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Full text of "Monographia apum Angliæ; or, An attempt to divide into their naturla genera and families, such species of the Linnean genus Apis as have been discovered in England; with descriptions and observations. To which are prefixed some introductory remarks upon the class Hymenoptera, and a synoptical table of the nomenclature of the external parts of these insects"

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K 63w 




Vol. I. 










Descriptions and Observations. 

To which are prefixed 



A Synoptical Table of the Nomenclature of the external Parts of 
these Insects. 


VOL. I. 

Rector ofBarham in Suffolk. 

Ecclus. XI. 3. 

Printed for the Author ly J. Raw, 





T. L. S. P. R. I. 


To whom can I Inscribe this little work, 
such as it is, with more propriety, than to him 
whose partiality first urged me to undertake it ; 
and whose kind assistance and liberal communica- 
tions have contributed so largely to bring it to a 

Accept it, therefore, my dear Sir, as a small 
token of esteem for many virtues, and of grati- 
tude for many favors, conferred upon 




Bar ham. May \, 1802, 


Magna opera Jehov^, explorata omnibus volentibus ea. 

Fs. cxi. 2. 

Additional note to the history of Ap's Manicata p. 172-6. 

Since this work was printed off, the author met with the 
following passage in the Rev. Gilbert White's Naturalist's 
Calendar (p. IO9); which confinns what he has observed upon 
the history of that insect: "There is a sort of wild bee frequent- 
ing the garden campion for the sake of its tomentum, which 
probably it turns to some purpose in the business of nidifica- 
tion. It is very pleasant to see with what address it strips off 
the pubes, running from the top to the bottom of a branch, 
and shaving it bare with all the dexterity of a hoop-shaver. 
When it has got a bundle almost as large as itself, it flies away, 
holding it secure between its chin and its fore legs." 

Directions to the binder for placing the plates. 

Vol. I. 

Plate 1 to face page 22/ 

2 229 

3 231 

4 233 

5 235 

6 237 

7 239 

8 241 

9 243 

10 245 

11 247 

12 249 

13 251 

14 253 

Vol. IL 

15 385 

16 386 

17 387 

18 388 

Vol. I. 

Page 22 line lo from the bottom, and p. 106, line 12, /^r Villars, read 

32 line penult, yir elongata, read elongatae. 
815 line aattpenult, /fjr which Falincius feparated from Apis, read 

into wliich Fabricius divided Apis 
ic6 line 7 from the bottoai, /or Tuberculi, read Tubercula. 
130 and < 34 note, line i, dele Latr. 
146 line I J, ^/(fr de|):efliuftulo, jz/^rf punftis excavatis exafperato; 

an;! line 4 from t'le bottom, after minuto, injert trjnco 

puniiis excavatis ux.ifperato. 
177 lines I, 2, lor ano^ •ventre, xtaA anus, venter. 
1S5 line 6 from the ivjttom, after minuto, put <: comma, ana :nfert 

interioribus lineari-lanceolatis, quam txteriores brevi- 

2QD lines 3, ^~ for abdomine oblongo, interdnm e> fu' triangular!, reai/ 

ab.-iomine fiibiri;.n'i,ulari, interc!um oblongo. 
217 line 4 from che bottom, after a, injert ^, 
Z18 line 5- for couiiti, read fubd:{tin<5li. 
229 line 4 from the bottom, for. fraQ-x, rend fraifti. 
238 line 6, for fpinulae — ferruiats, read fpinula — ferrulata. 
247 lirie "Ji for inteiiores, read intCrioris. 
24 S line penult, for inteiiores, read exteriores. 
258 line li after exutus, infert a a. mokculae. 

Vol. n. 

Page 13 line 6 from the bottona, /or fupra nudlufciila, r?W cinereo-fub- 

14 line T, /or ciiiereo-Aibvillofa, read fupranudiufcula. 

15 line 3 from the bottom, /or Lineella, read Linnaeella. 
line lilt, for Bankiana, read Bankfiana. 

J7 line 9 froin the bottom, and page 35, line $■, fr Jacobeae, read 

iS line 13, for ferrugineo, read ferruginea. 

23 line <)■, for fubpiibefcens, read fuHpubefcente. 

24 line 7 from the bottom, for rufefcentibus, read flavefcentibus. 

25 line 4, &ZZ. alter the tkus : rottir.J.ta A. Krifefcente-vil- 

lofa ; ore fiavo ; abdomine ft-ginenti<: margins fubrufisj 
thorace /"cw/wM nir;ricnntf, majculo fulvo. 

27 line 2, for Francillonana, read Francilloneila, 

28 line 6, for Scrimpfliir.ina, read Scrimlhirana. 
41 line 17 for tubsrculi hitei, read tubercula lutea. 
45 line 16 for I, read 15. 

56 line r, after fu'phurei, infert rufo-variegati. 
58 line 4 from the t^ottorn, aft?r nigrae, iuje'rt fubtus obfcure fulvse. 
13^ line !2 from the bottom, for hic, read hue. 
186 line 12 from the bottom, /or ferru^ineas, read ferruginea. 
25 I lines 8, 9 from the bottom, after manifeftatori, and jaculatorl, in- 

fert a comma. 
309 line 3 from the bottom, after antennse, injert in noftro fpeci- 

316 line i-j, for angnliim, tend angiilo. 

331 line 14, after Latreille, irfcrt a comma. 

332 line 3 from the bottom, for ad, read in. 
343 line 16, after D, add D. 


■TX7HEN the author of the following work 
^ first turned his attention to the English 
^pes, he had no expectation of meeting with half 
the number of species that he has now described ; 
nor had he any other view, than to draw up a short 
paper to he read at the Linnean Society, and in- ^ 

serted, if deemed sufficiently interesting, in the 
Transactions of that learned body : but as he pro- 
ceeded in his undertaking, so much was to be said, 
it seemed necessary to introduce so many altera- 
tions, and such a number of species unexpectedly 
flowed in upon him from a variety of sources ; that, 
instead of a short paper, he found he had collected 
materials sufficient for more than a volume : upon 
this he changed his original intention, and deter- 
mined to submit his performance himself, not 
without considerable apprehensions he confesses, 
to the eye of the public. 

Having said this, it may not be improper to give 
the entomological reader a short sketch of what the 
author has attempted in this publication. In the 

a first ' 

vi PREFACE. - 

first place, in the Introductory Remarks, and Ad- 
denda to the first volume, he has given some ac- 
count of the rise, progress, and present state of the 
class Hymenoptera ; and pointed out such improve- 
ments, as he thinks it will admit : he then proceeds 
to examine what advances the s:enus of which he 
proposes to treat has made towards perfection. 
Under each of these heads he has introduced some 
strictures upon the system of Fabricius, which the 
occasion seemed to demand: and here he hopes 
that the friends and admirers of that celebrated 
entomologist will do him the justice to believe that 
he has been actuated solely by a desire to promota 
the cause of truth, and of his favorite science, 
which, as he conceives, have suffered very materi- 

iMk. ally by the introduction of that system. 

The work itself begins with a Tabula synoptCca 
nomenclaturce partium. Upon the construction of 
this the author has bestowed the greatest attention ; 
and he trusts that it will be found nearly, if not 
altogether, a complete enumeration of the external 
parts of the insects of which he treats. Their in- 
ternal anatomy he has passed over, as not entering 
within the limits of his plan. This table, if he is 
not greatly mistaken, with a few slight alterations, 
may be made to agree with all Hymenopterous in- 
sects. In it he has introduced and named several 
parts unnoticed by Linneus, and most other wri- 
ters in entomology. This is followed by an ex- 
planation of the terms used in this table, and the 



following work. Having thus prepared .the way, 
he next points out those characters, which appear 
to him to distinguish the genus in question; and 
assigns his reasons for dividing into two genera 
those insects which by Linneus were considered as 
genuine Apes, subjoining their Essential, Artifi- 
cial, and Natural Characters. With respect to the 
last, though he varies from the practice, yet he 
conforms to the precept of Linneus (a); and he 
thinks that Fabricius has rendered no small service 
to the science of entomology by the introduction 
of them. Then succeed, what appear to him, after 
combining anatomy with habit, economy, and affi- 
nities, the natural families into which these two 
genera may properly be divided. 

And here, to trace the footsteps, and elucidate 
the system of nature, and nature's God, has invari- 
ably been his aim; to discover the wonderful 
works, and adore the wisdom of his Creator, his 
highest pleasure; and to point out his meaning, 
and see things where he has placed them, his single 
desire. Unattached to hypothesis, he has made 
haste to give up errors as soon as he has detected 
them, and he has taken every step within his power 
to arrive at the truth. With respect to this part of 
his undertaking, he has not been satisfied with dis- 

(a) Linneus, in his Methodus demonstrandi lapides, vecretali^ 
da aut animalia, under the head Genus, includes as a necessary- 
adjunct. " Character Naturalis omnes notas churacleristicas 
possibiles exhibens." 

a 2 seating 


secting a single insect in each family; on the con* 
trary, he has omitted no opportunity of examina- 
tion; and in those subdivisions in which the pro- 
boscis {h), and its parts seemed most subject to 
variation, he has inspected that organ in almost 
ever}^ individual that he has described. But still, 
notwithstanding all his care, he cannot flatter him- 
self that he is altogether exempt from error. These 
minute parts, be their position varied ever so little 
under the lens, exhibit an appearance different in 
some respects. He has endeavoured to represent 
every thing as it appeared to his eye. Quite a 
novice in the arts of drawing and etching, his per- 
formance must of course be rude, and perhaps 

K sometimes the relative proportion of parts to each 

other is not represented with entire accuracy; but 
in this respect he did his best : as to number of 
parts and general form_, he can vouch for the truth 
of his figures. 

These necessary preliminaries discussed, and ad- 
justed, the author proceeds to the description of 
individuals : and here he thought he could not 
pursue a better plan, than that excellent one marked 
out by the Rev. Dr. Goodenough, in his admirable pa- 

(Z') The term. Rostrum, has frequently been employed, by 

Lmneus and others, to signify this partj but such an application 

of it, if entomologists are expected to adhere to the definition of 

the Fundamenta Eiitomologice, is extremely improper. Os in 

acumen productum rigidum, gives to that term a very distinct 

signification^ and altogether at variance with the proloscis of 

a bee. 



per on the British Species of the Genus Carex{c). He 
has therefore placed before his descriptions a Si/- 
nopsis Specierum, and subjoined^ to such as seemed 
to require it, some observations in English. In 
the determination of species', the result of his in- 
quiries, he flatters himself, may prove useful; par- 
ticularly as his frequent dissections of these insects, 
and his necessary attention to their most minute 
parts, have led him to discover those characters, 
exclusive of the organs of generation, which dis- 
tinguish the male from the other sexes. By fol- 
lowing this clue, he has found that several species, 
hitherto described as distinct, are only sexual vari- 
eties; and, by the assistance of the same circum- 
stance, he has separated many insects of the same j 
sex, which have usually been regarded as such. " 
The opportunity afforded him, by the liberality of 
the President of the Linnean Society, of consulting 
the cabinet of Linneus, has empowered him to ve- 
rify a number of species that have been very much 
mistaken, or very little known ; so that, for the 
future, he hopes there will be no room for either 
error or doubt concerning them. To put it as 
much as possible into the power of entomologists 
to be acquainted with the insects here described, 
under each species he has referred to those cabi- 
nets in which he knows it to be preserved. 

With respect to synonyms, the author spared no 
pains that his situation permitted him to take. Not 

(c) Lin. Trans, vol. 2. p. 126^ Sec. 

^ ^ P^^^^ssed 

possessed of an extensive entomological library of 
his own, he has omitted no opportunity of consult- 
ing those of others ; especially the magnificent col- 
lection of Sir Joseph Banks, so liberally open to 
naturalists: but his distance from the metropolis 
prevented his having any other than occasional re- 
course to this invaluable treasure-house of Natural 
History. Knowing how customary it is with au- 
thors, not excepting Linneus himself, to adopt 
synonyms without sufficient examination, a prac- 
tice that has proved a fruitful source of error and 
almost inextricable confusion, he has been particu- 
larly cautious to refer to no author, whose descrip- 
tion or figure of any individual insect he has not 
compared with the insect itself. And, that he 
might trust as little as possible to memory in this 
case, he carried his whole collection of specimens 
both to London and Norwich ; so that in this de- 
partment he hopes he has rectified many mistakes 
of his predecessors. There is one author, J. L. 
Christius, who has treated upon the Hymenoptera 
class, of whom he was not able to make so much 
use as he could have wished, from his ignorance of 
the German language : to his figures he frequently 
refers, but as he cannot consult the descriptions, he 
does this sometimes with less confidence, than if 
he could compare his insects with both. Mr. 
Marsham, however, upon whose judgment he pla- 
ces the greatest reliance, compared the specimens 
with this author's figures, and approved of the re- 
ferences made to them in this work. 



To elucidate the whole, he has annexed a set of 
explanatory plates, etched by himself, from sketches 
of his own ; rudely executed indeed, but he hopes 
sufficiently accurate to illustrate his system. 

After all, the author is conscious that he brings 
far from a perfect work before the tribunal of the 
public. Much still remains incomplete; and many 
errors, no doubt, will require future correction. 
An account of any genus, perfect and elaborate in 
all its parts, must be the work of him who is versed 
in the history and economy of every individual that 
belongs to it. He, and he only can go upon sure 
grounds, for no other person can in all cases, with 
certainty, distinguish the species from the variety, 
and unite each sex to its legitimate partner. But 
so much knowledge, even with respect to a single 
genus, where the species are numerous, is not to 
be expected from one man : nor should the natu- 
ralist attempt, like the spider, to weave his w^eb from 
materials derived solely from within himself; but 
rather let him copy the industrious bee, and draw 
genuine treasures from those flowers of science 
which have been reared by other hands, and com- 
bining these with his own discoveries, let him en- 
deavour to concentrate all into one harmonious 
system, with parts curiously formed, arranged, and 
adapted to each other, and to the whole; and cal- 
culated to preserve the sweets of true wisdom pure 
and unsophisticated. 

a 4 The 


The author, in the following performance, may 
be thought by many, to have multiplied species 
without necessity; while others will probably object 
to his having put those together, whose primdjacie 
appearance is entirely different. To the first he 
begs leave to observe, that insects are not so sub- 
ject to vary as plants; moreover his discovery of 
the sexes enabled him to detect those differences 
that indicate gender, and therefore he could always 
reduce the question, with respect to any particular 
insect, into this small compass, viz. whether such 
variations were likely to occur in the same sex ? 
He does not, however, presume to affirm that he 
has fallen into no mistakes in this respect ; for in 
two of his subdivisions of genuine Apes{d), he fears 
he has not been so successful, in uniting the sexes, 
as in other families; and in general, where the 
males and females differ very materially, as they 
occasionally do both in colour and form, he has 
probably, in several instances, been led to regard 
them as distinct species. To the latter he must 
reply, that he has never united two insects before 

(^d) The author alludes here to those Vespiform Apes, which 
constitute a considerable part of the Fabrician genus Nomaday 
and also to the Bomlinatrices of Linneus. Of these^ the for- 
mer seems more subject to vary than any family of the genus ; 
and almost all the distinctions of the latter being taken from the 
colour of their hirsuties (which varies much, and often in the 
same individual, in different periods of its existence) of course, 
in describing them^ the entomologist must be liable to many 


PREFACE. xiii 

considered as distinct, without very satisfactory 
proofs of their identity. 

To some he may seem unnecessarily minute in 
the description of species, but the very nature of a 
Monograph seems to imply attention to every cir- 
cumstance which distinguishes the objects ofit(e): 
while, on the other hand, he who undertakes an 
entire department in Natural History, should select 
those features principally which distinguish the ob- 
jects he describes from their congeners. As mi- 
nute traits of character, and familiar anecdotes, 
which are beneath the dignity of the historic muse, 
are accounted a great beauty in biography; and 
enter into its essence, at the same time that they 
constitute its most agreeable ornament. Against 
this objection he cannot shelter himself more se- 
curely, and under a greater name, than that of the 
learned Professor Afzelius, who, in his papers on 
three species of Trifolium, and on the genus Pausus, 
in the Linnean Transactions (jf), has exhibited, as 
nearly as possible, a perfect example of a 7V/o?2o^r«jf>^. 

It may perhaps be urged, as another objection 
against the author, that he has taken an unwar- 
rantable liberty in altering so frequently the No- 
mina Specifica of Linneus and other authors. His 

(e) Monographi vegetahile unicum operc singulari proseculi 
sunt, lit eo accuratius constent omnia in particulari casu. Na~ 
tiirce curiosorum institutinn laudandum . 

Lin, Philos. Botan. §.13. 

(/) Vol. 1. p. 202, and vol. 4. p. 243. 



reply to this must be, that he has never done this 
out of the love of change, but only where it seemed 
necessary to distinguish one species from another, 
and in strict compliance with the rules laid down 
by that great father of natural history, in his Phi- 
losophia Botanica, where he says, ^'Nomen specj/icum 
continet differentiae notas essentiales" (g) And again 
*' Nomen specijicum legitimum plantam ab omnibus 
congeneribus distinguat."{h) When, therefore, the 
Linnean definition of any species does not con- 
tain all those characters which constitute its essence, 
or which distinguish it from its congeners, it is ne- 
cessary that it be altered, provided this be done 
cauQ, caste, judiciose, according to the same rules. 
When Linneus published the last edition of his 
Systema Naturce, the known species of ApeSy 
speaking comparatively, were but few, and there- 
fore fewer notes of discrimination would sufficiently 
point out any individual then, than at this time, 
when the number of species is increased beyond 
measure. Much confusion has unavoidably been 
introduced into the genus by this brevity, for the 
same definition will now be found to agree with se- 
veral distinct species (?). 


{K) §, 257. He says under another section (294), Qwi novam 
detcgit speciem, addat et non modh ejusdem differ entiam, sed et 
in congeneri vel congenerilus differentias avgeat, ut distin- 
guantur in posterum species sufficienti differentia. 

(i) E.G. The definitions of Apis cunicularia, centunculariSf 
conica, succincta, &c. 



The author has experienced no small difficulty 
in assigning Trivial Names to such species as ap- 
peared to be non-descript : his aim has been so to 
construct them, that they may point out some pro- 
minent feature of the insect which they denote, or 
allude to some remarkable circumstance in its eco- 
nomy : but the species of this genus are so seldom 
distinguished by singularity of form, or variety of 
colouring, that he has often been at a loss to fix 
upon an appropriate name; and he fears that many 
will be thought not so happily illustrative of their 
subject as he could wish. Where the same insect 
has been described by several authors under differ- 
ent Trivial Names, he has generally made it a rule 
to retain that imposed by him who first noticed it. 
Many of his non-descripts he has named after the 
entomologists of this country, whether writers or 
collectors only, distinguishing the former by the 
termination ella, and the latter by ana, in conform- 
ity to the practice of Linneus in the Tinece and 
Tortrices. If he has omitted any gentleman who is 
entitled to a place, he hopes it will be imputed to 
ignorance rather than design. 

The author would be unpardonable, were he to 
conclude this preface, without acknowledging his 
obligations to those gentlemen, whose libraries and 
cabinets he has been allowed the liberty of con- 

' To Sir Joseph Banks, Bart, this, and every work, 
in whatever department of Natural History, under- 

xvi pheface. 

taken in England, will of course be under the great- 
est obligations. His unrivalled library, stored with 
almost every publication that a naturalist can wish 
to consult, and his cabinet rich in exotic and indi- 
genous treasures, and open to the most unreserved 
inspection, afford writers of this class, who reside 
in this country, a most decided advantage over 
those of every other. 

To Dr. Smith, the President of the Linnean So- 
ciety, he is indebted not only for the invaluable op- 
portunity of consulting at his ease the Linnean ca- 
binet and library, by which he has been enabled to 
determine so many dubious species, and to extricate 
the genus of which he treats from much of the 
confusion in which it was involved, but also for his 
personal kindness and constant encouragement. 

He scarcely knows what terms to employ that 
will sufficiently express his obligations to Mr. Mar- 
sham ; whose friendship, from the first to the last, 
has exerted itself with unwearied assiduity, to give, 
or procure him, every information in his power ; 
securing him an access to all the cabinets of the 
metropolis ; introducing him, a stranger, and un- 
known, to the most eminent entomologists; impo- 
verishing his own collection to enrich that of the 
author : in a word, taking every occsion to serve 
him, and his friends, to the utmost of his power. 

To Drs. Goodenough and Latham, Major Gen. 
Davies, and Messrs. Drury, Sovverby, Donovan, 
McLeay, Jones, Haworth, Hill, Coyte, Francillon, 


PREFACE. xvii 

he begs to return his grateful acknowledgments, for 
the permission, with which they indulged him, of 
consulting their respective collections. To the 
Rev. Peter Lathbury, he is indebted for much as- 
sistance every way. To the industry, and accuracy 
of observation of his ingenious relation Mr. James 
Trimmer, he owes the discovery of several non- 
descripts, also much original matter, and many in- 
teresting particulars relative to the history and eco- 
nomy of several of the insects described in the fol- 
lowing pages. 

- N. B. The reader is requested to observe that all the descrip- 
tions in the following work were taken from insects viewed 
under a lens. 

( xviii ) 


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seu animalium Daniae et Norvegiae rariorum ac minus noto- 
rum descriptiones et historia, torn. 2, Svo. Hafniae et Lip- 
siae, \77Q, 1784, 

Mouffet Thomas. Insectorum sive minimorum Ani- 
malium Theatrum ab, Ed, Wottono. Conr, Gesnero, & Th. 
Pennio inchoatum, a T, Mouffeto perfectum, fol. Lon- 
dini, 1634. 

Panzer Georg. JVolffgang. Franz. Faunae Insecto- 
rum Germanieae Initia, N. 1 — 82, Nurnberg, 

Pallas Petrus Simon. Spicilegia Zoologica quibus nova 
imprimis et obscuras animalium species iconibus, descrip- 
tionibus atque commentariis illustrantur. 4to, Berolini, 

1767, 80.-- 


1767, 178O. — Reise dnrch verschiedene provinzen des Rus- # 

sischen Reichs. 3 theil. St. Petersburgh, 1771, 1773, 1770. 
(Pallas, iter.) 

Poda Nicholaus, Insecta Musei Graecensis. 8vo. Graecii, 

Reaumur de Rene Antoine Ferchault. Memoires pour 
servir a I'histoire des Insectes, torn. 6. 4to. a Paris, 
1734, 42. 

Raius Johannes. Hlstoria Insectorum, 4to, Londini, 
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John Ray and several of his ingenious correspondents ; to 
which ai-e added those of Francis Willughby, Esq, Pub- 
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Roemer Johannes Jacobus. Genera Insectorum Linnaei 
et Fabricii iconibus illustrata. 4to, Vitoduri Helvet. 1789. 

Rossius Peirus. Fauna Etrusca sistens Insecta quae in 
Provinciis Florentina et Pisana proesertira coUegit. torn. 2. 
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strationibus et emendationibus, tom. 2. 4to. Pisis, 1792, 4. 

Scopoli Johannes Antonius. Entomologia Camiolica ex- 
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— Annus Historico-naturalis quartus, 12mo. Lipsiae, 1770- 

Schrank Franciscus de Paula. Enumeratio Insecto- 
rum Austriae indigenorum. 8vo. Augustae Vindel, 178I. 

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Schceffer Jacobus Christianus. kones Insectorum circa 
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b Sulzer 


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Seha uilhertus. Locupletissimi rerum naturalium the- 
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Shaw George, M. D. The Naturalist's Miscellany, or 
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Societatum Acta. Transactions of the Linnean Society, 
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Zschach, J. T. Museum N. G. Leskeanum pars ento- 
mologica, 8vo. Lipsiae, 1788. 


TlEFORE I begin my description of the British 
species of the genus Apis, I propose to offer 
a few preliminary observations upon the Hyme- 
noptera class ; consisting of a short review of its 
history previous to the time of Linneus, an account 
of what has been done in it by him and his suc- 
cessors, and ending with a particular inquiry into 
the present state of the genus, which I have un- 
dertaken to elucidate. These, I hope, will furnish 
satisfactory reasons for those alterations which I 
have found myself under the necessity of making, 
and for that method of arrangement which I have 

The Great Parent of the universe, when he 
furnished this terrestrial globe with its inhabitants, 
caused the earth and waters, as the sacred historian 
informs us (a), to produce every thing " according 

(fl) Genesis i. 11 — 25, 

B to 


to Its kind"(^): an expression, which if taken in 
its largest sense, as I think it will well bear in the 
places referred to in the margin, may be understood 
to signify the distribution of all created species, 
not only into Families and Genera^ but also into 
Orders, Classes, and Kingdoms ; and so into a 
harmonious system, every member of which, al- 
though it has a separate place and office assigned it, 
is connected, by certain common marks and cha- 
racters, with those which precede or follow it. 
And the book of nature in this, as in all other 
respects, speaks the same language with the book 
of revelation; we see every where the traces of a 
natural system, and both reason and observation 
unite in declaring that such a system, with its re- 
gular divisions and subdivisions, does exist. Now 
if the glory of the Creator be, as it assuredly ought, 
the great end of the labours of the naturalist ; then 
the most effectual way to promote this great end, 
is to aim at the elucidation of the genuine systema 
et oeconomia naturce, that we may see natural ob- 
jects, as much as possible, in the places which the 
Divine Wisdom has assigned to them ; and learn, 
every day, more and more of the natural juxta- 
position of Species, Families, Genera, Orders, 
Classes; and of their individual and collective 
economy, &c. &c. It is true, in our present 
degenerate state, fellen from original knowledge 

(h) Heb, irri^D^ The root HJO and its derivative ]^D 
imply distribution and orderly arrangement, 


:1s well as virtue, having lost that genuine Clavis 
Naturae, which it is probable our primogenitor Adam 
possessed (c) ; by the use of which, in the creature 
he could discern the intention of his Creator : in 
this world and its productions, seen in their various 
affinities and economies, read his deity and attri- 
butes, his wisdom and will, and things spiritual : so 
that to him, the page of creation was a revelation by 
natural symbols and types, as the Jewish religion, 
was by instituted, and the Christian by words, the 
arbitrary signs of ideas ; and, in consequence of 
this knowledge, was enabled to impose upon the 
creatures, names adapted to their several natures. 
I say, in our present degenerate state^ we cannot 
attain to this wisdom of the protoplast, for now 
" we know only in part(ri)." Yet, by combining 
our own observations upon nature with those of 
others, who before us have laboured in the same 
field, we shall gradually approach more and more 
towards it, till, perhaps, if it be the Divine Will, 
we attain to the full day of the glory of our Creator, 
as manifested in his creatures. If that glorious day 
of true and genuine science should ever come, we 
shall then behold each natural object in its proper 
place; we shall learn its history, economy, and 
uses, its moral and spiritual signification, and find 

(c) Quod ad Historiam Naturulcm attinct, duce ejus partes, 
Zoologia et Botanica, testautilus hoc pleriscpie thcologis et phi- 
losophis, primi gemris nostri parentis Juere stadia. Fundament. 
Eiitomolog. 4to. p. 4. {d) 1 Cor. xiii. y. 

B 2 God's 


God's works and God's word, " though each iri 
different sort and manner," uniting to declare the 
same truths, and, with one voice, impelling us for- 
ward to the attainment of the true end of our being, 
the knowledge and enjoyment of him, who is 
essential powee, wisdom, and love, through 
that BLESSED person, who having first created 
us, afterwards assumed our nature and died for us, 
and in that world of realities of which this is only 
the type and the shadow. May that day ever more 
and more approach ; to hasten its dawn is the pe- 
culiar office and duty of the naturalist, who is the 
Hierophant in the great temple of nature ; and this 
can only be effected by opening our eyes to the 
light which nature herself affords to those who 
seek for truth : by recording, not our own private 
hypotheses, but our discoveries; by improving, 
instead of destroying, what others have done ; by 
retaining what is already discovered of the natural 
system, and endeavouring to add to it; remem- 
bering always that we are not the heralds of our 
own fame, but of the glory of our God. So that 
we may ever be willing to exclaim in the words of 
the divine psalmist: " The works of Jehovah 
are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure 
therein. His work only is excellent, and his praise 
above the earth and heaven." 

Of all the departments of the animal kingdom, 
the entomological affords the fairest opportunity 
of discovering the natural classes ; and accordingly 


the penetrating genius of Linneus, enabled him, 
in the later editions of his Systema Nature, to 
arrange the insects he described as nearly as possible 
according to the natural system. A few genera, 
perhaps, in the Hemiptera and Aptera classes, may 
be placed in a wrong one ; but these, compared 
with others which are stationed in the situation, 
as to class at least, in which nature has placed 
them, are but few. Where then is the force of 
the objection of Fabricius to Linneus, that " nimis 
naturam sequens, scepius amisit systema{e) ?" The 
end of all artificial systems is solely to facilitate the 
study of nature, and to prepare the way for the 
discovery of that which is natural ; which, as Lin- 
neus justly terms it, is the primum et ultimum{f). 
Therefore, when we have a system that for the 
most part harmonizes with nature, is such an ob- 
jection to be raised against the illustrious author 
of it ? And are we to be told, with respect to 
natural classes, "• that the proper time to elaborate 
them is not yet arrived, since we are as yet but 
tyros in the science (g) ?" To hear this author 
speak of the Linnean system, one would suppose 
that entomology, instead of being under any obliga- 
tion to it, had received great injury from it, and that 

(e) Philos. Ent. c. vii. § 2. (/) Philos. Bot. § 77. 

{g) Naturales existere iiisectorum classes vix duhitandum. 
Suadent ratio, detecta, olservala. At noudinn tempus est eas 
elahorare, quum tyrones adkuc sdentice simus. Philos. Ent. 
c. vi. § 7. 

B 3 he 


I he himself was its great upholder and restorer. 
Hear his own words : *^ Vidi vacillantem entomo^ 
logiam, classes ludicras, genera falsa, species haud 
determinatas, et nomina scppius ahsurda{h)" 

If w^e compare the characters of the Linnean 
classes, with those of Fabricius, we shall find the 
former, simple, obvious, applicable, with few ex- 
ceptions, to all the genera that compose each, and 
distinguished by a significant name; while those 
of the latter are seldom to be detected without 
dissecting the insect ; and, if 1 may be allowed to 
form a judgment from the Hymenoptera class, not 
universally applicable ; with a name assigned to 
each barbarous, ill-constructed, and far from sig- 
nificant. To give up the classical, harmonious, 
and connected names of the Linnean classes, for 
such barbarisms, as Eleuterata, Ulonata, Synistata, 
Piezata, Odonata, Mitosata, Polygonata, Kleistag 
natha, Exochnata, &c. is what, I should apprehend, 
no naturalist, who is at the same time a scholar, and 
has any ear, will ever consent to. 

The end of system, as 1 just now observed, is to 
facilitate study, but Fabricius, in his eagerness to 
innovate, has fixed upon characters taken from 
organs, which, in a large proportion of insects, are 

(h) Philos. Ent. Prsefat. p. 1,2. When one sees Fabricius 
and his followers, in tlieir Synonyjns, placing his name before 
that of Linneus, under insects first described by the latter, 
one cannot help feeling some emotions of anger at the indignity- 
thus put upon that illustrious naturalist^ 


absolutely invisible, or next to it ; and for the sake 
of systematic confusion has discarded nature and 
all orderly arrangement, and instead of facilitating, 
has perplexed the study of entomology with diffi- 
culties that are innumerable and inextricable (/). 
The rage of the present unhappy aera is not for the 
amendment or improvement of what has been done 

(i) If the reader will take the trouble to turn over the Sup- 
plement to the Entomologia Systematica, he will be convinced 
that tlie language here employed is far from being too strong. 
He wiU there see, to use an emphatic phrase, omnia misccri. 
Instead of a regular and harmonious system, like that of Lin- 
neus, a Babel of confasion and division. Instead of a gradual 
descent towards those insects which nature has placed next to 
the Vermes, he will find many of these stationed before the 
Lepidoptcra ! ! For instance, after the Coleoptera and a few 
genera of Hem iptera, come some of the Neuroptera and Aptera 
mixed together ; these are followed by the Hymenoptcra, which 
precede more Neuroptera. Then appear five classes oi Aptera, 
the two last of which are made entirely out of the Linnean 
genus Cancer, divided into twentij-seveji genera ! ! ! These are 
succeeded by tlie Lepidoptera, followed by the rest of the He^ 
miptera ; and the discordant catalogue, Partlum inter se nan 
bene cohcerentium, concludes with Diptera and Aptera. If he 
turns his attention from the classification to the genera, he will 
be surprized to see families of the same natui'al genus forced 
violently asunder, arid separated widely from each other. Thu3 
Tricldiis, Cetonia, and Melulontha, disunited from Scaralrvus, to 
which God and Nature had joined them, are placed next before 
Buprestis. Again^ he will there see Fabricius deserting his own 
system, and taking the Artificial Characters of no fewer than 
twentij^one genera in his K/eistagnatha and Exochnata classes 
from tlie Ante7m(B solely, without making any mention of the 
instrnmeiUa ciharia, upon which it is founded. 

B 4 before^ 

Ibefore, but in these days a man thinks himself nq 
philosopher, unless he can altogether obliterate, an4 
for ever do away the collected wisdom of the age§ 
that are past, in order, in its stead, to erect a novel 
system of his own : this is the case in religion, 
morals, politics, and philosophy; and in all these 
this K(XivoiJia.vio^ has produced the most mischievous 
effects. But it ought to be recollected, that if the 
iiimsy, and destructive web of a spider be the work 
of a single insect and spun in an hour, yet that to 
form and replenish the admirable structure sheltered 
by the hive, it requires, and for the best portion of 
the year, the united labours of myriads of indus- 
trious bees. Just emblems of the patient efforts of 
genuine science. 

Had Fabricius, instead of overturning, employed 
himself in giving those improvements to the system 
of Linneus, of which it is capable, and which in- 
deed it demands; the entomological world would 
have been his debtor; and under so skilful a hand, 
the science, instead of being thrown back, would 
Jiave made considerable advances. Whereas, in the 
system that he has produced,, what have we gained 
but a confused mass of unnatural classes, founded 
upon evanescent characters, designated by barba- 
rous names, and puzzling the student with old 
terms turned aside from their original signification^ 
^nd improperly applied to new objects (-^) ? 

(k) E. G. Maxilla, Labium, Clypeus, &c. 

J shoulc| 


I should not have taken so much liberty in my 
strictures upon the system of this celebrated au- 
thor, had not many eminent entomologists upon 
the continent adopted it without resen'^e, and en- 
deavoured to force it upon the public. A conduct 
which I conceive to be most prejudicial to the in- 
terests of science, and unjust to the merits of the 
greatest uninspired naturalist that ever lived. In 
justice to my own countrymen I must not omit to 
obsen^e, that this system has gained very little 
ground in England. 

At the same time, although I have spoken my 
sentiments so freely of the svstem of Fabricius, it 
is with pleasure I acknowledge that his Philosophia 
^ntomologica is a work of standard merit, which 
desen'es to be thoroughly studied by every ento- 
jnologist, and if he had written nothing else, this 
alone would have entitled him to be ranked amongst 
the first philosophers of the age in which he lives (/). 
The construction of Natural Characters^ although 
chiefly drawn from those inconspicuous parts on 
which he builds his system, is a great point gained 
in the science; and in 'general if, in some respects, 

(Z) I must except, however, from this praise, many of his 
definitions: E.G. Aldomen Conlacm, Cylindricum, &c. where 
the usual sense of these terms is clogged with unnecessary ad- 
ditions. Philos. Ent. c. ii. § 12. &c. It were to be wished that 
in all cases the definitions of the Fundamenta Entomologies of 
jLinneus had been primarily adhered to, 



he has done great injury to it, in others he has 
certainly contributed much to its advancement. 

But let us leave these general observations, and 
turn our attention to the class, of which we propose 
to give some account. It is curious, and not al- 
together unprofitable, to trace science from the 
cradle to its manhood, and pursue it through all its 
intermediate advances. Before I begin, therefore, 
with what Linneus, his disciples, and successors 
have effected, I shall give a short view of what had 
been done, in the Hymenoptera class, by the pre- 
decessors of that illustrious naturalist. If I mistake 
not, our own country had the honour of paving the 
way for the system of Linneus. A brilliant con- 
stellation of geniuses arose towards the close of the 
seventeenth century, who diffused new light over 
every department of natural history, and were the 
harbingers of that bright day, which the labours of 
the great Swedish naturalist have caused to dawn 
upon the three kingdoms of nature. In this 
constellation, the stars of the first magnitude and 
brightest lustre were John Ray, that glory of Eng- 
land, Dr. Martin Lister, and Francis Willughby, 
Esq. These great Men, by their separate and 
joint labours, prepared the materials for the present 
improved state of Natural History. 

Before their time, some kind of form had been 
given to entomology by their predecessors, and the 
foundations of the class in question, rude indeed and 



imperfect, had been laid. In Charleton's Onomas- 
ticon Zoicon, a work of merit for the time, a distinct 
existence is given to those insects destitute of 
Elytra, which construct combs, denominated "/w- 
sectorum aviXvTCiMv favificantium classis" {in) . This 
definition, imperfect as it is, for it excludes the 
major part of genuine Hymenopterous msects, pos- 
sesses this merit, that it admits none that do not 
belong to that class. Ray, whose indefatigable 
exertions brought copious and bright accessions of 
genuine light to every branch of natural history, 
sensible of the deficiency of the old method, has 
elaborated this class with considerable care, ex- 
tending indeed its limits too far, so as to include 
most of the present Neuropterous Genera ; but at 
the same time taking in all the genuine Hymenop- 
tera; and thus laying the foundation, with few 
alterations, for an appropriate and discriminative 
character of it. The following are the alterations 
that he has introduced. He puts into one sub- 
division, under the title of Tetraptera, all such 
insects, with four membranaceous wings, as are 
quiescent in their intermediate state, thus arranged: 

(m) Onom. Zoic. p. 36. I quote this author because I have 
him at hand, and he professes to combine the information to be 
found scattered in the works of preceding natui-alists. He bor- 
jow^ his method from Aldrovandus , Vid, Praef, p. 10. 








Non grega- 
Nequc fa- 

fCorpore longiore angustiore et 
glabriore. Apis Mansueta. 
Corpore breviore latiore et hir- 
suto. Bomlylius. 
Non Mel- r Majora. Cralrones. 
^ lifica. 1 Minora, Vespce. 

Corpore breviore et habitiore 
abdomine thoraci prope ad- 
moto. Musccp Vcspiformes . 
Corpore angustiore et"' 
\ productiore abdo- Majores. 
mine tenui etlonga 
fistula thoraci ad- 




nexo. Vespce Ich- 
Papilioni- c e Phryganeis f. vermiculis do-? 

formia. 1 miportis oriunda. 
, Seticaudae seu Tripilia. 

From this view of what our great naturalist has 
done in this class, it appears that nothing was 
wanted to make it a natural class, but to fix upon 
a character in addition to " Alee quatuor membra- 
nace^e" which would exclude those Neuropterous 
genera that he included in it(72). 

Dr. Martin Lister, in an appendix to Ray's 
Historia Insectorum, has included all insects, with 
four naked wings, in one division subdivided into 

a PapilioneSj Lihellce, &c. 

/3 Apes, Vespce, Crahrones, &c. 

{n) We see in the foregoing table of the Raian system, as to 
this class, that he divides it into two orders, the first containing 
what may be denominated two subdivisions and four genera, 
jind the other four subdivisions and as many genera. 



We see what a near approach these illustrious 
Englishmen made to nature with respect to this 
class, and that in this country it assumed some 
distinct form, and those foundations were laid, 
upon which a perfect system might be erected. 
But though the class was nearly extricated, the 
genera still remaihed involved in confusion, dis- 
tinguished by no certain characters, and often 
merely by names (o). 

Such was the state of this class, when Linneus, 
amongst his other immortal labours, undertook the 
reformation of entomology. The first outline of 
his Sy sterna Naturce was published in 1735; 
whether at that time he was acquainted with what 
had been done in England in that science, I do 
not know, but I should think, if he had bestowed 
much attention on the Methodus Insect orum of Ray, 
he would have gone further than he did in that out- 
line : for In it he puts into one class, the Lepidop- 
tera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, and Dipiera, to 
which he gives the name of ylngioptera, a term of 
similar import with Neuroptera{p). This class he 
defines " Alee omriibus dat(^ elytris destitut<rJ" In 
it he gives the characters of only two genuine 
Hymenopterous genera. Apis and Ichneumon^ 
which he draws from variations In the Aculeus(q). 

(o) I have passed over the system of Swammerdam, as built 
intirely on the metamorphoses of insects. 

(/)) Them. Aiyno)/, vas, and TTTspv, ala. 

(rj) Apis Cauda aculeo simplici. Alae quatuor. fchneunion 
Cauda aculeo partite. A\x quatuor. 



The first of these genera he divides into four fami-* 
lies, viz. Crahro, Fespa, Bomhylius, and ^pis; and 
the latter into two, viz. Ichneumon and Musca 
Tripilis. This outline contains no enumeration of 
species. In the second edition, published five 
years afterwards, (1740) the gexmme, Hymenoptera 
are at length placed by themselves under the name 
oi Gymnopterair), but the number of genera re- 
mains the same, only the order of families in Apis 
is changed (^). This may be called the aera of this 
natural class, when it received a separate existence. 
In the fourth edition, which appeared in 1744, it 
had its present name assigned to it {Hijmenoptera) 
and is defined, Alcu Memhranacece. Linneus now 
arranged the insects in it under four genera, viz. 
Tentredo{t), Ichneumon {u), Apts{x), Formica {y). 
In 1746 the first edition of that admirable work, 
the Fauna Suecica, was published, giving the same 
number of genera in this class, but reducing the 
families in Apis to three (z). Species are now enu- 
merated for the first time with the addition of 
Nomina specijica, and descriptions. In this Ten- 
thredo includes Cynips, Tenthredo, Sirex and some 
of the Ichneumones minuti. Ichneumon unites 

(/•) Them. yv^Jim^, nudus, and TTTspov ala. (s) Apis, Cra- 

Iro, Bomhylius, Fespa. (t) Aculeus ani dentatus. 

(u) Aculeus ani triplex. {x) Actileus ani simplex. 

('(/) Squama erecta thoracem ab abdomine distinguens, alee 
neutris nullce. (%) Viz^. * Fbspce. *■ * Apes propric 

dictce, * * * Bomlylii hirsuti. 



some Spheces to the genuine Ichneumons, ^pis 
comprehends Vespa, Sphex, Chrysis, and Apis. 
In all 101 species are described without Trivial 
Names. In the sixth edition of the Systems Na- 
tune, which came out in 1748, the species are for 
the first time enumerated and defined ; a new genus, 
Cynips, is introduced, and a new character formed 
for Tenthredo (a) . This edition is also distinguished 
by the convenient adoption of Trivial Names. 
No further improvements were made by Linneus 
in this class, till the publication of the tenth edi- 
tion in 1758, in which the present characters of 
both class and genera are finally given. 

From this summary view of the progress of 
Linneus in perfecting the Hymenoptera class, it 
appears that he was long in giving it all the im- 
provement of which he thought it capable. His 
original idea seems to have been to construct his 
genera from variations in the Aculeus-, to this he 
adliered through nine editions of his Sy sterna, till at 
length, finding that the same kind of jiculeus was 
common to more than one natural genus, he had 
recourse to other parts for his characters ; he still 
keeps it, however, at the head of his Essential 
Characters, and has added no other in his four 
first genera. 

The orders into which Linneus thought of 
dividing this class, as appears from the Fundamenta 

(tj) Cynips Aculeus ani conico-carinatus. Larva intra gallam, 
Tenthredo Aculeus ani feminis serratus. Larva polypoda. 



Entomologic{h), though not distinguished by his 
usual mark the asterisk, are * aculeo miti, * * a- 
ciileo jmnctorio. The former division including 
Cyyiips, Tenthredo, Sirex, Ichneumon, and the 
latter the remaining genera. 

The parts he uses in his definitions of the genera 
of this class, are 1. The Proboscis (c). 1. The ab- 
sence of it{d). 3. The absence of the Tongue {e). 
4. The Palpi if). 5. The Maxill,c{g). 6. The 
Antenme both with respect to form and number of 
articulations (A). 7. The Thorax {i). 8. The Scu- 
tellum(k). C). The Wings {I). \0. The Abdo7nen{m). 
11. The y4culeus{n). 12. Pubescence (o). 13. The 
absence ofit{p). 14. Colour (q). To distinguish 
his families he has recourse to the Antennce{r), 
Abdomen [s), Hirsuties {t) , and Colour [u) The 
number of species described in the twelfth edition 
of the Sy sterna Natunc in this class is 314. 

Having given this short account of the labours 
of Linneus in this class, I shall bestow a few page^ 
upon what his successors have attempted with the 

(^) Hymenoptera (dist'mguuntur) secundum aculeuvi punc^ 
iorium vel mitem. Fuudament. Entomol. 4to. p. 29. 

(c) Apis. (d) Cynips, Tenthredo, Chrysis, Vespa. 

(e) Ichneumon, Sphex. (f) Sirex. (g) All except 

Formica and Mutiila. (h) Sirex, Ichneumon, Sphex, Chrysis, 

(i) Mutiila. {h) Tenthredo. (/) Tenthredo, Sirex, 

Sphex, Fespa, Apis, Formica. (.?«) Sirex, Ichneumon, Chrysis, 

(w) All the genera. (0) Mutiila. (p) Fespa. (q) Chrysis. 

(r) Tenthredo, Ichneumon. {s) Ichneumon. {t) Apis. 

{21) Ichneumon, 



view of improving upon him. The first that I shall 
mention is Professor Scopoli, a name dear to every 
lover of Natural History, and to whom entomology 
is under very considerable obligations. In his 
Entomologia Camiolica, he has distinguished four 
of the Linnean classes by new names. I must 
confess I prefer the old ones, on account of that 
harmony of nomenclature which distinguishes 
them, from the same word entering into the com- 
position of them all. The present he names u4cic- 
leata. Considered out of its connexion, this is 
certainly more expressive of the peculiar character 
of the class, than the word Hymenoptera. But, 
in a system, nothing ought to be taken by itself, 
and the general harmony and union of parts should 
be considered as well as individual propriety. I see 
no good reason, likewise, for his alteration of the 
Linnean definition of the class. ^'^ ALe quatuor mem- 
hranacea plerisque. Aculeus caudle, sed nullus in 
•tnarihus" is more appropriate, especially with re- 
spect to those genera which have two aculeate 
sexes, than " Ala quatuor, abdomen uni seocui 
aculeo armatum." In the genera, this author, 
instead of improving upon what Linneus had done, 
goes backward by reuniting Sirex with Ichneumon, 
and Chrysis with Spher, genera surely sufficiently 
distinct. His alterations of the Linnean Essential 
Characters do not seem always to be for the better (>r). 

(r) E. G. He has altered the Linnean essential character of 
Mutilla. " Aculeus punctorius , alcp neutris nullce" Into " Alee 
null(s'\ when one sex in this genus has wings, 

c For 


For the construction of these he has recourse to 
1. The proboscis [y). 2. The absence of it(z). 
3. The wings {a). 4. The absence of them{b). 
5. The aculeus (c). The distinctions of his families 
are taken from the antennce (d), luings (e), abdo- 
men (f), aculeus (g), and colour [h). The genus 
j4pis, as I shall afterwards have occasion to ob- 
servCj is under considerable obligations to this 

Next to Scopoli comes GeofFroy, a writer of 
considerable merit, but too much given to inno- 
vation ; he had studied Linneus, and professes to 
follow nature (/), \'et he falls into great errors by 
departing from both. After Ray, he reunites the 
Neuroptera and Hymenoptera classes under the 
denomination of " Insect a tetraptera alis nudis ;" 
and thus loses all the ground that had been gained 
by Linneus. This class he divides into three sec- 
tions, the first of which contains such of these 
insects as have tarsi of three joints ; the second, 
those whose tarsi hnve four joints ; and the third, 
those whose tarsi consist of five joints. This last 
section puts together, contrary to nature, their 
economy, and affinities, Ephemera, Fhryganea, 
Hemerobius, Myrmeleo, Panorpa, and the Hymer- 

(y) Apis. {% a) Sphcx, Vespa. (h) Formica, Miitilla. 

(c) Cymps,Tenthredo, Ichneumon, Sphex. (d) Tejjthredo, 
Apis. N. B. In the latter, the circumstance which he has taken 
for the characteristic of a family, is only a sexual distinction. 

(e) Ichneumon, (f) Ichneumoji, Sphex. (g h) Ichneumon^ 

(i) Hist. Ins. tom, 1. Disc. Prel. p. xvii. 



noptera. His genera in the latter are Crahro (k), 
Urocerus{l), Tenthredo, Cynips{m), Diplalepsis{n), 
Eu!ophus(o), Ichneumon (p), Fespa(q), u4pis, and 
Formica. In all these his generic characters are 
drawn from the mouth (os), stemmata, antennce, 
wings, abdomen, and aculeus, with the addition 
of lingua, glahrities, and hirsut'tes in Vespa and 
j4pis. His families are taken from the number of 
articulations of the antenna (r), and pubescence 
and hirsuties (s). The monotony of his generic 
characters is rather tedious, and his constant ad- 
herence to differences in the antennas for them 
leads him into many errors. He has often fallen 
into the very faults that he objects to Linneus {t) ; 
for the characters of his genera are not sufficiently 
descriminative, he unites those insects which nature 
has separated, and separates those which she has 
united. For instance, the only distinction be- 
tween ^pis and T^espa, which he notices, is pu- 
bescence (ti) ; thus placing a considerable family 
of genuine Apes in the latter genus, which like- 
wise includes Chrysis. Again, he separates Ci'abro 
from Tenthredo, and Euhphus from Ichneiunon, 
merely on account of differences in the aniennay 

(U) Tenthredo, Lin. (/) Sircx, Lin. (?//) Cynips and 

Ichneumon, Lin. («) Cynips, Lin. (o) Ichneumon, Lin. 

(p) Ichneumon, Sphex, Lin. {q) Fespa, Chrysis, Apis, Lin, 

(j) Tenthredo, Cynips. {s) Apis. (/) Tom. 1. Prel. 

Disc, p. xiv. {u) Fespa corpus glabruni. Apis corpus 

villosum. All tlie other characters are verbatim the same. 

c 2 which 


which in both these genera, I speak only of the 
minuti of the latter^ are subject to continual vari- 
ations. In Eulophiis the antenncc ramosa are only 
a sexual distinction (or). The separation of the 
minuti from the genus Ichneumon by this author, 
, appears to me to be a point gained in this class, 
but he has intermixed these with Cynipes in his 
two genera Cynips and Diplolepsis. The latter, 
according to his characters, should include the 
genuine Cynipes, and the former the Ichneumones 

The Earon Dc Geer, who, like his illustrious 
predecessor Reaumur, penetrated into the deepest 
recesses of nature in the pursuit of truth, and 
brouo-ht forth to lidit and notice innumerable 
anecdotes and facts, before unknown, relative to 
the history and economy of the minute, but 
wonderful, animals which belong to the entomo-' 
logical department ; by this very circumstance was 
enabled, more than any of his predecessors, to 
improve the Linnean generic characters in this and 
other classes, and to render them applicable with 
more certainty to the species wliich they were in- 
tended to distinguish. He has nearly inverted, 
with what propriety I shall not now enquire, the 
Linnean order of Hy menopterous genera (?/), and 

(.x)DeGeer, torn. 2. p. 2. Mem. 15. p. gOl. Tab. 31. fig. 
14 — 1/. Kirby in Lin. Trans, vol. 5. p. lOp. note t. 

(?/) Tlius: Apis, Nomada, Vcspa, SpheXj Chrysis, Sirex, Ich- 
neumon, Cynips, Tenthredo, Formica. 



separated, with great judgment, the Proaheille of 
Reaumur from Jpis. His generic characters are 
taken from the mouth {os), antenna, 2vings, ab- 
domen, and aculeus, which are introduced into 
every genus. The prol-oscis, which not only dis- 
tinguishes ^'^pis and Nomada, but is also very pro- 
perly noticed in Fespa. The eyes, Apis, Nomada, 
Vespa, and Sphex. This Linneus, in the twelfth 
edition of the Systema Nature, has adopted with 
respect to Vespa. The amis, Chrysis and Sirex. 
His families, in which he has improved much upon 
Linneus, especially in Ichneumon and Formica, are 
taken from the ayitenna (z), the absence of the 
ivings (a), and the abdomen (/>). Both this author 
and GeofFroy, without sufl'icieiit reason, have taken 
perpetual liberty to alter the Linnean names of the 
genera, a practice which has occasioned a great 
deal of confusion and answered no good end. 

Schrank, in his Enumeratio Insectorum Austrice, 
has added the following circumstance to the Lin- 
nean definition of the class, " Os maxillis trans- 
versis." This character, which runs through all 
the species, seems well introduced, and renders the 
endless repetition of " Qs maxillis," in the Artijicial 
Characters of the genera, perfectly needless. He 
has also introduced some slight alterations into the 
generic characters of Sir ex. Ichneumon, Sphex, 
Chrysis, and Formica ; but in the main he adheres 
to those of Linneus. 

(x) Sphex, Ichneumon, Tenthredo. (a) Ichneumon. 

(jb) Ichneumon, Formica. 

c v3 From 


From this recapitulation of what has been done 
by Linneus and others, it will appear that no very- 
essential improvements have been made in this class, 
from the time of the publication of the tenth edition 
of the Sy sterna Natura in 1758, to the time when 
the system of Fabricius first made its appearance 
in 1775. Only two good genera had been sepa- 
rated' from those of Linneus ; the Nomada from 
uipisy after Reaumur, by De Geer, and the minute 
Ichneumons by GeofFroy, but confounded with 
Cynips. A slow progress, and by no means equal 
to that of botany, considering the vast number of 
non-descript species discovered during this period. 

I shall now call the reader's attention to what 
has been attempted by Fabricius in this class. 
Originally he united together Ephemera, Phry- 
ganea, Hemerohius, Termes, Jilyrmeleon, Panorpaj 
Raphidia, all the Hymenoptera , Monoculiis, Onis- 
cus, Lepisma, and Podura. " Turha sane stu- 
penda" as Villars justly exclaims (c), " insoUta, 
sed instrumeiitis cibariis approxhnata !" . Probably 
the absurdity of uniting in one class so hetero- 
geneous a mixture of genera, as opposite to and 
unconnected with each other as light and darkness, 
induced this author in his Entomolog'ia systematica 
emendata et aucta, published in 1793, at length to 
o-ive to the Hymenoptera class a separate existence, 
under the name of Piezata ; a word, derived, I 
presume, from 7r/£(a>, premo. His definition of this 

(c) Ent. Eur. torn. 1. p. 580. 



class is this : " Palpi quatuor ; maxilla cornea, 
compTcssa, s.^pe elongata. 

Before I consider how far this character may be 
regarded as applicable, it will be proper to inquire 
into the meaning of the terms which Fabricius has 
employed to signify those parts from which he has 
borrowed the characters of the class and its genera ; 
to point out by what names they are distinguished 
in the Tabula synoptica nomenclature partium of 
the present work, and to refer to the figures de- 
signed to represent them. This will enable the 
reader to judge with precision how far the author 
is warranted in the objections which he urges 
asrainst the Fabrician system. 

Fabricius, in liis preface to his Genera Insec- 
torum^ has assigned it as a reason for his omission. 
of figures, that they would generate confusion in 
the determination of species, on account of the 
variations to which the Instrumenta ciharia are 
subject in individuals of the same genus (c). But, 
how good soever this argument might hold with 
respect to generic characters ; yet, ^vhen new terms 
are introduced into a science, or old ones used in 
a new sense, to prevent mistakes and confusion, it 
is extremely convenient, if not absolutely necessary, 
that they should be illustrated by figures * And 
when this author first laid his. system before the 
public, the Instrumenta ciharia, upon which it is 
fouilded, ought not only to have been defined 

(r) p. 8, g. 

c 1 clearly, 


plcarly, but an accurate delineation of each part, 
and its natural situation, should have been made 
and referred to. 

The parts from v/hich Fabricius has taken his 
characters of this class and its genera, that seem to 
require explanation, are lingua, labium, maxilla, 
palpi anteriores, palpi posteriores, mandihula, 

LINGUA. Fabricius defines this part " Lin- 
gua spiralis inter palpjos reflcxos latens convoluta{d) ." 
And at the end of his chapter on the Iiistrumenta 
ciharia {e),, he says " Maxillae, lahiumque elongata, 
membraiiacea, inter mandihulas injlexa, linguam 
constituuni." But this latter definition, from a 
subsequent observation, seems intended solely to 
denote what he means by lingua in v^pis, and the 
genera he has separated from it, &c. and the former 
to apply chiefly to the tongue of the Lepidopiera. 
From hence it appears that the term lingua, in this 
class, is equivalent to the Linnean term proboscis ; 
.including the whole machinery of that organ (y). 
It seems to me that this term ought to be applied 
exclusively to the instrument which acts the part 
of a tongue. 

LABIUM. The definition is " Labia os in- 
ferne daudentia, ne hausta eruant{g). This term 

(f/) Philos. Ent. c. ii. § 3. In another place he defines it 
" Lingua spiralis amvoliita bifida, inter palpos stuposos inserta," 
manifestly referring to the Lepidoptcra, Ibicl. c. iii. § 1. 

(e) Ibid. § 18. (/) Tab. 11. * *. d. 2. a. fig. 1. 

(j§) Philos. Ent. c. ii. § 3, 



IS Intended to denote that part of the proboscis 
which is seated between the maxilla or valvulce, 
- and from which the posterior palpi are produced ; 
as applied by Fabricius, in his genera in this class, 
it includes both the real tongue, and that part 
which I have denominated tubus Qi), or its corneous 
base : if it had been confined to the latter, and 
called labium inferius, it would have been proper 
enough (z) ; but, as it now stands, that part which 
collects, absorbs, and passes the honey down into 
the stomach is called labium, which is certainly 
very improper, not to say absurd. Under this 
head are to be considered those parts, defending the 
tongue where it issues from the tube, which he 
calls seta, or lingua lacinicef. lamina interiores (Ji) ; 
which terms include what, in my first genus Me- 
litta, are named auricula (/), and in j4pis, lacinia 
interiores (m) . The term seta is often not properly 
applicable to them. His labii lacinia laterales (n) 
f, exteriores (o) answer to my lacinia exterior es (p). 
MAXILLA, is thus defined. " Maxilla dua 
tr ansver sales y sapius membranacea, latera oris 

(h) Tab. 1 1 . ubi supra d. (I) As this part embraces 

and seems connate with the lower part of the tongue, which it 
defends externally, I preferred another term to lal'mm. 

[k) See his Natural Characters of Fespa, Andrena, Apis, &c. 

(/) Tab. 2, * *, a fig. 1. dd, and b. fig. 2. aa, 

{m) Tab. 11. * *. d. 2. a. fig. l.ff. («) See his Nat. 

Char, of Apis. (o) Entom. Syst. torn.' 3. p. 307. under 

Ilylaus Morio, and p. 343. under Eucera longicor?iis. 

{p.) Tab. 11. ubi supra ee, 



inferne includentes (r). To this if we add what he 
says elsewhere, " Palpi antici maxillce dorso adnad,'* 
it will appear that his maxilliu are what I have 
termed valvule in the following work (s), and are 
also equivalent to the valvce of the lower vagina 
of the Linnean character of Jpis. In Hymenopte- 
Tous insects these are longitudinal instead of trans- 
verse, and the term maxilla (jaw-bone) applied to 
a membrane is not a little absurd. In his Na- 
tural Characters of some genera in this class, Fa- 
bricius calls this part, with respect to the whole 
proboscis, " linguae lamina exterior, or lacinia 
exterior (t). 

PALPI ANTERIORES, sometimes called 
antici : these answer to my palpi exteriores (m), 
they emerge laterally from the maxilla or valvula. 

PALPI POSTERIORES, sometimes denomi- 
nated postici : they are equivalent to my palpi 
interiores {x), and sometimes arise from the tongue 
just above the top of the tube (?/), and at others 
just below the apex of the exterior lacinice (z). I 
have altered both these terms in conformity to the 
opinion of Professor Afzelius (a), upon whose 
accuracy the greatest reliance may be placed ; and 
indeed the epithets exterior and interior are much 
more applicable to them, than anterior znA posterior. 

(r) Philos.Ent. c. ii. § 3. {s) Tab. 11.**. d. 2. «. fig. 1. cc. 

{t) E. G. Sphex, Bemlex, &c. Andrena, Jpis, &c. 

(m) Tab. 11, ubi supra hh. {x) Ibid. ii. 

(y) Tab. 1. *. a fig. 3. hh. (z) Tab. 11. ubi supra. 

(c) Afzelius in Lin. Trans, vol. 4. p. 250. 



MANDIBULA. This is the maxilla of Lin- 
neus, and the present work, which professes to 
adhere as much as possible to the Linnean 

CLYPEUS. This term is equivalent with 
labium of Linneus ; and denotes a part which, by 
these insects, is used to answer the purposes of a 
lip. Galea might, with equal propriety, be applied 
to the dilated joint of the tarsus of Sphex clypeata, 
as clypeus to this part. Fabricius, indeed, him- 
self, as well as his disciple Panzer, in their de- 
scriptions, have frequently used the term labium, 
not to signify the Fabrician, but the Linnean 
labium (b) ; of course 1 have employed this term 
instead o{ cl7/peus(c). 

Having explained the terms employed by 
Fabricius, I shall now proceed to consider his 
characters of the class in question. When he 
published his Genera Insectorum, he, at the same 
time, constructed Natural Characters for the several 
classes under which at that time he had arranged 
them, but he neglected doing this for the new 
classes which he has since formed. It is, however, 
an excellent idea, and I mean to adopt it hereafter 
with respect to the Hijmenoptera. Flis original 
Essential Character of his Piezata class, as I ob- 

{l) The former in his Artificial Character oi Bemlex, and in 
hl$ description of Hylceus cyllndricus, albilahisj &c. TIic 
latter in Cralro and Nomada often. 

(c) Tab. 10. *it. c. 2, 5. fig. 12. and fig. 13. c. 



served above, was this : " Palpi quatuor, maxilla 
cornea, compressa, s.tpe elongata." 

In his supplement to his Entomologia Systema^ 
tica he omits the palpi, retaining only the last 
member of the character, perhaps with the view of 
rendering it less complex: but as the following 
class, Odonata,is distinguished hy palpi duo, it seems 
to me no improvement to drop a character which 
certainly runs through the whole class, and which 
affords a more constant distinction than that which 
is retained. There appears to be no reference in 
this character to that of the Synistata, although 
both classes were originally united by our author. 
The first circumstance noticed in it is the substance 
of the maxilla or valimla. Maxilla cornea; this, 
generally speaking, holds good only with respect to 
the base of this part (d) ; the apex (e) is usually 
either wholly coriaceous, or partly corium and 
partly membrane. Nay, in nine of his genera (f), 
Fabricius describes this part as entirely membra- 
naceous, so little consistent is he with himself. 
The term, by which he denotes the next circum- 
stance he fixes upon to distinguish this class, com^ 
pressa, should point out an obvious character, as it 
supplies him with its name. Yet I do not see how 
this term, if we understand it according to his own 

(d) Tab. 1. *. a. fig. 4. a. (e) Ibid. I; c. 

if) Viz. Cyjiips, Sirex, Iclineinnon , Evania, Tiphin, No' 
mada. Gen. Ins. and Banchus, Ophiori, and Foenus. Suppl. 



definition (g), will well apply to this part. If con- 
fined to the base of the jn axil I a it will do in some 
cases, though not in all. The apex is usually 
either plicatus, suhplicatus, or concave, so as to 
embrace and defend the tongue. At any rate the 
term is too obscure in its application, to be used as 
an index to point to what class any individual 
belongs. The last part of this character, s^cpe 
elongata, is peculiar to ^pis, I mean that of Lin- 
neus, and a very few other genera. 

These obsen-ations, I think, will make it evident 
enough, that the characters, which Linneus has 
fixed upon to denote this class, are far preferable 
to those of Fabricius both for universality and 

I shall next proceed to notice the alterations 
introduced by this author into the genera. To 
those of Linneus he has added twenty-two. The 
whole are thus arranged : Cynips, Tenthredo, Sir ex, 
Oryssus, Ichneumon, Banchus, Ophlon, Foenus, 
Evania, Chalcis, Sphex, Pompilus, Larra, Tiphia, 
Scolia, Chrysis, Thynnus, Leucospis, Bembex, 
F'espa, Masaris, Mellinus, Philanthus, Crabro, 
Hylaeus, Andrena, j4pis, Eucera, Nomada, For- 
mica, Dorylus, Mutilhi In this list the new 
genera are printed in Roman characters. Of these 
Oryssus is separated from Sircx ; Banchus, Ophion, 
and Foenus, from Ichneumon ; the first containing 
such Ichneumons as have a compressed subsessile 

( 0-) Aldomen cowpressum , aijus diameter transversalis cedit 
yiCrtirali. Philos, Ent. c. ii. §12. 



abdomen, with an aculeus scarcely exerted (^); 
the next, those that have a falcated abdomen and 
very short aculeus (f); the third, such as are 
distinguished by filiform antennae with not more 
than fourteen joints (i^). Evania is taken from 
Sphex(l)y as is the case likewise with Chalcis(m'), 
Pompilus(n), Scolia{o), and Philanthus (p)i 
Bemhex consists oi Apes and J^^esp^e^q) ; Melli- 
nus and Crabro of Spheces and Vespce(r') ; Hy- 
lisus, Andrena, Eucei'a, and Nomada, are sepa- 
rated from Apis(s) ; and Dorylus contains merely 
Mutilla Helvola. The parts from which he takes 
the Artificial Characters of his genera, are the 
palpi, labium, jnaxillcc, lingua, and antenme. 

Fabricius seems to have made no attempt to 
improve upon the Linnean subdivisions of the 
genera^ but to have adopted them as he found 
them. Apis only excepted, in which he drops 
them. In his Entomologia Systematica and its 
supplement, he has described 1207 species belong- 
ing to this class. 

{h) E. G. Ichieumon venator, Lin. (^) /. luteus and 

pugillator. (k) I.jaculator. {I) Spkex Appendigaster, 

(m) Sphex Jissipes. {n) S.fusca, viatica, tropica. 

(o) S. plumipes, Drury 1. Tab. 44. fig. 5. (p) S. arenaria, 

(q) Fespa signata, Lin. Apis rostrata, Lin. 

(r) Sphex mystacea and Fespa cavipestris belong to Mellinus, 
and Sphex crihraria and Fespa uniglumis, kc. to Crabro. 

{s) Apis maxillosa, Jlorisomnis , &c. are Hylcei. A. cce- 
rulescens, helvola, &c. are Andrence. A. longicornis is a Eu- 
cera, and A. variegata, Falriciana, &c, are Nomadoe. 



Gmelin, in his edition of the Sy sterna Naturce, 
has attempted to unite Fabricius with Linneus, 
usually drawing the first member of his Artificial 
Characters from the Natural Characters of the 
former, and subjoining the Artificial Characters of 
the latter (^"i. His introduction of the maiidihula 
(maxilla Lin.) is far from an improvement, as this 
part varies not only in the sexes, but often very 
much in the different families of the same genus (w^ 
This author has made a great mistake in four 
instances in copying the characters of Fabricius, 
by representing all the palpi as attached to the 
labium, v/hen, in fact, this is only the case with the 
interior onesix). His Essential Characters exhibit 
a singular mixture of those of Linneus, Fabricius, 
and himself^?/). I do not, however, entirely dis- 
sent from the method which Gmelin has pursued. 
Under certain restrictions, the introduction of the 
labium {lingua) at least, might add a constant 
character in many genera in this class. But upon 

(t) Fabricius, in the Preface to his Supplement, seems to al- 
iude to this : " Instnimenta cilaria introduxi," says he, " con- 
stantissima inveni, at nullo modo cum alls aliisque pariihus 
jungetida. Mixta semper chaos prcelent, et laccssitus demon.' 
strationem suscipiam. p. 1. (w) Vid. Tab. nostr. fere omnes. 
{x) Viz. in /chnemno/1, Tiph'ia, Formica, Miitilla. 
(y) Thus he sometimes copies Linneus ; in Sphex he mixes 
Fabricius with Linneus 3 in ScoUa, Thi/nnus, and Tiphia he 
copies Fabricius. Lcucospis mixes Fabricius with Gmehn, and 
Chalcis is entirely Gmelin ; its character is taken from tlie an- 
tennae only, 



this head I purpose speaking more at large here- 
after. Gmelin has considered the Fahrician genus 
Evania as a family of Spliex ; Bemhex and Crahro 
as subdivisions of Vespa ; and Andreiia and JSo- 
mada of Apis. The number of species noticed by 
him from various authors in this class is 1241, but 
the same insect, if I am not mistaken, often re- 
appears under a new name. 

It now remains that I offer a few observations 
upon the Linnean and Fahrician genera, so that, 
upon a comparison, the merits or defects of each 
may be readily perceived ; and then conclude my 
remarks upon this class, by suggesting some im- 
provements of which it seems capable. 

Linneus has given only ten genera in this class. 
Of these, Cynips, Tenthredo, Sir'ex[z), Chrysis, 
Formica, and Mutilla, seem to be natural genera, 
that admit of little alteration. If those species were 
excluded from Apis and Vespa, which do not agree 
with Linneus's character, they would justly claim 
the same appellation. The present definition of 
Ichneumon, if we rigidly adhere to :t, will exclude 
those leoritimate Ichneumons that have not an 
exerted aculeus. This genus requires to have 
nearly the whole family of the Minuti, and some 
others separated from it. Sphex, as it now stands, 
is not a natural genus, but rather, like the Elongata 
' family in Chrysomela, a receptacle for the rejecta- 

f%) I know but few of the LinneaB species of this genus, of 
course I cannot speak positively concerning it. 


hienta of other genera. This genus wants to be 
thoroughly studied, it ought to be entirely taken 
to pieces and worked over again. Both its families 
contain a variety of insects that are at variance with 
eath other, and its Essential and Artificial Charac- 
ters are by no means well constructed. The former 
will agree with many insects that Linneus has de- 
scribed as Fespce (a), and " Antennce articuUs 
decern" in the latter, will apply to no Sphex that I 
have examined, without we suppose that he num- 
bered only the joints of what I call the Apex. 
With respect to the other genera, this great author 
had selected discriminating characters, but he was 
not sufficiently attentive to these in the arrange- 
ment of species, so that individuals, toto caslo at 
variance with the character of a genus, are not 
seldom assigned to it. Had he bestowed that 
attention upon entomology that he did upon 
botany, his penetrating genius, provided it was 
furnished with sufficient materials, would have 
placed the Genera Insectorwm upon the same ad- 
mirable footing with the Genera Plantarv.m ; but 
the botanical department absorbing his chief atten- 
tion, only subordinate pains were bestowed upon 
insects : much, of course, was left to be done by 
those of his successors who directed their principal 
efforts to the improvement of entomology : the 
chief business of these is to extricate the natural 

(a) Vespa uniglumis, viinuta, &c. 

D Of 


Of all authors^ Fabricius is the only one who 
has attempted much in this way. Let us now see 
how far he has succeeded. Of six of his new 

genera Oryssus, namely, Larra, Scolia, Thynnus, 
Leucospis, and Dory his, it has never been my for- 
tune to see a single species. Scolia and Leucospis, 
as far as I can form a judgment from figures, ap- 
pear to be good genera. The former, from its 
thorax, retuse behind, and body usually hairy, I 
conjecture to have some affinity with Mutilla : the 
latter approaches near to Chalcis ; its principal 
distinction is its aculeus reflected and laid upon 
the back of its abdomen (/'). Banchus and Ophion, 
I think, are without sufficient reason separated 
from Ichneumon ; but these may furnish a ^ood 
hint for families in that genus. Foenus, especially 
if more species are discovered distinguished by the 
same peculiarities, may with propriety be consider- 
ed as distinct. Evania, I have seen only Evania 
Appendigaster{c)^ I conjecture to be too nearly re- 
lated to some of the Pompili. Chalcis, Pompilus, 
Tiphia, Bemhex, Philanthus, and Crahro, would 
furnish, I apprehend, the Linnean entomologist a 
clue for the formation of an equal number of na- 
tural genera, but many species now considered as 
belonging to them should first be excluded (c/) . 

{h) See Adams on the Microsc. PI. IJ . fig. 1, 2, 3. 

(c) This singular insect has been taken in England, with 
several others equally rare, by the Rev. Jas. Coyte of Ipswich. 

{d) E.G. I should regard all those species of Bemlex as il- 
legitinaate that want the LuUiim conkum. 

I have 


1 have no other idea of Masaris than what I have 
gained from the Masaris crahroniformis of Pan- 
zer (e) ; but this species seems to differ from the 
rest in having reniform or kmar eyes, a circum- 
stance wliich distinguishes several other insects 
without plicate wings, which might go with that 
into one genus, though they have usually been 
referred to Sphex or Fespa. MelUnus seems a 
good genus, and contains the genuine petiolated 
Spheces, and some of those that have no petiolus. 
It might be as well, perhaps, to distinguish this 
genus, or Crahro, by the name of Sphex. Upon 
the genera which Fabricius has taken from Apis, 
I shall have occasion to enlarge hereafter. 

Having examined the Instrumenta cibaria of 
several individuals in many of the genera of this 
class, I shall novv^ inform the reader in what respects 
the characters of Fabricius vary from those that I 
examined. In Tenthredo, with him the palpi are 
all filiform, and the interior tfiarticulate. In those 
that I inspected the exterior palpi are thickest in the 
middle (y) ; the interior, instead of three, consist of 
four articulations and are clavate {g). The labium he 
describes as cylindrical and trifid at its apex. Ours 
is rather flat with a tripartite apex {h). In Ichneu- 
mon the exterior palpi are said to be sexarticulate, 
and the interior quinquearticulate ; the valvula: 

(e) Panz. Fn. Germ. Init. N° 4/ Tab. 22. 

(/) Tab. 14. NO 1. %. 1 hh. ig) Ibid. fig. 2. c. 

(Ji) Ibid, fig 2. 

■n o are 


are described as bifid and rounded at the apex, 
and the labium (lingua) cylindrical and emargi- 
nate. In such, aculeo exerto, as I have examined, 
the exterior palpi are quinquearticulate, with the 
second joint larger than the rest and trapeziform(?). 
The labium is cylindrical, but not, so far as I could 
discover, emarginate (i^). In those whose aculeus 
is not exerted, the palpi are the same nearly as the 
other (/), but the tongue is semicylindrical, and the 
valvules are concave and truncate at the apex(m). 
His character of Sphex is probably taken from 
j4mmophila Vulgaris. He gives the interior palpi 
as quinquearticulate, and the labium as depressed, 
cylindrical and emarginate at the apex. In all the 
Ammophil(B \h?A. I have examined, the interior palpi 
are quadriarticalate (n), the valvule have a semi- 
sagittate apex (o), and the tongue is tubular, cla- 
vate, and cleft at its summit, the fissure being 
much the deepest on the upper side (p). In Tiphia 
liis character assigns five articulations to the in- 
terior palpi, and represents the labium as cylin- 
drical. In Tiphia femorata the latter of these is 
flat (^), and the number of joints of the interior 
palpi never exceeds four in any genus in this class, 
at least as far as I have examined it. The valvules 
of his Chrysis are acute, mine has them obtuse (r) : 

(i) Tab. 14. N° 2. fig. 2. c. {k) Ibid. fig. 3. Cl) Ibid. 
fig. 1. a. (7/i) Ibid, e, c. (//) Ibid. N° g. fig. 1. e. (o) Ibid, 
fig. 3. d. (p) Ibid. fig. 2. (7) Ibid. N° 10. fig. 1. l>. 

(r) Ibid. N° 6. c. 


and its interior palpi consist of three {s), instead 
of four joints. In his character of Pompihis the 
labium is described as rounded, corneous, and en- 
tire ; whereas, in Pompilus viaticus, that organ is 
trifid(^). He takes no notice of the callous tips 
which distinguish the lobes of the tongue in 
Vespa {ii), and he calls the valvulce acute, when 
they are rather rounded (^). Whether, by his 
Philanihus, he intends those vespiform insects, the 
sides of whose abdomen are crenate, of which 
Panzer has figured so many under that name {y), 
I am not certain, but if he does, his characters are 
very different from those of such species as I have 
examined : for the valvulce instead of being bifid 
are entire (z), and the labium is not entire and 
rounded, but divided at its apex into two lacerato- 
ciliate lobes [a). The valvulcC in his genus Crabro 
are called bifid, and the labium obconic. In Crabro 
cribrarius the former are entire and rounded at 
the tip {b), and the latter is rather attenuated in 
the middle (c). From these remarks, we cannot 
avoid concluding, either that Fabricius is not al- 
together to be depended upon for accuracy, or 

(i) Tab. 14. N° 6. e. (t) Ibid. N° 4. fig. 2. (u) Ibid. 
N° 8, fig. 1. cccc. (x) Ibid. fig. 2. b. Kirby in Lin. Trans. 

vol.4, p. 212. Tab. 19. N°4. fig. 1. (3/) E. G. Philanthus 

semicinctus, N° 47. Tab. 24. P. hortorum, N° (53. Tab. g. &c, 

(x) Tab. 14. N°7. fig. l.a^. («) Ibid. fig. 2. (i)Ibid, 
N°5. fig. 2. b. (t) Ibid. fig. 1. b. and DeGeer, torn. 2. 

P'«, 2. Tab.25. fig. 12, e. 

D 3 that 



that the Instrumenta ciharia vary too much in the 
same genus, to be assumed as a constant and cer-r 
tain criterion. 

I know no reason why that liberty should be 
denied to the entomologist, which is allowed to 
the botanist, of forming new genera as occasion 
shall demand, provided this be done upon good 
grounds, and with due caution and judgment. 

banc veniam petimusque damusque vicissim. 

That inundation of non-descript species which^ 
since the time of Linneus, has overflowed the 
European Cabinets, renders it a work of charity 
to spare the entomologist the Herculean labour of 
going over the definitions of perhaps several hun- 
dred species before he can determine one. This 
can only be effected by the formation of new 
genera and families ; and here, I think, a middle 
course ought to be steered between Linneus and 
Fabricius. The former having confessedly too few 
genera, and the latter having multiplied them be- 
yond necessity, and mistaken the characteristics 
of families for the indications of genus. But, in 
the construction of genera, from what parts are 
we to draw our characters ? With Fabricius, are 
we to confine ourselves to the Instrumenta cibaria 
€t antennce ? Or with Linneus and his followers, 
are we to take them indifferently from any part 
that will furnish them ? 

In botany, to draw the characters of classes and 
genera from the fructification alone is highly pro-r 



per, for in this consists the essence of the plant. 
To nourish and bring this to maturity the root 
sends its fibres downwards, the stem shoots up- 
wards, the branches put forth, and the leaves un- 
fold. But the proboscis and maxillce do not 
constitute the essence of the insect. On the 
contrary, the head and its organs are in some degree 
analagous to the root in plants, for they collect and 
absorb the nutriment ; the truncus may be looked 
upon as representing the stem, the limbs the 
branches, the wings the leaves, the abdomen as a 
kind of calyx, including the fructification. There- 
fore, the great command, " increase and multiply," 
will direct us to those parts which constitute the 
essence of an insect ; but these, if it were possible, 
it would be improper to use for characters {g) . Since 
then the Instrumenta cibaria do not constitute the 
essence of an insect, it is consequently a matter of 
indifference whetlier the generic characters be 
taken from them, or other parts that are mor^ 
obvious (/f). In these small animals, I call that a 
generic character which is constant through a genus 
from whatever part it be taken. In some classes 

(g) Genitalluvi curiosior indagatio ahomittahilis dispUcct 

quamvis varia et singularis, (jiice tamen posset ad 

ordines naturales v'lam vionstrare. Lin. de IMammalibus. 

(A) In the Mammalia the teeth are easily examined, and 
therefore, if constant, afford good characters. Nor do I pre- 
tend to say that the Instrumenta cibaria of insects, assumed 
under proper limitations, might not afford such as were equally 
good, if they were equally easy of inspection. 

D 4 those 


those parts distinguish the class, which in others 
are peculiar to certain genera. Thus, in the Cole- 
optera, the variations, with respect to number of 
joints, in the tarsus, will serve as an excellent cha- 
racteristic of many genera, which, as they now 
stand, are not sufficiently discriminated (z) ; while, 
in the Hymenoptera, the same number obtains in 
every genus. Again, in the same class, characters, 
which in some genera are constant and proper 
generic diagnostics, in others vary in the several 
families, and even in subdivisions of the same family. 
Thus, in most Hymenopterous genera, the number 
of the articulations of the palpi is constant, while 
in Apis it varies continually. Fabricius, had he 
been aware of this circumstance, would have divided 
this into more genera than he has done. This 
observation shews the fallacy of his assumption, 
that the Tnstrumenta cibaria afford constant cha- 
racters. The labium or lingua is the only one of 
his diagnostics, that, as far as I have examined it, 
does not vary in the same genus ; and therefore, 
where it may be readily inspected, it will furnish an 
excellent one. Linneus has excluded this part and 

(?) The present character of Ckrysomela, for instance, is at 
variance witli a large number of species that are arranged un- 
der it ; but if the number of articulations of the tarsi, which 
is constant in the genuine Chrysomelce, was added to its cha- 
racter, it would furnish a clue to disting"uish the true from the 
false, and be a great improvement. The same observation will 
ppply to Tenebrio, 



its vagina from most of his genera, either under 
the name of lingua or proboscis ; but this is con- 
trary to fact, for all Hymenopterous insects are 
furnished with 3. proboscis consisting of the follow- 
ing parts, viz. a central tongue defended by two 
valvulceik), laterally palpigerous(/), and a tube{m), 
just above the apex of which, or from the exterior 
lacinice the interior palpi emerge (;z). This part, 
though not equally conspicuous in all, exists in all ; 
and its mere direction, whether it is inflected or 
not, can make no difference as to its title to the 
name of proboscis. In v4pis, Ammophila (o), the 
genuine J^espce, Philanthus, Crabro, many SpheceSy 
Chrysis, and Tenthredo, this part may be examined 
with as much ease as the Instrument a oris of the 
Diptera. But in Cynips, Ichneumon Tiphia, For- 
mica (p), and the petiolated Spkeces{q), it is not 
so readily inspected, nor, in these, is it easy to get 
a distinct idea of it, unless it be nicely extracted 
from the head of the insect, and put under a 
strong magnifier. 

In the construction of the Essential Characters 
of the genera in this class, the form of the tongue, 
where sufliciently conspicuous, might be added to 

(k) Tab. 11. **. d. 2. a. fig. l.g,cc. (I) Ibid. hh. 

(7«)lbid. d. («)Tab. 1. *.a. fig. 3. bb. &Tab. 11. ubi supra if. 

(o) I have ventured to separate Sphex sabulosa and its affini- 
ties under this name from Sphex in a paper published in tlie 
fourth vol. of the Linnean Transactions, to which I refer the 
reader. Vid. p. 195. {p) De Geer, torn. 2, P'«. 2. Tab. 41. 

f^g.7. (ry) Tab. J4.N° 3. 



the aculeiis, and it might be placed at the head of 
the Artificial Character ^ in the formation of which 
recourse may likewise be had, where they are con- 
stant to the palpi (r), the valvul(E{s), the eyes{t)y 
the antennae (u), collum(x), thorax (y), ivings(z), 
thighs (a), ahdomen{h)j its petiolus [c), and the 

I shall now throw out a few hints concerning 
some improvements of which the characters of the 
different genera in this class seem capable. With 
respect to Cynips, after excluding the first member 
of the Linnean Arlijicial Character, which is partly 
common to the whole class, and partly not true, 
there will remain only the aculeus. To this I would 
add the following circumstances, which distinguish 
all the species of the genus that I am acquainted 

CYNIPS. Lingua inconspicua. 

Antennce . ^Xiiorv^QS articulis 15. 

(Geqfroy) (e). 
AltP subvenosae. 
Abdomen compressum subtus cari- 

natum. (De Geer). 
Aculeus spiralis saspius reconditus. 

(r) Sirex, Ichneumoji, &c, {s) Ammophlla. (t) I'espa, &c. 
(u) Ichneumon, Cynips, &c. (x) Ammophila. (y) Mutilla. 
(2) Vespa, Sec. (a) Chalcis. {f;) Chrysis, Philanthus. 
(c) Fornrica. (d) Cynips, Tenthredo, Sirex. 

(e) GeofFroy says 14, but I have included the radicle, or mi- 
nute joint which unites them to the head. 



The three intermediate members of this character 
will distinguish the species of this genus from the 
minute Ichneumons, some of which approach very 
near to it, and are furnished with the Aculeus spi- 
ralis reconditus {/) . The character of Tenthredo 
seems to require no material alteration; I would 
only insert, instead of the first member of the 
Linnean definition, 

Lingua apice tripartita. 
The genus Ichneumon, as it now stands, admits of 
considerable improvements, for its present charac- 
ter is at variance with innumerable species that are 
arranged under it. The Minuti, for instance, for 
the most part, have not half thirty joints in their 
antennae, and most of them, as well as many of the 
other families, are not distinguished by the Aculeus 
exertus, and Abdomen petiolatum. In settling the 
species of this genus, Linneus seems to have been 
led merely by their economy, and to have looked 
upon all those as Ichneumons^ which were found to 
deposit their eggs in living insects. But is it not 
at once giving up all system to make economy and 
habitat take place of those characters which nature 
has impressed upon her genera ? Indeed we know 
too little of the economy of these insects, to say 
that it is the same in all, or even that it is not 
materially different, and with respect to their habi- 
tat, although it is in living insects, yet it is subject 
to considerable variations, which may furnish a 

(/) Liru Trans, vol. 5. p. ill. Tab. 4. fig. 5. 



ground for distinctions; as for instance, whether 
they inhabit an insect in its first, second, or third 
state, or its eggs only ; and again, upon what class 
they make their attacks. We never think of putting 
together into one genus those insects that prey 
upon dead animals, or live in dung, or upon the 
same plant. This is going back to the old ento- 
mologists who made Habitat a generic character (g-). 
Many of the Ichneiimones Minuti are likewise dis- 
tinguished by another remarkable character, their 
wings are without veins. They vary much as to 
the form of their antennas, in some these are ramose; 
in others filiform ; in others again clavate ; in a few 
capitate ; and I possess one or two species in which 
they are curiously ornamented with verticilli of 
hairs. Whether these might be divided into more 
than one natural genus I cannot say, as I have not 
sufficiently studied them to offer any decided 
opinion upon the subject; with respect to their 
place in the system, 1 think they ought to follow 
Cynips, to which they are nearly allied : I mean if 
that genus continues at the head of the class. As 
to those which may be considered as genuine 
Ichneumons, I am not, as yet, sufficiently conver- 
sant with them to venture any other remark, than 
that those whose aculeus is not exerted, have the 
tongue, in such as I have examined, as I observed 
above, semicylindrical, and the valvules truncate at 
the apex ; whereas those whose aculeus is exerted. 

{g) Rai. Hist. Ins. App. p. 378. 



are distinguished by a cylindr ideal tongue, and 
valvules rounded or obtuse at their tips. Such 
petiolated Spheces, as 1 look upon to be genuine, 
have a tongue similar to the former of these /cA- 
neumons, and the second joint of their exterior palpi 
is also rather trapeziform (A), but their economy, 
antennae, general form, and habit, are very different. 
Chalcis, which, as well as Leucospis, is distinguished 
by incrassated posterior thighs, should, in my 
opinion, follow the Ichneumones Minuti, and be 
followed by Leucospis. I have not, however, by 
any means wholly made up my mind upon the 
natural juxta-position of the genera in this class, 
and therefore I shall not further commit myself 
upon that subject. Pompilus, by which I under- 
stand Sphex viatica of Linneus and its genuine 
congeners, is not only distinguished by a trifid 
tongue, with a hairy spot on each of its lateral 
lobes (/), but its antennae also are revolute and 
setaceous, and its eyes lateral and oval. Crahro 
has a prismatical head, with large ovate or subtri- 
angular eyes which almost meet above the mouth (^), 
with reticulations visible to the naked eye; its nose 
is usually covered with golden or silver pile: just 
above this the antennae are inserted, so as to be 
properly defined by the term anteriores or anticce, 
Philanthus, of Panzer at least, is remarkable, not 
only for its bifid tongue with lateral hairy eleva- 

(h) Tab. 14. N'^S. (i) Ibid. N°4. fig. 2. cc. 

(k) DeGeer, torn. 2. P'^2. Tab.25, fig. 11. yy, 



tions, but the sides of the abdomen are always 
crenate, its eyes are lateral and oval, and its anten- 
nae Subclavate. No genus is more evidently dis- 
tinct from all others than Chrysis. The antennae 
are spiral, and, excluding the radicle and scapus, 
fusiform. Anus dentatiis, ought to be thrown out 
of the Artificial Character, as many species want 
it, but it would form a good characteristic for a 
family. The tongue of these insects is emargi- 
nate(/). The Linnean character of Vespa is very 
good, but instead of Os maxilHs absque prohoscide, 
Lingua quadriloha ought to be prefixed. This 
circumstance, in conjunction with Alee plicatcCy 
distinguishes this from every other genus. Masaris 
may be known by its reniform eyes, subclavate 
antennae, wings not plicate, and body linear and 
very narrow. Tiphia, by which I understand 
T.femorata, Fab. and its congeners, has fusiform 
anterior antennae, and a very short obtuse tongue. 
The character of Formica requires some alteration, 
for the squamula, as De Geer has well observed, is 
the character of a family and not of a genus (m) ; 
this, to include all, might be altered to abdominis 
petiolo nodoso. I know too little of the genus Mu- 
tilla to say much concerning it : but pubescence, 
I think, ought, if possible, to be excluded from its 
Artificial Character, and the apterous Ichneumons 
should be omitted. The antennae of the few that 
I am acquainted with are like those of Chrysis. 
{I) Tab. 14. NO Q. (vi) De Geer, torn. 2. P«. 2. p. 1042. 



Linneus, as observed before, thought of dividing 
the class into two orders, * Aculeo miti, ** Aculeo 
punctorio. I have been stung, however, pretty 
severely by one of those Ichneumons whose aculeus 
is recondite, which genus is placed in the first, and 
on the other hand, many insects which are put into 
the second, are perfectly harmless in this respect ; 
for instance, the aculeus of Chrysis is flexile and 
can make no puncture. In fact, the term piinc- 
toriiis, when applied to the aculeus of these in- 
sects, must be regarded as relative, implying, not 
that it can make no puncture at all, but merely 
that it cannot penetrate the skin of the human 
body, for all can make a puncture in such sub- 
stances as are proper to receive their eggs. The 
tibici of Hymen op terous insects are armed with 
minute spines, from the variations of which, it is 
possible characters might be drawn for good orders 
in this class. Thus, for instance, the tips of all 
the tibice in Tenthredo are armed with two spines ; 
in Ichneumon, the anterior have one only, and the 
others two ; in Apis, the two posterior have two, 
and the four anterior one ; and in Formica all the 
tibice are armed with a single spine only. These 
distinctions, I believe, have not before been noticed, 
but whether such orders would be natural or arti- 
ficial, I am not prepared to say. 

From this account of the origin, progress, and 
present state of the Hymenoptcra class, it will ap- 
pear sufficiently evident, that though the class 



itself is natural and well defined, yet the known 
species are not as yet all distributed into natural 
genera. To discover a natural genus is, however, 
no very difficult task. Insects that agree in habit 
are soon detected, and when these are placed to- 
gether, an attentive comparison of them, and 
inspection of their parts, will soon enable any 
philosophical entomologist, especially if he has any 
knowledge of their general economy, to trace out 
those common characters which nature has irl^ 
scribed upon such as are nearly related. The con- 
necting links between two proximate genera, which 
usually borrow their characters from both, will give 
some trouble, but if he follow the lead of the 
Essential Character, " Notam generi maxime pro- 
priam tradens" he will not be long at a loss to 
which he is to refer any species of this description. 
In order to shew what may be done in this class, 
I shall, in the following pages, endeavour to divide 
into natural genera and families the numerous 
species of the Linnean genus y^pis ; such, I mean, 
as are natives of this country, including Hykeus, 
Andrena, Apis, Nomada, and Eucera of Fabricius : 
but I shall previously conclude these introductory 
remarks with some account of what has been done 
in it by my predecessors. 

Before the time of Linneus, naturalists seem to 
have had little or no idea of constructing generic 
characters. In the present class, however, as be- 
fore observed, Ray has attempted this, and with as 



Tfnuch success as could be expected. The Apes 
that come under that subdivision of his Tetrapteirt, 
which he denominates Gregaria et Favijica, he 
considers as forming a distinct section, which he 
names MeUtfica ; this he divides into what may 
well be called two genera : viz. Apis. Corpora 
longiore, angustiore, et glabriore. Bomhylius. 
Corpore breviore, latiore, et hirsuto. These, 
probably, gave Linneus the hint for his two fa- 
milies. Ray seems to have paid particular atten- 
tion to this genus, and has described several species 
with great accuracy. 

Of the other predecessors of Linneus, I shall 
rrlention only that illustrious French naturalist 
Reaumur, to whom this genus is under greater 
obligations than to any entomologist who either 
went before or succeeded him. To him nature 
lifted up the veil that covers her aAvful face, and 
was delighted to initiate him into her most secret 
mysteries. Though not strictly a systematist, he 
has enriched his great work with innumerable facts 
and observations, which may be made of the greatest 
use to the systematical naturalist. He did not usu- 
ally construct generic characters, but in separating 
his Proaheille from Apis, he laid a foundation for 
the division of this genus into two natural genera(7z). 


(ji) " Peut-etrc," says he, speaking of one of these, " qu'elles 
doivent 6tre mises dans un genre particulicr, qui auroit le nom 
de Proaleilles. Leur trompe diffcre par quelques particularitcs 

E de- 


To pass by his admirable history of the hive beefy 
a considerable portion of his sixth volume is de- 
voted to tiie wild species of the genus Apis, which 
he divides into seven families, according to their 
several modes of nidification, as follows : 

I. Bourdons. These construct their nests of mo^. 
They are what I call genuine Bomhinatrices{p). 

II. Des ylheilles Perce-hois. These form curious 
cells one above another in wood. They may 
be csMeA false Bombinatrices(p), 

III. Des Abeilles Maconnes. These make their 
nests of a kind of mortar, composed of ag- 
glutinated particles of sand or earth (</). 

IV. Des j4beilles coupeuses de feuilles. The nidi 
of these are curiously formed of the leaves of 
trees, rolled up into a kind of cartridges (r). 
This, with the preceding division, belongs to 
my family of the genus Apis, " Lahio in- 

Jiexo elongaio." 

cle celle des mouches it raiel : elle est en grande partie renfermee 
dans un etui ecailleux, et cylindi-ique : le bout de la trompe 
sort de cet etui, et est accompagne de quatre filets analogues 
aux quatre demi-fourreaux des autres trompes, mais autrement 
construits ; ils paroissent graines. D'ailleurs au lieu que la 
trompe des abeilles, lorsqu'elle est dans I'inaction a son bout 
tourne vers le col, le bout de la trompe de ces Proabeilles se 
trouve sous les dents." Mem. 6. p. q6. Tab. Q. fig. 6, 7. 
Reaumur here mistakes tlie palpi for something analogous to- 
the valvules and laciuice. 

(o) Ibid. Mem. 1. (p) Ibid. Mem. 2. {q) Ibid. Mem. 3. 

(r) Ibid. Mem. 4. p. Q7- usque ad fin. 



V. DesAheiUes qui creusent la terre pour y faire- 
leur nids. This order, the individuals of which 
construct their cells in little burrows, which 
they excavate in banks, pathways, &c. con- 
tains both genuine Apes and Proabeilles^ 
{Melitta, K.) {s). 

VI. Des Aheilles dont les nids sont fcdts d'especes 
de memhranes soyeuses. The insects that ni- 
dificate in this manner, belong to the first 
family of my genus Melitta{t). 

VII. Des Aheilles Tapissieres. These insects 
excavate burrows in hard pathways, and line 
their little apartments in a most curious man- 
ner with the petals of the common poppy. 
I do not know that we have any of them in 
England {u). 

Of these, the first, second, third, fourth, and 
sixth, are natural families, or subdivisions of fami- 
lies ; but the fifth contain species not only of dif- 
ferent families, but genera. Thus we see this great 
author, without any hypothesis in view, but solely 
by following nature, has furnished us with a clue 
for the construction of five natural subdivisions in 
the genus Apis. This was doing a great deal be- 
fore a genuine generic character had been formed. 
Bazin, a French author, or rather compiler, for he 
seems to have done little more than abridge Reau- 
mur, has altered the names of some of his families, 

{s) Ibid, ad p. 97. (/) Ibid. Mem. 5. ad p. 13y. 

(w) Ibid. a. p. 139. usque ad fin. 

E 2 and 


and left out the fifth. The Perce-hois he calls 
MenuisiereSy and the Bourdons, Cardeuses [x) . 

Linneus's characters of this genus, as they stand 
in the last edition of the Sy sterna Naturce, are these J 

APIS. Character Essentialis. 

Aculeus punctorius : lingua inflexa. 

Character Artificialis. 

Os maxillis atque proboscide inflexa, vagi- 
nis duabus bivalvibus. 

u4la^ planas in omni sexu. 

jiculeus feminis et neutris punctorius, re- 
This character will exclude more than half those 
insects which Linneus arid many other authors 
have regarded as belonging to this genus, and at 
the same time admit Sphex sahulosa and its con- 
geners, {Ammophila, K.) for the proboscis of the 
former, when not exerted, instead of being in- 
flected, points to the maxillae, and the terms, 
'^ Proboscide infexd vaginis duabus bivalvibus," 
will apply to the latter with stricter propriety than 
to most genuine ^pes ; for in these, the Nomado' 
excepted and another small family (?/), one of the 
two vagintF, if we may denominate it by that term, 
is in fact quaclrivalvis (z). 

{x) Abrege de I'Histoire des Insectes pour servir de suite a 
Vhistoire naturelle des Abeilles. A Paris, 1747. 

(7) Tab, 5. *. b. fig. 3. Tab. 4. Apis *. a. fig. 4. 

{%) Tab. 5. **. a. fig. 5. hl,cc. Tab. 10. **. d. 1, fig. 2. 
a a, II. Tab. 13. **. e. 2. fig. 1. ff, gg. 



After this great naturalist had separated Sphcx, 
Chrysis, and Vespa from this genus, he divided it 
into two families, viz. * jipes proprie dieted. * * 
Bomhinatrices hirsutissimce. But, as the learned 
Scopoli well observes, " Sonus et hirsuties, in his 
speciehus gradatim aucta, incertos reddit ordines 
inde petitos (a). And, in fact, authors, misled by 
the mere circumstance of hirsuties, have inserted 
species into this family that have no pretensions to 
affinity with it : an error, which Linneus himself 
has not avoided ; for j^pis violacea, (Tstucms, &c. 
are not genuine Bomhinatrices ^ as will be proved 
at large hereafter. 

Considerable attention has been paid to this 
genus by Scopoli, and he seems to have exerted 
himself not a little to set it upon a good footing. 
With what success we shall now consider. In his 
Entomologia Carniolica he assigns to it the follow- 
ing characters : 

APIS. Character Essentialis. 

Os rostro deflexo bivalvi. 

Character Arlijicialis. 
Rostrum porrectum, iniiexum, mellisugum, 
bivalve 1 — 3 setum. 

He takes his families in this work from the an- 
tennae, viz. # Antennis reel is. * * ylntennis hasi 
infractis. Discovering, afterwards, the insufficiency 
of these characters to include all the species with 

(«) Ent. Car. p. 298. Note f. 

E 3 which 


which he was acquainted, in his Annus historico-. 
naturalis quartits, he divides Apis into three genera, 
and entirely omits his families, the characters of 
which, in fact, are only sexual distinctions. These 
three genera he names Eiicera, Apis, and Notnada, 
and distinguishes them by the following characters : 

EUCERA. Rostrum 1 . Siphimculo medio attenuato. 

2. Setulis binis margine glabris 

siphunculo brevioribus. 

3. Fafowduabusconvergenti- 

bus glabris. 

4. Laminis binis, dicta organa 

protegentibus, basi coarc- 
tatis, ibique seta- 
ceurn e latere educentibus. 

Before I make any observations upon this cha- 
racter, I must point out what parts, the terms used 
in it, denote. The Sipliuncidus answers to the 
labium of Fabricius and my lingua (h). The Setulce, 
to the lingua setce, or lingua lacinia interipres of 
that author, and to my lacinice interiores (c). The 
valvce to his lahii lacinit^ laterales, or exteriores, 
and to my lacinit:e exteriores (d). And the lamince^ 
to his maxillce and my valvulce {e). 

The genus Eucera is intended to include such 
Apes as are distinguished by antennae as long as 
the body, e. g. Apis longicornis, Lin. &;c. ; but I 

(i) Tab. 11. 0^%. d. 2. a. fig. 1. g. (c) Ibid, ff. 

(f/) Ibid. ee. (e) Ibid, cc. 


shall shew hereafter that this circumstance charac- 
terizes the male only. The number and descrip- 
tion of the parts of the proboscis does credit to the 
accuracy of this great author ; but the setuloe, at 
least in A. longicornis, are not " marline glabra," 
for, if they are examined under a good magnifier, 
they will be found to be ciliate on one side(/). 
He takes only the opex of the valvulce for his la- 
mime,' for he describes them as ^' hasi coarctatce et 
palpigen-e ;" when, in fact, if the entire valvula be 
separated from the proboscis, it will be found nar- 
rowest in the middle, with a feeler emerging from 
its lateral sinus (^•). In other respects, this cha- 
racter is most accurate, and if he had examined the 
proboscis in his next genus with equal accuracy, he 
would have discovered the same number of parts, 
although not retaining the same proportion with 
respect to each other. 

APIS. Rostrum ] . Siphunculo medio. 

2. Fcilvis binis siphunculo brevi- 


3. Laminis binis palpigeris. 

This character is also accurate as far as it goes, but 
in it he omits the lacinice interior es, answering to 
the setuU of his Eucera, which distinguish all 
genuine Apes, though in some they are not easy 
to be discovered {h) . 

(/) Tab. 10. **. d. 1. fig. 3. c. (g) Ibid. %. 1. d. 

(A) Tab. 13. **. e. 2. fig. 1. //. 

ii 4 NOMADA. 


NOMADA. Rostrum 1. SlphuncuJo. 

2. Valvishxms sub apice pal- 

This character seems designed for those insects., 
which Reaumur has called Proabeilles, and DeGeer 
Nomads. It is by far the most imperfect and 
faulty of the three ; for the flat short tongue of 
these scarcely merits the name of sip}mnculus(i), 
the interior palpi are passed over without notice, 
and that part which really answers to the laminae 
in his other genera (k), is here designated by the 
term valva. In this genus the valvuL-e are usually, 
but not invariably, " sub apice palpigera." For 
want of due examination of the proboscis, he has 
inserted into this genus, under the name of No- 
mada riificornis, a genuine Apis. 

GeofFroy follows Scopoli, he distinguishes his 
Apis by the following characters : 

APIS. AntenrKS fracta5 articulo primo longiore. 

Os maxillosum lingua membranacea inflexa. 

Aculeus ani simplex subulatus. 

Abdomen petiolo brevissimo thoraci con- 

Ocelli tres. 
Corpus villosum. 

These characters are the same, word for word, as 
he has assigned to the preceding genus (Fespa), 
with the sole exception of " Corpus villosum" m-t 

(i) Tab. 2. **. a. fig. 1. c. (k) Ibid. lb. & fig. 3. 



stead of '^ Corpus glabrum." The first member of 
this character is often only a sexual distinction. 
The second is partly common to the whole class, 
and partly peculiar to genuine yipes. With re- 
spect to the third, the aculeus of all Hymenopterous 
insects, as far as I have had an opportunity of 
examining them, consists of the same parts, viz. 
two valves (l), and a central vagina {m), exerting a 
pair of spicula {n) barbed or serrated more or less 
on one side. In most genera the aculeus when 
unemployed is recondite, or withdrawn within the 
abdomen, but in a large proportion of the Ichneu- 
mons (p), Sirex(p), &c. both valves and vagina 
are exerted. So that the term " simplex" cannot 
with propriety be applied to one aculeus more than 
another. " Subulatus" very properly defines the 
vagina of the spicula of an ^pis. The next mem- 
ber of the character is common to many genera ; 
the fifth to the whole class ; and the last excludes 
all those Vespiform bees (Nojnada, Fab.) which 
evidently belong to this genus. This author 
adopts the families of Linneus. 

De Geer's definitions of the two genera, into 
which, after Reaumur, he divides ^pis, are now to 
be considered, they are as follows ; 

(I) Tab. 13. fig. 27. bh. fig. 28. aa. (?n) Ibid. fig. 2/. a. 
28. c. and 2Q. (n) Ibid. fig. 28. bl. and 30, 31. 

(0) Marsham in Linn. Trans, vol. 3. p. 29. Tab. 4. fig. 5. 
ip) Reaum. torn. 6. Mcra. 9. Tab. 31. fig. 3. ffi. 



APIS. Antennce fractae articulo primo longiort. 

Os dentibus et rostro flexili fracto, sursum-. 

que plicato. 
Alee planae. 

Abdomen thoraci petiolo brevi adnexum. 
Aculeus punctorius in abdomine reconditus, 
Oculi reticulati ovales integri. 

NOMADA. Antennce clavatae vel filiformes arti- 

culis duodeoim. 
Os dentibus et rostro porrecto vagina car- 

tilaginea cylindrici. 
Alee planse. 
Abdomen petiolatum. 

Aculeus punctorius in abdomine reconditus, 
Oculi reticulati ovales uniti. 

The antennae in both these genera, except in the 
two first families of Apis, are usually subclavate {q) 
in one sex, and filiform in the other; those of the 
male consisting of fourteen joints, including the 
radicle (r) or minute joint that unites them to the 
head, and thirteen in the females and neuters. The 
wings likewise, the petiolus of the abdomen, which 
is extremely short, the aculeus, and eyes are 
nearly the same in both genera. The second mem- 
ber of the deiinition constitutes their essential 

(//) The definition of antennce clavatce, in the Fundamenta 
Entomologice, is, quae versus apicem sensim incrassat<B, and yet 
this term is often employed, and even by Linneus himself, for 
cnlcnnce capitatce. (r) Tab. 1. *. a, fig. 8, a. 


(distinction, but one of the terms employed, to my 
understanding at least, does not convey a clear 
idea, for I do not perfectly comprehend what is 
meant by '• Rostrum sursum pUcatum" In genuine 
jipes the proboscis is folded, as it were, in three 
lengths, with two elbows, so as, in the act of fold- 
ing, to form the letter Z {s), the inflected end of 
the tongue constituting the exterior fold (t), and 
the lora the interior (w) ; and consequently there is 
a fold above, or between the middle fold and the 
head, as well as one beneath it. This is the only 
sense I can make of it : and, thus understood, it 
gives a good character of one difference between 
these genera, but not the best and most obvious : 
it might, I think, be better expressed sursum et 
deorsum plicatum. '' Rostrum porrectum" the 
term employed to express the peculiar character of 
Nomada, must be understood to signify that the 
first motion in unfolding the proboscis is to push 
it forwards beyond the mouth and maxillae (:r), 
whereas in u4pis it is to unbend the lower fold(?/). 
I shall hereafter have occasion to employ this term 
in the same sense. 

Having considered what has been done in this 
genus by the predecessors of Fabricius, I shall next 
call my readers attention to the alterations intro- 
duced into it by that celebrated entomologist, and 
upon this head I must be more than usually par- 

is) Tab. 13. fig. 2. (0 Ibid. dd,ff, g. (u) Ibid. II>. 
(x) Tab. 3. it*, b. fig. 1. (y) Tab, 13. fig. 2. dd,ff, g. 



qq introductory remarks. 

ticular, for this genus appears to me capable of 
furnishing the best of all possible criterions for the 
trial of his system. The instrument a ciharia are so 
conspicuous in most of the species that compose it, 
and so easy to be examined, that if he has made 
any mistake of consequence in the characters of 
this genus, it is evident that dependance cannot be 
placed upon those which he has assigned to others, 
where the organs, upon which he builds his system, 
are less obvious. It is not allowable to adopt, as 
a gratuitous assumption, that these organs are not 
subject to variation ; and so to construct charac- 
ters from them, as they appear in one or two spe- 
cies only, trusting solely to habit for the arrange- 
ment of the rest : but the several results of a care- 
ful inspection of them, in as many different indi- 
viduals as possible, taken from all the subdivisions 
of a genus, should be attentively considered and 
compared, and the agreement and disagreement of 
them accurately noted. This is the only sure 
ground to go upon, and thus alone can it be 
ascertained whether any, and which, of these 
organs supply characters that are certain and con- 
stant. It will soon appear that Fabricius Jbas not 
taken these pains with respect to those genera into 
which he has divided jipis. These are Bemhex, 
Hylceus, Andrena, Apis, Eucera, and Nomada. 

The first of these, Bembex, I shall pass by, as it 
consists chiefly of insects taken from Vespa, and 
includes only one Linnean Apis, which_, as far as 

I can 


I can learn, has never been taken in England {7), 
and begin with HyLeus, which follows it. 

HYL^US. Character Naturalis. 

Os maxillis, palpis, linguaque inflexa 

Palpi quatuor, inaequales, filiformes. 
Anteriores paulo longiores, sexarti- 
culati, articulo secundo paulo lon- 
giori, adhaerentes maxillae dorso. 
Posteriores breviores, quadriarticu- 
lati, adnati laciniis exterioribus 
labii sub apice. 
Mandihula cornea, arcuata, inermis. 
Maxilla brevis, cornea, fornicata, apice 

Labium elongatum,basicorneum, com- 
pressum, in medio flexum, trifidum j 
laciniis exterioribus corneis, com- 
pressis, sub apice palpigeris ; inter- 
medin membranacea, plana, emar- 
Antennce cylindricae. 

(%) Apis rostrata, Lin. In some M. S. notes in an inter- 
leaved copy of the Systema Naturce, which belonged to the 
celebrated Mr. Gray, it is observed by Miller upon tliis species, 
" In Anglld inveniri audio." But as this Is only hearsay evi- 
dence, it may very possibly be a mistake, I have never seen 
it in any cabinet of English insects. 



Character uirtificiaUs. 
Os maxillis, palpis, linguaque inflexaj 

Maxilla brevis cornea. 
Labium in medio infiexum, trifiduin 

iacinia media emarginata. 
jintenna cylindrical. 

The species arranged by Fabricius under this 
genus belong to three distinct and natural families^ 
two of which I consider as forming a part of my 
genus Melitta, (Proabeille, Reaum. &c. Nomada, 
Scopoli and De Geer) and the species of the other 
as genuine jipes. Hylaus annulatus belongs to 
one family of the former; H. cylindricus, quadri- 
tinctus^Jiavipes, alhipes, &c. are males of another; 
and H. truncorum, maxillosus, and ^orisomnis are 
genuine ^pes. Now these three families differ 
very materially in their Instrumenta cibaria, as may 
easily be seen by comparing the sets of figures 
referred to below (a). The question therefore is, 
from which of them Fabricius drew his characters ? 
With respect to the anterior or exterior palpi of six 
articulations, they are one characteristic of the 
former genus, for in the ^pes included in Hyl^us, 
they consist only of two{b). The posterior or in- 
terior palpi, he describes as consisting of four arti- 
culations, and as springing from the exterior Iacinia; 

(a) Melitta, Tab. 1. -sfr. b. Tab. 2, **. b. Tab. 3, **. b. 
Apis^ Tab. Q. **. c. 2. r. (h) Tab, g. **. c. 2. y. fig. 4. l>, 



of the labium (or tongue) a little below their apex. 
Now this is a circumstance that takes place, not 
only never in these families, but likewise not in any 
one of the five genera into which he has divided 
jt4pis. For where the palpi emerge from the 
exterior lacini^, as tliey most commonly do in 
^pis, but never in Melitta, two is the most natural 
number of their articulations (c), but in the subdi- 
vision to which HyLnis Jlorlsomnis and its affinities 
belong, they are exarticulate(^). In Melitta they 
invariably consist of four joints, but in that genus 
they spring from the tongue itself, a little above 
the apex of the tube {e). The mandihulce or max- 
ilLty are inermes or edentula, only in one sex of 
these families of Melitta (f) ; but, in the Apes in 
question, they are bidentate at the apex in all the 
sexes (»•). The maxilla or valvula are corneous 
only at their base, their tops are coriaceous ; they 
can scarcely be denominated " breves" in any of 
these families (A), and in two of them they are 
acute instead of being rounded at the apex(/)i 
The characters he has assigned to the labium or 
lingua will not entirely agree with it in any one of 
them. In the ylpes in question it is elongate^ 

(c) Tab. 6. **. b. fig. 3. h. Tab. 12. **. e. 1. ;neut. fig. 4. 

{d) Tab, p. **. c> 2. 7. fig. 3. dd. and fig. 5. h. 

(0 Tab. 1. *. b. fig. 1. ee. (/) Ibid. fig. 5, Q, 7. Tab. 3. 
i?*.b. fig. 3,4. (g) Tab.p. **. c. 2. r. fi.g. 6. (A) Tab. 
1. *, b. fig. 2. Tab.3. *■*. b. fig. 2. Tab.p. ubi suprafig. 3. a. 

(i) Viz. Tab. 1. *. b. and Tab. Q ubi supra. 




inflected, and furnished with exterior lacinia pa!- 
pigerous just below their apex(^), but the inter- 
mediate lacinia is neither flat nor emarginate. In 
the two families of Melhta, included in this genus^ 
though fiat, it cannot be called elongate, or 
emarginate (/), and its lateral auricles (?w), are 
neither palpigerous nor corneous, but consist of a 
thin membrane- With respect to the term com- 
pressed, understood according to the definition of 
Fabricius, it will apply to neither of these linguae. 
That oi Apis being cylindrical, and that of Melitta 
depressed or fiat; 

How are we to account for insects differing so 
widely in their Intriimenta ciharia being put into 
the same genus? The truth appears to be, that 
instead of taking the trouble of examining these 
organs in individuals^ Fabricius referred all species 
to this genus, whose body was narrow and cylin- 
drical : this is evidently the reason why the males 
of one family of Melitta, though agreeing with the 
other sex in their proboscis, are separated from 
them and inserted here. Any entomologist, who 
Tvas at all in the habit of studying the genus Apis, 
upon a slight comparison of Hyla'us truncorum^ 
maxiUosus, &c. with //. annidatus, or H. quadri- 
cinctus, orjlavipes, &c. without examining their 
oral instruments, would be convinced that they 
belonged to a different division. So that in the 

{k) Tab. 9. **. c. 2. y. fig. 3. Ih. dd. {I) Tab. 1. *. b. 

fig. 1. c. and Tab. 2. **. b. fig. 2. (w) Ibid, a a. 



arrangement of them primJ fade appearance could 
have been the only guide which Fabricius con- 
sulted. That one, who makes every thing depend 
upon these parts, should pay no regard to them 
himself is scarcely tolerable. Had he inspected 
the ^pes he has inserted into this genus, he would 
have discovered that they were distinguished from 
the rest not only by their proboscis, but also by 
their lip, {Clypeus, Fab.) : since they form a sub- 
division of that family in which this part is inflect- 
ed (/?) ; in Hijlaus maxillosus it is remarkably 
elongated (o). 

ANDRENA. Character Naturalis. 

Os maxillis, palpis, linguaque inflexa 

Palpi quatuor insequales, filiformes* 
Anteriores pofrecti, longiores, sex- 
articulati articulls cylindricis, 
cequalibus, adhserentes flexura^ 
Fosteriores brevissimi, biarticulati 
articulis aequalibus, cylindricis, 
sub apice setarum labii inserti. 
Mandibula recta, cornea, fomicata_^ 

(«) Tab. 10. ^*. c. 2. 5. fig. 13. c. (o) Tab. 9. **. 

c. 2. y. fig. 2, b. In this figure the lip is represented in the 
situation it assumes when the proboscis is unfolded ; when that 
organ is folded^ the lip is inflected, and covers it, 

B" Maxilla 


Maxilla cornea, apice membranacea, 
compressa, inflexa, labio multo 
breviore, linguae lacinias exteriores 

Labium porrectum, cylindricum, basi 
corneum, apice membranaceum, in- 
fiexLim, utrinque juxta flexiiram 
setis duabus membranaceis, rectisy 
rigidis, exteriore longitudine di- 
midii labii, interiore brevissima, 
compressa, incurva. 

j4ntenn(B breves, filiformes, subpetio- 
Iati£ ; articulo primo paulo longiori, 
secimdo basi attenuato, reliquis 
a;qualibus, brevibus. 

Larva apoda, mollis, antice gibba, ob- 
tiisa, postice attenuata. 

Puppa quiescens imagini simillima. 

fictus et larvae et imaginis e nee tare 

Character Artificialis. 

Os lingua trifida. 

Labium cylindricum maxilla longius, 
utrinque setis duabus membranaceis, 
AntermcB filiformes. 

Under this genus Fabricius has likewise arranged 
insects that differ greatly from each other in their 
Instrumenta cibaria. Thus Andrena bicolor, pili- 
peSj lahiata, helvola, and h^morrhoidalis, are Me^ 



Htta? of one family ; A. succinta belongs to another ; 
while A. cisrulescens , cenea, and bidentata, are ge- 
nuine Apes. Of these, Andrena hicolor is nothing 
more than the male oi Apis thoracica, and has pre- 
cisely the same oral organs {p) ; and Andrena lahi- 
ata is the male of Nomada cins^ulata. The exterior 
palpi are sexarticulate in all the Melittce (q), but 
in Andrena cenea and ca^rulescem they consist of 
four articulations (r), and ih A. bidentata, which, 
if I am nojt mistaken, comes into the same subdi- 
vision with Apis centuncularis(s), they are most 
probably blarticulate(i). The interior palpi in all 
the Apes here quoted have two joints only, and 
emerge just below the apex of the exterior laci- 
nice (u), which are here denominated set<r, but in 
all the MelittcB above-mentionedj these palpi are 
quadriarticulate, as I observed above, and arise from 
the tongue just above the tube. The mandibulce, 
in this genus, can be called " rectcE" only in the 
Apes, in the Melittce they are usually incurvce. In 
the latter, in one sex, they are often, but not always, 
endentulce {x) ; but in the foriTier, their apex is 
furnished with teeth in both(z/). His characters, 
with respect to the maxillce or valvulce, will apply 

(p) Tab. 3. **. c. fig. 3—6. (q) Ibid. **. b. fig. 2. a. 

and c. fig. 6. a. (r) Tab. 10. *•*. c. 2. ^. fig. 3. a. 

(s) Tab. 8. **. c. 2. a. (t) Ibid. fig. 3. c. («) Ibid, 

fig. 2. //. and Tab. 10. **. c. 2. I fig. 2. a a. (.r) Tab. 4. 

**. c. fig. 3 — 8. (y) Tab. 8. **. c. 2. a. fig. 9 — 16. and 

Tab. 10. *-*, c. 2. 1 fig. 9— H. 

p 2 better 


better to the ^pes that he has included In this ge- 
nus, than to the Melilt^e, the summit of whose 
valvulce, which are not much shorter than the 
tongue, is coriaceous. In the ^pes, these have 
sometimes a membranaceous margin. The de- 
finition of the labium will apply only to jipis. 

APIS. Character Natiiralis. 

Os maxillis, palpis, lingudque inflexa quin- 

Palpi quatuor brevissimi, inaequales, fili- 

y^nteriores paulo longiores, sexarticulati, 
articulis asqualibus, flexurae maxillaa 
Posteriores quinquearticulati articulis 
aequalibiis, sub apice laciniarum cx- 
teriorum labii inscrti. 
Mandihula porrecta, cornea, recta, obtusa, 

Maxilla porrecta, cornea, basi cylindrica, 
cum labio connata, apice compressa, acu- 
ta, integra marginibus membranaceis, 
in medio inflexa, laciniam linguae exte- 
riorem constituens. 
Labium porrectum, corneum, basi cylindri- 
cum, apice trifidum, laciniis lateralibus 
dilatatis, membranaceis, sub apice pal- 
pigeris; intermedia longiori, retractili, 
tereti, pilosa, lacinias interiores lingu£e 




AntenricC filiformes, lireves, articiilo prima 

longiHHiino, incurvOj reliquis brevibus, 

Larva apoda, mollis, gregaria intra cellulas 



Puppa, quiescens, imagini simillima. 
plctus, et lar\-ae et imaginis, e nectare flo- 
rum, melle, fructibus clulcibus.» 

Character Artificialis. 

Os lingua inflexa, quinqiiefida. 
Palpi brevissimi. 
Antenncc iiliformes. 

In his preface to his Genera Jnseciorinn Fabricius 
has this observation, '• Auctorum descriptiones, 
JiguraSy nunquam ad gcnerum determinationem ad- 
hihere valu'i. - Omnes oris partes plane omiserunt." 
This is an assertion much too large and unqualified ; 
and had he consulted the descriptions and figures, 
which Swammerdam and Reaumur have given of 
the Instrumenta cibaria in this genus, and which 
De Geer, (whose work is a rich mine from which 
much important information may be drawn relative 
to every part of the history of insects) has given in 
others ; it would, perhaps, have prevented him 
from running into so many egregious errors. Nay, 
had he only examined the proboscis of the hive bee, 
or any common Bomhinatrix, he must have dis- 
covered the inaccuracy of the characters here given. 
But to come to particulars : this genus, like the 
F 3 preceding 


preceding, is a " rudis indigestaque moles " of Me- 
littcC and y4pes, taken from all families, each dis- 
tinguished from the others by peculiarities in its 
Jnstrumenta ciharia. Thus, Apis seladonia belongs 
to one family of Melitta ; Apis cunicularia, thora- 
cica, cineraria, and vestita to another : the exterior 
palpi of all these consist of six articulations, and 
by no means agree with the term " hrevissimi (z)," 
and the interior palpi of four. Apis latipes, vio- 
lacea, cestuans, pilipes, rotundata, &c. belong to 
a family of Apes, whose exterior palpi, like those 
of the preceding, are sexarticulate {a) ; but their 
interior are only biarticulate (Zj). Apis mellijica 
and all the true Bomhinatrices, A. terrestris, kor^. 
torum, &c. have their exterior palpi e?:tremely 
short ; but, instead of six, they consist only of a 
single joint (c). The same remark extends to A, 
manicata (d), which belongs to a subdivision of 
that family remarkable for its inflected lip. Apis 
bicornis, tunensis, rufa, &c. enter into another of 
its subdivisions, the same which includes Andrena 
carulescens and ainea, distinguished, as above ob- 
served, by exterior palpi of four articulations. 
Apis conica, quadridentata, and cent?xncularis ap- 
pertain to two other branches of the same family, 

(?;)Tab. 3. **. c. fig.Gfl. («) Tab. 11. **. d. 2. a. fig. 2. 

{b) Ibid. fig. 1. a. (c) Tab. 12. **. e. 1, neut. fig. 6. d. 
Tab. 13. fig. 3. h. and fig. 4, 5, Q. {d) Tab. Q. **. c. 2. /?, 

fig. 2. dd. and fig. 4. 



whose exterior palpi are biarticulate (e) ; and ^pis 
punctata^ luctuosa, &c. are of another family, re- 
lated to the Nomad.e, with exterior palpi of five 
articulations {f). The same objections attach to 
the characters of the mandihuhe as in the former 
genera. The maxilla or valvula is not connate 
with the labium or tongue in any species that I 
have examined, it may sometimes be attached to 
its base, or the upper side of the tube by mem- 
brane : in that family which includes jipis violacea, 
&c, or what 1 call \he false Bombinatrices, its apex, 
instead of having a membranaceous margin, is 
entirely corneous. 

EUCERA. Character NatiiraU.s. 

Os palpis, maxillis, linguaque inflexa, 

Palpi quatuor, ina:quales, filiformes. 
Anteriores quinquearticulati, articulo 
secundo longiori, crassiori, reliquis 
aequalibus, adiiasrentes flexura? in- 
terior! maxillas. 
Posteriores breviores, quadriarticulati, 
articulis aequalibus, adnati laciniis 
exterioribus labii. 
Mandibula cornea, incurva, acuta, eden- 

Maxilla elongata, cornea, comprcssa, in 

(e) Tab. 7. **. c. 1. a. fig. 3. a. Tab. 8. **. c. 2. a. fig. 3. c, 
(/) Tab. 6. i:*.dL.fig.\. g. 

F 4 medio 


medio flexa, apice membranacca, la- 
teribiis dilatatis. 

Labium compressum, corneiim, in medio 
fiexum, quinquefidum ; laciniis mem- 
branaceis, exterioribus duabus dilatatis, 
apice palpigeris; sequentibus paiil6 
brevioribus, tenuissimis, interiori tereti 

j4ntenna cylindricae, articulo primo glo-r 

Character Artificialis. 

Os lingua septemfida. 

Labium quinquefidum, laciniis interme- 

diis majoribus, apice palpigeris. 
Ajitenn^ cylindricas. 

This genus seems free from adulteration, by the 
mixture of discordant species ; but the characters 
are not accurate. The exterior palpi are sexar- 
ticulate (g), and the interior, instead of being qua- 
driarticulate, consist only of two joints {h). The 
Artijicial Character both of this genus and the pre- 
ceding is well drawn up, and sufficient, when ap- 
plied only to its proper subjects. But in Apis, 
" Lingua quinquejida is not applicable, for the pro- 
boscis, if it be closely examined, it will be found to 
be septemfida (?'). In the second member of the 
Artificial Character, instead of " intermediis," the 

(g) Tab. 10. **. d. 1. fig. 1. cl. (h) Ibid. fig. 2. c c, 

(i) Tab, 13. fig. 1. 



term should be exterioribus (k). At first, Fabriciiis 
included only such male insects in this genus, as 
had antenncC nearly as long as the body, but in his 
supplement he has inserted two species of the 
other sex. 

NOMADA. Character Naluralis, 

Os maxillis, palpis, linguaque inflexS, 

Palpi quatuor, ina^quales, porrecti, fili- 

Anteriores breviores, sexarticulati, ar-r 
ticulis cequalibus, cylindricis, adhie- 
rentes flexurae maxillcE. 4 

Posteriores quadriarticulati, articulis 
cylindricis secundo longissimo, lin- 
gua, formi; labii medio inserti. 
Mandihula cornea, fornicata, acuta, in- 

Maxilla basi cornea, cylindrica, apice 
porrecta, compressa, membranacea, 
acuta, integra, linguse exteriorem la-- 
ciniam constituens. 
Lahiurti cylindricum, elongatum, basi 
corneum, apice membranaceura, acu- 
tum, compressum, integrum, lingua 
laciniam interiorem constituens. 
Antenna filiformes, breves, articulo pri- 
mo paulo longiori, reliquis asqualibus^ 
brevibus, rotundatis. 

(i) Tab. 10, ubi supra, fig. 2. a a. 



Character Artificialis. 

Os lingua infiexa trifida. 

Palpi quatuor inaeqiiales ; postici lin- 

guaefor-mes articulo sec undo longis- 

AntentK^ filiformes. 

In this genus, of which Fabricius has described 
only fifteen species, are included insects which 
belong to the third and fifth families of my genus 
Melitta, and to the second and fourth of Apis, all 
differing as to their Instrumenta ciharia, Besides 
these, others belong to a family of which we have 
no species in England; whose proboscis I have not 
had an opportunity of examining (/); and Nomada 
punctata is either a variety of Fe5/j« uniglumis, Lin. 
or nearly related to it. His description agrees 
exactly with my specimens of that insect, which is 
well figured by Panzer (m), only the four posterior 
tibias are coloured black, instead of dusky ferru- 
ginous. Thus Nomada gibha belongs to the third 
family of Melitta, N. cingulata to the fifth [n) ; 
N.ryficornis, niflpes, striata, Fabriciana, and Julvi- 
cornis to my second family of Apis ; N. variegata 
to my fourth. N. His trio and scutellaris seem 
connected with Apis punctata, but in these the 
" Scutellum porrectum et emarginatum," indicates 

{I) Viz, N. histrio, scutellaris, Sec, (???) Fn. Ins. Germ. 

Init. N°64. t. 14. Cralro uniglumis. (n) I observed above 
that Andre7ia laliata is the male of this. 



that they ought to form a separate subdivision, 
l^. punctata was accounted by Linneus a Vespa, 
but its tongue subemarginate, antenna anteriores, 
and silver nasus give it a nearer affinity to those 
Spheces, which Fabricius has arranged under his 
genus Crahro. In the two families of Melitta, 
above alluded to, the proboscis, the interior palpi 
and auricles being excluded, is trifid(o), but not 
inflected; in N. nificornis^ &c. it is inflected and 
at first appears trifid, but if closely examined 
under a good magnifier, it will be found, exclusive 
of the interior palpi, to be quinquefid(/>). N. va- 
riegata is furnished both with interior and exterior 
lacinice, consequently in that the tongue is sep-r 
temfid(^). With respect to the palpi they are 
sexarticulate in Melitta, and I believe so in Nomada 
ruficornis, ^c.{r), but in N. variegata they con- 
sist of only a single joint (5). The interior palpi 
are quadriarticulate in Melitta and N. riificornis, 
&c. {t), but in N. variegata they have twojoints(M), 
With respect to the second joint of these palpi, in 
the form of which Fabricius makes the essence of 
the genus to consist, it is neither elongate nor lin- ' 
guaeform in any of these families of either genus, 
the species of which I have had an opportunity of 

(0) Tab. 2. **. a. %. 1. Tab. 3. **. c. fig. 3. (/))Tab. 5, 

-*. b. fig.2, 3. (ry)Tab.6. **. b. fig. 2, 3. (r) Tab. 5, 

*. b. fig.4. rf. (5) Tab.6. **. b. fig.4. rf. (/)Tab.5. 
*. b. fig. 3. I. {u) Tab. 6, x .*. b. fig. 3. h. 



examining (a:). What it may be in the family to 
which N. scutellaris belongs I am not able to say. 
The Mandihula are entire only in the two families 
of j4pis. In N. gibba they are deeply bifid at the 
apex in one sex(j/). The terms " cyUndricum et 
elongatum" will apply only to the labium of the 
genuine ^pes. 

From this review of what Fabriciiis has done in. 
this genas^ one is almost led to suppose that he 
formed his Natural Characters, " uncUque coUatis 
membris" and took one member from the proboscis 
of an insect of one family, a second from that of 
another, and so on. If this be the case it is a vain 
attempt to conjecture from what individuals such 
jarring definitions were derived. 

cujus, velut oegri somnia, vnnre 

Fingentur species : ut nee pes nee caput uni 
Reddatur formae. 

It must now, I think, be evident to every un- 
prejudiced examiner, that this author has commit- 
ted perpetual and unaccountable mistakes in the 
genus in question. That, in the arrangement of 
species, instead of abiding by his own characters, 
in a class of insects in which the Ivstriimenta ciba- 
ria are very easy to be examined, he has been led 
solely by habit, or laiher prima facie appearance: 

(t) Tab. 2. **. a. fig. 1. gg. Tab. 3. **, c.fig. 5. cc. Tab. 5. 
*.b. fig.S.i-. Tab.6. **. b. fig.3. l. ( //) Tab. 2. x*. a. 

fig. 6. 



that he has done the utmost violence to nature, 
mixing distinct genera and families, and separating 
those that are most nearly related, even the sexes, 
placing the males in one genus and the females in 
another, though both have the same oral instru- 
ments (z), and instead of order and true system, 
introducing the greatest confusion and disorder. 

A system so constructed, which is the cause of 
so much confusion and distortion of nature, can 
never be lasting; the more closely it is examined, 
the more deficient will it be found, and probably it 
will not long sun'ive its author. While that of 
Linneus, which Fabricius and his followers have 
treated with such undeserved contempt, receiving 
daily those improvements of which it is capable and 
w'hicli it demands, will descend, because founded 
on the sure basis of truth and nature, to the latest 
posterity, and, in conjunction with his other 
glorious labours, immortalize his name to all 


Gmelin has done little more than combine Lin- 
neus with Fabricius, adopting for families, the then 
new genera of the latter ; I shall therefore altoge- 
ther pass over his character of this genus* 

(z) The mistake of sexual characters for those of genera or 
families, is so natural in those who do not examine insects, in 
this genus, anatomicall)', that it is not to be wondered at, and 
may be allowed for. But tlie case is much altered, when such 
mistakes are made by one, whose whole system is built upon 
those parts in. which the sexes do agree. 




AFTER the greatest part of the preceding 
remarks were printed, I met with two authors of 
whose labours in this class and genus it will be 
proper to take some notice. I mean Roemer and 

In the year 1789, Roemer published a very 
elegant work^ entitled, '^ Genera insectorum Linnai 
et Fahricii iconihus illustrata." In this work he 
gives the following character of the class HymenoP' 
tera, which adds several circumstances to that laid 
down by Linneus. 

HYMENOPTERA. JU quatuor, membranaceae, 

nudte, nervis pro alarum 
magnitudine fortioribus 

Os maxillis duabus validis. 

Stemmata tria. 

Cauda aculeo armata in fe- 

This character is very accurate, except the first 
member of it, which will not hold good universally, 
since many Hymenopterous insects are distinguished 
by wings without veins : its application, therefore, 
ought to have been restricted by the term sapius 
OY plerisque, as a general, but not invariably con- 
stant character. In his genera he has destroyed 



the simplicity of the Linnean definitions, by the 
insertion of a variety of additional characters. 
Some of these are common to the class ; for in- 
stance, the stemmata, and number of articula- 
tions of the tarsi. Others are hastily adopted 
without sufficient examination, as where he as- 
signs only two palpi to Cynips and several other 
genera, which in fact have four; and in his cha- 
racter of Tenthredo, in which, instead of naming 
six as the number of joints of the exterior palpi, 
and four of the interior, he attributes to the 
former, four only, and to the latter, two. Again, 
others of his additional characters are not universal, 
as when he says, under Tenthredo, " Lahio superi- 
ore constanter cum pedihus concolore." In several 
species of that genus this does not hold good(fl). 
The character of Fespa he has much improved by 
introducing the tongue. I shall copy his defini- 
tion of ^pis. 

APIS. Os maxillis dentatis, atque prohoscide in- 

flexa, vaginis duabus bivalvibus linguam 

Caput triangulare, fronte plana, flexum. 
Antenna sajpe pedatae, primo articulo reli- 

quis longiore. 
Ala planse, in omni sexu. 
Aculeus punctorius reconditus, retractilis^, 

serratus, feminis et neutris. 

(a) E. G. In Tenthredo FitelUnce, sericea, nitens, Lin. Hcolor, 
£nvun. &c. 



Tarsi quinque articulis, primo longitudino 
tibiae, compresso, ciliato, transversim 

The greater part of the additional circumstances 
introduced into this character, belong only to 
certain families, and are not common to the whole 
genus ; and the last, viz. the transversely sulcated 
first joint or planta of the tarsus, is peculiar to the 
neuter of ^pis m^llifica. 

The other work which I mentioned, was pub- 
lished at Paris about six years since by M. Latreille, 
under the title of " Precis des caracteres gene- 
riques des insectes, disposes dans un ordre naturel" 
This is a work of considerable merit, in which the 
author manifests no common degree of industry 
and accuracy, aided by great abilities. Though a 
professed admirer of Fabricius, he proves himself 
to be 

Nullius addictus jurare in verba mngistri. 

and with great good sense rejects the Fabrician 
nomenclature of the classes, retaining, for the most 
part, that of Linneus. The Hymenopterous insects 
constitute his fifth class, which he thus defines : 

HYMENOPTERES. Quatre ailes inegales, nues, 
Hyinenoptera. veinees, inferieures plus 


Bouche munie de mandi- 

bules. Une langue ou 

levre inferieure renfer- 



mee k sa base dans une 
gaine coriace qui s'em- 
boite sur les cotes, dans 
les machoires. 

This character agrees very well with the insects of 
this class, with the exception of ailes vehu'es, 
which, as I just now observed, are not common to 
the whole : but still 1 prefer that of Linneus, on 
account of its including the aculeus^ its most re- 
markable and striking distinction. 

Instead of subdividing his genera, this authdf 
divides the class into sections and families, the 
characters of which are drawn from the antenna, 
OS, lahium inferius, lingua, maxiihe. Fab. tubus, 
and palpi. He gives forty-three Hymenopterous 
genera, without including those of Fabricius's sup- 
plement : the characters of these are taken from 
the antenme, lahium superius, manditulce, lingua, 
maxilUe, Fab. tubus, and palpi. There cannot be 
a stronger proof that differences in the antennce 
and instrumenta ciharia :\vc not the best foundation 
for characteristics of genus in this class, than the 
great and unnecessary multiplication of genera by 
those who build their system upon them. Cha- 
racters of families are mistaken for distinctive 
marks of a genus ; and thus natural genera are 
taken to pieces, and, if this practice continues, we 
shall have no such thing as a subdivision in any. 
The different families of the Linnean genus Tt.i- 
tliredo, are all characterized from variations in 

G thp. 

the antennas ; according to this principle, they 
ought to constitute so many diiferent genera ; 
and if it be applied to Apis, instead of five genera 
into which Fabricius has divided it, it should be 
frittered into eighteen, from differences observable 
in the iyistrumenta ciharia of its numerous families. 
But to proceed with our author. The genera he 
has given are arranged in the following order. 

1. Urocems, after GeofFroy, taken from Sirex, 
Lin. 2. Sirex, taken from Sirex and Tenthredo, 
Lin. 3. Tenthredo, Lin. 4. Cinihex, Olivier. This 
is the Cralro of GeofFroy, and consists of those 
insects which constitute Linneus's first family of 
Tenthredo.. 5. Proctotrupes, Latr. If I am not mis- 
taken in the insects which INI. Latreille intends by 
this genus, it is a distinct one : I have always been 
at a loss where to reler the species that belong to 
it. I do not know that any other author has 
noticed any of them. 6. Cj/nips, after GeofFroy, 
this genus takes in no genuine Cynips, but in- 
cludes a large pro]oortion of the Ickneumones Mi- 
nuti of Linneus, the Eulophus of Geoffi"oy, and 
Chalcis of Fabricius. It would be a good genus 
without Chalcis, but it should have another name, 
as Cynips ought to be continued to the gall nut 
insects. 7. Leucospis, Fab. 8. Diplolepis, Geoff. 
Cynips, Lin. g. Diapria, Latr. taken from the 
Ichneumones Minufi, Lin. 10. Orussus, Latr. 
Sphex, Scop. An Oryssus, Fab. ? 11. Ichneumon, 
Lin. 12. Gasteniption, Latr. Ichneumon, Lin. 


I'his genus appears to me to be the same with 
Foenus of the supplement of Fabricius. 13. Eva- 
nia, Fab. M. Astata, Latr. 15. Sphex, Lin. This 
includes my genus Ammophila only. l6. Psam- 
■mochares, Latr. taken from Sphex, Lin. This is 
probably the same with Fompilus, Fab. 17- Larra, 
Fab. IS. Tip/da, Fab. ig. Mlfrmosa, Latr. 20. 
Mutilla, Lin. 2 1 . Doiyhcs, Fab. 22. Formica, Lin. 
23. Trypoxylon, Latr. from Sphex, Lin. 24. P^e??, 
Latr. from Sphex, Fab. 25. Ccropales, Latr. taken 
from Evania, Fespa, and Crahro, Fab. 26. ikfe/- 
//mw. Fab. 27- Nysso, Latr. from Crahro, Fab. 
28. Chrysis, Lin. 29. Parnopes, Latr. from Chry- 
sis, Fab. 30. Pemphredon, Latr. from Crahro, Oliv. 
31. Oxyhelus, Latr. from Vespa, Lin. and Crahro, 
Fab. 32. Crahro, Fab. 33. Bemhex, Fab. 34. 
Masaris, Fab. 35. Vespa, Lin, 36. PkilanthuSj 
Fab. 37. Sapyga, Latr. from Scolia, Fab. 38. 
Scolia, Fab. 39. Hylceus, Fab. 40. Andrena, Fab. 
41. Nomada, Fab. 42. u^/)/^, Lin, 43. Eucera, 
Scop, and Fab. 

The genera into wliich our author, after Fabri- 
cius, has divided ^/»z,y are arranged under his tenth 
and eleventh families. The characters of the first 
of these families belong to those insects which I 
liave considered as constitutins; one 2:enus under 
tlie name Melitta, those of the other as peculiar 
to genuine Apes. They are both drawn up, with 
very great accuracy, in the following terms. 

G 2 7. l\.'n 


7. Fam. 10. Machoires et laiigue tres-alongeca/ 
deux oil trois fois plus longues que la tete, dirigees 
en avant dans I'lnaction;, et dont la base ressort 
inferieurement de la cavite ou elles sont logees. 
Partie saillant de la langue evasee, a trois divisions, 
plus courte que la gaine : celle-ci longue, cylin- 
drique. Antennules courtes, filiformes^ de six et 
quatre articles. 

The tubus, here called, la game, in this division 
is often conical, and the palpi are setaceous rather 
than filiform. Here are arranged the two Fabri- 
cian genera Hyl^its and Andrena, with these cha- 
racters : 

HYL^US. Antennes inserees au milieu du front, 
courtes, grosses; premier article 
alonge, les autres formant presque 
une masse cylindrique, divergente ; 
filiformes dans d'autres. Langue 
large ; division du milieu echancree, 
dentelee, ciliee. 

This character was probably taken from Apis an- 
nulata, Lin., to which it applies very well, as does 
also his Caractere Hahituel of this genus ; but the 
intermediate piece of the tongue is truncate, rather 
than emarginate {h). He would of course exclude 
from it A. maxillosa, truncorum, &:c. which belong 
to his next family, and I should suppose also Hy- 

(Z)Tab. 1. *. b. fig. 1. c. 



J^us albipes and its affinities, the tongue of these 
being that of his genus Andrena. 

ANDRENA. Antcnnes filifory^. Langue ob- 
longue ; division du milieu en 
point refendue. 

This genus would include all my families of JSIc- 
Utta but the first and second. The character is 
extremely accurate, but the point of the interme- 
diate division of the toncjue is lacerate rather than 
cleft (c). 

8. Fam. 11. Langue tres-prolongee, ttroite, 
lineaire, presque cylindrique, un peu coriacee, a 
papilles vers I'extremite, flechie a la sortie de la 
gaine. Machoires ilechies. Antennules anteri- 
eurs tres-courtes, presque obsoletes, setacees. 

That part of this character which regards the 
exterior palpi is not accurate, for in the true No- 
madcPy the Eucene, and two other of my families 
of genuine Apes, these are as long as in the ?de- 
littie of the preceding family, and consist of six 
joints (f/). He probably took his idea of them 
from Apis mellijica, or the Bomb inatr ices. Here 
are arranged the remaining genera which Fabricius 
separated from Apis : viz. Nomadaj Apis, and 

(c) Tab. 2. * ¥r. a. fi^. 1 . and b. fi.;. 1, 2. (d) Tab. 5. 

*.h.fig.4.d. Tab. 10. **. d. 1. fig. 1. (f. Tab. 11. ** d. 2. 
«. fig.2.9. 



NOMADA. Langue d'une piece, av^ec deux tres- 
petites soies laterales. 

This character is accurate, but it would also take 
in my first family of ^pis (e). 

APIS. Langue de trois pieces. (Organes de la 
nutrition plus petits dans les males). 

In this character the interior laciniee are overlooked. 
The Caractere Habitue! of this genus seems to have 
been drawn from ^, meUifica, for it thus describes 
the eyes : " Yeuoc entiers alongees, occupant tout le 
front dans- les males ;" a circumstance which is pe- 
culiar to that sex of that species. And of the 
neuter it says, " Premier article des tarses tres- 
grands, strie transversaJement dans les mulets" 
which is the peculiarity of the working hive bee. 

EUCERA. Langue de cinq pieces. Antennes 
souvent plus longues que le corps. 

This character is accurate as far as it goes. The 
long antennce, as before observed, are a sexual dis- 

I cannot conclude these remarks without in- 
serting a passage which I lately met with in Ray's 
Letters, from w-hich it will appear that that skilful 
entomolomst Dr. Martin Lister had a distinct idea 
of the Hymenoptera class. " I cannot, methinks/' 
says he, in a letter addressed to Ray, " exclude 
these hairtailed insects from the family or genus 

(e)Tab,4. *. a. fig. 4. o«. Tab, 5. vv, b. fig. 3, 


of wasps, although all of them, that I know, are 
neither favificous nor gregarious, nor have artiticial 
meat stored up for them ; yet have they the shape 
and parts of wasps exactly, as well in the worm 
and chrysalis, as when they are in perfection : be- 
sides, / have observed a peculiar note belonging to 
the bee kind which is not ivanting in these ; and that 
is J three balls in a triangle, in the forehead of them 
all, luhich nobody hitherto, that I know of, has taken 
notice of But I much like the making of genus's 
and tribes ex moribus et vita ; though I would not 
as near as may be have the form excluded (/}." 


G 4 





Quam multiplicata sunt opera tua, Jehova ! Omnia ipsa in 
SAPiENTiA fecisti : impleta est terra possessionibus 'uis, 

Ps. civ. 24. 

In his tarn parvis, atque tarn nullis, quae ratio ! Quanta vis ! 
Quam inextricabilis perfectio ! piin. 

Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum. Virg. 

Vol. I. 




' Occiput 


Lai 'mm 

Antennce < Scapus 

— ^ Stemmata 


"Lingua — -l Basis 

Proboscis < 


r Fulcrum 
Tubus — — < Auriculae C Exteriores 
(_Laciniae — < Intcriores 
Vhlvula — ^ Basis — — — < Cardo 
< l_Apex X^Pecten 

I Palpi — — •^ Exteriores 
I |_ Inter lores 

I Lora 

^Co//u7re— < 

[ Collare 

Thorax -<( Tubercula 




Pectus •{ Sternum 



Superiores "^ Anastomosis 


Al<je -< 

1 Costa 




.Inferiores ^ Hamuli 
"Apophysis <^ Flocculus 


Femur r Spinula 

Pedes < 

Tibia ■ ■ < Scopa 

Manus •—<{ Palma — ^ Strigilis 

r Planta — <^ Scopula 

Tarsus — < f Unguis 
{^Digitus — <^ Pulvillus 


Segmenta dorsalia<( Spiracula 

Tergum < 


r Fimbria PValvae 
Anus < Aculeus •( Vagina «^ Spicuh'^ Retinaculum 


r Forceps 
_Penis ■{ Phallus 


^Venter ^ 


ita ventralia. 

( 91 ) 


CORPUS dico, ubi animal totum, simul sumptum^ 
intelligi volo : hoc in tres partes primarias dis- 
tribuo; capuT;, nempCj truncum, abdomen. 

Pars antica corporis occiput, faciem, genas, gulam, 
etjuguhmi includens. Organa ejus mobilia sunt 
labium, maxillce, antennce, atque proboscis. 

1. Occiput. Capitis pars postica collari applicans(«"). 

2. Fades. Capitis pagina superior verticem, stem- 

mata^ oculos,frontem, et nasum includens. 

a. Vertex. Portio faciei inter occiput et oculos(Z'). 

b. Stemmata. Pimcta tria, convexa, chrystallina, 

ocelli forsan, quae verticem signant(c). 
0. Oculi. Visus organa ex innumeris hexagonis 

d. Frons. Spatium interjectum inter oculos infra 

verticem unde proveniunt antennae, quod in 

angulum acutum inter nasum et oculos saepe 


(a) Tab. 12. **. e, 1. neut. fig. 8. d. {I) Ibid. a. 

(c) Ibid. {d) Ibid. h. 

e. NasuSs 


e. Nasus. Faciei portio saepius elevata/. gibba in-» 
fra antennas, cui labium annectitur ; a fronte 
sutura baud raro separata (e). 

3. Gence. Capitis latera turgida sub oculis {f). 

4. Lahhim. Pars transversa capitis, postice naso 

subnexa, os superne claudens, et proboscidem 
cohibens {g). 

5. MaocilliF. Dentes transversi insecti os a latere 

includentes, apud basin saepius puncto elevato 
notati (A). * 

6. Giila. Inferioris paginae capitis cavitas antica, 

fundo saepius membranaceo, ubi proboscis 
plicata reponitur (z). 

7- Jagulum. Capitis cavitas postica qua collo an- 
nectitur {k). 

8. Antenncu. Cerebelli forsan speculatores sensiferi, 
articulati, racliculd, scapo, pedicello, et apice 

a. Radicula. Articulus primus minutissimus, capiti 


b. Scapus. Articulus secundus saepius elongatus, 

quocum angulum saepe facit apex {m). 

c. Pedicelhis. Articulus tertius, in acetabulo scapi 

versatilis (tz). 

d. Apex. Reliqui articuli simul sumpti (o). 

(c) Tab. 12. **, e 1. neut. fig. 8. c. (/) Ibid, fig.f). aa. 
{g) Ibid. fig. 8. e. (A) Ibid. /. (i) Ibid. fig. g. c. 

{k) Ibid. i. (l) Ibid. fig. 13. G. (w) Ibid. I. 

(n) Ibid. c. (o) Ibid, d. 

g. Proboscis. 


<Q. Proboscis. Organum capitis os in feme claudens, 
lingua central!, et vagina, interdum multi- 
valvi, constans(yj). 

a. Lingua. Suctionis instrumentum cartilaglneum 

in apicem et basin distinctum {q). 
u. .Apex. Linguae portio extra tubiim (r). 
/3. Basis. Linguae portio intra tubum {s). 

b. Fagina. Liguam ex omni parte convolvens, 

muniens, ac fovens, tuba, valvulis, palpis, loris, 

gX annul consX.Qns{t) i, 
u. Tubus. Theca cornea basis Xmgu^ fulcrum, ait^ 

riculas, laciniasque includens {u). 
a. Fulcrum. Portio cornea cui insidet tubus (.r). 
b>, Auriculce. Valvae duae membranace*, Melittis 

propriae, linguam apud apicem tubi munien- 


c. Lacinice. Saepius quatuor, est ubi duae, j4pibus 

propriae, linguam apud apicem tubi vaginan- 
tes, in exteriores et interiores distinctae. 

*. Lacinice exteriores. Valvae duae, planiusculae vel 
concavae, biarticulatae, paulo infra apicem pal- 
pigerse, linguae apicem subtus munientes (z). 

*#. Lacinicc interiores. Valvae duae sa?pius mem- 
branaceae, quae intra lacinias exteriores lin- 
guam amplectuntur (ci). 

(p) Tab. 12. **. e. 1. neut. fig. 1. (q) Ibid. /. i. 

(r) Ibid. i. (s) Ibid. /. (/) Ibid, a, h, c, d, e,f, g, h. 

{u) Ibid. /. Tab. 1. *. b. fig. 1. a. (x) Tab. 12. ubi 

supra, e. {y) Tab. 2. **. a tig. \. dd. b. fig. 2. a a. 

{%) Tab. 12. ubi supra, eg, (a) Ibid. hh. 

(i. Valvule. 



0. P^alvuhe. Laminae /. valvae duse apud basin tubi 

originem ducentes, et palpum e sinu lateral! 

emittentes, in hasin et apicem divisoe (/'). 
a. Basis. Valvulae pars cornea infra palpum, linguae 

basin ntrinque obvolvens, cardinem et pecti- 

77 em iiicludens (c). 
#. Cardo. Portio cornea transversa inter basin val- 
vulae et lora interjecta {d). 
#*. Pecten. Setse rigidiusculae, incurva?, quae basis 

valvulae apicem margine exteriori armant(e). 
h. Jlpex. Valvulae pars supra palpum, saepe coriacea 

marginibus membranaceis, concava aut plicata, 

quae linguae apicem exteriiis convolvit, et, re- 

posita proboscide, apud sinum palpigerum in- 

y. Palpi. Organa saepius articulata, mobilia, sen- 

sifera, e vagina exorta, in palpbs exteriores et 

interiores distincta. 
a. Palpi exteriores. 1 — 6 articulati e sinu laterali 

valvularum erumpentes {g). 
h. Palpi interiores. 1 — 4 articulati ex lingua paulo 

supra apicem tubi, vel ex laciniis exterioribus 

sub apice provenientes (A). 

1. Lora. Funiculi cornei membrana connexi, qiii- 

{h) Tab. 12. ubi supra, a, I. and fig. Q. (c) Tbid. fig. 6. a. 

{d) Tab. 13. fig. 7. cc. (e) Tab. 12. ubi supra, fig. 6. c. 
Tab. 10. **. d. 1. fig. 1. c. (/) Tab. 12. ubi sup. fig. 6. h. 

ig) Ibid. fig. 5. Tab. 8. fig. 3. c. Tab. 10. **. c. 2. 1 fig. 3. a. 
Tab.6. **. a. fig. 1.^. Tab. 1. *. a, fig.4. d (A)Tab.9. **. 
c,2.y. fig.5. Z'. Tah. 5.**. a. fig. 5, dd, Tab.l. *. a.fig.S. ^Z'. 



bus insidet proboscis, et quibiis retinetur aut 

immittitur (/). 
f. Annulus. Gulae ambitus quo terminanturlora (h), 

Intermedia pars corporis, collum, thoracem, scuteU 
leni, metathoracem, pleuras, pectus complectens. 
Artus ejus sunt al(^ et pedes. 

1. Collum. Pars trunci anterior, qua caput versiatile 

est, coUarem gestans (/), 
a. Collare. Pars postica colli elevatiuscuia, cui 
thorax annectitur {m), 

2. Thorax. Dorsum trunci suturis undique desig- 

natus tuber cula includens (77). 
a. Tubercula. Puncta elevata duo, unum utrinque, 
saepius apud angulos anticos thoracicos (0). 

3. Scutellum. Trunci portio parva pone thoracem, 

metathoraci saepe immersa {p). 

4. Metathorax. Pars trunci postica, cui inseritur 

scutellum, et subnectitur abdomen {q)» 

5. Pleura. Trunci latera turgida. 

6. Pectus. Trunci pagina inferior cui inseruntur 

pedes, sternum complectens. 
a. Sternum. Carina pectoris /. processus corneus 
pectori immersus, inter basin pedum antico- 
rum delitescens vix agnoscendus (/). 

(f) Tab. 12. ubi supra, fig. 1. dd. {k) Tab. 13. 

fig. 7. II. {I) Tab. 5. *. b. fig. 8. a. (m) Ibid. /•. 

{n) Ibid. e. (0) Ibid. cc. (/>) Ibid./. (q) Ibid, g^ 
(r) Tab. 6. **. a, fig. 8. a. 

7. AU. 



7. Alee. Volat^is instrumenta, apud thoracis sutu- 

ram lateralem trunco affixa^ in alas superiores 
et zw/enore^ distincta. 

a. jilce superiores f. anteriores includunt squamu- 

lam, a7iastomosin, costam, et nervos. 
«. Squamula. Squama minutissima, cornea con- 

Cavo-convexa, extrorsum rotundata, basin 

alarum superiorum muniens {s). 
B. Anastomosis. Macula cornea marglnalis, ubi 

inosculantur alae superioris nervi (t). 
y. Costa. Nervus validus marginalis (w). 
J. Nervi. Alarum venae. 

b. Alee inferioresf. posteriores hamulos includunt, 
a. Hamuli. Unci minutissimi in medio margine 

ialaa inferioris, quibus alae superiori^ volante 
insecto, subnectitur {pc). 

8. Pedes. Motus instrumenta constant apophysi, 

femore, tibia, manu, tarso. 

a. Apophysis. Coxa biarticulata cui insidet femur, 

Jlocculum includens {y), 
ot. Flocculus. Cincinnus parvus ex apophyse poste- 
teriori exortus, quo pollen florum a Melittis 
quibusdam gestatur (z). 

b. Femur. Pedis basis apophysi insidens (a). 

c. Tibia. Pedis pars intermedia/, crus, includens 

spinulas, scopam, et corbiculam {b), 

{s) Tab. 5. *. b. fig. 8. dd. (t) Tab. 3. **. b. fig. 5. b. 
(w) Ibid. a. {x) Tab. 13. fig. 1 9. {y) Tab. 11, **. 

e. I. mas. fig, 8, a, h. {%) Tab, 4. **, c. fig. 10, a. 

(o) Tab. 11. ubi supra, c. j {b) Ibid. d. 

«. Spinula, 


a. §>mM/^* Spln^ ..tenuissimse, intrprsum saep ius 
serrulatae, tibiarum apicem iptiis armantes, 

I'e/Mwcomplectentes (c). 
a. Velum. Membrana tibias anterioris spinulas in-' 

tus annexa (c/)i . . 

/S. Scopa. Villi densi tibiam posticam saepe vestl- 

entes, quibus pollen a floribus quasi verrunt, 

quod hisce villis involutum secum depor- 

y. Corbicula. Pilorum incurvorum cilia, ^pi Trie!' 

lificcE et Bomhinatricihus propria, tibiarum 

posticarum e margine utrinque exorta, per 

quam cera retinetur, nee inter volandum amit- 
-: ~titur(/)j , 
d. Manus. Pedis anterioris pars extima, articulata, 

palmam includens. . 

a. Palmtti Manus articulus primus elongatus, strl- 

gile instructus (g). 
H. Strigilis. Curvatura parva intus apud basin pal- 

mae pectine saepius instructa, cui ex adversq 

opponitur tibiae anterioris spinula velata. His, 

sicut strigile, antennas, ut opinor, detergunt 

^» Tarsus. Pedum quatuor posteriorum pars ex- 

tima, articulata, plantas et digitos compleC" 

tens {{),. 

(c) Tab. 13. fig. 20. d. (d) Tab. 6. **. a. fig. '/, c, 

, (t;) Tab.4. **. a fig. 10. I. ^ (/) Tab. 12. ubi. supra, 

fig. 19. h h. '{g) Tab. 6. ubi supra, fig. 7. a, (A) Ibid, b, 

{i) Tab. 11. ubi supra, fig. 8. e,f. 
.....a , H «. Tlanta, 


A. Planta. Tarsi articulus primus elongatus, dila- 

tatusque, sfopuld ]nstructus(^). 
c. Scopula. Scopa parva setarum rigidiuscularum, 

quae plantas intus vestit, praecipu^ posticas, 

in Ape meUificd insignis (/). 
$. Digitus. Tarsorum, item manus, articuli ultimi 

quatuor, ungues et pulvillum includens (m). 

a. Unguis. Ungula digitos terminans et armans, 

unguiculis constans duobus (n). 
I. Pulvillus. Mollis digit! terminatio Inter un- 
gues (o). 

Pars corporis postica tergum ventremque complec- 
tens. Organa hujus mobilia sunt feminis aculeusy 
tt penis maribus. 

1, Tergum. Abdominis dorsum /. pars supina, 

segmenta dorsalia, petiolum, hasiUy et anum 

t. Segmenta dorsalia. Tergi sectiones transversae, 

ventralium segmentorum latera obvolventes, 

spiraculis pertusse. 
ft. Spiracula. Fori laterales, in singulo abdominis 

segmento dorsali utrinque solitarii^ per quos 

respirat animal (p). 

b. Petiolus. Pedicellus metatboraci basin abdomi- 

nis subnectens, 

<i) Tab. 1 1 . ubi supra, e. (/) Tab. 12. ubi supra, fig. 20. 
(m) Tab. 11. ubi supra,/, {n) Ibid. fig. Q, aa. (o)Ibid. i, 
(p) Tab. 13. fig. 35, 36. «. 

c. Basis, 


c. Basis. Pars antica abdominis ex qua oritur pe- 


d. Anus. Abdomiliis apex genitalia exerens^ Jim* 

briam, aculeum, et penem complectens* 
k. Fimbria. Pilormn cilia densa anum vestiensj 

Melitiarum familiae ultimcE propria (^). 
/S. jiculeus. Instrumentum ovipositionis, et in qui- 

busdam bellorum gladius timendus, valval et 

vaginam includens (r). 
a. Valv^e. Larriinae duas coriaceas, quibiis vagina 

retracta utrinque obtegitur {s). 
h. Vagina. Theca cornea spicula jaculans {t), 
#. Spicula. Aculei ipsissimi, intra vaginam retrac- 

tileSj, bini, filiformes, tenuissimi, apud apiceni 

hinc retrorsuni serrulati, retinaculo instructi(M), 
*J". Retinaculum. Squamula cornea, mobilis, qua 

retinetur spiculum, ne jitsto longiiis jacu= 

letur (x). 
y. Penis. Genitale maris forcipem et phallum com* 

a. ForcepSi Unci duo vel plures iiiterdum Interne 

ramosi, quibus mas corripit et comprimit anuni 

femiriae {y). 
h. Phallus. Organum masculum (z). 
2. Venter. Prona pars abdominis segmenta ven» 

tralia includens. 
a. Segmenta ventralia. Ventris sectiones transversse* 

(9) Tab. 4. **. c. fig. 1. a. (r) Tab. I3. fig. 2/^ 28, 

<*) Ibid, fig. 27. bb. 28. aa. (0 Ibid. fig. 29. 

(?/) Ibid. fig. 28. lb. fig. 30. (or) Ibid. fig. 30. a. 

(y) Ibid. fig. 33. a a. («) Ibid. b. 

a a OBSEK^ 




LINNEUS, in the Fimdamenta Entomologies^ 
jhas given ^/bwr primary divisions of an insect; but; 
since those parts, which he has inchided under his 
divirsion urtiis, are all attached to the truncus, it 
eeems most natural to consider them only as mem- 
bers of that part ; so the antenn<^, maxilliS, lahium, 
^yvApvoJ^ascis are included under the division, caput, 
and the genitalia and aculeus under abdomen. I 
have therefore ventured, in this instance, to depart 
in some degree from the definitions of that ad- 
mirable paper; and I do this with the less hesi- 
tation, since I have not been guided solely by my 
own judgment, but can plead the authority of Pro- 
fessor Afzelius, to whom I once shewed the outline 
of the above table, for this mode of division. 

- ■Fades. This term I have employed instead of 
frons, to denote the upper side of the head, using 
, the latter in a more confined sense. 
^i'iiNusus-^ The part intended by this word, has 
been noticed particularly by no author, that 
I have had aft opportunity of consulting, ex- 
cept De Geer, who mistakes it, in Formica^ for 
the lip («), from which it is very distinct, and 
LatreiRei 'Who names it le chaperon. It is often 
separated from the yro?^^ by. a suture, and in some 

(c) Xcan.. 2. p. 2. Mem. 18. pr 1056. ^ab, 41. ^.5.. /,> 


genera, the genuine Vespce especially (/'), is very 
remarkable. Its situation is nearly that of the nose 
upon the human face, which circumstance induced 
me to give it this name. 

Gula et Jugulum. These parts are both noticed 
by Reaumur (c), The bottom of the cavity of the 
former, he thinks, may be regarded as a kind of 
palate (r/). 

Radicula. Thefirstjointof the antennas, which 
I have denoted by this name, has been overlookedy 
in numbering the articulations of that part, by 
Linneus and most authors. De Geer has some- 
times noticed, and at others omitted it(e'); though 
it exists in all Hymenopteroiis insects. The accu- 
rate eye of Reaumur discovered it, at least in A, 
meUifica (f) . 

Scapus. I have applied this term to the second 
joint of the antennas, which has been usually deno- 
minated " antennai-um articulns primus " Linneus 
occasionally distinguishes it by the name of bul- 
hu.<;{s^). Reaumur calls it lefiisemi., on account of 
its fusiform shape in A, meUifca{h). 

(b) Panzer, Fn. Ins. Germ. Init. n. 17. 1. 18. a, n.63. t.2. «, 

(c) Tom. 5. Tab. 27. fig. 12. 0, c. (d) Ibid. p. 335. 
(e) He has noticed it in Furinica, &:c. Tom. 2. p. 3. Tab. 41. 

fig. 8. a. Tab. 28. fig. 9. a. and omitted it in Vespa, &c. Tab. 
27. fig. 5, 6, (/) Ubi supra. Tab. 25. fig. 4. 13. h. 

{g) E.G. In his description of Scarahceus stercorarius, Fn. 
§uec. 388. (h) Ubi supra, p. 327, 338. 

H 3 Pedicellus^ 


Pedicellus. This joint is the pivot, turning in 
the socket of the scapus, upon which the remaining 
articulations taken together, here denominated the 
apex, sit, and by means of which they often forn^ 
an angle with that part. Reaumur terms it le 

Proboscis. This term, as I observed before, I 
have used to signify the tongue and all the machi- 
nery that belongs to it and its vagina, in confor- 
mity to the practice of Linneus in yipis. 

Lingua. De Geer sometimes calls this part ^' Ic 
Uvre inferieur (k) •" but certainly very improperly. 
It is possible that Fabricius might follow him in 
applying a similar term (labium) to the same part. 
In another place (/), by this term the same author 
denotes the whole proboscis, expressing a suspicion 
that the centrq,l part may perform the office of a 

Vagina. This term is designed to include 
Civery part, the office of which is to cover, defend^ 
or support the tongue. 

Tubus, This part is called by Fabricius thq 
base of the tongue, but De Gfeer, in his account 
of the proboscis of the Proabeille, considers it as 
^istinct^ naming it the intermediate piece of thQ 

(t) Ubi supra, Tab. 25, fig. 4. 13. /r. p. 326, 327. 

(k) Tom. 2. p. 2. p. 1130. Tab. 26. fig. 10, 11. f)l, cc. 

^l) Ibid. p. 1 128. Tab. 25, fig, 12. aa, l^ e. 



^heath{m). Swammerdam likewise names it the 
sfieath of the tongue {n) ; and Latreille calls it la 
gaine. I think it ought to be distinguished from 
the tongue, though it includes its base, as it differs 
from it in substance, in this respect resembling the 
valvules, and indeed performing a similar office. 

Fulcrum. This part, upon which the tube sits, 
has been noticed both by Swammerdam and Reau- 
mur, the former denominating it, as well as the 
cardines of the valvuliP, " articulations by which 
the proboscis is united to the head (o) ;" and the lat- 
ter terming it le pivot {p). 

Auricula. De Geer has noticed and figured 
these in the rostrum of his Proabeille, and calls 
them ^' petites parties en forme de barbillons(q)." 
They are distinguished from the lacini^e interiores 
of the genus u4pis, by being usually lacerate at 
their apex. 

Lacinii-e e.vteriores. These are to be met with 
in all the fiimilies of the genus Apis, the two first 
excepted, and in no other Hijmennpterous insects 
that I know of. They are distinguished from the 
two first articulations of the interior palpi, to which 
they are analogous, by being flat, instead of cylin- 

(m) Tom. 2. p. 1146. Tab. 32. fig. 10. a, b. 
(n) Hill's Swammerdam. Bib. Xat. Expl. Tab. p. IQ. Tab. 
17. fig. 5. //. (0) Swamm. ubi sup. & Tab. 17. fig. 5. rrrr. 
(/)) Reaum. ubi supra, p. 334. Tab. 2/. fig. 9. q. 
(7) Tom. 2. P. 2. p. 1110. Tab. 32, fig. 10. and p. 757. 

II 4 drical 

1^4 TEilMINI. 

drical, sometimes dilated at their base, and furnished 
with a margin of membrane. By Swammerdam 
they are termed " the second pair of joints of th». 
proboscis (r) ;" and by Reaumur " les demi etuis iri" 
firieurs{s)" '•• 

Laciniir interiores. These are peculiar to Apis, 
and eiTibrace and defend the tongue where it en- 
ters the tube. They are called by Swammerdam 
" the third pair of joints of the proboscis {t) ; Reau- 
mur notices them as '^'^ pieces qui emhrassent etfor- 
tifientla-trompe (u) ;" Latreille, in Nomada, names 
them soies laterales. 

Valvul^e. These form the exterior sheath of the 
tongue; I have divided them into basis and apex-, 
which by Swammerdam and Reaumur seem to have 
been considered as distinct pieces. The former 
calls the basis, in conjunction with the tube, " the 
joints ivhich form the lower part of the proboscis;"- 
and the apex of the valvulae " the first pair of joints 
of that part {x) ." Reaumur denominates the latter 
'^ les demi etuis exterieurs" and the former "les 
tiges des demi etuis exterieurs [y) " 

Pecten. This denotes the spines which arm 
one side of th-e upper part of the base of the vaU 
^alles. These, as far as I know, are now first 

(r) Ubi sup. p. 18. fig. 5. f,^. (.«) Ubi sup. ee. (i) Ubi 

jpup. A^. (w) Ubi sup. ^^. (x) Ubi sup. aa, ^^. 
(y) Ubi supr. fig. 9. A//*^- 

■ '' ' Cardines. 

Cafdines. These intervene bettveerl the valvulae 
,and the lora, and seem to perform the office of 
hinges. They are mentioned by Swammerdam, 
as means, in conjunction with the fulcrum, by 
which the proboscis is united to the head. Reau- 
mur terms them ^'^fiUts tendineux par les quels les- 
ti^es sont attachSes a leurs appuis (z) ." 

Palpi exteriores. These are not noticed by 
Swammerdam, though his figure of the proboscis 
of the hive bee gives a rude sketch of them at </. 
By Reaumur they have been entirely overlooked 
not only in A. mellificaf in vvhich they are very 
minute and consist only of a single joint, but like- 
wise in A. violacea, where they are very easily seen 
and are sexarticulate. In his genus ProaheUle he 
notices them, but there confounds them with the 
apex of the valvulae (a). De Geer denominates 
them ^^ les grands barbillons [b) ." 

Palpi interiores. These are called by Swam- 
merdam " the two upper articulations of the second 
pair of joints of the proboscis [c)" Reaumur dis- 
tinguishes them by the term " barbes" but he did 
not examine them so closely as might have been 
expected, for in his account of the proboscis of 
A. mellifca he represents them as consisting of 
from three to four articulations (c?), when, in fact, 
they have only two. - His figures sometimes repre- 

(z) Ubi supra, go. (a) Reaum. Tom. 6. Mem. 4. 

p. 125. Tab. 9. fig. 7. '^. (I) Ubi sup. p. 1128. (c) Ubi 
f"P' Sg- ('0 Tom. 5. Mera. 4. p. 333. " "^ ' 




sent them accurately in this respect (e). De Geer 
names them " les petits harhillom {/).'* 

Lor a. These parts I have so named from their 
use, which seems to be to let out or pull in the 
proboscis; in the latter case, the angle on which 
the fulcrum of the tube sits points towards the 
breast (§■), in the other, towards the mouth (A). 
These are named by Reaumur " les leviers(i)." 

j4nnulus. By this term I distinguish the circum- 
ference of the gula, in which the lora terminate. 
The cavity of the former js the bed of the proboscis, 

Collare. I have borrowed this term from Villars, 
the ingenious author of the Entomohgia Europcea, 
This part often requires distinct notice in the 
description of the Fespiform Apes, 

Thorax. I have judged it best to confine this 
term to that piece which is terminated on all sides 
by the dorsal sutures. 

Tuhercidi. These, so far as I know, have not 
been distinguished by a particular name. They 
differ from the ^'punctum callosum ante alas" of 
Linneus and others, and are to be found in all 
the species of the two genera into which I have 
divided ^/>w; although in most, iho. NomadiB or 
Fespiform Apes excepted, not easily discoverable. 

(e) Tom.5. Tab. 28. fig. 7 A 9, 13, 13. hk. (/) Ubi sup. 
p, 1169. Tab. 41. fig. 7. aa. (g) I^eaum. ubi sup. Tab. 27, 
^g. 8. q. {h) Ibid, fig, 9. ?. (i) Ibid. p. 334. Tab. 27. 



They are to be found also in many other Hyme- 
nopterous insects. 

Metathorax. In this class this is so conspicuous 
a part, that I wonder no author has taken notice of 
it. It is separated from the thorax and scutellum 
by sutureSj and, in some instances, might perhaps, 
supply a good generic character. 

Pleura. As the word cost a, has been usually 
employed to signify the strong marginal ner\^e of 
the superior wings, I have fixed upon this to de* 
note the sides of the truncus. 

Sternum. In the genera treated of in this work, 
this part is immersed in the breast, and is not to 
]be discovered without taking off the fore legs. 

Squamula. Linneus in his descriptions notices 
the part intended by this term, sometimes simply 
as ^' punctum ante alas," and at others as "punc- 
ium callosum ante alas." It is a corneous concavo- 
convex scale under which the base of the superior 
wings plays. 

Anastomosis. The term by which this part is 
denoted, in the Fundamenta EntomologicP, is siig- 
ma; but as this is also employed to signify a parr 
ticular spot in the wings of some Phalicme, I 
thought it best to alter the term, and adopt one 
'which I have seen used, I forget by whom, to de- 
note this part, and which seems with more strict 
propriety applicable to it. Linneus, indeed, him* 
^elf does npt adliere to his own term^ using often 



punctnm marginale, and sometimes macula margia 
nalis instead of it. 

Hamuli. These are very minute hooks or 
crotchets, discoverable under a good magnifier on 
the inferior wings of many Hymenopterous insects^ 
by means of which they are kept steady in flying. 
They have been noticed by no author, that I have 
an opportunity of consulting, except De Geer, and 
he observed them in no genus besides Formica (k), 
in which they are not near so conspicuous as in 

u/ipophysis. I find this term used by Schrank 
for the biarticulate piece upon which the thighs sit; 
,?ind therefore I have retained it. Coxa probably 
might be a better term. De Geer calls the first 
joint of this part "/g5 AancAe(/)." 

Flocculus. This woolly lock at the base of the 
posterior legs of one family of Meliita I find noti«* 
ced by no author. 

Spinulce. Linneus notices these occasionally, 
but as if they were peculiarities of a particular spe- 
cies only (tw), when in fact they attend the whole 
class. De Geer mentions them and calls them 

spines (n) or spurs (o). •---■ 

Velum. This membrane, attached to the Spini^ 

{k) Ubi sup. Tab. p. 1171-2. Tab. 42. fig. 3. cc.-M Sionf 

(0 Ibid. p. 1147. Tab. 32. fig. 12. a. -, (to). Vfe. Apii 

fiorisomnis. (7^) Ubi sup. jO. (o) Ibid. p. 11/0; Tab, 

41. %;i2. A. 



of the anterior- tibia, is figured though not par-^ 
ticularly noticed, by DeGecr (/;). 

Scopa. This term, which is used by Schrank tb 
denote another part, to whicli I have given its 
diminutive as a name, 1 have adopted to signify 
the thick coat of hairs which externally covers the 
posterior tibiae of many of these insects, by means 
of which they probably brush the pollen from the 
flowers, and in which, when they have collected^ 
they carry it. 

r.':CorBcula: Reauinur has noticed the fringe of 
hairs, which this term is intended to denote, from 
whom, indeed, I borrowed it. He says that it 
forms with the cavity of the tibia " une espSce de 
corheille {q) ." 

Manus. The anterior legs of insects are dis-* 
tinguished from the four posterior ones by point- 
ing towards the head instead of the abdomen, I 
have therefore denominated their tarsus ■ by the 
term manus. 

Pahna. :Planta... Digitus. The first of these 
Jerms I have restricted to the elongate joint at the 
l^ase of the anterior tarsus or manus, and the second 
to the same part of the four posterior ones, ciot 
ploying tlie word digitus to express the remaining 
ai'ticulations taken together. These parts in this 
genus, especially in the posterior tarsus, are so re- 

i-fU f^ ,:• :\.-> Z: rJlAY ■■ ■< (-) 

, V :,(-j!.) XJUi.^sja£. JTab. 32. fig. ,1.1 . intraior part of /. • .{ ^ Ubi 
sup. p. 3ob. Tab. i6. fig. 2 — 6. p. and'fig. 11^ t&£SS' -.■: l-^''^ 
i-Tfi markable 


markable as to require a separate denomination^ 
and as there appears to be a sti-ict analogy betvveerf 
the planta or palma of these insects, and the 
dilated foot or palm in man, &c. and the digitus 
a:nd the jointed toe or Jinger, I thought it better to 
adopt these terms in preference to metatarsus , the 
term which Schrank has employed, but not with 
strict anatomical propriety, to denote this remark- 
able joint. Linneus, in u4. mellijicaf has mistaken 
the planta postica for the tibia. 

Stngilis. This part, which distinguishes the' 
base of the palma, and in ^pis is extremely con- 
spicuous, is a deep pectinated sinus. De Geer is 
the only author who notices it. He calls it simply 
a curvature, and its pectefl " une Jrange en 
hrosse (f)." 

Scopula. This is the name by which I denomi- 
nate the hairs which cover the inside of the plantae^ 
called by Schrank scopa, and by Reaumur " la 
hrosse (s)." 

Pulvillus, I have seen this term employed to 
denote this part by sorrie author, whom 1 do not 
i-ecollecti De Geer calls it '* un petit mam" 
melon (t)" 

Valvid. These have been frequently noticed, 
iSwammerdam calls them appendages of the stingy 

if) Ubi sup. p. 1 170. Tab, 41. fig. 13. cf, g. {s) Ubi 

■up. p. 330. Tab. 26. fig. 6, 7. h h, {t) Ubi snp. p. 1 147. 

Tab. 32. ^. 12. n. 

TERMINI. 11 j 

4nd looks upon them as designed merely for or- 
nament (w). Reaumur and De Geer term them 
demi-fourreaux {x) . Linneus, in his character of 
Ichneumon, calls them valves of the vagina of the 
aculeus. They are the covers Of the genuine 


Vagina; This is the part that generally goes 
under the name of the aculeus ; but in all Hy-^ 
menopterous insects^ even Ichneumon^, it is no more 
than the sheath or quiver of the real aculei, as 
Swammerdam^ Reaumur, and De Geer properly 
call it(2/). 

Spicula. This term I have borrowed from Vir- 
gil (z), io express the true aculei. These in 
Swammerdam are denominated " the shanks of the 
sting (a)r Reaumur and De Geer call them " des 
aiguillons fbj." 

Retinaculum,- This part of the spicida, which 
was first pointed out to my observation by my in- 

(m) Swamm. Explan. Tab. p. 20, Tab. 18, fig. 2. qq. 

{x) Ubi sup, Mem. 7. p, 376. Tab, 29. fig, 1—3,7,9. 10. cc. 
DeGeer, ubi sup. p. 1129. Tab. 25. fig, 15, ff, &c, 

(3/) Swamm. ubi sup, p. 20. Tab. 18, fig, 3, a, I, c. Reaum, 
6bi sup. p. 376-7. Tab. 29, fig. 4—6./, &c. De Geer, ubi sup, 
p. 1129. Tab. 25. fig. 15, a. 

(x) Illis ira modum supra est, Isesseque venenum 
Morslbus inspirant, et spicula caeca relinquunt 
Afl[ixae venis, Georg. iv. 1. 236. 

(fl) Swamm. ubi sup, p. 20, 21. Tab. 18. fig. 3. dd, &c. 
(i) Reaum. ubi sup, fig. 5. e, g. De Geer^ ubi sup. cc. 




genious friend Mr.Marf-ham, seems to have caughi 
the attention of no naturalist besides himself, and 
the indefatigable Swammerdam, who calls thenj 
f cartilaginous processes serving instead of muscles 
to m&Ue the shanks (c J." They seem to me rather 
designed to prevent them from being darted out 
too far. 

Forceps. Swammerdam calls these hollow ap^ 
pendages(d). Reaumur usually denominates them 
crochets (e). De Geer une pince ecailleux f/J^ , 

(c) Swamm. ubi sup. fig, 3, rrr. (d) Ibid. p. 24,. 25. 

Tab. 21 , 22. fig. 1. kk,&:c. ( e ) Ubi sup. Mem. Q. p. SlG'. 

Tab.3-3. fig.9— 11. <rc.i '/-'.;(/) Ubi sup. p. 1130, Tab. 2S. 




Unusquisque secundum linguam suam, et familias suaa in 
nationibus suis. Cen. x. 5. 

( n4 ) 


TN the preceding pages, I hop6, I have made it 
•*■ evident, that the characters at present in use to 
distinguish those insects, which Linneus considered 
as Jlpes, whether we follow his system or that of 
Fabricius, are not universally applicable to them : 
I shall, therefore, now proceed to offer my own 
ideas upon the subject, and to point out such 
characters as will most constantly distinguish the 
species they are designed to denote ; which a close 
and frequent examination of the external parts of 
many individuals has enabled me to discover. But 
in order to prevent tautology, when I am drawing 
out the Natural Characters of my genera and 
families, that I may exclude from them such cir- 
cumstances as appear to be common to all Hyme- 
nopterous insects, I shall previously attempt giving 
one of the Hymenoptera class. 


Character Naturalis. 
CORPUS cute corned cataphractum. 
Caput. Os proboscide 3 — 7-fida, lingua, ejusquQ 
vagina, constante. 
Lingua centralis, cartilaginea. 
F^agina 2 — 6-valvis. 


GENERA. 115 

t^alviilce dusc basi cornea?, e latere 

Tubus corneus. 

Palpi quatuor, coriiei, insequales. 
Exterior es 1 — 6-articulati5 e val- 

vujarum latere erumpentes. 
Interiores 1 — 4-articulati. 
Fertex stemmatibus tribus lucidis (a). 
Maxilla transversse, corne<:B. 
Labium figura varium, proboscidem co- 
Truncus. Alee plerisque quatuor, incumbentes, 
membranaceas, nudiusculae, ner\'}S 
gaepius validioribus interstinctae. 
Superiores majores^basi squamula 

hiferiores margine knteriori harilu- 
lis baud raro instructse. 
Pedes sex, apopbysi biarticulatae articii- 
lis conicis insidentes, 

TihicB aplce spinulis 1 — 2 armata?. 
Tarsi quinquearticulati, articulo 
primo ssepius elongato, extimo 
Abdomen. Anus feminis et neutris aculeatus. 

[a] In Formica and Mutilla, in most of our English specie.'?, 
the males and females, or winged sexes, only have stemmata, in 
the neuter they are obsolete ; their place, in some instances^ is 
■ supplied by three points slightly impressed* 

I 0. Aculcus 


Aculeus valvis duabus, vaglnaque 
univalvi spicula duo exerente, 


When I first turned my attention to the subject 
of these pages, I thought of denoting all the species 
described in them by one generic character : but 
the more I studied them, the more strongly was I 
convinced that they belonged to two natural ge- 
nera, essentially distinguished from each other ; 
and this idea was further confirmed, when I found 
that Reaumur, and after him De Geer, had adopted 
the same opinion ; although they did not sufficiently 
extend the limits of the genus, which they deno- 
minated Proaheille, for the insects that may be 
arranged under it are equally numerous with the 
genuine Apes. The characters which form the 
most striking distinctions of these two genera are 
furnished by the tongue; which organ, in the one, 
is short, flattish, usually acute with a lateral auricle, 
and not inflected; and in the other, elongate, 
slender, cylindrical, and inflected. The first of 
these distinguishes the Proabeilles, or Apes minus 
proprie dictce ; and the other such as are genuine 

De Geer has given the name of Nomada to those 
insects which, after Reaumur, he separated from 

( h ) Liniieus, in his essential character of tlie genus Formica, 
calls their aculeus obsolete. De Geer represents the species of 
his first family as having no aculeus, and those of his second as 
armed with that instrument, Tom. 2, P'^ 2. Mem. 18. 

Apis : 

GENERA. 1 1 7 

Apis : this name is also used by Scopoli ; but as it 
has been usually employed by Fabricius and his 
followers to denote a very different family of Apes, 
the adoption of it might occasion some confusion. 
To avoid this I have called it Melitta, the Attic 
dialect of [/.:Kia-a-oc, the Greek name for Apis, which 
itself is' ^re-occupied in botany. 

I shall now proceed to give the Essential, Arti- 
Jicial, and Natural Characters of both genera_, 
beginning with 

MELITTA. Character Essentialis. 

Aculeus punctorius. Lingua apice 
brevis, porrecta, planiuscula, vagina 

Character Artijicialis. 

Os proboscide subcylindrica, porrecta, 

linguam brevem, planiusculam, ex- 

Antennae mediae, aculeatis subclavatse 

articulis 1 3 ; maribus iiliformes ar^ 

ticulis 14. 
Ociili laterales, sub-ovales, integri. 
Alee planse. 
Aculeus punctorius, reconditus. 

Character Naturalis (c) . 

Caput, Os proboscide subcylindricA, trifida aut 

(c)Tab. 1 — 4. 

I 3 Lingua 

113 GENERA. 

hingiia apice brevis, planiuscula, acu- 
ta^ vel acuminata, interdum sed rari- 

iis truncata, est ubi bifida ; plerisque 
utriiique auriciilata. 

Tubus apice tridentatus. 
F^alvulce lineares sub apfCe pal- 
pigerae, basi saepe elongatas, 
corneae, apice breves^ coriaceae^j 
Palpi setacei. 

Exteriores sexarticulati. 
Interiores quadriarticulati. 
Antennce mediae, aculeatis breves, sub- 
clavatae, fractse, g.rticulis 1 3 ; maribus 
tenuiores,longiores,fiiiformes, vix frac- 
tse, ^articulis 14. 
OcuU laterales, sub-ovales, integri, re- 
Tbuncus.^/^ planae, cruciato-inciimbentes. 

Superiores subcuneiformes apicibus 

Inferiores hamulis instructae. 
Pedes cursorii, anteriores intermediis, 
intermedii posterioribus breviores. 
Femora clavata. 

Tihice clavatae, subtrigonae, extrin- 
seciis convexae, anticis et inter- 
jnediis apice spinula unica, illarurn 
yelata^ posticis duabus^ armatis. 


GENERA. 119 

Palmce basi strigile intus instructas, 

segmento circuli dempto. 
PlantcF, posticse praecipue, scopula 

intus vestitas. 
Uns^ies \xn^\\\c\.\\\s bifidis in omni 
Abdomen. Tergum aculeatis sex segmentorum, 
inaribus septem. 
Aculeus ScTpius punctorius^ subulatus, 
Obs. Corporis pili plerumque plumosi. 

Larva apoda, carnosa, plicata, supra 
convexa, subtus planiuscula, cel- 
lulis subterraneis ut plurimLim 
degens, polline antherarum melle 
mixto sagpius enutrita. 
Pupa incompleta, folliculo inclusa. 
Imago mellisuga, saepius pollinilega. 

APIS. Character Esseiitialis. 

Aculeus punctorius. Lingua elongata, 

Character Artijicialis. 
Os prodoscide fracta, inflexa, linguam 

cylindricam, elongatani, exercnte. 
Antenna medias, aculeatis articulis 1 3 ; 

maribus articulis 14. 

(d) The HebrcAV name of the bee mill "7, derived from 
'^^'^y to speak, seems to direct us to the iongiic for its Esscu' 
t'tal Character. 

I 4 Ocidi 

120 GENERA. 

Oculi laterales, subovales, integrl. 

u4l£e planae. 

Aculeus piinctorius, reconditus. 

Character Naturalis(e). 

Caput. Os proboscide elongate, fracta, inflex^^ 
5— 7-fidl 
Lingua elongata, tenuis, cylindrica, 

saepius pilosa, transverse striata, 

Tubus linearis. 

fjacinicB plerisque quatuor. 

Exteriores elongatae, biarticulatse, 
planiuscula3,paulo infra apicem 
palpigerae {f. ) 
Jnteriores plerumque breviores, 
membranaceae, linguam apud 
tubum amplexantes. 
Valvulce lineares, angustae, medio e 
sinu laterali palpigerae, basi cor- 
neae, apice saepius coriaceae, in- 
Palpi Exteriores 1 — 6 articulati. 
Interiores 1 — 4 articulati. 
Antennae mediae, aculeatis articulis 13; 

maribus articulis 14. 
Oculi laterales, subovales, integri, reti- 

[e) Tab. 4 — 13. (/) In my two first families of tliis 

genus the exterior laciniae are wanting. 



Truncus subglobosus. 

uilte cruciato-incumbentes, planae.' 

Superiores subcuneiformes apicibus 

Inferiores hamulis instructse. 
Pedes cursorii, anteriores intermediis, in- 
termedii posterioribus breyiores. 
Femora clavata. 

Tibiis subclavatae, trigonae, extrin- 
seciis convexae, anticis et inter- 
mediis apice spinula iinica, illarum 
velata, posticis diiabus(o-), armatis. 
Palmce basi strigile intus instructae, 

segmento circuli dempto. 
Plantce, posticae praecipue, scopuld 
densa intus vestitas. 
Abdomen. Tergum aculeatis segmentis sex, marir, 
bus plerumque septem (h). 
Aculeus punctorius, subulatus, retractilis. 
Obs. Corporis pili plumosi. 

Larva apoda, mollis, plicata, supra con- 

vexa, subtus planiuscula. 
Pupa incompleta, folliculo inclusa. 
Imago mellisuga, saepius pollinilega, in- 
terdum cerifica. 
That there is an essential distinction between 
Mditta and Apis, the above characters will, I hope, 

{g) The posterior tibiae of all sexes of A. mellifica are with- 
out spines. This is the only insect in the class Hymenoptera, 
that I have examined, in which this defect occurs, 

(A) In the males of one family of tliis genus tlie seventh dor- 
gal segment of the abdomen is usually obsolete. 



satisfactorily demonstrate to the learned entomo* 
logist ; especially if he will take the trouble to 
consider attentively the set of plates belonging to 
each genus : and though the principal difference 
lies in the tongue, he will experience but little 
difficulty in determining to which any particular 
individual ought to be referred; for the long, 
inflected, cylindrical, and often subinvolute tongue 
of a genuine j4pis, is usually very easily examined 
without the assistance of a lens ; all that is neces- 
sary in most species is with a pin, when it is con- 
cealed by them, to lift up the valvulae. In some 
species oiMelittce, which seem intermediates of the 
two genera, the apex of these is nearly as long as 
the base (/) ; and as the former are inflected, these 
might be mistaken for Jlpes ; but the tongue will 
not be found inflected under the valvulae. Indeed, 
a little practice will enable any one to distinguish 
the species of each genus, without even this trou- 
ble ; especially when he becomes conversant with 
the characters of the several families into which it 
may be subdivided. I should recommend it strongly 
to every collector to take the pains to unfold the 
proboscis of such individuals as he may collect, this 
is easily done with a pin before the insect stiffens, 
and it may be made to continue unfolded by being 
set out, and its various parts separated, by pins or 
braces of card. 

But though it is so easy to distinguish these two 
genera from each other, it m^y not be equally easy 
(i)Tab.3. **. c. fig. p. a. 


GENERA. 12; 

to separate them, Mditta especlallyj from others. 
Had I thrown out the two first families of that 
genus, one of which has a bifid and the other a 
truncate tongue, all difficulty would have vanished, 
for the acute tongue of the rest furnishes a peculiar 
and striking characteristic : but as it was my wish 
to avoid, as much as possible, all unnecessary 
multiplication of genera, I was unwilling to do this, 
especially as these families seem more nearly rela- 
ted to Melitta in habit than to any other genus. 
The genera, to which by the form of their tongue 
they are somewhat approximated, are Crahro and 
Philanthus of Fabricius; but in Crahro the probos- 
cis is shorter, triangular rather than cylindrical. 
The valvulae are more dilated, and rounded at the 
apex, and the palpi are thickest in the middle, 
The eyes, likewise, in that genus are very large, 
subtriangular, and by no means lateral. The an- 
tennae are anterior, and of a different form. Phi- 
lanthus may readily be distinguished from those 
MelittcE which it somewhat resembles in the form 
of its tongue, by the hairy lateral angles of that 
organ. Besides, the apex of its valvulae is not pli- 
cate, its body is without hair, and the sides of its 
abdomen are crenatef/). 

The only genus, I am at present acquainted 

with, which, like u^pis, has an inflected proboscis, 

is Ammophilai but this is strikingly distinguished 

by its davate tongue, bifid at its apex with acute 

{k) Tab. 14, n. 5 and 7^ corpparc with Tab. 1. -it. a, b. 


J 24 fAMlum. 

lobes. The apex also of its valvulae Is semisaglt- 
tate (k) ; besides, its general habit will at first sight 
evince its difference from all ^pes. 

Having done with the generic characters of 
Melitta and Apis, I am now to proceed to the 
mention of those distinctions which divide them 
into families. In this part of my undertaking my 
aim has not been so much to fix upon artificial 
characters, which often disunite those insects which 
nature has put together, but to discover whether 
the ALL WISE AUTHOR of nature, who is a God 
of order, has not subdivided these genera, and 
impressed certain common characters upon such 
subdivisions, by which one who studies his works 
under no influence but the love of truth, and led 
by the single desire of finding out his system, 
might be enabled to arrange them according to 
their natural affinities. 

My first step was to place together all those 
individuals, which appeared to me to agree in 
habit, adopting the sentiment of Linneus, that 
habit would often lend a clue to discover nature (/). 
At first, of course, I made many mistakes, often 
placing, as all who, with Fabricius, rely solely on 
habit for the arrangement of species, will inevitably 
do, the males in one subdivision, and the females 

{k) Tab. 14, n. 9, vviUi Tab. 5—13. 

(/) Halitus, uti in quadrupedibiis dis tin guitf eras a pecorilns 
quamvis denies non inspicerentur, sic etiam in plantis scepius 
harum ordines naturales primo intuitu manifestat. Lin. Philos, 
Bot. § 163. 


FAMILIiE. 125 

in another. By pursuing this method, however, 
I got my species into some order, and they were 
arranged, the above great mistake excepted, very 
nearly according to their natural affinities. I then 
proceeded to examine the proboscis, and external 
anatomy of those which were found to agree in 
habit, and by this method I soon arrived at their 
distinguishing characters, and was enabled to de- 
tect those marks, exclusive of the organs of gene- 
ration, which are the constant characteristics of 
the males in these genera. I found that some of 
those insects which I had considered as belonging 
to distinct families, had invariably one joint more 
in their antennae, and generally one segment more 
in their abdomen than others (wi), that their bodies 
were proportionably narrower, and their antennae 
and legs longer and more slender. It soon occur- 
red to me that these were only sexual distinctions^ 
an idea which was confirmed by pressing the anus 
of such as I had an opportunity of taking alive, and 
inspecting their genitalia. The mistake above 
alluded to was in this manner rectified; and, in- 
stead of confusion, lucid order now took place in 
my arrangement. Thus, beginning with habit and 

(vi) Both these circumstances, with respect to some indivi- 
duals in this class, have been noticed by De Geer, but he did 
not follow up this discovery, and examine whether it would 
hold good in the whole genera. My observations were made 
before I was aware that this illustrious author had made the 
above discovery, De Geer_, 2. p. 2. pp. T/'l. 7gfi. S17- 


12(5 FAMILIiE. 

ending with miatomy and economy; descending' 
from generals to particulars, and then tracing back 
my steps from particulars to generals ; using both 
the synthetical and analytical modes of reasoning, 
as mathematicians speak, by a series of observations 
and experiments, frequently repeated, I was enabled 
to trace the labyrinth of nature, and, by the assist- 
ance of this double Jilum Ariadneum, to establish 
my system upon a sure basis. 1 do not pretend^ 
however, to have exhausted the subject, much will 
still remain to be done, and much improvement 
may be given to what is here attempted, by those 
who possess the opportunity of examining the 
exotic species of these two genera ; but, I hope, 
I have opened the way for the discovery of the 
natural arrangement. 

I shall first draW out a synoptical table of my 
families and their subdivisions, exhibiting at one 
view their Essential Characters, and next offer 
some observations upon each, with a general ac- 
count of its history and economy, as far as I am 
at present acquainted with them, prefixing what 
may be called its Natural Character, or Habitus. 
To enable my readers to determine v^ith greater 
facility to what division any particular insect be- 
longs, in my Synopsis Specierum, I shall place at 
the head of each family an Artificial Charactef 
of it. 




MELITTA. * Livgu/i obtusa. 

a. Lingua obtusS, apice biloba (??). 

b. Lingua obtusa, apice truncata(o). 
* # Lingua acut^. 

a. Lahio inflexo, emarginatofj)). 
hi Lahio appendiculato, appendi- 
cula inflexa {q), 

c. Lahio obtusangulo, tuberculo 

munito (r). 

APIS. * Prohoscide laciniis exterioribiis millis(5). 

a. Antennis subclavatis in orani sexu {t). 

b. Antennis filiformibus in omni sexu (u), 
* * Prohoscide laciniis exterioribus instructa(a^). 

a. Palpis exterioribus 5-articulatis. Lahio 

subquadrato (?/). 

b. Palpis exterioribus exarticulatis. Lahio 

antice curvo (z). 

c. Lahio inflexo, elongato (a). 
1. Ventre femineo glabro. 

«. Ahdomine femineo conlcOj acu- 

(«) Tab. 1. *. a. fig. 2, 3. (0) Ibid. *. b. fig. 1. 

( /;) Tab. 2. **. a. fig. 4. ( q) Ibid. **. b. fig. 4, 5. 

(/■) Tab. 3. **. c. fig. 10, 11. (5) Tab. 4. *. a. fig. 4. Tab. 
5. *. b. fig. 3. (0 Tab. 4. *. a. fig. 8, 9. («)Tab.5. *. 

b. fig. 16, 17. (.r) Tab, 5—13. (3/) Tab. 6. **. a. fig. 

1. ^. & Tab. 5. **. a. fig. 7. (s;) Tab. 6. **. b. fig. 4. (/. & 

fig. 6. (a) Tab. 7— 10. (^')Tab. 7. **, c. l.«. fig. 11,12. 

^, Ahdomine 


/?. j4hdomine feminco subcylindrico/ 
obtuso (c). 
2. Ventre femineo hirsute {d). 
a. Palpis omnibus biarticulatis(e). 
/S. Palpis exterioribusexarticulatis()9. 
y. Palpis interioribus exarticulatis(^) . 
^. P«/7Jwexterioribus4-articulatis(A). 

d. Prohoscide rect^, apicesubulato-conicS ; 

palpis exterioribus 6-articulatis (z). 

1 . Laciniis interioribus involutis, exte- 

riorum longitudine {k) 

2. Laciniis interioribus rectis, quam 

exteriores brevioribus ( / ) . 
a, Lahio quadrato inermi (m). 
(8. Lahio emarginato, tuberculo mu-' 

e. Prohoscide subinvoluta, palpis exteri- 

oribus exarticulatis (o). 

1. Corj&ore villoso (/j). 

2. Corpore hirsutissimo (9), 

I could have wished that there had been more 
connection and harmony between the characters 

(c) Tab. 7. **. c. 1. ^. fig. 4, 5. {d) T^b. 8. fig. 22. 

(e) Ibid. fig. 2. </,/. fig. 3. c. (/) Tab. 9. **. c. 2. /3. 

fig. 2. dd. & fig. 4. [g] Ibid. c. 2. r. fig. 3. dc/. & fig. 5. ^. 

(A) Tab. 10. **. c. 2. 3. fig. 3. a. (f) Tab. 11. **. d. 2,. 
ft. fig. 3. d. & fig. 2, {h) Tab. 10. **. d. 1, fig. 2. /j^. 

(0 Tab. 11. **. d. 2. a. fig. 1. //. (?») Ibid. fig. 5. 

(n) Ibid. fig. 20. (o) Tab. 13. fig. 1. A ^.. fig. 4—0. 

(p)^^ 11,12. (2) Tab. 13. 


of the different families of Jpis, and that it had 
been in my power to have dra^^^l them all from 
variations of the same part, but this was not pos- 
sible, without doing the utmost violence to nature. 
To make this evident, to the satisfaction of the 
judicious naturalist, I will draw out a scheme of 
an artificial division of the species of this genus, 
in which all the characters of the families and their 
subdivisions shall be taken from the exterior and 
interior palpi, and he will see what confusion will 
be the result. 

APIS. * Palpls exterioribus sexarticulatis. 

a. Palpis interioribus quadriarticulatis, 

b. Palpis interioribus biarticulatis. 

# * Palpis exterioribus quinquearticulatis.* 
* * * Palpis exterioribus quadriarticuktis. 
* * * * Palpis exterioribus biarticulatis. 

a. Palpis interioribus biarticulatis. 

b. Palpis interioribus exarticulatis, 
***** Palpis exterioribus exarticulatis. 

This scheme looks very fair and harmonious upon 
paper, but if we arrange our j4pes according to it, 
our cabinets will exhibit a scene of confusion and 
discord. j4pis violacea and its affinities will be 
separated from the Bombinairices, to which they 
are most nearly allied, and be placed by the side 
of the Fespiform Nomads, which they resemble 
in nothing but the number of the articulations of 
the exterior palpi : the whole natural family dis- 
K tinguished 


JI^Pj FAMILL^. {Melitta. *. a.) 

tinguished by an inflected lip, will be broken up, 
and ^pis manicata and variegata will go into the 
same family with the Bomhinatrices. 

I shall now proceed, as I proposed above, to 
offer a few observations on each family, with some 
account of its history and economy, preceded by a 
synopsis of its peculiar characters. 

MELITTA. *. a. {r) 

Hujus Familise Aculeatis Corpus oblongluscu- 
lum, villosum ; Capite trunci latitudine, subtrian- 
gulari ; Prohoscide glabriusculA ; Lingua tubulosa, 
biloba lobls divaricatis, apice laceris ; Tuho conico, 
apice tridentato ; Vahulis apice plicato, rotundato, 
margine exteriori ciliato, basis longitudine; An- 
mdo subrotundo ; Stemmatihus in linea curvd ; 
Oculis distantibus; Lahio antice obtusangulo ; 
MaxilUs subedentulis ; Antennis basi approximates, 
scapo elongate, pedicello subgloboso, apice articulo 
primo conico ; Trunco subgloboso ; Pedihus, pos- 
ticis praecipue, polliniferis ; Abdomine declivi, vel 
ovato, vel subconico, acuto. 

Maris Corpus angustius. Maxillae apice biden- 
tatae. Pedes minils villosi. 

I have placed this family at the head of the 
genus because, in the form of its tongue, it ap- 
proaches to Philanthus, as observed above, and 
also to Fespa. The shape of this organ seems 

(r) Tab. 1. *. a. Andrena, Fab. Latr. Des Aleilles dont 
le$ nids sont Jails d'especes de meinlranes sot/euses. Reaum. 


FAMILTiE. {Melitta. *. a.) 131 

Calculated to assist it in the construction of tlie 
membranaceous cells, which the Wise Author of 
nature has instructed it to form to receive its eggs. 
I have not been fortunate enough to meet with its 
nidi myself; but Reaumur has given a very enter- 
taining account of them, which, as his work is not 
in every bodies hands, I cannot do better thail 
abridge. It is contained in the fifth Memoir of 
his sixth volume, upon those bees " dont les nids 
sontfaits d'especes de membranes soyeusesj* From 
the figure which he has given of the proboscis and of 
the insect (.?), there can be no doubt of his intend- 
ing an individual of this family. " They make 
their nests," this author informs us, " in the earth 
that fills the vacuities of certain stone walls : some 
of them choose a northern aspect sheltered by trees. 
These nests are cylindrical, and consist of from two 
to four cells, placed end to end, each of which is 
shaped like a thimble, the end of the second fitting 
into the mouth of the first : the cells are not all of 
an equal length, some being five, others only four 
lines long : their diameter is about two lines. 
The cylinder usually runs in a horizontal direction, 
but sometimes, from the intervention of a stone 
or other obstacle, it takes a different course, so 
that the last cell or cells form an angle with the 
first : it is distinguished by transverse bands of 
different colours ; the narrowest bands, which are 
at the junction of the cells, are white ; the broadest, 
{s) Reaum. torn. Q. Mem. 5. p. 131— 13g. Tab, 12. fig. 1—13. 
K 2 which 

3 52 fAMILI^. {Melitta. *. a.) 

which point out their body, are reddish brotvn 5 
between these are others, some inclining to red, 
and others to brown. The cells are composed of 
many layers of a very thin and transparent mem- 
brane ; the red colour arises from the substance 
with which they are replenished ; this is sometimes 
nearly liquid, at others it is merely a paste made of 
pollen and honey. After the larva is hatched it 
soon imbibes all that is liquid, and when arrived at 
its full dimensions, it quite fills its cell : it resem- 
bles the larva of the hive bee. Whence these bees 
procure the membrane with which they form their 
cells our author could not ascertain, but he con- 
jectures it to be a secretion of the insect analogous 
to what is used by many others for similar purposes." 
Thus far Reaumur. 

Grew seems to have met with the nidi of one of 
these bees in a singular situation ; the following- 
are his words. " Another sort of wild bee with 
their bags. They are about half an inch long, of 
a cylindrical figure, very thin and transparent like 
the inner coats of the eye, admirably placed for 
warmth and safety ; sc. lengthways one after 
another in the middle of the pith of an old elder 
branch, with a thin boundary betwixt each bag. 
The little bees are somewhat thicker than the 
flying ant, and their bellies marked with four or 
five white rings {t)" 

(J) Grew's RaritieSj § 7. c. i. p. 154. 


FAMILLE. {Mflitta. *. a.) 123 

Willugliby, also, appears to have found the 
nidi of one species of this family ; for in his de- 
scription of his " ^pis sylvestris in terra foremen 
sihi fodiens" in Ray's Historia Insectorum (u), he 
says, ^' millas omnino iiymphas inveni, sed cellas 
quasdam rotundas ex alba et tenui cnte, in quihus 
mel demum sordidum ;" which words evidently de- 
scribe the membranous cells of the insects of this 
family. His description of the individual seems to 
point out our Melitta fodiens, which I believe 
nidificates under ground. Of his insect he ob- 
serv^es, " Mult<^ siinul habitant et foramina in 
terra fodiunt, terrain e^erentes ad modiim ver^ 

I have found the males of one species of this 
family fluttering about a southern bank, when the 
sun shone ; but though I took some pains, I could 
discover no nest, nor a single individual of the 
other sex. I have seen only two species taken in 
England, but I believe there are several foreign 
ones : there is one in the Linnean cabinet labelled 
j4pis marginata, and I think I observed others in 
Sir Joseph Banks's collection. They appear with 
us in the autumn, about the time that Senecio 
Jacohcea is in flower. Reaumur supposes that 
two generations of them are produced in the 
course of twelve months, from one spring to 

(?/) P. 24i. 

K 3 - #. b. 

f34 FAMILL/E. {Melitta. *. b.) 

*. b. (.r) 

H. F. A. Corpus sublineare, glaberrimum ; 
Capite trunci latitudine, subtriangulari ; Prohoscide 
brevi, crassiuscuM, glabrd ; Lingua brevissim^a 
triincat^j iitrinque auriculat^ ; Tuho conico, apice 
tridentatOj dente intermedio majori ; Valvulis 
apice lanceolatOj acuto ; Annulo subrotimdo ; 
Facie maculata ; Stemmatihus in triangulo ; Oculis 
distantibus ; Naso distincto, planiusculo, apice 
truncato ; Lahio antice obtusangulo ; Maxillis 
apice bidentatis ; Antennis pedicello, apicisque ar- 
ticulo prirno, subconicis ; Tninco ex ovali-oblongo ; 
jilis anastomosi magnd ; Ahdomine subconico, de- 
clivi, basi subretiiso, supra gibbo. 

Maris Corpus paulo angustius, Fades infra 
antennas albida aut lutea. 

Historia et oeconomia adhuc latent. Imago 
vix pollinilega, odore Melissa f. potius Dracoce-. 
phali Moldavici gratissima. 

The present, as well as the preceding family, 
departs a little from the genuine character of Me- 
litta, and it is not without some hesitation that I 
have retained them in that genus, the tongue in 
all the other families being acute. Hereafter, 
perhaps, when the class Hymenoptera comes to be 
more attentively studied and better understood, it 
may be found necessary to separate these two 
families from Melitta : in the mean time, as they 
(,?•) Tab. I. *. b. I^ijlceuSj Fab. and Latr. 


FAMILIiE. {Melitta. *. b.) 135 

appear to be more nearly connected with that 
genus than any other, it seemed to me most ad- 
viseable to consider them as belonging to it, and 
connecting it with other genera. Two species of 
the present family have been figured by Panzer as 
Spheces {y) ; but though their tongue bears some 
resemblance to that part in some of the Linnean 
species of /S/)Ae.r, or the Crch^o of Fab ricius, the 
proboscis, valvulse, and palpi, as well as the eyes, 
and the antennee with respect to their situation, 
are different, and are those of genuine Mtlittce. 
Linneus regarded the several species of this family, 
as far as he was acquainted with them, as mere 
varieties oi j4pis annulata \ but the characters of 
families have so often been mistaken for diagnostics 
of a single species, as I shall have occasion to prove 
more at large hereafter, that this need not be won- 
dered at. The dilated scapus of the antennae, 
which distinguishes, in so remarkable a manner, 
the male of one species (z), while the same sex of 
others hav^e it not, must be the mark of more 
than a variety. 

The insects of this family appear to be furnished 
with no apparatus for conveying pollen. They 
most commonly frequent the flov^'crs of the dif- 
ferent species of Reseda, and do not usually make 
their appearance till they are in blossom. When 

iy) Sphex annulate, Panz. Fn. Germ, Init. n. 53. Tab, 1. 
aad Sphex signata, ibid. Tab, 2. 
(z) Tab. 1, *, b fig. S. 

K 4 pressed 

130 TMAILIM. {Melitta. *. b.) 

pressed between the fingers, they emit a powerful, 
and at the same time agreeable, odor, resembling 
the scent of Balm, or rather Dracoceplialum Mol~ 
davicum (a). 

(a) I have often thought that if gentlemen, who amui5e 
themselves with chemical experiments, would direct their at- 
tention to insects, it might lead to the discovery of some 
powerful medicines. The variety of strong scents, which these 
little creatures emit, is wonderful. I remen:iber once, when $ 
was walking with the ingenious Mr. Sowerby, we took a pe- 
tiolated Sphex, nearly related to the 5". gibha of Villars, (Ent. 
Eur. 3. n. 23.) if it be not the same, and to the Crairo Uflavum 
of Hellwig, (Praizer. Fn. Germ. Init. n. 17- tab. 20.) and were 
much struck with the very stimulating effluvia of aether which 
issued from it, wlien slightly pressed. This insect is extremely 
common upon umbelliferous plants, and might with ease be 
collected in considerable numbers. Few entomologists are 
ignorant that a delightful odor of roses is difRised by Ceramlyx 
mosckaius; this is sometimes so copious as to fill a whole 
apartment. Many Melittce, besides those of this family, havp 
a strong scent, in some approaching to that of garlick or onion. 
The same remark may be extended to a number o{ Idineumons, 
which emit a most powerful, but at the same time not very 
agreeable, scent. A most singular mixture of the odor of spices, 
witli sometliing indescribably fetid, proceeds from Slaphyliniis 
Irunipes, Fab. The universal use of Meloe vesicatoniis, the 
most active of stimulants, is a sufficient and well-known proof 
of tlie powerful effects which insects are capable of producing 
upon tlie human frame. A circumstance which ought to en- 
courage us to inquire further into the virtues of which they 
may be possessed. The ancients seem to have had recourse to 
more than one species in medicine, for the Heliocantharus or 
Scarabcaus solans, which was probably the Scarabceiis pihdarhis 
of Linneus, is said to have been a remedy in quartan agues» 
^ee Scapulae Lex. under KavSafoj. 

FAMILI/E. {Mdltta. **. a) J37 

* *. a. (a) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongiusciiliim, subpilosum ; 
Capite trunco latiori, rotundato ; Prohoscide an- 
gusta, glabra ; Lingua acuta, utrinque auriciilatd ; 
Tuho conico, apice obsolete tridentato ; Valvulis 
apice brevissimo, obtuso, ciliato, intus fisso ; Palpis 
jnterioribus fractis, articulo primo longiori, arcuato, 
incuiTO; AnmiloWnt^iVi', Stemmatibusmin2ing\Ao-f 
OpuHs distantibus ; Naso inasquali ; Lahio inflexo, 
antice emarginato, setis ciliato ; Maxillis forcipatis, 
apice bidentatis dente exteriori longiore ; j4ntennis 
approximatisj scapo elongate, pedicello subgloboso, 
apice articulo primo subconico ; Trunco ovato ; 
Metathorace ruguloso, inaequali ; Ahdomine sub- 
ovato, supra gibbo. 

Maris Corpus angustum, subcylindricum. Fades 
infra antennas tomentosa. Labium angustius, an- 
tice subemarginatum. Maxillce edentul^. Antennce 
Imago pollinilega. 

From an insect of this family Reaumur con- 
structed the genus which he has called Proaheille. 
It begins what I regard as legitimate Melittce, dis- 
tinguished by an acute tongue, furnished on each 
side with a membranaceous auricle, the three last 
joints of the interior palpi forming an angle with 
the first. By the assistance of this tongue, as I 

(a) Tab. 2. **, a, Proaleille, Reaum. Nomada, DeGeer, 
Scop, andFah. 

conjee turCj 

J3Q FAMILIiE. (Melltta. **. a.) 

conjecture, the individuals of this, and the remain- 
ing families of the genus, render even and smooth 
the sides of the cells which they excavate for their 
young, and besmear them with a kind of gluten to 
prevent their falling in. The Melitt^ now before 
us, though possessed of all the genuine characters 
of that genus, have a prima facie resemblance to 
Sphex, arising principally from the paucity of their 
hairs. This, probably, induced Linneus to con- 
sider one species as belonging to that genus. De 
Geer has given a figure both of the proboscis and 
of the lip of one of these insects (h). They make 
their nests in bare sections of banks exposed to 
the sun and nearly vertical : these usually swarm 
with their little burrows, which they excavate, ac- 
cording to Reaumur, to the depth of nine or ten 
inches, and in which they deposit their egg, in- 
closing with it a sm.all mass of pollen moistened 
with honey (c). They are common during the 
{Summer months. 

* *. b. {d) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongiusculum, villosum ; 
Capite trunco paulo angustiori, subtriangulari ; 
Prohoscide august^ glabra ; Lingua acuta, utrin- 
que auriculata ; Tuho conico, apice tridentato 
dente intermedio emarginato ; Falvidis apice bre-» 

{I) De Geer, torn. 2. p. 2. tab, 32. fig. 7, 8. I. 

(c) Reaum. torn. 0. Mem. 4. p. 96, 97. 

(nJ) Tab. 2^ 3. **. b. Hylceus and Jpis, Yah, 


FAMILI^. {Mdltta. •**. b.) J3Q 

vissimo, obtusiusculoj clliato^ intus fisso ; Palpis 
interioribiis fractis, articulo primo longiori, arcuato, 
indurvo ; Loris proboscidem longitudine seqiian- 
tibus ; Annulo lineari ; Stemmatibus in linea GurvS; 
Oculis distantibiis ; Naso convexo, distincto ; Lahio 
antice setoso-pectinato, appendiculato, appendicul^ 
infiexa ; MaxiUis apice bidentatis ; Antennis ap- 
proximatis, scapo elongato^ pedicello subgloboso, 
apice articulo primo conico ; Tninco saepius ovato ; 
Tihiis posticis scopa baud dens^ pollinifera, spinu- 
lis serrulatis ; Abdomine subovali, ano rim^ per- 
pendicLilari, segmento ultimo miiiutissimo. 

Maris Corpus cylindricum. Nasus apice ple- 
rumque albido, aiit luteo. Labium angustum 
lineare, appendicula null^. Maxilla edentulge, 
acutac. Antennce articulis subarcuatis. Tibice 
posticcB scopa nulM. Abdomen lineare ano intcgro. 

Imago pollinilega. 

This family is distinguished from all others by 
some very striking peculiarities: the intermediate 
tooth of the tube is emarginate ; the lora are as 
long as the rest of the proboscis ; the lip, in one 
seXj is furnished with a singular appendicle; and 
the apex of the abdomen has the appearance of a 
cleft perpendicular to the horizontal fissure of the 
anus. The males are all remarkable for an elon- 
gate cylindrical body, and, as I observed before, 
have been considered by Fabricius as belonging to 
his genus Hylceus: they are extremely similar to 
those of the preceding family; but the extraor- 

140 FAMILIvE. (Melltta.**.h. c.) 

dinary length of the lora, the different form of 
their lip, and the white tip of the nasus, will suffi- 
ciently point them out. The wings of some of the 
smaller species are most splendidly decorated with 
the hues of the heavenly bow. The insects of this, 
nidificate much in the same manner with those of 
the preceding family, in bare banks: it includes 
Hylceus albipes, arhustorum, ahdominalis, cylin- 
dricus, annulatus, interruptus, and ^pis suhaurata 
?iXidi Jlavipes of Panzer's elegant work, in the two 
last, which are of an aculeate sex, he has noticed 
the anal rima(e). 

* #. c. (/) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongum, villosum ; Capite 
trunci latitudine, nunc rotundato, nunc subtri- 
angulari, depressiusculo ; Prohoscide crassiuscula 
villosa; Lingua utrinque auriculata, auriculis lin- 
guae lateribus sagpius perpendicularibus, unde has-- 
tata evadit, apice reflexo/. sursum plicatili; Tuho 
lineari, apice tridentato dente intermedio majori; 
ValvuUs apice semicordato, acuminate, brevi, est 
ubi cultriformi, ciliato; Palpis interioribus fractis, 
articulo primo longiori, arcuato, incurvo ; Annulo 
!5ubovato; Stevimatihus in triangulo, interdum et 
in linea curva; Naso convexo, distincto; Lahio 

(e) Fn. Germ. Init. n.7- t. 15. n.46. t.l4, n.53. t.l8. n.55. 
t. 2, 3, 4. n, 56. t. 4. 17. (/) Tab. 3, 4. **. c. ^«- 

drcna. Apis, Nomada, Fab. Des Aheilles qui creusent la terre 
pQur yfaire leur nids. Reauni, 


FAMILIiE. [Mclitta. ^*. c.) 14j 

antice obtusangulo, supra tuberculo munito; Max- 
illis apice bidentatis dentibus obtusis ; Antennis pe- 
dicello subgloboso, apice articulo primo saepius lon- 
giori, basi attenuate ; Trunco subgloboso ; Pedihus 
posticis basi flocculo instructis ; Tihiis ultimi paris 
scopa densa pollinifera vestitis; Plantis dilatatis; 
Ahdomine plerisque ovali /. elliptico^ ano rotun- 
dato, fimbriato. 

Maris Corpus angustius. Caput sa?pe thorace 
latius. Maxilhe interdum edentulae. Pedes et 
flocculo et scopa destituti. Plantce vix dilatatge. 
Abdomen saspius lanceolatum, ano nudo. 

Imago pollinilega. 

The individuals of which this family consists are 
very easy to distinguish from those of any of the 
preceding. The proboscis is downy and thicker, 
the auricles are nearly perpendicular to the sides of 
the apex of the tongue, which, when the proboscis 
is folded, instead of retaining its direction to the 
maxillae and lip, as in other Mditto', or forming 
the exterior fold of that organ as in Apis, is reflec- 
ted or folded upwards pointing towards the tube(o-), 
so 'as to form the interior fold, or that next the 
head ; the lip in these insects is strengthened by a 
tubercle, the posterior legs of the aculeate sex 
have a flocculus at their base, the tibiae a thick sco- 
pa, and their anus is covered by a fiinge of hairs. 

The species of this family usually nidificate 
under ground in a light soil, some choosing grass 

(^)Tab.3,**. c. fig. 5, b, 


142 FAMILI^. {Melilia. ^'^. c.y 

banks over which bushes are scattered, others bare 
perpendicular sections, but all seem to delight in a 
south aspect. They excavate cylindrical burrows 
from five inches to near a foot in depth, and of sL 
diameter sufficient only for the Melitta to go in 
and out at. When they make these holes, they 
remove the earth grain by grain which forms a 
small hillock near the mouth ; they sometimes run 
in a perpendicular, and at others in a horizontal 
direction. The cell at the bottom of these bur- 
rows, they replenish with pollen made into a paste 
with honey, and in this they deposit their eggs. 
The pollen they carry not only upon the scopa of 
their posterior tibise, but also upon their flocculus, 
and the hairs of their metathorax. I have often 
been highly amused with seeing the female sitting 
and sunning herself at the mouth of her burrow, 
■while the male kept wheeling round and round her. 
Sometimes very near, and sometimes at a distance^ 
with great velocity. When the female has com- 
mitted her egg to the pollen paste she stops the 
mouth of her burrow very carefully, to prevent the 
ingress of ants and other insects (A). I suspect that 
Reaumur's Abeilles Tapissieres appertain at least 
to this genus. His account of their mode of nidi- 
- fication is so very curious, that I cannot resist the 
temptation of inserting an abridgment of it, al- 
though 1 cannot find that any species, nidificating 

(//.) Vid. Reaum. torn. 6. Mem. 4. p. 93—96. 


PAMILI^. {Melitta. **. c.) J43 

in the manner he has described, have been disco- 
vered in England. 

" It usually excavates/' says he, " its little bur- 
rows in a path-wa}^ to the depth of nearly three 
inches, they are cylindrical to within seven or 
eight lines of the bottom \\'here the animal gives it 
a form which approaches to hemispherical. When 
the ingenious architect has given its little apart- 
ment its due proportions and dimensions, and made 
the walls even, for their covering she prepares a 
splendid kind of tapestry, selecting the scarlet 
flowers of the wild poppy for this purpose; from 
these, v/ith great dexterity, she cuts pieces of a 
proper form and size, which she conveys to her 
cell, and beginning at the bottom, with no small 
care and skill, overlays the walls of the mansion, 
destined for the habitation of her future progeny, 
with this hanging, as singular as it is brilliant. 
Sometimes this covering not only overlays the in- 
terior of the cell, but also an extent of some lines 
round its orifice. The bottom is rendered warm 
by three or four coats of poppy leaf, and the sides 
have never less than two. The little upholsterer, 
having completed the hanging of her apartment, 
next fills it with paste made of pollen and honey to 
the height of seven or eight lines, and then, after 
committing an egg to it, she closes its mouth with 
earth so nicely, that it ceases to be distinguishable 
from the adjoining soil ; but previous to this she 
pushes downwards the poppy lining till it com- 

j^^ FAMIUM. {Mclltta. **.t.) 

pletely covers the cell where her eggs are de- 
posited (z)." 

It is pity Reaumur did not give a more minute 
description of this ingenious little animal. He only 
informs his readers that it is a small bee, more 
hairy than ^pis mellifica, with a body proportion- 
ably shorter, but nearly of the same colour. His 
figure conveys no adequate idea of it (A). In my 
frequent walks in the corn fields in this neighbour-. 
hood, I have never observed the poppy petals with 
portions taken from them in. the manner he has 

The English species of this family are extremely 
numerous, and I have not hitherto been able to 
discover any clue for a natural subdivision of it: 
the last forty species are distinguished by white 
abdominal fasciae. To this family belong Panzer's 
Andrena succincta, hirtipesy equestris, plumipes, 
j4ustriaca^ lucida, nitida, derasa, vaga, aterrimay 
Jlavipes, bicolor and htemorrhoidalis \ and his jipis 
pilipes, vestita, farfarisequa, varians, dumetorumj 
atra, albilahris^ and Sphegoides{l). 

APIS *. a. (m) 

H.F.A. Corpus oblongiusculum, subpilosum; 
Capi te trunco paulo latiori; Lingua acuta. ; Tuho 

(i) Reaum. ubi supra, Mem. 5. p. 139— 149. Tab. 13. fig. 
i— 11. {k) Ibid. fig. 5. (/) Fn. Germ. Init. n. 7. 1. 10. 
n.46.t. 15, 17. n. 46. t. 16. n.53. t. IQ. n. 56. t. 1,1. n.64.t. 
17—20. n. Q5. t, 19, 20. n. 7. t; 13. n. 55, t. 9. 14. n. 5Q. t. 12 
i~14. 23, 24. (w) Tab. 4. Apis. *. a. 


FAMILI^. (Apis. •*. a.) l4i 

Subconico, aplce tridentato dentibus gequalibusj 
Fulcro subtriangulari ; Lacimis exterioribus nullis, 
interioribus lineari-Ianceolatis, acutis; Valvulis apice 
lineari-Ianceolato, incurvo^, submembran^eeo ; Pal- 
pis exterioribus sexarticulatis, interioribus articulis 
quatuor, primo elbngato ; Stemmatihus in triangulo ; 
Naso convexo ; Labio ovali ; Maxillis edentulis ; 
Antennis approximatis, subclavatis, pedicello glo- 
bose, apice articulo primo longiori, conico ; Tihiis, 
plantlsque posticis, scopa pollinifera; Lhguiculis, 
in omni sexu, bifidis ; Ahdomine ovali, ano fimbriato. 

Maris Caput antice truncatum. Tibia', plan- 
taeque posticse, nudlusculse. Abdomen lanceolatumo 

Imago pollinifera. 

The present family of Apes seems to form the 
connecting link between that genus and Melitta. 
Its general form and habit, its palpi, posterior leg^, 
and anal fringe, evince its affinity to the fifth family 
of the latter; but its proboscis is that of a gentiine 
Apis. It is distinguished from all the families, in 
both genera, by this singularity, that the antennae 
of the males, as well as of the females, are suljclavate. 
The number of species belonging to it, that I have 
liitherto seen, are but few, and I have only had an 
opportunity of inspecting the proboscis of a male : 
1 had extracted that organ from the only female I 
ever possessed, but I unfortunately lost it before I 
could put it under the lens. This sex, in the woolly 
•covering of its posterior legs, resembles Melittd 
Swammerdamellaj but its maxillee are without teeth, 

t and 

145 fAMlLiM. {Apii. *. i.) 

and in general habit it so entirely resembles the* 
males, which are indubitably Apes, that I have 
little hesitation in placing it with them in this 
family: of the mode of nidification of the indi- 
viduals that belong to it I know nothing, having 
taken only a single specimen upon an extensive 

*. b. (n) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongiusclilum, subviltosum ; 
Capite latiori quam longo, trunco paulo angustiori, 
postice obsolete obtusangulo, supra depfessiusculo j 
Ore crassiusculo ; Prohoscide glabr^ incurv^; Lin- 
gua planiuscula ; Tuho lineari, apice tridentato, 
dente intermedio majori ; Fulcro subtriangulari; 
Laciniis exterioribus nullis, interioribus subseta- 
ceis; Falvidis apice lineari-Ianceolato, concavo, 
acuto, submembranaceo, linea longitudinali cor- 
nea; Palpis exterioribus sexarticulatis articulo 
primo minutissimo, interioribus quadriarticulatis 
articulo primo elongato ; Stemmatihus in triangulo; 
Oculis magnisj prominulis, fundo favoso; Naso 
convexo, distincto; Lahio ovali, verticali; Max- 
N 77/w edentulis ; ^w^eww?^ approximatis, filiformibus, 
rectis, articulis distinctis, scapo brevi, pedicello 
minuto; Alis corpore longioribus; Squamuhs 
magnis, ssepius coloratis; Scittello tuberculis duo- 
bus plerumque munito; Tibiis posticis nudis; 
UngidcuJis in omni sexu bifidis ; Ahdomine ovalij 

(«) Tab. 5, *. b. Nomaday^d^. Latr, 

J, ovato- 

FAMILItE. (Jpis. *.h.) i4f 

/ ovato-lanceolato, glaberrimo, variegato, segmeft-» 
to ultimo minuto et fere retracto, ano setoso. 

Maris Abdomen lanceolatuiTij segmento ultimo 

Imago in aggeribus viarum et floribils frequenS 
obvia, non pollinilega, Tenthredinum tacito volatii 

The gay colours which 'variegate the indivl- 
viduals of this family, in this respect so dissimilar 
to other Apes, and the want of hirsuties upon 
their abdomen, has occasioned them to be mis- 
taken by some authors for Vespce. That they do 
not belong to the genus Vespa their proboscis and 
elongate tongue sufficiently evince, and the same 
circumstances clearly prove that, after Fabricius, 
who has arranged them with his Nomadce, w6 
Ought not to separate this family from ApiSi A 
vast number of the species that compose it have^ 
by many authors, been considered as nothing more 
than varieties of the Apis ruficornis of Linneus, who 
himself has led the way to this error by confound- 
ing, at least two distinct species, in the description 
he has given of that insect. It has happened here^ 
as often in other instances, that the distinctive 
marks of a family have been mistaken for indica-* 
cations of a single species; and the red antentiasi 
and ferruginous legs, which Linneus selected for 
the diagnostics of Aph rvficornis^ are common to 
a great number of the individuals which this 
division includes: he has, however^ considered 
L 1 A> Fabric 

14S FAIVIILI^. (Jpis. *.h:) 

■A. Fahriciana, ferruginata, and cariosa, all of 
which, I believe, belong to it, as distinct specie?. 
All the Nomadce of Panzer, N. scutellaris and 
cnicigera excepted, are to be referred here. 

The history, economy, and mode of nidification 
of the insects of this family, as yet remains a se- 
cret : they frequent warm dry banks, out of the 
holes of which I have often seen them issue. They 
seem to be furnished with no means of carrying 
pollen. Their flight is silent, unattended by any 
hum. Their eyes, when they are first taken, exhi- 
bit a remarkable appearance, through the external 
reticulated covering a surface of hexagons is visible, 
which keeps shifting with the light. This appear- 
ance is also observable in Jpis Conica, and some 
individuals of other families. 

* *. a. (o) 
H. F. A. Corpus oblongum, villosum; Capita 
trunco paulo angustiori, rotundato, postice obso- 
lete obtusanQ-ulo; 0?'e crasso; Frohoscide subin- 
voluta; Tuho lineari, apice tridentato; Fidcro 
elongato; Laciniis exterioribus cornels, articulo 
primo longiori, interioribus setaceis; P7ilvulis a.p\ce 
lanceolato-lineari, coriaceo, subplicato, linguam 
arete amplexanti ; Pcdpis exterioribus quinquear- 
ticulatis; interioribus biarticulatis; Stemmatibus m 
linea curva ; Oculis prominulis; Naso convexo; 
Labio concavo-convexo, subquadrato, verticali; 

(n) Tab. 5, 6. * *. a. Jph, Fab. 


FAMILIiE. {Jpis. **. a.) J.49 

MaxiUis dente obsoleto, laterali ; Antennis filiformi' 
Idus, pedicello subgloboso, aplce articulo primo 
longiori, conico; SquamuUs magnis; Tibiis posticis 
scopa nulla pollinifera ; Unguiculis integris ; Pul- 
villo emarginato; Ahdpmine ovato, acuto, seg- 
jnento ultimo minuto. 

Maris Uns^uiculi dente interiori submembra- 
Txaceo. Palvillus integer. Alias feminae mas 
simillimus, et, nisi numcro antcnnoB articulo- 
rum, et segmentorum abcjominalium, yix distin- 

Imago non pollinifera. 

Of this family I have as yet discovered only a 
single English species, viz. Apis punctata of Fa- 
bricius; I have observed several exotic insects in 
Sir Joseph Banks's Cabinet which belong to it, as 
does likewise the Apis luctuosa of Scopoli. These 
insects, although at first sight they appear very 
different, if closely examined will be found to be 
nearly related to the preceding family (/j). Their 
antennas are similar, as are likewise their maxillae, 
iind their posterior tibiae are also without the pollir 
niferous scopa. 

Mr. James Trimmer has discovered both the 
sexes oi A. punctata in the nidi of ^. retusa. I 
have observed it follow that bee into its burrows in 
gravelly banks in the spring; I have also seen it 
enter holes in clay walls which might probably lead 

(p) An hujus generis? Lubenter ad Norn ados proscriberem. 
Panzer, de Ape punctatd, n. 35. t. 23. 

L 3 to 

J 50 . FAMILI^. {Apis.**.a.) 

|:o nests of the same insect. Ray suspects it to bQ 
the male of a bee, now known by the name of 
j4pis piUpes(q), but which is itself the male of j 

j4. retusa, Lin. and this probably from observing 
it enter the same nest. From all these circum- 
stances, combined with the want of means to con- 
vey pollen, I cannot help entertaining some sus- 
picion that this family contains insects, somewhat 
analogous to the Ciiculi amongst the birds, which 
deposit their eggs in materials collected by more 
industrious animals for their own offspring. The 
analogy observable between the instincts of ani- 
mals, which belong to different departments in 
Zoology, furnishes a field for curious inquiry hi- 
therto little explored : 1 wish this hint may direct 
to that subject the attention of some gentleman 
who possesses the opportunity of contrasting the 
modes of life of the different classes of animals. 

The sexes are less easy to be distinguished in 
this, than in any family with which I am acquain- 
ted : the additional joint in their antennae and seg- 
ment in their abdomen, are almost the only notes 
of difference. 

* *. b. (r) 

H.F. A. (JorpM^ lineari-lanceolatum, tomentoso- 
maculosum. Capite lato, rotundato, trunco paulo 
angustiori; Ore crassiusculo ; Prohosdde rectius-^ 

{q) Hist. Ins. p. 243. Species ultima. 
(?) Tab. 0. * *. b. Nomadaj Fab« 


FAMILI^. {Apis. *f. b.) 151 

cnla, glabrS; Tuho lineari, apice tridentato dente 
intermedio majori; Fulcro elongato, subclavato; 
Laciniis exterioribus articulis asqualibus, interiori- 
bus brevibus, lineari-lanceolatis, acutis; Falvulis 
rectiusculis, apice lanceolato, obtuso; Palpis e\te~ 
rioribus minutisslmis, exarticalatis; Stemmatihus 
in lined curv^ ; Ociilis magnis, prominulis ; Naso 
convexo ; Lahio antic^ eurvo ; Maxillis edentulis ; 
jlntennis filiformibus, scapo brevi, pedicello minu^ 
tissimo ; Scutcilo tuberculis duobus ; Tibiis posticis 
scopd nulla; Unguicidis \Vi\.Q:gv\s'y Ah domine com- 
co, acuto, ano dehiscentj^ 

Mas adhuc latet. 

The only species belonging to this family with 
which I am acquainted at present, is the Apis vari- 
egata of Linneus, a gay insect which Fabricius has 
arranged with his Nomadce. It is, howev^er, quite 
distinct from them, being furnished with exterior 
laciniae, which are wanting in them; its exterior 
palpi, likewise, consist only of a single joint and 
are very minute, so as not to be easily discoverable 
except under a lens. The spots which variegate 
its body are produced by decumbent hairs. Its 
conical abdomen and dehiscent anus connect it 
with the family to which Apis conica belongs, but 
it wants the inflected lip. Though the females in 
some summers are not rare flying about warm dry 
banks, I never yet met with a male. Nomada cru-e- 
cigera of Panzer appears to be merely a variety of 
this insect. 

1. 4 * #, 

1^2 FAMILI^, (Jpis. **. c. I. ct.) 

* *. C. 1. a. (s) 

II. F. A. Corpus lineari-lanceolatum subvillo- 
pum; Capite tv\mco angustiori, rotundato; Probos- 
cide incurva ; Lingua planiuscul^ ; Tuho lineari, 
apice tridentato dente intermedio longiori ; Fulcro 
elongatOj subclavato; Ladniis exterioribus articu- 
lls subsqualibuSj interioribus linearibus; ValvuUs 
apice lanceolato-linearij concavo, submembranaceo, 
linea longitudinali cornea ; Palpis omnibus biarti- 
culatis, exterioribus acutis; Facie planiuscula; 
Stemmatihus in triangulo; Oculis distantibus, pilo- 
sulis ; Labio in^e\o, elongato, concavo-convexo; 
Maxillis apice dentatis; Antennis distantibus, lili- 
formibus, pedicello, apiceque articulo primo, sub- 
conicis ; Sguamulis magnis ; Scutello obtusangulo ; 
Tibiis posticis scopa null^ pollinifer^; Unguiculis 
integrisj pulvillo obsolete ; Abdomine recto, acuto 
/. acuminato, basi retuso, ano dehiscenti, ventre 

Maris UnguicuH apice bifidi. Abdomen seg~ 
imento septimo obsoleto, ano spinoso^ 

Imago vix pollinifera. 

The individuals of the family of the first sec- 
tion, of which this is a subdivision, are invariably 
distinguished by one remarkable feature, the labi- 
um, or lip, is elongate and inflected iinder the 
maxillae, (which are remarkably large and strong 
with several teeth at their apex) so as to defend 

(s) Tab, 7. * *. c, 1, a. Jps, Fab, 

FAMILIiE. (Jpls. *4fr. c. 1. a.) 153 

jflie lower fold of the proboscis from all injury, 
when the insect is employing them ; a peculiarity, 
which, at least in the leaf cutter bees, did not es- 
cape the accurate eye of Reaumur. " Elles ont 
toutes un trompe," says he, " qui pour I'essentiel 
est composee comme celle des mouches a miel, 
mais qui a son origine est recouverte en dessus et 
par les cotes par une sorte d'etui ecailleux, qui n' a 
point ete accorde a la trompe de ces dernieres 
mouches. Cette piece sert a empecher que la 
trompe ne soit trop rudement frottee par les bords 
fie la piece que la coupeuse detache. Elle a peut- 
etre encore d'autres usages : peut-etre donne-t-elle 
plus de facilite aux dents pour couper juste ; elle 
Jeur ofFre un appui, elle tient lieu d'une espece de 
petite table, d'une espece d'etabli(i)." Tlie males of 
this family are usually without the additional ab- 
dominal segment observable in those of others. 

I have divided this family into two sections, the 
second distinguished from the other by a remark- 
able covering of hair for conveying pollen upon the 
venter of the female. The subdivision of the first 
section which we are now considering, is charac- 
terized by the conical and very acute abdomen of 
the female, with an anus not at all incui-ved, and 
by the singular spines which arm the anus of the 
males. These two sexes have been usually ac- 
counted distinct species, under the names of ^pis 
conica and quadridentata; and all such insects as 
{t) Reaum. torn. 6. Mem. 4. p. 122. Tab. 11. fig. S—Q. e. 


154 FAMILI^. (Apis. **. c. 1. ec.) 

have a conic acute abdomen have been referred by 
most entomologists to the one, and those that have 
•jfc similar anal spines to the other. This is the effect 
of fixing upon such characters to distinguish a 
species, as are rather the sexual distinctions of a 
family or subdivision. 1 have seen more than one 
good species amongst the exotic ^pes of Mr. 
Drury's museum : and there is another in Sir Jo- 
seph Banks's, that came from New Holland, with 
violet coloured wings, which appears to me very 
distinct, though Fabricius has given it as variety ^ 
of u4pis conica^ Apis tridentata, and perhaps A, 
harhara of Linneus, belong to the present subdi- 
vision. A. hidentata of Panzer (w), is the genuine 
u4. conica of the Linnean cabinet. The Jl. conica 
of Fabricius appears to be the other sex of that 
species which in this work I have named A, inermis. 
Upon the mode of nidification of the insects that 
l^elong to this subdivision, I have nothing to com- 
municate, nor do I recollect a single author who 
has given any account of it; for that Apis in 
Reaumur (.r), to which Linneus has too hastily re- 
ferred as Apis conica, is the male of one of the leaf 
cutter bees, and belongs to the first subdivison of 
the second section of this family. 
* *. c. 1. /S. (t/) 
H. F. A. Corpus lineare, cylindricum, subvillo- 
^um ; Capite trunco angustiori, rotundato ; Pro^ 

(u) Fn. Germ. Init. n. 5g. t. '7. (x) Tom. 6. Mem. 4, 

J). 121. Tab.41. fig. 4. (y) Tab. 7. **. c. 1. ^. 


FAJNIILI^. (Apis. **. c. 1. (3.) 155 

hoscide inciirvd ; Tuho lineari, apice dentibus late- 
ralibus obsoletis; Fulcro elongate, subclavato; 
Laciniis exterioribiis articulis subaeqiialibus, interi- 
oribus brevibus, setaceis; Valvtilis apice lineari- 
lanceolato, concavo, submembranaceo, lined inter- 
medin, longitudinal!, cornea ; Palpis omnibus bi- 
articulatis; Stemmatihus m. in^ingvXo ; Labip e\on- 
gato, infiexo, concavo-convexo ; Maxillis apice 
dentatis; ^72^e7Z72Z5 filiformibus, pedicello, apiceque 
articulo primo, subconicis; Scutello, subprominulo 
obtuso; Tihiis posticis scopd nulld pollinifera; 
Unguiculis apice bifidis; Ahdomine incurvo, ano 
obtuso, subdehiscenti, ventre glabro. 

Mas adhuc latet. 

The insects included in this subdivison, differ 
principally from those of the preceding in the form 
of their abdomen ; which, instead of being conical 
and very acute, is cylindrical and obtuse : the claws 
also in the aculeate sex are bifid. Whether the 
anus of the males is armed with spines or not I 
cannot tell, having never taken an individual of 
that sex belonging to this subdivision ; and of the 
other sex I have only met with three specimens. 
I had originally included the two species that I 
possess in the last subdivision of my second sec- 
tion of this family, mistaking them for male insects ; 
but when I found that they were females, that 
their exterior palpi consisted only of two joints, 
and that the under side of their abdomen was 
v/ithout hair, I was under the necessity of forming 

a sub-» 

156 FAMILI^. {Apis. **. c. 2. a.) 

a subdivision to include them. Upon their epo^ 
' pomy and history I can say nothing. 

* #. c. 2. a. (z) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongum, villosum ; Capite 
trunci fere latitudine, rotundato ; Lingua subinvo- 
luta; Tuho apice tridentato dentibus aequalibus; 
Laciniis exterioribus articulis aequalibus ; interiori- 
bus brevibus^ acutis; Valvulis apice lanceolato- 
lineari, concavo, incurvo, submembranaceo, line4 
longitudinali cornea ; Palpis omnibus biarticulatis ; 
Facie planluscula ; Stpmmatihus in triangulo ; La- 
lio inflexo, elongate, concavo- con vexo ; Maxillis 
prominentibus, validissimis, apice dilatatis et den- 
tatis; Antennis subfiliformibus, pedicello teretius- 
culo, apice articulo primo subconico ; Tihiis pos- 
ticis scopa, baud densa, pollinifera; Plantis dila- 
tatis ; Unguiculis latere interiori denticulo armatis. 
Ahdomine horizontali vel ascendenti, basi retuso, 
tergo planiusculo, yentre lana densa polliniferl 

Maris Plantce angustiores. Unguiculi apic^ 
bifidi. Anus obtusus, incurvus, interdum emargi- 
natus, segmento ultimo minuto, inflexo. 

The second section of this family includes all 
those insects the under side of whose abdomen, in 
the aculeates,4s clothed with a coat of hairs, usually 
very thick, and set like those of a brush, involved 
in which they convey the pollen to their cells. The 

(x) Tab. 8. Andrena, Apis, Fab. Coupeuses defeuilles. Reaum. 


FAMILIiE. (Jpis. **. c. 1. a.) I5f 

individuals of its first subdivision are distinguished 
by biarticulate exterior and interior palpi, and a 
horizontal abdomen, flattish above, or not so con- 
vex as in the other subdivisions, v^hich the insect 
will sometimes elevate so as to form an obtuse 
angle with thorax. The entertaining history of the 
insects that form this subdivision has attracted the 
attention of many naturalists : so early as the year 
1670 it was noticed by Ray, Dr. M. Lister, Wil- 
kighby, and Sir Edward King(fi). The Divine 
Wisdom has instructed these insects to form very 
wonderful cells for their young of singular mate- 
rials, the leaves of trees, especially the rose, from 
which circumstance they have been known by the 
name of leaf cutter bees, [coupeuses de feuilles. 
Reaum). Reaumur has given a very particular 
account of their history, preceded by a humorous 
story of the alarm spread by the discovery of their 
nidi in a Countf}'^ village in France. This story is 
so admirably abridged in a paper, entitled, miracula 
insectorum in the third volume of the Amoenitates 
jicademicce, that I think my readers will not be 
displeased at my inserting it here. 

" De hortulano historiam Nob. Reaumur, Gal- 
liae decus, adfert, qui hortum fodiens plurimos in- 
venit centunculos adeo mirifice convolutos, ut vi 
naturale extitisse nunquam sibi imaginari posset, 

(0) Ray's Letters, p. 72 — 74. Histor. Insect, p. 245. Philo- 
86ph. Transact, abridged^ by Lowthorp., vol. 2. chap, Q. §. 17- 
p. 1—4. 


^58 FAMILIiE, {Jpis. **. c. 2, a.) 

potl^s credens sagas vel aniculas quasdam veneficas 
veneficium hoc, ad praedium incolasve prsedii lae- 
'•^ dendum, defodisse. Nudis manibus eos minimi 
tangere audebat, sed manicis munitus vicinis suis 
ostensurus coUigit, qui non nisi magias esse horri- 
biles cum eo concinnebant. Anxius itaque sacer- 
doterri adit, ei afFatus lamias vel magas in ecclesia 
ejus reperiri, quae insidias praedio pararent. Sacer- 
dos timore perculsus, se de ejusmodi nodis magicis 
legisse, eos vero nunquam antea vidisse, confiteba- 
tur ; signoque crucis ter quaterque posito, hortula- 
num ad dominum suum, Parisiis degentem, profi- 
cisci desperatus suadet, ut hosce reprsesentando, ab 
omni culpa venturi mali liberatus esset. Parisios 
ille petens, pallido colore et sono raiico, quag inve- 
nerat patrono indicat, qui horum ignarus chirurgum 
suum consulit ; sed nee is ulteriore cognitione in- 
structus erat ; conveniunt ea propter ut sententiam 
peterunt experientissimi physici Dni. Nollet, qui 
advocatus horum visu laetebatur, et similes adferens, 
feentunculos illos dicit esse domicilia insectorum, 
unumque eorum aperire incipit, cum capilli hortu- 
lani pras timore erigebantur, metuendo aliquid mali 
eis certo contingere. Absque periculo autem D. 
Kollet embryonem apis, quae de foliis roseis nidum 
condiderat, detrahit ; et sic tota magia in naturale 
domicilium innocentis apis, commutata fuit {b)." 

It has often happened in natural history, and 
more particularly in entomology, that characters 

(b) p. 319—20. 


FAMILIiE, {Jpis. **. c. 2. «.) 15^ 

and modes of life have been regarded as peculiar 
to a single species^ which, in fact, are the prominent 
features of a family, or a subdivision. This, as I 
have just had occasion to observe, has happened to 
those ^pes, whose acculeates are distinguished by 
a conical and very acute abdomen : the same error 
has taken place in the present subdivision, for all 
those ^pes which construct centunculi, or cases 
made of the leaves of trees, to receive their eggs^ 
have been looked upon by Linneus, and most wri- 
ters, as varieties of one species, which that great 
naturalist has named ^. centuncularis, and denoted 
it chiefly by the orange coloured hairs which cover 
the under side of its abdomen, a character which it 
possesses in common with a large number of spe- 
cies in this family. A similar mode of ni.dification 
may be, and indeed very often is, the characteristic 
of a family or genus rather than a species : thus, 
the cells of the different species of the Bomhina- 
trices are composed of similar materials and resem- 
ble each other in form ; and the various genuine 
species of the genus V^espa construct cells, for the 
most part, of the same figure, and employ the same 
kind of materials (c); the mode of nidification, 
tlierefore, should never be Assumed as characteristic 
of a species, but after the most mature considera- 
tion, and the closest and most attentive investiga- 
tion of its history, economy, &c. for it generally 
happens that those insects which agree together in 

(c) Reaumur, torn. 6. Mem, 6, 7. Tab. 14 — 25. 


jQq FAMILIiE. {Jpis. •**. c. 2. a.) 

habit, and belong to the same natural division^ of 
subdivisions of a genus, are connected likewise by 
their mode of life. As to characters, before any 
particular one is selected for the definition of a 
species, inquiry should first be made whether it 
may not be a sexual distinction common to many 
individuals. But the science of entomology is far 
behind botany ; in innumerable instances vi^e are at 
a loss to discover and discriminate the sexes. The 
present work, I flatter myself, may contribute to 
remove some of the difhculties which stand in the 
way of our attaining this knowledge. The sexes 
of the two genera, to which these pages are devo- 
ted, may now be detected with ease ; and, perhaps,- 
the discovery of a similar circumstance may enable 
some future entomologist to point out the sexes in 
all the classes of insects. If some of the largest 
and most common individuals in each were dis- 
sected, and examined with sufficient attention, pro- 
bably this desideratum' might soon be attained. 
But to return from this digression. 

The aculeates in this family furnish no very 
striking and prominent features for specific defi- 
nitions, they are so extremely similar to each 
other, that it is not wonderful that they have been 
so much confounded, but this difficulty is, in a 
great degree, removed by the males, which will 
supply the describer with some very strong charac- 
ters. Thus, the male of the genuine udlpis cen-' 
tuncularisj which makes its centunculi of rose 


FAMiLL'E. {Jph. *^^. c. 3. a.) 161 

Leaves, has an entire anus, while that of the species, 
which perforates the oak or ehn, is emargiiiate((f)* 
Several are distinguished by the remarkable form 
of the fore leg, especially the palm, which is dilated 
and siagularly ciliated on one side (e) ; the males 
that exhibit this peculiarity, have been all con- 
founded under the name of j4. lagopoda. Thi^-; 
conformation, however, of the fore leg is common 
to several distinct species, which are separated froni 
each other by very striking differences. The ge- 
nuine u4. lagopoda of the Linnean cabinet is larger 
than any other that I have seen, with filiform an- 
tennas, and posterior tibiae very large and incras- 
sate. A small one that stands by this, as a variety^ 
in the same cabinet, seems distinct ; it is black, 
less hairy, and its tibiae are proportion ably smalle]-, 
it may be the Jf. lagopoda of Panzer (/). The 
male of the willow bee, so well known to English 
naturalists, which is the only male, of this descrip- 
tion, that I have known taken in England, is dis- 
tinguished from both these by its capitate antennae, 
like those of a Papilio(g). The male of that species, 
the centunculi of which so alarmed the poor gar- 
dener and the priestj as described by Reaumur, has 
the same kind of fore legs, and is also remarkable 
for a quadridentate anus (A). This is the insect 
referred to by Linneus as ^pis conica. The male 

(r/) Tab. 8. fig. 25, 20. , (e) Ibid. fig. 28. g. 

(/) Fn. Insect. G(;rm. n. 55. t. 7. {g) Tab. 8. fig. 8. a. 
{h) Tom. 6. Mem. 4. Tab. 11. fig. 13— 16, 

M of 

l62r FAMILIyE. {Jpis. **. c. 2. «.) 

of ^ndrena hidentata of Fabricius, is another very 
distinct species of this kind, which 1 have seen in 
Sir J. Banks's cabinet. Of this, that author ob- 
serves, ^'^ Nidum in muris e foliis arborum convo- 
lutis (i) ;" from which circumstance, it is 
evident, that its female is one of the centunculares, 
I have another exotic male, given me by Mr. 
Sowerby, which comes very near this, if it be not 
the same insect. 

Reaumur informs us, that he was acquainted 
with five species which construct their nests in this 
way, and he suspects that there are many more(y^). 
All those, to which he had attended, lodged their 
centunculi under ground (/). GeofFroy represents 
his j4. centuncularis as making its nests in the 
trunks of decaving trees (in). This is the case 
with three at least of our English species ; two of 
them, I believe, nidificate under ground {n). These 
reasons, I hope, will justify me sufficiently for 
having made so many species out of what before 
had been accounted only one. 

I shall now abridge Reaumur's interesting ac- 
count of the history of these most ingenious in- 
sects, and add to this what I have been able to 
collect from other quarters. 
' " The nests they construct," our author informs 
us, " are cylindrical, sometimes of tlie length of 

(i) Ent. Syst, Era. n, 2/. (/:) Reaum. ibid. p. II9-2O. 

(/) Ibid. p. 123. {m) Hist. Ins. torn. 2. p. 410. n. 5. 

(n) Viz, Apis drcumcincta and xanthoradana of this work. 


FAMILiiE. {Jph. **. c. 2. a.) 16.3 

six. inches, and composed entirely of the leaves of 
the rose and other trees. They consist usually of 
six or seven cells ; each cell is shaped like a thim- 
ble^, the conve^: end of the second fitting closely 
into the open end of the first, the third into the 
second, and so on with respect to the rest. Al- 
though these cells are honey tight, which is some- 
times found in them in a liquid stfte, yet the 
portions of leaf of which they are made are not 
glued together, neither is there any other art used 
to fasten them, than what appears in the nicety 
with which they are adjusted to each other. The 
interior surface of each cell consists of three pieces 
of leaf of equal size, narrow at one end, but grow- 
ing gradually wider towards the other, where the 
width equals half the length. One side of each of 
these pieces is the serrate margin of the leaf from 
which it was taken. In forming the cell, the 
pieces of leaf are made to lap one ovei" the other^ 
so that the serrate side is kept on the outside, and 
that which has been cut, within : thus a tube is 
first formed, and in this way it is coated with three 
or four layers (0), the exterior covering being made 
of larger pieces than the interior. In coating, the 
provident little animal is careful to lay the middle 
of each piece of leaf over the margins of those that 
form the first tube; thus the junctions arq covered 
and strengthened. At the closed end, or narrow 
extremity of the cell, the leaves have a bend given 

(0) Sometimes there are more, K, 

M a them 

16,1 FAMILIiE. [Apis. **. c. 2, «.) 

them so as to form a convex termination : when 
a cell is formed in this manner, her next care is to 
fill it with honey and pollen, which make a rose- 
coloured paste or conserve {p) : when it is filled to 
within about half a line of the orifice, she deposits 
her Qgg in it, and closes it with three pieces of 
leaf (^), which are so accurately circular, that a 
pair of compasses could not define their margin 
with more ttuth t these coincide exactly with the 
walls of the cylindrical cell, and are retained in 
their situation by no gluten, but merely by the 
nicety of their adaptation. After this covering is 
fitted in, there remains still a concavity which re- 
ceives the convex end of the succeeding cell. In 
this manner the patient and indefatigable little 
animal proceeds, till she has completed her cylin- 
der of six or seven cells. This cylinder is coated 
externally by other pieces of leaf of larger dimen- 
sions than those used in making the cells, and of a 
different form, for they are nearly oval ; those at 
the ends are bent inwards, to cover each extremity. 
These nests are usuallv made in fistular passages, 
which these indefatigable creatures bore under 
ground, in a horizontal direction : their diameter 
is exactly that of the cylinder, to which indeed 
they give its form, and their bend to the pieces 

(/)) They usually collect their honey and pollen from the 
thistles and Onopordum, tlie pollen of which is rose-coloured, K, 

{{[) I have taken nine of tiiese covers from the mouth of a 
cell of A, ligniseca, K. 


FAMILItE. (Apis. **. c. 2.. 91.) 163 

that compose it. If, by any accident, their labour 
is interrupted or their edifice deranged, it is 
astonishing with what persevering patience they 
set themselves to put all things again to rights. 

" The mode in which they cut the pieces of 
Jeaf, of which their nests are made, deserves par-r 
ticular notice. Nothing can be more expeditious ; 
they are not longer about it than we should be with 
a pair of scissars. When one of these bees selects 
a rose bush with this view, she does not immedi- 
ately alight upon it, but keeps hovering over, and 
flying round ' it, for some moments, as if recon- 
noitring the ground to discover the spot best 
adapted to her purpose. When she has chosen a 
leaf, she alights upon it, sometimes taking her 
station on its upper surface, sometimes underneath 
itj and at others upon its edge, so that the margin 
passes between her legs. Her first attack, which 
is generally made the moment she alights, is usu- 
ally near the footstalk, her head being turned to- 
wards the apex. Now and then, hovv'cver, she 
places herself near the apex, facing the footstalk. 
As soon as she has made a beginning, she con- 
tinues cutting, with her strong maxillae, without 
intermission, till she has finished her work. As 
she proceeds, she keeps the margin of the detached 
part between her legs, those of one side being above 
and the other below it, so that the section keeps 
giving way to her, and does not interrupt her pro- 
gress. She makes her incision in a cun'e line, 
M 3 approach- 

iQQ FAMILIrE. (Jpis. **. c. 2. «.) 

approaching the rachis at first, but when she has 
reached a certain point, she keeps receding fron) 
it towards the margin, still cutting in a curve. 
When she has nearly detached the portion she has 
been employed upon from the leaf, she balances 
her little wings for flight, lest its weight should 
carry her to the ground, and the very moment it 
parts from its parent stock, she flies off' with it in 
triumph ; the detached portion remaining bent 
between her legs, and being perpendicular to her 
body. She pursues the same mode whatever be 
the form or size of the piece necessary for her 

^* The larvffi of these bees do not differ from 
those of the hive bee ; when arrived at their full 
size, they spin a cocoon of silk^ thick and solid, 
which they attach to tlie sides of their cell. The 
outside of this cocoon is covered with coarse brown 
silk, but its interior is lined with very fine threads 
cf silk of a whitish colour and close texture, which 
shine like satin. These larvae are exposed to the 
attacks of some Dipterous insect, which makes its 
way into the cells and there deposits its eggs.'- 
Thus far from this illustrious author (r). 

I cannot help suspecting that, in this account, 
he has fallen into one error, with respect to the 
little animals mode of building her cylindrical nest^ 
for he seems to think that the cells are first made^ 
^d then their exterior covering : but if we con=? 

(r) Reaum. torn. 6, Mem. 4. p. 97 — 134. 


FAMILIiE. {ApU. *-^. c. 2. «.) 167 

sider all circumstances, that the nest takes its form, 
^nd the leaves that compose it their bend, from 
the tubular passage in which it is built ; it seems; 
not possible that the interior part should be first 
formed, for in this case the tube, composed of the 
three first pieces of leaf, must be smaller than the 
mould in \A'hich it is made, and then how could 
these retain the bend the insect gave them, and 
without any gluten adhere together before they 
grew stiff ? As soon as the little animal quitted 
them, they would lose the form she had given 
them, and fly to the sides of the passage. Besides, 
supposing this not to take place, how could she 
get between the cells, and the sides of the passage, 
to lay on the exterior coat of the cylinder ? It is 
most natural to suppose that this is first formed, 
taking its figure from the pipe in which it is built, 
and the interior part last. 

I shall next insert an extract from a letter of 
my venerable friend, the Rev. George Ashby, of 
Barrow in Suffolk, well known as a learned an- 
tiquarian, addressed to a gentleman who had sent 
him a specimen of the nest of the JFilloiu Bee. 
L " The curious specimen you obliged me with 
yesterday is the workmanship of a small taper bee, 
velvetty or hairy all over, black on the back, and 
yellow or tawney beneath. Linneus calls it ceii- 
timcularis, from the patch-w^ork case or coverlit 
which it makes to lodge its eggs, and future grubs 
or maggots in : it seems there are two sorts of 
M i them ; 

iGS FAIVriLIiE. {Apis. ¥.*. c. 2. «.) 

them ; at least as to disposition and economy : 
that best known bores its listular passage under 
groimd, and there constructs its cases. 

" The cases look like pellets froin pop-guns, or 
small rockets made on a mandrill in an hollow 
tubular mould, ^ of an inch long, or near inch ; 
more than inch round. Each end is covered with 
a circular piece of leaf of the proper size, and is 
alternately convex and concave ; and so inoscu- 
lates closely that the junction is hardly preceptible. 
I started a difficulty yesterday, how the first laid 
egg, after being a maggot, and a chrysalis, and last 
of all a bee, got out through all the superincum- 
bent houses, whose inhabitants were not yet ready 
to quit them. But nature is never to be caught 
at fault, and the lowest and first born passes out 
through the bottom of its own (lowest) cell^ and 
so escapes without disturbing any of the rest, who 
are not yet ready to emigrate : when they are, 
they do the same successively, and pass on through 
the empty cases of their predecessors, till they reach 
day- light; and a long journey the last hatched 
must have : and if only the mother bee makes 
the original pipe, considering the quantity you 
mentioned, how vast is such a little creature's 

" After boreing the hole, the bee who works in 
the center, and consequently may be considered as 
the mandril, or rather as the paperer, lines the in- 
side of the wooden pipe vvith rose leaves; arid 


FAMILL'E. (Apis. **. c. 2. «.) l6p 

every now and then, at stated distances, finishes 
her work with a covering, and so proceeds." 

I shall next transcribe the account given by 
Mr. Willughby of the nidification of the same bee 
from Hay's Historia Insectorum{s). 

" Thecas cylindraceas e segmentis foliorum ro- 
saceorum artificJQse convolutis et agglutinatis ef- 
formant hae Apes : Anglice Cartrages dici possunt, 
ab exacta similitudine quam habent curri papyraceis 
involucris pulvere pyrio repletis pro bombardis 
majoribus. Figura sunt cylindracea, basi rotun- 
diuscula et parum convexa, summitate e contra 
excavata, longEe 4-, diametro 4. 

" In salicum truncis jam mollibus et putrescen- 
tibus varios efFodiunt cuniculos cylindraceos ex- 
acte cequales capsulis jam descriptis. Foramina 
isthaec vel sursum, vel deorsum tendunt, secundum 
pectines scilicet sen fibras ligni, nunquam trans- 
versim. Multa horum foraminum communeni 
habent introitum, per quem Apis ingreditur et 
egreditur cilm cuniculos dentibus erodit. In cu- 
nuculi fando infima, (vel quando cuniculi sursum 
tendunt) suprema capsula locatur, et exactissime 
spatium implet, fundo sen convexa extremitate 
capsulae fundo cuniculi adjacente. Hujus (capsular) 
summitati concavae alterius convexus fundus arete 
applicatur, et sic deinceps, ita ut 5,6, vel 7 5 in uno 
puniculo inveniantur capsulae, aliae aljis superimpo- 
sitae. Capsulae implentur crasso, rubenti, acido et 

is) P. 245. 


i;0 FAMILItE. {ApU. **. c. 2. a.) 

grave-olente liquore, syrupi violacei aut conservse 
rosarum rubrarum fere colore, ciii innatat nympha 
ab ovo quod ibi deponit Apis orta, quas usque ad 
mutationem liquore illo vescitur, jamque mutatura 
theca se includit. Nympbae ^tas unciae longae 
sunt, plusquam 4- tarn latae, rugosa?, colore albo, 
forcipibus nigricantibus, capitibus fere eruciformi- 
bus. Infimse apes semper seniores sunt et majores ; 
foramini seu exitui proximas minores et juniores, 
sed omnes simul efFormantur, et calor irritat ad 
exitum foramini proximas. Per integrum fere 
annum in capsulis latent." 

Can we consider this curious history without 
adoring that divine wisdom which teaches these 
diminutive creatures to provide in so wonderful a 
manner for the security and sustenance of their 
young? Who is it that instructs them to bore a 
fistular passage either under ground or in the trunk 
of a tree for the reception of their nests ? What 
rule do they take with them to the shrub from 
which they borrow their materials to assist them 
in meting out their work, by which they cut some 
pieces into portions of an ellipse, others into ovals, 
others into accurate circles, and to suit the dimen- 
sions of the several pieces of each figure so exactly 
to each other ? Where is the architect who can 
carry impressed upon the tablet of his memory the 
entire idea of the edifice he means to erect, and 
without rule, square, plumb-line, or compass, can 
cut out all his materials in thdr exact dimensions, 


FAMILI/E. {Jpis. **. c. 2. «.) j^^ 

without making a single mistake or a single false 
stroke ? And yet this is what these little animals 
invariably do, and thus teach us how much more 
wonderful and certain instinct is, than all the 
efforts of our boasted reason, which after many 
painful processes interrupted by numerous errors 
and failures, and by a long train of deductions, 
cannot arrive at that expertness and certainty, 
which these creatures manifest spontaneously, 
working at all times with unerring precision. 
What is this instinct but the teaching of the 
Almighty, the manifestation of his eternal 
WISDOM infinitely diversified (^), sustaining, di- 
recting, impelling all things, and making all things 
work together for the good of the whole ? Which, 
like its great emblem and instrument the light, acts 
every where and upon all, and while it guides the 
planets in their courses, directs the minutest ani- 
pialcule to do those things that are necessary to 
its preservation and the continuation of its kind. 
*^ Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom 
and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are 
his judgments and his ways past finding out ! Of 
him and through him, and to him are all things : 
to whom be glory for ever. Amen (u)." 

* *. c. 2. 0. (x) 
H. F. A. Corpus oblongum, villosum, saepius 
fiavo variegatum ; Capite trunco paulo angustiori, 

(/) H ToXuffomXoj (7o(J>»«. Ephes. iii. 10. {zi) Rom, xi, 33, 35, 
(r) Tab, Q, **. c. 2. ^. Apis, Fab. 

rotundatq ; 

172 FAMILIiE. {Jpls. **. c. 2. /S.) 

rotundato; Lingua subinvolut^; Tubo dentibus 
Jateralibus obsoletis ; Fulcro elongato, subclavato ; 
Laciniis exterioribus articulis subEeqiialibus, inte- 
rioribus lineari-lanceolatis, acutis; Falvulis apice 
lanceolato-lineari, concavo, incurvo, submembra- 
naceo, line^ longitudinali cornea; Palpis exteri- 
oribus exarticulatis, pilosis ; Stemmatibiis in trian- 
gulo; Naso convexo, distincto; Lahio elongato, 
inilexo, concavo-convexo; Maxillis forcipatis, vali- 
dissimis, apice dilatatis et multidentatis ; ^ntennis 
subclavatisj pedicello, apiceque articulo primo, siib- 
conicis ; Plands dilatatis ; Unguiculis apice bifidis ; 
pulvillo minutissimo; Ahdoniine svJo^oho&o, con- 
vexo, basi subretuso, incurvo, ventre lana polli- 
nifera vestito. 

Maris MaxiUcE apice tridentatae. Antennce filiforr 
mes. Anus inflexus, spinosus. Plantce angustiores. 

Imago pollinifera. 

The insects of this subdivision, of which at pre- 
sent I know only one English species, viz. Apis 
manicata, Lin. are distinguished from those of the 
last, not only by exarticulate exterior palpi, but 
likewise by the form of their abdomen, which is 
convex and rather globose with an incurved anus, 
in the male often inflected and armed with long 
spines (?/). They are also adorned with gayer 
colourins: than the individuals of the other sections 
of this family, the abdomen being usually variega- 
ted with yellow spots. 

{y) Tab, 9. **. c. 3. |5. fig. 11. 


FAlMILt^. (Jpis. **. c. 2. /S.) 173 

Linneus observes upon this bee " In arhorihus 
cavis nidos construit ;" but he takes no notice of 
the materials of which the nidi were made: this 
deficiency has been supplied by Mr. James Trim- 
mer and Sir Thomas Cullum. The former of these 
gentlemen sometime since informed me, that 
having frequent opportunities of watching the 
motions of Apis manicafa, and finding that it 
constantly attended Stackj/s Germcmica, Agros- 
temma coronaria, and other woolly leaved plants 
which grew in his garden ; he was curious to know 
the reason of this preference. It was not long 
before his curiosity was gratified, and he discovered 
that it was the wool which covers the surface of 
the leaves of these plants, that was the attraction ; 
for he observed the little animal, with her strong 
maxillae, scraping it off with great industry and 
perseverance; and while these were thus employed, 
rolling it up, with her fore legs, into a little ball ; 
making all the time a considerable hum. The use 
to which she applied the material thus collected 
Mr. Trimmer could never discover, we only con- 
jectured that she employed it in the construction 
of her nest. Our conjecture is almost turned into 
certainty, by the following account, given, by my 
ingenious friend Sir Thomas Cullum, to Mr. 
Marsham, of a nest which he found made of 
similar materials. He thus expresses himself con- 
cerning it in a letter to that gentleman. " I ob- 
served in a look to one of my garden gates, that 


J 74 FAMILI/E. {Apis. **. c. 2. /3.) 

the key did not turn round easily, and upon look- 
ing into the key hole I saw something white. I 
had the lock taken off, and it was completely full 
of a downy substance, containing the pupa of some 
bee, I conclude. Upon examining the downy sub- 
stance, I am certain it is the fine pappus, or down, 
from the u4nemone sijlvestris, of which I had two 
plants in my garden. I have preserved the whole 
as I found it, but the bee has not yet made its 
appearance in its perfect state. I shall watch their 
progress, and send them to you, or to Mr. Kirby.'* 
This letter is dated October JO, 1800. Sir Thomas 
has since had the goodness to send me the nidus, 
the pupae are still quiescent, (April 2, 1801) and 
JDrobably will not be disclosed till after midsummer. 
Upon comparing it with the anecdote, which I 
have just related of A. manicata, I cannot help' 
being of opinion that it is the nidus of that Apis. 
It is with some hesitation that I venture to differ 
from so accurate an observer as Sir Thomas Cul- 
lum, but it appears evident to me that the wool 
' which envelopes the nest and the cells, is scraped 
from the leaves of one of the plants mentioned 
above. I gathered some leaves of Agrbstemma 
coronariay and with my pen-knife shaved off some 
of its down, and upon comparing it with that used 
in the nest under a magnifier, I found that they 
were exactly the same. This, in conjunction 
with Mr. Trimmer's account, persuades me that 
the material employed in this instance is not the 


FAMILIiE. (Apis. **. c. 2. /3.) 375 

pappus oi Anemone sylvestris, which is of a more 
silky texture. 

There were several cells, or cases, included in 
the lock, unconnected with each other, except by 
the wool which was their common covering. These 
cases were of an oval form (z), and consisted of an 
exterior coat of wool ; under this was a membra- 
naceous cell, of a pale colour, which was covered 
with a number of small vermiform masses of a 
brown substance, seemingly made of pollen and 
honey, in shape and size much resembling Sphceria 
canaliculata, and like that fungus distinguished by 
a longitudinal furrow slightly impressed («) . These 
were laid, without any regular order, over the cell ; 
and by means of them the wool which formed its 
exterior coat was made to adhere. It is remarkable 
that this bee should employ those materials to 
cover its cells, which others use only as food for 
their larvae. At the summit of this membrana- 
ceous case is a small chimney with an orifice (Z'), 
and within it contains another cell, which is rather 
coriaceous, strong, and of a brow^n colour, in the 
inside shining very much as if covered with tin- 
foil (c). This may be the folliculus or coccoon 
made by the larva, previous to its assuming the 
pupa. 1 opened one of these in the autumn, and 
another in the spring. In both the animal was 
still in its larva state, but had no food remaining in 

{%) Tab. 14. n. 11. fig 13. (a) Ibid. fig. 14. aa. fig, \7. 

{b) Ibid. fig. 15, 16. (c) Ibid, fig. 16. 


176 FAMILIiE. {Apis. **. c. 2. /3. y.) 

its cell. In that opened in the spring it appeared 
to be dead. I imagine, when Sir Thomas Cullum 
first took them, that they were just ready for their 
first change ; but that the alteration occasioned by 
removing the nest from the situation the parent 
insect had chosen for it, was fatal to some, if not 
all, of its inhabitants. The larva does not differ 
materially from those of other Apes(^). Amongst 
the wool, which, I suppose, formed the general 
envelope of the nest, were masses of honey, or a 
sweet pollen paste. 

This bee is very common in gardens in towns, 
or in the neighbourhood of towns. I never met 
with it in my own garden, or in the country. 

* #. c. 2. y. (e) 

H. F. A. Corpus elotigato-cylindricum, sub- 
pilosum ; Capite trunco paulo latiori, subgloboso ; 
Lingua tenui ; Tiiho apice tridentato, dente inter- 
medio majori ; Fulcro subtriangulari ; Lacinik 
exterioribus articulo primo brevessimo ; Falvulis 
apice lanceolato-lineari, concavo, submembranaceo, 
linea longitudinali cornea ; Palpis exterioribus bi^ 
articulatis, interloribus exarticulatis ; Stemmatihus 
ih triangulo ; Naso convexo ; Lahid elongato, in- 
fiexo, concavo-convexo ; Maxillis basi latioribus,, 
apice bidentatis ; jintennis subclavatis, pedicello 
magno, subovato ; Ahdomine sublineari, anum ver- 
sus paulo latiori; Ventre lana pollinifera subhirsuto. 
(cf) Tab. 14, n, 11. fig. 18. (f)Tab,9. **. c.2. r. i/a^<:ea^,Fab, 


FAMILI^. {Jpis. **. c. 2. y.) 177 

Maris Antenyice filiformes. Am incurvb, saeplus 
dentato. Ventre anum versus cavitate notando. 

The third subdivision of this section, is distin- 
guished by a peculiarity which exists in no other 
Hymenopterous insects that I have examined ; the 
interior palpi of the species that belong to it con- 
sist only of a single joint (/"). Their body is very 
long, slender, and cylindrical; the venter of the 
males, near the anus, is remarkable for a singular 
cavity, usually covered with down of a pale colour 
and resembling satin, to answer which, at its base, 
there is either a kind of horn, or a protuberance {g). 
These insects, when asleep, roll themselves up 
something like Oniscus Armadillo^ the horn or 
protuberance fitting into the anal cavity: they 
nidificate in posts and rails. The males usually 
take their luxurious repose in the lap of a flower : 
that sex of -^. Campanulanwi, selects for this pur- 
pose the bells of the different species of Campanula, 
which the female also frequents for the sake of the 
honey. Hylaus Jlorisomnis, maxillosus, and trun- 
corumiji), figured by Panzer, belong to this sub- 

* *. c. 2. 5. (?) 
H. F. A. Corpus cylindricum, villosum, saepe 
hirsutum; Capite trunci fere latitudine, subglo- 

(/) Tab. 9. y. fig. 5. I. (g) Ibid, fig. 11. 13. a. 

(/i) Fn. Germ. Init. n. 46. t. 13. n. 53. t. 17. n. 64. t. 15. 
(i) Tab. 10. **. c. 2. S. Andrena, Apis, Fab. Aheilles via- 
cnnnes, Eeaum. 

N boso J 

17S FAWILiiE. {Apis. **. c. 2. 5.) 

boso ; Lingua longissima^ siibinvoliita ; Tubo apice 
tridentato, dentibus lateralibus interdum obsoletis ; 
Fidcro elongato ; Laciniis exterioribus articulo ul- 
timo longiori, interioribus lanceolatis, acuminatis ; 
Paimdis iiicurvis, apice lanceolato-Hnearr, mem- 
branaceo, linea longitiidinali cornea ; Palpis exte- 
rioribus quadriarticulatis, interioribus biarticulatis ; 
Stemmatihus m lined curva ; Naso convexo ; Lahio 
elongato, inflexo, concavo-convexo ; Maxillis fere 
in angulum protensrs ; j4ntennis plerisque subcla- 
vatis, pedicello, apiceque articulo primo, subconicis ; 
Unguicidis integris ; Ahdonu7ie declivi, supra cOn- 
» vexo, ano saspius incurvo ; Ventre lana pollinifera 

Maris AntenncE pedicello subgloboso. UnguicuU 
apice bilidi. Abdomen scgmento septimo obsolete. 
AniLs SEepe emarginatus, aut dentatus. 

This last subdivision of the second section of 
this family, contains a greater number of species 
than the preceding ones : they are distinguished 
by a cylindrical, but not elongate, body ; and their 
exterior palpi, in which circumstance they differ 
from all the other subdivisions, consist of four 
joints. Their abdomen is very convex, and that 
of the males furnished with no ventral concavity. 
The Aheillcs Maromies of Reaumur appear to me 
to belong to this subdivision; I shall, therefore, 
insert in this place an abridgment of his interest- 
ing account of the mode of nidificatlon of those 


FAMILIiE. {Apis. **. c. 2. 5.) 179 

He informs us, that the nests of these little bees 
are constructed of a kind of cement or mortar, in 
the following manner. " The female (for the 
males, like the drones of the hive bee, do no work, 
and these insects have only two sexes) undertakes 
the whole labour of the building, and is, at the 
same time, both architect and mason. Her first 
step is to fix upon an angle, sheltered by any pro- 
jection, on the south side of a stone wall. Some- 
times she contents herself with a more exposed 
part of the surface, where the stone happens to be 
uneven and lit for her purpose. Having chosen a 
spot proper to receive the foundations of the future 
mansion of her offspring, her next care is to pro- 
vide materials. As her house is to be built entirely 
of a kind of mortar, the basis of which, as it is of 
ours, must be sand ; she is very curious in her 
choice of it, selecting it, grain by grain, from such 
as contains some mixture of earth. To shorten 
her labour, before she transports it for use, by 
means of a kind of saliva which is very viscid, she 
glues as many grains as she can carry into a little 
mass, about the size of small shot. Taking this 
up with her maxillas, she conveys it to the spot she 
has fixed upon for the scite of her castle. A cir- 
cular plane, composed of many of these little 
masses, forms the basis on which it is to be erect- 
ed ; it contains from three to eight cells (-^), which 
are similar to each crthcr in their form, and equal 
ik) GeofFroy says twelve or fifteen. , 

N 2 i» 

JSO FAMILI^. (Apis. ^*. c. 2. 5.) 

in dimensions. Each cell is about an inch iit 
length, and six lines in diameter ; and, before its 
orifice is closed, in form resembles a thimble. 
When its walls are raised to a sufficient height, 
our little mason lays up in it a store of pollen 
seasoned with honey, for the sustenance of its future 
inhabitant ; sometimes the proportion of honey 
is so great, that this provision is entirely liquid. 
This business settled, she deposits her egg, finishes 
and covers in the cell, and then proceeds to the 
erection of a second, which she furnishes and 
finishes in the same manner ; and so on with re- 
spect to the ^^'hole nest. These cells are not placed 
in a line, or any regular order : some are parallel 
with the wall, others are perpendicular to it, and 
others are inclined to it at different angles : this 
occasions many empty spaces between the cells, 
which this laborious architect fills up with the 
same kind of cement, and then bestows upon the 
w^hole group a common covering, made with 
coarser grains of sand ; so that at length the nest 
becomes a mass of mortar, very hard and not 
easily penetrated, even by the blade of a knife. 
In form, it is more or less oblong ; its colour de- 
pends upon the colour of the sand employed in its 
construction, and is different in different countries. 
These bees sometimes repair old nests, for the pos- 
session of v.hich they have often very desperate 

'' When 

FAMILLE. (Apis. *^. c. 2. 5.) ISl 

" When the larva of this bee is arrived at its 
full size, it spins itself a cocoon of silk, in which it 
reposes during its intermediate state. 

" Strongly fortified as these animals appear to 
be in their little castles, they are exposed to the 
attacks of a peculiar Ichneumon. JUelalms api- 
arius likewise contrives to deposit its eggs in their 
cells, and its larva devours their inhabitants (/)." 

Other bees, that belong to this subdivision,- use 
only fine earth (which they form into a kind of 
mortar with gluten) in the construction of theu* 
nests, which are usually placed in situations shel- 
tered from wet. jlpis hicornis selects the hollows 
of large stones for this purpose (/??). Others, again, 
make their cells of earth in holes in wood. j4pis 
ccerulesccns, of which Apis cenea is the male, con- 
structs its nests, as we learn from De Geer(K), of 
argillaceous earth mixed with chalk, upon stone 
walls. I have reason to think that it also nidificates 
in chalk pits. 

The males, in this subdivision, often differ very 
widely from the other sex, so as to have been de- 
scribed, in more than one instance, as distinct 
species, as I shall have occasion to shew more at 
large hereafter. The female of Reaumur's Aheille 
mapnne is black, while the male is red(o). 

(/) Reaum. torn. 6. Mem. 3. p. 5" — 5S. [m) Ibid. p. S(5. 
{n) Tom, 2. p. 2. p. 751—54. Tab. 32. fig. 1-3. (o) Reaum. 
ttbi supra, P- ^0^ 6l. 

N 3 The 

J 32 FAMILIiE. {Apis. **. d. l.) 

The following insects, figured in Panzer's work, 
appear to belong to this subdivision : viz. ^4pis 
cornigera, adunca, rufa, fusca, aterrima, Jiiligi" 
nosa,fulviventriSy ventralis, hyssina, glohosa, fron- 
ticornis, aurulenta (p), and Andrena conea and 
ccerulescens (q) . 

* #. d. 1. (r) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongunij villosum ; Capite 
trunco paulo angustiori, subtriangulari, ore crassi- 
usculo ; Prohoscide apice subulato-conica, rectiuSr 
cula ; Lingua involuta ; Tuho apice tridentato ; 
Fulcro elongato ; Laclniis exterioribus articulo 
primo longiori, interioribas exteriorum longitudine, 
involutis, intus ciliatis ; Valvulis apice recto, lan- 
ceolato-Iineari, acuminato, subplic^to, coriaceo ; 
Pa/pis exterioribus sexarticulatis, interioribus biar- 
articulatis ; Steinmatihus in linea curva ; Oculis 
prominulis ; Naso convexo, distincto ; Lahio an- 
tice emarginato ; Maxillis subedentulis ; Antennis 
subclavatis, pedicello subgioboso, apice articulo 
primo elongato, basi attenuato; Tihiis posticis 
scopa pollinifera ; Plantis posticis dilatatis, hirsutis ; 
Digitis infra apicem plantse insertis ; Unguiculis 
apice bifidis ; Ahdomine oblongo^ basi subretuso, 
segmento ultimo minuto. 

(p) Fn. Ins. Germ. Init. n. 55. t. 15. n.56. t.5, 10, 11, 15, 
16, 18, 20, 21, 22. n. 63. t. 20, 22. {q) Ibid. n. 56. t. 3. 

n. 65. t. 18. (r) Tab, 10. **. d, 1. Eucera, Scop, 

Fab. Latr. 


FAMILT^. (^pis. **. d. 1.) 183 

Maris AntenncE corporis longitudine, articulis 
arcuatis, ex hexagon is innumeris constantibus, apice 
articulo primo minuto. Planto' postica3 tenuiores. 
Tiie individuals of the family of which this is a 
section^ are djstinguisiied from the Boml-inatrices, 
to wliich they approach^ and with which many of 
them have hitherto been confounded, by the form 
of the inflected part of their proboscis ; the tops 
of the valvules having no bend, and conniving 
into a figure more or less conical, somewhat re- 
sembling the beak of a bird {s) ; by their exterior 
palpi of six joints {t) ; by their elongate interior 
laciniae (il) ; by the shape of their maxilla?, which 
are not dilated at their apex (x) ; by the want of 
the corbicula and auricle, which distinguish the 
posterior tibial and plantse of the aculeate sex of 
the Bomhinatrices ; and by several other peculi- 
arities which will appear upon a comparison of their 
respective characters. 

The species which I have arranged under the 
first section of this family, belong to the genus 
Eucera of Scopoli and Fabricius, so named from 
the long antennae for which the males are remark- 
able. This circumstance, in conjunction with the 
interior lacinisc, which are as long as the exterior, 
and have involute summits, forms the distinctive 

{s) Tab. 11. **. d. 2. «. fig. 3. d. {() Ibid. fig. 2. a, and 
Tab. 10. -it if. d. 1. fig. 1. d. («) Ibid. fig. 2. hb. and Tab. 

1 1 . ubi Slip. //, (t) Tab. 10, ubi sup. fig. 4, 5. and Tab. 

11. fig. 6, 7, 8, 21. 

N 4 character 

184 FAMILLf:. (Apis. **. d. 1.) 

character of the section. The extraordinary length 
of the antennae of the males, does not arise from 
an increased number of articulations, for they con-r 
sist only of fourteen, but from the unusual length 
of each joint. A singular circumstance distin- 
guishes these antennae, which, to the best of my 
knowledge, has never before been noticed, and 
■which may possibly lead to the discovery of the 
use of these organs. Placed under a powerful 
magnifier the ten last joints appear to be composed 
of innumerable hexagons, similar to those of which 
the eyes of these insects consist (y). If we reason 
from analogy, this remarkable circumstance will 
lead us to conjecture that the sense, of which this 
part so essential to insects is the organ, may bear 
some relation to that conveyed by their eyes. As 
they are furnished with no instrument for receiving 
and communicating the impressions of sound, 
similar to the ear, that deficiency may be supplied 
by extraordinary means of vision. That the stem- 
mata are of this description seems very probable, 
and the antennae may, in some degree, answer a 
similar purpose: the circumstance just mentioned 
furnishes a strong presumption that they do this, 
at least in the case of these males : else why do 
they exhibit that peculiar structure which distin^ 
guishes the real eye ? 

The great vise which insects make of their an-r 
Itennse in collecting information is described in a very 

(y) Tab. 10 ubi sup. fig. 8. 


FAMILI^. {Apis. **. d. 1.) 185 

entertaining manner, in Mr. Marsham's interesting 
paper upon the history of Ichneumon manifestator, 
in the third vokime of the Transactions of the 
Linnean Society. " It moved rapidly," says he, 
" over the top of the post, having its antennae bent 
in the form of an arch, and with a strong vibratory 
motion feeHng about until it came to a hole made 
by some insect, into which it thrust its antenna 
quite to the head. It remained a minute at least 
m this situation apparently very busy, and then 
drawing out its antenna came round to the exactly 
opposite side of the hole, again thrust in its an- 
tennae and remained nearly the same time. It next 
proceeded to one side of the hole, repeating the 
operation, the antennas quivering in a surprizing 
manner; and having now again drawn out its an- 
tennae, turned about, and dexterously measuring a 
proper distance, threw back its abdomen over the 
head and thorax, at the same time projecting its 

long and delicate tube into the hole. after 

remaining near two minutes in this posture, it drew 
out the tube, turned round, and again applied its 
antennae to the hole for nearly the same time as 

before. 1 again paid very particular attention 

to some I saw in Kensington gardens, but more 
immediately to the action of the antennae, which 
they thrust into many holes and crevices, but soon 
drew them out, not finding, I presume, a proper 
situation for their eggs(z)." Thus far this inge- 
(2) P. 26, 28. 


ISQ FAMILIiE. (Jpis. **. d. 1.) 

nious entomologist. In this instance, the antennas 
appear to have been the instrument which informed 
the little animal both where the holes were that she 
was in search of, and also whether the larva, to 
which the Author of Nature had instructed her to 
commit her eggs, was in them. I have often seen 
the hive bee insert one of its antennae into the 
blossom of a flower previous to exerting its tongue 
to collect the honey, as if to inform itself first 
whether there was any; and insects in general, 
when they are v/alking, keep perpetually moving 
their antennae from side to side, as if, by their 
means, they vv'ere collecting information concern- 
ing what was going forward around them. 

But to return to the insects of which we are 
treating. Miller in the MS. notes before quoted(«), 
gives the following short history of ^^pis longicor- 
nis. " Mense Julio medio copidantur prope terrain 
volitantes in graviine detonso. In puteo cylindrico 
terrce ovafemina deponit." These cells are two or 
three inches below the surface of the ground ; they 
are very smooth within, and of an oval form. I 
found several in the southern declivity of a grass 
walk, which had been frequently mowed. 

# *. d. 2. a. (b) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongum, villosum, interdum 
hirsutum; Capita trunco angustiori, vel subtri- 

(a) Vide supra, p. 6l, note %. {J:) Tab. 11. **. d. 2. ». 

ApiS;, Eucera, Fab. 


FAMlLIiE. {Jpis. **. d. 2. a.) 

angulari, vel rotundato; Ore crasso; Frohoscide 
apice subulato-conica. recta ; Lingua subinvoluta ; 
Tubo apice tridentato dente intermedio longiori; 
Fulcro elongate; Laciniis exterioribus articulo ul- 
timo brevissimo, interioribus lanceolato-linearibuSj 
quam exteriores brevioribus; Valvulis rectis, apice 
lanceolato-linearij subplicato, coriaceo ; Palpis ex- 
terioribus sexarticulatis, interioribus biarticulatis ; 
Stemmatibus in triangulo ; Ocidis prominulis, mag- 
nis; Naso convexo, distincto; Labio quadrato; 
Maxillis apice saepius bidentatis ; jintennis subcla- 
vatis, pedicello globoso, apice articulo primo elon- 
gatOj basi attenuato; Tibiis posticis scopa polli- 
nifera ; . Plantis posticis dilatatis ; Digitis infra 
apicem plantas insertis; Unguiculis apice bifidis; 
Abdomine vel oyato, vel subgloboso^ basi retuso, 
segmento ultimo minuto. 

Maris AntenncB thorace breviores. PlardcB 
posticas angustiores^ digitis ex apice plantae pro- 

The insects of this section are distinguished 
from the preceding by two principal circumstances, 
the interior laciniae are much shorter than the ex- 
terior with tops not involute, and the antennae of 
the males are not so long as the thorax. The spe- 
cies that enter into the present subdivision of the 
section, differ from those of the next, in the form 
of their proboscis, which is subulato-conical; in 
the substance of the apex of the valvulae, which is 
coriaceous J in the figure of their lip, which is 

square ; 


IQQ FAMILI^. {Jpis. **. d. 2. a.) 

square; besides several other circumstances whicl) 
will appear upon a comparison of their several 
characters. Their mode of nidification is various, 
which makes me suspect that there may be room 
for another subdivision, but this I have not yet 
been able to trace out. ^pis retusa makes its nest 
with us in hard banks of gravel or clay, containing 
several cells, of an oval or elliptical shape, covered 
within with a thin white membrane, each being 
about three-fourths of an inch in length, and not 
quite half an inch in diameter ; they are placed in 
no regular order. In Northamptonshire, as we 
learn from Ray, it makes its cells in stone walls. 
I found it myself in great abundance frequenting 
the walls built with Kettering stone at Wansford 
and UfFord in that county ; and once, at Norwich, 
1 was much amused at seeing a female, one sunny 
morning, very busily employed upon a brick wall, 
and exerting all her might to pull the mortar from 
betv/een the bricks ; but whether this was to pre- 
pare a place for a cell, or only a sheltered cavity 
to pass the night in, according to the observation 
of Rossi, I could not ascertain. Another species, 
belonging to this subdivision, nidificates in a man- 
ner similar to ^pis violacea, in pieces of putrescent 
wood. In these they bore a longitudinal pipe, 
which they divide into nine or ten oval chambers, 
separated from each other by a sharp kind of cor- 
nice, which form the shells of an equal number of 
oval cells ; these are made of the scrapings of the 


FAMILI^. (Jpis. ^*. d. 1. «.) I89 

Wood much masticated. Each cell is rather more 
than half an inch in length, and about three tenths 
of an inch in diameter : the partitions which sepa- 
rate the cells from each other are made of the same 
material, and are about a line in thickness. The 
pipe runs nearly pai'allel with the sides of the piece 
of wood in which it is bored, making an angle 
where it begins and where it ends, and having its 
entrance on the opposite side to its exit. Probably 
the inhabitants of the lowermost cells make their 
■way out at the exit, and those of the uppermost at 
the entrance (c). To this subdivision belong ^pis 
Hlspanica, pilipes, limaculata, vulpina, quadri- 
maculata, furcata, rotundata (d), and Andrena 
strigosa of Panzer (e). 

* *. d. 2. ^. (/) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongum ; Capite trunco 
angustiori, lato, rotundato, depresso ; Prohoscide 
breviuscula, conica, recta, fornicata ; Lingua brevi, 
rectiuscula ; Tuho apice tridentato, dentibus asqua- 
libus ; Laciniis exterioribus articulo ultimo brevi ; 
ValvuUs apice scmicordato, acuto, corneo, conca- 
vo, basis vertice eroso, sinu pectinato; Palpis ex- 
terioribus sexarticulatis, interioribus biarticulatis ; 
Facie inaequali ; Slemmatibus in triangulo, infra 
verticem sitis ; Oculis distantibus, prominulis ; 

(c) Apisfurcata makes tliese nests. {d) Panzer Fn. Ins. 
Germ. luit. n. 55. t. 6,, S, 1/. 11. 56. t. Q, /, 8, 9. {e) Ibid. 

n.64. t. 16. (/) Tab. 11, ^^■. d. 2. 8. lig. 19, 20, 21. 

Jpis, Fab. Lati-. 

igO FAMILIjE. (Apis. **. d. 2. /5.) 

Naso planiusculo, tuberculo munito ; Lahio antic^ 
emarginato, setoso; Maxillis apice bidentatis; 
j4ntennis subclavatis, pedicello globoso, apice ar- 
ticulo primo eldngato, basi attenuate; Trunco 
plerisque hirsute ; Alls subcoriaceis, coloratis ; 
Tihiis posticis brevibus, scopa pollinifera vestitis ; 
Plantis posticis elongatis, hirsutissimis ; Digitis ex 
apice plantae provenientibus ; UnguicuUs bifidis ; 
jihdomine oblongo, basi retuso, supra plerisque 
glabriusculo^ lateribus hirsutis^ ano rotundato, 
ventre planiusculo. 

Maris Oculi magni, ssepe approximati. Tarsi 
tenuiores, miniis hirsuti. 

This subdivision, which contains Apis violacea, 
Lin., and its affinities, may be known by the fol- 
lowing peculiarities. The summits of the valvulae, 
which are short, wide, and of a hard, corneous 
substance, connive into the longitudinal section of 
a cone, and form a strong arch over the tongue. 
The head is rounded, the space between the eyes 
is ample, the lip is strengthened by a tubercle, and 
is emarginate before, and beset with numerous 
bristles. The abdomen, in most, is hair)^ only on 
its sides, rather convex above, and flattish under- 
neath. The wings are coloured, often of a bril- 
liant purple or violet, and usually of a substance 
between coriaceous and membranous. Concern- 
ing the proboscis of these insects, I am able to say 
but little, except as to its exterior figure, since I 
have had an opportunity of examining only one, 


FAMILIiE. (Jpis. **. d. 2. ^.) IQl 

that I had extracted from an old specimen o£ Apis 
violacea, in which it was mutilated, so that I could 
not discover the shape of the interior laciniae. The 
valvulas, however, exterior laciniae, and palpi were 
uninjured. The only species that I have ever seen, 
belonging to this subdivision, which claims to have 
been taken in England, is yJpis iricolor of the fol- 
lowing pages ; but its claim is not established with 
certainty, for Dr. Latham, from whose collection 
I received it, is not quite decided in his opinion 
upon this point ; but as he has always placed it 
in his cabinet with his English- insects, I have con- 
sidered it as such ; which I M'as the more inclined 
to do, in order to lay down the characters of the 
subdivision to which it belongs, the individuals of 
which have been universally confounded with the 
Bomhinatrices ; from \^'hich, however, they are 
distinguished by the striking characters mentioned 
in my observations upon the first section of the 
family {g) . Whether all of them nidificate in the 
same way with Apis violacea, I am not able to say, 
it is probable they may. Reaumur has given us a 
very interesting account of the proceedings of that 
bee, which I shall now abridge. 

" The mother bee usually makes her appearance 
early in the year, as soon as the winter is over; 
she may then be met with in gardens, visiting such 
walls, as are covered with trees trained upon trellis 
\\ ork, in a warm sunny aspect ; when once she has 
{g) Vide supra, p. 133. 


IQ2 FAMILIiE. {Jpis. **. d. 2. /?.) 

begun to make her appearance, she frequently re- 
turnSj and during a long period; and she may 
ahvays be known by her size, and her hum, which 
much resembles that of the Bomhinatrices. The 
object of her earlier visits is to fix upon a piece of 
wood proper for her purposes. She usually selects 
the putrescent uprights of arbours, espaliers, or the 
props of vines ; but sometimes she will attack gar- 
den seats, thick doors, and window shutters; the 
piece that she chooses is commonly cylindrical and 
perpendicular to the horizon. Her strong maxillae 
are the instruments which she employs in boring 
it : beginning on one side for a little way she points 
lier course obliquely downwards, and then pro- 
ceeds in a direction parallel with its sides, till she 
has bored a tunnel of from twelve to fifteen inches 
in length, and seven or eight lines in diameter. 
Sometimes three or four of these tunnels, or pipes, 
nearly parallel with each other, where the diameter 
will admit of it, are bored in the same piece. A 
passage is left v/here she enters or first begins to 
bore, and another at the other end of the pipe. 
As the industrious animal proceeds in her employ- 
ment, she clears away the wood, which she de- 
taches, throwing it out upon the ground, where it 
appears like a small heap of saw- dust. Thus we 
see she has prepared a long cylinder in the middle 
of the wood, sheltered from the weather and exter- 
nal injuries, and fit for her purposes. But how is 
she to divide it into cells ? What materials can she 



FAMILLE. (Jpls. **. d.2.$.) ]q3 

employ for making the floors and ceilings of her 
miniature apartments ? Why, truly, God " doth 
instruct her to discretion, and doth teach her (A)," 
the saw-dust just mentioned is at hand, and this 
supplies her with all that she wants to make this 
part of her mansion complete. Beginning at the 
bottom of the cylinder she deposits an egg, and 
then lays in a store of pollen mixed with honey 
sufficient for the nutriment of the little animal it is 
to produce. At the height of seven or eight lines, 
which is the depth of each cell, she next constructs, 
of particles of the saw-dust glued together and also 
to the sides of the tunnel, what may be called an 
annular stage, or scaffolding ; when this is suffici- 
ently hardened its interior edge affords a support 
for a second ring of the same materials, and thus 
the ceiling is gradually formed of these concentric 
circles, till there remains only a small orifice in its 
center, and this is also filled up with a circular 
mass of agglutinated particles of the saw-dust. 
This partition exhibits the appearance of as many 
concentric circles as the animal has made join- 
ings (/), and is about the thickness of a French 
crown-piece ; it serves for the ceiling of the lower, 
and the floor of the upper apartment. One cell 
being completed, she proceeds to another, which 
she furnishes and finishes in the same manner, 
and so on till she has divided her whole tunnel into 
apartments, which arc usually about twelve. The 
(h) Isai. xxviii. 26. (i) Reaum. torn. 6. tab. 0. fig, 4, 5. 
o larvas 

194 FAMILItE. (Jpis. **. d. 2, (5. c. 1.) 

larvae and pupae of these, do not differ materially 
from those of other Bees ; when the former as- 
sumes the pupa, it is placed in its cell with its head 
downwards, a very wise precaution, for thus it is 
prevented, when it has attained to its perfect state, 
and is eager to emerge into day, from making its 
way out upwards, and disturbing the tenants of the 
superincumbent cells, who being of later date, each 
than its neighbour below stairs, are not yet quite 
ready to go into public (^)." Thus far, for the 
most part, from our author. 

To this subdivision belong, besides ^. violacea, 
A. Caffra, latipes, nigrita, Tranqueharorum, ces- 
tuanSj Brazilianorum, Firginica, cingulata, Afri- 
cana, &c. &c. 

# *. e. 1. 

H. F. Neut. Corpus fere lineare, pubescens ; 
Capite trunci prope latitudine, triangulari; Pro- 
hoscide subinvoluta ; Lingua rima longitudinali ; 
Tuho sublineari, apice truncato ; Fulcro subtrian- 
gulari; Laciniis exterioribus membranaceis linea 
longitudinali cornea, articulo extimo breviori; in- 
terioribus brevibus, obtusis, linguae basin arete am- 
plectentibus ; Valvulis apice lineari-lanceolato, sub- 
plicato, ex corneo submembranaceo, linea longitu- 
dinali cornea; Palpis exterioribus exarticulatis 
acutis, interioribus biarticulatis ; Facie inaequali; 

(k) Reaum. torn. (5. Mem, 2. (I) Tab. 11, **. e. 1. and 

tab. 12. Adams on Micros, tab. 13. fig. 3. Jpis, Fab. Lair. 


FAMILT^. (^pis. **, c. 1.) IQS 

Stemmat'ihus in triangnlo ; OcuJis pilosis; Naso dis- 
tinctOj convexo; Lahio transverso, sublineari, plani- 
usculo; Maxillis forcipati?, medio constrietis, apice 
edentulis obliquis ; jintennis filiformibus, scapo fu- 
siformi, pedicello subgloboso; Tihiis posticis com- 
pressis, supra glabris, margine omni recurvo-ciliatis 
/. corbicala instructis, apice inermibus f. absque spi- 
nulis ; Plantis posterioribus dilatatis, basi auricula tis 
auricula acuta, intus scopula transverse striata striis 
setoso-pectinatis, vestitis ; Unguiculis bifidis; Ahdo- 
mine subprismatico, basi retuso, tergo convexo. 

Feminas Proboscis brevis. Lingua paulo infra 
apicem constricta. Tubus apice tridentatus, den- 
tibus lateralibus obsoletiusculis, intermedio sub- 
emarginato. Falvulte rectiusculae. Maxilla apice 
dentibus armatae. Tibice posticag supra, nee niar- 
gine, pilosae. Vlantie posticae absque auricula. 
Abdomen elongato-conicum 

Maris Corpus crassius; Caput ex globose depres- 
sum, fere circulare. ProZ^o^c/^brevis, crassior. Lingua 
tenuis. Valvular latiores. Maxill/^ apice dentibus 
armatae. Tibiae posticae corbicula nullS. Plantce 
posticae absque auricula et scopula. uibdomen sub- 
cordatum, obtusum. 

The family of which this is the first section, Is 
distinguished from that ^vhich precedes it by a sub- 
involute proboscis, and a triangular fulcrum; by 
membranaceous exterior laciniae and valvulae, with 
a longitudinal corneous line; by exterior palpi, 
consisting, as far as I can discover, of a single 

o 2 joint 

FAMILI^. (Jpls. **. c. 1.) 
joint only; by maxillae dilated at their apex ; by 
filiform antennae, the first joint of the apex not 
being attenuated at its base; by posterior tibiae 
furnished with a corbicula or little basket for car- 
rying wax; by the auricles which are observable 
at the base of the posterior plantae, and by their 
prismatical abdomen. Besides these differences, 
the individuals of it are distinguished in their 
economy from all other bees, by two remarkable 
circumstances, they are gregarious, and they make 
wax : reasons surely sufficient and satisfactory 
for separating them from the false Bomhina- 
trices, A violacea and its affinities. Agreement 
with the genuine Boinhinatrkes in these peculiari- 
ties will sufficiently justify me for considering A. 
mellifica as belonging to a subdivision of the same 
family. Indeed, the single circumstance that the 
■ALL WISE AUTHOR of nature has instructed these 
alone of all others to make wax and live together 
in societies, is the strongest of all possible proofs 
of their affinity. Reaumur, whose judgment ought 
to have great weight in these matters, was evi- 
dently, in this respect, of the same opinion with 
myself, for he places the Bomhinatriccs next to A, 
mellifica, and looks upon them as related to each 
other in the same degree that the rude cottagers of 
a country village are to the more polished inhabi- 
tants of a populous city (w). 

(/») Reaum. ubi supr. Pref, p. 3. 



FAMILLE. {Apis. **. e. 1.) 
This section, besides A. mellifica, contains se- 
veral other species, three very distinct ones I ob- 
served in Mr. Drury's cabinet, of which one came 
from Bengal, another from Madras, and a third 
from the Cape of Good Hope ; an equal number, 
still diiFerent, may be seen in Sir J. Banks's rich 
collection. All these species have the transversely 
striated posterior scopulge, which has usually beein 
looked upon as the exclusive character of the com- 
mon hive bee, like this too they have no spines at 
the apex of the third pair of tibia?, a very peculiar 
circumstance by which the insects of this section 
of the present family are distinguished, not only 
from all other u4pes., but also from every other in- 
dividual of the Class Hymenoptera that I have had 
an opportunity of examining. It is worth inquiry 
whether the mode of nidification of all, or any of 
the wild bees that belong to this section, be similar 
to that of the cultivated one ; should it turn out so, 
as I think it most probably would, as all have the same 
instruments, they might, perhaps, be domesticated 
in countries where the common one may not yet 
be introduced ; or some of them may have boen 
domesticated and mistaken for the common one. 

Linneus, in his Systema Natur^T^, says under -A. 
meUifica : " Femina — antennis articulis decem — 
Mares — antennis undecimarticulatis — Operariae — 
antennis quindecimarticulatis." In every one of 
these assertions, with due deference to a name so 
deservedly great be it spoken, he is mistaken, for 

o 3 the 

108 FAMILIiE. {^pis. **. c. l.) 

the antennae of the female and neuter consist of 
the same number of articulations exactly, viz. 
thirteen, including the radicle (n) : those of the 
male have fourteen joints (o), although the fourth 
and fifth, counting from the head, under any but 
a very powerful magnifier, appear to be but one, 
Many other authors have fallen into similar mis- 
takes on this head. Swammerdam says, if Hill 
rightly translates him, for 1 have not the original 
by me, that the antennae of the working bees have 
only five joints, while those of the males and fe- 
males have eleven (/)). Reaumur gives only twelve 
joints for the antennae of the neuter, including the 
radicle (q). GeofFroy says that those of the female 
and neuters consist of fifteen articulations, and 
those of the male of eleven only, he affirms also 
that the abdomen of the female consists of seven 
segments, instead of six, \vhich is the real num-r 
ber(r). Scopoli finally reduces the number of ar- 
ticulations of the antennae of the female to ten (5). 
A bulky volume would scarcely suffice for a 
complete account of the history, economy, mode 
of c^ilture, &c. of the hive bee ; I shall not, there- 
fore, at this time enter upon it, but content myself 
with referring my reader to the elaborate treatises 

(w) Tab. 12. e. 1. fem. fig. 6. and neut. fig. 13. 
(0) Tab. 11. e. 1. mas. fig. 5. (p) Hill's Swam, pt, 1. 

p. 167. I think there must be some mistake here, 
(y) Reaum. torn. 5. Mem. 6. p. 282. tab. 25. fig. 4. 
(r) GeofT. Hist. Ins. 2, p. 380, 38;. (s) Eut. Car, n.811. 


FAMILI^. (Jpis. **. e. 1. 2.) iqq 

of Swammerdamj Reaumur, Haber, Wildman, the 
entertaining dialogues of the Spectacle de la Nature, 
&c. where he will see what a wonderful display of 
the Divine Wisdom these little creatures exhibit, and 
m how extraordinary a manner, by their various in- 
stincts and operations, c^g 5/ icroTr]^^ zv cciviyiJ.oi7i (t), 
if he can solve it, they reflect the glory of God. 

* *. e. 2. (ii) 

H. F. A. Corpus oblongum, hirsutissimum ; 
Capite trunco angustiori, saepius triangulari ; Pro^ 
hoscide plils minils involute ; Lingua .nvcid. longitu- 
dinali ; Tuho lineari apice acuto ; Fulcro subtrian- 
gulari ; Laciniis exterioribus membranaceis linea 
longitudinali cornea, articulo extimo brevi ; interi- 
oribus brevissimis, obtusis, linguam arete amplec- 
tentibus ; Valvulis apice lanceolato-lineari, sub- 
membranaceo, linea longitudinali cornea; Palpis 
exterioribus exarticulatis, interioribus biarticulatis ; 
Vertice calvo cruce impresso ; Stemmatihus in linea 
curva, in crucis fossula transversa sitis ; Naso dis- 
tincto, convexo, glabro, nitido ; Labia transverso, 
sublineari, inaequali ; MaxiJlis supra sulcatis sulcis 
tomentosis, apice dilatatis subedentulis ; uintennis 
filiformibus, scapo subclavato, pedicello globoso, 
apice articulo primo longiori subconico ; Tibiis 
posticis corbicula instructis, supra inasquaiibus, 
glabris, apice setoso-pectinatis ; Plantis posticis di- 
latatis, basi auriculatis auricula obtusa, ap'ce pec- 

(0 1. Cor. xiii. 12. (u) Tab. 13. Apis. 

o 4 <.;ie 

200 FAMILL^E. {Apis. **. e. 2.) 

tine e setis instructs ; Digitis articulis spinuloso- 
setosis ; ScopuUs plerumque auratis ; Ungniculis 
^pice bifidls ; Ahdomine oblongo, interdum et 
subtriangulari, subprismatico, basi retuso, supra 
convexo, ano acutiusculo. 

Maris MaxilliB minores, apice bidentatscj dente 
interiori minuto, barbatas barba incurva, supra to- 
mentosae. Tibiae postlcae nee corbicula neque 
pectine instructae^ plerisque supra pilos?e. Plantce' 
posticae absque auricula. Anus obtusiusculus. 

Obs. In hac familia In aUe superioris reticulationu 
areola marginali striga nigricans plerumque inclu-- 
ditur{x); pedum geniculi extus sa^pius tomentoso-pal- 
lidi; tarsi e pilis sparsis decumhentihiis certo situ 
vel suhincani vel fulvescentes ; sub luce scopulce plu- 
rimorum aureo splendore micant. 

The principal characters^ besides their hirsute 
body, which distinguish the Bombinatrices from the 
hive bee and its affinities, are the cross impressed 
upon their vertex, their stemmata arranged in a 
curve, instead of a triangle, their lip unequal in 
surface, their maxillae sulcate on their upper side, 
and the spines which arm the apex of their poste- 
rior tibiae ; besides this the females, as well as the 
neuters, are furnished with the corbicula, and with 
the auricle at the base of the plantae of the last pair 
of legs, not to mention other slighter differences; 
in other respects the individuals of both sections, of 
this family exactly agree together. 

(x) Tab. 13. fig. 17. a. 


FAMILIiE. (Apis. **. e. 2.) 201 

With respect to the history, economy, &c. of 
the Bombinatrices, I cannot do better than abridge 
the account of these which Reaumur has given us, 
first observing that the females usually make their 
appearance early in the spring, as soon as the cat- 
kins of the different species of Sali.v are in blossom, 
upon which at this time they may commonly be 
seen, collecting honey from the female, and pollen. 
from the male catkins, although I have also seen 
them employ their tongue in the latter ; the ap- 
pearance of the neuters is later, and the males are 
most common in the autumn, when the thistles 
are in blossom, upon the flowers of which they are 
abundant, sometimes seemingly asleep, or torpid, 
at others acting as if intoxicated with the sweets 
they have been imbibing. When these animals, 
of any sex, are walking upon the ground, if a fin- 
ger be moved to them, they lift up the three legs of 
one side to defend themselves, which gives them 
a very grotesque appearance. Their nests are of- 
ten found in meadows and pastures, sometimes in 
groves and hedge-rows, where the soil is entangled 
-with roots, and now and then in heaps of stones. 

^' When they do not meet with an accidental 
cavity ready made, they excavate one themselves 
with great labour, which they cover with a thick 
convex vault or coping of moss, the interior sur- 
face or roof of which is sometimes cased or ceiled 
with a kind of coarse wax, in order to keep out the 
wet. At the lower part of the nest is an opening 


202 FAMILIiE. (Jpis. **. e. 2.) 

for its inhabitants to go in and out at ; this entrance 
is often through a long gallery, or covered way, 
sometimes more than a foot in length, by means of 
which the nest itself is more effectually concealed 
from observation. The mode in which they trans- 
port the moss they use is singular : it must be ob- 
served that they employ such only as grows upon 
the ground. When they have discovered a parcel 
of this conveniently situated, they place themselves 
upon it, with their anus towards the spot to which 
they mean to convey it : they first take a small 
portion, and with their maxillae and fore-legs, as it 
were, card and comb it ; when the pieces are suf-. 
ficiently disentangled, they are placed under the 
body by the first pair of legs, the intermediate pair 
receives them, and delivers them to the last, which 
pushes them as far as possible beyond the anus. 
When, by this process, the insect has formed be- 
hind it a small mass of moss well carded, then, either 
the same, or another who takes her turn in the 
business, pushes it nearer to the nest. Thus small 
heaps of prepared moss are conveyed to its foot, 
and in a similar manner they are elevated to its 
summit, or wherever they may be most wanted. 
A file of four or five insects is occupied at the same 
time in this employment. These nests are often 
six or seven inches in diameter, and elevated to the 
■ height of four or five above the surface of the 
ground. When the covering of moss is taken 
from the nest, the first thing that presents itself is 


FAMILI^, (Jpis. * *. e. 2.) ^OJ 

an irregular comb, composed of an assemblage of 
oval bodies disposed one against another : under 
this there is sometimes another, which itself is 
placed upon a third, none of these are united to- 
gether : sometimes, however, there is only one. 
These combs vary in size, and are not to be com- 
pared, either for the regularity of their form, or of 
the parts that compose them, with those of the hive 
bee. They consist of a number of oblong or oval 
cells, or coccoons, spun by the larvae when they 
are about to undergo their first change, for these 
insects make no waxen cells for their young : they 
are made of a kind of silk, and fastened together. 
These cells are of three dimensions, answering to 
the three sexes, which circumstance produces the 
._inequalities observable in the surface of the combs. 
The void spaces between the cells are filled with 
masses of brown paste, made of gross wax, or pol- 
len much wrought, and honey. Besides the mass- 
es, they attach to every comb, particularly the up- 
permost, three or four cells in the shape of gob- 
lets, open at the top, and full of liquid and very 
sweet honey, and made of the same kind of coarse 
wax that the roof is ceiled with. The first step 
towards furnishing a nest is to make a mass of the 
brown paste, and one of these honey-pots. The 
masses of paste, which are sometimes as big as small 
nuts, are intended for the food of the larvae, and in 
them the eggs are deposited. These vary in num- 
ber, from three to thirty being to be found in one 


204 FAMILIiE, (Jpis. **. e. 2.) 

mass, but not all in the same cavity : they are ob- 
long, of a bluish white, a line and half in length, 
and half a line in diameter. The larvae are similar 
to those of the hive bee, but their sides are marked 
by irregular transverse black spots. These larvse, 
after they are hatched, separate from each other, 
eating the paste which surrounds them. The bees 
of the nest, it is probable, discover the places where 
the layers of this material become too thin, or where 
the larva is in danger of eating through it, and lay 
upon such parts fresh paste, that it may be shelter- 
ed from the air. The honey-pots may be intended 
to supply honey for the occasional moistening of 
the paste. The pupa in each cell is placed with its 
head downwards, and makes its way out at the bot- 
tom of its coccoon. When the larva has spun this, 
the bees probably take the pains to clear it from 
the paste that may remain upon it. 

" The nests seldom contain more than fifty or 
sixty inhabitants, these are of three different sizes; 
the females, of which there is more than one in a 
nest, are the largest, and probably alone survive the 
winter ; the males are of the middle size, as is also 
one description of working bees, or neuters ; the 
other neuters are the smallest, and not bigger than 
the hive hee(i/). These two sorts of neuters, it is 
most likely, are appropriated to different kinds of 
work; the largest being the strongest, and the 
others the most lively, active, and expert. Amongst 
(y) They are often much smaller. K. 


FAMILI^. {Apis. **. e. 1.) 10% 

the Bomhinatrices, the females and males have not 
the privilege of doing nothing, as is the case with 
the hive bee, but all work in concert to repair any 
damage or derangement that may befall theit^ habi- 
tation. Every nest of these bees, as our author 
supposes, is at first very small, being originally con- 
structed and inhabited by a single female, but the 
eggs which she there deposits soon produce her a 
numerous progeny. The nests of the Humble 
Bees are exposed to the depredations of various 
foes ; ants, the larva of Asilus crabroniformis, seve- 
ral other Diptera, and some Ti7ietp attack them, 
but the field mice and polecats are their greatest 
enemies (z).'* 

Thus far this adm/irable author. He suspects 
that these insects swallow the pollen which they 
use for making their paste, and return it again pro- 
perly moistened, as he did not often observe any 
little masses of wax, or wrought pollen («) upom 
their posterior tibiae, at least not so constantly as 
would be necessary to supply the quantity requisite 
for their consumption ; yet the females and neuters 
are furnished with the corbicula, or little basket 
necessary for that purpose, and I have myself fre- 
quently seen them with these masses. 

GeofFroy has given an account of the nidifica- 
4ion of these insects, totally at variance v/ith this of 

(z) Reaum. torn. 6. Mem. I, 

(a) Much curious information upon this subject, is contained 
in a paper, sent by M. Huber the younger, to the Linnean So- 
x:iety, which I do not tliink it right to forestall, 


206 FAMILI^, {Apis. **. e. 2.) 

Reaumur, and equally so, I apprehend, with trutk 
and nature. He says, " that they make spacious 
subterraneous apartments, in which they construct 
their combs, consisting, like those of the hive bee, 
of hexagonal cells, but composed of different ma- 
terials, their substance being like parchment, and 
made of small particles of rotten wood formed into 
a paste, by means of a glutinous liquor with which 
nature has furnished them : that in these cells th6y 
deposit their eggs, supplying them with a sufficient 
quantity of honey : that these combs are surround- 
ed with a thick border, consisting of thin laminae 
resembling dry leaves, and made of the same ma- 
terial with the cells (Z>)." This account so accu- 
rately describes a wasp's nest, that I cannot help 
suspecting that it was taken from one. ' I believe 
no Bomhiiiatrix was ever found to nidificate in this 

I shall add here what Ray has observed upon the 
same subject. " Eulae," says he, " ut et aliorum 
generum, glabrae sunt, colore carneo-albicante, in. 
annulos divisae, ventre planiore, dorso giobo et ela- 
to, rostro acutiore, cauda obtusiore ; erithaca aut 
materia quadam erithacae simili circundatae, quae 
eis pro alimento inservit, in qua latitantes, in glo- 
bulum fere convolvuntur, cauda ad caput adducta, 
Asellorum instar. Cum justam magnitudinem 
adeptae sunt, folliculos validos et velut coriaceos 
tibimetipsis texunt, iisque inclusas in nymphas mu- 

(l) Hist. Ins. Par. 2. p. 404, 405. 


FAMILItE. (Jpis. **, e. 2.) ^Qf 

tantur, ciimque maturuere, ut ita dicam, et debi- 
tam perfectionem et partium soliditatem assecutse 
sunt, disrupto aut exeso folliculo Apum forma pro- 
deunt. In folliculos unde ApiculcC evolafunt mel 

I know no family of which it is more difficult to 
distinguish the species than the present ; for there 
is little difference in the form of the Bomhinatrices, 
and the hue of their bodies, at least of all our Eng- 
lish ones, is the same, so that the describer must 
rely almost solely upon the colour of their hirsuties 
for his characters, and this is so subject to vary, 
even in the same individual, in different periods of 
its existence, that it is not safe to depend upon it 
but under particular restrictions. An insect re- 
cently disclosed, in this respect, appears a different 
species from the same when it has been long ex- 
posed to wind and weather. Thus, for instance, 
j4. Muscorum, which, when fresh from the pupa, 
is distinguished by a thorax covered with hair of a 
fine orange colour, and by an abdomen whose coat 
is a rich yellow, when it grows old, especially the 
male, exchanges these brilliant colours for a cine- 
reous hue, which circumstance misled Fabricius to 
give it as a distinct species, under the name oi A, 
senilis. But not only yellow and red, but even black 
and white hairs are apt to change their colour 
through age. All these circumstances make it a mat- 
ter of some importance, to be able to distinguish a 

(c) Ray. Hist, Ins. p. 246-/. 


20S FAMILI^. (Jpis. **. e. i.) 

recent insect from one that has been long disclosed : 
this may often be done by inspecting the state of 
its wings, for in the latter, especially in males, they 
are usually lacerate at the apex, the body too has 
frequently a good deal of its hair rubbed off. It 
will not be without use to know into what the 
predominant colours fade : yellow will usually first 
turn pale, and then cinereous ; red will turn 
through tawny to yellow, and sometimes to cine- 
reous ; white will turn to pale, and sometimes to 
tawny, and black will now and then turn white. 
But this is not all the difficulty with which the 
describer of the Bomhinatrices has to struggle : 
the males in general resemble the females suffici- 
ently to be known as such, but there are several so 
unlike them, as to be easily mistaken for different 
species ; and I am by no means certain that I have 
not, in more instances than one, described the sex- 
es under different names : till all can be traced to 
their nidi this is not easy to be avoided. In my 
arrangement of the species of this section, I have 
observed the following rules, which, for the most 
part, were suggested by the evident affinities of 
these insects. I begin with those whose general 
hirsuties is pale yellow, while that of the thorax is 
orange; after these follow such as have the same 
coloured hair, but whose thorax has a black band(c?); 
next I place such as are distinguished by the colour 

(rf) A. sylvarum, Lin. has a red anus, but its general habit 
gives it a strong affinity with tliose that precede it. 


FAMILIM. {Apis. **. e. 2.) 20^ 

of their anus, whether yellow, white, or red, and 
finally come such as are entirely black. 

After my Synopsis Speciermn, containing the 
above arrangement, was printed, 1 discovered, what 
had escaped me before, that four different species, 
one of which had a yellow, two a white, and one a 
red anus, were deprived of some of the characters 
of the Bomhinatrices, having neither corbicula, nor 
pecten at the apex of the tibiae, nor auricle at the 
base of the plantae, of the posterior legs, at the 
same time exhibiting some peculiar to themselves. 
This circumstance offers an opportunity for a na- 
tural subdivision of this section of the family, found- 
ed upon other characters than colour; the follow- 
ing peculiarities distinguish the members of it; in 
their proboscis, and other respects, they agree ex- 
actly with the others. 

Labium antice obtusangulum(e). 
Macciilce forcipatas, apice oblique truncatap(/*). 
Tibice posticce supra convexae, pilosa?, nee cor- 
bicula, neque pectine instructa2(^"). 
Plantie posticae absque auricula (A). 
jlbdomen oblongum, ano, in mortuo, saepius 
inflexo; ventre segmento ultimo in angu- 
lum utrinque protenso(/). 
Maris Maxilla apice bidentatae. uibdomen tri- 
angulares incurvum, subacuminatum. 

(e) Tab. 13. fig. 12. (/) Ibid. fig. 27. 
(g) Ibid. fig. 22. a. (h) Ibid. fig. 23. 

(0 Ibid, fig, 25. aa. 

p The 

llO FAMILIiE. {^pis. •**. e, 2.) 

The females and neuters of these insects, it is 
probable, do not, like the rest of the BombinatriceSf 
carry masses of wrought pollen upon their hind- 
legs, or they would have been furnished with a cor- 
bicula for that purpose ; from the absence of the 
pecten of the posterior tibia, and of the auricle at 
the base of the planta, wliich are usually concomi- 
tant? of the corbicula, we may conjecture that these 
instruments, which are over against each other, are 
given to the insects which have them, for the pur- 
pose of preparing their little masses of pollen ; the 
pecten, which consists of strong bristles, probably 
breaking the grains, and the auricle assisting to 
knead them into a paste, previous to their being laid 
upon the tibia. It is remarkable that the females 
and neuters of these ^pes, should exhibit those 
characters which are peculiar to the males of the 
rest of the family. I suspect that they nidificate 

To this subdivision belong v^. campestr{s(k), A. 
Barbutella{l), A. vestaUs{m), and j4. rupestris{n) 
of this work ; likewise, as I suspect, A. mystacea of 
Christius(o), and ^. arenaria of Panzer (/)) . 

{k) Tom. 2. p. 335. (/) Ibid. p. 343. (rw) Ibid. p. 347. 
(«) Ibid. p. 369. (0) Hymenopt. p. 124. tab. 6. iig. 3. 

{p) Fn. Ins. Germ. Init, n. 74. tab, 12. 


( 211 ) 


T T AVING had an opportunity, since the prece- 
ding pages of this vokime were printed, of ex- 
amining a large number of Hymenopterous insects, 
and having likewise made some forther observations 
upon the foregoing families, more particularly with 
respect to the wings, that had before escaped me, 
I shall subjoin them here, beginning with the latter. 

I must first observe in general, that the surface 
of every superior wing may be looked upon as divi- 
ded into three parts, which may be denominated 
Alas Basis, Medium, et Apex. 

Basis. Alae portio thoraci proxima ex areolis 
tribus elongatis constans, intermedia breviori, inter 
alae nervos divergentes inclusis(^). 

Medium. Alae portio intermedia, reticulata, are- 
olas sex vel septem, figura et magnitudine varias, 
et anastomosin includens(r). 

jipex. Alae portio extima, dilatata, oblique trun- 
cata, in angulum obtusum cum margine tenuiore, 
f, basis areola infima, subtus concurrens {s -, in are- 
olas tres subaequales, mediantibus venis duabus rec- 
tis, saepius distincta; superficie undulato-crispante, 
plerisque punctulata(^). 

{q) Tab. 3. ^*. b. fig. 5. d. (?) Ibid, g, 

(^)Ibia.-. (Olbid./. 

p 2 The 

212 A DDE is' DA. 

The inferior wings, as to superficies, are similar 
to the siiperior, only they want the reticulate por- 
tion or medium, and therefore can only be distin- 
guished into Basis and j4pex, which are divided into 
areas in a similar manner with the superior wings(«). 


*. a. Alee Superior es. Nervi costales distincti. 

Anastomosis distincta. Medium areolis 

Inferiores semi-ovales, sessiles ; margine 

crassiori recti usculo, tenuiori trifido. 
*. b. AliB Superiores. Nervi costales distincti. 

Anastomosis distincta. Medium areolis 

sex(.r). Apex impunctulatus. 
Inferiores semi-ovales, sessiles ; margine 

crassiori subundulato, tenuiori trifido. 
As a further proof that the insects of this family 
are not all varieties of the same species, I shall de- 
scribe one belonging to it, which is evidently dis- 
tinct. It is in Sir Joseph Banks's cabinet, and came 
from New South Wales. It should come next to 
M. signata{y), which stands with it in the same 
cabinet, from the same country. 

cyanura. M. atra; fronte maculata ; scutello puncto flavo; 
abdomine atro-cserulescenti. 

MUS. D. Banks, Sphex, in serie quinta a shiistr, e triliis ul- 
timis specimen mcdiuvi. 

(u) Tab. 13. fig. 18. (x) Tab. 1. *. b, fig. 7. *. 

{y) Tom. 2. p. 41. 



Long. Corp. Lin. 3^. 
Hah. In Nova Cambria. 

DESCR. AcLil. 

CORPUS atrum, glabrum. 

Caput. Frons utrinque ad oculos macula mag- 
na irregulari fiavescente. Antennce nigrae. 

Truncus. Co//«re utrinque flavLim. Tubercula 
flava. Scutellum puncto rotundo flavicanti 
insignitum. Squamuke nigrae. Al^e subhya- 
linae, nervis nigris. Pedes nigri. 

Abdomen nitidissimum, atro-violaceum, luci- 
dum, levissime punctulatum. 

**. a. Ake Superiores. Nervi costales distinct!. 

Anastomosis distincta. Medium areolis 

septem. Apex minutissime punctulatus. 
/^i/erzore^semi-o vales, sessiles ; margine 

crassiori rectiusculo, tenuiori trifido. 
* *. b. Alee Superiores. Nervi costales distincti. 

Anastomosis distincta. Medium areolis 

septem. Apex minutissime punctulatus. 
Inferiores semi-ovales, subpetiolatae; 

margine crassiori rectiusculo, tenuiori 

«■*. c. Al^ Superiores. Nervi costales distincti. 

Anastomosis distincta. Medium areolis 

Inferiores semi-ovatae, subpetiolatae; 

margine crassiori subundulatOj tenuiori 


P 3 Ob«. 


Obs. M. Swammerdamellae alarum superiorum 
nervi costales subcoaliti, medium areolis tan- 
tummodo sex, unde Aipum Jamiliop *. a..Jbrsan 

Since I wrote my observations upon this family, 
I have received, by the kindness of M. Latreille, 
that curious insect, hitherto unknown to other 
entomologists, the Abeille tapissiere of Reaumur(z), 
under the name of j4. Papaveris. Upon exami- 
ning it, I find that it is no Melitta, as at first I sus- 
pected, but a genuine /ipis, belonging to the se- 
cond section (#*. c. 2.) of my family " labio in- 
jiexo elongato" In habit it approaches nearest to 
the Leaf Cutters (a), but its abdomen is more con- 
vex, and as its habits and economy are somewhat 
different, it may belong to a new subdivision. As 
, I could not examine its proboscis without running 
risk of destroying my only specimen, I am unable 
to say of how many joints the palpi consist. As 
M. Latreille intends to describe it himself, in a 
paper he is preparing upon the Bees of the environs 
of Paris, I must refer my reader to that paper, when 
it makes its appearance. 


*. a. Alie Superiores. Nervi costales subcoaliti. 
Anastomosis subdistincta. Medium areolis 

X%) Supra p. 142, 143. 



Al(E Inferiores semi-ovatae, subpetlola- 
tae ; margine crassiori subundulato, 
tenuiori trifido 
#. b. Ake Superiores. Nervi costales coaliti. 
Anastomosis distincta. Medium are- 
olis septem. 

Inferiores semi-ovales, sessiles ; 

margine crassiori rectiusculo, tenui- 
ori bifido. 
#*. a. Alee Superiores. Nervi costales coaliti. 
Anastomosis obsoleta. Medium are- 
olis septem, marginali nebulam in- 
cludente. Apex valde dilatatus. 

Inferiores semi-ovales, subpetiola- 

t£E ; margine crassiori subpetiolato 
tenuiori trifido. 
**.b. Ala Superiores. Nervi costales coaliti. 
Anastomosis subdistincta. Medium 
areolis septem. 

' Inferiores semi-ovatse, subsessiles; 

margine crassiori subundulato, tenu- 
iori bifido. 
**. c. 1. a. Alee Superiores. Nervi costales coaliti. 
Anastomosis vix distincta. Medium 
areolis sex, marginali nebulam inclu- 
dente. Apex admodum dilatatus. 

Inferiores semi-ovatae, subsessiles; 

margine crassiori subundulato^ tenu- 
iori bifido. 
*#. c. 1. ^. Alee Superiores. Nervi costales coaliti. 
p 4 Anastomosis 


Anastomosis obsoleta. Medium areo- 
lis sex, margiiiali nebulam includente. 

•— Inferiores semi-ovales, sessiles; 

margine crassiori rectiusculo, tenui- 
ori bifido. 
**. C.2. a. Ake Superiores. Nervi costales coallti. 
Anastomosis subdistincta. Medium 
areolis sex. 

Inferiores semi-ellipticae, sessiles; 

margine crassiori subundulato, tenu- 
iori bifido. 
#*. c. 2. |S. Al{e Superiores. Nervi costales coaliti. 
Anastomosis obsoleta. Medium are- 
olis sex, marginali nebulam inclu- 
dente. Apex admodum dilatatus. 
Inferiores semi-ovatae, subpetiolatas ; 
margine crassiori subundulato, tenu- 
iori bifido. 
Since I wrote my remarks upon this family, du- 
ring my absence from home, five of the pupae 
which Sir Thomas Cullum sent me, produced per- 
fect insects, viz. three males, and two females ; 
which proved, as I suspected, yi. manicata, Lin. 
They make their way out at the perforated end of 
the cell, separating a circular portion from it {a). 

* *. c.2. y. Ahv Superiores. Nervi costales subco- 
aliti. Anastomisis distincta. Medi- 
um areolis sex. Apex vix punctulatus. 

(c) Vid. supra, p. 173, &c. 



Alee Inferiores semi-ovatse, subsessUes ; 
marglne crassiori rectiusculo, tenui- 
ori trifido. 
* *. c. 1. 1. AlcB Superiores. Nervi costales subco- 
aliti. Anastomosis subdistincta. Me- 
dium areolis sex, marginali nebulam 

-Inferiores semi-ovatse, petiolatas ; 

margine crassiori subundulato, tenu- 
iori bifido. 
**. d. 1. Al^ Superiores. Nervi costales dis- 
tincti. Anastomosis obsoleta. Me- 
dium areolis sex. Apex venis ab- 
— — "Inferiores semi-ovatae, subpetiola- 
tcG; margine crassiori subundulato, 
tenuiori trifido. Apex venis tribus. 
^*.d.1.K. Alee Superiores. Nervi costales sub- 
coaliti. Anastomosis obsoleta. Me- 
dium areolis septem. Apex dilatatus 
admodilm, avenius, venarum loco li- 
neis duabus elevatiusculis, impunc- 
tulatis insignitus. 
■ ■ Inferiores semi-ovatse, subpetio- 
latae ; margine crassiori subundulato, 
tenuiori bifido. Apex venis duabus. 
##.d. 2. .Alee Superiores coloratse, coriaceae. 
Nervi costales coaliti. Anastomosis 
obsoleta. Medium areolis septem. 
Apex dilatatus admodCim. 



Alee Inferiores coloratae, coriaceae, se- 
mi-ovatae, magnae, subpetiolatae ; 
margine crassiori subundulato, te- 
nuiori trifido. 
*#. e. 1. Alee Superiores, Nervi costales coalitl. 
Anastomosis obsoleta. Medium are- 
olis septem, marginali lineari, elonga- 
ta. Apex minutissime pimctulatus. 
Inferiores semi-ovatae, subsessiles ; 
margine crassiori rectiusculo, tenui- 
ori bifido. Apex venis tribus. 
Maris Alee Superiores majores, nervis costalibus 
distinctis. Inferiores latiores, semi-ovales, 
*#. e. 2. Alee Superiores. Nervi costales coaliti. 
Anastomosis obsoleta. Medium are- 
olis septem, marginali nebulam inclu- 
dente. Apex dilatatus admodum. 

■ Inferiores semi-ovatse, petiolatae ; 

margine crassiori subundulato_, tenui- 
ori bifido. 


SIREX. Linneus's Artificial Character of this 
genus wants some correction. " Os maxillis dua- 
bus validis/' for reasons before assigned {h), should 

{I) Supra^p. 21, 



be omitted. " Palpi duo truncati," would be bet- 
ter altered, admitting it to be a constant character, 
to " Palpi exteriores capitati ;" since these insects, 
unless they depart from the general analogy of 
the class, have four palpi. It having never been 
my fortune to take one of this genus, I have not 
had it in my power to examine the proboscis. In 
S. gigas the exterior palpi are capitate, with a sub- 
rotund capitulum, in a male sent to Mr. Marsham 
as S. Mariscus, (but which appears to me a distinct 
insect), this capitulum is obliquely truncate, in 
both these the palpi are very hirsute. The next of 
the characters of Linneus " Antennce — articulis 
ultra 24," is contrary to fact. In no species, that 
I have had an opportunity of examining, do they 
exceed 24. The antennae of S. Columba, fem. 
counting the minute joint that connects them with 
the head, and those of S. Camelus, have only four- 
teen. Those of that above-mentioned, labelled S. 
Mariscus, have sixteen. In S. Spectrum, mas, S. 
alhicornis, fem. Fab. and S. Juvencus, fem. they 
amount to twenty-two. In one very like S. Juven- 
cus, from America, given me by Major General 
Davies, they have eighteen joints ; in S. Dromeda- 
rius they have only thirteen ; and finally in S. gi- 
gas, they reach the number, which Linneus has 
given as less than their lowest sum, twenty-four. 
From these facts I cannot help thinking that Lin- 
neus intended to have given it " jintemicF articulis 
infra 24," and that the word ultra got in acci- 


dentally. " Abdomen sessile mucronatum" is an 
excellent chai'acter, and in my idea distinguishes 
the genuine from the illegitimate Sirices. Other 
characters constantly distinguish this genus, some of 
the most prominent are the following : the tarsi 
are remarkably elongate; the truncus is retuse at 
each end, so as to receive both the head and abdo- 
men ; when these sit close to it, the body looks as 
if it was formed of one piece; the body is cylindri- 
cal, and in the male everywhere of equal diameter, 
or filiform ; in the females, at the insertion of the 
aculeus, the venter swells into an obtuse angle. In 
common with Tenthredo, with which it has con- 
siderable affinity, this genus, upon each side of the 
metathorax, has what Linneus terms " Granumj* 
or a small white spot. In some species the apex of 
each tibia is armed with a single spine, for instance^ 
S. Columha, &c. while in ^S*. Juvencus, and others, 
the posterior are armed with two. 

EVANIA. Upon comparing E. a.ppendigaster 
with E. maculata, Fab. I am inclined to think that 
it is a good genus. I suspect that more species 
than one are confounded under the name of -^. 
appendigaster. That figured by Panzer (c), with 
yellow antennae, and brown feet and abdomen, 
seems quite distinct from those I have seen, in 
which these are all black. 

AMMOPHILA. The Fabrician character of 
Sphex seems designed for those insects that I have 

(c) Fn. Ins. Germ. Init, n. 68. tab. 12. 



.called by this name. I find the foreign species to 
be extremely numerous, some of them are the most 
splendid insects in the class. My observation, in 
my paper upon this genus (c/), that colour seems 
constant, I find upon a view of the exotic speci- 
mens, is not founded in fact, although a consider- 
able proportion are distinguished by the same co- 
lours. The antennae of all are revolute, a circum- 
stance not noticed in that paper. 

TIPHIA. This genus, T.femoratu, at least, and 
its affinities, is nearly related both to Scolia and 
Mutilla. Its eyes are oval and remarkably small ; 
its antennae are anterior, and spiral with a fusiform 
apex ; its truncus is retuse at both ends, and nearly 
cubical, and its colium is larger than the thorax. 
Some of the "Piphice in Sir Joseph Banks's collec- 
tion, which, if my recollection does not mislead me, 
were labelled by Fabricius, belong to a separate ge- 
nus, intermediate between Vespa and Bembex. 
Their tongue, and wings seem to come near the 
form^er genus, and their large oval eyes, and conic 
abdomen, to the latter, but thev have not the conic 
inflected labium, which is its most striking distinct 
tion. Christius has figured one of these under the 
name of Fespa hicJypeata{e). T. coUaris of Fa- 
bricius has reniform eyes, and is a true Scolia. T. 
pedestris of the same author, if I do not mistake 
his insect/ seems rather to belong to Mutilla ; it is 

(d) Trans, vol. 4. p. 200. 

(?) Hyraenopt. p. 223. tab. ig. fig. 6. 



apterous, and has no stemmata ; Its body is, how- 
ever, without hairs, in which it departs from both 
genera; it is probably one of the links which con- 
nect these proximate genera. 

SCOLIA. This genus, at first sight, has a very 
s strong resemblance to Tiphia, and also to Mutilla. 

The body is usually very hairy, the truncus retuse 
before and behind, and rather cubical, but it is dis- 
tinguished from both by the following circum- 
stances ; its eyes are larger and reniform : its an- 
tennae are inserted in the middle of the face, they 
are recurve, but not at all spiral ; their apex some- 
times is slightly fusiform, but more generally atte- 
nuate only at its base ; its summit is often very ob- 
tuse, or rather truncate. The body of these in- 
fiects is usually very hairy, and the anus is not 
seldom spinose. 

THYNNUS. No genus in the class seems to be 
less known than this. There is no specimen of it 
in the French cabinets. Fabricius described his 
four species from insects in Sir Joseph Banks's col- 
lection, of these, two, viz. T. dentatus (f) and T. 
emarginatus, are certainly congenerous insects, T, 
integer is doubtful, and T. ahdominalis is an jipis 
of my family "labio inflexo elongato", of the section 
'^ ventre femineo glabro", and of the subdivision 
'^abdomine femineo subcylindrico, ano obtuso." Of 
the two genuine Thynni, the antennae are filiform, 
of fourteen joints, inserted in the middle of the 
(/) Roemer. Gen. Ins. tab. 35. fig. 8. 

face : 


face : the lip is very minute : the maxillae are bifid 
at their apex : the eyes are lateral, inclining to an 
oval figure : the collum is transverse before, and 
behind subrepand : the thorax is subquadrate : the 
scutellum, which is as large or larger than the tho- 
rax, is triangular, and terminates in a second piece 
besides the metathorax, so that it may be defined 
by the term duplex : the abdomen is elongato- 
conic, and the anus is spinose. In habit it ap- 
proaches Bemhex. 

Thynniis integer varies from the others in the 
following particulars. The maxillae are entire at 
their apex : the eyes are rather round : the collum 
receives the head and thorax into a sinus, which is 
the segment of a circle : the scutellum is single, 
(simplex) with a trnncate apex : the abdomen is 
subulato-conic, and the ventral segment of the anus 
terminates in a recurve spine. 

DORYLUS. The only species of this gen US' 
known as yet, is the Mittilla helvola, Lin. which is 
certainly no Mutilla, and cannot well be arranged 
under any known genus : Fabricius has therefore, 
with great propriety, placed it by itself. In my 
idea it is more nearly related to Formica than Mu- 
tilla, for its abdomen is connected with the trun- 
cus by the intervention of a globose petiolus. It is 
a most singular insect ; the following are its most 
prominent features. Its maxillae are acute, with- 
out teeth, forcipate, immensely large: its eyes are 
hemispherical : its antennae are filiform, inserted in 



the middle of the face, and consist of thirteen of* 
fourteen joints: its stemmata are very large and 
prominent : its face behind the antennae swells into 
two protuberances: its thorax is extremely gibbous: 
and overhangs the head : its scutellum is large and 
gibbous : the base of its wings is not defended by 
squamulae: its legs are very short; the second joint of 
their apophyses is of a very singular shape, being con- 
cavo-convex, very thin, and emarginate at its apex ; 
the thighs are compressed, very flat and thin, and 
the tibiae and tarsi short and slender : the abdo- 
men is elongate : the spiracula, which is remark- 
able, are easily discovered in its dorsal segments, 
and the last ventral segment terminates in two 
truncate setae, like some of the Neuroptera, with 
which class this insect seems to have some affinity. 
If Termes was placed at the end of that class, and 
Dorylus at the head of this, I think we should not 
depart far from the order of Nature. I know not 
whether the neuter of Dorylus be apterous or not, 
but I suspect it may. 

MUTILLA. TheLinnean^rf?/?cm/ Character ai 

this genus is very insufficient. One drawn up in the 

following terms would apply well, at least to all the 

species that 1 have had an opportunity of examining. 

Os proboscide brevi, palpis setaceis : 

^?zze?i72^ anteriores, spirales, articulis 13—- 14, 

apice fusiformi : 
Oculi minuti, subrotundi, laterales : 
AliE et Stemmata neutris nulla : 
u^culeus reconditus. 

I have. 


I have omitted the Linnean character, " thorax 
postice retusus/* because it is not by any means 
peculiar to this genus, and the above seem fully 
sufficient without it. T. pedestris, Fab. I just now 
observed, belongs to this genus ; more of the same 
habit may be seen in Mr. Francillon's rich cabinet, 
these are all ''"corporeglaberrimo;" the shape of their 
abdomen is similar to that of Formica, and they 
seem to be intermediate between that genus and 
the hirsute Mutillce. The latter genus, if these 
prove at last genuine Mutillce, might be divided into 
two families, *. corpore glabro. * *. corpore pu- 
bescent!. I have examined only one male insect 
of this genus, M. Europcea. It varies from the fe- 
male in the shape of its eyes, which are somewhat 
reniform, and its' anus has a minute spine on each 
side, circumstances which give it considerable affi- 
nity with Scolia, and shew how the genera shade 
one into another. Its squamulae likev/ise are very 
large, and its neck embraces the anterior part of 
the thorax. 



( 226 ) 



MELITTA *. a. 
FIG. 1. /7//Pt7Tsubtriangulare, a. Stemmata 
in lined curvd. 
Oi. Proboscis, a a. Valvules linguam am^ 
plectentes. hb. Palpi exteriores. c. 
Lingua apice biloba lobis divaricatis. 

3. Lingua valde aucta. a. Tubus conicus, 

apice tridentatus. hh. Palpi interio- 
res, setacei, quatuor articulorum. c. 
Linguae jipex ciliatus^ lobis apice 

4. Valvula valde aucta, sublinearis. a. Val» 

vulae Basis, b c. Valvulae ^pex plica- 
tus, rotundatus. b. Plica inferior, c. 
Plica superior, d. Palpus exterior, 
setaceus, sexarticulatus. ee. Seta? 

5. Maxilla aculeatae, subedentula. 

6. a. Labium antice obtusangulum. b. Fa- 

ciei portio antica cui Labium annec- 

(a) N.B. In sequentibus tibialis figure opines sunt pliis 
minus auctae. 





&a.6 1 




<-. fee 

TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Melitta. *. a. b.) 227 

FIG. 7« Maxilla maris, apice bidentata. 

8. uiiitenna aculeatcTS subclavata, 13 articu- 
lorum. a. Radicula. h. Scapus elon- 
gatus, arcuatus. c. Pedicellus subglo- 
bosus. d. Apex articulis cylindricis^ 
primo conico. 
p. Antenna maris, filiformis, 14articulbrum. 

10. Abdomen aculeatas, subconicum, sub- 

acutam, sex segmeiitorum. 

1 1 . Abdomen maris, praecedente angustius^ 

septem segmentorum. 

12. Unguis, a. Pulvillus. bb. Unguicult 


MELITTA. *. b. 

FIG. 1. Lingua valde aucta, brevis. a. Tubus 
conicus, apice tridentatus. b. Tubi 
dens intermedins lateralibus major. 
c. Linguae Apex truncatus, ciliatus. 
dd. Aunculte obtusae. e. Palpus m- 
terior quatuor articulorum. 

2. Valvula valde aucta, linearis, a. Lori 

portio. b. Valvulae Basis, c. Mem- 
brana. d. Valvulae Apex subacutus, 
e. Palpus exterior setaceus, sex arti- 

3. Caput subtriangulare. a. Nasus distinc- 

tus, apice truncatus. 

4. Labium valde auctum, antice obtusan- 

gulum, setoso-pectinatum. 

a 2 FIG. 

228 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. {Melitta. *. b. **. a) 

FIG. 5. Maxilla aculeatae, apice bidentata dentc 
' interiori subemarginato. 

6. Maxilla maris, apice bidentata dente 

interiori integro. 

7. Ala superior, a. Basis, h. Medium 

areolis sex. c. Apex. d. Nervus cos- 
talis exterior, e. Nervus costalis inte- 
rior, f. Anastomosis. 

8. Portio Antennas M. dilatatie mas, (vol.2. 

p 39 ) «.«S'c«/Jw^dilatatuSjpatelliformis. 

9. Antenna aculeatae, apicis articulo primo 

pedicelloque subconicis. 

10. Antenna maris. 

1 1 . Abdomen aculeatae subconicum, basi re- 

tusurn, segmentis sex. 

12. Abdomen masculum septem segmento- 



MELITTA. **. a. 
FIG. 1 . Proboscis valde aucta. a. Tubus coni- 
cus, apice obsolete tridentatus. bb. 
I'alvuliF. c. Lingiice apex, acutus vel 
acuminatus. dd. Auriculae apice la- 
cerae. ee. Lora. f. Membrana lora 
connectens. gg. Palpi interiores frac- 
tae, articulis 4, articulo primo longiore 
2. Valvula linearis, a. Palpus exterior sex 
articulorum. b. Valyulae Basis, c, 






TABULARUM EXPLICATIO, {Melitta. **. a. b.) 220 

Valvalae j4pex brevis, rotundatus, 
hinc intus fissus. 
FIG. 3. Caput rotundatum. f 

4. Labium aculeatae valde auctum, antlc^. 

emarginatum, setoso-pectinatum. 

5. Labium masculum valde auctum, antic^ 

subemarcrinatum . 

6. Maxilla aculeatae, apicc bidentata dente 

exteriori longiore. 
.7. Maxilla mascula, apice edentula. 

8. Antenna aculeatae, subclavatae. a. Sea- 

pus elongatus. b. Pedicellus subglo- 

9. Antenna maris, filiformis, submonilifor- 

mis. a. Scapus brevis. 

10. Abdomen aculeatae, ovatum, sex segmen- 

torum, ultimo minutissimo. 

11. Abdomen masculum sublineare, septem 


MELITTA. *■:-. b. 

FIG. 1. Proboscis. aa.Lora proboscidis longi- 
tudine. b. Tubus conicus. 

2. Lingua valde aucta. a a. Auricula apice 

lacerae. b. Tubi portio apice triden- 
tato, dente intermedio emarsinato. 
cc. Palpi intcriores fractas, articulis 
quatuor, primo lougiori arcuato. d 
Lingua Apex acutus, lacerus. 

3. Caput subtriaugul.'ire. a. Nasus. 


230 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Meliita. **. b.) 

FIG. 4. Labium aculeatae valde auctum, anticS 
appendiculatum, et setoso-pectinatum. 
a. Appendicula. h. Labium. 

5. Labium aliud figura diversum. 

6. Labium masculum, valde auctum, line- 

are, absque appendicula. 

7. Abdomen aculeatae subovale, sex segmen- 

torum, ultimo minutissimo. 

8. Anus aculeatae valde auctus. a. Rima 

analis. b. Abdominis segmentum ul- 
Q. Abdomen masculum, lineare, septem seg- 

10. Anterior pars capitisM". quadricinct^ mas, 

(tom. 2. p. 51.) a. Labium, bb. Max- 
nice basi dilatatae. 

1 1 . Maxilla ejusdem seorsum conspecta. 

12. Anterior pars capitis M.rubicundce mas, 

(tom. 2. p. 53.) a. Labium. bb.Maxillce. 


MELITTA. **. b. cont. 

FIG. 1. C«/)M^a latere conspec turn ad modumex- 
hibendum proboscidem explicandi. a. 
Lor a. b. Proboscis apice maxillas 
1, Valvula valde aucta, linearis, a. Palpus 
exterior, setaceus, sex articulorum. b. 
Lorum valde elongatum. c. Valvulae 





^ % . \) . Cofib. 

tZz L 3 . 

TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. {Melitta. **. b. c.) 231. 

Basis, d. Apex obtusus, Intus hinc 
FIG. 3. Maxilla aculeatfe, apice bidentata. 

4. Maxilla mascula, arcuata, apice eden- 

tula, acuta. 

5. Ala superior, ab Nervi costales. c. 

Anastomosis, d. Basis alae. e. Medi- 
um areolis septem. f. Apex. g. Con- 
cursus apicis et basis alae. 

6. Antenna aculeatae, subclavata. a. Sea' 

pus elongatus. b, Pedicellus subglo- 

7. Antenna maris, filiformis, scapo brevi, 

apice articulis subarcuatis. 

8. Aculei Vagina subulata. 

Q. Spiculum. a. Retinaculum. 
10. Spiculi apex hinc retrorsum serrulatus. 

MELITTA. **. c. 

FIG, 1. Caput subrotundatum. a a. Tubercuhz 
apud basin Maxillarum. 

2. Caput masculum, maxillis forcipatis. 

3. Proboscis basi subtus villosa. a a. Auri' 

culce. b. Linguae apex acutus. cc. 
Falvulcp. d. Tubus linearis, apice tri- 
dentatus. ee. Palpi exteriores. fj". 
Palpi interiores. 

4. Lingua valde aucta, apice hastata. a a 

Auriculce recurvae, apice lacerae. 

5. Linguae plicatae positionem exhibet. a a, 


^32 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. {Mditta. **. c.) 

Valvularum u4pex. h. Linguas apex 
sursum plicatus, acumine gulam ver- 
sus, cc. Palpi interiores. 
■ FIG. 6. Falvula valde aucta. a. Palpus exteri- 
or, setaceus, sex artlculorum. h. Val- 
vulae ^pex semi-cordatuSj acuminatus. 
c. Basis villosus. 

7. Linguas ^pex valde auctus, seorsum con- 

spectus, acuminatus acumine lacero, 
rima longitudinali, dimidiato-trans- 

8. Lingua M. Sivammerdamell^e {iova. 2. p. 

174.) aa. Auriculceacui?e. ^.Linguae 
-^e^ subsetaceus. cc. Palpi interiores. 

9. Falvula ejusdem valde aucta. a. Apex 

cultriformis. h. Basis. c. Palpus 

10. Labium maris, a. Tuherculum. 

1 1 . X«Z;m7W aculeatas. a. TubeTculum, 

12. C«/)77z> pagina inferior. a.Gula. h. An- 

nulus. cc. Valvularum Basis. 


MELITTA. **. c, cont. 

FIG. 1 . Abdomen aculeatae, ovale, sex segmen- 
torum ultimo minutissimo. a. Fim- 
bria anum vestiens. 
2. Abdomen masculum sublanceolatum, 
septem segmentorum. 






C/a 6- 4- 


TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. {Melitta **. c.) 233 

3. Maxilla aculeatae, apice bidentata. 

4. Maxilla maris. 

5. Maxillce pars M. denticulattr (torn. 2. p. 

133.) a. Denticidus basin maxillae ar- 

6. Maxillae M. angulosce (torn. 2. p. 127.) 

portio. a. Basis obtusangula. 

7. Maxilla M. armatce (torn. 2. p. 124.) 

«. Dens basin armans. 

8. Maxilla M. spinigerce ^tom. 2. p. 123 ) 

portio. a. Spina basin armans. 

9. Metathorax M. comhinatie (torn. 2. p. 

153.) utrinque fimbriata. a a. Fimbria. 

10. Pes posticus, a. Flocculus, b. Scopa. 

c. Apophysis articulus primus, d. apo- 
physis articulus secundus. e. Femur. 
f. Spinulce. g. Planta, 

1 1 . Antenna aculeatae. a. Apicis articulus 

primus elongatus, basi attenuatus. 

12. Antenna maris scapo villosissimo. 

13. Caput M. angulosip (torn. 2. p. 127.) a 

latere conspectum. a. Gena postice 

14. Pes posticus M. Swammerdamellie (torn. 

2, p 174.) 

15. Abdomen M. Shawell^ (torn. 2. p. i6q.) 

16. Capitis portio. a a. Maculae duae sericeae 

apud oculos. b. Occiput, cc. Fertex. 

d. Stemmata. 

17. Antenna maris M. chrysurce. (torn. 2. 

p. 172.) apice subtus subdenLito. 


234 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. {Apis. *. a.) 

FIG. 18. Labium M. tridentat^ (torn. 2. p. 132.) 
a ventre conspectum. 

APIS. *. a. 

FIG. 1. Maris Caput antice truncatum. 

2. Proboscis, a. Fulcrum, b. Tubus coni- 

cuSj apice tridentatus. c. Falvula li- 
nearis, dd. Palpi interiores quatuor 
articulorum, primo elongate, e. Lin- 
gua setacea. 

3. Falvula valde aucta, linearis, a. Basis, 

b. Apex lanceolato-linearis, incurvus. 

c. Palpus exterior subsetaceus, sex 

4. Linguce portio valde aucta. a a. Lacinice 

interiores lineari-lanceolatae, acutae. 
b. Tubi pars. c. Palpi interioris pars. 

d. Linguce pars. 

5. Linguae Apex valde aucta, villosa, trans- 

verse striatula. 

6. Labium valde auctum, subovale, antice 


7. Maxilla edentula. 

8. Antenna aculeatse. 
Q. Antenna maris, 

10. Abdomen aculeatae, ovale, sex articulo- 

rum, ultimo minutissimo. a. Ani 

11. Abdomen maris, ovato-lanceolatum. 

12. Pes posticus A.ursin^e (torn. 2. p. 178.) 



27a^ J 

TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Jpis. *. a. b.) ^35 

FIG. 13. C/tz^w unguiculis bifidis. 

14. Tibia postica j4. Linnceelke (ubi supr. 
179.) dolabriformis. 


APIS. *. b. 
FIG. 1. Co/JMf postice obtusangulum. 

2. Proboscis, a. Tubus linearis, apice triden- 

tatus, dente intermedio majori. b. 
Fulcrum subtriangulare. cc. Lor a, 
dd. Lacinice interiores. e. Lingua. 
ff. Palpi interiores. gg. Valvuli^. 
hh. Palpi exteriores. 

3. Lingua valde aucta. a a. iMcinice inte- 

riores subsetaceae. h. Palpi interiores 
quatuor articulorum primo elongate. 

4. Valvula valde aucta, sublinearis. a. Apex 

lanceolato-linearis. h. Basis, c La- 
rum. d Palpus exterior sex articulo- 
rum, primo brevissimo. 

5. Labium ovale. 

6. Maxilla maris. 

7. Maxilla aculeatae. 

8. Truncus. a. Collum. b. Collare. cc. 

Tubercula dd Squamulce. e. Tho- 
rax. J". Scutellum. g. Metathorax. 
h. Cavitas ubi inosculatur abdominis 

9. Abdomen aculeatae, sex segmentorum, 

ultimo minutissimo. 

10. Anus yalde auctus, apice setosus. 


^36 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. {Apis. *, b. **. a.) 

FIG. 1 1 . j4hdomen maris, lanceolatum, septem 
segmentorum . 
13. ^nus valde auctus, aplce emarglnatus. 

13. Unguis aculeatae valde auctus. a. PuU 


14. Unguis alius valde auctus. a. Pulvillus 


15. Unguis maris valde auctus. a. Pulvil- 

lus elongatus. 

16. Antenna aculeatae. 
17- Antenna maris. 

18. Caput A. corniger^ (torn. 2. p. IQO) a 
latere conspectum. a. Labium, h. 

APIS. **. a. 
FIG. 1. C«pifi postice obtusangulum. 

2. Prohoscidis pars inferior, valvulls lingu- 

am obvolventibus. a a. Valvularum 
Apex. hh. Basis. 

3. Prohoscidis pars superior, a a. Valvula- 

rum Apex. h. Tubus, c. Fulcrum, 
dd. Lor a. 

4. Proboscis a latere conspecta. a. Valvulae 

Apex. b. Basis, c. Labium, dd. Lo-^ 
ra. e. Fulcrum, f. }iembrana lora 
connectens. g. Maxilla. 
Obs. H^ tres ultimce Jigurce linguam valvulis 
munitam et convolutam exhibent. 

5. Prohoscidis portio. a Tubus a latere 

conspectus, hb. Lacinice interiores 




Vcb^ 6 

^ ^ ^ ^7^. 

TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Jpis. **. a.) 237 

setaceas. c c X«am> exteriores. dd. 
Palpi interiores biarticulati. 
FIG. 6. Tubus linearis, apice tridentatus dentibus 

7. Labium valde auctum, subquadratum, ■ 

concavo-convexum. aa. Puncta duo 

8. Maxilla aculeatae. 

9. Maxilla maris. 

10. Unguis maris valde aiictus, unguiculis 

bifidis, dentibus intermediis membra- 
naceis. a. Pulvillus integer. 

11. Unguis aculeatae unguiculis integris. a. 

Pulvillus emarginatus. 


APIS. **, a. cont, 
FIG. 1. Falvula valde aucta. a. Tubi basis, h. 
Fulcrum elongatum. cc. Lora. d. 
Membrana lora connectens. e. Val- 
vulae Basis, f. jlpex. g. Palpus ex- 
terior filiformis, quinque articulorum^ 
articulo intermedio attenuate. 

2. Scutelli pars, a a. Denies sub hirsutie 


3. Antenna maris, quatuordecim articulo- 


4. Antenna aculeatae, tredecim articulorum. 

5. Abdomen aculeatae, ex ovato subglobo- 

sum, ano mucronato. 


238 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. Upis. **. a, b.) 

FIG. 6. Anus maris, segmento ultimo subemar- 
7- Portio Pedis antici valde aucta. a Pars 
PaliTKE segmento circuli dempto. b. 
Strigilisf. pec ten setarum c Velum. 
d. SpinuliE utrinque serrulatae. e. Ti- 
bicF portio. 
S. a. Sternum, hh. Pectus. 
APIS. **. b. 
FIG. 1. Caput. 

2. Proboscis, a. Fulcrum elongatum, sub* 

clavatum. b Lori pars. c. Valvulae 
Cardo. dd. Valvules, ee. Palpi ex- 
teriores. f. Tubus linearis, apice tri- 
dentatus dente interiori majore. gg. 
Lacinice exteriores. h. Lingua. 

3. Xmgwa valde aucta. a a. Lacini^ mteno^ 

res,lineari-lanceolataB. b. Palpus mte- 
rior biarticulatus. c. Lacinia exterior 
e duobus sequalibus articulis constans. 

4. Falvula valde aucta, linearis, a. Lorum. 

b Valvulae Basis, c. Valvulae ^ipex 
lanceolatus, obtusus. d Palpus ex- 
terior minutissimus, exarticulatus. 

5 . Maxilla apice acuta, edentula. 

6. Labium antice curvum, / subarcuatum. 

7. Antennas aculeatae tredecim articulorum. 

8. Trunci portio. a a. Denies thoracem 

postice armans. b. Scutellum tuber- 
culis duobus munitum. 






TABULARUM EXPLTCATIO. {Apis. **. b. c. 1. «.) 23^ 

FIG. 9. Abdomen aculeatae conicum, sex seg- 
10. Unguis unguiculis Integrls. 


APIS. **. c. 1. a. 

FIG. 1. Caput, a a. Ocw/? pilosisslmi. 

2. Proboscis a. Palpus exterior, b. Val- 

vulae Basis. c. Apex, d. Fulcrum. 
€. Tubus linearis, apice tridentatus, 
dente intermedio longiori. ff Laci- 
niie exteriores. gg. Palpi interiores 
biarticulati h. Lingua. 

3. Valvule portio valde aucta. a. Basis. 

b. /pex. c. Palpus exterior, biarticu- 
latus, acutus, pilosulus. 

4. Proboscidis portio valde aucta. a a. La^ 

cini^ interiores, lineares. b. Lacinia 
5 Labium. 

6. Maxilla aculeatae. 

7. ^! axilla maris. 

8. Antenna aculeatae tredecim articulorum. 

9. Antenna maris quatuordecim articulo- 

JO. Scutellum A. conicce (torn. 2. p. 224.) 
dente incurvo utrinque. 

11. Abdomen aculeatae. 

12. Anus dehiscens a latere conspectus, a. 

Segmentum ultimum tergi. b. Seg- 
jnentum ultimam ventris. c. Aculeus, 


240 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO, {Jpis. **. c. i. ^. $.) 

FIG. 13. Abdomen maris. 

14. Anus a dorso conspectus, a a. Denies 
furcati terminales. b b. Denies latera- 
les integri. 

18. Dens terminalis furcatus a latere con- 

l6. Abdomen masculum A. inermis (torn. 2. 
p. 229 ) ano octodentato. 

17= Unguis aculeatae, unguiculis integris. 

18. Unguis maris, ungoiculis apice bifidis. 

APIS. **. c. 1. ^. 

FIG. I. Proboscis, a. Fulcrum e\ongatum,suh' 
clavatum. b. Tubus linearis, c. Fial~ 
vula. d. Palpus exterior, ee Laci^ 
ni^ exteriores. J\f. Palpi interiores. 
g Lingua. 

2. Valvulce portio valde aucta. a. Valvulae 

Basis, b. jipex. c. Palpus exterior 

3. Proboscidis portio. a. Lacinia interior 

brevis, setaceus. b. Lacinia exterior. 

4. Abdomen aculeatae, incurvum. 

5. Idem a latere conspectum. a. Anus 


6. Anus rectangulus A.phceopterce (torn. 2. 

p. 232.) 

7. Af axilla aculeatae apice tridentata. 

8. Antenna aculeatae tredecim articulorum. 

9. Caput rotundatum. 









TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Apis. **. c. 2. «.) 241 


APIS. **. c. 2. a. 

FIG. 1. Caput rotuiidatum, maxillls promlnen- 
tibus, validissimis. 
1. Proboscis, a. Labium, b. Mai:illa. c, 
J'^alvula. d. Palpus exterior, e. Tu- 
bus, ff. Palpi interiores. g. Laci- 
nice exteriores. h. L'ngua 

3. Valvula valde aucta. a. Basis. b, 

jipex. c. Palpus biarticulatus. 

4. Portio Proboscidis. aa. Lacini p Inte- 

riores, breves, acutae. b. Tubi por- 
tio, apice tridentato dentibus aequa- 

5. Labium. 

6. Antenna aculeatae, tredecim articulo- 


7. Antenna maris quatuordecim articulo- 


8. AntennamB.^c\\\?i A. IFillughbiellip (torn, 

'1. p. 233, 234.) a. Articulus extimus 
reliquis major. 

9. Maxilla aculeatae ejusdem (ibid. p. 233.) 

10. Maxilla maris ejusdem (ibid. p. 23-1.) 

11. Maxilla aculeatae A. centuncularis (ibid, 

p. 239.) 

12. Maxilla maris ejusdem (ibid. p. 240.) 

13. Maxilla aculeata3 A. maritime^ (ibid, 

p. 242.) 


542 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Jpis. **. c. 2. «.) 

FIG. 14. Maxilla aculeatae A. lignisec^e (ibid, p 

17. Maxilla marls ejusdem apice bidentata, 

dente interiori brevissimo segmento 
circuli dempto. 

15. Maxilla aculeatae. A, circumcinctce 

(ibid. p. 246.) 

16. Maxilla aculeatae ^. xanthomelana 

(ibid. p. 247.) 

18. Abdomen aculeatae A. centuncularis 

(ibid. p. 239.) 

19. Abdomen aculeatae A.maritimc^ (ibid. 

p. 242.) 
20- Abdomen aculeatae A JVillughbiellce 

(ibid. p. 234.) 
0,1. Abdomen aculeatae A. lignisecce (ibid. 

p. 244.) 

22. Venter hirsutie dens^ tectus. 

23. Abdomen masculum. 

24. Anus masculus A. Willughbiellce (ibid. 

p. 234.) 

25. Anus masculus A. lignisecce (ibid. 

p. 244.) 

26. Anus masculus A. centuncularis (ibid. 

p. 240.) 

27. Apophysis mascula A. fFillughbiellie 

(ibid. p. 234.) 
(J8. Pes anticus masculus ejusdem (ibid) 
c. -^/jq/)%m articulus primus. b.Ar- 
ticulus secundus. c, Articuli primi 





i m 

'TABULARUM *£XPLICATIO. (Jpis. **. c.1. a. 0.) 243 

Mucro. d Femur, e. Tibia, f. Tarsus^ 
g. Cilia incurva tarsi. 
JTG. 29. Femur. 

30. Maris Unguis unguiculis apice bifidis* 

3 1 . Aculeata? Unguis unguiculis hinc dente 

instructis. ? 


APIS **, c. 2. ^, 
^IG. 1. Caput rotutidatuin. a. Nasus. 

2. Proboscis, a a. Lora. b. Memhrana 

lora connectens. cc. Falvulo'. dd. 
Palpi exteriores. e. Fulcrum elonga- 
tum. f. Tubus linearis, gg. Lacinice 
exteriores. h. Lingua. 

3. Lingua Portio. a a. Licinia interiores 

lineari-lanceolatcE, acutae. 

4. Palpus exterior exarticalatus. 

5. Labimn. 

6. Maxilla aculeatce .A. manicat^ (torn. 2. 

p. 249.) 

7. Maxilla maris ejusdem (ibid. p. 250.) 

8. jintenna aculeatce tredecim articulorum. 

9. Ante7ina maris quatuordecim articulo- 


10. Abdomen aculeatas, subglobosum. 

W, Anus masculus apice spinis quinque 
armatus. a a. Segmentum antepe- 
nultimum utrinque in angulum pro- 
tensum (ibid. p. 250.) bb. Spince 
segmenti penultimi. c. Spime anales. 
»2 ilG. 

244 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (^Apis. **. c. 2. $. y.) 

FIG. 12. j4pophysis postica mascula a. Arti- 
culus secundus obtusangulus (Ibid.) 
13. Unguis unguiculis apice bifidis. a. 
Pulvillus minutissimus. 
APIS. **. c. 2. 7. 
FIG. 1. Caput subglobosum. 

2. Caput A. maxillosce (torn. 1. p. 251.) 

a a. Maxilliu. b. Lahium. c. Squa- 
mula nasi. 

3. Proboscis. a. Valvula. bb Lacinice 

exteriores articalo primo brevi. c. 
Lingua, dd. Palpi interiores. e. Tu- 
bus linearis, apice tridentatus. f. Ful- 
crum, gg. Lora. 
A. Valvules portio valde auctse. a. Pa- 
sis, b. Palpus exterior, biarticulatus. 
c. Apex. 

5. a. Lacinice exterioris pars. b. Palpus 

interior exarticulatus. 

6. Maxilla seorsum conspecta. 

7. Antenna aculeatae tredecim articulorum, 


8. Antenna mascula, quatuordecim articu- 


9. Antenna mascula A. Jiorisomnis (ibid. 

p. 254.) articulis intermediis subtus 

10. Abdomen aculeatae. 

11. Abdomen masculum A. Jiorisomnis 

(ibid.) a, Cornu ventris. b. Anus 





>.yifhi^ h 


TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Jpis. **. c. 2. y. I) 245 

apice bidentatus. c. Cornu ani ven- 
tralis, /. segmentum ultimum recur- 
vum. d. Cavitas tomentoso-pallida. 
FIG. 12. Jnus ejusdem. a a. Denies dorsales ani. 
bb. Denies ventrales ani. 

13. Abdomen masculum A. Campanularum 

(ibid. p. 257.) «• J^enlris segm'enti se- 
cundi tuberculum. 

14. Amis ejusdem apice bidentatus dentibus 


15. Unguis aculeatae^ . " 
^fiTT • • >uno*uicuIis intes;ris. 
10. unguis mans J 

17. Unguis masculus alius speciei, unguicuUs 



APIS. **. c. 2. 3. 
FIG. 1. Caput subglobosum, maxillis prominen- 

2. Proboscis explicata una cum capite. a. 

Gula. b. Jugulum. c. Lora. d. 
Fulcrum, ee. Palpi interiores biar- 

3. Faluula valde aucta. a. Palpus exterior 

quatuor articulorum. b. Valvulae Ba- 
sis. c. Apex. 

4. Tubi portio valde aucta. a. Fulcrum 

elongatum. b. Tubi pars. 

5. Lingua valde aucta, pilosissima, trans-* 

verse striatula, apice subcapitata. aa, 
K 3 Lacinice 

1246 (TABtJLARUM EXPLICATIO. {Apis, **. c. 2.5. d. 1.) 
Lacinice interiores lanceolatae, acumU 
natae. h. Lingua* 
FIG. 6. Capitis A. hicornis (torn. 1. p. 271.) por- 
tio. a a. Cornua rigida quae faciem 

7. Cornu prsecedentis, valde auctum^ seor-» 

sum conspectum. 

8. Cornu Var. |S (ibid. p. 273 ) valdeauctum. 
Q. Maxilla aculeatae. 

10. Maxilla maris. 

12. Labium. 

13. Capitis pars prona ad Lalii situm exhi^ 

bendum. aa.Gen<£. hh Maxilla* 
c. Labium, d. Proboscidis apex, 

14. Antenna aculeatae. 

15. Antenna maris. 

16. Abdomen aculeatae, 
17- Abdomen masculum. 

18. Anus masculus J. spinulosa^ (ibid. p. 202.) 
IQ. Anus masculus u4. ccerulescentis (ibid, 
p. 266.) a a. Denies ani ventrales. 

20. A7ms masculus A. bicornis (ibid. p. 273.) 

21. Segmentum ultimum ventrale maris ^» 

Tunensis (ibid. p. 270.) 

22. Unguis maris unguiculis bifidis. 

23. Unguis aculeatae unguiculis integris, 

APIS. **. d. 1. 

FIG. 1 . Valvulce portio valde auctae. a. Valvule 
Basis, h, Pili plumosi, c. Pec ten, 

«?. Palpus 

OFTHi: . 


TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Jpis. **. d. 1.2. ». $.) 247 
d. Palpus exterior sexarticulatus. e, 
ValvulcE j4pex. 

FIG. 1. Prohoscidis "^ovtAO. a a. LacinicP exteri- 
ores. bb. Lacinue interiores pilosa 
apicibus involutis. cc. Palpi mteno- 
res biarticulati. 

3. Linguce portio et Lacinice Interiores 

valde aucta. a. Lingua, bb Basis 
laciniae interioris linguam vaginans» 
c. Cilia* 

4. Maxilla maris. 

5. Maxilla aculeatae. 

6. Labium antice emarglnatum. 

7. .Antenna maris elongata articulis arcuatls. 
S. j4ntenn{e articnUis valde auctus ex hexa- 

gonis innumeris constans, 


APIS. **. d. 2. a. /3. 

FIG. 1. Proboscis explicata. a. Fulcrum, h. 
Lor a. c. Falvulte. d Tubus, ee. La^ 
cinicB exteriores. ff. Lacini^ interi- 
ores. g. Lingua, hh. Palpi exteri- 
ores. i i. Palpi interiores. 

2. Fnlvulce portio valde aucta. a. Palpus 

exterior, sex articulorum. b. Valvula. 

3. Proboscis plicata extracta, ut interiora 

ejus in situ naturali exhibeantur. a a. 
Basis Valvularum. b. Lora. c. Ful- 
crum, d. Valvularum Apex, e. Tubus, 
R 4 FIG. 

243 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. '{Apis. **. d. 2. «, $. e. i.) 
FIG. 4. Caput, a. Nasus. 

5. .Labium quadratum. 

6. Maxilla aculeatae. 

7. Maxilla aculeatae A. fur cat ce (torn. 2. 

p. 288.) 

8. Maxilla maris. 

Q. Valvula A cyanece (torn. 2. p. 308 ) a. 
Apex incurvus. 

10. Prohoscidis ejusdem pars. a. Lacinice 


1 1 . Antenna^ maris. 

12. Antenna aculeatae. 

13. Antenna aculeatae A. cyanece. 

14. Abdomen aculeatae. 

15. Abdomen masculum A. furcates (tom. 2. 

ubi supr.) a. Furca ani. 

16. Abdomen aculeatae A, cyane^ (ubi supr, 

p. 309.) 
37. Pe<iw postici pars. a. Tibia, b. Tar- 
sus infra apicem tibiae insertus. 

18. Pes intermedius maris A. retusce (ubi 

supr. p. 299.) abed. Barba tarsi. 

19. Valvulae Basis A. violacece, Lin. «, 


20. Labium ejusdem antice emarginatum, 
21'. Maxillce ejusdem apex. 

APIS. ■**, e. 1. mas. 
]FIG, 1, Proboscis, a. Fulcrum, b. Tubus, cc; 
J^alvulce. dd. Lacinice interiores. ee; 
Palpi exteriores. /. Lingua. 





^ 3 

TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Apis. ^% e. 1.) 240 

IpIG. 2. Caput oculis postice concurrentibus. 

3. Maxilla valde aucta, apice bidentata, 
dente interiore truncato. 
• 4. Labium. 

5 . Antenna valde aucta, apice artlculis duo- 

bus primis brevissimis. 

6. jikdomen. 

7 Anus a latere conspectus. 
8. Pes posticus. ab. Apophysis. c. Fe- 
mur, d. Tibia, e. Planta. f. Digitus. 
Q. Unguis, a a. Unguiculi. h. Pulvillus. 


APIS. **. e. 1. fern. 
J^'IG. 1. Proboscis, a. Fulcrum, h. Tubus dente 
intermedio emarginato. c. Cardo. d. 
Lorum. e. Valvula: f. Palpus exte- 
rior, g. Lacinice exteriores. hh. 
Palpi interiores. f. Lingua- 
1. Lingua apex constrictus. 

3. Caput. 

4. Maxilla valde aucta, apice bidentata, den- 

te interiore segmento circuli deinpto. 
5 Eadem in situ diverse conspecta. 

6. Antenna valde aucta. 

7. Abdomen elongato-conicum. 

8. Pes posticus. 

p. Unguis valde auctus, 

APIS. **. e. 1. neut, 
FIG. 1. Proboscis explicata. a a. Valvularum 
Basis, bb./ipex. qc Palpi exteri- 

250 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Apis. **. e. 1.) 

ores. d. Lora. e. Fulcrum, f. Tu^ 
bus. gg Lacinice exteriores. hh. 
Laciniie interiores. i. Lingua, kk. 
Palpi interiores. 

2. Lingua pagina inferior. 

3. Linguie pagina superior. 

4. Palpus interior valde auctus, articulo 

primo bifido. 

5. Palpus exterior valde auctus^ set^ ter- 


6. Valvula valde aucta. a. Valvulae Basis. 

b. /Jpex. c. Pecten. d. Palpus exterior. 

7. Tubus, a a. Lacini^'intenores obtusae. 

8. Caput, a. Vertex, b. From. c. 

d. Occiput, e. Labium, f. Maxillce, 

9. Capitis pagina inferior, aa. Gence. b, 
, Jugulum. c. Gula annulo circundata* 

10. MaxilUe superficies exterior. 

1 1 . Maxillce superficies interior. 

12. Labium. 

13. jintenna. 

14. Ala superior, a. Squamula, 

15. Ala inferior, a. Fissura marginis tenu- 

ioris. \ 

16. Abdomen. 

17. Abdominis basis intima, /. segmentum 


18. Anus a latere conspectus. 

19. Pe^ posticus, a. Tibia. hb.Corlicula, 

€. Planta. d. Auricula, 





TABULARUM EXPLICATIO, (Apis. **. e. 1.2.) ^^51. 

FIG. 20. Planter valde auctae paglna interior, a. 
21. Pedis antici portio. a. Tibia, h. Ve^ 

lum. c. Spinula. d, Strigilis. 
*11. Unguis valde auctus. 

23. Aculei Vagina. 

24. Spiculum. a. Retinaculum. 

25. Spiculi apex valde auctus, hinc serrula- 



APIS. **. e, 2. 
^|G, 1. Proboscis explicata. a a. Lara. hh. 
Cardines. cc. Valvulce. d. Tubus, 
e. Fulcrum. ff. Lacinice interiores 
gg Lacinice exteriores. h. Lingua, 

2. Proboscis in actu explicandi. a. Mem- 

hrana lora connectens. bb Lor a. 
c. Valvulae Basis, dd. Ejusdem Apex. 
€. Fulcrum, ff. Lacinice exteriores. 
g. Lingua, h. Tubus. 

3. Valvidce pars valde aucta. a. Pecten, 

b. Palpus exterior. 

4. 5.6. Palpi exteriores varii. 

7. Proboscidis et Capitis portio. a. Gula. 

bb. jinnulus cc. Lora. dd. Cardines. 
€ Fulcrum, ff. Valvularum Basis, 
§». Tubus, h. Jugulum. 

8. Linguce portio. a a. Lacinice interiores. 

b.-Linguce pars. 


252 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Apis. **, e. 2.) 

FIG. 9. Caput ^. hortorum (torn. 2. p. 340.) 

10. Caput A. Scrimshirance (ibid p. 342.) 

11. Labium. 

1 2. Labium A. rupestris (ibid. p. 369.) 

13. Maxilla aculeatae. 

14. Maxilla maris. 

15. Antenna aculeatae. 

16. Antenna maris. 

17. Ala superior, a. Nebula marginalis. 

18. Ala inferior. 

19. Alee inferioris margo crassior. a. Ha- 


20. Pedis postici portio. a. Tibia corbiculat 

cincta. b. Planta, c. Auricula, 
dd. Spinul^. 

21. Planta postica seorsum conspecta. a. 


22. Pedis postici pars A. campestris &c. 

(torn. 2. p. 335, 43, 47, 69 ) 

23. Planta postica praecedentium sine aurii 


24. Abdomen aculeatae. 

25. Anus A rupestris (tom. 2. p. 369, 70.) 

a. Segmentum ani dorsale. hb. Ani 
segment! ventralis latera in angulum 

26. Abdomen maris. 

27. Aculeus inter valvas repositus. a. AcU'* 

leus. bb. Valvcu. 

28. Idem valvis patentibus. aa. Falvce^ 

bb, Spicula, c. Vagina, 





^al, /4 

TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Jpis. *^. e 2) 253 

FIG. 29. Vagina extractis spiculis. 

30. Spicuhim. a. Retinaculum. 

31. Spiculi apex valde auctus, hinc retror- 

sum serrulatus. 

32. ?7«^i«5 valde auctus. a. Pulvillus. 

33. Penis, a a. Forcipes. h. Phallus. 

34. Pilus plumosus. 

35. Segment! dorsalis abdominis sectio trans- 

versa, a. Segment! basis intima sub 
praecedentis segmenti margine delites- 
cens. h. Segmenti pagina aperta. 
c. Spiraculum. 

36. a. Spiraculum valde auctum. 

Obs. Spiracula diffitillime deteguntur, nisi sub 
lente forti^ vix ac ne vix, conspicienda. 

37. Maxilla aculeatae, ji. Barhutellce . 


FIG. 1. Proboscis generis Tenthredo, Linn, a a. 
Valvularum Cardines. b. Tubi Ful- 
crum, cc. Valvularum Basis. dd. 
Apex earundem. e. Lingua, fg. 
Tubus, hh. Palpi exteriores medio 
crassiores, sex articulorum. ii. Palpi 
2. Lingua seorsum conspecta. a. Linguae 
Basis, b. Apex tripartitus. c. Palpus 
inferior subclavatus, quatuor articu- 

No. 2. 

354 TAfiULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Miscellanea.) 

No. 2. 
FIG. 1. Proboscis generis Ichneumon, Linn, acu-* 
leo retracto. a. Tubus, h. Valvulae 
Basis, c. Apex truncatus, concavus* 
d. Palpus exterior quinque articulo- 
rum secundo trapeziformi. e. Lingua 
truncata, semi-cylindrica. f. Palpus 
interior quatuor articulorum, inter- 
mediis crassioribus. 

2. Proboscis generis Ichneumon, Linn, acu- 

leo exerto. a a. Valvule . b. Tubus, 
c. Palpus exterior quinque articulorum 
secundo trapeziformi. dd. Palpi in- 
teriores quatuor articulorum^ articulis 
intermediis crassioribus. 

3. Lingua cylindrica. 

No. 3. 

!FIG. 1. Proboscis Sphecis cujusdam petiolatae. a. 
Valvula. b. Tubus conicus. c. Pal- 
pus exterior sex articulorum articula 
tertio trapeziformi. d. Palpus interior 
quatuor articulorum. e. Lingua con- 

No. 4. 

FIG. 1. Proboscis generis Pompilus, Fab. a a. 
Cardines. bb.YsXwxABXum Basis, c. 
Apex. d. Tubus apice bifidus. e. 
Palpus exterior setaceus^ sex articulo- 

TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Miscellanea.) 255 

rum. f. Palpus interior quatuor ar- 
ticulorum, g. Lingua. 
2, Lingua valde aucta. a. Linguae Basis, 
b. Ejusdem Apex, trilobus. cc. Macu- 
lae duas pilosas. 

No. 5. 

FIG. 1. Prohoscidis pars generis Crahro, Fab. 
a. Tubus conicus. b. Lingua apice 
subemarginata. c. Palpus interior 
quatuor articulorum. 
^. Valvula. a. Basis, b. Apex rotunda- 
tus. c. Palpus exterior sex articulo- 
rum intermediis crassioribus. 

No. 6. 
Proboscis generis Chrysis, Linn, a a, 
Valvulce. b. Tubus, c. Valvulae Apex 
rotundatus. d. Palpus exterior quin- 
que articulorum. e. Palpus interior 
trium articulorum^ h. Lingua apice 

No. 7. 
FIG. 1. Proboscis generis Philanthus, Fab. a, 
Valvulas Basis, b. Apex. c. Palpus 
exterior filiformiSj sex articulorum. 
d. Tubus linearis, e. Lingua apice bi- 
loba. f. Palpus interior quatuor ar- 
2. Lingua valde aucta. a a. Ejusdem latera 
in angulum pilosum protensa. 

No. 8. 

256 TABULARUM £XPLICATIO. (Miscetlanea:) 

No, 8. 

FIG. 1 . Lingua qnadriloba Vespce murance, Linn* 
a a. Lohi laterales. h. Lingme pars 
intermedia apice biloba. cccc. Calli 
quibus lobi terminantur. d. Palpus 
interior quatuor articulorum. 

2. P'alvula, a. Basis arcuatus. h, ^pe^, 

c. Palpus exterior sex articulorum. 

No. 9. 

FIG, 1. Proboscis generis nostri Ammophila* 
aa. Basis valvularum. h. Tubus, cc^ 
uiper valvularum. d. Palpus exterior 
sex articulorum. e. Palpus interior 
quatuor articulorum. f. Lingua. 
1. Lingua valde aucta, subclavata clava 

3. Valvula valde aucta. a. Lori pars. h. 

Cardo. c. Basis, d. Apex semi-sa^ 
gittatus. e. Palpi exterioris pars. 

No. 10. 

FIG. 1. Proboscidis pars generis Tiphia, Fat). 
a. Tubus triangularis, b. Linguahre- 
vissima, apice rotundata. c. Palpus 
interior quatuor articulorum. 
1, Falvula valde aucta. a. Basis, b. Apex 
rotundatus. c. Palpus exterior sex 
articulorum^ intermediis crassioribus. 

No. 11, 

TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Miscellanea.) 257 

No. 11. 

FIG. 1 . Stylops Melius (torn. 2. p. 1 13, 14.) «. 
Caput antice obsolete trilobum. hb. 
Antennarum articulus primus. cc, 
Earundem ramus interior unius arti- 
culi. dd. Ramus exterior trium arti- 
culorum. ee. Articulus extimus. ff. 
Oculi pedanculati. gg. Elytra, h, 
Scutellum abdomen obtegens. ii. 
Processus corneus scutellum utrinque 
muniens. k. Abdomen carnosum. //. 
AlcB magnas, plicatae. 
1, Capitis portio ejusdem a fronte con- 
specta. a. Palpus exterior biarticu- 
latus. b. Palpus interior exarticulatus. 

c. AntenncB ramus interior, d. Ejus- 
dem ramus exterior. 

3, Antenna, a. Articulus primus, b. Ra- 

mus interior, c. Ramus exterior. 

4. Antenna visus alter, a. Articulus pri- 

mus, b. Ramus interior, c. Ramus 
6. Palpi seorsum conspecti. a. Palpus 
exterior, b. Palpus interior. 

6. Corporis pars a latere conspecta. a. 

Thorax, b. Scutellum. c. Abdomen, 

d. Processus corneus supra dictus. 

7. Larva insecti praecedentis. a. OsP b, 

Concavitas sub capite. 

s FIG. 

258 TABULARUM EXPLICATIO. (Miscellanea.) 

FIG. 8. Ca/)z7/5 ejusdem pagina superior. a.Os? 
h. Occiput. 
9. Abdominis Melittce portio. a. Larva 
Styhpis Melitt^e capite solo exerto. 

10. Pediculus Melittce valde auctus (torn. 2, 

p. 168.) 

11. Antenna ejusdem. 

12. Pes ejusdem. 

13. Folliculus A. manicatce (torn. 1. p. 175. 

2. p 248.) tomento tectus. 

14. Idem parte tomenti exutus. 

15. Apex ejusdem ad caminulnm /. spira- 

mentum pxhibendum. 

16. Idem cum tegumento exteriori ex parte 

abscisso, ut folliculus interior pateat. 
17* Moleculas vermiformes e polline melle 

humectato confectae, quibus folliculus 

obducitur, et mediantibus quibus to- 

mentum ei adhaeret. 
18. Larva A. manicatce. 


J. Raw, Printer, Ipswich*