI by Dl CoD&t- Gutbeilei Jacob JiiBeiJh GOfm tft Ibe u*tt-ticcrwa ch»mpt<in of 
ibA C»ih«1Lc Churcb (]776-iS^»»— A rv«iJH4 iptTii wbc»b««An hU public cirHr a* 
■B rnihtiiPivtir dfrfepdcr of the Frcscb Rcvolmion frrr the pTcpOHAiion nf which bn 
^Tablitbril Jt fMnHticul joujnkl /^-/^ nvir fl/j>V Willi thf tiw- t>( NuiulwD he 
AcapMTiH) o< il» caji«* nl Bhi-riy. bin hr took <4tar»ff»< iBiin in itip wflr rjf mflf- 
fvadcBoF <il»i>-r#]5l. In bi> tounial A-f- A'^.Vmii'1/ ,l//rJb/ he dcncmoccd bil- 
tr*[jr ibLiir Gnm^Eik wln>«llH Iji-ld lii ihi' I'TPiich: be rrtumniciided hlicuunliyiHrn 
In hp^$9 innrr %a\* (tyf ihrjf IhhKunu*. ra^b^mv ABd rradiivrtu tnd ^hnrlrri Tly* 
pviDCM la vtuid unittd aj^nti tbr euminnn fn* aad rt-ioftituiti lb» «mprrp Tb? 


iriK MOMarr. 

mr over lit vai p«Hcai«d br the rruwiti eovcrnm^at on accoumof tib n^ 
1te«i.s1 tmrrr^tia in rrvnlvirlonity aflalr^ \^c had publlihr^ tn fBm & jiunphlHT 
'■Ctimay And tlia K«\i>1tiTii>n' I aoJ ihowing a clflCjdutl InchQAli^TD to nq-allcUm 

f" EmAnudl ScbwedcDT ■>[)£< !ii> Vikknih 'tid hih I^vliirnm i<-^ ihr Church," t^iy\ li« 
joirinl t^ic l^hrHTiiiini^np [viriy rri iVivciinTicii'ni th'ir hiK ii1p.'il>iccTi;ld bp rrAtisnl in 
Ihr Jlomsd Catholic Chtirch T^ii* tr^t (»| liit Jii* hr fcmaiot*! lAirhtuI to Itom* 
anil II Aj the nit>vt 4c(iv<7r tbr muat vijiojuub, and aIkj lU*^ ^Mnt dclcndcr itf Uvqm£ 
CnJiolif fk*ii iTid iDti-Trtts The pnitvnt mav^'irip is n Quar»rl> fi»nfl«P(»rt wild 
vcholmhi^ mid t4«t, alrhougb ii 3 mntTur u| cunrnt rb>I wlIVkfljI th^ prtjuJiov 
iflhitfh np0(^ss»rllv rwulin frnm the principlr nf fi\in|( nlljbc^iibtv ial9<«p|jvily 
UiKlt-T n vfirclAl ^in^l rnrrdvtprnilrkiHt (adh Tb^ Ijtm tyilutne {vol hi\\t dfb In 
InUmimg artjcltt Trcf IV. Ha^d, flraogv enoo^h. df^fendt Ihr lib»ty <A mvp*- 
tiiiitlini; the nultiurily *A ttitb. whicb ihe dJiIut, Wwnvcr. wivhuui rt-jmni^ lb« 
idtii t>f1bji-n(] iMiihiilro ;m thitti l^mn'cTI. Tlin* ,irf aciirlt^ nn the Ir^nloTr nl 
*wili. on ilir ^tihfiil*' nimtn^r of |WHibiUli*«, (nornoban i^oEinnlrtB?, l'3«CiLl't pcwilit^n 
r^HarJ Kicpucitm. oi]ali>Kic4 brlnrcD ^oitniiion of UlxI jiiJ coftrtttiuQ o| i:uluve 
with special rekn*ncp lo Km\ * critlcUm i>E thi? r\lcJr-nD»t ii! ihc ("HiWrnrfi uf ThuI 
Thit pTUtPHi iiuinl>vr uf \r4 iv funiaiAK nn Kriid" <in (bv cbvimcc-^hytical th«vry 
cf Aionx* The qutikiinn i^ firupfm-ul whi<ih^r nr noi LhiH ihcnry cioalum conltAjili- 
Itonir Thf nmh<^ sun* Irnm C^tilK-r^^ Dvfititili^n. whom he rr^nU logctber 
trllh Wilbitco H Ibo foiind«r of modBra aiomitm^ The (our uvtifhitnt objve- 
Ikmn lire oaiUlrr^, bui the mithor Avrivc* «: ihc cxiDiilimiim (Nil aII of iLiivm ar^ 
Lmwl upon immTCJiuvjiliona, He tuni* up: " CTit-mixiK jinrt Ph)'%k'iMi Aiy nni rc-pu^ 
4i«u Q>Y< ^nri vnv^ whm pT>:»po<infe and (Irfrfndih;: ihp 9|j>niwttc theory Op Uw 
ttiNlf*xi they Uap lor thdr *i<T* tn^ build u uptui ao eitonliuK'v ^"cliei lOklcriiil dC 
oliftrfvailiin ilinn it i-mplri>w.l by their antagonrtiU TN^rli-niiil at ibj* validity 

<rf lbs mrat irrp<i(t,mt cbjnctLctnL bM\^'airr, d(HBi Hot iinplx LhaL tho Aiofniiiic theery 
U wiibo\kldi6koUi«i. E<1p^ urifxplaiQi^d dui^ilsi^ tic li a duI .ti yvi *u i:cii4ia m 
fact a t^t iosuttiff t\iv hHliVr-Titric workt-ri>Tirr'pUj.>n. It ^a ah byi^'ibi-^ia ttill anil 
will Ua«v (Q raniiLJii uuch f»f qiitT^ v ii^nij liflir Vet ivt am edDfldtnilr aj«m ihitt 
Ibe difficuilJtfinre by Inr^o^^ (iijin ih<>tt ciflrinl lo ibt JcnpUin^c of the CopcfDl^ 
can hypoTbpiii* ;inhtr'i1n]F of iheEim<rflndoRinsiiioti or c^lllto |iDr6) nblcb ««ttra 
Mivvd ultBiviMrd by Ciillluu in ihc yvat t*i^i Wu U^vd f artbot to 4l4i« Ibat tfar 
atnTirimii; tliButr hioi Ljv^pii lirvcln^ird iiiL^tt? itnd juorr Hint^ PHlttia, Ih? tminbe'r JUid 
the irnpnrtAncf r>f thf 'tpt.iTintinnii nflf-ml in it havr mn«ranElr ini;rDi««d " 

Ur Fry« of Jtna dinoLiwe* Pr^/cr's Ickitst vi?s4 of "The Self CabffnvaltoD tjf 
Lifp— /JfV ^vAj'i'<w'Ht|.' iff I /^^MJ " vliitb 'ippt^iird iu h i«i'<ut uumbtfi cif Ihe 
/^^ttttrvUtfinfAafriifA^ Wf^rHitkri/t (|4*Tlinl Prflypir tfonnd^r* bta Dwly ilt». 
Cor«rT<d Uw •> n cntollar-)- tii ihr conKrr^iiiioii \-A matttr and cneffiy und mAiatAinn 
IhAt Ihr laiid amouiii oil life Iu ibc Mnirld L& aa mudi (.outMiji ,«& jin raAllerAni] cm' 
vrHv Living inn%<{,irr>ph]« In-intmiiii- m-iu t.t/rjt irv eiMiMEfinl [O^ .l/i^/1/Jv^<' 
So far nciuQtihtk wiU Aifrtren biil Prcyiir iiddi ihiit rach nopamlu ilfHfn ii ocMdkaL 
for iiwll KcdrvlHriTt ilmt ^ tbr trrtnl xiTKiunl uf pimcplatm In iTl^woiId rcmoiOh 
imcbanftiid iti (jLiantity ~ |i \k hardly pmbabli* thai Pivyvra vi«v vjIC hm Adcifil«d 
by KieqU 

Di Gru^p Ji)ttu>9«!» (bi- loNiciiL [Mihh iil thuiiubt. Auil tbir mliior, pR]f«aorDr 
Gutlvd^t vtplltini »m1 efjiLciwii Wumli* Sy4T*in of I'biloHophy. 

Oni; c>f ibe mo4i i-iluablp fmiufiti for CaihoLic r»dei« muat Ijc coiuiiScrvd ibe 
book reN'Je<A3 Her? the ilioufhia oC ibe mcikl jlJ^eiu-lL ibiiiltrf* jrr vts it wtt« 
diRpwiKl for tbe CAIholSe wwkl Th* mab*riKl « earplul]) tifitd tmt tbe «iLpi>Mliua 





Cbarrh (Fold* Vrrl^V lItt FuliWi AUira-DcuckfrreLi aj^. 

RIVISTA ITALIANA Dl FIU>SOriA- July ond AuRuai, 1891^ 

CO NT EN "[-^ 


77/ S/^tffH-f -rf i-'JU'-^fi^^ fH /r*/tfi» S^in'oti an'fm /tttiim fi^'fth't. Hvcry ttalic>a 
&> ujd lo pnMW « pQCuliitr pbytioKOQinr of iiji (»mii, rhroui^h which ii in ^ivito> 
gnlilusd ln?m wcry olhrr aaliun . ami cgoiniarntly any nmiua w^lL .idopl a tfitvci 
cf p^uciLtloii ihAf n b«tl iuUhI fo lU own tiotionjl [p^niuv to ii* rarbJ, rpltgiou*. 
mvA h^i>loiic^ irAjUlihXU Thii m^y br tnxr iu a puTrl> proLiicnl icmr: Lut 4ja 
Ihf other Tumi «*(tiicariim, (hfurclit^llVT ^iici^ncf or firil4|[»|[ii> |:uuit-a ihi< EiHrrtntr 
lJiVl(i<il atiy ilati* or fnfm ol |{oviprnm«nl, xmT mij^M Iri (w nil'^cl hy prmciplf** jtwI 
^B«ral Idwi tomrnon lo itic entire biiroAn Inmily Mii>lr<ric.-illy, i:^fr sincr Ibv 
i6(li t:EDmr7, llir c^iucjiiooal iflm'ciiicDii tn lialv ha»t bcm dlircll> tillpJ Iinlh 
by IhB CAibolM rwt^a] idJ mctiuD clurin|> ifirl immcdtiiu-]) (oUvwiag ihip period 
of ihc rcnAfMnticr Such wiia tht dif in of llu! fiiiffmi, ii^mf-^ititrifft, £itrua4iti, 
/g*iatiaaU dt/ttittmttK^i^ Sfmiji^i. atiJ ul iniiny odivj rvlieiuut ifacliiti]£-hodin 
llut ti»v» made lUly uniil rv^eitfL}' a hiwifng arrnA inf rcf tp«iAiirical eHuftilionsI 

ibr tomttioo ol Khv Hnit rTcmfnis lo ihv hi|ehQ«i fuoctioot of the bDman oout 
IbmiusbouL wt perort»e ihai ei-«>ihiakE la governed hy ihc fcimc law*, lod Ihflt 
vrbicb ii t«U, nil b4ppjne«» Lti foet li only found in iinitj and harmoDf, ux^d jinft 
p^kD in diwfTfrniciii hnd i» At-parAtiuQ Thf law uf rvolulioii Ln lb*; m:<iiM-Ti ^c>m 
of lb* tfOfd. priviiil* MfcTij'^hPTp m thi' phyiHid »>Titi«n: mE EiTiiifOi:i;lr&. Vpi his 
phyif^vupTiy ilr^l nnl otrli^tivrly ^rnnonT m Ficrhrtnir.-i) evnhilinn 'l'i>hHOC4TnoloKlfit] 
da>clii>n *etv ad(ie<1 moTVl nnd rcJ^p^ut irnc-lt. which, bfXtFtcr am nuL ciirlvcd 
KttniiaaiMtlj wilh tbr luimci. fKomr, Tipugisfln <iicllr Trrinc Diixlrji^nv dl Cf 
BOlbi^itfiu Via r>ti*ur, i^a f ;i'^t 



Vol, II. No. 4. 

Btiik9 Of Lrn ak^dp tux rxKK Iokal I»y j^' iVn/i</ fiD ihla artlcto Ibe 
vrrlitf pKplalAdi ciefl ef]Tick«e* ih<^ wpll-known rthl^nl throrlt* of i!i# 1st* 

t6o thk mon]st. 

Kemgious Metaphysics of the Moslem Orient. (CoDclusioo.) By ^. 

Letters on Count Tolstoi's book. "Od Life " (CodcIubiod.) By A. Kvzhff, 
(The wriit^r concliidtE his Itriiera io Mr. N. N with remarks to tbe efleci thai 
Couiil TolsTm's phi[o->ophy ia all its nspects and phases is manifestly chai- 
;iclerised by a principle of liuiHnH. In the developmeat of this general 
principle ihron^h the difiereni phaae^ of hia syatem and in hia theory of 
knou'1^f(€ this dualism might assume the name ot TalionaliBm, id mela- 
physics, that uf idealism, and in elhics the name of aaceljcat, quietiitic 
cudt monism - 


SAisAi^iii Lecture delivered before ihe Moscow Pfiychological Society. 
February, iSqi. 

The Domain and Limits of Sooorstion. By -V. Bit/fHn^. Lectnre deliv- 
ered at the aunual session of the Moscow Psychological Society Jaouary, 

Anekt the Fictions of t'BOFiii>5E:> Chpisttanitv. By I'iatiimir Sol<n,'uff. 

{This article has appeared in an English traQslatioa in The Opem Court. Nos. 
fo6 and 70B, under ihe title "Chrisliaoity : Tis Spirit and its Krrors." ft is 
a remarkable contribution to the literature of to-day. Professor Nicolas von 
Grote of Moscow writes about its author : " Vladimir Soloviefl is at present, 
besides the Count Tolstoi, our most eminent thinker . he i» a distinguished 
philosopher as well as theolc^ian. You Americans should be familiar 

with his works on Tpli^ious and ecclesiastical 'questions." Vladimir Solo- 
viefl is the author of the following works: "The ffeligious Foundations of 
Life." "The Oosmj^lic IVvelopmeol uf Ihe Church." "Judaism and the 
ChristiaQ Question." (These titles arc translated from the Husfiian ) Other 
writings uf his are "L'idee riisse," " La Russieet I'egLiso universelle, " "Ge- 
schichte der Theokratit ") 

Special Dei"aptment (il Hegel's Ontology A Posthumous Dissertation By 
.V. P. //. Pl.iiono^, {2j The Influence of fatigue upon the intuition of spe- 
cial relations. By Xit. M'sriin. (3) Fundamental moment^; io the evolution 
of the new philosophy Main tendencies of the new philosophy. Empiri- 
cism and Naturalism. Bacon autl Hobbes. By -V". Gt-oU. (Moscow ) yvf.v 

Vnu II. 

JANUARY. 1843. 

Na 2. 




THE theor)' of organic evolution, now generally accepted, ne^tls 
!o be supplGineiiteJ by a theory oi mental t-vniitiion. On a 
Aup^^aAl CMAiMmfilior of the matter the necessity lor siich a sivp- 
plcmenlury ibcory doc^ not i>«rhcti>!« ^(fiku one a& obvious, ilie mental 
ae^Tning n.iiiirany 1^ ariiir- mil of ihi* orK^nir snrf To hr parr nf onr 
conii&uous (Irvclnpmtirkt- But dOAcr invot^iigalicn ^nd a more nm^ 
and cuci ircBtincni hnnK lo iLRht certain iin|>onAi>t and peculiar 
fcalijn;>h aiicI disclmc the hccc^Miy of snincr Mich hypoilicKts a» it is 
my piirpott' tn «rt lonh hriefly in tht- (cjlhiwins pagr*. 

By orf^ttic evolution I mean the tiaturul devctopmem« whether 
by "selection *' ^lone or by this in co'opcrntion with other natural 
pfDcenet. o4 lite oT^4rii!ini!H which live upon the Hurfjire of tbi« csirth ; 
aaJ by mental evolulion I mean the natural cIrve|opTD4<nt ol iJie 
mcnt&l lacultiort in at Jca*it the hiffhor animaU iLmoni; these otf^an- 
untft. Now MJlh rCjgBfU lo uigaiiic evoluflun ihcie n no cuiiiinua 
Wk) gtonrral ngrrem^nt in ro^pert of xhv Ar«t origin of primitive liEe 
on Iho eanh. Some evohilioniste believe thai the living vras »oitie- 
when, somehow, mnd sorrunvherc evolved from the noi'livin^, 
Oilwn do noi frcl justifted in hoMirg ibis view, and dvem it wiM-r 
to rtitirict their <;pecvilniif?n« si; to nainral g«notiif; %ichin the limits 
ol the organic, ^o too at the other e-nd ol the devclopnientnl ctir\« ; 



there it ro common and gcneTAJ agreement afi to Ike ev<»iutioQ of 
ihc mcntnt faculties i^r ^pintiiil bcinf; of mariv Sonic cvoluliuniata 
bdJcvc iliut botli in body And in niiiid^ innn U i}i(? ]>roi.UK't of natural ^h 
dirvfloprnf^m ; otliyrt da not feel jiitiificd in hnlding ihU vi<*w, and ^1 
retlain uiifth;ik<^ii Ehi< conviction that man in his ftpintiiAl essence b 
no part nor product of the common clttncni* of nature. S«<riag 
thc?» lljul an dibcr side lb*?rcf iNiAaiit nf agr<?crnrnt- on thronr hand 
SL% lo Ihc oiij-in ol life, on the other as to the criyin of man, 1 sJiall 
deal lor the most pnrt witli that br^t? area coiiccmmg which lh<;n; 
is ii more uudrnmoua conaennun oi opinion, and in the main confine 
my KpeculaiioM'* within lh«fi«ld of mental evolution in unimals rang- 
ing, 9ny. from ifie jLuiLtba to Eli& dog. 

Few wiU be found Co deny or even to question the fact that out 
dumb coinpnniou?! and fuur-luotcd frivndb hisve mental fiiciilttn; 
which enattle them acciirniely lo adjuiit their aclionft to ihv varied 
circum^lnncc^ in tho midsc of which their Jivc^ arc parsed. Even 

if wc »cc cauav to hcAitatc. as [ myself he^ltatE^. before wc a!icr]bc 

fo ihera self-ron*iciou8ne^4 and rensnn. in ihr o^irrower 4«n»e '''^l 
which ihte word )» used; «til] we must ackoowltdge tliat their in- ^' 
Mincts arc i.K>wcrfuh their intelligence wonderfully keen Arid active ; 
Aw\ that ibcy aiv vapAblc nf Mrong enuitiiMial fcc-bng b(^Ih of aifec- 
rion and of antipathy. Shotdd we %o welcome them ni rmr com- 
panit^ns and friends if wc refinrded them au unconiiciouti, insentient 
autoniala ? But when we ttirn to the other end of the scale oi life, 
TO the ^mfrha nnt\ all ihr myriuil niinuEt^ Ehul Kwann in pombi and 
stagnant pools, we arc wont to vpeak with le«v confidence. Thctr 
congcioiisnesfi, ii so we can cai] it, i% ol so :c:mplc an order, their 
i^eniicnce <jf ^o low a ^rade, that we can hardly with any accuracy 
use ihf phritsr " mental facollics" with reference to orgMAisint *o 
lf>wly, V^c feci uncerluin whetlier in th«ir ca«e unconttCJouK autoni' 
aiism doc3 not after all pretty accurately eaprcKi the facts. At 
any rale it w«ijltl troiibTe ii-^ hule ot not al all if sunie one provett 
their automatism to-nionow. A«d yt't, on The thecr)^ of «rvo]ucion, 
cut of :iuGh lowly beginuiag$ have sprung lh« sagacity and affcc 
tionate devotion of tilt dog> But if the aiiiu-ha and hia tribe are 
initfntient automata, al what sis£e of the development ^id con- 



MRVTAL RvoLirno)r, 


eci<^u»ltess creep in? An<l wlionoo came it? Or put ^hM in futtilA- 
ni«nUlly the bnmc question in another uay. In the common cour«o 
of genetation the <Iok is Uiivclnpeii from a nniiutc cgK-ccIl, one 
Imndrodlh of nn inch nr lr« in cliamell^^, with tthicli jt yet nn>re 
minuiv »pcrm H»s entered into fertile union, Suppli«<l with iLhclter, 
wuiiuiJi, atid nulnntcnt by thai mntcmal nelf'sacrilice which i> a 
dfff>pLy «i^ificflni fact of fxr^nnic prof{rc?»i. iKis little: spr^ck of hvinif 
filutf |Mft«ei;» by a procc*iJ «ricO> continuoii*, though profoundly 
modificil by the cAtjistrophc of birth, into the- dog with iis wealth 
of intclliKcitcc and aflcction^ It is ^urt-iy InipUMihk withuut ex- 
travagance to ftpuik of the ftr til is**d ovum as conic ioux. Where 
then in the continuous proce» oi dcvelopmoat does cou^ciouftiwss 
come in? HoWp and whence !* Wc arc nui nowadays lo be put off 
wtih the ambi|;uju> anstertioii thiit coiiDcIuuiinea^ and iatellj^eiice 
are ''poteoiially " pr««enT m \hv genu. W« ask : What \^o{inaNy 
present therein afi the baAia ol thin pr>tf.^iitiality ? Or arrive told 
that consciouiuess J*«n* ai or shoiiJy afl<;r Uie caUstrophe of lixtih ? 
Then again wr afik ^ Wltrnrt^ romr"; (bin flavrning oon>iciou<;ncs3, 
and by what mcani; does it become af^ocisLt^d ^^ilh the puppy*a 
brain ^ In yd another form dcjcs ti question oi like general impli- 
cation Mjizgrst itstJE. (Irantec) thai In thtt ovum ihc'r<^ is present 
AOVnrlhing which n* may call ihe gf-rin of ronscioiuni^M soniehow 
*80ociaceid with tlie protoplasmic material of which that ovum is 
conttitutcd. How comctt it that, in the adult dog, conftCiouftucsa is 
flfisociateil with the braiu? Why vv. the 4HSu(^iaiion of rontir-ioijiiTicss 
concentrated. 4o to spwik. In ihi« one ti**ue of the many winch 
arise during:; the differentia lion ol devdopment? Thoi the n»9ocva- 
lion in so coQCcntiuted or iipecialiat^cl i% now gcneially aihnitted tc 
br thr facr \Vr spca]< indet^d of rhe skia ihe palate, the nose, 
the eye. tli* ear, as each in it* kind iva«ruve. But none the 1<t8§ 
vre l»elicvc thai the Kat of con&ciouanc&a is the brain or «>nic part 
of it. Only when the oefrca ruiming iuwaid;* from nkin. pAl^ir, 
noM, #y«:. or ear, havp convpy4»d thrir appropriate !CEimuIi to the 
bnio. doa» that ovgan tingle with iht^ accompaniment of c^n^cious- 
oeae. There and there only doc9con9)ciou»nc»s ''emrrgc"; not in 
|Teriphcral icnxe-orgati or ingoing ncrvr. Bui why? How cmiw^ 



tt tbtfl ihcit if* thU peculiar Jisiiodutian uf cfiiincimt^tnefu with thi 
funciicining ol a pariicular organ? . 

Perhaps -a^ htc IoM that consciout^nus-i in the r^pcciol product 
brain-Cit*»uc. But let us not© ihai the word '-pnjdiitt " Ja hcic used 
in an itnwt>nrinl fipiw*. Wr: src nn( likdy^ it is lo lir hopeJ, to fmU 
into the cniclo njtd dnmniiKtrtibly faUo maloria]i»m ^xpms^ tn the 
forniuU, *-a& ihc liver accrclca bile, m> docs tlic bmin accrete coc- 
sdutj^nrs^H*' ConH<;iim«iiLrss liijufi ifiitnrilc:riu]> ihe Ht^ixiiid jiikI fuurtli 
tvrmft nrn incommrnftiirablc, nnd ilie formiiTa U shiNjr nonftens^ 
Nor arc wc Jikcly (ihouich hcnc there Is »!reaEcr<Lnn^«r> to laJl into 
tlie more niihlk error of n^icardiiiie conscious nrrss a« a mode oi co- 
I'fgy. '•GmntrilH" ^ny^ Prrffrwrfir Tymlall, "that a rlrlinhr Thought 
and adcEnitc molifciiUr action of the brain occur Kimultarcoiisl^: 
w« do not pOKtvfs the mtdlcctnal nrgan, nor apparently any nidi- 
icicQt of till! orgnn, winch would triiAhli; u* to piia» by a ptnces* oE 
re-ifioning from !he out ro rht- other ^ ihtf cha*TT! bT^twtf'n the two 
cUuc-i: ol phenomena would stiU remain icteUccluaiiy mipa»ablc/' 
Conitciottancsa is «omcthmg sur j^nfr/t. It it neither matter nor 
c?ncTg3'. Il ina)' nccumpaijy thtf tiJtnsJoniLatiouv of iTiiei(£y in the 
dog'« hrahi : hiti to the cdt^gory of these cran4j:>riiiaiion« cf energy 
It doca not, owd, Iwr any clc*r thinker, can not belong- And j( we 
arc told that thu word ^'pioduct" h u*icxl in the aeaetc implied by 
Piofestsor Huxl«y when he npi^aks of phrnomena of contciouitne** 
being "called into exiHtence" by phy^ieat proc^s^e^; xhen w<* mu^ 
AfEiiin ask whence ihcv arc called into existence. We do not now 
vpt^ of niuitci 01 I'uerj^ being tailed into eicisicnct: £rom a ^tad- 
owy nou'h«*- When n dotid is cnWri] inio e^ti^ienci^ on a mouiv- 
tnin peak we know thai The; nnAlcHal particles have only oAftimod a 
orw loriti. When llic dccuicnl ciirrciit is ullcd into existence or 
getier^ted h** we phrase il, we know xhm wcr aic dealing with one 
ol the many tramitormationfi of energy. And when phenomefia of 
conscionsnc^» nre said to he callc<l into exiritcncc, wr have a n^ht 
10 ask . ]>c yon nicnn. hy iWn phranc. creation rx Hthilof Or do you 
iTtr-an, tini^in hy traTiMnrmaitoc ? And if the latter, I rancor ma lion 
ot what } 

Havinf; thus opened up the»« several qnention*. all of Ukc im 

juanrAL K^x>LUTiof. 


plicatioRi Icl u» now cndcuvor to act forth tW Hoavor ivJucb Sccm» 
mcwr |>hiIosopliica] and most closely in accordance wiih scit-niiflc 
«ialogi«ft- And 10 c]i[« i*nd let u« coceid^r rhc living dog, Hi» 
Jrsme 19 f^nbatiiLg v^itli hiv und rostloftB activity. janU bonu^how aft- 
aocttted with ihc trazislonmtiona ol viicr^ in that brain ol hU 
there ii conscfotisnnes — or wh«i in t)u? dog is ;hr nnftlnguc* of ihat 
«>onflciotnrv«« with ^^hicli aJoR<^ J can claim any acquaintance al 
£nc hand, my own. Were his shin ao<l ific walU of Wty skuU as 
tranfi|un:Tii as gUss; drd ihc modular vibralions of hi >i brain lie 
open to rho k^nest tcniiiny of the physical invcsiigotor ; could wc 
tnco ill dcUiil nil lh<- vnrkd nnd orylrrly tramilnrrnMionf? of energy 
of which ihat hr-iiii i-s the ihcAtic; x\\tt accoinpAri> int coifscjotisnea& 
^oidH still br bryond our rtach, f*> miKht (olliw ihr chniiK^tt of 
«?ncr|fy ; he alonv would Jct^E the Ktatci; of con^ioiiKfacRs. But fiiip- 
pote that the dng dic^^ Hi» body lien before iis »tiff with the n/vr 
Mtfi/is. If wc had mritfhilLi it prcvinuK Ic death, and if ur were to 
weigh it again attrr dmth, tht «calefi would givi- ii« ro information 
of the departure of ^nythinic matcnaL AU ja^ti of coi>«ciountie»j 
howe.Yer. arc gone. And could wx ^rx thrtiugh skin and tOcuIJ into 
ihv hfain. wbii-li durinii lifr waii ihr thc^atrp nf so rnmplri; and or* 
dctly a sequence o^ tranKformntictis of efiprgVj we uhoulci iind that it 
v(^A atill and rootionleu^ It i* tnic thitl we cannot actually do this. 
Dut ^t- Itnow that, w4^ercas. durlnif iife, the functional action of the 
brain givts ris*! lo cL-rlnin niaterial |)^odM<:t^, ar dealli tlit' produc- 
tion of tlvciv T:ubslancc^ ceai^es^ We are 1liL*ri-fore jut^tihtd id tsay- 
ing tluL omjitini; minor qujilificalicina, the orderly transformationa 
fif eni3(;y in the brain aiid the concutnitaut con^uou93tes> cease lo< 
getliVT at itoatll^ Clo^ly aK«ociat<<d during life, varytng together 
in health aiKl f^icbQef^ CL'£ttiits togetber at di'^tli. what ia tbc ;iaturc 
otf lUciv covncction? 

On tb^ hypothesis of fncieniilic monism it is believed That they 
are ditJuront n^pect« of the tiamv phenomena ; that what otJjeclivQly 
to the physical iiwe^tigator art transformations ui energy iu the 
brain, ari- Hubjeciively to the dog sratir^ of ronsriousness ? Let us 
look tnio 1hi« hypmhesi^. Let iia eee whither it will lead u» ; and 
if it will m any way help u* ovor aomo of our difhcultics. But first 


Tiiff iiTn?«i!;T- 

tei us pay a Tnom^itt'4 flUerLtfon to the impiii^ni «vcUmation which 
aomo KiKy feci inclLncd to JniurpoM, ihnt ThU »t»»unipt]on o1 tho uU 
titnstc idojitii}' oE biain-cQCftiy A.iid cofi^iciouancbs l^c two beiu^ tV' 
speclivcly ihc tibjcciivi^ anJ wilijuctivv asptci& of i he same occur - 
Frncc*s dop% iwt in th<t Icafit dc nwAy wi'ch the my«tofy of the mai- 
ler. Thai the E^amc two occurrence;* shcaid have diRcrcnt AApcci^ 
objective and ^u^}c^tive. is il «~i!l ^^c ^Aid, juM a« my%CeHoLLS as (h>it 
Iwu Ki^p^i^te r5fifclf-nrr-s imefgy and i:Mn%cimj»inrss should he? awo- 
ciaied together Uf course it i%, 1 should he ^lialJow and pr&tcn- 
tioua indeed tl my objcci were by any /kiH'vs fiffctts lo attempt \o hide 
the !io-called mystery, v^// ultimate Eact» are niy*tcrioui The fall 
of a «rriTie to Uie ground Is tc-day ui mysterious a« it was in thv 
daye bofor« Newtou ; the phtjnonicna t^t lilo. :ke myscerious as in the 
day* bcioru Darwjn. Our nUvances in Mcienc^ and in thought may 
do Bwaj wiOj minor iiiy^ilcries hut tlifv It'avt: th<" grcjit ultiinaic 
jftcts of naivir*: at my^torious as boiori?- Th* ond oi our ^xplaua- 
ticns id always to bring us Eacc to Ucc with the iricxpIicfiblC' Notp 
therefore, in any hope of doinx away with an ulllmalc mystery do 
f suggrst thai we Icinlc inrn And fciJlnw mit tinmi; implirfllinni; of this 
so called identity hypotlie^it. 

Let us regard the matter from the objective aspect first, from 
iixn nidc t» whidi the occurrences present tl]en;iielves as traanfonua* 
liijn* of ent-r^-y. Tlie stiile of conscioufmesK being tx ky^ktsi SkC^ 
com^iunied or •* called into extatenc*" by certain complex and or* 
dcrly molecular vibrations in the br^iiu c>r aowc pail tljcreof, we 
hdve to note thut Eium the physlc^al point cjf view ih&ie uiolecuUir 
vibrations constitute sn exceeding romplex and orderly mode ol eo* 
orgy^ It is upon thi^ t^ncr^y that we mast ha our attention ; the 
material fttructure o£ tlie brain bcioie what wc may call the vehicle 
of its iJiatiifesiaiion, I aru anxious that the reader shouhl cdreJully 
follow me here, Wc ore coo apt to regard the ssrutiurt nt th« ee> 
sential thing oo which to concentrate our mental ga;ec> portly no 
doubt bccnui^e, through the Invaluabte labors of microscopistib, wc 
know «o murh that is ddinite »bou1 this sinicture- But a more 
pt-netr^ting insight enables us to aee that the Gtructure is merely 
the necessary basis of what is the really important thing — the man- 



ue^rAL iwoLUnoN. 


il<!»tailiQn of eocv^/. TBg iDstcnal structure o1 ;t Mcam-ca^inc ia 
of importance. But why ? Because it is th« vehicle for the per- 
formonc* oi wort. Thai is ih*> rpallyeesrntiftl part cJ the htm'innns.- 
Iti liJ(« oMnncr ntr^'c-elntciurc IB ol importnnco. But why ^ Bo- 
cauMT it 15 the vehicle for what Professor Huxley happily leimcd 
thr nenmsis ihff rmnplrt and orderly manifi'^t^tJcin of pner|>y, 
Tlw *uontial importance of lool^mg ai th^^^rq^' machioo* at the 
pcfformancc of work. Ai the cucrcy of the matter in moiicTi. rot 
merely ihr- mainial »inictiirc iliac Is moved — the cssc;nti»l lmj>or- 
taivcc, 1 *ay, f>i fixing our ftTtirntion on iliis, being fairly graftpc^d, wo 
maiy now prncced lo enquire 4rom whnt ihe complex sod orderly 
vibraltoitfr of ihe <1^jc's brain h^tve been uvolvcd, In the IcrtiUscd 
ovum fr«^m whirh ihe dof^ wA«i devet^prd, (an^T ihc: ^-nmc ifi iriie of 
the nmoftiotd anocGtor from which, hypotheticallyt the race of doga 
h»* bcca evolved,* there i« certainly (loihinE Approaching the or- 
clcily compleiiiy ol these iriok^imlnr vihiaii^jDi^. Bui tttete are siin- 
plet OTganie modL-« of motion fr<Hn which ihrtp rrimplrx molecular 
vtbrationi have aris.<.'Q by a contiououis proceed oi development. Ii 
14 from the?te simpler inride% of energy in the simpler orfanle sub- 
stance of the ovum lh4( the morr complpx mnde^ of enf-rKy which 
characieHie tjie v/orUhi^i of thp dog's brain have Iwon evolved. In 
the development of the cviun into the embryo, and Ehencc into Che 
pu|Tl>y jukI the dog, we may tmce .step tiy wtcp aU the »tHKex of the 
evoltilion of !hf>Hr m^ittfria! Klnictiirev whitrh are ihe vrhiclpi; of these 
special manik-sUtions of organic energy- We may watch the fur 
thcr and further differentiation of the nervous tinftuc, and the fn^h- 
touing «jt the brain and its pitrts^ It Is [nin ih«it we ir^nnot indi> 
c»te the escact moment whL'n, in tlie increasing complexity of the 
tintiQes. the ampler lorms of organic energy pass into the higher 
form of brain energy accompjinicd l^y con»cioLi»ncs;(. But that is 
just because il i^ v. coniinuoiH developmenl. ;u^ evolution- That 
the parwage from (he one into the other doe? actually take place we 
mrt hound, by all the canons of logical reasoning, to admit. It is 
cmlytluring life, howevt-r, thai rieiifo!<tv occurs or i« po»ib]e. A 
great number of iDodes of organic energy proceed side by side tn 
llu pulsating liasuc^ of the living dog. tlicir orderly continuance 


bcinft whnt wc term /^. And only in ondthToufEh ihcu oMcfly 

t\prct\ pofisiblp_ Thr orgnnic ttnictiire is like a 'ipioning lop. Only 
SrO lonf; aft it ^pint^ n.nU ii^amlcstf> itfs proper ttnct^y it iu tiability 
mniniaincd. AJi Around it arc iorccii which lend lo mnkc k totter 
Id u^ f;i]L Hue %o \<ntg ft% it -tpiiis frrcty il ran tr^ivi All miriir al- 
tempi! to upst't it£ utability. And when the dog dies ; wFiat bap- 
pent( then ? 'J^he molccului vibrations oi the brain id Goitiinoa with 
all otb«i (cirtiitt ol ori;aiiic cncrrgy cea»o. Tlu; top no Jong^r ^pios; 
ant] tbi' Mruciurt* tuiiirrH to iis fall. Dec oiii position 4t*iH in. Tfi« 
orderly organic cbangos tvhicb characterise life, give place to the 
destructive chaD£c<» which choractcriftc decay. But accordiof ID 
tli« law of tJiv coii^etvAtiuu oi vncrgy, although tlicic ib detuTiipo 
sition of fhf* Ti*i5iif4 0f whirh the hnily wa*comprw;pfi thero iftno fie- 
siuiciion or annihilation ot energy. J ho pfirticnlur modes ol cd^ 
crey through which the body was ia&tiiicE wJ:h life pafs away ; but 
only lo give rise to rh<?ir ciiuIvAlenl^ in other modc^ of energy. Just 
at thi- ptiddle in the ro;id diRappc-anir hut only to give origin to an 
equivalent mass of invisible wntci vnpor ; just as the candle disap- 
pcais. but only to give nr^eto it^ cqiiiv^lcnt ni«5s In the producer of 
cnmhiiKfifrn ; so throTighoiil life and in'draih the energy which thrn^w 
in the tiB&uc^ neither iippeare nor di^appearft except at thecxpcago 
of, or to the Kain of^ other modcK of energy. Life is Like a voctes 
in a Tflpii^ sErftHni ; on siirrfiuoding ciier^ il in dependent for itf 
ccntinutd existence : into KurroundinR energy it ineltK away. And 
this is true not only of individual life bnl cf hic in its entirety. 
Some believe that the I'ortcA hail a iiainr^il origm. the organic be 
in^ cvolvL'il (rom the jnori^anic. Other* hold that it ww through 
the direct interpotition ci (tie tinger of God tliat the tiny vertex of 
primitive liic was vet ti twirlini;. Be thia as it may, once initiated 
the vorlca oi life ia dependent on nuironntiirj; ^to^c^ of energy. 

Turning now Jroin the objeeuve aspect to the subjective atpect 
we paitn Eroin neural procet^ses to utate*^ oi cL>nMiousneas. In the 
lan^uu^e oE the identity hypothesis, here provinicnally adopted, the 
states of Cf}iisc[oi.iSTjew* iii the dogS mind, aire the Hiibjeciive aspect 
of whaT, iTom ihtf objective aspect, arc ih« moteculfii: vihrationw ol 




his brain- lbBue», Anil an iu considciini^ the mailer ul^jcctively, %(y 
BOU- in regarding fUe menial a«peci, ut^ musx a«k from what tli9 
co<tt)>I^K and orderly fitatn of cun*(ciousn<r*i« of the do^'jt miii<l have 
been cvi^vtU, Ju ihc fcililisctl ovum fiom which iJic J(>i; is tlcvcl- 
opt^, <an<l llu" same jfc tnir- i>l tUv ftimpboitl anrrstor Jiom wliich, 
hypotlwtically, ctw raE:c of <log« haa bovin vvolv«d, } nothing so pom- 
j>Jcx ai a state of consciousness is to be {oimtf. Vtoitx what ihcn 
have tbi^ Maie^ of etinsi:ioiiiiuc«> beiTJi tvolicvl > t>o wc not seem 
fofee<1 hy pnrity of reaRoninf^ to ani;wer: Prom «orn''ihing mcirr 
■ittiple that> con^i^^iunetw but of ihosamcordorof cxi«tenee, which 
answers aubjcciively ic ihc amiplcr organic eiierg>' of the fcrttlti^ed 
avnm? Stich, nt any ralr, k the hypothrat whirh appratx tn mt 
Ibe most phT]ocophie<>l and the mofit Ic^^ically con%)&t?nc. It tV' 
quires, bowos-cr, nn little cHort of thouf^lit to conceive the exiilence 
ol i}io%c elementary KtAte* from which criiiM:ioiihncs« m^y Jiavc had 
Lis orii^in. Wp tnny 1>p aidLvl in dtJitiB «>- perhaps, if wl- fist cmr at- 
tention on the ckisr nsHociaiiun ol brainvnetgy anc! states ol con- 
idDysncss rc^ainJinf; them il» distia^uithah/e but not jt/ara^U. Now 
tke ucrvouih entrgy ol the braiii is cxtracirdinaiily complex ; and 
y*t ut Wli^v-fr that It anHt'Tt by a proce«£ ol continuous Jeielopnient 
from the much leas complex encrf-y of the kriiiiaed ovum. Ln the 
ovum iheie ih uo btain-encigy ; there i» only the lar simpler Rcim- 
[ftal energy from which it ia evolved. Sa too. ilie con^ciotiflnew in 
the dog'« mirid ii wonderftitly complex : but if it ha» arisen hy a 
process of dcveJopmenl, it must have been evolved liom somclhinic 
ol like (laiuie only mdefm^tely simpler May lAe nut Uiily suppose* 
thrrrfoTp^ that in ih* *rTii]i*M»d ovum, thovigh there i^ no eonwimit- 
ne^ici., iherx^ are ibe fjcrniinfil <ilnlei< ironi which cor^cioitfine^s may 
be evolved ? Or to put the oisdcr tersely, may ne oot say : A« ihe 
OMnpJcx iiLoleciilar vibrations of ihc iirairi are [o ihe^^iinplcr mole- 
cular vibralioRH of tho ovum - so ftro tha complex statfta of con- 
acioufiness auociatcd with the former to the simpkr states of infro- 
COascionsoess. if wc may so call them, tLSTrociated with (he Utter ? 
Il i« the asAociation Af eon«eini)iine«K and infra-cofiseionfincss with 
tntr^y — tt« obiectiv* RiftiiLfeiitation— thnt is the dialing uiiihinK fea- 
li»c of the view which I am endeavoring to set forth. Coiacomiiant 



with the L'^'ohitioin of hitihcr mcdeii ^f organic energy from thoaic 
lowJy modcn which slonc obtnin in the ovtitn or the amoeba, is the 
evolution of cottRciou^nru fioiii lowly moiles of iitlr7i-cojiKCJoU^[ict»^ 
It 15. triifr tluf 11 in on)}' through the excrri^e ol ihc conccpmal 
laculty ol rcrSKon, ncVL*r Ihrou^h the i^en^es or hy dLtect perceptiun, 
that JVC can reach ihi^ lug^cstcd infra*conscioviiineM. Put this «riU 
hrittlly Itf rr^jiTiJi-il i>s 4 vjli<l i>hjet:Tiiiti \yy those wh« hplicvp in the 
existrnce ol tht' t-lhc^r, or by thoie who ailc^pt iht* atomic theory, 
neither oE which could be reoched by the ncn«cs or l>y perception 
alon«. Still 1cm will it be regiiiilcd a& in objection by thorte who 
Irive t'ra^petl the di^^linction hrtwt'rn r-nergy as nianife^lnl in the 
ol»jectivtT world, and consciouiness a« ineviubly tubsectivtf. Ol ao 
cofiscioukness other Chan our own hiivo wc direct and fir^t^h^nd at' 
pfftipixte. And yet cetUtn niuiiifehttittunti of L-ticfr);y an eicliibiled by 
oTh«r living beiiii^s force upon u^ th« conviction thai we Are not 
alone in posfttssing the suljjc^ctLvc atffibute ol conaciouBDcaa, That 
not only the doi^ and the elephant, but fbc hcc a\w> and the ftpMcr 
are endowed w[th rhift attribute and are con^otn^, ihongb not feU- 
con>r.cious, law ol u« doubt tor a moment, But their con^ousneas 
is presumably far siT^pler iban uurs. Carrying this sinipIilicatiOin 
yet IjiEtbei dobvn (he HCak' of Hniiual Itk', we reach In the jelly-Ji^h, 
ihp tieft-anpnion^p and the sponge, form^j of Iffo which car hardly be 
said to be conscious at all witJi a consciounncHi? compaxabk to oar 
own, Vet they would seem to be endowed with the dim lorcahadow- 
irK* nf tiirh conscionsness. FinnlTy in the Himrba und lh<* mnnad 
wc have thciie dim foreshadowing^ reduced to the lowest tcrroi^ that 
are suggested by the aliady of organic life. If, then, in the series oi 
organic fnrtns, down even Cc the hiweKl. we admit con&c)out.nev« ot 
)t*i forr^shadowitigH thcngb ii lir«nnd mi.i'ir ever He beyond thr reach 
of our senses, why should we hetitnte to generalise our belief ia 
logical and scientific form, and hold that all organic modes of enei^ 
are 4x?iuctaled with conscious (jr tnJra'Conscious st4tes?" It may 
pt?rbap«. be objected that such a view, carried to its logical condu* 

* I bav« elsewhere {.■Imnm/ Life n*i\^ /nttJ/i^mt^ p 4&/fc so^efslcd tbe tcsai 
Ainriu fur Ihe m.LriifisiHiian of eoet^y. atnl i\ie ictiq m<iinti*tiiii fur ila cnnidoM- 
or infra-couaeioui asp«ai 



«ion fnvolvi;^ ilw suppu^iliua timl ilU tlu; tijuu^^s ul tlic' body 4ie 
con»ciout or at i^aM tufra-conscious. where&« ii is 1 well-««ublish«d 
9Ct<rQ1t£c tntluctiou chni consciousnt^ss is spocialLy se'roclulod with 
the ^jcivou?! tib^uc *jI cI:c brfilii. I ^cc no n^&^on^ howcv^^r, why ihift 
ConcltiMDh shouM noE In- strrj-piiil, U ihrori^ank' Irnniaformalioii^ 
ci «a«iigy in th« ovum »r0 a«ftociat«d with -whsit for lack ol a better 
term I have bcrc called Jnfmconi^cJouBncaa, ilion there nrc two 
po*«it>i1itK:s^ nitlurr (he flccompanyii^lt corijtcioufcnc** in rw/r/v/j con- 
e«ntrated in atuincisitinn uitb the moli^iiUr vibrations of lli(^ brain ; 
or It merely bccomeii JfrntfutKi in the functioning oi that diifiue and 
-continue* in the dim infrn'COii«:io-ii5 condition in the other tiMue^ oC 
the liody. Sow to ju^lgr Uom mir own rxp^-rirncr il I't only ihe 
dominatni rnokcuUr vibration?^ in the br^in that ari? accornpani'jd 
by the cicai h|;ht ol con^iouflncss- The lub dominant nvuntl 
■chant^eti arc indeed accompanied by a dim !iu1j'Con»ciouiine^. But 
there are many molecular i-liitnges (even in the <:errbrHr h«niiiif»f teres 
tbaoueJvcs whvr^ contM:]Ou^naw is '^called into eKititence*^; which 
^ not n»c to the tcvoJ of conHciou»acss at al) or arc quite lost in 
the Klare ol iliat coitsctouMie^^. Why tliin »]iouM be ao 1 aui not 
pdTiparrd m say. I1 >uv>ni^ 10 he a law ^f our inenT^I being. Cer- 
tainly it is convenient that it ts bo; and 11 may havu been foaC*rod 
or caiabliiJied by natural aclection. We all know the scnie oE con- 
bsion that iiiitcs when, in ct^rtain states of Intense nervous excite* 
fnent, a hnti of ideas an? crowding up imo (ionnirtance and jostling 
cftch other lor supremacy. An orRani^ni ^o consCituiod ih^i such a 
Slate of thinfia was nonn^l. i\x>nld. we may suppose, stand but a 
poor chance of siirvivaL Hem:t- perhaps therr ha< arisen thai due 
siUxTTdinationof consctoiift, sub conficioua, and intraenngcic us states 
which characterises the normal life ol conncjous beings. Having 
regard, then* to tlte cercbtal beiuivphetcii where conacicUMiess 
f-merges, not all the ttiolectdar changeit theie transpiring rise to the 
lev«l of lull conaciousttM^ Th(*re its not a httlu ol what Dr Car 
pctitcr uacd to call uncoii»ciotis ccrcbrationn We seem forced to 
adinit the existence of subtnet^ed sTatrs of tonsc:iui]sne>i«t : Htatet 
which %tv intra-consciotifi, but which may become conscious at any 
moment by rising into dorninanc<^. And if in the cofc-brat liemi- 


TUV WimiKT* 

fiphf^resi there axe in(ri»"Coa»ciou* ctates. why «hou1<] ih*r« not be 
Associated trith every molccvilor thtili ctt the Jii'in^' body yot lower 
&1&tctiot infri<Gon«ciou&iic^ loo ilccply submcrircd oven m man lo 
W-conu- doniinacil? 

It in, hoirovur, onp ihwg ro show ihAr chrrc i^ no inmipftrabfe 
cbjoccion to acccpTinK the existence of such Jntrnconsrioud states, 
if such existence bu' ollicrwisc probfibic, nn<J fln.itljrr rhin^ lo ojstab^ 
lisb thtK pmbAbility. Arul ibU Irnds uk hjick J4g^in In ibf? ^roiLntk 
on which their existcnco may fairly be regArded as probable. We 
Ate (old thill the mcntAl faculties of the dog in common with hh 
ph^i^icnl or or^nic fr^ine> b;tvc ari«(;ii in the course of a^c« by a 
process of dcvckpmeiit It it ckar that «uch a stai<rntvnt is intt<nded 
lo apply to tbo livinf; dof; with active lacullici; ; to a /[loinj; mechan 
i?&m. oz TAthcr of|cani«n wbidi iii alito conv^ciou*. Well ami good. 
The maitrial vtntrtnre hav^ hi'en r-vnlvtd from lower iarmt oj matter i 
the organic modeK ol en^-r^y (in virtue oi which he iiv«»), Iroin lower 
Jorm* of energy : the mentaJ titatcs (m virtue of which he ia con- 
scious), from— what? I ^ugi^eit in conliiiu-ation and conclusion of 
1hi4 «r?»lence — from lower fcjims ol infta'Consciousneu; that ti to 
Bay. oi what js ol the same order oi *xisl*nce ai con^ciouflnestt, btil 
has not yet risen to the level of couociousnevftH Mxiny people will 
no dcubc ire nu necessity for >iuch a concliitLion. U h making aa 
unneG«^«i«ary bother, ihey will £ay, about a vi&ry simple iiiaii«r. A% 
some undchnCit btage ot ori^aEiic evohition^pcrhap^ when dcivous 
ti^ue luJ itsi^miesis, perbapseailici — cuiibuiouMjess be^ati to d^wn 
and has since devi^lopeil in cleflrni*« and hriKhtn^is Hnrin|E i1m» evo- 
lutton ol higher and higher orgstntem^^ According lo ibis v'ww, ih^ 
a>cendio£ curve uf evolution h divisible at some iindcfuicd point 
into two poitions: of ^vhith one rejJTCsmis organic evolution prc- 
riou4 10 ihe dawn of cousciouswss ; itic other nrgfinic ovolutioa 
subsequent to the dawn ol connciniisnc^s^ But the qiicfition aionee 
suiEci^si* ilsrif : From \^lial did coiiscioii'-ifcessdiiwr .it this midefined 
poini ^ In ;in»iWPr in whirh thcrr arr *nmr who do nnt hrsitatr to 
reply that the eon«ciou^«i^ aros^c out of the physical oonditioiu; 
that when the rhythmic dance of organic molecule* reached n cert^n 
ititen&ity and intiicncy cotiMrioiisneAK wa> dcrelo|»i-d- Thcic i«, io- 




<ktd. « certain c]a»3 of ncnephysioloj^tMa* or ol m^xlical men who 
wTsle ofi ncTvc-phySLoloKyi who* if tltcy ilo not liold that Elsies <*f 
coiiftCLOiu[>c«t; ari^ f^cn^^rAtnl from iho energy which sctompanid 
the WDd-kinK Qi the hroir ti«fiUcKT atany inic write as rf ihtv WAntJiRir 
belief. Hue «ucH a s'icw i!i qtiite unlenabJc. H there i» one ttiing 
dentty i^rj^tHi^tfic^d, ItuiIi by ihasi- wlio Iravc ajviiruAcbcrd tfir ntaiter 
frOTTi lti« ftci^iilific virle. and by llioie who hstw approached ibe 
mMtcr Irom lh« meUphysical iidv. h is tliat the di^tiriction belwrtin 
CDcrify And co:u»ciuubncftA is radical und «twolute. No conceivable 
increa^ m the oiderly croiiipleiiiy of i]i« molrcular vibrationfi of 
bmin^Ciftsue could gix't H«e to thai con^ciou^noss tvhicli diHen itfU 

^M/^ itom «ny rnanif^EftEion of energy, 

^P A&d yet ibouieh Malud iii a (omi tb&i i§ philosophically fitlse. 
afif! ih^^ivfon? miRtrfKlinj;. tli4^ coneliisinns of ihr«e earnirfir i;ti]HrnT< 
cd nerve -phy»ology arc praciicnlly eotmd. Orant^ tor tlic tnom^Dt, 
thai tbe i^itcfi of conKioii^neM In the dogU mind are the Aubjcctivc 
iUpect of Ihc inolcciilar energy of bin btain. Then the following 
diAgnm: (Fig, K) will r«preiteiil the aw; «?n ding curve of development 
kieh, Ironi ih* objective aspect, is ti. devetopment oi moJ*-^ ol 
r. and from ihc subicciivc aspect is a development of modes 

4^t|bJ«Cl1v< )tD«Cl' 

Ltomliu* t cnff irr ol Udc* 

'Cb>*Cl'VV HpB«l- 

Fi<«. I 


^B >fow what tbe nerve phyisLol ok tsts are sometimes apt lo do is, 
^■t ftonx* ronmont of devi^Inpmi*nt «ay d, to change thi^r pmnt nf 
Vicwr from the subjective aspect which deals with coiuciousnen to 
the objective aspect which *lca!* with energy. Their conchisions 
me pmLiiLdUy ?iound IwtaHMf ibcy are stilJ dealing with die aame de* 
v«lopni«Tii>I ciirvff, Th«y 6tat4^ th^ao conclusions in Unguags which 
is philo«opliicaily mislcftdtn^z because ihcy suddenly jump from iho 
sobjirctivc aspect to the objective aspect and iKnorc the icrcal distinc- 


TT« W"M?tT- 

lion between the two. Wliun they nay lJi*i consciousaeH^ CTiiifig«i 
Ur>m ihr ph^'aic;i1 crmdlnnn^ at tJ, ihiry pri^MiniAbly rnfrArt thai at 
thit pomi wc arc iir^t jusiiticd in Kpcakia^ of consciouHncss ot: iKe 
ftitl>>cctivc ftipcct in Anythmjc like a humnn serine. But n It not 
morc! k^ificAl tri hold that, JLiat iks ftcm the objective i(tand]mint the 
complex energy of the dog's liram has be*rn d(*vHoped from the 
simpkr energy ol the ovum, bo liuni ihv subjective stuxidpoint. The 
complex coiiticiou»nc&3 ot the dofi's mind ha* been dtvclopcd from 
ibe simpkr ]rtfra-consc]Oiisni%& of the civiira? And if we do not 
ftccepi ihift view, do w<» no! sf^r\^ comniin^d to ihn unpvoliicionary 
doctrine that the cotiHcious nspeci suddenly rnal<c« ic» appenrAncc, 
without those lowly germinal beginnings which it i* of the essence 
of any theory tif dpvultjpmtint to iKisluIatc; ? 

It will perhaps be said that all lhi*i assumes an idemitj* hypf>th- 
CBJs, with its ^uppo^'cl double aspect, which is not accepted by 
the majority of men oi »cient:c. Let Ub took ai t)ie maUei, there- 
lore, from wiMt would seem the only other point of view open to 
on« who aceepts the theorj- of developmenc a* applicable Alik« ti> 
the doK'« mind nnd to the dog's body. If Mnlcs of conscicu^ncss 
and the iMole^itUr U HiisjK.tioiiti \u the biaiii ait.' nut diffcicnt at»^cLts 
of the ti^iTiR ocrurrenceii. ihey are parallel, conromtianf, or nft^toriared 
phctionienA. Uur diagram will thus become that given bctow. 

ImNf* D«n>£>4>i'M*U it A^Uffi 

Bfed«fl at mnnay inih- oviun. 

CoutlOdiTiaMi ID Aa^'% mind 


Fto. « 

Here the parallel or associated phenom«Da occur <ogetb«r al 
the higher end of Iho dcvulopiiKTtal curve, and, at 4, the conactoU5- 
nc!« i& supposed to cmcjge, On this view thL-iL- 'a less j UblilicAtion 
for the nerve- physiologists' assert ion that il an»;e^ out of physical 
processes; for it is not dmply another aspect of these procoesMj 
but !»omc^ihing wholly different ^.ibitrarily associated with chcra- 
£V6U on this view it would seem more logical to suppose that »tnce 



Ch« nasociation of mental Elites with the doniinant neural ereigy is 
ol normjil cccurrciicc from «i ouward^. the conaciounne)!! l!icre emerg- 
ing !iav btM^n vvrotvL-tl from infra -cot>HcimisiiL-s8 pantll^l aril concom- 
iiaoi With rbc phy^iical proct4%c<i In ihi^ ovum, ff thiK b^ not ^o, 
Hr« B]«y OQCC more mk : From what haft th<t pAralkl liiw Co tho ri^ht 
of Ibc diAftrain been evolved ? Wc cAnnot ^-ly from the Dcuial &or- 
tliiioitft without c}i;int^ing orir jifiint nf vir^w anil igmiring ihr ^Ti^;it 
distintlioB between m»ttvr and encfg>- on ihe one hand and coii- 
Aciotnncv^ on tlie other. From what then hsa the convciooKne^s 
been evolvcrd, if not from tioiiietJitng of Jike nature out/ inddintiely 
«itrip1<rr which Tihv T^Te buen spoken of a^ infra i:orisciuu>ine4s? 

Wi] mii^t now take a funhor Uep, on^ however in which aII 
cvcluliocisU will not be prcpEircci 10 foUow tia. Attention has al- 
rCAdj Imtcii drawn to the fuut thai Uiosc who accept the [heury vi 
tvolr.xinn arc nni Agrc^ed in ihcJr fatih — fc^r it i« on cithirr tide a mat- 
ter father ot belief than of demo net rat ion — with respect lo the origin 
of life. Some believe that the primitive organic gcrma were uot 
protbiml by nalur;il iJc^elcjpment nor through any pmceKK cf rvoln- 
tk>n- For ciLch, the hypothefiTK [ zm advocating must bo tnhmittcfd 
in the foilcTWin^ form-when hrsl the hfe-cnergy was started hy the 
direct inlcfpOKilion o[ die finger of God it was endowed with sQmc 
dim form ol infra ■eofiucioiisne^'i which in the coiime of ex'oLniion de- 
veloped into connciontnesfi. And i>resamably thoi^c who s^c in the 
UHcetMi and the fcdrtili^d ovum some dim lorc^iihattowirkiiH oi con* 
vcluu^F^n may fcillovv mt ihus fat. But fnt lh(3>c who lieli^vr that 
the organic hav arisen 00 this earth by process of natural devclop- 
■lenC from the inoT|;anic, the hypothesis must be more f^wccping in 
ilx tsnge^ We mLjnt say that all nit^dc^ of eiietgy ai whatever kind 
whether rvrganic or inorj^anir havr- rhdr ton<u:ioiiH hr infra 'CotiKdou* 
aapecl.* Startling att this may sound therein. I believe, no other 
logiGtl concluaion pouibic for the evolulionivt/rtfr/fiA^. For where 
an? wc to cUal^ ibu hnc ? The xuiemf tonscionsnt-^s ai ihr. higher 
animoU liave been evolved from iower forms of infra -cansciouBoeis 

^ft *Io Ibe $!ktnaro\iJKy I bir* dfrvhdfc ^unkfcstcd. iborv U tto hinisii UDaCiX>ra< 
fttBlad by lUfTMabinetlc iJEpKi 

-nn wQFfrffr. 

in ihe ain(i:U^-like cir yd more simple protoj>lfisniic e^mis iu 
<lawn of \tt** Bitt if thrme Ioav fcrmi; of organic tnfrA-cnnficioiwnt^iip; 
•Kcir thmnficlvfis evolved, Irom what could Ihcy arise >t they were 
nuC developed from yci moic lowly fonus of irifrn-cODSCtoiisncas sJW' 
liar in kind litit inferior in degree as^ociAif?^] wlih IncireBuic iraiLs- 
(orm«tionft of cnct^y} In any case it is here submitted that (hk 
doctrine lliAt inirn consciousness is assodalcd with aJ/ fDrmti of en' 
crfy is ncccsNirlly implied in ihc phniic mental evolution for aH 
ihinki-rA ■otholijivt* ^ra«pi^d ihe diftiinciion Iwtwepn comciouHiie** aad 
cn^-T^^y And il this l)e idnutit'd thert? ■« dit^lo^^, by impJication, 
tin aoawcT Ucliind and beyond ibni cMinarily c;i^k'n to it qii«tit»OQ 
ihhidL ha?» agaiu ;iiid a^^n been u&ked — Uic gneMioii : — U fWie a 
ciM^sensiion ol con«;cinufine^ Analogous: to thr con^fTvatTAn of en* 
vrgy ^ Tll4T ticgfliive an&wer generally ^iven to tMfi i^iiuticn r*fiulis 
(torn ibe lac! lliat tlic ciuestion itself has aliiVAy* liecn put in a form 
which diXTS not admit of a ^itlisfactiiry sohilion. Tl>cic is nol ft con- 
<icrv4tion of coniu:iousnf^« nny iron^ than there i« a confii^rvatioii of 
neural energy or a conficrvjition of cltfctricity- There is no coins<er- 
Vrition ol ncijral cncrt;y bccati^c this is only one mode of ener^ 
wliirh imiy be tiinisfuicHed iiJtti othc-t muUci. Nut until Af lia^^ 
generalised «nerg}' so as to inebidciv// its modes cati we speak of 
conservation in reference to it, So too not until we have son^rahaod 
iliM universal forn) of cjtisicncc, of which consciousness is only the 
hij^besi And inDst i)rve1opv;d mode, so a« to Imrludc all Jiiodc-s, can 
w« flpcfik of confiervfttion in refercnca to it, Hiii so gcnctfiUsed I 
submit thnt there is a con^iervatton of that forin oi existence whkh 
inchiden both cOTiscioi]5ne^> and infra -const lousnr 55, co-ordinAtc 
and tocxtenvive with tlie con>it?rviiiion of energy." Just at the ilora- 
mant neural traofjfonnati^nt in the dog's brain are like a vpeciaJ 
vortUA in the onward -flowing streuzn ol the world's encrg)', so atfO 
the states of consciousntss iu hi'^ mmd bke u !^|>ecial voitcx in the 
onward flowing stream of that mode of existence whirh^ wUerher it 
have risen to the level of consciousness or not, is still of che coo* 


*Tfast n to tpy.a conterx-atron of ineEalrint-ftjs coH:irdi&ait* and Dee«T«n(ivt Wkt^ 
ihekis«lic 00P3i;rvMi4^n of <ir«rgy. 



)CJ04i<i OT*l«r For thp bpUfver in ficieniil^c monism th^r* fs but on« 
/ortox, objocltvcly presented ttn cncr gy^ subjccuvoly tcH in coiiMiou^' 
W*». For Ihc diialUl there ate two vorljccs, U ) 40 objcciivc voitcx 
Uid (i) > siibjcctivr vcilcx associulccl witli the other itrd "iiaIIixI 
jiio cxi*:cace" by it. la e^Uhcr ciue the vortex i« dcpcndvnt fof its 
jonliDQal cxistcnct^ od tLurrounding store* ol that out ol which it has 
irisen I and in ctthcr g4«c the modtrrn tendencies of scientitic thought 
tug^cst conM-rvatiun which is hul thr jinlilhniH of Lfeutictii tx nM/An* 
In coacIuflLOu it iliculd be noted that tliifl hypoch^fiiia ia btit a 
lew prcttfutation ol nn old ^ccuktion. It diflent a« it hi^rc itaods 
jrom 4in>- ilieory ol -'uiiiid-iitufi** in eh&t it rcgarda die qucfitiou 
'ach<*r from ihp dyTinmirpl than fmm thn 8iaiir:al poinf nf view. Not 
''mitxd'iXnU " nnftwcrirfi to matter but a ;inlvcr«;il conscioits order 
>r adpccC of Gzislcncc nnswcririfc to universal cnci^y is the lefldiDK 
di^ I luvc Kint;ht to ftcvclop. Jn its newer fomi, aeiin, this hy- 
x>th<*«ii differs from the view that "all forcp ik wiltpower," or thi* 
/iew that "all nialtvr is concciomt,' or the chutitj ol *Mntdligeot 
nonads." meadeavorin^, aot to carry anything likci^trr conscious' 
icsa down into «»udtiliuti with llie siiuplei iiiunifeiitattozuK ol ^n- 
Tfgy, bat rathw to st^V tn a^ociation with ihf'M' Itiwer inATkifosu- 
>oo§ tb« gcrromal ftatce indol~init<^])^ simpkr than con&ciousnosa, 
rom whteh nevertheless consciouiincss hfts been de\ctcpc<]. FU 
tally the keynote of thi« newer pn^nentniion is that which is the key- 
lote of all modern t]ieone« of life and of thou^fht — (he doctrine of 

C. Lt4>Yo MoNriAV. 

*Thv bcvisg of iliii (ODiDrvaiioa of coD»doutnm ftnd hdn-contdouinan 
LinAu) OD ILuteria cioiicc|Ttto(ik fit immca-lAUly Aod en tnatni^jpAtidn ^fuuld 
toiarwfling dntme to foltou' oui tnii ih l>«yond lb« scopv of ili« proMiDt pjLpvr^ 



BY reason oi hi!i physical natrirc man iv tuiupcrcd by tiircc vtarIs 
^iL- tmcih louU, duUiiinip and shelter. In his first 4thI Iowp^i — 
sUige of civtli^ACion m&n |]W«fi tQ & ttace of i*nt1ir»ILmf^nt to nature. 
He dreads and worships Iha cruel forc«» oj miitttr- But by the aid ^* 
of science, and invention i^hicli flow?t fri>m j»dcntc, man Attains -^^ 
domination or coriTiol ovvr tliir^s and foiarH and dirvcr!i ihein jpfo^ — 1 
the««rvic#or liumftziity (or oMor for beduiy- The sctU co«<|uvrs^^^ 
nature by science and machinery and then it next desires to ticc this'^^^^ 
coaqucM over naturr reflected iji works of arl. Hence ii crcaicj^**^ -^ 
nrchitf-nnrrj Kciilpinrcr paimin^r tniiKic, and poetry, all nf ihe«« fittt 
arts pofltnying miui's victory ov«r wacts and necesGities. 

If the spectacle of pauperism and crime, the savngcry that atiX 
Gng<^rs in Llie blunts of our citlesn sternly reminds nsof ihc jrt frcMt^^ -t* 
hold which our civiiisation has obt^^ined tven rn cities— iJ ihe ecu- ^e^' 
sua o£ mankind proves that thrtfe- fourths arc yet counted as bclo^^^^-^^' 
the line that separates the half- civilised from the civiliMd — yet vst^ '^'^ 
arc wonr to ton-ioijir (>iirsi.'lvt'j^ Ijy ihr proniis(r anil jjotency which wi^ '^ 
can ail discern in produciiv* industry aided by ihe m^ght ol tcjenc^ ^ 
and inveatioa. This view is alwaya hopeful. We »octhat there ij 
a sort i^i ^eoructric piogrc^ ID the conquest over things and ft 
The ahiliry of man lo create weAlth c^inrinually arrrlerates, 
more be obtairs the more he can obtain. The more each OHO 
the more his neighbor also can get Even the wcAkling of 90Cjet]r# 
thtf pauper or beggar, the insane, and llic criminal all fane bctie/* 
in the centres of wealth than thev do at a distance from them orh«Te 

ruE KV.W aviusAvroi' prprsps *ys »ccifA>'icu. i»virs&Tio>f. 179 


there <» no ucalth to b«g or nicaJ Aod no a»yliiin« created dind ftns- 
Uiocd 1>y ivcakli to slielter and hcn\ ihcir iliscued l>odic5. 

WriUdi in ibi; intKkiti ^ciim; of tht wurd, int more tliain tn iu 
rknl «entv» iit sell -productive, ll {^ capital, and capital if! wealth 
Ifwt gcneTati:» wealth. Capital ropr(.*«t'»is cc^quorod iorcc^ and 
t}unf(»<— comqucrt^d for tlic Hupply q\ liuuian want& CApiial conalMa 
of oatunal forc-e^ >oVo<t and srt to wnrk (or fciod, clnihing, lU^olEpr, 
Ud 1I10 laeilitteB of htiman culture. Thf>t)^rc^ pby^ical vantK U(>od. 
dodiinf, nnd »hcjccr) arc produced by nttUirc — thc^>; arc the chains 
ftnd lr-ticr» wb«reby Ka1ur« uficrts bcr jiRht to en^ave hun)0iiil>^ — 
to k4>rp man in a «tatp of ibralldom. 

Bill the Pronrntht^An CLinninfi d oi^in. realised fttut in scivncQ 
and next m u!*i^-iui nincbiacs, ha» j^uccccdcd m ^tibdumc ibu powcri* 
of natiiir and iinpomiii)( nn tbe?m the Intlt oi MipplvTCg and gmiif.virLit 
the very ncvd« wtuch nature ctc^iica in ms. Nature had chained 
nun to the tartk ol daily toil for foud, clothing, nnd shelter- Qiit 
matl turns back upon lutun: and compels her lo ukc iIll- place of 
humjin drudgery- and produce an alnindaiicv of ihesL- ntred^^d luppHt^c 
And bnn^; ihtivn wh^mv^t they are neeJed ior coDftumption> J'his 
» accompUahcd by mccbanical combinattona that secure the »crvic« 
of 4(€ain> electric iiy, and variou^dirvice-iof earth, £ir, liro, arrl u-aier^ 
Thi& iwlf'^vrkoratiug w«alih ihac v^kisk in the ^hapc of capital 
is ao much on the incroaMr tliai it hlls all dassos oC our population 

I with bopcb or if not niih hopes at kaT>t uith dtscoiitcnis — aud div 
conieni iti cm^itily rhe fimdiicit of hopr <ini|rglinjj^ up from the 

' depths oj Ihc tout. VVithcnt the vivid pcrceptioTi of a higher idtial 
ftud without the fcnline that it l» ntCAinablc, there wojid not be any 
aocb ihing at discoiiternL The avrtai|£e prQdiu:tion of man^ vhonian, 

' wul child tn tin.- Unitnl 5tat«?v increased in the thiny yeari; betn^tXHi 
rS30 and ibSo Irom about 15 cents pvr dny to 40 ccntr. |>cr (Iay--an 
incrrasM: of o^'er 60 per cent. This mcann the production of far 
mom ■lub'ttaniiar iinprovpmoniA for human comfort. Mnrh mnr*' 
««a!|Ji is created that pewseasec an cndJiiog ^^haractcr and riiav h^ 
handed down to the next frenBratiorip l-iccr iln'^llici-.-;, belter road» 
and »treei6. fences for Idnds, diaintng^ aud leveling!), and the? pro- 
ee*acs necr«ury 10 brin^ wild land under cnliivation. anificia] sui^ 


THfe MOMM'. 

pljrt; fil viAX^T i»ni1 gas, rbir u-Arrhoiific-^ nni! rlcvaion;, nnrf ihr Ap- 
pliaaccii of commerce— and iinally the burldinge and fnmiehmgft of 
culture, includinf£ churches, tichools llbrnTic^s, iriisciinis, >«yluRts 
and all iTMnncr of public building?^. Gzcikl Bril^jn, the? IcadiiiK ^'i' 
lion m commtTcc and niaimfactures, atcording :o the relume for iSS8 
(aet^ MulholiV *' Diet. EstatiKticsp" new <^ition) distributed comtoTt- 
alile incomes of $1000 anil upwards to ciicli fnmlly of 30 per ccnt^ 
of llip c^nlEii' (lujuilaliozi, 4m] ihe r(.Tiij4iiii:i^ /o per cf?nl- avt-raged 
S4S5 per annum ^for each laniily). France provided incomoft of 
$ty)o per Diinmn for a^ per c«iit. of jta fumilie^ Thi» »hcws wimt 
(Trcftl cupitfllbiU aic doinc foi the creation and distribution of wcaUh. 
Iia!y showed hv itt incomo rpTurns iliai \t**%H iliftn ^ pfr<-(*nT. rprrivwl 
incomt-fc of 51000 find upwanU, wliitc ^J> per ct^ni, of Iho famitioft 
AvcfA^cd loA than ^3C)0 income?. Itn!^ makc« littk u^c of Ateai^i 
power And laLxit saving machinc^t. 

H 1icir^n^:* progrtsse* iind it* crincomitani, iwefiil invention, 
pr<mrL"SKcK as last tor tht next tiundrt'il yeart a« it has done for the ^^ 
paM forty years, the virion of Edvfard Bellamy ol coinlcrt "for all ^^ 
w]JI lie r(?;iJLSiMl without tlie rm:e9)ity oJ any foim of 5odali?mt — > 
Tlier*" will In.' Cdii'ifori and #von tiiKury for all who will labor a mod-— — 
Qt&te timouot *A time. 

Science Inventories naturL* and discovers propcrtief^ and poMjblc^z:' 
combJnaiionsv Invc^niion u^t^ ihi^c comb incLt ion » to mcrl mcchan*"— - 
ical problems. Can any ono doubt who look* into the statf" of ^ienci 
and it^ contiTiujIly improving method?^ that the conquc-it of natui 
will be luoic rapid m the coming century than it has been in ihc£^^ 
pa«i century? 

But we art* challt^ngeJ by the cgu^vtton ; What ts the good oK * 
annihilalinK the necewity for bodily tod } VVdl nol man do^cneraii 
»p]jjtuully a.% he conu^ to punAcs;* luxury at cheaper aitd ^bcvpei 
r3Lte« ? These tuaierial iidvarta^/'S gained by n^t-ful invrniion whtf ht^ 
ereste a «ieady and permanent iiupply ot fond, cloihing, and bhelter^^ 
are they not mere ?iumptuaTy provii^fons and do they imply proi^rcs^ 
in tivilisalion ? To ibis chalk-nnc ^v rrrply by pointing out the re- 
lation of invention to the communication of intelligence and ibr- 
ditfii«ion of knoi^'lodgc by newspaper and book. 

tltC Hr.yf ClVlLI«AT-ldM DCfeHDft i>H UtcHASCtCAL lSVJ*N-f»0?4. l8l 

1 ~tAi 

In ihr 6m pJncc it i« obriouK that the three clusnc^ of employ- 
tstiU devQict! i:liielly lu ihc Mipply oi the ph>>icitt K«in(«^ — namely 
gTvciiltiiTP, manufatttifrt, and c^mmtrcc — art'*un(|prg':^mB changf? 
1)^' aid o< mech;injc invention in fiUcEi a tnannev iif to brmft the la- 
l>i>rer everywhere more and more into relation with hiis fcllovr men. 
In aili«r wnfds canittie-rce mcrt:aKex more «nd more, smd beconu-K 
a l»art ot al\ «mpIoymenl£. Id exchanging goCKU each eels tuine- 
Ihmf^ Uiat he needod more than what he patted wich. But Xhv b«t 
nf?MiJt of the exchjine'^ 19 tlic actjUAiiitdJicc (ormeil helwecn producer 
d consumer Bach has learned 4oiii«ihing of tht^ othtrr'A ideas, 
fliod<« of looking at the world nnd habile of action. Eactt on«'s lil# 
enriched by the addition oi ibc hnox^tcdKc of t)iul!fe of ttic other. 
Man S16 u apirim^l bctiuf hits for hU pri^blem the cnplciation of 
ihr* raro worlds — tht- worMii of nature and man. Thf" problem is too 
great Jor the individual and he Tnui^t avAil hiniKelt of the work ol 
others. £ach mnn may tnvvntor>^ n nmalL porlioo of nature (ii^crcnt 
htrni all uthet>. K«ich one niiiy live a life lUfleient frijni another'^ 
But ibe individual f;ct» a v«ry Kmail gtimp^e of nature by the uid cJ 
his ovra tt^xisef-^ Hv gets a very nmall arc ot the total ol humiD Ufa 
hi» survey of )ii:i avm bio^raphy^ 

But by iiiteiLornitiimicMliun t^Hch oni* may extend anil nupplv- 
<neni bis own obMrviLtionfi of naturi? and of ihe experience of liti^, — 
b^ taay avail htm^ult ol the ;: id of tho scnWf-poKopLions of others 
itill more of the did oi ilic thoughts and leflcctiuLLi of others. 
W<* sr*^ atnnr;? (hat man i** ninn hr^raiiM^ hp po»i<jp«r*i nnd uses 
thiK mcani^of r^-aotorcing hi^ individiiAl ob^rvatioo8and lotloclions 
by tboM of the rmcn- Man iai an individual endowed with the powct 
of alttiiirbinK ibc n-^nlts of iTic raciv Wi' havr< with ihlv a dctinilion 
civili^tarion nnrl a standard oi measiirpmrni by which wc may de- 
me the rate of prci;fc«s. Advancement inonnK that there ore 
loved means rcjiJi^cd by which CfLch individual c«a five to the 
t of nuuikincT the rrwiflE^ nf hiK living ami doitiK and ihinVin^ and 
the came time share in the Hvcr, ihou^htftT and dcedt ot othcis. 
LfOokcd at in the h^ht ol thin deBnilion wc Khali he enabled to 
im progrcfa in civrli^iation on stib&iantiji] Kti^undk We shall be 
e to 1** aomelhin^ mon* hupefnl tn the material progress pioin ■ 




\tit.i\ ufi in ihr coming ci^iiiry than tha v-hfuyt Hiipj>!y of hndily rnni< 
fortfi- W« see 3 progressive increase} oE inicrcomniLimcatic^n which 
vrill cnnblc cnch Ludividual to command ihc results of the taiionnl 
Intelligence of fill inAnkind, 

Man ifi firKT a ap■^akin^ animal and nc^xt a writing arintal. Each' 
word that he tiric$ cxprcs^c^ a f^cncral mcuntng. Each yvovd there- 
lore ?itnTC5 up An indelinile amount of experience. All men may 
imiXT mtn ii their eKpptirri--e ami hy it ret<]gnisc the expciieiice <A 
otticr^ The art of wndng at once iiicrcafie« intinitely the poMKibii' 
ity oi intcrcommunicaticn because t1 pre»ervc!9 the expcheticc re- 
corded For i^ernon^ widely -Htparated in ^pace and far removed in 
time ]l renders every tp/iff^ in some sense a *4<*f/ nnd ev*ry irr^fn 
a wrtf, But mechamc. invention comes to the aid ol ftpeecb and th« 
ckmeniai^ arts of writinj; by printing with movable typOd< Print' 
iDg and giinjiowdf^r are two ^reai elemt»ntarj' arts linih attrlbmcd to 
ilwrG^rmanirrace — ihetu-o wheel&ol modern civiliiaiionftolotppak. 
But the Anglo-SaKon has added the gtcnm tjngino and the telegraph. 
The one makes locomoiion possible to an increasing decree and the 
other makes inHtnntAnrni]<i inii>rci>mmnnirAiion with all plarrK i^«- 

Aratcd with the!;c inMrLimcntfLliiics our modern civiliMition 
lives in a MJtl of ipintual border land. It look« across the Fiontiei' 
and [4 iu a con^itant prncesx of interactinn with idl other r^tions^ 
The great inilmment ol thu procesj; is the daily newspaper. Our " 
pcot>Icaic becoming; Irom year to year a travelled people — in a short 
ttitic the pet cent^ of the population thai has crossed 1}ie ocean lias 
donhled. Tlie per cent, ttiat ha« visited the western border land 
hflfi (]iiftdn]pled. Bui the number of people who live in constant 
dftily inierrcUlion wiih ul! mankind by aid oJ the daily newspaper 
hH» incie:as(^d a hundred fold within a single generuiion. 

The test of A civilisation is its oFiliciency in re-eiilorcing The en- 
deavors ol each individual so rtf* to give him accesft to the labors of 
the world, Wc aix approaching a bpjritual civili^i^tioEi as well as ai) 
era of the gefneratl dii;rribuiioii of wpttlih. 

W. T- Harki*. 



N August 10, J890. died WatljCD Mark Wilks CaU. M, A„— » 
irit finely (ouched to fiur is«ui'S, Tlit )>ost!iuiTiO[i!< work be* 
(ore me revives iIh* *ense of peraonjl twrcaveTiiont, bai scfotbe* it 
lib the SAtisfaciion of holding another Intcrv^icw with the beloved 
fchoUioQ themes ihallhroLtglk many years eQ£&ei_Hiouf i^oiaveEMtfou, 
H^rr U a rackrl of RoUler ihonghrs cam iip from ihi- i^crp wTir»rc 
wont dovkti thcwhitp mngcd nhip freigliCc^d with fiiich trcjiflnroa. The 
Cencfvl worM i» iintanscinus thAt U ia poorer ; iiit ports and mana 
hadlittlr nvclcoinc lor the dainty tvares of Ihii^iLnfaintliAr liark. Many 
Amcric^in thinker htII thrnugh thit specimen M thcttiinkcn treafl- 
rciilis^e the norid^s loss when it is irrcparabk ; nnd fiomc who 
to Hover around the silver mU now vini^hcd, and come ajthorc 
}suUm wiilt its ^iftv have wuiid«rcd ihiit this writer, valneil by Mill, 
G«org« Hliot. and the scholarly Eagligb circle, should luve courted 
obscurity ralhcr than fame. He was not indolent, though hi:: pub- 
lish^ volumes were few: '*Lyni Hclk'nka" ('^i)- ''Rcverbcia* 
tioT»" (1849, ftecond edition 1876J, "Golden Historie*" (iSyt). 
B«4ad«s his poems, bis contribuciona in the review?, — &Qme, like 
"The Nefo Sapa" iTk^^f^j^<ai Jiftt^w, July, :ftT>). «iual to vol- 
uniir^, — Kould Rjake 4 ^Li]>^i«mtal and important collc-ction- There is 
MKKigh thoiighi ftnd teaminp in hi« pc^cmfi And anonyinoiiB aniclea, 
to have earned f^nto for ai> ambitious nnd pushing author. Why 




then did rhe woild get flo much lefls ths^n it ought to have got from 
tliie fine mid active br^in, and Vfhy h he ao little known? 

Maoy years a^o I heard from hi» own ljp« tlii? story oi tiis liie^ 
which is partly lold in tho tifty pages thai initod^ice thifiboc^k, iifldcr 
the title **A Chapter trom iry Aiitobiogrophy." It will them b« 
fccn that even so late cis tliittv-'^ix >cai> ago the finest niimis nnd 
hearts ibai ronid nni ;i£:rrpi creed dni^mns mighl l>fr almost mnttiiUy 
wounded. From that time he lived and wiotc as from a retreat. 
The actiiAl ctue« AS he idd it me, was that hi^ sister, a widow, Idt 
him executor of hei~ last will anil ir^tnmttitt* and the ^iitLidinn of her 
chihiren. He wai i end rrly attached to this sister and to her chtldreTU 
She knew his opinion;^ and hi^ doabtn. When he went into iha 
court for confirmation oi his trust he was confroiitcd by the post- 
Mrript nf a letter br liiid witllen to a supposed friend iiitiriiatiug Ilia 
"di»>fnt from (he creeds oi thechuiches.' For this mild and vague 
heresy he waa prevented from acting as the guardian ol hts sister'& 
childrenp and fuilillin^ ci Micied trust. 

At rhi« tiiike he vhh a clergyman in the Church ol England, 
wJucJi lO'day comainft many iiiiniftfirs more unorthodox than Mr. 
CsdJ wa3 whon be received ilua crxiabtDK Icieal blow. This public 
displace at n aciiaicive nebular, tho lou of position, the allerjaiiou 
of friends, added to the gmf of secintf hh siller's children Cftrri«4 
to sCran^er^r parted hini From ihc world. He seemed to hnve no 
place in it- Stunned, Iftccrated^ he bad no heart to enter on any 
new prole^sion. But from his retreat came the poems, paihrtrc hue 
hopehd, entitled " Reverberations," «ome of which are sting in tho 
liher^J chapcU d t^ngland- Deified csoiism and vengeance had 
brouyhi hoTUf^ to him all ihcii he'iili(^s>>neb5 : all n^tiiie was^ ovcr- 
cafii with this chilling cloud. 

Silently bearing his K'^<^'- ^^ fi^ve himself to the search for 
truth in those matters which had been predetermined for him by a 
thuEi^find subtle JtilluenceH and uHsociaiions- Horn in tlii?. hn luid 
graduatt^d at Ovmbridg^, — th« chi«f poet of it% Magazine, — lad 
pasted through his Shc-lleyan phase of acepticitsm, and entered iho 
church (1645) ihrouth one of the many casuiaiital blind-i^ay* pro- 
vided ju that old minster for those ^ho hesitate at the [nain portal. 


KGLIGIOK Aftl> F£O0R£»8. 



Eleven years were occupied in paftiing Jrom one to another thcoret- 
iul cloiftter or tower af tlw v<>nerat<*rl dnirch before he finjtWy di*- 
COVWed that it liad no place lor tum> Nor wait there any church 
«rbkh he could bone^ttly enter. He muM be the hermit ot bi» truth. 
Bot in that retreat, wliere the lonely scholar rantit eat hl^ own heart, 
ih« henling hand oi a iritf divinity found him, 

Lov« tounil htm^ H^ mnrried (1S57) ;x lady whoitT* Iteauty was 
iHc cxprcaaiou of her Kcriiiif. Her father was Dr. Brtibaot. the frienti 
of SirajsSf and foiinder of the Wfttmins^fr fifvk^. In early life 
iho mairifd C C. H«<nn«]], author of ''An In^iuiry inio the Origin 
of QiriBtianity,*" — a work which made a docp m^pre-ision oti Theo- 
dxjn; Farkei, nlio uiiiJc it the ^ubjeci of an aiticlc jji ihe aid OiaK 
Mi^9 Br^hanr. v/rspd in ftnrirnt and morirrn ^an^mges^ did rifcel- 
lont wofk on the ti'ftfmtmifr Ji^virif, afl^iticd hy hor friend Marian 
Evaott, afterwards known a* "George Eliot." These 1 wo ladic*, 
is 1 h<i\c hcjLid, iiiidciu^ok to^eihctr the tmn^liilion nf Sltfiiiii!i'i( 
" Lchcn je*u." and were mare than half rhnju|;h it wht-n Mis-; Brsi- 
banl married^ By a contrivance of Mm- Hcnncll the name of Marian 
£van3 atone, and to her regret, nppeajed on the title-page- " George 
Eliot*' thereby (gained a reputitiuu heliifid lo her, though ^uinewljAt 
•mbarraKtting, impEying a« it did a knowledge of Hebrevr and Gr«ek 
which Hic did not po»esa. 

Mr. Call'A niarria|;e wasi must happy- The CfiUs were regarded 
liy ibeir tircTe nt kindred npirits as n^pres-entinit ihe inie ideal iinior^. 
They had togethrjr shared the triend^h^p of the hneet iiitellectii and 
had moved abrcaat in int€]lvctiiaJ progress, for more than the life of 
s l^ejieiation wlieu parted by dealli. 

About 'i^veTi years ago tmuhli^ /or ih^ firsi time enter**d thi« 
ainiodi sacred household- A fonoLdablo conaumplioji cl onu Jung 
set tn. thrL^tenlniE Mr. Calt'» life. I have alwaya believed that thia 
waf ihc< long br«nt he'^or^l of pmiiiicnirlrie^ suffered in earlier lift;. 
Six yaare ago chn case bficame hopeless, in its normal coumc. and 
the phyaieians said that the only possibility ot recovery lay in a rsrc 
and difficult ojurration, impcrillinK iho Jew uiouthit t>f life ihal might 
'remain^ The paiieni and hi« devoted wife recolveil to incur this 
rnlc. A tube was infverted throu(;[h the hack; through it the pua 


WMK dmiru'il frnnn the? iikcTAti^ lung; and littlr-hy !itl1e thr liil>r 
wai; withdrawn, liy infinitciiimAl d^^p^ees, as thv he;i]inK procc» 
went on bchmd it. It wa« a painful anxious process of many wcclu. 
At ibJK tmit;. wliE^n he was kcpl n)i;tJOLiIcbE<, I iiiuivcliefl at lijt cheer- 
ful spirit ; Ihough the vligbtect mi^CArm^p in thr wearisome npera- 
tion might prove fatal, the patient was always serene. One ol his 
phyniciansn by no mcan:i sure of the result, approached him on the 
Hubjecl uf religjcn, and the Ltmditiun tif Wis hilzI. Sotui »ftcr Mr- 
C;lU f^ave me ui account of the conversation- Id relifpout matters 
the doctor Kad dabMcd whore Call had dived ; it ended ia the phy- 
fticiiin'a bcijif; ;:utnpelleJ to consider tlie condition of Ui? oi«i> noul. 
fttid why \ifi ^IiuilUI bi> lioldiiig rht^ religion of primiliv^ man along 
ivith a Bcieac« aimoK: alie to ra.\se the dead. 

The wonderful operation waa perfectly nuccestafuL Love had 
heak'd ihi* youn^j; man's broken heart ; ^leiRV haJ lir»k-d ilir nia^ 
Hire nian^4 'ivitig Ir^me- Tho r«al n)irdcl<?& Etiac aupplani Iktiiioua 
ones, snd fiilfi! their tables, had been broitghi homo to him. Fiv« 
h&ppy years were added lo h!s Life, durJi^g wlitch he wrote the Im- 
ponanr wnrW to ht> hrrrafrpr ron^tdpreil. On a Mmimrr evening laflT 
year ho passed a ploatant nvcnjng at horne, end^^l with a ^amci of 
cribbaRc with hie wiic. Dimng the night he djud pninlcisly of heart 
discfifiL- , A pint Mortfm examlnalion proved the lungs (jnile fiound^ 
My fricnd'si body and mintl and affections were so combined in cr- 
ganic unity that hi'; \fity aitmentg had Ic^r me symbobea] i^ignificarca. 
The iinsu»ipccicd failure of the hcfirt. for insunce, seem* a last m^cjucI 
cif thrr lipiri'rnal lesion givrn him hy Dogma as a parting blow t ita 
counterpart ifi to mo visible in the fact thai after writing ihU work 
lie hardly had heart to publi?ih it. The substance of it wa« com^ 
pletcd ill 1R87 ; it wjik enlirdy fimsbed \i\ 1889 : lE lay in Ins library 
cne year. Hi* wife wi«hr!d him to pubitsh il — so she told me — but 
he thou^-ht the world would not be interestL^d in his views. So deep 
had bigotry been able to send ihi.^i man into the vale of Thimiliation ; 
and what v.n intrllect wa.s llui!i diNLoiirai^t^cl may br? partly riiiimatcd 
by thotc who Khali read thi* book on " Final Cause* " pubbuhod by 
hi? widow. 

la tire la«t generation many young; men, ^twakened by the aong 



ol Dyrt^n &a^ Shdli:>v slanod out od a new spiritual pil|;rmiago. 
Tlwir pMh WA« at l^r^i frinqrd wiih poetic Aowcr«, And iR ihir dU- 
lancc thonc the city c^iii^d Bcnutilul, B41I the path a! length bo- 
cainc fiii:Lty, the city bcL^aiiic rnor<;dim with pro^n?» towards it, and 
ni;»kv A pilgrim liimr<3 hark- Thofir who prrs«*d rn ^vrr Linii^Ur 
nwrir 1U3 th^it they came to parting wayi;, ftnd each had to advance 
on his individunl A^d lonely path, nibcit ihcy were trftvcllinif in the 
fMimc dirct^tiix). Thr rcrroTiU of ihcM: pilKfJiiiAgcs vrljcrc^vrr found, 
arc chapte-rs in ihr scriptarrt nf ihHr B^^nentinn. Thrrr ifi ot\c thing 
common to them all,— the tenacity with which they hAve dung to 
their old faith* and aflei it to their old church, until bcjitcn oH by 
biijPtry «r Iiy cnii science- " My Gfid, my Gnd, why hail thnii fcir- 
ffilccn me ? ' It wa* no oisrru cry, tuil a rprcntion reaching iix into 
the agci, and stirrini; innumerable cnicificd hearts that have found 
no voice Men do not forsake theii Goil ; their God h^n^keJh them. 
They h:ivp tnv(>%ted som*- annVnt nairiL" with a\\ the pearl* of thrfr 
heart; they hive ideaiiaeil him as wisilom, )vistice, love^ compa** 
sion ; but no sooner tHo tJicy think aa honest thought, or maintain 
}ui.tict atnd luve against uiijunt und ht?artlr-*u do^ma^, than their 
Good Shephetd bvai« «uch t«^ud«T laiubs with his crook and Ktxt the 
wolvcfton tlivm. Vet even then, ao long as they can, they keep in 
the ioldp and lift their lacerated handii in prayer- They will even 
practice some «eU-dec?plian that they may conli:iue the f>ld formulae 
after the trtilh babfunakiii rhese, 

Mr- Calls youthful sc^pttcism, — a spoil wrought by Byron and 
Shelley. — being thieily the cxpiesalou cjf orhcia' eiperieitce^, and 
whh but tittle root In hk owD, carrlH Mm no funbr^r chftn the 
fttudy of philosophy and thcoloj;y- ft was not deep enough to pro- 
v«ni his entering on leaidcncc in the Univct^tty of Canibnilfc with 
a view of bf^ccrnung a clergyman. TTie siritgglr being noi yet in iho 
ajren» of hi* own hfe and heart, but a combat for hifi «ou[ between 
the HumcB and the Jeremy Teylor*, poetic sentiment co^ly carried 
the day. Mh nature clamored for n lealiscd iJcal, and the Church 
captivated him. " The church, at the emhodimpni of rekftiial tnith. 
as the a]{f(rcgaic ol nobJc and beautiful spirits, dead or hring, ap- 
p<:flrcd a sublime conceptiori. " When a youth falU in lovx doc* he 

rnw: tiorethr^ 

coHMflrr whr^iher h\& heani\Ui\ Indy'it blootn msy not be hvcxic, or 
hcrcdiUry cancer be hoverinf^ ncnr the fnif breast^ Otir voung 
5cho2nr wcd^ our LinJy of ihc Litauy amid tbc liRht of Stained win- 
dows aud ihc whilc>£obuil (;hori5icrs. He; presently 5[kIk ib^l ih^ 
Iciv«?]y creainrf? iniiiit): on hiii piefiching the doctrine tbiic all who do 
not yicM to her charms ari^ to hv burnt at the (take cCcmnUy. '* Hu- 
man philosophy bad failed to explain to me the myMcT>' of t:x\fX<^ncc ', 
CJirisCiau |>bi("S[jphy uijilaincd it to bt- thp (ittpc^iuaiion of Km and 
mieery, (ntenvified by oinnipo1«iit inte^rventiDn.'* Kecoibnj; from 
this the >-oung cIcTK>inan wvnt through years of criticnl invefitign* 
tlon ; bt luasCcred the exeijicsls oi the Gfrmaus and the Frciicb ; 
and ai length found )iin»«i-l( a ^iiiipl^ believer m the religion oi Hm' 
maniiy. He* a cL«^'yman ol the Church of Bnglaicd I 

In the filly prcliminaj-y paces uf this posthumouB bool(, com 
pri^inj; *' A Chapter fr>Tii ru> Aiiiobiogra]>liy," we huve a succinct 
and ii^rfid Mimmniy of Iho cnicial criticisms (indcr which bfbHcal 
authority and supcTnatunUfHin have been rcJc^Bted to profos^tonal 
CAsui^rry- This wc will not study here — profouudly luterc^line a* 
It K — bni dwHl for a liitLr? on the Mttifitior in which thr ncbnUr 
foutid himself. 

"While i had thufl been working my way through darknc^^ 
into lifbt — tile Nolicr light of itad reality — life had been bringing to 
all whn helongt^d to me, a* well as to myself, varied expenencies of 
pain and sorrow. For their sake I had already done violence Co my 
better nature. Wait I now to render the prevjom sacrifice nugatory? 
Whw the tduck !ibadow of tay unheh'cF lo tiitifid tittist? who had 
already more thin tUyir *hare of the burden of life to sui;iain? 
Sympathising friends had early enccuriij;c!<i me to retain my position 
in the churtli. A beneticed clergyman, advanced in yepux whose 
studies had endedp like my «wn^ in ihe abandonment of dut^malic 
Cbridtiamity, had drawn up a E^iaiement of the motives which, us ho 
ar(!ucd, jLiaiificd bim in the retention of his prcfcnntnt. Thiaiftatc- 
nieui was ftnwaidtd to nie. A cckbuted and vcnciable GeinuEi 
professor h^<\ sent me a message doprecating the sbandonmcm of a 
post which, he thought, I might continut! to occupy without dis- 
honor to myself ^^<l viih profit to others- I had hitherto dcfcrr^ 

irFMCiov 4NII PKor;i(i:«v 


[uflgm^^nt Gi ]i<-rtou4 vrhom I regarded aa iiipurior lo my^elt 
m IcDowkdgo oi Uk and in ability la {l«icnninc <|ue»tiOEiei <»l moral 
obligation; but llitr pnjgrc»!i of unbelief and enlarged experience 
dccidiTtI toe, Ai last, on ih<^ adopiion of an itulependent coiiT<it of 
thobght ard action- Taking counsel of my own h«afi, E resolved 
10 tenuiDale a conflict which bod bcccmic intolerable. Painlul and 
sinfEulaf c<j[iiplJCA<]&iiH p]~c^cdcd, aLCOini^aiitird. ttnd toWowctl my re* 
m«rmpnt from thr KiiRlith Chi^rch," 

Here tt the " Kobfirt Eif^merc " ol real life. Since Mr. Citll left th« 
Church ot En»;land. thirty &vc ycnr^ aizo. it has bcccsmc a Uriecly ra- 
tionAlitiic infttituiibn. ]^t^\ prou;c[itionsaf clergymen for licic»3~havv 
resiultucl in proving thiif tlit i-v;inKd{ca1 nrd orihodox havi? no more 
rifiht lo ihc Cburch, in Law, thin tlit iibcrnls. They were tuitirpera 
of authointy not guaranteed by the ccnMitntion, in which there i* 
nothing iw|iiirir]g a clcrKyman to belteve in hell, or the dirvIL or 
miradei. or liie iiUallibility of the Bible^ Many cler|;>nien are ntyvr 
hooestly preaching a stmptu theisiic and humanilanan religion, an^ 
when told they ou^bl to Ivaw the Chinch need ouly reply^ " H yuu 
rhinic so yon have s ri^ii to proftecuie me." 

T>hv Eagli^ chArlalan who calta himsell -' 1-atber lgnaiiu»/ 
o cotdd only make hio^&clf ridiculons as a hcicsy-hiintcj abroad. 
f«(TBns lo have fonn^I the Cpi^opal Church in New York provincial 
enough to take htm Rrriously. He wmjid novor vetiiure to eiiggD«t 
tl>c prosecution oi a Hroad Chiir£:hmnn ni liome- His ignorant Cril>e 
have ton keen ft lccoilc<:tlDr of Ehcir severe: f^lls In GFAppling with 
Rithop Cnl*?ii«i> ami xhv. fliitbom frf *■ Rstays and Rr\ieu-s " Wr 
have« however, to deal with America, where the fiect«, by departure 
of ftome of tbcir bc-it hrain»- ttecm f/illin};: more and more under con- 
IixjI of their illibcTT.U consUluent>. thoui^h ibe coniecratioo of Hinhop 
Hiihip^t Hri>ok« «how that rraclionistH will no! have il all ihdr own 
vay- The pas^ag<: ] have riuoted abov« bears upoo a moral problem 
which hasaheady become urgent among u», and in the proh^rcav of 
iuqtiLiy uiust iiic'^ iuibl> become of very ^cijoua tiiipoitanc^: to laigc 
niimt)cis ol ministers and thc^r f.inijlie& I ib(»rofore introduce here 
% little di^'r(";>iioT» urj thi& subject. 

What i» the moral duty of a ycuntc taim»icr who find» bim»cU 




ocaipying ili^ pulpit oi a denomination in uvho^e geoetnUy accepted 
docirjncs lie has ceased lo bdJcvc? Tlw Ntw York Ertmrt^ A«j/ 
icccmly <lrdare't ihis lo br » jil^i] moral qiiirsTinii. Tf^Thiis It ar- 
%\\^^ — ft niAn lias volunUnly cniored the miiiietry of a citiircb, and 
ftftcTwftrde forms opmiom whicli, U Icoown, vould have provontcd 
his admia&ioiJr be 1% murdtly buuud to re^i^a. Bui the qiit^iiuii !» 
miirh more complex ihan ihar In a m*(orlty of c»*« ilip minister 
has not ontered " \'oIiintah)y,'^- within the genuine' mornJ ficope of 
that lor OL Hisorihodox parent*, abetted by Oieir prcitciier, Iiavc 
kepi ll^ht froQi him^ icpresi^m! his Tcason, JinpTi^oTied hini in Sun- 
day schools and prayer-meetings; he lias Iwfn accoTd<*<l no frvt 
choice ; he has bcL-n It-d af» a captive, bctorc his intellect wa? (cap- 
able of JLid^iiJciit^ artificially teiiiftcd about his soul, and the world's 
dnn^f^r of Harnnatlon, stnci at kti^lh found htirihrlf in ihr puSpil. 
Whcn the vir.cim ATidit himncH ctiRabnRcd of thcsn hciioQji. what is 
hia duty? In my bchcl it would he Immoral for him to rcsifta with' 
out liavinK first secured a puhHc dccJMmi (4 hischiLrclitm the Issue. 
I'tia paramcAint obliKatlonEt arc to the commuuity in which he Uvct^ 
He it morally hound to preach the? truth nr. he ^^c^ it, openly, hon 
C9tly- piainly^ lie cannot utter the di^crcditi^d creeds^ prayers, or 
dogma«- But he hn*i a HKhf,^nay he i* ^«>u»d, — fu Ihixiw upon rht 
church which Urn. entrapped him the rcitponsibJIity of repudiaiing 
hia principles ftnd doctrine?. He should t4y to hia church : "You 
are iesjKJii*I!»h' for the uuhap^iy situation in whkh I fnid myself- By 
your zi^ilouu propagunda you Ingliti:itpd or persuaded my pnrenis, 
Tdy friend*. myseU. into irccwptance ol dogit>afi J row find lalse- The 
logical result of taking you seriously was lo lum from all worldly 
i:K:cup»tioii«, und devote my life \d \\\\'. work of savinj^ ruanltind from 
a terrible doom. Now^ awakened (torn the nightmare siiprrinduccd 
|jy you, I find myscl£ paai the ftpporlunttioa of youth, the time for 
prtpuration* in other piofebstous iirecovcraNy lo&t, iind a family 
depenrleiit on me. The aitu^Ltion concern** not orly ynu and tnr, hut 
othersj we have involved. For years 1 hav<» be^n laboriuR with yoQ 
to try and pcrsuiidc other yuuthi into the Mitnc situation as my own. 
SoTiieihiiig t« due to them, f have deceived them and must n ride* 
ceive ihem* You wiy I mual be triw, but j-ou mutt be true also. I 




bttvc ioQoccntiy reached n position which crij^bkb me to c^iipd you 
to |>ii1ili<<h to the world «>xactly where yoM sifind^ I tvilL clearjy define 
my coDvictiOD« ^ U y<»u cannot tolerate thcin in yoitr pulpit the yoniU 
vilt knew tlic precise Limit? to their freedom ihcy ft^rcc to ta enter- 
ing yiQur mintiilry, H ycni cah toletitte tliem thry will Unovt/ your 
llb^ridism. Tlwrrfote 1 remain here procl;iiming my truihj and will 
Rot h*lp you lo co^tr the truth up by a ruui^-natiorr rclievinij you of 
Ih* duly of proclaimiii^; yons portion with equal clc^atncA^. You 
h»vn K^t n\K luTP, .iijft if I go now you iiuisi lum me out. So lihall 
ihf Cflus* of m»!li bo adviinced/' 

Whilo thEi< may be aJhrrncd, 1 think, as a gencrnl ethicnl \>rln' 
cipic, it (?> ei^ii^Uy true lli;it c^^li cd^c; iiiusC br.- judj^ed by itself. Tlie 
abovr. prinf ipir <if pi'nrit on rhr r nndiiion that The ministry hat been 
hoti«etly entered trom religious nnotives, there being no mental re- 
MT^atioii^ at that time. It will be observed tlial in ihc ;:aAc al Mr. 
Call ilic consideration entered that he had passed ihrou>;h a phu^e 
pi ShHleyan tccptiri:*ni in early youth. This had to he wei^jlied. 
d pcrhap,'* may have had much to do with hia dctctmination to re- 
tire voluntarily from the min]3>tr>-. lie never concealed his views 
however iinil it is wri! known that grr'ai efforts are made hy older 
preachers to l>ent down the Kcepiicism that often ariacR m the niinda 
oj young cnndidates tor the minislry. In such cane thcnc unwi&e 
advisers assume a large ^i;ne of responsibHit}- fur the event, whether 
enough to justify the snb^e^juent heretic m comprlling » ronflict 
ii»t depend on tlie mini«Ier^!i conscience- Alihouf^h, thcretorci 
T. Call decided richtl)-, in accordance with hla mora) con^ciouf* 
M!KS, il were by no mexiis fair to nuiiiilfiin. with tlie author of 
'• Roben Elsmere." that niinUter* who find tliem«e]vefe^ more liberal 
than the majority of preachcrft in tliuir church should ^nrrunder to 
Kiich mere »u|>ei)ar]ty of physical locco without te^lini; itslc^galily 
and laying on it Teipou^btlity for its exercise of power. Kobert 
ICIsmere should, on morul principle&i have remained in the church' 
By so remaining Colenso. Dean Stanley. Charles Kio>(»i]ey, Max 
MfLlltr. Professor Jowett. Matthew Arnold, and others, have re- 
vealed the fact that, in ihoLr church, Ehmi^ht it* nc^l deljvicTcd up by 
law to the' despotism ol a majority. 



The ca«e. however, is toin<^whai diflercni u^iin wh«re th^ n^w 
opmiomi adopt«<] by n minUicr amount to an aba&donmcat ol the 
fuDOamcntai doctrines of his chTircI;. Tlial Ul&y not c:Aoncraic him 
ironi (lernaiLiliiig a furnial »iiJ public c!«^lafaiiC]Tt of llw cbtjrcli, but 
this being secured, ft niusr affect hi« relation to iho gcii<>rAl wfurld. 
ShouM it be provci ihai he niay be Aceally tolerated, he must then 
CODsidcr nhccht^ it is lii> k-^iiitikiilc iticans of JnHuciicCt oc uhcthcr 
li4* wnnltl bi* siif>sTiltiiiTig (or Ul^ own oitprrMion thr mnRk of at\ ex- 
titid fnith. The ethical pilnclple above affirmed relatcc; let thn Bret 
praeC)C«J step of the minister whose bclieJa have ehanijcd. The pro- 
(Ere^&ive .md Jni|iiirii)L£ mind [lui coiiliniimi in a churdi where it i» 
bart'Iy ttOt-ratcO dot-i; so at great peril. When? cht.- jiwifi Jool a|{r«ef 
tc mulch with the halt the pace rnuat be thut of the halt- Sceptical 
mmds occLipying piitpha even of liberal denominations are likdy Co 
discnviTTH fihciuld ^i.ich i^ni^^^t'iiLtrMl^ rnd. thai thtf-y have li<ren Jiicon* 
sciou sly Arresting their own Jet-e!opiiient in tiiidicg a conciliator}' 
/wtftij rivfjii^ with the reactionary brothrcn. Thore ia, indeed, a 
class of fine intellects, like the gr^at Hnt:llah Groad ChiircJnntlt 
alrcsidy riamcr], whn*** rrimpflTa(ivi»]y ndvanrrd virwfi ari^ ihr trwih 
ol larger iearnini£ . ihcy have dii^covcfed iHaI two find two ait: lou^i 
nnd gflthcrcd coiirnKe to deny that ihc amount U 6vc. These COD- 
vtitnte the riftht leaven by which great orgamMLion^ are TAkKcd to 
hightT liUTidiird* of knowkdf{E.< and veradty, Brti tht-TP are oriKtnul 
and philosophic inquirers whosu particular power were only buried 
In nuch or^aniijitjona, without elevating them. Thc^e are due to 
the uorpa oi pioneers in tlie diitfctiun whither the ()r);jlni^a turns are 
advancing. Their ravk U original tesenrch Tbew c:ar]nor «iMiy 
wear the uuilcnn of any Ti.d]|j;tovis or politic:il paxLy. 

Mr. Cal) was such an orid^inal mind, ^nU after he had left iJte 
English church his course was to the maturity rej^rt^eiited £n tlila 
ripe 1iook on " FinaJ Causes. *' But had bi.^ not parted eleven oi his 
hc:st ycnrs in the church, out of bi^ true habiiAt, wc should have 
more fiiJt o£ this ruit- ildvut. Il t^ ihcicfoie a voice iitini hi» e«* 
))erience chat here renches u^r a^ from his grave t 

*'Se*piid«m hu hMtn vigomu^ly ndvitncini la fh* ojilroe^t miHhl tty, in 
Eurc^ And not only hav \i niODiM Ur- Hptivrt^ hai ii idclcidvt witliin tliHi dphtiT* 

)tKIJ(;tON AXI> l>liLOi;«tl»%. 


rlaftlMi and pmloandBi inoeUs^u al ihc a^ff — on-n nmowntii tvr rj»l 
tfd onjuci GfmtElluiv fiir icleiiUlk rcaenKh ur i^nLka] aojuiFa. rbkhuopbrcpb pwta. 
biatonBiUb noi^linlt. upcal^ or ulcnilx diMvow CbriatiankT^. la palncct, tn 1or4lT 
cnnuidcu. tn cnllag^ h^lU. in ucluded bcmMlowU, jtad her* mid ifc«ra nn rcciory or 
vKoraRP BCfpTicitm, tI it baa nt-it i brilrl and rnrlru uTturiTiire. at Iobai txpTatts, 
itwtf tn 1 pianlnl uihnpAT li haimrnrt tlnubly xriuey. lh«a, \whfln nnl«iil»£ud- 
li^ ihe K^ncnl diffusion of avuM«t| ur \Meot anbdivC wv tnn «v«rpihCT« iln 
V«eKEi(c uf A u.<nKrvdiurn lluT Ci^nc^als aod hivUiw nnti tf*mbl« u tbe doubts 

ibeotugjcftl divergfltoM. Chfi^tiwUy. indnd. which hu lud in Thamphs lii.ih« 

pft&T* ^H knj^ comrrvf n ponton of tt^ pnwrr, it)d rorLUTiiip 10 furnish icTi^daiire 
)t «aly for lti« uainthiininb: luitUUudr, but for (liciuundh at m^dlEQl mnn nnd 
who omnol alnrid^a Ihc old nltfiob* ideftl- Due there is no TiDAt *nat tor 
lb* iaietlecttuiL pro n rcM i>f naaliand.'^ 

We tttju- luni lo Ml. Call's work on ■■ PtDal Caiisr*." In ;in 

IntrtKluciory chapcer of ^ighx pages ht co(npr«4Jitfc the history of the 

doctrine ci Uc«l^13 111 tuturo (torn Anax^gorL*!, B. C y>ci, to our own 

time, ittntlnc; its muUiAc^tionpt, ciaiciMns, dinuAb- In tlic second 

chapter a UriH account Is givm of **NAti.iriil Theology," whons 

modfirn lorm in found to rtf^i hmilamf-n tally on Nt-Vp'toii's i^encraliitii' 

tiozi. that n Lody hi real ecniinuca At rest tmlc^^i uctcd upon Ly iiomc 

^AtririHl furcr: «ml nii llic Kn.»iiicuical oMrr i>l pl^rieEary rtvulufuinfi. 

StfLTling anew from ihi*^ potni the 1iiira;%n mind hsi <li*ic«]vefcd in tho 

rcJilmn of nAtitrc apparent cvi<lcncc8 of s supersenMiciis In- 

ligcnGc. KaoT, liowc\^:r, i* brought to critici&c Norton. "Kiint 

notfri; milh drti^lil ihaf ih<* ' liAinirxikal rf^Uitorc uhicti ^jicilr; the 

ic«ttng« in ft more vublimc meuiner iKan gvor tho contingent bcautiesi 

of noturc criminate in the propcnicK of fpAcc'; and Oiia incvimhlc 

Coogruiiy he refers tiltiinattly, imk-r<l, iv Divinr Wist!wiii, Imr di- 

^njctly to a common dcptmltuce nn a sinslr sovereign |;iound, Co a 

^Hpity ol poMibiiiticK which jt U no more difficuli to concern* tut sdf- 

^^Bistcnt than it 19 to conceive an lutcILigcnt Catisc oa tcJf -exist em.'* 

^Thtatltrr j-t not, tiien. ndiimlly irw-rl. but an a^Rri^Ratr of fornix and 

^^prcet, and tiattire a u^lfidjuKtiDgT velfevc^vin^ povvcr- In a chapter 

^fa "Urdcf And General Adaptatiofi ** it is shown thai nature con* 

lainst vast realms 0I Discrrder ; atid iillcfnl "Kpccial ^dapiatioiift" 

fiboiftn loo as often as oiberiMAi* for cruelly and agony, *' With 



1-U5 MCKt»r. 

what f«e!inF;is.'* nfks O. II. Lcwcis, ^*c^n wc contemplate ihc <ic< 
atructioii t>l Mich an orgAni^ni n^ that of man for ibc Kul^c of som 
nifcroHro|]ic ^miTia^l iiKide to live iipnn if? With whit ff^pHnff* ca 
Vfv ihmk ol u human huinj; tacnliccd to the growth oi cnnccr-cclU 
Whsit IB the cc^j^lrivuncc find benevolence here?" PArticulftr ilhis 
trattJoiia 111 ilcTM^n on ^hich tdeoliigixi^ have^ drprml^^d^ — thr c^<Op 
ih^ ht'o'* foll. ilie bird'i^wing — arc examined with critical nnd «cien 
tiJic c;>ret and tru perl echo us, graiuitous und cruel it ancnbcd lo omni- 
lidtcnl vri&donii found everywhere. "TosiH^erl that the Crc;itor ol 
ihc world IS iiifii^itely powerful and intinitdy wive were to deny that 
he it infinitely good. * 

To c*r.aiH* ihi* rlilrmma just tiiaiinl, somp- thf^iKiJii postulate 
■Mimitcd orcoQiitilutionAl deity/' Dr. MartincAn i? idea ot a "n\ 
icnni dfitum cihjeceivc tc God " is an cHort ic relieve the deity 
responsfl'ililj fL^r the (iviU o( iiiitnte. hut Mr Oill declnies the selec 
Hon ol '* powPT " a»i the limited fltTtihiih' it nrhirrary Wc havr, h« 
thiakii, no more logical rij^ht to limit the dvity'ii power than hi« in-, 
tcihgcnec, or his benevolence. (Thi) in doubtful, however, and re- 
quires mure considtralioii ihmi in heii? givtn il.) " Tlie Evuhition 
ary God" i* ni-sit considMcd, Mnd disproved hy the Ms^le*vnt*Et jmd 
uciJilncM ol aome »truf;lurcti in v.tTEOua orgnni^tiona, tlic ollen in* 
juiiou» character of oilier^, (c* ^. the iiilestiual canal called the v 
mtform pruce«s,) while the moral «eD«e i& ^ill offended hy the ^en 
ral predatory method of naciLral selection. 

The validity o^ ihe Driiipn flrRnmrnt di*;|xiK(»d eif, Mr, CaW IrAX'r-a, 
to tho tlitfi^ whatever evidenccii of n deity he may find in hif^ idoal^ 
cmottonr Aspiinlicn^, intnitions. Me points out that the Designer 


thu«i dis-prnvc^l tuis never been able to itaLiiify the intellect ljt henit, ^| 
the hUc btini: tnie of rJie "Uiknowsible *' Tht^ sole sacred ideal left ^^ 

n;>t oJ the whele lac*; but oi ih« piurer. no 

the irUc htinK 

11^ if^ ihaEol hmnanit} 

bier constituent ol it. 

Ai KiiQunilf will iv thn v>lir Iria^l Ohjirl lAVhkh rluhfnl ohMgnt^m and 
eXAltod !ienom<?ni vtlW br Jv£prr«i1. >u tlm wgdd -if HuriiHiiity will Ik \h« ^"mld ro- 
idAlcd, QOE b> (livinv JDKpJfvtJuo »T (hrtaiJiyniwil i(ituiii»n, Inil ljy P^itiic Sdviace 
Tbc lU&ioiAy »h4trMlion« of Ihi3 «s>mu1jiitv« ratianiili*U llid fatidlu) i^;iacapilon» 
ol tbo ihoologkin. n\il gmlDilly pu« awaj. To llu* Snnitic AiiilApallon o4 lb* 

HKi-irrtov AM> Ptta(;RRSt. 


uorlil tati ol man *iH nifry*>fl [hat nf l,3pLitC4> nnrl fiarvin 'llu* gfr^t aoil ma- 
(uhr iTDilii ol ibi? 4tplbr anivmp, ihr- ny«T«rlrs of lil^^ of l^hL ct hpat. of touiid : 
Um vooxlt^a uf Uiitunl bJiltnj. ibe mafic of it>»lucJc lorv, Ihc rpiE uf i&ati'i pn:>- 
P^MkiQ ^Q i^mpi Lh? (iijJimbo'i, Iht bqIoc^, <bc ddichl uhkh flow fniiD poclry, 
iVdC paiaitr^. tcuLpture: ibt InttrDtl tn Ihv arx«, iodiuinal i\i> Ion than icftibvlic; 
lb* rdLovthip ot varit which uncliarAin Ibv cofTimoa Id : in Irivndvhrpc ot tnn 
womitn^ itiiyn of jnulnnaie iosr^ and In rlir happier itrafnurulrr aUfciian of 
■n) biuUuO. lu 4tl] liuiur L'lmiilici ami tbtliiulit ALftvttirv, 4Jid ni ihn iitruii- 
frM'T^ ol ptntHml 'lodin{t willi lUc cntin: tile i^f (b? bumitd mcc ';— ^aII ihoc in< 
oddDt* of thought ni^ varwiifek of vmctioD noi! ^Ikn trill |w«iau Lhtf intdllDCi uil 
fell thr hKin rif ttiliiiv girni^rmtAiiiL. in > tti^v -ind ilvgrn* uhicli vn run nnu- coty 
trnperffcKr rfsiliwi tiud uhicli, ui t\v* wiJ. vill laAr*> Tnm bat liuir ri?stt>ii to re- 
ft^ iliai the tifiiuroi of niot or prophet or tb? vplmilours of aocjcvi itaeociacy. 
or tb< pourf and i^lgry of ihr Mtdifi-^ Church, or Ibc Iin|tttiai£ ftfcnuJK of lid- 
Itttk or of Tculonic ^pecalniioo. ar# oa (he dmwa of a «ifht thai h(u ponol foT' 
ever Awtty." 

CHavP W(?. fii t^iis proplii^tic condiiTiiotu the afterglow Df n fnitb 
Mnk bvfieach ike Horizon? Why should wc Aiippofte that »uch bcau- 
tilul ibmfcs will come to pasa in iht- lutiivvi* Such prop)icci» have 
lijtlw>ti> Ih.*i:ii jub[.iiiird by Nrlirf id ^it ovL'rrulJuL; ami umiiiiJolent 
Love. But wc PTP now hroiight hy Mrionro am:! philosophy lo ilie 
ItUBgmnfEof S-^lomOD, '<Wq ant born at nil adventure/' Thi»g«» 
ihc sceptic may sav, will i;row belter if man compels tbeni so. otber- 
vrisc ihcy cat! us eii«.ily iftavr WQr«t^. 

U ap|>(*tiT3 to rnt: thai in lh<^ old dugintt of Jchovnh's curftc on 
die wuild 4iHi its icilL-mpUon by Jiiua tUutt* i^ buiitnt^ as in a sjirr-iv 
phagtis, a ^keteon of human rainrr. and of moral hi<itory. levi^mblitig 
the man of Vxisiy, and iho history wo Ar« maJti&g. 'i'h«re v(a« An 
appe«] uJ tliu human be*rl from Jdiovah to Jesus, — iroat the cuisiiif 
i|D the «n\LiiK diniy. The ternbUr arraignriAonts of nature ihTittt^ by 
ftomrol the gTiratc-st mon since Dan*in's difi<:ov«r)' hav« not found 
any one to tnswcr ihem. The Acvcfc«C indictment of l)^e wovld, per- 
liap6, tb that by U^c late CArdin^t Ncwinao. who dccUrcft, '^Either 
<lll«rr is no Cr^aror, nr ihU Ijvinji sricirty erf mcr i* in a Itv*- secM 
diMard:;d from hin prcwcicc. . . - St/a^ there in a Crod, iho human 
race U im plicated in tome tern bic Aboriginal calamity." From a 
deity wlic havinit cieatcd hi^cwn materials, huiJt upacteaiioti liable 



TO such calamity, munlcirtd are once moT« appc?a)in^- T1]« accicnr 
case wa» Jo9uji rj, Jclwvah; the prcwct casu ih Humnnity rv. tbc 
Creator cl Nuturi;, TUiv rebellion <jl ilic niuT;il w^ntimcrDt ami ol 
coinpas_Hion2ti.'ii«^^ i^ not iikTelk-clnally coiisciuiu : ii gMin on, an<I lor 
& Icing lime mui^t go ofs, wirh ceremonial ro«peci to tli« Final Caum 
of all the cviU KumAoiiy Ines to lical ; but it appears to nac cortain'i 
Uiat tho heart aod ciitliu^i&iiiii wtik)i once went ciui to u pciboiial 
Gftd arc si^jtm nimwg lo fl raicififd liiimantiy. TUp humanitarian 
movcnniTtitQ ot ov»r time Iiftvc ariecn sinniitancoiiBly u-ith th« over- 
whclminfc evidences of nature's crxjclty And ]'mp<;j(c<tioi^<i revealed 
by SciiMicc, The trarller deJsifi appealed from Ijjblical supeistiiion^ 
and QcdETfiiAAtical cnidiicv to the God vitihlc in tbc oidi^r and boauty 
of the imivort>c. With the cjiTnlcn'cp of evil in cxtemnl nntiirc they 
never trf Appkd. nL:«hop Hutlcr'^ "Analogy*^ 5t>t MAtcd the problem* 
He answert-d deivtic ohjecTJonsi to the inhiimanitieK of ihe Bible by 
pointrng out the like in nature. Invte^d of iinitweriiiK the deists he 
act them on a new departure which hjin ended in rcnulls summed up 
in Mr. Cair> bturk. The uiiLnipoteiit cteatiir uf nature t% frjiluwing 
the biblical Jrhovah into evtinciion. But the initincift and aspira* 
tion» of the human hvurt :Lnd mind ri^niain the- nam*: ; the rL^Ii^^iouv 
sentiment reunaiiia. The atrciULi thfit ia dammed up in one difcct^on 
or anoUif^r dneft not lo^e an) force thereby: it screams into other 
channels if it can find auch, or fl^ds field and vlUageif it flnd& ooae. 
It will beat curthv^ard a8 Wrongly aa il encc beat heavenward ; it 
will, ii thujiztels be uoc provided* tatry away ini^tllutiuii^ a?i il has 
carried away ^odti and |»nd<leKM**i 

Il has become therefore of great importance to rccognJKe if pos- 
sible tbc lines of least rfrKiiilance along the mighty stream of religious 
enihusla^im, <ind providr: thai its e:i]ergie5 ^htift niil he dcMnictivc 
bur t:oni;ervaiivp of hnman welfare. At prefttsnt the most confterv- 
Alive force in the earth ia ignorance : were the aiifferinR masses of 
tile world to discover, suddenly and univcntally. that the old creeds 
flre firiiotiSn theii evils not pravideniiid, tlieir hciivcidy huppii vain. 
every nation would be; Ailed with convtiUioiit. Forttmately the sun 
t« not shot up into die henvens. But enlight«nmt.*nt prugret»ses rap- 
]dly« and we have begun nune too aoon turning the rising flood o( 


RKM4;i<)?« MXft fffOl'.ftUU. 


light an<I Ar^ inu* ibir human chanr^Hs Inng obtmirird hy ftAnrri^nl 

Mr. (Ull'» little book, whkh t hope wiU find publkation ukI 
Hide cLTCDUtktn in .Mitcrkia. «itms tij> siic<;)im:i]> stnd i^gvuUy the 
present rdiKicui; Rinuiion, and ibe slops by wh»ch it btu bcnn 
fcAchcd. It rcnwins for us &I] to bwccp ilu: ncv^ ItoriKoD wilfa eye oimI 
telcficopc to conipjire our ubhcf vAivoits aitd 10 Ci^lch the hnx ray of 
(]k? star that ^Tiall poinf ivt«« men 10 the new incartiAtiiiti. To roy 
<nm mind tht£ book i« one of the many stfci^A a^^ piomiMc that iht 
dirme will be Ktesdily locTKcd inlo and identified with the huraao- 
Not with humanity «» «i objccnre snd hi&lorioi] cniit» » Comic 
M«evedr but with thv di«tiDcti^-e characleriiitic« o4 btutian-ity. the 
raprcm« quaJitiet; of reason aiid'lo%^ : this will become the uleaj ot 
Uic tcBAOne» and iHe loven ^ U wiU then hccooK iIk creating Wocd, 
inMniciin)^ all ; it wiU finally bt^ maJe l!e^h and dut-II amung ua, and 
all &liaU bf-lwld in ir tli« gh^y od tli« km^^ora <A Man. 



IPRRCKIVE hum Dr. Oinis** jtii^wcr to my letter in No. 3 
Vol. I of J"*^ MiPtt//. iJirtt anjid all the Agreement of our mulua] 
eudeiLvors a material diKer^oce ol opinion exists between us ot> an 
imptiitant question oj spcctdl character. As f wa> uoi ^ucceaaful in 
ivntl^ring my dioii^'lu clt-ar on iliJs poIn[> I sliall cnrl^avor on the 
pre8eTi[ occasion to f>]ip!atn »<'Aff/ h war lh»[ forced me [o abandon 
my old position Citi63)f which i* vcn* near to that of Dr, Csrua, find 
to assume & D«w one. The »appo«lion ihat our difference of opin- 
ion ft mrrrly apparent and c^n l>i- ailjusied Uy n pri-x-i<ifr ;iRirrment 
m to the terms employed jt; a vcr>' nattirnl one in philo&ophicdl di«- 
ctifsion*. It i% hardly tenable, thovi^b. when the diverRcnt views 
in quevCion arise sithte^ueHfiy Eo one another in-lhe samr pcrson- 

1 riitHF state, in 4r;irlirig. lliat T pnr^iietl in Ttiy yniifli pfiy!tii-al 
ifW pfuloisophical Titudiee. puriicularly pbvchology. with ^qviul ardor> 
There was hiir<lly the question nt ihul time of an CKpcrimcntal psy^ 
cliology. ul a rdaiion uf pnythclogical tc jdiyhiu logical lesc^aicli. 
No more ko did physir^ ae rhut (\i^\- think ol a pfi)-chn]o^irAl anAlyi;ii; 
o\ the notiorvB it waa ccniiiantJy employing;- How Ihc noliona o£ 
"body," "matter/' "atom,*' etc., were conic by, was not iAVcsli' 
£4t(^d, Olijeetii wtit! givifn nf whir,h phyKid«[x lu-ver ipicvtioned 
the inviolability and with which they unconcernedly pttmued their 

The fields of phyxical and p^ychologicid reseaicb th us stood Arrr- 
i^tidliated the one 1>y the aide of the other, each havin^< it* own par- 
ticular coQceptv, mcthodc, and theoriea. No o&e qtie£tion«d, in* 

rkCta Atiti MKKIAL aVMBCtLA. 


d«4?rl, ihni ttic! two <]i<^iartnirn1s were E^nnrtf^cln! Id %Qauc vt^y, T^t 
way, bowG%'6n appealed an inftolubk riddle; aks it yet appears to 
Dtt hot ft - H cy nion^i. 

Ndw allhntj^'h Ihi? condition ol thin^;^ was not such as to satisfy 
my mind, it vin^ nc-verthdc^t^ natural thai as a student t sboald 
»eck to aoquiic tcnlixli\<cly (he prevailing views oE both provinces 
2J)d put them into consistent conncctiuin witli one ariolher- 

1 thuh fornml prcrvii^Hly flit- vh-w tlial ^JaltTiL- hat two r/'Yirf — 
a ph>^ica] and a pc^xbologjcal itidv. li p^ydiiCAl life ii lo be- ^i:ir- 
moni^dat all wiih the theories ol physics we are obligud, 1 thought, 
locooceive of the momt 9» /efJtn£ (ciaoxiltd). The v«riou!» dyniimic 
phenomena o\ the Jitfims wontd tlipn rrrprpseiM ibe physical pro* 
CMMSr whik' th« tnt^rnAJ a1atk'« A^nftf.-Uit fAfrrtt't/^ wotitd be the 
pbcnonacnii of pi$>'chic lifa U wc accept in faith and seriousness 
tht atomiHiic speculaiLons of ihe physici^it and of tlw ^nrly psychol- 
ogists (on the unity of the sout i, I scill ^es lisrdly any other cour^o 

J^snw At a bali way supportable moniaiic conceptic>r. 

^f It ia uiiueccSi^ary to tict forth ai Lcnj^i hcic what e prominent 
pUc* the arrfficidl scaffolding wf i^mploy m th** ocnsrniriion of 
our knowledge a(tsuin«6 in th4*»ie nionadic theories as contradintiii' 
fiuahed front the facts Chnl deserve knowicdKc, and how poorly such 
theories satisfy in the long run a vigorous mind. As a fsct, em- 
ployrnvnl with thU cnrnbroux artitice wn« In my case the mran^ that 
efloctcd very «.oon the i)ppcaranc>e of my better convicuon, alxcudy 
Istcnily ptvscjit* 

* A Gnvk yhilcttnphor to ucham changa^rf vpalinl n-infi^timtirin^ pT#f«tir«^ and 
prtvUHicii ucrp pfotutftr the cnly ndituial prouvKe uf vbicti he hail any tnlJmAle 
tAoif]«^. ttuni^lit OUT [he- aromHttr iti^ory TlTii> iI^^>e^ uv re'Atn iin-diy, ihotij^h 
U be ia a uinliHeil Icrm, Aud in f-vl itumrtl phunomunii mlly do awt th^i net 
«r^tha pr<wj<e«Q<l impact ol wtr *(^^n psdicfr-f wr:m in^vlvcJ bi ihdr i^jdiic- 
tkw ttbf dynamical th«orf of CU4H1, phirnomcna thai ^^m^^ Ihrfrfcvrtf t)y ilii*<on- 
ccplidtf of tx-tn^ mufv dcafl/ «io<*i3d. lU/wcvtx. tlus <«aocptlon» iibie thai ot u.[oric, 
pcaaeaio vaIuc jjliJ» la lciIhiei fickK We kunvt Ur^m Ihpit (ift^amcf untJ iiupuct 
an hj n<* mronn %iifiplRr phi-imiTirnH ihun ar^ lf\r ^iun^^^^■ IfiA |>lmnAin«inri *^t i^rivi- 
tttka. Xh* comvnttoh ihM in pbyiicc «v*ry^(hin^ ran br r«4q<^ (q ttiv mniicA of 
taiilCTl poniUei a. laLta ai iti bni, a luorr tbu] xcopro^vr diaft en i^v fucure. 
Utefeane'vai Ihit kind pflonl noaHdAfAnce ro ilifl ulittion iTkf rmfninA tiwcial qurs- 
tloaj^ bat coly conffiuuJ, tmd bavs about tho Hira« otp^aJinli^ value m tbo oiMt- 
e( tbc Ul« pbf'iJojl |i1j3aQop1i<r of Okira wbich pnwriba for «uin[ilc «ilh ttia 



In the fartbcr pioKrc» of my physical work I novn diacovcrct 
thai h vf9» vcty necessary fhar^h io diUiftgttU/i bvtwceu what we itt 
and what iv* mimrally tuf^f^h: Whf^n, for pxaiiipli*, I rmagjiuf h^Ai 
a» It ftibfttaacc (ft fluid) that pnsfic* troro one body Into another, 1 
follow with ca»c the phGncuncmi of conduction and coiupcn^tion. 
This ide;a In) Black, who efdnbHshird ttj to ibr dUcf)vrry nf sprcific 
heal, of Ibc latent heat of fusion and vaporttation, ftn<I to forib- 
Thh jamg idea of n constant quantity ol hcnl substance pretfttie^t oa 
the oilier hind Blacks KUcceNsmrK from u^iiiK tlicii eyes, They no 
longer mark the fact wlitch e^-crj'uavageknowi;, tbsi hcAi t% f!<rt4netd^k 
by tticlion^ By the help of bin undulaCory Chor^ry Huyticn^ foUo^vs 
iV'ith ca-te the phenomena of the retlcxion and refractiou of li^ht. 
The sjiiri? tbewry ^'VTYV/f him, for he lbink< solrly of ibr longiind- 
innl W£iv4r« with which h« waii familiarp from marking iho fact of 
pdlari^ation which he hinmeli diKCovercd. but which Newton on 
the othci haml, imdiMiirhed by theorief, pe:r<^e]Ve« at once- The ■ 
concL'ptifjn *>! tluid* ;iciint' ac s di*itonc*! on ctinducrorfi charged w-tthfl 
clcctricit}' facilitates onr viuw of Che behavior of the objects^ cHnrf^cd, 
l>Lkt it tiifod in the way f/ the discover}^ of the specific inductive ca- 
pacity, which wiis Tesi-rvi?d for thi? t?yL- of Faratbiy iindimmeid hym 
any traditional theorist. m 

grtatttt MM th0 eaun* of the craaLion of ihr uoriri by a ffTv^on of itm^qAntilJv 
into -f-^i 4iid — -t (o(v-|-d —a), 

Till? uii-hUun of u rinxff ln^ilv an h Kiljdir> eIixti hhliwl ;i|]|HUr tiuiptr-f At flnt 
[■l.iiK^ ^iir otWt j>ri:Ci*u» 4aJ ihi* h thv iuKtifLr:utK»ii f<! ArtwrnjiU At :i fAytit^ 
Qiimkidii: th*?^! >. Thi? ihoufhisof a /tn^^w man arr^conoccLtd toitohtr . ihr rbcu^hls 
ol ivviJ rtlBerent nien arr no|. Ifow fan tlie procpsaiei o[ :ht Jlflprcnt pHTtt ol ihe 
brajia df onv nmn ha muoacfsd ' In onlur lu moIcA ibe ^onnactioe tirrv laiimil*, 
Wtr ?:»tlKL ntrrylhLdjj vtudi tw;vitrsi to he p«f cbiuiIK cimnccto! in *t ^i'tg;i< puiol. 
■Ilhi:^(ia*^ ihf iTonn^^nn it rnvt nvplninnl liy ihi* prncwhifi- 1 hii* ((w piyrhnloKical 
tDODodic Ibcory » crNTod on ikc baiu ot a modvp ahiI ot u tlktcion ciniilar 1o \hat 
OD wliicb Ihc pbj»ie4l fc»U 

1,iti iWMtwimir for A TnfTinniii ihtf pfniwvidlon in thn VitfX-. vit.. thnL Ihv atolMiH 
Art vedow^d v^iUi fvnliEitc By rh« vpnin* ctt^rdiriAiiMA «, j, ;, r', /\ c' . , . oF AlH 
•torn* ire dclerniitioJ '« f** «fiA*/ LBicinjl cundliiooia. -^. j, «', .rf'i jV . ,. ood I'fiv 
vrfjj. Kfjf wp ftt?] Ji> our wnsa our physical r^nvJTfinmenT- and our pfc^alcul 3n* 
vationfefif our «n virtue} client »« DonditioDwl b}' oor HauutiiEum Th* ietaa in th«a at 
tuiid. a 1? r . . . Alonr lirkiiK (Jirv^llr Kivr:ii, Lo »4l itii by ll;^ fflJtnJaaiion aix.y^i. . 
equattOTH du>ctl>' bPTWw^n n ,* j, c" ,S' j' . Tb:« Iwrpr polm r\i vir»w wiiild be 

wry Doar tv m^ prv»riii ono, Oiiil* Iroiu (ho loci Ihai ih« UTlrt wholly roj«u iTiot4- 
phytic aI QDnni^lrniikuA 



Valuable thvreti>ro as lhi> ci>nce|>lit>ns may b« viliicb tiMi Bn«a- 
laUy (theoretically) supi^Iy :o <}\ii pursuit ef (actb. brin^me to bcnTi 
11 ilMry do. uUlcT. nchi^r. raot*^ {^trwetal, un(4 moir^ famil^r i^|i^nr-nceti 
on Uc<& that &inncl at<iD«, thus affofding u& a broader field oj view, 
sovofftbeJo^a* (ho same c^Tccptions may, (>« classicnJ oxamplc« and 
D<u own L'xpt'ricuco ilcmoubtratt:, Ictid uti astray. For a theory, in^ 
dcrd, alivny^piiKiaihr pUr'* r>f n fart u>inrihiT>K >/'^'^''<''vA KnrrK-iliing 
mors simple, which is qmliliod ic jopr^wnl il in twmo tfrttUn as- 
pecl, but for ihc vcn' reason that \X is different doca «!■/ fcpreMint it 
in other aspt'cis. When in the pbcc of ii^ht Huy^cnt menially jmt 
the fnniilfar phi^nomenan nl stmrt^. h^tht itself ftppearwl to him m 3 
thiny; ihat be knew, but with respect 1o poiarif^tioi), which nound 
waves Uck, as a thin^ with vrhich he wa^ donbly unacquainted. Olit 
llit4>r]«4 arr ahstnictiontt, whreh, while t}jey place in rdiej thiit which 
i> important {or ^ertam fixtj c^kKcs, neglect nhuont ncceturily^ ur 
even diSi^uisc. wh:it is important lor other caaes. The law of re- 
Inctitii] tuu>k» iipt^n ruy^ ol li^ht av humoKe;ii;ous »ttaiight lrae», and 
that is sufficient for the coinpEvhenwion of ih<r g«oinetricat afip^ci of 
the matter. Ijul th^ propobicioag that relate to refraction wdl naver 
lead u« to the fact thut the raya of li^ht arc pvrioJical, that they in- 
lerftfic Just llie i:x7iilidi>'. th^^ fnvorilc niiil f^Qirltdi conccpiion of 
a »y as a unooth acraight line will mihcr n^ndcr ihi« discovery dilTi- 

Only in rare cases ivll) the resemblance between a fact snd its 
ilieotfipTicAl ronrepiiftii eiTemI jurthtr ilian we nnrsHvf*; potnilfltr. 
Than the th^retica) conception m^y Laad to the discovery of nt^ 
ia<C9i of which conical refraction, circular polaTraation* and HcriJt'a 
eJcciric waves fnrnish examples thai sunci \\\ MpfMJsilloii lo thuse 
given abovr. Put an a general nilf* we have nverj' rcanon to ditlin- 
Itiiiah lihnirply between awt theoretical conceptions of phenomena 
aad that which we ob»cPfc. The former must be regarded merely 
at: atixil'.ary iiiKiniiTirnu ihni have be^en rriMtinl \wx ^ dffinite \V(\J- 
pOM- and which poMeE£ pcrmAnent value only with rcEpect to Ihat 
purpoM^. No one will acriously imagine for a moment that n real 
circle with an^lrji and sines actually pcrfoima functions in die re* 
fraction of light- Ever}' one, on the contrary, regard* the furmiila 


Tirt «oNi*f- 

AlnaftkiTifi = 4 as a kind of j|Ecom«tricnJ model th&t imiti^ttt m/firm 
ihc rcfrAC.lion ol lifChE 2nd Ai/at rVi //r<v in our mind. In thi« s«nse, 
I l^lcc il> ai) the Ehourcrlicjil ct^ncrplioTif^ of phy^irc?* — oloric* clix* 
uidty^ liftht'^JtaTptt, mohrriili?!;, wtoms, (jnd t-jiprgy— mTiil be r^gsiided 
fts mere hcJpji or cxpedicDtfi to facilitAto otir viewing thit^Kfi. Even 
within the domain of phyittc^ itnilf the erefttcnt circ mint be exer- 
c.l*r.d in transft-rring tb(!or:r:^ from one tlepflrlmerit to aiKithpr. ;ini! 
aliovc ill moin? inslniclion i* not lo hv expected Imm a theory than 
from the U>cts Ihcinseivcs. 

But instances wric not Lacking; that dtrinoiiMriited to me, how 
much greater tlie c<infusinn wn* which v-a* prochiceil by thv direct 
trandercncv ct theoric^r methods, and ini^uineti ihut were l^liiDatG 
in physics, into the iicLd of pvycholo^^y. 

Allow nie to iUustnite thin by a few enampleit- 

A phymoiKt ob%t!rve« an image on the retma of an excised eye, 
ntjticcs that it i* turned upHidtr down with ruspact to iho objects 
iinjiged, and putv 1u hiznselfl very natiimtly the i^juestion, How 
Aoea a liiDiinoiis point Aitii^l^d it/ tA^ /#/ come to he refltcii^d on th? 
retina aS fJ»e bf^iUm f Ho answers ihj* <|it«sti(^n by the aid of diop- 
trical i»ti.idics. H, now, this quo^iion, which i^ pcrlcctiy IcKilimalc 
in llir province of ph>'sics he IransfrrtrcJ 10 iltc dotn^in of psytlirtl- 
o^r only nbseuniy will be produced. The question why «% see \ 
ihp tm"^rf/J retina-image nf-rif^Jtl, no tncdning ae a p$ycholo|liCQl 
problem. Tl^c light-scnsalions of the separate spots of the rctinn 
am Oiinnnt^trJ wi(h smsfitiurs of locality frcnn ihfi very heKinning, 
and WQ nam/ the places that correspond to th& parts down, b/. I 
Such a ciuc&tiQii cannot preticnt iVut^W to the petceivmg subject. 

ll is the >^mtf with ihc wcU-krortn thewiy of ptujccliun The 
pTohlt^m ol ihe /^Jrj-Jiriff i*, lo st'i'k iht* luiiiinoii^ obiL-cl-iXjint of A 
point ima^fed on the retina of the eye in th« t^ackward prolonged 
ray pftsiiini; throuch tJie point of inturMcction of tlie eye. For Iho A 
pCiLt-'iviiit buhit'Lt i\i\^ /ffp/'/rm doL'^ iioi exiM. uh the llL;ht'i»cLi>Mil[u[iS 
of ihe r^rinsl ^pnt? nrc ronnncitc*! from tht* beginning with dj-iemti- 
Dfttc spaGe-»ensations. The entiro iJieory of the psycholo^iCAl ^ 
oriifiD of the ''extcrnaP' world by the projection of sensations out* 
wards is founded in my opinion on a misiAken trAnsfercncc ol a 



fAjiita/Iy fomiulatc^ inquir>' iriio the province ol psuM^gj^ Oar 
sciifiaiions of slgfii And touch are hoiiacl tip with, ^re cumir^cied 
with, vanoii» dtffrfNi s«nftalion« of tpace, ib^it U 10 fiay tli^«e ««n- 
£Btion& have an cxtfiicnc« ¥y iht iiJfe/oti^ another ci tur/fi^^ v/ oae 
anther, «i»t in o(hcr words in a tp^Ut iklJ, jb which ijur body 
filh hiti % pan. Thflt laWr is ihiis M^H-fvlrl^mly i»fti/r/iA'«i/iny body. 
A pr^jcctioi^'prcbl^^n^ ctoos not fiTcs^nl itself, ia nuiiher consciou^ty 
nor unconsciously solved- 

A ph^^kiM (MiLrioUcT) cnake^ ihc discovery iluit a certain spot 
on the mina U btinJ. H^ i$ acciisionipd 10 asA>ciaiin^ uith ev^ry 
^fttifi] point an irongcd point, athI wiih every iniagod point a 4*n- 
Mtioti. Hence the i^ticstion aii^ca. \Vlui do wc ^1:1.- at th<? poinU 
thai cotrrspntid irt ih<- blind tpnit^. and how is Ihc g&p in iho rm»g«< 
lillcd otil ? If the unfctinded inllLi«rLce ol tho phyetcisl's method ol 
procedure on the diicn»nort oi pjiychDloeical questions he cxcbided, 
it ttill he fciund x\\i\i no prohlffoi cKi:^lf at aII here. Wx see MitiAiHg 
at the Mind spots, the gap in the im-igp i* no/ filled out. The ^ap, 
roorv^vcri is not Iclt. tor the r^arion that a defect ol light flcnuatjon 
at a «pot blind from the beginning can no more he perceived a» a 
gap in ihe iniiii^c? Than the blindneu «ay tiF the ^Icin of thr 1iHi:k can 
b« »o pcrcavL<l. 

I l»Te chooen intention ally Mmple and obvious emmples, Hodi 
KS, render it cleaj nbit unneceuary coitfiivion i» ctUKd by the cate- 
tie» iraaaferene* of a concpjition ur mode of ihoiight which i* valid 
and aervicoable in £>n4- domain, ini<» another. 

In the vrork ol a celebrated German ethnogiaphcT 1 read re- 
cently ibtf following w-iil€nce; "This tribe o! jiet»p!it d^^-ply de 
graded il^^W by iIk- practii** of cannibalism/* By its aide Uy the 
boolf oi jn Eni;hsh intpiirer ^Jiu deals vrith the eame •tub^ect. The 
biter Miiipiy puts the ^wtiieft why certain Soutli-Sea inlanders eat 
hninnr beings finds out in thp coiiri« of his inquiries that our own 
ancestors also were once cannibals, and come« to undentand tba 
posilton tlie Hindus take in the lOAltcr— a point of view that oc- 
curred onc« to my hv^->'ear-ok1 t^oy who uhilc «-ating a pii<cc of meat 
Stopped suddenly <ihocked »nd cri«^ oiiit, "ff> are cannibals to the 
aaimaUl" *'Thou shalt not eat human boinge"* ia a very boatiliful 


TUB W>M19T. 

mA^ini : but in ihe ra<nith of the cthno^rAphci it sullies tHc c&lm * 
kn<! noblp liistrtf tA Lii^pirjiosw-ssiui? h\ whitih we stj ^\nd]y fliscovrr 
the truv icquiwrr. But n »tvp iurrJier wni wt will *.iy. " M^in jwwj/ 
Dot be dutccndcd from nionlcu>-9,** "The canJi ^Aa// notrotAtt^" 
" Matter ^tt^'/'Z not everywhere to fill spACC/' " Energy mm/ t>c coa- 
stant," :*i><l 40 on. 1 believe that f>iir pToc*^'!ijre dif^ei** from thw 
juM chjiraclenAeil on£y in tle^rvc and not in kind, v^hun v^e tran«Jer 
vicw«» reached In the province of phvHict* vt-itli thu dictum of sovct< 
eij;n validity into the doniAia uf pH>x:boloa[>> whjL^rc ihcy should be ■ 
IcMcd snow With rilHprcl to their ^efvicrnhility. In ^iich caf-c« vrc 
aro F^ibj<Tc1 to ^i>i;ntJ>, it not to thol which i^ forced upcn i\% by a 
pov^ci IfQii: without Jikc our schoUslIc foicfdlhci». >ct Co ihnt nhii^ll 
w^ havi* niAile onnelvefi- And wli» rrvnlt (if rcsnnrch is thnrc that 
could not become a dogma by lonf^ habit of nsc. since the very tldlt 
tvhich Vi-c hnvc acquircil in familiar intctlcctual situations, deprives 
M> of the frcnbnevi and un|)ict>oAhe««ion which arc so let^iii^ite in A 
new ftitunlion. 

Now tiut I have «et Eorth in general outJinen the position 1 take, 
1 may be Mc pcth^pn to establish my opp*x<ntion to the Jnaitsm f/ 
fttiitg an4 mifiwv. Thi% tI(t;dLtint i^ Ui my HEiiid an jjiriir:ciAl ;u]d iut 
unnecesMry one. The way it hai« uri&en is analogous to that In 
which the imaginary solutioira of curtain ina thematic al problems 
liavc jsriscii — bv lixe impiutrci fonuulation u( the quc:»tionft iiarolvcd, 

la tlur inve^ri^Alioii o1 purely physical prr)ces»eH vr<r generally 
employ nolioufk ao abstract thai a> a tuie we only think cursorily or 
not at alt of Uie sensations that lie at and constitute their foundation* 
For t-xample. wlieti [ eslablish ibe faa iliac m\ electric cuiiieut ui 
I Ampere d«v«iops loj cubk cei:tiiiii-tre« uxyhydrogen gas at o' C. 
and 760 mm mercury pressure in a minute, 1 am easdy dioposod to 
atiiibutc to the objects de6ned a reality wholly iniic^ieDdent of nay 
»if;maiions. Rut 1 am isblig^ in ordcj to iirriv*.* rtl what I have de- 
i4!rmincd ro cordoct tho current through a ctrcui^iT wire having % 
dt^hniic mcosLiTcd radius^ so that the current, the iutoislty of icrr^s- 
iriii] iiiAgnet)«ui beinit trivcrt, «hal1 turn the magnetic needle; at \l& m 
centre a certain angular (li*tancp out of the m<?ndian. The imcn- 
sity ot terrestrial m3KT^ctiu,m muct hnve been diRcloi^ed by a dctinito 




ol>«crvcsI period of vibralion of a mAgMlic ncnllc of measured di' 
inenKianH;. known weight, and *o (orih. The tieierminafinn oif ihi* 
«»xyh)'drog«n fas 18 no le«8 iaukaie- Tbe whol« ftUttrnicfat. »o sim- 
ple m )C» appearance, i* biiacd upon »ii almoet uocmlmK scrica ot 
iimplc Mfiaory obscrvAtious (acik&AiioDB), panic iLbrly an mhtn ihe 
ohvrv;ttJnns ar^ adr!i»d chai giijirnncr^ rh^ fldjui^inienT of ibe appa- 
rams, which may have bct^n poHorm^d in pArt long before the Actual 
C3(pcnriictii. Now ic iiiay cn^ly happcii to the phyaici»i who doc» 
not study llm pi^y<:hnlciHy oj bi» oprr^cions lliaC hr dne» not lie Tu- 
rcncc a irell-known saying) «ce the ire^^ far the woodt, and that h9 
fthmi over the Evnsory elements At the foiindAlion of htn work^ Now 
1 mjiintiiin, that every physical notion i^ nothing more chvtn a dc5nitc 
conoeclimi (tt the scuHiry titmrntt %vhirh I iIcticjIp \%\ A H C - . ., 
;tncl t)iia1 every physical fact retU therefore on imch a connvclion. 
Thc?te ^/('Sf'4/j— elemeDtn in the »cn>e ihac no fnrther rewJution has 
for iUl* prrrfccat been effected of them — are thcmo^t iihiniiiiehLiildini^ 
ttoi>eK of the phy^iicT*! world ihni we have as ypt lieim liUXc to sdtfi. 

Pfaysjologicat r^sejuch aiiio may have a purely physical clinrAC' 
Icf. I can follow the course oJ a physical procesa as it propairaics 
rtHelf thionuTi a sensitive nrfve to ihe spinal col jinn ard hr^iin rif an 
animal and retufriK by vitrjous paths to tht^ ititix-les of the Minimal, 
wbo»c contraction produces further cventa in the envirownciH of th« 
aoimaL I need fiot think. Ut ») doing, of any feeling on tite jiiarl of 
the animal: what I inve^ifgat«r is a piif«1y physical object. Vf^ 
much i« lacking, it is ini«, to oor complete compreh^usion of thie de- 
tail) of this process, and the assurance thai il b all motion can 
oeillier consotc mc not deceive me v>jih icspcci lo my Jguuiance. 

l-^niT^K Ijefnrr Thi*n» trns any sriomifir phywnlog}' people peT* 
ceivcd that the l>ehavior ol an animnl conirontcd by phyncal influ' 
enccs t« intKh better vic^^cd. that ;» understood, by attribmiag to 
the animal ifns^lhms Itke our own. To that which T (ipt, in my %&n* 
saiions. I h;ivc to tt///*/r m/nt^Ify ihe sfrnfiations of ihe amitw^t, which 
afc not to be fonntt in the province ot my own senaation. This con* 
trariety appcarit rttili moie abrupt to the f^cicnEific ini^iiirf^r who is 
investi^ting a nervous process by the aid of colnrlcsis abstract 00- 
tionSp and is requircxl for example to add mentally I0 that process 



the tenwAtioA gr^cn. Thk lasi cah aclualty appear as tomcthing 
entirely iiovcK And vc cnn nak mitJicWci how at i« that this mlrii€u< 
loui- thinj; ifi proiliiccil fiom r-hcJiiic.;i! pnicL'ssi'^. rk-ctiical ciLrrcnti, 
and the like* 

P&ycholof^icil analy^iii Kan taiif^ht u« Ehai this Kiirpriflt- is un- 
jii:C]fi«i], «incc the phy«ici»t dcaU with ^cTi^stion? in everything on 
wrhtcTi In? einplo)"s Tiimself- This jiu;dysi« i* alsij ^hlc i« remler it 
cle;ir lo (11^ dial ihi- menial n<iiIiliort bj analogy of i^onsati^i^t and 
compkxi'ft ol aonftaticns ivhkh Lt the tiinc bcini; Are not pmont in 
Lbe Ht^ld ol iienMrOf CEumotevcrL cunte into il, i» a)»i> diiilj' practieicd 
by lli«r physicj^l. ah ^t'bi^ii fiti exaiiipir lie iiira^m-i'S ihe moon an 
inert bv^vy ihash attboii|;h he cannot toucb iht- ]ui>on but only s«« it. 
Tlic totally stmnjEc character of tlic intellectual siiuation above 
dtticiIbvU j^ ttmn:funr tui tUu^ion, 

Th* ilhision disappear? whcr 1 mak** obitrvations (piycbolog- 
ically) on my own porson ^hich oiu tiniltod to the eunaory sphere. 
Before mc li<* llse Itaf of « pSant- The fiteen f/f ) of tW leaf iij 
untied will) ■ corisin optical »ipnsa!ion of «pacfr i^) and sen^itonof 
touch (C), with ihc vifiibiliiy <jt th© &iin or rbc lamp {I>)^ H th« 
ycllovr (£) ol a aotliiiin flaiuc takes the place ol the Kim, the green 
(^) will jiAss into brown (^). II Oic cblcirophyl gr^^niiJcs be tc- 
mnvrdr — in opvratirin reprEturntablcf like the p^c^ccdi(lg one hy de- 
^onts,— thcRrecn (^>w^ll paiw into white { Gt. All thuse ol>s«rvfliion* 
ate /Av/fVrf/ observations, Blk the i:reen ly*) is al»o united with a 
crnnin pmrr^w on my retini. Thrrr i^ nothing lo prpv(»ni me in 

*Tha follottinE v a l^cilfmaiv quMiSon ; To nhnt kind of n^v^n* prypuBM 
the KbM(i<m iciQcu Lo Lk? mt^l^ilTy djilcj. Sui:Ie itucstjuiu utt Ifp lohtd imly bf 
•paei*l inquiry, jind not liv a rrlrfrrn^p in a grt^rtnl way tc» inoNon Mrt •l*tfiric cur- 
nat». How (tundynnUfvct^a i?ur miTiAiuinjt mitiKfSrd with cucb gmuinil coiuffptirA* 
js, c<in bt we Ji Ftuld dir (ad Ibai iDtiuircra havt Ivca itpr^ali'dtv on tttr tiLiok of 
ntjonfloriittH !hp i/^ri/f ^rt/r^>», cine fif Ih^ Rrf>ar«i acfjiiiutiom vre have mivde, 
»iTn|.Jy btCBiuc Lhc) vKdic iiuablo »o dlacovef cmy diUcrcncc ia tlic currtnu v\ dit- m 
tvifi\t wTu<ijf> Uffvo^ I WM9 JruiJrUcil <u tuily h* )A6^ in my Ikeuh^i ■>» i^tvIilj* ■ 
phydri (n rail ailf<nlinn tf> th" Isiri Ib^ir fh>» Mirnr ^i'*ri/ tiHi/t iif om*im pmr*<ip*"» 
C4ti c4>[T(c4l divniHJiYft In a ourTtfiit. Currc<ai ic an ■bslr^ciJoii and f^lncH ifi ft<ll«l 
tiut uoc tcAlurc ciE tljr piutcu- Lbc piVdAflcol eucrii^ diMUjfh a Uaoivcarw wctioa. 
A cMrpcnt tD flifDii*t) vulphotlc acict it m-tmwhinjt ■ntitnly i^tlliWAOl iT-^m » ciirraniia 
ecppi*r Wr (djM thi^pfpri' :>l>rn rtprci that a cuTri?tiE in ihn accuiiic ncr^d i« mbw- 

TACi^ A^D ui:»rAL »\Mnot4. 


priocipk from physiceJL]^ invcsttjeatinfi this procc^sa on my ovoi cya 
m cxaclly ihc samtt manner ss in ihe ca«c8 previously sec forih^ and 
iroin rrdtieing it ta itfi olcmtntft A' KZ. ... If thU w^-r* not p^ft^ihin 
■n the case oi my own cy«, it migbt be. i^liMif^ wiiJi ihai o4 
snothcr, And the g^np filled cut by Rniilo£> exactly «« in physical in* 
rrstiiiaticiTiit. Novr in its dejirndcnrr iiittin fi C D . . ., jf in ti 
fJiysua/ ^Iftiitnt^ \y% iu c!ti>tridcncc on .V YZ. _ . it ie ^ Sfntatfi*n. 
Tlic green [A] however i^ net altered at oil iw itjfff* ivhcthcr •an.i di- 
lecl our aitcniioii to eIic oinc or 1t> the other form of dcpciiLknct. 
I me, therffare^ nn app^fiU^i^ of ^yskaf ami psyekirat, tt£ dtiafiiy. bn/ 
timph iJfntify. In tlic- svrtf^or^' sphero of my conscioxune^ ev«ry* 
tiling %> at once phy,<tical And p^vchical, 

TJic iilacnrity <J Ehii^ m1dl(?i:tL]Al xiiujiiion \v\s AnKt*n ai^cnrdinf: 
lo iny ocnvicticn solely from the trantlcicncu o4 a pkytical prvpoE- 
ftc*mioii into ihc domain of p:i>x}i^LoKy. The phynidst ^aya : 1 itnd 
everywhere tlodie^ uikI thcmotionv of bodies ontVf tto ftcnniitjoiii ; 
4icnKaiton th^rr^loTr tiiijHf bi? urmi^thin^ tntirrlj Jifferfnt Irnm ih^ 
physical obj«s;U t deal with. Ttm pftychciiogisl accepts the second 
portion of this dcclarnlioo. To him, it is true, sensation is/rrrv, 
but tlieie cuiT<.'tipoiid> Lu it 4 niy^eritJiis phy^jcul <iunit;ihius nhich 
conform^Hy to phy^ic-al prepoiMOsaion inii^t Im- 'ii^frmi Trom aenia' 
rion. Btit what is it that is thv really mysterious tiling ? Is it the 
Phy»iA or the i^yche ? or \% it pcrhapa httih / h vrould «hiio»t ap- 
pear »0i, a» ii is no>\' ihe one and now rht- oTher ihai \s fniangltiTc. 
Or doBS iho whole ricia»oning involved re^l on a lalhtcJous clrclu i 

I believe that the latter is the case For mc the elements dea- 
ignaicd \>^ A B C - • - arc imniudiatL'Iy «nd indubitably gi^vn^ and 
lor m*' tht»y can m^vcr aftrrviirdft br i^Iniiltsiod away by any coi- 
sidcraiioDs which are aUcr ail basc^in every case on thcircxistcnco-* 

*ll iA ihr tnakltortefB cf KDir'pcr«cpti(ini thai fiC«Allj kttiH Uh to r^vi^r^ 
dMB aa mtTT' up^KKano^ ia cnBtrmlwl ^ilh jHtrmumii bodi**- 1 liittT r«pf4iA(Ily 
fOlMF^oui :b4t uciccindi[if?inoJ poncacvnt 4Uicq du noi «xtsl Ia nfliarr, di«i pel- 
mancacs oj poaopciiga oniy aiai A bodf \% fcjr aip ih»j ume cijnipics oJ ^Jfihi- 
aml loaf b'HfiMtkMifc wcry ume ihai ci ;* placed iq tW umtt ciErunibUftcn of lUu- 
aua4liiKi p>i(iuK in aivcc. tcm^jrrHaiiir*. miij k forth Hir *tip]*jic(l ctjii*uncj of 
ibD body K ihRCcfVilAnryof Ui« union <it A. fi. C cr Ibp ctniftlAocy of Ihfr fV"-*^ 
aM/(H. Jf, f - ..)=o. 


To the department of S[>ecia] research having for its subject the 
scnsorj'. physical, and psychical province which is not made super- 
fluous by this general orientaiion and which cannot be forestalled, 
the relations oi A /f C . . . only remain to he ascertained. This 
may be expressed symhohcally by saying that it is the purpose and 
end o{ special research to find equations of the form /(^, B, C, 

■ ■ 'J = o-- 

I hope with this to have designated the point in which I am 
in opposition to Dr, Cams, with whom I agree so much in other re- 
spects. 1 am obliged, notwithstanding the latter facj, to regard 
this point as essential, inasmuch as my whole mode of thinking and 
direction of inquiry have been changed by the view it involves, and 
because, moreover, I do not believe that the difference in question 
can be dissipated by any verbal explanations however exact. 

This whole train of reasoning has for me simply the significance 
of negative orientation for the avoidance of pseudo-problems. I 
restrict myself, moreover intentionally here, to the question of sense- 
perceptions, for the reason that at the start exact special research 
win Rnd here alone a safe basis of operations. 

Ernst Mach. 

PROi-BssoK aii-roKii on tiii; soul in 


NO OH9 can rca4 Cl)(ii>rd'& L«c1iircii arxl Etui's, wiihout fueling 
iJwi, il ihcif Author is less known and valued a:; an original 
ihtnki^r than aa a master oi malhematical luialyviv, it is only tH-cnti^c 
liaviog lurn^d thp for<:r of his genius ontfi Tn^ilhematic.n fir*! hp Imd 
time lo complete some work to lliar direciion, whereas hU prema- 
ture deaih In 1879 t^nly allowed him to give us tkn itarncat of the 
philoKnphiral work wliich lit? )ud il in him to perforin. 

The sihon bicKTaphy which Frof. F. Pollock ccnintinied to Ih*^ 
firftt edition ol hU kcture» and u!crayh gtvcti mi intercEitin^ sketch tA 
the pha«:« of opinion thiou^h which Clifford paaned^ It appiran 
that before he took hi?* dt^rrv in 1H67 and (or a link time ;i(Ipt hu 
wai m hifih churchman : l>ut, sa^^ Pollock, ■■ th^r* ift-as un intellec- 
tual anil ^pcctllativc activity about his belief which made it impo^ 
sible tluil lie td^oiild ;L-iaaiii iiciintfucritlj' at that tttd^v-" " He never 
tlackened in the puriiiiit of ficlenii^e kriowled^e and idea«,"and 
condctoii4oi n hiAiu« belweeo oilhodox vicm-aand some of tlie rc:ft]Jt:s 
of Kicnce he yet licid that relljciou^ beliefs Arc outride ihe region uf 
Hcientific pfoof and ih^i there is a special theuhigicel facility or in- 
^ght, anah>gouc to the »<:iomific, poetic, and ftrtimic facullioft, the 
persons in whom thit (genius is cxccptlonallv developed bcini; the 
foundi'Jhof new icligion^ and rcliciotj!^ OTtlrib- ThJb i) not uii|ik«? 
the sokilion nf rtrliificii^ dnuUtt which Miinic playfully «u(jg<'sEed 
and which John Honry Newman hai; «criovi«Jy adopted, namely that 
" liiWnity, or theology, Iia^ a foiindaEion in r^uM so far aft il i&sup- 



poncd bi- experience^ Dut ii& beat rqe) nw^i soUd foundation iflj 
/i/Ali and divine? revelfttion/' "Whpn or how/' conliniiei; his bio»! 
{;niphcr, " Clifford Arst ccinc to a duar ptirci-'ptioii th^t thU poiiiiion' 
cf qua&i'MJcrtific Cfttholitism was untcnabli: I do i3ot exactly know i 
but I know thiit the iIiM:DVcry cost hin^ an inEcllccIiiAl .atid mocjit 
«tni^glc» of whicb 1rac«£may be fciund hero ;ind thrrre in h)£«»uiy*. 
Mont readers of tJicnc tpsuys would consider that CliHord is \CTy 
linfair lo the Christian bcSicfs nhich he hitd abundcint^d and beyond 
dotibt he felt a ceiTain gn]dt«>^ :i^:iin>l them fur li^ixin^ so liut^ c]u|M?d 
him/'* l\tKt theoiies of Mr. Darwin aad Herberi bpeucer look Ow 
plac« in Ciifiord's ratnd ol the uld iusJiioncd crLt'd ; Nutural «tdeC' 
lion was to unriddk- tlic tiiiiveise, to yidd a h^'w ^yhtciii of cihka 
and ed(jcation. We r«Ad'tb»t Cltrfnnl haii an exira^rdmary power 
oi taking up a ihciory provisionally, ol ilironiiig himt^clf iftto it^ ac- 
ccptiiiiT Jl. applying ii, and of rciccitnK it in uiitc it wn-s not s^tisfic- 
tory ; and (his tiiay aca>uni [it-rbaps for bi>i somrwbai dosiialk 
ftssenion iti niAnx' cat^^4» of cnKl** vir^K- TTi^Tf? is onp chftr;»ctertKlic 
of Chtloid however which aJI niay cRiuLaic, and that is the cAndoi 
and fcark'««Qe9S of bi» thiukine Ami speakini:. Let mc c|Liotc a few 
wordii from onr of ihr \icst ami mnst »iCirrinfi nt ihi'-se ewiayi ; 

"It I Ut myifU hr1|m-e dnyThtng an iii).iifl1ck>i|T rvtd«fic«. thrfi? tttiy bi? no 
ipyiLi hatm ilc?nc b/ Itir miTTpr I>r1lrl , Li mny he ttvt itftrr Jill or I mn> ae^vr hdv« 
occ4tion t9 mbibJt jt in iniiward nciJi- But t curiiiol help ijoiujit ibiik tS^tttt wreof, 
(OvnirJA itinn. thai I mnki> my-Hrll crfldiilnufir Tbn J^ng^rr lo Hocml}' ia hpI mrcfvlj 
thai it KhDdlil hplitrtv ^rC'Dff ^^i^fiE^. ihou^h Ihxt Iw k'^i' f-uouyh < l^ut ihAE it tbould 
hAximr rrfl-rliiloii^ ^nrl lixr rri*< h^iliit rif ^<4tm|[ ihini;* ^m1 liirgiiiriT^g inm t]ii*m , 
for ItifQ It muBi Hok buck inio VLVUscry. . If a man. tiLt^inu a Itvlivt which l]« 
vu tAUftfai in cliildhood ur pmuAdid of ^i«i>vardi« ktep« Uohd Ami [lavbM awar 
any duubt) wbicti a/isc abuut l( Ad Uib mln^n TrurposrLy nvoidi ihr tvmUnz oi booW 
and ihf contfunj' of Qiaq titoi call in quci1ii>n or diicutc il. lad rv^'irdv at impiou 
Itiota qofttiaatk which eiUiDPi taslly ftre ulnd wUhaui ilLinitrblng It^lCtc hte of thfti; 
man ji une lui^a '^o ag4infei mocKiad- " 

* Oa ibv nbclp. iKiiAcVfT, li 1i piMtiJiblt ihii Ea tleuling sucti liartl tflow u fa# 
tjfid nt prinU ami r1<i^ni.u ha w^i ji^iuJil?^ tt/ fhorr Ictvl- i^f (HJlh,, ntui. lhcH# ubo 
kttifw him licit kUiiurc us ibnl In- *JisriHifc|^ (i-rr lii^m billcm^ki iinil fiun ihe 
\»rily vMdi tt-t^ tmniir iiPir^alr LJ|>(in bi-?t(j(i^ Eh*^ir {r.^LlfniiLbirr in [rubUt by i\-Ay oJ 
Bhoving thM rhr} urcgrowfi up ift lh«ir ofntiioor 

PKur£«£<W curFuftO ost iiii; socL ix >atuiii* 


The ru^y on Uxf xiaUiit; of tiuu^^^ iu l!lL-IUf>clvc^^ iuai}i» iIk hit- 
Uic«t limit at vrlitch Clidord'ft specuUiion amv^. In it Clifionl 
begins liy dincar^Iin^; tbo OT<liiLAry di^tifKiion Ix^iAC'ti rx-ntily hiij 
iiivash. trttnuil olijvcl niid ctcnijl •tubicci. of fi^cllnE An<l thmg. The 
diftt Miction is ri.-a1l> lH*t^-i-4'n two orilrri- of firrllni: ; thtrr iii tlic ftuh* 
JMtive or inner orvl«f. m which ftorrow 8UC<w»Ifi ihc heuinK cf biJ 
news, antl the objective or oiitward in vtliich llic icclin^; of Icttinf; 
go is (ijllvACil l>y si^hl of UlliniJi oltini, li is vritJi the laiCcr oidrr 
that phyi^<:Jl science concc-rn^K iiiirlf. ancf alE [lir infirrL-ncvs of natural 
flcioncc sire inferences of my real or possible feeling. Since An object 
ia a acl of chan^i^s in m\ coQ5cioiittnc»% and not anything ovtt of il, 
k jufti my fi^'lintj rrnl or pfissihlr *ml ihtidotr pari nf mt-, it uiiKht 
Mcnt ait if wc wcic filiut up in oiirw-lvts arid ^KcliKkil ii<im parlici* 
potion in nny otber ruoJity, So wt! ifhould be. says Clifford, il wc 
siAilc no lAlict inicrencea Ih:!iii1c thow cf ph/MUil Mricncc ; hut mhirij 
[ COII14- u> the rf>:trlEi<hion that ivj^ Aire tonnctous and Xhm y<ui h-Lvo 
object* iti your coi«.-t;it>iiMien !(imil:u- to Uiosw m inmv, ) am iiot »ii- 
tcrring nny acIunJ or poanibk f«clini;» oJ my own, but _%vttr fcclinffs, 
whidi ATC not aEul c^n never be ob^ectA iu my cuimciutivnfru. To 
leelin^ Mud consciousavis thira infiTr^J to oii&T in anc^th^r, CKfford 
fiires the name of */^e"/, Ijctau^e in thf ^'L-r>' act ol irxltTrnce they arc 
ihnywH iutt of my coiiAciouaacM, rccogni^d as outside of it. as n&t 
l»eing a ]>itfi of nu-, "The existence of nty cooceptioo of ytm in my 
con^iousn^vf. carri^c^ wil^ ii a belic'f in the exisiience uf )'otj outside 
of my coaAciuu!iiic5s. . _ . How ihi^ iutcrt;occ t» imEifi<.'iJ. Uimcou- 
ai;toui»acvi cui testify to ihc eai^teritc of anytJiin^ outiiiilc of ilneU I 
do nor pretend to Wf ; I npc>d nor nniie a ki>oi which ilu- ti^trfcl hai 
cut for me lonR a^o." (Vol. U,^'7y\ 

Thii», t^ijtiis in the ^nse of tbins* presented in my conacioui- 
nesji, my pficnona-na. ate nut the sole or chief ir-aJiiy ; ejects are 
fei^iully rea) and my conviction of your exitteiicc ab a cofHciotia 
bcinic li^c ni>-scJf is coeval and of <h|iuiI tvcit;ht with my1>clicf in my 
own consciou-t existence. You and yonr feelings arc itiktly spcuk- 
jng the only tbiiif;^ which arc real outK^le of iny^a*Lt and my coA- 
Adouanetv- For though mj' objects or phenomena are extctmal lo 
my body they are not outside my conitciousDew, but part and |>«rccl 


^te UO?4l>GT. 

lh«r«foJ. Nov, more than this an tiicti% idual object, l. c. an oUjcct 
whfch iH mine and mine only, never exists at all, accordiae to Ctil- 
ioTil. in iJifr mind of m;in: for with *fich obj^^cc at ii ostists So my 
mind i« Ixiiind up the thought ot t^tmiUr objccift c^itisting in oth^r 
mcnV mind^. All the ohjcct;i in itci oi wkich we arc ever con&ciotK 
A9K cbjcciv vi ^nitiiciaii%tic%% in gcntfrtl, nrcr in riiflord'fi p1irABi> « 
cial object* " A fixpd habit cauic* nti object in it is foiiiii] in ifijr 
'mind to L)e tc^roitHj cit: n social &t>jcct and iaiicn^ibly embodies in it 
a reference to the winds aS ctlier men.'' 11u» belief in ejects i 
moreover th^^ root of all langiRge lamt aU monih :-*of lan({iiaK(.\ be- 
cause any «rmud which, becoming a ti^n to tny neighbor. Lictonicfl 
tlicTcby a mark to myiself. muiit by the natmc oi the cokc be a mnrk 
(ij llm MJi-iaj ubjL-tl and not of ilie individual object : uf imiiTiUv 1w» 
caute the "fir«i gwrsit commandment, ev-olv«<t in th<* light of day by 
healthy proc^-ists vrhtircver men have livofJ together, is, 'Put >wir- 
sclf in h'w islace,' " 

So far tt]L*r« tit nothing to dlsciagiiifih Ctifford'« rht-ury from or* 
dinary Jdeahf^ni, which dunk^e that tho tmiv4^rt« i^ r«aJ ^xcvpt as a 
phc:nomenon or appearance before a Sol! consciomi thcrcoi. The 
fntiirr uoiirv? uf Clifiuid's aieuMieiil liuns upon iwu ^hHuniptionH- 
One ol thest'. bf>irow^ from thi^ rnrrfrnt phy^iolo^y of tJit brwiu, it 
thiii : that the chanitee tri my can f^ioitunc^A — crjoctivo facts ho c&Ua 
them — nm paralEcl with ihe chAnj^ea m my brain, which fire ot^'ec*.fl 
five ImcX^ The p.Uf»llelism herwi:t?n them is oav of cnmplexily, an 
analogy ot s:rii«;tur«. Th« coinj^lcx ejective facts ftfc the fiannj sort 
of complicfLtton of simple cicc:tfl OA the ci>mplex motion:; of the bmin f 
are (if Mniplc niolecnler movements. Clifford itlu^tratc^ tlic points 
from the rrlation of ^ifjc-rch t[> writtnij', the wiilenL-*r spoken t* th« 
same function of the elementary njund* a* i\w same senlt-nce writtCD 
IX ol tlic corrc«pondinF; leltcra, in like mflimc<r the compleat humui 
mbid U fhr ^mc- fiinitimi oi hlm^lc feelings a« \}ic Wain I'h cf prU 
mary aionis- 

The ether iis<>uinption it. bu^^d upon the current doctrine oE, 
ryolnlion- Our hodiea have been evolved step by step out of iiwr-' 
ganic matter, mid w« bav« before our eyes a line of ortjjnjmis con- 
noclinft man with th* simplwit atom of matter. In this «ene« tb 


pKorKAflDOft cLii-ruKU ox rHK yotn. i?c vaturil 


ifi no hiatus twtveMi ono lonn and an<>th«r. do breach o4 morplio- 
loKicaL conctRuil>\ due one epc<LC» amc» hy inwnBiblc Kradslioii ou: 
of ll» pTcdcccewir^- Now in ihc case tA oruAntsnis of a ccrUin com- 
|ik>)ty wi> onttAi hrlp irfrmng cAne^ioLKnpM, and »« w-e? go back 
along Um line wc not only ?^oc th<^ complexity of the ofraiumh and ol 
its ncri'ous?^) litem msciiMbly dimtnishin;;, but for the first pan of 
our courts we havr re^tKcm liv think ihai tbccomplexilyof coosnoiiv 
r»« inteniiibiy dtminUhes alito.* The conclmdon i« forced tipon ut 
thnt ftmturc i* animate irom top to bottom and that the hunnblest 
atocii has aD ckmenlniy feeling or eject of itjt own as uniplc in coiri' 
]>an«on wtlh the coirpler intelbgence rjf man as tb«? atom U it«elf 
simple in cODipantion i^ith bis vcr>' complex brain. Unless we ad' 
mit this we arc in a dilemma. The ejective latts which vre cannoc 
help inferring in the ca?(e t»l all aninialn niunt extern! fnrtber ditwn 
through %'efi[etablefs to inoiguiiic phenomena, cr elve there must bo a 
point at u'hrch we could say : hvrc thi? object begins to have an in- 
ner or cjectiye fact votie>i>utiding to il a» my niimi cotrcnpomts to 
my body. Bui the ^ri«« ol objective lonJi« present* di> vuddon 
Irreok anywhere, not even l>etwe<?n nnimab >nd vcgctablba, lauch as 
to warrant our suppoojnf; tlial ejcctive fact* extend tiuisi far down in 
the series and no further. 

Clifford >v iiol ^nite a« explicit about the nature ol the elemen- 
UUy ojoct9. wfcidi £n>in^r to moving molecules, a? we ihuuld like 
btm to be. Of one ibin^ however he ii qnite certain ; they nre de- 
meniary fc>i:ling>^ which yt% are ni?TTher modiAc^tionv ol u con«tJoit£- 
nv4« nor y^^l tnipJy s consciotisneM in which alone th<<y can vysisi. 
EvKxy feeling may he pan of a consciou9ao». but it need not be »a 
Con5ck>usnes§ is only s derii'aiivc and seconitory result, following 
on th« arrangement ftf f<*pling in a panieidar way and 11 ls evolved 
at a v«ry laic poriod in the hi^iory of the worhL Jo ii&cU a toeling 
ift an absolute ^/«rf-itiT-«rVAt who»c existence is Dot feUiive toany* 
ching e\%r^ Sfntuur i« all that can br «aid of it. 

ThMi^ «trictiy speaking it iii not ^fimfututurif which extends 
throufhouE the aciica ol objective lorms liom moD down to the idoIc 

• aifar^t Rasyi. Vol- n. p. Jj, 



cuie. It is only fcdiiii;. Coi]!a,ioubu»^ ptOipui only K'ltiii^ lu th 
Intpr And Uightrr m^mhcrs of tlio series, " 11 we niak^ a jump t 
man sny to iho timicnle iiiolJiisks, ^"c sec oo rooaon ttitre to ifllcT 
the cxisEcjicc ol coi^sciou&no?^ Ai aW Tliciclofc the flocuinc of 
cvnhiiion itself foihlck \n fr rrgnnl a!1 rjmi± as hiring (>f thr Mmf 
i:ub«ta.nt a» minel. They arcr only oi like Mibstftncc o^otottrtor not 
f?;^MjriifirM'. only <Ti)Asi mcntLil* and not in thcmftclvca cither rnt ion a t, 
intclliifcnt. or cnni^ciouK.f 

UfTsidr^ the cvolutlomvt';! reason that it ift abtiiird to attribute 
coll«ctou^^c1>^ and per^oaalEty to tunicate tnoIluskK there i« anather 
rtsison (ItainT Irom h»mjin introsjit^rtioii for aiwerling elementary 
teelmgtt to be abcoititc and vinreJatiK) «xitttcnc«. ''A lading, ai the 
iitntancc wh&n it <,\-utit CKiat^t an tifnf JUr sUA, and not a» mi iccl* 
ing/' t Tht? sclJ'pcrct-ptKJii of the ego, thtr u*it-sc? that in all my 
various fe«lmgs U l» / whg am c^ncciouA, tbia *' unity ol appercep-^ 
lion'' dues not exist in (he inq(antaii<ioi:3 cou^c^^usikth^ which it 
irnJtes, tmt only In >iot>srquciii rcllcctioii upon iu It c^umhU furtbcT 
in ihp ponvr nf TfiTahl itching a rrftnin ronnpxinn hprwern fhfl raern- 
oHe^4 of any two fcolingf^ which viq had fit th« i;sni<! instant 

There U one other point of extreme imponancc to be noticed 
in CliiftiiilS ac:CQunl of the elenienury fee]iiiK% or ejects. They arv^ 
t-onncttt-d togeihcr in ihdr st-qucricp am! cor-xiUr-ncc? l>y cnnnter* 
part* oi ihi? phjtical law* oi matter. Were it not ko tbeir corre'. 
Tpondcncc with motions ol mutter ccuH not be kept up. That they 
ilnTuld be ihuN ciHiuL'tted with one anodit-r iniiitali:^^ at fir?>t li^^lil 
with th(* cViaracieriuie of ahscluti^neis ahove ascribed to Ihcm by 
Cliftoid. W<< must suppfj&e thi-rotoru that nhcn CjliHoid tiays thai 
cheir caiateocc ia not relative to ADythiu^ cImt. lie nieaiui no more 
than Uiai they are T>or idiiniately rclatt-d \t> a perHonal conftcioiisnc?K, 
We most suppose ihat ii i^ lliei^ Uws ol ihe i^qnence and eoei^iit- 
cncc of clciiicriar*' fcclinga which, ''when Trokcnles arc so com- 
bined toifctltcT o« lo form the film on itie undr;r &idc of & jcUy-5»hj 

♦ VU- ii. p 87. 

■p. ao 

rKort»suit cuFFt}iu> on ihk &out. w £<AiuKt. 



to combiiH- Utv denienht oi loind'^cufl which go Jitimg with ihcm m% 
N) form tlw faiat b^inningit o] tvnlwnce. The came I aw^ cum bine 
Icelincs ±o a» to lonn ^toni^ kind ol coD»cioiunes», whefi the mole^ 
cii]tf9 aic >o combizMNJ as tu lorm the brAit) and nvrvoua if^^tcin of a 

Wo ir« now After tJi«se pr«limiQ«ry explanjtioos in « poftit:iMi 
lojkpprcciftCc what iftthc i:i»1 and core of Clifford's apccutailonH, It i« 
iIits tli^t c)k.- rcftlii^' c'XivriiHl ro our mUKt^ whkh j^ TOj^ebouivd in 
our mindii ai; maiii^r i« in JiscIE min<)-«Eufl or olrniMiiAry loclinga. 
the itnivof«c con«i«lfl cniirftly of miDd-gtufi. Some oi this u wnven 
inio ihc cf>mplcx form of hTimnn mmd* cartninmg impcrfcGl rcprc* 
wniAlJons ai ihr niindvltiA miiMdr ihrm und oi Tlirmwlvr* bI«i, ak 
a n^ifTUT rt*flc-cu iu ovhn image in another mirror, aJ infi/tituai. Such 
an impcrlcct rvpretcntntion i« colled ^ matt^rinl univcrrse. Thi; two 
difrci pninu ihcrciorc of ihc doctrine as summed up Ivy Cliffonl him- 
veH are : 

I) Mailer \s i mental picture m which mind'Vtud U the thing 

3J Reason. JuteJliiferice, and vuticiun are j>ropert)e> ul d curct* 
pU'E A'hic-h ts iTiridv up of elemt-'Tits th«inftelve<i not railonal, not ftw 
tciligL-nt, not coni^ciotiH. 

We fllidli do CltfCoird an laJLtatice if we interpret the fore^oiiig 
iliMjryasa diutliittc ^md not as a monistic vie w^ l e. as a view which 
po^i)b<r>4 two idtimate principles ot reality rather ihaa one. Clif- 
ford houT-vcr ofteji »pcuk& a^ if feelini; and matter were two co3r' 
ilinacc a»|)cc1a of rcdiltyr irfcduciMc Lo otie aiiutlier. Foi cxampli: 
hi? allmvi; himi»*H ti 4|iraW of mind^^nifl a*t going along with the 
matciiiij object, <A lnw>. conne^ling the cloiiicnls of min<l-8tufl 
which nrc only ii't/aUrp^rfi of the phy^c^l law* of nialtcr and not 
Ihoiwr laws ihem^elvcf^ Akaiii he writes Ip- 78) as lollows ; "The 
diclinctian lietwi-xn eject and object. foTbidfi ua to regard the eject, 
another man'« mind, a» cominf; into the world ol ohjcccs in any way* 
or a.-i staiidins in the lelaiinn of cause <]T effect lo any chanjccs in 
lh;il lAYirld-'" Sut-h Ungnat^e n^mimU u*i of SpTnojr;i'ft doclrine that 
bodyalonc can determine body to move and only thcnsht determine 
thought to think, but we tnu«t not therefore supptMe that for CJiflord 


as for Spiooxa the two rival kingdoms of lltouKlU and cuccndccl 
matloT air irrmroTirilably fin\rrpd or nomma!!)' united l>y iht.- fig* 
mcnt oj a. tiinglc substance ct uhich thc)^ aic attributes What Clii* 
ford moans is tluit the iliifitt fj a feding m> inr a* it 15 Anythini; at 
aU and ihat. if thin^^ ct^nxisl or r^uccerd <;ai:h other acconlins' to 
law*, they on(y coexist and follow at icdin^a ixnd conformably to 
lawfiot Icchn^. Not only is tiie clcmvitUry U-ditig ;x thm^; U&vU. 
but thin|£:t'm'tbcm»cU'cs arc elementary fcclioeit. 

U i* incunibtrnt (herefoTt- on ni to a»k if an tleim^nlary firpling 
U equal to the double burdvn put upon it by this theory 0! being 
the real univtrsc of thinK^ and oi cremating itu; human mielll^cficv^ 
In aU9Vh«ii:r^ iLjs i^uestjou wk inu&t be cuieful to divtisi Iv«liiigs Iw' 
forehand of any characieri«rics which they only possess tt% gAihrrrul ■ 
up into llio unity ot a soU, for at ilie «tAge in which we oic con^idcr- 
in£ rcalily strives liavc not >'ct arisen. It h hfiixl to conceive what 
te left of IcdinK aftrr thc:-»ie characR-iistic^i liave hc:rn reinovudj in>r 
doc4 mtroftpi^ciion help n« hor?, for» afl Clifford vnry tniiy i^yis, thft'H 
hmd^tmcntiLJ deliverance of eoii«ciou&nc»^ft aflirms its own complexity 
and It srcnis iiiipo^Tiiblc:. as 1 am *i prevent consltliitcd, to have onty 
oni? alH«>hitrly simple fedintJ at i timi-, lUrmcniary /cdinfi*i how* 
ever could h;ird]y confiiitutc the couno« without thtry follow on« an* 
other, coexist, and connect thcm»t:lvG5 tof^ether in the^r sroupin^s 
according Co ctittain liiw», 1. e. by Nome ijihetent necc^^ity always 
l2iki? up ti^ie Havne attitude's lowiird t^ch otlu^r» and t1ii>i niut^h Clif- 
ford a^uni^d Iliac they do. Vet thc^-e ii^nuniptiona wiii not bear ex, 
anunatioii' Let u« c^caimnc fir^t the poDtnlato that (cdingv (cllow 
in a lixed i>idei . (:dll tht^ni a i' < d, ti ^lUteeedn a ;iiLd piectoles t ^d 
ii makes a differ^-nce, which comes after or btfore the oihor. Now 
being ahsoJutc fcdings, not only is a past and iion'Uxitiieni before ^ 
begins ii> bc» ao h before t, but each is in turn the entire reality and 
there is nn rnnseiousneMi brforr whidi \\wy pa^s in prnte^sirjii, Tho 
fell wo^lJ thus fall into dUconnectcd and miilually indifferent niQ- 
nicnt% ti -h £ J ; and n:^ each ot theae in itirn evhaiiirlA reality And i# 
ftlflo uncorftciou,s of what eoc« before and after, there would be na 
real <(ucce<4«ion at alh In a real Kticcesivicm it makrri; a diffenrncft 
whctlier d coine« before i^r after a, but ixi the cniic we fii]ppo«e it 



ouuUI ntuke nu diflcrcncc^ In Initli tlicrcr can he nu ntUlian ur IJt^" 
lur« ;ind afc<-r b«riv^«rQ iwo t«-Tni& except for a itvU, which Uk«« iivtv 
ol the orw: cli»<ipfM.-arizm; mid o\ the otlKT apv^arini): ; and whcntvci 
MC apcjUt ul thiiij^;i luUu^m^ one dnulb«r wc tacitly >>El:;tuppo^c a vcli 
before whom the ]>roi:e««ion passes. 

It U even more diHicult 10 undeT&taad how elermeDtary fe«hnge 
can be grouped And complicated tn « fixed order of cocxistuncc- 
MiiiO hiift not yet triner^od, m> ivc nifjst f^upposv tlidt ilic i^roupini^ 
lakcfi ptAcv in spact^- In thai cflwt onp fo<>Iirig Hiusi b» nghi rr JiKt, 
^ftbovo or below another Th« futility ol sud> speculftiioa will como 
home to Anyone who will try to rcaliK: how a IccliDf qI am^ll cJin 
be nbovr or Inflow ofir of ia*ilr. 

We have next to cotiKidci Clifford « accouDl of titc gcnc9i» out 
t>l elementary IccIitlkk oI pcr^onDi conjtcifliiRtieu, The hypothc^?. ol 
mind'HtufF^ wc tansi rcmembcn WiiK Itamed in order Co prcM^rvc the 
saini* continuity of ^f^rrivi* Utct^ a« u'e ser lo c^xi^l in the <:;t^c oi 
o6fectivt; lactii, to provider, that i^. a |;radual dt^'clopment uJ the 
htunan mind out ol the simpler teelin|;» of amtxbKand cvenol Atom». 
It luu^l bi; deuietl liowt^ver that the liypotlicxii^ ih a Mic:i;caak if we re- 
nin tli^ iisiijil ineaiiin^'^ of iJi*^ wcmis contininiy and dett'lo|>rni^ni, 
Properly spc^-akinc a thing can only be aaid to gro^ or di^vcltjp when 
it rctuainii the utmc mih tt»clf all throueh i\ic process and unfoldb 
therein capacitie:^ which HCTir anyhow Uient in it Eo staft wilh- 
T-hiiK a tadpolr devcloin; into a froff, a gmh into a hnticdly, and 
tbc child ^rowii inicihe mnn. Hut in the :icncii oE 4:|ceLR which 
begin* frcm atamn and aflei nrnning through ^inio^ba and ape finally 
c'ulmiDAtc* in thi- htimnn irtcllii^rrncc there i>i no pnini of idenlity. 
DO community betwe^^n the lintt and la«t tcrmt. The eject which 
IB the molecule in denied by Clifford to be either conxcionx or ra- 
tional, nor Ima it evea will, like the philo»t>phieal f^ictottini of S(;ho- 
penhauer or Von Hanmann It it a purely negative conception. 
the ab«crect oppoeiep of that niind into which it is to ultimately de- 
velop. The hitttu>i between our intcUii;cnce and a thin^ in itself, 
which call it fi^-lin^ or mlnd-^tuff, 01 wfiat we will, is merely all 
that our intdligcnco te not, i« none the losa of a hiatiifi« becau^ ic 
is, with tbo f»elp of apea a nd smcrl>af, spread out ihirii oo to epc&k. 


THE «l>M»iU 

It wciuld be Ijetlcrr fr^uikly to nvow iht? chaKm that <?:ii%1« thnn Fi 
gtoftt ov«r i1 with words lilcc evolution nitd EJcv«Iopm«nt, 

*'Wlwti iL mMcrial orgam^m," writes Clifford, "haa reached 
ccrldin (omj^tcxity ul ncrvoux^itiuclurc, the t^uauiilcx oJ cjcttivc facts' 
u'hRh ^twa ^luTLg will] its Mdion reac^c-t thui modt* ^f ooanjtiicjitiun 
nkicli is caitcd conaciou«nws. Wb«D a str«ain o! le^Jicgs ^ 00 com- 
psciud together that at each instant it conibta of i t) new fe<;li;ui3> M 
(31 fjiiiilL*r ifrjJFlitioiis ul jirrrvluuH uiitH, <iiid I j^ links coiiiiectiiig^ 

ih«so r4>pctiliciis, the stream is called a conftCLOiicn««ft. Conuriotjs- 
aoss IS Ihufl a relative thm^, a mc>du ot coi»plicatjon ol cerlAin oJtr- 
m'cnis. and a pmptny of the complex ao pioduced." If wc look 
iiiTn rhi*i ^[aipnicTir wr qpf* ihat lt firlv nmc^nnrs to iViU ■ thst f^rfing? 
conKimiEe a eon^joiig self when Ihi^y brcome lite fcdtngs of at con- 
scious self and not t^cforc, lor csctpt *s gathci<:d vip in the unity of 
B ficlf which hds m«ii)ory and remains Ehit ^anie ihroiiKhctii its dif- 
f^Tpncus frclin§[^ can bi? ncilhof new nor roprarrd nor joined by 

J ) Tlut ft fceline is ucw means that 1 allcnd I0 it, conirast it 
with formftT nnrs *nH drnirtc- ihar I hav<" n»i frit it bpforr- H 

9S That A f«cr]inD[ it. a previous feeling row repeated meaniith^t 
1 recognise it n» hAving Jilrcidy occurred. 

3) If feelings ate join ci] hy link^ of whac nature arc lhc«c linktt? 
CltffcjTd does not say that they aJ*o arc feeling, fco jireiinmahlj" ihey 
are not : in thnt case n^ link ift left s^ave a er>iinectin^ f-elf. But 
even if Ehe: link is a feeling it cannot be le^ii thnn a feeling of the 
logeLlimnexs ni twu uther feelings, but hucIi ^ fediuy wtniM iiivuLrt! 
memory of these fvelings and memory' involves telf-hood. It i* really, 
howuvtr, an abuse o( words io apply the term feeling in such a CASOi 
We might wltli llunii: a;ik of this feeling nhich links uthei feeling) 
*' !ft it a taste, a tme]]. a soutkU ;iti imprr^snion at si^'ht or loueh?" 

Clifiord makes a n-I*rence to Haeckel's treaute upOD " Z«]U«eie& 
uod SeelcTiJcellcn,"* Haecker^ view is that *5\-ct>' protoplaimic cell 
hAS 4 auul of itH own and Chat vdien a number uf theMr am tumbtn^ 
under certAiu eonditions, as in the human brain, th«y fjenenLte ifi 


^ Dfwtt^Af IfirM^tiAam, July, 1^8- 

l-Klf|'lC»K0K<:llrl'IIK»O?f THIC HUtJI. tH feATIHlK- 


«li«ir mntluini ihr hiimAn itciul. Hr hHpA our hk tUKir^' by point- 
ing to Mich plinu^fi at national «pirJI, a luilJon's comcioncv, u peo- 
p]e'» will. No<hini:> he conicn^^ coitl<! hv more IC4] ihau tli<!»e 
Antilles, which arc yri only rc^tihaitis of xUv: wills, s|tirits, And con- 
»cicncc£ of the ficpararc intlivrdiuU ^ho compo!^ ih« nation. 

Tbi* is ah intcrcstini; 9ipccii]iLiic>nt whkh il tvouM bo M pity 1o 
dbmiM abruptly mcri^Ty bccAuM it U firoundJcss. No tluubl out 
tudits ami brsihiv may he rtgarderd as colanicw of protoplasmic 
imitvol uhichejtch ha£ an independent litcol Jta own, ol which vuch 
is born, notm^hc^ itself, reproduce* iisclf, And ftt )a«t breaks tip and 
ilica^ Tike coktiJcA cellv eapocJAlly in our lilixxl are f iich units and 
hariT a« gixxl d c[s*im to lie callvd individuat« as the ;imir^ba which 
wtr find ^Kiniming nbout by ilntU in any pood* 'llier-c iinil« ate 
ecrtninJy aJikc and mtiM be alloittcd to have inner states of their 
own, Il ntay also bo frv«1y conceded that th«? vKU(«^nce of certain 
jawsrd fitfliiffi ir> thefiO cp1I» of wliich n)y bram and n«r^l^l arv ccm^ 
pO0*>d n Ibo condition ct c«rtam fitutea of tcchog and amotion aHs 
ing in mc* Dut «U llicsc Biltnia^ion^ fail to ndviuiLe v» a step to- 
trani HatrkH'^ conf;hiiiion. That Any number of aioma ol proto- 
pU«nn htiv«? »<oidR and ftoul-&iat«s is not enough ^r se lo produce* an 
cxim Aonl whidi Is none of them, yet likt iheir boiits and posaCNsrd 
of a life nf ii8 own. Evr-.n if ih«- n)olu:«ile» of niy brain wc-fe each 
in pos«e«Qion of a fie1f<onscioii«npw as ample as try own, their 
mcTfi juataponiiion could not Ktve rise lo my BcJf- consciousness. 
From first to \hsi ihi^jr soul-Matrs rciiiaio tht;Lr&, mint; rcm^Iu atinc. 
The rratinninK rmplnyvfl by HarckH tnvolvf^ a fnlUcy of rnnipr>«i- 
tion t — because each of a colony of c«lls it, ^, /, d^ has % eoul of its 
oirti. therefore the colony b« a whole ha» a io\t\ of its own, whkh ls 
Dol ihc «Hil tjj any <ine of ihcni- Nor do thf? anak>Kic« t-Iaecke! in- 
vokes help him at all, for thi^ lifp of a nation ^n^ik not exi^l at all 
e3iccpt as the hvcfi of the individiinls compo^inK EUat nation, not do 
we eapect lo find any irjiits m our so called nalionaJ spirit which aie 
not iiltimittdy rontribiitnl by indivLifiut^ : fTarc-krl hnucvrf woiild 
havv us believe tbit the mere compn^iition a\ the primitive arid sim 
pic KKils oi separate Amccb-t results in a kkman soul with its i«x:nllh 
of intuiliom^ and interests. The utmost wc are entitled to say is 


TKZ »0»t!tT. 

that ^iveu a (.crtuiii Loiloceitioi) vi cdln In iUc bniu thcrre may by na 
pmtrely n<iw acT of ibe irllnite 1>« generated a l^uman soiiJ, Ir ii 
only by pJnying fa&t nnd loo&o wiiti uords Ihal wo can deduce ihio 
(3CW soul from an aK^rcKalc of t>ther aoute ctihcr lik<: or unlike it«elf. 

It is siirprisiog t1iat Cli!Furd shoitid have raco^niiivd that iho 
renlliy imdc-rlyin^ fio-c:il)oil niAtior ic nkin to injn^ and y«l have 
tdcniificd JE ralhcr with ihc qua^^j-TucntAl Ucls oi An amccba or i>[ 
ail aloiii iLah with the inlciIiK<:iicc of m&t\. The afguiiit-iit by vrliich 
he nnivcfi at thifi conchmion U aft iollowfi i You aifi a face, n yoico, s^ 
touch, AK an object to mv ficfific& in );hoft, arc a mere ph^inianm or 
appearance in my coii»cio!l*ncss, part and parcel of myself nnd not 
Hiiinnri ffom m*' in iitiy ^Aay. Hiil I c;iHmil hrip infrrritiK an fjr'.c.t, 
to vHt £c«linf;t and a con«cioutii>e4s Iihe m>' own, behind the sen- 
fihic »ht3w of your pcT:»>ii j and thi^ consGoutinesft ol yours which I 
addrcvfc as jvv, h llie truth iif iht; uhj«:ct ur appeataaccu xthich I 
have. Vaiv ^re the rrality whidi I rt-iilly |>erteivc, srj far ut I per* 
ceivc anything more Chan my own leclin^^ Similarly when I watch 
nn fiiiKrbji, what I perceive as & son^ewhat lormlEsi masif of proto* 
p!;isTiE is really in itself tlie sEta^^lin^ life within, !-as!ly whai 
handle and perceive ait a cr^t^tal or meul ii r4ra]lyTlie ejet'l H he 
we read force or nncoosciouia w:ll m&teaUol ejector irindsluti. Ciii' 
iord^n view would practically comcidc i^ithSchcpfuhauer^a; foiforc 
iH truly an eject in Clifl<vd*s »en»e, not an object or iAppe:irarc^ 
to me- 

Now the human intelligence aciws late in the history of ihmtEft 
and is altufjetliei n aeLondary and deiivailve thing. Couite^uc-fitly^ 
the wrirM \^ not rt*»\\y whar ii is for my rftn*iririiiftn''s*i. M) Wf!t- 
aiitflianuttjc \^ false in proportion a« my minti is complex nnd dcriv- 
uu\e. C<jiivcr«cly, tbcOV//crAjMii0vi<'jf each bcfui: approximates to 
truth and tntcoDics less ard less illusive in {iroptiriinii 9S the cjii^c 
which it in reality i IK approachc* the primitive simplicity of luiitd- 
tlxiMr 1 am rtafh very licilc o\ what I nni 4,'iyfiitivvs/y. If yon wAnt 
a truer uxponcnt of the iiuth o^f ihlnes you mtisi go to the anio; 
or icfwor aiiII. Tc, oa compared with me^ is timuUutfy mo«t of vr! 
It U rtnify. The abftolutf^y vimple atom ia probably the only hcin 
who if^ quite free from dclu»»iup. The conclusion then to whiclf 

Ant ■ 

tttttTK^niUL CUrfll>D OK TltK SOUL tS TtAll'&R. 


^lifiord looJucIa lis is ihis ; that the ufiivcrsc lA not rcfttljr such as it 
tpp«!jin; to oiir irtclligencc. «till l«<^t, I prciiumiv, «iich fl« It would 
ippcar to A highc*T intclMt^cncc; than Autit. It is tcaIIv s^uch ftnd 
such onJr is it w^nlii appcor to ihc iKJnic whose cjcci is The loivc*i 
rung in the iiKldvrr t>\ mind-Miiff, Our imrvrrsi; ApTrjii) mil in i^parc 
sind limi^. with zl\ its cplendotivi; nnd httrmonivst. U a dehicion ; nayr 
more, tht? human i^nul ivith its aesthetic and mornJ M:n%ihiliilcs it^ 
Icars and .iipiialiotif, is ihc p;ircni dchnkjn ivhich hrccd^ th<! dchi- 
«ioii n( a I'OHmDt *'Wp ar** such Miiff at dr<?:imK are njsiile of 
The lootti way in which Clitlord uved the word (celinB' <" cctuiv- 
il lo Etny fcmi ol consctousDCSS, MiniiirU htm tu the (act tlitc a 
i^tialiftcil Uun^ art sui:h la not giVL-ii iii l(?t-3iii^ ni all and kd liim to 
suppose thai tht unrvvrw- a> we know it woxild continue to tland m 
\hc abM^acv ot all cornfvlex eji^cts whatevGr Mr. Green hau tihoAa 
that all theories of ih« object which ignore the workmanship of 
thnnght niAnit^u ihtiein ^rid idenlHy ihr f9w oi t^dn^^ with iTic^ir 
f^rrt/v (oad straight to nihiliiinL To stich inhitism Clifford'^ doc- 
ITtQCi Uho Hume's which it resembles, immediately hrin^ ua. But 
Httme did itvt take >eiiously the demolition of reality involved in 
h\s throfy rhsit TliinR». fln- only wn\ a^ ihej^ aw f^ilt ind that fe«!in^« 
arc "entirely Ico-^f. and separate" (Treatise J, 559) wtiile Khe solid 
Iramcwork ol reality ia an illiision bred of a pTo;Kn»Tty of our minils 
to fci|£n connections and rdaiicinf whctv thcro are rionc. Hnrac: 
tellis uft that hp regarded hi* own ^pectd^^Tinnii a« ''phJlnfiophicjil 
melancholy and delirium." as 'clouds to be dispelled" /rresiisc 1, 
joi). Uc writes "1 dine. I play a cAtiico£ backgammon, 1 con* 
Tvrv- ami am merry with my frienda ; amt when, nflf^r rhror ctt four 
houn' amusLinrni. t vkYitiJd return t*^ Ihc^e tpccnlatioDR, they appear 
ao cold, nnd strained, and ridic(do;i?«, that t oinnot ^nd it in iny 
lusart tv enter intu tlicni vjy futthcr." Htil C]ilTt>rd, like Hnaley, 
toole >Tum« ati gramf tfn'/t/x, forgetting that fec-linf; a£ snch doci; 
nut rvveal an object at all, Jhcce is a paiJ^iuiffG in n letter of Chf- 
Jo^d'^ vaitten to Prolesnur ToUock in September. 1674. k propos of 
Grren'a iiiiroduction to Huntt, whfch evincv* pretty clearly that 
CUflonI did not discern the true drift of Hume'K speculations in the 
way Hume did himsoll ■*! hope." he writes, "you hnve aeen 




Sidgcwick'fi r«mark« on ilie introduclioD ; Jt^ poinU otit ihat to provi 
Home jn&tiflicicnc i» not to du much at Oic pvcacnt da]r* - - ■ > Orctiiij 
for iiis(niici!'> painis out ihsi Hiimr- has iio cnmplcle lhcoi>' nl ili«j 
ohi«ci; — CO lind laitlc wiih Kiim<> for ihc omiMion i^ likr Ulammgj 
N'ciA^oa lot not includini; M&xivell's i^loccricity iti the Phnci^niL 
Hoc Cliffvfd hdidly wriios as if he saw ibai hi» own theory of Uii 
obj*Ti Afi c. R. ar i3r(rfUif*[l Ir^lin^ is nprn rn rjartly ihre ftame 
criticJKinK AR Hiini«'fi, aa if he undcFDJtciod. what Ihimc had an ink' 
tins of. ihkU in proving ibc ceo to be o rcUiivc IhinK inslcJid of ihc 
hi^Art am! cciiir^^ tif realiiji yon diuijiAtc ihc nnivcrbc into noihing^j 
Thrfi- are ipvpral other fcMnrcit in Clifford"* dortrinp tlwt call U>r 
critrcism. It should lor cxnmpk be pc?mtcd qui thnt the entire vicv 
that ejects nrc the truth oi objects is in the first ini^tftncc a dclivcf' 
anri* oF cnnsciotisnass iti^li. I noly tntnKcr-nd my imiividnal fFcl< 
ingft, Kays Cliffordr no lar a« J infe^r a conscifMi^nens more or It 
like my own to und<!rlic th^ni ; and this uodcrlyiny; e>cct tn the «oJe' 
rcnJIty. ''(low thiti inlcicucc ia ju?ttiticdi hovt coit«ciou!itievs can 
testify to tli« ^xisi^nc^ of anything oiri^id^ of itst-tf, I do aoi 
lend TO »ay ; I need not tinit^ a knot which Xhv woiIJ has cut lor 
long atfOp" 'Vol. 11. p. 7^.1 But i( consciou^ncB* is but the prop-^ 
CTty uf d le\npuiiiiy <jon;u(ie|toi] ti( uiicOLiatiou^ fuelin^^ what vjiluc i 
thai] w& aElach to its aSi^iTanc^s? They ar^ certainly not valid c^t^H 
c«pt for ilst-lf ; Ihcy do not hold good lor the atomic feelings of which ' 
th«T world tjlliniatcly coii>»is1t^- But my hclit^F Oiat the real ift in tha^^ 
la^t r^4nrc ftn ;Ltnni of fcM^lliiK Ia ^fnipiy an exii^nKiorL nf my ronvto^^^ 
lion that cjocifi arc the truth of my fcelinK*. Prove thifl convictioo 
an illusion — and Clifford doc« prove it to bo ALJch. when he doc]«r» 
conM:ioL)f^rLe%^ In Ikt a iclativr thiii^ — and ytiti proved lhc< rnltre theory 
an ilhition. Thus iHct lai! oi riifford's theory i« bitten nii by th^ hoa<L 
The hypotheniK thnt leclioKs; be felt, without being toh aa 
my feciiiiK*. i* a very noteworthy one. "A fcclinic at llic inst^i 
whrn ir fxij^is, i?itisti6 ttn umf ftir stfh. ami not ws. my feHing." Thh 
ift why a Greek fiatd 6i6oi>xft in Eht- !(en«e ol I see, because the a< 
of perception i» nccesMrtly over, when wc become connciotti of it. 
■■ Wlien,"conlinne« Oitford. "I remember the furling aMni fi;«lin|E, 
There come* up not merely a fa*inl repetition of the feeling, but i»- 

I tan I 


vmorgssok curi^kD o» mt sool iw tfAtune. 


ixtricabh' connected with ii a whole set ol connectionfl with the 
Kcncta] xlrcnm of my cunM.-ioiij^iicMs/' Thi* is very truly and aculcly 
otmvrvprl btil il tH :m Admi»ion iliM ih<* iinTe]3F^<l fi'trlin^ is nn rTt- 
rntiiit in our c-xpvTiencf!, xhzt in our cosmos ai Je^sC t^ierc is no T^tjiF 
uhatcver. tm( that every corner oj it ia HIiLmiiied by e!w presence of 
a relitting »e1f ^^ ctriivcioLtbnetLH n^rvtr directly te%tilivs at nil tu 
the exislencf* of an nUsolxiiv feeling. To be atv feeling u (etlmg 
musit already bv brcui;ht by c<jniiections ol concent inlo ihe web i>l 
my ex|>erlence, but what do [ ktiow ai fcelm^a inltich ate nut mtne^ 
Are not "absoluir frelbii;^'^ an inference ba'ivd on ub!^r\niion of 
low organt^mi iik« the Amwba. which -av aie convinc4Ml luvc no self 
and yet JocT? It should be al»o noticed ihaf this snppoMtion that we 
aic not direcUy but unly ex /u>aI Jaita com^cioub of cJiif (ceKitif^ 
fAtiaiY *ii airnp'ir. Thu* Clifford writp^- "This mr-mnry (of a Wl- 
IRK which eaiiKtcfl tM» tittii fur sUA Gtfi my iocliriK^ if. /uvj iremory, 
relative to the IcelinR, which it |>oriiAllv rccuiIU : hut in so far u% 
it et il»elf a feeling;, li i-i absolute, Dirt^ an ^uJi/* That t* to ihay. I 
am noc directly but only rx ^ttri fr^te coni!cioti« even of what \ re- 
tnemtier. To he cuiiacious of the content ol a memory 1 mtwt rt- 
mrai^r ih^t I remember it. Surely thia new memory in turn L-aiinot 
be known r^ poiijotiv and so I riiiist rtrntmb^r lltiil I it^iiienihrri tliHE 
1 rem*mb«r///r/ ir'^y«/jvf/vw, beiore I become reidly i^meittn of 
an>-lhiA9 at all. 

One other poini mifiht be raJseJ. \V1iat is the nature and origin 
cil the lart^ whirh Hovprn th^* t^'ijii^ncf.' anH ropi»itiif^nce of feriingt 
We haw already i;«en cHat foolinga a^ such neither follow nor co< 
exbt a|>Drt from a self. 

" Tht^sr Iftws an: cinintcrjiAns k>\ \\\{- !ftii> whlcli sovcrii pliy*- 
ieal phcnATn^^na. " ClJIford iti WTiitnt( thtit conducts his ^pectilniion 
without prejiidioo to hift common «cnM; belioJ in a world of n«ceA«anIy 
and rattonalJy rclatet! thins^- He doc^ not see that nilh tlic rcduc> 
tion of llie real tf> a lediJig physiral fart* disapprAr and with thcKC 
tacu the hiwi io whkh l;^wi^ ul feeling sdial) corrciipond. He i£ evi- 
dently confusing the Uw> of feeling with t|ic psychological law» of 
a»M>cuilJon wrhicii depend upon the environment of the individual'^ 
M!ni«H by a world already real. He di>e« rot »ee that the |>ioblem 

224 1'"^ MO^IST. 

he really im[>oscs on himself [s this : starting from no world at all to 
arrivu at one. or siartiiiy from the world as it may be supposed to 
picfure itseU in the feehnps of an amceba to arrive at it as it exists 
for the human intellifjence. We must not concede to Clifford any 
nn)re than to Hume this postulate of a real cosmical order which 
shall give the cue Co feelings when and how to follow and coexist. 
Huxley only allows it to Hume, because not having passed the 
threshold of Idealistic philosophy he cannot divest himself of it. If, 
Jiowever, this [Postulate be denied, then the doctrine that the ^ssr of 
things lies in their /*f/"r;)*/ will recommend itself to no one. 



THE proposition thut thini^s in thcnisclvc^ csaaot be IcDoivn, h^a 

4Sl Ksni'K philnsciphy. Kani condudrt thr fin^ M*ntir>ti of hin '"Tran- 
Kcn<l«otAtc t^lementarlchrc'' wilh this ''ciiticAi admonltiOA "; 

' Thar in tfFCcr-il nuiliJui: whkli a intuLicO EopticFU n ihiaif in tEuU. nad ihxt 
iptcc it KKri A fuiin wbiich brt^jai^vda a iir^pcrlj tw Ibitiio , tmt iliac ubjixMni-eqiiiic 
onkoow to lU in tbcnudrca, BAd vbtil wb call cxilword vbji^cl* 4r« nolbini; d^c bill 
oaf* rtpcwatalBov of our untlUhty. wtiiM* foam ih ipucM. btil iibov* r*al oorral- 
Ul*. tlu* ibing in EtvJ. H not IriHiwTi ))j iniuni nl Otr**^ r^prmHiuriont Qor «tvr 

Tb« irrm **'Jiin^ in itself' means ori^initlly the ol>i«ct as it 
Ut initcpendciit ui ihc tKinkitii; subject^ coj^nicion. For ifibUACc : 
A Taiiib^jw appears in the clouds ; tlie rainl>ow is nut a thinif in ii< 
•filt, but the apiwa.raac<- of * *hing io ttseW. The rainbow cxlsU in 
nan's senstbility oaly. TKc colors oi the st^ctrum, indeed all col^ 
019. the colors of the sky. of the clouits, of trc^s, ol livms bcini:^ 
Sfc* HirtisHtiotis only ; t)i<:y A(e ^\ibj<^livt< pbetiomL'viii. they utp cer- 
lain kirkd& of k^Jiitgs rcprc<jcrtirig objective reultTies, but they arc 
sot thes« objeclive realities th«ms«lv«&. They arc perceived in the 
biaiiJ Slid are projected to « place out«ide tlie ori^dnuiu. The iain< 
bow. n? ii U srrn, ii^ not ? ihin^;:, liiii U k Kon^vTlirng wea. it it an 
■pp«jintnc« only And tbic U true ol jll things Meu and hetud and 
perceived by any one of the »cn}cs. The frcnsc-picc^ire^ Arc Juciiliticd 
ID q>ACc, ibey vc |ifojcctc<i otilsidc to a spot where ihc conibtntnl 
cx]M?rience of the scn«ec liafi taiight a scniicni beinn to e3C|)oct them. 


THF. MO?*lHT. 

ikit aJl the objects of tho objectiv<; tvorld A$ they ftrc perceived «i 
and romnin »Lil}jettivc iter K:*|>c:rc:c]>£ ion ». The worUI of otir seni 
aroMnd ii?i is woven of our *cn»iitinnft- It ?b iiii»ri' -ipppararci*. This 
jfi not a '^iit-stion coTicerniiig u'Uich there is nny doubt, ihit it tiniplj^j 
& matter of fuel- But the <]Uc;ttion arisuf^p " Can wc knew ihing^ aj 
Uiev »ic tf.dqicHiluil uf fsenaaliuii ? C4Tk wc know Ihiiigs iti thm>*| 

The physicist and ev<*fy ficietiitttt is i^ns^gcd with the problem,; 
WImT are nutiLTAl phGuomcnn kdcpcuJcrt of Mf^Hatio^i? LEghtiJitt 
^en4atl01l oj viskm, but what Is the oUjeciive process thai taket] 
plaCNp «.h<>i.i a human oyf pr^rrciv^fi lighl ? Th« j'hwicist an««-er« 
thia problcu by elim^naliiiK in his mimi the aciiAc- clement mul by 
«Je»c(ibiue ihc JAcis of the ptoci-^ in (cemii ol matter tiiKt uioliou. 
His aosw*»ri*i that lijsht, obprnvply rormidrrrd. i^aeitfiain vitiratlon 
o( the other, 1( we can rcty upon phyaieal «ciencc» the thing lU 
ilseli of a riinbow would Ur a cenaiu rcfrAcuon cf riher-wAvCi 
Tlit»*c vifjraiions of ilur rlhrr-wavcK arcr irHEisjnincd liom the sun, 
and being brckcii in the falling raindropti actually take pbec indo- 
pcndcni ol cognition, they are real whether we look at Thnm or not. 

The ultiakiitc jiim of :icicnce is a dc^criptitnl ol ihe natutdl phc- 
nomcna not in (t-rms of i«.-ii!ic'»?ltmentt, but in iL-rms of fonn. That 
feature of n thing which we call itK mEitter, con«titutei; its reality,! 
but the form of a ihinf£. of a motion, or of a proceu makc> the thing 
thai which il i«; every aci of t:uiL%utioii i% a cltanife of form, mul lie 
iartivi of things are dutermint-d with tlvp a«i»t:\nce of tht' Dju-rjtiorifi 
cf purely formal thought, i. e^ throu;:h mensuririg or courting. Such 
ia science, not only a» tt ought to be, but aUo a« it acttially is. All 
our stimii^v«. each one in hk f^eld. Are.' nfJiiKriouHjly or iiiicoii^eioi»Iy 
wnrkin^ out a vohition of this problem, An<l a solution ol this piob- 
lera means, in our conception, the objective cognition of ihc world — 
i. c, n deKciiptiun uf the nutuml jHocra^vn 4« they Mre ii)de])nident 
of ivnsihilily^ 

Kant krvw %«ry well UiaC a de«crip1ioD ol tilings and ol natural 
procetiseti in terniv of form was posiiblc- Hecluug* ncvertbdc«, 
to the proposition ihai thirigs in ihvmselvcs are unknowable. And 
■why? A de^criptton of thing** and of nsiural proccf^$Pfi iii lermt ol 

AKK rH£Re rHi?<iis ly TH»;u^i'.t.vta? 


form waft in his njimion not a9;y«*t n dt^scripiioii 4>( ilimgK in ihi-m- 
iselirc*, for — sa\d \ictv we :ir« conlrontcd witli tUe original idea and 
«b« fiWiuQF^nlal error of Kantian ib^^u^ht— Kant did not consider 
the forai> cj[ iblnj;^ aj an ul^ji^clive ({uality ui lliczi.n, he maiziUinct] 
thnt ihc fuTTiiat elr^Tiietit iv ]iiit«*]y m^niHl and m<*n>l>' •tubjcctive. 
Tlw thmking mind. b« declared, atiribul^s them to xhe ob]CCi, 
Space ard time, the pure forrij^ i>f existence, toj^cthcr with all other 
iLiriiis ^tic^h AS LtfUSMlifm. dir. avaotiMu^i, to KjrrCt uot rpirilftii^ <t( flic? 
objccCTv« world, t>tit of chr: ihinking siibji^ci- T)i« thinking' 9ub]4-cl 
cannot help vic^viDK the world Jn tbi> lorm of its Own cognition, it 
Innslcn tlicsi: fcrrnis to the objcclfi. Tlitiviotc ihf think! in liacU 
arrnrdinR tf> Kant ivnulil nni hp nrprcscni^d in a dctnri|itioTi of the 
thing purely in ti^nnis o) torm, the ihicg in its<»ll wcxild aL«ran ihc 
tliinS ^^ ^ would he, Lndvpcndcnl of tunc dnd space- 
Let ns here ]Kj]nloLtt » distinction butwcrn ibc ihintc in its«<If and 
nonmotion. Nmiinenon m^ati* "a ihinrt nf thought. ' Thr nnunional 
wodd is. the world oi thotights in a chmkint; hciiifi'n mind. Ih<i 
tioumcnoft must not be identiiicd with the thing in itself Tlic ivto 
lerms arc often confotindcnt, but they have to bedi«linKi]ifth(Td- Th«- 
jdea o( rt-fltctL-d vtlier vibraiiont iwa "noumenon/' btit therfrfloctcd 
ethci-v lb rat ions them iclvc5. the obioctivc proccM arc a thinic, i. r. 
an objective reality, an<l m «> lai aa tliey arc a lealily. considered as 
beinKindepemlent ul KenHaiicin, weniBiycall tlic*ni "albino in itM?lf " 
Now whtn Kani d«-nit-i tlie objectivity of time and *pjice, he mMH, 
imphcitly. alM> d<.'ny the obicctivc validity of a dc^criplion made 
in t«nn3&ol rncabuiiu^ and counliftn:. The |}acturiat world of nnr 
ten M- percept ion i^ fiub(eCTive, It 19 built tip of ^en^atioas, it i* not 
objective ; atid the i'hx>vld of tbottght is the attempt 1o reduce the 
wbjectivG ii'orld of »en«c< imagery to tcnns of obfcctivc voiidity, L e. 
m lems of fovm. lint this world of ihouiehi is according to Kant 
pufsly tDental, it hs purely noumenal, or, in other wotdftt BOanvona 
do not reprcMnl things independent ol eof^niiion* thcv represent 
thiiifES a* our mind thinkit them. The sensory world iS n^rre ap' 
pearanee, it it a inbjectivv phenomicnonp hiil the waM of choiigLil, 
«ay< Kant, is no les» iubjcctive» tt is a worfd of thought which tie- 
^ribea thing) in terms of purely mental properties and not in prop- 



erticft <A ihc thingEt thcmtdvcft. This \a tintamouni to the propo«>< 
lion, rhiil thiHgs in thcmsehos cannot he knt>wn. 

The tprm " iliiiig in itiii'H/' in the u^oiLt* of ;i thinR as It U m- 
dependcot of «vn4ibility. ^-culd bclU^i be called ^'thc? oUjcclive, 
thing, '^ And wc shall so c&li il when wc wish Co distinguish it Erona 
Kant's ihmg iu hsdf. The objtH:t>vt; ihiiig is Clit lliiiig, nut expressed 
in terniK of <ubjt^t:Ttve elt^me^!?tp such a^ i^eitati^ oi st^Dsibiliiy, buC 
in terms ot i>bjt*ctivo «ltnjt*rita. h e- in turms ot (onn. Thai Sk tin- 
scHptio;) oi things in tc<ru]A oi fonns ia po^ibk baa never been <lu-i 
nied eiibn* by Kant or hy any KantiAn : but tliry deny tli^i tIic«o> 
tle*cription* are anything mori- Than ni^TF nounfma; Kant niul lli« 
orthodox Ksniians ilcry iVai they rcprc«c:ni the ih^n^s a.s lUt^y ftr« 
iu l)iL-i]ib€lvcb- Thus the icifii Xhln^ in itself in llir; Kantian 5CE1«9, 
conififi 10 tnpsn thi? thing ax ic is Jndrppndrnr of spnci- ;ind timtt 

Thnt cvory nocmcuon is a mental sign it; n matter of course ; 
the noaiLicrnI world >s jdcal. Uut wc maintAin thnt thc»c nicntftt 
si^n^ rcjirL^MTTtl ivaI LiUiibtics a{ the ohjcciivi: world ; tliry have & 
meaning; tlic chingG rcpresuntcMi by them arc actual fvaturvs of re* 
Ality. Kant denies thift, To bim tlic noumcnnl world is purely 
nonmcnal. To Kant there is no space outside the spacctonccpiioDT 
find lio he dcc\3ixvs that ^piict^ is idenl ; jl is not an ohje^tive ipiiility of 
thlngft. HDwever, we maintam. thai ourfpaceconcepti'Ondei^ribes, 
i, e- depicts, or reprcscnls space, our space -conception is tdcnJ, yet 
spac<! L^ rol ideal but real ; it h an obiccrCive? quality of che wor!d, 

Kant's vitw i* duati^tir. or at i^a^t ri*ce*i*4afi!y lr*dfi to diialisni, 
and it appt<ar^ fo r««t on an nnpronounced dualistic aesnmption- 
Kant treats "'the sLibjcct" as something (luite distinct und separate 
from '*th*r(3bjct't/' If he had tmrm^ in ruind iJmi Hie^^abj'^ct is always 
at Uie same tjm^ sn ohject, he wouM have trusiieiJ both ^Libject »t- 
wcll ns objvci «s men ab&iractionB ot one and the enme raility* 
Kestting upoji iLi^cnoncoLi&pic^upposJtioUp K^mi'^ nio»i con^egucn* 
tial rnisTflken in niir opinion, wss h^fi ronrr^piion of what hnralird 
"th^ ideahty of time and Kpaco." H tifti« and spiaco wcrre purely 
ideal, purely mental, purely Mibjccttvc, then indeed, the thiDftS » 
they aro would forever remain unl^no«rn to us then indeed the. | 
thinkLfig mind wouhl be » if shut tip within a hollow globe OBt of i 



whicli il couM never c6c«pc. ihcii indeed tltc world would be divided 
ifito tu'o pans, ihc obj(*ciiv» world, and ihc nubjcciivt* world ; nnd 
ihe unp hclwc<!n both coulti nirvct be briilgt^ti over. Thfi think in g 
mmd would htvc vrilhia itsrlf a nounacnaJ world built a^oa the sub- 
jrctivr rJrriTif-niK nf H?niur-iinjirrfi«tiaTii< This liijbjecliwi^ world would 
poARMfi no objective valtie, it wraxiJd not describe utilities, and the 
objective world would tbii^bciinknownblc, inscrutable, and myr^tTcal 

Tiie idea of a thing in itself f oitnd ;inol her support in a mistaken 
concepliou (4 iht unity of certain tbinyi.. e*[ieciiilly of or^;i^isni«. 
The tuiky of a eoinbination of paru it not merely the mm of the 
pftn», il con*i*l* in their t>uciiHur combiDolioD whidi mafccs an har- 
nioiiiuu!) o;>' u pet dt toll puv^ible. TI]i>) uiitCy lit an iddiuouuj eleu:e»t ; 
it it fln ^niirf>ly nf*w rn-AiioD which exhibits fraiure« not romairi^d 
in tttiy of iu pnrtK- Thmc i« no Ittoiit wnieh cQnt,*iined in a heap of 
little whc^h tLtid ccfEA, the watch is created ihroujrU theoon^binaii'pn 
of tlie-%c whrrls and toRt. Thi? unity of n thinR is its form, cnnwist' 
>ng in n i^pfrcinl arrnxngenkent at ilft pjiru ; atid thift form Although not 
■nnienal is nevertheless reaJ. 

The mnterialistic conception overlooks the Iniportance of form ; 
btjl ihe fffiirilualiM And alu> Tht- traiiMtn[lentali*it nmleiiali^e jt ju 
«om« sptricrial^ubitanc^, nfenliciL-Korindi^pendtnl existrnce^. They 
aro in this way a.4 much tnuteriali^tic its the mfttenidist. 

The ctue«iioa 1ia3> seriously been ueked. Wlial it a mdody In it- 
self. The qiieMion ivA^ >i.-nsir uhtu wr um1v'r*<tuud by if, Whai arc 
tho«c t]«^v qua]iti«?« which !ippi>ar through a certain co1nbInat^on of 
sounds? Those <]ua]itie4 ate not notTiin^, lhe>- are soinclhine quiEC 
peculiar. We call one of tbciu rbyibni* aiiothei uhh iv tlie fijwd auc- 
cetsion oi tiotr* of n diffcri^nt pitch, The <^ua]itie« of » melody ai a 
whole nrc not (|ua])tins of ii« separate porta; >c1 thctcloTC the mel- 
ody is not A ihinjc m itself- We mi^ht (uac ^i well speak of & wnlch 
tn it«elf, mejoinEj ihi-rrli}' chat jieenlinr tiniiy of the combination of 
ftfipnrt« which mnk^^ii oMhntn a watch, llttlit weihu««p«SLbor 'Mh« 
wfltch in itself f " we miiM l>t aware thet lhi» idea has nol somcwticre 
in a trAn«i; iAiiy'I^uui ah inihtjirndi'iil eJirsItJOCe ahovo space 
and Time, and ouidde of its partf^ The imily of fl eeriain inter Acting 
group cf parts is, on the one hand, tio mere addition cl the thinking 


nit JiosfisT. 

subject, it ifi DOl jniTdy ncnmftnnl, it U r«at and ob}ectiv« ; on tl>« 
otfirr hn;>d tt \^ not A thlie ia jl^clf, indcpendcrii o{ it& parCd^ h is 
[In- prndiict of thi'- T<rlftli<in* in which its purw affcri one anntti^f . 

Jii nr-l pcrhapA ihc hiiwiK of iho^i* vagarirK a miqcaknn conrpp- 
ttoQ of lanGiia^c? Wc coll a ccrtftin Acnsory picture a tree and wc 
fifty, ihr tree has roots, » »tcm, branches, Iciivcs, Add fruits. Autumn 
sriK ir aru^ ihr wiml shalw's ihr Travrs nff ihr hrarrhrt Now wf 
speak of a baf c«« tree Wc ciil ihe trcn down iind v/c t|>cflk of a 
rootlcM tree. Wc bum ihc trunk nnd the hranchci. and the trc<: ai a I 
phcnfmttnnn In icnnc. fill it^ ]>rn|)erti<:3i itic takm away^ Wliai u-- 
maiaii? Tlip Urein iiwlf it !rft, but tht? Cfr^* in itw*lf doc* not exiftt. 
ft all ihc property of a pcr.-ion is lakrn trom liiiiif the perzton himself 
Li fltill left. The properties of a tree, however, arc not propettiei 
in the %umc %en%c : they art qu^ihlit-N. II ;il1 thi? iitialitirft and partn 
nf a tr«e irc gone, if otily tlic trve in itself is left— then there ik Left 
nothing; but the empty word treir, Oie idea ol a tree- 


L«t u« itrlvHy confiitior th<^ ^ound upon which Kaitl Nam his 
view of die ideality of space and lime. Kant a^ks : 

" Whjil then -trc lirrn' .iiidhgmi* ' Arc tbcy icmI ciuilecK^ek? Or jltc lb«y nwrelif 
rdtmtiona cr dafdrniiiiTiliotiH ul thiufi, Much bowuvor ii4 vauld equally botoiif lo 
lh«v ihmeH in ihsmBpIro*. Ihoiifjli llwy tbov Ul wwAr IwcnriffobJ'CiU nf inluiliem ; 
or T^ li^ry rmA m ^tivri^rn/y ^l fij form of tftrjti/i"it, ami ianaffamtiv tc tht iittt- 
ftitht .Kfititfrifit It/ fA/ iHiMif. vrrhuut MrLiit^h ibrMT pTviIioiLra of lirnc aud ipiiior 
could ncFibvaiucbcd to adrobJMl?"* fKr d r. V. ft j; * M^ikkioha," |x 13-! 

We vftciuid^ray. tu sitatc ourci^^iniuu biiclly, tbtit aptice uiiJ time 
are not "reyJ e>itiie-ncts," i *, they are not conrrcio obj^ci*, biit 
Ihvy arc niaJ ncvcrihultuft ; they arc not mataial tliin^^, nol thin|:ivh 
realities^ yet they ate objcclivic piopertk;i of ihia^SL. TlMry aic tlw 
fonns of things Hnd pmrps^fs and belong t« the things whether thi*y 
b«Coma objects of cogmcion or not. In thin wnso, ihry acitially 
belong 10 ihc things in ihcmsclvcs, viz. to the objective ihinK^. 

K^tnt aigiies th^t space and lime are aaX cancepUons dcrive^l 

* ItxUt* trt cnm KinT .tfTumt Iho iulkiDDd quMtion. 



^om outward expcrie^ioe ; ll^}- hive not been aliKuacteil ticm cviifrc- 
imprcajiionK. They arc necessary rcpicucntAtions it frhri, t)i<r_v arc 
not ili%cur»ivc ideji-t or kjcDeTdli?ifitiL)n!», for thcie in bul otic >pucc 
viDiJ one litn^. s|ijc^ Iwiri^ ir-pTtHciilei.! a'i M\wv jinil lime LLvcft^vniil- 

FrctD tli«fiti .irgtiiiKfiitt Kant ijfawft tb« cunclu^iona ilixc tipaoe 
aod time do not rcprcavnt qoAliliGS ^f ao object Irut that cHcy arc 
llie lonii oi ii3l ?it*ii!*uiy pl>riitimc[ia, space beiujj iht' Wm u( ttw tx- 
ternjil. timi* of tin* iiilorrtji] **ti*ie. lii otlwr isofdn, spuce add tmw 
belong to cho dtibjcctivi' cunditioa oi iho ironbibility Aitd not to the 
objective VK>ilti> 

Vl'e nu^vvv^r that oui (.oni^epiiorT^ of TipacL' »nd (imc jifr ^ftrr all 
ikrivod troflii experience Space ard lime ar;^ abtnirftctionN- Thore 
U no lime in itself. There la no space in itself. Space ficd time 
we uoi Jiivctly den«^cd fioin uutwaid ex|jei~jcncc« aci afc they dv- 
riv4jd Irotn ilifl srnfto-ctrnifnifi of ctpcripncr- Itirt^rr pxpcri^ncfl, 
i. «- ro^Cion to eIic; cxc[ii»on ol sonife-trnprtTesinn, ihc ^^xpcrimenl- 
inrX will) pure forni*^ will lead to ihc conMrciction of the concepts of 
i^Hce All thH--1] as of linir. Space; ruc! lime, magniltLdrw and nrjinheiit 
hfivtnR been conanicled in the mind of a tbinkin^ subject an; ap- 
plied ro practical cKpcricnce. When counlinK three trcci^ wc do riot 
ab^tmct the member "three'* fnim the three; trees, but wc apply to 
them the tyistem of numbem in oiir potxe^Mon^ 

Says Kant : 

"Wc Qpr*r cflO frnjigiiu- i>r tatXe a rcproHiiiMJon to ounolvc* of Ok* eoD-oiu«t« 
vpcBot vpiCA thob(th wr rail) tvtkX-^ vaDugfa flunk that ao objeeiftxr* lodnd in it 
If bwI ihnr^fnni tir n)]i«id*-r<Hl j»^ ihc CAnrlilirHi rif fh»t pnttrliflily fit ptrftfiriin^na 
4nd by no Rimnt an -1 (lvt<:iiiimdiEvE] i^trtTrjiJrtit uimii ihvm sod is ft rrinraeaiation 

Space being the gcneralu^ed t-onc*i« o* extended form, and 
tiRi« that oi motion without reference to any GODtent*, it i» naturally 
impaiiaibJc to tbmk the noO'CKiittciKc ol space and time- Tliinkin^ 
ia au AiLi. it is a p]o<.L'^?* - bwA Auy utt, duy piucen. tuiy event, is u 
reality wbicli implies or presupposes ib»» existence of t bo forms of 
reality. Wo can think of matter without reference to form, h c we 
can have die ab^ttact idea ol niatler ; but ^e cannot think th^t there 
lA any matter void ol form. This docs by no inettns prove ihtit foun 

Ttl* ^inMvT, 

hiii nocLing to<lo with mntter. On iht- contrary', tt proi-Pithat form 
and m^Uvr ••iri^ jn^t-pAr.ible, 'Mil* form oi e;(ttLieiic« Qe«d nnt l}Mf4j' 
f(jrc bt caikd ' ■ iJie b^vib '* of cxiMcntic* it \a dimply our uQivcJsal feat- 
ure of exfsif?nc«. Anil die form of «?xisten<:c Iwin^ bound up with 
«xt<tenco itflrl/, li ia Dec«»6ary ihat any ihinking exi«tvnc9 iti t<k f^ar 
ns it le rcRl m tw fur us it ii^ at Oic sane time imi object and |i«ri of 
:hc ob^rLlivcr aoiM filtuuld ul^o l>r lii pu««cssioi> of \Uc cou4Jtfon» to 
irvfiliv ihr Mrfl of form oiil of icself tlifxjiTgb inner ^-xpnri^rocft- 

T1ii« ianer c>x|>(iri«ncA of experimenting with pure fomifi is also 
A kind of (^pcricncc. It Is not Ji purely suhjcciivfr procc**; ii \% n 
tiijli}i<cliv(: prticftss 10 llir lhinkin|> siibji^cl, whidi £<i other Kl^bjccl^i 
hotL-ffvcT, would appear oj^ an objective procecf. Tl]« Uvs of puce 
forni as fitatcd m tlic (cicnccMi of ptirdy formal tJioii|;ht, are Dot 
merely subjective i they powcsi objective valiJity. It is true »n<l 
from out ^tanJiJoint a m^itt^r uf course that the Uw?* oi U.»titt iiip 
tf f^ri^U which ineunv, tliej- hoW good for any ptir^ form. 

Modern po»tttvism, »uch a» wv dolcnd it, is monistic. We con- 
>Jdcr tht' ciitiic WQild as out yrcat whuk and do ikj! forccl thai all 
noiimenal t4»pfeieinatirtrs of c^ttain features o( the work!, rf mait«, 
mind, torm. ev«D of tlungs tiDd our own soi^ls inchjdftd, arc mcra 
abstractions, tfcality it&cll rciuains vindivrdcd and indivisiJ)lc. Ab* 
itra^'i ocnccpi* arr nicnt*I symliol* inVf;utetl to n?prc*ent cettain 
fraturrii of reahry. But although we can in our mind *c|:iarate Ihe^e 
toaCurca iLnd difttinKuifih them from other icattiret, in the world of 
reality they cannot t?c cut out or thought of aa tilings io tlicai^clvc^. 
Granting xhv onnt*^s» of reality which dawtis n|H»a u"* in »tinc lively 
before connciouwit-ss is fully maturedn we are tnt-vitably led to ilie 
conception that There la hnl ono form oi reality, whidi ut)plie6 that 
theie iv but one v|}ace and one time* 


Kant saya, and in this wc oifrcc with Kant, that ^'oJl thoii|iht 
iiut^t difccily by mcaui ol certaia &JErk« iclatc ultimately to H^. 
^'hakua^n," The wortl Afiirhahuitg (ihc " onlooking," generally 
tran^lntcd by ^^inttiition "\ mcAnn the immediate procence of aeote* 
perception. Say:* Kani : " The effcet of an object upon our facial^. 



^1 ntprcrM;Tiudoo is c;i.Uei «L'n»atioii. And that intuition which refers 
to Alt ob]<^ci l>y means of Krosation in called cmpiricul intuitiotu" 
Wm itutUocCp I act! it ivse ; Th<r image ul thc^ lOHc wllidl f sue J5 the 

" I hat w^rh in ibn phr<iiriinpniui mrTPHpnniUrAlhitfir'nulliiQ I Irrm itvdAuf//r, 
tiui thai whlcb dl«& ihti ibc ooDivtin of chq phnDoojccnii aa b« :irraio£rsO itiidixr 

In oifict iwords matl^rr is that which AffcciA the scnws ftnd (ofm 
n lo Ih> esiprvsMrd in relations, Tlx' difJcrcncr bciwfcii lln: fornuil 
and llic mRKTial H obviowR, Th» foi^n] it of grirai inpoTUnce, 
HAy, it is ot ]>arDtmotmt importance, btat ihc fominl U neither Any- 
lliini; itp^rt from thr iT»dlcii<<) nor r» it » Mj|i«taiicc- HL>th concepts 
atr iIUpBffltr, hut (hry have hrrr drj\vtv\ by menial ;i)isttACt;on 
IroiP the Haiti« ivatily. 

Wc fully «iKic<^ with Kant when he coatiniicA : 

liblaol uniinin£ ■ ccrtftiit lorm, cjuiuut bo iUoEf HQutilioo.'' 

But wc <ltj not 4grcL' with Kniii when from ihih \n<jpon\uvn he 
derives ihe following conclusion : 

It H, tb«n, tht maltfrH %\\ ph|rnonion:i ihAi » givpn Ia nm ^r fau/fri*fi j Itw 
/rr» niu«i lie rmdy « /^iivt foir fh«in in ibr mlmi and flinHviiwqtly nn 1« rr^nHrtl 
«cf«uiitrk>' ii<jm ali wuatJon. " 

H^r* lir-s ih*' f(rv-nt fflllary of Kant, which te^-tf, npon an cr- 
roDOOu» statcoiciii a.v\d an a.ciait\ distotxiori i>\ Uci. The phenomenon 
od a rose which I fice before mc i« not merely nciiKiry. 1>nt nI«o 
Iftl. The pTirromrnnn, i. o. ihr imnge nf the ro«e («Ar AasrJiau* 
tfit^) )s H («Tr)K;ition of n t^pccJaJ farm. The term seni^Jitton At it \% 
CCncnUy uiwd iniph«s U* Kavinjc a ^'pecial form. .Vccoidingly the 
floTBfi doe!^ not, at h-ast mil frxnii the heKinniiiK. lie teaUy d priori in 
Ih* mind; the form ii; Riven together with the w.-n«;ition. 

Kont aipcnkti of 'Mhnt ^vhich in Annexed to perception by the 
:pliOn$ o£ iinilcrstandinf," as if our underslaruiinif adtlcd the 
i) out of the mind to the ttmADrj' c!pn»tnT* ^ivcn hj- I'sperience, 
What » lH« mind? The mind ik a prodtict of the world; it i« a 
sjntem of symbol* representing tJic things of the K'orJd and their iC' 



lationtft includrng sucli i>oasib]o rviutioatt ni am worthy ci aspiring 
for. En shorU iht mind coiiMMh of Uiu4?i and kleais.* 

It ha^odeii lieen ^Ak\ that tlip miiul i^ llu- creator of tliirseiisorr' 
and m^jm«tiaJ woiJdH ThU is inccrrecil^ ?Kpr««^d, Jor mind jy ib* 
fiCE\sory and noumenai world iiscrli. Tbt seDscpicturve, the thouf-hi- 
b>mboU. And ihc ideals uf a uiau arc actual parthof hi^micid. Thvj 
atf not ptoiiiirl^ hiii rormirnt^'TiTs nf his minr!. Tb*»!t orjjjanftM'H irv 
talii)' i^ hU Tcind iUelf^ J h<T ncliviiy which lakc-s plnro in a inind, 
]. «. tbc comblninK, the fcparAtintc- and rccombinin£oJ mcriorictri 
thoughts, jiiid ideals arc itic nciiiAil iralili€«, Rrid if wc »pcak of a 
miin'it iindi'ir^i.-tnding, (vr wat-an. or any oJhcr liocalki! laridly. we 
have to dc£a] witti atmtractioiu. The ucliviEv oi mentally ticpaTBtiDfi 
form and niattcr mitfbl t>c called by the gercTiU term understand in (?* 
HoivcvcT tht- fjiridty nf umlmtnn Jint; is not n disiinct mrnEal oigan, 
it conKisc* in the bihsU? ads of understanding, and the wort) under* 
standing j^ n mt^nt^il nymtxil rcprc^ientin);; them all together An il they 
were one thing. 

And cer1;imly Iheie acts cl undemanding ai little import tht 
lorniiil mto the world ot r^c-nsatLoiT as the inmei earner the nietaU 
into the mlnc^. The fonuat, the rcbtional, or the a prioru is first c<- 
tniL'tefl oiil ui thr iluijf of ekj»eritrM<:f.- not olhec i^iM? llMn iiori i^ Ruined 
out of Cite or««- The ore is not iron but ii cotitofns ircn, thephC' 
nomonon of a loio ts not purely u »cjn»C'tmpresaion. it is a Ma»e- 
Impression of a cvf tain forni. We are awate of the fact (hdi mind 
iii nn ^niirc*ly npw rrrftfion flif^fTrnt fi'niii ihr non-mcnrfl^ wnrld, yor.^ 
al the same time 14-c maintain thai th<T olemonts front which mind 
dcvclopji ere the ^amc as the cieincnts of tho non-mcntel world. 
Natuic fiiTiLihlifs ihe entire VA\i mHiiTriril ^nd wh;t:crvcr mtv ciealion' 
tht- product nf a m'M' drvclr.pment i»i, nothing ean he kidded ro the 
raw materJAl, of whieh the; formal it^ the moftt ir(JJKpGnK;LhLc pan. 

The raw materia] of 9cnitory phenomena ak «)on as it ia workedS 
tnit. iind jilvi the activity of wotkinj^ it ont ate unlled mind. Mind ' 
accordingly origiuaUnt with the syipeaiancc of acntient substance aa 

* Thi' pmhlnm of "ThvOnitib i^t tbfl MJml" bavinit brrn tho whivct ?f a t 
pijirr nrt»'(S iin[ \w ditcjj*"!^! hero Sr* T^i Moiriii, Vnl i, No. t. ji e^ «^ 
rft'.S;Mry4/.t/Mjir. pp. aj-^^^ 

iKVi mr.Hv. itiiKnh cm THK^i^mii riui? 


rile ar^ni^ation nf fet^ttng^ anc] the memoffe^ of feelin^^ — ihcs^ 
momovios being conditioned ttirou^h the preservation oi ihv form 
of (icnticDE subMitncc^ Mmd i^ net somctLing Jiffcr<-nt Uom ibc 
^rorI<l Inn im^ftt hr vitusk\v\vd 9s hs proiliici ht\i\ hii-hf*ii cfRnrcA' 
CCBC<t> Mind fi made ot ?h<; t^mc Riib^ancc a** llii? iinivct^c flQd 
th« jiim4fomis arc the fonna ol objective existence, 

A» Mjon ii» A f^>>tcm of forms ha« developed in a scotlcni hcii^iC, 
thuft coni^iitnihig iIe mind, this iHyfiicm can a^ttin hv trfcrrird t» llir 
objective lomiK ol thingf^ In thifi ncnsc wc c;in f;Ay with Kant, that 
the uncfer^tnndin^ impirtrlit lonn into phoxonicnn ; and thi> rc^impor- 
btioti, thill icfcirin^ the (jbjcclively Etirnial Lti llic ^abjective Nyxtcin 
cf formsil thought, iv an e^senttaJ clement In cognition^ 


The ideA of a ihinif in itscH independent nf »pacc niid time nrd 
the iinknowAhlencw of ihc thiny in it^clt urc the li«»t« ai all agaos- 
tid«in. And nn agntjutic tcndi-nc>' is at present pTtdomtnam pven 
anong positive workers and thjnkc^r^, AKnoslici^m i:^ «tiU the phi- 
losophy of the day even among those who have surrendered itit boM* 
(which i% Knnft trau%cendenta1 idc-;ilism) and accept the monisiic 
world 'Concept! on, Friedrich JodI, profe^or at l)i« Univcnity of 
Prague and author oi the well-known " History of [^ihics" in an- 
tvrev to a IcCirr of mine fcn'mnUte^ in concise teiin* thiw iiicjdttni»ed 
vi^v of A ihin^ in itseH. He writer! 

*' Vou >n» righr '( hp ituo^ tn Itvlf it a lUttammf Mb**.— ^rnOMtkil ^ftMlflvAd* 
astray But w Ictij; « wp hjVE no bffi^er nprosiaii tn iviirncni tAc rrEntkon Cnr 
vbkii )t 9iUui(la4T alullljAie iouifit. You<iboaccc(>[ ihc Mlimlnji Ihrctr ronnicnu . 
(i.' OtijcCLivc «i]3teac« or rutity- (r| EfTettiyvocw ciC Kulilj upuu cvnvbuurH* 
L •- tabAli^n (ifi HUficllvcaeui a! taanuiiun upon mnKCkDiinriAq and rdprQ(]ucli«ti 
of «i«nT*oo to cT»iiibrirh]>iii''n, i it rvpr*4ti<uiic>n \<-itic'l^, h^iuvi'i'Fr. can muhtain 
llul In wniDrinn. Atuf keEII Tnt in n^i'mtt^nTJiiiriB, thf wbolr <if rratily «|1| apptur 
ia icD«Eiouiriv» Fint wv Iforn from hlaiarr what |>nwmB has \3fvn mot^e m the 
CriEaklioq of imlUy and >uoD(!lir lE bobvk>U> Ih^l vr iUe mfinjrd* ttt infit. tst 
sUml com pTcbnruiob of nalit)'^ We bAt-«BlTa«x renkoai lo M3poct UtAl ttterv orv 
coaiiy |itfo c— « ■ W rf«hl^ *tkh in no v^ay oScci ovr «fliijbiTiiy Afid euuvM<ntar 
Iciut runHloumaiL, ind ttr k/iaw Tor mtc Ihnt w* Cfo not C4irnpr«hDnd~i a. rcenn> 
struct from EbrmMtuni«laiaui>— cifliijrtliinfv indrrrl uKUlihcfiirv which nrvutta^rve 



in ilirir i;lTri.u. Dig L^Li^^liuii uf uriliirr^ if ntsbrMui to tuahfnacl, «|vnr^ IcAda lu 
tKvac A ll iBxy Ipc itcmliEiY! *licl1wr thih -t la vi aaknowTt <>r ao unkauwlblc- h 
my opauja it it Lvlh — tmrhi^i* vd cjniant elimmnUt » 

" 1 am coavinrMi thai rnaDyihin^n which arnuubcown (o-dajr anclappaAr u bd< 
lt»iwnblr will he knr>wn ^nil *nr»wii|]li» m n ifjoiiom! >«ir5 But I dnuhr wh*»(hfi 
tbr (Clil II1*U of \hv UolcQLiivral^tF tiiit Lw^n iioiimiMr diujiiiifliQd. Fu« Uw C'd- 
hiK>44br« i> bl^Dlvt ftjid Ibo Infinil* if divided by aJif Aohe DumbFTCin nfmer pro- 
(jufc fl fioltf number. E^'orv aoS«d problein fontiini new nnd t^vonifr pri:'1>lcrm 
VltM kli&ll tf«<n]1 ihtik^ 1 bchevcthui (he ro'rn " fhlou ui itwlr ' icafi«r all ihr bnl 
tipmtinn Whorvrr wjEni* la mm ft mytdr en wvonrti at U cimnot W prtivnieeLfl 
Thi» ilAiio rif Ihlii4> cMi) ]n lif nuclil ciuE ol fmlhlciioei ti^ UJ U( rif vJi>lcncL- ualy." 

It it mosl certainly true, -it ProicMor Jodl tayn. tJiat ^cmsationfi 
do not dcpici llic whole of reality. But why should they ? Cogni- 
linn lie ]}ij>wiblr tiniy by limilin^ the; attc^nciuc tu a ^ptcpil jxjiPt 
E\eT>' *en*e wBan i4 an organ ol abairaciion. E^^^ry ^t-ii*^ depicts 
tho lirtccts ol reality tn its own way aind in Uus way alono It 
may iicriy Isc i;i'autcd that ihcia arc many piuccviev ia rvality nhich 
da mM afl^tt our wD*iUi)ity. Yet tbyre is iiorhing in reality which 
doe* not alfect Sf^methiug lu some way. If it did not, il could not 
be 9Alii tc cxirit, Tht chcTiikal ray:* of Kc^it t\o not affect our eye, 
llii^y aiL' iciviMlilfr and wcic foi ihjl if^a^uii itol uutli-cd. Qui th<;?i? 
raysini? Ttn\ without anypff*»<:ts, H we cannot oliscfvct hem directly, 
wo can tovonE sensitive platcfi or other in^Iriimcnts tor observing 
lliejr effects indtTccdv- IndircciotiscTVAtiviniir^Lke^il po»^m1>]c th^t the 
Jimitalian of our sciisirs diX'snoi ri-sull in a Eintiaiion of knowh-diltv 

haya Profoiisor JodI ^ 

"Our c^^fLiliiiM \>i iiriluii: If ac Irniiti Mr um^keeiii;! iLlviHy^ Ivuln qh Utvomm x" 

This lunitencc indicates th^: IVofcvtor Jodl's ^nd t>ijr concep- 
tion of cognition art? difff^ronl. Coj^nitic.n H not a rt*con*trnction of 
a»ftum«d caufcev ^ it is a unificxilion of our tepretuntativc tMiutationt 
oridtiiUw Sopiuthing U attain noticed, itinrecoffnised. tobethcsamc 
thiii|f^ Coitmlion is ada|]1ntion of tt*iw fact* to our pre^Rnl liiuck of 
knowledge : it i« the proper nrrangement of ni?w d^la in ovir «y«etn 
of ttientaJ repie^entationi. Coi;mUon. accordin^dy* ir> the rcihiction 
of the unknown to terma cf the kitown, tlow can It ever lead to an 
JT? The positive conception of cognition i». a* Kirctmff deil^ne^ it 
''an exhauftliv^ and mott sin>pt« description of fact*/' It it ant- 

AKK1ll£SL llfl^Gb IN IHKUS&LVfiti^ 


C^nilion 19 based upon A^Sf^^nmngfit: it uH) lead to an ultimate jv, 
only IS cAhC vr« cxpc:ct that c<>Kiiili<;ti irMfatl ol bi^LHi; ft <lc:icript]4>n 
d f«ct» >vill have lu ^ivc u« iiiloitiiutiuu.Abuut how h luppcm ihat 
fikcw 9xiM> hott' th^y origifiAtf^J onl ol nothing. 

Prolestor Jodr^ tlim);>D itself is cot out«)d«ot Space and Tinu: 
<iis iji Kftni's ihint: in itsdf j liut it i^ the ovcT^v^e!II^in^ in^nilcidc uf 
|>rohlcfi)S 10 |>r viIvitJ with wr cannot lm|n- to ^I't lhMn»K'i 
cv«?n ilKHi^h mir lilc laM'v^ hillionp ol Iti^ht^yc^ren Let mi* repeat 
hero wliAl 1 «ajd In the second odition of ''Fundamental FrobJcdnn/' 

\ pfiiVHcijihy vfaif h ti^tfti from th# jvtiLlLi'P ilhia rrf ri|impni:i*, asd «rRin|!ni 
iham in lb« frj^tcin ol « muijivtic uooccptkiji of tbr world, will jtmc wUll many 
AtiMi problfBW and in »tvinK ihvm will ojc^'H aed nj^in be «QaCroDtc<i w^Lh ilcw 
pfDtkkm^ It ^\W alvhU^ tfBfi|it« with vnmvlbinic lluil i> fwt fti Itngnn. Tbv uo- 
l2evn t#r4tiB 10 npaod befor* iu Uk« aa innailo ocne upon wbicb ]b« ilup oj 
tecwlerl^ advanfn. Uui fhe anltiidwn cotitiantlj r.hAngs Inia i1>r knoohs Wa 
■ImII nui no iBd miknowfttlr wlicivvt^t we piucord Tlie iJcit of llit- ankricyAnbl? 
ULkc tbc builttin ' AH uplLi jlluuua, Ttic muic iac tul^uicc, Ibc lAitbrf 1I recnlcn^ 
TIk BDkaowvfc^v n no mlily ; Itic iiDknniiiAble can fio^bcrcfcrvml kEui<w1ed|;« nor 
ian tb« honion ctohaff > 4)trp in bar VDrag*!, Irom lurthur pn>gT«ia.* (p. a^r. ( 

Man's kriowli-tl|;ff has vnltit^ ^n pu%iii\r infunn^iiion cuiic:*??!- 
tng tlu-fact£ lie lu>^ lodeal witli, and tht inlmitudeof i}iec]t>t known, 
ihein^nitudvol vlhvr problems and Ihing* which he will nvvt^r lac<-, 
!■ of DO consequence whatever, PoMmium commcDLGft and fia* to 
Con^nivncT- ^^'it1] ihr pusicivr fjic[v of (he ^ivm <rKpeneitt:e unil not 
With the mfinitud*.' ol pouibdiiict which Ue bvyumd our honieon. 
Cocnpaie knowledgn to property and 9n]>pose a man i» to buy a Eaim, 
Shall wr; di^ruuraK^ him with the idea iJiaE the wlujie amount of suil 
on tlie ffttrface ol tho «rartli and ol other planets ttL ij:finic«^ iind ihii 
ia^LnitudL* ol all ejL]>pti:ncc» d divided by Ins iinitc lilEle |>o^i)CStiion 
can DCT«r i»utt in n^ tiuitc iiumbcs. Even if A were doubled, it it 
were midtiplied a ihnimand timf*s \t remains as good aa nothing in 
comparison uith lliv re^t ol tht- world which be cannot nct^uire, 
Hon^vcn hi* po%»c*»ion is something lu him. wlialcvcr the rcUiion 
of infiriite |>os^tbi]ilip«> rnay be in i^ioporiion to it. 

THs concept of in^niiud« serves a good pufpo«« In ic« placa, 
but w« cannot mio it lov &n«iogi«s in o1b(^^ fields or bnn(E it-in rdft' 



ti>on to concroi« ivAliik^. We produce oonf union and drop ml 
ra^'^ticisin n» soon a« we haiidk ihc idea of iitftDicutk as if it were 
fk^sitivL- lliiTTg. Thr tiLftnitr U a function wliif:h is iiiulTir*matrraIly t?x< 
pt-fi^s<>d hy j(= V, and wliemvci we bring anvchm^ m rt-btiori tti t1 
infinite, %'q at ovc^ dwarl the f^reatetit numUcr no !«» than the snial 
lc«t number iiitu zero. 

CI«<rnp« of ThoiiffllC ifi rh*- itii1U|i*^n^al>Ie fin*tluw1 of ^^^iind pliii 
JoSQphy lor conf^irncnng a potiilive wor[d-coi>oei>tTo:]> nhich in gn?al 
outJincfl ih a dcbcription of the facis of reality. By Kiilertng niy»d> 
cisiu asa legitiiiifkii' roTicriiiioTi dchrr Id science or In phiJusriphy 
ue enhar^e ih^ in1er»>M« of those who prefer the chiaroscuro of vagi 
not;o»» to dear tliou^lit. 


When Clifford apcaks of things in ll]ejii>vlvG7t he ilocs not lueao-j 
Kant's ihin*; in itself, he mcsn'* "neilliei ihc object in<k"ptndent 
tho ihinliinjc subject nor iho rhing mclcpendent of «pac« and limeb 
He inoan^ lUc thing n^ it woiJd lie if viewed from the lhin>E itaelf^] 

A man appr^ars to other thmlcinf hcfngs a» au relive In^dyi w 
sn orgcinittn rhnr ik in mntion : bni 10 himself Hp ^ippc^rs ns a feel- 
ing hcinif. The <.iihjectivit>' of thirg« aft ihey appear 10 tlic tfitDj^J 
thcmselvea con»i!tlii m our own cane of atates of Awarcnef^s, and thij 
subjt^clivity ih called by Clifford the thin^ iu jtsdf. 

A certain brain motion is in ilt tubjectivf aspect a feeling. Tlli«' 
feelinf; tn according to Cblford the thing in ilfclf of the vi;ejbL(^, ob- 
servable, and mraniiraldc motion. The thing in itself of »o-ca)led 
inantmntt' b<-iiit;** is not h-i'linjj;, luji ettmrntt nf fi-r!irg. In olher 
wo I (Is, the woT|d'Mib*Taricu is everywhere in il9*lf potcntiaJity of 
feeling and Cti^ord therefore colJ» it " mind-atuH." 

Schtipenbauer airives at ht^ conniption uf the thiny; in itael 
practically in the same way. There Is the uorld as it aj-^^eant to 
ii«. the objective world ol motion in vpace und time. What the 
Iceriiel of thiti world ta&y be> wc can Itiioiv from acU-observntion. 
The kernel of ourselves. Schopernhauer says* h Will ; acd the will 
is aUo the krmel of thtnEis; the will i« t)>r tiling in itftiell- 

A>K THtae VHl»aS fV THIiMTtiaVKfl? 


Wc iiiHlcr!itttuJ by will tl:i! jKciiange into aclian, i. r, an iri' 
<ipMni molToa of the organism if acctMnp^micU wilh the pt;y- 
<hicaJ dcincfit i>r consciaitfinosfi* and this coasciouftncM 15 a MUc of 
AtrtrciMft^ of tJ)c will incliidiut; it^ diii^ciiun md aim. WilL as tlic 
thp lirrm i* grnnrally imcd, i* alwsf fr ton^riou^ Sthopenhuu<fr how^ 
«VGr spfsnkit nf tho wUl aa bein^ blind, 1. «. without knowledge, 
vrithoni Amircnc^^ oi itscH And its ftinin Tliis indiCHtcs that lie i]*ca 
the vord nnl ia It* nriftinal bul in a fiKt»r«Uvc Mic^tiirjif. 

Thr fall of » Atone msv he chntactrtini^A ss a blind motion with- 
out awarenci^K nnd without tht? fitooc's hnvin|£ a conftclouanra^ as to 
lis dinxtion or Aim ; and in a »fmil«r <nIihoiit£li not in iIm: ^aiuci way 
CUiftJtd Njipak'* of th« plctnrni)^ nf taiding us hHng noi raifonal. We 
jigrec with Scbop^QliaucT that ihit Eactor in a store which makes 
i| fftU wbcn placed in a certain pofition is an mnch a natural procc6£ 
as the act of a man. only of a lower grade aiid a simpler kind, 
Bcliopenhau^r call* ihaT which both have in rommon ••wil]," 
y«l in common languaee wc call the objective aupcct of that which 
both processvA have in common, "molion," What then I»thcfinb- 
jtfcti^v aspect of a falUit^ »(one? It is not u xtalc? of awarcnim, it i« 
no frrling, but it 14 i1i<> fict^iitinllty ol a fttait- uf awaroiic», it ■« 
potential foclmg^ Thrrc ti a ^ubjoctivo aspect, but tlii^ :»ub]cc1ivc 
aspect is »o far as wc can jad^c o( do accouni to the rtone. 

Tliai feonirihtRK JR the stonc which corresponds to nuui'c can- 
tdouttnrsv vir. the stotn'^R Knhjw^TtvitV', is not iT*in<^, but ll i* ^wten- 
tiof mind- And poicnciaJ mind iii not as ?4r Conyhcara cKprcsnci 
it ■'mind diluted." potential mind \\ no mind al all 

Tile world 'SnhKt^irict- aft it exijttK in inorganin ntari«r h no! mind. 
B«t the i;niv«r!ce taken \kit a wholcn the AII^ tt. for that reason not 
ktiS than mind. On the cpntmry. it i* infinitely more than nnnd. 
T1t« All is not brnlc forct- and inert nnittcr oidy, the iinivrrsc is a 
cminos^ and if5 ttibjoctivtty Decekt^iily d^rveiopK, according to the 
ta^-8 of form which eharacten*** thv cotimos throuffhonl, into miiui. 
We diMirr«:c with Professor Clifford most emphatically when be 
dusciilirs the inind'^inff of which accordin); to lii% terminology the 
world t'onaitta, as nm rational. 

Th« wofid ii ifl true is not rational in its elements, but the woild 


TUF novrgT, 

m% ft whole, thv entire coAmo« with iU Uw« and especially in itR 
lonriAl Dr[Ic:rr i.n the prototvi>c of aU rationalih'. Human rcn»(^n if 
inllcnil cnly in ^o f.-u ait it coiili^nns with, as it retTccts a^ it dc«c:riljct 
tJw order of tlu' cojimo*. The bum^n mimJ i» a microcosm. Wc do 
not call the mncnicoftnitf in whcwe imai;e the microcoKm hnt been 
crcate<U a mind. -because we iindcrMaiul by ttxc term mind not rcdity 
il■4f^lf bill r^iility picinrCTl in \nnboh of ftpliitg. We i]iidt!r^tii;id by 
mircl the imlividu;il concepfion oj Ihe wcitlil ;i% ii i« mapped out in 
th« brain ol il sentient being, and not the universv il»clf, not the all- 
being. We imdcixtand by miml a crcauire and not tlie crtatuit a 
Koul and rot Gud. 

The rcifimm, thn All, God, that which crcaifs thf roind, in nm 
d«Ad, not ifraiioDAl, »nd nox mt^hfir lo oifniality- It if^ tlw «ourco 
of all Viict it is the condition of all ^nk-r. It is the standard of sU 
morality. All the minds ibtil c\tsi stc but |Minf» of it^ In iu with 
it, and ihron^^ "' wo livp and «ha|1 live ff^evt*f- For allhonf(h we 
shall die, our being cnn never bo blniiud o\it- Exifiloncc knovrt no 
annihilation «Lnd life knoW!« na death. Whatwc call dcathixadinw^hi- 
tiori c^ life in la sj>R<:iiif part, hut the contenl« a! a life, the tlioui^hta^ 
the idcfttt, nnd th«^ ideak iiro pre*en-pil and iransniitl^d. they ate im- 
planted into other mindri : the «oid continucn to live. And thin con- 
tinuance of the lif:: of the soul in noE a mere tli-i^ution in the All, it 
U not the immortality of lorce and matter; it i« the preHcrvatioii oi it* 
tptfC'ial existence, of its inosit characteristic and individiiiiJ reiinr^i 
lor «n immciaBuraUy Icn^ period hence, which will ihsi aa lonj; aa 
tlie conditions ut lilt; lemain favu^able iipun t-aitli. Vtft even tf a 
whole Rolflr 8y«iem were broken to pieces, life will reappear : mind 
will be born ai^'sin 1o ntru^glc for truth and to otspifG to live in c<m- 
ioTiiuty with tmUi. 


Tl«^ piopcjsition ihni ihiiign m ihemmlvc* ate nnknuwable find* 
a strong argument in the fltaiemeni that we t^an know relatione only, 
that all kni>^ledi;e ifl relative. It i» undoubtedly true that ftii knov^l- 
cdge ift fclutivc and knc^wledi^e la a kauAJcdge of ralations. But 

Airi: THCKI; THLXC^ is XHKMtitLVXit? 


wtut is a rttaivon ^ Wh«n [ otic« pioposc^i thin qu^KiJon, 1 was ah- 

the omeMinftFt lo i}i« ochsr. in «hoTL ii it tha btfiuriiiuMnoJ ihiii|^~ 

ThiD U cxacii^ whftt a relation t« not. From utich a definition 
of icli>tic>n ntinoslLCJKni will L^ccc:v«AriIy follow. It it a nii^stdtf-Eiiciil 
of ihr CUM", niift itfhmi wr. rnmtr Ici falloif out the it^cA, Wf* i^HaH hp 
Ifid iDio inoatrkablc <:oiitra(lict)ont(, luid uqIck« wc revise Ihc wholo 
AfffUfncni, wc shiJl hftvc lo confcw tlwii wc Arc nt our wit's end, 

Thequcition. WKat itarcUticn ? wa*oo*ol the i»»Ai; bctwctrri 
the twogrcat mediaeval :ichoob ol pKilonophy, the NominttliM^and the 
Fjcalnt^.*' Tbt* NontiiialUu miawuted: "A rdaticn is > mi-rr \wn' 
duct of the mind." while the Keali^t^ declur^tliat "a roUiiort with- 
out which Ch'? Ihini; cainnoi hv. n iii the thmf;," 

Jfotb vchool^ reh«d upon Aritiolk^a uuthont>\ Ari»toiic had 
docliiri^d EhntuiAitcr lAmoro possibility of Gxifl{«nce(il i^SiJrii;4et *>y) 
«E»d tforiH i*^ thai whicli luulte^ il rcul, tlic formal ia the reai, form is 
fici^iencr or hrinji {ntiriin \. *Vhf mrtal nf a RiAint^H Ari^toile s;»V9, Iv 
itH maitor, the idea of ihc ^tatut* i^ iu forni, boib tog«<ther make the 
tc«l ttatuc. The metal hnvinic had another lomi before, did not exist 
with ilic inbrjcftt imrposc of ticitK this metnl of ihe siaiue. The 
[Qrtal ift ihr mere? itfjtrntialin' of hncominK a «iante,t H*'ricc, says 
ArifiCmle^ not lh<.- tnAltcr hui the form conttittitn^ the rcAlily (A the 
itaiue. the lorrn \^ ihnt which j» rc*I. or ihai which nijtkcs itcluui, 
trffiytitt nr, \\ is the tiein^; in cc>mpli?teneA or actirality, *y*TXtx^(*i 
ir, L c^ tlial which iDakeii a iJiing 4.'xUt in itfi purpose (tV rtXn ijtf}^ 
If the fcrmal alortc is and tnfihci xca], relaiionn miist be rc«L This 
i» in favor vi the Reali>b<. 

■ II ii Ksrc«Ty DKCfury lo rnconoD That ~m4diB%'»1 Rvatiaai U diflvml Intin 
ttK^trtk Rcnlivn. 

f ArialoFU't idu of nullfir iMinfi potwilial «kitt«nc« m a fJclioft. FiciUcflA uf 
iWai kitiii nrv ^vttni fnr crruin puriHrtr». tmi m« muii not (circri ifa^t t^cv riir fic^ 

4fl fftght vilh <*TlAlaly iioE loB pfopriat^ look upon Ih^ id^n in the mind of on 
artiai ju |r«>tcu[id| rt Jlil> while iIb app«AiHnor in A ni.itrr;^ bbapc ia coiiccivod bj 

pradn<« :irrQd] rr:ilLU 


niK MONl&T* 

Yd Arfetollc's plitlonophy u noi m evtjj r^H|>tc:t dearly wiirkivl 
oni. In iaci thtrc are two Aristoiks, the onv being a Fbtoniit, Ihc 
other a nfilurflli&l. the one Lwli^ivmf; ta urLJvursAla, tbc olhci idvca- 
tlKAtiTiK CQviCTcic ihin£» nnd hiking in<]ividiiAU aa rrtf) bciug»- But 
\xith Anfiot\v3i rLnd wilh thrm lioih parrrrt^ of ihc uliuohiTon liad 
no clear CE>nccption oJ the nnttirc of idcao. wliat thoy are, and what 
tllcy purport, nnd how wccnn diicrinitnalc briwccn ititir subjective 
anii ubji'f.UYE fik'nicni*. Idcra-s hiive a nicaJiiiiK" I'' l'^" uic^niinj 
purMy mtrntal or Has it an objt-ctivp valine? W^r khv lliai it has- 

The 0;amc An»totJe who con«i<ler«(l the CorranLAS thAi w-hkh 
make* rc4]. denied the objective c-ti«tcnoc ^i rcUtion^ lie said 
thpit Kcich iiiialfUr-i A'j. gicdter, or Mn;Jkr. <tcuili|L- tn \\nH, indirril nlf 
relatione O^e T/y<>> r/ ol things) tliij not Idong lo the thinst, hut 
were added to thcin hy Uie> Uiinkm^ Qubfect, Hrf;o relattonii ^rc 
mere pr»diicl!i ui the fiund. thc> huvo no vlijectivc valu«:. Thi» was 
in iaxi^ ai the NuniiiiA]i«r«. 

Now it is tiut' that somtr rcldtii>ii*9 arc puitl)' menu! in *o fiir ii* 
the comparison iipnn which ihiry ri*4t i^ puwly iniogiiiary^ An an- 
swer to tlic quefilioit. Who was Ih« gT«alcTi Al«j<and«r orCccsar? 
dcpcndii upon the standard of mcaaiircfnent which wc ctcacc for ibe 
«perial purpose. Sotiic buch rrlaikms liavr m» (ibit'Clive value, (hey 
an? not fact* bm a play of imaKi'^^^J'^^ deprndi^nt on cht recogniEion 
of the HtuiRiard o! moAHitremenr Hut how is it, if we eAprvi.t i\\e 
Telutiuii bciwccu tlic gravity oE a sionc and the whok' tuAtut of l)t« 
eanh 94 ii mnnlfefii^ itfU^H in ihr ntnne'*; fall * lii ihai altio a mer« 
product o( Che mind ? Certainly Kewton'K lawt dej^crihing gravita- 
tion in ^Kact and mathernnlicftl formulae arc n product of thi.- inind. 
but ihi_4 product of the mind hau an ohjcrctivc value, it has a mt^an* 
ingi it describes fart«, find thrive indn stre ceruin rsl^iionfi between 
certain tliii^KS- 

Thc fnult o1 the modern mii^conccption ol reluctivity lie« in the 
aft^nmplion thjit the two or more thlagitj <irr coiuidercd as ihjn^s in 
ihpmteh'p*. We are npt to consider the gravity of two mafisre, of 
a r-iaac and ot tl» earth, as a rotation butwecn two indepcndt^nt 

AK« nreite iKisroa in theu^lvc^? 


thingA- Her» Ift ilie stono and tlwrs iii the earth and Use rclaticm ic 
considered aa aooic thirst itcm^ bcinc the connection m wKicli the 
one MandE lo tlir oiIk-t. 

In ri^alliy tlwrc ;<fe nol (wo ihing* iiml, in ntldflton lo fJiPTu a 
bcrwc>cBnc3^ of the two ihinyfiL The world is cot a sum ol thin^», 
flol even a system of thintE>. but a whole indWUibJc entirety and 
witiil W4* call ihingK mc abiititciKiiis which hcfvc v(>cci£l (i;ii|)um^ in 
the hoti«ehold ol cognition. All ihJiig* consist as it wertr o( inn^i- 
mcrablc relations to all odier tliingv When ue ub^tra*:! oiiu iipccinl 
prDcesw vrhich tidiev pUve in the province oi what we uic vroat to 
call /tfv things, we have lo dejtl wlih a relAiioti. 

Thrrv oiu no xelationH oi ihernsrives aind thera Ar«» no ihiug^ ol 
tbcmselvev. RcUtion^ dcacribe ccruiii features of rcAiity obtiinirc 
between «h«t we cdl two oi uioie llilug^T and in tbi& dcKCiiptioD all 
other Ceatui«4of which tho rval ibings corsist arf piirpoKely omitl^dn 

There is nu quahty oi thinj^a but it is at the aame lime a qiifllity 
ol rdation. Ever>' quality uf a ihirm; charAclefiae^ it unJa a ctr- 
l&in condition ; tr apiprAr^ as an r^rrt npor Koinrlhtn^ end thits it 
ii actuaJ a^ a reUtion. CognUion anAly^ei (hings into bundles ot 
teUdooft and all these rcUtions toteethcr make up t}te chin|;s. 

The niod«rti idea that vie can knew fHuiion^ only and thjt ihL^rt^ 
ate ihin^ in iliem^elvps which ate unknowable ia an old error irt' 
liontcd Jrom mcdin-val acholoaticiam, and iu roots can tc Imccd 
back to the philo^phy o! Ariatode. TIlc didicuUy dinappears a« 
soon as we consider The whalr world (oM^dve* mrhided) a* an in- 
teracting wholu, and thut the conceptions "Ihtng^*' and ''n-Iutions" 
liave bccD invented for dcKribinc certain of i(!i parra and cerlain oi 
it» inu-racnV^ns or inttrcotineciions- 

If we puflh ihr idcfi nf thin^fK in theim^rlvi^i i^ ilio ultimate ex- 
treme wc am^c At the fllomi«tic conception of tb<T umvcrstr. ASf»me 
tfr^ iAt ^A'Vif ''» ^Jitfttf/rurs r^iiatrd io ihe foinl iy-ittm. If m coil»TCler 
lb« world AK a heaji of innumcrabli? uttimK, we ar^* ai n Iom how to 
explain the inttractior -imong tlie!;p atunu. The acomii^t nniver- 
Mbucv the ijub^t^ncc abstraction and will be disappointed after- 
wards not to t>e able toded;tce from his tiniveiMdJsation other qiui!- 
Uies which are found in reality, «uch avihe rv^lation«oJ things, their 



i[itcjr;:oiinccUuu!i, their »j>ontdiKity u( nioilou, Oie Hit; of oi^aiii^nl 
boingif, and the mmd of chiiikir|{ crciicirr^ 

J^ctiK axx^ nyrnboU nnd Kymlxiln hav<^ n mc^nnmff^ The whole 
realm of mcnul rcprcscnUlionr. niAy be viewed in tl»clr symtolisin 
or in tWjr si^nificaiiru, Con^tdcrring llirir ^ymltoUitiii, tdc^n^ of ihin£« 
as well DC of rdaiionc, ore products of th« inin<t> concidcring Ihinr 
mcAniap;, ideas represent Teslitics ; in other wtudn : thetr contccitt 
or ihAt nhit^lt they sjgrify i» real. 

It apprara th ji nt*itht*r Noniin4li*m not R?;i]ii;in k right ; yot if 
v/c stretch them only a little, H we nrc allowed to interpret them in thtt 
Hi:ht ot a fnonisiir world- conception, bc^th are riffht. Tliey cense to 
be c:nntradM-lr3iy and iit'conii- complenieniiaty. Univetsi»k atr rcjil, 
i^aylhe Rvalists. i- e. thefomiftand rdationftof thint;x are ictualKies. 
Univer»aU ore names, say the NomiTiali$t?, l- e^ the relations and 
lonn» in which kvc descriire the vforld arc nicnUil !iymht>Is. 

l%e Kesiliiis Ti^tl th^ niKforinne i» defLMt rht- \ominalisTs en* 
tirely. and Ihu* had a chanci? lo insisl upon btfin^; tighl in every 
renpect. Ail opposition haviri: cca»od, the orror« of Realism grew 
ill vxtiaordiitdi> cxuberaTice* NomtnalibJii in the mejin Iieiig laived 
its head in oppoi^ition to Th*» n»c*igni*ed authority M the clmrch 
aa ^'ill &« the schools. fi{owJy yet poivcrfully and inc^istibly- Tlio 
errors and the tyranny of Realism fcavc aCren^^th lo the Noiiiiaali»tic 
inovcmeni which reachtnl ils honghi in Kani's plit]os>o].ihy The 
KeAlUK had gonr- to ihr ^^xiri^ine of drclaring thai untvepiaU Vivn 
thinfCs- v^^aI iiiihnUncc^ independent of fiinfflc fmd concrete objects 
and the Nomin.'iliMi on the ocher hand, represented hy Kaut, vreni 
no far a« m declare that all rc*lattanK, time am! )&pai:i? Jndiic)rd wrte 
mfr/' products of the mind. 

If the reljilion?^ arv mere products ai ttic mind, all knowledffd 
lieinkl it knuw ledge uf relaliontt k iiovir ledge bee nmevi iuipos^^ible- That 
laftt consequence wa« drawn by Kant and \% emphatically m«ifit«d 
upon by of-noKticitm. 

There is but one wor Id -c inception thai can dl^pcn^ with 
Iht^He e(]nelti>i]oii% : tl i*» thiil view whi<^h conE:i*iveF» of tht? All ai- a 
whole : and of knowled^'^ as a description of ittt pan^, qualities^ and 
relations, wer miodftd on the one hund that tiic parta are parts, that 

JkUr. THERE 7tll»G« rX 11Jru4lLrK$? 


qualiticc itid rebtionfi arc CGXtnin features only, not «Dtiro roalittesj 
or Uolotcd entities, nr^d ihnt tltc f^ymholf. ihcfcnf frc<iucDcl>' overlap 
cacK other ; on Lhr nilici hum] iTial ihere is Tuiihinc abtioltUc,* and 
Ibai clipr* arc nt* ihinj^^ In ihcmselvfrs. 

The relaiivit> ol knowledge, vrhctbcr vrc conceive of It n? the 
relativity of the object to the Kiihjcct m genera] or a« an appreciation 
of the f4ct (hat at) knowkdge gi%'c% and am ^ive inCiimiHlion o{ re* 
btioikft unly, docf noi lead to the conchicion that knowlt^ge i£ iin- 
poft«iUle. KeUtJV]t> i* a iunJanicntAl feature of knoKlctifieH and vc 
shaiJ understand that it muKi he ho if wc coOKi-der tliAi leality ilvcif 
is A great system of relation^^^ 

■ • 

Tho intorcotTiecIion of aU ihtrig« with all ihiiigB appoars to be 
&0 complete. thAT ii %'c ]iitend<:d to cxpUin vi uitdtraturd one Mniflc 
fact fully and cxbatiHtivcly in all Us tHaiions^ past. prrKL-nCt ^ud fii- 
tkir*, we should bo obliged 10 gfv« a complete description of the 
uuvvrdtK S«yfl Tentiyson 1 

'' FlovffrT in ihi* rnnniml mviII. 
1 pluck rtju vut dI ths cranni« — 
Hold yonx beic, fooi lad aII. in m^* tiDcdn 
Unlv QottcT'-biit a I <«iild uadcnidiid 
Wliai you aro. rvot Ofid all. and aJJ £a all, 
I hbouM kncnv whfti God and cnnn 14 " 

Wi' miyhr addr<^ss in i}ie same wwy anything ti»e. an atom of 
hydrogen, a grain ot sand n:i well an the sun. the action oi a tiny 
spcdt oi irritable protoplasm a» well &!< the k>uI of man. 



Pror Lloyd Morgan in hii: excellent work ''Animal Life and 
Intelliffence '■ uits repeatedly the ivortl " mind " as^ if il were a thing 
in itself, Frtife^ur Mufi^aa Ik a nionlM and he (loc% no: initnd the 
word to mean a thing in itself ; yet cuch i% the influence of language 

* Tho l«nD "afcsi^tiie" U for th«t roidoa oojihcr uoaaiafilcas ocr rcduodaai. 
ll dci»LrEci « ccvutai mcilin] ot sicnin^ Ibing*. irat \n oat ja ohjoctitc qiulhy <if 


TItE HOffl!iT. 

ihac yrc, all ol ■>», tinl«ss wc arc coii»tnnily on our Kuard, will miul' 
vencntlv slip into ditnlUiic <?iprc*i*i'in«- Pmfo«or Mt^rgan fia.y%, 
Willi reference to corinin i>«n«Rtionft ut aniixiAjft (p. 309J ; 

'from Ibov jripplod H:aitttiDiui Ihc mind m nil fiiiMriihtirnini ■rurntitninm ' 

Tlie tiiilt>' which atine^ out uf Mip[>le;it serisatioii9 aiiA wliidi 
through iheir inienicijon b«<romea a continuum ti r-»Iled ininfl. To 
ftpeab ot miiid at workio^j out the continuum U myihoLogiol Ian- 
^mec, U b tbc cmn^orujatioD of tlic abstruct idea "mmd" tiiioa 
ri^al flHil inilcpciiilrnt thiu^ uliosc Pxisit-Hi^r if. coikccivt-tj to \ie md^ 
pendant of ih^ Trality ixorn ^^llicll It ha« bc^n AbiiErACtcd, 

Again, PmfrffliuiT Moikhh unyn : "Out roQfitnici% arc? liirrnlly 
our Uandiworl:/' Our con«iruct%, i. e. our meittaJ sjgn^ constructed 
to rcprcscnit rcrdilic^ con:;Eitutc our soul \ lhe>- arc wc oursctv^s. 

Profi.-s5cr Morfia^i, at I imderstimd Iiim, doc« not biflj'eve in a 
mind bclimd the ptiychical liictt at mvnUl iiciivjty, he does not a»' 
aijiiic the pre' existence uf mind to the coiitiiiuuni ebbvrdted- His 
view of minti »ipp(.'jLra to be the same a» omis. The tnore notfrworchy, 
chon, is hifi lua^ecit thi^!«mi "mind." llS«a remarkable instance of 
how Innguaii^c naturaUy iuvciglca uti into a belief 111 chmGES in thcm- 
sirlvrs- Woidh aeeiii lu denoie miicielif exUtfiict's Miid as fiixiQ u& 
we uiip word« in this way wp urc rmiangkd in dualiatu. 

i^rof F. Mbx M«ller as well a* the Utc Prof. Tliojna* Hill 
Green, the foiincJ^T nf tho Oxford rranscendentalUr schnnl, start 
from thin aonnrnpcicinf thnt man'^ mcnml activity in pctlormcd by a 
something which is quite distinct from it. This something i* the 
ibiufc in ilsclf of the human «oi]t. Pmf. F. M^ax Mllller %Ay% : 

'■ If mtlJ<J ift till? niiiup iji llit nvork, whai ia iht ciiinr of the worker * - - - II i> 
what wt zak/ c«ll tbcq^u n porvuniiiiDj; tlie »lf . i[ in vhrn t>ihet pn i-Toaaphora call 
lb* Tii9Uo«- Lei at CiilJ (b«Te(tir« the t«orlwr who dou Ih# ^ork pf |b« mJDd Uk lli 
vusoua aapvcu, vb« Uonon ct the Ego- ' 

Thi« concr-piion which u«k4 for th« worker of fhe work !^ based 
upon a matenalisiic vie^^' of iIh- iiiunan organism. An otguni^in is 
not a dead machmc which must be vet a-gojn^ by somebody who 
attends to it. Or^aDisms are active and not paaaivc, they are living 
and not dead. Every part oJ an organism is a worker and so is the 

AJte tiihftt rBittofi IN THttMSfiLvet? 


vbolc And if wc fipeok ol it« "liEc'^ we inu«l bear in mind that 
" life ^ If* an absirjiu irliich dcnulc?^ a ccttaiii ]n\cpiLiBbli: qxuiily <H 
thr orpanicm. Thf? w^rk unci thr^ worker are two alitlnif t* of one 
ftod Ihc i-^mc ihinR- 1 he reiiity from which lhc£« Icrtnt; hnvo t>citn 
abstraclcd i« " somcihins worhinif," Thiv^ 4oniclIiin( ^orkin^ ^locs 
not oonni^i nf n worker ;inc1 b{-< wnrk, bin rhr workrr ii^ in rvrry 
pArt olhi^ work- The worlEcrofourmonta) activity it the work itself. 
Both Rfc idcTtticnJ. 

Tl^c objcfction ii; inadi.' : ** Whence doo» the activiiy come which 
ftppcMH Lit the rcnlrn of oigamied lifc^'* The iin»wer is-. Activity 3:9 
a uajvcxkaI quality of all rxiitcnce;. Tlie^r; j« no »iich it tiling a« al>- 
iiolutL^ly inert mmtfr Every chemical ^^leineni combinrt with otlicc 
elamcntii tjpontajieously. accortlinj; 10 iis. mhvivni nature iind not 
through the tntltiencc oif a. woiker manipulatin); it!i atonic, ^pc^ntii- 
nvityiii n univrnal (eature of n'ality. Nature i* tliroughoul wlf- 
workin^ activity. And tl^isit«ino«t rt^mark^kblecharacirris preverred 
ID its highest ctflDTi^ccnco in the soul oi mun- 

Tlic present number ai Th< Mvaiii contains a Jucid prc^cnlft- 
tion of the cran«(.endcrtaUfit pc?^ilion by Mr. F. C Conybcare* aa 
Oifnnl ^.hoUr and a prrstin-il diM^iiihud I'rofesiitir Grttrn, wfitli *ipc. 
cial rcfercrncc to the vicwk of Prof. William Kinndon Ctitford. Mr, 
Conybcarc. like I¥ui I-. Mnx Mfiller. a-«i.%umc!t n Self independent 
of the reality from which the idea »f tkW tian l^ecn ahiliatted, and 
Ite atter»pi£ \v> prove the existence of thi% stvlf :ts lotlowat: 

*'Id Tmlb 1h«n*caa bf^ iii>n>]aHfiii 6t hnfniw afirt xVIat Iwtwemi flu* two tpinnt 
viCFpt for a vlf vhicb mka doIf of IbL' oui* tliiappKiiinjE iJi<J uf tbc n(li«T ippsiT< 
mif , 4iii3 MvlkcncvfT <4e ^poaJn ol thiniEi lolluAiuK unc anothcv we ucidy pre?uppne 
aadf hcfofc whum ibc ^noc<MiOD pBsacs.." 

The ir»Dac«ndcntnJi)il adnpi^, in the realm of pnycboloffy, th« 
eirorof AtomiMh. Hwc accept ihe view thai the world confiL»t»of iso- 
Tair<1 :iiom«i, wr are* at a lo^s how lo bring the atoms imo rrUtion^; 
the unity of every ^'roup of atomiif every tliii^g aad every system of 
thinKs weU become a my^lcr)-. And if we look upon feelings as uo* 
rcUiefl thinffi; in tbcaiiietvci, their connection becomes a deep prob> 
(mi. Mr. Conybrare «olve& Ihis problem r>I the connection lluii i3h- 


THR urvrpT. 

taititt iunoDg Xlw le^lin^'i stippo^d to be srtomicair ^>' posrtitaiing x 
relation' producing oitity, called th« selt. Ho lukya; 

And lhj$ Assiimc^T rniliy of a corrLi^cttii^ i.i*U oi ego t!t i4kcii to 
l>e "t}nj bcAft and centre ol reaJtty/' Reality^ ihai which we have 
to deal with m teal lilc and vhai is commonly citllcd reality, appears 
^ n second cUs> of rc^tlty in companMin wilb thiit artsumcd thing in 
il*eH of oxn eicUtenco. The thing in itself Is tlmi legrtnled a^ Home- 
thing TeakT Ihac real : it i'» conceived to be n reality c1 a higher de- 

Mr, Conybcaie is very explicit m the etxplAontlon of his tT4n&< 
cendental "^tdf." He says ■ 

" FceUn^ coottituta > coaiciouH nlf whun ibcy bco^mc rtid fDolin^ut » cm- 
•CLOiMi ftvlf And not iKiftirv, for vtCDpl m t^arhtfrrcS up m ibt- unit) ol a *r1f wfaicli ham 
[mc*! memory and rcmainc (h>i tam*^ ihroiiflhntit iT«(,d»n!-'fnier^ fwUn^* ran b« 
oelEbf»r fi?w. nor rcpeAiKT, act jmoflt by Imln " 

What does "fclf " nieflfi ? What can it mcnn ? What is the 
"uriity o\ ihc wif " ? These mc qije*lit>ns which havt:: not been aa- 
KU-cTtrd todnnsfltisfHrrinii by ihr tr^insrr-ndrnt-ilisn:. WhcrrVi^rtlie-y 
tpcak of the smli, they loiic thcnificlvefi in myAticifjn. Their ^»««ll" 
lA an asrii^rrcd entity which they have carcfuUy divcfitcd oE cvcry- 
tlLJiiK renl ond »c:Lii^l. Their «elf i& lranscen<icntAl and not a being 
oi the world ; it itt fl myth. 

Let us dcficribc the siitipicr.t ponniblc inatancc ol p^^ycbical nc- 

An iiTilutioii taken place i» ^mne sentient Mibiunce. Tbii; irri- 
tation prodnceifi ;in extra- c<jm mot ion. We mutt bay "extra com- 
motian" because all sentient substance is in a itatc nf constant ac- 
tivity. This extra^cDimnotian canscs ihe sentient Mulistani:e to aa* 
sume A cert:iin fotni, and white it lasts, a certain and cpecial Feeling 
takc'^ pluce in some part cl the sentii^nt f^uliitcince, Thia cc^rtnin 
ami special feelini; ceases, as saon as the extra -com mot Ion, caused 
throuj^h the iriitaliuii. ^lUdten. Tbett* earn be no doubt llnit certam 
effects of thiti extra -com motion reiuiin. Us trace u left in the cea< 
(ieni subfliunco and thiik Irace h prescncd in the con.ttant whirl of 

AKK TBERK T1t1tt09 tV TltftUSXrvr.S? 


the svniicDt lwiii|;'s nunojil aciivay. Hi>w» we »ujifn)&e Uiat an itil- 
lation ci the ftame kind iak«B plac« Ln ihd samo soncicrtt sub^t&nct^^ 
This aecood irritation hndb thv ^ubstnncc no (on^cr in thtj 4»nia 
condkioa, U fiod^ the btutjvnc subsiaiuc prepared to receive it. 
Tlir^ ff-clin^ which now appcnni i« i^o lon^rr n ttjmplc- lec'lini;. Tile 
Mccnd irritfltton Cfluai^ at eommdtioFi a« much ak the fiT«t, and this 
commotion ads as a stimuUnt upon tUr trocc Icll by ihc firitt iiri' 
lAiroit- This imi-i.' btInK n^n'in in a MAtc of exirflvommotion is re- 
Tive<l ftad ihf sftnsr kind of freHriK apjicais- Thtis the trcond irri- 
tation !« accompanied by a i;tateol awarcnciift in which two ft^dings 
ifc blended, the revival ol the former Eceijni; and the feeling of the 
prcM^rU itrilalion- 

The pre*trvation of traces left in wottent niibulance i* the coo- 
4i\icanA mvuxury. Wt understand by memor)" the p£>ebical atii>ect 
tliereoF, «nd the act of revi^'tni;. so ttiat Cheir concfipondent {eelnii;^ 
vill reappear, h cHlt^rl r^collecCTOo. 

•'Memory** hawbeen die greatest stunibling-blcck tu our p*y- 
^lioJogisis as 'Ki*]\ as 10 out philo^oph^i^. Rvi^n niodi?m unrks 
wriilon fforo & positive fitiindpoint iraat momor^^ liequently as a 
mytlcricuf faculty of the mind. Mr. Conybcarc spcnka of the self 
AS kaviag memory, Ahik- in fact, mirmory 1^ one of the features^ in- 
deed tltr moKl tmportani foAturc, of mind-ACtiviiy. 

Say* Mr. Conyl^earc . 

*" Such M feeling J«f ifac logaihcTiwu of Iwo Itclingi) would taiTJ»*€ memory 

Memory doce not involve *ny txacaecndcntal self hood, True 
tclf-hood, vijL iliAi whicbcHn rrJisorAbly be nmlrr^tuod by seU-bootl, 
IS not prior x<y, not ihe cainse of memory; ^I'hond, i, q. iho ]>i^r«onAl- 
ily of a man, the organiced iintt^^ of the p«>xb>caj nepecc ol a htiman 
crganiMn. is, coQKeqnejit upon, it i* the effect oj, mejnoo'. Self- 
IiiikhI w the prtHhirt t\\ memory.* 

The »eU is alio called the ego. W!i£li is the tgo} 

*S«( lb* ohapur "Soal Lila knd th» PTwrrniioa of Fom~ In 73tf Srv/*/ 
J/jft, p. 41S. 


tut MOKJST, 

The K^o in a Latin li;mi tiited in yihiUistr[thlcA\ Ungiijigct to de* 
'DOTeth«? pronoun " I,*'an<l tht pronoun "J" JKquilvn Jcfiniic nerve- 
dtruciurc TntuciCcd in quitt- n Uvi^nitc; plncc of lh« centre ol Ungun^c. 
Ah all won1>. 9u also :h:; term " I '* is a tkymbo). 1t» general ii>van< 
ing fs uD«^quivorftl ; it Htandt iox th» name of the spealrvr. It utatidt 
for Mr, Uroan, il Mr^ BioiAn b|>cake ol liimfielt, for Mr. Smitb, if 
IV|i. SiEiilli 9^Hzah^ of hipi?4cli. etc. 

Whii due?i Ml. Btuwj la^ttxi when h*; »t)'s. "/apeak* /ict. 
will, / feel p^iin, / feel pl^a^nre, / int«id," etc. ? 

When MT' Brown spraks, h ccrl«in ouinber oi word-strttcluras 
in the ccfilic ol lunuuHi;^ arc in a Mntr ol commotio;!, luncrvaiiiie 
thf mirtinlr^ of *iprorJi, Cnrrr-^j^ninirni lo rhi»; phy^iolo^ir^l pr«- 
ces«, n stato ei con8ciou«niH» obtaine, winch i« an awaron«» of th« 
ailnation- When hi: adda : " 1 say ihi»," it ts sj^nin a special ncrrC' 
slMjrtnrE; ihft^ is irrilfllcd inui anion ami lir Tiiifc.'h: jiisi as wdl s^y ; 
" Mr Brown says this, "* The idea oi Mr. Brown, vit of hi* own 
pofRonftlJt)', is jiist fta much An idea ns his idcA of Mr- Smith. Tlitt 
mnin <]ilfcicnc:e coiJsi»ts in the Ijrci that ihc JAJeA of one's own pcr- 
itmality i-i vi^ry tniirh morr irnporrant ihan ehr ideas repree^-nting 
other personal it icK. 

The Qcrvoua struch*re rcprnscntin^ the feeling of the idcrt "I" 
mu»t he; the; centre of inniinii^iablc netvoijs iiacu coniKctiijg it with 
all those activifieii Khich wbrn pL-rfirmed aic thougbr of ^s clone by 
ouri^eU'e«. The '*I do thic" \% Almost constanUy rc;idy to fill the 
present »U1c of conscttjiisncnn And in dCcompAiiy any action per* 
fonnc?(! thmiLgli i\w. mncrvatitsn of other brain vtrtictures- 

Sentient substance is noT clways actually leeling- !t is feeling 
only when in a state? of extra- commotion. System* of sentient sub- 
stiiace art called oiganUma ; all iti Mnicttiiea *te inteiLomiected and 
mo^tsorhosr ftrncturesin whifh tenticTicya«wel1a3Tnoloryimptil$«5 
are diffcFentintcd^viK, the nerb'oni^ structures. The extm-comnio- 
tions which ngtlAte the iJiflereni ncrvoNiSlrtictures. the njcinoriesof 
jonncf senTte.jjettrpIicjns, cif Mumds, cif woid^H tti idnis ik-^»enil npon 
the eondilionv of the rnom<*[itp Now thi* and now another sEructure 
will rcprcHcnl ihc :^umnut oi covnmotion and the feeling of the 
Atroni^cst commotion 4t n iflvcn time will under normal conditi<iot 




Hppni as tlic c<^AiLiiib oj coi^Ktou^nos. It i* as it were the focus 
■n which ihf Atiemirn of ih«- whole orgnniiin ti; riMitraliivd^ Tlwi 
^hich appears ir. the loctit tt. clear and dittibcl, vrhile Ihc otbur 
^«akcr kcliHiCb idpi<liy diAappc^r jnin ihc u[)(ti?tlingui:ihjit>lc ^cn«rfl] 
frrlinK «>^ tW orgjinifiin «k h wimic, ctJiiiauinly calktl cau]ie%t)i«Ki^ 

The ecntre ol nttcntion in constantly chan^itif; ; yrt u-hirn^vet ft 
thinking creature i^iop» ta ask htmscU, whti j« duint: thU .^ Who is 
willing thU^ Who i£ ihinking This* tEk^ tms-wer in g:ven : " I an 
^otng Ihifi; I Am willing thic; 1 am thinhuig thift." The iinictiiro 
of the little prortouo *' 1 " neems to be the most ticklish oi all ; it i« 
aln-ay\ rtraily in forci- ilscH ifilo iIil- fme^ioLitid^ 

The answer, " I am doing tfHi/" proposes llie tt*4um /trit^rU. The 
Khole pec^onAlity is suppoee-<l to <lo what a part ot it is perfoimitig. 
Hw hfinds arc executing thU work ; these httn<!fi o1 course are in- 
QervatvMl fr^m ctriain r«gi<jns nf the brain. Soinr.' pans of the i>cr- 
tonality arL^ in a ralacivi^ re^t «n(l have noihing to tto with th(< work 
presently on hand A ecrtiinotion in a certain rLumhcr of hmfn ?itruc 
liiroa rvpic;-w<it» thu pliysiolo^icfll aspect of a detiLcratJon, prihap« 
the planning oi some acnofi PsyrholoRJ^-ally ronticlrrcd rrrtuin 
(d«aa appear aitccvaaivcly and &omDtiine^^(^irnuhanconRly in the focua 
o4 contictousjieas. The idcaa di^AK^ec and other idco-'i rcpUic<: them 
UDltl a comhination xi^ formed in which the iileasdo agree. This stAtc 
oi flgrcr-mi^nt brinqi^ a r**itipornry praci? into the tTimiilt of tonf1i<.^in^ 
ideas; the plan E^rcndy. it may pniTMntoact^m at once. or. perhapsi 
the ctO'Stniciure will appear mconsciouanestand will quietly think ; 
''I wilUloit- 

When ecrtam molory nerve- struct u re* are inoervatod, thay 
caiirvc under normal conditions their respective mudcica to contractt 
ihfiy jirodiicc nioiitju- Undei ncntnal condltioni ihe Eiorvoit» pro- 
cess accompanying the.* idea " 1 u-UE raise my arrrt " serves as an Irri- 
tation upon the cortical c«ntri^ ul aimraism^, yet it is Dot lh« <* I " 
that in some mystical way raises Uic unn. Tl>c idea * - 1 "^ liaa as liitlc 
and a!t much to do wiili ilii« dischai^c of cocteX ^"^ ^^Y (>lhcr ideia. 
Tlisidtf* "l"ianocihopowerhehind the varrl that pmciiicesth<> with 

What is will? Aa soon aa $omo plan of action ik joinetl ^^-ith 


THE uovier. 

the i<lua ihut it should be eicE?cutctl, nupposinK ub^Dotcounturucted 
b>y unv stronger iJint tliat il ahmiM aot be doiac. thJaccMnbinattun 
fppre^fnts a will A will Ati:oriliti*;ly Is Thr jjsycliolojjical u'vpt^ct of 
an incipient acTWn, and ii >» usually^ or il it is no! k can alivDvft ba 
acconipant<^d wiih the ihouRhi *' I will it." But thla accompany ti\ 
ihgueht however h aoX xhu oncrgy di^iilayed in i1i^ act o£ wiHias, 

Tlif " T will h," nr ^ T iln ii," ur " T prfcrur ix " U^'tna alwuyi; 
rnadj' to apjtcnr lO|i{clhcT with the ^l^on^c^i^t icl(\4 in the iicUi of con 
KciousncM, the term '*c|Co" h^ bcquircd a specialised nuMmin^' 
niran* ihai \>^it (>f a Tiiaii's p«*oiiali(y which at the time it ihc con* 
iL^ntft of th*" " ! will/" Of " I think," i. c. it ifi hiii pri^tcni Kt-iic of con- 
iiCimj.-^cv^ Hvcry orgnuisni i« n coherent «y)4Ccm nad thui^ all ihc 
iceling* of an ptgnni^ru natijially blenti into a unity. The f^troinsest 
fcMslint; hawE^vcT appears in thi: narmiil si;Lte of wakin^t in « distinct. 
clcarneKv thus reprvsentiiig a cltiItc of con*cicmnes;i. 

However, ivbclhcr w€ use ihc term "e^o" in the m:ii*l' oi tJic 
ideu "I " nieanini; the whule peiMJiiitlitv (jI the speaker, or id llic 
aenve oi the (^reftcnl centre of coai£CtoTi*iie**, it de!ij|;Datev ib either 
CPMT a definite reality, the orjjjm and EictLOn ot irhtch ate natural 
f&ctn and ns plain us any other p^iycho logical p heroin crta, 

NvElher tht? p^ii-ideu nur Lhe iriiite ol ci>n?K.iotj^[ie>«K aie Itvr* 
HCGT^dental The format i< jb little mystical at ate the idea* dog, 
hoi8Q, niAn. etc.; the UCEcr no leas miraciilous than any othcT fect« 
in^ or display of »ot)tiriicy. 


The contrn«t between the old and the new psycholony appeafS^ 
strongest in llicir coucepLions of ihr: rg'i. Thr fr>i[nei brlirve*. ihat 
the ega is "(he thing in itself" of m;in's soni and lakf* it to t*? th« 
centre of all p!±ychical phenomeniif while the latter looks upon th« 
cgo-idca as one idea among many other co-ordinated idcan and con*; 
3ddeTr% tht^ centrK of consriciii*np*s us the str<)ngf!*it fcWinH fli a jfivrn 
time, which ax «uch naturally predominatcf over And eclipficfi tb< 
other leuliucid of the or^aniam. 

The new psychology btinf^a about a change of »tanilpoiDt «iia< 
jiar to that L-ffecied by the Copernican lystein in astronomy- In n£< 

AKK l^ERU IHIWCfi l» THfc»»l£LVRS? 


Iranomjr ibc gcO'CVfiiric, anti tn p!«yc1ici1n^' the* rgo-centrir ictanil* 
point bad to be abnndoned^ Aod nJl tilings se«m to be Qprot to 
thoM' who are still £H:cuMomc:cl to the i>!<l conccptioii- To tbcm tlic 
pht-^iiJAl and morftl world 'Cfntccpliipciy appear to hc<:ome iiiipijvublc-- 
U tiiK in^w \ iew w^re correct, so they imagine, the eotire tini\-cT«e 
would l>T«jik to picoes* All our modvti of speech are fonnod in Ac- 
cord witb the old view. We npeal& cl -Mmnct And nunri^e, and so in 
our d'ily rurivrr?i<ilitiii eIil- littlL' pium>itii "1^' p!Aty« ^ purt wlikh 
mokes it se«m a^ A the tfgo idc^a ytr<etv th« ceutre ol all soul-lift? and 
A^if lliis - I" wcTQ iho active anenX jei aU&clsol witling and doing. 

Tlic Adi'antdi;e cf the Copcrmta[t ayattui lies id this. Eliat wc 
fan think of thr nir>ttons nf rhp Mir and the ptflfT*!* in Jt s^'stentaiic 
and unitary concirplion witliout Iwing (Mthc<T evolved m coutradrc- 
lion« or obliiccd loinvcail my»lcnous qualiiic!! in the 9tars for ex- 
plainmc xhr velocities dirrrctJonfi. or other phctioniena of the cd^a- 
tial bodies Tfii* mci^t iinpnnani advsntAfijp- howovcr it tbe prac' 
tical applicjtbiljly oi l^lc ntw Ihcorvn 

The; old theory of the »oii) accosArlly Icada lo it]ysEici«m. Fic- 
liiioiu factK of a TrAnu^cndrm chatacirr miitii 1>r invrntnj m adfli- 
tion to tJ»e fact* observed, in ofder Co explain iho latttr. The npv* 
theory attcT abandoninR the ego centric ^tai^dpniiii oi the thinE in 
ittt^i oi a i^id »h(j\k'!( tlie facU ol pjtychic life in an hAimontou^ and 
unitaty c*>nn-ption. .Ml fact* agrcL- ainons thomst'lv*-* and we are 
not in ne«d ol Kuppk-mertting thum nith mv^terimii; inventions:, it 
must he cmphaai-icd, at the same time, that the ih;iv conccptioo 
UituwH n otw hi^hx Lipun L'thici; It show* tl*e amt and perversity 
ol all t^otism. for it woidd be a mistaki> to act aft U the ego were 
nnlty the centre of sotd lik-. 

Hc*c the new psychology cumes iu contact wiUi rdi^ioc. What 
i« ilic praclical aim of all the (treat religions uf che world bvit a SLir> 
rcndftr cf tlie ogo, a renunciation of tho $olf 9s the c«ntro of our be- 
ing, and the acccptnacc of xha moral law as the fci^itativc power of 
our aci»cn»? The cicw p?f>cho1vey clvc^ a jtistificMion artd a^ scien- 
fide explanation of ChiUlinn ethicA while the Utr^r Iron: the stand- 
point of th« old psf^xhology nccc£«anly appears aa mystical and au- 




The irgQ, i. c. llu? cvDtTc of <:Dii8cioiisiic««> is consiaDily shifting, 
whilr chf prrtonaliiy of a marv U rcbtivply <:nn4irftTit, cpTiam impoi- 
tanC idf'ns^ bcin^ i^tablc nnd ihuf^ Icndinj^ chni.iclcr lo the whole tcy^- 
tem of thovichi.* aiw^ Inr<;ntion!i- 

The lentL pcrKonnliiy initn:aiing ihrt Kdfhpod of ;i mail \s UKnd 
in wvtnl viiys- First, u'p uniTcnTand br a maii'fi pcrKonality hi* 
budily appc'^Lrancc: ; secondly the whole: systi-ni of hi:^ mciituliiy, 
viz, hia kiiowlrUffC, hin tcnii>c;tiacEicot, hi« clumctcx : thinlly the 1ii»- 
lory c4 hi*s lifr. pa*i, pr^seni. and (utme; fotmbly hi* position in 
life. hi4 po<i^««iLon3, hi« coiinvcrioitft^ hi« infliwnce, or ar Inst w^ 
mean by ii aU thoe (our itL-m* to^j^ithtr. In all thc^ic avpltcotions 
the Itiiiii diul h'ii pt'iaouiilily die cuu^jcived Hb a unity. And they miv 
SI unity. WhrriBtfiBr ihp irrm nmry is applirnhir, it w mow rVnainly 
ftpplic^bic here. All the mnny t>iots oj the history oE hiji iile are one 
continooiis process ; nil the jmrU uf his body .ire part* of a *y*leir, 
and the uorld of Iti^ ideate nUo will under normal condiiioD^ t>car n 
certain harmonious character, Wtierever in nay ttonl the concord 
amoIl^' the idctts- hD:^ been disturbed, a ::tate of unrest will ensac ttntil 
the peace of jkouI i» restored in one or another way. But with the 
Mine necrviiy a« every wattfr siirfart Inids Itj pii^srnl a »muotli 
level, to the idea> in one atrtd th« ume soul tend to come to a tw 
of agreement. Aa every watvi «nrfacv luiti it» ripplus ao even that 
mind whith has attained an undbTuibcd pcaite of houl h constantly 
confronted with lome problr-nit— l^f ih^y ovi*r so rrilling — prrxluciiig 
&omo slight dii^torbanceA in hi« lile. 

Tl^c unity of a soil* it is Apparent* \a the ircvitablc consequence 
nl i^ivnt rmidilioEih. Il i\ noX sonieihttig which i-Kitih oitrsiile ihc 
pprwiDBlity ami iu conKtitueni parts, ji is in the prr^onaHiy nnd it 
dovetopR together with it. Mr. Conybeare suppane^ that "the unity 
oE a »cli rcmainft the name throughout/' This a on crTDr^ and tJiut 
error vitiatt-s Mr. C(mybpare'* whole nMit'cpCion of growth and eves- 
lutloflt. Fie t^iyu: 

'* Propvrly tpealEirg 4 tbirijf can ooly tt» taid to unytr or develop vh«« il r»- 
malnn ihe lanif with In^lf all ihrough tht pn^neu and nafeMi therein capidliA 
which ytvn uiyhov- tAicnt la It to »iiirL wkb, " 



The inith ccintained in thi< iimpovitiaTi may lie exprrKtnl thiAt 
mton a thing dcvclopii, itomc pcut of it rcniainit the «aine during the 
ch^Djf^, M> thnl n roniinutt>' 15 pr«;«crvcd. Vet every cluuiifc ol n 
(inrt oi Mi oi^anisii] — 'MilIi is the iDliin>iii: iiitcfccitiacrtioii ol aU it& 
part t— produces an ;ittcrit:on> be it ever *o Mtiall, of (he wliole 
imily. And in the course; ol evolation the charactev of the whole 
thing mny lie changed- Think o{ the grc^wth oi a calerpcllar into a 
bnutrfly, nr (vf uii egij-cell niio h iuah. However, ihe changes hi 
the character uf an Adult man wdl become? slighter and slighter the 
stronger certain feature?! ci hxa cxiatenc^ preserve their ssmunetv, 
altliough tile niuckt stable per>oiiality wlU. neverlliekns be Mibject 
to, at ]eaM. unimporfi^TiT chnng^^ ai long m life l:isT^ 

Mr. Co»ybear4>, hke his iiiu&ler Frok-s^LorCjiet^nandall ihe Ir^n 
BCCn<!cfliAli»ls i» stlU un<ter ihu influence of a bcUeC jd the thing in 
ii&clt The unity of an organism which ts. the product of ihv co- 
operation of k^ p^rts i^ ftoi «ome independent thing vrho^e btminess 
ii is to githor up their tingii? activities and bnof; ihetn into rebtioo 
villi oaeancihi-E, Tlti^ uriit)-o£ a buK b the combiuaiiuuof all thuMs 
rf-laiioni Tvhirh niflkrof ii^^pun^AsysipmAii^ed whole, and ihi« unity 
tftchangiiiR loj^cthnr with it& cor^slitLicrrt^ -, as a matter ot fact, ue 
have to Mate thai it decs fr>'/ remain conataut ot the ^arnc «rath i1?fe]f> 
Tkl^fk thai I do uax deny the unity of the soul, nor do I tuid^rraii? the 
cnormoiifi impotlnnco of this unity, But I do deny that thi« iraity 
exisKi independent <^1 iti> pnrlf^ ll ii^ n< niLich imumrent in iCft parta 
a« is a ntelody in il^ iioief. There is at little a ic^LUMcndcnldi ^eU- 
hood 3K a nirWIy in ilu^lf indcprndrni of itu tniinds 

The afsiimplion ol a transcend enial unity which thtouj^houi tho 
praocnii ol evolution rrmains the name with itself n«[lnra)ly lcdd» to 
a wrnnc ooncepiion oj nhal Mi. C-Onyheiiitr c^tlU " }aleiil c^ipAci- 
tie*-* The term* potential enUtence and latent riualicie^ arc Cfrtiln 
and flselul Idctki but •uc must beware not to employ thcrn incorrectly. 
Any hcapoi iron ore can he called n poieniinl s'Anrd- This t6 a mode 
ol «|ie;3kirg whirh pxprrsw-s ihe po^iiiihiliiy ihat the nrr- rfln he 
changed li^mchow into n iworcL liul the KWord doc^ not eM»C at 
idl, not even a> a latent qunlity of the ore- The ore hA» no Utcnt 
quaiitic« of tlini kind. Tho?^c ipiahticK of the ore which represent 

TTtr vmtr«r. 

ilifi^ poimiial ^wcTfT arr vory pni^m to fveryhti^y who known ihrsn 
of ufiinj; ihcm properly nnd chnrL]{in|{ them into an nctiial i^word. 

Wc may say that the hen'* cpK c.onlnijm n potrittial chick . bui 
tJiI» ifc 1 mt^tK modei>l fi|H;cc:h dcrvJACji 1o ^n> iIiai the <:Ks can be 
thaiiftE?i1 into a rbick iir*lt*r certain conililionc Thert! w no chtdc 
At nil contained in the c^^ and oothitif; that it- Jikc a chick, 

Evckition IK not. m the nnmc sugccMit, i process oi xinlc^inc ; 
cvokiium 1*. n* CliriMian Frirdiirh Woiff call* iw au *'epigrtir*i»/' 
J. e- the proccfiE ol the adtliliooal growth of ticw 1ormation«- The 
chick is m>m«thin|E ditfcrvoC in kind from the egg. The unity o4 the 
ecg'ccll or^ini-Hiii in ibi? yulk i> tadicnlK- diflet^m from ihcr unity of 
th^ full-flydgi-J chick. The lormer ihowv tCAcev oi hrifahTlity but not 

01 consciouHn^^ vrhilu tii« latter cKhtbit^ unmistukablv nymplora» 
of psychical activity. Tliv lonnatton ol the chickcn^soul \» » new 
fnrn^iiiiatt £s inuch as the ^ri^wih uf fviiilivrs. The fi^atburs oj !he 
chick Aro na ndditioual gion^th . ihe<rc are no Utent leathcin m tlie 
ci;fr. \Vc niijcht v&prvse ourselv^is to tho oflcct that tho csgj^ coAtaitiv 
the potciatiAl cxistcitCL- of feathers, but wiili ihc same logic wc might 
Kfly rhc r;:ii rnniftins n pnii^niinl rhirW^^n hrorh. 

It lA however true thai Komi^ihing T«ninin« cotifitant in tht? pro- 
ccM of growth. ThcTc i* a prc^crvntioo of form in the confront 
chnnt:^; o( in>itcrinl pAitidc^ and this is the phy^ioloBical hum of 
iriMiiory, *o that n mnn of etRhfy may say ■■ 1 nrmpinbrr when I vnt% 

2 child.' ^although not onc^ particle of the £;ih»tarhce ot which the 
child coTiunted in left in him. The continuity produced throoifih 
thlH pieneivHiion ot hum m^tke^ ^rawth atui c?vo!tition ptw^jlde. 

The preservniion of in em ury- struct urt* confitittitt** th* poMt- 
bdtty of rcvii'in^ the tcclints ol thu past, it conHtitute^ n prenerva- 
lion of ;(uul. The niiiterjal piirtn c>( the body are thtoi4ii out hut the 
form being preserved, ih& ^olU remaint». And \l\i^ preservation of 
i1m» soul >a tb« basis ol it» additional growth through nvw and en- 
larged experience. The soul of ihe child is not loM in Ok man, it 
is pic-?9eiveO- It has lu^t Ltitaiii icntuica and at llie Mint time il ha^ 
gained n«w f«aCLircs> it ha« dvveloped, and tho unity of the son! h^u 
i)]or« or Loss uhnnged with the dov«lopm(rat 

What 19 true of the indivi^Li^l i» al^o trtic of n^ankind. Man- 

AM tntKK t11lV<» \Jt THCM6SLVU? 


kind ij a whole i% dtflcftfot in the sarji|;e And in civibft«d socicCf. 
Ncvrrtjiclcsjs tbc Utter biu tle^cJopcd Itum xht (onner^ Certain 
train hare be«Q droppol, oU»er TaittcaUy nc-w f<?aturr«& hart* mppeared- 
Ll wh*ch wwa valuable in this «<>ul oi primitive man iv not loott. 
ic bettcf part of his soul stiil \ivt:if in the liigbcit d^vFloped man 
ni tu-day: the cuntmnity is prvs<^vvd. And to-day all (kit mival 
instructvon atin« at this, «0 to bi'» that our touli atiPO vrill be pee- 
arT\-cd in tlic lutnro vYolaboo ol liutnanity. The gbt of ethic» U t^ 
make tbc 30ul inunottjd.* 


TW iwobtem. *' Art Uv^tp thing; in ih<*ms^lv«s7" if cUMdy coci- 
nected witfi the «ubj«ct oi my di3CLn8.ion with Frofowor Uaich. Fro- 

>r Mach as vrcU aa niyscU are aspiring to arrive at a conaUlcnt 
and harmonious or unitary world -codci-ih ion. Both of tia ttscogniice 
Ifaai ihingfi in ihemu^lvrt; have im> room in a monistic pliilofiopby, 
both ol Uft recognise that concepts are meant only of oriontation, 
ihcy are tlie nicntnl t<xiL> of living beings developed a» an auintaoce 
in drAh'nii with rTu* sarromidini^ wcirkL They nn: *ytn\xA% in which tlie 
fiCK of nature are copied and imitatLtl und witich can tutyrve foe 
'planniof; or modeUni; and thu& predeiermmmg the countc of natuni. 
So far we atjrec, but llicrv llicre appears a difference which it H difA- 
call lor me 10 under^tTAjad or formulate in |>rrcUe ti^mK 

Frofesiior I\]:icb ubj^cts to th<> diijiliftm ol moiion nnt\ fcctlng, 
whidi he docUica he cotLCclves as a uctily nf>t ai> a duality, but m> 
do I. U appears to iiiv thdt we iiiubl difler !t(]uu:li(iw in ihe method 
oJ couBimicifng rhp nniiy^ I wr iTide4Td a conrrasi of physical and of 
pfiychkaL Thit conirast, however, in my conce|)tion doe* not Itctong 
to the obicci but lo the subject- ]t i» a conua&i vi our conception of 
ihinKf^. but it l% not h conira^^l exiiiiinK objectively in the reial thing* 
tbcmvclreti- The world It not composed of tho paychicaJ and the 

nmny. « samnda of thf nml or of iia LTnmonaliiy Thai ihc ioimcmiKy m Uip 
i«mJ li^em tfa« tiandputni of mL^trii ftycbology ■« pr^ervad. Ilmi ic appc«n In 9 
Dc«r bfliL Kf.uiiler 4nd ambler ihAiL licfuic. «<id iIiaE thj* conception «J irommhility 
Ikddaofinnrmouii pr2Ct]CAliinpiirinni% biit't* tonD tbo Dialn inoenih« n( Ur U C, 
H«9Kl«r ID landing /^/ O/^ Vtvtt-r and 7'4>/ ,t/(jjjf>f 


VMK UONtia. 



j>bywtral, Inir rrrrmtn fratiirr« ni rhr warld fire £:allrd phyKirnl, A' 
othcti; pi;yctiical. IJoth tirrms arc abAtFact«. 

Frofc^^iof MiLch ikai^l in his firnt ankle &nd Tcpeiit« it niittlti ii 
ibu prc?%ni iuicck- thai his formct ^tjUidpuint mitmblcv vct> cloNcly^ 
my ]>n?£ent vundpoinl When leading Frok'»%or Mnch'» itHriiin-* ol 
iB63r 1 look [):^m& to look ior th« aimilarity. and hrdling many rhingdfl 
in which [ coiiM atfree t dropped the diffcrencen taking the agree- 
mct)l% us lilt? f?««^iuinl |K>[Zii%. lu if^ddiii^. huwvvL-t. pTofrvsur \fH<^ir! 
r^sum^ ol hi> (ormer pofcitioci Att tfEati;<l in tilis prviiijat article. 1 fii 
that he attaches proniiiienc^f to stfverul points which [ Cftnnoi en- 
doi^c. 1 do nut accept tlw theory theil atom? fccL that fhtry are en- 
<low*"d with ronidoo*iTi^*,<i, 1 havt nover 5poWi?n oJ ainms wU»a^ 
dculmg Willi pt(ychuiogi(»J prcl>l«iD£. Tht Ivrm ^-atom " \»3l citem- 
kal tcnn iavcntcd a» a_hclp for thiul<iii£ thu L^tuivaJcncc of tl 
wei|rhT E)f ihc fItmenTs uhirh alwi^y^ coniblnir m dcfmirc proportions,] 
The term "atom '" has m m\ opinion no wnsp if Jipplji?*! tc Mhi 
plie&otnfina. The term '^.itoin " hm nai been Absir«Gted fron^ pay- 
cliicfti phenomena norhasii been invcniedfui descilbinfitbem- Til 
Is accordingly rin pmhnbih'iy tbar ii can find ihrrr any nppmpfiRn 
application. Wc tnif^ht ai; well expect th;it fnntbcmAlic^] tprmi 
audi A« linei, points, citcIci^h etc., nrc fippJicaHe in p^ychoJoey 
The idea of ctjiiKdotJK circlr> «i poinu c*ii not in my mind be moi 
ahsnrd fhnn that of con«cioiiti atoms. The nilc mnat hr obscrt'i 
that wc can use abmractiAni; m^do for a i^pcci^l pnrpot^e icr thai pur- 
pose only , they will not nervt any other ptirpoj^c n* well, h ts tmc 
thar thry are oftrn employed ak analnftiefc, hut Tn jtuch fasrK, we 
mu«t bear in mind that we are dealing with mere anologit'ti- 

]n addition to the impiopnely of UMni; the term alom» in pny< 
chtdtjgy. It aitfieaTit to me errcmeoiLs la ittiiluLte frdiiif; or aiiythin| 
like fedinj; Ut physical process's of Jiny descripfion, Niatiiral pro-. 
ces»a are i»o con«tituiedi that under cariain conditioaa. such an talcBJ 
place in aoiniJil oreani»mti, they wUI develop feeling Clifford 
xpealcb Id Ehiii hcnsr ejI tlit: Ldt^nn^iil^ of fedinc^ Lluyd Morgan calls 
it raeta kinesis, and I fitid that f^oling>i briitg simply stati:^ ol aware* 
ne£i» reproserit the aubjcclivity of natittal pioceasc*. We have reai| 
toob 10 »upp(j!tc that in the pvo(;eMe^ of unorganiBcd nature chili 



subjectivity is nciibcr iccliag nor anything like 1c«Iitig: but the sub' 
JRCtivity of the natiiiaL prou:%Aca i% as U ACit the uluft ^itC of which 
our (wvn Irrling* are fririDi-rl. 

I acci-pt «ll ihc arBumeiiK ol Prok-iior Mach that our id«as are 
aili6c|aj prociuctTt : and I am al^a aoj&iou^ to Jiitin^^tiish in our ideas 
brt«rc«u that whi<:h (le*(crtt>cH fucEs iniil that whkh has bttrn added 
!o ihe Jetcripiion of (a<:t« m *hape of tlieories or c:oDje(tur««. 

The icn%c pictures oJ obiccis nnJ idoas aiao urc not things hut 
iniagcs Ami s^ymbois ai chiiu;s cieatcd Cor tfic puipa^c oi icpre^nt- 
icg rhingt; ihc^ ai4? a* Pfof. Lloyil Motg^n say*, "corastructi, " 
Bui th«c constructs ar« not tiiQre fincj\ ihoy are not air-c^istles. 
They arc constructed in order to imitatr ccriain realities. Now, in 
huiUliii^ thene constroi: la as ati tti;iliiti(j:L ui n Lxjpy of reiiliiy, vte 
>TP olttn at a lot» hf>w to buiJd tlir>m. There is fi>r instance in the 
objcctTVC roattty o1>fl«rvod, n &oni«ihLnK gom^w^ierc hi^h jii the ah, 
tbo basis of which i% invisible, ftn<1 hcSnii; linittcd in 1:^111 meaiia of ac- 
quiring inforniAiion we are i^roranc of ihc re^d M^lr of things. So 
in raconslnicttri^ or imitating lh^ JAClii, ^'c build f;cAfl(>ld)^ 10 tup- 
port it. and wc are tno apt to forKcit thnl ihciic 9icnffold» do not repre- 
sent objective faa-s but aie artificer 10 make certain facis. whkJi vre 
know in parts only, thmkalde, \. c- rcprcttniil^le wJtlioiir br<^ak« in 
ni^jntftj construe ts- 


There is 0114^ point which I have emphaiikRd arid which it ap« 
pcnts 10 me I'rolessor Mach neglect-, iiAmeiy ihAt our DOUOlcnal 
world ol Ideas has an objective meanins. The idea) contiritcts repre*. 
sent realitif^s. Tht-y do not consist of sni^oldi; alone and th«r« is no 
ccaHcJd which has not l>e«n erected to help in huildir;|: up repre- 
sentations of lacts^ l^t us call the re presentation cJ facts positive: 
science or simply trutli nx\<\ the scaffolding the tnythnlo^ of scf«nce, 
and u'e sltaU ace that tlie noad to truth Leads over/whore through 
mythology, Certain facts of the Mirronnding wxirld impress chcoi- 
Aches upon a scniient bcin^ ittid the^e impreuions ci^mr to repre- 
seni Cacis. Thi-He facU are not seen at oncc in their caiiKfil c«nnec- 
tioR* they appear unccnrufCledamoag themavlws, and in Che attempt 




to lormuUle tbcm, to icprctcnt ibcm, to construct them in m^tftl' 
imascn, wc fill out ihc fiftpji of our knowledge with »uch invcniioDs 
as art fviippllcd by analogy. 

MyiJioloRy ifi, in religion as wril a^ in scirmcp, thp inditiprnaAbli 
Iftdticf to truth. W« cannot build withniii ^jcnffolds. So wc cannot^ 
construct tniih witliotit mytlioJogy. Wc have to introduce nllceor- 
ical rxprmians in nnler to f II iKit ^tip% with anakigint. jfl 

Hjlhology beconit'tt fital to the builJjng up of truth, ai *o<ni^ 
A9S wc convidcc lE S3 truth iti^lt. The suitlold i» crcctc:d njmply as 
an HK^inUnct: for building and l\ the building ia finished tlic itcaffold 
filiould be torn cltjwn. Ilic |irf?gret« of science which i* *o mnch help 
by mythology has punods o( punficatAon in which the mythology ia^ 
discAtdcd. Thi» in somcimvTt a diiBcuIt task, becau.-M: the vcrj 
tfirmtt nf HUCTiKC art? mostly both at the Kaiiic time truth iind myth 
o]o^3\ build in g-tt«nes and vcaEEold. 

T*kc, for instance, the- term atom- The dicmtst obscrrcs thj 
tbc dementi alvray^i combine In certain proportiuna und formulate 
the law of tlu: «<juivalence cl their atomic weights. In ofdn* ti 
think ihiii proceK, to r«conslr4Ct it in m«uta[ imageA^ he imagine^! 
that rn;ittcr conniiti of inSnllcly »iiall partickn of confttanl v-clghL 
Thi< iv a fiction iiscful lor ic>> ptir^KiSf htiC tl in^y be jtj?tl a^ ^Toneaai 
at^ the method «mplo^'ed in tli« inRnite^tnial calculus of thinking of 
A continxiouB cutvc ftacoDfiUting ol & broken line ot lulinitcly smallj 
parts, or at thinklnK of £ certain force as bcin^ composed of d par^] 
allelogrflm of forrp*;. Thf parallrlogram rtf forces is a scaffold help- 
ful lot n.'pr(;fici»tmg in nicntnl synibols the ci^existence of drfterent^ 
abritraciton» of the h^nw kind (c. g^. motions of a dilTcrcnc velocii 
and direction)* Bui lhi8 tGnfTohl h hoc a more Rca0old, it is itoij 
efi-cted without any ptirpo«;c^ ic<^ finnl aim ii the dKcripiicn ^f facts. 

The proposition to c:onfii<^cr light an rays ira^^^jn^ in straifiht 
Itoes is a scftffold, It i« in>iholog>' ; but tb)» analogy contain* a trutk 
Ueontnin^a rr^i] hulldin^-Mcmc which should not he torn dovn wiib 
the ficaffold. Thit truth is onc-tidcd ', it represents one fcaturi* of 
light and diu:ceii\b other fi::aturcs. It diKrcganis entirely the irans- ^ 
vMsal oscillations td the ether, yet it dexcriha anotlicr fcamrc — viz^i^ 
t)i« trani;miiuion and retraction of lighf for the comprc^hcn^Loi) of 



which iv« nfiod wtt c^kr irtia rnnticimiif^n the? imrlnlniion thr-niy. 
Tbc pbyuci»t cAlcuIatcsuithhif^foitnuln ftin<r/iiin/r~ jv Ihe angle of 
rcfrJictiou. Thcic is certainly neither a Jtinc a rorAsinc j5 in teAliiy, 
but there Bie ccfiain r!'lfl(ioH* of rtaliij which arc det^ribcd tn ihvK'- 
«xprv^)on& and the action of the light has a dcl^mic <|i]ality nhich 
can be ddermincd with the a^siT^tance ol Ihc lormula $m4»/^in/y» v. 

If the ACJcmist ^-uccccd?^ in dclerniiniog svich real qUAlitie^ of 
thitifii^, evvn ihotigh ii he dom? with tht asMsiancr ol mythology, be 
4it^ccvcf£ a tniUi- tic hat w^ith the help ol his sciHoU\t Kiiccceded 
in pUcinc n building Atone vdiere it belongs. 

Some Ecatiotds have to be iota down becjiUM? ihey hinder fur- 
thftr hinldinf; ; otiier ficalfold»i niust remam bvcnuiie ihey assist lis In 
IDOdeling, anil pUnnini;* and pTedetermim nt; certain |itoccs&c$ ol 
otture. lliey itrc like stdrcANC^ which enable u» to rcacli with case 
odierv^-ite inacce^ible plucks on towers or dom*?*. 

The idua that science Is full of mylholo^- nppcai!! atran^ to the 
iMKi'nciectifiCp ;in<l il i» often merlooked by Hcif^ntiKts ihemTtdvL'^ 
Bui the ld«a that reli|;ioti£ mytholctgy in spite of its many irrational 
mpersitiions ^nd wrong analo^ie^ bt^dniii wtth truth 15 also httle 
beeiled by the mauy. In iatl, mau'ti iiiL'thoJ ui teaching iJiiCh ia the 
4ame in relT^ioii as in science. 

The religious ideas such an God atid toul are mental comtnictc 
• which ccpv certain rcabtits ; but tht*o very terms, such us they arc 
uwil, are mytlujiogitai eKpie»iuns ; tlity are >iiU MirtoLinded by 
ibeir snaffold*.. Mniny people know tiy their own experienc^^ the u*l-- 
liiloftetr and inditponsability o( lh« 8caEl<jt4l. Without the scaffold 
ihey would never tiave had an inkling of ttie Irutb. kit the ici»re»en- 
cation of vihk.h it wsti^ biidt. and it ts. nattiinl rlint they consider the 
scaffold a4 xhe building it«e!l. 'Hiift ts the reason why iiie narrow- 
minded orthodox denounce anyone who would Uy hand on or tear 
dowu any part o| the fttaCfuld, wUIlI^ lutb hecomi! 4 !iindr»nce to lite 
fiirrhrr d^^vrlopmrrt oi r<"lipirtiin ideals. 

Pof itiviftm, i- c. (he reproacnlaiion ol fact* without any admix- 
ture of theory or m) iholo^y. i» an ideal which in itn j>iiiily |>crh£^i)s 
ttiU bevcT he fcali»ed^ Nevertheless it is no i^Hif /aiK^r/. no will- 



oMbc'viip thai Icadit u% astray. Our Mricncc i» coavtantly more 
ami Hinre ap^irnAcbing this ideal and thr- pnigfi^ftH of humanilj is 
inlimatt^y coonectdd with it- 

Scicaoc has not merely a theoretic value, its atn: and purpose 
consist in U^ a|Tp1icatioii to practical hfe. Science 1% tliroQglwul 
ethical. Thim eihic« ha« ai«o iu myihologicu] phaw- In agreement 
with I'rotvs^oT M^cli fp. 104). vre ?:houJU httti it ridiculuaft il one 
who prcsiuiiG? to he an cthica] teacher oi mankind w;>uld say : 

" Mm lAA'/ nn( lip tlMvntDdnd fmcn mrmltf}-*.' "Th# Mrlh 'iaZ/neri TOUe#," 
'^M^t^^rpn^*' om rtvf7*tiTc fo fill »par*. ' "FrU^rvy (n»rf iM-convUni. ~»Dditno« 

Why is it riiliouloita? Bccaunc we cannot prcr-cribe a certain 
deport men I to facts. Ii t% however not Hdiculoii^ to let a precise and 
tArrfiTliy ^fccil knowlcclfie iji tuct-i (ieinmine <]tir own i!i*;K]Tltncnt> 

Scirniic hiia to UMch cthicsi. 1)u1 hcie al«i> we should distio- 
gui«l] hf-tWL'fci positive fac<<& ami rnyiTuiltjyy. Kthicft hased upon 
mere thvoriec. upon our interpreiaiioits oJ nature? nhicti ^t a<M 10 
factMt ift mycEiclo^icalT positive otbica itt simply that c^cporunoDl 
whiih is vii^^c?»ti;d hy a Loiiipctflicuhjon ol the latib ihtiubclvts. 

Mytliological ethics may be quite correct, just as much so as 
the appikatlon of a oiytholngical theory of science may l>c wilhin 
ceriatn liinTTii reliahle a» a working hypothe*i*t. Btit if is d*?!iirable 

10 understand ihL* nature of myThological i^thici in order to di^tin- 
i;ui^i l^ftwccji truth and 6ctiuu. 

Wlitii FruleiMJi M4Lh s^nJiiks of AenHatioxis 4« hdng the ele* 
meat« of the world >nd of lhiiig&d«lM^mgcompiexv« of the«e elements 
he apparently does not uae the word ttensation in its usual s^en^e- 

11 luis ceased Iv be an ah!ttr4Cl tcim which rqiii-sents unc feature 
rmly of n proceiis uf uaCurr? and ha% hcrroirie a v^ymliol for itn entire 
reality. And i% not »(ich a u«age of term« as if they were not ab* 
btracts hut the tbinga thcmscKo hnbk to lead to uiiticonceptioos ? 

FrotesHor Macti's'^uUtnents/' it svum^ tome, are only elenient^, 
i. c ulliinatc and unanalysable rnatctialb, if considered a« IcriDft of 
a psychological view tjf ihe world ; iTiey Are not trlements tii the do- 
mains of Other fibstractiont, such as are made by physiology or 
physics. MoToovor, allJiough this method eliminates the duality cd 



MQu) and bod)', tiiind nxni nutlrr, (vcling and molion. 1I ilDru*( not cX' 
pJain tlie pTOb)en]» 

ProfcsooT Mach might nnvw^r th^t th<.- problem ah to the- ffual- 
it)' ol inmi) 4ad maitcr is a tiham pral)kt»» jUHt a.i niucli a% ihc prob- 
l^Oi why do Vb-e i»* lbing« iiprtf;fil whn: 1I10 retinA jiiciUfv ol the 
eyt ahow» the thm^ imtrrttrdP ifut a pfobi«m ia to bim who htu 
solved ibe probltni always a sham problem. Every problem clisap' 
pt4<» us d |TTobltiii >i«» Mion a^ it in ttolvvit. It is tiue ibal ^i^tf suenb 
link with cht> blind spot of the ey^ a^ ^itb tl>e skin ol our bacle. 
Th« problem of th^:} bJind «pot \a not why du we not mto with tlic 
blind apoi, (wliich i» simply a matief oi faci.) hut why do wc oot 
nciiro^ when iminie only nnr ryf>. im liick of 4ij|{bt In a ^pnt <ivr- 
rounded with MRhi-M^mg «Tnic1uros^ Wo hiiv« to omploy AmhcJal 
tBCBiis to convince ourselves thfti wo are rcaUy blind in llmt spot * 

All problciri^ arc merely snlijcctivt? ; they are a conflict b(*iwcen 
tw<> conrcptinnK and a« Prol<^«nr \fflch hi'm^^lf *^yft, th<- tflliirion ol 
problcmi* ronAiKtK in ihE^ ndnptalion <>l IhouRhc to fiKtSi i- c. to new 
Ucift or DC4- viewfi of facta. Dy an adaptation of our thouftht to the 
i;nUr){i.'d lirlil of viTtiiir tfi<- pTiiliTnn xrnniKhet : it hi% traced to lie a 
probJeia. In fact il nt.-vci crxiftied a« an ob}ecttvt! phenomenon^ 
'Ilicrc afc no problems m natun:. There htc problem.^ onl^a to the in- 
rcKlifsatin^ mind- nuicventTiefoiaiiilAtionof ptohlctRKln » [irobtcin 
to be ioIvqI, and perhaps the mo*t difficult and iiibtle kind of prob' 
}tm% n to discover the flaw in wront;H' formuUred pmblcnu. 

The problem ol the duabty of body and m>liL matter and mind, 
fcelui4i and motioa, cc?;iu-k ta br a prohlcrm to liini wbo ha-^ uptIcmI 
hft way tbrou{[h to a moaUtic ccncreption, but to thote who have 
- tM>t as yet succeeded in c?!ilablisbin^ a nnitary view of tbcic idea*, be- 
caioc they take tliem Co be wipatate anil diMxnct exivtcincej.. It is a 
pmbtem 0' grtiai imporiJiifV- 



The world h nC4 liiEid being, but activity, n^^ 3b?iolut« exitt- 
aoco but a ^slem oi chao^ini; relations, oot on abstract S^tJt but a 
concrete lVirk/i<Akf/t — a constant working: of cause and elfoct. There 
ic DO dualiun in ibta. lot ihi- tVt'rkiichkrii i% tKie and nndivided^ 

TRK «(»XIK1. 

Yol <)wry rrbt^on arlmiK nf rwn siAnrTpninci;, jiKt sui ihc line 
-^Z/, which mnv tef\'c to rcprcacrtC a ccrtiiin md diifinitC! reUtion. is 
determinable from both ends. j4 as^^cU as li. Lcl uk caU ^ the 
fillbjcct and fi the nbji^cL Nt:ithcr v^ nor T' is a reality, a whoJe 
compli^ic WirkTUhktit. A Ihir^ in order to b(^ re^tl mii«t bi? active, 
it mii::t wcirk, it must &tand in relation tc t^omcthmg cls^c. ^ i$ a 
mete mnthcmMical point, but AB fci>rcscntin(; a proccw does »omp' 
thing, it iietftJTmii wnrV, it is ri-ul, A thing in itscli. M il ^oitlJ t^isl 
at all. wouhl be tantamount to non-«xiBience, it xvo-uld r^'prevvnt a 
Siin without being Wifkikhkeii^ When bearing this in Taind. il 
appears nulura] that tlic uncue^s cjf eMHten;;e. reprewnUihlc \\\ bnch 
relatimiv as is th*t of AB^ — HA will admit c»f two ^lai^dpiiints, 
i/^ representing eubjectivity. and ^^ represenitng obj^tivit^*. Wtt 
Clin consider the relation of Ihc world at lar^c to one special point 
(whioh klier may in it^t nun suod (or a A^holr syMrni <if n-laiion*) 
OT vice venift llie relation ot this j^oini to ilic worSd ai large. The 
former Mnndpoint is that ot ibc microcosm, or the »oul, the latter 
thai oi Che macrocosm or the universe ; the former resulu in awaic- 
new, the bttrr flppcarii (is maitpr in morion. The former is sub- 
jectivity, the bttcr gtijcctiviiy. 

Reality must not bo conceived ot as hcin^ a compound ot the 
elements of fcclini; and of ninlion. of subjectivity and objectivity or 
of Jcinc*]* nnd meukim^sit. I do not think thrre art* atonis one-half 
of which contains the poteottality ol sentience while the other half 
» freighted with energy. I conceive of reality as bcins one through- 
out, tint, being ihroughuut rvHulvnble in r^atiunii. it will as a matter 
of course havi* \^rs >(idi^4 What these two sides are like can be 
known llirougli <<xpenuiicc cnly» and i;aperience teaches that under 
certain cumlitious the subjective side develops into feeling and con- 
sciousness, while th^ objective side is represented in the f«%liiig of 
conscious beings as motionSn 

Thia view caplnins the duality of our conception of psycho- 
pbyaical facts, but it is ueituiiUy n*il Juali^in. The dualiij belonj;s 
10 the scaffold not to the facta EhemselveB. The Iacie can only b^ 
thought of as being one and undivided, and no conception can stand 
caccpt it be monistic 

ARR T1IZ3K tltlBrai tit TlltUftStVES? 






Sublcctrvity anil objcctivii>- arc tcrm.t thai cxprci? rdations and 
not (hin^ in ihcnist-lvcsp There arc. Iiovrcvcr, philoKt3]thciK who 
show A |^f€flt grief unlffifi r-ithtr the iiiibjf^ctivtly M being, or the ob' 
jcciiviiy ol l>cmf;p or the t^nilic^ m whkh thmgi; or pcrfic>nalitic« arc 
gathered up. Arc considered n» lhtnfe» ^^ ihcrDvelircs. All tho^ 
fe»tiiFi-K nf re!Hlit3- whic^b flpppAv in theit cnmteptifin uncx plain able, 
such aii the rclationii that obtain amon^ chinf^K nr\d c4|)E^i.-Uly the 
thotiichtfi of thjnhini; hcrint;? arc supposed to be the effects of some 
tranncentienliil e-ntiiy, of a llilnff in ilMjIf. And if a philo&opby denies 
the eit]«tefic|! of rran«cei>dentnli«lic ihnughT-entitieft or of ;iny such 
thin|j« in themselves, which actvu at ceinenc to combine the dtsjfcfa 
wumtra of tlieir Vforld-conceptioni it in i^encrally declared to lead 
Mraight on I0 nihilism — not because iht-' wudd tueti bul bi^uuM; 
their ^lorhl-nj-^tem wK>iild thtrtb)- be unnihitated. 

All thing) that v\isl» if cenniderc'd aa separate ihinKn. n-iti pa» 

y \ but jf consideTL-d a& parts of the ail-exiatcnce of rcalityp they 
an- eiernat. In fact things Are not lirpaTale things, in thf* fumsr* 
ol isolated, absolute, or abatract beings, although we may spank of 
them a» sucli for our ephemcrat purposcan All things that exiat, 
die huEoan saoul JucluJed, are and will remain partei uf the One ;u;d 

Thifl destroys their iodividualit>' aa Uldo a& a hrklc ceaws 
10 be a brick becauw; il acrrca its patt in the buUdinj; of a dome. 
Tlic of a mao if his lik' be uell spent. \% not annihilated in 
dvath, hi« f>oitl ha*^ become a living stone in Iho temple ot honiaii' 
Itj'. U eontintie^ to live and marches on in the general progrcsa of 

Ibo f ACC 

\\V an? pare* of a ureat whole now, and we <JiftII mnain partfi 
t the t^mc fcreai whole forever. Wc hasc never been and flhnll 
rcr be cramiccvidental felfhoodjt or metaphysical cfioi, Of any kind 
of things in themselvifv Our peruinality is teal life, \t i« actual 
ing- As Kuch it i^ bound up in the universal life of the One and 
I! and no partide of it will be I01-L Wc need not fear death, for 
tlic air we breathe is iininLittality. 




THE recL-nt work of M. V. Pailii*^, Lt N&snran Mjstirismf^ 
placet LIS in th^ presence o[ a IcAttirc c1 modem hl«, il no4 

We anisi at x\\rt formation of a n«w spirit. But wh;iT \%M 
WhiLt is its v-aUi«? ,A reply to thi-t qaevtion wo;ild exact a long and 
u^inuU aiidN'sis of nil nocijt} facts. M. Paullian dots not flatter him- 
scH tliiit he hj* cihijufvicd :l. aad \\c u(furi us only pt>t^it>rl^, alili<jt]|;h 
excellent and instructive, of the required vork. H* shows us in 
npid rc\itw, the diMolution i>f tlio ancient world, the intcUcctLial 
anJ mural jnaicby i^bith has tU'day rtaclitd il?i hi^hval possible 
fioini ; he setfk?t, in lh<? rtiins ainidM w^hich we Ltt'^d, tliir ;:u]i>^Criic- 
live olemeniB ol & new ordor of things, and makes an oflori 1c foTi»- 
w?c what it ■ftill l>c, 

■• Tlit aLit-'iitifn: mind/' v*'i itt*i he, '* the tchj^ioui^ spiilt. piiy for 
surfimng, the watimcni of ]ii«^ticc, «ocia) rny^tici^m, Ihf atiraclion 
for myBteriou* pcrliaps danKCfrou& (acts that wo bc^n tc liavQ a 
lelUiipi'C of, the kind of titw poller which tltc kno^lcdftc of ihcrn can 
^iv^ ikK, A general nr^i'd of ijnii'rn^jil harnion\ t siirh nrr the* prin- 
cipal <:haracCer* of iho spirit which is (onnmg iteoU." Thoy ara not, 
h'; himself sav», all now. It i» not ihc presence of ihcae elements 
\vhkli is si^'nificanT, hii( rather the Angular cuiiihlnation in uhicli 
they occMf, and w© conM say. the prpcipital<> ihat thpy givp in fhc 
particular chemical aoltjiion where they ftnd ihemneWes thrown. In 

tlTtRAIIV Ct)|tpe«POVTtrVCE- 


ercry c^ce. the phenomenon docii cot affect entirely. i1 Kccms to u*^ 
ibc same cluinK:1<^r>, according 1o whether vrc obftt^rvc it in thv phil- 
otoptik ot scientific uidci, in tht practk^l »rc1cr, or in thni nf ^ttm- 
timmt* which lifrratarL' repreteniu. The nnmr of mysiiciitn doe* 
not belong to every part o^ the new spirit e<]iially ; or morv exactly, 
the spirit which is produced could well not be truly myaticuimi but 
only 4 %k\e pht-nmni-run. aw! the very evident n^iirrcction uf Lhtf 
spirit whi4:h is ilitappearini;. 

M. Paidhnn, if I do not decci^'v myvclf, aometimca aJloi-vs him- 
«U lobe too much infliieoccd by a certain literatuie, to which I do 
not allow 3k very greait vakif. am! <if wlLit'h pvcn ihe MTiofrity 
D^ay he suspected it rt^pn's^cntt; at brsl. to my mind, ludividuat 
tonditioofi. and it evidently impcachc* some Authors cl a iiTort>id 
diallic^fti^. Mjiny uf uur propbcU, ito In known Jn tlje Quord^r f.a/m, 
have or aN^ci vices wiitcti ^txclnJe by theins»]i/e& aII genuruiing 
power Then, ii in very difiiciilt, in onr age, to appreciiato oc^clly 
the iclation^ ol licciatuic io tlw public uiind, Mscitig the diversity cf 
romantic booths stnd the corri>Iation of one to ihv rjihrr is p^rh^p^ 
not so strict, &o prolouiid a& it hat been in other juMcturoH oi history. 
In short, the mi>(i4:Tn ri>mance is a dccumcnt the relative valut: cf 
which mredh lu bt- t^^fiiblinbtd by a jiiuiiC severe L-rilic. 

Soin(> facts dominate the ^u^stion, vi«wee^ nA a whole, li 19 
■kDCAftsary lo »how %hii work of the acicniihc n)ind« which has the re- 
sult of creatine nc-vw mental hiihita- It is ncccM;ir>' Eo consider iilso 
ihar thp disnrdrr, tkf if>itif «f rptf, so finely analytrfl by M Pft^l- 
kan, corrcfipondt chiefly 10 the interpretations of ignorance, to the 
c3UfE|iEenitioQS of ficniinicut, and to the dr^^atna, more or lcs% rnon- 
f^lrouiL of invnitJvi: lani.ihy^ It i^ mlti i-ShJHiy, finallv. \i they wUli to 
augnr.nj rhe fiiii:rc, to rnd(*svor 10 iliiirTk^agr \\\f laws oJ consrTiK- 
tion, litill badly defined, of our polilicflJ fftbrica. llie tJio^Kht cf 
M, paulbaQ i» good at bottom, and ibe materials with which he 
conKintct'i x\v,' paitibU fnttirf iirr tr'ikrn fr*ini the positivr romh'lions 
of our mental and social life: in the practical] order, '^cnopcraiion " 
is a<tded to the aocial syalcma already exi.itmic. Although dmturbcd, 
audi «:( the family ard ttic nation, in the ideal order, the concep- 
tion. Iwyond that of humanity* of a **cosmic»1 whole," and a "uni* 

veisc," which, lo rcpcet Jl alXtzT Cointc» will bv favorable to iiiAii, !q 
gt Ofrtain Ki-ti^t, tcring iliar he tnM«:ii it in csist. 

We recommend the reading oi thi& book One's time is never 
loftC with a thinhcT of the KUmp of M. I'aulban ; he Has the merit 
this tiina oi dhclGnitiR to us in a few pages a vnst hcirifoiit wheic 
some puints are <li-lmeitecl with clearnt-tt. Logicism has caiiK«<l 

much evil m our countr)'. Let n& now buware ol mystici&m! 


■ m 

One of ihe ino« curious e|n*fK!es »i ilu* new myMicbm i* »»• 
etircdiy the Buddlii&i preaching, b^ua in KT;itice by a atuall group 
Ci wriiort. M. Algl'sus CirAnosEALi, oru of tlw rvpTcaentativesi 
of thi>i icli^juiLb tcmJeiicy, pu|jj[?kbe<» 4 mtth. £>jci*" j^r /«i fhiiff^^ie 
h^tt4Jii^v/,* which it Ifl «xp^Terii lomi^ntion. M. Chabcseau has 
thought it would be ol inloioflt to sum up in a vobitncthe results Ol 
the «cudic« Gi\ Buddhism, and to prc^eni ii '^siich aa science lias 
piovc-d it, (hit i>t it> say very different from what Christian polcmisls^ 
wortdly amuftcrs, theses op hie. fanatics endeavor to dissemitiBlc." H« 
hat had the ambriion to write this volume, «ad for my porf, 1 «la 
T\o\ refuse him my curiosiiyn 

fi lit thai BnddhisiTi mily coniamA st reli^ons fcirmnia rjipablft 
of attractinfi to it the nouU ci our Occident, ] have difficulty io be- 
lieving. This India is vcrj" fw from us, and its conhised phiJf>Kophy 
IS behind WA. i du noi chink ihai llie nnLJnns of lo-dtiy will leluifi 
to ii by"gon*r nmde : and tht»n, this iToctrine of Sakya-Mimi hos some- 
thing aguinst it. that I hesitate to my, as it mif^ht seem puerile : \t% 
god i» too iat. Its god or its sage, as you wish. Ves, that breadth 
of foiui. thnt npiiIcncF of flesh. t?ikea as a mark of ffiKidnrv^t and 
power, sthockti our artistic taste- Do not florgct that every religion 
which claims our will ought to snti&Iy our ststheiic mrntiment ; it 1% 
one of the caseatial fnctotTi of tlic icligious sentiment, a compound 
st^iiliintrnt whttc all the emotions of a race ought to find iheir har- 
mony. Tiio oppo*ition ol India to us, so sirikm^^ m the ideal of the 
beautiful, HtiU continues in nu:taphy»cal spcculntioa- We arc loo 

* GcviTitr* C*rT^, pubUohor The c>|bDT woirki mvniiuned in Qti» atiklc boloma 
to the Littfltrie Ainan. 

I.ITK«HlltV C01tHli«Pn?<l1lC?«L'K. 


nivdeivie, too *io!>«r, lor tJip tWlwucIw'i oJ Imaginaiinn fn whirh it 
delights. Buddhism will bo to n& only a pausing cxcrc»ci±nco. And 
1 a»k myviU if it livc$ well in tJK soub where it Iias nincc^rcly penc^ 

] should have much Ic do to Kpeak, Jn the bricie^t nianDer. of 
all the books or fTcAtUcfi* which in h direct ot indirect ii>anncr 
rcUlc uilhcr to tlic war of ;\r>anism sgainst Semitism. aiiil j>rinci' 
pally Against ^hr rhrlstianUm in which rprt^Jin iitirhort *c*" \\\v niosi 
diRos^troiiK conqucut oi Semitic gemus; or to tl^u revtvifig oJ myotic 
trAdilion^, ittrangc dreams and monstrous desires ; or to a religiouH 
Tc^tcK^lion. ill A-bich the lUoM Drdinaiy prejudice is to avtuit the 
immortality of the sou] nnd to reopen the beyond lo man. These 
vrorks are m general cjI slit;ht value i they aie the inultiplicuciuii ol 
decays, and we are compelled to consider them as social wastes, of 
which tlw ahiinilanc^ b^irayt unquvsEionahly the had liealTli ol the 
organism, or at k^si a difficult crisis of its ovohition. 

■ * 

l3ul let us lelurn to the wviKs oi philoMjphy ptopcriy bDcalled. 
What are we lo ihink of thai of M. F. Rum? 1 dnri^ive my^Plf 
much a his £fw sur U /fi^Jtm^r n:^tafk\'is^yf tft /a m^r^U is con- 
ftidetrd ol much service in his own circles- M^ Kauh* who belong* 
fo ihe philosDphic youth, iho yonlH of the Hge, can he well asMircd 
that ihe paniwins of ^Cteniific morality will not nphraid him f^r "the 
Adniirittiof] of hi^h mciaphvsicftl thoiiKht6''wiTh which he dncfi him 
selj huuoi. but he Lj^a fcdr [e«l the metaphysicians Accuse hiir of 
further comprfnni*iiTiB mHaphytiif* hy th<*dpn^^1■ ohnruritipsi Iip cait^ 
on it, On« a« slupohrd lo find again in a modern hook a phrai^eol- 
o^y AO made up of atiMract words, of »iibManlivc» with capitals, and 
logical <ihjuiow* which s»f[eri ihr posture nf n-atiticv Much study, 
niucll work, without adv^ncin^ onf^ i^if^p, and aiill wonie. in ordtY lo 
dirow UA ajEnin into the <ui§Jf tUt- from vrhenco we have had so 
much difiicully to discnKa^e ourselves. All the profit one can dc- 
rivr from rhi^iliaWiir iKincnnKnnplatr at the end the va|;ue shadow 
of il« own body that i£ percvived cti the walL 

The [net.-iphysicianri of a certain school arc not only reluctant 
to have to acce|>t that morality is a natural fornuilion. a social pro' 



duct, an hUtorical fact ; thoy with ftirther l!iit the cxi«tciu:e wen of 
moral locicrly should depend nn the intcili^enct? Ihut th<.-\ have oi 
it, ot of iht; c3Ci>lAJiali;>n lliut tftcy ^ivc uf it. They uHin^i bulclly. 
and thtse awr ttie words pven o( M- Hatih. that " the iiite of molality 
i« united to that of tnuUpIiy«]c«" — their picUpby»ic»^ Thift it a 
prctcn^on a» exoTbitant as would be that of a nutLiriiliBt tvho skould 
Tttfa t!i«? ttality tif tbt aniniitl world to ihe idt^a he fornicd of Jtud- 
)o|-TcaI lyp^it. or thai of a dit-iiii«fi who should subject ih«* value ol 
tliv positive rcitdEs of science to a ]>uTticu)ar hypotlieei^ as to th4» 
conittitulion ol boditi^i. 


There are ccrtnhi dlf1ii:uUic» of lansuaA^c co crtticiftc ia the wock 
of M, Isuioki.: Mw ^, lianistrT in rhf* Tnurt [rf AppriiU at Bnissrls, 
/^/ (aj9iitHff'%'iijif,cfuJfphti{'Sophs^ti4 s^r U liretJ de pumr. A curious 
spectator, he telLt u,^, of the bntllc waged between the new ikHooI 
of rLntbropglo^y and the niicjcni penal jumpiiideiicc. he ^eelt-'ito di- 
vine the istue of 3l- It wU prohabTy r-nd, acociding to him, in the 
fonriAtion ol a tnodium penal junspraduncc, which will £iccL-pt lim 
ited rcv^tpon^ibi lilies, and which, while protcctini^ society, will do itft 
besit *'tcj ({ivc t(> puniKhmi^til -ill thr ndvumaiic^H it tain," 

It would be eAa^^trraled no'doubt, ! willin^jly gniiil it. to take 
MWAiy fTnm repres*iioii evt^r^' mark of rtinritl repartition, all weight <A 
■■lefOTinativt power'*; but 1 am ulu'^ys sJiucktd to hear partial rc- 
spon^ibililicH apokcn of,. From the vocinl pom! o( view, ibe re- 
&poniiibility leuiiaiiis perfet-t ; It vs united, indeed, lo t)ie ^eiy act of 
having caused iojiifv, bf^ywid all ap|>reciaiton. From the point of 
vi«w o4 tho indtvidunl. thu wofd rcsponaibility hu^ the ciuve iiLCon- 
voniciKC of iTJijjIyinK that the iiuuntity of llbvrty or irttwill attrib- 
utable to ih« delinitieni '\^ measiireiL It would he le^ compromii 
ing and more* exact, lo v&lue dimply the quality, ih« worth of she de- 
linquent, according lo the totality of bi^ aflcctivc^ intelkctuaL vol- 
untaiy, diiil pdlhi^Jui^tLul vliutjuctef, ai.LoiditiL^ to the iidLuie and sXvut 
condition!; of ihe act of which h« \% acciiscd, etc. We aSumZd thuft 
oscapG contra diet ions ol words which ca&ily bocorac contfAdict^onn 
of fact ; wc should no more stumble at thi» latent diilicviUy of free- 

MITlriRV CORbriiPOMlRM't, 


'oriU, in m«ilium cises — for ffrr'avr t^ttt aro n«v«T ilUlimlr. Words 
excrcw: & tyntiriy ^hkh (urisls would d^ «rdi to dislruot. 

]ft not cliis^ tnoreovor. jt^al about whnl M. Mdti^ niCdi» by lii» 
luvoriie Icirniiila — that justice ou|;hl 'Mo rii;liviiUi£ti^t< ms mii<:ti a» 
poftMbIc"? n itt £ pity only chAi h« do«s not f^rosc^t ht^ oAnclii- 
siona with tlic rvquisito ckarncs^ His exposition is not dwtinci and 
frankv Ht? h«s mi^ital li8bitiiJc«t, biibiilitiL-fs of rrnHuptni;. ^hkb 
arc o* value at ihi^ Palak. hui whirh 11 ie siiiiabic to x\^ oficself ol 
wluTb writing a t>ooA< : hi* would xnin much bv being oiitinjly r*- 
tnodcEcd, njikdc dcnr and di»cntanftlcd. 

M- E. nK LxvkLtvP offcrft to the public n lounh <^(lLtio)i, re- 
vific<i and considcTAbly auKmcnTcd, of bis ^rcat work, Df io ffr&' 
pri4i4 et ifr ^ts former fifimMvr^ Wc hivc not to ictali il^c tmmei- 
ous iuct^ which thifl work contiainii and the knowlrclj;;^ of which bftB 
bccooDc f^iilHcionlly ^orLcral ; nor to con^mcnd M, dt I^rv^Ii^vc. who 
no lonffcr oipr;cts fresh prflijios lor it. ] have only to cxprc^ llic 
rrgrpi that hr <hciii!d have r^rUinrd thrtbpory of pfnprrry npouTiiIrd 
in the lafit chapter of hU book, ci lathcr the metaphysical concep- 
tion oi rtjfht with ivhich he connects it. It sccmi; ns if ho wiftbcd to 
cxcu:iic hiin«d{ from rtHliicing pmprityii) the simple valine oi a f^icl, 
inodifiabk- in it* Inrm*. by indicating as 4 fixed point an '^ordrr" 
whidr »hall he the best, which !th;i1l ht kn^wH and Jt^sktii <ii God, 
strug^fif and rciiiittti by man. 

M. dc Lrtvclpyt knowi it a* well as any out". Ri^hl is only a. 
rule* an e>prrt<[0]i ol the r^Eulions ol int^ii :Lmung ih^ni^trlvev, iv a 
(leivrmifi^ l^eo^rapbic^l and hiBtcricul mt^diuui, Its cbang<.-n df? 
pCDti, in pari ot: external condiEions, in part on the thoracleni ol 
man hinisvlf. the !tl»l<r iind variable er^iiilibrinni of his passioaii ;ird 
o\ h\s mtfnialkty. II c^riuin lornttt of ri|^hl ekiabliftb Iheaueives pro- 
portionally, in ihc counc of tlk- life of nations, the feci is explained 
hj ibo tuu^iancy and the universdlity of cettah] coudstiorLS^ either 
phj'sirfll nr m*- nin I ; xhf rrprtirion ol *iocial arrangnnenTi, which 
prod^tcGs uliimjitoly n morr fiabk- btnictiitc And coftstilut<t« a « ot 
aztf ol dc^^lopnicntr i« somewhat analo^coaa, if wcmay be perrniitcd 
this coinpATiKon, to tho repdilion of the esscnii^l clcmcnif^ in all nr- 


7HB UOHliiT. 

cbitcctuT«, or of the primitive iorn» in all the products of the ccn- 
mic art- What i* the goocj of imvt3«ping with iny^tterj' tliv ideal wi* 
crealv oursdvcfin und of rectderiag obscure a notion that w« cin poci- 
lively c-xpiain? But let us Jcftvc here thia little quarrel, for it doG» 
not tobdi the !iolul i;touni]work oE the Ijoak. 

Still losigrialise arer J*rrMnWi ^rin^'ip^c mt^apAva'^irft ifr /a s^t'^itt/ 
Jg /a naifrf^ tranHlat«d Jrom K;int by M. M. Ch. and Eo. 
OiAV\Nj(t*> who have written *ii intertstinj; iotroduction ^w M^ 
fhilt^Ui^y of mature in fCani ; and L' Annct philssfiphi^tit, /" ann^t 
j$90, publift))<}d under The dirvcti^n ol F- FiuoK. foraivr manager 
ol Xrf C^tii^ne fJtih'iv/^hi^tte. Tlicrc will bt Juund in th»ti la*t volume 
iwtj ]>iufoiii]d stLidieis, uiie Ijv M. Rtuuiiviei ou ilie plLeuumepitbt 
m<ethodj the other by M Pillon on rhe criticism of the infinite, an 
«xceUent Hftide by M' L. Daoiiac on philosophy :ind particvilarLy ou 
ihc fcschecicji of Guyau, fin&lly a bibliofirnphy of French vrork^ 
wliicl) flppcjircd in iHgo, [ wish Kood sucri-ss To this piihlicaiion : 
il will become valiiAblo^ and "^'i tvjil hr ^lill more so, in nriv oplniorii 
if M- PiUon, will not recoil before the ffttiffuci no doubt <iuflieienlly 
freatr of AiidinK to the Dibliotriaphy a ciilkal sketch of the review 
flTiIflf^s pnhlii^he-d in thr eoiirtr- of the ypflr 



A well-briown jdieni*f, Prof Mi;i;or PtI man o( Bonn, in a recently 
pLiblifthed work, advanced thu ^iKiiurtion that the lilernn^ tautc of the 
day poinlvd to «l conr^iderabU: decline of the intellectual health of 
ihe pre§ent i^eucintiuu- Tcj him uhci annttires with Pelinan 94>mi* 
eRiii^Al found^-4lion of this KTate of affuint. it U indeed an alarming 
«ighi to pa*a in rexiew the show wmdown ol our gr«at book cenlren 
Leipaic And Ocrlin and to discover the ^leat naiiibcr of ediiions 
thai the products of the literature of h certain da^s are paninf^ 



** Kruii!3ti?r SonalA " siand» In ihu irnnt rank. Xumhfrlc-M aniclcs 
in th<* neu'spapur* >nd thr mnj;:ft2inns linvc nlTcAdy made (hit won 
dedul vruik llic »iil>]ci:1 vi diiciis^ton. boih from llic a^Mhciic^l and 
from %he moral point of v^fw- Now c-ditm^ » pliy^icifln, who <liS' 
cuflecs the p«ycholcgkfil aspoct of iho «tom and diacufviefl it in a 
mannur which mttsi claim our inturcsi nnd to which in ihc maio 
points tl cmpliftsiw* *v r-.*mioi <\rny o»ir aasriiU 

Df^ H< Bi:(:k h4ii ptihlifiht^l at thu hotiKf? »F Kniicrt and Rocco 
of Lcripaic, a brochure bearing th« title Zi'^'j Gra/tn /nf T&itM 
KrfMiitr Sc'^itU r^s'm StamiffttitkU dfS /rr<narUts^ and arrive* on the 
hasU of a ranlnl analysis nt ihr riTSull thnt Tosdriitclirw i% a dc- 
cidodl) nciiropathTCul character. Now a« ToUtoi', on hiK own cx- 
prci5 declaration in hisi concluding remaiiu, places his own I'icw;; 
in ToMlninchew's mouth, this iu4l|;me;n1 rc»pcctin|; the principal 
chaiactrr of thr tTtiry !il*o holds good in fe'ioat iiit-^miiTe of ils iinihor. 
Gencially, mdu-tsl. Beck is very €Oa!iidi,'r;kle towards ToUlof* por 
aon, in the c7ipTc:inion of hitt opinions; bilt he i» ncvot^ielcsa very 
pliiinly ouispokcci when he ^ny^ vt llitf coudustun uf lufi lillk book : 
" Lei nscliariicterisif (his mon^iroii^ prodnctj the •Kreiity<»T Soii*(^* 
OS Shut which It appears to every prrsonoj sound sentimonis— as iho 
ananalicu. namely, of a di^ca^cd btain, of a dc^cQcralcd Psyche/' 

The Munich physician T)r, Puschmaro, who in the year 1873 
in a ipecial treatist? r<^prp*u*nird Richard Wajjn^r. then still aliv<?. aa 
psychically diseased, has ihns found, o^ wc sc«, ir a certain 3cn^e a 
successor ill Dr. Deck- Dttl while ru&chmann'^ padipldct, haviiif^ 
bc>ofi occaMonrd hy rrrinin rondiiioii« of niVnira in Munich. ^va» 
written in a hostile Rpitit^ &nd while the liiiLe book ol Beck's mak<!9 
no flccrcc of its Author*»i Aversion 10 T0UI01 and hit wo^k^, n no' 
loriou«t reprt'SiTHtaiivr' ol nohr^lthy "young Gcfinany." the noveluti 
Wilhclm Walioth, ino<rts at other hands with an uncommonly tender 
tTcatnient. Tiiere is indeed nothing remarkable in this, for if nny- 
Ofic is in need of iirudrr ticaiineiU it Js a man >vho is sJck. Bot it 
ia very reniarkabl* Thj<i the di^'sscd stBle of a nen'oits system should 
bo accr4rdiiGd to the writer Walloth n« a %tK^K pootic cjtcdlcflce. 
- G. LvDwiGB, the author ol the treatise IVilMm fF«r//pM. Lcip- 


TlIK H<»NI«T- 

ftica f B^t, V«rlag vcn Withvlm Kriwlrich, had in so Ur ih<? adLvmitiigt- 
of PiisclimAno and Beck, thai }^ v/Ai not pUccd uiidci Uic i)ci;ev5ity 
of oriji^innlly ilcTmoDsirnnnK aH^I the actual sla1^' of th^ npTX'otis 
(ysT'-m fkl hU ht»ro whk, from hk workt. Tliit; rondiiion had alroadj' 
bcon Qstfibliiihcd by i?xpcrt ph>i;iciana in a much ialk«d t>i tiiaJ bo- 
(ore the DiMtict Court o\ Lcipsic for ^^jrcuUling obscene publicA- 
iMinv l^mlwitrs wiut abli' ihc"rft(»>re in proariHl immpfliaiMy with hU 
problem of Avccmininy the cxttrnl to whkh a. ciiuasctl tiatc ot the 
Ttcrvou!! Ky^tcm bad c^cct in Wallotli'H nereis and poem*. HU dis- 
cnwiun of this b»t tjucniion povftCTtM!!! j^rciit InLcrvxi for llicr ])«ychol< 
oyiiKt. alTbDii^h tJie r^ndi^r Ai[] find corsiderable difficulty in nccom- 
iQodatint; bib thouj^htQ to Ludvri({t;'<i ocCiuuucaU)' vcr>^ :;inBiilar »ylc. 
Scttins anidc the odd cxprevsiona of Ladwii;». wc mayna) tliai there 
i% fi!xhibiird in a prc-H.'inint;nE <k|;T«i; m the WTilinf^s nl Wtlloib, 
firiit, what the ph>-«idan« call hypt-rit-tfthiitia, and by ihi* i» meant 
not only an cxco*<iv« ^ca^itivcnc^^ oi ibc wmvi but alw»— a condi- 
lion that » to^incctcd iriili the Hni — aid cxEiaorOiiiaiy inltru^ky of 
the emotional aciivfty. Secondly, ari^ found nnmbrrle^s bold asso- 
^iatiofift ol id^'flHi whtcb sro much better knowa to tho physician cban 
(p the arsthctician- 

llofonnrialcly WAlloth i» ncl ihc only one of ihc represent Jitivcs 
of ** young Germany," in «bo*(? work* lln- ch^iTacters of dii^fa&e a|>. 
peAr in such inlcnKitVt :ind thv circumftlancre Ihut hook«ol tbU class 
arc bouffhi in such numbem and read m titiU i;rcaler, places the 
tattf^s and stnlitnt^nla ol a large purtiun cjf tlit; c^ducutvd Gerinnn 
public in a qui>Mionable ItghT. 

11 we turu QUI glniico a^^y trom th<r sensational phenontena ot 
lllciaiurc lo ttic pbcnon^eaA of ordinaty life, vbich arc noi uncocD- 
tiionly on-tctcd in iIil- h^iDsuf jiigtjo;, it h lit fiist rank ibe iii<:orTiK' 
lbl« «n'ind]fr« and ^arpcti^ that n^cito oiir aiiention. We have r^ 
ocivcd on ihia subject from Dr. Anton DsukULTKCK, a pb>'«ician ot « 
Sni^s jn!>aiic Myluin. an inlercMinc link- work buAiine the title Vir 

' i£9ii Vcrlaf; von FGr<linand Enk«. In ibi« book the author mak«ft 
ctn tnvcstigalion of the graduaJ tTannCion ol a normal p%ycholo|(tcal 
proccra^into bJinjce>9»exbibili[i^ pudiolo^ical ^yniptoinv, and allows, 



UTEIiAkV CnftRlKr03lDK!ilCL 


in noticing. 1>>' ample material, ibal in every kind of in ton I ioD&L de- 
ception ihi* coDsciousiicss of Jiili;niion can exhibit vccy diffc^rcnt de- 
grees oJ iniL'nsiiy and c:tn imp^rri^ixibly sink in :t ntcct-^ia^ n\ cawfi 
to zero. As a n^aitct oi couri^c, Delbruck's trcnttf<t! it- priniorUy of 
interest to inodicnl cxpcns and bwy?n«, but itwilJ ikJ»obcol interest 
m M <«coiwlnry c1r?|jr«c (ci all drc!ts thdt ilcvotc- ilirlt ditmiinfi to 
pftycbolocicAl li^iKlicfi gcn(?rjliy. |tarl!cuUr)y vo to cdiLcatnrfi who 
have not inlroqucntly io do witJi patholoifEcai lies, sm G. binnlcy 
Hall quite lecutttly pointed out m a \fuy instructive art icl<: in 7^ 
Amfrjf^mJfmrnati^^iythffUgymx ll» lying of c'hililn*n. And AS i< 
d«vdo|>ci] in tli« work of Dr. Soitior, bcffottr uK*i^tioneil in Tht Mt^ntj/t 
cocillml La fiycMagir tif i'tdici <! i'iwHiih^ wPwcb is aho to Ut had 
in a \rxy good Gtiniaii cdJlruUi tr^tiiiUiCcd by Paul lirit?. under Th«> 
titU Btr J^i^t t/tJ 4fr Im^t^tif, piiblt^h^c! by L.eo]told Vo*ft of 

In t!>c Gcrioao edition of Sollicr'a book PniCc»»ar I'elmaii, 
whom we have sbavc mention^], has unritten an tfitrwluciion in 
whicli be ap«akft of the wcrk in wcrd« of prsiso siinitar to those cm- 
pre!M;d by Uucieu Arr^at in Tht M^ahi. **S<*Uit:r." »ays be. "Iim 
put uti into the posfecsf^ion of a pHycboIi:ie>' of inciita] ijube<:ility, in 
a compli^iencH in wbich hiihc^no ii wnK not at our di^posa^/' Then 
iollow» another pa^aRc which wa will alto quote, »& it JoTm» an 
important nupplcmcn co the fcjnarks of Arr^al. It i]i thi» : " liti- 
becility h**d icniainril ibr sirp-rbilil of ihv vc-icncu of psychiatry ami 
hfts not by any mc-an« met with the consideration which jn vie^ of 
ita aociaJ imponnncc i« due to it U we £o thiouich the worka. ajt 
l^rcai in number as tliey are in vofuniinonsness, wliich linve bcrn 
publiiihn! in ibr Rtylr of I^n]hrou> nn criminak and th«if p«<niitfr 
cbaracteristicit, we lihal] be unable to e&capc the iin]>m»on pro- 
duced in our minda th«i the cbaracicrifitiea of ivbccile4 portfayej 
by Soltiof recnr pnini for point in thr? typif'nl criminal H^« u 
there, the same in£t:l£cicRcy of ftll «>ihlcj] devolopntoni, the 
irivoiity, and ch<? same iocnpocily for bcinjc of uac in aocicty cxial. 
That which in SoUtrr'^ explanation decider (be wbok' anihropclug- 
ical position of the imliecile — hin anti-tocial, socioiy-hOKtiie attitude 
— is evnpha£i£cd b^ all writera as the chamclchritLC trail common 


THE MCKirr^ 

to3U crimmaJs, and ilM<leQcripiii>n oi irobecil^ »nd crim]RaJ& coia 
cidcs a» completely in rhi» tc^iicci hi H 0:e ^anic mJivi«!uiil lutd nat 
for liolli picnifps Thf ct>T](^lHi»on^ tJini foTluw from this c:iei nnly 
erl»t n«Vh Bidti^r^rTs in ih^ ranh^i of the ;kii(ltropo|o^irul kc}m>o], and 
thi« rvnuU aiftO J »houM placu to thcr protit-acc;ounE of tht; pTC3»cnt 

HowovpT pmfiTaWr anrl nrrr^flrv friplAvm'^rit y.''\\i xUe <lis- 
uo^ied tiiAle« ct ib<- «oikI may bo, pijr&onaill^ £Lt ltia<.t rt i» ;m 
unpIcAsaiic atibjcct for us, and wc arc gl*^ ilicrciorc that vc may 
iit^afidon ibib domain for the pn^scni k-ittrr 

Thu occasion of lhi« i« AlTordrfl by n v^aliiaNt- gift from Proj, 
W- pRi:\ER, i<?TTncrly ot Jean, now erf Berlin. Prcftssor Prcycr >ia9 
prcbcutL'd us with a utl^cr large volamc bcarliiie ihc ilik f47j>ffl- 
teks/tluhf Itrff/r r^an f^tt^/a-r T^i-j^rfiir Fuhmfr itrtJ W. f*rfyrr, A'/Af/ 

rtffa Biii-^xtH^ Mil tf^Kt Ifil4tfiis4^ pffkntr's uutt iki ii>>hi{knifitfs. 
lldiJiTtiJi)^ vid Ld]isic. 1091X Verlag von Leopold Vo^v 'W\^ work 
containft a corre-spoad^nct-vxicndinf! from the year 1873 10 the yo^r 
18S3, in which the ino ciUtin^uL^ihcd ^cicnti^ts dtiiciir^ (chtcrtly) myo- 
physical and psycho-ph> nLicsnon?^ am^ will hr of ^rc^c mtcrtrst 
10 many readt-rs vA Thr Momsf, T^jitrisilly as it makes \x*k appt^^ir^ncc 
simtillaneon^y i^'ith the iKi^tung ol a new edition of Fechner'b FM- 
ntfnff iUr PsyeAtj^ysiA by WJlhclm Wimdt, 

The miidi lon^-hl uvcr iiud imich di^pl]tr^(] iJioviiite ;>! iif^ycho- 
plij'sics has also been *?nrered on by u younger psycholtigi*!, who 
has already acquiTifd a considerabk namu^ by Hu|-o Miinttterbvrs, 
docent at the univeruty of Freiburg in Daden. In his Beitr0£f strr 
fxpfrimfnifHta Psytht^togir . wliich are jnd>??'t1i*"d in |iariH at indefi- 
acie ptTiodti by Mohr ol Krcibiirg in Baden - three parte have al- 
ready been published— Mun ate r be rff raisctj, in the fiist place* a \\%- 
oro[]« firotcsHt ag^invt Wiiiidt : repudiating un Oie ba»ib uf ll»c re< 
Kult* of indepenr3t?TH •■xperfnurTit ih*- apperception hypothc^^i** wbirh 
has been proiwunded t>y the taciential mentii^ned, and producing 
profjf :bat iiU kJnUfi of so-cniled appdceplion Arc reducible to aswD'* 
natiorts of the r(?pTfs«niativt? aciivity. Secondly, he offer^t u« in 
the third pan a now foundation on which to ba^^ psycho- ph^-tjcc. 



I1 L£, of courscp uiiiM>^tbl«, m so diSicuU a (tublecc, xo f^prodaco 
Ivrictl)' yet clearly llic dcvciopnjrats U) wliicb MOnatorbcne (Ecvc>tcfl 
o[ie liunilTi^<l and iwifiity'two pag«s> But wi.- will at latsi <iui^plv a 
tv% hinu i^ich regafrJ to what this ciew LctindnlioD ol (wy«lio- 
pby^icb i», 

lu (he fir>i pUli% MtliifitcibcrK icjctt* iIli; aoctou tliBt prevails 
«'iih Fechner ancl hl« school* thiil » powrrfiil ^r-n^iion is > Tmilnple 
tt wcftk<rr one. by which th« hr&t cin Ih' iT)ca«ur«d. Tho $.lroit^cr 
tDASUOQ i^ !ia>8 be. in comparisou Aith the vrcnkcr odc ^oiucthlng 
mltolly nmv ; lor» ACcutaicly con^iijcrod, the intenstty of n H;n»3lii)n 
is also ol a qiialii^tiv^ oamro. However, mt arc not by any tnoAna 
at liberty to infer from ihis that the mca^uroincnl ol p8>rhicnl (itian- 
tilicb i& tLiiini^iblc, To apprcciaic iliis >i i^ Ttrsl rci|ui&iic llial wc 
i«hnii1H >;i>l Hear fil^qi; with rr*iin^T to ilic p<yrhnlngfr-ftl foiimhtiDn 
ol oiir phyfiicnl mcAfiUremcntA. The only ioundniion ot thc»w IfUit 
i« OUT mn^cEtUr feplini;, to zhls extent, that nil nicAMircmcnt i» 
fouiuled on ihe mt'Hsiir^-nifinl of iiD»ritilir->i ni sjKitc, nme, ami tnnsfit 
and aicy ettim^lc cyf the Utter ik only pufiulblc 00 ihu batit of ihu 
moEtciilar icelin^ thnt c-ntcrr* ns a factor in the concepti:^» involved. 
Ml i>h>'^icoJ meafiurcmexil r»U on the cntnbli^ihmenl. wi<l ihcrciorc 
leproiluclioD, tit UJi^ muHr-ular tt^nnai lions : on eiJirlly Eht* >baine loun- 
dation re^CH ulao ;itl m^ai&ureni^nl ol pf^ychKal quantities, of intensi' 
tics ot itcDfiution. anJ fiince ibin loundatioD ia tiM oamc, for this very 
rcA^on the baiiie iuMiTicatiun ib dtie to the meaBurciticiU of psychicul 
inif-nsiiy a** i* rloe \o physical men^iiTenients, This is the founda- 
tion on whicb tlio pM'E;ho-phyiUcii oi Munsletberg i« raised, which 
for A fuller view niuBl be studied in the third part of the "Bciirigc " 

Chm, Ufrr. 

Alt*MibuT^\ Novemlier, 1R91. 

DiM-Ksi- 'n)incs. 


A LATH numtwf of tte tti^f^ntttawt ai UmIic iVf>l tl No 3i>>c«3U}bod Mv w- 
Ilrlcb> Mr Engcoe Schifler n Geron-U JiWTli^o. onihemhjoet "World-Coo- 
<«pEH>n ai^d the OlTicc nf JudKif. " Ui ulxirh ftllFiilEtm w*> CAUinl la ihc fact that lb« 
pnforitimttc of tluticit □(■Itmlv ■» Ibc puFpiI tidi in jlII the foufcMivm. itnJ ptfvmj- 
cmly ia iho durpojuittJuD of Juntieo lhTou|;h ib« courts, dtfpendf; upon »iid itADd* ia 
morr Oif Im' clotr c-«niiiH^ricm \iilh m>ri'< d^Rnitti u-orM-cuoci^piion ; thti« iho^wioj^ 
that r«Lipc>n nf vtuV" kiml (nrniH .ind mmi fcirm ih^ lurkB^niincI of ihi* prafiii^^il 
IHboi loctTiy- He vnj^: 

^' Tbc Cbotcb detCBbda ol iti di«iplf4 u no IndispcDiuble cccdllloQ of veiv- 
" jnfr htr Up wmfwaion ol a teruin world conrcptlan . bbc? raqnirc* tlifiX ci*t> uor 
"whfi inionrU iu (iik* apan b>nk»lf bor n^hii- uoff <duri», i^buuMia blfl iaea«l h»Tt 

"dnienia;i on rt*:hiHoitmy^ iin Goil und xvcirld UKly !4Ql1 wjuI, ihc oTixin adiH rnd ot 
"(bifitf> , a£id Tbi» K but ■ nviLlcr ol cuttnc, for the cnrulul yiirt nm] ii1ulliaf<7Un- 
"datioTi 4>F bcr acliHly Ire in ibixtc vnr>' doctri-ncis *nd in ibdr prc^pAiintJne- l( U i 
"fanri aad a w ft* demand Alihoufib <m ib* onv h.ind tbtf nor-illy frto (DlfiliriMt 
"of hct ffljUMU oinTam* th* s:"^!" til an hsumnrntuxi rlrvi^lrtptni'nf r>t UffiPt\ jirom- 
"lis lUi mraortliTiary concpntr&lion iind cteriition ol nil f^ulEin. l1 l«idt rui ibe 
"oihi7r bauc] t« wriuui tonlUt:^. ol whiob Ibc p^^ei Eif bbtoiy luii Ina tban (bcex- 
"ponecjcT* u! nur i>ilv Ufe exbtbil iDPViatTAMc jod ■»(! Uit*ncc»- Wc (rxoll&t 
"Cbu lL^rnb]D>i>]tituiil kiruu:f;la« in ihwiuU at ihoK ^bo cvraEiioiiotd to Joubl Had 
"th* aoiEOfoa b gvntfrclly a pttlful catatirofb«, «iebffr iia!>ml«ibrfi and bypvrifqr 
''witb ihfwitvk »rtrthiilAtinn. TUdiinriiiiinii af\A rain wilh (hou uhfilhongbt bif(b'r 
"ol iraih (hiin nf (brir ^-nrkiiy i-Kiulurirnt* 

" MmI of ibo oib^T prijfmionk and U«dr« kaofr noibinjc of ih^ iiidi«pKn*fibJ}ity 
"of a ccriaiu world -i:i>ac*pliQ^ Tb» irirchnni, rb^ Ta*chAiiic. lb? Litrtvr. iIm 
"«oldJ«, ibiv tr^chvi. the laborer, can ufwn iK* whdv tbmk concern inf: lhtt« hi^b- 
'SI prablenit at llfp jk ifaey pivftir. An inner and M<>al ^onflJci bMw«cn ihflv 



-vlnnApft Ehdr c4iliaG •»«« dcAnttety ucluded- Du(«r ami praciloi ooii4itroo« 
' — lucti fti lultninbimiitc u^JunctliiiLii ot i («ruii] kinJ, ihf a^r^tion cif pfovrrvL 
'ibvABbiFiun Ut hclicllct irtt. <bc —m^r Jf^tnteLimet produce cundinti^ 

"V*<ihii(:huac|vTDliiiiliffpTvr£iceQiic<Tminf{ A^nrml wvrtrl-tfonnrpttoo uhkli 

^'if found in Ihf vtr-iiE^ir pml^ninfLt. mi] traif^ ilnf« ant h93if the «utap ol ptcnu- 

'n«nr#. fnr iilhn»T*ljf thr -fircni* riniftn anH «hirv»ij[ r^ pi^try thinkiniE mar. fo 

"CvMilTlfB iIkkv itic mnv n^uiiw tiincifcdis. b iQUniaidy cODtiecud with 

['* Ibdi common ^ciM^orijcplion nliich r>cry wb«reln^Qencctiioiicuiii]nbicu Tbi> 

p'lt Lui(uMjcmh|« »o ^nit u the baroonv cJ ibc<uop«<tloii reoMUK uoiltfiurlKid, 

!* bai It niBilihiAU LiMir ia cecflcioouiaM ft* toon u iia haitnony it l^rMloneA Ihrtnajh 

^*rflm* titij^riAni rh»nfiet ftt ifij- nt if* part*. Hwn trvidaj & d^fpfloifl^ rh:tfil^# 

''fo|irr|i4rLRt; tt<idf . rvita iilIw ihr tiniut^ mWdF Iti? wDTlil^xKiciTplkvt Lh fovctil 

'tstontBvrr^ly And citvo Htivrlir ib«a «tiT ftDd«nrK docinn(< c«n fuvnoiich 10. 

icovs ib« cliiotatr roclAof our citritAlioo, of our poviioo ic IiIp. oFi?wr<«||- 

*>Bg; i< ftitaciu Jif<i ihaW th« ifiTwvi «rc«fd-ooncoption. 

"Tki« rmfli«* ih? po^hittiT ol a fcnfllA bviwna Jtw old «b4 tb« Dtv fiUb 
'«vMi oiKildp ilir ptlr nf thr rhnrch, tnct tim ronf^kr mkv int}arnc* Hm fbii1f«ej 
J'acuUloii Tbu fxjuJlJibi) h^i bv<:c«Qc ui ImcaUcfli p((r1ijhlli(;r ciriu?rnific Ihc 
'otAot c4 |uditc nprciftgy ibc iu<ljE« c4 a criminitl ojitrL 

" Tbr dupctiCAltim of jwlic* rc«U lop,ftval titotl u|Kin th? pcivoppowiif^ oj 
Mgnitl ftaJ tbicnminal U« «1 l»ibj it jilmiHl IhroafthoiiL hailt uprni Ihit i4f4 ol 
^pn> It h tn« thai lki« Tin h»t no< klwif* l>rrn lakpn Th« Grv«l[ law and 
"ibtf ol^ G«rraiDk Tuw iiitpffirrfll incn iv tiM crami ca»cs macluadM^Ty on acmuii 
"of ibv oI>ShIii« E>iai« o[ thiDc* wllboai Ukcujij Into c<iQUi3cnljwi the ctIiiudaI u- 
^k*'l«iu of the dFf«iid*ni Dvt this vk» "u wpencdfJ in lh<) foniK-r ciuc by Itie 
^■^■'komfcD, in th* Ult« b^ Iho cfenonie&l Uw, both ro^a^rta^ Ibn coacepUdS of :i 
' ffuffa] utd a nibjeciiv* ^ilt, «irt m pre*rtit tl»<* cniiftmAl l*» oJ #v^rr ctviliia«(l 
" n«ltin MOi ibe K^lr nivfiiiuii of ihi? rbla-'ut <*h<i ihrrtim -virb rjjdta! ptintb- 
"■kiu biui *thv laxideuijillf kilU im t(9k« tti.m ttie iniriitiuii^d muidrmk rr/tlB upcn 
"ftc fixinJaiina ol a bcUct in c^^'h 

"Ibiajc Huf bapptn, tlia acimty ol th* faiinian k-uI includHi ii lo br ««|ilain«d a«- 
"conlJnii lT> inrrhAmrai firindplea and (ba« ihr virr that mm'ftvill i« net !*rH 1b 

'pt%^Lv^ utjoeol ill luiktamenuJ doviriDb- Whlk in ihi* uav lli^rr Ja nti puui- 
"bilLiy tcCi thu « FUd* itii](lit bate Kicd lUOcrrsllv <^i>n tir juiiuM) Jid. Itijt tjou 
''|iika«»v«T bbnspovikifily. Ai>d Ihji movcmcAl which r ithn- ctncrta cir wc»k- 
-'vnt ih« niufTi?rt>LifB u| c^ltIi. huM tiWe holdci ll^* mind* of raan br b#j-oud th«. 
" circle of *locid«I maiMihli^lh 

The foiiiida1i0n nf init crfmioat l«vr Wamilft ur falU slib llip fim rd enlll. 

■Willi il *tjnrJ> udA ftHa jl*a ih*- cffitci nf Ihir jlMifr. »hc-v? tivE) i.i lh«r dl3p«»4(ion 
'*UBil utihtatitfO M juJilto* IJfi whn don iinl bvlir^^ ia the f>.<yubkblj of fuLll can- 
"w>l Hiibobi iscnnvatknry pronoaoc* Miy nDvjpii^iy. He*hrt *ta mMtcf of pH»- 



'*d,p1o ur at lc«4l within cvrt*io lu-t wotl de^HL^il limibi denies the Ervc<Icni df (be 
"hucn,bn will con no luuuer bctvv i> j iLivlgi^H Ei^rUinly m>l a* ix Gnmiu>&t jiui|^-" 

Jii«tifit Hu|{«4ip Srhrlirt t» \t roTt»»rviti»T» miui H* H'maoilK Thnt (nr th" pfn* 
tAclJcin of llu* olil w(-jrM<o[u>^ptirxi ifir offio* of f adft- nhniiM be carijftt|[> KuariM 

"nloey ^oln^ 'tyltitrd inro a w.ii#Lj pfiiloni^ftby al rur^ifiori, w bound noi lo ci«piar»t« 
■ i&c cimilttii^n* ai hiir IJlr f rum n drUnUe iwiirM-cunci*piian, wnlus iuaMcr, Iponter 
" li> ^«n,-^vc^ lu UAinc. tbould otrliijr Ie^l iinvjmui li> laka & dsn&Eir posilion lownrd 
"ttu: ullitHilU vi>rld-pnibL'mb , Itc nlui ilur» i:«il n^oept in tiii^ ujaviclioo llic 

" mnnl Iir-iin<lhtvin4 at k rirlnjn cnllmg, mini nnl cbr^im it. i>r if bn hnt cboAsp it, 
"b* miiil ronoiince il— or b« isxmL Id bit polfwion act *saiiul b^t cnn^'iclios— un- 
"IfKt h* riilic h^ng iitrli'irKoLf tixtm hUoftif cm ar^nunt np n nr-f!i*r* 4^f duii'^ " 

We a^srcc wbb Jusiice Schillet m one ma« icnponam potni, na - the inrimvc 
coODcctivp o1 (FliKiuu witb piiHlit^ life itiid uf uur wiriIi3'Cuiitiep{k>n hUb «ll onr 
Joiiiur m>d nUttcvioK Dui wi? <li0ei from htm in anotbcr a^ Tob imp^<rtant polttl, 
TIT. in llm prcj'^hifiaTi (u jfmrni the (irfkEUt wofl't-corieK-pliuu ffum uaderf^wog A 
InirhitrsrciMlh :in-1 hijtfci^ KiiJciliVm Hi4 tunpnuflon it cuUiiag l^vi lb«D tonuln* 
hiiniiiTibT antl all it* inintatkm) wlaliinnry 

£vDiyiliiui> iTui «Jsls liaia □diiiral nvhl Lo ileFiNv] iis i-«iilFnaift and solta 
lb? pT^HDi Hurld'ConcrpiiDii. Uut ibnl w^jcb j£r:>A» and dttrtupi o\jl o1 I h? con- 
ditions oi ihi? prvoMic i'tiaC«iiCu lifts iImi a oatural rifht to atiua ci^»iEncfL Tbtt 
idfol ^«4Tld of ihv '*d do b»" It Qof a Doa<.i-tfijeiicp. at ii minhi itpptvf to ib« uo* 
lrfir>i«iii£, hni n anrm rvKi^nrr luut i| ttii-i'i- 1a no room for IxMh ih# uiUAl t'XlfcfrCCe 
(il Ibr [ifc»nr HEmSr nnil Ibr ^rriTi rxhT^iicr nf A ar\v kUilc. Jt slfUfjl? «ill cabnrw 
Ttivrc iirt< At prr««nt and xlwnr* b^ivir b««.4) aTJTi>ipuriuu»vi«'ld-cAnn(rtiuat wbich 
if ibf > ovvrcamp ibp pTMrrit vL«rM-cc«<eptJi>n nnitbl lend buninrU* l>achiraT4 lo 
tbf N'sirimnc af cLviliailiCfii. |nd#«d OKXl prnponlicmn of rrfi^rm jirt- f«v«m1t 
ttbiob vould undo the ronlKot ovalunan And redoM mankind ir» primitiiv ccmdi- 
iiiin* Th*? ffrmcmmc mhidjof iimh^ who iiiiiTiopt focorp nil lb? iiii loJ woe* 
vl hixlpiy b> imr Mmh«t bnvn vm yvx Efucjfiijwu (lie idea ot ibt psrfcctkio, oubJlitf , 

■nil bA.ppiiiCJik of Ihe ibi-okltcJ uciuindl tliileuC Dslurc:, 

''When wlJil lu wmrl* die uobLt t««iC4 iap." 




Yrl MDUQjt j^ll ibo pl^:i uf irivrm ibcrr ^3 i^tr vljicb is correct, ADAwrias 
the y^til» Oif Ibe Lime ; nnU mriioag aII ihr world eoo(«pfionfi wbich alni^g^o to ckIji ■ 
tlicTv Ik jJiu c«r u-bicb m ibv Txgitim^ur cHJlromv ol lb* prvwai Aorld'concvptioo, f 
Ir iH ib(^ prrwin ii*arkl"ronf*'ptino piilnrtfrd ThtiJual' nlditional etpfrrlfacR nnil £Hiri- 
ftrd III c:rrLHiii rnurK Ami M it >tt (ifEitn fi^iirMEe^d iK-CuTricLL'v 1^ hKuu> ibm llui 
vM Jiiid ilifi AC*, luhot nqd ken, hivti tt? lijtbE niib mcji ftibci, TEm bvit jLiJifHrnit 
«i1bvr dcvt not Imofp ib.nt b(f 1% tb« child of bin nDlfigdniat. in (bo lAtUrr tbo d«l«Dd- 

nivRfiiii: TOPi<:s. 


rFjTjMi! Tuttbta f«iiml a th) ibcjiuf ic-il n-xtcahn ia ihv oM Teutonic tone of HtMi?- 
bnuul iDMliuK in (fnutvl him aaa JiAtluLmuJ. a IchTcd which tn limltAr fcr«ioAt 
^pmrv A|^in in othrr Ary»o K^gru. ihe bAl kBown of which «■ ihe ia]e of ttuftt««]'« 

CAn th/k kTruftHli^ IwTtfiHV tbr aid nnd l!i« niru ^orld-coficrpllon be ;iTOldcd ' 
N*. il caoool «ad ihualiJ xivt. Eui Itr iwvr lun tu |»uvr ilii leniJituiiL^ by iJiuwiu^ 
ii9 Ulri(i»ic sirtngih : il mnnt •htm Ehni U hA^ ihr powrr n» <»iii! Tht •inifjjtlr 

-CUmH be ATOidrtj. bui Ihp tN(lJ?mo«L the «t<*ri[y. thn harlwniy of rhi< irnimjli* 
0*A bt ivoUtd 1^1 Htld^brand 4nd llidnbrand mvavUT* t^word* in » spiritual 
r0nrr9QI«r, ki ttie vafK]iiiit)r«1 nfr-^ii flr4d In ctn* tfrm>|ji?f idfCi*, ;ir>c) Ih^y vfll prp- 
pan tliL- (Mdiul cbnUijiT tit no c^i]Jiiiu>[i ^QiiD^ of tljc tuddca ruptarc oJ a rctclu- 

Frecdnm of thciiijlil In hIaav* the Iwn loil tw a pcatccfu] c\<v]olicia bal AOJ 
tyr mm that bindt rh* can«i#ac«« <fi man and tii«« ih«ir idcoi dowa fj tbs >ivri|* 
l^vti oi ■ f*rtun a^ will l» nt daaxftmiii » a Iwilitr wiihnut a tnlirit Thnv an* 
periods H ifMi.ntpVhiy in hfurnry flhrn lh«r *[[ nf ihi* rnn*«vstiv* n^wrir 

'br ilap<A|njE fL'tlrTi u[c<r thc^ cutiicifliLr^ al dwii j(ipHi« uvEul and nlmcifl « coit- 
d^joa lor itie ilevcfo'piDrti* uf »me Und of & avUiffUloa- Ttui found HpKvsion in 
ihe bkiork Ic^andi of Ljxungiu ftnd Solon, bindiog i\Mi couoir^ioen by c>Aih noi 
10 4ller llic lai*« of Uu autiet Bui tlioar jMricwl* arc iTlcr till rphcFmwiI» and u# 
ought CQ know b;- Ihit rim« ihAl ia« r*nnoi bid tYn* uinXjiiid «l[|] Archnck (ti« Apiric 
cif prtjificvi urn) Ihc itijwtfj 4>f i]3«iikjm1 Tbi^tc nta iiAiMinh vliicli Jrv«Jti|i kWirtj 
bocjijiid ihfv tvnb vnui iahoTnildm, bur there Are pthrr daIiouji which hnvr^ |{onc Lo 
thovaV fei»oii af pf cri^r-CAnvr^-Atisra thrnuith whirb thny wcm lodocAd inatippnta* 
ifa»fr««4om of thciiiBhi And loH»n) lb» ruhi jjf dMWinft rhi- sd^olutp i-ihdrty of 
the prtrr!.! bng world ^nnc«pilon 

ne propotidoD ol JiidUcc ScblOer loblni] Ibe (onicieuce oi ihe jiidkre bj ^i» 
Ottlh «d «ll«irlant« (o that wuiUi'Cvntvptiuo ^ibith ia cl prcacct ivciiijnixd ai or- 
thotfoi. lA BClully a law in Ui« cPnUktEilJon of tbo CbcifCb. and conflKt* in iho 
OaaVlenrct df cler|4viTi«B nr* aT u cofAmon uccurrctidi- The <^iiDl<ifl thai a. eler- 
gynttui uho li0H ccawd In iHrhrtr in cMfUm cLofmUM c^l hEttchurcb hit^ To rcs\jfti 
hu |cwllan b *vry rcttimci/t amnnf fiwlh^ntcitrk >h w^ll ah i>riboe1c4 Iwbnvr^ 
At fitvi ^ijEbt tbii fcrnih tn bf dir onK clioico lall to a »iHn of bcicimy nuii « Ivrr) 
ol truth I b«id thi« opinion m^H^li f« a looi; limr Thorv ia ii«v*riholrvB 
aacithvr h«w o1 th»4ubJMr which faus«d mo to cfaADKe ny opmiiMJ untirvly. aad 1 
an f{lad vnpnm\r th,i| «ii(K a nun at Mr Moncurp* 11 (^rtnuny vihr\ h^'I'l him«rM 
« pcoldcia to ihfl cbutrb and having ^rown more init itgi? llbvFTil hiu rerlrod frooi 
Kijve scrrjcc. <l«dVH moit coiphaUc^liy iluit a <:i«ri:vinan ^ho hu Rra^u liberal 
iboold not rr^ijrn btil ula^ ti the church and vtajt tilt the chtiiMh foTc«i htm to IefL^« 
Ikft ptitttion. Thu it ail bunni cjjufw, dcler^yniaa hu a iijj;tii 10 puniit ri and hv 
vfllilVTvhyopnitbceyHof btt (ellovmflii ; bewUlfuriherihctmertJiiiof niAaktnd, 


ri^K MdSCST, 

atui i»«uplc ririn ibu« bfi nLwblod en jutlfr hnirT ^hrihvr ur noi It b jtin to lopAt 

LiH g* connidcr tho uws tnorp ctcwiEy, First iho onib uhich ■ >^ciuA|c <lci 
EDfto 0,vtt >i hi« ordinittiMii W si promiHory oaih, aed like nil prrjisiiiiiorf oAtb* 
hnMi floirloii Ih«suppnftJi|oii iFift[ all ihr EnAiiii^n<1iMnn«Tvmiiin thtwinv If fl 
ptontt^ and blmls binutir b3 ^ ^tti iu lUii lo-iocirrQw moraine on a Joame] 
he duo w on the MipptBiitiuii tliuC Jl s* ill lie |>uioiiljlG- St> im la lit^ uin Fhcw 
pnMdblc, but Tucidooia muy bappeo which will rmkc it itnpoirrible to-iaonow. A 
pnsQiittory Aslh wiJJ ba h M-«i(fbl on th* coiicibhcp iI il ban In b* l>rnli*B, but ii 
hi* no l>v*l ffvcf- Thai lolElinn tw("ar m ntlh ol alla^kno* lo ih*irfcinfl. ao4' 
UTidfr orrtmnry f inc«tii*iJjinr** thrrr will bfl nnrniiNr* W 'loub' a^ ^> ilif propriM' 
rooiai^ii^e fjJthful (o the oatb< Uul many tu«noi ^nut i^trpltAky mil apijvar ^hea; 
b civil y^t fpHit & naiion m iw^in u ih^i bratb« tanik akutuI brother urui bill 
fuldp« Id lb« Itlns; tnav be tho mtai dciJiDdin^ Icluny i^wnrd one's Mg1i<Ml apd 
l>»( rilc^li, ptfticpt lUa voifBrd om^ t brxllt; par«ni> And nr^mt Icld WbC' 
DGt mxAU^t ibRiAdeniof Lil(1>v||f 11. Iiing oT lUvarlA. W1u«athe iqlnd nt lt» 
ft>rtUDJi(ii nirnan^h wjja utn iriiirh ilmaurEf Eo Irsivii hfm fn priunMinn nFlii^ nn'flll 
pvwct. n omiduwoo of Mrtviii] «uthufL«(xl itirti avtit ta Oi« cjt«i1« vVii: he r»i>f?4| 
to pbcv him aodtfr thv car* of a phyvicJnit Tho kinjc rrfuwd to rrcMve iJia coov| 
rni«tmn An'Iord^^^d bitla^Thful Rtunlc hy vhora h^u-aEfarround^d to tvi» the comi 
mt**Ji^ri, (i'*"H'^ tiijl (bMrcyw ntirt if pit ih*-m oiherwiw in ihf nioit onlrAxeoqi wiy,i 
The coiomlMlna not bdnij proTcciod were for a m&mpiir m izrcsi dAniet, \m\ hn| 
pilV llii? IhU-itiJa pciLcivirjR llic hci itnuapiA of th? lilujiliuii ilM nul ucciiie (lie kiuc'i 
crders nisil uc mi>ih( ini>.^brD'kc rhdr oiilb. 

Did tht^ nia]ly brvnh Thctr «<ith ? Ka. Ihty did not. fi^r nbcc iboy w«rv twor* 
1f» obRy thrrr vtvomijn niAiii^ ind fnrd, il wu «ippni*cl tlwl The tinft t^m jad 
wouM nrm^ii-a tn bii rJEtil mmd H« l^^cimE' irisnrn* and ihit chiDiE^ ihc iiTuanoD 

cntiid/, I 

The ucitlk tjf ^llck'^^cc wUiih ibc luiniitr^s uf <! chmch iwei-i «l Iticj urdn*-' 
tioe il mnJc in llic Inina hde vonvifEioii f<n Wtb >i<Ica the chvTch on the uncvide 
and lb* fnan thsl tJil<* ufiliir* tio the oth*f «dp,— tliai iho A^i^mjfc r« ^vhicfc h« 
plbdgtv hift emdi am Ihn Inilh I'liit <ripth Tiultlk guud V) Iciog At » mmAtrr lirliHvw 
Ihnx ihc ilotrinn*! oT Ihr fhurdi iin lh« tfutb; il itiUI hold* good MD lunf an hbco^ 
»idf&« it p(>*«thh; Tbft tticTi Eniu be tux But ilie aaih lo helioic ihcm cnMHsto 
hiod IS tho tHUNi ia which ii wn* 4«mDn6pd » 49on u a miqiniiir «*m cloarly Ubit 
tb*y ara not Inio and that ihvtr tmth » an actual lmpD«iibtlity, It rank* ia ibv 

I^UT the C3U U mote [>:)nip[a itJil. It ^oraiiKVy oiiibi Uath tii? Ivi^ loTCC 
ciH3>e ia cdUJa ttMt a man houM have to act naavnii the letter oC the oMih. have 
ihoK oathaao biadm^ pfi»er nhniever. ai sooa as a mbiAlcr recoitnia» Ibe incot)' 
eniiiy of the church balht with tftiTh ' I Ahuuldtay ihu ili^y have a biading pc^n, 
j«l Ihih biiuhiiig pnwT muti bciuiagbl not In The iMUr but in thr tpMr af lb»ftttlt 

l>»Cft«S TOPICS. 



Oovol llwmoHprnE^nMiinf jarvlifalauthHiiim, Vntf. HtArif •nih Ih^rit^ !au 
%>»TffirB * bAok «eiliM " Der 7w«ck Icr Htrht " H« Andt th*i all U«i^ »I1 uilli. 
All dccrc«» havv > pvipose, am) ifat^ purpovv b llieir iplrti TIkv? afv Uv* vordod 
»tj boiUf Ih4' vbcdkacc to tbe Iritcf of ibe Uw i^ould iinit«T irerinlm Aud unlorrsosc 
circuBiOAticM ««ii>rt« etACrll; tb« <ODii«ry of itial nhich ibe U« w«a mufo lor 
f ntlaacoa <!i ifcU kind m* <)[ luii 4n taie<HnFBc« docurranca v«|rvCBil1y wiOi ngirdto 
^JL'il1«: t^tKMnm *af1 Ifcrir If^l A4t'iviF« IM^ rttirn vnsthltihi iatm-tlAin ihrir intent 
tlaDB in a tvtKnl vhntvi Jbiijc^e niAinr^iiu fUit a iin^T m tDDMinint ■ ^rllL a ^ / 
c T«e. <it a 1a» b«t to And oitl ih« iattiin'>a nnd purpow of (hu nraUtot. ibc mojEi*- ^ 
t-TKte tbAi i^e the dK-rcc, 0* ihff 1f*t«dilor> «nd U ii Ibit iawntkm or purpcoA wilh / 
whl«b b\B dMiftioDt hat* to acrr*- Sopponne hfrwv\«r thw ihi« parpc« ol ■ wit^ 
cir ft Ihw U nTCTi^ in tiulf €d noaattMcAi. m. pi/A^t hat 10 rontirne it to ibal 4t vill 
lia«4t URtMB Tf Ou: purpcBC is txim^nal il» nvhutc iraoAktciivD h llhrcftl. if it !■ Im* 
tlciBsl CT ilkificak A liu >ul»c j(ili3[fi«(n) »r> »t lu ftukr ii rutiuiM) wieI luiiJcal- It 
it lua rvdervnc* ta ta^q/aaftd Ticux cutlonit or itiBiiiuliaiii il farth ic Jht n^Upti^^l t? 
%Im CQrT««fOBdina nncWirn ximt% mnd to oflEtwg ccndilionc - 

Alt imaDCv (rnnn prxiirjt Hfp vill np^ain thr iatl pninf llifimar^ V9«) it)' 
■brutioAi In Xnrcbon omn^D)- wTitrh were fmindrd » cleoiiFrr or mcfflfiEFrlrt 
The nun* «nd monks hak^ebwoeiuajjeOputLy in icAictttuf:. pui]> IntieddtuK tatbe 
McV juJ in other uvltil purpuoa Thi? fuD<Uof lliev i[kft(iiuif^t>ciLniM>Il,BndirTtc 
»awltioac pufpDvc* diTfcOy >vhicb Ihcy h4v«*cr^c<l toiatcriy indirvitJj Uiriin^^ the 
Wiicv ol ttimB And iDunkk- Moct o( tt)*m Ar« *nj4(i>«d ror ibfl lujb^tantiiHv of 
■ttxtfJc. bimr tH lliAin at hiHpiTnli^ r^Hu-n m hrwv^^ iv unntATTinf <lHut)btm fli 
inrcnmrni ofliEiuK nr for kicmi^lmi an-tiLKtatJc hilir* itirbnut mnni, «U: 1 hfvv 
cbAUiETB have kmn WTnwbib? binorrdk Ihenamralc^toiamgeof ne v a>QiIiliaai 
M«nT <>f ibcB were niftdc id nciuAf vi^^IMioel of the IcilTi ol the ImuiOfi' "f4U; yei 
th«y «<«« mad* tvtu Ado wjlh iho inteniiuti to romnin fallbful 10 Ut «piril > Tb« 
qncaaEod f* not what a muior inrntfed hit wtU 10 bu hi]f j tnjllenniuin ugu, but 
■hitt be voDbt imml [1 tf> be jn Ibe lluLn^ prMpiil, hmivirj All ific rhanifea vhith 
ika pn/nsma^ tlir I'ttwtt Uavv ^tviijihx ,ind b^%(ii|e ii^vhiiwrd ^ilh tXir timed 

BcFor* tie *ravor ihr <iuriii(iB. Wbut » Ihe puip»o of tbv mi^nicr'i oith ' 
■tn sbovkd tiTifl ■» d«iHT. what it tb# pUfpon of lh« e fanrcki U Ihfl puTpcoe of 
111* cburch fv»\Jy to bi- vi^ghr 10 the propagMidb of uroe ftbcunl doKDiJtil Urdwi 
nr>r nrher iht prmrhlni; fif ihev dPt;tTkiLi irH^l vrrn ■ parpo^ei 

Tbc doifiDM of ChiitiUQfl> Mere ton^c time ago tupi:hMcd Iji Ik tbc iiiiJU|i«ii' 
uibtc IttiiirtameAimul vlbkjd imiliwliun- All llir tbtiiclrt^ itiv elxtindiiitntH tii»ii(u- 
lioDV tcf incijlc4>v tht morfti oughl oo tbc baii» of n popnlur world -confvpi ion. Tbv 
cbiKixli cf RnMladd fcT inJitancv i* a aArional incHluTu and 1I it nni (ru* ib'i ova 
rMrcb p^rty ha« 1^ nj^hi to impou iia relif^Jou* rtMCVptinc U|Vin Ihe n*t of lh« 
nalito Whfn ihr rburcb w>% fnmdi-rl timf cnirtr T)orian» vet* ttten eo Iw itno- 
luio u«1ha lod no BSA on ai the pmniL (ioic be reqdral 10 believe ilicaie cnufi- 
lica. All lnttiBatK«a«Tc octtHrvBiiiebvi mool cooMrrAlIre uc thccouruof Ju- 



DJSCLssroM DN evoli;tion and LAKGUACH 

t muil tbdbk ycu aad I'roitaot RomdDa lor ibe fnnli mad srarcluaE crilki«n> 
to wbicfa ygu hnrt bolh «it>)«clcd nii) article on '^ThuujsUi jqvI L^uk^iiagc," pub> 
Lbbed la TJr^ HF^nuf Vty^ haw sho^D ibm jrou caic for truth iijid not fcr nciory. 
and yon have i^refulljr absuilfietf trom ^ny penoiial r«m«r1ti vrhich ait k> afil to 
crnblff r vkxitlfip cfiDirovmy jnd In tMtncAfu^nf« 10 r«i(1cr ti« f^h^f'f object, itve 
ilbvC<Tvi;ry ol mt-re irulEi, illLihCify, W^rull hnvn Itir ULRieubjrcL wbjJI unnl Eu kaow 
lAhitl iv ini^-^fch} (hcia kfauulil wd uci aII ^ntrk tg^ctlirv, lUun to CfiTnilly ciiticiviB. 
ncc4*pi duirfiil A^vicD, confinv our mwtAk*!. 411J vrorT< a< bord m w« caq in A^ «p«' 
cial 6«1d a[ltiit«d 10 Mch of uts 

A*ioru] a« I find a lillLpmoo t^wn?. I shall not hiil lo T^ply fnllj'to bnth Tvmr 
artl<^ic!^ Ai prwni I onW wrke to ^xiu to dflciad myself u^AJrist an uxidwrvcd 
cturic? bruui^ht -Li;<ijQAt hid L> I'lufowj^ Kiim&rja I li^d wjd llml t'lcifvuor Ru- 
Di4bt?s bB<I DO rl(ht lio spcoJi oJ (BCD Ube Ni^lr^, Kuxlcy, Kcrbni Spencer, lo «fty 
cciihiu^: ol Hotboa. vSth tifl nit cil ■uperiQ'iiy, Pnifwir Romuw ffpUri that h* 
ft*«Tf nnaiififun! Mt. HiTlvrl ^ipuniT^rat ill, Ihai it M<mM hiw U*nvi »*il fcir IIM» 
i1, IwTfin* rrrtiilpnnin)! hk vuppnAKl inuTinHni nf Hi>rbnrt ftjiMnrfiT^ Knikfy. SBc) 
NoJT^. t bud looked al bU luiJi'i Tliia i> a htIoU) cbaru^T Ii uviild sbuw a u^ni 
ftf occurvc; iLopAr^nnble ia 4 Mhobr 11 I* tnia Mr. Merten Spviicd'fr fi4iUP 
do« not o«ur in lit* Indn. Dm on p. ajo wo road ; "So bore s^a wmoM »itb 
udiliibncil proof, vote dq) n«]uttr<J. of the Eoll^ ctl regvcbng the cofula aj *n 
rtimtial liiEr0llPdi of a prdpotiikoD. Nostf it it wdl biioun thai ir i<< %1r Herl^crt 
Sptisccr «vhi> TQ(ard» Ibc copula u an vucaiial inijreiliRni of 11 pn^iofitlan, I bSrir 
thoAii thai Ibi^ lacUi of liiDiiLUhKf arri .m^iuM Sit- Hrrl>r^ti 3ifiLici;r< but f kbould not 
thcrcfijrc ibitilc it ri^hi to chari^c him vriib fotl>, Thlf will khcrv ihnt if t »fol<i 
withom tnc3«E t did not writ* without book. 

Yourv iraly. 

Ocford, Oct «H, \tqt. F. Mak MitiXAt. 


V*rUfE*h4'^'i^|^Ti'fluti( tvin J C. H Mohrr lAgf. 

TtiLi book U iIh3 firtt ti)1i3Fn# of tlu ' Hbnd-ConiTMiTilar fum Krttva Tcfelt> 
mmM nlHi«l t*^ ilii* P^iffvuirv H J l<nJtriri.-inn, \< \ l.ipniut. I* ^V ^ehntirclol, 

N^ Ivl^vf iu*d vkHiM Iaxc bcDD adoctcj (w ibe fii^l piift of ibix jcrcoi »i>rk 
lka« Prof N J. Ilolidmiiiiiv. vbt* Unol unt^ ■ Ibenlofiiui <if m^l cvuprcfccmive 
i<>-r>Uf*h^|i hiiia]i<ihMd*vo(«dbd«atT|;t««Lulblt ipccUl vabfirtl H« 1u> k-ctufvd 
rvgDUH5 lor a anmbcTof >'CAri b1 thr vcivurilty ut SUfl«aCitirg lU or aigbt tlnp«K 

ol bi* itiel!i<Hl liri\ hnta UJil ilnivn m a Irfiinei wmk ut bb^ tu, "Lrtirboub lL«t 
hinkrruch'kjidptclico Citileituuje lo «J-'^'^ Nruc TtniunGUL " TIm prevent book&oQ' 
bill* AD irnariDi^tiriy ivIdminniiB naaiariiiL condcn«ed lato « comparntEvulr loiall 
■ipM* of 4«4 pp bffEV ochjvn, Ttts author b?ifiA ■ ih»li3«tan bii airiiud^ tntdrd 
hu flibjKt Is naEonlly rcvirreAi. payiiif an uDrMrr^vd botn^t^ fo ifai< ^iMtbcH of 
J«<u& Yv< At tbc VOK dmc hU ^ri\«tl|Hi!cCfl trc nrb^J? KdeatJiLc vad Id accnrd* 
lacv will) Ibc inks uf Ltililiun 4h niiiiluicxl \\\ rnxxf tiiMuriuiL tinTMpEi)i:ifiuj] [t i?» 
tto cNiflfrTAtiaq fooxiiiitfer I'rcic^noT lUJlrmainc'* wurk ah rAprcvnljiTtvc m ibr 

llUhl li^f m 1 nvmt riKii?i«H ff«m;t4 a firk^-fK^iL haixt-brnk vttbpaiall*! bib1*«aDi1 in- 
drim ol rrffffr-no tor tiudpoci ol rhf \rw T«titi»pTii 

Tl^ Buihgr Am tcnnuLie* "Uw •v'lJ'PE^ F^bleinr wbJcb b>* tecfl ulvtiJ 

afln fcMumrnLIc v*iu 4lici:apl9 bv tfl<^ -a^tfatlcd " MM<U9-!l>pulbc9ix ' ithich ^ 
ftl prwnl <oaMdL<rv4 u mJibiuiury, btxauivil Alcmclulhlfe tnvfy (itodiboa Mm)»- 
pbtWBll Ihe4l|&<ullt«». HolE(mu>nrqgafililbBBt«r«ot CfcrUt ft*bMoHti«l- XlM 
tt>pfr*ii<m f-t bit poiftFrfot pprun^lii) u^ % bvtog pmcoce in Fbe first cno^re^- 
tiva Hi jcibfeAtfiai. But aU \Xw. minrr^t ctslrtd ui bU Mnib Tbc weird* oJ Ibrir 
tjwdwtffl f&ilbfnlfr fvownral b?' oml tr44ili0v> SoMAacnw thuctiuk] jclw prc«- 
DBBt witb minii(ai ''ItlsLUfd ftrr- Ihe pMCtwfciri," on *' Vo vw Ik* «aU of ifcr 


thk M<wt«T. 

™nb." "Hntl«t7oarccninirai»iiainbe. Yaa^yw: fihy.^*f. eft.*" aPB^onnpre*- 
«Liv thM wbtvttrr h4K h^rd ib>*^ irmcv, v HI Hi^^'n- Inr^rt ihf'in Thr inrrrnii in 
the wurJ iftiK loun cmuplcjijcncn] b^ an In^i-rcsi m fAi^tfa^nJ ntruik vftkh «>»■ 
aacb Jalor feU^wcd bjr Jia Loticml iu ikvcmA. Tbe firiiL iijflcmicc* «(i3(rb|[ iHv 
CltriftVutu on^ixuted llirouyh Ihc mimicrn amnn); thv hirdihanfi TfiB [^I'ntilii Cbrit' 
tiait btcun" lodiBmiii cujac^rning thr |«uriAh (radili^rDPt joJ c^uh|r vriih all hi> ra- 
li2iiW<''i'h]i4iai«ni En th>>C'hri<i3it hnqa\ioiir ChrHltanitf hHranvanMancrpIi^iaa 
white \hc Jtwbb Chnil^^Di itill locknl u^kiiQ C brlst as xte MrR«(.ih of thv peopCc cf 
IstricI Thr fcvi^ll tiFM of CbiiitUntly i> (c?pin«u1rO bt MaKIjea. ibc fC«itilo 
view bf Lu-kc- Mfick buw«vrr don nol ihow aa> (lrvcl<p>puieai ol daAnu- Accot- 
din j Tr> P^pjcu, t1^ Ap^iilv S(- Pdcr hud tfbfl)<f««t tl brcumc aetivuf v iitr ui n- 
p1vn3liiiafi!ih(-unrrTH':iF Chrii! oftnwonjilly l<.->]ti cptWio «CHiirt| ihirlJH of JfttiM: 
tfliirh tvitrp iifirrxh^nln writLnii flmvr hy M^rh- Wi* fjtitl i» Mjtrk. M^tihr-A-, aad 
Lubp 1^^ i^Dir huiklinii itDQct^ I'Ut linw ififfojitiittjr utraiiKPtt ' Mark ihirwswi- 
JoJiCT'df rrlaLii^K 'v^l bcl^oF biftiory, tie ttticmA 4 lib Jolua tht DopliM. ipH* d* bov 
J«ui bourne bipriivH hrn^ br prtMch^ ilm WinEdrm of God Ao:{>r<1iiT£ (4 Mar|i. 
J«ut tiixu Odi dtcbrp Fumwlf » the Mep«iah tton ihv btgine^tna Hit aclJOly 
grtiv% by ilf^crnri. hU disctiplM incr«tH*. hp heal« tbe «i4^k, fivd li t» from ih^ raoiHll 
or llicv Ihul he ttHk fii^l inudnlniet] m ibc Ml-uUIi lie liccoiQir. A (itiwvr mitcmr 
[b« [ttipit ni:d amhhC* bimK^ll cflcuktvc ta llic kiulboritio aI)u uin&ide^ birn ax <}aa- 
iTTOU'i And ftlLtcnpl Ic Ultc bti lilc, Joviiii forblcU thtuc wlioin he IidqIji tf? proelnim 
thmt hn ih Ih* Mwwiah H» •oimr.lK cmt hiH rJiicipW aM in pnnf:h bim a« tha M««- 
ti;ih, hill in yimrisHin rhr- 1<irif[r1itin Ar 1^«(T in P*r><r ilif i^li*:! (bwni itiaf promfitft 
liim bJ drfdEUv: "Tbou art thf? ChriHE." ^firhnuf b<-lotv (be perwcillioc ot bIs 
cnwnsiu, ]v>ii4 [T4vrti Ni^rib ■tnj l^tui ^id litis he acv utioini bjosrlf w ibr l<1ca 
of fl iuBfiing**!* t>1 amii Hia »|( xtinhdtntc iotrrjiiM And hcirA^cUi>]imciroaiJ,j 
bo Jerunbtm tfbvron o* b« coM fcrvuo, b« voufd a«»l bl« Cate^ Th* drsiiqa ol 
bi4 life t»^mi»dfm in hiii ^^^^A "i}T^ 'V'~ |i4^>^ 11^ t»hich hrrct'cdli hi* AeIl<on- 

nf GhUJnr jvnil tkJ';b d" bnlicM'tl i[i birn tic hiuilitJiril liudiHMfi lE i\ nJl LtKt^f ttiNi 
|fvb« muLd Ijjiw. publicly Iwon h«ld to bo Ibr Mrv«u>h For Tiny liMiitih of (ime, £oT 
tile ItomAh pobcc nan vrnni To tuppiMt ttuch mowmonu wtihont diKriminAtiOQ. 
Thry did aoi«iop to invMiigat* 1h«caitPB« 10 1 h« cbanc^tiT nr ^r)tivpof ih# mow* 
mtni wbeEheT or rot li wai purely r'*lii;:ioii« i>r polm<ral They nrrvrt loTerare^ oft^ 
^Kjn ul Divid " <rj ' hinj; at Urjcl " vhu beld any lullu^nte over Uirc iuaucs oi 

Wbile Marie attll pr«bCT^«a Tbc dcvclopmcpt of Jeaii«'i ine*«ljinic coimclaiiann*, 
Lubu u w«li M Mdttbc^^^ buvL} c-QEircly iibHtEi^At^c] il Acocirding I'l Muk. Jmua 
proclirniH rbii kiEii^iTfim . M»tThi*w iibd LiiV'> niMkr bim jirrjrh hn pvnia Thty 
iTiAkit JmtiH protl^iiM hmiwlf jh ihv Mimfab iiaia tlui vKjy brjfjmiing ftml hih con- 
maoiJ not toipmk ii ctvl opvnH jciviu I? iIjuki wh^jui br hodvd niji] aIhi leUidia- 
cipl«« haa do aeoae bcra. Mnrtbew bM a Hkin^ tot aht\Mc nxinihvn. Ifaere an 




%hr*9 lim«* MVCB grBCTHiMH ihc iuoh d whicb an no< wlllwut doiv^f vtolvacfk lo 
hifliroeat fuU h1)Mi*d Voihrt pnnrrn. ihtfr«n tkfca f«cifV«tina«, «»ida pu^rlA, 
iftr Tbicocbout vw oolke rvArlkct pitpaH** vlodkin of 1^ tiuinikl. xnH aitl- 
6o«l HJjikfiBvTQt Li j pUa The bouk hu a icndmcr lu «hinit tlmi |»u« uu ihe 
KiniE '^ Imvl pEv<Hei<>d hy (^ pixifibotK Hod b tbc phIbh. I.«W on 1 he other kifc«d 
bH akoa dogmAiic ptfugraain* ll » tb* C^^pvl «4 (*Dtil* ChH<laiMl) u [o»n(lod 
by HmiI 

Tfae dtkaJ HhocJ findi aJvrrunn anipDC iha'loifliiM ai vcH ju itDcbrftliiin 
IhiuUn, Loth of vbom -^n npt to ipo^ o4 Erand whrD rclt|eJ>Ki» IjuuI» hit hiilUiu 
with (rrt^^D iloflmaiir icmd'-nciQi^ Prmfiwdf llolumaaa 0t>if<ti ta Mcli 11 t^qw nf 
|b«d*^c>p<K«*1 of ChrHliinilt IT? cuv^ that .1 r*h|tl'^ ^^*fh dM Dot touhi tof- 
flocqi mthmMm W* detrliip a rHigjou^ po*try wooW Iw *cr/ poor uid lif#l*a. 
r-*«ft ibe A|io«r31<>» of <^ ^(^ TnUmeiat afe ertdccv of ihv vi^v ctf iJw dvw v^ 
hpija- AUhfiWftb WF DUflC b« ■■>tv of (bv lio tbM Ihc Chaich ihuwnl ^ntd juilc- 
lUrtl •«kctt idopln^ itt CJETWD to Mnpi ihow nhtch «ii?rtt f4U 0I monl nvMiaLBg 
Mid tio npvl tbov wbirh vnr# m«n> myili MiboDt Any de^r uiffiiAmie*. 

IV« hivr tftTpaihiv AbrtTraci of <^np {un rtf IfoltjmAnh't ■'»rli \t»h ih*fmmiiya 
of All '^hc humffd bv-ut^Jrk foj iliov umL fAEajUi miib lliruUff iml ln^i«iri|piiUin. 
SabiIju remit* on? obtaiapd by ftn JsqoJrf- into ilic oii^t ol thr Ma The a|xi>tlei 
■n>v iW Am aad hving rtpr«H«taiivH «f iti« Chrkci. Out ol thn inirml rn iht^ 
ipnailgi' itonte ^w an lattrval IB iheir ariic^^a atui U\^ nml ih^rt Arc qicfcut 
Tnattjr «rillngi of tbU subject prciervect. On* only ham bwQ rp^^ct<1 Inle tlte 

|i Ift IvpoHihlr lo follow Prtn^tfoior Halttmnan inta ihn driatli uf hi> wmh. Ijut 
m OD vitrsJy n«cDrnnicvi] H ui ibv bot cooipmcTJ^nn i-niftinx. utH oafy («r tfaa 
nv4t«l of ibw>liig:y hvi f[iT ffvi-rylmdy uho ik int#miHl is ihv rrmlti c4 ibc tcl- 
fiDUfi^ n^icks rif iln* »yTk<|Mir |£(V([tciLH und ill? Am.* i^tf. 

AufiE^h*^ "^'^ Mdhadd tier r^ycholafEie By /■^■jf^ Afitmtft^ig. Lrip^- 

Id Ebm mrini^T^jph Irttfouftr MlJntl*rh*r|t pa^paf w 1b< v«y for frcvtsr And 
morr InporiAni unrk. Hi* aim \*s cn il«An« tbp prD\in» n( [n^chnla^ and lo ia- 
vcBill«)Llt Ibe motbiHlA uliiL-l] bdvc lo be i-inpk»yod ri^chuTac^ i« ni^t pbiloKiph^ ; 
^axif^B^f Lhe <oiftBid»nitiiin \vbfili«r thf-rc ^ e rcAliif of mi oLittide woiU floot jiot 
boXooc l]«re The ps}'<bi>lc«ii< ib not hound u> vait till Itii* And olhn mcUphyiicai 
qotfllafla :irt d«>^l4lrKl wirh OflruiiiijF . iba reality d1 iba outvidv wHd beai nrnply u^ 
bn >iiHaTh«il iii^nboT hvUh ill coffBlwhlll ly 

Wbat totvuh LU »|>Uiii ^ " Tij c<;j)4i[i ninDi i;idply to xcn^r tlrar ihaT wtircb 
ba(nd«jtf«iivfBductthc»nkug«ijLotbokavwa, tte wmpleituthetimpbip tOf| 

■ A oAf •aU* *«1 M «h* DLJ T*«iNii«ii Ijd Ih*<i tnkvnbf TKiEnivi CumliL WttlHl] 

t«VWW ll IB «Df ««« BOIBbtf - 



i« , , , It H Of UdBpoaubtD prciuppmnlon of *ay Oiturftl Kicrm (v tUJiuila tuiitii 
ai b<>iDje capable of fltpl-maiioD i,''J'M/*-f\. uid ibU preiDp^ii^lrni ijicjiiin ibut tiA|> 

Tbtfi premmpTkm can be reaUtnl lo^dBy nniy an ill* liaiii of fhu «lJ>in<nai:i-ptioi 
t( is ACOJMlirtj;!)' nnl i^n ciptri^ncc. tiul i\ pr>»riilftlc ot tatHiTytl wjtmt* tn rl?nt« Ihe 
whi^lc mHicriM) vutIiJ v-EvuM ff giij tlio bictIi«EiJBin of aluini. A iACitpliua bcCOOKA, 
jRi npljuiiLion in the xncuiin tn wbicb Ix HppiVAcbn this aim " {^ lojji 
f|vvrtiAi3 It, uh'ib«T in p«yGKcti>«^\ litcnipLJon cnn b* lapplnmoil bf capXuutioi 

Vratnvt %TUr<icvirb^Tv rnlcf-i ibai Erovod in pty^holDfcy which M Ci ip|v&n ta 
us d (ht unlf tenablr BLraudd, «if (bni fArJInvi iire nui miHioDA *nd Cannot tteci^, 
pbJncel « coovirrii-d jjh^siciil piucuwr iV^Jractjc MitfUtcrbeiK j«v»- "A >icni«jL- 
Han, a lotUn;, a ^ill aoi fx«v*r All svpa ths wiy iinol]«at ajacd Whui it auaadt 
la apace C40 never irtcJE bv a lUle of ccfflockoubocu To Oli* pAvdhalc^Ul lliiii di*-] 
linrlion Eh no« ;« mdtur nf i^nuru, fto nineh idi MiaI ir in rliirir^ilt io cjII m i^np'v 
laiDd licw inucli troubla U ciMt lo ncijuirv th» IumkIlI. Tbtf uljjvct of p^cliolci£y 
atxctrdinKlv cjei Rmer bi ta ohjvci ia tpau*. ii cttn nw«r be a procna of unjikiQ, 
•OOoHiDsJy, vvnn breia-irrhjituin oin dndi<r net drcuD»inncv« t^cr b«uinc the uh- 
Jeci of pt^cbciloiL} " fp 971 l^'a>^hGtn£y hnt 10 Tivwrii^jiif- Ih* pc><hicjl pbeaomtaii 
Ol Ibc hflitlftual C(inKicii?«iLrHi iji loil, it hu to wparntc ii tnto It* elrmniiA 1 n. ^ 
Tbow InflnylirniG ablch iire no loii£tf divisible- «hUb be\r\g Atmtr pyft^iuiin^f^ 
>aiit]ip>!ui the mlvb fur tbc UL,>ULMn*ilu^> uf Ih^c p^riitit^ cIciuoiia nut] i^hotn 
(w ibc (tifltrrcnt tvhinpfcu coatcnu ^bich nn Ivnav^ la iliU wny hy (be di^mcrith up 
to Ibsl liiEalilj a! hjiiglw conblnflTiciQi wliicb l« 471 vna uv at tbn oc>puoli i>f nur tpir^ 
iiuAl pArvi:i»b1>' tp 105! 

Tbr i^ii-iiimi W |i} An ihfifa ptkyr^hcilngiCAl picicomrfr In Uh. liir Jp< irtuprnptii 
of wbldi pmenti iiMlf ^Ub inijiivitint7C4irLAintr«»jii«co»Mr. iLud {1] ua v«r«4uciej 
all tbc iDditiiual and wiib iH^jq bII rhr tpirmiDl vhcciomcnn To >^)f b spiritud firxM 
OMKA rvdigtilsad bi OMMiAry * Th't fim qwvti^'n cnii bo affirmed, allhougb <xdy. 
in ft Uro^Fed viu?. and l)J«u<om1 r|ii«liDn man b^tiao'jUit'Ofatly d«\it<|. il^ui joak^^ 
Inf an hnniAlLaiecxpIaniltlofi nf pftjdilcAl pheDomeafl tmp(&«INe" Ip vt^l Ttic 
fini qiiTMirjn Ia lo be AfHrEaiei] in a ]fmlt«d iteajx. becttutc ' 1( L'crujn prermwt af* 
|haDcbt» \ht Lrmiclufdanj it ikppoiii Ici a* aa « nKBatil/. ua br thouirbl thus awJ ODt 
ullitrwiv'^' (p. 1A&|. Hill thi> lA ^'d Uifintl Aiitt nm n pMtihDli>gioaI c>nC(iMi<y " To 
^ictuAlJy Ihjnk thi><onf limion LI^prndll upcn ih« \^'ill In lliink ii 'Ibc vUl uidaII) 
iHUt^nfl, Thp IriKira! nflcfinil} b^rnm^na ptyrhntngiral. for "ih^ cnacificti^in bf1w«ft3 
IfiK vllUne Dn<l ib? tvtl]?d|i:i<jVrA^rr li'U/fHt mtif GfttWft/'Vf alwiijv ipp«r% lo ui U 
nrc^ifvji > ^\'heio thrr? it lanei* wilL iWrc is an uuici im(-»Ltv " Kuw. )n m' 

d«r to Dulie enpUoAiJOAa b ihe pbytil«a| wotfld, we tuppbmont Ibnt vhlch hoa boea 
jkCiuall^ pbwnHMl uvth no(-a|Mcrv«l fotintclhi>n< ISvi wp cASnoi, aix<iintia^ to 
M bntt*rb<rnC- IB an ao^k^iH mix t^f piemen 1 1n iliPworlilM p<yc-hi»] ph»aDin«aB 
ih« foa«cJou« 4iULii!i with iiay other kind uil IpMIiu whicli «r* ncit »irttfini». iliui ro' 


VaOK. HKVieW£. 


IrriiiifB oat spjrita&l UCp iDd «cl» of wilT to aneorweioUB pfaoawMfc toff '^iho vn-r 
CAtare of ffffcbial «talc« U coanciouwaa*. i « a iloU of baing coDnaut- Ihr 
tteka iu dA« bpwii«v<'v*iri A vtat* of contniminim. urt UBuMnrS^rg^ which i* 

hoi ffkAKioai, Ls coffifantik not <o 1 body %hichi«nr<l prrcrivtij. bui monc vhlcta 
4o^ (UK exUl, AetXJfiJiDxty uocoiitclaw pBii<bka| pheaotDdu do lUHratft, All 
ptycbicil pUditftticuH mi:tlttwilr ifivca ftud the rcduct^oD ijf ihck conib^juibi^ ka 
a ontbD wit)' tlirouftb hipothcfic«l pycb<:4a(k«l supplcmcBU U <>ec« tor nil Gn- 

W* a^rt* in ill th« mujn pi*(!iun* «Tlh Pmfrtim MlnnVirlwrg. bqE in tfcf* laurt 
miTniirctn3 piint <4f <!it3ijEEV«* Pnifottur MUiuinlicrif liiniU pnychiraJ i^tMlm nr 
fvoliDi^ Iu ilnln iif gutifck>u>rjf^>» v^tlmuc c^niitltEtiiihE ilixi tbcn- hif ikalKDJiicioiii 
bbd tvfn •oconMioEU lovLros"^ By «<Kuciuuwii«« «<■ uctdi^rtttad iKlm* foriJnici 
oliiiu <ivhkh nrr con«inr4E«(I »a a* to b« cfanvctMl wiib ihp iifpx ■ r ihe prHerii 
c«ntF« ol fotiHioncnHf W#4jv«im<< thai ravn fhr» ipmal jcan^lion* n| ih^ Nram- 
IcH frcf nra tt*liti^ ]i iht ikin |i irhULied. tiut ihis fwlLiiiE caD Oevet twcome con* 
tuuu. il c*a do C3Li?T« be tdcicrdpheJ lu the rvaiiaX ^tatkm h> a* lo becooie uj- 
ordiniHil niib uibcr iorlinji* wLick* aip rcAiiural in th«farftLA, Tlir ubjcclirti 
may |m ntiwi], Wc dc ooi kiKnv %uh<'lfccr illv ganglicnTL U fvlia^ ; imd t ihotitd nn- 
nrrr. 1 ddl ftfoliag «fryl blag IbAt \i of Ibr UnUr iiAiarE ft* ih# ^tlfrmimiii pf abte)! 
Crmtcviu4n^v4 cnntiitcti, ^ml nc hiivr ^11 rruumh tt\ utAUmi- itrni rhrir tn iiirh nr filr- 
mvQtuy ^yf:tLi(,'itl vtcU'tJifniinnic uf ibc tauiLlitmiK iiriiJiiigQi^ awA llul iMtttfctoufl- 
ac9a rbu from Diuy «ucb cUmoVU (brouj^h their coord JnMo CdnUajLliofl in \he 
brain. Ivolaltfd foolintfv ar^ )i4>if<r o-inncii^iia^ unA conncicwon* it a co-cfvrkrivc 
ly«lc«k or l««liii]£ I Ah* diAio«Eion ki?tu<f<Mi cooKinxitnHt and lerlmg o & futro 
RkatfitrAtf Tormunologj. tf trr And fmother ifrnilnoloU^ (non* prAclf»| we nrv vill^ 
in|E 1o tUTrBddrr Liuri. Vol vach a dlMLnctioa bDl>iv«Q cciDtfiouhnm and fi-nliniE 
Kcink lobe iiixcu^y fur >> prupcf datriptj-'ii uf the psyibid fiLci>, Tbc APnamp- 
liOB of ubcaoKiaav Mb1«a amJ cvea of uncoaMluut fefiltagft it t (rat hctp lq or- 
plauiLiiG Ihi* ph«iL>m«Tia of conacioutswn But uolaM wo ftHfrouly mKmkctf, 
on dnterrvmi^t \f m^ri^ly appnronL tat Pratmu^r MQbAlMFhv-rf. r«^n:imR rhu 
hka ijf a piyU]c^i>lci^4il npUiiHtJOii. iHrZir^fA in thir piirairdivin of pBytZlic;^ Jt-Od 
pIlT^ical pltTyionuma, 'Thf« phiTdcnl 'cl-i'^ ibfi uyv i^n p. 115) "rvducfTiIc lu mc< 
tluaical Miomt oa be «ip1nint<d TtirouB^i fnumiicA. iht pvychicJ acl* f l»E1(jw ujio 
AAoifcoT viLhoiit iaiMr a«p«il^ If wr oonnfct borh. w« art ciaablnj lo inAaUr 
Uie DrfvKiity-ccnr>rcl inn <*l Ih? phyiirol o^vn fiv p^yoblfnl anil oflrr thiv an w- 
plnnati<m whew oihciwlie dacrlpiloQ only Wiis poalble. Hat fn doing Ihit baut 
Mi no4 kupiiItmcdU^ tliu4c |Airi-bJuil cleruenti V'tiicb j}i|.b4j tu umti^iijus Males by 
olbrr pvvrbicnl rlfini^iiEA wliichhavc not i-ULcrviliBi^lUkloranibinAtion wbJcli mnkm 
thfVt JKiunlly contciou* f U tt .ta hy^^huUt^l ■ddilion farthaiukiiof ekplniulion, 
:t Jlij/ttmnafrarifiJu jukt m mtich u tbtf «uppLMiIi4?n nf rJif> rtiil^nc? of olomH or 
fl[rcnk cumM>tt or crthrr phpjciJ phnniwionn whfcli an* not iIirMtly obiwrtvd, but 
mdirrctlir hi iLcif f C«cl?i only 


lUi: U0XI3T. 

Supplcorueeu tfc ■cpfwary for v^plvutliou uhcrevvf the Inrntodiate IacL* do 
floi ct«Dt3klD &1I tbc «l«anDftt» tfil a cdvUid proMw If nn oWrvftblr ptianv(or«o* 
btfh not ithcnbilHiiiniii JA oliirtviibltf (ai'H in* hypatlsotir^illv jBi»Hrni" unnbuffrvsW* 
fflcu u itK C4ILVX Diit ur iTiAv inc^iilfrnthltY rvjumk lluil cti-vfipTimi anil MflftfUt- 
tioD E&r« vvt dilTiTvnt in Wmd, bui in dcfira, BxptjiDAium Js »a •xbdaatur ^ncKp- 
lioo Bvl Forrh iT^'iin erftiii'nt pohhiblr uupl^diy An nhAU^Iive dmcriptioo rcun- 
CcalMall lb(r Hflli-rmin^atLTr EAciort of a pit^tts ,inH rl dr^ipv ovn^ibing Ibiii i« oF 
no Jrcm^ni^ w ihAf rnlnrninlMii 1« imfurtirl w\\h ttif ^rNir^ f«fnnnniy Di hHI u 

ouicuoir ot n (ffiHioB. and te^vEtU ID Ibit way ibc ji3cDtii> In (be cbantfr, lb? cuik* 
ttBUily of ibc iifEncit 4intl ibc D)^XHI^at]L>n i^f mitlcr niii^ carTHv in thdt Xi^iitiunai^ 
liciR#« tiT, in niht^rwurdn. it rcwola tlw ABCoAily of lltv rtBiilt Tbdr* Li pvrli?ipB bo 
(uiurjtl icioac* ia wbich the pnxMM* eta b« mhfiUkEivuLy ctEJkchb«cl witbcul hypc^ 
ih''tirA3 xLiiifilAniriDU 4n^ tti lb« ^irrnrit nf iMyrhdhimy 'nrtiTi nr irmtprimi bi (b«- 
■tfnoral rule 

Tb* «Jm of ^ycbnloRV ^n itv ^\A*t imim tflll bv "lo )epar4[e nli ibecoQiicaU 
of oonscicufitrqt rnio ih"jr f lr(nrni>v loiinlc (bcir 1ii»a of combindLiion. and iu ^nb 
to aa emfinca) u-i)- for ihr di^^riK? HnmetiEAry pvycbi^.-Ll p^arfbti:. Itaeir corr?- 
4pnoc|rnt phytlpfAfilral irrJtaikiDs, in orAti ta mplniti in This wfty mHlifliHy trMv< 
the ciiMihicacc iiriJ ^aftff»[on ul ]jhy>|i>lijuital irrliai^tifji ihc purely lA^chologicBt 
\aw% ul u>EiilimniiLfU!> which i* lUtti riir mictjj^un.iblL-" -iv ijy] 

Out- obJQctioii to tbta view rctCTiibIca mueb Kimc af the abjectJob* nhich Pn^ 
l«aiinr Munitprb«fj; bimHa^f mjik>v ^'Iwm flpcrultiny f*1 ibu n^iiLitMlil}' ttt th<i nmlhf- 
Rialical m'ltbcirl to-rttlf-il Hi xiyi "Mituvb'ing nnr] romilmg df [^^'chiVo^itJl 

phMumivna b;tvc< bc«i] mnd;* rppnirdly. dirvctly a» »ell :» indxrvctly. and li hA* 
Liren proved ih^'il niiitbriEiiiEk:* t^a be jpptipd io in^cborocv N cvcrilidaa 11 

vrculil tro A miiu^u of the wurd if wr raiTiud tbrK iibmcricdl dr^CTipOfOU oa ' 4ji^ 
pijfutiofiof Ihc muIbiniaiicDl method,' If AO hjclorisnol ItlorAlunciotiDUllir puenu 
iod drarnniot aultion, ti he aito <Alciita1cfc bi^^' Imttf ii looV fb*in io urite thcrr 
Ht<^rary priiilnpti. wbci wcmlil f^ll bit wiirJi a (naihcniflliciil hihU>r>' nf lilKf4lurt> ? 
Cvrn HHirt>rjoiiJy h^iiulij be mi lULUlicAmliuil icii:nuB if vrv cuLiiilixI iHily iW it:uv ia' 
th(i nkv" H tbc 'tJtn »f pnycboli^tfifdl c<p1tin»iiitm wfir f;» fHiiFcEK'Kit. M uimi^tb^TK 
hnrn nm*rlJi d^ h? rwicbrd ibrcjugh (he cvpliviinlion of pbyiiiiilojticAl ntnivt only. v« 
thniild Mv, thai ihr fib)-4t^lnRka1 m^rhnd u^irp kinnr artmnKjhli* in ptycbaloiiy. a 
pTMit^ipilf m wbtrb our auibor riRhil^ oO)h:» ISycbir:il «ufn v>inpiim«ii danand 
1 phj^ioloffic;ij «I)laftailo!i. liimI *e cuDAoi unOrraiand piycholoay wilboai Invfog 
d ticiUia uitoual tJ pby^iiJuGi^o] kJjowkiJiji? Nrvt-itZidn^ the eipkEi^iiuu of 
pvycliLfAl mat* And ihc n^c^aaii^ .^l ««? tuia cunurctioDs irmal be undcr9ii»d mhiDLj 
tram Ibc- pnychicul clirnmiii thomifilvet, dy^ica] dcRivnlft, i e fwlliijfv u hu 
Iwn c&plLiinvd tin mhr-i <ieca^aQ%, hAVr if rginrrd find connunTly do [uv^iiiriv nioAn- 
iDjc. Tbiit niiutiiit^ whiiih afipnAUi In urAKAliuu-ny-TiitKilu xiid IhnuKbi-iynitiolft acd 
whkh ivdiCorrat in tbc iliffcml FcrmTpf forltn^ fc»(rr4|KmdrtiI tu dtS«i-iu fotnai 

BOOK BErviews. 


Qi r>*w(iu« arHnciK CTMl— A iw doitalfi.— lite dam«tn of spirit ^Bil tba* pAf- 
cbtcil clHt«b Ar« ciuniET^I inln hfitr^Cu-tl fjciM Sup^iiiw for liii^ljinci* that t niKmlixni 
temivn fait mml ; hr Q(4h» a Inirr cudimThula ^hdf i[ii|H>nnnt erv* vrhii;|j vln nl 
Mkccatl hj> ivrvrt into iniutian. mahfri him iHitlwitfiil i>f j]) oth^r tbingt in otdf* 
•o altctul mltb i^nmt b^Mi* Ci^t-n^ tp^i-il ;iAnir Jli:>v can wi* pipkiu thu iniUoc«, 

li ftefl tlM^ mftinrnfl alcD« vlikh tpecOX xnae^xapfnaiotxt conve/ ibiu picduoA ili« 

CKtrtBTtliiuiv rflr^Vi ^ Tllr pbT»cJjujji&L wi<u1ij *k liltlc W ttlAe tif 4«UXt ihii mean- 
Ib^ thtobfh Mu Au^lpUcJ Lhc kcttK iaipTV9AJoQEL LU dji cicciricuij) H&ulil be lo uo- 
J^maad ibn impart nE 4 CAl«r|;nUD w\ien mmtviin^ the ilrflr^lh <■! lb« olectrtc cttr- 
r«it m th#« iHrjimpli ^ifi-* Tht ci-tmbmnlnwin r.! ihi» p(ir*|y |n^cbiral iif»i*^ may 
aflPI all niA hv quiXr tKWv^ininMf. *bU* thr^it tibyiiolotiCi*' fonr'jrnitrtnt'i nn' in 
ttaa) CiVB isiufficieni W occouoi for npiritaal ^ntercDDOpcLioQa 

In ducnaainic iUf cnothddk of ftvycbnlocj l^frvnjr MnnABtTbrrs rvjcct» th« 
tfv4ti3*EWv anil IhtJ m.^ih^oL^Ticil mctho'lt. h4> clnimci Brinl i^porttnci* t>B^ a> 
i(fw AUb html f<M »rlt'ob*m'»ticrti T^ut wfI-ob*rtw;iIii>n tc no <M*f ttcli: if rr- 
qa^FH B higb flflfrpt of training* " H« who Aont riM niidi?ntaTLd iMiany nnnot 
Rubr al>wr%4lj(T[L« oT pljnt-llfe Thr umc ihinj^i Vhkich c«ll Into yAity catala u- 
•«i«thjnii :v iUo huX^fm^ utc aSttitrxn br ilv Invmiiii, h\n ibcf-rvmnin uaubAtrfDitr 
Se1 f-obtiir\'Al]i>n it in « idnilir vny . . . mt wilhoiit \i% pcmip|K4ilionh; i1 in dtt- 

IS^IioUaKiciit in^cHij^rHjnfeuadffr cuturalcn(]ditinn»uv cljuwi^'d bf Mui:M«r< 
bfTX vccoriliog i^ ihmx cbjvti, u Ihnvofl iho aormal man. Ifa« cfaiTd. tSit Mraft, 
llivi ji«:]n#^ fhf ATirmiU, ••ic In pt^tfrimtmal p4y«hp>]r^. |HfchripM!it, pi)chofiiJtal. 
and p1Vc^o(mtMl pfTKi»^i?« atr divinRunhod For rKjchn-pbyiioJrijjI^jt invt^iiftA- 
iliUiftv«luiveUHiidL*»v(i)ibelDLnicdiaie«x|Jeriincll( in ihirUlKMaiorr, U>[hc mdlifx] 
0^ MUi^Dy. i^l of <unipnrat^T iiTiaioniT, i^l^fid of pbpmliiig(>. I^rcifn*]! MUiiMci- 
berg Tt!iicludi-i wtifc UL Bippcnl tn inttLiiuic df>:i^Al praFi7B{>nbi[B ul F»rcIioIciK]', 
«bieh In at {>r««r»t 4 mar* lirui^h <ti p}uU>*aphy It Uk*4 All th^vnHr^y of iw« 
ntMU In faurp Abrafttl *jfb thr pruj^Mt at jnycbiAf^cut invrnliii^linn " No nv<j- 
iuj mau. DO lAwjri, 110 ibrvil^ifiHii. m r^nr^iutt ibaiiUf tntrr into prjcilnl tfe 
«iiboiii li.-ihio4e [Bifvvd -la n-imioauarj In pi^cboloKV - tlv iEii>uiiie i;raer«i.|i;m 
of chibkeOn lb« lick ihi^ ctiaiitiitl. and ihc cooifort-ieckiQK xtuU of makmd have 
I4 mncr \t lirMbrn. ptayiidAAt. jad^. tuid proachirrt vc i^awmnuMeh m Ibo 
nati«T of Itamaft ioul-t»t« But b«rD ai*a tbe f^nlA hm placed awcdl bvlcra 

Virtue " «MC' 

La Pu&,o«o^il]t Dt' SitcLt. Vj A- >// il**^rtjF. Ptria : Fvbi Alc40. 

TbK Auiliuf r4 Ibc pflc««l vtovb, whicfc fcftba fl lotdmcc-r ibr l-ibrniT ol CtMilciu- 
Lry PbtkAiofdiy, !• oft* ol lbo«» dbftplH ol lb* Cnutdvr *'-k Trmcb pe*arwUEm 

nbn. wftLl* killnwnif vi fcn (oocitrpft Ip 1 cvriain pnl. do art bMit^lo U> drwrRv 


niK M OK I ST. 

frrirn ih" hpaif*ri Frmrku^Eipa Ihf-^ think fhf^r l^aci^r ha« (frv* ktiray m hi* philrifvpfibic 
qupst T4 H« llobrrty ipraks; of C«in(« with r«v«ripnoir at hit lim trnldi* nnd h» 
b«i muTrr- ^md he fiiiJi tn tbr vcr> i»iiiriidjcik'[u of die Mutci ilw k^Hd ct' bfs 
own (vin^cplion uf »hc ji«nei>J irtnd <'f philoat-pluc dtvck^pmcnT- 

Thi' lundirnfmii] Iht-ws of ilie pTAeai worii i» thui ih** thtve cuai«mpur»Df" 
ou* phi^crtypljit %j\iaat, liiaui <*t CflClciim, i'oiiiivinii. ntui ETolutJoojiiHj. u« 
mpfi^ly vKf^ntli^ at 4 tingk specit^ At iiTlctV pnrallvt Tnii^iff-«urlnnirif i a^rc\mtm 
TkttJtk <jl hr^lir-Tif Ati'l gcoriitl 1j^-|ii.ill]iThrh Tli<- Finnic Mi-utily vi tht tliuu^hl ipf lliJi» 
ccnliir-f' it hhtivra by the ^Tcr increAkioft umvcrijencr <-f ihd fnnt IcAiliniE idcffm »« 
cthib>icd in thn prpt'diBng diDorLcvot knpwlaliEt', b> Ihr prrpciDdiinDo* c4 raln^v- 
iam. aod 0I a|tn«triri>im. Il r*vi>^J« itaHf. tcpiv-ially in Th# nmUr nonrpptinM 
ffTnn«!4l b) itir iric-tivarvd ifrrt^nii. roionlj^of ibpsHti^llal cfiiracwn dV ptrllMoptaf . . 
lu tHlh»), and lbs cad% ii oufbi 10 pursue, bui Uso of ihc scJemlfic Javi «h]d> 
Xfkvcid jta cvciuiioi) W« ^Dtii>i ftftli^H ihc ■tutlior thruu^h tift discutsion of alt 
ibeiD poinia uii wi- muii therefore miritl oaivclvoi tu ihr iDiut talicai f^Aiuiva of 
fail ATgunvot, 

Mrifirm phiEmnphv m rr-protrn i*v1 hy tlirw* pricfipftl v-hiuili* irrificlarn ithjdi 
(iri^JniEii^l vi'iih Ka:\i, Pii^itivihtii dmhilri] (jy CoEnte. «iitl UMiUjIiontPtm iniriKtucdCl 
\t Sjwucrf Tbrsc thvrv byn(«ni» hacl « cotnoion uic«ttEr, Lb«t ^E uuivHAliHin, Thv 
crilkcal ^hilo»oph> is thr Ugitimal* bdr of tcnwmui idcnlinm. 9.aA ihc ]vwiuc phi- 
loitipby thv iminedidtt rJcvci-nduki of wotuojt nLQlpriatiAm Tho otoluiion pbi 
JoKphjMt iitelf footod LTT vniuiib«m, but it iiinmlly A ccDciliAior ol tbe|wogr(4.1 
ph^IcHapblfA whlcb pmcedfti! it. c:riTkt4m acia Pcalilvism. This omcluijoii ubtdi 
iiP|k;a/> la tu ii^^C- U ^ijppui'tcd l>) Vrii^^ruh vuLiaiElcruii^-tJin (^ >vhii:)j rcFeicJiLc Ur-ic 
bi aol neciruitry. M Jc Tlobcrty licnn lEslioioDy to Ihe iollMence of tbc pbilAvopby 
o( KxDt ufcr tlid dvvclopmenr ot ihn cih'otLitWiiit conception, whicb cou Id bo App]t*d 
10 Hcci^Ty only hy giving -jct apj^rrnt wiiiv"T»al]ly lo iho iniichaflK'ni l4j-pulh«Ki*, 
Thin u-H arri-imp^ithj^ hy Sp*nrpt ri* it h-nl btwn ibUM* fowKn*- rxlt'nl by CttmlH 
The ^upiilariiy uf ihc pvoluiion pbiLq>Hipby in ripluiJitfil by tbv uuUiar aa due eo ilk 
adnij^lurc of aAno4ilct»in wilb a iQi'-aifni whith capiiTalM ihc moHP* " by tbc m- 
dflciouc a»ortii/o that il ha& rnitcdall vukloand fMolvttI nil ouipittiis/' Kaal, ConatQ, 
and SpcDcer bai«^ual1y uii«<t tbis chi^rDclerittic iriit erf ib« ifomut al our con* 
lury^ They each ireni, n^rE M de Kobcrty of (Hp mosi rtflnicpnipnl problem* at 
tnElL4pb>«K9s Jjitl ^\Mt:r IhvTV iJifEfully u»Llr>r irir cc^ri u1 ibc ^itppiiniraul luc^lbod. 
Let Uk ndJ ibHl Ibcy ate mt^h didcrf □( <?x|itaiaiaEi« uf lU«[ jicdiui^ wbicb aiAtlui the 
prvKrcn o( Ibe miairil fiv<k1ii£icin of niAolimd. 

Til* DHfond pdfl of M. d(4 I^Dharlv'* wcirk ilf^lt in tlia Ant pl^cn wilb liv> cnn- 
c**pMrtr4 ni pTiilotdphy. it* oaroTv anrl ii^ rdd, fnni^tl by |h» ihrAi* grv^r moil^rn 
sj^tpini. Tbo ccnruion u^n^nlly mnrlc bri«ivn philrvophy and Mtetitf is first 
poin[«<i oui, ibc o«'l| of wbich aib^a from (br fact ihai allD^anC? Ja not rnnda for 
ihc pfi>>!rt4» ol scirniific Lnowitflga Thn juibor i» »irriD|flv iiwlincd 10 Iawv iho 
idcvvf Ibc ^onarol c()uiv^«AC« of iciuicc ud pbiToiophy, in tbv bea«C 


w lbAl«v«rjpfl 



■dtvclit uJ*Alii!L«d wiiTi ||ft«4ii»e- but «ilb««0«et IiiaIvM7« modified vitli tuoiuw, 
nvTibv ih« confMT flor ihr g»-TWTMl conwpHfiTi f4 philtmophy «n fvmntti rnichiiiige- 
jitilr. Pliilchi]!h)' bucoiMn ihoh Ehc {:u-i?Ti.1 iiml lun uf the? Kicrricca in view oi IbeJr 
Cnetnl aoaX nlmlmrl liiirtlilv — U-r ^hicli i« mv^inl fimpl) (lie tdBl Icrni cj( id (nrv^lo- 
tion — • tiOBCf f-rioinif il»i i*orlc|, 

ta4 lh^ rToIiifirrfi^<l. (Siflfr trorn Thai finrcn^l^mt hy \t '\v H^jhetiy * ¥if s,A'inrtK 
thAi thsj all eowitim t^enaln crron M mcitoi dwivwl chitflj frctn nndflm aieia- 
pl))>iX9s 'The piuliXj |>? i> fuurid iu JfdOl. Hh«> ^vk ibiU phJuophy U 4 ft>>lcni <il 
aaiivnAl jicquifciiicQis foTiQf^dci 4lfatr4CE m>tii>Q>. AfuJ ihM il liu fur k* ajm tbc 
pwnMaa Of om MndBntitt-haji ttf>ta heD«U>te lii iiuptMn>FibJc knuo^ludK^ The lLii(«r 
i* tk9 tt ^r%*n\ ihif |v>rniiii'Ut and \vr]fiAhli> hf|V»rbr^i4^ for iqr-U<iI llirin Ii vi lb* 
tnsmmilFQtAl ftUmi'Di whirh atl mrulRTn phEk-ia^phy h.n di^vn! frnm iht* pHl. an'! 
vbicb furros ib^ bund tif dlLiitMit bi?(wHifii Inhh arn^ kciowWitu Of ilif tbnw putitu- 
hta vf Spviucr, Iho uiu^frnl hrpOiib<^> in in lUc i^i. an VnknowabTc Faroj 
The oiber iwo befonc u> ptychoTofty. ptovjoj^ ibii ih* Kn^kh vvoSutionitt, likv 
CoMl*, fonfouniii wnc* w'nh ph^lm&phy, whii^b lo him. m ta liii predectwiu^, ts 

PhilcHiphv is * TDi^vbud wbicli cundticiii lot copcepikiiv of ibe ^ti^rU- Bu[. uyn 
U (le Rf^bcrl^, iTiuilfTii jihifurvif^liLc* Cdil in tbiil ilitry d'«l uiLb bypfjibcnu. Now. 
jdlbMigb hypclhoirt JA the ioliI uf ibfl tpnciAl -^'icjuxtk tot phifoiopby il muftl aIwaja 
bvB parvl* m^nlvl ncnattdn- To nmdt>r valid tlw unH*r>at hypolfapiLtt con*tracL*4 
hf pAiJntfifibi-rH. it w^tikl !■• nrrncury tbnl tbi* wim M ih* finni lniTh< iif vim^cp 
ihcKibl indodf ibn *um <i| ilip pfittiKmnrrirt uliiirh cj^iiTmii'- tiATiim 

tVflCannol Toltav thAdUthtjr tbxouEti ))JB ifiErAbiistrilicwruBcd SfisicVT'itttoai 
*fMb«iic tormvln. tovhicb bodcvotm ih* iWflEdi tjbaptti of (bo ptistDt vork acd 
wbicb hr ch^ir^ffcTiHs >< 1h«p«r(eci iyp« ct [tie uni^'rrui] imf«i1iablc bypolhctii 
Not <*n wo do inoH Chan ^ivt a putiriK Ktnncr Ai bti vie«i of itie ptyi;bolu|2y of 
ibe tbriv modem lyiicnuoF phllotopby. He Afflmifi ttuii line mctaphymlcfil inti»- 
furuuiliLBi l>T <r^kuin vl inTChnltvv iul<r idiikM^'^'v l^ti Imrdty aiivtbtLTK 1u ifae 
■pccinl *ciciicc Tq ptnHii'uin i> dm; Ilic ccrDccption of p*>'chDlo|[y nn fnrminK an 
iDla^r^t fvrlcd biulufy, whicU hAklod 1o Ihe import* or ^yfbD-pbyiiiulckp?riinwit« 
^ ff tb> pm«*ni lUy Hut ilio lijnlirigkjil unalywi M <htt mtliinriiiRl ihoulii In* fiillnuacl 
by vxiil aiiHlvhSii. ibi; Hiidy t4 nif^EJtl Tiijii]jf'*fLintiiint m ^rxHr^y. m C[Hinr*crir)n wtTh 
vfiicb) vtkould Ik ^P^tirl n •tprHdl cenuqlu k^ciicc to ciobric* the h^hcr ptychol- 
«|[y. aa poinlfd out by Ihr aiiihnr m hifr wvjfk " La Socioloitiv *' Sdirbce. arl- ocd 
indtifcry »ro a f^rojmion inio ih? niuniAl vk^orld td ttir> ibin^m£, ffvlin^. ociiog 
■abi«t< aiif? ptycholc^j oii^bi alto to be Ibua projrcinl t>y fuUiHi wnb biul<^y, or 
vith lidaicwr And BTVCarofy, whlcb ll It nec«usry fo arudy ir vw Acvuld diic^wer pay< 
<hic Uwa 

Is tfcc cluipler ua lfa« Supremacy oF Sticutr, ihc ituibc^ alErnu ibat Ibr pht< 
lovQpby (fbieb will manlt fnun Iba prcgruHL cif pnythcilony and aoeioluf^ mil pnaticil 


IHt UoMyr 

u «tri1imiif coDtntt uiib nil k[iij«*ti niotH|jhfBic4l futmhu Um \i will ailwiy^ TvinMin 4 
MDrli-cunc^lioa. uid l( vill hnvc trj mbmil Ui (hf lawnf (■->Trifljilio« wb>di rtiilAitit 

before ibr i^^v tjfuritit of all rflligiodi^ nikrk* i^r fiuJ ivrtninaiioii oJ ancttm aO' 
Ihropomi^hKin. milLiL'iiL^^il hy p1 pr^KmnivF Wnawlrdfrp. Mid thiYtdppe4na«[hehiuU 
IniCEtaMi:^ ol jII xhcaitss^^. U alio rfpiatQi^ bounvt- ttic; cimUlian of JncostbaACo 
to w!iicb the o^rjuqiic >UiIv wU! hai;c?cd when the cyctrttf ab>li Kt iic icutCk u oom- 
|Jcto^ Juvl i> roilly KicntJI^c pavcbaliiKy Itnwicdr Then hypotUor* u% 1u OUiTafl 
ciiUH \4ill iwviw ihvJT Lvycholcgiul loJulioTi, -ind il mill mm^Eii tar phil4V>ph5 
only fo cnnfrnfil and cn-onliaau* Thfon with tint gpn#fnl tv«dIm of cthv Ki«nov. 
HavLti}; jrrivfti n% rhipi point M il^ Riilxiriy hirmnlaLM thp c^nrliikirtn rhjil Philrvt- 
optiv ji^J ScioEitvT ill? ivruit which «u»Qo[« iwi) jiiJDtJple ip'iUi is\ \\\r v«tt fmiii 
d«»itaAlcdbj<heBLr*£lDiermii«AVrf^, Thcmrwi (iiftrl(«d trait cf Fuiuro pbilowfkhy 
tvill b« Ihc diBt^Eictior of f brv? i^c «p«ir«» eta Iheir conFuftiofi A^as ibt- mo^t je™w1 
«haracT«r oMh« pMlotofiliy ot the pAti Fhtlotoj^liy in^ tnoncv will ihi-n Lfc p«t- 
fecity iiiBHtlled. hai Ibr Mftntity will Iw gnnern] Burl nnt HpfcCDc Thut pbilouipbf 
will aoL be ;xj«itivT in rhr Kviifir nf Ci>i»br. il ^vilt nrvur ft>H//rf>^ blEntlfy fmlf 
viib Kiiiacc, 

Tn hi*i \tat chnptpfH <Diiilfrd "Tbt [niplldddiJ Sprim" M da R«b«ny oooiinvm 
bw CTi<wi«n] (if th^ VM"W* of Cnmtp » »*> th* law of ih* pvoluttnn of pMlo«c>pfaf He 
thi^w^ thni. «n lar \tf>ry rb'.t ln^inji 1^r inr>4l Kt^nrrnl Inu of in|Hljr<ti]al #v<ilrric«, 

and iherctore the suprtme law of all locial pbenomtfoa. philomphv \% onlr cflc of 
Ihrrc imE^moJUlc icinu, ih? ulticru Ui^ecik Ait xnit imlualrt, Iry ibc 4fil ul wlilcZi 
the ctnluriiiii :if nL:ic»<i(ic idcu «cii on llic tnumble of lb? vocijlI r%'L>!utlon The 
intdllactu^l mulnlZon \m thu dirvcl comvoqaafiDC i>f thu tnciiji Uf L but tli<j wwJdU dva- 
hiijon i« titbJK^t ifi thi* law* M inl'llMlcial nvoKiIictn, wliicb •nibmc^ frntr g»dt 
c1«nt^ of ainr«prinnf. aaiavrinji to ;hp fotir wr»n rpwuEni^'fl lemuivi vf facu bnnwn 
Ob «tiiTn«. pbircDoptiy, an. and iudusiTT Wr hava hctffl ibe nm* vrticb of bpK^at 
evQlLiEi;)ii9A9ibLapMi|ipo9edbi Cuini^. w^th ibc imporiant cbanftv, bowvr«r. marWJ 
liy ib^ iayDnian ul ibc 6rvi twt> mcmbari of iheatricn In ihu n^lalion, th4 autbor 
ftlftrm* ibat CcMim"* Uw of fhe ihrow i!aSF« it falu to tara« crtncrint \\*9 FvahiiUm 
frf iih* »fi*r»M*^ and in oE «ry wt^ndnry (mpofTflnw m T*(Bfd» »h' rvoluiion of 
pbi]av»|iby alMl thfi iwn tucctirKlinif fftclLiLhinh 

Tb^nuthur conc^udm hU wfjrk hi Lb a ^riikihiii minrtdod b? «liowlh;it tlic ivHo- 
cipdl dcfvi^to oEComic^i 9i}stpn) iri^t frt>Eii Ih^r Ciinfa^icn pr«riAUHlv iaii>ii«d oa ia 
idalion to the fini l«mi«ot lh« rotfilTMluaT voritv, «ci«nc4 and phiWiphy. T1i»| 
confiuicm 1* tih<b^tffrt in rh** tuirmi^nl rhaT amcitiR ih<* ari^x'nT^ philr^nphy wi* (^i^ 
\id(iperl betor*; acicnce Aad *rr M rlr Kotj^rlj, miiroa«r, Jtclara Conut^ ihmry 
tlikil ibt iUflwkUUI dcvdiipmctitii Ibc pi^iLE ut dopitr^urc i>f nmdein d*Ui«ititti, 
UwJk ii a ciiruplcic )iut>v?E>icu uf the lijfEiciil and hblo«icaI, loalcod af dw Oacfill 
or [h« propuT Iwuig. u Ihal Ihtiury wi>Dld rtquiro. thv CauaJauoo ol tbo good aad 
thit. ia tlH liirti, fba gimn of tha iroi^ the im* ia rbrr foutidiliaii {>l the liAiiiilffi], 

&00K HKTltVrn. 


Bsd <d Ihfi fooil Mill llic awful But the tnio b nia« <cni])lcjb (bna ftuppcueal br 
Camiv, ti poftMuar* nt Ifflrt tvo Jiipcftv Kirnc-' »TirJ phLl'»«;>hy wJildi fiin> be 
r^lfr4HlinKi]ithAl, allhwigb th* ljr\» A^iicli tpparal» ihtm T* ymi uiidDi«rniu^iiI, 

Wv h4v« lEivWL ;( «iimmAry of M dd Kciberiy i jEtncraJ nfgumnti. Lni(ii«(i4 of r»- 
^fsmniC tij punicular pfopoiUtoiia wLikh m**' be upco Tu crilitUcn, Ih-cauv hi* wk 
mpl^an to UB L vrr> vAluablr? toDlribiiiiLXi hivjifttk ihe ctmuLitHEn gf lim inip»:t4<,E]1 
ffbHikniMtoibopMittcii of fbUoaophy b rdtitratOKiaaoe. Wohall look wUb 
miiirn Lnipml tot Ih^ A[^itBrin» of ihp ftoibor ■ Iwo turthn- *effte* whfch h- an- 
aoviLCa u luppleateatftfr ta thn pr««Rf fiRfr Thiit nn Afinvntfiqm i% ulr^.niy in 
ibe PIC44 Tlw lubjoci nf tlm iiEher v^i^rk in ^r<>niHm. which M. il« f<ob*>ny cbarar- 
tPB/iiaiu "Ibc Lbimciicil punuji whi^h hM dn«rc<I. ihrnUKh Ihi? «se«« to Tu Ell? 
<f><iill«d unrty ul lFiint{i. Ihv r^tm or iniiinilcigical idvutily of pbtOomrD*.'* Tbl* 
hypoihHjOil mrniriin of ^lilnwtyphy it dralt with JncidtDtftNy in (ht prvMot work, 
TIm " ^opruli vitf^l jiifiitily ot ph4'nniii'-nA ~ i< i fltrtr^r^-nE Via<1 <~if rrn^attiti from Umi 

Uact UiWBi::vir<^(iHL*riKi>V!Ki(» lnAiL|,-u»l Dji4r»rinlinji jiur Erbcpjng dor 
Doclorwtlrdn vi^rgoiiiyf (Iht hcihf«i phtlmu^thitfhm f-^acullil dpr Albori- 
LuilwLtrfr-t/iiivivrtlilit lU Pr»titmr£ i H By tittmiHti HmfA^ iM^^orrt eA 
IkljiuiibiMrtlA. FruilturB lo B^duu Hclf. C(v{ei|i, iMgi 
Dff. HdniLi.n[1 Biirk^ Dnhlifirm ininvlurf^ l)iin«*}f m fhn wnrbl «if «ciea» utib 
■III r»tv[]j-iu :iiiri)i>KLri|ili ou mniiciD'H-iitfliimit, IiukiI Jpon carHul nbATrattntii 
vbacli wvrc Enitilc la PrciTt-vwr MuaTifrbirrK'B LiUu-tLoiy aL ricitiurit 
■ B. Th# vihjtcl of th* ditwriAiinn is of pvil ^m^orunc^ aod thprc ia mucb coo 
fitKKo pr*^^il«ni at pr.«*pnt «"^n nmirtj^ iIij? m«i promtornr nmh-wifu'*. J( iip- 
pr^rv In u^ thai iir OpLaturrF h^s .idopfnl ibr rlflhi i Irw antl br c^ruialy <1ir(imr)h 
ilwilbcnMldbiliiT- rruIcHurWuatJtr^JccU tit LibE'b>Mluki2iCAlPt>'Chi>trvy ill th^r 
thiv»rT<rf thr w>call«d " a:iu4clr-9<raK " nfld AiliDiCi tliAi ihor* » lujmc iriitli in tbr 
lfarHe«pluVA*&oJud(T\-iH4 Jit on t^Hplnnntioii uf our cooiciauvnen of iXTrEarincid mo- 
tii>Di^ vhifb ibUB wanid bta fymipki of n) pr«iujr«-««flaiHtkiru, (i)*>^«ci'iccniuc]»- 
vnuiiofrt lad <i» innrrvatlfm-wnuULfn'' Thh ih*nl tind ol ip-fi«H^rfii r* rf a 
tifiy hypuibfci(4] QiLurc Tbe iccin ^jfniArs ihM. vIikti niup«k'lv«aiv* inn^rx'Hi'd w« 
We wppcacd lo hftvc t dSreCI Kamlion »f the jonrrrttioa ia iIit MVitf il oorve-vr* 
giUia: uid tIl^ vi«w ii cbjtcud in Iry M Intlirriwrf . vrhi? ^niit thni " .1 tir^in imta- 
nna whirh m nor upcunifrtDrvn] firh Tvotrtjip^til pIIc^Ts or ^m I ml atu*r'efl«7it At 
fdnutr ini»E^^i1ntif-tivity h&4iT4phymii]f>giral rontn^amf m biiii r*c^LipKiu>«ontcfoui 
»Uin ~ Tbu» accunlibi,- tij Dr FMatiMtr. irUhioaiitic mntlnn of ihp Hnnt-nrErms, 
\ r. l^aKuUr adiv^ly. iherv it do coaictoufiQcH , all tuuiLiimnur^^i Jn iti?> luOliU 
fron ;hc pcnpliM?. Ur |JcUb&n« coe* «veE ih« wbole AoM nf ihi? bicroturc of iht 
■aht»ci ifld ti^ghi all pros utd con* H« Ccdt fh^l all nta« arv m(dJli)|iti1e wilb' 
dui ttit tuppontlon ut cmtral inaTvitiiun-aBituitianh. H« vdmflit ttui Ibc rtrm 
milAde-vcnse U v/iKiif. hcl he bdictn Ibil Ibc trrm hAriity bvrn lEanftlly ifttni- 

19^ ^^^^^^^^W MON 

ducfd inkv liv rcUiiaoil Hr d«1i-iioi ii h that cunploj of MauMtioaA *f hicb r«nbt 
from niu«tiW acliviiy 

TTi^ iDfi^oil fi^Tl c)f Thir tlinPTtHl ion f onialnii Eh'^rppcirisof ih^fBfvnmtfOfeit 
(Ifscribini! ttiii iiuitrmn^ni* n*rrf an*! ihp ni'-rhml* ptnplcirn4 

W« Hrv iufoiiTiNl ihal Dr. Drtalifirrp b«i bwu appolncc<]l loih«c]i«ir ol |i«y- 

luD Ncvcif Kflpportc pnr /' J j* S^MrmtU/t- L«idr ; E, J, JJrilE. t^t. 
I)r. Ondhi's Ti«7ibf^w thiH iimRiarisM xht ttiettnfie, cr fnihn- 'pbiJm^kphic' 
v\tv>% vl Uii ufjck- 'There li ua Gif). liut Ihcrc H llie wortil In Ihiit wrirJd 
[hci? U(c DtElh?! toiiU, nor niiad, aor lilcr; there jk udI^ m>iilnt ahJ Jln ckntco- 
uay forc««. Ni^^erihrJuA Ihav ftrcvk <1c net uiHt ; tbstv in enXy uiovcntval. tb« 
Aolv tuncUap oF niftlEDT, which m inurL Ja itH Iiitti, mutUr ha* no fr-iliiy ; tl it 
finmpoiwl cif gruinfrrir;!] p<tmu whirh Hrc hU)irH]i|]|>lr nf ir^'ivnnnTit Bcir n fhmvt 
j» jiDJilter tmi* nor »|kKPt ibtra a no oicrvanMiiii " No^1]iaKnlaa Jii Ibus nAi;b«d, 
bul Ik-mikI t^ iHiiMtifi. ihc 'w'l/ii <^ lb« IfiinInCT*, ^*liJcb oipEnia* tU uiir tononitinns 
o£ nnium ificJLidui£ ihflt of mirown brinj[ Thin tciuntil^c 'Mt/iT i««ot ihr ipinlilnncp 
^f a r«4l ivrrCdH biti that of a vnr[d ^'liich d<i«^ m-it i^iiir, m thai il1upci<in nnri notti- 
ir^nfirt ATn ihp •Kuar lhm<. t'rom whichi ii f(»Hti4-( th:»< Jhpr> in po illii«nn Jtnd 0(> 
miiaiJ w hv dRxtvnJl Mr Vac |fcnim«! ton's opus:uJi- Juaiti iij|L«tii4Jijif /Vv ri'rtfiiK 
«v;d<ntlr tDlvodod (o nhibil a cert&in ph»o oi vpoeulMion u » futuiti* aitthtmr* 

DlKmo SoctALK TDnA7rvi> m Uoua ITcIl' A^- finr^ Mttx^mt. GcrKa a 

There b do dcuiyjnjt tlie tctlvlly dI the atjilesmeci ami ^olan of modem linly 
in theciiuMoF railiculn Ai>cial rod^nHrrta^tM^u himI, ah i-flinflfkod bj' a rropnl Tri^'c-llvr 
in Jtftly, in the "buildiag up j^Ain a Commonwifklth. fiJiiiidud on hl^h princtploa 
r»f fi'lthl And itri»jLbTy ' ' DifiHr AorfstA,'^ In llnlinn JiiritpTTidrncr; of ogUTf*; r^ 
Istoi Ui iciiinJvrpEil Jind (HjuJl'tw latv, m lU im^ itl'n-MdifEim-'il iii^d mLiji1'iKiiitii:al 
ntpoctit Buc, in ^ ctiim't? ^iih (hi! mtirii«;Tpj<l mid pi^liliuit innJitinQA uf It^^r. 'b» 
"Ptrillo Soeinl^" •v«n in modarn lioitv, (TKbihiUn tundiMicy Ie> cryiitp Hi w into a 
Irind of «^ncr*4t*^ knuaI rp1t|£ian Tlit> Avvneain Sij^inr Ti^iro Pi>M*grini, Ihff 
leaning author 4!if ihi> (xyik. arppr^n lo frri dfvply mnrprntni; (hr prv^wni ro];4]il)OD 
ot tbU brooch or |ur!iprtid?ncr in Itil) . 

In hia picfacc the AUlhi^r «?>. Ihai durjnj: the pTc»nl tpnlVin k(*l icinDOc 
hfti noi Diidc AiuyTqry ^ubttooual prfi^rcdUr thai ihc n^oJuiion of ihf Xixi cvnEury. 
whila Ducrticg tha tamoua ngtira of DiBA. torpor Ibi? rifiEhU cf jiindic p^rv^na, cl 
cr>rpnriiiion4, and hw b«inip an inOivldHnhttit'—aT. indlvidualiwr. On ThcMrpnitlh 
<]f bin juridic prrvinidily ntun Ehi-rcupon cdkiIM^ ^" ^ ktrijff>:[c for hl» ri^'lhison ib? 
VAkL aocial fckl, but he IduiilI hiitiislf alone— a:a individual and nulliinf; mon. A» 

VtOOK RnriKvs. 


*ucb. hf co«iU Dot form a jm-idici mcuI QiKnBMrn. bm to mcnlT •cnuhl to 4A»^t 
huntclf ic Afi afliial, ^iklcrniil jurirlic cnEanimiioTi. c!ifl«riiijt IhH rIik^I^ Tr^km Hd- 
tlme drtpaium On Lhm bavii iho Shi? ti»M tonimiir* tri irvatv tTtitnicipl and 
pMlrlve lawi. mon or )«n idij)i5 thptn lothe Fart* of naltt^, arhitnrtly ^rmtinft 
Jorlilit pcr^orjs aqJ ad ml ai strati h'e bodW, lucfj aa ttjc wiMtiivm/iifJ, ,f*Nii^a'it. fa- 
^tifti uf ilxc mud^nx lluhan kiat;di>ni — <^ll uf ithitti arc onh hybrid a<linisi»iiAtive 
eMii. ik^t d9 Dot 1q ibel&ul utiflfy ■ Dumber ol twiol pubUc needs; lui'l thtrtfx^rap 
there U DO harci'^av b«l4T4ii indivLdanl mvn Bn<1 the ^uridic pcrvont, rntw^on \t\€ 
pLtl^if AdminNlfAliiv cntu nnd tht !im[p, Bml riipftr U IiIqimIj wm xmnnp the SUfw 

TliP uUiniAEG oianc of all tliii connict i* lo bfl ucribod t^ ihc tudivitliwlinu <■! 
[li< Uw, ID net nic4£ni>iinH oiK''<'i'^. {'■^'^^^ nlilioa*; uid Ibi*, morccfrvr, nixaH^ 
iaixikj call«el forth tbft mction of an ^i^itufrufi-il tocidliiRi, FHw>fi hu h fctiL'b 

wirier ujfnifirdnrM ihir inritiirliml . pinrvin c-jiinnr Iv iviliKvl. hiillvJcTuflL hiM--'kirm>. 
jutlilJ<at]T, ppjacn tmpl:«an mdidniEi.- of trhiiicrim v\xh rjtbqn. tK^iic. ruiJdit (n-r- 
•OlMMUchi li>rfi]ov ■ criHl4r i«K«l -iijlbciniy ihnn thciy.-ictuallyiriJDv JU o^t modcrr 
|i|Tbprudtnce- Th? ^•i/r^a j^t.^W/. rtr tbc oricinnl fuKinl mouM u doclopcd by 
cli^T*c4 iDto n mal. pmcnf bills' real, on&initn. «fliiowod with a ph>vkdl bod^, that 
l^vdi tht mMrndl iri^jnt of nuirtllon in ordi^r Id II«f>, io fimnvf. anil devtbp li- 
wif Thr^c. lifjKFTvcr. do not cttat , bocauic n^luco f urniUi?* jiily fcuTlAckDf nicaii» 
tu i^rracfvr initfl iv A puidr hv^c, •intmdl iuiidiEjiM) Dut, al loaM, ihcic ruM 
the aourcrB. or f^unidiu hciKl^^ frutn uhidi it ix ptutiblc tu cltrivc the Jc^nroil RUiri- 
tvtt cnslariiiU; <a^ ocadhiurj o\ moMinff or traaftliH-mmH tlLC*>v li?url:iin-br;(di^ acd 
of awtiiFTiini: th^r rt^r-KciinK. prjirtiml iJrrrtinn In thfliTiflivirliuibwrl nr {ndividiiat 
«7tli*ni \hrtt* r»kpi]tfnrit :« KiruKjfl'' mnniii^ ttir* mdividnnl^ fnT ihf jKinf^G^inn n\ LhAi 
nourish mrril, Ln vhith cnv. bouvvri. thf wMifcrq Ehcnu^i^'ca arc appioprJa:«L 
ruLhet ih&D ihc Diitnu\« coAirriAli thoy MDiabi Such j> the fltfbiive CAiun of 
the icctnl mcttti% oi nutntioD. prrtent nnd foturc. ibroufih i^hicb t large nimbcf of 
tndivtduEi]* wiiil t>? at tJit^ ni«rc^ ol a tev. wbil* tht Dotorioui " ngfitt ol maD, " n.- 
mala (kivktIru. 

Ihc phj>u:ir<i:Liri(imiiJil [aw» cd ihv [umi[iiin-h<?Mii> i-jI >i[ciil niiUTialttricnl. f^puntuia- 
obiIt ftir&i*fa iba pf[ijitfLb1r <li*Tnbatinn oE thf DutriCiitd raAbrHoiii l^tocb Drgmaie 
fntflibHT wi rhni ihrr* 14 no mrrnn^xilivng of thcicn r.iturv) EnunTAin'hvadfl, bul a 
fiomal TiutriTinn nf ,-i1} ihr <^raafJv i^cfwdinc li> their cwH* nrd Thrir;)rrunl mpnc- 
Uj ■* tundicalLy dlspUied, 

Tln-'w fi3iiD[4iu-hc*Jv braMra buDj; limited, are »ui(fi«l chiouKh space bc- 
cAU*e 1I t> jmiKinible lu uailc ^t <(rGcectfaiv ihctn on aiif particular point «l Lbe 
globo- H«rnea Ihift /AiiVM itruir or wdil mold 14 dHtrtbutM ihrouab fpuce nC' 
«mdic| to impmtive lawt. ibii rnuli tivim thr fficnhlDrd rafOjcltir* fif the rcifwr?' 
thv jDiidic. ibril i*. *i<cml per«UD». t^iib the t^pMcitJo ul ll)c feipn:ti%« touidth uf 
oocial Douriihmcut^-of diQcrcDE munkipal oifAciulloai, ot citiei^ towD,*bip«> and 



viIIb^?i Atl ihitbe arc pn^-emkncatly jurLdtc bttd soctAl |wn«u. oftch od* pp—Mr<ag 
lu f-ipnillar fnnctionv ihnf caiiTioT hf «i#rrttn1 by oihrr pcrb^ini Tfiit pfcneni 
voik LjLvntAink A knijthy but i jla^tilc ininitlijuiJoQ m fi>u^ chapLcj*, dAL^iiHion ihr 

Ara MjTl&ifiod diD printiplot and tt^^^Iopinoot cvl pcaili^ Uw in ita r—pccliwly 
civil-wiciBli Moci:Jl-4coi]oiuit^L, ^utrl ux-iuJ'poIitmi jmpacim, Tbi* work, lltmtigboiit. 
priVRt%» fiumhf^ nf (*4^UAlTy impfiruai und nr^^-l•^ priinu i>fl ^'ivw, Ihrnish whicK 

(ho i«trc4l ZDctidB oE <rrAiijijt unity and hnrmeur. not cnlv viiLin ibc (•iMnl dc- 
panmi^nt of Inw, but nlia iriihis tho vpiitm nl priciiMl l«itih1ifttii>n. j^fAt, 

An Oiftuas or Ldchk'i Ettiica^ FmLOAomT, U^ Mtttttttin .V-«r^ C^tth, U- A- 

Tliii <Jii;dlMt aiudv wfla piciemptJ t*j (be IJnivni»il> of Lcipik va ihe In^uiE' 
Unl Diuprl'jiion for Lh« defir«o 4j1 Doctor of Pbi[«ophy. and (t » v^ll dMorviD|; of 
publir^fron. il \(yr no oih^r r^ion than Lh« t^c&l of tilth 9 oork 'I'brtf i^pe^rr ta 
bavc hHn hlih(?ric Eick campleir ooi^oiinr of Lcwhp « Syitoiiii of Ki-hm which f1av> 
not c««n ibid a |>Uce Ja MociclDtcpidi'* ^' Dl«CTtJtii<m oa Eihicfel Philoiri^kphj." The 
uitbor bA> oo< t»nn abk in Jitoiivcr may tmuc o[ ihc tit-ttihi uii Htbici wbidi 
l-ocho prop44dd i<i write, but bU publubad vxntKii 'nbDilDd m oibicAl oti»*r\atJ«fi 
vid v«v«nL1f ij»k thtir riu trova vftil^Al «m>{d«Tttt[ant. h> tbAt than It do daU- 

Mr Curiih ttfij jiiKtltf EGitiKrkt tlmi il iit irupoiMfii Ilj M«L;rTbitii An Aulhui'i 
^if^w* lieinri: f^rilLcixipj; thca, a truitm which i* aot aliiutyn ncCod oo, ah indoed wu 
lfa« cr4<i» wilb LockeV own crilic*, II* di^ot not, luiAvwr, |)n»1t]n lo erilicJt* liut, 
at thc> itllv od hit work thow^. u^ giv« iin fmilina* nl ljic\ti^\ KlhicNl Philoiaphy Jn 
bift Prrtfvo h« itAttH iliAt hit Author «d[iptnd the dioJcditjNwnof Philuvopby fato 
n;T»i«. Eibia>. AUd Lcvtc^ Th« obJK< of EUik-n, [« (ItiiL:rib«] by Locke, io bU 
nolrd " CHfiy." u tbe MckioK out of ifurne ndt4 and ntcisum of buiEiui attkODSh 
which lo&ri to hot^pjnen, ond the jnean* to practice ibcin. The «Qd of ihU. \% aai 
bari? vp^ultdoD, Eu^d (ti? bncwTrodizc of troili , bur rvfA/. and a coDduCT tuYiaW to 
ti 1ti thr npplkdilHiTi el Jtt prlnclpln Locl^ m&y hi- uid lu hi\'L- ganc fiirihcr than 
any of ba pivdvcruort .iiilUl! inoht t-i hjhhuu^viviitii. Ai txmi Irtl nul trj Mr. Cun>», 
br omiii}1«iEi> llmt tJu? uiiirttiitiLiii:^ of Kuvcfdnicuil. rcIitciLitiH ntid ctlucjil liiii Hre» in vii- 
ADDCC. ntbical unci ihjil dll aro p4rlB of a lyntam whitrh muil ba hniwil ijpv>n» onii be 
in hnrmmiy t^ilh ihr fundbniMilj] f^byiiulogiral .icd piychn|(<f£]cal pnncipln ol 
human ntfTirc 1 hiv fnUou* from ]./H:k?f pritifipTp iIue ih« Indlvidu^kl, aod oiM 
Ibo Pamlly, 1> ibc r»l kocUI imlt, M^n is n mtlftaalH Aocial, rellfElonu, and pnllc- 
icAt bcinx. fliul, ihcicluic, " iti thtMutlividun] it ujiiUtnvtl^ iMlciitiHlly. all ipsiitu- 

It rauht be s^icfidn how^v^r, thiT to l#ockr iho moml dyn»f&ic is human x>ci' 
«ry It Ifaa cnnupt of God^ lip T*garrft ihi> idra "'ojtz, vatnrat. formal, iiKaA4r]p 

vaoK REviev&. 


lUid imuccadcutu! priaLiiilc aI Ibe ruul vt Luauui a^tiue 4jad iiulilu Limifr, nuilcun- 
tlM*&tl^ ArtUtt^ ib&i iht defii4.l ai it iliudto jJI, " n^ il jlIotic x'tv^* ■^ lUjEticni »- 

fADiulilinn of vthict- AU drpiipd*. ho<wBv«r^ on out i'np»piii>ii of Gnl LacIp 
njMinuinrd thit Jtwv "esonrtt Ijr nnrt^tr^Joml unhnui n hw, pot a l-iw l-^p knrrtvn rir 
Bappo««d viihoiii a tuu ci^Dt^ or witbuui n-iLBnl or puniatimoii. " Hi4 ccrkccptlc'ti 
^ OoA, thtrttor^ kUtbal^n UuhRiver. Aad he botfetfd Ihu llieejii»tciK» of God 
COOU bo doinon^tioiciJ nol ^a.\y bj' mIooIo^caJ kirGiimeni, biit oUo by pivtholo^ical 
prool drawn from iho b«ing and niiuR cT rnko Lo*:btf vat to Ehorou^hly ooo- 
vhir<d oE i&B dcpendi!t]rf oT mamUir onTheoiliioncccif Th^h thM. not^jihni finding 
hUftforral ]ilx;r«lit> nf (I^iukIk, lir riclmlcii iiiTitUth Itwtm Ui\etMU<n He wrko . 
" Prgmur* aiilI Ctn^inciUH ini! Oaitix, which nx (br Ivmiln t.4 Hjuety. can 
bjiv*« ao ho14 upon an AlhiuHt " 

tl m^uKI ho u n^inLtkn tL> HiipiviM tbAE» h*c4u«# Locks bplip>«d moralit) lo ho 
foiiQiVd in mil fxmi»ptmn f* l.«:<l, h^ contirl^ffrl vhr mi^r*! Ui« rrf^tahl*- dimply Tf. 
Ike dltfloe will. aDd ibefffDrciab^arfoiiRirr ajud ctiiuEeablc So lir rrom tbis, be 
trc^rtlMl thtf mumt fa« 04 ?veittal and Limnuialili* and ^lIltruFHt th^l ii> (diixhajl 
pnncipii'a cuuid \/e dificovcrcd uid lujij hi^ld of \jy th« hK^^i u( uaiLtrc. A« uy> 
t'floldcrer, <vhoa tpcokinsol Locko aad WcJVh " Lock« aJiio c«TLiAdc«« * »perimf' 
nr>1 nPwlftiiMi 10 li« pfnrihle. tad to havp Actnully Tnfcrti pi^cr in rhriflTiaailj, boi 
hii inniitt an urnn^ly j* WiTlll flfrf*^ And ^vm mnr* l0(r*r-*ll)-. (bal Ihn TWi-lrtTirift 
mght aot lo any vsiy cunimiJicL Uji< n^iutal iwrbtitjn Kiv?<D ii> by God iti out rv4- 
■on." Irickr otpifvJ) dccUr». thai Iht roawn ir nMunl te^rUtiaa. wbi1« ton- 
latinn is nalurol mwn fnlAr^^ Tbo taller he nijorded u nc<«ury bocaiMS. 
atlhtiiijfh rT<>tAn n wthm^v^ for iho iiirEuoui, pen&llies miut t« rcU«d upon for in- 
Au^fifiiiR ihr miilditicLp: nnd in reveUilun ibf^dorihnp of kmmorullty vt^rh fuiiire 
rvwirdi and punikhnjcnu ih ntAdckouHp^ Whcibvr ihii icvditibKi it tnn^or InUc. 
Oa fo*r of lulurc puuihliEitiuil ht^ kiaduuLiled l> luid a mlraiuibx iufluciici! o%cr Ibc 
Vkciouv But rcAdcc woLild aol be luOicicd foe the xittuoti* wiiboiLl an iuclmitlioi) 
auufal or ncqniriKl, U> virtavL It ia ■ qimtion oE dnpotitioD, and thi^ uitl bv v&r< 
iVDm iTf vrrii>"\ nn-nnNug in rh^ rnndiNnn* nrtiliir uvlitrh Jb* tnditiiinni ha< rrlnif< 
Into Iwiug and bn«n 'rclumtrd. in the fhillMl 5Eni« of lliit trrm. RrwKtn ff>nn« 
pwi oi ibcfv madltloni which, w far at ibcy mtc not pUTcly cdilcalvc, uv Orpoud- 
tOT OQ OF rrli-f^Hc lo hEiman DNtnrc; «i. Iikdeeili nttxtt be the auppOMid rev«liilkn) 
of enlarged Dojurnl rtnaon 

1c niAUoEi to lb« cibicml lif«, Locin doclarvd (b4l bapp^iSM* U tha oely Uba 
which reaaoQ tahn iip i^^ir rd Ibn tphprv nE plf^hurruul pjim, and ^«t ilifal tf uo 
lum iJijtMlyiiLt bappinrw, vv nhnJ] mm it. ^Vhal ihrii bu to tv dcrnc is tu Mvh 
oai " ih« rolo* and itJHaiiros cJ bumnn aciions which U^d to ba^pmm " Thi« «> 
^ ofto* of aibk*. ihp r')d of vhkh \t vUtu^. nnd (bu« happjnvfS aod virlvio att 
ODT, Witb Lock« mordJ acibnBaiv only 1b<«e ibai depood "upoD xh* cboic* of ah 
andpniandtnit And fner ig^ni/' Tbc aji?nt bore iniendHl It. ai poinivd oat by Mr. 


-mX VOKE«T. 

LuTU*, th«ir«ri, and n^ir [he will lAxkr^ay* tbot Ihr pro]>Fr *]Opcrioii m connpc- 
tfor A'lih freedom, i* roi ' wheihtr the will br ffw, t»UT wh^hcr th? matt be frw* '" 
Tbr *d\ a OoLcimnktU by Lhc u]iad ^ind Ubrny it " i pu>vi.-f lo >ui. cr a« to act. 
•£pMrdJa4( «> tbc mind diroct*/' Id lii» ^'TbuaKhta ida^E^r niiiK Bduc^iioa'^ Locko 
■lEroiB Ibfti "tbe multoE our jtidgnieni. upon »umiiiali-)a. ii wbiil oltlmattijr <)«' 
tofniacfi lb» roan, wlio cnuJd aoe ba Ire*, If hi» uilE wvrt i^icrmiEioct by aoytblDg 
ba(hJHaiiVTi rlbim KuEttil liy hiN awn |uil}emrnt ' The pridlirmod t^Vkek iuiy% 
tlitHUlVKir ili^i or t*}Mii 0iir| Kjjil , Rffu^ij] ij* ^i\irii jlv ihv i^'tfiiiiir uf (1ir uiH. by 
ilv Bnay t? conniiiuto It i^ootl, Tb«nc4 no ntnir rtihtTy condudc, thm ihrne «ho arp 

Wr havp nol tpoc* t^^ (Mn»i)pr tbp /if ui rnri^^iiiKl by Lockr^ on InKiitiiiional 
HitilcA, beyond r^^frrr^np to hi^ rtcntritic Uujt pfrixTty Hirhl'i .irr uWfMi oni>- hy la- 
bor, aud Qol Uj oi;tu;:i,itUffl, ad^ thai Ubor is [he wui\t oi 4JI valuci. Tb* UtleT 
dociriact.iiiool aow be ACUf^tol u huwJ. vhAtwor ainy Ut uiid iu 10 the futmr', 
bill l^ocWe duvrvrdly \ia\^ n li^b place u poJiUcnt eoanQifiini KoHmft Jnileod 
to hSiW bcea a V>nd ol uotvcrKiI ^rniuA Mr Curm FrFffni 10 ihc rr^ai'W irAde cf 
him ' ' Ihfll TUT phllotophrr flinci? AritiuiTe biis mndf and rpcoidrd if* tnony valuable 
iitvtfrTAiiQDii. or fivrn ikj ][<cnc a «LimuIu» ici bunijtn Lhougbt ' Any fii^ li^hi thai 
cmi W lliruvn tin ihc i»p]iu[>nt colntdiDDd hy vj |)i'i)Ii:iiiiiJ a diirtkcr, upccitdly 4jn 
tbu im^rlMil qun^iifXl nt «lbio, m aF vaIuii nnd henca 4< nrk"mu iba proient 
vorltakOc aco'ptabli' atUition topbiloupbic litanluro- U, 

> U — OwinK To lark a( ^pa^c, rrvicwi rif > mimtipr of cirw wnf t» haw hveo 
eroMftod ogi ot ihv prnpnl cumber of f^f AfnNiil; amaiiK which %ht i6\\aai\]%x wUt 
appear lu No- j /-*»* Lutwukiiitfts u^/ C*«urf//'(^/ifPi* 4tf rff /^iiiftfi/A*t ifit Kami. 
Ijy Dr, EJmufld Kumi^; S/Jn^-ta'/ E'kiv»tnfniti'f w iAitv Unif^ttvic iw *n*«Cfr» 
iwn /^'aitrr^'ittf/ti^hj/i tinJ Phth'h'fAir. by Dr, Miirtin Bartndl anil Dr, Jttliu* 
FrindlKsflar ; i.titff^tim ttrr ^yii^It*^sihfn J^iy^ho^tgif^ by Dr Tli, ZifthtD : I/amJ- 
intifjf j/ PiyiMi^!^^^ by J M R;i-lf!ltin . v/n F-^tay tm f^rartuun^, hy i«^win1 1\ 
I>uu;a: Dat Daitttt a/i /.mt. Uid unti Lifiii. by HUbbe-Schltrldcn ; Du H/iifutvmfdfr 
/k^titfin^a IWrHf/itwi^it /Or /u EtHA, by WlLbvliTi I'jaek^itaKh &tid EivMfamg 


Scjitcmbcri 1S91- 

|*iHt-OTorflv nr iHE CuMisti-x TucociL^cT 11* rim Fwm CknrvKT Tt* Ct-c 
fntr \Wf ai St .Aufuiflni? in hm Gfqaui By t^mif h: Tra^txt^ 

HiatiooF LtFQ Ji.vci Of iMi F«|[c Imtu. [condukloni, B7 1' >V. IVa/W. 

OniifOn^ Concui «!->£> L. S, ToijitoI. By /^ Siratkof. 

Paaoif TWK I'HiUPionfY ok Hj**70MY B* yfatft'mrr Sir.'*nv/j^ 

SnicuL (^ART I ill I'uikdtniefilAl Moixiciiia in Lhc l^volutjon ol fbcNaw Philca- 
ophy, McUpbv«ii-^ Plii li al.i|jLiv . DE3<.ir[tftt *nd OurnioniHslt. by A' 

AMVXPn- OKnuit Htilillutioni >] Tr«niACtiOD« of llw Moscow J'Mycho' 

irMU fram ■ Irmxlhy oompMitoo dlsHrullon ptokeiih) by ihe lUithor tEi the M«' 
rn» tHyditi]*iiiir-al Society. The wrltor pnlnu o»J th« fAlbcy of (h* " fnmlaPiiBPlJil 
Uv ' of thv Cotntut phildWpby— tba nuppottd (ntii^Al rxvplmi^n <if Hvman Ihau^tii 
thn-AKU thr^ 9UC0n«i««ph4*CK^tlH: throlOAKoI, incla|)b>9iciii» <ti]il fjoitivc ^Uk' 
ok ^Irtrldpmcnt The ^rJipr conir-ndi. thaf th*" sn-cAlIed " pLnliiii> M»^r, uh *^fin- 
ctbwi by Coutte. » taUl<f oHlhcr jufeitlva, nur «*«^ KicaEifh:, if wr ntarnin^ Uif 
IDalu FoUDiUlionB \y ill] th<^ vutU knoi^H, CvtiMv wna raol satHliol wllb \\xe rcsUlis 
of fh« partii^ular icir^nf-^. t>uf wiihist rr> «(lrci ihrlr <nnipncbei»lvn ucit^ Thn 
vftic by» fctrrt* on ^h* tad ibai Comi* fdil«d lu porc«i** It* iawnrtl coriruEliGlkfi 
tJ h» mhalfl fjntDni. Hi" [ullo*flf>i, in mJcr loirtetvouic tbi« ilinkaltTH wbic com- 
pr4ln1 10 arltrjnr' ^Itll aanihtr iiipp Ihiqiiir ihr inii-btng rif ('irmin lhf>y ir^cig- 
nuAt ID EBArb«inatic« Ifa* wbol* of n sfioncv Ihat derived jU principle* Iron up^ 
Eicu». Tliiih # kbortp hy LtXtii itx bi^ crJtlci*ni ^f llie trttcin <if Coiutv | Jut 
f.Vfc.v /f /*! Phiii'ii^/JtM pifiififi. pugp jdTf, vhvri* l.itriv t^frr* liirmtclf m ih* 
niiAK-iis of SiUATl Mill in hii I-V|{ir TI34 avitaor. in urdcr lo rv ocli a deiiDtlc tad 

«^wjM«kj VW>WjiMrA*^Ar«'^'^- la it* ItuikfAfi I«fiu«*- 



i-Cit^MCigAlit tbc nulufD Had Jitldiiod i^hiliiy cil \hv mulhvnsvtaul piiucipt* ^_ 

T^ /'^lA^i^/^r o/ /4rf Ckrj^mn C/trj^ in t^ fifth Ctmlitry. [a B.njj)r*j&ic Ihid^l 
vhnli? IJiflrary adivHy of Si Atii-iivlfii*, *r nj>*rnt. in ih<**vj>lniion of hlidorvnnr. 
ihry^ 4ra|7n^ tbar ctowL^' cormpond lo hit own pcr«iDaJ Eiruiul*^ ^.fpiQiii iho thT«a 
hcrutrs oi hU lime^ -M^alcbd^Ei^ D<-djijkiii, axmX rcta^imibmr Yd all of Ibc^ie 
iZifrr tlft^r* jur rJiMNU'IrriVNi Uy imi' mm\ Itir *Hmi" j^rMUTjiln — Jhi* id**;!! riHify "f Ihn 
CliiUliin cliiirrb^ ThJi i^ml .upir.ilinn nrLtialw iif.nll ai A kind nf crinRlrncih'V-^ 
principle of ihr iinjime; ai ib« vtfircnnc pr>rictp]t of a fixi<il LiTKAQj^tivu ot bu^^l 
matiUy, a* thf »ub*:-ince ;ind tontenti iif »iiri|PctK't. tuimnn frecJiim Th« ^liihup 
ol Hippomi, — ul [fff ihUfc luviDg dovrlopwl (he iwvufal afc^ectk al liin Uoc-triTW afiHirwl 
ibc borcaiCBH—- 4t]fiiA up, nitd tLitit-iMtKutra bin lAicbiujf. in JIk widr»i br.iiinc«^ ^«iii 
(be bftnibpn Hers ihtv Ctirlminn Jdrjl ai»]iTi iR fiiDnl and final vtiirntmri. and 
u forn)iilAi«d A« A CVi'jJWf /J^f. a« Lh« mthj o| a univnsl, divine Sov^rciEoiy. 

lxtki*t ff {.iff 4ihA ff th< F'<: i^^it III CDQLlurlbifc bit cibAuntivc reflect! 
nn Ihff 4ii1i|irrl nf r^uyiiiViijxInTi i^f irrbicn, Id wh(c-b tlif^ vritfar frriiu'iilly bx* 
caiJon bo oilv ^b« cniicnl pA'Aflrl fivmi of A, I'^Liillc and df (?ilifpr KnjE^i"^^ s^^^ R 
nlojj philmophcn. Mr. V'eoiitl irmaikv Lhdt bJa aim hds tt«ik, do( unly (o tulicr* 
diiCR \1 r»uynirk *>-*(r'in fif fithica (o hK Riusjan rradpiT,. bat alw anfl mflluTy (ft 
iitifM: tho iwlatiuot nl tluji hyuiiMcv uf fllhiCB \'i Xtutt'^ ubl ifiMl^uii r Till! urilar u'iiiliiiB 
Id Hiy JJi caticlu^ioii 4 frw W[^[UA>lxni( G»vau> Eubiioti (oTlbicul BrjudiijD. Gai-aii 
rpjpc^rd any ni<iTa] i^LtiCTion. m fh«? virltrf «?nv nf ihc uortl lb»ir wu di-umjtriUhprl 
or dccodud Iroot social laxiclloiia. M ^uch- la (hit hcnuu he coucoi^ei m(««l aonc- 
tion «nd duaaI vlrIi|;alioD in bin KlhkA cri Lifr. \t^\^^\ H^nme U'\tn< Xtti^h tf 
lif* ^ iiwir rr#iir'<t xn nhllifurrn ta v^nrk. timply. nn ih«* Mtrpiigih of nitr c:rp>riiy 
la worlf, in such »» 1i£e .-tlu will crrMlv i(t <>wi] vlhiciil unciioc Fv«i wh«t 
Kisietuj^v KiviSK il»clf flwAT. liEc wilJ Aiibt^ut Uil. uEjuu And 4ifftia, fi^d ilfclf No- 
nuKpr luiw if be rut *liorl. Uf* will pm»rvB it vMiI cuiiiii'inutnr^w nf It* fulnn* nnd 
Bi^iiLlir^nnp* iitcl .^ill rMppnar in tnoiv r<lb*r pliiri* and imdtfr otbar c^kndith>nt; 
lot. Uuly- iKiitiioiE id Lhii woild li^iu aj:td Wiiirks in tain 

OfifiotM Cfjif^inn_^ L/oti A" Tiff'ttfi Mt Slrncholl * psy^holoicM MUdj 
vnuld ibmiHictm p^iatu* an ikddiiiiiniil luterrnt |i> wovtvrn raadc^n it ibc irvrilor ba4- 
really E"'^ nn ntcluidvely KuNHhuii niltitincri itfTolnitfri cbHUiclPt- ^ad iTiLrLlKLuoi 
arllviiy _ fn ihin ri-^p^vr, bnwMwr. wr* mmr nf>l <"iprri in finr! nny v>-ry mnrkt*! 
dcviaiioa irctoi the wttl-liDo^fi cutroni vL«wa uf Iht rfiidtn^ publip M oih^i naiiom. 
" The main 4;>[U>c" Mi- Slf iii-tjufl obhcjvi'*, " wliv p<-*uplc Aiv. iuurfi-icd JiCAintt TdU 
KtnU ih 10 Iw friunrl in tb* fjifi. lb:4t nf ;i1l mf-n T»Ulnl bit niOhF widely davbitfrf 
from univonally Tficvivcd ethical noIJoti«< ond ibnl ho aniA^iDnjjBK biicvatiiry. i*r#a 
\i\ tcn*m delicait jiroblemi, thai 1*111 iilway* Vw ibc dwic-rt lo cnaDLind. You can- 
nol help Inrlinir itiii*. uhpn yon lUirn Tu rfirclami^ur. repn^qrh, aw\ vi iiiperaUon, 
tbat bnvo bavn rri-i^ul djfniTiHr him ibroiii^hfiit ih^i civilihod worldr Fcrr tho mu i> 
vccniB ivibct (jdil. lUd). a I Mu- 1 1u»i.' cjf tbr lun^irvntb cpdluiv. Ihrro nhtiuld bnvo ibes 
*nch a nuitibcc nf dpsdly l<y% uRiinif an knolTrntivr Mtiief jnr* ihink-r hit* ToUtoi; 
and yai. loc^ a^ix wc bod bivii accumidud Ic iht laiempCAie uiteriuicet ttf a 
of niiaiE<^l limitliiiikcih, wbditi ux Im^rnuluttd wilb jutLtixc aud mtMrkiicKL Why, 
acr'^rdlnaly, hfivi* «• :d1 n\ * ^iifldm Irni e\\\t patit^iit Irtlmnj'f*, ursd 'fl'hy .ir« ws 
olnmt ro>idy 10 itnn a tyal^niatic p?nHi]|ii>n -i^caiaai the tbciifibtt aad woHa of b 
buok like tbc )Wf4>i3'd rvtytina \C\okt Field) ^ , , , ^ It miul Lc admiltod. that ihere 
U a rarUin arc^naUty ^a hin ivritingt Hvery Hoa poiAnwH 1 rreabnaiA and novrlty 
ibal arc ^'ptimly bit ^wn ; and yet hit laiisuitgQ ia Inmr. and ib« aubjacta o^an morv 



* WAV 



CQMnoft ihoD in ch^r irfiirn Ho ff«qti«iit1y dncnbM IIh biiih isd dnib cf 
1*1} plak) pooplr- He irOiDA how thae uq? prvpTe a iddsp tlwinwlirv cal- dribk, 
ftod d*n» DO (AMt-«li><. cut (he hi^ f^ irt rhurch, fn rohfeuinn. and %ci fciTih, 
Ooc«Monal}y t» IaIIh how ■ jhIoui fauvbuDt! Irilla bb viia.— a UcL tb^! biij bms 
uld Jtt H bjttr «>i>vr Uivr3iiir«» 3ui in «iiyihmii hn roUm. be Iija lHv tix ^f 
AtoiPttv I •trooj;, «lc0ir MeM upon hki tobjvcl v> IbAl 11 ir^mt to is, an if (Vw 
ti»t *ptti vttica were ttxa uid hcdrd (c* i^ flnt time. In tbui ciHUtsli tbi* Pool 
oriciDMBly oV To|>rtuT« «-:. And be n Lbc bituc in bik dbiud tntcbiaiiv Tbry 
ttnk* mbv ihi*jr dirtciii#« viQ4ir. tiiwrity : ksrl for tli>4imry rHi!*(in iTim- priuvr^ 
klljr wue v«jr k>%«and uur ^uarni?>g fcr ihoH)4v*p, tpinmol ifD^iiifj^ ttuil invite 
UK) Cu IcmI II bicbcr Uf?— " [o Uve« fod-Uhi? lik." Hcrca3Ki «l tiiori Jt 'p|mi» 
^ lit. ib*i icT< hi-jr 9l:iiiui thcBft kiSiy tupmixtirM for ihc hrir time: ]>ai wbr?n )<m] 
pay ck'oe ■IlrA1ic4i. T*'d vllM fiAcI ibftl bit dnceriii'' u rr^llv ha^ftl or ibf rlhir^ of 
Itc pul. Viod )Oi> rueet wjih Lniu of thai Klf-Kimt? Chniuar dcclHoc uith whkli 
jvtt bj«« bH« btml^i^r riwn cfiriy chaMhood 

/>»* /i^ Pi4lfr^fJty ^f fUrttwy Mr Solovictff, (hiB iiinoalwi. bnvboBCO a 
dib! ibai ■arccl> coi3t*yi a ddinitr id« g>f ih* ktm Miit ci:ficiu3U u( bu xttkk, 
vti^b llcccribn 1hp«p«vihc rrlirum* M itv (.'hniti^n irfp4 to the butoricai ftvolu- 
baa «k1 pnlrlLCAl idt^Al cil (ho ntUoo* cif »ntiquliy. \ Mcocva. i^i t )>^. 

MIND. October, 1891. 


Trtw PinncAL Bame or Plj.uitai a»» PAlr>l, i1t» Bj /A i* Jf^nUlt. 
Tt(H Fv^rAi, Oi(i<>U't cf HuuAn Spkrch. Bv / At«^mit 
KiiifcTifth *MH nsoiF**TTfin By / r if^ktitu 

DjfC^tMM; lit Of. USnxvrbvrfE and EipenA«*iAl Paydkotcf?. By £' J?. 
Tit'^m'. U\ On ibc Ortais of MuiAc- Dy // Sf€mtK 

UfiLTrr " BrlJrf" Mi Sliiiil inc!m!iiv rvpiry iDndf Hnd dp|*pn*<d ;i«vii1f^Td*iv<Dr 
To dJkbvltn'F a i*£ij»fnitjnii it to Jwli*vr i\* conirajficioifj, [Joobi 1* tielief 'n a dii- 
]Diiciivr ivi3£infli|. In a lormar ^iidr hi- dvMl with iIjc "<ica»»i:l ibc Ci>k;iiiLiLm 
<d FTijsiCJi RraJltj " Hr no* ifrjitB of ihe vartntii lilnflt rrf rml nitl^nrv *h 
tellcWB- 'i'^t Kfil 11 S/mi^ttum Tha r«il 4* immAdtalfliy npfT*hpnd«k1 m nrmu 
lioa PiuAE no! bv ianU^tiAt^ with tbr pcttJpiro^ oaiod SmMlicn at si^ct l> rriil 
tai TOO tar e ii llmilv sad cn^atroU ibe novemeni of aiicmion, by rntrlciiltf; tbr 
nfi^ol *iib]cciiv« vlaclUD t^ AVd/im JwJj^nftt/r -1/ Ofv/<t'i#t>v In Had thrauj^b 
ibc pvcubftf niui«ii>tAt uf 4e|ciiIicjD in cadcuvurioif In bocp il fitnl on .4 in the irry 
in of fltjiif Ji riu /f, ibr pinmi 1 tf iiiirremeni and dilTirrpnc ti«rurm -f and A frail - 
ually «-n>fT|iif into rtmr fiin«rinLi«Dm iMyrt-/*?* .4/fnAtr/f* ^/ f*r^*9isHim. J>r, 
I^Uctf'^ IheofY o( ibr pifcbolijRy of Objective B»jaicn»UiU lu dT^tinicLJii^b lirLnrRii 
ibc p3Mnomenfl vkhji^b <ire Tnerelr citiArrml by \rilimt»y «tr<<iifimt htkI ihfiu uthnli 
ant actnaUy producvi! by tl- Thv lei 4>f intrn^pxltc'n nifdifi'^v morp or let* the 
Menul prcKsne* which it ^xnfOLim Theii prc-ektMinf 4irrnctb and ubude uf 
0»emilcnc4n be Muriakned onJ^ by ebmmjLiSon cf Ebeprciilks relnforcemAal nr 
«nt*eiblt«QQnt which iboj flfqitiro by aracf^nev into dUEiael cookcianAOoM, 7"^ 
O^jtMUvitj of Sp^it aW Sp^i'mJ fit/iitiifv^t Alil>ouith we cnn produce cbaiiiie c( 
pfaoe br mmHnr our bodfm. AccordlnE lo our will, tbui frwdcnn of iere«live Klr<- 
lloo hai rigid limiti iinpoffed «d il by tfa« very nature of vpace. Tbi* eontml im- 



potoi on our frcv-dacn liy ili? nature d( rhe objori cnruzitUTea in atiJe^d^Ey, Tbft 
«oiuiaul poHibility u! trxnudob Iron udo pu^iooii br tnoitur ia iippro burded &• 
iulu'ntu in tbt vriv nit[urc <jf »|ucr iudi^jrudcnLl^ ol tmr *ti]l Whcurvvi 1 t^i^ 
lincTlv iiiriiil in ihf tinftin* uf a tjiatijil Mm". I mHti cf nrt<.>wt)^ aAmn \hax quce 
U boiiidkfK \\i\iX h» tir»Ti ifirl aboi^l th* objpriLE^H}' ol ipac« iv >rr^rT\il .ippha 
■Mff/j,'*, <v#/.»#yr« ro (h« olii«Lii\ii/o| a|)fl<crelaiurii9^tTCA[cd bv tNc (ci^mrtrici*!* 
Thn pyrhckb^icjtl crinc11ll»nt »f my fluMerriti- lu^rhtiidi' lie tillimfrAly In Ibr* im< 
pAmnhlv- bAmtfTft. ariatng irorv thii xory naiuro of t-jaa. «i'hncti rvinfinv ihv frMJom 
ol my cotuiiLicriie loortmcnE Pi«/irv in th^ .itu^infit^ ./ /^n. .\9wcUtiua k 
A caassp of l>tllei If ceruio i:ontent* pI coosclonsncM h.'kvc once bcm rofircAeAtetl 
in Lk ci-riaiD rtflAiiun lo uch utbur, the riiptuduciiovi o4 <liu oac leoda lo Imnf aboul 
ihf [i^iti^'I'itEitm of ihr uilirr in tbc >a(no r«U(ii>ii i(t winch ihcv w*tc ot^^Ji^'ILy 
(f>]nrir<icTiiM. A mmpinKtvfilr fpv<tilr Av^oriMtinn m^y mrim.inrl Iv-ItH Tfcvlr trnm 
iliT At4rDci> cl k:4iini«r-.i»ocunon». 'Vh\t » Ibt bi^cii of liiiin « dnKtriac ot prJni' 
itivt [(odulilii ,V*»A,nw/. B'hi i^^tJuivrM .'/ If\'h</ The |iT<i>CTXlA(^oiih whkh mC- 
rnwvfily *mnfg»f int^j thi: fiirma ni otiniirtftiiiJift* Are i-mly frBeniHpiiary |viHiaft4 of 
<hv^ botil mpnul ty«uin Muiiy. if noi tnaKt. cf oor brlit.fvd*p«inLl on ih« opon- 
Ikiri </l AUbcojHuoM^ rlompniv »hkh, la manMvi' combinazioup co^uperaie !■> *ap~ 
yiort a oermin cotinn^noti dI idftu whlfb apptars in cocsclouiirtrB at nn nbjwi nf 
aitoaiian, but tiuli duuIvo ipppuri mAy oriK Uom tbo ceQcauDQ <pf tli« botwE 
wilb prjictiul iiilrrcjid or itMticlic ULJuyincRlv i-ir villi Hiue ptyvrrtfiil iirc^eiic wn- 
rttion AptvrtffUtm .itt~{ Bv^if ]i1i<al i-(^niliinaiion» may |irw[)j4r^hlr pr innrpnr 
abit Bccordinu; a« ihvvfir that Appprci^tiv' «y<irm h^ipprnt ro bf fir?rt>tiniinAni Thlt 
3B bol >«n in U» (Wlhi-lrupcul fiD^Cfmlii^n Id thr ca*c uf tUKK^^iblc [IljUe^iiU- Lrfi' 
der nofiual c^jnCiilpfi* ihe n«p«iry alc*rrnti(in of ^liflcfiifli jpperci-Xili^r mu^tMi 
pri>dac« a corrH|x-DdiT)g vitfiatina iit Ihi^ fWiJitianit of buJiuf /'^f- A'ai/ in /A/ 
/^t^Adffi ^/ C—timi-/i--v /m.7^i#fj/i'.'H, Thtf work of titiiiEitiiMioD tither iin^^ian u 
Ulmlan ou the mind, or ii doa not. In |b|]i cji« tlicte ii n ccfuiia ri^ferenc* lo 
rajditv- IUti>ioii n j ivrnparnry and ittion m\jrt or Icui Imperfect Itolitfl m iho pro- 
duct (if cunhtruclive iiuiLNinrttJuTt ; a belief ^hidi utii be ludirtcily ^inl titcd t;rdir 
fripatcd ai will TAr yp^r/ar P^yimj/ JfixtjMnrf In iht: n|wirjfincp ul rlip irfrfjuUr 
ia1pniiptic4> i>l aibei^itiwoaiitlnqoutHtipi iSt muvc'ilar Hniat^oii. which, apart Irom 
llib re*trii:hon, at? prvduclbl^ *t <«lil wv kp;>rctx?Jid icaI rxi^lvacc Tit? icAtiifr, 
tifwrvrt riigfihcT with that of ten»niion antich- bi-ing^omninniratpd i» ihff ininr- 
prwrAtibm mbich y* jn c^nntmnBd tn pul baih upon noriauticpi)* and tb«ir«Td*T. 
iC»vb rirtt by n 'viy <;x>niplrx prc%«» lo Ibc prr^nlatioo of a phyti»] W'jL-fd T-w 
f.'tnh'f The Liv of coafl^ci Is tlie psixiiaUrjflcai CDDQcerpan of ihe laglc»1 Inwi cd 

In the (jtcbri;! paper Mr, Mui>biiU cfuirniEicn in dclml Wiy llicaih llinl r'ffwuVd 
and I'Aiii nn- fli'tr'-rmiiifiil by th#i r^luiionx tw-iwivn ilir: iiriKiLini nf ^ciu'ity in. and 
Ibfr putrihi/? codiditiacif of. <^o OfRiM wbich clrtormiii«i thf ocmitciau* cooi«Di {MtK4\ 
Xli 6}) lie iiLtCo Ihc pircholoKJOfJ coaditiuD* for I'louurc tube "AixAitB]' 
vFiirh npprAM nnrntPilly jn mgul-iT iai«rvATii wll3 teud lo If. ii\6iflntP\V If lia 
p«ar with hypvrnarnul inUntity or ImjUHncy i,iidd«nty in lh« cnnrw of <ba n 
ria(uliii-rii}. it vptlL for a t<liitit«1y nhorr lima Appear u plcasiiiablc. bill this F^Aii 
ji|j|[<nm wiU wxm ta.ll auay Into mdlllerencc The pf/cholofflral mndliiim of 
]*aJD la anid lo Iw ; " t| a coaftni vbicli bo* nlrouSy olt«n appvarod la cnrnvciauo- 
DOBa^'V^i^^ Dna*Ei4Wici:|u<'i:cy or CKrVptiunnl inlctinily. i| will Lurdiiinrilv bft 
nccompn^d M firvl Jiy pW^iinr. which iiKLinMy uil^ «r,iijr- uati! tlu< ron imi appeon 
ladlflvrcAt' tl tbv h^^wrDorin^ clirncijuv ooauaLii» («tc«pt as afL«r dcKnbedl *b« 





OABtcQi Will bofDme pBinhii, and ibU pilo will lncre*u la ■oiouot. iiid biivini 
rubbed n ia!X\iiaMn uiH docrc^HgradiVilly unltl it dEto|>[w^. btiT in i;<tvr^l itjib ii 
ivill alto ij;?t[J»jilEv ilMplJr^r ihr i;ejii»iiE iljMlf tiiji lo tirallprariil »HiN:iomVT»lv ■ 
cwridrrabTc TJmr . tf rii-r In imnff nw*. howvirr If rliF<ci>nTpn[ Itpbolnrcr ipti-hi*. 
««liiay fi>jk tor a gradual dccrtdicM thf pain li-lt at iht bcgmmntf unut ■fSjndiiiun 
«f indiiCcrciiLc i» rcAcbcJ ^' Thac i> «ii v»icnljiU futtur is ll>C ptijcr^i tA tviAULC 
rtpiitr For Hii^h oT§»n Ihurr will Iw,! ^nrUin t'aaituUtt ai^linii ba« riuwl 31 wh;^b 
rvCHVTFaC acitviif v^l lifi rTti>ii #irr<Hi*. lUn w« bavn lb* pbT^Jc*! Iune of th« 
XredlLulroaa ot>ialard iiLfObi;b rbithois^ Tbeir; n a^^to ji icUthja ^ rbylLm lu 
|aic^ TbA ihro^binif ttt mh^k pAin, ta^ far -)l ii ib noT dimriSy iricfckM^ tn /r^jf^r/j 
c4 blood -Hiif>plv» UprolmU^ tudircclly lmo«abZvlDThD '^/'^wnf b](»dd-if|j|rfhly Tqrn- 
iiiK Ut J'fjcliolL^i pTnii^T. t1ir ^lW^<'pf liraiiiarfrhin may bn stated in Ltiint cf Al- 
miuu. rKiiurp, >s invnrvme ihfruwof iiorvd f<^rrp ^mplin a contbiuaiire «4 
tKliriiy iu the id^uEkuf ptAuurdMf cunteiti, tnd ifaeroIorQH tcbdraty^Eu ocmiicuftiicit 
«i Aitcn(i(jit uixrii thjti Ciiiiti'iiL i^iba. lui ihc iiihcr [iii»i^» icfLplio -i minUmr^ lo 
WdvatiTin III :(irtml>-ii1 Vh'' ritf^n nf thi* |>4mfLii rn-inli-nl ^ml rWt*lnri fhn c1i«flp- 
pHraa<v of Lbfi cotitvnt, Th* nttiion ihal plohiurt it mcrr Ahcnncr of pain la do 
1^, Died bf ibu tbcvrt, vbicb ai:i;j:>ixnu lor tbr KiAOvAiua, i.n ^ l-iuml vtdv. lci»nu 
iflfttUfit^ and PA^in HiiilaMitirim rsi^vcii^'d^ arivAnUga^Liii and f1{^dvAnrH|<n-iU4 In 
'Tolition loElbic* Ibjn Ebmrv Iciiclioklhnt ibun^'of will. /*t '/, ii fiWiumblix^s the 
oaioonieul tbc njDiHiiuEi* uf oppoaniij^ii whkb atn anivnor Ktlhv will'ii:! frjlttwr. 
»<ilan In irt« dirDCtii^n nt itip £fnit«ci dMirr it xhv moa pl^Misi icnan Hut tht* 
dow tiot &h<jv ifaji ibe cffoct ol hikbkT mij out bt lucb at \o Iei4 lo action n^^uin>t 
,.tb^ MtiiDKot daicn APil rtvb> (r»ni (he lETi-Jttoil plEnburc. Furtbri^ ihf ubjoct uf 
,4lMtni tfbilHl 11 m-ly in^ ■« m^f nf<nA;inJ_V ibr :l(fjiiniiii»nt faf plpoiton* 

A «cmikS* of Ihw piiycbflltuptffll anpr^ ol cninical |Jm«nT^, %3}'i Mr D^^n^au. 

tlun tbcorit?in t^1 ^pccth, «hich «as jxitoiWc only ihinuffh Ibr Jiid rif th:it marbin- 
■ry. Tbe eai tj ftupfvinr iv iliv o>« itt rapoct ul ilnif relntit-* coD^HbLJiinnn K/ward 

'DMfcioK up our mpQuI life and ndiviiy. Tbr Ttupvrk-r^lir -jf ih^ViLi nuti on ^ti 
[^fniuikmal pamvity Thii allowed Audirory impmaJDni to ictct ibemulvA into 

'coa*eloLuaew to ^ojiaiMi and out o1 ««toQ. Tbo UcU ul huiory aod oibnoJogy 
vrbich may he kitco a nr^ tt^jrct wbrn rc|arcWiJ in ibe lijfUc of ilio anjiK«n of inti' 
«(ic tvitvr > y*Ty -AtAf iif}i\ bi^L^iiinmp viTb Ibr fnr .inil rn^^M Mxiigr^'d communal 
t^«palh>' and mbal jj^kirit^calioo, and cifrndin^ up |f> xh* n^iinnnl tone or epic lE 
jj pt:tb]i<f tu man Li* i:ivc cifir«aiuu lu ^ncuiijunal inleicil in a *Ay ubicb llMt 
BOthiPf (fidn *iTb lUi'-c^fbiH tnsiJ'if^ti ThaT inirrt*.! mrfi- iu fjini anri nidj"*! n- 
pntaioQ in bodily pltiy-acciFtfincuI - t it 1>t>dUy pUy-mmnrficiiiR in ii]^iimii>n vf ni:.- 

^mnnal ini^fn', dspUy itiemvlt^t s^ thr Tnmt c^oiiftni rlcmrriiiof jtt Xf^\^t fnitt- 
[br&Ljona II **v kt&ri from [he {fMnvr4-Uy-Bc<upIt>d tfupUnuEJcm* o! pl^iy-raovririfnTi 
in noiiz^U. HtjJ gi«)j eIie uliini^ii? t«avjD wlif pbjr-CKtitoai^iiit bnumc laiLisud Mih 
Ih« r&imnrtnal tpirif thvrr will fir no dtHifuliy in irariijt «vidi?nH of (bit apiriE 
cvtO wbcrc Ihey arc edosi biddon by accofnpanyiai; habjf* Su^ocv tn a cciTun<tt 
ca(cj|fritc leiii}» (u pii^civc tL Tlic iMluml tiiudo l>( ex|fria«tiHJi of lljf cum' 
iDunal v^l^tmn tilEfiu-, r- *■ thr lif^lkly pli^y-innvRiinnE* in imitniicHi td ih* mtr^Htu] 
UIBCB and Ibr tkyiliniic txaimE Thrw raon-mCAts five to i;onuiuuia<49 prv- 
•erraUi* eleniCDla oJ tFuuliLin. l^\cry iicp of loDot <J?vdopnicQi vitu utnAv in 
criWr lo provr the tttmtivfnnm ol ibe clpmmiit u( krntAiiun uI^icIj ciMitd pr*B*rt# 
lh«<QcU««l nl CDntcii^umon 4prinfctD|[ uul of plny-ticitenuniliind cvRitiuinjiJ elation. 


TWK wovt^r. 

The Biitniloo ftmwlnfr fvnwra mniilfRl iraiepoueHnl hai rnhitnfMl by Ihp rvmrii- 
LiDDiiot Lbi ptoctuflion. wtticb flmiimJ rcpdiluoi inn ptniniimi ti*iriporal ^ucfwtias 
Animjiln riiriti^ crrn vrrir lnAh lirfcw SDti allvr Urr iLimiiUtiiiji ihythmic bc4t- 
in^ pffodyrtcl toDM 1 bp *flnw p«it*nitiil whifh irripfllrri o ihc*rr cnr* ilui jiti- 
pffllod iu ih^ihiiiic twdtirt^, And ihub prulueoj a jmriUrvor iiudiior} moddl l^f iho 
crJn« The pliiJolof^iKl knyii iliut ruuU jiir ili^uiiBntif nf wi^^Jx wIikIj allalvtis ulA lie* 
di-uv nn funhfr Th** jm^rhnlrhfcinr rxn tmrj* ihmn liAf k rn tlip miitic^t iaa«« wbi^li 

fir ii:tvvrii ti>lihV'A1 |i|i>HAun- 

Tu n prv%'i(nii .-iriiclir \AJiiiJ, Xo. Mr Mr, linMioiiv nimcd ni pn3%iDjf thm ill 
rmwDUiE iLtcKtffI fei^EierdUuLTlon U<.vn cLvt-rvnl fj[:L», uaO IbJE kill huclx b[i'nrf4liU' 
lifTin ct^nlr^ l^r ^hown trn proc«^ on n rtr^nitp pnntipip Thrrv ±rt' iwit nuiin ia^hvi 
in vhitb ImlucIipA uml D«itiic1ioi3 mny La <liuiiiiKmLlirct F^mi »t may di»i>Of:iiiah 
ibc^vMrriiuD cf » niiivrivjil from iit Jim'ikmi'jn. Ttir ApiihtdiiuQ of a uu^vt^rul ti> 

iudf(qicDi jind the minor a jiArticuJAnf juJi;rii?di of ;icrcrplioii Wlirn ino j iid);nic(nt9 
irc tuinpujid tbfr> *i*r fyund Ut 1* (oTjuiuK^yuu*— ilir Mitic ii»orikni of thi^uine 
fact- d [>ilt?Tpnt 4himn'«nr« fif ili^ i3ini(< fncl. {31 At«rviiornnf r^tfliprpht FhClL 
A (udxTDcnt cipntvHA % rclaiioo iKV^vvrri iw<i rrnriT ind hrticf^ two JLidfimc-ats mAT 

rrrm< Jiur 1I ^ithf-r of ib^ trim^ft rhf rMlniioii iIiINtv «iirft thry mmrrl diflfrfoi 

SylUifiiHiii Ou™ ni?( 5>lloi;iinj apiTar^ii »unpW lllcopiK1^iIc »]ilr u( jjrisrrjlliii' 
non. Id thi* Imht we is*«r! q uni^ ct*ji1 lor ihe ftr»( liran, in l)w fur m*r wv appty 
a UDLt«r!(n1 /ilrnvir Jia^^rFcd Bui in luflh «^r fit'- <Lf aIiilic with ihr niimr Tl^tioQ of 
iin^vrrtiiL iUjcl panicuhir Whplhpr v? jdmti m nrv'^ ^''f' univctKit, iht umc «)' 
Tiinnl* logical fDCi, evpri-«r<i m rhc Atjnni ot lodiii^iiinn. k -iI tJiv bonoru of lit* 
pnxcvi But « iliEfcrcfii dialiDciivn ci&y br drLi^in Ifflvvvrn Im!iicl;on tiud Drdkit- 
Tfoti Tbp wbol? pr4-ict-:<« uF briuifiiii; {oiTtiruldr txctn nfiil^r uiiivmnlt by obrvrva^ 
iiva •>t tiiaitu pnrh^riiUim may It-' cjill^d ImJuctinn. wbilf Ihie cvmUn^iiiMi ol wr- 
ffral «i]ivtr>Ml» in a chaia ol rpoionioR ii callrd DrdiiclW, In Uic fiw. Gcnentl- 
i«rtii?n. ^vr atnril ^ univr^fvil un ilir cmand ft * (UiVlitiiUr, ni n ^iiirlJL'uli'r no tbr 
ground of a iimil^r purticulur It? thr tnrtmd. cr^^iutrucium, ^v■- auvn u relntioia 
Wlwreii tuu uni<i;r9nU(<Ei ihc iEC('t"i(l *>! ihr frljttion of p*ch In onr or nur? inlet- 
ipirliiitr rrldtloni CotiitrurdoE] JavoJvn Emrtah»:L(Jon 4it rvrry lll^p- HHil l« jt 
tfur r«niPoiTi|j |'roci'« The aat^n.' of ttip ^rnvroliitrLfiun raiy b« «buwn 1>y ih« 
lypic^l Dr?duc[Jt<T niiioin If, whtifr (wci irrm»atT- nx AUy \i.iy (tljit^ io« tbird, n 
rHoHon hpTwpei thr two vi obsM^rn!, (hf-ri wbrn anyrifhr-r lu'o irrm^ jtp irtnllarl^' 
rduiviil to Jioy third, ibr rBl!iiu?n between thvtc two mil br ^iinilnr 10 Itiit ob>m'«<I 
t^twpcn llir Ar>t IwU' The >ini]i1rftL cEinAlTuctiDD nO vhich ^Ibcn rol U itrfli of 
iwo TelHihOTd tc <hp *;imp 'ypp, aniT ihi* juinni .niiplir^ 10 [vbukinn ^ nni^pr^Tfiod. 
The vxiomi pialuIalL^ by KrtiKiDiTii; l^y rio<4ti ihrcomlifion? »nd'-r whicb Eftcianol 
prvMNilrd iiixy W kuii%4ii lu luiat, iiaJ ihcv ^ic ibii^ ditiio^ubbpd Fiom thtnte prio- 
Cip1p« CdllrtI iTii- ' l-:iwhaf ThoLlBtil- ' 

Mr Ti(chuo*r wm-fAly criiicmrR Dr Muntirrb^riE'iiripvTimpnt^ psiycliolofly, 
pnirmnK "W^ ^arluu* vmw^», inJ (tlDcllldc^ ibai ■ whrtlwr the iliKtrits ut (he /If/* 
Inif RMtirl at f jM ibi-if f-tpcTimrniik] foiinclniiun hiv ^'rry lifilr poniilvr wdrfh," 

Iq nplj (o iHi< criucLHnin in MtrtJ, No. &j, Mr H- Spt^ncor pi^mla not Ihil Dr. 
Walluchck biui o\rrlcio^viJ a pAnaji? m «bJcb ibe furmrr moiEaiKv rhyibin .ls aa 




fCMDiial cooifoavDi of miuic If* doM vol eomeida with Or. ViaHttdhAT* vww. 

II hu in rnnniTirin wlih nidrr iliinEr msi^Nti f-1 hy a irali u'lucb I1 bfi?i ipil Imrn 
«4lMf Ibioi;!! Ii it (r^m Ihv emotional fltAmvni of «pvuc1i that itiutic is «^7*d— 
Oct ttatti JiH mirllAioil dmnaoL 

Aft#r rrfprritriE tn i^a fjtct (Mm hHmnny. nh nnlinftHly undi*rhiiii>cl iml lU 
vpukea of by bim, ia c<M<»nit4 with rli* fi^rti^iimrnial loni«4 auA ijjEnjTTM ih* dvr- 
bMA. Ml. S[iraici lUics ibM he taanut ancepi I'rof CiiltcllTv view \iiM hdrmciay 
hft» brun *1nvrii'>|v^t tiMm ini^lixly To f^bCiitilUh Ihe tvolOltnn of Ihc Jiftf fmni the 

df 1(411'^ t^in«tiiqLi(ii; /fWrr, which do DUi cotintJtui* ti^Annnov tQcur |x-rni|Jii9nH 
jmd Ebtvr {^r^itiHnnunTii of (oiin uh^fji do MCilil\Ll4^ b^rntotir 1(* ^nr pFiT^il>?n 

la hi* VliWice^^ iHi friirmg iivm Ihc BdiMrvbipoI AfinJ, Vrotrttor Kol*trt> 
na ict*t> Xti iht i^t-ililinbtiiiiiit ^tf thn Vi'i'^fir in 1^7^. i-»q ibc- iitilUtivr: <jf IVvtoaur 
B.:iin. by wfinrr ii lKi*iinrf Itorn iiiiHaTrn^l urnlhr- mrrtions (hai mmi nl rh* «f 
prrimcotil rctranjjh hOA been contributed \,y ihr Amori<an h;knda *'lhat haV(> b«tJQ 
c« UD injw uLi[4Ui>iiiM invLhulviiitj] UbucdlufiB uvcf jJI the brpadvb of ibel/ <tvd 


Vol, M, No. I. 


Twm tfviTV ar Tptb Ktikk!* aw XVervHT GVtvrir By Prcf ijtpat^ StkmUt 
Ttie Pai>i:i-tH i>r CnHrxTAttAfi M^tv^^i- IfKTJiurTL09<> 1^ ffUxAJht, Ph, D 

jtH IsTV-iL-bET-tTcnn OF niR Sof'ui. MoVRHRvrs or qch Tivi Ry Piuf 

TnK P»KVB»TWs cr Crihl By Dr. fWJirtrtnJ Titnmfi. 

Tut RiGWT »■ Pftiv.tTH Pitoncflrv jw La»&- Bjp Prot / tfatur. 

Prof SchmiJt'n mrdflc 'v» a Tcplf 10 a cn'ticiiip of bit work on ^he othJc* of Lho 
MDdrni Grnkt which hiJ dppnrni ia itic fnJrrrr-r/Mn^i/ /auitti/ 7/ /<rMfi. 

\yf Aitrr* arftdr It the iTitfodiicfc»rv Wturv of h^K comse en Miffftl InilraC- 
M« bti'Jiu Iho Sthcol of Applied Kthit^ txi riymoulb, H* refeni rimt in (he t\-M- 
cnil> kit ttii; wAi [if C'^tiTi^iimjif nnrfll inil rrlitiifiii* in^trunmn tn rhr piiMic: m:bi<fl« 
imitijt fn^Ri iht cltHf^^mzr m frh^iriiic bfli'f n1 iho Hi yiyi^t^ aiKl tn <hi> drvic^i 
■HCK«<«I tociTcuravcni th^illAcDltr Th« firai of rhne dcvkn i> ihu CAlhi^licSp 
Dbovnicrk And Jcwt, ibUI luimuliitr h cumnmit ptatfcmn oC belief. Tljerc *ru iwo 
i^tn-Mi)* utij'crifdik lo Ihii priiiifvil- Ir would \mAV auI oI acntuni ihn party tif Th* 
A|pwiic4 »nc] hf. a arov iDJiiftlicr to Tbf^in. nrid ii vtouii rte\tt coDi«n[ the rutir le- 
hgloai mindt cj any dwiomiianii™ It noiild be accfiprabli; only lo ilje compara- 
li»<ly sfiuU i^lku ol «o-o»n«d TiHi<iiiidifct4 <rt [haii"-i puTv ued *impl*, inil thay ba^v 
iW r^^t under lbs qxK^Cti* p3m liI mconcilinit ibv raricua <rcni« in «6cci to Eorcff 
Ibtir o«n Cfwul oiw>d Ih* rr^T r»f Ihr iromranoity Th>* v-miiii Hrtir» U Ihal tp» 
tJiEi'^nt ;md moral itiuriu^Ltort combLne^ %h\A\ br ji^v«ii tn iih« public vchcolfi by per- 
9vaaof ibc Bcrvml tleairmitbUioEu, Tbe hiKb Ktitht^ily ui Gcrriuay la itivcikoJ in 
fivnr iif ihM iTMrrin hut Dr AcUvrfdimibat ibeoxjunrtvor Gfinnttiy oiiinni Iv 


1WE UO»J»T. 

f|uritri4 3h:i pmcnl?nt nvtin/in tlw Tpliitnn (jM<r##it tlvirat^ >ni1 Ih* vhoAT* in thai 
ooaniry. Tbc 9>vcTa, mcvrovfr is ttoi a happy fKic 44, 'iifrKiibly 10 I'rotnsor 

SotUh * propohhldiih ibni ideniir^c inauuctioD inuM In? iLit«tciuUa and rrLli;iuUt ia- 

JcoFiI m « ft^naxty whcrr Ihc wp,-iinii<in of church ond ^litc i< ^ompl*"? To xh* 
ttinl *ii^ink:i?Eiieni piupoMil, l^i cuch tvtl abisuM butld tti o\^ii iiiboola. ftsd draw 
apoa iIl« tuad »vjppli«d by tmijcc acnrdm^ 10 the niimber ol t^iiMren urhich H 
■Kltifratrss Ihcfc nrc two nbj«lKiQ<- Owins to the power i?f vet* itiid ihoir in4u- 
FOCI'. Jinvt HTTfl iiiiliEflci. tlir T^\vH xml rriiuMEKdih pir?ii.7i1jtil bv ibv Matr for (h« 
whixit^ TCt fnnlr\trtt t-t W4>iiM nni bt^ v^lorr'ii Anej ^rr>^')lv. t^p piirpvAp Inc u^hirb 
The put'Iic kchuol c^i^i* Mould be dcfntKd. At lIic >iTi:[fLrinn actiL^lt tend lo prevcnl 
ib« ifiTiwih u[ ib^i Driiliifml unit wI&lcIi if it (bn vify ijininan vt iht public ichcicil 
to rrtutt* am! ifcmrfi Th* cnrmcl anMnr tn f hi* ijiijunnrni an in ili* w-.»> its *hirh to 
impart morol in*TiuciinB »t» b?i Eo eaiinfy nil parciot will be The wilotion of lh« prob- 
lem ol a^fceciAiiiii; Tnwiil riimalion Ttie amw^-r it U it ihe tiiLitLii?>i of tbc miffil 
iflilFa^icrT in tbv ichuol ro d'-bv^i i<« M^ pupil ihe 4ul>|ecl maiivr of mc^r^bi)', but 
niM 10 deal with Lbo tiincTianii of it -. t^ f;ivr bin piipiU iicJcjir Lndrmhimlicii; of wHaC 
Ls rjirbi and vihat li VpTohic. but ttvi I0 i!(»er into the qumiiDiL ub>' chr njchi ihould 
tit<{4^Ti« Bad the wrofifz jiivoidtcj. Tbp ^cti^ietier fran be e(kl>|ihti>nrd, ctrr^filh^rifd, 
•iixil iilviA}ii uiihoul uai:c iBitinn; the riucXiuii ^vhy- frulcmui \d\ci, if A[>iv«r3 Eo 
ii'< rtvnr^ixik^ ibr initrnaEe ronnrrlioii brlvf^ii Lhi* imi i|ur-:qrintiH nf vsliMi tH uniTiit 
asA vihy it iiMvr«~pns. With Th» "why." vi-hkb u thf n^rriJ i^infEicin in-rsilW<^ he 
E-tcIude* tbrCUi-ri^Q ft n^l'^t <nd m-tod^ aad coa^iin bimncll 10 convL-niKicM moT- 
^Lily Prufrwkir AdEer jirnpuM^ lUa: Itie nmlcciid luf ibe tivJTAi Ivtjunt^ jitKruld br 
"lliH «t£icl( rf rricinLl tritihi dccAplDd by nil good man "' Tbm would l>o a ver^ Mm- 
piv 9]lulji>n of ihe rihit.-il proble'n. Mnnkind ticc^ no Tonscr rvcntin ia doiiblav to 
whiil (rood iricl bad l». We hiiw oii[> to acci^pt tlicpffipcaliloDiof '-all KOftA men." 
Hal v^h^iu in Ih* jijdfce thut wbfill Jecjdo >uho am to l« conaidend ibt good niv*n f 
Eilbft Vtiitntxjt Adln ^imnidiv* hi* ctwii vie^n ljF iMDr-i) 4i>nduei4 art HuiliDfjLJilivo 
and nltEmaii? or hk rr'ivminjE inr<i?« in a vicious dirfe 

tVo^Hcor Tijtic]>e< undlbeKev haftiniE^ Kicbdcll ditcuw punittime nt u apr*' 
*calivr ol cfinic. TiofcHCri AfTarus find* lh«l ibc >;vniii:m( imentiua «Ubli>brd 
the fiiciiiTir ^jr^lfm rrplJidiiK tbr idil Llnmolti- Hyhfrm cif iiidukriy TbcfbHriye nl 
a «Aci*ty b.Lwd upoin Toi>k mta n uKi»ry baKrd up^^n mnchJDvty TavAnn thai ihv 
■ uihcr hb li^eL C'jQirol over the coadnion^ of labor hhkh he cwr tttm (0 rec^in^ 
Arthur Piirbanlii lay* th!" ncmrdln^ ti^ Ibe cihla of Sophoklra, coniflefice wnn 
tt«[ua of eonbiritiilyioan ^Hibcbc id^al j I'lMtflf ol Zlttctt K'Jrcti* Henry G«.t^*i 
thrurv 4-1 " ikhiacuvP " irbiEndrEpbJii /H/rnhttt^'rv/ JvurtBif ^/ fitittt, lOm 
Chi>ttnul 8lT«er ] rjN. 



RtVISTA rTAUANA 01 FILOSOFIA. StrUinhcrnn.! Ociolicr, 

L'tHMACkKAzroMi ■lu.B ttus axLAJioiri horuau b uoihuoiu <oia^ oiimaiLiTA. 

By /. ^imfffti. 
L'tiHiuinkixujivA i^tLLfiTAUUHivNOhfci.uMio L. VMT SuiudWkH By /^ D^Errait. 

Lvnit ^ivat, I'fcamiociitTA t>u BjvAfcciHK'sTo Ijy A J'^itttt. 

OUT 4itcntiru3 lo Ibff «ndlct*» varielj of diflerrnl and apptucarly conli'^Jktcv^ tbioci) 



tiai an u »vally atlribuFad 1u tb« facuMy cd inaapaation. To ft«n* Ikai faulty oj 
tbv hunun miod h ihr rtkAin c*q»r ni hurnui crrpt?. «nd vUh M^inuficiic ih«v tjJl 
H "U fofle rill ^Dglt "- linl Ii-k<i11inx. Linn|jiniliiia pf&}^ n mrh^r imjv^rianf jute in 
tb* dlMO^-crr M tfr<«t tcL^utihe ihfi<iri« All unkDimcualy udcui, llini iaijgincilion 
lend* iiitl to thr Anmc* nf nil kinilT- of tn-H \.^ivi'tiiit . bur iiu lUr mhn luiiid it c^n- 
■01 It rtcmi^ th«r imacm-iTiftii tiiiijiin^ thr wilt in Titcy 'm^rknl gnrnt iirr**. or 
frui aocTilicT^ b^ ihr vivhl rcprc'^^DtAiion nf on cicpCL^tcd linal aiicc«». Alt luman 

"'fcofjiy^ iinhHiipy vtn*^ Hj'k^ (vRjIrhy or prmr; it TTufcf* ii* IwHavp, /Imhi. or rj.-ny 
TMBon: il molGr* fi»U »nd «i|j<« " (rn«c4l. J'/nt^ir^, Xrt. 3, Sf J) T*i bjvi c^n kli« 
piycboli>cai iTCtinctlc «11 tllU. Jiitv con be Ccii [he djflricnr t^cuiiL-ttdii^fah. lhr.iiich 
■rhich ott arul th« ftam* «Tiiir prMuui mif l^ac eodlttt imrirty ncd Tll%crFpa.TV:y q4 
lul*^ Stfvrnl pA7Ch<)1i^|{iklA. >*h» liJii'*^ (rrcd lo follow tlip flijEhla of irnjl|finiU-iun 
thfoUKhuui all Its iJiFforcol man tlc^i.-i lions bj ili? toll- aid dl Mylv and Unf u^itr. 
kive tmn pn*-T« mbt-r ihan rrui? phi[i>«aph'>n Snf^i v» I>e]l1li? m htt pvwm 
/^/v»tgtfArJi-vi ^' ap<] aiji^ii ^09 r««n Prftlruuf MitaEef'ajca hloiHll, in Lh^i fbkpicr 
of hi« ^I'JtVVi'^' <y^ /j'nnurr, ^lik:^ hr Imh LlnJu^Lln-l tij tlic ' flimi'Ui'lU tnu\A>iA.' 
*hrr*» ti>» rlc*r'ih*<* lliU fwrnlly mth Cur mnri* rnlliti^^fivm tbno «-n-nlifir pi>f i«nn 

kv|j(iuut] [If lid«r bHh (be fiirnL Lo fciAr 4 miuulc plqJ CAUnvvdjr |jayLbcjt(i|;U-'il ■iUpiI)" 
■iaol trtJij^mAlmn: bai hU tm^fltignriont tnni in pn^vft (hot a d^iieatf iTib^pci ud 
tbto fciod. likr orrtnin i-olncifr r«R«DCf«t, pvftpnrain at iho mnmrnl hg nith to ana- 
)jK tc and <^Uii]^ Iw dctiiud b> aoy ttiki KirntLhc L:irDiula> add d&tilfitaELoas- 
And yeT. if *r rmlly vcIlIi «i fttody tin? (wyfhology f^t ininglniifitfli. \i/r miiw no( t* 
IrifbleDcd bj ibru dtfficuUiw. or TFjtArd ihcm m in^urniciiinLiiblc. W< mny dM 
bfi abler ktfnTucr all thnv t^imd (jtwnurm^na 10 vrrrd^fiiiilc uniJ limilcdiral^Kcir^. 
bm IT rloi^ no< folto<A' Itotti Tliit tb^r wr hitvr only ij mqVc k umpli?, irmpirinl 
rtgiiimiiirfi ol ihrar phmumcHn, A» MitUftUl obstrvra if.' itnagtrfttiftt. IcifoduC' 
ikoi) ' Wljnrtft w fmd j t'tH'^cd Wrtjii'-itl, tlirir hUo rtf ilixll fiml tixini fifi ^S< 
#ocr " UKphi# tbr iii«inuini:y fit iht- phirnmnHta^ 1I rrmAim rrur. thnt .ilwi) tn iliv 
(acis of liDASiDAltun iZicrc 11 ^^methmt; i:uritnni and rci;ular , ihii ihc^ ^r? Aibj«cl 
loUHm wTiidi KJiifbt It firnUitW hi-vt-iol fi^iui tfic iibrftomciiiiL, .md br tnhiail ii> 
aemair iicif^ aini! iintfurniilj', uirhoul fitrgoding. 31 Ihf* tami* tttni^ thai fliit fltvl- 
IDC lUtJ dvfickr« »tibj«i th Dot aIu^t* rrducibln to Jil»otut«ly strks cluaJicalion 

Hou are »e, oi^cordjncly, 10 obtain thni harmony and onity o| flew, tliai will 
DOitc jnd ifroup iifl ihooe divcnifird nund^tiuticiriL ? Miud c^mo^E be cuncti^^ m 
■ CctlicctTnn nf diOfTRiL aEfili:*, but >*« bnvr U^ aunmc, Ihitl Vfthin iho Pa^clic ibfic 
it mDirihLiiK fUlnT^mtiiil . ilirti- ii gmiy ivununry in lu rtv-r^v . And iliiii ihif Kiilr 
ol iUbriojE i« aUo Itip prkfifipfool ir< 1r4(ii)(oty acihoriE Wv ivi:<>fn>k>^' ^bcrpfor* 
ibcciiM^ncp *l tvodmiintl >cjuttc» tf ipjTiin/d rncijc^^ tb*l "ill bciicr mike IJ» 
uadFniMiuI tlir d]vciui> nf iit pKuluril* . i^h l]i<? ciir nldc. ihr hiitil itHr^lf, vrjih ibs 
FoTfiul law nf il4 vmplp Wmu, anH^ on Ihv i-kLh«f i^d*. (h« prrvrr or Inrfir n| m 
KOiiblT rtpmciitALJC«i'V~ ol ira rcaclJor?. Tbiti diMiUcuoD, ^tppliod to ibp proieal 
pmbl'in, will f>n tht nuA hnndciriKrut id conildtr imn^r^i ns iho pmTticTi of an 
activity nf an inliiriijr nrd»r. calltd p«.yGbv boiil but w* Ahfill bwhoid tin Ibv othof , 
1^1 MWe »u1. M'bcd it lui« frcrd iiw/f fmm Lbc tymnny of (hn ttnwm^ itnrlf bo' 
oocnlnff piopFtly uhar i* ir^trkNl mind, tin rn-vidpatioa liilrg to ihr tiijEli'-r funciion 
of amfi^ng aad oigAni«iTig lh« irnogvt ftfi>Ju(Td by iho aid al Ibr cenut. ITenfc 
EcQinnk ihxL XW- frl^iii^at uf cifhrr lotiEIicI lu- harnioiiy wbkb ibnc prulvctk cif ibr 
H>ii1 hnvp amnniE vicli oihvr, ind in miod prnpAi, will wvt? tui » ^Itvrkm of a clnv 


thk siTiniiGT. 

«aiiom;ird imaflTfi: 'lint Ihaf bM««an im4|isf« and imaRn: i in berth cd whicb in- 
•ivicd ihc povhcr of [hi; )>rijduct> puiwMo jm itdvAiiUKc orcf tho puwer cf miad ;t 
ami (.not llw atcllna at ntinJ ujKirt irnAifet. By Thi4 rmul rt wiH V ifivjtilc lo fnllcrw 
■II th# i^hnun of lhi» atvi^lnrirFP n! miml Ifom lhi» momamt whi»n ovrtmmo by Ahili' 
nnic imnjLcq ix in teduccd lu a lift of disc^ili^r. iDcohcrvno , or ns tl ^vcfc. to deaih 
of irinJ. ui^til till' cKijiu-iit wUrp JQ U* tAvn iuiq rjjiatl taky& tiulJ oJ the QuEneiLiut 

uttiEy 411ft hnrinon>' — 'it trul^t* out 4jf thnt dmotdrrly cliakop^ cti Imn^u lh? urTiJ^riful 
vyiithnU of scirotr and vofks cf ;irL Kium ibm iniiant we behold mind ilie 
tbn>ugh 1 tviift <.d tnrp-rm'rdiitr iiaflm, from t^hjecT ti-rvitUfle lo ibe k^tireM beightt 
uf ftvrdoin. (TLin; u »LaIf (tf 1] until ialiiiK inipi^lcTnc-v r^ ■>4i bufa4mi»ercO djuplay of it> 
true. Inward jic^tl^uy.^froni lolly cij |[t'.DiijH In otbi'T wfircK it ii Hiifllj' Ibiih |V>^ 
ChLi^ Acrivitjr. irr all it« diftxrvni lE^izt* ol devplopmvni and pcnrr. Ih^l motl b*,«Br 
IG ikliiiK ctittrloo ic ifac ^laJy ut Lhc ptidiic^ And phcnumcitA uf im^hjEifidtiua- 

Tlip wrirer, ihrnnipai, «*nk». iti nplaJn tfie a^luniof ihih imythiv itcllvity la 
ill applicnlicrfi to (ri3g*c ||« hruflj InvHligxliA th* nri^n of im.ij[*fi, th^ir imcj*- 
didic den^alioD Irvm ilic )^1l3AlioD^ aod tbelf lalinuitc reC'proc<i1 ciHii^ecttou, bjr 
vjrfueof which ihe one cannnt be prcdwual wHbout iheoihw: and ivhenceihcru 
viM rpuny flilTureQi rvtAticflv, tb:it Tut oaly vi^litij:]. but u^uei ■n;Abltf u> to elujuiff 
■ UijCf iJtjmlirrcf fArl>« rE^Ulin^ lo itii^ iriPiiral frtruliy, Tho vritcd CQududM mill 
•Oftie K^fT^'Jil temirki ^tq Ibc di*c.M*?* erf im.ifi million 

Tbe diicuMJon atioui tht local orijEin of PythafioHxii betfan with thr and«nf« tb«ni- 
ftcKcA U Iwinx tudliiiucd in <nti. u<«n Uioc, And, from ibv^natiiirr nf die mbivct it' 
vilf Mdi fnlrf" !m iifi>ti^ci«l fru" un indnOnUr porl«1 nEllI Iti rTvcnMlmiu th!« 
ardiloitu prubiirm hn^ int^^ifft*] ihn i{<iiiiaEii nl cninparativv ^Ihntiliigy, cniiip>RttiT« 
mNk>oI], idiEjotiif^y. in initio of all [he haioric^I 9c»pd^v4« rrteivjui;. doiibileu^ 
irrlklfi^ and crp|>imi4 illuvtrflriont irom ill thf^tr. yr^ a\ tberlik M a\tnoM\rMn^a^Hi 
tit iUnU In ryibufftirEMH. ti in c^rlnip olhcr prodoclH al the huntAa miad, U it 
difficult hj i3iKriinin'iLr mili Abv^tnif liLitoriul tinr[iLii3tv iHfiwivin " mmc" and 
"thifi" " Th(" real *nlrii*nr» nl rh*' ^>fnldf*m m;iy p^-Mrrp^ Tip frmnd in iW r>ri|)inal 
uniljj oElho et^ldlioD iti iht' IndtJ-Burupi^n mm J I'lic *«r]ieT. huwover. v^wa the 
pjulflcm ii[ii|dy 4i% (11 It al L-(ifi]jmiiilL\'C idiKJ^m 4[id lln' bhlui v uf iihiluki^pliy TTw 
aniMfrnr* udvtirHlitil ^h^• huKr^ or Tyrrhrtninn rTngir nf Ihc I'yihiijftirrtin ni^ilKin^ and 
amcmg modtirn It^lbnv \'i&> nnd Giobcni ha^-e dnnr the umf^ Tho Cbiav** 
■^ricin wuiJcf?aded b> GUdlu-ti. The thlit!, tijc E(j>pil^n of^k'u. jtu dnics fnmi 
aarwiuitj', and In Bwnlrrn fimflfc ha» bwn ufdamly dpfptirlfii hy H^h The toortb, 
Ihc feUppcp>>d llffllfrnif ifTLKin, hnp. h,-Lfl iIia (fniaittii itumlior <if foMosverA, aad fan* 
btvn ably cbuntpioued b^i l>r Ed*. Heller lo bis Jn)rk. /***' /^Ai^ii^'/Aii- 'ftr G'W^fH. 
Ai r^'i^^krcli itie last. iIil- ±J[r?G'*d Hli^dn ofigm. fhifl w^aa <iiN^e«ir^i1 of coiif^e by the 
Duibcrciiiai vtrikiii^ utu-lo^i'ri found bclwrco Hindu nnd rylhu^reaa dc*cinae 
3ijlL nU \\in\ biv* Ia'-to viiid vt\ [h?i ^ubiril by Scbnwdrr. Mju Midln. Wriir-r. «i]d 
Arbcrv b^m faLlr<l 1'^ ihotoii^hly (onvmiTr the tprrirpr In huTifxni :iriirlr b** pnjEP- 
um losbown Uiflf tvtrythUj; has induced bim tolnUcvo ibai rhe Hindu* ihemsolTM 
rAtliei bomjwrd thi^ir dot^itinteof innnralgnitiijn Imm the pliilMupbical iiyitcm ol 







ii probahljr to thi> day but IJiOv undf ntood <jf apiprcciaicd br ib» p«34««I*E> 
Donhpm Fiimpp, Tn this rlay, many jmrinLC itipm vrrti Icn^kr^TLi ol ib^ facT» of, 
patbAp*. DEV unfiling lo InmU^ Bdoi>t. ihat uIod^ s^iih Tht Cuih^Uf foriv-Ll. iod 
0ie icIcllDCtual rcnuiuiincc of the Liliri oaEJEiEik, iJicin? w.jh milmtcJ tliir trjuLlifin vf 
Vttill)r bdnani* fWlHjEtiMic«< frjtinilii:! nn ihr riAiur^'^f tiiaii ^ nrl, rn jih Jiim nnti votL- 
■at^ \-aiTl)' lufwn^^r X<y (hf educational trueniK r.1 iS? nniion* ^*y^-^nd th* Alp< It 
Aft dO ««riJf9t, Iibcikll, Erliuin^ cdiiCAliuQiit AVftldiU. Ui^l piufcucj a(i iinrdifilJ^lc 
Cor yaoth It liflniihod t(ir| pMnitlLnipni. ami ftildrmwrt H*r]( rfifivily 
'■o th« haoTl and Ihn intplli^BDce- Thit J^uil msKim '^fL«lj0fur pufvit mtima 
vniTfvDiift,' Mill rvulls ib* original apirii of :bia humAap syilc^m cif rdu«i^C^. I1 
h P*cIh^ not AD cUKKPfatkni fo rria.inum, (bar In ih« iptrli af ihp ilnur, ji olw 
(Bvd at thc^'Vfw/f/4f/iovduciitivn. Ilw4ji a dflvl&rvd ciaisni; ivncy ifcuou^hi, «pi«fb 
or action iu fit//.**** Tutfao ^ubjccL of ibit Kiiclr, thr SpunLtVi biithopof Viilcncid. 
L.o«E*^Viv«, tH rtnr (hr hnnnr oF havitit- licrn onpol tbr mo!! jfdrTil iin<l iiio>«iFul 
pmnown ol ibii new c^^tlc^LotljI lyttem. and <■> hnv« bran Ibf- Jcao Jafii^ipi l<ou«- 
vl h!> time Vlv^ Artft burn in (lie VC4L1 144^', •■ud ilir-J in lIjj! >i!ju l^4(l- He 
HfudJiil ^1 Th^ Km^ar^ily of P^ni, >in} u-Jit »ti tTilinMic trinrit of t'ra^mitH f>f 
Koictnl.tit K<< it morpoMrf vbn auibfif iif a nambpr f>F valiiablt fi^iiic^iucKKtl vorkv, 
Bifhcp Vitvi. tioHcvc^r, niui cittu be itmnlvd as a ct<j£imaii, nlm in hj> pf.wtjiiil 
<3rvtf urintd jit rIniB f^nd It tllfflcalt to rpconcllc hi* t^mad'inindril <ictiuli.4rif^ if1'-4li 
»ilh th« duEloa □! hu CdJlm^, lad «ilb llw naggnratuil nkcclical ItrnJanciM b^ 
nrhicb be 14:111 luitvuniJrJ A^k malbot of tocU "i .1 thi^rl lintc Ibr* cbuicb ib wva 
practinHy t« orprridv :in t]ii>i bbpnl pdacatinnil moM^mroi tif the re'n;ij«utnrc 
Wiihin (bv coMe^ and convvni'walU, in Ibc Lntm counirici, ihe hunianr paTBtcal 

frtn. prrWiTu] Mjpv**ll»ftr«'. ^nd un ndif^iH »liwirr;i!ir lyrnnny Witli :i!l rmr MumrM 
miminn for ibw 'Pork miiinti>'I by m^n like l^nki Vivwn *r "mini nevcitbfl*» 
fp^atain, th&l all, vi bCKflv Jilli Ibi^ FLU^^iiju^iL. F^LiCdCiinaal a^atcni^ ni ibc L^tia 
rfiUDtriH rluriTtg Ibr fcilSriwiiiK iwnnifirt. van t^attioly Uy valid cUimA M a |»lac» 
larlbnn Ihv pale af nu4 pod&jcojt^CAl xiitncp. 

/V< PAt^t^f^y ■/ Enrpr^^'ffi. In diit concluding ^Tlk to ihc WT]l(5r cLbbUi- 
nivly dMrnurt tlip f^liicioiiit Ernrifl and etAintl prerl^p(l of KnippdorlF^h, ia, barb 
appt«r in Eb* rrocmium. in \\it (bird book on Pbyiiu. and in 1h« p«m ol Ibv 
"u#^fwf">-<fr QapiH(viy auutfiiiFala 

tti^/ifl_^rjikv In ih« dcpifiropuT w* nciicv a I*ni^(b>i f*vi*w cpI I'rof t. L^bI 
PotiD di MoiBbelb't Ltitmfii i>H M-"f*fV. ddivcnMJ jit Itic L'nUcnily M Pe- 
ruKl«n III Itiift nuiiilici air nijv ccmiaiiirtl llie HviUtUieo VtJ'i^'^**' t-'Hvtr^to, 

REVUE PHILOSOPHIQUE. Novwibi*T. tfigi. No. 11. 


Kanlkin* By,/ J^4*iiiir 

fft dbni»i»g ihe pan of lh« will plriyvd in bahct M. J J, Gourd coftlkderv 
om bcUef iP an alu>i'phcnciincJikl rrjlilt vlilcb be caUi ' nLr(apbvtica] tvUrJ," 
*'ALI thonghr," bo t,a.}K "invaJv** a roilJliun, v\.i * ivUUaa titruiHc «ii)bjr(i and 
objaei- Ktory ralntiim prtnuppoHit a rompafiion of iIb Icmg «nd thiB c^mporiMii 



a ni>t cttAblithpcl if ihe qubjrci uul objc« bAtonie to dlfiarcnl vcrldv, The sobj 
i« unilnuhEnLly Injrtl in ^nh^im^nrM. ihe obJ«i mmi br <Ti*^f al»rt Ml tTip In* 
ffrni^at ai^onipnt* i<^ mcApr tblt fonr]n*i4>a arv vnin, Afford! ik|f1}', i>n« miiv vH 

M- Ti Tnnti*, itii* ifrn^i crhniiirrlfieiht .itkImh itpimrirTit i^r f'fnfrmir l>7mt>row' 

oprabral itrucEurtf" «i*v*rBl xilmifHia c4 r1i« problem <it iha iintur*al EhfjUjitii'fL^finii, 
npr<itil1y K»Dr« i-ir*( ol llir ^ fi'pti. Sironcly in^aeocied by Schopmbau^f. ha' 

of tlic ttfiKiii "f iJciiii, In cnm]wriR|c ihc ur^K'^ ^^ UlrMJi lo ilie rjriKia of vtUr k>if 

DelmloDi ftUiv tnL4> InmiooiiccentrM and cooHiout focunH S^ncirlon lid«i»." 
And )jc «um» up hi* view Jj» tUc xmcrncc - 'Nibil cil in intcUr^^iu qwjd ifjn t^iu* 
fiiAfii in bTiMi «T i-nlnnmifi ^ {Fndii P<^lSi: Akan,|" mv 




VBQtinniriiEK B> C~ l.»iHf>r^te And -V Ojri'Ff^fit ^UH 4 Pi^ 

r«arc I^mbrrjw and his justtcipt S. ntroknghi rommunlcflte rhe rcaultt 
th«ir Tnvnttii^tjrjnn ol [b« tafikc* i:il bcni criTviniib in 3 «ifni1ur w^j- ^« ibc Cennor 
(be two h^ iJunv in his "SmduM in Ct^minul XnTbropdloi-y/' 7hf M>mitt. VaL 
No 7, p. 177 f^ wm Onr iiuihan *ay - ' ' Smcp ibr dayt cf lh« ftimaupt (ipH-k ■ng*' 
vhoiald ihat DDlhing ctme tnio tbe Ut«]leci sava ibrougb tliv eata^«tl7 of rhvvaHB, 
it cimid 1w FciPiRcn ibiil h hludv -jf ih>^ iicriACt muflJ bcsrcmic ilir ^awviAV I'jcihics/* 
And, XI iH A fur-i rrtri^i;m'U''d l*ir wimi' hinr l-ntl mit jim yr»r prnvM hy r\ae^ iTi«<hnds 
thai n lack of morn] tpijv if ott<^ nd^oitLpnnivd wiihan oblntil^'cif tb? 4cnsc orgAHA. 
Dt. Ac-iiu"» Uoitnia Telidji iti^jvkvxl j.ii miKr ibicLicc of \hr muAj] »icn« wlicai ulia 
va* in n j.ia(i^ nf anAltfraifi HomAm^ hjifc p<iint«] i*m Utint flip «-jiwTivr'nr«, To \aitt 
14 Kmntcr JD lame itiuniaLfi rhriq in wild bt^^iMA. thtt in luperiii-Ny nniiccAbl« in iho 
6uK. h n n'?icwoTLhy dl-m tluil uisun pcrciplm an? dlinuil JD«tiiiib]fl 10 pnlp VpbJla 
d^ilioiiiM) dfiFih rricriMVi vmihlliiy till ii tvcooriM hypcra-fthpshia 

Obtiuiiy 'sJ (be i»[i«c orannft m frLitiin^^ti ihould not b& ccjcluuniitd liowvcr 
iiviili Ebc ADjmThciu uf tiimimLlk. bvciiuRc tlhc lAtity uf laLofjJily, ihr abuutc of 
ivilntM invrrnuFiIp plarwK tbA bifk nf mnCnry nnnmaliiii^ mr . «iMiidp ihp «ii|spwiM 
lioQ of h>tiiKia 

Oui nutb^ri^ foUEid amoaic 35 crlmliuil Lwyt lictwccD m Hnd 14 tcAii nij 1 
tbna T«n cmvn nf ;tlj«olu(r^ anflloulA. v/hkh provrit tbir ihii< m^mpinm r^nnnr hf» 

oltact of jilcrttL.tiUifi. kyi^hiltn, mrirxamuh, iit nwirworit '^f a Hfirtml irnd^, 

?i»7*-irfnl Jinejdiiim *it »"lrl aKiiii ihfr inwnMbditj to pain An oM ihn'f bad bl« 
Ipb arapijfATnl wilh tTii Kftvjif^T *pntby irtf nprratinir imne. hr took rhr linik tnio 
hJA hand iJsd jok«d Aboui ir. An invfltBiato murdertr. b» pan«l HiviEud* htiu 




ntAnd, aa* di«mt«0vt mit r^f rh* hunnmif itip iilinrl S 

triyiHl, IvcAUw hf liirt noL Udow how to c^l fo.-^f nl^d itirltrv. 
frluAcdn hr apcnrd tjih trfjurlh u'tib iEie.- tXHmlle «l ii hfiuim w*rit Ij> Ivd 4h imiMl, 
mil 4in| Atihnot «viia n ni^h Mjamlnn, u f-nminaL ihi^rily htttar* fiiii #?c*niihiD 
'«]lo«i?4 hEnt9<ilf 10 bo cni m t'lK^ii plomwiibuvni et^jtv a ilcn ol pain : criiuiciai H. 
flaytil ibv ikln M hb (acc vfith » plnr uF kIah- In ibc [vaktniluy At CtikthuD 
dnnng iJio ^wa eH^i Add if»7J, «.|] tolciaLkr^ uroDndi icd iejuric* ucro mad«- 
AaoAf Ibfm 17 ctinviciiL luj mulibitrd iinni« limb, nml m 17 coacH ihc limb b^^ to 
b« ampuuinl. 

Tb<f (iMaiATv ot Eh« tPAury orgAm in CTlmltiftl* ii iQpj>aud Eo bv ot a COTtlcal 
4iii;iii And Licin^ limilm 10 ibc phruuiRcrKi v( Htviv;i: liir a iLilrrpfclcd !> nlavivn. 
CnRiiiu]»» ^mv. i\tr{\iirntii^ iti tlii' ^i^ntiu <i( (ciLirFi, H^]l^l]. ta<iti«. nml bn^rin^. bui 
Dill of «Jt[hi \nH Ehii IV atialci[(4^ii4 Er» ihv «0vaj>^ in whom ihr tviifD of ^bl l« 
«4iti-rtf11y '^ty MrDon. uitl no crLmiD<i] could ci^ut? nuaicruut ibvfu ^r cx'^pc ihc 
um el lunjic A^Lboul ,l higb dctclijpmciiL ii[ (br httimr til vJkIei 

In lb* Hocmid sirtici* un cumparintmk til lonv-flimuDCbt Ctiiuiv l£iig#|. PrcfiHKcr 
ai th« iCoy^ Hij^h Kbool ^ XTiimc in Gvrtm. lake* «iccu^gti lompLun his Wcva of 
iht Mrt'jKt with rrff-rvucE tj ibe tcvorc crtlicUni ot C t^iurapl no Cjri Lofetu 1 
tbwry Wilhf Im Wundt hid iikvo pu-t in tbo diACimiop in lAvor Of Lorcni. Tbc 
■itbjrciol tliG «rUde lie* ia tbc buntcr^EiLnil licl^crn (lie phyiiiulcKr of b?«rin|t ^tad 
miwic . utjeI Pfi>luMil FhIhH ccjiTiitii ii» iht< ™iidiitian ifj.-ii iiffiniiy a| lonw. i r lli*r 
mUrral'tkiiw m a ni»Jnf!ioim Mirci^tiitti Aon no! lead to [h« umo nci^iirdciv and re- 
HiUliiy of tioarins a% ibnr concord lie obiDCt* U> Lhe idci uf mi ,tnilimctit«) 
^vdlBcn;nc« ui prupmnl by Ijrircnt hiiiI Witndt Hnd t^rovn it thmu^h tbo fnct tbnt 
ttit fflhatiartfan Ix'tdb in tbu unnccampaniod KCJhIn mnkot a ■«« noikcabUr diiiu'b- 
4Mq iluA ID a c<:hiicoicI, uhik iti« i|>|frox^inAieIy puic cWcc Iv^bicU m too [•^vt only 
by a imail frscturc oC a cirmmat it i^ifelleni ia the amcmd wh[k ii caiitr^ a ttighi 
diaturbuii'a i» ibu nioludy Mi]iiic»1 lUturvHla ^m not id«nlicj] uiLh lb* ffflcnntflnul 
iiK«fTAl», yvt ibc) 4ir b^kHid «i>on ihrm iikdi wl4?cUDn nAde junuuic JJ^iuincrAbte 
pauJtiillli« for DerUtin piir]WK<7« Yfwir acvaplDtiu^ ■» rtUtbliiihat only in S;iTrntinlc 
mtimt, ]>ijr th^s fdft ti4 bdttt wuo difftcuJtlei it Oit? ifivuii|{Alioni oijida in LbjB 
ficbl, Cr>r il tAc tvtica uiimc! t^eihrt. wc c^n \nt lon^fV LJihiJEiiEninb tbam stpsiratvfj^ 
» vtoviii 1h* TrtjtJiiTtJ fiw Ihp iftvr^tjjralioii . utid tl ut [n Ihc on? viccpvd ;hr oih*T 
llitiir |iTQiti4iri<a] r<^]Aiinn is ao Lorvgor dtffcrn&l wiib ibi^ uimc preciatun I Hamburg 
end Leti^nk - Lrutujltl \'v%%. \ 4^iV. 

FHrLOSOPHiK. Vol XV. Nor. 3 an<l |, 

CDKtBNTS c>f Nai; 

ArbWLf By J. V-i'O- 
Zvi PHiLUhurHfib ukk Maihkhatia- By 4^Ar^ r. EArtK/ftr^ 
riHK FoiAXMirxauArcui, tin MV IWHB^nLOCti. 1^^. C?. Hmsutt. 

CDKTENTS of »& ^ : 
Btkholooi* otic AnvrntTifc JJy fl, (-V^j^ 


Tim iiosifti. 



(»lci(Wirhi> Ria^lcfcu^eQ By Af. Offntr 

ProE H, Hiding's a nictp AH ptyrliicnl nnd pVyviool AcU^ily i«aD anw#r lo 
KlilicW by PicJeifltn Kit>miiii- I'rgfpsour llfifldio« baJ piupusrd, cupceTuknjt ilii 
Trillion of The ptjchlimt to (h<? pbv^iffll a iheiory which !ir (^i»Ui>iI ihf ' klfsjtii 
tiy]?at1icauO icc#TfI(nB lo which lliiv pb^'iocil and pi/chicsi] nctivtHat ant ooE dif- 
forvoi in th«ir nature but tinly in ihpJT ph^nomcnul dp|?'?uiAncr. K KrumaJi, 
COUDtryiDJin snd «rollaiijEUp uf }l H^vrfrUniij horti ntp prut pwnrK ai ihi* irdtvpr^iry 
CapnhLgtn- icjKiTtd la hit r4«eiiT wDfk " Lv^ic and raychulufj^" ih« iti«Dl]i^| 
hypilljeiHa Aikd clifii.ictcrtvd it 4» " Duplicium/' ii n^Tiic AfMinnl Atiich llufliliBS 
promiH Krh-]infln\4>1ijtic^iumHar** At CtiIIlj^m \ j) Nai^itaI Hripi;f'i' know^ of no rva- 
Hn ta caTKvJvtf of ihc rrJalioit ^\ the Tnycbicr^l to ihc material ia iKo w^y *x- 
1>i«Mrd b> Iho UcntUv'hypolhesli- ^ Oo itr bi»»i» t'l the Mcutti>'bviul1ap«ia 
T«ni.iinK unniplfltniul haw wn t^in hnow aaytliinj^; alx^t (hn nirsrajtl whi M ^ ti 
imupJir^bl* hou ah i^flnttl^ an obtain oE E«a.'> id diRitruniiL ihinga at am Tlia bodil 
Dmliiptidiy >ind the (nychjuil uajly. I'E^jfnsai Il'-Qdinie JnvmliipOri thm? lhrv«' 
ol>Jr<ibn« tqi'irarply And L-i-ini« to th^ ccincEntInn ihai liiiv idrnfhy'h/pottirfiit «hov* 
lh« Trlativa boi^aon iha p^ychicul Ufld mnUriol uiilutc io u clear itnd >Jri:i|}]c UuhLS 
tl r^icZuttca tm Lh« pnn Ujin^ nintnTiiiU«m hikI »ii tliruthci liHJkd tipijitil«fi>iii. Tb^^f 
qii^MJ'in whrlher ^uhrr prt*TTit*mf^on, ipirir r^r mari'^r, rrprr?vp» thf ihwhH* m- 
turi? of pkisifiKf » canfiui, accord.iD>i lo ^l'^^4iiDJE, bs fiDdsvarcd, Ir appran (a in ikal 
Pfvlc^bui J|t.'ailLiJv'h |r4.r*iliim \>, ii'und in aII iiiijh (ihutu heuI iimy tic iimhidctnt m^i 
th^i vii** winrli |i< mnni ^iwvjlrtu amr^na mrxtfrn pivrb^tlnj^i^iv Howi-v*!. mn-j 
ovmJDji iho qu«i1ioJi vhnlbur spint or rnal1v<r rvpr«cni> vho nbtoluip luitur* of *i« 
]»Icdcqh wc icCcr tht iMcJri Of the miiUirUl anicEc ~ Are (here TMdje» Ln TbciC^J 
■iJvM? " itfciion XII, "^ThoOuBiuw* (it Siibjociivliy aodObJociivliy " In our opii 
ion iTid quMiion itvclf it Hlocii'i^nli^, Niiiihnr ihtr priihjoftjvity of npiril. nor (Ud o1 
jectlvtiy o( uifiiier n^prewuis iLc a.Lnoluic uaiur? o[ viiflttrncv , bolh lotvtLL-r turotl 
thr njiiire ol i-iirt^riM ; and t^r omtf here Tho wnrd " jUsnliiie" piirpiMeJj^ The 
f^uentifiT Eifc tn wbich nbfttrart, multar cir nplrit, rcprcacntk tlic itbkolulc Dnlurofjf et- 
inliTCjic vrimv <u itn wraiW Ir the *jiiT^iirjn ivliidi i>f ilit iwti icrifls /^ a(nl ^ repr^i 
vpdU iti ih«- r^aiion i - ^' thi> aliti>ltii'* njint* n( ih^ crlnrion '|'h*H nhvioiii %n\ 
b PehhrT- 

ThoAi^blhartUIa a| A- Marly of PrA^u«oa Laa^aigc rcllcH (^ mainly of a 
tnivcTnia] imturc dirocLml Mi^yiinitl L. Tciblcr'* arlicic on the urif^iti of liitifujme ii 
ihp Zulu^fift fUr l'alJt/t^rtyi^tthj;U, Ry NAlivnni^ Mjiti^' iindtfrM^ncU thi^ tbvctry] 
that (#ruin iovoliintaty arlicuiitc K>U(id»ar> avax-itii<d wii^i cr-rTnm idnt. whil< 
tfacx»c*lled cmpJTHJil thwfT Attampia lo r.ipUin the orijiiu «I the ^rai ^vi^tOi «tJj»] 
rut viflh Inniiti- m«hfttiift*t r*rtAirc>fin bMwrrn soHHila ani) ctrnrtpt* M»r(> rrpfi 
tiriiti thn tiTJi^ricjil BoUitJon rjf tliw prolalffo dud ohincln Id llti- tit: imma i^iiivi4inH but] 
be £fani9 that Toblcr'tmoiiHinJ JUitvism iipprcnchm tcry much to hit iiuji LVt^lioa*' 

Thi> hmjcnt 9tticTr-ol Tbi* pn-wni iiurnhnr {t^ n> I '■ ^(n rwray full tjt i^ftlgil 
hinis by Chr. v. IiChrenttk on ih* Pliili»ophy of M;iihtmanc» The vpittfr 
^iuvl luait tA niAtbcamtio deriMnd* a potycboloici^S ijtvurth'^tko'n of lu ocffkldai 
Accni^ingty tlur iiuihihr propdhm to prmml a pnycliolnifii^] i:hAniclcrii>alioa pf 



DDinbtfr-coaocptlt>as, fccfn vblcb be derives ftami^ f aaduAinnit unfrjiiInK Thr \hmtj 

shijrft-T iiiicTi|w*rn tlirrf ily fmm ihp ofiiifrtrt, when wt look tnt mslancr ir one houn* 
mih i4» (tonn and hv^ windo^^t. Hut Ihu proc-m of ikhiiTrActicii ih not <tijile ho 
i'AmgI 19 il an^cEiLs, T^e nLi(Dbcr-?ufiu:f>Uijo i% □»! UiKcit fremiti eilcfu^l DtnRrwtiQiJ, 
b«l carriAl jiil<> tirr umc. ym thit ift donr InvfilEinuriLi and iTLicInrrlvniljr v> ih«l 
il appfttn u ii th*y ifiwn 'p i/tf uuitoina'i in it 

Wluf 1^ ihrorrirtii itf ihr* ntncrpK "mihy '" srd " miitflplifiry "/ I'wonmhoilf 
fMaODl ch(]in«elv» : i) The cooctrntrcLlioD vf ■ticDT^ua aad [xf llie 4Cl iti hnn^iB^ 
tmo rcdBttcn, Tbt lixtccr proLtucn a QUiry -i.riiJ vUra hucrntTtdy itiLurin! in 
•rvnsi AbjACiH. Ji icnf* t^f umii The lairnr ii]i|v*r* 11 ba r-€iiiiT«l hy ilm ronmliT' 
Aticnn ihat ibfi ronerptinu M n number Ik C(»nHiEJoiiixl by act« cf din(i(iji^i»hiOf I'tit 

fiitm tohy wc cuu tiHvc il'^nr jiiul JinxE iximjoptionb vnlv uf very Ian fiHurtt, Ttic 
iilsii thjtt « nitnbJDHtUib iif tjuili iEimhm]H will rkpUm lh« bets m hy ao nitaus vt- 
dmlvd. JVit ihfT* tt k third vinrr* whirh tuny br iiwH iii^iplain ttte naAy<on- 
depdoa. vlt- inD« vtperloiiM. "The uDily dl i:oD^iou>ncu.'^ HFircufdt wyt, "b*a 
fcccm iTiAUAFj] in phllouiphy U>d«mun:«tr«it(? r!ie K^ilwi^nlEdlit^. nidi vi lid iy, JirrT tnilr^ 
iUnK^ibifii> (il thp *nul " KnvPTlliwIeiw »h*»ri- ia i^::!'* tnifh in Th** iiniTy lAra. f^r 
dM prwni pi^ichical jihctioPkODa pr««onl ihcmtoNn in « [tfcUmr imnli-amfilioi), 
which wlniLi&cJ ^ (uiii^j^TLkTii twi^oei) iwu rlcnicnw uhilc H nttti a t>fciTiffr bt- 
turwa itie^^> ADfl Ttip /A Otrr ptyi^nif Jil f^aFcFLiH will ilw^y* np|xMr Fu lu ih a 
nail , uiJ An llli» lh«hin wc niigbE Jfxlnrc ihni ttir \iFHty oonccptiiin m Jcrhnl frcim 
tliiiKiunv. [Ilpr*' EfiirnlclFi ilcwft lii^t mv tint (bt coacvoitjilloti ut Jillvatba a 
pnclifall; Ihc Am^ 3« th? unirj^ >3r tomciouincH. for allmlni-n means ^niTiciout. 
■C9K utd coTlccairAtian produce* uflity.J 

*iV thiwi 3t dumlTf 'tf n|^>Tr« 1M0 a \'m%\^-I^ or irv Irl (lir fin|^t qlitlr ^-Fvr thr divi- 
tioci liari fjf a nurtnurinn Vick Daminf rach iinil whiTe priin^cfslint; 1:1 ih'- ^ci PrnTO 
inch pTQfWMt lh« fDnchou of coun<iti]E cAQ be •btuicfol vhil*: cbv deiAilt bfe 
Drflpctcd K* untm^x^itMCit Mi'al uf l!ic hijfficr t]iiitLl>rnt jiic nevct (!iKct[> IjuI only 
inctirvrllr rt^liMvl S^-i fnr inal^nrr Ewt-nry ix To mitny ihal niicith^r whirbi will 
b« rr^flh^ by cotinlii^i: up En rw^tiiy. ytt iho sinK^*? iin^U of Ihc onmber ^tv lott 
■ilthl cf ciiUid)'. Su>-b 1^ umbel -CLjiJcqpdoai bcluUK ti> ilic diU4 u( "iaJ^irci <«a- 

lOptA' whii^b rfiprMcni iibjvru not thn^ugh m^krlDi l»limhf[Og tii rhi?cihjrf4 itwJf. but 
erjgiaAfiog ihrou)^ iU roUiion toother »bj«U. TKs l>uii df Mich indiroet coh'^ 
C*pis hail Lecii called br CbiruJoti iJtiitiiti^unUfiSifV. 1. ti f^uip (|Uulilia< tod bj" 
MeiaabfE/AN'/'r// fni/ifir or fnimdrd tonrenic Thtii indirKi ooorepilfinB paru 

■Boatiag«Bt upiHi idru tu<h baii*. 

NDmber-^oofepuaai m* not alwiii dearly [hou^hl out »fid ibura *r* »m» 
k<)p* lo Ff |>rearaE hiichcf or caorr «icnp]Gi numbcfH Tbtu wtf <ii» ibinh <i ten Afe 
nfVrwmed by the uJthiJe and inaide cotoeis of a pouiflEnuD. twelve u ihn vAigm 
of ftoibe, etc . BAd comriLOii Amoii£ oil tiaiiont l4 the ut->^ 0I Ihe An^n *o reprs- 
MAlBBflibcrs vp ta icu- Sucb hvlpa nfc ifuifc diicr«:ftl fntm indirect number cor- 
CVpliiKu tn^l ni-Ay Itc cjiIIkI f^ifiirailvt^ numtjtr-rfiDcirpticinh 

Ttui there are m^thentaiLca] cunupfiotifc at rugnjtiailB* which h«t<e nu objeriiva 
loaloiC^ff ifl quite nbtURfl. iof Lhvre ii vvwi in on indrrcct coDCppEuo fto warra&l Ilit 


11 111 Mo^vi^r. 

iti obj«ciiv» rwiJitf : and w» oughi to coDndar how maa^ word find IdM cciabi 
u'uos ftrr pvtublc aiiIiuuI thv'xt |rwcd»iii|E hhuc jmHlmci-i^* iCHlilr VcT (]>' *ci'C«J] 
irratinmtl cannni prnpcrly b* called a niimbar. it la llir rl^-mfuifl nf u nirml-trr <« bicll. 
i& fnciionn r-in tiiflicirniJr for ooriAJn piirpr<iHA tmi nncitr Mlv Hp r<iilw?d 

N^[|atn« TiLtcnlwri :ilv<^y« pn<<i]pp[^i* a conir^it ;in£l «u(h cnDdiliinnt arict 
nAiural]) vhart^cr the l\iTidAiniMi[ji] {don^ jonply tuu opp(rtit? rjlre(iiua>, Um iiut*D<v 
pife(t ftfiil fmore ill lintc, creilic nDd drbit in biiM^ncn, cic. Ir i>. a mntEer (if c-m 
tliAl ih«ni jLr» in mlity na Iitl1« *iEh«r pii*illv* or D«sACiv» utimbvf^ ** Civr* 
po>l6t« ot nri^iitc colon or K>tiad>. 

Concern^n^ The inKc^^^ty idiNi Ehrcaffla fnp - "Kobodf wfll oocMder ll 
prwiflilr rhj\l liii! Tilu* m.'*«i »ltl in fcniac <i«*& niahi;>tii> ulbd nuinlwj Ehhn iMcl^b 
W<i nrt> tDnfid«nt ihAt fho omc mlfliticm wi!! HHriiT alU'irrumfctyrti.* ji-Iri th'u 
fuiU- Ithranfrlrf j{ranu thn fk^rchicjil coniindci i^E ihtk liut cioi ihc marlinnnli 
And thtnki thii on itiis pcfini chnt l» a dlllcirac** «i opinion fillowable. Hrfc 
dit^kyrr'? fftini F:>iio]ifr]a flinl rcfei ih« rrarlr-r ti^ f'prmrr afridi^t an itinr^'nA i»b 
is JV^ .V^-H4ri. ra|HitUlIy tho arllclc aq ■" Ttic Origin pI ThoU){ lit- form >/' V^J, 11. p 
t4C XVe ntusl bciir n^ nviiiJ Ibil iiL inartjoiuuTici vv orr movinc in n rrklta uf pure 

i, c, ]l i* dcrrrmiaDd cKhaubtiVfily ie one And (he finly o^t: pcuoibk wi^. Tbc qu 
brn 7 And 5 lir'iii^ riK^d thrJr i^iim Hnd Ihdr |X'i>rhirr will Aim \\v. ri|[K| 

TliiMliili-rnLcD nr (iini)i[in Ulnr Ui cnbliJkGrnC \j\Km .1 cUllcrpucp «d Ibv coaCJV 
tlon of fhTirt/ri.'W RlifcfTlcU di<fini?«as "n pciofi ■ -pic-li judKmrriTf «hiirh hsi/^jn 
come tnl^our p^touloD, arc riMdily accepted wirh'^ui pmol WoCHnrtuiB Gruhtma' 
m icicHiriiik; ihr toccpmntr of itrirLhiiiK vriilidLtl pToijf, iticludinj; ihc idr.i i>f m 
rhrmutirvil Atii^iiTih Thi ii ^n.'rr in nur ttrminfilci^y Tmriifnrs id^'ntiial h'lih tb 
tvhirii pf rtaitu i-> forceiaJ thoiif»ht - And it vrould imiki; iii> differonc? whether ihc 1 
tiaipi-r |jinirii(cd ■> ii> sIiLtpIc 4i I 4^ t ^ « ur c\|(CLtiGTv tvmplei ^ Ale Ihr JilTrtvB 
iri] rilniluN and Inj^iirithmA Arri)nli%-ly ivn dlnugn-v t^'u^ fti^m Knrtf'nf'U uhMi 
bu IinilH i*viin in v,uch ndriitinns ■'h For inatnnrt l^z^-j- ''7^'*^^ ^■**1A™'^ 
a f Off trior t ^liaTsclRr Tht cm[>lu>iiii'ni of vlit lo^Hiiihnib accordiauty aypom to 
HhniUfek al^r* ttfi'ir^'i^n'fi^ bec-iii^e »hr friiiu nf oihor pfv>plm' fahon nine niihffd 

Conti'tninK J'^'Iiti Slu^n Mill* view of thr wihiL-ul, Hliiciifi^U »ar* tlrnt ' it 
•lill duply flhian^lDd in the otrvr* crf that iM>ncDpiJiia wfciich it 10 IrilTurLy uppoHi^, 
vii in ifar Cornuiliiim ciE the old purely t fri.-ri c^acfipiion Forr only br vho , 
berps 10 fhv lisw tliil aTI muilieatailcs Jirr deduL'i?d frjrti n frfW aKionis can ibin^ 
AtTntiuitnii; 10 ih^^ap aiinitit lb? kiiAhtai dei^rec of plau^bility ^hhch it aHumed for 
tbcm <m the ((Tviiilci uf icDiprchciiiivrrdtfdtictian." Wc bjctvc wilb HUrcnlcU'i ob' 
jrHinn In Mill fcinl wr ciiiiniH i^pp*^ with bii^ rirw ibtt TiintbARutiin diTit-** A^y 
FUrTi0n[ii from <■ ^itrij-n^-n 4<l<-irpnl<, ildirii>Rh uv [fmiit fh.1l i-\iutr itr\x Hi>partnienU 
arr (rni1i>d stmpl> by a dlflrrent nofiluvmvni of crrtaiD function »^ Acoorcllnfl^ 
i]i^lbi?tktiilSc» cjjinc^l In? drf kvu.1 (rum jl few uxicimh ouly but ii ihc produciA of 
lain functiDdi- 

Rbrfnfelt c>\U jflrntion In ih»> farr ibnr Ihf* marbnrnAtidin n[wratin|[ wilfe 
«yniba]t c»f cwi forinrU rnfiMy vhat liv lian 10 think rif in coonrciioQ vHh thne « 
bgl»- 'Tliii is nol »uaPKi%" he o-ld*, "' for Tliuu4:tiiU» wfiM -toinbiBfiU^im p 
jinnlogfiiiii iDfitAnfH, yr\ It Uiironge fhAi thr iv«iilt flltni^i i«'](hf) #if<^(ioci aim 
out ri^bt ; *t ifitfunt S" We '>bjpi:l hart , f^pcrnciona with ni^lbrinHtical ^it^fttk 
are bol lliaJxhtlen combin.niwifi, :ii le^fri, iJiey af*- no( riL^iciicctnt. Thtfy 
op(fniian> ooi wirh ihinei, bui wirb sjmL-iolv rpprtvniLni; ctruin KlabnoB a 





thjnfc (iiirtn^ the ganu* of ih« t,'a]ii<- rrtprMmiitrl tiy a chip hq*! j#livh*>n rhf ucniirt 
it mnclr. itiff r-4uh ,iLLiin«d with thv iiwintiin« of ihtf f h^fu v-i\] c-xnr i>ut fichi^ 
T^Cr II Bit :wh>D lo » jGdffr ill ii Chipa ULp laflihciuiiljcj] in'mtcU mijttt in a 

lfaoM^lL«Mi in tbo HOiw CliAl tbey nrir □laxkoingfrBK thai noibing i* Ihnuglii bjr 

EbrMkfpJk app^rfctly imm « problwai wbcn tber« b ngxio ^ad Ibis b UtHtly 
onE«ci<?(l "Itb aooibn polai Ifc luokn npoa ihi? auibemadcina!! Inalilllti df 
OkinWiP^ uai tn evtry rpflpecri f h? objective inAuiin4E ot matbcniAtiCJil nvitifc^ ua a 
>hij(t<"imA)i nC mjiir» JDUllecl While it nppejint thst nc UQiinc thcnk unvlbiiiu by 
nuny mujfir-maiicnl lyinlioli ifrtr inM»nci- ivy \i**^ 1 1 irtcrpl ihp lymlinl itvlf. Ihp 
tfbOtnoikt iLjCftf of mnihiprTidViril lh'>Uk(^t » eml«ict thai they ruutt have tom« 
ilc^nkr rDHOicif d]|tiLJUKb ie » U) br ci,i!u|-turci] ^r ^ e1iu*c brin^i who ytiU CF^ni- 
lbs Avosjtc inullri^i'mf <■( iiJ-Jny ihr lidtl Kcrritk of ttJi>Ai' mihamu'ir an' tliv 
ttathomaticsl uflniiivt oF iho pin«vLit gi'itKriiim II appaLtr* i« u« thM iindg^t>E«<Ily 
«tvry (nalhcmfilical >ymbo1 h.H a (9f ^jtf mc^jDinc, irprv^rniins tbr rf>ult of lumc 
limcLoiL TliAi iTic lesuli vwill fomctimo- bv ucaiuinablr or jitmsliuiblr? ibit ap*- 
doll}' «ll optTuiionn with trro nx^ itit wholta fiilt\iUtuM indthai^ {^hich e,:itnr:Aty 
AfWA frcirii the lulurc ol fcru^ dtioi #llci ihr iruili Ltf (!»» ptu|Xkfjlii-iij it; (l» 

Wc b^f to iTi'ikr i>Ei(i iKMiLjnniil rrifuLTk Tbc |>fltuhfi.rh^ *A inAiheriiiaiica ihat 
VP<to not ihrotitfbcioi «ur otitir^'ii^^^ think oiil rhr rrrcanint; of the ^ymliolk it nui 
m Bboricuci LAic oF t>ur Lr]iciht:«ncc, 1>d[ iIw hired^ih uf rri;iibaniatic;il tdtncii Tho 

that HLV iij/fj met Think oitE fv*tj dHMtl, liiri thni w? can, thr«>iieh tht nviiiint'p ot 
«ulikt43ii<iral lymbolf. perform lh« moai iniricaio opcnu^uni with mmchj-Uc bkca- 
Attaca»- Tbr nuiJoiTiv oF LhuuKbE ]jr<*lutcil iu ihih vr^r j* Cvt h Ocncirbf7 -jI niALi'tt 
mind but a vItiub. 

Frof It. HilflilJne <m No 4\ inniiiTK tipoii ibv irsriul luw «k bHntf iodi«p«niabl« 
jo p«fcholojE7 ThftiT AT^ vtHiiT pmplraniJ ^mont; othrrt hit ^o]]?it;^« I'roli-tfeor 
'KroibMi wbo rch^iiril miirit Tncitivci ft> d^i txecptitm. " Yet/ «v> rsulesicr Htfl- 
dlB|f. ^'ultiHtM Ihr dn.i>!^r TiLE^inrHLr d A ilEi:LiiuU ni>1 Iv ilelrrniiiiHl I17 ihf riiiiul 
law, th' vill cfiuid am'cr bu UvfurmiDdd through n roflaclion on iho powltio odvfU 
of the AfTiJin iwd ihuB even tMHdi wcFuLi bo naininK loaiiribute to idau on^ lo- 
4poiutbilil> " 

E Grcaae cipiitUl«« un Lbc propo>iiiwi U>4|>ply Ibe uim|:^*livB uiBflioJof 
MhfiMfifr Tu mibtiici fflfd HoMmbflT^cr iiropoti* Ih* &i[k>u-in|[ prngr-imm*- 
" K[iH>*t<^[ftf ia pc-wr; aclWiCy bAivd upoa Mich powi<r i« ibr <aDK inE bj'ppirjr'%4 
TbMf^uiv Wkih ibe iacrcjn? ol knowltd^?, thers 1« an LaciTOscoi bappiutru. igf 
rrHful iiTttviiy hoi^wrr 14 impotaiblr without kfiuc Thi^pr»n- 'At ffint'.] udr tbjii 
ftD incE*a*rul luppliiEu ^ni b« rircompiuiifJ wiib Mri ipcrr-ucof nrlui:/' A Many 
IP ibj« hiA triLiih :irliclr VUjnr^ SitjrntlMil Ux 1jM\iii|[ mitrciirwv^ird tJt<? Flght«ti»[h 
CHlnry ihrcrM nf thi" nrit{in f>f lan^tmiti* 

Mr Otfn*r rtfvir-vv Pf CliTirW Ifirbft'* ropAn* oE hia lelcpflibic mpviimunti, 

bat ibfl revirMflr cjuDcri j-tosm 10 Kicboa uptnloii ' Ibat Ibnc Ucta [(lmicm <t 
tmAjEt «r1iulilri>rp ind tbnf thty aff. protaibly, thr thuIi of x r«1l(loTi uid oat of 



Had lk^ 


UtiKi o^vGKKrT Fri>iiFi^ii>itmfrO>[iE.j>M»>Hiu-MKbF»,u)HB7rt SfD^vchrf ibm 

' Wnvhi (I.* VHii-ov>TniK nn no<l^L■^ Ltuiin^ net drk GuoiKJitK. Gnl«r 
,\fT*hr.UH Sr«w;<Tr. SiiPi«tf>gir Bfl III) By /^. T^MtitA 


ipfvrtfDti? 10 ih« ii3«i of ati uccciiLKiioiiB rrprm-utaEiufL Gruntlof Ihiit ihi^re arv no 
fiii<cii«cii>ut irfit^f ton*, perccpnoov fMrnrrprnnnt rtf m^tncrir^. lipcnuc^ ttvlinj; 
ceiIIlei ia CLm^Juuh '>r dM a1 jIT be iurr<K]tEi-<?i ihe jJcu i*f uucuDstioLis rtprt^ulo 

nitnjnc* d-IJ 4p«akinte ond ihmking af nDD-wmuiL] ijbj^Lt or ivf triui be c4ii>:ttvd 

M J MtuiiaJ, ft !f ar WL-)£lAn. arKUf*, (o tbc wconiJ Article ancAhini M. E. Re- 
oMn'i Ihmrif of prMj«r. whrffft Hb tiul ^'miWl ftoma ynrm ago in l^riK, th^r jnv^ 
bni ^fl^r aLI ne 4ffcl itpnn Iho objrctiva niflii antl il if not Itmitfid toji rnf^ely 
iiilbjocilvfr piJid iu>'cl]olcii:Lca] inrlupnct McpDTad pr^iiipposcs n tH.'litt In GckI, pri>'cr 
bringing Tb« iQilividuiil m iimior] unh God, ch^iD^iH ihe ^Ul of fhc LnJividual into 
a CO cridiaAtn willjuy nf GikI 4Qd ibuh remtcn the indivjdunl « co-ta^rkrr of C<H. 
Tb». bo<#vvvr, ihuuld uot be ti.ititrivvd id labt pljtcr by turtle and m ci^Qiradlc 
lion M ntLiiirc, but Ihrati^h nBiiiro. m^n utinR ibc Inwi o1 nnTum 

F T<jaiin'-"i ul Kiel fc;ivc> no nffcnili^jn fi Ml. SpDuctr'^ foci*! ^ie-A^ wbich arc, 
bdirlly nprcuri], ^~ tlm i^naf vidciry ul ^ttciifEy lj^ti ilir \1Mf> " Pn^vA«« T^nnjm 
arvwpn ihat "w all wunt a bigli^r civiHsalion^ bni tb«< tl»vi>^loptnrat of a bigh*r 
civiliBDlic^ Id tiai conditioiit>d by ibc AdaI vtcii>ry cf KicJcly gvor ihc MMt. Onlhe 
cnmr-try. li niJiy bexiid that It tlqwnd* iipan a vlri-yr «( ibe iiaie n^rrwclety In 
vt lur 3-* public riftUlv will inpffraod* primtt rigbU . Tbt trulb i\ rbif vintvand 
BQCicI} Arc waiJaipTi3[. th« oa« upon iho o\htt and also linntiTic fficti othfT ' 

(Benin: Dr K SAlUiEer.i tpK- 

Al'KlL. 1& 

Na 3. 



TN The Miwiti iat J«uiujit>% f $91. I endeavored Eo ^Uoyv what cle- 
I meriiary tdms ought to enter mtd out view of the univente. I 
muy menlior that on t1]<vEe <:on«rdtfr;itioQiL I had ilrcidy (grounded a 
cosmiui) rhcror^', and Ircm it had deduced a cociaidcrablc ntinnbcr of 
i^nseiinraceH captttdt; td \m\}^ ^umpjui^d with exjieiu-ncc^ Thi« 
coinpari«on is now in progre**, but imd^r eiciftttDg drctuiiiUncci 
li)u»t occupy many ywam. 

I propose hcic to CJLdmine the common hclirl Uial every single 
fati in Oie iiDivt'r?«e i^ prcci^^dy di'tcrniineil by Inw. It miixt not he 
supposed that this i« ft doctfinfi accepted ev- .)-wh«r« and at all 
times bv aJl rational men. Its l^iel advocate appears lo have been 
DcrucJCEt1ii?f tlie Miuini^lp who wa^t led to it, a& we Me iitfurriied, bv 
rd^^eting upon ihr •■impprrtrahiliry trfl notation, and impact of 
maitei' i^vt»rvjtia arti <pofiti hat) nXtjytf r^: vXr^l). ' That is to 
tmy. having restricted hi? attention 10 a liirld where do influence 
oiher tJian mechanitsl consuflint c<i»ld pos*ilj|y come l>efore ht* no- 
tice, he stvai^hiway jiimpi^ti in the conclusion thsLt ihroughout die 
ttoivcrsc Chftt wiic the sole (irinciple of action, — a »tyle ol reaaonin^ 
bo Uftuat ill our day with men not unreBeclmK as to be ujuie than 
exciisahV in ih*^ infancy nf ihoni^hr Rat Kpfciinii*, ttl reviting tin? 
atomic doctrine and repnirin^ its delcnccR, lound him^J obliged to 
atippOMr that atonic swerve Uttm tlieir coiir»c« by spontaneous 
chance ; and ihercbyiieconfened iipori tlie t lieory life and cntclwby. 

l-"«r uc now sec c!carl>' lliat Uic ^^ulur fmii;Uoi) dE lJ»c mtilccuLar 
hypotlie«ii* iTi (>hysrr^ is tn opcH ad enity (nr ihe rafrtilii* oi prol»» 
LiL>Uitiv8- Alrr»rly, the prmc4> of philoeopht-rs hftd rejxriitedly and 
L-nii^ltAticftllV conilemneti ihc dicium of DcrnocrilUtt {especially in 
Uie ■< Phy>(icfi/' Book IL chspier^ iv, v, ti)* holiiiu^ llut «verilB 
ct>ni« to paiifi m three ways, naiiK'ly, (i) by «acterca] ccm^i^ilfiton, or 
ti»c action o( eflif(«nl caii&c&, (i> by virtue o* an 'invaid iiattirc. or 
the influence of fmnJ cAtj»c», and <3) irTt^ulafly ^ithcsut (kfiaitc 
cau!(i^. but tuBi hy ahfiohirr rhancc: and ihi« ilortrincKOf Th« }n- 
mtist e«Hi*nco ot Aritiiotrtianifim. h affords, at any mio, a vahiable 
crumcntion of the v^R--^i|ik wuyv in wlncEi anyihinj; can ht: sup- 
|}OHed ro have romc flbniii. The freedom of tht will, too, wa* ad' 
milK-d lK>ih by ArittoiU* and hy Epicnni^ But thp Stoa, which in 
e\ci\ dejianmc*"! eci*«i upon the most innRiNc, hard, and lifeless 
dnaciii. rfind bUndly dcriicd ihc cNi*:cncc of cvt-ry olhcf, whidi, for 
pxaiinpEc, impiiK'i'^i^ dir vsilidlty af tlir tndiirtivr method and wUhrd 
to tit] its placo with th« rfdaaio aJ ahrttrdtimt very naturally iwcame 
tilt oiic school of artcicht philosophy to liUnd by n strict nvccssitarLan' 
\%\\\, thu& M'iMinfnR Lo iht single principlt; of Drmorntu^ that Bpi' 
Cliruthail hrm'unabk foswillow. Nec(**»itanflnitm and tnai^rialifini 
with ihc Stoics wtrnt hand in hanJ, as by afHnity ihcy should. At 
the revival nf learning. Stoiciam met vrith conirdcrablc favor, partly 
becaii>;r it ikparled jiiHt eiiou^'h licirn Arii-tuilr lu ^ivi' ii thi^ «pic 
of noveity^ and partly IwcaubV it* supcrftdalitics wtll adapted it toT 
acceptance by Mudcnls of literature and art who wanted their phi- 
losophy drawn mild. Aftvrwards. the ^icvil divcoverica in mcdianicK 
inspin:<! ibf; bopt- thai itiethaiiiLiil jinncipkH niiyhl Miffire In explain 
the univcrje : xiiiJ Chough w ithoul lyrical jusiihcantin. tliia hope ha.-s 
since been continually attiiiulAied hy»nbaequent advances inphyaicsL 
Nrverihelv^s, the doctrliH; wnv m to;> evident conflict with tlu: free- 
dom oi the wtl[ And with miiacles to he ^finerAlly ucctrptable, at 
firat. But mcfLniinic there »roae that moai widely spread o\ phil<^ 
S(jphiud blunders, the notion that a««ociati^n«li»rn belon^ti ioliin- 
fJcatly 10 the mAinrialiKiir family of dnnrines ; and ihn^ waa evolved 
the theory* oi motives: and litwrtariflmfltn liecame weakened. At 
preacnt. histomal rriiici^m has «lmoiit exploded ihc ntiracl€S> Rrcai 

VHK t>0(.Tin>C OF ATECtlitirrV EXA!lft^SIKI\ 


and sinull ; vn llxat tht; iloclrine at naotnaity h»% nrv<;r bivn in no 
fn^At vogu<: tut now> 

The proposition in qiii*3tion i*i ihat the vtatc of throws existing 
Ht Any cin]t?> logcllitrr ALth vrrtain immutahlt; laws, complrtcly de- 
termine^ llir stair ol ihm^it ui every oU»er time i,(ot a Limitutlon to 
tuiurt timv >£ indcfnitit^Je-). Thuft, given tli6 titatv ot the universe 
in the orii^iDjtl ncbubi mid f^Jven the Laws of mechanics, a MifHcicntly 
|ionvrCi.i] mind tijtdd d(.-dti<;e from tfi^Ht c1;it» dii? piecisp form u( 
£v«ry curlicii« of every l«tter 1 jlri now wiitiug. 

Whoever hold* t}i«t *'vcry act ol tlie will ** vwll 39 ^vcry idea 
ol the Jtiind ib iiifdcT dtc ri^id govcniaucc oi a dec»»ity co'ordiiiAicd 
with ihflf rf fhp phv^ir^l work!, wi)l lc|;ics]|y b? rarri<^ to the propo- 
fiicion Lhdi mjnds ^x^ p^iit o\ 1I10 ph^f^ioil wt^rld in such a Mrna« rbat 
ihe laws of nrrecbanics dctcitninc everylbinK that 1iAppcn« Accordttft 
10. imrniit^blv attraciJoiis and r(rpul&ions> In that esse, that insun- 
tfinciMiA «iato of thinp;^ from which rvf-iy otht^r uair of Things i&cal- 
CTilahIo consists in the poMiions and velocities of \\\ the pAriicJes ai 
Alty iastant. Thi^^ the usii^l and most logical form of DCci:£MtArian- 
tfiRt, i« CATIrd thr mrchantcAl phi1nui^>hy. 

When I havc^ iKked thinklni( mrn what rcARCC t)i«y had to he- 
Jtc?vc ih»i cvetj' Jact in the universe in preci*ely determined by law, 
the 6>st answer liaj^ iitiifilly btreii that the p[0|Xi:sition i» a *'prc- 
tuppofiition " or pottulate of scieniific reaKoning. Well, if that \% 
the h^'cx th;it ean he vaid for it, the bvhef i<; doomed. Svipposo it 
1«c "• pD9tiilate<] "'' . that dnc» not make U true, ncr no much as afford 
the* cJii^htrnl rational molivp Ff»r yieldini; it jiny crvdencc Iiii^Aa 
\i a man should come to borrow moneiy. and when a»ked Jor hi« rc- 
curily. %hoidd reply he ■* poMuUted " tlic loan. To " po5t(ilaic " n 
prE]]>()«iti[ir IS no iriore thin to hope it 13 true. Tliere arc, indeed, 
prarli^'al enK-rgt-ncimi in which W4- act upon asntimpliunw f>( c*?rtain 
* ^opoiiilions a« trvw. Lwcau&^ d they are not eoi it can niak«- no dlf 
fcxence bow we act. But ail such propositiontf I take to be bypo* 
tlicses uf iridivjdiml fiicb^ Fot it is indiiifi."st dial no uuIv<.-tsaI prin- 
ciple can iD \ii uoii^rsality be compromised in a ipcctal cn«e or can 
b« roqui^tc for the validity ot any ordinary inference. To any, for 
instance, tlut Uter dcinunsttatioti L^y Archinvedcs of the property of 


Trc ufiytfT, 

tho kvcf vraijld IaII co the groand if mvn war« «ndDW0d wiib frco 
will, is cxcravAiennt , yci tWt^ \s implied by t^c^c who nnAkc a prapo- 
Sftion incomp.ttibirt with the irecdom of the will thi? posliilflir <^f ^11 
mftrcncc- Coiniidrring. coo, thai th<* condnaiona of science mAkn 
no pretence lo beir^ more than probable, an<l CE^nsiderinii thMX « 
probable inference can at most only suppose something to be most 
freqiTirnily, nr otJicrttisf? njipToximiitcly. inie. Inn ni^ver thai sny- 
ihirif; it prediciy true wjthuut exception throughout the univcr*«, 
Yrc Jxc how iar lhi« propo:iit!o(i in tnith i? from being so po«luloted< 
Out the whole notion ol a postulate bdnt{ invoUciI in tcHKoniTif 
appf*Ttaint to -i liygonc ;ird fnUe conception of loftic. Non-deduc- 
Livc^ or ampliatiYO interenc:: is o1 three kinds ; induction, hvpothe^ 
sis, and annloify. If there be any other modes, they mutt be cjl^ 
tremdy unusual and highly coniplicatedH and may be acKtimed n-ith 
little doubt to bv of the *J»nw riatuTe a.% those enumerated. For in- 
duction, hypothcsbi and acaLo^Vi h» far uh tlicir umpliativt- charaeter 
^cc», thai i». biu iikt ji» they conclude hi^mcthin^ not miplied in the 
preiMiie'*, depend tipon onp prJncipli* and involv? ih? same ptrici-- 
dure. All are ^KMntially tnleroncee from sampling- 6uppt>d« a 
ship arrives in Liverpool Indcn with wheal in htdk. Suppose that 
by homciiiadiJnrrylbc whole cargo l>cMtim'd up wilh Kiewi thorough- 
noM, Suppose that twenty'fleven thimblefufii be lalcen equnljy from 
iho forward, midfihipg, and aft pnrtt;, Ironi ihe stnrhoard. ccnlr«> 
and larboard parity nnd from the top, half depth, and lovvcf p&Tts 
of hpT hnldj and rhac ihrte liRin^ mixr^l and the grains cnnnrcd, four 
fitthe of the latter art? fotind to be of quality ^. Then we infer, ex- 
pcricniiAlly and provisionally, that approximately four fifth^t of all 
Ehe ^rain in tht^ cargo is of the «ami- iiU'^lily. ] say we inhr this 
fXf'rrifitfiitJIy and /frfVisiofHi/ly. I5y luyins that we infer it fx/^frUn- 
tiaify, I mean that out coDclukion makes no pretension to knowledge 
of whcat'in'itaelf, cur TcKt)$€ut, aa the derivation of that word im- 
plies, has nothing to do witli hirnl wheat. We are ilealinK ^^^V 
with the matter of possible experieace, — experience m the full ac- 
ceptntion ol the term as fiomelhing not merely a^ectini? the senatis 
but also as the subject of ibou^hi. 11 i\\e■f^^ be any wheat hiddeci 
on tile ship, so thai it earn neither turn up In the sample nor he heaixl 

iiiK DocTftiNr or yr<:r«»rrv V3(A»i?fsi*. 


ot Bub^iequcntly frorn pufchtLScr^. — or U it lie hnlf-hiddcn. m> that u 
TOny, Indeed^ turn up. but i^ lea« Hkely to Ao «io than ili^ reHt.^-or 
U ii can afCcct our MDSvft and our pocUeta, but from itome fiurtngr; 

c»u»eor cAuaelc«sA06«<:Biinot be icasonod abom,— all »uch ^^ht-at 


i» to bccitdudctl for liavooflnly iT\ proporiioual weight) in c^lcuUt- 
ing that in»* prnpnnfon of i^iialiiy A, lo whirh our tnfore-nce fieels^ 
lo fipproxiinai^- Hy ftAying thai w« draw iti« irt«t%nc«/r^;'v>j'oiv4r//v. 
1 mean that wt du not liold lliat wc Jiavc rcnchcd any a?i»iKocd de- 
cree oi appra^iinstion as yei. but oikly hold dial U our irxprrt^nci- 
be tnd»linitcLy wended, and if Avery i&ci of wh»c«v€r nature, as 
1a£C as it pr«6cnu ttscli, i>o duly applied, ftccording to the inductive 
xnctbot), Ltj corrccuiiK the irifcrrcd riitto, ih<:Q ouf AppiuxiuiaUun 
will lirromr indrBnifrty rloiir in ihr U>nz rim ; >h:il !« To «ay, close 
to the cxpofionoo Av j-<>m^ (not merely cIobo hy th? exb.iuetion oi a 
fij^jic coljoction) 90 chnt if cxpciicncc in KcncrsI is lo tlucittaic Ir- 
tt^lE^darly lo and fio, j^i a manri^r to deprive the rfilin snu^ln of all 
dt^nniti! value, u-e Khali br? able id find out apprtixiiiiHtr-ly wilKin 
what hmits ii fiiiciuatcftf and if, nflcT hnviag one definite \Ahic, it 
ch.inKe» and afsiimcK nnothct, wc ^uiL be 2bk lo ficid thai out, and 
in <itori, whaif^vrT may br thi- variatinns ul ihiii ratio id r-xprrirnrp, 
GXpchencc indefinitely extended t^-ill enable ua to detect thfrm, i;oa« 
to prcdici Hifhtly, ai last, what i1.% ultimate vclIuc may be. If it have 
sny uJtimale vahic* cir what the ullrmalc law of WJCcession of values 
cnsy he. if ihrrr ha any Mieh viUimatc Uw, or that it tdtimaiely fluc- 
tuates iricp-niarly within cpcttain limits, if it do so ultimately flue 
liiftte^ Now our inference* cJAiming to be no more than thus cx- 
perfentiaj and i>rov]»inna], manif«ftlly invc)lvt?A no ^Hjululate whateve-r. 
Tor nhfti IS a jjostulate? It i« the lonntiJatton ot a uiLitvriai fact 
which wc; arc n^t i^ntitlcd to astiunK- as a prcmi'tei hut th<; truth of 
which IK rcipiimlc la the ^ulidicy of xn inference- Any facL then, 
which might be supposed postulated, must etili^r be such ili3tt ft 
woufd ultimatdy pretieni itself in «Kp<>Tience, or not, U it will pre- 
sent itscJl. we ne^ not potttulatc ii now iu our provUlonaJ inference, 
tinre viv %fiall ultimately \w pntilled Co use it as a pfirnuse. Uui if It 
never would preveni it^If in experience, our condusion is valid but 
ict the possibility of this fnct bcin|> otherwise titan asaumed, that la* 


it ia vAlid as far a» po»)b1c expcncncc goes, aud iliAt i» <t]l tTut wc 
€]aim. Thus, *?v(-ry |HJSfiiiaic isttii nff, Hther by ihc provi^onality or 
by Uu: expericiUialily ot our inference. Kor iniurkcc, it h;ifi been enid 
that imJuction ponulntc* thaT, if an inilcfinitc »ucccs»ion of saoi- 
ple» be drawn, exaniincd* and clunwn back each before the ricxt is 
iJriwn^ iht'n in the long run tvtTV ;^riiin will be drawn as often (w 
any ether, that is to say po-iiubten that the tuiio oi tht^ numbcrr- of 
tkncs In which any tvro are drawji wjII indefinitely approximau to 
ODity^ But n« snich postulate is tnade ; tor if, on the one hund, we 
are to have no oiln-r experience of thu nheat than from «uch draw* 
m^9i It i« the ratio Lhut prcsciUti Ufti^U m tho»e drawiaj^rtariEl not the 
ijiiio ithidi bduugb ttj ihc wheat ii^ lU latent exi?ileiti:e ibai wti are 
end4>avoTing 10 d^t^rinin^ ; whil^ if, on the other hand. There is 
ttODn« other tuode by which the wheat ia to coni« under out bnowl- 
cthfe. c<)utvjtknt to another kind of samplLnK. Ao thai after all our 
cAte in Mirrin^ irp thcf whtai, sitiue L-x|>c:ricn(iAl ^rfifn^ will prcftimi 
Themselv^^ in the firftt iiampting bpcrarion mom oft«n than ofli^rt in 
the lonfE run, this very sin^uUr (acr v^iW be ^ure to fioi di£COvar«d 
by tlw indLKtivL.- n^clUod. *hich iuiasI avail itself of c^cry soj'I of 
i^x]>pTirnrr ; utitl niir infcTrncf*, which was tmly jimvisinnal, C-orrcrrs 
itself at l^t- Af^ain, it haft been $aid, Ihac induction po}itiifatc« that 
imdcr like circumstances iilcc evcntn will happen, and that thia pont- 
idati: if, ut boliom thi^ N^mr a^ the pnnciidc of iiciiverN.d caunatinn. 
But thi* is A blumlrr. tir I'^v^ir. due to thinkinfj exclmivelyof induc- 
tions where the concluded ratio is either i oro- If unyauchpropo^ 
lion were postulated, it would he that under like circuiD«tancc» (the 
circuinstint'e* uf drawing thv Lbfltrcni v^mpltw) diffr^r^iit cvt^iilHocnur 
in the ^^m<-' proportions iit all the dill«ri-nt setii. -a proposition which 
19 false and even abitufd. But in truth no such thin^ is po^tufaccd, 
the experiential character of the inference reducine the condition of 
i/dlidity tn this tliHt if ft certain ri^sull dtie** not occtir, ihr oppo«ii« 
reaulc will t>e mamfos-ted, a condition assured by ih« prov;BicnnJity 
\A the inference. But it may bir a»kcd whether it is not conceivable 
that every inatance of a cert&in cla*^s dcfltincil to be ever deployed 
as a datum of inciiLciion should havr nne character, while c^^ry in- 
sUnce destined not to be eo employed thould have the opposite 

flip nnrrecvr cir vKCFS^rrrrxwixivii 


character. Tl»e an^tf^r i^ that Jo thai case, ihe msiAncct excIuJed 
itom being hiib^cte ol Tva^rtiti^ ^s-ould H<yi bv cxportcQced tn the 
Tull "ictiac uf the warj, but would Uv ainonE llicac /afrt/ indjvKluais 
of which our l'OD elusion does [ic>c jirt'ti'iid To npyak. 

To thi» acconil o( i)i« rsiionak of indi^ction I kttom of but on« 
objcctiE^n worth incntioii ; it is that t ihuH fail lo ilcdiicc ihc hilJ dc- 
grev of forte wliich ih]b mode of irifcrcncc in fcicl ;H}Sfii:s«c% , that 
according to myvi<»w, no matirr how iHoroiiiih and rlahfirair ihp 
?»iirrJng and niixinit prnccs^ had been, the examination of a uoglo 
handful of £rH*iii vf^Jtild not ffivc mc atiy nfi&urftAccj sufficient to risk 
moincy iJ|koti. tliAC thv iic-xl hAi)dfu! winild mti i^ri-ftlly modify the 
eoncliidcd value of the ratio under in<|iiir>% while, in f;ict, the atsur 
Bncc would ho very high that thw ratio wn$ not ifically in error. 11 
the true ratio of i^int of quAhir jf were o-So and the handful ccn- 
Tnitir^d a Ihou^^Lnd Rrains, ntnc nirfi handfuU otitof crver^- ten would 
crnlsin from 7^0 to Sao grain« of qa;ility j4. The ;iiiiiWur to tbiv 1% 
that ihe cnlcnlation Riven i* correct wh(!n we know that the units of 
ihk handful nnd tlur ijuaLiiy inqiiireil into have? the normstl Inde- 
pendence M onv another, if (of insiancv the *itlnii]g bw been com- 
plete and the ch^riicier sampled lot h^n been settled upon tn nil 
vaiKe of the examination of the sampti:, Uul in so (at as thc»e con^ 
dition« ate not known to be coiophed Vtitlu the alwvf figures cira«« 
to Its applicabit*. Random Kamplin^ and pri^deai^ation i>f the 
character nnmplt^d for ahoMld alvray-a bt; -itrivcai after in induciive 
le^rhJiiiaj^. but wlu/ii ihcy cannot be allatned, bo long a» it ia cuii- 
ductM hone«|ly, the infcrrnr^ retains flome vjihie. Wh«n we ran^ 
not asceitAtn how the ^mphng ha^ been done or ihe saniple'Char- 
actcr fecLcclcd, induclJon ?^tiil has the cs«euti£l validity which rnv 
piescnt accoiini <jf it sliows h ;o have. 

1 do not ihinb « mitn who combines a wiJlingncM to bo con- 
vinec<[ with a power of fippreciatinK an are\tfncnl upon a diHieult 
Mdrjcct t;ari rc^i^t the reason* which ha^e bucn u'l^vu lo »how thai 
th«- ptinfiplr of nmvc*r*al nrrrsiiity r-innnt br tlrfrndrfl as titioj; a 
po4t(]lntcol reaKomng. But then the question inimedintcly arices 
^vhcdicr it i* net proved to be ttue, or nt least rendered hiRhly prob- 
.ibh% by ohftervatioti oi nature. 


Till; «OM*T. 

Stilt thb qut^sliou uui^lit nut \oiiJi tu aitt;?iL a iicraon accus- 
tomed to reflect upon the iorce ol «ci«nii6c reasoning. For the 
««seiice of the oecessitoxian pc«>tton js that ccrrain coutinuoua quon- 
tJtica liavc 4;cTUJn exact values- How, Uow can ob»trvalioD deicr- 
Biiiic ihc v/alu4: of such a iinanlity witli a probahlr cruK alisokicely 
juf/f To oije who ifc E>ohird tho «c«r««, 3i\d koowt that tft« mo«t 
refilled companions of masses. lcnKt}iSi ami aiifzlea. far i?hr^ahsiiig 
in precision nil liiIicj iiiCAiiiiruuic^nis y^l f^U tftiltlnd tlic accLimc^ of 
linnk-ACcoiinK, atu! that ihi; crc^inary tlcirrminaTirm^ of phy«lcfi! 
con«tnni6, snc\i as ^ippcer frotn month to month in ihc joiirnflU, arc 
about on a par >vicli an upholsterer's mcASLircrnetite ol carpels »iid 
Ctirtnini^r ihc icirft of in^aihrUkaTiCfil rAarcitndf? IWng lirmonKtratril 
in the laboratory wiJl appear itimply ridiculou*'. There U a recog- 
nifiE^ri method of e^iiiniiiinf;^ the prohnblo maiinitudcs ol errors in 
physics, — the nietliod of least squnrcs. Ii is universally ndmitlcd 
that this method makes the error* smaller than th^y rr^Ily are ; yet 
even aceordtn^ to that theory an error inUvhriitely sra^dl is tndeft- 
nitcly improbable ; so Ehnt any ntatcnici^t to tTic ciEeci that a certain 
am tin line ifi cpiHfility hasriiitrrt^in exact v;ihje* it weU-foiJiidetl At nil, 
must br fottnded on someihing otlier than ob«c*rvatioti^ 

Still, 1 an obliged to admit (hat thia rule is subject to a certain 
^luatifcAtion. N.imel). ii only applies to continuous' quautUy, Now. 
certain kinds of contin^iuu^qdarLlity ;irt* di?icontinuoiift at one or at 
two limits, and ior fuch limits the rule nmut be modified. Tlmit, 
the lcni£th of a line cannot be le»s (ban £cro^ Suppoac. then, the 
c|tiesti{iii nriu^ Imw Umg a tine ii ccitaim pcr?»on liad di&wu UtJiu j 
marktd point on a pfcte of paper. II no line at all can l>e seen, tht 
obncrved kngch it^ £Cxx>\ aud thu only conclusion liiis oliscrv«tton 
vairanE» 19 that the Icn^lli of the line h ]c») than Uie aaullcbt lenelb 
visible witiL the <;piical power employed. But mdiroci observa- 
tions -lor example, that the person supposed 10 haver drawn thr 
Line i*as never within fiiiy ictt of Lhc paper, — may raokc ii probable 
that no line at all wa^ made, so that the coDcliidcd length will be 

* C^n/i^tt'iif a ni>t cuclly Ihc riflil wurdn but I Id it ^ lu A%«fd s Len^ And 

THK IX>CTKIXt 0¥ SK%.^>5m CXAHlXttr, 


ttricii> xvro. In like mtaDci, t^poricnce notloiiht Tn>uL(l w«rrAnt 
tbe coiic)o«ioii that tfirrr i« ab^oltitctv tta iiklig4> id a given mr ol 
w|i«at, and ibsoLutcU' *«• atimr iti a Rtv«a liclM^n. But Hiicli infer- 
eaoc» can ooJy be rcodcrcd \A)i4 b>- positive caipcricniiA] cvi<!ciicc. 
dircci m rcmole. aiut cant>Qt icxi upon a m4:rc innlnlity U> detrcl tUt^ 
quamtity in qtietlion. Wc liAv« reason to think there if no indigo 
in ihr wheat, because wc have remarkiHl tlut wherever rndiifo i* 
produced it i» pTodnccJ in conaidcrtUc (juantities. to mcniiun only 
one arguri>eni- We luvr reason \o think thtrre n^ no Altar in iho 
lkh«n, bccaufiJF e^eniiat oils w>ciii e<» be in gonerttl peculiar to vin- 
gle species. M tl;e qiicqlion hnd hcc» wKeiher there w»8 iron m iht; 
wheal or the lichen, thi>ach chrmic-il AiLal>'«^s sliould fail lo dctrct 
iriiprewrnre, WfjdioiiJH think soEiif of it prohahly was thr^f, ftinrr iron 
iti almcMC everjwhorc. WIthotit any ench inlorniaiion, ono way or 
Ihc other, vrc coitJd only ahslnin from any opinion a» In tlic prcM:ncc 
ol the? f^nhMancc in i)Lirsli<i|i- It cv nnoi< I i:ontt-ive. hr maini^iiied 
that tt-c atr in any A////T pnsition th*n this in tc^ard tty rhi^ prpsi^ncr ni 
the cJcmcut of chance or spontaneous departures from Inw in nniurr^- 

Thosc ohccrvation» vrhich arc icctnciftlly adduced in lavor of 
miMiIuni^al r^oi^ation M[n]»ly prtiv*- ihai ihrn* is nri rl*-rnrni of rc^n^ 
lariiy in nntiirc, and h.ivc no hearing nhntcvcr upon llic cjupsEion 
of whether nuch rciciLlnrity i» exact nnd univrnwl, or not, , Nay. In 
rcgnid lo thi?^ rxti/ft/m/r. all ohservatjon J* dirccily tr/fiatfJ to it ; jind 
the m<»1 that ran t^e snid U thjit a ^aod deal of this ohiwrvation can 
he cxplamcd uway. Try to verily any law ol nature, and you will 
find that the more precipe your obner^aiioa*, the more ccrLnin they 
will he? lo Hhuw irrei^ular drpjiitttres from cJie law. We are acciiH- 
lotned to at^rihe thew. and { do not suy wronfjly, tu ctrorn of ob- 
ftcrvalion i >-ct we cannot usually account lor »uch errors in any an- 
tocedcjitly probable w«y. Trace their CAU^iO back (ar cnoU}£h, und 
yon will be lorred to admit ihey are always due to arbitrary detnr- 
niinniion« or ehanc*' 

But il may be a^kcd whvth^r if there were an elcrueul ol real 
chance in lh« ur>i>iri^' it immi nol occa^wnaUy ht> prodnclivr ul ftig- 
nal elleCTs with H« coidd noc pom unobserved. In answer lo ihU 
quf»iion. witliotti atoppmg to pcunt odi that Uiero >»an ainindance 


iPiK M<>?««r, 

of |ptr«i C!vrni« whirh onr mighi 1>p i^mprc^d 10 «-iippo«;r wi>ri> of ih^r 
nature, it will be bimplirKt to rem;irk thnt phyfiicit^ti^ hold tfanc thu 
paniclcii of icn^c^ ate moving nbotu irrc^culnrly* fiuhstnntiilly as if 
byKal nhancr, act) Uiat by iht- prinriplt^T^of proUibilliicAtht^icmaM 
occa-cionally liAppen to be conc«ntrAtion« of htttkt in iht: gascv con- 
trary to the scironti law of thcrmodv-namrc:;, and the^c conccntra- 
tinni(, occufTing in explosive mixtiircit^ miii^t nomctimctb have tre- 
niCTitUm% L-ffcciv. Hrrc. ihcn, is in *ttil>suna" the vtry Hituniicrn 
■cuppcsed; yet nt> phenomcn* cvvr have resuUcd which wcar« forced 
to attribute 10 such chance concentration ol heat, or which anybodvi 
wtBc 01 fuolinh. \ist» ever Urcimcd ol dccuuntirtg forjd that manner, 

111 vit^^ <ii a\\ Tln^st ciMisiikiattcm*, I do not 1*<?IW^ that an)"- 
body, no! in a siat^ ol caft^hardwieU ignorance reepeccing the logic 
ci *cicuce, can mHint&in that the precise juitl umvcrwil confonnity 
of fact* to law t^ i:lt!Hrly prtivf^d. or tvi-n Temleitfl particularly |»riih- 
abl^, by any cihsorvacions hith^nc made, lo thia way, the d^er- 
mined advocate of oxact rcipilancy will ft4>on find liimaelf driven to 
n //-Arri rea»04i» 10 support hi» tbc»is. These received wuch a aoc- 
dolagpr Jrom SniafT Mill ffi hi*i Fxamination of Hamilloii, i>iAt hold' 
ing to them now seems to mt to doooie s, high degreo ol inipervi- 
ouane&s to reason ; so that 1 shall pass thcni by with little notice. 

To aay thcii we cAnnoc h^lp heheviiig a given pTo])0«itiori is no 
nrRttmr-ni, hut it U a eoncliifilve fac:i if il be imr ; and with the iiiib- 
stituLion of '* I " tor ** w<?," ii )s tnie in the mouthy of scvcml ciai^se^ 
of aiinds, the blindly paMioralc, lhi-< unrcHectins and iKiioran:. aiitj 
ih*' prrtfin who has ovRrvrhplming cvidrrce hpfnrr his ryrsi- tint 
thai which has been inconceivable tO'day hac often turned otit in> 
di»pittahlc ci\ che morrow. In^biliiy to conceive iy only a ftnifc 
ihiou^h which every eiiaxi nitJ^t pasi> in le^ard tn a mimhtrf of hir- 
liefs, — unleiia endowed with extraortlinary obstinacy and ohtutieneiw. 
His understanding i« enalavcd to some blind ronipul«ion whjch a 
vigorous mind ii pretty .*iurc soon to cast ofl. 

Some M?ek lo h^ick i^p ihe a /rwri po^iiiun tvjth empirical argu- 
ni«nt!t. Th«y &ay that the exact regularity of the world. i« a natural 
beJiufp and ttrnt nuturaJ belieb have genurelly bt.-en coniirmcd by 
expcfnencL- T1i4.'re i»' wxut reason in ttu!»^ Natural bdlcfa, how* 

IHK fM)CnUML or 3ftCf;»t1Y kJlAlU.*(Kll, 


c%'ef, if tbry grtii-ral}r bavr a fmtuUttoa <itf imih, jd» rcqairr i:or- 
rectton «nd pnnfacaiioo from natiud iUtitvons. The principte* o^ 
meclu&ki ofc undoublciily BMtural bcUcf« : but, lor all tl»l, the 
cBily fom^ ul Alions oi ihinn vnc t'jicct!diii£lj crttuQcou^ Hic gen- 
eral ^pcovimiticio to truth in luturvl belM« is> in Uct. > ca^r o1 
the gcDcrml adaptation of f;cnet)C product* to recognisable ttlilibCA 
or cndx. Now. the MlaptatM>m of nature, beautiful ai>d often idaT' 
vrtluas ;ts ihry Verily are. are oewr Umnd In !» qoitc perfect ; ao 
that tbc argiuncot ts quite jganuf ihe absolute c^uctituile od any 
natural belief, incIodiRfE ilut oi the priocipic oi causation. 

Another artftuDcnt, or cooTcrtiml oonntnooplace. m thalabvo- 
lutp (hanci^ 14 im^itmi^rrM/. Tfaia word bat dgh< ClnnSLt tigniBcft- 
t>ot»K Thf* Ctfrtiar>' Didicfliary ciitttnf:ntc9 m- TboM «te laBt 
Uir th» «>tl hardly be persuaded to say in vbat icnae they mean 
tbat cliaacp n i oconcrir a hlfc SfaDsld thmy do ao. 6t «oald «a«iff b« 
fhown ekber that tbcy hsv« bo aoScieac Tcaaon lor ibe ataivncm cr 
tl»t th« iaco«ic«i«abUiC3r it «l a lct»d wkid* 6om mat ptov« ihai 
cbkncc i» sf»-nu9CcnL 

Anncbn' «/r^H^' an^neot i« ihai chance k unintetfigihtr ; <tat 
n to-aay, wbU* it nar parliapt b« cop ci r a bto, if cioaa aoi dtfdoM 
to tbc eye of Naaoo ibc bow or whf*d thia^i attdacoc««brp«^ 
ibesit can oitJj br foiaaAad m» iir at it rvttdan wear pbcnom^wd 
i«l«lU|Ciblr, «« brVTT can bavr aaj ri^bt lo uippokc abtotvta cbancv 
to «atar iaio the pr^dvctvov of aaytbivc in narvre, Tbit 
may br covrtidercd la coAoectioa wicb two othcT^ Smmt^, 
ot coinf «o far a« lo ^ay ibal ibr ■vppoaitim of doncv can a^vr 
pcoperiy tve aaej In cspfain anr ohatnrad fad. it lavy bv aUcgad 
mefclT that no fact* are kncrvn vbicb uaeh a Mtppoaiiioa coald ia 
any way brJp la r:apfa«iunv* Or acaia. tbe iTbx"''"*' bcia^ «tiD 
fvtb«r arvakeonL it may be maid ibat since deputarvs flrecn taw ane 
not irnawtfalnbly o b a u^ T^, chaoc* ia soc a wrtf «4au#, aad ow^bt 
not anacggMinly i» be tatfodDcail loso a bypothaaifc 

Tfam? arenoaaeaa ■tfaacip aftdmqatte ^ b^cxaane tfaa 
natter a Un^ rmv doacly. Co wa , ny t w par i or nppii«it_ lat mm 
learn bom fonr wiadoiR. It went li> ma Umi evoy tbrvw of ntacn 
witb t parr ut &:c it a maaib rt utaranrv t4 rbaar^i- 


I'Ht «owt*r> 

■'WlJile? yvu wuold licit J u throw of de;ice-iic<? ta lie liruii^ht 
tbouc by necessity? " ffh* opponeniV suppmed r^markc are placed 
in qiK»lfltii>D mnrkv.] 

Cle^ l>- oac tliEf^vk- 1» u» much duince as nncdier* 

*<Do )<oii iliink ilirowi oE dice are uE Ji iliff^retii rtaiure (rDn> 
other c^wars?" 

1 »h:c thai J moM hav tii^i a// the ilivcrsiiy auiJ fiix-dficAlncM oi 
events is AU[it)uU%blv lo cluncc- 

'•WouM ycii, then, deny iliac ihtrrr it Any rciciilArity in ih« 
world > " 

TbAC ifi clearly undcni^Mc. 1 innst ricknowWicc there i» tn 
ap]>rn\iruali? ipgiilflfiry, und xhM evpry vvrm U iTiHi:rn»'i1 hy h. 
Btit the divcviiificntion, £p4^ificA]nufiA, and ineftulAnty oi tbiags 1 
suppose is chance. A tbrcv of mxcs Appetite to mc « case in which 
;hi!C dc-nienE k pjiiiirLiUrly ol illusive^ 

" If ynu rtrrtccr more ilppply, you will com« to rcc that rii 
it only a name lor a caiific thnt i« unknown lo us." 

Do 3-ou mean thjii wc hflvc no idcx whatever whm kin^i of <:nnjac?( 
conk) bring ahnui ;l llimw ut %iicft? 

"On tli<; contrary, each die movc« under the influence of^pre- 
ci»e mechanical law:;.'' 

But h n\r\mtir> to luc thnt it j» not thcue /ttstn which made the 
ilitf turn lip Mxe** : for ihe*e luw?ft aci jntE thfr *atn(? when other 
titirovr« come up. The chance hei in tll^' diveriiity oj throw-^; and 
this dtTCTsit>' -cannot be due to laws which are imni;ilatilc. 

■-The diversity Udtic to tIie<Uvt?nat;circ(ULiiitancett tind«^i wluch 
the law4 act. 'Hie dice lit* diHerencly in x\\e ht^x. and the motion 
^ivcn lo the tox ib difiervnt. Thusc ar^.' thfr vinhnuwn cAut<^ which 
produce the throw*, antl to which we ^ivc the noinc of ciiancc; not 
the mtrchbiitca) Uw whi<:h regulates tht? «p<*ta:TOti of thewr i:AUS«s> 
You wo you are alraady heginuing to thiiik more cleafi)' about this 

Due!» llieope^aliunof mtchaciii^^I iuw ntrt liiLu-abdhedivcrMty? 

" Properly noi. Yoo miiGi know that the inManian^oub si3t« 
ol > system of penicl«« ie dehood by 5ix Uiuca a« many Qumbera M 
there are panicles throe for ihe co-ordi:iatcs of each potticle« poai- 

llfE DOCIKl?fl£ OF SECfcSSlir EXAUtXED. 


lion, and thrvw more for the cowpoiiciit?^ of lU velocliy. Thin auni' 
ber of ntimbcnc^ which tiK[ir«!i«iv« ihe Amount of dtv^rsiiy in the ttya^ 
\tm, rcmams Ihc ajunc at all timt*- Thert^ may bCj Xo be sun:, nomo 
kind ut rckliun between the c^f-otdiiiatC!) and coniponcnl vvkcittcn 
of the diflifrt^ni p»rricles^t>y nyvan*t of whicli chr «Ukt^ of the sy«if.-Tii 
night be tixpreeaed by a 4fiiaJler nuiob^ ol numbeiii' But* it ibift 
is the cast, a precisely corrcspon^IJfiK relationship niuflt cxisi be* 
iwwiL ttic- tu-uidiudli^s ^[i(T LUiiipi>rifiit veluclties at any uthci time, 
(liough it may dotit>ile«« bo a rt^JAlioti less obvious lo uft. Thus, ihe 
intrinsic complexity ol the systenn 16 ih« eaine nt all linKn.** 

Very wclU lay obh'eJni; opponent, wc have oow rcacl'^rd an Js- 
sn**- Yoti think nil ih** nrhiirary sppr.ifi rat Ions of rhf* imivrrsr wttp 
inirod]jc<-d in one doftif, in th€ beginning, it there was a btrginnint;, 
and thai the rsricty 4nd complicntion ol nature haa alwAyis been 
jusi as much as it is now. Bui [, for my part, think that the divrrs- 
ificatioQ, thr «;>rcificA[ion, has Scrn conriniwlty taking plaro. Shotild 
you condescend to atk mcwhy J r^ think, I i^hould };ivc my rcoi^onc 
A« to Hows : 

I) QiLiTHiinn any itcicticr which dt^ts with thi? colum? of lime, 
CovtAider the life of an individuaJ or pbni. or ol 2 rnind. 
Glance at the hE»tory of atatc-i. ol in^tiluticni. ot language, of tdeav. 
HxAmine the KUCCcNMons of ioim;& vhown by paleontology, the hin- 
lofy ol the glohe a* «-T forth in geology, of what the avtrouomev in 
able to make out conccrninK the change* of !&tcUar syfttema, Kver^'- 
nhcrc the n^ain (act iv (^wth and increasing coTnpJcxily. Death 
snd ct^tiuptiou a:e niefe4i:tidentsur ^e^jundary phi'nuineuu. Ainung 
som« ol ihe lower organisms, it i« a mooT point with biologists 
whether there be anythinj^ which ou^ht 10 be caJkd de.tth- KaceSi 
at any rate, do not die oliI excc|>t undc:!' unfavorable circumstances. 
From thesL- 1>rnad und libiritiitoifs f^cts we may fairly infer, by the 
most tineKCfrpiionabht iofcic> that there ifi probably in naiiire Aomn 
ajEency by which the complexity and diversity of thinK« can be in- 
creased, and ih'it ccnjeqnently ihc ndc of mechftnica) necessity 
meeifi in ttomc way with inttrfrrence. 

Q) By thuA admitting pure spontaneity or life SkA a cliaractcr 
of the universe, acting alwnyn and evcT><whcxc thouKb restrained 


tmt WfwtffT, 

within iijintiw lioitiuU by law, prTHliicing infiiiiiv^timal <1i*paTini<-% 
bom law coniinifolly, nn<l great ones with ijifmile infretiiitrncy. I ac- 
count tor all thu variety anJ <!]vcr»ty of the univcnic^ in ihc only 
seoM! in which the n,-;xlly iut i^ntrit aiit! xicw c^ii bt; viid to l^c ac- 
rount«i3 for. The orrlJiiaTy view liaft to .admit the ini-xhaiiHTihl«? 
mtiliiufbn^tiii variviv o* tfiv worJ<I, ha* io ;^dzni1 t^Kit iti mt^cbaiiicvl 
Utw canaut account for tlib in rhc kasl. that vaiicCy L^an ajmni: only 
from <tpunt anility, im! yei ittfiiie;* without any t.-viU<;Dcc ur rraMK) 
the «xtsT«Dc« <7f this spontaneity, or else shoves il back to l)w be; 
gmbing of time and erupposus u dead 4*vct eiocc. Th« Bojwnor logic' 
of my View app>car»i to mc not easily controvcftrd. 

3) VVhpn 1 fliii: rln* n^ci^sitartnn how hr wnuld eacplaiH ihc dl- 
vorsfiy and irragidatity of ibo iwivoTM, he repJies Co me ot th* 
trcastuy of hts wisdom tlinl irrci£alftrily Is somclhins which from the 
ti'-Lttirc of ibrngs Hi- nuiji: noi st^rk lo rxplntn. Abafchiril nt ihis, 1 
Krrk lo COVPT my confiiiiion by n^in^ hov hr would rxplnrn iho 
iiniformiiy nnd rcgul^hiy of the; iinivcrfte. ivIicTcnpon he tclJn lac 
that the lavrs of nature arc imruiitable ftnd ultiinntc facts, And no 
accoimt i* Ui l>p \^x\vi% «f Ihrni, But my hyiJ<lthp^Ts of <> pan tuii city 
doeft evplain irregularity, in a CLTlain sensic* ; that i»p it «;xplains th« 
g«a«iaJ loci ai mcgnlanty, though not, of course, what each lawi«T»s 
event is to be. At the satnc tLme> by thus looaenini^ the hcnid of 
necessity, tl j^tves roum fnr \\w iniliivuct oi iinotln-r kind oi causa- 
tion* such av seems to be cpur^cive in the mmd in the forniaiioii of 
associfltionei, and enables n» to underaiand htjw the uniformity of 
nature could have heeii brought abotit. That single events should 
bi:- hurd and uninirllijiihlo, logic will permit wiihoiii drffirnliy ■ w© 
do not cxpoct tn tiMtU*: the ?hocl< of a por«o43sHy experienced earth- 
quake appear naturAJ and rcAsonaUIe by nny ^[uoiiut of cogiiaiioD. 
Btit logic does exjiect things gfUFin/ 10 be iimleisisndable. To «ay 
ihAt there U a nnivcrvnl bw, and that it Is a hard, iiltimicc, unia- 
tcUiifiMc fact, the why and wherefore of which c*n never \\c inquired 
mto, at this a suurid tot^ii; Aitl revolt , and will pa?t» over at once to 
a method of philosophising which do^s not ibiift hflrricflde the road 
o) discovery. 

4) Hcccssitarianisn) cannot Icgicftlly stop short of making tlie 


1*11 l»OCT«lXIC OK KKCRSTim kxaWtmio- 


whale Actioti tA ihi? uiinO a t^^^l o{ tlic pby^ciil tiuivcrsi:. Oiif tiociuu 
that we dijcnr^ wliat we are going to do, if as the n«ccMitaniii enys 
it lvi9 bcoD calculablo since* tJio r^rlic^t times, if roduc<^ to illusion. 
Indeed. ctiiincji>u>ij<.'!i;i in i^cnejdL thiid bt;i:uiiics a. mere illusory aspect 
ol a ruteriul hj-siirni, Wliai wtr call Fed< l^rctetii J»n<l vtn\f.\ xtc in 
r«4iiiiy only ditJcrimt rates of vit>ratiejti. l'h» sok rsnltiy ia cha diK- 
Inbiitioii ol t]uA!itiv:!i of niancr in spacu And time. Brain'mailcr w 
prolujilji^iiii ill A ctM'inin dr^rre ^Ttil kind of coiriiillcdtion,— a crriain 
arrange Mil- lit of lut'chamcal pariiclcs- Its feeling is hui an inwarti 
aspvci. a phantom. For, from the positions and velocities ot the 
paitJcJcs at any oclc instant, anrl the knowledge- of the immutable 
inrcrs,, thr |HWili(>n« nx all nthrr utur*i nre ralmlflhlr; imi thai the 
uniwrsc of »pace, litncH itnd matter i« a rounded i^yctcm luiintcrfcred 
with Irom ditewhere. But Emm the state o( Iccling nt nny mi^tnni, 
tli«;tic iH no reason to nuppunc the wtatc^ i>f fci^ltni; at all i^lhcr ir< 
Aeant^ are thn-i exactly calrnfaME- : *o ihat fetHng iv, ns I said, a 
mt^rc tt;ienicnlar>' and i)luiiiv« aspect oi the imiwn^. This U the 
vray. tJien. <that ncccsnitarianism ha^i Co make up itn accounts. It 
enters conftcumsniMA nitdei lite liead of snndrii^, a.< a f(ii);otlen Iritle : 
tl< sckc*mc? of the tmiversi.' ivou]d \iv inoi% ^atUfactory if thi« littk 
Jact could be dropped uui ot ?Hght. Or the other band, by Buppos- 
Ing the ri^id exactitude of causation to ytettl.' 1 cam not Ixovf Little, 
—be it but by a strictly inf!aite<iimal amouni,— vw gain rootm to in- 
si>n mlni1 tnto our scliemt?. and to put it into ihe place where it it 
needed, intw tlic position whick, ub the sok- >»df'intdli^tbJe tiling, il 
lb ciiliUcd tu uLt^upyp chat ui the fouiilitin ul <;a»tiruci' : mid In stci 
doin^ we rvsolvr rh4' problem of the connection ol sotti and hody. 
$) Hirt I mutt leave undeveloped the chief of my reasons, and 
only adumbrate it- The h) polbcAJs of cIisnct-^potaniHty lit one 
rhosc iiifrvitnblc consequences Arr capabk' ol liL^Ing traced out with 
mathc^m^iiical precision into constcJerabJe detail. fSoch of thia 1 
haTc done niul hnd the conftcr|Ucnces to acrce with observed facta lo 
an cAterji which itccm:! lo mc; rcjnarkabic, Out the maun dud 
mcthnfU oi rr-^sonin^ ;irr novrl, and I have no right to proiniftc thai 
other niiithematicians Khali find my deductions Aft antisfactory as I 
myiielf do, so that the *itonRc»t ronton for my beliej must (or tlic 



]nc«ent remain a privati; reusoa of my own, and cannot influence 
olhers. £ mention it lo cxpl;\m my own position ; anil partly lo m- 
dicatc to fLitUTc tnatlicmatical s^^icciiLilont a veritable (^oldtninc, 
shonlil time and circiiTtHifiince* and tht Abridger of al] joy* ^^rtvt^nt 
my opening it to the world. 

U now I, in wny turn, inquire of the ncccri^irarijin why he prc- 
feis io fluppoi^c ih;il all spt^iifitaticui ycw^N buck It? llic lieKJniimg of 
ttiin^v, he wiU answer nit- with ont of iho*r? Usi tliree arguments 
which 1 kit unanswered, 

First, he may Kiy ttial chanc4! is it thin^ atisoliitcly uninlelli- 
gfl>le, am! rhen^ore thai we never nin Ik? er^tirled lo make Hucli a 
suppoi&itjon^ But does not this objection itmack o1 iiaiVe impu- 
dence? It i» not mine, tt is his own conception of the umvcTM 
which leadb itbfuptl^ up tti haidi uUimiite, ineaplltablc, immutaMt: 
l»w, on th(» one hand, and to (nexplirahfe spectficwtioTi and div^r- 
fiificntion of circumsiancce on the olhor^ My viuw, on ihi^ conlrnry, 
hypcfthetiMS nothing ul all, uolusa ii be hypoihchis to say that all 
»peciftC8iinn CHmt* ftboiii in ennw i4ciit»r, and w ni^i (o hr at:crpii^ 
a9 unaccountnhlc- To itndcrtakr to nccount for anything' by raying 
Mdly that It \^ due to chance would, indeed* be futile. Hut 1bi» I 
Lk> not do. 1 make ii^c of i;1ittnt:c chiefly to malhC room lor a prin- 
ciple of pcnc^aliKation, or ten<1ency to form habiti^, which I hold has 
prodiic!e<l all rcgulantiesi- The mechanical philoKopher leaves the 
whole Apccilicalion of the world utterly unaccounted for, which is 
prptty m-atly as ]>ml ;i* lu |jo]ilIy attribute it lu chance^ I atiributtT 
it altogether to chance, it h TTue, but to chance in tli^ tofm of a 
spontaneity which is to %otTit degree regular. It seemi to me clear 
at ajiy rate that one of Xhcftc two positions inuM ht lakcnn oi cbc 
t]»ecifi cation nuinl be suppo:*eil diit to a sprjiitnoHty whTL'b di"vHo|>s 
itself In a certain and not in a chance way, by an objecliv<» logtc 
Like t)iat oi HeKcl, This last way I leave as an open pofi«ibilit>\ 
for the pie?ieut ; lot il Is ai much op|>crsed to ibe necessitarian scbcaiic 
ot ^xisienci? a*i my own thrnry is. 

Socondlylhc neccssitanan niay My there are, at any rate, no 
observed phenomena which Ihc hypothec i^ ol chance cflidd aid in 
erxplnininK- In reply. I point first to the phenomenon of growth and 

THi: JKJCTBise or vrcxssm" irxAWViMi. 


developing compkxit^r which appeur^ tc be universal, srd which 
|hoiij(h it may poMiitiJy bv. an aKair oJ inuchaniiiai ptrliips, ccrt&ioiy 
prcscntK all the appcaritiicc ol incrciiBiii}; ttivt'n»i location* Then, 
there U variety it'scll. heyotvl compaiiion the mosi ohttuitiv^ 
ftcterol theanivene; do m&chuii^iri c:iQ accoutit for thift. Tbon. 
thcr« lA the vci>' fact the acccdsitarian moat insiAts iir>on, the rc^u- 
Uifily o! ihc vniivia?tc which foi him serve* only lo hlcck tht lOiitl of 
iriijjiry Then, there aiT' the ri*giibr rolation^bips heTwe*^ri the law* 
oi nature,-- simtlariticfd an(^coln^ra1ive cJ^oractcrs, which appeal to 
our iuteliiii;enc« ad its c>ot^n». and call upon ua for a rcaaon. Fi- 
nally, iheie IS conscioiJ«nos9, tudmg, a p^lrnt f^ct moirgh, Itut ;i 
v«ry Litconvoaient odo to tho mcchantcal philo^ophcr- 

Thifdlyi ihc ncccs^^itarton may ««y that diAncc b qoc a crnr 
^ifMtf, that wc caLinol know po^tiivcly there is any such eleintjut in 
the univfTOc, But thv dofririnr of the T-^ra fauta ha4 nothing lo do 
with clcmcniary conecptiona- Pushed to thai extreme, it ai onco 
cuts off hclicf in the cjtbtcnceol a mctcrinl iinivcrsK; and without 
that nrxi^K^Uiriivnitim cx^uhl hardly inaintiiin its grrumiL n(*KTt1f>s, 
variety it a fact which muit be admiltcd : and the theory of clianco 
merely eoii:ti«t» in supposing i)nn diverfiihcation dovfi not Antedate 
all time Moreover, the avoidance of hypothese^i involving causes 
nowfiere poHiiively known to aetata <tnly a recommendation of 
logic, not a positive command It cannot be fofinnlaied in any pre- 
clae Icrm^ without at once bciraytnj;; its iiDtenabU: character. — 1 
mean a^ ri^id lulc, fur iib ^ leuoniiut-iidatLOO it it* wliu|e«mne enough- 

I beli^vi?- I haw rhu9 ijiihjpcred lo fair exaniinaiion all the iTTi- 
portant rwaonK for adhering to the ihc^ory of univenaj n^es&ity, and 
have diown their puiliiy^ I earnestly bee that whocvc^r may dct<:ct 
any flaw in my rcamjnin^ will piuut it otti lo me. citficr privately <]r 
publicly; Cor if I am wrong, il much concern t me lo hr sec riglit 
apcciddy. II my orgtiment remainit unrdutcd> it will be time, 1 
lliink. :o doubt tl-^e absolute Truth of tlie principle of nniver»id law ; 
and when unLze such a iluuhi lus ubiained .i liviit|; luoc in any nian't^ 
mind, iny cauae with hini^ I am pertiiaded^ is gained. 

C S. PtiKcr. 


IN modern thoiighi, ever since Descartes introduced into the con- 
ception of all'Coni prising nature that perplexing distinction 
between thinking and extended substance, the problem of'reconcil- 
ing so radical a dualism has formed the main task of those who 
have busied themselves with philosophical interpretation. 

In the light of the Cartesian system there seemed to exist two 
entirely disparate, independent worlds ; the one in individual con- 
scionsness* the other outside of it ; the one made of mental, the 
other of material stuff. 

How to conceive these two antithetical worlds as interdependent 
constituents of one and the same unitarj' nature is» after many dis- 
carded attempts, still the principal endeavor of systematic thinking. 

Every student of philosophy knows how Descartes himseif as- 
cribed the evident concordance and intercommunication of the two 
worlds to the miraculous decree and intervention of the Deity ; how 
Spinoza sought to overcome the distracting dilemma by proving that 
the two substances are but attributes of one single absolute sub- 
stance ; how Leibnitz made both realms, that of inwardness and 
that of outwardness, form a consistent universe and keep consonant 
time by means of a divinely pre-established harmony; and how num- 
bers of less ilhistrioiis devices likewise failed to gain general ac- 

A more important part in the development of modern thought 
was played by those other attempts, which strove to reach a monis- 
tic interpretation by showing that nature in all its manifestations is 
constituted, either solely by mind and its original endowments; or. 

nvcHiCAi. MnNisv 


on tbi! contrary. m>lely by citaltcr and iu utiKiniil mdowmcuiK- 
Thitilcer* v^i^ed in physical ucienc^ (dc iDclinvd to look u^rdti iht! 
maioml world aft lh<.' mutriic of all naiural occurrences ; while ihoitc 
vcTderd in pstychjcal science wcic apt to ci^nceivc ihc mental wuiLl nji 
Gonuimri^ witliin iiscif nLI ihert? i& of rmture. 

The phjtical hypoth*'«.i« has proved itc emin«ni «fficioDcy by 
IcAdinx to a vastly mart: correcE And [aithful Icnovlcd^c oi ihc per- 
ceptible uriivcist tlidjt had uvci btc" ^JiJ^viuuily attaiiitd^ 

Slill, from Che p^chical siondpcint it became n^^ii)irl4>S8 tvU 
dent hc>'OQd conlcntion, that all Ao-cslkd qualities oi matter, all that 
tn any way enters itiTo ovir perception ot iL is composed uf nathinit; 
t>]'t Tiii*:i<;i] fonKtiiu^nl^ AnA ihfti mrnns MntpJy, thai, ivhni<rver vc 
aro Actmlly conncaouti oi. mu&c of rcecwiiiy fonn part of our Oivn 
consciouf^nes^s, and not oi anythmK outside of it. 

A* Xii l}ie truth ol thi^ fLindaint^nliil p«ycholoKical concrplioti 
tlicre IE no loniti^f any <n«piiti? amonn phl3otopheit. But there? rc- 
fnaiii* to be ^olvod the all-iiiiportanl c|uc»itionT whether or not 
there emtii ontside llii» conw:ioii*ncM ol our», cither beyond its 
periphri,nl- prrrrpiual tsiuge. or bftjtind its iif?ntnU, coitcrptiial 
«phcrt> another world which it merely tyniboliciliy rcvcaU. And 
in ease Mich another extra conscious world ii found actually to ex 
i»t. huvr it C4>nicf> to ctiii^iitutc. together with the worhl of con»C4ou«- 
jn*%%, that unitary «y*tem oi being of which we menialty and bodily 
>tiem to Icrni part- 

ProEc^or Dcwcy in a series of arliclcv in «*/»■/ (Nos. 41. 43, 
49r 57't and in one lecently published in llii^ jouiuol (Vol, II. Nu, 
1) aidvocute^ — more profoimdly and consistent!) than has been done 
before by any Neo-KantJAn or Neo Ht^Kclian— ihc view* that con - 
»ciou»nc0» itself lutuitc^ all piicnomcna of nature by force ol iu own 
iiitrin^c activity, imparting to them their sii^nificaricc as knowledge 
by diiicriminaiing thtrir specific poeltion and value within itv own 
all-coinprisjDkf orgainc totality of bcinic- He believes thus in no 
uthei HtJiM diaii thdt of ^-If-cotiscloosncsfi ; a^seitln^ that neilht^i 
ila perceptual nor lis conceptual content are tif;nificacLVe of any re- 
ality bQ>«nd. 

The editor, lliciii'h ah ardent defender of co»mjc MoniMUi t> 


by no means a convert to such purely psychical monism. He main- 
tains^ on the contrary, in the same issue of The Moniit (p. 85), that, 
'*The mental picture of a tree becomes a symbol for a special ob- 
ject outside of us, and is projected to the place where experience 
has taught us to expect that object.'' Consequently, the mental 
picture refers as knowledge to something outside of us, to something 
not forming part of our consciousness. 

The present writer beheves likewise, thaf the perceptual tree 
is merely a mental symbol signalising an extra-mental, sense-stimu- 
laling existent ; and that the value of this symbol as knowledge con- 
sists altogether in its implication of the existence of an entity sub- 
sisting outside our own being and its consciousness, and having 
power to affect our sensibility in definite more or less recognised 

The editor and the present writer assert then, that the content 
of perceptual consciousness forms merely a symbolical representa- 
tion of a corresponding reality subsisting outside consciousness; 
while Professor Dewey acknowledges as really existent only self- 
consciousness, and pothing outside of it, either peripherically stimu- 
lating the senses, or centrally imparting universality to individual 

The former view frankly admits duality in nature, so far as con- 
scious and extra-conscious existence are concerned- And in order 
to overcome this dualism of <*rdo itUarum and ordo rtrum — essen- 
tially the same dualism as bequeathed to us by Descartes — it has to 
show how the world within consciousness with its "mental picture/' 
and the world '^outside of us" containing the existent symbolically 
represented ;- how chese totally disparate worlds come to constitute 
a unitary nature, whose divers modes of existence are throughout 
interdependently connected. 

It is clear that the reality symbolised by the ** mental picture" — 
if any such reality actually exists — ^can be known to us solely as 
thus mentally symbolised, and not known to us in any way as it 
subsists extra-mentally *' outside of us," as it subsists in itself when 
not thus symbolically represented by our casual and intermittent 
perception of it- 

r<\'CU)CAI, UO»l«M, 


The mortal piciurc bvmg t ii^«to rof>Ti«ciitalive symbo} niusi 
needs differ /Wi> i^ntre from the non-mcnul existent s>'Enbi>iisc(l 
thereby. \Vc know only wli«r as n»'T«iaI rcprcsencHiiop is {ii^m\i\% 
pari of our ron?;cioufioi*]M- We ejtnnot poiwibly Icnow AnyTlifng wt 
aie^ not eonseioun oK Tlie entity "outride o\ us," tlic ^^tluiiK in 
itself*' — if It at all i?3ii»t»-*» therefore asyucbof nccc*»ty unknown 
tu uih TJiiti cunfcsMtin of fintoluglcal iffnonuurc K nit;ivot<ialily in- 
volved ID thtr acce|>UQce of a symboliwd reility "cultide of iijk" 

The complc\ and prodigLOiis ttiHicultrti in the wnyol a moni?btic 
lulcrpcctatLon, whcfii wcr »Urt with ihe dtuJLitrc prc%it|3pn»]iicjn of a 
conscioufi iind an exUn-ton^LiOK* world, are aU efifectively circnm- 
vented, as soon a» wiE^ Professor Uewey we deuy aitof-etlic^r the 
cxi»tcrnc4r of a world o£ *' thini^A m-Oiemticlvea'' or sennc^jiilcctin^ 
vaUtc^nlb. aad lounjlj^ nsiieil ibalcun^ciou^iffsiba&MiLeh cuu at! lutein, 
coBiprtse«, and hn^ direct knowiirij^o of uliiQiaEe reality ; that tt if 
in fact iEmU the al>9uluti< ul]-uufFici<.-nl and all-cFicient entity. 

To under^laiid 'be pbilowjpliitil ?dtrccii:ib and influence oj a po- 
siiinn so crran^rly at varlarjce ^.•\xh ihai of rurri^ni romnioTi sense, 
which holdA as seff-evidMit the existence of body a« u^ll as n^iiiil< 
we have ^onu whai to piobc its deep-laid fou&dalioo» in ihc history 
of modern tlioj^ht 

If wa-% Ttntk'red pUuiii1>lc thrnnsh Dpacartcii'fi, lx>cke'ii, Bcrkc- 
ley'Sp and tiomv'u philosophical argti mental ion, thai v^hat wc arc 
coTi%c\Q\v%\y aware otn 'what \^ acnially present to nt ai perception 
or '* idf-ji." and Tlit-rrwilh as^ ihi? wndd at Jarfjen iK allnt^itthirr mMdr 
tip of a rnor*^ or Ic^i^v complex combmation of our own aetvial and 
ruiQcmbered senaationsi. 

* Tlie conscioav coiiUnt lt»eU wa» thus necessarily held to con- 
stittiie the exr3D4ive objf.-i!r ol philo^opliica] r^<earf!j^ And by ^ttan- 
ingiA/ithscnftiitionibasitipTiniorddl vlemvnt^. :irdlakiiigall "idea*," 
or factft of meiuory» to be btil famt reproductioQfi of such clemcDts, 
it became llie task of tnvesiii^^itors "of tliehuitiaanihid*' to unal>^9r 
the given content of conscionsneiis into theie \\s a<e$t]tned elenitntit. 
ftfid to discover the *• lai^s" or ftcnorai ways ol their combiiiatioii. 

Proud of its purely cipctieiitial method, concerned al»out noth- 
ing bul whai is aciuAlly found present in consciousness, this mode 


TMR IklOMlsn^ 

(if philii^opiikmit i)fncrlAiin«'i1, in ron^njarnrr, nil knnu'lrdfti* of nny 
"power" giving mc Irom without to i;ciiM>nal <* impreMionif "* aod 
their order of con^cioiu emergence. And it ignored ]ik<rwi?ic ihe 
oxiMencc o£ auy '< power " i:4)riibiniTiK iind system a ti?^ir)|; iliL-in from 
within ; and, moreover, of any tmtiiy for whom ihc scnsorially coii' 
titiEuled enpttnence hod intelligent sij^nihcorcce- 

Such nominaliittc, iir:rt-iori4! idc^llj^m Iias until Intcly rci|;ned 
•titpieirtJ* in English |>lii]o?i^[}phy. Pievious tu ihe new depnriurt- en* 
croduced by it philosophical mterpreution had always 1olio^-«d the 
mctltod oi conceptuul cvokition, carried on aca>Tdin£ to the ruloa ol 
foniittl oT deductive logic. It took soine vrlddy inclusive, n^dy- 
niB(le concp-pt* as its starting points or major premiM*^, <ind ei«- 
tnicti^ c)i4^efroiii all Knowledge tluil ?n?L-]ni;d lu be iniplicilly con- 
tained in them. 

Even KaiiT in his, younger days had no idea that valid knowl- 
cilffe fir tniih coiild possibly b»> attained in any other way than \>y 
loi;:ic;^LIy d^ducini; it Itctn raady-mado premises- At a latter period he 
Icflnjcd from Hume to dibtici^uisljbctWL'on what ht^ termed Knalytieal 
and *ynthMirfll pr^ipositions, and what hnd hrm mllH hy tlir former 
thinker connection betwern vivid imprniiiiionfi or matter o£ fact on 
the one nidcn ^nil connection between their Iftjnt copies or the ao- 
tidied idc£i» on the oiher itide. 

The dificoveiy on the part of Kant, that onr knowlcflRe of the 
nctnai connection of mnttcrA of fncti: hn^ in cs'cry iiii^t:tnec to be 
leiirned ircm direct operience and cannot l>crAt!ocinAtiveIy deduced 
from jriuly'niadT^ geneinl mitinns, wa^ ;i compleEp itvcUHon to him. 
It changed hiE entire way of thinking* and became the starting-poiat 
of hi? fiyritem of critical or transcendental philosophy. He aaur 
cleiirly. that, if aII instructive co^nillon h gained* and has «Lwiiyfi 
het-n gained. w>lcly by rne»ns of ai'tiifll experience, if it has been 
&y7lth(^tlcally hudt up hit \yy hit a$ directly given to us, without cur 
lieing able to construct a valid syitem of knowledge traniiccnding 
in any way ;ict(ial cxperient:i?: !h;il reasoTi then si% n knuwf edge-con- 
fttituiii^K f^iculty i« impotent, and thai mutiiphysics, aft ihu science 
of a realm ol intulligible cxititencci must be cxcr more rejected as a 
pure illusion. 

rv^i-BUCAt. WtiSilAJi. 


K^nt « llMMiglil, lifc« liut ol nxnt ut our own tAttouAintic think- 
rrs. WAA liowvTi^f iiivdMniiuiiU]^ *^''>'«4 ^y th« twltel 4n ftii intoUig* 
thle worlil, tbc ^«;niable boOM ot buui'« »pifiutftl l>ci&4e. vth^pv it 
eternally atndrth in t^a9€ <onamiiDiOD with a ^u^irciuc ctcMlx-^ io- 
teilifC^ncc. Alter a tiriel attack oi IliiinuiO tcrptictiuii. tbc ibco- 
loieic«llv lr«tocd« though nttoaaUy ¥rid«>ftwnke anJ pcoFound thinker, 
lei pul to cx^mim- the Uculticsi oi rv«i>Oin with a vi^w to Jincovcr A 
nhi1o«opliic^K lr<Uiniatc msn;«» into ibat cherished rralm of in- 
tcUif;ible »uhKi«1«iKr- Hitherto fvaHun ha«l hern ellMrtiVL-ly u^nl in 
nhitav>phy onty aft »d uuJytk imtmirwin. K^al krM>w1e<lg« beinR, 
houvvci, IS proved by f Iuni«. a mmtof of synthe^iA* it would cvi- 
,],;ntJ^' he m^kiriK pta|>er way tuiAdid a rationally ujiicrivrd imcllig- 
iblc worid, il it eonM l»e proxeJ th^t rrJKon i« ituflf In pot4«ft«JOFi 
of *ymheticaJ |Krtwrt. 

After many ye4int ol profound meditation in thi» diic^tion. Kant 
Mve ita Ttiult* lo l^e philosophkal worid, lie haJ Itcctiiiie con* 
vinccd ihaimatheniaTkjil triilh, in«ie)id<tnK-iiiKnii'ilyt>('nllytlcrjved 
at hifJwTrtrt believed, i» on the contrary built up fi^-nthctically by «■ 
lelliRcnce iis^'K. a»J thj* ^ilhoui the aid of cxtcvnally inipaiteil ex- 
pcnt-n^*^ ; th^l iiitelligenn* iv ihrrHore rfficimi to form ^ytilhrtical 
tnoptf^Uions u /fifri. Il lollowetl, ns a mntlcr oi courMJ, thai lime 
»rd spncr in which mAthcnutical ficiinilion» take »hapc. auv not 
cottditione of exl&ienc^ outfihle nf \v% hut nrigmal fotms «>! our oipd 
perceptive bculty. and that intell:Rcnc<* hy dim nf it^ 8yntht<t]<ral 
powers ron4t[iict« mathematient liKuration^ wnlun these |>erccptuitl 
fonii». Attd tm^lly the CDnchi^^on was icached that licnr and sipaco, 
Ibc empty lorwft oi perctpiion. bctTig ihenniHups whotly deAclent 
of «nv kind of activity, it mnflt he tnlelliK<^Tice alone which po*fc^*9U* 
synthetical el^ciency, which eacrciM:b in fitci whatever ftCClviiy la 
operative in ihe coTi*d(Ji[» world. 

But thouj-h Kant enthroned ir>telligenco as lh« ctqaIct ol pur* 
mathf malrcs. and endowed it with the cxdnuve gift of Aynt1i«iicDl 
ctiieiency, he did rol sec hin way to cun^tiMile it aUo ihc LfeatuT of 
ibe leOftC'given wal^nal ihat comes ex|M'Tiemi:illy to till the ofnpiy 
and pai^iYe form>e1 perecplion- Aijainfit all denunciations of hia 
ayflem na purely idcaliiitic he insisted ihal there cxifita outftidr our 



hi*mg and it* consdoiifire» a worlJ of ihin^w in ibt>m&i(*ive^ Iiavtng 
jJOTkijl lo affccc our stumbjljty, w thut lime and space, its cuceptivo 
IbrmSi bccunc fUIcd wtOi cApcriciiUoli iliuu^h Ahoil> un^^l^tllctued 

IfeluclAAtly, ihniigh in faiclilul adherence to the unbia»ed re- 
suha oi his rnvc»tlKation, he vtRtt ac Uat [cd to declare that in 
tdti^L'ficc Of reason a^ na ttniruuivai <A kii(j\*\cii}ic — <^alk-0 hy Ijiin 
thmrfTiral rc^asfjn in rornratli'siinrtion to pfftriiral Tpflson, concf>ived 
as tho Icaciing pnnciple oJ moral conduct ;—lhat sudi (heorcEicrnl 
reason hfts power only over 3cn8otr^alt> eJven ni&lerial, aiiij ia iitcap- 
nble of attaining knovileiJj^e of rlir inielli^ilkle spbetc 

5lill Kant regstdcd hU to-eallcd calegoHci; or fi^iichctical func- 
lions of rfjoson (Uiaiod<:aoE activity, bclonKinj; not only to individual 
rc:ason. but to tca^oii in i;(;ncnit. And »n the -itrcngth of thiii real- 
istic general! alujii lie ;iUnbiitetl In ibem ihc pt^wt-r of impiiTting 
neec^tty to ^ynlhetical propositions, such prop o>.ition*s—oi her witc 
mcidy subjective or empiric al~- being rendered tliereby objective 
or umver^ally valid- Ht showcfd. morc;overi th«Lt the tcUtion uf 
tv^ry kind ot Wnowlwlg^'to a common centre oi »]I'incb»*ivp a-wuxc- 
Dels, tbat ihtis '* «ynlht;iic unity of apptacopl^oa '* a^ h« cnll^J it, — 
presuppose* an inlcJUgiblc cyo, whose veritable Dat\irc becomes 
howvver nowise manifest within our i infc-and- space 'ConduiuneiL ex- 
perieiii:e^ And he tfiiighl that an ail'COnipreheiiding intelligible 
being h^d tu be bypogiatiflOLi in order to complete tbt* totality ol ra- 
ti una 1 knuwiedgv, 

Thus, instead of giving n» a mnni^in phil(it;r>phy, Kftnt*i tbeo- 
reiical (^pccuUcionA djadofiocl, on the contrary, £l lHpanii<' world. 
At ilic centre the non-manifest intelligible ego in communicn with n 
sujH^rnainral H]>Uerc, and conceived iis ibe ventable bc*rer (jf the 
synthetical reason In tht* median and only knonvn region thr fiyrt' 
Chcttcnl rcAflon it«clf, conritrueEinj; nnd cognising nature, by ^"n 
ibelicAiJy eUborAting the chaotic ni.iRifolkl in ttmc and ,-(pace- And 
PI ihr prriphr*ry, bpj«xid mil uwn being and it-v |M'tttptic>n- an un- 
knowable reaJm of Ihingsin-tlieD^Mrhes afft-cting onr tienstljdity. 

So complex an appearance did existence assume under Kant's 
entical inspection, Cont^npUtive mitn, huwcvcr. never ci»B>c6 to 

r^VCHHUL iniNI^M. 


hunkcT Bix<:r a ntouj^ic world Xf>nccpt>on- Thouffh iti<li\iiliial]*ie(l. 
Iir Eccl« hidiMlf one wilh luiivciNiI lirmt;, and Mrctitioii^Jy striven iv 
imdf*nirnn(l how those bomI% of union art* f<irabli4hffil, ami wliai pan 
be in verily it phiying in thi« stupendous drima of b(<ing and !>•- 
com ins. 

To rmxti p1liKl^opbl;IS bekiv Kant, kuuwltrilgc *«<:uit.Ti to be 
given to ti>t reaJy^made- ftr«i conrppriially ^s initnte idcii^nr uni' 
verMl notio4it: and Ihon t>cicef>t\ially at [lu: finUhcd imAge of an 
outside world- 

Ksnt ba'^cxcrlird, nnd MtJl csucriK a cootr^llinfi iutlucncc ever 
thinketft by having sy^icmatrcally demonstrated, that not only knowl- 
ifHi;c, bill nbturc itj^df as wv know it, i;^ constructed by powers in- 
herent lu ouv own i)ctn{£. lie t.aiighl thni nc our^cK-es, by force oF 
our combining nnd ordrring inlellerUEa! orKanix;it]un. iiishion out of 
me^nin^lesii sen » 'material the np-ondron« worJd w« know. And. 
pKtrcovcTr ihat hy force of our incdlif^ihlc t>cing wc have power \o 
bemi iTic oiht^wi^c ri^nmnsly nictlunical course of nature in com- 
pliance with nionl injuncFioni^ 

No von^Ier that u> m&piTiXin^ u phi]i>sopliy vkctrified to new 
vigor and vdunt Hcli'rcliancc tlic dogmatically fihinihcrinc life ot 
German tlioii^Ui^ And it wn^ Pic)it«, abovtr nil] otlioi foilowL-rs of 
Kant, who by his fervent «xpo*&:tion kindled in crowds of hearers 
the riviiyijig v^AtV of this "now phiJosophy'* ol oil cflicicni inlcl 

Picht^ It ihp rral ffliht-r of «nrh p^ythic^l monism a« has r^^ 
cently found so proficient an cjipounder in Prot««Ror lJ«wcy. Fichle 
under^iooii, what Kmit {ailed to »cc, that the "dynamical idealism *" 
of na 1 1I re-const i I III] II g tea*oz] involves, noL merely the rMttraiitfu-oi 
SWWt'givpn maieriftl, hnt the t'ntl attJ out fftufticTU'K within crmtciou*- 
iMMOl the r-ntiTG world o4 perception. J*^ot perception untlcniahly 
takes place within our own heing, and must therefore be, an regarda 
mAiirr as wi-ll as furm, the fmlcnme of powers inherent in ourinelvev^ 
Between a consistent dreum ard the apperception of reality the dif- 
ference hc3 merely in vur fc^hni;, :d the taltcr instance* compoiled 
in a peculiar manner to perceive what wc perceive. But thi» feel- 
ing of cojnpTiUion it likeivise a consiiineni ol our own conscious- 



i3ca«i and. woTeover, unckr the inHucace ol liaUucinutiorut cfvco Uii» 
tc»t of reulity faih i»> 

AcconTin^ to Ficht^'« matured rhmi^lit, aiir being ronmta a\ 
tOg«lh«r in iricll4>ctunl u^tiviiy, an actjvity rf^ndenni; txpiicit by 
inca&A od aci(-<:onaCLoubnc»4 what it ji]r4:ttdy iniplicitJy cooiftiiiA 
Ami ii is urifveradl hvm^ tliai becomes dtu^ «el^con»ciau» in u« 
1rftTi£ciT rrAfton, ronsTUufiTig n system of id^ats, A spiritual org^nJaa 
tiorir h the lonni Rnd oriftin of «U (Txi«icnc«, itfi (^wn mMrovolntioft 
bcconiine mAJiifcbt iu finite bcices^ 

Thus, by force of loitical consiMtrHcyr wh^ diminatutl from 
KftntUn trAi>Kcn^pniiiJUni the world o* ^hin^in-ThcmtplvBis as 
anperfltwus to aU constittiting In Icl licence- An4 rhtr itni^caEion iT! 
indivitJuai scl f -co iiac ion sticks wilh universal mtclJi£cncc na^csiab- 
lifthr-d by rori^idrnng im!lviflua1 Krlf-r-ori;r-ioiifinc«fi »k pnttnkirK in 
the MfU revcnii&g activity' of universal intelligence. 

tlcficl ciaboiatcd aystcmaticAlJy the psychicAl or jdcAliMic 
inoitisiLi thus frirc.'shni!ow<?d in Fichlc^*!^ Ulcr wricing?^. Philosoph- 
Jcai iiileqarelaiion mrnt principalJy upon iht- source and import of 
toa^ciou^neu. And from the rccoKnition ot th« laci, that all con 
stiliienLs of pcrccpiion form pan of ihi^ coii^icioiisnc^^ of otir?, ii 
cbvimisly fullow*^ Ibai objeciK, and indrt'd tlie enftre ohjeclive world 
realised in pcrc<?ption and solely njt pert^t-ption ; that the re:»li*ati*jii 
of thi* entire world of perceptual objects i% in verity renlivalion of a 
world contriindl in our own being or *nbjtH:t- Subject and object 
are tbt^ielor*. from thfs poinr ol view, at bottom identicfll ; ttie rvb- 
jectivti world tmt human bodies included bf<ing a solf'icvelalion 
of our alJ^coinprcIi ending subject Mind a» well as moncr, that 
whkb we call mental and tbai wbich we call matiina), arc (bus mere 
abstract i^rm* dintoiing the 8ul:>ject[ve and objective sidoe of ono 
and the same reality. 

Tliis reality tranbcvndmial idcAlisni declaims to be "intellect* 
nal activity/' It 11; inirllrrtniil ncriviry which — from ir<i poini of 
view — 19 revealing itricll in the conftcioUft content* becomintjc ^^^^^ 
acJf-con»cicii»- This procc5a of recoicnition of one's self as »ubjc^i:t- 
pbj<:ci. as the unitary essoncc and comidfrliou of both, is what HcKct 
c:a]H ihe '' ldea,l| And u-ith hini theoretical or loftieal ftclf<n;cogni- 




l-«>^-tllCAt UOXI&II. 


tien Jtnd pructictl or ethical «>if ronlisation coincide a« '^Absolute 
Idcs*" Fur to think al».o]utc tnitb anil to idtl its fcdiwUion are but 
two «idtfs of cm« aikI the Kami* artivity. Thought, implltgenc^. rez- 
can. knowjni- jtfiell a« in i;very «^Tific vcrJtatile beiDg if thus the Ab- 
solute One And AH. 

. Such out and o«t p^^ychical monism is (lie Jcfiibniattf outcciu« 
of a conception vrhicb takes tbd content of conacjou^aeaei to be ultJ- 
iQate r«nJity. «ignifyiii)- nothing bi_-yioml ilw^lf : ard whirli thr-n con- 
Ktitui^v a -tpiritu ally con cviveil ^ntiiy. called thou){ht. intelligence, 
or reafKm, a» tHv originator and bearer of tiuch con»ciouane£«. 

Alter d period of Klvrious uiuniph ctie HcifcliaM philosophy of 
m>l!'evo^vin>; inirlligparr be^^ann^ a gf^nr-tal 1anghinj{-«tork ai homt-. 
and abroAd. Thi« ignominious late overlook ii> fir«t in consequence 
of it» fuwoiinif i>ro9(Eitiition by the luar^lcT himself to the reactionary 
SCflvke oi Chinch arid Slate ; and llura aUo in ci-mitctlueiice of the 
ridiculoiLH ' ^ p>'TO]ccbn)cal " ahu«e of itR diatmrtical method by the 
'* Yonoft'Eicf^elians." 

Howpvur, by " ftoinf; back to Kant/' the leachingx of iransceo- 
(lental idealism have in cur time once more gained the a^^condercy, 
and have Micccedcd not only in conquering matcrialiam, but almoin 
invading and almosi supplanting Hngli«Ii exp«nentialiMn, 

In Germany, after a season of complete estrangement between 
9cieDc« and philosophy. A re-approachateni y^^tt cfkcted by the Nco- 
Kaiiliaii iiiuvcia;:nL It urteinaicd principuilly tu tlic lecoKnitiou on 
the pArr of flcipnrr, ihAi i»rTttiP<prrceptioTt i^ Ahovr all a p^tychirai 
and nm a purely ph>-£ioloftkal procesd, » mental not a material fsci ; 
tbal therefore the effort to arrive aE a correct " theory of knowlcdEc" 
h by no mcsn^i a vain rndcRvor, and tli*( psychic** as well as phya^cs 
deservi>4 a \y\Arc- in xhn hii^ra^chy of scipnces. 

In I^n^^Und and Ami*Tica the Nca-Kancran mnvrmem owed, nn 
the other hand^ ila snccetSr above all, to Eoch tbci^tic raticnali«m 
as found popular c:xpre^on in "l{ot>er1 EInncrt.'' In Prcfcf^or 
Caiid^s wokU h In said to afford a tiie^n^^ for the "vindication of thv 
rebgiouK coniKicionsre**-" And thi* it accomplithe* *'by an ohjec- 
liveor ab«olntc K>'nthe«i«/' wbkh ettablivhcs *Mhe indivisible tinity 


run HOMt»T- 

of iltc tntcUiifcncc and the inklttjci^W world." "the umt> of rnfto a« 
qiiTilufll Willi an ahsoliilt; ^plnr/' 

Dr. Hiitchisnn St^^rling"* "5^crrt of He^e\" Rjive ihe first ef- 
IccEivc imptiMc to thiK Unn^ct^ndi^Tiuii mode oi tliiii^iiiK ftn^onji uni- 
veriity men of a speculative lum. The late Thomfts Hill Green of 
OxfoTil ami I'fuf- KiJw:*t(i Cnird af GUKf^nw hrciim* iu fnttnjosi rx- 
ponenU, and ma(Ic niimcrous ct>nv«:rtii- The former by tUborntely 
dbcIoEing* b>- Lorcc ol Kant's principle of synthetical tcAsoi). the in ^ 
Aiiffldency of the 3ensori4] cxpciicntliiliKni geiieraUy accepted in 
HDg3and since l-ockt's '-Essay Cfmcerning Humjui UmltrMaiiding." 
The Utter by consisitntly developing Uii- idt-nliciic and tran*cen- 
dental implieAtionttDf this nuinc principli.' ot !»ynthetkul rcaiion, 

Aa re^titedly iiutited, and uc!vtt to bt h>iL sij^hE ol, Erausceij- 
d^nifl] idmlism derives fts convincing force from the undeniable 
truth, 1I1BI whuiwer *tw ore tiircctly ewdire of foims pari uf out own 
Cooficiou^nOML Thi* involve llic intlivisible uuiiy oi such fatt i* 
we are directly conK:ioi]^ of aiid iTir fuculty through wlikh w<* aie 
conftcioti« ci it. ThU tfniiyof ihv roali&Ing «elf and ihc realised 
wof?di of objecE And sMbjecl as cotiicat ei con^ciou^riCHS ; 01 rather 
tlic unity of the cjbjcctt^c ^nxl aubiectivt* fjictoiii uf it. tlii^i siibjccl- 
object orcnc^i of coriftcioiis slates nnd occiirrence* is an irrefiiiable 
truth, from which one htif> to st?irt, whatever dirocvion one may take. 
You A»«rt, ihcRi rhat'that which exisia thua iiiicrblcndcd as con- 
sciousnc^^ is iIsetH uIuumU: rrality, and you will eiscii^jnirr btii liille 
diflicaUy in dcduciiiH Ihercircwii > prclty plau<^ible psychical monism. 
For the power lbrouf:h which find rm which thi« ultimate reality est- 
ists i& then immarenl In iiti individirally. And when ihiK power 15 
conceivi-d ns inielligrnrt' or spirit, and ihp wvirhl at Ur^e' a* rtiti- 
mg solcJy^LS content ot thi» Apint'ii consiciouuictfi, or indcird ai^ijuch 
conscioasness itself, it i% clear thai -our own aclf-and world-aware- 
nrss mn&i tie — accnrdini; to this view — identical In e>wcnce i^ith the 
tpiritLal power which is ultimate and noiver^sal Reality. 

In 5cfi conaciousne&s. when regarded as a totality ot fill actiiAl 
And potential awaiene^^, onr fccliti^:i m wdL 03 the pcrceptUiil' itb' 
]tct% coin(jo*ed oJ them conscitnte an organically completed order. 
Tlwy alj Ktand in definite and inietdependent r^hition&toour unitary 




bctn^. Tttis all-coini>n9iiic bcini; ha» lime mad spacic n? mcxlcs of 
KradMal^^l^realtsation.btii i»iH>i^accortlingioimn<H!pn<lefiulUm — 
it«^lf in Tirae and sp>c«. And this z« undeniaMy mi«, «o Eu- a( Icjiri 
a;» tbo U^ini^ tK^t oombioo* all trajiiuciit events of cxpcticncG into « 
unitary A)'Ht^ii ot peniijinenl Looirleilge cannot pp!«»)t>Jy IumH totm 
parr ai ili« ephh^menl flux oj c<Mi<c>ou« ttat^ (^ii«nciiced by ii. 

Still ih« multifold imlividuation^of the uUiinatc reality into Kp 
arAtc pQrM>AaJ aclf-coabCtouBncytci and deciduous bodily ocs^nintas 
forms thr ETcai. if nut Insui^erahl^, ulntacle in tlw way of psycbic:!] 
monism. If. on t>i€ one hand, ve tak« with Gtc^d amd I'rofcfiKor 
Csird individual ficU-conscioiisnc^ an a "reproduction." and nol n% 
a nil err pliAM; oi tiiiivcrsdl Li>a!iLioii<»ut.'^ - and ua tbc uthn hand 
admit a namral and gradual drvelopnieni -'of fnan as an animal 
organiftmf" muad of proving; such naturaJ dovvLopmcnt to bti u 
misconception of oartLioc and tpacc bound rccof;nition, we are far 
fiom liavintj as yet wiccevdcrl in i*«(ab1i>hinL' a consistent pHycMcal 
monii;m on Kantian Mnv-ti. His mfAriiii> world Ti^mains uuunilied. 

To achieve its tinification in, hoircvcrp ofivr a profound tiiiidy 
and appreciation of tbc dilKcidiicv to l?c encouDieiW. the aidu<kua 
la^ PujirwoT DrH-f-yhan r<niray«nufi]y iiTidrrtairit. Toacromplish 
hU piirjjoic he haii to £how how individual conf^ciouAncfts ptov^js jt- 
AeJl to be idtimatc rcAlily, and ms iiiich identical iviih nnivcrsal con- 
»douMie9s i how man. apjicjiriiig among otbcr perceptible objects 
in niullifokl individiiiiied uprciinc^n^ a« a {j^radiially d<^vcloprd cr- 
ganittDi, is neT<-rthde£^ in rt-ality a complete, all ocmpn^nic cncity* 
not cMcntially 9ul>ject to time, npace, or numerical limiuilons, Aud 
he ha?* to nialte clear bow all con^^uitit content, inctnding ibr r^- 
lemaL world an wdl as the Jelling and Ibinkin^; subject, has no other 
eaciMcacc and siy^nilicancc than in and for const rousncsF^. 

ProJe:»ut Dewey miiintainrt ibat irtdividij«il ccwM^ioa^ncss is in 
reality one viih universal conEctoncneu, because it comprcbcnda 
witJun iis«l( subicct and object'Con^ciouMicss; the jibidinft con- 
scioiuness of oneself tis an cveT<hani;in|; individual, and that of the 
world at lar^t^. though li^urtd rci transleni ^rnupn of «i?n«atinni<, 
Thit being *o, tbac which ii ihua iho bearer and realist-r ol all bduR 
and bocoming in nature* cannot itself lorin part of this becoming, 

but mLi«— accord in*; to Professor Dewey's view — be clcmftl and 
Ab^oluU*- The Hll-cmT4>iHiiMidiiiy t j^nscloiisiii-ss — ^iril (hen^ n ru 
exi8i«nc« o^iisitle ol it— is chii« identical wirh vmivcrrftal intdiJigencci 
id«aucal witli tluit etcntDlly icitvc inEoUig«nc& which is cvurlastmgly 
crcAtiiij^ the of^aric b>'uihc«i» of all Uclnt; md bcL'omJ[iK» 

**Cointciov]^np*it Thr iiUimaTf fnr: Tnvrfll*^ imclf a*4 r^-a^ion," Sen* 
eatiOfis h»w- ni> i^e|f-c)ciiiiertr,ci, no rrcaDJog in Ehomselvee- Th«y 
cxbi onJy as iJitcllcciually fipprchcn<lcd and for inlcllijccncc &)oqc. 
It IS from imcllccuial int^rpreiaiion that they reccarc I heir entire 
«i|itnil:cAncc- On noliriiaiion of scnsaiionji Th<* idral commit cd nni- 
ver«ai intcLli^encc bccomcfi pnrtiLilly and intcrnipCcdly revealed, to 
individual cmt»cjQH»iics&. The sole oJlicc of 9>cn!(atioiis t» In give 
in tis circA^ion lo tins self' n^aliKUt inn of the rir^rnnl contrnt nf in- 

I'roicsfior IJcwey establishes his psychical monism by tllscov^r- 
ing sL-lf'Co]isci4:]itsncs& as ihr Absolute, the One: anJ AIL Individual 
iikaliam or fio^callcr^^ f;o]iju;i'ini. such as »x|ioLindi*d by TitUti* in hit 
dtrlicr writinf^t from the wide ot intelkci. and in the v^riting^ of 
EngJish cx|»crientialists from ihe side of scnsution, this indisiduni 
idrali'^ni |ir<-stnti itstlf likewise as a p*ytliical muniHin. Inn ai^ -tn 
absurdly narrow one. Profewor l>w<*y potnEt oat how it faiU lo un- 
derstand that by constituting mind, n^ such, the ego oi subject ior 
which all ext^crience exists, it arCiriciall>' divides uui uiiitai) fiun- 
Mioi]sn(*ss into two sepjiiatt cun4lJtU4?nt4p ami lti)(i?it the HiiLijecEive 
coiistituenl to be the bearer and lealit^er of the objective constituenc ; 
while in rCAlity both constituents ere but elcmcnuof couaciojaAEss 
In gentfijil ] aie m fact cuii]Vletel> itiiificd m ctuiuftl and abwluie 

Now ii is jiericctly tnto, th«t diirin}(condci:)u« a warcne&n object 
and subjrct-c^asciousneM ikre ineiiEricably interblcnded so as to 
conilitutf ft iniifird rxpf-nriicf- ll i^ ithk also, thai ihc vitnlftblr 
fiubjoct that t]iu£ consciously expuricnccK, :ind that ttirEhcrmnte im 
pans intellifEcnt mcnning to such experience, cannot iiT^clf lorm pan 
of thcAe ii» own fragnrLcniaiy and transient monicnt-i of awarcncM. 
Coraprrbpading them alU it muiit tvidcnlty he an enduring, at Iciisi 
a relatively persistent buin^. It is undoubtedly to such a pertistent 


*ing or MJ|>j«r! thai i^prnm<^ grnduaUy srcrues, aod in fthom ii 
ift all r«naia«<l and organiiieii iitlo more or t««& syflitmaiic ordei. 

Bill Is ihcfc the Icasi wniranc for as^timinfE tluii tht6 persbtont 
^ubfcctp wvavm^ thu» inicllJse^u ux|>vncncroutof ii^ irsim>in)lcon< 

InLcJIiK^nc conKCJouflnc^s in vcr>' obviously only oficol Ihclunc 
tion!> of ilic pcrsJstcni subject, t^nd b)^ no tii<:an« it« being orc^Acncc. 
And ihe e^[ier>Fn;.'(? »ccnnng lo it, thai jit Ica.ii £>f jhc rxremul world. 
bear$ nowise tlit- chATkcteristicc ol Fiaconic nrrtiinificcncc, do«« iio- 
wise consist Id sclbrcvcbticm. In the hccomini: cxjiliciily aware of 
what already Implicitly cxUlcd within itsctl. We may indeed fiii>. 
that c>t]r eniotif>n«. vrhc-r aroused. toQCtitute «ach ■lelf^rE.'vrtation. 
But, !cr insUncc, yonder visual figuration. consitttinB ol nothing l>«l 
colored form^, though intcUigenlly intt:rpr<:tc^ as ii Undrtcapc with 
plains, woud^. and ere^Vft; incirrprvted thus by the hkI of no pncl uf 
iormvr experiunc^ : Ehi« landscape now perc«iv«d by me lor ih« First 
time wa» cwnainly act implicitly immanent in my coA&cictisn«s-i 
prwiouii to all my iudividual ir^pcrkaci;. Itb coostctuun rcalination 
does ss^urHly nnr rrndrr riplirir m; otij<^ctive csqwricrfce whni lor 
ever ha* l>o*n *n orpanic. member ol my <%clf'COTisciousno«8. Whjii 
ia imminent in my bcirg — noi in niy conaclou^irtci^^ia the sensorial 
faculty of ^yratiolically piciuiinK wbaiwi-i M^nsC' affecting n^cnt is 
placed briore m». The connciouH picture itueU i'r an crvane«cc*n1 
phenomenon, hfltirg no steadfast cicisienco or reality^ 

To jisaert — as b iiMially done bv transccmltatalisls and by Prci- 
fensor Dewey uinort|; lliein — thiil oiir individiLid cjiperienr^. wlurn — 
aa moittly occuTv — not actually conKciouti to oiirtt^lveft. exjs^tit then 
Dcvorlhele»9 as con^ciinu content ol u upiversal bcin^ ; to venture 
auch an ultcily ^'tatuituuii a&«crlii;t:]i even when merdy hypotliet' 
jcally adi'AUCf^d. irufiM:4^iid% all legitimate inlefirncir fioui given facisn. 
When dttdared to be posilivc^Iy justilitid by given iacts, it all too 
obviously Uctfa^-ft the theological brat b> which ti ia inspired, the 
act |jui}iu<ic uf vindii^alliie <be retiEious conscioiiSinc^^ which has 
faiih in -the nnity of man a^ *ipiriciial nith an a1>MluTc spirit/' 

Ttiroti^h coEisciou«ncsf vbc indeed lieccjmc anatc td the divvt>i 


l^ciilcres of OUT bcicg, together witli their lunctionatly accruini; ex 
pcriercc. All this; however, ri»c9 into comciou^ Awareness only At 
tinif^S whtTi casually awalicnwL To ^i\tf u* llie vii*f system ol *:^oh- 
«ctouKly latent being nnd experience the niine oi '*con»ciouvie!i'Sj'^ 
to call that "convciouKnvsit'' whose prindpul Jintiaction ii to con- 
Htitute a jJCTitwttnt <ml)]et:l with mt uri^ainiwcd svAicm of txpi^rirnct- 
abitling for the most part in extrH-conftdou^ latency : to do this only 
b^caiiJtd ail tixis exTja-coDficiouH existence may and (Xoen at times be- 
LODie tuQie or lew coo^ous; this ia »ure1y commiltin^ the fatal 
crmr of tlffnoiirg a slate of things hy il« oiiiri)-]|t r>]ipOHtli^. 

There h no iJenyiitg that most of the content oj our being is 
u>»ua)ly net present jh cOQAci<iuAnc8S. Conscquinlly, abiding thu» 
uLLt^xde cvixftcioubnesb, It (.ttnaot po»!iibly funu paitcjf (;uu«icioa4rie»!» 
rilhpr m^llvMnfll or iinivrr^al 

Nothinft could be more In the point ihiin Professor Dewey's 
fiEdtvmcfit, ihit "only & livinfc ftciunl fact (let if» sey cxi&tcni in- 
Mead cf facii can preserve wjthin ii« unfty ihai cTganic sy*)tem of 
diliorcnces in virtue nf whif^h it livf*« and moups and has its being," 
There itt not ths Icnst dovibt ihfit the iiub]cct, who nt times is con- 
scious of more or ks* of his exptiiencc. b ejia<:ily suth an r^tsicnt 
ns hrrr dr-^crrhed- But ennscioii5nE*J^, though the medi^im in whirh 
and through which everythiiifif ii realised, is it^ell but ^n intermit- 
tcnc funcEion of thai living Actual Mibjcct which preserves within 
ilfr uitiiy thr oTginic system of diffcicncc:* in virtue of which it livc» 
and inove« and has its being. The consciousness of the subject 
conveys infonoation lo it only interniptedly ami in broken bil&. 
These become orj^anictdly unified into a more or kss consistent to- 
tality of expi'riencL'. Bnt lUis pfocesK of iini6cdtioti takes place, 
001 in tb» drejtni lik« sttiff which itiAkcs up con^iousneBS, but [n 
the persistent, extra -conscicuit matrix whenco oni ever lapsing, ever 
ruie^^cd nLuinciit of coribcikju^ rtwarcnc^s cnieiKc^ icAJ^-niadc, 

Thi* ^uhjpr:! rapablr of ihnu^hi and frehng lii:come<^ ihinkmgly 
and feelingly nianifctt lo i/SfJ/t when itt; functions through which 
con4Cioudne«« ansca arc in operation ; becomes niAnitcM as bodily 
active to iif/in trn/f/»f ^rinx^ aho, when its function^t throng)] which 
ftiich activity airiKoi^ are in operation. 


PfiVCUlL:4|. VfWKU. 


Bui H xiw reatl aaiure ol the expmcncJng siibjecMs nci self- 
consciounneiM or iutcllii^ciice, what lhc» can it b«? 

ldcaJ:!>tti. and Willi ihcm Profcssoi Dcwcy, become such by lir- 
lievini; cTiat ihc prfc^'pttially ToalE^-d objects aic ihcmBclves vrrit- 
abli; rvdtiiy, and not mof« symboU of vxtr^' conscious ri^ality. Nour 
caD they in nil sincerity brinR tbcniMlvcs to believe ibat a baby^ 
to UHL- ox]c of Piofc^^ur DcweyS illusuations — uhiclt cxp«-riciicc9 a 
cenfiation, say a pain cauacrt by xhc prick of it pin, thai ihlK pain- 
OApciicncinR bstby i^ nf> other thi^i colorctl form within iho 
pcrccpitial consciousness of may be Ii«If e dojicn iq^cutcn ; auU 
that it i» thp pcTccpiTial pm wjtbin lb*; coiiwioiisn«:s« of fsich of ibecn 
that b.iH prickt^d eht^ b:ihy nnd caiiRc-d the pain? 

I>oc»|tbc paincMpcricncinii bnhy derive it? cxjRlcncc Irom ihc 
fact that the intcllvcl of the spectKor interprets the perceplual form 
within hia eortftcioi[sne«« tc tigntfy a baby, whScb hsK foiwvr im- 
plicitly formed port of the ovRanic content ot hie own self -eonac tons 

Snrrtly xhe pam cxpericni:t*t! br the hstby in not i?»t[>criPTiccd by 
the perceptually rcal:»t>d baby, not by the Isaby existing st% idcct- 
prvted perception in thv coosciou?ntfH0 ol him who perceives it. 
The pain cxpci]<:nct-d by the baby dc?t^ ixowit^c lof ni part of the con- 
«cioiivie^*i of the p^rci'ivvr. Conwrt^tieiilly ami ittconli^Iably, ihe 
tub)t-ct thai experiences the sensatSon, i]ui experience in tact any 
kinJ of lc<!lin&; or thoiiRhi, is iteeLI an extra -conscious betnjE. a bcin^ 
only ca^udlly atid b>mbolicaJl/ realised hi coii^ciOLisncss. 

And if the* pfrcr^liial baby i* m:»rHy a ronwimu <iyTnbol i^lgnal- 
ising an Dxtra-conRcJoiift exigent, then all jx^ccptiial cxiEtcncct sll 
that conslitiilci what wc prrrccptually rcabsic a^ natiirc, j^ymholises 
likewise an cxtia'CoiiMiimi^ rciiltiy. a reality thni lia» pijwer 9>o lo nf> 
feci oitr iu?Eii;ibi]ity as to arrii:M? in uh pi-rreptua] repiesfiriiaiion)^ of 
iiaeUand its charactvnstic«. 

The niatttrr atjndb tbcn exactly aa denied by Professor Devrcy. 
It is iiidt.-1'il iliL' "Lvib) ihtiiy'iii'iibcIF wliiLb ifi *fle^t*;d,** and it is 
■*a world thin^-in-ii&elf whirh calU forth the ftnciRaiion/' Tf ia not, 
aft maintained by Profritsor Dcwcy the baby knovrn Co him aa hia 
own pcTccpiion which experiences the K:n«ation by having been 



priclfri! wittun th(t brhDlrlrr^i convn'oniinrfii; hy a ^jrrcfpTiuHy con. 
ttitutcd [)in, 

Btit if ihc entity, wliich affcctn the bcholtlcr*:^ ?ipn?»ibilit>' ar<l 
»w;Lkc:n,-( ill hlni tJic; i>rtccpt uf a Uhi7y\ exist» Ui vct'txy ouiTtidv hi*. 
lJ:v behuUler*s, cunaciouMwss ^nd U knoi;vii li> him only as lhu% 
symbolically pictured by ht« oivn pnc«rpt : such eense aUecting en- 
tity b* on tW other hemi, nowiHc 10 ht: consEruc<l fts ihc- iiiiknonnbk 
" Firsi Caiiw?," nowise a* ihal pigicnii PcrsiMciit Four, whidi Mr. 
Spencer imBRinp* capabit- of sMumJnn t^vi^ry l(md oi tnenial or ma- 
terial appearance. 

The sO'CiUlvd material or physical modes whicJs coni«tiiiiic in 
thr. liehfJdrr Hat pemtpiunlly italiscd iaxby. aiiU llie so'uulk-il iinma- 
tcrial or meiiial nicid*s wliich are eupcnericvd by the bahy si* hi* 
seiuatiOUK smd vtnclJODs; ihoau malarial ar<l m&ritai mcxies uK- 111 
no ^ctvas the [tiAnifcstation of an *' Absolute Force'* or '^ iuscniUblc 
Povrer," as itwr Sjx-nccrians would k--iid lis rfhEiously. and almost 
tli«ologically to bchrv<--* 

The matcnal modcfi that cosAtitiite the pcrccpuh'tliy rcati^cd 
baby arc aw«kcurd \i\ the behohter by a dennite $en»c- affect inic cji- 
Utptit. which i* tluis revi-alliii: ntrt only itN h'^tttt prtNtnci?. but mo« 
vividly and mbiutely ulso ii« pvrcuptiblr ami di-itingiiikhiiii; charac 
tcrUtics. And in the aamo narnor :t ninkv^ alv» known that it i* 
inlrriU-jkeailcnily connected with the v^fil %y^iem oi vcnie' affect in i; 
cntitiec, that conKlitme<< natiiTF In general 


* Mr- SptfDDiT grjjiplfTii uilfi the problem fA uUiuii^e r«a]]iy ImiTi ibrcD ilLfler- 
mt and witidy liiv^^fgcrll ■t^riJp'.iJnO- Vmt hy iintimmf: tUhl nor vVl i»nd ual t>ia- 
dlEbnrd nHlurr h(ii) kno*MNP ii(r*^iitiiKi«'>i itir fniHtraiT c4 All " UiiirrmJlttunrd 
lEo^iLy. " \\9 arnvv* it thr cofio«piir>fi n! an " AtmiliT* Caiw ' S«opd> by 31- 
Epbuiin|[~*in kcvpiniE wiib *hr pricitipTp of ihe CcBEert-^riLtn 0I Hpcixx fJl ph)'»Ieal 
Hflrf pnyrbiral Activity Uj Itic ii]U.-rajnvFr(il>1c p^y of moda il furii;, he «rriva M 
th» fifmc»T»li*n nl en ■' Alu-^luii* Fnrer.^ «*'hen«ifcn (hMw fninifnl rni»rip» pmovd; 
hlnUnf, tniKviVBt. itiill v% >>Lir 'liLptrirticn <il fores- iii;inifoi.l3inin ji of n ^Tfbtenl 
ra:are. ;he ' AIhuIuw Fcffrr ' may r*lI>Ht Iw c'Hic*"i*«l j» psjclilcal than as phy** 
icil TliiM. Iw»tde^ pirpLiinmn ai <rniti ihar the fii><rlnr*l -nnil phyucnl mcuJe*, 
in»ir4u3 o* U-'ing iaivfdoiivijftiljIi^H »rc onlj L*o tliilprmi oapn^ia o! tifw iuil tiw? sftmc 
nrAlity— And tvH]4-t> (i> |jjyiunum|iliuii itf ibc int'^itdii^i'iiiyTiEv c<f ji^vrbicji iind. 
phytic*! mi*l»( jwiXTOrdlnjt Ifrini up .XI-AoUirp Kfffn* hr iiclvtirac** in hm 7>ji«I' 
X/ifW AVm/uvq thr vintv, ihrii oitr prrifrpiunE ^-^o^f iiium^^M f^un^t rr^^^rr-icDtaUvvtjr 
tlu; corrcApaadla« ctuMcLtrruth:? o| a A'orlii ol djiunn'ia-Ltivmv^l^c^ Sij Hijodei 
ihat SiHtirMiiuti nrr firirinA wnrnhni mtml, ju tht «if tng U 

iftiiciiirAi. tiASiftw. 


All rrnliC)' k intrrilrpf^fKli^nr!}- ronililiemcMl- Thr "Vntondi- 
tioncd Kcnlity"oC xhc Hamilioni:, Mftnsels. And SpenccrftT has no- 
whcTc Any exigence, cither in con.<iciQU!inc35 or ouLtidc ol it^ 1l ift 

As ri^gards the mental ircxles ekjwrieii^i^d by the t^ul^', ihry are 
evi<l«Dlly «3cduaivdy hift own allections a6 a highly and most vpe- 
cificallv cruaniacd bciiitn anJ not by any mwiti arc tbcy xnodva of 
Hppeaianttr ol thai iiioM enrpiy iAlitttmrtiCrii *'Tlie Unkiiowahlcf." 
thitt hai^ with su many heli«v4>r4 iiftiirp^d the throne of xhvit former 
unihropom Orphic Doity, 

Tbi* coiIc<l up thini: over ilicrct U ii a rope oi a »n&kc ? I wt 
ir iTTovr» :iiii1 my inirlWn tnTprpm^ it in he a *iiiftkE-- SiirMy rh** 
bignillcancc of tl>o inlcrprnlalion cIock not corkiM in my rGSilUing 
whul vros eJrviuly implicitiy conUttied in my ccn4ciousnc»N but in 
knowing Ibal in comart with the hvlvg out ibcrc. whicb fomis no 
pan whattvf^r of my*pJf tTjoiigb ptrccpmally Tealicrd by mr. I Rhftll 
become afloctc<i in certain adilitiotial unyt taught by inmia vKpc- 

Will any iinbinsKi-H And croinjMrrcnt judge- a^i-en that thr Inr- 
fctchv<I idualistic inteTpretaiion it mote in accoMancc with what we 
rcoJly c^xpcricncc. Ilxnn the vcnarmpk one here fiwcn? 

No doubt the iiumrJiatr? cjbject of phy^rcit tib«ecv9ilion ix not 
the thtngon-it4<^W, hul its perceptual ri^alisaifon. Il w such, bow- 
evt;r. only as (tymbolicul representation of somelhing aubaifiting out- 
ftkic con »c loudness, only as a conscious aflcctior aivaVcn'^d w Itli cora- 
jmUury fori;e in the oUicivoi fioni Aithoul- The oliMMvt^r ofl«» hw 
diversely differpniiated amJdHtcatHystluned sensibittil^a to the out- 
9id« world and carefully noticoi^ ii& specific modes of reaclioa upc>a 
definite n>odca of sliniufation^ This in tnjth is the method of Hci- 
cntific observation, fmm whkli all concbtsion^ rricardinf; the char- 
acieriHtic« of nature; arc drawn. 

The conficious^ nubjcct phylo^cnetJcally evolved in constant in- 
teraction liitb ihc nicdinni in nhich he Hvei^ and movc» and has his 
h'^ing: pnKH'KSc* rAab'ttin^ facnitie* so adjn«rrd au to ct»rrectly oih- 
serrc hift ne(?d» in relation to Euch a medium- He ch«i) (urthcrmorc 
nses thc»c FaciiJtiea in ordei to i:ain a Fuller and more Accurate 


knowledge of further perceptible characteristics of this same me- 

A monistic interpretation of nature cannot possibly be reached 
by assuming consciousness or intelligence to be ultimate reality, and 
as such the One and AIL It can be reached only by recognising 
that consciousness is a function of subjects that stand in definite re- 
lations to the rest of nature, and have power along with the other 
constituents of nature so to affect the sensibility of other sentient 
beings as to cause to arise therein the symbolical representation of 

Systematised experience consists in the organised totality of 
such symbolical representations. And this organised totality of ex- 
perience exists as potential possession of the subject in extra-con- 
scious latency, in what we figuratively call memory. Emerging on 
occasion into consciousness it reproduces more or less faithfully the 
order and connection of the manifold that constitutes the sense- 
affecting universe. 

In highly developed sentient subjects self- realisation or the 
**inner life,'* which arises from the activity of their emotional and 
above all their social nature, gains predominant influence over their 
sensual and perceptual experience, urging them so to transform the 
given aspect of the outer world as Co render it subservient to the as- 
pirations of that inner IJfe. 

Edmund Momgomekv. 


THE consideration ol ibc rclAlicn that sobiistfi between body flnd 
miud lb & topic thai h2» lc:d tc K;vcra) tlivuricy* uuc vt wbtcL 
h;L« fcnind favcr wiih mnny on account of ii« &iippo*icd nionTHiic im- 
plication*. l>r. Caruft »n hie work "Tht; Soul oJ Man" socms lo 
A<lopc That ihcor>-. and his mcihod ol cxpUiniiiif the mailer is one 
of itotahk* supcrioriiy. He 8ays : 

■Mnrwr nnd mind <ihe e[*ment» at iecMni^) *rr u^ 1* rontlrtwrd si* oni^nor 
the iHAtiic^ biiL itbi: Tlj^y «■;« lu ibbciurAliLit m« Air i1i« i^c HklvHiiI AKticvltif lik< 
per If MB 1«ok •! ic fron ili« nmd tide Jl* acbnty roproBeais itMlf t» «lamcDi« cd 
iffmliot and all kifidtf dind ^Rron of »cbui ftolinjci. If wo tco^i *X I1 Itchu <bo «ai- 
(*t tiffr iTt acriviiy rvpravtuu iC»c)f bs moiioh« or u ill hmdi of poi#iitial itid ki' 
nprif ptiMvy ' 

Thi« Uottfinvof A douMr-ffic^iil unity hainodoubi bv^n favoreJ 
ht^caujiC ii hus ftevined the best and porhaps the only reliigt ;LVAtlable 
at:ain6t the varioua iorina oi dualism^ Still this vninc doctrine is 
wry tut from inducing that ftnul pacification oJ nifud which we 
rightjy expect from a conip<?-teni theory. Ii is op^ti to ih<» charge of 
bcinfC arbiirtiry. nrd tt brings no access of inai^hr 

The CAprcshioii^ of tlK>»c whom wc rr^ust ^iippusc to be well 
aflrcird lowarrti! flny dortiinc thai giv*-? promisr of a moniBtic issup 
Khow thii to br the cftfift. Thiis Tyndall say9 - 

"Ido aul UiLak tbat h« <i. «. Ih* maEoriAriitJ b «Dtillad to uy ilial hU moJ*' 
rulAf frDvping% ^nd hu mnlKuTikr rnnttfin* *Tplarin rvvrv-IbinH ^n natiry thH>' «' 
plain iinibiai; Tl^r (JtnuKi thiit hr rrip nflirm L^ chr Ajt^oclalinn of tun ct:ui^ of 
TitiiKioitivna vf whtvc ml liond cd union b« it in abwtucv iKOoiuncc- T^ie S't^/tm 


niK acwivT- 

And Hiu()c> |7IoU9t^ ih»\. 

DiiliQ wben Alladin robbtd biclampt" 

In Inith Ihnwi: uhn iniglit he c-xpcc:ttnl 1o ^pi-tih wJih c^iiiMtlti- 
:Me rtscn'c in regard to the rnabilititf« of human atttiirmcnt have 
cmphtubcf] without due aohricly the m^upei^blc rtsptcts oi the 
piolilein. The i>ji»t hixtory of culture nhould liiive counseled cjiu- 
tion, <-*pecUlIy in view of the certainly that conscionsnws is ^a/rn 
/i0^ dependent upon nerve ucticn. 

It issuljmitlcd that the recent T>TOi;rc*ia ol science should induco' 

91 liopefui It'tr^ptri ol iniiid cm this qucTsliLjii, Nol only lidve phyHJ- 

^ogy snd psychology hroughi to light irore results In ih« Use d^c- 
ad«'S thftn in ccntiLrie& past. Uit in poeitiv^r monism and lormal 
thoiiirht philohupliy hdB also utiamcd to^a clcArnc^s of method whicli 
will prnvi* brneflrial to hII <ipnri;il invftiiigarion*. A rfrar aiid ron- 
ci*^ 6t»tem9nE oJ lh« new "poaiiivism i* found in Ih© chapter Form 
and Forrual Thoufihi of '*Fuiidnnicnta] Problems" by Dr. Corvifi- 
Any onv who Iws waichuiJ tbc: dcvdtipnjrint i>f the nl^d>rA of (b<:>n£hl 
and the philosophy ol logic, will namrally cxpcci i;iicna] Aid mwnrdR 
the i^vilutJon ol the worEd-qLto^lion^ tron^ a propnr con kl deration ni 
focm find ibc Uw« of form- In Dr. Cc^rus's book and cnpedatly in 
thr above mrniionrd Vhaprrr will hr fontid n mom popular rit^Krti- 
tion of thai ^^iihjeci, 

Thottt- who hold that form am! formal tbonght i* the very consti- 
tuted TDeanf by whidi our information with respect to rcnJ existence 
may he improved, ought to regnrd it a decided »tep towArd% the so- 
lution of any hilherttr apparently inrsplicable pioblcin, if wc only 
but find our*iielve< able XQ/ormiitou an iJiml or proce«« thai mediates 
Ixjtwtfen the known and the unknown, and reprtEentB to our inttight 
hov it is po*i<iiblc] to think of a phenomenon in accordanot with nO' 
tioos thar yield perceinihlr ima^vry. 

Ricmann in what has been well charictcriwd as Ms *'stu- 

Tilt €us>iEiiv4*nQK ov f rrtrr. 


[>i;ibdi)aB " vMLAy on '' The hypothAwe ihaT lie- nt iho baeift of k*^"^ 
ni?tr> '" remarks : 

finiicily tnuilT il" not cnulorm t<j Jbo hyuHhivnwot ge-wnMry : un J j* (W^^l /fl /h*/ Z*' 

So fiJto Jwonfi in Jiia " Principloe of Science " commenting on 
"The Oi«r«ctcr of tht: E^pcriincntslisr' refers \o the atidacit^- oJ 
epccaUlLoii tlidt LliuidLiciirtt'd T^nadajr ^ni] iLdI wa^ ihc Irjidinc oE 
li]0 eHonft if>ward5 ^omc of hi« nioti britliant discovcriofi. Up «»>-» : 

- ^V hAvc an!) !» notJor the ivvfJouml hkivicUuei id ibc iirUt o£ n^tunl Uwv 
thd iKtivr pnwcn vf ir^ldrron at^d Lian|piuili«Hi, f^^ w$i^MtrA-f ^i^j^u <*/ ti^rfttvi^ " 

ThfH^tj' miiiit prpr*-vJr pxprrimrnc, WV miiM formiiblr lieiort^ 
wc cm vdify. Tho t^orde nl Farflctay: '* Lot uH encAuratto oitn^clvvt 
by ti luiic ctiotc imcitinflCion prior to experiment/' frhowi; u?: the 
method }u^ kilffhwci]. 

Ifircent df'vrlopmontft in cfin uracil i>n with the «ti)dy of ck-ciricity 
jGup]>Jy u« vith at IcaiM on finilofcy that mny inv^nict iik a« Co ho^ 
vc may str/k^^ (he nppearancc ol coai^ioii»neR« as a tcsutl ci ncivc 

Tbc* natiirt: ol electricity lut^ lon^ been an nnlorniulut<»d !ll«ftiA< 
That it may be prctluccd by the atotion of ntisltcf in proved l>y 
every <I>'i^3imu in opi*ralicin : indeed tlu- o]i1e«t experinit*niA in »ia[ic 
electricity are to tht? vyrne etieet. 

At the prtstint lime it nccm» to be an acceptable doctrine or at 
leJL^t ja gmjj vriiikiii); hyputhev% that c-kinieit) and iiix^tieLiMii me 
man ifef^tai ions of that once hypotlietteal m«dium catted iht ftker. 

ProL G. K Fiugcrult) in liifi opening addresv b^fctc'Section 
A of the Briiisb Association (or the AdvtinceinQut wi Science in rS^S 
mailer t)iC4e vr'fy iin|iortaEit fFiEnurhii: 

'In n priHxSrhtial «ddr*H on (b« bgrdorlondt of iJic kaowix deli^vrod from 
tbi»<bair ilv eriMi C^rk Maiwt^ll ipokeof ii u an undcciiled ituraiion whe<b«r 
ftlcclM majpiptic phenomtni arc duo to diroci oclluo M a dialincc of bi« duv to th» 
nettoa of an ^niervpainE modinm. Tti^ yraa iM8 will ^twr b^ mrmnrAhl^ m ih« 
jr«f ID wZiJcb tlii^ KEt^I i|iie*ti"n Iih* ^nrI1 ptp«rJfsviil)ilEf rV/Wliy Heiir In Goi- 
naany- KouxLrrth 1 tii^ir Q(> Tcanirr uill luil bj b* imptanvd «*itl) I^l9 Ltiduiy — 
IfyffHfrv (f* i^iflcf"-— ihsit tlortro-nuigniHic aciiona 4r« du« to a mtdiuw porviidlnj; 
;ill known tysem. * 


Thai ihe tflhci r«;jiMy cxis:s : thai it ts a \tn>\-vd izci »ucl tli»t It 
i% tJie vubftlantial basis out of which electricity and mut^nuiittnt aris^^ii 
aiic prct(;n»ion,5 toe momviitouf tc reinaiu unchallenged il tbcry Uckc-d 
good cvidt-'iicc in Clicrir favor. Vet iniilc-id ol awakcniuf; disiicnt 
anwDg the critical hosts of 4d<>nr«. tlitrse TUt«anc« oi Vrofcsaoi 
l-'itzgcraid havt not only been r«c(*ivt*d afl voicing tiiticon^^iclionsot 
ihc Hcicniilic world Init they arc confirmed irom time to tirnL" l>y the 
SEj|]itftim«^^ tacit aind »)rnt?timvs c^xpics^ jiMi^nt of all whu div:<)t]iw 
upon the riiatt«t« mvoived. 

['roL 0]i\^T Lodge, one cf the leading scientific men of £i 
land and an iickn^jwltdgcd authcirily upon the subject has reccnil 
pttblish^rd SL work <-tititled "MoilintT Vieiis of KWlriciiy " Tn )n*i 
preface he sayt: 

' Pcv ihlaai fa phj^lcol Kknccapp«Lf lotue morv ccrinln ihan thjii what bn 
so loiw been taJJoil clecukliy t*at furm cj racbi^r a mode «f maJi if niatii^n uf the 

H<'tiiippoftesib^clh«ras a conif^und o( rwocfiniititucntiicorre* 
8fV)n<JiiiR to pO3J1i\<0 nnd relative elfrctricity. Each of thcftc c&n- 
^tjlucnts Ijrts AiTiHilks toh^'^Jcn*, lW ciUngli-mcnts uiih tht v,^noit% 
kinds of innitCT, whicb flflinitii'S, rohpttionK, or fntflngirmrTit^i An: 
ffroaifir or lo«»i acccirdioR 1o ths kind of mAttor involf dlI, u> chat by 
thcmatiom of ccrtnrn M>rT» of mAiicr under proper tooditions the 
two conKtitun^nls of ihr irtlicr arr^ Torn ajiari or i^ep^Tulc^iT. or in the 
langtia{(e of dynnmiCA, ^trnint^l. iJitl ai tbc fiamr limr thcfKCr am- 
stituenU alflo tend mth uncefLnirR persistence to reunite and satu- 
ralc OTIC auothcr into a stale of absolute ncLitrality, Separate, these 
cronstitiirnTfi show nn existenrp ;and sn onrrKV inwiirds unr anoilipt. 
United neither of them c^owii any cxikIc&ce; at all ncr any eflicacy 
whatever. The}' arc a^ though tliey did not exist. 

It is of ^nall nioirtent^ ta ihc^ (jrcMent putpoi^e whether or net 
rhis electrical iheory i* well groi:ndcd- In either case iu very for- 
mulation niLpphc^ WB with a stigf^'estion as to how it i» pottiiibtc Iq 
tliink of coTi3c:icu3ncss a» a prcKJuct of nerve action. 

Just n% the etiitfr i?i MippunnJ as tbe Mib^Uinfial ba<(]& unt <j1 
which in coniequence of tli& motion of matter ukctricity and tnaij- 
neti»m becomes manifest, bo may we suppose an analogous (pcr^ 


tiiv. cov«ckrAri<>K ot »i-irit. 


haps the Aamc) ImIs inrtontidittfc Otod permeating hU ihing!^ and 
GUI of which in conscquL'ncc oi ncrvr action, con«ciotiuictss Ix^ximcK 

Why may wc not 6uppn» lhi»i concciousnftss tmeU, (which >n:p 
poac wc nfimc spirit,) to be the nUimfttc aub«tancc which being 
varioiiftly mfi<lfii<*f1 by Micrrgy mArifrfits in nnr csmr Ihe pbcnoinemn 
of mind, in another the phcnonicnii cf cTcctncity* nagnf^Um, etc., 
(ind then a^nin in n thirti cn^: thnl phcnomcnort. mass, or insirtia, 
which if^ the ei^n;ntifli attribute of iniilcr? 

Alt with the rther in the aliw-nce- ol any ciiixrf^ tlut sepsraies it 
«t that electricity am! mai^'nctfism buc^me manifvftt. ^o spirit may be 
supposicd li^ be ucicrly witbout nrnnilohttion and neutral until nci've 
actipTi m(Hlifit*ft ii?« ajndition. witen Uke electricity in the one cjiitc. 
k here. con«cioii«neif becomes manifest. 

Why may wt- not imaf^inc spirit nn conipowd ai two conaituent* 
coiieapondiiiK to lecllni: and vulUion which uiiiled Mturatr one an- 
other into neuimlily. but u-hich sejtarBre<! by nerve action m;inireat 
fechnt^ thai lemit to paf«: into volition, or vobiion that ivnd& to 
panft inlo feeling ? This would be ixi ncccrd«act- with the phenomena 
of rellea svtlion wliicb is ^uppu^ted X.Q Ik.- lliv dcmvntary lypeu^f nu-ii- 

This is lu hamiony with the views ol the author ol *' Tbc Soul 
<jf MaOi" tor hci although lor other reasons, al«o explains the o^irii 
of consclfnisnrw from tension. He *ays ; 

* ' Ci>iMrmii4ni^« k an inltTwfiPt^ \la^f iif ft^ling ratuHwl IhrnLigb Immnn I( 
lid beiWHTi a Kiuii aati iii sitiil^ilon. Sadibacciun aoi btftae immtHliat^ly aiTain> 
able. tvT^KjtKi iiic Tn^ limjfpi lu a «iiir ol *<niil[briiim, *.a^ ii ii ihii Moiion which 
ccDcentfjite* *nd UctTLAinci Icclinx intu tonacicuaDCH 

" It Appcmr^ Ibqt ciinKiciuiuiai* 0«vbi tintta wiihoUl * (vruin Ipntaoa Dayi 
<pMI Ifl Ati irlyllif I lie fflciWiwij lilma^r iinOQOK*ouidy : ihrrt ^n liiile Irlctlon. tlwrw 
Ant nnprottlirmv m lir MtWirit . thvii- jrc ik> iiUHUbpl^DJ w^nix. iir it ttitie ire any. 
they anf qciichly aodnuib' nltvn<^ !'■ Therv n iiu aaral ot comcioutnev, ibvTF 
is not Bitjch lobfioo I0 oil U littc pUft *v life pun* dnAtnlikr u a iaU Lhki ift Lold 
Tli« onorv lifi^ im bufdonod will) probUmt tli^t di«man^ a man k full <stT* and dp' 
litt^raiton, *nd ifn? *iron)r« arp hn attempt* fowti^ ih« fimhltmn fil hintilodcinn, 
ibe more inrcnw u^M biv cnnwi^^UfOnitt bp 

- U aiirpcan to mi; t«iT doubdal wti?ibcr consckfU) bcanio could enisi in « 
wurbl— it iidcb « world 4«rc ]K»»ib]e ai al)^«rhcrc ih? vLruKfSlfl few e«Hleno« »M 

362 THE m'oMST, 

unknown- for it is Ihe struggle for existence ihat presents ihe first and most im- 
perative problems to living and feeLing beings/' 

Spirit or the elementary basis oi consciousness considered as 
a quantity, would on this supposition remain the same^ but the 
lorms of its manifestations would change. There would be more or 
less straining of spirit and accordingly more or less manifestation 
of consciousness. Or to formulate it in one sentence, we would have 
to postulate the conservation of spirit. 

Such a supposition or some similar supposition i^ tolerable 
would bring our ideas into some sort of accord with scientific cus- 
toms of explanation, and would^ extricate our minds from that state 
of utter stultificatioh into which they are cast whenever they are con- 
fronted with the relations of body and mind- 

Francis C. Russell. 


A^VIDFLV kmrnTt cnmintil trUl hof brougbi hrltire ihoufihi- 
ful mitKlft. on both side? ol ihc wbIct, ih>8 <iucatioa, vul: 
Whrtttcr A ftnhjcci in a h>p&oc»: coaitljlion pcttscs5c« Auy free will, 
akii] whrihcr m luich a fitatr, it t« p^vuihle to iruivifntin him into 2 
criminil or at leact. lot tlic timu being mto becoming on acconip>ic« 
in cmnc' It tn noi the fir^t tinu; ih^t ihU question hav bc«n ai{i<- 
latcd ; mdecU ui ibe veiy bc^iniiini; of McMiicriso). a» it w«!i iJicn 
tflllpd, this id^A was brought forward 

It was cleaily formulated by Vr. Charptgnon, whose okq opin- 
ion ac\'cr1hclc33 i^. tbnr It was **inucb easier to natorc nionil rec^ 
titudc to a AomifambiilLftt viho bad fallen tbcrrfrom, llian lo |>m'i^ 
tbc intr^Tity of cbaracti*T M n woman cf biifh morat standing," In 
1S66 IH. Li^bcuiult, in hi^ work on, •■ SIm^^p and Kindred Siai«s oA 
Hcinii/' ol which at thai time there were but six copies !<ohl, com- 
cities eiiiirtly with this Dptnion. The pjiBaagi* in loo nutiteabk. mit 
10 bo qiiott^d i:i iis eniirety- (F 5'1) 

" W# nkv pmiolAla^ at a fin( pnnrip1«L that a auhji^ ilur|n|{ ih« iiat«ol niAj{< 
n«tir ilnTik it :ii ibi^ m*fey of thf hypnorlivr I hate mailr rvpi^rij^kf-DTi iliat \^'tv9 
con£rn«] mo \a ihik i^pinioo . 1 haiv nii4a> a tini*. rnnoiTd ihc hmi of iucIj pii- 
soov, ii*ar(h«d ihnir pocUci, dnun of Ihe rinf^ from their ^ecn, unrinl Lb«lr 
Kho«<. f-Ec, viihnuf [h?ir having iio1ic«<J Ih* mrlitqi nt nl), 01 tiavLflff mtjAw thu 

Wil rftvfanrp. i>if- italaiimi into wtnrh I had ihrown thna, Iviiue l>>^ uum of 
ihiB abs«ac« of all coDHclcustiss. . . 

' Ilov Tcr) fjrjivr. (tic powlWIirlei, xre wMch may «n>uc from Lhm ptai4 <]f 
Imio«, w« majr rnd^t^ «>ft<dveT Whai t lu<« advnnocd heie. i* the tcuiLi of <«- 
laia Hpcnrivnii vhich 1 m*d« upon a jauB^ girl. wbo< wfaila baiaffvary inteD^i^tAil 
in hvr natural uvakiniE '^f'tKtJTkFO. bocaoiv dtitfn^ tiypnoilc al«vp itu^ td<w| rrm^ 


iu^ ur^vt^^ 

grained aad^ik'illDl p»n«D i btd «vcr >iv1 l»dcnl#lib Ntt-trthctew t aiw*y4<i3do«l 
hy fTLiiaicMnA her v*i1t 1 «^flt iblp to t-if itc Id her rnlnfl ihe mott f rlmlnnl rfftnlvc« ; 
I louvd her |uh9iiijiik id a biKli ds^trw. t wm Able u.y cuu^ic hirr tu t»ll Enio a 
viulrQt fftK* witli ■ pcnoa, to fly out upun licr with ■ knSfs in tier 1i«nd , lut-rnn 
di&plACBd ia Ja«f raiml the ftvntimunt ol IriffOiUHip, ittill armod wttli Ihnl injitru 
moDt. I tsnt hor to lULi htr luui Ifiund. whom I tuld h«r Hba aiLM' i[>lFiuil ^l h*r , 
fcbe <ibfi^«t1. ihr kaifft bnrjinv JrvU in the vitll njipoiiiCp I Almt^tt pr^vnlUd tipoir 
oniMlier yuuiiK KifL ^hu uait huwcvm' tc^h uiulsr llir iiifluttnci^ lo kill lu-i it^ti 
nodjcr, and ibcm^b Hkie wopi, ibc: #clLi«]Ly pTc]f.irfd i^ di^ the drcd 

"Afier All. il ha^ bt-cn knuwn Fur a UitX Eh«l a fiun^ who, up Ki (hm moment. 
viU tiT vjund oiijid, l^iHtkiE a toiui- ocmtinuAlU ropodLuw ' 'E^ill your w if? KdJ 
yaat chililrta ' — han olxi^i^l ibin mmmnndH inriivd iJivrclo by an irmuiibla im- 
pul4; and Ui>ll Th« by^iofihc tubjvci alrvady preditfrned to hallucrnaiion. piCApr 
lhi4 <im* Tmrilofnary imprilw ' I am lirmty oortviocrd, ahpf bmrm madv manj- 
other cipehmcnts. jUnt a ituhjeci to whom Is nuKffcitcd thr pomDilM-loitoJ any bad 
AClioaH ytilt carry out Ibc vriAie itflci hb- ^w^keaiutt I'v reitktm erf wbiL hfjh oow br^ 
come In fcion Jh flird idcj- Tbi? tiHAi moia! will Uxumr titintcd. the biffhcsl'mmdcd 

"U il hfti ftltcAdy bren to\tad iKakJIile to reform « woTnan of lane mumin and 
bna^ ber to abaadon ■ntirvty biM in'il cdutxUi wb>' ntmot Iht n'vertrr b« afloCMil 
lind by <i\v titnti ma&a*? U u'cmM Ut in Ibu po^t'or ci Ihv ni^ii*iiH<r t^nugiT^nt Ur 
liU feiibjfirt nnt <ialy Ei> twmini* a lala-tififtrw, h cnlnitininior. a ihii>f. riipn<^ii(#. pir 
alBoiTirr pcriud KubroqtJTni lo tlv majCDi'iit ila*p< but. ht- miuht unt Hm. for irc 
ampl?, « rbf. ijjMrunicnT ol hh» pi<r«ona1 vrneaAUCt and Ihc pour (tretirnci, unmind- 
fal cE iht; priitiar) ia«)iMii«ni lo the cnmma) aciiov. would coinrnit on anolbcr'i 
arcotinl, ^naload t^f oa hu awH. tbc «vi] dvtd^ prorripled Aod forced on iberaio. by 
Ihe irreiUtJblc niggeniinn and will, tm|%:i*ed upon him trv anoiher person. And 
ttbcn ihr. iTirjir ftbull Iiavi- h«^ iniOhoiom.'U'^d whofr lihjll be rtoi! tlir mrtUiMl 
jufbL whfj cAii Ik>[J ii{i iif JuhiitrC, Ibc Imnh whiUi ih Lu tbriiM Lhc LihIh uJ Triilb 
iiprtn thfl acf. nad cha-llenA^ ihr innaceacy of jt tnnn. vho, up to the moircnt ol the 
erima rtdvvr uihibitnd ihn ^lifthcimt hi^ c4 inAa-nily, hail «houn e««ry mJtrk oE a 
■nufid miTii-t iind yt^F^ wrhnn cnnL-ictail ol thti tlTMnd\a\ xltnntl xoIiai with *\-vt} appar^ 
cm sl[n of eimmI larth, Ihnt bt^ Iiak commitlcd it of hin own acccrd > And who rAn 
ivU wbeilter such c«k« luivv noi afrsidy lakcD plac«-" 

Thvttt; iDunimittiiL?t wcrd» piiKied uniiulkt^, At Uut tiinc. the 
world did not believe irt Kypnotism. M. M. Richoi and CharcoT 
restoiv^ it to a pJjlCl^ ol honov. The School cil tbe SaJpciii^re msidt 
it» advent, and Han^ lu Hypnotism a paU^oloi^ical condition. Si* 
iiiiiliani-o\i>i1y with this school of ihoii^lit, there arose the rival ooe 
nr Nsncy, which following ite l«ad«r. Dr. Li^b^uU, «aw in hyptto- 






■cbool, M, Li^«oi«. pTOk»»oTol t)i$ FacuUyof Law, in 14J84, bi hit 
punpblet on ''Hypnotic SuKt^cstion. in rciulion lo Civil and Grim- 
bull Ldw*' ai»D |7iopt?uii(IecI tu tlic i^iiUic tlii!i idc^ti oi a'uainaA Mig- 

M. Lii^g«oi«^ Lik« M. Lt(b«£Luit, did not conhn« him^tt mereLy 
to theory He went on to Jcmonatrau anJ fnovi; bis Uicsiii by con- 

ChiftK^' PA pt'C indents, 

SiranKcto say, rh^rSftlpi^cri^r^ took issue on tJ:i& point, &do{)iiii^ 
and dclonding ihc opposite opiaton. 

1 would now Ask pcniii»sioii to rai^ my own voice in this de- 
harp, un<\ I am thr- mozp nrnhnltlrnrd so lo (lo> inA^rniirh a5 my 
own pi^r^onal ohsflnaiion'i and ihv sindy which 1 hnve brought to 
b^frr on this maitcr, h&vc ctuaod mc to pnss, ao Co apcsk, from one 
rival camp to the other. The l])efi)« ophcld bj' ihc School at Nancy, 
whili^ il found in mr ni tirst ;in adlior^nt, (tndA mr- rn-day an ad- 

Juit a irord about myself lo the nraJcra of TAf ^u/iiii, 

I hav<* always Ix-cn a hdirvr-r in MagnriTsm, At ihn mii«ri, and 
until Ecwardft '^75^ merely on the fatth of books, latcr^ bccaiisc 1 ha<t 
been present at one or l^vc more or Jess public exhibition^ And 
it itpjiears lingular cnuiigb, thai ihoush tlHi-s iiniwifcclly trained in 
the knowledge of it, I should have ewplatneil, an I did in TS69, 
the ecstasies and the stigmata of the celebrated Louifrc Latcaiu ak 
coming simply from auto-suggestion : and that even to-day, there 
fthuuM lie iieithci jot nor tittle ta siihlnct froDi wh;il I tlicrn wrot:?, 
r«'garding It. 

[ only bc^R pntctising mugnt^ism at thu commeneonicnt of 
168& I WA9 rt^ummg Irom a vimC Iu the Salpotiicit: whithct 1 h^d 
btfcn aitratlird hy my doiihlii on ttii< very ir^n^lpience of [bought 
wtiiX Irom which I returned vnili my doubt* iiitefi«iii«d. 1 have al-. 
re«dy recounted, in a si^ricn of Arhclos, that appeared In Je«5 than 
a year in ilic Kfvae Phi(i'}sphi^iA( { " IJpoTi Meitiury iu HypnotiL Sub- 
)ecis"f "On the tnf^uoric« of Imitation and Hducalion in Soinnam- 
buUsm, as exhibited in ih« so called hypnotic 3l«Dp"; etc.) myoxpe- 
Hcnccs. observations, and iat^ucEiona. Not to speak of mycontiibu- 



rirffl5 to thp yagn«)n4>4. ard roiably to the ^rtwr J^ /'/fj/n^itm^, { 
introduced hypnoti»nn into Ihe w;icncii courw oi the Koyal Academy 
of fidtEium by means ol two vr^rkf*. Ont. usi tliv " Origin/' the other 
en the '■ Extent uf tlu- Curjitive HJlitis tif Hypnoti<ini " (i**H7 iSyo). 
BcKiilci; many other pokmicaJ writii»^ in favor of ih» hbertyol hold- 
mfi public <?3thibJtions( ^'Letters to MXhiriiiT, Representative, " 1&88. 
'*Mnenc:|[»«r» «nd rhy^claos," 1690), I reUicd at lengtli wlidt M. 
Chflteoi ftiii! hi<i piipfU hat! shown mr in Pan*, itn well as what M. 
M. Li^bcaiiU* HernheimH nnd Lii%coi», Ji*d I«l me witness al Nancy 
("A Vi^t to the Sftlpctritrc/* 1886— -'A Visit to tht Sdtool at 
Nancy," i889> 

At the tirre thtn. thckt I EDC>k upon m^^^elf tohypnolit<^ I firmly 
believed tliflt the subject becnmc the ptr'penv of die ma^ncciecr; 
pAume over, OA oE no impoftancc. the niunifcAt resJsUncei^ that I 
met with nt every \Knnt and in t-verj' form en the part of Kubjectfi, 
vho. in all ctlier respecls J found perfectly aciaptc*! to such expcri 
mcnta; ns lor iii:&cance, enc who permitted hi> toi]t;ac to he pierced 
with a ]urt;e darnin(; needle by my s^rcpttcal colle^tgue, Dr. Ma^iiiK ; 
and to be burned several limec* both with a red hot iron and tiy 
thermocautery, bymj colleague, the nurgcon Von Winiwarter, both 
these experiiiu^nt!! havitif; reference to the curative eifectn of hypuo 
linn. Thus, adhering entirely to the belief of M. M. Li^beuult and 
UtauHis. at the clo»e ot 1S8& ("A Visit to the S»lii^ri*re ' "> I wr<>te 
these worda : 

" U. Ue&untt'a sraimiBui ii pcrfe^il^ aoct- The HMnuAinbiiliiL in tb? JiaoJb 
ot Ihc bypOoUtM. ii li»« tlun the ifr/t^. whiCb Ihe parf«ci diacipW e4 X-oyoU 
Ataoulil r«>embJe. He i« a alftvp, Mirh ao %vtl] uih«r ebEin rl^oi cil htfi fulcrr, ami in 
nrJ»f to tcilfl lUp command* biil upon him. h*^ »iil pimli prMmtion, iiriidftripp 
eunninc, dininujlailoa unit ialniBhotxI. la iheit ulrciiHnE hiuilb Ha will open hnd 
■bui (Wtf nni^cl^Mlir^ i^AlV in lii!i ntvrViiiKH . nil! linlcn iimS w.iich< wUh vbui k«<n 
fi^hL ^vhfii Dcutc hcAha;:? He vill r^'x^mlxir anyihinie antl o-rryihiric r-^u wnni 
iiim 14. will forB«l «1l yna linire bim (■> iorgat. It* viti, in good faiEh, nccot* a 

tfiiM m iBfllUj'lic tiB nevtr iwn- If t^xi commaiiil him so to <lo- he will liavthenrd 
vbai Id ne^DT CDkittl tafivv heoid upd doDC cvcryibiaiiE tbfti be never tould have 
<tcinc- lie will »^eBi by hit HouKhold Godt, ih^i he hii acLrd thruufthaLiC. uf bLx 
ovn lr«« uilL wiihom luij oiuttiaI peeamrv* will Lnv^nt muli\cfr it boc<3 1>?. laA will 
oM!npl*tiOy prtHcei aed cavm bk hf pfiotift«ir 

<iV OfllvrML ft'CCE^IQV. 


*'Thtit>ntiailty, niicb a prm«r !•* tlin SMI dan^emni ibtnf im ihs Ittv* of tlii* 
mrtfaT I b«tEr\« iJmuifh, IttuT ^iTACiIi::!!!}' with ihe utJ7|]liiin nf wli.u Fftl^lit rrlaic 

In a Eout-noCc of mine, while mentioning witU high^ac pnise 
th« tn«moii of M. IMg^*, I ftdd^d fnnficr^ ■■ E do not express 
any alarm that ] cannot show m good r«a£on to//' Among otlier 
rcasoniiH 1 iionJcicd oc the iJifhcuJiy* say rather, the irn possibility 
thcrr is, of oliiainiaK from llir MihjrcL iiQ «h*plutr ahiioK^Uoii of vUl- 
povr«r, whiUt at ihc «Am4?titncwc •illowhim to rrtain the rif^ct'fitinry 
freewill to cope with uuy imloriTuccn ctccitUnU whidi mij^hl occur to t^c fuffilmcnt of the ihmight and «cli^n ?iiij{^c9tcsl- 

Two or thrw months bter I sliouid not have t*xprri4«d inyudl 
thutt; an<t honcc the TCTDttrk» that acconipaiiy the en per; meats re- 
late \n my nrticlei on >4ypnotk: ConscioiiSnes«, Rtvof PMttSfffhiquc, 
Feb.. MaTch, 1HS7. f^xpennicni^ which look placj- iibtwn a y«ar 
previous to this Ucc ihu uotc lo the contribuled aniclcrs, Feb. r8^7, 
p. tig]. It may there be iioticcd lh»l my ajiMnt U tempered by 
rrtts«in marlcr<! rir-Ker%-*riona- I ttiwevi^ th<?n np^Kiving prar.ricc 10 
theory, i, c- I narrowed down th^^fte: apprbheni^i<ins ol dan^dr to two 
IcgitiiDatc crtU5csof alarm, vis, attempts aKam^l morois, snd tam- 
pering with tciUmi^Eitiuy willv 

Uptm t)u*M- two iKiintH I am «tiJl of thr siame opinion, with tliiK 
^xoeptioiT. that whj;tt I then fear«cj probabk^ I now regard as ex- 
ceedingly problematic I nitan to say, thai a villain who was eon- 
tempUtin^ iJic piripL-Uiitiou of a crime, would not L-a±iiiy lind an ;i<:' 
romplice in a <ubjfTi of good momt 8lal^diag. And in any case, 
I siilJ ihmk a» [ ihout^ht then* ihai euch an accomplice would not 
only be innpt, bvt comproniisJnic. Ii i» this kttcr poinu I wiaJi lo 
demoriMr.Ui: to i-oik h\ the iollowinB criticit^m upon an cxpcriincnt 
nev«r beforv pubtiihed 

Al the end of May. of labt >i;ar. 1 wa^ punsini; t)irauf;h Niuey 
with some frionds, among whom wss Dr. L. Fr^rtdricq, Piofessor 
of Physiology at the Univrr^ily ol Li^e. Wc were fpcndini; the 
evening al M^ Bcftuais'a hou5c tofcethcr with M- Mh Lifbcanit, Dcra- 
hdm. and Li^teeois^ Nalumlly thi^ (question of Crinkinal Sn^e^^fion 



Tiiit uosTtmr. 

came upon th« U^t ami wits dt^ciissod in all its phasQe, without 
bdvancini: one step towards its solutjon^ Wc iiiftdc an vnicai:cniCEU 
to [necC rit Xhv. lios|iiiiil on iKc ftjllowin^ daj, when- M. Bcrnljcirn 
invitpd mc to Ijp prrm^ui at an cx|jc?rimcnt, whirh h<? niamiAir4>d 
would convince mc^ J will relate; aI k-ni;iU the occurrence, for in 
vuch caK9. the iiliijhteat clet&ll;t may acquire very S^cat importance. 

M, Bvrnheim Uirttw intu the m4E£uetii: ^It^crp m i^ieai, tull EdUiw. 
(jujie easily mfluenced, nnd who^rr itln&Sf* did iial prt-vrnt him from 
walking about in ihc ward, 

" Prc*ciiily, when you have waked up, you will i^o and sical an 
ora^i^e from Hu- patieiil thai >'ou wc ovlt rljLTf. in thar btd op- 
po^iic^ Remember that what you ftre going to <^o is vcr)' wrong ; 
it 19 strictly forbidden 1>y honesty and by the law, and you vrtll run 
the risk of bcmg punUlicd. " The uian is waked- He appears to 
be collecting hi^ Oioii^htK. H« rubs his lorehrad, he \% vUihIy 
meditating lomcthmg. 

■' What is the matter with >^u? What are you thinking nlioiit?'* 
1 n>k him. 


" You EK^cm pivoccupitd." 

■*WelJ. ycit* I have lo do jomcihinK/' 


" [ am not nbltgcd lo render yoti sn sccounc of my action^^ 

^'Ah^ ono would almost $ayyou wcrn mcditittintc G<7inc mis- 
<hicft whi:tc: drc you eoinjc?'' 

" That's no hiisinr-Aift of your*-" 

**Oh 1 vory well thou, 1 shall watch voii and follow yoii." 

\ follow him ; he walks towfinls his conkpnniou'^ hcd, glances 
a1 tbe oian^cr. \\\ttw ^t■Al\^^\^ u|i 4|;?iiisi the windniv, he chIK nic to 
admire some cherries ({rowing on a ported plant He keep* cjiiirr 
atilL Why? Simply hocausc 1 had told him that I intended to 
watcJi him, athe/wis^ my prtstHi< tvciit/J riitt ftatr irtfufthJ htm in thf 
tt^uf. Duririig ibi^ lime, M. Heinlidm hud ucqiiainted thr (ither 
patient with the intended proLe«.^ding. he nevertheless having he^ird 
the whole traniiaction. '* I do not think he will do it,*' aaid he to the 
Doctor. " he is one of mv ma1c» «nd he woddn'1 >teal Irom me/* 


OV C-KlUtKAl. St<14ie$7lOM, 


] walk away *nd join the ^roup ^' person* pr^itent^ 1 nay t& M. 
Beaunit. ihat ihit eiperimeDt will prove nothing, he anKwrrt irc by 
a ^««tuft* of surpTU«H Tht? ftiibj«c1, as toon ak )io 9ie«« irt« |;o awny 
and Mi^Uj /Aaf / am w^ rt^fhing Aim any mi'rr, stretches ouc hifl 
tiAiidi fieixes the oiang^; that i> behind hi» matc^i pillow, ti€ latter. 
m^tH-it^ih fi>ffkiMg /tits at him^ A »core lor M. B^rnhcim, but on* 
also lor M. DeJbo^ul \ I'shouM need twenty pagutt at leusl oi com- 
mentaQ' on thin experiment- But 1 ^alJ only allow mysdi 10 poini 
out X\\v tr^srniiftl points. 

This hypnotised 6ubj«ci then, or 10 speak moT« correctly, 
thifl man lo ^ihoni n th<^iiAht hits been ^ugRoat«J, alter I had wanted 
hint thai I was waUhiiig him< and Jrcm whom I ni^vci tuuk aiy cyi;* 
gorK *itli ihc imrrrringness, sn to <|M-ak, " of thr Mling ^lone/' to 
carry OTit the? Kugge^led action, not howev«r without a certain dia- 
triLdt ot iitc, aui this only, bi^c^iuae be bud been forewarned. And 
nioreot'ui in hiv ^Mnx consciousness, it i» I ^lone. whom litr \s w;itcl]ln|{ 
tn th^t clnmsy f;i^li]f>r, in ordet to 4t*iz(> upon vom^ itiomfrnt^jty for- 
g«lfuhio»s oa my part- H« bas nwor noticed at ;^U, lliat his mate \a 
intently watchioi: him and following hh every movement wich open 
eyes ^ ^o fit: fatt^lis the oi^ni^e from undci bi^ veiy noset l^;t wfi 
001 lorg^i thai it W3fc M, Rernh^im thr hoi^i^r physiciaTt whu vug- 
RcAlod to hJni CO take tbc oranQo. Bui M. rr^l«Ticrt himself would 
ctiiially well have (iiUUIcil tb^il <:oTtimftud, even preceded as it was 
by tIic Irtllo homily* TiH:nrdf;il ahovc. Why i^bould br have i.\\%^ 
obl((;cd M, liernhcim? Bui indeed, the logic of my opponents is 
vi^ry wcaic- 11* say llicy, a iKontnanibnlift resists criminal sug^cs- 
lioD, it is bccAtiKe he is not a suAocptihlc stubject, or, that the ex- 
p*?rinient has Iwen ill coudnrTtd, or, that the «ug^etlion ha* not 
been fitrong tnough. At tlial i^ite, it is uselestt to continue exporj- 
mcnLing, if failure is always to be eaplainc^d away. Or my side, I 
mii;bf with e<|(iail reiu(i33» «reue. Ebal tbey liad becii dealing wiih 
some licentiuu* mind, as y^t all unhtnviinK it^* inner *elf. or with a 
bom cnmmal or a fjttent thj«t \ and though 1 ot))oc;l |o this kind oi 
argLiment, it wojld often prove to be more lecitiniatc reaaouing than 
iheirH. WI10 »moitg us is ^bftoluiHy virtuoii?i ? How many actions 
which the law calls eriminil have w« committed, or might we com- 


mit, under the pressure of circumstances, without a shadow of re- 
morse ? But let us further cisamine this experimen t. 

Our subject then pur the orange in his trousers^ pocket which 
stuck out very noticeably. This man might be a criminal, but he 
was not a dissembler. Looking him straight in the face I said : 
*' What have you been doing? " 

** Nothing, I have jnst done my errand. " 

*' You have stolen ! " 

*' What nonsense ! ^' 

*' What have you got in your pocket? " 

*' Nothing" (notice the absurdity of this reply). 

* ' What do you mean ? "' 

"Nothing !" 

*' What do you call that ? " 

'*Why! it'san orange : it's a very fine orange ! Ma foi .' I can't 
jniagine how it came there I " 

M- Bernheim intervenes : *' You took it from a fellow- patient, 
from a comrade ! That was very wrong.'* 

*'Yes, that^s so, but 1 wanted it. Look ! did you ever see such 
a fine orange? 1 took a fancy to it and I determined to have it. 
Besides, he fiadjt' t seen it (!) It's not stealing when it isn't missed.'* 

Then 1 asked : - ' What is that you said ? '* 

'*Why,yes, it is not stealing to take what nobody misses/* 
answers he, with a scarce perceptible cunning and significant wink, 

A few minutes later, after we had ceased noticing him, he came 
up to M. Fr^d^ricq of his own accord laughingly told him that he 
was ill the habit of abstracting tobacco from his companions on this 
same ground, that if they never missed it. it was not stealing. " II 
is all in fun, you know V 

I conclude therefore, that this subject had in him latent tenden- 
cies to theft, or if you prefer it, to pilfering. And dare any of us 
honestly confess to himself that we have not, deep down in ourselves 
the germs of any such vices? Who among the most upright of us 
does not consider himself perfectly entitled to defraud the govern 
nient, or to get the better of a Railway Company, or quietly to ap 
propriate an object which he may casually find? 

as CKUIIIVAL StnM}»»11O0(. 


M. Li^ftoit will vc!ry likclj- %»y to iim* : "We will [{rsrt ibnl 
ihifi experiment has not fulfilled the dc«ircd requireoientfi ; the Mib> 
ject httft not vcrf hif^h moral qualities, and he juR^lcd a little. But 
lictr now. nTc MjinccxpenmentN abKotuteU utiinipcacbable." There- 
upon M. Li^KcoU relatcK the liiKlcricv of Miu E ^ . ,, of ^ - . ., ol 
Ume. O - . .. and of Mroc C . . ^ Here are the Enctv tin collated 
by him in the Gcutfc trinl. 

Firtf fMrraiirr. M- Li^gi-niii belitvetl iJiat )«.- b^id [irudticttl in 
Mifti; U . . - such :ibiM>lute aulomalicm, so complete :in anniluktion 
of moral scn^c and of all liberty of action, that he cauM;d heti with 
o\jl moving a muMiIe. lo place the ruuxxLe of a revolver cUmc lo her 
moihv-r ind fire upcn ho-r Ttu* vx^ criminal Apptflr«*d com- 
pletetv awake an^l tar calmer thaD weri^ \hv witni.'^*teb o1 this seunC' 
(Takt! notice of this-) Her niotl^cT. immcdiatelv rcproachini; her 
and telling her jhat iUe might have killi'd her, Nfiss E . . . answerii 
»tnihii^« U'ith a ^r^ai deal ol cnmmoA «9n^ - *' I lkav« not killed you, 
ftincc you ijv speaking lo tne now/" — «* U any one likely to bcliovc 
that tht» in luercl} prvLeuce ami acting, ** add» M. Li^gcoU, ''that a 
dati^hierwitl nmuM^ WrsrH ?>y firing ac hpr mother wjth a rovolver^ 
U'M/J^ tAf i/tvj «.»/ Jtir^tt' >v »*/ l/mJ/J, simply to deceive the pubhc?'" 

Well, shall I uy it ? The hypothesis of simulAiiout tLc biiuu' 
lalion which is ptaulisinl irt th^ hypiioik *tate apjioanf lo me to be 
the only pbiiKihlc eiiplsnation. The calm, ftmiling attitude of Mis« 
E . . . imn unanswerable proof od ihi^ 1 bav« no douht that It in 
A dreaiy ^hc bati ttccq brrsdi linns -it her mothef. she would liJivt^ 
Siiff4>r^i1 A« in a terrible niglil-tniirr 

Lately, it was in the heginnmK of January', I dnramed I waa 
prcMcDt ai a sale of pairttiniE». Ainonic others cxpOf^cd for sale, there 
vtnf> a InnfC picture, nti^elccn or I^euty feet high anil lr» than thrcit: 
feet wide, rcrpr«!eming the asLtumption of somt fjiint- Hsrdly had 
the auctioneer mentioned the price, 6,000 francn, than I made a 
9i£a of aMent- It is knocked down to me. 1 start for home with my 
purcb^vr, bnt on ihe way 1 am ^eucd *ith reinorat. Where shall 
I hnng the rchgioue picture ? And evi-n if I find a place for it on 
the staircase what will tt look like in my house, with its old black 
frame and h% extraortlinary dimetisitin.^ ? Au<l what a price to have 



pdiil. at sucb a nioniirot ^1jl-jj EliL-hou^r biJI&^iv poiiiiiig in! lu tlie 
mid&i of ihrw rcflGCifEMi«^ 1 woke ui>, my hean was beaHn^ lumul- 
tuotislyaud dufirR ihf^ remainder oi ihe tu^hi 1 coniinut-d iirilor iho 
ntotit iltaa^rccdblc tnjprc-^:^tons £i^ spite of my knowiii]^ Uml I was 
aw»ke and rc-a*oiiing wiih niysrlf. congf»iiil^tiri^ myself rJiat it wat 
notking but s drnam, iho «oarinity of my absurd action weighed 
upon my in in d mid I Vept con i in ^laliy dreading the rcpruacht-^ of 
my f;iiiiily. when \\iry slionfd Ic^i n ihtr stii|)ki Umiu^iii I hrid iit^idiv 
How widely different a^ this mental distress froni \he placid, smiling 
condition oi Miss Iv - ^ . and how naturally one is broiiKbt to aup- 
po>c that durinj; the hypnotic state l)ic subject 19 not <vcn ujidcE Hi*: 
sway cf fhr* nrdmary ilhisioni; oi ilrrnmlflntl- 

M. Li^gcois alilirnit chnt Miui £ - , . tvtff wr iiuar/ iktjt iht 
pisial w\u tt&t h^iffd. \ di> nci believe it. Upon wIieli icroiind» are 
vra to infer tliai a fiomnamluilUt ia an imln^ilc? .Vou and I, ami 
everybodv would canily »iiirmx»ie ibnt M. Li^geois'* revolver wan not 
loaded ! Then why fihciJd not Mtss £ , . - liurmtcc ihc cnmc? Is it 
not fur the very reason chat he bnnded it to her, to fire at her niotlicr, 
thai tttie woiLld npinr Vk% much? Might ^vr not liavr ^aihrrrd ihi^ 
Erom the attitude ^i the t^pcclalorii, EtUl of expectancy tinmixcd b>' 
aj3y apprehension ? and miglil *hc not hnvc wished to riMonish them 
by her docility And mn^'/rtfid F All M>ns ^ Aiipposilicins arc borh ra- 
tional and pD»ihlr, BeMdcK all thift, romnanibiilj^t^t who Rfc nb* 
HOrbod in the work in hand, generally speaking, show a quicker and 
■tuicE pcibpjciiity ; their 5cnvbihcic» ate finer, ihcir cji^ickness. their 
memory, ovrrklt-p Ihr ordinary liniitt 'xs exhihilt-i] in their normal 
slalOv Do wc not hear of vcholaifi, who in the hypnotic vleep. tcarn 
their Jcsson* in a very short time and write their essays admirably ? 
! have recorded in the l^aue P