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Full text of "A monograph of the Anderson, Clark, Marshall and McArthur connection"



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NIL OESPERANOUM AuSPiCE OEO 



3 iHonograpf) of 
Cf)e 3nbers(on» Clark, 
idarjeiijaU anb il$lc!artf)ut 
Connection 



Family C*' 
Andersons of k 



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Infroducfion 

TN writing this family history I do not assume that it will 
■*- interest the general public. At best it will only be a 
compilation of fragmentary records and family traditions. 
Few of its members have attained notable distinction, 
although a number have been honorably connected with 
important episodes in our national history. In submitting the 
results of my genealogical investigations, I do so in the belief 
that some of the name and connection may wish to know 
who first of their kin came to America; what induced them 
to come; where the}^ settled, and through what difficulties 
and dangers they struggled in the pioneer period of our first 
colony; and, finally, what part and lot their descendants have 
had in the subsequent development of our country. 

It may be asked. What is the good of knowing all this? 
Certainly it will not put a penny in any man's purse. This 
monograph is not intended to stimulate vanity and pride. No 
one has a right to be proud of ancestry unless they give proof 
that they are worthy of it. But something is due to those 
from whom we have received an honorable heritage; and as 
we would not be forgotten, so let us not forget. 

THOMAS McARTHUR ANDERSON. LL.D., 
_____ ^«g8^*er'-General, U. S. A., fSc^^ - /^*7 

Late Major-General of Volunteers, 



A Monograph 

of the 

Anderson, Clark, Marshall and McArthur 

Connection 



The Virginia Andersons 

As shown by Hotten's "Book of Immigrants," three families 
of Andersons settled in Virginia in the 17th century. The first 
came over in the reign of Charles the First, and settled origi- 
nally in Tidewater, Virginia. These, as Hotten's records show, 
took the oath of allegiance and supremacy; from which it may 
be inferred that they belonged to the Established Church. The 
members of this sect moved successively to New Kent and 
Hanover Counties and became known generally as the Han- 
over Andersons. 

Another family of the name, and probably a branch of the 
same stock, came over after the Restoration, and were, so far 
as known, Scotch Presbyterians. The third set were trans- 
Dorted to Bermuda for participation in the Monmouth Rebel- 
lion. A number of these expatriated Andersons settled on the 
Eastern Shore of Virginia and in Maryland. It is quite probable 
that there were exceptions in all these classes, as it is not 
assumed that the Hotten records are complete, and the loss 
and destruction of many public and private records make it 
impossible to supply omissions or to attain absolute accuracy. 
The head of this branch of the family, as known to us by 
records, was one Robert Anderson, of New Kent County, Va. 
He is recorded in Bishop Meade's book as a vestryman of 
St. Peter's Parish of New Kent County, and who in 1683 took 
up a land grant which he allowed to lapse, but which was 
subsequently taken up by his son Robert, of Gold Mine, Han- 
over County. 

The first Robert married Cecilia, a daughter of 

Massey and Lucelia Poindexter. They left two sons, Robert, 
of Gold Mine, and David. A full account of David's descendants 
is given in Mr. Brock's monograph of the Virginia Andersons. 
Robert, of New Kent, died in 1718. He was bom about 1644, 



Ten years before this date Thomas and John Anderson, two 
young Englishmen, came to Jamestown in the ship Bonaven- 
tura. The next year there came Richard Anderson, aged fifty, 
in the ship Merchant Hope. He was probably the father of 
Thomas and John, as Richard has been a family name in this 
branch ever since. 

By a process of exclusion I have arrived at the opinion that 
Robert, of New Kent, was the son of one of these three men: 
First, because he is not mentioned in any list of emigrants; 
secondly, because no other Andersons are mentioned as emi- 
grating to Virginia before the time that we have record of him 
in New Kent. By tradition we have it that Thomas a ship- 
wright, of Gloucester Point, was the father of Robert, and a 
probable propositus of the Hanover Anderson family in Amer- 
ica. Mr. Brock in his history of the Virginia Andersons, pub- 
lished in the Richmond Standard of March 12th, 1881, gives the 
tradition that the founder of the family was Thomas Anderson, 
of Northumberland, England, who settled as a shipwright at 
Gloucester Point. He states that a member of the family had 
gone, about the same time, to St. Petersburg, Russia. He gives 
the crest of this St. Petersburg Anderson as a "buck, wounded, 
and holding in his mouth an acorn, leaved." This heraldric 
device was issued after the time we believe our family came 
to America, but the motto "Nil desperandum, auspice Deo" is 
the traditional family motto. 

Crests and escutcheons are only important as cattle brands 
to show to what herd one belongs. When men covered their 
faces with pot metal visors, it was necessary to have some 
device to distinguish them. 

Where families have no hereditary titles or landed estates 
held from generation to generation, their genealogical records 
are apt to become ob.scured; but we have in this country the 
compensating advantage that any man can become, as Napoleon 
said, "the Rudolph of Hapsburg of his family." 

Where Mr. Brock got his traditions I do not know. I re- 
ceived my information from a Colonel Robert Waller, a very 
aged gentleman I met in William.sburg in 1866. He told me 
that in his student days he had gone to William and Mary 
College with a relative of mine, and that he had long been 
familiar with our family history. He said tliat the (irst Virginia 
Anderson was a shipwright at Gloucester Point. About the 
same time General William Tolliefcrro pointed out a place on 
the west shore of the Chesapeake which, he said, had been the 
first home (jf the Andersons. It is quite impossible to verily 
these traditions, but having traced back our forefathers to 
Tidewater, it will be convenient now to cross to the other side 
to see if we can get any trace of them beyond. 



There is a division of opinion in the family as to whether 
we are of Enghsh or of Scotch descent. In my judgment we 
are both of English and Scotch lineage. From the days of the 
Danelaugh, Andersons have lived on both sides of the Tweed, 
almost within a stone's throw of each other, for the Tweed of 
this country would not be considered more than a good-sized 
creek. When the lowland Scotch were cowboys, in making 
their raids over the border, they would dash through its waters 
and never draw rein. 

The name of Anderson is Scandinavian, and our remote 

Ancestors came with the Danes, who, for a time, held the 
lastern coasts of Scotland and England from Pentland Firth 
to the Humber. In the biography of Sir Edmund Anderson, the 
most distinguished of the name in the reign of Elizabeth, it is 
stated that his family came originally from Sutherland. This 
most northern county of Scotland was a South land to the 
Norsemen, and was the objective point of their piratical exploi- 
tations. The messenger from Macbeth to Duncan tells him: 

"The Norwean banners flout the sky, 
And fan our people cold." 

In this connection I note a rather singular coincidence: In 
the reign of Edward VI a coat of arms was granted to the 
Andersons of Northumberland. The crest, an eagle's head, 
erased argent, holding in the beak, paleways, an arrow, gules, 
headed and feathered, or. The escutcheon; or, on chevron, 
gules, between three hawks" heads, erased sables, as many 
acorns, slipped argent. 

Motto: "Nil desperandum, auspice Deo." 

In a history of Sutherland there is a picture of an ancient 
monolith with three seals' heads chevroned, or, as military 
people would sa3^ echeloned from the left. The seals' heads 
and the hawks' heads look strikingly alike. I mentioned this in 
a letter to Dr. Joseph Anderson, LL.D., President of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland. In his answer he repudiates the 
assumption of Danish descent, asserting that Macbeth defeated 
the Danes and drove them from Scotland. If Shakespeare is 
true to history, they were not driven out but only compelled 
to pay tribute: "At St. Colmay's inch; ten thousand dollars to 
the general use." But whether driven from Scotland or not, 
the Danes formed a recognized part of the population of 
Northumberland. In this connection Dr. Anderson states that 
in Scotland the original name of the famil^y was MacAndrew, 
as the name of Anderson stood for son of Andrew. 

The first Anderson I find mentioned by name was in a 
Latin record of Northumberland — one Joe Anderson, in the 
reign of Henry II, A.D. 1350. After that there is occasional 
mention of them in the Visitations — that is, in the inspections 



made by the Garter king at arms to settle contentions as to 
titles and estates. Among others mentioned are Andersons of 
New Castle-on-Tyne, and of one Bertram Anderson in 1547. 
Under the Commonwealth, Sir Francis Anderson had to pay 
£1200 sterling to save his estate from confiscation. In some 
notes on Lincolnshire, in "Burke's Landed Gentry," it is stated 
that one Robert L'Isle married an Anderson heiress and took 
her name, in the time of Henry IV. This couple had a son, 
Edward of Flaxborough, and he had a son. Sir Edmund Ander- 
son, already mentioned. He was Lord Chief Justice of North- 
umberland. A strange circumstance connected with him is 
that, although he was on a commission which tried Mar}', 
Queen of Scots, James the First, her son, did not remove him 
from office, but placed him on another commission to try Sir 
Walter Raleigh. It is this crest and coat of arms of Sir Edmund 
Anderson that some of us have assumed without permission 
from the College of Heralds. As it was the only one issued to 
any of our name before our forefathers came to this country, 
it is the only one that we can appropriate. Of course no 
American claims that any heraldic device has any significance 
to him except as showing that he belonged to a certain sept 
of the name. Identity of name in a large population has small 
significance, but in a sparse population it is a probable indi- 
cation of kinship. 

Sir Edmund Anderson's son, Sir Francis, took the name of 
Pelham, and now, after various transmutations of name and 
title, his representative descendant rejoices in the name of 
Charles Alfred Worthley Anderson Pelham, and was made 
Earl of Yarborough in 1887. 

It is stated in some biographical encyclopedia that Sir 
Edmund Anderson's son Francis had a son who emigrated to 
America, but when or to what part is not stated. 

In genealogical research we come here now to a missing 
link. I do not care to make any attempt to trace a line of 
ascent to any particular person in the Old Country. I am 
satisfied with the reasonableness of the conclusion that the 
Hanover branch of the family is descended from the Noithum- 
brian and Scutch descendants of tiie Danes who settled on the 
Tweed a thousand years ago. There are, of course, Scotch and 
English Andersons in every shire of Britain. One, Ihr Rev. 
James Anderson, collaborating with a French Oriental scholar, 
in 1702, evolved that singular combination of Scriptural sym- 
bolism and Oriental mysticism known as "Speculative 
Masonry." 

After this archaical digression we return to a period of 
family history of which we have more definite information. 

In 1704 the county of Hanover was segregated from New 
Kent, and the Parish of St. Paul from that of St. Peter's. 

6 



As before stated, Robert Anderson, of New Kent, was a 
vestryman of that parish. In the same records the name of 
Matthew Anderson appears also as a vestryman. Whether it 
was under the administration of these worthies that stocks 
were put up in the churchyard to discourage the ungodly from 
indulging in cock-fighting during service, Bishop Meade does 
not tell us. 

There is, or was, a tombstone at Westover, on the James, 
of a Reverend Charles Anderson. Whether Matthew and 
Charles belonged to our clan or not, I do not know; but as 
they were men who eminently lived under the tongue of good 
repute, we are safe in claiming that they did. ^^ 

It is certain, however, that the first Robert of our record, ' 
at or before the time that Hanover was made a county, estab- 
lished himself in a homestead he called Gold Mine. His son 
Robert was born there in 1712. His last grandson. Governor 
Charles Anderson, of Kuttawa, Kentucky, died in September, 
1896. Thus three generations span 184 years — from the days 
of Queen Ann to the second presidency of Grover Cleveland. 
I This Robert, of Gold Mine, married Elizabeth Clough in 

' 1739. She was a daughter of Richard Clough and Ann Poin- 
' dexter. Robert Anderson of New Kent married Mary Overton, 
daughter of Wm. Overton and Elizabeth Waters, daughter of 
Ann Waters of St. Sepulchre, London (1697). The children of 
this marriage were: Robert, who married first a Shelton and 
then a Dabney; Matthew, Richard Clough, George, Samuel, 
and Charles. Their daughters were: Ann New, Cecilia, who 
married old Field Billy Anderson; Elizabeth Austin, and Mary, 
who married, first. Captain John Anderson, and subsequently 
the Rev. Elkina Tally, a theological freelance. Matthew mar- 
ried a Dabney; he lived in Gloucester County. George mar- 
ried first a Presberry, of Maryland, and second a Tucker. 
Samuel also married a Dabney. These children of Robert, of 
Gold Mine, were born between 1741 and 1762. 

David Anderson, the second son of Robert, of New Kent, 
married and moved to Albermarle County, Virginia. He left 
a large family. William, his eldest son, lived and died in 
England. His other sons were: Nathaniel; David, who married 
Susan Moore; Richard, married a Meriwether, and Matthew, 
Thomas, Edmund, and Samuel. The daughters were Ann, 
married a Mr. Miner, and second a Jacobs; Sarah, married a 
Hudson, and a Mr. Barrett. The descendants of these sons and 
daughters of David, and of all the sons and daughters of Robert 
except those of Colonel Richard Clough Anderson, are to be 
found for the greater part in Virginia, Tennessee and Georgia. 
For convenience they may be designated as the elder branch. 

Mr. Brock gives their collateral connections as follows: 
"New, Shelton, Baily, Dabney, Austin, Presberry, Tucker, 
Howard (of Maryland), Tully, Guest, Moore, Meriwether, 



Thompson. Minor. Hudson. Barrett. Trice. Porter. Stonebacker, 
Macnundo, McGeehee, Kerr, Cole, Owen, Harris. Rucker, 
Gibbs, Key, Mitchell, Gett, Edwards. Elliott. Lambert. Wag- 
gener. Mason, Ware. Waller. Runion, Dickinson. Fry. Michie. 
Peters, Eppes, Pemberton, Crawford, Barnett, Smith. Hender- 
son. Maxwell, Jacobs, Yancy, Allen, Towles, Paxton." 

The collateral connection of the junior or western branch 
may be given as follows — there may be unintentional omis- 
sions: Marshall. Clark, Clough. Massie, Poindexter, Overton, 
Williams. Macloud, Thompkins, Thompson, Durrett, Prior, 
Fields, Hoskins, Clay, Pope, Logan, Roy, Gwathmey, O'Fallen, 
Croghan, Gamble, Simpson, Johnson. Flourney, Samuels, Craig. 
Harrison. Atkinson. Stuart, DeKanso, Kearney. Ryan, Wood- 
bridge. McLean, Latham. Longworth. McArthur, Clinch, Hall, 
Brown, Kendrick. Jessup. Bullitt, VanWinkle, Killgore, Worth- 
ington, Woolfolk, Fore, Douglas, Mendenhall, Hinkle. Herron, 
Allison, Wright, Phillips, Gray, Judkins, Rencher, Wallingford, 
Allen, Patten, Cairns, Rogers, Milton, Lawton. 

Col. Richard Clough Anderson, the founder of the junior 
or western branch of the family, was the third son of Robert 
Anderson 2nd, of Gold Mine, Hanover County, Virginia, and 
Elizabeth Clough. his wife. He was born at Gold Mine, Janu- 
ary 12th, 1750, and died at his home. Soldiers' Retreat, near 
Louisville, Ky., October. 1826. He happened to be in Boston 
as a super-cargo of a ship from Richmond at the time of the 
Boston Tea Party, and carried the news of that famous episode 
to his friend and neighbor, Patrick Henry. 

When the War of Independence began he raised a company 
for the Continental Army, and was commissioned as Captain 
of the 5th Virginia, Continental Line. He was promoted Major 
of the 1st Virginia, and Lieutenant-Colonel of the 3rd Virginia. 

Colonel Charles Scott was the first Colonel of the 5th Vir- 
ginia Regiment of the Continental Line, witli the 4th Virginia 
under Colonel Elliott and the 6th Virginia under Colonel 
Buckner; it formed a part of General Adam Stephens' Brigade 
in the campaign of 1776. The other officers of Captain R. C. 
Anderson's ccjmpany were: First Lieutenant, John Anderson; 
Second Lieutenant, Wm. Bentley, and Ensign, Robert Thomp- 
kins. 

Bancroft states, in his history, that Captain Anderson and 
his company attacked and drove in the Hessian pickets at 
Trenton, at six o'clock on the evening of Christmas day, and 
thereby might have frustrated Washington's plan of surpris- 
ing and capturing Colonel Rahl's command at Trenton; but 
fortunately the He.ssians regarded the attack on the pickets as 
a mere Christmas frolic, and rekixed their vigilance. So Cap- 
tain Anderson's name, by this incident, became associated with 
an important historical event. 



striker, in a monograph on the "Campaigns of Trenton and 
Princeton," gives this account of the episode: 

"General Stephens sent Captain Anderson over the Dela- 
ware River on a scout, with orders to go to several places, 
and if he did not find the enemy at any of the places named, 
to go on until he did find them. Captain Anderson passed a 
merry Christmas hunting for the Hessians, until at last, going 
south on the Pennington road, they ran across a picket of fif- 
teen just north of Trenton. They fired a volley into the mer- 
cenaries, wounding six, when the rest fled. Then hearing the 
long roll beating and the town in an uproar, Captain Anderson 
marched back toward the Johnson ferry." General Robert 
Anderson, in a letter to the New Jersey Historical Society, 
gave this as his father's statement: "That he soon met the 
advance guard of Washington's army, and then when Wash- 
ington learned from him that Stephens had ordered the scout, 
he reproved him, Stephens, severely for risking the miscar- 
riage of the expedition, but exonerated Captain Anderson from 
blame." 

The family tradition was that he was wounded in a battle 
at Trenton, and that with Major James Monroe, afterward 
President of the United States, who was also wounded, he was 
carried over to Princeton on a caisson. The records show that 
the only American officers wounded at Trenton on December 
26th were Captain Wm. Washington, of the Cavalry, and Major 
Monroe. But I learned from Heitman, the War Department 
historian, that Captain R. C. Anderson was wounded at the 
second battle of Trenton, or Assumpink, January 2nd, 1777. 

Subsequently he was on the firing line at Brandywine. At 
this battle, he said: "That General Wa.yne, in holding the 
enemy in check at Chadd's Ford, seeing that his men were 
shooting too high and wishing them to aim lower, shouted to 
them: 'Shin 'em, damn 'em, shin 'em! Break one man's legs; 
it takes two to carry them away. Shin 'em, damn 'em, shin 
'em!' " He was also present at Germantown and passed through 
the hungry and Arctic horrors of Valley Forge. He was 
wounded at Savannah. Count Pulaski, who was mortally 
wounded at the same time, gave him his sword just before 
he died. Later he was taken prisoner at Charleston. After 
exchange he served as aide to General Lafayette in his cam- 
paigning against Cornwallis in Virginia, and as an aide to 
Governor Nelson at the siege of Yorktown. At the close of 
the War of Independence he was present with the officers of 
the Continental Army when they organized the Society of the 
Cincinnati, and became a charter member. 

In 1783 he was made Surveyor of the Virginia Military 
Land District, and established an office in Louisville the same 



year. He attended the session of the Danville convention, and 
opposed the efforts of Wilkinson and Sebastian to induce the 
people of Kentucky to declare their independence and to form 
an alliance with Spain. 

Wilkinson's correspondence with the Spanish Government, 
recently published, shows that of the bribe of $100,000 which 
he recommended the Spanish Government to offer, $1,000 was 
to be offered R. C. Anderson, who was said by Wilkinson to 
be a man of ordinary ability but great influence — Colonel 
R. C. A.. Sr., married first Elizabeth Clark, the daughter of 
John Clark and Ann Rogers, and after her death, her cousin, 
Sarah Marshall. 

Before giving an account of the descendants of this soldier 
and pioneer, it would seem advisable to explain the relation- 
ship of the Clarks and Marshalls. 

The genealogy of the Clarks, as known to me, is as follows: 
Jonathan Clark, of Virginia, married Elizabeth Wilson, 1725. 
They had a son, John Clark, who married Ann Rogers (1749), 
and a daughter Ann, who married a Scotchman named Tor- 
ouhiel MacLoud, but called Turtle for short. Colonel R. C. 
Anderson's children bv his first wife were descended from the 
son, and his children by the second wife from the daughter 
of this couple. Torquhiel MacLeod and Ann Clark, daughter 
of Jonathan Clark and Elizabeth Wilson. The children of 
John Clark and Am Rogers were General George Rogers 
Clark. Lieutenant-Colonel Jonathan Clark, of the Continental 
Line: Edmund Clark* and Governor William Clark, of Missouri 
^of the Lewis and Clark Exnedition); Mrs. Wm. Croghan. of 
Kentuckv: Mrs. Owen Gwathmev: and Mrs. O'Fallcn, of St. 
Louis* and Elizahelh, who married Colonel R. C. Anderson 
after his removal to Kentucky in 1783. Their children were 
Richard Cloucrh Anderson, Jr., and three daughters, Ann, Eliza- 
beth and Cecilia. 

R. C. Anderson, Jr. (born 1788. died 1826), the oldoFt, and 
only son by this marriage, was graduated from William and 
Marv College, Virginia, and was a classmate of General Win- 
field Scott. He was a lawyer by profession, a member of Con- 
f^ress from Kentucky, and our first minister to Columbia. He 
had been appointed, with E. N. Sergeant, as a delegate to the 
Congress of Panama, but died of yellow fever at Carthagena 
just as he was starting on this mission. 

In an old scrap book in the library of the Oregon Historical 
Society, I find this translation of an obituary notice in the 
El Cometa Mercdntilc, of Cartliagena, Columbia: 

"Died at this place on July 25th, 182(i, the Hon. R. C. 
Anderson, Jr., Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States 
to our Government. A violent fever arrested his career in life, 
and Death consigned his remains to dissohilion. The ground 

10 



that contains the ashes of our fathers is also intrusted with 
his. Thither they were followed by his brothers, his friends 
and our entire people, spontaneously evincing their respect. 
We hope that a monument will be erected to remind the gen- 
erations as they pass that slumbering there are the ashes of 
him who was the first link of political union between Columbia 
and the Republic of the North." 

His remains were brought back and interred at Soldiers' 
Retreat, a short time before the death of his father in October 
of the same year. 

He married his cousin, Miss Elizabeth Gwathmey, and by 
this marriage left a son, Arthur, and two daughters Elizabeth 
(who first married Commodore Stephen Johnson, and after his 
death Mr. Lafayette Flourney, of Kentucky), and Annita, who 
married Mr. John F. Grey. 

Ann^ the eldest daughter of Colonel R. C. Anderson, Sr., 
married Mr. John Logan, of Kentucky; the second, Elizabeth, 
married Mr. Isaac Gwathmey, of Louisville, Ky.; and the third, 
Cecilia, died a spinster. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Flourney, a most charming and accom- 
plished woman, left, bv her marriage with Commodore John- 
son, two daughters, Hebe, who married Joseph H. Craig, of 
New York, and Elizabeth (Lilly), who married Col. Julian Har- 
rison, of Virginia. Mrs. Craig's children are Richard, who mar- 
ried Frances Clark, and Jos. J., who married Daisy Hines. Mrs. 
Harrison's children are Mrs. Hebe Muir, Mrs. Elizabeth Kear- 
ney Peyton, and Bernard, who married a Randolph. 

Mrs. Muir's children are Elizabeth and Peter B. Muir. Mrs. 
Kearnev, who married a son of Gen. Phil Kearney, one of the 
bravest of the brave, has, as reported to me, a daughter, Eliza- 
beth Anderson Kearney. By her second marriage Mrs. Flour- 
ney left a son, Lafavette Flourney 2d, of Spokane, Washington, 
who has two sons, Richard and David. 

The children of Mrs. Ann Logan were John, Richard A., 
Robert W. Logan, Elizabeth Clark Simpson. Larz and Charles. 
Isaac, who died young; Catherine Marv, a beautiful girl, who 
died unmarried; and Mrs. Sarah Jane Gamble, whose husband 
was James F. Gamble, of Louisville, Ky. Their children were 
Wm. G. Gamble, of Chicago; Mrs. Jane Gamble Rogers, wife 
of Charlton B. Rogers, of Chicago; Catherine Mary, wife of Jos. 
M. Rogers, of Chicago; Mrs. Sarah C. Lindenberger, and Laura 
G., wife of Mr. Peter G. Thompson; Thomas H. Gamble, who 
married Miss Annie Jones; John L., James F., and Rose N. 
Gamble. 

The children of the next generation will be given in a sup- 
plement. 



It 



The Marshall Line. 

I will not attempt to trace the Marshall line back beyond 
the sea, as that would take us very far afield. We will begin 
with Thomas Marshall, of Westmoreland County, Virginia, and 
Martha Pendleton, his wife. This Thomas, of Westmoreland, 
died in 1704, leaving a will devising his real estate to his eldest 
son, William. He had another son known as John of the Forest, 
but better known in history as the grandfather of Chief Justice 
Marshall. In 1727 William deeded certain properties to his 
brother, the aforesaid John of the Forest. This William was 
born in 1685. He married Elizabeth Williams, and lived in King 
and Queens County. He had a son William, born in 1730, who 
was known first as William Marshall, of Caroline County. Vir- 
ginia, and subsequently as of Henry County, Ky. In 1768. be- 
fore he left Virginia, he married Ann MacLoud. As before 
explained. Torquhiel MacLoud married Ann Clark, the daugh- 
ter of Jonathon Clark and Elizabeth Wilson. Ann MacLoud 
was their daughter. This William Marshall is sometimes con- 
fused with William Marshall, of Mecklenburg; but that Wil- 
liam Marshall married Lucy Good, and moved to Henderson 
Countv. Ky.. about the time the other William Marshall died 
at his home in Henry County. To avoid confusion I will explain 
that the records show that his first home in Kentucky was Fair 
Hope, Jefferson County. This part of Jefferson became, by 
segregation, Henry County. 

The children of Wm. Marshall, of Henry County, and Ann 
Clark MacLoud were: Elizabeth, born 1769, who married Hugh 
Roy: Ann. born 1772, married Wm. Samuel: Frances, born 1776, 
married Robert Thompkins; Mary, born 1776, married Wm. 
Webb; George Rogers, iDorn 1782. married Mary Hoskins; Johj), 
born 1784. married Millv Fields; ^gi^ah. born 1779, married 
(second wife) Richard Clough Anderson. 

She was the mother of thirteen children; five of these died 
in childhood. With the four children of the first marriage and 
forty colored servants, she had to care and provide for a large 
hou.sehold. I have heard her say that much of her time was 
taken up in cutting out garments for her negro dependents, 
that the older daughters basted the parts together and the more 
handv negro women sewed up the seams. With no ready-made 
clothing, and but few of the many household conveniences we 
have now. the matrons of that period seem to have had never- 
ending tasks. They lived and labored in the days of pack- 
trains and flcitboats. of putcr spoons and two-pronged forks, of 
blue jeans and lindsey woolsey. The War of Independence did 
not end in the West until Wayne's victory in 1793, for the Indi- 
ans kept up a merciless warfare long after the British and Hes- 
sians had left our shore. 

I am templed to give one reminiscence of grandmother 
Anderson. Many distinguished men of the period were occa- 

12 



sional guests at Soldiers' Retreat — among others, Clay, Jackson, 
Aaron Burr, and Lafayette. She never referred to these men, 
but told me that Little Turtle, the great chief of the Miamis, 
came to her house a number of times. Once he came there to 
receive a pair of pistols sent to him as a present by Kosciusko. 
On another occasion she told me he met there George Rogers 
Clark. To her. Little Turtle was a great man. She remarked 
on his great dignity and fondness for children. 

In history and fiction we read of the gentlemen of the old 
school; of their antique courage, their courtly manners and 
lofty ideals. We are told the type is lost. With men the change 
is only superficial. Not so with women. We no longer have 
the pioneer women. Happily our mothers, wives and daughters 
do not have to pass through the hardships, dangers and priva- 
tions of the pioneer period. But these hard conditions made a 
marked impression on the frontier women of a hundred years 
ago. All those that I recall were unaffected in manners, faith- 
ful, earnest and religious. In my opinion we owe more to them 
than to our silk-stocking, silver-buckled progenitors. 

The children of Colonel R. C. Anderson's second marriage, 
omitting those who died in childhood, were: 

1st. Maria W. Latham, born 1798, died 1887; wife of Allen 

Latham, of Chillicothe, Ohio. 
2nd. Larz Anderson, of Cincinnati, born 1803, died 1878, 

who married, first, a daughter of Miner Pope, of 

Louisville, Ky., and second, Catherine Longworth, 

daughter of Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, the 

first millionaire of the West, if it is proper to call a 

man a millionaire who made his own fortune. 
3rd. General Robert Anderson, born 1805, died 1871, who 

married Eliza Bayard Clinch, of Georgia, daughter 

of Colonel Duncan Clinch, U. S. A. 
4th. William Marshall Anderson, born 1807, died 1881, who 

married, first, Eliza, daughter of Governor Duncan 

McArthur, February 16th, 1835, and second, Ellen 

Columba Ryan, of Urbana, Ohio. 
5th. John Roy Anderson, of Ross County, Ohio, born 1811, 

died 1863, who married, first, a Buchanan, and second, 

a Griffen. 
6th. Mary Louisa, born 1809, died , who married Judge 

Jas. Hall, of Cincinnati, author and banker. 
7th. Governor Charles Anderson, born 1813, died 1896, 

who married Eliza Brown, of Dayton, Ohio. 
8th. Sarah Anderson Kendrick, born 1822, wife of Andrew 

Kendrick, of Chillicothe, Ohio. 

Before enumeration of the representatives of the family of 
the succeeding generations it seems proper to pay a tribute of 
respect to the memory of our kindred who have gone before. 

13 



Of those who are mentioned in histories, or where biographies 
are given in encyclopedias, it will only be necessary to identify 
them with the parts they took in the world's work, and their 
connection with our family history. 

John Marshall, the great Chief Justice, was the son of 
Lieut. -Col. Thomas Marshall, of the Virginia State Troops; the 
grandson of John of the Forest, and the great-grandson of 
Thomas, of Westmoreland County, Virginia. 

Of Humphrey Marshall, of the Revolutionary period, and 
Humphrey Marshall, C. S. A., and of Thomas F. Marshall, the 
orator, and of Edward Marshall, once senator from California, 
full notices may be found in encyclopedias and in Thoma§ 
Marshall Green's "Heroic Kentucky." The names of General 
Jessup and of George Croghan both can be found in history. 
Croghan was the hero of Fort Stephenson. He was a son of 
Mrs. Croghan, the sister of the fighting Clarks, and of Wm. 
Croghan, of the Continental Army. 

Little need be said of George Rogers Clark, the great leader, 
who won for us the Northwest Territory. He certainly was a 
great man. It is a sad proof of the ingratitude of republics 
that Clark and Daniel Boone thought themselves so badly 
used that they at one time expatriated themselves. Governor 
William Clark, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, is better 
known in the West than his brother. His son Jefferson Clark 
visited the writer at Vancouver Barracks, saying "he had come 
to see the great river his father had descended ninety years 
before." 

Another distinguished pioneer whose name appears on the 
Tk'it^ family roster was Dun can McAr thur. He was a great Indian 
fighter, and one of the founders of Chillicothe, the first capital 
of Ohio. He was a Brigadier-General in the War of 1812. He 
was the prosecuting witness against Hull for surrendering 
Detroit. In 1814 he made the only successul invasion of Canada. 
He marched with a small brigade from Detroit to upper end 
of Lake Ontario, only to find that the army he was to co-operate 
with had retreated across the Niagara River. On account of 
this failure he did not receive due credit for his pari of llie 
campaign. He served fifteen terms in the Ohio Legislature, 
He served one in Congress and was elected Governor of Ohio 
in 1832. He was probably the last man ever elected as a Fed- 
eralist to any office. 

Mr. Larz Anderson, of Cincinnati, the eldest son by the 
second marriage, deserves more than a formal notice. He 
never would accept a public ofiice, and illustrated best of any- 
one I ever knew "that the post of honor was a private station." 
There was no duty incumbent on him as a Christian gentle- 
man that he did not perform. He was not one of those "who 
knew the right, and yet the wrong pursue." With him it was 
always the right at whatever cost. He was a graduate of Har- 
vard and a ripe scholar and graceful writer. I never knew him 

14 



to enter the field of literature but once. In 1857 he dictated to 
me two letters on our election system which were published in 
the London Times. He went on to Washington as a member of 
the Peace Congress, of which J. J. Crittenden was the moving 
spirit. After the battle of Shiloh, he, with two or three other 
friends, fitted out a steamboat as a free hospital for the 
wounded. You may not find his name in any encyclopedia, yet 
to my knowledge he was the best of all our clan. When he 
died, his eight sons marched on either side of his casket. 

Gen. Robert Anderson, better known as Major Anderson, 
of Fort Sumter, has written his name in the history of the 
country as one of the faithful among the faithless. He was sent 
down by Mr. Floyd, then Secretary of War, to take command 
of Fort Moultrie because he believed that Anderson's Southern 
sympathies would influence him to surrender his command to 
the Confederacy. Born in Kentucky and married to a Southern 
lady, a daughter of General Clinch, of Georgia. He did love 
the South, but he loved the whole country more. No man ever 
had to act under more trjing conditions. I know that it was 
conscience that held him firm. He believed that no power 
could relieve a man from the binding obligation of an oath. 
He always felt that he had been sacrificed to fire the National 
heart. He accepted this as a political necessity. On one occa- 
sion he appealed to President Lincoln to restore an army officer 
to duty who had surrendered his command without a figlit. 
The President declined, saying, "There are occasions when it 
is necessary to sacrifice men to a cause. Your friend had better 
have died an honorable death." There is a monument erected 
to General Anderson's honor at West Point, but the Anderson 
Barrack at the Soldiers' Home in Washington is his best monu- 
ment, for it was he who suggested the establishment of that 
excellent institution. 

Governor Charles Anderson, born 1814, died September |, 
189^^ a man of genius and most admirable character, has re- 
ceived very inadequate recognition in histoi^ and biography. _^ • ^ • 
Born in Kentucky in 1 . 813 and died in 10% ^ He was a graduate /5f'*'^^ 
of Miami University in Ohio, and subsequently became a trus-^^*^^^^^*^ 
tee of the institution, a position he held for many years. After 
admission to the bar as an attorney-at-law, he practiced his 
profession with notable success. In politics he was a Whig 
and a loyal follower of Clay. He served several terms in the 
f^^ - ^ Ohio Legislature. In the War of the Rebellion he was the 
Colonel of the 93rd Ohio Vol. Infantry, and was severely 
wounded in the battle of Stone River, being disabled for active 
service, and he was elected as Lieutenant-Governor of Ohio. 
Upon the death of Governor Brough, in 1864, he succeeded him 
as Governor. When in the Ohio Legislature he introduced the 
bill, which became a law, permitting negroes to testify in the 
courts. He was an ardent supporter of our free school system, 
and he made the original suggestion that a home for disabled 




volunteers should be established at Dayton, Ohio. After re- 
tiring from politics he made his home at Kuttawa. Ky. 

Governor Anderson was a most lovable man, "but he had 
too much of the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest 
way." But for this he might have attained greater prominence 
in public life. 

Wm. Marshall Anderson, of Seven Oaks, Pickaway County, 
Ohio, born 1807, died 1881, was the fourth son. He was a class- 
mate in Transylvania University, Ky., of Henry Clay's son 
Henry, who lost his life in the Mexican War. W. M. A. was a 
great student and enthusiastic archaeologist. He went with a 

18:3^ In his old 
up his favorite 
aeological collec- 
tion to the Museum of the Ohio State University, at Columbus, 
Ohio. 

His wife, as stated before, was Eliza McArthur, born 1815, 
died 1852.' By the traditions of feudalism, crystallized into law, 
the name of the wife is merged in that of the husband, yet by 
the natural law, inheritance runs in the female line. Life itself 
keeps time to the mother's heart-beats, and through the impres- 
sionable period of youth her plastic fingers mold the character 
of her children. Whatever distinctive mental characteristics I 
may have, I received from my mother. I recognized in her 
certain distinctive qualities. She had a poetic imagination and 
an analytical power of reasoning that seemed Hke inspiration. 
That was a heritage she could not transmit. Love, devotion, 
tenderness, life itself, the mother gives, but the ethereal inspi- 
ration of thought cannot be given. 

"Like the snow flakes on the river, 
ia9 fis^ti^/^\J^ ^l\t. ^ moment seen, then lost forever." 

' Now, in my seventy-third year, I recall in reminiscence the 

men and women of our kindred I have known, and I take pride 
in testifying that they all lived under the tongue of good re- 
port. But my purpose is not to write eulogies but to slate 
facts. I can give only a few as to the movements of the family. 

Mrs. Latham moved to Chillicothe, Ohio, in 181H. Her 
mother and younger sister Sarah joined her there in 1826 or 
1827. 

Mr. Larz Anderson began the practice of law in Cincinnati 
about that time. 

Gov. Charles Anderson opened a law office in Dayton, Ohio, 
I think, about 1837. 

The homestead of General McArthur is known as Fruit 
Hill, a substantial stone mansion near Chillicothe, Ohio. It is 
now the home of Mrs. D. H. Scott, a daughter of Governor 
Wm. Allen, and a granddaughter of General McArthur. 

Nearby is Adena, the Worthington homestead, now owned 
by Mr. George Smith, a public-spirited millionaire, a descen- 
dant of the McArthur line. 

16 



A Family Reunion. 

On July 4th, 1850, Sarah, the youngest daughter of Richard 
Clough Anderson, was maried at the home oi her brother-in- 
law Allen Latham, in Chillicothe, Ohio, to Andrew Kendrick. 
On that occasion nearly all the living members of the family 
were present — first of all, the m.other; then all the sons of the 
second marriage: Larz, Robert, Wm. Marshall, John, Roy and 
Charles. With these were their wives, or as they were desig- 
nated by their juniors. Aunt Kate, Aunt Eba, Aunt Eliza Wil- 
liam, Aunt Eliza Charles and Aunt Margaret, the first wife of 
Mr. John Anderson. The sisters present were Mrs. Maria 
Latham, Mrs. Louisa Hall and the bride, Mrs. Kendrick. Of 
the sons-in-law, Mr. Latham, Judge Hall and Mr. Kendrick. 
Of the grandchildren, the three sons of Mr. Lars Anderson, 
Richard, Nick and Will. Of Major Robert Anderson, his daugh- 
ter Eba. Of Mr. Marshall Anderson, Thomas M. and Harry R., 
and Minnie, later Mrs. Olds. Of Gov. Charles Anderson, Lath- 
am, Clough and Catherine. Of Mrs. Hall, her daughter Alice. 

The five sons were then in the prime of life, ranging in age 
from thirty-six to forty-seven. There had not been a death m 
the family in twenty-four years, and all of its members were 
then well, prosperous and happy. Of the twenty-five present 
on that occasion, only five are living at this time, August, 1908. 

Mr. Richard C. Anderson 2nd, of Dayton, was a son of Mr. 
Larz Anderson I by his first wife, a daughter of Miner Pope, of 
Louisville, Ky. He married Miss Agnes Thompson, of Ken- 
tucky. Their children were Kate, Sallie, Richard C. 3d, and 
Stettinius. 

The children and grandchildren of Larz Anderson I, of Cin- 
cinnati, by his second wife, Catherine Longworth, were: Brevet 
Brigadier-General Nicholas Anderson, Col. 6th Ohio Infantry; 
he married Miss Elizabeth Killgore, of Cincinnati. 

Their children (6th generation) were Larz A. 3d, Capt. 
A. D. C, Spanish War, and attache of Legations of Rome and 
London. He married Miss Perkins, a daughter of Admiral 
Perkins, U. S. N. This gentleman is the family representative 
in the Society of the Cincinnati. Elsie, married P. H. McMillan, 
of Detroit, Mich.; Maj. Wm. Pope Anderson, A. D. C, Civil 
War, married Julia, daughter of Vachel Werthington, a promi- 
nent lawyer of Cincinnati. The children of this marriage are 
(6th generation) Vachel W., who married Mary Shoenberger 
Chamblis, daughter of Col. W. P. Chamblis, U. S. A., and grand- 
daughter of Mr. Geo. Shcenberger, of Cincinnati. Their child- 
ren are Julia A., Wm. P. A. 2d, Mary C. A. and Margaret S. A. 

Larz A. 3d married Grace Ferguson. Two sons, Larz F. and 
Alexander (7th generation). 

Wm. P. A., Jr., married Miss Tullage; Francis B., mar- 
ried Miss Maiter, R. L; Catherine L., married H. A. Peck- 

17 



ham. son of Justice Peckham. They have three children, Har- 
riet. Rufus and Henry (7th generation). 

Of the above, Vachel A. is business manager of Anderson 
estate of Cincinnati. Larz, WilUam and Francis are all in 
active business in Cincinnati. 

Edward L. Anderson, Capt. A. D. C, Civil War. married 
Mary Fore, of Cincinnati. Has published a life of Col R. A. 
Anderson. Soldier and pioneer. In volunteer service, Capt. 
52nd O. V. I. 

The children of Capt. Edward L. Anderson, of East Walnut 
Hills, Cincinnati, and Mary Fore, are Pryor and Catherine, now 
Mrs. H. F. Wood. There are three children of Mr. and Mrs. 
Wood — Mary Dorothy, Beatrice and Edward; these must be 
classed in the 7th generation. In Civil War, Capt. A. D. C. to 
Gen. Stanley. 

Dr. Frederick P. Anderson, of Gros^Tsle, Michigan, married 
Mary Douglas, of Detroit. Their children are. Elizabeth who 
married M. H. Smith, of Illinois; Edward L., Catherine, Mary 
D., Frederick and Winifred. The children of Mrs. M. H. Smith 
are Mary and Edward, of a 7th generation. 

Larz Anderson 2d, sixth son of Larz A., of Cincinnati, mar- 
ried Emma Mendenhall. He lived on East Walnut Hills, Cin- 
cinnati. He was so popular that he might have been called 'the 
well beloved." Their children are George A.. Richard Clough 
and Robert, who married Clara Ellis. Their children, 7th gen- 
eration, Robert, Elizabeth and Larz 4th. 

Charles, seventh son. married Jennie Herron, a daughter of 
the Hon. J. W. Herron, of Cincinnati, and a sister of Wm. H. 
Taft, the President-elect. Their children are Jennie, Kate and 
Harriet. 

Joseph, eighth son, married Lizzie Hinkle. Their children 
are, Ethel, Francis and Elizabeth. 

Davis, ninth son. married Ann Wallingford. They have two 
children, Buckner and Rebecca, Buckner married Elizabeth 
Mendenhall." 

The children of Gen. Robert Anderson and his wife Eliza 
Bayard Clinch were: Robert, who died a minor; Mrs. James M. 
Lawton, of New York, and Maria and Sophie, spinsters. 

The children of W. Marshall Anderson and Elizabeth Mc- 
Arthur, omitting those dying in infancy, were: (General) 
Thomas McArthur Anderson. iDorn January 20, '[iV^C^, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Van Winkle at the Monumental Ciiurch, Rich- 
mond, Va., February 8th, 1869. Their children are Arline, wife 
of J. W. Cairns, of Manila, P. I.; Thomas M. Anderson, Jr., 
Captain 7th Infantry; Elizabeth , living with her parents in 
P(> rt_fS"'^ Ofe {{()n^Minnicf deceased), first wife of Capt. Rob- 
ert H. Allen, 29th Infantry; Van W. Ander.son, a resident of 
Portland, Oregon, and Irmingard, wife of Wm. T. Patten, Cap- 

• The Hon. Nicholas Longworth, M.C., the son-in-law of Piesi- 
dcnt Roosevelt, is a cousin of the Longworth Andersons, of Cincin- 
nati, as is also the Hon. Bellamy Slorcr. 



tain 13th Infantry. Mrs. Allen leaves one daughter, Elizabeth 
Anderson Allen. Mrs. Patten has two children, William Tay- 
lor Patten and Irm^gard^Sd, -/, ^"^^v^^-*. 

Gen. Harry R. Anderson, be'fore he was retired as a Briga- 
dier-General, passed through all the grades of the artillery 
service. He married Florence Allison, a daughter of Paymaster 
Allison, U. S. A. Their children are William and Duncan, of 
Trenton, N. J.; Lieut. Davis C. Anderson, 6th U. S. Infantry; 
Meta and Ruth. Gen. H. R. A. was a personal aide to Gen. 
Canby when he was killed by the Modoc Indians. 

Minnie Anderson Olds, third child and only daughter of 
W. M. Anderson, first marriage, married Judge Joseph Olds, a 
distinguished jurist, of Columbus, Ohio. Their children were 
Mary, Eliza, Effie, Marshall, Joseph and Eleanor, wife of Mel- 
drum Grey, of Grey Acres, Pickaway County, Ohio. Marshall 
and Joseph served in an Ohio volunteer regiment in the Span- 
ish-American War, 1898. Mrs. Grey has a son, George Olds 
Grey. 

Dr. A. served as Assistant Army Surgeon 1879-80, and 
1885-86 in Indian Wars, and in the Philippines in 1901. 

Dr. Chas. Anderson, of Santa Barbara, California, married 
Minnie Dawson. They have one child, Mary. 

Robert Marshall Anderson, son of W. M. Anderson by Ellen 
Ryan, his second wife, is a civil engineer of New York City. He 
has given great assistance in the preparation of this sketch. 

The children of Louisa, third daughter of Col. R. C. Ander- 
son, Soldiers' Retreat, wife of Judge Jas. Hall, of Cincinnati, 
were W. M. A. Hall, who married a Sherer, granddaughter of 
Judge Jas. Pryor; Mrs. Pry or v/as Eliza Samuel; Lieut. Harri- 
son Hall, Adjutant U. S. Cavalry, who married Eliza Philips, 
of Dayton. Their children were Capt. Dickinson Hall, U. S. 
Marine Corps, and Capt. Harrison Hall, Coast Artillery. Mrs. 
Maria Wright's children are Louisa Gaither, Greta Van An- 
sweep, Charlotte, Harrison, Mary. 

Kate, the youngest of Judge James and Louisa, his wife, is 
unmarried. 

The children of Governor Chas. Anderson, of Kuttawa, 
were Latham Anderson, Capt. 5th Infantry, Col. 8th California, 
in the Civil War. After the war he became a civil engineer. He 
married Miss Rencher, of North Carolina. They have one 
daughter, Mary Louise, living with her mother; Catherine, the 
second daughter cf Governor Anderson, like her mother before 
her, is a self-sacrificing, noble woman, living and working all 
of her life for the good of others. Words fail me to do her 
justice. Belle, the youngest daughter, married a Mr. Skinner, 
of Eddyville, Ky. Their children: Chaline, Mrs. Landrum Jes- 
sup; Eliza, Mrs. Homer Ferguson, whose husband is a dis- 
tinguished naval constructor; Mrs. Schreever, who has one 
child; and Bradley, I believe, has one. 

19 



Mrs. Jessup has three children; Mrs. Homer Ferguson, three 
— Homer, Charles A., and MacLeod. 

Mrs. Sarah A. Kendrick was the last child by the second 
marriage. She left no children. During" the Civil War she was 
a zealous worker in the Christian Commission Hospitals. All 
of these sons and daughters of Lieut.-Col. Richard Clough An- 
derson were born at Soldiers' Retreat, at the head of Bear 
Grass, Jefferson County, Kentucky, between 1788 and 1822. 
The last of this generation of Andersons passed away with the 
death of Mrs. Kendrick in 1898, two hundred and sixty-three 
years after the coming of the first of the name to Virginia. 

The strength of military tradition in the family may be 
seen from a statement of the military service of members of 
the family in former wars. 

The following served as officers in the War of Indepen- 
dence: 

Richard Clough Anderson, Captain 5th Virginia, Continen- 
tal Line; Major 1st Virginia, Continental Line; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel 3rd Virginia; Continental Line; Brigadier- 
General Virginia Militia. 

Captain John Anderson, 5th Virginia Continental Line, a 
cousin of R. C. A. 

General George Rogers Clark, Virginia Provisional. 

Jonathan Clark, Lieutenant-Colonel 8th Virginia, Continen- 
tal Line. 

Lieutenant John Clark, 8th Virginia. 

Lieutenant William Clark, Continental Line, son of Francis. 

Ensign Edmond Clark, Continental Line. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Marshall, Virginia State 
Troops. 

John Marshall, Captain 7th Virginia, Continental Line. 

Humphrey Marshall, Sr., Virginia State Troops. 

William Groghan, Major 8th Virginia, Continental Line, 
with Braddock and Dunsmore. 

In the War of 1812: Duncan McArthur, Brigadier-General, 
U. S. A.; Thomas S. Jessup, Quartermaster General; James 
McDonald, Colonel 17th Infantry; Wm. McDonald, Major In- 
spector-General; John McDonald, Quarter-Master 3id Ohio; 
Henry Atkinson, Colonel 6th Infantry; Brevet Brigadier-Gen- 
eral; George Croghan, Major Inspector-General; John O'Fallon, 
Captain 1st Rifles. 

Florida and Black Hawk War: Duncan L. Clinch, Colonel 
4th Infantry, Brevet Brigadier-General; Robert Anderson, 
First Lieutenant 3rd Artillery, and A. D. C., General Scott. 

In the Mexican War: Robert Anderson. Captain 3rd Artil- 
lery; and Humphrey Marshall and Thomas V. Marshall, officers 
of Kentucky Volunteers. 

In the War of the Rebellion: Robert Anderson, as Major 1st 
Artillery, opened the contest with the defense of Fort Sumter. 

20 



As Brigadier-General, U. S. A., he was the first Department 
Commander in Kentucky. Colonel Nicholas Longworth Ander- 
son commanded the 6th Ohio Volunteers in the army of the 
Cumberland; N. C. McLean, Colonel 75th Ohio Volunteers; Col- 
onel Chas. Anderson, the 93rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry; Col- 
onel Latham Anderson, the 8th California Volunteer Infantry. 
These oflficers received the Brevet of Brieadier-General of 
Volunteers at the close of the war. Maior Wm. P. Anderson 
was an Assistant Adjutant-General of Volunteers. Captain Ed- 
ward L. Anderson, 52nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, was an 
A. D. C. to General Schofield; and Captain Fred. P. Anderson, 
181st Ohio Volunteer Infantry, to General David Stanley. Cap- 
tain John Simpson was a Captain of Indiana Volunteers. Gen- 
eral Harry R. Anderson was a Cantain of the 6th United States 
Volunteers; John Logan, Major Medical Department. 

In the Civil War: General T. M. Anderson entered the 
service as a private in volunteers; was commissioned Lieuten- 
ant of Cavalry and finally Captain of the 12th Infantry. During 
the greater part of the v^ar he was an acting field officer. When 
the Soanish-American War broke out, he was made a Briga- 
dier-General of Volunteers and sent in command of the first 
exDedition to Cavite. He was in command of the land attack 
which resulted in the capture of Manila. As Major-General 
he commanded the First Division of the 8th Army Corps at 
the battles of Santana, Passeg, San Pedro and Guadalune. He 
was retired from active service in 1900. From 1901 to 1904 was 
commandant of the Ohio Soldiers' Home. His personal aides 
at the time were his son-in-law. Captain R. H. Allen, of Vir- 
cfinia, and bis son and namesake, CaDtain T. M. Anderson, Jr. 
This voun? officer, while commandin.<T a company of the 13th 
Tnfantrv at the battle of San Juan Hill, in Cuba, captured the 
Spanish Block House on the line, taking a flag and five pris- 
oners. 

The familv was represented in the Philippines Insurrection 
bv Wm. T. Patten. Captain 13th Tnfantrv; Davis C. Anderson, 
First Lieutenant 6th Infantrv; Homer Ferguson. Lieutenant, 
U. S. N.; Dickenson P. Hall, Cantain Marine Corps; Harrison 
Hall, Captain Coast Artillery, U. S. A. 

In the Confederate Armv by General Sam. Anderson, of 
Tennessee; General R. S. Anderson, of Virginia; Colonel George 
Anderson, of Georgia, and by Colonel George Croghan, of 
Kentucky. 

I had not intended to sivp the Marshall familv tradition of 
their descent from William Marshall, the ffreat Earl of Pem- 
broke, who induced King John to sign the Magna Charta; but 
a statement I find in a letter of Thomas Marshall Green gives 
the tradition a sort of picturesque interest. 

Paxton, in his history of the Marshall family, gives this 
account: That in the Walpurgis phantasmagoria of the War of 

21 



the Roses, the Marshalls lost their titles and estates, but that 
many years after a Marshall, a descendant of the great Earl, 
rendered such service at the siege of Calais that he was re- 
warded by the gift of an estate in Ireland. Again, in the 
Cromwellian Revolution, a grandson of the hero of Calais 
fought on the royal side and was wounded at the battle of 
Edge Hill. Here, again, family tradition comes in and con- 
nects Thomas of Westmoreland with the Irish captain. O'Haras 
"History of Ireland" gives some account of these Irish Mar- 
shalls, but I have not the book to refer to. Some twenty years 
ago I wrote to Mr. Green and asked him what he thought of 
Paxton's theories. In reply, after giving a clear statement of 
the known facts in the family history, he wrote that his grand- 
father, old Dr. Lewis Marshall, while a student in Edinburgh 
University, investigated the subject and was convinced that 
we are descended from John Marshall, Baron of Hingham. who 
was made Marshal of Ireland, but whose title was lost in subse- 
quent shakeups. 

Then Mr. Green goes on to state, both from Dr. Lewis 
Marshall's investigations and his own, that there are descend- 
ants in female lines. A number of names are given, including 
that of Queen Victoria. But Mr. Green has not a word to say 
about the siege of Calais tradition. 

All this may be a midsummer night's dream, yet we may 
please ourselves with the belief that John Marshall, the ex- 
pounder of our constitution, was a descendant of the William 
Marshall who bore so conspicuous a part in securing the 
charter upon which all constitutional governments are founded. 

The original armorial bearings, the Pembroke crest, were, 
of course, lost to the Marshalls, and none was issued to any of 
the name until a recent date. The Anderson armorial bearings, 
as given in Burke and Fairbarn's, was an eagle's head, erased 
argent, holding in beak paleways an arrow, gules, headed and 
feathered, or, the escutcheon; or on chevron, gules, between 
three hawks' heads, as many acorns slipped, argent. Motto: 
"Nil desperandum, auspice Deo." 

As lately given to Mr. George Anderson, of Little Harley 
Towers, Newcastlc-on-Tyne, a falcon's head was substituted 
for the eagle's head. 

Mr. Anderson informs me that he would liavc to ))ay an 
annual licen.se to put il on his coach and another to put it <in 
his stationery. 

In Fox-Davies "Ai-morial Families of Great Britain," the 
crest of three other Andcr.son families are given — one in Dor- 
setshire, one at Bournemouth, and one at West Bournemouth. 

Let us return now to our original text. In a history of 
American Andersons published in Chicago, in 1900, it is stated 
that the first of the name to receive a hereditary baronetcy was 
a resident of Licolnshire, who received his patent in lf)40. I 
have stated in my sketch that the first to receive a title was 

22 



Robert D'Lesle, who married an Anderson heiress and assumed 
the name in the reign of Henry IV. 

The same authority states that the first of the name re- 
corded as a citizen of Massachusetts, in 1670, was one Garven 
Anderson. Out of sixty of the name specially mentioned ten 
were recorded as soldiers, nine as clergymen, four as educators, 
five as railroad officials; and of the rest two were United States 
senators, nineteen members of Congress, six were recorded as 
lawyers, three merchants, one a foreign consul, and one was 
a poet. But nearly all of the Congressmen were lawyers. 

I have only attempted to give an account of one branch of 
the Virginia Andersons. In this sept of the clan, there has 
never been, so far as I can ascertain, a preacher or a poet, and 
onlv one member of Congress. 

There were, however, fifteen Anderson Officers in the War 
of Independence, as many Marshalls and eighty-two Clarks. 
This would seem to indicate that our connections are a warlike 
set. vet at this time there are only five in active service. Forty 
Andersons are noted among the "Who's Who" in Great Britain. 
A large proDortion of these are classed as scientists and educa- 
tors, and this holds good of the name in the oldest biographical 
encvclopedia I have found. 

I can onlv give a brief account of the elder branch of the 
family by quoting from an article in a Richmond newsnaper: 

Crozur, in his "General Armory of American Families," 
however, gives the first pmi.grant as Thomas Anderson of 
Northumberland County, England, who settled in Gloucester 
County, Va., 1634, whose arms are ffiven as follows: "Or, on a 
chevron, gules, between three hawks' heads erased, sable, as 
manv acorns slipped, argent. Crest: "An eagle's head, erased 
argent, holding in the beak paleways an arrow, gules, beaded 
and feathered; or, motto: Nil desperandum. auspice Deo." 

Thus it is clear the Virginia familv are of the same English 
stock, though their arms are somewhat varied. They landed 
much earlier than the New England branch. Henning, in his 
statutes, gives no less than thirty names of Anderson who were 
in the early colony, many of whom served in the Revolutionary 
War. Robert and Matthew Anderson were in New Kent 
County in 1685, and must have been sons of Thomas. The name 
of Robert is mentioned frequently afterwards, for a Robert 
Anderson was living in Louisa County, 1762, and one in 
Williamsburg, 1788, each succeeding generation repeating the 
same familv name. 

Of the two brothers, Robert and David, who settled in 
Hanover, Robert, the eldest, of "Gold Mine," married Mary 

Overton; and David married Elizabeth , and had eleven 

children, one of whom, Edmund Anderson, married Jane M. 
Lewis, daughter of Colonel William Lewis, of "Locust Hill," 
of Albemarle, and sister of Captain Meriwether Lewis, the 

23 



explorer and first governor of Louisiana. Through this mar- 
riage, "Locust Hill," the historic birthplace of Meriwether 
Lewis, descended to the Andersons; first, to their son, Dr. 
Meriwether Lewis Anderson, who married Lucy Harper; and 
last to Charles Harper Anderson, who married Miss S. T. L. 
Scott, of Albemarle, who has since sold the old homestead to 
Mr. Small, an Englishman. There were many of the Anderson 
family who settled in Spotsylvania during the eighteenth cen- 
tury; George Anderson, of Essex County, bought lands there 
in i729, and was living 177L 

John Anderson, of King William County, settled there in 
1736; his son Joseph married McUy Ann Guerner, April 13, 
1795. He, too, had a son, Joseph, Jr. James Anderson married 
Margaret Troys, 1746. There were also David, Meredith, Rich- 
ard, Thomas, and Harmon, of this branch, each of whom had 
issue. 

Before closing this monograph I am tempted to insert some 
fragmentarv data I have picked up in desultory investigations. 
General William Tollieferro once told me that there was a 
local tradition that the first colonial Andersons had settled on 
the Chesapeake Bay. at a place he pointed out near his home- 
stead. As I had heard that the first Anderson emigrants were 
shipwrights, I inferred that they had possiblv established 
themselves at the place shown me. To get confirmatory evi- 
dence I explored the old graveyards in that part of Gloucester 
County, but Time's effacing fingers had obliterated all record 
of names and dates from the moss-covered gravestones and 
mural tablets. 

History tells us that the first gentlemen adventurers who 
came over with Newport proved very poor colonists. To secure 
more efficient workers, a requisition was made on the London 
Company, in 1620, for twelve different kind of craftsmen and 
mechanics. This statement may be found in the letters of the 
Spanish Embas.sador Gondomar to Philip II of Spain. Ship- 
wrights were not on that list, but early in Governor Harvey's 
administration a call was made for men of that trade. 

In the royal orders and commissions in relation to the colo- 
nies, published by Hotten. the .second in the list is a commission 
of James I, 1606, appointing the Mavor of Kingston, in Hull, as 
a pass-officer for that port and the Cinque ports to give permits 
for emigration to the colonies. 

The same authority was given by Charles I to one Thomas 
Mahew in 1637. At that period shipbuilding had its more nota- 
ble development between the mouth of the Humber and the 
Tweed. It seems, therefore, a justifiable inference that some of 
the Andersons who came over in 1634 and 1635 may have come 
over in answer to Governor Harvey's requisition. 

Fifty vears later we find a Robert Anderson locating in 
Hanover County, then a part of New Kent. A tradition has 
come down to us that this Robert was a miller as well as a 

24 



farmer. Be that as it may, when the battle of North Anna was 
fought between the Army of the Potomac and the Army of 
Northern Virginia, it raged around a mill known as Anderson's 
Mill, at the confluence of the Little River and the North Anna. 
In fact, from the Rapidan to Richmond there seemed to be a 
goodly number of farms held by Andersons. In many places 
fire-stained chimney-stacks alone marked the sites of old home- 
steads. Eighty-three years before Tarleton with his Rough 
Riders had swept over this same section, leaving the same 
trace of ruthless warfare. Then it was that Colonel Richard 
Clough Anderson was selected as an aide to Lafayette, because, 
as a Hanover County man, he was thoroughly familiar with 
this part of the country. Let us hope that the people of Vir- 
ginia will never again hear the tramp of contending armies, 
the roar of artillery or the explosion of bursting shells. "Grim- 
been rebuilt over the old family hearthstones, and the fields 
are green again with peaceful harvests. I have a letter before 
me which says that the old battle-scarred mill still stands, 
now a metaphor of peace. 

Whatever we may do, our descendants will never take the 
interest in what we may accomplish, as remote generations 
must ever take in the establishment of the first English colonj^ 
in America. It is the courage that dares the unknown — the 
wisdom that forecasts the future — that appeals to the imagina- 
tion and commands our admiration. 

It is a far cry from the Spanish-American War to the inva- 
sion of the Norsemen — from Denmark to Samar — yet it is not 
uninteresting to trace a family history from its source, even 
though it makes no pretensions to rank, title, or distinction. 

"Rank is but the guinea's stamp; 
A man's a man for a' that." 

As we know them, the Andersons are neither indolent nor 
energetic, but a law-abiding, mildly religious, undemonstra- 
tive set. There is no tradition that any member was ever 
accused of a crime, nor can we claim that the family ever 
produced a distinguished philanthropist or philosopher. Like 
every respectable family, we stand on the assertion that our 
visaged war has smote his wrankled front." And houses have 
men are brave and that our women have the combined virtues 
of Mary and Martha. 

With these qualities of peaceful commoners, there breaks 
out in every period of warfare something of the old militant 
spirit. For two hundred j^ears our ancestors fought the Saxons; 
for eight hundred years they took their part in Border war- 
fare — some as followers of Douglas and some as followers of 
the Percies. Up to the time of the union of England and Scot- 
land, Macaulay says that these Borderers had their wild war 
dances like the Iroqouis and the Sioux. 

Coming to this country before the Roundhead revolution, 
our more immediate ancestors took up peaceful avocations, and 

25 



for a time the old Bersiker spirit seemed lost, but few cculd 
resist the call to arms. There has been no war on this conti- 
nent in which some of the family have not taken part. 

Supplement. 

I began to collect material for this history while serving 
as an army officer in Virginia at the close of the Civil War. I 
first intended to write only of the Western branch of the fam- 
ily, but I soon found it would be easier to take in collateral 
lines than to attempt endless explanations of relationship. 

Here let me repeat that I am not advised which of the Glou- 
cester shipwrights was the father of Robert, of New Kent. Mr. 
Herman B. Anderson, one of the elder branch still living in 
Hanover County, Virginia, says positively that he is descended 
from Thomas of Gloucester. So mote it be. Yet it may have 
been Richard or John, for all we know. Neither can we be 
absolutely sure of our ancestral line beyond the sea. I have 
received two letters from Mr. George Anderson, of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, who has recently received a renewal of the armorial 
bearings of the family. 

The only change made by the College of Heralds was that 
he was given a falcon head for his crest instead of the eagle 
head. In the blazonry they look very much alike. No Ameri- 
can citizen can have any legal right to any heraldric insignia. 
To us they simply indicate the status of our ancestors in the 
day that men wore armor. 

I have before me Fox-Davies' "Armorial Families." Nine 
out of ten of the crests and escutcheons recorded in the book 
were authorized after 1600. Sir Henry Anderson, the Muscovy 
merchant, was knighted in 1618. His son. Sir Henry, was the 
Royal Lord Mayor of London in 1640. How he fared in the 
Roundhead revolution we can only surmise. Mr. Anderson, of 
Newcastle, says that the family was utterly impoverished in 
that contest. He says also that our family is probably a trans- 
planted branch of the Northumberland stock. As to tliat lie 
probably knows no more than we. 

The Anderson-Pelham-Yarborough combination has for a 
crest a water spaniel, and the York branch a falcon. 

Thomas Marshall Green, in his "Historic Families of Ken- 
tucky," devotes many pages of his book to the Marshalls, 
Clarks, Logans and Andersons: John Logan, who married a 
daughter of R. C. Anderson, was a son of Benjamin Logan, a 
pioneer leader of the State. Mr. R. C. Anderson, Jr., was desig- 
nated as a captain in a regiment raised in Tennessee for tlie 
War of 1812; but for some reason he did not accept the com- 
mi.ssion. 

I omitted to note in the proper connection that Mrs. Thomp- 
kins left three sons, WilHam, Henry and Benjamin all of 
Louisville. Her daughters were Frances, Mrs. (Dr.) Wm. Clark, 

26 



Elizabeth, Mrs. Philip R. Thompson, of Louisville; Ann, who 
married General N. C. McLean, a son of Justice McLean; Eliza, 
Mrs. Seabreese, Jane and Melinda. Mrs. McLean's children 
are EHzabeth, the wife of Major W. H. Sage, U. S. A.; Mary 
Louise Natalie; Marshall McLean, who married Helen Homans, 
and Henrietta Port McLean, the wife of Arthur D. Hill, Esq., 
of Boston. 

The children of Mrs. Sage are William H., a cadet at West 
Point, and Nathaniel McL. Sage. Mr. Marshall McLean has a 
daughter Sarah. The children of Mrs. Hill are Adams Sher- 
man Hill and a daughter, Mary Louise. Mr. Wm. Clark, of 
Louisville, Ky., was a son of Lieut. -Col. Jonathan Clark, of the 
Continental Army. He left two sons and four daughters. His 
oldest son, John, married Emma Noble, of Paducah, Ky., and 
their son, Edmund Rogers Clark, seems to be the representa- 
tive of the Clark family by seniority. The daughters of Mr. 
Wm. Clark, of Louisville, were Mrs. Ellen Milton, Mrs. Mary 
Cook, Mrs. Kate Churchill. Mr. Wm. Hancock Clark is the 
grandson of Governor William Clark, of Missouri, who was 
the youngest child of John Clark and Ann Rogers. 

Note. 

The children of Mr. James F. Gamble, of Louisville, and 
Sarah Jane Logan Gamble, his wife, were: 

1. Jane McFarlane, married Charlton B. Rogers, of Chicago. 

2. Catherine Mary, married Joseph M. Rogers, of Chicago. 

3. Sarah, married J. H. Lindenberger, of Louisville. 
John Logan, James H. and Wm. C. Gamble. 
Thomas Hoyt Gamble married Annie Jones. 

Laura Gamble married Peter G. Thompson, of Cinto, Ohio. 

The children of Mrs. Charlton Rogers, as reported, are: 
Sarah, Mary, Margaret, Charlton B. Rogers (married Linelle 
Chenault), and Joseph McFarlane Rogers. 

The children of Mrs. Joseph W. Rogers are: Bernard, mar- 
ried Adele Walters, James G., married Annie Day; John A., 
married Bess Baird; Joseph, married Lilian Hopewell. 

The children of Mrs. Lindenberger are: William James, 
married Edith Vaugh; Kate R., married John Sanders; Emery 
and John L. 

The children of Mrs. Peter G. Thompson are: Peter G. 
Thompson, Jr.; Alexander, married Mary Dabney; Mary Bell, 
married Walter Randall; Logan Thompson; Hope Thompson, 
married Reuben Robertson. 

Mr. and Mrs. Charlton Bernard Rogers have a son, Charl- 
ton Bernard Rogers. This young gentleman should, if I am 
correctly informed, represent the eighth generation of his kin- 
dred born in this country. 

Returning to the Clark line. Colonel Jonathan Clark had a 

27 



daughter, IMrs. Pierce, whose daughters were: Mrs. Vick (now 
known by some papal title), Mrs. Bodley, Mrs. Bullock, Mrs. 
Kinkaid. and Mrs. Pertall. I neglected to state that Lewis M. 
Clark married Mary Anderson, of Louisville, Ky. (not the ac- 
tress). They had two children — John C, married Margaret 
Tyler, and Caroline, who married a Mr. Tyler. 

From Mrs. Hebe Craig, a great-grand-daughter of Mrs. 
Owens Gwathmey, I learn something of her children. They 
were: Mrs. Diana Bullit; Elizabeth, wife of R. C. Anderson, Jr.; 
Mrs. Mary Booth; Lucy Pearce; Frances Jones, Katherine 
Woolfolk, and her sons — Samuel, John, Temple, George and 
Isaac. 



King MacArthur. 

An advertising circular announces that a hundred thousand 
Americans are of royal descent. By a simple sum in arith- 
metical progression it can be shown that twenty generations 
back we had millions of ancestors, so that by going back far 
enough anyone should be able to find some kind of a king 
among his progenitors. It is in Therbern's "Crests" that we find 
the MacArthtur crown in a bunch of thistles. In Mitchell's 
"History of the Highlands" it is said that the MacArthurs were 
the first chiefs of Clan Campbell, but that James the First, by 
cutting off the head of one John MacArthur, rudely ended the 
royal pretensions of the family. Twenty years ago I wrote to 
the Duke of Argyle and asked if the MacArthurs were a part 
of Clan Campbell. He answered that they were a sept of Clan 
Campbell and the official bagpipers of the clan. "What a fall 
was this, my countrymen!" 

Macaulay, in one of his excursions into the by-paths of 
history, states that the first Highland chiefs claimed to be 
kings. And he explains further that their sovereigns, in com- 
mon with their subjects, were aflhcted with the itch and were 
smeared with tar; that among their subjects half-naked women 
sang wild chants, to which the men danced a war dance, bran- 
dishing swords in place of tomahawks; that their mode of life 
was barbarous, yet that it had in it germs of civilization. There 
were, he assures us, among them gentlemen whose clotiies 
were begrimed with the accumulated filth of years, and whose 
hovels smelt worse than an English hogstye, yet who did the 
honors of their homes with a courtesy worthy of Versailles. 
Other historians explain that their fundamental rule of hos- 
pitality was "Feast to-day, feud to-morrow." Once after talking 
with Chief Joseph, of the Nez Perces, I could not but wonder 
if he was not more civilized than Hengist and Horsa, or the 
first MacCallum More. But there is this difference; our Scotch 
ancestry had in it the germ-seed of civilization; the Indian 

28 



has not. 

After the battle of Culloden, the MacArthurs and McDon- 
alds took refuge in Argyleshire. From thence one detachment 
went to North Carolina with Flora McDonald, and another to 
Dutchess County, New York. 

Among them was John MacArthur, of Miltawa, Isle of Bute. 
In 1768 he married Margaret Campbell. They came to America, 
the next year. His wife died in 1776, leaving him two children, 
Duncan and Elenor (Mrs. Grey). He next married a Miss 
Lyon, of Vermont. By family tradition, he moved to Washing- 
ton County in 1780; but I. A. Eagle, the editor of the "Pennsyl- 
vania Archives," writes me that the county records show that 
he owned one hundred and twenty-eight acres of land before 
that time and that he purchased four hundred acres soon after, 
and was enrolled in the frontier militia. The census of 1790 
shows that he had two sons and five daughters. Of these Dun- 
can and Elenor were by the first marriage, and one son, John, 
and four daughters by the second. The father and the rest of 
the family followed Duncan to Ohio about 1800. John lived in 
Vinton County for a time. From thence he moved to Kentucky 
and subsequently to Missouri, where he married a daughter of 
Senator Linn. A son by this marriage. Major Joseph H. Mac- 
Arthur, was graduated from West Point in 1848, and served in 
the Mexican, Indian and Civil Wars. He died in Chica!?o in 
IPO? He has a son living in that city. Judge Lewis MacArthur, 
of Portland, Oregon, descended from the Flora McDonald col- 
ony. He was a district judge of the United States Court, and 
was highly respected. This son, Mr. MacArthur, is now a 
member of the Oregon Assembly. 

In Kelties' "Highland Clans" we read that the MacArthurs 
are still found in Dunstaffnage. The family of the late John 
MacArthur, the architect of the City Hall in Philadelphia, 
migrated from Alpin, and the Briss, of Allen, to Canada in 
1795. I believe that Lieutenant-General Arthur MacArthur, 
the most distinguished general of the Spanish War, is of the 
Canadian clan. His son, Douglas, is an officer of Engineers. 

To go back to the beginning, Donald Gorme married a 
daughter of John McLoud, whose wife was Lady Catherine 
Campbell, sister of the first Earl of Argyle. 

Of the McDonalds I can only attempt a brief account. Wil- 
liam McDonald was born in Sutherland, in 1727; fought at 
Culloden, 1745; married Effie Douglas in 1751. He and his wife 
came to New York in 1773, and removed successively to Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio. Their oldest son, John, was killed in Craw- 
ford's defeat. Their oldest daughter married William McDon- 
ald, of Glencoe, Scotland. They came to America in 1777. 
Their oldest daughter, Nancy, married Duncan MacArthur. 
Her brothers, James, John, Thomas, and William, were Ohio 

29 



pioneers and soldiers in the War of 1812. Her sister married 
Prestley Morris, of Ross, and her descendants intermarried 
with Benick. Smiths, Madeiras, Wyeths, and Aliens. Margaret, 
the daughter of the elder William, married Archibald McDon- 
ald. Their descendants are known as the Urbana McDonalds. 
The Reverend James McDonald, of San Rafael, is the head of 
the California branch. William B. McDonald, a grandson of 
Colonel James McDonald, lives in Little Rock, Arkansas. 
Thomas McDonald, a grandson of John McDonald, of Poplar 
Ridge, lives in Ross County, Ohio. Malcolm, a son of Colonel 
McDonald, lives in Washington City. The old patriarch of 
Sutherlandshire must have several thousand descendants in 
this country. A large proportion of them have been clergymen 
or soldiers. The old Covenanter spirit is strong in the breed. 



Whaf- Our Grandsircs Did, and What Our 
Grand-dames Wore. 

Whether our ancestors were belted earls or barons bold, 
or a "brave peasantry, their country's pride," we wish to know 
how they lived and what they did. History and romance deals 
with the upper classes, but as to the plain people we get very 
meager information. It would be going too far afield to try 
to trace the economic conditions of our forefathers beyond 
the sea. 

MacMaster gives us some data from which to draw infer- 
ences, from conditions preceding our War of Independence. 
Carpenters, he tells us, received ten pence an hour; masons, 
four pence a perch; sailors, $24 a month. A redemptioner, 
after serving seven years, was entitled in Virginia to 50 acres 
of land, three barrels of corn, an ax, a gun, a hoe, and a suit of 
clothes. A woman redemptioner received, at the end of her 
term, a petticoat, a waistcoat, a smock, a perpetuana, two 
aprons, two caps, two pairs of stockings, a pair of shoes and 
three barrels of corn. 

In 1794 a maid-of-all-work was expected to mend clothes, 
do up the ruffs, carry water, run errands, milk, make butter, 
spin flax and make herself generally useful for $100 a year. 

Board in New York City was ten dollars a week; in the 
country it ran from two to seven dollars a week. Food then 
was of the |)lainest. Very few vegetables were raised. No 
grapes could be had then, except the wild fox-grapes. So much 
we learn from MacMaster, yet I am inclined to think <iui Vii- 
ginia colonists during the eighteenth century were in better 



30 



condition. In a gossipy book, "Two Centuries of Costumes in 
America," there is a chapter on the attire of Virginia dames, 
from which I will venture to make a few quotations. 

"Two things I love, two usual things they are: 
The first, new fashions, clothes I love to wear — 
New ties, new ruffes; aye, new gestures, too. 
In all new fashions I do love to goe. 
The second thing I love is this, I weene, 
To ride about, to have those new clothes seen. 

"In every gossiping I am at still, 
And every wible — maye I have my will. 
For at one's Home, praie, who is't can see 
How fine in new-found fashioned Tyers we bee? 
Unless our Husbands — Faith, but very fewe! 
And who'd go gaie, to please a Husband's view? 
Alas! we wives doe take but small delight. 
If none beside our husbands see that sight." 

We are pleased to learn from the same source that some of 
our Virginia Colonial Dpmes had their full share in pleasures, 
for the same authority informs us that Mrs. Frances Prichard, 
of Lancaster. Virginia, owned one olive-colored silk petticoat, 
anothp'r of silk tabbv, one of flowered tabbv, one of velvet and 
one of dimitv, bodices of white dimity, a black silk waistcoat 
and a pair of scarlet sleeves, neckware of Flanders lace and 
gpv (Jreen stockincrs — all this, two centuries a?o! The wardrobe 
of Mrs. Willoughby, of Lower Neck, Norfolk, was valued at 
£15. She also gave one hundred pounds of tobacco for a pair 
of elo^'ps. This was moderate, for we are told that one lady 
Pave ^'PO to have one gown made at home. 

When Thackerav was collecting data for his "Virginians" 
hp is ouoted as savin f^ that he particularlv wished to know 
what kind of breeches General Washin-cton wore. If he ascer- 
tained he did not put it in his book. This reminds me of the 
tradition that the Anderson ladies, of Hanover, made a full 
suit of silk clothing for the Father of his country. 

Bra""'e men and charmin.g women were the Warringtons and 
F.c-monds of romance. But the writer saw voung Lieutenant 
WarrincJtnn, of our armv. kill an Indian in fair fight with his 
sword. There was no romance about that; it was a life-and- 
death struggle. 

I believe that the accounts we have of colonial life in Vir- 
ginia are misleading. There were not manv Brandons and 
Westovers, but many small farms upon which our forefathers 
lived frugal and industrious lives. The countv which gave 
birth to Patrick Henry and Henry Clay could not have been a 

31 



land of luxurious ease. The men that filled the regiments of 
the Virginia Continental Line were like the men who followed 
Cromwell and not like the men who rode with Rupert. 

This talk of the first families of Virginia has become a by- 
word — a cynical jest. What families should be called first? — 
The first to brave the dangers and endure the privations of 
pioneer life. The first to move westward with the tide of emi- 
gration from the James to the Shenandoah, from the Shenan- 
doah to the Ohio, the Wabash, the Platte, and the Willamette. 

Certainly many of our clan have followed the eagle in his 
westward flight. 



Finis. 



P\> 



1*3. 



32 



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