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I'arb S 
Part 9 
Fart 10 
Part 11 
Part 1-2 
Part 18 

pp. 1—52, and plates 1—5, publisliefl November 7, 1902. 
pp. 53—104, and plates 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, publislied Sept. 1, 1903. 
pp. 105—160, and plates 7, 13, 14, 16, 17, piiblisbed June 6, 1904. 
pp. 161—224, and plates 10, 19, 21, published May 26, 1905. 
pp. 225—280, and plates 15, 22, 23, 25, publislied June 15, 1906. 
pp. 281—312, and pp. i—xx ; also Frontispiece, and plates 18, 24, 
publislied February 16, 1907. 



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HE completion of the present volume, the 
first and only one ever published devoted 
exclusively to the Slugs of the British Isles, 
is a matter of considerable satisfaction, and 
I trust that the information presented here- 
with on their variation, habits, structure, 
geographical and geological distribution 
will aid in the advancement and further 
popularization of a study in Avhich of late years so great an amount of 
interest has been displayed; and consequently it seems a fitting and 
appropriate occasion on which to include in the Introduction a brief 
review of the history and progress of Limacology in this country, detailing 
the rise of the present interest in the group, and the individuals and 
causes leading to this gratifying result. 

The study of Limacology has, however, never been a general one, for 
although many of the species are undeniably of great beauty, with bright 
and vivid colouring, frequently variegated, or banded with darker mark- 
ings of pleasing arrangement, yet the handling of these otherwise beautiful 
animals, and the difficulty of their satisfactory preservation in collec- 
tions, have always been very serious drawbacks to the popularization of 
their study. 


The mere bulk of the present volume is f;ir from adeiiuately represent- 
ing; the amount of labour and anxiety wliicli has been expended on its 
})ri)duetion, especially as, excepting some s])eeial artistic assistance from 
my daughter with certain of tlie more difficult coloured figures, I have had, 
as before, to depend solely on my own hand for tlie preparation of the 
text, and the index thereto, as well as for tlie one hundred and twenty 
nature coloured paintings illustrating the chief variations of the different 
species, in addition to whicli I have also prepared upwards of tliree 
hundred anatomical and other drawings from which the explanatoiy 
figures in the text have been engraved. 

Although six years have been occupied in the publication of the volume, 
this lengthy period has been very fully employed in securing and painting 
from life many of the illustrations, and in the appropriate arrangement 
and co-ordination of the mass of information accumulated during the 
past quarter of a century. 

Though it might appear almost invidious to aUude to the help rendered 
by particular individuals, when so many have contributed by their observa- 
tions and aid to enhance the value and importance of the Monograph, yet 
I trust I may without injustice again recall with grateful acknowledgment 
the ever-willing and priceless help so unselfishly rendered me by my late 
dear friend Mr. Charles Ashford, of Christchurch, whose matchless 
anatomical skill and scientific acumen were so pre-eminent, while the 
accuracy and beauty of his preparations and sketches is evidenced by 
the anatomical diagrams in the present work, many of which are from his 
hand, and it is to me a matter of sincere regret that my valued friend 
did not live to see the results of his long and disinterested labours placed 
permanently on record. 

To Mr. W. Den [SON Roebuck, F.L.S., of Leeds, who initiated the modern 
study of slugs in the British Isles, I have also been placed under deep 
obligations for placing his extensive knowledge on the subject so freely 
at my disposal, as well as for his willing aid in any direction in which 
the work most severely pressed, and it is with gratitude I acknowledge 
his great and varied help. 

Mr. R. Welch, M.R.I. A., of Belftvst, has also on very many occasions 
rendered me numerous special and valuable services, not only by furnish- 



ing many ex(|insite photographs of the eliaracteristic habitats of various 
species, but by his active help iu working out the molluscau fauna of 
Ireland, and interesting others in the same good work. 

To the many other helpers and good wishers who have so consistently 
assisted me at every opportunity, and whose help is in every case 
acknowledged in its appropriate place in the text, I desire to express 
my sincere thanks and heartfelt appreciation of their kindness, and can 
only hope that the resultant volume now completed will to some degree 
realize the hopes and expectations formed regarding it. 


North Grange, Horsforth, 
Leeds, Bee. 31, U)06. 

• .V 


J?^HE naked mollusks, familiarly termed " slug.s," judged by their 
general external aspect, are apparently a closely-related group of 
animals, but when their organization is closely studied, they are found to 
be not so nearly allied as they outwardly appear, as the tendency to nudity 
is one that has aft'ected many diverse families, being a stage of evolution 
to which almost every group has furnished examples and to which many 
are undoubtedly tending. 

Though it was considered convenient to devote a volume exclusively to 
the naked species, this was not merely because they could be — from one 
point of view^suitably placed together, as having arrived at a similar 
phase of the shell degeneration, many testaceous forms are probably now 
undergoing, but partly because the phylogenetic relationship of some of 
the groups is still obscure, and we shall probalily require to look for such 
progenitors, if they be not really extinct, in some of the less advanced 
regions of the globe. 

Phylogenetically, Testacella and Dandchardki have probably been 
derived from an identical stock, but do not stand in linear sequence. 
The Daudebardke have retained their terrestrial habits, while Testacella 
has become more especially adapted to a subterranean existence, probably 
thereby entering upon a course of deterioration and degradation of type. 
Their remote testaceous progenitors have probably been long ago expelled 
from the European region, and nnist be sought for in the more distant 
and weaker regions of the earth. 

The TestacelUv are restricted to Western and Southern Europe and North- 
western Africa, being bounded towards the east by the range of the nearly- 
allied Daudebardke. The group originated in the European region, but 
some authors have erroneously surmised that the family was evolved 
within the weak but mysterious recesses of Central Asia, afterwards 
migrating therefrom by way of southern Europe to this country. 


'J'li(» (r/(())(Uiirt' were fonnerly widely spread over tlic European region, 
and also lived in this country, and tliougli still meagrely represented in 
Southern JMirope, are now practically expelled to Central America and the 
West Indies, where the metropolis of the genus is now located, and 
where living species have heen I'ound scarcely distinguishahle from the 
fossilized shells of our Oligocene strata. 

It has been suggested that Lunar and Mil<(.r have their immediate 
derivation from IhiaUn'm, hut it is hy no means certain that this is the 
case with Mila.r, Prof. Bahor remarking on their strong affinity witli 
Ildir. The more distant ancestors cannot he indicated with any approach 
to precision, hut it is certain that they would possess a more substantial 
shell than the Hunlhiht- now possess. The true Linmcidw retain the soft 
and supple body, and the degenerate shell, though reduced to a flat and 
almost un-nucleated calcareous plate buried beneath the mantle, is still 
present. The group is almost restricted to the Palajarctic zone, the most 
advanced and recently evolved species occupying a compact and compara- 
tively restricted area, while the more ancient and primitive species have 
achieved a wider dispersal, but have been more or less completely expelled 
from the most active evolutionary region, or compelled to resort to and 
become isolated in undesirable spots. 

The Ariouidw are believed to have descended from Endodontoid 
ancestors, a grou}) which, though world-wide in distribution, has now 
withdrawn its headquarters or metropohs to the islands of the Pacific 

The typical genus Arhm is naturally restricted to the Palearctic region, 
extending from Portugal to Siberia. It displays the practical completion 
of the process of shell degeneration, and will in all probability be followed 
by a gradual calcification of the outer integument, as a dense deposition of 
lime particles and spicula within its substance has been already initiated, 
and in Arian Ktcr has imparteil a certain stiffness and i-igidity to the 
body and to its movements; this being the first stage in the slow evolution 
of another C(jmplete shelly protection. That this, or a similar process, has 
probably occurred in the past, is demonstrated by the vestiges still present 
in certain species of mollusks of previously existent primary or primary 
and secondary shells or "Prot(jconchs," which are the last remaining evi- 
dences of more i)erfect shells once possessed and successively lost, but 
which had undergone, untold ages ago, cycles of development and degenera- 
tion similar to that many shells are undergoing at the pi'esent day. 

The genus (u'omalacus is apparently now confined to Western Europe, 
and to the south-west corner of Ireland, which is a last foothold for many 
plants and other forms of life on the verge of extinction in this country. 


This genus has been incorrectly assumed to have been evolved in Central 
Asia and to have migrated therefrom, reaching Ireland by way of the 
Mediterranean region ; while the ancient Arionid, described as Tetraspis 
by Dr. Hagenmiiller, is according to present knowledge, confined to the 
grotto of Planina, in Carniola ; it presents the earlier stage in the slug 
evolution, before the mantle had finally closed and fused above the vestigial 
shell, as it still retains a central opening in the mantle, recalling the space 
left uncovered by the expanded mantle lobes in AniphJpeplea glutinosa. 
Dr. Simroth, is, however, disposed to regard Tetraspis as founded upon 
abnormal Arion intermedins or young A. suhfuscus ; but, even if this con- 
jecture be correct, the atavism is equally remarkable and instructive. 

Geographical Distribution is closely interwoven with the problems of 
evolution, and when studied compels the acceptance of the existence of 
zoological regions, these being immense areas or districts more or less 
isolated from each other by natural obstacles to dispersal, and each 
possessing a fiiuna which to a great extent is peculiar to it ; yet the 
forms of life they now harbour will inevitably, in process of time, be 
slowly and gradually changed to species of a higher type, drawn directly 
from a neighbouring more advanced area, but })rimarily emanating from 
the European region, where it is fairly well established as a general law 
that the more ancient the geological formation containing the fossil 
remains of any group of organisms, the further removed geographically 
is their present abode and in proportion as they are found in more and 
more recent deposits, the nearer to the European area are their living 
representatives to be found at the present day. 

This is corroborated by Dr. Wallace and others who have affirmed that 
the Eocene period is represented faunally in the Africa of to-day, and the 
Miocene in that of Madagascar, while the faunal and floral features of 
New Zealand, Australia, and other distant southern countries represent 
the European at still earlier epochs. 

Similarly the isolated districts now occupied by species of a more 
generalized type tlian those occupying the surrounding areas, must not 
be regarded as the cradle of those species, as some have so confidently 
declared, but must rather be regarded as a sanctuary to which the more 
generalized and consequently weaker forms have retreated to escape the 
severe competition of the improved stronger forms evolved from their 

Nor is it more accurate to regard the present metropolis or head- 
quarters of a species or group as necessarily disclosing the theatre of its 
origin. If the species or genus be an ancient one, it is very improbable 
indeed that such is the case, and much more likely that it is merely one of 


tlie stages of their retreat away from the evohitionary centre, in avoidance 
of the competition from tlie improved races tliat have succeeded them. 

A study of the various groups attests the accuracy of this important 
generalization and law, and demonstrates that the distribution and dis- 
persal of animal life generally is not that illogical process, as some aver, 
in which the weak and strong forms of life eqiially multiply, increase in 
numbers and promiscuously invade each other's territories ; but, as it 
cannot be too strongly emphasized, the distribution over the globe of all 
life is based upon the domination, greater increase, and consequent 
spreading of the stronger and u\ost recently evolved forms, and the 
enforced retirenient before them of the weaker and less adaptable species, 
Avhich in their turn press upon and successfully compete with the still 
more primitive species that preceded them. 

This is abundantly manifest when the phenomena are imjiartially 
studied and it becomes clear that the representatives of weaker races are 
not advancing and never do permanently advance towards the European 
region, but in every case are retreating further and further from the 
original evolutionary region before the more powerful species originating 
there, and which as a consequence of their predominance and adaptability 
increase rapidly in numbers, and must therefore perforce extend their 

Still further confirmation is given by our experience of European 
species when transferred to a new country amidst a palpably weaker fauna 
or liora, as in New Zealand ; under such circumstances the intruders 
prosper amazingly to the detriment and eventual extirpation of the 
indigenous species ; whilst on the contrary any attempts to permanently 
naturalize the organisms of a weak country within the European region 
are foredoomed to failure. 

The highest evolution is shown by the marvellous adaptability and pre- 
dominance of the European forms, and is internally evidenced by a greater 
concentration of the oesophageal ganglia within the cephalic region, while 
a })otential ability to resist hard conditions may be conferred by the 
elaborate intestinal coiling, which gives a greater digestive and absorptive 
l)Ower, and therefore will enable the maximum nourishment to be derived 
from the most meagre amount of food. 

This predominance of the European forms of life is not confined to 
mollusks, as Prof. Alfred Newton, our most philosophical ornithologist, 
has averred that amongst the birds also, the weaker types have been very 
generally eliminated in the western pakicarctic region, and that all the 
species are of the most dominant character, with the greatest powers 
of dispersal, and these features are as strongly shown by the mammals 
and other groups. 


The restriction of the dispersal of dominant species in certain directions 
may be satisfactorily explained by the presence of physical obstacles or by 
the competition to which they become subjected from other species of like 
habit and of an almost equal development. 

Variation, whether in form, C(jlouring, or habits, tends to be protective, 
and leads to general adaptability or to special adaptation, the former 
tending to advancement, and tlie latter towards degeneration, and such 
being the biological expression of the changes of the environment, are 
always worthy of attentive study, and the neglect that is usually accorded 
to so-called casual variations is quite unmerited, as these, if not atavic, 
probably indicate the direction in which the variation of the particular 
species or group is tending, or the aberrant individuals may, owing to the 
less pronounced character of the surroundings, be the outliers of the 
district or region where the particular form is the prevalent one ; the 
latter case is well seen in the var. albolateraUs of Avion ater w^hich, 
though occasionally found in other parts of this country in diminished 
brilliancy and beauty, is in certain portions of North Wales very dis- 
tinctive and quite the commonest form of the species. In like manner 
the var. macnlata of Lhrnix arhorum is quite rare and sporadic in 
England, but in Ireland is much more plentiful, but the causes of these 
aberrations have not yet been discovered. 

The change resultant from a difterent environment may be in the 
direction of warning colours or markings, as displayed by the vividly 
coloured forms of the var. rufd of Avion atev, which, by the deposition 
of the coloured excretory products within and upon the outer integument, 
have rendered themselves distasteful to former enemies, the vivid colour- 
ing acting as a warning indication of their probably nauseous character 
as food. 

On moist ground and upon the cloudy and mist-enveloped hills and 
mountains, a darker pigmentation of the body usually takes place, assimi- 
lating the animals more closely to the dark, damp aspect of the stones and 
rocks among which they dwell. This effect is shown especially and strik- 
ingly by Limax avbovum, and is also confirmed by Geonmlacus macitlosus 
and Avion atev var. (Uevvima, although the latter has also been reported 
as inhabiting low and sw^ampy ground. 

In Agviolimax agrestis a tendency is shown during the autumn months 
for the animals to approximate in colour to the dead and fallen leaves so 
universally prevalent at that season of the year, the body of the animal 
becoming flecked over with brown, or even changing to a general brownish 


LiiiKix tending by its yellow or palliil colouring-, witlioiit noticeable 
lateral banding, assimilates very closely to the aspect of the fungi upon 
which it lives, and is not readily perceptible in such situations. 

External or tegunientary variation is quickly responsive to the changes 
of environment, and the various colour mutations undergone in process of 
growth by various of the naked species are colourings which were not 
improbably beneficial and protective in former times, and it is very signifi- 
cant as tending to shed a light upon their true evolutionary centre that 
certain atavic varieties of many species characterized by the retention of 
juvenile colours or markings are more prevalent at the confines of their 
distribution than near the probable point of origin of the species. 

Structural modification is a much slower and more deliberate process, 
and though undoubtedly proceeding everywhere, is much more rapidly 
accomplished in the European region, which is, and has been for ages 
past, the centre of the greatest evolutionary activity and the focus from 
which improved forms of life have emanated and spread over the whole 
surface of the globe, only interrupted by the rigours of the more extreme 
climatic changes to which the world has been from time to time exposed 
during the progress of geological time, or by the varying dispositions of 
land and water, which, however, would in many cases tend to accelerate 
and facilitate dispersal. 

The History and progress of Limacology in these islands may be 
studied by enumerating in chronological sequence the species so far 
established as British, and it seems on the whole better, as a simple act 
of justice to the acumen and perspicuity of the original investigators, to 
base the account upon the order in which the various species were 
definitely introduced for the first time into the British fauna, rather than 
to give the honour to the modern limacologists, who afterwards con- 
firmed the truth of their predecessors' discernment by the demonstration 
of structural and other differences. 

The existence of certain species in this country was, however, in several 
instances foreshadowed by some of the older and more careful writers long- 
before their instatement in our lists. 

The history of Limacology in the British Isles may for the present i)ur- 
pose be resolved into a modern and an earlier period of activity, separable 
by a certain interval of neglect. 

The earlier period of activity is identified with tlie great names of 
Lister, Alder, Gray, Johnston, and Clarke, although the slugs were not 
specialized, except by the last-named author, being merely studied in the 
course of the general investigation of our terrestrial mollusca. 


The first author to tlescribe Britisli slugs was Dr. Martin Lister, one of 
tlie celebrated trio who founded the modern scientific study of natural 
history in England, and it is to this al)le investigator that we owe — 
amongst numerous other things — the first faunal work on British mollusca 
and their earliest anatomical investigation. 

In 167S he published nnder the title of "Aninialium Anglia3 Tres 
Tractatus .... Alter de Cochleis turn Terrestribus tum Fluviatilibus" 
an account of the British land and freshwater mollusca which from a 
scientific point of view will bear comparison with many works published 
even in modern times, and it is to the great glory of Lister that he paid 
careful attention to all aspects of his subject, studying it from every point 
of view. He was a capable anatomist, and published subsequent works 
dealing with the internal structure of our mollusks. 

In this work of 1678 the first three shigs known as British : 
L Limax maximus, 

2. Agrriolimax agrestis, 

3. Arion ater, 

were for the first time described and figured, although the existence of the 
first-named species was indicated twelve years before in Merret's " Pinax 
Rerum Naturalium Britannicaruin." 

In 1681 Lister published a supplement to his work, of which supple- 
ment a second edition appeared in 1685, but in this only the red variety 
of the last-named species is brought forward. 

The next addition to our list was also by Dr. Lister in 1685 and 1694, 
when, in his "Conchology" and " Exercitationes Anatomicfe," he figured 
and described the anatomy of our fourth species : 

4. Limax flavus. 

The fact that the figure does not bear the letter A, by which Lister was in 
the habit of distinguishing the English species in his general works, may be 
safely disregarded. 

The next faunal Avork in Avhich the slugs were included was not pub- 
lished for nearly one hundred and fifty years after Lister's, but in the 
meantime the effect of the Cuvierian impetus to the study of the natural 
sciences at the beginning of the nineteenth century was seen in the 
description as new or the introduction into our lists of four species. 

In 1819 Ft^russac published his splendid work : Histoire Naturelle 
gendrale et particuliere des MoUusques Terrestres et Fluviatiles, in which 
he described and cited a British habitat for 

5. Testacella maug-ei, 

our first recorded shell-slug. 


hi the "Medical Repository" for 1.S21, Dr. J. E. Gray described a second 
species of Avion as an inliabitant of tliis country : 

6. Arion hortensis. 

In 1S23 Sowerby piiblislied his "Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells," 
in which he described a second species of Teatdcella : 

7. Testacella scutulum. 

This, however, after the issue of Turton's Manual of 1831 was regarded as 
but a slight variety of 7'. haUotldcd, and conse(|uently disappeared froui 
our lists as a species. 

In the same year, 1823, Ferussac described from British examples the 
first of our two species of keeled slugs : 

8. Milax sowerbii. 

Meauwhile, various faunal works on nu)llusca had been issued by 
Da Costa, Donovan, Montagu, Maton and Rackett, and others, in wliicli 
the sings were not included, but in 1828 the Rev. John Fleming published 
his " History of British Animals," in which we find the first description as 
British of the third species of Testacella : 

9. Testacella haliotidea. 

In the same year, Dr. George Johnston, in a paper criticizing Fleming's 
work, described a third species oi Arion : 

10. Arion circumscriptus. 

This species, however, never afterwards appeared in our lists and manuals, 
other than as a synonym or variety of .1. Jiortenais, or as the supposed 
young of A. ater, even by Johnston himself, and was only finally re-estab- 
lished as of true specific rank fifty-eight years afterwards. 

Turton's Manual, published in 1831, was the first to bring all these 
species together in one work, except the Arions, which, having no distinct 
shell, found no definite place in a work devoted to testaceous mollnsca. 

Ill 18;)2 and 1S33 Mr. Jolui Denson published detailed and elaborate 
accounts of il//7*-«.r soiverOii and Te.-itarella scnfiiltini in the "Magazine of 
Natural History," and in IS.'iT Mr. Thomas Nunneley i)uliiis1ied in the 
Leeds Transactions a detailed account with figures of the anatomical 
structure of the first four British species, describing therein the intestinal 
appeiulix of Lima.r fldvu^, and his careful and accurate work, the first 
moUuscau anatomy after Lister's, foreshadowed the closer attention i)aid 
in late years to this branch of the subject. 

In 1838 Dr. George J(ihnst(Mi lirought forward in his Berwickshire list 
another species : 

11. Ag-riolimax Isevis, 


and in the same list includes " Avion suhflavm'' without description, in 
addition to Avion atev, thus ignoring not only Avion hovtensis but his own 
A rion civcumscviptus. 

In 1840 Dr. Gray published his so-called new edition of Turton's 
Manual, in reality a new work, and in this he sank Avion civcumscviptas 
and Testacella scutnlum as being but slight varieties, and also excluded 
T. maugei as non-indigenous. 

But in the same year, 1840, a new enthusiast and very capable investi- 
gator appeared, who may be regarded as our first British liniacological 
specialist. The Rev. B. ,T. Clarke took up the detailed study of the Irish 
slugs, and in the "Annals and Magazine of Natural History" for 1840 
and 1843 he established the existence of two new British species of which 
there had not previously been any indication in our literature : 

12. Limax arborum. 

13. Milax g-ag-ates. 

His papers also include indications of Avion sub/nscus and Limax cinereo- 
nigev, as well as show that the author was aware of the presence in Ireland 
of Avion civcuniscviptus and TesfAicella maugei, although he did not venture 
to reinstate them as species. 

In the same year, 1843, Limax avbovum is first mentioned as Scottish 
in Macgillivray's " History of the Molluscous Animals of Aberdeen, 
Kincardine, and Banff." 

In 1842 an important discovery was made by Mr. W. Andrews in the 
form of the remarkable new slug, which in 1848 Dr. G. J. Allman described 
with a full anatomical account as 

14. Geomalacus maculosus. 

In 1848 Mr. Joshua Alder's "Catalogue of the Mollusca of Northumber- 
land and Durham" was published in the Tyneside Field Club Transactions. 
It is a work of great importance to us, as in it were brought forward two 
species new to Britain : 

15. Arion intermedius, 

16. Limax tenellus, 

and there is also a distinct reference to the slug we now know as Avion 

These additions mark the close of the earlier periods of the active 
scientific investigations of our British slugs, for although malacologists 
generally were by no means inactive, and numerous manuals were pub- 
lished including those of Brown in 1845, Leach in 1852, Forbes and Ilanley 
in 1853, Gray's Turton in 1857, .Jefifreys in 1862 and 1869, Reeve in 1863, 


and Tate in I.sGfi, no further additions were made to our slugs or any 
notable contribution to their study for a period of nearly thirty-five years. 

The present ov modern period of activity in the study of our slugs 
began in 1882, when Mr. W. Denison Roebuck took up the subject as a 
special line of research, and by the active co-operation of British concho- 
logists received many thousands of slugs from all parts of the British Isles 
for examination, forming an excellent groundwork for the true appreciation 
of their distribution, variation, and developmental history. 

The late Mr. Charles Ashford, the most skilful molluscan anatomist that 
we have ever had in this country, soon became associated with Mr. Roebuck 
in the good work, and made hundreds of dissections of the various species 
and varieties, confirming the external specific characters of the various 
species by demonstrating the differences in their internal structure. 

The impetus thus given to the study was the means of bringing other 
investigators into the field, and greatly popularizing the subject. 

In Mr. Roebuck's paper on the British slug list, published simultane- 
ously with the Conchological Society's list of British land and freshwater 
mollusca, 1883, the specific status of 

17. Umax cinereo-niger 
was affirmed, and the name added to the British list. 

The close and systematic examination of the anatomical and morpho- 
logical character of the Arions soon showed that another species of Arion : 

18. Arion subfuscus, 

existed in this country, and although the first published notice of it as 
British was by Herr D. F, Heynemann in 1885, yet the associated labours 
of Mr. Ashford and Mr. Roebuck upon undoubted British specimens 
independently established its claim to inclusion in the British list. 

Continued investigation of the Arionida? resulted in the identification 
in 1886 of Mabille's Avion boargaigmiti, mainly by the aid of anatomical 
evidence. The first mention of it as British was by Mr. John Emmet, 
writing on behalf of Mr. Roebuck in the " Naturalist" for June 1886 and 
later study disclosed that the supposed new discovery was but an authori- 
tative reinstatement of Dr. Johnston's Avion civcumscvipta^. 

Another resurrection made by Mr. George Roberts in 1887 and Dr. R. F. 
Scharft' in 1890 was Avion intevmedius. The real credit of the reinstate- 
ment, however, was due to Dr. Scharft', who showed from anatomical 
evidence that ^. minimus existed with us, although in 1887 Mr. Roberts 
had given a clear description of its external morphology under the name of 
Avion flavKS. Subsequent synonymic study demonstrated that 
names referred to one and the same species, for which A. intevmedius was 
the original name. 


lu 1888 occurred tlie specific reinstatement of Testacelhi scutulum, 
chiefly by tlie aid of Mr. C. Ashford's exquisite dissections. Strictly 
speaking, however, it would be more correct to speak of it as the definite 
installation of both forms — T. haUotldea and T. scutulum — as distinct 
species and members of our fauna. 

With one notable exception, this closed the list of the definite replace- 
ments of valid species, although during the next few years various forms 
were from time to time described as new to this couutry or to science, 
which eventually proved to be pure synonyms or simple varieties of 
already-known species. 

An excellent piece of work by Dr. Scharflf was his superb Monograph, 
"The Slugs of Ireland," which evinced souud work and careful investi- 
gation, while numerous papers and books by Mr. W. E. Collinge, Mr. J. W. 
Williams, Mr. W. A. Gain, Mr. Lionel E. Adams, Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, 
and others, testified to the keen interest aroused in the study by the 
stimulus first given in 1882. 

The last important re-discovery — Lhnax tenellus—via,^ made in 1904, 
when the Rev. R. Godfrey, who had previously collected the species in 
Switzerland, sent numerous examples, collected in Rotliiemurchus Forest, 
to Mr. Roebuck, who was at once able to verify the species as the long-lost 
Limax temllus, probably hitherto overlooked by the nature of its habitat, 
and it was a great satisfaction to be able once more to vindicate the sound 
scientific ability of its original finder, the late Mr. Joshua Alder. 

In conclusion, though the probability of further discoveries of truly 
distinct species is not great, yet it is not impossible that closer research 
and careful anatomical investigation may ultimately reveal other forms as 
yet unsuspected or it may be confused with the more abundant and 
widely-distributed species. 





! The exclamation mark is used in accordance with an accepted cnstom, 
as a mark or token of verification, and indicates that the specimens 
from the locality or district mentioned have been seen and verified by 
the author. 

Records in which a date is given immediately after the name of the 
locality signifies that the specimens were collected at that time. 

Records in which the date does not precede but follows the name of the 
collector signifies only the date when the specimens were examined, 
and that no precise record has been kept of the date when the speci- 
mens were collected. 

The names of authors when placed within parentheses and following the 
names of species implies that the generic name used is not the same 
as that used by the original describer ; when the parentheses are not 
used the species retains its original allocation. 

All Records and observations under each species are almost invariably 
used only in association with the particular name used by the author 
whose information is being made use of. This mode of treatment is 
desirable, as though giving all information in its appropriate position, 
it yet preserves the connection with the name to which it belongs, 
so that if the reference to the particular species be objected to, the 
information can be extracted, as it is not confused with other records. 






Phylum MOLLUSCA Cuvier. 

(Malacozoa, Blaiiiville ; Palliata, Latreille ; Heterogangliata, Owen ; Otocardes, Haeckel ; 
Saccata, Hyatt ; Tetraneura, Schimkewitsch). 

Tlie Mi)l]nsca {mnlll^, soft) arc animals witli soft and flesliy bodies, covered 
I)y ciliated epitlieliiiui, containing numerous interspersed cells which abun- 
dantly secrete the mucus which is so characteristic a feature of the group 
and gives the body its suppleness and viscosity. 

They possess a ce])halic region in which are located most of the organs 
of special sense, a pallial region which develops or secretes the shell, and a 
pedal or ventral region which constitutes the locomotory organ. 

Internally they present distinct digestive, cre'lomic and circulatory cavi- 
ties and scattered nerve centres, and primitively were bilaterally synnuetrical 
in their organization. 

Class GASTROPODA Cuvier. 

(Paraccphalopliora, Rlainvillc ; Cephalophora, Macalister ; Glossophora, pars, Lankester ; 
Cephala, Reeve ; Uiiivalvia, Fischer). 

The Gastropods (yo-'Tryp, stomach ; ttoS- foot) are the most typical of the 
molluscan phylum, possessing the distinctive characteristics of the group in 
the greatest degree and showing the least affinity to other phyla. 

Their chief features are a ventral and S(jle-like reptatory foot; a distinct 
head; a well-developed odontophore, armed with numerous transverse rows 
of recurved teeth; a hollow and more or less conical shell which may be 
sjurally coik^d and external, or reduced to the merest vestige and concealed 
within the tissues. 

Sub-Class ANISOPLEURA Lankester. 

(Gastropoda, Pelseneer ; Platyrochlides, Ihering). 

The Anisopleura (a, not ; lo-o^, equal ; -n-Xevpa, sides) are characterized by 
the asymmetry of their organization, duo to the torsion and semi-rotati(^n the 
visceral sac has undergone, which has transferred the respiratory and excre- 
tory organs from their original posterior position to an anterior and lateral 
one, and also led to the diminution or even complete atrophy and loss of 
the primitively left auricle, the left kidney, and the left moiety of other of 
the paired organs of the body. 

Order EUTHYNEURA Lankester. 

(Platymalakia, von Ihering; Pulmonata, Fischer; Monoecia, Troschel ; Adelapiieumoiia, Gray; 
Puhiionifera Innperciilata, Woodward ; Inoperculata, Reeve ; Saccoliranchia, Leacli). 

The Euthyneura (evOi's, straight ; vevfiov, a nerve or tendon) embrace those 
land, freshwater, and marine gastropods in which the twisting of the visceral 
nerve-ring, characterizing the Streptoneura, has become obliterated by the 
partial detorsion the visceral sac has since undergone, and is also noticea 

25/5/02 >^^^^<asV\^U^'0'}, 




for tlio sliorteniug of tlie coniieetivos and coiiuiiissuros and tondenc)' of the 
i-'iinglionic centres to eoucentrate around tiie jiliaiynx, tlie u'sopliagus passing 
between the cerebral and buccal ganglia, and the anterior aorta separating 
the pedal and visceral centres. 

The Euthj-neures are henua[(hrodite and inoi)erculate ]»nlnioniferous 
s]iccies, usually possessing a highly vascular, respiratory pallial chand)er, 
without ctenitlia, but exceptionally developing secondary branchiae in a few- 
genera tliat are reacquiring aqueous respiration. 

Sub-Okdkr STYLOMMArOPTTOnA A. Schmidt. 

(Puliiionifi;ra, Reeve; Helicea, \'on Marlcns ; (leophila, Kinney). 

The Stylonnuatophora (o-tPAos, a pillar : nfj.[i(i.Ta^ eyes ; </>«/«'>, to bear), 
embrace those Euthyneui-es with distinct head and two pairs of hollow- 
retractile tentacles, the posterior and longer i)air are the onnuatophores, 
and bear the ej-es near their sunnnit, where is also located the chief seat of 
the olfactory sense : the smaller anterior pair are also olfactory, but more 
especially tactile, in function. The otocysts' are imbedded upon the pedal 
ganglia and contain numerous otoconia ;■ the nerve centres are closely 
aggi-egated and fused together in a nerve ring around the pharynx, and 
tlie sexnal oritices are closely contiguous or nnited in a common passage at 
the side of the neck. 

Family TESTACELLID.E (iray. 

(Oleacinida;, Biniiey ; Agiiatha, Moich ; Vermivora. Gray). 

The Testacellidtr embrace the genera Jt//i/t/da, P<(ri/p/mnta, Sfrepfa.ris, 
Duudehardia, Ghdidlna, and T'e^tdcella, with a few other exotic grou[)s, all 
characterized by an enormous development of their radula, b)^ the absence 
of the mandilile, and by their predacious habits. Of these genera only 
2\>f^t(iCi'Ihi inhabits this country, but that Glandina also formerly did so is 
undeniably established by its fossil remains in our tertiary strata. 

Genus TESTACELLA Cuvier. 

(Helicoliinax pars, Fer. ; Testacellus, Faure-liiguet). 

History. — Testaccdl<i (dim. of testa, a shell) was discovered at Dieppe by 
M. Dugue, and his careful and accurate observations on its habits and ai)])ear- 
ance, under the appellation of "Limace a coquille," were published in 1740 
l)y Reaumur,'' who, however, did not apply to it any distinctive scien- 
tific name. In ISOO, Cuvier,^ impressed by the ]teculiarities of the shell, 
created the genus IVsfdcc/ht for its reception, and in 1S04 described and 
figured the iiit(M'nal structure of the animal. 

Generic Characters. — Externally, the distinguishing features of 
Tentandhi may be sunuiiarized as : Body limaciform, markedly attenuate 
anteriorly ; intixu-mknt coriaceous, thickest in the rear: peripodlvl (iRoovE' 
distinct; tentac^les simple, without definite apical enlargement; eyes small 
and black: lips tactile and very extensible; lateral grooves'' distinct, 
diverging from the ])eripallial sinus and terminating near the base of the 
tentacles, giving off from each side a nund»er of supra- and sub-lateral, an- 
teriorly directed, shallow, branching grooves, whose intersections form the 
granulation which is so manifest during contraction ; sole not tripartite as 
in Liiua.r: mantle small, jdaced (piite in the rear of the animal, and covered 
by a vestigial and somewhat auriform, ])aucisi)iral shell, from which the 
periostracuni is usually more or less aliraded ; musci'LAR scar crescentic in 
shajie; respiratory and anal orifices beneath right posterior angle of 
shell. Sexual orifice beneath right ommatophore. 

1 Monog. i., p. 237, ff. 2 Monoj. i., p. 2:?0, fT. 3 Ohserv. de Physique g.<ncTaIe, pp. 1. 2. 
i Legons d'Anat. Comp. t. 1, oe tabl. 5 Monog. i., p. 192, f. 37". (j Monog i., p. 205, f. 402. 


Fig. 1. — Nerve ring of T. 
hnliotidca, Brisiol. X 5, showing 
the arransrenieiit of the izanirlia. 

Internally, tlie most iniport.-iiit peculiarity, as compared with tlie Linm- 
ciihe, is the location of the heart^ near the posterior extremity of the bod}^ 
accompanied by a corresponding change in the position of the pulmonary 
cavity and anal aperture, the kidney and the shell, which are usually in rela- 
tion with it. As in Lima.r, the heart is anterior to the kidney, but occupies 
its right anterior corner, and the auricle is larger 
than the ventricle, and directed obli(|uely back- 
wards, the ventricle in front, in consonance with 
the altered course of the aortic trunks. 

The VISCERAL SAO is almost completely un- 
twisted, resulting in the pulmonary plexus being 
moved to the rear of the ob]i(|uely-})laced heart, 
Te::it(ivella being thus opistliopneumonic; kidney 
without secondary ureter;'-^ supra-pedal gland 
long and sinuous, lying free on upper surface of 
the foot and extending almost to the posterior extremity of the liody.'' 

The Nervous System is chiefly centralized in a nerve ring, encircling the 
enormous lingual sheath, the closely contiguous cerebral ganglia above it 
giving off" long and thick connectives to the. pedal and visceral ganglia which 
are fused together Ijcneath : the long cerebro-buccal connectives surround 
the (X^sophagus, and the buccal ganglia are fused together or at least in con- 
tact, not separated by a longlsh commissure as is usual in the Llnmcidw. 

The OLFACTORY faculty is 
well developed and exhibited 
as a largo ganglion with ra- 
mose terminations at the 
apex of each of the posterior 
tentacles or rhinophores."* 

Simroth also affirms that 
he has detected a double 
fringe of nerves of the same 
sense within the pallial 
chamber, a relic of the primi- 
tive os[)hradiuni. The eye 
is small and black and the 
vision feeble and myopic, the 
optic nerve, w^hich shows scarcely any dilatation, separating from the nerve 
of olfaction quite at the base of the tentacles. 

The alimentary canal is simple, showing few flexures ; tlie mouth very 
dilatable, its inner surface pr(jtected by a thick layer of chitiii ; the 
ODONTOPiiORE large, beset with transverse, 
obh'iiucly arcuate rows of slender, liarbed 
and a[)ically-pointed teeth, typical of 
Beloglossa ;' (esophagus short ; crop volu- 
minous and muscular, functioning as the 
digestive sac, and held in position by a 
sheet of separate slender muscles, arising 
from tlie sides of the body, but most 
coiis[)icuous on the left side ; the true 
STOMACH is reduced to a small receptacle at first bend of gut near the open- 
ing of the bile ducts; intestinal tract short, with but two tracts or 

Fig. 2. — Rhinophore of T. /!iiiiotiiica(^{\.e.r Moquin-Tandon) 
greatly enlarged, sliowiiig the ganslionic enlargement and the 
ramose terminations of the olfactory nerve, e eye with optic 
ganglion and nerve. 

Fig. 3. — Pallial olfactory organ or osphradium of T. Jiinn«;ei 
(after Simroth). P.O. olfactory orifice ; o.c. olfactory cavity ; 
p.r. olfactory ridge ; r.o. respiratory orifice ; I.e. lung chamber. 

Fig. 4. — .Mimentary cinal of T. haUotiden. 
from Horsham, Xl.J, showing the simplicity 
of its course .■md an unusual development of 
the \estigial stomach. 

I .Monog. i., p. 2!)3, f. 5S3. 
4 Monog. i., p. 22(;, f. 448. 

2 Monog. i. p. :«r., f. 62fi. 

5 Monog. i., p. 2(17, f. 5155. 

3 Monog. i., p. 314. f. (i04. 

6 Monog. i., p. 28,j, f. oOS. 


Tlie LINGUAL siiEATn Avliite and crristly, exliibitiuG; externally along its 
left nj)])or siirface a distinct longitudinal suture or seam on opjiosite sides 
ofwliicli, at the hinder end, the paired constituents of tlie retractors are 
affixed; the enormous development 

of the retractors is in strict correlation X*^^fe^ 

with the nature of their food, as to ^ '^S-^\5^^ " -^ 

overcome the hi.nhly muscular and ^ < ""^^C^^J^^^""^ 

stru,iiii,lin,<;- earthworms demands a pre- —- ^^^^X v ~ZI i^^^^ 

dominatino- antao-onism : TENTAfULAR ^ 

ItETUACTORS very lono- and -luite inde- j,,,^ o.-Hinde,- cn.l of l.n.ual sheath of T. 

pendent OI the pharyni^eal l;rOUp, and waugd, from Hnyle, Connvall, X 4, showing the 
, f ,^.-...L ^4^1,^,. ..."il, ' ■ 1 1 ' i 1 pnirod insertions of llie retractor^!. 

or eacli otiier, witli widely separated 

l)oints of attachment to the integument, differing thus from the Limaces, 

and forming Avitli virion the group Trichorhiza.^ 

The REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS are comparatively simple, varying somewhat 
not only in the relative proportions of their various parts, hut also as in 
other groups increasing vastly in size at the approach of the breeding sea- 
son; tlie ovoTESTis small, imbedded witliin the large digestive gland ; 
the HERMAPHRODITE DUCT closely convoluted and entering th(^ large and 
yellowish all)umen gland about its middle : oviduct with l)road, amjtle folds, 
suggestive of large eggs, partiall}' doubled u]ion itself, owing to the high 
attachment of spermatheca ; penis sheath only moderately developed: n(j 
mucus glands; atrium short and narrow; penis and vagina separated by 
the riglit tentacular retractor. 

Reproduction and Development. — In mild weatlier, especially in 
/ spring and autunni, the pairing takes place, the tentacles being retracted 
during the process, which occupies four or five hours. Five or six days 
afterwards, ten or more eggs are deposited within the underground galleries, 
sometimes a yard or more beneath the surface. The eggs are oval and 
white, somewhat acuminate at the ends, and although enclosed by a hard, 
calcareous shell, explode with a perceptible noise when removed from the 
ground and })laced upon the hand or in a warm place, but, according to 
Faure-Biguet, they may be preserved if plunged at once into boiling water. 
The eggs hatch in from ten to thirty-five days, according to the species 
and the prevailing temperature, the young at once entering ujion a ])reda- 
tory life, devouring young earthworms and the minute white threadworms 
which live beneath decaying vegetation ; they usually become adult in about 
eighteen months, and may attain five or six years of age. 

Food and Habits. — They are predacious and very voracious and not 
only prey ujiou worms, l)ut will also devour slugs, snails, centipedes, and 
even small individuals of their own kind, although, according to Gassies, 
they will not eat dead animals, and even decline fresh worms wdiieh have 
been chojjped up to feed them, Bouillet, however, records that chopped 
worms are devoured l)y the TestawUa when laid as bait on the ground. 
The prey is seized by a ra])id protrusion of the odoutophore, the worm be- 
coming impaled ui)on thf multitude of l)arbcd and aculeate teeth which 
divaricate during })rotrusi(ni ; the radula is then retracted and the worm or 
other prey is gradually engulphed in the maw of its enemy, but so slowly in 
some cases that one end of a worm may have become digested within the 
stomach while the other end still alive projects from the mouth. When 
gorged with food the animal l)ecomes lethargic and contracted, but if disturbed 
during a meal they will often disgorge the i)rey they may be consuming. 

1 Monog. i., p. 311, r. fAS. 


Plate I. 


i.— T. haliotiiica nir. albiiui, in repose, 

Kingsbridge. Devon. 

W. E. Baily. 

2. — T. haliotidca, 
Oxford, E. B. PouUon. 

3. — T. haliotidea x 3, 
Horsham, J . Whitakcr. 

^.-T.Ii.var.tiigona x 3, 

GIdsnenn Gardens. 
Dublin, R. F. Scharff. 

5. — T, h. ear. major x J, 
Horsham, J. ]Vhitakcr. 

6. — 7". setittihim x 3, 


S. C. Cockerel!. 

7, — y . s. rdr. albina,-in repose, 
Hornsey, H. Wailis Kew. 

8. — Testacella scutulum, 
Cuerden Hall, Preston, W. H. Heathcote. 

9. — i . inatigci. 
Riccard's Dmcn. Bideford, C. R. C. Hibbert. 

10. — T. mangei -car. griseo-riibesceiis, 
Corfe Castle, E. R. Bankes. 

II. — T. mangei var. aurea, 
Cotham, Bristol,' Miss F. M Hele. 

12. — T. maugei var. viridans, 
Watevford, J. H. Salter. 

13. — 7". maugei x 2, 
Bristol, Miss F. M. Hele. 


14. — T. inaiigei x 2, 


Miss F. ,U. Hele. 

15.— r. m.var.aperta x 2. 
A sores. 

16.— T. m. rar.griseo nigrescens, in repose, 
Pembroke, Mrs. Trayler. 

J. W. Taylor, del. 

Taylor Bros., Leeds. 


They are iiucturiial animals, usually remaining beneath the surface of the 
soil during the day, preferring the rich, well-manured lands in which their 
prey is plentiful, and in this country, according to Mr. E. J. Lowe, are 
found from sea level up to an altitude of o30 feet, and although reaching a 
greater altitude in France, yet Fischer records that they do not attain an 
altitude of 3,250 feet in Auvergne. Although usually living only a few 
inches below the surface, they vary the depth in accordance with the mois- 
ture of the ground and the couse(pient motions of the earthworms, but also 
come forth at nightfall when the earthworms also emerge from their bur- 
rows ; the worm when seized by the TeMdcella instantly retracts itself 
witliin its tunnel by the aid of its circlets of bristles, dragging with it the 
Testdctdla, which attenuates itself sufKciently to allow this to be done. 

The saturation of the ground due to the rains so prevalent in spring and 
late autunui is very prejudicial to the TesfAicelkv, driving them from their 
subterranean retreats to the surface, where they seek to hide during the 
day beneath stones, rubbish, or in uther places fre(iuented by worms. 

In cold and dry weather, and when preparing for hibernation, they retire 
dee})ly into the earth, contracting their bodies and enveloping their hinder 
extremity within the extended mantle, ensconcing themselves each within a 
small and firm earth-chamber, which is cemented together by their colour- 
less and somewhat viscid mucus, and is smooth and glistening inside, but 
externally bears some resemblance to the cocoon of a "puss" moth. 

Enemies. — x\ccording to the testimony of Mr. Miller and Miss Mar- 
shall, earthworms will destroy young TestaceiUc, and Mrs. Falloon informs 
me that a very small wireworm also preys upon them. 

Geographical Distribution. — Testacelln is entirely a western palai- 
arctic group, and the distribution uf the constituent species is strikingly in 
harmony with the relative simplicity or complexity of the internal structure 
of the animal, the more primitive of the species being confined to the 
vicinity of the western seaboard, while the more highly organized forms have 
a more eastern range. The genus is replaced in eastern and south-eastern 
Europe and the western Asiatic region by Daadebard'ta, a group of preda- 
cious snails with close affinities to TeMacella. 

The so-called West Indian Testucdhv are nitjre pro})erly referred to Oimi- 
lonij.r, a genus of ^Sacc'uiekhv, in which the shell has undergone a somewhat 
parallel course of degeneration. 

Geological History. — Fossil species of Testacella have been recorded 
from various localities in the Middle and Upper Miocene, the Pliocene, 
Pleistocene, and Holocene strata of continental Europe. 


KiG. G. — T. ntaitgci devouriiiL^ a woiin. 

MONCXiKAl'II or BUiTiSll LA^L» AHU i'KKSll U'ATKli Mnl.i.lSCA. 

Testacella haliotidea Draparnaud. 

ISOI Testacella haliotidea I)nii>., 'I'lil.l. Moll., i>i.. ;«, 99 ; Hi-t. ^ 

I-22, 1)1. s, ir. 4:i-ir>, lA. 9, ir. \2, i.s ; .ihiv., r.r 

p. U,"), 1.1. ."), f. 6; Keeve, Urit. Moll., ISOn, 
Tiuuloii, .Moll. Fr;iiu-L', IS.m. p. ;^9, pi. .">, f. 1. 
ISO.") — citrn/Kiii Itoissv, Kuir. (Ic Soiiii.. v.. pi. .Jo, f. 8, p. '2i>'2. 
1815 — ;/n//i'v Okeii, Lelirl.. Nat., iii., p. •_'}•_', pi. 9, f. 8. 
1888 — diibiii Polltmera, Boll. Mus. Zool. Aiiiit. ('oiii]>. Torino, 
1888 — hurciiionon-isVoW., lioll. Zool. Aiiiit. Colli]), Apl. 14, p. 
18(f2 TvslKirlliis Imliotidnis Faiuv -Uiuiict. Bull. Soe. IMiil., p. 9S, 
1806 llcli.v .sidifcrnnini Lafoiiilu-Cujula, Dc-^e. Lot-etCJaroiiiie, \>. 



II.. ISO.-), p. l_'l 
Coiuh , KSOJ 
30 ; Mt.iiiiin 

pi. 2, ir. 

4, pi. -2, 
1.1. 5, f. 
. 143. 


tt". 13-10. 

2 All. 


HISTORY.- The Ti'stacella hallothim 
(I/dlidtis, a ifouu.s of niavine slioll.'*, l^ea 
form) i.>< recorded as having been tirst 
foiuul by M. Dugne at Dieppe in 1740, 
but it did not receive a sjiecitic name 
until Dvaiianiaud in his "Tableau" be- 
stowed upon it the name of /udlotk/ea. 
In the British Isles it is recorded as 
tirst noticed in l!S01 by Dr. Lukis in 
his garden iu (jiuernsey. 

7\ hdiotidea is in many respects the 
most highly organized of the genus, antl 
is probably the latest evolvetl species, 
this being also indicated by its more 
eastern distribution and the tendency 
towards a less advanced develojiment 
ot its peculiarities in the more remote localities. 

Diagnosis. — Exteiin.\llv, the characteristic features of T. hdUotidea 
are the somewhat contiguous but distinctly-separated origin of the lateral 
groovesat the peripallial furrow, and the whitish colour of the animal ; the 
shell ditlers from that of maiigei in being smaller, but wider in proportion 
and in the columella being very broad at the posterior enil; from svutulnm it 
dirters in its more convex and solid shell, antl slightly convex columella. 

Internally, it is sharitly separated from both its allies by the develop- 
ment of a distinct epiphallus and tiagellum to the penis sheath. 

Description. — AxiM.VL capable of great elongation, sometimes reaching to 120 
mill., imt ellipsoidal or lenticular when contractetl, the narrow cream-coloureil I'OOT- 
KI!lNt;K forming a sharp l.ut wavy suliuiedian edge ; the r.ODV is usually of a >;ieyish- 
white or dull cream colour, but occasionally yellowish or brownish \\'\{\i a j;reciiish 
linye, spiinkled with pale brown specks ; mid-doksai, links distinct and enclosinj; 
a somewhat perceptible double row of elon<:;ate tubercles; l,.\TKK.\L (iltOOVKs well- 
marked, about two mill, apart at their origin at the peripallial furrow, the sub- 
sidiary anteriorly directed supra-lateral furrows ramify and inter.seet dorsally with 
about nine faint and shallow h.ngitudiiial niM.oves ; below the lateral grooves, the 
sub-lateral furrows _<:;ive rise to a more prc.iiounced <;ranulation. Soi.k whitish, 
tinned with yellow, ct.iivex and transversely furrowed when contracteil. M leus 
clear, with a tinge of pale yelh.w after scalding. 

SuKl.L convexly auriform, thick and soliil. with a dull brown periostracuni. which 
is iisually totally abraded from the more e.\p(.seil j.arts ; xi'ci.Krs inclined at about 
4.") ilej;. to the vertical line: col.l'MKl,l,.\ white ami j^lossy, broail p(.steiiorly and 
slightly couve.x, re.i;ularly arched but m.t continued to the anterior end of .shell or 
distinctly truncate: oUTlii: Lll' only slijihtly shouldered, hen.uth, 8 mill. : breadth, 
oh mill. ; alt. '1 mill. 



I X v.. 

CDiiiplex than in the allied species, the penis-sheath 
heiii<^ terniinatud distally hy h ccecal enlaijieiiient and 
an ahrnpt llexiire, altlioni^li liacaze-Dutliiers and othei's 
li,i;ure the male organs, of wliat tiiey ailirm to he this 
species, without these adjuncts ; lieyond tiie penis is the 
El'll'HALLUS and a well developed and soniewiiat cla- 
vate V\a\(i\'AAj\J'S\, which Lacaze-Duthiers allirms is 
eva^inated durin;; pairing ; and which is fnrnislied witii 
a slender lateral and a powerful distal I'etractor, the 
latter alHxed at the caudal extiennty of the l>ody ; the 
VA(ilNA and ATlilUM are usually rather slKjit ; the 
large oval si'EKMATHECA is attaciied to the oviduct 
near the base of the alljumen gland, and has a short, 
thick and fusiform duct ; oyoTESTis composed of small, 
loose, oblong follicles with a toituous duct. 

The ALlMENTAliV CANAE has the simple doul)ly- 
tiexeil course cluxracteristic of the genus TrsldnUd. 
The (ESOi'HAGUS is extremely short, the CKOi' whitish, 
longitudinally and transversely wrinkled, and altout 8 
mill, long, beyond which the canal is constricted ; at the 
lirst bend of the gut, the vestigial SI'OMACH shows as a 
])urplish enlargement, and receives the bile ducts from 
the ample light-brown liver; a short distance beyond the 
canal gradually narrows and runs Ijackward as the rectum to the anus. 

The RETRACTORS of the right and left tentacles are separate, quite indei)endent 
of each other, and almost symmetrically fixed near their respective foot-margins. 

The LiNtiUAL SHEATH is very long, somewhat 
com[)ressed, tapering obliquely behind, and reaching 
back nearly to the hinder extremity of the body, 
RKTK ACTORS consisting of three or four jiartially 
fused terminal muscles, secured to tiie skin of the 
left side beneath the shell, and in addition ten to 
Hfteen pairs of obli([ue ril)bon-like lateral muscles, 
arising from the left side of the hinder half of the 
sheath, the most anterior being about six null, long 
and attached to the skin on the left side of tiie mid- 
dorsal line, while the shorter and more posteihnly- 
l)laced muscles are lixed nearer and neaicr to the 
sole, to which the last few muscle-bands are h.xed, close by the straight terminal ones. 

The LINCiUAL TEETH are stout, arcuate, and distinctly barbed, with the convex- 
apical surface furnished with a somewhat distinct cutting blade, the median 

Fk;. 8. — Sexual 
rcstaccUa kuliociiiu 

(Horbhaiii, Mr. T. 

«//'.•,•■. allniiin;!! .yland ; cp. epi 
phallus;//, llagellum ; ot. ovo- 
testis ; ov. oviduct ; p.s. peuis 
sheath; r.iii. retractor muscle; 
sp. spermalheca ; s/i.d. sperm 
duct ; v.d. vas deferens. 

Fig. 9. — T^ingual sheath of 
I'cstacella. Iialiotidca, IJristol, col- 
lected by Mr. J. W. Cuiidall, illus- 
trating the retractor muscles of the 
tentacles and lingual sheath. 

Fir,. 10. — Transverse row of teeth from the odontophore of 
J'cstaccila liaiiotidca X 20, from Oxford, collected by Professor 
Poulton, photographed by Mr. T. W. Thornton. 

Fl(} IE— Isolated teeth from 
the fifth and thirteenth longitu- 
dinal rows of the radula of 1'. 
haliotidca X 40. 

apoiiliysis large and distinct, basal enlargement slight, and the transverse rows more 
acutely anguhite<l' than in the allied species. Acctording to Ijacaze-Dulhiers, the 
vestigial median teetli are discernible with a magnifying power of 200-;)()0 diameters. 
The dental formul.a- of an Oxford exani]de is 

v^rrrv ^ 38=i368 

1 The figure of the dentition given in Woodward's Manual, p. 293, and copied therefrom as that of 
Testacella liaiiotidca by many authors, is not really that species, but should be assigned to 7'. inaiigci. 

2 Monog. i., p. 262. 

TKSTAi'Kl.L A U M.lOllPK A. 

Reproduction aiul Dovelopiueut. Tlio oui;s aiv tow in mimWr. 
alK>ii( six mill. l>y tour mill., with oivmuo. 
vi'lluwish-wliito ralraivv'us sliolls. tlioy aiv »>l>- 
loiiii-oval in sliapo. but. juvonliuu" to tlu' .\1>Ik> 

lOUii-OVJU \n SH;UH\ i>ut. juvontuiij' ll» tlU' .\l>lK> 

hupuv. ovontuallv Uvomiuir somowlint aoumi- ... l^'"' \^' fK^-''^^-^^.- 

M;itt* ;»t tho polos. jiftcrvlciKXiiiion, X li 

'rilov avo ilopositoa aoop iu tlio oartli -it»Horios ^-^''y' ''"''"^J: , . 

liunuii" tho spnn^i^ mouths, and. aooonhnu to vW>svvitk»n. x i| u<Vr r>upuv>. 
iJcissi^s. liatoh iu ton or twolvo davs. tho young •^';"*"'^'= ""'• '■■''*"'^^'^ ^•" •■^'^•" 
iKMUji usually o\' a givyish oolour I'lasliod with givonish-yollow. and K'oom- 
ing ailult in tho autumn. 

Food and Habits. -'/'. /ntliittititu is markodly \iootnrnal iu habit. 
ouuM-giuii tnnn tho oarth on tho appnvu-h of twilight, ami soi/.ing n\xm tho 
worms as thoy o.xtouvl thojusolvos ln>m thoir huvnnvs ; thoy iv-ontor tlo 
oarth at davhu>ak. or hido honoath stonos i>r v>thor ohjoots, thoir mcvrkod 
rosond>lanoo wIumi oontniototl to a pohhlo assisting thoir oonooalmont. 

Aooonling to (Jassios vK: Tisohor. this spooios is U\ss gn»g^uious and miMv 
si»litary in its habits than 7' nuuhhi but is tound most oasily and t"tV([Uontly 
at ^laybloak in Maivh and April, omwling ovor tho surt'aoe ol" tho soil or 
hilling bonoath doad loavos or rubbisli. 

Geological History. —7' MilhttiJen has not Kvu found fossil in this 
country, but is tound in tho quatornary doposits at Villofnuioho. dopart- 
moi\t .Vvoyum. auvl in thosov>f 'Toulouso. in tho llauto (»arvMuio ; it hasals»> 
Uvu dotootod in tho bluo argillaooous marls noar .MontiK^llior. ami in tho 
sfvndy Unl of tho aiioioiU lako of kNvrlit'^Yo noar t'lorinont. ruy-do-lV>mo. 

Variation.- - (uassios «S; Fisohor disoriminatod tivo variotios of this siKvios. 
autl Monuiu-'randou six othors. but thoso oannot all W aoooptod. as thoso 
authors oonfusoil "/'. >rutulutn and othor s]H\"ios with /'. /i{i/ii>tt\f(<t, ivg^vuling 
thoju as siniplo A-Jiriotios only. 

.\ var. (iAaWhi is ouumoratod by iJmtoloup in Hist, tioog. Limao.. p. U». 
from t'anary Islands, and th-;ni and Bono iu Algvria. 

rjK'L-tnoys tx fok.v of-sf/f:u.. 
Var. irioona ti. Os; F.. Monv^-. Tostaoolle. isrxl, p. -IG. pi. 2.f. r»c.. 

\.u. ,(::^:,i.\t tVllonciu. Uolt. Mvi^i. />.k>I loiinvv. Mar. SI. U^k 

Smkh. thickor. right uuu-ghi muoli ililutvHt. tho ai>kx lH>ing thus to tlio h«li. 

rrt>l»al»ly tl>o T. A-M6Ar»»/«*««» PoUonora. fixuu ■rurin, T. ft«>««/»7» lUnu-g.. t'nuu tho 
l»i»uks of ttio Kihuiiih. noar lione, .Vl^vrijv, autl /". idurhnmm Uoui-ji.. t'i\>ni tlio lsh> oi 
rapii, shouUl aUo iH.* ivWgattHi to tins iuttMvstiuo aiul woU-markiHl varioiv. 

V:- V/ A 


X 3 (after l>vM)<sui$iuiX x 2 t,,»rtcr ISvHtrsut^itai). x I J (.viict l\Jk»«>cr.»). 

British Isles Koyal liotauio tJanlons, (JUusuovin. Ihdtliu. 181W> I U. K. Soharrt'. 

France r>oi\h\ui\ \,l!. vV K. . op. lit.. p. o()\ 

Italy \ ilia HoytMi. ravojvttt». nt\»r lorino ^^PoUonont, op. oit.X 

Cuba Havana. »loul»tlos.s iutiiHluoinl, IVtit {(J. Ov F.. op. oil., p. .'H*). 

Var. elongata ti. vS: R. Monog. Tostaoollo. tS.'M".. 
p. ti^ pi. 1'. f. Ok. 
SlIKl.l. lonu. thin, ami uanvw. 

France -lH>nU>au\. Conuuo ot .huulouiu \i.. «,'i F. , op. 
oil . p. ."Hn. 

K.v. 17 

■ • .7i« ittttif- 

:.*,:kv( \. , 

\ S (after 

l.;a.N.-av> >\ 

■i'i';s'rA('i;i.i. \ ii \i,in'ni(|.;.\. 

\';ir. ovalis Alu.j. T.iii.l., Ah. II. I'l.ui.v, IS,-)'., ' ^SV; 

SlIliM. sul. .■llipti,-,-.! ..1 UM.I. ],„._ in.^yv,v/«,.//a h.Uio- 

FrailCf (lM(Pu. 'I';inil., ni.. cil., n. :!!»). //./<■.« v.,. vW/.v (Mrl,•l■^I,H|,liH 

' II' I ;,]„!, Ill), l-lll.llKlll. 


V;ir. major (i. \- I''., Mmio^-. Tcsl;nvllc, IS,"))-,, p. .".O. 

Siii;i.i. MTV l.'iij^c and I liicU ; ('()l,i;Mi:i,i,.\ w iilcr, |ii'(iiiiiiii'iiluiiil lai iii.ilv. Lcii"| li 
\\\ mill. x7 mill. : all., '1\ mill. 

British Isirs Niiisfiics, llorsliaiii, Sussex, .lunc ISSO!.). \\liila,lvcr. 

p-faiicr (( 1. \ I''., i>ip. cil. ). 

i AKI l/7t>XS I.V ('(>/. (>fA- (>/■■ .IX/.M.l/.. 

V;ir. albina Mim|. Tmid., Ilisl. Mdll. I'Vancc, IS."),"), p. ;!!l. 

.\ M \i \i, w liil i.sli. 

British Isles ( iaidrn, 'rnrcinss lldli'j, Kiip'sln iii"c, I )('\ (in, .limr lo, Is.Sfi' \\ \<\ 

France 'I'ouIimisc, llaiilc ( lainnni', Sarial i({. iV I''., (i|p. cil-., |i. rid); nul uiicjil 
I'ny (Ic Diiinc, .Vnxcrf^nc (lioiiiilcl, Mull. .\ii\ cr^^in-, IS,'!(I, |(. I!)). ( la.n;;cs, jmd St. 
iJcan/illc, lli'ianll (Dnliincil, .Moll. Ilcianll, ISli,'}). Itrnniciiaii, Itasscs I'y r('>iM''('s, 
(l''olin\ r.crilliin, l''ainic ,S.( ». I''i;incc, IS77). I'ci, I >(iri|cij;iic ( !,;ic;i/,c jiiiliiirrs, 
Ilisl, 'I'csl., ISS7). 

Spain Ciliiallar, I >cc. I,S,SI!.I,\\. linislcy. 

Var. flavoscens Mu(|. T.hhI., ilisi. .Mdll. I'lancc, !s:)r», p. :\\\. 

A M M A I, ca nil i v yellow . 

France 'i'oiilousc, llaulc (iaionnc, I'ailiol (Mo(|. 'I'aml., Ili^l. .Moll. I'Vancc, 
IS.")."), |). 11 ). (lances, and SI. Itcan/illc, I Icianll- ( I )nl>i iicil. .Moll lliianll, IS(i;!), 
I'ny (Ic Dome, ,\n\('rcne ( lionillct , Moll. ,\n\er^nc, iS.'Ki, |>. I!l). |,cs Monlincaii\, 
in ahuiidoncd (piarrieH ; ;4ar(lt!ns, (ii'und Monlron^^c, and IJonr^ la, licMne ; en\ irons 
of Orsay. Si. Maiir les P'osscs, elc (Pascal, Moll. Ilanic Loire el Talis, IS7;i, p. ■_';{), 

Geographical Distribution. This species i.s kiniwn Id vmv^v. over 
wcslcrii ami soul li-wcslerii I'liiidpe . -111(1 .Ndilli AlVica,, aiid also lo cxIciK! 
iiild ( ieriiiaiiy, S\\ it/eilaiid, and Ht'ii^iiiiii, wlncli 7'. sciitiilinii or '/'. iiiitinjii 
\\.\\\ 111)1 known to do; llii.s peciili;i,i'it )■ in il.s disi liltiil ion proii.'ddy indicalcs 
ils later evolnlioii, a, (■irciiiii.s(;uiei', apitareni ly eoiiliniicd l»y its more! 
;id\aiiced iiilernal oro-juiizaXioii. 

'/'. liidiiirKicK i.s recorded rinni Western ( Jcrniany, Beloiiini, Svvit/(!rla,ii(l, 
I'Vaiiee, Italy, |)aJiiiatia and Adriatic Sta,l(!s, Corsica,, Spain, I'orl ii;;a,l, 
.\li:,('iia, M.adeiras, ;iiid CaiiiMries, hut I lie conl'iisioii that, lias ;il\vavw r('i;^n{'(| 
111 tins i^cn us makes many ol I lie specilic idenl ilic;i.l ions ol doiilii fill a,cciira,cy. 

It lias also lieeii recorded Iroiii .\ova Scot i;i and from riiiLidelplii;i, I '.S. A., 
doiilitlcss introduced. 

The distrihulioii in llie llrilisli isles is pidli;ilil\' very complele overtlie 
soul, hern and western districts of I'hii^iuiid, hut the records are incoiiiple|,e, 
;iiid many tinreliahle ; undoiihtcd exiiinph^s have, lio\\(;\'er, Ikicii I'oiiiid in 
\arioiis |»arts of I'ln^iaiid, the south of iScuUiuid, Uic suuLh and eusL ol' 
Ireland, and soiit h of Wiiles. 

Channel Isles (Jimnisc^y, lirsl, noticed in ISUI (I''. ( '. laikis, i,oii(loirs Ma;^,, 
Is;M, |i|>. -•_' I ."), and lij^s.). Ilccordcd as occiiniii;^ a,liiiiida,iil,ly in ( iiicrns(;y and on 
Sark (Cooke \ (iwatkin, (,>. .!.('., i., p. ."{.".I, IS7,S). /•/■:x/'/..t. 

Cornwall W. IJare in ^^ardcns, Newlyn, I Iciinoor, .ind I'ciizance ( Ma,r(|iiand, 
'I'laiiK. rcii/.ancc N.ll. Sue, ISSI), 

Devon S. In ;4ai(lcn ol' llic ^a,irison, I'lymoiilli ( 'riirrons .Manual, IS.'M, |i. 'J!t). 
Kiii;;slirid;4(i : in ;;ardcn, 'I'orcross I lid(d I also in ;4a,i(lcns of ,M r. .1. Mlliol I I and ol licis, 
\V. Iv liaily, Jinic 10, ISSO, Tlie Castle, 'ri\t^il«)n, Ca|)l,. L. Moore (WeM), .1. of 
.Mai., .Inly ■|S!I7, p. 'J.")). 



Devon N.- Dr. Tiirluii's ^arilcii, Uiilcfnnl ('rintunV Manual, IS.SI. ji. i'.M. (Jar- 
• loii, Manor IldiiM.'. Lynton (C. F. Hill. Fifltl, Maiuii 7. iNS.'), j). .'{(17). Hole Hay, 
Ilfrafonil.e, Mairli 1SS6 (.1. H. 1!. Tonilin, J. of Condi., v., ]>. 181, 1.SS7). 

Somerset S. — (laick'n.s, Taunton (Tate, l>rit. Moll.. 1860, )>. SO). 

Somerset N. — Jterkinjitun, H. Franklin r.usonts (Wol)lj, -Jouui. of Mai., Doc. 
1S!I7. ]> 40). 

Wilts. S. — l'roi|Uont at Devize.«, also Trowl'iidge (J. E. Vize, AViits. Maj,'., ix., 
No. ■_'7, i>. '-'78, 18G0). CHAXNEI.. 

Dorset — Mr. Thompson's orclianl house, Weynionth (J. V. Mansel-Pley<l(>Il, 
Concli. of Dorset, ]>. 111. 188.")). ]\lonie\ ideo, Chiekerell, N. liiehanlson (.1. C. Man- 
sel-l'lcydell. Moll. Dorset, 18<»8, p. 2). Aliiindant in my -anlen at Slallni.lm- (11. J. 
.lohnslon La\is, Se. (Jos., 1878. y. 20!)). The specimens recoiiled from Down House, 
IMandfonl, liy J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, in Proc. Dorset Soc. for 1S85, and elsewhere, 
are 7'. iiKHdiii Fer. 

Sussex W. — Plentiful in .\luiau"s Nursery, llor.shnm. May 1880 I T. Whitakcr. 
(Jardcn. h'atham, near ("liiciiester, Au,y. 30, is'ilU : W. .lellery. ' 

Sussex E. — Not rare in uiU'ilens at Lewes, duly 26, 1883 ! T. S. Hillman. 
IJri^hton, P. I>. Sharpel (Pritish Museum. 1886). Garden, Park crescent, Prighton, 
187t' (P. >F Christy, Zool., Aug. 188U, p. 367). TirAMFS. 

Kent E. — ^laidstone: gardens, London roail ; garden, adjoining St. Michaels 
(^hurch : cemetery about one mile .south-east of the town and near Tovil (Station 1 
Hubert Elgar, July 18!)l. 

Geographical Distribution 

Testacclla haliotidea Drap 

Recorded Distribut 
Probable Range 


♦ /7 

Kent W. — Shoreham Vicarage, Sevenoaks, K. Ashin>;ton PuUen (Webb, J. of 
Mai., 18i»7, ]). 2')). Kelsey Park. Peckeidiam, ^Lark Webster (Webb, J. of Mai., 
1897, p. 4!)). Not rare in the ganlen of Holv Trinity Vicarage, Woolwich, Aug. 
188!) : .1. W. Horsley. 

Surrey — Asparagus beds, Nutlield Priory, .1. Mollat : Surrey House. Leather- 
lieail, C. A. Prigg: Sutton Common, Ma.\well T. Masters; 11, Harrow road, Ea-st 
Dorking, C. .1. Howell; and Kew (Jardens (Webb, J. of ^Lll., Dec. 1897, p. 49). 
Wray Park. Keigate (G. S. iK: E. Saunders, 1861). 

Essex S. — Widford Lod^e. Widford, E. Hanimoiul (Webb, ,1. of Mai., duly 
1897. p. 2r>). 


Essex N. SllsLcd, JSasil F, May ; Colclicfster, W. Pattuison (Wclili. .1. of Mai., 
July 1.S07, !•. -i.J). 

Herts. -Al)iiii(Iaiit ill uarWeii, Manor House;, llitcliin, May IS'.H)] V.W. Phillips. 

Middlesex — (iaidcn, Adelaide Poad, Kegeiit's Park, .Sept. 1807, J. E. Ilaitinj^ 
(\V. Jell'ery, ISScS !) ( Jieenliouse iu Williauis and Sou's Nuiseiy, Upper IJolloway, 
.fail. 1S!)7 I (J. K. (lude. Itoval llortieultuial Society's (lardens, ('liis\vi(d<, K. Miller 
(\Vel)h, .]. of Mai., Dee. 1S!)'7. p. 4!l). Ixlnid-e, M.-iy 181)1 ! C. II. Monis. 

Berks. — l^'ariiii^don ! T. Uo^eis, LSS.l. 

Oxon. — ({ardeu, Wykeliaiii House, Oxford, Pel). 1887 ! P. P. PouUoii. ('al)l»a;;e 
Held, near .St. Cleiiieut's Cliurcli, O.xford, 1887! S. S])encer Pearce. Garden on Head- 
iimlon Hill (.S. Spencer Pearee, Zool., Sep. 1883, p. 803). IJlenlieiiii I'alace (hardens, 
freipieiit, n. Rogers (W. !). Crick, March 1885). Middleton Park, Pieester, T. Trol- 
lope (\Vel)l), J. of Mai., Dec. 18'J7, p. 49). am;l/.1. 

Bedford—.Miuiidant in the south of the county, P. \V. Phillips, May 18!)(). 

Suffolk E. — (hardens. \\'ool\iMstone I*ark, S(!])t. 1887! •). Shejipard. Wood 1 nidge, 
S. .Spencer Pen.rce. May 1S8G. Dallinghoo Pectory, P. .Xshington Pulleii (Weld), 
.Fourii. of Mai., July 1897. p. -•")). Plaxiiall. (J. T. Pojie ! (t'arleton (Jieeiie, SuH'olk 
list, 1891). 

Suffolk W. — Pury St Edmund's, Mr. Norgatc (Carleton (heune, Sullolk list, 

Norfolk E. — Ahundant iu Mackie's Nursery (Jarden. Norwich ; garden, Ipswich 
road. Norwich (.1. P. Pridgiiian, Zool., hS.lO. p. 49). .Avishaiii, near Norwich (Pearce 
iV- Maylield, J. of Conch. ,' .July 1894, ]). 393). Yelverton, iMay 1891 ! S. S. Pearce. 

Norfolk W.— Diddiugtoirilall, Prandon. A. Tanner (Wehh, J. of Mai., .July 
1897, p. -2.3). .s-A7 7.;a>x 

Gloucester W. — (harden, Carrville, Alexandra Park, Pristol, May 1888 !. J. \V. 
Cundall. Kiiigsdowu Parade, W. W. .Stoddart ; Clifton Gardens, Miss Jones ; and 
at Hampton I'ark, rare (Leijinor's Bristol list, 1875, p. 280). 

Monmouth — Plentiful at Mathem, near Chepstow, April 20, 1892 ! E. J. Lowe. 

Hereford — Very rare, Purghill, T. A. Chapman (A. E. Poycott, Sci. (Joss., April 

1892, p. 78). (Jardeu, Proomy Hill. Hereford (Poycott and Powell, Woolhope Nat. 
Field Cluh, Oct. 1899, p. 24)." 

Worcester— Worcester, Oct. 30, 1888! S. Smith Hastings ; Diglish House, Wor- 
cester, S. Taylor ; also Elmlield, London road, ^^'()rcestel•, C. H. Wehher ; and 
Hagley Hall^ Stourhridge. D. K. Dixon (W. M. Wehb, Journ. of Mai, July 1897, 
p. 2.-.).' 

Stafford — Two found hy T. Kirkliy, of Hanfonl, near Trentham, Oct. 1897 ! also 
found hy Mr. Ni(dclin in his garden at Trentham, Sept. 1897 (-T. K. 15. Maselield, J. of 
Conch., Jan. 1898, p. 8). 

Salop. — Hatton (haiige, near .Shifnal, and I.,il]esliall Ahhev, near Newport, T. C. 
Eyton, 1862 (W. E. Beekwith). " trfnt 

Lincoln N. — Garden, Highlield. Gain.djorough. Apl. 22, 189S ! F. M. linrton. 

Notts.— Carlton Hall, Carlton-on-Trent, Louis Pope (Wehh, .1. of Mai., Dec. 
1897, [). 49). Highheld House, JJeestou (Dodd, Brit. Assoc, Handbk., 1893, p. 71). 
Intnxluced from Horsham, Sussex, into the gardens of llainworth Lodge, Mansfield, 
in June 18S(J. by Mr. J. Whitaker. Wellieck Abbey, 1879, K. A. Kolfe (C. T. Mus- 
son, Midi. Nat. ,"^ Feb. 1879). Mersey. 

Cheshire— Arley Hall, Northwich. J. V. Smith (W.M.Webb, Journ. of Mai., July 
1897, p. 2.-)). 

Lancashire S. — Clayton Hall, Accrington, J. Poulter (Wcdib, .1. of ^Mal., Dec. 
1897, p. 49). Near Crumpsall, 1862, T. ({lover (Melvill, Handbook Pnt. As.soc, 
Manchester, 1887. p. 84). Knowslev, near Liverpool (C()llini;e. .1. of Mai., June 24. 

1893. p. 148). ■ ' HUMBER. 
York S.E.— Swailes' Nursery (larden. JJeverley ! .J. D. Putterell, 1883. 

York S. W. — Saudbeck Park, Potherham, (4. Summers, and Wath-on-Dearne, 
W. McKeigii Jones (Webli, J. of Mai., July 1897, p. 25). Orchard-house, P'ernie- 
hurst, Shipley. March 1892 ! E. Self. ' SOUTH WALES 

Pembroke— Tenby, A. (J. Stubbs, Feb. 1896. 

8(^ 'OTLA NT). II -ES T LOU X A .YDS. 

Renfrew— Woodside (iardeus, Paisley, Chas. Hogg, Oct. 1898. 

Kirkcudbright —(Common in Corl)erry Nurseries, Maxwelltown, April 1890! R. 
^t!!'''' ''-■'-'• EAST HIGHLANDS. 

Stirling — Brentham Park, Stirling, D. Pruce (W. ]\L Webb, Journ. of Mai., July 
1897, p. 25). 


IllEL A XT). L E/ys tf.r. 

Dublin— tlieeiiliouse, Trinity College IJotaiiic (lanlciis, Diililiii, W. V. Biirlirid^ro, 
1S!)5 (i;. F. Scharir. Iiisli Nat.'. IMaicii IS!).!, p. SO); Royal ISotaiiic (iaitk-iis. (Ua;-- 
iieviii, Dublin, W. F. Moore, 1895 ! (K. F. Scliarll", Jan. '1902). mcxsti-r. 

Cork N.— Town s'anlen.s, You<;lial, ISSa, Miss ISall ! (U. F. Scharir, 18S8); gardoii, 
r.andon, ( i. .). Allnian ; also at Vosterl)eri;-, Councillor Reeve's residence, Cork, by 
1). Muri'ay, the <^ardener, who hail observed them for several years past (J. D. 
lluniiihreys, Cork Fauna, 1S4."), j). 2). 

Occurs on (Jernian territory. Imt only in the western region. Metz, Lotliringcn. 
larger than the examples from south-west France ((lassies iK: Fischer, IS.jO. j). (iU). 
I'^ormerly found in Mons. Simon's garden, Planticres, but not in recent years (Meyer, 
Naciit. beutsch. Mai. (ies., 1S7G, p. .S(3). Castle Cardeii, lleidelljerg, l>ailen (Daniel, 
I,) J.C.,i., p. 11.3, 1876). 


In gardens at Fonds-de-Letie, near Dinant, M. Julien Deby (Colbeau, Ann. S. 
Mai. Belg., 1865, p. 109). 


Ain — Rare, Sathonay, Rillieux, Aliribel (Locard, Moll, de I'Ain, 1S81, p. I.")). 

AUier — Rare by the Chateau of Montgarnand, near Mouiins (Wattebled, J. 
de Concli., 1881, ])'. 327). 

Calvados — Caen, in many gardens, notably the Botanic Gardens ; Colleville-sur- 
Orne, E. Desloiigchamps (A. de FHopital, Miill. Caen, 18.59.1). ^)- 

Charente Inferieure— Rochelle, la Faille in 17.)4 (Fer., Hist. :Nroll., 1819, p. 94). 

Deux Sevres— Niort by Cuiliemcau in 17-34 (Fer., Hist. Moll., 1819, p. 94) 

Dordogne — Cass. t!v; F'isch., 18.)6, Ferigord (Lacaze-Duthieis, Hist. Test., 1887). 

Drome- Environs of Crest, Faure-Biguet ; jMontelimar, Loriol, etc (Draji., Hist. 
Moll., 1805, J). 1.52); Wood at St. Yincent-sur-Charpey. alt. 700 metres (G. Sayn, 
Cat. Moll. Drome, 1888. p. 1.30). 

Finistere — Commoner than T. itirinr/cl in the botanical and other gardens, Brest; 
^loulin-iJlanc ; especially comnH)n in the cabl)age-liel(Is near the guaid house of 
Fort Bouguen (Daniel, J. de Conch., 1SS3, p. 376). Common in gardens at Lander- 
neau (Bourg., Mai. IJret., 1860, ]>. 87). Rosc()ff(L,acaze-Duthiers, Hist. Test., 1887). 

Gard — Nimes, Pont-St. -Esprit, Auzon, Ser^■as (Clement, Moll. Card, 1878). 

Garonne, Haute — St. Bertrand de Comminges, Toulouse (lioubee, t. Fagot, 1880), 
als(t at Cierii, near Chignac road, common in garden at (iand, near Cierp, .M. J'aren- 
teau (St. Simon, 1876). 

Gers— Common in gardens and woods at Audi, Lectoure, r>ivcs, Duran, Mon- 
taut, etc. (Du]niy, iNIoll. Gers, 1843, p. 10). Old Tower, Barbotan, rare (Dunuy, -J. de 
Conch., 1877, p. 20). 

Gironde— Botanical Gardens, Boideaux, also at Ambares (Des Mouiins, Moll. 
Gironde, 1827, Ji. 7). 

Herault — Montpellier (Dra[(arnaud, Hist. Moll., 180.5, ]>. 1.52), Viilencuve, .St. 
Martin-de-liondres, Bedarieux, etc. (Dul)rueil, Moll. Herault, 1863, p. 4). 

Isere— St. Fond, M. Faujas (Drap., Hist. M(dl., 180,5, p. 1,52). 

Jura — Old cemetery of Eons le-Saunier (Ogerien, Hist. Nat. Jura, 1863, p. ,506). 

Landes — (( iratelouj), Dist. (!eog. Limac, 18,5.5). 

Loire, Haute — Very .-ibundant (I'.-iscal, Moll. Haute Loire, 1873, p. 23). 

Loire Inferieure-- Croisic, M. de Querhoent, 1779 (Fer., Hist. Moll., 181!), p. 94). 
Common at Clcons and at Le I'lessis, Frossay, also in gainlens at Bois-Branlard, in 
Chantenay, at the Folies-Chaillon, and Toutes-Toies, all near Nantes (Cailliauil. 
Cat. Moll. I>oire-Infcr. , 186.5, ]). 206). Culti\;iteil ground especially cabbage-gardens 
at Croisic, and at village of Hatz (Boiiig. , Mai. Bret., 1860, p. 28). 

Lot— (Fcnissac, t. (Jassies & Fischer, 18.56). 

Lot et Garonne — (Ferussac, Hist. Moll., 1819, \>. 94). 

Maine et Loire — Angers, in IJotanic (larden, at la Chalonere, Ies Fourneaux, 
etc., Dampierre. Montreuil-Bellay, Saumur, Done, Bcaulieu, etc. (Millet. Moll. 
Maine et Loire. 18.54, ]). 13). 

Manche -St. L(5 (R. le Clerc, Not. Mem. Docum. Soc. M.anche, xv., ]>. 145). 

Morbihan — Common in gardens at Roche- Bernard; Bn'iel, near Muzillac ; \'annes, 
and in the Park, Roguedas (Bourg., Mai. Bret., 1860, i>. 45). 

Nord— \'aleiicienncs (I'.audon, ,1. de C, .Inly 1884, p. 210). 

Oise^-Ciarden of Madame No, Beauvais, 1879 (Baudon, J. deC, July 1884). 

Plate II. 

Distribution of T. haliotidea Drap. 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 



(Jhanuel Isles 


1 C'oruwall W. 
*2 (Joruwall E. 

3 Uevou S. 

4 Devon N. 

5 Somerset 8. 
ti Somerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts 8. 

9 Dorset 
lU Isle of Wight 

11 Hauts S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex E. 


15 Kent E. 
IB Kent W. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S. 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 
•21 Jiiddlesex 
■22 Berks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 


25 Suffolk E. 

26 Suffolk W. 

27 Korfolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 Cambridge 

30 Bedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 Northampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester W. 

35 Jlonraouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 

S'lirii wAi.iis 

41 Glamorgan 

42 Brecon 

43 Radnor 

44 Carmarthen 
4."> I'emljroke 

46 Cardigan 


47 Montgomery 

48 Merioneth 
' 49 Carnarvon 

50 Denbigh 
61 Flint 
52 Anglesey 


.53 Lincoln S. 

54 Lincoln N. 

55 Leic. & Kutld. 

56 Notts. 

57 Derby 


58 Cheshire 
.59 Lancashire S. 

60 LaucashireMid 


61 S.E. York 

62 N.E. York 

63 S.W. York 

64 Mid W. York 

65 N.W. York 


66 Durham 

67 Northumb. S. 

68 Cheviotland 


69 Westmorland 
and L. Uincs. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of .Man 


72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 

74 Wigtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Renfrew 

77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

80 Roxburgh 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 


85 Fife& Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 Perth S.&Clkn 

88 Mid Perth 

89 Perth N. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 Aberdeen 8. 


93 Aberdeen^. 

94 Banff 

95 Elgin 

96 Easteruess 


97 Westerness 

98 Main Argyle 

99 DuMiliarton 
luO Clyde Isles 

101 Cantire 

102 Ebudes S. 

103 Ebudes Mid 

104 Eliudes N. 


105 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E. 

108 SutherlandW. 

109 Caithness 


110 Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shetlands 



113 Derry 

114 Antrim 

115 Down 

116 Armagh 

117 Monaghan 

118 Tyrone 

119 Donegal 

120 Fermanagh 

121 Cavan 


122 Louth 
12:! Xleath 

124 Dublin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexford 

128 Carlow 

129 Kilkenny 

130 Queen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 

135 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 Mayo E. 

138 Mayo W. 

139 Galway W. 

140 Galway E. 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 

143 Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S. 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork N. 

147 Cork S. 

148 Kerry 


Probable Range. 
^ Recorded Distribution. 



Distribution verified by the Authors. 


Pas-de-Calais— Boulogne (Baudon, J. deC, July. 1S84). 

Puy-de-D6me — Coiuinoii in Puy-<le-I)niiie (BouiUet, Moll. Auvergne, 1836, p. 19). 

Pyrenees, Hautes — I)u]iny (Gassies X: Fisclior, 1S56). 

Pyrenees, Basses — (ianlons and along the ditdies, Billicres, rave (Merniet, Hist. 
:M<)11. I'yr. Occ, 1S43, p. IS). Braniepaii (Folin & Beril., Mai. S. (). France, 1S77). 
Bayonne (Pollonera, Boll. Mns. Zool. Torino, ISSS, p. 2). 

Pyrenees Orientales— Oleron, INIassot (Gassios t^' Fischer, 1856. p. 50). Anielie- 
les-Bains, ISS?, R. I). l)arl)ishire ! Banynls (Lacaze-Duthiers, Hist. Test., 18S7). 

Rhone-Lyoii, M. Lyonnet (Ferussac, Hist. Moll., 1819, p. 94). In hilly regions, 
Mont d"( )r, St. Symphorien d'Ozon, Caratte, etc. (Locard, Mai. Lyonnaise, 1877, }>. 6). 

Saone et Loire — Not rare in si)ring and autumn in calcareous earth in the hilly 
districts ((irognot, Moll. SaAne et Loire, 186.3. p. 9). 

Seine— dardins du Lnxemhonrg and Val-du-Grace, llavmond (Gassies & F'ischer, 
1856\ Jardin des Plantes (Lacaze-Duthiers, Hist. Testaoelle, 1887). 

Seine Inferieure — First observed in France, at Dieppe, in 1740, hy Duguc. 

Tarn— Sorcze, M. Dnclos (Drai>arnand, Hist. Moll., 1805, p. 152).' 

Tarn et Garonne— (Fcr., Hist. .Moll.. 1819, p. 94). t)uercy (Lacaze-Duthiers, 
Hist. Test., 1887). 

Vendee — Environs of Fontenay (Letourneaux-. 1869, p. 10). He de Noirmontier 
(Lacaze-Duthiers, Hist. Test., 1887). 

Vienne— Goninion on chalky, arid, and stony soils at La Vergne, at the (irange- 
au-Kontlean. and in gardens at Poitiers (Mauduyt, Moll. Vieinie, 1839, j). 25). 

Enumerated for Geneva (Jurine, Stat. (Jeneve. 1824). 

Bastia, Blauner (Requien, Cat. Moll. Corse, 1848. p. 43). 


Not rare in the ditidics of Castle St. Angelo, Rome (Statuti, Bull. Soc. Mai.. 
1882, p. 15). Villa Doyen, Cavoretto near Torino, Piedmont (C. Pollonera, Boll. 
Mns. Zool. Torino, March 31, 1899). Sorrento, Campania, ^NIcAndrew Collection, 
Cambridge (Brockton Tomlin, 1886). 


Istria, at Trieste (E.v. Martens, 1888). Goritz. at Giirz (Heynemann, Jahrb. Deutscli. 
]Mal. Ges., June 1885, p. 254). Dalniatia, Schrockinger (Jetrr., Brit. Conch., 1869, 
v., p. 156). 


Spain— Ma<lrid (Graells, Moll. Espafia. 1846, p. 1). Asturias (Fischer, Manuel de 
Conch., 1883, i., p. 202). In Catalonia, at Barcelona (Bolill, Moll. Barcelona, 1879); 
Ulot antl P.osch deTosca (Salvana. ^NIoll. Catal., 1S88); (ierona, (Chia, Moll. Gerona, 
188(;) ; and at Valvidrera (Fagot, Mai. Valvidrera. 1884). In OM Castile, at Sarria 
(Martorell y Pena, Col. Conch., 1888) ; and in Andalusia, at Gibraltar, Dec. 1884, 
J. W. Horsiey ! 

Balearic Isles — Majorca, and in Minorca at Malion, San Cristol)al and Fer- 
rarias (Hidalgo. J. de Conch., 1878). 

Portugal— (Hidalgo, J. de Conch., 1877, p. 254). 

Algeria— Bougie (Webb ^: Berthelot, Hist. Nat. Canaries. 1834. p. 48). Philippe- 
ville and Bona, not common (Morelet. Moll. Port., 1845, p. 49). 

Canary Isles — Gran Canaria (R. Boog Watson, J. de Conch., 1876, p. 221). 
Madeira — (Jardens. F^inchal, said to have now disappeared (R. Boo"^'- Watson 
J. de Conch., 1876. p. 221). 

Canada — One specimen in a greenhouse in Nova Scotia (Binney, 1878, p. 27). 

United States— Lincoln Park. Philadelphia (F. C. P>aker, Nautilus, Sei)t. 1901, 
p. 59). ^'ery ideiitiful, Roxborough. near Philadelphia (H. A. Pilsbry, May 1894). 

1 ( 


Testacella scutulum G. !>. Sowcrliy. 

l.S-23 Testacella scutulum Sow., (kmi. Siiclls, jil. l,")!l. II'. :U\. 

lS-2(i - hisHlrulii Itisso, Hist. Nat. Europe Meriil., pi. 4, ]>. TjS 

IS.").") — (/'tlfo/iroi'iiirin/is (Jrateloup, Dist. (ieog. Liuiacieiis. p. 

IS.").") — uiKiiiiri (irat., Dist. (leo,!-'. Liuiac, ]>. 1."). 

IS,").') — liiiliotUh-a viiv. sriffiihi/it Moip-Taud., Moll. 
l>iit. Coiu-h., i., 1S(J2, p. 14"), i>l. ."">, t. 7. 

1S")6 — mcdii-friiiji/i Tappiiii;, Zool., ]>. ,310."). 

1S()1 — Uunri;'., iJev. Maj,'. Zool. 

ISdl — /Hcrhiolii liduri;., IJt'v. Ma^'. Zoo)., p. i)17. 

IST.'i — //f.s/yti/ Issel, Auu. Mus. Civifo, (Jenova, \t. : 

ISSO — trillifinisitom Novill, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 101 

lS;iS 2\:sfr(rc//n.s- sriifiifKs Lesson, Kev. Zool., i., p. 24!). 

l'"ianoe, ii.,l>. •>'^ : .li'll'rej's, 

■ It, 


I. I-.). 
l.S, f. I. 

^^X^a^^^-ty^ ^^tttT^ 

ISTORY. — Ti'xtacelld scutulum {xcutithuii, a little 
sliield) was first found in a garden in luMuiin^ton 
road, Jjanibeth, Surrey, by ^Ir. (J. B. Sowerliy, who 
figured and descrihcd it in his "Genera of Heeent 
and Fossil Shells," published in 1,S2.']. 

The superficial resendilanee of this species to 
hdHotldea, and the complete ignorance at this i)eriod 
of its striking structural peculiarities, soon led to 
Sowerby's species being univei'sally regarded as 
oidy a slight variety o'i haliotidca, until hSSS, when 
the ])ublica,tion of Mr. Charles Ashford's accurate 
drawings of its internal organization delinitely es- 
tal)lished its sjiecific status. 
In our English text-books, Tc^tacclld scat alum or Ti'staccUn Ik Wk it idea 
are indiscriminately tigured as representing the Latter species. Dr. Uwyn 
JetTreys, in his " British Conchology," though undoubtedly representing 
T. haliitt'iih'd in vol. i., at f. (!, pi. .^, yet figures albeit roughly the shell of 
T. sciifiilinn at f. 7, and also in the Supplement to his work. 

Lovell Reeve, in his " British Land and Freshwater Mollusks," gives as 
the generic figure on }>. 27 a copy of Sowerby's original figure of Te^facelhi 
arittiiliim, but at ]i. .'lO, under T. Jn(Ii(ittdfi<(, figures an animal which can- 
not with ])ropriet3' l)e referred to any of our British sj)ecies of Ti'.<t(((rlli(, 
alth(uigh the figures of the shell are good representations of of T. 

Tc^t'Uclla scHtiilnm maybe regarded as linking together TiMdcAlu IiuVid- 
t'ldi'n and T<'St<((rII(i m((ii<i<'i, as, although curiously similar to T. Indiotidcit 
in sonu^ external jmiuts, it is yet not so ailvanciMJ in its internal structure, 
which in certain im|ii)rtant res])ects has moie aftinity with th;it of 7'. 
HHfiufr/' : the soutli iMiropean examples appro.ximate still more clo.-;eIy in 
showing fewer latei'nl muscles to the lingual sheath than arc normally 
pre.sent in Biitish e.xam[»les. 

Diagnosis. — 7Wf((cella i^cHtuhun may be readily dilferentiated from its 
congeners when the animal is extended by the continent origin of the 
lateral grooves, a trille in advance of, but joined with, the ]teiip.illial fur- 
row : the usually yellow cohuir of the body, and the smaller shell, which is 
Hat or even concave on the upper surface, with a bi-oad, angularly concave, 
and almost truncate colunudla. 

Internally, it dilfers from linVntt'nh'tt in the ab.senee of the llagelbim to 
the ]>enis-slieath, and from ))i<iuijn by the jtos.sessioii of numerous lateral 
muscles to the lingual sheath. 



Description. — Animal tawny-yellow, more or less freely speckled with l>rown, 
esjiecialiy on the back ; .soi.K and l'"OOT-Fi;iNriE, most \i\'i(l iieartlie 
tail ; LATEliAL GUOOVKS ilistinct and ori,t;inatiiig in a common depression in advance 
of, hnt connecteil with, the iierijiallial fnrrow ; the mid-doisal scnlptnie so distinct 
in y. iitKiifjei is only very faintly indictatcd. When contracted it nsnally assnmes a 
semi-glo1)ose form somewhat dissimilar to the lenticular sliape of hdHntldcu or the 
short, cylindrical aspect of inmii/cl. 

Shell narrowly auriform, ui'i'Ei! side Hat or even actnally concave, lines of 
oiiowTll comparatively line, I'lOKiosruAcu.M rnsty-hrown, and more persistent than 
in iiirnii/riov h((Iiotulc((, the colour showing internally through the thin outer margin 
of shell ; NUCLEUS ne.arly central, placed at an angle of 60 to 70 deg. to the vertical 
line of tlie siiell ; columella glossy-white, broad and angularly concave, terminat- 
ing abruptly at the anterior margin of the shell. I.engtii, 7 mill. ; the greatest 
width, about 4 mill., being about the middle of the shell ; alt., \h mill. 

Intern.vlly, the alimen'I'Ahy system displays a short (EsornAcius, which 
opens into Ji somewhat brownish CHOI', 12 or 14 mill, long, which shows longitudinal 
whitish stripes, due to longitudinal jilaits within ; the jiaired white S.VLlVAltY CLANDS 
are 5 or 6 mill, long, attached to its sides, ami do not blend together ; the VESTKJI.Vl 
S'i'oM.VCll is of a pur])lis!i colon)', about o mill, in iliam., and is ])laced at lirst bend 
of gut, just l)efore receiving the stout and white l)ile ducts ; the (iUT, which is very 
thick and firm, traverses the digestive gland, afterwards narrowing into a slender 
rectum, which opens as usual on the right siile beneath the shell. 

The i;Ei'i;oi)U<"riVE okuans simple; oyotestis Hesh-coloured with long acini 
and imbedded within digestive gland ; DUCT whitisii, convoluted throughout, and 
entering the albumen gland about the middle, 
from whence to outlet it is fused to gland ; 
ALBUMEN fJLANI) large and ))road, oclireous 
or reddish amber ; OVISpehmatoduct wide 
and compressed, the two channels well united ; 
OYIUUCT in many broad, close-set plaits ; 
sperm-duct broad throughout and of a buff 
colour ; V.VCINA very long, slender below, 
much dil.ated above and aliruptly doubly- 
Hexed ; si'EKMATllECA globular,' reddish- 
brown, with dull white mottlings when 
mature, closely attached to the middle of 
ovispermatoduct ; stem of s])ermatlieca com- 
paratively short and bent, slender above and 
gradually enlarging to base ; V.vs DEFERENS 
long and simple, entering the penis sheath at 
its ajiex close to the retractor ; PENIS SHEATII 
long and opa(iue-white, narrow at base, but 
increasing in diameter as it passes u])wards, 
the ujiper half broad and rigidly doubly 
Hexed ; RETRACTOR very long and ribbon-like, passing freely over the dorsal surface 
of visceral mass an<l aflixed near shell at caudal end of body ; atrium veiy short. 

The RETRACTORS of the tentacles are shorter than those of T. hnlinf'uhti or T. 
maugri, and more exactly symmetrically in their points of attachment to the integu- 
ment close to tlH> junction of the sole 
with tlie sides of the body; they run 
free, as usual, along each side of the 
lingual siieath, dividing into the usual 
two branches for upper and lower ten- 
ta(des before reaching brain ring ; the 
bands are ribbon-like and of nearly 
uniform width throughout, but sjireaci- 
ing at the roots for lii-mer hold. 

The LINGUAL SHEATH is enormous, 
forming a 'lii'm, tougii, ])eaily body, 
anterimly nearly cylindrical, Imt tajjcr- 
ing oil' behind into a very powerful 
muscle, composed of two, three, or four ])artially imlepemlent muscles, ;is in 7'. 
■jiiaiirfei, and having in addition its hinder half attaciied laterally to the skin of tiie left 
side by a series of live to ten jtairs of conspicuous muscular bands running jiarallel 
to eacli other and fixed at independent points. 

Fig. 21. — Sexual organs of T. scutiihimY. \\. 

(Chiswick, Mr. .S. C. Cockerell). 

nlh.i^. albumen gland ; ot. ovotestis ; en'. 

oviduct ; f.s. penis sheath ; r.m. retractor 

muscle ; .?/. spermatheca ; s/>.(i. sperm duct ; 

T.(L vas deferens. 

Fig. 22.— Lingual sheath of T. scntultiiu x li, 
Hornsey, collected by Mr. H. Wallis Kew-, illustrat- 
ing the retractor muscles of the tentacles and 
lingual sheaih. 



Tlie UNGUAL TKKTII arc very l<»ii,i,', comiiaralively sIcikIit. slij;litly cnrvcil, njiox 
(listinotly l)arlK'(l or liamalo, tlio iiieiliaii ajioidiysis iiiarkodly nearer the liasal end, 
and tlie teetli a]ii)arently delieicnt of tlie enttin,<;' liliule. present npon tlie convex side 

Fir.. 23. — Transverse row of teeth from the oclontophore of 
Testacclla sciiluluiii X 20, from Chiswick, collected liy Mr. S. C. 
Cockerel! ; figured from a photograph. 

Fig. 24. — Isolated teeth from the 
fifihand thirteenth rows 
of the radula of 7'. scutuluvi x 40. 

Fig. 25.— Egg of T. 
hisiilcata X l.|, (after 
Gassies & Fischer). 

of the teeth of haliotUha at tlie apical end. Tlie allele formed liy tlie conver<,fence of 
the rows of teeth towards the centre of the radiila is more aente than in T. inriiir/ri, 
Imt less than in /in/lofidra, anil the vestigial median row of teetli can oecasionally 
be discerned. 

The dental formula of a Chiswick specimen, collected by Mr. 8. C. Cockerell. is 
y + "+"+" + y X 46=1564. 

Reproduction and Development. — Tlic cretaceous eA'cjs of this 
species are deposited niidcrgrouiid, and are not numerous, they are distinctly 
oval in shape, about five mill, long by three mill. Inroad, white or very pale 
pink when first deposited, soon, however, becoming of a 
brownish-white colour. They have been found in this , C^ 

country as early as February. Hatching takes place in 
from twenty to thirty-six days, the young attaining full 
growth in about eighteen months. 

Gassies cK: Fischer describe the egg of 7\ liii^nlcafd as round and about the 
size of No. 2 shot, but their figure has a distinctly oval outline, similar to 
that of T. scutulum. 

Habits. — Gassies & Fischer remark, under the heading of T. hisulcata, 
that this species is less in the habit of leaving its subterranean retreat than 
its congeners, and ascrilje its less fre(:j[uent capture to this cause. Mr. Kew, 
however, remarks that he somewhat frecpiently sees T. scutulum during the 
spring and autumn months crawling about in the early morning, or even at 
niid-flay, at the foot of the low garden-walls in the north London subtirbs. 
The sluggish movements and the nsual tawny colour of the liody tend to be 
protective upon stony soils and gravelled garden pathways. 

Parasites and Enemies. — Mr. H. E. Quilter was fortunate in detect- 
ing u})on 7'. srufuluiK, from Belvoir, examples of a species of mite, which 
were evidently parasitic, and which he describes as having a round, hairy 
and shiny white body, with four pairs of five-jointed, hairy, ambulator)^ legs 
terminated by small claws, nunitli with cephalic appendages or c1iolicer;t\ 

Geological History.— No re- 
cord of its uccurrence in the fossil 
state is known to me, but I do not 
hesitate to include with this species 
the T. u-iUi(ini^hiiKi Nevill, and 
the 7\ auricuhifd (Jass. & Fisch. 
The T. trillliims/(in<c is from the 
Holocene conglomerate of the caves 
of Mentone, near gorge of St. Louis, 
in the Alpes Maritimes, the author 
differentiating it from 7'. hisulcdfa by its almost vertically prominent central 
apex and its regular, close, and deep sulcations. The T. (nirkul'ita G. iS: F. 


Fig. 26. Fi 

Fig. 26. — Testacclla ivilliaitisiana N 
(after Nevill). 


evill, X 4 
Testacclla auriculata Gass. & Fisch., 

X 3J (after Gassies & Fischer). 


seems to be merely an al)normal specimen found fossil at Vendonie in the 
department of Loir-et-Cher, described by its author as diffevino- from all its 
coni^eners by its solid and Hat auriculate shell and thickened margins. 

Variation. — This species, which lias been misunderstood almost from the 
time of its discovery, and whose specific characters are even yet not univers- 
ally appreciated, has in its various forms been described again and again as 
new by ditferent authors, and although Gassies & Fischer and Mo(iuin- 
Tandon expressly allude to T. scufulnm, it is not at all clear that they had 
the true T. scitfuliim before tliem. 

In this country T. t^ciifulum is moderately constant in the form of its 
shell and tlie colour of its body, but abroad this consistency of type is not 
so fully maintained, if the allocation, as suggested by Simroth, of c(impanyol 
and other forms to the scutuJiim series be correct. 

r.iR/A'r/ONS IN FORnr of shell. 
Var. pecchiolii Bourg., Rev. et Mag. Zool., ISGl, p. h\l. 

Animal yellowisli, Avith a multitude of minute <;ieyisli dots 
on tlie liack ; lateral furrows sopai'ato at their oliuiu at- the iieri- 
pallial groove. 

SuKiJ. narrower and more elont;ate; COLUMKLLA not trun- 
eate and less arcuate; ATKX rather pointeil and more detached. 
Length, 6 mill. ; breadth, ;H mill. 

TfsitirvlUi jiecrltiolii is the T. haj'iolhlm of the older Italian ^ 

autliors, and is essentially an Italian form ; most of the Italian Fig. 28. — Trsta- 

records of T. haliotidca are possihlv more i>roi)erlv referred to this <"'''''''' /'ecchioin Hgt. 
variety. ' ^ ^ ■ x J (after nouv^.). 

Italy — Found in the garden of Signor Peccliioli, at Settignano, near I'Moi-eiiee ; 
also at Pisa, Bolofjna, and Rome. It is met with in Venetia and Lomhardy ; also 
(m the slopes of Monte Cuccia, near Palermo, in Sieilv, and the Isle of Hstica 
(Honri;-., (Jen. Test., 1S6-2, p. fll). Apuan Alps, in Tuscany (Stefani, Poll. Soc. Mai. 
Ital., is;.")). 

Var. major G. iK: R, Monog. Testacelle, PSoG, p. 4G, pi. 2, f :>vi. 

Teslncelln hisulcnta var. mnjoy G. & F., op. cit.. p. 4(5. 
Tcstacclla fisclicriayin liouro;., Rev. et M.ig. Zool., Dec. 1S61, 
pi. 13, ff. 5-7. 
Animal larger and daiUer coloured than the tyjiical form, 
witli a sliarply-delined yellow foot- fringe. 

Shelt, lar<^er and more oval, liroailest at its })osterior third, 
anterior end rounded ; COLUMELLA more arcuate anil scarcely 
truncate. Len<;th, 6 mill. ; Itreadtli, 4{ mill. 

Algeria — Environs of Pliilippeville and Constantine (Pourg. , 
Mai. Al-i'r., l,S(i4, i.. 60). Not common on the glacis of the .^,'^'- j'ftiZ/r'l^^^ 
rortilicationsot l>al)-Azoun and r.ali-el-Oued (Lallemant, Ann. S. major x 3, t;. & F. 
Mai. Pel.i;-., ISGS, p. 5). Environs of Alger (Lallemant, Moll. (after Gass. ct Fisch.). 
Al<^er, ISSl. p. 2). 


Var. albina G. & F., Monog. Testacelle, 1S5G, p. 4G. 

Tcstacclla bimkata var. albiiia G. & F., op. cit., p. 16. 

Tcstacclla sciitiilui/i \a.x. pallida Cockerell, Sci. Goss., 1885, p. 225. 

Anim ATi yellowish or whitish. 

Middlesex— Chiswick, ISS.l 1 T. 1). A. Cockerell. Ham))steail lane, Highgate I 
Eerme l';i,rk road, and Weston Park, Ilorn.sey ! II. Wallis Kew. 

Lancashire S. — Cuerden Hall, Preston, Jan. 1S9.3 ! \V. II. Ileathcote. 
York Mid W.— Dr. Eddison's garden, Adel, Leeds, Nov. 1896! H. Crowthcr. 
Leicestershire— Pelvoir ("astle gardens, -fan. ISSS ! W. Ingram. 
Louth —Piperstown, near l)rot;heda, Eeh. ISilO ! Miss Sidney Smith. 
Algeria— ("onstantine ((Jass. i*v: Fisch., op. cit.). 

Var. aurea Cockerell, Sc. Goss., 1885, ]). 22r>. 

AxLMAL oran,L;e-c(donred with Grown ; FOOT-.SOLE hright orange. 

Middlesex— Cliiswick, 1885! T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Sussex W.— Horsham, 1902 ! R. D. Darbishire. 

Il/t),n2 B 

Fig. 20. — Testa- 




Geographical Distribution. —The Eiiroi)e;ui ;irea of (ii.stii])utioii of 
this s];)ecie.s cjuiiiot he stated with aecunicy owing to the very pvevaleut inis- 
coneei)tioii of its cliaraeters. ^^s^. 

Under Risso's iiaine of T. hisulrutd, this species has, '' 

however, heen recorded as l)eiiig very coniinon tlir(ing]i- 
out tlie soutli of France, and as inliabiting Italy, 

Spani, and Algeria. __ _ . " F.a. 30.-7-«/«a.//. /./- 

J eittdcclla pevchiohi, T. gestroi, T. fi seller mna, and •"'/'«/« uisso x 2 (after 
probably other sonth European forms are, if not abso- "i"'>^- 
hitely identical, closely allied and more primitive firms of onr species, and 
may be regarded as varieties. 

The British distribution of T. scutuJitm is less restricted than that of the 
other species ; it has been found scattered over England, and its existence 
verified in Ireland and Scotland, l)nt it would seem to be especially preva- 
lent in and characteristic of the Metropolitan district. 

Geographical Distribution 


'lestacclLa scutulum Sow. ^ 

Recorded Distribution 

^^^ Probable Range 

Fig. 31. 


Channel Isles — Market gardens, near St. Peter's Port, Guern.sey ! and in tlie 
Seigneurie gronnds, Sariv, A. II. Cooke, Feb. 1S8S. 


Devon S.— Gardens, Plyniontli (Alder, Mag. Zonl. and Tiot., 1S3S). 

Devon N. —Gardens, P.ideford (Ald(>r, Mag'. Zool. and Hot.. ls:^S). 

Somerset S. — Tiie TixtiinUn from Taunton, lignred and rccoided as J", soif iilin)i 
(Nat., vii., p. 179) is T. iiifiuf/ri (Norman, Moll. Somerset, 1800). 

Somerset N. — Leigh Woods, rare, T. G. Ponton, 1862 (liei))ner's P.ristol list, 1875). 


Dorset— Chickerell, near Weymouth ! E. R. Sykes,lS90. 

Isle of Wight — Numerous in gardens, Newport (NV. .leli'erv. >T. of Conch., iii. , 
p. 3i:{, 1882). 

Sussex W. — Nursery garden, Chichester, dune 188!il W. .Icllery. Introduced 
from Newport, 1. of W., into garden i\t Uathani, near Chichester, alxiut 1880 (W. 
Jellery, J. of Conch., iii., p. \\\\\, 1882). Horsham ! R. D. Darhishire, 1902. 

Sussex E. — Lewe.s, Dec. 188S! J. II. A. denner. 


Kent W. — Mahhvlon, 'i'onhridge, Nov. 1887 ! A. H. Cooke. (Jarden, Maidstone, 
11. KIgar, .lune, 1891. 

Kent E. — Folkestone and near Faversham, 1884 I Miss E. 15., 


Surrey — The original locality where thin species Avas ol)taine(l liy INIr. Sowerhy is 
Keiiiiiiigtou road, Laiiiljcth. Tlie specimens in the I5ritisli Mtisenui, lalielled " T. 
Jifdiiifidcfi, Surrey," and " ?'. hdHutidi'u, lianibeth," sliould l)e laljelled " T. ■sriifi(/iim." 
Nutlield Priory, witli T. ludio(idc((, J. Mott'at; .also Crescent Wooil House, Sydenham 
Hill, John Prince (Webb, J. of Mai., July 1897, p. 26). I'ark Hill Kise, Croydon, 
H. P. Parsons (Webb, op. cit., Dec. 1897. ]>. 49). Very common about 1860, in Ivery's 
Nurseries, Dorking' ! 188;j, R. I). Darbisiiire. Kew (4ardens, and garden at 66, Glou- 
cester road, Kew, April 1884 ! K. A. Kolfe. lender beech leaves, Headley lane, near 
Box-hill, April 1886 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. Mitcham, Sept. 1884, Kennetli :McKean. 

Herts. — 1>. Pitlard's garden, Heniel Hemjistead, Feb. 1884 I J. Hopkinson. Chase 
Side, Enlield, known for tiie ])ast thirty yeais, F. ^Vright ; abundant, Heniel Hemp- 
stead Nurseries, W. Foden (Webb, J. bf"Mal.. July 1897, p. 26). 

Middlesex — Middle Temple Cardens, lirst noted aljout 1846; the specimens from 
this locality \\ere the tyjjes of 'T. /iwdii-frni/i/i (T. Tapping, Zool., 18.56, [i. 5105). 
Upper Hollowav : (liesbach road ! and garden of Upper Holloway Kailway Station, 

April 1888 1 H. Wallis Kew. 
Highgate : Hampstead lane, Dec. 1888! Archway road ! and Shepherd's Hill road, 

H. Wallis Kew, Nov. 1901. 
Hornsev : common, Ferme Park roail, Oct. 25, 1901 ! Weston Park, Jan. 12, 1902 ! and 

Crouch End Hill, Hornsey ! H. Wallis Kew. 
Stroud (Jreen : Hanley road ! and Staiiieton Hall road, H. Wallis Kew. Nov. 1901. 

Winchmore Hill, 1884, L. K. Adams. 
Stoke Newiiigton: occasionally in gardens (E. R. Allen, Fi(dil, 1885, p. 282). 
Stamford Hill : first observed'in 1829 (T. IJIair, Loudon's Mag., 1833). 
Regent's Park : plentiful in Royal l>otanic (hardens (J. Mclntosii, Nat., 1853). 
St. John's Wood: Circus road and Adelaide road (J. E. Harting's Rambles, 1875). 
Haverstocdv Hill : occasionally found from 1861-1881 in a garden formed on the site 

of a nursery garden, W. C. Atkinson, 1885. 
Hamjistead and Hendou : in fields and gardens (J. Mcintosh, Nat., 1853). 
Fincldey : path from East Finchley to Hampstead, H. Wallis Kew, No\. 1901. 
W^hetst'one : in C. F. Minor's garden (T. D. A. Cockerell, Field, 1885, p. 607). 
Turnham Green : formerly abundant at Burlington Cottage, S. S. Pearce, 1885. 
Islewortii : Worton Hall Gardens, not common, A. Pentney (W'ebb, J. of Mai. . July 

1897. p. 26). 
Chiswick : Royal Horticultural Society's CJardens, E. Miller (Webb, J. of Mai., Dec. 
1897, p. 49); common in gardens, Woodstock road, 1885! T. D. A. Co(d<erell ; 
the specimens in the British Museum labelled" T. haliotidca, Chiswick," are 
incorrectly named, and should be referred to the present species. 
Ealing : garden at Castle Bar, A. Belt. 1888. 

Hammersmith : Brook (ireen (Webb. J. of ^[al., July 1897, p. 26); plentiful in gar- 
dens (J. Mcintosh, Nat., 1853) : railway bank, Oct 1888 ! H. Wallis Kew. 
West Kensington : in gardens (Webb, J. of Mai., July 1897, p- 26). 
Kensingtcm : not rare in forcing-houses and kitchen-gardens of Kensington Palace; 
also at Notting Hill terrace (.). Denson, Loudon's Magazine, 1833). 
Essex S. — Fairly abundant in old garden, Wanstead (W. Crouch, Essex Nat., 
Oct. 1890, p. 209). Biickhurst Hill, W.'Cole ( Wel>b, J. of Mai, July 1S97. p. 26). 
Oxon— Middleton Park, Bicester, T. Trollope(Webb, J. of Mai.. Dec. 1897, p. 49). 

Norfolk E. — Iiiswich road, by Mackie's Nursery Gardens, Norwich, J. Reeve, 
1880! (Churciiill P.abington's collection). Abundant at F'oulsham, Oct. 1884! Rev. 
J. W. Hoislev. 

Norfolk W. — King's Lynn, Miss Peckover (Churchill Babington's collection). 

Gloucester W. — Gardens, Clifton, T. G. Ponton, 1862 (Leipner's Bristol list, 
1875, p. 281). TREIVT. 

Lincoln S.— Higli Park Gardens, Stamford, D. Metcalfe (Webb, J. of Mai., July 
1897, p. 26). 

Leicester — Bean Manor Park, Loughborough, A. Hamshere (Web1), J. of ]Mal., 
Dec. 1897, p. 49). Belvoir Castle Gardens, Jan. 1888! W. Ingram. 
Notts.— Welbeck Abbey, R. A. Rolfe! (C. T. Musson, 1884). 
Derby— Little Eaton, Nov. 1897 ! J. Hill. 


Cheshire — Fairly numerous, Hcxde, Nov. 1883, J. T. Riches. Rare in Ujiton lanes, 

and in some grassy lanes near nursery gardens, Chester, 1886! (!. AV. Shrubsole. 

Mr. Broome's (iardeii, Sale, Oct. 1890! T. Rogers. Dickson's Nurseries, Newton, 

near Chester, on rockwork, T. Ruddy, March 1887- 

Lancashire S. — Gardens, Cuerden Hall, Preston, Jan. 1893 ! W. H. Heathcote. 



York S.E.-Wo.xllci-h, llcsslc, F. Miisoii rWd.l., J. of Mai., .Inly lSi»7, ].. 20). 

York N.E. — Almndaiit at ('astlt> llowanl, .1. Kiililcll. and in W'alsliaw ami Son's 
Nurseries, Searhoronj^di (Welili. J. of Mai., -Inly 1S97, p. 2(j). Tunnel in IJeeforth's 
(ianlen. Ksplanatle, ScarKorou^di, Feli. ISOO I .). E. IIai<,neaves. 

York S.W.— harden, Horl.ury, Amil 1891 ! W. Kushfortli. 

York Mid W.—( bedstone Hall, Ski]. ton, .1. .Jopkinson (Webb, .1. of Mai., -lulv 
1897. 11. -Jd). Dr. Edilison's (Jarden, Adel, near Feeds, Nov. 1896! H. Crowtlicr. 
Common after continued wet, Hyde I'ark road. Feeds, Nov. 1, 190(1 I ()li\er Marsden. 
CJanlen, North lane, Headin<.;ley, Nov. 1886! E. Fi. Waite. Fadnian's Nurserie.s, J'.os- 
ton Spa, J. Emmet, July 1877. TVNE. 

Durham — l>ensliani Hall, near (Jatesliead, .Ian. 1884 ! K. Y. Green. (late.'iliead 
and Awvell Fark, near Newcastle, 11. Howse, Nov. 1884. 


Renfrew — Common, liosebank Nuiseries, Jolmstone, Oct. 1898! S. ^F Wellwood. 
Garden, Gartland ])lace, near Faisley, April 1887 ; Ivilnside Gardens, near Faisley, 
Feb. 1889 (.1. M. ]5. Tavlor, -J. of Condi., 1889, vi., p. IIT)). hast //n;// LANDS. 

Stirling Feachlion'.se of K. Smitii. Frentliem Fark, June 189.-) ! (;. Mel)onf;all. 

Fife and Kinross— St. Ibycedale Nurseries, Kirkcaldy, Get. 1884 ! where it has 
been known for the i^ast fortj- years, W. D. Sang. 


Louth — Garden, Fiperstown, near Droi;heda, Feb. 2(3. 1890 I .Mis.c; Sidney Smith. 
Dublin— Trinity College Fotanic (Jardens, AFarcli 1891, ^^■. F. Furbridge" ! (It. F. 
Scharll). \V. F. deVisnies Kane'.s Garden, Kingston (ScharfF Irish Nat., .Inly 1893). 

Waterford— Waterford. ^h: Garnett, jr. (ScharfF, Irish Nat., July 1892). 
Cork N. — Youghal, 1835, Warren Collection, Dublin .Museum I 


Fecoided as T. ftisii/c///i/ from Frovence, Fanguedoc, and (Jascony, and in the 

Alpes Maritimes — In gardens, Grasse, ami the hills about Nice ((J. i^' F., op. cit. ). 

Finistere— With T. JiitHnti(h'it, Fanderneau and Frest (I>ourg.,Mal. liret., I860). 

Loire, Haute— Hills of Cho.sson, plain of Itome (Fascal, 187.3, p. 23). 

Morbihan — Common in gaidens and cultivated lields, espt>cially cabbage fields, 
about \'annes, Arrailon, Auray, and ujion tiie lie d' Arz (Fourg., Mai. Fret., 1S60). 

Seine — In disused quarries, Les Moulineau.x ; gardens, (Jr.ande Montrouge and 
Bourg-la-Feine ; environ.sof Orsay and St. Manr-les-I<V)sses, etc. (Fascal, 1873, p. 23). 

Var Not rare, Mouton (Mo(i.' Tand., Hist. Moll., 18")5, ii., p. 41). 

Vendee— (Massot, Mon. Test., 1870, p. F">6). 

A-< Tr.stitrclla .srutiilmn it has been recorded from tiie departments of the 

Creuze — De Cessac ((J. ».V' F., op. cit., p. 'A). 

Gironde- La Teich, Facture, Sallas, etc. (Ciassies, Mai. Aquitaine, 1876). 

Trieste^ as T. hrdiotidca, Siiuroth, Nacktsch. Fortug.-Azor., 1891. 

As T. bisttlf((l<( it is recorded for Fietlmont, the environs of Florence, Rome, 
Naples, etc. (Bourg., Rev. et Mag. Zool., Dec. 1881, p. 60). From Torrita, Masso 
di Sas.sorosso, and Fagni ili Lucca in Tuscany (Stefani, Full. Soc. .Mai. I tab, 187.')), 
and from Civitavecchia (Statuti, Full. Soc. ^lal. Ital., 1882, viii., j) 15). 

Recorded as T. //i.siifriffK from ^'alen(•ia CHidalgo, Ilojas Mai., 1871, p. 27), ami as 
T. .^ciifiifi/iii from (Jranada, 1887 ! R. D. Darbishire (.1. of Conch., 1888, v., p. 346). 

Ajaccio, as 7'. .sriifiihdn CScharff, Reise Corsica, 1894, ]>. 160). 

As T. ffcitroi recorded from S. \'ito, where it was found by Dr. Gestro (Issel), and 
at Monte S.anto di Faulo, near Cagliari ; Farco di Faconi : forest of Monte Cresia, 
ami in the ^■alley of Tanpiisara (Faulucci, Full. Soc. .Mai. Ital., 1S82). 


Algeria— Great K.abylie, .as T. /la/loflilra (Kobelt, Zoogeogr., 1898). As 7'. />i.siil- 
caf(t iin(\ T. fisr/im'/Dtit from environs of Alger (Fallemant, .Moll. .Alger. 1881); and 
as T. hisiih-iitd from TIemcen, the Cascade of the Sefsef. Letourneuv (Bourg., 
Alger, 1864,ii.,]t. .3(»3), and F.ona ami Constantine( I'xmrg., Fev. et .Mag. Zool., 1861). 

Morocco— Cap Spartel, Grasset (Morelet, J. de Conch., 1880, p. 17). 

Plate III. 

Distril^ution of T. scutiiliun Sow. 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 


Channel Isles 


1 t'oruwall W. 

2 Cornwall E. 
■i Devon fi. 

4 JJevou N. 

5 Somerset S. 
I) Somerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts s. 

9 Dorset 
lU Isleot Wife'lit 

11 ilants S. 

12 Hants A'. 

13 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex E. 


15 Kent E. 
IB Kent \V. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 Jliddlese.v 

22 Derks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 


25 Suffolk E. 

26 Suffolk W. 

27 Norlolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 Caniiiridge 

30 Bedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 Nuriliampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Uloucester W. 

35 Monmouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcestei* 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 
4U Salop 

soira WALES 

41 Glamorgan 

42 Brecon 
4:1 Radnor 

44 Caimartheu 

45 I'emliroke 
4ii Cardigan 


47 Jlontgojnery 

48 Merioneth 

49 Carnarvon 

50 Denliigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesc3' 


.53 Lincolu S. 

54 Lincoln N. 

55 Leie. & liutld. 

56 iNotts. 

57 Derby 


58 Cheshire 
•59 Lancashire S. 
till l.ancasliireMid 


61 S.E. VorK 

62 N.E. York 
6.i S. W . Voik 

64 Jlid \V. York 

65 N.W. York 


66 Durham 

67 Northuml). S. 

68 Cheviotiaud 


69 Westmorland 
and L. Jjancs. 

70 Cunilierland 

71 Isle of Jlau 


« 7 


?2 Dumfries 

"3 Kirkcudhriuht 

r4 Wigtown 

'5 Ayr 

r6 Renfrew 

r7 Lanark 


78 I'eebles, 

79 Selkirk 
WJ Roxburgh 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 


85 Fife& Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 Perth S.&Clkn 

88 Mid Pertli 

89 Perth N. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 .Vberdeen S. 


»:; Al.ierileenN. 

94 Banff 

95 Elgin 

96 Easteruess 

«". moHLANns 

97 Westerness 

98 Main Argyle 

99 Uumbarton 
loij Ciyile Isles 

101 t'antire 

102 Ebudes S. 

103 Ebudes Mid 
1114 Ebudes N. 


11)5 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E. 

108 SutherlandW. 

109 Caithness 


110 Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shetlands 



113 Derry 

114 Antrim 

115 Down 

116 Armagh 

117 Monaghan 
lis Tyrone 

119 Donegal 

120 Feimanagli 

121 Cavan 


122 Liiuth 

123 Meath 

124 Dublin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklovv 

127 Wexford 
12:* Carlo w 

129 Kilkenny 

130 Queen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 \Vestmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 
133 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 Mayo E. 

138 Mavo W . 

139 Gahvay W. 

140 Ualway E. 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 

143 Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S. 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork N. 

1 47 Cork S, 
14S Kerry 



Probable Range. 
Recorded Distribution. 

Distribution verified by the Authors. 


Testacella maugei Ferussac. 

1801 T esta.ceUa. /I'lnofoich's Lam., Sys. An. s. Vur., p. 96 (iionioi inuhini). 

180.1 — hdliotidca jnus, Dnip., Idlest. Nat. ^h)\\. France, j)!. 8, tK 46-48. 

1819 — maugei Fer., Hist. Moll., p. 04, i)l. S, if. 10-12 ; Kecvo, I'.rit. Moll., 186:^, 

p. 32 and ft'. ; Adams, Coll. Manual, 1S06, p. 41, pi. 2, f. 3. 

1827 — asiiiuiiiin do Sonus, Ann. Sc. Nat., p. 409. 

1850 — lartdil Dupuy, J. de Concli., i., pp. 302-4, pi. 1.5, 11'. 2 a— d. 

1851 — brxnioiiiana de Serres, Mem. Terr. Transp., i>. 51. 

1855 — haliotldca v. scufnluiii Moq.-Tand., Hist. Moll. FVance, ])1. 5, It". 20, 21. 

1855 — hurdlgalrnsis, Ga.s.sies, (iratelouji's Dist. (j!eo,i;-. Liniat-iens, p. 15. 

1855 — occatiira (Jratelonp, Dist. Geoi;'. Limaciens, p. 15. 

1855 — aqidfatilrd {'tVcite\on\t, Dist. (leog. Limaciens. ]). 16. 

1855 — broiriiiroui (Jrateloup, Dist. ( !eog. Limaciens, p. 16. 

1855 — ocritanlw (Jratelou}), Dist. Geog. Limaciens, j). 16. 

1855 — nionspessulana (Jrateloup, Dist. Geog. Limaciens, |>. 16. 

1855 — rY^»rtr/c».s/.9 Grateloup, Dist. (Jeog. Limaciens, p. 16. 

1855 — «7<'r-/-//*'/' Gi'ateloup, Dist. Geog. Limaciens, p. 16. 

1855 - dcslnnirsii Midland, Desc. Goq. Foss., p. 3, pi. 2, W. 10, 11. 

1881 — «(>«/('?/ lionrg. , Hist. Mai. Colline de Sansan, p. 15. 

1819 PlrrtrophovKs (jrbicjiujl Fer., t. Simroth, Nacktsclinecken Portug.-Azorischen, 
1891, p.' 404. 

History. — Testacellt maugei was discuvered at Teuerift'e in 17116 by 
M. Mange, ill wliose honour it was named by Ferussac, and according to 
Dr. Turton, was said to have been first found in England by Mrs. Smith, 
in lier garden at Bristol ; in LSI 2 Mr. T. Drunnnond detected it in Miller 
and Sweet's (now (laraway's), Durdham Down Nurseries at Clifton, Bristol, 
and sent specimens to Dr. Leach, which were forwarded to and figured by 

Although a very distinct species it is far from being accurately known, 
and from the earliest period has been and is still often confused with T. ludlo- 
tidea by otherwise competent conchologists. M. Draparnaud figured un- 
doubted T. mnuijel as the adult form of T. haUnthicd, while Mo({uin-Tandon 
also figures what is probably the present species as T. hallot'uka v. scutulum. 

Gassies and Fischer, the able mon(jgraphers of the genus, in their great 
work, "Monographic du genre Testacelle" (pi. i., f. 15) illustrate the repro- 
ductive organs of T. luiliotldca, but erroneously ascribe them to tlie present 
species ; this unfortunate confusion was accepted and endorsed in some (jf 
their writings by the famous limacologists, Simroth and Pollonera, and to 
add to these regrettable mistakes, the brilliant French biologist, Prof. Lacaze- 
Duthiers, has in his otherwise masterly work, " Histoire de la Testacelle," 
perpetuated further misapprehension of the organization of this species, 
with which he was evidently unaccpuiinted. 

The organization of T. inaiujel is of a simpler and more primitive type 
than that of its congeners, and its more marked restriction to the confines 
of Western Europe confirms this species as being the most ancient form of 
our Teddcellw. 

Diagnosis. — Externally, T. maiKjel is readily recognisable by its large, 
convex, and semi-cylindrical shell, and by the lateral grooves upon the body 
of the animal being so wide apart at their origin at the peri})allial furrow. 

Internally, the distinctive features are even more striking, the lingual 
sheath being (piite deficient of lateral muscles and possessing only terminal 
retractors, while the right and left tentacular retractors are both afiixed t(j the 
integument quite on the left side of the animal; the penis sheath differs 
from that of T. mutaliim in its strikingly clavate shape, and from T. hidio- 
t'ldea in the absence of the flagellum which is so marked a feature in that 



Description. Am -MAI. fl()ii;;;it<', ;iltiMiii;itt! aiiti'iiorly and very tumid towards 
tlic irar; (iO 1(K» mill, in lcii;^tli wiicii fully cxlciidcd, Imt very slnut and cvliiidrical 
wlicM cniiliacted ; (;i;()UNl)-('()l,(»Ui; ;;ieyisii-\\liilc to l)lark, Imt ti.siially of an caitliy- 
lii-owM, iialcr laterally and liesjninkleil witli deeitbrown specks, vvliieli are most 
plentifid on the liaclc; tlie lon;;itndinal dorsal furrows arc well ileliiied and enclose 
a donlile row of conspicuous tuhcrclcs ; i,.\ti;i;ai, ku1!I!(iWS deeply incised and iuu(di 
wider apart at their origin at tin- perijiallial furrow tlian in the allii'd speeies; 
MANll.t: sparin-ly maculate, and sometimes jiarlially envidopin;;- the shell: soi.K 
similarly Imt moie l)rij;htly colored tiian the hody, whilish, yellow, pink, or even 
hlack, i'ooT-KKiNCK sometimes marked with perpendicular lineoles, as in virion ; 
.siJMK colorless and not very tenacious. 

SllKi.i. sulxiuadrately ohlonj,'. very convex, compres.sed or slii;litly sinuate at front 
margin, and altout one sixth of the total length of the animal when extended, whitish 
with a hrown periostiacum which hecomes ahraded from all the more exposed jiarls 
of the shell ; si'iKK produced and terminal, consisting;' of ahmit 1 1 whorls; kinks OK 
ciMtWTll variahle hut often stron<;- and irrej^ular ; AI'KinX'liK ohloiig, very lar-^^e, 
outer margins slij;htly exjtanded, interior slightly nacreous; COLUMKLLA narrow, 
conve.x, and resjularly arched. Length, la mill. ; hreadlh, 7 mill. ; alt., 4 mill. 

in its organs and their arrangement, and characterized 
l)y a short I'KNKS-.siiE.VTll, very narrow below, but 
abru]itly swollen above, without a Kl,.\(;KKLUM, but 
with a strong terminal itKTKAcroi;, which is attached 
dorsally to the outer integument toNxards the rear of 
the body ; the V.\(;IXA is much shorter than in T. .sriifii- 
lain, and considerably less dilated above; OVotk.stis 
greyish or yellowish-white, composed of loose obhmg 
follicles imbedded within the digestive gland and difH- 
cult to isolate; llKinLVl'llliODITK Dt'CT very tortuous 
and entering the albumen gland very high uj) ; AKiiU- 
.MKN Gl^.VNI) enormous, linguifoini, of a yellowish or 
ochreous tint ; oviDl'cr clear l)luish-white, with broad 
amjile folds; SI'KIIM-DUCT opaque, butf or cream- 
coloured; VAS DEFKiiKNS stiffly convoluted at its origin 
from s]ierm-duct, and entering the penis-sheath at the 
free end, close to the retractor muscle ; spkk.'M.vtheca 
glol)ular or i-oundly-ox al, clear grey, maiked su]ierlici- 
ally with white vein-like markings, and imbedded in 
the base of the albumen gland, to which it has inn.scular 
attachment ; si-Kli.MATllECA DtJCT long, alxmt three 
times the diameter of vesicle, thickene<l at base and 
longitudinally strijied, the upi)ei- half adherent to oviduct, the lower half sometimes 
attached to vagina by a stout muscle ; Ai'ltli'Ai short. 

The AKlMENTAKY CANAK with short iKsoi'ilA(;u.s, opening (mt into a broadly 
oval or pyriform ci.'or, which is whitish when empty, and has thick walls especially 
towards the pyloric end, with the whole surface corrugated with longitudinal and 
transxerse wrinkles, and attached to left side of l)ody by a sheet of muscles ; the 
vestigial sTOMAt'lI, a small, white, rounded I'lotuberance, is at first bend of gut, 
at the jioint where the intestine enters the digestive gland and receives the thick 
white bile ducts; the DKiK.STIVE GLAND is brownish ])utr, si)eckled or reticulated 
with white ; INTK.STINE very st(mt in its early course. 

The TENTAC'UI-Ai; i;K!-i;aci<)I;s of T. iii"K//rl are esjiecially remarkable for their 
curious III inetry and iiRMpiality ; the left retractor is allixed to the limly-wall of 
tiie left side, close to the margin of the 
foot-sole, while the noticeably longer right 
tentacular muscle is attached to the sole also 
(luite to the left of the median line of the body. 

The KIN(;UAI> .siiK.VTil presents the same 
]ieaily-wliite glistening appearance which 
chaiiuderizes that of the preceding .«pecies, but 
it is comparatively smaller and its letractors 
more simjile, consisting of two to li\e pairs of 
jiartially independent and i>o\\eiful terminal muscles, anyone of which exceeds in 
mass the ceiihalic retractor of Arioii nirr or JJnui.r iiKi.riiiuis, all with common point 
of lixation to the integument on the left side of the body beneath the .shell. The 
lateral muscles so conspicuous in 'J', haliotidcti and T. ncufuhou are quite absent. 

Kii;. 'i'l. — .Sexual organs of 
TcstnciUa viau^ii X li. 

(Hristol, Mr. j.W. CuiKl.ill). 

a//'.g. .Tibiiiiien gland ; ot. o\o- 
testis ; OT. oviduct ; />.s. penis 
sliL-ath ; retractor muscle ; 
s/>. spermatheca ; s/>.(i. sperm 
cluct ; 7<.<i. vas deferens. 

Fn;. 33.— Lingual sheath of l\staccllit 
iiiaui^ii, ilkistrating tlie retractor muscles of 
the tentacles and lingual sheath. 



Tlie LiN(iUAL TEETH in tliis species are more closely arranged njion the radula, 
and the transverse rows of teeth much less acutely an^ulated than in either T. 

Fig. 3t. — Transverse rowof leelh from odontophore of T. inau^ci 
X 20, from Bristol ; figured from a photo, by A. H. Cooke. 

Fig. 36.-Egs of T. 
tnaugci X li (after Gas- 
sies and Fischer). 

Fig. 35.— Isolaled teeth from the 
fifth and tentli longitudinal rows of 
the radula of 1'. iiiaugci X 40. 

haliotidea or T. scutiduni,^ tlie individual teeth are smaller, less distinctly barhed, 
the poaphy.sis near the middle of the tooth, and the minute' vestigial central tooth 
distinctly perceptihle in certain parts of the radula. 

The dental formula of a l>ristol specimen is 14+0+1 + 0+1 4 x 30 = S70 

Reproduction and Development. — According to Gassies, it is the 

most prolific species of the gemis, and in France may 

hiy five times in one year, eight to fifteen large, some- 

wliat acimiinate oval eggs, about five mill, b}" four mill., 

which are enclosed in firm, white calcareous shells, 

which gradually become yellowish. In this country 

they have been observed to lay in May and August, the eggs hatching in 

from twenty to thirty-five days, according to the weather. 

Food and Habits. — T. maufjei is not active, but more gregariotis than 
either T. hdiotidea or T. scutuluiii, and is also more insatiable and raven- 
ous, destroying its congeners in default of other food when confined with 
them. It usually lives from six to twelve inches beneath the surface, its 
retreat, according to Mr. Tondin, being easily detected by the large, clean- 
cut hole it leaves, very difterent fi-om that of a worm, and usually beneath 
some sheltering plant. 

In wet weather, when driven from their subterranean retreats, they hide 
beneath the foliage of garden pinks or other sheltering plants, often in a 
sort of open nest in the moist earth, to the aspect of which their usual 
colouring closely assimilates. 

Geological History. — Ttstucdla jjiaugei has not been found fossilized 
in this c( tuiitry, Itut has been recorded from the basin of the Rhone, and has 
been described under the names of T. lurtetii Dupuy, T. nouletl Bourg., 

Fig. 37.— r. lartctii X 3 
(after Gassies & Fischer). 

Fig. 38.— r. lartctii x 4 
(after Dupuy). 

Fi(.. 39 — T. nouleti Bourg. x 2 
(after Gassies & Fischer). 

and T. aquitanka Gratelouji, from a friable, argillaceous marl in the hill 
of Sansan, Gers, ascribed to Miocene age. The T. deshayesii Michaud and 
T. altw-r'iixc Grateloup, from the blue Pliocene marls of Haute-Rive in the 
Drome, are also considered practically identical with T. muugel by Gassies 
and Fischer, while T. asinina de Serres, from the Middle Pliocene freshwater 
deposits of Frontignan, near Cette, and T. hinintoniana de Serres, from the 

1 This peculiarity alone establishes the incorrectness of the reference to T. haliotidea of the figure of 
the teeth, given on p. 298 of Woodward's Manual ; it should be really a.scribed to the present species, Mr. 
Cocken, who prepared the radula from which the engraving was made, correctly indicated the species under 
Lamarck's name, T. haliotoides. 


•\vliitisli Middle Pliocene niiirlt^ uf Celleiieuve, near Miiiit])ellier, may also be 
referred to the same si)ecies. 

Accurdiiii;' to M. Paul Fisclier, all the tertiary Textaci'll<( l)el(iii.i; to the 
mdiKjei group, and in conmion with (jther ni(jllusca now restricted to western 
regions had formerly a more extended eastern range. 

Variation. — Although the anatouiical details of'Britisli specimens show 
a structure in consistent agreement with the various figures I give, yet some 
authors show certain modifications in the shape of various organs which they 
aftirm to exist in the speciiuens examined hy them. 

ExTKRNALLV, no differences in the shell of 7'. inaiKjci have been chronicled 
or named l)y authors, but I have estal)lished a var. apertu for the reception 
of tlie broad Azoreaa examples and reduced tlie TeMacella asln'nm de Serres 
to the rank of a variety. 

Wide variation has, howevei-, l)een ob.served in the colour of the Itody. 
Gassies and P'ischer disci-imiuated six different forms, two of them — var. 
roseo-fiilvefreini, somewhat rare, and var. gr}>ie()-fHlci-!<a'Uf^—-\\\\\\Q\\i any 
tigure or description, except such indication as their descriptive names imply. 

In the present work eight varieties are accepted, and two, var. aiirea and 
var. aperta, are described for the fii-st time. 

Var. aperta 'i'aylor. i-AKfAr/ONS /y j-'ORA/ of shell. 

SuKM, (.■(Hii|iiuii,Livcly wider and ll;iller or fess convex than type; .\PKirrui!Kconse- 
rpientfy more open and ovate. ],en<_;tli, 14 mill. ; diani., 8 mill. ; alt., '.\ mill. 

Azores-Ailiiur Morelet (It. I). Darhi.shiie, 1<)()I !) 

Var. asinina de Serres, Ann. 8c. Nat., \). -lOil, 1S27. 

Tistacc//a asiniiiuiii t'c Serres, Ann. Sci. Nat., 1827, p. 409. 
Tcstacellci iitons/'cssulaiia (jrat., Geog. l.iniac-, p. IG, 1855. 

SuKM, elongate and markedly narrower tlian type, more 
especially anteriorly. Ijengtli, lo mill. ; breadth, ."> mill. 

This variety has hitherto only been found in tiie fossil 
.'itate, in the INIiddle Pliocene fresjiwater dejiosits at Frontig- 
nan near Cette, in ihe lleranit, but (mly imtxirfect specimens 
ha\e as yet lieen discovered. and these cannot lie cut ncly treed asinina de Serres, x ij 
from the rock in wliich thev are imbe(hled ((lass. \: Fischer, (after Gahsies & Fischer). 

Moil. Test., IS.JG, p. 4-J). 


Var. albina (iassies cK: Fischer, Moiiog. Testacelle, 1856, pp. 38, 89. 

I'.ody and sole aiiproachin.i; oltl ivory in colour with a fawn-coloured dorsal liaiid. 
According to (Jassies tind F'i.scher, tins variety is characterized by its voracity. 
France — ((lassies v^- I""ischcr, op. cit. ). 

Var. g'riseo-nig'rescens Gassies & Fischer, Monog. Testacelle, l.S;3G, p. :!('.. 

Body smoky-j,aey, sides whitish speckleil with black, foot-fringe very pale yellow. 

Tills variety, which resembles ^li/rlo/liiurr ai/j-csfis in its general facies and 
colouring, is the common form in the (Jiroiide (Moiiog. Testacelle, 1856, p. 3G). 

Pembrokeshire — Near I'enilnoke, dune iSS.! I Mrs. Trayler. 

France Common at tiradignan and rdanijiiefoit in the (iironde ((itissies, 1870). 

Var. viridans Gassies & Fischer, Monog. Testacelle, 1856,]). 38. 

IJody greenish-brown, analogous to bronze, ventral disc very li\(dy orange-red. 

Accoriling to Morelet, this is the oi<Iinaiy I'mliigucse form, and \\(iuld appear to 
constilule another age-link, joining South Ireland with the Iberian peninsula. 

Waterford- Nnisciy garden, \Vateifoid. Sept. ISS.T..). II. Salter. 

Portugal Common from the parallel of Coimlira to the shores of Algar\e 
(Morelet, Moll. Port., IS-t."), j.. IS). 

Var. griseo-rubescens (Jassies cK: Fischer, Monog. Testacelle, KSoG, p. 38. 

J>o(ly rufous, niaiMilated with brown, sole-fringe orange-red. 

This is the form ligurc(l liy h't'iussac from Ihistol specimens sent by Dr. Leach. 

Dorset -Itcctory (Jaideiis, Coife Castle. Nov. ISS.')! Kiistace Hanke.'«. 

Gloucester W. Ihistol, .1. \\'. Cumlall, Nov. ISS.S. 

France — ((Jassies vV F'ischei, op. cit.). 


Vav. aurea Taylor. 

IJiidy ami foot ltri,i;lit yellow, bL'spiiiikleil witli black dots, chieHy on hack. 
Gloucester W. — (Jaideiis, C'oliiaiii near I'.iistol, 1SS3 I Miss F. M. Hele. 
Glamorgan— <'ariliir, F. W. Wotton, Jan. 1889. 

Var. nigfra Collinge, Jouni. of Condi., 189H, p. 9.3. 

Pembrokeshire — Tenby, 1892 (Mas. Zool. Cambridge University). 

Geographical Distribution. — T. n/aiujei is distinctly and pre-emin- 
ently a western and retreating species, now restricted to the w^estern coast 
regions of Europe, Africa and adjacent islands of the Pahearctic region, 
although it may still linger in a few isolated places comparatively remote 
from the geogra})liical area chietiy occupied at the present day. It has 
Ijeen recorded from the British Isles, France, iSpain, Portugal, Morocco, 
^Vzores, Canaries, and Madeira. 

It has also been reported from greenhouses in Philadel[)hia, U.S.A., in the 
Nearctic region ; as 7'. ((artr/Ksfcr from the Cape, in the Ethiopian region ; 
and as 7\ aigiun^ from Auckland, New Zealand, in the Australasian region. 

In the British Isles it is also strictly south-western in its range, and has 
been recorded from various localities in the South and West of England, 
South Wales and the South of Ireland. 

Geographical Distribution 

Testacella maugei Fer. 

Recorded Distribution. 
Probable Range. 

Fig. tl. 

Channel Isles— Bank at foot of garden wall, St. Savioin'sroad,St. Helier's.. Jersey, 

and in a garden altout half-aniile distant (l»ull, Sei. CJoss., July 1878, ]>. 161). 


Cornwall W, — Pliillack reetorv gronn<ls, 1878 ! Miss Hockin. Coninion, I'anI 
Church Town, near Penzance, ]May' 1886 ! W. E. P.aily. Falnioutli. Sept. 1887 ! J. H. 
James. Truro, Aug. 1888 ! J. H. James. Treherne Prolms. near Truro. Capt. 
Pinwell (Webb, J. of Mai.. July 1897, ]). 26). 

Devon S.— (Jarden, Park street. Exeter (J. C. Bellamy. Nat. Hist. S. Devon, 
1839. p. 246). Veitcirs Nursery, Exeter (E. Parlitt, Nat., 18.14, p. 150). Plymouth 
(Jetlr., Brit. Conch., 1862, i., p". 147). 

2() TESTACKl.LA MAltiKl. 

Devon N. -Kic-anls Down. AUl.ot.sluuii, IJidcfonl, Oct. l.Sitfi ! C. H. ('. Hil.l.crt. 

Somerset S. — Aljiin.huil, Suniiysi(k', IJii(l;;e\vatL'r, April IS'.IO 1 H. C^)^ll^^■^. Fie- 
(|uciit ill Tauntoii Nursery (lanteiiH (J. iMrliitosli, Nat., IS.'i.'i, \). l.SO). 

Somerset N. IJatli. lIiisliiiLjloti, ami in Sir .\rllmr I'Jtnii s .^aidfiis at Cluvcilon, 
{Nnniiaii, liiiaiiil Mdil. SoincrsL't, iS(il, |i. I.H'.M. liiW. S. ( 'lark's ^ank-ii. Street, and 
aliniidant at (Ircntoii (Nat. Hist. .lonin., INTS. |i. i;U). (ianlcn, near .\\lni(lj;c, -Iniy 
18S41 Miss U. ,1. Taylor. I'leiitit'nl in ;;ar(len of l>on;; Aslitoii N'icaraye, Nov. iSSii'. 
Mrs. Falloon. Castle Cary. A]>ril 1,S87 ! W. Macmillan. 

Wilts S. — Fields near Devizes. Mr. ("unniiij.M()ii 'AVoodwanl'.s AFanual, KS7"), p. 
298). Jjonj^leat Hardens. Warminster, .1. Trolloiie (\Vebl>, J. of Mai., Dec. 1897, 

p. 49). 


Dorset— Gardens, Down House, IJlandford, J. C. Man.sel-Fleydell, 188.")! This 
specimen was recorded as '/'. /t'l/io/idcn, in tlie Trans. Dorset Soc. , for ISS.I, and 
elsewhere, l»y Mr. Mansell'leydell. Rectory (lardens, Corfe Castle, Nov. 1885! 
Eustace Uankes. 

Hants S. — Fareliam, J. W. Cundall, 1885. Porcliester. A. G. Ileadley (Webl), 
.1. of Mai., .Inly 1897, p. '20). 

Hants N. — Andover, E. J. Lowe, Dec. 1887. 


Surrey — Leatherheail, E. Stej) (Fannell. .louru. of Cou(di., 1902, p. 170). 

Middlesex — One sjiecimen in the l>ritish Museum, lahelled as fouml in " Ken- 
sin;;lon (iardens" ! Several in IJeau's Collection, Scarb(»rougli Museum, lahelleil 
" T. halinttdea, near London " ! 

Berks. — Specimens in the collections of the late Thos. Ko-xers and J. K. TIardy, 
said to he from ["'arinjidon I 

Notts. — Erroneously recorded for Welheck .Mdiey by (_'. T. Musson (Mid. Nat., 

1878. II. »)!•). 


Worcester — (;ientliorn and l')OUi:,liton, near Worcester, (1. Keecc, Nov. 1883. 
Kedditch, C. S. Tve, March 188(5. Nursery grounds, near Worcester, .Iiine 1897 I 
(Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 1897, p. 6.*?). 

War\wick -Gardens, Ed<;baston near IJirniingham. May 18971 (Collinge. .1. of 
Mai., Dec. is'.)7. ]>. 43). 

Gloucester W. — P'ound in 181'J in Miller and Sweet's (now Caraway's) Nur.series 
at Clifton by Mr. Drummoiid, Imt the original site is now built over. ( >ld iJurial 
(Jronnd, Lewins Mead Chapel, Bristol, F. F. Carpenter (IJ. J). Darbishire. Nov. 
1883 !) Ham])ton Fark, c«tnimon, A. Leipner; and Kingsdown. W. W. Sloddart 
(I.ei])ner, Froc. Jlristol Nat. Hist. Soc, 1875, j). 281). Gardens, Fiedland (J. W. 
Cundall, .J. of Conch., 1882, )). 2()5). (iardens, Cotham (Foulton and Ord, 1877). 
llorliehl, Nov. 1883! Miss V. M. Hele. Stoke Githnd. F.ristol, G. Summers (Webb. 
.1. of Mai.. .Inly 1897, ].. 2G). 

Monmouth —Keported under tlumame of T. Itnlinfiilrn as plentiful in Hangman's 
Wood, the gardens, Shirenewton Hall 1 and near Chepstow, also in cottage gardens 
and helds at ami about Shirenewton village, abundant at Hardwick, Itton Court, 
St. Fierre, The Wylands ami Matbeni, near Chejistow, also in gardens at Chepstow, 
I'ortskewett, and Newport (E. J. Lowe, Report i>rit. Assoc., 1883). 

MERSE ] '. 

Cheshire — Clibran's Nursery Gardens, Bowdon, April 1897 I (Collinge, J. of ^lal., 

Dec. 1897, p. 43). 


Glamorgan Bridgend, under leaves in a little wood, .July 1885 ! C. G. Barrett. 
Common in gardens, Crocdvherbtowu. also in I^ord Bute's gardens in North road, 
and Lord Windsor's at St. Fagan's, all near Carditl', F. W. Wotton, Jan. 1889. 
Windsor ]tlace, Carditl". at bottom of carnation pots, \. Fike (Webb., J. of Mai., July 
1S97, ]). 2(i. In the late Dr. Jetl'reys' garden, Norton, near Swan.sea (Brit. Conch., 
i., p. I t7, 1S(;2). 

Pembroke Near Fembroke. June 1885 1 Mrs. Trayler. Diser I'ark Villas. Tenby, 
A. (;. Slubbs (Webb, J. of Mai., Dec. 1897). NunuMous in garden, Saundersfoot 
road. Tenby, and in a garden, Feually (Stnbbs, J. of Conch., 19UU, p. 322). 


Dublin— Connuon in tlu' Koyal Botanic Gardens, Ghisnevin, Dulilin (Thompson. 

Ann. Nat. Hist., Sept. 1847, i)."l74). 


Waterford— Nursery garden, Waterford, Sept. 1883! J. 11. Salter. Capiiagh, 1892, 
K. G. rs.sher ! (11. F. Seharll'). 

Cork S. Garden, Bandon, Frof. G. J. Allman (Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist., Sept. 
18J7, p. 174). 

Plate IV. 

Distribution of Testacella niaitgei ¥ 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 



of the British Isles. 

channel Isles 


1 CoruwiiU W. 

2 CoiuwiiU E. 
o l^e\ou ?>. 

4 Devon X. 

5 Somerset S, 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 
S Wilts S. 
9 Llorset 

10 Isle of Wight 

11 Hants S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex L. 


15 Kent K. 

16 Kent W. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 Jliddlesex 

22 Berks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 


2.5 Suffolk E. 

26 Suffolk W. 

27 Norfolk E. 

25 Norfolk W. 

29 t'aiuliridge 

30 Bedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 iS'orlhampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester W. 
3.5 Monmouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

35 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 
















Lincoln S. 
Lincoln N. 
Leic. (ScKutld. 


Lancashire S. 


S.E. YorK 
N.E. York 
S.U. Yolk 
Mid W. York 
N'.W. York 


iSorthumlt. S. 


iind L. Ijancs. 
Isle of Man 





72 Dumfries 

93 Aherdeen N. 

73 Kirkcudhright 

94 Banff 

74 Wigtown 

95 Elgin 

75 Ayr 

96 Easteruess 

76 Kenfrew 


77 Lanark 

97 Westerness 


.98 Main Argyle 

78 Peebles 

99 Dumbarton 

79 Selkirk 

loo Clyde Isles 

so Roxburgh 

101 Cantire 

81 Berwick 

102 Ebudes S. 

82 Haddington 

103 El Hides Mid 

S3 Edinburgh 

104 Ebudes N. 

84 Linlithgow 



105 lloss W. 

85 Fife& Kinross 

106 Koss E. 

86 Stirling 

107 Sutherland E. 

87 PerthS.&Clkn 

108 SutherlandW. 

88 Mid Perth 

109 Caithness 

89 Perth N. 


90 Forfar 

no Hebrides 

91 Kincardine 

in Orkneys 

92 Aherdeen S. 

112 Shetlands 




113 Derry 

122 Loiith 

114 Antrim 

12;i Meath 

115 Down 

124 Dublin 

116 Armagli 

125 Kildare 

117 Monaghan 

126 Wicklow 

118 Tyrone 

127 We.\ford 

119 Donegal 

128 Carlow 

120 Feimanagh 

129 Kilkenny 

121 Cavan 

130 Queen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Ilosconnnon 

135 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 


137 Mayo E. 


138 Mayo W. 


139 Galway W. 


140 Galway E. 




141 Clare 

. J — \^ 

142 Limerick 

\/ei f 

143 Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S. 

V _ \ 

145 Waterford 

^ -r^^^\ 

146 Cork N. 

Si ^^. 

147 Cork S. 

f'\ 3+A 

14,s Kerry 



Probable Range. 
^^ Recorded Distribution. 
^H Distribution verified by the Authors 




Ill se\eial iiiaritiiiie (li.'|>artiiients bordcriu;;' upon the Atlantic < >cean. 

Charente-Inferieure— La lUn'liullo ((J. iV F.. Mon. Test., iS.Ki, p. .Sil). 

Finistere — Ctnnnion alK)Ut JJrest, also at Moulin Blanc, conminne of St. ^laie 
(Daniel, J. tie Conch., 1883, ji. 370). 

Gironde — Bordeaux, (Iradignan and r>laii.|uefort (G. & F., ISoG, oj). cit., p. 39). 

Loire-Inferieure — Cleon.s, near Nantes (Cailliaud, Cat. Moll. Loiie-Inf., ISbo, 
p. :.'()()). 

Morbihan— I'arc de Rogucdas, near Vannes (IJourg., Mai. Bret., 1860, p. 44). 

Seine-Inferieure— Dieppe, Dugue (C i^ ¥., 18.56, op. cit., p. 39.) 


Spain — Asturias (P. Fischer, 3Ian. do Conch., 1883, p. 202). Algeciras in Anda- 
lusia, 1889, J. H. Ponsonby ! 

Portugal — From tiie jtarallel of Coimbra as far as the shores of the Al^arve 
(Morelet, Moll. Port., 184.1, p. 18). Lisl)on, March 1802, K. McAndrew. Alyes, A. 
Nobre (Mai. Taye et Hado, 1886, p. 122). Oporto (Siniroth, Nacktsch. Portug.- 
Azor., 1891, p. 210). 


Morocco -Anion^- dead leaves in damp spot in garden and under similar condi- 
tions at foot of a wall in a deep ravine, Taiigiers, J. H. Ponsonliy ! These specimens 
were erroneously recorded as T. hitmlcatu by Herr Hesse (Mai. Bliitt. , 1885, p. 9). 


Azores— Cultivated grounds in S. Miguel, Sta. Maria and F'ayal (WoUaston, 
Test. Atl., 1878, pp. 13, 14). 

Canaries — Cultivated land in Tenerille and Cran Canarj\ Rev. Dr. "Watson 
also found it sub-fossilized at Tatira, tiran Canary (Wollaston, Test. Atl., 1878, 
p. 311). 

Madeira — In cultivated grounds abimt Funchal ; at the Val, at S. Concalo, and 
Camara de Lol>os ; in Dr. Rendall's garden at Val Quinta and near S. Martinho 
(Wollaston, Test. Atl., 1878, p. 73). 

Cape Colony — Collected alnnidantly at Cai)e of Good Hope about 1857 by the 
late Mr. E. L. Layard ! 

United States— (Jroenlionse at Lower Roxburgh, Philadelphia, Pa. (Robert 
Walton. Nautilus, 1891, p. 83), also in greenhouse in School Lane, Germantown, 
Philadelphia (M. .Schick, Nautilus, April'. 1895, p. 133). 

New Zealand — Prof. Hutton has described a Testacclla from gardens about 
Auckland, under the name of vajaiis, which Mr. Cheeseman, of the Auckland 
Museum, thinks may prove to be mnujci (C. T. Musson, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, 1890, p. 885). 


Fig. 42.— The cl.issical locality for Tcstaccl/a inaug-ei, 
Durdham Down Nurseries, Clifton, as they appeared half-a-century ago. 



Genus GLANDINA Sclminaclier. 
(Oleacina. Bollcn ; Polyphemus, Monlfurt ; Cochlicopa pars, Fcrussac). 

Tlie j:,feiiu.s ClJand'nia (iHiii. of (//uns, a gland) is a i)riiiiitive group of 
predaci(jii.s .-snails ut achatiuoid urigin ])reying cliietly ui)()n the })liyt()i»liag- 
ous species, but also devouring smaller individuals of their own kind. 
Although their head-quarters are now in the West Indies and Central 
America, where living forms are found scarcely separable from some of our 
Oligocene fossils, yet a single well-marked species, (ildiiduia ahjini, still 
lingers in the Mediterranean region, the only surviving representative of 
the numerous European species whose remains are found in the E(;cene 
and Miocene de])osits of Continental Euroi)e and the Oligocene beds of our 
own country; although two of the British tonus are possibly erroneously 
referred to the present genus, I have not had the opportunity to make a 
})ersonal examination of the specimens. 

Externally, Cll<(ndina is cliaracterized b}' an elongate, anteriorly attenu- 
ate body : long ommatophorks, with the eyes behind their detiected tips ; 
bulbous ANTERIOR TENTACLES; elongate and exten.sile larial palps ; narrow- 
foot. The SHELL is long and fusiform, of a lustrous white or horn colour: 
w'HoRLS six to eight; columella twisted and basally truncate; aperture 
narrow, peristome simple. 

Internally, they are destitute of the mandible; the lingual sheath is 
enormous, and the radula furnished with obliquely arcuate {josteriorly con- 
verging rows of Acanthoglossate^ teeth, Avith a slender unicuspid median 

Glandina costellata (Sowerby). 

182.3 BnHinus costellatus Sow., Miii. Coiicli., iv., p. 89 bis, pi. 836. 

1S'_'!) Liiiniiiyi iiin.iii/iii Sow., ,Miii. Coiicli., vi., \\. 53, 1)1. 528, f. 1. 

IS.Vi A'/iiifii/'i cij.ifrll((ta F. E. Edwards, Mon. Eoc. Moll., p. 75, pi. 7, f. la-k. 

1891 Glandina rmtdhda K. I>. Newton, Syst. List Edwards' Coll., p. 276. 

Shki,t> ()v,'il-ol)I(nig, with a somewhat acute 
ape.\ ; wiloi;i,s six, somewliat convex and 
transversely ribbed, the ribs being rounded, 
irregular, rather oblitpie and thickened at the 
sutures, giving tliem a crcnulate aspect ; 
CKOWTU lines oI)scure. intersecting the 
obli([ucly loii.i;ifudinal lilibinj:: ; APERTURE 
narrow and pyriforni, length, 32 mill. 

Length of shell, 60 mill. ; diam., 22 mill. 

The e.xisting species, G. llgiKiria Reeve, 
from Mexic(j, and (i. ci/nsjtcrsd Pfr., from 
( J uatemala, resemble this species so closely 
that 8tarkie (Jardner considers it difficult 
to avoid uniting them. 


Oligocene.- — This species is mostly found 
in the IJembiid^ie limesti^ne strata, but usu- 
ally in tlie form of casts, the shell being rarely 

ISLE OF u-icur. 

Headon Series. — J. S. Gardner, (Jeol. Ma;;., 1885, p. 247. 

(►SI!0HNK SKKIKS.^C .\slifoi(l, LSSS. 

1}e.MI!I!IU(;k Skuiks. — In a pit on nortli of road, Slialcombe (.1. Sow.. Min. Conch., 
1823, p. 89 bis). Stone ipiarries, Hinstead, near Hyde, Prof. Sed;.'wick, 1826 (Sow., 
Min. Conch., vi., y. 53, 1829). Sconce and Headon Hill (Edwards, I.e., p. 76). 
Bembridge, Hempstead, Whiteclitt' Bay, etc., C. Ashfoid, 1888. 

1 Monog. i., p. 267, f. 533. 2 Monog. i , p III. 

Fig. 13. 

Fig. 41. 

Olandiiia costellata (Sow.). 
{.\fter Edwards). Slishtly reduced. 




I'.KMBRinGK Skries.— Hordwell. with M.y:v, Psammobi.T, ami Corbula- (Gray's 
Tnitoii, Brit. Shells, 1840, p. 4H). 

Pahvotherinm limestone. Department Autle(J. S. (ianlner, 
Geol. Mag-., 1885, p. 247). 

Var, abbreviata Edward^^, Mou. Eoc. Moll, 1852, 

pi. 12, ff. i-k. 

Shell more ventricose tlian the typical form, with a 
shorter spire ; WHOKLS live, more convex, the last whorl con- 
stituting almost the whole of the shell ; APERTURE longer in 
proportion than that of the type, and exceeding- the spire in 
length, owing proba))ly to the shell not having attained 

Length of shell, 40 mill. ; diam. 25 mill. 


Oligocene — Bembridge lime.stone series at Sconce^ (R. B. 
Newton, Syst. List Edwards' Coll., 1891, p. 276). 

Fig. 43. 

Var. ahhreriata Eds. , 
Sconce, Isle of Wight. 

(After Edwards). 

Slightly reduced. 

Glandina convexa (S. V. Wood). 

1877 Biilhnm convexus S. V. Wood, Eoc. Moll., iv., p. 3.S5, pi. 31, f. 6. 
1891 Glandina convexa \\. B. Newton, Syst. List Edwards' Coll., p. 275. 

Shell elongate, turreted ; whorls six, convex; suture impressed ; base con- 
vex ; COLUMELLA subretlexed ; UMIULICUS small ; APERTURE pyriform, outer lip 
simple and acute. 

Fig. 4G. P"u.. 47. 

Glandina convexa (S. \^. Wood), Sconce, Isle of Wight ; photographed by Mr. J. G. Randall, 

slightly reduced. 

G. convexa varies considerably in size. Of the two specimens tigured, the 
larger shell, indicated by the black spot on the body wlujrl (fig. 46) is the 
identical indivitlual selected as type by Searles V. Wood for illustration in 
the Memoirs of the PaUeontographical Society ; its total height before loss 
of apex was probably 45 mill., as even now, after mutilation, it attains 40 
mill.; its breadth is 21 mill. The aperture is 20 mill, long and 10 mill, in 
diameter. The smaller specimen (tig. 47) is oG mill, long, and 17 mill, 
broad ; its aperture IS mill, long and 10 mill. wide. 

ENGLAND AND WALES. isle of wight. 

Oligocene — Bembridge limestone at Sconce (S. V. Wood, Pal. Soc. , iv. , p. 335, 
1877). Bembridge, Hempstead, Whiteclifl" Bay, etc., C. Ashford, 1888. 

I Geologists speak of Sconce ,t; if it were a geographical place. Sconce is a common noun, meaning a 
fort (to ensconce was to retire into the sconce for defence), and was applied to the defences of Tudor and 
Stuart times, which were often distinguished liy the names of the erectors. This one is marked on soine 
maps as Gary's Sconce (now demolished). The Bembridge limestone is exposed near its site, hence its 
notoriety, C. Ashford in litt., 1890. 


Glandina brevis (Edwards ms.). 

ISOI Glandina brevis H. U. Newton, .Sy«t. List Edwards' Coll., p. 21'). 

SliKLL tuiliiiiate witli an acnto spire and rounded l)ase ; Wlioitl.s five and half 
to six, somewhat convex and transversely striate, the last whorl a little more than 
half tiie total len,i;tli of tiie shell ; ouiKi; t, If simple: si'TUKK distinct ; APKKTURE 
longilndinally pyriform, length, 20 mill. ; diani., 10 mill. 

Len.i,fth of shell, 35 mill. ; diam., 18 mill. 

Fig. 48. — Glandi7ia brez'is (Edwards ms.), Sconce, Isle of Wight ; photographed by Mr. J. fi. Randall. 

slightly reduced. 

Mr. Starkie Gardner records that the National Collection 
upwards of sixty specimens of this species, which strikingly illustrate the 
great variability in the relative proportions of whorls and aperture. 

BIUTISH ISLES. /slk of wight. 

Oligfocene— l*>eml)ridj;(! limestone, Sc(Hice (K. T>. Newton, Syt-t. List Edwards' 
Coll., 1S91, p i'Tr)). 


Bonr;j;nij,'nat, J. R. — Notice sur les especes vivantes et fo.'?siles dn .i^enre Testa- 

cella. — Rev, et Maj,'. Zool., Dec. 1S61. 
Cockerell, T. 1). A.^The Variation and Abnormal Development of tlie Mollusca. 

— Science (iossip, ISS,"), ]>]). '224 — ;■>. 
Collin<,fe, W. E.- The Morpholr)j;v of the Cenerative System of the Uenus Testa- 

ce/ln.— Ann. an<l M:v^. Nat. Hist., xii., ]>. 21-25, ]d. 1, ]S9:{. 
Cnvier, (}. — Memoire snr la Testacelle. — Annales Mns. dliist. Nat.. 1804. 
Edwards, E. E.— Monoj^rajdi Eocene Mollusca, 1852. 
Classics i^' Eischer — Mono^rajihie du (!(>iire Testacelle — Actes Lin. Soc. Bordeaux, 

Laca/.e-Duthiers, II. — Histoire dc la Test.acelle— Arch. Zool. Exj)er., v., i)p. 459 — 

590, 1)1. 29—40, KS87. 
Massot, 1*. — I)es Testacelles Eranc.aises. — Annales de ^Ialacolo<,de, i. , pji. 145 — 157, 

and ]d., 1870. 
M(«|Min-'randon. A. — Hist. Nat. Moll. Erance, 1855. 
I'ollonera, ('. — Di alcune Testacelle raccolle presso Torino.— Uoll. Mus. Zool. 

Torino, ISSS. 

( (sserv. iiitorno .alcnne s]>ecie di Testacella. — ]>oll. Mns. Zool. Torino, 1889. 
I'oulton, E. i;. — Note upon the liahits of 'I'estacelia. — Nature, Oct. 28, 1.S86. 
Simroth, H. — Die Nacktschnecken d. Portnjiiesisch-Azorischen Eanna, 189L 

On some Testacelhe, d. of Conch., vol. vi., p. 42:i, Oct. 1891. 
Tayhn-, .1. W. — On the Specilic Distinctness and CJeoj,'rapiiical Distrihution of 

T. .sri(fu/inn. — .1. of Couch., v., p. '.VM — 347, 188S. 
Wehh, W. M.— The I'.ritish Species of Testacella.-d. of M:il.. Dec. LS95, ,Iulv 
1897, and Dei-. LS97. 
On the -Manner of Eeedinj^ in T. scutiiluin. — Zool., Aug. 1893, 
Wood, Searles V. — Eocene Mollusca, 1877. 


Family LIMACID.E Gray. 

The faniily Llmachhc as liere understood 
embraces the genera Llmax , Agriolimax 
and Amal'ia, in addition to other groups 
foreign to our shores, and although now 
restricted in extent is not even j-et a 
thoroughly homogeneous fiimily, but the 
parallel course of shell degeneration and 
the marked convergence of the external 
form of the constituent genera renders 
tlieir association convenient, at least 
until their true genetic relationships 
have been elucidated. 
; The great advan,ce.s made in late years 

. ' ^ in our knowledge of tliesc neglected 

creatures is largely due to the brilliant 
researches of l)r. >Sinn'oth, the eminent 

y^ — . German limacologist, who has for years 

^^ ^ fjT^f^'C^^t.'^-'^ made the elucidation of this group an 

especial study. 
Family Characteristics.— Externally, the features possessed in com- 
mon by the Lhmicidw are the elongate, subcylindrical body ; a more or less 
noticeable dorsal keel, most pronounced at the caudal end ; an anterior 
mantle or shield which covers the pulmonary chamber, the heart, the kid- 
ney, etc., with the respiratory aperture on the right side, behind the 
middle of the mantle margin ; sole longitudinally tripartite, mid-area loco- 
motory ; reprodugtory orifice behind the right ommatophore. 

Shell oblong or oval, white and slightly concave, with the nucleus at the 
posterior margin, but inclining towards the left side, from whence concentric 
lines of growth extend, which demonstrate that the external shell of which it 
is the vestige was spirally coiled; the Dendrolimaces of Soutli Africa show 
more clearly the stages between the shelled and the naked species. 

Internally, the nervous system is chiefly aggregated around the 
pharynx'; an important caudo-dorsal nerve arises from the pallio-abdominal 
commissure, extends along the length of the body, and is in intimate con- 
nection with the pharyngeal retractor; mandible oxygnathous'; lingual 
teeth numerous, arranged in median, lateral and marginal series and quite 
typical of the group Dichoglossa''; pharyngeal and tentacular retractors 
combined posteriorly and forming a common stem affixed to the dorsal 
integument behind the lung, and constituting with the testaceous forms 
the group Monorliiza.^ 

The Lhnacidw is one of the groups which retain in adult life the primi- 
tive shell or protoconch" formed by the shell-gland of the eml^yo ; and 
wdiicli also develop in the Gastrula" stage a well-marked caudal vesicle, 
whose rhythmical contractions assist the circulation of the body fluids prior 
to the developing heart becoming functional. 

Tlie shell is the lapis Umacum of the Romans, and enjoyed great re- 
nown amongst the various remedies," bezoars, and amulets'* which ancient 
peoples held in high esteem either as speciftcs for the cure of various ail- 
ments or as charms protecting the wearer against accidents or disease. 

1 Monocr. i.. p. 215, f. 421 2 Monos. i., p. 2.55, f. 511. .3 iMonog. i., p. 271, f. 5l;j. 

4 Monog. i., p. 343, (. 637. 5 Monog. i., p. 322. (! Mnnog. i., p. 3S0, f. 717. 7 Alonog. i., p. 427 

8 Monog. i., p. 433. 


Food and Habits.- 'i'lio luibits of tho hhnac'uhr aro very various, 
some beiii^' almost subteiTaiiean in tlieir luodo ol' lite, but all are noetiinial 
or crepuscular, only leaving their lurking places at eve or during damp and 
showery weather. 

A characteristic feature of the Liniachhr is the itleutiful secretion of 
mucus which may be utilized in the form of mucus tilanients as a ready 
means of descent from elevated positions.^ 

Some of the species are eminently onnn'vorous, others are almost entirely 
restricted to fungi, while many will greedily devour such food when olfered : 
indeed, Simroth allirms their original food to be the Bcmfliomycetea, and the 
fungiferous stratum of moss in forests, heaths and mountains to be their 
original head-([uarters. All, however, are more or less inclined to a Hesh- 
diet, and on occasion may be not only carnivorous or canniljalistic, but even 

Parasites and Enemies. — Many animals prey upon tlie Limnekia-, 
Hedgehogs, Frogs, and Toads being groat enemies, and Ducks and Geese ver}' 
])artial to tliem, while the Thrushes, Blackbird, UhalHnch, Starling, Plovers, 
Curlew, Woodcock, Whinchat, Coot, Quail, Oyster-Catcher, Landrail, etc., 
are all recorded as slug devourers. Blindworms (An;/ii!s /nf(//7!s) and 
some of the larger KStaphylinidre also prey upon them; the Wood Ant has 
been observed to attack and overcome even the larger s])ecies, and larva) of 
various dipterous flies are very destructive to them in the egf^ state. 

]*arasitic ui)on tliem are hnapora vara, a Gregarine. also Davainea pro- 
gloft'tiKi, which is parasitic in the domestic fowl, but passes one of its stages 
within the body of a Umax : while a Nematoid worm, Ascarioides limari.^i, 
is said to be found within the egg. P///locIromus llmacinn^^ an Acarid, 
almost universally parasitic upon the land gastropods, is often partii'ularl}- 
l)lentiful u])on the different species of Li mac/da'. 

Geographical Distribution. — The Limacidiv are apparently of world- 
wide distribution, l)ut it is })robable that when their internal organization 
has been accurately ascertained, it will be found that the LliiHtcida- of dis- 
tant regions are more i)rimitive forms and not so closely related in structure 
to western pala3arctic species as their external aspect appears to indicate. 

Gknus LHFAX Linne. 

History. — The term Li max {LJmax, a slug ; according to Erumati, the 
equivalent Italian word Lumaca is derived from limu.'i, dirt, clay, or mud) 
was originated or instituted by Linne to distinguish one of the five great 
groups into which he classitied the MoUusca. 

This broad ai)plicati(jn of the term has, however, from time to time been 
restricted until it is now used to mure especially distinguish the species 
centreing arounci Umax maximiis. 

Generic Characters. — Extkrnally, the Limaces are distinguished by 

their nioi-e or less distinctly maculate or longitudinally fasciate i$oi)Y: their 
thin iNTKiii'MENT ; their long and slender tkntaclks markedly bulbous at 
the apex ; dorsal furrows distinctly marked, arising beneath the mantle 
and terminating at front of head, where they form the facial grooves"; 
MANTLE or shield anterior, about one-third of total length of body, concen- 
tricall)'^ wrinkled, with a sub-posterior nucleus ; mucus clear or stained with 
red or yellow. 

Shell ehtngate or ovoid in shajie, white, slightly concave ; apex posterior, 
inclined to lelt side, and slightly attached to animal ; lines of growth con- 
centric and occasionally well marked. 

1 Monog. i., p. 3ia 2 Mono-, i., p. 423, f. 738. 3 Monog. i.. p. 186, f. 300. 



Intp:rnally, L'tmax is especially ch.avacterized by the gut possessing five 
coils, in addition to the (esophageal or stomach tract, an arrangement dis- 
tinguished by the term Pentadroma'; its 
first and second courses are held in ])osi- 
tion by the cephalic aorta, as is usual in 
gastropods, the third and fuurth tracts 
being retained anteriorly by encircling 
the i)haryngeal retractor, the whole gut 
disjjlaying no indication of the si)iral 
twisting to which in the past it has been 
undoubtedly subjected. 

The Reproductive Organs are simple, 
with few accessory jiarts, and according 
to Babor undergo in most species a cycle 
of development, the animal being first 
unisexual, and only subse({uently herma- 
phrodite, but may finally again become 
unisexual by the a,trophy of the organs 
of the sex to which the animal originally 
belonged; the penis sheath is somewhat 
long, and the penis and vagina are 
separated by the right tentacular re- /''''• ^?;-^Ty-^^''T ^11'''/° ^'''''Ih^ 

1 ""^^ "^ "J & after scalding, laid open dorsally to show the 

tractor; sperm duct a complete tul)e, arrangement of the internal organs. 

L ■ 1 -,i„ r ',, 1 ■ , . .■ . ..,1 .i ,.,, i/. crop or functional Stomach ; w. ovidnct ; 

not inCOmi)lete as m Anon, circulatory „^. ovotestis; sk. shell; h. heart; ,-. rectnm; 

system, according to Semper, shows a 'intestine; /•. kidney; /. Uver. 

single oval blood sinus beneath; the supra-pedal mucus gland is imbedded 

in the foot and extends the whole length of the body ; atrium short. 

The heart and lung are constructed as in Helix and Uytdlnhi ; the 
kidney is a simple sac with laminate margins and furnished with a well- 
marked and distinct secondary ureter.- 

Geographical Distribution. — Linm.v is naturally a western ]ya\\m- 
arctic group, and in its dispersal strikingly evidences the truth of our 
location of the most active evolutionary area in North Central Euro})e, for 
we find the most highly organized forms prevailing there, fringed around 
with allied but more simply organized and weaker species, whose progenitors 
have pnjbably been expelled therefrom or otherwise have taken refuge in 
UKjre or less undesirable localities, as with the primitive L. fenellui<, which 
though still found in North Central Euro})e, is now almost exclusively re- 
stricted to the limits of the })ine forests. 

The higher organiz-ition and greater adaptability of the dominant species 
of L'nnd.r is shown by their (piickly becoming accustomed to new surround- 
ings when accidentally transported to other countries, and gradually 
extending their range to the detriment and dispossession of the weaker 
aboriginal species. 

Geological History. — The genus Lhnax has been recorded as fossil 
from deposits as ancient as the Lower Miocene of Germany, and from other 
beds of more recent formation. 

In the British Isles this genus has been recorded by Morris from the 
Mammalian Crag at Stutton ; it has also been found in the Lower Pleistocene 
of East Angiia, in the Middle Oligoceue of the Hampshire Basin, and vari- 
ous other deposits. 


1 Monog. i., p. 28.i, f. oSO. 2 Monog. i., p. 336, f. 628. 



Limax maximus Linne. 

1678 Liiimx cinereus, maximus, striaius db mnculatus Lister, Hist. Aniin. Aiigl., 

p. 127, tit. and fif;. 15. 
1737 Cochlea nuda dotucsdca i^wamm., KM. Nat., i., ch. 13, p. 158, tab. 8, 11'. 7, 8, fl. 
1740 Lima,)- ccllarla D'Arf;enville, Conch., p. 386,1)1. 28, f. 31. 
175G La Lhnace ccudrce, strive et taehec dc noir et dr Intn Guet., Mem. Ac. Sc, p. 147. 

1758 Limax maximus L., Syst. Nat., ed. x., i., p. 652. 

1774 — cinereus Miill., Verm. Hist., ii., p. 5, no. 202. 

1789 — faseiatits Razouniousky, Hist. Jorat, vol. i. . p. 267. 

1819 — aiifiquoruni Fcr., Hist. Moll., p. 68, pi. 4, ff. 1-8. 

1837 — ci/rena'iis Campanyo, Bull. Phil. I'erpi2;nan, iii., p. 88. 

1837 — iiiaridatiis Nnnneley, Trans. Phil. Soc. Leeds, i., i». 46, pi. 1, f. 2. 

1845 — sylmtieits Morelet, 'Moll. Port., p. 33. 

1815 Limacella parnia Brard, Coq. Paris, p. 110, pi. 4, 11'. 1, 2, 9, 10. 

1876 — ijiaxinia Jousseaume, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, p. 97. 

1868 Etdimax maximus Malm, Lim. Scand., pp. 54-57, pi 4, 11'. 10-lOf. 

, I STORY. — Limax inuximns (mao'imus, great- is, as its name implies, one of the largest 
species of the genus, and has been known in 
this country for more than two centuries. 
Merret, in 16G7, first enumerated it as one of 
our native species, and Lister, in 1678, figured 
and ably described it under a polynomial ap- 
pellation, the first part of which — Limax 
cinereus — has frequently been disassociated 
from the rest of the epithets and used as a 
binomial term. 
^ • Upon the erroneous assumption that this 

iL L€\^U^ ^ fLyCL Cc-c^^^^ species does not occur in Sweden, Dr. Wester- 
V L . t'*''^ \\xw\ concludes that Limax cinereo-niger is 

the true Limax maximus of Linne, and on this 
ground he applies the term maximus to cinereo-niger, and uses the word 
civcreus to designate the present species. 

Diag^nosis. — Externally, Limax maximus may be distinguished from 
L. riii('r('o-ni<jer by the body being typically pale and longitudinally zoned 
with black ; the shield maculate or marbletl by dark colouring ; the sole 
uniforndy pale ; the keel confined to the caudal end of the body, and the 
rugosities small, fine, and ({uite closely set. 

Internally, the shell is distinctly narrower and more elongate; the penis 
sheath is distally swollen, very rigidly fiexed, and its retractor said to have 
a different jxtint of fixation ; the lingual teeth differ from those of cincreo- 
iiif/t'r by their more aculeate character, and by their cutting-points more 
([uickly alternating with those of the adjacent rows ; and the mandible is 
larger, stronger, and distinctly rectangular in shape at the ends. 

It is also more sluggish in habit, has not so wide a range in altitude or 
space, and is more closely associated with man and his habitations than the 
closely-allied L. cinereo-niger, with which it has been so often united. 

From Limax marginatus, better known as L. arborum, it is distinguished 
by its much longer and more slender tentacles, and 1)y its spotted shield, 
that of marginatus being invariably longitudinally banded ; while intern- 
ally it is sharply differentiated by the presence in marginatus of a short 
conical flagellum to the penis-sheath and a coecal appendage to tlie rectum. 




Fig. 52. — Internal shell of 
Lintax luaxiinus L., X Ij. 
Christchurch, Hants. 

Dr. Scliarff has also indicated a ready method of discrimination to be by 
touching the front of the mantle, which the animal at once raises up and 
almost inverts. This peculiar action does not occur with L. marglnatus, 
in which the mantle is more intimately united with the body. 

Description. — Animal willi a long and slender body, tapering towards tlie tail, 
and varying in length from 100 to 150 mill., l>ut occasionally reaching to even 200 
mill. ; usually of a yellowish-grey or cinereous ground colour, variously handed or 
maculated with hlack, hut sometimes unicolorous ; BODY rounded, hut keeled towards 
the caudal end, with ahout forty-eight longitudinal rows of elongate, detaclied 
tul)ercles; NECK pale, with two conspicuous' dorsal FURROWS enclosing a single 
row of elongate tubercles and terminating in front as the FACIAL GROOVES ; SOLE 
uniformly pale ; FOOT-FRINUE pale with a row of minute suhmarginal hlackish 
tuhercles ; TENTACLES very long and slender; SHIELD oblong, ahout one-tliird the 
total length of the animal, roundeil in front, angular behind, and forming an angle 
of aliout 80 deg. when in motion, usually of a similar tint to tlie liody, but boldly 
marbled or maculate with black, somewhat concentrically and interruptedly lidged 
around a sub-posterior nucleus. Mucus colourless and iridescent, not very adhe- 
sive, and less plentiful than in L. flainis or L. marginatas. 

Shell placed beneath the hinder part of the shield 
and perceptible through the skin, oblong-oval, thin, of a 
whitish colour, .slightly convex above, and correspondingly 
concave beneath, with a menil)ranous margin ; APEX or 
nucleus at the posterior margin but inclined towards the 
left side, and forming the aiiophysis by wliicii the sliell is 
organically attached to the aninuxl. Length, 13 mill. ; 
breadth, 7 niilL 

Internally, the nervous system is composed of the typical ganglia; the pedal 
ganglia are placed l)eneath tlie radula sac and joined togetlier by an anterior and 
a posterior commissure; the abilominal ganglion lies a little to the riglit of the 
median line ; the visceral ganglia occupy the angle between tlie lingual sheath 
and the oesophagus, and the buccal ganglia are wiilely separated hut joined together 
by a commissure nearly as thick as the ganglia themselves. 

The olfactory sense is chietly lodged in the tentacles, yet accordinj,' to Siniroth 
there are within the mantle chamber well-marked vestiges of the primitive smelling- 
organ or OSPHRADIUM in the form of a sinijde yellowish ridge furnished witli a 
double fringe of nerves and placed to the left of the anal aperture. 

Th^ reproductive organs are simple ; the 
OVOTESTis or hermaplu-odite gland on left upper 
side of liver, is very large, narrowly linguiform, 
many lobed, with very small, rounded, darkly 
pigmented follicles ; bucT long, .slender, and 
straight above, thickened and sinuous below, 
usually white; ALBUMEN OLAND large lobed, of 
an amber colour and placed on right side along 
the crop ; OVISPERMATODUCT long and com- 
paratively narrow, only sliglitly connected to- 
gether in the lower half and sometimes naturally 
(li.sjunct, resembling Liiiiax fiaviis in this re- 
spect ; OVIDUCT portion puckered into short, 
rounded segments; SPERM-DUCT thick, cream- 
white, mosti conspicuous below; FREE-OVIDUCT 
short, the lower thickened part furnished intern- 
ally with annular glands ; SPERMATHECLV club- 
sliaped, blotched with opaque-white and amber, 
its crown fixed by muscular threads to ovisperma- 
toduct, its stem short, joining free oviduct at its 
very base; PENIS-SHEATH long, upperhalfopai|ue- 
white, thickened and rigidly convoluted, lowei' 
half narrow, semi-transparent white, tinged with 
bluish or brownish near external orihce, and fur- 
nished with a crest interiorly, which is most pro- 
nounced at the upper end, its retractor, which is 
the chief cause of the spiral twisting of the penis 
when protruded, is a stout band arising from left side of root of columella retractor, 
and attached terminally to penis-sheath ; VAS deferens enters close to retractor. 


Fig. 53. — Sexual 
inaxiiiius L. 

(Beverley, Yorks., Mr. J. D. Butterell). 

alh.g. albumen gland ; m'- oviduct ; ot. 
ovotestis ; p.s. penis sheath ; r.jn. retrac- 
tor muscle ; sp. spermatheca ; 7!.d. vas 



'rii«> CKi'iiAi.rc i!i-;ri!Acr(»ni arises iKMioafli the posterior «'.\tr('inity of (lie maiitlt", 
ill one or more roots, which i|iiici<ly unite into a liroad pearly-wliite hand, hut jiltont 
mill way divides into a piiaryiii^eal and two teiilacnhir hiaiiriies. 'I'he I'HAIJVNckai. passes til ron^ih tiie liei verin^', and divich's, to l)ecoiiie lixed on eaeli side (it 
tlu- piiarynx. The TKNTACUl.AR RKTRACTOKS eacii give oil' a luancli to tiie anterior 
ti'iitacde of tlieir respective sides, which send slips to the iahial h)l)es. Tiie Inoail 
e(doured part of tlie iiiuseular siieatii of tiie oniiiiatopliore is clearly detined from the 
tentaeie, and (rontains the ocular niusele and tlie convoluted optic nerve when tiic 
eye is retracted. 

AmmkntaRY canai;^ with short (KSOPHAGUS ; CKoi" hjiiii,, dari^isli lirowii, witli 
longitudinal and transverse wrinkles, contracted hefore and enlarj;ed at tiie lirst 
lienTl wliicli represents the true stomacli and receives the hile duct.s ; sai,IVAI;v 
OLAN'U.s whitish, larj;e, comjiact and not deeply lolied ; the (iUT has tive courses (.r 
tracts in addition to the stomach tract, whicli is the longest, the Krst intestinal tract 
increases dispro])ortionately in lengtli witli age, and thus heconies larger in compari- 
son with the succeeding coils which only grow in corresi)ondence with other parts 
of tiie l)ody, tli(> tiiird tract, instead of foVming tlie rectum, as is usual in gastropods, 
turns around tiie ceplialic retractor and runs liacd^ free over tlie surface of the vis- 
ceral mass, and then linally hends into the forward tract, constituting the rectum. 

MANi)ir.i,K or jaw horny -brown, about four mill, 
broad and one niiil. wide at its narrowest part, strongly 
arclied anteriorly, with a strong, pointed, central 
beak or rostrum, which jirojects boldly beneath, ends 
distinctly rectangular with the corners ronn<led oH', 
line of bedding in upjier jaw shown by a broad darker 
liiown line parallel with tiie upper margin. 

Tlie LINCiUAl. MKMIJRANE is of an elongate oval shape, ten mill, long and about 
five mill, wide, beset with closely-set teeth, whicli decrease very slightly in size, and 
are arranged in transverse rows which gently curve backwards as the margins are 
aiiproacdied ; median row with hour-glass shajied base of attachment and a broad 
reflection bearing a strong centra! cup or niesocone,-' side cus[is sub-obsolete witliont 
])erceptihle cutting points ; lateral teeth with strong niesocone, the endocone^ show- 
ing as an acutely luominent angle, but without cutting point; ectocone^ obsolete ; 



Fig. 54. — Mandilile or jaw of L. 
'la.xiiiiiis L., X 8. 
(Beverley, Mr. J. D. P.uttercll). 



Flc. .55. — Representative teeth from a transverse row of the lins2;iial teeth of Liinax ina.xinius L. X 120. 
The animal eollecteil l.y Mr. C. Oldham, at Knutsford ; the radula prepared hy Mr. W. Moss, and 
photographed by Mr. T. VV. Thornton. 

the lateral bicuspid teeth graibially become more aculeate in cliaracter, and about 
the twentietli row the apices begin to alternate witli tiiose of the adjacent rows; 
at the forty-eiglith row tliey begin to bifurcate, continuing thus to the margins. 

The dental formula of a Knutsford specimen, collected by .Mr. ('. Ohlhaiu, is 

•"'..^ ^ "i" ^ '.," ^\^ ~." ^ \^ ^ ''-^ >" 168 = 27, GOO. 

Habits, etc^This specie.s is not orooariou.s, and frequents gardens, 
dani[) and shady hedg-erows and woods, hiding- during the day lieneath 
stones, nnd(M- fallen trees, or otlier ob.scnrc and damp jdaces ; it, however, 
exhihits a decided preference for the vicinity of human habitations, and 
readily takes up its abode in damp cellars or outbuildings. 

In Ireland, this jiredilection for human dwellings is not exbibitod, the 
s[iecies being said by ,Srharfi' to be restricted to woods and other similar iilaces, 
and may even be met with almost within high-water mark on the sea-shore. 

TIu' iioMiNtJ faculty is strongly developed in tlii-< species, which, after its 
iioctiinial i';niibl(>s or foraging expeditions, usually returns to the jiarticular 

1 .Monog. i., p. 311, f 637. 2 Monog. i., p. 28o, f. 569. 3 Monog. i , p. 152. I Monog. i., p. 152. 

5 Monog. i., p. 152. 



crevice or cliiuk in which it has established itself: as shown by their sliuie- 
tracks, these animals in the course of tlieir pere_!j:ri nations often form a looii 


r I 

I'K;. 56. — Mucus-track, twenty feel or more in length. of Limax max iinis I,., oliserveil \'.y Mr L. K. 
Aclam>, upon the boundary wall of the Churcliyard, Clifton, Derbyshire, July 8, 189S, illustrating the 
homing propensity. 

or ti,i;'nre of 8, the return track crossin,i( the outward one at some point, 
usually near to the chosen home. 

The OLFACTORY sense is strongly developed in the Limaces, the keen per- 
ception of L'lnm.r imi.rlniu^ beini>" established by the well-known exi)eriment 
of Mo(iuin-Tandon.' Striking contirmation of this acuteness of tlieir olfac- 
tory faculty is related by Mr. L. E. Adams, who, about ten o'clock, one dark, 
windy, and wet evening in August, 1.S97, at Clifton, Derliyshire, saw a Lhva.r 
tiia.viiiius crawling directly towards a j)late upon the lawn, containing the 
remains of the dog's dinner ; when first observed the slug was about six 


\^^ Position 

or Plate 






Ki(.. 57. — Diagram of the route traversed l>y Liiinix iiinxiiims I.., in following the changes 
of position of a plate of food, as observed by Mr. I.. K. .Adams, at Clifton, Derbyshire. 

feet distant from the plate, but within thirty minutes had reached it ; the 
plate was then moved to a second })osition, about six feet away, luit in 
another direction ; the slug almost immediately changed its course, and 

1 Monog. i., p. 2'J!). 



again made straiglit towards tlie plate, on again nearing it the same j)roces,s 
was repeated witli the same result, the plate l)eing finally removed and pl.ieed 
in a fourth position, eight feet awa\', and directly to the leeward (jf the slug, 
yet in a little more than half-an-hour the sing had reached the jjlate. 

Food. — />. nidximus is very omnivorous, and though, according to Sim- 
roth, as a rule refusing plants containing chl(jro])hyll, it has been observed 
by Mr. E. J. Lowe to dev(nir the young and tender foliage of Adidntiun, 
Petunias, Pansies, Chrysanthemums, Cucumbers, French Beans, Tobacco 
plants. Dahlias, and other garden plants; the leaves of the Cauliflower when 
turning yellow are also sought after. 

It also greedily devours fungi, whii'li, indeed, are said to form its staple diet 
and to be preferred to other food. In Mr. Gain's experiments' upon the food 
of British mollusks, he offered this species \[)(\ different plants, of which 157 
were totally rejected, and only two — Boletus echdis and root of carrot — 
were eaten with avidity. It has also been observed by Dr. Scharff to devour 
I{iisshI(C emeticd. 

It evinces a great jn-eference for kitchen refuse, and shows especial par- 
tiality for custards, milk, bread, raw or cooked meats, and other articles of 
human food, and even makes its way into fruit rooms to feed upon the 
fruit stored there ; it also not unconnnonly visits the "sugar" jHaced by the 
lei)idopterist upon the trunks of trees to attract the night-flying moths. 

Reproduction and Development. — The act of conjugation in Llmax 
ma .villi lis is very I'emarkable,'- though it is probable that analogous })rocesses 
are indulged in by their close allies. The operation, though noticed to occur 
at various times during the day, usually takes place towards midnight. 


Kk;. 58. 


Fig. 59. 


Fk;. G1. 


Fk;. 62. Fig. 63. Fh- G4. Fu;. 65. 

Serial changos of form undergone l.y tin; male organ of Limax iitnxiiiius L., prior to anj 
during conjugation (after nature sketches liy Mr. Lionel K. Adam.s). 
Fig. 58.— Aspect of the penes immediately after protrusion from the body. Fi<;. 5!).— Shows the 
commencement of the appearance of the frill. Fir,. CO. — Frill partially unrolled. Fk; (il.— Frill 

completely expanded, preparatory to twisting together. Fk;. 62.— Penes tightly colled together, 

forming the wliorled knot. Fig. 6.3.— The succeeding undnella-form. Fi(i. 64.— Umbrella-form with 
horizontal margins reversed. Flc. 65.— I'inhrella-form with double margins. 

The animals seeking to ])air would seem to be cognisant of the ])resence of 
a prospective partner even when a considerable distance away, as they make 
straightway towards each other ; when the animals meet, they mutually 
caress witli their tentacles, after the manner of ants, and forthwith begin to 

1 J. of Conch., April 1891, pp. 349-361. 2 Monog. i.. p. 37.'i f 689. 


crawl in a circular procession, their mantles flapping before and behind, 
continuing thus from half-an-hour to two hours-and-a-half or more, each 
with its mouth at the other's tail, and eating the mucus from its partner's 
body; the circle becomes gradually more and more contracted and the 
animals more and more excited, until suddenly the slugs intertwine their 
bodies and launch themselves head downwards into space, but are restrained 
from falling by a strong mucus cable of a brownish colour, attached to the 
caudal end of the body, which gradually lengthens until it is from fiiteen to 
eighteen inches long, and is a continuation of the tliick bed of slime exuded 
during the prolonged circular i)romenade. 

Directly they are suspended, both slugs protrude the milk-white male 
organ, which, though cylindrical at ttrst, quickly assumes a club-shape 
(fig. 5S) ; a frilled edge (fig. 51)) appears, and the unwinding is gradually 
and quickly completed (figs. (50, 61), the unrolled organs now intertwine 
closely round each other and form a whorled knot (fig. 62), and the two 
upper whorls spread out, in umbrella fashion, leaving the lower portion of 
the knot as before (fig. 68). The two upper whorls, however, sometimes do 
not overla}), but curve in different directions (fig. 64), and sometimes may 
be nearly horizontal but separate (fig. 65). The slugs now hang motionless 
with flaccid and contracted tentacles, while the two upper outspread whorls 
of the knotted penes keep revolving one upon another, and in this extra- 
ordinary manner the liipiid semen is transferred and the mutual act 
consummated. After a lapse of five to ten minutes the organs unwind, roll 
up, and are withdrawn into the body; while the slugs, which appear greatly 
exhausted, either drop to the ground or climb up the thread to the point 
of support, the thread itself sometimes being afterwards devoured. 

Shortly after pairing a number of eggs are deposited at the roots of trees, 
plants, or grass, beneath stones, and in other moist and suitable situa- 
tions ; they are agglomerated together in heaps or clusters, or may form a 
long chaplet, by being attached together at their poles by a viscous mucus. 
They are roundly oval, about five mill, by four mill., of a translucent and)tr 
colour, and of a jelly-like consistency and appearance, but gradually becom- 
ing duller and more opaque. 

They hatch in about a month, the young being usually of a yellowish tint 
with four distinct lateral bands, which extend to the posterior third of the 
shield, and assume a horse-shoe shape, but during growth become broken 
up, especially upon the left side ; the ground colour also gradually changes 
in some districts, becoming of a wood-brown, often tinged with red, finally 
becoming duller and the bands more obscure ; in other districts or un<ler 
suitable conditions the immature colourings and decided banding of the 
young stage may be preserved to adult life. 

Parasites and Enemies. — In addition to the enemies and parasites 
of the group previously enumerated, this species is infested by a Nematode 
{Leptodera flexiUs), which lives within the salivary glands. 

Another species, Leptodera angiostomn Schneider, is found in the rectum, 
and according to Creighton the larv<u have been found imbedded in a dense 
mass of glycogenous cells, surrounding the pedal artery. 

Geological History. — Llimix ma.vimus has been reported by Tour- 
nouer as found fossilized in France in the Middle Pleistocene of La Celle, 
near Moret, Seine et Marne. 

In England it has also been recorded from the Pleistocene de})Osits at 
Grays, in South Essex, and from those of the Ightham fissure in West Kent, 
by Mr. Abbott. 


It has heeii iiotic-cil in a Iloloceiio deposit at Reigate by the liev. R. 
Ashiii,i;t()u l-5iilleii : in a liill-wash at >St. Catherine's Down, in the Isk'. of" 
Wight, by Mr. J. .S. Bowcrbank, iu ISHO ; and also in a nio(U'rn marine 
(U^posit, Pegwell Bay, in East Kent, by Mr. Alfred Bell. 

Variation. — 'I'lie varial ion of Lima.r imiximm is in many respects analo- 
i^ous witli the band variation of the pentataMiiate Helices, and shows similar 
traces of havini;- passed throuij;h parallel stai^'es of colouration ; the banding- 
exhibiting many of the sa-me })eculiarities, and being capable of expression 
by a similar nnmerical formula. 

In its highest develo])m('nt L. mK.rtJiins may be considered as triple- 
tinted, its primitive or fundamental colouring being i)rol)al)ly a sonnswhat 
uniform yellowish, greyisli, or reddish tint, varying in harmony with the 
environment and the temperature to which the animal has been sulijected 
during its growtli period. The second stage was ])nil)d)ly the development 
of paired lateral bands overlying the lateral blood sinuses and presumed to 
dei-ive their pigmentation from the action of tlie atmospliere upon the mas.s 
of blood beneath the skin; these bands, which are regank'd by Simroth as 
an ancient badge of the Pulmonates, may, by concentrati(jn of pigment, 
form a lighter area on each side and thus load 
to tlie establishment of darker zones, one on 
each side of the i)rimitive ou(\ tlius constitut- 
ing the three tyi)ical longitudinal ])ands,wliic]i 
may })e distinguished as tlie inner, main, and 
outer bands, or formulated by the UTimerals Vu-.. 66.-Portion ofi.ody of /./w,r..- 

, ^- ., r • I ,1 • • . '• • 1 , wrr.tvw»,< L., to show band formula. 

1, 2, .-i, rcternng to then- i)osition in regard to 

the median dorsal line. The bands may at any stage become broken u}* into 
spots, or by diirusioii more or less comiiletely overspread and obscure tlie 
primitive ground colour; to be eventually overspread <n' embellished by the 
super})osition of a tertiary stage of colouring, which, as before, Hrst appears 
in a position coincident with that of the chief lateral blood sinuses. 

Many varieties still retain the paler secondary banding uj)on which the 
darker tertiary markings are superi)osed, but by marginal concentration of 
pigment each tertiary liaiid may become resolved into a slender double line 
or a double row of spots, which border each of the paler secondary bands, 
and give a similar aspect to that of the Hell.?' /lortcusis figured in vol. i., p. 91t. 

In this country the ground tint is usually some shade of ash-grey, but 
brighter shades are occasionally met with, which would seem to be atavistic, 
or a retention in mature life of immature colourings ; the line of variation 
is, however, chii'tly in the intensity and character of the dark markings. 

Its size lias also been ob.served by Locard to vary according to the alti- 
tude of its abode, the animal being smaller in size when living in elevated 
localities. Dr. Baudon has remarked on the differences in size, and created 
a v.vr. (//'(/((iift'ff for some unusually large specimens found at Mouy, in the 
deiiartment of the Oise. iSimilar exami»les have been found in this 
country, one found by Mr. Quilter in Bel voir Castle gardens exceeding eight 
inches in length. 

The varieties of Limn.r iiit(.v'n)iti.< are grouped in three series : according 
to the ground colour of the body : the charact(U* of the dark markings ; and 
to accommodate examples in which these two factors exist together in 
unusually striking cond)inati()n. 

It should not, however, be overlooked by the student that the Inliowing 
list by no means exhausts the variations that may be met with, as the various 
ground tints may be associated with any of the dilVerent markings and con- 


sequently give rise to an almost infinite nnniber of sub-varieties, which will 
necessarily partake of or unite the characters of two or more of the more 
important varieties, and such varietal names as are applicable may be used 
in combination to indicate them. 


Var. COncolor Pini, Moll. Esino, 1876, p. 82. 

Liniax unicolor var. concolor Pini, I.e. 

Liinax unicolor var. bivonce Less. & Poll., Mon. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 26. 

Liniax inaximiis var. liinbata Moquin-Tandon, Moll. France, 1855. 

ANlMAli almost uniformly ash-coloured ; foot-fringe, keel, and neck paler. 

Tliebrownisli-cliestnut coloured Liniax unicolor var. biVOnSB of Less. & Pollonera 
from Palermo in Sicily may be relegated to this form. The sub-variety limbata 
Moquin-Tandon is also this variety in which the foot fringe is whiter than is usual. 
The var. cineira of Moquin-Tandon does not belong to this .species. 

Cornwall W.— Phillack, near Hayle, Oct. 1884 ! Miss S. Hoekin. 

Hants S. — Christchurch, June 1884 ! C. Ashford. 

Sussex W.— Worthing, Aug. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Kent W.— Chislehurst, Sept. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Surrey — Charles Hill, Farnham, July 1883 ! S. Spencer Fearce. 

Middlesex -Acton, Aug. 1884 ! Willesden, Jan. 1885 ! Bedford Park, Chiswick, 
Feb. 1885 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. Churchyard Bottom Wood, Highgate, June 1889 ! 
H. W. Kew. 

Northampton — Northampton, Sept. 1884 ! W. D. Crick. 

Stafford— Gardens, Cheadle, April 1896 ! F. B. Webb. 

Leicester — Hathern, Sept. 1884 ! C. T. Musson. Canal Side, Belgrave, July 
1885! H. E. Qnilter. 

Lincoln N.— Louth, Sept. 1886 ! H. W. Kew. 

Cheshire— Bowdon ! (Milne I'v Oldham, J. of Conch., Jan. 1894). 

Lancashire S. — Farington. locally common, May 1889 ! W. H. Heathcote. 

York S.W.— Haw Park, Sept. 1885, J. Wilcock. 

York Mid W.— Charleston, near Bingley (Soppitt & Carter, Nat., p. 97. 1888). 
Near Shipley Clen, Oct. 1887 ! J. A. Hargreaves. Boston Spa, May 1885 ! W.D.R. 

Westmorland and Lake Lancashire — Coniston, Oct. 1886! W.D.R. 

Renfrew— Shielhill Glen, Aug. 1886 ! W.D.R. Harelaw Burn, Glenitt'er, Aug. 
1890 ! J. M. B. Taylor. 

Haddington— Falside, Aug. 1886 ! W.D.R. 

Stirling — Cambusbarron, near the mill, July 1894 ! A. McLellan. 

Aberdeen N.— Haddo, Dec. 1890 ! Geo. Muirhead. 

Main Argyle — Dunoon, common, Aug. 1886! W.D.R. 

Sutherland E.— Golsjue Burn, June 1886 ! W. Baillie. 

Dublin— Dublin, March 1886 ! J. R. Redding. 

Wexford — Kilmanock, Sept. 1888 ! G. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Westmeath— Killynon. Sept. 1886! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Galway E.— Killeran (B. J. Clarke, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1843). 

Clare— Ballyvaughan, July 1895 (Standen, Irish Nat., Sept. 1895). 

The var. co/jro/or has also been observed in France, Germany, Norway, Denmark, 
Italy, Sicily, Austro- Hungary, Balkan Peninsula, etc. 

Var. Candida Less. & Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital, 1882, p. 26. 

Animal pure white ami slightly transparent, showing some of the viscera through 
the skin ; EYES i)ale brown. 

Livtax unicolor var. candidus Lessona & Pollonera, I.e. 

Liniax inaximus var. alba Adams, J. of Conch., July 1896, p. 228. 

This or a closely-allied variety was named alhiis by Anistein and megaspidns by 

Northampton — Rockingham Park, May 1896 ! (L. E. Adams, Journ. Northants. 
Soc, June 1896, p. 60). 

Italy — Novoli, near Florence, M. Paulucci (Lessona & Pollonera, I.e.). 

France — Savigny-sur-Orge, Seine et Oise (P Fischer, J. de C, Oct. 1880, p. 299). 

Var. vinosa Baudon, J. de Conch., July 1884, p. 204. 

Animal purplish or vinous-brown. 

The sub-var. lilacina of Roebuck, in which the ground colour is lilac or purplish, 
may Ije regardeil as a form of this variety with the dark markings of var. krijnickil. 

Gloucester E. — Sub-var. lilacina, Stroud, Oct. 1883 ! E. J. Elliott. 

York S.E.— Beverley, Oct. 1884 ! J. Darker Butterell. 

France — Angy in the Oise and Arlanc in the Pny-de-Donie, Breviere (Baudon, I.e. ). 



Var. nigra Duni. & Mort., Cat. Moll. Savoie, 1857, i). 1 '). 

Animai, iiiiicolorons black or lilackish 

Lancashire S. — Walton-le-Dale, June 1889! W. H. Heathcote. 

France— St. (Jeivais, Haute Savoie, Dr. Brot (D. & M., I.e., 1857, p. 14). 


Var. fasciata Kaz., Hist. Jorat, 1789, p. 267. 

Liiita.x )iia.xiiiius var. continuatus Duni. & Mort., Mai. Savoie, 1857. 

Animal pale ash-coloured, with three darker-coloured hautls on each side ; shield 
maculate or marbled. This variety is usually described as black, with five longitud- 
inal whitish bands. 

The sub-var. muUeri Moq. may be regarded as a form of this variety with the 
addition of a double row of black spots. Mtxiuin-Tandon's description, notwith- 
standing his reference to Muller, is more ai)plicable to a foini of this .species than 
of cinerco-viger. 

The var. fasciafu of Lessona has the median and lower bamls on each side 
coalesced, an<l superficially resembles the var. ((■fr((::o)Uf. 

Channel Isles — Sub-var. midleri, St. Sampson's, Guernsey, Sept. 1891 ! B. Tomlin. 
Devon S.—Si<l mouth ! H. Rosenstock. 

Hants S.— Christchurch, Sept. 1884 ! and Tuckton, July 188.} ! C. A.shford. 
Hants N.— Sub-var. innUcri, Preston Candover, July 1884 ! H. P. Fitzgerald. 
Kent W. — Hever, near Edenbridge, Feb. 1898 ! A. Leicester. 
Middlesex— Suli-var. midleri, Churchyard Bottom Wood, Highgate, June 1889 ! 
H. Wallis Kew. 

Suffolk E.— Blaxhall, Julv 1885! G. T. Rope. 
Norfolk E. — Holt, July 1893 ! Tom Fetch. 
Bedford— Luton, (ieneral Cemetery, Apl. 1889 ! J. Saunders. 
Worcester— Great Malvern, Julv 26. 1902 I C. Waterfall. 

Stafford— Cheadle, Apl. 1886 ! F. B. Webb. Handsworth, Apl. 1885 ! G. S. Tye. 
Statibrd, L. E. Adams. 

Glamorgan— Aberkenfig, Aug. 1890 ! G. K. (Jude. Cardiif, Nov. 1889 ! F. Wotton. 
Leicester— Belvoir Castle gardens, and cellars Leicester ((^hiilter, Moll. Leic, 188! ). 
Nottingham— Corporation (iardens, Nottingham (Uodd, Brit. Ass. Hdbk. , 1893). 
Tuxford, Julv 1885 ! W. A. Gain. 

Derby— Winster (H. Milnes, J. of Conch., Oct 1893). 

Lincoln N. — Haugham wood, April 1886 I W D. R. Lincoln road, Louth, April 
1886 ! H. AV. Kew. Parson's lane, Alford, INIay 1886 ! J. E. Mason. Mother-wood, 
Abv, taken at 'sugar,' June 1891 ! J. Burtt Davy. 

Cheshire— Bowden and Baguley Hall! (Milne & Oldham, J. of Conch., .Jan. 1894). 
Marple, May 1891 ! L. St. (t. Byne. Sub-var. midleri, Sale, in nur.sery gardens, 
Feb. 1895 ! C. Oldham. 

York S.E.— Beverley, Oct. 1884! J. Darker Butterell. Sledmere, Aug. 1891 ! 
F. W. Fiorke. 

York N,E.— Easby Wood, July 1890 ! J. Hawell. Kildale Woods ! and Ingleby 
Greenhow ! July 1890. P.. Hudson.' Yearby Wood, April 1889 ! W.D.R. 
York S.W. — Penistone, Nov. 1889! L. E. A.lams. 
York Mid W.— StarlH)tt()n, Whaifedale, Mav 1886 ! AV.D.R. 
York N.W.— Ivelet Bridge, Swaledale, June^ 1890 ! W.D.R. 
Merioneth— Bont-ddu, near Dolgelly, Sept. 1886 ! F. G. Fenn. 
W^igtown— Springbank, near Stranraer, Sept. 1890 ! W. Evans. 
Ayr- Maybole, Sejjt. 1890 ! W. Evans 
Renfrew— Shiolhill Glen, Aug. 1886 ! W.D.R. 

Peebles— Walkerburn, Aug. 1886 ! W.D.R. Peebles, .Inly 1890 ! W. Evans. 
Selkirk— Near Selkirk, Oct. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Edinburgh— Dreghorn woods, near Colinton, Sei)t. 1889 I Colinton road, Morn- 
ingside, Edinburgh, June 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Fife and Kinross— St. Andrews, July 1890! W. Evans. 

Stirling— Cambusbarron, near the mill, July 1894 ! A. McLellan. 

Perth N.— P.ridge of Cally, July 1890 ! W. 'Evans. 

Perth Mid— Annat Lodge, Perth ! H. Coates. 

Forfar -Dundee, outskirts, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Aberdeen N.— Haddo House, Dec. 1890 ! Geo. Muirhead. 

Banff-Toniintoul, Sept. 1S91 ! W. Evans. 

Elgin— Granlown. Aug. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Clyde Isles — Rothesay, May 1887 1 T. Scott. 

Ebudes S.— I-orgh Ba House, near Port Charlotte, Islay, Nov. 1S90 ! W. Evans. 


Antrim— Cusliendun, May 1886 ! S. A. Bienan. 

Donegal— Cairablai;li, Cioagliioss, near Letterkenny, May 1889 ! H. C. Hart. 
Louth — Piperstown, in <,n-eenlion^^e, Oct. 1889 ! Miss Sidney Sniitii. 
Dublin— Glen Urnid, near Carrickniines, Oct. 1886 ! W. F. de V. Kane. 
Sligo— Coliooney, Sept. 1885 ! W. F. de V. Kane. 

Mayo W. — Enniscoe demesne, near Crossmolina, Sept. 1885 ! W. F. de V. Kane. 
Tlie var. fasciata lias been recorded from Switzerland, Piedmont, and Eastern 
and Pyrenean Fiance. 

Var. sylvatica Morelet, Moll. Port., 1845, p. 33. 

Liiiiax sylvatkus Morelet, I.e. 

Lhiiax antiqtiorum var. czernaevii Kaleniczenko, Bull. Mo.'^c., 1851, x.\iv., p. 123. 

Liiiiax inaxtiiius var. vulgaris Moq.-Tand., Hist. Moll. France, 1855, li., p. 28. 

Limax inaxiinus var. serpentina Moq.-Tand., I.e. 

Limax inaxiiiius vSiX. (juadrifasciata Diim. & Mort., Cat. Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 14. 

Animal ash-coloured, with two continuous black bands on each side and a more 
indistinct or broken band l)eneath ; SHIELD s])otted or marbled with black. 

The sub-var. serpentina of Moquin-Tandon only differs from characteristic var. 
sylvatica by the main or median band of each side being more sinuous and irregular. 

Channel Isles— Herm (Reeve, Brit. Moll., 1863, p. 26 and tig.). 

Cornwall W.— Pennion, Falmouth, April 1884 ! H. Fo.\. Scillv Isles, Rev. E. 
D. Roberts, Aug. 1890 (G. Sherifi' Tye). 

Wilts S. — Vicarage Garden, Steeple Ashton, March 1887 ! E. P. Knnbley. 

Oxon — Henley road. Watlington, and at Pyrton (Norman, Zool., 1853, p. 41-27). 

Northampton— Garden. Nortliampton, May 1883 ! W. D. Crick. Rockingham 
Park, May 1896 ! L. E. Adams. 

Stafford— Stafford, June 1886, and Dec. 1897, L. E. Adams. 

Salop — Whittington Castle, Oswestry, June 1885 ! B. Hudson. 

Lincoln N.— Weil Vale, April 1886 ! W.D.R. Broughton, near Brigg, Aug. 1902! 
Miss F. H. Woolward. 

Lincoln S.— Near Boston, Sept. 1884 ! W.D.R. 

Leicester — Near Leicester, June 1885 ! H. E. C^uilter. 

Notts.— Tuxford, July 1884! W. A. (4ain. Pleasley Vale. April 1884 ! C. T. Musson. 

Cheshire— H(dmes Chapel, Nov. 1896 ! C. Oldham. 

Lancashire S. — Victoria Park, Mancliester, March 1884 ! R. D. Darbishire. 

York N.E.— Kirkleatham. Sept. 1886! W.D.R. Hayburn Wyke, Aug. 1894! 
F. W. Fierke. 

York Mid W.— Torquay terrace, Headingley, Julv 1884 ! W. E. Clarke. 

York S.E.— Garden, Pitt street, Barnsley, Oct. 1884! G. Rose. 

Westmorland, etc.— (irange, April 1884! Coniston, Oct. 1886! W.D.R. 

Berwick — Fans, near Earlston, Oct. 1883 ! R. Ren ton. 

Stirling' — Camlmsljarron, near the mill, July 1894 ! A. McLellan. 

Forfar — Near Montrose, July 1884 ! W. Duncan. 

Westerness — Glenborrodale, Dec. 1891 ! J. J. Dalgieish. 

Antrim — Cusliendun and Whitehall, Broughshane, June 1886! S. A. Brenan. 

Queen's County— La Bergerie (B. J. Clarke, Ann. N.H., 1840, p. 203). 

Galway— (B. J. Clarke. Ann. N.H., 1840, p. 203). 

Waterford— Near Waterford, Sept. 1883 ! J. H. Salter. 

This variety* is the most prevalent form in this country and abroad. 

Var. tetrazona Taylor. 

Animal ash-coloured, with only two bands on each .-^ide ; shield maculate or 

The var. fasciata of Lessona, though also showing only two bands on each side, 
is different, being a three-banded form, the lowermost being compound and formed 
by tlie union of the main ami outer bands. 

York S.E.— Beverley, Sept. 1884 ! J. Darker Butterell. 

Cheshire — Nursery gardens. Sale, Feb. 1895 ! C. Oldham. 

Var. kryniekii Kaleniczenko, Bull. Moscow, 1851, p. 122. 

Limax aiitiqitoruin kryniekii Kaleniczenko, I.e. 

Limax inaxiinus v^.r. Johnstoni Moq.-Tand., Hist. Nat. France, 1855, p. 29. 
Limax maximus var. bi/asciatus Diim. & Mort., Cat. Moll. Snvoie, 1857, p. 14. 
Limax maximus \zx. pallido-dorsalis Adam.s, Manual, 1896, p. 34. 

Animal ash-coloured, mid-dorsal area paler, with a few black spots, inner band 
distinct and black, main and outer bands obsolete ; SHIELD maculate. 

The sub-var. blfasciata D. iV M. has also only one well-marked band on each 
side, the other beiiij^ effaced. 


Hants S.— Cliri.stclimch, Sept. 1884! C. Aslifoid. 

Gloucester E.— .Stroud, Oct. 1883! E. J. Elliott. 

Stafford— Cannock Cliase, June 1886 ! L. E. Adams. 

Selkirk— Near Selkirk, Oct. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Edinburgh — Drej,di()ru woods, near ("olinton, Sept. 188!) I and Colinton mad, 
Mornin{,'side, June 1890 ! W. Evans. 

On the Continent, tln.s form lias been found in France, Italy, Switzerland, at 
Kharkov in Russia, and in Madeira. 

Var. cellaria d'Argenville, Conch., 1740, p. 386, pi. 32, f. 31. 

Liiitax cillarius d'Arg., Conch., 1740, p. 386, pi. 32, f. 31. 

Liinax anti(;uo>-um € ¥ir.. Hist. Moll., tab. 20. 

Limax cinercus var. inaciiiatus Picard, Moll. Somme, 1810. 

Liiiiax tiinxiiiius var. interrtiftus Duni. & Men., Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 14. 

Fk;. 67. — Limax cellaria (after D' Argen\ ille). 

Animal pale asii-coloured ; .shield maculate with black ; body with inter- 
rupted lon<,dtudinal zones of the same colour on eacli side. 

With this variety may be associated the var. maculata of Picard, in wlncli 
the shield an<l body arc maculate with black, and wliicli only differs from tlic 
strictly typical var. cellaria by the more distinctly detached and more rounded char- 
acter of its markint^s. 

Tlie sub-var. interrupta of D. & M. differs by the addition of longitudinal rows 
of small spots alternating with the banding characteristic of the variety. 

Channel Isles -(Guernsey, Sept. 1893! (Tondin, J. of C, April 189-4, p. 361). 

Cornwall W.— Truro, Dec. 1883 ! J. H. James. Scilly Isles, Rev. E. D. Roberts, 
Aug. 1890 !(0. Slierritl' Tye). 

Hants S.— Christchurch, Sept. 1883 ! C. Ashford. 

Kent E,— Folkestone, Sept. 1886 ! C. Oldliam. 

Surrey- Croydon, Nov. 1883 ! Kenneth ]\IcKean. 

Middlesex — I'pper Ilolloway, in a musinoom liouse, July 1890 ! and sub-var. 
iiKinddtd Ciiurcliyard Rottom Wood, Highgate, June 1890 ! H. W. Kew. 

Bucks.— Shalstone. June 1885 ! H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Norfolk W.— King's Lynn, Nov. 1886! C. R. Plowright. 

Hereford— Rishopswoo'd A^icarage, Ross, April 1885 ! R. W. J. Smart. 

Warwick— I ngon (Jrange, Stratford-on-Avon, Sept. 1884! R. J. Attye. Hagley 
road. lUrnungham, Aug. 1886! J. Madi.son. 

Stafford— Stafford, June 1886 ! L. E. Adam.s. Cheadle, April 1886 \ F. R. Webb. 

Salop— Minsterlev, Aug. 1885 ! L. E. Adams. Ellesmere and Oswestry, June 
1885 ! Raker Hudson. 

Glamorgan -Cardiff, Nov. 1889 ! F. W. Wotton. 

Pembroke— Deer park and Heywood lane, Tenby fStubbs, J. of C., July 1900). 

Carnarvon -Trefriw and Conway (^astle, July 1883 ! W.D.R. 

Denbigh— Liangwystenin and Tal-y-(;afn. July 1883 ! W.D.R. 

Lincoln S.— Ancaster, April 1S86 ! W.D.R. 

Lincoln N.— Alford, April 1886! W.D.R. Loutii, April 1886 ! H. Wailis Kew. 
Rroughton, near P>rigg. Aug. 1902! Miss F. H.Woohvard. Kirton-in-Lind.sey, Aug. 
1902 ! E. A. Woodrufl'e-Peacock. Somersby, Sept. 1889 ! W.D.R. 

Leicester— Hatliern, Sept. 1884 ! C. T. Mnsson. Canal banks, Relgrave, July 
1885! Cellars, West street, Leicester, Oct. 1885! Lime quarries, Rarrow-on-Soar, 
and Mountsorrel, Oct. 1885 ! and Spinney Hill, near Leicester, Sept 1887 I H. E. 
(^»uilt('r. Kviiigtcm! and near Wigston I ((.^ulter, Moll. Leicestershire. 1888, p. 20). 

Notts. — Rasford, Sept. 1884! Reauvale Abbev. Sept. 1884 1 Anne.sley Park, Sept. 
1884 ! Wilford, Oct. 1884 ! an<l cellars. Nottingham, May 1885 ! C T. Mus.son. Gar- 
den. Tuxford, July and Sept. 1885! W. A. (;ain. Farnsfiel.I, Southwell, Sept. 1892! 
C. Oldham. 

Derby— Winster, Hiuh Peak, Julv 1885 ! Rev. H. Milnes. 

Cheshire — Rowdon, May 1885 ! J. O. Milne. Wythenshawe, 1886 ! C. Oldham. 
Sale, in nursery gardens, F'eb. 1895 ! C. Oldham. 

York S.E.— (ianlens, Westwood, Reverley, Sept. 1884! J. Darker Ruttcrell. 

York N.E.— Farwath Rridge, Newtondale, Aug. 1886! W.D R. 


York S.W.— IJanisley, Oct. IS.Sli ! W. K. Briuly. Loftliouse, 188.')! G. Roberts. 
Ackwoitli, June 1S83 ! 'Hagli liii-lianl.'^on. I'.iadfonl, July 1893! I'eicy Lund. 
Hudder.stield, in cellar, Sept. 1885 1 (J. T. ronitt. Keigliley, greenliouse at Clitle 
Castle, ()ct. 1890 ! T. Hebden. 

York Mid W.— Victoria road, Hyde Park, Leeds. 1887 ! T. K. 8kiii\vitli. Wasli- 
buindale. July 1885 ! W.D.U. Cellar, North Stainley Vicarage, Oct. 1884! It. A. 
Snninierlield. Eavestone, Oct. 1884- ! J. Ingleby. Garden, Staveley Rectory, Oct. 
1885! E. i'onsonbv Kiiublev. Sleningford, Apiil 18^0 ! W.D.R. Mickley 'village. 
Aug. 1889 1 W.D.R. 

Durham— The common form about Durham, April 1884 ! Baker Hudson. 

Northumberland — Museum grounds, Newcastle, Sejit. 1888 ! R. Howse. 

Westmorland— Coniston, ()ct. LS8() ! W.D.R. 

Ayr — (ilen A](p, near Ballautrae. July 1884 ! I>aker Hudson. 

Renfrew— Shielliill (ilen, Aug. 1886 !* W.D.R. 

Peebles— Eddleston, July 1889 ! W.D.R. 

Roxburgh— Melrose Abbey, June 1886 ! J. Madison. 

Perth N. — Sub-var. iiiaruldfn, Blairgowrie, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Forfar — Montrose, July 1884, W. Duncan. 

Westerness— Glenborrodale, Dec. 1891 ! J. J. Dalgleish. 

Wexford— Kilmanock. Aug. 1888 1 G. Barrett-Hamilton. 

The var. rvlhirht has been rei)orted fiom many parts of France, Geiniany, and 
Italy, as well as from Sardinia, Corsica, Madeira, and New South Wales. 

Var. ferussaci Moquin-Tandon, Moll. France, ii.; p. 21), i)l. 4, f. 5. 

Limax cinercus var. pmtctiitus Esmark, J. of Conch., Oct. 1886 p. 101. 

Anim.vl pale ash-coloured, shield with small rounded black sjiots ; lioDV with 
two or sometimes three longitudinal rows of small and round black s])ots on each 
side (Kgured, Monog. i., ])1. 1, f. 5). 

The sub-var. punctata only difl'ers iioiu fcrii.ssaci in the fewness and consecjuent 
.aii|)arent irregularity of the sjjots upon the sliield ami body, while the sub-var. nov. 
g'eminipunetata is characterized by their greater abundance, the increase of those 
upon the body being due to the splitting uji of the originally large spot, which gives 
a paired aspect to the markings. 

Cornwall W. — Gardens, Truro, A])ril 1886 ! J. H. James. 

Somerset S.— Bridgwater, Aug. 1884 ! W. Vinson. 

Surrey— Sutton, July 1885! E.' G. Eenn. 

Middlesex— Churchyard Bottom Wood, Highgate, Aug. 1889! H. Wallis Kew. 
(Jarden at 5, Cliesbach road, London, N., Aug. 1890 ! H. Wallis Kew. 

Norfolk W. — Starston, specimens in l}rit. Museum (Cockerell, Nat., Aug. 1888). 

Salop — Oswestry, June 1885 ! Baker Hudson. 

Lincoln S. — Brandon Lodge, (Jrantham, Jan. 1889 ! T. Burtt. 

Leicester— Hathern. Sept.' 1884 ! C. T. Musson. 

Notts. -Tuxford, July 1885 ! W. A. Gain. 

York Mid W. - Sleniiigford, April 1896! W.D.R. 

Westmorland and Lake Lancashire — Coniston, Oct. 1886 I W.D.R. 

Anglesea— Llanfaes, Sei)t. 1886! J. G Milne. 

Carnarvon -Abersoch ! (C. Oldham, J. of Conch., Jan. 1898). 

Kirkcudbright — Ma.xwelltown, common in cellar, July 1891 ! R. Service. 

Selkirk— Thornielee railway station, Aug. 1886 ! W.D.R. 

Edinburgh-Cramond Island, Sejit. 1888 ! T. Scott. 

Antrim— Colin Glen, near Belfast, June 1.S84 ! S. A. Stewart. Duuluce Castle ; 
Plantation Park, Kenbane ; common, Murlough Bay ; Church Bav, Rathlin Island, 
R. Welch, May 1902. Cushendun, May 1886 ! S. A. Brenan. Cushendall, Aug. 
1894 ! W. 

Down — Crawfordsburn. May 1902; common in Castle Yard and plantations, 
Ardglass, 1897 ; Oakleigh, Ormeau Park, P.elfast; Hillsborough Castle Park, April 
1902, R. Welch, May 1902. 

Armagh — lune 1885 ! H. W. Lett 

Donegal— Ardara, April 1900, R. Welch. 

Wexford— Kilmanock, Sept. 1888 I (i Barrett-Hamilton. 

Leitrim— (lleiicar. E. Collier <.'>c (l. W. Chaster, Sept. 1900, R. Welch, May 1902. 

Galway E.-Churchyard. M<mivea (B. J. Clarke, Aunal.s N.H., 1840, p." 203). 

Cork— R. Ball (B. J. "Clarke, Annals N.H., 1843, p. 334). 

Kerry — Killowen Church, Kenmare, May 1898, R. Welch. Kenmare demesne ; 
Loo Bridge an<l island in Middle Cloonee Lake (Standen, Irish Nat., Se])t. 1898). 

On the Continent, this variety has been reported from France, various parts of 
Italy, the Tyrol, South Norway, and Poltava and Tcliernigov in Russia. 


Var. aldrovandi Mcxiuin-Taudon, Moll. France, 185"), ii., p. 29. 

Animal ash-coloureil witli pale spots. 

Tliis variation is due to tlii^ iiu:oiiiplete overspreading' of the secondary colouring;, 
whicli leaves the <,n-ound tint visible in i)laces in the form of paler spots. It is l»y no 
means certain whether the var. ((Idniraiidi described by Moiiuin'raiidon belon.i^^s to 
tlii.s s]ieeies or to chicrco-nujcr, as the niea,L;re description is a])plicablc to forms of 
both species. 

Dorset— Portland, Aug. 1886 ! J. Madison. 

Gloucester W.— 15rist(d, June 1884! C. Waterfall. 

Isle of Man— Dou-jlas, Sejit. 1892 ! F. Taylor. 

This variety has also been ()l)served in France. 

Var. obscura Moqum-Tandon, Mull. France, lHr)o, p. :^1. 

I.iinax iiiaxiiiius v.^r. nc/ni/osus Dum. & Mcirt., Moll. Savoie, 1857, p- 11. 
Lima.x unicolor var. sordidus Less. <fe Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 20. 

Animal Avith longitmlinal banding indi.stinct, obscured by the dittusion of the 
darker ccdouring. 

Northants— Common in cellars, Northampton, Sept. 1884 ! W. D. Crick. Ketter- 
ing (L. E. Adams, Moll. Northants, 1896, p. 5). 
"Gloucester E.— I.eckhampton, May 1885! J. Madi.son. 

Gloucester W.— Stroud, Oct. 1883! E. J. Elliott. 

Glamorgan— Carditt", Nov. 1889 ! F. W. Wotton. 

Montgomery— Welshpool, under jdanks, Aug. 1889 ! J. Bickerton Morgan. 

Lincoln N. — Alford, Sept. 1885 ! J. E. Ma.son. 

Cheshire— Alderley Edge, Oct. 1897 ! Sale, Sept. 1894! C. Oldham. 

Has aiso been recorded for France, Italy, and Switzeiland. 


Var. bicolOP Taylor. 

(! round colour of ANIMAL white ; MANTLE maculate with black ; and BODY 
banded or blotched with same colour. 

Isle of Man— Port Erin, 1881, L. E. Adams. 

This variety has also been observed on the continent by Dr. Simroth. 

Var. tigris Adams ms. 

Animal of a tawny-yellow colour, with black markings. 
York S.E.— Beverley, Oct. 1884! J. Darker Butterell. 
Stafford— Stafford, L. E. Adams, Sept. 1897. 

Antrim— Slope of Knocklayd Mountain, Ballycastle, July 1897, Dr. Trumbull. 
K. Welch, May 1902. 

Geographical Distribution. — Limax maximns is dispersed tlirough- 
out Europe, and has been recorded for Asia Minor, Transcaucasia and Algeria. 

It has also been introduced by commerce into the United States, Mexico, 
Cape Colony, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the North Atlantic 

According to Bourguignat,the Algerian specimens are not really ma.vhnus, 
but Limd.r deslidijcsii ; those from the Canaries are Limn.r (ibrostolus Bourg., 
uikI the Azorean s])eciniens Lhnax eaballu^ of the same author. 

In the British Isles this species is universally distributed, being found in 
all the three kingdoms, and extending into quite remote districts. 


Channel Isles— Guernsey and Sark (Cooke i*v: Cwatkiii, Q J.C, 1878, vol. i., p. 
322). Jersey, Herm, Jethou, and Creviclion (LuUis in Ansted, 1862). 


Cornwall W.— Common; frequently in damp corners of cellars and sculleries 
(Marcjuand, M(dl. W. Cornwall, 188-t, jl. 4). Pennion, Falmouth, Ajiril 1884! Her- 
bert Fox. St. Columb Forth, near Newcpiay ! ami Truro ! J. II. James, Dec. 1888. 

Devon S. — I'lynumth (J. C. Bellamy, Plymouth list, 1837). Exeter, common in 
ganlens, outhouses, etc. (E. Parlitt, Nat, 1854, p. 1.50). 

Devon N. — Combe Martin and Challacombe (J. K. B. Tomlin, J. of Conch., v., 
p. ISl, April 1887). ^ortham, Nov. 1885 ! W. A. C.ain. 

Somerset S. — Bridgwater, Aug. 1884 \ W. \in.son. 

Plate VI. 

LIMAX Maximus L. 

I. — Limax niaxiinns var. sylvatica = typical joiin, p. 43. 
Well Vale, Luicolnshiie. 

2. — Limax maximus var. Candida, p. 41. 


9. — Limax maximus vai. A/\»iiA;;, p. 43. 

mm I » '- 

3- — Limax maximus var. concolor, p. 41. 

4. — Limax maximus vai . nigra, p. 42. 

3. — Limax maximus var. bicolm. p. 46. 

6. — Limax maxiinus vai. vino^u, p. 41. 

7. — Limax maximus var. tigris, p. 46. 

10. — Limax maximus var. tetrazona, p. 43. 

II. — Limax maximus var. Jasciata, />. 42. 


12. — Limax maximus sub.-var. punctata, p. 45. 

13. — L. maximus sub -var. geminipunctata, p. 45. 

14. — Limax maximus var. obscura, p. 46. 

''. — Limax maximus sub. -vai. m ij-iiuiiia, p. 43. 15.— L!.;,,; -. nnus var. aldrovandi, p. 46. 

/. W. Taylor, del. 

Taylor Jiros.. Leeds. 



Geographical Distribution 

Limax maximus L 

H Recorded Distribution 
L.. I Probable Range. 


Fi<;. G8. 

Somerset N. — Coiiiinon (A. M. Norman, 1800). Coiiuuon .'irouud Brattou St. 
Maur (K. W. Swanton, Concli., i., p. .57, Dec 1891). 


Wilts S.— Saliisliury, common (J. E. Vize, Wilts. Mag., ]S6(). p. 278). Vicarage 
garden, Steejile-Asliton, March and .June. 1887 ! E. Ponsonby Knnl)ley. 

Dorset— Generally distrihnted (J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, Moll. Dorset, 1898. \). 4). 
Chideock, Bridport, Aug. 1885 ! A. Belt. 

Isle of Wig:!!! — Ennmerated as common by (J. Guyon (Venables' (iuide to tiie 
Isle of Wiglit, 1860, p. 401). 

Hants S. — Ciiristciiurcii, common, Jan. 188.S ! and Vinney Ridge, New Forest, 
June 1887, C. Ashford. In forest, Cadnam, J. H. Asliford ; Heauiien (C. Asliford, 
J. of Conch., .Jan. 1887, p. 159). Woods, Winchester, 1883, B. Tondin. 

Hants N.— Preston Gandover, Oct. 1884 ! 11. P. Fitzgerald. 

Sussex W. — (Jenerally distributed, fref{uenting outhouses and cellars in damp 
situ.ations (Harting, Zool., March 1878, p. 87). Beech plantation, Downs, Ratham, 
common, July 1884 ! W. Jeffery. 

Sussex E. — Lewes, in gardens, cellars, etc. (W. C. Unwin, Nat., 1853, p. 54). 
Brighton (W. C. Unwin in Merrifield's Nat. Hist, of Brigiiton, 1860). Hastings 
(A. VV. Langdon, Nat. Hist, of Hastings, 1878, |>. 13). Ouse, Guckmere and East 
Rother districts (J. H. A. Jenner, J. of Concli., March 1880). 


Kent E. — Faversham, Sept. 1884 ! Miss Fairbrass. Davington, near Favershani, 
E. Collier, Sept. 1885. Folkestone, Sei)t. 1886 ! C. Oldham. 

Kent W.— Common in W. Kent, T. D. A. Cockerell, Apl. 1883. Sevenoaks, not 
uncommon (R. H. S. Smith, Zool., 18.'")4, !>. 43.32). Common, Ghislehurst! (T. D. A. 
Cockerell, Nat. Hist. Notes, Nov. 1882, y. 171). In a cellar near Gobham, Leach, 
Syn., p. 52, 1852 ! (Brit. Mus., Sei)t. 18SG). Kingsdown, Sept. 1891, L. E. Adams. 
Maidstone (Elgar ^: Land), J. of Conch., Jan. 1893). 

Surrey — Wray Park, near Reigate (G. S. i^ E. Saunders, 1861). Charles Hill! 
and Waverley, near Farnliam, very common, July 1883, S. Spencer Pearce. Hasle- 
mere, Aug. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. Croydon, Oct. 1885 ! S. C. Cockerell. Grays- 
wood, E. W. Swanton (Pannell. J. of Conch., April 1902). 

Essex S. — Becontree Hundred (W.Croiich, Essex Nat, Dec. 1890). Near Abbey 
Wood (Jenkins, Esse.x Nat., Nov. 1891). Brentwood (Reeve, Brit. Moll., 1863, p. 
26). High Beach, Epping, Apl. 1890! II. W. Kew. 

Essex N. — Witliam, 18.33 (Loudon's Mag., Oct. 1834, j). 535). Frequent in asli- 
j)its, woods, and damp [daces about Colchester (H. Laver, Trans., 1882, p. 93). 
Satt'ron Walden (Saflrori Walden Museum, G. N. Mayman). 


Herts. —(iaii^Mi. Kiii^slmiy, St. .\ll)aiis, .Inly 1S.S4. .loliri ll<)|>l<iiiM)ii. Ilitcliin. 
M.ucli ISSO: ('. .\slitunl. Wiir." (■I.'tlVt'vs. M(.ll.' II. Tt^., ISSi. p. .SI) 

Middlesex I'.i'.lfnnl TarU, ( 'liiswicU, Dec. ISS4 ! aii<l .Vcton, .laii. iss.') I T. I). .A. 
('(lokcieli. Wht'tstdiif 1 ( Hril. Mus , Sept. lS,S(i). ( ucshacli road, I'ppfr Hnlluwav, 
.hi!y I>S!H); Clmrcliyanl llottoin Wood, Ili,Lrli.<,'ate, .May ISOO; anil llampstiiad, .liii'ir 
ISSS! H. Wallis K('w. Harrow. .May ISs'siC. BarriMt H.uiiiltoii. 

Berks. — Maidi'iiiii'ad, v(>ry comiiioii, isso, I.. I*^. .Adams. 

Oxford Sc'.iici' aliont Oxford, init lari;c and aim i id an t in I lie son tii of llic connly 
(.1. I'". W'iiitcavcs, IS')?, p .")). Not lUU'oniiMon in llcnlcy road, near Wat lin;^lon. 
and ;it I'yrton (A. Merle Norman. Zool., 1S,")8, i>. 4127). Not uiicnnimon in (iiini|i 
places aliont llanhnry (K. Stretidi, Zool., IS.');), ]i. 4.")41 ). 

Bucks.— Cliorsiey, Apl. 1SS3 ! H. H. Slater, ("astlethoriie. May lSS.-> I W. I). Ciicdv 


Suffolk E. — Excoediiiuly lonniion, Woodliridge, May 1886 ! S. .S|iencer Pearco. 
Mcndlesliam parish, in ere\i('t-s of old stone \\;i!ls (.\. Ma\lield. Norfolk Tiaiis.. 
1JHC2, p. :r)(t). niaxhall, (i. T. Kope. 

Suffolk W. Ilardwick (('. (uoenu, Suffolk list,, 1S9I). 

Norfolk E. I'"n'i|nenL under stones ahout Norwich (W. K. I»ridj;man, /oid., 
IS.IO, ji. 2742). Whitlini;ham, connnon, T. Reeve, Feb. 188(5. Lon<^ Stratton, .Anj;. 
IS!)(), L. Iv Adams, r.edon ! A. Maytield. 18i)l. Tiider lo,t;s. Velverton ; Howe, near 
Wiiit linniiam ("linrch, S. Spencin' I'eai'ce ; Kirlix-IJcdon and lleinliam, A. .Mii\li(dd 
(rearce'X .Mayfield, .1. of ("oncli.. .lulv l.S!)4, p. 'SII.S). 

Norfolk W. -Starston, llarieston', Uev. W. Whitear (I.each, Syn. Itrit. Moil , 
1S.V2, p. .V2). Lynn. Sept. l(i. ISSli! ( ". 1!. IMowri-ht. 

Cambridge '-\\'hittlesea and Isle of Klv (I'.ellars, I'.rit. Shells, is.vS). 


Bedford -Luton, May IS87 ! J. Satmders (Midi. Nat., dune ISSS. p. l.l.S). 

Northampton — Common tiiroui^hout (li. E. .Adams. .Moll. Northampton, ISDO. 
]). .')) 'rowcester, A Loydell, ISSl, Old walls and cellais, East lladdon, .1. E. 
Kolierts(L E. .\ilams. o]». cjt ). In L;,irdens and cellars. Northaniptnn, Mav ISS.S I 
W. 1). ("rick. 

Gloucester E. -(' (W. Welister. Nat., isr)4, p 1 <.')). Common ,t,t 
Stroud, .March 1S84 ! E. J. Elliott. I'.irdlip Woods, .Au.-;'. 1892, E. E. Adams. 

Gloucester W. — Conmion. iledland, T. (J. I'onton, 1804; j;arileiis, Clifton, Miss 
.Jones (l.eipner's I'.ristol list, 187.')). Stroud. Oct. I8SH ! E. J. Elliott. 

Hereford — Not very common, Dowaid Hill (.\, E. I!o\cott, Sci. (ioss. . lsi)2. p. 7S). 

Kairh' c mon. have taken it "at snjiar'"in lleri'ford (!>o\'coltiV Mowell, Herefoi'd, isSMt). 

Worcester Mahern, not uncommon, E. l^ees ((irilliths Mahern list, 1870. p. !.")!•). 
IJreeden Cross, Stii(ddey ; lu-ar Alcester I Hlakeley Hall, and Lea llall,\'ard!ey I War- 
wiid'; road, (Ireet! Stratford road, May 18(57! canal path. .Vcock's liieen, .M;iy 1SG7I 
Ithndv lane, Kin<4slK'ath I and .Sarehole I all near IJirmini^ham, W. Nelson. .Mosliy, 
Oct. 1884! .1. Madison. Sidiv Oak, Keh. IS!);?! E. E. Adams. Siiarkl.rook ((;. S. 
Tye, (^.I.C., .May 1S7.-.). 

Warwick l'j<lin,!;ton, Mav 18(57! and l)e<;,i;arl\- (Jreon, Oltou, duly 1871 ! near 
r.irmin-ham, W. Nelson. Ivl-haston ({',. S. 'I've. (,». .!('., .Mav 187")). Solihull, Feh. 
lS!i:{, L. I''.. Adams. Sutton Coldlield (A. Woo.l. .Moll. Sutton" Cohllield, lS!t7). 

Stafford- Common in most cidlars ((farner, Nat. Hist, of Stall'., 1 844, p. ;K)1). 
Itanks i»r Kushall canal, near Walsall I W. Nelson. I)udley anil llandswmlh ((I. S. 
Tye, i}..f.V., .May 187o). Statlbrd, in iiarden and cellar, Alay ISS;!, E. E. .Adams. 
Iliu-raston Hall, Stoke on-Trent,.luly ISSS! and Chea.lle, dune ISSS'd. K. 15. .Masefield. 

Salop— Common (T. ('. Eyton, Ann. and .Maj,'. Nat. Hist., Feh. 1840). Whittiny- 
ton Castle, .lune 188.1! Ilaker Hndson. Minslerley, ISS.'. I E. E. .Adam.s. Com- 
monest si ui;' aliont l*'orden and (Juniiro;^- Dingle, Welsli]iool (Moryan, 1888, ji. 2H2). 

;c. I/./-.-.V .V('r77/. 

Glamorgan -\\'liitchnrch, etc. (I''. W. Wolton, d. of Conch., .April 1888. p. .">4). 
Alierkenii-, Au^^ 181M), (;. K. dude, II. W. Kew, .lune 1<K)2. 

Pembroke- -St. David's, duly ISill, .1. IJickerton Morj;an. Fairly jdentiful ahout 
Tenliy, .\. O. Stuhhs, Feb. 18!)(j. Near Femhroke, dune 188.') ! Mrs. Travler. Fen- 
ally, H. i;. Wakelield, lilOl. 

"Cardigan .Vheiystwyth, May 1888 ! (E Collier, d. of Comh.. Oct. 1888, ]>. 3r)4). 

Montgomery I'orden. .lune 7, ISSS! .1. l'>i(d<erton Morgan. liALKS A'tUC'/'//. 

Merioneth The (lardens, i'ale, Corwen, .May 1SS7 ! T. Enddy. 

Carnarvon IJettws-y-Coed, Au^'. I8G5 ! C. .Vshford. Conw.iy Cu.stle. 1S88! 
\j. E. .\dams. 

Denbigh Tal y-( '.ifn, .Inly ISS:? ! W. 1 ). K. 

Anglesey — Elaiitaes, Sept. 1S8(5 ! J. (iraflon Milne. 


Lincoln S.—Noar Iloston, Sept. 1S,S4! W.D.R. TRENT. 

Lincoln N.— Coiiiinoii, I'xittcsfoid (K. A. Woixlrnfre-PVacock, Nat. , May 1901, ]>. 
l.JT). W<'ll Vale, AUcmI, Ai)ril l.S,S(i ! \V. j). !!. Maitliy Woo.l, near Loiitli, May ISilO, 
and Wra<^liy, Am;. ISSS ! H. W. Kcw. Kiiton-Liiidsey, May and Aui;ust' H)U-2 ! 
E. A. Wootinitie-i'uacock. Frodiii-liaiu, July 1902, W.D.K. Tothill, May 18S8 ! 
Miss Allott. Brongiiton, near Bri<,^<;-, Aiij^. 1902 ! Miss F. H. Woolwani. 

Leicester — Ticicuster (Bellars. IJritish Shells, 1858). Market Uosworth (I^)\ver, 
Linn. Trans., 1808, p ;^23). Canal side, l!elj;iave, June 1SS5 ! H. K. (^)nilter Cellar, 
West street, Leicester, Oct. 189."); New Tarks, near Leicester (FL E. (i>uilter, Moll. 
Leicester, 1888, \). 20). Guniley Wood, A. Merle Norman, 1884. 

Notts. —Welbeck, R. A. Uolfe, 1883. Higlitield House, JJranicote, Reeston, Cliil- 
well, Sawley, Tlirumpton, Nottin,t;liani, etc. (Lowe, Notts, list, LS53). Worksoji, 
April 1S84!' Feiicy Al>l)ey, Sept. 1884! Ainiesley cliurcliyard, Sept. 1884! Staunton. 
June 1880! IMea.-lcy \'aie ! and Cre.ssweli Cra^s, Ai)ril 1884 ! Lenton ! and Tollerton. 
C. T. Mus.son. Tuxford, April 188.-) ! \V. A. (lain. Maiislield. E. I'ickard, Fel). 1S,S4. 
Nottinuhani Corporation garden. Wells road, July 1888 ! (J.W. Mellors. Soutliw(di, 
Minster yard, Sept. 1892 ! C. Oldliain. 

Derby~Mari)le, May LS8o I and Miller's Dale, Ani;-. 18.8.> ! C. Oldham. Winster, 
Aug-. 188.-). H. Milnes. Fnixton, Sei)t. 18S7 ! T.W. Poi'ock. Clifton, in gardens and 
cellars, June 1889, L. E. Adams. Matlock, H. E. Craven, and Darleydale, K. Stan- 
ih'ii (H. Milnes, J. of C(mcli., 0<-t. 1893). ALukland (uipps, 1884! C."T. Mus.son. 


Cheshire— Chester (P.ellars, llrit. Shells. 18r)8, p. 8). Marple, Sept. 1888 ! Knuts- 
ford, March 1902! C. Oldham. ]>owdon ! and Sale ! in gardens anil yards (Milne 
and Oldham. .1. of Conch , Jan. 1894, p. 316). 

Lancashire S. — Common in wall-crevices in autumn. \'ictoiia Park, Manchester, 
L. E. Adams, 188."). A'ery large in cellar at (Tieenheys, and in, Victoria 
Park, \i. I). Darhishire, 188.5.' Fariugton, .June 1888, W. H. Heathcote. Southport, 
(McNicoll, Southport list, 18.59, p. 147). Chorlton, J. K. Hardy, 188.5. Plentiful 
about Liveri)o<)l (Liverpocd Nat. Scrap-Book, 18(j3-4, p. 55). Burnley (F C. Loii" 
The Garner, .fan. 1892). Whalley, June 1889 ! W. H. Heathcote. 

Lancashire W. -(Jrimsargh, June 1888, W. H. Heathcote. Fleetwood, Seiit. 

1891, L. E. Adams. 


York S.E.— Abundant at Newport, near Staddlethor])e, Aug. 1883 ! T. K. Ski])- 
with. Common in gardens, Westwood, near P>everley, Sept. 1884 ! .1. I). Butterell. 
Not comuKHi, Long lane, Beverley (.l.D.B.. Q..I.C., A])ril 1882). Cellars and out- 
houses, Hornsea (.J.I). B., (^..J.C, April 1S81, y. 136). Common in gardens, Hull and 
Hornsea (.J.D.B.. Nat., Dec. 1878). Kirkham Abbey, Sept. 1899! W.D K. 

York N.E.— Common, -Wilton W^ood, July 1884! Baker Hudson. Thornaby 
(id.,.l.of Conch.. April 1886). Kirkleatham. Sej.t. 1886! W.D.R. Whitby, abundant, 
.luly 1883! H. Pollard. Feliskirk, near Thirsk (J. H. Davis, Nat, 18.55, p. 134). 
Castle Hill, Scarboro\ Aug. 1888, P.. Tomlin. (Castle Hill, Pickering, Aug. l.S86!and 
Farwath Bridge, Aug. 1886! W.D.R. Linton-on-Ouse (J. Ranson, Zool., 18(il, 
p. 7819). Comnnm about York (R. M (Christy, Zool., 18Si, i). 242). Malton, July 

York S.W. — Generally distributed about P>radford, Saltaire, Bingley and Stee- 
ton (Soppitt I*;- Carter, Nat, 1888, p. 97). Wil.sdcn, March 1884, E. P. P. Butterlield. 
Common about Wakefield (.1. Hebden, (^..I.C. . 1.S74. p. 5). Rothwell, not common 
(G. lioberts, Nat Monthly, Sept. 1887). l>irkenshaw, Se[)t. 1888 ! G. Wingate. 
Holmlirth, .Jan. 1885 ! H. E. Craven. Hudderslield, not common (J. Whitwham, 
Nat., May 1877). Conisborongh, June 1873! Ptoche Abbey, Ajiril 1884! W.D. I!. 
Rose Hill, I'enistono, June 1889 ! South Anston, Aug. 1891, and Doncaster, -July 

1892, L. E. Adams. 

York Mid W.-. Abundant, Eavestone, near Ripon, March 1883! .J. Ingleby. 
Reynard Ings, Ilkley, May 1S82 ! Starbotton, May 1886 ! W.D.R. (bassington?Aug. 
1882 ! H. T. Sop[)itt. (Generally distributed al)out Harrogate, Rijiley, Riijston, and 
Knaresbro" (Fitzgerald, J. of Conch.. .Jan. 1889). Birstwith, very common (F. T. 
Walker, <,>.J.C., Jan. 1882). Pateley Bridge, common, Apl. 1883 ! W. Storey. Banks 
of Limlley Wood Reservoir, .July 1885 ! and near Limley, (Joyden Pot, May 1SS6 ! 
W.D.R. Airton, Sept. 1S83. H'. T. Soppitt. Lime hills, Ro'undliay ! W, Nelson. 
Barwick. 1881! H. Pollard. Thorpe Stai)leton, Oct. 1876! 11. Crowther. New 
Leeds! and Hcadinglcy, neai- Leeds, .July 1884! W. E. Clarke. IJoston Spa and 
Tadcaster, F. (;. Biniiie, ISSO. Bardsey, Sept. 1881 ! Thorner, Oct. 1876 ! H. Crow- 
ther. Hook Moor, .Inly 1885! G. Roberts. Bolton Percy, July 1880 ! W. Nelson 

York N.W.— Swinton, near Masham, Aug. 1900! W.D.R. Taiths (Jill, Bangh 
Fell, Aug. 1902 ! W.D.R. 



Durham— Durham, April 1884 ! Spa Wood, Dinsdale, 1887 ! Baker Hudson. 
Darlin^'toii, rommon in gardens (Longstatl'e, Hist. Darl., 1854, p 371). 

Northumberland S.Museniu (irouinls, Newcastle, Aug. 1888 ! It. Howse. 

Cheviotland— Dean above Akeld, May 1852 (G. Johnston, Berwick Proc, 1852). 


Westmorland, etc.— Grange, April 1884 ! Coniston, Oct. 1886 ! W.D.K. 

Cumberland— Stanwix and Wetlieral, in cellars and woods (Miss Donald, Cum- 
berland list, 1882, p. 5(5). 

Isle of Man— Fre(iuent( Forbes, Mai. Mon., 18.3S, p. 6). Fort Erin. 1881. L. E. 
Adams. Feel, Aug. 1804! R. Cairns. Castletown and Douglas, Aug. 1894. F. Taylor. 

SCOTLAND. WEST lowlands. 

Kirkcudbright— Maxwelltown, Se])t. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Ayr— (ileii Apji, near F.allantrae, July 1884 ! Baker Hudson. 

Renfrew — Fre<[uent, tireenook. Sept. 1886 ! T. Scott. Shielhill Glen, Aug. 
1886 ! W.D.K. 

Lanark— Outhouses, (Jlasgow, Sept. 1887, J. E. Somerville. 


Peebles— Walkerbuni, Aug. 1 886 ! W. D. 11. Kingsmeadows, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Selkirk— Thornielee railway station, Aug. 1886 ! W.D.K. 

Roxburgh —Melrose Abliey. June 1886 ! J. Madison. 

Berwick— Fans, near Earlston, Oct. 1883 ! K. llenton. Near Cockburnspatii ! 
and about Eyemouth (\V. Evans, Moll. Berwick, 1895, p. 170). 

Haddington— Abandoned railway near Drummore, Aug. 1886! W. D.R. North 
Berwick (J. McMurtrie, J. of Concli!, 1889, p. 3). 

Edmburgh— Edinburgh, K. F. Schartl", 1883. Bonally, Sept. 1888,W. E. (^larke. 
Cramond Isle, Sept. 18S8 ! T. Scott. Levenhall, near >iusselburgh, 1886 ! W.D.K. 
Harmony, near 15alerno, April 1890 ! W. Evans. Colinton, July 1889 ! W. Evans. 

Fife *& Kinross— Near Cupar, July 1886 ! T. Scott. EAST HIGHLANDS. 

Stirling— Folmont, Aug. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Perth S.— Enumerated by tJ. McDougall, in Report Stirling Soc. , June 1896. 

Mid Perth— Annat Lodge, Fertli. May 1886! H. Coates. 

Forfar— Broughty Ferry, A. Somerville, 1886. Montrose, July 1884! W. Duncan. 

Kincardine— Stonehaven (Macgillivray, Deeside and Braemar list, 1855, p. 418). 

Aberdeen S. — Plentiful about Olil Bridge of Don. Torry near Aberdeen (Mac- 
gillivray. Moll. Aberdeen, 1843). Plentiful by the Don and the Dee. at Nether 
Banchory (James Taylor, Zool., 1853, p. 3878). 

Aberdeen N.— Plentiful, Auchterless, and near Inverugie Castle (Macgillivray, 
Deeside ami Braemar list, 1855, p. 418). 

Elgin— Common among trees near Waterton, Ellon (R. Dawson, Aberdeen, etc., 
list, 1870, i>. 14). Elgin (specimens in McAndrew coll., J. of Conch., 1882, p. 385). 


Main Argyle— Lismore and wood behind railway station, Oban, Aug. 1893 
(Stan.lcn c^- Hardy, J. of Conch.. Oct. 1893). 

Dumbarton— Common at Maryhill, by side of canal. July 1897 I A. Shaw. 

Clyde Isles— Rothesay, Bute, May 1887 ! T. Scott. 

Sutherland E.— Golspie Burn, June 1886! and Brora, Apr. 1890 ! W. I'.aillie. 

Orkneys— (T. S. Traill, Edinburgh Encycl., 1830, p. 10). 
Shetland Isles -(Jellreys, Ann. and Mag. N.H., Oct. 1868). 

Fairly common in most i)arts of Ireland, but the type form is not common in the 

north, the maculate varieties being the most prevalent. 


Derry— Coleraine, moderately common, 1883-4, L. E. Adams. 

Antrim -Belfast (W. Thompson, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1840, p. 198). Cushen- 
dun. May 188(5! and Whiteiiall, Brouglisiiane. June 18S6 ! S. A. Brenan. Abun- 
dant by roadside C(>i)pice between Fairhead and Murlough, Sept. 1896 (R. Standen, 
Irish Sat. .Jan. 1897). Knockagii Mount : (Jreenisland ; Plantation Port at Ken- 
bane, near F.allvcastlc ; (;ieMavy, May iilOO, R. Welch. 

Down— Belvoir Park, near IJclfast, 1S93 : Doiiagliadee Churchyard. 1897; Ard- 
"lass. 1897 ; Ballvnoc .Marsh, Dowiipatrick, 189S ; Sydenham House Grounds, 1898; 
and Civstle Park," Hillsborough, 1899, K. Welch, May 1902. 

Armagh— Armagh ! (J. of Conch., Oct. 1890). 

Tyrone Aughnadoy, Cloghcr Valley. Feb. 1898, Pi. Welch. 


Donegal— Mossy stumps, Port Salon, May 1893 (R. Standen, J. of C, Julv 1893). 

Cavan— Woods and lake sliore. Killykeen,,Jiily 1896 (Welch, Irish Nat., July 1896). 

Meath— Trim Churchvard, July 1900, R. Welch. LEINSTER. 

Dublin— Duhlin (W. flionii)son', Ann. and Maj,'. N.H., 1840, p. 198. Kinf,'sto\vn, 
May 1886 ! W. F. de V^ismes Kane. On island of ' Ireland's Eye ' at the ' Stags, 
near Howth, 1897, R Welch. Raheny, Killakee, and Leeson Park, Dublin (Scharff, 
Slugs of Ireland, 1891). 

Kildare-Strattan, 1884, J. E. Palmer. 

Wicklow— Woodenbridge, March 1893 (Scharff, Irish Nat., April 1893). 

Wexford— Kilmanock, Sept. 1888! (J. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Queen's Co.— La P.ergerie (Rev. B. J. f'larke, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1843). 

Westmeath— Killynon, Sept. 1886! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 


Sligo— Near Ballina, not so common as L. arborum and L. agrestis (Warren, 
Zool., 1879, p. 26). Rockwood. Lough ({ill, Oct. 1886 ! Markree Ca.stle, CoUooney, 
Aug. 18S6 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Mayo W. — Enniscoe demesne, Crossmolina, Sept. 1885 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 
Moyview, Ballina, July 1891 ! Amy Warren. Erriff Valley and Aasleagh Falls, 
R. Welch, Ai)ril 1897. 

Galway E. -Clonbrock, June 1896 (R. F. Scharif, Irish Nat., Sept. 1896). Der- 
nasliggan, April 1897 (R. Welch, Irish Nat., Nov. 1897). 


Clare —Bally vaughan, July 1895 (Standen, Irish Nat., Sept. 1895). 

Cork N.— Youghal. 1835 ! Warren Collection, Dublin Museum. 

Limerick— Limerick, W.H. Harvey (Thompson, Ann. and Mag. N.IL, 1840, p. 198). 

Tipperary S.— Clonmel, April 1888, A. H. Delap. 

Waterford— Waterford, Sep. 1883! J. H. Salter. 

Kerry- Valentia, July 1886! A. H. Delap ; very large, near Lough Caragh, May 
1891 (Scharff, Slugs of Ireland, 1891, p. 518). Stricken, (J. P. Farran ; Killoweii 
Old Church, and at Kilmakilloge, Mr. Bigger; Tore Woods, O.W. Ciiaster (Standen. 
Irish Nat., Sei)t. 1898). Kenmare, Aug. 1899 ! J. E. Mason. 

In Germany it has been recorded for Altenburg, Alsace, Bavaria, Baden, East 
Friesland, Hesse, Hanover, Hamburg, Loiraine, Mark Brandenburg, Mecklenl)urg, 
Nassau, Osnabruck, Pomerania, Pyrniont, Prussia, Riienish Prussia, Silesia, 
Thuringia, Upper Franconia, Weimar, and Wurtemburg. 

Holland— (Heynemann, Jahr. Deutsch. Mai. Oes. , 1885, p. 247). 
Belgium— Chaudfontaine, Font de Forct ; Forest of Angre ; Hastifere, etc., etc. 


Probably diffused over tlie whole country, and has been recorded from the follow- 
ing districts and departments : — 

Ain, Aisne, AUier, Ari^ge, Basses Pyrenees, Champagne Meridioniile, Charente 
Inferieure, Cotes du Nord, Cote d'Or, Finistere, Card, Gers, Haute Garonne, 
Haute Loire, Hautes Pyrenees, Haute Savoie, Herault, Isere, Hie et Vilaine, Loire 
Inferieure, Lozere, Manche, Maine et Loire, Morbihan, Moselle, Nievre, Nord, 
Oise, Pas de Calais, Puy-de-D6nie, Savoie, Seine et Marne, Seine, Seine Inferieure, 
Somme, Vendee, Vienne, Vosges, and according to Scharff is common at Ajaccio 
in Corsica. 


Probably diffused through a large jjart of the country, and has been recorded for 
the cantons of Berne, Graubuuden, Geneva, Lucerne, Neuchatel, Solothurn, Ticino, 
Uri, Vaud, Zuiich, etc. 


All Italy, continental and insular, except Sicily, where L. anicolor Heynemann 
is found (Lessona & Pollonera, Mon. Limac. Ital., 1882). 

In Austro-Hungary it has been observed in Austria, Bohemia, Galicia, Goritz, 
L.auenberg, Silesia, Styria, and the Sudetic Mountains, Transylvania, Tyrol, and 
Upper Hungary. 

Spain— Aragon, Cataluna, Valencia (Graells, Moll. Esftana, 1846, p. 1). Common 
in gardens at Fuente del Mar, near Santander, May 1860 (E. J. Lowe, Dec. 1896). 
Portugal— Mountains of Cintia (Morelet, Moll. Port, 1845, p. 43). 



Thessaly -Mount IMudiis (Hoettj^er, -laliil.. IhMitscli Mai. Cos., 1886). Isle of 
Saiituiiii (Lctoiiiiioaiix. r.iill. Soi-. Mai. I'"iaiice, 1884, p. •2!H)). 


Norway — LaniviU, near Cliristiaiiia ; Areinlal ami l.slainl of Tromsn, near 
Christiaiisaiiil, and at l>or,y:en (K.-iinarU, .J. of ("oiu-li.. Oet. 18.S(i) ; recorded for 
TroiKljiiein, Imt [irohalily in error, liy (!. (). S^r.-^, Moll. Aret. Norv., 1878, ji. 'XiX. 

Sweden Stocklioiiu (iiartniann vV ileyneniann, .Jalir. Deutseli. Mai. (ie.s., 1885). 

Denmark — ^'il•or^' in Jutland ; Copenliaj^en and I'ri-dricksberj,' in Zealand 
(Maim, Lini. Scand., lS(i8, ]i. 57). 


Fonml in the ]iroviiues of l''in!and, Kurland, Livland, and Estliland, and at 
Seliasiopol in tlic Crimea (Heynemann, Jalir. Dentscli. Mai. (les., 1885) ; Moscow 
(Nadjcscliin, Naclit. Dentscii. Mai. (les., 187<t); and in tlie provinces of Kliarlcov, 
l'olla\a, and Tclierni.<;'ov (Kalenie/etiko. I'.nll. Moscow, 1851). 

Poland— Wooil of Tnliszow, lS(i8 ; Ztoly-l'ot(dc, 1870; the park of Natolin, 
Ols/.tyn, 1873; Pulawy Kazimierz, 1874 (Slosarski, Moll. Tohwiie, 1877). 

Transcaucasia — Imeretien (Ileyneniann. .lalnl). Dentscli. >lal. (Jles.. 1885). 

Algeria— (Jardens near Alj,ders, Maj' 1S87 (Forhes, Ann. N.H., Dec. 18.1S, |). 251). 
Asia Minor— El liireh, Ilairois (Daiitzenherg, Moll. Palestine et Syrie, 18!)4). 

Azores— (Heynemann, I.e. 1885, p. 285). 

Canaries — Plain of the Lagnna, Teneritle ( I'YMiis.sac. Hist., 18H). p. 71). 
Madeira (T. D. A. Cockerell, .1. of Mai., May 18<)7, p. 4). 


New York — Kiverdale, H. Prime, 1885 ; New York ("ity ami Hrooklyn (Hinney, 
1885). Cayui^a Lake Vallev (N. P>anks, Nautilus, Ajiril 18!)-J). Monroe ('o., J. 
Walton, 1898. 

Rhode Island— Newport, S. Powell (Binney, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. , 1875). 
Providence, H. Prime, 1885. 

Ne^v Jersey — Ciuttenherjr, H. Prime, 1885. 

Massachusetts — In ("ity Aqueduct, Springfield (Pilshry, Naiit., Apl. 188.3). Xew 
I'.edfoKl and ( 'aiuhridj^re ( I'ilsl.ry. Proc Ac-ad. Nat. Sci. P'hilad., 1889). 

Pennsylvania -Lincohi Park, Piiiladeiphia ( l>\ (". P.aker, Nautilus, Sfpt. 1900). 
West Philadelphia and Danhy, plentiful in cellars and greenhouses, H. A. i'ilshry ; 
Wissahickon, inuMimmon ; Laurel Hill cemetery, coiniiKui ; Cieimantown, E. tJ. 
Vanatta (.M. Schick. Nautilus. April 1895). 

Ohio -Cistern on Third street, Cincinnati, J H. James, 1885. 

Texas -New I'.raunfels (Pilshry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.. 1889). 

California — < lardens, San Dicj^o (('. \l. Orciitt, Nautilus, 1890). .Mmndant in 
San Fiancisco (W. M. Wood, Nautilus, .Inly 1894). Dr. Stearns' <;ardcn, Los Ange- 
les, summer 1901 (T. D. A. Cockerell, J. of ".Mai., Dee. 1901). 

Mexico- City of .Mexico, .March 1894, Dr. A. Du<,'es (T. D. A. Co( kerell, .1. of 
.Mai , dune 1894). 

Cape Colony— (Melvill iS: Ponsonhy, Proc. Mai. Soc, Dec. 1898). 


New Zealand Dunedin, F.W.Hutton (.Musson, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. W., 1890). 

Tasmania (Jardens and cellars at Hohart, H.Tate; and at Launcestoii, C. Iledlev 
(Musson, I'n.c. Linn. Soc, N.SAV., hS'.lO). 

S. Australia .\dclaide (I!. Tate. Pep. Koy. Soc. Tasmania,, 1880). 

Victoria -I>allarat, under lot,'s in the hush, li\e miles from city (Musson, Proc. 
Linn. Soc N.S.W.. 1S9(I). 

New South Wales -Common in and around Syflney, .1. Hrazier (Mus.son, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1890). 

Plate V. 

Distril^ution of Limax 

maximiis L. 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 


of the British Isles. 

channel Isles 


1 Cornwall \V. 

2 Coruwall E. 
:> l»evou .S. 

4 Devon N, 

5 Somerset S. 
t) Somerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts S. 

9 Dorset 

10 Isle of Wiiilit 

11 Hants S. 

12 Hants N. 
l;J Sussex \V. 

14 Sussex K. 


15 Kent E. 

16 Kent W. 

17 Surrey 

18 Kssex S 

19 Essex N. 
•M Herts. 

21 JliikUesex 

22 iierks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 


25 Suffolk E. 

26 Sutlolk W. 

27 >'orfolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 Cainhriiige 
.■10 Bedfunl 

31 Hunts. 

32 Northampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester W. 

35 Monmouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 


41 Glamorgan 

42 lirecon 
4:J Kadnor 

44 Caimartlieu 
4.J I'emlirnke 

46 Cardi.i^an 
NORTH wAi.t:.s 

47 Montgomery 

45 Merioneth 

49 Carnarvon 

50 Denbigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 

54 Lincoln N. 

55 Leic. & Hutld. 

56 Notts. 

57 Derhy 


5S Cheshire 

59 Lancashire S. 

60 LancasliireMid 


61 S.E. York 

62 N.E. York 

63 S.W. York 

64 Mid W. York 

65 ^.W. York 


66 Dm'ham 

67 Nortlmmb. S. 

68 Cheviotland 


69 Westmorland 
and L. Lanes. 

70 Cuml'erland 

71 Isle of Man 



72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 
,4 Wigtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Renfrew 
'77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

80 Roxburgh 

81 lierwick 

82 Haddin.Kton 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 
v.. HiGur.Axns 

85 Fife & Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 Perth S.&Clkn 

88 Jlid Perth 

89 Perth N. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 Aberdeen S. 




93 Aberdeen N, 

94 Bantl- 

95 Elgin 

96 Easterness 


97 Westerness 
9M JIain Argyle 
99 Dumbarton 

100 Clyde Isles 

101 Cantire 

102 Ehudes S. 

103 Ebudes :Mid 

104 Ebudes N. 

N. ni(;HLANOS 

105 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E. 

108 SutlierlaudW. 

109 Caithness 


110 Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shetlands 









Queen's Co. 

King's Co. 




Mayo E. 
Mayo W. 
Galway W. 
Gal way E. 


Tipperary N. 
Tipperary S. 
Cork N. 
Cork S. 

Probable Rang-e. ••! 

^ Recorded Distribution. 

Distribution verified by the Authors. 

so, 4.0 



Limax cinereo-niger Wolf. 

1774 Limax cincreus varr. a anil e jMiiller, Verm. Hist., ii., pp. 5 and 


ahr Kazonniowsky, Hist. Nat. Jorat, p. 266 

cinereo-niger Wolf, in Stnrm's Deutseii. Fauna, fasc. 1. 

rfcoijrap/iicia Renier, Proilr. Ciasse d. A^ernii Adiiatico. 

ant If] uor tail Fer., Hist. Moll., p. 68, pi. iv-., f. 1, pi. 8 \, f 1 \- i) 

alptnus Fer., Tabl. Syst., p. 21, pi. 4a, ff. 5-7. 

vitt'qics Bonelli, Ms., Mus. Taiirin. 

maurus Held, in Isis, p. 271. 

hilobatus Ray i*c Drouet, ]Moll. riiani])a<,'ne, p. 16. 

lineatus Diiniont I'V' Mortillet, Hist. Moll. Savoie, p. 192. 

1. 81), f. 2. 



pp. 4, 5, 1895. 

transilvanica Heyn., Mai. Rl., p. 216. 

nubigenus Rourg.', Spic. Mai., j). 20. 

crythrus Rourg., Mai. Grande Chartreuse, p. 31. pi. 2, ff. 1-8. 

nir/cr Malzine, Faune Mai. Relgique. 

jiwutaims Leydig, Verhandl. Wurtt., p. 210. 

hidzli Seibert, Mai. Rl., p. 195. 
1881 — rincreus /3 hitrr/tiedin. Rreviere, J. de Conch., p. 314. 
1894 — /ledleiji Collinge, Journ. of Mai., iii., i)p. 51, .12, and iv., 
18-19 Anon Uncatiis Duniont, Rnll. Soe. Hist. Nat. .Savoie, p. 64. 
1868 Eidimax cinereo-nir/er Malm, Skand. Limac., p. 57, pi. 5, 11'. 12, 13. 
1876 Limacella cinereo-niger Jous.seaume, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, p. 99. 

HISTORY. — Lima.v cinereo-niger {cinereo- 
niger, ashy-black), is one of the largest 
and most brilliantly colonred of the Euro- 
pean slugs, if the allocation by Simroth of 
the gorgeous Italian forms to this species be 
correct^ the colouration of these magnifi- 
cent Limaces ranging from black to white, 
through vivid red, briglit yellow, grey or 
brown, and in size far exceeding the largest 
L. maximus. In the cool and moist climate 
of the British Isles, however, this species is 
unusua|ly constant in its colouring, and 
offers little variation from a more or less 
uniformly dark pigmentation. 

With this, the finest species of the group, 
we associate Herr D. F. Heynemann, of 
Frankfort, whose services to the cause of 
Limacology can scarcely be overestimated, 
and in recognition of whose labours Malm 
constituted the group Heynemannia to em- 
brace the present species and its close allies. 
Although, in common witli Dr. Simroth 
and many other malacologists, Herr Heynemann regards Limax cinereo- 
niger ?^^ only a form oi Limax mnximus, "changed by food, climate, or 
anything else," it is possible that this belief is in many cases based upon 
apre-conceived opinion, which an accnrate appreciation of the undoubted 
differences would probably modify, as, thougli both species have certainly 
sprung from the same fitemmo:, cinereo-niger is undeniably the more ancient 
offshoot, exhibiting such an assemblage of divergent characters as seems 
conclusively to show that it lias finally parted company with L. maximm. 

13,3,03 D 



The Linidx ater and related forms are in all likelihood the more primitive 
forms of this species in which the dark coloinin<;- of the hody has not yet 
spread to the side areas of the sole, hut in the al)senee of the possihility of 
a precise determination, Wolf's name has heou adopted for the species in 
preference to that of Kazonmowsky. 

The type form characterized l)y Wolf has the f^round colour white, as is 
evidenced hy the keel and mid-dorsal line retaininji' that colour, while the 
remainder of the animal is almost wholly hlack, due to the difliusion of the 
lilack markini^'s. 

Tlie L'lmn.r ducumpl var. anudJn' of Bettoni is identical with the type, 
while Lhmuv hedlryi Collin<;'e and L. ma.vliiin^ var. luctuusd only dilfer in 
the white mid-dorsal line being sullied with a slight ochraceous tint and not 
extending ([uite up to the shield. 

Diagnosis. — Externally, L. ciiiereo-ni(iPr in its typical form is distin- 
guished from L. rndxiinas by its more uniforndy dark colouring, its shorter 
and stouter tentacles, its coarse and prominent ruga}, and its sharp and 
well-marked keel, which usually extends fully half the length of the body, 
and sometimes is perceptible (piite to the shield. The shield is typically 
unicolorous, and the sole distinctly longitudinally tripartite, the outer areas 
being black or deep ash-grey and the mid-area paler. 

Internally, the shell is thin and In-ittle, almost ti-ansj)arent when fresh, 
broad and comparatively short; the })enis-sheath is of tolerably eipial width 
thi'oughout, not enlarged and stiffly Hexed at the free-end as in L. ma.ri- 
mus, while its retractor arises, according to Dr. Scharff, between the heart 
and the kidney as in L.jlacin^, and not behind the kidney as in L. ina.rimm^; 
the lingual teeth are broader and also markedly more cuspidate and em- 
bryonic in their character; the mandible is smaller and more delicate, the 
median beak is not so prominent, and the lower outer margins are distinctly 
rounded and not rectangular as in L. ma.i'inuis. 

In habits, L'lmctx cinereo-niger is more active and less nocturnal than L. 

maximiis, it has a wider range, both altitudinally and geographically, and is 

not so [lartial to the vicinity of human dwellings. 

Description. — Animal witli a \m\\s, ami roundctl but stouter liody tliau Liinax 
maxlinits, vaiyin^' in leiintli troin KM) or more mill, to, in extreme cases, 400 mill. ; 
(;t?0UNI) colour usually wliitisli in this country, but in 
soutliern Europe often of a vivid reil or other bri.<;ht 
colon)-, banded, maculated, or waslicd-over with <,'rey, 
brown or black, and very frei|nenLly, more especially in 
tlie colder and moister districts, of an uniform black ; 
the wiiole surface covered with larj,re, boldly projecting 
sinuous tubercles, reminiscent of those oi Avion ater; 
the caudal end of tlie body l)ears a strongly developed 
and very prominent KKKL, which is sometimes ))orcep- 
tilile (piite to the sliiidd ; NKCK jialer, with a pair of 
lonjiiludinal dorsal l-UltHows, which terminate in 
front as the FACLVL GROOVES; SOLE' longitnilinallv 
tripartite, the inner area pale, the two outer areas dark 
with sharjily delined marj,'ins, except in the younj,' 
st.ages or where from any cause tlie juvenile or primi- 
tive trait of an nnicojorons sole is preserved to ailult 
life; sniKLl) iarjie, oblong, nearly two-liftlis the total 
leiiu;lh of tiie animal, rounded in front and more sliarply 
anjjulated beliind, usually of an uniform black or darkish 
tint, but in the youn^^- or in those adults which have 
retained inimatnre colonrinj^ niay be marbled or spotted 
w itli some ilarker c(donr or bhudc nixm a iiale i,n-ounil 

Flc. 70. — Pallia! and body 
sculpture of Lhiin.x cincreo- 
nit;ey Wolf (after Lessoiia). 

Mucus colourless and 

iridescent, or as in certain of the more extreme varieties, a red itigment may break 
throiiL^ii the skin and tiii.^e the slime. 

1 Monog. i.,l{M, f. 383.: 



Fig. 71. - 
sliell of L. 
ttiger X \\. 

(I'.rora, \l. 
land, Mr. W. 



Shell situated beneatli the hinder part of the 
shiehl; somewhat qu.adrjitely oval, re.seiiihling in ^ 

size .and shape that oi Liinax flacxs ; thin, brittle, ^f^^ 

and almost transparent when fiesh, whitish, slightly 
concave beneath, with lines of concentric increase, 
.and .a broad, brownish jnembranaceons fringe ; AFEX 
or nucleus near to the left posterior aiigle. Length, 
8i mill. ; breadth, 6 mill. 

Internally, the organization of Liniax cinereo-niqer resembles in general char- 
.acter that of L. ma.rimits, but in ni.any points shows distinct evidences of an earlier 
type of structure. The sensory ORG.VNS tliough doubtless closely resembling those 
of tlie congeneric species, have never been critically studied in coiiiparison with those 
of Lima./: innxitnua. 

Fig. 72. 


Fig. 71. 


Fig. 76. 

Details of the Internal Stkucture of Liiiiax c!nej-eo-m\s:cr Wolf. 
Fig. 72. — Distal end of penis sheath, shewing the position of the dorsal attachment of retractor (after 
Scharff). /c. kidney ; /. penis sheath ; r. retractor ; 7'.d. \as deferens. V\G. 73. — .Spermatheca or recepia- 
cuUim seiiiinis x 2. Fig. 71. — Otolith (after Schmidt), highly magnified. Fig. 75. — Prostatic or sperm 
duct, shewing its follicular structure X 1. Fig. 76. — Alhumen gland and hermaphrodite duct X 2. 

The reproductive organs, though 
to those of its close .ally, yet exhibit constant 
ditterences; they show a larger and more deeply 
coloured ovoTESTis which occupies the caudal 
end of the body to the exclusion of other organs; 
tlie HERMAPHRODITE DUCT is of a bluish- 
white, and without any .ajiparent VESICULA 
SEMiNALis ; ALBUMEN GLAND of an ochreous 
colour .and usually sniJiUer tiian the ovotestis ; 
OVisPERMATOnucT narrow, the creamy-white 
prostate usually wider than tiie oviduct ; FREE- 
OVIOUCT short, thick, and doubly flexed the 
base ; spermatheca fusiform, mottled with 
reddi.'^h-amber .and opaque ochreous-wliite and 
fixed by its crown to side of oviduct, the stem 
clear azure-white, about half the length of the 
vesicle ; PENIS-SHEATH greyish-white, very long, 
.and nearly uniformly cylindrical or vermiform for 
its whole length, not ( swollen and rigidly 
flexed as in Liinax ma.riviiis; with tlie clear-bluisli- 
white VAS DEFERENS entering terminally ; the 
RETRACTOR MUSCLE is long, broad, and ribbon 
like, attached to the extremity of the penis-sheath 
.and to the dorsum between the heart .and the 
kidney, in a sinus of which the heait is situated. 

The ALIMENTARY CANAL shows a .short (ESO- 
PHAGUS opening into a large, oval, .and brownish 
CROP; SALIVARY GL.VNDS united at base and not 
easily sejiarated from the Malls of the cro]) ; be- 
yonti the crop the canal narrows considerably, 
widening .again at the stomach at the termina- 
tion of the flrst alimentary tr.act, where two or 
three bile ducts enter ivowi .as m.any lobes of the 
reddish-brown LIVER or DIGE.STIVE GT,AND ; the 
INGESTIVE or STOMACH TRACT also does not show 

the extreme development posteriorly which is so marked a featuie in tiic 
examples of Limcix inaximtis. 

Fig. 77. — Sexual organs of /,. cinerec- 
niger Wolf. 

(Oswestry, Salop, Mr. Baker Hudson). 

a//'. i"-. albumen gland ; <r,>. oviduct ; ot. 
ovotestis; p.s penis; 
sp. spermatheca ; ?'.</. 

y.m. retractor ; 
vas deferens. 

Fig. 78. — Kidney or renal organ and 
heart of Z. cinereo-niger, x 2. /c. kidney. 

fullv .adult 


Mandible or jaw smaller and weaker than in Lininx maxiimis, of a pale amber 
ooloiir, witli usually two dark sultmargiiial parallel 
tiiickeuiuL^s near tiie upper niar<i;iii ; the median beak 
projects somewhat beyond the line of jaw, but is not 
nearly so convex or so prominent as in L. ni'irimns, 
and the lower outer an<,des of the jaw, so abruptly p„. 79._Mandil)le or jaw of 
an^ulated and almost rectanj,'uhar in T,. mii.riiaus, are /.i///ax clnen-o-ni^erWoU x 8. 
in the present species obliterated by the convexity con- ('loyt Valley, Cheshire, Mr. C. 

nectiny the upper and lower mar^dns, tiie ends havin>,' Oiaiiam). 
to some extent tlie somewhat horned aspect distinguishing the mandilde of /Tz/rt^mia 

The LTNOUAL MKMBRANK of a Cheshire specimen is eight mill, long, and three 
mill, or more in breadth, covered with slightly curved transverse rows of teeth Avhich 
are very uniform in size, only diminishing at the margins ; median row with a some- 
what hour-glass shaped base, similar to that of L. ttirtxhiiiif, and bearing a broad 
reflection with ol)solete side retlections and a strong mesoconic prolongation bearing 
trihd cutting points ; lateral teeth tritid, with strong mesocone, distinct endocone, 
and a less prominent ectocone, which in the succeeding teeth becomes more distinct, 

Fig. 80. — Representative denticles from a transverse row of the lingual teeth of L. ci/U'reo-ni^er\Vo\{ X 120. 
The animal collected by Mr. C. Oldham at Whaley Bridge ; the radula prepared by Mr. W. Moss, and 
photographed by Mr. T. W. Thornton. 

though always more basal than the endocone ; about the twentieth row, the teeth, 
though still trilid, become more aculeate in character, and about the thirtieth row 
the endocone becomes ol)solete, the ectocone and mesocone only l)eing retained to 
the margins of the membrane, althougli a few tritid teeth may sometimes be seen, 
due, however, to the retention from the embryonic state of a secondary ectocone. 
The dental formula of a Whaley Bridge specimen, collected by Mr. C. Oldham, is 
^/+\"+^+\" + V X 168=25,032. 

Reproduction and Development.— Failing would appear to take 
place throughout the milder periods of the year, and is always preceded by 
the same amatory preludes and prolonged circular procession described 
under Limax maximus, but during the act of congress the animals do not 
invariably suspend themselves by a long conjointly secreted mucus cable, as 
in that species, but remain firmly attached to the underside of the branch 
or other object by the greater part of the sole, leaving free only the anterior 
part of the body to become entwined with that of their partner. 

The genera] character of the conjugation is, therefore, similar in the two 
si)ecies, iiltliDiigh there are no precise modern observations available for 
comparison of the details of the act. 

The ova are deposited in moist places beneath the shelter of fallen trees, 
under loose bark, or other suitable situations, those of the var. Corsica being 
described by Mocpiin-Tandon as globular in shape, and about five mill, in 
diameter, shining, transparent, about the colour of gum-arabic, and united 
together in little clusters, and are said to hatch in about a month's time. 

According to Lessona & Pollonera, the young when hatched have the shield 
mottled with black and white, and the foot-sole ])ale and unicolorous, but as 
growth proceeds, the pale markings on the shield become clouded over by the 
diffusion from the centre of the dark markings, which gradually extend 
towards the margins, which are also eventually darkened over, e.xcept in some 
adults which may retain traces of the i)ale maculations of their early life, but 
these vestiges are always more es])ecially displayed towards the margins. 

The lateral zones of the sole are also little by little invaded by the dark 
tint, until they ac(piire their full depth of colouring, or as in the case of the 
dark colouring of the shield, the process of pigmentation may be arrested 
or retarded, and examples may therefore be found, e.specially at or near the 


limits of its altitudiiial or latitudinal range, which retain at maturity, in a 
more or less pronounced form, their juvenile stage of colouring. 

The variegated and banded varieties may thus be regarded as having 
retained to adult life the youthful garb of the species, and as being the 
intermediate stage leading to the dark unicolorous forms which are the 
most advanced in their external colour evolution. 

Every district, however, has a local facies, which will be more or less 
in harmony with the geographical position of the locality and the peculiari- 
ties of the environment. Herr ({oldfuss records that in Westi)halia the 
young of this species are of an uniformly dark-grey ; Dr. Simroth, writing 
chiefly of the species as found near Leipzig, describes the very young ex- 
amples as usually pale, washed over with carmine-red, and the sharply 
defined main-band of the body as extending upon the shield, while Dr. 
Boettger, presumably describing those of Frankfort, says the foot-sole in 
the young is always trifesciate, and the body zoned with four longitudinal 
dark bands, with the keel of a yellowish colour, but as maturity is attained 
the body becomes wholly black, though sometimes retaining the yellow keel. 

Mr. Roebuck's extensive experience of British specimens supports the 
view that the young possess an uniformly pale foot-sole, and that the side- 
areas are progressively invaded by the dark pigmentation as the animals 
increase in age. 

The life term, according to Dr. Simroth, is about one year, but there is 
little doubt that under favourable circumstances that period would be 
greatly exceeded. 

Food. — Limax cinereo-niger in a state of nature is considered to be a 
great and almost exclusive feeder upon fungi and other cryptogamic plants, 
and is recorded as greedily devouring Peziza macrocalyx, P. vesiculosa, 
Morchella esculenta, Evernla prunastr'i, etc. 

Stahl records that the food of all the specimens of this species examined 
by him in the month of June was apparently solely fungi, as the excremen- 
titious matter was composed of partially digested hyphai and undigested 
spores of Peziza macrocaly.r. 

In captivity or under the pressure of hunger they will, however, eat bread 
and many other kinds of food. 

Habits. — This species is less nocturnal and more active in habit than 
Limax maximus, and is always abroad during the day in damp, moderately 
warm weather. It frequents pine and other forests, more especially in shady 
places, hiding beneath the bark of dead trees, or on fungus-covered stumps, 
but is also often found under logs, or among dead leaves in the woods, and 
other similar retreats. 

In Italy and other south European countries it lives chiefly in the moun- 
tain forests, the darker varieties being found at the higher altitudes, while 
the more brightly-coloured forms are restricted to lower ground; thus, the 
var. maiira is found on Monte Mucrone, in Piedmont, at an altitude of 2,200 
metres (about 7,200 feet), and the sub-var. nubigena reaches nearly to the 
verge of eternal snow on Maladetta in the Pyrenees, while the brightly- 
coloured var. dacampi has its most elevated station at Prestine, in the Valle 
deir Oglio, in Lombardy, at 800 metres above sea level (about 2,620 feet), 
and the still more brilliant var. Corsica is even more restricted in its altitud- 
inal range, its highest-known habitat in the mountains of Liguria not 
exceeding 700 metres (about 2,21)0 feet). 

In this country this species is also chiefly found in hilly or wooded districts 
and usually at some distance from dwelling-houses. 


Tlic OLFACTORY in L. cinereo-niger i.s R'lnarkable for its jxiwer ami 
precision. M. Colbeau relates that the tine specimen of var. malacohgorum 
in his possession escaped many times from tlie box in which it was confined, 
thronf,di a small hole five mill, in diameter, and after wanderini^ abont 
several days in the garden, on two occasions re-entered the box by the same 
small hole, evidently attracted by the mushrooms grown therein. 

Variation.^ — Colour variation in the Limacida? would seem to reach its 
acme of development in this species, individuals of which display all shades 
of colour, ranging from uniform white, through grey, j'ellow, brown, and 
red to uniform black, with all the variations to which their combinations 
may give rise. This marvellous variety in colour and marking leads us to sus- 
l)ect, as suggested by Simroth, that this rich and elaborate pigmentation is 
of high biological importance to this species in the striiggle for existence. 

The complex causes which influence or inhibit the evolution and external 
disposition of colouring matter in the Limacidaj are still little understood; 
it has, however, been demonstrated by Simroth that the intensity and shade 
of the various colourings are dependent in a measure upon temperature, 
especially during the growth period. Cold, inclement seasons or districts 
favour the increase of the black pigment, and pale or entirely eradicate 
the red, while warm seasons or areas foster the development and intensi- 
fication of the red pigment, resulting in the gorgeous varieties recorded 
from Italy and other southern countries ; but it must not be overlooked 
that the distribution and character of the external pigmentation is also 
largely influenced by the necessities of the animal, either by inducing a 
closer assimilation to the peculiarities of the environment, and therefore a 
more effective concealment from its enemies, or conversely by the develop- 
ment of a brighter colouring, rendering it more conspicuous, and therefore 
probably acting as a warning colour.' 

Like its close ally Limax maxiTmis, the present species may also be 
regarded as trichroic or triple-tinted in its pigmentation, and has probably 
passed through a similar course of colour-changes, but the colour-develop- 
ment has advanced much further, a response to the more freely exposed lil'e 
it leads and the consequent greater vicissitudes of temperature, etc., to 
which it is subjected. 

The ])robable sequence of its pigmentary evolution is shown l»y the 
primary or secondary tints sometimes extending over the locomotor or 
mid-area of the sole, beyond the darker tertiary colouring which has not yet 
advanced lieyond the side areas and is still very superficial in its dis]iosition ; 
further evidence of the jn-ogress of colour evolution is adduced by Simroth, 
from which we gather that in the youthful stages of the species in the 
more advanced districts there is a prevalence of the simple colouring which 
characterizes adults in those less favourable or more remote, as in L. mon- 
taiius of South Tyrol, L. eiKjddntensls of East Switzerland, etc. 

L. cinereo-niger, judged by its more extended range altitudinally and 
also geographically wherever sufficient and i)recise observations have been 
made, by the situations it usually inhabits, by the more itrimitive character of 
its teeth, by the ])oint of attachment of the jienial retractor, and other pecu- 
liarities, is probably a more primitive and earlier form than L. nm.rimus, but 
the extreme climatic conditions under which the species lives, have enabled 
it to ontstri]) in its external pigmentation the L. nxtxtimis, which evinces 
such a ])artiality for the vicinity of human abodes, and is therefore more 
prone to be carried by commerce to, and become naturalized in distant lands. 

1 IMonog., i., p. 327 and p. 330. 


The numerous modifications discriminatecl by various authors have, for 
convenience of study, been grouped into several sections, based upon the 
fundamental colour of the body, those varieties which have retained to a 
marked degree in adult life the immature character of tlieir colouring being 
regarded as sub-varieties. 


Var. pallescens Dum. & Mort., Mai. Savoie, 1857, p. 13. 

l.itiiax lineatus var. pallescens Dum. & Mort., op. cit. 

Liinax cinereo-nigcr var. albicans Malm, Skand. Limac, 18G8, p. (51, pi. 5, f. 13. 

Lhiia.x cinerco-niger- isscli Pini, Moll. Esino, 1876, p. 2(5, pi. .\, fif. i, 5. 

Limax alhus Paasch, Archiv f. Naturg., 1813, p. 85. 

Liinax cincrco-niger var. hareri Heyn., Mai. Bl., 1SC2, p- 111. 

Animal white or whitish, witli or witliout darkly tinted side-areas to the sole. 

Duinoiit i^' ^Nlortillet remark that this form is found in very shady places. 

The form named by Heynemann, hareri, is pure white; L. Cinereo-llig'er 
var. albicans and L. lineatus var. pallescens are whitish ; wiiile L. cinereo- 
llig'er var. isseli has the body whitish and a white keel. 

Not hitherto recorded from the British I.sles. 

Germany — An alhine form, from Hohen-Wittliiiiien, Swahian Alps (Weinlaml, 
Nachrichll)!, 1874, p. 42). Sub-var. liarcri, in the Taunns Mountains, June ISGl 
(Heynemann, op. cit.). 

France — Haute Savoie (Dumont iK: Mortillet, op. cit.). 

Italy — Sub-var. i.sscli, Esino A^xUey, near Vezio in Lombardy (Pini, op. cit.). 

Sweden — Sub-var. albicfnis, common on Bornholm ; and has also been found near 
Ljuntiskile, and on the Alingsas tract (Malm, op. cit.). 

Norway — Sub-var. alha, Banible, Ciu-istiansand Stift(Esmark, J. of C, 188(i, p. IGO). 

Var. Strobeli Lessona, Moll. Piemonte, 18S0, p. 21. 

Liinax cincrco-niger i strobeli Lessona, op. cit. 

Kkkl and median-line whitish, sides of body ashcohmred but showing' the white 
ground colour as a series of whitish maeulations with a single black banil on each 
side, l)roken up into a row of spots ; SHIKLD ash-coloured. Formula 001 100. 

Not hitherto recorded for the British Isles. 

Italy — Maccugnaga, Val Anzasca, Piedmont, at an altitude of 1,323 metres (about 
4,340 feet) (Lessona \' Pollonera, Mon. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 30). 

Var. vera Dumont & Mortillet, Mai. Sav., 1S57, p. 18. 

Lintax anti<jUoruin var. ^ Ferussac, Hist. Moll., 1819, p. 08, pi. 1, f. 1. 

Liinax antiijiioruiii v./eri iissackii Kaleniczenko, Bull. See. Imp. Mosc, 1851, p. 120. 

Liinax lineatus var. Tcrus Dumont A Mortillet, op. cit. 

Liinax lineatus var. interru/>tns Dumont <fe Mortillet, op. cit. 

Liinax cinereo-niger albicans, cinereo-nebulosiis M.ilm, Skand. Limac, 18G8, p. GO. 

Liinax cinereo-nigcr V stabilei Lessona, Moll. Piemonte, 1880, p. 21. 

Keel whitish, two dark zones on each side of the body. Formula 021 120. 

The Limax aHtiquorinn var. (^ of Ferussac, though usually referred to as uni- 
formly cinereous, is according to the figure distinctly quadrifasciate, with paler 
nebulous markings around the margin of the shield, aiid therefore Ijelongs to this 
form. The reference by Kaleniczenko to Ferussac, Moll., \A. 4, f. 1, would 
seem, though not with certainty, to place his variety under this head. 

The var. vera has the two black bands on each, side and a dark shield. 

The sub-var. intePPUpta tlifiers in the lateral bands being interrupted. 

The sub-var. einereo-nebulosa has the keel tinged with yellowish, shield yel- 
lowish clouded witii grey, sides of body whitish clouded with grey, lateral zones 
resolved into series of pale brown spots. 

The sub-var. Stabile! has the keel yellowish, the back blackish, and sides paler. 

Oxford — Sub-var. vera, a young specimen from U.^ford in the British Museum, 
presented liy the Rev. A. M. Norman. 

Germany — Heynemann records a sub-variety from llastadt in Baden, with two 
rows of s(|uarish black spots at 6ach side, upon a white ground (Mai. Bl., 18()2, ]i. 9!)). 

France— Sub- vars. vera and infrmijifn. Haute Savoie (Dum. & Mort., o\>. cit.). 

Italy — Sub-var. stabilei found in I'iedmontese Alps by Stabile (Le.s.sona, op. cit.). 

Sweden — Sub-var. cinerro-nebulosa at Ljungskile (INIalm, op. cit.). 

Norway — Sub-var. rinerrn-iiebulosa at ^lalmons, Lanrvik, and Skien (Esmark', 
J. of Conch., Oct. 1886, p. 100). 

Russia —Sub-var. ferrussaekii Kal., Tcliernigov and Poltava (Kalen., op. cit.). 


Var. renardii Kalenicz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc, 18/>l,p. 120, pi. iv.,f. 2. 

/.iiitax aniii/iioniiii Renardii Kal., op. cit. 

Livia.v subalpitius Lessona, Moll. Pieinonte, 1880, p. 18, pi. 2. ff. 1-6. 

Liviax subalpiniis f siiiip/cx Lessona S: Pollonera, JNIonog. I.imac. Ital., 1882, p. 36. 

Liiitax siil>alf>inus a j^arocc/us Lessona i*t Pollonera, op. cit. 

Liniax subalpinus 5 vcroncnsis Less. I't Poll., op. cit. 

Liinax maxiiiius var. tsc/tn/>ec/ci Siniroth, Xacht. Mai. Ges., 1886, p. 69. 

Kkkl and niid-dctrisal zone wliitish, body with tliree dark zones on each side. 
Fonniihi 321 \2'.\. Tlie L. siihaf/iiinis- Lessona anil subsidiary forms diH'er cliiefly in 
the retention by achiltsof tiie inaoilate mantle of tlie juvenile staije. 

The var. renardii sensu strifto, has the sides of the l)0(ly ashy-black, the inner 
and main Itands black and continuous, outer bainl represented by a series of l>lack 
spots; a white zone between the inner and main bands ; shiehl asli-coh)ured. 

The sul) var. tSChapecki is somewhat variable, but has the white keel extend- 
inj; ([uite np to tlie siiichl ; sides of body whitish with continuous main-bantl and 
indctinite inner and outer bands; shield sjieckled black and white. 

The sub-var. SUbalpina has the whitish keel continued to the shiehl as a series 
of dorsal sjxtts ; sides of the body whitish, with three brownish-o;rey zones on each 
side which blend to,L;'ether and leave two rows of whitish sj)ots between them. 

The snb-var. simplex is similar, but the back is unicolorous. 

The snb-var. garocela has the keel and dorsal-zone maculate with black, sides 
of the body whitish, maculate with black. 

The sub-var. veronensis has the sides of the body and shield of an olivaceous 
ash-colour, the shield and body maculate or longitudinally banded with fuscous. 

Not hitherto found in the British Isles. 

Italy — The var. siihalpiua been found in various localities in Piedmont, attain- 
ing its greatest altitude at I'sseglio, Valle di Lanzo. 1.2o2 metres (about 4,lU0feet) ; 
it has also been found at Rivarossa, Kivoli, Avigliana, Sacra di S. Michele, Hill 
of S. (Jiovanni, and the Hills of Turin. The sub-var. .siuijilcr is found at Rivoli and 
Avigliana. The sub-var. ijaroccln on the Hill of S. Giovanni in the Valle di \\\\, and 
has been doubtfully recorded by De IJetta from Venetia. The sub-vai'. vcroncnsis is 
recorded for Verona in A'enetia by De Betta (Lessona «.*^: Pollonera, oj). cit.). 

Austro-Hung-ary — The sub- v. tscliapccki, Styria and rarniola(Clessin, Moll. , 1SS7). 

Russia — The \ar. renardii was found in moist places and shady woods, near 
Sumy, Kharkov, in Aug. 1831 (Kaleniczenko, op. cit.). 

Var. ornata Les.sona, Moll. Piemonte, 1880, p. 21. 

Litnax cine>fo-nigt'r e ornatus Lessona, op. cii. 

Keel and dorsal zone Avhite, a series of white maculations on each side of the 
body, which is black, lormula (32)1 1(23). 

Sussex W.— rp Park, Aug. 1888! with type, W. Jeflery. 

Italy— In Piedmont, at Alagna, Val Sesia, and at Maccugnaga in \-a\ Anzasca, 
at an altitude of 1,323 metres (about 4,340 feet) (Less, i^- Poll., op. cit., j). 30). 

Var. cinereo-nigra Wolf sensu stricto. 

J.iiiiax anti(jiio>-utn var. a Fer., Hist. Moll., 1810, pi. 8ii, f. 2. 

Avion linealus Dumont, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Savoie, ISt'.t, p. 6L 

Liinax antiquorvvi razimimyAiskii Kaleniczenko, lUiU. Mosc, ISol, p. 120. 

Liniax lincatus Dum. ti Mort., Hist. Moll. Sav., 18.52, p. 12. 

Liinax viaxiniiis v /uchtosus Mociuin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. Krance, 1855, ii., p. 29. 

Liniax niibigcnus Bourg., Spic. Mai.. 1863, p. 20. 

Litnax dacampi var. atiiali<e Hettoni, Bull. Mai. Ital., 1870, iii., p. 166, pi. 3. ff. 2, 2a. 

Liinax cincrco-nigcr 7 caincrani <t Poll., Mon. Liin. Ital., 1882, p. 29. 

Liinax cineicus }i intermedia Breviere, J. de Concli., 1881, p. 311. 

Liniax hedleyi Collinge, J. of Mai., 1894, p. 51. 

Kep:l and mid-line white; shield and sides of body black. Formula (321) (123). 

The Arion Uncniiis of Dumont, the Linia.r ilaramjii var. aninliir of IScttoni, 
Liinaj- auti(ju(iriiin a of Ferussac, Liinux niajimus ix cincrco-nigcr of Moquin Tandon, 
Limax bifohafus of Kay t.^: Drouet, and Liinax clarnvallensii of Drouet appear to be 
strictly synonymous with tlie type-form of cincrco-nigcr. 

Tlie sub-viir. nubigena has the white keel line extending only one-third the 
length of the body, the neck of y('llo\\ ish-ash colour, ami is a dwarfed or stuntetl form. 

The sub-vars.' razoumowskil and luctUOSa only diller from typical clncrco- 
viifcr in the keel and dorsal line being sullied by a yellowish shatle, and by only 
e.xlending to half the length of the body in Initiinsu. 

Tiie sub-var. intermedia has the keel and midline whitish, and shield and 
sides of the body ilecj) grey or luown. 

The sub-var. eamerarii only ditrers from the snb-\ar. intermedia in the fuscons- 
chestnut colour of the shield and body. 


Tlie sub-var. hedleyi has the keel and mid-line pale or yellowish-brown, slightly 
interru[)ted anteriorly, the sides of the body chocolate-ldack, the ventral edges of 
the mantle dirty-white with irregular sepia dashes. 

Warwick— Sub-var. luctuosa, Sutton Park, July 1899! H. Overton. 

Glamorgan — Sub var. liiciuo-m, Bridgend, July 1891 ! (I. K. (hide. 

Stafford — Sub-var. liictitrmt, Shelbrook, Cannock Chase, June 1886 ! L. E. Adams. 

York N.E.— Sub-var. Incfnofta, Wass IJank, Hambleton escar[)ment, 800 feet 
altitude, Sept. 1S92 ! and Mill Beck, Uobin Hood's Bay, June 1888! W.D.K. 

York S.W. — Sub-var. luctuosa, Skelmanthorpe, May 1897 ! F. Lawton. 

York Mid W. — Sub-var. luctuosa, Shipley Cilen, Oct. 1883 ! W. AVest. 

York N.W.— Sub var. luctuosa. Helm Chyll, Dentdale, May 1899 ! J. E. Crowther. 

Cheshire — Sub-var. luctuosa, Goyt Valley, Sept. 1902! C. Oldham. 

Edinburgh— Sub-var. luctuosa, Roslin Woods, April 1898 ! W. Evans. 

Derry — Sub-var. hedlei/i, Rathmullan and Walworth, J. N. Milne (Collin<'e J 
of Mai., 1891, p. 51, and 1895, p. 4). 

Germany— Sub-var. luctuosa, Alsace (Meyer, Nachtbl., 1876, p. 106). Specimens 
in British Museum, labelled Heidelberg, Baden, J. E. Daniels. 

France — Sub-var. luctuosa in the Vosges, the Jura, and Daui)hine (Bourguignat, 
Mai. OrandeChartreuse, 1862, p. 32); (Jrande-Chartreuse in the Isere (Moquin- 
Tandon, op. cit. ). The sub-var. nuh'ajciui in the high mountains near the zone of 
pines, especially in the Forest of Superbagncres, Hautes Pyrenees (Bourg., op. cit.). 
The sub-var. intermedia, communal forest of St. Saulge, Nievre (Breviere, op. cit.). 

Switzerland— Sub-var. luctuosa. Canton Valais (Simon & Biittger, Nachtbl. 
1885, p. 55). 

Italy— This, the tyjiical form, is found in the Alps of Lombardy and Piedmont, 
descending also to the valleys ; it reaches its highest known habitat in Lombardyon 
Mont Cenis, at an elevation of 2,000 metres (about 6,555 feet); it was also found at 
Lambrate, Milan, by Bettoni. it has been recorded from Val della Dora Kiparia, 
from liivoli, from the Hills of Turin, and from between Calascaantl Pestarena in the 
Val Anzasca in Piedmont ; and from Vallombrosa, Tuscany. The sub-var. cauicrani 
is found in Piedmont at Maccugnaga, Val Anzasca, at an' altitude of 1,323 metres 
(about 4,340 feet). The sub-var. luctuosa at Alagna in Val Sesia, Maccugnaga in 
Val Anzasca, Rivoli, and on the Hill of Turin (Lessona & Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Austro-Hungary— Sub-var. luctuosa, Carlsbad (Biittger, Naclitbl. , 1885, p. 56). 

Spain — The sub-var. nubir/oia is found on the verge of perpetual snoM- on Mala- 
detta, near the Cirque of the Rencluze in Catalonia (Bourguignat, op. cit.) ; and in 
the Valle del Essera in Aragon (Fagot, Mai. Catal., 1884). 

Sweden — Sub-var. intermedia, Ringerige, July 1868 (Malm, op. cit., j). 88). 

Russia — Sul)-var. razoumowsJdi at Konotop, Borozdna, and Nejin, in Tchernigov 
(Kaleniczenko, op. cit. ). 

Var. maura Held, Lsis, 1836, p. 271. 

Limax i/iaxiiiius i; niger Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. France, 1855, ii., p. 29. 

Lhnax iiiaurus Held, in Isis, 1836, p. 271. 

Limax iiiwatus var. nigcr Dum. & Murtil., Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 13. 

Limax cincrco-ftiger var. 5 Stabile, Moll. Piemonte, 1861, p. 22, pi. 1, f. 2. 

Limax cinereo-niger var. nigripes Stabile, Moll. Piemonte, 1864. 

Li/iiax cincrco-niger var. malacologojnm Colbeau, Bull. Soc. Mai. Belg., 1867, p. 73. 

Limax cinerco-nigcr var. nigei- Malm, Skand. Limac. , 1868, p. 60, pi. 5, f. 12. 

Limax ater Razoumowsky, Hist. Nat. Jorat, 1789, p. 266-67- 

Limax cincrcits var. alpinns Held, in Isis, 1837, p- 306. 

Limax tineatus var. albipcs Dum. & Moriil., Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 13. 

Limax engadincnsis Heyn., Mai. Bl., 1862, p. 204. 

Limax maximus var. ieucogaster Morch, Syn. Moll. Danias, 1864. 

Limax montamts Leydig, Verhandl. Wurtt., 1871, p. 210. 

Limax piroiuc Pini, Moll. Esino, 1876, p. 36, pi- B, ff. 5, 6. 

Animal entirely black or blackish. Formula (.321 123). 

The form discriminated by Razoumowsky as Limax ateP, as well as L. maxi- 
mus var. leueogaster Miirdi, L. einereus var. alpinus Held, L. engadinensis 
Heyn., L llneata var. alblpes Dum. iK: Mortil., L. montanus Leydig, and L. 
pironse Pini, may be regarded as sub-varieties of the \ ar. uiaura, in which the 
dark pigmentation still presents a juvenile or primitive character, as it has not j'et, 
or only partially, spread to the side areas of the sole. 

This variety is essentially alpine, and more e.specially characteristic of exposed, 
elevated, or northern regions, its sombre colouring being probably a response to the 
peculiarities of the environment ; several forms, however, retain one or more of the 
external features of a remote ancestor. 


Somerset N. — Cleeve Conil>e {Norman, 80111. >r()ll., 18G0, ]>. 130). 

Stafford — Sliolbrook. Cannock Cliase, .lunc ISSOl L. K. Ailauis. 

Merioneth IJont-.I'lii, Dol-ri-lly. .Inly ISSIJ (F. (J. Kenn, J. of ('., Jnly 1887, ji. 198). 

Carnarvon - T-lanlicdro^, May li>01 ! (". Oldliani. 

York Mid W. -Sliipley (Jlei'i, Sept. 18S(i: J. A. Hargreaves. 

Germany — Fretlrichsroda, Tliminf^ia (E. von Martens, Jalnb. Dellt^s(•h. Mai. (Je.s., 
1877, p. *214). Saxony, Dr. Collin (Malm. Skand. Limac, 18(58, p. (iO). Tlio .snb-var. 
montntui, Kamsau, la-ar l>erolito-<ga(len : Isle of Ili-ncn, CliiiMiisee; MilseVmrj.;' on tlio 
liliiiic ami Tuliiii^en (CU-ssin. Kxc. Moll. Fauna, 188i, }>. (i(»). 

France — H.iute Savoie (Dum. \' Mortil., op. cit.). (Jramle Cliartreuse in tlu' 
Isere (M<)i|uin-Tandon, op. fit.). Plomliieres-les-IJains in tlie \'os<;;e^< (Bourg., Spic. 
Mai., 18()-2, ]). SO). Jura and Daupliiny (Utmri,'. , (Jrande Chartreuse, 18(>'2, p. .32). 

Belgium— The suh-var. indhu-olnifitrnin, tlie ruins of Salm-Chfitcau, .June 1867, 
(.Collieau, op. cit.). 

Switzerland — Sub-var. <itrii Kaz. , Bad l^enk. and on tiie (jemmi Pass, also at 
Einlischthal near Bad Leuk (Biittger, Xachtl)l., 188.1, p. 57). .Jorat (Kaz., I.e.). The 
sub \ar. i)iij(ulinrn>ilsvi,\. St. Moritz, Orisons (Weslerlund, Fauna Europ., 187(5, p. 8). 

Italy — The var. minini inhabits the ele\atetl region of the Ali)s ; the loftiest 
known locality in Italy is in Piedmont on Monte Muc-rone, at an altitude of 2,2(tO 
metres (aliont 7,210 feet) ; other lofty stations in the same province are on Monte 
Cenisio; at Crissolo, in the Valic del Po; at Castelsee, and at Devero (Less. & Poll., 
Mon. Limac. Ital., 1882, ]>. 20). Thai von Thenans, near Snsa (Simon «.^' Biittger, 
Nachtbl., 1884, p. 42). In Tmbna, near Spoleto (I'antanelli, Bull. Soc. M:il. Ital, 
1876). In Liguria, between Menton and (ienoa, May 1800! .1. E. Somerville. The 
snb-var. piro)iif on the Hill of Tenda and Monte Codena, also at (Iroscavallo, ^'alle 
di Lanza, in Lombardy (Less, i^- Poll., op. cit., 11. 27). 

The specimens from Orvieto in Umbria (Marchese Paulncci) and from Chiara- 
monti, Sardinia (Dr. F'alclii) had the foot-sole pale and merely margined with black 
(Lessoiia «!v: Pollonera, I.e.). 

Austro-Hungary— Sub-var. oiriadinoisis, Transylvania (Westerlnnd, op. cit., |). S). 

Norway — Very common in Christiania, Christiansand, and Hamar Stifts ; also 
at Aafjorden, ^'igten, Leko, and K/tdo, in Trondjhem Stiff ; and (Jriitii in Amt of 
Nordland. Sul>-var. Icucoiidstrr, Laur\ ik and other ]>laces in Christiania Stift 
(Flsmark, .1. of Conch., Oct.' 1886, p. 100). 

Sweden — Snb-var. iiir/cr, (lunncbo and Ljungskile ; Xerike (Hartmann), Stock- 
holm (Thedenins) (Malm, op. cit., p. 61). 

Russia — South Finland and Aland Isles.Xordenskiold and XyIamlcr(Malm,op. cit.) 

Var. eporediensis Lessoua, Moll. Piemonte, 1880, }>. 1, pi. 2, f. is. 

/.///la.v su/'al/>iii!is /^ (•/<>r(V!'/V«.T/'.f Lessona, op. cit. 

Bony niiiformly black ; .sllIEl.n blackish, sprinkled 
with whitish sjiots. Formula (H21 12.S). Internal shell 
large, concave, and sinistral. 

Tills variety, of which api>arently only one specimen 
has been found, has, judging by its exlremely abnormal 
shell, been of sitiistral organization, with the lespiratory 
and other oi'iJiees on tlie left side. 

Xot hitherto found in the British I.sles. , j-''^- 81.-Internal shell of 

,, , T i>. 1 -r I,, 1. 1 max i/'on-iiicusis Lessona 

Italy — Andrate above Ivrea, Piedmont (Less. iV Poll., (after Lessona). 
op. cit., p. 37). 


Var. cinerea Moq.-Tand., Hist. IMoll. France, 1855, ii., p. 29. 

Limax cincrcus a Miiller, Verm. Hist., 1774, p- n. 

Limax luaxiiiius X cinercci Moq.-'rancl., op. cit. 

Limax strohcli I'ini, Moll. Esino, 1870, p. 22, pi. ii, ff. 11, 12. 

Anim.M, entirely cinereous, or ash-coloureil ; siiiKl.l) bluish-black. 

The sub-var. Strobeli of I'ini ilitfers in the ash colour of the Imdy being tinged 
with yellowish, and the keid paler. 

Galway^Killereran (B. .1. Clarke, Ann. X.H , 1843, p. 333). 

France Distributed throughout the country, and also reported from Bastia in 
Coisica (Crateloui), Dist. Ceog. Limac, 18,")."), p. 2). 

Italy— The snb-var. atrohcli at Maccngnaga, Val, Piedmont, at an alti- 
tude of 1,323 metres (about 4, .340 feet) (l.essona t^^: Pollonera. op. cit.). Xot rare 
about Esino, and in the N'alle del Varone, near Preuiana in Loml>ardy (i'ini, op. cit.). 



Var. flaveseens Wester! mid, Moll. Svec, ii. 
Animai> yellow or yellowish. 
Sweden — Westerlund (op. cit. ). 

Var. transilvanica Heynemann, Mai. Bl., 1862, p. 21G. 

Limax tyansilvanica Heynemann, op. tit. 

Lintax dacaiiipi var. sordcllii Hettoni, Bull. INIal. Ital., 1870, p. 161, pi. iv., ff. 2, 2a. 
Limax dacaiiipi 5 calderinii Lessona, Moll. Piemonte, 1880, p. 22, pi. i.,ff. 11-13. 
Limax corsicus gestri w nigyozonatus Less. iS; Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 10. 
Limax dacaiiifii rciiicri ^ calderinii Less. >t Poll., op. cit., p. 33. 

Kekl and mul-dorsal-line yellow or oclireous, witli a darker zone on each side 
of tlie body. Formula 001 100. 

Tlie var. transilvanica .sensu strieto, lias the keel line and mantle pale, the 
body .suti'used with brown, and the dark lateral-liand continued to the shield. 

The sub-var. caldePinii has the j,folden-yellow keel, but tlie median line is con- 
tinued to the shield as a series of spots, and gradually blends with the reddish-lirown 
tint of the sides ; the black lateral band is resolved into a series of spots, and the 
shield is paler than the body in colour. 

The sub-var. nigrozonata has the keel and mid-line also f;;ol den -yellow, sides of 
l»ody yellowish-ash colour, back fuscous, with the lateral-zone l>lack. 

The sub-var. SOrdellii, altliouj,di somewhat obscurely described by Lessona & 
PoUonera, appears to ha\e the keel and dorsal line yellow ; sides of body ash-coloureil, 
confusedly zoned, and irregularly albo-maculate; shiehl ash-coloured. 

Italy — ^Tlie var. calderinii is found at Varallo, in Val Sesia, Piedmont (Lessona, 
op. cit.). The sub-var. Higrozouata at Busalla, Piedmont, and at Genoa, Liguria; 
and the sub-var. snrdc/lil at I'avia in Lombardy (Lessona i^' PoUonera, op. cit.). 

Austro-Hungary — The var. transllvanicn is found at Hermannstadt, Neustadt, 
and many other localities in Transylvania (Clessin, Moll. 1887, p. 39). 

Var. punctata Lessona, Moll. Piemonte, 1880, p. 21, pi. i., f. 10. 

Limax dacampi var. elegans Bettoni, Bull. Mai. Ital., 1870, p. 165, pi. iv., flf. 3, 3a. 

Limax dacampi a. punctata Lessona, op. cit. 

Limax dacampi fi suip/nirca Les<iona, op. cit., f. 7. 

Limax dacampi mencgazzii Q piinciatus Less, .t Poll., Mon. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 32. 

Limax dacampi rcnicri V sulpliurcus Less. >t Poll., op. cit., p. 33. 

Limix corsicus var. gcstri Lessona, op. cit., p. 17, pi. 1, f. 4. 

Limax corsicus gcstri p pulciier Lessona & PoUonera, op. cit., p. 41. 

Limax perosinii monrega/cnsis y vcniisiissitmis Less, it Poll., op. cit., p. 43, pi- 1, f 3. 

Keel and median-line yellow, with two darker zones at each side of the body. 
Formula 021 120. The var. vciiKsfiss-liiiK retains when adult the variegated shield 
of juvenile life. 

The var. punctata sensu stricto, has a ])ale yellow keel and the median-line (con- 
tinued as a .series of yellowish markings to the shield ; sides of the body fu.scous 
oversprea<l by grey, but leaving the fuscous body tint visible in places; a few 
rounded black or dark-grey spots represent the inner and main bands ; caudal end 
of sides of body and foot-fringe dark-grey ; shield uniforndy djirk-coloiired. 

j>es.sona's figure can scarcely be considered as accurately representing this variety. 

The sub-var. SUlphurea has the median-line sulphur-yellow and extending only 
half the length of the body ; shield brown, with few black spots on its anterior margin. 

The sub-var. pulchra has the yellow keel continued as abroad yellow zone (|uite 
up to the shield ; the yellowish tint of the sides of the body is overspread by grey, 
leaving a series of yellowish spots beneath the main-band ; the dark inner and main 
bands are distinguishable by the darker summits of the sinuate tuliercles. 

Mr. Koebuck has seen a Britisli form of the sul)-%ar. puJrhra with oclireous median- 
line, dark-brown shield and Ijody, and continuous main and inner bands. 

The sub-var. elegans has the yellow keel line interruptetl with black, and is 
possibly a form of this variety, but it has not been precisely described. 

The sub-var. venustissima has the sides of the body an ashy-white, the margins 
blackish-grey, the lateral bands much broken-up into veiy irregular spots ; side- 
areas of sole blackish-grey ; shield pale sulphur-yellow marbled with black. 

Sutherland E. — Sub-var. pulchra^ Iboia, Sept. 18841 W. ]>aillie. 

Cork S. — Var. punctata. Lord Bantrv's demesne, (ilengarill', May 1891 ! \\. F. 

Italy — The vars. punrtafa and fnilphm-ra have been fouml at Varallo in Val Sesia, 
Piedmont; the subvar. pulchra at Busalla, Piedmont, and at (ienoa in Liguria ; 
the sub-var. elegans at Biumo near Varese in Lombardy ; and the sulj-var. vcnustin- 
niina at Mondovi, Piednumt (Less & Poll., op. cit.). 


Vur. nigricans Lessona, Moll. Fiemonte, 18.S0, p. 22. 

I.hua.x dacaiiipi rcnieti i nigricans Less. A Poll., Monog. Liniac. Ilal., 1882, p. 33. 

J.iiiiax dacamfii y tiii^Hcans Lessona, op. cit. 

Lima.x corsicus bonellii T J1a-,'onigcr Less. & Poll., op. cit., p. 4L 

Liiiin.x corsicus honcllii olivaceus Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Keel and median-line yellow, and extending to tlie .shield ; sides of body with 
two darker hands on each side. Forinnla (.T2)l 1(2.3). 

Tlie var. nigricans scnsn strifto, lias tlie sides of body black, keel yellow, a7id 
the midline to tlie shield luokeii up into yellow spots and .showing a single series of 
sub-dorsal yellow spots on each side. 

The sub-var. flavo-nigra has the yellow dorsal-zone extending up to the shield. 

The snb-var. ollvaeea has olive-brown sides, with the keel, median-line, and a 
sub-dorsal series of spots lemon-yellow. 

Not hitherto recorded for the British Isles. 

Italy — The var. niiirirfois is found at Varallo in Val Sesia, Piedmont. The .sub- 
\ar. )uifrozo)i((ffi has been recordeil from ihisalla, \'al Scrivia, Piedmont, and at 
(h'lKia in Liguria. The sub-vars. oiivrtcra nud /faroiiii/ra are from Busalla and the 
Hills of Tuiin, and also from Liguria (Less, it Poll., o]». cit.). 

Var. atrata Belt., Bull. Maluc. Ital., 1870, p. 1(J.3, pi iii., if. 4-4.V. 

Li max dacaiu/>i var. atrata Bettoni, op. cit. 

Untax (iacaiitpi rcnieri y atratus Less. <fc Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 32. 

Limax corsicus honellii c aterriiiius Less. & Poll., op. cit., p. 41. 

Liiiiax corsicus hotiellii \\ ciirinus Less. & Poll., op. cit., p. 11. 

Keel and mid-dorsal-line yellow ; body and .shikld more or less nnicolorous. 
Fornnila(.321) (1'2,S). 

The var. atrata sensu stricto, has the keel and dorsal-zone sulphur-yellow, sides 
of the body greyish-fuscous, with blackish rugosities, and blackish shield. 

The sub- var. aterrima has the keel yellow, and body and shield very black. 

The sub-var. citrina has the keel lemon-yellow, and <mly extending half the 
length of the body, which is of an olive-brown. 

Not hitherto recorded for the Ihitish Isles. 

Italy — The var. ntvafa is recorded by IJettoni from road between Perledo and 
Kegoledo in Lombardy ; the sub-var. cifi-iiKi from the Hills of Tin in, Piedmont, and 
Liguria; the .sub-var. aterrinia from the Hills of Turin, Piedmont, and Liguria, and 
by Marehese Paulucci from Lucca in Tuscany (Le.s.s. iK: Poll., I.e.). 

Var. efasciata Dumont & Mortillet, Moll. Savoie, 18o7, p. 13. 

Limax lineatiis var. c/asciatus Duin. & Mort., op. cit. 

Limax cinereus var. fa-'esii Pini, Moll. Esino, 1876, p. 23, pi. H, ff. 9, 10. 

L.imax maximus var. calosoma Eis. & Stuxb. (Westerlund, Faun. Europ., 1876. p. 8). 

Limax cinereo-nigcr var. minimus Pollonera, IjoU. Mus. Comp. Anat., 1898, p. 2. 

Animal with the fundamental body colour overspread with brownish or brown. 
Formula (321 128). 

The var. efasciata sensu stricto, is described as entirely brown without bands. 

The sub-var. pavesll, fuscous-chestnut, sole losy-white with bluish-grey margins. 

The sub-var. minima is ashy-fuscous, with the side-areas of the sole cinereous. 

The sub-var. calosoma is of an obscure olivaceous tint; .shield black. 

Not hitherto recorded for the Ihitish Isles. 

France — Var. rfafiriatn, Haute Savoie (Dumont & Mortillet, o]>. cit.). 

Italy —Sub-var. //(^'(v.s// in Lombardy, between 'J'artavalle and P>cllaiio, .Aug. 1873 
(Pini, op. cit.); in Piedmont at an altitude of 1,872 metres (about (i.l.So feet), at 
Devoro, in Val d'Antigorio, anti in Tuscany at Novoli, near Florence, Marehese 
Paulucci (Lessona \- Pollonera, .Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, )>. 2i)). The v;ir. ejmriafa 
has been found at Ahigna, Val Sesia (Lessona, Moll. Piemonte, p. 21). 

Corsica — Sub-var. minhtta, Vizzavona, Signor Caziot (Pollonera, oj). cit.). 


Var. rufescens Mo(i.-Tan(l., Hist. Moll. France, 1855, ii., p. 29, i)l. iv., f. 7. 

Limax maximus IT rufescens Mocj.-Tand., op. cit. 

Limax erythrus Boiir.c;., Mai. <;rande Chartreuse, 1864, p. 31, pt. 2, ff. 1-8. 
Limax dacampi T monocroiiius Less. & I'oll., iMonosj. Limac. Ilal., 1882, p. 34. 
I^ima.x corsicus dorite X sanguineus Less. & Poll., op. cit., p. 39. 

Animal red or reddisli. 

The var. rufescens sensu stricto, is entirely of a reddish colour. 

The sub-var. sanguinea is i>ale redilish with the keel and neighbouring ruga- red. 


Tlie sub-var. monocroma is entirely red, with side areas of sole fuscous. 

The sub-var. erythra is deep red, witli lateral blackish clouding on shield. 

Not hitherto recorded for the British Isles. 

France — Var. nifesccns Moq., environs of Paris (Moq.-Tand., op. cit.). Sub-var. 
crijthra, Alps, near Grande-Chartreuse in Isere (Bourg. , op. cit.). 

Italy — Sub-var. sangninca Less. & Poll., Hills of Turin, Piedmont and Liguria 
(Less. »fc Poll., op. cit.). Sul»-var. monocroma Less. & Poll., Balabio, near Valsas- 
sina in Lonibardy (Pini, Moll. Esino, 1876, p. 28). 

Austro- Hungary — Var. nifesccns, Prague (Slavik, Moll. Bohinen, 1869, p. 92). 

Var. fabrei Moqnin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. France, 1855, ii., p. 2B. 

Lima.x corsicus Q fabrei Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Liniax dacampi var. uwnolincolata Belt., Bull. Ital., 1870, p. 161, pi. 3, f 1. 

Liiitax biclzii Seibeit, Bl., 1873, p. 195. 

Limax dacavipi V rii/cscens Lessona, Molt. Piemoute, 1880, p. 22, pi. 1, ff. 14, 15. 

Lhiiax corsicus y sencnsis Lessona & Pollonera, Monog. Ital , 1882, p. 38. 

Limax corsicus callichrous liybridus Lessona & Pollonera, op. cit., p. 40. 

Liniax corsicus callichrous t versicolor Lessona & Pollonera, op. cit., p. 40. 

Keel and median-line red ; with a single dark zone on eacli side of the body. 
The formula isODl 100. The vars. versicolor and hj/hrida of L. & P. ditter from the 
typical fabrei in the persistence at maturity of the variegated colouring of the sliield. 

The var. fabrei sensu stricto, has the keel reiMish, the sides of the body greyisli- 
ochreous, with one l)ro\vn band on each side. 

The sub-var. monolineolata is pale-reddish, keel and median-line red, with 
fuscous back, and a row of black s^jots on each side. 

The sub-var. rufescens of Lessona has the keel of a vivid red, a unicolorous red- 
dish body, paler on tiie sides, and tlie single row of black spots at each side is 
confined to the caudal end of the body. 

The sub-var. senensis has the body and shield pale chestnut, the body sub- 
fasciate, the keel pale red, and tlie side areas of tlie sole Hesh-coloured. 

The sub-var. bielzli has tlie red keel e.vtending to the shield, the sides of the body 
flesh-coloured, though sometimes found of a yellow or whitish colour, and the dark 
band is continued n\) to the shield. 

The sub-var. hybrlda has a fuscous body, red keel, and the red dorsal rugre 
arraiiged linearly ; sliieM black, irregularly maculate with a vinous colour. 

The sub-var. versicolor has the keel red, body yellowish with a blackish zone 
on each sMe ; shield black with vinous-yellow spots. 

Not hitherto recorded for the British Isles. 

Corsica — V^r. fabrei, near Bastelica, Sept. 1852 (Moq.-Tandon, op. cit.); Orezza, 
Signor Bedriaga (Lessona «& Pollonera, op. cit.); Corte, Toga, and Bastia, Signor 
Caziot (Pollonera, Bull. Mus. Comp. Anat., 1898, p. 2). 

Italy — The sub-var. monolineolata is recorded from Milan, Pavia, and Bellagio, 
on the Lake of Como, by Bettoni, and by Pini from near Valsassina. Tiie sub-var. 
rufescens is from Varallo in Val Sesia, Piedmont. The sub-var. senensis was found 
at Siena. Tuscany, by Marchese Paulucci. The sub-var. versicolor is found in the Alps 
of Liguria, and the sub-var. hybricla at Genoa (Lessona «& Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Austro-Hungary— The sub-var. bielzii, Moravia and Sty ria (Clessin, Moll., 1887). 

Var. villae Pini, Moll. Esino, 1876, p. 28, pi. a, ff. 2, 3. 

Limax cincreo-niger var. znlhe Pini, op. cit. 

Limax dacatnpi e maculata Lessona, Moll. Piemonte, 1880, p. 22, pi. 1, f. 6. 

Limax dacampi ^ pallcscens Lessona, i.e., ff. 8, 9. 

Limax callichrous var. crucntus Lessona, op. cit., p. 18, pi. 1, ff. 1-3. 

Limax dacampi v villie Lessona * Pollonera, Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 35. 

Limax corsicus isselii ^ seriaius Less. & Poll., op. cit., p. 40. 

Limax perosinii Less. & Poll., op. cit., p. 42. 

Limax pcrosinii cruentus fi formosissimits Less. A Poll., op. cit., pi. 1, f. 2. 

Keel and mid-Hue red, two rows of black maculations on each side of the body. 
Formula 021 120. The sub-vars. cruenta m\([ forniosissivia. &\-q earlier forms of tliis 
variety, characterized ])y the ancient feature of a distinctly maculate shield. 

The var. villse sensu stricto, has the keel and summits of the rugie blood-red, 
and the general tint of tlie body reddish ; two rows of irregular black spots on each 
side, most of which are longitudinally split, forming paired series of smaller spots. 

The sub-var. maculata has a darker rufous body and less richly coloured rug;F. 

The sub-var. cruenta, which is synonymous with L. pcrosinii, has the body 
rufous, with keel and summits of rugosities red, and two rows of irregular Idack 
spots on each side; side-areas of sole blue-black; shield reddish marbled with black. 


The sul»-var. pallescens of Lessona is prolialily only a young form of suit var. 
mocuhttit, in wliidi tlic sliit'M lias slii^ht i^rey cIouiUmj^s and a few inej^ular black 
s|>ots at its liinder niar^in, and altlionL'li descrilie<l jvs j>osse>sin,t,' three rows of blaek 
s|tots on each side, tlie tiiiure shows that the irregular spots are longitudinally sjilit 
and simulate adilitional rows, as in var. rilUr. 

The sub-var. seriata dirtei-s chieHy from the var. vUhv s.s. , in the black spots 
not being longituilinaliy split. 

The suli-\ ar. fomiosissima ditlers from var. rrunifit in the bluish-black fringe, 
the more s|>aringly maculate sliield, and the described presence of two or thiee rows 
of black si>ots on each side (the illustrafive ligure. however, shows only a single row 
at each side, though possibly intended to show two). 

Not hitlierto recorded for the British Isles. 

Italy— The var. rif/ir is found near Esino, in Lombardy : and the sub-vai-s. mactt- 
liitii and pallcsi'cns have been found together at an altitude of 41Kt metres (about 
1,(RR) feet), at Varallo, in Val Sesia, Pieilmont. The sul> var. .seriata has been fouiul 
at Busalla in Piedmont ; at Genoa in Lignria : iviul by the Marchese Paulucci at 
Lucca in Tuscany. The subvar. cninifa was found at an altitude of C'tO metres 
(about "2, ISO feet) above (iaressio, in the Maritime Alps. Pieilmont ; tiie sub-var. 
f''isiiiia was found by Signor Perosino, near Mondovi, at N'icoforte, altitude 
,V)0 metres (about l,SO<i feet), and at S. t;uisep[ie dei Uevelli (Less. ..>v; Poll., op. cit.). 

Vav. callichroa Bom-g., Spie. Mai., 18G1, p. 21. 

J.Sn.-a-v caliiclirous Bourg., op. cit. 

Linttxx cinerco-nigcr var. gvalticrii Piiii, Moll. Esino, 1876. p. 02. pi- .\, ff. 8-9. 
Liniiur dixcaiiipi guiz/ticrii Less. & Poll.. Mon. Limac. Ital , 1SS2. p. M. 
Liimuv corsicus isse/ii M arthuri Less. ^ Poll., op. cit., p. 10, pi. 1, f. 5. 
Linitur corsicus isselii v zonafus Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Kkkl and nu^lian line red : with three dark bands on each side. Formula :V21 1-23. 

The var. calllchroa, has the sides of the boily yellow, the two upper ilark 
bands bhudc and continuous, and the outer or lower baud reduced to spots: shield 
vinous-yellow marbled with lilack. It is really a primitive form, the marbled shield 
being retained tiiroughout life. 

Tlie var. gualtlepll is fuscous with a violet tinge, becoming blackish ilorsally, but 
showing a longitudinal red line between the main and outer bamls, and traces of a 
second red line between the main and inner bands; shield earthy-brown. 

The sub-var. ZOnata ditiers from the var. fjiia/firrii in having the red keel and 
mid-line, and also the two red lines at each side of the boily exteutling uji to the 
shield, the intervening spaces being black and the sliield brown. 

The sub-var. aPthuri ditlers from the lueceding only in the disintegration of the 
red and black colouring, partially due to the red and black pigments both being 
restricted to the summits of the rugosities. 

Not hitherto recorded for the British Isles. 

Italy — The sub-var. ffiia/ficrli occurs in Esino, Lombardy ; the sub vars. orthiiri 
and zmiata at Busalla, in Piedmont, and tJenoa in Lignria (Less. Jv: Poll., oji. cit.). 

France — Var. vaUUhroa, the Alpes Maritimes (Bourg., op. cit.). 

Var. dacampi Menegazzi, Mai. Veioii., 18o4, p. Go, p. 1. tl'. 1-4. 

Lima-t geographicus Renier, Prodr. Vermi Adiiatico, 1804. 

Limcix diicatiifii Menegazzi. op. cit. 

I.intax cirruhins var. dacampi Strobel, Essai, etc., 1857, p. 11. 

I.iitiaj: nia.ihiiHS \ar. ru/fsccus Stabile, Moll. Terr. Pieni.. 1861. 

Liimi.r daiamfii var. trilimolata Bett., Bull. Mai. Ital., 1870, p. 163, pi. 3, ff. 3, 3.\. 

I.ima.x dacampi \xt. I'usca Bett., i.e., pi. iv., tT. 1, \.\. 

Limeix corsicus doriif "t /uscus Less. 5: Poll., Monog. Lim.ic. Ital., 1882, p. 39. 

Lima.1- corsicus doriir j" rubro-notatus Less. & Poll., I.e. 

Kkkl aiul median line red ; with two darker /ones at each side of the body. 
The formula being (;^2)1 1(23). 

Though the name ijiofiraphicus of Ilenier is probably the oldest name for this 
form, it iia-s not been adoptetl as his description is so very inadequate. 

The var. dacanipl sensu stricto, has the keel and median-line red, with two black 
zones at each side, siiow ing the reddish sides of the body as a reddish longitutlinal 
zone on each side : shield bii>wnish-reil. 

The sub-var. fusca of Less, v^- Poll, ditfei-s from var. dacampi in the paler red of 
the keel-line and lateral bands, and in the fuscous tint of the sides and shield. 

The sub-var. trilineolata has fuscous-ltrown sides and shield, and darker dorsal 
ruga-: the red ground showing ixK the keel auil ivs two lateral bands at the caudal 
end, but becoming oliscured by the bod\-colour as they approach the shield. 



I. — Lima.x liiicico-ni^ci Wolf, typiml fonii. 

TJSgv — „.j;:ii(!i» 


-/-. cincycit-nii^cr lUir. palU'iciii'i. f' sc) 


3. — /^. cincnit-nij^Li var. cuwiliI, p. 02. 

4. — /,. cincreo-nif^cr sxih.-var. enilnui, p. (1^. 

5. — /.. ciuc'ico-nifidi ray. iiiaina. p 61. 
6. — /,. ciiuifo-iiif^ir siib.-vay. vcniistissinui. p. 6^. 

7. — /-. I :iuyeo-ni<;fi siilK-vtir. t^ualtui li. p. C6. 

!S. — L. ciiicyc'o-iiif^cy st{li.-v,iy. sub.ilpiiui, p. 60. 



ij — /. . I'liu ym-nigfy, fj;. villiw, p. (15. 

10. — /,, I iitfyfi>-iiif;i:y suIk-viu . Iwillrvi, p. fir 

II. — L. cineyett iiigir ray. punctiila, p. 63. 

!2. — L. ciiwyco-uif^iy still. --till . Jo/z./c. /> 67. 

13. — L. cincyco-inf^cy vny. vcya. p. 5(1. 

14. — L. cincyco-nigcr ray. CiiUiclima. p. (16. 

15. — 1,. cincyio-ni^iy Viiy oiiiiil,i,p Co. 

J. H'. Tiiylin, del. 


The sub-var. fiisea of Bettoni is identical with siibvar. tvUiireolata except that 
tlie anterior end of the keel-line and .also the whole lenj;th of the red lateral l)ands 
are interrupted by the brownisii tint, and form three series of red spots. 

The sub-var. rubPO-nOtata Less. i*t Poll, has a blackish body, the red keel line 
continued up to the shield, and the red lateral band on each side resolved into spots. 

Not hitherto recorded for tiie Britisii Isles. 

Italy — Tlie var. dacampi , according to Lessona, exists in Venetia, Loni- 
bardy, East Piedmont, and Emilia, but does not pass the Appenines, and is therefore 
al)seiit from Tuscany. It does not range to so great an altitude as typical cliieiro- 
vi'frr, tlie most lofty locality being Prestine, Valle delT (\glio, 800 metres above the 
sea (about 2,710 feet) in Lombardy ; it has also been found at Varesotto and Valsas- 
sina. In Venetia it has been recorded from Verona, Pescliiera, and Gorgo ; and in 
Piedmont from Cigognola, Stradclla, and Guasta. The sub-var. tvUinroIatd is found 
at IJellagio, and near Portone, Lombardy, and in Pieilmont, Liguria, an<l Tuscany ; 
the sub-var. riihro-notnta at I5ellagio in Lombardy, on the Hills of Turin, and at 
Busalla in Piedmont, in Liguria, and in Tuscany. The subvar. fiisra Bettoni is 
fouuil at Regoledo in Lomliardy ; wliile the sub-var. fiisra Less, i^- Poll, is from 
Liguria, and the Hills of Turin, and Busalla in Piedmont (Less. t!v Poll., op. cit. ). 

Var. Corsica Moci.-Taud., Hist. Moll. Fniuce, 1855, ii., p. 2G, pi. 3, ff. 10-13. 

Liinax corsicus Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Limax doriif Bourg., Spicil. Mai., 1862, p. 23, pi. 15. 

Liinax ciiicrco-nigcr var. taccanii Pini, ^loll. Esiiio, 1876, p. 91, pi. A, fT. 6-7. 

Liinax cincreo-nis^fr var. turatii Piiii, op cit., p. 95. pi. ii, ff. 7. 8. 

Limax dacampi fJ- pinii Less. & Poll., IMonog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 34. 

Limax corsicus doriie e /inca/us Less. & Poll., op. cit., p. 39. 

Limax corsicus doriif S simplex Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Limax corsicus doritc i palltsccns Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Limxx corsicus doricc f hrunneus Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Kkel and median line rod ; sides of botly and SHIELD more or le.s.s unicolorous. 
The formula is (321) (12.S). 

The var. eOPSica sensu stricto, being (irst described and therefore giving the name 
to this variety, is an aberrant exanii)le of the red-keeled form ; the keel, though red- 
dish, is not strongly coloured, and the sides of the liody are ochreous-yellow tinged 
or overspread with grey ; this bleaching of the body colours is also shown by 

The sub-var. turatii of Pini, in which although the keel is bright red, the sides 
of the body are pale asliy-rufous, and the side areas of the sole are not darkened. 

The sub-var. dorise Bourg., which more characteristically represents this variety, 
has an almost uniformly black liody and blood-red keel, a line of which c(dour extemls 
quite to the shield ; the var. pinii iV' Poll, is practically identical. 

The sub-var. lilieata Less. \- Poll, differs in the sides of the body being Idackish. 

The sub-var. simplex Less. & Poll, is the same, but the red keel oidy extends 
half-way to the shield ; figured by Bourguignat, Si)ic. Mai., 1S(J2, ]d. Ki, W. 4, o, S. 

The sub-var. brunnea Less, t^' Poll, has the red keel and mid-line, but the body 
and shield are chestinit-brown ; also figured by Bourguignat, I.e., f. 9. 

The sub-var. pallescens Less. iS: Poll, has the body and shield pale rufous- 
brown, with red keel and mid-line, and is also figured by Bourguignat, I.e., f. 7. 

The sub-var. taccanii Pini only differs from characteristic sub-var. dovUr in the 
sides of the body and shield being of an earthy-brown colour and the suffusion of the 
mid-area of the sole with a yellowish-rosy tint. 

Not hitherto recorded for the Britisii Isles. 

France — The sub-var. dorhv has been found in the environs of Nice and Meuton, 
Alpes Maritimes (Bourg., Aunales Mai., 1S70, p. 18.')). 

Italy — The sub-var. d(trkv\\\\Si been recorded from beneath bushes on the east side 
of the Vorbergs, near Bellagio, in Lombardy (Poulsen, Nachl)l., 1872, p. 23), Savona, 
Finale, about Genoa especially near Pegli, in Liguria, also at Montferrat, the hills 
about Turin, and the Val Scrivia, at Busalla, in Piedmont; and as var. jilnil from 
Valsassina, near Pasturo, in Lombardy. The sub-vars. sinijilcr and liiicata have 
been found at Busalla ami on the Hills of Turin in Piedmont, in Liguria, and in 
Tuscany ; sub-vars. prdlcsi-c.ns and santjiiuica at Busalla and on the Hills of Turin 
in Piedmont, and in Liguria; sul»-var. brunnea in Liguria; and sub-vars. tarrnnil 
and tnriUil at Esino, Lombardy (Le.s.sona i*l' Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Bourguignat reccu'ds as Lininx dai-oinpi var., a sub- variety with black sides, and 
greyish mid-line with reil tuberculation, from (Jrbeletto, in the pro\ince of Koine. 

Corsica — The var. rnjslcn sensu stricto, Bastelica, Sept. 1S.')2 (Moquin-Tandon, 
I.e.), Orezza, iSignor Beilriaga (Less(ma & Pollonera, I.e.)., Corte, Toga, ami Bastia, 
Signor Caziot (Pollonera, Bull. Mus. Conip. Anat., 189S, p. 2). 

Sardinia— The var. rorsira, north of the island, Signor Gene (Less. & Poll., I.e.). 



Geographical Distribution. — Umax cinereo-nirier is widely niul 
somewhat irregularly distributed, especially in the British Isles, and although 
the area occupied in continental Europe is fairly c(>in))act, the stations are 
usually more or less montane, and theretore to a large degree discontinuous, 
as it is frequently absent from the valleys and open grounds. 

Its north-European range has been carefully worked out with esjiecial 
reference to that of Llmax maximus, and it is found to extend markedly 
beyond that of the latter species. In Norway, Esmark *.K: Iloyer have fore- 
shadowed its occurrence at Moskenaes, in Lofoten, 68° 6' north latitude, 
while recording it as very common at (JWito in Xordland, which is 07° 49' 
north latitude, and far beyond the known range of habitation of Umax 
maximus. In Sweden, it has been chronicled by A. Luther as existing at 
Funasdal, in Hiirjedal, 6*2° 80' north latitude ; while in Finland, according 
to the same author, it is tolerably ctMnmon in the south-west, and reaches 
as high as 64"^ oO' north latitude at Kivesvaara, in I'altanio, whereas L. maxi- 
mus in that country is restricted to the neighbourhood of Helsingfors. 

In the south of Europe, although a like discriminatory series of observa- 
tions is not available, Fischer rec(jrds that in the Pyrenees the Umax 
maximm only attains an altitude of 1,200 metres (about 3,930 feet), while 
tlie present species, according to Bourguignat, reaches in the same region 
almost to the snow-line. 

Geographical Distribution 


Limax cinereo-niger Wolf. 

I^B Recorded Distribution 
[ I Probable Range. 

iMc. Sl'. 

ENGLAND AND WALEii. peninsula. 

Somerset N. — Var. mnura, Cleeve Combe (Norman, Som. Moll., 18G0, p. 139). 

Sussex W. — rp Park, Aug. 1886 ! with var. onuda ! W. JeHery. 

Oxford— Var. vcm (W. K. Colliiigo. O.Kfonlshiro list, 1891). 

Warwick— Rubvar. hii-tiinsii, Sutton Park, .lulv 1809! TI. Ovorton. 
Stafford — ^'ar. ntmini and suli-var. IintiKisu under a log, Slieliirook, C'ainiocdi 
Ciias(>, near Statlord. dune 3, 188(j! Lionel K. Adams. 
Salop — Oswestry, June 1885! Baker Hudson. 



Glamorgan— Sub-var. luctuosn, Bridgend, July 1891 ! G. K. (Jude. 


Merioneth— Bont-ddii, near Dnigelly, July 1886 ! F. (i. Fenii. 

Carnarvon— Bettws-y-Coed and Trcfriw, Alay 1898, C. Oldliani, J. of Condi., vol. 
ix., ]). "JU. Var. maura, L]anl)edro<;-, May 1901! G. Uldliani. 

Denbigh — On tlie r)enl)ii,^lisliire side of the river Gonway near Bettws-y-Goed 
and Trefriw, May 1898 (G. ()Idliani, J. of Goncli., vol. ix., \^. 211). 

Lincoln S. — Gareby Wood, June 1903! E. A. Woodrulle- Peacock. trent. 

Lincoln N.— Gadney, Se)>t. 1901! (E. A. Wood luHe- Peacock, Nat., Dec. 1901). 

Derby— Ghapel-en-le-Fiitli, July 1897 (G. Oldliam, J. of Goncli., vol. viii., p. 433). 
Not uncoiiiinoii on the Derbyshire bank of the Goyt, May 1899! G. Oldham. 


Cheshire— Appears restricted to the iiilly region in the east of the county ; not 
iinconinion aliout Komiley, G(niipstall, and Maijjle in the (ioyt Valley, and Wincle 
in the Dane Valley, under bark of fallen ash trees in wood, May 189910. Oldham. 


York N.E.— Farwath Bridge, Newtondale, Aug. 1886 ! W. Goates. Havburn 
Wyke, Aug. 1894 ! F. W. Fierke. 8ub-var. larfHosn, by Mill Beck, Hood's 
Bay, June 1888 I W.D. It. Var. maiint. Poppa plantation, Bilsdale, alt. 900 feet, 
Aug. 1893! and suli-var. Inrtnofid, and type, Wass Bank, Hainbleton escarpment, 
800 feet alt., Sept. 1892! W. D. Koel)Uck'. 

York S.E. — Var. maura, Brantinghanithoipo, INIay 1901! J. E. Growther. 

York S W.-- Sub-var. InrtHosu, Skeliiiaiithorpe, ^lay 13, 1S97 ! F. Lawton. 

York Mid W. -Banks of Liiidley Wood Reservoir, July 188.5! W.D.P. Sub- 
var. lurtuosa, Shipley Glen, Oct. 1883 ! W. West. Var. maura, Shipley (Jlen, Sept. 
1886 ! J. A. Hargreaves. 

York N.W.— Sub-var. Inrtitosa, Helm (Jhyll, Dentdale,May 1899! J. E. Growther. 
Scartii Nick, Wcnsleydale, May 1888! .Joiiii Biaiiii. LAKES. 

Westmorland and Lake Lancashire — Roadside between Water Yeat .and Lake 
Bank, Sept. 6, 1902 (S. L. Petty, Nat., Nov. 1902, p. 366). 

SCOTLAND. EAST ia^w lands. 

Edinburgh— Suli-var. hidnom, Roslin woods, April 1898! W. Evans. 
Forfar — Den of Airlie, Sept. 1886! G. B. Plowiight. EAST HIGHLANDS. 

Perth S. and Clackmannan— Loch Ard, April 1897, Ci. McDougall. 
Perth Mid - Drnmmoiid Hill near Kenmore, Loch Tay, May 1892! W. Evans. 
Easterness— Pine wood, Netliy Bridge, Inverness, Julv 1887 ! J. E. Somerville. 
Banff— Glenliddach, alt. 800 feet, July 1891 ! Rev. G. Gordon. 
Elgin — Gromdale, 2.*)tli .August, 1891 ! W. Evans. WEST HIGHLANDS. 

Clyde Isles— Glen Rosa, Anaii, April 189.3 ! W. Evans. 

NOR TH II f Gil I. A NDS. 
Sutherland E. — Gommoii, Blue Rock, near Loch Brora, June 1884! W. Baillie. 


Derry—AVal worth Wood, J. N. Milne, as L. hedleyi (Gollinge, J. of Mai., 1895). 

[Monaghan]— Recorded in error, <Jensus British AIolL, 1902. 

Tyrone — Altadiavol, tyi)e and var. maura, July 1886! and Derrygore, May 1887! 
W. F. de A'ismes Kane. 

Donegal — Sul)-var.,, Ray Wood, Ratlmiullan, July 1903 ! J. IS^. Milne and 
R. Welch. Recorded as L. hcdUyijl from the same locality (Gollinge. J. of Mai., 1894). 

Dublin — Scalp, Dublin Mountains, July 1891, R. F. Schartt'. LEINSTER. 

Wicklow— Powerscourt, May 1886 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Carlow — Near GarloAv, 1890, A. G. Stuart. 

Queen's Co.— Spire Hill (B. J. Glarke, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1840, p. 203). 


Sligo— Near Markree Castle, Sligo, Sept. 1885 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 


Waterford — (Jlenabbey, type and var. maura, Sept. 1886! A H. Delap. 

Cork— R. P.all (P.. J. Glarke, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1843, j). 334). 

Kerry- Upper Lake, Killarney, June 1885 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. Glengarill' 
(Scharti; Slugs of Ireland, 1891, p. 518). 

Is found in many parts of Germany, but is cliiefiy restricted to the forests, and 
has been recorded from Alsace, Altenburg, Bavaria, Baden, Brandenburg, Goburg, 
Lower Franconia, Hanover, Holstein, Lorraine, Nassau, Osnabruck, Oldenburg, 
East Pomerania, Rhinelan<l, Saxony, Schleswig, Upper Silesia, Thuringia, Weimar, 
Westphiilia, and Wurtemliurg. 

26/7/03 E 



Holland — (IIi-yiuMiiaiiii, .lalnl.. DtMitsdi. Mai. Cos., lS,S.->, p. 247). 
Belgium]Jnil)aiit, llaiiiaiill, Liixi-iiilKnir^', Naniur, and the Aiclennes. 

Almost exclusively restricted to tlie vicinity of the mountains of the Vosges, Jura, 
Auverjiiie, Alpes Maiitimes, and the Pyrenees, ami is aiijiarently alisent from the 
])laiMs, hut is rcjiorted from l^'iiiisii-re in tiie extreme north-west. It has heeii 
recorded from Ain, Aisne, Alpes Maritimes, Auhe, Coted'Or, Finistere, llerault, 
Isere, Marne, Nievre, Oise, l'ny-de-I)ome, Haute Savoie, Seine et Uise, Seine et 
Marne, Hautes Pyrenees, Var, and the Island of Corsica. 

The cantons of Berne, Grisons, Lucerne, St. Gall, Solothurn, and the Valais. 

The hij^her j^round up to "J, '200 metres (ahout 7,200 feet) in Piedmont, Ligxiria, 
Emilia, Tuscany, Home, Loml>ardy, ^'enetia, and in the Islanil of Sardinia. 


Has been noticed in Austria, llohemia, ri)i)er Carinthia, Carniola, Galicia, CJoritz, 
Hungary, Moravia, Silesia, Styria, Transylvania, and Tyrol. 

Spain — Eastern [)rovinces (Kreglinger, Cat., 1S70, p. 22). 

Bosnia — Xemila (Biettjjer, .lahrl). Deutsch. Mai. Ges., 1S8."», p. 54). 
Montenegro--l'.udua (Clessin, i\achrichtsl)latt, IcSS.l, p. 170). 
Servia— Serpen tinberge (MollendorlV, Mai. Bl., IS7;}, p. 130). 


Norway — ^Extends to and is very common about (Jriito in Nordlaml, 67° 49' north 
latitude (Ksmark ^: TToyer, Moll. Aret. Norw., ISSf), p. 98). 

Sweden — Tiuoughout the country as far north as Funasdal. about Cri 80' north 
latitude (Luther, Finland list, I!MI1, j). 4.1). 

Denmark Common in the beech woods (Malm, Skand. Linuie. , ISUlS, [>. 59). 

l'"ound in the districts or i)rovinces of Finland, Courland, Esthland, Livland, 
Moscow, Kharkov, Tchernigov, Crimea, and the Caucasus. 

Madeira — (Heynemann, Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. Ges., 1885, p. 286). 


..., .1- 

Fig. 83. — A locality oi I.iiiiii.v ciitcriO-niccr, in tlie Goyt Valley, 
near Whaley Bridge, March 1903 (photo, by .Mr. Baddeley). 

Plate VIII. 

Distribution of L. cinereo-niger Wolf 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 


of the British Isles. 


Cliaiiiiel Isles 


1 Cornwall \V. 

2 Coruwall E. 

3 Devou S. 

4 Devon N. 

5 Somerset .S. 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts X, 

8 Wilts S. 

9 Dorset 

10 Isle of Wight 

11 llauts S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex B. 


15 KentE. 

16 Kent W. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S. 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 iliddlesex 

22 berks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 


2.5 Suffolk E. 

26 Surtolk W. 

27 Norfolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 Cambridge 

30 Bedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 Northampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 (iloucester W 

35 Alonmouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 


41 Glamorgan 

42 lirecon 
4;J Iladuor 

44 Carmarthen 
4.5 Pembroke 

46 Cardigan 


47 Montgomery 

48 Merioneth 

49 Carnarvon 
.50 Denbigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 
.54 Lincoln N. 

55 Leic. &Kutld. 

56 Notts. 

57 Derby 


58 Cheshire 
■59 Lancashire S. 

60 bancashireMid 


61 S.E. York 

62 N.E. York 

63 S.W. York 

64 Mid W. York 

65 N.W. York 

1 VNE 

66 Durham i 

67 Nortliumb. S. 

68 Cheviotiand 


69 Westmorland 
and L. Lanes. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of Man 


72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 

74 Wigtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Renfrew 

77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

80 Roxburgh 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 


85 Fife& Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 I'erthS.&ClkQ 

88 Mid Perth 

89 Perth N. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 Aberdeen 8. 



113 Derry 

114 Antrim 

115 Down 

116 Armagh 

117 Monaghan 

118 Tyrone 

119 Donegal 

120 Fermanagh 

121 Cavan 


93 Aberdeen N. 

94 Banff 

95 Elgin 

96 Easterness 


97 \\*esterness 
93 Main Argyle 
99 Dumbarton 

100 Clyde Isles 

101 Cantire 

102 Ebudes 8. 

103 Ebuiles Mid 

104 Ebudes N 


105 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E. 
lOS SutherlandW. 
109 Caithness 


no Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shetlands 


122 Louth 
ra .Meath 

124 Dul>lin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexford 

123 Carlow 

129 Kilkenny 

130 Queen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 

135 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 Mayo E. 

138 Mayo W, 

139 (iaiway W. 

140 Calway E. 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 
14:1 Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork N. 

147 Cork 8. 

148 Kerry 



Probable Range. 

Recorded Distribution. 

Distribution verified by the Authors. 



Limax tenellus Mailer (em. Nilsson). 

1774 Limax tenellus ^Miiller, Verm. teir. et iliiv., ii., p. 11, no. 210. 

1S22 — tinelliis Nilsson, Hist. Moll. Sveciii-, p. 11. 

1848 — serafiniis Schrenk, Land u. Sussw. Li viands. 

1849 — ccrcus Held, Land Moll, liayern, p. lo. 
18.')2 — fiiloii-s' Norniand, Desc. Liniao. Nouv. , p. 7. 
1852 — 'st/lvaticus Diim. & Moitill., Moll. Savoie, p. 10. 
1862 — cinctns Heynemann. Mai. HI, viii., \k 101. 

1868 Mdlacoliina.c tenellus Malm, Skand. Limac, p. 66, pi. iii., 11'. 7-7f. 

1869 Arirm tenellus Letourneu.x;, Moil. Vendee, p. 7. 

1882 Arjriolimax tenellus Less, i^- Poll., Mono-. Limac. Ital., p. 4."), i)l. i., f. 7. 

I STORY. — Limax tenelluff {tenellus:,\Qxy 
slender or delicate) wa.s first discrimin- 
ated by Mliller, Avliose name is accepted 
by Nilsson, the obvious error in the mea- 
surement being disregarded. 

Heynemann, however, is of opinion 
tliat iNliUler's Limax tenellus is really 
an Avion, but ascribes to the tenellus of 
Nilsson the Limax sucrinens, L.^/farus, 
and L. cinctus, all of Midler, the L. suc- 
cinens and L. ^flavus being referred to 
the niiicolorous, and L. cinctus to the 
banded form. 

He also regards the Limax colli n us 
Normand and the Linntx aureus Gmelin 
as probably also referable to this species. 
The late Dr. A. W. Malm, the eminent 
Swedish naturalist, with whom the pre- 
sent species has been associated, was so 
greatly impressed with its characters 
that he instituted a new genns, Mala- 
colimax, for its reception, based upon 
the soft bodv, the tricuspid median-tooth, and the di-ectoconic marginals. 

Less(jna & PoUonera, while adopting Claim's name of Malacaliinax as of 
sub-generic value, place it under A(jriolimax, but, as shown by Simroth, it 
is probably most correctly associated with the typical Limaces, of which it 
is an ancient form, though he places it with L. cephalonicus and L. subsax- 
anus in a sei)arate section, which he styles Microheynemannia to distinguish 
it from the Macroheijnemannia to which Limax maxim us and the larger 
species are relegated. 

Diag'nosis. — Limax tenellus differs from the species to wliich it is struc- 
turally most closely allied by its much smaller size, j^ellowish colour and 
black or blackish tentacles, its semi-transparent shell, and yellow mucus. 

Internally, the reproductive organs are simple, the i)enis-sheath is short 
and swollen, and its retractor fixed near to and in front of the heart; the 
alimentary canal is almost a counterpart of that of juvenile Limax maximus, 
except that it presents indications of a coeciim or rectatheca.^ 

Original Description. —210. UMAX tknellus. Limax virescens, capite tenta- 
cnlisque nigris; Imm. 10 nnc. Totns allndus Clijpeus in hxtawm, abdomen in vire- 
scentem colorem aliqnantnm vergit ; ille niarj^ine postico, hoc apice snjira nigricat. 

In Fosisnlis Nemornni foliis aridis repletis ; primo vere. Miill. ,Verm. Hist. ii. , p. 11. 

1 Monog. i., p. 284, f. 566, 




Description.- Animal ^k'ndur, very sofi junl viscous, willi ;ilp<nit tliiity li)nj,'itu- 
diiiiil rows of ruiiiv on fiicli side of the liody, of ;i pale yellowisli, ycllowisli-j^ney, or 
^'reeiiisli-wliite, Imt oec;isioii;illy of a golden-yellow with or;inj;e shield, an ohseuie 
hanil on caeh side of the hody'and shield ; SKiN soft and thick, liecoininj,' thin and 
tender wlien the animal is placed in alcohol, a chaii^ic jiroliahly du(! to the lar^'c 
amount of mucus wliicli is tiirowu oil'; ilKAl) and IKNTACLKS idack or hiacdcish- 
hrown ; hinder liftli of the body somewhat hut not acutely keeled ; siiiKi.l) very 
ohtusely an.i;ulated behind ; soi.k transparently whitish or yellowish and tripartiti-; 
owiiii; to this trans)iarency of the median-area tiie foot ^land is clearly visibh; when 
the animal is crawling, and is seen to extend to the hinder-part of the body; the 
.glandular lobules arc "also seen attached to the median dnct ; MlCL's in half grown 
or adult individuals of a yellow or orange colour. Length, 2o-;io or more mill. 

Shkll somewhat oblong, whitish, thin, and 
nearly transparent, slightly concave beneath, ai>ex 
nearly terminal, with the usual concentric LINKS 
OK (illoWTll, margin rather broad, thin, and mem- 
branous. Length, H^ mill. ; tireadtli, 2 mill. 

r^ • > 

Fig. 85. — Internal 
.shell of L. tcncllus 
X 8 (Leipzig, Dr. 

Ini'KI;N.VLLV, the NKUVol's .sv.sTK.M conforms to the general type, but the organ 
(d Semper is horseshoe shaped, like that of L. iiiii.riinii.s, dili'ering, however, in the 
cells being aggregated into live larger lobes arounti the moulh. The osniltADIUM 
is not distinctly i)erceptil)le, but nuiy be detected by the slight furrowing delining it. 

Vh.. 87. 

Fk;. 86.— Otolith of J.ima.v 
tciicihis, liighly magnified (after 

Fig. 88. 

Fig. 89. 

Fig. 87. — Se-xual organs of /-. tcncllus Miill. X 3 (after Simroth). ail<.i^. albumen gland ; //.heart ; 
k. kidney ; ov. oviduct ; ot. ovotesti.s ; /. prostate ; p.s. penis sheath ; r.iit. retractor muscle ; sp sper- 

Fig. 88. — Penis-sheath of Z.. tcncllus laid open, showing its internal structure, X 6 (after Simroth). 

Fig. 89. — Alimentary canal of Liinax tcncllus Miill., X 3 (after .Simroih). 

The KKruonucTlVF: ORCANS are not complex ; the OVOTKSTIS is small, jilaced 
behind the stomach, and surrounded with dark-brown tissue; DUCT dark-brown, not 
convidute but greatly swollen in the middle of its course, and ending in a liny 
spherical and white "vKSlCULA SKMINAUS ; ALliUMKN (;LAN!) yellow, tender, and 
llaky; ovisi-KiiM AToDfCT relatively shorter than in Liiiui.r jiHi.rliiin.s, and only 
slightly connected together ; OVIUI'CT jinle above, yellowisli below, narrowing bas- 
ally, and forming a thitd^ened yellow base; .srKRM-DUCl' delicate above, but becoming 
a broad yellow glandular channel below, ending in a short broad VAS DEFKltKXS, 
which widens like a funnel, with a loose, plicate crest at its entry into the jicnis; the 
l{K'ri;.\("l'()U arises from the same spot as a liroad musculai- band, and is distally 
attachecl to the Moor of the lung, in the median-line in advance of the heart ; .si'KI!- 
MAIlli;i'.\ oblong, with a long, slender stem, opening into the atrium ; I'KNls silKATll 
short, thi(d<, and white, with a lateral protuberance near the base ; inleii(Ml,\ there 
is a long, llatly projecting and finely plicate comb or crest, which is richly glandular, 
and encircles the opening of the vas deferens. 

'I'he CKI'IIALU: liKTK.VCTOli arises as a simple liKnid. mnscular b:ind, in the 
median line of the body, beliiiid the lung, it do.'s not divide into the normal three 
branches until the mitldle of its length. 

The ALIMENTARY CANAL is set in dilicate and Mack mesenteric tissue, and has 
live intestinal tr.acts in addition to the stomach tract as in LInui.r itKi.riniiis, and is 
an almost exact counterpart of those of the very young examples of that sjiecics. 



before tlie prolongation of tlie second intestinal tract takes place, except that there 
is an iiulication of a co'cuni or rectatheca at the coinniencenient of the rectum; the 
STOMACH is short and broad and honeycombed in texture ; liver very soft and 
sponj^y, and usually red in colour, the left lobe being the most obvious. 

The MANDIBLE or jaw is amber-brown in colour, 
very convex, rather narrow, but Avitli somewhat 
elongate lateral limbs and straiglit ends, the lower 
outer angle of each liml> acute, tiit^ up]ier angle cor- _ 

respondingly obtuse; the median-beak well marked p,^ 90.-Mandibleor jawof/.;Wr 
and projecting boldly in trout. Lengtll one mill. ienelhis X 25 (Leipzig, Dr. Simroth). 

Tiie LINGUAL MEMRR.-VNK of a specimen from the Harth, Leipzig, shows a dis- 
tinctly tricuspidate median tootli ; tiie laterals are unequally tricuspid; tlie endo- 
coiiic cutting point being obsolete, but tiie ectoconic one strongly developed ; the 
marginals become aculeate, but near the lateral series still exhibit three cutting 
points; the extreme marginals lose their inner cusp and become bicuspid, except for 
a few teeth which show vestiges of a secoiul ectocoiie near the base. 

Fig. 91. — Representative denticles from a transverse row of the lingual teeth oi I.iiiiax tenellus 
Miill. (highly magnified). 
The animal collected by Dr. Simroth on the Harth, Leipzig, and the palate prepared by Mr. \V. ]Moss. 

INIalm figures two distinct and promiuent ectocones on the extieuie marginals, 
but I have not been able to verify their presence in a well developed state in the 
Leipzig sjiecimen. 

The formula of a Leipzig specimen, supplied by Prof. Simrotli, siiows 

2T + 144-l-t-14 + .3 7 ^ 110 = 9,130. 

Food and Habits. — This little species is comparatively seldom 
observed, owing to the prevailing ignorance of its habits of life, and it is to 
be hoped that the claims of this species to rank as a British species will 
be firmly established now that attention is drawn to these peculiarities. 

In Germany this slug is found on the pine-clad heaths or even in the re- 
motest recesses of the great pine forests, where the ground is deeply covered 
Avith dense accumulations of pine needles and where scarcely a single 
blade of grass exists. On the fungoid growths, even in such places, Lhnax 
tenellus is almost certain to be found if sought for in autumn, when the slug 
is adult and the fungi at the highest period of their development. The 
mushroom gatherers in Germany, collecting slugs for Dr. Simroth, find 
L. tenellus to overwhelmingly outnumber .1 ;•/(>» suhfuscus and other species 
frequenting the same situations. In other countries, at or towards the 
limits of its geographical range, its habitat is not so restricted, and it may 
be frequently met with in the woods composed of beech and other deciduous 

Lhnax tenellus is of active habits, and, according to Simrotli, lives exclu- 
sively on fungi, or, if the sujiply be restricted, becoming predatory or even 
cannibalistic ; the Boletus is noted as especially preferred, while the poison- 
ous red Agaric is also eaten on occasion. 

Reproduction and Development. — According to Simroth, this 
species attains its full growth in ()ct(jber, living thence through the winter 
even into the early spring. During the colder season of tlie year the 
animals pair, and oviposition takes place in some suitable damp spot ; the 
eggs, which are about two mill, in diameter, clear, transparent, and globular, 
are placed in clusters of thirty or forty; they hatch in a few weeks' time, 
the young adopting a subterranean life and feeding beneath the surface 
upon the mycelia of fungi quite into early summer, when they are about 


half-r,frow'n ; about July tliey appear above <,n-oun(l and feed upon tbe, 
which at tliat jjeriod be<,Mn to, tlie appearance of the shit,^ being 
coincident with and (U>})endent on the (leveloi)nient and growtli of the fungi 
u])on whicli it feeds. 

When young, the animals are almost unicolorous, and may then easily 
be Confused with pale Ayriolnimx lacia or .1. agrc^tis, but the i)olygonal 
reticulation of L. agrestis and the brownish tentacles of L. hcvis aid us in 
their separation. 

Their unicolorous state may be continued to adult life, but usualh' when 
about half-grown they ac([uire on each side of the mantle a l)rownisli or 
black zone, which may later assume a lyre-shape. 'J'he inner side of this 
dark marking has a pale margin, and this gives rise to a (hirker median 
patch which when well dehned assumes somewhat the shape of a hour-glass. 

The mantle-band may occasionally extend lo the body as a faint longi- 
tudinal zone. In addition there is a pale mid-dorsal or keel streak, which 
is (juite broad at its origin, gradually narrowing, but widening again before 
finally contracting as it a])proaches the tail, which in young animals is 
tinged with a delicate carmine. 

Variation. — Llmax tenellits is not a very variable species, but there 
ap])ear to be some differences recorded in the fundamental ])ody-colour, 
and in addition there may be distinct lateral banding on the shield, which 
may extend upon the body also. 

Dr. Westerlund, in his Fauna EuropfC, 1870, p. 11, gives as a variety of 
this species the Llmaa: S(jU(im?n((f/nNs of Morelet, but this is really a species 
of GeomdlacHi^. 

According to Dumont & Mortillet's observation ujion Limax sylvat/nis, 
wliich Lessona & Pollonera allocate with L. tenellus:, the banded variety is 
more especially an inhabitant of the mountains and exposed situations, the 
unicolorous form being more characteristic of the lower lands and umbra- 
geous places; these features do not appear to be so well marked in their 
German habitats. 

Var. cerea Held, Land Moll. Bayern, l.S4t>, p. 15. 

Limax syh'alicus var. iniinaculatus Duni. & Mortil., Mai. Savoie, 1857, p. 11. 

Animal of a somewhat unifoim Avaxy-yellow colour, with only faint traces of 
lateral hiuuliii",'. 

According' to Dr. Wesleilwinl tlio l.'nnax .laiifJiiiis lioiirj;-. , from !M;illicr,i^, iienr 
Ems, in Uermany, is an unicolorous ycllowisli variety of this species, and is jiroli- 
ahly referable to the var. cerea. 

Tills form is also fouml at Anj^slmrt,', Munich, and on the mountains of (lie 
Traunstein, I5a\aria ; tlic lMzc.u<'liirj;(>, and al Koni^stcin in Saxony, and if tlie 
reference hy Lessona X: I'olhiiicra he correct, is also met with in Sa\ oy, where it 
was recordc<l hy Dumont vV Mortillet as iy. sijlnilii'iis \;\y. innnoriildf us. 

The British and Scandinavian examples would apjK'ar to helonj; to this \ariety, 
as thej'^ are recorded as possessing only a slight lateral shading. 

Var. fulva Xormand, Desc. Limac. Nouv., lSa2, p. 7. 

I.iiiia.x Julvus Normand, op. cit. 

Animal reddish-hrown, sntl'used dorsally with hiaek ; sniEliO reddish-l)rown, 
scarcely obscured by some small imlvlform hla(d<lsh spots ; tentacles vinous-brown ; 
locomotory mucus colourless ; itoov mucus yellow. 

Tliis variety, or geograi)hical r.ace, which was confused with 7>. arhorum until 
shown by Simroth to be a form of A. trncUiis, has been found at \'alencieiines, In the 
dei>artment of the Nord. l>y Normand; in the l"'orest at Salnt-Saulge. In the Nle\re, 
by |{re\lcre ; in the Forest of liez. In the < )lse, by Dr. I>aiidoii : In the neighboui hood 
of Dijon, in the ('r)te d'Or, liy Droiiet ; and at Luxembourg, in tiie depaitme;it of 
the Seine, by M. K^tout. 



Var. cincta Heynemann, Mai. Bl., 1862, p. 101. 

Liinax sylvaticus var. clypeo-fasciata Dum. & Mort., op. cit. 
Liiiiax syh'atictis var. clypco-concolor Dum. & Mort., op. cit. 

Anim.\l with distinct dark lateral band.s on the shield, -which occasionally ex- 
tend npon the body. 

This variety, -which appears to be the most recently evolved form of this species, 
and to which the varieties rli/pco-fascidfa and dypeo-roncolor of Liiivu- si/Iraticiis 
Diiniont & Mortillet, from Savoy, may probaljly also be referred as snb- varieties ; 
the former has the longitudinally bamled shield, while in the latter the banding is 
con lined to the body. 

It has also been reported from Eherl)ach, Baden; from various localities in Bran- 
denburg; from Vegesack and the flarz Mountains in Hanover; from Stettin in 
Pomerania, and from the neighbourhood of Leipzig. 

Geographical Distribution.— The range of tins little-known species 
cannot be stated with any approach to real accnracy or precision. 

An ancient form, as this is shown to be, and wliicli its known habitat in 
the mountains or within the recesses of pine forests still further emphasizes, 
lead us to expect a much more extended distribution than has hitherto 
been recorded. 

It has, however, been rei)orted from Great Britain, France, Belgium, Ger- 
many, Austro-Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Dennicirk, 
Finland, Russia, and Palestine, and is said by Held to be especially plentiful 
in the Alps. 

Geographical Distribution 

l^imax lenellus Mu 

Recorded Distribution 
Probable Range. 

Fig. 92. 


York S.W. — Hemsworth and Sharlston, not common (Wilcock, Rep. Wakefield 
Nat. Soc, 1SS8, p. 28). 

Durham — One specimen of the almost Tinicolorous yellow variety was found by 
^Ir. Blacklock in a wood at AUansford, near Shotley Bridge, and sent to Mr. Alder 
(Forbes t^- Hanley, Brit. Moll., 1853, p. 21). 

SCOTLAND. n-EST lowlands. 

Ayr — Plentiful in heilge bottoms, near Irvine, June 1878 (J. C(machar, junr. , 

Nat., July 1878, p. 177). 

Bute — Near Rothesay, June 1878 (J. Conachar, op. cit.). 

Shetlands — Nortii Mavine, on stones in the watercourse of a mountain mill 
(Jetireys, Brit. Conch., 18(32, p. 156). 



TIiron<i;hout tlio country, but chietly c'diitiiicd t" lln' i>ine forests aii<l iiKiuutain 
•listricts ; it liiis lieen rocinded from 

Baden — Ditcli near tlie "(;fs|iroiij,'te Tliurni," Ih'idclljerj,' (Daniels, (./..I.C, 187.5, 
i., 11. 112). Carlsrulie and IJiild (dysser, Mai. \\\., ISIij, i>. 80). Van cinctu, Eber- 
l.acli (8cil>ert, Nuclitl.l., June 1873, p. 4(1). 

Bavaria— UaMilxTi; (Scliedel, Nacliriclitsld., ISSB, ji. l.SO). A'ar. crrrn, Augsburg, 
Municii, anil mountains in the Traunsteiu. IMentifnl at'cordiiii;- to M err Walser dur- 
ing No\ember on mushrooms in woods. 

Brandenburg — Heathy pine forests in the neighbourhood of Diiben and Eiloiburg 
(Sinnotli, Zeitsehr., 188.1). I'ine forest, (ilienicke, near I'otsdam, II. Simrotli. 

Franconia — Kreuzberg,in forest nearConx ent(('lessin, Nachriehtsl)!., 1SS4, p. 186). 

Hanover — Var. ciurta, Vegesack and tiie Harz Mountains (Sinirotii, oj). eit.). 
between the Eilu; and the Ems (Horcherding, Abh. Ver. Brem., viii., ISS3). 

Lippe— Detmold (r.orcherding, Mai. Bl., 1881, p. 16). 

Nassau — Frankfurter Wald, and on the Taunus Mountains (Kobelt, Moll. Nas- 
sau, 1871, p. 78). ^'ar. .vniithiK Bourg., Malberg near Ems (Westerlund, Fauna 
iMiiop. , 187<), |). 1 1). 

Pomerania— A'ar. r'nwtfi, Stettin (Lelimann, Mai. 151., 1870, j). 9.")). 

Pyrmont—Konigsberg (Hesse, Mai. Bl., 1880, p. 4). 

Saxony — Var. riiictn abundant in pine forests about Leipzig, Hartli and Bienitz. 
A'ar. ri-ri'i) in the red jiine forests of the Erzegeliirge, in the neighb(»urhood of 
Bienenmiihle and Konigstein, Saxon Switzerland (Simrotli, Zeitsch. Wissens. Zool., 
188.")). Common, but young, during .Iun(> and .Inly, at Old Stoiberg, near N(H-d- 
liau.sen (Hesse, Nachrielitsblatt, 1883, p. 44). 

Schleswig— Flen.sburg (Friedel, Mai. Bl., 1870, p. 63). 

Silesia — liandeidv ('riiamm, Nachbl., 188(i, ]>. loO), and at Breslau. 

Belgium — (Westerlund, F\'»una Europ. , 1876, p. 11). 


This species, according to Ferussac, is found in the south of France, in the Quercy, 
but it is (juestionable whether the identification is reliable. 

Cote d'Or — Limax fulous, environs of Dijon, H. Drouet (Baudon, Limac. Uise, 
1871, p. IS). 

Herault -Mont peliier (Ferussac, Hist. Sup)d., 1823, p. !)G). St. Martin-de-Lon- 
dres, ruechabon (Dubrueil, Moll. Herault, 1863, p. 4). 

Meuse— (Buvignier, Cat. Moll. Meuse, 1800). 

Nievre — LiDUixfulvus, Forest of Saint-Saulge (Brevieie, Conch, 1881, j). 314). 

Nord — L.fttlvus, Valenciennes, Normand (Mo(i.-Tand., Hist. Moll., 18.")."), p. 32). 

Oise — Limax fill rns. Forest of Hez (Baudon, op. cit. ). 

Savoy —Liiniix si/lcdtlcns (Y)\\\\\. \k Mortil., Moll. Savoie, 18.)7). 

Seine — Limax fulvus, Luxembourg, M. Betout (Baudon, o|i. cit.). 

Vendee — F'ontenay-le-Comte (I>etonrneaux, Moll. Vendee, 18()0, p. 7). 

Vosges — Fjnirons of Mirecourt (I'nton, M(dl. N'osges, 1847). 

Solothurn Wcissenstein 7ieai- Solothurn, at .-in nltitude of about 4,000 feet 
(I'.lum, N:ichrichtsl>!., I88:i, |i. KW), and recorded doubtfully for French Switzerland 
by H. V. ihering (Mai. i'.l., ISSl, p. 71). 

Piedmont — l'"ound at Cressoney St. .lean, at ;in altitude of 4,(i.")0 feet, and at the 
Alpi di Konichin in \'al della Toce, at an elevation of about 7,200 feet. It had not 
)ueviously been recorded for Italy, probably on account of being passed over and con- 
fused with Aijriiiliinax a^rcsti-s (Lessoua i^ Bollonera, op. cit., p. 46). 

Probably found throughout tlie whole region (Cle.ssin, Moll. Oest.-Ungarn, 1887). 
Bohemia Prague, .1. F. Babor, 1804. Carlshad (Cysser, Mai. BL, 1864). 
Moravia — liriinu (Clessin, Moll. Oest.-Ungarn, 1887, p. 44). 
Slavonia (Milllendorir, Nachrichtsbl., 1871, p. 62). 
Styria — driniming (Clessin, op. cit.). 
Transylvania— (Clessin, op. cit.). 

Plate IX. 

Distribution of Limax tenellits Mull, 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 


of the British Isles. 


C'li:iimel Isles 


1 Coruwall W. 

2 Coruwall E. 
i l-'evou s. 

4 Devon N. 

5 Somerset S. 
ti Somerset N. 


7 Wilts M. 

8 Wilts 8. 

9 Dorset 

10 Isle of Wiglit 

11 iiaiits S. 

12 Hants N. 
Id Sussex \V. 

14 Sussex K. 


15 Kent E, 
IB Kent W. 
17 Surrey 
IS Essex S. 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 Miildlesex 

22 IJerks. 
•2i OxforJ 

24 Bucks. 


25 Suffolk E. 

26 Suffolk W. 

27 Nortolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 (Jambriilge 

30 Bedford 
SI Hunts. 
ii2 Northampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Uloucester W 

35 Jlonmouth 
3a Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 


41 Glamorgan 

42 lireoon 

43 Radnor 

44 Carmarthen 

45 Pembroke 
4'i Cardigan 


47 Jlontgomery 

48 Merioneth 

49 Carnarvon 

50 Denbigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 

54 Ijiucoln N. 

55 Ijeic. &Kutld. 

56 Notts. 

57 Derby 


58 Cheshire 
•59 Lancasliire S. 

60 LancashireMid 


61 S.E. York 

62 N.E. York 

63 S.W. York 

64 Jlid W. York 

65 N. W. York 


66 Durham 

67 Northunib. S. 

68 Cheviotland 


69 Westmorland 
and h. Jjancs. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of ilan 


72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 

74 Wigtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Kenfrew 

77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

80 Roxburgh 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 


85 Fife& Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 Perth S.&Clkn 

88 Mid Perth 

89 Perth IS, 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 Aberdeen S. 



113 Derry 

114 Antrim 

115 Down 

116 Armagh 

117 Jlonaghan 

118 Tyrone 

119 Donegal 

120 Fermanagh 

121 Cavan 


93 Aberdeen N. 

94 ISanff 

95 Elgin 

96 Easterness 


97 Westerness 

98 Main Argyle 

99 Dumbarton 
mo Clyde Isles 

101 Cantire 

102 Ebudes S. 

103 Ebudes Mid 

104 Ebudes N 


105 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E. 

108 SutherlandW. 

109 Caithness 


no Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Slietlands 


122 Louth 
12:J Heath 

124 Dublin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexford 

128 Carlow 

129 Kilkenny 

130 Queen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westineath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 

135 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 Mayo E. 

138 Mayo W. 

139 Galway W. 

140 Galway E. 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 

143 Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork N. 

147 Cork S. 

148 Kerry 

Probable Range. <. 

Recorded Distribution. 

Distribution verified by the Authors. 




Norway — Probably not so uncommon as previously believed. It is found in the 
park and oakwoods at Jarlsber.i;-, Cliristiania, and Motluni ; by the lake Spirilen and 
other ]daces in Cliristiania Stift ; also known from several localities in Cliristiansand 
Stift (Esniark, J. of Conch., Oct. 1886, p. 101). 

Sweden — The most Jiortherlv occurrence of this species is in Jiimtland, 63°-64° 
nortli lat. (Luther, Moll. Finland, 19U1, p. 46). Medelpad (Anderson, Mai. Bl., 
1880, p. 152). 

Malm records it from a birch wood, near Ljunsskile, and also near Jonsered, and 
in the Castle wood, Ciiiteborj;', Avhere it was abundant in October on the oak and 
other trees as well as on fungi. Westra Wram in Skane, rare, Lilljeborg. Konneby 
in Blekinge, 1867, C. A. Westerlund ; Gothland, in wooily tracts in various parts of 
the island, G. Lindstriim (Malm, op. cit. , p. 69). 

Denmark — Not very common about Viborg, Jutland, according to Feddersen ; 
common, in autumn, mostly in the cavities of fungi in the lieecli woods of the Isle 
of Zealand (Malm, 1868, p. 6'J). 


Widely distributed in Russia, extending from Finland to the Caucasus ; it has 
been recorded from several provinces, and according to Luther certainly inhabits 

Esthland— (Luther, Moll. Finland, 1901, p. 46). 

Finland — Not rare in south and mid-Finland, and reaches as far nortli as Yiita- 
saari and Kuopio at 6.3" north lat., seeming to prefer marsliy ground and spruce lir- 
trees, but it also occurs amongst deciduous trees ; in autumn it is fretjuently found 
on fungi (Luther, Moll. Finla7ul, 1901, p. 46). 

Kharkov— Among damp leaves, Sumy (Kaleniczenko, Bull. Mosc, 18-51, p. 125). 

Livonia— Dorpat (Hraun, Nachrichtsbl., 1883, j). 174). 

Moscow— Bielkovo near Moujevo (Milachevitch, INIoli. Mosc, 1881). 

Stavropol— About Stavropol in the Caucasus (Kaleniczenko, op. cit.). 

Transcaucasia— Kutais (Ba'ttger, Naelit. , 1881, p. 121). 

Vitebsk— (Luther, Moll. Finland, 1901, p. 46). 

Canon Tristram found several slugs in the moist valleys to the south of Lebanon 
in Palestine, which he was unable to separate in any way from the European species 
(Fauna and Flora of Palestine, 1885, i>. 180). 


!■ 10. "J3. — Pine forest, (./lieiiicke, I'otsdam, Prussia, a strongliold ot Liiuax iiiicuus 

(pholo. by Prof. Krieger). 




SiHi-GENUs LeJnnannia Heynemann. 

Limax flavus Linne. 

1604 Liinnx succini colore, (tlb'tdis mttni/i.s hisirinitit.s Lister, Exercit. Anat. , t. 1. 

]7")S Limax flavus L. , Syst. Nat., e<l. x., vol. i., ]). 602. 

ISOl - nirlc(ja/i(.s Drap., Tabl. Moll., p. lO:^. 

1,S2S — (nifii/iioni/it Sowerliy, (Jeiiera of Sliolls, ii., p. 1;)S. 

\s:\~ — marnliitits Xuimek'v, Trans. IMiil. ami Lit. Soc. Lceils, i., p. A{\, \\\. 2, f. 3. 

1S44 — intif/rosHs Philippi, Eiiuni. .Moil. Sieilia', ii,, p. 102. 

]S(i2 — deshajic.sii rioiirj;., Spic. Mai., p. -Sli, j)!. 1, ff. 1, 2. 

1S(>.'{ — cnni/xinifni Wmw^., Kov. et Mag. Zool., \^. 179. 

ISO.') — bicolor Selenka, Mai. BI., xii., p. 10,"), pi. 2, II". 10-17. 

ISfiS — ba-ticits Maliille, Ivev. et M-.v^. Zool., p. 14.1. 

ISSl — ccarhitifKs l}(i'tt-;('r, Jalirh. D.Mitsdi. Mai. (Je.sellsdi., p. 1S6, f. 7A-C. 

ISl,") LimaceUd lonjuiritlns IWard, ("oi|. Paris, p. 11."), pi. 4, 11'. W, 4, 11. 

lS."5(i rannnriUii varii'ijata I'iiilippi, Imiumi. Moll. Sicilia', i., p. 125. 

1S.")1 KriinickUlns inactdatii.^ Ivaleiiicz., IJiiil. Soc. Imp. Moscou, p. 226, t. iv., f. 2. 

18.>6 Krjinickia mnculata Fischer, Journ. de ("oncli., )>. 66. 

1S()4 Lunncits brcrkivorf/u'rmns Lehmaiiii, Mai. 151., xi., p. M."), pi. 4. 

1S68 Eiiliinax (P/rj/tiroliina.i) ffctnis Malm, Skaiid. Liinae., p. 62, pi. 4, f. 11. 

ISTORY. — L'ima,x flavins {flavus, yellow), 
wa.s first discriniiuated by Lister, but Liniu'''s 
name takes precedence, and altliouob doubt 
has been cast by some writers on the correct 
identification of Linn^'s species, yet the des- 
cription he gives, and his reference to the 
characteristic figure of Lister, would seem 
to remove all doubt on the subject. 

This species is ranged under the sub- 
generic name of Lehumnnhi, to emphasize 
the presence of the ccecal ai)pendage to the 
rectum, the chief difference its organization 
presents to that of the typical Liniaces. This 
section is also known under the names of 
Limacux, PleptlvoUma.v, and Simnithid. 

With this fine species we associate Signor 
Napoleone Pini, who has so carefully studied 
the slugs of Lond)ardy, and to whom we are 
indebted for the discrimination of the varie- 
ties tigrhut and coluhrina of this species. 
According to Ilerr Heynemann, Limax ehrenbergi l^ourg. and L. rliileimit^ 
are both ])rolvibly referable to our L'nna.r flarua, and Mr. (I T. Musson is of 
opinion that the L'nn((.v inegalodontc^ of (^uo)' iK: (laimard, from Port .lack- 
son, also belongs to this species. The L. fl((viis var. lincolatus of CoUinge, 
judging from the description, is more probably a variety of L. arborum. 

Diagnosis. — L'nna.v flavus, m its typical form, may be easily distin- 
guished from the allied British species by its bluish tentacles, yellow 
mottled shield, and the oval yellowish rugtu interspersed oyer the body, 
which is of a dusky-yellow shade. 

Intfhnally, it shows a marked dilference from the L'nna.r m<(.rimns i\m\ 
L. chicreo-nigcr in the })Ossession of a well-(leveloi)ed appendix or ccecum to 
the rectum, a peculiarity first pointed out and figured liy Mr. Nunneley, of 
Leeds (Trans. Phil. Soc. Leeds, 1837, p. 58, pi. 2, f 3). 





Original Description. — LIMAX flavus. 7. L. Havus luaciilatns. /*'//. Svec. 2092. 
List, excrcit. anat. 1. ;'. 1. Liniax succini colore, albidis maculis insignitus. Habitat 
infer Herl)as (Linn., Sy^it. Nat., ed. x. , p. 6,52, 17oS). 

Description. — Animal with a long l)nt soniewliat stonter body tliaii the con- 
generic species, and varying from 75 or 80 mill, to 10ft or more mill, in leiigtli when 
extended ; BODY ronnded above, but keeled at the caudal extremity, usnally of a 
dnsky aniber-yelloM' colonr, overspread by grey, witii the exception of certain rugfe 
which remain yellow and are distrilnited over the Ijody singly or in combination ; 
FOOT-SOLE longitudinally tiifasciate, whitish with a faint tinge of yellow, some- 
times narrowly margined witii dusky-yellow ; bodv-slime thin and liglityellow in 
health, but dark-yellow, viscid, and copious wiien scaliled ; on removal of tlie mucus 
after scahling, the SKlN is seen to be of a dusky-grey ; SHIELD narrow and rounded 
in front, broader and very obtusely angulated behind, of a 
dusky yellowisii-grey colour, with many oval yellowish spots, 
paler towards the margins; kespihatokv oimfice posterior, 
surrounded l)y a raised and linely-spotted ring, broken an- 
teriorly bj' the anal and renal fissures; inside of pulmonary 
cavity whitish ; OMMATOl'llOKES stout and rather long, of a 
bluish colour, due to tiie colour of retractor muscles ; LOCO- 
MOTORY MUCUS plentiful and iridescent ; the SUPRA-PEDAL 
GLAND has its bilaterally symmetrical halves arranged on 
either sides of the median-line, but does not extend into the tail, and, according to 
RoUeston, is underlaid l)y a large venous sinus, very visible in the living animal along 
the median-line of the foot. 

Shell subquadrately oval, thin, white, and con- 
cave beneath, with corresjtonding convexity above; 
APEX or nucleus placed a little distance from the 
posterior margin and slightly to the left side, the 
concentric lines of increase usually well but not 
sharply marked ; i)eriostr,acal fringe broad and often 
somewhat calcified. Length, U mill. ; breadth, 6 mill. 

Internally, the nervous system has slightly reniform or bilobed buccal ganglia 
with short connecting commissure; the OSPHRADIUM is in the form of abroad chaimel 
on the underside of the mantle roof, and extends from the respiratory orifice far over 
towards the left. 

Tiie REPRODUCTIVE ORG.VNS are not complex, and do not jiossess accessory organs. 
The OVOTESTIS is situate behind the stomach, and is light-coloured or brownish, often 
with large elements; the DUCT is white, slender and very tortuous, terminating in a 
small and round VES jCULA SEMINALfs ; .VLISUMEN GLAND multilobeil, flaky, and of a 
white or deep-yeT!ow~coIour, increasing vastly in size at rutting time ; the SPERM 

Fig. 96. — Respiratory 
orifice of L. flavus, X 3, 
showing the anal canal. 


Fig. 97. — Internal 
shell of L. /7a-;'us, 
X 2. 


Hants. S., 

i\Ir. C. Ashford). 

Fig. 98. 

Fk;. 99. 

Fig. 100. 

Fig. 98. — Penis-sheath and oviduct oi Li?iiax Jlavtts, laid open to sho.v the internal structure, 
enlarged (after Simroth). 7'.</. vas deferens ; /. penis ; s/>.ii. spermatheca duct ; m'. oviduct. 

Fig. 99. — Se.\ual organs of Liinax Jlavus. alb.g. alDumen gland; h. heart; k. kidney; ov. 
oviduct ; ot. ovotestis ; /. prostate ; p.s. penis-sheath ; r.m. retractor muscle ; sp. spermatheca. 

Fig. 100. — Hermaphrodite duct at junction with vesicula seminalis of Z. _//«?'/« X 10 (after Scharff). 



Fir,. 101.— Cephalic retrac- 
tors of /-////rt-r//nr'«,f, X 2. 


DUCT or PnoSTATK is tliick and yell<>\v, witli an immense nnmlter of minute, white, 
caleareous rods wiiliin its walls; the OVIDUCT is yelh)wisli, <,'nt-Iiko, ami thiek- 
walled, lint after se|)arat iiii;- from the jirostate it narrows down and has thin walls, 
ditlcrinj; in strncturt; fioni the ujiper all>umen-seeretinji section; as it approaches the 
atrium it swells out, heeomes thiek-walhMl, and e\hil)its internally a succession of 
close-set <,daiidular rid','es and hrij^ht purple-red epithelium ahove; the fusiform 
SPKHMATHKCA which opens into the KKKK OVIDUCT in this rej,'ion often contains a 
reddish snhstance, prohahly derived from the oviducal j,dands, and intended to aid in 
lhi> preservation and vitality of the sjtermatozoids ; the 
TKNls siiKATH is lonj,' and cylindrical with a pronounced 
iloulde flexure, connected hy tissue which sometimes also 
involves the VAS DKKKKKNsarid Ri-yniACTOit ; the latter is 
terminal, very lonjj; and rihbon-like, .and lixed to the dor- 
sum between the heart and the kidney; the penis-sheath 
has no interior crest, htit in the lower half there are two 
projectinj,s longitudinal nniscular rolls, while tiie walls 
above are thinner with many fine transverse plications. 

The CEPHALIC i!Ki'i!ACTOi! arises usually in two or 
more roots beneath tlu; hind margin of shield, and sooner 
or later unite into a short and stout band ; about two- 
iifths of the total length of the retractor from the base, it 
divides as usual into the I'HAUVNGEAL and tkntaculau 
branches; the pharyngeal bifurcates and lixes by the bilid 
end beneath the buccal bulb; the retractors to theomma- 
tojdiores expand and becomevery bulky, but thesubsidiary 

muscles to the anterior tentacles are comparatively slender, while the slip to the lijis 
is quite short and insignificant. 

The Al.lMKN'TAltv canal has the five intestinal coils 
without twist, and \isible abo\e the visceral mass when 
the body is opened, as in the typical Limaces ; the intes- 
tinal coils are also held in jjosition anteriorly, as in L. 
DUiximus,^ by looping the aorta and the cephalic retractor, 
but dider in the presence of the rectatheca or co'cnni, 
which is, however, only sliglitly attached to the rectum, 
antl extends in the median-line of the body nearly to the 
tail-end. Simrolh suggests that this aiii):_Midage may act 
as an absorbent and imbibe the chyme fr(jm the intestinal 
canal by an antiiieristaltic motion. The SALlVAliV 
CL.VNDS are whit(! ami woolly, with a rather long i\\\rX 
to each ; (icsoi'ilACUs short and ])inkisli-brown in colour, 
widf.'uing almost imnu!diat(dy after ]>assing the neive ring 
into the cuol', which is brownish in colour with white 
veins and irregularly furrowed longitudinally and trans- 
versely; the LIVKl! or DItiKSTlVE GLAND is Usually of a 
yellowish grey, and consists of two main lobes connected 
"each by a single duct to the digestive tube ; the KIDNKV 
is brownish uv in part crocus-yellow, and opens near the 
termination of the rectum in front of and at the uiqier 
part of the pulmonary aperture. 

The MANDIIU.K- or jaw is of a deep brown colour, strongly arcuate from front to 
back, smooth, with a blunt but prominent median rostrum or beak, which ])rojecls 
lioidly in front and bi'm'ath, ends convexly rounded, and tlie upiter part imbedded 
in the flesh well marke(l. 

Tiie LINGUAL MKMHRANK of a Cambridgeshire specimen, for which I ;im indebted 
to the Rev. Prof. (Jwatkin, shows an obscurely ti'identate me(lian tooth, the nieso- 
cone large and well de\eloi»eil, but the ectoconcs not well marke(l and without 
noticeable cutting points ; the laterals display the same characters, the 

a stomach tract all 

J I I- CJ 

Fig. 102. — .Vlimentary canal 
of Liniax Jlnviis, showing the 
posteriorly directed appendix. 


Fig. 10.3. — Representative denticles row of the lingual teeth of /,.//<ir'«.9 L , X 120. 
The animal collected in Cambridgeshire, and the palate prepared hy the Rev. I'rof. Gwatkin. 

1 Monog., i., p. 235, ff. 570, 571. 2 Monog., i., p. 255, f. 511, 


beiiij^ strong and well developed, and the siile-cuttinj:; points obsolete ; the inner 
marginals are simply and strongly aculeate, but many of the extreme marginals 
sliow a clearly distingiiishalde eetocone whicli must not be confused with the 
anguliir appearance due to the basal corner of the tootli. 

The formula is ••■4 + 1 i + -jo + i + .'o + i 1+.-.4 ^ 153^9,, Q43 

I-*' 1 ;; 1 1-*' AT^T_» — vj^AT^, 

Reproduction and Development. — The act of pairing does not 
ajipear to have been observed or recorded excei)t by Ferussac, who describes 
the heads of the coupled individuals as touching but laterally opposed during 
the act ; it is, however, affirmed by Simroth that no sperniatophore is 
formed, the seminal element being transferred in a tiuid state. 

The eggs are deposited in clusters of half-a-dozen to a score or more, 
beneath logs and in other moist and convenient places; they are at first 
colourless and perfectly translucent, tinged in some cases with amber, 
roundly oval in shape, soft and very elastic, and about seven mill, long and 
five mill, in diameter, usually though not invariably disposed in a series 
united together by a yellowish albuminous mucus with which they have 
become enveloped in their passage down the oviduct, and which by settling 
between the eggs gives them their acuminate aspect at the poles. Although 
the eggs are themselves ver}' uniform in size, this mucous envelope varies so 
greatly in thickness that the eggs may appear to range in size from seven to 
eleven mill, in length even in the same batch. They are dei)osited from the 
beginning of .July even into December, and hatch in from forty to sixty days, 
according to the weather, the young when hatched being about ten mill, 
long, and of a pale transparent yellow, or they may be somewliat greenish 
with a distinct light dorsal stripe and darker sides. The}' become adult 
within the year. 

Food and Habits. — They are essentiall}'^ nocturnal in habit, and very 
gregarious, often congregating together one upon another in a striking way 
for their siesta, and Bouchard-Chantereaux has remarked that one of their 
ommatophores is nearly ah\ ays half extended at those times. 

Though often found in moist woods and gardens, beneath turf, logs, under 
stones or bark of old trees, in crevices of walls, etc., yet this species would 
appear to prefer the shelter of artificial surroundings, being found most 
commonly in damp cellars, vaults, sculleries, drains, outhouses, sides of 
wells, and other similar places. 

It is an active and voracious species, feeding greedily upun bread, cooked 
meat, and vegetables, and manj^ kinds of table delicacies. It is also partial 
to cream, butter, flour, and even soap, and will grow sleek and fat upon the 
mildew found on damp walls. In a grocer's warehouse, in Leeds, L.Jiavas 
was noticed to show an especial })redilection for brown sugar. 

In a state of nature it is said not to devour the green leaves of phanero- 
gamic plants, but to restrict itself to fungi and the minute lichens which 
stain the surface of old walls or are found upon the bark of trees ; the 
stomach, under ordinary conditions, being filled with almost all kinds of 
garltage and mouldy growths. It will, however, eat the decayed leaves of 
Vinca and Primula. 

In confinement, Mr. Gain offered 197 various kinds of food to this si)ecies, 
but only the ^Mushroom, Psol/iofn rampestris, Boletus edidis, and the root of 
Carrot were eaten with avidity, though seventeen others were eaten freely, 
amongst which Armill((,na mellea, Rassuki heterophyUa, Marasmius (yrmdes, 
Pohlporu^ ^(jiKniiosHS, the fruit of the Strawberry, the leaves of Holly and 
Bryony, the stalks of Lettuce and Cabbage, the roots of Potato, Turnip, and 
Swede may be especially mentioned. 


The homing' faculty is strongly exemplified in this species, and this trait 
ill its cluiracter has been often abundantly verified. 

It is capnltle, at k^ast when yuun^', of spiiniiiii^" a nuK-ous thread by which 
it can lower itself from branches or other places from which it may desire 
to descend. 

Parasites. — Lbnaxjlavus is particularly liable to be infested by the ecto- 
})arasitic Acarus, known as Phllodnrinus limacum'- L., a circumstance said 
l)y l"\'russac to be due to a stroni^ odour resembling that of decaying wood 
which emanates from it and which also similarly attracts many wood-lice. 
This species is also preyed upon, according to Whiteaves, by the larva of 
the Coleopteron Drilus flavescens. 

Variation. — This species, though under ordinary conditions remarkably 
constant in its coloration and character, is liable to a temporary change of 
aspect under the intiuence of pr(donged abstinence from food or continued 
irritati(ui. The yellow colour of the body being wholly or in great part due 
to the slime l>y which the body is invested, explains this transient instability 
of the colouring in this species.'' 

When living within the shelter of human habitations it is said to Ije 
more vividly coloured, but according to Locard does not attain to the size 
of the examples living in the open air. The brightness of its colouring be- 
comes diuuued with the loss of its active energy, prolonged irritati(jn, and 
abstinence from food, the yellow body-tint changing to a dull olive or grey. 
In the ordinary course, these animals in most districts darken Avith age, 
and as a rule are darker in colour out of doors than when living under shelter. 

The chief ditferences are due to variations in the ground colour, and to 
the intensity and completeness of the suffusion by the darker secondary 
pigmentation, this suffusion emanating from the iiTcgularly maculate mark- 
ings, without exhibiting any tendency to run into banding. 

Among the anomalies that have been observed, one w'ith a well-marked 
bifurcate tail, found by Mr. C. Oldham, at Alderley Edge, in Cheshire, is 
worthy of especial mention. 

r.iKfAT/oys /y coLOi-R of a.v/.ua/.. 
Var. albina Taylor. 

Animai, (luitL' wliite. 

Bavaria — Two siicciiiuMis from (lie casemates at Wiirzl)iii\L;', .Iiiiic ISTG (S. t'rie^, 
Zool. Auz. , 187'.), 1". i.").")). 

Var. flavescens Fer., Hist. Moll., I8l!l, p. 71, pi. .'), f. 3. 

Animai, yellowisli, with inarkings indistinct. 

Cornwall W.-.Scilly Isles, Aw^. ISDOl llev. E. D;ilc Kolicrts. 

Surrey —' oliliiini, s|(('ciiii(Mis in l>ritisli Mnst'iini, from l)i'. Lcacli (T. I). A. Cock- 
crell. in lilt.). 

Middlesex— Muswcll Hill roiwl, lli<,'lij,';ite, -June ISSi) ! II. \V;illis Kew. 

Elgin— South ('ollej;e. Klj;in, Dec. 185)0 ! (J. (Jordon. 

Belgium -IJrnssels and Lonvain (Colhean, Ann. Soc. Mai. Belj;'., ISO.'}, p. IS). 

France I"'reiinent in moist ami cold houses in Lyons; rather common in va>ilts 
ami cellars in the dejiartnient of the Ain ; and al Nfont pellier, He/.iers, I.,odcve, St.- 
l*ons, (lani^es, etc., in the Hernult. 

Italy —Lii,niria, Tuscany, Sardinia, and Sicily (Lcssona iV: Tolloiiera, Monog. 
J.imac ital.,'^1882, p. 44). 

Var. rufescens Mo<i.-Tand., Hist. Moll. France, \s:>5, p. 25., reddish, with the niarkinj^s somewhat indistinct. 

Warwick— Stratford-on-Avon, Sept. 1884 ! U. J. Attye. Cellar, Edgbaston, 
July 1898 (Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 1898, p. 06). 

1 Monog. i., p. 312, f. C02. 2 Monog. i., p 423, f. 738. 3 Monog. i., p. 327. 

Plate X. 


I. Limax iencUus, j>. 71. 
(after original drawing by Joshua Alder). 


3. Liina.x tenelhis var. cerca, />. 74 
Mashaiii, Yorks, II'. A. Tliwjites. 

2. Limax tfuellus var. fulva, p. 
Loiightoii, Essex, T. Fetch. 

4. Limax tencllns, yoiiiig. 
{after Simroth). 

5. Limax flavMS, p. 7S. 

6. Limax flavus var. riifesceiis, p. 82. 
Bojves Castle, T. Sheppard. 

8. Limax Jlavtis var. grisea, p. F4. 
Bath, C.J. Waterfall. 

7. Limax flavus var. vircscens, p. S3. 
South Stockton, B. Hudson. 

10. Limax arborum, p. 94. 
Cooper's Hill, Cheltenham. 

g. Limax flavus var. maculata, p. 83. 
Ratham, II'. Jeffcry. 

14. Liinix arborum var. nemorosa, p. 95. 
Banchory, IK. Evans, 

II. Limax arborum var. subnifa, p. 94. 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, C. Oldham. 

12 Limax aiborum stibvar. submaculata, p. 96. 
Ctishendun, Rev. S. A. Brenan. 

13. Limax arborum vai. iigiiihi, p.tjU. 
{after Weinland). 

15. Limax arbonim subvar, alpestris, p. gC. 
Shetlands, Rev. R. W.J. Smait. 


16. Limax arborum subvar. bettonii, p. 95. 
Cushendun, Rev. S. A.. Brenau. 

17. Limax arborum var. zebra, p. gG. 
(after Simroth). 

J. W. & E. Taylor, del. 

Taylor Bros., Leeds. 


Lancashire S. — Knowsley near Liveri)ool, 1893 (Collinge, J. of Alal., 189.3, p. 148). 
Lancashire W, — Timber yard, Avenhain lane, Preston, 1889! W. PL Heathcote. 
France — (Mo(|nin-Tan(lon, op. cit. ). 
Italy — All Italy (Lessona & Pollonera, Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882). 

Var. virescens F6r., Hist. Moll., 1819, p. 71, pi. 5, f. 2. 

Animal almost uniformly greenish, the markings nearly ohliterate<l. 

Kent W,— Cliislehurst, May 1885! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Pembroke^N(nth Cliff near Tenby Harbour (Stubbs, J. of Coucii., 19U0, p. 322). 

York N.E.— South Stockton, Dec. 1884! Baker Hudson. 

France— (Moquin-Tandon, op. cit.). 

Italy— Liguria (Le.s.sona & Pollonera, op. cit.). Esino, Lombaidy (Pini, 1876). 

Madeira— (Grateloup, Dist. Geog. Limac, 1855). 


Var. antiquorum Sowerby, Genera of Shells, 1828, ii., pi. 158. 

Li max bceticus Mab., Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1868, p- 145. 

Animal pale ochreous, marbled on mantle and back with greyisli interstitial 
lineolation or leticulation. 

Surrey — Specimens in British Museum, labelled "Cobliam, Dr. Leach" (T. D. A. 
Cockerell, 1891). 

Portugal— Lisbon (Morelet, Moll. Portugal, 1845, p. 34). 

Var. tigrina Pini, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 1876, p. 96. 

Lhitax 7'aricgatiis var. tigriniis Pini, op. cit. 
Animal rufous yellow, variegated with black, mid-dorsal line rufous-yellow and 

Italy — Ksino, Lombardy (Pini, op. cit.). 

Var. umbrosa Philippi, Enum. Moll. Siciliffi, IS-U, ii., p. 102. 

Liniax idiihrosus Phil , op. cit. 

Kyynickilhis tnaculatus Kal., Bull. Soc. Imp. Mosc., 1851, p. 2'2(J, pi. I, f. 2. 

Limax tiiaculatus Leach, .Syn., 1852, p. 52. 

Li)nax ziaricgaUis var. cohibrinus Pini, op. cit. 

Animal ochreous-yellow or brown, with darker markings superjiosed. 

The L. luahrosHS has the darker colouring brownish, while the sul)-var. macnhita 
Kal. has it dark-grey or blackish ; tiie macnlata of Moquin-Tandon has the ground 
colour more of a brownish shade, and the markings are described as black. 

Sussex W. — Sub- var. macula fa Kal., Eatham, Nov. 1886 ! W. Jetl'ery. 

Kent E.— Sub-var. coluhrina, Maidstone, Nov. 1888 ! F. ik Penn. 

Middlesex — Sub-var. manilafa Kal., Southwood road, Higligate, June 1889! 
H. W. Kew. Hillingdon near Uxbridge, ( JldHeld Thomas. P,e<lford Park, T. D. A. 
Cockerell. Specimens in British Museum, presented V)y Dr. Leach, from the celhirs 
of three localities in London (T. 1). A. Cockerell, 1891). 

Bucks. -Sub-var. macnlata, Kal, Eton, Dr. Leach, specimens in British Museum 
(T. D. A. Cockerell, 1891). 

Notts.— Sub-var. colubrina, Tuxford (W. A. Gain, Brit. Nat., Nov. 1893). 

York N.E. — Sub-var. colnhriiia, South Stockton, Dec. 1884! P.aker Hudson. 

Edinburgh — L. inncxlatus, common on hills about Edinburgh (Leach, op. cit). 

France — Sub-var. macidata, Montpellier, Beziers, Lodeve, St.-Pons, Ganges, etc. 
(Dubrueil, Moll. Herault, 1863, p. 3). 

Belgium— Sub-var. mactilata, Brussels (Colbeau, Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg., 1863, p. 48). 

Italy— Sub-var. coluhrina, Esino, Lombardy (Pini, Moll. Esino, 1876). Sub-var. 
macnlata, Esino in Lombardy (Pini, op. cit.). Var. umbrosa Phil., Sicily. 

St. Helena— Sub-var. maculata Kal., specimens in British Museum, from .J. C. (T. D. A. Cockerell, 1891). 

United States — Sub-var. macnlata Kal., specimens in British Museum, labelled 
"Savannah, (ieorgia, W. G. Binney" (T. D. A. Cockerell, 1891). 

Australia — Sub-var. maculata Kal., specimens from Sydney, New South Wales, 
in British Museum (T. D. A. Cockerell, 1891). 

Polynesia— Sub-var. maculata Kal., specimens from Parotonga, Cook Islands, 
and New Hebrides, collected by Rev. Wyatt Gill, are in the British Mu.seum (T. D. A. 
Cockerell, 1891). 



Var. breckworthiana Lolmiann, Mai. Bl., 1804, p. I4r>, pi. 4. 

Liiiiactis biickworthianus I.elimanii, op. cit. 

I.iiiiax ccarinatus Hnrttger, Jalir'u. Dt-utsch. Mai. Ges., 1881, p. 186, f. 7a-c. 
I.i))iax Jlavus var. siiffusa Koel.iick, J. of Conch,, July 1>S,S,5, p. 3.52. 
Limax Jla'i'us var. grisi:a Roebuck, J. of Conch., July 18<S1, p. 222. 

Tlio whole lioDY and .shikij) unifonnly suUuscd Uy a dark colouring'. 

Tlie varietio.s brcckirortltiitna, cnir'nxitd, aixl sitj/'iisa arc all said to l)e ciiaracter- 
ized by tlio (iilln.sion of tlie secoiidaiy jiiiiiiieiitation over almost the wiiole .surface 
of the liody, -wliicli tliorcfore jiresents an almost nniform colourim;-. 

The sulj-var. iirisni diH'ers in tlie mottled markings liciiij,' still \ isjlilf on the liody 
and shield, althon,';h the yellow yronnd tint has heen rei)laced Ijy yrey and the hody 
slime is colourless. 

Somerset N. — Suh-var. {irisca, Bath, June 1884 ! C. J. Waterfall. 

Middlesex— Snh-var. sii/fiisn, Ealinix, May 188.") ! S. ('. Coekerell. Snli-var. qrisca, 
Acton,. Ian. ISS.")! T. 1). A. Coekerell. ' Han/pstead. -Inne 1888' II. Wallis Kew. 

Stafford Suli-var. griscii, Mr. Nash's i,'arden, Statlord, Dee. 18S(i ! L. K. .Adams. 

Renfrew — Snh-var. (jrisca, near tireenock, .Sefit. 18815 I Andrew Scott. 

Russia — Tlie suh-var. ecarinatfi, Kutais, Transcaucasia ; similar sitecimens from 
Sehastofxd in Crimea (Simroth, Nacktsch., 1801, p. 308). 

Australia — \'ar. hrccA-irnii/iitniii, Ilreckworth, Victoria (Lehmann, I.e.). 

Geographical Distribution. — The natural range of Lima.r ^/lavtis is 
very compact, and includes the whole of temperate Europe. It has been 
reported from the British Isles, (Jermany, L^-ance, Corsit-a, Belgium, Hol- 
land, Spain, Portugal, Balearic Isles, Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, Greece, Den- 
mark, Russia, Asia Minor, Algeria, Cyi)rus, and other Mediterranean Isles. 

It has also been noted as occurring in Madeira, Azores, St. Helena, 
Seychelles, Eastern North America, S<uith America, Australia, New Zea- 
land, .lapan, and South Africa. 

Geographical Distribution 

Limax flavui. L 

Recorded Distribution. 
Probable Range. 

• • 


Ik.. 104. 


Channel Isles — In Guernsey t.^ Sark, hut not commonly (Cooke i^- CJwatkin, 
C^»..I.C., 1878, i., p. 32-2). Jer.sev, Liikis (Ansted's Chainiel Isles, 18G-2). 


Cornwall W.—l'hillack, near Hayle, Oct. 1884! Mi.ssS. Hockin. \iu: pd'caccus, 
Seilly Isles, An;;. 18!Kt: Kev. E. D.ile IJol.ert.«. 

Devon S. — A specimen in the I'.ritish Mn.senm, from Dr. I. each, lahelled " I'ly- 
moulh" (T. I). A. Coekerell, isill). Ahout Ivxeter, hut not so ahnndant as />. 
ma.iiiiui.s (Parlitt, Nat., 18.")4, ]>. l.'iO). Var. f/rl.srit,TK\>~.\\i\\n. .\n>i. 18il-2, L. K. Adams. 

Devon N. — Enumeratetl in IJesley's liandhook for North Devon, 18U7, p. 124. 


Somerset S.— Bridgwater, Aug. 1884 ! W. Vinson. 

Somerset N. — Type and sub-var. grisea, Bath, June, 1884 ! C. J. Waterfall. 


Dorset — Abundant, Glauville's Wootton (C. W. Dale, Hist, of Glanville's Woot- 
ton, 1878, p. .S.34). Weymouth (Damon's Geol. Dorset, 1884, p. 234). 

Isle of Wight— Steephill, A.J. H. ( Venables' Guide to Isle of Wigiit, 1860, p. 462). 

Hants S. — Common, Cliristchurch ! also found at Mudeford ! C. Ashford, 1883. 
Ditcham wood, June 1896, C. E. AV right. 

Hants N.— Preston Candover, July 1884 ! H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Sussex E. — Ditch side, near Priory, Lewes (W. C. Unwin, Nat., 18.53, p. 54). 
East Grinstead, E. Saunders. Near Hailsham (Harting, Zool., March 1878, p. 86). 
Eastbourne, Battle and Kingston (J. H. A. Jenner, Rep. Eastb. Nat. Hist. Soc. , 1880). 

Sussex W. — Occasionally at Chichester, Cowfold, and Hentield, W. Borrer ; at 
Harting, Weaver & J. E. Harting; Brighton, Merriheld (Harting, Zool., 1878, p. 
86). Garden, Rathani, June 1884 ! W. Jefferv. 


Kent E.— Margate, April 1883 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. Faversham, Sept. 1884 ! 
Miss Fairbrass. Common at Folkestone, Sept. 1886 ! C. Oldham. 

Kent W. — Type and var. viresrens, Ciuslehurst, May 1885 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Garden, Deptford, June 1886 ! A. J. Jenkins. Edenbridge, Feb. 1898 ! A. Leicester. 

Surrey — Croydon (K. McKean's Croydon List, 1883). Wandsworth, June 1885! 
S. C. Cockerell. LimpsHeld (W. M. Webb, Sc. Goss., June 1887). South Norwood, 
Haslemere, and Shottermill (C. Pannell, jr., J. of C, July 1903). Sutton, Oct. 1885! 
F. G. Fenn. \a.r. flavesccns and var. antiqaorum, X&hQWQA "Cobham, Dr. Leach," 
in British Museum (T. D. A. Cockerell, 1891). 

Essex S. — Gardens, Barking Side, Wanstead (Crouch, Essex Nat., 1891, j). 209). 

Essex N. — Common everywhere (H. Laver, Colchester List, 1882, p. 93). 

Herts. — Hitchin, plentiful, Aug. 1873, C. Ashford. E.xceedingly abundant in the 
old palace of the Saxon kings, Kingsbury, St. Albans, Sei)t. 1884! J. Hopkinson. 

Middlesex— Acton, under logs, Aug. 1884! T. D. A. Cockerell. Bedford Park, 
March 1885 ! S. C. Cockerell. Sliells labelled "Islington, E. A. Smith," in Brit. Mus. 
Hampstead, June 1888, H. W. Kew. Var. flavescens, Muswell hill, Highgate, June 
1889 ! ( H. W. Kew, Nat. , Apl. 1889). Var. snffiisa, Ealing, May 1885 ! S. C. Cockerell. 

Oxford — Common in cellars, Oxford (J. F. Whiteaves' Oxford list, 1857, p. 5). 
Bather common in cellars, Banbury (R. H. Stretch, Zool., 1855, p. 4541). 

Bucks. — Garden, Aston-Clinton (A. Leicester, J. of Conch., July 1902, p. 216). 


Suffolk E. — Blaxhall, July 1885 ! G. T. Rope. Exceedingly common at Wood- 
bridge, ^lay 1886 ! S. Spencer Pearce. Memilesham, Brockford and Ipswich (May- 
field, J. of Conch., April 1903, p. 295). 

Norfolk E. — Norwich, in gardens and cellars (Bridgman, Zool., 1850, p. 2742). 

Norfolk W.— Lynn, Aug. 1886, C. B. Plowright. 

Cambridg-e — Whittlesea (Bellars, Brit. Shells, 1858). Near Cambridge, June 
1886! B. Tomlin. Cambridge (L. Jenyns, Loudon s Mag., Nov. 1831, p. 538). 

Bedford— Luton, Aug. 1885 ! J. Saunders. 

Northampton — Peterborough (Bellars, Brit. Shells, 1858). Cellar, Northampton 
(Adams, Proc. Northants N. H. Soc, 1893). Fletton (Nicholls, J. of C, Apl. 1884). 


Gloucester E.— Stroud, Oct. 1883! E.J. Elliott. 

Gloucester W.— Common in gardens, Bristol (E. C. Jellie, Nat., 1867, p. 148). 

Monmouth— Common in Monmouthshire (E. J. Lowe, 1885). 

Worcester— Sparkbrook, Birmingham (Proc. Birm. Nat. Hist. Soc, 1869, p. 108). 
Moseley, Oct. 1884 ! J. Madison. Worcester. Oct. 1886 ! H. Milnes. Cellars in Stour- 
port (J. W. Williams, J. of Conch., vi., p. 112). 


Stafford— Sub-var. grisea and type, Stafford, Dec. 1886 ! L. Y.. Adams. Stone, 
E. D. Bostock; Cheadle! (J. R. B. Masetield, Moll. Staff., 1902, p. 6). Walsall, 1897, 
H. Overton. Handsworth (Tye, Q.J.C., 1875, p. 68). 

Salop— Oswestry, June 1885! B. Hudson. 


Glamorgan— Cardiff (Wotton, Brit. Ass. Handbk., 1891, p. 182). Common about 
Swansea, 1901, H. Rowland WakeHeld. 

Pembroke— Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. Tenby, Nov. 1887 ! C. Jefferys. 
23/8/03 ' 'y 


Montg'omery — Ratlior ])loii(ifiil and well distriliuted ; flutif^rof; Hall, nearWelsh- 
liooi, M. ('. .loiies! (,J. Hickcrtoii Mnr^an, Moiit;;<)iiu'ry Moll., ISSS, p. 282). 
Carnarvon— Conway Castle, Jan. I.SS8 ! L. E. Adams. 

Lincoln N.~Wall, lanooln road, Loutli, April 1886 and May 1903 ! \\. W. Kew. 
AH'ord, June 1S!)() ! J. E. Ma.son. 

Leicester — Common in town cellars, Leicester (Quilter, Moll. Leic. , 1888) ; cellar, 
Market street, Leicester, Oct. 188() ! II. E. (,)niltcr. 

Notts. — Cellars, Hij^lilield House, and in Nottinj,diam (Lowe, Notts. List, 1853). 
Pleasley vale; Attenl)orou»i;li, ami railway eml>anknient, Lenton, 18S3, C. T. Musson. 
Tuxford, .June 1884 ! W. A. Cain. Corporation gardens. Wells road, Nottin^diam, 
July 1888 ! G.W. Mellors ; Beech Avenue, Nottinjj;ham, Felt. 1885. B. Stiirj,'es Dodd. 
Cellar, Farnsfield, Oct. 1892! and \-m-. flavc.sceiiH, Oxton. Sept. 1892! C. Oldham. 
Derby— Matlock, 18S4, H. E. Craven. Repton, H. Miines. 

Cheshire— Chester (Bellars, Brit. Shidls, 1858). Holmes Chapel, Nov. 189G ! 
Alderley Ed.^e, July 1898 ! an.l Sale, Sept. 1S92! C. Oldham. 

Lancashire S.—Warrin.^ton (Bellars, Brit. Shells, 1858). Bainhili, Sejtt. 1885, 
T. 1). A. Cockerell. Peiidleltury and Moorside, R. Standen (Mclvill, Brit. Assoc. 
Hdhk.), Southport (McNicholl, l'8.-)9, ]). 14(!). Cellars, Manchester, R. I). Darhishire. 
Var. riiffsmi.s, Knowsley, Liverjiool (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., 1893, p. 14S). 

Lancashire Mid— Ahuiidunt in f(^rnery, Avenham lane, Preston, June 1888, and 
var. /7(/r.vr(«.y, timljer-yard, Avenham lane, Preston, Feb. 18891 W. H. Heathcote. 

York S. E. — Common in cellars, Hornsea (J. D. Butterell, J. of Conch., Jan. 
1881). Newport, near Staddiethorpe, abundant in <;arden, Aui;. 1883! T. K. Skip- 
witli. Aliundant in "garden, Westwood, Beverley, Sept. 1884 ! J. D. Butterell. 

York N.E. — Yanls and cellars, Redcar and Coatham, Aui^. 1886! 1>. Hudson. 
Kirkleatham, Sept. 1S86! W.D.R. Old.walls, Bagdale and l}()j;hole, Whitby, July 
1883! II. Pollard. Occasionally in cellars, Thirsk (J. H. Davies, Nat., 1855, p. 134). 
Scarboroujfh, W. Bean (Tlieakston's (iuide to Scarborough, 1871, p. 176). Bootham 
School, York (R. M. Christy, Zool., 1881, ]). 242). The tyi)ical form, var. vircscciis 
and var. rol utir'nin. South Stockton, Dec. 1884! B. Hudson. 

York S.W.— Barnsley, April 1893! F. liatley. Near Tarn Dam, Keighley, Feb. 
1868! Cellars, Saltaire. Dec. 1888! J. Beanlaml. Warehouse, Pine street, Bradfcn'd, 
Oct. 1882! H. T. Soppitt. Dewsbury, Sept. 1885! P. F. Lee. EUand, April 1903, 
J. E. Crowthcr. Wakefield, Joseph Wilcock., Sept. 1887, G. Roberts. 
Hndderslield, in damp ccll-ars, etc., (i. H. Parke. 

York Mid W. — Cellars and kitchens, Leeds ! Reniiie Crags, Birstwith (Walker, 
J. of C., Jan 1SS2). Patdey liridge, March 1884 ! W. Storey. Boston Spa, common, 
1884, John Emmett. Harrogate and Knaresborougli (F. R. Fitzgerald, J. of C, 
Jan. 188!)). Ingleton, common (W. E. CoUinge, Nat., Apr. 1890). 

York N.W. — \'ar. ritfefir.ens, Bowes Castle, abundant, Ang. 1903! T. Sheppard. 

T) WE. 
Durham— Sunderland, R. Howse (Alder's Cat. Mollusca, 1848, p. 125). South 
Shields, X(.v. isst: K. Howse. 

Northumberland S. -Not common in cellars, Newcastle (Alder, Cat. Moll., 1848). 

Isle of Man — A'ery common ami tine on walls about Port Erin, Jan. 1880, L. E. 
Adams. Douglas! and Castletown, Aug. 1894, F. Taylor. 


Kirkcudbrieht — Common in my cellars, Maxwellto\^ n, July 1891 ! R. Service. 

Renfrew Tviie and .sub-var. grisca, abundant about Scott's sugar refinery, 
('reenock, April' 1886! T. Scott. 


Peebles- West Linton, Sept. 1893. W. Turner. 

Haddington— Balgonc. Jan. 1896. W. Evans. 

Linlithgow -Caribber ( ;ien, Feb. 18!»s, and Dalmeny Park, Oct. 1902, W. Evans. 

Berwick— In wine cellars, Berwick (<;. .lohnston, Proc. Berw. Nat. Club, 1838, 
p. 15t). Near Eyemouth, Sept. 1895! W. Evans. 

Edinburgh-(;arden. 14, Inverleith Row, Edinburgh, Oct. 1888! W.D.R. Dud- 
dingston Loch, Mav 1894; X'ogrie (Jlen, Feb. 1897; and Arniston, June 1902,W. Evans. 


Fife and Kinross— Craill, .\ug. 1890! Kilcomiuhar, Sept. 1893; Loch Leven, 
June 1894 ; and l.och (bdiv, Mav bS95, W. Evans. 

Perth S. -Dollar, and Wharry (Jlen, Bridge of Allan, Feb. 1898, W. Evans. 

Aberdeen S. — Under stones and by houses (J Taylor, Zool. ,1853, p. 3853 . 


Elgin — Cellars and other damp places in the province of Moray (G. Gordon, Zool., 
1854, p. 4453). Yav. Jlavescens, South College, Elgin, Dec. 1890! G. Gordon. 


Caithness— Wick and other places (Peach, lioy. Phys. Soc. Edin., 1864). 


Antrim— Belfast (Thompson, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1840, p. 18). Rathlin Island, 
in wood by the church, May 1898, L. E. Adams. 
Tyrone — Straltane, June 1889, A. H. Delap. 

Donegal— About Lillbrd, June 1889, A. H. Delap. 


Louth— Piperstown, Oct. 1882 ! Miss S. Smith. 

Dublin— On walls near Booterstown and Blackrock (Walpole, Zool., 1853, p. 4022). 
Kingstown, June 1886! W. F. de Vismes Kane. Abundant in cellars, etc., Leeson 
Park, and in Dublin city ; Howth, April 1887 ! Kalieny, Aug. 1890, Killakee, Dublin 
Mountains, Oct. 1890, and Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Nov. 1890, R. F. Schartf. 

Wicklow— Belmont demesne, near Greystones, July 1891, R. F. Scharff. 

Wexford— Kilmanock, New Ross, March 1888 ! G. Barrett-Hamilton. 


Sligo— Infests houses and bathing lodges, Enniskrone, April 1889 ! and said to 
be numerous at Glen Lodge, near Ballina (A. Warren, Nat., .Sept. 1892, p. 126). 

Mayo W.— Black Rock Lighthouse, 1890! R. Widdicombe. 

Tipperary N.— Finnoe (E. Waller, N.H. Review, Apr. 1854, p. 87). 
Tipperary S.— Glenconnor, April 1888, and Clonmel, June 1886, A. H. Delap. 
Waterford- Near VVaterford, Sept. 1883! J. H. Salter. 

Cork N.— Garden, Youghal, R. Ball (Thompson, Ann. & Mag. N.H., 1840, p. 18). 
Cork S.— Carrigaline,Mav 1888! Vismes Kane. Blarney, Sept. 1898, L.E.Adams. 
Kerry— Rossbeigh, April 1888, A. H. Delap. Sparingly at Killarney, Sept. 1898 
(Stubbs & Adams, Irish Nat, Nov. 1898). 

Clessin describes Limax. flanus as inliabiting the whole of Germany, and records 
have been made for Baden, Bavaria, Brandenburg, Holstein, Nassau, Oldenburg, 
Pomerania, Saxony, Schleswig, Silesia, and Wurtemburg. 

Holland-The Hague (R. J. Maitland, Nachrichtsbl., 1869, p. 163). 
Belgium— (Colbeau, Mai. Belg., 1859). 

According to Moquin-Tandon this species is found throughout France. It has 
been reeordeil from the Agenais, Ain, Aisne, Alpes Maritimes, Ariege, Champaf,'ne 
Meridionale, Cote d'Or, Finistere, Gard, Gers, Gironde, Haute Garonne, Haute Loire, 
Herault, Isere, Loire Inferieure, Manche, Maine et Loire, Meurthe, Morbihan, 
Moselle, Nievre, Nord, Oise, Pas de Calais, Puy-de-D6me, Pyrenees Orientales, the 
Quercy, Rhone, Seine, Seine et Marne, Somme, Vendee, and Corsica. 

Clessin says probably found throughout, but no definite records have been seen. 

Recorded by Simroth and others for North, Mid, and Southern Italy, aLso for 
Sicily, Sardinia, and Malta. The greatest altitude it attains in Italy is said to be 
about 2,800 feet at Bobbio in Piedmont. 

Clessin says probably found throughout the region, and although Simroth cites it 
for Hungary, the only available definite record is for Gorz on the Adriatic coast. 


Spain— Recorded from Madrid in New Castile ; Santiago in Galicia ; Santander 
in Old Castile ; tiibraltar and Seville in Andalusia ; also for Valencia, Catalonia, 
and tiie Balearic Isles. 

Portugal— Lisbon (Simroth, Nacktschn. Portug.-Azor., 1891, p. 279). 

Probably widely dispersed in Greece, and has been reported from Athens, Patras, 
Prevesa, and from the Ionian Islands, Crete, Chios, etc. 

South Scandinavia— (Jonlan, Binnenmoll., 1883); cited also by Grateloup for 
Norway and j)r()vince of Skane in Soutli Sweden. 

Denmark — Copenhagen (Malm, Skand. Liniac, 1878, p. 65). 


Has only l)een reported as yet from the soutliern provinces at Lehedin, Achtyrka, 
and Bojioducliow in KliarUo\' ; Seliast(i](()l, 'riicodosia, and other localities in the 
Crimea, ISuanelien, Knlais, and Lenkoran in Mingrelia, and Snchnni in Abchasia. 

Morocco— Tan<,'iers, T. I). A. Cockcreii in litt., 1S91. 

Algeria — L. dcfslia ijrsi lionr^'. , Cherchell (ISuurjj;. , op. fit.)- L. camjKunjoi, Algiers 
(Lallemant, Moll. Alger, 1881, p. 2). 

Tripoli -(iratelon]) (Dist. (ieog. Limac., ISof)). 

Asia Minor— Sin()i)e, Trehizonde, lieyront, Haiffa, the Isle of Cyprus, etc. 


Azores— S. Mignel, in shadv gardens abont Fonta Delgada and Villafranca 
(W(. Huston, Test. Atl., 1S7S, )>. "ll). 

Madeira -Middy ilistril)ntcd and fonnd occasionally at the A'al, near l''nnchal, 
at Praia Itay, in tiie ('nrral das Freiras, etc.; also fonnd liy l\ev. K. lioog "Watson in 
the nortii of the island. 

St. Helena — Specimens of snh-var. vutcuhtta, in British Mnsenm, from J. C. 
Melliss (T. D. A. Cockerell in litt., 1891). 


Siinrnth gives I. flaruft as ocenrring in Hondo and the more sontherly islands of 
Japan (Nacktschn. I'ortng. -Azor. , 1891, p. 308). 


According to Binney, it probably inhabits all the cities of the sea co.ast atid their 
vicinage, and some of the cities of the interior, and has been actnally reported from 

Maine — Occnrs rarely at Portland (Morse, I'nlm. Maine, 1864, p. 7). 

Massachusetts — Nnmerons in garden. New Bedfoid (Tiiomson, J. of Conch., 
Oct. 1885): Boston and Cambridge (Binney, L. and F.W. Shells N. Amer., 18()n, j). 61). 

New Jersey — Cellar, Bnrlington (Binney, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1875, 
p. 17.S) ; (Jntenberg (H. Prime, 1885). 

New York— New York (Binney, L. and F.W. Shells of N. Amer., 1869, p. 61). 
Riverdale and Huntington, Long Island, H. I'rime, 1885. Onondago Co., general, 
AV. M. Beauchamp, 1885. MonVoe Co. (J. Walton, Nautilus, 1898, p. LS.S). Com- 
moner than L. nm.riinits at Cayuga Lake Valley (N. Banks, Nautilus, April 1892). 

Maryland— Baltimore (Binney, L. and F.W. Shells of N. Amer., 1869, p. 61). 

Virginia — Kichmond, Cniversity of Virginia and other cities (Binney, op. cit. ,). 

Pennsylvania — York, H. Prime, Oct. 1885. West Chester, Chester Co., W. T). 
Hartnumn. Se]it. 1S85. (^reeidionses and lily ponds, IJncoln Park, Philadelphia 
(F. C. Baker, Nantihis, Se])!. 1901, j). 59). 

District of Columbia— Wasiiington (T. D. A. Cockerell, 18911 

Georgia— Athens an<l Savannaii (Binney, Man. Amer. ]>and Siielis, 1885, p. 4.V2). 

South Carolina — (iraniteville and Charleston (Binney, op. cit., p. 4.52). 

Brazil — Porto Alegre and .lagnarao (Heynemann, J. D. M. (J., 1885, p. 275). 
Chili — L. chilcnsifi Cay (Heynemann, op. cit.). 
Argentina— Buenos Ayres (M. Strobel, Act. Soc. Sc. Nat. Milan, 1868). 

Natal— Pietermaritzburg (Melvill .K: Ponsonby, Proc. Mai. Soc, Dec. 1898, p. 172). 
Seychelles — (H. Sinnoth, Nacktschn. Portug.-Azor., 1891, p. 308). 


New South Wales— Sydney (E. A. Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1884, p. 272) ; 
Cladesville and Summer Hill, J. Brazier; Inverell, Duncan ; and on walls of a well, 
Tamwortli (C. T. Mus.son, .lonrn. Linn. Soc N.S.W\, 1890, \^. 892). 

Victoria — Benalla, .1. Brazier (C. T. Musson, op. cit.). A'ar. hirckworthiiDin, 
Breckwortii (Leiiniann, op. cit.). L. birolor, Sydney (Selenka. Mai. HI., xii., jt. 105). 

Queensland — I'.risbane, C. Hedley (C. T. ^lusson, oi>. cit.). 

Tasmania Launceston, C. Hedley (C. T. Musson, op. cit.). 

Ne^w Zealand — DuniMlin and (ireymouth in South Island, ("apt. llutton (C. T. 
Musson, (>]). cit.) ; North Island (Heynemann, op. cit., 1885, p. 305). 

New^ Hebrides — Sub-var. innriil(it((, specimens in British Museum, from Kev. 
Wyatt (;iii ('1'. 1). A. Cockerell, in litt., 1S91). 

Cook's Islands Sub \ar. mrinildtn, Karotonga, specimens in British Museum, 
from liev. Wyalt (iill (T D. A. Cockerell, in litt'., 1891). 

Plate XI. 

Distribution of Liniax flaviis L. 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 



Cliauiiel Isles 


1 Coruwall W. 

2 Coruwall E. 

3 Devou .S. 

4 Devou N. 

5 Somerset S. 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts 8. 

9 Dorset 

10 Isle of Wight 

11 Hauls S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex E. 


15 Keut E. 

16 Kent W. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S. 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 xMidJlesex 

22 Berks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Uucks. 


25 Suffolk E. 

26 Suffolk W. 

27 Norfolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 Cambridge 

30 Bedford 

31 Huuts. 

32 Northampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester W 

35 Jloumouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 


41 Glamorgan 

42 Brecon 

43 Radnor 

44 Carmarthen 

45 I'emhroke 

46 Cardigan 


47 Montgomery 

48 Merioneth 

49 Carnarvon 

50 Denbigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 
•■54 Lincoln N. 
85 Leic. ii Ruthl. 

56 Notts. 

57 Derby 


58 Cheshire 

59 Lancashire S. 

60 LaucashireMi 


61 S.E. York 

62 N.E. York 

63 S.U'. York 

64 .Mid W. York 

65 N.W. York 


66 Durham 

67 Nortlmmb. S. 

68 Cheviotland 


69 Westmorland 
and L. Lanes. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of Man 


72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 

74 Wigtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Renfrew 

77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

so II. i.x burgh 
SI Brrwirk 
b'l Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 


85 Fife & Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 Perth S.&Clkn 

88 Mid Perth 

89 Perth N. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 Aberdeen S. 


93 Aberdeen N. 

94 Banff' 

95 Elgin 

96 Easterness 


97 Westerness 

98 Main Argyle 

99 Dumbarton 

100 Clyde Isles 

101 Cantire 

102 Ebudes S. 

103 Ebudes Mid 

104 Ebudes N 


105 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E. 
103 SutherlandW. 

109 Caithness 


110 Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shetlands 



113 Derry 

114 Antrim 

115 Down 

116 Armagh 

117 Jlonaghan 

118 Tyrone 

119 Donegal 

120 Fermanagh 

121 Cavan 


122 Lonth 
12:1 Meath 

124 Duldin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexford 

128 Carlow 

129 Kilkenny 

130 C^ueen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 

135 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 Mayo E. 

138 Mayo W. 

139 tialway W. 

140 Galway E. 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 

143 Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork N. 

147 Cork S. 

148 Kerry 

Probable Rang-e. ^' 

Recorded Distribution. 

Distribution verified by the Authors. 



Limax arborum Bouchard-Chantereaux. 

177-4 Limax iiiair/hid/its Miiller, \'enn. Hist., ii., p. 10, No. 206. 

1779 — si-opi(lo)-nin Fabricius, Norwej^en, p. 298. 

1822 — riticrcu-s var. /i Nilsson, Hist. JMuli. Sveciu-, p. 7. 

]s:V,i — <pi<j<(tcs l)Oiil)ce, Bull. Hist. Nat. Fraii(^., p. 13. 

1536 — mliriiint Bouillet, Cat. Moll. Auvergne, p. 18. 

1537 — liiiibatits Held, Isis, p. 303. 

1838 — arborum Boucli. -Chant. , Moll. Pas-de-Calais, p. 28. 

18-1:3 — (jlaurits aui\ nrhorctts Clarke, Ann. and Ma(,^ N.H.,p. 334, pi. 11, ft'. 4-10. 

1848 — livonicns Hehrenk, Land n. Susswass. Livlands, p. 142. 

\H7y1 — marg'uiatiis Baudon, Cat. Moll. Oise, ]>. (J. 

],sr)2 — .sccnu/riis Norniand, Desc. Liniac. Nonv., p. 6. 

18.)0 — si/lvaflriis Cloldfuss, Klieinpr., p. 6o, pi. 3, f. 8. 

18.)7 — arburcHiii Gray, Tnrton's Manual, p. 82. 

1870 — bcttonii Sordelli, Atti fSoc. Ital. Sci. Nat., p. 2.11. 

1871 — (((jrcsfia var. sa.roruiii Baudon, Mem. Liniae. Oisc, p. 19, pi. 4, ft'. 10-12. 
1877 — altilis Hsclier, Journ. de Concdi., p. 49. 

1868 Lehinimnia inavfiiiiaUi. Malm, Skand. J^iniac., p. 83. 

1876 Ainftlid nian/iii((fa Fischer, Journ. dc Conch., ji. ;)3. 

1880 — marginata var. mongiancnsi.s raulucci, Fauna ]Mal. Calabria, p. 23. 

ISTORY. — Limax arhnrum {arbornin, belong- 
ing to trees) has attracted the attention of some 
of the earliest observers, and has, therefore, 
received a variety of names, bnt it was not 
until 18;^)8 when Bouchard-Chantereaux un- 
mistakably described its peculiarities that a 
name was a}»idied to it with certainty. 

Though it is probable that previous authors 
had this slug before them, their descrijjtions 
are not such as to remove all doubt, and have 
therefore given rise to much controversy, so 
that it has been deemed advisal)le to adopt 
the first name about which no difference of 
opinion has arisen. 

The LiiiKt.v marciindtus of Miiller, the L. 
scopulorum of Fabricius, L. sylcestris of Sco- 
poli, L. gagates of Boub«^e, L. salicium of 
Bouillet, and L. limlxitus of Held, according 
to many of the l)est authorities, are all prob- 
ably referal)le to Llimuv arborum, but the mar- 
gin of doubt that exists precludes the use of 
any of these names for the species. 

Though classified with L.flavns mainly on account of the exact similarity 
of their alimentary systems, yet this location is not altogether satisfactory, 
as the sexual organs demonstrate a close relationship with Agriolima.v, from 
the Caucasian stock of which group Simroth believes this species to have 
been derived, the connecting links being still existent in Abyssinia; Limax 
arborum therefore connects the Agriolimaces with the typical Limaces, par- 
taking to some extent of the peculiarities of eacli. 

With this species, so especially identified with the ])o\ver of spinning 
mucous threads, we have associated Mr. H. Wallis Kew, F.Z.S., of Hornsey, 
London, wdio has devoted so much time and ability to the investigation of 
the phenomenon of thread-spinning in mollusks as well as other animals. 

^Yura^uyfCe i4r 


Diagnosis.— X/w^r (irhonim is (listiiigiiished from other Liniaccs by- 
its renuukubly gelatinous and transparent aspect, due to its great capacity 
for the absorption of water. It is also readily separable from L. md.rimux, 
Avith young individuals of which it is sometimes confounded, by the distinct 
lateral banding upon the shield, and by being incapable of uplifting and 
reflecting the anterior part of the mantle in response to irritation. 

Internally, the animal is distinguished by a horn-shaped fiagellum to the 
penis-sheath, and an appendix or ca'cum to the rectum, features mA pos- 
sessed by Llmax nuuvlmax, with which it is most liable to be confused. 

Description.— Animal moderately long and slender with a very soft and gela- 
tinous HODV, of a ^dauoons-grev, 'mt sometimes of a yellow or rufous tint, or even 
entirely Idack, usually with a jialer mid dorsal line, bordered at each side hy an ill- 
delineti darker lon<,dtudinal hand, which gradually attenuates as it a])i)roaehes the 
slij,ditly-keeled tail ; towards the foot there are indications of a line representative 
of the outer hand of the true Limaces; HEAD similar in colour, hut jialer than the 
rest of thehody; Koor distinctly trijiartite and white; sniELO moderately larj^e, 
rounded in fr(mt, and somewhat acutely jiointed hehind, concentrically striate 
around a sub-posterior nucleus, and marked laterally hy a black hand on each side, 
which bends inwards at the rear, aiul forms the so-called lyre-shaiied marking; mid- 
way there is also often a ^neyish shade, which gives the aspect of a longitudinally 
trifasciate shield. Length usually about 7") mill., Itut sometimes much larger. 
Mucus colourless and very iridescent. 

Shell ovaliform, somewhat wider at the apical end, 
slightly convex, very white, glistening, and iridescent 
above, with the lines of increase close, sharp, and well 
defined, concave and somcMhat dull beneatii. 

Length, 4 mill. ; width, 'iij mill. 

The shell of L. arhornm is, however, excei)tionally 
variable both in size and substance; examples have been ^xq. io6.— Internal shell of 

recorded 7-8 mill, in length, and the thickness varies Lhnax arhorum, x 5. 
from a delicate plate to an almost cubical calcareous 
mass, which in some cases ruptures the mantle and protrudes through the skin. 

Internally, the noov cavity is darkly pij^nnented, varying; from violet to black, 
the colouring being more conspicuous towards the tail, where even the deeper tissues 
are tinjjed. The tine membrane investing the visceral mass is rich in sooty-black 
pigment cells, but in the anterior part of the body a calcareous netting predominates. 

The NERVOUS SYSTEM shows the buccal and supra- 
cpsophageal ganglia to be markedly bilobed ; the sub- 
(csophageal group is apparently formed of four ganj^dial 
masses intimately fused together. The dark pigment 
■which pervades the body cavity of this species <^ives also 
a lilac tint not only to ])arts of the brain but even to 
some of the nerve sheaths; the osimiradium is distin- 
guishable as a broad, flat lissure, with scarcely raised 
puttings, extending towards the left side ; the otoliths 
are very numerous, two to three hundred in each cap- p,^ i07.— Nerve centres of 

sule, the prevailing form being oval with a central speck. Limax arbo-inu, x 6. 

The ALIMENTARY CANAL resemldes very closely that of L.faviis; the SALIVARY 
GLANDS are small, somewhat trian<;ular, and of a yellowish or whitish c(dour; the 
LIVER varies in colour from Ji bright f^olden brown to a dark olive or earthy brown; 
the KIDNEY is also similar to that of /.. JJarns, except that it has a very large slime 
gland, which makes broad contact with the head of the ureter; the PULMONARY 
vessels are scarcely raised above the surfa(^e of the lung wall. 

The REPRODUCTIVE OIUJANS have more atlinity with those of Affviol ima.r afjresfis 
than with those of LininxJI(ir>is\ the ovoTESTLS is in two small roundish dark-brown 
lobes ; the DUCT, at first straight and slender, becominij; moderately convoluted as it 
ai)proaches the larj^e, yellow, and linj,'uiform ALP.UMEN (iLAND, the tiny VESICULA 
SEMINALIS beinj,' preceded by a conspicuous <'nlarjj;('ment ; the OVISPEKMATODUCT 
is more lirndy united than in" the ])recedin>,' s])C(ies ; the SPERM-DU( T increasing in 
size downwards and abruptly rounded where the channels separate; VAS DEFERENS 
comparatively short, entering,' a lateral enlarj^ement at end of penis-sheath ; FREE- 
OVIDUCT cylindrical and bluish-white, its lower two-thirds invested with oi)aiiue, 
huff-coloured, and plaited glands, which extend to the atrium ; penis-SHEATII short 



and thick, Avith median inflation, cnshioned with oelatinous matter, and possessing a 
white h()in-shai)e(l glandnlar ajipcndage of varialile length at its ajjex, hnt as the 
seminal element is transferred free, this tlagellate slime-gland has notiiing in common 

I' \ 

Fig. 108. — Alimentary 
canal of Liiiiax arhortim 
(somewhat enlarged). 


Fig. 110. — Penis-sheath 
of Liina.v arhoruiu laid 
open, showing the internal 
structure (after Siinroth). 

Jl. flagellum ; ■-,'■<{. vas 
deferens ; /. internal pro- 

Fig. 100.— Sexual organs of Liiiiax arbotuin, x z. u.d>.g. albumen gland ; af. atrium ; fl. flagelkim ; 
//. heart ; k. kidney; ot. ovotestis; ov. oviduct; /. prostate; p.s. penis sheath ; r.m. retractor muscle; 
sf>. spermatheca. 

Avitli tiie flagellum of the Hclirida', in which group it is concerned in the formation 
of the spermatophore; internally, tlie penis-sheath shows two prominent longitudinal 
muscles, and fre(iuently a linguiform projection, which may serve as a sarcohelum.i 
The penis retractor is a powerful muscle, attached to the lung floor in front of the 
cephalic retractor; spermatheca pyriform, and opening into the atrium. 

The CEPHALIC RETRACTOR arises as usual from beneath the hind margin of the 
shield, and runs nearly half its length undivided ; it then usually sejiarates into three 
branches; the right and left TENTACULAR and the PHARYNCEAL muscles; the 
l)liaryngeal bifurcating soon after its separation. The retractor to the pharynx 
does* not always separate from the main stem simultaneously with the tentacular 
branches, but may do so a little before or after the tentacular divarication. 

The MANDIBLE or jaw is about a millimetre 
wide, not so convex as those of the allied sjiecies, 
of a yellowish brown colour, smooth and delicate 
in texture, with rounded ends, and with a very 
wide, slightly projecting and blunt median beak 
or rostrum. 


Fig. 111. — Mandible or jaw of Liinax 
ayhortim, X 16. 

(Christchurch, Hants. S., C. Ashford). 

The LINGUAL MEMBRANE in ordinary specimens is about four mill, long and two 
mill, wide, the transverse rows being arranged in the form of a well-deflneil printer's 
"brace"; the median row shows ob.scurely tridentate teeth, the mesocone exceiition- 
ally broad and strong, and the ectocoiies ill-detined and without jierceptilde cutting 
points; the lateral teeth are also remarkable for the well-marked me.socoiie and the 
indistinct side-cnsps; the marginals are sinuate in shape, and at first distinctly uni- 
cuspid, but towards the outer rows an ectocone may be perceived on many of the 
teeth, the extreme marginals being, however, simply aculeate. 

Fig. 112. — Representative denticles from a transverse row of the Ungual teeth oi L. arboruiii, x 120. 
The animal collected at Christchurch by Mr. C. Ashford, and the palate prepared by Mr. W. Mess. 

The obliteration of the side-cutting points on the median and lateral teeth is an 
attribute of maturity, as the teeth of the young are, according to i\liss Esmark, 
always provitled with lateral points. 

The formula of a Christchurch specimen is 'J 3 + i o-f i + i o + <! p. ^ 105 = 15,435. 

1 Monog. i., p. 365, f. 667. 


Reproduction and Development — The act of conjugation, wliicli is 
said to occur in tlie autumn and spring months, j)roba])ly takes place during 
the night, and does not appear to have been carefully observed or recorded, 
as, except Mr. J. E. Daniels' casual remark that he has seen this species 
suspended in couples during the pairing season, like L. maximus, we have 
no particulars of the details of the act. 

The eggs, which are very similar to those of Z. mn.rimns, are twenty to 
thirty in number, oval in shape, very transparent and clastic, about live 
mill, long and about four mill, in diameter, deposited singly or in clusters 
in the earth, under the bark of trees, amongst rotten wood, and other suit- 
able places ; they hatch in about a month's time, the young being very 
active, and usually of a reddish-violet or Avine colour, with strong and well- 
defined banding on shield and body, and becoming adult towards the end 
of the first year. 

Food and Habits. — Essentially an arboreal species, and though perhaps 
preferring beech trees on account of the wealth of cryptogamic growths 
upon their stems, has been also noticed to frequent the hornbeam, the wal- 
nut, the mountain ash, the alder, the elm, the willow, the ash, the apple, the 
crab, and occasionally has been found even on pine trees. 

Though probably preferring trees, L. arhorum also frequents rocks, walls, 
and a variety of other situations; Prof. E. Forbes records it as being found 
plentifully on bare rocks at an altitude of 1,500 feet on the Connor Cliffs, 
Dingle ; while Dr. Scharflf has received specimens from the Skelligs Rock, 
a large, naked rock, off the Kerry coast, on which there is neither tree nor 
bush, and which during westerly winds is entirely enveloped in a mist of 
spray from the huge Atlantic waves which beat over a great part of it, and 
Dr. .Jeffreys found it under somewhat similar circumstances on the Out- 
skerries, a remote cluster of islands of the Shetland group. 

It has also been noticed by Mr. .T. G. Milne living upon the heather and 
gorse in Western Mayo, and was seen l)y Dr. Schartt' in county Cork feeding 
upon lichens in company with Geomalaciis VKtcii/osHS. 

L. arhorum is a hardy species and hybernates only during severe weather. 
It ascends to over 8,000 feet in the Alps, and in the Pyrenees is one of 
the characteristic species of the zone between ,S,nOO and 4,lt00 feet. In 
Scotland it lias been found on Ben Lawers, in Perthshire, at an altitude of 
more than ;],000 feet ; and in Yorkshire up to 1,800 feet on Buckden Pike, 

Though L. (irborum during wet weather is extremely active in movement, 
especially when young, it clings very loosely when crawling, and often 
falls to the ground at the least touch. It is what is called a hygrometric 
species, and has a great capacity for the altsorption of water, drinking it 
very greedily and absorbing it also by the skin, filling the body cavity with 
Huid, which im})arts to it the peculiar transparent aspect that enables the 
internal organs to be perceived through the skin ; tliis water reservoir is 
said to be a provision against drought, but the water store is exuded freely 
through the skin when the animal is irritated or touched. 

In continued dry weather the reserve of moisture is gradually expended 
and the animal diminishes in size and loses its characteristic translucency. 
At such times the animals show a very gregarious habit, and many indi- 
viduals, with the object of conserving their body moisture, may often be 
found huddled closely together in some sheltered nook or crevice, or they 
may retire deep into the earth or beneath the shelter of dead and decaying 
leaves, coming up to feed only during the night. 


Although naturally of nocturnal or crepuscular habit, yet during or after 
showeiy weather the animals emerge from their retreats, indifferent as to 
the time of daj^, and ascend to the tops of the highest trees, afterwards 
resting immobile during the day in the cavities beneath the branches, the 
armpits as it were, or within the dense tufts of Orthotrichiim phyllanthemum 
and other mosses with which the tree trunks are sometimes clothed. 

Some individuals, however, may for a length of time remain contentedly 
within the sheltering cavities they frequent, and rest for a time partially or 
even wholly submerged in the accumulated water. 

This species, though usually regarded as the mucus thread-spinner par 
excellence, does not really spin so well or so readily as A. agrestis. 

According to Bouchard-Chantereaux, R. Standen, and others who have 
studied the subject, it can, however, especially when young, and when not 
gorged with food or overladen with moisture, spin well and easily, descend- 
ing considerable distances without difficulty, and if necessary can reascend 
by the same thread. 

As a consequence of its adaptation to rocks and trees, the staple food of 
the species has become changed from fungi to the cognate lichens, and, 
according to Simroth, although the contents of the stomach turn alcohol 
green, this is not due to leaves and vegetables, but to the colouring matter 
contained in the lichens. Malm, however, has seen it devouring the small 
fungoid growths growing upon diseased places on oaks, birch, and other 
trees, and many observers have stated that it also feeds upon the soft young 
growth of bark and decaying wood. In confinement they will on occasion 
prey upon each other, and Gain states that out of 1 85 different kinds of 
food, they eat fairly freely only of lettuce-stalk, turnip, and cooked onions, 
and that such mosses, lichens or fungi as he offered were left untouched. 

Parasites and Enemies. — In addition to the enemies of slugs in 
general, L. arborum is, according to Fischer, liable to be attacked and 
destroyed by a species of Oirahus:, which tears open the skin with its man- 
dibles and feeds upon the viscera. 

It is also liable to be infested by an entozoan worm, which Van den 
Broeck discovered living within the vitelline sac of the embryo. 

Fossil. — This species is reported from the Pleistocene beds of Moravia, 
by Spiridion Brusina, and by Mrs. McKenny Hughes from the same depo- 
sits at Barnwell Abbey in Cambridgeshire. Sandberger records it for 
Britain from the Lower Pleistocene freshwater bed at West Runton, Nor- 
folk, and also from our Upper Pleistocene brick earths. 

Variation. — Limax arhorum is subjected to some amount of variation 
in the fundamental colour of the body, and also in the character and dis- 
tinctness of the markings thereon. 

According to Simroth the body markings are constituted by the presence 
of the inner, main, and outer bands, as in the true Limaces, but the outer 
band is usually missing, and the main band when present is generally repre- 
sented by a more or less faintly indicated line. 

The keel is very variable in its length and prominence, and is said to be 
most strongly developed in elevated or mountainous regions, where it may 
extend to almost four-fifths of the total length of the body ; this peculiarity 
is invariably accompanied by the greater diffusion of the darker secondary 
colouring, which may extend to such a degree that the whole body becomes 
uniformly dark or even black, the slightly paler areas at the fore-part of the 
body being due in this as in other species to the lime plentifully deposited 
within the tissues of the body walls. 

^ Fl 


Tliis darkening of tlie body would seem to be a response to the character 
of its ]ial)itat in the mountains or at the more extreme points of its geo- 
graphical range, as it has been noticed in the northern and north-western 
parts of this country, in Transylvania, Portugal, and Italy. In the latter 
country the transition from the ordinary glaucous form to the uniformly 
<lark variety can be traced as the mountains are ascended. 


Var. flava Weinland, Weichth. Schwab. Alb., 1876, p. 27. 

1}()1)V and sniKKL) greenish-yellow. Formnla (M)0 (100. 

Tliongh no leniaik is made in the description, it is juDhahle tliat tlie lateral band- 
ing on the shield and tiie inner bands on the Ixxly will be faintly perceptible. 

Wurtemburg— (Weinland, oj). cit. ). 

Var. g-lauca Clarke, Ann. and Mag. Xat. Hist, 1843, p. 334, pi. 11. 

Ammai, of a i)ale blnisli-grey colour, with a glaucons-shade, showing a slightly 
paler inid-dorsal line, inarj^ined on each side by an indistinct darker line; SHIELD 
Avitli a dark lateral band on eacii side. Formnla 001 100. 

Surrey — A colony of the sea-green variety on an old oak in garden, Brainley hill, 
Croydon (K. Mclvean, Proc. Croydon 8oc. , 1888, p. 147). 

Ireland— (1). J. Clarke, op. cit.). Killarney, Kerry, Sept. 1S84, Howard Bendall. 

Var. subrufa Le Comte, Bull. Soc. Mai. Belg., 1871, p. ixv. 

Liiiiax arl'oruii! var. subru/a Le Comte, op. cit. 

Aiiialia marginata var. mongianensis Paulucci, Fauna Calabria, p. 1880. 
Lchviannia iitaiginata var. pal/ens Less. & Poll., Moii. Limac Ital., 1882, p. 16. 
Lehmannia marginata var. rcquicnii Poll., HoU. Mus. Zool. Torino, 1896, p. 1. 
Linia.v flavus var. lineolatus CoUinge, Zool., April 1890, p. 14.5. 

Bonv colour yellow or ochreous, inner bands bordering the slightly paler keel- 
line ; SHIELD with darker lateral bands. Formula 001 100. 

The var. subrufa s.str. has a rufous-yellow ground with a greenish shade, caudal 
end of body blackish; shield bands dark grey. 

The sub-var. mongianensis is dull ochreous, fuscous-brown on the back, Avith 
paler dorsal-line ; shield witli black lateral bands, and clouded with fuscous-brown. 

The sub-var. requienii is oclnaceous, darker dorsally, with yellowish dorsal-line; 
shield with blackish lateral zones, and minutely spotted anteriorly and laterally. 

The sub-var. pallens is i)ale, with a paler dorsal-line; shield faintly banded. 

The sub-var. lineolata is yellowish, with an ashy-grey dorsal-line and dark- 
brown inner bands; shield with <lark lateral bauds; tentacles yellowish. 

Oxford— Sub-var. linculuUi, Nelthorpe, near Banbury (Collinge, op. cit.). 

Norfolk E. — Sub-var. pallens, from near Norwich, in Br. Mus., T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Gloucester E. — Sub-var. pcdlms. labelled "Cheltenham," specimens in British 
]Museum (T. D. A. Cockerell). 

Derby — Var. .suhnifh, Cliai)el-en-le-Frith, .June 1897 I C. Oldham. 

York Mid W. -Var. subrufa, xMicUley, Aug. 1889 ! W.D.K. 

Aberdeen S.— Var. subrufa, Mony iMusk \\ oods, Sept. 1886 ! C. B. Plowright. 

France — Sub var. rcquirtiii, Vi/zavona, Corsica (Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Belgium — Var. subrufa, plentiful, Bois-de-Lessines (Le Comte, op. cit.). 

Italy— Sub-var. mongianensis, Monte Pecoraro, near Mt>ngiana, Calabria (Pau- 
lucci, op. cit. ). Sub-var. />rt^/t'«.v,Valle d'Antigorio, Piedmont (Less. \- Poll., op. cit.). 

Var. rosea Van den Broeck, Annales Soc. Mai. Belg., 1870, p. 49. 

Liina.x arboiitiii var. roscus Van den liroeck, op. cit. 

Limax arborutn var. coloratiis Van den Broeck, op. cit., p. 5."?. 

Liinax arboruiit var. ncinorosa Haudon, Mtim. Limac. Oise, 1871, p. 19, pi- 4, f- 10- 12. 

Limax agrtsiis var. saxorinn Baudon, op. cit., p. 16, pi. 2, f. 1. 

Limax aitilis Fischer, J. de Conch., Jan. 1877, p- 49. 

Animal with main and inner bauds more or less distinct; SHIELD with well- 
marked lateral band on each siile. Formula Oi-'l 120. 

The var. rosea s.str. has thegrountl colour rosy-white, becoming of a rufous brown 
on the back; inner band broad and well marked, and of a distinctly zig-zag pattern, 
bordered by a rosy-white line ; main band repesented by an irregular and inter- 
rupted row of black spots; shield reddish-lirown. i)aler than the back; the black 
lateral bands do not reach beyond the anterior third of its length; the left b.and is 
margined internally, and that of the right side e.xternally, by a white line. 


The sub-var. COlorata lias a wliitish iiiid-dorsal line, inner band black or deep 
brown ; main bantl dark brown, beset with little pale spots, very irregular and 
sinuate in general character, recalling the bands of L- tnaximns var. serpentina. 

The sub-var. nemorosa has the ground colour redilish-grey, tinged with brown, 
mid doisal line pale fawn, bordered by the deep brown inner band, main band slightly 
paler, a few wliitish marks on the sides. 

The L. altilis is, accoiding to Dr. Uaudon, identical with the var. nemorosa. 

The sub-var. saxOPUm has a rufous ground, with well marked and regular black 
inner band, and broad black main liand ; shield with the black lateral bands 
broken up anteriorly into minute spots. 

Dorset — Sub-\ ar. nemorosa, Chideock, Aug. 1885 ! A. Belt. 

Hants S. — Sub-var. nemorosa, Holmsley, Sept. 1885 ! Vinney Ridge, June 1887 ! 
and Wootton enclosure, C. Ashford. Hambledon, L. E. Adams (Adams & Wood- 
ward, Sci. Goss., March 1901, p. 301). 

Oxford — Sub-var. nemorosa, specimens labelled "Oxford," from Dr. Norman, in 
British Museum (T. D. A. Cockerell). 

Norfolk W. — Sub-var. nemorosa, Lynn, Sept. 1886 ! C. B. Plowright. 

Merioneth — Sub-var. nemorosa, Bont-ddu, Dolgelly, Se})t. 1886 ! F. (i. Fenn. 

Lake Lancashire — Sub-var. nemorosa, Coniston, Aug. 1886! W.D.K. 

Stirling — Sub-var. nemorosa, Balmore, Sept. 1888 ! A. Shaw. 

Main Argyle — Sub var. nemorosa, Dunoon, Aug. 1886 I W.D.R. 

Clyde Isles — Sub-var. nemorosa, Barone, Bute, Aug. 1886 I W.D.R. 

Ross W. — Sub-var. nemorosa, Ullapool, Aug. 1886 I A. Somerville. 

Antrim — Suli-var. nemorosa. Cushendun, May 1886 ! S. A. Brenan. 

Sligo — Sub-var. nemorosa, CoUooney, Sei)t. 1885 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Mayo W. — Sub-var. nemorosa, Enniscoe demesne, Crossmolina, Sept. 1885 ! J. G. 
Milne. Newport and Slievemore, Sept. 1888 (id., J. of Conch., Oct. 1891, p. 415). 

Cork N. — Sub-var. nemorosa. Mallow, Nov. 1885 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Kerry — Sub-var. nemorosa, Killarney, June 1885, W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

France — Sub-var. nemorosa has been recorded from Bramepan in the Basses 
Pyrenees ; from the forest of Hez in the Uise ; from the woods at Saint Saulge in 
the Nievre ; and as Limax altilis from Val de Cauterets in the Hautes Pyrenees. 

Belgium— Var. rosea, Rouge-Cloitre, Brabant; var. rosecc and sub-var. colorata, 
Roumont, Luxemburg (Van den Broeck, op. cit. ). 

Italy — Sub-var. nemorosa. Piedmont and Lombardy (Less. tJt Poll., op. cit.). 

Var. bettonii Sordelli, Atti Soc. Ital. di Sci. Nat, 1871, p. 2ol. 

Limax bettonii Sordelli, op. cit. 

Limax arborum var. decipiens Cockerell, Sci. Gossip, 1886, p. 187. 

Lehmannia marginata var. obscurus Esmark, J. of Conch., Oct. 1886, p. 102. 

Limax arborum var. carpatiais Hazay, Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. Ges., Feb. 1885, p. 23. 

Animal with inner and main bands fused together, but broken up by irregular 
pale spottings, simulating to some extent the markings of L. flarus-. dorsal-line 
pale; SHIELD with lateralbands and a median dusky zone. Formula 0(21) (12)0. 

The vars. bettonii S.St, and (lecipiens are characterized by the fusion of the inner 
and main bands, l)r()ken up, however, by irregular pale spots; dorsal zone whitish; 
shieitl with lateral bands and median zone brownish. 

The \ar. obscura is described as hard and solid, with keel yellowish and dark 
greyish or yellowish-brown back; sides paler, and speckled with paler spots; the 
siiield blackish brown, often witli a handsome yellow margin. 

The var. earpatica is oliscuiely maculate or marbled; keel line pale. 

The var. albomaeulata of Kreglinger may also belong here. 

Cornwall W.— Var. bettonii, Phillack, Hayle, Oct. 1884! Miss Susan Hockin. 

Cornwall E.— Var. bettonii, St. Columb, May 1885! W. Vin.son. 

Hants S.— Var. bettonii, Holmsley station, Sept. 1885 ! C. Ashford. L'nderfelled 
timber, Wootton, in the New Forest, C. Ashford; Hambledon, L. E. Adams (Adams 
i^- Woodward, Sci. Goss., March 1901, p. .301). 

Anglesea — Var. bettonii, Llanfaes, in woods near village, Sept. 1886! J. G. Milne. 

Norfolk E.— Var. bettonii, from Norwich, in Brit. Mus., T. D. A. Cockerell. 

York N.E.— Var. bettonii, Saltburn wood, Sept. 1886! W.D.R. 

Antrim — Var. bettonii, Cushendun, April 1886! S. A. Brenan. 

Dublin— Var. bettonii, Kingstown, June 1886! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Wexford— Var. bettonii, Aklerton, near Kilmanock, Miss Glascott, Sept. 1888! 
G. A. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Mayo W. — Enniscoe demesne, Crossmolina, Sept. 1885! J. G. Milne. 

Waterford— Var. bettonii, old Dungarvan road, Clonmel, Aug. 1886! and Glen- 
abbcy, Sept. 1886 ! A. H. Delap. 


Hungary — Snh-var. carpatira, Kotlina Tlial, Kolilbaclier and Felkaer Thai in 
the rivii>atlnans (Hazay, op. cit. ). 

Lombardy — Var. betfo)iii,nenr Esino, Monza and Milan (Pini, Moll. E.'<ino, 1876). 

Norway — Suhvar. ohscura. Dovre in Hanier Stift, Kingeri^e, Lanrvik, Kragero, 
and Lillesand in Christiansand Stift (Esniark, J. of Conch., Oct. 188H, p. Kti). 

Var. heynemanni Bielz, Fauna Siebeub., LS63, p. 32. 

Limax arhorunt var. i-grina ^Vcinl.^nd, Weichlh. Schwab. .-Mb.. 1876. p- 27, pi. 4, f- 1. 
I.imax arhoruin var. tnaculata Roebuck, J. of Conch., Oct- 1885, p. 375. 
Limax arhor%tiit f. submaculata T. D. \. Cockerell, Nautilus, May 1890, p. 12. 

Animal pale, with ijodv and .shikld hesi>rinkled with black. 

The var. heynemanni s.str. is desciihed by Westeihmd as having back and 
shield niacnlate with small black spots, large ing;v, and a distinct keel. 

The subvar. tigrina has two rows of distinct black si>ots on each side of the 
body, the mid-dorsal line paler than the body colour, an<l a spotted shield in which 
the spots are arranged in Hve or six longitudinal rows. 

The subvar. maculata has the black spots smaller and more numerous; shield 
with slender lateral bands, which also tend to break up into spots. 

The sub- var. submaculata has the spots paler, more nebulous and coalcscent. 

Devon S. — Subvar. mdculotn, Culverhole Point, Aug. 1892. L. E. Adams. 

Pembroke — Subvar. vuiriilata, Pembroke. June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. 

Clyde Isles — Sub-var. mncuUita, Rothesay, May 1887 ! T. Scott, 

Antrim — Sul)-var. mnruldfa, Cushendun, May 1886 I S. A. Brenan. 

Mayo W. — Subvar. maculata, P>nniscoe demesne, Sept. 188,> I J. (i. ^lilne. 

Tipperary S.— Sub- var. maculata, near Clonmel, April 1888 ! A. H. Delap. 

Waterford — Sul)-vars. maculata and submaculata, near Clonmel, A. H. Delap. 

Cork S.— Sub-var. maculata, Berehaven, May 1893, R. F. Schartt". 

Kerry — Sub-var. maculatct, immense specimens about Killarney, Sept. 1898 
(Stul)bs i^c Adams. Irish Nat., Nov. 1898). 

Wurtemburg— Sub-var. tigrina (Weinland, op. cit.). 

Swritzerland — Sub-var. tirjrina, Berne and Valais (Boittger, Nachtbl. , 1885). 

Transylvania — Var. hei/iicmainii (Westorlund, Fauna Europa% 1876). 

Greece— Sub-var. tiijrina, Bugasi-Thal, Thessaly (Bccttger, J.D.M.G., 1885). 

Var. zebrina Taylor. 

Body grey, inner and main bands distinct, outer band representetl by a series of 
oblique transverse markings, which join the main-band ; SHIKLU with lateral 
bands and dusky median area. Formula 321 123. 

This distinct variety is, according to Siniroth, not very uncommon, and he records 
it as var. tigrina from the Algarve, Portugal ; from Transylvania ; from Neustadt 
in the Bohemian Erzegebirge ; and from Grimma in Sa.xony. 

Var. rupicola Les.s. & Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 16. 

Lehmannia viarginata f rttpicola Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Lehinannia iitarginata 5 alpestris Less. & Poll., op. cil. 

Limax viarginatus var. dianii' Kimackowicz, Beit. Moll. Siebenb., 1884, p- 120. 

Limax marginatus var. niger Scharff, Irish Nat., 1889, p. 260. 

Tliis variety, though occasi(uially showing faint tracings of the characteristic 
markings, is in its extreme development entirely black or deep brown in colour, and 
small in size, with a long and well develoi>ed keel. In this state it is also the var. 
dianse of Kimackowicz and the var. nigra of Schartf. Formula (321 123). 

When immature the animal is brownish with a pair of obscure bands on the back 
and shield, which gradually becouu; clouded over and lost as the animal increases in 
age. The sub-var. alpestris of Less. \- Poll, indicates one of the stages of this 
adolescent colouring, as it retains the paler dorsal line, and the lyre-bands on the 
shield are faintly discernible. 

Shetlands— Sub-var. rr/y)r.s//v'.v,Unst! Fetlar! and Mainland, 1886! R.W.J. Smart. 

Down — Var. ru/iirala, Newcastle, Oct. 1884! H. W. Lett. 

Kerry— \'ar. rupicola, on summit of Reek, alt. 2,4<)() feet, A. H. Delap. Sub-var. 
•nigra, Macgillicuddy Reeks, altitude of 2,.")O0 to 3,100 feet (Schartt' & Carpenter, 
Irish Nat., vol. viii., p. 213). Cahir Mountains, Sept. 1898, R. F. Scharft". 

Saxony— A'ar. diuiHc, heights of the Erzegeberge (Simroth, Nacktschn., 1885). 

Austro-Hungary— Var. dinmr, Negoispitze Mountain (Simroth, op. cit.). 

Piedmont- Sub-var. alpestris, Piedmontcse .\lps (Less. I'll- Poll., op. cit.). Var. 
rupicola. Col dOllen, near Gre.ssoney. alt. 8,250 feet (Less. i"v: Poll., op. cit.). A'ar. 
diatiir, Val di Lanza (Simroth, op. cit.). 

Portugal -Var. (liana-, Monclii(iue, H. Simroth. 

Transylvania— Var. cliana-, Heynemann, J.D.M.G., June 1885, p. 260). 



Geographical Distribution. — Limax arborum is an ancient species, 
and tlierefore has a very wide distribution, and is found from the extreme 
north of Lapland and Iceland to Orotava in Tenerift'e : and according to 
Scharff, has probably been extending its area of habitation since early 
tertiary times, but its range is probably very imperfectly known, as it is so 
freciuently confused with L. ma.rimns and other species. 

It has been reported from the British Isles, Germany, Belgium, Holland, 
France, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Austro-Hungary, Italy, Greece, Den- 
mark, Norway, Sweden, and Russia. 

In the British Isles L. arborum is in all likelihood universally dispersed 
and the gaps at present shown in its range will prolmbly be filled up as the 
species becomes better known. 

Geographical Distribution 


Limax arborum B.-Ch. 

Recorded Distribution 
Probable Range. 


yg J 

iiG. in. 

Channel Isles— Guernsey, Jersey, and Sark (Ansted's Channel Isles, 18G2). 


Cornwall W. — Common on trees in the Trevaylor Valley and other similar 
places (E. D. Marquand, Moll. Cornwall, 1884, n. 4). IMiilhick, Oct. 1884! Miss 
Hockin. Trevidock road, St. Colomb, May 188.1 ! W. Vinson. Penzance, E. D. Mar- 
quand. Var. maculata, Scilly Islands, Aug. 1890! Kev. E. D. Koheits. 

Cornwall E.— Mrs. Whitford's garden bank, St. Columh, May 1885! W.Vinson. 

Devon N.— Lynton, 1898 (F. J. Partridge, J. of Mai., 1898, p. 19). 


Somerset S. — Porlock, Au":. I.s9ii ! I.. E. Adams. 

Somerset N. — On trees ami rocks in (ioltlin, Cleeve and lirockley coonibes, and 
in some of tlie glens ninninj^ np into tlie Mendip liills, near Wells (Norman, Moll. 
Somerset, 1860). IJratton St. Manr (K. W. Swanton, Kat. .lonrn., May 1S'.I.'>). 

^ Cl/ANNEL. 

Dorset — fJl.anville's Wootton, almndant (Dale, Hist. (Manvilics Wootton, 1878, 
p. 384). Weymonth (Damon, (leol. ])ors('t, 18S4, p. L'.'vt). Near tlie carpenter's 
yard, Kast Lnlwortli (Kemlali), and in Clenston wood (Mansel-l'leydell, Moll. Dor- 
set, 18518, p. 4). Snli-var., Cliideock, liridport, Aii<i;. 188") ! A. Uelt. 

Isle of Wight — Tliorlev, Lee Copse and 11am ("opse, near Yarmontli, dnly 1870! 
C. Asliford. San.lown, K. (Jihlis (Forlies \ Ilanley, Brit. Moll., 18.")S, j.. :iS'.)). 'stce|i- 
Inli, A. .1. Hamlirougli ; Uemhriilj^e, A. (J. .More ; and Ivyde, W. Tliomiison, 1841 
(N'enaMcs" Cuide to l^le of \Vi<,dit, 1860, p. 462). 

Hants S. — Common on beech trunks, Wiiuliester, 1883, I>. Tomlin. Ilamldcdon 
(L. E. Adams, Sci. (Jossip, March 1001). Selliorne, .June 1880! W. .Jellery. Type 
and var. mnrii/afd, garden, Christchurch, April 1884! Vinney Kidge, June 1887! 
Mudeford I ]5(>lder\vooil, Aug. 1887 I C. Asliford. Yars. jiniiomso and //rffonii, 
Holmsley and Wootton, C. Asliford, and Hambledon, L. E. Adams (Adams \' AN'ood- 
wanl, Sci. Coss., Mar. lOUl). 

Hants N. -Preston Candover, Oct. 1881 ! H. P. Eitzgerahl. 

Sussex W. — Common in beech plantation. Downs, Katliam, June 1884! Com- 
mon among beeches, back of (ioodwood race stand (W. Jeflery, J. of C., Ajil. 1882). 

Sussex E.— Lewes, Mr. Morris, 1883 (B. M. Oakeshott, 1886). 

Kent E.— TJeech wood, Throwley, Sept. 1877, Miss Ewell wood, 
Dover, Sept. 1801, L. E. Adams. 

Kent W. — Chislehurst and Sevenoaks, Aug. 1887, S. C. Cockerell. Oak copse, 
PMth (Leslie, Q.J.C., 1874, p. 34). 

Surrey— Wray Park, Reigate, (J. S. v'v: E. Saunders, 1861. Warlingham, 1883, 
T. I). A. Cockerell. P.ramley Hill, Croydon, K. McKean, Croydon List', 1883. Xar. 
ncninrnsri, Keigate Hill, April 1889 ! H. W. Kew. 

Essex S. — Weald Hall Park, Brentwood, Feb. 1884! 11. M. Christy. Chingford, 
and Lougliton, Epping Forest, Aug. 1800, H. W. Kew. 

Herts.— Near Watford, Oct. 1883 ! J. Hopkinson. 

Oxford — Abundant in the beech woods on the Chiltern Hills, near Watlington 
(A. M. Norman, Zool., 1853, p. 4126). Plentiful at O.xford, Swincomb, "NVychwood, 
ami Charlbnry ; fairly common at Chipping Norton ; uncommon at Banbury 
(Collinge, Conch., 1801, p. 12). Sub-var. ncmnrosa, specimens from Dr. Norman, 
labelled "Oxford," in British Museum (T. D. A. Cockerell, 1801). Sub-var. llticu- 
lata, Nelthorpe near Banbury (Collinge, Zool., Apl. 1890, p. 14.5). 


Suffolk E.— Rare at Mendlesham andWetheringsett(:\Iayfield, J. of C. , Apl. 1903). 

Norfolk W. — Sub-var. nonorosa, Lynn, Sept. 1886! C. 15. Plowright. 

Norfolk E. — Catton and Thorpe Toil-Bar (J. B. Bridgman, Norf. and Norw. 
Trans., 1871). Beech trees, Wliitlingliam ^^'oods, and on willows at Eaton (Pearce 
\- Maylield, J. of C, July 1804). Holt, June 1803 ! T. Fetch. A'ars. dccij)ir/i.s and 
pnlkn.i, specimens from Is'orwich in British Museum (T. D. A. Cockerell, 1801). 


Northampton — Rockingham Park, May 1806! and Dane's Camj), Northampton, 
Nov. 18!((i, L. E. Adams. Flettcm (.\. W. Nicliolls, J. of C, Apl. 1884). 

Monmouth— Chepstow and Tintern Abbey, Aug. 1892, L. E. Adams. 

Gloucester E.- Cooper's Hill, Cheltenhaiii, Ai>l. 1866 ! Stroud, Mcli. 1884 ! E. J. 
Elliott. \iu: jiii//nis\ Cludtcnliam, specimens in Ibit. .Mils. (T. D. A. Cockerell). 

Gloucester W. Plentiful on beeches near Stroud, Oct. 1883! E. .1. Elliott. 

Hereford — Bishopswood N'icarage, Ross, June 188,>! K. W. J. Smart. Doward 
Hill (Boycott, So. (ioss., April 1892, p. 78). JJackbury Hill, I'.oycott vV: Bowell, 1899. 

Worcester — King's Norton, Oct. 1884 ! J. Madison. Yardley I Creet ! and Sare- 
liole 1 W. Nelson. Droitwich, autumn, 1882, E. B. Fairbrass. 

Warwick — Bentley Heath, near Knowle, Jan. 1873! W. Nelson. Ingon (Iiange 
gardens, near Stratford-on-Avon, Sept. 1884 I R. J. Attye. Timber yard, Sutton 
Col.ltield, H. Overt<m, 1003. 

Stafford— Walls, Stafford Castle, Oct. 188.5! Cannock Chase, ^Nlilford, June 1886 ! 
and Coppeiiliall, L. E. Adams. Yardley an<l llarborm> (Tve, ()..).{'., Mav 187.5, \^. 68). 
Rosehill, Cheadle, June 1888 ! Alton "Castle, Feb. 1800 "l and Meaford', near Stone, 
J. Pi. P.. .Maselield, 1002. Leek and Kingsley, Sei)t. 188.5, T. D. A. C<.ckeicll. 

sorr/{ WALES. 

Glamorgan— CardiH' (Wotton, Brit. Assoc. Hdbk. , 1801 ). LlandaH" (id. , J. of C, 
Apl. 1886). Vars. nemorosa axiA macitlata, Aberkenlig, Aug. 1890! CI. K. CJude. 


Pembroke— Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. St. David's, July 1891, J. B. 
Morgan. Not uiicoinnion on mossy rooks on Nortli Cliff, Tenhy, on ash trees, Ceme- 
tery lane, and on beech trees. Penally (A. C. Stubbs, J. of Conch., July 1900, p. 322). 
Sub-var. maculata, Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. 


Montgomery— Under stones, Guilslield, Nov. 1888! Forden, June 1886! under 
log, Welshjiool, June 1888 ! and (Jungrog dingle (J. lUckerton Morgan). 

Merioneth — Harmouth, Aug. 1S84 I John Hopkinson. I'ale, Corwen, May 1887! 
T. Ruddy. Sub-var., Jjont ddu, Sept. 1886! F. (J. Fenn. 

Carnarvon— Under waterfall, Aber, Aug. 1883! Jolin Hopkinson. Trefriw, July 
1883 ! W.D.R. Criccieth, May 1887 ! W. Cash. Fine in churchyard, Dwygyfylchi, 
R. D. Darbishire. Llanberis (T. D. A. Cockerell, Nat. World, March 1887). 

Denbigh— IJeechwoods near Llanrwst, July 1883 ! W.D.R. Creat ()rnie's Head, 
Jan. 1888, L. E. Adams. Oak copse, Bont-ddu (F. G. Fenn. J. of C, July 1887). 

Anglesey— Var. bcttonii, Llanfaes, Sept. 1886 ! J. G. Milne. 


Lincoln S. — Careby wood, Grantham, June 1903 ! E. A. Wood ruffe-Peacock. 

Lincoln N. — Near Louth, Oct. 1885 ! R. W. CJoulding. Ulceby-with-Fordington, 
Oct. 1889! J. B. Davy. Well Vale, Alford, Sept. 1889 ! ALaltby wood, and wall 
along Lincoln road, near Louth, Apl. 1886 ! W.D.R. Var. bctt'onii, Jennv wood, 
Loutii (H. AV. Kew, Nat., March 1886). 

Notts. — Southwell, Sept. 1892! C. Oldham. Sparingly, Thrnmpton, and abun- 
dant on trees, etc., at Higiilield House; common on the Tottle Brook bridge, at the 
base of the Beeston Hill (E. J. Lowe, Conch. Notts., 1853). Cresswell crags and 
Tollerton, April 1884! and Nottingham Castle rock, C. T. Musson. Wilford, etc. 
(Dodd & Musson, Nott. Moll., 1881, p. 5). Tuxford, Pleasley, Mansfield, Southwell, 
etc., C. T. Mnsson. Haughton (W. A. Gain, Brit. Nat., Nov. 1893, p. 226). Wel- 
beck, etc. (Lowe .& ISrusson, Mid. Nat., Aug. 1879, p. 199). 

Derby- Pleasley Vale, April 1884 ! C. T. Musson. Winster, alt. 650 feet, June 

1885 ! H. Milnes. Chce Dale, near Buxton, Sept. 1885 ! J. G. INIilne. Type and var. 
nemorosa, between Hathersage and Bakewell, 1889 ! and var. nc niorosaj Aahhourne, 
Aug. 1889 ! L. E. Adams. Var. subru/a, Chapel-en-le-Frith, June 1897 ! C. Oldham. 


Cheshire— Mere Park, Knutsford, Oct. 1885 ! J. G. Milne. Numerous at Upton, 
1852; occasionally at "sugar" on trees, at Rainhill (Higgins, Liverpool List, 1891). 
Congleton, Sept. 1885, T. D. A. Cockerell. Ashley, .L G. Milne, Nat., Aug. 1887. 
Var. bcttonii, Capesthorne, Aug. 1894 ! C. Oldham.' 

Lancashire S.— Botanical Gardens, INLanchester ! J. R. Hardy. Northenden lane, 
Didsbury, 1860 (J. Hardy, Manchester List, 1865, p. 34). Knowsley, near Liveriwol, 
1893 (W. E. Collinge, J.' of Mai., June 1893, p. 148). 

Lancashire Mid — Alder trees near the jiver Hodder, at Chaigeley Manor, near 
Clitheroe, and at Corliy Castle, near Lancaster, E. J. Lowe. 


York S.E.— Sleilmere, Aug. 1891 ! F. W. Fierke. How.sham Woods, Sept. 1889 ! 
W.D.R. Kirkhan) Abbey ! (A. H. Taylor, Nat., Nov. 1889). 

York N.E.— Skelton Beck Valley, Saltburn, May 1887 ! and Kirkleatham, Sept. 

1886 ! W.D.R. Hawnby, near Tldrsk, 900 feet alt., J. G. Baker; and near Feliskirk, 
(!. R. Baker (J. H. Davies, Nat., 1855, p. 134). Rye Bridge, Rievaulx, July 1884 ! 
Pickering Castle Hill, July 1886 ! and Duncombe Park, Helmsley, July 1885 ! 
W.D.R. Scarborough, W.Bean (Theakston's Guide to Scarborough, 1871, p. 176). 
Hayburn Wyke, Aug. 1894! F. W. Fierke. Kilton Castle, April 1889 ! B. Hudson. 
Ingleby Greenhow, Sept. 1890 ! J. HaMell. Coxwold, Sept. 1892 ! W.D.R. Middles- 
brough, Baker Hud.son, Sci. Goss., Nov. 1886, p. 2.59. 

York S.W.— Roche Abbey Woods, April 1884! W.D.R. Common, Cubley 
Wood, May 1890, L. E. Adams. Haw Park and Ferry Bridge (J. Wilcock, Twelfth 
Report Wakefield Nat. Soc, 1883, p. 28). Saltaire, Nov. 1886! H. T. Soppitt. Not 
common, Calverley Wood ; Idle ; Cottingley and Se\ en Arches, near Bingley (Sop- 
pitt & Carter, Nat., 1888, p. 97). Field, near Wellhead, Halifax, J. E. Crowther. 
Endclitte Wood, SheHield, May 1893 ! C. Oldham. Sub-var. nemorosa, Rose Hill, 
Penistone, July 1889 ! L. E. Adams. 

York Mid "W.- Pateley Bridge, May 1882! W. Storey. Glasshouses! road- 
sides, near Gouthwaite Hall ! and Ripley! May 1886, AV.D.'R. (Jordale Scar, .July 
1877 ! Ingleton ! Bolton Abbey, 1874 ! and TlireshHeld, 1882! W. Nelson. Lime- 
stone scars on liuckden Pike, alt. 1,800 feet, May 1886 ! W.D. R. Airton, Oct. 1883 ; 
Denton Park, 1S90, H. T. Soppitt. Mason Plain", Grassington, Sept. 1900, F. Rhodes. 
Shireoaks Wood, Tadeaster, F. G. Binnie, 1880. Harewood Park walls! Alwoodley, 
Oct. 1882! Scarcroft ! and Cock Beck Bridge, Garforth, 1870! W. Nelson. Varieties 
subru/a and nemorosa, Mickley, abundant, Aug. 1889 ! W.D.R. 


York N.W. — Bowes Cnstle Keep! Tvelet Biiflffc! Tliw.aito ! fiunnersidc (lilll 
.Inly lS84,;ui(l iicar Wood House, Arki'iif^Mitlidiili', Au<i. ISS.")! W.D.K. East Wittoii, 
S('|.l. 1.S77 ! W. Nelson, llolton Castle, Aiij,'. LSS2 ! IJaiik Wood, Seiiierdale, July 
1SS4 ! a!i.l Wliittiel.l (iill Woods, June 1884 ! W.l). R. Stavcley Church roof, Feb. 
1888 ! E. P. Knuhley. Sedher-di, 18!»4 1 W.D.I!. 


Durham — Woo Is at AVidsinuiiam and Sliotlev lirid^'e, W. r.a<'kliouse (.Mder's 
Nortliunili. and Dm ham ( "at., 1S4S). Cauldron Snout, July 1884 :^^■. D. It. .MidiUeton- 
in-Teesdale, June 1884! liaker Hudson. 15arnard Castle (E. J. Lowe, 188o). 

Northumberland— Stockslield-on-Tyne, May 1885! H. E. Craven. West Wood- 
burn, Oet. 1887, K. Howse. 

Cheviotland— Howick Woods, R. Enibleton (Alder's Northunib. and Durham 
Cat., 1848, p. !■_'.")). Dean above Akeld, May 18."v2 ((;. Johnston, I'roc. Berwick Nat. 
Club, 18o2, p. 89). Abundant on old wall, Akeld near Wixder, Sept. 1887 1 R. Howse. 


Westmorland and Lake Lancashire — Coniston, Oct. 188(5 IW.D.R. Conistcm 
Uld Man, alt. 2,600 feet, July 1887, ami Ambleside, April 1890, S. C. Cockerell. 

Cumberland— Carlisle, June 1880 ! J. Madison. Scales, Sept. 1890 ! Brundholme 
Wood, Keswiek, Oct. 1890 ! J. Hawell. 

Isle of Man — Swarmed on the walls alonj^' upper road from Port Erin to Port 
St. Marv, June 1881 ! L. E. Adams. Near Nunnery, Douglas, July 1880! W. Nel.son. 
Peel, Aug. 1894, R. Cairns. 

SCOTLAND. WEST lowlands. 

Ayr — As common as in Trelaml (Thompson, Report P.rit. Assoc, 1848, p. •2.14). 

Renfrew — Near old castle, Inverkip, Creenock, Aug. 1886! W.D.R. Cloch 
and other places (T. Scott, Greenock List, 1880). 


Peebles Roadside walls, east of Walkerburn, Aug. 1880 ! AV. D.R. West Linton, 
Sept. 1893, W. Turner. Cadeniuir, near Peebles, JuTv 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Selkirk — Var. near Selkirk, Oct. 1890 ! W. F'vans. 

Roxburgh— Walls of :Mel rose Abbey, Aug. 1880! W.D.R. 

Berwick Fans, near Earlston, Oct. 1883! R. Renton. Redpatli, near F^arlston, 
Aug. 1880 ! W.D.I!. F^yemouth, Sept. 1895, W. Evans. Type and sub- var. ncnio- 
rosa, Coldingham, Sei)t. 1890 I W. Evans. 

Haddington— Bass Rock, J. McMurtrie, Dec. 1888. Tyninghame, Sept. 1894, 
Yester, Sejit. 1896, Aberlady, Sept. 1889 ! and var. alpc.stns. North Berwick Law, 
Sept. 1890, W. Evans. 

Edinburgh -Wallyford. Aug. 1886! W.D.R. Salisbury Craigs, Sept. 1888, T. 
Scott. Penicuik Wo(')ds, Oct. 1896: Pentland Hills, 1890; I)regh(un Woods, 
Sept. 1889! Colinton ! Caroline Park, near (Jranton, Nov. 1890 ! Balerno and Bave- 
law, witli snb-var. ncmorostt, April 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Linlithgow — Fairly common on rocks and under the bark of trees, about Bo'uess, 
Linlithgow, etc., R. (^lodfrey. Cariblier (;lon, March 1892, W. Evans. 


Fife and Kinross —Aberdour, Nov. 1880! A. Somerville. Falkland, Aug. 1895; 
St. Andrews, .luly 1890 ! Burntisland and Charlestown, Feb. 189(i, W. Evan.s. Var. 
)icmorn.s(i, St. Andrew's Bay, May 1889 ! E. E. Prince. 

Stirling— Ben Lomond, Aug. 1892, W. M.Webb. Polmont, Aug. 1890! W. Evans. 
Tvi)e and sub-vai'. iicmorosd, C<ainbusl)arron, July 1894 ! A. McLellan. 

■ Perth S. and Clackmannan- P.ridge of Allan, Feb. 1898; Aberfoyle, April 1892; 
Bali|uhidder, Sept. 1!MI2; and Callantler, Ai)ril 1892 1 W. Evans. 

Perth Mid— On Ben Lawers, alt. 3,000 feet (F. P.uchanan White, Scottish Nat., 
1873, ]>. ]M). Perth, Sept. 1884, Howard Bendall. (Jlen Tilt, May 1885! H. Coate.s. 
Loch Tav side, April 1887! J. E. Somerville. Bri<lge of Loch Tay, E. J. Lowe. 

Perth N.^Var. n/jnsfri.s- s.str., Blairgowrie, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Forfar— Montrose, July 1884! W. Duncan. Den of Airlie, Sept. 1886! C. B. 

Kincardine — Sub-var. vrmorosa, Banchory ! W. F^vatis. 

Aberdeen S. — Comnum, Old Aberdeen, May 1842 (.Macgillivrav, ^loll. Aberd., 
1843). Den of Leggart (J. Tavhu-, Zool., 1 8.53, "p- 8878). Drum Wood.s, Oct. 1880! 
and var. .siilintfa and type, Mony .Musk Woods, Sept. 1886! C. B. Plowright. 

Banff— Ballindallocli, May 1891 ! W. Evans. \'ar. (il)irstris s.str., Glenfid<lack, 
July 1891 ! (;. Cordon. 

Elgin— Birnie, 1853 (C. (lordon, Zool., 1854, p. 44.53). Elgin. McAndrew Coll., 
Cambridge (A. H. Cooke, J. of C., Oct. 1882). Cromdale, Aug. 1891 ! W. Evans. 
Sub-var. lumorosn. Castle Roy by Nethy Bridge, Aug. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Easterness - Kincraig by Kingussie, Aug. 1889! W. Evans. 


. Main Arg-yle— Dunoon, Anj?. 1886 ! W.D.R. Oban, W. H. Heatlicote. 

Clyde Islands— Rothe.saj-, Bute, May 1SS7! T. Scott. Arran, April 1887! J. E. 

Cantire— Oltl c-a'^tle, West Loch, Taibert (T. Scott, J. of Conch., July 1886). 
Ebudes S. — Mr. Thompson found it on Islaj' (Forbes i*l' Hanley, Brit. Moll., 1853). 
Ebudes Mid— lona, Sept. 18891 J. E. Somerville. AUt-na-Searmoin Glen, Salen, 
Mull, June 19001 W.D.R. 

Ebudes N.— Eigg, Aug. 1888 ! J. McMurtrie. 

Ross W.— Ullapool, Aug. 1886! A. Somerville. Loch Carron, Nov. 1886! J. E. 

Sutherland E. — Blue Rock and Golspie Burn, Brora, June 18841 W. Baillie. 
Sutherland W.— Stoer, Oct. 18S6! J. E. Somerville. 
Caithness — Dunbeath river. May 18841 W. Baillie. 

Shetlands— Unst, Fetlar, and Mainland, Aug. 1886 I R. AV. J. Smart. Out- 
skerries (Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., i., p. 136). 


Derry— Coleraine, moderately common, Nov. 1883! L. E. Adams. Balljnagard, 
June 1891', D. C. Campljell (R. F. Scharff) 

Antrim — Large at Giant's Causeway, R. D. Darbishire. Whitehall, Brough- 
shane, June 18861 S. A. Brenan. Rathlin Island, May 1897, L. E. Adams. Armov, 
R. Welch. Murlough Wood, Ballvcastle (R. Standen. Irish Nat., Jan. 1897). 

Down— Cultra, Dec. 1891, R. F. Scharff. Crawfordsburn, May 1902 1 U. Welch. 

Tyrone — Strabane, A. H. Delap. Type and sub-var. ;iewioro*a Kaneswood, near 
Auglinacloy, July 18861 W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Donegal— About Strabane, A. H. Delap. 


Louth — Type and sub-var. ncmurosn, Piperstown, Nov. 1889 I Miss Sidney Smith. 

Meath -New Grange, June 1892, K. F. Scharff. 

Dublin— Howth. April 1887! Killakee, Sept. 1890; and Aug. 1889, R. F. 

Kildare- Kildare, 1884, J. E. Palmer. 

Wicklow — Powerscourt, May 18861 W. ¥. de Vismes Kane. Woodenbridge. R. F. 
Scharff, Irish Nat, 1893, ]). 149. Common on beeches, Delgany; and under stones, 
Brayhead, July 1891, R. F. Scharff. 

Wexford— Kilmanock, New Ross, Aug. 18881 G. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Kilkenny — Kilkenny, March 1903, P. H. Grierson. 

Queen's Co.— La Bergerie (P>. J. Clarke, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1840, p. 204). 
S[iire Hill Wood and Emo Park (IJ. J. Clarke, op. cit., 1843,"p. 337). 

Westmeath — On beech trees, Knockdrin demesne, April 1892, R. F. Scharff. 


Sligo — Common in woods near Ballina (Amy Warren, Zool. , Jan. 1879, p. 26). 
Plentiful. Rockwood, Lough Gill, Oct. 18861 W. "F. de Vismes Kane. 

Mayo W. — Enniscoe demesne, Crossmolina, Sept. 18851 W. F. de Vismes Kane. 
Slievemore and Dugort, Achill Island, Aug. 18861 J. G. Milne. Moyview, Ballina, 
July 1891 1 Amy Warren. Var. iirinorusa, Newport (J. G. Milne, J. of C, Oct. 1891). 

Galway W, — Roundstone and Kylemore, Mch. 1891, R. F. Scharff. Aran Islands, 
Oct. 1890 (R. F. Scharff, Irish List, 1892, p. 8). Gentian Hill ; Ballyvaughan ; and 
woods by Lough Corrib, July 1895 (R. Standen, Irish Nat., Sept. 1895, p. 267). 

Gal-way E. — Common on beecii and other trees in moist woods, Monivea (B. J. 
Clarke, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1840, p. 204). Tuam Palace demesne (B. J. Clarke, 
op. cit., 1843. p. 337). Common at Clonbrock, June 1896 (11. V. Scharff, Nat., 
Sept. 1896, p. 223). 

Clare 1-T. Rogers' collection, Sept. 1885. munster. 

Tipperary S. — Type and var. maculata, near Clonmel, April 1888, A. H. Delap. 

Waterford— Common (J. Fayle, Nat., Aug. 1858, p. 190). Near Waterford, Sept. 
18831 J. H. Salter. Sub-var. rupicola, near Clonmel, A. H. Delap. 

Cork N. — Common at Blarney, Sept. 1898, L. E. Adams. Sub-var. mandctta, 
Queenstown Junction, Coik, June 1893, R. F. Scharff. 

Cork S. — Common, Bantrj-, Sept. 1898, L. E. Adams. slu" about 
Glengariff, June 1893, H. F. Scharff. 

Kerry — On bare stones and rocks, Connor Cliffs, Dingle, alt. 1,.")00 feet. Prof. 
Forbes. Valentia Island, July 1886 I A. H. Delap. Common, Kenmare anil Killarnev, 
Sept. 1S98, L. E. Adams. Skellig Rocks (R. F. Scharff, Irish List, 1892, p. 8). Var. 
(jhdica, Killarney, Sept. 1884, Howard Bendall. 



Has been recorded from Alsace, Altenliurg, IJaden, Bavaria, Brandenburg, Bruns- 
wick, Franconia, Hanover, Holstein, Nassau, Ponierania, Pyrinont, Rliinelancl, 
Saxony, Schleswig, Silesia, Thuringia, and Wiirteiiiburg. 

Belg^ium— (Heyneniaiin, Jalirb. Deutsch. Mai. ties., 1885, p. 247). 
Holland — (Heyncnianii, op. oil.). 

Found more es|i('cially in the mountain districts, and in the extreme north-east 
section of the country, and has boon rcjiortcil from Aisne, Ariege, Aude, Basses 
I'yiences, riiampiignc Meridional*', Haute (Jaronne, Hautes Pyrenees, Hie etVilaine, 
J,o/ere, Manche, Morliiiuin, Nicvre, Nord, Oise, I'as-de-C'alais, Puy-de-D6n)e, Seine 
Inferieure, Seine et Marne, Somme, Vienne, and the Isle of Corsica. 

Reported from the cantons of Lucerne, Berne, St. Gall, Grisons, and Valais. 

Found in Lombardy, Piedmont, Venetia, Campania, Piome, Modena, and Sicily. 
Also recorded as Aiitdlia iiiaryinata v. inunqianotsis from Mongiana, Calabria. 

Found in Bohemia, Carniola, (lalicia, Hungary, Styria, Transylvania, and Tyrol. 

Spain — Hoy de Barcena, and near Santander, May 1860, E. J. Lowe. A small 
form found on tiie Sierra de Cuadarrama, by von Heyden. 
Portugal — Oporto and Monchique, H. Simroth. 

Thessaly — Bugasi-Tlial in the Ossagebirge (Bccttger, op. cit.). 


Norway— Common tinoughout, and has been found as far north as Kistrand and 
Porsangerfjord in Finmark, 70° 25' ninth lat. It reaches its highest elevation of 
2,800 feet at Tonset in OstenLalen. 

Sweden — Well distributed in Sweden, and has been found .as far north as Hiirje- 
ilalen in Jiimtland, 02" 30' north lat. It is also found on (Jotland and Boinholm. 

Denmark — Not common in the Viborg district of Jutland, but the commonest 
species in the beech woods of Zealand. 

It is also recorded from the Faroes and the south coast of Iceland. 

Only at juesent known from Esthland, Livonia, St. Petersburg, and Finland, 
its most northern locality being at Valamo in Finland, (51" 25' north lat. 

Canaries -Orotava, Tenerifle, W. Moss (Coliinge I'v Partri.lge, J. of Mai., 1899). 

XX^o ^^©xx 



Fig. 111. — Pollard Honibe.ims at Loiigliton, Eppin? Forest, a haunt of 
Limax a}l>or-u»i (photo, by Mr. J. G. Randall). 

Plate XII. 

Distribution of Limax arbonun B.Ch. 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 


Channel Isles 


1 Coruwall W. 

2 Cornwall E. 

iJevou fS. 

4 l>evon N. 

5 I^omerset 8. 
*i ."SuinersKt X. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts S. 

9 Llorset 

10 Isle ol: Wight 

11 Hants S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex K. 


15 Kent E. 

16 Kent W. 
1( Surrey 

18 Essex S. 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 Middlesex 

22 Berks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 


2.5 Suffolk E. 

26 Suffolk W. 

27 Norfolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 Caniiiridge 

30 Bedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 Northampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester \V 

35 iloumouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 


41 Glamorgan 
4'J IJrecon 
4-! Radnor 

44 Caimartheii 
4.) IVuiljrjke 
4'i Laruigan 


47 -Montgumery 

45 ileriouelh 

49 Carnarvon 

50 Denbigh 

51 Flint 
ol Anglesey 


"^3 Lincoln S. 

54 Lincoln N. 

55 Leio. tS: llutld. 

56 Aotts. 
.57 Deroy 


5S Cheshire 

59 Laucashire .S. 

60 l.aucashire.Mid 


61 S.E. York 

62 N.E. Vork 
6J S. \V. York 

64 -Mid W'. York 

65 N.W. Vork 

•I Y.SE 

66 Durliam 

67 Northumb, 

68 Cheviotland 


69 Westniorlauil 
and L. Jjancs. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of Man 





72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 

74 Wigtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Kenfrew 

77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

80 Roxburgh 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddincton 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 


85 Fife k Kinross 

86 Stirling 
~- PertkS.&Clkn 

88 Mid Perth 

89 Perth N. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 Aberdeen S. 



113 Derry 

114 Antrim 

115 Down 

116 Arma;:h 

117 Monaghan 

118 Tyrone 

119 Donegal 

120 Fermanagh 

121 Cavan 


93 Aberdeen N. 

94 Banff 

95 Elgin 

96 Easterness 


97 Westeruess 

98 -Main Argyle 

99 Dumbarton 
ItiO Clyde Isles 

101 Cantire 

102 Ebudes S. 

103 Ebudes Mid 

104 Ebudes N 


105 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E. 

108 SutherlaudW. 

109 Caithness 


110 Hebrides 

111 Orknevs 

112 Shetlands 


122 Loiith 
12:3 Meath 

124 Duldin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexfonl 

128 Carlow 

129 Kilkenny 

130 Queen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 

135 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 MayoE. 

138 Mayo W. 

139 Gal way W. 

140 Gal way E. 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 
]4;j Tiiiperary N. 

144 Tipperary S 

145 W^aterford 

146 Cork N. 

147 Corks. 

148 Kerry 

Probable Range. 
Recorded Distribution. 
Distribution verified by the Authors 
Fossil Distribution. 


The „ 
a field 


Genus AGRIOLIMAX Moich. 

AgrioUmax or field slugs {Ager, 
, and Umax) was established in 
1.SG5 by Dr. (). A. L. Morch, of Copen- 
hcigen, the eminent Danish malacologist, 
with whom it is a pleasure to associate 
the genus. 

The acute discernment manifested by 
Dr. Mcirch in the institution of this genus 
lias been fully justified by the structural 
peculiarities which further study has de- 
monstrated to exist. 

Generic Characteristics. — The 

Agriolimaces in their typical species have 
been shown to be quite shari»ly defined 
internally and externally from the true 
Li maces. Not only is the whole scheme of 
coloration essentially dissimilar in so far 
as there is a total absence of the longi- 
tudinal banding which constitutes *so 
striking a feature in Umax, but the 
arrangement of the gut and the liver or 
digestive gland is on (^uite a different 
plan, as there are but three typical coils 
or tracts of the intestinal canal, as in the 
Hdk'idw, all of which are imbedded 
, T , . , . , . '^'ithin the substance of the right lobe of 

tl e liver winch in this group forms the posterior end of the viscera 
wliereas thelet lobe occupies that position in Umax; the left lobe in 
Agrwlnnax is laid obliquely in front of the crop, and is not directed back- 
wards, as 111 tlie true Limaces. 

Contrary also to what obtains in Umax, where the ingestive or stomach 
tract is the longest, in Agriolhnax it is the shortest of the series; further- 
more, tlie male org^m IS free in the present genus, and not looped between 
the retractors of the upper and lower tentacles, as in Umax; the whole 
arrangement being thus strikingly different in the two groups. 

In addition the viscera have also retained a vestige of tlie previous 
possession by the animal of a dextrally-coiled external shell, in tlie strono- 
spiraf twist to which theinternal organs are subjected, a feature which ha^ 
become completely lost m Umax, as no evidence of a past torsion of tiie 
viscera is now perceptible. 

Geographical Distribution.-The genus J^rw//w«.r has originated 
wit hm, and is natnrally characteristic of the northern hemisphere, its most 
Highly organized species belonging to the western pahearctic region and 
although It IS also found in other and very widely distant places these 
occurrences are probably solely due to artificial transportation. 

As we have_ seen in jn-eceding groups, the more primitive or ancestral 
species still existent at the present day have, by stress of competition with 
the more advanced form^, been expelled from the more vigorous districts 
and are now met with chiefly in the Mediterranean, Caucasian, and other 
regions still more remote from their probable evolutionary area 



Agriolimax agrestis (L.). 

Alice parva', lit rjiirr tjtrgafii)i folia srrtniitur. ct hovto.i infcsttmt cincrei nut fusci 
coloiHs Gesner, de Aquatil. lib. 4, jtp. 254 et 256. 

Limax cincrcus ixn'iuis, iinmaruldtus, 2}>'fif<'»'^i^' Lister, Hist. Aiiiin. Angl., 1678, 
p. 130, tal). 2, f. 16. 

Limax cincrevs immaculctt US h., P'aunaSuec, 1746, p. 366, No. 1279. 





Limax ag^restis L., Syst. Nat., ed x., i., p. 652. 

— rrticulatus Miiller, Venn. Hist., ii., p. 8, No. 207. 

— bilijbatus ViiY., Moll., p. 74, pi. 5, f. 11. 

— tiiiiirata Gould, Invert. Massachusetts, p. 3. 

— pa/fidiis Sciirenk, J^and u. Sus.s\v. Livlaiids. 

— (ludima.r) aijrrsti.s Mo(|./rand., ii., )>. 22, pi. 2, f. 18-22, and pi 3, f. 1, 2. 

— vcranyanus Bour<(., Spicil. Malac, p. 30, pi. 13, f. 9. 

— hcydeni Heyneuuxiui, Mai. \\\., p 210. 

— norvrgiciis Westl., Fauna Moll. Suec, p. 22. 

— (A(jrio/i)nax) fedfsr/ini/ioi Koch i^' Hcyneniann, J.D.M.G. , p. 
Limani/a ob/iijU(( Branl, ('o(|. I'aris, ]>. 118, jd. 4, tl". 5, 6, 13, 14, 
Agriolimax aijrcstis Malm, Skimd. Liniac. , p. 69, pi. 3, f. 8. 

— panormitanus Less. »S: I'oll., Monoj;. Liinac., p. 52, pi. 




, I STORY. — AgriolumLr agj-estis {<igi-esth, 

'- inliabiting fields) is one of the coiinnonest 

aial most destructive of our native species, 

and was noticed and discriminated by some 

of the earHest writei's. 

It was first added to the Britisli lists by 
Martin Lister in 1G74, who distinguished it 
from other kinds by its smaller size and its 
peculiar milky-white mucus. 

It is the most highly organized of the 
genus, and owing to its marvellous powers 
of adaptation and its habit of fretiuenting 
cultivated land, it has been transported to 
almust every lantl where the white man has 
established himself, thriving under its new 
surroundings to the prejudice of the abori- 
ginal species. 

According to Mr. C. T. Musson, Limax 
i)iolestas Hutton and L. Icgrandi Tate are 
both referable to our AgrioUmdX agrestis, 
while Luther considers L. heydeni Heyne- 
niann as another synonym of the same 
species. The Limax weiidandi of Heynemann has also been regarded as 
merely another form of this widely-dispersed slug. 

With this species Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, F.Z.S., of Las Cruces, New 
Mexico, U.S.A., has been associated in recognition of his valuable labours 
in the elucidation of the variation and affinities of the present and other 

Diagnosis. — Externally, A. agrrsfis may be distinguished from its 
congeners by its \ni\e ochreous or whitish body C(jl(nir, sometimes spotted or 
blotched with darker pigment, but more especially by its milky-white slime. 

Internally, it is .sharply separated from all other British slugs by the 
bulky i>enis-sheath, and the variously digitate claw-like tlagellum at its 
distal extremity. 

-^7^^ z>.A.C:3.oVre^. 

Q ^ 




Fig. 117. — Internal 
shell of Agrioliinax 
ag'restis, X 4. 

( Markland Grip, 
Derbyshire, j\lr. C.T. 

spotted with Itrown, 

Fig. 118 — 

Nerve centres 

of A. agrestis, 

showing otocysts 

X 8. 

in Hants S., Mr. 
C. Ashford). 

Description. — Animal liinaciform, with large but flattened tubercles; of a some- 
what unifoiin whitish or pale ochreous ground colour, l)ut sometimes dull lavender 
or other tint, often mottled, speckled or reticulated with brown or black, and at 
times totally suffused with black ; BODV somewhat compressed and keeled towards 
the tail ; tentacles dark coloured ; shield more than one-third the total length 
of the animal, roumled in front and behind, concentric striae not deep, with the 
nucleus on tiie right side an<l towards the rear ; RESPIRATORY ORIFICE with a 
broad usually unpigmented raised ring, which is cut anteriorly by the anal cleft; 
SOLE pale and longitudinally tripartite, the side areas sometimes darker, especially 
towards the tail ; SOLE-FRINGE separated as usual from the body by a furrow, 
containing a row of elongate tubercles, upon which the body tul)ercles rest uncon- 
formably. Mucus plentiful and viscous, often clear when crawling, but becoming 
milky-white on irritation, due to innumerable particles of carbonate of lime. 

Length usually about 35 mill. 

Shell white, oblong-oval in shape, somewhat 
conve.'i above and correspondingly concave below, 
usually rather thin ; nucleus distinct and placed 
towards the left side of the posterior margin of 
the shell ; concentric lines of growth perceptible, 
margin membranaceous. 

Length, 4 mill. ; width, 2;^ mill. 

Internally, the cerel>ral ganglia are triangular in shajie 
especially at the margins, the commissure grey or 
darkly spotted ; the stomato-gastric or buccal 
ganglia with longisli coujuiissure and dark-brown 
connectives ; the parieto-splanchnic ganglia are 
fused with the pedal ganglia, and both display 
short commissures ; the vestigial osphradium can 
be traced as a ridge and channel across to the left 
of the respiratory chamber ; the organ of Semper 
shows well-develojjed inferior lobes. 

The ALIMENTARY CANAL is triodromous, com- 
posed of the stomach tract and tliree intestinal 
coils; the INGESTIVE TRACT is the shortest, the 
CESOPHAGUS is also short, and the voluminous CROP 
of a light-brown colour, thin, and scarcely fur- 
rowed, having the long and much-indented SALI- 
VARY GLANDS adherent to its sides. The last tract 
or rectum lias, about mid-way, a short crecum on 
the right side generally directed backwards, and 
laid upon the ujjper sui-face of the crop. The diges- 
tive GL.VND is of an ochreous colour, the right 
lobe extending quite to the cauilal end of tlie body, 
and in common with the wiiole intestinal mass 
has been subjected to a noticeable spiral twist in 
such a way as to indicate tliat an external shell if 
present would be a dextrally-coiled one. 

ates in the median-line, behind the 
lung, from three or more roots, which 
immediately unite to form a simple 
slender band, and divides usually Init 
not invariably about half-way. There 
is considerable variation in the details 
of the furcation ; usually the BUCCAL 
and TENT.VCULAR branches separate 
at nearly the same point, but some- 
times the slender buccal branch is an 
offshoot of one or other of the ten- 
tacular retractors, or may arise from 
the main-muscle before the tenta- 
cular forking. The buccal retractor 
is always deeply divided in English 
forms, but not usually down to its 

origin or root, as Dr. Simroth states is the case in the German specimens 
23 1103 



Fig. 119.— 
Alimentary canal of 
A . agrcstis, X 2, 
with the salivary 
glands removed and 
showing the rectal 

(Christchurch, in 
Hants S., Mr. C. 

Fig. 12L Fig. 122. 

Cephalic retractors of ^. agrestis, X 2, e.Kemplifying 
the variations to which they are liable. 

P"lG. 120, represents an usual form. FiG. 121, a less 
usual arrangement. Fig. 122, the unusual. 



The RKPRODUCI'IVK ()it(;AN.s liave their oiifiee about two mill, hehind the ri^^ht 
«inyiia((i|(hort' ; the ovo'rKsris is comparatively I'liormous, ami lai<l iijiun tin- ii|i|>er 
.siiifat-e of the <lij^ostivc glaiitl, 
the acini heinj,' li};lit-hr()Wii,\vith 
darker coiineL-tive tissue ; DUC'i' 
short and iutlated, luiH' to ereauiy 
wliite, with a slender VESICULA 
\vith few lobes, and of a lij,dit- 
brown or slate colour ;'Ki;- 
MATODUCT broad above, narrow 
below ; OVIDUCT with aui])k' 
folds, fiee oviduct short, with 
a yellowish j;landular invest- 
ment ; si'KRM DUCT slender 
above, more eomi)aot and broad 
below; VAS DKFKltKNS short, and 
enterini,' penis -sheath laterally 
near the free-end ; I'KNis-siiKATil 
a broad, irregular, and medially 
constricted sac, with narrow out- 
let, distal-end with a claw-like 
digitate gland, which varies 
greatly in size and complexity, 
each segment or digit having on 
its concave side a row of \r.i- 
pilhe. The lower half of the 
sheath contains a conical and 
Heshy sakcobklum or excita- 
tory organ, which is often pig- 
mented at the ti]) ; the r.KTItAC- 


Fig. 125. 

123. Fig. 121. 

General and detailed illustrations of the reproductive 
organs of Ag^rioiiinax a^resi/'s. 

Fk;. 123. — Flagellate penial gland, showing two of the many 
variations to which it is lial)le, X 6. 

Fig. 121. — Reproductive orctans, X 2. a/i.^. albumen gland ; 
eit. atrium, with protractor muscles ; y?. flagellate gland ; 
ot. ovotestis ; n?'. oviduct ; /.jr. penis-sheath ; ;-. penis retractor ; 
s/. .spermatheca ; s/>.d. sperm duct. 

Fig. 125. — Penis-sheath laid open, showing point of entry of 
the vas deferens and the internal structure of the organ, X 4. 
s/'. the sarcobelum or e.vcitalory organ (after Simroth). 

TOK IS a short, l>roail band, 
arising from the lung tloor, to the right of the mid-dorsal line, anterior to both 
kidney uiid pericardium, and is attached, not to the apex, but to the middle of the 
penis-sheath at the same side as the point of entry of the vas deferens ; spkrma- 
TiiECA fusiform or claviform, attached closely to the base of the oviiluct, stem 
.slender, and opening into the narrow and thick-walled ATPvlUM, at the junction of 
the oviduct and penis-sheath. 

The M.VNDiHLK or jaw is crescentic in shape, with 
well and bluntly-rounded ends; it is a milliinetre or 
more in width, moderately arcuate, of a yellowish- 
brown colour, and smooth in texture, but sjiowing 
several distinct darker lines ])arallel with the u))per 
and lower margins ; median l)eak or rostrum not 
prominent, but somewhat acute, its vertical carina 
not Avell marked. 


Fig. 126. — Mandil)le or jaw of 
A . as'irs/is, X 16. (Callander, Perth 
S., I\Ir. .\. Somerville). 

The UNGUAL MEMMUANE of a Perthshire specimen is 4 mill. long, and \l mill, 
wide; the denticles diminishing in size towards the outer margins; median teeth 
with a nari'ow, ])osteriorly-expanded l)ase of attachment, the reflection narrow and 
distinctly tricuspid, the mesocone slender and project ing beyond the basal plate, 
the eetocones well tlevelojied with distinct cutting [)oints ; the asymmetrical laterals 
each have a moderately slender mesocone, the ectocone is also stirongly and acutely 
developed, but the endocone is more or less obsolete, though becoming stronger 
towards the margin, the .seventeenth tooth being distinctly tricuspidate ; the mar- 
ginals are distinctly aculeate, with an inciiiient ectocone on some of the teeth. 

TIh- formula is | <^ + y. + ^ + jyi + i_ <i^ x 118=8,378. 

.9 Q QW (^ »(/ 

Fig. 126. — Representative denticles from a transverse row of the lingual teeth of A. nj^rrs/is, X 160. 
The animal collected l>y Mr. .\. Somerville, at Callander, Perth .S., and the lingual membrane prepared 
by .Mr. j. W. Neville. 


Reproduction and Development.— Unlike its ally A. lewis, which 
ill the course of its sexual development is so markedly pro terogy nous, our 
A. agrestis shows a distinctly proterandrous tendency. 

It is a species easily excited to sexual impulse, and very prolific, multi- 
plying with great rapidity and under favourable circumstances breeding 
almost continuously throughout the summer months, producing numerous 
generations, as renewed intercourse may take place three or four days 
after a period of egg-deposition ; a pair kept in confinement were actually 
depositing their third batch of eggs before the first were hatched, and a 
single pair have been observed by Leuchs to deposit the enormous number 
of seven hundred and seventy-six eggs during the season. 

The act of conjugation usually takes place in the evening throughout 
the whole year, even when the thermometer verges upon freezing point, 
though more freely indulged in during the summer months, and is always 
preceded by a prolonged circular procession, which, through seasonal or other 
influences, may continue for only half-an-hour, or may be persisted in for 
one hour or more; during this performance milky slime is copiously given 
off, forming thick circular patches, one or two inches in diameter, which 
afterwards indicate the spot where congress has taken place. 

Animals seeking to pair, on approaching each other, immediately begin 
the circular promenade, the head of the one animal being laid upon or in 
contact with the tail of the other, the animals gradually getting closer 
together, and stroking and patting each other with the exserted excitatory 
organ or sarcobelum, which is waved about excitedly in a ludicrous manner, 
and agitated in many sportive ways; the animals also fondle and caress 
with their tentacles, or even entwine together the anterior part of their 
bodies, these blandishments leading up eventually to the final consumma- 
tion, which is very transient, not usually occupying more than a few 
seconds, during which period the seminal element, mixed with mucus and 
worked up into a little ball, is transferred bodily, the forerunner of a true 

The eggs are usually round, pellucid, bluish-white, and about two mill, 
in diameter, but vary somewhat in both size and shape, even in the same 
batch. They may be found at all seasons of the year, even in January, 
Van Beneden especially remarking that they are deposited all through the 
winter months. They are placed under stones and rubbish, beneath 
fallen trees, and other moist and shady places, usually in clusters, which 
vary in number from about twelve to forty, or even more, and are said to 
be laid fourteen to twenty days after sexual intercourse, but according to 
Mr. E. J. Lowe, who has kept this species in captivity, only five days 
usually elapse before egg deposition takes place. The hatching occurs in 
three or four weeks' time, varying somewhat according to the weather. 

The young grow very rapidly, doubling their size and weight in a week's 
time, and even growing during the winter months if the cold is not too 
severe, attaining sexual maturity, pairing, and depositing eggs at a very 
eai'ly age ; one pair was observed to breed and deposit eggs in sixty-six days 
from the time of hatching, although full growth was not reached until the 
animals were eighty-two days old. Their life cycle or period has not been 
accurately ascertained, but in a state of nature does not appear to exceed 
eighteen months. 

Economic Uses. — This species was formerly and is even yet in rural 
districts much sought after as a cure for consumption and other diseases of 
the lungs and chest.^ They may be employed in the form of a broth, or 

1 Monog, i., p. 428. 


eaten alive by wliu wish tu uhtuiu all the l)eiietits that may be deriv- 
able from this reputed remedy. 

For tliroat and chest affections a poultice of slugs is also said to be very 
emollient and curative. 

Putuu records that the i)easantry of the Vosges regard A. (tgrestls as a 
reliable barometer, and that the greater viscosity and abundance of the body 
mucus, evidenced by the adhesion thereto of earth, leaves, and other ex- 
traneous substances, is a sure sign of approaching rain. 

Food and Habits. — Ar/rioliiua.r agrei'tis, though essentially a ground 
slug, inhabits a great variety of situations, not only fre<[uenting gardens, 
fields, and hedgerows, but also living in woods and forests, by dusty road- 
sides, in marshy districts, and in the close vicinity of, or even within, houses 
and out-buildings. 

The most curious, though doubtless temporary, habitat, is that vouched 
for by Mr. W. Nelson, who in April 1S(3(J observed numbers of these 
animals crawling freely about beneath the water, at the bottom of Pebble 
Mill Pool, Birmingham ; many of them were a considerable distance from 
the margin, and all were moving about in an ordinary way. 

Its food is as varied as its habitats, as it is a truly omnivorous species, 
nothing edible seeming to come amiss, and when food to its liking is avail- 
able its voracity and ai)])etite seem insatiable ; in such cases it has been 
known to eat the night through without intermission. 

It is exceedingly destructive in the garden, its ravages not being confined 
to any particular i)lant or even to leaves, flowers, and fruit, as it devours 
the roots with almost e(iual avidity ; like Ariou hortensis, it is very partial 
to strawberries, and is especially destructive to peas, devouring not only the 
young shoots, but even the pods. 

In the fields the havoc wrought by this pest amongst oats, clover, peas, 
tares, etc., is sometimes so great as to necessitate the re-sowing of the crop, 
and almost entitles it to a place amongst the locusts, rats, mice, and other 
l)lagues which at intervals devastate the country, and against which various 
prayers and ecclesiastical exorcisms' were formerly employed. The Ritual 
of Paris, a.d. 1712, which includes the slugs amongst the "w^orms," con- 
tains definite formulas for such exorcisms. 

EfHcacious practical means for destroying this slug have been earnestly 
sought for, and many methods have been devised which are more or less 
successful in their object. 

Quicklime, sawdust, soot, tan, ashes, chaff, and sand are amongst the 
substances recommended to be spread over the ground they frecpient ; 
these substances when dry are impassable by slugs, as the multitudinous 
particles adhere to the animals, which vainly endeavour by the exudation 
of fresh mucus to get rid of the annoyance, and ultimately become ex- 
hausted and die. 

Another method is to attract them to a circumscribed spot by sprinkling 
slices of potato, little heaps of oatmeal, cabbage, or other leaves, with or 
without greasy matter spread over their surface. -The slugs are attracted 
by the baits, and rest ui)on or near them, so are readily found and destroyed 
during the frequent visits that must be paid to the traps. 

Although not usually a fungus feeder, A. agrestis will, like the true 
Limaces, at times feed upon various kinds of fungi, poisonous and edible. 
Billet as ediills, Amanitu muscarhi, and .1. jj/tidloides, being especially 

1 Monog., i,, p. IS-j. 


Animal food is also eagerly eaten, this species having been observed 
to devour hop-aphides {Phorodon humid/), may-flies, the young of Succiiua 
putris, etc., while iu America Elr. J. Ford records that a number of .4. 
agrestis, enclosed in a box with several A. campestri:^, immediately set upon 
and devoured their congeners — a veritable act of cannibalism. 

They will also on opportunity feast upon dead or moribund earthworms, 
butterflies, and animals of their own or other species, nor does any kind 
of animal or vegetable refuse come amiss, as even animal excrement pro- 
vides them with some nourishment. 

A. agrestis is a pugnacious and very active species, and on a smooth path 
can crawl two inches per minute, or at the rate of a mile in twenty-two 
days ten hours ; it also slips easily through the fingers_ when grasped, 
owing to the abundance of its thick milky-white slime, which exudes from 
any part of the body that may be touched, this exudation, however, varies 
in abundance according to the animal's necessities: when crawling over 
moist ground the secretion of mucus is not excessive, but when travelling 
upon a dry or absorbent surface, when surprised by the sun's rays, or as a 
defence against enemies, the mucus is more plentifully secreted, and this 
demand under certain circumstances may be so great as to totally exhaust 
the vitality of the animal, numbers being sometimes found dried up upon 
the whitewashed or plastered walls of countiy houses, where they have 
happened to be surprised by the sun's rays when crawling over the exposed 
absorbent walls. 

The plenitude of this viscous secretion renders this species a good 
spinner of the mucous filaments, by means of which descent can be made 
from elevated positions. It does not appear to be sufficiently recognized 
that the phenomenon of thread-spinning is not due to a special secretion 
for this particular purpose, but is merely the slime which w^ould be exuded 
in the ordinary way for the purpose of locomotion, and is consequently only 
the usual slime track freed from contact with the ground or neighbouring 

During descent by means of this mucus-thread, which A . agrestis has 
been observed to produce at a rate varying up to five inches per minute, 
the locomotoiy area of the sole is in active undulatory movement, exactly 
as in crawling, and the suspended animal revolves more or less quickly. 
It is one of the readiest spinners amongst our native species, and can 
descend from considerable heights, and if necessary is able to reascend by 
the same thread. i\Ir. Henry ("rowther once observed a specimen near 
Truro, in Cornwall, descending from the branch of an elm-tree twelve feet 
from the ground, and the slug had descended seven feet of this distance 
when discovered. 

It is the spinning Limax of Latham, but not the Limax filans of Hoy, 
which was described as "Limax {filans) cinereus margine Jlavo," peculiari- 
ties more applicable to some species of Arion. 

A. agrestis is nocturnal in habit, but like its congeners ventures forth 
also during the day if it be dam}) and showery. In dry weather and during 
the day it hides away in secluded spots, beneath stones, under clods of 
earth, in worm-holes, etc., sometimes penetrating six or eight inches into 
the earth. 

It is a very hardy species, only retiring for protection when the tempera- 
ture verges on the freezing point, promptly reappearing at the advent of 
milder weather, and being active through the winter, excei)t during the 
actual prevalence of frost 


Protective Resemblance. — Few observation.s liave been made with 
respect to the protection this sjieeies may derive from simulating other 
animate or inanimate objects, but it has been suggested that there is a 
striking resemblance between this animal and the bloom-sheaths of the 
black poplar {Populns nigra), and also that the pale forms show a marked 
approximation in appearance to the cocoons of the Burnet moth {Zij(j<rna 
JUipeiidiila), this approximation being so close that at a short distance the 
resemblance seems complete ; these, however, are probably only accidental 
cases of similarity, and can scarcely be compared with the remarkable 
examples of protective resemblance due to natural selection. 

Parasites and Enemies. — Though the enemies of this species are 
very numerous, its enormous fecundity enables it under ordinary conditions 
not only to maintain its ground, but to increase in numbers. 

AI. Barthelmy affirms that a minute Nematode worm {Ascarioides limacis) 
is found even Avithin the egg ; while M. Laurent claimed to have detected a 
minute parasitic fungus therein, even before exclusion from the parent slug. 

The active Trichomonas limacis Duj., and the rotifer Albertia vermicu- 
laris are found within the intestinal canal of adults, and the hair-worm 
{Mermis nigrescens) in the body cavity, while at one time A. agrestis was 
regarded as the most probable medium through which the dreaded scourge 
Distomum. hcpaticum was conveyed to sheep and other ruminants. 

Ducks, rooks, pheasants, quail, etc., feed eagerly upon ^i. agrestis, a food 
to which the fieldfare also seems particularly partial. 

They are favourite morsels with the hedgehog, which often scratches them 
out from the crevices or from the roots of grass where they are concealed ; 
while the Blindworm (Anguis fragilis) is said to prefer this slug to any 
other food, and in captivity will take four or five or even more at a meal. 

Fossil. — AgrioUmax agrestis has been recorded in the fossil state from 
many localities, and from many of the deposits belonging to the Post- 
Tertiary periods, but as the specific charactei-s are not sharply defined on 
the vestigial shell, the identifications probably cannot in every case be 
imi)licitly relied on. 

Pliocene. — Mr. J. C. Mansel-Pleydell reports it as a Pliocene fossil from 
Dorset, but it is not included by Kennard & Woodward amongst the 
Pliocene fossils of the south of England. 

Pleistocene. — Kennard & Woodward record it from Fisherton, in Wilt- 
shire, and also from Portland, Dorset, the specimens from the latter locality 
having been identified by Dr. Jeffreys. In Sussex, Mr. J. P. .Johnson 
found it in deposits on the foreshore at West Wittering. In Kent, Ken- 
nard & Woodward chronicle its presence in the Ightham fissure, in the 
na})paway Cavern, at Swanscombe, Crayford, and Erith ; while the Rev. 
li. Ashington Bullen records it from a pre-neolithic chalky-loam dejiosit 
on the Barton Court estate, Buckland, near Dover In Essex, Mr. J. P. 
Johnson has found it in the Upliall brickyard, Ilford, and Mr. Miller 
Christy reports it as common in the Camm Valley alluvium at Cliignal; 
it has been rei)orted from Co])ford, and also occurs in the Pahvolithic river 
drift at Grays, from which place it was formerly recorded as Lima.r soirerbyi. 
Kennard & Woodward state, on the authority of Dr. Jeffreys, that it has 
been found between Upton and Chilton, in Berkshire; and Mrs. McKennj' 
Hughes reports it from the deposits at Barnwell Abbey, Candiridgeshire ; 
ISandberger (Vorwelt, p. 755) vouches for its occurrence in this country 


in tlie Lower Pleistocene Forest bed at Cromer, in East Norfolk, and also 
from the Upper Pleistocene gravels and brick-earths. 

In France it has been found at the base of the Loess, in the Pleistocene 
fluviomarine sand (sable aigre) of Mencliecoiirt, near Abbeville, in tlie 
department of the Somme. 

In Germany, Sandberger reports it from the ^liddle Pleistocene tufa at 
Cannstadt, Wurtemburg ; and Spiridion Brusina cites it as a Pleistocene 
fossil in Moravia. 

HoLOCENE. — Li Kent, this species has been found in deposits at Buck- 
land, near Dover, by Rev. R. Ashington Bullen ; it has also been tabulated 
or recorded for Maidstone, Charing, Darenth, Otford, Greenhithe, Exedown, 
near Wrotham, and from alluvium at Seal, near Sevenoaks, by Kennard & 
Woodward. In Surrey, the Rev. R. Ashington Bullen found it abundant 
up to three feet deep in Colley Pit, Reigate. In Essex, it has been found 
in the Lea Valley, at Witham, Braintree, Raine, Roxwell, Shalford, and 
in the alluvium at Walthamstow, according to Kennard & Woodward, who 
also record the finding of it by Dr. Frank Corner, in Post-Pliocene alluvium, 
at New Park, near the White House in the Lea iMarshes. In Berkshire it 
has been found abundantly in beds of the Kennet Valley, Newbury, by Mr. 
E. Percy Richards. 

jNIr. G. E. Mason, in 1896, found many specimens of the shell within 
Mitchelstown Cave, Tipperary, mixed amongst the fine red earth on the 
floor of the "Long Cave," GOO feet from the entrance. 

In Germany, Sandberger records it from the Loess at Unterdilrnbach, and 
Unterzell near Wiirzburg in Bavaria, and also at Grotzingen near Durlach 
in Baden. It has also been recorded by Pini from the alluvium of San 
Fedele, near Milan, in Lombardy, and by von Ihering in the tufa at Streit- 
berg in French Switzerland. 

Variation. — Agr'toUmax arjrestis, though usually offering a pallid 
colouration, does, under certain environmental conditions, present very 
varied pigmentation, and in this country, according to Dr. Norman, under- 
goes seasonal variation, the individuals though perhaps creamy-white or 
light-drab in the early part of the year, as the summer passes away assuming 
a darker hue, with brown flakes more or less thickly scattered over the sur- 
face, and during the autumn frequently becoming of a rich brown colour. 

The markings to which the species is subject are invariably constituted 
by irregularly distributed dark spots, or blotches, which occasionally more 
or less overspread the whole body, and may at times become accidentally 
ranged into some semblance of longitudinal banding. 

This absence of true banding renders it probable that the various banded 
slugs which have been referred to A. ag rest is by various authors, would be 
more correctly allocated with Lima.v teneUus, L. arborum, or other normally 
banded species. 

According to Dumont & ^lortillet, the pale varieties are peculiar to 
forests and shady places, while those living in open situations are always 
darker in colour. 

The variations in size are usually not very striking, but Mr. L. E. Adams 
has observed that those found on tlie coast always attain a larger size than 
those fre(|uenting more inland localities, and Rev. S. Spencer Pearce espe- 
cially remarked upon the diminutive size of specimens found at altitudes of 
7,000 and 8,000 feet in the Engadine, Switzerland, while Kaleniczenko dis- 
tinguished as var. m/iiiitd the stunted forms inhabiting the Pontic region. 


Tuwunls the coiiliiie.s of its iiatuial niiige A. agrestis usuully i)icseut.s a 
more uiiitbniily dark and, accordinji; to Sinirotli, more i)rimitive colouring 
than in the British Lsles, and it i.s extremely signihcant that this ancient 
garh should be the salient character of the species when living in countries 
beyond and almost encircling our most active evolutionary area, this pecu- 
liar distrilnition rendering it likely that the unicolorous forms at one time 
occupied this area, but have been supplanted by the distinctly maculate 
forms which now predominate there. 

About Tromso and its more northern Norwegian habitats the species is 
usually of an uniforndy i)ale brown ; in southern and extreme south-western 
Europe it assumes a more or less uniform reddish, blackish, or dark-grey 
hue ; while in south-eastern Europe, Asia Minor, and Turkestan, a grey 
form with or without faint spottings is the prevalent tyi)e. 

This remarkable uniformity in colouring is associated with and may be 
in some measure correlated with the presence of a stronger and more ex- 
tended keel, as this feature has been observed in the Norwegian, South 
Euroiiean, Portuguese, and Asiatic s])ecimens. 

Although as far as possible all the names given to the various forms are 
enumerated, and their characters pointed out when ascertainable, yet many 
of them are practically identical or denote quite insignificant variations, 
and are included solely with the object of rendering the account of the 
species as complete as possible. 


Var. albitentaculata Dum. & Mort., Moll. Sav., 1857, p. 10. 

Liiiiax a^rcstts var. albitentaculata Dum. & Mort., op. cit. 
Agriolhitax ax'rcsiis var. all>a Cockerell, Nautilus, Oct. 1891, p. 70. 

Animal with body and tentacles pure white. 

Dorset— Portland, Auj;-. 1886 ! J. IMadison. 

Isle of Wight— (G. Guyon in Venables' Guide to Isle of Wight, 1800, p. 462). 

Sussex W. — Katliani, usually small, July 1884, W. JeHery. 

Middlesex — Bedford Park, Chiswick, amongst Carduii.s nrrensis witii type 
(T. 1). A. ("ockerell, 8ci. Gossip, Jan. 1887). Cluucliyard-liottoni wood, Higligate, 
May 18S!», H. Wallis Kew. 

Worcester— (Jardon, Stourport, July 1888 (Williams, J. of Conch., July 1888). 

Stafford— Fiehl, Statl'ord, Dec. 188,1 ! L. E. Adams. 

Lincoln N. — Glaythoipe, July 1887 ! J. E. Ma.son. 

York N.E. — Farwatii Bridge, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Koehuck. 

York Mid W. — By the walls of Clajdiam churchyard (H. liichard.son, J. of C, 
April 1SS6). Boltoti Ahhey, April 188H ! W.D.ll. 

Lancashire S. — WaJtoii-lc-Uale, June 188!) ! W. II. Iloathcote. 

Durham— Lane near Old Elvet, Durham, April 1884 ! I'.aker Hudson. 

Lanark — Wilderness Wood, Cadder, Aug. 1886 ! W.D. R. 

Dovyn — (Jraveyard, Downpatrick Cathedral, and about Dumlrum, B. Welch. 

Dublin — Under a heap of hay, Baheny (Scharfl', fSlugs of Ireland, 1891, p. .)"27). 

Tipperary S. — Near Clonmel, Ajiril 1888, A. H. Dehap. 

S^weden — Shore of Kiirrstorp Lake, ll()nneby( Wester lund, Alal. laktt., 1866, p. oo3 

Finland— Nykyrka in South Finland (Luther, Moil. Finland, 1901, \\ 48). 

Var. pallida Schrenk, Land u. Sussw. Moll. Li viands, 1S4S. 

Liiiiax pallidus Schrenk, op. cit. 

Limax agrcstis ~i Jilatis Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. Kr.nnce, 1855, ii., p. 22. 

Limax agrcstis S tiictanoccphaliis Moquin-Tandon. op. cit. 

Limax agrcstis var. Jlavi-ctypcus Dum. & Mort., Moll. Sav., 1857, p. 10. 

Limax agrcstis var. atritcniaciilata Dum. & Mort., op. cit. 

Agriolimax pallidiis a immaculatus Less. & Poll., Mon. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 51. 

Limax agrcstis var. all>ii{us Vaniot, Moll. Amiens, 188.S, p. 3. 
AXIM.\L pale and nnspottcil ; smikld often tinged with yellowish. 
The sub-var. melanocephala is greyisii-wbitc, with a lihick head. 
The sub-var. atritentaculata is descrilied as white with bl.ick tentacles. 
The sub-var. albida is greyish white. 

'J'lie sub-var. immaculata is jiale and nnicolourons, witii yellowish shield. 
The sub-var. filans is w liitish, shieM yellowish or ash coloured. 
The sub-var. flaviclypea has the shield yellowish. 


This variety, whicli is the tj' iiical unicolorous foiiu of the species, with the con- 
stituent subsidiary and scarcely separable forms cited above, is abundant and 
generally distributed throughout tlie British Islands, and probably occurs through- 
out the entire range of distribution of the species. 

Var. flavilatera Dum. & Mort., Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 10. 

Li7nax agrestis var. siiccineiis Westerlund, Faun. Europ., 1876, p. 11. 
Asriotiviax agrestis 7 aurata Less. & Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 19. 
Litnax agrestis var. xanthosoma Fischer, J. de Conchyl., 1880, p. 294. 

AXIJIAL with body and shield yellowish. 

The var. flavilatera s.str. is described as having the sides of body yellowish. 

The sub-var. SUCCinea is described as subrufous above and white beneath. 

The sub-var. aUPata has an uniforndy yellow shield and body and black 

Tiie sul)-var. xanthosoma is uniformly amber-yellow, tentacles bluish-brown. 

Lancashire S. — Tyldesley, Aug. 1886, Lionel E. Adams. 

France — Sub-var. xnnthosonut, valley of Mont Dore, Puy-de-Dome (Fi-scher, op. c. ). 

Italy — Sub-var. aurata, Gro.scovallo, Piedmont (Less. tS: Poll., op. cit. ). 

Nor-way— Sub-var. succinea, Christiania (Esinark, Suppl. Norway List, 1880). 

United States — Sub-var. .succinea, Portland, Oregon, H. F. Wickham (T. D. A. 
Cockerell, Nautilus, 1891). 

Var. cineracea Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. France, 1855, ii., p. 23. 

Liniax agrestis 8 cineracea Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Liviax agrestis var. cinerascens Dum. & Mort., Moll. Sav., 1857, P- 10. 

Limax agrestis var. grisea T. D. .\. Cockerell, Nautilus, Oct. 1891, p. 70. 

Animal more or less entirely ash coloured or grey. 

The var. eineracea s.str. is described as greyish- white with ash-coloured shield. 

The sub-var. elnerascens is described as grey. 

The sub-var. grisea is of a somewhat dark grey. 

Lancashire S. — Sul)var. grisea, Know.slev near Liverpool, 1893 (W. E. Collinge, 
J. of Mai., June 1893). Near Prescot, Sept. 1885, T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Dublin — Sub-var. grisea, Rathfarnham (Scharff, Slugs of Ireland, 1891). 

France— Sub-var. cinerascens is recorded for Savoy; the var. cineracea is also 
found commonly almost throughout the department of 'the Ain ; it is commoner than 
the type about Lyons in the ilepartment of the Rhone, and is also found in Haute 
Loire and the department of the Seine. 

Portugal — Conmion in Estremadura, in Alemtejo and in Algarve (Morelet, Moll. 
Port., 184.3, p. 35). 

Greece— Sitia and Canea in the Isle of Crete (Simroth, op. cit.). 

Norway— About Tromso, Groto, and Grono (Esmark & Hover, ]\Ial. Bl., 1856). 

Asia Minor— Magnesia, Brussa, and shores of the Dardanelles (Simroth, op. cit.). 

Var. violacea Gas.sies, Moll, de FAgenais, 1849, p. 64. 

Liniax agrestis j' lilacina Moq.-Tand., Hist. Moll. France. 1855, ii, p- 22, pi. 2, f. 22. 
Limax agrestis var. filunihea Standen, Irish Xat., Sept. 1898. 

AXL^IAL purplish, lilac or slate coloured. 

This is probably the Limax sylvaticm of Draparnand. l)ut some of the details of 
his description are not in perfect accord with the characteristics of the species. 

Somerset S.— Bridgwater, Aug. 1884 '. W. Vinson. 

Sussex W.— Midhurst, 1884, t. D. A. Cockerell. 

Middlesex— Bedford Park, ChisAvick, Dee. 1884 1 T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Stafford- Stafford I L. E. Adams, (iardens, Cheadle, April 1886 ! F. B. Webb. 

Salop— St. ( >swalds Well and Whittington Castle, June 1885 ! Baker Hudson. 

Gloucester E.— Stroud, Oct. 1883 ! E. J. Elliott. 

Gloucester W.— Stroud, Oct. 1883 '. E. J. Elliott. 

Monmouth— Shirenewton Hall, June 1886 ! E. J. Lowe. 

Glamorgan— Llandaff, on Dartylis glomerata, July 1885 ! F. W. Wotton. 

York N.E.— Egt(m P.ridge, Aug. 1885! Baker Hudson. Coxwold and Byland, 
Sej.t. 189-2 (Nat.. 1892. p. .347). 

York Mid W.— Cracoe, June 1891 1 W.D.R. 

Ireland— Rev. B. J. Clarke records the not unfrequent occurrence of this variety 
in Ireland, but does not cite precise localities. 

Down — Graveyard, Downpatriek Cathedral, R, Welch. 


Dublin — Sul)-vai-. jihinihrri, almndaiit on liiL:li i(iatl, Wliitecliurch near Dublin 
(Scliarir, Slu-s of IrelaiHl, 1S91, p. 528). 

Waterford— Near Clonniel, April 1S88, A. H. Delaj). 

Tipperary S. — Near Clonuiel, April 1SS8, A. H. Delap. ("ormaek's f'liapel, 
Cashel. .May ISilS, 1{. Welch. 

Galway'E. ('lonl)roek, June lOOU, It. Weloli. 

Kerry — Suli-var. phnubra, Glengaritt' road, Keiimare, July 18!)8 (Stamlen, Irish 
Nat., Sept. 1898). 

France — (Moquin-Tandon, op. oit.). Counuon at Ares and ri([uey in .\(|uitaine 
(.1. r.. (iassie.s, Mai. Acniitaine, 1807, p. 117). Soutii of .\niiensin the Sonmie (N'aniot, 
Mull. Amiens, 188:^, p. W). 

Greece Sitia and ("auea in Crete (Siuiroth, op. eit.). 

Var. rufescens Dmu. & Mort., Moll. Savoie, LSoT, p. 10. 

Animal with rufous body coloration. 

CheshireMere I'.ank, Knutsfonl, Oct. ISS.") ! J. i\. Milne. 

Galway W. Aran isles, Oct. 18'J0, 11. F. Schartt". 

Greece— Canea in Crete (Siniroth, op. cit.). 

Portugal — .\nioni;st rushes bordering streams or growing in the uioisl plains 
(Morelct, .Moll. Port.', 184."), p. :U). 

Var. brunnea Taylor. 

Agriolimax agrcstis f tristis L. .V 1'., Mon. Lim., 1882, p. 50 (not of Moq.-Tanci.). 

.Animal almost uniformly brown on l)ody and shield. 

Kent W.^liauks of Itiver Cray, St. ^lary Cray, April 188.') 1 S. C. Cockerell. 
llever. Kdenbiidge, Feb. 1898 ! A. Leicester. 

Middlesex— Acton, Dec. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Norfolk W.— (iarden. King's Lynn, Nov. 188(j ! C. P.. Plowright. 

Gloucester W.— Stroud. Oct. 1883 ! E. J. Elliott. 

Stafford— (Jarden, Cheadle, April 1880! F. B. Webb. 

Salop— Oswestry, June 188.") ! Piaker Hudson. 

Radnor— Pen-y-'bont, Nov. 1893 ! F. Hall. 

Glamorgan -P.anks of l!iver Ely, St. Pagan's, :\rarch 1885 ! F. W. Wotton. 

Montgomery — Ftail-wag, June 188") ! JJaker Huilson. 

Lincoln N.— Tothby Farm Tiear Alford, A))ril 1886! W.D.R. 

Derby— P.uxton, June 1893 ! C. Oldham. 

Notts.— IJailway emlianknient, Cohvick, Sei)t. 1884! Beauvale Abbey, Sept. 
1884 1 Worksop, April 1884 1 and Wollaton, Nov. 1884! C. T. Musson. Garden, 
Tu\t\)rd. A^.ril 188.") ! W. A. Gain. 

Cheshire— Bowdon, Dec. 1884! J. 0. Milne. Sale and Northenden, June 188o ! 
C. Oldham. 

Lancashire S.-Whalley, Sept. 1888 ! C. Oldham. Walton-le-Dale, June 1889! 
W. H. Hcatbcote. 

Lancashire Mid— Preesall near Fleetwood, Lionel E. Adanip. 

York S.E.— OaKl.'U, Westwood, Beverley, Sept. 1884 ! J. D. Bntterell. 

York N.E.-P.atlersby near Creat Aytoi'i, Dec. 1884 ! Baker Hudson. 

York Mid W.— Starbotton, May 188(3 ! W.D.R. Pry House near the dale head 
in Nidderdale, plentiful, M.ay 1886 ! W. D.B. Common al)out Harrogate (F. II. Fitz- 
gerald, J. of Conch., Jan. 1889). 

Durham — Durham, .\pril 1884 ! ISaker Hudson. 

Westmorland and Furness— Coni.-ton, Sei>t. 188() ! W.D. K. 

Roxburgh — Bridge over Leader Water, Aug. 1886 ! W.D.R. 

Berwick -Fans near Earlston, common, Oct. 1883 ! R. Renton. 

Dumbarton — Near Duntocher, Sept. 1888 ! A. Shaw. 

Ross E. — Near P.onnr Bridge, Fel). 1887 ! W. Baillie. 

Sutherland E.— Mound Rock, Sept. 1884! AV. Baillie. 

Hebrides — Stornoway, Isle of Lewis, Aug. 18S6 ! A. Somerville. 

Derry— Magilligan and Castle Rock, 15. Welch. 

Antrim— Whitehall, Broughshaue, June 1886 ! Rev. S. A. Brenan. 

Down— Clondutr, Jan. 1898, R. Welch. Cultra, Dec. 1891, \\. F. ScharlV. 

Kildare -Biver bank, Monasterevin, Oct. 1899. \\ Welch. 

Queen's Co. — La^crie (P.. J. Clarke, .\nnals N.H., 1840, ]>. -JO.S). 

Mayo W. — .Vnnagh IJay, Achill Island, Aug. 1886 ! J. (;. Milne. 

Galway 'W.— Aran Isles, Oct. 1890 (Seharff, Sings of Ireland, 1891, p. -)27). 
Koundstnne, .March, 1891, R. F. Seharff. 

Tipperary S.— Near Clonniel, April 1888! .\. 11. Dclaj). 


Italy — Var. tristis Less. »S; Poll., abuut Auronzon near Cadoie in Venetia, at 
Monte St. Elia in Calabria, anil about Palermo in Sicily (Less. »S: Poll., op. cit. ). 

Norway — L'nifornilv pale brown specimens abound at Troniso, 70' north lat. 
(B. Esmark, Moll. Arct. Norw., 1882, p. 97). 


Var. punctata Picard, Moll. Somme, 1840, p. 164. 

Liinax agresiis var. punctulatus Dum. & ^Mort., Cat. Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 10. 
Limax veranyanus Bourg., Spic. IMalac, 1861, p. 30, pi. 13, f. 9. 
Limax agrestis i^ florentinus Less. & Poll., Mon. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 50. 
Limax agiestis var. bimaculata T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Anoial greyish or wjiitish, sprinkled with fine black spots. 
The sub-var. punctulata is described as sprinkled with l)lack. 
The sub-var. vepanyana Bourg. appears hardly to differ from typical 7>«/;f^«^«, 
except in the greater number and smaller size of the spots. 

The sub-var. florentina Less. & Poll, is described as eighty or more millimetres 
in length, and adorned with blackish-brown spots. 

The sub-var. bimaculata is described as possessing pale ochre-brown spots on 
the shield, and greyish ones on the body, with pale-brown tentacles. 

Dorset — Sub-var. himaculota, Parkstone, T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Hants S. — \»x. punctata, Christchurch, Nov. 188.3 ! C. A.shford. 

Worcester — Var. punctata, garden, Stourport, July 1888 (Williams, J. of Conch., 
July 1S89). 

Pembroke — Var. punctata, near Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. 

Notts. — X&v. p)unctata, garden, Tuxford, Sept. 1885 ! -W. A. Gain. 

Dublin— Sub-var. himaculata, plentiful in garden, Leeson Park, Dublin, in 
November (Scharff, Slugs of Ireland, 1891, p. 527). 

France— In the departments of the Ain, Haute Loire, and the Seine. Sub-var. 
veranyana in shady places of the valleys throughout the mountain chain in the 
Alpes Maritimes. 

Italy — 'tixih-y&r. florentina was found by [Nlarchese Paulucci, at Castellonchio, at 
Novoli, and at Legnaia near P'lorence (Less. & Poll., op. cit.). Sub-var. veranyana. 
is chiefly found about Genoa (Bourg., op. cit.). 

Var. reticulata Mliller, Verm. Hist., 1774, ii., p. 10. 

Limax reticnlaius Miiller, op. cit. 

Limax agrestis var. i) F6rus.sac, Hist., 1819, pi. 5, f. 7. 

Limax agresiis \ sylvaticus Moq.-Tand., Hist. -Moil. France, 1855, p. ii., p. 23, pi. 3, f. 2. 

Limax agrestis £ obscurus Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Liviax agrestis var. subreticiilatus Dum. & Mort., Cat. Moll. Sav., 1857, p. 10. 

Limax agrestis var. maculattis Dum. & Mort., Cat. Moll. Sav., 1857, p. 10. 

Agriolimax pallidus fi /usconotatus L. & P., Men. Liinac. Ital., 1882, p. 51, pi. 1, f. 6. 

AxiMAL with a variable ground tint, with irregirlar dark spots and interstitial 

The sub-var. sylvatica is described by Moquin-Tandon as of variable ground 
colour, with irregular spots, the head often of a clear brown. The var. ?? of Ferussac 
is quoted as .synonymous. 

The sub-var. maculata is described as irregularly spotted. 

The sub-var. subpeticulata is described as having the interstitial lineolation 
more diffuse. 

The sub-var. fusconotata Less. & Poll, has brown spots, or is subreticulate upon 
a i^ale ground colour. 

The sub-var. nigricans Westerlund is described as grey, with somewhat coal- 
escent black spots and dark tentacles. 

The sub-var. obseura is described as reddish with brown spots. 

The var. reticulata and its sub-varieties reallj' represent the most prevalent type, 
being probably found in every locality where the species exists in the British Isles. 

Var. nigra Morelet, Moll. Porb., 1845, p. 34. 

Limax agrestis a, niger Morelet, op. cit. 

Limax agrestis \ar. nigrescens Colbeau, Mai. Belg., 1859, p. 7. 

Agriolimax panormitanus Less. & Poll., Moil. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 52, pi. 1, f. 5. 

Limax agrestis var. azorica Ckll. 

Animal entirely or almost entirely black, the colour sometimes invading the 
side areas of the sole, as in Limax cinereo-niger, but the black pigment may be 
discharged by immersing the animal in liciuor potassa?, the bodj' then becoming of a 
rich brown colour. 


Tlie sulivar. panormitana 1>. t^: I'. Witleis externally only in tlie colouring; tend- 
ing to oli\e-l)ioNvn, and internally is said to show a more digitate penial gland. 

Hants N.— IVeston Candover, Oct. 1886 ! H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Sussex W.— Rathani, Ai)ril 1889 ! W. Jeffery. 

Gloucester E.— Stroud, March 1884 ! E. J. j:"lliott. 

Gloucester W.— Stroud, Oct. 18S:? ! H. ,1. Elliott. 

Notts. — Ivoadsides, Mapjicrley, .May 188.1 ! and Beauvalc Abbey, Sept. 1884 ! 
C. T. Musson. Garden, Tuxford, June 1888 I A\'. A. (Jain. 

Stafford— Gardens, Cheadle, April 1880 ! E. B. Webb. Croxden Abljcy (J. R. iJ. 
Maselield, Staffordshire List, 1902). 

Derby— Clifton, June 1889, E. E. Adams. 

Radnor— Peii-y-lmnt, Nov. 1903! F. Hall. 

Merioneth— (iardens, I'alc, Corwen, Mav 1887 ! T. Ruddy. 

Pembroke— North Ciill', Tenby (.y. G. Stubbs, J. of Conch., July 1900). 

Lancashire S. — Kuowsley near Liverpool (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., June 1893). 
Farington, June 1890 ! W. U. Heathcote. 

York S.E. — Pansy-beds in garden, Westwood, Beverley, May 1884 (J. D. But- 
terell, J. of Conch., Jan. 1883). 

York N.E.— Egton Bridge, Aug. 188.")! Baker Hud.son. Skelton Beck Valley, 
near Saltburn, ^Lay 1887 ! and roailsides. Haskelf, Oct. 188'2 ! W.D.R. 

York S.W.— Garden, llolmlirtli, Jan. 188,") ! H. E. Craven. Garden, AVakefield, 
Jan. 188.') ! J.Wilcock. Bottoms, Heckmondwike, :\Ich. 1903 ! T. Castle. Apperley 
Bridge, and in gardens near Peel Park, Bradford (Soppitt tlv Carter, Nat., 1888, p. 97). 
Penistone (L. E. Adams, Nat., Oct. 189.'}, p. 31.")). 

York Mid W. — Wood .near Tadcaster, F. (i. Binnie (J. Darker Butterell, J. of 
Conch., Jan. 1883). Near Manchester Hole, Nidderdale, July 1886 ! Kettlewell, 
May 1886 ! and al>un(!autat top of Greeidiow Jlill, Wharfedale, April 1887 ! W.D.R. 

York N.W.— Bolton Castle, Wensleydale, May 1888 ! W.D.R. 

Durham -Durham, May 1887 ! Rev. JEI. E. Fox. 

Wigtown— Springbauk near Stranraer, Sept. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Haddington —Dirleton Common, North Berwick, Se}it. 1890 ! \V. Evans. 

Antrim— Cave Hill, near Belfast, 1893, R. Welch. 

Leitrim — Drumshambo, Dec. 1901, J. Welch. 

Waterford— Near Clonmel, April 1888, A. H. Delap. 

Belgium — Yar. nif/rrscrti.s, Brussels (Colbeau, Mai. J>clg., 18.j9, p. 7). 

Spain Var. panormitcuia, Gibraltar (Simroth, op. cit.). 

Portugal— Var. niqra, common in Estremadura, in the Alemtejo, aiul in Algarve 
(Morelet, Moll. Port.,' 184.1, p. 34). 

Italy — \m\ junionnitaiia, Palermo, Sicily (Simroth, ojt. cit.). 

Spain — (Jibraltar (Sinnoth, op. cit.). 

Greece — Var. jxituD-iiiitfina, Canea in Crete (Simroth, op. cit.). 

Azores — The lilack form of tliis si)ecies, the var. pcinnnnifniui of Simroth, is 
found above tlie zone of cultivation, and has been distinguished as var. azurica by 
Cockereil, to emphasize the widely distant place of its evolution, but as no differ- 
ences are known, either externally or internally, I am unable to agree with the 
application of a distinctive nanu> to the Azorcan individuals merely on account of 
their remote insular locality. 

Geographical Distribution. — Agriolhnax agrestis is very widely 
distributed over the whole Pahearctic region, and has been carried by 
commerce to North and South America, South Africa, Australia, Tas- 
mania, New Zealand, and the Mauritius. 

In the United States this species is steadily spreading, owing to the great 
amount of intercommunication between the different states, and it will 
doubtless ultimately oust the aboriginal species with which it may come in 


Ill the case of this species we are able to dispense with the necessity of 
giving details for the various districts, inasmuch as throiigliout the whole 
of h^ngland and Wales it is abundantly and generally ditfused, from the 
coast-level even to the summits of the hills, and there is probably not a 
plot of cultivated ground on which it is not to be found, it being ab.sent 


or scarce only on sucli inhospitable ground as peaty moorlands, pine 
forests, etc. We have seen and authenticated examples from all the coun- 
ties and vice-counties into which the country is divided. 

This species has been found and its occurrence also authenticated in 
each of the forty-one districts into which the country has been separated 
for record purposes, a result due in great measure to the indefatigable 
energy with which Mr. W. Evans obtained examples for us from all the 
■out-lying or more inaccessible districts. 


The investigation of Ireland is not yet so far advanced as in the sister 
countries, so that it is desirable to give the detailed distribution. 


Derry— Swarinini;- about Coleraine, Nov. 1SS3, L. E. Adams. Ballynagard, June 
1892, D. C. Campbell (R. F. Scharff). Creagh meadows, Toome, and many other 
places, R. Welch. 

Antrim— Cnshendun and Whitehall, Bronghshane, May 1886 ! Rev. S. A. Brenan. 
Hill Slenish, 700-800 feet alt. 1 W. F. de Vismes Kane. Common about Belfast, Dec. 
1891, R. F. .Schavft'. About Ballycastle, but not abundant, Septv. 1896 (R. Standen, 
Irish Naturalist, Jan. 1897). Rams Island, Lough Xeagh, R. Welch. 

Down— Cultra, Dec. 1891, R. F. Scharrt". Crawfordsburn near Glen Head, May 
1902; about tiax-dam, Ballinahinch Junction, March 1899 ; Slieve Bingian, alt. 1,200 
feet, also at an alt. of 1,250 feet at Deer's meadow, Monrne Mountains, Jan. 1898, 
R. Welch. 

Armagh— Armagh, June 1885 ! H. W. Lett. 

Monaghan — Common about Clones Round To^ver graveyard, Oct. 1901, R. Welch. 

Tyrone— Strabane, June 1889, A. H. Delap. Dungannon, May 1901, R. Welch. 

Donegal— Donegal, Sept. 1885 ! W. F. de V. Kane. Croaghross, Letterkenny, 
May 1889 ! H. C. Hart. 

Fermanagh— Common about Enniskillen ; Marble Arch and throughout the 
Lough Erne area generally, R. Welch. 

Cavan — In woods and shores of lake, near Killykeen, July 1896 (R. Welch, Irish 

Naturalist, Oct. 1896, p. 274). 


Louth— Piperstown ! Miss Sidney Smith. Duudalk demesne, and also common 
in the Boyne valley, R. Welcli. 

Meath— Navan. June 1888 ! and New Grange, June 1892, R. F. Scharff. Beau- 
pare ; Tara Hill, and Loughcrew Hills, July 1900, R. Welch. 

Dublin— Banks of river Dodder at Ratlifarnham, and Rathmines, April 1887 ! 
Leeson Park, Nov. 1890 ; Dundrum and Sherkin Island, R. F. Schartt'. Cabragli Old 
road, Dublin, April 1886 ! J. R. Redding. Kingstown, May 1886 ! and Glen Druid, 
Carrickmines, Oct. 1886 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. Ireland's Eye and Hill of Howth, 
R. Welch. 

Kildare— Maynooth, Nov. 1891, R. F. Scharff. :Monasterevin, Oct. 1899, R.Welch. 

Wicklow— Powerscourt, Mav 1886 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. Woodenbridge and 
the Arklow sand hills, March 'l893 (R. F. Scharff, Irish Naturalist, April 1893). 
Glendalough, June 1901, R. Welch. 

Wexford— Alderton near Kilmanock, Sept. 1888 ! Miss Glascott. Wexford, 
April 1891, R. F. Scharff. 

Carlow — Common about Carlow, Nov. 1901, A. G. Stewart. 

Queen's Co. — La Bergerie, common, and in all shades of colouring (B. J. Clarke, 
Ann. N.H., 1840, p. 203). 

Westmeath— Knockdrin demesne, Ap. 1892, and Mullingar, Ap. 1894, R. F. Scharff. 

Longford — Currygrane, Mrs. J. Mackay Wilson (Welch, Irish Nat., July 1902). 


Leitrim— Dromahaire, Sept. 1900, R. Welch. 

Sligo— Markree Castle demesne, CoUooney, Aug. 1886 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 
Near Ballina, July 1891 ! Miss Amy Warren. 



Mayo W.^Moy view, T.alliiia, .Tiily ISOl ! Mi>s Amy Warren. Enniscoedeniesne, 
C'rdssiiiolina, Soi>t. ISS,")! .1. (J. .Milne. I'nder stones on shore, Annaj^ii Bay, and 
other phices in Achill Island ; also at Westport and Newport, Sept. ISSfi (id., J. of 
Concli., Oct. 1891). Common, Aasleagii, and Delphi, April 1897 (11. Welch, Irish 
Natnralist, Nov. 1897). 

Galway W,— Koundstone, March 1891, and Aran Isles, Oct. 1902, It. F. Scharff. 
I)ernasli'4'4;ui near Leenane, Ajiril 1897 fll. Welch, Irish Nat., Nov. 1897). 

Galway E.— Gardens ahont Tuam (15. J. Clarke, Ann. N.H., 1843, p. 341). Clon- 
brock, -Inne 18SG, H. F. Schartl". 

Tipperary S. — Clonmel, April 1888, A. H. Delap. Common, Cashel and Holy- 
cross, May 1898, K. Welch. 

Waterford-Waterford, Si'p. 1883 ! .1. II. Salter. Clonmel, Apl. 1888, A. H. Delap. 

Cork S. — Aliundant at Hlarney, Bantrv, and (ilengariff, Sept. 189S, L. E. Adams. 
Clear Island, Dec. 1889, (.fneenstown, May 1S91, R. F. ScharfK 



Kerry — N'ery common on Valentia Island, Apl. 1888, A. H. Delap. Longh Caragh, 
n\ni 1890, R. F. Scharll'. Swarms abont Calway's Bridge, Kenmare, July 1898 (R. 
tanden, Irish Nat., Sept. 1898). Abundant at Killarney, Sept. 1898, L. E. Adams. 

Probable Range. 

Recorded Distribution, 

Fig. 127. — Geographical Distribution of AgrioUmax agrestis (L.). 

Found througliout the empire, and records have been seen for Alsace, Baden, 
Bavaria, Ibandenbnrg, Coburg, Franconia, Hanover, Ilolstein, Liint'bnrg, N.assau, 
Pomcrania, Prussia, Pyrmont, Saxony, Silesia, Thuringia, Westphalia, Wurtem- 
l)urg, and the Island of Heligoland. 

Belgium— (Colbeau, Mai. Bek'., 18.")9). 
Holland— (U. .1. Maitland, Nachrichtsbl., 1869, p. 163). 

A. rif/resfis isprolialily found thronghout France, and has been reported from the 
Ain, Aisne, Alpes Maritimes, A(|uitaine, Aricge, Basses Pyrenees, Champagne 
Mrridionale, Charente Infcrieure, Cute d'Or, Cotes-du-Nord, Finistcre, Card, (Jers, 
(iironde, Ilantes Alpes, Haute C.aronne, Haute Loire, llautes Pyrenees, Haute 
Savoie, Herault, lUe-et-Vilaine, Tsere, Jura, Loire Inf(irieure, Lozfere, Maineet-Loire, 
Manche, Morbihan, Moselle, Nicvre, Nord, Oise, Pas-de-Calais, l>uy-de-Dome, 
Pyrenees Occidentales, Rhone, Savoie, Seine, Seine Inferieure, Seine et ]Marue, 
Somine, Var, N'endee, N'ienne, Vosges, and the Island of Corsica. 

Probably abundant throughout the country, and has been reported as occurring 
in the cantons of Bimuo, (uisons, Giarus, Lucerne, Neuchatel, St. Gall, Sofothurn, 
N'alais, Vaud, and Zurich. 



Recorded as inhabitinj; tlie whole of Italy and its islands. In its various forms, 
wliicli incdnde Eiidiwald's variety ibcrii.s and Issel's variety ctrasrns, of wliicdi the 
descriptions have not Ijeen accessible, it has been reported from Cala])ria, Emilia, 
Lignria, Lombardy, Piedmont, Rome, Tuscany, Unibria, Venetia, and the Islands 
of Capri, Sardinia, and Sicily. 


Has been found in Austria, Bosnia, Bohemia, Galicia, Goritz, Hungary, Istria, 
Slavonia, Styria, Tiansylvania, Tyrol, and Ui)per Carinthia. 


Spain — (iraells says it is found in various provinces. It has been definitely 
recorded from near Santiago in Galicia; from Barcelona and Olot in Catalonia; from 
Lorca in Murcia; from the White Mountain in Aragon ; as common in garden at 
Valencia ; and Mr. E. J. Lowe found it common in May bSCiO, at Hoy de Barcena 
near Santander in (.)ld Castile; while the var. panonnif(tna is recorded by Simroth 
from (_;ibraltar in Antlalusia. 

Portugal — Simroth reports this species from Lisbon and Cintra in Estremadura, 
Coimbra in Beira, and Braga and Oporto in Minbo. Morelet records the varieties 
nigra and cinerea as common in Estremadura, Alemtejo, and Algarve, and tlie var. 
riifcxrrns as li\ing in various moist places. 

Balearic Isles — Plentiful in Majorca, Minorca, etc. 


Servia — (Heynemann, Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. Ges. , June 1885, p. 254). 
Montenegro — Cettinje (Clessin, Nachrichtsbl., 18S5, p. 179). 


Norway — Very common throughout Norway, extending even to Kistrand, 70" 25' 
north lat. ; it abounds also about Tromso at 70" north lat. In these northern regions, 
however, the animals scarcely exceed an inch in length, and according to Miss 
Esmark are mostly uniform light-bro^^■n in colour, but grey specimens are also 
found, as well as maculate ones. 

Sweden — Very common throughout, and extending to the extreme northern con- 
fines of the country, being recorded by Westerlund for Karesuando in Swedish Lap- 
land at 68-09" north lat. 

Denmark — (Heynemann, op. cit. ). Miiller records his Limax rcticulatus from 
gardens in Fridrichsdal and Rosenburg. 

It is also recorded for Greenland, Southern Iceland and the Faroes. 


Has 1)een recorded fiom Courland, Livland, Esthland, Moscow, Kharkov, Pol- 
tava, Tchernigov, Crimea, Poland, Abcliasia, ami according to Luther is common 
thronghout Middle and Southern Finland. 

Siberia — Westerlund gives numerous localities along the whole valley of the 
Jenissei from Kolmogorowa in the south, 59° 30' north lat., where the examples 
were strongly maculate ; the finely spotted varieties M'ere more boreal in their dis- 
tril)ution, but not met with beyond Baklanovskaia at 04" 50' ; still further to the 
north, the pale, immaculate form only was found, and extended as far as Selivan- 
inskoj, 65" 55' north lat. It has- also been recorded l)y ¥. Scinnidt as found on 
Brjocliow [or Bregovski] Island in the estuary of the.Jenissei at 70° 50'. 

On the Lower Amur, Schreuk found it abundant al)out Dshare, Nikolai'evsk, and 
on the Island Uisut in the Linian or estuary of the Amur. Maack found it on the 
banks of the Ussuri, a tributary of Amur, and Middendorfl" found a small slug in 
the Stanowoi Mountains which Schrenk regarded as this species (Sibir. Moll., 1877). 


Turkestan^i/wOTa; fedtschenkoi is said to be peculiar to the district l)etween 
Aral and Kokiiand (Westerlund, Sib. Moll., 1877, p. 13). j 

China — L. sctchnanensis Heude, which is probably a synonym of ^-I. arfrestis, is 
moderately abundant in the mountains of Tchen-k'eou, the i)rovince of Se-Chuen 
(Heude, Moll. Terr. Fleuve Bleu, 1885, p. 99). 

Japan — Probaldy the Lhnax variant of A. Ad., from Hakodadi, Refunsiri, and 
Risiri are really referable to Agriolimax agrestis. 



Morocco— (Schartt; Sluj;s of Iielaii<l, 1891, !>. -viS). 

Algiers -Tlcnucii in Oran (Morek't, J. de Condi., 1853, p. 280). I'pper Kabylie 
(Locanl, Moll. Lyon.s, 1877). 

Asia Minor— Haifla in Syria (Morelet, Joiirii. ile Conch., 18.j3, p. 280). Brussa 
and the sliore.s of the Dardanelles (Sinirotli, op. cit. ). 

Persia— (Scharff, Slugs of Ireland, 1891, p. 528). 


Madeira— Common on cultivated land about Funchal and on the west of the 
island (Ik. Booj- Watson, Journ. de Conch., 1876, p. 221). 

Canaries I*lain of La<,nina, Tenerifle (Fcrussac, Hist., 1819, p. 74). Santa Cruz 
and Orotava, Teneriile, Lt.-Col. I'arry (Collinge «!<: Partriiige, J. of Mai., May 1899). 

Azores— In gardens at Ponta Delgada, and elsewhere, San Miguel (Simroth, op. 
cit., 1891, p. 281). 


According to Pilsliry, A. agrcstis is found in most large cities on tlie Atlantic 
coast, and has put in an appearance at several points on the Pacific slope ; it has 
been recorded definitely for 

Ontario — Abundant at Mackay's Bay, New Edinburgh, and other places about 
Ottawa (F. B. Latchford, Molhisca Ottawa, 1880, p. 12). St. Thomas, July 1887 
(T. D. A. Cockerel!, J. of Conch., Oct. 1889). 

Quebec— Citaih'l, Quebec (F. R. Latchford, Amer. Nat., Nov. 1885). 

British Columbia — Vars. .si/fvatica and varians in gardens, Victoria, Vancouver 
Isle, first ol)served about 1884 '(G. W. Taylor, Nautilus, Dec. 1891). 

Maine — Common in fields and byroad-side near villages, and abundant in cellars 
and gardens in Portland (Morse, Terr. Pulin. Maine, 1864, p. 7). 

Massachusetts — tiarden. New Bedford, introduced (Thomson, .J. of Conch., Oct. 
1885). Boston (W.G.Binney, Land and Freshwater Shells of N. Amer., 1869, p. 64). 
Plentiful in gardens, Cambridge (Weinland, Weichth. Scliwal)., 1876, p. 25). 

New York— New Vork (W. G. Binney, Terr. Moll, of N.A., 1878, vol. 5, p. 147). 
Abundant in gardens, Plattsburgh, G. H. Hudson, 1885. Onondago Co., W. >I. 
Beauchamp, 1885. Monroe Co., introduced l)y J. Walton, 1898. 

New Jersey— Burlington (T. D. A. Cocke'rell, Nautilus, Jan. 1890). 

Pennsylvania — Westchester, Chester Co. , W. D. Hartmann, 1885. Philadelphia 
(W. G. Binney, Proc. Acad. Sci. Philad., 1886, p. 392). 

Michigan— (lardens, Agricultural College, near Lansing, under an old log on 
Cedar river bank. i)()ssibly imported with greenhouse plants. Prof. R. H. Pettit 
(Bryant Walker, Moll. Michigan, 1899, p. 21). 

Ohio — Cincinnati (Harper and Weatherby, Cat. Cincinn. Moll., 1876). 

Colorado— Introduced at West Cliff, Custer Co., from Burlington, New Jersey 
(T. I). A. Cockercll, Nautilus, Jan. 1890). 

California— Abnndant in San Francisco (W. M. Wood, Nautilus, Dec. 1891). 
Oakland (W. .1. Raymond, Nautilus, Jan. 1892). 

Oregon — A';us. si/lvatiro, vf(rirt)is, and siifciiica, Portland, U. F. Wickham 
(T. D. A. Cockerell, Nautilus, Oct. 1891, p. 71). 

Brazil— (Scharff, Slugs of Ireland, 1891, p. 528). 
Jamaica— Cinchona (T. D. A. Cockerell, J. of Mai., June 1893, p. 153). 

Zanzibar— Zanzibar coast (Heynemann, Jahrb.D.M.G., 1885, p. 293). 
Cape Colony— Cape Town (Melvill i^- Ponsonby, Proc. Mai. Soc, Dec. 1898). 
Mauritius— (F(^russac, Hist. Suppl., 1823, p. 96e). 


New South Wales — Under .stones at Darling Point, G. Neville; and at Tani- 
worth (C. T. Mussou, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1890, p. 891). 

Victoria -Melbourne, Mr. Kershaw (C. T. Musson, op. cit.). 

New Zealand — Recorded for Auckland, Wellington, and Greymouth in the 
North Island; and from Nelson, Christcliuicli, Dnnedin, etc., in the South Island 
(C. T. Musson, op. cit.). 

Tasmania— As Lhnnx legrandi Tate. 

Plate XIII. 

Distriluition of Agriolimax agrestis (L.) 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 


C'liauuel Isleit 


1 Coiuwall \V. 

2 Coiuwall E. 

3 Devou .S. 

4 lievou N. 

5 ."somerset S. 

6 Sumerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts S. 

9 Dorset 

10 Isle of Wiglit 

11 Hauts S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex E. 


15 Kent E. 

16 Kent W. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S 

19 Es^eX N. 

20 Herts. 

21 Middlesex 

22 Berks. 

23 U.xford 

24 bucks, 


2.5 SufTolk E. 

26 SSulIolk \\. 

27 Nuriolk E. 

28 NorlolK \V. 

29 Camirriilse 

30 bedfonl 

31 Hunts. 

32 Nuriliaiuiilon 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester \V 

35 Jloumouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stalford 

40 Salop 


41 Glamoi-gan 

42 Brecon 
4:i Radnor 

44 Carmarthen 

45 I'eiuhroke 
4ii Cardigan 


47 Montgomery 

48 Meriouetli 

49 Carnarvon 

50 Denbigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 
."U Lincoln N. 

55 Leic. & Kutld. 

56 Notts. 
•57 Derby 


n-^ Cheshire 

5y Lancashire S. 

60 LancashireMid 


61 S.E. York 

62 N.E. York 
6.! S.W. York 

64 .Mid W. York 

65 N. W. York 


66 Durham 

67 Xorthumb. S. 

68 Clieviotlaml 


69 Westmorland 
and L. Lanes. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of .Mau 





72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 

74 Wigtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Renfrew 

77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

80 Roxburgh 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 


85 Fife& Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 Perth S.&Clkn 

88 Mid Perth 

89 Perth N. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 Aberdeen S. 


93 AberdeeuN. 

94 Banff 

95 Elgin 

96 Kasterness 

W. U 10 H LANDS 

97 Westerness 

98 Main Argyle 

99 Dumbarton 

100 Clyde Isles 

101 Cant ire 
1112 Ebudes S. 

103 Ebudes Mid 

104 Ebudes N 


105 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E. 

108 Sutherland W. 

109 Caithness 


110 Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shetlands 



113 Derry 

114 Antrim 

115 Down 

116 .Armagh 

117 Monaghan 

118 Tyrone 

119 Donegal 

120 Fermanagh 

121 Cavan 


122 Louth 

123 Meath 

124 Dublin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexford 

128 Carlow 

129 Kilkenny 

130 Qiieen"s Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 

135 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 JIayo E. 
133 Mavo W. 

139 Galway W. 

140 Galway E. 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 
14:! Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork X. 

147 Cork S. 

148 Kerry 

Probable Range. 


J Recorded Distribution. 

Distribution verified by the Authors. 
Fossil Distribution. 





Sub-Gentts Hydrolimnx A. W. Malm. 

Agriolimax laevis Mailer. 

Lima.r laevis Miiller, Voriii. Hist., ii. , p. 1, no. 199. 

— hi'unneus Drap. , Tabl. Moll., ]^. 104, no. 13. 

— larustris Bonelli, in Sclied. Mus. Taniin. 

— campestris Binney, Proe. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 52. 

— lombriroldcs Morelet, Moll. Port., p. 39, pi. 3, f. 4. 

— /lanuifns Norniand, Desc. Lini. Nonv., p. 8. 

— (irciKirius (Jassies, Maine. Acjuitaine, ]^\). 117-119, pi. 1. f. 1. 

— ((r(jciifl)iiis HUo\te], Mai. Ar<^'. Meiid., p. 6. 

— iiwntanus Ingersoll, Bull. U.S. Geol. Snrv. Terr., \). 394. 

— cnstaneiis Ingersoll, oi). cit. 

— ijigcrsoUi W. ( 1. Binney, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8oi. Pliilad. 

— ]ii/perborri<sW(i^ti'Yh\m\, Nacdisbl. d. Dentseh. Mai. Ges., p. 97. 

— ■inrridionalis Doering, Bol. Acad. Cordoba, p. 434. 

— sfcniirus i^trehaX, Faun. Mexik. Conch., p. 21. 

brasiliciisis Von Iliering, .Jalirb. Deutsch. Mai. Ges. , p. 201, pi. 5. 

qnecnslandicus Hedley, Proc. Roy. Soc. (Queensland, p. 150, \)\. 5. 

(Agriolimax) rfn-ofonr/atuts Heyn., Naclibl. d. Deutsch. Mai. Ges., p. 43. 
1882 Agriolimd.r htvls Lessona & Pollonei'a, Monog. Liniac. Ital. , p. 47. 
1897 — bevenotl Collinge. Proc. Mai. Soc, vol. 2, p. 29.5. 
1868 Hjidrolimax Iteins Malm, Liniac. Skand. , p. 79, pi. 3. 
1868 Kri/nickUlas {Malino) brimneuti Mabille, Rev. et Mag. Zool. , p. 141. 
1887 Krinickla brunneus Fischer, Man. Conch., ii. , p. 462. 

HISTORY. — AgrioUmdx kvvis (levi.s-, 
smooth) was first discovered in this 
country by Mr. Joshua Alder, and its 
jieculiar characters pointed out to Dr. (t. 
Johnston, who published the discovery in 
1838 in the Proceedings of the Berwick- 
shire Naturalists' Club. 

The species was, however, afterwards 
lost siglit of, neglected or misunderstood, 
and became relegated to the ranks of 
doubtful species by Jeffreys, Reeve, and 
others, despite the persistent efforts of 
Mr. E. J. Lowe, F.K.S., to secure the 
recognition of its specific status. 

The authoritative exposition of its in- 
ternal structure by Dr. Simroth has firmly 
established A. kevis as a valid species, 
which is now universally recognized. 

With this species is associated Dr. J. F. 
Babor, of Prague, whose profound re- 
searches, more especially upon A. Id'vis, 
liave demonstrated tlie actuality of a 
remarkable cycle of changes in the development of the reproductive organs. 
It was placed by Malm in a new genus, HiidroUmax ('I'Swp, water, and 
Limax), which is here adopted in a sub-generic sense to mark the absence 
of the rectal coecum and the digitate flagellum. 

Diagnosis. — A. Iwvis may be distinguished from .1 . (igrestis by its active 
and restless habits, its uniform red-brown colour, colourless mucus, the abrupt 
terminal end of the body, the large shield, and its nearly median position 
when the animal is fully extended, owing to the unusual length of the neck. 

Internally, it is sharply divided from .4. (Mjrestis by the total absence 
of the rectatheca and of the digitate gland at the apex of the penis-slieath. 

25,3,01 H 

/• 7. ^^^^Arr-^' 



Description. — Animal ratlior sleiuler, j^^lossj-, and smootli, and of a peculiar 
senu-j,'('lalinoas consistency, usnally of a reddisii-biown or ciiocoiate colour, and 
when contracted Ijcaring a j,'reat resemblance to a short ])luni]) worm ; liODY rounded, 
with some distinct and rather jtrominent tubercles ; TAIL keeled ; sillKLD large, 
rounded in fiont and behind, and somewhat paler in colour than the body, strongly 
concentrically ridged around a sub-central and hitenilly-placed nucleus; NKCK very 
long, making the sliieiil seem to be 7u>arly centrally jilaccil ; tkn TACi.Ks lilack and 
very thick, with large black bulbs; koot longitudinally trijiartite. light brown, with 
median area more transparent and apparently darker. The body .Mucis is al)nndant, 
clear and watery, hut after continued irritation tends to become milky and turbid 
with minute i)articles of lime; the locomotory mucus is more viscid and tenaci()n.s. 

Shkll obhmg-oval in shape, and showing an indistinct oblique ridge from the 
ape.K to the anterior right side of the shell, corres- 
]>onding somewhat to the gonial ridge ' of the 
Pelecypoda ; white and glistening, convex above, 
and correspondingly concave beneath ; NUCI.EU.S 
distinct, and placed towards the left posterior angle 
of the shell ; concentric lines of growth arcuate, 
numerous, and distinct ; margins not broadly membranaceous. Length, 3 mill. ; 
breadth, 1^ mill. 

iNTKltNALLV, the body is darkly pigmented ; the KIDXEV, IIEAUT, and LUNO- 
CAVITV reseniljle those of A. (Kjrcstis; the AOKTA runs a considerable distance before 
dividing into the cephalic and visceral branches ; the 
lateral sinuses, especially that of the left side, are 
favourable for observation ; they can be seen through 
the trans]»arent skin to remain almost uniforndy 
open without in the least answering to the pulsa- 
tions of the heart, and are thus strictly venous ; the 
supra-pedal gland extends quite the length of the 
body. The organ of Semper is composed of several 
oblong lobules, easily detachable on account of the 
tenderness of the skin ; the o.sPHHADiUM is indis- 
tinctly developed, but it can be traced to the middle of the lung chamber. 

Fig. 129. — Internal 
shell of A. I(e7'is, X 4. 

(Steeton, Yorks., Mr. 
F. Rhodes). 


Fig. 130.— Underside of the sub- 
cesophageal ganglia of A. linus, 
showing the otocysts, x 20. 

(Christchurch, Hants S.). 

Fig. 131. 

Fig. 132.— Penis laid 
open to show the excita- 
tory organ, X 9 (after 

Fig. 133. 

Fic;. 131. 

Fl<;. 131.— Sexual organs of .). /tr?'is, greatly enlarged (after Siniroth). a//'.c. alluinien gland; 
ot. ovotestis ; mi. oviduct; sp.ii. sperm duct ; s/i. sperinatheca ; r. retractor; />s. penis shealh. 

Fig. 133. — -Mimentary canal of A. /miis, showing the adherent salivary glands, X 3 (after Simroth). 
Fig. 134. — Cephalic retr.ictors of .-I. Iteris, X 12. (Armley, Leeds). 

The RKI'HOUI'CTIVI-: okcans are very gelatinous and deeply i>igmented ; the 
ovoTHSl'ls is dark chestnut-brown, and acinose; its duct scarcely sinuous, mostly 
dark, with a i>ale YKSICULA seminalis; albumen gland deep yellow ;'EK- 
MATODUt'T lirmly united, whitish aliove, chestnut-brown beneath ; FUEE OVIDUCT 
short and glandular ; VAS dekeken.s short, entering the ]K'nisslieath nearly tcrmin- 
all}'; si'EKM.vnilX'A elongatelj' oval, Hesh-coloured, and attacheil to ovispcrm.-itoduct 
by a distinct apical muscle; PENls-siiEATll of a jicculiar hammer-like form and 
darkly pigmenteil, but occasionally in Euroi)e, and invariably in .Vmerit^a, is simply 
elongate ; the sub-basal lateral protuberance contains the .s.vhcobelum, or excita- 

1 Monog. i., p. 45, f. 109. 


tory organ, which differs from that of A. agrcsfls in being shorter and more faintly 
grooved ; the PENIS-KETRACTOR is siiort, and arises from the lung-tloor, considerably 
in front of the heart and the kidney in the Enropean form, but is nsnally absent in 
L. campestris and its allies. 

The ALIMENTARY CANAL somewhat resenildes that of A. ar/restis, bnt the INGES- 
TIVE TRACT is still shorter, and the rectnm is (|nite free of any co'cal process ; the 
SALIVARY GLANDS are slender and rather deeply lobed ; the LIVER is usually of a 
pretty moss-green colour; the right lobe forms the hinder end of the visceral mass, 
the left lolje is also (piite forward and di\ided into a number of slender jtoints or tips. 

The RETRACTOR arises from the right side of the median line, behind the kidney, 
from a bihd or trifid root, which after a longish course unites into a slender band 
whicii furcates about mid-way ; the BUCCAL retractors are quite slender and linear, 
while tlie tentacular branches, tliough originating from the common stem as a 
slender band, soon become very bulky. 

Tlie mandible or jaw is of tlie usual crescentic 
form, witli less produced limbs and much more 
prominent and convexly rounded rostrum or lieak 
than in A. agvcstis; the colour is brown, darkest 
along the upper margin and towards the extremi- fig. 135.— MatidiMe or jaw of 

ties of the lateral limljs; the cutting edge is also A. Ion' is, x 20. 
finely serrate along its whole extent. (Armley, Leeds). 

Tiie LINGUAL MEMBR.VNE is elongate, about three mill, long, and one mill, broad, 
the transverse rows being arranged in arcuate form, bending distinctly backwards 
towards the margins ; median row of teeth with well developed mesocone and eeto- 

FiG. 138. — Representative denticles from a transverse row of the lingual teeth of ^. Icevis, X 210. 
The animal collected at Horsforth, Leeds, and the palate prepared by Mr. J. W. Neville. 

cones ; laterals also tricuspid, the first and twelftli witli endocone quite obsolete or 
indistinct; marginals aculeate or with an ectocone more or less distinctly visible. 

The dental formula of a Horsforth specimen shows 

\\ + il + ;' + \% + L'o X 1 1 5 = 6,555. 

Reproduction and Development. — The reproductive organs of 
A. Iwvis, and to some extent those of the Limacidw generally, have been 
found by Dr. Babor to undergo a remarkable cycle of development, or 
series of metamorphoses, during which the individuals of this species, which 
are admittedly proterogynous, undergo a series of changes from their primi- 
tively unisexual and purely female condition to the hermaphrodite state, 
and afterwards become purely male by the atrophy of the female organs. 

These wonderful mutations are demonstrated by the fact that most of 
the individuals found in spring are unisexual with a purely female organi- 
zation, possessing gonads yielding ova only ; later the examples show a 
budding of tlie male organs, so that in summer and early autumn the 
animals have become hermaphrodite, and present well developed organs of 
both sexes. The evolutionary process, however, does not cease with the 
full acquirement of tlie hermaphrodite state, as Dr. Babor has found that 
after a certain interval the female organs may atrojihy and dwindle away, 
and the animal again become unisexual, but purely male, with gonads 
secreting spermatozoa only. 

Even when the cycle is thus fully completed, it is not by any means 
certain that in some species the sequence of transformations may not be 
continued, and the rotation of sexes again take place. 



The act of oonjiioatiou in tliis species has never been described, but it 
has been observed by Gassies, in the var. aremir'at, to take place usually at 

Fig. 140. 

Fig. 141. 

Fig. 137. Fig. 138. Fig. 139. 

Reproductive organs of Ag-rio/hitnx It/r'is Miill. X 6, illustratine; the metamorphic changes 
to which they are subject (after Babor). 
Fig. 137. — The organs in their earliest or solely female state. 
Fig. 138.— The succeeding stage, showing the budding of the male organ. 
Fig. 139. — The perfected hermaphrodite state. 

Fig. 140. — The following period, showing the dwindling of the female organs in the process of 
becoming solely male. 

Fig. 141. — The cycle of change completed, the female organs having disappeared, and the animal 
being solely male. 

niglit, or during thunderstorms and tempestuous rains, and is known to be 
preceded by the circular procession and amatory tlirtations which seem so 
characteristic of slugs generally, but this preliminary couvtshi]) is a]ipar- 
ently in this species a very tedious and pn)lringed operation, as these 
blandishments have been observed to continue for more than an hour at 
a stretch without result. 

The seminal element Avould appear to be transferred enclosed within 
a soft mucous capsule, of a somewhat triangular shape, which re[)reseuts 
and acts as a true spermatoi)hore, and is 
apparently formed in the outer or larger 
limb of the tlagellum, which functions as a 
slime gland, while the smaller projection or 
limb when inverted functions as the intro- 
mittent organ. 

The eggs are roundish, ([uite trans])arent, of somewhat leathery consis- 
tency, with a diameter varying between \?, and 2\s millimetres, and are 
depo-sited either singly or in small clusters, held together by clear slime, in 
moist situations, all the year through. According to the observations of 
Gassies and others, they are laid at intervals of a day or more, three 
days after pairing, dei)osition extending over a period of six or eight daj'S, 
and the total number being said not to exceed about thirty. 

The hatching takes })lace in from twenty to forty days, the young wlien 
e.xcluded being about three millimetres long and of a reddish colour, which 
gradually becomes of a browner shade, the animals attaining maturity iu 
about seventy da)'s. 

Food and Habits, — AurioUmax Iwris is the most active, restless, and 
fearless of our slugs, and even hardier than .1. rnjrestis. If touched when 
crawling it has been ob.serveil to elevate the metlian part of its body, in a 
manner recalling the mode of progression characterizing the caterpillar of 
the Geometrida3, the mantle then appearing very protuberant. 

Fig. 142. — Mucous 
sperm capsule, or sper- 
matophore, of .-J. /if7'is 
(after .Siniroih). 


It is also veiy pugnacious and aggi-essive, pulling off and devouring the 
slime from the br»dies of the larger species, or withdrawing its tentacles and 
butting violently with its head against their bodies, at tlie same time pro- 
truding and rasping with the odontophore. 

When these attacks, which may be twice or tlirice repeated, take place, 
the slug assaulted usually shrinks, momentarily withdraws the head 
beneath the mantle, and then crawls hastily away ; sometimes, however, 
the injured animal turns to repel the aggressor, which then, according to 
Mr. Kew, makes off with all sjjeed, raising its tail and shaking it from 
side to side, and possibly striking therewith the head or tentacles of the 
pursuer, which, being thus temporarily disconcerted, enables the agile 
aggressor to escape more readily. 

Tlie favourite food of this species has not yet been discovered; Mr. Gain, 
who had many individuals under close observation for a long period, states 
that of the seventy-nine different kinds of food offered to it, although 
none were devoured with zest, thirteen were eaten more or less freely ; of 
these, six were cidtivated plants, the remaining seven being the foxglove, 
fleabane, crosswort, wallflower, red-robin, sow-thistle, and the fungus 
Polyporus sqwimosn!<. 

Dumont & Mortillet allude to its fondness for animal matter, in pointing 
out that it may be procured by spreading bones in suitable spots, when 
the slugs can be readily found beneath them, devouring the gelatine 
softened by the moisture. 

Herr Clessiu has observed it in a state of nature feeding upon the pollen 
of the ox-eye daisy {Chrifsantliemum kucHuthemum), and ^lagnus records 
that the fertilization of that plant, during cold and damp weather, when 
insects are not abroad, has been actually brought about by A. la vis crawl- 
ing over the flowers. 

Although it is said in Germany also to frequent dry situations, A. lacls 
in tliis country is confined to the vicinity of water, and is almost invariably 
in company with Zonitoides nitlda. Even when submerged by rising water 
A. icevis does not appear to be disturbed, as it has often been found resting 
immobile and unconcerned for several hours on the underside of logs, etc., 
quite immersed in the water. 

]\Ir. F. J. Partridge at suitable times has found it living in company with 
Succlne'i ohlonga in hollows of the sandhills at Braunton Burrows, which, 
thougli filled with water in winter and in wet weather, are in summer during 
the day nothing but a mass of hot dry sand. 

During the day it is usually concealed in crevices, or beneath the dense 
tufts of Marchantla j)olijmorpha, sphagnum, and especially amongst the 
moss Hijpnum cuspkbitum, or may be found in the hollow stems of the 
Umbelliferce growing in marshy places. When suspended in the aquarium 
A. cumpeMris will, according to Mr. Latchford, at once descend to the 
bottom of the tank by means of a mucus cable, crawl with retracted ten- 
tacles towards the sides, which it ascends, opening the respiratory orifice 
upon reaching the surface. 

A. Iwcis is an adept in forming slime-threads, and has been observed to 
form a nmcus-thread, eight inches in length, in less than three minutes. 
M. Xormand records tliat L. jxirvulus, which is synonymous with the 
present species, spun a filament over two yards in length. 

Fossil. — According to Kennard & Woodward, A. Iwvis is known as a 
Pleistocene fossil from the deposits at Swalecliffe, about a mile west of 
Heme Bay, East Kent ; it was also found in Middlesex, in the section dis- 


closed by the excavations fur tlio fouudatimis of tlie Adiuiralty Buildings, 
Westminster. ^Nlrs. ^NlcKenny Hughes reports it from the beds at Barnwell 
Abbey, in Cambridgeshire ; and ]\Ir. J. P. Johnson from a deposit on the 
foreshore, at West Wittering, Sussex; and also from the Uphall Brickyard, 
near Ilford, in South Essex. 

Variation. — Dr. Sinn-oth aiiirms that A. Iwch is subject, under certain 
conditions, to seasonal variation or Horreomorphism, the var. griaea indi- 
cating the typical summer garb of the species when living on ({vy, 
cultivated lands. This light-grey form, which is occasionally blackish 
on the back, or may be tinged with reddish, is only found during the 
summer months and on warm and dry spots, but with the advent of the 
cool, damp days of autunni, they gradually change to the dark unicolorous 
winter variety, this change being regarded as a result of the greater degree 
of cold and moisture to which they are subjected at that season. 

The examples, however, which dwell by the constantly cool and moist 
margins of rivers and pools are not subject to this change, retaining during 
life the dark uniform c(jlouring typical of the species. 

Dr. Siraroth also traces a connection or correlation between the size of 
the mantle and the degree of moisture in the inhabited locality, the excess 
of moisture being said to cause a fuller swelling of the body and an exu- 
berant growth of the mantle. 

Dr. Baudon has described a monstrosity of this species as var. intentacu- 
lata, which was totally destitute of any trace of tentacles. 

Tlie world-wide distrilnition attained by this little species has led to a 
number of names being applied to it, which, according to Simrotli and 
others who have especially studied the subject, merely indicate forms 
differing little from typical specimens, and at the most rejiresent geo- 
graphical races, in which latter category the American and Australasian 
forms may appropriately be placed. 


Var. lacustris Bonelli, 1822, in Sched. ]\Ius. Taurin. 

Lintax lacttst/is Bonelli, op. cit. 

Limax l<n<is v.-ir. viaciilata T. D. A. Cockerell, J. of Conch., July 1886, p. 79. 

Liiiiax lai'ts var. rti/rapunctatus W. E. Collinge, J. of JNIal., Dec. 1898, p. 22. 

Differs from the type in being irregularly spotted with dark brow n. 

JNIr. G. E. Mason lias observed that tliis variety is of more ai|uatic liabils in 
Surrey than the typical form. 

Surrey — Sub- var. vmcidata, nianshy ground at north end of Barnes Connnon, 
1886, T. 1). A. Cockerell. 

WarAwick — Sub- var. maculata, ."sparingly (W. P>. Collinge, J. of INIal., op. cit.). 

Italy — Var. Mc».s7//.v, l,aghi d'Avigliana ; 'i'urin ; Kivaro.ssa Canavese and Lago 
d'Azeglio (Lessona & I'ollonera, Moiiog. Liniac. Ital., 1882, p. 48). 

Var. grisea Taylor, var. nov. 

Animal light grey, with grey mid-sole and pale side area.s. 

Ireland — A greenish-grey variety on railway eniVankment in inaish, Down- 
patiick. County Down, March KSt)8,'R. ^Vel(•h. 

Germany— Leijizig anil I lallc-ani-Saale (Simrotli, Zeitsch.^Yiss. Zool., Aug. 188.")). 

Finland— (Simrotli, Her. Naturf. CJes. Leipzig, 1898, p. 39). 

Var. arenaria Gassies, Make. Aquitaine, pp. 1 17-1 lit, ]il. I. f. 1. 

l.iniax arcnarius ("la-isies, op. cit. 

Animal greenish-bronze or blackish above : sniKLO paler and tending to dirty- 
yellow ; NECK greyish-yellow paling towards the shield. 

France — At margin of fish-pond, below the dunes at Lacanau. June 18(>0 ; on the 
high-road from Teste at Lamotlie ; also at Andernos, and under stones in the salt 
meadows at Teich, all in Ai^uitaine (Gassies, op. cit.). 




Var. mucronata Westerlnnd, Fauna Europ., 1876, p. 12. 

Animal yellow-brown, sides paler, foot-sole white ; shield more pointed behind. 

Sweden — Ronneby in Blekinge (Westerlnnd, op. cit. )• 

Norway and Denmark~(lleyneniann, Jalirb. Deiitsch. Mai. Ges., 1885, p. 248). 

Var. parvula Normaiicl, Desc. Limac, 1852, p. 8. 

Li}itax f>a7~i'ulus Normaiid, op. cit. 

Liinax bmmicus var. pygimeics Lowe, Conch. Notts., 1853, p. 156, f. 114. 

The L. parvulus of Norniand, to wiiicli may be allocated L. brumieus var. pijgimea 
of E. J. Lowe, is remarkable for its small size, which scarcely exceeds half-aii-inch 
in adults wiien fully e.xtended. Tiiey are descril)ed as paler than tiie typical form. 

Notts. — L. hi-Hnneus var. piigmira, not common under stones and at roots of 
sedges, at margin of lake, Higlitield, near Nottingham, and common at 
Beeston, E. d. Lowe. 

France — L. jxirvulus, Valenciennes, Department of the Nord (Normand, op. cit. ). 

Belgium — L. parvulus, Ciiaudfontaine near Liege, June 1871 (Van-den-Broeck, 
Bull. Soc. Mak Belg., 1871, p. li). 

Geographical Distribution. — A. Iwris as an aggregate form seems 
almost cosmopolitan in its distribution, being found not only throughout 
Europe, but has been recorded from South Africa, Siberia, Alaska, Canada, 
and the United States of Xorth America. 

It has also been rejiorted from the West Indies, Central and South 
America, Australia, and Polynesia. 

In the British Isles this species is apparently widely dispersed, and 
probably e.xists in every comital and vice-comital area into which the 
kingdoms are divided. 


^^ Probalile Range of 
^^^ A. lieins s.str. 

Probable Range of 
A. lains campcstris. 

Fig. 143. — Geographical Distribution <di Agrlollmax la'vis Miiller. 


Channel Isles — Jersey (Duprey) ; Guernsey, in damp places (Tondin & Mar- 
quand, J. of Conch., Jan. 1903, p. 286). 


Cornwall W.— St. Ives, Sept. 188.5 ! J. E. Mason. 

Devon S. — Topsham and Exmoutli, Aug. 1892 ! L. E. Adams. 

Devon N. — Braunton Burrows near Bideford, E. J. Partridge. 

Somerset N. — Among stone heaps by side of lane from Walton to Portishead, 
and among decaving vegetation by side of sluice on Portisiiead Moor (Norman, 
Moll. Somerset, i8GU, p. 139). 



Dorset— Wool, Mr. Kciidiill ; iuiion>; <;iass, \Vli:itooiiil)e Park (J. C. Mansel- 
Pleydcll, Moll. Dorset, ISilS, j.. 4) ; Cliideock, near Bridport (A. Belt, Sc. Goss., 
Au^^ 1S98). 

Hants S. Damp meadow by River Avon at Knapp Mill, Cliristcliurcli, Feb. 
1885 :(". Asiiford. ilamlilt'don and I'x'ckfurd (irecnlL. E. Adams, Sc. Gloss., Mch. 1901). 

Sussex W. liatham, Any. ISS.") : W. Jcllery. 


Kent E. —Sandwich, Sept. 1891 ! L. E. Adams. Sittingbourne (E. W. Swaiiton, 
J. of Mai., dune 1893, j). 14(j). 

Kent W.— P.anks of Iliver Cray at St. ISIary Cray, April 1885 ! and Greenliitlie, 
June 1SS5 ! S. C. Coekerell. 

Surrey— Wiay ('ommon, Reigate Heatli, etc., 1885, Y,. Saunders. Godstone and 
(;uil<lfor(l, Sept." 1884, T. D. A. Cock'crell. Barnes, June 1885, S. C. Cockerell. 
Punch Bowl near Haslemere, E. W. S wanton (C. Pannell, jr., .1. of Conch., April 
190-2, p. 170). 

Essex S.— Redbridge lane, Wanstead (W. Crouch, Essex Nat., Dec. 1890, p. 209). 
Woodfonl, 1889, H. Wallis Kew. 

Essex N.— Common on flags by River Colne, Halstead, Aug. 1890, L. E. Adams. 

Herts. — War.', Dr. .leflVevs (J. 'Hopkinson, Moll. Herts., 1884). 

Middlesex— Ilanwell, Sept. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. Thames bank near 
Twickenham, March 1885 ! and Perivale, April 1885, S. C. Cockerell. 

Oxford— Fairly common about Oxford ; also found at Broughton Castle, Ban- 
bury ; Cliipping : near Charlbury, and about Swincomb (Vf. E. Collinge, 
Concliologist, March 1891, p. 1.3). 

Bucks.- Banks of River (Juse, above Olney, March 1893, L. E. Adams. 


Suffolk E. — Plentiful in damp places about Woodbridge, Jnne 1886, Rev. S. 
Spencer Pearce. Oulton, Mendlcsham, Thwaite, Needham Market, and Si)rough- 
ton (Mayliehl, J. of Conch., April 1903). 

Norfolk E.— Norwich (Bellars, British Shells, 1858). Diss and Cringlef.nd, 
Aug. 1890, Lionel E. Adams. In the marsh-lands, Surlingham Ferry, AVhitlingham, 
etc. (Pearce tlv: Maylield, J. of Condi., July 1894). Plentiful on inarsh and ditch 
banks, liramerton, Colney, Postwick, and Costessey (Maylield, J. of Conch., 
189(i, p. 185). 

Norfolk W.— Thetford, Ang. 1890, Lionel E. Adams. 

Cambridge— Wliittlesea (Bellars, British Shells, 1858). Rare, Grantchester, May 
1886, 1!. Tomlin. 

Northampton— Petcrliorongh (Bellars, British Shells, 1858). Common on banks 

of River Nene and in ilamp |)lace,s in woods (L. E. Adams, Journ. Northants Nat. 

Hist. Soc., 1893, p. 208). 


Gloucester E. — Woods betAveen Cooper's Hill and Birdlip (Tate, Brit. Mollusca, 
186(1, p. 77). 

Monmouth Abundant in a damp portion of the park at Shirenewton Hall, Apl. 
188(), K. .1. Lowe. 

WarwickMr. Thickbroom's woodyard, Sutton Coldfield (A. Wood, Moll, of 
Sutton Coldlicid, 1S!»7). h'airly common in marshy ])laces, Snt ton Park, H. Overton. 

Stafford— In an old dingle* near Staflbid, Oct. 1885 ! Beresford Dale, Apl. 1890; 
abundant in wood by canal bank between Leek and Cheadle, April 1891, L. E. 
Adams. Stone, E. l"). P>ostock (Masetield's Stafl. List, 1902). Newton road, Bir- 
mingham, .Inly 1893: C. Oldham. 

Worcester — Deep Meadow, Stourport, J. W. Williams. 

sorr// irALES. 

Glamorgan P.anks of River Ely, St. Fagaifs, INLirch 1885! F. W. Wotton. 
Llamlall', etc., not very common (id., J. of Conch., April 1886, p. 54). 

Pembroke — Common under stones and among the yellow Iris, Tenby (A. G. 
Stubbs, .). of Conch., .Inly 1900). 


Montgomery Timber yards, WeUlipool, .lune 1889! and Pwllbrwynen near 
Llanw<ldyn, May 1889 ! (.1. "liickertcm Morgan, Montgomery List, 1891, p." 396). 

Denbigh — Llainluilno, May 1888, B. Tomlin. 

Flint- .Mostyn Marsh, .Inly 1883! W.D.R. 


Lincoln S. — Fulbeck Grange, Dec. 1888 ! .1. B. Davy. 

Lincoln N. — Sutton-in-the-.Marsh, llaugham ^^'()od, and Muckton Chalk Pit, 
April 1886! also Harrington Hill, Se|it. 1889! W.D.R. Hubbard's Valley, Louth 
(C. S. Carter, Naturalist, 1904, p. 6.3). 

Leicester — Leicester (Bellars, British SiicUs, 1858). 


Notts. — Abinidant in vicinity of lake at Hightield House near Beeston ; also in 
garden of Bioadgate House on oi-ganic soil in the valley, 1885, E. J. Lowe. Ganiston, 
Sept. 1884 ! and in a wood at tlie Decoy, Honohton, April 1885 ! C. T. Mnsson. 
Pleasley Vale, Kirkby-in-Ashlield, etc. (Dodd, Brit. Assoc. Hdbk., 1893). Bawtry, 
Kuttbrd, etc. (W. A. Gain, Brit. Nat., Nov. 1893). 


Cheshire — Chester (Bellars, British Shells, 1858). Common in gardens, etc., 
Heatley House, May 1885 ! L. E. Adams. Ashley near Bowdon, Sept. 1885 ! J. G. 
Milne. Between Warrington and Knutsford, Sept. 1885, T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Northwich, Oct. 1885! C. ()ldliam. 

Lancashire Mid— Easegill Beck si<le, April 1887! W.D.R. 

Lancashire S. — Whalley, June 1889 I W. H. Heathcote. Common on the South- 
port sandhills (G. W. Chaster, Brit. Assoc. Hdbk., 1903). 


York S.E. — Leckontield ! Meaux ! Risby, and banks of the River Hull (J. D. 
Butterell, J. of Concli., Ajnil 1882). 

York N.E.— Tiiirsk (Tate, Brit. Moll., 1866, p. 71). Malton, Sspt. 1880, J. D. 
Butterell. Levisham, abundant, Aug. 1886 ! Saltburn Woods, Oct. 1886 ! Skelton 
Beck Valley, May 1887 ! Wilton Wood, May 1887 ! and Ramsdale Wood, Robin 
Hood's Bay, June 1888 ! W.D.R. Airey Holme Wood (leaker Hudson, J. of Conch., 
April 1886). Kilton Castle, 1889! B. Hudson. Wass village, Sept. 1892 ! W.D.R. 
White Nab, J. A. Harnreaves. 

York S.W.— Pontefract, April 1877 (Nat., May 1877). St. Swithin's, Stanley, 
1883, Wakefield, Jan. 1885 ! also Ferrybridge, Haw Park, and Ryiiill, J. Wilcock. 
Campsall Park, May 1886! and Cusworth, near Doncaster, Sept. 1901 ! W.D.R. 
Roydhonse Wood, Hudderstield ! J. Whitwham. Common about Halifax in damp 
places in woods, J. E. Crowther. (Jarden, Rose Hill, Penistone; moderately com- 
mon, Guuthwaite, and Cubley Wood, April 1890 ; also Doncaster, July 1892, L. E. 
Adams. Near Worsborough Reservoir, Sept. 1899 ! W. E. Brady. Wragby Brick- 
pond near Ackworth, G. Rolierts. Methley, Nostell, and Oulton (id., Nat. Hist. 
Lofthouse, 1885, p. 238). 

York Mid W.— Banks of Leeils and Liverpool Canal at Armley, Kirkstall, New- 
lay, etc., Feb. 1882! W. Nelson. Also from Bingley to Steeton, July 1890! F. 
Rhodes. Stream-side, Hawkesworth Wood, Horsforth, April 1888 ! W.D.R. Ship- 
ley (ilen and Fagley Wood (Soppitt & Carter, Nat., 1888, ]>. 97). Near Malham 
Tarn, Sept. 1883 ! Roebuck & Butterell. Kingsdale near Clapham, April 1887 (H. 
Richardson, J. of Conch., April 1886, p. 60). Helk's Wood, Ingleton, June 1888, 
F. Rhodes. Coat Rakes Bridge, P.ol!and, Aug. 1885! W.D.R. Tadcaster and 
Wighill, F. (t. Binnie, 1880. Boston Spa, April 1893, J. Emmet. Washliurndale, 
July 1885 ! and Troller's Gill, April 1887 ! W.D.R. Mason Plain, Grassington, Sept. 
1900, F. Rliodes. Copgrove Wood and Lindley Wood, 1885! W.D.R. Eavestone 
near Ifipon, May 1885 ! J. Ingleby. 

York N.W. — Gunnerside Gili, and road-sides, Gunnerside, 1884 ! W.D.R. 


Durham — Ravensworth, shells in Alder Collection, Newcastle Museum. Plenti- 
ful, Morden Carrs, 1860, Dr. A. Merle Norman. Spa W^ood, Dinsdale, May 1887! 
Baker Hudson. 

Northumberland S.— Stocksfieldon-Tyne, May 1885 ! H. E. Craven. Not rare, 
but local, West Woodburn, Sept. 1887 ! R. Howse. 

Westmorland and Furness — Coniston, April 1887 ! S. C. Cockerell. 
Cumberland — Rickerby, near beck (Miss Donald, Cumberland List, 1882, p. 56). 

SCOTLAND. ii-Esr lowlands. 

Dumfries— Moffat, Jan. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Ayr — (iourock Burn, Seamill, Ardneil Bay Portincross, Fairlie. and Knockewart, 
INLarcb 1904, R. Godfrey. 

Renfrew — Frequent, Eaglesham (F. G. Binnie, West Scotland List, 1876, p. 41). 
Frequent, Sbielhill Glen and al)Out (Jreenock (T. Scott, CJreenock List, 1886). Near 
old castle, Inverkip road, Clreenock, Aug. 1886 ! Caldwell, Aug. 1887, J. Steel. 

Lanark — Frequent, Possil, Robroyston (F. G. Binnie, West Scotland List, 1876, 

p. 41). Elvanfoot, Sept. 1900, W. Evans. 


Peebles— Slipperfield Loch near West Linton, Aug. 1890 ! Meldon Hill, July 
1890 ! Standalane Braes! and by Tweed near Peebles, July 1890! W. Evans. 

Berwick — Dunglass Dean (G. Johnston, Berwick N.C. Pioc, 1838, p. 154). 
Near Eyemouth, Sept. 1895 ! W. Evans. 

Haddington— Balgone, Jan. 1896 ! Aberlady, July 1890! Quarry near Gullane ! 
and Luffness marshes ! W. Evans. 


Linlithgow— riiilpstoMii Lodi, Oct. 1890! Cairibljcr Glen, Fel>. 1898, aiul Dal 
nieny, Oct. 1902 ! W. Evan.s. Mr. li. Godfrey remarks that tliougli not almndant 
it is almost universal ihroufihoiit the county, and cites many coast and inland 
localities, as well as a number in tlie Avon valley and in the Honess district. 

Edinburgh— r.oiially, Oct. 1S88 ! W. I). 1{. "Hillend Farm, Pentlands, March 
1890! I'.aieriH), Ajiril i890 ! the Uiish, Penicuik, Dec. 1890; Arniston, .lune 1902; 
Diiddinj^fston Locli, .May 1894, and Vogrie Olen, Feb. 1897; Kirknewton ! Roslin ! 
Dalhousie I jilantation above Dreghorn, March 1890 ! W. Evans. 

/last highlands. 

Fife and Kinross— Otterston, June 1890 ! Dura Den, July 1890 ! 8t. Andrews, 
Aug. 1890 ! Tentsmuir, Aug. 1890! Kilconquhar, Sept. 1893, Loch Leven, June 1894 ! 
and Locii (kdly. May 1S9."), W. Evans. 

Stirling —Frc([uent, IJaldernock ami Kilsytii (F. (}. Uinnie, West Scotland List, 
187(1, ]). 41). 

Perth S. and Clackmannan— I'ort of Mciiteith, April 1892! Dollar, April 1897! 
"Wharry ( ;ien near liridge of Allan, Feb. 1898 ! and Callander, April 1892 ! W. Evans. 

Perth Mid— Lawers and Fearnan, Loch Tay side, May 1892 ! W. Evans. 

Perth N.— Fenderbridge, (ilen Tilt, Sept. 1898, Loch of Cluuie, July 1890 I 
A\'. I'^vaiis. 

Aberdeen S. -Smmnit of Cluiiie Pass, altitude 2,100 feet, July 1800 ! W. Evans. 

Elgin — Not uncommon in Moray. Abundant on danij) warm evenings near Mill 
of Birnie (Rev. U. Gordon, Zool., I8.j4, \>. 4453). Nairn, Jan. 1887 ! Kev. J. E. 

Easterness — Kincraig, Oct. 1889 ! W. Evans. 


Main Argyle — ("oast south of Dunoon, Aug. 1880 ! W.D.Il. 

Clyde Isles — Abundant on shores of Loch (ireenan. Lute, Aug. 1880! W.D.R. 
Brodi(d<, Isle of Arran, April 189.") ! W. Evans. 

Cantire- South of West lioch Tarbert, near head of Loch, April 1886 ! T. Scott. 

Ebudes N. — Dunvegan Castle, Skye, W. Thompson (Forbes «& Hanley, British 
Moll., 18.3.3, p. 21). 


Ross E.— Numerous near Bonar Bridge, Dornoch Frith, Feb. 1887 ! W. Baillie. 

Sutherland E.— Near Loch P.rora, Oct. 1883 ! (Jolside Burn, June 1884 ! South of 
Little Fenv, Dornoch, Oct. 1884 ! and near the Mound. June 188.") ! W. Baillie. 

Sutherland W.— Mouth of Malladaile River, Nov. 1880 ! W. Baillie. 

Caithness— Wick (Peach, List, 1864). Bank of Dunbeath River, May 
1884 ! W. Baillie. 


Shetlands— (Heynemann, Jahrb. Deutsch. I\Lil. Ges., 188.5, p. 248). 


This is said by Dr. Scharfl" to be one of the rarest of the Irish slugs. It was first 
di.scovereil in Irelaml, in April 1884, at Coleiaine in Co. Deny, by ^Ir. L. E. Adams. 


Derry— Coleraine, comnu)n, .April 1884, L. E. Adams. Culmore near London- 
derry, J. N. Milne (H. F. Scharff, Irish Nat., 1892). 

Antrim— Colin (ilen near Belfast, (_)ct. 1899 ; in wood, Ballycastle, and Glencorp, 
March 19(J0; common on marshy ground, slK)res of Lough Neagh, at Antrim, Aug. 
1898 ; and on Rams Island, Lough Neagh, iMay 1900 ; also found about Ballycastle, 
and other localities, but not so common as in ('(ninty Down, R. Welch. Common in 
damp ])arts of wood, Murlough, Sej)t. 189(1 (R. Stamlen, Irish Nat., Jan. 1897). 

Down — Common around flax dam, near Ballynahinch .Junction, March 1809 ; 
common under stones aiound lla.v dams, in the White Bog, Killongh, Oct. 1898 ; 
Deer's Meadow, Mourni' Monntains, alt. 1.110 feet, Jan. 1898 ; on watercress, below 
Spring Well, ClondullC'astle, Jan. 1898 ; damp hollow, Newcastle dunes, Aug. 1898; 
common at the roots of rushes, Shaw's Bridge, Belfast, March 1899 ; common on 
rejectamenta, Ravernet Hi ver, April 1899; Hillsborough, April 1899 ; marsh near 
Diindrnm, Nov. 1899, B. Welch. Shores of i-ond, Belvoir Park, May 1898; Oak- 
lei'di, Omieau Park, and in marsh, Lougliiiisl.ind, l''eb. 1900, A. W. Stelfox and 
R. W(dch. 

Monaghan— Marsh at Lake Glasslough demesne, Oct. 1887, R. Welcli. 

Donegal Letterkenny, Nov. 1892, Pa-v. A. H. Delap. 

Fermanagh Sparingly on shores of lake, Enniskillen, Iv. Welch. 


Dublin-Banks of an old lish poml on Lord Miissey's estate, Killakee, Dublin 
Mountains, Sejit. 1890; Carrickmines, April 1892, anil in orchid houses. Trinity 
College Botanic Gardens, .Ian. 1891, 11. F. ScharlV. In marsh, Bushey Park, Dublin, 
Sept. 1903, A. W. Stelfo.x and R. Welch. 

Plate XIV. 

Distribution of Agrwlimax Icevis (Mull.) 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 


Channel Isles 


1 Cornwall \V. 

2 Cornwall K. 

3 Devon n. 

4 itevou N. 

5 Somerset S. 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts S). 

9 Dorset 
10 Isleoi Wiglit 
H Hants S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Snssex Vi . 

14 Susses hi. 


15 Kent E. 

16 Kent W. 

17 Surrey 
IS Essex S 
IS) Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 iUiddlesex 

22 lierks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 

ANtil.l A 

2.5 Suffolk E. 

26 feulloik \\'. 

27 Noriolk E. 

28 Norfolk \V. 

29 Canmriclne 

30 ISedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 Norlliampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester \V 

35 Jloumoutli 

36 Herelord 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 

Soltn WALKS 

41 Glamorgan 

42 Brecon 
4.1 Radnor 

44 Carurartlien 
4.} Teiulirttke 

46 Cardigan 


47 Jlonlgomery 

48 Merioneth 

49 Carnarvon 
.50 Denhigh 
.51 Flint 
5:; Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 
.54 Lincoln N. 
65 Leic. & Rntld. 
.56 iNotts. 
.57 Derl>y 


58 Cheshire 

59 Lancashire S 

60 Lancashire .Ml* 


61 S.E. VorK 

62 N.E. Vork 

63 S. \V. Yolk 

64 .Mid W. Y.irk 

65 N.W. Vork 

1 ^NK 

66 Dnrhani 

67 Norlhumb. S. 

68 Cheviotland 


69 Westmorland 
and li. Lanes. 

70 Cumlierland 

71 Isle of .Man 




K. llhiHLANDS 

72 Ihiinfries 

93 AbenleenN. 

73 Kiikcudbright 

94 r.antt 

74 Wigtown 

95 Elgin 

75 Ayr 


76 Renfrew 


77 Lanark 

97 Westerness 


9S Main .\rgyle 

78 Peebles 

99 Dumbarton 

79 Selkirk 

loO Cly<le Isles 

80 Roxburgh 

lui Cantire 

81 Berwick 

1U2 Ebudes S. 

82 Haddington 

103 Ebuiles Mid 

83 Edinburgh 

104 Ebudes N 

84 Linlithgow 

N. nil. 11 LANDS 


10.5 Ross W. 

85 Fife& Kinross 

106 Ross E. 

86 Stirling 

107 Sutherland E. 

87 I'erthS.&Clkn 

los Sutherland \V. 

88 Jlid Rerth 

109 Caithness 

89 I'erth N. 

Noitru ISl.KS 

90 I'orfar 

110 Hebrides 

91 Kincardine 

111 Orkneys 

92 Aberdeen S. 

112 Shetlands 




113 Derry 

122 Louth 

114 Antrim 

123 .Meath 

115 Down 

124 Dublin 

116 .Armagh 

125 Kildare 

117 Monaghan 

126 SVicklow 

118 Tyrone 

127 Wexford 

119 Donegal 

128 Carlow 

120 Fermanagh 

l-.'9 Kilkenny 

121 Cavan 

130 Queen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 


135 Leitrim 


136 Sligo 


137 MayoE. 


138 Mayo W. 


139 Galwav W. 


140 Galway E. 

82 "^ 


141 Clare 

"^ f •fc 

142 Limerick 

X/« I 

14:i Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S 

"^"^^^ jk. ..^■^igfc.X 

145 Waterford 

^ ^v^ 

146 CorK N. 

"->/) '^'* \ 

147 Cork S. 

148 Kerry 



Probable Range. 
Recorded Distribution. 
Distribution verified by the Authors 
Fossil Distribution. 


Kildare — Kiver banks, Monasterevan, Oct. 1899, R. Welch. 

Wicklow — Aniong water-lilies, Woodeiibridge, March 1893 (R. F. Scharff, Irish 
Nat., 18!)3, p. 149). Greystones (id., 1892). 

Kilkenny — In the south of the county, Jan. 1903, P. H. Grierson. 

Westmeath — Knockdrin demesne near MuUingar, April 1892, R. ¥. Scharft'. 


Leitrim— Drouiahaire, Sept. 1900, R. Welch. Glencar, Sept. 1900, G. W. Chaster 
and E. Collier. 

Galway W. — At roots of rushes in niarshj' ground, Clonbrock, Hon. R. E. Dillon 
(R. WeU-li, Irish Nat., June 1899, p. 143). 

Galway E. — About Renvyle and among bogs in the Kylemore <listrict, March 
1891, R. F. Scharff. Dernasiiggan, Apriri897 (R. Welch,' Irish Nat., Nov. 1897, 

p. 304. ) 


Cork S.— Glengariff near Eccles Hotel, May 1891, R. F. Scharff. Blarney Castle 
and i'.antry, Sept. 1898, L. E. Adams. 

Kerry— A very dark form in Mucksna Wood ; several under logs near Loo Bridge; 
one at iioughty Bridge ; a ])ale form on tiie river bank above Galway's Bridge, R. 
Welch; and Tore Woods, (;. W. Chaster, July 1898 (R. Standen, Irisli Nat., Sept. 
1898). Plentiful on water-lily stems in a swamp near the lower lake in Herbert's 
Muckross demesne, May 1891, R. F. Scharff. Moderately common, Killarney, Sept. 
1898, L. E. Adams. River banks, Kenniare, May 1898, R. Welch. 

According to Herr Clessin A. la'vi.s is diffused throughout the country, and it 
has been recorded from Alsace, Baden, Bavaria, Brandenl)urg, Coljurg, Franconia, 
Fiiesland, Hanover, Holstein, Merseburg, Nassau, Pomerania, Saxony, Schleswig, 
Silesia, West Prussia, and Wurtemburg. 

Belgium — Recorded by Van-den-Broeck as abundant about Jette, Brabant ; and 
as L. parvultis from Cliaudfoutaine, near Liege. 

According to Mabille, this species inhabits nearly the whole of France, but 
recf)rds have only been procurable from 

Ain, Aisne, ' Aqnitaine, Ariege, Aube, Basses-Pyrenees, Cote d"Or, Haute 
Garonne, Haute Savoie, Herault, Laiides, Nievre, Nord, Oise, Pas-de-Calais, 
Rhone, Savoie, Seine, Seine-Inferieure, Seine-et-Marne, Somme, Var, Vienne, and 
the Island of Corsica. 

Herr Clessin states that it is diffused throughout the country. 

Hitherto found only in the north of the country in Piedmont and Lombardy. In 
damp moss, near railway, Menaggio in Lombardy, Sept. 1886, B. Tomlin. Above 
Viii, Valle di Lanzo, and beneath Crissolo, Piedmont (Less. & Poll., Monog. Limac. 
Ital., 1882, p. 47). 

Herr Clessin descril)es this species as diffused throughout the whole region. It 
has been recoi-ded from Mora\ia, Hungary and Istria, Jarov near Prague in Bohemia, 
Vienna in Austria, and the Eastern Alps. 


Spain — Near Monastery of INIontserrat, Catalonia, May 1881 (P. Fagot, Faun. 
Mai. Catal,, May 1884). 

Portugal — L. lombricoides, common aliout Monchique in Algarve ; a darker 
variety inhabits the mountains of Braga in Minho (Morelet, op. cit. ). 


Norway — Only in the south about Christiania and Christiansand (B. Esmark, 
J. of Conch., Oct. 1886). 

Sweden — Al)out Gothenberg (Malm, Limac. Skand., 1868). 

Denmark — Around Copenhagen, and on banks of Sorgenfri river, where it was 
observed liy Midler. It occurs, according to Feddersen, througliout the tract of 
Viborg, in Jutland (Malm, op. cit., p. 82). 

Only as yet recorded for Monjevo, near Moscow, by Milachevitch, ami liy A. 
Luther from Revel in Esthland, and tlie south part of Finland as far north as 63^ 
north lat. 



Fig. 145. — Median, 
inarcinal teeth of A 

lateral, and 

highly magnified (after Binney). 

Agriolimax laevis campestris Biiine)-, Proc Boston See. Xat., 
IHll, p. o-i. 

Limax ntontanus Ingersoll, Bull. U.S. (leol. Surv. Terr., 1875, p. 394. 
Umax castaneus Ingersoll, op. cit. 

/.iiriax iugcrso//i W. G. I'.inney, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1875. 
Limax hypcibofcns Westerlund, Nachsbl. d. Deutsch. Mai. Ges., 187G, p. !I7. 

With this geograi)hical race, the hite Air. Amos Binney, the eminent 
American conchologist, is associated, not only as being the author of tlie 
name a(hii)ted for the race, but in acknowledgment of the great services 
he rendered to the advancement of our study. 

Animal usually of some i^liade of amber, but 
occasionally of a blackish hue ; without spots or 
markinj^s \ iikao and OMMATOPHORES smoky ; 
FOOT narrow and whitish. 

Internally, A. cainpestris i.s, according to 
Binney, characterized by the jaw possessing re- 
curved iuid pointed] ends, a sharp MEDIAN BEAK, 
and the centre 
.silo^\ing a strong 
tiansNcrse line of 
The RADULA var- 
ies in its formula, 
40 -f 1 + 40 witii 
eighteen jierfect 
laterals being 

that of one adult specimen exandned. The 
laterals do not show, as in ^4. agrfistis, an inner-side 
cutting point, but about half the marginals are 
l)ilid, the idfurcatiou of the outer marginals l)eing 
very obscure. 

The Central and South American forms, de- 
scriljed as Limax stcininift, L. iiicric/ifDi'i/is, L. 
ijra.slliejis'is, and L. nrgent'nuts, of which no 
authentic descriptions have been available, are in 
all probability more correctly referred to 
this simpler and more primitive form than 
to the typical A. /aris, as though (hmbtloss 
exhibitiiig further minor modilications, tend- 
ing to a nearer appro.\imation with a still 
more ancient form, yet the intermediate 
position between tlie North American L. 
campestris an<l the South American forms, 
said to be held by the Mexican L. .sfoiunis, 
tends toconlirm the view that tlie most jtrimi- 
tive forms inhabit the more remote regions. 
The L. qncrnsltnidirits, A. hcrnmfi, etc., 
are also prol»ably more closely aliiiMl to this simpler form rather than to the more 
advanced European race, in which th*? development of the itenial retractor and the 
di.stinctly hamnier-hcadeil penis-sheath seems to be more especially a characteristic, 
and may be a.ssumed to be the highest stage of development the species has attained. 
The simpler and more primitive forms now inhabiting the New AVorld, the incle- 
ment re^'ions of Siberia., etc., jkjsscss, accor<ling to Simroth, a short stimulating 
ori'an and an elongate rather than a bammcr siiai>ed i)enis-shcath, resembling the 
immature form lignred by him. It \\onld thus seem that in Eurojie .1. hrris is 
somewhat variable in the develoimient of its genitalia, and that the uncommon 
or immature form in Eurojje is the prevalent one in the New Woi Id. 

Quebec — Limax campestris, (Jaspe, May 189'2 (A. W. Haidiam, Nautilus, Oct. 
1893, p. O.'i). Rather local about (^Micbcc (iii., Naiitilus, .Ian. 1897). 

Ontario— Z. cam pest ri^s, near McKays IJay, New Edinlmrgh ; and common about 
Ottawa in moist places everywhere except on sandy .soil (F. \\. Latchford, Trans. 
Ottawa ImcIiI Nat. Club, ISSti). 

Manitoba — L. campestris, occasionally at Winnipeg (A. AV. Hanham, Nautilus, 
May 1899, p. 3). 


Fig. 146. — Median, lateral, 
and marginal teeth c>{ Limax 
biasilii-nsis, X 200 (after 

Fig. 147. — Reproductive 
organs of Limax brasilicnsis 
(after Ihering). 


Maine — L. campestris, common in woods (E. S. INIorse, Pulni. of Maine, 1864, p. 7). 

Massachusetts — L. campcstris, Westport, under rocks and fallen trees, in old 
pastures (J. H. Tlionison, J. of Concli., Oct. 1SS5). 

Rhode Island — L. campcstris, under rocks and fallen trees in old pastures (J. H. 
Thomson, J. of Conch., Oct. 1885). 

Nev7 Jersey — L. campcsfris, Redbank, H. Prime, Oct. 188.'5. Cape May (H. A. 
Pilsbry, Nautilus, Nov. 1890, p. 74). Burlington, A. Ten Evck Lansing (W. G. 
Binney, Terr. Moll., 1878, vol. 5, ]». 149). 

New York — L. campcstris, Plattsburgh, widely distributed, G. H. Hudson, Oct. 
188.>. General in OnondagoCo. , W. M. Beauchanip, Oct. 1885. Quite common in 
Cayuga Lake Valley (N. Banks, Nautilus, April 1892). East Rochester, ]Monroe 
Co. (J. Walton, Tlie Museum, July 1898, p. 133). Vicinity of Owasco Lake (F. C. 
Baker, Nautilus, Sept. 1899, p. 58). 

Pennsylvania — L. campestris, Westchester, Chester Co., W. D. Hartniann, 1885. 
Common in most suitable localities around Philadelphia (M. Schick, Nautilus, April 
1895, p. 135). 

Ohio — L. campcstris, Cincinnati (Harper & Wetherby's Catalogue, Feb. 187(3). 

Michig'an — L. campcstris, generally distributed (B. Walker, Moll. Michigan, 
p. 21, 1899). 

Indiana — L. campcstris, common in Franklin Co., ]\Ioore i^ Butler, 1885. 

Iowa — L. campestris, abundant ami widely distributed. Desmoines, Iowa City, 
and Bonaparte, and doubtless throughout the state (C. R. Keyes, Bull. Esse.\ Inst., 
June 1888, p. 65). 

Nebraska — L. campcstris, only in the eastern counties of the state (Augliev, 
Bull. Surv. Terr., 1877, p. 698). 

North Carolina — L. campestris. Roan Mountains (Pilsbry «& Walker, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philad, 1897, p. 489). 

South Carolina— Aiken (W. G. Binney, Terr. Moll., 1878, vol. 5, p. 149). 

Missouri — Sedalia, Pettis Co., in plenty in open woods and in pastures far away 
froii\ timl)er, F. A. Sampson, Oct. 1885. 

Kansas — L. campestris, Sedgwick Co. (F. J. Ford, Nautilus, Jan. 1890, ]). 108). 

Arkansas— Z. campestris, Carroll; Sebastian; Pulaski; Perry; Nevada; and 
Franklin; the specimens from Franklin Co. are nearly two inches in length (F. A. 
Sampson, Report Geol. Survey Arkansas, 1891). 

New^ Mexico — Limax camjicstris, Roswell, Pecos Valley (T. D. A. Cockerell, 
Nautilus, July 1896, p. 35). Mescalero Indian Reservation, in the Sacramento 
Mountains, above the Agency (id., J. of Mai., May 1897, p. 4). 


Bermuda — A. hevis sens, lat., specimens in the British Museum, collected bv the 
Challenger Expedition (T. D. A. Cockerell, J. of Mai., May 1897, p. 3). 

Jamaica— j. hrds sens, lat., common at Moneague, Jan. 1892 ; also found at 
Cinchona by Mr. Fawcett and Mr. W. Cradwick (T. D. A. Cockerell, J. of Mai., 
May 1897. p. 3). 

Mexico — L. .?^CH?n-iW (Heyneniann, Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. Ges. 1885, p. 274). 

Brazil — L. brasilioisis, Rio (irande de Sul (Ihering, op. cit. ). 

Arg'entine — Lima.r meridicjnalis, Cordoba (Ihering, op. cit.); L. arr/cntiinis, 
Strobel, Rio Negro, Patagonia, 1879 (Roca, J. de Conch., 1883, p. 27-2). 

South Africa— (R. Sturany, J. of Mai., May 1899, 4). 43). 
Madagascar — (Simroth, Portug.-Azor. Fauna, 1891). 


Sandwich Isles — 'Sir. Collinge, who has examined a collection from these islands, 
refers the individuals inhabiting the more lofty regions to his A. bemnoti, citing as 
localities Honolulu, at an altitude of 2,000 feet ; Kauai, at 4,000 feet ; and Halea- 
kala, at 5,000 feet ; while A. hcvis is said to be found on the lower ground at an 
altitude of 2,000 feet at Kauai. Specimens which cannot be referred with certainty 
to either form were found at Haleakala, 5,000 feet altitude ; on mountains near 
Honolulu, at 2.000 feet altitude ; and between Olaa and Kilauea, at altitudes 
between 2,000 and 4,000 feet (Proc. Mai. Soc, 1897, p. 295). 

Cook's Islands — Limax rarotoncfanus, Rarotonga CHeynemann, op. cit.). 

New South "Wsdes—Agriolimax rarotonganus, Sydney THeynemann, Jahrb. 
Deutsch. Mai. Ges., 1885, p 303). Parramatta, probably the Limax olivaceus ot 
Gould i C. T. Musson, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1890, p. 885). 

Queensland — L. queenslandicus, Brisbane (C. T. Musson, op. cit.). A. raroton- 
ganus, Burnet river and Port Dennison (Hejmemann, op. cit.). 


Var. occidentalis Cooper, Proc. Acad Xat. Sci. Philad , 1872, p. UG,pl. 3. 

The ANIMAL does not ililVcr oxtcnnilly from tlio 
ordinary ciiiii/nsfris, except heinj,' said Ity Dr. Cooper to 
l>e ratlier more robust, tliaii the eastern form ; lie also 
remariis tiiat it is paler in colour winMi it lirst emerges 

from its retreat in tin' dry season. Intkiinam.v lliespeci- j,-,,. n8._Median, latemi, 

men examined l>y IJinney showed a l.'ADUl.A with a and marginal teeih of ./. co///- 
formula X") i 1 (.V), with thirteen laterals, the inner and /-cstrh \- occi.hnialis, highly 
outer lateral teeth oeeasi„nally sl.owin- a si.le spur, and ■"•vs-fi'^'l (-f'--T H.nney). 
ap]uoaehin^ in this respeet the var. niotiffouis rather than the typical c((iiipr.stri.s. 

CalKornia. ~ A (J r I oh' mri.r roniprsiris yu,r. orrifhnftifi.t, numerous about San Fran- 
cisco; Santa ("ruz: Clear Lake, and at Alta, Placer Co., 3,()2,5 feet elevation on the 
west slope of the Sierra Nevachi; also at Trnckee, Nevada Co., i),fS(i() feet hi^ih on 
the east slope. It has also been found on the Coast Mountains, and along the coast 
almost everywhere, from 3!)" north hit., to San .luan, near lat. ;W, J. U. Coo]»er, Oct. 
1885. A. ram first r is var.. Lake Merced, San Francisco Co., Mr. Raymond (T. D. A. 
Cockerel!, J. of Conch , Oct. 1891). 

Var. montanus Ingersoll, Bull. U.S. Geol. Survey, Terr., 1875, p. 394. 

A^rio'hiia.v montanus a ty(>kus T. D. \. Cockerell, J. of Conch., Oct. 1888. 
Limax iii^'i-rso/// W. G. Binney, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1875. 

Animal bluish-grey in colour, stout in form, 
with a blunt posterior extremity, and exceeding one 
inch in length. 

Internally, the radula shows a formula of 
50+ 1 +50, with sixteen perfect laterals. 

Prof. Cockerell has pointed out tluit IngersoU's 
description was jiroliably made from spirit specimens, 
and that the bhiisiigrey colour was due in great i)art 
to an exutlatioii of slime, such as is often observed 
in alcoholic specimens ; A. moiitautis a ti/piciis Ckll., 
which is described as "rather pale brown, foot-sole 
pale," in all probability represents Ingersoll's species 

when living. r^ t ■<. d i ■ 

, .,,. 1 I Fig. 149. — Keproiluctive system 

Montana— Z. moufunus, one at .Missoula. .Uine o< L. monianus (lih^r hmn^y). 

1897 (M. .1. Klrod, Nautilus, March 1902, p. 129). 

Utah—/., iwnitinnis [W. A. Tilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1889, p. 19(5). 
Colorado— v4. cnmju.stris var. vtoiiftDtn, Pueblo Co., and Kio Crande Co. 

" ' ' .— ."- Hot sulphur si)rings, 

Fremont Co. ; 
an. 1890, p. 100). 

Colorado —v4. cniDpr.stns var. moinmia, ruemo *^o., ami i\i 
(T. D. A. Cockerell, Moll. Colorado, .1. of Conch., Jan. 1889). Hot si 
Grand Co., Mr. Ingerstdl ; Custer Co. : Chaflee Co. ; Canon City, 
Summit Co. ; EagleCo. ; Mesa Co. ; and (Junnison Co. (id., Naut., Ja 

Var. castanea lug-er.soll, Bull. U.S. Geol. Survey Terr., 1875, p. 31)4. 

Liinax castancus Ingersoll, op. cit. 

Animal small and slender, colour lively lirown, 
with darker spot on the shikld; hkad and OMMA- 
TOPHOKKs black : KOor-.soLK white. Length less 
than one inch. 

liinnev describes the KADULA as similar in char- Fig. 150.— Median, lateral, and 

acter to that of I .«.»/Vn..., the formula being ^^t^^^^J:^'' 
:i4+ 1 + :U, with twelve i)erfect laterals. 

.\ccnrdiiig to I'lof. Co(d<erell, the var. rdstinin, was di^scribed from a young 
example, the black heail and teiitatdes being a feature imparted to alcoholic speci- 
mens and not existing in living animals. 

Colorado— vL rii,n/>rs/ris var. rast'iiini. llliie River \ alley. Mr. Ingersoll (T. 1). A. 
Cockerell, Nautilus, .Ian. 1S90, j.. IdU). 

Var. intermedius Cmkeivll, .1. otToiu-h., Oct. ISSS, p. 359. 

Animal dark-brown, foot-sole grey. 

Colorado— .4. cam pest ri^ var. intermedia. Wet Mountain Valley, Custer Co. ; 
Canon City, Fremont Co. : Wales Canon, Pueblo Co. ; Saguache Co. ; Summit Co. ; 
Mesa Co. • and Delta Co. (T. D. A. Cockerell, Nautilus, Jan. 1890, p. 100). 



Var. tristis Cockerell, op. cit. 

Animal very <lark-brown or brown-black. Tliis fonn, wliicli in its colouring is 
nearly allied to var. hyperborca, is found chiefly at high elevations in tlie mountains. 

The effect of living under the extreme conditions found at high altitudes upon 
the pigmentation of this species, is shown by the darkest forms being most prevalent 
in the highest elevated localities, and is corroborated by the dark colour of tlie var. 
hijp'rborrfi, found on the Arctic shores of Sil)eria and >«ortli America. 

Colorado — A. rainpc'itris v&r. tri>>tis. Lake Co. ; Summit Co. ; and Delta Co. 
(T. D. A. Cockerell, Nautilus, Jan. 1890, p. 100). 

Var. hyperborea Westl., Xacln-ielit. Deutseli. Mai. Ges., Sept. 1ST6, p. 97. 

Untax hyperhoreiis Westerlund, op. cit. 

Body firm, black above, sides paler, pale beneatli, 
back conve.xly rounded, narrowing behind, tail short, 
compressed and subcarinate above ; SFIIELD broadly 
rounded behind, thicker and much wider in front, inner 
margin retlexed. Long., 10 mill. ; lat., 3 mill. 

l.VTERN.\LLY, it is described by Binney as jjossessing 
a smooth arched jaw, with a blunt median ]u-ojection ; 
KADUL.A. with a formula of 42 + 1 +42 teeth, the centrals 
tricuspid; laterals twelve in number and Vncuspid ; mar- 
ginals about thirty, simply aculeate or with a bifurcation or side-spur. 

Siberia— Nordenskiold and Stuxberg found it at Goroschinskoj, 66' 17' north 
lat., on Sept. 10, l.S7o; and on the island Sopotschnoj, in the Jenissei river, 70'' 5', 
on Aug. 29, 1875 (Westerlund, op. cit.). Dr. Theel collected it at Tolstoinos, Aug. 
1876, and according to Westerlund it is recorded as Arion afer by Gerstfeldt from 
Eastern Siberia (id., Siber. Land Sotvatt. Moll., pp. 102 and 110). Dr. Dall also 
records that it was found by Stejueger and by the Vega Expedition on the Com- 
mander Islands. It is said to be found also in Kamschatka (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
1886, p. 217). Tschukschis Peninsula (Simrotli, Portug.-Azor. Fauna, 1891). 

Nearctic Region— Found throughout the Arctic shores of North America, and 
on tlie Aleutian and Behring Islands (Dall, op. cit.). 

Labrador — Not uncommon on May 16th, 1883, and July 23rd, 1884, under stone.s 
in moist places in willow thickets, etc., about Fort Chimo, Ungavo Bay (Dall, op. 
cit., p. 203). 

United States— Quincey, Calif(»-nia, 1889, PI. F. Wickham (T. D. A. Cockerell, 
J. of Mai., 18U7, p. 4). 

Fig. 151. — Median, lateral, 
and marginal teeth of Limax 
hyperboyeiis, highly magnified 
(after Binney). 

Fig. 152.— B.inks of Leeds and Liverpool Canal, near Kirkstall, a favourite locality for 
Agiiolimax leevis (photo, by Mr. R. Mackay). 


Genus MIL AX Gray. 

(Amalia, Moquin-Tandon ; Lallemantia, Mabille). 


The genus M'llax {M'dax, a word 
formed by a transliteration oi Lima.r) 
was instituted by Dr. Gray in tlie 
Cat. riilmon. Brit. Mus., publislied 
on May 1st, 1855, but in whicli tlie 
[)reface was dated March 2!>th. 

The term Milax antedates 
Mo(iuin-Tandun's name of Amalia, 
which was published in his " Hist. 
Moll. Terr, et Fluv. France," ii., 
p. 17, on Sept. 10th, lcS55. The 
preface to that work, though dated 
March 15th, was really issued with 
the third part on Aug. 1st, while 
the fourth part, in which the term 
AiikiIm was first instituted, did not 
appear until Sept. 10th, 1855, the 
misleading date of the preface to 
the work having led to the wrongful 
use of Aiiialia. 

With this genus Dr. J. E. and 
Mrs. Gray liave been associated in 
recognition of the institution of the 
present group and of the impetus 
their conchological works have had 
upon the popularization of con- 
chology generally. 

In this country we have but two 
.'species, which, although placed by 
I'cjllonera in sejiarate sub-genera, 
Tmidoiiia and Pirainett, do not show, 
at least in British specimens, tlie 
differential characters he has as- 
to them, but are, in fact, somewhat closelj'' allied in structure 
and aspect, but according to Dr. Sinn-oth, within certain limits, no genus 
is so unstable in its organization as is M'lla.r, a group which, in his 
opinion, is only at the outset of its course, in the formation of species 
for the future. 


Generic Characteristics. — Ivxterxally, in Mihx the body is longi- 
tudinally grooved, and acutely keeled the whole length of the back. The 
MANTLE is shagreened or delicately wrinkled, bears a bluntly lenticular 
or horse-shoe shaped groove, more or less completely circumscribing a 
somewhat prominent jiostero-central part which siunilates a smaller, 
superposed mantle: the iiKspiRAToia' orifice is placed on the right side 
behind the centre of the mantle, and is not cut by the anal channel, 


which is in advance ; the reproductive orifice is situate mid-way 
between the base of tlie right ommatopliore and the respiratory orifice. 
The ORGAN OF SEMPER is externally perceptible as crenulations or pucker- 
ings of the upper lip, which presents a row of eight or more rounded 

Internally, the viscera show a strong spiral twist^ in a sinistral direc- 
tion, the amount of torsion corresponding somewhat to that of a dextrally 
coiled Bulim'mus. The reproductive organs do not loop the retractor of 
the right tentacle, and possess a very remarkable series of accessory glands 
adherent to the base of the oviduct and atrium, into which they debouch 
by numerous slender ducts; there is no fiagellum, but a well-marked epi- 
phallus, within which a spermatophore is developed, and which is basally 
separated from the penis by a well-marked sphincter muscle. The penis- 
retractor arises from the dorsal skin on the right-side, just below the root 
of the cephalic retractor, and is attached to the epiphallus. The sarco- 
belum, or excitatory organ, though present in our British species, is not 
an invariable character in all the species of the genus ; the Milax 
carinatus of southern Europe, which in other respects is so closely related 
to our Mildx soivefbit, is said by Lessona & Pollonera to be destitute of 
an excitatory organ, though Dr. Simroth found it present in a Florentine 
specimen forwarded by Signor Lessona. The kidney is somewhat oval in 
shape, and differs from that of Limax in having a linguiform prolongation, 
doubled back under the organ and protruding behind on the right side. 
The supra-pedal gland lies free in the body cavity, and is only about 
one-third the total length of the body. 

The cephalic retractors comprise the pharyngeal and tentacular 
muscles, which are usually separate nearly or quite to their roots, though 
their points of origin are always closely contiguous; they arise from the 
dorsum, beneath the floor of the shell sac, to which they are firmly 
attached, exactly at or near to the point where the shell is adherent by 
its apex to the floor of the pouch. 

The foot-sole is distinctly longitudinally tri- 
partite, the broad mid-area being bounded by a 
well-marked groove at each side, and the wrinklings 
formed during the contraction of the sole, unlike 
those of the true Limaces and Afjriolimaces, which 
are simply transverse, show in Milax a striking 
chevron-like character in the median -line, an 
arrangement said to tally accurately with the dis- fig. isi.— Diagram of the 
position of the lateral branches of the sympathetic "^'^.ti^I^' JiZ^ 

mesh of the pedal nerves. wrmkUngs of the median-area. 

The law of colouring is similar to that pertaining to A. agrestis; the 
animals darken with age, the darker mantle-markings being assumed to be 
ancestral tiuits not yet obliterated, and formed by the approximation and 
fusion of the isolated spots of young animals. The primitive colouring of 
the species of this group is su])posed to be simple, and just as A. agrestis 
shows unicolorous dark or slate-blue varieties on the Mediterranean 
shores, Mihix has developed a preponderance of dark unicolored species 
or varieties in similar situations. 

In the eastern Mediterranean region, Mihix is separable into the species 
furnished with a prominent dorsal keel and those in which the keel is 
confined to the caudal end of the body ; the latter, which form the section 

1 Monog. i., p. 282, f. 562. 
29,5/04 1 



SuhnmaUd of Pollonera and tlie M(il/iif(st7'um of Bouvguignat, are confined 
to tlie mountains and are probably the more ancient forms. The strongly 
carinate species found in the Crimea, (ireece, Transylvania, Austria, 
Germany, and Italy, which have been classified under Tandcmia and 
Piniinea of Lessona & Pollonera, are mostly of a reddish or brownish tint, 
but more westwardly the reddish ground gradually disappears, the animals 
becoming ochreous or black. 

The species of M'dax are slow and sluggish in movement, possess a 
thick skin, and secrete a tough and viscid mucus. According to Simroth, 
they are essentially carnivorous and predaceous, though occasionally 
devouring vegetable food. The duration of life in the M'daces is uncertain, 
but Simroth thinks it extends over several years. 

Conjugation in Milax is not restricted to any particular season, but in 
mild weather may take place at any period of the year, the act itself being 
very i)rolonged ; Mr. Kew has observed it on one occasion to continue for 
a space of seventeen hours, this lengthy ceremony being probably necessi- 
tated by the time requisite for the formation and transference of the 
elaborate spermatophore. 

Fossil. — A Mildx (M. gracUhir Sandberger) is recorded from the 
Upper Pliocene beds at Biberach, Wurtemburg, by Sandberger, but in 
this country it has not been reported from any dejjosits lower than the 

Geographical Distribution. — This genus, according to Simroth, has 
not naturally a wide distribution, as, excepting its occurrence in the extreme 
points of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, California, and several 
oceanic islands, in all of which it may have been artiticially introduced, its 
range is, as far as at present known, confined chiefiy to the Mediterranean 
and European region. 

Fig. 155. — 01>verse and reverse of medal struck in 18G3 in honour of Dr. and Mrs. Gray. 



Milax gagates (Draparnaud). 

1801 Limax gagates Draparnaud, Tabl. Moll., p. 100, no. 1. 

1805 — — Draparnaud, Hist. Nat., p. 122, pi. 9, f. 1, 2. 

1824 — maurus Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. I'ranie, p. 420. 

1855 — (Amalia) garfatcs Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll., vol. 2, p. 19, pi. 2, f. 1-S. 

1872 — hewsfoni Cooper, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliilad., p. 147, pi. 3. ' 

1855 Milax (frigates Gray, Catal. Pulni., p. 174. 

1880 — tasmanicus Tate, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 16. 

1876 A malia mavginata niut. gagates Pini, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., vol. 2 p 107 

1897 — babori CoUinge, Proc. Mai. Soc, p. 294. 

ISTORY. — Milax gagates {gagates, 
jet), is one of our more uucommou 
slugs, and_ though typically of jet 
black hue, is in this country more fre- 
quently found of a pale plumbeous or 
brownish tint. 

This species was first described by 
Draparnaud in 1801, and was first dis- 
covered in Great Britain by Mr. R. D. 
Darbishire, B.x\., F.G.S., of Victoria 
Park, Manchester, who in Sei)tember 
1851, found a characteristic specimen 
at the foot of a hawthorn hedge, on tlie 
Isle of Portland, which was identified 
by Prof. Forbes. 

Mr. E. A. Smith, in the Proc. Zool. 
Soc., 1884, p. 276, suggests the proba- 
bility that the L. capensis Krauss may 
prove to be referable to our species ; 
and Mr. C. T. Musson makes a similar 
suggestion in reference to the L. jiectinatus of Selenka. 

Prof. R. Tate has described (Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1880, p. 16) a 
Milax nigricolus, which inhabits the gullies of the Adelaide hills, and is 
widely dispersed over the Adelaide plain generally. Though presented as 
a new and probably indigenous species, the author suggests that it may be 
identical with Milax gagates. 

Dr. Simroth considers Amalia doderleini, A. sicula, and A. insularis as 
all synonymous with the present species, and agrees with Heynemann 
in similarly regarding Limax scaptobius of Bourguignat, but as there 
appears to be some conflict of opinion on the subject, their views are 
simply recorded liere. 

Diagnosis. — E.kternally, Milax gagates is known from its congener 
by its^nore uniform colouring; by the keel being usually of the same or of 
a darker tint than the body,_ and by its greater prominence at the caudal 
extremity ; the parallel longitudinal groovings of the body are also quite 
unpigmented, and the intervals between the groovings smooth or deli- 
cately granulate. 

Internally, it is sharply differentiated by the globose spermatheca and 
the protuberant atrium or vestibule. 

/t-^ ^*, jfd^^^"^^ /C*<^ 



Fig. 157. — Internal ^heW of A/, g'ag-ates X 4. 
(Christchurch, Hants, Mr. C. Ashforid). 

Description. — Animal comparatively slemler, and usually r)0 luill. or more in 
len<;tli wlien extended ; ty]ii('ally of an almost uniform bl.ack above, Imt in this country 
more frecjuently of adral), lavendoi or piumlie(>us-j;rey ; DOHSAl.-KKKli very piominent 
and sliar|>, especially at the caudal end, ^^ilerc it is ahruptly anj^ulatcd ; it extends 
the whole lenj;th of the l>ack, stron.uly indenting' tlie hind niarj,'in of the shield 
when the animal is at rest, and is usually of the same or a darU<;r cohmr than the 
l)ody ; the HODV is loiijiitudimilly and rejjfularly sulcate, the interveninj,' spaces lieinj,' 
only slijilitly f^ranulate; .shikld or mantle amjde, truncately rounded l)ehind, finely 
wrinkled and l)earin,<; a hluntly lenticular or jiorse-shoe slia])ed unjti^mented sulcus, 
whifh circiimscrilies a someMhat jirotulieiant and slitihtly darker central area 
lieneatli which the vesti^'ial shell is lodged ; KooT-soi.K ])ale, distinctly tripartite, 
the mid area much broailer than the side-areas, and sejiarated ])y a deep furrow; 
KRIX(;k same colour <as side of sole, without lineoles, rather thi(dv and rounded at 
the fiont, defined from the sides by a deep channel ; TKNTACLE.S moderately lonj^ and 
<j;ranulose; lower tentacles short. Mucus thick, glutiiu)us, and colonrless when in 
health, but when irritat(>d or scalded tinned with pale yellow, and slightly milky 
from the piesence of innumerable minute granules of carbonate of lime. 

Shell more or less elongately oval in 
shape, glistening white in colour, and some- 
what convexly rounded on the U])i»er side ; 
APKX or nucleus subterminal and almost 
median, encircled with strong and regular 
concentric lines of growth ; under-side flat, 
or even somewhat convex owing to the 
presence of an almost flat calcareous plate, 
the shell thus often presenting a double 
ap})earance when viewed laterally, simulating two shells placed one upon another. 

Length, 45 mill. ; breadth, 3 mill. 

Internally', tiie nervous matter is 
closely aggregated round the throat, the 
dark-grej' ami triangular cerebral ganglia 
being connected bv a short broad dark-grev J /~"n^ /\ ,, ^"^ ^^^- ^ 

'^ . Jill 1. 1 -r. 1 "^ ^^ ^"— ^\ Nerve centres of 

commissure ; tlie buccal ganglia are wlutisii, //f/ — y — ^Y MHax' ga^ates, 

a little more than their own diameter apart, llj yl showing otocysts 

ami joined to the cerel>ral ganglia by (hxrk- W v> A o // (greatly enlarged). 

grey connectives; the SUPRA-PEDALOLANI) 
is free, ami only half the length of the body in 
adults, and even less in immature Individ nals. 
The LIVER is chestnut-coloured, the right lobe forming the posterior end of the 
visceral mass, the left is directed forwards to the KIDNEV, which has a long tongue- 
shaped prolongation beyond the right margin of the organ. 

The ALIMENTARY CANAL shows a broad and brown CESOl'nA(iU.s ; an ample 
brown CROP with white SALIVARY GLANDS adherent to its walls; the intestinal 
coils are triodromous, but owing to the strong s[)iral twisting to wliiidi the whole of 
the viscera ha\e been subjected they ajiix'ar miudi more compicv ; the second 
intestinal tract extends beyond the termination of the stomiicb, and turns in the 
caudal lobe of the liver, the rectum jia-ssing to the .anal opening at the right side 
of the body without looping the retractor. 

The ri:pi{oI)L:ctivk system opens externally about half way between the right 
ommatophore and the respiratory orihce ; the OVOTESTis is oval and whitish, \\\W\ 
large acini ; the OUCT becomes ample and tortuous as it nears the albumen gland, 
where there is a well defined VKSICULA SKMINALIS; the ALBUMEN CL.VNl) is ])ale 
ochreous, gelatinous and semi•tr■•ln^l)ar('Mt; the is of an opaipie milk- 
white colour and not well devclojied ; the OVIDUCT is semi-transparent, with a tinge 
of lilue; the KliKK-oviDUCT narrow and cylindrical; the VAS DKl'ERl';^'s short, 
entering the epiphallus terminally ; the PENJS-SHEATll is small 
and insignificant, with longitudinal ribliing, terminated ilistally 
by a large and well-marked bluish-white epiphallus, which 
is aunularly rilibed internally, the ribs l)eing visible exteinally 
as opaipie- white s]jecks; the basal limits are denoted exteriorly 
l>y a distinct sphincter, and interiorly by two annular series 
of i)r(>jecling papilla^ ; the j)enis-sheatli enters the l)ulbous and 
bulging .vrRiUM at the side within the protuberant part of 
which, opposite the penial opening, there is a smooth and ploughshare-shaped 
excitatory organ, or S.VRCOBELUM ; tlie PEXIAL-RETUACTOR, which is quite slender, 


Fig. 159.— Sarcoiie- 
Uini of Mi/ajc ga^'ah's 
(greatly enlarged). 



arises from the convex side of the epiphallus, and is fixed to the oviduct ; sperma- 
THECA large and globose when fully distended, connected laterally to the oviduct by 


Fig. 160. Fig. 161. Fig. 162. 

Fig. 160. — Alimentary tract oi Miiax j;ag-atcs, showing the buccal bulb and nerve-ring, X 2. 

Fig. 161. — Sexual organs of M. gagates, X 3, the accessory glands turned aside to show the 
protuberant atrium, albumen gland ; ot. ovotestis ; sp. spermatheca ; p.s. penis-sheath ; 
£'/. epiphallus; r. retractor; gl. accessory glands. 

Fig. 162. — Cephalic retractors of M. gagates, x 8. 

tissue and more firmly at the apex; its short, stout stem opens into the free-oviduct, 
at whose junction witli the atrium are large foliated accessory glands with long 
ducts, resembling salivary glands in their wliiteness and lobular form. 

The CEPHALIC RETEACTOPv is somewhat variable in its development ; it usually 
arises from the dorsum from a single root, and is often attachetl to, or beneath, 
the apex of the shell, travelling a short distance as a single band; occasionally the 
PHARYNGEAL and TENTACULAR portions may arise independently, each from its 
own base or root, but these are always closely contiguous; the pharyngeal muscle 
is invariably deeply cleft, and the retractor of the right tentacle does not separate 
the male and female organs, as in the typical 

Mandible or jaw moderately arcuate, thick, and 
of a deepish horn colour, witii very fine strire on the 
anterior surface ; ends bluntly rounded ; median beak 
or rostrum not prominent and very obtuse. 

The LINGUAL MEMBRANE is of the usual shape, and in a Christchurch specimen 
disjdays series of closelj'-set teeth, projecting forward in the centre and sloping 
backward towards the margins; the median series of teeth are slightly smaller tlian 
the neighbouring laterals, and are distinctly tricuspid with the mesocone strong and 

3b 3H 

Fig. 163. — Mandible or jaw of 
i\Iilax gagates, x 12. 

Fig. 161. — Representative denticles from a row of the lingual teeth of y1/. gagates, X 180. 
The animal collected at Christchurch by Mr. C. Ashford, and the palate prepared by Mr. J. W. Neville. 

well developed; tiie laterals are also clearly tricuspid, the mesocone gradually 
increasing in strength and importance ; the marginals are chiefiy bicuspid, showing 
a strong mesocone and distinct ectocone, the endocone so well developed on the 
lateral teetlr having become grailually lost, while the extreme marginals are simply 

The formula of a Christchurch specimen is 

iT + ¥ + H-TT + ir X 98 = 7,938. 

Reproduction and Development. — The congress of tliis species may 
take place at any period of the year, during mihi weather, and as is indi- 
cated by the presence of a well-developed excitatory organ within the 


bulging atrium, is probably preceded by mutual excbange of blandisli- 
ments and stimulatory actions, tlie operation itself occupying many hours, 
this great length of time being necessary to allow time for the secretion of 
the spermatophores and for their mutual transference. 

The eggs are slightly oval in shape, transparent, delicate, and thin 
shelled, and measure 2 mill, in length and 1^ mill, in width. They are 
agglutinated together by a colourless mucosity and deposited in moist 
spots in the soil, or beneath some protection, and hatch in less than a 
month ; the young, according to Prof. Kranse, when excluded are white, 
with a semi-circular black band on the mantle, and the margin of the 
pallial gutter filled with pigment; they may afterwards become tinted with 
grey, especially towards the end of the keel, following this by assuming a 
reddish colour, with a greenish tint at the sides, and although all do not 
follow in the same line of colour development, yet as they increase in 
size they gradually assume the adult coloration. 

Food and Habits. — M'dax gugates is a shy and retiring species, and 
of nocturnal habits ; though more active than its congener, it is also 
addicted to a somewhat subterranean mode of life, but may be met with 
crawling on the earth dui'ing the day after long-continued or heavy rain. 

Though essentially a ground slug, frequenting heaps of decaying veget- 
able matter, the foot of old walls, hedgerows, and amidst thick herbage or 
tufted plants, in gardens, etc., yet it has at times been noticed crawling up 
the trunks of a})ple and lime trees, and upon old walls. 

It can spin mucous-threads easily and well, and quickly avails itself of 
this method of reaching the ground when placed in distasteful positions. 

When at rest it assumes, according to Dr. Norman, a more rounded form 
than any other British Limax, so contracting itself that its height is but 
little exceeded by its length. 

Though perhaps chiefly vegetarian, and very destructive to young plants 
and underground roots and bulbs, yet it is also not only carnivorous but 
predaceous, eagerly destroying and devouring Helices and slugs, and even 
sickly or weaker individuals of its own kind. 

In captivity it is very omnivorous, as out of 195 different kinds of food 
offered to it by Mr. Gain it ate more or less leadily 173, though only 
devouring with eagerness potato tubers and the root of carrot. 

Fossil. — It has been reported from the Pleistocene deposits near Port- 
land Bill, Dorset, on the authority of Prof. Prestwich (J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, 
Moll. Dorset, 1898). 

Variation. — The external variation in Milax gagates would appear to 
be more largely geographical and less s[)oradic than in many species, 
although M. Bourguignat describes it as a variable species, sometimes 
greenish or yellowish or even bluish in colour. 

British specimens are generally smaller, smoother, more pellucid, and 
paler than those inhabiting more southern and warmer districts. The 
Mediterranean forms are often large, black, more ()pa([ne, and more rugose 
than our British specimens, and the black pigment tends to invade the 
side-areas of the sole ; this major form has been especially noticed in 
Algeria, and has been regarded as a sub-species by Prof. Cockerell, under 
the name of Amal/a mediterrnnen. In Sicil}', this pigmentation of the 
sole is not so far advanced, the side-areas being still grey ; this transitional 
stage has been distinguished as forma sim'dis, while closely-allied indi- 
viduals from Morocco have been differentiated as forma athintka Ukll. 

Plate XV. 


I. Agriolitnax a^restis var. palliila, (>. 112. 
Horsforth, Yorks. 

2. Agrioliinax agiestis vnr. brunnea, p. 114. 
Bo\iar Bridge, East Ross, W. Baitlie. 


3. AgrioliindA di^ii^tii, i.ii. n:uuldtd, p. 115. 
{after Feriissac, pi. v f. 7). 

4. Agrioliinax agrestis subvar. lilacina, p. 113. 
Stroud, Gloucestershire, E.J. Elliott 

5. .-igriolimax liTvis, p. 122. 
Ne^vlay, Yorks. 

7. Agrioliinax Icevis subvar. maculata, p. 126. 
Barnes, Surrey, T. I). A . Cockerell. 

6. Agrioliniax IcEvis var. grisea, p 126. 
Downpatrick, Down, R. Welch. 

9. Mtlax gagates, p. 140. 
Sale, Cheshire, C. Oldham. 

10. Milax gagates var. bicolor, p. 146. 
Guernsey, B. Toinlin. 

II. Milax gagates var. benoiii, p. 146. 

y. Agi ioliiiid \ ,'..,!, ■ ,i(;:!;;/( I ii'iiiii p. 126. 
(after Siinroth). 

12. Milax gagates var. pallidissiina, p. 146 
Guernsey, B. Toinlin. 

13. Milax gagates var. plumbea, p. 144. 
Stafford, L. E. A dams . 

14. Mildx gagates var. rava, p. 145. 
Truro, J H. James. 

15. Mtlax sowerbti, p. i";!. 
Woodbridge, E. Suffolk, Rev. s' S. Pearce. 

18. Milax sowerbii var. bicolor, p. 157. 
Ealing, Middlesex, T. D. A. Cockeiell. 

16. Milax sowerbii var. nigrescens, p. 151. 
Aberayron, Cardigan, W. Whitwell. 

17. Milax sowerbii, var. alba, p. 155. 
Tetiby, Pembroke, A . G. Stubbs. 

ig. Milax soicerbii, subvar. insolita. p. 156. 
Rhyl, Flint, A. Steele Perkins. 

20. Milax sowerbii var. rustica, p. 156. 
Dublin, J. R. Redding. 

J. W. Taylor, del. 

Taylor Bros., Leeds. 



Fig. 165. — Median, lateral, and 
marginal teeth of M. heivstoni 
(highly magnified), after Binney. 

Fir,. 166. — Sexual organs of AI. 
hcwstoni (after Binney). 

The effect of insular conditions upon the coloration of this species is 
well marked; the broad effect being a general similarity which has a marked 
relationship to the two prevalent varieties characterizing the British Isles. 

In Madeira this species is of a more or less dark-brown colour, and has 
been described as var. maderensis Ckll. ; it may be regarded as an extreme 
form of the var. rava. 

The M. gagates of St. Helena, described as forma helence, partake of the 
characters of the v;irs. plumhen and rava, and the same intermediate fea- 
tures are displayed by the forma tristensis Ckll., from Tristan d'Acunha 
and Juan Fernandez. 

The Bermuda specimens on the contrary display a close relationship 
with the typical form, but show a flexuous keel, and are rather more 
opaque and rugose than is usual. 

The American examples of M. gagates, perhaps better known under 
Cooper's name of M. hewstoni, differ but little from typical gagates ; the 
body is blackish above, paler at the sides ; sole dull greyish ochreous ; keel 
not conspicuous in the living 
slug, but much stronger when 
contracted in alcohol. The 
internal structure agrees also 
with gagates in all essential 
points, the oviduct being said 
by Binney to be long and very 
tortuous, with a well-developed 
sperm-duct ; the vagina very 
short, the large and globular 
spermatheca entering about the 
middle by a very short duct ; penis sac small, short, and cylindrical, but 
expanded and bulbous at the apex, where the vas deferens enters. 

The lingual membrane has a formula of 30 -M -t- 30, with foiirteen perfect 
laterals, and shows symmetrical basal plates, and well-developed endoconic 
cutting points to inner lateral teeth, but the marginals are not bifurcated. 

Var. bedriagae Less. & Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 59. 

Alitalia nieditcrranca Ckll., Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1891, p. 331. 
Alitalia ineditcrranca f. sintilis Ckll., op. cit., p. 332. 
Alitalia gagates f. atlantica Ckll., op. cit., p. 330. 

Animal black, lateral ai-eas of the sole blackish. 

The .sub-var. medlterranea Ckll. only differs from the var. bedriagw in its 
larger size, measuring 56 mill, in length (in alcohol). It is described as of a rather 
dull l)lack, and though somewhat shiny, quite opaque. 

The sub-var. similis Ckll. is smaller than the preceding, has an opaque-wrinkly- 
rugose and black body, a strong and rather Hexuous keel ; side-areas of sole greyish. 

The sub-var. atlantica Ckll. is of ordinary dimensions, and also black, slightly 
transparent at the sides, body smooth, with rug;e not well marked ; .sole grey and 
slightly translucent ; jaw dark brown with a well-formed median projection. 

France — Var. bcdrimjfc, Nice, in the Alpes Maritinies, Signor iiedriaga (Less. & 
Poll., op. cit.). 

Sardinia — Var. bcdriaga', Signor Falchi (Less. & Poll., op. cit.). 

Sicily — Sub-var. similis, Catania (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit., p. 332). 

Spain — Sub-var. atlantica, Gibraltar, J. H. Ponsonby (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. 
cit., p. 331). 

Algeria — Sub-var. mcditerranca, a specimen from East Algeria in the British 
Museum, received from Dr. Heynemann (T. 1). A. Cockerell, op. cit., p. 331). 

The specimens in the British Museum, collected by Dr. Anderson at Hammani 
Meskontina, and referred to sul)-si). mediferranca by Mr. Cockerell, are perhaps 
better placed under the sul)-var. atlantica. 

Morocco — Sub-var. atlantica, Tangiers, J. H. Ponsonby (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. 
cit., p. 330). 


Var. plumbea Moq.-Tand, Hist. Moll. France, 1855, ii.,p. 19, \A. G, IT. 1,2. 

Limax {Ainalia) f;agati:s "V olivacens Moquin-Tandon, op cit., p. 11). 

Animal greyish-black or lead colour. 

The sub- var. olivacea is of a deep olivaceous giey. 

Channel Isles — Var. ^^/^//^/xy/, (4uernsey, Aug. 1891 ! V>. Toinlin. 

Cornwall W. — Var. pUimbca, garden, Truro Voaii Terrace, near Truro, Dec. 
1885 ! J. H. James. 

Devon S. — Xiw. plumliva, abundant in garden, Topsliam, Aug. 1892, L. E. Adams. 

Somerset N. — \'ar. jdiatihca, specimuiis in Jiiitisli Museum, labelled " Dath, 
J. E. Daniel" (T. D. A. Cockerell, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1891, p. 330). 

Dorset — Var. plnmhca, Cliideock, IJridport, Aug. 1885 ! A. Belt. Spettisbury, 
June 1891 ! C. Asliford. 

Isle of Wight — Var. jilamhca, Totlands Bay, Freshwater, June 1885 ! H. P. 

Hants S. — Var. plumbea, Cliristcliurch, Aug. 1884 ! C. Ashford. Hoe Moor 
(L. E. Adams, Science Gossip, Marcdi 1901). 

Hants N. — Vav. ])li(7nhc((, Preston Candover ! H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Middlesex — Var. jilitinhca, Acton, Dec. 1884 ! and Bedford Park, Cliiswick, Dec. 
1884 ! T. 1). A. Cockerell. Hampstead, Dec. 1888 ! H. W. Kew. 

Hereford — Var. 2^^'^"^^'^'^} garden, Bishopswood Vicarage, Ross, April 1885 ! 
II. W. .1. Smart. 

Worcester — Var. plumbea and sub var. olivacea, garden, Stourport, July 1888 
(J. W. Williams, J. of Conch., July 1889). 

Stafford — Var. plumbea, Statlord, June 1880 ! L. E. Adams. 

Salop — Var. plumbea, Oswestry, June 1885 ! Baker Hudson. 

Cardigan— Var. plumbea, gardens, Aberayron, May 1888 ! Miss Foulkes and 
Miss Maddy. 

Lincoln N. — Var. plumbea, Alford, Sept. 1885 ! J. E. Mason. 

Notts. —Var. plumbea, common in garden, Tuxford, July 1885 I W. A. Gain. 

Cheshire— Var. plumbea, nursery gardens, Sale, Feb. 1895! C. Oldham. 

Durham — Var. pluDtbca, specimens in British Museum, labelled "South Shields, 
11." (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit.). 

Berwick — \'ar. plumbea, roadside, Cockburnspath, Se^it. 1890! W. Evans. 

Derry — Var. pi umbra, Ballynagard, .lune 1892, D. C. Canijd)ell. 

Antrim — Var. plumbea, Cnshendun, May 1886 ! Kev. S. A. Brenan. 

Down — Var. plumbea, common, chieHy in lily of the valley beds, Oakleigh, 
Ormeau Park, I'.elfast, 1897, A. W. Stelfo.x. Common in garden, Sydenham House, 
Ai)ril 1898, K. Welch. 

DuhMw—W ixY. plumbea, Kingstown, ]May 1880 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Queen's Co. — Var. plumbea. La Bergerie (I>. J. Clarke, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 
1843, p. 341). 

Mayo E. — Var. 2>lunibea, Tourmakady Lodge near Ballinrobe, Sept. 1843 (B. J. 
Clarke, ()|). cit.). 

Mayo W. — Var. plumbea, Slieveniore village, Sept. 1888 ! (J. G. jNIilne, J. of 
Conch., Oct. 1891). 

Galway W.^Var. plumbea, MacDaras Island, Roundstone, July 1895, R. 
"Welch. Sub-var. olivarra, Aran Isles, Oct. 1890, R. F. Scharff. 

Galway E. — Var. plumbea, Tuam Palace gardens (B. J. Clarke, op. cit.). 

Kerry — Var. plumbea, Kenmare, Sept. 1898, L. E. Adams. In field on Cloonee 
road l)eyond Mucksna Woo.l, Sei)t. 1898 (Stublis X' Adams, Irish Nat., Nov. 1898). 

France — \'ar. plumbea is recoidcd by Dubrucil from Bedarien.x, St. Pons, La 
Salvetat, an<l Changes in the llcrauU, .and by d'Oibigny from La Rochelle in 
Charente Infcricure, and we have verified specimens collected in April 1887 at 
Cherbourg, department ISIanche, by F. R. Billups, as well as from ^'eules, Seine 
Infcrieure, c<dlccted by S. C. Cockerell, in Scjit. 189."). The sub-var. olirarea is 
reported by Mcxjuin-Tandon fnnn Toulouse in Haute Ciaronne ; from Nice in the 
Alpes Maritimes by Lessona I'v Pollonera; and by Dubrueil from St. Martin-de- 
Londres, Ganges, etc., in Herault. 

Malta — Var. ^)^Mm6c« (Pollonera, Boll. Mns. Zool. Torino, April 1891). 
Spain — A'ar. plumbea, Santiago in Galicia (Macho, Molusc. Galicia, 1871, p. 13). 
United States — Var. plumbea of the I\I. liewstuni found by H. llemi)hill, at 
Julian City, California (T. D. A. Cockerell, Ann. and Mag. N.H., Nov. 1891, p. 338). 


Var. rava Williams, Shell Coll. Handbook, 1888, p. 89. 

Lhiiax ga^atcs var. 7 Clarke, Ann. and Mag. N.H., Nov. 1843, pi. .\ii., ft". 18-20. 
Amalia gagatcs var. madercnsis Ckll., Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1891, p. 334. 
Anialia gagaies var. ascensionis (Lesson) Ckll., op. cit., p. 335. 
A?)talia gagates var. ascc-nsionis f. hclence Ckll., op. cit., p. 336. 
Atnalia gagates var. ascensionis f. tristensis Ckll., op. cit., p. 336. 

Animal drab-coloured, slightly fuscous, the mantle often paler than the back. 

The sub-var. madcirnsis Ckll., sub-var. ascensionis Lesson, with the iorms hclence 
and frisfcnsis, are all apparently forms of the var. 7r(vc(, but the three latter forms 
have intimate relationship also with the var. jihnnbcct, and constitute a series of 
connecting links lietween tlie vars. ram and plionbca. 

The sub-var. maderensis Ckll. is of an uniform dark-brown, including the foot; 
mantle blackish and oval, keel not strong, and median-area of sole more than twice 
as broad as either lateral zone. 

The sub-var. helense Ckll. is dull ])alish ochreous. with simjde reticulate groov- 
ings, the interstitial sjjaces being similarly l)ut still more delicately sculptured; 
back darkish purplish-grey, with a stiong but not obviously paler keel extending 
the whole length of the back; neck bluish-grey above; mantle purplish-grey, excei)t 
on the sides, below the sulcus, wliich are pale ochreous, rather sharply defined from 
the dark part by the sulcus ; median-area of sole not quite twice as broad as either 
lateral area. 

The sub-var. tpistensis Ckll. has the rugjie rather strong, back and mantle 
plumbeous, sole and sides of body yellowish. 

The sub-var. aSCensionis Lesson has a general resemblance to the two preceding 
related sub- varieties. 

Channel Isles — Var. vara, C.uernsey, numerous, Aug. 1801 ! B. Tomlin. 

Cornwall W. — Var. vara, garden, Truro, April 18SG ! J. H. James. 

Devon S. — Var. rava, swarming in Mr. McJNIurdo's garden, Topsham, Aug. 
IS92, L. E. Adams. 

Hants S. — Var. rava, common at Chris tchurch, Jan. 1887 ! C. Ashfoi'd. 

Middlesex — Var. rava, garden, Hornsey, Oct. 1891 ! H. W. Kew. Crouch Hill, 
Oct. IS'.ll ! C. K. Gude. 

Oxford — Var. rava, near Little Honrton (W. E. Collinge, Conch., 1891, p. 13). 

Monmouth — Var. rava, Shireuewton Hall, June 1886 ! E. J. Lowe. 

Worcester— Var. rava, garden, Stourport (Williams, Science Gossip, May 1886). 

Carnarvon — Var. rava, Conway Castle, Jan. 1888 ! L. E. Adams. 

Anglesey — Var. 7-ava, Puffin Island, Aug. 1891 ! T. Shankland. 

Cheshire — Var. rava, nurserv gardens. Sale, Eeb. 189.5 ! and Ashton-on-]Mersey, 
Oct. 189-2! C. Oldliam. 

Lancashire Mid— Var. rava, Garstang, Sept. 1888 ! W. H. Heathcote. 

Edinburgh — Var. ravcf, Levenhall, plentiful, Aug. 188(3 ! 

Antrim— Var. rava, Cushendun, INIay 1886 ! Rev. S. A. Brenan. Murlough Bay 
Glen, June 1899, R. Welch. 

Down — Var. rava, in lily of the valley beds, Oakleigh, Ormeau Park, Belfast, 
1897, A. W. Stelfox. Conimon in garden, Sydenham House, April 1898, and 
Downpatrick Cathedral grounds, March 1898, R. Welch. 

Louth— Var. 7-ava, Dundalk, Jan. 1904, C. Oldham. 

Dublin— Var. rava, Kingstown, May 1886 ! W. E. de Vismes Kane. AVhite- 
church, Oct. 1890, R. F. Schartt'. 

Queen's Co. — Var. rava. La Beigerie, common (B. J. Clarke, op. cit., p. 3.S9). 

Sligo — Var. rava, Carrahubback, abundant under stones on low grassy banks, 
near the sea-shore, Oct. 1892 ! Miss Amy Warren. 

Mayo W.— Var. rava, Ballina, Oct. 1890, R. F. Scharff. Slievemore village, 
Sept. 1888 1 (J. G. Milne, J. of Conch., Oct. 1891). 

Madeira — Sub-var. madercnsis Ckll., a specimen in the British Mu.seum, labelled 
" :Madcira, Mr. Mason" (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit., p. 334). 

Ascension— Sub-var. ascensionis Lesson (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit., p. 33,i). 

St. Helena — Sub-var. helena; Ckll., a specimen in the British Museum, labelled 
"St. Helena, J. C. Melliss" (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit., p. 33()). 

Tristan d'Acunha— Sub-var. frisfcnsis, a sjiecimen in tlie British jNIusenm, 
labelled "Tristan d'Acunha, Challenger Collection" (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit., 
p. 336). 

Juan Fernandez — Sub-var. frisfcnsis, six specimens in the British Museum, 
lal)elk'd "Juan Eernandez, Challenger Collection" (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit., 
p. 338). 


Var. pallidissima Pullonera, Bo]]. Mus. Zoo]. Torino, April 1891. 

Aiiialia ga^aics var. cre)iiiof>hila Sinirotli, Nack. Portug.-Azor. Fauna, 1891, pi. 11, f. 3. 

Animal pale grey, sometimes witli a l;iveiuler tinge. 

This distinct variety, wliicli Simrotli under tlie iiiime of var. ercndophila regards 
as a pale steppe form of Miln.r (imjufis, is not llie form descril)e<l by as 
Limcix crnniophild, wliicli in many respects is diti'erent, and amongst other features 
is descriljed as jiossessing a yellow keel. 

Channel Isles — V. pallidissima, St. Sampson's, Guernsey, Sep. 1891 ! B. Tomlin. 

Hants S.— Var. paffldlsslom, ('hristdiurch. Jan. ISS.S ! C. Asiifor I. 

Middlesex— Churcliyard IJottom wood, Hi^digate, April 1889! H. W. Kew. 

Cardigan — Var. pallidissima, garden, Aberayron, May 1888 ! W. Whitwell. 

Dublin— Var. pallidissima, Donnylnook, Aug. 18SS ! (i. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Portugal — Sub-var. crcmiojihila Simrotli, Lisbon and Abrantes in Estremadura, 
jind in the Algarve (Sinnoth, op. cit.). 

Malta — Var. pallidissiuia (Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Var. bicolor 'Cuylor. 

Animal of a deep red on the sides ; shield and TiACK deep brown. 

The var. raijtiio)idi(()ia as ligured by Simrotli (Nacktschn. I'ortug. -Azor. Fauna, 
pi. 11, fig. 2) has some relations with this variety, but is very much duller in its 
colours ; it is considered by some authors as identical with the var. maderensis of 
Cockerell. The Limax rai/niondiana as figured and described by IJourguignat has 
the sides of a warm o(direous-yellow. 

Channel Isles — St. Sampson's, Guernsey, Sept. 1891 ! B. Tomlin. 

Var. benoiti & Pol]., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 59, pi. 1, f. 9. 

Animal black, dorsal keel whitish. 

According to the Rev. B. J. Clarke, the keel in the young is invarial)ly yellow, 
but gradually assumes during growth the same tint as the dorsum; the var. bcnoifi 
may, therefore, be regarded as characterized by the retention to mature life of 
juvenile coloration. 

Simrotli considers the Li max scaptohius Bourg. , from Algiers, Portugal, and 
Gibraltar, as a young form of M. gagatcs, which has retained the pale keel line. 

Edinburgh — A sub-variety of this form with a yellowish keel was found at 
Levenhali, Aug. 18S6, by Mr. W. Denison Roebuck. 

Sicily— Messina (Less. & Poll., op. cit.). 

Geographical Distribution. — In its natural range Milax gagates 
appears to be restricted to the Western Pala'arctic and Mediterranean 
regions, and presents many analogies with tlie area of dispersal of Helix 

In the British Isles, M. gagates is dispersed more or less interrnjitedly 
over the entire area, excepting tlie nortliern li;df of Scotland, from whence 
it has not as yet been reported. 

In the remote oceanic islands and distant countries wdiere the species 
has been found, its occurrence is probalily to be attributed to accidental 
or unintentional introduction by human agency. 

]\J. gagates has been credited by some authors with being a strictly 
littoral species, but although perhaps more plentiful along the coast, where 
it is sometimes found living (|uite within tlie iiiHuence of tlie sea spray at 
higli tides, it is by no means restricted to sucli places, but occurs freely 


Channel Isles (Juernsey, at St. Martin's, Aug. 18.">6 (A. INI. Norman, Zool., 
1856, p. 53-24) ; St. Peter's Port, 1887 ; and St. Sampson's, Sept. 1891 ! B. Tomlin. 


Cornwall W.— Not uncommon (E. D. Manjuand, Penzance Trans., 188-1). Fal- 
nioutii, Nov. 1901, H. Ovcrt(m (.). of Mai., Dec. 19Ul). (Jarden, Truro Vean Terrace, 
Truro, J. H. James! (T. I). A. Cockerell, Sci. Goss., May 1880, p. 114). Newtpiay 
(A. Belt, Sci. Goss., Aug. 1893). 



Geographical Distribution 

Milax gagates (Drap.). 

Recorded Distribution. 
Probable Range. 


Fig. 167. 

Devon S. — Lane beyond Mr. Bartlett's farm, near Torquay, J. P. Norman 
(A. ]Nr. Norman, Zool., 1854, p. 4284). Torquay, April 1888 ! fS. Tuke. 

Devon N.— Lynton, 1898, F. J. Partridge (J. of Mai., Dec. 1898, p. 19). 

Somerset S. — Allotment gardens, near canal and gasworks, IJridgwater, Aug. 
1884 ! W. Vinson. 

Somerset N. — Specimens in British Museum, labelled "Bath, J. E. Daniel" 
(T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit.). 


Dorset — First found in Great Britain by Mr. R. D. Darbishire at the foot of a 
hawthorn hedge, Portland, Sept. 1851. Among the quarries, Portland Island, Aug. 
1892, L. E. Adams. Spettisbury, June 1888 ! C. Ashford. 

Isle of Wight— Plentiful at Sandown, R. Gibbs (Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., 
185.3, vol. 4, p. 289). 

Hants S. — Christchurch, Aug. 1884 ! typical form rare, C. Ashford. 

Hants N. — Preston Candover, June 1885 ! H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Sussex E. — Hastings, July 1877 ! Miss E. B. Fairbrass. East Rother district, 
(J. H. A. Jenner, Report Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Soc. , 1880). 


Kent E. — Chatham ! J. Whitwham. 

Kent W.— Beckenham, 1901, F. W. Wilson. 

Middlesex — Far from scarce in the gardens, etc., of the North London suburbs; 
frequently seen by the pathways in Hornsey and Islington ! (H. W. Kew, 1902). 

Oxford — Sparingly, near Little Bourton, and near Lidstone (W. E. Collinge, 
ConchologLst, 1891, p. 13). 


Suffolk E.— St. Margaret's, Ipswich, 1893 (W. M. Webl), J. of Mai., 1893, p. 4). 

Norfolk E. — Very plentiful in gardens and in outhouses. North Heighani near 
Norwich, Oct. 1894 ! A. Mayheld. 

Northampton — Mr. Beeby Thompson's garden, Northampton, June 1896 (L. E. 
Adams, Journ. Northants Soc, 1896, p. 60). 


Monmouth — Kitchen gardens, Shirenewton Hall near Chepstow, May 1886 ! 
E. J. Lowe. 

Hereford — Bishopswood ! Rev. R. W. J. Smart. 

Worcester — Abundant, Stourport (J. W. Williams, Science Gossip, 1886, p. 99). 

Warwick —Camp Hill, Birmingham ! W. Nelson. Garden, Sutton Coldfield, 1902 
(H. Overton, J. of Mai, 1901, p. 124). 

Stafford — Grounds of Grammar School, Stafford, June 1886 ! L. E. Adams. 

Salop^Oswestry, June 1885 ! Baker Hudson. 



Pembroke —Old Caiiiiiirtli<'n road, Teiiliy, July lSr>3, A. Mi'rle Nonnaii (Zool., 
185.S, ]>. 4(MS). Deer Turk, also on North and Sonlli ("liffs, l>ut scarcer than M. 
sou-cdni (A. (J. Stubhs, J. of (Joncli., .Inly 1!)00, p. .S21). 

Cardigan— Mrs. Maddy's garden, Aberayron, May 18SS 1 \V. Whitwell. 

Montgomery— (larden, Welshjjool (J. Bickerton Morj;an, Moll. Montgoni., 1891). 

Carnarvon — ("onway Castle and railway station, Jan. 1S88 ! L. E. Adams. 
Anglesey —Var. rnwa, l*utHn Island, Aug. 1891 ! T. Siiankland. 

Lincoln N.— Parson's lane, Alford, May 1886 ! J. E. Mason. 

Notts.— Tu.xford, rare (P>. Stnrges Dodd, Brit. As.soc. Handbook, 1893, p. 71). 
Derby— Matlock, J. A. Howe. 


Cheshire— A.shton-on-Mersey, Sept. 1890 ! and Sale, Sept. 1892 ! C. Oldham. 

Lancashire S. — Common in Swinton School gardens (J. C. Melvill, Brit. Assoc. 


Lancashire Mid— Garstang, Sept. 1888 ! Fulwood near Preston, Feb. 1889 ! 

W. H. Heathcotc. 


York S.E.— Withernsea, on the cliffs, Sept. 1891 ! J. D. Bntterell. 

York N.E. — Kitchen gardens opposite Borough road, Middlesbrough, Sept. 1886! 
T. A. Loftliouse. 

York S.W. — ibidge at Fall Ing, Wakelielil (J. Hel)den, (^)uart. .lourn. Concli., 
1874, p. ")). Siiibden near Halifax, 1859, W. Casli. Huddersliehl, very rare (O. H. 
Parke, in Hobkirk's Hudderslield, 1868, p. 224). 


Durham — South Shields, R. Howse. Several places in Duiiiani, including the 
garden of Burnmoor Rectory, Fencehouses ! (A. M. Norman, Ann. ami Mag. N.H., 

1890, p. 329). 

Isle of Man -Peel Castle (Forbes & Hanley, British M(dl., 1853, vol. 4, p. 25). 
Roadside near Onchan, Sept 1891 ! Port Erin, Aug. 1892, H. Overton. Castletown, 
Aug. 1894, F. Tayh)r. 

SCOTLAND. WEST lowlands. 

Dumfries— Dumfries, March 1897, R. Service. 


Berwick— Roadside, Cove Farm near Cockburnsiiath, Sept. 1890 ! W. Evans. 
Edinburgh — Levetdiall near Musselburgh, Aug. 1886! W.D.R. Garden, Morn- 

iuiiside, Kiliuburgh, Aug. 1SS9 ! W. Evans. 

Perth S. and Clackmannan— G. McDougall. 


Dumbarton— Dumbarton, common, Aug. I8S6 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Clyde Isles— Grounds of College, Isle of Cumbrae, 1854 (A. Merle Norman, 
Zoolo'dst, 1856, p. 5324). About the Aquarium, Rothesay, Isle of Bute, Nov. 1886 ! 
T. Scott. 


Derry— Ballynagard, dune 1892, D. C. Campbell. 

Antrim— Cushendiiii, May 1886 ! S. A. Brenan. Rathlin Island, May 1897, 
L. E. .\dams. 

Down-Cultra, Dec. 1891. R. L. Praeger (ScharlV, Irish List, 1892, p. 9). Down- 
iiatrick Cathedral grounds, Oct, 1897, Iv. Welch. Common in garden, Oakleigh, 
Ormeau Park, Helfast, especially in lily of the valley beds, 1897, A. W. Stelfox. 

Doneg-al— In old wood, near Ardara, April 190o, U. Welch. 


Louth— Var. ravn, Dundalk, .Ian. 1904, C. Oldham. 

Meath -Lough Ballyhoe, typical black form, April 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Dublin-Near Dublin, Dr. Robert Ball (Forbes iK; Haidey, Brit. Moll., 1853, 
vol. 4, p. 25). Donnybrook, Aug. 1888 ! (J. Barrett Hanulton. Raheny, Seitt. 1890, 
an(i ^Vbilecl^u■ch, Oct. 1890, R. F. SchartV. Dellbrook, Dundrum, 1897, R. Welch. 

Wicklow — Kilrud<lery, also Murrou;;li of Wicklow, .lune 1891, R. F. ScharlV. 

Carlow— Near Carlow, Nov. 1901, A. (J. Stuart. 

Queens Co.— La Bergerie (B. J. Clarke, Ann. Nat. Hist., 1843, p. 341). 



Slig^o— Var. rava, Carraliul)l)ack, Oct. 1802 ! Miss Amy Wairen. 

Mayo E. — Tourniakady Lodge near Ballinrohe, Sept. 1S43 (B. J. Clarke, Ann. 
Nat. Hist., 1843, p. 339). 

Mayo W. — Common in garden, Movview, Balliiia (Amy Warren, Zoologist, 
ISTO, l>. '_'."i). Dngort and Slievemore, .\c'liili Island, Ssjjt. ISSS ! (.). G. Milne, J. of 
Conch., Oet. 1891). 

Galway E. — Var. plnmbfd, Tnam Palace ganlens (W. J. Clarke, oji. cit. ). 

Galway W. — Clifden, Connemara, .Inly 1840 (W. Tlionij)son, Ann. Nat Hist., 
1840, p. 20o). Aran Isles, Oct. 1890, R. F. Scliarff. 


Cork N.— Qneenstown, May 1891, It. F. Scliarff. Under stones in tlie oitoa 
country near Castle INIartyr (Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., 18."')3, p. 2,")). 

Cork S. — Between Bantry and Glengarifl", Sei)t. 1898 (Stulibs & Adams, Iiisli 
Nat , Nov. 1898). 

Kerry— Garden, Lake Hotel, Killarney, antnnin, 1853, J. P. Norman (A. Merle 
Norman, Zool., 1854, p. 4281). Under arbutus trees in Middle Cloonee Lake, Mr. 
Kagdale (R. Standen, Irish Nat., Sept. 1898). Sparingly in old damp mossy woods, 
Ken mare, Jnly 1898, R. Welch. 


Belgium— Malines (Van Beneden) ; between Wechter and Tremelos (Kickx) ; 
and found rather abundantly in May near the great lake of Quincampois liy Carlier 
(Colbeau, Mem. Soc. Mai. Belg.. 18B5, ]>. 84). 

Holland— (Simroth, Nacktsclin. Portug.-Az(n-. , 1891, p. 295). 

M. gagates, though found more especially in the littoral departments, is also 
present at many inland stations, and has been recorded for Aude, Alpes Maritimes, 
Basses Pyrenees, Chaiente Inferieure, Unistere, Gard, Gers, Gironde, Haute 
Garonne, Haute Loire, Herault, Isere, Loire Infeiieure, Manche, Morbilian, Moselle, 
Nord, Pyrenees Orientales, Puy-de-Dome, Rhone, Seine Inferieure, Tarn et Garonne, 
Vendue, Vosges, and the Island of Corsica. 

This species has been recorded by Pini from Monte Codeno and Monte Campioni, 
and tiie northern valleys of Lombardy, and Mr. Brockton Tomlin has found it in 
Sept. 1880 on the Monte Moro Pass at an altitude of 7,000 feet. It abounds in the 
public gardens of Venice, according to Pini, and has been found by Pirona at P^riuli 
in the Udine. It has been recorded for Sicily by Tate and others, for Malta by 
Mamo and Pollonera, while Heynemann gives it as inhabiting Sardinia. 

Only reported from the neighbourhood of Trieste in Istria (Pini, Bull. Soc. Mai. 
Ital., 1876, p. 107), and from Giirz in Goritz by Erjavec (Heynemann, Jahrb. Deutsch. 
Mai. Gesell., 1885, p. 254). 


Spain — It is recorded for Catalonia by Graells ; from Santiago in Galicia by 
Macho; as connnon in the gardens of the city of Valencia by Hiilalgo ; from the 
coast near Cadiz by Bourguignat ; from Gibraltar in Amlalusia by J. H. Ponsonl)y ; 
from Alcantara in Estremadura by Simroth ; and from tiie IJalearic Isles by 

Portugal — Simroth records this species from Braga in Minlio ; Coimbra and 
Guarda in Beira ; and also from Cintra, Abrantes, tiie botanical gardens of Lisbon 
in Estremadura, ant! from the Algarve. 

Greece -Specimens forwarded from Greece in Sept. 1891 ! by Mr. J. G. INIilne. 

Reported as inhabiting the district of Izium, in the province of Kiiarkov (Kalen- 
iczenko. Bull. Moscow, 1851, p. 126). 


Morocco— Mountains of Tetuan (Bourguignat, Mai. Alg. , p. 318), and Cape 
Spartel (Morelet, J. de Conch., 1880, p. 16). 

Alg-eria -Aliout Constantine, Tlemi^en, Ain el-Haout (Bouiguignat, op. cit , 
p. 48), Algiers (Lallemant, Mem. Soc. Mai. Belg., 1868, p. 24), and Oran (Tournier). 


Tunis— At foot of Djebel Aldlellali near Cap Roux ; Ariana near Tunis (Bour- 
guignat) ; and at Djebel Kevas (Letourneux & Bourguignat, Mai. Tunisia, 1887). 
Egypt— (Scliarff, Slug.s of Ireland, 1891, p. 535). 


Azores— Universal, inhabiting every isle of the group (Wollaston, Test. Atl., 
1877, p. 10). 

Madeira — Extremely common in Madeira, on cultivated laml and elsewhere, n}i 
to an altitude of 3,000 feet (II. B. Watson, J. de Conch., 1876, p. 221). Found around 
Funclial, at the Pico do Infante and other places. Mr. Lowe found it near Alegria, 
at the .Mount in Cayados Ravine, and also at the summit of the Pico do Castello 
on Porto Santo (Wollaston, Test. Atl., 1877, p. 69). 

Canaries — Extremely common (Simroth, Nachrichtsbl. , 1895), 

Ascension— (T. D. A. Cockerell, Science, June 23, 1893). 

St. Helena— (E. A. Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1884, p. 278). 

Tristan d'Acunha— Obtained by the Challenger Expedition (Smith, op. cit. ). 


lAa.h.o—MUax heirstoni, Coeur d'Alene, H. F. Wickham (T. D. A. Cockerell, 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Nov. 1843, p. 337). 

Washington State— ikf. hcwstoni, Seattle (Cockerell, op. cit.). 

Pennsylvania -J/, hetvstoni, Phipps' Conservatory, Schenley Park, Pittsburgh, 
G. H. Clapp. 

California — Milax heiostoni, tirst noticed about 1885 on the grass plots of San 
Francisco ; it soon became abundant, and has extended its range to Seattle, Wash- 
ington State, in the north and San Diego in the south (R. E. C. Stearns, Science, 
April 27, 19(Mt, p. 655). .Vbout Williamstown University, Los Angeles Co. (M. 
Burton, Nautilus, Jan. 1890). Oakland, 1890, H. Hemphill; Santa Barbara, Miss 
Cu.sack ; Hay wards, Feb. 1890, Dr. J. G. Cooper (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit., 
p. 337). 

M^-xXco— Milax hewstoni, near overflow of San Tomas river, Lower California 
(H. Hemphill, J. de Conch., 1881, p. 35). 

Brazil — (Heynemann, op. cit.). 

Bermuda— Obtained by the Challenger Expedition (E. A. Smith, op. cit., p. 276). 
Juan Fernandez— Collected by the Challenger Expedition (E. A. Smith, Proc. 
Zool. Soc, 1884, p. 279). 


Cape Colony — r)btained in Nov. 1873 at Cape of Good Hope by the Challenger 
Expedition, ]in)l)a1)lv the Limax cnpensis Krauss (E. A. Smith, op. cit., p. 276). 
Port Elizabeth, J. H. Ponsonby (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit., p. 337). 

Natal- (MeU ill i'v Ponsonby, Proc. Mai. Soc, 1898, p. 172). 


New South Wales— Tannvortli, C. T. Musson ; Gladesville, H. Deane ; abun- 
dant about Sydney, J. IJrazier ; under stones at Darling Point, near Sydney, in 
company with Aqrinliinax to/rcsfls, G. Neville (C. T. Musson, Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W.", 1890, p. 891). 

Victoria- Ballarat, under garden rubbish, stones, and wood, also on cabbages, 
coming out at night and early morning (C. T. Musson, op. cit.). 

New Zealand— Oliaupo and Auckland (C. T. Musson, op. cit.). 

Sandwich Islands— Isle of Maui (Collinge, Proc. Mai. Soc, 1896, p. 49). 

Plate XVI. 

Distribution of Mi lax ga gates (Drap.) 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 


Cll»liiiel IsleM 

ffcMNSL l.A 

1 CoiLwall W. 

2 Coruwull K. 

3 Uevou s. 

4 Jjevou N. 

5 Somerset S. 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts xN. 

S Wilts «. 

9 Uoiset 
lU Isle lit Wight 
H Hauls S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex t.. 


15 Kent E. 

16 Keut W. 

17 Surrey 
1» Essex S 

19 Essex l\. 

20 Herts. 

21 iliilUlesex 

22 lierks. 

23 Uxfora 

24 Uucks, 


25 Suffolk E. 
2ti aulioik »»■. 

27 ^'orioiK E. 

28 Norfolk \V. 

29 (Jannu'idge 

30 lieUfora 

31 Hunts. 

32 Norlliaruiiloll 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester W 

35 ^loumoutli 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Start'orJ 

40 Salop 

Sofln WALKS 

41 Glamorgan 

42 Brecon 
4:1 Radnor 

44 t'armartlien 

45 i'emiiruke 
4t) t'ardigan 


47 Monigomerj" 

48 Merionetli 

49 Carnarvon 

50 Deiiljigli 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 

54 Lincoln N. 

55 Leic. & Rutld. 

h6 iNotts. 

57 iJerbj' 


58 Cheshire 

59 Lancashire S. 

60 Luncasliire.Mid 


61 S.E. YorK 

62 N.E. York 
6:i S.W. Yoik 

64 .Mid W. York 

65 N.W. York 


66 I>urhatn 

67 Nortliuuib. S. 

68 L'heviotland 


69 W eslmorlanii 
and \i. I^inos. 

7U C'uinljerland 
71 Isle of .Man 



72 Dumfries 93 AlierdeenN. 

73 Kirkcudbright 94 lianrt 

74 \\ igtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Kcnfrew 

77 Lanark 


« 78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

80 Roxburgh 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow „, 

K. MIOHLANDS 105 llosS W. 

85 Fife& Kinross 106 Koss E. 

86 Stirling 107 Sutherland E. 

87 I'erlhS.&Clkn 108 SutherlaudW. 

88 Jlid Penh 109 Caithness 

89 Perth N nokth islks 

90 Forfar 110 Hebrides 

91 Kincardine 111 Orkneys 

92 Aberdeen S. 112 Shetlands 

lt5 Elgin 

96 Ea.-'lerness 


97 Westerness 

98 Main Argyle 

99 liunibarton 
luO Clyde Isles 

101 Cautire 

102 Ebudes S. 

103 Ebudes Mid 

104 Ebudes N 




W icklow 
W exford 
Queen's Co. 
King's Co. 


Mavo W. 
Gafway W. 
Gal way E. 


Tippemry N. 
Tipperary S 
Cork N. 
Cork S. 


Probable Range. 
l^_IlJ Recorded Distribution. 
■^1 Distribution verified by the Authors 
1;^^^ Fossil Distribution. 



Milax sowerbii (Ferussac). 

1823 Limax sowerbii Ferussac, Hist. Moll., Suppl., pi. 8d, f. 7, p. 96 i. 

]826 — carinatiis Risso, Hist. Nat. Moll. Medit. 

1852 — carinatns Leach, Moll. Gt. Brit., p. 54, pi. 8, f. 3. 

1856 — • argillaceus Gassies, Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. , p 232. 

1862 — ■ marginatus Jeffreys, Brit. Concli., ]). 132. 

1831 Lliimccllus itiirjniculiis Tnrton, Manual, ]i. 25. 

1855 Milax mwerbj/l Gray, Cat. Tuhu. Brit. Mus. , p. 175. 

1896 Amalia soiverbyi Adams, Man. Brit. Land Freshw. Wliells, p. 32, pi. 1, f. 10. 

HISTORY. — Milax sowerbii was 
prcjbably first described by Leach, 
but his description and figure, though 
privately circulated, were not actually 
published until 1852, at which date 
Dr. J. E. Gray edited and issued the 
work Leach had in great part prepared. 
]\lil<ix soicerbii was, liowever, prior to 
that date, carefully figured and de- 
scribed by Ferussac from specimens 
sent from the neighbourhood of Lon- 
don by i\L'. G. B. Sowerby, to whom 
he dedicated the species. 

Tlie name sowerbii is adopted for 
our British form in the belief that the yvu^h\ 

Limax m arginatus of Draparnaud is 
not identical with our species. 

With this species the distinguished 
Italian limacologist, Signor Mario 
y^A/n^ /X^/^**-^<-^ Lessona, is associated, as a mark of 

appreciation of his malacological labours 
and more especially in recognition of the sterling merits of the important 
work, "Monographia dei Limacidi Italiani," written in collaboration with 
Signor Pollonera, which is undoubtedly one of the most authoritative and 
standard publications upon the European slugs. 

Diagnosis. — Externally, Milax sowerbii may be distinguished from 
31. gagates by the prominent keel being usually markedly paler than the 
general colour of the body, and most strongly accentuated on the back ; 
the body sculpture also shows distinct though flattened ruga?, with their 
interstices more or less marked by black or blackish pigment. 

Internally, it is easily separable from its congener, by its long and 
tapering sperniatheca, an organ which in 31. gagates is quite globose. 

Description. — Animal laterally compressed, with its height little e.xceeded by 
its length when contracted, but reaching to 75 mill, or more in length M'hen adult 
' and fully extended ; the KODY is comparatively dry and furrowed on each side by 
about fourteen longitudinal grooves, parallel with tlie keel, but sometimes forking 
backwards, and connected by numerous transverse channels which form a flat 
tuberculation ; it is typically of a grey ground colour, but a yellow shade is given 
to the body owing to its being closely and densely beset with orange-coloured specks, 
which become sparser towards the foot- margins ; the usual darker as])ect of the 
animal is due to the back and sides being closely besprinkled with black, the dots 
being less numerous towards the sole, but more closely aggregated in the interstices 




of tlie in<j.T, tlieie1)v tlefiiiinf; tlieni very distinctly, and j,avin^' a reticulate ap]>ear- 
ance \\lien tlic aiiiiual is contracted ; KKKL of an aniher colour, very distinct and 
jiroininont on the l)ack, tlie caudal end scarcely iironiincnt, an<l iiardly ditl'crinj,' in 
colour from tlie <,'eneral asiMx-l of the liody ; SIlIKUD about one-tidrd the total lentrth 
of the animal, granularly wrinkled; the jtrotulierant, somewhat lenticular area 
extends to the posterior mar^dn, is rounded on the left-side, hut anjxulated on 
the right, and delined hy a distinct sulcus, which is further accentuated hy the 
closer aggregation therein of the black sjiecks, which are s]ninkled o\cr the whole 
shield, hut more especially ujion the posteiior nnd-dorsal portion overlapping the 
keel ; TKNTACLKS thick, short, conical, and black, their granulate surface linely 
sprinkled with ochre-yellow, apices swollen and somewhat oval with lilack eye 
specks ; NECK with the usual ])aired doisal grooves, which on the forehead bifurcate 
and form four pale parallel lines ; FOOT ])ale, and tripartite, the median area 
broadest .ami slightly darker posteriorly owing to its translucency ; KOOTMARGIN 
smooth, yellowish-wliite, bounded by a distinct groove al)ove, upon whi(di rests a 
single rou- of tubercles, which are separated from the sides of the body by a deeji 
channel. Mucus thick .and viscous, and usually colourless, but when the animal is 
irritated or scalded ni.aj^ become of an or.ange tint ; when the slime is removed the loses much of its yellow colour, which is thus p.artially due to its slime. 

SuKi.r, oblong-oval, glistening white in colour, with a somewhat iridescent lustre 
in p.arts, usually slightly convex on the upper 
side, and in young shells correspondingly 
concave beneath, but often Hat or slightly flfet A 

Fig. 169.— Internal shell 
of Milax smvcrbii, X 4. 

(Christch'.irch, Hants S., 
Mr. C. Ashford). 

Fig. 170. — Nerve 
centres of M. scr.i'crbii 
(greatly enlarged). 

convex and somewhat irregular in more 
aged specimc^ns; .vi'KX or nucleus ])rominent, 
nearly median, .and sub-terminal in the 
young but becoming more centrally placed 
as maturity .advances ; the concentric links 
OF (iKOWTH, but sometimes very 

distinct and somewhat rugged and yellowish on the upper side. 
Length, ,") mill. ; breadth, 3 mill. 

Internally, the nerve-ring has the inferior ganglia intimately fused to- 
gether ; the ganglia are 
large and elongately triangular with thickisii 
commissures ; the HEART, KIDNEY, .auil 
LUN(J cavity have the same general locative 
relations as in the field-slugs ; the 
is ,as on the left front of the kidney, 
and the .voinw runs for .a tolerable distance 
before dividing, as in L'una.c Jfaoiis ; the 
kidney, however, is not .a roundish sac, but 
is in two sections, one extending forward in the nstial w.ay, the other being .a long 
pointed lobe which extends over towanls the right on the lung door, beneath the 
ureter and the gut ; the URETER is slender througliout its course. 

The HKritoDUcriVE orc.vxs open exteriorly bene.ath the anterior margin of the 
ni.antle, about nud way between the pulmonary a)>erture ami the base of the right 
ommatophore ; the OVOTESTis is generally concealed within the lobes of the diges- 
tive gl.and, the acini are whitish, large,, and rather loose, the ducts 
cond)ining to form the main stem near the centre of the mass ; DUCT rather long, 
first portion slender and straight, becoming thick and convoluted as it a])proaches 
the small, curved, and clavate \'Esici"LA SK.MINAI.IS; Al.lUJ.MEN OLAND many-lobed 
and amber coloured ; ovisfKRM atoduct lirndy united and strongly twisted ; 
OVIDUCT rather s<did, bull" or tlesh colour, .and very thick .and dithcult to unfold ; 
FREE OVIDUCT .as long as the spermatheca and its duct, cylindrical and n.arrow, receiv- 
ing at its base the numerous delicate ducts fiom the multituile of anastomosing glands, wliicii constitute the jnostiite; si'KRM DUCI" broail. 
wtdl-de\('loped, milk-white or bufl"; \'.\s DKi'Klth'.Ns long, entering near apex of 
epiphallus ; the male (Mgan is surmounted Ity ,a very stout, thi(d<walled, .ami 
muscular El'll'iiAi.l.US, is annnlarly ridged internally, ,abiui)tly Hexed and sei>arated 
from the penis-sheath by a conspicvuius s]ihin; ter niustde, denoted internally by a 
ring of white prominence and exteriorly by a raised ring; the I'KNis SI1E.\TII is 
narrow and cyliii<lrical \vith thinnish walls and int< riial longituilinal ridges; it o])ens 
into the allium or vestibule at the side below the opening of the stem of the sperma- 
theca, the sAKCoiil'.l.UM or stimulatory org.uibeinga small bent horn at the oi)ening 
of the penis sheath into the atrium ; immcijialely aboxc- the s])hiucter a short stout 
RETRACTOR is attlxed to the convex side of the ei)iphallus; it arises from the dorsum 



in front and to the right of the cephalic retractor ; in arklition there are a number 
of muscular fihres «hioh bind the apex and concave side of the epiphallus to the 
base or to the atrium ; the spKRMATHECA in adults is shaped like a long-necked 

Fig. 171. — Alimentarj- tract of 
Milax scnuerbii, showing the 
buccal bulb and nerve-ring, X 2. 


Fig. 173. — Cephalic re- 
tractors of Milax smverbii, 
X 8. 

Fig. 172. — Sexual organs of Milax striuerbii, X 3, the accessory glands turned aside to show the 
character of the atrium. albumen gland ; ot. ovotestis ; sf: spermatheca ; sp.d. sperm duct ; 
p.s. penis sheath ; ep. epiphallus ; r. retractor ; gl. accessorj' glands. 

Florence Hask, the apex is attached to the ovi-seminal duct, and the base well defined 
from tlie narrower but short and slightly inflated stem, whicii is regularly and 
strongly plicated internally, and joins the free oviduct just before entering the 
ATRIUM ; the VESTinuLAR GL.WDS consist of a multitude of long, slender, opaque, 
and buff-coloured tubules, more or less ramified and inter-connected, their ducts 
discharging into the base of the oviduct at the 
point where the spermatheca enters and into 
whicli organ the secretion is directed ; the 
atrium is comparatively large and tleshy, with 
ample outlet ; the SPERMATOPHORE in shape 
may be likened to the head of a Bishop's 
crozier witli a short staff, the curveil portion 
armed with three or more sul)spiral rows of 
recurved denticles, many of whicli are tricuspid 
or even multicuspid ; the straight lower por- 
tion is conically diminished, glistening pearly- 
white, perfectly smooth and open at the end. 
It agrees exactly with the spennatophore of 
Milax hcssei Biittger, whicli should proljably 
be placed amongst the synonyms of this 
species, but differs from the spermatophore of Milax nuirginatus, which is described 
as armed with denticles throu'diout its entire length. 

Fig. 174. 
Fig. 174.- 

FiG. 175. 
Spermatophore of Milax 

smverbii, x 8 (from a micro-photograph). 

Fig. 175. — Spinules from the spermato- 
phore of il/. smverbii {greal\y enlarged). 

The ALIMENTARY SYSTEM in our British form has about half-a-turn less twist 
than the continental Milax marginal us; the (ESOPHAGUS is about six mill, long, and 
obscurely striped ; the crop blackish-brown and bent, with the white and rather 
compact SALIVARY GL.VNDS attached at opposite sides ; the general jilan of the 
IN TESTIN.VL TRACT is triodromous, and very similar to the arrangement in Milax 
gagates ; the DIGESTIVE GLAND is of a dull chestnut-brown, the right lobe extend- 
ing to the end of the body cavity, and twisted round with the intestine; the left 
lobe is smaller, and extends forward towards the kidney ; the hepatic arterial 
branches are white, and extend over the surface of the intestines, binding the whole 
mass intimately together. 

The CEPHALIC RETR.A.CTOR arises from the dorsum at the posterior margin of the 
lung chamber; the PHARYNGE.\L muscle is most usually though not invariably 
imlependent of the tentacular retractors, but their roots arise in close prox- 
imity; it is very deeply cleft, bifurcating just before reaching the nerve ring, while 
the tentaculars divide half-way to the nerve collar, exactly at and under the part 
of the shell which is firmly attached to the floor of the sac, 

2o,5;0i K 



Fig. 176. — Mandible or 
jaw of.!/. S(Kverl>ii, X 12. 

The MANDIBLE or jaw is of arcuate form and deep 
amber colour, and the cliitinons coutiiiuation wliich 
extends over tlie u|ii)er surface of tlie moutli cavity is in 
this species well niarUed ami distinctly striated ; tlie line 
of bedding witliin the tissues of the head is marked with 
a dark line; the median beak or rostrum is distinct, 
prominent, and somewhat pointed. 

The LINGUAL MKMBHANE has the teeth not so compactly arranged as in Milnj- 
gagates, and the individual teeth are Itroailer, though displaying the same distinctly 
tricuspid median and inner lateral teeth ; the endocone, however, becomes gradually 
lost as the margins are approached, and tiie marginals are simply aculeate, though 
some show a distinct tendency to ectoconic bifurcation. 

Fir.. 178. — Spermatheca of 
Alilax smverhii, shewing de- 
flection of ape.x, due lo the 
presence of the spermatophore 

Fig. 177. — Representative denticles from a transverse row of the lingual teeth of .'/. smverHi, X 180. 
The animal collected at Dundrum, Ireland, by Dr. ScharflT, and the palate prepared by Mr. W. Moss. 

The formula of a Dundrum specimen, collected by Dr. Scliarfl', was 
\\ + y + ^ + V + f -^ X 105 = 8,7 15. 

Reproduction and Development. — The conjugation of M. sowerhii, 
though probably occurring throughout the year, is 
more fre(iueutly observed during the colder months. 
The operation, as in M. gagntes, is very prolonged, 
usually occupying three to four hours, and Mr. 
Kew observed one instance in which the union 
extended over the space of seventeen hours. The 
act is consummated by the mutual transference 
of the elaborate spermatophores, the smooth, 
attenuated end of wliich enters the s])ermMtheca 
first,* and fills and detiects the narrowed i)rolonga- 
tion of that organ, sometimes so abruptly as to rupture its moorings to 
the oviduct ; occasionally a second ])airing may take place at so short an 
interval that a second spermato))h()re may become lodged in the sjierma- 
theca before the disintegration of the tirst has taken })lace.- 

The eggs, which are comparatively large, being about five mill, in their 
longest diameter, are deposited in clusters of a dozen or more in the soil; 
they are oval in shape, soft and elastic, of a golden-brown colour, and 
posses.sing a coriaceous white freckled though translucent envelope, which 
when placed in spirit changes to an opaque white. The progress of their 
development and the later history has not been ob.served. 

Food and Habits. — Mil<ix sowerhii is subterranean and gregarious in 
habit, being often found daring the day huddled together in worm-holes 
several inches below the surface ; it also hides at the roots of j)lants, 
amongst decaying vegetation, in crevices of old walls, under stones, etc., 
coming forth during wet weather or at night-fall and retiring at daybreak 
to the subterranean retreats, into which bits of stalks are frequently dragged 
to feed on at leisure. It is usually not of common occurrence in the open 
country, but is in ])laces one of the most abundant garden slugs, pre- 
ferring soil of a stiff clayey character, owing to its better retention of 
moisture and the greater prevalence of worm-burrows therein. It is very 

1 Monog. i., p. 376, flf. 700, 701. 2 Monog. i., p. 374, f. 691, 


destructive to bulbs and tubers and also to flowering plants of many- 
kinds; it will devour fresh or decaying fungi, partially decayed cabbages 
and other vegetables or fruit, and even carrion does not come amiss. 

Its diet is, however, not restricted to such pabulum, as it is also actively 
predatory, and will attack and devour live worms, slugs, and even smaller 
or weaker individuals of its own kind, though amply provided with suit- 
able vegetable food. In captivity Mr. Gain offered it 196 varieties of 
food, 152 of which were more or less nibbled, while 74, however, were quite 
readily taken, though only potato, carrot, and Boletus eduUs were eagerly 

The animal is of quite inactive habits, crawling slowly, often _ resting, 
and when doing so, or when touched or disturbed, withdrawing its head 
beneath the mantle and shrinking to about half its length, contracting 
itself almost into a semicircle; when thus contracted the keel becomes 
sinuous and parts of the body appear indented as though injured at those 

Its tenacious mucus enables it, especially when young, to readily form 
mucus threads for the purpose of descending to the ground or to a lower 
level, although during the operation the ordinary crawling position of the 
body is not maintained, but becomes so much twisted that the dorsal and 
ventral surfaces of the body may be presented to view together. 

The body slime may also at times cause the adherence of particles of 
earth to the skin, and the animal then closely resembles a lump of earth, 
assimilating thus to the ground upon which it rests. 

Fossil. — M. mu-erhii is cited by Jeffreys as an Upper Tertiary fossil, 
but the record was probably based on an erroneous identitication ; it has, 
however, been definitely reported from the Holocene deposits at Maid- 
stone, East Kent, by Kennard & Woodward, and found by Mr. A. S. 
Kennard at the base of a rainwash deposit associated with bone fragments 
and Roman pottery, on the site of Roman buildings at Darenth in 
West Kent. 

Parasites. — Like M. gagates, it is very liable to be infested with an 
Acarus, probably the Philodromus Umacum, these in some cases being so 
numerous as probably to cause some inconvenience to their host. 

Variation. — Milax soirerhii has been observed to vary hi its external 
colouration from pure white, through yellow, grey, or brown, to an almost 
uniformly black colour. 

Generally speaking, this species is not a very variable one, and the 
modifications that take place seem to be mainly due in the darker varieties 
to the increase or diffusion of the black pigment, and in the paler forms to 
its more or less complete supjiression. 

This pigmentation may also be more or less restricted in the area 
occupied, and become correspondingly intensified, as in the var. bicolor, in 
which the coloration becomes greatly enriched. 

The Sicilian variety oretea is remarkable for the development of a 
longitudinal median zone of black pigment on the shield, a feature not 
previously remarked in the species. 

The 31. marginatit^ var. fulva of Paulucci is, according to Lessona & 
Pollonera, merely a juvenile form of il/. carinata. 


Var. alba Taylor. 

Animal entirely white. 
Pembroke— Tenby, A. G. Stubbs. 


Var. pallidissima Less. & Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 56. 

Aiiiatia carinata ji paltidissinia Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Ainalia smverbii var. /iavescens W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec 1898, p. 17. 

Amalia carinata y insolita Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Animal similar to tyi)e form, Imt very pale. 

The sub-v. Insolita L. i.'^' r. (litVer.s only ill the .'^ulcn.s of shield being un]iigtncnte(l. 

The sub-var. flaveseens Collinge, has the side.s of the body yellowish ; doisum 
light giey ; foot-sole yellow. 

Devon N. — Sub-var. fluvescens, Lynton and Barnstaple, F. J. Partridge. 

Italy — Var. pallidissiina, Salerno near Naples, ami sub-var. insolita, Campor- 
biano iiear Siena, Tuscany, Marchesa Paulucci (Less. & Poll., op. cit.). 

Var. casertana Less. & Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 56. 

Amalia carinata casertana Less. & I'oll., op. cit. 

UoDV nuiculate with irregularly diffused, minute, l)laokish spots, and the black 
lineoles on the back obsolete; shell solid, fiat above, ii regularly convex beneath. 
Italy — Caserta near Naples, Marchesa Paulucci (Less. & Poll., op. cit.). 

Var. oretea Less. & Poll., Monog. Limac. Ital., 1882, p. 56. 

Amalia carinata var. oretea Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Animal typical, but showing a longitudinal median black zone on the shield. 
Sicily — Palermo, near stream Oreto, Marchesa Paulucci (Less. & Poll., op. cit.). 

Var. fuscocarinata Cockerell, Nat. World, Sept. 1S86, p. 179. 

Ani.nlm, resembling type, but "with the kekl not dill'ering in colour from the HODV. 
Devon N. — IJanistaiile, F. J. Partridge (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 1898). 
Middlesex -Ik'dfonl Park, Chiswick, Dec. 1884! T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Warwick Edgbaslon, P. Peebles, recorded as M. gagates (J. of Mai., Dec. 1898). 

Var. rustica Roebuck, Science Gossip, 1884, p. 78. 

Amalia siuuerbii phtmbea Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 1898, p. 17. 

Animal in colour, without perceptible admixture of brown or yellow. 
The sub-var. plumbea has tiie whole back ami mantle of a dark Ictad-grey; 
slightly })ale on sides of Itody ; foot-sole ashj'-grey. 

Cornwall W. — Penmon near Falmouth, April 1S84 ! H. Fox. 

Devon N. — Sub-var. pliimbcK, Barnstaple, F. J. Partridge (Collinge, op. cit.). 

Somerset S.— Bridgwater, Aug. 1884! \V. Vin.son. 

Isle of Wight— Totlands Bay, Freshwater, June 1885 ! H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Hants N.- Preston Candover, July 188.") ! H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Kent E. — Faversham, Oct. 1S84 ! E. B. Fairbrass. 

Gloucester E. — Stroud, common, Oct. 188.3 ! P>. J. Elliott. 

Suffolk E. — Woodbridge, .Juiui 1886 ! S. S. Pearce. 

Pembroke — Near Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. 

Cardigan— Aberayron, ]May 1888 ! W. Whitwell. 

Louth— Pi])('rst()wn near Drogheda, Oct. 1889 ! Miss S. Smith. 

Dublin— Dublin, March 1880 ! J. K. Bedding. 

Var. nigrescens Cockerell, Nat. World, Sept. 1886, p. 179. 

Amalia scnverbii var. nigro-carinata Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 1898, p. 17. 

BoDV dark-grey or nearly black ; said to be often ilestitute of an internal shell. 

Tiie sub-var. nigro-carinata is very dark grey, with a deep black line ruuning 
the whole length of the keel ; foot sole yellowish white. 

Devon N. — Var. niifrrscrns, Parnstajde, and sub-var. nigro-carinata, Lynton, 
F. J. Partri<Ige (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 1898). 

Hants N. — Var. nigresroi.s, Preston Candover, Oct. 1884! H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Surrey — Var. nigrescens (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit.). 

Middlesex— V'ar. nigrescens, Acton, Aug. 1884 ! and very common, Bedford 
Park, Chiswick, Feb. 188.5 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Warwick — \'ar. iiiqrcsrois, garden, Edgbaston, B. Peebles, recorded as Milax 
gagiiirs (.1. of M.-il., Dec 1898, p. 18). 

Pembroke— N'ar. nii/rrsccns, Tenby, not uncommon with the type at Deer Paik, 
and on the north clills (A. O. Stubl)s,"j. of Coiudi., July 1900). 

Cardigan — Var. nigrescens, garden, Aberayron, May 1888 ! \V. Whitwell. 

Lancashire S. — Var. nigrescens, Knowsley, 189:i (Collinge, J. of Mai., June 189:^). 

Antrim — \ay. nigrescens, Kathlin Island, May 1897, L. ¥.. Adams. 



Var. bicolOP Cockerell, Science Gossip, Aug. 1887, p. 187. 
Sides of BODY black ; KEEL and SOLE orange coloured. 
Devon N. — Barnstaple, F. J. Partridge (W. E. Collinge, op. cit.). 
Middlesex— Ealing (T. D. A. Cockerell, op. cit.). 

The Geographical Distribution of M. sowerbii is very similar to 
that of its congener, extending from the British Isles, along the west of 
France, into Spain and Portugal, thence it has been reported as Mihix 
carinafus from several stations in the Mediterranean, and according to 
Jeffreys extends as far as Russia. In the British Isles it is distributed 
throughout England, Wales, and Ireland, but does not extend further 
north in Scotland than Fifeshire. 

The uncertainty that prevails as to the exact limits of the specific line, 
however, renders our knowledge of its inhabited area uncertain ; Dr. Scharff, 
from his observations of the living animal at Ems in Germany, was greatly 
struck by the manifest differences in aspect and habits of the Germanic 
31. mnrginatus from the British M. sowerbii ; the former, which is probably 
a distinct species, having a light grey body, similar to that of Arion circuf}i- 
sci-ipfus, with a keel still paler, while the mantle and body are speckled 
with minute black spots, and not lineolated as in 31. souvi-bii. It also 
prefers to live amongst stone rubble in mountainous districts, whilst our 
31. son-er-bii shows a partiality for cultivated land. 

Geographical Distribution 


Milax sowerbii (Fer.) 

Recorded Distribution. 

^ Probable Range, 

Fig. 179. 

Channel Isles— Generally distributed, common under stones in Guernsey, Sark, 
and Herin (Cooke & Gwatkin, Q. J. of C, 1S78, p. 3'2-2). Jersey, Dr. Lukis (Ansted's 
Channel Isles, 1862). St. Sampson's, Guernsey, Sept. 1891 I B. Tomlin. 


Cornwall W.— Generally distributed (E. D. Marquand, Penzance Trans., 1884). 
Numerous about Truro, Dec. 1885 ! and at Newquay, Sept. 1886, J. H. James. 
Near Camborne (J. P. Johnson, Geol. Mag., Jan. 1903, p. 27). 

Devon S. — Frequent in gardens about Exeter (E. Partitt, Naturalist, 1854, p. 
154). Torcross, Aug. 1885, F. G. Fenn. Torquay, April 1888 ! C. Ashford. Com- 
mon in Mr. McMurdo's garden, Topshani, Aug. 1892, L. E. Adams. 

Devon N.— Noitham and Lynton. Nov. 1885 ! W. A. Gain. Common on east 
side of Hele Bav near Ilfracombe, March 1887 (B. Tomlin, J. of Conch., Apr. 1887). 
Barnstaple, 1898 (F. J. Partridge, J. of Mai, Dec. 1898). 

Somerset S.— Abundant in the allotment gardens, near the canal and gasworks, 
Bridgwater, Aug. 1884 1 W. Vinson. 


Somerset N. — Clevedoii, in j;;uileii.s, ami in llie c )i)se between Ujiper Clevedon 
an<l the l)eacli (A. M. Nomian, Moll. Somerset, i860). Hath, June 1884 ! C J. 
Waterfall. Bitton and ManfrotslieM, Feb. 18S.5, E. .1. Lowe. 


Dorset— (Generally distributed (J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, Moll. Dor.set, 1885). 
Chiileock, Bridport, Anj,'. 188,1 ! A. Belt. Portland, Auf;. 1886 I J. Madison. 

Isle of Wight— Satidown, K. (Jibbs (Forbes X: Hanley, B.rit. Moll., 18,53, p. 289). 
Frequent at Benibridj^^e, A. (J. More ; and coniinon about A'entnor, (4. (inyon 
(Venables' (luide to Isle of Wight, 1860). Tothunls Bay, .lune 188.") ! H. P. Fitzo:eral<l. 

Hants S. — ("hristehurch, coninion, Jan. 1883 ! Mndeford, Oct. 1879 ! C. Ashford. 
Portsd(.wn Hill, May 188,") ! W. Jellery. 

Hants N. — Preston Candover, Nov. 188.) ! H. P. Fitzj,'er.ald. 

Sussex W. — Not nnconnnon aliont Henlield, and at Hassock's Gate near Hurst- 
pierpoint, W. Borrer (llarting, Zool., March 1878, p. 8G). Not plentiful in gardens 
and about buildings, Kathani, Nov. 1886 ! W. Jellery. 

Sussex E.— Common on the Weald, and found also on the South Downs (Hart- 
ing, Zool., March 1878, p. 86). Common in (ields and gardens, Lewes and Battle, 
J."h. a. Jenner; l{ansconil)e, C. H. Morris; F:astbourne, E. A. Butler; and 
Hastings, rare, Rev. E. N. Bloomtield (.1. H. A. ,Ienner, Moll. East, 188.5). 

Til A MES. 

Kent W.— Common all along the Kentish marshes (A. J. Jenkins, Essex Nat., 
Nov. 1891, i». 2.30). Chislehurst, Sei)t. 1884 I S. (J. Cockerell. Abundant at Forest 
Hill, Sept. 1886 ! C. Oldham. Garden, Swan Hotel, Charing. Sept. 1891, L. E. 
Adams. Bromlev, March 188.5, T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Kent E.— Walmer, 1897, H. Overton. >Largate, April 1883, T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Faversham. Oct. 1884 ! Miss Fairbrass. Folkestone, abundant, Oct. 1886 I C. Oldham. 

Surrey— Lambeth, G. B. Sowerby (,I. Deiison, Loudon's Mag., Nov. 1832, p. 694). 
Keigate Hill ((J. S. & E. Saunders, Reigate List, 1861). Battersea, Sept. 1884, 
T. b. A. Cockerell. Oxshott, May 1888 ! H. Wallis Kew. Commercial Docks, 
J. E. Daniel (T. D. A. Cockerell, Ann. and lALag. Nat. Hist., 1890, p. 284). 

Essex S.— Not ]>lentiful in fields and hedges at Barking Side, and in garden at 
Carswell (W. Crouch, Essex Nat., Dec. 1890, p. 208). 

Herts.— Garden, Watford, Sept. 1884 ! J. Hopkinson. Ware, Dr. Jeffreys, an<l 
Verulam Hills (.1. Hopkinson, Trans. Herts. Nat. Soc, July 1884). 

Middlesex— Bayswater and Canulen Town (J. Denson, Loudon's Mag. N.H., 
Nov. 1832). Hampstead (Brown, Illustr. P>rit. Conch., 184.5, j). 43). Foot of garden 
walls, Hampstead lane, Dec. 1888 ! and Highgate, June 1888 ! H.W. Kew. (Junners- 
bury, Dec. 1884 ! Acton, Dec. 1884 ! Bedford Park, Chiswick, Dec. 1884 ! and 
Regent's Park, T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Oxford— Weston-on-the-Green, Rev. A. ALattliews (A. M. Norman, Zool., 18;57, 

p .5610). Broughton ; in gardens at Kingham, S. Spencer Pearce ; and near Swin- 

comb (W. E. Collinge, Conch., March 1891, p. 13). 


Suffolk E.— W^oodbridge, June 1886 ! S. Spencer Pearce. Mendlesham and 
Bramford (Mayfield, ,1. of Conch., April 1903, p. 295). Ipswich, 1893 (W. M.Webb, 
J. of Mai., 1893, p. 14). 

Norfolk E.— Plentiful on stone banks, late in the evening, Catton and Thorpe 
(J. ]}. BridguKin, Zool., 1851, p. 3,302). Norwich (Bellars, Britisli Shells, 1858). 
Plentiful at Catton and Kirl)y Ikdcm ! (Mavfield, Trans. Norf. Soc, 1896, p. 185). 

Norfolk W. — King's Lynn, 1884 ! C. P.. Plowright ; .Inly 1894 ! T. Petch. 

Bedford— (Jeneral Cemetery, Luton, April 1889 ! ,1. Saunders. 

Northampton— Towcester, July 1881, A. Loytlcll. Peterborough, scarce, July 

1882, A. W. Nicholls. Rockingham Park, M.ay 1896, L. E. Adams. 


Gloucester E.— C<.mmon at Stroud, Oct. 1883 ! E. J. Elliott. 

Gloucester W.-Clift(m, llristol (Rev. B. J. Clarke, Ann. and Mag. N.H., 1843, 
p. 339). Stroud, Oct. 1883! \i. J. Elliott. Totshill and Dcnnil Hill, E. J. Lowe. 
Gardens, Bristol, .lune 1884 ! W. B. Waterfall. 

Monmouth— Abundant at Chepstow, Portskowett, Tintern, Itton, St. Pierre, 
Usk, and Pierceficld Park, also Shirenewton Hall, -June 188() ! ¥.. ,1. Lowe. 

Hereford— Orchard hcmse in Hereford, Oct. 1886 ! C. B. Plowright. 

Worcester— Yardley (G. S. Tve, (,).J. of Conch., May 1875). Nnr-sery garden,, Nov. 1888 ! ("". Ashford. Great .Malvern, in cellar, .Inly 1902 I C. Waterfall. 

Warwick— Stratford roa'l, Cam]) Hill, P.irmingham (G. S. Tye, Q.J. of Conch., 
May 1875). (Jardeii, Kdglxiston, Sept. 1898, Bromley Peebles. 

Stafford— Very abundant in gardens of Old Hall, Stone, Aug. 1888 ! (J. R. B. 
Maseheld, Staffordshire List, 1902). 


Glamors^an— Near banks of River Taff, Llamlaff", July 1885 ! ami Canlift", Oct. 
1885 ! F. W. Wottoii. Coniiuon ahavit Swansea, lODl, H. Rowland Wakefield. 

Pembroke — Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. Common, very variable in 
colour, and often very larj^e about Tenby; the North ClilF specimens have very 
thick shells (A. G. Stiibbs, J. of Conch., July 1900). 

Cardig^an— Common in garden, Aberayrou, May 1888 ! Miss Maildy. Aberyst- 
with. May 188S I E. Collier. 


Carnarvon !— T. Shaiikhmd (J. of Conch., 1891, p. 398). 
Denbigh — Great Onne's Head, Jan. 1888 ! Lionel E. Adams. 


Lincoln S. — Near Boston, Sept. 1884 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Lincoln N.— Louth, INLay 1883 ! H. Wallis Kew. 

Leicester — Near gardens, London road, Leicester, Sept. 1886 ! H. E. Quilter. 

Notts. — Higlifield House near Beeston (Lowe & Musson, Mid. Nat., Aug. 1879). 

Derby— Repton, 1885, Rev. H. Milnes. Manstield, 1881, E. Pickard. 


Cheshire — Near Jackson's Boat (J. Hardy, Manchester List, 1865). Chester (Tate, 
Brit. Moll., 1866, p. 81). (harden, Baguley'road, Sale, ()ct. 1892 ! C. Oldham. 

Lancashire S.— Botanical Gardens, ^Ianchester (J. Hardy, op. cit. ). Hesketh 
Park, Soutliport. 1889 (W. H. Heathc(»te, Conch., June 1891)." Banks of Leeds and 
Liver])ool Canal, by the bridge at Lvdiate, G. W. Chaster (J. W. Williams, Conch., 
Marcli 1891). Knowsley near Liverpool, 1893 (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., June 1893). 

Lancashire Mid— Catteral near Clarstang, Sept. 1S8S ! and Preston, Sept. 1890 ! 
W. H. Heathcote. 


York S.E.— In gardens, Hull (J. D. Butterell, Nat., Dec. 1878, p. 71). 

York N.E. — Spa grounds, Scarborough, 1885, E. J. Lowe. Connnon in garden, 
Snarborongli, April 1888 ! C. Ashford. Pfentiful near Whitby, Aug. 1883 ! H. Pollard. 
Abundant in garden, Borough road, Middlesbrough, Sept. 1886 ! T. A. Lofthouse. 

York S.W.— Bretton and Haw Park, 1883, J. Wilcock. Ackworth (C. Ashford, 
Zool., 1854, p. 4261). 

York Mid W. — Meanwood near Leeds, Aug. 1882 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 
Killingliall, July 1882 ! W. Nelson. Pateley Bridue, Aug. 1882 ! W. Storey. 
Ingleton district (W. E. Collinge, Naturalist, April 1890). 


Durham— South Shields, specimens in British Museum from R. Howse. 

Northumberland S. — Near Benwell, W. Backhouse (J. Alder, Northnmb. and 
Durham List, 1848). Museum grounds, Newcastle-on-Tj-ne, Aug. 1888 ! R. Howse. 


Isle of Man— Near the Nunnery, Douglas, July 1880 i W. Nelson. At entrance 
to (ilen Meay, Sept. 1891 ! 


Renfrew— P'requent in gardens, Greenock, Sept. 1883 ! T. Scott. 


Edinburgh — Warriston Cemetery, Ediiiliurgii, June 1901, R. (Godfrey. Meggat- 
laiid near Edinburgh ! Morningside ! and Craiglockhart, Oct. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Fife and Kinross — North Queensferry, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roel)Uck. 

Clyde Isles — Common about Aquarium, Rothesay, Bute, Nov. 1886 ! T. Scott. 

Sutherland E. — Introduced at Brora, but has apparently now disappeared (W. 
Bailiie, J. of Conch., Jan. 1889). 


Derry— Near Londonderry. J. N. Milne (R. F. Scharft", Irisli List, 1892). Plenti- 
ful on railway bank opposite Downhill Station, Feb 1900, R. Welch. 

Donegal— Above Rosai)enna, May 1902, R. Welch. 

Antrim^Cushendun, May 1886 ! S. A. Brenan. Common on Rathlin Island, 
L. E. Adams. Brown's Bay", July 1899, \l. Welch. 

Down — Downpatrick, Oct. 1897, R. Welch. 


Louth — Piperstown, Jan. 1890 ! Miss Sidney Smitii. 

Dubhn— Ditches by Circular road, near Plucnix Park, Dublin, R. Ball (B. J. 
Clarke, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Nov. 1843). Damp gardens at Monkstown and 
Killiney (W. W. Walpole, Zool., 1853, p. 4022). Ciarden of Sloperton Lodge, 
March 'l8S6 ; Kill of the Grange, April 1886 ! and Kingstown, June 1886 ! W. F. de 
Vismes Kane. Field at Finglas, May 1886 ! J. R. Redding. Howth, April 1887 ! 


Wliitecliurcli, Oct. 1890 ; Ralieny, Aiij,'. 1890 ; and {garden, Tudor House, Leeson 
Park, r)iil)lin, Oct. ISOO ! R. V. Scliaiff. Doiinyl.rook, Aug. 1888 1 G. Bairett- 
Hainilton. Al)Uii(laiit in inarsli, Husliy I'aik ; and in ganlcn, Zion road, Kathgar, 
Sept. 100.3, A. W. Stelfox and II. Welch. Drain at Dundrnm, Oct. 1809, K. Welcli. 

Wicklow— Woodenbrid<,'e, March 1803 (R. \\ SciiarfT, Irish Nat., April 1893). 
Kihudderv; (Jlen of Downs; Su<^ar Loaf and Alhidore Olen, July 1891, R. F. Schartt'. 

Wexford— Alderton, New Ross, Sei»t. 1888 ! Miss L. Glascott. Wexford, April 
1891, R. v. Scharff. Rossclare sandbank, Sept. 1889! G. Barrett- Hamilton. 

Carlow— Carlow, Nov. 1901, A. G. Stuart. 

Kilkenny— Tabulated by Mr. L. E. Adams (J. of Conch., Oct. 1892. p. 2.34). 


Sligo— Woods at Movview, Ballina (Miss Amy Warren, Zool., Jan. 1879). 
Inisiunurrv Island, Sept' 1000, R. Welch. 

Mayo W. -Du-,'ort, Sept. 1888 ! (J. G. Milne, J. of Conch., Oct. 1891). 

Galway E.— Monivea (B. J. Clarke, Ann. and Mag. Nat., 1S40). Several 

in graveyard, Clare-Galway Abbey, July 1895, R. Standen. Leenane Mountain and 

Dernasliggan, April 1897, R. Welch, Irish Nat., Nov. 1897. 

Galway W. — Aran Isles, Oct. 1890, R. F. Scharflf. 


Tipperary S. — Near Clonmel, Dec. 188.5, A. H. Delap. 

Waterford^Waterford,Sep. 1883! J. H. Salter. Clonmel, Apl. 1888, A. H. Delap. 

Cork N.— Yonghal (R Tate, Brit. Moll., 18B6, p. 81). Queenstown, R. F. 
Scharfl". Abundant in woods around Blarney Castle, Sei)t. 1898, L. E. Adams. 

Cork S.— In gardens of Royal Cork Institution (Humphreys, Fauna .and Flora 
of Cork, 184.5, p. 2). Glengariif, May 1891, R F. Schartt". Common about Bantry, 
Sept 1898, L. E. Adams. 

Kerry — Near the Southern Hotel, Kenmare, .Inly 1808 (R. Standen, Irish Nat., 
Sept. 1898). Valentia Island, April 1888, A. H. Delap. 

Dr. .leftreys records M. sowerbii from Falkenstein in the Upper Harz, but it is 
doubtful if this record really refers to our species. Mr. Daniel also records from 
Heidelberg as L. rarinatus a slug de.scribed as darker and more distinctly spotted 
than English specimens, probably a <lark variety of the Milax marginatus. 

Belgfium— Jf. sowerbii (Kxokx, Nachr. Deutsch. Mal. Ges., 1869, p. 163). 

M. sowerbii inhabits the Atlantic shores of France, the departments Cotes-du- 
Nord, Finistere, Gironde, Morbihan, and Vendee l)eing especially noteil, while as 
M. carinntiis it is known for the Alpes Maritimes and the V'ar. Signor Pollonera 
notes it as living abont Bastia, Corsica, whilst (Jassies under the name of Linmx 
(tygilldceus records it for the (JiroTide. 

The specimens found plentifully at an altitude of 2,600 feet at Promontogno an>l 
Bondo in the Bergel ^'alley, (irisons, by the Rev. S. Spencer Pearce were regarded 
by him as identical with the Britisii form. 

Mil(t.v sowerbii is recorded from Florence in Tuscany by Dr. Simroth. Lessona 
and Pollonera give the distrii>ution of M. cariuatvs as extending over Liguria, 
Tuscany, Najtles, and Sicily, but as l>eing an absentee from the Adriatic shores of 
Northern Italy and Sar<linia, and Pollonera descrilies it as common at Malta. 

Spain — M. sowerbii, shores of northern Spain (Bourguignat, Mal. Alger., 1864, 
p. 46). Lascalles,, and Hoy de Barcena in the .Vsturi.os, ami in the spurs 
of the Pyrenees, May 186l>, E. .1. Lowe. 

Portugal— .1/. frtrmrt<«.s (Scharir, Irish List, 1892). 

Greece— Megalopolis, Oct. 1801 ! .1. G. Milne. M. Jiesftei, Prevesa in Epirus and 
Gasturi in the Island of Corfu (Botfjger, Nachr. Deutsch. Mal. Cies., 1882, p. 96). 
Crete— il/. carinntiis (Koh^M, Zoogeogr., 1898, p. 321). 

Dr. JettVeys cites Russia for our species on the authority of Jelski. 

Ecuador— A specimen in the Biitish Museum, collected by Mr. Buckley, differs 
in nothing from tliose found near London (Cockerell, Ann. and Mag. N. IL, Oct. 1890). 

Plate XVI I. 

Distribution of Milax soiverbii (Fer.) 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 


C'haimel Isles 


1 Cory wall \V. 

2 t'uiuwall K. 

3 Devon f>. 

4 Kevou N. 

5 Somerset S. 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts :<. 
S Wilts S. 
9 Dorset 

10 Isleuf Wight 

11 Hants S. 

12 Hants N. 

13 Sussex \V. 

14 Sussex E. 


15 Kent E. 

16 ICcut W. 

17 Surrey 
la ilssex S 
IS* Ksoex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 Jlitldlesex 

22 lierks. 

23 Uxlord 

24 Ducks. 

A No 1. 1 A 

2.5 Suffolk E. 

26 Sulloik W. 

27 Nurlolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 C'aiiiiiriilge 

30 Bedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 KoriUamplon 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester W 

35 Jlomuoutii 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stallord 

40 Salop 


41 Glajuorgan 

42 Brecon 
4.i Radnor 

44 Carmarthen 
4.'> lVinl)roke 

46 Cardigan 


47 Montgomery 

48 Meriouelii 

49 Carnarvon 
.50 Denbigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 
.54 l^incoln X. 

55 Beic. & llutld. 

56 Jvotts. 

57 Derliy 


.58 Cheshire 

59 Lancashire S. 

60 LancasliireMid 


61 S.E. YOFK 

62 N.E. York 

63 S. \V. York 

64 .Mid W. York 

65 N.W. York 


66 Durham 

67 Norlliumb. S. 

68 Cheviotland 


69 Westmorland 
and B. li^iucs. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of .Man 



72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 

74 Wigtown 

75 Ayr 

76 Keiifrew 

77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 
SO Roxburgh 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Biulithgovy 



93 AlwrdeeuN. 

94 Bantt 

95 Elgin 

96 Ea^lerness 

w. jiiunLASns 

97 Westerness 

98 Main .\rgyle 

99 Dumbarton 
mo Cljde Isles 

101 Cant ire 

102 Ebudes S. 

103 El)udes Mid 

104 Ebudes N 

.N'. H ion LANDS 

105 Ross W. 

Fife& Kinross 106 Ross E. 

86 Stirling 

87 I'erthS.&Clkn 

88 Mid Perth 

89 Perth K. 

90 Eorfar 

91 Ivincardine 

92 A berdeen S. 

107 Sutherland E. 

108 SutherlandW. 

109 Caithness 


110 Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Sbetlands 



113 Derry 

114 Antrim 

115 Down 

116 .Armagh 

117 Monaghan 
lis Tyrone 
119 Donegal 

20 Fermanagh 
121 Cavan 


122 I.outh 

123 .Meath 

124 Dublin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexford 
12S Carlow 

129 Kilkenny 

130 CJoeen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 AVestmeath 

133 Longford 


134 Roscommon 

135 l.eitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 MayoE. 
13S Jlavo W. 

139 tJalway W. 

140 Gal way E. 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 

143 Tipperary N. 

144 Tipperary S 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork N. 

147 Cork 8. 
14-i Kerry 

-I Probable Range. 
Recorded Distribution. 
Distribution verified by the Authors. 
tSlM Fossil Distribution. 

^^R.^'7 1 






John W. TAYLOR. 

|[rt II (pp. 161-224, pi. X., xix., XX., xxi.) Price 7/6. 
iblished May 36, 1905. 


(Continued troza Part 10). 

P. H. Grierson, The Castle, Ardee, Co, Louth. 

C. Bailey, F.L.S., Peter Street, Manchester. 

Rev. Proctor Benwell, M.A., Wix Vicarage, Manningtree. 

Rev. W. A. Shaw, M.A., Haselbeech Rectory, Northampton. 

Alex. Reynell, Heathfield, 162, Selhurst Road, South Norwood. 

Guille-AUds Library, Guernsey. 

Thomas Hunt, Wellington College, Berks. 

Rev. C. Chichester, M.A., Shirwell Rectory, Barnstaple. 

A. W. Stelfox, Oakleigh, Onneau Park, Belfast. 

R H. Jackson, 5, Lower Derby Road, Watford. 

Prof. Dautzenberg, 209, Rue de I'lJuiversit^, Paris. 

Rev. Prof. Gwatkin, M.A., 8, Scrope Terrace, Cambridge. 

Rev. E. Peake, M.A., Hillside, Bradfield, Reading. 

Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., Lindisfarne, Harrogate. 

Colonial Museum, Wellington, New Zealand. 

T. Sheppard, F.G.S., Municipal Museum, Hull. 

Sir Algernon Lyons, Kilvrough, Parkmill, Glamorgan. 

The Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, U.S.A. 



A fine collection of Unionid^ie - - - £15 

A very rich collection of European Land and Fresh- 
water Shells - - - . . £30 

A collection of Melaniadce . . . . £5 

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Two small Cabinets with various Fossils - - £10 

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Knowle, Bristol. 




Limax modioliformis Sandberger. 

Limax modioliformis Sandljerger, Palreoiitographicra, 1880, j). li:5, pi. xii., f. 1"). 

SllELl- liaiispaieiit or diapliiiiioiis, Imt thick in substance, 
somewhat ovoid and l)earin^' a certain resemblance to the valve 
of a small Mndiola ; APEX or nucleus terminal and placed 
towards the left corner ; ui'PER side, especially in aged speci- 
mens, more or less strongly wrinkled, with the concentric lines 
of growth, between which dark arborescent markings can be 
detected; UXDER side riigosely granulate. 

Length, 5 mill. ; breadth, '?,5 mill. Fig. 180. —Limax 

viodioUforinis Sand- 

Tliis species, wliicli was found in some numbers by berger, enlarged (aftei- 
Mr. Clement Reid, lias, according to Sandberger, some ^" ^'^°'" ' 
affinity in form with the Limax crnssitesta of Reuss, from the Lower 
Miocene of North Bohemia. Dr. Bottgev and Mr. Heynemann are quite in 
accord in being unable to identify this shell with that of any recent species, 
although Bronn has suggested a similarity in structure to the shell of 
Limax arborum, which is also found in the same beds. 


Lower Pleistocene— West Kunton, East Norfolk, Clement lleid (.Sandberger, 
op. cit. ). 

Fig. 181. — Limax 
liitus (Kdw.), enlarged 
(after Edwards). 

Limax latus (Edwards). 

Ancyh/sl latus F. E. Edwards, Moiiog. Eoc. Moll., 18.52, p. 110, pi. xiv., f. 1." 
Limax latus Cockerell, Conch., Sept. 1898, p. 174. 

Shell broadly suli-conical, somewhat incrassate, and 
greatly depress:ed, with the vertex or nucleus aljout half-way 
between the margin and the middle. 

Length, about 6g mill. ; breadth, alxmt 5 mill. 

This species, of which only an imperfect specimen 
was known to Mr. l<]d wards, was characterized by liiin, 
though with considerable doubt and hesitation, as an 
Ancylus\ it, however, proves to be, according to Woodward's Manual,^ 
really the shell of a Limax. 

Mr. Edwards described the shell as distorted at the posterior extremity, 
and as presenting the appearance of a sinus, somewhat resembling, though 
in an exaggerated form, that presented by the shells of the Limacina. 
This sinus, or indentation, he believed was probably due to the accident 
which produced the distortion. 


Oligfocene— Recorded for Sconce, near Bembridge, in the Isle of Wight, by 
Edwards, and according to Mr. Ashford, has also been found in the Headon Beds 
at Headon Hill, in the Isle of Wijiht, and at Hordwell in South Hants. 

1 Wootlv 

?ilanual of the Mollusca, 1875, p. 290. 




Family ARIONID.E Gray. 

^ //o >♦ t^ 

The family Arionidce, according to Pilsbry, 
is somewliat cliscontinuous in its geographical 
range, occupying three widely separated areas, 
in each of which a predominant type occurs. 

The West American area has the greatest 
number and variety of genera, embracing the 
Binneii'mir, Ar'tolimarinw, etc., and forming 
the most primitive group of the family; one 
form, Hhineiia, possessing a spiral external 
shell with scnl])tnred nepionic whorl, short 
body cavity, and solid tail, may Ije regarded 
as linking Arkmidw with the Encludontidw, 
from which they are supposed to have been 

The Asiatic centre is concentrated in the 
Himalayas, and represented by Anadenus, a 
group in which the caudal gland is wanting 
and the male intromittent organ still present, 
undoubtedly representing in these respects the 
most ancient form of the group. It is most 
_. closely allied to the genus Frophysaon , but in 
the })enial development shows nearest affinity 
to Hesperarion, both of which are now West American groups. 

The true Arions, the most highly developed forms, have their home in 
the Enro])ean region, the probable source of origin of the entire group, from 
whence in past ages the earlier and more primitive genera have spread 
throughout the northern hemisphere, the most simply-organized groups, as 
is usual, occupying the regions most remote from tlieir place of origin, and 
not, as is too prevalently believed, persisting in their evolutionary centre. 
The Arions are remarkable for the peculiar penial degeneration they have 
undergone, and the assumption of the intromittent function of that organ 
by the oviducal passage. 

The Arionidce are not descended directly from the primitively shell-less 
forms, as has been averred, but unmistakeably show their descent from a 
group with well-developed spiral shells, the American forms supplying the 
chief links which make plain the progress of the modifications and clearly 
demonstrate that the typical genus Arion is the terminal mendjer of a 
series of forms beginning with Binneya, half-slug and half-snail with 
almost helicoid musculature, and i)assing by numerous intermediate stages 
still existing to the typical Arion organization. 

The family is probably most satisfactorily divided by utilizing the various 
modifications of the free-retractor muscles, their arrangement showing also 
the weightiest differences between the Arionidic and other slugs. 

With this grou]) tSignor Carlo Pollonera, of Turin, is here associated in 
cordial recognition of the extent and importance of his researches upon the 
organization, specific differentiation, and classification of the Arionidw 
and of the slugs generally. 

In the Britisli Isles the family is represented by only two genera, Arion 
and G('f>ni<(l<f(i(s, the remaining and more ancient groups being now 
restricted to the remoter parts of the northern hemisphere. 



Gknus a ETON Femssac' 

The genus Arion is dedicated 
to Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., 
of Leeds, whose knowledge of the 
external morphology of the British 
slugs is probably unsurpassed, and 
whose tireless exertions have so 
immensely extended our knowledge 
of the variation and distribution 
of our native species. 

The Arions (apiwv, tlie name of 
a mythological musician and poet, 
or according to some authorities a 
mythological horse famous for its 
speed) were first imperfectly separ- 
ated from Liniax by Brard, in 1815, 
who retained the term Lhnax for 
the group now called Avion, and 
constituted the genus Limacella 
for the shell only, as distinguished 
from the animal, of the species we 
now regard as the true Limaces, 
basing this separation upon the 
possession of a distinct shell in 
Limax, and the presence of a few 
chalky granules only in Avion. Baron Fdrussac also separated the genera, 
using the terms Avlon'jdaMX Llmax to distinguish the groups, and basing 
the separation upon the presence or absence of the caudal gland. 

The ^r/rt??.s have been variously divided, Moquin-Tandon using the degree 
of firmness and coherence of the lime particles representing the shell, as 
the basis for his groups Lochea and Fvolepls, while Mabille and Seibert 
distinguish sections by the terms Baudonla, Kobeltla, and C((vlneU((. Dr. 
Simroth utilizes the modifications of tlie atrium, forming the groups Momi- 
trlidce and Dlatrildw, according as the vestibule remains simple or develops 
a secondary enlargement originating at the free oviduct. Signor Pollonera 
has, however, pointed out how unstable this character is, and instances 
Avion hovtensls as a species in which the change from a monatriid to a 
diatriid condition can be easily traced in passing from France to Germany. 

The MonatvUdw, represented by Avion minimus, A. subfuscus, and A. 
clvcmnscvlptux, are said by Simroth to be characterized externally by a 
distinct band on each side of the b(jdy, while in the Dlatrildw, represented 
by Avion atev and A. hovtensls, the band shades away outwardly; this 
difference is, however, not so markedly observable in British specimens, 
but in both groups there is a general tendency to become unicolorous and 
render this dift'erence obscure and unrecognizal3le. 

The Avlons are unquestionably a closely-allied group, in which it is 
extremely unsafe to establish new species upon examples in alcohol or 
other preservatives, and in which it is necessary to study the characters 
exhibited by the living animal in order to arrive at sound conclusions, as 
the internal characters of even our good and undoubted species present a 
strong family likeness, and the differences are not always very decided, 


needing at times to be supplemented by a study of the external features 
of tbe'^animal. Even Dr. Sinn-oth, avIioso [)rof(juud kno\\]ed,i>e of the 
oruanization of the Arions is incontestable, feels compelled to reiuark 
"That the species of the genus Ai'ion are so difficult to distinguish anato- 
mically, that they can only be determined with certainty by the aid of 
their cohjuring." It is, therefore, to be regretted that, in view of this 
almost too closi-ly intimate relationship, so many so-called new species 
have been described, and that painstaking naturalists of our own country 
iiave been found to eunilate in this respect the more objectionable methods 
of the few continental extremists. 

Generic Characteristics.— Externally, the features of the Arions 

when adult are a rounded DoiisuM and a somewhat corpulent hody ; rugose 
SKIN ; an uncarinated and bhint tail ; foot with distinct pedal-groove 
meeting over a caudal mucus pore : mantlk or sliield granulate, rounded 
at each end, and placed at the anterior end of the body, with the respira- 
tory APERTURE near its right anterior end, and the genital orifice beneath. 

According to Simroth, they originally possessed an ancestral lateral band 
at each side, coincident in position with the longitudinal lateral l)lood 
sinuses, but in the more advanced forms this peculiarity becomes obscured. 

The shell is represented by a soft and pulpy calcareous secretion, which 
solidifies upon exposure to the air, and also to some extent by age ; it is 
placed beneath the hinder part of the mantle, and according to Lankester, 
is within a permanently-closed sac, and represents the primitive shell. 

Internally, the group is characterized by the crowding of the main 
mass of the genitalia into the anterior half of the body, and the absence 
of the penis, the intromittent functions of which organ lia,ve been usurped 
by the vagina. It is also remarkable for the opaque-white colour of the 
walls of the arterial vessels, especially those investing the (ligestive gland 
and the alimentary canal, their complex ramifications showing out beauti- 
fully against the darker background. This whiteness is due to a dense 
deposit of fat and lime withiu the cells of the arterial sheath, a deposit 
regarded by Semper as a ten)porary storehouse of lime for subsequent use 
in the body. 

The NERVOUS system is remarkable for the distribution of the dorsal 
nerve, which becomes bifid apparently in correlation with the separation 
of the tentacular retractors with which they are in association. 

The alimentary canal is more or less spirally triodromous, the coil being 
held in position anteriorly by the aorta, as is usual, and the stomach 
tract l)eing the most jiosteriorly ext^ended ; the jaw is odontognathous' 
or i-ibbed ; and the teeth of the radula cuspidate, with ([uadrate base 
of attachment. 

The muscular system is ([uite different from that displayed by L'unax 
and l)y the Jldickhr, in which the tentacular and pharyngeal muscles 
unite posteriorly into a single band or possess a common base of attachment, 
whereas in Avion the i)haryngeal as well as each tentacular muscle have 
their separate and widely-distant ]ilaces of attachment to the dorsal skin, 
and constitute the section Tricluiriza.- This separation of the tentacuhir 
retractors is probably due to mechanical causes, the oblique strain tending 
to pull apart the muscles, and as the soft degenerate shell no longer 
aft'ords a firm attachment, the retractors have become fixed to the tough 
dorsal integument or to the lung floor. 

1 ^ron(^-. i.. ].. 2.ii, f. .■)no, 2 Monog. i., p. ;!i(. f. &3s. 


The REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS are comparatively simple, and triaulic, the 
EPiPHALLUS, OVIDUCT, aiid SPERMATHECA all Opening into what has been 
termed the n[)per vestibule or egg-sac, which is formed by an expansion 
of the free-ovidiict, and according to Dr. Babor, becomes most marked 
when the animal is in the male phase of its development ; the penis is 
aborted, and the flagellum, dart-sac, digitate vaginal glands, and 
copulatory branch of the spermatheca are absent ; the ovotestis is placed 
quite at the I'ear of the body, while the prostate or sperm-duct is also not 
a closed tube, as in Li max, but is open laterally and communicates 
throughout its length with the oviduct. 

The supra-pedal gland is not imbedded in the pedal musculature, but 
lies free upon tlie foot, and extends about half the total length of the body; 
but in addition to the dermal and locomotory mucosity, the A r ions produce 
a very gelatinous mucus with great rapidity at the caudal sinus, which at 
pairing time becomes very abundant, and which is slowly devoured by the 
prospective partner during the preliminary circular promenade. 

Reproduction and Development. — The congress of the species of 
this genus is preceded by the prolonged circular procession and many of 
the amatory dallyings described under the Liiiiacidw ; the normal intro- 
mittent organ has, however, become aborted, and the union is now effected 
by the eversion of the oviduct, powerful retractor muscles being developed 
for the withdrawal of the organ into the body when the union has been 
consummated, the seminal element being transferred by means of an 
elongate and multidenticulate sperraatophore, which, though quite pliable 
when fresh, becomes hardened by exposure to the air ; it, however, 
speedily disintegrates or dissolves when lodged in the spermatheca. 

The duration of life is probaljly usually about one year, but in the west 
of Ireland and other mild locaUties tliis period may be prolonged to even 
tlouble that time. This restriction of the age attained is perhaps in part 
explainable by the absence of an external shell, which would materially aid 
them to endure hot, cold, and more especially dry seasons. 

Food and Habits. — The A r ions have the same crepuscular and noc- 
turnal habits which so markedly characterize the Linvicidte, hiding away 
beneath rubbish, stones, logs, etc., or burrowing into the earth for conceal- 
ment during the day, and only appearing at sunset to enter, upon tlieir 
foraging expeditions, except during very cloudy or showery weather, when 
they may be frequently seen crawling about during the day. 

They are very slow and sluggish in their movements, but when young 
are adepts. in slime-spinning, Avion sub/uscus being exceptioually notice- 
able for the facility and readiness with which it makes use of this means 
of escape from a disagreeable or undesirable situation. The slugs, and 
especially the Arions, do not, however, seem to possess the same recupera- 
tive power as the testaceous species, a comparatively slight injury nearly 
always proving fatal in its effects. 

Tlie Arions are very voracious, especially in early spring, when they eat 
ravenously, devOuriyg almost any animal or vegetable substances, fresh or 
decaying, that they meet with ; they are not only carnivorous and canni- 
balistic but often coprophagous. 

Fossil. — A species attributed to Arimi, the indifferens of Boettger, has 
been found in the Lower Miocene of Niederrad, near Frankfort-am-Alain, 
but no traces of the genus have been met with in this country lower than 
the Pleistocene beds. 



Variation. — In Avion the pigmentation has resolved itself into two 
chief colours : one dusky or black producing the markings, and the other 
various shades of red, both of which in the larger and more variable 
species by their development or degeneration (|uickly show, especially 
during the growth period, the effects of varied environment, mirroring 
back in the slug's body the effect of climate, etc. Cold and moisture 
being favourable to the development of the dusky pigment and warmth and 
dryness to the red. 

The darker varieties are found most numerously in the northern regions 
and in mountainous districts, and this melanic tendency is correlated with 
a stouter and coarser condition of the skin, and by a bolder tuberculation, 
while the brighter coloured forms are probably the outcome of a dry and 
warm environment, and though these factoi's are not the only ones that 
foster a brilliancy of colouring or the reverse, yet they undoubtedly have a 
very marked influence thereon. 

The largest and most advanced species are those most actively engaged 
in the elaboration of new forms, but it is amongst the smaller and more 
primitive species that convergence is most evident, and which display most 
strikingly their common relationship to an ancestral form. 

Geographical Distribution.— The Ariom are European in origin and 
distribution, affecting more particvdarly the western area ; members of 
the group have, however, spread into Siberia, North Africa, Azores, 
Madeira, etc., and thiTjugh the agency of commerce have secured a footing 
in North America and other places. 

It has, however, been erroneously supposed by Bourguignat and other 
able scientists that Arion, as well as other genera, originated on the 
Central Asian plateau, and spread into Europe by way of the great 
northern coniferous belt, or along the mountain chains of Central Europe, 
while other modern authors believe the Iberian peninsula or the lost 
Atlantis to be the true birthplace of the group. 

Fig. 184. — A Malacological Laboratory. 
Mr. \V. E. Collinge at the University, Birmingham. 



Arion ater (L.). 

1606 Cochlea nnda tertnt toUt )iigra Aldrovandiis, de Insectis, lib. 3, cap. 10. 
1678 Liiiiax ater Lister, Hist. Aniin. Angl., p. 131, pi. 2, f. 17, tit. xvii. 
1682 lAmax major rubiciinda terresfris, Miiralto INIiscell. cur. obs. 59, p. 147. 
1763 Limax albus margine luteo Miiller, Swamp. Hafn., p. 61. 


Limax ater 

— • riifus 

no. 3158. 


L. , Syst. Nat., ed. x., vol. i. , p. 652, no. 1. 

L. , op. cit. , no. 2. 
albus L. , op. cit., ed. xii. , vol. i. , p. 1081. 
snccincus Miiller, Verm. Hist., no. 203, j). 7. 
lutcus Razonmo\\slvy, Hist. Nat. Jorat, i., p. 268. 
marginellits .Scliranck, Fauna Boica Wiirmer, p. 252, 
coccineus Gistel, Xaturg. d. Tliierreichs. 
empiricorum Ferussac, Hist. Moll., p. 60, pis. 1, 2. 

— melanoccphalus Ferussac, Tabl. Syst., p. 18. 

— sulcatus Morelet, Moll. Port., p. 28, pi. 1. 

— virescens Millet, Moll. Maine et Loire, p. 11. 

— tenellus Millet, op. cit. 

— (Lochea) riifus Moq. -Taml. , Hist. Moll. France, ii. , pp. 10, 13, pi. 1 , f. 1-27. 

— glaucus Colbean, Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. 

— hiberniis Mabille, Rev. et Mag. Zool., x\., p. 

— seroabiiaiiiis Mabille, Hist. Alal. bass. Paris 

— bocagei Simrotb, Zool. Anz. , no. 272. 
Lorhca atra Malm, Skaud. Laml Snigl., p. 31, pi. 1, 


p. 8. 

f. 1. 

I STORY. — Arion ater {ater, black), is the 
largest of onr native species, and was first 
made known by Dr. Martin Lister, in 
1674, under the' descriptive epithet of 
Umax ater, and he afterwards, in 1678, 
gave a good figure in Hist. x\nim. Angl. ; 
considerable confusion and uncertainty 
has, however, arisen owing to the wide 
range of colour mutations to which it is 
subject, and many species have been 
created to receive them. 

The name empiricorum (in allusion to 
its former use in medicine), bestowed 
on this species by Baron Ferussac, was 
intended not to separate any particular 
form, but to unite under one denomina- 
tion all the different varieties and so- 
called species into which this protean 
slug had been divided. It has in other 
parts of its range also received many 
distinct names, based upon the slight 
external modifications it has undergone. 

With this species is associated the late 
Mr. Thomas Nunneley, F.R.C.S., of Leeds, 
whose careful and conscientious memoir 

^ of 1837 upon the anatomy of the present 

three other species was one of the precursors of the modern scientific 
sLudy of slugs, and it is to be regretted that his proiessional career as a 
distinguished and skilful surgeon did not leave him leisure to lollow up Ins 
anatomical studies of the mollusca. 



Diagnosis. — Arion (iter may l)e (listiiiniiislieil wlien adult by it.s large 
sizf, Idiig and c(jarse tubeirulos, and usually unitorui colouration, as well as 
by the very contracted and heniisplierical shape it assumes when at rest 
and particularly wlien alarmed or irritated, a position often accompanied 
by a very peculiar swaying or elephantine motion of the body. 

Intkrnwlly, this species is perhaps best distinguished from its con- 
geners l)y the greatly enlarged and protuberant base of the oviduct. 

Description. — A\lM.\r> nsiudly bhvek or brown in tliis country, but varying 
marvellously in its colouring; of great size, sometimes reach in, !,'• 200 mill, in len<ith 
wlien extentleil, very bulUy ami convex aljove, ami terminating beliiml in a Hatteneil 
T.\li/, bearing a distinct triangular (;l.\M): when contracted the animal assumes a 
very characteristic hemisi)lierical shape ; ruBKliC'LKS very longau'l prominent, beconi- 
inj,' keeled and transversely wrinkled during contraction, and showing al>out eighteen 
longitudinal rows at each side; KOOT-soLK obscurely trijiartite, but median portion 
not separateil by a furrow from the side-areas, which are usually pervaded by the 
body colour; the FoOT-l'JMXOi-: is broad, widest at the tail, spread out when the 
animal is at rest, and presenting;' a series of transverse parallel lineoles, of which 
every alternate one is darker; in strongly coloured indi\iduals these lines are con- 
tinued across the side-areas of the sole ; shikij) ovoid, narrow in front, with small 

Fig. 187. — Foot-fringe and pedal-groove of 
Fig. 186. — Head of Arion ater, showing Arion ater x 2. 

the facial grooves. p.f. pedal furrow ;yr. fringe. 

vermicular rugosities, which may coale-sce into irregular and limited wavy lines, not 
unlike the riilnes of Lunar; RKSI'IRATORY ORIFICK large and round, situate on the 
rij;lit side of tlie l)ody, near the anterior third of the lenj;tii of the shiehl, its lower 
maririn cut by the anal channel ; HKAD usually darker than the rest of the Itody, 
with four dor.sal furrows, the outer ones terminating at the ommatophores, but the 
meilian pair become quadripartite (m the forehead and vary greatly in shape when 
the mouth is in motion; ommatopiioijfs dusky, tnbercled, rather swollen at the 
ape.v ; lower TENI ACLKS also dnsky and finely granulate. 

Mrcus very tenacious and variable in colour; when the animal is .scalded it is 
usually orange-coloured in red animals, in black animals usually or 
milky-white. The mucus secreted by the camlal glaml is ropy and clear yellowish. 

SilKl.l. (jnite vestiji'ial, and .1,'enerally represented by a soft and pulpy calcareous 
deposit placed beneath the hinder part of the shield ; it is, however, sometimes more 
concentrated and becomes hardened into a iiranular form, with the particles more or 
less coherent. In the chalk pits about Doikiii;;- .Mr. Darbishiie has ob.served that 
all the animals contain thick and solid sliellv masses. 

Fi<;. 188. — Pallia] organs of 
Arion flier, .IS seen from below X 2 
(after Godwin-.Austen). c.r. cephalic 
ictractor ; t.r. tentacular retractors ; 
/>.r. genital retractor, <-ut short ; k. 
kidney, enclosing heart; re- rectum; 
r.o. respiratory orifice. 

Fic. 189. 

V\i.\. 189. — Heart of. /; /<;««/(•;- X 8. ati. auricle; v. ventricle. 
Fig. 190.— Nerve-ring of .4. (i/<v-v./-;</n(after Moquin-Tandon). 

TN"l■Kl;NAI.I,^", the body cavity is pale and closely 
lieset with minute calcareous particles; the buccal 
uan-ilia are oval ; the UKART is surrounded by 
KlD.VKV, the amide is broadly united to the 


ventricle, and directed towards the anterior left 
side of the noDV ; hkspiratoi!V okifick ample, 
allowing;- the comjilex and piominent respiratory 
vessels to be perceptible through the opening. 







The CEPHALIC RETRACTORS arise from tluee dis- 
tinct and se})arate jioints, as is usual in the genus ; 
the PHARYNGEAL niuscle originating most posteri- 
orly nearly in tiie median line behind the lung 
cavity, and bifurcating about lialf-way for attach- 
ment to each side of the Imccal bulb; the TENTA- 
CULAR retractors are broad and fiat, the left arising 
from the hinder left-side of the lung ])eriphery ; the 
right retractor is somewhat similarly placed, but a 
tritie removed from the lung; both divide about the 
middle of their course into a chief muscle for the 
ommatophore of their res[)ective sides of the body, 
and a subsidiary one for the lower tentacle, the 

latter branching again to send a slip to the buccal i:- mi r> i i- 

,,.,,, ^ ° ' Fig. 191. — Cephalic retractors of 

or labial lobe. Arwn au-r x 2. 

The REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS are comparatively simple; the daik-ln-own spherical 
OVOTESTIS is placed behind the stomach, and is traversed medially by an artery ; 
the HERMAPHRODITE DUCT is long and tortuous, terminating in a "slightly swollen 
and acutely bent junction with the ovispermatoduct, representing the vesicula 
SEMINALIS ; the pale ALBUMEN GLAND is large and compact, but much indented; 
the OVISPERMATODUCT is very long ; the oviduct is a delicate bluish ruttle above, 


II of 

Fig. 192. Fig. 193. Fig. 195. Fig. 196. 

The Reproductive system of adult and juvenile Arion a/er(X,.), showing the muscular arrangements 
and the modifications of the organs arising during growth x 3. 

Fig. 192. — The proximal end of the organs with the epiphallus removed to show the arrangement 
of the retractor and attachment of the spermatheca. 

Fig. 193. — The organs as seen from the opposite side, with oviduct and genital retractor removed. 

Fig. 191. — Spermatheca and oviduct, showing attachment of retractor. 

Fig. 195. — Proximal end of sexual organs, showing their complex natural arrangement. 

Fig. 196. — Sexual organs of an immature example. 

( albumen gland ; I. at. glandular lower atrium ; 2<.ai. and at. upper atrium ; ot. ovotestis ; 
07'. oviduct; osit ovispermduct : ep. epiphallus, cut short; sp. spermatheca; v.ii. vas deferens; 
>: genital retractor, showing attachment to spermatheca duct, oviduct, and atrium. 

narrowing below, while the yellowish SPERM-DUCT, or prostate, increases in calibre 
as it descends ; the two channels being closely connected together ; the slender v.\s- 
DEFERENS e.xpands into a thick EPIPII.VLLUS, which secretes the moderately slim, 
brownish, and denticulate spermatophore ; the SPERM.VTHECA is 
connected by a shortish stalk with the atrium, into which the ei)iphallus, oviduct, 
and spermatheca all debouch; the upper ArRUJ.M, or "egg-sac," is immensely l)ulged 
at one side, the i)rotuberance originating at the base of the oviduct, and contains 
an erectile lingiiiform appendage, which is probably a s.VKCoBELUM. The genital 



RETRACTOR is a powerful muscle, arisinj,' from tlie left-si<le of tlie lung-floor, near the 
root of the tentacular retractor; it separates into two branches, a stout retractor 
muscle attaclied to and i)artially ensheathinj,' the free-oviduct, but continued to the 
upper atrium and a somewliat more delicate liranch, which is attached to the duct of 
the spermatheca, close to the vesicle. In addition tliere is a broad flat retractor muscle 
which also connects the atrium with the upper left side of the lung cavity. 

In full development the upper atrium is somewhat divided by a visible constric- 
tion from the lower atrium, wliich is closely invested by a yeUow glandular pad ; 
in younger animals the lower vestibule is long and slender, but does not develop 
its yellow glaiulular investment until maturity is approaching. 

In tiie black and very dark varieties, in which there is an abundance of black 
chromatophores, the i)roximal portions of the various organs, especially the oviduct 
and cpijihallus, are liable to become more or less darkly tinged with them. 

ally triodromous, aiul shows itself to 
have been involved in the torsion which 
the whole visceral mass exhibits, the 
twisting in adults being eijuivalent to 
I^ whorls; the .STOMACH TRACT ex- 
tends most posteriorly and is separated 
by a marked constriction from the 
large brownish Cltop, wliich is deeidy 
wrinkled internally, and overspread 
externally with a network of large 
white circulatory vessels, the lacteals 
of early authors ; the tESOPHAGUS is 
purplish, with darker stripes, and from 
its origin to the nerve-ring is united 
to the buccalniass ; the S.VLIVARY 
GLANDS large, white, multiloljed, and 
flocculent, spreading transversely and 
encircling the (psophagns like a horse- 
collar, or sometimes with ends turned 
up like a moustache; SALIVARY DUCTS 
thick; DIGESTIVE (;land dark Itrown 
or dark olive, the left lobe forming the 
end of the visceral mass, while the right 
lobe lies more anteriorly. 

In young and h.alf-grown individuals 
the alimentary system (|uite resembles 
that of A. sithfusrHs, showing a much 
shorter and a|)iiarently less complex 
arrangement than in adults, a feature due to the shorter course of its various tracts. 

The mandible or jaw is about three mill, broad and 
one mill, wide, strongly .arcuate from front to bacdc, 
and with a distinct libriilar elasma, tiie upiier half of 
the jaw is imbedded in the tissues, and is of a moder- 
ately (hark aml)er-brown, the exposed or cutting half 
is much darker or almost black, the line of separation 
of the ( wo diUcrcnt shades being very j)erceptilde and 
■well deliiied ; the anterior surface bears from fifteen to 
eighteen strongly ])rominent and rounded vertical ril)S 
which strongly crenulate the cutting edge, and also 
slightly indent the upper margin. 

The LINGUAL mkmhuank is oblong in sliape, about seven mill, long, and three 
mill, in width, composed of about UiU slightly curved transverse rows of closely-set 
teeth, which do not appreciably decrease in size towards the margins ; each row is 

Fig. 197 

Fig. 198. 

Fig. 197.— Aliinent.-xiy cinal of .-J. aier, adult X 2. 

Fit;. 198. — Alimentary canal of immature A. ater, 
showing at this stage its more intimate relationship 
with Arion subfuscus x 3. 

Fig. 199.— Mandible or jaw 
of Arion ater X 12. (Dublin, 
Mr. J. R. Redding). 

Fig. 200. — Representative teelh from a transverse row of the lingual teeth o{ Arion atcr X 120. 
The animal collected at Dublin by Mr. J. R. Redding, and the palate prepared by Mr. J. \V. Neville. 


constituted by a tricuspid median tooth, flanked by about twenty-six rows of lateral 
teeth, which though obscurely tricuspidate adjoining the median row, gradually 
become distinctly bicuspid ; the marginal teeth are mainly bicuspid ; the mesocone 
increasing vastly in size and importance, the endocone totally disappearing, and the 
ectocone dinunishing greatly until in the extreme marginals it also becomes totally 
lost, and the teetii are simply aculeate. 

The formula of a Dublin specimen, collected by Mi'. J. It. Redding, is 
t^ + §-^ + ^ + #^ + l.T^ 160 = 9,760. 

Reproduction and Development. — The congress of this species is 
preceded l)y the prolonged circular procession pre- 
viously described, and which may be continued for 
an hour ur more, the head of each animal resting 
upon the tail of its partner during the promenade, 
and both slowly devouring the mucus exuded by 
the caudal gland and by the body cells. The con- 
gress is not of long duration, the union being- 
effected by the extrusion of the genital cloaca, 
especially of the oviduct, etc., which constitute 
the intromittent organ, the seminal element being 
mutually transferred by means of the denticulate 
spermato])hores. i- on, c . u 

^ _ ^ _ . Fig. 201. — Spermatophore 

This species, however, sometimes reproduces of .-;. «/6v-v. r«/rt, enlarged 
parthenogenetically, as Mr. F. W. Wotton has (=* '*="■ ^ °i"'"- 
reared individuals in captivity, which though kept strictly isolated almost 
from birth, produced fertile eggs. 

The eggs, which are excluded in from four to five weeks after the union 
has taken place, are about five mill, long, and four mill, in diameter, some- 
what oval in shape, thick skinned, and semipellucid when fresh, but quickly 
changing to an opaque-white, a circumstance ascribed to the innumerable 
calcareous particles in the outer envelope, this calcification tallying with the 
copious deposit of lime in the arterial walls. They are deposited in vast 
numbers at almost all seasons of the year — many clusters have been found 
as early as January in this country — under stones, old wood, dead leaves, 
at roots of plants, etc., usually in clustei's of from twenty to fifty, or more; 
they hatch in from thirty to fifty days, according to the weather. 

The young when hatched are usually unicolorous, but apparently vary 
in shade, in different countries ; in Germany, Scandinavia, and North 
Central Europe they are said to be pale yellow or greenish-white, but 
more inclined to blackish in the mountain regions, while in the warm 
plains and in the south they are reddish, and in England frequently of a 
yellowish or greenish-grey, with slightly darker shield and head, often closely 
conforming in tint to the fallen fiided leaves of autunni. In many cases lateral 
banding develops during growth, which may occasionally, especially near 
the outskirts of its range, persist in adult life, but usually the darker 
markings become clouded over and the unicolorous stage is reached. 

Mr. W. A. Gain has carefully chronicled the varied changes undergone 
by animals during growth. At eighteen mill, in length they w^ere almost 
without exception of a greenish-yellow tint, with greyish lines and mark- 
ings, but this in some cases would gradually but quickly change to a 
brownish tint, the tint gradually becoming a rich brown with dark lateral 
bands on body and sliield, and eventually when full grown presenting a 
deep brown back and shield, with black-brown sides and orange fringe. 
Other specimens, api)areutly quite similar when young, may become very 
difterently coloured as adults. 

172 AlUOX ATER. 

Ill winter, when lialf-giowii, they are very apathetic, coiUiig tlieniselves 
up in a serpentine fashion, and hnihllinii: together in a close and compact 
mass wlien in company with others. They grow very little during this 
period, as they take little food; but with the advent of warmer weather 
tluMr activity increases, they eat greedily, and rapidly increase in size. 

Food and Habits. — This species is very voracious, and almost omni- 
vorous, as is demonstrated by the fact certified by Mr. (iain, that out of 
197 difterent kinds of food, only 89 were refused, while decaying animal or 
vegetable matter, e.xcrement, edible and poisonous fungi, paper, weak or 
injured worms or animals of its own or other species are readily devoured. 


Fig. 202. — Fragment of newspaper, as eaten by Arion ater, showing the character of the 
feeding-track (after H. Wallis Kew). 

The colour of the fiBces is also singularly responsive to the nature of the 
food, Mr. H. W. Kew .stating that the faical matter of individuals kept in 
coiiHnement and fed upon fresh gi-een leaves was always dark green, but 
when fed upon apple became of an amber colour ; if petals of Ritnunciiliit 
were eaten the excreta was deep yellow, but changed to a scarlet colour 
when the animals were fed upon the berries of Arum macuhitum. 

It is very sluggish and indolent, and recovers itself with difficulty when 
placed on its back ; if startled or irritated it shrinks into a characteristic 
hemi.'^pherical lump, and sways its body from side to side in a peculiar 
rolling way. The favourite localities of this species are moist shady places 
in woods, fields, and gardens ; it would seem to more especially prefer 
r(jadsides and hedgerows. They emerge fi'om their hiding-place at dusk 
and during the night, but in moist or cloudy weather they come forth 
during the day, their appearance at that time being popularly believed 
to prognosticate rain. 

Superstitions, Folk Lore, etc. — The calcareous matter found beneath 
the shield (it Arinii uttr was formerly believed to possess great and varied 
medicinal virtues. It was firmly believed to be an infallible specific in 
cases of consumption, and was amongst other methods prescribed to be 
swallowed alive by the sufferer : even at the present day, in some parts, a 
jioultice of slugs, placed upon the chest, is considered to have a very 
beneficial efl'ect in chest complaints. The ancient physicians also regarded 
the powder resulting from the drying of the vestigial shell as a very effec- 
tive remedy for dysentery, while Pliny records the same powdery-dust as a 
remedy for the teeth. 

In mnuy parts of England, the country jieople still have a marvellous 
faith in the use of this niollusk for the removal of warts: the method 
being to well rub the wart with the body of the slug, which by the rubbing 


is believed to be impregnated with its matter, the shig is tlien securely 
impaled upon a thorn, where it dies, and gradually withers up, by which 
time the wart will also have disappeared. In Northamptonshire it is con- 
sidered necessarj^ to repeat the operation on nine successive nights, by 
which time the wart will have gone. 

In 1 890 Mr. Kew observed an old man in a garden at Highgate, in the 
suburbs of London, engaged in gathering A. ater for the pui-pose of making- 
ointment; while in Lincolnshire the appearance of "black snails" is regarded, 
especially at harvest time, as a most reliable sign of impending rain. 

In former times, the ancients in their ignorance of mollusca, believed 
that slugs in general, and this one in particular, as being the most obvious 
and conspicuous of them, to be the same animals as tliose possessed of 
shells, and Albertus Magnus and Gesner, intiuenced in part by a passage 
in ^lian, believed that snails had the power of quitting and returning to 
their shells at pleasure, while Kramer in 1736 attempted to prove that 
this was actually the fact. 

Fossil. — ^The chalky granules, believed to be the internal shells of 
A. ater, are recorded by Sandberger from the gravels and brick-earths of 
the Upper Pleistocene beds of this country. 

Pleistocene. — Messrs. Kennard and Woodward report it as found in the 
beds at Swalecliffe, a mile west of Heme Bay, in East Kent; and in the 
same deposits at Ilford and Uphall, in South Essex. 

In France it is known from beds of similar age in the Somme Valley. 

HoLOCENE. — In West Kent, the same authors chronicle its occurrence at 
Maidstone, in a disused chalk-pit, near Otford railway station, and in a 
deposit on face of chalk escarpment, at Exedown, near Wrotham. In 
Surrey, at the Horse-shoe deposit, Colley pit, Reigate, the internal granules 
were very abundant between the 2-feet and 3-feet levels. In Essex, they 
have been found in the alluvium at Walthamstow. In Berkshire, in the 
Kennet Valley deposits at Xewbury; and in Oxfordshire at Westbury and 
Clifton-Hampden, near Oxford. 

Parasites and Enemies. — In addition to the numerous enemies of 
the mollusca generally. Avion ater is internally infested by three different 
species of Leptodera, a genus of Nematoid worms. Lejjtodera apjiendicu- 
lata, a species remarkable for the possession of a pair of caudal fringes, 
inhabits the foot of this species while in the larval state, becoming sexual 
in the decomposing body of the snail at its death. Another species is 
found ill the intestinal canal, and the third species in the salivary glands. 

Fig. 203.— An Entozoic Parasite from Arion afcrvar. rii/a X 50 (afier Van den Hroeclc). 

Professor Owen records that the larva of a Taiihi is found encysted in 
the pulmonary sac, which is believed to attain its full sexual maturity only 
when occupying the intestinal canal of some warm-blooded animal. 

M. Van den Broeck records the abundance of a species of Entozoon 
in the intestinal canal of the var. rufd, but which was first detected within 
the Qgg of Liimur arborum. 



Variation. — Scarcely any species is more variable in its colouring than 
Arion (itei-, but nearly all the variations resolve themselves into two chief 
lines, the red and the black, the presence, absence or varying proportions 
of these constituents determining the tints ; their total absence causing the 
whitish or greenish varieties. 

The red pigment, which is said by Sinn-oth to be a warning colour,' 
resides in the dermal mucous cells, and is developed by warmth, a warmer 
or milder temperature during the growth period increasing the proportion 
of rufous individuals, or intensifying and enriching their tint. When the 
colour glands are but feebly developed, it gives rise to the yellow tint and 
the intermediate shades. This colouring is, however, very unstable and 
also in great part due to the mucosity, as when this is quite removed the 
animals often apjiear of an uniform gTey or brown. 

The black pigment resides in the cellules of the integument, and its 
})redominating development is in a large measure due to cold or moisture, 
as the dark varieties are found most numerousl)^ in cold or mountainous 
countries, Eimer especially remarking upon the prodominance of the dark 
varieties at high altitudes on the mountains and also upon their greater 
prevalence upon the plains during wet seasons. 

In this country, also, Arion ater is usually dark coloured or black, this 
sombre colouring is, however, not invariably that of the youthful stages, 
but is usually an acquired colour, the result of changes during growth, 
and though unicoloration is doubtless the ultimate or final stage of pig- 
mentation, the shade or hue is probably in great part dejiendent upon and 
modified by the conditions of the environment with which the coloration 
of the body tends to harmonize. 

Some of the more severely critical of modern authors variously divide 
Arion ater into two, three, or more species, influenced by trifling external 
differences or by slight 

ine(iualities in the degree n 

of development of the 
various organs of the 
re})roductive system, the 
modifications of which 
are due in a large degree 
to individual variation 
or to the stage of sexual 
maturity attained by the 
animals examined. The 
differences in the amount 
of enlargement of the 
atrium or vestibule and 
its more or less apparent 
division into an up]»er 
and lower section, or the 
slightly differing points 
of attachment of the 
retractors are chieHy re- 
lied upon as esta])lishing 
at least two species, which are distinguished as Arion empiricorion and 
A . (iter, the former name being usually though not invariably allowed to 
include what is generally knoAvn as Arion rii/'us. 

1 Monog. i., p. 330. 



11, ut 


Fic. 201. 

Fic. 205. 

Proximal end of the Reproductive org.ins of Arion rufus 
and A. ater according to Pollonera. 
Fic. t^.— Arion 7-iifus{y\ sensu stride (.-ifter Pollonera). 
Fig. 205.— W/70« alcr (I,.), sensu stricto (after Polloner.i). 
e/>. epiphallus ; sp. sperniatheca ; m\ free oviduct ; r. genital 
retractor ; I. at. lower atrium ; upper atrium. 


The A. emjnrkorum is considered as chiefly West European and to be 
the form inliabiting this country. It is noted as mainly characterized 
by its very short and insignificant lower vestibule and the large and wide 
upper section, an enlargement due to the swollen outlets of the organs 
debouching therein. 

A. ater is said to be confined to North-eastern Europe, and has been 
described as differing by its larger size and in possessing a thick and 
swollen lower vestibule, while the upper section is less noticeable owing 
to the undeveloped state of the oviduct and other outlets. 

These differences are, however, little more than individual, local, or 
seasonal variations in the development of the different organs, as is affirmed 
by Dr. Babor, who shows that the varied development of the atrium is 
merely the expression of sexual phases, while Signer Pollonera has con- 
clusively deinonstrated the unreliability and fugitive character of the 
vestibular modifications and their unsuitability for specific differentiation 
in Avion. 


Var. atra L., Syst. Nat., ed. x., 1758, p. 652. 

The strict type of this species is undoubtedly the black or blackisli form, with 
the meilian area of the foot-sole markedly paler than the side zones. It has, however, 
had a number of special names devoted to it by various observers and is probably: • 

Lintax ater L-, op. cit. 

Arion entpiricorum aldrorandii Kalenicz., Bull. Mosc, 1851, p. 113. 

Arion rufus (3 ater Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. France, 1855, ii., p. 10, pi. 1, f. 20. 

Arion (Liinax) ater var. iiiger Dum. & Mort., Moll. .Savoie, ISoT, p. 6. 

Arion niftis var. nigra Baudon, Journ. de Conch., 1881, p. 196. 

Arion ejitpiricoruvi var. tnaurus Held. 

The distribution of this form is almost universal in this country, as it is one of 
the variations more especially evolved by our cool and moist climate. 

On the continent, this form is found in Germany, Holland, Belgium, France, 
North Spain, Portugal, Norway, up to 66° 49' north latitude. South Sweden, Den- 
mark, Austro- Hungary, Switzerland, and North [taly. 

Var. aterrima Taylor. 

Body, shield, and creeping disc uniformly black. 

It is desirable to discriminate from the ordinary form the jet-black individuals, 
in Avhich the black pigment has also overspread the whole surface of the creeping 
disc. This variety is not common, and would seem to be more especially a northern 
or mountain form, as its occurrence in other places seems to be more or less sporadic 
or casual. ]Mr. Welch and Mr. Praeger, in Oct. 1S97, found some very characteristic 
examples on the summit of Slieve-Donard at an altitude of 2,796 feet. 

It is not improbable that Avion Mspanicua of Simroth, which is characterized by 
its smaller size and uniform black body and creeping disc, belongs to this variety. 

Many authors describe variations of this species as aterrimus totus, but it is not 
by any means clear that the descriptions were intended to apply to the foot-sole as 
well as the body. 


Devon N. — Ilfracombe, July 1904 ! R. Leach. 

Huntingdon — Garden, Huntingdon, Seiit. 1904 ! Miss Emily M. Foster. 

Gloucester E. — Cirencester, Aug. 1904 1 Mrs. Blundell. 

Merioneth— Hills above Barmoutli, alt. 2,000 feet, Aug. 1884 ! J. Hopkinson. 

Lincoln N. — Kijipingale, Sept. 1904! H. Preston. 

Cheshire — Garden, Broad road, Sale, ]\Iav 188.5 ! C. Oldham. 

Lancashire W. — Over Wyresdale, alt. 1,000 ft., April 1903 ! Rev. W. W. Mason. 

York N.E.— Runswick Bay, June 1885 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

York Mid W.— Summit of Oughtershaw Moor, Wharfedale, Aug. 1904 ! W. 
Denison Roebuck. 

Durham— Croft, April 1887 ! and near High Force, June 1884! Baker Hudson. 

Westmorland— On the summit of Coniston Old Man, alt. 2,660 feet, July 1887, 
S. C. Cockerell. Grange-over-Sands, July 1904 ! W. J. Davey. 

Cumberland— Sal keld Dykes, Penrith, July 1904 ! H. Britten. Scafell Pikes, 
alt. 3,000 feet ! W, West. 



Roxburgh— T.aiislee near (Jalasliiels, Sept. 1004 ! J. liosebiirgli. 

Berwick— l''iuis near Karlstoii, Aul;. ISS."! ! 15. lU'iiton. 

Stirling — Near suimiiit of Tk'h ].oiiionil (Miss Donald, <'uiiil)Oilaii(l, 1SS2). 

Perth S. — CalltMidcr, April I.S8S ! A. Soniervilie ; and smiiniit of IJen Voirlicli 
alt. \\:11\ fet't, Sept. 19(12 1 W. Kvans. 

Banff — Aberlour, Nov. 181)'2 ! J^. Hinxnian. 

Easterness— At an alt. of 2,S0O feet on lien Xovis (('. L. Wra"'ge, Good Words 
1SS2, p. :?.s2i. 

Ebudes S. Madirie, Islay, Aug. 1!)04 I Ktliel Evans. 


Down— Suniiuit of Slieve-Donai<l, alt. 2,796 feet, Oet. 1.S97, K. I.l. Prae^er and 
K. Welch ; also found above the Deer's Meadow on Slieve Mucdv, on Slieve Bingian, 
and Slieve Beniagh, K. Weleh. 

Louth— Carlingford, Dec. 1904! V. W. (irierson. 

Meath — Drunicondra, July 1904 I P. H. (irierson. 

Wexford - Kilnianock, Sejit. 1888 ! G. A. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Kilkenny— Gardens, Kilkennv Castle, Sei)t. 1904 ! J. Garlton. 

Leitrim— Mohill, -Inly 19(i4 I 'P. II. (irierson. 

Sligo— ("onmion on mountain summit above West (ilencar, and at GleniflfCave, 
above l,()(l(t feet alt., July 1904, K. Welch. 

Mayo W.— Dugort, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Galway W. — Leenane Mountain, 1S97, K. Welcli. 

Limerick— ("astleconnell, Sej.t. 1904 ! \\ A. Phillips. 

Cork N. — Macroom, July 1904 1 P. H. Grierson. 

Kerry— Gommon on roadsides at an alt. of 600 to 1,000 feet, near Moll's Gap, 
Kenmare, May 1898, R. Welch. 

Spain — Avion hispanicus is recorded for Mid Sytain by Simroth. 

Portugal — Avion hispanicu.s is recorded from Sierra Estrella by Simroth. 
Var. castanea Dam. & Mort., Cat. Moll. Savoie, 1S57, p. 0. 

A>u>n ater var. brunnea Roebuck, Proc. Roy. Irish. .Vcad., 188(5, p 673. 
A lion ater var. scminigcy T. D. A. Cockerell, Science Gossip, 1889, p 141. 
Arion ater sub-var. i>ii7'(nca Taylor. 

Animal almost uniforndy brown, u.sually with a paler and brighter foot-fringe; 
the ])ale varieties are the briinnco-pallescoi-'i of Roebuck and the /uscf-lutescens of 

The sub-var. seml-Iligra of Cockerell is intermediate between the type and var. 
brunnea, possessing a l>lack Ijody and very dark-brown shield. 

The .sub-var. ollvaeea has the brown of the body tinged with a greenisli hue. 
The var. o/irntrfi of Lehmann, 18.")(), is considered by Simroth to be probably a 
young form of Arion ater but is more likely to be a \ariety of A. .^ub/nsrus. 

In Ireland, according to Dr. Schartl', the olivaceous \arieties are entirely restricted 
to the west coast. 


Devon N. — Northam, Nov. 1S8.") ! W. A. (4ain. Belstone near Okehampton, 
Sept. llMit: i;e\. W. W. Mason. Ilfracombe, Mcli. 1887 (Tomlin. J. of ('., Aj)!. 1887). 

Somerset S. Ibidgwater, in allotment gardens, Aug. 1884 I W. N'inson. 

Somerset N.— Bath, June 1884 ! C. J. Waterfall. 

Wilts N.— Clytle Pybard near Swindon, Aug. 1904! Rev. C. H. Goddard. 

Dorset— Chideock, Bridport, Aug. 188o ! A. Belt. 

Hants. S. — Portsdown Hill, May 1885 I W. Jeflerv. Hengistburj' Head, ^Nlarch 
18N4 : Charles Ashford. 

Sussex W. — Katliam, not uncommon, Oct. 1885 ! W Jeflerv. 

Kent E.— Shepherdswell, Aug. 1896, L. K. Adams. 

Kent W.— St. Mary Cray, July 188H (T. I). A. Cockerell. Nat. Hist. Notes, 
Nov. 1883, ji. 124). Sub-var. snninifira, Chisleliurst (T. D. A. Cockerell, Sci. Gossij), 
1S89, ](. 141). Sub-var. bruvncn-palhi^rrn.s, Maidstone, Aug. 1888 ! F. G. Fenn. 

Surrey— Oxshott, May 1888 I H. Wallis Kew. Subvar. brunnco-pallcsccns, 
Warliiigliam, Sejit. I88.") 1 F. K\. Femi. 

Essex S.- Woodford, Sept. 1880 1 C. Oldham. 

Essex N. — Stour Valley, Langhani, Sept. 188(5 ! G. T. Rope. On a bank by the 
railway station, Colchester, Aug. 1890, L. K. Adams. 

Herts.— Watford, June, 1884! J. Hopkinson. Totteridge, May 1888! H.W. Kew. 

Middlesex- .\<toii, Aug. 1S,S4 ! and P.edford Park, Chiswick, Dec. 1884! T. D. A. 
Cockerell. Bush Hill Park, April 1887 ! Charles Ashford. Ilighgate, June 1888! 
II. W. Kew. Near Hendon, May 1889 (J. W. Williams, Zoid., 1889, p. 272). 


Berks. — Common about Maidenhead, June 1887, L. E. Adams. Sul)-var. ollvacca, 
Bradtield, Sept. lOOi ! Rev. E. Peake. 

Oxford — Wychwood Forest on Great Oolite (Whiteave's Oxford List, 18.07, p. o). 
Kimmeridge clay-])its, at Shotover Hills, Rev. S. Spencer Fearce. 

Suffolk W.— The prevailing form about Stratford St. :Mary,Sept. 1886! G. T. Rope. 

Norfolk E.— Common, Strumpshaw Hall, July 1904 ! W. J. O. Holmes. Alph- 
ington, Yelverton, and Rockland (Pearce & Maytield, J. of Conch., July 1894, 
p. 392). Common in the Heigham Marshes (W. K. Bridgman, Zool., 1850, p. 2742). 

Bedford— General Cemetery, Luton, April 1889 I J. Saunders. 

Northampton— Rockingham Park, Northampton, May 1896, L. E. Adams. 

Gloucester W. — Var. ws^rt^ert and sub-var. brunnm-pallcsccns, Stroud, Oct. 1883! 
E. J. Elliott. Symond's Yat, July 1891 ! W. ^Yhit\vel]. 

Monmouth— Banks of River Wye, Monmouth, July 1891 ! W. Whitwell. 

Hereford— Bishops wood Yicarage, Ross, June 188.5 ! Rev. R. \Y. J. Smart. 

Worcester — Stourport, at Bishop's Park and Hartleljury, July 1885 (J. W. 
^Yil]iams, J. of Conch., July 1889). 

Warwick— Sutton Park, May 1871, ^Y. Nelson. 

Stafford— Mil ford, June 1886 ! and a sub-var. with darker lateral bands, about 
Stafford, Aug. 1886 ! L. E. Adams. Barlaston Hall, July 1888 ! J. R. B. Masefield. 

Salop — Sub-var. brannro-pallr.wcus, Oswestry, June 1885 ! B. Hudson. 

Brecon— Erwood, Aug. 1904 ! J. \Villiams Vaughan. 

Carmarthen— Kidwelly, Dec. 1903 ! Rev. L. Davies. Llanelly,Sep. 1904! J. Nevill. 

Pembroke— Near Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. St. David's, July, 1891 ! 
J. Bickerton Morgan. Amrotli, Sept. 1894, L. E. Adams. Holloway's Quarry, and 
Hoyle's Mouth, Tenby (A. G. Stubbs, J. of Conch., July 1900, p. 321). 

Cardigan— Aberayron, June 1888 ! W. ^Yhit^vell. 

Montgomery — Leighton Bridge and Gungrog Dingle, Welshpool, Aug. 1889 ! 
Sub-var. hrioinco-pa/lesccn.s, Welshpool, Aug. 1889 ! J. Bickerton Morgan. 

Merioneth — Barmouth, moderately common, Aug. 1886, L. E. Adams. 

Carnarvon— Llangelynen, July 1883 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Slopes of Snowdon, 
April 1887 ! J. Madison.' Abersoch, June 1896 ! C. Oldham. 

Denbigh— ]Marsliy field, Bodscallan, July 1883 ! \Y. Denison Roebuck. 

Lincoln S.— Careby Wood, Aug. 1904 ! H. Preston. 

Lincoln N.— Common in Grisel-bottom, Burwell Wood, Sept. 1886 ! also on walls 
of cemetery, London road, Louth, June 1887 ! H. Wallis Kew. Abundant in Well 
Vale, Alfoi-d, Sept. 1889 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Cadney, Aug. 1902 ! and Tattershall, 
Sept. 1904! Rev. E. A. AVoodruffe-Peacock. Sub-var. brnnneo-jxtllcscens, Louth, 
and Grisel Bottom, Aug. 1886 ! H. Wallis Kew. 

Leicester— Old John Hill, Bradgate Park, June 1885 ! H. E. Quilter. Sub-var. 
bruinico-jHiHcscois, Sheepshed, Sept. 1884 ! C. T. Musson. 

Notts.— Cresswell Crags, April 1884 ! Felley Abbey, Sept. 1884 ! Newark, Oct. 

1884 ! and Wollaton, Nov. 1884 ! C. T. Musson. Abundant in garden, Tuxford, July 

1885 ! W. A. Gain. Corporation gardens, Nottingham, July 1888 ! G. W. Mellors. 
Derby-Pleasley Vale, April 1 884 ! C. T. Musson. Mari)le, May 1 885 ! C ( )ldham. 
Cheshire— Common at Sale and Northenden, June 1885 ! C. Oldham. Kingway 

near Bowdon, July 1885 ! J. G. Milne. Marple, May 1892 ! C. Oldham. 

Lancashire S.— Whallev, Sept. 1888 ! C. Oldham. 

York N.E.— Stream-side, Ramsdale Wood, Robin Hood's Bay, June 1888 ! 
W. D. Roebuck. Vicarage garden, Ingleby Greenhow, Sept. 1890! Rev. J. Hawell. 

York S.W.— Common at Shiplev Glen" and Hawkeswortli (Soppitt and Carter, 
Nat., 1888, p. 97). (ireen Spring' Wood, Barnsley, Sept. 1899! W. E. Brady. 
Grimescar, Hudderstield, Oct. 19(»3 ! H. G. Brierlev. A sub-var. with yellowish 
fringe, Heckmondwike, Oct. 1903 ! T. Castle. Aldborough, T. Petch. 

York Mid W.— Guy's Cliffe Wood, Pateley, Sept. 1882 ! W. Denison Roel)uck. 
Near Kirby Malzeard, 'Aug. 1885 ! W. E. Collinge. 

York N.W.— Grinton, Aug. 1885 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Durham — Durham, April 1884 ! Baker Hudson. 

Isle of Man— Slopes of Snaefell, Sept. 1891 ! 

Ayr —Cumnock (Rev. J. McMurtrie, Journ. of Conch., April 1883). 
Lanark— Wishaw (Rev. J. McMurtrie, Journ. of Concli., April 1883). 
Peebles — Leadburn, July 1889 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 
Stirling— Buckly vie, April 1896 ! W. Evans. 

Sutherland E.— Rock, south of the :Mound, Brora, June 1885 ! W. Baillie. 
Hebrides— Castlebay, Isle of Barra, Sept. 1889 ! Rev. J. E. Somerville. 
Shetlands— Colla Firth, Yell Sound, Aug. 1886 ! Rev. R. W. J. Smart. 
29/1/05 M 



Derry— ]?allyiiii.<;<l, 1S92! and (loiiucss, Sept. 1004 ! I). C. Canipltell. 

Antrim- ('ii--li<Miiliin, May ISSfi ! iiiid Wliiteliall, l»r()ui,flisliane, .Iiuie 1886 1 Rev. 
S. A. r.rt'iian. Miulnii^li, Nlay ls!(7. L. K. Atlaiiis. Cdliii Clen, witli type, 1899, 
K. Wt'lch. I'.allvcastle, Sept. 'l!l04 \ Miss F. S. OCdiiiioi. 

Down— Newcastle, Oct. 1SS4 I Rev. H. W. Lett. 

Armagh -Arma,-li,.Iinie 188.") I liev. H. W. Lett. 

Monaghan — ("arriekniacross, July 1!)(I4 I 1'. H. (irieisoii. Diiiimeaske, .Sei)t. 
]!I(I4 : W. Y. de Visnies Kane. 

Tyrone— Altadawin, duly 1886! Anjihnacloy, duly 1880! and Favour Royal, 
Au;;. 18S(i : W. F. de N'isnies Kane. IJarouscouil, Sept. 1904 ! Koliert ISeil. 

Donegal— ('roau'liross, Letterkciiiiy, .May issil I H. C Hart. IJundoran, Auj,'. 
ISSil I .1. (;. Milne. TeiMpleiMoie I'ar'k. Londonderry, Sept. 1!)04 ! 1). ('. Campbell. 
Mnlroy I>ay near .Mill'ord, 11. Welch. 

Fermanagh Knniskillen, Sept. 1904 ' Dean of ('lowlier. 

Cavan— ('avail, Sept. 1904! R. Welch. 

Louth -Pi])orsto\vn, Nov. 1889! Miss Sidney Smith. l»la(d<]iall Demesne, Sept. 
19(14 : and Narrow Water, Dec. 1904 \ V. \\. (j'rierson. 

Meath— Drumcondra, duly 19(t4 ! F. II. (Jrierson. 

Dublin — Kin;istown, May" 1886 ! W. F. de \ismes Kane. Howtli, April 1887 ! 
and Leeson Park, Dublin, Oct. 1890, R. F. SchartK Road-sides, Donnybrook, Anj,'. 
1888 :<;. A. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Kildare- Naas, Oct. 19(14! R. J. Pack-Reresford. 

Wicklow — Not so c(nnmou as tiie black and dark^rey forms, R. Y. Scliarft". 

Wexford — Kilmauock, Sept. 1888 ! (4. A. Barrett- Haniiltmi. 

Carlow — Fenauli House. IJayenalstown, Sept. 1904 ! Denis R. l^ack-Reresford. 

Queen's Co.— Strad bally, Sept. 1904 ! A. (J. Stuart. 

King's Co. — liirr, Sept.' 1904 ! Miss Hemphill. 

Roscommon —Old l''ort, Keadne, Sept. 19(14 ! dame.s 'S\. Widcdi. 

Leitrim- Tulla;;han, Auj;-. 1889 ! R. F. ScharlV. Mohill,duly 1!:()4! P. H. (Jrierson. 

Sligo— Collooney, Sept. 1885 ! and Rockwood, Lou-h (lili', Oct. 1886 ! W. F. de 
Msmes Kane. 

Mayo E.— Manulla dunction, Sept. 1904 ! W. 

Mayo W. — Kniiiscoc demesne, Ciossmolina, Sept. 1885! W. F. de Visnies Kane. 
Kylemore Castle Gardens, Sept. 1904 ! W. Coiid'ort. 

Galway W. — The predominant varietv at Killereran, B. J. Clarke (Thomiison, 
Ann. and .May. N.H., Nov. 18t0, p. ^O'i). Aran Isles, Nov. 1890, R. F. Scharfl". 
(Jentian Hill, duly 1895 (R. Standen, Irish Nat., 1895, )). 267). 

Galway E. -Dernasli;_'<fan, .\]iril 1897, R. Wehdi. \'ar. /-(^sfiniid and snb-vars. 
hniiiino /iii//(.srrii.s iiui\ t>/ir<ifiii, Clonbrock, Oct. 1904! Hon. I{. E. Dillon. 

Clare Doonass. .\u-. 19<lt ! ami Cratloc, Sept. 1904 ; R. A. Phillips. W Ipark, 

Scaiiir. Sept. 1904 ! N. |-". llUdiert. (iardens. Droundaml Castle, Sept. lititt : J. Carter. 

Limerick ( 'aslleconiiell, .Inly I'.ldt! P. .\. Phillip.s. Limerick, Sept. 1904, 
(;. d. l"o-erty. 

Tipperary N. — ^'ar. cdsfditcK and sub \ar. '///(v/nr^, shores of Lough Derg, etc., 
Se|.t. lOiit ! (;. d. l''o-crty. 

Tipperary S. Melvicw, ('loniiiel, <>ct. IO(»l ! .Mrs. .Malc(dmson. 

Waterford Near Waterfoid, Sept. ISS.S ! .1. 11. Salter. 

Cork N. -.Mallow, Nov. 1885 ! \V. F. de N'ismes Kane, t^ueenstown, May 1891, 
R. F. Scharir. Macioom, July 1904 ! P. H. (Jrierson. Convamore, Ballyhoolev, 
Sept. 19(»4 ! d. N. Milne. Near Cork, Sept. 1904 ! C. Baker. 

Cork S.-(iiengariir, May 1891, R. F. ScharlV. 

Kerry- Cloonee (Irish Nat., 18il5, j.. 220). Keiimare. duly 1898 (R. Standen, Irish 
Naturalist, Sept. 1.S98). Kiltlynn, Sept. 1904 !.!. diilian. \'ar. nistunni and sub-var. 
olii'tirin. N'alentia Island, Sejit. 19(14 ! Miss .M. d. Delap. .Sub \ ar. o/iirirrn, (ireat 
Skellig(R. F. Scharll', Irish Naturalist, dan. 1898). 

cox/fXExrA I. nis rRiin'riox. 

Germany -The l»rown variety is the prevalent one in Osnabrmdc, according to 
liorclieidiii.L;. Plentiful, Imt small, about lleilin, according to Stein. 

France — Rec(»icled from .Montpellier in the Heraull liy (irateloui); fidui the 
^'(l^ges by Putoii ; fro'm Coted'Orby IJeaiidouin ; from Pas-de Calais by Pouchaid- 
Chanteren.x ; from ( irandeChart reuse in the Is'ic, and from Aix-le-I5aiiis in Saxoy 
by IJonrgiiignat : while Diiniont and .Mortillet desciil)e it as most abundant in the 
ba-iii of the Lake of (iencNa ami in Savoy generally. 

Switzerland— Commonest form about Berne (Studer, M. T. Ces. 15eri:e. 1884). 
Foot of -Mt. Pilatus, .\ug. 18S5 ! S. Chadwick. 

ARION ATKR. 1 7f) 

Var. plumbea Roebuck, Jouni. of Concli., Jan. 1884, p. 146. 

Arion ater var. cinerca Roebuck, Nat., Sept. 1888, p. 281. 

Arion ater var. cinerasct'iis Cockerell, Science Gossip, Fell. 1893, ]'. 25. 

Animal uniforni lead colour, .sides ])aler, fringe dull yellow. 

The sul)-vars. einerea and einerascens are strictly identical, and are described 
as uniformly dark cinereous in colour, a dull lirown foot-fringe witli deej) cinereous 
lineolation. The form may he regarded as imduding the pjile plumheons sjiecimens 
discriminated hv Mr. Koehuck under the name oi jilniiibco-iKillcsi-rns. 


Cornwall W. — A suh-var. banded with a darker shade, Tievedock road, St. 
Colnnib, May 1885 ! W. Vinson. 

Cornwall E.— St. Austell, Sept. 1!»04 I ('. P. Richards. 

Devon N. — Belstone, near Okehampton, Sept. 1904 ! Rev. W. Wright Mason, 
llfracombe, Aug. 1903 (lleeston *!v Wright, .1. of Condi., duly 1904). 

Somerset S. — IJridgwater, Sejd. 1884 ! W. Vinson. 

Surrey — Dorking, Sept. 1886 I C Oldham. Sub-var. rinercfi, with orange fringe, 
lUetchingley near Reigate, Aug. 1908 I L. E. Adams. 

Middlesex— Muswfdl Hill i-oad, Highgate, July 1888 ! and Churchyard Bottom, 
Highgate, April 1889 ! H. W. Kew. Sub-var. cincrnscens, Bedford Bark (T. I). A. 
Cockerell, Science (iossiii, 1885, p. 224). 

Oxford — Churchyard, Combe, abun<lant. .Inly 1904 ! Re\-. S. S. Bearce. 

Bedford — (General Cemetery, Luton, .April 1889 1 .1. Saunders. 

Glamorsran— Cardiff, Nov. 1889 ! F. W. Wotton. Sub-var. /tltniihco-/ia//i:s('ni.s, 
near idanellv, Sept. 1904 ! J. Nevill. 

Pembroke— Tenby, Aug. 1884 ! J. Madison. 

Montgomery —Sub-var. riticirn, with yellow fringe, Welshpool, Aug. 18S9I' 
J. nickerton >lorgan. 

Carnarvon — Sub var. cinrrca, Llanrwst, duly 188-3 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Leicester — Bradgate Bark, Leicester, dune 1887 1 H. E. Quilter. 

Notts. — Bleaslev Vale, April 1884 ! C. T. Musson. Sub-var. rhirmi, Tuxford 
(W. A. Gain, Brit.'Nat., 1893). 

Derby— Markland (Irip, A\n\\ 1884 ! C. T. .Musson. Near Ashbourne, Aug. 1889! 
Lionel E. Adams. 

York N.E. — Egton Bridge, Aug. 1885 ! Baker Hudson. Farwatb Bridge, Aug. 
1881) : and Skclton' Becdv Valley, Saltburn, May 1887 ! W. Denison Roeljuck. 

York S.W.— Shipley Glen'(Soppitt aud Carter, Naturalist, 1888, p. 97). 

York Mid W.— Road-side near Pool, .\ng. 1883 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Wraiig- 
thorii Chuichvard, Leeds, Sept. 18!»0 ! A. N. Skipwith. 

York N.W.— .Vngrani, Swaledale Head, .liily 1884 1 \V. Denison Roebuck. 

Durham -Dm ham, .Inly 1884 I I>aker Hudson. 

Northumberland — Sto(d<sliel<l-on-Tyiu', May 18S5 I 11. E. Cra\en. 

Cumberland — Brii:h;ii:i, < "ockermouth, Sc|it. 1904 1 Mrs. Boliinson. 


Aberdeen N. — Haddo House, Nov. 1890 ! (i. Muirhead. 

Sutherland E.— The Mound Rock above Loch Brora, Sept. 1SS4 \ W. Baillie. 


Derry — Cieagh Meadows, Toome, dune 1893, R: L. Pnieger and R. Welch. 

Antrim — A sub-var. lateially banded with ilarker, Whiteliall, Broughshane, June 
188(i ! Rev. S. A. Brenan. Murlough, May 1897, L. E. Adams. Cave Hill, 1893, 
and (ilenavy River, May 1900, R.'WclcJi. (Jarden, Manse, Antrim, Sejit. 1904 ! 
W. S. Smith. Ballvcasiie, Oct. 1904 I Miss O'Connor, 

Down— Garden," Oakleigh, Ormeau Park, Belfast, Oct. 19:J4 ! A. W. Stelfox. 
Beech Hill near Newry, July 1904 ! R. J. Anderson. 

Monaghan — Drumreaske, Sept. 1904 1 W. F. de Visines Kane. 

Donegal— Mulroy llay near Milford, R. Welch. 

Meath— Sub-var. cincrru, Duleek, Nov. 1904 1 P. H. (oieison. 

Wicklow— A dark grev form at Altidorc, July 1891, R. F. S(diartr. 

Wexford -Kiliiiaiio(dv', Sept. 1890, i\. A. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Sligo — Rare about Sligo, July 1904, A. Stelfox and H. Welch. 

Mayo W.— Enniscoe demesne, Ciossinolina, Sept. 18S') ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Tipperary N.- Shores of Lough Derg, etc., Sept. 1904 1 (;. d. Fogerty. 

Cork S. — Snb-\ar. riuerra, with oiange fringe, common about Cork, Blarney, 
and iJaiitry, Sept. 1898, Lionel E. Adams. ' 

Kerrv— Kenmare, July 1898 (R. Standen, Irish Nat., Sei)t. 1S')S). Valentia 

Island, Sei)t. 1904! Miss'Delap. 

co.vv/x/-:.vrA l nis tr //>■ uriox. 

France— A .grey variety is recordeil from the Valley of Tremorgau in Fini.stere 
bv Bourguignat. 


Var. hiberna :\[iilHlle, Rev. ot Ma^. Zool., ISfiS, p. 131. 

.Irion hibtrnus Mabille, op. cit. 

Aiion cm/>iricortiin var. z'iolesccns Colliiige, mss. 

Animal of a lieautiful rusty imiplo, jialcr at tlie sides ; in alcDliul tin- luilliant 
ami velvety aspect is lost and tlie animal Iteconies of a purply-black. 

Edinburgh — A deeji purple variety, IJraidlturn near Eilinlmr;;li, July 18S8 ! W. 
Eaiile Claike. 

Fife and Kinross— Var. violcscens, St. Andrews. W. K. Collinge. 

Dublin— An uniformly daretcoloured variety, amon<^st tlie fallen pine needles, 
wliieli they much resemhle, in the pine-woods at Howth and Killakee, in the Dublin 
Mountains, Sei)t. 1S!>0, It. 1<\ Scharfl". 

France — Found in winter oidy in the l"'orests of Mcuilon and I<(>iidy in the 
Department of tlie Seine ; it has also l)een reported from the Aisne, Uise, Seine 
et Marne, and Seine et Oise. 

Var. rufa L., Syst. Nat., 1758, ed. x., vol. i., p. Go2. 

Liniax 7~u/us L., op. cit. 

Liinax rii/us B nigrescens Razoumowsky, Hist. Nat. Jorat, 1798, i-, p. 268. 

Liiitax coccincus Gistel, Naturg. d. Thierreichs. 1818, p. 1G8. 

Arion eiii/iiricoruiii jonstonii Kaleiiicz., Mosc. lUill.,, p. 113. 

Arion cm fiiricoruin Idinarckii Kalciiic/., op. cit., i). 113. 

Arion rufus a vule;aris Moiiiiiii- r.iiKion, Hist. Mull. I'raiice, 1855, ii., p. 10, pi. 1, f. 1. 

Arion rti/us y ni/ur Moquiii- ramiuii, op. cit., pi. 1, f. "21. 

Arion fu/us f lirnparnaudi Moiiiiin- I'aii'lon, op. cit., pi. 1. f. 23. 

Arion se>~:'ainiana Mabillc. .Ann. Malac, 1871), p. 109. 

Arion rii/its 4 rtifula liaudon, Mciu. I.iiiuiciens ile I'Oise, 1871, p. 4. 

Axni.VL red or reddish, usually of a ferrugineous tint, with generally a paler 
and brighter fringe. 

The sub-vars. jonstonii, VUlgraris, and servainiana are described as rufous 
and are synonymous with tlie typical rnf<i. 

The sub-var. rufula is pale rufous, and is in i)art the var. pfdU'scmiH Moq.-Tand. 

The sub-vars. eoccinea, lamarekii. and rubra have all been described as 
bright vermilion or deep red, and are a<lo]ited in that sense. 

The sub-var. draparnaudi is deep red with a yellow foot-fringe. 

The sul)-var. nigrescens Itaz. is of deep red-brown, with red foot-fringe. 

This variety is the prevalent form in the dry and warm regions of Central Europe, 
where it fretjuently attains a great size and a brilliant colour, far surpassing the 
comparatively small and dull-coloured examples of our own country. The var. rufa 
usually occupies the plains and the lower mountain slo]ies, seldom ascending above 
an altitude of ;^,0()0 feet, while the black variety is most cmnmon in the outlying 
countries, and also ascends to much higher elevations on the mountains. 

F.XGi.Ayn Axn wales. 

Channel Isles Saint's 15ay, (hiern-sey (Tondin \- Man|uand, .1. of Conch., dan. 
l!li);j, )i. -iST). l-'crmaiii Bav, Guernsey, ami on Sark, duly ISSO, B. Tomlin. 

Devon S.— Culverhole,'Aug. 1892, L. E. Adams. 

Devon N. — Var. nifd-fasridta, Okehampton, Sept. lOO-lI Kev. W. W. Mason. 

Hants. S. — FreqiuMit near Christchurch, iSSd, ('. Ashford. 

Hants. N.—1'reston (andover, April iS,S4 ! I!ev. H. 1'. Fitzgerahk 

Kent E. -Sub-var. rnhrfi, Shepherdswell, Aug. ISOti I L. E. Adams. 

Kent W.^St. .Mary Cray, duly ISS.'i (Cockerel!, N. H. Notes, 1S83, p. 124). 

Middlesex— Sub-var. drnpiirtKnuli, Highgate, dune 1888 ! H. Wallis Kew. 

Suffolk E. -Net>dham Market {.A. Mavlicld, d. of Conch., April 1903, p. 295). 
JJlaxhall, duly 188.> ! (J. T. Kope. 

Norfolk E. — A sub-var. with scarlet foot-fringe common at Strumi)-~haw Hall, 
dulv ]!i(i4 : W. d. (). Holmes. 

Norfolk W. — Kings Lynn, 1894, T. I'clcli. 

Hereford— Not infrequent (Boycott ami Bowell, Moll. Hereford, 1899). 

Stafford— Cheadle (Maselield, Stall'. List, 1902). Sub var. (h-fiprirnnudi, near 
Hartingt(.n, April 1890! L. E. Adams. 

Salop -Minsterley, .May 1887 ! E. E. A<lams. 

Glamorgan — Llamlair, duly 188.")! E. W. Wotton. 

Pembroke— Near Tembrtdie, dune 188r) ! Mrs. Trayler. 

Carnarvon— Suit var. nifnhu Bettws-yCoed, Aug. bSfi."), C. Asiiford. 

Lincoln N.Maltby Wdod near Louth, .Aug. 18S8 ! H. Wallis Kew. 

Notts.— Cleveland Hill, West Markham, April 1SS4 ! C. T. Musson. Stanton- 
ontlie-W(dds, E. d. Lowe. Wood, Ossington ((.Jain, Brit. Nat., Nov. 1893, p. 224). 
Hunger Hill Gardens, Nottingham (Dodd, Notts. List, 1893, p. 71). 



Cheshire— Maiple, Sept. 1888 ! Charles Oldham. 

Lancashire S.— Between Liverjiool ami Wanington, Sep. 188o,T. D. A. C'ockercU. 
Suh-var. rtthra, Knowsley nr. Liverpool, 1898 (Collinge, J. of Mai., June 189.3, p. 148). 

York N.E.— High Cliff, Cuisborough (Baker Hudson, .1. of Conch., April 1886). 
Middlesbrough (id.. Science Gossip, March 1885, p. 67). 

York S.W.—Wakelield district, frequent (C. Rol)erts, Hist, of Lofthouse, 1885, 
ii., p. 2.S8). Nab Wood near Saltaire (Soppitt & Carter, Nat., 1888, p. 97). 

York Mid W.— Wasld)urndale, July 1885 ! W. D. Roebuck. Knaresborough 
(Fitzgerald, J. of C, Jan. 1889). Overton Wood, York (Ciiristy, Zool., 1881, p. 242). 

Ayr -Sul)-var. nir/rcsrens Kaz. , Cumnock (Ifev. J. McMurtrie, J. of C. , Ai)r. 1883). 
Lanark -Sub- var. nir/rcscriis Kaz. ,Wislia\v(Bev. J. .McMurtrie, J. of C, Apr. 1888). 
Orkneys — Xnv. Jo>i.sto)ill, Castle Green, Sanday (Collinge, J. of Mai., 1897, p. 43). 


Antrim -Sub-var. nuiresrcns Raz., common all rouiul the Antrim coast ; Cave 
Hill Quarries, 1893 ; Murhmgh Bay, 1894 ; Brown's Bay, 1899, R. Welch. 

Down — Sub-var. iiinri'ncen.s Raz., Loughislandreavy, Oct. 1897; Union Locks, 
1899, R. Welch. 

Donegal — Sub-var. nigresccns Raz., Ardara Woods, 1900, R. Welcii. 

Cavan — Cavan, Sept. 1904 ! James M. Welch. 

Meath — Sub-var. M(V/rf.9cr».s' Raz., Cairns on Loughcrew Hills, .July 1900, R.WelcIi. 

Dublin— Sub-var. rufula, Leeson Park, Dul)lin, Aug. 1894, R. F. Scliarf!'. 

Galway W. — Sub-var. riifiila, Aran Isles, R. F. Scliarff. 

Tipperary S. — Sub-var. vigresrciis Raz., Clonmel, Oct. 1904! Mrs. Malcolmson. 

Waterford— Sub V. drdpin-natuU, Mountain rd., <'lonmel, Apl. 18S8, A. H. Delap. 

Kerry— Var. nifa, Valentia Island, May 1890, R. F. Scliartt". Kilfiynn, Sep. 1904! 
J. Julian. Var. rnfa and sub-var. drcqmrnaKcU, Gt. Skellig, Apl. 1888, A. H. Delap. 


Germany — Uistril)uted throughout the country, records having been noted for 
Alsace, Baden, Basaria, Brandenburg, Cassel, East Prussia, Hanover, Holstein, 
Lauenberg, Mecklenburg, Nassau, Pomerania, Prussia, Reuss, Rhenish Prussia, 
Saxony, Schleswig, Silesia, Westphalia, and Wurtemburg. 

Belgium — Recorded from Antwerp, Hainault, Liege, Luxemliourg, Namui-, and 
West Flanders. Sub-v. viilgavis, Vielsalm, 1867 (Colbeau, Bull. Mai. Soc. Belg., 1867). 

France — The var. rnfa. is found throughout France, and has been recorded from 
the departments of the Ain, Aisne, Ariege, Aude, Basses Pyrenees, Charente 
Infericure, Cote-d'Or, Finistere, Gard, Gironde, Haute Garonne, Haute lioire, 
Hautes Pyrenees, Haute Savoie, Ille-et-Vilaine, Isere, Loire Infericure, Lot-et- 
Garonne, Alanche, Maine-et-Loire, Mfubihan, Moselle, Nord, Oise, Pas-de-Calais, 
Puy-de-l)6me, Pyrenees-Orientales, Savoie, Seine Inferieure, Seine et ^Nlarne, 
Vendee, Vienne, and the Isle of Corsica. The suli-var. rufuhi is found in the forest 
of Hez, Oise ; the sub-var. rubra in the same dei)artment, growing to an enormous 
size at Noailles ; the sub-var. uigrcsceii.'^ Raz., is found at Aix-les-l>ains, Savoy; the 
sub-var. .s-crvai»iiniri in the great forests of tlie Aisne ; the sub-var. f/zv^/rov^/i'^f// is 
found in the Somme, while tlie sub-vars. drapartifiiidi, rimrgiwllfi, and nihra are all 
common in the .Ain, the Rhone, the Seine, and Haute Loire. 

Switzerland— Plentiful in Neuchatel and Zurich, also at Bex and Vevey in Vaud. 
Sul)-var. drdparnaudi, Maderaner-Thal, Canton Uri, Mrs. ]Manville F'enii. 

Italy — In Lombardy, the var. rtifa is recorded from gardens and cultivated land 
in Coma.sco and Bresciana, and as been found on Monte Codeno, at about 5,000 
feet altitude. It has also been fou7id near Menaggio by Brockton Tondin. In 
Piedmont it is lecorded from the banks of the River Po. In Venetia from about 
F'riuli. In Emilia from Reggio and Modena. In Tuscany from Pieve Fosciana near 
Lucca, and Bagni di Lucca, and is also recorded from Campania, at Naples, by Costa. 

According, however, to Pollonera, this species is not found naturally in Italy, 
but has been artificially transplanted into the Royal Park at Monza, and from 
thence to the banks of tlie Gravellone near Pavia in Lombaidy; other records are 
unreliable, probably due to erroneous identification. 

Spain — Noguera-Pallaresa, Catalonia (Fagot, F'aun. Catal., 1884, p. 170). Sub- 
vars. vulgaris and draparnaudi, Galicia (Hidalgo, Hojas Malacologicas, 1870). 

Norway — Sub-vars. vidgnri.s anil rnfa from Sverresborg, Bergen, and Christiania. 

Sweden — Nilsson says in shady woods; found near Gothenburg by Malm. 

Russia — The sub-var. jonstonll is recorded by Kaleniczenko for Wolczansk, 
Kupiansk, and Wulki in Kharkov; and sub-var. larnarrkii from Achtyrka, Lebedin, 
and Zmiew in the same district, but according to Dr. Simroth, erroneously. 

182 AKidX \ti;k. 

Algeria — Aricu nifiis is rc'C(ii<li'il l)y Aucapilaiiie as rare on tiie triinics of old lif; 
treos in spriiij::, fit Tiiajineniomrtli iliiuMacI(>ii, also at Ik'iii Katen, and on the road 
to Medcali. 'II10 oxamplos arc nioro proKalily A. siih/it.srn.s or some allieil species. 

Azores The .1. riifus i-ccordcd liy Morclet is aecordinj;' to Siniroth A. lii-sifitnirus. 

Var. SUCCinea Miiller, Venn. Hist., 177 1, ji. 7, ii<>. •_>();{. 

I.iiiin.v siicciiiitis .Mulltr. op. cit. 

I.ima.x liitciis Ka/oiitiiowsky, HUt. Nat. jor.'il. 17S9, p. 2Gt). 

Avion cm/>iiico>iiiii var. Jiavescens Kcr., Tabl.,, 1819, p. 18. 

Arion iiiclanoceplialus F"6r.. op. cit. 

Arion eiiipiikoiinii sclirnnckii KalcTiicz., Bull. Mosc, 1851, p. 114. 

Arion ru/its 5 smcinciis Moij.-Taiiil., Hist. .Moll. France, 1855, ii.. p- 10, pi. 1, f. 22. 

Arion ni/iis var. nurantia Hauiloii, Nouv. Cat. Moll. Oise, 18C2. 

Arion rii/iis var. li->iiia Coll)., .Ann. Soc. Mai. Hely., 1865. p. 32. 

Arion ater var. pallesccns Williams, Shell Collcctois' Handbook, 1888, p. 85. 

Amm.M- yellow or yellowish, f()ot-frino;e usually orange or red. 

]\Iiiller"s oriiiinal descriplion is " nijn fitscus ixl siicrini rn/orl.s," l)Ut tiie name is 
here re.stricted to the yellow forms. 

This variation is iisually found oiil\ in young or iialf grown individuals, but 
oecasionaily this juvenile colunration persists to adult life. 

The suh-var. melanocephala ditlers from the type hy the head and tentacles 
heing ol)scure or lihKd'iish. 

The suh-var. aurantia has the hody of an orange cuiour. 

The suhvar. livida lias the hody of a livid yellow (■ol<»nr, tinged greenish-grey 
es]>eeially on the hai i<, foot fringe orange, sole ytdlowish-grey. 

The suh-var. pallescens Williams, is pale yellow and is the var. liifro-j)fi//r.srr)is 
of Cockerell and in part the \ar. /iii//i:s(riis oi .Mo(]uin-Taiidon. 

/:xi;/.Axn axi> iia/./:s. 

Cornwall W. — Iiewggan near St. Cojiiml). May 1SS.'>I W. Mnson. 

Devon N.— A'ar. ■siici'iiiru and sul)-\ar. Jiriiln, JJelstone, Okehaniptoii, Sept. 
I'M 14 : Miss Daisy Mason. 

Somerset S. — Bridgwater, Sept. 1SS4 1 W. Vinson. 

Hants. S. — Charlton, dulv 1884 I W. Jelierv. Suh \ar. mclanorrpjidln, Hitteine, 
July 1SS4 : Kev. H. V. Fitzgerald. 

Hants. N. — Snh-var. hifrd-iiuUe-sccns, Preston Candover, Oct.. ISStj ! Kev. H. V. 

Surrey — Suh-var. 'incl(iu(>ri[i]iiiUi, nr. ^^'allinghanl. .inly KSS.S, T. I). .\. Co(d<erell. 

Essex N. — Suhvar, llridd, Maniiingtree, .Inlv 19U1 1 Kev. Proctor Benwell. 

Middlesex-Churcliyard P.ottoin Wood, Highgate, April 1889 ! H. W. Kew. 

Berks. — Snh-var. miUiuonphala, Maidenhead, Lionel E. Adams. 

Gloucester W.-Strond, Oct. 18SH ! E. .1. p:iliolt. 

Hereford- Suh-var. lirUbi, Itoss, Sept. i;t()4 1 W. Klake. 

Salop — Suh-var. lufcn-pdllrsccns, Oswestiy, .lun«> 188.') I Haker Huilson. 

Glamorgan — Parkmill, Cower, UtOl, H. Kowland Wakefield. 

Pembroke — Near Pemhroke, .June 188."> 1 Mrs. Tiayler. 

Cardigan — (harden, Alierayron, .June 1888 1 Miss Maddy. 

Merioneth — Suh-var. hilro-iiallcsrciis, coninion in tiie cunnty, ].,ionel E. Adams. 

Carnarvon — Kelt ws-y-Coed, Aug. 18()."), (\ .Ashford. Suh-var. inrl<M\oi-cphaUi, 
Conway Castle, .lune I88S : W. Whitwell. 

Lincoln N. — Haughaiu Wood near Louth, .\]>ril ISSti ! W. Denison Koel»nck. 

Notts. — Meailows helow Highlield House, N'ottingham, E. J. Lowe, 188,"). Suh- 
var. iiirliiiiiirrpliiild, Cresswell Crags ami I'leasley Vale, .\piil 1884! V. T. Musson. 

Cheshire — Kingway near I'xiwchm, .Inlv 188.'> ! .1. C. Milne. Suh-var. hilnj- 
p„//rsrrHs, Koniiiey, Oct. 188() ! C. Oldhaiii. 

Lancashire S. -Suh-var. Iiitropdlh.sii'iis, Whallev and Earington, .Tune 1890! 
W. 11. lleathcote. 

York N.E.— Farwath Kridge, Aug. 1880! and Skeltoii Keck \alley, Salthnrn, 
also snl)-var. I iitrd-juillr.srens, Wiltmi Wood, May 1887 ! W. Denison Koehuck. 

York Mid W.— Meanwood Wood, Leeds, Aug. 1882 ! W. Denison Koehuck. 
Suh-var. Intro-pnlli'scins, Armley, .April 1890 ! Lionel E. Adams. 

York N.W. - Satron and .\iigi.uii, .Inly 1884 ! also Storthwaite in Arkengartli- 
dale, .Aug. 1 S8.') ! \N'. DeiiiMHi Koclmck. 

Durham -Suh-var. imrfoilld, Duihaiii ! W. I). Koehuck, Nat., .Inly lS8'.t. ]>. ■JPi. 
Sill' var. hihnpullc.srnis, Middletoii-in-Teesdale, -Vug. 1889 ! Kev. E. P. Ivnuhley. 

Westmorland — Suh-var. ini-hniiircphula, Orrest Head, .lune 1902 ! C. Oldham. 

Cumberland — Sub var. lirida, IJrigham, Co(d<ermoutli, Sep. 1904 ! Mrs. Koliinson. 

Isle of Man — Port Erin and Kaniscy, 1881, L. E. .Adams. Snh-var. iiuJainn'iphdld, 
Douglas, Sep. 1902 I E. Taylor. Suh-var. I iil<ii-jHtlli)iccnii,VQ{i\. Aug. 1894, K. Cairns. 


Ayr— Skelinorlie, A\\<s,. 1SS6 ! W. Denison Uoebuck. ISIaybole ! W. Evans. 
Peebles — Snb-var. hUco-jiaUesccns, Ki<l(leulee8 and Leadbuin, July 1889 I \V. 1). 

Berwick— Sub-var. Jufro-pallencens, Cowdenknowes, and Pease Dean near Cock- 
burnspatli, Aii.i,^ 1886 1 W. Denison Koebiud<. 

Stirling — Sub var. liifro-palkscrns, Balniore, Sept. 1888 ! A. Shaw. 
Dumbarton, June 1889 ! A. Shaw. 


Antrim — Cave Hill, Belfast, Marcli 1884 I S. A. Stewart. Dunluce Castle, Dec. 
1883, L. E. Ailanis. Sub-var. hiteo-puUcsa^ns, Cushenilun, May 1886 ! S. A. Brenan. 

Armagh — Sul)var. hitrn-pallrsccus, Armagh, June 1885 ! llev. H. W. Lett. 

Donegal— Sul)-\ar. Intiu-iinllcsccns, Letteikenny, May 1889! H. C. Hart. 

Louth — Sul)-var. liridii, near I)ro,i,dieda, (_>ct. 19<i4 I P. H. (Jrierson. 

Dublin — Suli-vars. fmivuitia and lufro-pidlr.scens, common by road sides, Doniiy- 
brook, Xwj,. 1S88 ! G. A. Barrett-Hauiilton. 

Kildare— Maynooth, Nov. 1891, R. F. SciiarlK 

Wicklow— Subvar. livida, with percejitible lateral banding, Enniskerry, Au"- 
1904 ! P. H. (hierson. ' • o 

Wexford— A yellowish fawn coloured var. at Wexford, Se])t. 1890 I 1{. F. Schartl'. 

Carlow — Fenagii House, Ba;;enaistowii, Sept. 1904 1 D. 1!. Pa(d; Ilcrcsford. 

Mayo W. — Sub-var. anraiifi/i, with faint lateral liands, Eiiniscoe ilemesne, 
Crossmolina, Sept. 188.') ! W. F. de Visnies Kane. 

Clare— Sub-var. liruln, Woodpark, Scaritt', Sejtt. 1904 I X. F. llilibcrt. 

Tipperary S. — Melview. Clonmel, Oct. 1904 I ,Mrs. Malcolnison. 

Cork N. — Vouglial (Humphicys, Fauna and l''lora of Cork, 1S4.'), [>. -1). \'ar. 
.'inri-iin'ii and snb-var. Ilridn, near Coik, Sept. 1904 1 C. Itakci-. 

Kerry — Sulj-var. liifio-j)<d/i'.srfiis, K'iltlynn, Sept. 1904 ! J. Julian. 


Belgium -Sub-\ar. lirkhi, Trooz near Liege. Sul»-var. paUescens, Chaudfontaiue 
and Stoumont (Colbeau, op. cit. ). 

France — Tiiis variety has been reported from the Cantal, Cute d"<)r, Haute Loire, 
Maine-et-Loire, Morbihan, Uise, Puy-de-Dome, Khone, Seine, Somme, and \"osges. 

Switzerland -A yellowish-fawn ccdonred variety, with red foot-fringe, common 
at Engellierg in Canton Unterwaldeu, and Sonnenberg in Canton Lucerne, July 1904 I 

Spain — (ialicia (Macho t. Hidalgo, Hojas ^Lalacoiogicas, 1870). 

Russia — Recorded by Kaleniczenko as var. schrnnckii for Achtyrka, Leljedin, 
and Zniiew, in the government of Kharkov, but according to Simroth in error. 

Var. alba L., Syst. Nat., ed. xii., 17G7,p. lOSl, no. 2. 

Liinax albiis inarginc Ititeo Miiller, Eslerr. om Swamp., 1763, p. 61. 

Liinax a/bus L., op. cit. 

AHon a/l>iis Fer., Hist. Moll., 1819, p. 61, pi. 2, f. 3. 

Arion a//>tis var. simplex Moquin-Tandoii, Hist. Moll. France, 18.55, ii., p. 12. 

Avion alhus var. marginaius .\Ioquin- Tandon, op. cit. 

Arion allnis var. oculatus Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Arion a/bus var. elegans Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Arion ater var. cincreo-ndmlostts Jensen, IndKeretning, 1872. 

Arion ater var. albida Roebuck, J. of Conch , 1883, iv.. p. 40. 

Lochea alba Malm, Skand. Land Snigl., 1878, p. 37, pi. 1, f. 2. 

Body white or whitish, with or without yellow foot-fringe, and perceptible 
pigmented lineolation. 

The sub-var. simplex is uniforndy white or whitish. 

The sub vars. marginata and albida are white or wliitisji with yellovr foot- 
fringe, and are also in part tlie var. pdllcsrrns of Mo(|uin-Tandon. 

The sub-var. eleg^ans is white or whitish \\ith orange head and foot-fringe. 

Tiie subvai'. oeulata is white or wliitish witii black tentacles. 

Tiie sub-var. cinereo-nebulosa is whitish dorsally, with obscure cinereous 
spots on the sides of the body and sole, foot-fringe yellow. It forms an interesting 
connecting link with tiie \'ai-. hocafjcl through the var. ijhiacd. 

This variety, according to Leach, i.s cliieHy found in chalky districts, while 
Dumont and Mortillet belie\e it to be due to li\ ing in very shady forests. The 
variation is usually pathological, being really ilue to a detieiency of secretory power, 
but is sometimes found in young specimens in which that function is as yet unde- 
veloped, and is a condition liable to occur wherever tiie species is found ; but tlie 
real cause of the dehciency is still obscure, tiiough <iredler states that the preval- 
ence of tlie albine form is ofteu an indication that tiie .species iias reached tiie limit 
of its horizontal or vertical distribution. 



Devon N. — Ilfiacoinl»e, Aiifj;. 1903 (IJeoston aiul Wri<,rlit, J. of C, July 1904, p. 73). 

Dorset— Snl)-var. marginata, Cliideock, Hridpoit, An<,'. 1885! A. l>elt. 

Kent W. — Sub-var. vwrrjinutfi, Daitfonl, .1. E. (hay (Leach, Syn., 1852, p. 49). 
Noitli Downs near Hanietsliam, June 1897 1 Henry Lamli. 

Herts. — Snb-var. mfirfiiiKitd, Ivickiiianswoitli, Sejit. 1895 ! J. T. Carrington. 
Gardens, Watford, J. Hopkinson, Trans. Herts. N.H. See, 1884, p. 27. 

Berks. — Sub var. octdatd, jNIaidenliead, .June 1880, L. E. Adams. 

Northampton — Haselbeech, Kev. W. A. Sl)a\v. 

Gloucester E. — Sub-var. marginata, How iXQi^waW wood, Cheltenham, June 1885! 
E. I). Mar(|uand. 

Monmouth — Sub-var. ociilata, Chepstow, Aug. 1886 ! J. Madison. 

Hereford — Cream coloured s])ecimens used to be common on the canal-side ne,ar 
Hoimer (Boycott and Bowell, Hereford List, 1899). 

Warwick— Sul)-var. iiKtrgniata, Sutton Coldlieid, H. ()\erlon. 

Stafford— Sub-var. marginata, Trentliam, Alien Howe (.Masetield's Stattbrdshire 
List, 1902). 

Salop— Sub-var. albida, Oswestry, June 18S5 ! leaker Hudson. 

Denbigh — Sub-var. marginata, Llangwystenin, July 188.3! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Lancashire S. — Sub-var. marginata, Wlialley, Sept. 18S()! C. Oldham. 

York Mid W. — Sub-var. marginata, Hawl<esworth wood, Horsforth, June 1892! 
H()rton-in-i;il)blesdale, 1S92 ! \V. Denison Koeljuck. 

Westmorland and Lake Lancashire — Type of sub-var. albida, Ambleside, June 
1882 ! Kev. J. McMurlrie. Sub-var. uculaia. Grange, July 1904 ! W. J. Davev. 
I'lverston, Ang. 19(13 ! S. Lister Petty. 

Isle of Man — Sub-var, niargiiiata, Onchan, Aug. 1894, F. Taj'lor ; and Port 
Erin, 1902, H. Overton. 


Lanark — Sub-var. marginata, Ud<lingston, June 1889 ! A. Shaw. 

Selkirk— Sul)-var. c/cgrots, Thornielee station-yard, Aug. 1886 ! W. D. Roebuck. 
Kincardine — North Esk near Morphie, May 1891 ! W. Duncan. 

Derry — Common about Coleraine, 1883, L. E. Adams. 

Down — Sub-var. marginata, Loughbrickland, June 1886 ! Rev. H. W. Lett. 

Louth — Sub-var. oculata, Carlingford, Dec. 19U4 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Dublin — Sub-var. marginata , Rathmines, April 1887 ! R. E. Scharfl'. 

Meath — Sub-vars. simph.iKwA marginata, Slane, July 1904 ! 1'. H. (irierson. 

Roscommon — ISlote Park, Sept. 1904 ! Loid Crofton. 

Tipperary S. — Melview, Clonmel, Oct. 1904 ! Mrs. Malcolmson. 


Germany — Tiie var. all)a been recorded from Raden, Lausitz, Nassau, 
I'russia, Saxony, and Silesia. The sub-var. simjilc.r from Silesia and Hesse Cassel. 

Belgium — \'ar. alba ennmerated by Colbeau for lielgium. 

Holland — Cited for North Holland by von Martens. 

France — The var. allta is distribnted tlirongh East and West France, the AIjw, 
and I'yrcm'es, and has been recorded for Hautes- Pyrenees, tiie Alps of Dauphiny, 
Einistere, Lille in the Nord, the mountain-forest of Faucigny in Savoy, and Pas-de- 
Calais. Sul)-vars. oculata, clcgan.9, .simjtlc.r, and margin(tfa are einimerated as 
French by Moquin-Tandon. 

Switzerland — Recorded by Charpentier as moderately rare at Sollalex and the 
Finsliauts in tlie Valais. 

Norway — Not so common as the Idack variety : it has, however, been recorded 
from tiie Isle of Haaiien in tiie (Jnlf of Christiania : also from Modnm, Tonsberg, 
J>anrvik, Asker, Skien, Rergen, and as far north as Tninisdalen in Arctic Norway, 
and in Iceland. The sub-var. cinereo-ncbiilosa, Naes (Westerlund, Syn. Moll. 
Extram. Skand., 1897, ]>. .39). 

Sweden— Tlie var. alba is recorded from Rlekinge, Roinisland, Christianstad, 
and Frolliiige in Halland ; Giiteberg, Nerike, Westergdtland, Westmanland, ami 
the neighbourliood of Stockhcdm ; sub-vars. marginata and .simplex at Eriillinge in 
Halland ; and sub-var. oridata at Esperiid, in Scania, all rarely. 

Denmark— Environs of Harbourg, Friedrichsdal, and Copenhagen in Zealand, 
also in Jutlaml, and the Isle of Rornholm. 

Russia — Var. a/lia, frequent in shady woods in Tchernigov ; sub-vars. marginata 
and aim/i/i.r, at Achtyrka : and sub-var. ociilafa, at Rogoduchow in Kharkov, all 
recorded by Kalenic/enko, but according to Dr. Simroth incorrectly. 



Var. bocag^ei Simroth, Zool. Anz., 1888, no. 272. 

An'oH rufus var. glaiica Colbeaii, Hull. Soc. Mai. lielg., 1867, p. 4(5. 

Animal uniformly wliite, e.xcept the foot-.-iole, which is hLack. 

Tiie young are of a lively red, the head .somewhat lilac, and the foot pale, later 
the dorsum becomes whitish, changing to blackish-brown towards the sole, which is 
fairly dai-k ; as they reach the adolescent stage the back becomes whiter, the white- 
ness e.xtending towards the sole, which becomes darker, a phase figured by Simroth 
(Xacktschn. Portug.-Azor. Faun., 18SM, pi. 13, f. 1) ; it is only when fully adult that 
the animal assumes the almost uniformly white body and black foot-sole. 

The sub- var. glauea is greenish- white, with greyish sides, foot-sole blackish-grey, 
head, neck, and tentacles purplish-black, and though verified by Colbeau as a young 
stage of rufa is almost identical with the immature stage of the true hocarjci. 

Under the name of bocagei, various forms have been recorded as British Avhicli 
have little or no relation with that variety. 

Belgium — Sub-var. glcmca. Forest of Soigne, and a few other places. 

Portugal — Var. bocagei, Las Caldas do Gerez in Minho (Simroth, op. cit., 18!M). 

Var. albolateralis Roebuck, Jouni. of Concli., 1883, p. :)9. 

Arion C!>!/>!r!Coriim \ar. iiiciihis Jensen, Indberetniiig, 1872. 

Animal black, sides quite white, the two colours being siiarply defined ; foot pale, 
with orange fringe. 

Sub-var. media has a black dorsum and white sides, with an intermediate pale- 
brown area, which extends over tlie front and sides of tiie shield, and is tentatively 
placed here, though Prof. Cockereil regards it as probably a variety of A. .subf kick's. 

This var. albolateralis is restricted to the north and west of the British Isles. 
Simroth, however, speaks of a black and white variety from Bremen. 


Cornwall W.— A sub-var. with grey foot-fringe at Penzance, Sept. 1885! E. D. 
Manjuand. Falmouth, a specimen in British Museum, T. D. A. Cockereil, Sept. 1884. 

Cornwall E.— Abundant on Queen"s Hill, St. Columb, June 1885 ! Wm. Vinson. 
St. Austell, Sept. 1904 ! C. P. Richards. 

Devon S. — Topsham, Aug. 18H2, L. E. Adams. 

Wilts. S.— Salisbury, Aug. 1!K»4 ! A. D. R. P.acchus. 

Dorset— Chideock, BridiK)rt. Aug. 1885 1 A. Belt. Abljotsbury, Mav 1880 1 \V. 
Whitwell. Old British Camp, Charminster, Aug. 1889! T. F. Burrows. Maiden 
Castle, T. F. Brown (Mansel-Pleydell, Moll. Dorset, 1898, p. 5). 

Sussex W. — Singleton, not very characteristic, July 1884 ! W. Jeflery. 

Kent E.— A colony at Kings<lown, Sei>t. 1891 I L. K. Adams. 

Gloucester E. — Leckhampton, June 1885 ! J. Madison. 

Monmouth — Shirenewton, July 1890 ! E. J. Lowe. 

Stafford— Statlbrd, 1886 ! L. E. Adams. 

Salop— Minsterley, May 1887 ! L. E. Adani.s. Oswestry, June 1885 ! B. Hudson. 

Cardigan -Aberystwyth, May 1888 ! E. Collier. 

Montgomery — Timber-yard, Welshpool, June 1889 ! J. Bickerton Morgan. 

Merioneth— Nant-y-Mor, June 1901 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Bont ddu near 
Dolgelly, and slopes of Cader Idris, July 1886 ! V. (J. Fenn. 

Carnarvon-Bettws-y-Coed. Aug. 1865, C. Ashford. Dinas station ! and abun- 
dant at Trefriw, July 188,3! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Anglesea— Llanfaes, Sej)t. 1886 ! J. G. Milne. 

York S.W. — Hedon, April 1904, and Danes Dyke, T. Fetch. 

Northumberland — River side. West Woodl)urn, Sept. 1886 ! R. Howse. 

Westmorland and Lake Lancashire— Hill Fell, May 1885 ! W. West. Coniston, 
April 1887 ! S. C. Cockereil. Greenodd near Ulverstcm, Sept. 1904 I S. Lister Petty. 

Isle of Man— Bradda Head, 1880, L. E. Adams. Kirk Braddan and Onchan, 
Aug. 1885 (J. Moore, Sci. Goss., April 1886, p. 94). Port Erin, 1902, H. Overton. 

Sutherland E, — Golspie Burn, June 1884 ! W. ]}aillie. 


Antrim — Whitcliall, Urouirlisliaiio, Juno ISSG I Ttev. S. A. r»ronaii. Islaiul .Maji«!r", 
.hiiK' l!in;{. i;. I'atlcii. 

Meath Sialic, -liilv r.Mi4 : I'. II. (Jiicrson. 

Galway W.- -Aiai'i Isles, .liilv ISi).") (]{. Slaink'ii, Irisli Nat., Sc].l. ISII.".). 

Norway — Suli-var. inrdla, liorj^eii (Miss Ksmark, J. of Condi., Oct. ]8S(j). 

Var. bicolor Roebuck, not of Mo(|.-Taiul., ]\Ioll. France, 185."), p. 1 1. 

.Irion atey var. eliitcolatus Cockerell, Science Gossip, Nov. 188(), p. 259. 
Arion aler var. scharffi Cockerell, Journ. of .Mai., 1893, p. 208. 

Animal deep V>ro\vii, witii sides of Ixxiy yellowish or orange. 

The sub-var. SCharfR (iillbrs in the hack heinj; hiack instead of deep brown, 
sides yellow, and according to Prof. Cockerell his var. clincolato is almost identical. 

The AriiDi ni/iis var. hirolor of Mo(|nin-Tandon, jndo;in;^ by li,i;s. 6, 7, on plate 1 
of Fcnissac's work, which lie cites as representiii.u his fonn, is not this sjiecics, Imt 
Arion .■iiiO/iisrits. Mr. Koebnck lirst correctly nsed the name 6(co/oy in connection 
with the present species. 

Like the var. fi/fii>IafnYth'.s\ this variety would seem in this conntry to be strictly 
western in its distribnlion, wiiilc Dr. Scliard' has expressed tiic opinion tiial, 
according to his expeiience in Iicland, it is a strictly littoral form in tiiat conntry, 
and states that Simrotli lias found similar s]i(>ciiiiens on the shores of the iJaltic Sea. 


Cornwall W. On heatii, near IJodmin (Leach, Svn., 18.")2, p. 49). Scillv Isles, 
.\ng. IS'.tG : Uev. K. 1). Roberts. I'liillack near Hayle, Oct. l.S,S4 ! S. Hockin. 
Tre\ido(dv road, St. Coliimb, .May 188,") I NV. \'inson. Siib-\ar. iliiiriildtK, Tniro, 
.1. H. .lames (("(tckerell, Science (Jossip, I.e.). 

Cornwall E. (Jarden-baiik, St. Colnmb. .May ls,s.") I W. \'insiiii. 

Devon S. — Topsham, .\no. 189-2 I Lionel E. .\<lams. 

Devon N.— <'lovellv 18S)8'(\V. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., 1898, p. 17). Lvnton, 1898, 
F. J. Partridge (.1. of Nial., 1898, p. 19). 

Dorset— Pridport, Aug. 188.")! A. Pelt. 

Gloucester E. — Petween Chalford aiul Sap]>erton, Sept. 1884 1 E. J. Elliott. 
Cheltenham, Aug. 1892, L E. Adams. 

Gloucester ^A/■. — The usual form in the valley between Chalford and Sapperton, 
Sept. ISS4 ! also found at Primscombe, May 1884 ! E. .J. Elliott. 

Monmouth— Shirenewton Hall, May 1889 ! E. J. Lowe. 

Stafford- In dingle near Stallbrd, Oct. 1885 ! L. E. Adams. 

Lincoln N. -Louth, amongst 'riis.sihKjo farfurd, 188.'), H. NVallis Kew. 

Notts.— Embankment, Colwick station, Sept. 1884 ! C. T. Mns.son. P^ast Mark- 
ham (W. A. (Jain, Prit. Nat., Nov. 189.3, p. 224). 

Denbigh — Lower slopes of Cader Idris, .Inly 188(i (Eenn, .T. of Conch., .Inly 1887). 

Lancashire S. — Knowsley near Liver})()ol, 189;? (CoUinge, .1. of Mai., 1893, p. 148). 

Isle of Man— Castletown and Peel, Aug. 1894 ! K. Cairns. Douglas, April 1904 
(P. P. Lucas, ,1. of Conch., 1904, p. 90). Panisay, Aug. 1894 ! E. Tavlor. 


Antrim — Proughshane, 188(5 ! liev. S. A. Prenan. Kenbane I'ort, 1901, IL Welch. 

Meath — Navan, .lulv 1888, It. F. Schartl'. Common, Ardbraccan (Jiaveyard, 
• Inly 1900, Pv. Welch. 

Dublin-Near Dublin, .March 1S8U : ,J. K. Pcdding. llowth, .luiie 1890! W. F. 
de Vismes Kane. Garden, Kathmines, A. G. More (Schartf, Slugs of Ireland, 1891. 
]). .140). Yav. .srhdrtfi, common at Paheny (T. I). A. Cockerell, .J. of Mai., 189.3, j). 208). 

Waterford— Several in a small bog, Pallvgnnner, Sept. 1883 ! J. H. Salter. 
Plenheim, Sept. 18,S9 ! Miss Glascott. 

Galway W.--('lare-(;alwav Abbey, .Inly 189,-)(R. Standen, Irish Nat., Sep. 189.")). 

Cork S.- (;iengariir, Sept.*IS98. L". E. Adams. Schnll (Phillips, Moll. Cork, 1894). 

Kerry — Kenmare, .Inly 1898 (P. Staiuicn, Irish Nat., Sept. 1898). Kenmare 
Woods near Hotel, 1898, K. iStaiideii and R. Welch. Cloonee Lakes, 1898, E. Collier 
and P. Standen. 


Germany — Shores of Paltic Sea (Simroth t. ScliarlV). 

Var. reticulata pKjelaick, Jouni. of Condi., Oct. LSSo. 

.Irioit ntir v.-\r. siil'rcticit/alus Cockerell, Science Gossip, Nov. 18SG, p. 259. 

Animal with ruga' dull yellow or dnll white, with grey interstices, giving a 
beautifully reticulated appearance to the whole body ; the shield is uniformly grey, 
foot-fringe pale or dull tawny (iraiige with the usual bl.ack lineolation. 

The .sub-var. subreticulatUS of Cockerell is distinctiv reticulated. 


_ ,,Txr , , , ENGLAND. 

Cornwall W.-Sul)-v. ■'nibirtn-nldtd, Tnuo, .). H. James (Cockerell, 8c. Goss.,l.c.). 

,, , , ,, IRELAND. 

Antrim— Mmlouoli, May 1807, Lionel E. Adams. 

Louth -Carlingford, Dec. 1904! P. H. (^rierson. 

Dublin— A suhvar. with deep hlack interstices, a hiackish mid-dorsal line, and 
hlackisli shield, with indications of darker median and lateral-lines, was found at 
Howth, May 1S9-2, K. F. Schartt'. 

Cork N. -:Mall()\v, Nov. 1884 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 
Var. fasciata Van (leu Broeck, Mem. Soc. Mai. Belg., 1869, p. 87. 

Arion ru/iis vax fasciatus Van den Broeck, Mem. Soc. Mai. Eelg., 1869, p. 87. 
Avion ater var. subdcletus Cockerell, Science Gossip, Aug. 1886, p. 187. 
Aiion att-r var. fasciata Cockerell, Science Gossip, Feb. 1889, p. 14. 

Animal w ith a })lack or l)lackisli lateral hand on each side of the hody and shield. 

The sub-var. subdeleta is greenish or yellowish-grey, lateral banding brownish 
and very indistinct, head and tentacles hine-hlack. 

Tills variation, which is an illustration of colour development arrested at the 
banded juvenile stage, is lialde to occur in all the various ground colourings, hut 
is more frequently met with in Ireland and other countries towards the limits of 
the distributional area of the species, than at or near the more active evolutionary 
centre, wheie the more uniform typical colouration of the body is moie consistently 
and generally ac(]uired. 


Cornwall W. — Sub-var. jilHinbco-fd.sciiifn, St. ("olumb, May 188,") ! W. Vinson. 

Kent E. — < )ne s])(>cimen, sub-var. briiinuo-fatirlata, Dover, Ap. 1899. L. K. Adams. 

Norfolk E. — Sub-var. hniiiiwo-fdscidtu, Strumpshaw Hall, .July 1901 ! W. J. O. 

Stafford — Sub-var. bni)inco-fa.<icirita, near Stafford, Aug. I88G I L. E. Adams. 

Pembroke— Sub-v. bruunco-fa-'^ciata, North C'litf', Tenby, Feb. 1898! A. (i. Stubbs. 

Derby — One specimen, sub-v. bri(iuu:o-fasciata, Norbury, June 1897, L. E. Adam.s. 

York S.W. — One specimen, sub-var. bruiuico-fasciafa, Fenistone, L. E. Adams. 


Derry — Sub-var. bninnro-fasciafft, Magilligan, Sept. 1904 I J. N. Milne. 

Antrim — Sub-var. phiiubeo-fasciata, Broughshane, June 1886 ! Rev. S. A. Brenan. 

Monaghan — Sub-vars. brunuco-fasciatn and Digresccns-fasriata, Carrickmacross, 
July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Meath — Sub-var. brumico- fasciata, Drumcondra and Slane, July 1904 ! P. H. 

Dublin — Sub-var. brunneo-fascicita, Kill-of-the-Grange, April 1886 ! and Glen 
Druid, near Carrickmines, Oct. 1886 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Wicklow — Sub-var. linidn-ffificinfa, Enniskerry, Aug. 1904 I P. H. Grier.son. 

Leitrim— Sub-var. briniucdfasciafa, Swiss Valley, Glencar, July 1904 ! A. "W. 
Stelfox ; aiKl Mohill, July 1904! P. H. (Jrierson. 

Mayo W. — Sub-var. a iira»f la -fasciata, Enniscoe Demesne, Sept. 1885 ! W. E. 
de Vismes Kane. 

Tipperary N. — Sub-var. bj-uinico-fasriata, shores of Lough Dcrg, Sept. 1904 I 
G. J. Fogerty. 

Cork S. — Sub-var. r^/c-yW-yc/i-^/r/, common at (Jlengarill', Sejit. 1898, L. E. Adam.s. 

Belgium — Var. nifu-fa-scidta, Bel-Oeil, Hainault and Fond de Foret near Liege. 

Var. marg-inella Schvanck, Fauna Boiea, 180.'!, p. '252, no. 3L58. 

Liiiia.x inaigincUus Schranck, op. cit. 

Arion empiricorwi siuammcrdainii Kalenicz., Bull. Mosc, 1851, t. xxiv., pt. ii., p. 113. 

Arion i'»i/>iricorii)>i rnzouino^vsksii Kalenicz., op. cit. 

Arion rii/us mai-ginaiiis Moquln-Tanclon, Hist. Moll., p. 11, pi. i, f. 24. 

Arion rii/us "f] nigresccns Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Arion alir var griseo-marginata Dum. & Mort., Cat. Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 6. 

Animal with black body and shield, foot-fringe yellow or vermilion red. 

The Limax margini'llvs Schranck, Arion evipiriroriim .siratinnerdamii Kal., and 
Arion riifu.s var. tiiargiiuita Moq., all conform to the varietal description. 

The stib-vars. nigrescens Moquin-Tandon and razoumowskii Kal. appear 
identical, the body being blackish in colour, and tiie foot-fringe yellow ish or reddish. 

The sub-var. griseo-marginata has the foot-fringe greyish. 



Channel Isles — St. Saiupson's, Guernsey (Tomlin and Miu<|uaii<l, .1. of ("oiicli., 
Jan. l!lit;i. p. --'ST). 

Cornwall W.— Trevidock road, St. Colunili, May 1885 ! W. Vinson. 

Cornwall E. — Snl>-var. nignsnns, St. Colnnil), May 188.") 1 W. Vinson. 

Devon S. — I'riiucs Town, Dartmoor, .Inly 1884 I C.J. Waterfall. 

Devon N. — Var. vKircfiniUxt and sub-var. nigrescens, Belstone near Ukidianiiiton, 
Sept. li»U4 ! IJev. W. \Vri«j;lit Mason. SnUvar. ulgresccns, (Jlentliorne, Sept. 19U4 ! 
Mrs. Blnndell. 

Somerset S. — Suit- var. uii/rrsmis, Uridgwater, Sept. 1SS4 I W. A'inson. 

Wilts. N. — Var. iiKirqinrlln and snUvar. iili/irscciia, S\\ indon (T. I). A. Cockerell, 
J. of Conc-li., July 188li, p. 83). 

Dorset -Ciiideock, Hridport, Auj;. 18S.') ! A. I>elt. 

Kent W. — Subvar. iiigrr.snns, St. Mary Cray, Sept. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Herts. — Sul)-var. niiircsrois, Totteridge, May 1888 ! H. W. Kcw. 

Middlesex — Sub var. iiiqrc.sceiis, Acton, Aul;. 1884 ! and Hedford Park, Chiswick, 
Feb. 1SS,3 : T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Monmouth — Sub- var. n'ujrcsrois, Talywaiu, .Inly l'.)U4 I Joini Manners. 

Stafford — Sub-var. nujrcscena, Kowlev Park, Stafford, May 1884 ! F.. H. Wynne. 
Couinion about Stafford. .June 188(1 ! L. E.Adauis. Ranisor, Feb. 1890 ! T. F. r>urro\vs. 

Salop — Oswestry, June 188.') I B. Hudson. Sub var. iiliprsceiis, Llanforda and 
St. Oswalds Well, near Oswestry, June 188.") ! I>. Hudson. 

Glamorgan — Sub-var. lur/rc-scnis, banks of Itiver Fly, St. Fagan's, Mareli 188,j 1 
F. W. Wotton. IJandair, etc. (id., J. of Coiicli., Apriri88<), p. o.i). 

Carmarthen— Near Llanelly, Oct. 19(l4 ! H. llowlaiid Wakelield. 

Cardigan — Sub-var. iiigrrscnis, Aberayron, .lune 18S8 I \\'. Whitweli. 

Montgomery — Sub-var. nhjrcsccns, Llanwddyn, .May 1889 ! J. B. Mor;,'an. 

Merioneth — Sub-v. nigrescens, Barnioutb, alt. '2,(IOOft., Aug. 18841 J. Hoi)kinson. 

Carnarvon — Sub-var. yiigrcscens, Snowiloii, April 1887 1 J. Madison. 

Lincoln N. — Sub-var. nir/rcsccns, Loutli, Oct. 18.S6 I H. W. Kew. Cadiiev and 
Aiicholnie I'.ank, .\ug. 1902 1 Rev. E. A. Woodruffe- Peacock. 

Leicester — Oadby near Leicester, Sept. 1884 ! C. T. Mu.sson. Sub-var. nigrescens, 
Market Harborougli", .June 188.5 ! H. E. Quilter. 

Notts. —Pleas ley Vale 1 Worksop I and Cleveland Hill, West .Markliani, April 
18S4 I also sub-var. niiprsccns, Colwick, Sept. 1884! C. T. Musson. (!arden at 
Tuxford, Ai)ril 1885 ! W. A. (iain. 

Derby — Markland (Jrij), April 1884 ! C. T. Musson. Sul>-var. nigrescens, Darlev 
Dale, June 18!Ut : W. H. Heatbcote. 

Lancashire S. — Sub var. iiigi-csccns, Farington, June 1890 ! W. H. Heatbcote. 

York N.E.— Slater's Nur.series, Malton, July 1884 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 
Conniion about tiuisborougli, Marton, Tboinaby, l'])lpatliani, Mi<ldlesbrougli, etc. 
(i>aker Hudson, .1. of Conch., Ajiril 1886, p. 48). Sub-var. )ii(/)-escen\, Pickering 
Castle Hill, Aug. ISSfl I and Saltliurn Cliffs, May 1SS7 : W. Denison Roebuck. 

York Mid W. — Snb-var. nigrescens, Hrailiey Hill, Kiidwick, April 1884! 
and Canal bank, near Arniley, Oct. 1884 I W. Denison Roebiudv. 

York N.W. — Sub-var. nigrescens, Ivelet Bridge, .lulv 1884 I and about (Hinner- 
.side, July 1884 1 W. DenisonRoebuck. Sleigbtliolniedale, Aug. UHKi '. R. (;il)bs. 

Durham -Durbaiii, .Aj.l. 18S5 ! High Force, June 18S4 ! and Spa Wood, May 1.S87! 
P.. Hudson. Sub-var. nigrescens, Langdon Beck, July 1884 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Isle of Man— Douglas, Sept. 1892 ! F. Taylor. 


Roxburgh — Sub-var. griseo-margmatct, Langlee, Sept. 1904 ! J. Roseburgb. 

Berwick — Sub-var. nigrescens, Cockburns])atli, Sei)t. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Edinburgh— Sub-var. nigrescens, Braidburn, July 1888! W. E. Clarke. 

Forfar— Den of Airlie ! C. B. Plowright. 

Aberdeen S. -Sub-var. nigrescens. Drum Woods, Deeside. Sept. 1886! C. B. 
Plowright ; and near Botanic Cardens, Old Abeiileen, Sei)t. 1904 1 (i. Sim. 

Dumbarton — Sub-var. niifresccns, ( Jarscailden, .lune 1889 ! A. Shaw. 

Clyde Isles — Sub var. nigrescens. Loch Creenan, Aug. 188(5 ! W. Denison Roe- 
buck : and at Rothesay, Isle of Bute ! T. Scott. 

Cantire— Sub-var. nigrescens, Tarbert, Ajiril I8S(i ! T. Scott. 

Ebudes S. -Sub-var. nigrescens, near Port < liarlotte, Islay, Nov. 1890! W. Evans. 

Sutherland E.— Loch Brora, June 1884 ! and the Blue Rock, Sept. 1884 ! W.Baillie. 

Shetlands— Sub-var. nigrescens, Moss Bank. Sept. 1904! T. Bowie. 

Plate XVITT. 


I. Arlon ater var. aha, />. 175. 
Barmouth, J. Ilopkinson. 

2. Ai'on atir siibvar. albida, p. 183. 
Ambleside, Rev. Dr. IMcMurtrie. 

3. A. ater suizar. yub>'a, p. 180. 
Sheplierds'ivell, L. E. Adams. 

4. A. ater var. pltunhea. />. 179. 
.St. Austell, C. P. Rkhaids. 

5. A. ate'' z'ar. iiicciiiea, />. iBj 
Near Bcnvden, J. G. Milne. 

i?^/>/W/<;V'/«'/7)rK|il(|i|lil\ iHl. I .1 iiiliii I iltiriuoi lilna.i' 

Greenodd near U Iverston, S. Lister Petty. 

.1,011 ater var. castanea, p. 176. 
Stratford St. Mary, G. T. Rope. 

Arion ater siilwar. brunneo-fasciuta. p. 1S7. 
North Cliff, Tenby, A. G. Stiibl's. 

9. .Arion ater var. bicolor, p. il 
Brimscofnhe, E. J. Elliott. 

10. Arion ater var. reticulata, p. 1S6. 
f after Scharff ). 

J. IV. &' E. Taylor, del. 

Taylor Bros., Leeds. 


Antrim — Snli-var. nlijrescens, Colin Glen near Belfast, Jnne 1884 ! S. A. Stewart. 

Down— Sub-var. nigrcsrcns, Slieve Donanl, alt. I,o00 feet, Sept. 1884 ! and New- 
castle, Oft. 18S4 1 Kev. H. W. Lett. 

Monaghan— Common in tiekls abont Cremorne, Aug. 1805, Mr. Tenipleton 
(Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist., 1840, p. 10). Sub-var. iiif/resccns, Carrickniacross, 
July lit04 : P. H. Grierson. 

Tyrone — Sub-var. )ilr/rcsre)is, Baroiiscourt, Sept. 1904! Robert Bell. 

Fermanagh— Enniskillen, Sept. 1904 ! Dean of Cloglier. 

Dublin — Koad-sides around Donnybrook, August 1888 ! G. Barrett-Hamilton. 
Sub-var. niiirrsrens. Kingstown, June 1886 I W. F. de Vismes Kane. Howtli, 
Apl. 1SS7 : K. F. Scbarff. Cabragh Old Road, DuVdin, Apl. 1886 ! J. II. Ptedding. 

Wicklow — Eniiiskerry, Aug. 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Carlow — Sub-var. niqrescens, gardens, Fenagh House, Bagenalstown, Sept. 1904 1 
Denis R. Pack-Beresfoni. 

Westmeath— Sub-var. nigrescens, Knockdrin Demesne, Apl. 1892 ! R. F. Scharft'. 

Roscommon — Var. marginella and sub-var. nigrescens, IMote Park, Ro.sconimon, 
Sept. 1904 : Lord Crofton. 

Leitrim — Sub-var. jiigrc.frens, Swiss Valley, (Jleiu-ar, July 1904 1 A. W. Stelfox. 

Mayo W. — Sub-var. nigrcicrHS, Annagh, and Dugort, Sept. 1886 1 J. G. Milne. 

Galway W.— Aran Isles, Nov. 1890, R. F. Scharfl'. 

Clare — Sub-var. nigrcsccns, Doonass, Aug. 1904 1 R. A. Pbilli]is. 

Limerick — Subvar. nigirsccns, Castleconnell, Sept. 1904 I K. A. Pliillii)s. 

Tipperary N. — Shores of Lough Derg, etc., Sept. 1904 I (i. J. Fogerty. 

Waterford — \'ar. iiKivq'niclla aiul sub-\ar. nigrcsrens, Raywell near Cionmel, 
April 1888, A. H. Delap'. 

Cork N. — Sub-var. nigrcscen-s, Macroom, July 1904 I P. H. Grierson; and Con- 
vamore, Ballyhoolev, Sept. 1904 ! J. N. Milne. 


Belgium— Sub var. hiarginata, fields about Vielsalm, June 1867 (Colbeau, Bull. 
Mai. Soe. Belg., 1867). 

France — Var. inargnHlla, in the Oise, Maine-et-Loire, and the Vosges, also 
about Vannes in Morbilian, and Chirac in Lozere. Sul)-var. grisco-marginnta , in the 
wood of Mont-Saxonnet, Savoy, at an altitude of 3,300 feet. 

Germany — Var. margindld, Spreewaldes, Brandenljurg; Neuburg, Bavaria; and 
in Alsace. 

Austro-Hungary — Var. marginella. North Bohemia (Slavik, Moll. Bohm., 1869). 

Portugal — Sub-var. nlgrescen.s, recorded bj- Morelet for the neighbourhood of 
Monchique, Tras-os-Montes. 

Norway — Sub-var. nmrguiafa, liergen, Laurvig, and Hardanger. 

Denmark — Var. iiiarghiatu, rare in gardens, Frederiksdal (Westerlund, 1897). 

Russia — Sub-var. swainuierdaniii is recorded by Kaleniczenko as found about 
Sumy in Kharkov, but the record is said by Simroth to be erroneous. 

Var. maculata Dam. & Mort., Cat. Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 5. 

A //oh (Liina.v) 7-ufus var. iiiruiilatics Duni. & Mort.. op. cit. 

Anim.\l witli shield maculated with black. 
France— Savoj^ (Dum. & Mort., op. cit.). 

Moust. sinistrorsum Taylor. 

Animal with lespiratoiy and other orifices on the left side of the body. 

France — A single specimen of the var. ritfa found in the wood at Merard, depart- 
ment of tlie Oise (Baudon, Journ. de Conch., 1884, p. 196). 

Geographical Distribution. — Arion ater, as probably one of the 
latest evolved species of the genus, has not yet obtained the wide dispersal 
that characterizes some of the simpler forms by which it was preceded. 

On the continent, the aggregate form is well distributed throughout 
Central Europe, but apparently blending or iutergrading near the outskirts 
of its range with Arion subfascas, with which species it has been frequently 
confused by various writers. 



Generally speakiuff, its (listribntion has been stated by the late Prof. 
Von Martens t(» range with tliat of the oak, about the isotherm of -12" 
Fahrenheit, but it is probable that this statement now needs revision, the 
range of this s]»ecies api)arently extending beyond what was ])revionsly 
known, while it has also been reci)rded as ascending the Pyiennean Moun- 
tains to a height of more than (kOOO feet. 

In Norway, the red variety only reaches as far as the tiftieth i)arallel. but 
the l)]aek variety has been noted to extend to 68" north lat., while tht^ var. 
alha is recorded from Tn'imsdalen, (I'.C"' 50', its occurrence sup])orting 
Gredler's view that albinism is often an indication tliat the species lias 
reached the limit of its geogra])hic or vertical range. 

It is known to occur in (uM'many, Belgium, Holland, France, Austro- 
Hungary, Switzerland, Denmark, Xoiway, Sweden, North Ital}', Spain, 
Portugal, and the British Isles. 

It has also been recorded for Russia, from the Ukraine, Finland, tlie 
Baltic provinces, and elsewhere, by Kaleniczenko, Nadjeschin, Kawall, and 
other writers, but, according to Simroth, in every case erroneouslv. 

Geographical Distribution 


Arion ater (L.) 

H^l Recorded Distribution. 
1^^ Probable Range. 

Fk;. 206. 

niuTisii fsr.h's. 

In the Bi'itisli Isles this species is universally distributed, lieiug found 
in all the one huiiihvd and i'orty-nine couiital and viee-ciuuital districts 
into which the country has been divided, and has even been collected by 
Mr. W. K. Clarke on the Flannan Isles, the most westerly of the Outer 
HeVirideaii islets. This coni])rchensive survey of S[)ecimens has emphasized 
the dull, dark forms as the characteristic colouring in these islands: the 
brighter coloured varieties being more i)lentiful in the southern counties, 
and during warm dry sun)mers. while the greater prevalence of the fasciate 
or juvenile colouring in Ireland shows the more primitive character of the 
fauna and its greater remotenes.-i from the theatre of the most evolutionary 


The liypsoinetrical distribution is interesting, and shows a marked degree 
of correlation between the wholly jet-black variety aterrima and a lofty 
abode, as this variety is exclusively found, or is the most prevalent form, on 
the summit of Coniston Old !\[an, Sea Fell, and other elevated localities in 
England, while in Scotland it has been collected on Ben Voirlich at 3,224 
feet, on Ben Nevis at 2,800 feet, and close to the very summit of Ben 
Lomond. In Ireland, the same form has been met with in the Mourne 
Mountains, at an altitude of 2,796 feet on Slieve Donard, and at 2,500 feet 
on Slieve Bingian. It has also been found on certain elevated stations in 
Donegal and Kerry. All the records tend to show the sensitiveness of the 
dermal jiigmentation and its responsiveness to external intiuences. 


Arioi) ntcr has l)een recorded from Alsace, liadeii, Bavaria, I)randenl)urg, Cassel, 
East Pi'iissia, Francouia, Haiioxer, H^l^teiIl, IjaueiilterL;', Mcekleiilmrg, Nassau, 
Oldenburg, (Jsnaliruek, Pouierania, Prussia, Kenss, Ulienisli I'russia, Saxony, 
IScldeswig, Silesia, Waldeek-I'ynnont, Westphalia, and Wurtenihurg. 

Belgium — llepoited in many varieties from the provinces of Antwerp, IJiahant, 
Hainault, Liege, Luxembourg, Xanuii', and West Flanders. 

Holland — Citeil in bntli its chief forms for Holland by ]NLaitland. 

Ai'ion (iter is i)rol)ably dispersed throughout France, and has been recorded for 
Corsica and the departments Ain, Aisne, Alpes Maritimes, Aricge, Aube, Aude, 
Basses Pyrenees, Cantal, Calvados. Charente Inferieure, Cote d'Or, Finistere, Card, 
Gers, Cironde, Haute Caronne, Haute Loire, Haute Marne, Hautes Pyrenees, 
Haute Sa\t)ie, Ille-et-Vilaine, Isere, Loire Inferieure, Lot et (iaronne, Lozcre, 
Maine-et-Loiie, ]Manche, Morbihaii, Moselle, Nord, Oise, Pas-de-Calais, Puy-de- 
Dome, Pyrenees-Orientales, Ilhone, Savoie, Seine, Seine Inferieure, Seine-etMarne, 
Seine et-Uise, Somme, Vendee, and \'ienne. 

IT A J. Y. 

The \ar. nifa, though rccordiMl from Piedmont, Lombardy, Finilia, Tuscanv, 
and Campania, is, accoidin^' to i'ollonera, not found natuially in Italy, and in 
Lombardy only by acclimatization, the remaining lecoi'ds l)eing based on cnors of 


llecorded for Galicia at Lembur;,^ by .jachno and on tlie Tatra by Now i(d;i ; from 
(ilorz by Erjavec; from various localities in Austria by Fitzinj;'er : Slavik and otheis 
report it as occurrinf;', thoujj;h iiot ])lentifully, throughout North IJohemia ; widle 
\on Midlendoifl records it fiom Ma.niaj, in the Posiiathal, Bosnia. 


Spain — Avion ater has been recorded from Aragon, Asturias, Catalonia, Castile, 
Galicia, Huesca, and Navarre, all in the north of Spain. 

Portug-al — Reiiorted by Simroth from ()|)orto, Caldas do (4erez in Miidio, and 
Coimbra in Beira ; and from Cintra, ajid Serra da Arraldda iti Estramadura by 
Nobre. As A. siilratus it is recorded by Morelet from the northern j)rovinces, and 
as being especially common altout Oporto. 

Norway — Common about Christiania, Christiansaud, Ber<ien, and Trondhjem, 
extendinji- to West Finmark, to Grbno in Nordland, and to Tromsdalen at (39 oO' 
in Tromsd. 

Sweden — Restricted to the southern extremity, but extemling as far north as 
Westmanland, 60' north lat. ; common at Iionneby, in Blekin>ie ; somewhat raie at 
Ifo. in Scania, and present on the isles of Gotland and Oehuid. 

Denmark— Common in Denmark (Westerlund, Syn. Moll. Scand., 1897, |). 39). 

Recorded by Von Martens for South Iceland, and by Collinge for the Faroes. 



Recoriletl or known to exist in the cantons of Berne, Grisons, Lucerne, Neucliatel, 
St. (Jail, Solotlmrn, Sclnvytz, Ticino, L'nterwaMen, I'ri, Vand, and Zmidi. 


A. (iter lias been recorded from Finlanil by Heyneniann ; Courland by Kawall 
and IJi'aun ; l.ivland by Kawall : Estliland liy Micliwald ; Moscow Ity Nadjescliin ; 
and as Icderably common in the woods of 'i'cliernigov, Kharkov, and Poltava, by 
Kalenic/enko, who also gives [)recise localities for many of the varieties ligured or 
described by Ferussac, livit Dr. Siniroth, after an exhaustive investigation, totally 
denies the existence of ^4. atcr in Russia, but it is very probable that it does really 
exist in the most western of the Baltic provinces. 

Siberia — Gerstfeldt erroneously records A. atrr from Wilni, Irkutsch. 

Algeria — Recorded as Avion rufiis by Aucapitaine, l)nt probably moie correctly 
referable to Avion lit-sifaninis or other form of the ■sKltfii-sriis group. 

Reported from the Azores, Madeira, and Canary Isles, but \)y. Sinnotii says the 
species occurring there are A. Iiisifitnirns au<l its allies. 

United States — (Irateloup, in IS.!."), records Arinn cjnpirimi-inn as found in the 
Western Slates, but this is not contirmed by more recent authors. 

New Zealand — Recorded for Dunedin by Hutton, and by Mus.son as found 
crawling about after rain over the roads around Auckland. 



i t^^ 

Fk;. 207. — Typical habitat of .4>-ion atcr var. atcrrhna, at an allitiule of 2.500 feet 
on the higher south-Hestern slopes of Slieve Bingian, Mouiiie Moiuitains, 
Co. Down, Ireland (photo, by Mr. R. Welch). 

Plate XIX. 

Distribution of Avion ater (L.) 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 


Channel Isles 

1 Cornwall W. 

2 Cornwall E. 

3 Devon S. 

4 Devon N. 

5 Somerset S. 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts S. 

9 Dorset 

10 Isle of Wight 

11 Hants S. 

12 Hants N. 
IS Sussex W. 

14 Sussex E. 


15 Kent E. 
IB Kent W. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S. 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 Middlesex 

22 Berks. 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 


25 Suffolk E. 

26 Suffolk W. 

27 Norfolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 Cambridge 

30 Bedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 Northampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester \\ . 

35 Monmouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 


41 Glamorgan 

42 IJrecon 

43 Radnor 

44 Carmarthen 

45 Pembroke 

46 Cardigan 


47 Montgomery 

48 Merioneth 

49 Carnarvon 

50 Denbigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 

54 Lincoln N. 

55 Leic. & Rutkl. 

56 Notts. 

57 Derliy 


58 Cheshire 

59 Lancashire S, 

60 Lan'shire Mid 


61 S.E York 

62 N.E. York 

63 S.W. York 

64 Mid W. York 

65 N.W. York 


66 Durham 

67 Northunib. S. 

68 Cheviotland 


69 Westmorland 

and L. Lanes. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of Man 








Fife & Kinross 
I'th. S.&Clkn. 
Mid Perth 
I'erth N. 
Aberdeen S. 

95 Aberdeen N. 

94 Banff 

95 Elgin 

96 Easterness 

97 Westerness 

98 JIain .^rgyle 

99 Dumbarton 

100 Clyde Isles 

101 Cantire 

102 Ebudes S. 
1(j3 Ebudes Mid 
1C4 Ebudes N. 


105 Ross W. 

106 Ross E. 

107 Sutherland E, 

108 SutherlandW 

109 Caithness 

no Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shctlands 




122 Louth 

123 Meath 

124 Dublin 

125 Kildare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexford 

128 Carlow 

129 Kilkenny 
150 Queen's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 AVestmeath 

133 Longford 

134 Roscommon 

135 Leitrim 

136 Sligo 

137 JI ayo E. 

138 Mayo W. 

139 Galway AN . 

140 Galway E. 

141 Clare 

142 Limerick 
J43 Tipperary N, 

144 Tipperary S. 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork N. 

147 Cork S. 

148 Kerry 

H Distribution verified by the Authors. 
\:(&M Fossil Distribution. 


Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud). 

180.") Liiitn.r subfuscus Diapainaml, Hist. Moll., \>. 125, pi. 9, f. 8. 

1822 — /(/.■iciafus, var.s. e, i", and ?? Nilsson, Moll. Sveciae, p. 4. 

1811) Avion fu scat lis Fenissac, Hist. Moll., p. 6"), pi. 2, f. 7. 

1836 — sucriiicus Bouillet, Moll. Auveigne, p. 14. 

1838 — s iibfla mis iohnfiton, List Puhn. Moll. Berwick and North Diirhaiii. 

1842 — f'uscus Binney, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. , p. 170. 

1851 — krynkkii Kaleniczenko, Bull. Moscow, p. 114, pi. 4, f. 1. 

1852 — ■ cinctus Duni. et Mort. , Malac. Savoie, p. 7. 

185(5 — olivaceus Schmidt, Verii. Nat. Yer. Preuss. Rheinl., p. 5S. 

1801 — 6r«»«('».* Leliniann, Mai. Bl., p. 160. 

1860 — mabiUianus liourguignat, Moll, litij;-. etc., p. 173, 1)1. 29, f. 1-4. 

1808 — rnbiginosus Baudon in Diouet, Moll. Cote d'Or, p. 20. 

1870 — gaii'defro>il Mabille, Hist. Moll. Bass. Paris, p. 12. 

1871 — citrinus Westerlund, Expose Crit., p. 14. 

1884 — pollonerai Pini, Nov. Mai., p. 42. 

1885 — stnhilci Pollonera, Elenclio Moll. Terr. Pieni., p. 28. 
1887 — Jxiraii'i Pollonera, Spec, nuoveecc. , p. 12, f. 15. 
1800 — fJarus Pollonera, Arionid;e Reg. Palearct., p. 15. 

1893 — flaridlus CoUinge, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 252, pi. 9. 

1S97 — rafiis Westerlund, Syn. Moll. P^xtrani. Scand., p. 40. 

1S70 Vfohpis fusrns Malm, Skand. LandSniglar, p. 43, pi. 2, f. 3. 

HISTORY. — Arion subfuscus (subfuscus, 
brownish), was first clearly described 
and figured by Draparnaud, in 1805, 
although there seems reasons to believe 
that the Limax fuscus and L. cinctus of 
Midler belong to the same species. 

In this country, A. subfuscus was long 
confounded with A. ater, or regarded as 
a variety or immature form of that species, 
Herr D. F. Heynemann being tlie first to 
publish it as British, in 1885, although 
prior to that date Mr. Roebuck, with the 
assistance of the late Mr. Asliford, had 
identified it as a native of this countiy. 

Moquin-Tandon, also, did not clearly 
distinguish this species from his Arion 
rufus, as may be seen on examining his 
figure of the reproductive organs ascribed 
to that species (Hist. Moll. France, pi. 1, 
f. 12). The shape and character of the free 
oviduct and the point of fixation of the 
retractor are undeniably those of Arion 
subfuscus, while the absence of the large 
vestibular protuberance so characteristic of 
A. ater, is convincing testimony that the 
figure is based upon a dissection of an 
individual of the present species. 

With this species the name of Dr. Aug. Baudon, of Mouy, France, is 
associated, in token of appreciation of the merits of his work, "Mdmoire 
sur les Limaciens du Ddpartement de I'Oise," and of the numerous other 

valuable malacological treatises of which he is the author. 




Diagnosis. —--1 /vV/// ^Kh/n^ra.-i ma}- he (listin^nii.slied from J. (iter, the 
species with wliich it is most liable to be coiifoundefl, l7y its smaller size, 
flatter and shorter rugosities, less uniform colouring, whitish sides, and the 
]irescnce of dark lateral banding on the body, and shield : the foot-fringe 
is also usually whitish or yellowish grey, with dark though less regular 
lineolation than in A. ater, and the animal cannot assume the liemis- 
jiherical sliape when at rest which is so marked a feature of that species. 

In the juvenile stage the aflinity with .1. (iter is even more striking, but 
in the latter sjjecies the rngie are invariably more elongate and separated 
by 1)luish interstices; moreover, in .1. s/ib/usms the body is always 
comparatively longer when at rest, and there is always more or less 
orange slime on the shield, which is absent iu the larger species : the body 
also is always darker than the shield, whereas in ^1. ((ter the coloration is 
usually more perceptibly nniform. 

Internally, this species is separable from its congener by the difterent 
point of fixation of the oviducal retractor, and by the constant and marked 
inflation of the free oviduct, an inflation (piite unlike the gradual basal 
enlargement in Arioii //orfens/'s, or the bulbous expansion of the vestibule 
in Avion ate}; while there is usually a large flesh-coloured mass or ruffle 
at the base of the albumen gland. 

Description. — AxniAi, of medium size, reacliinj^ eijrlity millimeties in len^tli 
when ailult ami fully oxtemleil, of a thill uniform (hisky-l»ro\vn ahove, ociiieons suli- 
ilor.sally, l)ecominj,( wliitisli towards the sole, with a more ov less distinct blacki.sli 
or black lonj^itudinal band at each side, exten<linj;- over boily and shield ; 150DV 
TUHKRCLKS moderately i)ronounced, liner, slenderer, and flatter tliaii in Arion ater, 
and nowhere fnsed into lon,L;itudinaI ridges, with abont twenty-live longitndinal 
series on ea(di side; sniEl.l) attenuated in front, broadly rounded and almost trun- 
cate behind, shagreened, with Iyre-shai)ed dusky, longitudinal marking, archiui; the 
resiiiratory orilire and l>ee<)ming less distinct behind ; kkscikatok^' ORII-ICK round, 
slightly angulated below to the anal cleft, which is directed forwards ; liKAD 
usually somewhat darker than the body ; xiX'K pale, with four parallel longitudinal 
furrows, two continuing to the forehea<l, while the outer grooves reach the dusky 
ommatophores ; i.owkh TKXTA('I,KS cajiped with brown; soM-; indistinctly tripar- 
tite, ]iale yellowish-white, ting(;d with brown towards the tail, and minutely beset 
with milk-white points, mid-area slightly more transparent ; KOoi'-l'i;i\(;K pale 
yidlowish-grey, lineolated similarly to Avion ater, but less regularly and more 
faintly, and scarcely continued over the side-areas of the sole. 

Dkrmal-Mucus occasionally almost colourless but generally of a pale yellow, 
or >'.hen scalded, of an orange colour, and usually most dense on the anterior part 
of the mantle and near the gland; that emitted by the tail-gland is ropey and 
almost colourless ; LocoMOToriV-.Mfcus colourless, but stained by admixture with 
the dermal secretion. The yellow colour of the body appears to be often due to the 
slime, as when this is removed after scalding, the skin is almo-t invariably dull 
greyish or gi-eyish brow n. 

The SiiKLL may be at times wholly absent, or ipiite vestigial, and represente<l 
only by amorphous granular white matter, which solidities in drying. 

TxTKi;XAl,lA', the walls of the body-cavity are grey, di'iisely beset with milk- 
white limey ])articles. 'I'lie suimja-I'KDAI, (JLAXO is iinbedde<l in the tissues, and 
visibly extenils for about three-fourths of the 
total length of th(> body. The lUccAi. (;AX<;i,iA P^ta.. .«^ 

are oblong with a short commissure ; the ^JT^-^ ^^*'^i^^"l^.^ , ''"'■ 209.— 
suPR.\-avSoi'nA(;i;AL ganglia are opatiue-white -^^ — ^""""--^ 5r-^ Nerve centres of 
anteriorly; the sm{-(Eso|'MA(;kai, group are (\^— — sx->vJh (much enlarged), 

intimately fuseil together. The nndi\ided ^i^T^^-O-^'^x^ (Christchiirch, 

AOlMA is four or live mill, long, of an opaque- 'p5'^6_LWii^^> '^'1"/^ n' '^''^' '" 

white colour, as are .all the arterial branches, // i 'IIW '^ °'' ^• 

rendering them very conspicuous over the 

stomach, liver, and other dark internal organs. The otoliths are very numerous, 
of a more broadly oval shape tiian in .1. horf cutis, and often with a central speck. 



Fii,. 210 — 
Cephalic retractors 
of A rw/i su/i/itscus 
X 2. 

Hams. S., -Mr. C. 
Ash ford). 

species are arranged a.s in Arioii atcv ; tlie 
I'ENTACULAi; retractors are broad, and 
divide early for the oniiuatopliore and 
lower tentacle; they are set ol)li([nely, and 
arise from seven to nine mill, apart, a little 
in advance of the hind margin of the shield 
on the posterior right and posterior left 
side respectively ; the comparatively slender 
l'H.\RVNGEAL retractor arises somewhat to 
the right of the mediandine, a trifle be- 
hind the mantle margin; it divides early 
into two slender branches, which become fixed to opposite sides of the buccal bull). 

The REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS display a sepia-brown and lobular ovotesti.s, and 
a creamy-white hermaphrodite duct, terminating in a distinct VE.sicULA 
SEMINALIS, which is grey, sometimes speckled with deep-brown ; the albumen 
GLAND is .semi-transparent and gelatinous, indistinctly lobular, and of pale 
yellowish-grey colour ; the OVIDUCT is bluish-grey, broadly sacculate, bound to- 
gether in convolutions, and showing a flesh-coloured ruttle at the base of the 
albumen gland, which has the aspect of semi-gelatinous tubing, recalling the vesti- 
bulai- glands of Milax sowcrbii ; the .SPERM DUCT is creamy-white above, mucii 
tliickened and ocliraceous below ; the long, slender, and semi-transparent VAS 
DEFERENS passes into the opaque-white and tapering epiphallus, whose base is 
encircled by a conspicuous raised ring, and within wliich is formed the very long 
and serrate SPERMATOPHORE ; the large and globose SPERMATHECA is at maturity 
usually whitish, still", and hard, connected to the oviduct l>y tissue and small 









Fig. 211. Fig. 212. Fig. 213. 

Fig. 211. — Alimentary canal of .-(. siih/uscus, with bulb 
and nerve-ring, X 2 (Christchurch, H.nnts. S., Mr. C. Ashford). \jwi~"'=9«?^Ei'^^ A,ti^ 

Fig. 212.— .Se.\ual organs of .4. subfuscus, x 2. ^VT^/vv^^^^"^ 

Fig. 213. — Portion of the se.'^ual system of--/, suhfiiscus, show- Y\c. 211. 

ing the vesicula seminalis, x 4. 

Fig. 214.— Spermatophore of .-(. sul'ftiscus,x 6, with magnified portions showing details of structure 
(after original drawing by Dr. Simroth). albumen gland ; at. atrium ; cp. epiphallus ; h.d. hermaphrodite duct ; oi. ovotestis ; ot. 
oviduct ; r. retractor ; sp. spermatheca ; s.ii. and sj>.d. sperm duct ; v.s. vesicula seminalis. 

muscular strands esjiecially at apex of vesicle, the stalk is rather short and greatly 
swollen basally, contracting where it joins the vesicle ; the FREE OVIDUCT is at 
first comparatively simple and slender, but enlarges abruptly and characteristically 
in the latter part of its course, and shows internally a varied series of longitudinal 
thickenings; the genffal RETRACTOR arises near the origin of the left tentacular 
retractor, and becomes furcate, one branch being attached to tiie stem of the 
spermatlieca, and the other to the ui,i)er part of the swollen free-oviduct. In this 
species there does not seem to be any striking constriction of the ATRIUM, which 
is, however, invested l)y a well-defined yellowish glandular pad. 

The ALIMENTARY CANAL is triodromous, exhibiting the effects of the torsion of 
the viscera, and greatly resembling the intestinal canal of the juvenile Arlon ater; 
the OESOPHAGUS is usually about three mill, broad, and of a whitish colour ; the 

mil. \iitn_-, uicov^cii 


SALl\'Al!V (M.ANDS are yellowish, and frequently form a collar round the o'sophaj^us, 
unitinf; ahove and enil>racing tiie anterior part of the crop, like turned n\) nioustaciies ; 
tlie SALIVARY DUCTS white ; CROP dusky-hnfV in colour, and dislinftly wrinkled 
lonp:itudinally ; DIGESTIVK (JLAND dark hrown. 

'IMie MAXDIBI.K or jaw is about H mill, broad and half mill, wide, crescentic 
in shape, with rather acutely-rounded ends, arcuate from 
front to back, but somewhat flexible, of a deep amber- 
brown colour along the lower or cuttintr-eilge, <;railually 
blenilinji; with tlie |>aler tint of tlie ujjper moity ; the 
anterior surface bears ten to sixteen l)road, rounded ril)s, 
which show well-marked vertical stria', and stron<;ly 
crenulate the upper nuir'dn, and sometimes denticulate ^ 'g- 214.--MaiKlible or jaw 
the lower margin also, especially near the centre, simu- (Christchurd.. Mr.AshforcI). 
lating a rostrum or ])eak ; the inters))aces between the 

projecting ribs is of perceptibly more delicate texture and shows the horizontal 
wavy striation most percei)tibly. 

The LINGUAL .MEMiiRANE is oblong in .shai)e, about 4i mill, long and two mill, 
wide, and composed of about 140 slightly curved transverse rows of closely-set teeth, 
whicli appreciably diminish in size at the outer margin ; each row is composed of a 
tricuspid median tooth, with about lifteen oljscnrely tricuspidate laterals, the 
endocone gradually degenerating, and the ectocone acquiring corres]>ondingly 
greater strength and inii)ortance ; the marginal teetli are aliout tiiirty in numhcr 
at each .side, and are essentially and strongly bicusjiidate, constituted by the well- 
developed mesocone and ectocone. 

Kii;. 215. — Representative denticles from a transverse rou of the linciual teeth of.-/, lul'/usciis, X 180. 
The animal collected by Mr. C. .^shfoid, and the palate prepared by Mr. J. W. Xe\ille. 

The formula of a Christchurch specimen collected by Mr. C. Ashford i.s 
-¥- + iij + H h^ + -\P'xHO=l 2, 7 40. 

Reproduction and Development. — The congress of this species is 
probably marked by the same bhindisliments and circular procession as in 
Arum ater, yet although it breeds freely in confinement, no detinite 
observations are on record. The eggs, whicli are chiefly deposited in the 
late summer and autumn months, are oval in shape, averaging 3 mill, long 
by 'Ih mill, in diameter, of a dusky white, but sometimes amber or dull 
primrose colour, or even pale green, translucent, and much clearer than 
those of ^. ater, slightly granulate on the surface, and connected together 
by a colourless or yellowish mucus : they are laid ui)on or beneath the 
ground in clusters varying in number from about twenty to sixty or more. 
The young apparently pass through the winter in the juvenile stage, as all 
the specimens observed by Dr. Scharff, even as late as iVIay, were immature. 
The young, according to Clessin, differ from of A. (iter, which are 
almost invariably of an uniform light yellow or greenish colour, as they are 
usually darkly coloured, and only pale to some extent with age. 

Food and Habits. — Arioii sfib/tiscns is naturally very i)artial to fungi, 
and has been observeil to frequent and feed upon /'/issiih /iiscafa, as well 
as the poisonous Agaricus mi/sntrins. In sunnner it has been ob.served 
feeding upon the leaves of Lmufodou (iiitnmnalc, liut in autumn they 
ilisplay a great partiality for fungi. 

In ca]itivity, according to Mr. Wallis Kew, they eat bread and lettuce 
freely, the decaying leaves of the Deadly Nightshade (Solaiiuni rht/nniKini) 
are also eaten, as well as dead slugs of their own or other si)ecies. The 
fungus FIkUIus impndicus was also oftered and greedily devoured, but the 
animals feeding upon it died soon afterwards. 



Mr. Gain found that of 130 different kinds of food tendered to them 
Avhile in confinement only one, the Violet ( Viola odorata) was eaten with 
avidity, although forty-six other kinds were eaten freely, forty less readily, 
and only forty-three were totally rejected. 

This species frequents both deciduous and pine forests, and ascends the 
mountains to the limit of trees, but it also lives in gardens at the foot of 
walls and rocks, under hedges bordering meadows or roads and other places. 
It is fairly plentiful on the London clay, in gardens, etc., in North London, 
but is often especially abundant, fine and richly coloured on or near refuse- 
heaps. Like its congeners, it is somewhat slow, timid, and clumsy, though 
more active than A . ater, but when young or partly grown is a great adept 
at spinning mucus threads, and has been known to spin a thread thirty- 
seven inches in length. It is one of the few species of slug which has been 
actually observed and recorded as able to reascend its thread. This is 
effected by curving the anterior part of the body upwards until the fore- 
part of the foot comes into contact with the hinder portion, up which the 
creature then crawls until thS thread is reached, the animal then applies 
its foot to the thread, and at once proceeds to ascend by its aid, the 
foot remaining nearly fiat or only slightly folded in front. During the 
operation the head is moved from side to side and mucus gradually accu- 
mulates in an irregular mass above the tail, evidently composed in part of 
the slack of the thread, as it could be to some extent unwound or disen- 
tangled from the mass. 

Parasites and Enemies. — The general enemies of the slugs also 
prey upon this species, but, according to Mr. L. E. Adams, poultry which 
refuse Arion afer will eat this species without hesitation. Numerous 
intestinal worms have been at times detected within this slug, but they 
have never been identified. 

Variation. — This species does not display that wealth of colour- 
variation shown by Arion afer, the variations being chiefly due to the 
greater or lesser intensity of the rufous tint, and the more or less complete 
overspreading of the body by the darker hue of the dorsal surface ; this 


t14'.V %^ 

/ '-^ 

Fig. 216. Fig. 217. t'lti- 218. 

Proximal ends of the Reproductive Organs of Arion lusitankus and A. nobrei. 
Fig. -IX^.—Afion lusitankus (after Pollonera). Fiti. -IVi.— Avion lusitanicus (after Simroth). 

Fig. 'IVi.— Arion nobrti (after Pollonera). 

distribution of colouring is, however, liable to be reversed, a varietyfound 
on the Serra d'Estrella "having the dorsum clear brown, while the sides of 



the body are netirly black ; this <freater niiifonnity is naturally to be ex- 
pected, as A. sub/ascus is a more ancient sjjccies and not a dominant form. 

The junction of its distribution with the limits of the more restricted 
area inhabited by A. atei\ is complicated in those districts by the external 
approximation in aspect of the two species, a resemblance which has been 
the cause of great confusion, as many authors have, at various times, 
recorded tlie present species under one or other of the different names of 
its larger congener. 

On the Finnish shores of the Gulf of Finland, the var. fennka assimilates 
in a very remarkable way to Arloii titer, under which name it has frequently 
been recorded; while the Arion lusitanicus, A. nobrei, and .1. dasilvne, 
wliich have been described from the Spanish peninsula, are undoubtedly 
intermediate forms linking s/ib/uscus with ((ter, re^cinhVuiffsab/nscus in their 
internal structure but often approximating externally more closely to ater 
especially in size and colouring. 

The Ay'to)) Jhtgfilltifi of Collinge, which is 
here regarded as a simple variety of ^. ><ub- 
fuscHS, is said to possess as its characteristic 
feature a distinct flagellum upon the free 
oviduct, a most improbable situation for such 
an organ ; but, as the illustrative tigures of 
the author are somewhat carelessly or inaccu- 
rately executed, it is quite possible that the 
proposed si)ecies has been presented under a 
misapprehension of the precise structure of 
the animal. 

The yellow colouring of the body, though 
in general due to the mucous investment, is 
not invariably so, as in some cases the colour- 
ing is really due to the breaking through the 
skin of the superficially placed colour glands. 

The yellow dennal mucus, though so char- 
acteristic a feature, is also not an invarial)le 
trait of this species, as the darker and also 
the more pallid varieties more frequently 
emit an almost colourless slime. 

Arion sub/nsciis, like Lima.v arboruni and 
Avian ((ter, offers, according to Simroth, the 
same striking evidence of the darkening in- 
fluence of altitude, as tlie individuals inhab- 
iting the lofty mountain ranges are invariably 
darker than those living on the plains below. 

On the contrary, Dr. 8charft' expresses the opinion that in Ireland the 
more or less unicolorous jiale yellow variety is more especially characteristic 
of the higher parts of tlie countiy while the darker typical form inliabits 
the plains. 


V;ir. rufo-fusca Draparnaud, Hist. Moll., 1805, p. 125. 

Arion cinctus var. riifcscens Diim. & Mori., Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 7. 
Arion rnl'icinostis Baudon in Drouci, Moll. Cute d'Or, 1868, p. 2(). 
Arion sratikc/royi Mabille, Hist. Moll. Paris, 1870, p. 12. 

Ammai- of a lutoiis tint, most ])roiionnce(l on the mantle and tlie ^ides of the 
li(nl\ , (lorsiiin darker, the Lateral hand hiack or hhaekish. 

i'liis form is the one sideeted hy Diaiiarnaiid as tlie tyjie of the sjiecics ; hnt the 
rufous i-oloiuiii" is in many casos twitiiely due to the' iiiurotis inve.stnient. 

Fig. 219. — ReproiUiciive Organs 
of Arion flagctlus Collinge (after 
Collinge). The o\ ispcrmatodiict is 
incorrectly representeil, and some of 
the organs wrongly identified in 
Collinge's original figure. The figure 
is, however, here given as in the 
original, hut the nomenclature of the 
organs is corrected. 

a.g. albumen gland ; a. atrium ", 
<■/. epiphallus ; //. flagellum : h.d. her- 
niaplirodiie duct ; ot. ovotestis ; <>?■. 
oviduct ; ('-''. free oviduct ; re- 
tractor muscle ; s.d. sperm duct or 
prostate ; .?/. sperniatheca ; 7\d. vas 


Var. bicolOP Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll., ISo.O, p. 11. 

Arion rufus var. bicolor Moquiii-Tandon, I.e. 

Arion empiricoriim var. 1 Keriissac, Hist. Moll., 1819, p. 62, pi. 1, tT. 6-7. 

Ayion subfuscus var. latoitius Coliinge, Conchologist, 1892, p. 63. 

Ani.mal of a red or reddish colour, with darker dorsum, witliout darker lateral 

The var. biCOlOP s.atr. , animal orange-red, witli l>ri)\vn dorsum, foot-fringe 
orange witii hlack lineolation. 

The sub-var. lateritia is of a deep brick-red, wiiich is not due to mucus, lateral 
bands absent, foot-fringe light grey, lineolated with pale brown or ciiocolate. 

Glamorgan— A sub-var. of a rich wine colour on banks of river Ely, St. Pagan's, 
near Cardiff, Marcli 1885 ! F. W. Wotton. 

Fife and Kinross — Sub-v. latrritia, Mount Melville, St. Andrews (Coliinge, i.e.). 

Dublin — A sul)-variety found by Dr. Scliartl in a small pine-wood, in Lord 
Howth's demesne, Howth, in Sej)!. 1900, had a pale reddish-brown sineid, and red- 
dish body ruga% a colouring not, as is usual, entirely due to slime, but to the 
presence of superficial pigment cells. 

France— Hnvirons of Paris (Fcrussac, op. cit. , p. (j3). 

Var. fulig-inea :\Ioielet, Moll. Port., 1S45, p. 80, pi. 2. f. 1. 

Ario)i ftiligineiis Morelet, op. cit. 

Avion {Liiim.r) cinctus var fiisc^sans Dum. & Mort., Moll. Savoie, 1857, p. 7. 

Arion l>rii miens Lehinanii, Mai. Blatt., 1861, p. 166. 

Arion litiiacof'us We^terkllld, Exp. Crit. Moll., 1871, p. 36. 

Arion Jlagellus and var. philli/>.u Coliinge, Mag. Nat. Hist., 1893, p. 252, pi. 9. 

Animal of a dark brown, sides paler, with or without darker lateral banding, 
fringe yellowisli. 

Tiie var. fullginea s.str. , is of a rich l)rowii, dorsum aiul shield very dark 
smoky-brown, foot-fringe yellow, reddisii at tiie extremities. 

The sub-var. brunnea is cotl'ee-1)rown, the dorsum darker brown or blackish, 
the sides of body and shield paler red-brown, lateral banding indistinct, fringe 
yellowish with black lineolation ; mucus colourles.s. 

The sub-var. limacopa is dark fu.scous above, paler on the sides ; mucus yellow. 

The sub-var. flagella is dark vandyke-brown along the back, light brown on 
the sides, upon which are the vandyke-brown lateral bands ; the foot-fringe antl 
vicinity are pale brownish-white, the fringe witii sepia lineoles ; sole pale yellow. 

Tiie .sub-var. phillipsi iliffers in tlie back and mantle being deep mahogany- 
brown, the sides of body white with black dashes. 


Somerset S. — Sub-var. brunnea, Dridgwater, Aug. 1884! W. Vinson. 

Hants. N. — Sub-v. hninnea, Preston Candover, Nov. 1885 I Rev. H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Surrey— Sub-vai'. hrtnuica, Haslemere, E. W. Swanton (C. Pannell, Journ. of 
Conch., .Ian. 1902). 

Middlesex— Sub-var. hriDntca, Churchvard IJottom ^yood, Highgate, Mav 1889 ! 
H. Wallis Kew. 

Warwick — A modilied form of the sul)-\ar. fi<i()ilhi, Sutton Coldtield, H. Overton 
(W. E. Coliinge, Journ. of Mai., Dec. 190-1, p.'98). 

Salop — Subvar. hru)ine<(, Oswestry, June 1885 I IJaker Hudson. 

Pembroke — Sub-var. bninncd, near Pembroke, .lune 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. 

Notts. — Sul) \ar. brunni'a, gartlen, Tu.\ford, April 1885 ! W. A. (Jain. 

Derby— Sul)-var. brunnea, Clifton, 1889 ! Lionel E. Adams. 

Northumberland S. — Sub-var. brunnra, Stocksfield-on-Tyne, May 1885 I H. E. 

Cumberland — Sul)-var. brionira, Skiddaw Forest, Sept. 1890 1 Rev. J. Hawell. 


Perth Mid — Sub-var. bninnva, Dunkeld road on banks of river Tay, Sept. 1904 I 
^\'. Evans. 

Aberdeen S. — Sub-var. ///wo/w/vr, garden. Rul)islaw, Aberdeen, Oct. 1904 ! G. Sim. 


Armagh -Sub-var. hrunncit, Armagh, June 1885 I Rev. H. W. Lett. 

Monaghan — Snl)-var. brunnea, Drumreaske, Sept. 1904 ! W. F. de \'ismes Kane. 

Louth— Sub-var. brunnea, near Blackball demesne, He\)t. 1904 I P. II. Crierson. 


Kildare — Sn1)var. brunnca, Naaf<, Oct. l'.M>4! K. .1. Pack-Beresford. 
Sligo — Snb-var. brunnea, Hockwood. hough (Jill, Oct. 1880 ! W. F. de V. Kane. 
Mayo W. — Siib-var. brunnea, Enniscoe demesne, Cro.ssniolina, Sept. 188.") I 
\\'. I", (le \'isnies Kane. 

Galway W. — Sub-v. brunnea, Kyleniore Castle (hardens, Sep. 19U4 ! W. Comfort. 
Cork S. — '^\\h-\M-. flafjella and jihl/h'/, Scliull, .July 1893 (T'ollinge, I.e.). 
Kerry — Sub-var. brunnea, Valeiitia Island, Sept. 1904 ! Miss M. J. Delap. 

Germany — Sub-var. brunnea, Hiickendorlf, Ponierania. 

France — Sub-var. /?«cesce«*, Savoy (Duni. t& Mort., op. cit.). 

Switzerland — Sub-var. brunnea, Wildhaus, in the canton St. (iall, at about 
3,()00 foet altitude. Also at an altitude of (),{tUO feet near Maloja in the (irisons. 

Austro-Hungary — Sult-var. brtmnea, Carlsbad, Bohemia, April 1884 (B(ettger, 
Naciild., 1885, p. o4). 

Portugal — Yar. fuliginea, Ponte do Lima, Douro (Morelet, op. cit.). 

Norway — Sub-var. brunnea, common at Troiusoen, also at Andenaes on the 
Ando. A pale variety at Stanganaes at the mouth of the Tana river. 

Sweden — Sub-var. Umacopa, recorded for Ronneby in Blekinge, and Steliag in 
Scania (Westerlund, op. cit.). 

Russia — Sub-var. brunnea, Konginkangas, Fiidaiid (l..uther, Finland Gastrop., 
1901, p. .'57). 

Var. nigricans I'uUouora, Spec, nuove ecc, 18S7, p. 14. 

Anim.vl with shield and body entirely black, lateral fascia more or less incon- 


France — Found occasionally (PoUonera, op. cit.). 

Italy — In the Alps (Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Norway— Kistrand (Esmark & Hoyer, Mai. Bl., 1886, p. 103). 

Var. cinereo-fusca Draparnaud, Hist. Moll., 1805, p. 125. 

Arion ductus var. cincreus Dum. et Mort., Moll. S.^voie, 1857, p. 7. 
Avion suhfuscus var. ardosiaruiit Colbeau, Bull. Belg. Mai. Soc, 1867, p. 72. 
Arion suhfuscus var. typus Pollonera, Arionida;, Reg. Palearct., 1890, p. 11. 
Arion suhfuscus var. griscus Collinge, Conchologist, 1892, p. 63. 

Body ash-coloured or greyish, with or without blackish lateral band. 

The var. elnepeo-fusca s.str. is ash-coloured or greyish, with a blackish lateral 
band at each side. 

The sub-var. ardosiarum is of a dull, tinged with blackish, 
shield more rufous, a faint lilackish lateral l)and at each .side. 

The sub var. grlsea is grey with paler sides, without lateral bands. 


Channel Isles— St. Sampsons, Chiernsey, Seiit. 1891 ! B. Tonilin. 

Cornwall W. — Gardens, Truro, April 1886 ! J. II. James. 

Devon S.— Teignmouth, Aug. 1888 ! L. St. G. Byne. 

Devon N. — Belstone near Okehamiiton, Sept. 1904 I Rev. W. Wright Mason. 

Dorset — Montevideo, Chickerell near Weynumtli, Sept. 1904 ! N. M. Richardson. 

Sussex W.— Up Park, Aug. 1886 ! W. .JeHery. 

Middlesex-Muswell Hill road, Ilighgate, .Inly 18SS : II. Wallis Kew. 

Monmouth— Banks of river Wye, Monmouth, .Inly 1891 ! W. Whitwell. Garden, 
Rose Cottage, Talywain, .July 1904 I J. Manners. 

Worcester — Sub-var. cfrisea, W. E. Collinge, Jan. 190.). 

Warwick— Sub-var. grisea, W. E. Collinge, Jan. 190."). 

Brecon — Krwood, Oct. 1904 ! .1. WilliamsA'anghan. 

Carmarthen— Near Llanelly, Sept. 19(14 III. Rowland Wakefield. 

Pembroke — Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. 

Carnarvon — Slopes of Snowdon, April 1887 I J. Madison. 

Lincoln N.— Ulceby-with-Fordington, Oct. 1889 ! J. Burtt Davy. 

Lancashire S.— Sub-var. qr'isea, Kiiowslev, 1893 (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., 1893, 
p. 148). 

York N.E. — Ingleliy (heeniiow, Sept. 1890 I Rev. .1. Hawell. 

Westmorland and Lake Lancashire— Cirasmere, June 1886 I C. Oldham. Sub- 
var. grinea. Grange, 1897 (H. V. Fowler, J. of Mai., 1899, p. 38). 


Dumfries— Moffat, Jan. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Renfrew— Braidlana, Aug. 1890 ! J. M. B. Taylor. 

Roxburgh— Jedburgh, Sept. 1904 ! J. Roseburgh. 

Berwick— Dry burgli, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Edinburgh— Braidburn, Edinburgh, July 1888 ! W. E. Clarke. 

Fife and Kinross— Loch Geliy, May 1895 I W. Evans. Sub-var. grisea, Mount 
Melville, St. Andrews (W. E. CoHinge, I.e.). 

Perth Mid— Glen Ogle, Lochearnhead, June 1904 ! Rev. R. (Godfrey. Dunkeld 
road, Perth, Sept. 1904 ! W. Evans. 


Antrim— Cushendun, May 1886 ! and Whitehall, Broughshane, June 1896 ! Rev. 
S. A. Brenan. 

Armagh — Acton Glebe, Poyntz Pass, Sept. 1904 ! Rev. W. F. Johnson. 

Tyrone — Omagh, Jxily 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Donegal— Tenipleniore Park, Sept. 1904 ! D. C. Campbell. 

Meath— Drunicondra, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Dublin — Foxhall demesne, Raheny, abundant in a field, amongst horse-manure, 
evidently feeding on the fungi abounding there, Aug. 1890, R. F. Scharff. 

Carlow — Fenagh House, liagenalstown, Sept. 1904 ! Denis R. Pack-Beresford. 

Kilkenny — Gardens, Bessborough, Piltown, Sept. 1904 ! Earl of Bessborough. 

Mayo W.— At the " Colonv,' Achill Island, Sept. 1886 ! J. G. Milne. Dugort, 
July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Clare— Doonass, Aug. 1904 ! R. A. Phillips. 

Cork N. — Banks of river Lee, Cork, Sept. 1904 1 C. Baker. 

Kerry— Valentia Island, Sept. 1904 1 Miss M. J. Delap. 

France — Sub-var. cinerea. Savoy (Dumont & ^lortillet, op. cit. ). 

Belgium — Recorded for about Brussels, Vielsalm, Liege, Roumont, and other 
places. Sub-var. ardoslarum, at Arlon, Geichel, and Vielsalm (Colbeau, op. cit.). 
A grey variety in a wood at Forest near Brussels, April 1888 (Staes, Bull. Soc. Mai. 
Belg.,' 1868, p. 25). 

Var. ferussaci Kaleniczenko (em) Bull. Mosc, 1851, p. 113. 

Arion eiiipiricoruin var. k F^russac, Hist. Moll., 1819, p. 62, pi. 1, f. 8. 

Avion eiiiJ>irico7-um fcrtissackii Kaleniczenko, op. cit. 

.Arion virescens Millet, Moll. Maine et Loire, 18.>4, p. 11. 

Avion vu/us var. 7iij-escens Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll., 1855, p. 11. 

Avion olivacetts Schmidt, Verh. Naturh. Preuss, 1856, p. 58. 

Animal yellowish or orange, with lateral bands and dorsum greenii^h-grey, foot- 
fringe yellow. 

The vars. ferussackii and virescens are really names applied to the var. k of 
Ferussac, to whicii form the var. .suhihiefa of Cockerell also belongs. 

The sulivar. olivacea is described as olivaceous-brown and indistinctly fasciate. 

Montgomery — Under planks near bowling green, Welshpool, Aug. 1889 ! J. 
Bickerton Morgan. 


France— Sub-var. virescens, forests about Cholet, Angers, and Thorigne in the 
department INlaine et Loire. 

Austro-Hungary — Sub-var. olivacea is recorded by Bielz from beneath bark, 
under stones or fallen wood, at an elevation of 2,000 to 6,000 feet, in the mountain 
forests of Transylvania. 

Russia — Var. ferussaci, in district of Achtyrka, Lebedin, and Zmiew, Kharkov. 

Var. alba Esmark, Xyt Mag. Natiirv., 1882, p. 98. 
Animal white, tinged with greyish on the back. 


Norway— Osterdalen, at an alt. of 2,300 ft. ; also at Tonset ; Lille Lombolen, 
Maalselven in Troniso ; and Tromsoen and I'orsangerfjord in Finmark (Esmark, 
J. of Conch., Oct. 1886). 


Van SUCCinea Bouillet, Moll. Auvergne, 1830, p. 14. 

.Ir-ii'ii siiccineus Houillet, op. cit. 

Ation campcstris .Mabille, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1868, p. 134. 

Arion citrinus Westerluiui. Kxposd- Crit., 1871, p. 3.7. 

Ation DtalnlliauHs Hoiirguignat, .Moll. Noiiv. lit., 1886, p. 173, j)!. 211, f. 1-1. 

Avion cinctus ^•ar. autnntincus Dum. X: Mort., Cat. AIoll. .Savole. 18.57. p. 7. 

Arion tiit'ij^inosiis var. nigricans B.iiulon, Mem. I.imac. Oise, 1871, p. ,1. 

Arion krynickii Kaletiiczenko, Bull. Mosc,, p. 114, pi. 4, f. 1. 

Arion cinctus var. atripunctatus Diini. ^t Mort.. .Mai. Sav., 1852, p- 7. 

Arion /iiscus var. /nrttgcri Follonera, .Specie nuove ecc, 1887, p. 15, f. 14. 

Arion Jlaviis Pollonera, Arioiiicia; Reg. Palearct., 1890, p. 15. 

Arion ru/ns var. /^/t7> Westerlund, AIoll. Extram. .Scand.. 1897, p. 41. 

Arion havnyi Pollonera, Spec, nuove ecc, p. 12, f. 15. 

AxiMAL of a yellow or orange colour, with or without a more or less distinct 
lateral band at each side. 

The var. succinea s.str., is yellow, dorsum chestnut-brown, foot-frin<,'e yellow 
with dark lineoles. 

The 8u])-var. citrina if< of a citron yellow, duller dorsally, neck and tentacles 
blackish, and black toot-frinoe lineolation. 

The sub-var. mabUliana is ochraceous-yellow, with chestnut lateral bandin;,'. 

The sub var. aurantiaea is of an orange colour witli darker dorsum and lateral 

The sub-var. campestris is orange-coloured without lateral bands, foot-fringe 
yellowish without lineoles, but spotted with orange. 

The sub-var. nigricans has the ground-tint gamboge, but shows brown ten- 
tacles, lateral bands, and dorsum. 

The sub-var. krynickii is dull yellow, with cinereous bands and whitish foot-sole. 

The sub-var. atripunctata is yellow, dorsum darker, with black spots, lateral 
baiuls lilack, foot-fringe yellow with fuscous lineolation. 

'IMie sub-var. bosttgerl is yellow, dorsum chestnut or dark fuscous, sprinkled 
with black, lateral bands chestnut or blackish, foot-fringe yellow with black lineoles. 

The sub-var. flava is deep or pale yellow, without or with only indistinct lateral 
banding and indistinct foot-fiinge lineolation. 

The sub-var. ISBVlS is yellowish, with brownish-yellow dorsum, foot-fringe with 
fuscous lineolation. 

The sub-var. bavayi is orange or yellow, dorsum fuscous, with black lateral 
Viand on each side, fringe yello\\', iineolate with fuscous ; dermal mucus colourless. 


Surrey — Sub-var. annmHaca, .Shottermill (('. I'annell, .1. of Conch., .Ian. 1!K)2). 

Stafford— Staflbrd ; canal side, Itaclford : and at Ihewood, dune, 188U ! L. E. 
Adams. Hedgerows near liirmingham, F. .1. Partridge and G. Iheeden. 

Cheshire — ("ommon at Romiley, dune 1896 ! ('. Oldham. 

Lancashire S. — Sub-v. aurant'mra, near Farington, June I89(» I W. H. Heatiicote. 

York N.W. — Sub-var. (iKrautiKcn, Islet Bridge, Aug. 188-1! W. Denison Roebuck. 


Aberdeen S.- Garden, Rubislaw, Oct. 1904 ! G. Sim. 


Antrim— Cushendun, May 1886! Rev. S. A. J>renan. Abundant on Kathlin 
Island, and commoner than the tyjie form at Murlough ami other jtlaces on the 
north coast, .Mav 1^97, 1... E. Adams. Sub-vars. (ntrantinrn and <rnnprsiris. Ilelfast, 
Dec. 1891, \l. F.'Scharir. 

Dcwn — Sub-vars. (iiirdiitiarc and ciiiii/ns/rif, ('ultra, Dec. 1891, R. F. Scharll'. 

Tyrone — Omagh, .Inly 1904 ! P. 11. (Jrierson. 

Louth— Near Drogheda, Oct. 1904 ! P. H. (;rierson. 

Meath Drumcondra, .Inly 1904 ! P. II. Grierson. 

Dublin— (harden, Sloperton Lodge, Kingstown, May ISSO ! W. F. de V. Kane. 
Sub-var. fliira. Pine wood, Howth Hill near Dublin, and Killakee in the Dublin 
Mountains (R. F. Schartl", Slugs of Ireland, 1891, p. 044). 

Wicklow— Bray Head (R. F. ScharfV, oji. cit.). 

Sligo — Sub-var. //'r'/v/, Collooney, Sept. 188") I W. V. df N'ismes Kane. 

Galway W. — ,Sub-var. //'/r^', Benvyle and Kylemore, March 1891. !!. F. Schard'. 

Galway E. — Common in Ghire-CJalwav .Abbey, duly 1890 (St.inden, liish Nat., 
Sept. 189.")). 

Tipperary S. — Sub-v. ^^///v//(^/f<(7^,Melview, Clonmel, Oct. 1904 ! Mrs. Malcolnison. 

Waterford — Abundant, Glenabbey, and in ditches of Mountain road, Clonmel, 
.May 188ti, Rev. A. H. Delai.. 

Kerry— Sheen Wood and island in Mi<ldle Cloonee Lake, dnlv 1898 (Standen, 
Irish Nat., Sept. 1898). 




Germany — Sub-var. rainpestris, Neu Biisach, Alsace. Sub-var. bmttgeri, Bremen 
(Pollonera, Arioiiidie Rei;-. Palearct. , 1890, p. 13). Sul)-var. citrina, Misdroy, Wolliii 
island, Ponieiania (Babor, .1. of Mai., 1894, p. 4.5). 

France -In the elevated mountain woods of Pny-de-D6me and ("antal (Bouillet, 
I.e.). Sub-var. mctbiUiann, in the Forest d'Orient in the Aube. Sub-var. aiirantiacn. 
Savoy (Dumont tJc Mortillet, op. cit. ). Sub-var. nigriraiis, on mushrooms, chiefly in 
October, in the Forest of Hez, department of the Uise ; and Drouet has also found it 
at Dijon, Cote d'Or. Sub-var. atrijnmrtata, Mont Saxonnet, Savoy, at an alt. of 
over 3,000 feet (Dum. & Mort., op. cit.). Sub-var. ca/upcsfris, Bellancourt and 
Sevres, Seine. Sub-var. buvayi, Brest in Finistere. 

Switzerland — Sub-var. campcstvis, St. Gall (Westerlund, op. cit.). 

Italy — Sub-var. atripunctata, on the Alps, also Piano di Formazza, Piedmont 
(Pollonera, Arionidte Reg. Palearct., 1890, p. 13). 

Norway — Elvanaes and Jarfjord (Esmark ^^' Hoyer, Mai. 151., 1886, \i. 103). Sub- 
vars. citrina sxidflava, Kingerige (Westerlund, I.e.). 

S^weden — Sub-var. hcria, Krokuni in Jemtland. Sub-var. rifrinr/, ( >fvedskloster 
in Scania, and in Blekinge. Sub-var. Jfova, Esperod in Scania, rarely in Snialand, 
and in Blekinge (Westerlund, I.e.). 

Denmark— Sub-var. ;/rt(w, Copenhagen (Westerlund, I.e.). 

Russia — Sub-var. Jnniniclil, in moist woodlands near Ivanovka in Sumy district. 
Frequent in rainy weather l)y woodland roads, on Jforr/iclld', near Danilovka-Parva, 
Kurysch, and Kvitkin in the district of Kharkov (Kaleniczenko, I.e.). 

Var. pegforarii Less. & Poll., Mon. Limac. ItaL, 1882, p. 62. 

ArioH pcgofarii Less. & Poll., op. cit. 

Arion stabi/ei Pollonera, Elencho Moll. Ten-. Piem., 1885, p. 28. 

Arion poltoticrtF Pini, Nov. Malac, 1884, p. 42. _ 

Arion subfuscus var. transylvaniis Simroth. Zeitschr. Wissensch. Zool., 1885, p. 284. 

Arion subfuscus var. alpestris Pollonera, Arioiiida; Reg. Paltorct., 1890, p. 12. (juadrifasciate, showing dark subdorsal and lateral banding on each side. 

The var. pegorarii s.str. , is dusky rufous, confusedly quadrifasciate ; foot-fringe 
dark grey, with black lineolations ; sole whitish and nuicus yellow. According to 
Pollonera, this form is also distinguished from the typical form by the presence of 
an additional ectocone to the marginal teeth. 

The sub-var. stabile! is described as yellowish or orange, confusedly quadri- 
fasciate ; foot-fringe with black lineolations. 

The suli-var. poUonerse grows to a larger size (80 mill.) and is confusedly ([uad- 
rifasciate, with i>ale yellow fringe, and conspicuous lineolation. 

The sub-var. transylvana is very darkly coloured and quadrifasciate. 

The sub-var. alpestPis is yellow or orange ; dorsum more or less chestnut or 
fuscous-black ; fascia blackish or chestnut coloured ; fringe yellow, lineolate with 


Germany— Sub-var. ^//^t'.vi'r/.s (Pollonera, oi). cit.). 

France— Sub-var. alpestris, north of France (Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Italy — Etrouble, valley of Aosta. Piedmont. Sub-var. pollonera', Intra on Lake 
]\[aggiore, Piedmont. Sul)-var. alpestris, Alps; sub-var. stabilci, Maccugnaga, Pied- 
mont (Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Austro-Hungary — Sub-var. trausulvana, Transylvania (Simroth, I.e.). 

Sw^eden — Malm records a quadrifasciate variety from Lulea-Lappmark, wiiich 
would perhaps be best placed under pecjorarii. 

Geographical Distribution.— ..4 /vW suhfinicus has a more extended 
distnlmtion tliaiixl. ater, as, in either its typical or in its aberrant fonns its 
range extends on all sides beyond that of the latter species, forming as it 
were a fringe beyond the inhabited area of its congener. 

The distributional area comprises almost the whole of Europe, excei)t the 
south-eastern extremity, where Arionldw are practically deficient. 

It is recorded as inhabiting the British Isles, Germany, France, Belgium, 
•Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Northern Italy, Austro-Hungary, Ru.ssia, 



Dennmrk, Sweden, and Norway, and it is not improbable that the shigs 
recorded as Avion horfeiisis from Siberia really appertain to this species. 

It has also been noted from the United States, New Zealand, and other 
places, where it has been introdnced by commerce. 

In the British Isles, this species is well distributed throughout the 
conntr}', except in East Anglia, where it is apparently absent, no authentic 
record of its occurrence within that area being known, nor have we ever 
seen an example therefrom. 

This remarkable scarcity or absence from the East Anglian district, taken 
in conjunction with its increasing abundance westward and in Ireland, is 
strongly corroborative of A. s//b/uscHfi being one of the weaker and less 
adaptable species, which are being gradually luit surely expelled from the 
eastern regions of this country. 

Geographical Distribution 


Anon snbfuscns (i)mp.). 

|Recorded Distribution. 
JProbable Range. 

Fig. 22U. 
Channel Isles— N'. rincreo-fitsca , St. Sampson's, Guernsey, Sept. 1891 1 B. Tonilin. 


Cornwall W. — Trevedock id. , St. Cohnnb, May 18S.") 1 \V. \in,son. Penzance, Jan. 
190.") I L. K. -Vdanis. Type and var. cincrco-fysca, Truro, May 1880 I J. H. James. 

Cornwall E. — (Jarden hank, and Queen's Hill, St. Columlt, May 188") ! W. Vin.son. 

Devon S. — Common at Topsham, Sept. 1892 ! Lionel E. Adams. Type and var. 
cincrco-fi(sra, Teij;nmouth, Oct. 1888 I L. St. (1. Hyne. 

Devon N. — Dartmoor, July 1889 ! W. A. (iain. Type and var. cinerco-fusca, 
Belstone near Okeliampton, Sept. 1904 1 Kev. ^V. ^VriJ;ilt Mason. 

Somerset S. — Type and var. 6>'«?i«(Y^ allotment j,^ardens near canal, Bridgwater, 
Aug. 1884 ! W. Vinson. 


Wilts. N. — Manton near Marlborouuli, Yj. Meyrick, Sept. 1904. 

Dorset— Cliideock, Bridport, Auj;. 1885! A. Belt. Portland, Aug. 1886! J. 
Madison. Stonr Provost (E. W. Swanton, Nat. Journ., March 1902). Broadstone, 
Parkstone, July 1904 ! T. D. A. Cookerell. Var. nncreo-fvsca, Montevideo, Chick- 
erell, near ^Veymouth, Sept. 1904 I Nelson M. Richard.'^on. 

Isle of Wight— Yarmouth, May 1887 \ C. Ashford. 

Hants. S. — CJarden, Christchurcii, Nov. 1884 1 Burton, Apr. 1S90 ; Roeshot Hill, 
June 1890; Bolderwood, An;;'. 1SS7 : and Southampton, C Ashf(n-d. Ilamliledon, 
May 1904 1 ('. S. Coles. 

Hants. N. — Type and suh-var. hrmnirft, Preston Candover, Nov. 1885! Rev. H.P. 

Sussex W.^Type antl var. ciiicrvo-fuisca, I'p Paik, Auu. ISStil \y. Jellery. 



Kent W.— Chislelmist, May 1885! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Surrey — Hasleniere, Sliotterniill, Punch Bowl, and Grayj^wood ; sub-var. 
nuruntiaca, Sliottermill ; and suli-var. hrunnca, Hasleinere (C. Pannell, J. of (". . 
Jan. 1902). 

Middlesex — Type and var. ciiierro-fascrf, Mu.s\vell Hill road, Hi^liyate, July 

1888 I and suh-var. hrunnea, Cliurchyard Bottom wood, ^lay 1889 ! H. W. Kew. 
Oxford — Plentiful and well distributed, varying much in colour, usually mucli 

jialer in the soutiiern parts of the county (W. E. Collinge, Conch., 1891, p. 13). 


Northampton — By no means common, Harlestone, May 1893 ! Yardley Chase 
and Desliorough, L. E. Adams. Haselbeech, Rev. W. A. Shaw, Sept. 1904. 


Gloucester W.— Stroud, Oct. 1883! E. J. Elliott. 

Monmouth — Type and var. cinerco-fusca, banks of Wye, ^Monmouth, July 1891 ! 
W. Whitwell. Type and var. cinereo-fusca, garden. Rose Cottage, Talvwain, July 
1904 ! J. Manners!^ 

Worcester — Sub-var. r/risea, W. E. Collinge, Jan. 190.5. 

Warwick— Dudley Castle, 1896, H. Overton. Sutton Coldheld, 1897, A. Wood. 
Sub-var. grisea, W. E. Collinge, Jan. 190.i ; also a form of sub-var. flrirfrlla., Sutton 
Coldlield, H. Overton (id., Journ. of Mai., Dec. 1904). 

Stafford — Froghall, April 1889 ! T. E. Burrows. Fir woods near Cheadle, April 

1889 I J. R. B. Masefield. Newton road, near Birmingham, July 1893! C. Oldham. 
Var. succinea, hedgerows near Birmingham, F. J. Partridge and G. Breeden. Type 
and var. sucrAnra, Stafford ; canal side, Radford ; and Brewood, June 1886 I L. E. 

Salop — Type and sub-var. hnonicn, Oswestry, June 1885 ! B. Hudson. 


Glamorgan — Cardiff, 1888; sub-vai-. of hicolor by river Ely, St. I"\igan's, March 
1885 : F. AV. Wotton. 

Brecon — Var., Erwood, Oct. 1904 I J. Williams Vaughan. 

Carmarthen — Var. rincreo-fusca, Llanelly, Sept. 1904 ! H. Rowland Wakefield. 

Pembroke— Plantation, Heywood lane, Tenby, A. (!. Stubbs. Haverfordwest, 
Sept. 1904 ! Price Davies. Type, var. cincrco-fiisca, and sub-var. hrunnea, Pem- 
broke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Travle'r. 


Montg-omery — Etail-wag, June 1885 ! Baker Hudson. Sarnau near Welshpool 
(J. B. Morgan, Moll. Montgomery, 1891). Type and var. fcrtissari, timber yard, 
Welshpool, June 1889 ! J. B. Morgan. 

Merioneth — Nant-y-Mor, June 1901 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Carnarvon — Llangelynen, July 1883 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Abersoch, June 
1896, C. Oldham. Yr Aran, Snowdon, Aug. 1891 ! H. P. Marshall. Var. cinciro- 
fnsca, slopes of Snowdon, April 1887 ! J. Madison. 

Denbigh — Common on low-lying ground, Bont-ddu near Dolgelly (Fenn, J. of C, 
July 1887, II. 198). Colwyn Bay, April 1897; common, Bettws-y-Coed, May, 1898; 
abundant, Nant Glvn, ^Nlay 1904, C. Oldham. 


Lincoln S.— Fullieck Grange, Dec. 1888 ! J. Burtt Davy. Careby Wood near 
Grantham, June 1903 ! H. W.'lvirkby. 

Lincoln N. — Well Vale, Sept. 1889 I W. Denison Roebuck. Farlesthorpe (J. 
Burtt Davy, Garner, May 1891). Var. cinereo-fmca, Ulceby-Avith-Fordington, Oct. 
18S9 ! J. Burtt Davy. 

Notts.— Cleveland Hill, West Markham, April 1884! C. T. Musson. Type and 
sub-vai'. bninnca, garden, Tuxford, April 1885 ! W. A. (Jain. 

Derby— Marple. May 1885 ! and Buxton, May 1893 ! C. Oldham. Darley Dale, 
June 1890! W. H. Heathcote. Winster, June 1885 ! Rev. H. Milnes. Near Hather- 
sage, Aug. 1890 ! type and sult-var. brnnnea, Clifton, Sept. 1889 ! L. E. Adams. 


Cheshire— Bowdon, Sei)t. 1884 ! and Hale, May 1885 ! J. G. .Milne. Garden, 
Heatley House, Sept. 1885! L. E. Adams. Marp'le, May 1891 ! L. St. G. Byne. 
Sale and Northenden, June 1885 ! and at P>aguley Hall, Sept. 1892 ! also type and 
var. SKCi'inca, Itomiley, June 1896 ! C. Oldham. 

Lancashire S.— Hough Green near Widnes, March 1884 ! H. L. Edwards. Near 
Preston, June 1888 I sub-var. aiiranfiaca, al)iindant along a roadside hedgerow, 
Farington, June 1890 ! W. H. Heathcote. Type and sub-var. r/risea, Knowsley 
(W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., June 1893, p. 148). 

Lancashire Mid— Over Wyresdale, alt. 1,000 ft., April 1903 ! Rev. W. AV. Mason. 
Broughton near Preston, July 1904 1 W. H. Heathcote. 

•20() \H\oy si-i5i"uscus. 


York S.E. l''ili'y. 10(i:? : lianks of canal, Ucvoiloy, .J. P. I'.ntteicll. 

York N.E.— Wilton Wood, May ISS? ! IJeetlalc, June litOl ! Harwoud Dale aii<l 
Krejulay (iill, May UIOl ! IJowes, Jiily 18S4 ! W. Deiiison lloebuck. Haylmin Wyke, 
Auj^. liSll4, F. W. Kioid<t'. 'I'yi'O and var. rhtrrm-fusm, Ingleliy (Jrecidiow, S('|ii. 
lS9(t : llev. J. Hawell. 

York S.W. -('oninion, Loftlioiisi;, May 1SS7, ( ieo. lvo1)erts. In and around 
jianlen, Uose Hill, Penistone, Nov. hSSlJ ! L. E. Adams. ]!ell Hoj,'g near Shertield, 
dune 1893 ! C. Oldham. Wlieatley Wood, Doiieaster, April 1904 ! H. H. Corbett. 
Heliden liridge, June 1904 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Common at EUand Park wood ; 
•lagger Green ; Howroyd Clougli and Red Lane Dyke, Halifax, J. E. Crowtlier, 
Halifax Nat., Aug. 190".S, p. 49. 

York Mid W.— (hardens and fields near canal, Saltaire, Nov. 1S83 ! marshy field 
in Tong Park, 1SS7 : Esholt and Faglev, 1888 ; Calverlev Wood and Sliii)lev (Jlen, 
1889, H. T. So]. pit t. Manston, Mav 1904 ! W. H. Hutton. Eavestone, Sei.t. 1880 '. 
J. Ingleby. Micklev Wood, Aug. 'l889 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Bnttertnbs Pas.s, 
alt. i,-jO0 feet, Mav 1904 I H. Wallis Kew. (Jrassingtim, Sept. 19()i», F. Rhodes. 
Waterfall, Crook (Jill, l'.U(d<den, Aug, 1904 ! A. H. Pawson. 

York N.W. — H(.rton-in-i;ibbles(iaIe, May 1892 I W. I). Roebuck. Ingleton 
(Collinge. Nat., 1.S9(), p. 198). Hamnieiton Hall, RoUaiid, Aug. 188.> : and sub-var. 
nnnintiKco, Islet Bridge, Aug. 188.J : W. Denison Koebuck. 


Durham -Durham, .\pril 1884 ! Raker Hudson. Harwood Dale, Aug. 1889, 
^^'. Denison Koebuek. 

Northumberland — (;osforth, Aug. 1904 : .Mrs. Willnns. Type and sub-var. 
briDiiiiii, Stocksheld-on-Tvne, Mav 188.> ! H. E. T'raven. 


Westmorland and Lake Lancashire— Coniston Old Man, July 1887 ! S. C. 
Cockerell. Holywath, Coniston, Oct. 1886 I W. Denison Roelnick. Var. citirrra- 
fusca, (Ti-asmere, June 1886 1 C. (Jidhani. Sub-var. i/riscrc, Grange, 1897 (Fowler, 
■Journ. of Mai., 1899, p. 38). 

Cumberland — Keswick, July 1903 ! Rev. R. Godfrey. Sub-var. hrnniica, Skid- 
daw Forest, Sept. 1890 ! Rev. j. Hawell. 

Isle of Man— Glen Maye and Keppel Gate, Snaefell, Sept. 1891 ! 

SCOTLAND. iFESr loivlaxds. 

Dumfries— Type and var. cincrco-fmm, Moffat, Jan. 1891 ! W. Evans. 
Kirkcudbright— Castle Douglas, Sept. 1890 ! AV. Evan.s. 
Ayr— Adneil, Nov. 1903, Rev. R. Godfrey. 

Renfrew— Var. cinerco-fasm, Braidland, Aug. 1890 ! J. AL B. Taylor. 
Lanark— Wilderness Wood, Cadder, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Type 
and sub-var. brnniicd, Blackwood estate, Kirkmuirhill, Sept. 1904 ! N. B. Kinnear. 

^ Peebles— Leadl)urn, about disused farm buildings, July 1889 ! W\ D. Roebuck. 
West Lyntf)n ! Lyne I and Standalane near Peebles, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Selkirk- Ilolylee, July 1889 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Var. rinrrrofiisni, near 
Selkirk, Oct. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Roxburgh- -Type, var. ri»rrcofnsci(, and sul)-var. hnnnu-a, Jedburgh, Sept. 
1904 1 J. Roselmrgh. - >. . i 

Berwick— .Ir/o;? .sithfacuti frequent in woods and shady places (G. Johnston, 
Berwi<k N. C. Proc, 1838, p. 154). Eyemouth, W. Evans. Var. cinereo-fusca, 
Dryburgh, July 1889 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Haddington Aberlady, May 1890 ! Westbarn Links near Dunbar, Sept. 1894 ! 
Lufliiess Links, .\Liy 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Edinburgh -Abundant by liehljiaths, Craiglockhart near Edinburgh July 1889 ! 
A\. Denison Itoebuck. Near Balerno. April 189(» ! Caroline Park. Granton. Nov. 
1890! The Bush, Penicuik, Dec. 1890! and Kirknewton, Feb. 1897, W.Evans. 
Var. ritirnofnsrii, Braidburn 1 W. E. Clarke. 

Linlithgow— About Liidithgow, Oct. 1890 ! Binny Craig, Mch. 1898; and B<mny- 
town Hills, Aug. 1901. W. Evans. Fairly coninHm in the county and noted at, Carriden, I'reston, Livingston, Kinneil AHIl, (Jraeme's Dvkc, Bankhead, 
and Bo ness, Rev. R. (Jodfrey. 

_., ^ ,,. ,, " , EAST HIGHLAXDS. 

Fife and Kinross -Otterston, June 1890 ! Dura Den, July 1890 ! Falkland Woods, 
Aug. 1895; Loch Leven, Feb. 1896: also type and var. cinnro-fmca. Loch Gelly, 
May 1895. W. Evans. Sub-vars. latrrltia and qrisea. Mount Melville, St. Amlrew.s 
(W. E. Collinge, I.e.). 



Stirling-— ("aiiibuslmmm, Stiilin.u, July 1804 ! A. Nror>el1;ui. 

Perth S. and Clackmannan—South slopo of Diuimuoiul llill I Dollar, Aiiril 
1897 : Callander, May 1894 I aii<l AUrrfovle, April 1896, W. Evans. ISalnuhid.ler, 
July 1904 ! Kev. R. Godfrey. 

Perth Mid— Crianlarich, Aug. 1888 ! Alex. Sonierville. Inver Uunkeld, Sept. 
1904 1 A. Rodgers. Yar. rinciro-fiisra, (Jlen Ogle, Lochearnliead, June 1904 ! Rev. 
R. (lodfrev. \'ar. /■Inerco-fiisra and sult-var. hriomcc, Dunkeld road, Perth, Sept. 
1904 ! \y. Evans. 

Perth N.— Fenderbridge, Glen Tilt, Sept. 189S ! and Blairgowrie, July 1890 ! 
W. Evans. 

Kincardine— Banchory, July 1890! W. Evans. 

Aberdeen S.— Drum 'Woods, Deeside, Oct. 1886 ! G. I]. Plowright. Aberdeen 
Tiinks, July 1890 ! W. Evans. Banks of Don near Alierdeen, Sept. 1904 ! var. 
■siirciiiea and sub-var. bniiuicd, garden, Rtibislaw, Oct. 19l»4 1 (i. Sim. 

Banff — Banks of Avon above Ballindalloch, Sept. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Elgin — Below Gran town, Strathspey, Aug. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Easterness — Dahvhinnie, alt. 1,200 ft., June 189-2 \ W. P'.vaiis. \-m\ rufn-fmcn, 
Rothiemurchus pine forest, Aug. 1904 I Rev. R. (Jodfrey. 

WESr tllGll LANDS. 

Main Argyle — Dunoon ! and Ardenadam ! \V. Deiiison Roebuck. Ballineanoch, 
Sonachan, l>arbreek, Lochan Dul)li near Oban, Duiiollie, Ganavan, Glen Sheileach, 
Gallanacli road, and on the moor near IJenbeg, July 1901, Re\'. R. Godfrey. 

Clyde Isles — Isle of Arran: Brodick, April 1895 ! W. Evans ; and Loch Greenan, 
July 1889 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Isle of Bute: near the ainiarium, Rothesav, 
Nov. 1886 ! T. Scott. 

Cantire— About old castle, Tarbert, April 1886 ! T. Scott. 

Xi 'A' /■// men I. A XDS. 

Ross W.— Ullapool, Aug. 1886 ! Alex. Somerville. 

Sutherland E. — South side of Little Dornoch, Oct. 1884 1 and Hlue Hock, Brora, 
March 1885 ! W. Baillie. 


Derry — Moderately common by banks of river Bann, Coleraine, Nov. 1883, L. E. 
Adams. Ballynagard, June 1892 ; and Gortness, Sept. 1904 ! D. C. Campbell. 
Creagh meadows, Toome, June 1898; shores of Lough Neagh, June 1899: and under 
logs on railway embankment, Limavady Junction, March 1903, R. ^Yelch. 

Antrim — CoUooney, Sept. 1885 ! AV. F. de Vismes Kane. Dunluce Castle and 
old church, Se})t. 1893 ; Cave Hill, 1893 ; large and common at Plantation Port, 
Kenbane, Oct. 1898 ; stream-side, Whitepark Bay, June 1899 ; common ami liner 
than usual. Brown's Bay, Lame, July 1899; Colin Glen, Nov. 1899; Bush Bay, 
Jan. 1900; Glencorp, March 1900; common about Armoy, Glenshesk, and the 
Ballycastle district generally, R. Welch. Aliumlant about Murlough Bay, Cush- 
endun, and all along the north coast of Antrim ; also on Rathlin Island, and at 
Loughaveena, at 900 ft. alt., in the midst of a bog, in company with Arion /iter. 
In some localities the sub-var. auraiifiaca is far commoner than the type. May 1897, 
L. E. Adams. Tvpe and sub-vars. auranfiaca and rampc-stris, Belfast, Dec. 1891, 
R. F. Scharlf. Var. cineveoj'usra , Ballycastle, Oct. 1904 1 .Miss F. S. O'Connor. 
\'ars. rlnerco-fitsca and succiiiea. Cushendun, May 1886 1 and var. rinciro-fii.-sca, 
Whitehall, Broughshane, June 1896 ! Rev. S. A. Brenan. 

Do-wn— Beech Hill near Newry, July 1904 ! R. J. Anderson. Clon<lu(f, Hilltowii 
and Ballinoe Stone-circle, Jan. 1898; very common on rockery, Oakleigh, Ormeau 
Park, Belfast, May 1898; common on fallen trees by Hillsborough Monument, .\pril 
1899 ; and common under logs, Helen's Bay, Sept. 1904, A. W. Stelfox and R. 
Welch. Finnebrogue Woods, Dec. 1900 ; and rare on shores of Lough Aghery, 
May 19114, R. Welch. Tvpe and sub-vars. (inrantincd and rfinipcsfri.-;, Cultra, Dec. 
I89'l, R F. ScharH'. 

Armagh — Type and .sub-var. hnuDiea, Armagh, June 1885 ! Rev. H. W. Lett. 
\'ai-. cincreo-fiisra, Acton Glebe, Poyntz Pass, Sept. 1904 ! Rev. W. F. Johnson. 

Monaghan— Carrickmacross, Sep. 1904 ! also type and sub-var. brunnea, Drum- 
reaske, Sejit. 1904 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 

Tyrone— Baronscourt, Sept. 1904! R. Bell. Sion Mills, Feb. 1900, R. Welch. 
\'ar. iniieveo-fascn and sub-vai\ aiirantinra, Omagh, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Donegal— A rdara Woods, April 1900, R. Welch. Var. cinereo-fusm. Temple- 
more Park, Sept. 190-1 ! D. C. Campbell. 

Cavan— Mullagh, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

•20S ARION sriu'uscus. 


Louth— Woods and fields, Pipeistown, Oct. 1889 I Miss S. Smith. Dromiskin, 
-luiio 1904 1 Narrow Water, Dec. 1904! var. hniunm, Blackliall Demesne, Sept. 
19(14 I and sub-var. (nirdntinra, Dro<;heda, Sept. 1904 ! \\ H. (irierson. 

Meath— Larj,'e at Slane Hill, July 1900, Kev. A. :\I. Norman and W. Welch. 
Grange, June 1892, H. F. Scharff. " Var. rinereo-fu-frn and sult-var. aiirontiara, 
Drnnuondra, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Dublin— Dulilin, March 188(i 1 J. K. Redding. Fairly common in Bushey Park, 

Dublin, Sept. 190:i (Welch ami Sielfox, Irisli Nat., June 1904, ].. 1'23). Var. siiccinea, 

Sloperton Lodge, Kingstown, May 1886 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. Var. cincreo- 

fitsca, Foxhall Demesne, Raheny, Aug. 1890; also sub-var. /r^/Y*, Howth, Sept. 

"1890; and Killakee, Dublin Mountains, Feb. 1891, II. F. Scharrt'. 

Kildare— Sub-var. brininra, Naas, Oct. 1904 ! R. J. Pack-Beresford. 

Wicklow— Common on beech trees in Glen of Downs, July 1891 ; Little Sugar- 
Loaf Mountain, July 1891 ; Woodenbridge and sandhills, Arklow, March 1893; 
type and var. siirruirti, Bray Head. R. F. Schartr. Powerscourt, May 18S() I 
^\'. Y. de Vismes Kane. Enni'skerrv, Aug. 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Wexford— Kilmanock, Sept. 1890 ! G. E. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Carlow— N'ar. rinereo-fiisea, Fenagh House, Bagenalstown, Sept. 1904 ! Denis 
R. Pack-Beresford. 

Kilkenny— Var. riiirrco-fasca, gardens, Piltown, Sept. 1904 '. Earl of Bessborougli. 

Queen's Co.— La Bergerie, Aug. 1840, Rev. B. J. Clarke. StradVially, Sept. 
1904 : \. (;. Stuart. 

King's Co.— Gardens, Charleville Forest, Tiillaniore, Seiit. 1904 '. R. McKeniia. 

Westmeath— Common, Knockdrin Demesne, April 1892, R. F. Scharti'. 

Longford— Cnrrvgrane, Nov. 1901, Mrs. .1. Mackay Wilson ( Welch, Lisli Nat., 

July 1902). 


Roscommon— Mote Park, Sept. 1904 ! Lord Crofton. 

Leitrim— Mobil 1, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. Swiss Valley, Glencar, July 1904 ! 
A. W. Stelfox. 

Sligo— Rare, Sligo and Ballysodare, Sept. 1900, A. W. Stelfox. Raghly Point 
and Lissadill, July 1904, R. Welch. Sub-var. flavn, Collooney near Sligo, Sept. 
188."> ! and sub-var. brimnen, Rockwood, Lough Gill, Oct. 1886 ! W. F. de V. Kane. 

Mayo W.— In ruined cottage, Slievemore, Sept. 1886 (J. G. Milne, J. of Conch., 
Oct. 1891). Ballina, Miss Amy Warren (W. E. Collinge, Lish Nat., May 1896, p. 
144). Type and sub-var. bnumca, Enniscoe Demesne, Crossmolina, Sept. 1885 ! 
W. F. de Vismes Kane. Var. cinereo-fusca, Dugort, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Galway W.— Roundstone, also sub-var. flava, Renvyle and Kylemore, March 
1891, R. F. Scharff. Var. cinereo-fusca an<l sub-var. hrnnnca, Kylemore Castle 
Gardens, Sept. 1904 ! W. Comfort. 

Galway E.— Woodyard, Clonbrock, June 1896, Hon. R. E. Dillon and R. Welch. 

Type and sub-var. auranflwn, common in Clare-Galway Abbey, July 189.5 (R. 

Standen, Irish Nat., Sept. 1895, p. 267). 


Clare- Woodpark, ScariH", Sept. 1904 ! N. F. Hibbert. Cratloe, Sept. 1904 ! 
and var. rinrrco-fiisca, Doonass, Aug. 1904 ! R. A. Phillips. 

Limerick— Castle Connell, July "1904 ! R. A. Phillips. 

Tipperary N.— Shores of Lough Derg, Sept. 1904 ! G. J. Fogerty. 

Tipperary S.— Type and sub-var. aiorintiaca, Melview, Clonmel, Oct. 1904 ! 
Mrs. 5lalcolmson. 

Waterford- Kilmanock, Aug. 1904 ! G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton. Type and var. 
aurantinca, Glenabbey and Mountain road, Clonmel, Sept. 1886 ! Rev. A. H. Delap. 

Cork N.— Var. citicreo-fitsca, north bank of river Lee, Cork, Sep. 1904 ! C. Baker. 

Cork S.— Rare on banks of river Lee, Cork, July 1904, R. Welch. Moderately 
common at Blarney Castle and Bantrv, Sept. 1898, Lionel E. Adams. Sub-vars. 
^agella and phiU'ipsi, Schull, July 1893 (W. E. Collinge, I.e.). 

Kerry- Common, Glengarift'and Kenmare, Sep. 1898, L. E. Adams. Gt. Skellig, 
Rev. A. IL Delap. Type, var. citirrco-fusca, and sub-var. 6>-»»;u'o, Valentia Island, 
Sept. 1904 ! Miss M. J. Delap. Var. succinea. Sheen Wood, and island in Middle 
Cloonee Lake, July 189S (R. Standen, Irish Nat., Sept. 1898). 

This species is sai<l to be found throughout Germany, but is rare in the north ; 
it is often found amongst fungi in the iieathy ])ine forests, and has been definitely 
reported from Alsace, Bremen, Brandenburg, Baden, Bavaria, Cassel, Franconia, 
Hanover, Holstein, Lausitz, Lniraine, Mecklenburg, Nassau, Osnabruck, Pomerania, 
Pyrmont, Swabia, Saxony, Schleswig, Silesia, Westphalia, and Wurtemburg. 

Plate XX. 

Distribution of Anon siib/usctis (Dra[).) 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 


Channel Isles 


1 Cornwall \V. 

2 Cornwall E. 

3 Devon S. 

4 Devon N. 

5 Somerset S. 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts N. 

8 Wilts S. 

9 Dorset 

10 Isle of Wight 

11 Hants S. 

12 Hants N. 
15 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex E. 


15 Kent E. 
IR Kent W. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S. 

19 Essex N. 

20 Herts. 

21 Middlesex 

22 Berks, 

23 Oxford 

24 Bucks. 


25 Suffolk E. 

26 Suffolk W. 

27 Norfolk E. 

28 Norfolk W. 

29 Cambridge 

30 Bedford 

31 Hunts. 

32 Northampton 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Gloucester W. 

35 Monmouth 

36 Hereford 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Stafford 

40 Salop 


41 Glamorgan 

42 Brecon 

43 Kadnor 

44 Carmarthen 

45 Pembroke 

46 Cardigan 


47 Montgomery 

48 Merioneth 

49 Carnarvon 
60 Denbigh 

51 Flint 

52 Anglesey 


53 Lincoln S. 

54 Lincoln N. 

55 Leic. & EutUl. 

56 Notts. 

67 Derby 


68 Cheshire 

59 Lancashire S. 

60 Lan'shire Mid 


61 S.E York 

62 N.E. York 4 

63 S.W. York Jl 

64 Mid W, York* 

66 N.W. York 



67 Northumb, S. 

68 Cheviotland 

and L. Lanes. 

70 Cumberland 

71 Isle of Man 



72 Dumfries 

73 Kirkcudbright 

74 Wigtown 

75 .\\r 

76 Kenfrew 

77 Lanark 

79 Selkirk 

81 Berwick 

82 Haddington 

83 Edinburgh 

84 Linlithgow 

85 Fife & Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 I'th. S. &Clkn. 
Mid Perth 

89 Perth N. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 Aberdeen S. 



113 Deny 

114 Antrim 
116 Down 

116 Armagh 

117 Monaghau 

118 Tyrone 

119 Donegal 

120 Fermanagh 
J21 Cavan 

93 Abfidecn N. 
£4 Banff 
95 Elgin 
SB Easterness 

97 Westerness 

98 Main Argyle 

99 Dumbarton 

100 Clyde Isles 

101 Cantire 

102 Ebudes S. 

103 Eliudes Mid 
1C4 Ebudes N. 


105 Koss \V. 

106 Koss E. 

107 Sutherland E. I 

108 Sutherland W 

109 Caithness 

no Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shetlauds 



Wick low 
tiueen's Co. 
King's Co. 

Mayo E. 
Mayo W. 
Galway W. 
Galway E. 


Tipperary N. 
Tipperary S. 
Cork N. 
Cork S. 

^ t 

Probable Range, 

Recorded Distribution. 

Distribution verified by the Authors. 


Belgium— Recorded fniui 15ral>aiit, Lie^e, Li.ixeiiiUurg, Nainur, etc. 

Arion ■sabfa-scit-s is recordetl from tlie following departments or districts, but is 
said to be most al^uudaut in the southern and central regions : — Aube, Aude, 
Ariege, Basses Pyrenees, Cantal, Champagne Meridionale, C6tes-du-Nord, Cote 
d'Or, F^inistere, Gironde, Hautes Alpes, Haute Garonne, Haute Loire, Hautes 
Pyrenees, Herault, Hle-et-Vilaine, Isere, Landes, Loire Inferieure, Maine et Loire, 
iSiorbihan, Moselle, Nievre, Oise, Pas-de-Calais, Puy-de-Dome, Pyrenees Orientales, 
Savoie, Seine, Seine et Oise, Somme, Tarn, Var, and Vosges. Sub-var. fuscata in 
woods around Paris, department of the Seine. 

This species has been recorded from the cantons of Aargau, Lucerne, Solothurn, 
St. Gall, and the Grisons ; the sub-var. gaudefroyi from St. Gall. 

Aiuon subfiiscus is, according to Pollonera, confined to the hilly regions of the 
north, and the records of this species for Central and Southern Italy are due to 
erroi's of determination. 

Spain — Arion subfuscus is recorded from several places in Catalonia, and from 
Aragoii and Navarra by Fagot. 

Portugal — Avion fuliglneiis is recorded by Morelet from a roadside wall near 
Ponte do Lima in the province of Douro. 

Roumania — Indicated by Simroth as an inhabitant of Roumania. 

Recorded as found in Austria, Bohemia, Carinthia, Carniola, Goritz, Hungary, 
Moravia, Styria, Tyrol, and Transylvania. 


Norway — Found throughout Norway as far north as North Cape, 71^ 8' north 
latitude, and Stangennes at the mouth of the Tana in East Finmarlc. It is common 
on Tromsoen and Ando, and also about Trondjhem, Bergen, and Christiania. 

Sweden — This species is found almost throughout Sweden, and has been noted 
as far north as Ofver-Lulea in Norbotten ; it is also recorded from Jemtland ; about 
Stockholm in Svealand; in (iotliland at Ronneby, Gothenburg, and Christianstadt ; 
near Frollinge in Halland, Balsberg in North Scania, and the Island of Bornholm. 

Denmark — Common in Zealand, and rare in Jutland. It is also rei)orted from 
Iceland and the Faroes. 


Found throughout European Russia, extending eastwardly to the Ural Moun- 
tains about the fi.ith parallel, and also over the Arctic and wooded noithern districts, 
having been found by Wallenberg near the coast on tlie shores of tiie arctic sea in 
Russian Lapland, at (iO" north latitude. It is plentiful about Reval in Esthland ; 
Dorpat in Livlaml ; in Courlaiid ; in the Ukraine; about Moscow; and in many 
localities about Warsaw in Poland. It is met with in the Aland Isles, also 
throughout Finland, the specimens iidiabiting the tract adjoining the Gulf of Fin- 
land having been distinguisheil as var. fouiini, but have been recorded by otheis 
from tlieiice as Arion aier. 

>iuh-va.v. fuscata, according to Kaleniczeiiko, inhaViits shady woods about Nejin 
and Borozda, Tschernigov ; ami moist woods about Izium, Kharkov. 

Siberia — Lender the name of A. hortrnsis, Schrenk describes what is probably 
this species as generally distributed in Amurland ; on tiie Lower Amur, it was 
found in damp deciduous woods near Teut-icha, and at Dshare. It is also probable 
that the Arion collected by Dr. Theel in June and July, 1876, at Mikoulina on the 
Jenissei, are properly referable to Arion subfuscus. 


New York — Arion fuscus, Lloyd's Neck, Long Island (H. Prime, Oct. 1895). 

Massachusetts— .4. fuscus, in yards and gardens, New Bedford ; (J. H. Thomson, 

J. of Conch., Oct. 1885); gardens between Chestnut and Mount Vernon streets, 

above Willow street, and elsewhere in Boston (W. G. Binney, Manual Amer. Land 

Shells, 1885, p. 459). 

New Zealand— ^4 >/"oH fuscus Miill. introduced into New Zealand (Hutton, Trans. 
N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. -ill). 




Arion hortensis Ferussac. 

1819 Arion hortensis Ferussac, Hist. Moll., p. 65, pi. 2, ff. 4, 5. 

1826 — liiiCdfus Risso, Hist. Nat. Enr. Merid., p. 55. 

1855 — (Prolepis) /w^cms Moq.-Taml., Hist. Moll. Fiance, p. 14, pi. 1, tl". 28-30. 

1866 — anthraciu's Bourg., Moll. nouv. lit., etc., p. 178, pi. 29, tl'. 8-10. 

1870 — pelophilus Mabille, Ann. Malac. , p. 117. 

1870 — distinctus Mabille, op. cit. , p. 119. 

1881 — pyrenaicus Fagot, in Gouvdon. Moll. Luchon, p. 82. 

1883 — alpinns Fitz., Syst. Verz. Oesterr. Weichtli. 

1889 — cottianus Pollonera, Contr. 'i^twAw Avion Europ., p. 14, fl". 23, 24. 

1894 — elour/ntus Collinge, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 66, pi. 5a. 

1897 — cwndcus Collinge, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 444, pi. 31, tl". IS, 19. 

1821 Limax suhfusciis Pfeiffer, Syst. Anord., p. 20. 

1868 Prolrpis hortensis M.alni, Limac. Scand., p. 49, ])1. 2, f. 5. 

1873 Kohrlfia hnrfrnsis Seibert, Nachr. Deutscb. Mai. (Jes., p. SI. 

i V I STORY. — Arion hortensis {hor- 
tensis, a garden) wa.s first found 
in this country in 1817, by Dr. Leach, 
who placed specimens in the National 
Collection ; its occurrence was, how- 
ever, not published until 1821, when 
Dr. Gray added the species to the 
British list in the pages of the 
Medical Repository. 

It is probably in part the Limax 
fasciatus of Nilsson, and according to 
Ferussac the vestigial shell is the 
Limacella concava of Brard. 

This species has been separated 
from Arion atcr and .1. snJifuscus by 
Moijuin-Tandon and others, and jilaced 
in a group Prolepis, which is character- 
ized by possessing a more completely 
formed shell than is said to be ])resent 
in the two former species. This 
character is, however, quite illusory, 
'y^ /n /-^Y7 ^ '^^ ^^ ^^'^^ their separation based upon 

*-■ ' L ^^^ ^"^ the modification of the genital atrium, 

^ as proposed by Dr. Simroth. 

This species is associated with Mr. E. J. Lowe, F.R.S., of Shirenewton 
Hall, Chepstow, the famous fern specialist, and author of many esteemed 
works thereon, in acknowledgment of the excellence of his "Conchology of 
Nottingham," published in 1853, and of his exceptioual knowledge of the 
specific characters and habits of our British slugs. 

Diagnosis. — Arion hortensis may be distinguished from Arion ofi^r 
and Arion suh/iiscus by its much smaller size and dilferent shade of 
colouring. From Arion circumscriptns it is separable by its tough, 
leathery integument, its more slender form, orauge foot, black dorsum, 
and the more indistinctly defined black lateral bands, which are also 
less dorsally placed than in that species. 


.ARION HORTEiSrsiS. 211 

As Dr. Scliarff' has pointed out, it can be distinguished from similarly 
sized specimens of Arion ater by its dark colouring, the young of ater 
being usually light coloured, and the wrinkles longer and broader, Avhile 
^•1. intermedius is readily separable by the possession of the peculiar little 
conieally-pointed body wrinkles, which have earned for it the title of the 
"hedgehog snail." 

Internally, this species is distinctly separated from its closest ally, 
^-1. circumscripfus, b)^ the large globular spermatheca, and the extra 
long and almost uniform free-oviduct, a feature which distinguishes it 
also from the other species. 

Description. — Animal of woiiiewliat cylindrifal shape, Imt dorsally depressed, 
about tliiity mill, long when fully extended, of an uniform bluish-grey or slate-grey 
colour, darkest and almost black mid-dorsally, sliading paler towards the foot, with 
a black lateral band, wiiich is most indistinct at its lower margin, and extends the 
whole length of tiie body and siiield ; MODV TUHERCLKS comparatively broad, and 
forming about twenty-four longitmiinal rows at each side; shield comparati\ely 
small and ccjloured like the body, rounded in front and broadly rounded behind, 
linely shagreened, with the lateral banding of the Ijody continued as a somewhat 
lyre-siiaped black banding, which arches? over the res|)iratory orifice; HEAD dark, 
esjjecially in front; NECK pale; OMMATOPHoiiES dark, due in great part to the dusky 
retractors ; sole not visiltjy trii)artite, yellowish or orange ; E(ti»r-Ei;[\(;E similarly 
coloured, witii siigliL tiansverse furrows which are sometimes faintly pigmented. 

Dekmal-MUCUS yellowish or orange coloured ami very visciil, the caudal and 
locomotory mucus colourless, the latter stained by admixture with the yellow 
tegumentary slime. 

The SHELL is (lescril)ed, especially by Italian authors, as well developed and 
solid, but in our British specimens it is usually soft and gelatinous, and only dis- 
tinguishable by its colour, but hardens by exposure; occasionally, however, distinctly 
solid transparent stones may be fouml. 

Inteknallv, the body cavity is of a slaty-blue coh^ur, except above the foot- 
sole, which shows an ochreous tint, minutely spotted with white ; the SUPRA-PEDAL 
GLAND extends half the length of the l)ody during repose, but during active move- 
ment it is only about one-third the total length of the whole body. 

The CEr'HALic RETRACTORS are broader and flatter 
tiian in T/imi.r, but of the usual Arion type. The 
■ri:N'rA(TLAR mustdes spring from widely sei>arated 
])i)ints, and the lower tentacular branch is strongly 
dc\('!o|icd ; the right tentacular muscle arises from 
till- shield at the right margin of the kidney, while 
the left muscle springs from a corresponding point 
on the left margin, their roots being thus separated 
by the whole width of the kidney ; the PHARYNGEAL 
retractor arises from the dorsal skin on or to the right 
of the median line, quite behind the lung, about three Fig. 222.— Cephalic retractors 
mill, posterior to the tentacular muscles, and is cleft °f"-^''"« /'"'■/<•'""■ F^i"-. x 1- 
about midway, for attachment to opposite sides of the buccal b\ilb. 

The ALLMKNTAHY svsTE^r is, as in all its congeners, triodromous, although not 
exhibiting a very pronounced spiral torsion ; the INGESTIVI': TRACT extends posteri- 
orly beyond the succeeding coils, and terminates in the true stomach ; the 
(ESOPHAGUS is fused to the PHARYNX from its origin up to the cerehral 
GANGLIA ; the CROP is voluminous, and pale brown in colour, with the whitish 
SALIVARY GLANDS attached to its sides ; while the left lobe of the DIGESTIVE 
GL.VND is, as is usual, directed l)ack wards. 

The REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS show a roundish or oval OVOTESTIS, with few acini, 
and is often of a dark colour, especially between the lobules, where it is frequently 
of a deep purplish-black ; the DUCT is wliitish or yellowish, long and slender, but 
becoming thicker and somewhat convolute as it approaches the gelatinous and 
greyisii albumen gland ; the OVIDUCT is sacculate and white, closely attached to 
the' SPERM DUCT which on separation forms a short VAS deferens ; the frek 
OVIDUCT is of great length and usually slender, except at the base, it is often, 
before distention, doubled upon itself in an S-like form ; the epiphallus is short 
and conical, white basally, ringed above with dark grey, and merges almost 



iiii])oicei)tilily into the vas defeieiis, it secretes tlie sliurt tliiek si'KiiMATOl'HOKE, 
which has a smooth, thin enveloiie, without the serrateil crest so consjjicuous in 
Arion afcr and A. subfasciis ; llie SPKUMATIIKC'A is i^lolmhir, variahle in colour, and 
attached hy its crown to the base of the ovI.sI'EW.MATodl'CT, tiie stem is short 
and thick ; Al'KlUM with a well-delined ochreous vestil>nhir gland ; the GENITAL 
KETKAfTOi; arises from the dorsum, behind the kidney, hut soon bifurcates, the 
extremities becoming fixed to the stem of the sperniatheca and the ui)j)er third of 
the free oviduct. 

Fig. 223. Fig. 221. Fig. 22.5. 

Fig. 223. — Reproductive organs o{ Arion hortensis V€r., X 2. (Cliri>,tchurch, S. Hants). 

Fig. 221.— Spermatophore of ^W(7« hortensis F6r., Leipzic, greatly enlarged (from an original 
drawing by Dr. Simroth). 

Fig. 225. — .\limentary canal o( Ai-ioii /wrhwisis ¥6r,, X 2. 

of. ovotestis ; h.d. hermaphrodite duct ; /»r. prostate ; 7'.d. vas deferens ; c/. epiphallus ; a.g: 
albumen gland ; oi'. sacculated or glandular oviduct ; s/>. sperniatheca ; 7vi?-. vagina ; at. atrium ; 
zi.£: vestiiiular gland ; ;•.;«. retractor muscles attached to sperniatheca and free oviduct. 

The MAXDri5i,E or jaw is about a mill, broad, and about half-a-mill. wide, with 
narrower but somewhat bluntly rounded ends, strongly 
arcuate from front to liack, of an amber colour, with 
about ten vertical ribs or tiiickenings, ap])arently 
formed by overlappings of the sulistance of the jaw, 
Avhicli crenulale the upper margin and sometimes the 
lower margin also ; the daiker ribs and the clearer 
interstitial spaces show distinct vertical striiv ; at 
about one-thiril of tiie width of the jaw, a dark line 
runs parallel with the cutting margin, showing the ])oint of origin of the elasma, 
wliicli extends on to the roof of the buccal ca\itv. 

Fu;. 22(5. — Mandible or jaw of 
Arion hortensis, X 20. (Christ- 
church, Hants S., Mr. C..\shford). 

The LINGUAL MEMBRANE is about three mill, long and one mill, wide, consti- 
tuted by about 11 tj somewhat curved transverse rows of teeth, which diminish 
regularly in size to the margin of the membrane. Tiie transverse rows are eacli 
composed of a strongly tricuspid meilian tooth, the strong yet somewhat slender 
mesocone, with distinct accessory lateral cutting expansions ; the lateral teeth are 
about ten in number, obscurely tricuspid, but the endoconic cutting jioint is lost, 
tiie mesocone sli(;wing the side expansions ; tiie marginais are unicuspid, siiowing 
the powerful mesocone only, l>ut towards tiie margin an ectoconic cutting point 
again becomes distinctly perceptil>le. wliile tlie few extreme marginals still retain 
tiieir emliiyonic ciiaracter. 




FiG. 227. — Representative denticles from a transverse row of the lingual teeth of.-/, subfuscns, X 180. 
The animal collected by Mr. C. .-Yshford, and the palate prepared by Mr. J. \V. Neville. 

Tiie formula of a Cliristchurch .specimen collected by Mr. C. Ashford is 

7 + 

1 '.) 


2 y 


+ 1% 

+ .'4 + 7 X 116 = 8,408. 


Reproduction and Development — The details of the congvei^s of 
this species have never been recorded, but JVJr. E. J. Lowe, who has fre- 
quently observed the act, describes it as very transitorj^, the actual congress, 
during which the spermatophores are exchanged, only occupying forty or 
fort)^-tive seconds. 

The eggs, which have been so frequently though erroneously described as 
phosphorescent for the first fifteen days after deposition, are subglobular in 
shape and a little over two mill, in length, semiopa(iue or quite translucent 
and of a milky-white colour, which, however, soon changes to a dull yellow. 

They are deposited throughout the milder parts of the year, on the damp 
earth, or beneath stones or other shelter, to the number of seventy or more, 
agglutinated in several clusters by a yellowish mucus, and are said to hatch 
in from twenty to forty days, according to the weather, the young even in 
the earliest stages being said to show the same body markings as the 
adults, and to possess a distinct keel, which is, however, readily overlooked, 
as it is not distinguished by colour, and entirely disappears during growth, 
the animal becoming full-grown and adult towards the end of the first year. 

Food and Habits. — Avion hortenah is essentially a garden species, 
and especially partial to heavy soils, though often found tar from culti- 
vated land, in fields, Avoods, and in damp places beneath logs and stones ; 
it is a rather active, but strictly geo])hilous species, seldom ascending any 
distance up the stems of trees or plants, though both young and adults can 
readily spin mucus threads to facilitate descent from elevated positions. 
It is a most destructive animal, hiding during the day beneath violets, 
strawberries, and other tufted plants, but coming out at dusk to feed, 
continuing its depredations throughout the night, and as it feeds quite 
at the base of the plants, its ravages are only discovered Avhen too 
late : it will Imrrow down to the bulbs of lilies, and feed upon them the 
winter througli, it also eats oft" the bark from chrysanthemum stems, 
devours pansy branches, and the stems of earthed-up celery. In spring- 
it will leave other food to feast upon the fallen petals of the apple and 
plum blossoms, and is if possible more destructive to strawberries than 
even Agrioliina.r ag rest is. 

According to Dr. Scharft", this species probably lives chiefly on decaying 
vegetation, as he has found it most numerous in gardens amongst heaps of 
old weeds. 

In the potato-growing district around Selby, Yorkshire, Arinn liorfeiisis 
connnitted great ravages among the crops during the spring of 1904, by 
feeding upim and honeycombing the "potato-sets," and thus causing 
a very serious blight. 

Mr. (iiain found it a rather sicklj' species in confinement, and not so 
indiscriminate in its choice of food as might have been sujiposed, as out of 
193 dift'erent kinds of foods offered to a colony of the typical form, ninety- 
one were totally rejected, and only twenty-five eaten freely, but not one 
with that avidity which is so characteristic when a really favourite food is 
ofi'ei'ed. Dr. Scharft' remarks that he has never found it on fungi, but in 
confinement Mr. (ji\\\\ observes that it fed readily upon AgttricHs cam- 
jiestfis, /inssi(/(i emetica, and several other species. 

Like Agrioli max ag/rstis and ]\lilax soicerhii, this species is, according 
to Mr. Reynell, strongly attracted by beer, and if this be placed in suit- 
able shallow saucers in accessible positions on the ground, the animals 
will crawl into the li(piid nnd drown. 



Parasites and Enemies. — Probably equally liable with other 
species to destriu'tiou and annoyance by the ordinary enemies and para- 
sites of slug-life ; there is, however, little published evidence on the subject, 
although it has been observed that the Blindworni {AwjiuxfraglUs) which 
greedily devours Agy'ioHmax (((jrc^ti^, would not eat the i)resent species, 
possibly on account of its very leathery skin ;ind sticky mucus. A further 
protective feature was suggested by the late Mr. Sherriff Tye, who remarked 
upon the very remarkable likeness existing between this species and 
portions of the bloom-sheaths of the Black Poplar ( Popn/zis nigra), a pro- 
tective resemblance which is operative at a i)erio(l of the slug's greatest 
activity, and when its natural enemies, the thrushes, having young to 
provide for, are more industrious than usual in searching them out. 

Fossil.— Kennard and Woodward record calcareous })articles, believed 
to be the vestigial shells of this species, from a holocene de})Osit on the 
face of a chalk escarpment at Ivxedown, near Wi-otham, in West Kent, 

Variation. — The variation in this species runs in two chief lines, 
exemplified by the typical form and the large variety suh/ascus. 

Ferussac has remarked on the circumstance that succeeding generations 
do not invariably reproduce the variation prevalent during the preceding 
year, and Dr. Schartt' has observed the same peculiarity in the locality at 
Killakee in the Dublin Mountains, the large Ijrown variety suh/iisca being 
exclusively found there in February, 1891, while in May of the previous 
year, in precisely the same spot all the specimens found were of the grey or 
typical form. In connection with this point, it may be remarked that 
Mr. Gain during his feeding experiments found a constant and marked 
difference as regards food in the likes and dislikes of the ordinary form 
and the var. subfasca. 

Dr. Simroth is of opinion that the light-coloured variations are the effect 
of warmth, while the darker-hued individuals owe their shade of colouring 
to cold ; but this alone does not universally apply. 

The grey variety is, however, found most prevalent in the open country, 
while tlie brown or yellowish variety are more numerous in other localities, 
though in gardens they may frequently be found in the closest association. 

The Arum cotflanm Poll, from 
Piedmont, and Avion elongatas 
Collinge from Somerset, do not 
seem to differ materially from 
the typical form of the present 

Prof. Cockerell, in The Concho- 
logist, 1891, p. 3-4, described an 
immature Arinn, found at Acton, 
Middlesex, which he named var. 
albipes. It was described as a 
form of Avion hovtensis with 
white foot and colourless slime. 

Mr. B. Tomlin, in The Journal 
of Conchology, April 1S87, re- 
cords two albine specimens found 
at Hele, near Ilfracombe, in 
company with albine forms of 
other species, but he does not further allude to or describe them. 

Fig. 228. 

Fig. 229. 

Fig. 228. — Proximal end of the Sexual system of 
Arion /lorteiisi's, enlarged (after Pollonera). 

Fig. 229. — Proximal end of the Sexual system of 
Arion co/tiatiiis, enlarged (after Pollonera). 



Var. fasciata Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. France, 1855, p. 14. 

Arion fuscus \3.x. fasciatus Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Arion fuscus var. pyrena'icus Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Arion fuscus var. niger Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Avion' distinctus Mabille, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1868, p. 137. 

Arion elongatus CoUinge, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1894. p. 66, and pi. OA. 

Arion cottianus Pollonera, Arionida; Europei, 1889, p. 14, ff. 23, 24. 

Animal grey, with darker tlorsuni, and a dark lateral band on each side. Tliis 
form is iisnally regarded <as typical of the species. 

The var. faseiata s.str. is grey with darker dorsnni and black lateral band. 

The sub-var. pyrenaica is dark grey with blackish lateral band. 

The sub-var. nigra is grey with black dorsum and lateral band. The grey is 
the true ground colour, but is almost entirely overspread by a greater development 
of the black pigment. 

The sub-var. distineta is yellowish-grey, with blackish lateral band at each 
side, foot dull-yellow, not lineolated but speckled with yellowish. 

The sub-var. elongata is yellowish-grey, the dorsal area and lateral band being 
black, sole and fringe yellow, the latter lineolate with sepia. 

The sub-var. eottiana as figured is yellowish-grey with darker dorsum, and 
black lateral band. 


Cornwall W.— Sub-var. nigra, Penmon near Falmouth, April 1884 ! H. Fox. 

Somerset — Sub-var. elongata, on a lawn, \yainsgrove, E. W. Swanton (W. E. 
Collinge, op. cit.). 

Hants. S. — Sub-var. eottiana, June 1891, E.W. Swanton (Collinge, Conchologist, 
Dec. 1892, p. 77). 

Kent W. — Common in Dr. Gray's garden, Blaekheath (Gray's Turton's Manual, 
1840, p. 108). Near railway .station, Chislehurst, Sept. 1884 ! t. D. A. Cockerel!. 

Notts. — Sub-var. nigra, not rare about Tuxford (Gain, Drit. Nat., Nov. 189.S). 

Lancashire S. — Sub-var. nigra. Hough Green near Widnes, March 1884 ! H. L. 

York N.E.— Thornaby (B. Hudson, Journ. of Coiudi., April 1886). 

York S.W. — Lofthouse, April 1886 ! G. Koberts. Sub-var. nigra, Wakefield, 
1886, J. Wilcock. 

Durham— Durham, May 1887 ! H. E. Fox. 


Antrim — Sub-var. nigra, wood near Ballycastle, May 1897 (L. E. Adams, Irish 
Nat., July 1897). 

Down— Cultra, Dec. 1891, R. F. Scharff. 

Dublin- Killakee, Dublin Mountains, May 1890, K. F. Scharff. 

Westmeath — Sub-var. nigra, the prevalent form at Clonmacnois, July 1895 
(R. Standen, Nat., Sept. 189.5). 

Tipperary S. — Var. fasciata, Clonmel, Dec. 1885, Rev. A. H. Delap. 


Germany— Sub-var. distineta, Neu Brisach, Alsace (Meyer, Nachr., Sept. 1876). 

Belgium— Var. y'rtAc/ft^f/, Lokeren, East Flanders. 

France — Var. fasciata, common Jit Crochere, Cote d'Or ; sub-var. pyrenaica is 
found aViove Luchon, Haute Garonne; sub-var. nigra, common at Bury, Oise ; 
Amiens in the Somme ; Fas de Calais ; Haute Loire ; and Paris, Seine ; sub-var. 
distineta, under stones about Sevres, department of the Seine. 

Italy— Var. fasciata, Rivarossa, Canavese ; and sub-var. cottia7ia, Bardonecchia, 
Valley of Dora Riparia, Piedmont. 

Spain — Var. fasciata and sub-var. nigra, Galicia. Sub-var. pyrenaica, near 
Monastery, Montserrat, Catalonia. 

Var. limbata Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. France, 1855, p. 14. 

Arion /uscus var. limhatus Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 

Arion anthracius Bourguignat, Moll. nouv. lit., etc., 1866, p. 178, pi. 29, ff. 8-10. 

A>ion pelophilus Mabille, Ann. Malac, 1870, p. 117. 

The var. limbata s.str. is black or blackish, foot-fringe orange or yellowish. 

The sub-var. anthraeia Bourguignat is uniformly black with paler foot-fringe. 

The sub-var. pelophila Mabille is black with scarcely visible lateral bands, foot- 
fringe rufous. 


Belgium— Road-sides, Ixelles, Brussels (Colbeau, Mem. Soc. Mai. Belg., 1865, 
i., p. 47). Sub-var. ji>e/o/v/u7o, Belgium. 


France— Var. liinhata is reported l>y llandon from gardens in tlie Oise ; l)y 
Millet from Maiiie-et-Loire : ))y Pascal from the Hante Loire, and environs of I'aris 
in the departmeiit Seine; and hy Vaniot from the sontli of Amiens in the Somme : 
snb-var. unthracia from Eaux Bonnes in Basses Pyrenees ; and sub- var. peloiiJiUii 
is recorded from the north of France and Arciieil in tlie environs of Paris. 

Spain — Var. Vnnhata, (ialicia (Macho t. Hidalgo). 

Var. gfrisea IMoquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. France, ISoa, p. 14. 

Avion fiiscits var. griseus Moiiuin-Tandou, op. cit. 

Arion fiiscus var. nemoralis Uum. & Mort., Moll. Savoie, p. 8. 

Anim.VL pale grey, more or less unicolorons, and without lateral bands, foot-sole 

The sub-var. nemoraliS is pale, the sides scarcely tinted, and the shield often 
palest towards the centre. 


Wilts. N. — Abundant about Marlborough, E. Meyrick. 

Kent W.— Chislehurst, Sept. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Middlesex — Among garden refuse, Bedford Park, Ciiiswick, Dec. 188-1: 1 T. D. A. 

Norfolk E.— Heigham, May 1891 ! A. May field. 

Warwick — Ingon Grange, Stratford-on-Avou, Sept. 1884 ! K. J. Attye. 

York N.E.— Battersby, Great Avton, Dec. 1884 ! Baker Hudson. Thornaby 
(id., J. of Cmich., April 1886, p. 48K 

York S.W. — Campsall Woods, May 188(j ! W. Denison Koebuck. Penistone, 
July 1890 ! Lionel E. Adams. 


Antrim— A pale yellowish-grey sub-variety at Cushendun, May 1886 ! Rev. S. A. 

Louth — A pale form of var. (jrlsra, Drogheda, Oct. 1904 I P. H. (Irierson. 

Leitrim — A pale form of var. gri.sfd, Mohill, July 1904 1 P. H. (irierson. 


Belgium — Common at Roumont, Luxemburg. 

France — Recorded as common at Ch.atillon-sur-Seine, Cote d'Or ; common in 
fields, etc., when not elevated, in the Ain ; about Lyons in the Rhone ; in the Pas 
de Calais ; Maine et Loire ; the Haute I.iOire and about Paris in the department 
of the Seine ; sub-var. ncmuralis in Savoy. 

Spain— Galicia (Macho t. Hidalgo). 

Vav. coerulea Collinge, Pioo. Zuol. Soc, 1897, p. 444, pi. 31, tf. IS, ID. 

Linia.x fasciaius \ar. 5 Nilssoii, Moll. Sveci^e, 1822, p. 4. 
Arion civii/eiis Collinge, op. cit. 

Animal de-scribed as blue or greyish-blue with dark-blue lateral bands, ami pale 
yellow between the bands and the foot-fringe, sole white or pale-yellow, with red or 
yellowish slime, fringe white without lineoles. 

This form was originally described as a variety, but was afterwards raised to 
specific rank by its author. 1 1 is perhaps the same as Nilsson's Limaxfasciatus var 5. 

Middlesex— Garden, Ealing, B. B. Woodward (Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 1895). 
Berks— (W. E. Collinge, Conchologist, 1892, p. 26). 

Oxford— Near Oxford, 1890 (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 189.5, p. 7H). 
Lancashire S. — Knowsley near Liverpool, 1893 (Collinge, J. of Mai., June 189.S). 

Dublin— (W. E. Collinge, Conchologist, 1892, p. 2(i). 

Sweden — L. fasclafns var. 5, Lund (Nilsson, Hist. Moll. Svecia', 1822, p. 4). 

Vav. lutea Baudoii, i\Iein. Limac. Oise, 1871, j). 6. 

Arion hortcnsis var. iuteiis Baiidon, op. cit. 

Arion hortensis var. aureus Lessona, .'\rion. Piem., 1881, p. 10, f. 3. 

Ani.mal ahnost uniformly yellow, lateral bands faint. 

The var. lutea s.str. is pale yellow, slightly tinged with greenish, greyish 
dorsally, with imlistinct lateral l)anding. 

The sub-var. aurea is yellow, pale on the Hanks, the shield, caudal end of tlie 
liody, the sole, and foot-fiinge golden-yellow. I'ossibly this foim is refeiable 
to Arion intermedins. 


Mid W. York Tool Bridge, April 1887 ! W. K. Skipwith. 


Renfrew -A var. jiacu is lec-onletl by Binnie for Lower ClyJesclale, which may 
be tliis, or ])ossilily intended to apjjly to Avion intfrijiedhis. 

France- Var. lufea, margins of woods, department of the Oise ; rather common 
in wood at Fiagey, Cote d'Or. 

Italy — Siib-var. mirea, Rivarossa Canavese, Piedmont. 

Var. virescens Moqnin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. France, 1855, p. 14. 

Ayion fuscus var. virescens Moquin-Tandon, op. cit. 
Animal greenisli with bhick bands. 

France — Pas de Calais ; and Lyons in department of the Rhone. 

Var. subfusca C. Pfeifter, Deutsch. Moll., 1821, i., p. 20. 

Litnax subfuscns C. Pfeififer, op. cit. 

Avion fuscus var. sul>/uscus Moquin-Tandon, Hist. Moll. F'rance, 1855, p. 14. 

Arion hortensis var. /aiiax Cockerel!, Garner, 1886, p. 139. 

Animal brownish, Avith a black band on each side. 

The sub- var. fallax is described as grey, with black lateral band, Imt as so densely 
invested with orange slime eas to appear of an orange-yellow. The author of the 
variety is now of opinion that it cannot be separated from the var. subfusca. 


Wilts S.— Garden, Steeple Ashton Vicarage, Mch. 1S87 ! Rev. E. P. Knubley. 

Hants. N.— Preston Candover, Oct. 1884 ! Rev. H. P. Fitzgerald. 

Kent W.— St. xMary Cray, Sept. 1884 ! S. C. Cockerel!. 

Surrey — Hcaslemere, Aug. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. Sub-var. f<illa.r, common 
on l)eech trees, Headlev lane (T. D. A. Cockerel!, Conchologist, Sept. 1891). 

Essex S.— Woodford, May 1889 ! H. Waliis Kew. 

Middlesex— Bedford Park," Cliiswick, Dec. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Bedford— A hill west of Luton, Nov. 1886 ! J. Saunders. 

Northampton — Yardley Chase, Oct. 1898, Lionel E. Adams. 

Warwick — Ingon (Jrange, Stratford-on-Avon, Sept. 1884 ! R. J. Attye. 

Stafford— Rowley Park, Stafford, May 1884 ! E. H. Wynne. Garden, Hands- 
worth, June 1886 ! G. Sherriff Tye. 

Glamorgan — Banks of river Ely, St. Pagan's, March 1885 ! F. W. Wotton. 

Pembroke — Near Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. 

Cardigan — Aberystwyth, May 1888 ! E. Collier. Miss Maddv's garden, Aher- 
ayron, June 1888 ! W. Whitwell. 

Montgomery — Banks of Welshpool Reservoir ! also under timber in an ()[)en held 
by the river Severn, Jan. 1888 ! J. Bickerton ^Morgan. 

Merioneth — Hills aljove Barmouth, Aug. 1884 1 John Hojjkin^^on. 

Lincoln N.— Slootliby, Aug. 1886 ! J. E. Mason. Well Vale, Sept. 1889 ! 
W. Denison Roebuck. 

Notts. — Felley Abbey, Sept. 1884 ! common, Work.soj) I Cleveland Hill, West 
iSIarkham ! Pleasley Vale ! ami Cresswell Crags, April 1884 I C. T. Musson. 
Tuxford, April 1885 ! W. A. Gain. 

Cheshire— Boliington, May 1885 ! J. G. xMilne. 

York S.E. — Millington village near Pocklington, April 1885 ! W. Denison 
Roebuck. Eccleshall, Oct. 189-2 ! C. Oldham. 

York N.E.— Wilton Wood, and Skelton Beck Valley, Saltburn, May 1887 ! 
W. Denison Roebuck. 

York S.W.— Garden, Holmlirth, Jan. 1885 I W. Denison Roebuck. Sul^var. 
falla.c, Loltliouse, G. Roberts t. T. D. A. Cockerell. 

York N.W. — Bowes and Greta Bridge, July 1884 ! W. Denison Roeltuck. 

Cheviotland— Under stones, Tweedniouth (Rev. J. McMurtrie, J. of Condi., 

July 1889). 


Edinburgh — Duddingston Loch, Edinburgh, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 
Dreghorn Woods near Colinton, Sept. 1889 ! W. Evans. 

Stirling — Falls of Inversnaid, Aug. 1884 ! Baker Hud.son. 

Ebudes N. — Dunvegan, Isle of Skye, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Ross W.— Gairloch, Nov. 1886 ! Rev. J. E. Somerville. 

Sutherland E.— Golspie Burn, May 1885 ! W. Baillie. 

Caithness— Dunbeath river. May 1884 ! W. Baillie. 


Antrim — Murlougli, witli type, May 1897, Lionel E. Adams. 

Donegal— Carral)lag!i, Croag!iross,'Letterkenny, May 1889 ! H. C. Hart. 



Dublin— Cf.avden, Leeson Park, Dublin, Sept. 1890; and Killakee, Dublin Moun- 
tains, Feb. 1891, R. ¥. Scliaiff. 

Sligo— jNIoyview, Ballina, April 1889 ! Miss Amy Warren. 

Galway W. — Roundstone and Aran Island, Sept. 1891, R. F. Schartf. Kylemore 
Castle Cardens, Sept. 1904 ! W. Comfort. 

Tipperary S. — iin^i-vaY. fnUrt.r, Clonmel, Rev. A. H. Delap t. T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Germany — In beecii wooils on the road to Spickershausen, Cassel (C. PfeitFer, 
op. cit.). 

France — In the departments of Pas de Calais, Haute Loire, and Seine. 
Spain — Galicia (Macho t. Hidalyo). 

Var. rufescens Moqaiu-Tandou, I list. Moll. France, 18o5, p. 14. 

Animal reddish with black lateral bands. 

Middlesex— Bedford Park, Chiswick, Dec. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Oxford — Banbury and Bicester (\V. E. Colliii.ue, Concliologist, 1891, ]>. V.\). 
Worcester— Gan'len, Stour|iort, July 1888 (Williams, J. of Conch., July 1889). 
Pembroke— Not uncommon alxtut Tenby (Stubbs, J. of Conch., July 1900). 
Cardigan— Aberystwyth (E. Collier, J. of Conch., Oct. 1888). 
York N.E.— Near MuIdlesbrou<,di (B. Hudson, J. of Conch., April 1886). 
York N.W.— Ripon, May 1883 ! A. E. Ebdell. 

Caithness — Dunbeath river. May 1884 1 W. Baillie. 

Fermanag-h — Castle Coole, Enniskillen, Sept. 1899, Hon. C. L. Cony. 
Galway E.— Woodyard, Clonbrock, Sept. 1904, Hon. R. E. Dillon. 

Belgium — Trooz near Liege (Colbean, Mem. Soc. Mai. Belg., 186.5, p. 83). 
France — Lyons (Pollonera, Arionidse Reg. Palearct. , 1890, p. '20). 
Spain — Galicia (Macho t. Hidalgo). 

Geographical Distribution 


Avion hortensis Ferussac. 

Recorded Distribution 

»^il Probable Range, 


Fig. 230. 


Geographical Distribution. — . 1 . hortensis being the most advanced 
and most recently evolved species of its special section, has not yet attained 
a wide dispersal, being confined naturally to Central Europe, where it 
abounds more especially on cultivated lands. From its close association 
with cultivation it is liable to be transported to other regions, where its 
higli and plastic organization almost ensure its dominancy. . 

It is found throughout the British Isles, chiefly congregating in gardens 
and on tilled ground, but is also found on wooded and waste lands far from 

The recorded continental distribution is not reliable, as this species has 
doubtless fre(piently been confounded with Arion circumscripti/s, a closely- 
allied but more ancient and widely-dispersed species, from which it has 
only in recent years been authoritatively and satisfactorily distinguished. 

Channel Isles — Common under stones in (iuernsey, Sark, and Ilerm (("ooke and 
Gwatkin, (.^)nart. Journ. of Condi., 1878, p. 8-2-i). Ennmerate<l for Jersey liy Lnkis 
(Ansted'.s Channel Isles, 186'2). St. Sampson "s, Guern.sey, Sept. KS!)1 ! U! Tomlin. 


Cornwall W. — Stenalee, St. Austell, Sept. 1904 ! C. P. liicliard.s. Common in 
gardens, Truro, April 1886 ! ami plentiful, Newquay, Sept. 188(), .J. H. James. 
St. Ives, Sept. 188.) ! J. E. Mason. Sub-var. nhira, Tenmon, Falmouth, April 
1884 ! H. Fox. 

Devon S. — Teif>nniouth, Oct. 1888 ! Loftus St. (i. l>yne. (harden, Topshani. ajul 
at Cnlverlnde Point, Aug. 1892, Lionel F. Adams. 

Devon N. — Xortham, Nov. 188.") ! W. A. (iain. Ahundaiit at IlfiaeomUe. Mdi. 
1887 (B. Tomlin, J. of Concli., A]>ril 1887). Belstone, Okehampton, Sept. 1904! 
;Miss Daisy Mason. 

Somerset S. — Near INnlock, Any. 1892 ! Lionel E. Adams. 

Somerset N. — Common in gardens, hedgebanks, and helds (Kev. A. M. Norman, 
Inland Moll. Somerset, 1860). Bath, June 1884 ! C. J. AVaterfalk Sub-var. clovgaiu, 
Wainsgrove, E. \Y. Swanton [V\ . E. Collinge, J. of Mai., June 1894). 


Wilts. N.— Clyffe Pybard, Swindon, Aug. 1904 ! Kev. E. H. Goddard. Type aiul 
var. (jrisra, abundant about Marlborough, E. Meyrick. 

Wilts. S. — Longleat gardens, Warminster, Sept. 1904 ! J. A. Singer. Type and 
var. ■su/)fii.sra, garden, Steeple Asbton Vicarage, March 1887 ! Rev. E. P. Knubley. 
Garden, Dunollie Bourne aveiuie, Salisbury, Sept. 1904 ! A. R. D. Bacchus. 

Dorset — Purbeck and about Blandford, probably generally distributed (J. C. 
INIansel-Pleydell, Moll. Dorset, 1873, p. 110). Isle of Portlaiid, Aug. 1892, L. E. 
Adams. Montevideo, Chickerell near Weymouth, Sep. 1904 ! Nelson M. Kicliardson. 

Isle of Wight — Enumerated as found in a wood at Bembridge, and as common 
about Yentnor (Venables' Guide to Isle of Wight, IbilO). Hempstead Hill near 
Yaimouth, 1880! Charles Ashford. 

Hants. S. — Mudeford and Clinton, also common and very large in garden at 
Christchurch, Oct. 1884 ! C. Ashford. Portsdown Hill, May 188.") ! "\Y. Jefleiy. 
Roadsides, Binstead, A. Reynell. Suli-var. coffiaiia, Southampton, E. W. Swanton 
(W. F. Collinge, J. of Mal.i Dec. 1892). 

Hants. N. — Type and var. subfusca, Preston Candover, Oct. 1884 ! Rev. H. P. 

Sussex W. — Too common in gardens and fields. Up Park. Aug. 1886 ! Cocking 
near Midhurst, Sept. 1886 ! and garden, Ratham, Nov. 1886 ! W. Jefiery. 

Sussex E. — Common in the Ouse, Cuckmere and East Rotlier districts (J. H. A. 
Jenner, Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Soc. Report, 1880). Gardens, etc., everywhere com- 
mon, Lewes, Blatchington, Eastbourne, Hastings. Battle, etc. (id., Sussex list, 1885, 
p. 6). Gardens, Queen's road, Brighton, Oct. 1908 ! F. G. S. BrauMell. In chalk- 
pit on coast near Eastbourne, Sept. 1904 ! R. A. Adkin. 


Kent E. — Folkestone, Oct. 1886 ! Charles Oldham. Rijiple Yale near Dover, 
Sei)t. 1904 ! Mrs. G. Harrison. 

Kent W. — Not so common as Arion ater showt Sevenoaks (R. H. S. Smith, Zool., 
1854, p. 4833). Darlford (H. C. Leslie, Q.J.C., 1874, p. 34). Hever, Edenbridge, 
Feb. 1898! A. Leicester. TyjJC and var. siibfi(.<.(fi, St. Mary Cray, Sept. 1884! 
S. C. Cockerell. Yars. Jasiiata and grisia, Chislehurst, Sept. 1884 ! T. D. A. 
Cockerel!. Y'ar. fasciata, garden, Blackheath (Gray's Turton's Manual, 1840, p. 108). 


Surrey — Common, Rei<;ate (Saunders, Rei<;ate list, 1861). CoTiliam, Dr. Leacli 
(Gray's Turton's INlannal, 1840, p. 107). Croyilon (K. McKeans Croydon list, 1883, 
p. 151). Near Warlingliam, 'Tuiy 1883; amongst grass, by riverside, Kew, Dec. 
1884 ! and garden, Syon Lodge, Islewortii, Fel). 1887 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. Holni- 
tield. Wimbledon, July 1904 ! Miss Annie Rook. Common in garden, South Nor- 
woixl and Walliiigton, A. Reynell. Addington and TatsHeld (C. Pannell. jr., J. of 
Coiicli., dulj' 1903). Var. snhfusca, Ha.slemere, Aug. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell; and 
sub-var. /(■(//(/.'•, Headley lane (id., Conclioiogist, Sept. 1891). 

Essex S. — Var. .snhfusca, Woodford, May 1889 ! H. Wallis Kew. 

Essex N.— Common everywhere (H. Laver, C(dcliester list, 1882). Manning- 
tree, Sept. 1904 ! Rev. Proctor Ren well. 

Herts. — Banks of river (Jade, Cassiobury Park, Sept. 1883 I garden, Watford, 
Oct. 1883 I and St. AUians. July 1884 ! John Hopkinson. Ware, Sept. 1886 ! Charles 
Oldham. Hitchin, March 1880, Charles Ashford. 

Middlesex— Common, r>rentford, Nov. 1883 ! Mrs. Skilton. Rush Hill Park, 
May 1887 ! C. Ashford. Churchyard Bottom wood, Highgate, April 1889 ' and foot 
of garden walls, Hampstead lane, Dec. 1888 ! H. Wallis Kew. Hendon, Hampstead 
Heath, and Kensal (Ireen, July 1883; Acton, Aug. 1884 ! type and vjirs. sxh/ii.'ini, 
rufesreiif;, and (ji-isra, Bedford Park, Chiswick, Dec. 1884 ! T. 1). A. Cockerell. Var. 
ccerulcfi, Ealing (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., Dec. 189.'i). 

Berks.— Whvtham Hill, March 1882 I Rev. S Spencer Pearce. l>ra(Uield near 
Reading, Sept. 1904 ! Rev. E. Peake. Var. aerulea (Collinge, Conch., 1892, p. 73). 

Oxford — Common throughout the county. Rare in woods, Watlington (Rev. A. M. 
Norman, Zool., 18.'')3, p. 4127). Banbury (R. Stretch, Zool., 18.>.5, p. 4.")41). Abun- 
dant in gardens, Coml)e near Woodstock, July 1904 1 Kev. S. Spencer Pearce. Var. 
rufescens, at Banbury and Bicester (Collinge, Conch., March 1891, p. 13). Var. 
ccerulca, near O.xford, 1890 (id., J. of Mai., Dec. 189.5). 

Bucks.— Abundant. Chersley, Aug. 1883 ! Rev. H. H. Slater. Castlethorpe, 

May 18So ! W. D. Crick. AbuiKlaut l>y roa<l-sides, Olney churchyard, March 1893 ! 

Lionel E. Adams. 


Suffolk E.— Common under logs, etc., in plantation, Blaxhall, May 1888 ! (i. T. 
Rope. Lowestoft, Mendlesham ! Wickham Skeith, Brockford, and Needhani 
Market (.MayMeld, J. of Conch., April 1903). Common between Ipswich and Sa.\- 
mundham, Aug. 1890, Lionel E. Adams. 

Suffolk W.— Farnham St. Martin near Bury St. Edmund.s, Oct. 1883 ! W. U. 

Norfolk E. — Whitlingham wood (J. B. Bridgman, Norfolk and Norwich Trans., 
1872, p. 49). Norwich, Long Stratton, and Diss, Aug. 1890, Liimel E. Adams. 
(Janlens, woods, and waste places under stones, logs, etc., Whitlingham, Yelverton, 
Framingham Earl, Earlhani, and St. Faith's (Pearce ami Maytield, .1. of Cojich., 
July 1904). Gardens, Strumpshaw Hall, July 1904 ! W. J. 0."Holme.s. Type and 
var. f/risrii, Heighani, May 1891 ! A. .Maylield. 

Norfolk W.— Thetford, Aug. 1890, L. E. .Vdams. King's Lynn, Sept. 1904 ! 
C. P.. Plowright. (hardens, Didlington Hall, Sei)t. I9(i4 ! Hon. Mrs. Evelyn Cecil. 

Cambridge— (Trantchester, Sept. 1904 ! Hugh Watson. 

Bedford- Limbury near Luton, Aug. 1904 ! Mrs. l>lundcll. (Jeneral Cemetery, 
iiUlon, April 1889 ! also type and var. snh/Hsca, hedgebanks, Luton, Nov. 1886 ! 
J. Saunders. 

Huntingdon— Garden, Huntingdon, Sei)t. 1904 1 Miss E. M. Foster. 

Northampton — Common about Peterborough and Fletton, Aug. 1883, A. W. 
NichoUs. Ccmimon in gardens and in woods, Northam|iton, Sei>t. 1884 1 W. D. 
Crick. Haselbeech, Sept. 1904 ! Kev. W. A. Shaw. Castle Ashl)y, April 1893 1 
and var. siibfusca, Yardley Chase. Oct. 1893, Lionel E. Adams. 


Gloucester E. — ^Very common in damp situations (Webster, Nat., 18.')4, p. 17.")). 
.\bout Stroud, ^Lirch 1884 ! E. J. Elliott. Common, Leckhampton, Aug. 1892 ! 
Litmel E. Adams. 

Gloucester W. — Too common in gardens, Bristol (E. C. .Jellie, Nat., Feb. 18(57) 
Stroud, Oct. 1883! and numerous in the Forest of Dean, March 1884 ! E. J. Elliott. 

Monmouth— Wyedale near Tintern, July 1883, C. T. Musson. Gardens, Shire- 
newton Hull, near Chei>stow, Jtine 1886 ! E. J. Lowe. 

Hereford— Whitney-onthe Wye, July 1883, C. T. Musson. Garden, Bishopswood 
Vicarage, Ai>ril ISS.') \ Rev. P. VV. J. Smart. Kington, Nov. 1903 ! L. McKaig. 
(Jardeir, Acacia Villa, Boss, Sept. 1904 ! W. I'dake. Common in garden, Broomy 
Hill, Hereford, Sept. 1904 ! ^^ss M. A. Boycott. 

A1!I<)N IKmTENSIS. 221 

Worcester— Hcav Mills near Biniiinghaiii, 1868 ! W. Nelson. Not uncommon at 
Malvern (Grittitlis' Malvern list, 1870, p. 1.38). Selly Oak, Feb. 1802, L. E. Adams. 
Type and var. nifcsccns, Stourport, July 1888 (Williams, J. of Cont-li., July 1889). 

Warwick— Soliliull, Feb. 1803, Lionel E. Adams. Sutton Coldtield, 1897, Albert 
Wood, (harden, Bradford street, Birmingluim, Sep. 1004 ! J. Madison. Vars. gri-sca 
and SKhfitsra, Ingon Grange, Stratford-on-Avon, Sept. 1884 ! R. J. Attye. 

Stafford— Common (Garner's Nat. Hist. Staffs., 1844, p. 301). Common about 
Stafford, June 1885, and near the castle, Sept. 1885, Lionel E. Adams. Plentiful in 
garden, Clieadle, Apr. 1886 ! F. B. Webb. Cauldon, Aug. 1888 ! J. R. B. MaseHeld. 
Common in gardens, Hamstead (G. Sherriff Tye, Q. J. of Conch., May 1875, p. 68). 
Type and var. subfusca, common in garden, Handsworth, April 1886! id. Type and 
var. subfusca, Rowley Park, Stafford, ]\Lay 1884 ! E. H. Wynne. 

Salop — St. Oswald's Well, Oswestry, June 1885 ! Baker Hudson. 


Glamorgfan— Common about Swansea, H. Rowland Wakefield. Cardiff, (!)ct. 
1885 : and var. subfusca, St. Fagan's, March 1885 ! F. W. W^otton. 

Radnor — Bont House, Penybont, Nov. 1903 ! F. Hall. Erwood, Aug. 1004 '. 
J. Williams Vauglian. 

Carmarthen — Llanelly, Sept. 1004 ! an<l Kidwelly, Dec. 1003, Re\i. LI. Davies. 
(Jolden (irove, Sept. 1904 I Lady Lyons. 

Pembroke — Haverfordwest, Sept. 19U4 ! Price Davies. Tyjie and \ai-. .su.Ofusra, 
Pembroke, June 1885 ! Mrs. Trayler. Type, abundant, North Cliff, Tenby ; var. 
rufcsceiis, not uncommon, A. <!. Stublis. 

Cardigan— Type and vars. subfusca and ru/csccus, Aberystwyth, May 1888 ! 
E. Collier. Type and var. subfusca, garden, Aberayron, June 1888 ! W. Whitwell. 


Montgomery — Powell's F'ord, Welshpool (J. Bickerton Morgan, Montgom. list, 
1888, p. 232). Var. subfusca, banks of Welshpool Reservoir ! also under timber in 
an open field by the river Severn, Jan. 1888 ! J. Bickerton Morgan. 

Merioneth — Nant-y-Mor, June 1901 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Type and var. 
subfusca, hills above Barmouth, Aug. 1884 ! J. Hopkinson. 

Carnarvon — Beddgelert I Dinas ! and Conway Castle, July 1883 ! W. D. Roebuck. 

Denbigh — (iloddaeth Woods ! Llandrillo yn Rhos ! and Bod&callan Woods, July 

1883 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Flint — Mostyn Marsh, July 1883 1 W. Denison Roebuck. Grange road, Rhyl, 
July 1904 ! Rev. A. Steele Perkins. 

Anglesey — Common on the island, Aug. 1883 ! J. Hopkinson. 


Lincoln S. — Ermine street near Ancaster, April 1886 ! and P'rampton Fen near 
Boston, Sept. 1880! W. Denison Roebuck. Old quarry, (ireat Ponton, Aug. 1902 ! 
Pi. Worsdale. Carebv Wood, June 1903 ! H. W. Kirkby. 

Lincoln N.— Totliill, May 1888 ! Miss Susan Allott. " Redbourn, Feb. 19(»3 ! and 
Claxby, April 1903 ! Rev. E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock. Haugham Wood ! Burwell 
Wood ! Ailby, April 1S86 ! and Navenby, Dec. 1901 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Bilsby 
near Alford, May 1886 ! Greenfield Wood, June 1887 ! and Ulceby-with-Fordington, 
Oct. 1889 ! also tyjie and var. subfusca, Sloothby, Aug. 1886 ! J. E. Mason. Type 
and var. subfusca. Well Vale near Alford, Sept. 1889 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Leicester and Rutland — Very common in gardens in Leicester and Aylestone 
(H. E. Qnilter, Moll. Leic, 1888, p. 8). _ Groby, May 1885 ! H. E. Quilter. 

Notts. — Common, Beeston, and Highfield House, Nottingham, E. J. Lowe. 
Castle Rock, Nottingham, Sept. 1884 ! Annesley churchyard, Sept. 1884 ! Newark, 
Oct. 1884 ! Houghton, April 1885 ! and Colwell, Aug. 1885 ! C. T. Musson. Felley 
Abbey, June 1888 ! Hunger Hill and Corporation (hardens, Nottingham, June 

1888 ! G. W. Mellors. Southwell, Sept. 1892 ! C. Oldham. Type and xm-a. fascia ta, 
subfusca, and subvar. nigra, Tuxford, April 1885 ! W. A. (4ain. Var. subfusca, 
Felley Abbey, Sept. 1884 ! Worksop ! Cleveland Hill, West Markham ! Pleasley 
Vale ! and Cresswell Crags, April 1884 ! C. T. Musson. 

Derby— Common in the county (H. Milnes, Midi. Nat , May 1882). Markland 
Grip, April 1884 ! C. T. Musson. Miller's Dale and Monsal" Dale, Aug. 1885 ! 
C. Oldham. Common about Hathersage, Ashbourne, Bakeweli, and Clifton, Aug. 

1889 ! Lionel E. Adams. 


Cheshire— Garden, Sale, May 1884 ! and Baguley Hall, Sept. 1892 ! C. Oldham. 

Garden, Liverpool road, Chester, Oct. 1887 ! Brockton Tomlin. Marple, May 1891 ! 

L. St. G Byne. Gardens about Upton (Higgins, Liverpool list, 1891, p. 23). Garden, 

Oxton, Birkenhead, July 1904 ! Ashley, Hale, and Ringway near Bowdon, Dec. 

1884 ! and Mere Park near Knutsford, Oct. 1885 ! also type and var. subfusca, 
Bollington, May 1885 ! J. (i. Milne. 


Lancashire S. -Gardens, Diilsbnry, Cliorlton-cum-Hardy, etc. (J. Hardy, ^^an- 
cliester list, 1S6.J, ji. 34). Frequent and of large size in gardens at (Jreenlieys, K. D. 
Darbishire, 18S.5. Common under stones, Manchester, 1880, Lionel E. Adams. 
Between Liverpool and Warrington, Sept. 188.5, T. D. A. Cockeiell. Wlialley, Aug. 
1885 ! W. Denison Fioel>uck. Farington, Oct. 1889 ! \V. H. Heathcote. Garden, 
Glen Esk, Wlialley Range, Oct. 1904, K. ^Velcll. Var. rwrulea, Knowaley (W. E. 
Collinge, J. of Mai., March 1893). Type and sub-var. nigra. Hough Green near 
Widnes, March 18S4 ! H. I.. Edwards. 

Lancashire Mid — Abundant at Fulwood, Feb. 1889 ! and in garden, Frenchwood 
street, Preston, June 1890 1 W. H. Heathcote. Common at Fleetwood, Sept. 1891, 
Lionel E. Adams. 


York S.E.— Kiln.sea, March 1884 ! W. Eagle Clarke. All along the coast from 
Hull northwards, Sept. 1891. L. E. Adams. Malton. Sept. 1880 ; abundant. Beverley, 
Kiidwick Percy, and on canal l>anks, Driffield, J. I). T'utterell. Common at Hornsea 
(id., J. of Conch., 1881, p. 1.36). Slediiiere, Aug. 1891 ! F. W. Fierke. IJrough, May 
1901 I J. E. Crowthei'. North tJrimston and Drewton, T. Fetch. Speeton, May 
1883 ! Filey, Danes Dyke, and Flamliorough, May 1886 ! also var. suhfusca, 
Millington near Pocklington, April 188,5 I \V. Denison Roebuck. Var. suhfusca, 
Ecclesliall, Oct. 1892 ! C. Oldham. 

York N.E.— In Swaledale it has been recorded as living on moist heilgebanks, 
Griz/.letiehl. and in the Hcdmes, Tliirsk (J. H. Davies, Nat., 18,5.5, p. l.'U). Common 
about Pilmoor .Innction, Oct. 1S82 ! W. Denison Roebuck. (Jarden, Pickhill 
A'icarage, April 1888 ! Rev. E. P. Knubley. 

In \'ale of Derwent : Scarborough, C. Ashford. ].,owdales near Hackness, .Julv 
1882 ! l''arwath Bridge, Newtondale, Aug. 1886 ! Helmsley, July 1884 ! Beedale, 
June 1901 ! and Harwoodale, May 1904 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Abundant under 
logs about York, R. M. Christy. 

In Tee.sdale : Redcar (C. Ashford, J. of Conch., Jan. 1882). Wilton Wood, Julv 

1881 ! Baker Hudson, (hardens, Middlesbrough, Sept. 1886 ! W. A. Lofthouse. 
Tockett's Wood, (iuisbrongh. May 1897 ! Green lane, Marske, April 1889 ! W. D. 
Roebuck. Vicarage garden, Ingleby Greenhow. Sept. 1890 ! Rev. J. Hawell. Var. 
riifcscens, Middlesbrough, var. fa.sciafa, Thoinaby, and var qrlsea, Battersby, (Jreat 
Ayton, and TlKU-naby,' Dec. 1884 ! (B. Hudson, 'j. of Conch., April 1886). Type 
an<l var. suhfusca, Wilton Wood, and Skelton Beck ^'alley, Saltburn, May 1887 I 
W. Denison Roebu(d<. 

York S.W. — In Caldenbile: Abundant about Stanley and Wakefield, Jan. 188,5 1 
J. Wilcock. Common, Birkenshaw. J. Emmet, 1884. Not uncommon in Hudders- 
lield gardens ((J. H. Parke in Hobkirk's Hiulderstield, 1868. p. 224). (iarden.s, 
H.)liiilirtii. Jan 1885 1 H E.Craven. Bottoms, Heckmondwike, March 1903 ! T. 
Castle. Hebden Bridge, June 1904 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Near Sowerby Bridge 
(.1 E. Crowtlier, Halifax Nat.. Aug. 1903|. Sub-var. iii(jf(i, Wakelield, 'l8S6, J. 
Wilcock. \ay. snhfiisca, Holinlirth, .Ian. 1885 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

In Airedale : Common about Ibadford, T. Rhodes. 1903. Seven Arches. Bingley, 
Feb. 1884 ; Saltaire, Nov. 1886 1 and Gilstead, H. T. Soppitt. Cinninon, Bramley 
Fall Wood. Oct. 1882 ! and by the canal, Calverley, Feb. 1882 ! W. Nelson. Canal 
bank, Shipley, and Frizingiiail, July 1882 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Abundant about 
Armley, Apl. 1890 1 L. E. Adams. Type, \ivv. fasciata, i\m\ ><nh-v;u\ fallax, garden, 
Lofthouse, April 1886, G. Roberts. 

In the Don valley : Not uncommon about Ackworth (C. Ashford, (i. J. of Conch., 
1874, p. 20). Wragby. March 1882 ! W. Nelson. Carlton Park and Snaith, June 

1882 : Cantley Park Woods ! Kilham I Blaxton (Jrange, May 1883 ! abundant, Roche 
Abliey Woods, April 1884 ! and Burghwallis, also type and var. r/risca, Campsall 
Woods, May 1886 I W. Denison I!oebiud<. Doncaster and Conisborough, July 
1891, also \ar iirisni, i'cnistoTie, July 1890 1 Lionel E .Vdanis. 

York Mid W. In Wliaifedaie. it has been found at (Jrassington, June 1882 1 
Common, Bolton liridge and Barden Tower. April 1883 I Connnon on banks of the 
reservoir at Fewston, March 1882 I and abundant at Oughtershaw, Aug. 1882 ! 
W. Denison Roebuck. Connnon in Butdvden Wood, Biudcden (iill. and Buckden 
Village; also Cray (iill, Aug. 1901 \ Tom Pcldi. Var. Infra. Pool Ibid-c, Ajnil 
18S7 ! W. K. Skip'with. 

In Nidderdale, it is very common in gardens, Birstwith (Walker. J. of Conch., 
Jan 1882). Killinghall, July 1882 ! W. Nelson. Common about Pateley Bridge, 
May 1882 ! "W. Storey. Generally distributed and especially numerous in culti- 
vated pl.aces, Harrogate, Ripley, Weeton, Pannal, Rudding, Ribston, Knaresborouirh 
and Ilampstiiwaite, .as well as in Copgrove Woods (Fitzgerald. J. of C, ,Ian. 1889). 

In Wensleydale, it is common at Eavestone near Rijjon, Feb. 1883 ! J. Ingleby. 


III Ribblesdale, at Lawley Abbey and Basliall Moor Wood, also Wliitewell and 
Dnnsop in Bowland, Ang. 1885 ! W. Denison Roebnck. Claphani, H. Richardson, 
J. of Concli., 1886, p. 60. 

In Airedale, it is coninionat Scarcroft ! W. Nelson. Roiindliay Park, Sep. 1884 ! 
W. Deni.son Roebuck. Rawdon Wood I'.ottoin, ¥eh. 1904, W. Harrison Hutton. 
Gardens in tlie ontskirts of the city of Leeds, May 1885 '. T. W. Bell. 

York N.W.— In Teesdale. it has been found at Rokeby, June 1892 ! W. Nelson. 
Type and var. subfiisca, Bowes and Cireta Bridge, Aug. 1903 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

In Swaledale, at Angrain, Satron. and (lunnerside Gill, duly 1884 ! also roadsides 
near Bratt'erton Spring Wood. Sejit. 1882 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

In Wensleydaie, at Hackfall, 1868 I Marsett. Senierdale. Aug. 1882 ! summit of 
Counterside. July 1884 ! and at an altitude of 1,400 feet on the slopes of A.skrio-o- 
Common, July 1884 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Masham, Aug. 1901. C. Crosslamf 
Var. rufcscens, Ripon, May 1883 ! A. E. Ebdell. 


Durham— Spa AVood, Dinsdale, Mav 1887 I B. Hudson. Var. fafsckda, Durham 
May 1887 ! H. E. Fox. 

Northumberland —Common at Gosforth, June 1904 I .Mrs. Willans. 

Cheviotland — Liinax fuscus in dean above Akeld (G. Johnston, Proc. Berwick 
Nat. Club, 1852, p. 89). Type and var. subfusca, Tweedraouth, Dec. 1888 ! Rev. J. 

Westmorland and Lake Lancashire— Kendal, 1853, E. J. Lowe. Abundant in 
gardens, Coniston, Oct. 1.SS6 1 W. Denison Roebuck. Under stones, Windermere 
road, Grange, July 1903 (Jackson and Moore, Journ. of Conch , July 1904, p. 45). 

Cumberland— Common at Stanwix and Blaitiiwaite (Miss Donald, Cumberland 
list, 1882). Haverigg, 1883, C. T. Musson. Brighara, Cockermouth, July 1894 ! 
Mrs. Robinson. 

Isle of Man— Common on the island, Lionel E. Adams. About Don<das, Sept. 
1892 ! F. Taylor. 

SCOTLAND. WEST lowlands. 

Dumfries— Dumfries, Sept. 1890 ! and :\Iotiat, Jan. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Kirkcudbrig-ht- Maxwelltown, Sept. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Wigtown — Springliank near Stranraer, Sept. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Ayr — Girvan, Sept. 1890 1 W. Evans. Common, Seamill, West Kilbride; and 
Largs, March 1904 ; also common along ciifl'foot,, Rev. R. (iodfrey. 

RenfrewT — Frequent, Siiielhill Glen, Kilmalcolm, etc. (Scott, Greenock list, 1886). 
In oat-tield, Siiielhill Glen, Aug. 1886 I W. Denison Roebuck. Var. Jf'trii, common 
as type in Lower Clydesdale (F. (J. Binnie, West Scot, list, 1876, p. 41). 

Lanark — Possil .Maish, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Blackwood estate, 
Kirkmuirliill, Sept. 1904 ! N. B. Kinnear. 


Peebles — Road>ide, Earlyburn, alt. 800 feet, July 1889 ! \V. Deni,son Roel)uck. 
West Linton and near Peebles, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Selkirk — Railway-yard, Thornielee, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Common 
at Selkirk, Oct. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Roxburgh — Jedbnrgli and Langlee near Galashiels, Sept. 1904 ! J. Ro.seburgh. 

Berwick — Common, Cockburnspath, Berwick ! Eyemouth, etc (W. Evans, Proc. 
Berwick Nat. Club, 1895, p. 171). Kirklands, Earlston, Aug. 1886 ! W. D. Roebuck. 

Haddington — Falside, and on abandoneil railway, Drumniore, Aug. 1886 ! W. D. 
Roebuck. Common near Berwick (Rev. J. McMurtrie, J. of Conch., Jan. 1889). 
Dunbar and Longniddry, Sept. 1901 ! W. Evans. 

Edinburgh— Hillend, at the foot of Pentlands, Feb. 1896 ! Penicuik, Oct. 1896 ! 
Criciiton, Feb. 1897 ! etc., W. Evans. Foot of Salisbury Craigs, Aug. 1886 ! and 
Blackford Hill, Oct. 1888 ! also type and var. ■, near Dudilingston Loch, 
Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Var. subfusca, Dreghorn Woods near Colinton, 
Sept. 1889 ! W. Evans. 

Linlithgow — Linlithgow, March 1890 1 and Philipstown, April 1901, W. Evans. 
Abundant in the county : Dalnieny, Hopetown and Carriilen on the coast ; (iraemes 
Dyke, Red Hill. Northb.ank, Kinneil Woods, quarry near Ci-,iigwaileii Cliurch in 
the IJo'ness district ; Jinkaboot, Kinneil Mill, and Liniitligow ibidge in the Avon 
valley ; and at Cramond Bridge, Rev. R. Godfrey. South C^Hieeusfeiiy, Aug. 1886 ! 
W. Denison Roebuck. 


Fife and Kinross — North Queensferry, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Dura 
Den and St. Andrew's, July 1890! also 'Crail, .Aug. 1890 ! W. Evans. Abundant 
in Charlestown lime (piarries, and Burntisland, Feb. 1896, W. Evans. 


Stirling -I'olmaiU, AniS,. 18!1(» ! W. Mvaiis. Tv|)o iiml var. .snbfnsc'i, Falls of 
imersiiaid. Aii.i,'. ISSl ! P.. Hmlsoii. 

Perth S. and Clackmannan -( allaiidcr, April KS!)2 ! Dollar, April ISO? ! AUUey 
(Jrai;;-, Oct. 19)1. W . Evans. I5al(|nlii(l(l«T, Jiilv l!H»4 ! Rev. K. Codfrev. 

Perth Mid— (Jlen Tilt, .May hSS.") I H. Coates. (ilea Ogle, .Inly 1!)()4 ! Rev. R. 
(lodfiev. Diinkeld road, Perth, Sept. 1904 ! W. Evans. Inver, Dnnkeld, Sept. 
1904 ! A. Rodgers. 

Perth N.— Persia Inn, Glenshee, Jnly 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Forfar— Dundee, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Kincardine— Along the coast, south of Stonehaven, Sept. 1886, W. Evans. 

Aberdeen S. — Wood near Old Bridge of Don, in tufts of Aira ccespitosa, Sept. 
1848 (Macgillivrav, Deeside ami Braeniar list, 18.55. p. 418). Garden, Rubislaw, 
Aberdeen, Oct. 1904 ! (i. Sim. 

Banff— Tomintoul, Sept. 1891 I W. Evans. Macduff, Dec. 1890 ! A. Robertson. 

Easterness— Nairn, .Jan. 1887 I Rev. .J. E. Somerville. (ilen Feshie, alt. l."2.50 ft., 
Sept. 1889 ! and Dalwhinnie, alt. 1,201) ft, .June 1892 ! W. Evans. Garden, Coylum 
liridge, Aviemore, Aug. 1904 I Rev. R. Godfrey. 

Il-/-:sr HIGHLANDS. 

Westerness— Glenborrodale, Deo. 189(1 ! .J. .J. Dagleish. 

Main Arefyle —Hunter's (^)uav, Aug. 188(5 1 W. Deuisou Piocbuck. Crinan, Oct. 
188(3 ! Rev. .1. E. Somerville. 

Dumbarton— High Mains, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Duntocher, Sept. 
1888 ! and Garscadden, June 1889 ! A. Shaw. 

Clyde Isles— Barone and Ardbeg Point, Isle of Bute, Aug. iSS6 ! W. Denison 
Roebuck. Brodick, Isle of Arran, April 1895 ! W. Evans. 

Cantire— Ardrishaig, Sept. 1904 ! Rev. R. Godfrey. 

Ebudes N.— Type and var. subfuscn, Dunvegan, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 


Ross W.— Ullapool, Aug. 1886 ! Ale.x. Somerville. Coast of Loch Broom, Oct. 
1886 ! and var. .luhfusra, Gairloch, Nov. 1886 ! Rev. J. E. Somerville. 

Sutherland E.— Var. subfusca, Golspie Burn, Mav 1885 ! W. Baillie. 

Sutherland W.— Stoer, Oct. 1886 ! Rev. J. E. Somerville. 

Caithness— Wick: a pest especially in gardens (C. W. Peach, lioy. Phys. Soc. 
Edinb., 1864). Type and vars. suhfusca and rufcscens, Dunbeath river, May 1884 ! 
W. Baillie. 

Hebrides —Stornaway, Isle of Lewis, Aug. 1886 ! Ale.v. Somerville. 
Orkneys— Harrav, Dec. 1890 I W. Evans. Sealield House, Stromness, Sept. 
1901 ! J. Grant. 


Derry — Very common about r*oleraine, Nov. 188,3 ! Lionel E. Adams. Bellarena 
Flats, March 1904 ! R. Welch. Ballynagard, June 1892 ! and Gortness, Sept. 1904 ! 
D. C Campbell. Straidarran, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. Garden, Downhill, Sept. 
1904 ! C. W. Lynes. 

Antrim— Common throughout Antrim, R. Welch. Whitehall, Broughshane, June 
1886 ! Rev. S. A. Brenan. Rathlin Islaiid and common at Murlongh, May 1897, L. E. 
Adam^. Cave Hill, 189.3 ; Kmxdvagh Mountain, 1897 ; Derrykeighan Derrock, 1898; 
Magherauiorne, 1898; Colin (ilen, Nov. 1899; Ram's Island, May 1900; Kenbane 
Head and (ilenshesk, May 1902, R. Welch. Glenaw, May 1900, H. L. Orr and 
R. Welch. Ballycastle, Oct. 1904 ! Miss F. S. O'Connor. The Manse, Antrim, Sei)t. 
1904 ! U. S. Smith. Var. nifjra, wood near liallycastle and var. .s', Murlongh, 
May 1897 (Adams, Irish Nat., July 1897). Type and yellowish form of var. (jrisra, 
Cusheiidun, May 1886 ! Rev. S. A. Brenan. 

Down— Common at Cranmore, Belfast (Templeton, Ann. Nat. Hist., 1840, p. 18). 
Orlock Point, Dec. 1896, Capt. Farrar and R. Welch. Belvoir Park, June 1894, and 
Oakleigh, Ormeau Park. Belfast, May 1898, A. W. Stelfox. Downpatrick near 
Sampson's Stone, April 1900; St. John's Point, 1897 ; Ballynoe, Jan. 1898 ; Ardglass 
Castle, Dec. 1897 ; Belmont Nursery, April 1898 ; Newcastle, June 1898 ; Hills- 
borough Park. 1902; Crawfordsburn, 1902; and rare at Lough Agherv, Mav 1904, 
R. Welch. Killard Point, 1898 ! and Helen's Bay Golf Links, Sept." 1904, A. W. 
Stelfox and R. Welch. Var. fasrinta, Cnltra, Dec. 1891, R. F. Scharff. 

Armagh— Bessbrook, April 1900. R. Welch. Acton Glebe, Povntz Pass, Sept. 
1904 ! Rev. W. F. Johnson. Portadown, Oct. 1904 ! W. A. Green. "^ 

Monaghan- Glaslongh, Nov. 1897: and Clones Round Tower, 1901, R. Welch, 
r'ari i( kmacross, July 1904 I Drunireaske, Sept. 1904 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. 


University, Zagrreb-Agrram, Croatia, 
Dear Sir,— Oct. 1st, 1904. 

"Though the first volume of your Monograph is worthy of all 
the praise that can be bestowed upon it, yet the three parts that 
have since appeared, devoted to the consideration of the species, 
call forth a still greater admiration. 

"The coloured plates and the pictures in the text are unsurpass- 
able—they are truly works of art ; and no other country in the world 
can boast of possessing such a magnificent work upon its fauna. 

"In the best sense of the word the Monograph will be the stan- 
dard work upon the subject upon which it treats, and one awaits 
with the greatest eagerness the appearance of the successive parts." 


Dear Sir,— Ronneby, Sweden, Aug. 2nd, 1904. 

" Thanks for the new part (No. X.) of your magnificent work. 
In the whole range of Malaeologieal literature, the Monograph is quite 
unique, and stands alone in the wealth and variety of its contents, the 
richness of Its illustration and admirable arrangement, as well as in 
the great learning and the conservative yet critical acumen evinced 
in the text. 

"But, my dear sir, it is a gigantic work, grand in conception, 
and worthy of Great Britain ; but is it not too enormous a task to be 
completed by one pair of hands? 

" Certainly you possess the ability to do it, but you need also 

time. It is, indeed, a proud scientific monument for its author and 

for his country." 


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Wellington, New Zealand. 

" Through the kindness of Mr. Roebuck, I have this day seen 
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" Can you arrange to let the Museum have a copy of what is 
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" The work is a model of what such a Monograph should be." 

Yours faithfully, 

A. HAMILTON. Director. 



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To SUBSCRIBERS and others desirous of expediting 
the completion of the Monograph by assisting 
in its production. 

iL| S it is very desirable thai the Mandible and Odontophore of 
^' ' all the various native Gastropods should be figured in the 
work, the author would be grateful for adult living examples of almost 
any of the species for that purpose. 

It is further desired to obtain the loan of Portraits or 
AutOgfPaphs of any of the eminent Conchologists or Palaeontologists. 
Amongst others, it is especially desirable to obtain Portraits and 
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North Grange, Horsforth, Leeds. 



Tyrone— Oina-li, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. Baronscourl, Sept. 190+ ! 11. IJell. 

Donegal— Biiiidoraii, Aug. IS89 ! J. G. Milne. Aidara, April 1900 ; and Mevagli 
Kosgnill, Oet. 1903, K. Welcli. Teniplemore Park, Sept. 1904 ! D. V. Caniidjell. 
Var. SKbfusca, Carrablagh, Croagluoss, Letterkenny, May 1889 ! H. (J. Hart. 

Fermanagh— Killyheveliii, Sept. 1899, 1{. Welch. P>iookeb()rougli, Sept. 1904 ! 
Sir Douglas Brooke. Enniskilleii, Sept. 1904 ! Dean of Clogher. Type and var. 
riifescen.-i, Castleeoole, Enniskillen, Sept. 1904 ! Hon. C. L. Corry. 

Cavan— Mullagh, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 


Louth — Blackliall Denie.sne, Sejit. 1904 ; Narrow Water, Dec. 1904 ! also type 
and a pale form of the var. qrisea, Beaulieu, Drogheda, Oct. 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Meath— Navan, July 1900, K. Welch. Drunicondra, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. 

Dublin— Damp gardens in Monkstown (W. W. Walpole, Zool., 1853, p. 4022). 
Dublin, March 1886 ! J. R. Redding. Banks of river Dodiler, Kathmines, April 
1887 I R. F. Scharti". Common in gardens, Rathgar, Sept. 1903 ; and almost every- 
where in Bushy Park, Dublin, Sept. 1903 (Welch and Stelfo.x:, Irisli Nat., June 190i). 
Type and var. suhfusca, Killakee, Dublin Mountains, Oct. 1890 ; garden, Leeson 
l*ark, Dublin, Sept. 1890 ; and Kilruddery Demesne, Sept. 1890, R. F. Schartf. 

Kildare- Lyns, Aug. 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. Naas, Oct. 1904 ! R. J. P. Beresford. 

Wicklow— Maynooth, Nov. 1891, R. F. Scharrt' ; Woodenbridge, March 1893 
(id., Irish Nat., April 1893). Enniskerrv, Aug. 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. Bray, Sept. 
1904 ! R. M. Barrington. 

Wexford— Wexford, April 1891, R. F. Scharft". 

Carlow — Fenagh, Bagenalstown, Sept. 1904 ! Denis R. Pack-Beresford. 

Kilkenny — Kilkenny, Sept. 1904 ! J. Wiiite. Gardens, Kilkenny Castle, Sept. 
1904 I J. Carlton. Gardens, Bessltorough, Piltown, Sept. 1904 ! Earl of Bessborough. 

Queen's Co. — By no means scarce at La Bergerie (B. J. Clarke, Ann. Nat. Hist., 
1840. p. 19S). Stradl)ally, Sept, 1904 ! A. G. Stuart. 

King's Co. — Clonmacnois, July 1895, the var. nigra being the prevalent form 
(R. Standen, Irish Nat., Sept. 1895). Biir, Sept. 1904 ! Miss Hemphill. The 
Ganlens, Charleville Forest, Tnllamore, Sept. 1904 ! Rev. R. McKenna. 

Westmeath — Rosemount, Moate, Sep. 1904 ! Mrs. Nugent. Knockdrin Demesne, 
April 1892, R. F. Scharff'. 


Roscommon — Mote Park, Sept. 1904 ! Lord Crofton. Rockingham (hardens, 
Boyle, Sept. 1904 ! E. Clarke. Longhglynn, Oct. 1904 ! Hugh Kennedy. 

Leitrim — A pallid form of the var. grisca, Mohill, July 1904 ! P. H. Grier.son. 

Sligo— Sparingly about Lough Gill, July 1904, A. W. Stelfox and R. Welch. 
Type and var. siibfusra, garden, Moyview, Ballina, April 1889 ! Miss Warren. 

Mayo E.—Manulla Junction, Sept. 1904 ! W\ West. 

Mayo W. — Achill Island ; also in gardens at the Cohmy and at the Signal Tower, 
Aug. 1886, J. G. Milne. The Demesne, Westport, Sept. 1904 ! J. O'Callaghan. 

Galway E. — Abundant in gardens round Tuam (B. J. Clarke, Ann. Nat. Hist., 
1843, p. 341). Type and var. riifcscens, Clonbrock, Sept. 1904 ! Hon. R. E. Dillon. 

Galway W. — Not uncommon on Gentian Hill, July 1895 (R. Standen, Irish 
Nat., Sept. 1895). Various ]>laces about Leenane, Apr. 1897, R. Welch. Type and 
var. suhfusca, Kylemore Castle Gardens, Sei)t. 1904 ! W. Comfort. Type and var. 
suhfusca, Roundstone and Aran Island, Sept. 1891, R. F. Scharff. 


Clare— Woodpark, Scariff, Sept. 1904 ! N. F. Hibbert. Dromoland Castle Gar- 
dens, Sept. 1904 ! J. Carter. 

Limerick— Limerick, Sej). 1904 ! G. Fogerty. Adaie Manor, Oct. 1904 ! W. Bowles. 

Tipperary N.— Shores of Lough Derg, Sept. 1904 ! (i. J. Fogerty. 

Tipperary S.— Ballingarry, June 1903, P. H. (irierson. Very common about 
Rock of Cashel, and also at Holycross Abbey, May 1898, R. Welch. Type and var. 
fasciftta, Clonmel, Dec. 1885, Rev. A. H. Delap. 

Waterford— Near Waterford, Sept. 1883 ! J. H. Salter. Garden, Bellevue House, 
Waterford, Sept. 1904 ! Miss Power. Aldarton, Kilmanock, Sept. 1888 ! collected 
by Miss (Uascott, G. A. Barrett-Hamilton. 

Cork N.— Common, Blarney Castle, Sept. 1898, L. E. Adams. Convamore near 
Ballyhooley, Sept. 1904 ! J. M'c:\lillan. Tivoli near Cork, Sept. 1904 ! C. Baker. 
Queenstown, May 1891, R. F. Scharff. 

Cork S.— Cork, south of river Lee, July 1904 ! R. Welch. Bantry, Sei)t. 1898, 
L. E. Adams. Skibbereen, Sept. 1904 ! J. J. Wolfe. Old ruin near Glengariff, 
May 1893, R. F. Scharff. 

Kerry- Valentia Island, July 1886 ! Rev. A. H. Delap. Common over all the 
Kenmare and Upper Killarney districts. May 1898 ; also not uncommon in Muck.sna 
Wood, July 1898, U. Welch. Caliirciveen, Sept. 1904 ! xMiss M. J. Delap. 

28/7/05 P 



DistriliiUed alniost tlir<iii;,'li(iut tlie wMiiitiy, liviii;;' especially in j;iU(U'iis in 

Alsare. Haileii, l>a\aiia, Itramienliur^, l'"rani-(>nia, Hesse, Holstein, Nassau, Oiden- 

bnrji, I'oniciania. I'viinoiil, Iteiiss, Saxony, Srliieswi", ami Tlnirin;i;ia. The recortl 

by KleeWurg for l']|iiing, l*",ast i'riissia, wouM seem to really refer lo A. rirctinisfrijiiii-s. 

Belgfium— Kecoril(Ml under various names as found in the provinces of l>ral»ant, 
East ['"landers, Hainault, Liege, Luxemhurg, and \amur. 

Holland — Keported from the Hague in South Holland, and Sluys-Kill in Zealand. 

Recorded as inhabiting Ain, Aisne, Alpes Maribimes, Ariege, Basses Pyren,ees, 
Cote d'Or, (Mianii)agne Meridionale, Finisti're, (;ard,(;ers, (lironde. Haute (iaronne, 
Haute Loire, Haute Savoie, Hautes Pyrenees, Herault, Iseie, Hie et-\'ilaine, Lozere, 
Ijoire Inferieure, Maine-et-Loire, IManche, Morbihan, Moselle, Nievre, Nord, Uise, 
Pas-de-Caiais, Pyrenees Orientales, Puy-del)nme, Rhone, Sarthe, Savoie, Seine, 
Seine Liferieure, Seine-et-^Llrne, Somme, Vendee, N'ienne, and Vosges. 

Reported from gardens, etc., in the cantons of Berne, (Jrisons, and Vaud. 

Cited by Lessona, l^ollonera, and others, from the Alps of Jjombardy and Pied- 
mont, from Western Lignria, Emilia, Venetia, Tuscany, Rome, .and Calabria, but 
the southern records are probably very doubtful. 

Reporteil from Austria, Galicia, Hungary, and Moravia. The Transylvanian 
record by Bielz more probably refers to A. circiim-scripfKs. 

Spain — Reported as found in Catalonia, Galicia, Valencia, and Aragon. 
Portugal — Morelet cites this species on the authority of Dr. Hidalgo, but Ferus- 
sac's f. 8, pi. Sa, cited l»y Hidalgo as representing his .species, is A. circnmscriphis. 

Servia — Recorded by .MiiUendorfr from Serpentinberge, Central Servia. 


Norway — Common in the Christiania, Christiansand, and Hamar districts in 
South Norway ; it lias also been rec(»rded from Trondenaes on Hind('i, in the Amt 
of Tn>ms('), and from Bjinii in Nordland. 

Sweden— According to Lindstrdm it is found on the Isle of tiothland, and ]\Lilm 
records it from Gothenburg, (Jhristianstad, Lund, Orebro, Ronneby, as well as 
Carlsbcrgs Park, and other jtlaces around Stockholm. 

Denmark— .\ccording to Malm it is common in Kongens Have, Copenhagen, and 
about \'iborg in .Jutland. 


Recoided from Kharkov, Moscow, and Courland by Kah^niczenko and others, 
but erroneously, as it has n(»t yet penetrated so far east ; it has, however, been 
found on the Aland Tsles, and tiie record by Slosarski of its occurrence at Olknsz in 
Poland, may ])ossii(ly really refer to this species and not to A. rlrcKinscriptiai. 

Siberia —Recorded as generally distributed in .\murland, and also as inhabiting 
Mikoulina on the -lenissei, lint pritbably erroneously. 

Morocco— Morelet records an Ariou "resembling our .1. /lor/ciisis" from Cape 
Spartel (dourn. de Conch., ISSO, ]>. l.>). 

Algeria— A doubtful si>ecimen from Algiers (Collinge, Pr. Mai. Soc, 1898, p. .S:?7). 

Locally ]dentifnl in Massachusetts at Boston ami New Bedford ; found also at 
Poughkecpsie and New York in New York State ; at Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, 
and in greenhouses at Seattle, Washington Territory. 

South Africa— Collinge has recorded A. fiisciis (). F. Miiiler, and may inteiul to 
indicate this species, or possibly A. subfuscus. 

New Zealand— Erroneously recorded by Mr. Mnsson as plentiful at Auckland, 
crawling about after rain; the species occurring there proves to be A. intcnncdiun. 

Plate XXI. 


1 )istri3ution o A 


hortensis F 



In the Counties 

and Vice-Counties 

of the British Isles. 




Channel Isles SOUTH WALES 


w. lowlands 


PENINSULA 41 Glamorgan 


72 Dumfries 

95 Aberdeen N. 

1 Cornwall ^V. 42 Brecon 

♦ ^1 

75 Kirkcudbright 

94 Banff 

2 Cornwall E. 45 Katlnor 


74 \\'igtown 

95 Elgin 

5 Devon S. 44 t'arniarthen 

75 .\vr 

£6 Easterness 

4 Devon N. 45 I'eniliroKe 

76 Kenfrew 


5 Somerset S. 46 Cardisan 

77 Lanark 

97 Woslei-ncss 

6 Somerset N. NOETH WALES 



98 Miiin Ariivle 

CHANNEL 47 Montgomery 

78 Peebles 

99 l)iniil)ail(in 

7 Wilts N. 48 Merioneth 


79 Selkirk 

100 CI.Mle Isles 

8 Wilts S. 49 Carnarvon 


80 Koxburgli 

101 Cantire 

9 Dorset 50 Denbigh 


81 Berwick 

102 Ehudes S. 

10 Isle of Wight 51 Flint 



82 Haddington 

105 Ebudes Jlid 

11 Hants S. 52 Anglesey 



83 Edinburgh 

104 Ebudes N. 

12 Hants N. tkent 

w ^ 

84 Linlithgow 


15 Sussex W. 53 Lincoln S. ^ 



105 Ross W. 

14 Sussex E. 54 Lincoln N. _^m 



85 l-'ife & Kinross 

106 Ross E. 

THAMES 55 Leic. & Rutlcl. ^^Hf ,^ 


86 Stirling 

107 Sutherland £. 

15 Kent E. 56 Notts. A^K V 

87 Pth.S.&Clkn. 

108 SutherlandW 

IB Kent W. 57 J)crl>v ^Hv T 


88 Mid Perth 

109 Caithness 

17 Surrey meksey "O ^» -«A 

89 Perth N. 


18 Essex's. 58 Cheshire .^i^ >.m > 

90 Forfar 

110 Hebrides 

19 Essex N. 69 Lancashire S. (^ ^^ aJw/ 


^^<^^r— ^ 

91 Kincardine 

111 Orkneys 

20 Herts. 60 Lan'shire Mid 'Jp !■■ Ift? 

J^^^^ \ 

92 Aberdeen S. 

112 Shetlands 

21 Middlesex humber If ^M W8Q 

■^ ^ 

22 Berks. 81 S.E York C '"Wt^M^ 

90 Vll 

/ ^^/^ 


23 Oxford 62 N.E. York £f m^^SP 

24 Bucks. 63 S.W. York ^.f », ^TZ. 

-o <i/ 


. t^ r^ 



ANGLIA 64 Mid W.York * J^A* /-^/^Ti^' 

113 Derr\' 

122 Louth 

25 Suffolk E. 65 N.AV. York -ra-** Vt 

26 Suflolk W. TYNE — ^ <^5ar" 

•'TX ^ 


114 Antrim 

123 Mealh 

*> ^B 

115 Down 

124 Dulilin 

27 Norfolk E. 6R Durham '°*2li2S^ 

3 88^ 


116 Arnuigb 

125 Kildare 

28 Norfolk W. 67 Northumh. S. ^^v&a 


117 Monauhan 

126 Wicklow 

29 Cambridge 68 Cheviotland ■ ;-«i 


118 Tyrone 

127 Wexford 

30 Bedford lakes ^ dJKk 


119 Donegal 

128 Carlow 

31 Hunts. 69 Westmorland '02X|(/' Sfl 


120 Fermanagh 

129 Kilkenny 

32 Northampton and L. Lanes. £fW'<Ml 


121 Cavan 

150 Queen's Co. 

SEVERN 70 Cumberland V/o^Ao, 

dBM " >„ 

TUV J^.. 

151 King's Co. 

53 Gloucester E. 71 Isle of Man -^ m^ 

tL i-. f " 

ijiSjS'^i' J( 


132 Westmeath 

34 Gloucester W. ^ m- ^ 



133 Longford 

i Herefo°rd*'' .^^W^^L ^A 



K-' "h li 



1,54 Roscommon 

37 Svorcester ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^t. ^ 

3< 7j^ 

^^^j 67 


135 Lcitrim 

38 Wanvick ^-3 h» A^J^ \ •>♦ A^ f* 

l**^ ..J^ 

> 1 ^ 


136 Sligo 

39 Stafford ^tfP <**^ ^^ iL^ ^ \ 



- \ 

137 Mavo E. 

40 Salop ^^i^gck> itft^^vY J^^ 

i^¥^ / 

'~--'i^®<> \ 

158 JIavo W. 

.^^^HT Lv\ .^^1^4^!^ 


f"'^ ^^V^ 

139 Gal way W. 


^ \ 


Tflz "S 

140 Galway P:. 


•^** j^^!!r<^mv3l*^ 


141 Clare 

142 Limerick 

^^ /"' / '^♦)'"^^»_fv**\ 


\yei I 

143 Tipperary N. 

^^ ^J ^^£>\- yii3y^^*^ ^\-J 


144 Tipperary S. 

^UP^ \.^^ f I ..^IB^^'W/^ 

r^® u 


145 Waterford 

^^Ju**^^ 1^0 1 \~^^ jC f\ 

146 Cork N. 

•^ f 1^1 v'^^''*^'^V" "'z '¥• 


>v.j^ a*^ 

147 Cork S. 

^ .^h4 /\ /^'^V'uA^ 

^C^6 \ 

y>/.^ -^ 1 

148 Kerry 

^K^^\f }-/ '^'l r '»•! 


•^ /l 

/S6} \ J 

^^" i*i / aC^ ,^\.^^!b / 

^^*»4 J 

\/3S V r 








"^S^rM* vaiM^^ 




16 j 

jjf' A j^^^^^ ^' 

c 36 h JT 

} /Vr^ 5^r^ 


^^Sk^^S^^ my 



p^^iJioV^'^ 1 

^^^ ^ 


















Probable Range. 




^^^ Recorded Distribution. 

BBB Distribution verified by the Authors. 

iiiiii^ Fossil Distribution. 



Arion circumscriptus Johnston. 

1819 Arion hortensis var. a ami /3 Ferussac, Hist. Moll., i)l. 2, f. G, and pi. SA, 11". 2-4. 

1828 — circumscriptus JoluiJstoii, Edinburgh New 1 iiilos. .Journ., v., ]). 76. 

1837 — mc(rgin(tttis Kickx, l>ull. Acad. Uoy. Soe. Ihuxelles, iv. , p. 139. 

1852 . — leucoplKrus Noruiand, Descr. Six Liinac. Nouv. , p. 6. 

1864 — hortensis var. grisca Bourguignat, jSIalac. Gr. Cliartr., pi. 1, f. 9-11. 

1868 — hourguigmUi Mabille, Rev. et Mag. Zool., xx., p. 138. 

1868 — nenstriacus Mabille, op. cit. 

188.1 — [Carindla) botirgiiignufi Pollonera, Moll. Terr. Pienionte, p. 28. 

1887 — celticHS Pollojiera, Spec. Nuov. Arion Europei, p. 19, ff. 11, 22, 33, 37. 

1887 — nUssoni Pollonera, op. cit., p. 19, ff. 33-34. 

1889 — (unbiguus Pollonera, Nuove Contr. Arion Europei, p. 15, ff. 16-19. 

1890 — subcariiiatus Pollonera, Kecenseiu. Arionida' Palearct., p. 27. 
1822 Limax fasci'xtus 7 Nilsson, Hist. Moll. Sveciae, p. 4. 

\m% Prolrpls /torfciisis Malm, Limac. Scand., pi. 2, f. 5. 
1881 GeumalacKS bourgaigiiuti Locard, Moll. Ain, p. 11. 



ISTORY. — Avion ciretimi^cripfns 
{c'lrcum, around; script um, marked) 
in allusion to the distinct lateral black 
zone almost encircling the body, is here 
associated with the late Dr. G. Jolm.ston, 
of Berwick, the author of the excellent 
work, an " Introduction to Conchology," 
who first difterentiated and named the 
species. It is also proljably the Arion 
hortensis vars. a and fi of Ferussac and 
the Limax fascidtus var. y of Nilsson, 
and is said by Pollonera tu be the same 
as GeorniUiicas baijani Jousseaume and 
Avion dupuyanus of Bourguignat, but 
the latter species is described as possess- 
ing a strong keel and yellowish foot, 
characters which are somewhat against 
this allocation. 

The sub-genus Cdrinella has lieen 
instituted by Mabille for the reception 
of the present species and closely-allied 
forms, a grouping based upon the pos- 
session of a dorsal keel during the earlier 
stages of growth, but which may occasion- 
ally persist to adult life. 
Diag-nosis. — Avion circumscviptus is larger, broader, and for paler in 
colour than .1. hrvtensis, the species with which it has been so long con- 
founded. The distinctly white foot of the present species is also one of its 
most striking characteristics. 

Internally, it is distinctly separated from its ally, Avion hortensis, by 
its very elongate and narrow atrium, pointed spermatiikca, slender and 
rather uniform epiphallus, and shorter free oviduct. 

Orig-inal Description. —.4 r/o« circnnisn-iidiis. Body greyish-black, sjjotted, 
with a black fascia round the shield and body, the respiratory aperture anterior. 

Body, 1 or \h inch long, not keeled, nor much narrowed at the tail ; greyish- 
black, in'arbled, with a narrow fascia surrounding the l)a(dv aii<l siiield ; sides bluish- 
grey ; foot white, opaque ; tentacula rather short , black ; respiratory ai.erture 



placet! very forward on tlio sliit'M, wliicli is entire ; nintius pore very ilistiiict, above 
the tail ; tlie youny are white or straw eoluiireil, with blackish head and tentacula. 
Haljitat : Moist meadows, hedgebanks, etc., common. 

We have found it very uniform and constant in its character, though it may 
liossibly lie the Arloii ntrr in an immature .state. — (i. .Joiixsrox, Edinb. New Phil. 
.Iimrnal, 1S2S, vol. v., y. 76. 

Description.— .\mmai. of» shaiie, but stouter esjtecially Avhen contrat^ted 
and witii a much softer skin than its close? ally, Arum hovtiiisln; aljout thirty mill, 
in length >vhcn adult and fully extended ; of a pale creamy-grey colour, darker 
grey dorsally, but shading to whitish towards the fringe ; a black and sharply- 
delined lateral band extends the whole length of the body on each .side, beneath 
which is souK'times an indistinct orange band, formed by ])igment cells breaking 
through tiie skin ; tluM'e is a slight mid-dorsal K'l';i':i, when .\oung, whi(di, however, 
graduaiiy (lisapjiears during growth, but its place is almost in\ariably indicated by 
a line of pale mid-dorsal 'I'UltEKCi.Ks, which contribute to form a pair of dorsal or 
inner bands; .siiiKLO granulose and bluntly rounded at botii ends, bearing a dis- 
connected continuation of the longitudinal Ijody banding ; r.uDV TUl'.ERCLKS rather 
long and slender ; .SOLE opaque, wa.xy white, and indistiiu^tly trijiartite, the median 
portion slightly darker and more transparent than the side aieas, and occupying 
moie than one-third of the ^\idth of the body ; Kn( )T-K it in'(;k broad and white or 
pale grey in colour, usually ■without ]ierceptible lineolations, but sometimes the 
lineoles are clearly pigmented, especially at the caudal end of the body. 

The .siiKM. is, as is usual in the genus, represented by a layer of limey-paste, but 
is sometimes found in the form of one or more solid lime particles of variable size. 

Intkknallv, the .SUPRA-CK.SOPH.VGEAL cjanglia 
are very conspicuous, and united by a slender com- 
missure, whicli, uidike Arioii nfcr, is not opaque-white 
or enlarged medially as in that specie.s. Tiie body 
cavity is whitish and therefore does not display so 
strikingly the exquisite lace-like network of milk- 
Avliite arteries and arterioles, a due to the 
dense investment by lime particles of their outer 
sheaths, and M'hich renders them so conspicuous in the 
dark form of ,4. afcr ; the AOUTA is large and white, 
and runs 4 to 5 mill, before its Itifurcation, the white 
investment commences abruptly, as no jiart of the 
VKXTiuci.E is white ; the OT()(;o\lA are very numerous, oval in shape, with a 
central speck, and comparatively broader in proportion than those of .-1. hortensis. 

The CEPHALIC KETRACTORS resemble those of Arion 
hortcnsis. The broad and Hat tentacular muscles 
have their roots four "to five mill, apart to the right 
and left of the kidney, but are not quite symmetrical, 
either as to position of roots or width of muscle. 
The luanch to the lower tentacle arises at about 
half tlie total length. The PHARYNGEAL retractor 
distinct, and usually dividing about half-way into two 
slender branches, which are lixed to the l)uccal bulb ; 
the root arises aljout three mill, behind tlie kidney, 
about a millimetre to the right of the median line, and 
though sometimes broad the muscle is on the whole 
much narrower than the tentacular retractors. 

Fig. 232. — Nerve centres of 
Afion chxitiiiscrifitus (greatly 
enlarged). Christchurch, 

Hants. S., Mr. C. Ashford). 

Fi<;. 233. — Cephalic retractors 
of .) rion circmnscriptus X 4. 

(Christchurch, Hants. S., Mr. 
C. Ashford). 

The KEPKODUCTn'E ORG.WS disjilay an oval or roundish OVOTESTis, with rela- 
tively large follicles, very dark in colour, especially in the interstices, the whole 
being comjiletely imbed(le<l in the LIVKR ; the IIKRM.VI'IIRODITK DUCT is rather 
long and slender, but s(;arcely sinuous; ALP.l'.MEN (iLANi) very large and broad, 
of a dirty semi-trans])arent yellow ; o\lspKR.MAT(>l)Ucl" thick and very stitHy 
Hexed; OVIDUCT yellowish and very broail ; sperm duct or prostate com po.sed in 
the upper part of small, longish, and somewhat se])arated follicles ; FREE OVIDUCT 
short, and of uniform width ; EPIPHALLUS still', and not very slender, gradually 
enlarging downwards, but without the bulbous base of A. lidrtciisis, an<l shewing the 
internal folds through its substaiu^e as white longitudinal lines ; VAS DEKEREN.S 
rather long ; si'ERM.VTHEC.\ inversely spatulat(!, the stem short and thickening 
downwards; ATRIU.M very long, somewhat constricted and uniform in width, with 
a conspicuous yellow glandular investment. 


•J 20 

The ALIMENTARY SYSTEM has the usual tiiodrouious intestinal coiling, hut tlie 
tracts are shorter, and therefore do not so palpably shew the f;reat s()iral torsion 
to which the viscera have been subjected ; the (KSOPHA(;us is about three mill, in 
length, and fused to the PHARYNX; the CROP is dirty-brown, about nine mill, 
long, and two mill, in diameter, closely wrinkled transversely, with tlie Mliite 
salivary glands attached to each side; the digestive (;land is light l)rownish- 
ochre, and forms the hindmost point, but a lobe reaches far forward. 

Fig. 234. Fi,,. 2:r). Fig. 236. Fig. 237. 

Alimentary c.inal and Reproductive organs of Arion circuinscriptiis Johnst. and 
Avion amhigtius Pollonera. 

Fig. 234. — Alimentary canal of A. circu»iscrif>his Johnst. X .S. (Christchurch, Mr. C. Ashford). 

Fig. 23.0. — Reproductive organs of .'J. circmiiscjiptjis Johnst. X 3. (Christchurch, Mr. C. Ashford). 

^"IG. 236. — Proximal end of Reproductive organs of A. ainhigutts X 4. Hardonecchia, Piedmont 
(after Pollonera). 

Fig. 237. — Proximal end of Reproductive organs of A. anihiguus var. ariiiovicana X 4. Brest, 
France (after Pollonera). 

a.g. albumen gland ; c/. epiphallus ; ot. ovotestis ; ozk oviduct ; s.d. sperm duct ; sp. spermatheca 
with retractor ; v.d. vas deferens ; v.Ji. vestibular gland. 

The MANDIBLE or jaw is rather more than a mill, broad, and much resembles 
that of A. Jiortnisis in general aspect, but in the 
jiarticular example was tiiicker in substance, and of 
deep brown colour. It is of tlie usual crescentic 
shape, and strongly arcuate from front to back, with 
about ten vertical ribs or thickenings, Avhich strongly 
denticulate the upper margin, and are more evenly 
distributed over the whole anterior surface of the 
jaw than in A. hortcnmji ; the lower half of the jaw 
is much more deeply coloured than the top, which is of an amber colour, witli the 
darker ribs very apparent thereon. 

The LIN(;UAL jieinibraxe is about three mill, long, and about one mill, in 
width, and comjiosed of about 125 slightly-curved transverse rows of denticles, 
eacii row formed ))y a distinctly tricus|)id median tooth, the strong and well- 
developed mesocone with lateral expansions ; the lateral teeth are about seventeen 
in number, obscurely tricuspid, showing a powerful mesocone with lateral expan- 
sions, an enlarged ectocone, and a more than correspimflingly reduced endocone, 
Avithout cutting-point ; the marginals are bicuspid, bearing a strong mes<)cone and 
a distinct and pointed ectocone, while the few extreme marginals are quite embry- 
onic in character. 

^t" 24 2« 15 6 1 . m 1 G ,5 20 -*,^']\f 

Fig. 238. — ^randible or jaw of 
A rion chxu!itscri/>tus X 20. 
(Stroud, Mr. E. J. Elliott). 

Fig. 2.S9.— Representative denticles from a transverse row of the lingual teeth of .-I. circniuscrij'tiis 
X 180. The animal collected at Stroud by Mr. E. J. Elliott, and the palate prepared by Mr. Neville. 

The dental formula of a Stroud specimen collected by Mr. E. J. Elliott is 

7 + 


+ ^.V+K 

+ -i.." + 7 

12o = 8,G2o. 


Reproduction and Development. — The conoress of this species Ims 
])eeii observed l)y Air. E. J. Lowe, who remarks tliat the act is, as in Arion 
hortensis, very transient, scarcely occupying more than forty to forty-five 
seconds, but the spermatophore has not as yet been noticed or described. 
The eggs are deposited in moist sheltered positions, in clusters of twelve 
to fifteen, adherent by a sticky mucus, and have been observed from 
June up to November; they are oval, but somewhat variable both in shape 
and size, usually of a semitransparent white when first deposited, but 
gradually becoming opalescent or pearly. The young are said to be usu- 
ally of a delicate grey, and to show tlie lateral banding from birth, as well 
as a distinct dorsal keel, the latter, hoAvever, is usually gradually lost 
during growth, its position being represented by a line of whitish mid- 
dorsal tubercles at maturity, a state which would seem to be attained 
about June and July. 

Food and Habits. — This species is much less slimy than Arion 
hortenis, and unlike that species, is essentially a frequenter of grass fields 
or uncultivated ground, and not common in gardens. Like its ally, it 
however is a truly geophilous and nocturnal species, and in feeding only 
ascends a short distance up a plant, though capable of spinning mucous 
threads both in its young and adult state. 

According to Baudon, it is rather common on decaying tree-trunks, 
under fallen leaves, and in the stem and cap of large mushrooms of which 
and other fungi .4. circumscriptus is particularly fond. 

It is a very sluggish and slow species, bunching up and spreading out its 
margins when at rest, and remaining inert as though torpid. It fixes itself to 
wood or stone, and according to Mr. 8herritf Tye, when lunnped-up in such 
places, looks like a grey pebble, and does not seek to escape from the place 
where it is fixed. According to Baudon, it often excavates little galleries in 
the earth under old trunks, in which many individuals may congregate, and 
which serve for retreats when the temperature is too hot or too cold. 

Mabille describes it as a winter species in France, but in this country 
the winters are more severe and it is rarely met with at that season. 

In captivity. Dr. Scharflf found them to eat pieces of apple or rhubarb 
stalk, while in the garden they seemed to prefer to feed on the fallen and 
partially-decayed fiowers of the pea, instead of attacking the living parts 
of the plant, like A. agreittis. Mr. Gain found this species to thrive and 
breed freely in confinement, but of 1U.-5 different kinds of food offered, only 
thirty-three were taken freely, while ninety Avere totally rejected. 

Variation. — Tliis species, being one uf our more primitive and ancient 
forms, does not display that wealth of variation shown by the more 
recently evolved species, and although many varieties and even .species 
have been set up, based chiefiy upon the ditfering shades of dermal colour- 
ing, yet these are all clearly referable to two chief lines of variation : one, 
which is chiefiy found on cultivated land and gardens, is distinguished by 
the yellowish or brownish shade of its colouring, due to the development 
during growth of a number of reddish tegumentary pigment cells ; the 
other partakes of the grey tint of the typical form, but is liable to darken 
with age, and also displays more distinctly a certain concentration of the 
yellow pigment in the form of a supra-pedal longitudinal zone, and is a 
form more especiall}' characteristic of the dpeii country. 

The slight dorsal keel, invariably present in the immature individuals, 
but which is usually gradually obliterated during growth, may, however. 


at times persist to adult life, and this juvenile peculiarity in adults is not 
restricted to any particular form, but is probably more common amongst 
the individuals living near the outskirts of the geographical range of the 

The Ai'ion celticus and A. nilssoni of Pollonera would appear to be 
passage forms, linking tlie present species with Arion hortensis, possessing 
the yellowish foot and coloured slime of the latter, but with the internal 
organization in practical accord with that of ^1. ctrcunm'riptufi, and should, 
therefore, be vieAved as extreme forms of the latter species. It should, how- 
ever, be noted that the external characters of A. celticm cannot be very 
well-marked, as specimens sent by Pollonera to Dr. Simroth as that species 
were found to be am\tomically quite identical with A. //ortensls. 


Var. leucophasa Normand, Descr. Lim., 1852, p. 5. 

Ariflit lencophiFus Normand, op. cit. 

Arion /lortensis var. f^risea Bourguigiiat, Mai. Grande Charlr., 1864, p. 30, pi. 1, f. 10. 

Ar/im atubiguus and var. armoricana Poll., Atti. Ace. Sc. Torino, 1889, p. 15. ff. 1619. 

Arion subcarinatiis Pollonera, Elenco Moll. Terr. Piem., 188.5, p. 19. 

Arion celticus Pollonera, Sp. nuov. .'\rion Enrop., 1887, p. 19, fif. 11, 22, 33, 37. 

Arion circ-uniscriptus var. atri/>unctatus Cockerell, Conch., Sept. 1891, p. 34. 

Arion circiimscriptiis var. snhalhida Coclcerell, Hrit. Nat., 1891, p. 101. 

Arion fasciatus var. griseus CoUinge, Conch., 1892, p. 79. 

Animal of a grey colour, with darker lateral bandinp; ; foot-frinr?e witli indis- 
tinct lineolations. 

This variety wliicli, with its more clo.^ely related forms, really represents the 
tvpioal form, is .sometimes found in an apparently dwarfed condition, possibly not 
fnlly ,i;iown, and in tliis state has been distin,L;uished by Dr. IJaudon as var. minor. 

The var. leucophsea s.str., as delined by Van den T.roeek, is ashy-grey, tinned 
with lilac, lateral bands dark. 

The sub-var. amblgua is ashy-.L;rey, fnscDUs ilorsally, foot and foot-fringe 
whitish, witli a tinge of yellow isli, and faint lineoles. 

The sul)-var. aPmOPlcana has the sides pale ash colour, Avitii back and shield 
maculated deep grey. 

The sub-var. atripunctata has the shield punctate with black. 

The sub-var. gpisea is li<^ht silver-grey, with darker lateral banding. 

The sub-var. subalbida is grey laterally, opaijue- white below and darker dors- 
ally, with dark lateral banding ; sole and foot-fringe creamy-white. 

The sub-var. celtica is darkly olivaceous above, sides pale grey with dark 
variegations and lateral banding, foot and foot-fringe yellowish, faintly lineolate. 


Dorset — Sub-var. anihigua (T. D. A. Cockerell, Conch., Sept. 1891, p. 33). Sub- 
var. suhnlhida, Bailey (late (id., op. cit., \^. So). Sub-var. antwriatiia, Sturminster 
Marshall (id., I.e.). Sub-var. f/rivcc, Chideock, Bridport, Aug. ISSo ! A. Belt. 

Hants. S. — Sub-var. celtica, Southampton, E. W. Swanton (Collinge, Conch., 
1892, ii., p. 77). 

Kent W. — Sub-var. celtica, Doddington, E. W. Swanton (Collinge, I.e.). 

Hereford — Sub-var. grisea, Bishopswood Vicarage garden, June 188-") ! Kev. 
R. W. J. Smart. 

Notts. — Sub-var. celtica, near Newark, W. A. Gain. 

Lancashire S. — Sub-var. grisea, Knowsley near Liveriiool, 1893 (W. E. Collinge, 
J. of Mai., 1893, j.. 148). 

York S.W.— Sub-var. atripuiictuta, Lofthouse, May 1887, 0. Roberts (T. D. A. 
Cockerell, op. cit.). 


Meath — An unifoiinly grey variety. New th-ange, June 1892, R. F. Scharif. 

Dublin — Killakee, Oct. 1890 ; .and garden, Leeson Park, Dublin, R. F. Scharff. 

Galway W.— Roundstone, March 1891, R. F. Schartt'. 


France — Var. Inicoplava is found around Valenciennes in the department of the 
Nord, and at Troyes in the Aube (Moquin-Tandon, Hist. .Moll., 185."), p. \7^). Snb- 
vars. celtica and antioricana, about Brest, the former being erroneously said to 
replace .<4r/o» //o?'/fH.s7'.v in that district. Sub-var. grisea, (irande Ciiait reuse, Iscre. 

Italy — Sub-var. ainbigiai, Bardoneccliia and Hoses, I'lednionl. Sub var. sii/i- 
carinata, Rosazza, Piedmont. 


Var. neustriaca Mabille, Rev. et Mag. Zool., Apl. 1868, p. 138. 

Ar/t'i! iieiistriaciis Mabille, op. cit. 

Arion /wrtotsis [j alpicola Fi^riissac, Talil, 1821, p. 18, pi. 8.\, f. 3. 
Avion circimiscriptus \-ax. fla-.'cscens Collinge, Conch., 1892, p. 27. 
Arion nilssoni Polloncra, Sp. nuov. Arion Kurop. , 1887, p. 19, ff. 31, 34. 
P>-olcf>is Itorttnsis Malm, Limac. Scand., 1868, pi. 2, f. 5. 

Animai. iecklish-fi;rey, lateral fascia blackish, dorsal keel sometimes persistent 
to adult life : foot-fringe ■without distinct lineolation. 

Tills is the var. .s^ibfinira of Roebuck and the var. flavescens of Collinge, avIio 
describes the form as not uncommon. It is probably the var. alpicola of Ferussac. 
The Arion nilssoni of Pollonera, is described as possessing a yellowish foot-fringe 
and as exuding a yellowish mucus. 

The sub-var. flavescens is light brownish-yellow, with dark lateral band, and 
no perceptible lini'oles, the yellow supra-pedal zone distinct. 

The sub-var. nilssoni is yellowish-grey with cinereous banding, sides paler. 


Cornwall W.— Penmon, Falmouth, Apl. 1884 ! Herl)ert Fox. 

Cornwall E. — Garden bank, St. Colunib, May 188.5 ! W. Vinson. 

Middlesex— Churchyard Bottom AYood, Higligate, Apl. 1889 ! H. Wallis Kew. 

Warwick — Ingon Grange, Stratford-on-Avon, Sept. 1884 ! R. J. Attye. 

Stafford— A hundant about Cheadle, April 1886 ! F. R. Webb. 

Merioneth— Hills above Barmouth, and Torrent Walk, Dolgelly, Aug. 1884 I 
J. Hopkinson. 

Leicester and Rutland— Hathern, Sept. 1884 ! C. T. Musson. 

Notts.— WoUaton, Nov. 1884 ! and Worksop, April 1884 ! C. T. Musson. 

Cheshire — Bowdon and Carrington, Dec. 1884 ! J. G. Milne. 

York S.E. — Millington near Pocklington, April 1885 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

York N.E.—Al.undant in Wilton Wood, May 1887 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

York S.W. — Ilolnilirth, Jan. 188.5 ! H. E. Craven. 

York Mid W.~Angram, Nidderdale ! at Starbottou ! and at an alt. of 900 feet 
on IJuckden Pike, May 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Lancashire S.— Sub-v./r^rr.^cr».v, Knowsley, 1893 (Collinge, J. of M., 1893, p. 148). 

Cheviotland— Twcedmoutii, Dec. 1888 ! Rev. Dr. McMurtrie. 


Fife and Kinross— Sub- v. /A^;r,srr».s, St. Andrews (Collinge, J. of M., 1892, p. 27). 


France — Under stones at Sevres, Rellevne, and Cliarenton, Seine; also in the 
dei>artments of the Aisne and Oise. 

Switzerland — Sub-var. nlpiiohi, tlie Al])s (Cliarpentier t. Moquin-Tandon). 

Italy — Rivarossa, Piedmont (Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Austro-Hungary— Sub-var. alpicola, Tatra in Galicia ( t. Jachno). 
Simrotli descril)es a var. with orange-red dorsum and paler sides from Graz in Styria. 

Sweden — Sub-var. nilssoni, South Sweden (Pollonera, op. cit.). 

Var. misera Pollonera, Spec. nuov. Arion Europ., 1887, p. 24. 

Arion honrgttignaii var. miser Pollonera, I.e. 

Animal whitish, or tinged Avith grey, with usual banding pale, and indistinct 

This sub-albine form is practically identical with the form named pallida by 
Mr. Roebuck. 

Carnarvon— Sub-var. j!>«//(ffo, CouM ay Castle, .July 1883 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 
Notts. — Sub-v. pallida, railway embankment, Colwick, Sep. 1884 !C. T. Musson. 
York S.W.— Sub-var. pallida, Penistone, Nov. 1889 ! Lionel E. Adams. 

York Mid W.— Sul)-var. pallida, Buckden Pike, at an alt. of 1,100 feet, May 
1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Roxburgh— Sub- vai-. pallida, Langlee near Galashiels, Sep. 1904 ! J. Roseburgh. 

Queen's Co.— Subvar. pallida, Maryborough, Oct. 1904 ! A. G. Stuart. 

Italy — Xiw. niisi rii. Valley of Aosta ami \'a]]('y of Great St. Bernard, Piedmont. 



Geographical Distribution. — Avion circum!<criptiix being an earlier 
evolved species than Ar'ton liortcns'ts, has naturally therefore probably 
acquired a wider distribution, although its range is as yet far from being 
accurately known, as it has been in the past and is still so frequently 
confused with .1. hortensis, under which name it is usually recorded. 

It has been reported under its own name, or under that of Avion 
hovtensls, from the British Isles, Germany, France, Belgium, Switzerland, 
Scandinavia, Austro-Hungary, North Italy, and Russia, but has not yet 
been detected in the Iberian Peninsula, where it will probal)ly eventually 
be found. 

It has also been observed in North America, where it has probably been 
accidentally introduced. 

In the British Isles, it is distributed entirely over the country, and 
probably exists in all our comital and vice-comital areas. 

Geographical Distribution 


Avion ciycHiiiscriptus Johnst. 

Recorded Distribution. 

K^M Probable Range. 

Fig. 240. 

Channel Isles— 8t. Sanip.son's, Guern.sev, Sept. 1891 ! B. Toinlin. 


Cornwall W.— Gardens, Truro, Apl. 1886 ! J. H. James. Penzance, Jan. 1905 ! 
Lionel E. Adams. Var. non^trinrn, Penmon, Falmontli, Apl. 1884 ! H. Fox. 

Cornwall E. — Type and var. nciistriaca, garden bank, St. Columl>, jNIaj' 188.5 ! 
W. \'inson. 

Devon N.— Northam, Nov. 1885, W. A. Gain. IJelstone, Olcehampton, Sept. 
1904 ! Kev. W. W. Mason. 

Somerset S.— Porlock, Auf;'. 1892! Lionel E. Adams. 

Somerset N.— Recorded in Adams' "Census," 1902, p. 222. 


Wilts. N.— Clyffe Pybard, Swindon, Aug. 1904 ! Kev. E. IL Goddard. 

Wilts. S.— (harden, DunoUie, Bourne avenue, Salisl)uiy, Sept. 1904! A. K. D. 

Dorset— Sub- var. amhigua (T. T). A. Cockerell, Conch., Sept. IS91, p. ?,?,). Sub- 
var. (/ri.mi, Chideock, Biidi>oit, Aug. 1885 ! A. Belt. Sub-var. sn/jfi/hii/it, Bailey 
(iate (Cockerell, op.c, p. .V)). Suli-var. arinuriccna, Sturminster Marshall (id., I.e.). 


Hants. S. — Aiiionj,' dcail leaves, <;ar<len, (Miristclinirli, June ISSfi ! and Holiorne, 
C. Aslifonl. Poitsdown Hill near Portsniduth, An;^^ l,SS(i, \V. Jetierv. .Moderately 
common, Craldte Wood, Aug. 18!»4, L. E. Adams. HamUledon, May 1904 ! ( ". S. Coles. 
Sub-var. cr/fira, Sontlianipton, E. W. Swanton (Collinye, Conch., 1,S9"2, )». 77). 

Hants. N. — Tre.^ton Candover, Nov. ISS,") ! liev. H. P. Fitzfjerald. 

Sussex W. — (Jarden, llatliam, July 1S84! and Up Park, Sept. 188(5 ! W. Jetlery. 


Kent W. — Sevenoaks, Auji;. 1887 ! S. C. Cockerell. Sub-var. celtira, Doddin<j;ton, 
E. AV. Swan ton (Collln<4e, I.e.). 

Surrey^Oxshott, May 1888 ! H. W. Kew. Punch liowl and Grayswood (E. W. 
Swanton (C. I'aniiell, jr., .1. of Concii., Apl. 1902, p. I(j9). Mickleham Downs an<l 
Epsom (id., op. cit., July lOO.S, ]>. .S:?l). 

Herts.— Codic((te near Welwvn, Aug. 1904 1 Mrs. Blundell. 

Middlesex— I'.e.lford Park, Chiswick, Dec. 1884 ! T. D. A. Cockerell. Muswell 
Hill roa<l, Apl. 1889 ! tvpe .and var. tinisfrimri, Chnrehyai"<l l)ottom ^^'ood, Highgate, 
H. Wallis Kew. 

Oxford — IJanbury, Chipping Norton, Deddington, Bicester, Oxford, and Swin- 
comb (Collinge, Conch., 1891, p. 14). Comlie, July 1904 ! Rev. S. Spencer Pearce. 

Bucks. — Abundant under stones by road-side, Olney, Marcli 1893, L. E. Adams. 

A. VOL /A. 

Suffolk E. — Woodbriilge, June 1886 ! Bev. S. Spencer Pearce. ^Nlendlesliam, 
Thwaite, and Needham Market (A. Maylield, J. of Conch., Apl. 1903, p. 295). 

Norfolk E. — Common about Norwich, Aug. 1890, Lionel E. Adams. 

Norfolk W. — Kings I.vnn, May 1887 ! and (Javton, June 1887 ! C. B. Plowriglit. 
Didlington Hall near Brandon, Oct. 1904 ! Hon. Airs. Evelyn Cecil. 

Cambridge — (Jrantchester, Sept. 1904 I Hugh Watson. 

Bedford — Hedgeliank and wood near Luton, Nov. 1886 ! .also Cemetery, 
Luton, Apl. 1889'! J. S.aunders. 

Northampton — Common in the county. Vardley Chase, Mch. 1893 ! L. E. Adams. 
H.aselbeech, Rev. W. A. Shaw. 


Gloucester E. — G.arden, Argyll House, Cirencester. Aug. 1904 ! ISLs. Blundell. 

Gloucester W.— Common about Stroud, Oct. 1883 ! E. J. Elliott. Bristol, W. B. 

Monmouth— Sidrenewton Hall, .lune 1886 ! E. J. Lowe. 

Hereford — Type and sub-var. gi'lsTfi, vicar.age garden, Bishopswood, June 188,j ! 
Rev. R. W. J. Smart. (Jarden, Ross, Sei>t. 1904 ! AN'. Blake. 

Worcester— Cleeve Prior, May 1887 ! CJ. Sherrifl' Tye. Selly Oak, Feb. 1893 ! 
Lionel E. Adams. 

Warwick— Soliliull, Feb. 1893 ! Lionel E. Adams. Common about Sutton C(dd- 
fielil, 1897, Albert ^Vood. \'ar. uiitstritKyi, Ingon (irango, Stratford-on-Avou, Sei)t. 
1884 ! K. J. Attye. 

Stafford — Stattbrd Castle, Oct. 1885! Lionel ¥,. Ad,ams. H.andsworth, in garden, 
June 1886 ! G. Sherrill" Tye. Newton,, Feb. 1893! C. Oldham. 
Harl)orne, Guy Breeden, 19(14. Tyi)e and var. ncit.sfriaai, Cheadle, .abundant, Apl. 
1886 ! F. B. Webl). 

Salop — Whittington Castle ! and Oswestry, Jnne 1885 ! Baker Hudson. 

SOi'T/{ ll'ALES. 

Glamorgan — Banks of river Ely, St. I'agan's, March 1885 ! F. AV. AVotton. 

Brecon — Erwood, Aug. 1904! J. AVilliams V.auglian. 

Radnor— Penybout, Nov. 1903 ! F. Hall. 

Carmarthen— Kidwelly, Dec. 1903, Rev. LI. Davies. 

Pembroke — Not uncommon, plantation, Tonliy, Feb. 1898 ! A. (r. Stubbs. 

XORT/! lI'Ar.F.S. 

Montgomery — TJanwddyn, May 1889 I in Holds, Llanymvnech, and beneath 
larch timber in railway timber yard, AVelshpool, June 1889 ! J. Bickerton Morgan. 

Merioneth — Pale, Corwen, common in gardens .and fields. May 1887 ! T. Ruddy. 
Type and var. )icastvkicn, hills above Barmouth I and Torrent Walk, Dolgelly, 
Aug. 1884 ! J. Hopkinson. 

Carnarvon — SIojjcs of Snowdon, .\pl. 1887 ! J. M.adison. Type and .sub-var. 
palllihi, Conway Castle, .July 1883 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Denbigh— Recorded in Adams' "Census," 1902, ]). 222. 

Flint— (irange road, Rhyl, .July 1904 ! Rev. A. Steele Perkins. 

Anglesey — Recorded in .Adams' "Census,"' 1902, p. 222. 


Lincoln S. — Ancaster, .Apl. 1886 ! abundant by ( >ld H.ammond Beck, Fr.ani])ton 
Fen near Boston, Sept. 1889 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Old (^hiarry, (Jreat Ponton, 
Aug. 1902 ! R. AVorsd.ale. 


Lincoln N. — Skirbeclc near Boston. Sejit. 1884 ! Tothby Farm ! Ailby ! Bnrwell ! 
Muckton Clialk Pit ! and Sutton-intiie-Mar.sli, Apl. 1886 ! also Haniiinton Hill ! 
Well Vale ! Ba,i;- Enderby ! and Grisel Bottom near Louth, Sept. 188!;) ! W. Deiiison 
Roebuck. Totliill, May 1888 ! Miss Susan AUott. Hibaldstow, Apl. 1903 ! Mason 
and Peacock. 

Leicester and Rutland — Var. neustriaca, Hathern, Sept. 1884 ! V. T. Musson. 

Notts. — Plentiful in gardens ami fields about Tuxford, June 1888 ! W. A. Gain. 
Cleveland Hill, West Markliam ! Pleasley Vale ! and Cresswell Crags, Aid. 1884 ! 
railway embankment near Colwick ! Beauvale Abbey ! and wood at WoUatoii, Nov. 

1884 ! by old ruined chapel, Houghton ! and Mapperley, May 1885 ! also at Staunton, 
June 1886 ! C. T. Musson. Corjioration Gardens, Wells road, Nottingham, Jnne 

1885 ! and Hunger Hill Gardens, Nottingham, May 1888 ! (i. W. Mellors. \'ar. 
nexsfriaca, Worksop, April 1884 ! Wollaton, Nov. 1884 1 and sub-var. pdUidn, 
Cohvick, Sei)t. 1884 ! C. T. Musson. Sub-var. cdtlca, near Newark, W. A. (Jain. 

Derby — Markland (irips and Pleasley Vale, Apl. 1884 ! C. T. Musson. Numerous 
on banks of river Goyt, Marple ! and Fairfield near Buxton, Sept. 1885 1 J. (i. Milne. 
Clifton near Ashlmurne, June 1889 I and near Hathersage, Aug. 1889, L. E. Adams. 


Cheshire — Garden, Broad road, Sale, May 1885 ! and Northwich, Oct. 1885 ! 
Charles Oldliani. Garden, Liverpool road, Chester, Oct. 1887 ■' Brockton Tomlin. 
Marple, May 1891 ! L. St. (ieorge Byne. Bowdon, May 1885 ! Peover near Knuts- 
ford, Aug. 1885 ! and Uunham Park, Oct. 1885 ! also var. ncustriaca, Bowdon and 
Carrington, Dec. 1884 ! J. Vt. Milne. 

Lancashire S. — River-bank, Walton-le-Dale, June 1889 ! and Farington, Oct. 
1889 ! W. H. Heathcote. Tyi)e and snb-vars. grisea and flavcscciis, Knowsley near 
Liverpool, 1893 (W. E. Collinge, J. of Mai., 1893, p. 148).' 

Lancashire Mid — Banks of Easegill Beck, at foot of limestone scars, alt. 900 ft., 
Apl. 1887 ! W. DenLson Roebuck. Fulwood, Fel). 1889 ! W. H. Heathcote. Over 
Wyresdale, at an alt. of 1,100 feet, Apl. 1903 ! Preesal near Fleetwood, July 1900 ! 
Mason and Peacock. 


York S.E.— Kilnsea, :\rarch 1884 ! W. Eagle Clarke. Allerthorpe, Filey, Low- 
thorpe, banks of Hornsea Mere, Bale Wood, Hedoji, Cottingiiam, Humbledon, and 
North (^rimston (T. Fetch, Moll. East Riding, 1904, p. 131). Sledmere, Aug. 1891 1 
F. W. Fierke. Dritlield, June 190-2, Rev. E. Percv Blackburn. Brough, May 1901 ! 
J. E. Crowther. Flamborough Head, ]May 1886 f Kirkliani Abbey, July 1889 ! and 
var. neiisfriara, Millingt<in near Pocklington, Apl. 1885 ! \\'. Denison Roebuck. 

York N.E.— In the Tees Valley : Saltburn Wood ! an<l Kirkleatham, Sept. 1886 ! 
Tockett's Wood near Guisborough ! and Skelton Beck Valley, May 1887 ! Yearsby 
AVood, April 1889 ! Kilton Castle ! and Ingleby Greenhow; type and var. iteu-striaca, 
abundant in Wilton Wooil, Jime 1890 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

In Eskdale : Rainsdale Wood, Robin Hood's Bay, June 1886 ! AY. D. Roebuck. 

In Upper Derwent : Pickering Castle Hill ! Farwath Bridge ! and Levisham, 
Aug. 1886 ! also Harwood Dale, May 1904 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Scarborough, 
Aug. 1888, B. Tomlin. Hayburn Wyke, Aug. 1894 ! F. W. Fierke. 

York S.W. — In Calderdale : Common, Park Wood, EUand, J. E. Crowther. 
Hebden Bridge, June 1904 ! AV. D. Roebuck. Birkenshaw, Sept. 1888 ! G. Wingate. 
Type and var. )iriisfriara, ganlen, Holmlirth, Jan. 1885 ! H. E. Craven. Sub-var. 
afripitiirfaffi, Lofthouse, May 1887, (t. Roberts (T. D. A. Cockerell, I.e.). 

In the Don Valley : Dunford Bridge, July 1892 ! F. W. Fierke. Near Wors- 
borongh Reservoir, Sept. 1899 ! W. E. Brady. Darton, May 1904 ! W. Harrison 
Hutton. Burghwallis and Campsall, May 1886 ! AA\ Denison Roebuck. Doncaster ! 
Dunnington, June 1891 ! connnon at Kiveton Park, Conisborough, July 1891, type 
and var. polVnhi, Penistone, Nov. 1889 ! Lionel E. vXdams. 

In the Vale of Mersey : Canal side, CJreenlield, June 1888 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

York Mid AA/'.— In Airedale : Headingley, Nov. 1886 ! W. Nelson. Plentiful on 
banks of Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Arm'ley, Oct. 1884 ! W. Denison Roebuck, 
(iarden, Horsforth ! Fagley AVood and Thackley Wood, common, 1887 ; Nab Wood, 
Shipley Glen, and Seven Arches, Bingley, 1888 ; gardens, Apperley and Calverley, 
1888, H. T. Soppitt. 

In AVensleydale : Eavestone, Sept. 1886 ! J. Ingleby. 

In AVharfedale : Kettlewell ! Starbotton ! and Buckden Pike ! up to 1,200 feet 
alt., May 1886 ; Leathley ! Troller's (iill ! and Rawdon Hill plantation near Hare- 
^vood, Apl. 1887 ! Grassington, May 1891 ! and Cray Village, Aug. 1904 ! W. D. 
Roebuck. Onghtershaw, alt. 1,250 feet ! Hubberholnie ! and Buckden Woods, 
common, Aug. 1904 ! Tom Fetch. Var. vrusi riant, Starbotton ! also on Buckden 
Pike, at 900 feet altitude ; and sub-var. pal/ida, at an elevation of 1,100 feet, May 

1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 


In Niddeidale : Near Linley ! and How Stoan Uock ! type and var. ncMsfriam, 
near An^iani May 1SS(> ! W. Denison Iloel)nok. 

York N.W. — fn Wensleyilale : Scars on Coverdale Head, alt. I,r)(i0 feet, May 
18SG ! and Leylturn Sliawl, April 189.S ! W. Denison Koebnck. 

In Swaledale : Coniiiion hy roadsides, Gnnnerside, .July 1884 ! abundant, Low 
Row ! and Feltliam, Aug. 1885 ! W. Denison lioebiick. 

In Teesdale : (4reta Bridge road, Bowes, July 1884 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 
Rokeby, June 1892 ! W. Nelson. 

In Itiliblesdale : Wood End near Slaidburn ! Tosside in BoUand, Aug. 1885 ! 
Horton, 1892 ! and Cowgill, Denthead, Sept. 1904 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Helk's 
Wood, Ingleton, 1888, F. Rhodes. 

Durham — Durham, Apl. 1884 ! near Higli Force, June 1884 ; and Croft, Apl. 
1887 ! Baker Hudson. Dent Bank near Middleton, July 1884 ! and Langdon Beck, 
July 1884 ! also Spa Wood, Dinsdale, May 1887 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

"Northumberland S.— Stookstield-on-Tyne, May 1885 ! H. E. Craven. West 
Woodburn, by base of clift'; and on summit at an alt. of 800 feet, Sept. 1887 ! 
Richard Howse. 

Cheviotland — Var. vcuMrlaca, Tweedmouth, Dec. 1888 ! Rev. Dr. Mc^Iurtrie. 


Westmorland and Lake Lancashire — Coniston, April 1887 ! S. C. Cockerell. 
Eggerslack Woo.l. Grange, Aug. 1897 (R. Standen, J. of Conch., Oct. 1898, p. ll.S). 

Cumberland— Scales, Sept. 1890 ! Rev. J. Hawell. 

Isle of Man— Douglas, Apl. 1904 (B. R. Lucas, J. of Conch., July 1904, p. 90). 
Injebreck Glen and Glen Maye, Sept. 1891 ! 

SCOTLAND. WEST lowlands. 

Dumfries— About Dumfries, Sept. 1890 ! and Moflat, Jan. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Kirkcudbright— Near Maxwelltown, Sept. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Wigtown — S])ringbank, Stranraer, Sept. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Ayr — By sandy sliore. West Kilbride, Apl. 1888 ! Alex. Somerville. Girvan, 
Sept. 1890 ! W. F]vans. Gonrock Burn ; Seamill ; Fortincross Rocks, Fairlie, and 
Largs, Rev. R. Godfrey, 1904. 

Renfrew — Altundant under sleepers on abandoned railway, Shielhill Glen, Aug. 
1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. 

Lanark — Fossil Marsh, Aug. 188G ! W. Denison Roebuck. Blackwood estate, 
Kirkmuirhill, Sept. 1904 ! N. 15. Kinnear. 


Peebles— Roailside, Eddleston, July 1889 ! tops of M-alls by roadside, Walker- 
burn ! and <at Leadburn, Aug. 1889 ! W. I). Hoebu(d<. Ca<lemnir near Feebles, and 
Slipperliehl Loch, West Linton, July 1890 ! also at Macbiehill, Feb. 1896 ! W. Evan.s. 

Selkirk — Holylee ! and stone-heaps in Thornielee railway station, Aug. 1896 ! 
W. Denison Roebuck. Near Selkirk, Oct. 1890 ! W. Evans.' 

Roxburgh — Eildon Hills, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Jedburgh ! and 
type and sub-var. pnllidd, Langiee near Galashiels, Sept. 1904 ! J. Roseburgh. 

Berwick — Boadsides near Earlston I and Dryburgh Abbey ruins, Aug. 1886 ! 
W. Denison Roebucdc. Cockburnspath, Sept. 1890 ! West Berwick ! and Colding- 
iiam Loch, Oct. 1890 ! W. Evans. Common, Eyemouth and F.erwick (id., Moll. 
Berwick, 1895, p. 171). 

Haddington — I'nder sleepers of abamloned railway, Drummore ! and Falside, 
Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Longniddry, March 1890 ! Aberlady, May 1890 ! 
and Dirleton Common near North P>erwick, Sei)t. 1890 I W. Evans. 

Edinburgh — Foot of Salisbury ( 'raigs I and ]dentiful at Leveidiall, Aug. 1886 ! 
Blackford Hill ! and lUmally, Oct. 1888 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Plantations above 
Dreghorn, March 1890 ! Crichton, Feb. 1897 ! Ilalerno, April 189(1 ! and Fullarton 
Liine (.Quarry, Nov. 1897 ! W. Evans. 

Linlithgow — Itoadside by Dalmeny Fark, Aug. 1886 ! AV. Denison Koebuck. 

Linlitiigow, March 1890 ! Carribber, 'l"'eb. 1898 land Binny Craig, March 1898 ! 

W. Evans. Abundant on island in Linlithgow Loch, also found at Dalmeny, 

Hopetoun, Abercorn, I'.hu kness, Dykenook, Wincliburgh, I'reston, Kinneil Mill, 

and woods, Jinkaboot, Woodcockdale, Cramond Bridge, Kirkliston, (Jraeme's Dykes, 

Redhill, Northbank, F.onytown Hills, (juarry near Craigmailen Church, and about 

Bo'ness, Rev. K. Godfrey; 1902. 


Fife and Kinross -North Queensferry, Aug. 1886 I W. Denison Koebuck. St. 

Andrews and Crail, Aug. 1890 ! Gharlestown Lime (^hiarries ; l>urntisland (^luarries, 

and shores of Loch Levcii, Feb. 1896, \V. Evans. Sub-var. flarrscfDH, St. Andrews 

(W. E. Collinge, Conch., 1892, p. 27). 


Stirling— Pohuotit, Auj,'. ISfld ! W. Evans. 

Perth S.— Callander, April 1888 ! Alex. Soniervillu. Aberfoylc, April 1896 ; 
Bridge of Allan, Feb. 1898, W. Evans. Babiuhidder, July 19U4 ! Kev. K. Godfrey. 

Perth Mid— Loch Tay side, April 1887 ! Kev. J. E. Somerville. Crianlaricli, 
Aug. 1888 ! A. Somerville. Glen Ogle, Locliearnhead, June 1904 ! Rev. K. Godfrey. 
Inver Dunkeld, Sept. 1904 ! A. Kodgers. 

Perth N. — Blairgowrie, July 1890 I W. Evans. 

Forfar — Var. nrnnfrktca, Montrose, July 1884 ! W. Duncan. 

Kincardine — Banchory, July 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Aberdeen S. — Drum Woods, Deeside, Oct. 1886 ! C. B. Plowright. Alierdeen 
Links, July 1890 ! W. Evans. Near Botanic Gardens, Old Aberdeen 1 and garden, 
Kubislaw, Aberdeen, Oct. 1904 ! CJeo. Sim. 

Banff— Tomintoul, Nov. 1890 ! and Aberlour, Nov. 1892 ! Lionel Hinxman. 
Banks of river Avon, above IJallindalloch, Sept. 1891 ! W. Evans. 

Elgin — Gardens, Elgin, Oct. 1890 I Kev. G. Gordon. Cromdale near (hantown ! 
and Castle Koy l)y Netley, Aug. 1891 ! AV. Evans. 

Easterness — Glenurquliart, Inverness ! and Nairn, Jan. 1887 ! Kev. J. E. 
Somerville. Kincraig, Aug. 1889 ! (Jlen Feshie, Sept. 1889 1 and Dalwhinnie, at 
an alt. of 1,200 feet, June 1892 ! W. Evans. 


Westerness— (Jlenborrodale, Dec. 1890 ! J. J. Dagleisb. 

Main Argyle — Coast, south of Dunoon ! and Hunter's Quay, Aug. 1886 ! W. 
Denison Koebuck. Barbreck, June 1900 ; Blairghour Falls ; Loch Nant at high- 
water mark; Ardchonnel ; DunoUie ; Glen Shieleach and Kilninver, July 1901, 
Rev. R. Godfrey. 

Dumbarton — Foot of Dumbarton Castle rock ! and in a wood by railway, near 
High Mains, Aug. 1886 ! W. Denison Roebuck. Near Duntocher, Sept. 1888 ! and 
Garscadden, June 1889 ! Alex. Shaw. 

Clyde Isles— Barone, Isle of Bute, Aug. 1886 1 W. Denison Roebuck. Brodick, 
Isle of Arran, April 1895 ! \Y. Evans. 

Cantire— Near Loch 13, on the Crinan Canal, June 1890 ! A. McLaren. 

Ebudes S.— Lough Ba House, near Port Charlotte, Islay, Nov. 1890 ! W. Evans. 

Ebudes Mid— lona. Oct. 1887 ! Rev. J. E. Somerville. 

Ebudes N. -Eigg, Nov. 1890 ! W. Evans. 


Ross E. — Between Bonar Bridge and Edderton, Fel>. 1887 ! W. Baillie. 

Sutherland E.— Golspie Burn', June 1884 ! Mound Rock, Sept. 1884 ! var. 
nciistri(ic((, south side of Little Ferry, Dornoch, Oct. 1884 ! W. Baillie. 

Sutherland W. — Durness ! also sandy sea-coast at Strathy and Farr, Oct. 1886 ! 
Rev. J. E. Somerville. 


Hebrides- Churchyard, Eye, Stornoway, Sept. 1886 ! Alex. Somerville. 

Orkneys— Harray, Dec. 1890 ! W. Evaiis. Stromnes.s, Oct. 1904 ! J. Grant. 

Shetlands -Moss Bank, Sept. 1904 ! Thos. Bowie. 


Derry— Near Londonderry, J. N. Milne (R. F. Scharfi', Irish List, 1892, p. 6). 
Straidarran, July 1904 ! P. H. Grierson. Garden, Downhill, Sep. 1904 ! C. N. Lynes. 
Common, Bellarena Woods, March 1904, R. Welch. 

Antrim— Cushendun, common. May 1886 ! Whitehall, Broughshane, June 1886 ! 
Rev. S. A. Brenan. Rathlin Island, also commonly at Ballycastle and Murlough, 
May 1896 ! Lionel E. Adams. Cave Hill, 1893 ; Knockagh Mountain, May 1897 ; 
Derrykeighan, Feb. 1898 ; Kenbane, Oct. 1898 ; Murlough Bay and Whitepark Bay, 
June 1899; Brown's Bav, Larne, July 1899; Colin Glen, Oct. 1899; tJlencorp, 
Mch. 1900; Ram's Island and (ilenavy'. May 1900 ; and common in the Ballycastle 
district. May 1902, R. Welch. 

Down— Beech Hill, Newry, July 1904 ! Prof. R. J. Anderson. Ardglass, Dec. 

1897 ; and about source of river Bann, near Deers Meadow, Mourne Mountain, at 
1,100 feet alt., Jan. 1898 ; Dickson's Nurserv, Belmont, Ajjr. 1898 ; Newcastle, June 

1898 ; Ballinahinch Junction, Mar. 1899 ; Clandeboye Lake, May 1899 ; common, 
Hillsborough Old Castle, Apl. 1902 ; and rare. Lough Aghery, May 1904, R. Welcii. 
Belvoir Park, 1894; Clonduff, Jan. 1898; Downpatrick, Mar. 1898; Ormeau Park, 
Belfast ; and rare, Killard Point, May 1898, A. W. Stelfox and R. Welch. 

Armagh— Acton Glebe, Poyntzpass, Sept. 1904 ! Rev. W. F. Johnson. Newry, 
Jan. 190.3 ! P. H. Grierson. Bessbrook, Apr. 1900, R. Welch. 

Monaghan— Carrickmacross, July 1904 ! Drumreaske Park, Sept. 1904 ! P. H. 

Tyrone — Baronscourt, Sept. 1904 ! R. Bell 


Donegal —Croa^liross iR'ar l.ctterkeniiy, May ISSO ! H. (". Hart. 

Fermanagh —Cast lecuole, Hiuiiskillen, Sopt. I!i04 I Hon. ('. L. ("orry. Drooke- 
lionmi^fli, Sfpt. 1904 I Sir Douglas Brooke. Not conuiioii, near Enniskillen, Sept. 
1890, 11. Welcli. 

Cavan— Mnlla!;li, .lulv IWH ! T. }1. Crierson. 


Louth — Dronilskin, June 1904 ! Blackhall Deme.sne ! and Drogheda, Sept.. 1904 I 
P. H. tJrierson. 

Meath— Drumcondra ! and Nobber, July 1904 ! P. H. (Jrierson. Not common 
in Boyne Valley near Cavan, and Trim, July 1900, K. Welch. Sub-var. grisea. 
New Grange, June 1892, R. ¥. Scliarlt". 

Dublin — Dublin, March 1886 ! J. R. Redding. Kill-of-the-(Jrange, Kingstown, 
April 1886 ! W. F. de Visnies Kane. Dellbrook near Dnndruni, 1897, R. Welch. 
Rathgarand Bushy Park, Dublin, Sept. 190;], A. W. Stelfox and R. Welch. Type 
and var. Icarophd-a, Killakee and Leeson [*ark, Dublin, Oct. 1890, R. F. Scharll'. 

Kildare— Maynooth, Nov. 1891, R. F. Scharll'. 

Wicklovy— Very rare, near (Jrevstones; near the Sugar-Loaf, also at Altidore, 
July 1891, and Woodenbri<lge, March 1893, R. F. Scharll'. 

Wexford — Kilmanock, New Ross, Apl. 1888 ! G. A. Barrett-Hamilton. Wexford, 
Apl. 1891, R. F. Schartt'. 

Carlow — Fenagh House, Bagenalstown, Sept. 1904 ! Denis R. Pack-Beresford. 

Kilkenny -Recorded in Adams' " Census," 1902, p. 234. 

Queen's Co.— La Bergerie {B. J. Clarke, Ann. Nat. Hist., Nov. 1840, p. 203). 
Stradbally, Sept. 1904 ! sub-var. pallidn, Maryborough, Oct. 1904 ! A. G. Stuart. 

King's Co. — Clonmacnoise, E. Collier and R. Standen, July 1895. Charleville 
Forest, Tullamore, Sept. 1904 ! R. McKenna. 

Westmeath — Common, Knockdrin Demesne, April 1892 ! R. F. Schartf. Moate, 
Sept. 1904 ! Mrs. Nugent. 


Roscommon — Rockingham Gardens, Boyle, Sept. 1904 ! E. Clarke. Loughglvnn, 
Castlerea, Oct. 1904 ! Hugh Kennedy. 

Leitrim— Dromahaire Abbey, Sept. 1900, and Swiss V^alley, Glencar, July 1904 I 
A. W. Stelfox and R. Welch. 

Sligo— Ballina, June 1891 ! Miss Amy Warren. Sligo, July 1904 ! A. W. Stelfox. 
Decidedlv I'are at Lissailill (tlcn ; l)cl()\v Doonce Rock; Glencar; and Ballysodare, 
1900 (H. Welch and A. W. Stelfox, Irish Nat., Sept. 1904, p. 186). 

Mayo"W. — Dugort, Acliill Island, July 1904 1 P. H. Grierson. 

Galway W. — Derrynasliggan Lodge, Leenane, April 1897, R. Welch. Rouiid- 
.«toMc, July 1895, E. Collier and R. Standen. Var. (jrisea, Roundstone, March 1891, 
R. F. Sciiarir. 

Galway E. -Killereran (B. J. Clarke, Ann. Nat. Hist., Nov. 1840, \>. 206). 
Clonbrock Forest and woodyard, June 1900, Hon. R. E. Dillon and 1{. Welch. 


Tipperary S.— Holycross Abbey, ^lay 1898, R. Welch. 

Waterford — Old Dungarvon road, near Clonmel, Aug. 1886 ! Rev. A. H. Delaj). 

Cork S. — Carrigaline, May 1888 ! W. F. de Vismes Kane. Bantry, rare, June 
1893, R. F. Scliartt'. (^ueenstown (id., Slugs of Ireland, p. 547). Common, Blarney 
and (Jlengaritt', Sept. 1898, Lionel E. Adam.s. 

Kerry— Valentia Island, July 1886 ! Rev. A. H. Delap. Muckross Demesne, 
May 18ill, and Lougli Caragh, R. F. Schartt'. Sheen Wood, also at Kenmare and at 
(Jalway's Bridge, July 1898 (R. Standen, Irish Nat., Sept. 1898). 

Avion circnmscriptHs is recorded by Clessin as inhabiting the entire area ; but 
records have only been noticed for Alsace, Bavaria, East Prussia, Nassau, and 

Belgium — A. l>oi(r(/iii(/)uifl is recorded for JJelgium, and as A. Icucoji/kcus for the 
provinces of Brabant, Hainault, Li«5;ge, and Namur. 

Ari'on cirruimrrl/ifii.i is widely distributed throughout the country, but the 
recorded localities are as yet few and scattered; they embrace the departments of 
the Ain, Aisne, Haute Garonne, Maine et Loire, Manche, Nievre, Oise, Seine, and 
Vendue. As A. fnseu.s var. IcuropJuva it is recorded for the Auhe anil the Nord ; 
as A. celtkiis from Fini.st6re ; and as A. horfcn-si-s var. grisai from the Ist^re. 

According to Clessin, it is a probable inhabitant of the country. 

Plate XXII. 

Distribution of A. circwnscriptiis Johnst. 

In the Counties and Vice-Counties 
of the British Isles. 


t luninol Islo.- 

1 Cornwall \V. 

2 I'oiiiwall E. 

3 Devon S. 

4 Devon N. 

5 yoniei'set !>. 

6 Somerset N. 


7 Wilts X. 
B Wilts S. 
9 Dorset 

10 Isle of WiKlit 

11 Hunts S. 

12 Hams X. 
15 Sussex W. 

14 Sussex K. 


15 Kent E. 
IB Kent \V. 

17 Surrey 

18 Essex S. 

19 Essex X'. 

20 liens. 

21 .MiiUllesex 

22 JJerlis. 

23 Oxloril 

24 Bucks. 


25 Snfloll< Iv 

26 Suflolk W . 

27 Norlolli E. 

28 Norlolk W. 

29 l_'aMiljriil:;e 

30 lied I (nil 

31 Hunts. 

32 Norljiainplon 


33 Gloucester E. 

34 Ciloucesler W. 

35 Mounioulli 

36 He re I or. I 

37 Worcester 

38 Warwick 

39 Staffortl 

40 Salop 

sofni WALKS 

41 ( ilaiiior^an 

42 lirei-on 

45 i;a(lu(n- 

44 (ainiartlien 
15 I'eiiibroke 

46 lariliKan 


47 Monlj>:onier.v 

48 .Merionetli 
4d I'aiiiarvou 

50 DeuliisU 

51 I'lint 

52 .Vnslesey 


53 Lincoln S. 
64 Lincoln N. 
55 Leic. & Kutkl. 
66 fCotts. 

57 Deriiy 


58 C'lieshire 

59 Lancasliire S. 
Lan'shire Mill 


61 S.E York 

62 X.E. York 

63 s.W. York 

64 .Mill W. York . 

65 N.W. York 


66 Durham 

67 Xorlluiml). S. 

68 t'lieviotlauil 


69 Westmorlana 

and L. Lanes. 

70 Cnmherlanil 

71 Isle or .Mail 




72 Dumlries 

73 Kirkcudliriglit 

74 Wistown 

75 .\.\r 

76 lienfrew 

77 Lanark 


78 Peebles 

79 Selkirk 

80 Uoxliurgh 

81 }ier\vii-k 

82 lladdin^'tou 

83 Edinliur ' 

84 Linlitlifiou- 

86 Fife & Kinross 

86 Stirling 

87 I'tli.S. &flkn, 
.Mid I'erth 
Tcrtli X. 

90 Forfar 

91 Kincardine 

92 .Mierileen S. 



113 Derry 

114 .\ntrim 

115 Down 

116 .\rmagli 

117 Monayliaii 

118 Tvron'e 

119 Donegal 

120 KermanaKh 

121 favan 


93 .\lierdeen X. 

94 IJanff 

95 Elgin 

96 Easterness 

97 Westerness 

98 .Main .\rgvle 

99 Dundpartoii 

100 t'lvde Isles 

101 fantire 

102 Ehiides S. 

103 Ehudcs Mill 

104 Eliiidcs X. 

105 Koss W. 

106 Koss E. 

107 Sutherland E. 

108 SutherlandW 

109 faithness 

110 Hebrides 

111 Orkneys 

112 Shetlands 


122 Louth 

123 Meath 
121 Dublin 

125 Kiklare 

126 Wicklow 

127 Wexford 

128 farknv 

129 Kilkeiniv 
150 (iuecu's Co. 

131 King's Co. 

132 Westmeath 

133 Longford 

134 Kosconimon 

135 Leitrini 

136 Sligo 

137 Mavo E. 

138 Mavo W. 
159 (iahvav W. 

140 tialway E. 

141 Clare 

142 Limerick 
145 Tipperary N. 

144 Ti[)perary S. 

145 Waterford 

146 Cork X. 

147 Cork S. 

148 Kerrv 

Probable Range. 

Recorded Distribution. 

Distribution verified by the Authors. 

AKiiix riHcrMsriuPTrs. 


This species, Axliicli iiiKk'r tlie names of Arian hotirffitij/ii'ifi^ ,1. ambufuns and 
A. .suhairlnntiis, would seem to I»e confined to tiie alpine and snlialpine districts of 
I'iedmont, ascending to an altitude of 6,00U feet in the Valley of Aosta. 

Heir Clessin says that though only known to occur in Austria, it proliahly also 
inhal>its Hungary, Holiemia, Moravia, and Galicia. It has, however, been recorded 
by Ha/.ay from Kotlina-Thal in Hungary, and as abundant at (4raz in Styria by 
Dr. Simroth. There is little doubt that the Ariun hortensis recorded by Bielz 
from Transylvania really belongs to the present species, of which country Simroth 
also indicates it as an inhabitant. 

Spain — Arion hortensis is recorded by Prof. Hidalgo from various localities in 
Spain, but the figure cited as rejjresenting his species (Ferussac, Hist. Moll., pi. Sa, 
f. 3) 'm Arion circa:n-scriiitH.s. 

Roumania — Dr. Simroth indicates that the inhabited area of this species 
embraces the range of the Carpathians on the frontier of Roumania. 


Norway — Westerlund reports that under the name of A. hortrnsis it has been 
recorded for many localities in South Norway. 

Sweden— Common at Konneby in the i)rovince of Blekinge, found sparingly in 
the Island of Oelaiid, and extends uj) to 64 nortii latitude, or according to Simroth 
really extends as far north in Scandinavia as 69 . 

Denmark — Westerlund reports it as existing on Zealand and Jylland. 

Extends into Finland as far as 60" 45' north lat. It is also recorded by Luther 
from Revel in Esthlan<l, and according to Dr. Simroth extends eastwartl beyond 
Moscow to tlie Ural Mountains, and probably range.s well into Siberia. 


New York— Abundant, ( loat Island, Niagara Falls. May 1004, T. D. A. Cockerel]. 

District of Columbia — Xav. nciisfrinra, ganien, \\'ashingtoM ; a jirior owner of 
the garden was in tlie habit of imitorting plants from Europe (W. E. Collinge, 
Nautilus. May 1S!»9, p. t)'. 

Fig. 211.— Banks of River Lagan, lielvoir Park, Ulster, a liaunl of .Arion circumscriptus 
(photo, by Mr. R. Welch). 



Suh-Geni^s Ariuvculii'1 Lessoiia. 
Arion intermedius Normimd. 

18.")2 Liiiuix- intermedius Nornmnd, Descr. Liinai-. nouv. , p. 6. 

1855 Arion /«w«s Forbes i'<: Hanley, Hist. Moll. Auim., iv., p. 9, pi. f.f. F., f 2. 

1881 — oernteosits lireviere, Jouni de ("oncli., p. 310, pi. 13. 

1884 — nuihifficiiiis Hamloii, .li)iiin. de (."oiicli., ]». 8. 

1885 — jtiiniituis Simiotli, Zeitschr. Wisseiiscli. Zool., p. 289, pi. 7, f. 41. 
1889 — mollcrii Polloinna, Nuov. Contiib., \k 19, f. 7-10. 

1867 Geomalacus- intermedius Mabille, Rev. et Ma^'. Zool, jt. 57. 

1867 — hienmUs Drouet, Moll. Cote-dOr, p. 27. 

1868 — viabillei Baudon, Jomn. de Conch., p. 142. 

1869 — vendeanns Let., Kev. eb Mag. Zool., p. 51. 

ISTORY. — Arion iiitennedhn^ {inter- 
medins, iiitennediate) was first clearly 
discriuiiiiated by Normand in 1852, 
but his description was overlooked. 
It is the Arion incommodm of Hutton, 
and is also the Arion flavus of Alder, 
Mo(iuin-Tandon, Forbes and Hanley, 
and other authors, but the species was 
not at that period generally accepted 
as valid, but relegated to the rank of 
a doubtful or spurious species by 
contemporary authors. 

In 1885, Dr. Simroth independently 
difterentiated the species, firmly es- 
tablished its si)ecific status and applied 
to it the very appropriate name of 
minimus, which, unfortunately cannot 
be maintained. 

A . intermedins is here associated with 
Dr. R. F. Scharft", M.R.I.A., of Dublin, 
its recent discoverer in this country, 
and the first in Britain to make 
known its really distinctive characters 
and wide distribution. lie is also the author of many able papers upon 
Geographical distribution and the mollusca generally, as well as of the most 
authoritative and imitortant work extant upon the Slugs of Ireland. 

Arion intermedins l)el()ugs to the sub-genus Ariuncnlns, a group insti- 
tuted by Lessona for the reception of a number of primitive little A r ions 
occurring in Spain, Morocco, Sardinia, and in the higher regions of the 
Alps, and characterized by the position of the sexual orifice between the 
pulmonary aperture and the right onnnatophore, and thus in this particular 
linking the Arions with Geomd/acus, in which there is a similar arrangement. 
Diagnosis. — A. intermedins, though presenting a certain resemblance 
to the two ])receding sjiecies, is much softer and more gelatinous to the 
touch, smaller in size, paler in colour, more indistinct in banding, and 
exudes a bright yellow watery mucus, which tends to accumulate at oppo- 
site ends of the body. It is, however, sharply separated from all its 
congeners in this country by the possession of small but prominent dermal 
tubercles, each of which is surmounted by a jelly-like pointed spike, a 
peculiarity which has earned for it the title of the "hedgehog snail." 



Internally, its orgauizatiou bears, according to Siiurotli, most resemh- 
lauce tu that of Arion siihf'usc/i!^, but is iiKjre simple and primitive. 
Perhaps the most shari)]y-marked difference is in the character of tlie 
mandible or jaw, which is very deb'cate, and dis])1ays a few exceedingly 
wide Itut only slightly convex ribs on its anterior surface. 

Original Description. — Liiwi.'- hilmntdius. Animal j^ris-jauiiatio pale. Ex- 
tremitc's svirtout la postL'rieure, iriiu Lean janne tl'or. Cotes Llaticliatres, marques 
aiiterieiirement ile fpiel(pies petits points noirs, nn pen espaees en lijiiie ])res dn Itord 
(In pied. Tete, con et tentaenles i^ris-fonce on noiratres. Plan Lxromotenr n'lann- 
leux. Mncns janne. I>imacelle hlanclie, ojiaipie et inuneiise. Lohl;. de Tanimal, 
1.1 a '20 mill. — Nor.MANO, Deser. Si.\ lyiiiiac. Nonv., 18.rJ, p. 6. 

Description, — Animal small Imt plnm))ly Imilt, about twenty or more mill, lono- 
Avlien extended, and about tliree-and-a-lialf mill, broad ; of a very pale yellowisli 
grey or white, with or without a broad and dusky but ill-delined mid-dorsal 
streak, shading off downwards ; ancestral lateral baud on each side of the body, 
same sliade as the back, shading off l^elow to the yellowish-grey foot-fringe ; 
SHIKLO linely granulose, rounded at both ends, aliont one-third the length of the 
body, usually of a yellowish-tint, es[iecially anteriorly, with jiale dusky ill-delined 
mid-patch and lateral bands wliich meet behind ; KESi'iKAToitY' oitlFlcP: abnost 
median, but the (JENITAL AI'KUTURE is nearly mid-way between the pulmonary 
orifice and base of ri^lit omniatopIi(ue, but below both ; UODY TniKRC'LEs shortly 
polygonal and somewhat promim^nt, and in certain ))ostures of the anjmal apjjear 
keeled, but under a lens the tubercles are seen to Ije surnu>unted l)y short white 
glandular spikes, which seem ca])able of individual movement, and whose erection 
appears dependent upon the will or emotion of the animal ; when removed from its 
accustomed environment, placed on the hand, or during extension, all rngosity 
may disappear, and the skin a])pears sujootii and shining, but the loosely implanted 
glandnlar crests give it the aspect oi being dusted with Hour ; HEAD and NECK 
darker than DORSUM ; CAUDAL (iLAND conspicuous ; TENTACLES small ; FOOT-.SOLE 
yellowish and undivided, the lateral areas yellow with slime, which also accumu- 
lates at the caudal end of the animal as well as on the anterior part of the shield ; 
FOOT-FRINGE yellowish-grey, not visibly lineolate. 

Shell in British specimens usnally rei)resented l)y a thin and indistinct layer of 
limey-paste within the shell-sac, whose inner walls are densely s])eckled M'ith lime- 
cells, although scarcely any free particles can lie discerned. Xormand and the Italian 
authors, however, describe the vestigial shells as white, opaque, and solid. 

Internally, the walls of tliecoelom are white and very thick for so small an 
animal, much thicker than in A. ci)-rum^rriptus ; the HEAKT, KIDNEY, and LUNG 
cavity are conformable with the generic character; the AORTA divides late, and is 
bmaii and white with lime particles, but there are no lime-charged hepatite arteries, 
such as form the beautiful white and lace-like tracery in .4. atcr ; the lateral 
SINUSES of the cadom are conspicuous, and correspond in position with the exterior 
lateral bands : the sui'RA-l'EDAL GL.\ND is well imbedded in the tissues, and not 
nu)re than half the length of the sole ; the CERELR.VL GANGLIA with short commis- 
sures, which shew no signs of lime ; the PEDAL GANGLIA are the largest ami the 
most conspicu(ms of the SUI5-<ES01'HAGEAL group, Mhile the liUCCAL i)air are as 
usual separated by about their own diameters. 

The CEPHALIC rethactoes are of the true 

Arion character. The tsvo tentacular muscles 

arise, about three mill. ai)ait, from the under- 

surface of the posterior jiart of the mantle, the 

right one furthest back, as usual: they are Hat, /q y m CepflLHc reuaaors 

witii \-ery broad, fan-shaped roots, each divides I U; \\\ ^^'i A. intervtcdins 

early for the ui)per and lower tentacles ; the I \ Norm.^lld x 3. 

I'llAltYNGEAL retractor arises further back, pos- \l ,^ i r ^''^^^ ' .:, *^^" 

, • 1 ii .^1 I 1 -11 11 1 t A Duljlin, Dr. R. I. 

tenor to the mantle and nearly mid-doisally, out A / Sch.-irfl"). 

imdined to the right side, it is much slenderer 

than the tenta('ular muscles, and forks a little 

later than half-way. 

The ALlMENTAltY SYSTEM has the (KS()i'H.\GUS pigmented and jiartially fused 
with the I'HARVXX, as is usual in the genus, but so much so that the parts have to 
be torn up to display the BUCCAL gangllv. The INTESTINAL CANAf. is triodromous 
and the details of its arrangement and the amount of torsion or twisting it has 

10/1205 iv> 



uiuU'i-oiie iuo MMV >iniil;ii l<i wliat i-< fiminl in .1. iirii(iiitrri/>fii.t. TIk' niiiKSTIVE 
CLANK is i;reenisli vflltiwiii rolour, with ilslolmles not very coherent, ami diseharges 
into the .sioMACli at tlie termination of tlie inckstivk tkact. 

Fig. 244. Fi... 245. Fu;. 216. Fic. 247. 

.\limentary and Reproductive organs of .•!»■/<>« I'ntermttiius Xomiand and A. iiio^erii PoUonera. 
Fig. 244. — .\limentary canal o( A. intcrntedius Xormand x 4. (Raheny, Co. Dublin). 
Fig. 24.5. — Reproductive organs of A. intcnudius var. appcnina x 2 (after PoUonera). 
Fig. 246. — Reproductive organs of .-J. minimus Siniroth x 3 (after Simroth). 
Fig. 247. — Pro.\imal end of the Reproductive organs of .J. moihrii, magnified (after PoUonera). 

Tlie RKPROnrcrrvE organs are charac