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Full text of "Montana Constitutional Convention, 1971-1972"

^^^ 




s«.^,°^.!*^* STATE LIBRARY 

Mooun. Con.i„u,,o„.,Con„„uon. 1971. 

Illllllllll 



3 0864 00040754 

•JJW 2 3 1993 



LEASE RETURN 



PATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 

NOV 4 1982 

MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 

930 E Ly,idal9 Ave. 

Helena, Montana 59601 



.^45 

CONTENTS 

Vol. I 

Foreword ' 

The Movements for Statehood and 

Constitutional Revision in Montana, lSti()-U)7li v 

Enabling Act 1 

Convention Rules ti 

Delegate Information 

Procedural Committees 21 

Substantive Committees li'J 

Alphabetical List of Committee Assignments - 1 

Convention Officers -9 

Delegate Biographies ■'' 

Map of Delegate Districts 'i-' 

Delegates By District ^^ 

Convention Staff ^^-^ 

Bibliography ' ' 

Delegate Proposals ' ■' 

Committee Proposals 

Suffrage and t^lections •^•^•^ 

Constitutional Revision ■^'^^ 

Legislative '^^^ 

4'^q 
hxecutive 

J udiciarN 

Vol. II 

Committee Proposals (cont.) 

Natural Resources and Agriculture •'■^ ' 

Revenue and Finance ^''^ 

Bill of Rights ^^'^ 

Public Health. Welfare, Labor and Industry <^fil 

Education and Public Lands ' '-^ 

Local Government ' ' ' 

General Government ' 

Compact with the United States 

Reports of Committee on Style, Drafting, Transition, and Submission 

Suffrage and Election 

Constitutional Revision 

. , . ><r,9 

Legislative 

. 891 

Executive 

911 

J udiciarv 

9"'9 
Natural Resources and Agriculture 

943 

Revenue and b inance 

. . . 955 
Bill of Rights 



,16 



I'ulilic llcaltli. Welfare, Labor and Industry 975 

KduealK.n and I'ulilic Lands 991 



Local (io\crnment 

( icni'ral ( lii\erninenl 

Compact W ith The rnited States 

1' inal Keport 

( 'onstiluliiin 



lOOT 
1017 
10127 
lO.'i.'i 
10S7 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Committee 547 



MONTANA CONSTITGIICNAI CCNVFMICN 

iNiilUbAL HESClif-CES ANE AG G IC U IT U P c CCfKIITEE PECPCSAl 

NO. VI 



Edte befcited: tttruary 16, 1972 



^s^_lcuisf_Crc£S 
ChaiiDdr 



^s/_E._Si_Erv_ easier 
Vice Chairffar. 



548 



f1CM'I'\NA CONSTIICIICNAL ^C^VF^'^ICN 



lAEIE CF CCMPMS 



Pagg 

LE11 ih (J I Ti^;. NSJUTIM .VjO 

TEXT C F r A J r- n Y F r- C F C f) A L rv-)2 

c N V 1 ^. C N KF, M A ^ E N A T li :- A I. F E S C « b C I: E , ')'^2 

CCf.MtMS C.\' KAJOFllY F^CFCSAl 'y'>4 

r NVIHON^E^T ANC NAtufAI FESCUFCiS 

3 ►'c tier 1. trcteC-icr ard Erharc^viTPnt 554 

S-cticr. ^. . Ptciamaticr 555 

Section 3. Water Fights 556 

Secticn '^. Cultural Fr-scuiCj^s 558 

TEXl OF fAJCniY EFCFC^^AI. 

AGF.ICnnUEE 559 

CCPfENIS CN KAJCFII^ FIiCPCSAl 

AGSICULTURF 560 

TEXT Cr MINOFITY FHCPCSAL 561 

COMMENTS 0\' MINOR! I Y PFCFCEAL 

3-cticn 1 562 

Secticn ^ 562 

A E E K N r, r X 

Cress reteiPRCt cr fc^sent aisc croposs'l Article 563 

C'^leqatt prcpcsals ccnsidet^d by ccffirittee 564 

Witr, esoes heard by ccffliritte? 566 

Pell calls 572 

Ha jori t V 

Natural R-ascurces 572 

Acriculture 573 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Committee 549 



:i i 11 c L 1 1 y ')1\ 



550 



KCNTANfl CCNSlllLlICNAl CC^VENTIC^ 



Date: Pfetruat> 17, 1^72 

Tc: f.CKIflKA CON ST 11 CI IC N A L CCNVENTICN 

Frcui: ^atur3l T'tscurcts and Agriculture Ccmoiitte? 

Ladies and Gen t leiiier.: 

The Natural resources and Agriculture Ccmniittee herewith 
sutiritE a prcpcsed h-iv Article cc "The Envircnuent and Natural 
Sescurc-'£" 3r.d a proposed new Article en Agriculture. The latter 
Articl-? is intend^^d to replace reference tc Agriculture in 
section 1, Article XVIII in the present Ccrstitut icn, and the 
words relating tc the special levy CE livestock in Article XII, 
section 9. 

As a result of i-t-s d el iberat ic ts , the ccuiEittee has drawn up 
a rew jrcpcsed Article en envirortnent and ratural resources. 
The Article requires that: the state and each perscr naictain 
and enhance the environment; legislative respccsitilit y; and a 
provision fcr protection. 

Separate sections dealing with land reclamation, water and 
cultural resources are part of the new proposed Article. 

The environmental and natural resources prcpcsal is sutoait- 
ted as a majority report as is the new proposed Article cr Agri- 
cult u re. 



The irincrity report, a proposed last section tc the new 
Article on the environment and natural lescurces, would provide a 
Montana resident with a right tc appropriate legal proceedings 



Natural Resources an 



551 



agairst a .3cv.= r niri>:'r. t aqer.cy chargec by liw with the i bj. 1 caenta- 
ticn jr. d enter ceaent cf s-jid ftcvisicc. 

Th^ iii'^n.ters ct this Ccnttittee, by signing the aajcrity 
report, do not necet^-irily sancticc tach and every stdtemert con- 
tained in this Evffcrt. The aincrity tef-Cit is an expression ct 
these tt3inb^t£ who feel that such expressicr, while ditferir.g trcm 
that cf thfr najority, merits cor, siceraticr. by the cciEittfp cf 
the hhcle. 

Th9 t^stimcny cf 95 witnesses in ^(:l appearances nas util- 
ized by the commi tt-j-. (See Appendix C) 

The cciBtBittee hishes te thank its Fesearch Analyst, Charles 
Sullivar.; its Secretary, Elaine Fung; Student Intern, Pcna 
Earley; and tave and Lee Ann Jersey. 



/s^_Ci_Lccis§_Crcss^ 
Cha ir aan 



ZIZ_li_Si_m_Cisler , 
Vice ChairBac 



552 



MC^TA^fl CCNSTITDIICNAL CCNVENTICS 



i:AJCtIlY_E FCFCS AL 

EE IT FFOPCSEE EY THE NATUF^l FPSCUPCfS ANE AGRICULTURE CCfMIT- 
TEF: 

That there te a nev Article en the En vircrisent and Agricul- 
ture to i?ad as fellows: 



ABTICLE 



fNVI.^ONMENT ANC NATOFAL RESOURCES 

Secticr. 1. FbCTECTICN ANE EMHANCERENT. (1) The State cf 
Montana and each person must mairtair, ard enhance the environment 
of the state for present and future generations. 



(2) Ihe legislature 
entcrceKent ct this duty. 



lust provide for the adninistratic r. ard 



(3) The legislature is directed te provide adequate reme- 
dies for th-^ protection cf the envircnnental life support system 
from degredatioE and tc provide adequate retedies to prevent 
unreasonable depletion of natural resources. 

Section 2. BECLAMATICN. All lands disturbed by the taking 
of natural resources must be reclaimed tc as gccd a ccrditicr cr 
use as prior to the disturbance. The ccndition or use tc which 
the land is to be reclaimed and the method cf ecfcrcement cf the 
ceclamaticr. must be established ty the legislature. 

Section 3. HATER RIGHTS. (1) All existing rights to the use 
of any waters in this state for any useful or beneficial purpose 
are hereby recognized and cccfirmed. 

(2) The use of ail water row appropriated, cr that may 
hereafter be appropriated for sale, rental, distribution, or 
other beneficial use, and the right-cf-way over the lards cf 
others, for all ditches, drains, flumes, canals, and aqueducts, 
necessarily used in connection therewith, as well as the sites 
for reservoirs necessary for collecting anc storing the same, 
shall be held tc te a public use. 

(3) All surface, underground, flocd, and atmospheric waters 
within the boundaries of the state cf Kcntana are declared tc he 
the property of the state for the use cf its people and subject 
to appropriation for beneficial uses as provided by law. 

(4) senficial uses include, but are not limited tc, dcaes- 
tic, municipal, agriculture, stcc kwatering , industry, recreation, 
scenic waterways, and habitat for wildlife, and all ether uses 
presently recognized by law, together with future beneficial uses 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Cormiittee 553 



as det<3iiriDed by the l^qisla+iure or couLts cf Mcntana. A diver- 
sion cr d9V9lofa)ent work is net required fcr future acquisition 
of a fcater right fcr the fcregcirg uses. The legislature shall 
determine the nethcd cf establishirg these future water rights 
which dc not require a div-srsion and nay designate priorities fcr 
those future rights if recessary. 

(5) Priority cf appropr iat icr fcr beneficial uses shall 
give the better right. Nc appropr iat ic r shall te denied exc«=pt 
when such denial is demanded by the public interests. 

(6) The legislature shall provide fcr the administration, 
control and regulation cf water richts and shall establish a sys- 
tem ct centralized records. 

Section U. CULTUEAL 5E5CDFCES. The legislature must pro- 
vide fcr the identification, acquisiticr, restcraticn, enhance- 
oent and preservation cf scenic, historic, archeclogic, scien- 
tific, cultural and rGcreaticnal areas, sites and objects, atd 
their use and enjoynent ty the people. 



Z§Z_l:2i}i§S_Clcss 

Chaiman 



^s/_E._Si_^lrv^_G^£l€t 
Vice Chairaan 

ZsZ_G€cffr€i_L._Brazier__ ZsZ_Henri_li_Sider ius_ 

lsi_Jchu_ti^_AiidetscLj__JZs_ Z§Z-*i_2i-£§lil£^i 

ZsZ_Ecualas_Celanei__ ZsZ_Charles_E^_PcNeil_ 

Z§Z_£££3i^-^-3- 



554 



MGNIANA COhSTIIUlIChAL CCK^EMICN 



COMMENTS ON MAJCraTY EBCECSAL 



AE'IICLE 

LNV IR0N.1EN1 Mi L NAIUFAI FESCUBCE5 

Stcticr. 1. EFCIFCIICN AND ENhANCEHENT. (1) The 

State of Mcntana ard each perscr irust ndintair, and 

eiihanc; the envircrKent ct tht state fci present and 
futuit qtn.- rations. 



(^) The i-gislature iru£t provide for 
i?traticn and <?nfcrcsii;ent cf this duty. 



the admin- 



(j) The lagislatur*^ is directed to provide ade- 
quate remedies for the protection of the e r vironiren tal 
life support system frciD degredaticr and tc provide 
adequate remedies to prevent unreasonable depletion cf 
natural resources. 

COP.KEKTS 

Your coumittee presents and r eccmniencs in its proposal the 
strongest Constitutional env ircciiental section ct any existing 
stdt^ Constitution. 

Sutsecticn (1) requires the state and each person, which cf 
course includes corporaticns and all legal entities as fcell as 
individuals, to maintain and enhance the Mcttara envircnaiert for 
present and future generations. Your coaaittee considered at 
length an exhaustive list cf descriptive adjectives tc precede 
the word envircnment such as "healthful", "pleasing", "quality", 
"high quality", "unsullied", and "unique" and finally ccncluded 
that no descriptive adjective was adequate or necessary. This 
was not a comproirise tut rather an acknowledgment of the present 
Hontara enviicnmT.t. 

Constitutional prcvisicrs cf other states were studied but 
none were considered adequate as co ether state has Montana's 
environment and therefore your confflittee felt that the best 
recommendaticn is tc require that all must mairtain and enhance 
the fcntana Environment. 

Subsection (2) mandates the legislature to adBinister and 
enforce the duty to maintain and enhance the McEtana envircnment. 
Your committee was urged by many tc detail the Banner cf acccB— 
plishing this duty but the teuptaticn tc legislate in the Consti- 
tution was resisted and confidence reposed ir the legislature. 
To those who may lack such confidence in the elected representa- 
tives of the people the clear and concise duty tc maintain and 
enhance the Montana environment cannot be contravened. 



Your committee considered two Delegate Ercpcsals which 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Comjnittee 555 



declared in substance that the £tate cf ncctana held in Public 
Trust the en vi Lcnmen t , for the benefit ct all the people cf the 
state. The trajority felt it urnecessary to have th^ state hold 
in trust all land, includiny cf ccutse privately owned real prop- 
erty, for the benefit cf all the people cf the state in order to 
accoiplish the prctecticn of our envir rcirfert . In addition the 
majority f=;lt it unwise tc experimert bj inccr pcra tiny into the 
Ccnstitution a "Public Trust" nhich was net clearly defined to 
the ccoimittee, hhich is not contained in the Cctstituticn of any 
other state, and which exists in its infancy in only twc states 
by legislaticn. 

Subsection (3) mandates tte legislature tc provide adequate 
remedies tc protect the e nvircniren tal life support systeo from 
degradation. The coramittee intentionally avoided definitions tc 
preclude being restrictive and the ten "erviicnmental life sup- 
port system" is all encompassing including, but ret limited to 
air, water, and land and whatever interpretation is afforded this 
phase by the legislature and courts; there is nc question that it 
cannct be degraded. 

Subsection (3) further nandates the legislature to provide 
adequate remedies to prevent unreasonable depletion and degrada- 
tion cr natural resources. Although it is recognized that scae 
no n— renewable natural resources are tc be consuired this provision 
perEoits the legislature tc determine whether the lesonrce is 
being unreasonably depleted and requires preventive renedies. 

The committee considered proposals which wculd give indi- 
viduals a right tc sue without the necessity of showing scie dai- 
age. The majority concluded that Kcntana's present law providing 
for class action under which litigation is presently pending 
involving multitudes cf claimants against a single alleged 
polluter is adequate. Kcwever the oajority feels that this is 
not a conipromise because the najcrity proposal requires the 
legislature to provide whatever resedies are necessary to prevent 
degradation and unreasonable depleticr. 

The majority of the coimittee believes that this is the best 
Article fcr the prctecticn cf the rcctana environment for its 
people . 

Section 2. BECLAMATICN. All lands disturbed by the 
taking cf natural resources irust be reclaiaed to as 
gcod a condition or use as prior tc the disturbance. 
The condition cr use to which the lard is tc be 
reclaimed and the method cf enfcrcenent cf the recla- 
mation must be established by the legislature. 

COff!«ENT£ 

Your committee finds it necessary to direct the legislature 
to recognize the demands of this and future generations and that 
our natural resources must be used to be enjoyed, but cnly with 



556 



f^CNlANA CCNSTIIUTICNM CCNVENTICN 




Stcticn 3. WAIEFi BIGHIS. (1) All existing rights 
to the use ct any waters ir. this state for any useful 
cr beneficial purpose are hereby reccgcized ard ccn- 

firce d . 




(3) All surface, ur.nergrourd, flood, and atmos- 
pheric wdters vtithin the bcurdaries of the state cf 
Montana are declared to be the property of the state 
for th'^ use of its people and subject to appropriation 
tor beneficial uses as provided by law. 



to, 

i n d u 

wild 

law, 

by 

or d 

tion 

legi 

thus 

si en 

r igh 



don; 
st ry 
life 

tOC; 

ths' 
evel 

of 
slat 
e f u 

and 
ts i 



) Be 
estic 
, rec 
, and 
•^ther 

legi 
o p m e n 
a wat 
ure 
ture 

may 
f nee 



net i 
, on 
reat 
all 
wit 
slat 
t wo 
er r 
shal 
wa te 
desi 
essa 



cial 
u n i c i 
icr , 

oth-e 
h fut 
ure 
rk is 
ight 
1 C6t 

r rig 
g n a t e 



uses 

pal, 

seen 

r us 

ure 

r CO 

not 

tor 

ermi 

hts 

F 



inc 1 
acr 
ic ha 
es p 
benef 
urts 

requ 

the 

ne th 

which 

riori 



ude , b 
icultu 
t e r w a y 
resent 
icial 
c f « c r. 
ired f 
fore 
e met h 
do no 
ties 



ut a 
re, 
s, a 

ly 

use s 
tara 
or f 

gcin 
cd c 
t re 
for 



re no 
stock 
nd ha 
r ecog 

as d 
A 
uture 
g us 
f est 
quire 

t hos 



t li 
wate 
bit a 
n ize 
eter 
dive 

acq 
es. 
atli 

a d 
e f 



mited 
ring, 
t for 
d by 
mined 
rsicn 
uisi- 
The 
s h i r g 
i ver- 
uture 



(5) Priority cf appropriation for beneficial 
uses shall give the better right. No appropr iat i en 
shall be denied except when such denial is demanded by 
the public interests. 

{(') The Idigislature shall provide lor the adicir- 
istration, control and requlaticc cf water rights and 
shall establish a system cf centralized records. 

CCR!?ENTS 



Your ccinirittee feels that water and water rights are of 
crucial importance to the past histcry and future develcpnent cf 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Committee 557 



the State cf Mcntand. Fcr this reascr the ccnmittee feels justi- 
fied in expanding the present Corstit uticral secticn which 
relates solely tc the use cf water tc include ficvisicrs fcr the 
ptctecticn cf the viaters cf the state fcr use ty its pecple. 

Subsecticn (1) guarantees all existing rights tc the ose cf 
water and includes all adjuaicated rights atd ncnad j udicated 
rights including water rights fcr which notice cf apprcpr iaticr s 
has beer filed as well as rights by use fcr which no filing is 
of record. 

Sutsecticn (2) is a vertatim duplication cf Article III, 
section 15 cf the present Constitution and has teen retained in 
its entirety tc preserve the substantial rurter cf court deci- 
sions intr^rpreting and incorporating the language of this 
secticn . 

Subsection (J) is a new provision to establish ownership of 
all waters in the state subject to use by the pecple. This does 
net in any way affect the past, present or future right tc appro- 
priate water for beneficial uses and is intended to recognize 
iMcntana Supreme Court decisions and guarantee the state cf Mon- 
tana standing tc clairc all cf its waters for use by the people of 
icntana in matters involving other states and the United States 
Govercttent. 

Subsection (U) xs a new provision to perait recreaticr and 
stockwatering to acguire a water right without the necessity cf 
a diversion. This applies only tc future rights and, cf course, 
only to waters for which there are no present water rights. This 
subsecticn further provides that future agricultural and indus- 
trial water development will net be fcreclcsed by recreation, as 
it is left up to the legislature tc deterEine the aethcd cf 
establishing a future water right without a diversion ard the 
legislature is further authorized tc establish priorities of 
water uses fcr those waters where the legislature decrees prior- 
ities necessary. 

Subsection (5) acknowledges a ccrtinuance of our present 
water law principle that the first appropriation in tiae is the 
better right and provides that nc future apprcpriaticns shall be 
denied except in the public interest. 

Subsection (6) mandates the legislature tc adainister, con- 
trol and regulate water rights. This does net in any way change 
the present legislatively established systeni of local control cf 
adjudicated waters by water coBEissicre rs appointed ty the Dis- 
trict Court having jurisdiction. A new reguireient is added to 
establish a systeB cf centralized records cf all water rights in 
additicn to the present statutory systeu cf local filing of 
records. The centralized records are intended tc provide a sin- 
gle location for water rights infornation and a complete record 
of all water rights. 



558 



MONTANA CCNST nm ICNAL CCNVENTICN 



Secticr. a. CIILrUBAL bESCUFCES. The leqiElatuie must 
provid-2 icr th*' iden tif ica ticn, acquisit icn, restora- 
tion, jr.hanc^inent ar.d preservaticn of scenic, historic, 
archeolcqic , i^ciei.tif ic, cultural ar.d recreaticral 
areas, sites, and cfcjects, and their use and enjcyirent 
!: y the f v: o p 1 " . 

CCMKENTS 



In teapcnsc tc widespread citi'zer and delegate interest 
in preserving our qhcst towns, as well as our scenic, 
archeologic, sci>=ntific, cultural and recreational areas, 
sites and objects ycur cciririttee prc{.cse£ this 
self--.^ xplanatcr y section. The ccoiiBittee felt that such a 
section was appropriate in an article prcvidicg for pro- 
tection cl cur total environment for this and future gener- 
ations. 



Natural Resources and Aqriculture Committee '^59 



KAJCFITY FliCFCSM 



BF II FBCEOSIC EY THE NATUPAl EESCUFCES ANC AGMCULTHRI CCM- 

HITTEE : 

That there te a new Article or Agriculture to read as 
f cllcws : 



AFIICLE 



AGBICUITURE 

Section 1. DEEAaTf«ENI CF AG6ICUILUPF. The legislative 
asseably must frcvide for a Eepartaent of Agriculture and 
enact laws and provide apprcpriaticns to protect, enhaEce 
and develop all agriculture of the state. 

Section 2. RIGHT TC SEECIAI LEVIES. A special levy 
may te made on livestock and on agricultural ccHtrcdities for 
the purpose of disease ccntrol and indemnification, predator 
control, livestock inspection and protection, agricultural 
ccminodity inspection and protection, livestock and agricul- 
tural coininodity research and prcmotior. 



Chairman 



/s/_E^_Si_!lErv'2_Gjsler 
Vice Chairiran 

Z§Z_Geoff£e2_L^_Bra2i€r__ ^sz.Henri.U.Siderius 

ZsZ_Jchn.H^_Ander£cn,_Jr^ Zs^.A^.w^.K^bcot 

ZsZ_Cou3las_Delane:Z ZSZ_Charles.B,.«cileil 



560 



MONTANA CCNSininiCNAL CCNVENTICK 



COMMENTS CN fAJOFIlTf FFCECSAL 



Stcticr. 1. CEPAPIJIZN'I Ci AGFICUITUFF. The legis- 



1 a t i V -i a 
cult Utr- 

prortct , 
S + a t -J . 



ssGBibly must 
and enact 
enharce ar.d 



provide fcr a d^partaent of flgii— 
laws and provide ap prcpriaticns tc 
develop all aqiiculture cf the 



CCMKENTS 

Your ccKiLitte'r telievss that it is necessary tc recognize 
the largest and most ircpcrtant industry in the state by retainirg 
the Ccnstitutiondl provision for a Department of Agriculture and 
tc rT-quirj tb^t the legislature provide a pprcpriaticns and 
authoritif^-s tc adequately protect, enhance and develop the agri- 
cultural industry of the state. 

This new section is irtended tc reacve any reference tc 
agriculture frca Article XVIII, section 1 cf cur Ccnstitution and 
to be the lirst section cf a new article on agriculture. 

Section 2. BIGHT TC SIECIAl LEVIES. A special levy 
may te aade cc livestock and on agricultural ccmtBodi- 
ties fcr th'^ purpose of disease control and indemri- 
ficatior, predator ccntrcl, livestock inspection and 
protection, agricultural comirodity irspecticn and ptc- 
tection, livestcck and agricultural ccirircdity research 
and proDioticr. . 

CCfMENTS 



This section is a ravisicn cf Article XII, section Q. 
Because cf the excsllent results cf the livestcck mill levy, your 
ccmirittee believes all cf agriculture should benefit frcu this 
method of self-help taxaticr. However, your cdrmittee feels that 
setting th-? rate, as was previously dene, is a legislative func- 
tion to be exercised in response tc icdustry needs. 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Committee 561 



I'.INCEIIY FPCt-CSAL 

EE n tROPCSEC BY THr NATURAL FtSCOFCES ANE AGRICULTUHE CCI-riT- 
TEE: 

Ihat the fcllcwinq subst^cticn te added as subsecticn (U) tc 
section 1 ot the t nvir cnire r t ard Natural Rescuices Majority Fro- 
pcsa 1 ; 



Secticn (U) . Any Montana resident has the riqht to appro- 
priate legal prcceedings against any gave r r otertal agency charged 
ty law with the i a p leir.en taticr and enfcrcenent ct any prevision 
of this Article. 



ZSZ_Ci_Loui£e_Crc£s_ 
Chairman 



/E^_Char les_Ei_ncNeil. 



/£/_Henr_y_Li_Siderius_ 



562 



PCNTAhA CCNSTIIOIICNJL CCNVtNTICN 



COMKEMS C^ f INC FIT Y P BO PC SAL 

Stcticn (U) . Any Kcr.tana resident has the right tc 
appropriate legal frcceedircs against any governciental 
agency charged ty lavi with the i ir plp nerta ticn and 
en tcrceinr-:nt ct any jrcvisicn of this Article. 

CCHPENIS 

Iht- [rincrity report, a proposed sutsecticn tc section 1 of 
the new \rticle cr the envircnment and natural resources, would 
provide a f.ontana resident with a right tc appropriate legal pro- 
ceedings against a government agency charged ty law with the 
iaiplcmer.taticn and enforcetcent cf said prcvisicr. 



This is intended tc grant an individual a Constitutionally 
guaranteed direct legal remedy tc compel the perfcrirance ly state 
agencies of the duty tc inplement and enforce the provisions of 
the Environment section. 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Committee 



563 



SPFENCIX A 
CIiCSS FEF£FFh:CE£ 



PRCPCSEI SECTIONS CF 
ENVI FCNMENI Al A ST I CLE 



1 

2 

3 



1+ 
here 



PFESENl A&TICLE 5 SECTION 

None 

Ncne 

III, 15, Mith 
revision 

Ncre 

XIX, 3 



PRCFCSEE SECIICNS OF 
AGhlCUITUF.E ABIICLE 



PPESES'I ARTICLE S SFCTICN 

XVIII, 1, kith 
tevisicr 

XII, 9, with 
r^: visicr. 



564 MONTANA CCNSl TTUTIC N AL CCN^ENTICN 

APPENDIX b 

P ROPOSALS CONSIDERED BY COMMITTEE 
The following delegate proposals were examined and 
considered by the Natural Resources and Agriculture 
Committee during its deliberations: 



Number of 

Prop osal Chief Sponsor Subject Matter Disposition 

1 Berthelson Establishing Rejected 

Public Policy on 

Environmental 

Quality 

2 Berthelson Providing for Adopted in 

Water Rights part 

12 Cate Protecting the Rejected 

Environment 

20 McNeil Providing a Adopted in 

Public Policy of part 
a Quality Environ- 
ment 

21 McNeil Guaranteeing an Adopted in 

Individual ' s part 

Right to a Qual- 
ity Environment 

48 Etchart Providing for Adopted in 

Water Rights part 

83 Jacobsen Providing for Adopted in 

Acquisition of part 
Historic Sites 

93 Siderius Providing for Referred to 

a Collective Bill of Rights 
Bargaining Committee with 

Affirmative 
Recommendation 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Comnittee 565 



Nunibtjr of 

Propos al Chief Sponsor , .. -t Matter :^ ^^ition 

9. 96 Erdmann Irrigatinq and Adopts, xii 

Water Rights part 

10. 104 Kelleher Reserving to the Rejected 

People of Montana 
All Subsurface 
Rights Except Under 
School & Indian 
Lands 

11. 114 Bugbee Public Sightli- Rejected 

ness and Good 
Order 

12. 117 Bates Providing for a Adopted in 

Department of part 

Agriculture 

13, 127 Davis Providing for Adopted in 

Water Rights part 

14, 135 Davis Providing for Referred to 

the Exchange of Education and 
Public Lands Public Lands 

Committee 

15, 162 Cross Environment as Rejected 

Public Trust 



566 



MCNTANfl CCNSTITUIICNAL CCbVEKTICN 



APE END IX C 



WITNESSES aiAFC EY CCKKIITEE 



^a5e_r_:51iiiiSticn_-_?€sidfDce_-_ Subject 

1. Gary J. hicks - ChairHan, Cepartment of Natural 
Pesources - Helena - Duties ard Prcblems of department. 

2. James T. tlarriscn, Jr. - Counsel, CepartBect of Natural 
Resources - Helena - I nf or icat icr atcut Cepartaert cf 
Natural Resources. 

3. Fcnald J. Gus^ - Eaplcyee cf Cepartipect cf Natural 
Resources - Helena - Irf cr maticn atcut Cepartnert cf 
Natural Resources. 

U. Elans L. EillG - Errplcyee cf Cepartffert cf Natural 
Resources - Helena - Infcriraticr atcut Cepartuert cf 
Natural Resources. 

5. Mike Schwirder - Eirplcyee cf Departnert cf Natural 
Resources - Helena - Icf crmaticn atcut Departnert cf 
Natural Resources. 



6. James losewitz - Eirectcr - Eivis4cr for E nvircctrental 
Protection, Department cf Eish and Game - Helena - 
Duties and background cf divisicr. 

7. Ted Schwinden - Ccaicissicner cf Public Lards — Helena - 
Duties cf Cffice. 

8. Catc Butler - Public InforHaticn Officer, Cepartmert cf 
Aqricultura - Helena - Duties and prcblsis cf depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

9. Jack Rehberg - Montana Eetrcleum Producers - Billings - 
Pclluticn cf urdeigrcuod waters. 

1C. John Goers - Geologist, Department cf Public lands - 
Helena - Mining and minerals laws. 

11. P. R. KcEcnald - Anaconda Cciapany - Butte - Envircc- 
ment . 

12. Dcuglas Siiith - Agriculture Cccrdiratcr - Helena - 
Agriculture . 

13. Eill Cheney - Executive Cfficer, Eepartient of Live- 
stock - Helena - Livestock aill levy. 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Committee 567 



14. i-zT: wake - Acirinistra tcr , Livisicr. of 5 r. vircnnien tal 
Sciences, Cepdrtirer.t ct iiealth R Znv ircrir'^rtal Sciences 

- H€l-ena - fiir. 

15. Jchr C. Spindler - Anaconda Ccnfary - Eutte - Hater. 

16. Fred JchnstcE - Lawyer-rancher - C-reat palls - Lessee 

cf stdt€ lands. 

17. Dclcr?s Cclbery - Superintendpnt cf [ublic Ins tr LCt icn 

- Helena - Putlic Lands. 

18. Maurice Hickey - Directcr ct Eield Services, fcntana 
£ducaticnal Asscciaticn - Helena - Use cf state lanes 
ror public scbccls. 

19. Fletcher NewLy - 2xecutive Lirectcr, En vircnnen tal 
Cuality Ccuncil - helena - En vir cr Cc eta 1 quality. 

2C. C. E. Anderson - Fart-time prcfesscr at Western rcrtara 
Ccileg- - Lillcn - State lards. 

21. Al Kin-jton - Chief Forester, Divisicn of Forestry 
fcrt Harrison - Operaticns ct 0*= f artir ent . 

22. Jchn Bcunds - Anaconda Weed Products Ccafary - Ecnner - 
Cperaticns cf plant. 

23. Lester Ischannen - Evans Ercducts Co. - Missoula - For- 
ests and timcer. 

2U, Jonn Schultz - Tree Loggers, Ire. - Missoula - Forests 
and titrter. 

25. Chet rreher - P.epresin tat ive of Ccrgresscan Shcup 
Helena - Envircnoient . 

26. Paul Richards - Governor's Ccrference en Youth - Helena 

- Envircnoient. 

27. Irving Boettger - Engineer with private concern - East 
Helena - Envircnoient. 

28. Pill Cunninghait - frcfessor. University cf Montana For- 
estry School - Missoula - Public trust and environ- 
ment. 

29. William C. Hcllentaugh - Frcfessor, University cf Hcr- 
tana Forestry School - Missoula - Environment. 

30. Gecrga Earrow - P epresentative , Yellowstone Ccunty, 
District 6 - Eillings - Environment. 



568 



nONlANA CC^STI'IU^ICNAL CCNVENTICN 



31. 1-ofcert t. Lc'FrcuE'r - Anaccnrla Ccifary - Hisscula - 
Lrvirorii'fr.t. 



32. Cecil Garland - Private bosiness - Lirccln 
[rent. 



En vircn— 



33. Ldrl«=n-; L. C-rcve - Hcusehif? - Helena - Environment. 

3*t. «avis fiCKelvty - league cf Wciter. Voters - Misscula - 
E rvi r cniren t . 

35. William D . Tooilinscn - Montana Wildlife Eedsraticn - 
Misscula - Lnvitcnir^nt. 

36. Cale Fredlund - Prcfesscr, Departirent cf Anthropclogy , 
University cf Montana - Misscula - Cultural resources. 

37. Kichard L. Redder - Montana Agriculture Exferisent Sta- 
tion - Eozeaan - Keclairaticn. 

3G. Erank J. Laird, Jr. - Araccnda Ccaipany - Eutte - Follu- 
tier. 

39, Gene A. Tuira - Peabcdy Ccal Ccwpany - Forsyth - Becla- 
maticn. 

UO. Leonard Camptell - Regional Counsel, Envir cnmental Prc- 
tection Agency - Denver, Cclcradc - En vircnaient . 

41. Irwin Eickstein - Env ircrae rtal Frotecticn Agency - 
Denver - Ervircnment. 

42. Fctert EeSpain - Envircniren ta 1 Protection Agency - 
Denver - Environment. 

43. heitb Schwat - 2rvir cnirental Protection Agency - Denver 

- Envircnment . 

44. Dave Wagoner - En vircnmental Frotecticn Agency - Denver 

- Envircnment . 



45. Eatricia Antonick - Housewife - Helena - Ervircrment. 

46. Sam Gillully - Director, Montana Historical Society - 
Helena - Cultural resources, 

47. Richard Reese - Chairman, Eepartnent cf Pclitical 
Science, Carrcll College - Helena - Envircnment. 

48. George Lackman - Contmissicner cf Agriculture - Helena - 
Departnent cf Agriculture. 

49. Larry Blazing - Forester - Misscula - Forests and 
timber. 



Natural Resources and Aariculture Committee 



569 



5C. .larvin ^■cf1ichelH - Mcntara Weed Frciucts Asscciation 
Misscula - i'crests ami limter. 

51. Fred W'^tzstecn - Earner - Sula - Water tights. 

52. Albert W. Stcne - ProlGsscr, University ct Mcntana - 
F. issoula - Water use anc richts. 

53. rimer Cox - PresidGnt, Mcntara Naticral Farmers Orga- 
nizaticfj - Fcrt Eentcn - Hatfr rights ar.d use. 

54. Charles Bowman - Head of Agricultural Exferiuent Sta- 
tion - Pczeuan - Water. 

55. James A. Stewart - Mcntana Quality Ccnncdities , Ir.c. 
Glasgow - Water. 

56. Alex Kcgan - Mcntana Quality frocucts. Ire. - Glasgow - 
Water . 

57. Clyde Jarvis - President of Montana Farmers Onion - 
Great falls - Water. 

58. Senator Gcrdcc KcGcwar - Pancher 8 Secatcr - Highwocd - 
Water. 

59. Senator McCraLer - Rancher 8 Senator - Water. 

60. ?!cns Teigen - Secretary, Kcntana Stockgrcwers Associa- 
tion - Helena - Water. 

61. David A. Smith - Secretary-Treasurer, Kcntana Wool 
Growers Association - Helena - Water. 

62. Philip tonally - Montana Weed Control Association - 
Superior - Pesticides. 

63. Jim Kallin - Montana heed Control Association - 
Misscula - Pesticides. 

64. Viggo Anderson - Grain Farmer - Great Falls - Agricul- 
ture. 

65. Jim Stephens - Pres., Montana Grain Growers Assn. - 
Button - Agriculture. 

66. Gretchen Billings - Helena - Executive Secretary, Mon- 
tana council of cooperatives - Depart-ert of Bgricol- 
ture. 

67. Clifford Stoltz - Grain acd livestock operator - Valier 
- Department of Agriculture. 



570 



MONIANA CCNSinDIICNftL CCNVENTICN 



68. Crcrqe SKdria - U'ht^dt farirer - Center - Cs pa ttiiient of 
flgiicultur?. 

69. Harv€y Griffir - harchcr - Fo^eiran - Water. 
7C. Jchn C. t'au<jh - fartcer - Ecze-nar - watGi. 

71, Oliv^^r Lt?tevr>^^ - F archer - Billings ij Sheridan - land. 

72. Jchn Kay - leacher - Hairiltcr - fcat=r riqhts. 

7?. Dt. Clancy Gordon - Prcfsssor, University cf Montana - 
Kissoula - Kn vironment and pclluticn. 

7U. fcill baird - Real estate - Eillirgs - Land. 

75. Gene Picotte - Attcrney, representing Pcrtana - Lakota 
Utilities - Helena - Delegate Frcpcsal #162. 

76. Senator Le? M^tcalf - Senator for Montana - Bashingtcr, 
D. C. - Eelegate Proposal «(162. 

77. Eill L-aaphart - Ssnior at C cf [^ Lav* School - Pissoula 
Eublic Trust in Eelegate Eropcsal #162. 

78. Patricia Eee ['eier - GASP - Kissoula - Eelegate Prc- 
pcsal )t162. 

79. Ray Gardner - Society cf Airericar Foresters - Kalispell 

- Delegate Proposal #162. 

80. Lr. James N. Brogger - Western t^crtara Fish and Gaoe 
Association - Misscula - Delegate Frcpcsal #162. 

81. Robert E. Watt - Montana Student President Association 

- Helena - Eelegate Proposal #162. 

82. DorisiXilner - Citizens cf Ravalli Ccurty - Hamilton - 
eelegate Proposal #162. 

83. Mrs, Gene Allen - Rancher - Eruirncrd - Public Trust 
(Eelegate Proposal «162). 

8U. Hubert G. Hhite - f'.cntana Water Eevelcpnent Association 

- Townsend - Water. 

85. Ray GulicK. - tamer - Jcplin - Agriculture. 

86. lerry Kurphy - Representative and fariter - Cardwell - 
Agr icu Iture . 

87. Edward J. Melby - Farmer - Melt - Agriculture. 

88. Gordon Watbescn - Grain Faraier - Conrad - Agriculture. 



Natural Resources and Agriculture Committee 571 



89. Ecb Ward - Farir er-r ar.cher - Pczenan (Gallatin Valley) - 
flgr iculture . 

9C. Fd Linhardt - High Line Ditch Cctnpany - Pillinqs - 
Water rights. 

91. Oill Stil=y - Pig Citch Ccmfany - Eillirgs - Wat^r 

rights. 

92. Hans Bcffler - Society American Foresters - Missoula 
Tioiter . 

93. lim Hichmcnd - AnaccDda Forest Frcducts - Misscula - 
1 ifflter . 

9U. Paul Kipf - Forester, Bureau of Indian Affairs - Bill- 
ings - Timter. 

95. larry Hagcre - Plum Creek luifter Ccnfany - Hhitefish - 
Tifflter. 



572 



MONTANA CCNSTITOTICNAL CCh^ENTICN 









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P€venue ar d Financt Ccuffittee 



o/o 



MONTANA CCNSinUTICNAl CChVEMICK 

REVFNDE AND FINANCE 
CCKHITTEE FFCEOSAL CN CCNST IIUTICN A L EtVlSICN 

NC. VII 



Date Fepcrted: Petruarj 18, 1972 



Zs/_St€ilin2_Biag, CHAIPHAN 



ZSZ_i5aiJli£i-££i§£Sl^' ^^^^ chaibman 



576 



MONTANA CC^STI1U IICNAL CCNVENTICN 



lAOlE CF CCM^NTS 



S -? c t i G n ^ . 
S-icticn i , 
S'icticn 4. 



Pace 

LETTiF Ct ThAKSMlTTAL 578 

INIBC t'ICT ION 579 

TEXT C F f A JO H 'I Y P I>C FO S A L 584 

COMMENTS ON riAJORIlY PRCtCSAL 588 

Secticn 1. Put lie Pui;fc:s«= 588 

Surrsr.d-r Clause 588 

t'lcp-rtj Tax Acirir. istraticr.... 588 

E^ual Valuaticn 590 

Stcticn ". Ftcp^r*:^ Tax Fx-infticns 590 

Sr-Ction t. liiyhway Earirark 591 

Section 7. Tax A]:t?alf Lcard 592 

Section ■'. Stat^ InJettcaii-zss 594 

B a 1 a r. c t d P u d y 9 t 595 

L c c a 1 G o V f? r r, ff p, T: t 1 1; d € b t € d n •' s s 595 

5e-ctior. 11. Us- at Ecrrcw = d Furcs 595 

Section ! 2 . Strict A c c c ur. t a i. i 1 i ^ y 596 

Section ' 3 . I r. v .; s t ir j r t ci F u L I i c F u :; '1 £ 596 

S'-:cticn la. Agiicuitural L^^vi^s 597 

MINCFITY CC^fFM G N FROFOSFE SECTICN ": 599 

MINCFITY COi-IMINl .\ PDCFCSSC SECTICN 13 602 



S .; c 1 1 c n 
ST^cticr. 



Xevsnue and fin arcs Ccntrittee 577 

APFENEIX 

Fell Ciii Vct-:^ en Majority Prcfc:;al 604 

r-rct;o£als Consider -id ty Cciirittte 605 

A i t r. ? ? p V s R 'i a r 1 t y C c m m i * t e ^ 606 

i<oll Cills cr i-:incrity Frcpcsals 613 



578 MONTANA C0NS1ITU1ICNAL CCNVESTICN 



Date: February 18, 1972 

Tc: MONTANA CCN ST ITUT IC N A L CCNVEKTICN 

Frcir: Revenue and l-inance Committee 

Ladies and Gentlemec: 

The Pevenue ard Finance Ccmniittee subaits herewith a pro- 
posed nevi revenue and Finance Article which ccmtines Articles 
XII, XIII and XXI of the present Const itut icr . The proposed arti- 
cle is intended to replace all sections of those articles, reiscv— 
ing scDie provisions entirely, condensed the language of ether 
provisions, retaining the intent of sense sections, and adding new 
revenue sections. 

The members cf this ccmniittee, by signing the Bajcrity 
report, do not necessarily endorse each and every stateaent con- 
tained therein; and minority reports or, various sections are 
also presented in this report. 

The committee utilized the testimony cf aany witnesses. It 
is also indebted to the delegates for the many proposals in the 
revenue and finance area. 

The committee wishes to express its thanks to Boger A. Bar- 
ber, its Research Analyst; Dennis Eurr, its consultant froi the 
Department cf Revenue; Karen Hclliday, its secretary; and Eandall 
Gray, Blake Johnson and Edwin Shannon, its Student Interns, 



^s^_Sterlina_Rj[33 
Chairman 

^s/_Baarice_Eriscoll 
Vice Chainat 



Fevenufc dnd finance Ccinrittee 



579 



INI RCCLCTION 



with 
ment o 
t i c n s 
princi 
tuticn 
Ccnsti 
Cctcniit 
trddit 
had t 
teed t 



he d 
r'=wr 
f th 
has 
pies 
al i 
tuti 
tees 
i c r. a 

C Q€ 

c th 



eleiga 

it ing 

e Sta 

Lee 

ai:d 

onal 

had 
1 bra 
velop 
e L ec 



t^s tc the Ccrs t itut icra 1 Ccrv>;rticr aii c 
the basic go ver rtr^r tal structure and legal 
tf. Thi guiding principle during these dvl 
n a clean, simple dccunert, liBited tc those 
doctrines iiTipcrtant encugh tc te frczen ir C 
cire cciririttees, ct rtcessity, had tc coire up 
articles. Ihe Executive, Legislative and Jud 
tc establish the basic frairefccik for those 

F;ill cf Rights CcB 



nches of gcvernirent. Tte .-^^^ -. - 
ccrtair fur. dairental principles and right? g 



pie by their gcverraert 



h a r g e d 
dccu- 

ibe ra- 
basic 

erst i- 
vith 

iciary 
three 

cittee 

uaran- 



:he Fevenuf 
:-ut 
stituticr. 



and finance Ccfftuittee apprcached its task fcith a 
diffsr^ut attitude, -roir a pure, theoretical viewpcint, the Ccn- 
stituticr. dees net have tc say a tbirg abcut -taxation. That sug- 
gesticr was tnade to the conin)ittee cr. at least twc cccasicrs. The 
reason is siieple — tha pcher to tax is an inherent power cf the 
state, a power already possessed ty the state hithcut 
of authcrity. Anything in a state Ccnstit ut icr 
taxation is either redundant (reiterating a 
sessed by the state) or restrictive. 



ary grant 

n the subject cf 

power already pos- 



Ihe 



aa jcrit y 



report contains previsions cf both 
philcscphies. Scire cf the proposed sections sioply state a power 
already possessed by the legislature — but repeated because cf its 
importance to proper gcverrir.ental operation cr to the protection 
of the people. Cther sections were sptcifically ircltcec tc 
restrict th= state's taxing cr revenue powers. 

The majority report reflects the ccairitte^'s approach to its 
deliberaticns. Assigned three articles frcir the present 
Constitution — ccrtaining 42 sections — the ccmnittee recomirends a 
condensec, single article cf only 14 sections. Naturally, that 
means the coBinittee eliminatec or abandoned nsary sections in the 
present Ccnstituticn. For the convenience cf the ccnventicn, the 
following anuiceration shows what happened to these secticrs and 
why. 



AFTICLE XII 



Section 

power tc levy 



^. Ivliirinated . The state already possesses the 
particular kinds of taxes and license fees. The 
Constitution does not need tc list those tax programs. The ccb- 
iBittee also did not feel that the ccnstituticn should require 
taxation cf all property. 



for SC years, the Constitution required taxaticr cf all 
property. That nandate was difficult tc live up to. The reporting 
procedure utilized for taxation cf household property did net 
insure its complete taxation. Stocks and bonds frequently escaped 



580 



MCNTANii CCN£TITI]1ICN?L CCKVEMICK 



detection. The require (rent cf ccirflete picperty taxation often 
encouraged dishcneEty. The proposed article removes those 
problems — the legislature shall decide what property to tax and 
how tc tax it. The Ipgislature may decide that ether types cf 
taxaticii are icore equitatle ard nay reach kinds cf property not 
touched by tha property tax nov». 

Section_Ja. fclitninated. figair, it is unnecessary to specify 
particular tax programs in the Constituticn. 

Th'i provision earuarkirg inccffe tax revenues for education 
and thi general fund was removed for twc reasons: 1) the comoiit- 
tee wanted tc avoid -jarinarking cf funds as Buch as possible, and 
2) the present language does not specify hew nuch cf the inccme 
tax r'^venu3s should go tc education. By statute, 25 percent cf 
these funds are presently dedicatee, but technically, cne dollar 
of the total inccnie tax revenues vculd satisfy the Section la 
requirement. The committee felt the earmark had little fcrce and 
was best eliminated. 

Sec t i cn__1 b . Ptoposea section 6, «ith modifications, covers 
this section. 

£2£li£2_2. Proposed section 5, with scire changes, covers 
tax exempt prop-rty. 

S^£tion_J. Eliminated. The legislature should determine 
methods and procedures for taxing minerals. The committee heard 
conflicting testimony on the most equitable kind cf tax to impose 
on metal min°s, coal, oil and gas. Therefore, the decision should 
be left to legislative de te r mina ticn. 

The ccminittee recommends that the legislature give serious 
consideration tc retention of the present statute prcviding for a 
net proceeds tax in lieu cf the property tax on minerals in 
place. The legislature has done a good jot cf developing fair and 
equitable taxation of {Montana ninerals. It should be given full 
discretion tc continue that program. The ccimittee also recog- 
nizes the iiportance of legislative flexibility tc aeet the needs 
of changing times. If the legislature shocld decide that net 
proceeds are no longer the test method cf mineral taxation, it 
should also remember the dislocation to local gcvercment revenues 
that would be caused by such a charge. 



Sec ticn_a 
local governme 
wants to assis 
should not ha 
not have to cr 
system, to fee 
fee exception 
trouble for th 
system; and tr 
revenue progr 



Eliminated. The prch 
nts is no longer justif 
t local governments, it s 
ve tc rescrt to subterfug 
eate artificial Iccphcles 
d tax money tc local gove 

to the present state 
e legislature when it tri 
outles the courts when th 
am is really a license s 



ibit 
ied. 
hcul 
e. 

, 1 

rnme 
aid 
es t 
ey 1 
yste 



icn on 

If th 
d be fre 
The legi 
ike the 
nt units 
prohibit 
o establ 
ust deci 
B. The 1 



state 
e legi 
e to do 
slature 
licer 
. That 
icn has 
ish a 
de whet 
egislat 



aid to 
slature 

sc and 

should 
se fee 
license 

caused 
license 
her the 
ure has 



Bevenue and Finarce Ccimitt'^e 



581 



also tried tc get arcund the ^cchititicr by cr-. atinj programs cf 
d "stite ucvarncB'ent a I nature" such as th? rcc=rt neweiaqf treat- 
ment r^id t^rograir. That ccnc^pt is a nebulous cr-^ature, ani may 
thwart otherwise acceptable prcqrairs that tail tc attair. the 
proper state governirjnt stature. 

The gu-£ticn cf local goverrirent taxing authority is covered 
by tne Local Gcvernment ConEittee. Nothing in the proposed 
revenue article is meant to restrict the 1-gislature frctr grant- 
ing taxing authority tc Iccal govemaitnts or cf. Iccal governments 
frcm having such authority. 

Si£tion_b. Thfc question cf local gcverrnert taxing pcwcrs 
is covered by the Lccal Gcvernnitnt Connitte;. The second clause 
of this section is covered by proposed section U. 

S€cticn_&. Ihe intent of this secticn is covered by pro- 
posed section 2. 

iS£ii£II_Z' "^^'^ intent of this s-icticn is ccvered ty pro- 
posed section 2. 

Section_8. This guarantee is already estafclishec in the 
Federal'conitituticr , the supreme law cf the lard. Bepetiticr cf 
the guarantee at the state level is urrecessary. 

S§cticn_9. The thc-iaill liaiitaticn cr state property taxes 
has been~remcved, primarily in an effort to comply with the 
S§II'^I<^ school finance case frcm California. Although Serrano is 
not yet the law in the United States, and a similar decisicr has 
not been upheld in Montana courts, the Ccrstituticn is not a doc- 
ument tor today only. The framers of this Ccrstituticn must be 
forward-looking and future-oriented. 

The committee has heard ccnflictirg testiBcny on the Serrano 
case and its application tc the Montana situation. Eut the 
overwhelming weight of the evidence indicates its applicability. 
The committee siirply had to tdce the fcssibility that Montana nay 
have to levy a statewide property tax for educational purposes. 
That possibility was strengthened ty the acceptance cf the 
Serrano doctrine in Texas, Mirrescta and New Jersey. 

The comaiitte^ was also concerned with the present use of the 
two-mill statewide property tax levy. The levy is used row as a 
back'-top measure, imposed to bring in additional revenues when 
other methods fail. Quite cften the decision tc iupose the levy 
is made for political, rather than eccncmic, reasons. 

The intents of the fcur-mill livestock levy is covered in 
proposed secticr 14. 

Section ^O. Eliminated. Ihe intent cf this section is cov- 
ered, "in" iiniral terms, in proposed secticr 12. Specifics are 
better left ro the legislature, however. 



582 



KCKTANA CChST IIDIICNAL CGNVENTICN 



Secticn__1__1 . Th.- first HcntencG is rcw picpcsed secticn 1. 
The unifcrndty philosophy in th<; second senter.ce was elia.inated, 
piimatily b^ic^use uniformity of taxation is already required cf 
the states through the lath Anendicent to the Cnited States Con- 
stitution. Th-e proviso also unnecessarily thwarts taxaticn prc- 
qratns, and has caused considerat !•= cc r ster n aticn in other states. 
The ['^nnsy 1 vania Supreme Court invalidated an inheritarce tax 
prociraff as violative of the unitcrmity provision. The Illinois 
uniformity clause was inttcpteted tc prohibit a graduated irccnre 
tax in that state, 

SectioTi_22. The "balanced tudget" philosophy cf this section 
is retain^'d in proposed section '^ . 

Section__13 . fliicinated. The intent cf this secticn is cov- 
ered, in general tertrs, in prcpcsed section 12, Details should be 
left re th-; legislature. 

Secticn_2U. /limirdted. The intent of this section is cov- 
ered, in general terH'S, in proposed secticr. 12. The legislature 
should establish the procedures by statute. 

Secticn_J5. Property taxaticn procedures are covered in 
prcpcsed section 3 — the state is now responsible for appraisal, 
assessment and equalization. Provisions concerning the structure 
of the property taxaticn systen are better left to the legis- 
lature. Only that body can judge the needs cf future taxpayers, 
and establish procedures that best suit those needs. It is unnec- 
essary to freeze such administrative detail in a Constitution. 

The coDimittee does recommend a comprehensive review proce- 
dure tor Montana taxpayers in proposed secticn 7. The reccnuenda- 
ticn establishes an appeal board separate and distinct from the 
tax administrative agencies. Eecause this independent appeal pro- 
gram is new tc Montana, the committee's reccamendation en that 
part of the state tax structure is relatively detailed. 



Secticn_16. Proposed section 3 covers the assessment cf 
property. The detail in this section is no longer necessary. 



ion_j.7. Eliminated. The philcscphy cf the proposed arti- 
venue and finance is faith in the Icng-term judgeiient cf 



Sect 
cle on re 
future legislatures in 



matters 




S ec t i o n _ J 8 . Eliminated, 
possesses that power. 



The legislative assembly already 



AFTICLE XIII 



Oevenue and finance Ccimittee 



583 



2§£tj.on_2. The "lerding ct cieclit" t^cvisc is essentially a 
public purpose questicn. The fcr.tara Supreme Court has equated 
the two concepts in its rumerous inter pre taticrs of the "lending 
of credit" clause. Eublic purpose is covered in proposed secticr 
1. The remainder of this secticr is ccncerned with government 
0¥nership of ccrporate stocks and bends. That concept is an 
investment question, which is covered in prcpcsed section 13. 

Sgction_2. The new state indebtedness prevision is covered 
in prcfcsed section 8. 

S£cticn_3. The intent of this section is covered ir prc- 
posed secticr 11. 

SSSii2a_H« Eliminated, The ccmmittee felt that the legis- 
lature should net be bound in this way. After much consideration 
by the committee, it was concluded that if the state were fermit- 
ted to back local governirent bonds with its (the state's) full 
faith and credit, the interest rates en those bonds could be 
lower. 

Section_5. Local governirent indebtedness is covered by pro- 
posed section 10. 

Section_6 . Local government indebtedness is covered by pro- 
posed section 10. 

ABTICLI XXI 



inves 

place 

In fa 

Const 

ated 

money 

exist 

not b 

aooun 

state 

Becau 

the s 



The CO 
tment o 
s all o 
ct, it 
itution 
three 
grants 
ed, pr 
e distr 
ts. ($ 
simply 
se of 
ections 



mmitte 
f publ 
f Arti 
has be 

in 19 
perman 

of at 
incipa 
ibuted 
100 m 

were 

the 

that 



e IS 
ic fun 
cle XX 
en lar 
2^, As 
ent re 

least 
lly b 

until 
illicn 
not wi 
nonexi 
refer 



propos 
ds, a s 
I. That 
gely us 

origin 
venue f 
$25C. 
ecause 

the pr 

and 

lling t 

stent n 

to them 



mg 
hort 

art 

eles 

ally 

unds 

Th 

the 
inci 
$500 
ti 
atur 

in 



a E 

prov 
icle 
s sin 

esta 

for 
cse 

irte 
pal r 

Bill 

e the 
e of 
Artie 



enti 

isic 

is 

ce i 

blis 

the 

thre 

rest 

each 

lion 

ir B 

thos 

le X 



rely n 
r that 
utdated 
ts incl 
hed; Ar 
state t 
6 fund 
f r c m t 
ed ridi 
) . Eene 
oney up 
e three 
XI are 



ew sec 

ccmplet 

and ob 

usicE 

tide X 

c be f u 

s have 

he fund 

culcusl 

factors 

in tha 

funds, 

useless 



tion on 
ely re- 
solete . 
in the 
XI cre- 
nded ty 
never 
E could 
y high 

to the 
t way. 

all of 



If the public school fund and ether land grant funds had not 
been added tc the Trust and Legacy Fund in 1938, the entire arti- 
cle would presently have nc affect. But that inccr poration did 
give the article heretofore invisible life. Treatirent of the 
public school fund is already taken care of in Article XI and the 
Enabling Act, however, so the ccmmittee saw nc reason to retain 
the Constitutional status of an otherwise hollow Trust and Legacy 
Fund. The fund will not be elininated entirely by its removal 
from the Constitution. It will still exist by statute. 



584 



MCNTAN? CCNSinCl ICNAL CCNVENTICN 



MAJCfllY fEPCET 



BE II FOCPOSED EY 'Ihc. I^EVENOE AND EINANCE C C f f 11 T E F : 

That there be a Dtw Article c r. Eeverue and Einancp tc read 
as fcllcws: 



APTICLE 

fiEVEMJE AKE FINANCE 



Section 1. FUBIIC EUBECSE. Taxes shall te levied by general 
laws tcr public put^-os-s. 

Section 2. SUFEENDER CLAUSE. The power ot taxation shall 
never te surrendered, suspended, cr ccntrectec auay. 

S'^cticn 3. PBOPERTY TAX A C f I MSTE AIICN . Property which is 
to te taxed shall be appraised, assessed ard equali2ed by the 
state in the manner prescribed by law. 

Section 4. EQUAI VMUATIC^. The assessed valuation cf prop- 
erty to be taxed ir any taxing jurisdiction shall be the same 
valuation as the valuation for state and county purposes. 



Unit 

trie 

exeni 

may 

tion 

and 

prof 

taxa 

ticn 

iiBpr 

nanc 

ther 



Sec 
ed S 
ts, 
pt f 

be 
al p 

pl^ 
it, 
ticn 
. Th 
oveiD 
e of 
ef or 



ticn 
tate 

fflun 
rom 

tax 
urpo 
ces 
i nst 
. Ce 
e Le 
ent 

cap 
ag 



£, th 

icipa 
taxat 
ed s 
ses , 

of 
i tuti 
r t a i n 
gisla 

dist 
itdl 
a inst 



PECFERT 
e state 
1 corp 
ion, hu 
e p a r a t e 
places 
burial 
ons of 

classe 

tive As 

ricts 

improv 

tax ex 



1 T 
, CO 

orat 
t an 

ly. 

for 

not 
pure 
E of 
semt 
tor 
em en 
enp t 



AX EXE 
unties, 
ions , 
y priva 

Proper 
actual 
used or 
ly publ 

p icper 
ly itay 

capita 
ts and 

proper 



PFTI 

cit 

and 

te i 

ty u 

reli 

hel 

ic c 

t y IE 

auth 

1 iB! 

th 

ty d 



CNS. 
ies, 

publ 
nte re 
sed e 
gicus 
d for 
har it 
ay be 
orize 
prove 
e as 
irect 



The 
tew 
ic 

St i 

xclu 

wc 

pri 

ex 

ere 

ffen t 

sess 

ly b 



pro 
ns, 
libra 
n su 
sivel 
rship 
vate 
ay be 
empt 
ation 
s and 
itent 
enef i 



pert 
schc 
r ies 
ch 

y f c 
. h 
or c 

exe 

fro 

of 

the 

cf 
ted 



y cf 
cl 

ira 

prop 

red 

cspi 

cr pc 

upt 

ff t 

spe 

mai 

cha 

ther 



the 
dis— 
y be 
erty 
uca- 
tals 
rate 
f rcffl 
axa- 
cial 
nte- 
rges 
eby. 



sales 

line, 

propul 

weight 

incurr 

Bainte 

for c 

bridge 

safety 

tive a 



ection 
and us 

fuel 
sion o 
fees 
ed for 
nance 
ount y , 
s, art 
, dii 
nd col 



t, H 
e taxe 

and 
f vehi 
, shal 

ccnst 
of pub 
city 
er the 
ver e 
lectio 



IGHWAY 
s , f re 
ether 
cles 
1 be u 
r uctic 
lie hi 
and 
deduc 
ducati 
n cost 



EAB 
n) e xc 
energ 
n pu 
sed £ 
n, re 
ghway 
town 
ticn 
on, t 
s as 



^?ABK 

ise 

y so 

blic 

olel 

ccns 

cfc 
of f 
cur i 
auth 



E 
and 
urce 
hi 
y f 
true 
tree 
liga 
urds 
st p 
oriz 



e v e n u a , 
lice rse 
s deriv 
ghways, 
r the p 
ticn, r 
ts, roa 
ticns 

f cr en 
roiDOtic 
ed by t 



except 
taxati 
ed as a 

and g 
aynent o 
epair, c 
ds and 
on stree 
f crcemen 
n and fo 
he legis 



r rom 
on o 
resul 
ross 
f otl 
perat 

brid 
ts, r 
t cf 
r ada 
lativ 



gen 
c g 
t cf 

veh 
igat 
icn , 
ges 
cads 

hig 
iris 
€ as 



eral 

asc- 

the 

icle 

ions 

and 

and 

and 

hway 

tra- 

sea- 



Pevenue and finance Ccmrittee 



585 



bly. Py a three-tifths vet-? cf the irenbers cf each hcu£€ cf the 
legislativa assetrbly cr ty initiated neasure apf.rcved ty a irajcr- 
ity cf the electorate, such dedicated funds iray be appropriated 
fcr ether purpcsss. 



S 
and A 
appoin 
the S 
shall 
in pc 
reside 
office 
have b 
perscn 
unexpi 
bers 
terms 
ing y 
bers, 
merobei 

of fflC 

pcliti 
fflember 
shall 
other 
of ary 
and ea 
a f ul 
ticn. 



■=10 ti 
ppea 
ted 
^nat 
divi 
pula 
nt c 
f c 
een 

ap 
red 
appo 
by 1 
ear 
shal 
s sb 
re 
cal 

sh 

net 

ccc 

pel 

ch in 

1, d 



en 7 . 1 
Is shal 
t y the g 
^ (Legi 
de the s 
ticn of 
t each o 
r a te 
appointe 
pointed 
terir in 
inted t 
ot sc th 
thereat 
1 be as 
all be s 
than th 
party c r 
all dev 
hold any 
upat ion 
itical p 
effiber sh 
etailed 



Ay APPEALS EOAPC. The State Ecard cf Tax Audit 
1 be ccupcsed cf five meitbers, whc shall be 
cverncr, by and with the advice and consent cf 
slative Assembly). The Legislative Assembly 
tdte into five districts as equal as practical 

citizens and a nemher cf such board shall be a 
f said districts. Each ireirber shall hold his 
rro of five years, ard until his successor shall 
d and qualified. In case cf a vacancy, the 

to fill such vacancy shall held office fcr the 
which the vacancy occurs. Ihs first five nei- 
c said beard shall deteririne their respective 
at a term cf office shall expire each succeed- 
ter. Other gualif icaticns , ard salaries of Dies- 
provided by law; provided, however, that such 
c appcirted that the board will not be ccmposed 
ree members whc are affiliated with the saae 

crganizaticn ; provided, further, that each 
cte his ertire time to his duties cf office and 

position cf trust cr profit, or engage ir ary 
or business, cr serve cr. cr under any coir.mittee 
'irty or organization cr cardidate fcr office, 
all file with the Secretary ct State, annually, 
and ccKplete disclosure cf his financial condi- 



late 

adirini 

Sectio 

admini 

the u n 

lant's 

shall 

other 

and ex 

boar c 

ascert 

erty 

lative 

by sue 

law, 

where 

or as 



he St 
juris 
strat 
c 3 o 
stere 
derva 
pro 
also 

divi 
cise 

shal 
ain i 
to b 

Asse 
h Boa 
Hiay 
the p 
the c 



ate 

diet 

i ve 

f th 

d ac 

luat 

pert 

have 

sion 

taxa 

1 h 

nsta 

e t 

tnbly 

rd a 

be 

rcpe 

ase 



Bear 

ion 

agen 

is a 

cord 

ion 

1, 

app 

s c 
tion 
ave 
nces 
axed 
may 
nd m 
ad ju 
rty 
Bay 



d cf 

of 
cy o 
rtic 
ing 
and 
cr 

ella 
f s 

as 

the 

of 
an 

pre 
ay p 
dica 
is 1 
be. 



Tax 
indi 
f th 
ie i 
to 1 
over 
any 
te j 
tate 
aiay 

ri 
undo 
d pu 
scri 
rovi 
ted 
ocat 



Aud 
vidu 
e St 
n cr 
aw. 
va lu 

cth 
uris 

and 
be p 
ght 
rval 
bias 
te b 
de t 
by a 
ed. 



it a 

al a 

ate 

der 

Such 

atic 

er 

diet 

Ice 
rovi 

to 
uati 
h it 
y la 
hat 

sir 
or t 



nd A 
ppea 
carr 
to i 
ind 
nan 
taxp 
ion 
al a 
ded 
audi 
on o 
s fi 
w ct 
nine 
gle 
he t 



ppea 
Is c 
ying 
nsur 
ivid 
d as 
ayer 
of i 
gerc 
the 
t ad 
rev 
nd in 
her 
rap 
Bear 
axpa 



Is s 
f al 
cut 
e th 
ual 

c ^ c c 

•s p 

ndi v 
ies 

St 
mini 
er va 
gs t 
duti 
peal 
d me 
ying 



hall 
1 divi 

the p 
at all 
appeal 
Bent c 
rcpert 
idual 
relate 
ate b 
strati 
luat ic 
hereof 
es to 
s, as 
n ter i 

citiz 



have 
sicn 
rovi 
ta 
s ira 
f th 
y. T 
app 
d to 

y 1 

en a 

n c 
. Th 
be p 
def 
n th 
en 



s of 
sicn 
xes 
y te 
e ap 
he b 
eals 
lie 
a*, 
gene 

f \ 
e Ie 
erf c 
iced 
e CO 
r esi 



pel- 
the 
s cf 
are 
for 
pel- 
card 
of 
ense 
The 
y to 
rop- 
gis— 
rued 
by 
unty 
des. 



Section 8. STATE INDEBTEDNESS. No state debt shall te cre- 
ated unless authorized ty a three-fifths vote cf the lembers of 
both houses cf the Legislative Asseably. State debt cannot be 
created to cover deficits incurred when appropriations exceed 



586 



MCNIANfl CONSTnUlIOKftL CCNVEKTICN 



anticipated revenue during any tudcet period. 

Section 9. BALANCED EUDGEI. A f pro pr iaticns ty the legis- 
lative Assembly shall net exceed anticipated revenues duricg any 
tudget perica. 

Section 10. LOCAL GCVEENI^ENI I K CE El EEN ESS. The legislative 
Assenbly shall enact limits of indebtedness fcr sutdivisicns and 
districts of the state. 

Section 11. USE CF LCAK EFCCEECS. fill itcney borroiied by or 
on behalf cf the state, or any sutdivisicr cr district of the 
state, shall be used only fcr the purpose or purposes specified 
in th-e law authorizing the lean. 



Section 12. STPICT 
shall enact the necessary law 
all revenues received and 
and districts thereof. 



ACCCUKIABILIIY. The Legislative Assembly 

to insure strict accountability of 

cney spent by the state, subdivisicrs 



Section 13. INVESTMENT CF PUELIC fONDS. The Legislative 
Assembly shall provide for a unified investment prcgraa fcr 
public funds and prescribe the rules and regulations therefor, 
including the supervision of investment cf surplus funds cf all 
subdivisions and districts of the state. The separate existence 
and identity of each and every fund involved as a part cf the 
unified investment program shall be strictly aaintained. An audit 
of the investment progran shall be ccndccted at least annually 
and submitted to the Governcr, Legislative Assembly and Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Section 14. AGR ICCLI CE AL LEVIES. A special levy ffay te made 
on livastock and agricultural ccumcdities for the purpcse cf dis- 
ease control and indemnification, predator control, livestock 
inspection and protection, agricultural irsfecticn and pro- 
tection, livestock and agricultural ccmmodity research and prc- 
moticn . 



/s^_Sterlin5_E^aa 

Chair irar 



^s^_Maurice_Crisccll 
Vice Chairffar 



^^_hilliam_Artz_ 



Z§Z_£Sssell_McC enough 



FevenuG and finance Ccirinittec 



587 



^_£/_Ea tl_Parthelson 



^s^_f ike_Pcf ^cn 



^£/_Ca ve_Druii!_ 



Z§Z_££f^£E_ii32IiI. 



^s/_Noel_^ar lcr2_ 



588 



MONTANA CC^S1ITU1ICNAL CONVENTION 



CCMKENTS CN TFE PAJCBIIY FBCPOSJL 

Secticr. 1. laxei: shall te levied ty general laws tcr 
i;ublic purfcses. 



CCMPENIS 



Th^ bread languaqt ct f:roccsed Section 1 is meant: to replace 
the specific tax bas-i prcvisicrs in pitsent Article XII. The n = w 
section speaks crly cf "taxes". Frcvisicns in the present Ccrsti- 
tuticn spcify particular kinds ct revenue Hieasures like property 
taxes, license fees, inccme taxes and isinirg taxation. That kind 
on enuoieration is ur.recessary ; the state already possesses the 
pcvier to l^vy any kind cf tax it wants to. Enumeration cf spe- 
cific kir.as of tax programs is also urwise. Courts, as a rule cf 
cc nstr ucticn , often hold that the listed treasures cr previsions 
are in li^u cf all unlisted measures. In other words, the list 
tends tc beccme exclusive. 



The proposed section also establishes two well-reccgnized 
and important protections-requireiren ts that taxes be established 
ty il€neral_l aws for £ubl ic_£ur£cse s crly. 

The requirsiriert of general laws for public purposes extends 
to all tax programs, bctb stats and Iccal. Although those two 
requirements are already imposed on the state by the federal 
Constitution, repetition in the state docuttsnt emphasizes their 
impcrtance. 



Section 2. Th^ power cf taxation shall 
rendered, suspended, or contracted away. 



never be sur- 



CCMHENTS 



The shortened language cf frcposed Secticr 2 replaces the 
detailed previsions of present sections 6 and 7 in Article XII. 
The prcpcsed section is frequently found in newer Constitutions, 
and is included as a reuinder to the legislative assembly. The 
power cf fixation is the most important power a governirental bcdy 
possesses, and should not be lightly dismissed cr bargained away. 

The provision is net intended to prevent the state frcm del- 
egating taxing pew-rs tc local gcvermrents. Nor is this section 
meant to deprive the legislature of its discretion to tax or not 
to tax cr exempt classes cf property. 

Section 3. Property which is tc be taxed shall be 
appraised, assessed, and equali2ed by the state in the 
manner prescribed by law. 



Fevenue and finance Ccicmittec 



589 



CCMKEN1S 



This new section is a frog 
ticn provisions. It emtcdies 
property tax adirin istraticn , wh 
great detail in pr-^sent Sec 
section, which established a 
equalization and review, wculd 
teiB of appraisal, assessment an 
that property tax system are 
frcm the specificity of present 
tax administration system sh 
which is best qualified to deve 
fair system necessary for the n 
tion should he established ty t 
the executive tranch of gov 
board which is immune to contro 
ment and immune trcn ccrtrcl ty 
enshrined board is less ans 
freer to ignore the mandates an 
assembly . 



ressive charge ficm 

the cciTirittee • E rec 

ich was previously 

tior. 15 of Article 

twc-tier system o 

be replaced by a st 

d equalization. Th 

net spelled cut, aga 

Section 1^. Iha d 

culd be left tc th 

lop the ircst efficie 

eeds of the day. Ta 

he legislature and a 

ercnent, cot by a 

1 by all three bra no 

the people. P Co 

werable for its act 

6 directives cf th 



present taxa— 
cirmenda ticD en 
set out in 
XII. That eld 
f assessment, 
ate-level sys- 
e details cf 
in a departure 
etails cf any 
e legislature, 
nt, modern and 
x administra- 
dfficistered by 
Const itut ional 
hes cf gcvern- 
nstituticrally 
ivities ard is 
e legislative 



Property appraisal and property tax assessment 
tion must be conducted by a stat 
heard reams cf testimony 
ment and tax equalization in the state, 
tee is that this change will establish 
appraisal and appraisal procedures, and 
ticn cf taxes across the entire state. 



and equaliza- 

e agency, however. The ccinBittee 

ccrcerninq the inadequate job of assess— 

Ihe intsnt cf the ccamit- 

qualified, professional 

will insure the equaliza- 



Hcpefully, the inequalities that presently exist within 
taxing districts and betweer taxing districts can be avoided if 
accountability is in some state agency. lestiacny also leads the 
committee tc believe that pressures ard temptations for 
undervaluation and under-assesEment presently exist at the local 
level. Ihe current operation of the school foundation program 
encourages undervaluation of local property, When such 
undervaluation exists, the state pours in acre money for educa- 
tional purposes. 

Hand-in-hand with the concept cf a prcfessionalized, respon- 
sive tax aditinistrator is the need fcr independent review cf the 
administrator's actions. Ihe ccmmittee has created the machinery 
fcr that review function in its proposed section 7. That prcpcsal 
is a sharp change from the present Corstit uticnal tax administra- 
tion structure which combines both the administratiwe and adjudi- 
cating functions in one agency. True eguity requires the separa- 
tion cf those responsibilities. 

The need for statewide administration of the property tax 
was probably brought into sharpest focus by the torrent of testi- 
mony on Serrano v. Priest. If the state has to go into funding 
of governmental prcgraosT particularly education, through a 



590 



MCNTANfl CCKSI nUIICNAL CCNVENTICN 



stdti^wide {.rot-rty tax, tht n^?d fcr efficient, equitable 
api-uaisal and ass^ssui^nt will te intensified. 

Section U. Ihe assessed valuaticn ct property tc he 
taxed in any taxing jurisdicticn shall te the saue 
valuaticii as th'j valuaticn fcr 5;tate and ccunty pur- 
poses . 



C C M .M E N 1 S 



The proposed s-^ction is siffilar ir language and intent to 
pres-ent Section 6 of Article XTI. The prcvisicr guarantees that 
property will te assessed at the sane value, despite the govern- 
ment that is Levying the tax. In ether words, frcperty iiill fce 
taxed at the saire assessment for state, ccur.ty cr school district 
purposes. A school district cannot assess at a higher value. 
Such "equal" valuaticn between local qcvernicerts is so important, 
^he cctrmit-^ee feels, that it should te guaranteed in the Consti- 
tution . 

Section 5. The property of the Urited States, the 
state, ccuntitis, cities, towns, school districts, 
municipal cor poraticns , and public libraries tcay te 
exettpt Eroir taxation, but any private interest in such 
prcp'=>rty may te taxed separately. Property used exclu- 
sively fcr tducaticnal purfcses, places for actual 
religious worship, hospitals and places of burial ret 
used or held for private cr corporate profit, insti- 
tutions of purely putlic charity, nay te exempt frcai 
taxation. Certain classes cf property may be exeaipt 
from taxation. The legislative asseictly may authcriae 
creation of special iirprcveirert districts for capital 
iaprcvemen ts and the maintenance cf capital improve- 
ments aud the assessirent of charges therefor, against 
tax exeirpt property directly terefited thereby. 



CCKKENTS 



in a 

are 

gage 

taxa 

stit 

exem 

in 

Cons 

spec 

Cons 

many 



The pro 
t least 

retaine 
s are de 
tion if 
ut icnal 
p t i n . T 
gover nme 
titution 
ial imp 
titution 

such as 



posed 
four w 
d — agr 
leted . 
the Le 
listi 
he new 
rt-cwn 
. The 
ro veme 
ality 
sessile 



section 
ays. Kos 
icultura 

Those c 
gislatur 
ng does 

section 
ed prop 

propose 
nt distr 
of such 
nts are 



en p 
t cf 
1 an 
lass 
e so 
no 
per 
erty 
d pr 
ict 
char 
paid 



rcpe 

the 

d ho 

es c 

req 

t r 

irits 

, cl 

c vis 

char 

ges 

ann 



rty tax 
prese 
r t icult 
f prope 
uired . 
eitove 

taxati 
csing a 
ion als 
ges en 
is pres 
ually c 



exe 
nt 

ural 
rty 
Eele 
them 
on c 

Ice 
c pe 
tax- 
er.tl 
E t 



m p t i o n 
proper 
socie 
could 
ticn f 
from 
f £riv 
phcle 
rff its 
exempt 
y in d 
ax-exe 



s is d 
ty ex 
ties a 
be exe 
rom t 

pcten 
ate i 
in the 
assess 

prope 
outt, 

Bipt p 



afferent 
espticns 
r. d IE o r t— 
apt f rem 
he Con- 
tial tax 
nterests 
present 
ment cf 
rty. The 
although 
icperty. 



Revenue and Finance Cciirittee 



591 



The new fiovisicn simply legit iuatizes that {^ractice. 

The most iffipcrtant change in the prcpcsed section is the 
non-exclusive nature of the tax exenpt list. Orliice the present 
Cocstituticn , the proposed article en Eevecue and Finance does 
not require that all property te taxed. The proposed provisions 
are silent on the subject, leaving the sccpe and nature of taxa- 
tion prcgranss up to the Legislature. Property nay te taxed or 
may be exeinpted by the legislature. The pernissible list of 
exemptions is not exclusive. The legislature may add tc the list. 

Section 6. Bevenue, except from general sales and 
use taxes, frctc excise and license taxation on gaso- 
line, fuel and other energy sources derived as a result 
of the propulsion of vehicles en public highways, and 
gross vehicle weight fees, shall be used solely fcr the 
payment of obligations incurred for ccnstructicr , 
reconstruction, repair, operatior, and aaintenance of 
public highways, streets, roads and bridges ard fcr 
county, city atd town obligations on streets, roads and 
bridges, after the deduction of funds for enfcrcemect 
of highway safety, drivers education, tcurist promotion 
and for administrative and collection costs as author- 
ized by the legislative assectly. By a three-fifths 
vets of the members of each hcuse of the legislative 
assembly or by initiated measure approved by a majority 
of the electorate, such dedicated funds say be appro- 
priated for other purposes. 



CCMPENTS 



The proposed section on earisarking of funds for highway pur- 
poses is similar to present Secticc 16 of Article XII in lost 
respects. Three substantial changes have been made in the scope 
and effect of that eld section, however: 

1.) The amount of money earmarked fcr the highway fund has 
been changed. The old section dedicated funds frcB fuel 
taxes, gross vehicle weight fees registration fees ard fees 
on the sale of new cars. The proposed section only earmarks 
gasoline and fuel taxes, and gross vehicle weight fees. 

2.) The permissible uses of highway earmarked fucds have 
been expanded to include local gcvernaect road and street 
systems, highway safety programs and driver education pro- 
grams. The reiroval of the state aid to local government 
restriction insures that these road funds can te used tc 
finance local government road and street systems. The 
legislature will now be free to make direct grants tc local 
governments instead of developing complicated bookkeeping 
devices tc get around the prchititicn. 



592 



HCNTA.NA CC^SII1U^ICNAL CONVENTION 



;.) Ihc tunds dz-, ret dedicated frcir new ai iltinituffi, cr 

until rep-3al Ly attt^ndirent cr by a ret her Ccnstitutional Con— 
■VHrjticn. Ihe proposed section pernits diversicn of the 
earinarhed fur.ds tc ether [;urpcses if each hcuse cf the 
Legislative Assembly by a three-fifths tuajority, approves 
such expenditure. In ether words, th'=> primary responsibil- 
ity tcr r-ivi^h, assessment . . . and eventually, alloc a- 
t:i.cn ... of hi^jhway fur.ds rests with the Legislature. 
That bcdy is free to change the eaiitark. 



f-lt that 



retention cf the anti-d i version 

Eccessary at the present time. Ihe aaerdnert is a 

the Constituticr, cverwh^liringly approved by 

A large amount cf federal iratchirg ffcney is 

still pouring into the state to *^--'"-'- *i-- ^ r.^.-. ^r~^.. ^^ ^ 



The ccmnittee 
amendm-nt was 
recent addition to 
the voters in 1956. 

the 



finance the interstate systeir, and 



■^he local primary and seccnaary highway systems. Extensive testi- 
mony indicates its exclusion aay well jeopardi2e the final prod- 
net cf *his Convention. 



gasc 

orig 

mitt 

mitt 

long 

that 

to 

ticn 

prog 

tc 

an e 

fu;l 

to s 

fund 



The 
line 
inall 
ee f e 
ee r 
er ne 

case 
d i m i n 

like 
rams 
fund 
ft ort 
tax 
t r e n g 



com 
and 

y c 
It t 

eali 

■^ded 
tht 

ish. 
th^ 
and 

the 
tc 

i S 

then 



m 1 1 1 e 
c c t c r 
reate 
nat o 
zes t 
, at 

gaso 
Th 

ciga 

bene 
Long 
encou 
when 

legi 



e w 
f uc 
d to 
rigi 
hat 
leas 
line 
e CO 
rett 
fits 
Bang 
rage 
t h e 1 
slat 



as als 
i tax r 

tenefi 
a a 1 pur 
the tiff 
t not a 

and f u 
mmittee 
e tax, 

for ve 
e Euild 

the el 
r usefu 
i v e c c n 



c c 

eve n 
t th 
pcs*^ 
£ ira 
t th 
el t 
wcu 
wbic 
tera 
ing 
iiiir 
Ines 
trol 



n c e r n 
ues. T 
e Stat 
s h c u 1 
y cone 
e leve 
axes s 
Id hat 
h was 
ns. I 
Froqra 
a tier 
s is u 
and 



ec 

hose 
e hi 
d be 

whe 
1 cf 
heul 
e tc 
or ig 
hat 
m an 
cf t 
F, t 

all 



with 

tax 
ghwa 

mai 
n hi 

cur 
d pe 

ere 
iral 
tax 
d th 
he g 
he c 
ccat 



the 
ing 
y sy 
ntai 
ghwa 
rent 
r hap 
ate 
ly s 
has 
e Ge 
asol 
cmiri 
ion 



proper 
program 
stem. 1 
ned. Th 
y funds 

progra 
s be 
another 
St up t 
now bee 
neral F 
i n e and 
ttee ha 

ever 



use cf 
s were 
he com- 
e ecu- 
are no 
ffs. In 
allcwed 
situa- 
fund 
n moved 
u r d . In 
Eotor 
s tried 
hignway 



Section 7. The State Beard of Tax Audit and Afpeals 
shall be ccirpcsed cf five meitbers, who shall be 
appointed by the governor, by and with the advice ard 
consent of the Senate (Legislative Assembly). The 
legislative assembly shall civide the state into five 
districts as equal as practical in population of citi- 
zens and a member of such board shall be a resident cf 
each of said districts. Each aember shall acid his 
oftica for a term of five years, and until his succes- 
sor shall have been appointed and qualified. In case 
of a vacancy, the person appointed tc fill such vacancy 
shall hold office for the unexpired tera in which the 
vacancy occurs. The first five members appointed tc 
said board shall determine their respective terms by 
let so that a term of office shall expire each succeed- 
ing year thereafter. Other qualifications, and sal- 
aries of members, shall be as provided by law; pro- 
vided, however, that such members shall te so appointed 
that the board will not be composed of more than three 



Revenue ar. d Bindncr CccDittee 



593 



iLenibe 
party 
ffiemte 
of fie 
prof i 
or £e 
party 
p € T. L e 
ally, 
fin an 



rs 

cr 
r 
•£ a 

t, 
ev- 
er 

a 
cia 



organ 
shall 
n d s ii a 
cr en 
en or 
crgar 
shall 
fall, 
1 c n 1 



are afriliatnrj witn the sams political 
izaticn; provided, further, that each 
devct? his entire time to his duties of 
11 not held any position cf trust cr 
gage in any cthar cccupaticn cr business. 



u'.id';r any coma it tee c: 



any political 



izaticn oi candidate tcr office, and each 
file with the Secretary of State, annu- 
detailed and complete disclcsure cf his 
iticr . 



The State 
appellate ju 
divisions o 
carrying out 
cle in crie 
accord icy to 
the underva 
the appellan 
property. Ih 
t i c n of i n i 
and local ag 
ticn as aia 
the right to 
ascertain i 
cf property 
thereof. Th 
ether duties 
vide that jii 
adjudicated 
where the p r 
resides, or 



Board of lax iiudit and 
risdicticn of individual 
f the administrative a 

the provisions cf Sectio 
r to insure that all taxe 

lata. Such individual app 
luaticn and overvaluation 
t's property, cr any 
e toard shall alsc have a 
ividual appeals of other 
encies related to license 
y fce provided by la*. Th 

audit the state adffiris-^ 
nstarces of under valua tic 

to be taxed and publ 
e legislative asseably ira 

to be performed by such 
ncr appeals, as defined 

by a single bcarc me 
op-rty is located, or the 
as the case inay be. 



Appeals shall have 
appeals cf all 
gency of the state 
n 3 cf this arti- 
s are administered 
eals (ray be for 

and assessment cf 

other taxpayer's 
ppellate jurisdic- 
divisicns cf state 

and excise taxa- 
6 beard shall have 
ration agency to 
n or c vervaluaticn 
ish its firdirgs 
y prescribe by law 
beard and cay prc- 

by law, may be 
Eber in the ccurty 

taxpaying citizen 



CCMMENT 



The ccoiKittee realizes the ieipcrtance cf a shcrt document. 
The introduction tc this lepcrt eirphasized the ccmmittee • s con- 
cern for brevity and clarity. But this proposed Section 7 cre- 
ates a new protection for the Kcrtara taxpayer, an independent 
tax appeal beard. Because the prevision provides a new right, the 
structure, function and jurisdiction cf the board are spelled cut 
in some detail. 



beca 
taxp 

gove 
Boar 
prec 
proc 
that 
non- 
paye 
tor 



The 
use 
ayer 
r nme 
d o 
edur 
edur 
th 
part 
r ne 

or 



pre 

it 
s. D 
ntal 
f E 
€s a 
^s. 
e p 
ial, 
eds 

the 



sent 
est 

nder 
bod 

qual 

Iso 
Ove 

roce 
Ob 

SOBS 
CO 



sec 
abli 

the 
ies 
izat 
sit 
rwhe 
dure 
ject 

ave 
urts 



tion 
shes 
pre 
(Cou 
ion) 
in j 
Imin 
d 
ive 
nue 
. to 



is proposed for a new Constitution 

a guarantee never provided fcr Mcrtana 

sent tax aduinistraticn program, the same 

nty Boards of Equalization and State 

that establish revenue policies and 

udgorent en the i ffplemen tation of those 

g testimony to the cciritittee indicates 

oes net Si^SS^ntee an independent, 

review cf tax decisicns. The Montana tax- 

of recourse, besides the tax administra- 

evaluate his tax treatffent. The prcfcsed 



594 



MONTANA CC^STIIUTTCNAL CCNVfNTICN 



secticn acccmplishcs that ctjfctive by estatlisbirg an independ- 
ent r€vi<=w procedure. 

Ihe Constitution should net specify details of tax adminis- 
traticn. Pref-^nt Section 15 of Article XII of the Mcrtana Consti- 
tution creates an elaborate method of property tax administraticn 
for the state, and demonstrates the futility of including such 
detail in a Constitution, fchen the Constitution was fcritten in 
1889, prcp'^rty taxes were the sole source cf revenue for the 
state. But like the fraoiers of 1889, this convention cannot 
forsee all the changes in the state's revenue structure. The 
details cf that revenue administration should te left to the 
legislature, which can evaluate changes and create the test 
structure to administer revenue programs. 

Secticn 8. Ko state dett shall be created urless 
authorized by a three-fifths vote cf the members cf 
both houses cf the legislative assembly. State dett 
cannot te created tc cover deficits incurred when 
appropriations exceed anticipated reverue durirg aty 
tudcet period. 



CCMMENIS 



This section replaces the present state debt limitation 
established by Article XIII, Secticn 2. That eld secticn created 
a $1CC,000 debt limit for the state, with additional indettedness 
as authorized by the electorate. The proposed secticn leaves 
the question cf indebtedness entirely up to the legislature, 
requiring a three-fifths majority cf the members-elect to create 
debt. Ihe extraordinary majority requireiert should insure care- 
ful consideration of any indebtedness proposal, and should pre- 
vent unnecessary programs. 

The ccmmittee felt that some dett restriction should be 
placed on the legislature. A fixed dcllar limit, like the 
present $1 00,OCO-ceiling , is unrealistic and only encourages cir- 
cumvention. 




The second sentence of this proposed secticn prevents the 
legislature from creating dett to balance the budget, While dett 
say be a viable tool in cases cf catastrophy or extraordinary 
circumstances, the legislative assembly should not be free to 
thwart the "balance budget" intent cf proposed Secticn 9. 



Eevenue and Finance CcniHiittet 595 



Section 9. Apprcpriat ic r s ty the leqislatiwe asseir- 
bly shall net excesa anticipated revenues during ar.y 
tudcet pt?ricd. 



C C ?* K E N 1 S 

Ihis prctc£cd secticn is siiilar in effect to present 
Secticr. 12 cf Article XII. It requires tbe state to operate 
under a "balanced tudget" philcscphy, tut establishes that doc- 
trine in much siirpler language. fllthcugh the state lay have 
trouble operating ir the black, since it can cnly estimate the 
afflcunt ct revenues cciring ir any budget period, this section 
requires the legislative assembly to stay withir these estimated 
limits when it appropriates funds. 

Section 10. The legislative assenbly shall enact 
liinits cf indebt3dness for sutdivisiccs and districts 
of the state. 



C C R M E N 7 S 

This proposed section leaves the question cf local govern- 
ment indebtedness, and licits en that indebtedness, up tc the 
legislative assembly. Ihis bread grant of authority is utilized 
because of the uncertain nature of any fixed debt littitaticn. 

The legislature should be free to encourage econcEic devel- 
opiEent in local governaect units. The history of the last 8C 
years indicates that the legislature has been frugal in eapoMer- 
ing local governirent indebtedness. The proposed provisions 
restores that control. The prcpcsed section would leave the 
legislature free, if it so decided, tc pledge the full faith and 
credit of local govsrnnient units to tack indebtedness. Such a 
pledge should result in lower interest rates and a savings tc the 
people cf Montana. 

Section 11. All money borrowed by or on behalf cf the 

state, or any subdivision or district cf the state, 

shall be used only for the purpose or purposes speci- 
fied in the law authorizing the lean. 



CCMMENIS 



This section is practically identical tc Article XIII, 
Section 3. The section guarantees accountability and proper Ean- 
agement of borrowed funds, and should prevent Bisuse or diversion 
of that money. The section is self-explanatory and is an iaper- 
tant guarantee for the people. 



596 



MCMANA CCNSTnUIICNAL CCKVENTICK 



Secticn 12. The lecisiative asseirtly shall enact the 
necessary laws to insure strict accountability cf all 
revenu~£ received and ncney spent ly the state, sut- 
divisicrs and districts thereof. 



CCaPlENTS 



ground 
It al 

by Sec 
nues 1 
tional 
accoun 
ments, 
Consti 
and m 
ized b 
f ranpr 
inform 
prcvis 
to. 



he pr 
as t 
so CO 
tion 
s net 

sta 
ting, 

etc 
tutio 
oneta 
y the 
s. 

a t i o n 
icDs 



oposed 
he pre 
n veys 
K. Th 

dimin 
t us i 

f rcce 
. , ha 
n siirp 
r y fie 

state 
The n 

alsc 

on d 



sec 
sert 
the 
e im 
ishe 
n t 
dure 
ve 

ly c 
Ids. 

wer 
eed 
was 
epos 



tion 

det 

inte 

pert 

d — i 

his 

s, d 

to t 

anno 

The 

e be 

for 

net 

its , 



, tho 
ailed 
nt cf 
ance 
ndeed 
pro 
epcsi 
e lef 
t ant 

ccn: p 
yond 

det 
antic 

cash 



ugh tro 
sectic 
"speci 
of accc 
, that 
posed 
ts, cas 
t to tb 
icipate 
uterize 
the wi 
ailed 
if ated. 
flew a 



ad i 
ns 1 
fie 
urtd 
rati 
sect 
h fl 
e 1 

cha 
d te 
Ides 
and 

The 
nd r 



n sc 
3 an 
appr 
bili 
cnal 
icn. 
cw, 
egis 
nges 
chni 
t d 
ccn 
pre 
epcr 



epe, 
d 14 
opri 
ty f 

a is 
BU 

rep 
lati 

ir 
ques 
ream 
scli 
se Et 
ting 



ccve 

cf A 

at icn 

or s 

give 

t the 

ortin 

ve as 

the 

pres 

s of 

dated 

Ccn 

are 



rs t 
rtic 
E" r 
tate 
r. Cc 
det 

g t 

sernt 
ace 

sntl 
th 
re 

stit 

net 



be sane 
le XII. 
equired 
reve- 
rstitu- 
ails of 
equire- 
ly. The 
cunting 
y util- 
e 1889 
porting 
utional 
adhered 



The comiEittee recomfends that the legislature take inEediate 
steps to establish unified acccuntirg procedures for all govern- 
mental units in the state. Though statutory in nature, the cos— 
mittee feels the importance of such a prcgratp is essential to 
proper accour.tirg and data functions. 



Secti 

for a u 
prescri 
the su 
s u b d i v i 
?xisten 
as a 
strictl 
shall b 
the gov 
the sup 



en 13 

nitie 

be th 

pervi 

sions 

ce an 

part 

y mai 

e con 

erncr 

reme 



. Th 
d in 
e ru 
sicn 

and 
d id 

of 
ntai 
duct 

, iG 

ccur 



e leg 
vesttce 
les an 
of i 
distr 
ent ity 
the u n 
ned . A 
ed at 
gislat 
t. 



isla 

Dt p 

d re 
nves 
icts 

cf 
if ie 
E au 
leas 
ive 



tive 
rcgr 
gula 
tffec 

of 
each 
d in 
dit 
t an 
asse 



as 
a in f 
ticn 
t cf 
the 

and 
vest 
cf t 
nual 
Bibly 



seffib 
or p 
s th 

sur 
Stat 

eve 
sent 
he i 
ly a 

and 



ubli 
eref 
plus 
e. 
ry f 

pre 
nves 
rd 

chi 



shal 
c f 
or, 

fun 
The 
und 
gram 
tinen 
subiB 
ef j 



1 pr 

unds 

incl 

ds o 

sep 

inv 

sha 

t pr 

itte 

usti 



ovide 
and 
udirg 
f all 
arate 
elved 
11 be 
ogram 
d to 
ce ef 



CCKKENT 



The proposed section en investments replaces all cf Arti- 
cle XXI in the present Ccnstitutiet. Most of the provisions in 
that article are obsolete — in fact, if the public schccl fund had 
not teen added to the Kcrtana Trust and legacy Fund in 1938, the 
article would have no effect whatever. The proposed section 
stresses the importance of a unified icvestiEent prcgram fcr 



Fevenue and finance Ccaiirittee 



597 



public funas. Such a proqrait has teen sought ir Hcntana sir.ce 
1924, and has only recently beer accc irplished through Executive 
f^ecrganizaticii. The ccniniittee feels that the iapcrtarce cf 
unity, prof ess icna 1 treatnent and £up*^rvisicn cf public fund 
investments should b= stressed at the Ccnstituticnal level. 
Because public iron^^y is such an iirpcrtant trust for the people of 
Montana, the investment prcgraB should te audited at least annu- 
ally. 

The sentence on separate identity cf funds in the public 
fund investment piograc! vas added to insure frcper distribution 
of interest to the individual funds. Although public funds should 
be invisted as a unit to insure a larger return, the irterest 
frcffi that unified prograir should be distributed on a pro rata 
basis, depending or. the size cf the individual funds. The "sep- 
arate fund" sentence should insure that dist r itut icn. 



and 



Ihe regulation 
the administrative structure c 
up to the legislative assemtly. 



limitation cf the investnent prcgrair, and 
f the investcect prograni, is left 



At least two restrictions en the 
remain in force i r. the Const it ut icn . 
cle XT and The Enabling Act, deal with 



investiiert prcgraa 
Those previsions, in 
land grant money. 



will 

Arti- 



The legislature is test equipped to irake decisions ccncern- 
ing investment opportunities tor state money. The obsolete nature 
of Article XXI illustrates the futility cf trying to prescribe an 
investment program and investaent details at the Constitutional 
level. The scope of the legislature's supervision shculc also 
include surplus funds at the local level. Although the legis- 
lature may well leave the handling and investment of such funds 
in the hands of local governments, its superviscry fowers will 
insure their careful hardlirg and treatisert. 

Section ^^. A special levy lay be irade on livestock 
and agricultural ccmmocities for the purfcse of disease 
control and indemrif icaticn , predator ccntrcl, live- 
stock inspection and protection, agricultural inspec- 
tion and protection, livestock and agricultural commod- 
ity research and prcmoticn. 



CCKMENTS 



The proposed language retains 
regarding livestock mil levies, and 
list of industries and uses fcr such a 
are net a pure earmark. They are 
accounting procedure. 



the intent cf Section 9 

expands the peririssible 

statewide levy. The levies 

mere cf a tcckkeefing and 



The provision, in explicit tens sinilar to present 
Section 9, is no Icngar necessary. The unifcraity clause has been 



598 



KCKTANfl CCNSllIUTIONAL CCKVIKTICN 



removed from tlit proposed Article; and the statewide property tax 
liffiit lias disc teen deleted. Eut the inpcrtance of agriculture to 
the Ilcr. tana economy should not te und*;resti sated — in tact, it 
should be emphasized. 



Ihe coiBDBittee also thought it shculd ercccEage taxpayers who 
are willing to fcear the turden cf a tax tc iaprcve the eccncniic 
future of their industry. 



Beverut and firarce Ccnaiittec 



599 



CCi^.MTTEE CN KlVENUi AND fINANCE 



KING t IT Y EFCIC5AL 1 



BE IT FPCPCSED: 

That the fcllcwing t« sutstitut-^d fcr Secticr 
Majority Proi-osdl trtitled "Prci-ertY Tax E xeirf tiers" : 



5 cf the 



The property of the United States, the state, coun- 
ties, cities, towns, school districts, auricipal ccrfc- 
rations, acd public litraries may be exenpt frcn taxa- 
tion, but any private interest in such frcperty cay te 
taxed separately. 



Pro 
plac-^ 
place 
rate 
house 
other 
and d 
dwell 
ected 
purpo 
reccr 
Monta 
the p 
by su 
cnay b 



pert 
s to 
s cf 

fro 

bold 

pe 

CBies 

ings 

dis 
ses; 
d up 
na ; 
rope 
ch s 
e ex 



y us 
r ac 

buri 
fit; 

gccd 
r scna 
tic p 

and 
abled 
evi 
on re 

the 
rty o 
tocks 
enipt 



ed exci 
tual re 
a 1 not u 

mstitu 
sand f 
1 prcper 
urposes ; 
personal 

veteran 
dences 
a 1 or p e 
stocks c 
t such c 

is with 
frcm tax 



usi V 
ligi 
sed 
ticn 
urni 
ty u 
cas 
pre 
s ; d 
cf 

rson 
f an 
ompa 
in t 
at ic 



ely fcr 
cus wc 
or held 
s cf 
ture , 
sed by 
h and 
perty c 
welling 
debt s 
al prop 
y ccirpa 
ny cr c 
he Stat 
n . 



edu 
rshi 

fcr 
pure 
wear 
the 

ace 
f to 
s us 
ecur 
erty 
ny c 
crpc 
e ar. 



cat i 

f; 

Fri 
ly p 
ing 
c wne 
cunt 
tall 
6d f 
ad b 

in 
r cc 
rati 
d ha 



oral 
hcspi 
va te 
ublic 
appa 
r fcr 
s re 
y ser 
cr re 
y incr 
the 
r pcra 
en re 
s bee 



pur pcses ; 
tals and 
or corpo- 

charit y , 
rel, and 

personal 
cei vable ; 
viceccnn- 
sident ial 
tgaqes of 
state c f 
tier when 
presented 
n taxed. 



The legislative assembly iray authorize creation cf 
special improvement districts for capital improvements, 
maintenance of capital improveffents ard the assessment 
of charges therefcr, against tax exempt preperty 
directly benefited thereby. 



^s/_Mik€_McKeon 



/E^_Wmi_Hi_Artz. 



Z§Z_5i._Pll§££li: 



CCBMENTS 



The fflincrity report is in complete disagreenient with all 

references in the rationale cf the majority report statirg that 

all property may be exempted frcm tax by the legislature. We have 

faith in the legislative process but are cf the cpinicr. that this 



600 



^.CNTANA CC^S'IIT^JTICNAL CCNVENTICN 



is "cpeninq thf= deer too hide." Ir cur cpiricn, as upheld by 
court decisicri£, cnly the items cf property listed atoue are eli- 
gible to tax exemption ty the legislative process. 

Wp agree that it is easier to entcrce collection of taxes on 
scKe property than it is en other property tut cannot consider 
this as a sufficient reason for rpinoval of this type of property 
from the tax rolls. The Irterral Revenue Service has developed 
procedures tor ferreting out incoffe frotc cash transactions. He 
submit that the tax department of f.ontana should be able to 
devf-lcp adequate techniques despite the fact that local gcverr- 
ment authorities have been negligert for many years. 



We dlso suhirit that tax equity requires that if certain 
ncoip- producing property is taxed, then all inccie prcducirg 
rcperty should be taxed. It is rot equitable to tax $1C,CC0 of 
quipment which producss income subject to inccire tax and at the 
,_„ ^ ,• „ , eliairite f13,3C0 cf irvestwents (e.q. tax-exeirpt 
•■he income of which is not subject to 



s a oi e tin; 
securities) 



inccine taxes. 



Ve also submit that if the legislature should acquiesce to 
pressur<='s tc elirainata stock and herd investments fron property 
taxation because of the sc-called problems cf assessment a severe 
injustice will be imposed on lower inccme citizens to the benefit 
cf Diore affluent citizers. he cancct iiaagine the delegates cf the 
Convention condoning such an inequity. 



We justify 
permissive list: 



the addition of the follcwirg items tc the 



1) Household goods and furniture, rearing apparel, and 
other personal property used by the owner for perscral anc dcoies- 
tic purposes: 

a. Peccmmended ty Delegate Felt proposal #161. 

b. lestimony received indicated that costs cf ccllec— 

tiers are in many instances equal to tax received. 

c. Property does not produce inccue. 

2) Cash and accounts receivable. 



a. Peccminended ty Delegate felt propcsal #161. 

b. Not necessarily income prcducirg. 

c. We agree that the term accounts receivable is very 

broad tut have corfidecce that the legislative 
assembly in its wisdom will develop legislation that 
will rot violate the underlying principle that all 
income producing property should te subject tc ftcp— 
erty tax if any incoBie producing property is subject 
tc property tax. 



Revenue and finance Ccirniittec 



601 



3) Cwelling and personal {^ccpetty cf tctdlly servicsconn- 
ected disabled veterans. 



a. 



t. 



The ccimittee had testiiticry that there are apf rcxi oately 
99,000 veterans of which dp^rcxima tely 387 would te 
eligible for this tax relief. 

We subirit that this tax exempticr is certainly justified 
when the irental picture cf what tctal disatility is con- 
sidered. 



U) Dwellings used for residential purposes. 

a. Dwellings do net produce icccne. 

t. It is realized that the elimination of dwellings fron 
the tax rolls could cause a terrific upheaval ic reve- 
nues produced frcm property taxes on the local level. 
This is a decision which has teen left to the judgoent 
of the legislature by the permissive nature cf this 
section. 

5) Evidences of debt secured by raortgages of reccrd upon 
real cr perscnal property in the state of Kontara. 

a. Eliminates double taxation. 

b. Contained in Article XII, Section 2, cf current Consti- 
tut ion . 

6) The stocks of any ccorpany cr ccrpcraticn when the prop- 
erty cf such ccirpany or corporation represented by such stocks 
is within the state and has been taxed. 

a. EliiriEctes double taxaticr. 

b. Contained in Article XII, Section 17, of current Consti- 
tution. 



602 



nCNTANA CCKSinOlICNPL CCKVENTICN 



COMMITTEE CN FEVtKDE PNE FINANCE 



MINOFIT^ PFCrCSAI 2 



EE IT PeCPOSEC: 

That thp fcllcwir.g he substituted for Section 13 of the 
Majority Fro{.osal entitled "Inv€st otpnt of Putlic Funds": 

The legislative assemtly shall provide for a urified 
investment prcjraa for puLlic fur.ds and prescrite the 
rules and regulations therefor, including the super- 
vision of investment of surplus funds of all sutdivi— 
sicrs and districts of the state. The separate exist- 
ence ind identity of each arc every fund involved as a 
part of the unified investor^rt program shall te 
strictly aiaintained. With the exception cf trccies ccn- 
trifcuted by individuals to retireirert funds, no public 
funds shall he invested in private corporate capital 
stock . 



Z§z_iliili§s_^£is 



ZSZ_Wik€_McKeor, 



^s^_f1aurice_Crisccll 



CCKMENTS 



We subirit that criteria for investttert of putlic trust 
funds should be more stringent than the criteria for investment 
of private funds. 

We telieve that priorities should he in this order: 

1) Security. 

2) Funds should be invested in Pontaca as much as pcssitle. 

3) Return on investtnent. 

Much cf the testimony presented indicated that enphasis was 
being placed on return on icvestnient rather than security. As an 



Revenue =ind Finance Ccairittee 



603 



exaffiple: "Ycu don't find the tig red apples text tc the trunk cf 
the tree — you find them rear the end cf the liirb," We are opposed 
to gambling with state funds and taking a chance that the linb 
might break. 

Testimony has been offered that the stcck iiarket will act as 
an offset to inflation, he offer that ircney invested at 5 3/4? 
for 12 years can double. 

The following cctrmuricaticn has received from a large organ- 
ized group of citizens: "We confess a lack cf expertise in sug- 
gesting adequate safeguards in the Ccrstituticr to govern the 
legislature en drafting liberalized investoant laws. He do see 
danger inherent in such liberalized laws and hcpe that ccnirittee 
deliberations and convention debate will develcp 'behind the 
record' guidelines for the legislature to fcllcw in liberalizing 
the investment laws regulating the investcoent cf public funds." 

he feel that the pressures exerted cr. the ccnmittee to 
permit investment ir the stcck narke^- will be continued indefi- 
nitely unless cur restriction is incorporated in the Ccrstitu- 
ticn. Therefore, with a deep ccncerr for the safety of present 
and future public trust funds, we earnestly reccmniend that favor- 
able cor.sideraticc by the delegates be giver tc this icinority 
report. 



he also wish tc bring to ycur attenticr that ownership cf 
voting stock of a private ccrpcraticn constitutes gcvernmect own- 
ership cf private property — a form cf socialism. He also ouesticn 
the propriety of the state voting the stcck of a private corpora- 
tion fcr a variety of obvicus reascrs. Eut fcremcst is the risk 
involved in trusting cur state funds to the caprice of volatile 
market. It is with these considerations in lind that we reject 
the najcrity proposal and submit the above ninciity proposal. 



604 



KONIANA CONSIIIUIICNAI CCSVENTICN 



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Revenue and Finance Ccmtrittee 



605 



APPENDIX B 

PROPOSALS CONSIDERED BY COMMITTEE 
The following delegate proposals were examined and 
considered by the Revenue and Finance Coimri.ittee during its 
deliberations . 



1- 



Number of 

of Proposal Chief Sponsor Subject Matter 



11 



Virginia Blend No property taxes 

for public schools 



Disposition 

Indefinitely 
Tabled 



2. 


16 


Virginia Blend 


Earmarking 


Rejected 


3. 


23 


Virginia Blend 


No property taxes 
for welfare 


Indefinitely 
Tabled 


4. 


35 


Mae Nan 


Preferential 


Adopted in 






Robinson 


Taxation 


Part 


5. 


37 


Donald Foster 


Earmarking 


Rejected 


6. 


46 


Mike McKeon 


School Financing 


Adopted in 
Part 


7. 


80 


John Toole 


An ti -Divers ion 
Amendment 


Adopted in 
Part 



10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 



109 

66 

72 

119 
161 

173 



Robert Kelleher $1 of income tax 

to party of choice 



John Schiltz 
Thomas Ask 



Tax exemptions on 
Motor Vehicles 

Repeal of Section 
3, Article XII 



Magnus Aasheim Earmarking 
James Felt 



Jerome 
Loendorf 



New Taxation 
Article 

Tax Exemptions 
for Disabled 
Veterans 



Rejected 



Adopted in 
Part 

Adopted 



Rejected 

Adopted in 
Part 

Minority 
Report 



606 



KCNTANfl CCNSTIinilCNAL CC^VEK^ICK 



flPEINLlX C 

fclTMESSES HEASC EY CCMKIIIEE 



1. Ccn GiLscn - County Ccirfflissicner - Glendive - County d<=bt 
lini td ticns. 

2. Purt iiurwitz - Association of County Ccffmiss ion«=rs - fchite 
Suli-huE Springs - County debt liiritaticns. 

3. Ccyle Saxby - Director, Departitent cf fldirinistration - 
HGlona - fontana Trust and legacy Fund. 

ti, James R. Kow<5th - Investirert Ctficsr, Ecard of Investirents 

- Helena - Montana Trust and legacy Fund. 

5. Paul Caruso - Chairiran, Ecard cf Investments - Helena - 
f.ontana Trust and legacy Fund. 

6. Ted Schwinder - CcccBissicn er , Cepartirent of Lands - Helena 

- Montana Trust and Legacy Fund. 

7. James Garden - Industrial Accident Ecard - Helena Invest- 
ment of funds. 

8. Alton P. Hendrickscn - Executive Secretary, Teachers 
Petirecient System - Helena - Investment cf funds. 

9. Lawrence Nachtsheim - Public Emflcyees Eetirement System — 
Hel'^na - Investment of funds. 

10. William scritner - Montana Autoircbile Dealers Asscciaticn - 
Helena - Auto license fee in lieu cf property taxation. 

11. P. J. Gilfeather - State senator - Great Falls - Revenue 
and Finance in general. 

12. A. Vi. Kamhoot - Delegate - Fcrsyth - Taxation cf Bines and 
mineral interests. 

13. Dan Mazner - Montana League cf Cities and Towns - Helena — 
Local government taxation provisions. 

1i». Ed Quinn - Araccnda Company - Butte - Taxation cf mines and 
mineral interests. 

15. P. L. MacEonald - Anaconda Ccmpany - Butte - Taxation of 
mines and mineral interests. 

16. William Ciehl - Econoaist - Helena - Revenue and finance in 
general . 



Revenue and Finance Ccnuittee 



607 



17. Jean Andersen - Montana League cf Wcii'sr Vcters - Billings - 
State aid tc Iccal gc vernnien ts. 

18. S. Keith Anderson - fortana laxpayers Association - Helena 

- teverue and finance in genera], 

19. Margaret Warden - delegate - Great Falls - Financing the 
Long Range Building Frogran. 

20. Micha-^1 G. Eillirgs - Superintendent of Eublic Instruction 
Office - Helena - Levenue and finance prcvisicns as they 
effect education. 

21. Dean Zinnecker - Associaticn cf Ccunty Ccaitnissicners - 
Helena - County toard cf equalization and ccunty debt 
liirit aticns, 

22. Barrett Ward - President, Kontara Ccunty Assessors Associ- 
aticn - Sheridan Ccunty - Ccunty Assessors. 

23. Chadwick Smith - Montana Schccl Eoards Asscciaticc - Helena 

- School finance. 

24. Lloyd A. flarkell - Montana Education Associaticn - Helena - 
School finance. 



25. Keith Colbc - Director, Eepartient cf Bevenue - Helena - 
Revenue and finance in general. 

26. George B. Schotte - Montana Autcmcbile Asscciaticn - Helena 

- Anti-diversicn provision. 

27. Jack Eehterg - Secretary, Highway Osers Federation - Bill- 
ings - Anti-diversicn prevision. 

28. J. Horley Cooper - Chairacan, State Board of Equalization - 
Helena - State Board cf Equalizaticn. 

29. John Alley - Member, State Board cf Equalizaticn - Helena - 
State Board cf Equalizaticn. 

30. Kay Wayrynen - Menber, State Board cf Equalizaticn - Helena 

- State Board of Equalizaticn. 

31. James 1. Harrison - Chief Justice, Montana Suprenie Ccurt - 
Helena - Montana Irust and legacy Fund. 

32. Hons Teigen - Montana Stcckgrcwers Asscciaticn - Helena - 
Fcur-fflill livestock levy. 

33. Ralph Armstrong - Ccunty Commissioner - Eczeaan - Property 
tax exemptions. 

34. Bill Cheney - Executive officer. Livestock Ccmnission - 



608 



MONlANii CCNSinniCNAL CCNVEKTICly 



36. 
37. 



Helena - Pcur-trill liv^stcck levy. 

Torr?y b. Jchrjscn - Delegate - Fusby - fcur-irill livestock 
levy. 

Cedci P. Arcrcvr - Shelby - CelegatP - Net Picceedf tax. 

Den ^'cberts - Cardinal Fetrcleuir Cc. - FilliEqs - Net Pro- 
ceeds Tax. 



38. Lee KcC^rtney - h:iyh Crest Cils, Inc. - f^avre - Net Erc- 
c 6 e d 5 lax. 



39. Clay l',cCartney - Chiccci^ - EusinessmaE - Net Eroceecs Tax. 

UC. hard Sh.anahan - Attcrney repres^ntirg Carrcll Ccllege Beard 
cf Trustees - Helena - Article XII. 

U1. silliam c. Kolientaugh - Frcfesscr cf forestry. University 
cf ;-;cntaria - Missoula - Property taxaticr. 

42. Kepr ?se ntitive Ecbert Viatt - f^ontana Student Presidents' 
rtsscciatior - Kisscula - Gereral Taxation. 

U3. V'-^rn Miller - State Ecard cf £quali2aticn - Helena - Fail- 
road Land Holdiiigs, 

4U. G. Dean Reed - Csputy legislative Auditor - Kelena - Func- 
tions of the Office cf legislative fluditci. 

45. John TcoIg - relegate - F«isscula - Frcpcsal «8C - Amendment 
to Anti-diversion Erovision. 

46. Virginia Blend - Celegat9 - Great Falls - Frcpcsal #16 - 
rrchiLiticr cf Sarifarkirg. 

47. >liir Stephens - President, Montana Grain Growers Association 
- Euttcn - Article XII, section 9. 

46. Donald Fester - Delegate - lewistcwn - Proposal #37 - Ear- 
marking. 

49. Thomas Ask - Delegate - Fcundup - Proposal # - Deletion 
of section 3 cf Article XII. 

5C. Jair,es Felt - Delegate - Fillings - Article XII, section 3. 

51. Robert Ccrette - Attorney, Westerr Energy Company - Butte - 
Article XII, section 3. 

52. P. I. KacDonald - Anaconda Ccupany - Eutte - Article XII, 
section 3. 



Ed Quinn - Anaconda Company - Butte - Article XII, section 



RcV'tT. ue and Financs Ccnuitte^ 



609 



3. 

54. Fred «.3tzsttCi. - Fcnt dca Fdtir ziure.-iu - Suld - Fet^Dticr cf 
Anti-ii v^ rsicri A ire r ;lire rt . 

55. S-.r.3,tcr Aillida B<;rtsch= - Great Falls - Ai^rdirent tc the 
iir. ti-diversicr Picvisicr. . 

5b. F. H. Eol'es - Kdlisp^li Chaiftf-i cf Ccir-ireice - Fetenticn of 
An ti-3 iv- rsicr, A irif n 5m^n t . 

57. r.-v.^ Gillette - Ccniad haticnal Pank - Kaiispsll - tt^ter- 
ticn cf An ti-civ^isicn flaerdnert. 



5 6. Pud "'.anicn - ^anicn's - Kalisj-cll 
A:i ti-3i v-rsicn An-^ r das^r.t . 



E-etenticn 



of 



59. Cecil Huascn - CraiLir cf Ccirn-trice - Ccluntia Falls - 
h = t e :i t i o r- c f ."s n -ir. i - d i v € r £ i c r. A n ^ r d it = e t . 

6C. Can i-iizner - Ex-^.cutive nir-^ctcr, flcntara league cf Cities 
ana Icwns - Fel-na - batenticn cf An t i- Civarsicn Acerdment. 



61. Lean Zirr.ecker - Fxccutive Secret aiy, f.cntana Asscciaticn 
of County CcitiDiissior. cis — Htl^^na - n&t€nticr. cf 
A nti- diversion Aciencjierit. 

62. Harry ?;illiEcjs - lien tana AEL-CIC - fcplena - Fe + erticn cf 
Anti-d ivi^rsicn Aatr.dnent. 

63. Edward A. Pill - Pcw<£li Ccunty ^ccr.caiic CcBHiissicr. - E^er 
Xodqe - f^t^ntion cf Ant i-diversicn Airerdiient. 

6U. Csl Siewart - Montana Chanter ci Ccairerce - Helena - Reten- 
Ticn of Anti-div^rsicn AncrdBent. 

65. bicharc ftceder - Delegate - Eczenan - Against Retention of 
Anti-diVi-Tsicn Aai-^ndinent - Against iarn-arkinq. 

66. Falph Ereyer - Uriv-rsity of fcrtana - Kisscula - Against 
Farm ai king. 

67. Dcrcthy £ck - Delegate - Bczeoar - Against Eanraikicg. 

be, Fepresentatiwe Terry Murphy - Bancher - Cardwell - Against 

Earmarking. 

69. hepresentativfc Larry Fashender - h.ircher - Fcrt £hah - Gen- 
eral Taxa t ion . 

7C. Todd Lindterg - President, Pontana Society of ClPA's - 
Helena - Auditing cf State Investments. 

71, Howard Gaare - ^ontana Sccisty cf CPA's - Great falls - 



610 



KOK'IANil CCIvSI ITllTICMAL CCNV^N'tICN 



A u d i. •*: i n '-i o t S t i t ■- I rj v "^ c t ir e r t s . 

11. 'idiy ^ . Etmare.- - f'cntaca Scci-^ty cf CifA's - Helena - 
/^ur'itir.j ci Stare Invcstir^rntf. 

7J. J^^T'pn LcGii'Jcrr - f,cntai:d 5cci?*:y ot CFA's - helena - 
Auni'-.irij cr Star? In v est ace iits . 

■7u. Jack St-^viTiS - I'^crtana Scci.'fty cf CFA's - Great Falls - 
;iuditir'q ct State Invests '^rts. 

75, Stcii'-" Paulson, Jr. - Kciitana Society ct CPi^'s - Great Falls 
- Auiirmj ot State Irv-stnrr. ts. 

7*.. ^l^-gt;us Aash-:'iT' - Lcl3qat€ - Ant. elcp- - Pre pes al *11<3 - Spe- 
cial Levies. 



77. ■'.ax v'OT.cve-r 
Levi: s. 



.?l£gate - Eillin^s - Proposal #119 - Special 



7d. Jercti;^ Lcendcif - L^legat- - Helena - Ercpcsal #173 - lax 
i; xtriiiptions for Totally Disaoled Veterans. 

79. Jchn Cadl^y - Fxicutxv= S'^cretary, f-'.cr.tana Autcniofcile £eal- 
-rs Association - Hf-lena - Ercpcsal «66 - fee Systeii cf 
Peqistraticn tor f:ctor yebicles. 

ao. .""crs iciyen - Rxecutive Secretary, Pcntana Stockgrcuers 
Asscciaticn - Helena - hster.ticn cf livestock Kill Levy. 

81. Williaii Cheney - Fxecutive Cfficei, Livestock Ccnmissicn - 
Helena - Ksterticr cf Livestock t'ill I^vy. 

82. Archie Wilson - Delegate - Hysbani - Retjrticr cf livestock 
fill L^vy. 

83. L'ouulas Lelaney - Eelegate - Grass Farqe - Peterticn cf 
Liv?stcck Kill Levy. 

8U. W3sl?y w. w-'rt^ - Attorney - Helena - Goreral Finance and 
Tdxat icn . 

85. Kayor Laurence Bjcrneby - Kalispell - In support cf Bcmr.ey 
Draft of Heverue- and Finance Article. 

86. Mrs. John Nelson Fall - President, Great Falls City Council 
- Gr->at Falls - In support cf Fciney Craft cf Revenue and 
F inance Article. 

87. Mayor John Kclaughlin - Great Falls - In support of Eomney 
Craft cf Revenue and Finance Article. 



88. Ward Sfanahar - Attorney representing Carroll College Board 
cf Trustees - Helena - Airerdirent tc section 5 of Fough 



-Jevenur a:iG Finance Ccanitt'^f 



(Sll 



ura r 



f - 



3 9. Paul K-'ll-^r - Chdnc-llci ct .':cntana Efi£cc[:al Ticcfse 
n?l^n^ - Atr-'-ncra^iit tc sticticr. ^~ ct Pcuqh traft. 



9C, I.-c wale u U.K. - Lcnij-tLcll?!, Cacrcll Ccliege 
7 n: t r. d Hi f: n t xc i £ c ♦: i o r. *; ct f c u q ti L t j t t . 



H«f le ra 



91. K-:-i-t-a .^n1er£c:J - rxecutivt Vic: tresident, Mcntara Tat- 
v^yc-rs Association - iisl^.ia - Few-cu? ard Finatce hcogh 

Eraf *:. 

9 2. Cavi^ Suiith - ixvcutiv-; ?--cr ctar y , fcr. tana l^cclqrcwtrs P.ssc- 
ciaticn - Hjltna - FrV^ru^ 3rd tinar. c-j Pcucjl: Crait. 

33. ilar: ;';izncr - txecutiv- CircCtci, fcntara League cf Citi-^s 
and Towns - btier. a - P'r^vi^r. ut and firanc*; fcuqb Eiaft. 

94. John !^rankinc - Oirectci, Wcr'rana Catuclic Ccnteri^nce - 
Hiic^na - >'•(? v-jnti- 51 d Tiiiance Fcuql-. Eraft. 

95. Cnadwick Snrith - Attcrnty, ;''crtara '3chccl Boards Associa- 
tion ai.d Montana tlcspital Asscciaticn - Helena - Ancndait^iit 
tc s.^cticn 5 cf tcuqh Cralt. 

95. -od Gudcfci - f'crtara ^;ur£ir.q Hc[t:<5 Asscciaticn - P€l»-^na - 
Sui-t'Ort ci fit. Smith's Antr.dffert tc section 5 of Fough 
Lraf t . 

97. Potert Kellth-r - Icl^gate - Sillir.gs - Ercposal S119 - II 
cf £t3tfc in CO Be tax I'rturr tc fc--> donated to party cf 
person's chcict. 

98. Hank reschares - Missoula Chawtsr cf Ccirirerc? - fisscula - 
Picpcsal #35 - Preferential "laxaticn. 

99. David J. ^^aclay - Kissouia - Frcfcsal #35 - Preferential 
laxaticn . 

ICC. 5cy Eeirf-rt - Veterar's Ccuncil cf ?;cntana - Eelena - 
Ercpasrti rf173 - lax Ex'^mpticns for Ictally Eisabled Vet- 
erans. 

1C1. Ecnald Gcttv,ig - Disabled Anerican Vetf^rars - Helena - 
amending Proposal «173 - lax Fxempticns fcr Totally Cis- 
acled Ve-terans. 

1C2. Janes Felt - Delegate - Eillirgs - Ercpcsal SICI - Revenue 

and Finance ir gereral. 

103. Jack Grosser - Deputy Director, Cepartn-ent cf Administra- 
txcn - Helena - State Investsprts. 



10U. P. L. hacPcnald - Araccrda Ccapary - Butte - Reterticn cf 



612 



."CNTANA CC^:?TJ'Ii)lT.C^ AL CCNVENTICN 



N "r" t b r c c e •? d s Tax. 

V',rn Hillot - Stat^ Pcard ci rqudl izat icn - Htlera 
At-frairing and AG£<^ssinq cf ric^erty. 



1 G 6 . C ' d c r A r c n i« 
Article XII. 



neleyatt: - Shelty - Delete secticr. 3 cf 



1C7. t'arry ttnjaitiin - Sielty - AEticl*; XII, secticn 3. 

ICtt. Gtcry-. 'icGcatn - Silver ficv Ccurty - Eutte - Retain Net 
':'rcci^r ds Tax. 

1C9. Shag fill^^r - Pr.;£id€iit, Eutt- Charh-r cf Cccrir'^rce - Eu+t = 
- Ft' tain Ket i rccecis Tax. 

lie. Thcnid3 Joyc? - Delegate - Frutte - L-slgte section 3 cf Arti- 
cle XII and hav- ai, "in li^u" tax tc be avera^jed out over 
t h c V ■- J r . 



111. [-iayor K. A. Micone - Butte - potair. li-.t Proceeds Ta?. 

112. Lawr2nc-. G. Stiiratz - Ccunty Attorney - Silver Ecw Ccunty, 

Eutt'^ - pptain Net Frcceeds Tax. 



hcV^iiut and t inarct Cc c it i 1 1'^;-? 



613 



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614 



'.0M1ANA CCNSTIIUIICN AL CCNVENTICN 



Fill cf hi^hti;- CccEi-tr?? irictcsal 



615 



HCKTANA ccNSII1CTI^^? 1 cc^vz^:Ic^ 
is'/i-is"/: 

FILL GT^ tIGHlS CCJ'i'Tri^r JFCtCSfL 

i\c. v:iT 



Date Eeported: Fetruary 22, 1S72 



/£/_J;adf _Ji_Ddhcc(l, Chairman 



/s^_Ch€t_Elailcck, Vice Chaiman 



616 



MONIANfl CONSTITOITCNAL CCNVEhTICN 



lAELE CF CCMEMS; 



Page 

LETTER Of T R A N S .•-, 3 T T A L 618 

TEXT Cr CCHKITTEF EFCECS/,! 620 

COMKENTS CF CC?«ITTEE PhCfCSAL 625 

F T^ F fi f^ E L r 625 

Secticr. 1. rcjulai 5cv-rrriqrit> 626 

S e 1 r-G cveiniT'cr.t 626 

Ir.aii-natie Picfcts 626 

Tricividual Digr. ity. 628 

Fre^doir of Etliqicr 629 

F r ■? e .^.o ir c f A s s e tr 1 1 y 629 

Fi'^-doni cf Sc?-ch, ^xpit^ssicr, ard Pr = ££ 629 

right of Farticif aticn 630 

Mcl-t tc Krck 631 

bich*: cf Piivdcy 632 

Search? £ and Seizut^s , 633 

f ii.) ii t -^ c 'l e a r A r ir s 634 

bight ^c Suffrage 634 

A d i; 1 1 r i j h 1 1; . . 635 

r>i<.!ht:3 c£ i-Tirscns IJndsr thi; Ac= cf ('iajcrity.. 635 

Th^ AJministrarion cf Justice 636 

rue Frcctss cf Lav>....... 637 

Ncr-Iiiruiii'ry Frcn Suit 637 

■;ial:*;ds Ccrput 638 

Iiiitiaticn of rroc-;c:MnqF 639 

L^ a i 1 639 



Section 2 . 

Section J . 

Section 4. 

S^cticn '• . 

3 '? c t i n ( . 

S -• c t i n 7 . 

Section S. 

Section -' . 

Section 1 C 

3:^ctior 11 

Section 12 

S - c 1 1 c n 1 -^ 

S^ctiCi! la 

S'^ction I': 

S'^rticn ■> b 



S -? c t i r. 1 / 

Section 1 >< 

S ^-' c t i c n 1 J 

S --: c t i c r. ZZ 

Section 21 



Pill cf Fights Cciraittop rrc[C£3l 617 

Secticn 22. rxc^ssiv? Sanctions 640 

Section 2 3. C-^t^r.tici MO 

S^cticn 2U, liiqhts ot the-. A ecus- d 640 

3-^cticn 25. Self-Ir.ciirrindticr. ar.d Ccuhlc J'^opatdy 641 

Section 2 6. Trial ly Jury 641 

Ssction 27. I n f r iscr.oj^n t fcr r = Lt 642 

Secticr. 28. Fights ct th= CccviCr^d 642 

S^fcticn 29. £ii!ia?-i-.t Lcnain. M:] 

Secticr. 3C . Tr'^ascr. and E = £C-r.t cf fstat^s (i44 

SocticR 31. '^ X Post facte, Ctligaticn cr Ccr.tracts anc 
Irrevccatl? Frivileq€£ (i44 

Section 32. Civilian Ccntrcl cf th^ ^'ilitaty 645 

3 -metier 3 3. larcrtaticr. ct ?•, rir^d Perse r.s 64n 

Section 3a. Un'9r!Uin€r:it=ad Fights ...64.") 

AFEEKETX 

Cross r€ftr'?nce of rreser.t and proposed Article 646 

C -legate proposals ccnsidered by ccDirittet 647 

V«itne3s=^s heard by ccroirittse • 6n0 

Fell calls 658 



618 



MONTANA COtiSTI'TUTICNAL CC^VF^'^IC^ 



Date: rcLrudry ^i, 1972 

■Ic: ^ON'IANA CCNSTITlillCNAL CC^VI^T1C^: 

Frcr: Ltll cA Rights Ccir, iri'^ttc 



L d d i . ; a r '1 " - n 1 1 1 ir. t' r. : 

The Pill ct niqlits Cciruiii 1 1 f e sutniti herewith d ficpcscd nei 
Declaidtion of -iqhts cf tho teci:lt- cf th€ Stat<5 cf f^cr.tara. "Ihe 
prcpcE-d drticli is int6r;did tc fiplcic? i r its '^ntii^ty Article 
III ct th> pirS-it Cci, stituticn. Ir. ccinc sc, thf ccniittfee 
nctsrS that net cne of the traditicral rights cf that Cpclaraticn 
has b •?--!] d i in i r. i s h J ^. ; a r, d , t c a: e •? t t h = c h a n q i n q c i r c u ir s t a l c e s c f 
cent v: aipc tar y liic, r.ew Hat^-guards hav2 teen added where aj-fropri- 
ate. 

Tn iti^ driih-raticns, th<== ccii^citt^-^ kas careful tc givt^ ccr- 
sid^itticr. tc ill j, roposals ccnceriiin.] civil litertiss. Nc F re- 
posal wa3 adopted cr rejectee fcithcut ccrsidere'? d-1 it e ration. 
The corrtr.itt -!': is pleased to have reached r3ar unanitnity en such 
dn iff porta nt » after at" the tasic rights cf an individual in a 
fre-^ scci-^ty. There are nc aincrity refcrts. Ccuntervailirg cpin- 
icns were frrr^ly md fully aired, Ihe issues cr. which there has 
some divisicn =)rc reflected ir: the ccmnients and the rcll call 
votes cf /. pp-ndix l. 

Tho comiittee apireciates th^ [utlic invclvenert and ccncern 
with '■-he rigits guesticns facing it and thanks tiicse who tcck the 
tiffe ^c aptear ir. person cr write expressing their cfinions on 
these matters. Ihis t-stifficny and the considered opinion cf many 
delegates was most h-^lpful in drafting this prcfcsal. The ccmniit- 



nill cf Fi;hts Ccircsittcf Frcpcsal 



619 



tee also wishes tc express its tharks tc ?ick Apfleqate, research 
analyst, D^rlene Ccibin, ccimiittee secz^tary, and Gecrgt Paul anri 
Michael iaruBi, stuui;r.t irt^rns. 

In pr-=s=;n t iiig this propossc D'^claraticn cf Pinhts, the ccin- 
ffiitte-j ncttis that tL-9 guid-elir'9s and protect icns fcr the ex-^rcise 
of liberty ir. a tr?6 society ccae ret frca qcwernment hut frciF 
the people who create that gcveir. rrert. 

It is that spirit v»hich has nctivated this ccirniittee to 
insure fcr Koi. tana • s future, thncugh this bill cf rights, a ircre 
rpspcr.sxtle govcrnirent that is Cci's t it uticnally ccffnarded never 
to forget that gcvarnintent is created scl^ly fcr ths welfare cf 
the people so that the people can nrcre fully snjcy the heritage 
of Aa::iricaii literty within the structure cf that government. 

Fearing this m Bind, the ccuaittee connecds this proposal 
to the ccnV'^rtici; (.ith the hope that, whatev«=r the outcome of the 
ccEV==r.ticn debates, the citizens cf fcntara will hav^ a charter 
of civil liberties adequate fcr the tcreseeahle future. Surely nc 
part cf th-^ Constitution heing drafted is acre iirpcrtant. 



/s^_Viade_J_._Dahccd 
Chairiran 



Z^Z-Chgt.Eiaylcck 
Vice Chairaan 



620 



MCWIANS CC^STl^L'■;TCNf.L CCKVfKTICN 



CCfMTT'IEF Ft-CPCS?.L 



BE IT FPCPCStC T\ lilt 'Jill CF RICilTS CC^'.i'nTEF: 

That thtL-e Le a rtw Article cr ^he till cf [^i'jhts to read as 
f c 1 1 c i.- p : 



FFE/iI'-FIE 



'A - t h e p -J C p 1 b 
fct-:3uty c t our stat<=. 



cf Ken tana crdt<?tul ■^. c Gcd fci tb"^ quiet 
;ho qtandcuL ct cur ircuritiinE, the v aptness 
cf cur rcllinij {Inns, and ctsirirg tc ircprcve the quality cf 
lif-5, -rqudlity .n Cf.por t u uity and tc s^cur-? the tlessirgs ct lib- 
erty for tni£- ard iutur^ ^■;teraticrs dc crdain ard estatlish this 
Ccr. Etituticn. 



^BTICIr 
CiiCLABAlICii CF FTGf^lS 



metier. 1. FOtULAF S0VE&IIG^1Y. All fclitical {;cver is 
in aiid a^rive^d frcni the f^ofl'?:; all gcvermrer. t cf rinht 



vest 3d 

origin -ites with thp pecpl'^; 

is instituted sclely tor th 



is feu r. del upcn their will only, and 
■ g c c d c t t h ;? vj h c 1 € . 



S-ctior, 2. StlF-GCVFFNMEN'I. Ih-: 
the exclusiv-- right cr govtrning thenselv 
and ind -ii f endp n t star-, T!i-3y may alt 
ticn and forC' ct gcviirnaent wherever 



p 1 p 1 e 



state bdv= 



c f the 

a£ a tree, sovereign, 

r cr abolish their Ccrstitu- 

they niy deem it rscessary. 



Secticr. J.. INAIIFNAELE FIGHIS. All fiiscns are tern free 

and have C'^rtain inalienable rights which include the right of 

pursuing life's basic necessities, cf enjoying and defer.dir. g 

their lives and liberties, cf acguiiirg, fcssessing and protect- 
ing prcperty and of i.5eeking their safety, health and happiness in 

all lawful ways. In enjoying these riqiits, the people recognize 
ccr res pending respcnsibilities. 



cf the human 



Section U, INCIVICUAI CIGMTY. Ihe dignity 

shall be denied the equal prc- 

tbe exerci,= ° 



being is in viola bis. Nc person 

tection cf ths law, nor te discriirina te d against in _ .. _ 

of his civil cr political rights en acccunt of race, color, sex, 
cultur-, social crigin or condition, or political cr religious 
"' "" ""■" any p::rson, firiri, ccrpcraticn, cr instituticr; cr by 
its agencies or subdivisicrs. 



ideas, by 
the statT, 



Section 5. FivIIDGM CF PEIIGICN. The state cf Kontana shall 
make nc law respecting an establishment cf reliqicr, cr frchib- 



L'ill of liiqhts Ccmmittee Ftopcsal 



621 



itir. j the five -Xcrcis^ ther*eof. 

Socticr ^j. FEIiiiDCK C? A£S£KEI\. lb.- p<scplt shall have the 
right peaceaLly tc ass^mtls, potiticr fcr ledress or pretest 
govern ir = rtal icticii. 

S€Ction ■7. PFEEDC^: CF SFEICP, JXTKESSICN AKC FPE££. Nc law 
shall be passed iirpairing tte freed en cf speech or expression. 
Every prison shall he tree tc speak or publish whatever he vill 
on any subject, heirq resfcnsitle for all abuse cf that liberty. 
In all suits and prosecutions fcr litel cr slander the truth 
therect may be given ir evidence, and th'^ j u r y » under the direc- 
tion of th"" court, shall determire the law ard the facts. 

Section «. RIGHT CF E ARIICIF AT TCN . The public stall have 
the right to expect gcveinirental agencies to afford every fea- 
sibl- cpfcrtunity for citizen participation in th^ cpfraticn cf 
the government prior tc the final decisicr.. 

Section 9. PIGHT TC KNCVi. No ferscn shall be deprived of 
the right tc examine documsnts or tc observe the deliberations cf 
all public bodies cr agencies of state gcvemert and its sub- 
divisions, except in cases in which the demand cf individual pri- 
vacy exceeds the werits cr public disclcsure. 

Section 1C. RIGHT CF P5IVACY, The right cf privacy is essen- 
tial tc the vvell- being cf a free society and shall ret be 
infringed without the showing cf a ccafelling state interest. 



Section 11. SEARCHES ANC SEI2UFES. The people shall be 
secure in their persons, papers, hctpes and effects, frcn unrea— 
scLable searches and seizures and invasions cf privacy, and no 
warrant to search any place, or seize any person cr thing shall 
issue without describing the place tc be searched, cr the perscn 
or tning tc be seized, nor without probable cause, supported by 
oath cr affirmaticn, reduced to writing. 



tc 



Section ^^. eight tc EEAE asks. The right cf any perscn 
keep or bear arcis in defense cf his cwr hcRe, person, and prop- 
erty, cr in aid of the civil power when thereto legally suirnicned, 
shall net be called in question, but nothing herein contained 
shall be held tc permit the carrying cf concealed weapcrs. 

Section 13. RIGHT TO SOFFFAGE. All elections shall be free 
and open, and no power, civil cr military, shall at any tine 
interfere to prevent the free exercise of the right of suffrage. 



Section lU. AEfJLT FIGHTS. Persons eighteen 
are declared tc be adults fcr all furpcses and 
right to hold any public office in the state. 



(18) years cf age 
shall have the 



Section 15. RIGHTS CF EERSCNS UNtEF THF AGE OF KAJCRITY. The 
rights cf persons under the age cf majority shall include, but 
not be limited to, all the fundamental rights of this article 



622 



FCMAISA CC^S1I1^'ITCK;»L CCNVINTICN 



sxc = ft whert- s[:-:ci fical ly {.ifclud^^d i-y lawi: which <^r.har.ce the 
ptotecticn fcr such p-rscns. 

Secticn 16. Tht AC [•: 1 MSif AT ICK CF JCSlICr. Ccurts cf justice 
shall te CF'-i. tc iv-Ty terser, ard sp-edy reiredy affcrd?d for 
evpLy injury of v^csici., prcp>er-^y, or character; no perscr shall 
be d>:iprivod cf this ttill Irqal redress tor injury incurred in 
5 tc 1- 1 c y ff t n t f c r i» h i c h, a ii c t h -. r p «^ r s c r, it a y t c 1 i a M t e x c -- f t as t c 
fellow cnplcy^es and his ittatdia te emplcy'^i whc hired him if such 
iintr,?didte •^irfloy'.'r {rovices ccverag? undrr *-he Horknien's Ccirfpr,- 
saticn Laws cf t],is state; ar, d that right and justice shall be 
adnirist£tc5 without lale, denial, cr a-^liy. 



Section M . DIJr 
1 i f zr , 1 1 b t- r t y , c r 



PTsCCESS Cf L^V. he pfiscn shall fc? d^rrived 
cruperty without du- process cf lav,. 



S € c 1 1 1; 



b . K, C N 



divisions shall h a v < 



■liiKUMIY FBC^ SUIT. Th-? 
no speciil iairurity free 



stats and its sut- 
:i:it. This provi- 



sion 
1973. 



rn a 



11 



ppiy only tc cause- cf actio r arising after Jure 1, 



S<^cti.-^r. 1"^. HAbiAS CCBEUS. Ihfc privilege 
habeas ccrcus sliall never Le susperdeJ. 



cf the writ cf 



Section 20. IMIIAIICN OF rFCCiECINGS. Criaiinal cfferses cf 
which ccur-rp intericr tc the district ccurts have juriscicticc 
shall he prosecuted Ly ccuplaint. "11 cria;iral actions in dis- 
trict court, -">xc^p* thost-" en appeal, shall t^ prosecuted ty 
inforaiaticn, after exaniir.aticr. and ccnn. itrrert ty a aiagistrate, cr 
after leave q ranged Ly the ccurr, cr shall te prosecuted by 
indict ro-^nt without such exairinatior. or ccairitoant, cr hithcut 
such leave of the court. A grand jury shall ccrsist cf seven per- 
sons, of v-hoiii fiv- irust concur tc find an indictment. A grand 
jury shall ci.ly l-^ drawn and suiripcned when the district judge 
shall, in his disc rati, en, consider it necessary, and shall so 
cider. 

Secticn 21. tAIl. All persons shall te tailatle ty suffi- 
cient sureties, except fcr capital offenses, when the fiocf is 
evident cr the pr'suinpticn great. 

Section 2z. tXCESSIVr SA^C'IIC^S. Excessive tail shall not te 
required, or excessive tines iffipcsed, cr cru^l and unusual pun- 
ishments iaflictea. 



Section 23. CFI^fiTICN. No t^rscn shall he impriscred for the 
purpose cf securing his testimony in any criminal proceeding 
longer than may te necessary in order tc take his depositicn. If 
he can give security fcr his appearance at the time of trial, he 
shall be discharged upon giving the sane; if he car.nct give 
security, his depcsiticn shall te taken in the aaanner prescribed 
by law, and in the presence of the accused and his counsel, cr 
without their presence, if they shall fail tc attend the exaEina- 
ticn after reasonable notice cf the tiire and place thereof. Any 



Bill cf Fiqhtt Cciririttee FrcjcsJil 



623 



de[,0£iticn authcniz-;d Ly this secticr. irdy le received a? evidence 
en thi- trial, it the witr.';ss shall te dead cr absert frcir the 
state. 

Spcticr m. .EIGHTS CF IHF i^CCUSEE, In all criminal prcsc- 
cuticrs th^ accused shall havi th<e right tc appear and d^f-end in 
person and Ly ccuns:!; tc demand ths nature and cause of the 
accusation; to meet the witnesses against him face tc face; tc 
have process tc cctrpel th'^ attendance cf witnesses in his l.ehalf, 
and a sp?ocy public trial ty an in- partial jury cf the ccunty cr 
district in which the cffense is alleged tc have been cctriritted, 
subject to the right of the state tc have a change cf verue fcr 
any cf the causes rcr which the aefendant cray cttain the same. 

Section 25. SELF-I NCFI KI NATION l^.hZ ECCBIE JEOEiiECY. ho 
person shall be cciripelled tc testify against hiirself ir a crimi- 
nal frcceeding, nor shall any perscr be twice put in jeopardy tor 
the same offense previously tried in any jurisdiction. 




Section 27. I KFBI SCNMSNl FCK FEET. No person shall be 
imprisoned for debt except in the narner prescribed by law, upon 
r-^fusal tc deliver up his estate tor the benefit cf his credi- 
tors, or in Cises cf tcrt, where there is strong presumpticn cf 
fraud. 

Section 28. KIGHTS CF IHE CCNVICIEC. Laws fcr the punishment 
of crime shall be fcundcd en the principles cf prevention and 
reformation and full rights shall b^ autcmat ically restored upcn 
termination cf state supervision fcr any offense against the 
state. 



Section 2S. EPIiNENI DCflAIN. Private property shall not be 
taken or damaged fcr public use without just compensation to the 
full ext-int of the- loss having been first orade tc or paid into 
court for the cwner. In the event of litigation, just ccuipensa- 
ticn shall include necessary expenses cf litigation tc be awarded 
by the court when the private property cwner is the prevailing 
party. 

Section 30, ISEASCN AND DESCENT CF ESTATES. Treason against 
the state shall consist only in levying war against it, cr in 
adhering to its eneiries, giving them aid and ccirfcrt; no person 
shall be convicted of treason except on the testimony cf twc wit- 



624 



flOKTAK/'. CClSTnUIICN»L CCKVINTION 



ness-e tc thp saai cv-rt act, cr en his ccrfessicr. in cp-r. ccurt; 
nc persoi. shall be attainted cf treascr. ct f^'lcny by the leqis- 
lativ-^ assioilly; no convicticr. shall caus«= the loss cf ftcferty 
to th-; rc:ldtiv-s cr h^irs cr the ccrvicted, Ih>^ estates cf sui- 
cides shall doscEnr] cr vt^st as in cas-^s cf ratural death. 

S.iCticn 31. bX tCST PflClC, CELIGATICN C? CCM1FACTS fiNC 
IRiMiVCCfltLf PDIVIlEGiLS. Nc ex ^cst facte 1 a Vi nor 1 a v» iaif.airir.g 

th3 ci ligaticn ct ccr.tracts, cr piakir.q any irrevocable grant cf 
special t^ri vil»^.ge.s, frarichisps, cr iirrr unities , shall t<^. pass'^d ty 
the legislative asseirirly. 

S-cticn 32. CIVILIAK CCNT&CI CF IHt flinAFY. Th- nilitary 
shall always ^^e in strict sutcrdiraticn tc the civil pcvi-r; nc 
soldier shall ii; tin- cr peace t;e quartered in any house fcithcut 

(can- 



t h e c c r. 



'nt cf the cwr, :r, ncr in titre cf war, ^xcep* in th* 



ner prescribed ty law. 

I::ecti3n 32. I^rCRTAlICN CF A£.^FE EEFSCNS. No arnsed person or 
p-Tscr.s cr araied body of tren shall te brought irtc this state for 
the [.rsservd t icn cf the peace, or the suppression cf dcmpstic 
violence, exc^^pt upon tht application cf ^hp legislative assem- 
bly, cr of the gcv-rncr when the legislative asseoBbly cannot te 
ccnvereu. 

Section m . U KF NUKEP Al E E BIGhlS. The erufferatior ir this 
Constitution of certain rights shall net le construed tc deny, 
iffipdii, cr disparage others retained ty the pecple. 



^s/_wade_J^_Cahccd 
Chairiran 



Z£Z_Ecb_Caffi£tell 



^s/_t;i_Si_ Hanson 



Z§Z_ili§_l:2SIoi. 



Z^Z_Ch:et_Ela^lcck 

Vice Chaitnan 

ZSZ_2£Icthi_Eck 

^s^_Gecr<3e_Ja nes 

Z^Z_li^Iii3ll_f urra^ 



/s/_Ccnald_R_,_Fc3ter. 



/s/_FacLell_ Mans field 



^s^_Vercrica_Sulli van 



Bill ct Pigntif Ccnnittse Prcpcsjl 



625 



CCt-";':iMT5; CN CCfriinrF EtCECSAL 



P b i: A i^ E L I; 



o D i .? 



the ^zci-li: ct Fcntara gcatsful tc Gcd tor th-? 
b?ai3ty "t cur stat^, th- irard-ui ct ccr 
u:ountdir.s, the vi3tr.ess cf cut rcllinq pldins, aiid 
Gosirinq tc iraprov; th j quality cf lif^, j quality ct 
cppcrturity \r,i tc s-curt the llcssir. :js cf literty tcr 
t r i t and r u t u l e '^ i r. c r a 1 1 c r. f .; c c r d a i n a r. d establish 
t }; i s C c r s t i t u t i c Ti . 



CCKf^IivIE 



:ill c <= ; iyiit-s CcniLittf-c tclt that 



both m the h^auty ct '. h-: stat^ and th^ 
als wiiO were d-"dicatr 1 tc cstab 1 isiii r j 



("cr. tara is ur;iqu^ 



.^treiigth cf thf. irdividu- 
i stdt- from a rich wil'3- 



Th= i-ai"-''^ i ^-SS cf C 



a r 1 -: s [•. . B u s s ■? 1 1 captured t h -- r u q q '3 d 
Furrcunded by uriiatched scen^^ry. This was 



i n i i V i f! u a 1 1 3 IT w h i c i, was 
described by Jchr. St^mbtcx as the "grandeur" cf the tr cur fairs in 
wsst-rr ^^cntana and "rclling qrasslards" cr easterr f^cr.tana. 
Grandeur was include 1 in the Fr?antl-i, tut the wajctity ct ths 
co[rt(iitt-3<-j pL-at€rrtc the terir "vastr-ss ci cur lollirq plains" tc 
"richr. ess oi cur rcllinq q r ass 1 ^r. c s" , 



ihe "quiet t-^auty cf cur stat^^" includes ccns iderat icns cE 
the land, air, aiid v,ater of our s-at^ and describes the peaceful- 
nsss tl-iat the pecpl:; have always desired since the early inhabi- 
tants first shared a special relaticnship viiti- the spirit cf 
their Creator. 



because cf tr^- ccncern cf these ir tne ccrver.ticn and the 
state that net m -nt ior.irq "God" speci f ic=illy wcuid be uraccep- 
tabie the couniittee voted uraniiicusiy tc r-tain Fim in the Fre- 
anicle. Alt.iouqh the comitittee preferred tts tern "Spirit cf Crea- 
tion" or "Spirit cf cur Creator", it did ret believe the eirc- 
ticnal response raised wculd justify the change. 

The final ^.vc phrases represent the reascr tcr living under 
a Constitutional qcvernirtnt which is intended to iirprcve the 
quality of life and equality cf cppciturity 
that each individusl shculd be 
develop to his full pctertial. 



The ccmmittee urges 
civsn the sane cppciturity tc 



we bsliev3 this frearable represents the essence of what we 
in Kcntana cherish in our surroundings and cur highest ideals cf 
improvinc the quality cf our lives in a free society. 



In 
pcsa Is 



drafting this Freaiible; the ccsirittee used delegate pro- 
le's. 59, 67, 86, and 116. 



fi f 1 1 C L £ 



626 



f',C^TA^A CCNSTIinilCN^L CCNVENTICN 



LECLAPAIICN Cf FIGHTS 



S-^cticn 1. FCnJLAF SCVEBIIGNTY. All pclitical 
is vest-^d in and derived freer the jectl^; all 
ment of ri<jht criijinates with the 
upcn th-ir will crly, and 
gccd cf the whcle. 



fewer 

qcver r- 

cecple; is fcunded 

is in stitutcc scl-ly fcr thf^ 



CC^t'EM5 



leave 
1P89 C 
isf act 
the pr 
out i 
this 
a n n c c n 
the pe 
gccd c 



f t^r 

this 
c n £ t i 
ory 
ovisi 
Bpcrt 
sscti 

CBS 

ople 

f the 



3 C IT c d 
Stdt 

t uticn 
r -" s u 1 1 
en s cic 
int c 
on CO 
t h ^ t 
and p r 
vihcle 



iscussicn, th. -e ccuRitt^e decided unanincusly tc 
£Di€nt of political philosophy as it vias in the 
. S-^veral re-drafts were attempted with ursat- 
s. Although thes? xc-drafts wculd have shortened 
ewhat, it was suggested that they would leave 
oncepts 01 political philcscphy. As it stands, 
ntdins the ncticn of popular sovereignty, 
legitimate qcverr.irert is fcunded on the will cf 
cvides that the scle end cf gcverninent is the 



The coiririttee understands that this and other political 
philosophy provisions are net often iit irediately justiciable, yet 
believe that such provisions announce the principles upcn which 
legitimate governffent rests therety providing yardsticks for 
assessing the quality of gcver rorental cperaticr. 

No delsgate proposals were sutirittsd en this prcvisicn. 

Section 2. SELF-GCV EFNKE NI , The people cf the state 
have the exclusive right cf govcrrirg theinselves as a 
tree, sovereign, and independent state. They Kay alter 
or atolish their Ccnstituticn and fern cf gcverntnent 
whenever they ciay deem it necessary. 

CCKMENTS 

The ccniDittee decided with one disserting vote that this 
section aiight be re-drafted to Bake it more readable without 
changing its essence. Accordingly, wordings which were believed 
redundant or excessive were deleted and cca;plete sentence struc- 
ture was employed where necessary. These r-visicns ccnsiderably 
shorten the provision without changing its aneaning or intent. The 
principle as submitted states the right cr fcntanans tc govern 
themselves and tc alter cr abolish their Ccnstituticn and fcrir cf 
government. No delegate proposals were subuitted on this provi- 
sion. 



Section 3. INALIENAEIE EIGHTS. All persons are bcrn 
free and have certain inalienable rights which include 
the right of pursuing life's basic necessities, cf 
enjoying and defending their lives and liberties, cf 
acquiring, possessing and protecting property and cf 



Pill cf M^jhts Cowffittee Frcycs-il 



62'; 



se-skiny th^ir s^.r^:ty, health ancj haffir^^ss ir all 
lawful ways. In ^njcyirg these rioht;;, the pecfle 
reccijnizi ccrr-^spor.ding i-spcr. sililiti-ss. 

C C .". K E t; 1 S 

Tne ccjBirit ti-': prcj-cs^s with tie dissertir.q vctes that the 
fcrtn^i Article IT I, Sc^cticn 3 he reraiiit^d with a few suttar.tive 
changes. The cciotnittee struck larquage which was f-lt to te 
r€iuroar.t. Ic additior., it is i^ccimended that the right to 
pursutr liCv't tasic necessities te inccrpcrated as a statcoert cf 
principle. Tho intert cf th- ccunitt'^^e cr. this point is ret to 
creator a substantive right for all for the necessities cf life tc 
be prcvided i:y the public tieasti>. 

Ihe ccffifflittee heard ccnsideratle t-'?FtitiJcry, frcm low incoire 
and sccial services roople alike, that the state's current puhlic 
assistance progidiis are net Oieetinc the genuice needs cf lew 
inccffl- pecpl-^ who, because cf circunf stanc<=s heycnd their ccr.trcl, 
are unable tc obtain basic necessities. Accordingly, it is hoped 
that the legislature will have cccasicn tc review these prcarams 
and upgrad- them where necessary tc prcviie full necessities tc 
those in genuine need and tc curb whatever abuses may exist in 
the prcgraffis. 



'«hat was att-!tpted in this part cf 
a statement cf the principle that all pe 
able right tc 
can Le no riqht 



he proposed secticr was 

ens have the inalien- 

pursue the tasic necessities cf life — that there 

tc life apart frcm the possibility cf existence. 



The other inalienable rights were included with only orincr 
changes in style fcr purposes of clarity. An additicral right, 
the right cf seeking health was incorporated in raccgniticn of 
the fact that a right tc life without health is a scrry prcpcsi- 
t i c n . 



deri 
both 
spcii 
expr 
reco 
that 
righ 
mine 
fflitt 
inf r 
righ 
cise, 



The f 
ved fro 

f avcri 
ding r 
essed t 
g n i z i n q 

a decl 
ts cf 
rities 
es fel 
inge cr 
ts but 



inal 
m de 
nq a 
espc 

he f 

th 

arat 

per 

agai 

t t 

imp 

on 



lega 

nd 

nsib 

eeli 

at 

ion 

sons 

nst 

hat 

air 

ly a 



ntenc 
te pr 
pposi 
iliti 
ng th 
they 
cf r 

agai 
the p 

the 
the 
ccor d 



e of 
cpcsa 
ng th 
es i 
at ffla 

cr ea 
igh ts 
Rst g 
ewer 

incl 
right 
sat 



this 
1 Nc. 
e ircl 
n the 
r y we 
te cb 

shcu 
over nm 
c f u n c 
usicn 
s gra 
cne of 



sect 1 
116. T 
usicn c 
decla 
re ace 
ligatic 
Id ccn 
ental a 
hecked 

cf su 
r t e d i 

respor 



en 

est i 
f a 
rati 
epti 
ns. 
tain 
buse 
iia jc 
ch a 
n t 
sibi 



IS 

men 

sta 

cr 

ng 

Cth 

J 
s a 
rit 

St 

he 
lit 



new h 
y was 
tetnen t 

cf ri 

right 
ers we 
ust t 
nd the 
ies . 
at eicer 

decla 
y tc t 



avin 

re 

of 

gh ts 

s w 

re a 

hat: 

rig 

The 

t dc 

rati 

heir 



g been 
ceived 
corre- 
. Seme 
ithout 
damant 
the 
hts cf 
cc Di- 
es net 
on cf 
exer- 



A number of delegate proposals were rejected in the drafting 
of this section. Delegate proposal Kc, a5 stipulated a sutstan- 
tive right tc the necessities cf life. Ne. 93 proposed an 
inalienable right to collectively bargain. The ceinrdttee felt 



628 



;^CKTAFA C C ^ ST I T U 1 IC N P.L CONV^NTICN 



thst tliH iscu" cf ccil-ctivt fcaicaininy — as well as its ccunter- 
pdrt the right tc wcrk — wete picpeily stdtutcry matters. 

Secticn iJ. INLIVID'JAL CIGNIIY. lbs ciigrity cf the 
.huiran h-iiia is ir viola hie. Nc peiscr shall te denied 
tbs ^qual p ret PC tic I. ct th'- law, nor b^ discriminated 
agjinct in th-f -x^rcise cf his civil cr political 



rights on Tcccunt 



ct race, cclcr, sex, culture, social 

criqin or ccr<liticn, or pclitical cr leligicus ide^as, 
by riiiy i-'tsoiif lira, ccrpcraticn, cr ins t itut icr ; cr ty 
the state, its agencies cr subdivisicr. 



C C f J« E N T S 

Th-:^ cowDiitte-' unanimously adopted this secticn with the 
inter.t ct providinc a Cons t itut ic ra 1 iap^tus for the eradication 
ot public and [;rivate discr iminat icrs based en race, cclcr, sex, 
cultur-^, social crigir. cr condition, or pclitical or reliqicus 
ideas. Ihe provisicr, quite sitnilar tc that of the Puerto Bico 
declaration of rights is aimed at prohibiting private as hell as 
public d iscr itrina t icns in civil and political rights. 

Considerable testirecny was heard ccrceiring the need to 
incluie s-x m any --rqudl prctecticn cr free den trcir discriirina— 
tion prcvisicns. The ccair.ittee telt that such inclusion was 
eminently prop-T and saw no reascn tcr the state tc wait fcr the 
adoption cf the federal Fqual Bights Airerdni=rt, an amendment 
which would not '=rxplicitly provide as iruch prctecticn as this 
provis ion . 



The word culture was iriCcr pcra ted specifically to cover 
groups whose cultural base is distinct frcn nainstrsaai f!cntana, 
especially the Anerican Indians. "Social origin cr condition" 
was included tc cover discriirir.aticns based on status cf irccire 
and standard of living. 

Sonie fears were expressed that the wording "political or 
religious ideas" would permit persons who supported right tc wcrk 
in principle tc avcid union metrbership. Such is certainly net the 
intent cf the ccminit tee. The wording was inccrpcrated tc prohibit 
public and private ccncerns discriminating against persons 
because of their political cr religious teliefs. 

The wording of this secticn was derived alncst verbatim frcai 
Delegate Proposal No. 61. Th^ cctcmittee felt that this picposal 
incorporated all the features cf all the Delegate Prcpcsals 
(No.'s IC, 32, 50 and 51) on the subjects cf equal protection cf 
the laws and the freedom frcm discr iminaticr, Ihe ccmmittee is 
well aware that any broad proposal en these subjects will require 
considerable statutory embellishment. It is hoped that the legis- 
lature will enact statutes to promote effective eradication cf 
the discriminations prohibited by this secticn. The considerable 
support fcr and lack of oppcsiticn to this prevision irdicates 
its import and advisability. 



Eill cf eights C cuiir i t ■♦■€ e Fropcsal 



629 



Stealer. ^. Fr:EFIlC^ CF FJLIGION. Ilic state cf ror.tana 
thall aiake no law reEftCtir. g an cstatlishtrtnt cf iPli- 
qicf), CI fichilitirg th^; free €X€rcis; thciecE. 

C C K f E M £ 

Ihe ccnin!itt»pi 3ecid--d unaniacusly tc substitut':^ th-^ cci'cis-9 
wording c£ the freedca- cf teligicr clause cf ths federal first 
Amendment. Kuch t,_3ti3icr.y was heard on this crcvisicr, acst cf it 
on th-= £ubje:ct of public aid tc c hurch-Esl a t?d schccls. The cotr- 
mittee tslt ttiat this isru? shculd be dsalt wi*h, as it vas, by 
th-3 Zducaticn a;ij tuhlic lands Cciririttee and that the prcvisicn 
inccrfciated into the Declaraticr. cf Bights should restrict 
itseli to guaranteeing the tree exercise of reliqicn and jrchib- 
i t i n 9 the e s t a b 1 i s h n o n t c t any i e 1 i g i c n . 

Ih-? coiPU;ittee felt especially strcrg about removiiig the 
a nti- "i crcrcn biases reflected in the previcus wcrding cf Article 
III, section li , i eycnd that, the ccirraittee nct>-^d that since the 
religicns which historically were persecuted v.sr'^ these alleged 
to violate or threateii the gccd crd^r, feace and safety cf the 
state, such j; ass ages *ere cf dubious nerir ir a s + atensent of 
rpligicus liberty. Accordingly, both — cf ccnsideratle 
l9ngth--here d-l-ted. what renains is the ti ad iticn-r idde r guar- 
antee of religious liberty adopted by th--- first US Ccngress in 
1789 as part of tlio fe-derjl Eill cf Kights. 

realizing the legal, sccial and political problems of the 
church-stat- area are -"xceedingly cctnplex, it is not urged that 
this prevision will sinplify their rescluticn. ticwever, it will 
certainly not make the understanding of these cotrpellirg ard 
soiDCtiices paradoxical ccncerrs iicre difficult. 

Section &. fhEEDCf^ Ct ASSEMEIY. The people shall have 
th-i right peaceably tc asseable, petiticr for redress 
or to protest cover naenta 1 acticr. 

CCffFNIS 

The coiTiDittee unanimously reccir mend ed that the foriner Arti- 
cle III, section 26 be adopted with only cn^- stylistic change. 
The basic right tc assemble for redress cf grievances by petition 
or remonstrance remains unchanged. The wcrding was tightened up 
a little and the phrase "protest gc ve r nffien tal action" was substi- 
tuted fcr th-» phrasing "apply tc those invested with the powers 
of gcverninent for redress cf grievances. . by remcnst ranee. " In 
doing so, the ccffimittee notes the paramount position of the right 
and the invaluable function its responsible exercise plsys in a 
democratic society. 



Section 7, PREEBCM CF SPEECH, EXPFESSICN ANC tFFSS. 
;.c law shall be passed impairing the freedcir cf sfeecb 
or exprtLTSsicn. Every person shall be free tc speak or 



630 



KCN1ANA CChEUIVZlChl^.l CCKVEMICN 



publish what€Vx:r ht; will cr ary subject, being r€spcB- 
sibli- Lev all dbuse cf that liberty. In all suits and 
prosecutions fcr libal cr slander th- truth thereof cay 
b-? given iii evidpncc; aiii the jury, und-^r th*; directicri 
cf th^ ccurt, shall d-^ + ci:nninf the law and th^ fac^s. 



Arti 

of 

Firs 

this 

rule 

and 

ef fc 

safe 

the 

iB-^nt 

law . 



The 
cl'C; 
spee 
t hw. 

f X 

on 

th- 
It t 
guar 

cri 

wil 



coffin 
III, s 
ch is 
fc n d 01 f n 
tensio 
V a r i c u 

ways 
c r3-b 
ding o 
iracy 
1 net 



itte 
.1 c t i 
ext 
t, t 
n K 

S IG 

in w 
alcin 
t ci 
cf t 
cent 



~ n r. a 
on 1 "■ 
srdid , 

CCV 5 

ill pr 
r K. s of 
hich c 
C€ th€ 
vil li 
he se g 

1 n u e IT 



r Iff 
wit 
in 
r t 
vi 

ftX 

n-e 

ge 
her 
uar 

erf; 



cus 
h c 
li 
be 
de 
pre 
exp 
ner 
tie 
ant 

ly 



ly 

ne 
ns 
tie 
i»p 

c c j_ 

res 
al 
s . 
ees 

ir 



pre 
subs 
with 
edc II 
etus 
en s 
ses 
back 

The 

in 
the 



1 3 n t 
fed 
cf 
tc 

ittil 

his 

seat 

CCB 

the 
wake 



s th 

ive 

eral 

exp 
th? 
ar t 
uniq 

sta 

iritt 

hope 

of 



e 5 dcp 
changf= 

decis 
re ssio 
ccur ts 
the 
ue per 
tus cf 
ee wis 

that 
the 



t ion o 
. The 
icns u 
n. Ho 

in Mo 

spck 

scnali 

state 
hes tc 
t ii e i r 

f eder 



f fo 
f re 
nder 
pef u 
ntar. 
en 

ty i 
E in 

St 

enf o 

al 



mer 

edcffi 

the 

a to 
word 
nan 
the 
r ess 
rce- 
case 



cth-^r miner changes made in the section were merely 
stylistic in nature except for the inclusion cf the word "slan- 
der" tc provide prctection against abuses cf the free speech and 
press guarantees in cases of spcker as well as written word. The 
committee retained the -established principle that in libel trials 
the jury shall decide the law ard the facts en the the cry that 
removal cf this clause might be ccrstrued as the denial of a 
right. The principle is continued with the ncte that ir. cases of 
iitel it is necessary fcr the prcsecutor tc convince bcth the 
court and the jury before *h€ free speech and press prctecticrs 
are cverridder, (Harrington v. Eutte fjiners Co ._Et_i_Al . , UP Kent. 
550, 554, 139 p.'usTfT 



Section S. KIGHT Ci E AT IICIP ATIC N . The public shall 
have the right to expect gcvernirenta 1 agencies tc 
afford every feasible cpport unity for citizen parti- 
cipation in the operation cf the gcveiniseDt prior to 
the final decision. 

CCifKENTS 



T 

to the 

partic 

provis 

notice 

will 

the ag 

the le 

dures 

instit 

this 

DCt en 



he coirmi 
increase 
ipation i 
ion is 

tc agenc 
expect tc 
ercy moke 
vel of fu 
that iraxi 
utions of 
is eminen 
ly on the 



ttee 
d pu 
n th 
in 
ies 

par 
s up 
ndair 
fflize 

sta 
tly 

qua 



un 
blic 
e de 
part 
cf g 
tici 

its 
enta 

the 
t3 g 
prop 
lity 



ante 

CO 

cisi 

a C 
over 
pate 

min 
1 la 

acc 
ever 
er a 

of 



cusly 
ncern 
cn-mak 
cnstit 
r. IE e n t 

in ag 
d. In 
w tc s 
ess cf 
rinent. 
nd tha 
the f i 



adep 
and 
ing 
utic 
that 
ency 
part 
ee k 
cit 
Th 
t it 
nal 



ted th 

lite 

preces 

nal se 

the c 

decis 

, it i 

St ruct 

izens 

6 ecu 

will 
decisi 



is sec 
rature 
ses cf 
rmon d 
itizen 
icns p 
s also 
ures, 
tc the 
irittee 
have a 



cr.s 



tion 
ab 

gov 
esic 
s cf 
rici 

a c 
rule 

dec 
be 

sal 
ut 



in r 

out 

ernme 

ned t 

the 

to t 

CHIt it 

s and 
isicr 
lieve 
utary 
Ecre 



esponse 

citizen 

nt. The 

c serve 

state 

he tiise 

irert at 

proce— 

-oaking 

that 

effect 

it per- 



5ill cf 



£ I q h t ; 



Ccj. irittcc Ptcpcsal 



631 



tant, on th^ deliberative drd pcli*-j.cal capa til it i-es cf th? citi- 
zenry. It is hcp = i that this f-rcvisicr will play a role in 
revBrsiny the "l issa + isf ^cticns increas ir.qly expresseJ itqarding 
bureaucra*- ic authcrity irsulated fioir. futlic scrutiny and farti- 
cipaticn. The wcrdiny of the prevision is derived frctr Cti^qate 
Proposal No. 38. 



Section ''^ . r-IGHl TC KNCW. ^c p-sison snail te 
deprived cf th^ riyht tc cx^iEinfe dccuitents or to 
observe th-3 d-literaticr.s ot all public todies cr agen- 
ci??£ of Stat- gcvernitent and its subiivisicrs, except 
in cis.?£ in whica ths demands or individual privacy 
exceeds the fferita cf putlic disclcsure. 

CCtKEN'IS 



erable 
a cubl 
gate P 
partic 
zens a 
threat 
notes 
tc ch 
open ne 
stipul 
documa 
except 
weigh 
a p p 1 i e 
intend 
all f u 
urged 
wherei 
the Gs 
istrat 
lish f 



h^ 

ref 
ic r 
ropo 
ipat 
nd 
ens 
this 
ange 
ss G 
ates 
nts 

to 
the 
£ t 
s by 
blic 

tha 
n th 
tabl 
ive 
ull 



c c IT, m 

leer 

iqht 

Sdl 

ion. 

CO am 

the 

con 

th 

f go 

th 

and 

the 
need 
s 

thi 

ffidt 
t t 

^ re 
isaiD 
a g fc n 

citi 



it 
ic 

t 
Nc 



ent 



ce 

is 
v 

at 
th 



er 



exi 



tat 
s p 
ter 
his 
sol 
ent 
cie 
zee 



ee, w 

, ado 

know 

57. 

oth a 

atcrs 

f feet 

n and 

situ 

n 01 e n t 

pers 

deli 

ent 

f the 

e gov 

rovis 

S IT. U S 

is 
ution 

cf a 
s. Th 

acce 



it 
Ft 

• 

It 
r i 

iv 

L 
at 

d 
cr 
be 
th 

P 
er 
i c 

t 

o 
c 



h two 
ed tb 
In th 

is a 
86 ou 
aliKe 
e ex 
e lie v 
icn 
ocume 
£ h a V 
ratic 
at th 
uLlic 
n IT' e n t 
n tha 
te £u 
pecid 
f inc 
cinple 
test 

in t 



dissen 
is prcv 
e main, 

c c IT p a n 
t c f t h 

that 
ercise 
e £ that 
is tc 
nts and 
ether 
ns cf a 
€ deira r 

right 

and it 
t the d 
b ject 
lly the 
reasing 
X and b 
cf a de 
he face 



ting 
i s i c n 

the 
icn t 
e inc 

gcvp 
of ci 

one 

Ccrs 
ope 
ichts 
11 pu 
ds ct 
of di 
£ sub 
clibe 
tc p 

case 
ly cc 
ureau 
tnccra 

cf t 



votes, 

e X p 1 i c 
pr ovisi 
c the p 
r eas inc 
r nirent • 
t izensh 
s t -^ p « h 
tit utic 
ra t icr s 

tc exa 
tlic tc 

i n d i V i 
sclcEur 
divis ic 
raticn 
ub lie 

in a d 
irplex g 
c ratic 
tic sec 
his cha 



and 
itl 
en 
rec 
cc 

c 

ip. 
ich 

nal 

• 

irin 
die 
d ua 

^ • 

ns . 
and 
scr 
eiBO 
ues 
sys 
iet 
lie 



af 
y e 
is 
edi 
nee 
she 
Th 
ca 

ly 

The 
e g 
s c 

1 F 
The 
Th 
re 
uti 
era 
tio 
tein 

y i 
nge 



ter 
stab 
f icit 
rg r 
r r c 
er 

e cc 
n be 
pr e£ 

ever 
r a 
r iva 

e cc 
£clu 
ry. 
tic 
ns 1 

cf 
s tc 



corsid- 

1 ishing 

Cele- 

ight cf 

f citi- 

bigness 

iiaiittee 

taken 

ume the 

c visic n 

rcental 

ge reies 

ey out- 

c vision 

lEffiitt ee 

ticn of 

It i£ 

society 

eads to 

admin— 

estab- 



The cciiiioittse approvingly cites section 82-3iJC1 cf the 
Revised Codes cf Montana, 19a7, which provides: "It is the 
intent of this act (the open meeting law) that actions and delib- 
erations of all public agencies shall he ccncueted openly. The 
people of the state do net wish tc abdicate their sovereignty to 
the agendas which serve them..." 



The cciiirittee, during its deli teraticns on this prcvisicr, 
struck the word "public" frcii the phrase "te examine (public) 
docuffient£." Thi£ vas done to avcid tying the viability cf this 
provision to the 1895 legislative efforts tc define public and 
private writings. S8cticn£ 2 and 3 cf Title 93, Chapter 1C01 cf 
the Eevisel Codes cf Montana, 19i47, define these two classes cf 
writings. Bread categories cf what constitute public writings are 
stipulated in section 2. Sectien 3 proclaims that all ether writ- 



632 



f:Cir.1I\hA CCKSIITC'ITCNAI CC^V^MIC^i 



iv.:;s gic privatt. Ih^ cc.Tuittep acuits ttat this list of putlic 
wiitiTiqs is adniirafcly brc-i;l; hcweVv^r, using this typ-r cf statu- 
tory cor.sti uction is cangprous when cne is at tefflfting to estab- 
lish a {.U'^^ic ri'iht to tir.cw. Jucgmc crcir the cxairfl? cf ffceral 
and statfc statutes en tn^ Batter, it is tetter to stipulate the 
ii<2lu~iS£S rathir thin 11.- iDSiUfiSilS' '^'^ '^'^ c+herviise is tc risk 
losing the lijht tc -rxamih-: a dccuaer.t L^^Ciuse it dees r.ct fit 
s t a t u ' o r y c 1 1 '-" g o r i - s as a public 1 c c u ir (: n t . 



Th 
lincw [.o 
fully 

dS W-51 1 

extent 
public 

clearly 
pre visi 
Individ 



c c tr IT i 1 1 "^ c 
t be atsclut 
r 



i:; tends by this prcvisicr that the liqH tc 
The right cf individual privacy is tc te 




en that the ricjh^ tc Knew 
ual privacy. 



Th? coniirittee ccaitnends ttiis prcvisicr tc *be Ccnventicn as a 
long bt-p rcrward in assuring the cp':nness in gcvernment. Ey cre- 
ating ai; atmospher'^ cf cpenress in qcvermrent, the ccirffittee 
believes that ccntidence in governnent will increase and coverc- 
in->nt2l cp^iaticn viiil be facilitated. Such a prcvisicn, far frcm 
limitiay ■^he effectiveness cf geve rrmental 
the pre r equisi t -^ tc th*^ effective exorcise 
deuocratic scciety. 



ental cperaticn, establishes 
cf citizenship in a 



Section 1 C , 
isential tc 



net be infringed 
state inttr'-Et. 



FIGH1 Cf PFIVPC^. The right cf privacy is 
the well-being cf a free society and shall 
withcut tbe showing cf a ccffpellicg 



C C M f E N 'I S 



Delega 
vacy . 

jud ici 
status 
level 
tana [ 
c c m m i t 
circ uir 
follow 
re spcn 
sphere 
advanc 
not t 
invasi 
state 



119 

te 

V, 
all 

[*Gr 
Sta 
t~e 
sta 
inc 

s "^ 

o 
9d 



en 

int 



com 
Fro 
hat 
y-a 
The 
isw 
tt_ 
~b 
nee 
t 
to 
f 

tec 
pro 
of 
ere 



ir.it 

pO£ 

ni, c 
r i 
£i^ 
v_^ 
ill 
in 
h--- 
the 
ind 
hno 
hib 
pri 

St 



t e ? u II a n 
i 1 iN c . 3 
it ace 
u n c 3 d r i 
ght has 
_Vi_Cgnn 
Precht, 
eves the 

which t 
snowing 

increas 
i v i d u a 1 
logical 
it all i 
vacy sho 
has been 



inicu 

3 — i 

Off pi 

ght 

been 

ecti 

2b~S 

Con 
he r 
cf a 
ing 

pri 
scci 
n vas 
uli 

est 



sly 
c er 
ish e 
cf p 

9 ua 
cut , 
t. F 
stit 
ight 

ccm 
cenc 
vacy 
ety. 
icr s 
cccu 
abli 



adopte 
der to 
s is 
r ivacy 
rantee 
381 U 

ep. ae 

uticn 

cf pr 

pellin 

ern ex 

is 

The p 

c f pr 

r unti 

shed . 



d th 
qua 

t 
tc 

i in 

c 

s h c u 
ivac 
q St 
pres 
in 

cint 
ivac 
1 an 



is 

rant 
he 

expl 
cas 

473 
Id s 
y IT a 
ate 
sed 
■lang 

cf 
y bu 
d u 



sect 

ee t 

ele 

icit 

e la 

(19 

(fa 

peci 

y fc 

inte 
nat i 
er 

thi 
t tc 
nles 



icn- 
he r 
vati 
Cc 
w at 
65) ] 

y , 

fy t 
e i 

rest 
on w i 
of e 

s F 

reg 

s a 



-sitni 
ight 
cr 

nstit 

the 

and 

1971) 

hat t 

n f r ir 

. Thi 

de th 

clips 

rcvis 

uire 

ecu 



lar tc 
cf pri- 
cf the 
ut icnal 
federal 
i r t^ c n- 
]. The 
he only 
ged is 
s is in 
at the 
e in an 
icn is 
that no 
felling 



The ccnmitte' 
permit flexibility 



proposed a broad prcvisicr in this area to 
10 the courts in resolving the tersiccs 



Eiil cf r-ights Ccanittee frofcsal 



633 



betwe^^n fublic iiit^rests anc privacy. It is hcred that the 
legislitur-^ vrill have cccasicn tc prcvide additional frotections 
for th-- riqht of privacy in explicit areas where safeguards ar*; 
requir=d. An exairple of a peter. tial leqislative subject matter 
can be s-ar: in telega te Ircfcsal Nc. 12U which prchitited 
requiring sut u'issicr to a lie detector cr sinilar test as a con- 
d i t i c r, c t ^ in p 1 c y IT. . n t . 

Secticn 11. S£ARCfi5S AND SILIZUFES. IhG fecple shall 
he s-^cure in their persons, papers, hcires and effects, 
from an reason a tie searches and seizures and invasicrs 
cf privacy, and nc warrant tc S'^arch any place, cr 
seize any p'3rscn or thing shall issu" without descrit- 
inq t.-re place to be searched, cr the perscn or thing tc 
te seized, ncr without pre table cause, supported ty 
cath or affirniation, reduced tc writirg. 

1h" coffitritt:^ unaniircusly reccirirends the adoption cf Article 
III, section "^ witL only one sutstantive change. The phrase 
"invasions of privacy" was included tc apply the traditicral 
safeguards acccoipanying searches and seizures tc any invasions of 
privacy. This section is the procedural ccaparicn cf sutstantive 
section IC of this final draft. They stipulate that even after 
the showmj of a compelling state interest the state irust abide 
by certain procedural guidelines. 



T 
draft 
other 
ther t 
interc 
author 
c a t i c n 
was of 
level ; 
an exp 
of f ici 
have 
&ccora 
cation 



he c 
s a f e g 
ir.ean 
e s t i m 
e p t i 
ize , 
s by 
f ered 
r.or 
licit 
al, r 
the 
ingiy 
s sho 



Cfliffi 1 

u a r d 

s c 

cry, 

ns 

expl 

Stat 

all 
we 

cr 
n ad 
auth 
, th 
uld 



tte 
s I 
f c 
th 
cf 
ici 
e o 
egi 
re 
imp 
dit 
cri 
e c 
rem 



e h 
or 

Off ecu 
e CO 
ccir 
tly 
f f ic 
rg a 
tber 
lici 
ion , 
ty t 
omaii 
ain 



ad inc 
wiretap 
R i c a t i 
miflit t ee 
m u n i c a t 
cr iaipl 
ials. T 
ny need 
e any c 
t grant 

it is 
c wir e t 
ttee te 
in viola 



cr pc 
p i n q 
ns i 

dec 
icns 
ici t 
he c 

for 
ride 

cf 
note 
ap f 
liev 
te " 



rate 

rter 
idtd 
. Th 

ly. 

Off. mi 
wir 

S E t 

sue 

d th 
era 
e s t 
f rcir 



1 

lect 

cap t 

to 
e CO 
the 
ttee 
etap 
ipul 
h a 
at f 

nuoi 
hat 

sta 



r tc 
re ni 
icns 
dele 
trffi t 
inte 
net 
aut 
atec 
u the 
eder 
her 
the 
te-1 



the 
c s 
. Af 
te a 
tee 
rcep 
es t 
hcii 

fcti 
ri ty 
a 1 e 
cf s 
pr iv 
e wel 



ten 
ur ve 
ter 
ny r 
does 
tion 
hat 
ty a 
ch w 
to 
ff ic 
eric 
acy 

int 



cati 
ilia 
hear 
ef er 

net 

of 
no t 
t th 
culd 
an 
ials 
us o 
cf 
erce 



ve r 
roe 
inq 
ence 

wis 
coniK 
esti 
e s 

jus 
y s 

air 
ffen 
ccirir 
ptic 



eugh 
and 
tur- 
tc 
h tc 
un i- 
CDony 
tate 
tif y 
tate 
eady 
ses, 
uci- 
ns." 



The comaiittec is aware +hat the legislature is eirpcwered ty 
the Federal Cmnitus Criae Ccntrcl and Safe Streets Act cf 1968 tc 
grant wiretap authority to state officials. It is noted that any 
such legislative enactment would require, under this and the pre- 
ceding proposed provision, the shewing cf a ccuipellirg stats 
interest. The ccaimittee, seeing the ionediate potential atuses of 
wiretap authority at the state lev^l, believes this is only 
proper. 

Celegate Proposal Nc. lU was rejected in part as an implicit 
grant cf coniinunicaticns interceptions authority. 



634 



KCKIAKA CChSIIIUTICNAl CCHV£K1ICN 



Section 12. RIGHT IC EEAF At^.S. The right cf any 
ptr£cn tc kt?fp or tear arais in defense ct his cwn hcne, 
person, and prcp:rty, cr in aid cf the civil pcwer when 
thereto legally sumircned, shall net te called in ques- 
tion, Lut nothing h^, rcir contained shall te held to 
perffi*: the Cdrrying of concealed we a pens. 

C C K I', F N I S 

Ihe cctraittee -voted unanimously that the ilcntana prevision 
guaranteeing the rignt tc keep and tsar arns remain as is. In 
doing sc, it is noted that the Kcntana prcwisicn gees teycr.d ths 
Federal Second A tfcndirc nt in that it guarantees an individual 
right to K^-^jp and bear ans. Frcip scat of the testimony received, 
it was apparent that many wer-^ unaviare that the Federal Ccrstitu- 
ticn stipulates cnly a collective right tc ke^p and tear arcs, 
and explicitly predicates that right en the nainterarce of a 
well-r-gDlated Oiilitary. 



T 
pOSS eS 

cciEmit 
sessic 
theret 
addi ti 
t c b -3 a 
such 
public 
of the 



fe s t i 
s a 
tee 
r c 
ore, 
en , 
r ar 
regu 
goo 
law 



ni o n y 
n d b e 
.1 o t c £ 
f fi 

not 

it 
IPS is 
1-tic 
d a n d 
s. 



was heard in favcr cf guara n^-eeir g the right tc 
ai arms withcut registration, license, cr tax. The 

that the statutory efforts tc regulate the pos- 
rearms hav^ teen at the federal level and are, 
subject to state Ccnst itut icna 1 provisions. In 
is urged — and requires re citation — that the right 

subject to the pclice power cf the state. Any 
n irust, of course, stand in scffe relation tc the 

must i;ot violate due process cr equal protection 



Lelegate t-ropcsil No. U was rejected as a lengthy prevision 
that v>culd have froz-n into the Ccnstituticn withcut any state 
precedent a good number cf matters best dealt with at the more 
flexibl-? statutory lev?l. As proposed, the Montana prevision en 
the right te keep and bear aras regains one cf the very strongest 
in t h 3 nation. 

Section 13. RIGHT TC SUFFFAGE. All elections shall te 

free and cper, and no power, civil or lilitary, shall 

at any time interfere tc prevent the free exercise of 
the right cf suffrage. 

COCKENIS 



The ccmmittes felt that this section should te left as is, a 
guarantee that the right of suffrage shall not be interfered with 
and that elections shall te free and epen. Acccrdirgly the provi- 
sion as proposed is the vertatiir- wording cf Article III, section 
5 of the present Montana Ccnstituticn. The provision is supple- 
mented, but rot replaced by, the proposals cf the General Gcvern- 
ment Coirmittee on suffrage and elections. ISc delegate proposals 
were received en this provision. 



Bill cf Bights Cc^iEittee Ercpcsa] 



635 



Section ia. ACDL1 BIGHTS. Persons eighteen (18) y^ars 
cf age ar^^ declared tc be adults for all purfcses ard 
shall have the right tc held ary public office in the 
state. 

CCJ?K£NTS 



pro V 
all 

olds 

Ihe 

eral 

Mont 

Icgi 

can 

age 

well 

rucn 

urge 

ca pa 

from 

and, 

net 

prcv 

to e 

if t 

offi 

Stat 



1 
is 
pu 

c 

cc 

g 

an 
ca 

V 

tc 

—a 
ir. 
d 
fci 

i 
t 
is 
le 
he 
ce 
ut 



h^ cc 
ic r. w 
r f c s L^ 
hall 
(T ir. i 1 1 
overn 
a le 
1 cor! 
ote 

seek, 
ware 
g f cr 

that 
lity 
crese 
f he 
c be 
ice i 
ct an 

elec 
, an 
es cc 



THlit 

hich 
s. 1 
have 
ee b 
tnent 
gisi 
clus 
and 
ele 
tha 
t li e 
sho 
tc r 
ntin 
can 
deni 
s th 
y ad 
tcra 
arbi 
ntai 



tee 

WGU 

he p 

the 
elie 

in 
atur 
icn. 

tha 
ctic 
t t 

ma j 
uld 
un t 
g h 
secu 
ed t 
at t 
ult 
te V 
tr ar 
n, s 



appr 
id d 
rcvi 

rig 
ves 
adop 
e i 

Wha 
t an 
r. to 
hare 
cr o 
an e 
cr s 
imse 
re t 
he o 
he e 
it w 
culd 

Y ag 

h cul 



c V e d 
eel a 
sicn 

ht t 
that 
ting 
n ra 



t th 

y E-3 

an 
wi 
f fie 
ight 
uch 
If 

he V 
f f ic 
lect 
ishe 
sup 
e re 
d no 



re e 
fur 
c he 
the 
the 
tif y 
e se 
rsen 
y F 
il f 
es 
eer 
ef f i 
tef o 
ctes 
€ be 
crat 

£, r 

pert 
quir 

t de 



th C 

icht 

ther 

Id a 

adir 

TVie 

ir, g 

ctic 

eli 

ubli 

r cba 

f St 

year 

ce, 

re 

nee 
caus 
e ca 
egar 

an 
eirer 
ny Y 



T.9 disse 
een year 

stipula 
r y publi 
ir ab le s 
n t y- S i X t 
it shcul 
n provid 
gib le tc 
c e f f ic 
bly be f 
ate gove 

cld'be 
he cuyht 
the elec 
essary f 
e cf his 
n and sb 
dlesE cf 
adult cf 
t such a 
ini the c 



ntirg 
clas 
tes t 
e cff 
te ps 
h Ane 
d be 
es is 
vcte 
e. T 
e w ei 
r niter 
of th 

ret 
tcrat 
cr el 
age . 
culd 
his 
eigh 
s the 
ff ice 



vo t 

tc 
hat 
ice 
take 
cdnie 
exte 

tha 

is 
he 

ghte 
t. 

e in 
to b 
e as 
ecti 

The 
be 3 

age 
teen 

Con 



e, t 
be ad 
eight 
in th 
c by 
nt an 
nded 
t all 
cf su 
eeit II i 
en ye 
Still 
clina 
e ob 

a ca 
en, h 

pci r 

ble t 

Ce 

year 
sti tu 



his 
ults 
eer. 
e st 
the 
d by 
tc t 
ad 
ffic 
ttee 
ars 
, it 
tier 
stru 
ndid 
e c 
t cf 
c ch 
r tai 
s fc 
tier. 



new 

for 
year 
ate. 
fed- 

the 
heir 
ults 
lent 
is 
olds 
is 

ar. d 
cted 
ate ; 
ugh t 

the 
oese 
nly, 
r an 

and 



The ccnmittee commends this prcvisicn tc the ecrverticr as 
the extension cf full rights ef par ticipa t icn in public affairs 
to all adults. This provision was introduced as Delegate Ercpcsal 
No. 13. 

Section 15. RIGHTS CF EEFSCKS LNEEF TE£ AGE CF PAJCF- 
ITY. The rights cf persons under the age cf tcajcrity 
shall include, but net be limited te, all the funda- 
mental rights ex this article except where specifically 
precluded by laws which enhance the prctecticn for such 
pe rscns. 

CCKKFNTS 



The comirittee adopted, with ere dissecting vote, this state- 
nent explicitly recognizing that persons under the age cf major- 
ity have all the fundamental rights cf the Declaraticn cf Eights. 
The only exceptions permitted te this reccgniticn are in cases in 
which rights are infringed by laws designed and operating tc 
enhance the protection for such perscns. The ccainiittee took this 
action in recognition of the fact that ycung people have ret been 
held tc possess basic civil rights. Although it has been held 
that they art 'persons' under the due process clause of the Four- 
teenth Amendment, the Supreme Court has not ruled in their favor 



636 



ilGNTANA CC^STlTO'ITCNflL CCNVENTICN 



U 11 d •£ 

this 
acco 
du^ 
y c 11 n 

com in 
ma jc 
uia jc 

teCt 

can 
•:? n i: a 



r r.h 

me 

cieJ 

pro 
g FG 
i 1 1 H^ 
rit-y 
rita 
icn I 

te 
nee a 



t^ equril prot .'Ction clau^f ci that sane c^ treroff >^nt . What 
ans is that perscns urid-ri th-: age ct najcrity have teen 

o^rtain specific rights which ai»: f'^lt to fce a fart cf 
cess. ilowevtr, tn^ tread cutlii.e ex th-e kinds of rigiits 
cj'l_' pcHsesf do-^::: net yet exist. Ihis is the ciuy cf the 
t: propcsal: to icccgni2? that perscrs under the age of 
have th^ BaO'C prctecticns trcir govern mental and 
rian abuS'rS as do adults. In such cases where the pic- 
Ox til-: sp-^cial status ct minors demands it, exceptions 

mid^ on cltir shewing +.hat such prctecticn is teing 



<^.^; 



just 



This prevision was tsken, in part, ticir Delegate Proposals 
No's. 65 3 :: i e 8 . 

icn Ifc. THr ACMI?' ISTSATION Cf JCS'IICE. CcuttS Ct 

ice shall te cp-n tc -^very person, and speedy 

dy afforded fci ivery injury ct person, property, 

harc:cter; no p;rscn shall le d-prived cf this ftll 

i redress icr injury incurred in enplcyirent fcr 

another p-^rscn iray he liatie except as tc fellcfc 

•^-es and his iinir'=diatt enflcy-r ^ne hired him if 

[rin'--'aiate eaiplcyer provices coverage under the 

n's Ccirp-rsaticn tavs ct this state; and that 

ered i»ithout sale. 



cr 
ie 
v»h 
e IT 
su 

tvC 

r i 

d -i 



ic 

Fl 
ch 

rk 
gh 
ni 



n 

cy 

i 

uie 

t and j u s t i c - shall be a d ti i n i s t 
al, ci delay. 



C C f. h E M S 



The coiiiffiittee voted u na n iircus 1 y tc r^^ta 
one addition. The provision as it stands in 
tuticii guar ant tc-s justice and a speedy re 
sale, denial or delay. 1h-= cciriiiittee felt, in 
interpretation cf the nicr keen's C en pen sat 
remedy needed tc te explicitly guaranteed tc 
employed ty one cevHred by Viorktren's Ccmpens 
facilities of an c-*: her. Und^r fcrtara law, as 
recent d -3 c i s i c n of A s h c r a f t v . Montana Few 



has no redr3ss against third parties fcr iuju 
it his iirir. 5diate ea'ploy-r is covered under t 
sation Law. liit ccunittee feels that this vie 
the guarantee cf a speedy reiedy fcr all 
prop-3rty or character. It is this specific le 
only — that the ccnicittee intends tc alte 
additional wording: "no person shall te depr 
legal redr^^ss for injury incurred in emplcyire 
person icay be liatie except as tc fell 
immediate -eniployer who hired hiai if such iroine 
vides coverage under the V^crkoi^n's Coupe 
state." In other wcrds the ccmHiittee wants t 
Workir:n's Cctnpensaticn Laws of the state wi 
original purpos- — to prcvide ccmpensat 
workaien — rather than to deprive ar injur 
aqairst negligent third parties (beyond his e 



in thi 
the f r 
ccedy t 

light 
icn I 
person 
aticn 

anno 
er_Cc^ 
r ies c 
he Wcr 
dates 

in jur 
nial — 
r with 
i ved 
rt for 
cw sffp 
diate 
nsa tic 
c ins 
11 be 
ion 

ed wcr 
aiplcye 



s se 
esen 
cr a 

cf 
aw, 
£ wh 
tc w 
unce 
, th 
ause 
kmen 
the 
ies 
and 

the 
cf 

whi 
loye 
eapl 
n La 
ure 
used 

t c 
ker 
r a 



ct ion 

t Co 

11 wi 

a r 

that 

c Ba 

cr k c 

d in 

e GIF p 

d ty 

•s Cc 

spiri 

cf pe 

this 

fell 

this 

ch an 

es an 

cyer 

ws of 

that 

fcr 

in 

of re 

nd f 



with 
nsti- 
thcut 
ecert 

this 

y te 

n the 

the 

Icyee 

thea 
nipen- 
t cf 
r s c n , 
ens 
cwirg 

full 
ether 
d his 

prc- 

t his 
the 
their 
jured 
dress 
ellow 



0:l11 of FiahtG Ccreiritte^ Picpcsdl 



687 



eirplcy 
C GIB pen 
would 
tfhc HI a 
no re 
covers 
rundcw 
ity cf 
the w 
of tha 



■5es) b 

saticn 
h a V € a 
Y cent 
uiedy 
d by K 
n p r -, n! 
the p 
crkwen 
t law 



ecausfe 

salut 

L act o 
agair.s 
crkmon 
ises t 
r -Jinise 
• s Com 
to pro 



his imKediate eirplcyer is covered by Workirer, 's 
ccmmitts? leli'^ves that clarifying this remedy 
ary effect en the ccnscient icusness cf persons 
ut work tc be dene en their pr'^mises. Tc peririt 
t third parties in cases where the employer is 
's Compensation is tc enccuraqe persons with 
c contract out v«crk without inprcving the qual- 
s. The ccirir.ittee urges thJt this is an abuse cf 
pensaticn Law and ccnstitutes a mis-applicat icn 
cot persons who are neqligert. 



The couiiiiittee commends this prevision ^c the ccrventicr with 
the belief tliat it is an importart, if technical, aspect of the 
adirinistraticn cf justice, 

Secticn 17. EUZ EFCCESS CI IflW. Nc person shall be 
deprived cr lite, liberty, cr prcperty without due pro- 
cess cf lah. 

COM K I NTS 

The comniittee relt that the traditic r- ridden phrasing cf the 
due process cf law clause should remain as is. Acccrdingly, the 
wording of Article HI, section 27 is inccrpcrated verbatim in 
this proposal. The ccni[r.ittee received nc suggestion for change of 
this section. 

secticn 13. NCN-I«KDMTY PECK SUIT. The state and its 
subdivisions shall have nc special iimunity from suit. 
This provision shall apply only tc causas cf action 
arising irter Jui:e 1, 1973. 

C C M M E N T 5 



The cciTffiittee vcted unaniirously tc adopt this section abol- 
ishirg th ; archaic doctrine ef sovereign iffiiruEity. In dcirg sc, 
the conimittefc responds tc increasing citizen concern and the 
writing cf legal scholars tc the effect that the doctrine no 
longer has a rational justification in law. The ccaiirittee notes 
tha-^ a clear trend has emerged raticnwide tc abolish the dec- 
trine. The appellate courts of sixteen states have abolished the 
doctrine — a clear indicaticn that *hey can nc longer find a jus- 
tificaticn for its ccntinued eperaticn. 



employ- 
repugnant to the funda- 



Eriefly, the doctrine cf sovereign inirunity bars tort suits 
against the state fcr negligent acts by its officials and 
ees. The ccoimittee finds this reascnin< 

Bental premise of the American justice: all parties should 
receive fair and 
private citizen or a 
that just as the 



just redress whether the injuring party is a 
gcvernffental agency. The ccmiiittee believes 

j„^^ „„ governaect administers a system cf justice 

betwesn private parties it should acminister the system when the 
government itself is alleged to have ccmiritted an injustice. The 
committee notes that private firms are liable fcr the negligence 



638 



KCNTANA CCNSTJIUIICNAL CCNVENTICN 



of th^^ir enclcy-ef and feints cut this fact tc ir, dicate the 
incoiisistpncy ct tht state's tcfiticr. in ■'■he systeic of tort law. 
It is th^ belioi of th? ccffmitte^ tha-^ this propose'^ prcvisicr 
rectifies this irccr. jfistenc y . 



sici; 

In Lz 

i in IT a r> 1 

monaic 

rienr Y 

right 

Assuiri 

Fnglan 

selves 

CCEcis 

i c n c i 



h ? c 
m w 
spor: 
ty— 
n i .-- 1 
VIIT 
or r 
ng 
d , o 

CL 

sicn 



otcn; 
tiic 
i^i ir 
thu 

ph 

ar 

ecc 
tha 
ur 
su 

a 9 a 



1 1 t e e 
h th-3 

y t 
t "*. 

ilcso 
e not 
very 

t th 
f oret 
ch .^0 
, (CO 
inst 



cit- 



»i 



t -^ t ^ 



c 

hP K 

phi? 

saf 

agai 

ears 

V€rG 

Ic. , 
th.9 



the 
ing c 
£ icv 
f icie 
nst 
v.as 
wen 
ign p 

aa2 

state 



th a 
hig 
old 
an d 
■; n t e 
nt j 
the 

iiOV 

the 
rer c 

P2d 
and 



ppr 



c n 
d t 
ust 
gc 
ere 
F. t V 
gat 

see 

a 



c val 
t cc 

3U£ t 

c wr 

C £C 

ific 
vei t 

ign 

ciut 

i vt . 

, se 

s c h c 



the 
urt 
ific 
c ng" 
Iv- 
atic 
nent 

iff IT 
ions 
II (p 

9 (1 

ci a 



recent Cclcradc deci- 
dhclishec the dcctrin'3. 
a tier. for sovereign 
— the ccurt said: "The 
the marital prctleois of 
n fcr the d'^-rial cf the 
in today's society, 
unity cf the Kings cf 
ry isar tc rid then- 
]!^n£_ Vi_Ecarc_o f _Ccuntj 
971); See also ccirpan- 
ist rict. ) 



Under current Montana law, govern Riental agencies are liable 
only to th-^ extent cf the insurance coverage they carry. This 
leaves th:i decision as tc th<= aircur. t cf coverage to be purchased 
with the cig.?ncy. What this irears is that ar agency can effec- 
tively limit th-? actions trcucht against it. The ccctnittee feels 
that this is entirely tec discretionary a situation when indi- 
vidual rights are at stake. Since adeguate insurance can be 
obtained and can te budgeted in advance, agencies should have 
such coverage. This will insure that they are able tc pay the 
justified claims mad-^ against them and that such claiis will net 
be liaiited ty inadequate insurance coverage. 



pre VIS 
ting a 
-^rage . 
retros 
cies t 
legisl 
1, 157 
arisin 
the cc 
redres 
all pa 
pro vis 



he coma 
ion c c 
f f ected 
Accord 
pect iv- 
i Bi e 1 
a tiv^ 
3 ; and 
g after 
nventio 
s fcr 
rt ies, 
ion is 



itte- 
uld c 

agenc 
mgly , 
in i 
ob tain 
approp 
that i 

that 
n with 
wrongs 
govern 
simila 



is wel 
a u s e so 
ies to 

it is 
ts appl 

adequa 
ri iticn 
t shall 
date. 1 

tne be 

will b 
n t^ n t a 1 
r in p u 



1- 
me 
up 

ic 

te 

> 

b 

he 
li 

as 

T- r 
•- r 



a war 

dif 
grad 
coaaoi 
atic 

ins 

it 
e ef 

cctr. 
ei t 
admi 

wel 
cse 



tic 

6 t 

end 

n; 

ura 

sha 

fee 

tnit 

hat 

nis 

1 a 



that 
ulti 
heir 
ed t 
that 
nee 
11 n 
t ive 
tee 

its 
t-^re 
£ pr 
df le 



103 

es i 
cur 
hat 

ecve 
ct b 

crl 
ccHim 

ad c 
d en 
i vat 
gate 



pleiTG 
f den 
ren tl 
this 

crde 
rage 
e eft 
y ^c 
ends 
pticn 

beha 
e. Tfc 

prep 



ntat 
e wi 
y in 
prev 
r tc 

as 
ecti 
caus 
this 

wil 
If c 
e wo 
csal 



icn 

thcut 

a d e q u 

isicn 

perni 

prcv 

ve un 

es ef 

prcv 

1 ins 



f and 
rding 



cf 

p = r 
ate 

net 
it a 
ided 
til 

ac 
isie 
ure 

aga 

cf 



this 
irit— 
cov- 

be 
gen— 

by 
June 
tien 
n tc 
that 
inst 
the 



ic, 



Secticn 19. KAEEAS CCFEUS. The privilege cf the writ 
of habeas corpus shall never be £uspended. 

CCKKENTS 



The cciTirittee believes that this ircst basic of procedural 
rights requires ccmplete protection. Accordingly, the prcpcsal 
provides that the writ of habeas corpus — the right tc test the 
legitimacy cf one's detention — ought never tc be suspended. The 
committee is aware that a sericus rebellion or invasion could 



Bill cf rights Cciririttee Prcfcsal 



639 



l^ad to a f^d'sral suspension oi the writ. Hcwever, it is urged 
that the state cf Kcntana should net suspend the writ at the 
state level without a protlem cf such magnitude as to require 
federal ac-icn. It seecs plain that the federal ycvernni'=nt could 
be counted upon to assist in keeping the state ccurts ccer to 
review any habeas corpus petitions submitted even in a statewide 
emergency. 



that 

tanc 

the 

Coun 

arre 

bail 

of 

secu 

ECfc 

The 

iuipc 



The c 

guara 
e of t 

Gover 
ty, th 
sted 

to he 
these 
ring a 
County 

ccEici 
rtant 



offffiit r 
n t e e t 
he wri 
nor p 
-> irili 
person 
tried 
detain 
n crde 

• (in_ 
t tee 

proced 



ee not 
hat th 
t can 
roclai 
ta r y c 
s wit 
withe 
ed use 
r that 
re_fc_ 
cites 
ural s 



he 

ire 

iG 

he 

ut 

d 

+■ 

Do 

t 

af 



tha 
writ 

see 
d a 
sed 
ut 

5 J 
the 
he B 
raid 
his 
eg ua 



t r i r e 

£hall 

n in M c 

state 

down t h 

warrant 

uiy bef 

writ of 

ilitary 

, 49 We 

as an 

rd prec 



states 

never 

nt ana 
cf in 

e ccur 
cr c 

ere a 
hatea 
re-op 

rtara 
sxair 

isely 



ha V 
be s 
hist 
surr 
ts i 
h arg 
iiili 
E ce 
en t 
usn , 
pie 
in t 



e SI 
uspe 
ory . 
ecti 
n t 
€, h 
tar y 
r pus 
he c 
143 
cf t 
ines 



irila 
nded 

Tn 
en i 
hat 
eld 

tri 

to 
curt 

he V 
cf 



r pre 
. The 

1914 
n Sil 

coun 
then 
tunal 
gced 
s in 
947 { 
alue 
stres 



visions 

iitpor- 

, when 

ver Bow 

t y and 

without 

Sotte 

effect , 

Silver 

1914)) . 

of this 



Sec 

offer 

court 

plain 

thcs^ 

after 

after 

cuted 

Kent, 

shall 

cur 

drawn 

his 

order 



ticn 

s hav 

t. A 

on a 

exa 

l.dV 

by i 

or 
cons 

tc fi 

and 
discr 



-it . I 

cf I. 
e jur 
11 cr 
ppeal 
irinat 
e gra 
ndict 
withe 
ist 
nd an 
sumirc 
etion 



NITIATI 
hich c 
isdicti 
i 01 i n a 1 
, shall 
icr an 
nted ty 
01 e n t w i 
ut such 
f seven 
indict 
ned whe 
, cons 



CK 

curt 
en s 
acti 

be 
d c 

the 
thcu 

lea 

per 
ment 
r. th 
ider 



CF 
s i 
hall 
ons 

pro 
ccff. i 

ecu 
t su 
ve 
sons 
a 
e di 
it 



nf er 

be 
in d 
secu 
tin en 
tt, 
eh e 
f th 
/ cf 

gra 

stri 

ne 



CCEE 
ior 

pro 
istr 
ted 
t by 
cr 

xa ni 
e CO 

who 
nd j 
ct 
cess 



CINGS. 

tc t 

secute 

i c t CO 

by i 

a traq 

shall 

raticE 

ur t . A 

m five 

ury sh 

judge 

ary, a 



C 

he d 
d b 
urt, 
rf cr 
istr 

be 

cr 

gra 

IIIUS 

all 

sha 
nd s 



riffiinal 
istrict 
y cci- 

except 
ma tier , 
ate, or 

prose- 
c c a m i +— 
nd jury 
t ccr- 
cnly te 
11, in 
hall sc 



CCei^ENTS 



stip 

rena 

and 

redu 

rend 

cuti 

that 

part 

main 

tice 



The 
ulat 
in a 

mun 

ndan 

erin 

ens 

th 

of 
tain 
. No 



comro 
es t 
sis 
icipa 
t wor 
g of 
by CO 
ese 
the t 
the 

dele 



i ttee 
he Di 
with 
1 an 
ding. 

the 
uplai 
fixed 
asic 

ace 
gate 



voted 
ethod 
one Bii 
d oth 

The r 

Arti 

nt, in 

aspe 

proce 
usatcr 
propos 



unan 
of ini 
nor eh 
e r CO u 
emaind 
cle I 
f erica t 
cts o 
dural 
ial na 
als we 



IffOUS 

tiati 
ang€ . 
rts" 

er of 

icn a 
f the 
r igh 
ture 
re re 



ly 

tq c 
Tie 

was 
the 

sect 

nd 
ini 

ts 

cf t 

ceiv 



that t h 
riirinal 

phrase 
delete d 

section 
ior 8 pr 
ind ict ffe 
tiaticn 
fraff ewer 
he syste 
ed en th 



is se 
procee 
" j u s t i 
as unn 
is t 
c vidin 
rt. I 
cf pro 
k est 
n cf c 
is pro 



ctic 

ding 

ce • s 

eces 

he 

g f c 

t i 

ceed 

atli 

rini 

visi 



r which 
s should 
ccurts 
sary and 
verbatia 
r prcse- 
s noted 
irgs are 
shed to 
ral jus- 
cr. 



Section 21. EAII. All persons shall be bailable ty 
sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, when 
the proof is evident or the presumption great. 



640 



t'CMANA CONSTITUTICNAL CCNVFNTICN 



ccrf F MS 

iho c oMHii 1 1"-. -^ vottd ui.d n i ncusiy tc retain this section 
u r. c h a n J ^ a . ,'■ s it s t i n d s , t h f: 3 1 c *-. i c r a r r: c u r, c <=. s that all f € r s c n s 
are tdilablc ^xc^.pt in certair capitdl cttdnses. Nc delegate pro- 
posals vtr-i Lc-c^fived ou this trcvisicr. . 

STCticn 22, IXCESSIVL SA^CTICL.£. Ixcessive tail shall 
net LiH r'^ouiifcd, cr <ziCCEsi\^ iir.-is iiipcs-^d, cr cruel 
dnd. unufa'ial purisha^tnts inflict-:d. 

C C f , 1^ P. N T r 



T*-'^ ccmitt-:-- voted una niacusly that this secticr ts 
retained unchang-rd. It is thought that th^ secticn frcvides the 
"j 'jdicid r y and tii-; l-!qi sia t ur ^ adequate flix ihility tc apjly tbs 
princi}.lG that tii-^r ■ shall net t. e cxccssiV'S tail, excessive fines 
cr cru-;i a ad uii usual punish ir-9 nts . He dfi-qate proposals were 
r e c - i V e .] on this [revision. 



r or 

r.al 
tak 
a FT 
upo 

-^ - t 

law 



t 

F 

r 

tfa 
n 

OS 



at t 
tiff 

thi 
it 



:e:.a 



t ic n 
li - p u 
roc -- 
his d 
r a r: c e 

cjivi 
i t i n 

ird 

cr wi 

.J t h 

n d p 

sect 
wit 



.■: 3 . 
rrcH 
d i n y 
^pcs 

ot 
ng 

sh a 

in 

tl:CU 

lac- 

ioti 

n-ss 



1 
It 
th 
th 
11 
th 

+ 

■xa 



;1LN 
Of 

c i . 9 
i c r 

c t 

€ S 

be 

*■ n ^ 
Hi in 
h ■:- r 



may 



II 

-: r 

• 

in! 
an 

r-: 
ir 

a t 
cc 

1 



Ch. 
cur i 
t h n 

It h 
e ci 

*;; i 

a k f^ n 
s c n c 

pr- 
ion 
t. A 
r tc c 
L's d 



ng 
n II. 
e c 

tr 
I 1 

in 
^ c 
c(? r 
a tt 
ny 
ive 
ead 



ni E 
ay 
^r 
ial 
- c 

th 
f t 
ce, 
•:r 

de 
d a 

cr 



rsc 

tp 

y i v 
, h 
a r r 

€ U 

he 

if 
re a 
pes 
s e 

ab 



n sh 
stiir 
n^ce 

a S 

£ Sh 

ct q 
an re 
accu 

sc na 
itio 

Vld€ 

ser t 



all 

en y 
ssa 

tC u 

all 
i ve 

SP c 

y £ 

hli; 
n 

DC = 

r r 



te i 

in a 

ry ir, 

rity 

t.; d 

S€CU 
p I-£SC 

and 
hall 

r cti 
a uthc 

en t 
0!r th 



nipi ISO 
n y c r i 

c r d€ r 

tor 
i s c h a r 
rity, 
r i b e d 
his cc 

fail 
ce cf 
rized 
h= tri 
€ sta 



red 
IT i- 

tc 
his 
qed 
his 

ty 
ur- 

to 
th-: 

by 
al. 



CCKf EMS 



Ih? ccinttitt'-i vcted unariircusly ■'c retain tha fcrttpr Article 
III, section 17 urchanqed. The prevision pichifcits unreasonable 
datcnticn of witn-ess-;s and prtscrihts in detail the prcced\:re fcr 
securincj trstimcny in the event -^h^ witness can not be procured 



for the trial 
s i c n . 



Nc 



:l^;qa-^-:- proper als were received on this jrcvi- 



Sfcct:icn 24. PIGfllS CF IHE ACCUSFb. In all criffiinal 
p rcs'-cuticns th'? accused shall have the richt tc appear 
and def^nnd in person and by counsel; tc demand the 
natur-^ and cause of the accusation; tc neet the wit- 
nesses against hiir facc tc face; tc have process tc 
compel the attendanc*-- cf witnesses in his behalf, and a 
speedy public trial cy an iir{.artial jury cf the county 
cr district in which the offense is alleged tc have 
been ccmuiit t-i d , subject tc the right cf the state tc 
have a change of venue fcr any cf the causes for which 
the d-^fendant cay obtain the saire. 



Bill ot Fi.^htb Ccniritt^ 



Frcpcsal 



641 



C C M ,« n N 7 5 

Th- ccmititt--- vot?d unanimcusly tc r-^tair. th*^ fcrner Articl"? 
Ill, section 16 uncLdnged. 1b^ ccmnit^c'^' felt it was ar adiriratle 
statement of th- i:un'^3a[r.'=.iital frccedural rit^hts cf an accused. Nc 
del-dyats proposals nsre received en this ftcvision. 

Section 2'j. 5HIF-INCFIflINATIC^. AhC T C U E L E JLOEAFFY. 
Nc person shall 'c- ccir, pclle-i tc tcs*ifv acjainst hiffs<=lf 
m a criminal proceeding, rcr shall any p-arson L^ twics 
cut in jeopardy for the sam€ offense previously tried 
in any juris d ictic i. . 

C C K K E N 1 S 



III, 

In r 
juri 
crim 
si on 
fell 
cf fe 
Stat 
prac 
pros 
tect 
gcve 
ticn 
accu 
acco 



Ihe 

sec 
so V 

sdic 
i r. a 1 
rec 
cw i r 
nse 
e Co 
tic? 
ecut 
icn 
r noie 
s cf 
5ed 
rdan 



commit 
ticn 18 
e r - i g n t 
t y -:• a r s 
t i o n £ 

r a c t s , 
o m in e n d s 
g th :■ 
and c r i 
r s t i t u t 
Hcwe 
ions as 
ag dinst 
nt and 

th ^- la 

of a 
ce Viith 



teed 
wit 

ies 

, th 

fcr 
has 

d by 
pro 

mina 

icn 

vtr, 
the 
dou 
the 

vs c 
cri 
Icn 



rtico 
h en 
r ul2 
e ru 
the 
corn 
thi 
s-=cu 
1 fa 
c jnn 

3 8 

se d 

tl-r 

sta 
f bo 
a-? 
g-es 



Di m e n d s 

e SUt St 

" is St 
1~ u'uic 
same cf 
e u n d e r 
s c o IT c; i 
tion o 
cts. T 
c t 1 1 ni i 

the 
escr it £ 
jeopard 
t e can 
th juri 
will t 
tablish 



the 
ant i 
ill 
h p- 
fens 
sc r 
t tet^ 
f an 
he c 
t th 
cctnm 
d ah 

Y/ i 
cccp 

sdic 

e I 
ed p 



adopt i 
ve c ha 
in ef f 
r (T i t s 
e a r i s 
u t i n y 

would 
ether 
C K IT, i 1 1 
e f-3de 
i 1 1 e e 
eve ar 
t is 
erate 
t i o r s . 
1 5ced 
r ir.ci p 



en 

rge 

ect 

pre 

ire 

ar. d 

jur 

ee 

ral 
fce 

e a 

hep 

in 
In 
in 

Ies 



cf 

• I 
at 

sec 
fr 
cr 

chi 

isd 

is 

g 

lie 
vi 

ed 

cas 
th 
1e 



the 
t is 
th' 
uric 

CD t 

it ic 
tit 
ict i 
well 
ever 
ves 
c lat 
tha 
es i 
is 
epar 



f CIO! 

net 
fed 
ns t 
he s 
iso! . 
the 
en f 
-awa 
nmen 
that 
icn 
t t 
n vol 
way, 
dy c 



e I 

ed t 
eral 
y di 
ace 

The 
Stat 
cr t 
re t 
t i 

sut 
cf t 
he 
ving 

a 
niy 



Article 
hat the 

level . 
f f e r e n t 
set of 

prcvi- 
e f roE 
he same 
bat the 
n this 
sequent 
he prc- 
federal 

viola- 

perscn 
c n c e in 



Delegate proposals Ne*s 68 and 12U were rejected. It was 
felt that #88, which ■extended the self-incrimination prchititicr 
tc any kind cf evidence, was urwcrkahle and might indirectly 
invalidate the iaipliT^d consent law. Prcpcsal #124 prohibited lie 
detector and ether self-i rcriicinating tests fcr eitplcyraent . The 
ccffiiaittee felt that the particulars cf this prcpcsal were pi^cp— 
erly statutory aatters and, along with a host cf ether privacy 
matters should be deiit with ty the legislature. It was also felt 
that the complementary protection cf the right cf privacy in 
section 10 of this prcpcsal would cffer protection against pri- 
vacy invasicns made as a condition of eirplcyDert. 




prescribe. 



by jury iray be waiv<=d, or 
had by any less nuoicer cf jurors than the number pro- 
vided by law. In all civil actions twc-thiils in nomher 
of the jury may render a verdict, and cn-^h wcr/^-i'-* 



such verdict sc 



642 



KCNlANft CCNiinniCNfiL COKVHNTICN 



icnd^^rofl shall hav? th? Face fcrcs and effect as if all 
such jury ccr.curred th^^rpin. In all crimnal acticrs, 
ths verdict sxidll Le ucanitPOUE. 



C C r 1^ E N 1 £ 

Th- ccirnittfo voted unar.iircusly tc trake scne changes in the 
section on trial by jury. The first of these permits the defen- 
dant to waive a jury trial in filcry cases as viell as civil and 
niisdemeanc r cases. Tht ccniinittee felt that expandirg the choice 
of a defendir.t tc waive a juiy trial tc irclude felony cases, the 
deEendarst could decide with the aid cf his attorney whether to 
try his case before a jury or the judge sittirq alcne. Ihe defen- 
dant may well desire tc eliaiirate the tiEe incarcerated while 
waiting for the next jury terir cr iray feel in certain irstances 
that his chances of fairly presenting his case are better without 
a jur y . 



the 

a un 

urge 

lish 

betw 

a ttii 

beli 

is n 

esta 

conv 

occa 

less 



The 
p i: - s u ID 
a n i 01 c u 
d by 
ed in 
e?n t 
sdemea 
e ved t 
c t est 
blishe 
icted. 
sioned 

than 



CO IT. ID 

ptio 
s ve 

the 
all 
ho n 
ncr 
hat 
abli 
d pr 

The 

by 

a un 



itte 
n cf 
rdic 

CO 

cr im 
umhe 
cr a 
the 
shed 
inci 
Ics 
a 
a n i 01 



a also 

innoc 

t for 

ff IT i 1 1 e 

inal c 

r of j 

feicn 

jury w 

, a II d 

pie of 

s cf 1 

criini 

ous ve 



felt 
ence i 
m i s d p m 
e that 

urors 
y. If 
ill be 
severa 
justi 
i v ^ 1 i h 
nal cc 
rdict . 



that 

n al 

eanc 

sin 

the 

in a 

g cil 

abl 

1 ju 

ce t 

ccd 

nvic 



It was 
1 cr iiri 
rs as w 
ca quil 
re she 
qr e eoien 
t is cl 
e tc aq 
rors ca 
hat the 
and li 
tion ar 



ess 
nal 
ell 

t [T U 

uld 
t re 
earl 
ree 
nnot 
ace 
feti 
e to 



ent ial 
actions 
as felo 
St be c 

be no 
quired 
y estab 
tc conv 

agree , 
used cu 
Be cr i 
daioag 



to s 

by 
ries 
lear 
di 
tc 
lish 
ict. 

it 
ght 
D3ina 
inq 



trer 
requ 
1 
ly e 
St in 
on vi 
ed. 
If 
is a 
net 
1 r 
tc p 



gthec 
ir ing 
t is 
Etafc- 
ct ion 
ct of 
it is 
guilt 
long 
tc be 
ecord 
er ffit 



The remainder of the section is prcpcsed without charge, 

No person shall b* 

iirpriscned for 



Section 27. If.PSI SCN f EKT fCB EIET. ^ _ 

debt except ir the manner prescribed by 
law, upon refusal tc deliver up his estate for the ben- 



efit of his creditors, cr in cases cf tcrt, 
is strong presumpticn of fraud. 

CCKKENTS 



where there 



The ccminittee voted uranirocusly to retain fcrner Article 
III, section 12 unchanged. It was felt that the provision is an 
adequate safeguard for the right cf one in debt tc be free from 
iBprisontr ?nt . No delegate proposals were received on this provi- 
sion. 



Section 28. RIGHTS Cf THE CCNVICTEE. Laws fcr the 
punishment cf crime shall be founded on the principles 
cf prevention and refcrmatior and full rights shall be 
automatically restored upon teririnaticn of state super- 
vision for any offense against the state. 



fiill cf biqhts Cciciritte? Fiopcsal 



643 



CCMMENTS 



f or Oi 
mend 
sent 
enti 
incl 
cccu 
that 
prev 
ex-c 
cici 

dtt€ 

meaib 

tiqh 

s i c II 

are 

any 

ily 



Ihe c 
er Art 
s thd 

tl^d 
ud ing 
p a t i c r; 
this 
en ticn 

C I! V 1 C t 

part i 
tn p t t 
= 1 of 
ts, i 

d C - £ 

in p 
way to 
d -a r. i fc d 



c 111 U' i 1 1 
icle I 

t CI. c 

ri d i fc 
Z2 th 
th^^ r i 
s whic 
is c n 
and 
can 
n c c m Oi 
ins 
t a c- c c 
r i vile 
net £ p 
r isor. 
precl 
as a 



nc 1 

ti r 

ght 

h re 

in : r 
ret 
rsd 

unit 

ur = 

IE IP a a 

qes 

eak 
as 

udt 

ccnd 



cted 

3ect 

per 

cnij d 

-3StC 

tc 
quir 
tly 
o r ivi a 
dily 
y af 

thd 
ity 
^nd 
to t 
did 
t h 6 jr. 
itio 



un 
icn 
sen 
r u 
rat 

vc 

f 3 

frc 
tic 
ra 
r ai 
t h 

irnm 
he 
d^-1 
ha 
n o 



am ffcus 
2U. In 
whc ha 
n d e r s t 
icn c f 
te , ho 
tatc li 
per and 
n cam; 
cv€ fcac 
rs. Sur 
€ has t 
u i r e £ t 
un ities 
rights 
-sgatf: p 
ving al 
f th-cir 



ly 

do 
s b 
ate 
all 
id 
cen 

th 
ct 
k i 

h€ 
hat 

a s 
cf 
rep 
I r 

in 



t c a d p 

ing £ G , 

een ccn 

s u p c r V 

civil 

public 

sing. I 

at the 

t 9 Z n 
rtC £CC 

tc r 

cppcrtu 

he t6 

c t h ■=> r 

tht: ire 

C£al #9 

i g h t £ e 
carc'^ra 



t this revi£icn ef 
th£ ccffiuiitteG r€ccir- 
vict^d has £2rvsd his 
isicn, h€ shcvld fcs 
and pclitical lignts, 
cffice, and enter 
he ccniiiittee tslitves 
pararrcur.t ccncerns of 
alized urless the 
iety as an equal par— 
ehatilitatc cne and 
nity tc bt=cotne a full 
r^3tcrr;d the sane 
citizens. ThiE provi- 
arcerated vihil? they 
S . It is net acant in 
xcept thost necessar- 
tic r . 



Zh-2 coffiirxttee also deleted reference tc capital punishn-.rt. 
Th€ reference tc capi^:al purishnent is ret necessary as it nerely 
grants the le: gislat urt^ the power to dc scnething it can do any- 
way. To delete this reference has no effect on the status cf cap- 
ital punishm-nt in iiontana; it reirains in effect ir these 
iE£tance£ which -trhe legislature prcvides. The cominittee rejected 
delegate prcfosal »3 which would have abolished capital punish- 
ment. The cciraitt?-'^ felt the natter shculc be left up tc the 
legislature. 

Section 29. EKINENT COMAIN. Private property shall 
TOt be t^ken or damaged fer putlic use fcithcut just 
ccmpensaticn tc the full extert cf the loss having been 
first made to or paid into court fcr the cwner. In the 
cvent of lit ii-,aticn, just ccmpensaticn shall include 
necessary expenses cf litigation tc be awarded by the 
ccurt when the private prcperty cwn'rr is -^he prevailing 
party . 

CCMMENTS 



The ccomittee unaniBCusly approved substartive charges in 
the etcinent doitain section. The thrust cf the ccmniittee effort 
was tc assure that full and just ccmpensaticn be made in all eni- 
nent domain mictions. Without it, seme cf the ccsts of an eminent 
domain action' fall where they do net belcrq — er the person whose 
property is beirg ccrdeirned. 

In order to give substance tc the citizan'£ effort tc chal- 
lenge the ccmpensaticn figure of the ccrdenncr, the last sentence 
of this provision was added. Those testifying in opposition to 
the coniinittati 's original eminent domain proposal agreed that this 
sentence, which awards necessary eaierises cf litigation to the 



644 



WCKTANA CONSIITDTICNAI CC^VH^:1ICN 



priv 

The 

cost 

is t 

ccnf^ 

th-^ 

prep 

iiicu 

Hill 

b-ear 

to 
vat€ 

was 



at 
c 

•-1 
ea. 

c 
er 
rs 

r 

r 
th 

F 

am 



5 FL 
cm mi 
incl 
t th 
nor ' 
cmf ^ 
ty o 
in 
edre 
by t 
in c 
e cc 
rop>^ 
■an de 



Sec 
aqa in 
again 
did a 
sen 
same 
perso 
1 e g i s 
less 
vict£ 
as in 



J p f r t 
ttf^p 
u linq 
at th 
s oft 
n s e. t i 
wn^r 

cha 
3S th 
he St 
o n t e 3 
n V «=^ n t 
rty c 
d to 

tier 
St th 
3t i 
nd cc 
-ixccp 
overt 
n sh 
lat i V 

cf p 
d. Th 

case 



y c 
in 
dp 
is 
er 
en 
hil 
11^- 
e i 
at£ 
ted 
icn 
wr r 
iCC 



wr Bi w 

t€nds 

praise 

stipul 

rer cc 

to w 

1 have 

nciiutj 

a I a 1 a n 

and t 

cases 

as in 

r will 

cmplis 



hen 
by 
I t 
ati 
wfe 
h .ic 

a 
th^. 
ce 
has 
. 1 
sur 
i n 
h t 



he is 
nece 
ees, a 
en wil 
r £ a t i c 
h a 
chance 

c c n d e 
tetwee 
e aval 
be c c IT 
a n c € t 

fact 
his pr 



the 
ssar 
ttci 

1 FT 
n vii 
prep 
tc 
mncr 
nth 
latl 
ttitt 
hat 
be J 
c vis 



pr^ 
y ex 

rey 
cduc 
11 m 
-rty 
cc 
• s d 
; va 
e te 
6^ r 
the 
ust. 
icn. 



vail 
pens 
foes 
e a 
ere 

Cfcn 
llec 
ecis 
St r 

the 
eccir 
ecu f 

Del 



irg 
es o 

and 
cli ir 

ade 
ei i 
t t 
icr. . 
escu 

ind 
IT e r d 
ens a 
ega t 



pa r t 
f li 

ecu 
ate 
quat 
E er 
he 

In 
rces 
iv id 
s t 
tier 
•3 F 



t igat 

r t cc 

in vih 

ely 

title 

expen 

addit 

brcu 
ua 1 F 
his 

tc t 
rcfos 



just, 
icr all 
sts. It 
i c h the 
reflect 
d. The 
ses he 
icr, it 
ght to 
rcperty 
section 
he pri- 
al #75 



TPEASCN A[;E CEECIiM CP ESTATES. Treascc 
e state shall cccsist only ir levying war 
t , or ir. adhering tc is enemies, givinq then 
nifort; iic person shall be ccnvicted of trea- 
t on the t'^stimony ef twc hit r esses tc the 
act, cr en his cerfessicn in cpen ccurt; no 
all be attainted cf treascn cr felony ty the 
e asseoibly; no ccnvicticn shall cause the 
rcperty to the relatives cr heirs cf the ccn- 
e estates cf suicides shall descend or v^st 
s of natural death. 



CCKMENTS 



The coBiipittee voted un aiiimcusl y tc retain the fcrmer Article 
III, section 9 with miner stylistic changes. The liffiita+:icrs en 
treascn prosccuticns were retained in their tradition-rooted lan- 
guage vertatiiF. The provisicn en "ccrruptien cf blocd" was 
replaced aith wording expressing the same pcint: "nc ccrvicticn 
shall cause the less cf property tc the relatives cr heirs of the 
ccnvicted". The prevision on the descent ef the estates cf sui- 
cides was revised for clarity. Nc delegate proposals were 
received on this prevision. 



Section 31. EX POST fACTC, 
AND lEFEVCCAhLE PEIVILEGES 
law impairicg the obliqaticn 
any irrevocable grant cf 
chises, or imai unities, shall 
lative assenbly. 



CBLIGATICN CY CCNTHACTS 

Nc ex pest facte law rcr 

cf contracts, cr nakirg 

special privileges, fran— 

te passed by the legis- 



CCfKENTS 



The comcrittee voted unanimously tc retain the fcrirer Article 
III, section 11 unchanged. The prctecticns against ex post facto 
laws, laws impairing the obligaticr of contracts and laws grant- 
ing irrevocable privileges seemed adequate. Nc delegate proposals 
were received on this provision. 



Bill cf eights C en irit*-? •: trcpcsal 



645 



Secticr; 22. CIVILIAN CCMfCL Cf Ib.l MIITARY. The 
railitiry shall always t'3 in strict subcr'^ ir.aticn tc the 
civil pcw^r; re scldiar shall ifi xitcs cf psace be quar- 
tered in any housa without ti.o ccr.£3nt cf the cwner, 
r.or m tiae ct war, except i r. the iracner prescrited ty 
lata. 



C C a « £ N 1 S 



tc r-tain the fcrner Article 

the ccaaittee notes the 

Grclaraticn ct th^i prirciple that the civilian 

;3 that cl +-h-j irilitaiy. Although the 



'ih-j cciriiiitte-' voted unanicDGusly 
III, section 22 unchang-=d. In dcing sc, 
import ince ct th' 

autncrity always supersed'.^ ....^■. ^.^ ...^ ^^^^■.■^^j. ^^^,.^^^^, ^.,^ 
quartering ci trocps prohititicr. has liCt beer at issue fcr isany 
the ccmrrittee felt it fcas wise tc retain ■^^" „,^^„., ,,^ 

tfis j-icvisicn. 



years. 

No d -legate prcpcsals were received or 



:he safeguard. 



Section 3j. t:iF0R1A1ICN of flt.fEC FEFSCNS. No armed 
p9rscn or prrscns cr armed body cf acr shall he fcrcucht 
intc this state ror the preservation cf the peace, or 
th^ suppression or domestic viclence, except upcn the 
application of the legislative assetrbly, cr cf the 
gcveracr when the legislative asseirtly cannot be ccr- 
v € n e d , 

CCf f EMS 

The ccmmittea voted unaniBcusly that the fcriser Article III, 
section 31 remain unchanged. The protection, initially estab- 
lished to prevent the irnportaticn of strike-breakers, is thought 
to be an adequate safeguard against any body cf arired nen ccirirg 
into the state. No delegate proposals were received on this 
provision. 

Section 34. U:<ENUK EBfllE t flGHS. The enuner at ion in 
this Constitution of certain rights shall not be con- 
strued to -ieny, impair, or disparage ethers rstained ty 



the people. 



CCMPiENTS 



The 
III, sec 
this pr 
proposal 
govern ae 
recent 
into the 
beyond t 
judicial 
Gr iswcld 
als were 



CO 

tio 
vi 
— i 

rt« 

yea 

fe 

hOS 

a 

v. 



ffiffittee voted unanimously to retain the fcrner Article 
n JC unchanged. In doing so, the coffirittee notes that 
si on — as well as the new rights prcvisicrs cf this 
s a crucial part ct any effort tc revitalize the state 
s approach to civil liberties questions. Activity in 
rs inaicdtes that this prevision, originally written 
ieral Bill of Bights as a sign that there were rights 
e specifically listed, iray be the source of innovative 
ctivity in the civil liberties field. [See, e.g. 
£2££S£il£yt* ^^'l ^''S' 1^79(1565)]. No delegate propcs- 
ceived on this prcvisicn. 



646 



MONTANA CC^STnU^ICNAL CONVENTION 



AtEENLIX A 



CFC££ BEFEFINCES 



EECFCSEE SECTION 



FFESENT ARTICLE S SFCTICN 



1 
2 

3 

U 

5 

6 

7 

8 

3 

1C 

11 

12 

13 

^^ 

15 
16 
17 

ie 

19 
2C 
21 
22 
23 
2a 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 

3a 



1 
2 

3 
NEW 

4 
26 
1C 
NEW 
NEW 
NE« 

7 
13 

5 

NEW 
NEW 

6 
27 
NEW 
21 

8 
19 
2G 
17 
16 
18 
23 
12 

2a 

ia 

9 

11 

22 
31 

30 



eill ct hights Ccuiirittre FicfCSdl 647 

AffEKEIX E 

PRGPgSALS_CCN£ICEFiE_£Y_CCKriIT|E 

The following delegate ficfcsals sere ex'iirined and ccrsid— 
9 red by th? till of Sights Ccffoiittet during its d*?libera tiers: 

N u rr t ? r of 

^I2E£SSi_ Chi^t_S£cnscr _Sut iec t_]5att^r Cis^csiticn 

1. m E.^.L<=rthelscr. ir.viicrmert r-ijected 

2. b3 Jerctrf; Cats Capital F-sjected 

pun ishircr.t 

3. #U E.K. Eerthelicr Eight tc Bear Fsjectf3d 

a r ITS 

4. #1C Virginia Elsnc Ecual Pichts t^jected 

5. #12 Jercff(€ Gate E nvir c r.aif n tal Tc Natural 

fret cc tier. Besources 

6. #13 EoL Campbell Fights cf 16 fidc^ted 

year elds 

7. #1U Ecb Campb^sll Invasicr.s cf ^dcpted 

pr i vac y ii part 

8. #15 D.A.Scanlin Icdiar lards Adopted 

9. #18 Jercme Gate Eight tc rejected 

Ccunsel 

1C. fi20 C.B.acNeil Quality Tc Natural 

Erivircnccent resources 

11. #21 G.E.KcNeil Quality Tc Natural 

Envircrffent Pescurces 

12. «3G Jcrcae Gate Sovereign Adopted 

iffirurity in part 

13. #32 f.ae Kan E iscr iir ir atic n Eejectsd 

Fcbinscn 

14. S3-* EobCaapbell Individual Adopted 

dignity 

15. 83U Bob Campbell Pestciaticn cf Adopted 



648 



i^cr.TANA c^^sTI1U^ICKflL conventtcn 



16. ft 3 g 



17. sa- 



le. 

iy. 

2C. 

21 . 
22 . 



29. 
3C. 



#5C 

^ei 

9 '=9 



23. #61 



2a. tttS 



2c. #75 



27. #81 



28. #R6 



#67 
S83 



31. S93 



32. #S8 



33. #1CC 



rights 

Conald Fester Citizer far- 

ticipaticr. 

Lyl? hcnicf Basic 

nec^Es it it=s 



Adopted 



Adopted 
in part 



Ecb Caiii[trll Egual {-rctGcticn Fejectsd 

tot Campbell E isciini ra tier. Fejected 

P? jected 
iois 
c t cr in '^ 

Eorcthy Fck Fights of Access Adopted 



Jerome Catt Ccirpersaticn 

for vict iois 



EcL Caicpbpll Freaatle 



Adcpted 

in part 



riichard J. 
Chaff pcux 



Equal prctecticn Adopted 

in part 



Lyle Ccntcz tigbts cf irircis Adopted 

in part 



25. #t7 Donald Foster Freantle 



Adopted 
in part 



Ecb CampLell Eirinent domain Adopted 

in part 

Daniel W. F^ligicus liberty Rejected 

Harringtcr. 



George V . 
Pcllins 



Frea irble 



Be jected 



Ccnald Fester Bights of tciners Eejected 

Jeicme Gate Se If-i tcriirina- Rejected 

t icE 



Henry Sid-=rius Ccllective 

bargaining 



Ecbert Lee 

Kelleher 

Robert Lee 
Kelleher 



Bights cf 
prisoners 



Fe jected 
Be jected 



Involuntary ser— Fejected 
vitude en 
Sundays 



Eill cf rights Ccfflaittse frcpcsal 



649 



3U. UUB 



K€lleher 



35. i^'>e Jack K. Ward 



36. 
37. 

38. 



*115 Jack F. Ward 

ti2a JerciEc Cate 

#i2r- Jercfte Gate 



39. #13: 



ao. «133 



ai. #151 



42. #153 



44. I1fc3 



45. #16: 



EoL Campbell 
Ect Catt fbell 
Lyle f:cnrc€ 



Cavid L. 
E cl I a R d 



43. #160 Lyle f^cnroe 



Ve r c rica 
Sullivan 

J e r cm = 1. 
Loenlorf 



46. #167 lyle Kcnro6 



Rights tc t€ 
bcrr and tc 
dip 

P^cfl^'s cbliga- 
ticr. tc pre- 
serve rights 

FrtaiitlG 

FrchibiticE cf 
lie dstectcr 
tests 

F. rvircrmental 
cciDpensaticr. 

Ervircrtrert 
r ights 

Fer critt i re full 
re tredies , etc. 

Rights cf 
Indians 

Free care at St. 
Irstitcticrs 

Bights cf 
Emplcvees 

Rights cf th€ 
Cccrnitted 

Beligicus 
taxaticn 

Beligicus 
f reedcBE 



Eeiected 



Adopted 
in part 



F € jected 
Be jected 

Be jected 

Adopted 

Adopted 

f 6 jected 

Rejected 

Bejected 

Be jected 

Be jected 
Adopted 



650 MCN1ANA CC NSl IT UT ICN AL CChVFl^'IICN 



APFIKCIX C 

iII^i5SES_Ft ?BE_EY_CCMf IJ21J 

ram^ - Affiliaticr - Fs£id^:rice - Sutject 

1. Cuan? Vk. WelKer - Incividual - iianiltcr. 

2. Fob:rt I. r, illei - Ken tana Iress Asscciaticn - Helena 
Fr-? = icni 01 ti:-; Press. 

3. r-cbert C. 'natt - fcntana Student Fresiderts* Asscciation - 
i^ i q h t s c 1 If y e a L elds. 

4. Gerald L, i-'cCtirdy - hHF - Haiiltcr - In support ct gccd 

gcv-^tmer-^. 

5. icy G. Crosby, Jr. - Citizens for Ccrstitut icr al Govern- 
tnenr - Missoula - Ereaoritle. 

6. Carol and fiancis J'.itchell - ficntara Ccniicn Cause - Helena 

- Right tc Knew. 

7. Fev^rfeiid James U. Prcvcst - fcrtana Cathclic Conference - 

Helena - FreeJom of Eeligicr. 

8. Gerald L. TcCurdy - Niif - Hairiltcr - 18 year old rights. 

9. John furphy - Intern - Great Falls - Fublic Health, Unde- 
clared v.ar3 and the invir cnir en t . 

13, Francis J. Raucci - I^cntara Cathclic Conference - Great 
Falls - Ereedoip of Peligicr. 

11. Steven F. Ccldircn - Rcntana Lcw-lnccire Crganization 
E^el-^na - Celegate Frcpcsal #34, Fights upon terininaticn of 
state supervisicr. 

12. Boy Crosby, Jr. - Citizens tor Ccnstituticnal Government - 
Helena - Eights ct Accused. 

13. Hillidffi R. Cainan - fascns - Helena - Article IV. 

m. Ecniiie kalleii; - league of fecner Voters of f.ontana - Helena 

- should there be a Bill of Fights in the Constitution? 

15. Jlcr;nan D. Cotrander - Seventh Cay Adventist Church - 
belena - Article IV. 

16. ?".rs. Irving Boettger - Individual - East Helena - Fight tc 
Privacy, Environment. 

17. Dani'il J. Foley - lee Newspapers - Helena - Public access 
and right tc privacy. 



Bill of Fights Cctniritt^e Profosal 



651 



18. ^voiyn Schallaire - Ir.dividual - Martin City - Proposal 

»32. 

19. lewis E. Yearout - Kent ana Arirs Ccllectcrs Asscciaticr, - 
Great Falls - Right tc Fear Arns. 

2G. Cr. H. W. C. Newberry - Individual - Kalispell - Fight to 
Eear Arms. 

21. A. Bickstad - Individual - Fculdsr - Eight tc Bear Arns. 

22. Natalie Cannon - Helena Branch, Anerican Asscciaticn cf 
Dniversity wctiien - Helena - Eiscriiriraticn. 

23. ^idxine Jchnscn - AAUli - Kisscula - C iscr inicaticr. 

2U. Sidney Smith - Cepartirent cf Later and Ir.dustry — Helena — 
H u ffi a n Eights. 

25. Eloia Feck - Eusxress and Irciessicral Wccen - Kelena - 

Equal Bights. 

26. Bess F, Feed - Kcntana Federaticn Center's Cluts — tisscula 

- Equal Eights. 

27. Bernard L. Pan - Individual - Eculder - Eight to 
Bear Arms. 



28. Orscn Tcfhan - Naticr.al Asscciaticr tc Keep and Bear Aras 
- Helena - Right to Bear Arss. 

29. Baymcrd Lay - National Associaticr tc Keep and Eear Arms — 
Helena - Bight tc Eear Arirs. 

3C. Baymord iroes - .Montana Fifle Association - Big liioter - 
Article III, Section 13. 

31. Kenneth Henry - Individual - Helena - Eight to Bear Arms. 

32. favis Scott - iiainubdi-Cta Indian Clut - Fcplar - Rights cf 
those under the age cf aajcrity. 

33. Lynn Lueppe - Tatanka Ska Irdian Club - Poplar - Fights of 
these under the age cf majcrity. 

34. Vincent F. Matule - Individual - Helena - Childrers^ 

rights. 

35. Mrs. Lcis K. McMeekin - Individual - Helena - Bights of 
those under the age cf Majcrity. 

36. Jiary Anne Fisher - f^crtara Advisory Ccuncil en Children 
and Youth - Helena - Eights of these urder the age cf 



652 



MCNIANA CCNSinCIICKAL CCNVSNTICK 



i^, a j c r i t y . 

37. ilavis ficK?lvey - I'cr.tana league cf Ccrscrvat icn Voters - 
^iG3ouia - ffivircr, [T'^rital Frctec + icn. 

38. rarl-^r.^i "rove - Tiri i v i(iua 1 - Helena - E r vircnroen t . 

39. Cecil Garland - Montana Vvilderress Asscciaticn - Lirccln - 
PuH ic Trust . 

iJO. Willi a ai P. Icmlmscn - fen tana League cf Ccnseiveticn 
Vctc^rs _ Missculd - Enviicnffer. tal frctecticr. 

U1. Tiobert ii . LcFrowse - Kcntana Wccdland Ccuncil - KisEoula - 
i: r V i r c n ai e n t . 

42. Gecrgt D-iircw - Stdt€ Representative, Yellcwstcre Ccunty - 
Eiilirys - unvircnms n ta 1 [rctecticr. 

U3, C. LcuiE' Cress - Individual — Chairnar, Natural Pescurces 
Ccinffii' tee. 

uu. c. l\. McN^ail - h'clscn Cutdccis - tclscn - Eel e gate frcpcs- 
a 1 i- #20 m: d 21. 

45. L'^onard Campbell - Ervi r crtn-^ri ta 1 Frctection ficency - 
Denver - in vircnmcnt al protecticn. 

U6. Irwin Dickstein - E£di-:'ral Invircnmenta 1 Erctecticn Agency 

- Denver - Ervircnrrenta 1 prctecticr. 

47. Fcb-irt R. CeSpain - U. S. Fnv ir cnirental frctectior Agency 

- Denver - Envircntrental prctecticr. 

48. Cavo S>dgon€r - En vir c r n p r t a 1 Erctscticn Agercy - Denver - 
Environnenta 1 prctecticn. 

49. K^ith C. Schwab - E r.vir c nni-sn ta 1 Frctection Agency - 
Littl-^. ten - Envircnniental Frctecticr. 

50. Barney I^eagan - Individual - Helena - Ordinance 1, Section 



51. Kenuv^th Henry - Individual - Helena - Article 3, Section 

4. 



52. Erancis Satterthwa ite - Inter-tribal Fclicy Ecard - Helena 
- Ordinance I, Section 2. 

53. kill Soscoe - Sentinel High Schccl - Kissoula - Fights cf 
18 year olds. 

54. Step)hen M. Sherick - Sigma Fhi Epsilon Fraternity - 
Kissoula - Fights cf 18 year elds. 



Pill of Pights Ccairaitt';^ F-rcpcsal 



653 



55. Kenneth Henry - Individual - Helena - Euthanasia. 

56. Bet Camptell - Delegate - fisscula - Eeleqate Ficpcsal 
Jt13. 

57. Jeiry Cats - Delegate - Fictcsal #13. 

58. Jaaics Iciiilinsci. - Hellgate Kigb Schccl - fissoula - Eights 
cf 18 year elds. 

59. Kik3 Earrett - Hellgate Kigh Schccl - Kisscula - Bights cf 
18 year elds. 

60. Kurt Kru3ger - Individual - Helena - Fights cf 18 year 

olds. 

61. Ed Sirith - Individual - f.isscula - Rights cf 18 year elds. 

62. HilliaiD E. Kcerner - Individual - Raiiiltcn - Cffcsing 
rights cf 18 year elds. 

63. Jcyc5 M. Franks - Individual - flltertcr - Right tc die. 

64. Carl Eostad - Individual - Helena - Rights of 18 year 

clas. 

65. "Irs. Stella EiliFOwicz - Individual - Great falls - Fight 
t e 1 i v :• . 

66. Dill lurner - Individual - Helena - Capital Funishttent. 

67. Duane w. fcelker - Individual - HaailtcE - #15. 

68. Erank R. Sennett - Department cf Social and Behatili taticn 
- Services - Helena - IMS. 

69. Carol fiitchell - Individual - Helena - Easic Eights. 

70. Jack F. Carlson - fcntana Chapter, National Asscciaticn 
Social Wcrkers - «a5. 

71. Larry Juelfs - Invited by Ccnnittee - Great Falls - m5, 

72. Jim Kaniere - Vielfare Rights Crganizaticr - Great Falls - 
#U5. 

73. Malyn Olescn - Welfare Fights Crgatizaticn - Great Falls - 

#£45. 

74. Boris Flesch - iielfare Bights Crganizaticn - Great Falls - 

#45. 



75. ?1innie McSeynolds - Welfare Bights Organization - Great 



654 



aCNIAKA CChSIITUIICNAL CCt.VEMICN 



PdllS - »'4 5. 

76. Shirlfy Falkucx - rtslfar'? Fichts Crgarizaticn - Great 
Falls - #^5. 



77. Ir-ne Houlf; 

Falls - «'45. 



feclfar'^ riqnts Crganization -Great 



78. Sister Ercvidencia - Ih? Church ard Acadcroic Ccniruriti^s - 
sus. 

79. St-tfoii Ccl;iirci. - fontana State Lew Irccire Cigari^aticn 
lie 1 era - »^5. 

8C. Kenneth Her. ry - Iiidivio-jal - H»;lera - Eutnanasia. 

fcl. Lcirry iilisci - Individual - fisscula - Eight cf Fiivacy. 

62. Geralc L. ".cCuriy - Individual - Hairiltcr. - Basic Necessi- 

ti--^£. 

83. JiT Da Pa - Individual - Kisscula - ^U^ , 

£4. Patricia A. Denny - Individual - Hisscula - Education. 

65. Eol Screnscn - ASC?* - Missoula - Zducaticn. 

86. Icm 2ailey - Individual - J".i£scula - Schccl tcarcs. 

67. John Kutfhy - Individual - f.isscula - Vaiicus. 

83. Iproy F. Berven - Associated Students cf Uriversity cf 
•jicntara - cducaticr. . 

£9. Frank LaMer^; - Eastern f.cntar.a College - Hillings - Indian 
Education. 

9C . Dal^ Kindntss - Eastern Montana College - Eillings - Indian 
Education . 

91. Clar^ Lee KcMakir - Eastern fcntana College - Lainedeer — 
Indian Education. 

92. Calvin E. Berrera - Eastern fontana College - Indian Edu- 
cation. 

93. Stan Juneau - Eastern Montana College - Eillings - Indian 
Education . 

94. John y. . Christensen - University cf Montana - Misscula - 
Educa t ion . 

95. Wayne Gildroy - Kcntana Student Presidents' Assn. - 
Eozeraan - #142. 



rill ct Fights Cciririttee Ficpcsal 



655 



96. Fiank Dudas - ?^SKSU - Eczemar, - Edccaticn. 

9''. Fobert Jcvick - Hcntana Student FresideDts' Pssl. 
tczewan - Educdticn. 

98. Harold E. Gray - University cf Mcrtara - Missoula - Equal 
educational Cfpcit unity. 

99, Ewight A. fiill-jdeaux - flitericar, Indian - Hillings - Educa- 
tion. 

1G0. Gary Kiitle - Indians - f. isscula - Indian Pights. 



101. Willis M. McK-:?on - fcntana iisscciated Utilities - Palta - 
#75 and #125. 

132. Charles C. Lcvell - Great Falls Gas Co. - Great Falls - 
#75 and #125. 

1C3. John Carl - I'ontana Eower Co. - Putt? - 875. 

104. Donald A. Douglas - Dtct. cf Higbaays - Helena - #75 and 
<J125. 

1C5. George Darrcw - Representative - Eillicgs - #75. 

106. John E. Staigisiller - Individual - Cascade - Eminent 
C c ID a i n . 

1C7. Edwin S. Eccth - Mcrtana Railroad Assr. - Helena - 175. 

1C8, Gene A. Picctte - General Telephcr.e cf the N.W. and 
Kcntana-Dakcta Utilities - Helena - «75 and #125. 

1C9. fike f<=loy - Privacy and wiretapping. 

110. Kayl"? Jackson - Individual - Bozesian - Search and Seizure. 

111. Lewis E. Yearout - dcntana Arms Collectors Asscciaticn - 
Great falls - Proposal #u . 

112. H. H. C. Nesifcerry - Individual - Kalispell - Bight to keep 
and tear arffs. 

113. Cr. George Osterman - Individual - Great Falls - Ficpcsal 

11U. Robert C. fcDcnald - Individual - Helena - Ccrxealed 
Weapons. 

115. Raymond Lay - National Asscciaticn tc Keep and Hear Arms - 
Helena - Gun registraticr and taxation. 



656 



fONTAN^ CC^■STITUTIC^AL CCNVENTICN 



116. Charlfs L. cditslt - Individual - Great falls - Gur regis- 

t r d r i c n . 

117. Per Csturn - Cascade. Ccur.ty Wildlife Asscciaticr - Great 
Falls-Guncciitrcl. 

118. Orson Tophani - Naticnal Asscciaticn tc Peep and Eear ftrms 
- H^lfna - tcoposdl tfU. 

IT-". Daiii^l J. Mass;? - Hcntana aiflj ar.d Fistcl Asscciaticn - 
Trf.'isur'= Ftatc Cu-^fittf.rs - Ciir.'cr - Proposal «a. 

12C. Can M^al - ■"parrccth Mcuntair. fer - I'uzzle Leaders - Great 
rall.~ - rigiit to K-sef and tear arms. 

121. Ecrothy Hradl^y - Statt F«? t rese r ta ♦■i ve - Gallatir. - Public 
trust. 

122. Patti Keier - GASP cf ilisscula - Grant Cr^ek - Ervircn- 
mental Rights. 

12 3. C'scil Garland - Individual - Iinccln - Public trust. 

124. Jce Fotsrts - Individual - ir. iv-^rsity cf Co r. tar a law 

ScKcol - Bight tc die. 

125. fraiicis fitch ell - Kent ana Ccmrrcn Gauss?. 

126. Sister Prcvid-ncia - Individual - Cclleqe cf Great Falls - 

Capital PuniT-hnicnt. 

127. f*iss Serry f'-^nn - Contana Sdviscry Ccuncil en Children - 
Helena - Sights cf these under th*; age cf icajcrity. 

128. Jim Fippard - Community Cocrdinated Child Cart - H6l«=ri3 - 
Rights cf these und?r the age cf ifajcrity. 

129. Earl J. Barlow - Indian Educaticn Sup3rviscr - Eelena — 
Indian educaticn. 

13). Georqp Darrcvi - Individual - Eillings - Ccmntents on sec- 
tions 1 , 4 and 14. 

131. Hcbert E. Watt - Montana Student Presidents' Asscciaticn - 
lisscuia - Helena - Adult rights. 

132. Martin L. Staley - Individual - Welt Creek - Rights cf 
majority to 18 year elds, with restrictions. 

13 3. Ncel Larivee - Missoula - Individual - Bight tc knew. 

134. Ccn Hcltz - Kcntana Comnicn Cause - Helena - Right tc knew. 

135. Bcnnic Wallem - League cf hciten Veters cf Kcntana - Helena 



bill cr rigiits Ccurrittse Eicfcsal 



657 



- Cl-ean -rvircrmert, right tc Vrcw. 

13 6. Tdy '^ulick - Tn diviJuai - Jcplin - Eri-f history cf the 

pr--s?i:t Mcntar.d Stdt€ Ccnstitaticr. 

137, WilliaK Derry, Sr. - fcntara Int>fr-Trit=il Eclicy Ecard - 
Lex Eldsr, J'critara - Ir3iar rights. 



13B. Carsci. "cyd - •■iOntaiia I n t cr-lr iba 1 Eclicy Ecard - Erocktcn 
- Indian Fights. 



658 



KGNTAN;> CCNSIllOTICNAL CCNViNTICN 



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Public Health, Welfare, Labor and Industry Committee 



661 



i-CNTANA CCNSTIICIICNAL CCNVEMICN 
1971-1C-/2 

PUDLTC FrAllf;, k> £ If f ? i: , LPEC? 
ANL IhCUSIEY CCfMIlEE IFCFCSAI 

i; C . T y 



Date Intrcduced: February IS, 1972 
/s/_G€orae_"i_HsiiiS£I» Chairffan 
/s/_Ji_Fi_Wa.rd, \ice Chairmar 



662 



KCMANfl CONSTITUIICNAL CCKVEMICN 



TABLE CF CC^T!^^T£ 



LETT I: P. OE TFAxNSMITTAL 664 

TEXT CF KAJGFITY FFCECSAl, NC N-«l) N TC I P A I CCFECFATICNS 666 

COMMENTS CN f.AJCFITY FRCiCSAI, l.C ^- I"J MCI E A I CCFF 668 

5ecticn 1. Grant of Power. 668 

S'^ct. icn 2. rrct^cticr fcr Ci*:i2'£rry 668 



£9cticn J. CUinulitivs Vctir. 



Secticn u. Lcng-Shcrt Fiaul Claus<r 

Section ^. Watered Stock Etcvisicr 

Section 6. ? -?trcsp €ct ive law Pre r ibi t icn 
TEXT CF KAJCFTTY FfCECSAI, lAtCF 



668 
669 
669 

669 
670 



CCKKEMS CN ^AJGFTTY PSCECSAL, LAtCF 672 

S'-otion 1. Department of Cctririssicnt r 672 

Sf-cticr. 2. ;-'.ajcritY, f'erit Syst-cr 678 

5ec-t:ior j, Mirciity, f-rit Syst-ir 673 

TEXT CF f-l/.JOFITY FEUPCSAL, I ^ ST IT (J T IC N S ANE ASSISTANCE 674 

COKi'HNTS CN .\AJOBITY PRCECSAL, INST. AND ASSISTANCE .675 

Section 1. InsrituticrH 675 

Section 2 . A s s i ? t a ii c •^ . 675 

TEXT CN' fTWOPITY E^^CECSflI, PUEIIC UTIIIIY FEGUIATICKS ti"6 

CCKfENTS CM KINGHIIY FPCICSAI, EUELIC L'TILITY 

F I GUI AT IONS 678 

IIINCFITY CC^■fENT3 

S-:iCticE 1. Public LitilitiTS Ccirrr isEicrer 678 

Section 2. Powers ct Cc [rn issicn = r 680 

Section 3. Impartiality of Staff 681 



Public H = alth, wclf.^re. Later and Irdustry CcniDittee- 663 

Section U . iMity to repr-^sett Custcoi-rs 681 

S^'cticr. 5. Eivi£icr cf Pe^ulatQii' Ecw'sr 

Pronihited 681 

MIiNCFITY GIMrFt^L CCrMENTS 682 

MAJCFI^Y GHKIIFAI CC^;."';EN1S 684 

TZXT CF r'li^CFITY FECECSAl, FUEIIC UIIIIIY CCFFCFATICK 686 

CCHHhtJlS CX MNCPITY PSCfCSAI, PUBLIC UTILITY CCEP ..686 

.^TNOFITY 686 

f AJCRITi 687 

TEXT OF FINOFITY PBCPCS^I, CCIIECTIVI EJs.F.GAIKTKG = ...688 

CCfKEMS CK I'lKCFITY FFCECSAL. 689 

f= I ;.C F IT Y C C t f, r b:T S . . . . , 689 

FttJCFIl Y CCMt^FNTS. 691 

TEXT OF FIN'CFIIY FFCFCSAI, EKFLCYMEKT EIGHTS 692 

CCMKFNTS ON KINCPITY FECECSAL, £!*:FLCYKENT EIGHTS 693 

MNCFITY CC KM EN IS 693 

f AJOFI^Y CO K ME NTS 696 

APf ENEIX 

A. Cross Fefersnce cf Fresert ard Prcpcs'^c Articles..... 698 

B. Del«^gate Proposals Considered ty Cctr sitt-;? . . . 700 

C. Witnesses K = ard ty CcairittC'? 701 

E. Fell Calls 

fajcrity 707 

Minority 708 

Pe jected 709 

E. Comments on Present Article XV 710 



664 



^^OKI^iNA CCNSTIIUIICNAL CC.KV'jMICN 



Dat^: F-^truary It;, ^'i 



1? 



To: t^C.NlANA CCNSIJliJTICNAL CCI^VF^'IIC^ 

Frciii: Public Health, Welfare, Later arc Industry 



Ladies a i; d G p n 1 1 e m ? n : 

Th: Public (health, Welfare, labcr and Tr.duetry Ccmnittse 
respectfully subirits proposed new articles en Kcn-irunicif a 1 Cci- 
potations, labor, and Institutions and Assistance. Th€ 
Non-municipal Corporation and the later Articles are interded to 
replace present Articles XV and XVIII respectively. The Insti- 
tutions and Assistance Article is intended tc replace section 1 
and 5 of -^he present Article X. 

The comrrittee resolved cost of the issues before it without 
strong dissent. Hoviev^r, srincrity reports are being filed cr the 
subjects of public utility regulation, r ight-tc-we rk , anc rights 
of employee organization for collective bargaining. 

In signing either a majority cr a nmcrity report, a coEinit— 
tee ffienber dc-rs not necessarily endorse all stateaents ccntained 
therein. Kejecticr., by the ccniirittee, cf proposals does not nec- 
essarily imply that the ccmmittee fines their irberertly undesir- 
able unless it expressly so states. 

The cotrmittee wishes tc express its gratitude tc all Dele- 
gates and meoibers of the public who cffered their advice cr sut>— 
jects before the ccmtnittee. 

Ihe coiEiDittee enjoyed the services cf the follcwing persons 



Futlic Kaalth, *i€ltaLe, Later and Iriustiy CciSiiiittee 



665 



in addition tc its m-iirifcers and new cratelully ackncwledges their 
unstintir.q la hers and loyalty tc th; gcol ct assistirg th^ ccii- 
mittec tc rrake the Lest ccntributicr cf v^hich it is capatle to 
the writing cf a rew Ccr sti t u ticn: Richard I. Spall, Pesearch 
Analyst; Kandica tiaur and Gecrce fahcrey, Irterrs; and our sxcel- 
lert secretary, Sylvia Kinsey. 



/s/_Gecrc|e_B^_lielik6r 

C hair aan 



^s^_J^_K_j__fcard_ 
Vice Chairnar 



666 



MCNTAKfl CCKSTIIDIICNAL CCNV^NTICN 



r.AJCFI'IY EFCrCSAL 



BE IT FECFCSFD BY 1 i! Z FUELIC HFALTF, UELEABt, FABCh ANE INDDSTEY 
COKMinEF: 

Tnat thfre b-e a nr-'v.- Article cr Ncr-au rici f al Ccifcraticns tc 
read ^s iollcws: 



AETICLr 

NON-MIINICIFAI CCI^ E C 5 AT IC NS 

S-^^+icn 1. GRANT Cf PCfcFF. Ccrfcrate charters stall tp 
granted, tncdificd, cr dissolved only fursuart tc general lav. 

Section ?. EBCT5CT1CN FCF CIIIZENEY. The legislative Ass€i[- 

bly shall frcvide ici prctecticr. ard educaticr tcr the people 

agairst bain.iul ard unfair practices ty -^ithei fcreiqn cr dcEcs- 
tic ccrpcraticns, individuals, cr asscciaticns. 



Sfction J, 
or trcst-?es ci 
hcldtrs the right 
of stcck cwned by 
bei e i-.ctfzQ , cr tc 
many vctes as the 
his shares, or tc 
candidates as he 



dJPUIA'IIVE VOTING. Ml electicns for directors 
ircorpcrateo ccnipaxiies shall jrcvide all stcck- 
tc vcte ty person cr proxy the runter of shares 
him for as nany directcrs cr trustees as are tc 
cuaiuiate the shares, and give a candidate as 
number cf directcrs irultiplied by the nuaber cf 
distribute them in siirilar earner ancng as many 

sees fit. 



.Section U. LCKG-SHCFT H AU I CLAUSE. Nc ^: r ans f cr t at icn ccm- 
pany shall be allowed tc charge, under penalties which the legis- 
lative asseaibly shall prescribe, any greater charge fcr the 
transpcr ta ticn of freight cr passengers tc any place upon its 
route, than it charges fcr the tr anspcrtat icn cf the same class 
of freight or passengers tc any more distant place ufcn its route 
fcithin this state. 



".. WATEHEE SICCK EtCVIEICN. Nc ccrpcraticr shall 
cr bends, except fcr labor done, services performed, 
prop-rty actually received; and all ficticious 
stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock cf 
shall not be increased except ir pursuance cf gen- 
eral law, nor without ccrsent of these persons holding a sajcrity 
of the stock first obtained at a iieeting held after notice given 
in pursuance of law. 



Section 
issue stocks 
cr fflcaey or 
increase of 
ccrpcr ations 



Section b. FETHOSf ECT I VE LAW E3CB IE IT IC N . 
assenbly shall pass no law retrospective in its 
imposes en the people a new liability in respect 
or considerations already passed. 



The legislative 
operations which 
tc transactions 



Fubiic ['33l':h, fe'slEare, later ar d Industry Ccmitte- 



667 



ZsZ_5ior2€_Ei_Helikt^ 

Cihairirar 



Vice Chaittrar 



/s^_CharlS3_Hi_Mahcr^i£ 



^s^_F_j__J_._Studer_ 



Z§Z_52Sii£il_i^£C^Iiil. 



ZSZ_J!i_^i_S*ian t er_g_ 



^£/_E_j__A_j__ScaEiin_ 



^£^_|dith_Van_Ruskirk 



668 



KGNIfiNA CCNS•IITU'ITC^AL CCbVENTICN 



CCKMENIS CN If.f'.JCT^ITY EF.CfCSAL 

ARTICl'^. XV NCN-MCNTCIPAI CCFFCFATICNS 

Socticr. 1. G',iM.1 Cf tCtvEt. Ccrfcrate char^eis shall 
hs cruitPd, ircditied, ci dissclvtj cnly pursuant tc 
general law. 

CO?!Kr,NTS 

Ir. additicr. to providing fcr a general grant cf legislative 
power tor corporate charter grartirg, section 1 provides: 

(d) a prohibition ct cuarterinc corporations ty special 
law, and 

(ti) the intent that corporate todies are subject to dis- 
solution in the event their principle activity is ccn- 
tr.iry to croinoticn of the general velfare. 

Section 2. FdCTECTICK rCE CITIZENFY. The legislative 
Asseffihly shall provide for prctrotion and education for 
th-- p-ccle against harnful and unfair practices hy 
eithe'r tcr-ign or dcffiestic cor f oration s , individuals, 
or associations. 

CCMKINIS 

The ccsrtr.i tte-- intends this section tc erccnfass and prohibit 

various husiness practices vhich are desiced haratul and injurious 

to tht= people. Included in the prchitition are various tusiness 
practices, such as: 



(a) arbitrary discrioiinatioL in rate and service fcr transpcrta- 
tion, 

(b) th-5 receipt ci greater rights and friviieges ty foreign cor- 
porations than are granted to domestic corporations, 

(c) price-fixing and r-gulaticn cf prcducticn on an intrastate 
basis which is harmful to the state eccr.cny, 

(d) any act hhich is generally rot conducive to efficiently 
allocating scarce resources. 

Section 3. COMOLATIVE VOTING. All elections for 
directors or trustees cf inccrfcrated ccirpanies shall 
provide all stcckhclders the right tc vote ty person cr 
proxy the numfcer of shares cf stock owned ty hiE fcr as 
many direotcrs or trustees as are to be elected, cr tc 
cumulate the shares, and give a candidate as many votes 
as the number ct directors nultiplied hy the number of 
his shares, cr to distribute then in siirilar manner 
among as nany candidates as he sees fit. 



Public Haalth, Welfar-e, lafccr and Trdustrv Cciraiittes 



669 



CCht«FNlS 

The intfcut cf this sscticn is tc ttairtaic voting frctecticr 
rcr the irincrity stccKhcldsc. 

Secticn u. LCNG-£tdCei KAUI CLAUSE. Nc t lans f cr ta t icn 
cciDfany shall t^ allcwed tc charge, unc€r psr.alties 
which the legislative asseirtly shall prescrite, any 
giT-^ater charge for th.? transpcrtatic n cf freight cr 
passsng-rs tc any flac9 upcr, its rci;tt, than it charges 
for th9 trarspcrtaticn of the sane class cf freight cr 
passeiig-rs tc any mors distant place upcn its route 
within tnis state, 

CCa«ENl£ 

Feccgnizing that federal law and state statutes dc net prc- 
hibit this discr ininatcry practice, the cciirittee retains this 
secticn lor intrastat-^ purposes. 

Secticn 5. i^ATZEEC STCC'K EFCVISICK. Nc ccrpcraticD 
shall issue stocks cr tends, except tcr labcr done, 
services performed, or itcney cr property actually 
received; and all ficticious increase cf stock or 
indebtedness shall be void. Ihe stock cf ccrpcraticns 
shall rot be increased except in pursuance of general 
law, nor without consent cf these persons holding a 
niajcrity of the stock first obtained at a meeting held 
after notice givin in pursuance of law. 

CCKKENTS 

Although the ccnmittee recognizes the statutory nature cf 
this section, it feels that the possibility, no nsatter how 
reniote, cf future legislative action relieving this fron the stat- 
utes warrants retention of this secticr ir the Ccnstituticn. 

Secticn 6. FEIRCSFECTI VE lAw FECHIEIIICN . The legis- 
lative assembly shall pass no law retrospective in its 
operations which imposes on the people a new liability 
in respect to transaction or considerations already 

passed , 

CCMMENTS 



In expanding the prohibition on retrospective law, the ccb- 
mittee intends to preserve for all citizens the sanctity of con- 
tractual obligations frott the actions cf a third party, i.e., the 
state. 



670 



MONTANA CCNSTilUlICN AL CONVENTION 



tAJCflTY EECrCSAL 



ah 11 FKCECSEC HY THl irUELIC HlhLlb, W 5 L F iS R J , lAdCF «t\L IKClJSTPI 
CCMHIIIPE: 

That tnert: be a new Articlt en later tc rsaii as tellers: 



AFIICLS 

LAEC5 

Section 1. DErAFTtTNl AKL CCKfi ISSICN EF , Th€ legislative 
Asseafcly shell ptcvide fcr a r-npaitKent cf later anc Iridustry. 
The Defartffi^iit shall be under the ccntrcl cf a CcirmiSEioner 
appointed by the Gcv^rncr, ccnfirired fcy the legislature (Senate). 



^s/_Gtor 3G_E ._Hf liker 
C h a i r a a r. 



Vice Chairnar. 



Z3Z_Ri_Ji_3 1 ude. 



Z2/_JG£i£h_Ei_f cCar vel 



Z§Z_^i_i;i_Swan t cr^. 



ZlZ-Ii-Ai-Scanlir. 



^s^_Ed ith_Van_bu£kir k 



Futlic Health, Welfare, LaLcr ar.d Industry Cciririttfee 



671 



m;\jchty tFCPcsfli 



BE II E&CFOSrE 11 llll PUBLIC HEALTH, WEIEARE, lAECF, flNt IKCCS1EY 
CCKMIITEE: 

Ihdt there be a new secticr ir the Labcr Article to read as 
f 0II0.S : 

AFIICIE 

lAECF 

Secticn 2. MEi'IT SYSTEM. The legislative Assenbly shall 
establish a systein undtr which the irarit fricciple kill govern 
the eaflcyaient cf persons by the state. 



^£^_(lsor3e_Bi_|ielik€r 
Chairman 



Z§Z_;2£f§l]l_il££S£i2i 



^£/_Bj^_Ji_Studer_ 



^s/_Ci_A_j__Scanlin_ 



Z§Z_l3iiii-Zi£-£ii§Jsi£JS 



672 



K0N1ANA CCNSinU'IICtvAL CC^VZNTICN 



CCMMENIS Ci; fAJCEITY EnCECEP.L 




C C f' ^. E M S 



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pcwe 

£p6 



itut ien 
indu- 
ce part- 
ted at 
fice of 
rn. It 
t J the 
at t h i £ 
£ di£— 
hat the 
fcy the 
vice a 
le only 
rs and 
cif ica- 



relegatt Mahon^-y disserts with res feet tc the 
the specific teriB fcr the Cctnuiissic rer cf Later. 



deletion cf 



Deleticn cf secticc two and section three ef the presert 
Ccnstituticn is reccitiinended because we dc ret consider the sub- 
ject aatt-r to be of sufficient iiopcrtarce tc warrant Ccnstitu- 
ticnai tieatirent in the absence cf evidence £uggestirg the legis- 
lature may be unwilling cr unable tc act upon any prcbleas that 
exist cr a,ay arise within the ar'^ae covered by tho£e existing 
secticrs. 



Deletion of s=eticn four cf the present Ccnstitut 
reccffitriended tecauee it i£ defective in its present form s 
effiplcye-:- whc works more than eight hours per day viclat 
Constitution as much as the eirpleyer whc requires or irdu 
to dc so, among the eonseguenees ef which fact is that 
injured wnile working in excess cf eight hcurs in one d 
been denied standing in the courts tc prosecute civil 
against negligent tort feasors. Any suggested language tc 
that defect creates new problems. Per exaaple, the claus 
except fcher an employee voluntarily agrees tc work Icng 
the prescribed eight hours," has been suggested. Ihat 1 
would remove practically all prctecticn fcr workers in nc 
situations, whereas it itay be argued that the worker 
union-management contract needs nc such prctection. Furth 



icr i£ 
ince an 
€£ the 
ces him 
wc rkers 
ay have 
actions 
remedy 
e "and 
er than 
anguage 
n-union 
unde r 
ermore. 



Putlic Kralth, «eltarc. Later and In'lustry Ccairittse 



673 



the aa 
interf 
longer 
The X 
positi 
Ccnsti 
Ccunci 
sutccm 
are c 
citiz^ 
the p 
wisdom 



j c I i t y 
ere «i 

days a 
a jcrit y 
vv r r a c 
t u t i c r. 
1 i«[.cr 
m i 1 1 - £ 
c g n i z a r. 
IS, and 
rcLleiPE 

dictat 



th 

nd s 
is 

■^ica 
tc 

t OL 

reFC 

t c 

vihi 

inh 



dssi 
hcrt 
a IbC 
1 ef 
J us 
196 
It c 
f xh 
le *< 
eren 
r t f • i 



nat 
rati 

ir 
feet 
tity 
e an 
f 19 
in! 
■■^ wc 
ir. 
t 



t 
ng 



d 

69 
pc 
ul 
i 
he 



Ccnstit 

exper iire 

ks, which 

fc h e t h 

the Hi 

cert 

Const 

r eccmni = n 

rtarce at 

c net t € 

t could t 

legislat 



utt 
ver 
its 
th..- 



u-^ic 
r.tit 

IS 
€1 t 

any 
ir.ua 
itut 
d^.d 
tach 
a dvG 
e so 
ure 



r.al 
ion 
ir 

he s 
year 
r.c5 . 
ic na 
its 
ed t 
rse 
1 ved 
to d 



ei 

wi 
f ao 
t^ct 
s i 

r C 
1 r 

d = 
t 

tc 

eal 



cht 

tn 

t 

icn 

t h 

th 

evi 

let 

he 

re 
e n 

fci 



-ncu 

CCBt 

nch 

has 
as b 
the 
sicn 
icr. . 
sect 
tain 
cv c 
th 



r d 

in at 
ccc 
had 

€€ n 

Legi 

Con 

Hh 

ion 

inq 

elie 

the 



ay (Day 
ions of 
vr ring. 

e n u g n 
in the 
slative 
D issien 
i 1"= «e 
t y soire 

i- if 
ve that 

issue . 



Kith th, s removal of secticr; 
five is clearly ur r.ecessaiy . 



twc, three and four, section 



Section 2. f.EEIl SYSIEM. The legislative Asserrtly 



shall establish 
cipal will govern the 
state. 



systeiE under which the ir = rit prin- 



effplcyirenT 



p e L s c n s by 



:hp 



fAJCFITY CCK^JNIS 

The ccanjittee relieves that efficient gcvercirent requires 
adoption by the legislature of a trerit system. Since 1921 the 
legislature has attempted, and failed, tc provide such a systea. 
It is the ccffoiittee's purpose, in r eccffiaiending adoption of Lele- 
gate Proposal 14U, tc enccurace the legislature tc get cr with 
the jet. 

^'INGFIIY CC^fE^T3 



This wculd be a new Ccrstituticnal trcvision. The nir. crity 
believes that insufficiert tiir.e was devcted to this subject ty 
the ccffiittee, and the evidence introduced tec fragmentary and 
inconclusive tc warrant the inclusion of this article ir. the Ccr- 
stituticr. We relieve the iratter is ^riaarily legislative and we 
wish tc report that a senate sutconjiiiitt ee now has this aiatter 
under cocsideratior . 



674 



MCN1ANS CCKSIl'IUI ICNAL CCNWEMTICN 



KAJCFITY EBOFCSAL 



6E IT FFCP05EC CY 1HE PUBLIC HEALTH, WEIFAFE, lAECF ANE INEDSTRY 

CCfcMITTr F: 

Ihat thtrs te a new drticl<? cr. Irstituticns and Assistance 
to read as fcllcvis: 

AEIICLF 

INSTIIUTICKS ANC ASSISTANCE 

Section 1. INSTITDTICNS. Sucb institutions as the public 
<jccd may Liquire shall te established and sufpcrted ty the state 
as may be prescribed by law. 

Section /., ASSISTANCE. It shall te the cuty cf the Legis- 
lative Assemtly to provide eccnccic assistance and social and 
rehabilitative services as may te necessary for these irhatitants 
who, ty reason of age, infiritities or irisicrtune may have need 
for the aid of society. 



^£^_G€cr2e_E_._Hel iker 
C ha ir Ba n 



^s/_Ji_K._Hard_ 
Vice Chairoar 



^^Z-Chgr les_£ahctei_ 



ZsZ-^i-Ji-Studer. 



ZsZ_Jcseih_H_._McCjrvel 



^s/_Wi_Hi_Swanfcerg_ 



Z§Z_I«._^i_Scanlin 



ZJZ_llii]l_yan_Bu£kirk 



tublic H-9alth, Welfare, Labor and Industry Ccnicitte: 



675 



COMMENTS CN f-AJOFITY EPCECSAI 

ARIICIE X INS1IICTICK5 ?NC ASSIST;>NCE 

Section 1. I NSl 11 liTICKS. Such irstituticns as the 
public qccd nay r?quire shall te astatlisbsd and sup- 
fcrted h y the state -is irdy be {.rsscritf^c ty la*. 

CCMWENIS 

The socticn as amended del^tfis specific irer.ticn cf several 
institutions set forth in the existiry section. It was the feel- 
ing 01 the ccmoiittse that no special purpose is served by the 
specific ffl'cnticE ct th^se instituticns in as wuch as a general 
delegation of authority should be sufficiert. 

Section 2. ASSISTANCE. It shall be the duty of the 
l-^cjislative assembly tc provide eccncmic assistance ard 
social and rehabilitative services as may be necessary 
for thosc> inhabitants who, by reason cf age, infirni- 
ti'3s or iiisfcrtune day have need for the aid of 
society. 

CCf: PENIS 



T 
severa 
indige 
legisl 
rest, 
nation 
s i V e 1 y 
cities 
and pa 
that 
gather 
imposi 
counti 
place 
correc 
of pro 
econcni 
eguall 
matter 



h^ o 
1 c 
nts. 
at iv 
coun 

the 

tha 
cf 
rtly 
the 

in 
ng a 
es. 
this 
t t 
vidi 
ic 
y as 

sho 



rxci 
cunt 

'Th-J 
£- a 
ties 
rsof 
t we 

our 

bee 

wel 
Grea 

dis 
Ih 

bur 
his 
ag t 
assi 

res 
uld 



nal 
ies 
pro 

SS6ID 

as 

. Th 
Ifar 
sta 
ausG 
fare 
t Fa 
prop 

-^ P 

den 

ineq 

hat 

Stan 

trie 

te o 



secti 

o f 
posed 
bly 
at pr 
e tes 
€ rec 
te, p 

of b 
rec 
lis, 
crtio 
ropos 
or a 
uity. 
it wo 

C£ . 

tive 
ne to 



or; c 

the" 

sec 

shal 

esen 

t ilDO 

ipie 
attl 
ett€ 
ipie 
Anac 
na te 
ed 

Stat 
\o\i 
uld 

• • 

as t 
r le 



laced t 
state t 
tion oh 
1 deci 
t or a 
ny take 
cts ten 
y becau 
r welfa 
nts f r 
cnda, B 
burden 
section 
€ wide 
r coicnii 
be "the 
.", but 
he e x i s 
gis lat i 



he tu 
c pro 
a n g e s 
de wh 
state 
E on 
c tc 
se cf 
re f 
Off th 
utte, 
or 
wcul 
basis 
ttee 
duty 
we b 
ting 
ve di 



rden 
vide 

thi 
ere 

wid 
this 
cong 

bet 
aci 1 
e SB 

Mis 

the 
d al 

if 
cons 

cf 
elie 
sect 
sc re 



cf 

ty 

s tc 
this 
e le 
irat 
rega 
ter 
itie 
alle 
soul 
ta 
low 
it s 
ider 
the 
ved 
ion 
tion 



taxat io 
tax lev 
prcvid 
tax bu 
vy, or 
ter sho 
te in 
job cpp 
s. It 
r ccunt 
a. Bill 
xpayers 
the leg 
chcse 
€d the 
State 
that th 
and b 



r u p 
y to 
e th 
rdsn 
scire 
ved 
the 
crtu 
was 
ies 
ings 

of 
isla 

an 
poss 
to 

is w 
elie 



en the 

r their 

at the 

should 

ccmbi- 

corclu- 

larger 

r i t i e s , 

shown 

tend t c 

, etc. , 

these 

ture to 

d thus 

ibility 

provide 

culd be 

ve the 



676 



KCNTflNA CCNSTITUIICNAI CCNVEMICN 



MINCFIT^ PFCE-CSAL 



BE II PRCPOSEC EY THE PUBLIC HEALTH, hELFAFE, LAEOR AKC IbDUSTFY 

CCMMITTEE: 

That there be a new Airticls cr Pegulaticn cf Futlic Utili- 
ties tc roid as follows: 



APTICLE 

REGOLATICK CE EUEIIC UlILniES 

Section 1. PUBLIC UlIIIIIES CCf fISSICNFE . A futlic utili- 
ties ccmmissioner shall t:<= affcinted by the gcvernor, and ccn- 
firiDsd by the legislature (Senat€) after public hearings, for a 
term cf four years which shall coincide with the gcverncr's term 
of office. A vacancy shall te filled for the reBainder cf the 
unexpired tettn in the saire manner. The gcverncr may at arj tiire 
reicv'^ the ccmniissicner fcr any cause deened ty hin sufficient, 
after such public hearing as may be provided by law. 



have 

cial 

Cons 

publ 

pcwe 

tari 

the 

pres 

aieth 

and 

dete 

intr 

miss 

law. 



Section 
such j 

powers 
ti tution 
ic util 
rs, cne 
ffs cf t 

C C III B i s s 
en ted be 
cds for 
tariffs 
r IT i n e t 
oduced . 
icner ' s 



2. POWERS 

urisdic tion 

as are ccnf 

, which are 

ities as 

cf which sh 

h'^ utilitie 

ioner shal 

fore him t 

deter iiini 

shall be ju 

he weight 

The lEarner 

actions i 



CF CCK 
and s u 
erred i; 
ccgnat 
defined 
all t€ 
s ever 
1 net 
c cons 
eg sue 
st and 
and c 
and s c 
n a c 



PI££I 
ch le 
pen h 
e and 
by 
the 
which 
be re 
ider 
h rat 
reasc 
redit 
ope c 
curt 



C N E R . 
c is lat 
iir by 
gertna 
law. 
deter 
he ma 
quired 

any 
es and 
natle. 
ility 
f r e V i 
cf r ec 



The 
ive , 
the 
ne t 

In 
a i ra 
Y te 

in 
part 

tar 

The 

cf 
ew, 
cr d 



CCOlff 

exec 
legis 
c the 
the e 
t icn 

^ive 
ccnsi 
icula 
if fs, 

ccide: 
ary e 
if an 
shall 



issic 
uti ve 
latur 

rcgu 
xerci 

cf 
n jur 
derin 
r th 

and 
issic 
viden 
y, of 

be p 



ner 

ar d 
e an 
lati 
se o 
rate 
isdi 
g ev 
eori 
such 
rer 
ce t 

the 
rcvi 



shall 

jodi- 

d this 

cr cf 

f such 

s and 

ct ice , 

idence 

es cr 

rates 

shall 

hat is 

ccm- 

ded ty 



Section i, IKPAHTIALITY CF STAPF. In the deter icinaticn cf 
rates and tariffs the couBissicrer shall te provided with staff 
personnel and help in such deter icinaticn , and recominendations cf 
the staff shall be regarded as impartial as opposed tc the parti- 
ality of the applicart cr the prctestant. 



Section a. DUTY TO REERESEKT CISTCMEPS. The COlBfflissicner 
shall represent the custcmers cf any public utility and the 
public generally in all centre versies respecting rates, valua- 
tions, service and all matters over which he may be given juris— 
dicticr and ha shall make use of the jurisdiction and powers cf 
his office tc protect such custcmerE, and the fublic generally, 
frcm unjust and unreasonable exactions and practices and to 
obtain for them adequate service at just and reasonable rates. 



Public health, weltdre. Later anc Industry Ccntnittee 677 



Jection 5. DIVISICN Cf FEGCLATCFY PCWIE FeCHTBIIEC. Nc 
pc«er tc regulate any public utility in respect of rates, 
tariffs, service, finano^, cr any cth=r aspect whatscever cf the 
managtioent and cperaticr cf such enterprises as may he necessary 
or ancillary to the r-;gulaticn cf rates and tariffs thereof, 
shall te conferred en any ether official cr agency, hut separate 
divisicns undar tha cctcttissicner , ccrrespcnding tc soparate regu- 
lated industries or industry grcups, iray he prcscrited ty lah. 



2S^_3eorge_Ei_helik6r 



_^s/_Jcseih_f cCer vel_ 



678 



KCNTANA CCNSIITUTICNAL CCNVENIICN 



CCWMENIS CN MINCFITY FbCECSfll 

HEGULATICN OF FDELIC LTILITIES 

Secticn 1. FMBLIC ailLITIES CC ^1 ri I SSIC N i f . A futlic 
utilities ccirKisFicrier shall te acpcinted by thfr gover- 
nor, arid confirmed by the legislature (Senate) after 
public h-5aring?, for a tera of tour years which shall 
ccinci'i-^ with th-r gcverncr's terir ct ctrice. A vacar.cy 
shall be filled for the remainder or the unexpired t-^rff 
ir. thr! sane manner. Ite qcverccr nay at acj time remove 
the cc[tiinissioner for any cause d9e[red by hiir suffi- 
cient, after such public hearing as may be provided by 
law. 

KIKCtlTY CCMKENTS 



5 
Railrc 
coffiniis 
since 
succes 
public 
of th 
(the " 
1971. 
Littcn 
Oniver 
Connal 
Kappel 
Richar 
Inc. , 
dent 3 
partic 
recoaiin 
Board, 
tine C 
Coniniis 
ties 
restru 
which 
mendat 
would 
perscc 
Con gr- 



eet 

ad 

sic 
IS 

s f 

. I 

e 

Ash 
Ih 
In 

sit 

d M 

a 
t w 
ipa 
end 
t 
CEin 
sio 

an 
ctu 

wc 
ion 

en 
nel 
ss 



ion 1 re 

and P u 
n-^r. The 
32 in 
roB the 
t is a Is 
Preside n 

Council 
e iTi e IB b e 
dustr ies 
y Gradu 

present 
f orn-er 

E a g e t 
manageme 
hitney C 
te in t 
at ions) . 
he Fede 
issicn , 
n, the 
d Exch 
ring and 
uld be h 

was bas 
able the 

and inc 
and en ha 



place 
blic 

prop 
the 
stand 
o inf 
t's 
") re 
rs of 
; Geo 
ate 
ly s 
Chair 
, Pre 
nt CO 
omirun 
he St 
The 
ral C 
the F 

Irte 
ange 

comb 
eaded 
ed on 

agen 
rease 
nee t 



s the 

Serv 

osed 

state 

point 

luenc 

Ad vis 

lease 

that 

rge E 

Schoc 

ecret 

man 

siden 

nsult 

icat i 

ud y a 

ecu 

otciDun 

e d e r a 

rstat 

Coir 

ining 

by s 

the 

cies 

acco 
he ef 



exi 

ice 
reto 
of 

of 
€d b 
ory 
d by 

ecu 
. Ba 
1 c 
ary 
of 

t o 
ing 
en C 
nd K 
rcil 
icat 
1 Eo 
e Co 
aiss 

the 
ing 1 

fin 
to a 
unt a 
fici 



stir. 

Ccffirfi 

rm i 

Cr 

bcth 

y th 

ecu 

Pre 

noil 

ker, 

f Eu 

of 
the 
f c 
fir It 
crpc 
r, K 

St 

ions 
wer 

niiiier 

ion . 

sev 

€ CC 

ding 
ttra 
bill 
ency 



g Stat 
issicn 
s cede 
egon w 

regul 
e f ind 
ncil G 
sident 

were 

f criTG 
siress 

the 

bca rd 
resa p, 
; and 
ration 
appel 
udied 

Ccir iri 
Ccffiiis 
ce Com 
The 
en age 
ir m i s s i 
that 
ct and 
ty to 

of ad 



utcr 
wit 

lied 

ith 

ated 

i ngs 

n Ex 
Nix 

Foy 

r De 
Adir 

Irea 
of 
fc 

Walt 

. ( 

diss 

the 

ssic 

sicE 

niss 

C 

ncie 

cner 

si 

ret 

bcth 

itini 



y thre 
h a si 

or th 
genera 

CO IT: pa 

and r 
ecutiv 
or on 
L. Ash 
ar. cf 
inistr 
sury ; 

Eire 
Ccrmic 
er N. 
Mr. B 
erted 

Civi 
n, the 
, the 
i c r. , a 
ouncil 
s i ntc 
s. The 
ngle 
ain hi 

the 
strati 



e-nia 

ngle 

e sy 

lly 

nies 

ecom 

e Or 

Feb 

, Pr 

th 

atic 

Fre 
ctor 
k a 
Thay 
aker 
f rcB 
1 A 

Fed 

Fede 

nd t 

r 

fiv 

lat 
adiri 
ghly 
Pres 
on. 



n el 
appo 
steir. 
reccg 
and 
menda 
gar iz 
ruary 
es ide 
€ Ha 
n ; Jo 
der ic 
s cf 
nd P 
er , F 
did 
its 
ercra 
eral 
ral 
he Se 
eccaiBi 
6, f c 
ter r 
nist r 
qual 
i d € r t 



ected 
inted 
us€d 
ni26d 
the 
ticns 
aticn 

11, 
nt cf 
rvard 
hn E. 
k B. 
AT8T; 
aget, 
resi- 

not 
major 
utics 
Hari- 
Trade 
curi- 
ended 
ur cf 
ecoB- 
atcrs 
if ied 

and 



In most states, as in Montana, the lulti-nieniber regulatory 
coffffiissicns , whether appointed or elected, have proven ineffec- 
tive at best. The atteffpt to "insulate" regulation from "poli- 
tics" has resulted in freeing the regulators from acccuntability 
to the public whcse interest they are charged with protecting, 
but it has not "insulated" theai from cverwhelfficg pressures frcm 
the powerful corporations whose rates and service they supposedly 
supervise. In fact, it is axicmatic amcng professional students 



tub lie nealth. Welfare, La tor anc Industry Ccitaittee 



679 



of utility rtqulaticr, that 
t€coine the "regulated." 



the "r«^ cu la t crs" have Icng since 



test 

of 

cust 

were 

icy 

Rcroa 

and 

sorr 

the 

on 

the 

ture 

ccfftn 

in 

rule 

up m 

ca ti 



T 
itt 

t h 
cm 

re 
n 

y 

St 

th 
irc 

r 

is 

th 

or 
en 



h'^ mi 
cry f r 
-: imp 
-- r s V) o 
c te a 
quia tc 
bread- 
he CO 
spec t a 
ate fo 
e i r o w 
nctcli 
method 
sicn c 
e Lest 
they a 
e ffione 
s ccul 



r.ori 
cm h 
crta 
uld 
toll 
ry p 
arid- 
nsuu! 
cle 
r ra 
T: in 
ts a 

of 
ame 

of 
gree 
y f c 
d te 



ty 
iy 

nt 
te 
sh 
ro 
ci 
er 
is 
te 
it 

in 
pc 



ot t 

hly pi 

"reg 

as we 

ed alt 

cess i 

reus g 

pays 

that 
s no h 
iative 
eed tt 
lectic 
tc ^xi 
s s i b 1 € 
t woul 
a larg 
p p r o V e 



his ecu 
aced of 
ulated" 
11 cff, 
cgether 
£ tut a 
a 0! e in 

for t 
the ccr 
igher t 
. In dr 
at i r. t 
z , and 
sterce 

worlds 
d t€ te 
er ccffB 
d with 



[Tit 

fie 

mo 

as 

. V 

n e 

whi 

he 

per 

ban 

ear 

he 

the 

and 
(I 

tt€ 
i £ s 
l6£ 



tee is 
ials d 
r.cpcli 

they 
e a re 
1 a t c t a 
ch the 
circus 
aticns 

they 
y near 
f rcced 

law u 

cf ^r a 
They a 
r if t 
i c n s t 
£ dels 



ccn V 
nd cc 
es ir. 
are 
perst 
te sh 

rrcnc 
. Ihe 

secu 
wculd 
- u n a n 
ures, 
nder 
tes, 
dirit 
he ta 
aff , 

y- 



1 r.ce 
u r se 

Men 
new , 
aded 
atr-b 
pc li 

L-ps 
re t 

hav 
iff it 

reg 

whi 
"all 
ere 
xpay 
sc t 



6, at 
1 cf 
tana , 
if 

that 
attie 
es ge 
hot o 
he iir 
e se 
y, wi 
ulati 
ch t 

is f 
excep 
ers 
heir 



t er 
alffic 
tha 
reg 
the 
/ a 
t th 
f th 
priir 
t e 
tnes 
ens, 
he 

er t 
tion 
wcul 
rate 



hearing 
St all 
t their 
ulaticn 

exist- 
sort cf 
e tread 
e whole 
a tur c f 
r t i r e 1 y 
ses for 

struc— 
Pentana 
he test 

to the 
d ante 

appli- 



never 
elect 
the € 
sicna 
elect 
itsel 
runni 
state 
the a 
quali 
ccmnii 
put a 



The 

get 
ed— cc 
lecti 
1 cu 
crate 
f wi 
ng as 
, cit 
verag 
f icat 
ssicn 
n end 



[tiinorit 

fa ir 
ffimissio 
en prcc 
alif ied 

siipply 
th the 

one am 
y , and 
e voter 
ions, 
ers' na 

to thi 



y is conv 

treatient 

n systeai 

ess to att 

, compete 

dees ret 

qualif ic 

eng a crcn 

county cff 

kcew litt 

but also 

mes. The m 

£ disgrace 



i n c € d t 
under 
because 
ract an 
nt an c 

have 
aticns 
d cf ca 
ices. I 
le er n 
net en 
i n o r i t y 
ful cha 



hat 

it 

d £ 

d 

th 

ef 

ndi 

h€ 

eth 

e i 
be 

rad 



the 
the 

is 
elec 
ed ic 
e c 
th 
date 
resu 
ing 
n te 
liev 



Mcr 
lite 

t DP 

ated 
pper 

€ C 
£ f C 

It i 

ef 
n th 
es n 



tana 
eser 
rail 
ere 

cc 
tu ri 
cniiti 
r va 
£ th 
the 
ousa 
cfc i 



rate- 

t ttU 

y iitpc 

than 
tmissi 
ty tc 
ssicn 
rious 
at net 
ccmff 
nd eve 
s the 



paye 
Iti- 

£Sit 

an 
cner 
ac 
car 
and 

cnl 

issi 

n kr 

ti 



r will 
[rem ter 
le fcr 
occa- 
The 
quaint 
didate 
sundry 
y dees 
oners ' 
cw the 
me to 



At th-3 same time, the minority was persuaded ty the testi- 
mony (and perhaps ty ether recent everts) that it would te unwise 
net tc give the commissicuer a £uh£tantial ireasure cf independ- 
ence cf the gcverncr. Ir thi£ respect, cur proposal is also 
modelled on the Cregon experience, tut we have added the require- 
ment cf legislative cent ir mat icr . 

He believe there is a clear mcvement toward greater acccunt- 
ability ef regulatcry agencies tc the pecple tkrcugh the chief 
executive, and toward focusing atterticn and responsibility on 
one man. We believe Montana should be a leader in this mcvement. 

Section 2, FCiriEFS CF CCM flSS IC N E F . The ecmmissierer 
shall have such jurisdictier ard such legislative, 
executive and judicial powers as are conferred upcn him 
by the legislature and this Censtituticn , which are 
cognate and germane to the regulaticc cf public utili- 
ties as defined by law. In the exercise ef such pcwers. 



680 



MONTANA CCNSTITtJTIChAl CChVEMICN 



on'? of which shall tt; the ctt^ririraticr cf rates ard 
tarifts of th.- uxilities ever which h€ iigy be givsr. 
jurisdiction, the ccmm issicner shall net te required in 
ccii£i.l?ring the evidence prtsent^d b-atcre hiir tc ccr- 
sider any particular theories or nKithcds tcr d^teritiir.- 
ing such rat^s and tariffs, and such rates and tariffs 
shall be just and reasonable. lh-3 ccDimissioner shall 
determine th? weight and credibility cf any evidence 
that is introduced. The manner and scope cf review, if 
any, of tho commissioner's actions in a court of record 
shall te prcviced by law. 

CCMKEUIS 



The history of regulatory law is too lengthy and 
be set forth adequately in any space less than a la 
can cnly say here that Montana utility regulation 
along under th? burden cf law labeled obsolete b 
States Suprene Court ojore than a generation ago. 
Montana case, Tobacco_Fiver_Ecwer_Cc,_Vi_Public_S6r 
sicn ^^')9 iloiit. 521; 1940) was an accurate statement 
as enunciated by the U.S. Supreme Ccurt up until th 
only two years later that Court handed down the first 
of decisions (generally known as the Natural Gas Case 

ral Gas £i£3ii£2_££«._Xi_I.§^SI3i_P2*!s£_CcoBaiissicn (3 

15U2) which revolutionized regulatory law as interpre 
court. See also l£C_v_i__Hc£e_Nat ural_Gas_Cc . (32C U.fc 
Many other state supreme courts followed the lead cf 
court, as did, for example, the Otah Supreire Court i 

dnd_Iiijht_Cc_i Vi_f y tlic_Service_Cc|ffissicn (1C7 Utah 

and freed their state regulatory bodies frcm the shac 
arcane "fair value" rule. The Pcntana Supreme Ccu 
St at ejt_ex_re 1_0 Iso n_Vi__Publ ic_Ser V ice_Ccff ff issicn (131 
1957), to Keep the i'Scntana ccroniission in the dark age 
tory law, and testimony before this committee w 
unanimous that the Kcntana commission is ir fact tc 
fair value rule until the law is changed by the Su 
the l-:gislature , or this Ccnvecticn. (cf. James V 
"•Fair Value' test in Kontara Public Dtility Bate R 
22 f!cnti_L^_Rev. 65; fall, 1960). It is the nincri 
that the first two are net likely to act. It is th 
belief that this Convention should act — for the pec 



ccn pi 
rge bo 
has s 
y the 
The 1 
vice_C 
of" th 
at tim 

cf a 
s) in 
15 U.S 
ted ty 
. 591; 
the f 
n Utah 

155;~ 
kles c 
rt chc 

eont. 
s cf r 
as vir 
urd t 
preme 

Bet 
egulat 
ty's 
e mine 
Fie. 



ex tc 
ok. He 
uddled 
United 
eading 

CBffiiS- 

e law 
e. Eut 
series 

Natu- 

.~5757 

that 

1944) . 

ederal 

Power 

f the 
s€, in 
272; 
egula- 
tually 
o the 
Ccurt, 
tcmly , 
icns," 
belief 
city's 



The 
free the 
evidence 
result 
U.S. Sup 
case. Ct 
discret i 
jurisdic 
last tw 
courts f 
so long 



spe 
com 
sub 
te 

rem 9 
herw 
cnar 
tion 
o s 
rom 
as 



cific la 
Diissione 
ject to 
"just a 

Court, 
ise, the 
y power 
, and to 
eatences 
substi tu 
they f 



rguag 
r to 
no CO 
nd re 
to wh 

sect 
to 

def i 
of 
ting 
ind t 



e cf 

exerc 

urt-i 

ascna 

ich h 

ion 

defi 
ne th 

sect 
their 
he re 



prcpc 
ise h 
mpose 
tie" 
e wou 
prese 
ne t 
e mea 
icn t 
judg 
suit 



sed se 
is bes 
d thee 
— the 
Id te 
rves 
he CO 
ning o 
wc are 
nent f 
of his 



ctic 
t ju 
r ies 

sta 
held 
the 
mmis 
f "p 

das 
cr 

del 



E 2 
dgme 
, sa 
ndar 

ty 

leg 
sicE 
utli 
igne 
the 
iber 



is de 
nt , to 
ve cnl 
d impo 
the cc 
islatu 
er ' s 
c util 
d to p 
ccmmi 
ations 



sign 
wei 
y th 
sed 
urt 
re ' s 
pcwe 
ity . 
reve 
ssic 
"ju 



ed 
gh 
at 
ty 
ir 



to 
the 
the 
the 
acy 
full 
IS and 
" The 
nt the 
ner 's, 
St and 



Public Health, Welfare, Labor and Icdustry CciDinittee 



681 



reascnable" and arrived at in a manner 
due process cf la«; and to empofcer the 
judicial 



net ccrtrary to procedural 

legislature to restrict 

review of the coniffissicner ' £ actions, if it sc cheeses. 



Section 3. IMPAETIAIIIY CF SIAfF. In the deteririra- 
ticE oi rates and tariffs the ccfrii issicner shall te 
provided with staff personnel and help in such deterni- 
naticn, and recommendat ions cf the staff shall te 
reyarded as impartial as opposed tc the fartiality cf 
the applicarx cr the protestant. 

CCHKENIS 

Without a staff adequate in numbers and capability no 
regulatory agency can hope tc be effective. Cn this everycr.e is 
agreed. The staff should be indepecdert and impartial, character- 
istics which shcuid be (must be) insured by a aerit systeir. Their 
work and their recomaiendaticns nust be the foundation, the sine 
tjua__ncn, of capable regulation, and they should be given the 
standing or impartial experts. 

Section a. DUTY TC EEEB££ZKT CLSTCMEFS. The commis- 
sicrer shall represent the custcirers cf any public 
utility and the public generally in all controversies 
respecting rates, valuations, service and all matters 
over which he may be given jurisdiction and he shall 
irake use of the jurisdiction and powers cf his office 
to protect such custcners, and the public generally, 
from unjust and unreasonable exactions and practices 
and to obtain for them adequate service at just and 
reasonable rates. 

CCM RENTS 



Section 4 sets forth the basic philcscphy cf regclaticn. 
Public utilities are regulated because they are monopolies unreg- 
ulated by a free competitive market. Without stringent regula- 
tion, the consumer is defenseless against exploitation by monop- 
oly power. Eegulaticn is necessary cn the custciFer's behalf. It 
goes without saying that it is also in the ccnsuier 
that the utility company be allowed rates sufficient 
adeguate service. 



's irterest 
to insure 



Section 5. DIVISION OF EEGULflTCFY FCWEB FFCHIEITEE. 
No power to regulate any public utility in respect of 
rates, tariffs, service, finance, cr any other aspect 
whatsoever of the management and operation cf such 
enterprises as may be necessary cr ancillary tc the 
regulation cf rates and tariffs thereof, shall be con- 
ferred on any other official or agency, but separate 
divisions under the coff missicner , ccrrespcnding tc sep- 
arate regulated industries or industry grcups, may be 
prescribed by law. 



682 



MCNTANP CONS'II'IU'IICNAL CCNVENIICN 



CCKKFN12 

Tht purpose cf this secticn is tc naintair. the frinciple cf 
concentration of resf cnsi hi lity in the irterest of prcFcting 
acccuntdbilit y , while pertritting flexibility in 
ccmpartoier.talizing the staff divisicr.s alcnq logical eccr.cwic 
divad irg- lines. 



MINCPIIY GENEFfll CCMK fNTS 



all 
Cons 

(1) 

is 

plis 

Greg 

ref u 

sess 

reas 

ited 

and 

latu 

play 

and 

For 

uncr 



Ir 
the 
titu 

the 
scug 
bed 
en 
sed 
ion 
cr : 

fu 
publ 
r€ . 
£ hi 

the 
the 
ga r.i 



th ? V 
cr iter i 
tion. A 

presen 
bt to 
by Stat 
statute 
to act 

after 

the pc 
nds pr 
ic rela 

They 
s mstr 
y know 
consume 
zed psc 



lew 
a cf 
dm it 
t sy 

be 
ut e ; 
. 
desp 

s ^ s 
wer 
cvid 
ticn 
have 
unen 
he 
rs t 
pi-. 



of t 
sub j 

tedly 

St-^ff, 

accc 

(^) 

n th 
ire 
sicn 
cf th 
ed by 
s ffiir 
play 
t. T 
V tc 
hey a 



he ffii 

ec t [V; 

r it 
was € 
irplis 

part 
e cth 
t he 

af te 
e wen 

the 
ds, h 
ed th 
hey k 
pull 
re eg 



no tity 
after 
is a Is 
statli 
h e d by 
cf th 
er han 
pleas 
r se s 
o p c 1 i e 
rate-p 
as rid 
e 1 e g i 
new w h 
the IT. 
ually 



, th 
suit 

C St 

shed 

thi 

e pr 

c, t 

cf 
sicr 
s' 1 
a y^r 
den 

Sldt 

er"^ 

Fcr 
high 



e tc 
able 
atut 

by 
s pr 
cpcs 
h-^ M 

bel 
A 
obby 
s an 
rcug 
ure 
all 

the 

but 



regc 
fcr 
cry 
law 
cpcs 
al i 
cr ta 
eagu 
rd a 
, wh 
d th 
hshc 
like 
the 
s> th 
spr 



my 

inc 
in £ 
ir 1 
al c 
£ mo 
na 1 
er ed 
1 way 
ich , 
e be 
c cv 

a Di 
stop 
e St 
ead 



prcpcs 

lusicr 

everal 

913; ( 

culd b 

deled 

egisla 

rate 
£ for 

with 
st hir 
er tte 
aster 
s are 
a kes a 
among 



a 1 Beets 

in cur 

senses : 

2) what 

e accoiB- 

o n the 

ture has 

-payers, 

the saite 

unliffi- 

ed legal 

1 e g i £- 

crganist 

located 

re high. 

8CC,C00 



This subject is itrpcrtant tc this state - both eccncnically 
and politically. It is a subject cf enduring character. The 
alternative means to deal with it are net tc be trusted. It is, 
therefore, a Constitutional issue, he represent the people. Let 
us act_fcr the people. 



fublic Health, Welfare, Later arc Industry Ccniritt6€ 



683 



COMKENIS CN KINCFITY PFCECSAL 
HEGULATTCN Of PDEIIC millTIES 
AFTICLE 



REGULATICN OF PUEIIC UTIII'IIFS 



S 

uti 

nor 

pub 

cci 

sha 

in 

the 

ci 

law 



ecticn 1. fUBLlC UTIIIIIES CCMMISSIC NE B . A public 

liti Gs ccomiissicn^r shall te appcirted ty the gcver- 

, and ccr.firir^d ty the legislature (Senate) -*♦■'=- 
lie hearings, fcr a term cf four years whic 



y the g 1 

after 
j.a.v^ li^^i. j..4v_,^ , ^^^ ^ ,.-^>„ ^^ ^v,^^ j^^^~. _„^ch shall 
ncide with th^j governcr's tercr cf cffice, A vacancy 
11 te filled fcr the leffainder cf the unexpired term 
thr5 same manner. Ihe gcverncr aay at any tiire reffcve 
ccDiiiiissioner fcr any cause deeded ty hitn suffi- 
nt, after such public hearing as tray te prcvided ty 



Section 2 
shall have 
executive a 
by the le 
ccgnate and 
ties as def 
cne of wh 
Tariffs of 
jurisdictio 
considering 
any particu 
rates and t 
just and 
the right a 
introduced . 
the ccffiiiis 
be provided 



POWERS 

such ju 

nd judici 

gisldture 

germane 
ined by 1 
ich shal 
the utili 
n, the CO 
eviderc 
lar theor 
ariffs, a 
reasonatl 
nd credi 
The man 
ssioner ' s 
ty law. 



CF CCMKISSICNEF. T 
risdiction and sue 
al powers as are ccn 

and this Ccnstitu 
to the requlaticr cf 
aw. In the exercise 
1 be the determinati 
ties ever which he 
mfflissioner shall net 
e presented before 
ies or methcds fcr d 
nd such rates and ta 
e. The commissicrer 
tility cf any evi 
ner and sccpe cf rev 
actions ir a court 



he coffimiss 
h legisla 
ferred upc 
tien, whic 
public u 
of such po 
en of rate 
fliay be 
be requir 
hin to cor 
stermining 
riffs shal 
shall dete 
dence tha 
iew, if ar 
of record 



icner 
five, 
n hiiB 
h are 
tili- 
wers, 
sard 
given 
ed in 
sider 
such 
1 te 
rmine 
t is 
Yr cf 
shall 



Section 3. IMPAEIIALITY CE STAEF. In the deteriina- 
tion cf rates and tariffs the cciriEissicner shall be 
provided with staff personnel and help in such daterai- 
nation, and recommendaticns cf the staff shall te 
regarded as impartial as opposed tc the partiality cf 
the applicant cr the protestact. 

Section 4. CDTY TO REPRESENT CDSTCKEBS. The ccniris- 
sicner shall represent the custcirers cf any public 
utility and the public generally in all controversies 
respecting rates, valuation, service and all matters 
over which he may be given jurisdiction and he shall 
Bake use of the jurisdiction and powers cf his cffice 
tc protect such custoniers, and the public generally, 
frcB unjust and unreasonable exactions and practices 
and to obtain for theai adequate service at just and 
reasonable rates. 



684 



MONTANA CONSIITUIICKAL CCNVEKIICN 



SecticiJ 5. DIVISION OF BEGULATCEY PCWEP PRCHIBITEC. 
No tower to regulate any public utility ir respect of 
rates, tariffs, S'?rvict, finance, cr any cthei aspect 
whatsoever cf tha Banagcment and cperaticn ci such 
enterprises as may be necessary cr ancillary tc the 
rcqulation of rates and tariffs thereof, shall be con- 
ferred on any other official cr agency, but separate 
divisions under the conaiissicner , ccrrespcn;^ inq tc sep- 
arate regulated industries cr industry groups, may be 
prescrited by law. 

MAJCEI1Y CCPKEMS 

The raajority wishes to express the reasoning behind their 
rejecticn of th^ Articl-e on Public Utility Pegulaticr, The fol- 
lowing are significant reasons, among others, which cotcffitted the 
majority to their position: 

Public Utilities. Your cciripittee considered volumnicus 

t-^stiraony on Celegat-2 Proposal 76 khich would provide a Ccrstitu- 
ticnal Article for the regulation cf public utilities. The major- 
ity cf this cotcQiittee voted that this proposal he net adopted fcr 
the following reasons: 



1, That the 
lative ir mature. 



latter contained therein is primarily legis- 



L, That tha establishment cf a single cccniissicner 
appointed by the (icvcrncr was, ir ary event, experimental in 
nature; there has teen only two states in the ccuntry whc have 
used this system and while it might have sone desirable features, 
the Constitution is no place for such an innovative proposal and 
one which repr-^sents such a radical departure from cur present 
elected three-uian ccirmissicn. 



3. The majority feels that little evidence was presented 
befor-^ the committee that indicates the present system of utility 
reguliticn is net working satisfactorily. It is perhaps 
understaffed, but this is a legislative problem. 



Public H23lth, Weltare, Lator and Irdu?try CcBmittce 



685 



MINCBITY P5CECSAL 

BE IT PRCPOSEC EY IKE PUBLIC UEALTH, HELFAFE, lABCB ANC INCDSTFY 
COMMITTEE: 



lews 



There shall be i new Constitutional secticn tc read as fol- 



Scction . Any county oi irunicipal subdivision of 

the stats has the power and authority tc establish public 
corporations for the maintenance and operation of utilities, 
subject to regulations prescribed by law. 



ZIi^_5§2ia§_l2._£5liiS§I 



^s^_Idith_Van_Euskirk 



^£^_C^_A_j._Scanlin_ 



686 



MCMANA CCNSIITOIICNAL CCKVEKTICN 



Section 



CCMMENIS CN MINCBITY PRCPCSAl 
EELfGATt" ERCECSAL #121 
PUBLIC UlILIT? CCEECFATICNS. Ary ccurty 



cr municipal subdivision cf the 
authority to establish public 
aaintenance ar. d cperaticn cf 
regulations prescribed by law. 



state has tha power and 
ccrpcraticns for the 
utilities, subject to 



flNCfllY CCMMENIS 

I h-; ffiincrity believes that the people should have the right 
to choose the type of utility, publicly or privately owned, frciB 
which they will obtain the necessary services commonly called 
utilities. As Senator 21etcalf pcinted cut in his testiircny before 
this cofliniittae, "Kontana is the only mainland state without a 
singl-; municipal electric systeir." Ihis right is especially 
important in our state, where consumer prctecticn against unrea- 
sonable and unjust exactions cf privately-owned ircncpoly utility 
cctporations is totally inadeguate and where the legislature has 
historically displayed no disposition to improve it. 



Public Health, Welfare, Labor and Industry Ccsirittee 



687 



CCMHENTS CN MINOBITY PRCPCSAI 

DELEGATE EFCPCEAL #121 

Section . PUBLIC OIILIIY CCRPCFAIICVS. Any county 

or municipal subdivisicr cf ths state has the power ard 
authority to establish public ccrpctaticns for the 
[raintsnance and cperaticn of utilities, subject to 
regulations prescrited by la¥. 

CAJCEnY CCKMENIS 

The majority kish-is to justify its rajecticn of Delegate 
Proposal #121: 



1. Th^ proposal is primarily legislative. 

2. The Legislative Assenably currently possesses, within its 
plenary powers, the right to create such corporations without 
Constitutional permission. 

3. The proposal would create authority fci public utility 
districts, in the opinion of the majority, a matter which has 
been repeatedly considered and rejected by the legislature en 
numerous cccasicns. 



688 



MONTANA CCKSIITUIICNAL CONVENIION 



fINCFITY EFCrCSAL 



3'E IT PRCPCSEC BY THE PUKLIC HEALTh, WELFABE, LABCP AND INCnSTBY 
COMKITTEI: 

That there be a new section in the Labcr Article tc read as 
follows : 

AFTICLF 

LABOR 

Sfecticn . RIGHT CF OFGANIZATICK AND CCLIICTI7E 

3AEGAINING. Employees in private or public eKplcy iren t shall 
hav€ the right tc self-organization, tc form, jcin, or 
assist labor organizations, tc bargain collectively through 
representatives of their cfcn cheesing, and tc engage in 
other conceited activities for the purpose of collective 
bargaining or cthe^r mutual aid and protection. 



^s^_Georae_E_i,_Reliker 



ZIZ_^£lS£i!_l5cCarv€l_ 



Eublic H^altn, weltdre. Labor anc Industry Ccniritt-r? 



689 



C0M«£N1S ON MINCEITY EFCECSAL 

CCLLECIIVE EAFGAINING 

Secticn . RIGHT Ci CFGANIZAIICN ANC COLLECTIVE 

BARGAINIi.'G . EiTfloye^s ir, private cr public enplcyniert 
shall hav€ tb? riqat tc s rlt-ocjanizat ion, to fern, 
jcir,, or assist labor orqar iza t i c r.s, tc bargain collec- 
tively through representatives ct tri-:ir cwn cheesing, 
and to engage ir. ctb^r ccr.ceit€G activities fcr the 
purpose of collective barqainirj cr cth=r mutual aid 
and protection. 

KINCSIIY CCKKISTG 



Nati 

vate 

reco 

NLBA 

publ 

stit 

of 

enipl 

lect 

Eow_ 

1969 

nor 

late 

eral 

aspe 

the 



T Ml 

cnal 

or 

gnit 

in 
ic e 
ur io 
most 
eyee 
ive 

_CCi 

.) c 

ir a 
cc 

law 
cts 
irte 



£ F 
Lab 

pub 

ion 

1935 

Epic 

ral 

F^ 
s a 

targ 
1 3 
n th 
ny fli 
llec 
, to 

of 
r nal 



ropcsa 

or Bel 

lie era 

to the 

and t 

yees. 

reccgn 

i vats 

clarif 

ain ing 

6 K c ;i t 

€ cthe 

a n n e r 

tive b 

regul 

the p 

af f 5i 



1 is 
ations 
p 1 c y a e 

right 
ext 
It doe 
ition 

emplo 
icatio 

(cf . 
. 77; 
r hand 
restri 
a r g a i n 
ate cr 
roc-:!SS 
rs of 



take 

Act 
nt." 
s fir 
end 
s no 
upon 
yees. 
n cf 
Bensc 
zl^ri 
, it 
ct th 
i n g u 
prch 
cf c 
u E i c n 



n verba 
except 
Its int 
St accc 
t h e ir t 
more t h 
the Icn 
It dc 
their r 
n__v_j^_Sc 

dees nc 
e pewer 
ith in t 
ibit th 
ollecti 



tia 

fer 

ert 

rd = 

c 

ar 

■■i 5 

s: c 
- •- t 

igh 
hco 

in 

t e 
cf 
he 

6 U 
V € 



r r em 

the a 

is tc 

d enpl 

all e 

ccrf er 

ince w 

ho ye V 

t tc c 

l_Cist 

er_Ecw 

sta tli 

the 1 

area n 

se of 

t ar gai 



sect 
ddit 

giv 
oyee 
IE pic 

the 
ell 
•sr, 
rgan 
r ict 

Co. 



sh a 
^gis 
ct p 
the 
ning 



icn 
ler 
e Co 
s ee 
ye es 
dig 
prct 
9 xte 
izat 

*1 

1514 

rig 
latu 
reeii 
stri 
, cr 



seven o 
cf "ir 
nsti t ut 
ver^d b 
, incl 
nity cf 
ectec r 
nd to p 
icn and 
__of__£ 

KontT" 
ht tc s 
re to 
pted by 
ke cr 

tc reg 



f the 

pri- 
ional 
y the 
ud ing 

Ccn- 
ights 
ub lie 

col- 
li ver 
'l18; 
trike 
regu— 

fed- 
ether 
ulate 



The legislature is not mandated tc iitpleinent the stated 
rights, although its power tc dc sc is unrestricted. As respects 
public employees, particularly, the legislature is given nc aar- 
date, although it is intended that the eights established wculd 
of necessity be recegnized in any legislation previding for a 
"merit" or "civil service" systeic fcr state eaployees. 

The minority believes that it is tine tc give the right cf 
organization and ccliective targaininc the Cecst ituticral stand- 
ing ev^^ntually accorded every basic right cf free uen. The his- 
tory of Constituticn-making is that rights are accorded Constitu- 
tional status after long decades er centuries cf struggle, 
through which they have been largely wen in law and in fact. The 
rignts recognized by the Founding Fathers in cur Federal Eill of 
Bights had already teen won by countless brave and dedicated men, 
who for centuries freely gave their liberty, their lives, and 
their property tc secure them. The Censtitutien merely reflected 
the success cf that long struggle. 



The saice Icrg struggle, extending in America ever a 
century-and-a-hdlf , was necessary tc secure the right to fcrni 



690 



MONTANA CONSIIIUirCKAl CChVEKTICN 



unio 
pohe 
unse 
dedi 

on u 

so w 

all 

vail 

and 

the 

to 

tuti 



ns tz<^i 
rf ul an 
Irish s 
Cited 
nq-^hen 
nabated 
ill th9 
sector 
inq poM 
fact fo 
ccnt€st 
elevate 
c r. a 1 la 



fro 
d r u 
acri 

men 

the 
two 
£tr 

s of 

r ne 

to 

the 
w. 



a the ze 
thless a 
fice of 

cccurr s 
civil ri 

centur i 
ivinq to 

the '3CC 
and III a j c 
arly two 
create a 
m, in ge 



pres 
qg Ic 
iibe 
d. 

ghts 
es a 

hri 
r, cajy 
r ity 

gen 
nd p 
ncra 



£icn 
aerat 
tty. 
As th 

and 
fter 
ng in 
the 
ru le 
erati 
reser 
1 pri 



of go 
icr, s 
life, 
e nev 
lit€i. 
our P 
to eir 
princ 
that 
ens . 
ve th 
ncipl 



ve rnire 
of pri 

a nd p 
er-erd 
t i 8 s c 
ill cf 
ploy er 
iples 

have 
Eut nc 
cse r i 
^. tc 



r.t a 
vat € 
icpe 
inq 
f a 

Rig 
-e IT p 
cf f 
teen 
w is 
qhts 
the 



Ed t 
cap 

rty 

batt 

free 

hts 

Icye 

air 
rec 
the 
wil 

dign 



he c 
ital 

ty 

le t 
pe 
was 
€ re 
play 
cgni 
til 
1 be 
ity 



cere 
. 1h 
Irav 
c ke 
cple 
cone 
lati 
, cc 
zed 

une 
cf C 



icn cf 
e sane 
e and 
ep and 
gcGs 
eived, 
crs in 
unter- 
ir law 
though 
nding, 
cnsti- 



Eutlic Health, fceltare. Later and Ir.dustry Ccnnittee 



691 



CCKMEMS CN MINCFTTY FBCPCSAL 

CCllECTTVc Ei'bG/'IMNG 

Secticn . BIGHl CF CI- G fl MZ;\TIC h AN£ CCLLECIIVr 

BARGAINING. EmployGes ir privatti cr public '-mif Icyment 
shall have the right tc self-orgar. izaticr, tc fcra, 
jcin, or assist laLci crganiza tiers, tc tatqair, ccllec- 
tively through reprt^s<^ntat i v<3s cf their cwn chccsirg, 
and to engage in other ccnceiteil activities tor the 
furfcs^ of collective targainirq cr ether autual aid 
and prot-cticr. 

CAJCflTY CCf.MitMS: 

The trajcrity wisaes to express its just if ica tiers for 
rejecting the collective bargaining secticn: 

1. The issue is legislative and net the ccrcerr cf the Ccr- 
stituticral ccr.verticr. 

2. The right tc organize for bargaining purposes tsay in 
fact ccnrctate the right tc strike (especially within the public 
sector), and this nay be undesirable ir itiany circumstances. 



3. The right oi public enplcyees tc collectively bargain 
would be an aspect cf any merit systeir established. he believe 
that both are legislative matters and should be considered only 
by the Legislature. 



692 



KONIANA CChSTnUlICNAL CONVENTION 



MINCPIIY EBCPCSAL 

BE II PROPOSED EY I H F PUULIC HEALTH, fcELFAFF, lAECF AhC I^DUSTFY 
CCKKITTEE: 

That th^ fcllcwirg secticr ke subnitted by the Ccrstitu- 
ticr.al Ccnvprticn tct a separate veto c± the fecple as a section 
to be added tc the Later Article if apprcved ty the vcte cf the 
p € p 1 ■; : 



AETICLE 

LAECE 

Section . EMELCYKENT FIGFTS. The right cf perscns 

tc work shall net be deried ci abridged on account cf 
Denibe iship or ncnroeoitcrEhip ir any labor unicn or labor 
organization. The right cf eirplcyees, ty and through a labcr 
organization, tc bargain ccllectively shall not be denied or 
abridged. Public employees shall net have the right to 
strike . 



ZiZ_Si_^i_Studerji_Srj 



/s^_Ji_Ki_]!ar d_ 



Public fisalth, Wtlfarc, Later and Industry Ccniritt<?<a 



693 



COMMENTS CK KIN0F11\ tPCPCSSL 

ItELCYCENT FIGHTS 

BE IT PRCFCSED BY THE PDEIIC HEALTF, WELFARE, I/iBCP AND IKDLSIRY 
COMMITTEE: 

That the fcllcfciRg secticr. te sutnittcd ty the Ccns tituticnal 
Conventicn fcr a sefarate vct«r- cf the pscple as a secticn tc t€ 
added tc tn'9 Later Articl-? if aff-rcved by the vcte cf ths people: 



Secticn 1. :if?LCYM£NT 
tc work shall net L€ 



FIGHTS . 



The right of perscns 
denied ci atriogec cr acccurt cf 
irecibership cr ncnmeiiberEhip 
crganizaticn. Tas 
later crganizaticn 

te d'^nied or abridged, futiic strplcyees shall net have 
the 



.. .^^.^^.-.t- ir ary laccr union or later 

s right of emplcyef^s, by and thrcugh a 

J. v,i.yau j.z.a 1. j-i-n , tc targain collectively shall net 

d'^nied or abridged, Public etrplcyees shall net h, 

right tc strike. 



MINCRIIY CCffE^TS 



The thrust cf the prcpcsal is twcfcld: (a) it insures that 
the fundamental means by which a oar supports himself and his 
fairily will net b^ subject to oiandatcry financial support cf an 
association in which he nay exhibit nc interest, and, (b) it 
provides all employees the right tc ccllectively bargain, subject 
tc the denial cf the right tc strike for the public employee. 

It is the intent that the prcpcsal t= subiritted tc the 
pecple fcr a separate vote, either tc accept cr reject. The prc- 
pcsal will provide the populace the right tc vcte en a rcost crit- 
ical questicn, a questicn which the legislature has failed time 
and again to act upon and which has exhibited profound historical 
significance in Montana. 

We currently experience compulsory unicnisff in Mentana. The 
laborer seeks employment in a union shop where the unicr shop 
contract prevails. If he objects tc financial support of the 
union, he is denied his right tc wcrk in that shop. Cr, if the 
workers vot9 to adept a union shop contract where one previously 
did not exist, the majority of these workers abrogate the basic 
right cf th5 minority worker to provide fcr his family if he 
refuses to firanciiliy support the union. This right should not 
be subject te the whims of the majority, just as the right tc 
vote is not subject to disecf ra rchisemen t , if the majority so 
votes. Justice Ecuglas states: 

"The right te wcrK I had assumed was the most precicus 
liberty that man possesses. Man has indeed as much a 
right tc wcrk as he has to live, tc be free, te cvn 
property. It does men little gocd to stay alive and 
free and propertied if they cannot wcrk. Tc wcrk iteans 
to eat. It also means to live. (3m l) . S . aa2.)" 



694 



KCNTANfl CCKSTITUTICNAL CCKVENTICK 



If w^ grant th^ riyht tc iren tc vcluntarily asscciate with 
these th-y ir. iepinrie iitly -enjcy, withcut financial sanctions, we 
a.t9 apprcachiny cur r^spcnsitilit ies as trpn. Ic insure that right 
of association, tc insure an individual's frccdcir cf ccrtract, 
and tc insurt th3 continuance cf ccnpetitive fcrces «itbin the 
bargaining process, w= ought tc outlaw ccirpulscrY unicniEtn. The 
passage of the right tc wcrK prevision insures a viable union 
that IS responsiv'-^ to its oiemfcers. Justice Prandsis reirarkcd: 

"It is lict true that the success of a later union irear. s 
a perfect iicr.cpcly. The union, in crdsr tc attain cr 
preserve for its meichers individual liberty, n;ust be 
strong and stable. It need net include every member of 
the trad^. Indeed it is desirable fcr bcth the unicn 
and the eirplcyee that it should net. Sbsclute poher 
leads to excesses and weakness. . . a nucleus cf 
unorganized labor will check the cppressicn by the 
union as unions check the oppression by the eirplcyer. 
(335 U.S. 551)" 

Unions in the long-run that increased prcfits be equated tc 
increased wages. Eut if the twc are equated, the ettplcyers are 
forced to recoup thsir costs and raise prices. Irflaticr prc- 
gress-s and for it there is no gcver nite rtal remedy save the 
devaluation cf the dollar or credit cccst r icticr, which in itself 
produces unemplcyiBent . The unicn worker ccntinues tc draw his 
compensation, but the non-union worker has nc ircnopolistic union 
tc insur-^ his right of continued enplcyaent, if he is allowed to 
work Ly the unicn ir the first place. 

There is no question that unicrs have and continue tc serve 
valuable functions; but, if there is cr.e lessen tc learn frcin 
history, it is that no civilizaticc can Icng endure that dcesn't 
insure the dignity and rights cf the individual. Eo the uriccs 
in fact render such valuable social furcticns that the "ffajority 
will" cf the union is allowed to abrogate, under financial pen- 
alty, a man's need tor self esteeir and self realization? Kc fii- 
vate association has the right tc fcice financial support of 
itself upon an individual. If it is done, it is nothing but a 
form of taxation without representation. Such taxation has often 
been the cause fcr new ccnstituticns , and surely the tiire is upcn 
us. 

The proposal provides the right tc bargain collectively and 
the limitation upon that right is the denial cf public enplcyees 
right to strike; it must be such tc insure that the law, civil 
order, and the welfare of society are to be preserved. Likewise, 
the right tc bargain collectively is net the right tc bargain 
away the rights cf the irincrity subject to the clcut of the 
aajority. Y5t, Montana labor Law allows the unicn shop tc dc just 
that . 



This convention 
people. It is the 



is a ffieans fcr grass rcot expression by the 
most responsive political instrument of the 



Futlic .H-=al'. h, Wei fart. Later and Industry Cciiiiritt?e 



695 



populace for y^ars past and tc ccaic. If «<= iriss the cppctturity 
to pass ^his vital qii'sticn tc th= vct'2rs, he have passed the 
opportunity c£ a life tiun^. We have surpassed the cppctturity tc 
restor: Kan's right cf seif-de tsi uina t ion through ed p Icymen t . 



It is cur duty to qiv€ th>3 voters cf Kcntana their right to 
vote upon this v-^ry vital questicn wh^n w-? car sc easily ard ecc- 
ncmically do sc at this tims. 



696 



L^OKIAN/\ CCNSI IICIICNAI CCNVEKTICN 



BE IT FPCPOSrC 
CCM^ilTTEE: 



CCMf.EMS CN KINCFITY EBCECSAL 
tf.ELCYKEM tl'o'dlS 
EY IFE PUBLIC KEAlTh, hEIfAFE, Li^EOF JNE INECSTRY 



That th'?! fcllcwiny section tt sutHitt'=d fcy th€ Ccn- 

stituticnal Ccrvert ice fcr a sspatate vcte cf the 

people as a secticr. to be add^d tc the lahcr Article if 

approved ty the vets of the pecple: 

Sr-cticn 1. Li"^PLCYMENT BIGEIIS, The right cf persons 
tc work shall net he denied cr atrid^ed on acccurt cf 
uieiiiLe.rship cr rcnmeintership ir ary labor union or later 
crganiza ticn. The right of eirplcyees, hy and thrcuqh a 
later organization, tc targain collectively shall not 
be denied or abridg-?d. Public emplcyees shall rc-t- have 
the right tc strik'^. 

P^AJCPITY CC^f'E^"'IS 



labe 

prac 

ing 

ing 

Labc 

whic 

and 

gati 

that 

empl 

CD a 

Gene 

lega 

part 

acce 

to 

ings 

acco 

regu 

trib 

gain 



we 
lied 
tica 

to HI 

etn 
r-Ma 
h r 
the 
en t 

he 
eye r 
n eq 
ral 
lly 
icip 
pt a 
an 

, cr 
mpan 
ired 
ut e 
s f c 



obser V 
"righ 
1 effec 
ak3 fin 
plcyir en 
nageir,en 
equir- 
in terpr 
hat can 
tender 

his 
ual bas 

Kotors 
be regu 
at inq 

unicn 
initiat 

perf or 
i m e n t s 
, a cer 

to th 
r hi It . 



e t 
t t 
t is 
anci 
t. 

t Re 
unic 
etat 

be 
tc t 
work 
is w 

Co 
ired 
in 

niep b 
ion 
HI an 

cf 
tain 
e f i 



he 

c wo 

to p 

al su 

latio 
n 31 e D! 
iens 
irapos 
he un 
mg c 
ith a 
rp. , 

tc a 
its 
ershi 
r itua 
y ct 
org 

time 
nanci 



utse 
rk" 
reve 
ppcr 

not 
ns A 
bers 
cf t 
ed c 
icn , 
ondi 
11 c 
373 
ctua 
crga 
p ca 
1; h 
her 
ani? 

aft 
al £ 



t th 
esta 
nt un 
t of 
fe a 
ct cf 
hip p 
hat a 
n any 
by w 
ticns 
ther 
U.S. 
lly j 
nizat 
rd; h 
€ can 
acts 
at icn 
er he 
upper 



at 

blis 
iens 
a un 
Isc 

19 
r ier 
ct b 

eci 
hcse 
are 
eirpl 
734; 
c in 
icna 
e ca 
net 

no 
al 

bee 
t of 



the 
he E 

and 
ion 

th 
tJ7) 

tc 
y th 
ploy 

bar 

gov 
cyee 

196 
a u 
1 1 
nnct 
be c 
r tea 1 
Bcaib 
cmes 

the 



pre 

DC 

man 
a cc 
at 

pre 
e n pi 
e cc 

€€ 

gain 
er re 
s sc 

3) . 
r i c r 
if e. 

be 
enpe 

ly 

ersh 
an 
erg 



pcsi 
such 
ageiii 
ndit 

fed 
hibi 
cy ae 
urts 
tc 

ed c 
d, f 

atf 

NC 

in 

He 

regu 

lied 

tbcu 

ip. 

eirp 

ariz 



tier 
rig 

ents 

icn 

eral 

ts 

nt ( 
liiE 

the 

on tr 

in an 

ecte 

Gff pi 
th 

does 
ired 

to 
ght 

He 
loye 
atic 



F 
ht. 

frc 
of 

1 

arra 

clcs 

it t 

req 

act 

cial 

d ( 

cyee 

e s 

not 

tc 

atte 

cf 

is 

^f 

n wh 



cpularly 
Its sole 
II agree- 
centinu- 
aw (the 
ngements 
ed shop) 
he obli- 
uireirent 
«ith his 
support 
NIEE V. 
can new 
ense cf 
have to 
submit 
nd ffie et- 
as the 
simply 

tc CCE- 

ich bar- 



While it is undeniable that the unicn security agreement 
which the ininerity proposal seeks tc cutlaw, impcses scaie 
restraint on the absolute freedcni cf the individual, it is our 
view that the restriction is in nc essential respect different 
frem the restrictions frequently iitposed by najerity rule in a 
demccratic system, particularly, and of necessity, by collective 
labor agreements. Such agreements, ratified by irajcrity vote, 
deterttiinfe an employee's wage rate; his hours cf work; the condi- 
ticns under vhich he is subject to disciplinary actions, includ- 



Public Heilth, Helrar^, Later and Industry Ccoiaiitt';. 



697 



ing disc barge, by th€ eir flayer; his tights to a gri 
dure and his access to arbitration; his rights, usu 
to his seniority date, iiith respect to layoffs, 
incticn, transfer, vacation, holidays, pensions and a 
of cthei ccnditicns of eirployEent . V^ iray be require 
ute froiD his earnings tc various "fringe benefit" pi 
he is ro^uired by law tc contribute +-c social secu 
may also be required to contribute firarcially to th 
the union that ni^gotiated all of these ether ccnd 
behalf does not strike us as a sigr.ificant and 
restriction en his freedcm. 



€ vane 
ally 
reca 
lerg 
d tc 
ans , 
r ity . 
e sup 
iticn 
exc 



e proce- 
r e lated 
11, pro- 
tby list 
ccntr ib- 
j ust as 
1 h a t he 
port cf 
£ or his 
ep tional 



Cnicn leaders and most treirbers resist prchititicrs cf union 
security agreonerts not cnly because they believe all those who 
benefit frcns the union's bargaining efforts should help pay fcr 
theni, but also because they believe the real motive cf the advo- 
cates cf such prohibitions has rocre tc dc with weakening unices 
than protecting workers. Unionists are not alcre in this suspi- 
cion. As c:-\e academic student cf ccllective bargaining has put 
it: 

"The National Pight to WcrK CciLtrittee and these who 
support such leqislaticn insist that theirs is a fight 
fcr principle, tnat no man shculd have to pay to work. 
The fact that so many are unable tc see the sarre prin- 
ciple when the applicant is black rather than nonunion, 
as well as other evidence, suggests that their positicr 
may well be less one cf prircifle and acre one cf 
anti— unicniso!. This is net tc deny anti-unicnisit as a 
legitimate position, but only tc argue that it shculd 
not be hidden." 



(Pobert Evans, Jr., Cept. cf Eccncffics, 

Massachusetts Institute cf Technclcqy, 

Public_Polic_y_To war a_La tor , Harper £ 

Rcw, 1965. p. 168) . 

Much rejetitious testiirony was presented tc the ccmmittee en 
behalf cf the finority Proposal, but we find it remarkable that 
not a single individual, from among the thousands supposedly dis- 
advantaged by union security agreements, came fcrward tc support 
it. 

For the above reasons, the najcrity concludes that the 
Minority Proposal is without merit and dees net belcng in 
Montana's Constitution. 



698 



.^lONTANA CONSTIIUTICNAL CC^VEKTICN 



APPINEIX A 



Preser t_Con£ tit uticn 

Article XV. 
Ccrpcraticns ctb^r 
than ijuricipal 

S-c. 1. 

S^C. ^. 

Sec. 3. 

Sec. a. 

S-ec. '^. 

S-:c. fc. 

Sec. 7. 



Spc. d. 

S-^c. i. 

S^.c. 1C. 

S-3C. 11. 

£gc. 12. 

Sec. 13, 

S'^c, lu. 

Sec, 15. 

£5c. 16. 

Sec. 17. 

Sec. 18. 



C£CSS_F£FEI;ENCES 

li^ff ni tt^e_F rc£C£al 

Kcn-K unicipal Ccrpcraticr. £ 

E e 1 e t 6 c 

Sec. 1, Grant cf Power 
S^c. 1, Giart cf tCHer 
Sec. 3, Cuffiulative Voting 

Celet'id 

Eel€t€d 

Eartially d€l-?t = d and partially 
replaced ty Sec. 1, Icng- 
£hcrt haul clause and Sec. 2, 
ErotectiCL fcr Citizenry. 

Cel^tsd 

tdr*:ially dt^leted and partially 
replaced by Sec. 2, Protection 
fcr Citizecry 

Sec. 5, Watered Stock Fro- 
vis ic r. 

Eeleted 

Eeleted 

Sec. f. , Fetrcspect ive La* 
frchititicn 

Deleted 

Eeleted 
Eeleted 
Deleted 
Eeleted 



Public Health, welfare. Later and Industry CcBoittee 



699 



Sfcc. 19. 



5ec. 



TO 



None 

Article XVIII 

Labcr 

Sec. 1, 
Stjc. 2 
Sec. 3. 
Sec. 4, 
Sec. 5, 

None 

Article X. 

Institutions 
Sec. 1 . 
Sec. 5, 



Deleted 

Deleted and fartially re- 
placed ty Sec. 2, Frctecticn 
for Citiz'^nry 

Ccnsuirer Prctecticr and 
Educaticn. sec tier. 2. 



labcr 
Sec. 1. 

Deleted 
Deleted 
Deleted 
Deleted 
f.erit System 

l£sti tut ici]£_and_ Assistance 
Sec. 1 . 
56C. 5. 



700 



MONTANA CCNSIITUIICNAL CCNVENTICN 



Atf£NEIX E 



II:CICSAlS_CCNS:i:|f:EE_tY_CCKf IITEF 

Th-3 fcllcwing delegate fici-csals vier^^ oxaiine'i ard cci.sid- 
ereJ by th = I'^alth, '//•elfare. Later, Ir.dustry Cciimittee during its 
deliteraticn^: 



3 

4, 



6 

7. 

8, 

9 
10. 
11, 



Number cf 

U5 Lyle Mcntce 



IZ Lucils Speer 

71 Lucile Speer 

73 George H-3liker 

76 Gecrg-s Keliker 

78 R.J. Studer, Sr. 

1C5 Robert Kelleher 

12 1 Paul harlcw 

138 Mike KcKecn 

144 Jercroe Lecndorf 

148 Joseph McCarvGl 



= yt ject_f;atter 



Pigfct tc basic 
nece££ities o t 
life 

Ccnsuner pro- 
tection 

ferit Systeff 

Collective 

ba rga i ring 

Public utility 
regulation 

fight tc work 

Fgual pay 

Pur ici f al 
utility 
distr icts 

Mirimutr wage 

Merit systeir 

Stats as 
enjlcyer cf 
last resort 



D is£gsit icr 
Fe jected 

Fe jected 

Rejected 
r'e jected 

Rejected 

Rejected 
Fe jected 
Rejected 

Rejected 
Acce p ted 
Rejected 



12. 



177 Joseph McCarvel Arbitration 



Ee jected 



Public Hoalth, Welfare, later and Industry Ccatrittee 



701 



flPPENEIX C 
MIINESSES_HEflPC_EY_CCf2MIIT£| 
Name - Affiliation - Residence - Subject 

1. Frank Murray - Gffics, Secretary ct State - Helena - Corpc- 
raticns ether th^r. funicipal. 

2. Leonard C. Larson - Office, Secretary cf State - Helena 
Corporations other than Huricipal. 

3. John Cslanc - ficntana Railroad Association - Missoula - 
Corporations other than Kur.icipal. 

U. J. w. KcDonald - Mountain Bell - Helena - Ccrpcraticns 
other than 'lur.icipal. 

5. Lloyd Crippen - The Araccrda Co. - Eutte - Corporations 
ether than Municipal. 

6. P. L. aacCcnald - The Anaconda Co. - Eutte - Ccrpcraticrs 
ether than Municipal. 

7. Douglas M, Greenwood - loble, Eicotte 8 Loble - Helena - 
Corporations other than Municipal. 

3. Roderick R. Guigel - fontana State P har traceutical Associa- 
tion - Helena - Ccrpoiaticns ether than Wunicipal. 

9. Kenneth W. Brown - Dept. Secretary of State - Helena - Cor- 
poration other than Municipal. 

10. Ross Gudyel - self - Helena - Constitutional Article XVIII - 
Later. 

11. Eltcn Hartze - American Federation of County, State and 
Municipal Employees - Kisscula - Constitutional Article 
XVIII, Labor. 

12. Harry Billings - AFL-CIC - Helena - Article XVIII, Later. 

13. Ernie Post - Montana State AEL-CIO - Helena - Article XVIII, 
Labor. 

14. James H. Murry - Montana State AFL-CIC - Helena - Ccrstitu- 
tional Article XVIII, Labor. 

15. Mr. Sidney Saiith - Conmissicner , Departitert of Later and 
Industry - Helena - Article XVIII, Labor. 

16. Mr. Larry Hunt - Highway Dept., Local 1199 of the Anerican 
Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees - 
Missoula - Article XVIII, later. 



702 



MONTANA CCNSTIIUIICNAL CCNVENIICN 



17. Fr'-^J Farrett - Director, haflcynert Sectrity CcBiDissicn - 
Helena - Article XVIII, later. 

IS. Ed Shchat - Ccunry Ccffniissicrer, Cascade Courty - Great 
Falls - W€lfar€. 

19. l-d Cark.ulis - i^ or. tana Departirent cf Social and Fehatilita— 
tion Seivices - Helena - Weltare. 

20. i^illiai McCarvel - Srlf - Heler. a - wielfar^r. 

21. boss Cudgel - self - Helena - Welfare. 

22. Kandy Hauf - Const itu tional Convfer.ticr Ir.f^rn - self - 

b o 2 € m a n - W g 1 1 a r ■b . 

23. £tevs Cold iron - C. on tana State Low- 1 recite Ciganizaticn - 

H € 1 £ r. a - Welfare. 

24. Ernest Steel - Public Service Ccmiission - Helena - Article 
XV. 

25. Bill Johnson - Director, PuLlic Utilities Eept., Eublic Ser- 
vice Codfflissicr - helera - Article >V. 



26. George Lackmar - Ccnioissicner , Department cf Agriculture - 
Helena - Feal Estate Cccririssicn. 

27. Keith Cclbc - £epartaient of fievenue - Helera - foreign Cor- 
porations. 

28. Lucile Speer - Delegate - fissoula - Fropcsal #7 1, ferit 

S y s t ■-= m . 

29. Jean K. Bcwitan - Delegate - Billings - Proposal #71, Kerit 
Systera. 

30. .Mel [lartenson - Director, Kerit Systeoi Council - Helena - 
Proposal #71, Ferit System. 

31. (';r. Elton Hartze - Aitericar Federation of State, County S 
[Municipal Etrplcyees - Missoula - Proposal #71, Merit System, 

32. Henry Siderius - Delegate - Kalispell - Proposal #93, tar- 
gaining rights for famers. 

33. Ernest Post - AEL-CIC Eirector of CCPE - Helena - Proposal 
»71, Merit System. 

34. Steven E. Coldiron - Montana State ICH-Inccme Organization - 
Helena - Proposal »45. 

35. Sister Prcvidencia - College cf Great Falls - Great Falls - 



Public Health, Welfare, Later anc Industry Cctrttittee 



703 



36. 
37. 
33. 
39, 
4C. 

42. 

43. 

45. 

46. 
47. 
48. 

49. 

5C. 

51. 

52. 

53. 

54. 



D^lpgat€ frcpcsdl #'45. 

Jiir Fianiere - Welfare Bights Crqanizaticr 
Celtgate Prcpcsal «45. 



Great Falls - 



Malyn Aleson - Welfare Fight Crga r iza ticn - Great Falls — 
Eelegate Ficpcsal lUE. 

Ccris flesch - Welfare bights Crganizaticn - Great Falls 
relegate Prcpcsal #U5. 

Hirnie ftcReycclds - Welfare rights Crganizaticn - Great 
Falls - Delegate Fropcsal #45. 

Shirl-^y Malkuck - Welfare Fights Crganizaticr - Great Falls 

- Delegate Frcpcsal 145. 

Irene Houle - welfare Fights Crga r.iza ticn - Great Falls - 
Eelegate Prcpcsal »45. 

larry Juelfs - Delegate Invitation - Helena - Delegate Ere— 
fcsal #45. 

Jack R. Carlson - Montana Chapter National Association cf 
Social Works - Helena - Eelegate Frcpcsal #45. 

Carol Mitchell - Montana Cciiimcn Cause- self - Helena - Dele- 
gate Proposal #45. 

Frank R. Sennette - Dept. cf £ccial Fehabilitaticn Services 

- Helena - Eelegate Frcpcsal #45. 

Duane W, Welker - self - Hairditcn - Celecate Proposal #45. 

Eon Scarlin - Delegate - Billirgs - Delegate Proposal «45. 

Thomas S. Schneider - Executive Director fcr Kcntana Public 
Employees association - Helena - Merit Systew. 

Jack Marlon - Secret ary-Panager cf Montana Ccntiactor's 
Association - Helena - Eelegate Frcpcsal #78, right-tc-kcrk. 

James Stack - subpoena witness. Personnel Eirector, Pontana 
State University - Eozeman - P.erit Systeir. 

Wm. Bertsche - State Senator - self - Great Falls - State 
Merit Systeir. 

Rctert James - Administraticn officer cf State Eepartnert cf 
Health - Helena - Merit Systeu. 

Larry Fastender, Sr. - self - Fort Shaw - Merit Systeio. 

Mr. D, H. Siewert - Montana Chamber cf Ccaaerce - Helena - 



704 



MONTANA CCNSIIILIICNAL CGNV£NTICfi 



relegate Prcpcsal *76, light-tc-wcrk. 

55. Jia Kurry - ^Icrtar.a State AEI-CIC - Melena - Eelegate Frc- 
(,csal 878, r iqht-tc-w cik , 

56. fiocrge B. HoliK-er - Delegatf- - i'isscula - Celegate Ercfcsal 
#7t. , ruLlic Utility Rsgulaticr. 

57. St'2\Q Ccldiron - Kcr.tar.a State Lcw-Inccaie Crgarizaticn - 
Hclvr.,1 - Lelfigate f-rcpcsal #7e, EuHic Ctility P?gi:laticn. 

58. Eaul Haiicw - L'^legate - Thcmfscr. Falls - Eelsqare frc pcsal 
#121, Public Utility Districts. 

59. Arlyr^ Feichert - Lelegate - Gi^at Falls - Delegate Ficposal 
«7C, Ccnsumer I rotect ici.is a . 

6C. Lucil3 Spe^r - delegate - Celfgate Frcfcsal S7C, Ccnsuroer 
Protect icr is a . 

61. C. i^. Leaphart, Jr. - Ccaaittee subpcena - Helena - Celcgate 
irrcpcsdl ^ih, Putlic Utility Fegulaticr. 

62. Gordon Pcilinger - State Senator - Glasgow - Delegate Prc- 
pcsal #76, Futile Utility ^egulaticr. 

63. L'ill Kcerner - self - haniiltcn - Delegate Proposal 870 - 
CcriEumc-r Erotectionisn. 



64. C. 5. "cbinscn - Pacific Power o Light Cc. 
Delegate F ropes a Is fi7 6 and #121. 



Kalispell - 



65. Jani*^:s F. ?1aher - fSontara Vice Fresi'ieDt-General ^larager - 
;^cuntaii, Eell TelTphcn€ Ccupariy - Helera - Utility Eegula- 
tier.. 

66. w. ?. Fames - President, Ercject Telephcne Cc. - Worden - 
delegate Frcpcsal #76, Public Utility Regulaticr. 

67. Charles C. Lcvell - Great Falls Gas Company - Great Falls - 
Delegate Prcpcsals #76 ar. d #121, Public Utilities. 

68. Henry Lotle - fiontana, Dakota Utilities 6 General Telephone 
Company of the Korthwest Division - Pelena - Delegate Frc- 
pcsal #76 and S121, Public Utilities. 

69. Robert Cctett'^ - Montana Power Cospany - Eutte - Delegate 
Proposals #76 ana «121, Putlic Utilities. 



7C. George CCcnner - ;-'.cntara Fewer Ccaipany - Eutte - Delegate 
Proposals #7b and #121, Public Utilities. 

71. Jay. W. Preston - Ecnar leleptcne Ccirpary - Eonan - Delegate 
Proposal #76, Public Utility Fegulaticns. 



PuLlic Health, '/>cli3.i- , later ai, c Trdustry Ccatrittce 



705 



72. iidwir. S. Booth - .rcntara Failrcad Asscciaticr. - hpltna - 
Eeleyate Prc^osal «76, Eutlic Utility Pegulaticrs. 

73. Ser.dtjr L€€ -^i-2tcalt - Ur.itfd States Serotcr, ty invi + aticr - 
H-ltria ar.ri Washingtor; C.C., - Lelegate Ptcfcsal »76, Eutlic 
Dtility I-i^julaticnt". 

74. S'=^ldcn S. Frisbc-t - Ci;t £ark Gas Ccn'pary - Cut Bark - L^ls- 
gate rrc^ctal hit , ZuLlic Ltility Fejulaticns. 

75. Jc- Curtis - hyc^hatr lelephcr.e Ccapary - Hyshair - Eclt-gate 
Ercposil ('7*-, Eublic Utility teg u Id tiers. 

76. Ian B. Eavidson - E. A. Eavicscr. Ccirfary - Gr'=^at falls - 
delegate Prcpcsal *7c, Fuhlic Ltility Fegulatici: s. 

77. Eaul J. 3riGsh - Treasure Stat>.- lelephcre Ccjipany - Eig 
liffLvE - filh , Fuhlic Utility Frqulaticrs. 

78. viard ?. Jurkeirier - C, i . ? . , Eirectcr, Cut Bank Gas Cciipary 
- Great tails - Delecate Errpcsal 17 r, Eutlic Utility Fe au- 
la ticns . 

79. C. K. Wall - hcntar.a Citizens Freight Fate Asscciaticr - 
Helena - Eelegate Ercpcsal #76, Public Utility Pegulaticns. 

80. Jaies Lechiier - Executive Secretary of the Eillir.gs Ccntrac- 
tcr's Council - Eillings - Eelegate Ercpcsal #7^. 

81. Tcff Dclar, - ladf-pendent t usin gssb a n - Fillings - Celegats 
Proposal #78, Fight-tc-Wcrk. 

82. JC2 ChovanaK - fanners Uricr. Iccil ^^6° - East Helena - Eel- 
egat- Ercpcsal #78, r ight-tc-wcr k . 



83. Paul Bessler - sell 
r ight-tc-fccr k . 



Helena - Eelegate Prcpcsal *78, 



84. Ccrri-^ Thiesser - Senator - lairLert - Eslegate Prcpcsal #76, 
Public ntility Fegulaticr. 

85. fltcn iartze - J\ffiericar Federation of State, Ccurty, and 
Kunicipal cffplcye-^'s - Wisscula - Delegate Ercpcsal #73, The 
right for public and private einplcyees tc encage in ccllec- 
tive bargain inc. 

86. Francis Jlitchell - Montana Cciiircr. Cause - Helena - Eelegate 
Proposal #76 - Public Utility Begula-^icn. 

87. Clyde Jarvis - Montana fanEers Union - Great Falls - Dele- 
gate Prcpcsal 876 _ putlic Utility. 

88. Jchn L. KcKeon - State Senator, self - Anaconda - relegate 



706 



fCNTANA CChSTITUlICN'/il CC^VE^T1CN 



Frofjos^l #7b, tut lie Utility l^eyulaticr. 



Public Health, welfare, later and Ir.dustry Ccntrittee 



707 





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MC^'^i^N/l CCNSinnilCNAL CChVENTICW 






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Date 
No: 121 

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No: 78 

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Date 
No: 76 

DO ADOPT 
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No: 73 

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Fufclic Health, Wclrarf, Later ard Trdustry Cctririitt-.e 



709 



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No:105 

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No:177 

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No:148 

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No:138 

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710 



MCKTANfl CCNSIIIUITCNAI CCNVEMICN 



flPFINEIX ^. 



Sinc-^ ths ccDDtittce oreirters fcund cause tc delet<? the 
grsdter [.crticn ct Articl-i XV en ncr-irunicipal ccr porations, they 
wish re ccnvf^y briefly th-; justifications for these delcticrs to 



th€ cc[oiiiitt5.r cf tht K!icl€. 



ScCtion__1i The original intert ct this section was tc abol- 
ish all these ccrFcrat€ todies which existed crly en paper prior 
to 16 b"^. Ih:- only possible dang^^r (if it can te so terned) in 
deletion would fce if sctre pre-18P9 ccrpctaticr would once again 
CO nine nee business. This possitility was iritigatpd ty statute 
15-808 (P.CI. 19'47) which stipulated tha^ a corporation had to 
organize and commence business within cne y=ar cr Icse its char- 
tar. Although repealea in 1969, this statute quite pcssitly 
annulled any pre-18(:9 ccrpciaticns, that is if section 1 cf the 
1889 Constitution did net already dc this for all tine. 



S^cticn_2^ Proposed language ef the rew secticn 1 stipu- 
lates tha-^ "Ccrpcratc charters shall te granted. . . .cnly 
persrant to general law." In additicn tc this ccmtnittee's prc- 
posed s-'^cticn, which precludes special grarts cf charters ty the 
legislature, the L-ogislative Ccmmittee has expressed its inten- 
tion tc r'^tain th<^ sens<= cf Article V, secticn 26, which also 
prohibits special chartering. 

Sscticn_3_. Ihe ccaaittee believes that the pcwer cf the 
state to dissolve corporate charter, as provided in proposed 
secticn 1, in conjunction with proposed secticn 2's prctecticn 
provision, adequately expresses the intent cf this section. 



Sec tion_a_j_ 
article . 



This is retained as secticn 3 cf the proposed 



Sectign_5i The comiaittee finds this section tc be either 
obsolete, superseded by ICC action, or covered ty existing stat- 
utes. The cerrroittea believes that all intrastate matters relating 
to this section are legislative. 

§££ii°Il_6i The ccmirittee deleted this secticn for the saae 
reasons cited under consideration cf secticn 5. 

Ssctign_7^ This section is considered to be primarily 
legislative. The exception is the long— short haul clause relat- 
ing tc intrastate matters, which is neither covered ty statute 
nor by ICC regulation. The conirittee retained this clause as 
section ^ cf the proposed revision in the telief that intrastate 
railroad transportation may cne day increase in response to the 
demands of increased urbanization and develcpment cf Mcntara ccal 
fields. 



nece 



SSSlicn_8^ All 1889 transportat ic r ccupanies have filed the 
isary acceptances with the Secretary cf State. Therefore, 



Public H-ealth, W^^lfare, later anc Ir.Justry Ccnirittse 



711 



this section is sufeiflucus. 

£ecticn_9_. The ccmir it tes; irenb-^rs urderstar.d that the till 
of Ffi'jhts Ccnmitte^ \.ill pr^S'Ent a s'^-cticr c r. sninent dcmain and 
that thf.y will th-:n hiva an cppcrtuni^-y tc ccnHid^r at greater 
length tnt^ ramificaticnt cf th^se ficfcsed if. visions in rccard tc 
cccpcraticns. 

It is intended that sscticn 2 ct th- ^rcpcstd article will 
prevent in £r ingeniert ufcn the qetPial welfare ty corporations. 
This was frcvided fci in section ^ cf th- 1833 Ccnstitcticn. 

Section__2C_. This section is retained as secticn 5 cf the 
revise d article. 

Secti2n__1 J_. The ccninittee feels that this is a legislative 
matter. Tt further fcelieves that equal treatment under the law 
is frcvid'^d by proposed section 2 as well as ty th- lUtb Attend- 
isent to the United Stat'^s C ens t i t u t ion . 

3ecticn__12. A street is the prcperty cf a aiunicipal ity or 
town and the use cf such property is subject tc the effiinent 
dOBain doctrine. The comirittee believes the courts will protect 
the -ssential value of such a street or highway from capricious 
condenraticn. This is also viewed as a matter und-~r legislative 
justification. 

Section__13^ This secticn has been expanded and included in 
the r'^vised article as section f. It is the intent that no 
retrospective law be passed by the legislative asseirtly which 
would impose a liability en ary citi2er in respect to trans- 
actions cr considerations already completed. 

Section__lJ4j. This is considered tc te statutory in nature. 

Secticn__15i This is deleted frca the prctcsed article. 
Reasoning behind this deletion is that the state inherently pos- 
sesses this plenary power ana the only restriction upon its 
jurisdiction is the CcBirerce Clause of the Dnited States Consti- 
tution which, in any event, already supersedes section 15. 

sections__16_ang__17^ These are considered statutory in 
nature . 

S6ction_J8i This definiticr. cf a ccrpcration is tautological 
and unnecessary. Any decision tc classify a joint stock company 
as a corporation ought tc be made ty the Legislative Assenbly. 
Powers of the corporate body are ccrsidered statutory material. 

Section__l 9_, The ccmsittee feels that this section is unnec- 
essary in light of existing statutory means by wnich a corpora- 
tion may be sued and levied upon. 

Section 20. Section 2 cf the revised Article XV adequately 



712 



^.c^TANA cc^s^l•Iu^ICN;iL ccnvsnttcn 



covers this cattirr. Th-i^ {- resent wcrcirn cf sscticn 
restrictive, neLuIcus ar.6 statL'tcr}. 



ir 



unduly 



Education and Putlic lands Ccimittse 



713 



MONTANA CGNSTnCTICNAL CCNVENTTCN 
1971- 19" 2 

EEUCATION ANL fUElIC LANES CCfKITTEE ERCtCSAI 

SC. X 



Eat€ Fepcrtcd: Istruary 22, 19 7 2 



^-Z £ichaLd_J_j,_Chan;£Cux , Chairnian 



ZiZ_E2is£t_Li_Nctle, Vice Chairoan 



714 



MCI^TANA CCbSinUITCNfiL CCNV5NTICK 



TABLI CF CCMEN1S 



Face 

LETTEh CP TEANSKITTAI 716 

TEXT CF MAJOFITY FRCfCSAI 718 

CCKMENTS CN (-AJCRnY PRUPCSAL 721 

Section 1. Lducaticnal f^^cal^ ar.i Euties ct Stats 721 

Public Echccl fund 725 



Spcticn A. 



Section 3. Duhlic Schccl furd InviclatP 



Section u. 
Section ") . 



Beard cf land Coinir is£ icners 

""utlic Scbccl Turd rfv.;r. u€ 

Section "S. Aid PLchitit':d to Sectarian Schccls 
SfcCtian ^, [» c r-C isc ri a ir at icn in Ed uca t ic r . . . , 
;cl;ccl Ll'Scticr.s 



S p c 1 1 c n 8 . 



Section 1 . Stat-? Heard ct Fducation. 
Section IC. tcard cf fuLlic Educaticr 



726 
726 
727 
728 
730 
731 
731 
733 



Section 11. Ec:3rd of Bsqents ct higher Fd uca tier 735 

S-c + ion 12. State University Funds 740 

TEXT Ctv KINCMIY FPCtCSAL 741 

CCKKEtiTS CN ^TNCFITY PFOEOSAL 742 

Section j. Eullic School Furd lrvicla*e 742 

TEXT CN r.INCPI'IY FECPOSAE 743 

COMMENTS ON MNOEITY P9CfCSAL 744 

Section o. Aia ProhititGC to Sectarian Schools 744 

TEXT OF ^AJC^ETY FFCFC2A1 748 

CC^fE^,^S CN EAJOFlTi FFCECSAI 750 

section 1. FuMic Land Trust, Cisposi+--icr 750 

TEXT CE HAJOFIEY FECFCSAl 753 



Educaticn acd Putlic Lands Ccuffittee 715 

COKHENTS CN ^.ftJORITY PPCtCSAL 754 

£~cticn 1. nnifirc Invest iTicnt frcgran 754 

TEXT CN J'INCFITY EtCPCSfil 755 

CCPt'ZiNTS C:J fTNObllY tBCFCSAL 756 

APEENEIX 

CtcsE teferencfc cf fisser.t and proposed Articles.. 757 

L^logatp proposals ccnsidered ty con. c- ittps 758 

rtitness'^s heard hy conimitt'?'^... 761 

Tell Calls 767 

liscal ict-3 frc!fi CEfic; cf Futlic Irstrtcticn 769 

Federal jrir.ts tc nciifiitlic schccls 770 

Mo n- Public Schcol Er. rcllu'ert,., 771 

FiCrtara Ncn-PuMic Schocls 772 



716 



MCNIANfl CONSIIIU'IICNAI CCNVEMICN 



Date: February 22, 1972 

To: MONTANA CO N S T 11 U1 IC N AL CCM^iENTICN 

Frcir: Fdu cation ar.'^ Futile La ros Ccnnittee 



Ladi'?s and Gtntli^ai'^r: 

Thp Ell uca tier. and Public Lands CcirrrittPt^ submits hert\»ith 
propcH5i new Articles en iducaticn, fublic Lands, and InveEt- 
Hionts. Ihi frcfO£-d Articles are in-^euded tc reflac«i the Educa- 
tion, rublic Ldi.ds, and Trust and Legacy fund Articl'^s ir the 
present Ccnstituticn . 

Throughout its hearings th^i ccmtiitte-^ heard a gr'^at deal of 
thcuqi;tful, v«ell-researched testincry and benefited fully from 
thp irany scurcf^s Cl intormaticn prcvidpd by interested persons 
and groufs. x^.ealizing the crucial iicj-crtance cf educaticr ir the 
state, the ccmu'iittee nas guided by the desire tc insure a solid 
fcundition for public educaticr ir Montana arc tc allow for the 
flexibility essential tc the educaticnal frccess. The ccimiittee 
resolved alacst all questions with few disserts. Cn two issues, 
iioweAier, th- questions cf public aid tc sectarian schools and 
invest [Pr nts , the coaimittee failed tc reach agreeinent. The dis- 
senting uembers are pri^senting irircrity r-pcrts included herein. 

In signing this aiajcrity report a cciririttee aeaiter dees net 
necessarily endorse each and every stateirert in it. 

The coffiEiittee utilized the services of the fcllowing people 
in addition tc its Eeoibsrs: Sally Viatscr, secretary, Eruce 
Sievers, research analyst, and Jeffrey Eupp, Paureen Callahan, 
Nancy Lien and John Kurphy, interns. 



Ld'jcaticn and tutlic Lards Ccirroi •^ tf:e 



717 



Hesf^ctfully Eutiiitted, 



/s/_Eichdrd_Jj__ChaiB£Oux , Chairman 



/£^_Fcfce£t_Li_Nctle, Vice Chairnian 



718 



ICNIANA CChiiTllUTICNAL CCNVfNTICN 



f-jfiJCblTY fFCPCSAl 

PE IT PFCPCSFC EY "IK^ ETLCAIICN AN£ PUUIIC IfiNCE CCfiKIITEI: 

Ihdt thrr'9 te a new Article cr. cducaticr. tc rtad as fcllctis: 

APTICIE 
LC DC AT TON 



Section 



1 



£[:UCATICNAI GCAIS AND ZUIIES CP 1HF STATE. It 



shall te til -3 goal cf 
estaclishmf^nt cf a 
lull educdticnal pet- 
tional cpfotturity 
Stat •^. 



thp pec pit cf Kcrtana 

systeni ct educaticr 

•litial cf each perscr. 

shall fs guaranteed 



tc prcvidi? fcr th9 
which will di^velop the 
Equality cf educa- 
te each person cf the 



The legislature shall provide for a syst^ir cf high quality 
free public eleir^rtary and secondary schccls. The legislature 
fliay alsc provide tcr ether educaticral irs t i tuticns, public 
librari-s and educational prccrairs as are de^^aed desiratle. It 
shall te the duty of the legislature tc provide by taxation cr 
oth-^r means and to distribute in an eguitatle iranner funds suffi- 
cient to insure full rurdinc of the public elementary and second- 
ary schccl systoic. 



the st 

heretc 

state 

grante 

person 

govern 

state 

poses, 

grant; 

eschea 

corpor 

other 

genera 



ect ion 
ate sha 
fere b 
by the 
d in 1 i 

cr c 
ir e c t ; a 
from 
or whe 

all 
t to th 
at ion 
grants, 
1 educa 



11 CO 

een 
gener 
eu cf 
cr per 
r.d of 
the 
re no 
estat 
? sta 
i n c c r 
gift 
ticna 



FUBIIC S 
nsist cf 
granted, 
al govern 

such; la 
a t i c n u n 

all cthe 
general g 

ether s p 
es, cr d 
te ; all u 
pcrated 
s, devise 
1 purpose 



CHCC 
the 
or 
ffent 
nds 
der 
r gr 
eve r 
ecia 
istr 
ncla 
unde 
s cr 



I f ONE 
pr ccee 

may 

knohn 
a c g u i r 

any 
ants o 
nff ent 
1 purp 
ibutiv 
imed s 
r the 

tecue 



T 
d s c 
here 

as 
ed t 
law 
f Id 
fcr 
cse 
e sh 
hare 
Id 
sts 



he put 
f sue 
after 
school 
y gift 

cr gr 
nd er 
genera 

is i 
axes c 
s and 
ws cf 
ir a d e t 



lie 

h 1 
be g 

lar 

er 
ant 
ircre 
1 ed 
ndie 
f e s 
divi 
the 
c t 



schccl 

a n d s a 
ranted , 
d s ; and 
grar t f 
cf the 
y tt a d e 
ucatien 
a t e d i 
tates t 
d = n d s 
state, 
he sta 



turd cf 
s have 
te the 
those 
rcn ary 
general 
to the 
al pur- 
r such 
hat Eay 
cf any 
and all 
te fcr 



Section 3. PUFLIC SCfcCCL FUtiC INVIOLATE. The public school 
fund shall fcrever remain inviolate, guaranteed by the state 
against less or div^^rsicn, to be invested under the restrictions 
tc be provided ty law. 



Section 4. ECAEC CF Ihhl 
superintendent ct public irstruction, 
attorney general shall constitute the 



CCf KISSI0NF5E. The gcverncr, 

secretary cf state and 

state board of land ccicBis- 



Education ^nd Futlic Lanes Cciraittee 



719 



sicr = ri;, which shall have the dirccticn, ccr.trcl, leasing, 
exchange and sale of the schccl lands of the state, and the 
lands granted or which may her^^after t€ granted for the support 
and benefit c^ tiie various state educational irstituticrs , under 
such regulations and rastrictions as iray he prescribed by law. 

Section 5. PUBLIC SCHCCL FtNE FiVENUE. Ivir.et y-f ive per 
centutii (95?) of all the interest received cr the school fcrds of 
the state, and rir.ety-five per centum (95?) of all rents received 
from tn-' leasing of school lands and of all ether inccae frcir the 
public schccl funds shall be equitably apportioned annually to 
public el'Stn'^r.tary ard secondary schools as provided by law. 



Ih-^ remaining five per centun {5%) of all the interest 
received on the schccl funds of the state, ard the reirainirg five 
per centuffi (5^^) of all the rents received frca the leasing of 
school lands and of all other income from the public schccl 
funds, shall annually be added to the public school furds of the 
state and become and forever reirain ar inseparable ard inviolable 
part thereof. 




Section 7. NC.\-DI SCEI f IN J»TIC N Jh iruCAIICN. ho religious 
or partisan test or gual i f icat ic r shall ever be required of any 
person as a condition of admission into any public educational 
institution of the state, either as teacher cr student; nor shall 
attendance be required at any religious service whatever, rcr 
shall any sectarian tenets be taught in any public educational 
institution cf the state; nor shall any person be debarred admis- 
sion to any public institution of learning on account cf sex, 
race, creed, religion or naticral origin. 



Section t, SCHOOL ELECIICNS. Ihe legislative asseiotly 
shall provide for elections of school district trustees. 

Section 9. STATE ECAFE CF ECUCATICN. The board of public 
education and the board cf regents cf higher education, as here- 
after designated shall together constitute the state beard of 
education which shall meet periodically cc matters of mutual con- 
cern. In case cf a tie vote at such meeting the superintendent 
of public instructicr may cast a vote. 



Section IC. BOARD CF PDBIIC EEUCATICK. There shall be a 
board of public education which shall exercise general super- 
vision over the public school systeB and such ether public educa— 



720 



MO K 'TANA CCNSTIinilCNAl CC^VE^TICN 



IB € ni t e r s 

to 
sup^rirter. i-^Lt cc 
ncn- vctir.vj 



Said tcard shall ccr.iiist 



tional instituticr.s as a££ignGd ly law. ^„.- ^^. 

ppointed by the qcv^rncr t»ith cci,t iraa tier cf 
the st::natt to six year overlapping tents. The govsrnor and state 

public instructicr. shall 
oi th=5 Dcard, Tht duties 



IT e D: t e r £ 



dent cf public ii, structicn shall be pi-^scribod 



b- ex eft icic 
cf th- supccirter- 
t y law. 



shall 
rate, 
a d IT: i r i 
shiil 
t u t i c n 
cf se 
pinq t 
t i c n s 
office 
superi 
ncn- vo 



•ec 
t 

wh 



er 
F 

ti 



tic n 
e a 
ich 
ra ti 
up~r 
wh ic 
n 31 

[PS, 

ro vi 
and 
end -J 
1:0 Si 



11 
t 

s h a 

ve 

vis 

h m 
eflib 
sub 
ded 
lie 
1, t 



. EC 

card 
11 q 
aft i 
■r a 
ay t 
eis 
ject 
by 
sc li 

Oi" 

v?rs 



iiFC 
of 
ever 
ir3 

rd 

£ as 

appo 

tc 

la 

1^- h 

eft 



CF R 

r e 3 e 

r. a Ti 

or 

ccor 

sign 

i r: t ^ 

ccnf 

is t 
uLli 

his 



EGE 
r.ts 
d c 
t b. r 
a i !i 
ed 
d b 
iia: 
Ih-v 
era 
c 
tea 



NTS 
Cf 

cr, t r 
^c 

ate 

hy 1 

y th 

at ic 
be 
a r 

inst 

rd. 



CF HIGHEF irUCSlICN. T 
biqher ed'jcaticn, a bcdy cc 
cl tlie acadeiric, tinar. cial, 
ntaria university systen, 
ether putlic €ducaticral ir 
ah. Said beard shall con 
e gcverrcr tc six year ever 
n by the senate, under reg 
arc shall appcint its execu 
d duties. Ih- qoverr,or 
ructicr. shall be ex cff 



here 

rpc- 

and 

and 

st i- 

sist 

lap- 

ul a- 

t i ve 

and 

icic 



Section 12. STATL UMVEPSITY I-U^ES. The furds cf the state 
university and cf all ether state ii:st it ut iens cf Isarnirg, frctn 
whatever source accruing, shall fcrever retr, ain invjclate ard 
sacred tc the purpose for which they wer- dedicated. The various 
furds shall be reso-ctively invested under such regulations as 
may he prescrib-rd by lav., and shall be guaranteed by the state 
against loss or diversion . The irt-^rest cf said invested funds, 
together i«ith the tents froni leasee lands cr prcp'^rties shall be 
devoted to the icairterarce and perpstuiticn cf these respective 
institiitions. 



/s/_r ichar d_C ha£_i_cux , Chairirar 



ZiZ_il2tert_Nc tie , Vice Chairiar 



^s^_LloYd_Farnard_ 



/s/_iillian!_B urkbar dt 



Z§Z_Ililj£EiJ_Cain_ 



ZSZ_£§Z_Q2Q2I§£. 



ZiZ_2^rl_Cavis_ 



Z£Z_2£I3S_M^ltau3h_ 



Zs/_Can_Harrin<i ten 



Z^Z_££t ert_WccdmanEe^ 



Zs^_Jchr_Tccle 



.ducaticn and Public Lards Ccimittee 



721 



CCXMEMS CK f.^JOFllY FECFCSAI 



Educdticn cccufi-^s a place ct 
public realm. Ihe educaticrdl system i 
shaping d:;d cultivatirq th 
and with d-i'VP.lcfing the capacities 

cf occitty. Stat-; and 1 

cf th^ir tinarcial rcscuic;*^ 



a d V a n c € ID p Ti i: 
laruei Hhai- 



cation than to any ether single putlic activity 



cardinal iapcrtance in th«= 

-, is charged with ■i-h'= task cf 

irind cf each succe'^dir.g generation 

fcr cultural and technical 

ccai gcvtinn^ats dc-vcte a far 

tc tb- sup pert cf edu- 



ing icpcrtance cf sducaticr. 



r^ccause of this cveriid 
icittec- tecoqr. i2€s the awGsciie task cf rrcvidinc the app 
Ccnstituticnal previsions necesi-ary tc protect and nur 
public educational syst'^ff.. each aspect ct existing and 
Constitutional language was thcrcuchly and deeply reflec 
by the ccmmittfc^ in light cf present and future needs, 
mental to the cc a littee • s consid era ticns were the twin 
protecting the integrity cf a quality educational sys 
alleging for fle^fifcility tc tr. eet changes as yet unknown b 
will c:-rtainly occur m future cevelopirents in the 
learning . 



the c ra- 
re p I iate 
ture the 
proposed 
ted u p c n 
Funda- 
goals ct 
tea and 
ut which 
field cf 



T 
pr cvis 
and wii 
other 
where 
of the 
system. 
adapta 
nif ica 
the 3 
increa 
school 
for bo 



n light 

ions i 

i c h p o £ 

hand 

it Si 

se ch 
; cr 
ticns 
n t re 
tat 6-, 
sed f 
ter 
th th 



I 

w 

an 

he 

■t- 

V i 

in 

IT 



Of 

n t 
e no 
the 
a de 
ges 
rs 

ch 
sicn 
a fli 
anci 
rest 
pubi 



thi^ 
he 
hi 
c 
fin 
hav 
are 
ang 
s a 
and 
al 
ric 
ic 



s '? aim 
exist i 
r. d e r a n 
oromit t 
ite ne 
e to d 
cere 
i a g CO 
re a c 
ate f 
flexit 
tiers , 
school 



s , 
ng 
ce 



the 
Con 
to 
ee ha 
ed fcr 
c with 
e I n e d 
n d i t i c 
lear 
c t t h 
ility, 
and a 
syst 



ccn 
stit 
pot- 

s n 
ccn 
has 

with 

ns i: 

;ta t 

del 

re V 

m an 



[Tit 

uti 

nti 
a de 
sit 
ic 

St 

e ii e 

e r i 
ise 
d f 



tee 
on wh 
al de 
r e vi 
ut icn 
aifps 
r uctu 
ducat 
nt cf 
crt 
en cf 
d ad a 
or hi 



has pr 
ich hav 
velcpme 
sic r s i 
a 1 i (ti p r 

of t h 
ral or 
icr . T 

educat 
of educ 

antigu 
i nistra 
aher ed 



eser V 
€ pre 
nts. 
n the 
ove jpe 
e GC 
admin 
he a 
icnal 
ation 
a tec 
tive 
ucat i 



ed t 
ve r fc 

Cn 
se pi 
nt. 
ucat i 
istra 

C£t 

goal 
alio 
age 

s true 

or. 



hose 
orth 

the 
aces 
Some 
era 1 
tive 
sic- 
s of 
wing 

and 
ture 



The ccfflffiittee views these proposed changes as vital to the 
quality and efficiency cf education in f,cttara. The proposed 
article provides appropriate guarantees tc the viability cf the 
public school system, while leaving the way cpen to future 
transf crira ti ens m the educational process. 

Section 1. ZCUCAIICNAI GCALS ANE COTIrS CF TKF 
STAIE. It shell he the gcal or the people cf Montana 
tc provide for the est ablishinent cf a system of educa- 
tion which will develop the full educational potential 
of each person. Equality of edacaticnal cppcrturity 
shall te guaranteed tc each perscr cf the state. 



The legislature shall provide for a system of high 
quality free public elementary and secondary schccls. 
The legislature may also prcvide fci other educational 
institutions, public libraries and educaticnal prcgrans 



722 



KCMA-N.A CCNSIIIUI ICNAL CCKVENTICN 



as are deeoitd desirable. 
iRgislatur-s tc 
tc distribut'? in 
to insure full 
s^ccnd-iry schccl 



It shall Le th€ duty cf tho 

provide by taxaticn cr ether means and 

an »?quitatlc crann^r funds suffici€rt 

furdir. g cf th€ public Gleitentary and 

SVSt? B. 



C C M i^; E ^; 1 s 



sect 

mitt 

ticn 

f cr 

stit 

ing. 

righ 

limi 

qual 

Bust 

the 

acco 

ffio rt 



The 
ices 
ۥ? d 
al s 

F ulr 
uric 
Th 
ts 

tati 
itv 

be 
corrni 
unt 



PEC 

e s i r 
yst^ 
lie 
n. 

whic 
ens. 
educ 

mad 
ittti 

the 



posed 

6 and 
tS tc 
n beyc 
school 
Ih^. ho 
has bo 
h ext 
scci 
ationa 
e aval 
e pre 
Widen 



s^ctie 

1 of 
broade 
n (3 the 
s at t 
r i z o II s 
en a g 
ecd t 
e t y ha 
1 syst 
lable 
f cses 
ed per 



I: b 

the 
r t 

S 6 

he 

cf 
rcM 
eye 
s a 
ea , 
en 

a 
spe 



y the 

exist 
he gca 
which 
tiire c 

fed uca 
ing r 
r.d ar 
cctpte 

and c 
apprcx 

nefc 

Ct i V6S 



ccffri) 
ing C c 
Is set 
Eight 
f vfrit 
ticn a 
eccg ri 
titrar 
d the 
curts 
iffiat el 

£€Ct ic 

e irbcd 



i^t€ 
nsti 

fcr 
have 
inq 
re c 
tier 
y ag 

dut 
have 

y ?q 

n M 
ied 



e we 
t utic 
th fc 

been 
thfe e 
e r s t a 

cf 
e and 
y tc 

St le 
ual t 
hich 
in th 



uld 
n. T 
r an 

appr 
xist i 
ntly 

educ 

schc 
sup 
ssed 
erirs. 

take 
ese d 



replace 
he com- 
educa- 
cpriate 
n g C c r- 
expand- 
at ic r al 
el term 
pert a 
that it 
Thus, 
s intc 
evelcp- 



T 
cf Hen 
educat 
of eac 
for e 
r e c c g n 
till t 
should 
all ci 
The CO 
be ins 
educat 
that 
guide 
cf sec 
enligh 
pieces 



he f 
tana 
icn 
h pe 
a uca 
ized 
h5 1 
be 
tize 
01 rait 
uffi 
icna 
the 
for 
iety 
teem 



1 r £ t sen 

tc prov 

which w 

rson," i 

ticn in 

as a pr 

ate year 

to f e 

ns tc th 

tee real 

c i e n t at 

1 potent 

goal sho 

educatic 

should 
e E t and 



tence, 
ide f c 
ill de 
s appr 

the 
ccess 
s of 1 
star a 
e fliaxi 
izes t 
prese 
ia 1 cf 
uld be 
nal de 
be ult 
skills 



"It s 
r the 
velcp 
cp riat 

state 
which 
if e. 
n d sup 
Buni le 
hat ec 
nt to 

each 

set f 
velcpip 
ittiatel 

acqui 



hall 
esta 
th<= 
6 as 
1 
exte 
A le 
port 
vel 
ere a 
prom 
pers 
crth 
ert 
y el 
red 



be 
blis 
full 

a 
earn 
Eds 
ng r 

thi 
pess 
ic a 
ete 
en," 

as 
ir t 
igit 

thr 



the 
hae r 

edn 
Stat 
ing 
f rcff 
ange 
s le 
ible 
rd h 
lear 

but 
an i 
he s 
le f 
ough 



goal 
t cf 
cat i 
eire n 
is g 

the 

gca 
ami 

in 
uinan 
ring 

it 

deal 

tate 

cr t 

th 



cf t 

a s 

cnal 

t cf 

r a d u a 

eail 

1 cf 

ng pr 

any g 

lesc 

"to 

feels 

tc s 

. Al 

he be 

€ ed 



he p 
yste 
pete 
pu 
lly 
y m 
the 
cces 
iver 
urce 
the 

str 
er ve 
1 nie 
nef i 
ucat 



ecfle 

IB of 

ntial 
r pose 
beirg 
en t hs 
state 
s f cr 

era. 
s may 

full 
cngly 

as a 
mters 
ts cf 
icral 



The subject ef "equal educatienal eppcrtunity" has 
become a particularly iirpcrtant doctrine in Ecdern educa- 
tion. Pecetit federal, district and state court decisions 
have interpreted the Fourteenth Anendnient tc the federal 
Constitution as applying tc educatienal ficarcing. Under 
this doctrine, the state must shew a ccmpelling interest tc 
Bsaintain a classification systetr by wealth which interferes 
with the individual's fundamental right tc an education. By 
this standard the courts have ruled that the schccl district 
financing systems in four states violate equal prctecticc. 



Montana's school financing systeir is siiilar tc these 



F-Jucdticr ard Public Lard£ Ccnirittct 



723 



d<?clai-9d uiicciistitutional i 


n the 


states where challenges 


have teen made. Ih- same 


vast dis 


crepancies in tax burdens 


and edijcaticnal aucpcrt exi 


St in ^0 


nt^na as exist elsev.her = . 


A reC'-nt study by tba Cftic 


€ c f the 


Superintendent cf Public 


InstLUCtior; (A_Stud v_of _bas 


ic__E(]ucaticnal__I-rcgraci funding 


MethC;2£lciiY in__Montana , 


January 


1S72) shews that >! en tar a 


schcci district wealth ptr 


A K E V d r i 


es by as muen as a ratio 


of 1C,0C0 to 1. The --^Rcrro 


c u s d i f f 


erences ir tax bases medn 


thd-^ inany rich districts car [.i^cvic 


e nuch better educaticn 


facilities with icw-r tax 


rates. 


SciBt peer districts rrust 


tax th:^ir r-'Sider.ts three or four t 


iires as much as rich dis- 


tricts tc frcvidt l..ss than 


half as 


rr-uch ircney fer studer:t. 


Clearly, the existing sen 


ccl tcundaticn pre g ran; in Men tan a 


dO'iS not attain its aim of 


equalizing iducatienal curdt-ns 


and ben'ffits. Indt'ed, th?. 


study E 


hews that ir the state as 


a wncl'G, foar.daticr. frc'jraai 


e X p e n d i 


tures ac*:ually suosidize 


wealthier districts more than peer 


er districts, aggravating 


factors fehich already tend 

w 6 a 1 ' h . 


to fliake 


educaticn a function of 


This ccnrorms to a 


natiena 


1 patt'frn in which states 


spend en tn ? average: twics 


as ffi u e h 


tc educate the children 


of th'f rich as tc t^ducate 


t ii s c h i 


Idren ct ta^^ peer. Other 


forms of barriers tc -^qual 


educational opportunity, such as 


cultural or linguistic factors ir. 


aircrity greups, iLay also 


hinder th- dev€lcpment of 


childr 


en on an equal basis. 


Clearly th- educational sys 


t= 0! trust 


be directed tc the elii- 


inaticn of hlatmt injustices whic 


h Hay fredetemine a life- 


long disadvantage. Thc- 


principl 


c cf equal educational 


opcortunity , as a ccrcllary 


tc the 


right tc equal pretecticn 


of tn-C: laws, stands as a 


f undaire 


ntal ffaxim fcr the public 


educational syst-:&. 






It n a s been s u g g -: s t e d 


that Ccn 


stituticnal statement cf 


equal -^ducaticnai opportunity iri 


ght be a mandate fcr the 


attainnent c± an iinpossible 


ideal. 


and that such a statement 


of principle could open the 


door te 


a welter cf demands fcr 


mdKinj public educaticn abs 


c 1 u t f. 1 y 


equal fcr every perse n in 


society en every lev^l. Th 


is inter 


preta+icn, hcwever, wculd 


represent an extrenie and ab 


suid Bis 


ccrstruction of the mean- 


ing cf th^ principle. Th 


6 p r i n c i 


pie cf "equal educational 


opportunity" is nc ircrs an 


abstract 


absolute than is the 


right tc "equal protection 


cf the 1 


aw£" cr any ether Ccrsti- 


tutienally guaranteed rig 


ht cr fr 


eedcffi. Ne right is absc- 


lute; each raust be consid 


ered in 


ccnnectier with ether 


rights and freedcois and 


in terms 


cf the social context te 


which it is applied. 







In keeping with the rational articulated ir Serrarc v^ 

Priest and other court decisicns in this area, the cemnittee 
agrees with the exemplary words cf a lardmark U.S. Suprece 
Court decision: 



In these days, it is dcubtful that any child may 



724 



MCMANA CCNSTIIUIICNAI CCKVhMICN 



reasonaMy L^ sxptctsd tc tucce'^c in life if h-^ is 
'ienifed the cpfcrtunity cf a r educaticn. Such an oppor- 
tunity, wh-iT'^ th^ statt has undertaken tc frcvide it, 
is a right which roust be irade available tc all en equal 
terirs. [ f:i^cwr._v .__ncar d__cf__Educa tier . 347 U.S. ^93 
(19ea) ] 

Lik^ewisG, th'~ Califcrnia Suprctre Ccur*: h-^ld: 

[Ilts uniqu'^ress anci.q puilic activities clearly deir- 
cr.strates that tdUS^ticn iiust respond tc the ccffnaEd cf 
the ^qual {- uct-^icticn . I Serrar;c_v_._rr if st , 96 Cal 6C1] 



Both L;rown aiid Serrano attacked the substantial disparities in 
the educational syst-^ois under review ard ccncluded that neither 
race nor wealth could be used tc iapair the equal right cf chil- 
dren to ar. "^ducaticn. Neither cf these cases iiandated scire sort 
of prscis- -quality of -^ducaticn for the entire lifespan cf the 
human being. Ihe furdanental principle established, however, is 
that -very child shculd have appr cxiir a t el y th^ sane cppcrtunity 
tc rec^iv- an adequate basic education. khat this trears in prac- 
tice will be legislatively defined in teres cf prevailing social 
c c n c] i t i n s . 



The 3=^ a fence, "the legislature shall prcvide fci a system cf 
high quality fre:: public eleaiertary and secondary schools," is a 
mandate to the legislature tc insure the existence cf a quality 
basic educational system. The word "quality" is an instruction 
tc the legislature to provide net siirply a ninirauc educational 
systeai, but one which ireets ccn tenipcrar y reeds and produced capa- 
ble, w -=ll-inf ormed citizens. The wcrd "free" is understood by 
the comiiiitte- to mean that those aspects cf an elementary or 
secondary education shall be free frcir cost which are essential 
to those courses required by the schccl for graduation. 

Ihe committee also believes that ether educational insti- 
tutions and programs and libraries are iitpcrtatt parts cf educa- 
tional activity in the state. The particular sorts of insti- 
tutions and programs, however, must be left tor the legislature 
to determin'^, since changing ccnditicrs may require a variety cf 
endeavors. 



The final sentence in section 1 prcvid 
the legislature lor toe suppcrt cf the 
The ccmmittee feals that a strong direct 
insure the support cf the public elementar 
system. The particular type cf financing 
prcperly left tc legislative determinatic 
principles upon which such a system is base 
Constitutional nature. The ccmmittee speci 
school financing system: (1) that taxatic 
equitably apportioned; (2) that the school 
in ar equal manner; and (3) that the funds 
tc insure full funding cf the system. 



es a vital trandate tc 
public school system, 
ive is necessary to 
y and secondary school 
systeffl is a matter 
n, bet the fundamental 
d are matters cf a 
fies three tenets of a 
n for such a system be 
funds be distributed 
supplied be sufficient 



cJucdticr. an'l Futlic Lanos Ccir. iritte'S 



725 



"equ 

tui;i 

of 

dist 

scho 

plan 

thes 

situ 

The 

eval 



The 
al 

ry h 
tux 
r i b u 
cl f 
f 
■^ cr 
1-. i c 
Ccns 
ua ti 



first 
e d u c a t 
a v-e be 

b u r d e 
tier, o 
ir. JHci 
r sob 
i t - r i a 
r. i r. 
tit u ti 
cr, cf 



two 
icna 

n f 

t sd 
ng p 
Stan 
I 
r. en 
cnai 
such 



r- f 

1 o 
IT i-- h a 
or 

uc at 
bans 
tial 
he s 
tar. a 
lac 
Fl3 



t h f"- £ T 

ppcr^ 

S i 2 r d 
thf 

i c r a 1 
, trc 

redi 
^lect 

is a 
y ua ^e 
n£. 



pri 
uri^ 
in 

SUfp 

fun 
ir a 
£tri 
icn 

in at 

£C 



nci 
y." 

tliC 

crt 
ds. 
•whc 
ct 1 
ct 
t-?r 
1-1 



pie. -5 tcllcw frcir the ir-»aning cf 

■^wc aspects cf equal cppcr- 

judicial dacisicnt: equality 

of t^ducaticn and equality cf 

A wide, vati^ity cf particular 

liy statc-financsd prc^raa tc a 

rq , tiav€ been suggested tc meet 

which plan best suits the 

fcr th€ Ifcislatur- tc decide. 

y established ncrins fcr the 



The third principle set forth by the ccffc i tt ee , that cf full 
funding, is a mandate tc insure that the public school system 

equal quality rather than cf equal pcv- 
^^^ ^^ ^^11 furdinc" is interded by the cciririttee 
fstablishaent cf the schccl system en a realistic 



Jate 
hill "Xist en a plar, e of 
erty. The rrdxiir cf "lull 
tc require the 
basis. 



Cnce the needs fcr a basic quality systen cf eleirertary and 

secondary schools nave been r*^ al ist ic ally assessed, the state has 

the cbligaticn tc guarantee that this itiniiiimr basic procrair be 

fully funded. This requirm-nt would substitute ratio rality and 
aquity tor the ccntusicn ard injustice which hav; '"' '^ 
schccl finance systetrs in the past. 



often plagued 



Secti 
fund of 
lands a 
be g r a n 
k n c w n 
such; 1 
or ccr 
g GverniB 
made t 
eral ed 
P urpos- 
distr ib 
state ; 
ration 
all oth 
the s t a 



on 

the 
s ha 
ted, 
as 

ands 
pora 
ent ; 
c th 
uca t 
is 
utiv 
all 

inc 
er g 
te f 



sta 
ve h 

tc 

scho 

acq 

ticn 

and 

-2 st 

icna 

in 

e sh 

unci 

cr po 

rant 

erg 



PU31I 
te sh 
ereto 
the 
cl 1 
ui red 
a p. d 
c f a 
ate f 
1 pur 
aicat 
ares 
aiaed 
rated 
s, ci 
e n e r a 



c sc 

all c 
fere 
state 
a n c s ; 
by q 
er a 
11 ct 
rem t 
poses 
ed i 

f fcS 

shar 
und 
fts, 

1 ecu 



hCCL 
cr si 
been 

an 
if t 
ny 1 
her 
he g 
, cr 
n s 
tate 
es a 
er 

de V i 
cat i 



F C h E . 
St ct t 

g r a n t e 
the 
c these 
cr qrar, 
aw c r q 
g ra r ts 
e n e r a 1 

h is e r e 
uch gra 
s that 
i: d d i V i 
the law 
ses c r 
cnal pu 



Tb 
he p 
d, 
gene 

gra 
t fr 
rant 
cf 
Gcve 

no 
nt; 
iray 
dend 
s cf 

beq 
r pes 



r cc 

I IT 

ral 
rte 
on 

cf 
Ian 
r r a 

ct 
all 
esc 
s c 

tfc 

ues 



ubli 

eeds 

ay h 

go 

d in 

any 

the 

d o 

e rt 

her 

est 
heat 
fan 
e St 
ts 



c schccl 

ct such 
ereaf ter 
vernicent 

lieu cf 
perscn 

general 
r money 
fcr ger- 

special 
ates, cr 

tc the 
y corpc- 
at G , ard 
made to 



CCMMINTS 



In securing assured sources cf support fcr the educational 
system, the ccmioittee agreed tha-t- Ccnsti tut icna 1 prctecticr 
should be supplied to the public schccl furd. section 2 in the 
existing Constitution has provided this protection by itenizing 
the compon-rts of the fund and unequivccatly specityirg that 
these contributing funds shall be used fcr education. The r.aire 



726 



r^OlsTANA CONSTTIUTIC^AI CC^\E^TICN 



"piitiic scl. cgI fiiri" which affears in this secticr is adopted as 
tho r:air-^ tc l~ used ccnsist^rtly her?aft?E in the Cc nstituticn , 



S<^cticn .3. PUBLIC SCf-CCl F li b C m^ICLP.Il. The public 
school tund shall fcr-.vfi trirair. ir.viclate, guararteed 
hy th? state ^qiii;3t less of riiv^-rsicn, to be invested 
ur.d<^r the r £sti:ict ions to be t^cvided by law. 



CCMKENTS 



stitut 
restri 
the i 
1 a t i V 5 
the tu 
pclici 
existi 
securi 
issued 
and c V 
great = 
wise s 
dec i si 



his 
icr. , 
ctio 
n ves 
sra-^ 
nd, 

9 S 

nc; 1 
ties 
to 
-ily 
r if 
£cur 
cr.s 



s-^ct ici: 

with 
ns ar ■= 
t n e n t 

t5I. ti 

a Const 

ac}; rcpr 

a n g u a g e 

within 

r the 

iGstri 

in any 

aly irv 

b p 3! a d € 



IS 

th£ 
r -^ ffi o 
pcli 
i^ycn 
it ut 
i a t ►2 

II - 

# 

the 
ercc 
ctiv 

gi V 

sste 
by 



lUf^n 
exce 
ved. 
cy 

d g u 
iona 
to 
o be 
s^a 
ticn 

en p 

d. 

the 



tical 
f t i c n 
The 
icr t 
arant 
1 f r c 
cha 

inve 
te, 

cf s 
The c 
tr iod 
Flexi 
1 t:- q i s 



tc 

th 

cc 

h"^ 

eei 

vis 

rgi 

stt 

inc 

chc 

ene 

th 

bil 

lat 



se 
at 
wsi 
pub 
c c 
ion 
ng 
d, 
lud 
cl 
fit 
e p 
ity 
ure 



c t i c r 
the Cc 
ttee i 
lie f u 
tb-? i 

cannc 

ccndi 
£ c far 
ing s 
buildi 

tc th 
ublic 

r equi 



3 cf 
nst it 
s c t 
nd i s 
r. V i c 1 
t ant 
ticns 
as f 
c n c c 1 
n q s , " 
e sch 
schcc 
res 



the 

utic 

the 

fro 
ate 
ici p 

• 

cssi 
di 
is 
cols 
1 fu 
that 



exis 
nal 

opi 
perl 

cha 
ate 
Mere 
tie, 
stri 
both 

itiig 

nd % 

su 



ting 
inve 
nicr 

ract 
inve 
ever 

in 
ct 

airfc 
ht h 
ere 
ch 



Ccn- 
s tnient 

that 
leg is- 
er cf 
stmect 
, the 
public 
bends, 
igucus 

€ BUCh 

cther- 
pclicy 



Secticn '-^ . BOABT CF LA^C CCf: ••ISSION I ft S. The gcver- 
nor, super interdent cf public instruction, secretary cf 
stare and attorney general shall constitute the state 
board ot land ccmaissicrers , which shall have the 
direction, control, leasing, exchange acd sale cf the 
school lards cf the state, and the lards granted cr 
which may hereafter be granted for the support and ben- 
efit of the v^ricus state educational institutions, 
under such regulations and restrictions as roay be pre- 
scribed by law. 



CCKMENTS 



stit 

gove 

and 

ing 

deri 

Cons 

appe 

only 

word 

powe 

Stat 



This 
ut icn. 
r n c r , 
secret 

the 
ved f r 
ti t u ti 
ar tc 
chan 

" exch 
r. T 
e has 



3 e c t i 
;, t 
super 
ary c 
ai a n a g 
cir th 
onal 
be ah 
gs de 
ange" 
be n 
been 



on r 
oard 
in te 
f st 
eiren 
ese 

pro 
le t 
a Died 

to 
eed 
prev 



emai 
com 
nden 
ate, 
^ o 
land 
visi 
c do 
d 5s 
the 
for 
ente 



ns a 
pose 
t of 

ser 
f t 
s. 
on , 

the 
irab 
list 
this 
d fr 



liDCst unch 
d cf tcu 

public in 
ves an imp 
be state 
The board 

has wcrke 

sa ne for 
le at this 
cf act i 

has beccm 
cm ffdkirg 



anged f 
r elec 
struct! 
cr tan t 

schccl 
while c 
d well 
the fcr 

tiire i 
vit ies 
e evi de 

advan t 



rem 
tive 
cr, 
f unc 

Ian 
per a 
in t 
seea 
s th 

wit 
nt i 
agec 



the c 
off 
attcr 
ticn 
ds an 
ting 
he pa 
ble f 
e add 
hin 
n cas 
us e 



rigi 
icia 
ney 
in s 
d th 
und 
st a 
ut ur 
itio 
the 
es w 
xcha 



cal 
Is, 

gene 
uper 
e in 

er 

rd w 

€. 

n cf 

boa 

here 

nges 



CCE- 

the 
ral, 
vis- 
coice 
this 
culd 

The 

the 
rd's 

the 
cf 



Evlucaticn ^nd Futlic Lands Ccnirittpe 



727 



land ty 
ticnal c: 



■^. h - C IT i 3 £ 

: visic n . 



,cr 



f this fChtr frcit rhe frestnt Ccrstitu- 



The ccninitt-e also ccn sicsred revisirg th^ iT'^iiit^iship cf ths 
fccarc, and particularly itdccirg the ruirlr^r cf aeirbers *c three 
hy *:h r caissicn or the Secr-vtary cf Stare, tut decidsd that ths= 
four Const it uticnally naired elective; c£tic->r£ her? an iicportant 
scurcc cf direct pcfular ccr. trcl and that ar; -iven- numbered board 
requiring a ipajcrity of thr^e fcr a dccisicn would ernfbasize the 
principle ct caution cv-^r that cf expcdiercy. 



Section t- . 
per c : n t u a 
school funds 



FUFLIC SCHCCL llJNi; E t V F MJ £ . Ninety-five 

(S5>) cf all -t-he interest received cr the 
cf the state, arc rirety-rive per centuiB 

schccl 
schccl 
public 



(y':t) cf ill rrnts received frcir the leasirgi cf 
lands ard cf all cthei inccire trcn the public 
funds shall be equitably a{;pcrticned annually to 
e leiDc^ntary and seccrdary schools as provided by lav. 

Ihc- reffidinirg five per centuai {^i) cf all the inter- 
est received on tne school furds cf the state, and the 
reiraining five per centuK (5"^) cf all the rents 
received froff th^ leasing cf schcol lards and cf all 
ether income fro.ti the public school funds, shall arru- 
alJ y be added tc the public schccl furds cf the state 
and beccffio and forever reniain ar inseparable and 
inviolable part thereof. 



CCPP.ENIS 



sect 

sicn 

the 

rest 

obso 

the 

rema 

dist 

phra 



The 
ion 5 
, tc 
publi 
r i c t i 
lete 
pcrti 
ins t 
ribut 



secondary 



propos 
m th 

Ccr, s 
c schc 
ons a 
in iig 
ens tc 
h 2 s a ir 
ion p 
hall b 

schc 



ed s 
£ pr 
titu 
cl r 
s t 
Lt c 

be 
'^ as 
revi 
e eg 
els 



ectic 
esent 
tiona 
urd , 
o It 

f pre 
distr 
in t 
cusly 
uitab 
as pr 



n 5 

Con 
lly 

is 
s d 
sent 
itut 
he p 

£F 
ly a 
cvid 



st 
c 



c 

ed 
re 
ec 

FF 

ed 



a shortened and revised version cf 
ituticn. The intent cf the prcvi- 
rc*-.ect the interest and inccme frosc 
npcrtant; however the particular 
tricuticn tc schccls are ccrsidered 
onditicrs. The language concerning 

and that which is tc be reinvested 
sent Constitution. The lethcds cf 
ified are raplaced by a general 
crticned annually tc eleirentary and 

by law." 



The replacement language provides the desired flexibility tc 
the legislature tc develop schcol financirg frcgraiss ir tune with 
current necessities. Particularly relevant 
trend across the nation, in accordance with 
sicns under the equal prctecticn doctrine, 
table school financing systems. The "flat 
provided under the old irethcd cf listributing ircoBe and interest 
tc all schccl districts or a census basis is clearly 
anti-equalizing under the standards discussed ir the ccmmentary 
to section 1, By specifying only that the distribution itust ta 



tc this change is the 

recent ccurt deci- 

tc frcvide more equi— 

grant" type cf aid 



728 



MCMANA CCNEinClICNAL CCNVEMIC^ 



" e q ij 1 1 i L 1 : 
t h 3 t y f J ' 



the r€w IdDcuaoc allcfcs the le^jisla t ui e to 
distritutior^ which v.iil attair this qcal. 



de tern: ine 



Restrictions in the IcEir cf sftcifi'^c districts, age, ard 
schccl terirs which nr.ay have Leer, afflicafcls at the tiaie of writ- 
ing cf th^ 1889 Ccnstitutiori, ar^ no Icrger neaningful. Father 
than attempt tc .u^fly ^^-'x i'"S'*"rict icps mere is keeping with the 
ccrit-mporary ,schoci syst-^m, th-s cciriritt€€ deteririned tha-^ it was 
pr6ferabl>^ tc allcw for changirq reeds as interpreted by the 
legislatur? by designating only a bread standard, rairely "equi- 
tably appcrticned as provided by lav." 



t h ? .2 

incoro 

This 

f rcrr 

ably 

exist 

ing 

educd 

the c 

with 

Chang 

as re 

is a 

I n s t r 

th-^ s 



A f u r t h 
X is tin. J 
r: Gi o n e 
has L t: e 
this s c 

b=ca us 
? n c ^ at 
with i 
■^ icr.a 1 
cniKiitt-? 

"publi 
e the -> 
cipient 
nticipa 
u c t i o n 
tate. 



e r 5 1 e E 
pre vis 
y be 
n inter 
urce be 
€ e 1 e ai 
the ti 
t s i n t 
finance 
e has r 
c ^ 1 e ffi 
xisting 
s of in 
ted by 
to resu 
( S e 2 a p 



i\ Tit 1 

icn i 
G i s t r 

prete 
gran 
e n t a r 
rr e wh 
e n t i c 
, as 
eplac 
entar 
dist 

f (-3 £; -^ c 

the 
It in 

p indi 



nth 
s th 
ibut 
d in 
ted 
y sc 
i-n t 
n t 
disc 
ed t 

y a 
ribu 

t an 

Of 

a n 

X I. 



e d 

G S 

ed 

th 
en 1 
hoo 
his 
c e 
iiss 
he 
rd 
tic 
d i 
fie 
et 
) 



is tr 
peci 
tc t 
6 pa 
y tc 
Is w 

pre 
xpar 
ed i 
phra 

sec 
n sy 
ncem 

■3 C 

sa vi 



ibut 
t ica 
he " 

St t 

ele 

ere 
visi 
d le 
n th 
se " 
c nda 
stetti 
e BC 
f th 
eg c 



icr 
tier 
se ve 
c ire 
ire rt 
the 
en w 
gisl 
e cc 
se ve 

ly 

tc 
n-?y. 
e S \i 
i ad 



sys 

th 
ral 
an 
a r y 
en 1 
as 
a ti 
uEe 
ral 
sen 
inc 
1 
per 
Bin 



tern 
at th 
Eche 
that 
sch 

y pub 

wr itt 

VG pC 

r t a r y 
schc 

eels, 
lude 
he iff 
inten 
istra 



author i 
e inter 
cl dist 
funds d 
cols, 
lie sch 
en. I r 
ssibili 

en sec 
cl dis 
" Thi 

high 
mediate 
dent cf 
tive cc 



zed by 
est and 
r icts. " 
er i virg 
presua- 
ccls in 
kee f- 
ties in 
ticn 1, 
tricts" 
s would 
schccls 
result 
Public 
sts to 



Section 6. ;^IE FHCHIEIIEE TO SECTABIAN 
Neith?r the legisla-cive assembly, rer any ecu 
town, or schccl disttict, cr ether public ecr 
shall ever maj^e directly cr indirectly, any 
tion, or pay from any public fund cr ucnies 
cr iraK.e' any grant of lands cr ether property 
any church, cr for any sectarian purpose, cr 
th^ support of any schccl, acadeiry, seminary, 
university, or other literary, scientific ir 
controlled in whole cr in part by any church, 
dencminaticn whatever. 



SCFCCIS. 

nty, city, 

f craticrs, 

apprcpria- 

whatever , 

in aid cf 

t c aid in 

college, 

stituticn, 

sect cr 



CCKtlENIS 



aft 

mittee 

ticn (Ar 

indirect 

educatic 

ffiitt3c 

offered 

fundamen 

precario 

opposing 



or long and serious censidetaticn , a majority cf the cca— 
decided to retain the secticc in the existing Constitu— 
tide XI, section 6) which strongly prohibits 




tducaticii ani Eutlic Lands Ccnucittee 



729 



fcr 



The following najcr points are 
the cCiTiirittee's 'decision: 



the ircst 



imcortant reasons 



pres rnt 
strong 
church a 
work , ha 

ticn . 

s y s t •? u, i 

sivcly 

concur, tr 

ten: has 

fragment 

school 

schools 




Ihe above reasons apply to the d€cisicr by the majority of 
the coiDiDittee to preserve the present prcvisicn, rather than to 
adopt the language of the federal first Aaendnent or irake any 



730 



KCNTAbA CC^£'IIlL"IIC^i AL CONVENTION 



Other charvj^ in tU€ ^idstinc prcvisicr. 



excl 

hili 

witn 

to r, 

"rev 

exis 

ate 

ncnp 

the 

is 

opin 

t icn 

pre V 

that 

with 

case 

grin 

fcecd 

sicn 



A 

ud 

ty 

cS 

Ch 

en 
ti 
al 
ub 
l;e 
ad 
io 

is 

cu 

t'^ 
us 



e 
c 

rg 
is 
li 

r-= 
nii 
n 
ar 

pr 
t 

wa 
d 

6 



3''CC 

i. ta 

£ b- 

blic 

sh 

pic 
tic 
c ?(i 
fit 
nist 
tV.it 
■= a 
n. 

sc^d 
a ch 
£ br 
fund 

of 



r:d 
rai 

^" t 
lor 

sc 
ari 
vis 
pre 
uca 
cf 
tie 

pr 
ct 
As 
ent 
ang 
oug 
s h 

th 



al 

fu 
rev 

e t 
hoo 
nq" 
icn 
ble 
tio 
^ s 
d b 

rei 

to 

s 
s i 
ht 
a ve 



te 
nd 
is 
h'^. 
Is 

IT. 

na 

y 

n t 
nq 
f u 
he 
li 

tc 
t 



r n a 1 1 V 
s a d B i 

ion. 

C C IT ID i 

, par 

r c vj r a tt 

The c 

As i 

1 inst 

nit icd 

the St 

ly cpe 

sigri 

tur fc f 

ws ta 

tho C 

the c 

^^n d^ 

aratic 



A 

tt 

ti 

ooi 
nd 
it 
nt 
at 
ra 
f i 
s d 
at 
c r 

Off 

ni 
n 



cc 

StG 

fun 

ec 

cul 

ar 
ID it 
ica 
uti 

a a 
e . 
tir. 
ca n 
era 

P 
sti 

mit 

p.d 

cf 



n s i d € r b- 
red by 
d a tn ^ n t a 
was tha 
ar ly c 
e CI wc 
t e t d o p 
ted in 
ens in 
e u r. t c f 

It is 
g f^der 
tly aft 
1 p r c a r 
e t ^ n t i a 
t u t i c n a 
tee's a 
in !' c n t 
the exi 



d t 
th-^. 
Ice 
t sc 
f t 
uld 
s nc 

APP 
the 

fed 
the 
al a 
ecte 
airs , 
1 P 
1 P 
tter 
ana 
stin 



y "- 

Stat 
rc€r 

Be f 
he 
to t 

t ag 
end i 
Stat 
eral 
aa jc 
id p 
d ty 
th 
roll 
re vi 
t icn 

tc 
g Cc 



he coffiffi 
e 1 rem 
n exptte 
c r ffi s c f 
type 5 
rchitit 
r ee tha 
X F, 
e ar ■? n 

aid, s 
rity ct 
r cgraffs 

the Co 
e ccBip 
CHS can 
sen . 

in V(hi 

n c n p u t 
rstitut 



i 1 1 ? - 
the a 
ssed 

f ede 
nvisa 
ed un 
t thi 
stude 
cw re 
cnie c 

ccmtti 
in 
nstit 
ittee 

be r 

Nc £ 

Ch te 

lie 

iccal 



was tc 
pplica- 
t y scire 
ral aid 
ged ir 
der the 
c p c s e £ 
nts in 
ceivirg 
t which 
ittse 's 

educa- 
utional 
feels 
escl ved 
[ecif ic 
dera lly 
schocls 

pro vi- 



Secricr 7. NC N-DISCSI ? I f- AT IC N IN EEECATIOK. Nc 
r-fligious cr [.aitisdn test or qualification shall ever 
t^ required of any person as a ccnditicn cf admissicr 
mtc any public tducaticnal institution of the state, 
eith-i as teachar cr student; nor shall attendance Le 
required at any religious service whatever, ncr shall 
ciny sectarian t-nsts be taught i r. any putlic educa- 
tion;* 1 in£titutioi. cf th; stat-; ncr shall any person 
te debarred adnissicr tc any public institution cf 
learning on account cf sex, race, creed, religion cr 
national origin. 



CCKPEMS 



This section is a broadened version of the present 
secticr 9. A statement specifically taming discriffiicatcr y 
practices in education provides a necessary specification with 
respect to teachers and students cf nondiscr iuiination principles 
broadly articulated in the Bill cr Eights. The ccBimittee feels 
that the principle set forth in the last serterce cf the present 
section i.^., "rcr shall any person be debarred adinissicn tc any 
of the collegiate departttents cf the university on account cf 
sex," represents an arbitrary limitation on the general principle 
of noiidiscr iitiinat ion in adirissicn policies. Tha ccffioiittee has 
therefore broadened the language tc include all public educa- 
tional institutions under the protection cf the prevision and to 
prohibit other kinds ct {^cssible d iscri ffi rat icn. 

The comiuittee also considered carefully the language of the 
phrase, "ncr shall any sectarian tenets be taught in any putlic 



Iducaticp and Fcblic lands Ccrairi^: t ee 731 



^ducaTional institution," and decided against any change ir word- 
ing. Ther? has teen no record ct difficultj in the interpre- 
taticr. of the meaning of this prevision, which clearly is net 
intended to restrict ctjective learning abcut religious prin- 
ciples, tut rather tc prohibit the active prcroction m a putlic 
schccl or religion or of any particular religious doctrine. The 
existing language adequately expresses this prirciple. 

Section r. 5CHCC1 5LEC1IGKS. The legislative assea- 
Lly shall provide for elections of school district 



■f 



r us te ^s. 



CCf fFNTS 



This section is similar tc section 1C cf the existing Con- 
stitution, but changes its effect. The original irtent cf the 
present s-.-cticn 1C was tc segregate schccl elections frcm par- 
tisan elections. The ccaiffiittee feels that there ar? ether 
reasons which negate this original intent and which dictate that 
decisions on this matter should te of a legislative rather thar a 
Constitutional nature. First, it is cuesticnatle whether the 
holding of separate elections has the effect cf insulating schccl 
issues frcir partisan cnes. Other nonpartisan issues and candi- 
dates appear on the same ballot with partisan cnes. Moreover, 
partisanship of various sorts nay play a rcle in a school elec- 
tion whether hr:ld separately or net. At least cne locality in 
Montana officially recognizes special parties just for the pur- 
poses cf such scliccl elections. 

Secondly, the holding of separate schccl elections causes 
mcst localities a great deal cf extra expense which cculd te tet- 
ter spent or education itself. One delegate informed the coiniBit- 
tee that her community spent J1C,CCC cr mere on every schccl 
electicR. The cciririttee feels that such ►expenses are needless, 
particularly if the separate election does not accomplish its 
icterded aias. 

The proposed rew section thus allows for flexibility by 
leaving the specification of electiCE dates tc the legislature, 
but it still reaffirms the- importance cf a Ccrst it uticnal man- 
date that such elections shall continue tc te held. The ccmmit- 
tee understands the vital iirportance cf the principle cf local 
ccntrcl of schccls and desires to insure the ccrtinuation of the 
systen) cf local election cf schccl trustees. These local school 
elections are an essential and irreplaceable part cf the educa- 
tion system and their existence irust be Ccnstit ctionally quaran— 



Section 9. STATE ECflEE OP EEDCATICN. The board 
of public education and the beard cf regents cf higher 
educaticn, as hereafter designated shall together ccr- 
stitute the state beard of educaticn which shall meet 



732 



I«C^TA^A CCNSlIiniCNflL CGI*VEKTICN 



J. <:^r iod ic J 1 ly ci, aiatters cL lutuil ccrceir. In cas; cf 
a ^i-.' vcte at such mfiting tht sup-i i nt^^. roe nt cf public 
instLucticn a- ay cast i votG. 



C C r ,>^ Z N T S 



o 
the St 

o p e r a t 
sec tic 
educat 
o n t i I .- 
e d u c 1 1 
ex cf 
sect io 
sef ara 
teii! , 
matt-r r 



ect 1 
atf= 
sec: 

ior. 
n 1 
ion 

St 

ior 

tiCl 

ns w 
tely 
but 

£ cf 



d n DP. 1 n 

t i c n s 

of t n -^ 

1 cf t 

[J r c s - n 

a t •- *; 

on It a t 

hear 

ould r 

sut*^ i: 

w c u 1 v] 

rrut uo 



10, 
istr 

^ro V 
«?du 
he c- 
tly 
d uca 
t er s 
d of 

t^p la 

V i S " 

ffit 

1 cc 



ana 
at iv 
id^ 
cat i 
xist 
exer 
t i o r, 

ccr 

roQ 
cs t 

hig 
■ t j 

.cer 



1 1 c 

= St 
d SU t 

cr 3 1 
1 1! q C 

cists 
al s 
c € r r 1 

er.ts 
his s 
li •:- E e 
c i n 1 1 

n . 



f th? 
r u c t u E 
s t. a n t i 

c y c + c 

cnsti t 
"supe 
y St etn , 
ry the 
en u r. i 
tructu 
duca t i 
y as t 



f rcpc 
? fc 
ally 
fi . 

u t i c n 
r visi 
sitt 
publ 
V - r s i 
re wi 
en dv 
he St 



std new ar 
r ?d ucat 1 
ifvis-d fr 
Urder the 
, a s i r c 1 e 
cr and ccn 
irg as the 
ic sc heel 
ty oiatters 
th two tea 
d the publ 
a+€ hoard 



ticl 
en. 
aoievi' 
au 

St a 
trol 

sta 
syst 
. T 
rds 
ic s 
cf e 



e deal 
Tcge 
crk f e 
t h c r i t 
t e tea 



11 

te 
em 



over 

tea 

an 



he pre 

fchich 

chcel 

ducati 



with 
t her , 
r the 
y cf 
rd cf 
the 
rd cf 
d as 
pcsed 
would 

s y s— 
en en 



The pre 
the adirinist 
education, 
written d t 
fu n da ui entail 
s y s t - [P c f M c 
priinary gra 
Today it coii 
ary schools 
t w c a a j c r 
1 e g -^' s . In 1 
putlic educ 
students '^nr 
the Cffic-2 
of the sup 
inf orma tion- 
tricts; a^ p 
HI c r e than J; 5 
p r g r a IV s . 



pcsed structure would p 
ration of i-ducaticc ir. 
as ir presently cxis 

d tim^ (led^) when 
y different ircni fchat 
r t a n a in the nineteenth 
iiiiiar schools and a n 
sists c£ a universal sy 
ana a public hig};er edu 
universities, four cell 
889 there were less t 
dticnal systett; ir 197 
died. At the tiBe sta 
cf the Superintendent c 
erirtendent and a cl 
gathering functions i 
resent thf^ office has a 
2 Diillicn funds for a v 



rovi 

f: c r. t 

t£, 

the 
it 
ce 
€w ly 

s t etr, 
ca ti 
eges 
har 
th 
t e h e 
f Fu 
erk 
n c 
sta 
ast 



ana 
epe 



ft u 
re 
of 

on a 
, a 
12 
ere 
cd 
Mi 
w 
cnn 
ff 
arr 



a ff u c 
. Th 
rates 
ducat 
tcda y 
r y c 
und ed 
e leir 
1 sy 
nd th 
,CCO 
were 
was 
c Irs 
he 

ect ic 
ct If 
ay c t 



h need 
e Stat 
under 
ienal 
. The 
e n s i s t 
state 
e n t a r y 
stem 
ree co 
stude 
itere 
grant 
t ructi 
perf cr 
n wit 
2 and 
state 



ed ref 

e bca 

a pro 

s y s t e 

educa 

ed en 

uni ve 

and £ 

ccirpcs 

mniunit 

n ts i 

than 2 

od r*e 

en ccn 

med 

h Icca 
adiflin 
educa 



crm m 
rd ef 
vis icn 
IB was 
tional 
ly cf 
rsit y . 
eccnd- 
ed cf 
y ccl- 
n the 
t. C , vj c c 
ntana , 
sist ed 
mainly 
1 dis- 
isters 
t ienal 



The 
situa t ie 
that the 
the Lea 
the vari 
section 
to b- 
for the 
Mcrtana 
Cocne^ 
ruled tc 



prcv 
r is c 

state 
rd fo 
cus et 
11, a 
state- 
deaf a 
Suprem 
(10 2 K 

apply 



isic 
lear 

bca 
r t 
her 
ppea 
run 
nd t 
e Co 
cnt. 

tc 



E f 

ly n 
rd c 
he e 
Stat 
rs t 
inst 
lind 
ur t 

521 
the 



rat 
ot ap 
t edu 
nt ire 
e edu 
o ref 
ituti 
, and 
inter 
[ 153 
eleme 



card w 
propr i 
e a t i c n 

educa 
eat ion 
er cnl 
ens , i 

sc f e 
pretat 
6]) th 
ntary 



h i c h w 
ate tc 
was e 
t i c r a 1 
al ins 
y tc w 
. e . St 
rth. 
icn ct 
at thi 
and s e 



as app 
day . 
ver in 

sy s te 
tituti 
hat a r 
ate rtc 
It was 

this 
s sect 
c c n d a r 



rep ria 
It is 
tended 
H, . T h 
c r £ " i 
e ccm 
rmal s 

only 
phrase 
icn wa 
y schc 



te tc t 
net eve 

tc se 
e phras 
n the e 
iiicnly 
chccls , 
by virt 

in St 
s speci 
cl syst 



he 1889 
n clear 
r ve as 
€, "and 
listing 
thought 
schccl 
ue o f a 

ate v^ 

f ically 
em. 



Fduca-^-icn and FuLlic Lards Ccnaittee 



733 



Iii i-iactic-a, thrt state toaid cf .^ducaticn has dfvottd the 
great jpajotity ct its tia^ tc n:cittf:is cf hightr education. Cne 
important study cf ^cntana educaticr. ctservcs that there is a 
kind cf infornal division ct laLci between the board and the 
state s'jp - rintendent , s-uch that the Icwer schccls are Iccked 
after by r.h5 superintendent and that the beard sees its duties 
primarily in the ficl'i cf higher "ducation. Tb? study ccrcludes: 

The result is tu:it th"^ board's functicrs ir public edu- 
cation becciTie ncre cf the nature cf "trcubls sheeting" 
and toe littl= cf consistent Icng-rance planning, 
policy f or irula-^ icn , appraisal, and the like. (Montana 
Taxa ticn-£duca tien Ccmiiission , liltl ic_Schcc ls_cf _Hcn- 
tana , 1958 , p . 2) . 

Cne major r=ascn, therefore, fcr the creation cf a thc- board 
structure is the establishiient cf a beard that >iill be specifi- 
cally qualified for and ccncerned with the problems of elementary 
and secondary education and other institutions which cay be 
assigned by law. The correlate of this structure is the estab- 
lishiE'Tnt of a separate board for higher education which will be 
similarly qualified for and attuned tc the particular problems of 
high?r education. 

The necessary coordinaticn between these two separate beards 
would occur in the joint beard provided fcr in the proposed 
section 9. This joint board, the state beard ef educatier, would 
meet periodically tc act en matters cf irutual ccncern to both 
sectors of educaticn. 

Further reasons fcr the recrgani2aticn cf the beards cf edu- 
caticn are presented in the fcllcwing sections. 



Sect 
be a 
genera 
such 
by law 
a ppein 
senate 
the st 
ex off 
of the 
prescr 



ion 10. tGA'dU CF PUBLIC ECCCflTICN. There shall 
board cf public ecucatien which shall exercise 

1 supervision ever the public sc heel system and 

other public educational institutions as assigned 
Said board shall consist cf seven members 

ted by the governor with ccr f ir iraticn cf the 
to six year overlapping terms. Th'= governor and 

at*^ superintendent cf public instruction shall be 

icio ncn-voting members cf the beard. The duties 
superintendent cf public instructicn shall be 

ited by law. 



This sectien creates the beard cf public education and pre- 
scribes its membership and respcnsibil ity . As described in the 
comments to the preceding sectien, the greatly expanded activi- 
ties, personnel, and funding involved in elementary and secondary 
educaticn require that this crucial sector ef educaticn have its 
own administrative beard. The largest share cf state funds for 
any cne purpose go to elementary and secondary educatici;. The 
state administers over 25 major federal programs in education. 
The kinds cf education needed and offered are constantly changing 



734 



MC^TANA CCt.STnLTTClNAL CCNV5KTICN 



and •f xp jCf^ irg. X Lcdrd which is tc cc^e ad-^qudteli' with this 
vast att-.i ci r^^sponsi til it ies must ccr.sist cf irairfc€rs vhc ar^ 
qualified and whc hav? suiticisnt time tc beccm-i kr.chledgeatle 
db^,at th.: particular prohlews and issues cf putlic ?ducaticr. A 
board is ro not'; ca^. able than is a su pe lint-enden t cf being cciiipG— 
tv-rt r.c administ-ir two f undamtntall y ditfcrs^rt areas cf educa- 
tion. 



Ihe need tor a separate tcard fcr public education prcnises 
tc beccine -;ven qr«dt-r in the future. The present trends indi- 
cate ;:he assumpticn cf such greater rcl-^ in educational financing 
by state ana federal gov -rnire rts , pcssiMy as irucb as 90 jercert 
or mere cf total public sccccl costs. Oth-?r trends also suggest 
an increasing c- ntr alizaticn m -dticaticr. This aears an even 
greater degree cf potential central cf ecucaticn at the state 
lev?l. A well-in tor ire d and representative beard would provide a 
much-n'^-d-'^d balance to decisions en a ditinistr at ive pclicies. 

A large majority of witnessts whc testified en the subject, 
including k-y state otficials and nary educators, spoke in favcr 
of the two-beard concept. They agreed that both trcir the stand- 
point of [jublic education and frcrr that cf higher education, the 
separation oi functions is eininently sensitle. A fcrirer chaiman 
of the state beard cf eaucation, a Icng-tinie distinguished ireiEber 
of the board, articulated the pcsiticr cf nary: 

Please give every ccnside ration tc a two-board system. 
Frankly, av^n the mcst capable, dedicated beard itetftei 
finds it iirpcsEiblp tc dc justice tc the tctal assign- 
ment. (Letter frcnj Mr. M. E. Richard, Pebruary 15, 
1972) . 



fxuaierous studies cf the Montana educational systeir have 
reccinine;nde d the creaticu of two hoards. A legislative ccuncil 
report in 1960 resulted in the proposal for a Constitutional 
atpendin-nt tc create two beards. The aaendirent was passed by the 
legislature but kept off the ballot for other reasons. The 
L-^gislativ^ Council's r ecoin ff endat ion , which was based on previous 



studijs, offered 
two-board systen: 



the following ffiajor justification fcr 



I n c r 

a gr 

that 

?duc 

of 

secc 

resp 

limi 

de vc 

r-sp 

them 

cf p 

H iah 



easeu 
owing 

the 
a t i o n 
F d u c a 
n d a r y 
onsih 
t to 
t? t 
onsib 

fro 
olicy 
er E 



a e Bi 

pop 

re 

al s 

t icn 

edu 

ilit 

the 

t 

ilit 

in d 

qu 

duca 



ands 
ulat 
spon 
yste 
V he 
cat i 
y V 
amou 
hes9 

y fi 

e vot 

•:'Sti 

t icn 



on 
icn a 
Sibil 
m be 
se re 
or , a 
ould 
nt or 
res 
accd 
ing a 
ons. 
, Rep 



ur e 

nd i 

ity 

divi 

spon 

nd 

be 

tia 
pons 
en b 
degu 

(« 

crt 



duca t 
nf lat 
fcr t 
ded i 
Sibil 
a E 
highe 
e a 
ibili 
care 
ate t 
cntan 
Nuffibe 



i c n a 1 f 
i c n a r y 
he ad (T i 
ntc two 
ity w e u 
card 
r educa 

lay b 
ties. 

IT e B b e r 
iire tc 
a Legi 
r 5, He 



acil 

pres 
nis t 

toa 
Id b 
f F 
ticn 
card 

The 
s h 
the 
slat 
lena 



1 ties 

sures 

ration 

r ds, a 

e prim 

egents 

The 

mernb 

cverw 

as pr 

consid 

ive C 

, 196C 



due to 

require 

cf cur 

Foard 

ar y and 

whcse 

re is a 

er can 

heloiirg 

even ted 

eraticn 

cuncil , 

, F.I). 



Educdticn and FuLlic Lands Cciaittee 



735 



Ihe tear has b<=en expressed that a separate beard for public 
educaticn might usurp the powers cf Iccal beards. There is nc 
reasen tc bt ccrc-:-rned about such a pcssib li 1 i ty , hc*€ver, since 
the powers granted the stat€ beard uould be alncst identical to 
these liow qrantsd. Indeed, th-^ cctrmitte'G has actually deleted 
the word "ccr.trol" trcci th-? pcwers r.en yiarted the beard se that 
the new sicticn r^ads, "exercis'^ general supervisicr ever the 
public school systeir." It hculd he difficult tc arquo that this 
grants any additional powers tc the state board at the experse cf 
local schcol beards. 



Order existing law, vocat icnal-t echr ical cen-'-ors will remain 
within the public school system and thus under the jurisdicticn 
of the beard of public educaticn, fcitcasses ftcm the "vo-tech" 
field assured the ccmmitte? that this was their preference at the 
present time. Hcwev^'r, tne language of this section and of the 
new section 11 allows sufficient flexibility so that, should ccn— 
diticns change, these instituticrs ceuld be acccmnicdated in the 
systeir cf higher educaticn. 




Ihe Gcrrifflittee feels that the duties cf the superintendent 
should be legislatively prescribed, tc allow fcr changing ccndi— 
ticns and possible alteraticrs cf the relationship between the 
board and the superintendent. It is fully expected by the con— 
mittee that the office of the super interdent cf public instruc- 
tion will be provided fcr in the executive article, A Hiajciity of 
the ccBirittee feels strongly that the superintendent should be 
elected, and the ccirmittes has structured the educaticnal article 
with this notion in irind. An elected superintendent provides a 
necessary direct link tc the people which is important tc the 
educational system. 



Sect 
There 
a bod 
academ 
Montan 
coordi 
may b 
seven 
overla 
senate 
shall 
term a 
public 



icn 

3 1 1 d 1 

y c 

ic, 

a u 
nate 
e a 
aieinb 
Fpin 
, un 
app 
nd d 
in 



11. EOAbC CF REGENTS CF HIGHER ZEOCRTICN. 
1 be a board cf regents cf higher educaticn, 
crpcrate, which shall govern and control the 
financial, and administrative affairs cf the 
niversity system, and shall supervise and 

ether public educaticnal institutions which 
ssigned by law. Said beard shall consist of 
ers appointed by the goverrcr tc six year 
g terms, subject tc ccnf ir aaticn by the 
der regulations provided by law. The beard 
eint its executive officer and prescribe his 
uties. The gcverror and superintendent cf 
struction shall be ex officio ncn-voting nieir- 



736 



KOi:^TAi\A CC ^ST II U 1 ICN AL CCNVEtNlICN 



b.:?r£ 



tiiii 



l~ c d r J . 



C C ft f E N T £ 



'I he s:-ccr.d fundainental ccmf-or, tn^ cf th- ficfcsed r.ev state 
administrative structure ror -^ducaticn is a beard cf rpgents cf 
highrir educa-^icn. The saiii-9 reafccr.s which apfiy tc the need fcr 
scscia lizaticii and cone entrat icr. cr tht fublic schccl toard held 
also fci th? heard cf r-g.^nts. liicher ediicaticr is tur. danfrtally 
different rrcir, public schccl edi;c3ticr, — ir qcals, curriculum, 
financing, control, and Cft:raticn--dnd it irust be aciiristered 
acccr.lir.gly. There is very little ir. ccntrcr betweer the public 
schccl systeu and higher educaticn, eth-r thar a shared need to 
prcvid'. a smooth transition tcr students tetvueen the twc sys- 
teiDS . 



A reccgr.iticii cf the particular needs and prcbletus of higher 
educaticn has led all but two states tc establish separate state 
governing beards fcr higher educaticr. Mcntar.a and Idaho rcBiain 
the cnly two state l^ which retain a 
schools and the university systeip. 
twc boards for their ^educational systems, and the generally 
recognized principle is that aifterent educational tasks — .---- 
differ-- nt idniristrative structures. 



single beard fcr tcth public 
Scffie states have Bcre than 



require 



As no 
studi'^s of 
twc s e p a r a 
Homer Durha 
Helena, "i 
described t 
deal satisf 
the re CO IT. me 
law which 
the state c 
officio bca 
little tc 
beard. 



ted in tne ccintir-nts tc the previous secticr, najcr 
educaticr in iXontana Lave recenirended the creation cf 
te beards. The Eurhaiit Fepcrt en higher educaticn (G. 

■" » ilii_iill2il:i^li2ii:£I:_£i_Miiiil£I_I^uca t icn_i r ilcnt ana , 

ontana. Legislative Ccuncil, ^S^,^), for instance, 
he difficulties cf a state hoard which was unable to 
actorily witn both areas cf education. As a result cf 
ndaticn of the Our ha a i-epcrt, the legislature passed a 
divided the board into twc parts, ere cf which sits as 
oard cf educaticr, and one cf which sits as the ex 
rd of reg-r.ts. liiis nsne- shuffling, hcwever, has dene 
alleviate the difficulty inherent in a dual is tic 



In additien tc adirinistrative cuestiens, another furdaitental 
reason exists fcr the establishment cf a separate beard cf 
regents of higher educaticn. Higher educaticr is net simply 
ancther state service; + he ad licistr a ti ve structure ef higher 
education cannot be considered an crdinary state agency. The 
unique character of the college and university stands apart frcai 
the business-as-usudl cf the state. Higher learning and research 
is a sensitive area whicl; requires a particular kind cf prc- 
tectien not matched in ether adiinistrati ve functions of the 
state. 



Few would dispute the vital ioapcrtance cf acadenic freedciB 
tc the process of higher learning. Such freedcK is the essence 



iucdticn diid Puhlic Lands Cciririttee 



737 




and 

is 

the 

the 

ccer 

like 

high 

cent 

curt 

a ircu 

perv 

hand 

the 



an 
pr 
cc 
ci 

ly 

€1 

ra 

di 

Pit 
as 

cc 



hi 
bl 

m 
v.c 
on 



11 

1 

iv 

hi 

01 f 



= was 
ic cc 

(1 ^ d w 
Cl t' 1 1 

<; j: t c 

hds 

C tl-3C 

ducat 
zed, 
frssd 
cf p 
e ror 
th t 



the id 
ileges 
h i c h St 

u n r 9 s -3 
f t r e : 

ai d d ^ i 
ome an 
icn i r. 

cur-^au 
O 0! £ , t h 
o w o r a 
ir, c t i r 
he e [Q e r 



r^a 1 

and 

ill 

rV9Q 

i n 3 u 

t S d 

•i v-=>ri 

the 

crat 

e ir.c 

!id 

flu's 

gaily 



u f 1 i c i t 
un i v-r si 
P r - V a i 1 s 
1 y ; rare 
i r y . He 
ppearanc 
greats 
rut Dr e . 
ic r;tdt 
d?=rr. sta 
con trol 
nee a r. d 
pr edcDfi 



in 
ti 

iy 



i 

rra 
na 



t.h<- 

?£ i 

Ihe 

dc-^ 

v-:r, 

a rd 

thr 

his 

na 
n t 
r i p u 
nee 



f c u r. d 
n t h e 

s c c i -: 

£ a di 

a ID 

it i£ 
»9at +• 
i£ t he 
ithcut 

£ a L £ 

h € n a 
lat icn 

cf th-^ 



ITIC 

U n i 

ty 

rec 
ore 
cf 
c 

^r 

cv 

crt 

11 a 
c 



Gf L 

ted St 

a£ a w 

t atta 

sufct 

thp £ 
the i 
c wing 
f r 1 1 y 
ed an 

cf ef 
£ g re 
c vernir 



cth 
a t e £ 
h c 1 - 
ck c 

l€ 

ort 

Rteg 
pcwe 
irt- 
in 
f ici 
wr. 
ent 



fri 
, an 

ace 
cs.^ 
k i rd 
w h i c 
r it y 
I of 
rdi r 
cr^a 
€rcy 
hand 
f era 



vat-; 

d it 

epts 

upcn 

cf 

h is 

cf 

th-9 

g to 

3 i r. g 

A 

in 

ard 



u- 



r , 



stud y 

the l.i 

under 

cre-epi 

recent 

er.ce I 

centra 

academ 

(?Ialcc 

Baltiffi 

source 

versit 

purcha 

cies, 

lati v^ 

leges 

these 

educat 



warniiig of this £ccial trend was voiced ir a landmark 

cf th-e condition of the ftnerican university ccrducted ir 

te 195C'£ under the chaima r ship cf Tr. Pilfcn Eisenhower 

a "^crd fcundaticr. grant. The study de£crited a variety cf 

ng controls cr university £y£tairE which have appeared in 

years across the country. It warns that, "strict" adher- 

y institutions of higher learrirg tc a tewildering array cf 

liz'^d hureaucratic controls will ultiirately endanger the 

ic as well as the administrative treedcir cf the college" 

ffl r*!co£ and Francis £ . Fcurke, The Cai^us and__th;T State, 

ere: The Jchn Hopkins Press, 1959, p. 6.). Amcng the 

s cf growing ccntrcl£ which ircrea£irgly impinge cr uni- 

ies are state tudget offices, state auditors, ccmptrcllers, 

sing departments, personnel offices, central tuilding agen- 

and a variety cf elder forms cf ccntrcl, such as legis- 

riders, which are being used in new way£ tc affect col- 

and ur.i versifies. The infernal ecrttcl£ a££eciated with 

direct ffeans cfter exert an even £trcnger influence en the 

icnal process. 



Ihe study concludes 
higher education free trca 
interference is important net 
phere but also to the 
higher educnticr: 



t the oainterar.ee ef the system cf 
rca tnneee££ary bureaucratic and political 
nt net cnly tc a healthy acadeniic atmcs- 
doiiniEtrative ifficienc_y cf the £y£tein of 



Creative research, by it£ very nature, requires freedom 
tc move ic a different direction if the facts uncovered 
require it. The farther away tudget autncrity lies and 
the more time-consuming it is tc get permission for 



738 



KCKTANA CC^STIIU'"1ICNAL CCNVENTICN 



cuch chanyes, -^hs I'rss will Ye acccn f 1 is bed . He^earcb 
^nd instructicn dt the hiqher l'=vel£, ar*^ nc* services 
tcr which specif, icat icns car te written in advance, and 
for which CH'? St^eks the lowest bidder. Ihsy are Vfn- 
turt cif itdl iri v-^st mentf where one successful strike in 
a multitude, '^ith<-r ii; th° fcroi of a new ideal, or a 
trained individual capable cf frcducirg them, may spell 
thG dif f '^ renc-? between a tcrwa rd-trc virg cr a 
retrogrfidinq raticr. (p. 31f) 

Thr-; pcw?r to coordinate arc cferate the system of higher 
education is cr. ^ which belongs properly to an ir.fcraed beard cf 
regents who have the knowledge and ability to determine 
raticnally the course of high-?! pducation. Master plans have 
been suggested fcr the guidance cf higher educaticn in Kortar.a 
but nave failed tc D'D applied because cf a lack cf power en the 
part of tho board for th'3ir itrpleirent aticn . A board cf regents 
ea;pow = red tc carry cut its interned judgircnts kculd be an impor- 
tant force fcr efficiency in thp higher educaticnal system. 

It is this factor cf efficiency which is highligbtec in the 
study chaired by Lr. Eisenhcwer. The priaary ccnclusion of the 
study is that freedom actually enhances efficient operation of a 
university systetr: 

[TJhe fact that higher educaticn very largely owes its 
autcnomcus position in state gcvernnert tc the belief 
that freedcn: prccBctes rather than liitits efficiency. 



In the future th--re is ere point that colleges and uni- 
versities will need tc make to the public and its 
elected representatives very persuasively. This is 
simply that the goal of efficiency in higher education 
can b9 realized without ncneducat icnal officials inter- 
vening in the fiscal affairs cf colleges and universi- 
ties, (pf. ^^2, 318) 

Two factors in particular acd to the efficiency cf a university 
system which is relatively tree tc control its cwn affairs: 
Icnq-range planning and administrative decentralization. There 
is a clear need for a strong beard cf regents tc make long-range 
plans which are appropriate to the needs cf higher educaticn and 
free from sliort-t^rm political whims. The limits cf centraliza- 
tion in governoient operations have beccire apparent; particularly 
in such an unpredictable and flexible field as higher education, 
local and regional decisicn-making has deircnstrated a greater 
efficiency than have ultra-centralized Banageffent techniques. 



A board of regents which is giver the pcwer to control and 
manage its cwr affairs would enoraicusly improve the planning 
situation for higher education in Mcrtara. At present dupli- 
cation and inter-institut icnal rivalry for funds is the rule, 
Dnder the proposed system the board of regents wculd submit a 
unified budget to the legislature fcr action. Ccmpetiticn fcr 



Erluciticn and Futlic Ldncs Ccniritte«^ 



739 



f u r '1 s w h i c :i r. c w c c c u r s in t Ir- i "^ g i s 1 a '^ i v e halls w c u 1 i te received 
in ad vane-"- hy th- tea id, which wculd hdvt ir a ind a Lrcaf^ vifw cf 
high"! -rducaticr:. Siaila.cly, tY^ hccird vculd he in a position 



with krcwi'v^oM and aut Verity tc eliniirat t: 
CO uis-;s and other ;i;d:-avti£ ht. ich new 
Acdd-2ir.ic and administrative tiii-^ which 
multi-level Ludgetinq f.j:oc-;ss wculd bv 
concurring dir^cticr. ar.J oprra-*-ior. ct th-- 



wast-ful duplication cf 
drain university tunds. 
it new '« a £ t ■s c in a 
H tared. Hard decisions 
"ntir-:- urivcisi'-y sys- 



tem cculd be ffiad'i intelligently and cbjtrCtiv^ly by such a beard. 

i^ith tries- consider dticiiS in nind, tha coa'trittee has dcvcl- 
opr,'d th? piopcsai icr a tcard cl rec-^rts cf hiyhfi edi;caticn 
eaitodi€d in tr^cticn 11. 1ii~ p reposed heard weald fultill the 
requir-m-ants for sprciali^ a t ic n , frtedcir, and efticiency 
described abcv9. The beard would lav-e ccrpcrate status and wculd 
be charyed with the tuneticn cf eentrclling the acadeicic, finan- 
cial, and d'lfflinistr at iv-^ iifairs cf th-- flontan^ nnivcrsity sys- 
t s rn, . 1 h e .'3 e a r ^ t h ^: c n a r a c t e r i s t i c s and powers which such a board 
must n'-c'?ssariiy h ivi in crdtr tc be -effective in carrying cut 
the purposes ror which it is desiuned. 



ynatinq the beard ct r = q-er*:s a tody corporate, the 
int-.nds that the toard be ccnsid-ied a leqal entity 
has powers as a board rather than as individuals and which 
a s'l-parate administrative entity. With such 
status, ^-h? board gains a legal status appropriate to its task. 
One study nct-'s: 



In d = s i 
coffiffiitt^e 
which 
is perpetuated a 



fany wculd interpret the- granting of corporate status 
to i university as the highejst achievsnent and fullest 
reccyniticn of the independence of higher educaticr. 
Tt is an ackncwledgtten t cf the freedcu for objective 
xnquiry necessary for an institution cf higher educa- 
tion. [Hawaii, legislative Reierence bureau, Hawaii 

^2Ii2ii^yil££Si_££Iivert icn_S t uoies_t_3Lrt icle IX_: 1 duca- 

ticn iiiaE§£_Liy£3il2£ir Vol. 2, Bcrclulu: 196t^, p. 6.] 



As a Ccnstit 
be presumed to e 
affairs. F.xtensi 
tional status cf 
particular deter 
beard for a given 
ular history an 
cially Charles H. 
Lodders, Constit 

^SSi^iiSx report 
mittee, Montana C 



uticnal corporaticn, the board ct regerts wculd 
xeroise managerial ccrtrcl ever its own internal 
ve studies which have been done or the Ccnstitu- 
bcards of higher education indicate that the 
minatieii cf powers and responsibilities of a 
state depend tc a large degree en the partic- 
d academic structure in that state. (See espe- 
Cashffiore, Earry L. Hjcrt, and Fonald R, 

uticnal A uthcr iti_f cr_iii^he r_|d ucation2_A_Le5al 

submitted~tc the EduoaticE and Public Lands Ccoi- 
onstitut ic ra 1 Ccnventicn, 1971). 



It is interesting tc note that the Montana Constitution cf 
1884 named the board "Ihe Pegents of the University of Montana" 
and d-=signatfd it a "body ccrpcrate" [Art. lY, Sec. 12]. This 
language was changed when the concept cf the state bcarc was 
broacened in 1889 tc include j ur isdict icr cv^r ether state educa- 



740 



HCtJIANA CC^£^nL1ICNAL CCNVE^TIC^ 



ticnal ii:r-tituticii£, [Art. XI, 



Ccrstitcticn cf 188 5]. 



decl ar 
depa nt 

Vi Er 

court 
star 3. 
descri 
f uncti 
the b 

ItlOd'^ ti. 



I:d e L 

■9d t 

arr-o 

r^t" 
Iz 
ptic 
on c 
c a L fl 
, fr 



th5 

a a -^ , 

, ar, 
n, E 
rirod 



n 



01 



"t 

d i 

tc 

t ilG 
f 



1 f- 

an 

5= S 



un I 

d 

yst 



1st 

h'^ 

s I 

cnt 
tb 
cc 

d 5: 

V -r 

the 



boar 
ut a 
. Z\. 
; un 
irtrit 
tate 
sity 
or. 
cf h 



soc 
d c 
I; a 

■^ # 
iv<^ 

t = e 
he 

« 

i V-? 
igh 



ticn 11, th-^ ?^cntand Suct'?ine Court has 
f educaticr. is a fart cf the executive 
cer.cy cf th^ state gcvcrnBipnt" (Sl^tf 
2C9 [1929]). In the san"= opinicr, the 
rsity as the "de ve Icpaiv-nt arm" cf the 
•e vievi that this is ret ar adequate 



ard c : 



ey-nts ncr cf the character cr 



Iht^ prcfcsed s^jcticn would establish 
rsity systeni ir. rcies affropriate tc a 
er ecucaticr. 



Ihe board of reger^ts is alsc giarted supervising and coordi— 
natirg pcvi-?rs ever ether institutions cf higher educaticr as nay 
be assigned by law. This distircticr between beard powers with 
respect to the university systeir and other institutions cf higher 
education is or particular iirpcrtarce tc ccminunitj colleges, 
which are pres-=ntly ccntrolled by local beards. The language 
leaves flr-xibility tc the l-^gislature to respond tc future 
develcpiients in higher educaticr. The iroffbership and termj: cf 
the beard are identical tc those cf the beard cf public ecuca- 
tion; however, in contrast tc the Icwer beard, the beard of 
regr-nts is au-i-.horized to appoint its own executive officer. 



Eta 
lea 
rem 
the 
res 
pr? 
aga 
inv 
Ian 
and 



e c 1 1 o n 
t e u r i 
rning , 
ain in 
y wer 
pect iv 
scri be 
inst 
ested 
ds or 
pert e 



12. 
vers 
fr 
vicl 
e d 
ely 
d by 
loss 



STA 
ity 
Off w 
ate 
edic 
i rv^ 
law 
or 
t 



fund 
prop 

t u a t i c n 



erti 



TZ UMIVEPSITY FUNDS, 
and cf all other sta 
hatever source accru 
and sacred tc the p 
ated. The various 
sted under such regu 
, and shall be guara 

diversion. Ihe 
oget her with the r 
es shall be devoted 
of these respective 



The funds cf the 
te irstituticcs cf 
ing, shall fcrever 
urpcse for which 

funds shall be 
laticrs as may be 
nteed by the state 
interest of said 
erts frciD leased 
tc the maintenance 
instituticns. 



CCKKiNIS 



This section remains unchanged freer section 12 of the exist- 
ing Constitution. This provision has worked well ir prctecting 
the funds of the university system, and it is ir accord with the 
conditions n^andated in The Enabling Act for lands granted the 
university. 



filuratxcn .ui'] t-utlic Larcr, Cctraittpr: 



741 



MINCFI'n rrctcsAL 



BE IT PuCPOSii; PY TF'Z ECUCA1ICN A .N C P C E 1 1 C II\1<LS CCCM1TFE: 

That tbe fcllcioiny £;;cticn replace s'cticr 3 ct th- Educa- 
ticn diri Eublic Ian 'Is ^:aJC^lty Prcfc^al: 



AR1TCIE 
EEOCAIICi't 



Socticr, 3. Tho f:ui:lic schccl iurd shall forever t'^raain 
inviclat>^, Ihe puLlic Gciicoi fund aad th= funds cf the state 
univ-::rsity and cf ail cth:r state irstituticns cf learnirq, frcir 
whatever source iccruinq, shall te sdf^ly ard ccr £?r va ti v^l y 
invested in public securities v>ith the state, or in bends o± the 
United Sta-^es, or in ether securities fully cuara!;tGed as tc 
principal ar.d in tertst cy tr- Uri-^ed States, cr in oth^r such 
sate investffi'; n t s bearing a fixed rate cf irter^^st, as iray be pre- 
scribed ty law. 



^s/_i.lc^d_F!ai,naru 



/s/_K3rjcrie_Cain 



/p/_Rcber t_Nchle 



742 



['.C{.7ANA CCNSTIlUTICh AL CC^\(E^TICK 



CC?5KF.NT£ Ct; l'INC?ITi fSCECSAL 



SFIICLE 



i: C U C M I C N 



.eirai 



cf 
t u 
£h 

3 iC 
c + 

ct 

in 



all 
cur 

inc 
her 
ter 



Sect 
r. i I. V 

tlv s 
n? of 

le 

iti- c 
s , o 

ipal 

£UC 



IC 

ic 



3 r 

h 

as 



n ■ . 
1j^.? 

tf: u 

earn 
a 111 

ith 

in 
d in 

sat 



. T 
ii i V e 
ing , 
y an 
the 
c f n e 



be 



': i-utlic £chccl 
h<i putlic sc heel 
rsity ar. d cf all 
frcir wha-*:hver 
d ccr.s-r vat ively irvaste^i m p 
state, cr in bends cf the U 
r securities fully guaranteed 
St ty the Urited States, o 
nvtstirer.ts teaiir. g a fixed la 
piescrited by law. 



fund shall ± c 
f u rd and the 
ether state i 
scurce accr 
ir vested in 



re ver 
f urds 
rsti- 
u i r g , 
ublic 
n i 1 6 d 
as t c 
r in 
te CI 



C C K r^ i; K I S 



rest! 

funds 
the i 

excep 
funds 
insta 
of g 
distr 
feels 
thcs ; 



A mi 
ic ti 
, r, 
nves 
t t 
to 

nC3, 

ro wt 

lets 

th 

put 



ncr I 

ens 

ever 

tmei, 

hos':- 

c G rr t: 

if 
h c 

upc 

i t 

lie 



she 
the 
t c 
a 
i 
tLe 
ver 
r; a 
the 

fun 



et t 
uld 
less 
f sc 
dopt 
rte 
inv 
th 
11 in 

■)CS Vi 



h~ cciDTiittee f^els that, although urnecessary 
te refficved frctr th? investment of state 
, security sust te the prsdctrirant factor in 
heel furds. Ic eliipinate all restrictions 
ed by statute would te te allow the schccl 
possible jeopardy, in the case cf, for 
estffltnt tcard were to eirphasize the principle 
at cf security. 2vis tc the reliance cf Iccal 
sured scurce cf yearly funding, the cinciity 
-a test precautions rrust te taken in securing 
hich are devcted tc the support cf education. 



The oiincrity, therefore, proposes that specific restrictions 
to guarantee the secure investment ct schccl funds te included 
under secticr 3 cf the picpcsed nefc article. Ibis irtenticn also 
requires a nioditication cf th-^ proposed article on investKents. 
The addition of the phrase "net cther>«is^ Constitutionally 
restricted" ailcws the r eguireirients specified in the tcincrity's 
proposed section 3 cf the new Education article to be fulfilled. 



Edacaticri and Putlic lar. fl£ Cciiritte- 



743 



^'.INCFIIY EFCrCSAI 



BE n FBCirCSiC 



I hat the icllcwircj te futstituter} 



CI 



secticr 6 cf th? 



Majcrity troccsdl cf th€ .'iducaticr. and Public Lanls Ccunci'tte. 



Sec 
N€ith 
town, 
i5 h a 1 1 
any 
cf ii 
any s 
s c h c c 
c the r 
whole 
wha te 
t sdtr 
f uxpo 



tl 



PU 

lid 
ec 

■^ / 

i 

ve 
al 



CD 

th 

r £ 
V- r 
hli 

t 

tar 

a 

1 t -9 

cr 
r . 



t o: 



6. 
6 l.ig 
chocl 

osaKe 
c fur 
r cth 
lan t 
cadeff 
lary, 

in 

This 
curc-r 

d ist 



AID 
isla 
lis 

dir 

d C 

--r p 
uri;c 

sci 

t-art 

sec 

s E 
r ibu 



rac 

tive 
trie 
.ctl 

I ffC 

rcF^ 

^ # 

ECiri 
tnt i 

ty 

ticn 
rcvi 

ticn 



I-i 1 E I T 

ass ; 

t , CI 

y any 

r. ies 

rt y i 

CI t c 

naiy , 

fie i 

a L y c 

shal 

ded t 

tc r. 



EI TC 
(Ttly, 
ether 
apFic 
fchatev 
r. aid 
aid i 
cell 
rsr itu 
h u I c h , 
1 net 
c the 
cr-f uh 



S 5 C 1 A 
r any 
ublic 
iat i c 
, cr 
any 
th- £ 



r.c 

er 
cf 
r 

^^ 

ti 

ap 

tt 

lie ecu 



on, 
ec t 
cly 

at5 



F I A N 

cou 

CCI 

i:, c 
Hake 
chur 
uf pc 
rive 
cent 
r de 
c f 
cr t 
cat i 



SC 

nty, 
pora 
r pa 
any 
ch. 
It o 
rsi t 
rcll 
roK 
u n d £ 
he € 
cr. 



liCOIS. 

city, 
t i o n £ , 
y f iciD 

grant 
CI f ci 
f any 
y, cr 
id ir 
n a t i c n 
f rcffi 
xf re s£ 



^s^_G^ne_Har tau^h 



/£^_Jch n_Tcc 1; 



^£^ £2£__ii3Ilili2ISIl 



744 



MCt^!TANi\ CCNSTITU7TCNA1 CC^VEKTICK 



Secti 

N cither 

t C V. Ti , C 

shall - 
a r y vnl 
c f 1 a li i 
a r; y s r 
G c ii c c 1 , 

p •(- V, i 1- 

wbol-: o 
i(i h a t £ V e 
federal 



c n c 

the 
r sch 

V -^ L III 

lie t 

t CI 

c t a r i 
aca 

liter 
r i r. 
r . 
scur 

oi d 



AID 
1 *; gisla 
ool dis 
ak€ dir 
u n ri c r 
cthvr p 
an F u r f 
deir y , 
ary, s 
p a 1 1 by 
This s 
C££ pre 
i s t r i fc u 



tECHI 
t i V t a 
t r i c t , 
r c 1 1 y 
IT c n i t £ 
report 
cz^. , c 
seir ira 
cienti 

any c 
ect icn 
vidcd 
t icn t 



EIIE 
££e tt 

cr 
ary 

whd 
y in 
r tc 

ry, 
fie 

huic 

sh d 

tc t 

c nc 



[ 1 
tly, 
cth»= 
appi 

teV'r 

ai J 

did 

ccl 

ir.st 

11 n 

he £ 
n-pu 



re I 

r pu 
cpii 
r, c 

cf 

in 
Ifciye 
itut 
sect 
ct a 
tate 
blic 



ECTA 
any 
tlic 
at ic 
r ir a 
any 
th.5 

, u 

icr, 

c r 

pply 

fcr 

edu 



B JAK 

ccDn t 

ccr pc 
n , cr 
ke an 
church 
supper 
rivers 

c c Ii t r 
derc 

tc f u 
the 
e a t i c p 



SCFC 

rati 
pay 

y q 

, CI 

t cf 

ity, 

Cll€ 

inina 
nds 



CIS. 

ity, 

CT-£ , 

f r c n 

rant 

fcr 

any 

cr 

d in 

ticn 

f r c t[ 

r c-£s 



CCi«?1EN'IS 



A Diincrity of thf coaimittee proposes that the secticn 8 cf 
the prese-nt Ccnstity t ion be (ccdifisd ty deleting the Vtcids "cr 
indii-^ctly" rrcir the first serterce and that a new sentence te 
added at th-^ eni of ttie secticn tc read as fcllcws: "This 
section shall net apply tc funds freer federal scarces provided to 
the state ror the express purpose of distrituticn tc ncrpublic 
educa t icn. " 



T 
body 
o p p o r t 
victic 
ise, u 
pretec 
in n o n 
and £ 
second 
tctal 
stud en 
higher 



he !r 
cf 

unit 
n 
nles 
t th 
puhl 
e c c n 
ary 
cf 2 
ts 
lea 



men 
the 
y for 
f the 

S EOtD 

e rig 
ic Gd 
dary 
s t u d e 
,775 
of th 
r r i n g 



ty su 
ff a j c r 
all 
[Pine 
e pre 
hts c 

UCdti 

£ t U '1 

nts c 
s t u d e 

e sta 



bscri'ces tc the pcsiticn expressed in the 
ity prcpesai in which equality cf educaticral 
is stated as a prinary goal. It is the ccn- 
rity that this goal aircurts to a hcllCK prcit- 
visicn is [cade in cur Constitution vthich will 
f that sector ot cur society which is engaged 
en. There are presently 11,645 elementary 
ents, cr 6.3? cf the tctal elementary and 
f the state enrolled in ncrpublic schools. A 
nts, or IC? of the tctal higher education 
te, are enrolled in ncrpufclic instituticrs cf 



Tt is coroBion knowledge that nany nonpublic institutions are 
facing extreir? difficulties in financing their in£ titutions. 
Nationally, in 195C over 5C percent of university and college 
students were enrolled in nonpublic institutions. In 1969 this 
figure had dropped tc 28 percent. Mary ncnputlic elementary and 
secondary schools are also being forced to close. 

Due to schcol closures, since 1964-65 the number cf students 
enrolled in nonpublic eienettary and secondary schccls in fortana 
has dropped fron 19,878 te 1C,579, a cut in enrollment cf almost 
half. In -t-he same period 22 of the previous tctal cf 64 ncr- 
public schools were forced tc close their dccrs. (See Appendix 
G) . 



In 



an 



age when the state exercises vast eccncnic powers and 



Ed'icdticn and Public Tanas Cc(riritt = e 



745 



when inflaticnary fressuiss are risinc, the hci-es fci the sur- 
vival cf ary ncnpublic oducational instituticns becco'? ircreas- 
inqly diir. 



ana 

revs 

surv 

Firs 

rasu 

16C 

The 

inent 

incr 

11,7 

perm 

incl 

th£ 

the 

educ 

iffiat 

savi 



T 

d 

nu 

IV 

4- 

It 

nt 

J 
ad 



67 

is 
ud 
su 

at 
el 



h^ r :^ 
ivsrs 
e tha 
e th 
Amend 
inq 

clcs 
u r i c r 
dit io 
ct s 
3^ in 
, 6 ^ \, 
SI ve 
€ th 
Fpcit 
stima 
ed in 

y 55, 

s tc 



suit 

ity, 
n wc 
rcuq 
meat 
from 
inq 

hi 
nal 
tude 

tax 

eve 
1-^ vy 
9 ad 

ot 
ted 

non 

ceo, 

taxp 



1 £ 

b 
uld 
h 



or 
qh 
CCS 

nts 

ba 

r t 

dit 
the 
sav 
pub 

oco 

aye 



not 
ut a 

th^ 
An - 
he 
pare 

£t u 
ts w 
fr 
£e 

be p 
oted 
icn a 

add 
i n 9 s 
lie 

P9r 
r £ i 



onl 
Isc 
the 

typ 
xair f 
clcs 
chia 
dent 
hich 
em 
has 
ast 

anic 

1 CO 

it ic 
tc 

elem 

ye a 

s in 



y a d 
a siq 
case 
•;£ c 
le cf 
inq c 
1 sch 
s; 33 

re£ u 
ncnpu 

teen 
three 
unt , 
St tc 
nal s 
state 
e n t a r 
r . 
elude 



em a 

r. if i 
if t 
t ai 
the 
f nc 
eels 

fc cl 

Ited 
blic 
es 
-yea 
and 

the 
tude 

tax 
y a r 
A t 
d in 



1 cf 

cant 
he 
ds p 

ine 
rp ut 

(33 
eoie n 

in 

tc 
t i na 
I ce 
defi 

£ta 
nt£ . 
faye 
d se 
a b 1 e 

App 



ed 
ly q 
£ch c 
er ir i 
reas 
lie 
U h 
tary 
Hele 
publ 
ted 
ricd 
cien 
te f 

In 
r£ r 
ccnd 

sh 
ndi 



ueat 

reat 

els 

tted 

ed c 

£c he 

iqh 

St 
na f 
ic £ 

tc 

{ba 
ey) . 
curd 

the 
esul 
ary 
cwin 
X H. 



icral 

er dra 

were 

under 

csts t 

c Is is 

£choc 

u d e n t s 

rem th 

chools 

te a 

sed en 

Thi 

at icn 

sta te 
tinq f 
school 
g the 



cppe 
in cr 

alio 

th»i 
c ta 

that 

1 St 

) in 
e di 

with 
Pf rox 

bend 
s dc 

free 

a£ a 
rcff £ 
£ is 
sta 



rt unity 

public 

*i e d to 

federal 

xpayers 

cf the 

udents ; 

Relena. 

splaee- 

cut any 

irrate 1 y 

i££ue , 

6£ net 

ram fer 

whole 

t u d e n t £ 

approx- 

te- wide 



ticn 



In 
as 



I time when the naticn's ccurts are in£i£ting on edu 
fundamental and ta£ic right, and that equality cf e 
cational opportunity be niea£ured by a ccrre£pending equality 
financial expenditure, it is incengrucus tc retain a Ccr£-^i 
ticnal stdteinen-^ that iriqht deprive a siqnificant segment cf 
studert£ cf any aid available which might help te equalize th 
educa-'- ional eppcrturity. 



Educaticn is by it£ very nature a public purpc£e. This is 
tha reascn why the £tate involves itself sc fully in accrediting 
and setting standards for teth public and ncnpublic £chool£. 
The ability cf a student to receive a £ecular education should 
not be haapered by his reliqicus cr ether beliefs. Incidental 
aid which might accrue to reliqieu£ly ccrnected instituticns 
should net preclude the niajcr benefit tc the child of the receipt 
of an education, any mere than reliqicu£ly affiliated hospitals 
should be denied public assistance because of pcssible indirect 
aid te a church. 

Section 6 of the existinq Ccrstituticn is atncng the trcst 
restrictive, if not the mo£t restrictive, £uch Constitutional 
prevision in the nation. In addition tc a ccaplete tan listing 
all possible sources of public aid tc sectarian schools cr for 
sectarian purposes (which is identical te the most strirqently 
worded provisions in several ether states) , the Montana prevision 
adds the words "directly or indirectly". This precludes even the 
kind cf student benefit aid which has teen accepted by the Fed- 
eral Supreme Ceurt. 



It is the belief of the lainority that the language ccctained 



746 



hCMi>K;s CCKSllIC'I ICNAL CONVEf^TICN 



in ScC-.icn 
g a n t a r. d c c 



c ct the i^res-nt Ccrstituticr. is uroecessarily strin— 
t. s a serious thr-.at, -to th? ^ducat icral rights cf stu- 
dents a tt •ending r.crpublic -educational irstitutic.ns. Th3 
financing of education in Aieiica ir th^ tutur-^ is in a stat€ ct 
tlux, ^.ut ther-: is cvir^iy indicaticr. that the f-deral governraent 
will baccoi'? increasingly invclvf^ii. A recf-r- 
National Educational tinanct t-rcject concludes: 



study t y the 



Vhat-evtr fedeLal grants are aade ir ti.e days ahead, 
th'^y ihculd net ty-pass state gcverrirerts; instead, 
t^dcral qrmts for public schccls should tc irade tc the 
Stat" educational agency for allccaticn tc local 
schools in acccrdance hith state flans. (National Edu- 
cational Finance Ercjrct, Eutur^_Lir ect icns_ tcr__Schcc 1 
Zil}§I!£iiiH » '-■^ainesvil 1-i , Flcrica: 1971, f. 35.) 



Shouli rPVtnue sharing, blcck grants, and oth^r forms cf 
fed-iial financing, y-jt tc t€ devised, fall within the joiisdic- 
ticn cf state ccntrcl, ncn public educaticnal institutions might 
be seriously affectTd if such funds had tc b? restricted in 
accordance' with the r-gulaticns cf the present section b. 



syst? 

ciple 

point 

g u a r a 

ment 

That 

clear 

these 

in it 

iicn-e 

a.s. 

which 



In re 
rr lest 

of se 
out 
n 1 1 e s 

has a 

i n t e r p 

deti 

w h i c n 
s m c s t 
ntangl 

6 2) 

state 



ply t 

state 

par ati 

that 
tie en 
back- 
re ta ti 
n i t i o n 
a re n 
1 9 c e n 
^ B-nt 
the Ch 
d: 



c t 
aid 

en 
th-: 

f crc 

log 

on h 
cf 

ot. 

t ca 

and 

ief 



hcse wh 

to par 

f churc 

First 
eirent c 
cf a Irrc 
as cvol 
the t 
1 h e p r 
ses en 
state n 
Justice 



c an 
Gchi 

bar 
A Hi e n 
f th 
s-^ 2 
Vfc d 
ypes 
iiiar 
the 
eutr 
tur 



€ tearf 
al inst 
d state 
d m € n t 
at pr in 
CI year 
through 
of aid 
y c c n c € 
subject 
al ity 
ger gav 




the years to a rather 
which ate pernissitle and 

rns expressed by the Court 
are en the principles cf 
In Le[[cr_v_s__Kur t2irar (U03 

e th; opinion cf the Ccurt 



Cur prior holdings do ret call for total separation 
between church aiid state; total separation is net pos- 
sible in an absolute sense. , . .Judicial caveats 
against entanglement must recognize that the line cf 
separation, far froa being a "wall," is a blurred, 
indistinct and variable barrier depending on all the 
circumstances of a particular relationship. . . . 



the governirert 
with religicc is excessive, we must exani- 



In order to determine whether 

entanglemert 

in? the character and purposes of the instituticns 

which are benefited, the nature ct the aid that the 

State provides, and the resulting relationship tetweer 

the governirent and the religicus authority. (Id. at 

7 5 6-7 5 7) 



In this case the ccurt ruled that state subsidized salaries 
for teachers cf secular subjects ir parochial schools violated 



EducaticL and Putlic lands Ccimittee 



747 



this t;rir.cipl3 ct ncr- j r tdcglsacr t and 
able ds a foim ct dii. 



thGicfcre Mas net accspt- 



Ihe nsir.crity proposal is in acccrd hith the principlfs set 
forth in ths First AiierdEsn t. fchat is at stake ir the nir.crity 
prcpcsal is rot separation cf church and state, khich is ar issue 
of basic rights already delineated by -t-he Federal Constitution 
and federal courts, tut rather th- issue cf crxcuraging ecuality 
of ecucational c pj c r t uni ty . 

Finally, the minority wishes tc take th? position that the 
language of the existing section 8 is rigid ard inflexitle, and 
is rot in keeping with chancing legal irter preta tiers nor 
fluxuatirg social patterns. In order to protect cur heritage cf 
pluralism ard foster the principle cf egual educational oppor- 
tunity, th:e irinciity report urges adcpticr ct its rtcpcsal. 



748 



fCNTANA CCiNSTIIUIICNAl CC^\/E^TICN 



BE II PHCPOSIi: EY IHE EDL'CAIICN AI^C PUELIC LANES CC^rI1•lEE: 

"i hat tliT-re h-r: a v.sv Article cr ri:tlic Lands tc E-?ad as fol- 
ic ws : 

ARTICLE 
EUELIC LANES 



S-ct: 



the St 
state 
devisr' 
th€ 
posed 
which 
none o 
ever L 
for s 
estate 
as [ca 
state ; 
the U 
and ai 
th^ ir 
t h e r e o 
shall 
ner pr 
othtir 
cicsel 



by 
, fr 
♦•-at ■:; 
of a 

t b - 
f su 
<? di 
uch 

or 

Y i-: 
ncr 
r.ite 
r. itru 
a r n € 
t, V 

be 
f?scr 
Ian 
y as 



en 1 
r, haz 

c c I: g 
crL m 
, end 
s h=r 
y ha 

C II 1 .1 

s c c s e 

d isp 

iii t'ii 

5 pr 

sbal 

d St 

m pr i 

r u r, 

i t i. o u 

class 

ibed 

is, 

pest: 



. P'- 
h a V fc 
r-3s, 
y oer 
t- n a 1 
e.ifte 
V- be 
rd , r. 
d of 

£ i t i 
•: s t d 
cv id^^ 

1 any 
jt^s 
Cc ar 
d tc 
t ths 
if ied 
by la 
pub ii 
itle 



FLIC 
be-n 
ar. 
sor. 
1 be 
r pr 
-■n o 
cr a 
?xce 
on , 
ispo 
i b 

Ian 

(ii: 
e so 
r a 

con 

by 
w. 

c or 
€ .] u a 



Li\ 

d a 

cr c 

tiel 

c V i d 
r 11 d 
ry 6 
pt i 
n 3 r 

y 1 

ds V* 
any 
pre 

^ le 

sent 

the 

Any 
pr i 

1 in 



t'. D 1 

t :^. a t 
11 la 
c r p c r 
d ir. 
ed , f 
y be 
state 
r pur 
unl 
of , t 

h ich 

case 
scrib 
ast t 
of t 
boar d 
of sa 
V a t e , 
area 



DSl, EI 
ay here 
ds acqu 
t i o ri , s 
rust tc 
r the r 
r a r. t e d , 

cr i 
u a n c e c 
s £ the 

be asc 
e paid 
he st at 
i r. % h ic 
G) be d 
e pricH 
e Erite 
c f land 
d lands 
which a 



SECS 
af te 
i red 
ball 
r th 
? sp e 

dcr. 
rt^r 
f ge 
full 
er ta 
cr s 
e he 
h tb 
ispc 

pre 
d £ 

ecu 

IT ay 



II 
r 
b 
b 
e 

ct 
at 
•-^ s 
ne 

IT 

i r 
af 



ICN 
be 
y 'i 

f&C 

ive 

e J 

L 

r al 
ark 
ed 
ely 



1 cs 



£C 

ta 
D i 



equ 



ff an 

d, 
rib 

tGS 

ssi 

be 
al 



qra 
ift 
ubl 
pie 

cr 
th-. 
la 

'3t 

ic 

se 
by 
ner 

cf 
ed 

• 

ere 
ex 
in 



All 
nted 

cr 
ic 1 
, to 
ur pc 
de vi 
rein 
ws p 
valu 
such 
cur ^ 

era 

of 

€X 

in t 
Sai 
rs i 
Chan 
valu 



lands of 
t c the 
Grant or 
arcs cf 
be dis- 
ses f c r 
s e d ; and 
, shall 
rcvidir.g 
€ of the 
tr. a n n 6 r 
d tc the 
r t f rcir 
d isposa 1 
ce p t in 
be q r a r t 
d lands 
r a Clan- 
ged for 
e a r d as 



^s^_Llcid_Earnard_ 
/£^_Mar jci.ie_Ca i n_ 

^s/_Carl_Cavis 

/s^_Car_Har r in_g ten 



/s/_E ichar G_C ba]r£cu X 
C h a i r a a r. 

ZiZ_2£tcr t_Ncble 
Vice Chairitan 



/£/_ ^:ax_C2nover 

Z§Z_52£f -lill^au^h 

^s/_Fcber t_ Weed man se^ 



Iifluca "-icri and I-ufclic lar.ds Ccnnittae 



749 



^s/_Jchri_lcclf 



750 



KCwIANA CCf.SlITUTICNiAL CC^V£^IICN 



CCKhiiNTS CN MAJCi-1'iY ESCECSAl 



SPCticn 1. PilbllC lANC 
Idr. ds of tn- st3^^ *-hJt ha-v 
he q r a li r ; d to the- h t a t •; 
dcquii'9d by qil. t ct qraut c 
ccr],oriticr, shall he futli 
ob.Ul t? h--ld in +ru£t fc 
cf as hfcre after rrcvi<i£d, £ 
tor which th^y havc tt*£n c 
(5»^vis';,]; and ncr? ci such 
i n t f- r i £: ^- t L ^ r (i i ii , shall <= 
p u r b '] 1 r. c ^r f g e n ■; £ a 1 laws t 
ticn, ncr ucl^si^ tht hull m 
interact d i £ f c £ ^ d c f , t c t 
as ffay ha provided hy law, 
ih'r st=it.-":; nor s!-, all ary la 
qrart frcni tht !);ii-^'=d Statt 
iflanner of disposal arid 
scribed) b-a dispos'^-d of, ex 
at least th6 price pr-;£ 
without th3 ccnsenr of the 
shall hri cJ. assititd by th'^ 
1 r a ai a r. R e I p r e s c r i h t d L y 1 
htr exchanq^-d ror ether Ian 
are equal in value and as c 
area. 



IFU'^T, CTStCSI'rTO^J. All 
e he en ci that nay hereafter 
ty ccrgress, and all lands 
r devise, frca any ferscn cr 
c lands cf th? state, and 
r tht pec fie, -^c be dispcsed 
cr tiie t-jsp^ctive purposes 
r way he granted, derated cr 

lard, ncr ai:y estate cr 
v:-r he disposed of except in 
rcvidirg fcr such disposi- 
ar)<et value cf the estate cr 
e ascertained ic such Banner 
be paid cr safely secured tc 
nds which the' state holds ty 
£ (in any case in which the 

ffiniouti price are sc pre- 
c-.ft in the iranner and fcr 
ctibed in the giant thereof. 

Unite.] States. Said lands 

beard cf land ccminissicners 
avi. ,'\ry cf said lands way 
ds, public cr private, khich 
Icsely as possible e^ual in 



CCKf^ENIS 



Stat 

the 



In testimcny en the issue cf public lands, officials cf The 
Lard Dcard descrihed public lards as ticst lands held ty 
state and stated that the inccrce derived frcB these lands is 
credited to the state school turd cr ether respective purjcse fcr 

aintaired that there ' ~ 



land has 



oi; 



IS 



state 

granted. Spcrtscrer 
ct public access tc public lands. 

eral witnesses en existing and prcpcsed ccaragenient 



which said 

a lack 

heard trcni seve 

practices en public lands. 



The ccmaittee also 



T 
Act Cf 
the c 
tc sta 
public 
p r V i d 
to the 
ity, 
in The 
pretat 
"large 
state" 



ho c o Di m i t 
18fi9 in d 
oiPttittee 
te lands i 
lands a 
e d in the 

mandate o 
te raised. 
[r££cn_ v^_P 
i c n and 
st iieasure 
remains 



tec too 
rafting 
that th 
s the d 
s held 
t a r IB s o 
t The E 
Th2 " 
abcock 
specif i 

cf leg 

open 



k in 
its 
e pr 
esig 
ir t 
f th 
rabl 
gene 
(147 
cati 
i till 
to 



to acco 
pr cpcs 
i in a r y C 
nation 
rust by 
e grant 
i n g Act 
ral put 

Kent, 
er . I 
ate and 
further 



unr the iia 
a 1 . It is 
crstitutic 

c f state 

the state 
A d in i 1 1 e 

has and k 
lie henefi 
46) requir 
he quest ic 

reason abl 
determin 



ndat 
the 

cal 
re 
tc 

dly, 

ill. 

t" r 
es 

E cf 

e a 

a tic 



e cf 
gen 
issu 
Efcn 
be d 

SCITi 

in 
otic 
cent 

jus 
d van 
n. 



The 
era 1 
e wi 
siti 
ispc 
e di 
all 
n a r 
inua 
t Kb 
tage 
The 



F ta 

vie 

th r 

lity 

ECd 

sput 
prcb 
ticu 
1 i 

at i 

tc 

ccttn 



tling 
V cf 
egard 

fcr 
of as 
e as 
atil- 
lated 
rter- 
£ the 

the 
ittee 



E'iucdtion and tufciic Lards Ccniritt^e 



751 



emph^isizes tho £ir«jular mandate in The 5ratlirq Act thet th? 
lands granted in sycticr 1C were "tcr the suppcrt cf ccmmcn 
schccls," Th-^ pircpcsal emtcdies a fundamental ptctecticr cf 
these lands entrusted to the state so that theii disfcsiticn vill 
be in accordance viitL ths greatest public berefit, ccrPBiersuratG 
with th^ purposes for which the lands wer? granted. 



Cons 

powe 

need 

the 

the 

for 

for 

land 

June 

with 

fiver 

nati 

of 

now 



Ihi 
titu 

rs, 
fo 

CC fl D 

Cons 
sue 

f l9X 

man 

30 

aim 

y Y 

en w 

its 

r'^ap 



s prcpc 
t iona 1 
and pro 
r scun 
ittee d 
tit utic 
h acti 
ibili ty 
ageni'^nt 
, 197C, 
est 53 , 
e -:i r . 
hich ha 
f edera 
s d sub 



sal e 
iret 

V i d i n 
d an 
elega 
n to 
en a 
. Th 
is t 
i52, 
C00,0 
H c n t a 
s bee 
lly 
stant 



xpre 

bed 
g f o 
d *-f 
ted 

th.3 

r- ( 

-3 ec 
erne 
9C7, 
10 d 
na 

n wi 
gran 
ial 



ES€3 

cf 
r ne 
f ic i 
this 
Ecar 
1) s 
cncoi 

cut 
243 
clla 
rensa 

ted 
incc 



the 
ser 
eded 
ent 

res 
d cf 
ucce 
ic s 

ty 

dell 
rs c 
ins 
ncug 
sche 
m'= f 



ecu 
virc 

fie 
nana 

pens 
lar. 

ucce 
the 
ars 
cirin 
one 
h tc 
cl 1 
ron: 



It! itte 
pub 
xi bil 
geaen 
ibili 
d Cctn 
f pre 
ss cf 
fact 
in it 
g ir 
cf tw 
re ta 
a rds 
such 



lie 
ity. 

t cf 

ty i 

iriss 
sent 
the 
that 
s pe 
en 
c or 
in a 
and 
land 



view 

ir.tere 
Ccnvi 

state 
n aneth 
icners . 

system 

p resen 

the St 

r IT a n e n t 

defer 

thrae 
lircst 
which, 
s f cr s 



cf th 
et, g 
need 
school 
er sec 
The 

and ( 
t s y s 
ate ha 

schcc 
red p 
states 
the e 
as a 
chccls 



€ b e s *■ 
ranting 
cf the 

lands, 
ticn cf 

irer it s 
2) need 
t eir cf 
d as cf 
1 fund, 
a y ir, e n t s 

in the 
r t irety 
result. 



fie a 

Mcnt 

sens 

ecus 

give 

powe 

sar y 

pro V 

were 

The 

rigi 



Th"^ 
ticn 
ana, 
e o 
ti^u 
r th 
r to 
. T 
ide 
pr?^ 
com 
d Cc 



com 
of 

a2n 
f t 
ticn 
e au 

cha 
he c 

fla 
sent 
iritt 
est i 



rr.it te 
Ian 
d S-iS 
he le 
al Co 
thcri 
ngc t 
cmmit 
xiLil 
ed tc 
ee c 
tutie 



e decid 
d elas 
sicn, 1 
g i s 1 a t u 
n vent 10 
ty to g 
hese cl 
tee agr 
ity in 

the cc 
a r for 
nal ela 



ed 

c, c c 



to 



97 1 
re 
n t 
ran 
ass 
ees 
IE an 
ffioii 
e se 
s s i 



de 
He 
, Vol 
in th 
bat t 
t mul 
if ica 
with 
age ne 
ttee 
6 en 
f icat 



let 
use 
. 1 

€ te 
be b 
tipl 
ticn 
the 
nt c 
in o 
ly t 
icrs 



th 
Jcin 

1, 

r IT e 
card 
e us 
s as 
int 
f pu 
ppcs 
enef 



e Const ituticral speci- 
t Rescluticn #32 (Laws of 
p. 17C9) expressed the 
f a r eccmniendat ic r tc the 

cf Land Commissicners be 
e class if ieaticcs and the 

the beard deeded neces- 
ent cf this rescluticn tc 
blic lands. No arguments 
iticn tc such a change, 
its in the eliirinaticn ef 



The ether area cf change in the article was the irclusicn cf 
the sentence, "Any ef said lands nay te exchanged fer ether 
lands, public er private, which are equal in value and as closely 
as possible egual in area." Due to the fact that The Enabling 
Act was amended in 1932 te provide lor such an exchange of lands, 
the cemmittee prcpcses a Ccnstituticn that contains a provision 
consistent to the amended Enabling Act. Several witnesses 
pointed cut the advantages which wculd accrue tc the state from 
the ability to make judicicus exchanges tc consolidate state 
holdings. 



The comirittee also eliminated secticrs 2 ard 3 ef 
ing Ccnstitution, Article XVII, en the grounds that 
been made obsolete by the proposed rew language. 



the exist- 
they have 



It summary, the ccmnittee has retained almost the entire 
first section, of the Public Lands Article (Article XVII) cf the 
present Constitution, with the inclusicn ef "exchange" of state 



752 



M0^1ANA cc^s^I1u^IC^AL cc^VENTIc^ 



lands to add m injcrtart iraragtrial i-cw^rr. Ihe ccnirittee chose 
tc tliuiii.at-- Cor.stitu'^icnal classificdtions fcr state lands due 
to th? need roc flexitility. sections 2 anl '^ were eliirinated 
because th-y ar>^ otscl€t€ cl an n.atttrs cf furely legislative 
concti n. 



"lucaticn an'i Tutlic l^r;C£ Ccmitt-^e 



753 



^AJCbITY EFCECS/M 

BE II PUCECSLC fcY THI HEUCmCN ANT PIIPIIC LANES CCirKITTEF: 
That tn='r-= b: a n - u Article en I ivest irc r ts to read as tcl- 



lows : 



ABTICLi: 

I^VI;f:7^•F^T3 

S 6 c t i n 1 . U :■) I F 1 E l; I N V E £ i »^ t n t r r- c g :- a f . I h -; l f <^ i ? l d t i v ^ 
assent, ly shall crcvii-; fcr a unifiec inv--.strrcrt ficgrair fcr all 
public tunat . 1h= statt aay invr^st surplus tunds ct any polit- 
ical sur^divihicn of th-^ state wh^r r-;cuestsd tc dc sc ty tt^ ycv- 
ernirq tcard ol thrft [clitical s uL^] i v i s icr. . The legislative 
assenbly shall i-r^sLjiiate a state otficcr cr agency tc accept cr 
reject contr il uticrs tc the ttate. The state shall ke^^p a perira- 
nent reccrd ct all cent i: ih u t icr.s tc the state, ard shall pericd- 
ically Boake prcvisicri fcr ccmtne mora tier ct thcs- benefac<-crs. 
The legislative assembly shall establish r^gulaticrs and linita- 
ticns fcr th»^ investni-"nt cf public funds. Ar audit cf thr state 
investment program shall be ccrducted arrually. 



Zs^l_I:lcid_Sarnard_ 
^s^_i^a r jcr 1 2_Ca in_ 
Z§Z_Carl_Davis 



/£^_£ichar d_chair£cux 
Chd ir na r 

^s^_Pcbert_|;of le 
Vice Chairnan 



Z£Z_f;32_Co never 

^ £^_ Gj^IlS-liJI^ 3 u^h 

Z^Z_£2i;§I^_i2££3S3nse_^ 



ZSZ_^£iiI_l£^iS 



754 



KCNTANA CCNSllTmiCNA.L CONVENTION 



CCKMEMS CN KAJCtlTY EfCtC5flL 



S ^" C t i 

1 a ^ i V - 
prey r-:! IE 
surplus 
when r'5 
pclit ic 
d'jsig na 
con tr Lh 
p ? r m a n 3 

Shdll 

those 
'T s t a L 1 i 
m e n t of 
p r c y r ;j ff 



en 1 

asseir 

for 

tund 

qU'tast 

al s 

t== a 

11 1. i c n 

rt rf 

peiic 

tenet 

sh r 

publ 

shal 



UNIF 
tly sha 

all 
s c I a r 
>-• d to d 
u 1: d i V i s 
state o 
s tc th 
cord ot 
d icaily 
actors. 
eyulati 
ic tund 
1 Le CO 



liiC I 

11 frc 

putlic 

y Fcli 

c sc L 

icn . 

f f i c € r 

•r Stat 

all c 

make 

The 

ens a 

s. An 

nducte 



NViS 
vide 
fu 
tica 
y th 
The 

cr 
e. 

cnt r 

pre V 

le 

nc 1 

aud 
d a r 



If E 
tc 
nds 
1 s 
e q 
leg 
age 
The 
itu 
isi 
gis 
iai 
it 
rua 



NT E 

r a 

. T 

ubdi 

ever 

i£la 

ncy 

St 

t icn 
cr f 
lati 
tati 
cf t 
lly. 



BCGtAf 
unif ie 
he sta 
visicr 
n i n g h 
ti ve a 
t c ace 
ate s 
£ tc t 
CI ccai 
ve as 
ens f c 
he sta 



. The 
d in V 
te iray 
of th 
card c 
sseinU 
e pt cr 
hall 
he Eta 
nieaicra 
seffitly 
r the 
te irv 



legis- 
€ E t in e r t 

invest 
e state 
f that 
y shall 

reject 
keep a 
t e , a r d 
tion cf 
shall 
inves t- 
estire r t 



CCMKENIS 



Ths relevant article cf the existing Ccnstitution (Article 
XXT) was jcintly assigned tc the Revenue and finance Ccinriittee 
and the Education and Puhlic lards Ccmoiittee. After due ccnsid- 
eraticn cf the provision in cerjuneticn with the Feverue and 
Finance Ccnipittee , a raajotity of the Educaticr and Putlic lands 
Ccmroittee has decided tc adcft leplaceirent language siffilar tc 
that proposed fcy the fcrier ccirBittee. 




This proposed section differs frcir the aajcrity prcpcsal cf 
the t^evenue and Firacce Ccininittee in two tcajcr respects. first, 
the ccinniittee feels that it is important tc allow investnect cf 
the funds of localities only at their cwn lecuest. Secondly, 
due tc the particular character of gifts and grants made tc the 
t?ducational systea, the ccmiiii t tee agrees that it is iffiportact tc 
maintain records of such gifts and tc ccBmenic rate the terefac- 
tors. Otherwise the majority cf the Educaticr and Putlic lands 
Committee is in agreement with the proposed language and ration- 
ale cf the majority cf the Revenue and Finance Ccmmittee cr this 
prcvisicr. 



tducaticn and Fublic Lard= Ccinitte-a 



755 



MNCFITY tfCECSAL 



BE II IPhCFCScD FY lUi. ELUCA'ITCN ANC PUBLIC LAMS CCM^'nTIt: 

Th.it the fcllowinq S'^uter.C'^ rspljcc tfr? first sfntt^nce cf 
the Jir^ucaticr ind Fuoiic Lands Kajctity ficfcsal: 



AETICLE 
INVESlfcMS 



Ihe i'^gislative asseaibly srall t-tcvid^ fci a unified ir.v^st- 
itent picqraffi tor ail futlic funds net cth^rfcis^ Ccrsti tu ticnally 
restricted. 



/.§l.il£19i-i'±Lll^k§. Z§Z_Ma£J££ii-£§iii Z£Z_Iicier t_ Neb le 



756 



flCKTANA CC.NSTIIiniCKinL CONVENT IC« 



CGrf.rM.^: CN fINCFTTY PPCFCSflL 
Ar,TICIr 



Iht Itgi^litiv; ass-trhly shall jJicvide fcr a unified 
• ve.'^-^nit nt [rcjraB tcr all fublic turds ret cthfrwise 



L c r. £ ■*■ 1 1 u t .1 ( 



illy EcEtrictcd. 



C C d ^ 5 N 1 S 



rest 

t and 

the 

■exce 

fund 

i nst 

ot 

list 

foel 

thcs 

The 

rest 

regu 

the 



^ 
ri 

s, 

ir, 

ft 
s 



ri 
ir 
nt 



ffi 1 1! c c 

ct ions 

V ir s t in ■? 
thcs 
to com 
c<^ , if 
cwtl- 

CtS Uf 

thit 
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d d i t i c 

CttJ" 

p IT e r. t s 

W 6 d I] c 



It 

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rt 

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en 

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und 

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f the c 
Id be 

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school 
cj-t-id 

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i n V ■; 3 1 JT 

that c 

insure 

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s h h i c h 

^li- 
the f I 
ifi^^d i 
articl 



cnim 
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tu 

ty 

sib 
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i s 
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St 

at 
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cpc 
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e t 



itt 
eve 
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le 

be 

€CU 

cur 

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ase 
sed 
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c b 



ee t 
d f 
y m vi 
1 
atut 
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arc 
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C€ O 

<?cau 
^vct 

"n 

in 

[tine 

e f u 



eels t h 
r e n: t h 

£t te t 

c e 1 i ff i 
tE vcul 
tardy, 
were tc 

rue 
f y^arl 
t i c n s ft 
ed tc t 
c t c t h 
V€stiDer. 
rity • £ 
Itilled 



at, a 
.= in 
he pr 
ra tfc 
d b<; 

in 

■^lEf h 
tc th 
y fur 
u s t t 
he s u 
^ r w i s 
t£ a 
fropo 



Ithe 

V-3ST 

pdctn 
all 
tea 
th3 
asiz 
€ r- 
di ry 
^ ta 
FFcr 

9 C 

r tic 

S'Ed 



ugh V) 

cpar t 
inant 
r€ 
llcv, 

casf; 
p the 
lianc 
, the 
ker. i 
t of 
c nsti 
le a 

sect 



nnfce 

of 

fact 

s t r i c 

the £ 

cf, 

prir 
e cf 

min 
n sec 
educa 
t utie 

11 C %i £ 

icr 



ssa Ey 
state 
cr in 
t icns 
chccl 

fcr 
cif le 
local 
crity 
urirg 
t ion. 
rally 

the 
3 cf 



•■riucaticn and Put lie lam's Ccrtritt^p 



757 



i>l-F£MIX A 



Ch.CSS IhfrlzVClb 



ELUC.MICN AKlICLl! 
FBCFCSED S^.CTICS 



r-B^s£Ni AFiicLZ n: section 



e. 

7 
5 
9 
1C 

11 

12 



XI, 1,6,7 

XI, 2 

XJ, 3 

51, U 

XI , ^1 

XT, ? 

XI, s 

XI , K 

XT , 1 1 

XT, 11 

XT, n 

XI, 12 



Public Ian;ls Article 



Investiterts 7-. iticl? 



XVII, 1 , 2 , 3 



XXI, (ertii-^ article) 



758 



MCMANA CCNSaiiniCiiAL CC^VENTIC1S 



APPENDIX B 

PROPOSALS CONSIDERED BY COMMITTEE 
The following delegate proposals were examined and 
considered by the Education and Public Lands Committee 
during its deliberations: 



4. 



Number of 
Proposal Chief Sponsor 



11 



29 



41 



43 



46 



49 



Virginia Blend 



Marian Erdmann 



R. Champoux 



Mike McKeon 



C. Blaylock 



Subject Matter Disposition 

Full State Fund- Intent included in 
ing part, Section 1 

School Election Intent incorporated 

Section 8 



John Leuthold Public Aid 



Equal Educa- 
tional 0pp. 

Public School 
Financing 



Intent incorporated 
in part. Sec. 6 

Incorporated in 
Section 6 

Intent Incoroorated 



Apportionment Incorporated in 
of School Funds Section 8 



10 



11, 



68 



74 



85 



91 



102 



Carl Davis 



Max Conover 



G. Rollins 



Marjorie Cain 



R. Kelleher 



Investment of 
School Funds 

Investment of 
Public School 
Fund 

Body Corporate 



Incorporated in part 
in Sec . 1,3,5 

Adopted with slight 
changes as Sec. 3 



Incorporated in part 
Section 11 



Equal Educational Incorporated in part 
Opportunity Section 1 

Financial Suppt. Rejected 
Private College 



iducaticn and Eufclic Lards Cciu.i t tet 



759 



12. 



113 R. Roeder 



14 



15 



16. 



17 



18. 



19 



20 



135 



Teachers' Salary Rejected 
Equity Board 



13. 128 M.N.Robinson 



Appoint Board 
of Education 



130 M.N.Robinson Public Libraries 



Carl Davis 



142 John Toole 

143 John Toole 
146 D. Bugbee 
164 G. Harbaugh 

171 W. Burkhardt 



Exchange of 
Public Lands 



Two Boards 



Combine Sections 
1 and 6 

Board of Regents 



Section 8 



Board of Regents 
body corporate 



21. 175 G. Harbaugh School Lands 



Rejected 



Incorporated in part 
in Section 1 

Adopted with slight 
changes as Public 
Lands Article 

Incorporated in part 
in Section 11 

Intent incorporated 
in Section 1 

Intent incorporated 
in part in Sec. 11 

Rejected in majority 
report. Adopted in 
minority report 

Intent adopted in 
Section 11 

Intent incorporated 
in part in Public 
Lands Article 



760 



fCNT.'-.NA CC^£^I'IL^ICKAL CCNVEMICN 



Education an.i Eutlic Ldnd= Cciiimi + t?e 



761 



AFEENCIi C 



WT-INFSSiH blP.^L EY CC^'MTTEE 



Na]rp_-_Af f iliatign_-_t<e£id2rce_;::_Sur j_f ct 

1. N. C. fstrander - ££v = r.th! Cay Acventist C hutches - Fcic^. a - 
tutlic Mo *c Ncn-EuLlic Schcclt. 

2. Cr. E. L. Lynn - citizen- Kel^na - Eutlic Aid tc Ncr-Eutlic 
Schocls. 

3. Chadttick Smith - Scrtana Schccl Ecards Acscc. - Helena - Two 
Ecards ot Education. 

U. Con Scanlir, - ."ducstct - Billirgs -Zduca t icna 1 Ehilcsccb>. 

5. C. H. Andersen - citizen - Dilicr - Education in Geneial. 

6. till Cainan - Mascrs cf Mcntara - Helena - Public Aid to 
Kcn-Eublic Scbccls. 

7. Gladys Vance - PTA - Great Ealls - Gt^reral Education. 

8. Lloyd (iarxell - [■^cntara Edtcaticn Asscc. - Relena - Article 
XI. 

9. Harriet r.-elcy - ^e^lfc£r of the State Ecaid - Helera - Twc 
Hoards cf Education. 

1C. Harry Axtiiiann - Supt. cf Schocls, Fccsevelt County - Violf 
Eoint - Ccv;nty Super in t end tnts . 

11. ClariC'3 Feck - American Asscc. cf University Woffen - Helena - 
Age Littit. 

12. Ecbert Fiexriy - Supt. of Schccls, lirccln Ccunty - litty - 
Ccunty Superintenlents. 

13. Margaret Ercwn - Supt. cf Schccls, Gallatir Ccunty - Eczeiran 
- Ccunty Superintendents. 

14. led Schwinden - State Land Ccmraissione r - Helena - State 
Lands and public access, 

15. Fred Jcfanscn - citizen - Great Falls - Eutlic Lands. 

16. Eclcres Colfcurg - State Supt. cf Public Instruction - Helena 



762 



MONTANA CONSTIIUIICNAL CCNVENTIClil 



17. 



- All asj-t^cts ci Educdticn. 

Mdurico nickey - fcr.tara Educaticn Asscciaticr - H^leria - 
Eutlic Lands. 



18. Fletcher istwLy - t r.vi rcr a-n ta 1 Cccncil - Helena - Public 

I a n d i . 

19. Steven Ccl.iircn - State lew- 1 recce Cigarizaticn - Felena - 
Article XI, s e c •*■ i o r. s 5 a r d 7 . 

20. ScLert Fant7-r - Prcsidtnt, Uriv-rsity cf Kcrtana - Msscula 

- Two Ocards. 

21. K^rricth Koliyans - fcr.t. Asscc. for Retarded Children i; Adults 

- Helena - Ag-^ litnit. 

22. Dr. Killian turd-:;!! - Cclleg? cf Great falls - Great falls - 
Public Aid *- c Ncr.-fuhlic Schccls. 

23. JcliL Sh-;-hy - Mcntana Catholic Ccrf^rerca - i:illii;qs - Fublic 
Aid to Ncn- Eutlic Schccls. 

24. lyle CcRiier - iiasons cf ecrtar.a - Helena - Public Aid to 
Ncii- Public Schccls. 

25. Jchii Zldrifdge - citizc-r - Hi^lena - Public Aid to Non-Eublic 
Schccls. 

26. Jack licit - citizen - Rclena - Public Aid tc Kcr-Fublic 
Schccls. 

27. John S. Fiatt - Attiericans United - Gr^at Falls - Public Aid 
tc hcn-tublic Schccls. 

28. Ernest Neath - hasons ct fcrtara - Helena - Public Aid tc 
Nor.-Fublic Schccls. 

29. L-9C Kottas - Kascr.s cf Kcntana - Helena - Public Aid to 
Ken- Public Schccls. 

30. George Schotte - Carrcll College - Helena - Public Aid tc 
Ncr-Public Schccls. 

31. Rev. Jchn i^oes - Christian Eefcrir Church - Conrad - Public 
Aid to Kcn-Eublic Schccls. 

32. forrest Anderson - Governor - Helena - State Ecard cf Educa- 
ticn . 



33. Fcbert Watt - Montana Student President's Assoc. - Helena - 
State Board. 

3a. Harry Gagher - faculty Senate, EMC - Billirgs - Two Ecards. 



Iducdticn and Public Lar.ds Ccnaittee 



763 



35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 

39. 

4C. 

41. 

42. 

43. 
44. 

45. 

46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 

53. 

54. 

55. 



Felly Fr«^chal - Faculty Senate, EPC - Billirqs - State E-card. 

James Short, Frfsid'^i.t, W^C - Cillcn - Tho Ecards. 

Carl Kclntcsh - President, PSU - Eczeniaii - Twc Beards. 

Jaires Kt nry - Montana Schccl fcoards Assoc. - Heler.a - Stat? 
Ecard of Education - Cne Ecard. 

Ct. L-irry Slaks - Flathead Valley Ccnffunity College - 
Kalispell - No. of Ecards. 

Verr. Kailes - Kiles City Ccniur.ity College - Milfis City - Nc. 

ot Ecards. 

Jim Hoffman - Dafcscr. County Ccirniunity Cell eg € - Gler. dive - 
Csscripticn of Eoard's powers. 

Arthur Rart - Vccational E=haMl itaticn - Helena - Vccaticral 

- Eehah in Ccnstituticn. 

Jack Gundorscn - State E •apresf-ntat ive - Fewer - State Supt. 

Leroy Corbin - fcntana Fed-^raticn ot Teachers - Eutte - State 
Superintendent. 



Bosemary Eoschart 
dent. 



citizen - Pillinqs - State Superinten- 



Erv. Gysler - Eelegate - tort Eentcn - Vo lech. 

Maurice Lriscoll - Director, Vc-Tech - Putt€ - Vc-lech. 

Hilliam Fcri2tk - Director, Ve-leoh - Helera - Vc-Tech. 

Jim Carey - Eirectcr - Great Falls Vc-Tech Center - Vc-Tech. 

Gene Downey - Director - Missoula Vc-Tech Center - Vc-Tech, 

Ray Heley - Eirectcr - Billings Vo-Tech Center - Vc-Tech. 

Gordon Simmons - Risscula County High School - Pisscula - 
local Ccrtrcl cf Vo-Tech centers. 

John Giese - Missoula County High School - Missoula - 
Vo-Tech. 

Einar Ercsten - Montana Vooaticnal Educators fissoc - Pelena - 
Vo-Tech Centers. 

Grace Hanson - County Supt., Flathead - Kalispell - County 
Superintendents. 



764 



."CNTAI^A CC^•£'Int^ICK?L CCNVtKilCb 



5b. Ctal ^.qq-Lt - icizLyis'- icz Cc. Sort. - ntl^^na - County Sup'^r- 
in tern ^r. ts. 

57. L.oroti,y ^"iaciis - L-hi^ t Clark Cc. Supt. - Hel-ar.a - Ccurty 
Sufoiint'^. !idt:it£. 

58. Circly.n ircjin - -iis^cula Cc, 5ufr. - fisscui^i - Ccunty 
Sut^iintfnc^rits. 

•^9. £dil "idilcw - Crfice c± kutlic Irs truckler - F>l?r. a - Indian 
Eriucdtici:. 

6J. :'r:rt c.'crcoidn - .'.ocky Scy Suft. - Ecx Eldii - Equal Zducation 
f c r I n ;H a r; s . 

6 1. Frai.cts .Satt-rtti w lit ^- - Ir. t-" i-I ri t a 1 Fclicy Ccarc Icbtyisr - 
F-iera - Irdian Lelucaticr. . 

62, Frank Shcnt - Schccl Cistrict Nc . 1 - [Ii;l.= Ea - Irdiar £duca- 
1 1 n . 

63. Evfiijlit nlledtaux - lasteir l-Icrt.jrd Ccll-^ge - Billings - 
Ir dian iiducaticr. 

b4. rN";lt-rt JcvicK - i-lor.tar.j £tud-rit President's Asscc. - Eczenan 
- '^tud^r, + fc Ccr.cern ir. hcucaticr. . 

65. ^rar. k Cud as - ^Sicciated Studi^rts - !^sn - Ecz-^iran - Students 
Ccrcerr. in Educatior. . 

66. Wayne Gildrcy - ■•;cntdna Student Fr^sidert's Ssscc. - Students 
C c n c -; rn . 

67. Jchn Chriat€ns = r - associated S'-udTE ts - U cr !:. - Kisscula — 
Srudter. ts Ccrcerr. 

68. Star Juneau - Indidr Club, E^C - Eiliinqs - Indian Education. 

6S. Cilvin Horrsra - Indian Club, E.^C - Eillirqs - Irdiar Ecuca- 
t i n . 

7C. Ciara L^e Mchakin - Inc^iar; Club, EMC - Eillinqs - In dial! Edu- 
c a t i c r. . 



71. Dale Kindness - Indian Club, EiiC -Eillings - Indian Educa- 
t i c n . 

72. Raycla Adele "^der - EMC - Billings - Ir.dian Educaticn. 

73. Frank laK^re - Et-:c - Eillings - Irdiar Education. 
7U. Leroy B^rven - of K - Kisscula - Students Ccrcerr.. 
75, Jchn ['ur^tiy - Student - fisscula - Students Ccncerr. 



tducaticn and tutiic Lards Ccaiii + t = e 



765 



76. Tcm Eaily - Stud-snt - Missoula - Studerts Ccnc-?rn. 

77. Fatric-i E-^nny - Stui-^nt - .Msscula - StU'^€nt3 Ccr.cern. 

78. Ulyssis Dcse - Professor, U c f "1 - Misscula - Equal Ecuca- 
ticnal CfLCiturity. 

79. Karcld Gray - 'Jniv..rEity cf f^crtara - Misscula - Equal ^cuca- 
ticnal Orpcitunity. 

8C. Jic! Graham - citizen - ^'ile£ City - Equal Ecucatid^al Offcr- 
t u n i t y . 

81. Jchr. :^ar:£tielil - citiz-n - Grdat Falls - Zqual Educaticnal 
Cfpcrt unity. 

82. Ja[E€£ Shea - citiz-?n - Gr^at falls - Equal Educaticr.al Cppcr- 

t u n i t y . 

33. Barni^ Old Ccyct'^ - fcntana State Ui;i-v:-rsity - Eozeman - 
Equal Educaticnal Cpfortunity. 

84. E. D. Cccper - ."^cntara Educaticr. Asscciaticr. - Helena - Equal 
Education al Cppcrunity, 

85. Jairos Hcw-^tn - Lea re n£ Invsiitiitiits - Helena - Trust and Leg- 
acy fund. 

86. ^;arjcrl9 Kinq - M^mtei State Beard - 'dinn-stt - State Ecard cf 
Educaticr . 

87. Fred .lif^lke - yentcr State Fcard - fiavte - State Ecard cf 
Ed uca tier. 

88. John French - ?len:bar cf State Ecard - Bccan - State Scard cf 
Educaticr. 

89. Bayorcnd Fcakanscn - fiontana Asscc. cf Schocl fldni nist raters - 
livinqstcn - Financirq. 

90. Jchn Catptell - Montana Schccl Ecaids Asscc. - Helena - Edu- 
cational Financing. 

91. ?1ike Billings - Office ct Public Instruction - Helena 

Fi nancing. 

92. Bike Melcy - Cffice cf Futlic Instructicc - Helena - Fcunda- 
ticn Frcgratr - Financing. 

93. Jchn Eay - citizen - Familtcn - Financing. 

94. James Cox - (J cf K, Schccl cf Education - Public Aid to 
Ncn- Public Schools. 



766 



?!GMANa. C0NS1 ITUT I C N Al CCt-VEMICN 



95. Earlc Thcmpson - State Library Ccaffissicn - f^issoula - 
Librari^ £. 

96. Ecris Lavies - Airericar Asscc. cf Ilcivsrcitj WciEen - Libra t- 
i-^s. 

97. Fobert Gct^hei - citi2 = n - Gr':a*-- Fdlli= - Lndian Educaticn. 

98. Gecrge larrcw - Stat-; !\€p resent a tivi - Eillinqs - sr-cticr 1. 

99. Lr. Eill risher - n cf ^, Scbocl cf Educaticr. - Public Aid to 
Nc!j-Fublic Scl'.ccls. 

IOC. Ray Guiick - citiz-ir. - Joflir. - iducaticn ir, general. 



Education aivl Futlic Lands Ccnnittee 



767 



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Educaticn and Futlic lands Ccaaittee 



769 



APPE.NEIX L 



CFFICE CF IHI ST?TI SUPJIIMENCZM 



(■♦^trtarj lh, l^"/! 



To: 

F r c B : 

Subject: 



Hic^ard Cracfcux, Chairrrar, Educaticr. CcniritteG 

Sikc Billir. gs, Eir^ctci, financial 
fcr Schools /£/ * ik-_ rillircs 



:uppcrt 



li^quest tor ^ fiscal r.cte ccrctirning frcfcsei 
new wording or Articl€ XI, sscticn 5. 



If tb 

that 

dry 

accor 

reali 

fact , 

that 

equal 

COEtl 

Karch 

spend 
ceasu 
Inst r 



-; wcrdi 

th.:- I S 

s c h C C 1 H 

dine to 

26d in 

a sues 

the. 1 

izat ion 

y a n n u 

Ihis 

a c u ID u 

s , and 

acticn 



nq IT. 

I men 
cf 

th? 6 

admi 

tantia 

t^gisla 

aid i 
dl pr 

pract 
lat ivc 

CdUS 

TO exc 



tr- 

— 2 

ni 

1 

tu 

cc 

ac 

ic 

es 
en 



• icl 
is 

C ag 
stt-;r 
cost 
r'2 

cunt 
tic€ 
€ pr 
otal 
th 
d at 



d IS 
tat 
e 
ing 

inc 



cf 
cut 



1, s€c+-icn "^ is changed in such a way 
tribut?d tc th€ eleis^ntary and s^ccrd- 
€ (in place cf tc th^ public schools 
census), no ccst increase will te 
the distrituticn cf the furds. In 
ducticn would be realized, provided 
luc€s the I and I acney in the state 
This act would eliminate the current 
f distributing tue I and I ccrey in 
ntly causes the schccl districts tc 

about .f^CCCC annually tc ccllect the 
Cfficfe cf the Fuper intsnd^Et cf Eublic 

JJ, CCC-55, COC to process the census. 



Thus, if the wording cf Article XI, secticr 
indicited, an an:;ual savings cf apprcxiira tel y 
cculd very well t^ realized cy the educaticr 
Hcntana. Under no ccnditicns would the proposed 
increased cost of administration at +-he state or 



5, is charged as 
$53,CC3-J55,CCC 
establish sent in 
sscticr lead to 
local levels. 



KGE:kh 



770 I'CNTASA CC ^5;T IT Ul IC N A L CCNVENTICN 



FUNDS GRANTED TO MONTANA NONPUBLIC EDUCATIONAL 
INSTITUTIONS UNDER SELECTED FEDERAL PROGRAMS 



ESEA Title 1 : Programs for educationally deprived children. 
Federal Guidelines: Educationally deprived children in 
nonpublic schools may participate, although no funds can 
be paid directly to a nonpublic school. 

Total amount paid to Montana public schools: $3,317,276 

nonpublic " : 
I'However, 6% of participating children were nonpublic 
school children in FY 1970) 

ESEA Title 2 ; Texbooks supplied on permanent loan basis. 
Federal Guidelines: Nonpublic schools eligible to order 
books from a list supplied by Superintendent of Public 
Instruction . 

Total amount allotted to Montana public schools: $155,462 

" nonpublic " : 5,775 (5.5%) 

ESEA Title 3 : Supplementary educational centers and services, 
including counseling, remedial instruction, experimental 
educational programs, etc. 

Federal Guidelines: No funds can be granted directly to 
nonpublic schools, but nonpublic school children can partici- 
pate in projects administered by public schools. 

Total amount allotted to Montana public schools: $532,198 
No estimate provided of nonpublic children participating; 
no funds allotted to nonpublic schools. 

ESEA Title 6 : Special education training for teachers and 
students . 

Federal Guidelines: Nonpublic school teachers eligible for 
training funds and nonpublic school children eligible to 
participate in programs run by public schools. 

Total amount allotted to Montana public schools: $262,279. 
No estimate made of nonpublic school children participating; 
no funds allotted to nonpublic schools. 

NDEA Title 3 : Federal aid to higher education, the arts, etc. 
Federal Guidelines: Nonpublic schools not allowed to 
participate in part of program administered by the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, but nonpublic schools 
can make direct application to U.S. Office of Education. 

Total amount allotted to Montana public schools: $207,298. 
None allotted to Montana nonpublic schools through the 

Superintendent's Office. Unknown amount granted directly 

to nonpublic schools. 



Edjcdticn and FuLlic Lards CcirttiftG^; 771 



6. MDTA Title 2 : Manpower development and vocational training. 
Federal Guidelines: Act provides that training may be 

done in nonpublic schools if they offer comparable quality 
and competitive costs, if the training is not available 
in public institutions, or if there is a long waiting period 
for entrance to public schools. 

Total amount allotted to Montana public schools: $1,359,000 

nonpublic " : 1 14 , 91 8 ( 9 . 5%) 

7. HEFA Title 1 : Building grants to institutuions of higher 
education . 

Federal Guidelines: Funds may be granted for construction 
purposes to nonpublic institutions. 

Total amount allotted to Montana public institutions: $6,341,001 

" nonpublic " : 1,009,24 6 

(13.7%) 

Total amount allotted to Montana public schools in all of the 

above programs: $5,833,513 

Total amount allotted to Montana nonpublic schools in all of the 
above programs: $ 120,693 

(2%) 
(plus an undetermined number of nonpublic school 
children who participate in public school-sponsored 
programs . ) 

Total amount allotted to Montana public institutions of higher 
education in the above program: $6,341,001 

Total amount allotted to Montana nonpublic institutions of 

higher education under the above program: $1,009,24 6 

(13.7%) 



772 



KCKTANA CCbSTTTtniCNAL CONVENTICN 



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t^CKTANA CC^SI nO'IICN.'^L CCNVENTICN 



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iducaricn dnu Futlic Lurds Ccmmttee 



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776 



KCKTANA CCNSTIIUTICNAL CCN^)ENTICN 



Non-Catholic 
Private Schools 



Montana Parochial Schools 



27 

1380 

80 

$845,568 



Total Number of Schools 45 
Total Number of Students 10,265 
Total Number of Teachers 533 
*Total Savings to Tax- 
payers $6,216,132 



(Estimated Biennial 
Savings) 



$13, 000,000 



No. of No. of Parochial 
Schools Students 



Savings to tax- 
payers by paro- 
chial schools* 



Billings 

Butte 

Great Falls 

Missoula 

Anaconda 

Bozeman 

Kalispell 

Havre 

Glasgow 

Gl endive 

Lewistown 

Livingston 

Miles City 

Deer Lodge 

Malta 

Shelby 

Sidney 

Wolf Point 

Hardin 

Pryor 

Hayes 

Ashland 

St. Ignatius 



5 
3 
7 
4 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 



1567 

1202 

2057 

885 

1160 

136 

192 

373 

196 

235 

268 

165 

465 

99 

96 

100 

98 

132 

126 

51 

81 

474 

107 



908, 360 

798,108 

364,081 

528,732 

729,013 

85,162 

96,192 

186,873 

88,200 

105,985 

137,797 



82, 
244, 
49, 
46, 
52, 
53, 
62, 
71, 
30, 
65, 
365, 
64, 



500 
131 
005 
080 
400 
116 
964 
316 
600 
514 
375 
628 



TOTALS 



46 



10,265 



$6,216,628 



*Dollar amounts are computed for each school district by average per 
pupil cost for 1969-70. Value of property and buildings not included, 



Committee on Local Government 777 



cCNTANA CCNSTITUTICKAL CCNVENTICN 
1971- 1S72 

ICCAl GCVEFNKENT 

CCHCiITlEE PRCECSAl 

NC. XI 



Date Intrcduced: Fetruary 19, 1972 



^£/_cscar_I.^_Arderscr, Chaimar 



Z§Z_iiil3il:l§_lii_Ii§I33» Vice Chairian 



778 



MONTANA CCNSinL1ICN/>L CCNVENTICh 



•lABLii a CCNTIN1S 



LETTF'^ Cr TH/*NS«IT1AL 

TEXT Cr ^AJCFI'iY FtCECS^L.... 
CCfMENlS CN KAJGRrTY FRCFC3AI 

Section 1. C'^_fir.iticr. .. 

Secticr 2. Ccunt ict . . . . , 



Ccur. ty r cur. da lies , 

County Sears , 

Sootier 3. Fcrirs ct Gcverrirer. t , 

Prpsent Cc unty Gcv^rnm'fnt Fern: 

"Inccr{:crating..,Eissclvir.q" 

Section 4. G^r. ;ral Powers 

Cities and Tckhs 

Ccur ties 

Gthsr Local Units 

General Ccffimtnts 

Section 5. Ssl f-Gc ver roe nt Charters 

S-^c tic:; 5. Self-Go v em men t Ecwfc.rs 

Section 7. Tntergover n[rertal Cccperaticn. 

Section B. Revenue Sharing , 

Section 9, Initiative and fie f er endu n 

Section 10. Kecall , 

Section 11. Vcter Review of Lccal Go vein aert . , . . 
aPPENCIX 

Cross Reference of Present anc Proposed Articles, 
Delegate Proposals Considered hy Ccnmiittee 



Pa^e 
. 780 
. 782 
. 785 
. 785 
. 786 
. 787 

, . 788 
. 788 
. 789 
. 791 

, . 791 
. 792 

, .. 793 

, . 794 
. 794 

, . 795 
. 796 

, . 798 
. 799 

. . 799 
. 799 
, 800 



802 
803 



Ccininitter en Lccal Goverraer.t 779 

Witr^sses Hnrard by Ccir iri 1 1 ^^ (^^ 805 

Ecli Calls «09 



780 



KCNTANA CCNST ITU'IICKAL CCKVENTICN 



Dat-?: Fetruary IS, M12 

Tc: CCNIANA CCNSTITriTICNAI CChVEhllCN 

Frcro: Local Gcvorrn^nt Ccraui t te e 



Ladies and G.jntleaion: 

Tbf Local Gcv-crniteEt Ccnimittce suhaits herewith it£ unani- 
iijcus protOK^l tor a new local Gcvciroi-nt /Article. Ihe proposal 
is int€r,dp>d tc replace in th;ir trtirety the pr-asent Article XVI 
("Coi-i.ti^s — Municipal Ccr pc ra tiers and Ctficss") and Article XIX, 
sec tier fc (dealin.j with county offices). 

The comniitte-^ was in g-ineral aqreenif^nt that a new local 
qoverrirert article should provide flexifcility, but was divided on 
how lest tc attdir this ^cal. This proposal tends tc wcrK with 
the .2xistin^3 Iccal govcrnm-^nt structure cf cities, towns and 
counties and se^^ks tc achieva imprc vement by erccuraging experi- 
iser.taticrj in local governiEsot powers iLd forir. Strong inincrity 
support originally was voiced in the ccnnixtee fcr a prcpcsal by 
Delegate Frar.klin Arn-rss tc replace the existing city, tcwr, 
county and school district structure with a rew cne-level dis- 
trict structure. 

Evdntuiliy, each of the eleven cciririttee meiiiters voted fcr 
the adoption cf this proposal. In signing this report, however, 
a committee ipeinter does not necessarily erdcrse aach and every 
statement in it. 

This proposal was adopted after ccnsideraticn was giver tc 
nearly 3,003 citizen suggestions and 19 delegate proposals. The 
committee expresses its tharks to the citizens fcr their interest 



Cctmnitt-ie on Local (^ovtrraert 



781 



and tc the deiegat-ss whc sutmitt^d proposals, tha intert cf which 
influenced ths final proposal to a gr^at degree. 

The committer utilized the services cf the fcllcwing people 
in additicr tc its members: Mrs. Hilliair L. ficniine, ccnirittee 
secretary; Mss Fat Chvatal, a Carrcll College senior, intern, 
and Jerry Hcllorcn, coininittee researcl- analyst. 

The cocirittee telieves this {.reposal provides a much 
improved Cons ti tut icnal framework for Iccal governrect in f^ontana 
and urges its adoption by the Ccrst it utional Ccrventior. 



/^s/_Cscar_I,i_Ardersc c 

Chairman 



Z§^_YiEiJil}i3_B_._Blerid 
Vice Chairman 



782 



f.ONTANii CCNSinniCNAL CCNVENTICK 



BE IT IRCFCSED PY THE LCCAI GCVEFNfrNT CCP.KITTEE: 

Ihat th-^r-= bp a r.^h Article en Lccal Gcverrirent to r^ad as 
lolicas : 

AbTICLE 

ICCAL GCVEBKHENI 



S-rCticn 1. CiFl^iITIC^. The ttrai "lccal gcvernirsnt units" 
includes, i-ut is ret United tc, ccurti^s and icccr ^crated cities 
and +o\.ns. Ctii-:r local gcv = rnirer.t units it.ay te established ty 
law. 

Section 2. CCLNTIES. The ccurties cf the state cf fcr.tdna 
as they exist dt the adcpticn cf this Ccr.stituticn are the ccur- 
ties of the state. County tcundaries shall net te changed or 
county se.its transferred until approved by a lajciity cf 
voting en th-^ questicn ir each county affected. 



those 



Fcr>f3 CI GCVEF^,t^E^^. 



Section 2. FCr>f3 CI GCVE F^,P;E N T . The legislature shall pro- 
vide by law for the gcvernaient of local gcverrnert units and for 
procedures of inccr pcrat in 3 , classifying, wergicg, consolidating, 
and aissolving such units and cf altering their tcundaries. 
legislature shall provide ty law for cpticnal 
forms of gcvercttert fci 

enable a unit or combinaticn of units tc adopt, airend cr abandon 
an cpticnal or 
the cuesticr. 



The 

_^ cr alternative 

unit or coirbiraticn cf units to 



ilternative font by a ira^crity cf those voting on 



liiiii te 
and re 
s her if 
school 
teres 
scribe 
date t 
more c 
of on 
respec 



ne opt 
d to, 
corder 
t, a 
s , an 
, qual 
d by 
MO or 
c u n t i o 
e off 
tive c 



ional tcrn! cf county gcvernffent includes, tut is ret 
the election of three ccurty ccnmiissioaeri:, a clerk 
, a clerk cf district court, a ccunty attorney, a 
treasurer, a surveyor, a ccunty superintendent of 
assessor, a coroner, and a putlic acaiin istratcr vhcse 
ificaticns, duties and coir pensat icr shall te pre- 
law. The tcard cf Ccunty CciriiissiCEers may ccnsoli- 
uiore offices. The hoards of Cciririssicre rs of two cr 
s may provide fcr a joint office arc for the election 
icial tc perfcrir the duties cf that office in the 
cun ties. 



Section U. GEKEFftL ECkEFS. local gcvernirert units net exer- 
cising self-government powers utder secticns 5 and 6 shall have 
the fcllcwing general powers: 

(1) Incorporated cities and towns shall have the pcwers cf 
a DBunicipal corporation and such legislative, administrative, and 
other pcwers as provided or implied by law. 



Ccmmittes en Iccal C-cvfrrittrt 



783 



(2) Counties shall have such legislative, 

and other pchors as frovided or implied ty law. 



adEninistrat ive 



(3) The powers of icccrfcrated cities 
ties shall te literally ccnstrued. 



and tc^ins ard ccur- 



^^) other local qcverniDert urits shall hav=> such powers 
prcvided ty law. 



as 



Section 5. SELF-GOV E & K t?E ^^ CHAFIEFS, The legislature shall 
prescribe procedures ard iray set liiiits urdsr which a local 
gove; r r.nie rt unit or ccmbinaticn cf units may fraire, adopt, airend, 
revise or abandon a sel f-qcver nnent charter with the approval of 
a najcrity of those voting on the qussticc. Ihe prescribed 
procedures, however, shall net require approval of a charter ty a 
legislative body. 

Charter provisions with respect to a local gcverrirert unit's 
executive, I'^gislative and adir inistrat i ve structure and orgariza- 
ticn shall be sup-=rier to statutory picvisicrs. 

Section 6. SEIF-GC VEBNMENI ECWEFS. Local goverment units 
adopting sslf-gcvernment charters iray exercise all pcwers net 
prohibited by this Const it u tier , by law cr by charter. 

This grant ct self-gcverrmcE t pcwers iray be extended to 
other local governnient units thrcugh cpticnal fcrsis cf goverreient 
prcvided for in section 3. 

Section 7. INTEBGCVERNMENl A I CCCEEFATICN. 5 Iccal gcvern- 
fflert unit by act of its gcverring tody tray, cr, upcr. being 
required by initiative or referendui, shall cooperate, consoli- 
date or agree in the exercise cf any fuccticr, pcwer or responsi- 
bility with, or share the service cf an officer, cr transfer cr 
delegate any function, pcwer cr responsibility cr duties of an 
officer to one or more other local governir^nt units, school dis- 
tricts, the state cr the United States, unless prohibited ty law 
or charter. 



Section 8. REVENOB SHAPING. Kothirg ir this Ccrstitcticn 
shall prchibit the state frcir sharing revenue with local gcvern- 
ment units or the units frcir participating in revenue sharing 
with the state cr the United States. 

Section 9. INITIATIVE AUC EEfEEENEDW. The initiative and 

referendum powers reserved tc the people by the Constitution 

shall be extended by law to the qualified voters cf each local 
governtcert unit. 

Section 1C. RECALL. All elected public officials cf local 
governiTGrt units are subject to recall by the voters cf the unit 
from which elected. Procedures for recall shall be prescribed ty 
law. 



784 



MONTANA CC^ST ITOIICNAL CONVENTION 



G^cticn 11. VOTEP REVIEW OF LCCfll GCVZPNfENT. Th^ l"<jis- 
latUE-'-! shdll within lour years cf the adcpticn cf this Ccrstitu- 
ticn prcvicie tcr prcctjduiis by hhich each Iccal qc vernwer. t unit 
either s^^ pa lately or jcintly shall review the gcvernir.?nt struc- 
ture^ of the local unit or jcirt unit and shall submit one alter- 
native torn! ot (jcvernnent tc the vcters at -t-he next cereral ci 
special election. The lecislaturc- shall provide for a review 
procedure- "ich ten years aftsr tb.p first elt^cticn. 



Chairaan 



Vice Chaiiiiar 



^s/_f ra nklin_Arness 

^s^_ Ar ncld_H_._Jacofcs6n 

^s/_Cldrk_i:i_Sif on 

^E/_iiarian_S_._trdffarn_ 



^s^_lhcn;a£_M_._Ask 

Z^Z_f;ISi_lhcmas_^j<atie^_ta22e 

/s^_]^_^_Lj;nn_ Sharks 

/:liZ_S£9£3i_i!i_f cllics 

^s^_Lucil5_S£eer 



Cciinittec en Lcc^l Gcvtrnment 



785 



CCt.KENlS CN CCf'MITTfE FFCECSAL 



"Flexibility" 
omtocied in the 



jnJ "dcccui.t a t ility " test descrit^ tht 
prc(.c£3l cf tat local Gcvciraert Ccmrittef 



qcal; 



'(=. 



Th? proposal aims at cieating t'n.~ wid-ast pcssiHc array of 
local gcv-rna'^r:t icrir. t" so that local structure aay te tailcr?'! to 
local needs. It provides tcr rev. se li-gcver r ir>^ nt powers that ffiay 
be exercis?! on the local lev^l and gives a Const itut icral hocst 
to loc'-il eftorts to elininate costly a rd inefficient duplication 
of service' s and tunc t ions. 



At the sanjc tine, the proposal requires accountability frcir 
local gcverr.nient units. £ach lifcvi rcrir cf qovercnient autbori2ed 
under the proposal hculd require tte approval cf local vcters 
before it could be iipleironted. Local govern aents could exercise 
self-government powers only with the approval cf local residents. 
Ccunty boundaries could te changed only if a majority cf the 
affected residents aqree. The people would be guaranteed the 
powers of initiative, referendun and recall en the local level. 

Although the proposal would net force Kcrtanans tc cl'ange 
their local gover nir _ nts , it wculd fcrce thett tc clcsely exatnire 
the local units wi+h an eyt tcwarl improving them. This exairina- 
ticn is provided for in a unique "voter review or local gcvern- 
iBent" feature which — at ihe least — should pay huge dividends in 
terms ci increased voter awareness in and 
governn^rt . 



dividends 
ccncern for Iccal 



Th3 length of the present local gcverraert prcvisicrs is 
more than cut in half by this prcpcsal. Statutory material ccr- 
cerning indebtedness cf new counties, ccunty cctnniissioner dis- 
tricts and county otfice location is deleted. Ihe fcrir cf ccunty 
government now in effect in 55 counties is asenticned — tut only as 
one cf what iicpefuliy will be several cpticnal forms of county 
gcveiEffen t . 

But the real "news" in the proposal is its inccrpcrat icn cf 
new devices to itake local governorerts acre responsive and respon- 
sible. Ictally new provisions are added allcwirg local citizens 
to design their own fern! cf local governDient, tc increase local 
duthcrity and responsibility and tc end needless duplication cf 
local services. 

The Local Govemnient Cciricittee did not set cut to replace 
the thinking of 1B89 with that of 1572. Rather, it attempted tc 
replace the thinking of 1885 with a bread framework that would 
allow inplomentdtion of the thinking cf 199C, 2010, and 2072, as 
well as that of 1972. The ccmmittee believes this prcpcsal cre- 
ates that framework. 



Section 1. DEFINITICN. The term "local governmert 
units" includes, but is ret liirited tc, counties ard 
incorporated cities and towns. Other local government 



786 



MONii>fJA ccNS■lnu^IC^?I cckvekticn 



units fnay te cstatlishec t> lai.. 

C C f C- E N 1 S 



sicn 
<j c V '• 
resu 
dvci 
a ge 
ies 
cif i 
gove 
mee t 
ccun 
be a 
leqi 



i n 
ri: (T- 

d t 
ner i 

and 

Cdll 

rnni? 
f ut 

ty 
Pf re 

slat 



p r 'r £ -:• n t 

its £ca 
nt. Sue 

in cor. fu 
his jrchl 
c t^r n a r 

t o Vi r. s f d 
y n u t h c r 
r, t units 
ur-? reeds 
structure 
{.ria tely 
ur ^ . 



Mcnta 
tttrq 
h i 
sicn 
em, s 
d s {.e 
11 wi 
izes 
, th 
that 
s . Ce 
lesig 



na Const 
u r use 
mprt'cis^'-' 
and c c u r 
tjCticn 1 
cif i'? s t 
thin its 

the 1 £ 
us pr c vi 

cannot 
r t a i n s p 
n d t ^ d as 



itut i 

ct 
Cc 
t lit 

accp 
bat c 

near 
gisla 
ding 
t€ ire 
ec ia 1 

"Ice 



c r. c 1 6 a 
t f r m i n c 
rstitut 
iqa tier 
ts "Ice 
cunt ies 
i n g . He 
tur.5 t 
f reedoip 
t ty th 
d i s 1 1 i 
al gcve 



t 5 S C 

Icgy 
i c n a 1 
I 
a 1 gc 

and 
we ver 
c cr 

for 
e tra 
cts, 
r n a e r. 



c n s i d t r 
ccncf I 
ter a i 
n an 
V s r n n = r 
inccrpc 
, the s 
eate c 
the leg 
d i t i r. a 
for exa 
t unit 



atl€ 
ninq 
r. c 1 e g 
attf K 
t uni 
rated 
pct ic 
ther 
isla t 
1 ci 
mple , 
s" t 



ccn 1 0- 

Iccal 

y has 

pt to 

ts" as 

cit- 

n spe- 

Iccal 

ure to 

ty cr 

Blight 

y the 



The ccirfflittee btlieves that section 1 \iill discourage 
litigation ard avoid cortusicn ccncerning the rest of the local 
Governmc-nt Articl<=; it also reccirmends that teririrclcgy ccrre- 
spcnding to that used in this secticn be incorporated in other 
articl-^s cf th? n^^w Constituticn whtn local gcvernipsnt units are 
discussed . 

Section 2. CCUNTIES. The ccunties cf the state cf 
Kcntana as they exist at the adopticr cf this Ccnstitv- 
ticn are the ccurties of the state. County boundaries 
shall net te changed cr county seats transferred until 
approved fy a irajcrity cf these vcticg on the question 
in each cccinty affected. 

CCYt.IhlS 

Section 2, admittrfdly cc rt r eve isial , provides that the 
present ccunty boundaries and county seats will te retained 
unless changed by a majority of those voting cr the guestion in 
each ccunty affected. Ccunty "P" could te consolidated with 
ccunty "E" only if a irajcrity cf these vcticg en the guestion in 
each ccunty approv^.s. Thus, a large ccunty ceuld not "swallcw" a 
sirall county with the latter's pernissicn. 

The proposed section cccrbires sectiers 1, 2 and 8 of Article 
XVI ct the present Constituticn. Other than deletion of statutory 
material, the tasic intent cf these sections is retained — with 
one exceptien. The present language (Sr^ctions 2 and 8) requires 
approval ct a majority of the aualif ied_e lect crs cf the ccunty 
affected before a ccunty boundary can te changed or a ccurty seat 
transferred; the proposed section 2 would require approval of a 
majority of those_yctin2 en the question. 

The difference can be guic]<ly seen. Dnder the present provi- 
sion, for example, if a county tc te consolidated had 5,000 
"qualified electors" tut CDly 3,0C0 of them vcte cr the ccnsoli- 



Ccniii!itt€= or. LccaJ Gcv^rrnert 



787 



daticr; cues tier,, 
a ffiajcrity cf 



a w d j o r i t y o i the 
the 3,C;j 
favcr corsciidaticn to irt-8 

vctinq — or 1,5 CI — would l^ L^^uii^c. 



(cr 



1), tath€r than 



(or 1,-01), apparertly would have to 

ths Ccr.Ptit u+-icna 1 rt^str ictic r . Lndsi 

a aajcrity cf thcs'9 



.L t h € c t fc *- r hand. 



In sutotitutir. y ti? less strirytnt — hut more 

CO Bin en — irdjctity Lrquirtrra-.nt, th- ccirflitt^? ^r. dcises thp 
reascTiiiiy that parsons who dc net vota or. an issue should cot te 
able to thhart th-- will ot thcs- who ao. let the prcpcr-^rts and 



opponents ot 
th-5 pells anc 



county ccnsoliddticr cr ccunty 
.«Rt th3 majority lul?. 



■£ d t t r a i: s f € r 9 c 



Calls tor 



county consolidation — both 



na ticnwid< 



and 



statefcidF — have gon- ui.ar:swer-;d , despite their fr«5qu'?ncy durirg 
the Twentieth C'3rtury. Irdsed, the rutcber cf cccntiss nationwide 
has rrrfnainad altncst cor.stant in the last '4<: years, dcspits fre- 
quent coiDpiaints that nary counties laCk the pcpulaticn and ecc- 
nciiiic base to Le viable units cf local qovarnment. 

If judged by national standards, certainly many ct i«cntana's 
56 ccuntiss ar= too sparsely populated to meet ths tests cf 
viability. Eut who should be the final judge ot whether a county 
is tec large cr too snrall and of whether it sticuld te consoli- 
dated with ancther? The Local Govetnajent Ccffo-ittee believes this 
choice must te left to the voters cf the counties affected. 



Therefore, section 2 allows changes in ccunty hcuncaries 
only if approved by a rcajcrity ot those voting en the questicr. in 
each ccunty affected. The ccnirittee considered leaving the iratter 
cf ccunty boundaries entirely to the iegislat ere , but decided 
that the authority would te more appropriately Icdged in the 
people of the affected counties. After all, if sparsely populated 
counties are as inefficient and uneccncuical as their critics 
claiic, certainly th'^ residents of those ccucties seen vill te 
clainorinq for ccunty consolidation tecause cf high tax tills and 
insufficient Iccal gov-rniient services. 



£re ven 
bcunda 
affect 
be not 
short 
pcpula 
wide 
cr nicr 
range 
Coun ty 
state- 
govern 
encour 



t sh 
t ecu 
ry c 
ed — t 
ed th 

of 
ticn 
range 
e dir 

cf 
— the 
-aire 
Kent. 
age 



culd 
nty c 
h a n g e 
he re 
at th 
total 
and t 

of 
ected 
ecu 
ecu 
ady 

In a 
ccunt 



be 
on so 

ID u 

side 
e pr 
cc 
ax b 
str u 
tow 
nty 
Ety 
make 
ddit 
ies 



stresse 
lidat ic 
St te 
nts cf 
oposed 
nsolida 
a 3 e can 
ctur al 
ard the 
of fie 
with 
s succ 
ion, th 
to band 



c that 
E. It 

ap pro 
the c c 
Lccal 
ticn 

te ai 
cptien 
se ecu 
es an 
the 

essf ul 
e brca 

toget 



the 
siirp 
ved 
unti 
Gove 
in w 
dec . 
s ca 
lit ie 
d s 
saial 

use 
d la 
her- 



prc 
ly r 
ty r 
e s c 
rnaie 
hich 

Dnd 
n be 
s th 
er vi 
lest 

cf 
ngua 
-and 



p c s e d 
equir 
he pe 
oncer 
nt Ar 

ccun 
er se 

pre V 
a t dc 
ces . 

pc 
a ecu 
ge ct 

te J 



sec 

€S 

rscn 

ted. 
ticl 
ties 
etic 
ided 
not 
Ind 

p Uld 

nty 
sec 

cin 



ticn 
that 

S ffiCS 

It a 
e al 

with 
ns 3 
, inc 

need 
eed , 
ticn 
m a n a g 

tiOL 

with 



^ GC 

any 
t Gi 
Ise 

lows 
dwi 

and 

ludi 

the 

Pet 

in 

er f 
7 

citi 



es_nct 

such 

rectly 

should 

ways 

ndling 

5, a 

rq ere 

full 

rcleuis 

the 

crir cf 

should 

es and 



788 



MCNIANfl CCNSIllllTICNAl CCKVENTICN 



towns hitbin their houndar ies--t c ficvide mcie efficient, eccrca- 
icdl qcveinircnt seivic-^s. 

trcvisicns in th«e piPsent Ccnstituticn (firticls XVI, section 
3) ccncFrninc the: divisicn of dett when new ccur.ties ar-? fcrired 
were delated froir this prcfcsal cr. tho basis that th-ey can be 
provided by legislation — if they ever are riSeded. 

Ccun t j;_Sects 



Constitutional frovisicns protectiny courty seats frcn being 
chang'^d by legislative action are ccnircn arccng the 50 states, 
section 2 sitnfiy substitutes a ccncisa statement of the pro- 
tection now found in Article XVI, section 2 and Article V, 
section 26, The preser.t Constitution's requiretnent that ccunty 
offices lEust be kept at the county seat (Article XIX, section 6) 
was deleted from th-^ proposal. Such a rfquirenent might prevent 
counties froir sharing officers and setting up branch courty offi- 
ces, lo the extent that suet a reguireocent is needed, it can be 
prcvid-^d for by legislation. 



„. Cf GOVfENKENT. The legislature 

shall provide by law for *"-" " .-----•»■ -* ^^^-.-^ 



FCKMS 




€S, but 
ccmmis- 
istrict 
urer, a 
asses- 
teriBs , 
e pre- 
ers iray 
Ccmmis- 
a joint 
perf cm 
unties. 



CCEPEN'IS 



Section 3 aims at allowing the legislature to provide the 
broadest possible range of forirs cf local government for coun- 
ties, cities, towns and other local gcvernirert units, including 
consolidated forms. Virtually every national and state authority 
on local government urges such flexibility; indeed, the Bontana 
Constitution (Article XVI, section 7) already gives the legis- 
lature broad powers to provide "any plan, kind, manner or form" 



Ccjinoittt^ cri Local Gcverrnert 



789 



cf Iccdl (JCV6 rnnipnt . 

Th^ intent cf s^ctict. 3 is to cft^r just as tread freedon; to 
the lecjisldture to provide vaiicus tcrJis cf local goverr. Bent as 
is allcwed under th-? prFStnt section 7. tecaus*^ cf that intent, 
the comniittee consideiied retaining th^ fres^nt lanjuagp cf 
secricn 7; this idea c-vcntually was rejected because the }-resert 
wording is unclear and ccnfusing. It is hct^d that section 3's 
straightforward direction to the legislature to frcvide optional 
and alternative terms cf ucverr. ir-nt will result in a greatly 
expanded offering tc the local gcv-rraert units in Kontana. 



gr-^a 
(aiay 
ccun 
one 
Stat 
tiv^ 
"cat 
Ice a 
gove 
alio 
legi 
leav 
a ci 
rega 
the 
amen 
resi 



Th^ 
t. 
cr-c 

ty 

gene 

Ut5 

s . 

eter 
1 un 
r n me 
w su 
slat 
e to 
ty t 
rd, 
legi 
ded, 
dent 



p c s s i b 
At pre 
c u n c i 1 , 
g o v ? r n 01 
ral tor 
in Kent 
Hew o e r 
ia-sty 1 
it oiay 
nt off 
ch a fl 
ure cc 

th^ Ic 
r e a s u r e 

it sh 
s 1 a t u r e 

as wel 



il 1 ti-^s 
Srn t , ( 

ccir 
ent 
n cf 
ana . 
s^y , 
e" f 
choo 
arad 
ex ib 
uld 
cali 

r, F 
culd 

to 
1 as 



[TISS 

(the 

cit 

Cth 

ror 

croi 

se d 

ty 

le " 

cf f e 

ty t 

c lie 

he 

prov 

idc 



that 

nly 

ion, 

tra 
y-cG 
er s 

exa 
cf 1 
if f- 

the 
cafe 
r th 
he g 

6 JU 

net 
ide 
pted 



could 

three 

and c 

d i t i c n 

unt y c 

tates 

niple, 

ccal g 

rent a 

1 egis 

t e I i a " 

e icay 

u e s t i c 

dge an 

6 d t li a 

f crniE 

and a 



te 

fc 
ca ffi 
al f 
c r. s c 
cf fe 
enipl 
over 
Iter 
lata 

in 
r-cc 
n cf 
d ot 
t se 

cf 
hand 



prov 1 
r lis 
s s i n 
cr ED a 
lidat 
r cor 
oys w 
n IB e n t 
n a t i V 
re. s 
«cn 
uncil 
whet 
here 
cticn 
gov 
oned , 



ded 

of 
-man 
nd c 
icn 
sid-a 
hat 

opt 

ect i 

tana 
fcr 

her 
ity 

3 s 
er nai 

ty 



unde 
ci 
agf?r 
cunt 
are 
rati 
has 
icns 
kith 
CE 3 

, t 
m cf 
tc e 
cf fi 
p€ci 
ert 
a vc 



r s ?c 

ty 
) ; tw 

y mar 

a u t h 
y mcr 
been 
, und 
in a 

was 
cc. 

gove 
lect 
cers . 
f ical 

whic 
te cf 



tier 
go ve r 
o for 
ager) 
cr ize 
e alt 
call e 
e r w h 

fcr 
draft 
T h i: s , 
rnmen 
cr ap 

In 
ly di 
h ca 
the 



J are 
r le r t 

ITS of 
, and 
d ty 
er na- 
G the 
ich a 

Ql cf 

ed to 
the 
t but 
f cint 
this 
r e c t £ 
n te 
local 



Section 3 provides the legislature with authority tc meet 
the rapidly shifting gcvernaental needs cf vastly different units 
of Iccal governniTnt. For example, the legislature under section 3 
could provide str eaoilined forms cf county governirent specially 
suited for areas in which pcpulaticr; is dwirdlicg and a varie-*:y 
of fcrnjs of ccnsclidated governirent tor areas where virtually all 
of a ccunty's population is urban. 

Sncticn 3 cl'^arly states that any opticcal or alternative 
plan will gc into effect on a local level cnly after it has teen 
approved by the voters. The legislature is directed tc offer 
choices cf governnent structure fcr local gcvernment units; the 
voters cf these units have the final control over what type of 
structure they select. 

£££§sili_Csy£lI_£cv€r r sen t_Jcr ff 



Section 3 provides that one fcric cf optional gcverrirert 
available to counties shall be what iright be called the "tradi- 
tional form" — that structure now used in S5 of the state's 56 
counties. This fcta- cf gcvernaient — including 13 elected 
officials — has been spelled cut ir Montana's Censtitution since 
1889. Siaiilar forms receive Constitutional reccgniticn in most 



790 



CCMANA CCKSlIIUIICKiiL CCbV5MICbi 



cth-r statr's. 

'^b^ juei-tion fscirj the Lccal Gcvfrr. irect Ccirrcittef vas 
Hh'^thrL- tc ccntinu-: th-- pr^sert Ccrst i t ut icral eDiphasiE en the 
"-^rd.iiticnal" term cf ccunty gcvfrrni?rit cr to •^limirate ary Ccr- 
stitutici.il B-p.tior. cf the "trad iticral" tcm. The comtnittee 
beli3v;-£ i*:s solution to th- prcll'?ir is hcth vis- and workable. 



c p t i c m 1 
vote! ap 
must b'^ 
words, f 
cont in'j'' 



tu; 



v«h 



govt rnir^ 
t i c n a 1 " 
an "assu 



tion 3 r:nphasi7'^s the legislature's tread pcw-Tr tc cffer 
dn(j altmn.^ti v*^ terns cf qcve r ciuen t , subject to local 

jr?v.ii. r-ut it provides that cn€ cf these: cgticnal terms 
-h- "trddiriona 1" fern cf ccunty gcvernirer.t . Jr ether 

octicn i assures the pecpl-^ that they iray, if they viish, 
to operate under their present county gcverrirent struc- 

il- at th-r same time encouraging ccurties to adapt their 

r.t structurt: to local needs. Cnder section 3, the "tradi- 

structure ot county gcvernirent trioht best be described as 

red cpticn." 



And s-?cticn 1 builds flexibility even fcithin 
ticnal" orticn. That is acccai plishtd in two ways: 



he "tradi- 



— The beard of Ccunty CciririEsicne r s is empcwered to consoli- 
date offices within the county. This ccwer already is ccrtained 
in the present Ccr stit uticn (Article X7I, section 5) and has 
received limited applicaticr., ircst rctatly in the frequent ccirbi- 
naticn cf the offices of sheriff and ccrcner. 

— The bodids cf Ccunty Cciiiirissicners cf two cr inore counties 
are authorized tc provide for a irulticcunty office. For exaagle, 
the ccmirissioners ot three sparsely populated counties might 
agree to ?lect cne coroner tc serve all three counties. 

The offices of county attorney and clerk of district ccurt, 
also mentioned in the proposed judicial article, are enuwerated 
in section 3 fcr the express purpose cf irakirg the offices eligi- 
ble tor inter-ccunty and irulticcunty consolidation. The Local 
Government Comniittee strongly reccirmends that the judicial arti- 
cle be worded so as not tc foreclose the possible consolidation 
ot these two offices with others as provided under section 3. 

Eliminated from the provision for the "traditional" plan are 
the present ccmplicated previsions for overlapping terns, proce- 
dures by which ccunty effices icay he consolidated and the irethcd 
of filling vacancies in ccunty effices. If needed, these proce- 
dures may be outlined by law. ^'cre specifically, it is the intent 
of the cccDLnittee that the language allcwing the legislature to 
set qualifications tor the ccunty coirmissioners should allow the 
election of comaissicners froir districts, as is now the case. 



Section 3 omits the present prohibition 
treasurers succeeding themselves in office. 



against ccunty 



The committee believes it is clear that the previsions of 



Ccmrittee en Lccal Gcverraer. t 



791 



Sf^Ct 

in 

iu_± 

are 

c o u r. 

intc 

cent 

shcu 

tion 

form 



icn 

nc 



aCh C 



Chan 
t i, -* s 
nt of 
rol. 
Id t 
H 7 d 
of 



CO 

oun 

tc 

■^ h 
and 
r- n 
r.d 
qov 



nee 
Kil 



"incc 

inij" 

The 

fflant i 

legis 

with 

prcba 

class 

class 

instd 

needs 



Ssc 
r fo 

u ni 
iop 

c E. 
I at 
th = 
fcly 

<;s . 

nee 

of 



ti3n 

rati 

rs c 

crti 

For 

ur^ 

m tfio 

V i 

the 

Sac 

s i 



the 
6 L 

a 

cte 

&) 

em 



_-( 
ng, 
r 1 
Lce 
ex 
tc 
r 9 
11 
r. a 
h c 
r w 
rcu 



r n i fi 
1 w? 
affe 
li 

5Xt 

ccal 

til 1 j o 
d th 
alsc 
IT 2n t 



ij J. 
ak-^ 

d 

snt 
Gc 

rit 

at 
cc 
(s 



n. a ] 
n sc 
J Hh 

He W 

tha 

V ■;; in 

th€ 
r ta i 
^cti 



cr 

ct 
•?n 

4- 

t e 

n £ 
on 



ity vcte en a nsw fc 
icn 2 , which i3quii^ 

ccuR*y tcundari^s 
an ct gcvrinttient irv 
they would ce ccnscl 
nt Ccn; litter that 

IP 2^£h. county wcul 
esent Ccnstituticr ( 

different ttajority 

7) and bcundar^_cha 



r in 
s a 

CI 

civ 
id a 
sec 
3 c 
Art 
req 

I19.S. 



ct 
Ta 
cc 

p. 3 

ted 
tic 
€ r 
icl 
uir 

i ( 



gc ver 
jcrity 

cn-^ y 
two or 
, it i 
n 2 
eau ire 
e XVI, 
efforts 
£ = ct io 



rirent 

vote 

seats 

cpcre 

s th€ 

vculd 

d. It 

sec — 

fcr 

n 8) . 



"iliccr£cr at in2 iiirisscl V inc" 



directs the legislature tc frcvid-e picctdur<^s fci 
classifying, ffierging, ccnsclidating and dissclv- 

ccdl qDV-:rnD!6nt and cf alt'^ring their tcurdaries. 
of these factors dictates their Constitutional 

amplr, the ccniKittee wishes tc clearly direct the 
classify Iccal gcverr. iisrit units in order to deal 

effectively through legislation. Classification 
take the fcrffi ct dividing cities into population 

pplying certain legislaticc crly tc ere cr several 

lassif ica tier xs used now under Montana law for 

hich legislation nust te tailored for the specific 

p of local govsrruert urits. 



The ccmffiittee also wishes tc direct the legislature tc pic- 
vide [fethcds ty which cities and towns, in effect, iray gc cut cf 
businr.ss. .-it present, methods fcr disi nccr p c i ation are provided 
by Itw cnly fcr towns with less than 5CC population. The ccuffiit- 
tee telieves disinccrporaticn night le a workable means cf ending 
needless duplication of governaental services on the local level. 

Secticr. 4. GENEPflL EOhEFS. Local gcveinBert units 
not exercising self-gcvern le rt powers under sections 5 
and 6 shall have the following general powers: 

(1) Incorporated cities and tcwrs shall have the 
powers cf a municipal corporation and such legislative, 
administrative and other powers as provided or implied 
by law. 

(2) Counties shall have such legislative, adirinis- 
trative ind other powers as provided cr iitplied by law. 

(3) The pow^-rs of incorporated cities and towns and 
counties shall be liberally ccnstruec. 

(4) ether local gcverraert urits shall have such 
powers as provided by law. 

COMMENTS 



The question of what powers local gcverr.ffent units should 



792 



HCNTANfl CCNS1 ITU*^ ICNfll CCKVEKIICK 



exercis.- is crucial, ccntrcvetsial and ccnfusir, -j. Involved are 
desir'^E for local cor.trol of Iccal aftairs cr the or,e hand and 
the r-'-ed tor certaii. anitGraiity and statewide standards for rrini- 
muK setvic-s on th= other. Ic deal inith the prcisleni, the Local 
Go ver riir.^nt C o m jti 1 1 <= •■'; proposes a lasic, tvic-lev = l systea of powers 
for local jov-rnni-: t units. Cne level, descrited ir section U, is 
a so!Ef,wh3t liLeralix.^d versior. cf tb-3 pohers now exercised ty the 
local units; the other level, described in section 6, is new to 
Mcntand and provides a self-gover nne nt concept for local units. 

The pres-nt 'icrtana Constitution icakes no gene^ral nserticn cf 
what pow'^rs units of local govern nent have. The result is that 
Constitutional silence, rather than Co rsti t utional language, has 
bee one th- basis for local goverrment authority ir Montana. The 
Local Hover nnijnt Coiraiittee telieves that express Ccnstituticral 
wording should Le included ccncercirg th-3 important question of 
the power relationship between state and local gcverrments. Such 
wording is necessary -^o distinguish between self— gcvernme r t units 
and other units and to change the traditional pow«=r relaticrship 
between the state and its local units. 

Cities and Icwns 



Subs-^c^ion i 
and towns shall 
such legislative, 
iirpiie-d by law." 
erallv construed. 



cf section ^ provides that inccrpciated cities 
have the "powers of a Eunicipal ccrpcratior and 
administrative and other powers as provided or 
Subsection 3 adds that the powers shall be lit- 



Subsection 1, tc a degree, restates the present power posi- 
tion cf Montana cities and towns — a position based largely on the 
"Dillon Hulf^" cf judicial ccnstruoticn . Ihe "Cillon Rule," rained 
after a 19th century Iowa judge, provides: 



It 13 

a irun 

follow 

in ex 

implie 

third, 

declar 

simply 

able, 

power 

t ion, 

pcrati 

is its 

ctf ice 

any 1 

legisl 

scope 

Commen 

ed. , V 



a ge 
icip 
ing 
pros 
d in 

the 
ed 

con 
subs 

is 
and 
on 

org 
rs c 
iabi 
a ti V 
of t 
tari 
ol. 



nerai a 
a 1 c r p 
powers, 
s word 

or inc 
se esse 
objects 
venient 
tan tial 

resclv 
the pew 
the cha 
anic ac 
an do a 
lity, 
e act a 
he powe 
es__cn_ 
1/ FF. 



nd 
ora 

an 
s * 
id 5 
nti 

an 

, b 
do 
ed 
er 
rte 
t. 
ny 
not 

FFl 
rs 
the 
1142 



undi 
ticn 
d no 
seco 
nt t 
al t 
d pu 
ut i 
ubt 

by 
is d 
r or 
Neit 
act , 
au 
ioab 
gran 

Law 
-143 



spute 

pcss 

othe 

rd, t 

c the 

th 

r pose 

ndisp 

cone 

the c 

enied 

Stat 

her 

cr m 

thori 

le th 

ted a 

of M 



d pr 
esse 
rs: 
hose 
pow 
e a 
s cf 
e Esa 
eini 
curt 
. Of 
ute 
the 
akc 
zed 
eret 
re V 
ucic 



opes 
s an 

Fir 

nee 
ers 
ccoir 

the 
ble. 
ng 
s ag 

eve 
by w 

cor 
any 

the 
. A 
cid. 
i£al 



i t i n o 
d can e 
St, the 
essaril 
express 
plishae 
ccrpcr 
Any fa 
the ex 
ainst t 
ry muni 
hich it 
pcratic 
con trac 
reby, 
11 acts 

(John 
_Ccr^or 



f law 
xerci 

se g 
y or 
ly gr 
nt 
at ion 
ir, r 
isten 
he cc 
cipal 

is c 
n no 
t, cr 
or b 

beyo 
F. D 
ation 



U '^ M\J l± f^ f 



that 
se the 
ranted 
fairly 
anted ; 
f the 
,— ret 
eascn- 
ce cf 
r pora- 
cor- 
reated 
r its 
incur 
y sctce 
nd the 
illcr, 
5th 



Ccmmittee en Lccal Govcriiirent 



793 



Ir Kcntana, the court repeatedly has cited the "Dillcn Rule" 
in det emining the powers of cities and tcwrs. Eut it alsc occa- 
sionally aas suggested that cities ard tcwns have csrtait irher- 
ent rights, at least in narrowly limited areas of ccrcerr. T*c 

19 3 5 decisions — State ex rel_j^ Cit_y_of _Kisscula_Vi__HclaGs and 

State_ex_rel^_K9rn_Vi_Arncld — provide leading examples of the 
latter, suggesting that lunicipal ccrpcraticns, when acting as 
private corporations, have mere treedcir of action. 



5 intent of section U is to encourage the cci;rt to lit- 
_inter£ret th^ povers of inccrpcrated cities and -^owrs — to 
hem reascnable control over local affairs or concerns 
granting their a full range of self-governnent powers in 
as of concern, section U does not attempt to upset the 
established power relationship between the state and cit- 
d towns. What it does intend to do is direct the court, 
ssiblf, to give the benef it_cf _the_dcubt to the city or 
section 4 attempts to give cities ard towns more elbcwrcoti 



Th 

allow t 
without 
all are 
present 
ies ar 
when po 
town . 
to act. 

In this regard, it should be pointed out that under this 
section — and, indeed, under the present Montana Constitution — th€ 
legislature could give considerably more freedca to local units 
chosen tc do. In recent sessions, the legislature has 
toward freeing local gcverrffients; authorizing an 
all-purpose mill levy as a substitute for the individual levy 
liffiits en 



than 
been 



it has 
Hicvinq 



e mill levy as a substitute for 
separate funds is a leading example. 



Counties 

Kcntana counties — like cost of those elsewhere in the 
nation — are even more tightly under the legislature's thunst than 
are cities and towns. The Montana county presently is Bcre admin- 
istrative than gover nniental in nature; rules are aade in Helena 
every other year and carried cut — or adepinistered — on the county 
level day-to-day. 

Through stringent court interpretations (rctably Plath v^ 

Hi-Eall Contractors.^, Inc_. in 1S61 and Eacus_Vi_Lak6_Cgunti in 

"1960), Kontana counties have been denied the local legislative, 
or ordinance-ffiaking powers possessed by cities and towns. 

It is not enough tc say that Montana counties can act only 
when authorized to do so by the legislature. That statenert lay 
be true of Montana's cities and towns, but for the state's coun- 
ties, authorization to act is net sufficient. Father, the legis- 
lature must net only tell counties that they say_act; it also 
aust spell out in what manner they nay act. Neil S. Reefer 
succinctly suamed up the role tc which Wcntana counties have been 
relegated in a 196^4 article in the Be n tan a_Law_R e v ie w : 

To ba Constitutional, a statute granting authority to 
counties must be sufficiently explicit and restrictive, 
sc that its execution requires only administrative 



794 



f^CKTANA CCNSTITUTIONAL CCNVEKTICN 



■i c 1 1 c : 
117) . 



d 11 '1 



net 



an 



-. xercis^-; cf legislative pci«>=r. (f, 



In thJ last, ti'.e ccurt has struck dc^r f.crtana planning and 
zcniii^^ l-^qi£ldticr ^nd laws authciizing county and district 
health boards as unconst itut icna 1 d^loqations of Ic-g islat ive 
pcw,-r:3 tc cour,ti(;s. An Idaho prct^sscr, author ct cerbaps th:; 
l-:adiiig t--xt or courty gcv^rrncr, t, descrites the lack cf a mere 
axt'^nsiv- cr<lindncfe-niaking pcwn^r as "an important weakress in 

county gov^ri.ir^rt" (s,v3 Herbert Sydr.^y Eur.ccaLe, Ccuntj; figvfrn- 

tnent in_fln;crica, p. 'iS) . 



1h 
that CO 
th- tra 
t i o n c r 
p r V i (i ; 
fcelievf 
leg i si a 
abuse c 
s€Ct ion 
pcH-^ rs 
of pcwe 



.) Loc.ii lovf: rnaie^^nt Comffiittee is well aware of contentions 

unti?£ should not exercise any legislative power because 

3itional county structure dees net allow for clear separa- 

*h2 legislative and executive functions and thus dees net 

tor clear separation cf powers. Hcwever, the ccnaittee 
s the legislature? can build safeguards irtc any grant cf 
tivj pcw-rs to counti-s tc guard against such alleged 
f th-" separation ct powers ccrcect. The language cf 

4, subsection 2 clearly hinges tne grant ci legislative 
tc couiiti-^s on grants frctc the legislature; no tread grant 
r is given directly tc counties by this sec^icn. 



The C3iin' ittee ' s overriding concern is that Mcrtana counties, 
through thi cfficials elected locally, be allcwed to meet the 
increasing chall-nges cf e rapidly cbangirq state. Alleging the 
legislature to give counties legislative power will provide 
another tool m coping with the urban sprawl outside ircorpcrated 
municipalities and in eliirinatirg sctre cf the present reasons 
feeding the grcwth cf overlapping cover ntrc rta 1 jurisdictions and 
special districts. 

Ct h€r_Lcca l_l] rits 

Section u ptcvi'.es that local governir-ent units ether than 
cities, towns and ceunties will have those powers prcvided by 
law. Thus, the l-^gisldture cculd establish special districts to 
provide special functions and could assign either 
municipal-ccr porat ion er county-type pcwers tc a city-county con- 
solidated governiE_-nt. 

In general, tne intent cf secticc U is tc provide that units 
of local government net adopting self-gcver nirert pcwers will not 
be crippled in iraeting local needs. Thus, the powers cf incorpo- 
rated cities, towns and counties are tc be "liberally construed" 
and counties may be allowed tc exercise legislative 
powers — something the ccurt has said they nay net do under the 
present Censtituticn. 



However, section U 
government powers; such 



is rot interded as a bread grant cf self- 
powers are prcvided for in section 6 only 



CciDiDittet cr, Lccal Gcverrnert 



795 



upcp in aff ir ma ti v-^ vot-? of the residents cf a 
unit. 



lccal gcveccHiert 



Section 5. SEIF-GC V E F N f EN 1 Cf!?FlEI<S. Ihe legislature? 
shall prescrite procedures and aay set linitE under 
which a local gcvercirert unit cr cctr.hina t icn cf units 
may frame, adopt, aiii^nd, revis? cr atandon a self- 
cjCverniT'^nt charter with the apfrcval cf a majcrity cf 
thcs-? voting on the questicii. The frescrited froce- 
diires, however, shall net requir; approval cf a charter 
by a I'Bgislative body. 

Charter previsions with respect tc a lccal gcvernttient 
unit's executive, legislative and adirinistrat ive struc- 
ture and organization shall be sup'^ricr to statutory 
pre visions. 

CCKfiENlS 



At present in Montana, crly the legislature can draw up 
chartc-rs; local residents are only given the authority tc adopt 
or reject the legislature's work. 

Section 3 reaffirms the authorization for the legislature to 
continue its practice of providing alternative fcrES cf gcvern- 
fflent for local units, subject tc lccal voter approval, section 5 
adds a new feature: authorization for the pecple of a locality 
tc traire and adopt th^ir own fcrui of governtrent through a "self- 
governirent charter." Such local charter-writing power now is 
authorized ir about half cf the stats Constitutions. 




(1) The Isgislature must set liirits and procedures under 
which charters may be drafted. For exairple, the legislature night 
determine that only those units or coirbindticn cf units with more 
than 1C,OjO population should have charter-writing authority. Or 
the legislature could specify the irethcd cf selection and the 
number cf members of a local charter— draft ing ccnirissicn. The 
committee considered including such provisions within section 5, 
as seme state Cor.stituticns do, hut rejected the idea or the 
basis that such provisions should have the flexibility of statu- 
tory law. 

(2) No charter or charter anendttent cculd become effective 
until it is approved by a majority cf the local voters. 

The section alsc limits the power cf the legislature over 
locally written charters in twc ways: 



796 



MCNTAhA CCKS1I1C1ICNA1 CCNVEKTICN 



(1) Mthcugh it allcws th^ legislator'^ tc set frccedurss 
and linitdticns ccncerniny the dtaiting cf a local charter, 
secticn ""; tpocifically denies both the state legislature ar.d 
local lecislative bcdies (such as city ccurcils) the pcw^r tc 
veto a lociilly aiproved chart&r. The ccncffitte^ telieves that a 
legislative body should net be allowed tc set aside a properly 
drafted charter that Iccal residents believe aaots their reeds. 

(2) Charter prcvisicns en a Iccal unit's executive, legis- 
lative and adirinistrative structure will supercede statutory 
prcvisicns under the language ct secricn " . Thus, it a local unit 
decides throu-jh its local charter tc elect a treasurer but state 
law gen^-rally rt.guires that treasurers nust be appcinted, the 
charter provisicn calling fcr election xill beccne effective. 

Testimony before the ccrcirittee indicated that nc jcassive 
ncveirent teuard locally drafted charters is likely tc occur in 
the foreseeable future. Hcwever, at least cne cfficial — the mayor 
of Kisscui-i — did rxpress considerable interest in a self- 
governnient charter. The conioit + ee believes local charter writing 
authority is a valuable tool fcr several reasons: 

--It allows a locality tc tailor its governmental structure 
tc its cwi. ne?ds and offers an excellent iretbcd whereby more 
people can becoree directly involved in their gcvernirent. 

--It provides a iiiethcd whereby a Iccal government unit can 
bypass a recalcitrant legislature which refuses tc provide 
optional forirs cf gcvernir.en t . 

Many of the states wbich authorize local charter writing 
liffiit the grant cf authority to local units ever a certain popu- 
lation size. The cooiiEittee, however, believes that nc such Con- 
stitutional limitations should be imposed; rather, it would leave 
such restrictions to the lecis}ature. 

Section 6. SELF-GCV EBN MENT fCSE££. local gcvernment 
units adopting se If-gcver nuent charters may exercise 
all powers not prohibited by this Co r stitution , by law 
cr by charter. 

This grant cf se If-gover r ire nt powers may be extended 
to ether Iccai government units through optional forms 
of governnent provided fcr in section 3. 

CCMMENTS 



Iccal government units adopting self-gcver cnsent charters, cr 
adopting a special cpticnal fcrff of gcvernrert that the legis- 
lature is empowered to authorize, will be allowed to exercise all 
powers net prohibited by this Const ituticr , by law cr ty charter. 

In effect, section 6 grants to local units the authority tc 
share powers with the state governnent — a form of what generally 



Ccmmittae cr Lccal Gcvernirent 



797 



has teccme Xnowr as "heme rule." The local Gcverntnent Ccn ffi t tee , 
howev^T, has studiously avoided this term, preferring to call the 
grant ct authority "self-gover rirert fcwers." 

Section 6 is irtsnded tc authorize certain lccal units to 
have ccnsiderafcly more freedcm in determining their local 
affairs. Under the present Montana Ccnstituticn — and under the 
general authority authorized in section 4 of this proposal — local 
units would lavs only these poheis granted cr directly implied by 
the legislature. The provisions ct section 6, en the other hand, 
would reverse this situation: self-gcver nnert units *culd be 
able to exercise all powers that ■'■heir charters, the I'^gislature 
cr the Constitution did net prohibit. 



endors 
fflissic 
Consti 
souri, 
respor 
action 
a go- 
powers 
cent ro 
the p 
that 1 
grante 
local 
cally 



his " 

ed by 
n on 
tution 
^5assa 
sibili 
: inst 
ahead 
" cone 

1; it 

ower 
ccal g 
d. Und 
govern 

denied 



sha r 
thp 

Int 
s of 
ch us 
ty. 
ead , 

f cr 
ept 
does 
of 

over 
er t 
irent 



ed 

Nati 

ergo 

at 

etts 

Leg 

sue 

Ic 

does 

, ho 

loca 

ntnen 

be s 

£0£ 



powe 
cna 1 
vern 
leas 

and 
isla 
h in 
cal 

not 
weve 

1 g 

t la 
hare 

sess 



rs" c 

i^lunic 

mental 

t t ive 

Penn 

five i 

act iOE 

gover 

leave 

r , cha 

o V e r n E 

cks po 

d pcwe 

es the 



once 

ipal 

8e 

sta 
sylv 
nact 

on 
naien 

the 
nge 
ent . 
wer 
rs c 

pew 



pt i 
Leag 
latio 
tes — 
a n i a . 
icn n 
the s 
ts. 

Icca 
the t 
at p 
UE les 
o n c s p 
er , u 



s r 
ue a 
ns 

Alas 
It 
c lo 
tate 
Sign 
1 u 
asic 
rese 
s it 
t, t 
cles 



elat 
nd t 
and 
ka , 

cl 
nger 

lev 
if ic 
nit 

ass 
nt, 

has 
he a 
£ it 



ively 

he fid 
is inc 
South 
arif ie 

could 
el wcu 
antly , 

free 
umptic 
that a 

been 
ssumpt 

has b 



new 
vise 
lude 
Dako 
s 1 

blc 
Id s 

the 

fro 
n cc 
ssum 
spec 
icr. 
een 



I 

^y 

d in 
ta, 
ires 
ck 1 
erve 
"sfc 
m £ 
Ecer 
ptio 
if ic 
is 
spec 



t is 

Com- 

the 

is- 

of 

ccal 

as 

ared 

tate 

ning 

n is 

ally 

that 

ifi- 



The legislature, in areas such as pollution ccrtrcl where 
statewide uniforipity is desirable, still cculd impose statewide 
standards under the shared powers concept. Some areas — such as 
the definition and punishment cf felonies — undcubtedly wculd be 
retained by the legislature. Eut in ether areas of unique concern 
to a local unit, it could apply flexible apprcaches tc picblems 
and not be bound by state iractien cr disinterest. 

The coromittee believes the "shared powers" concept embodied 
in section 6 is desirable because it grants considerable autcncmy 
to those local units that wish it, yet it allows the legislature 
at any time to step in and prohibit the local unit frof proceed- 
ing in a manner contrary tc state interests. It clearly is the 
most flexible approach toward local se If-gcveir nent. 



As worded in section 6, the grant cf self-covernmect powers 
also is surrounded by ample safeguards. Most significantly, no 
unit cf lccal government will be able to exercise the increased 
local authority without prior approval cf its residents in one of 
two ways: 

— Approval of a locally drafted charter, which can restrict 
the powers of the lccal unit. 



798 



MONTANA CCNSIIILIIChAL CCNVENTICN 



--f^Fircvji cf 3 
can 111 it th^; fcv'i 



ieqit;lativ-?ly draftt^d 
if tht local urit. 



chatter, fchich also 



can liffit th^; fcv.'is of tht local urit. 

Thus, i.o Iccal yov<-Lnir^rt unit %ill t€ atle to txercise the 
self-gcvii:r.aei,t tcwtis hirhcut tne <3Xi res E_a££r c val ct a ir.ajcrity 
of th- local vot^:rs. Th'^ legislature would retair final author- 
ity to guard aqaii.s+ ii; t r ing-^- irer t cf the pcher. 



powe 
ta xa 

CISC' 

or b 

gran 

be 

th i 

any 

and 

7C 

siiip 

the 

ta xa 



A 

rs c 
tier. 

all 

Y it 
t cf 
th- 
Icca 
.sel 
lice 
Q i li 
ly w 
legi 
t icn 

3 
gov 
u pc 
ccc 
fur. 
ser 
fun 
cer 
'dis 
hib 



t r 'q 
cnc^ 

. Un 

tax 

£ ch 

F w 

fir 
1 ch 
f-gc 

ns = 

£. 

ish ? 

slat 

lim 



w^r. t 
r ns w 
t. e r t 
aticn 
d rt -^r 
»• r , t 
St a 
a r t e r 
V e r n c 
taxes 
The 
s to 
ure a 
itati 



g u ^ s 
iiat ^ 
his p 

pcwe 
. lb : 
u t on 
rea t 
. For 
ent 

and 
c c mm i 
point 
nd th 
ens c 



1 1 r. 
uthc 
rope 

r no 
or et 

3 P 
o be 

r" xa 
urit 
ir.igh 
tte^ 

cut 
e 1 
n a 



II! 

li ty 
sal, 
t de 
ical 
ract 

cir 

tnpl e 

tc 

t li 

is 

tha 
ccal 
self 



re gar 
a u r. i -^ 
a self 
n ied it 
ly, tha 
ical ta 
c u IP s c r i 
, th- 

i 01 p c s e 
irit pre 
net -rd 
t trctt 

vc t e r 
-gc ver r 



d tc 
£ hcu 
-gcve 
by t 
*■ aay 
sis, 
bed b 
leg is 

any 
perty 
c r £ i r 
a pra 
£ on 
ne rt 



Ice 
Id ha 
r p ni e n 
h-^ Co 

scun 
taxat 
y the 
1 a t u r 
t i X c 

ta xe 
q £uc 
ct ica 
doubt 
uni t . 



al se 
ve in 
t 'ini 
r. £ t i t 
d lik 
icn t 
legi 
e ipi 
ther 
s tc 
h r-^s 
1 sta 
ed ly 



If-gc V 
the a 
t ccul 
uticn , 
G a da 
rcbab 1 
slatur 
ght p 
than p 
no nor 
tricti 
n d p c i r. 
will 



e r r m e n t 
rea c f 
d exet- 

b y law 
rger CUE 
y hculd 
e or by 
rchitit 
rcpert y 
e t har 
ens ; it 
t, both 

i IT p o £ e 



ecticn 7. TI.l E t-GCV E TN ME NT AI CCCfEFATICN. a Iccal 
ernirent unit by act ct its governing body, aay, cr, 
n being reguir-^d by initiative cr referendum, shall 
perate, consolidate or agree in the exercise cf any 
cticr, fcw^r cr responsibility with, cr share the 
vic-3 of an officer, cr transfer or delegate ary 
cticn, power or responsil ilit y cr dutie£ cf an offi- 
tc cne cr mere other local gcvernaert units, £chccl 
tricts, the state cr the United States, unless prc- 
i-'-ed by lav. cr charter. 

COff.ENTS 



Section 7 is intended tc be a ccuplete grant cf authcrity tc 
all local government units tc cccperate in the exercise of powers 
and functions, share the services cf officers ard transfer func- 
tions and responsibilities tc other units cf government. Such 
functicnal cooperation and ccnscliddt ion is increasingly demanded 
by the rising costs of gcvernirental services and the careless 
duplicaticn cf gcver noiental services. 

Broad grants cf power tc cccperate already are prcvided 
under Montana law, but the ccffirittee believes that Constitutional 
language should be added giving broad latitude tc Iccal units in 
cooperative ventures, section 7 has several features: 

--It specifically authorizes Iccal rG£ident£, through the 
initiative, to force their local governnerts tc cccperate and tc 
stop senseless duplicaticn of services. 

— It allows the legislature cr, in case cf locally drafted 



CcBitittee en Local Gcv€rnni<;nt 



799 



charters, the voters to directly prchitit Certain fcrirs of 
e r a t i c E . 



ccc p- 



The ccffniittee believes that iiaxiirurr activity by local 

governir-2rt units und^r section 7 cculd sclve niany of the ptcbleiis 

of inefficiency and duplication of services new plaguing some 
arsas in r'cntana. 

Section d. PEVENUF SHABING. tvcthing in this Ccrsti- 
tution shall prohibit the state frcir sharing revenu'= 
with Iccal gcvornment units or th? units frcii parti- 
cipating in revenue sharing viith the state or the 

United States. 

C C M f; E N 1 5 

Article XII, section 4 cf the present Pcntana Ccnstituticn 
has been interpreted as liiriting the state aid that can be pro- 
vided for Iccal governments. The result has teen a tightening cf 
the local fiscal squeeze, increased reliance ct the property tax, 
subterfuge tc "get around" the Constitutional limitaticr and the 
fact that fiontana ranks a6th in the nation in state per capita 
aid tc ci"^y and county governments. 

At th^ tiiii<= of adoption cf this majcrity proposal by the 
cominittee, it appears that Article XII, section u «ill te deleted 
froai the naw Constitution. However, the ccinittee believes it is 
highly desirable tc af f ir ira ti vely provide that the state aay 
share revenue with the local units and that the Iccal units aiay 
participate in revenue sharing with the state and the United 
States. Such a prevision will net assure such state or federal 
assistance; it only will assure that the Constitution will net 
stand in the way of statutory prcvisicrs fcr such aid. 

Section 5. INITIATIVE AKE SEFEFEKCOK. The initiative 
and referendui powers reserved tc the people by the 
Ccnstituticn shall be extended by law tc the gualified 
voters of each local gcvernment unit. 

CCMMENTS 



The ccaiirittee believes it is essential that local residents 
have the powers of initiative and referendua, particularly in 
view ct the bread self-go vernirent pcwers offered in this pro- 
posal. The cciBiBittee also believes that the proper place to 
assure these "people powers" is in the local gcvernitent article. 
Specific provisions concerning petition requirements, however, 
should be left to statutory law where they can be easily reached 
if change is needed. 

Section 1C. RECALL. All elected public officials of 
local gcvernoient units are subject tc recall by the 
voters of the unit from which elected. Procedures fcr 
recall shall be prescribed by law. 



800 



MONTANA CChSTITUIICNflL CONVENTION 



CCMKENTS 

The [j-50j.le should h?-v£ the right tc leirove putlic officials 
or thi local level, for iTiUcL the saire reasons as cited in the 
conim--n^s tc section '^. Cnce aqain, the ccairitte'? favors leaving 
recall proct?dur*js tc statutory law, althcujh ccrcern i»as 
exfress-d -hat the r^q uir^iterits should te of sufficient severity 
tc eliminate rrivclcus and ret;edted recall electicns. 

Section 11. VOTIiF EEVIEW CE ICCAI GCV£FN«ENT, Ihe 
legislature shall v.ithir. four years of the adcpticr cf 
this Ccnstituticn provide for frccedures ty which each 
local .jcvernment unit eith<^r separately cr jcintly 
snail review the govern cert structure cf the Iccal unit 
cr joint unit and shall sutwit one al terr a*- ive fcrir cf 
gcvernirent to tne voters at '■he r^xt general or special 
olccticn. Th-^ legislature shall prcvide for a review 
procedure each ten years after the first electicn. 

CCKfiiNlS 

Section 11 repres'-nts perhaps the aost uricue feature cf the 
local 9cv 3rTiiiert frcpcsal. It reayircs that the legislature, 
within four years after the adcpticr of the Constitution, irust 
prcvide methods ty which each Iccal unit, sirqly cr in ccnifcina- 
tioD with another cr others, ffust study its go vernaiental struc- 
ture. The key provision is that residents cf each unit must have 
nn opportunity tc vote en whether to adopt an alternative fcrir or 
retain their present fcra. 



Although the procedures are left up tc the legislature, the 
committee envisions that local coim issicns night be created to 
draft an entirely new type cf govsrnffent cr siirply take ar. alter- 
native term authorized ty the legislature and recomcnend that it 
be t^^t on the ballot Iccally. Different ccurties and different 
cities could vote cr different alternatives; some counties and 
cities iFiight want to sufcirit consolidated city-ccunty fcrirs for 
judgaert ty the voters. 



The coraiTiittee strongly believes that such 
governnient 



local review cf 
uff ard more 




An overriding consideration is that the local voters wculd 
be the final judges of whether the alternative proposed really 
would be a better form cf gcvernirent than that in effect at the 
time cf the election. Even if every ccunty, city and town decides 
to retain its existing fcrm cf gcvernsent following the review 
procedure, the ccminittee believes the tiae spent in study and 



Ccimitte.; en Lccal Gcv^rrirtnt 



801 



discussicn ot local gove r nnncrit will result indir€CtlY 
r3StJcnsive ard it^sfcnsitle iccal ^cvarr.iEert. 



1 r 



ifi c I e 



Section 11 directs the Iscislature tc frcvid'=> for a "ipvisii 
FrccedDre" ^ach ten years aft^^ri the first electicn. Such decen- 
nial review would not necossarily have tc rec^uire that each unit 
in thi stat^ ^jc thrcu.jh the ccurittc review frccess inquired the 
first tiiTf:. 



802 



MCN'^ANA CC^5lnL^ICNAL CCNVEKTICK 



A F rii N E I X A 



CFCSS FIPIFINCES 



P lucres ED Si'CTIGN 



FHSEN1 flBlICLE 6 SfCTICN 



3 
U 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
Net Eeplaced 



none 










XVT, 


T, 


2, 


8 




XVI, 


'^, 


5, 


6, 


7 


ncr,6 










none 










none 










ncne 










ncre 










ncns 










ncne 











none 

XVI, 3; XIX, 6 



Ccffifliitt-?-; en Local Gcvtrrncrt 803 

APFENEIX B 

lilCFCS AIS_CC|.SIEEFEE_EY_CC^^5TT2 5^ 

Th^ tollcwin^ irleijate prcpcsals veze exaffiin ed ard ccrsid- 
ered cy the Local Gcverr. ment Ccniritte^:? during its dslit^iations: 

Numbfci cf 

£££E££^i Chi^t_S£cnscr ?ut j£ct_Patt €r Eis£csiticr 

1. 5 Kati^ Eayrc Ptf^al .".rticle Fejectad 

XVI, Section 5 

2. e Katie Eayre local Charters Irt^rt 

Adopted in 
Fart 

3. 9 Franklin District Elan Reject €d 

? r r. e £ s 

U. 17 Arnold Districting Rej<;cted 

Jdcotssn for Ecards cf 

C c u n t y 
Ccirinissicners 

5. 23 Virginia Welfare Fandled ty 

Elecd Funding BevenueS 

F inancfc 
Public 

Health, Sel- 
fare, labor 
£ Industry 
Ccffiini ttees 

6. 5(4 George Eepeal Article Adopted 

Pcllins XIX, Section 6 

7. 56 Marian New Article en Ictent 

Erdoarn local Govern- Adopted in 

[rent Eart 

8. 6C Red f:anson Prohibit Ccr- Irtent 

sclidating Adopted in 
Counties With- Part 
out Vote cf 
People 

9. 79 C. B. t^cNeil Distribution Fejected 

of Cover r ire rtal 
Pohers ic Sub- 
divisions 



804 



MONTANA CC^STI'IUTIC^!flL CONVENTION 



T". 



a c 



G?cd r 

A n d - r s V. 



Mticlt JfVI, 
Ccunty Pcunci- 
daries cird 
Ccunty Seats 



Adopted 



11. 



T7 



IhcffidS Ask 



New Article en 
Lcca 1 
Cover r. nert 



Adopted 



12. 



99 



bcbf^r t 



City r^ancger 



F e iected 



13. 



i:6 



Dcrcthv Hck 



Election £ en 

Alternate 

For ITS ct Gcvern- 

ment 



Trtent 
AGopt€d ir 
Fart 



ia. 



lie 



Gecf f r-;y 
I' r a z i t r 



liirit 1e rms cf 
Cf f icsrs 



F? J€Ct€d 



15. 



12: 



Ihouias Ask 



Delete frchiti- 
ticn or. Salary 
Ircreasss 



Bandied by 
legislative 
Ccffliait tee 



16. 



12fc 



Lucilf Speer 



New Article en 

local 

Cover r trent 



Ict=nt 
Adopted ir 
tart 



17. 



13*^ 



18. 



19. 



156 



166 



Fran klin 
Arness 



J. Kasoii 
Kelvin 



Katie Fayiie 



Repeal Article 
XII, Sections 
15 o 16; and 
Amend Article 
XII, Section 17 

Slecticn cf 
Sheriffs 



I egislat ive 
Peters for 
Certain 
Counties 



Handled by 
Fevenup £ 
Finance 
Cc [T ffi ttee 



Intent 
Adopted in 
Part 

Irtent 
Adopted in 
Part 



Ccinsiiittee cr. Lccal Gcvetraert 



805 



AEF5Nri:!( c 



i!lIIiiSSrS_HEiBE_Ej(_CCM[;:TTTEE 

]J'lS!^_r.3l£iii^ii£Ii_r_£^sid5ncc_3_Sut j;ect 

1. Fcward haBDJ^r - ?avalii Ccur. ty Ccanissicnei - Ha milter - 
r-rcvisicns en counties. 

2. Zarl i/aiey - Vdll^y Ccur.ty Ccnirissicr er - Nashua - F r c- 
visicr. £ cii ecu n ties. 

3. jdle Skaali;rG - Kill Ccurty Ccirniissic ner - £iq Satdy - 
ricvisicns cr. ccurti-^s. 



4. btit Hurwitz - j^eaoher County Coimissicr.-er - ^hitf Sulfhur 
Si-rinqs - ticvisicrs en ecLi:ti?s. 

5. ?dlph /■rinsticrq - Gallatir Ccurty Ceir nissicner - 
c-slgrarle - Frcvisicr. s en ccurtiifs. 

6. Ccr. Gicscr. - Dawsar. Cci;nty Ccnirissicner - Gler. divG 
2rcviiien£ c:i cc unties. 

7. ;'iic Dsan - Cascad-:- Ccurty Ccira: issicnsr - Great Falls - 
Erovisicns en counties. 

8. Gear, Zinr ecker - .'"'cntana Assccia+:ien cf Ccurty Cciriris- 
sicr^rs - Kelsra - Frcvisicr s en ccurties. 

9. Gene Nordterq - Citizen - Sidney - General local 
gcv£ r noi^ n t. 

10. ^alf^r Andersen - City Manag^^r - fiel^na - General Iceal 
gcv-irni^nt. 

11. Dan f^izrar - Men tana Ltagus of Citits and Icwns - Helena - 
General Iccal govern irart. 

12. TciD Phillips - i^ontana leacue of Cities and lewns - 
Helena - General lccal govern iiert. 

13. George Schrceder - County Treasurers Asscciation - Great 
falls - ;>5atters relating tc ccunty treasurers. 

1U. Mary ii. Westeruiark - Ccuntj Treasurers Asscciaticr - 
Shelby - flatters relating tc ccurty treasurers. 

15. Earl J. Hcltaaii - Silver Ecb Ccunty CcEBisEicner - Eutte - 
Legalizing gambling. 



806 



iVCNTANA CCh?;TITDlICN;iL CCN^INTICN 



16. .lean Andersci] - L-aagu-e ct Wcirfn Voters - Eillirgs - 
G^^nerdl Iccdl gcv-iir, n^rt. 

17. rcb-^rr l^'^rrig - lir.ccin County Jiiper i r te cder. t cf Schccls - 
LiLLy - KcSFir.g Ccurty S u {.e r ir ttr den ts cf Schccls in 
Constitution. 

18. Cpal cggoit - Filccteci County Cfficials Asscciaticr - 
Hfc-lena - K^epirg ccurty ofticials in Const ituticn . 

19. larg^ret Frown - Gallatin County Supeiir te t den t of Schccls 
FczeiTdn - Peeping Ccunty Super int€ rdt r.ts cf Schccls in 
Ccnstituticr. . 

20. Harry L. Axtir.ann - Fccsevelt Ccurty Superintendent of 
Schools - v;clt Point - Keeping ccurty officials in 
Ccnstituticr. 

21. Fred Paiclay - fisscula Ccurty Assesscr - Kisscula - 
t;ualit icat icns and pay of assessors. 

22. u. J. Schmidt - Cl'^^rk and Beccrders Association - Great 
falls - Suggestions ccrceirirg absentee ballots. 

23. Williarn Cassella, Jr. - Executive Eirector, National 
funicipal league - New York - General Iccal governert. 

24. H. J. Fierce - Citizen - Great Falls - Inefficiency in 
local gcverraert. 

25. Cr. Thcnias Payne - Professor, University cf f^ontana - 
Missoula - local government in general. 

26. J. Kasor Helvin - Delegate - Eczc^ican - Elected sheriffs. 

27. Gporge luriran - Mayor - Kisscula - Suggestions for local 
government article. 

28. Jean Ellison - Meagher Ccunty Superintendent of Schccls - 
White Sulphur Springs - Electing County Superintendents 
of Schools. 

29. hcy Crosby - Citizens for Ccnstituticnal Government - 
F^elena - Suggestions for local Gcvermert Article. 

30. James Kcore - Law Student - Kisscula - local Goverrnect 
firticle. 

31. Robert C. Watt - Montana Student Presidents Association, 
Retired Ccunty Superintendent cf Schccls E legislatcr - 
Missoula - Keeping Ccunty Superintendents cf Schools in 
Ccnstit ution . 



32. Grace Ranson - Flathead Ccunty Superintendent of Schccls - 



CcmiEittee en Lccal Gcvtrrirtr.t 



807 



Kalis pell - Kec^irg Ccur, ty S ucer in te rd-t-r ts cf Schcclt ir 
Cciistituticn. 

33. rcrctby Sittiinons - lekis b CIitk County S-jperirtProcnt cf 
Schools - H^lcr.d - !<?-3fir.q Cccrty Suf s r i nt g r^ls r t ct Schccls 
in Ccnstitutici). 

34. Carolyn irccj^n - Missoula County Super i rt = rdent of Sclccls - 
Msscaia - Ke^ifir.g Ccucty S up €r intsr.dcCts ct Schccls ir 

Ccri&tituticr:. 

35. Lloyd "ark-l - :',ontana Ecucaticn Psscc ia t ic r. - Fsl^na - 
■keeping Ccurty Su f-? rin tender t s ct Schccls ir Cc rs ti t c ticn. 

36. rclcres Ccllerg - State Su^e r i nte nder t cf Schools - Helena ■ 
Fegardirj County S uf cr iht ende rts cf Schcclf. 

37. Dcicthy LCk - Vice ChairiEar cf Ccnvt^nticn - Boztnan - 
Eelegatt F reposal 1C£. 

38. r-cd Hansen - Delegate - fairtield - relegate Proposal 6C. 

39. James F^lt - Delegate - Eillirgs - Delegate Proposal ^C. 

4C. William wheel-r - Flathead County Surveyor - Kalispell 
K-^eping surveyors -lected. 

U1. C. E. r.cNeil - Delegate - Eolscn - Delegate Proposal 79. 

42. E. J. Gcodheart - State Senator - falta - General local 

y V e r n m t n t . 

43. t. J. K'^enan - State Senator - Araccrda - General locel 
Gcverntterit. 

44. Gordon hcOirter - State Senator - Fairtield - General 
local gcvernaient. 

45. i'tnry S. Cox - oepresentative - Eillings, General local 
govern n-nt. 

46. williac Campbell - hepresentat ive - fisscula - General 
local gcvernmert. 

47. Harold ^»cGrath - Representative - Butte - General local 
governttent . 

48. Mario rticcne - Mayer - Butte — General local governniert. 

49. John «ay - Citiz->n - Hamilton - Eower tc lccal goverrirent 
and optional plans. 

5C, John Hauser - Citizen - Steversvill^ - Power to local 
gcv?.rnffent and opt local plans. 



808 



KCN'^AN/s CCNSIITLIICNSL CC^"VE^TICK 



51. Lave Drum - LeliQate - Hi]Jirg£ - General Iccal 
(joverriinfnt. 

52. Mrs. Potertd west - Citizer - Chincck - G'^rEral local 
g c V £ c II m ? n t . 

53. Robert t-itch^ll - Chairiran, ['.isscula Icterlocal Cccpera- 
*-icri CCFmissficr. - Msscula - General Iccal governirent. 



5a. Laurence Bjcrnetv - ^ayor - Kalispell - General Iccal 
gnvernm-nt. 

55. i-.rs. Fern Hart - League cf Wcaer Voters - fisscula - 
G'rneral Iccal gcverrnert. 

56. Jchn McLaughlin - Kaycc - Great Falls - General local 
g c vernwent . 

57. fary C. Holt - Citizen - Augusta - General Iccal 
gcvernirent. 



CCDEittee cr, Lccal Gov^rr. CEer. t 



809 



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810 



?:C.NTflNi> CCNSTIIU1ICNAL CC^V£^•1ICN 



Ccnii;ittse cr General Gcv€rrnert 



811 



fCKTANA CCNSTIlUTICNAi CCNVEMTICN 
197 1-1^-/2 

GENEBAL GCVEBNKENT 
AND CCNSTITUTICNAL Al^EKCKEM CCf^NITTEE FECPCSAl 
ON GENEBAL GCVEF^BE^'I 
NC. XII 



Cate Introduced: February IS, 1972 



/s^_];ark_Etchart , Chairmar 



^s/_Eaul_Kj,_Harlcw, Vice Chairman 



812 ^'ON'lA^ifl CO N SI ITU T I C ^ A L CCN^/LNTICK 

Fatje 

L i: T T H P (■ I- T [( A N S f 1 ri A L ,S1 :i 

I £ X y C r M .'\ JC I i T Y .^ P r C ;■ 1 815 

CnN.-'.iMS CK rfuKl-ITY !• T E C o 1 818 

S-cticr 1 818 

L>cc t i c r. ^ 818 

S^ cti.J?. ? 819 

S€ctic:. <; 819 

S T C t i Cli ') 820 

.«oc t i :r: o 820 

S i.e. tic:. 7 821 

fi -: c t i c r f. 821 

S -J c t i c '1 S 821 

r; r- c t i n ^K ,....821 

•^ -: t; * i C r: 11 822 

TFXT AM CC^-rrMi C !■ ■'..XcrilY t b C f C S ,M 1 82;-i 

T F X ': A i\ n c ^; /. i* r ;. T o c r .; i <•,■(-■}, t i y t r c l c s a l :; 824 

ThXT A;.-rc-:MMf^ C r I.T.^CFITY PIUjPC^AI :^ S25 

A!?r£:vl. IX M ClCS£ I'ttrrrl.Cto ..826 

A F t L i'i L: I X I : I ■-l^-.]jtc : r c t c s a 1 i 827 

APPFNTTX C: /itrost-i 8;^ 

B C 1 L CALL V Q '^ ^ .- j^;55 



CoiruiitteG ov. General Gcv^iriffient 813 



Eate: Petruary ISi, 1912 

Tc: f.ChlkhA CCNS'II'IUTICNAL CCNVE^TIC^ 

Frcm: Gen.?ral Gcvernment and Cc rst it uticnal Atrendnert 

Ccmrai tte c 

Ladii^s ard Gertlen.cr: 

Ihe Gereral GcvGrnffient and Ccrst ituticnal Amendment Coinrit— 
tee sutffiit.? herewith a frcfcsed ne* General Gcvetrrr.ent Prticle. 
The proposed Article is intended to replace all sections of the 
present Constitution lealinc with general gcvernnect areas. 

Ihy scope of an area such as general gcvernoient is Lrcad 
and, unl-ss sft^cific issues are cited, scuewhat retulccs. The 
proposed Article dees net have an exact duplicate in the Corsti- 
tuticn of 1889. Thi content of th-^ new Article was drawn frcni 
nary sections of the eld cerstituticn (See Appendix A) and from 
delegate proposals assigned tc the cciiiniittee (see Apper.dix E) . 
The topics are varied and encompass many areas cf state gcvern- 
ment. Though seme members cf the ccirmittee disagreed en various 
portions cf the proposed Article, the cenmittee agreed unani— 
Bously on the basic intent of the article. In signing this major- 
ity report a Committee member dees ret recessarily endorse each 
and every statement in it. These members whc disagree en specific 
sections signed minority reports outlining their dissert. 

The committee utilized the services cf the fcllcwing people 
in addition tc its memters: James Grady (Research Aralyst), 
Bobbie Murphy (Secretary) and Bcbert Skagqs (Intern). 



814 



MONTANA CCNS1I1L1ICNAL CCKVENTICN 



Chair na n 



Vice Chdirirar 



Ccmraittee cii General Gcvfinaient 



815 



t'AJCFI'IY EFCECS;*! 



PE IT FFOPCSEC EY THE GENEEAl GCVEENfENT AND CCNSIITC- 
TIONAl A('E^C^ENT CCf.flTTEE: 

That there b-3 a new Article on General Gcverrrtent to read as 
f cllcws : 



ARTICLE 
GENEEAL GCVEBKPENT 



Secticn 1. SEFARA1ICN CE ECWEFS. The ^cveis of the gcvern- 
ment of this state are divided ictc thres distinct departments: 
The legislative, executive, ard jvidicial, and no person cr ccl- 
lecticn ot persons charged with the exercise of powers properly 
belonging to one of these departments shall exercise any pc«ers 
properly belonging tc either ct the ethers, except as in this 
Constitution expressly directed cr permitted. 

Section ^. CONTINUITY CF GCVEENf^lNT. The seat cf gcverrment 
shall be in Helena, except during periods cf emergency resulting 
from disasters or en^^iny attack. The legislative assently tray 
enact laws tc insure the continuity cf gcverrBental operations 
during a pericd cf energency. Such laws itay deviate frcE ether 
provisions of the Montana Constitution conflicting therewith tut 
shall be effective cnly during the period of emergency that 
affects a particular office or governnental operation. 

Secticn J. OATH CF OFFICE. Keffibers of the legislative 
assembly and all officers, executive, ninisterial or judicial, 
shall, before they <=nter upon the duties cf their respective 
offices, take and subscribe the following oath or af f ir iration, 
to-wit: "I do solemnly swear (cr affirm) that I will support, 
protect and defend the Ccnstituticr cf the Dnited States, and the 
Constitution cf the state cf Hcntana, and that I will discharge 
the duties of my office with fidelity (so help ire Gcd)." Ard nc 
other oath, declaration or test shall be reguired as a qualifica- 
tion for any office or public trust. 

Section U. INITIATIVE. The people may enact laws by iritia- 
tive en all matters except apprcpriaticns cf money and local cr 
special laws prohibited by this Ccnst itut icn . Initiative peti- 
tions must be signed by eight percent cr ircre ot the legal voters 
in each of one-third cr mere of the legislative representative 
districts and the total number of signers Bust be eight percent 
or more of the total legal voters of the state. Each petition 
must contain the full text cf the proposed measure. Petiticcs 
oust be filed with the Secretary cf State four sonths cr mere 
prior tc the election at which they will be voted upcn. The 



816 



MCNIAKA CCNSinDIICNAl CCNVINTICK 



endctinq claus? cf all initidtive ffleasuies shall t€; 
9ndct-^'J ty thj j.^opl-; ot the State cf Hcrtara." 



r e j 3 c t 
t icns 
asS'^mL 
lega 1 
retires 
taight 
35fere 
1 a t (f r 
b 1 y i« h 



-■•; c t i c 

cf iHC 

ly, o 
vet - 

c n t a t 
re re 

n d U D' 

t h 'i n 
i c li f 



11 '-• . 

n t; y . A 
r u i^ c n 
15 in 
i V e d i 

r I. t C 

f.-:tiri 
six DO 
a s t s fi 



tiif 



r 

cr. s 
nth 

th-- 



fer 
tit 

3Ch 

ict 
nior 

10 u 

s a 
\i 



Nrc 
Q is 

icn 

c 

£ a 

st 

ttp 

11. 



M. (1) Iht pfcple may afprc 
lature by lef ererduui, except app 
UE may t€ ordered by the legi 
siyned by tight percent cr ncre 
f cne-third cr iDcre cf the leqi 
nd the tctal nuirbei cf signers s 
ot the tctal legal vcters cf the 
b-c filed kith the Secretary cf £ 
r adjcurrncrt cf the legislative 



"Ee it 



ve cr 

rcpr ia- 
slati we 

cf the 
slati ve 
ust be 

state, 
t a t e re 

assem- 



(2) .-icto cf the legislature referred tc the pecple are in 
full tCLC^ and effect unless susperded Ly fetitions signed by 15 
percent of the legal voters of a majority cf the whcle rumter cf 
the legislative representative districts cf the state, in hhich 
case th- law shall be inoperative until such tiir-3 as it shall be 
passed upon at an el^-cticn, and the result has been deterisined 
and declared as prcviiied Ly law. 

Section 6. tlECTICNS. 2\11 measures referred tc the people 
shall be voted upon at the regular bierrial election unless a 
special election is crdered by the legislative assembly. 

Section 7. LEGAL VCTEFE. The runber cf legal voters for 
each legislative representative district and for the state is 
determined by the vctes cast for the cffics cf Governor in the 
regular election immediately preceding filing cf petiticrs fcr 
initiative or refertrduff neasures. 



Section 8. GL'EEBN ATOR lAl VE1C. The governcr does 
pchor to veto initiative cr referendum measures. 



net have 



Secticr, 4. EEST2ICTIC^. Ihis article i; 
Constitutional revision as covered in Article 
tuticn. 



not applicable tc 
of this Ccnsti- 



Section 10. SECAIL. laws shall be enacted tc provide fcr the 
recall of all elected officials cf the state and cf its political 
subdivisions u^cn petition cf electors equal in number tc 25 per- 
cent of the run?ber of persons voting in the last preceding elec- 
tion fcr the office of Governor in the state cr political sub- 
division of the official sought to te recalled. 

Section 11. GAfBLI^G. All forffs of ganblirg, lotteries, and 
gift enterprises are prohibited unless authcrized by acts cf the 
legislature cr by the pecple through initiative or referendum. 



Zs/_Kar k_Etci.art 
Chai rman 



CCD'aiittec en General Gcver r.ne r t 



817 



Zs^_raul_P._Hdrlcw 
Vice ChairJtar 



Z§Z_££Ii_Ii_l£i£il±I Z§Z_E£ycf_fJ._£ccwr ZiZ-tifia ri_Ki_Chgat€_ 



Z£Z_Ctic_Tj__hdt€dank Z§Z_^£i;§Il_YiIliillcn ZiZ_££i§£_"£tte'2_Lo relic 



818 



MON'^ANA CChSTITUTICNAL CONVENTION 



CCKKhhTS CN fAJCriTY FFCFCSfiL 

Secticr 1. SEPftEAIICN CP FCfcEES. The pc^=rs of the 
governni': nt of this state are divided irtc three dis- 
tinct departtneiits: The legislative, executive, ard 
judicial, and re perscr. or collecticr cf persons 
chdigf^d with the exercise cf powers prcpsrly belcrgirg 
to on-r of thes-T departirents shall exercise any powers 
prcp>=»rly helcr.giny to either cf the cth-rs, except as 
in this Ccnstituticn expressly directed cr permitted, 

CCfiMENTS 



Thi 
"Distr ib 
present 
the pew 
governire 
has be? 
is ac in 
govern ffe 
governme 
branch c 



S S3C 

u t i o r, 
Const 
ers 
rt is 
n th 
valua 
r.t^l 
lit is 
f gov 



1 1 c n h 

" to 

itutio 

ct gc 

(5 £ £, p r. 

■3 cruc 

ble to 

j uris 

desig 

erniT'^n 



ith the excepticr cf the title chance frco; 
"Separaticc" is identical tc Article IV of the 
n. The cciDirittee fesls a statesaent dividing 
v^rnirent among the three branches cf state 
tial tc any Constit uticn . Ihe present article 
ial factor in determininq much litiqaticr, and 
ol for the courts in deciding natters cf 
diction. A staterrent dividing the powers cf 
ned tc act as a check on an cverly airtiticus 
t. 



Ihe cciTBi 
which would hav 
all political 
this proposal, 
create far-reac 
by a Constitu 
since separated 
ment. If such 
extended to the 
all its polit 
under the doctr 
government. The 
division, every 
distributed. T 
now do. School 
hear appeals o 
judicial functi 
separate board 
and one to make 
formed by the s 
dens and expens 
efits cf the pr 



ttee car 
e extends 

subdivis 
as it fee 
hing, unw 
tier rec 
, be dist 
a sepa 

state (w 
ical sub 
ine) , cha 

extsnsic 

governrae 
hus, schc 
boards no 
n the res 
ens. n d 
s wculd 

the rule 
ame board 
e Delegat 
oposal . 



ef ully 
d the 
icns c 
Is sue 
ieldly 
essi ta 
r ibute 
ration 
hich E 
divisi 
cs cou 
n woul 
ntal 1 
cl tea 
w both 
ults c 
er Eel 

have 
s, as 
. The 
e Prep 



ce 
sepa 
f th 
h a 

pro 
tes 
d am 
-dis 
cw o 
crs 
Id 

d re 
€vel 
rds 

leg 
f th 
egat 
tc b 
both 
ccmm 
csal 



rsider 
ration 
e Stat 
Ccnsti 
1 1 e IT s . 

that 
cng se 
tribut 
perate 

(scnie 
result 
quire 
, have 
would 
islate 
eir ru 
6 Prop 
€ cr ea 

f urct 
ittee 

79 wo 



ed 

of 
e. T 
tuti 

The 

tho 
vera 
ion 
s un 
ef 
un 
that 

its 
ceas 

sch 
les , 
osal 
ted: 
ions 
feel 
uld 



Eele 
pew 

he c 

cnal 
sep 
gov 

1 tr 
wer 

der 
whi 

dsr 
eve 
pow 

e tc 

ocl 

bet 

79 

or 

ecu 

s th 

iccu 



gate 

ers 

cmmit 

prov 
arati 
ernirs 
anche 
e m 
the d 
eh do 

pres 
ry pc 
ers s 

f unc 

regu 
h leg 
, at 
e tc 
Id n 
e add 
r eff 



Pre 
dect 
tee 
isio 
cr e 
ntal 
s cf 
anda 
cctr 

not 
ent 
liti 
spar 
tion 
lati 
isla 
le 
hear 
ot 

itio 
set 



pcsal 79 

rine to 

re jected 

n would 

f powers 

powers , 

govern— 

tcrially 

ire) and 

operate 

Montana 

cal sub- 

ated and 

as they 

ens and 

tive and 

est two 

appeals 

be per- 

nal bur- 

any ten- 



Section 2. CONTINUITY CF GCVE5NMENT. The seat cf 
gcvernirent shall be in Helena, except durirg periods cf 
emergency resulting frcm disasters or enemy attack. The 
legislative assembly Hiay enact laws tc insure the con- 
tinuity cf governmental operations during a period cf 
emergency. Such laws may deviate free other prcvisiccs 
of thg Montana Constitution ccnflicting therewith but 



Ccamittee en General Gcvsrnasr.t 



819 



shall be eff^ctiv^: cniy durinc the psricd cf en-prgercj 
thdt affects a carticulat office cr gcver c ffental oper- 
ation . 

CCKt5ENl£ 

This secricn would r€vist the prcvisicrs ir Article J, sec- 
tions 2, 2 and 4 of the present Constitution relatirg to the seat 
of gcver CK sn t at3 Article V, section 46 relatirg to ccr.tircity cf 
governoient. The picpcsed section is sufficient to alio* the 
legislature to anact liws to provide for continuity cf gcverr.irer.t 
under any situation that ira> arise. 



Se 
lati 
teri 
duti 
the 
sole 
and 
the 
will 
(so 
test 
cf f i 



ctic 
ve 

al c 
e s 

foil 

Enly 

del 

Cons 

di 
h-lp 

sh 
ce c 



r. 3. 

a s s e ID 
r jud 
cf th 
owing 

swea 
end 
titut 
schar 

mi G 
all 
r pub 



GATB GE CF 
t I y and a 
icial, shal 
eir respect 

oath cr 
r (cr affir 
the Ccnstit 
icn of the 
g <r" the d u 
cd)." And n 
be require 
lie trust. 



fICE. yeiibers of the Isgis- 
11 officers, executive, ninis- 
1, before they enter upon the 
iv6 offices, take and subscrite 
affiriraticn, to- sit: "I dc 
11) that I will support, protect 
ution of the United States, and 
state or Mcctaca, and that I 
ties cf [ty office %ith fidelity 
other oath, declaraticr cr 
d as a qualification for any 



C C K il £ K 1 S 

This oath is a shortened version cf the oath presently con- 
tained in Article XIX, section 1 cf the present Constitution. 
This oath contains the intent cf the present Constitution's oath, 
but without the ext-nsive detail. Ihe proposed cath alsc allcws a 
perscn cf any religious persuasion, includinc an atheist cr 
agnostic, to take the oath without viclating his principles. The 
prcvisicE also prohibits any other oath as a qualif icaticn for 
any state public office. 



Sec 
initi 
money 
stitu 
perce 
cr EC 
the t 
or m 
petit 
measu 
State 
which 
all i 
the p 



ticn 
ativ 

and 
ticn 
nt ( 
re o 
otal 
ore 
ion 
re. 

f ou 

th 

ni ti 

aopl 



a. 

e on 

loca 

. Ini 

8^) 

f the 

nuttb 

of 

Bust 

teti 
r ffon 
-y w 
d ti ve 
e cf 



INITI 
all 
1 cr 
tiati 
r mcr 

legi 
er cf 
the t 
conta 
tions 
ths 
ill t 

meas 
the £ 



ATIV 
ma 
spec 
ve p 
e of 
slat 

sig 
otal 
in t 

mus 
r ffic 
e vc 
ures 
tat€ 



E . Ihe 
tters 
ial law 
etitior 

the le 
ive rep 
n e r 3 m u 

legal 
he full 
t te fi 
re pri 
ted upc 

shall 

of Mon 



peep 
exce 
s pr 

S IBU 

ga 1 
rese 

St t 

vote 

t9 

led 
cr 

n. T 
te: 
tana 



le B 

Ft 
chib 

St t 

vote 

ntat 

e ei 

rs c 

xt 

with 

to 

he 3 

"£e 
It 



ay e 
appr 
ited 
e si 
rs i 
ive 
ght 
f th 
cf 

the 
the 
nact 
it 



nact 
cpria 
by t 
cned 
r eac 
distr 
perce 
e sta 
the 
Seer 
Glee 
ing c 
ena 



laws 

ticn 

his 

by e 

h cf 

icts 

nt 

te. 

prop 

etar 

ticn 

laus 

cted 



ty 
s cf 
Ccn- 
ight 
1/3 
and 
(85) 
Each 
osed 
y cf 

at 
e of 

ty 



CCHf5ENl£ 



820 



MONTANA CONSinUlICNAL CCNVEKIICN 



This is th^ jccvisicr. fcr statutory initiative agr'29d on ty 
the G=Tir-!ral Govtrnnient and Legislative Coiainittees. The General 
Gcv'smmant tciriuittee t^^ls the petiticr r dcuirements of eight 
percent (i"i) in ^,^ch of 1/3 cr more ct the iegislative repre- 
sentative districts and 3ight percent (81) cr mere of the total 
legal voters of th*^ state are high enough tc prevent frivclcus 
legislative efrcrts by a small irircrity, yet lew enough to allow 
serious, [Cfulai ui.^a = ures to te initiated by the people. 



Sect 
or re j 
approp 
the 1 
weight 
of 1/ 
tricts 
percen 
state. 
Sec re*- 
ad jour 
the bi 



ic 
ec 

ri 

eg 

P<- 
3 
a 

r 
[. 

1 r 
nm 
11 



n 5. BSFEFEfJEUM. (1) The people may approve 
t acts of th^ legislature ty referendum, except 
aticns cf money. A reterenduff iray te ordered ty 
islative assembly, cr upon petition signed ty 
rct";nt {8%) cr more of the legal voters in each 

cr mere of the legislative representative dis- 
nd the total numter of signers must be eight 

(HI) or mere of the total legal voters cf the 
eferendam petiticrs oust te filed with the 
y cf State no later than six months after 
ent of the legislative asseirbly which passed 



Acts of the legislature referred tc the people 
full force and effect unless suspended by peti- 
signed by fifteen percent (15/5) of the legal 
cf a majority of the whcle number of the legis— 
representative districts of the state, in which 
case the law shall te inoperative until such tiae as it 
shall be pdsstd upcn it an election, and the result has 
been determined and declared as provided ty law. 



(2) 

are in 
ticns 
voters 
1 a t i V 3 



COMHENTS 



statu 
Legis 
refer 
Const 
which 
eigh t 
the 1 
or m 
refer 
regui 
f itte 
major 
state 
prcvi 



This se 
tcry re 
lative 
endum p 
i tution 
the Ge 
perce 
egislat 
ere of 
endum . 
ring su 
en per 
ity of 

This 
sice. 



ctic 

f e t^ 

Comm 

rcvi 

T 

rera 

nt ( 

ive 

the 

The 

spen 

cent 

the 

pr 



n ccnia 
ndum as 
ittees. 
s i o n s a 
he onl 
1 Gcver 
6%) of 
represe 
total 
ccmini 
sion of 

{^5%) 

legis 
cvision 



ms 
agr 
Thi 

E CO 

y c 

rmen 

the 

ntat 

lega 

ttee 

enf 

of 

lati 

is 



the 
eed 
£ pr 
utai 
hang 
t Co 
lega 
ive 
1 vo 

se 
crce 
the 
ve 

an 



prccedu 
upon ty 
cvision 
ned in 
es are 
mmittee 
1 voter 
d is trie 
ters of 
t the 
ffent of 

whcle 
represe 
alogcuE 



re f 

the 

is 

Arti 

the 

fe 

s in 

ts a 

the 

pet 

a w 

Eumfc 

ntat 

tc 



or 

Gen 
para 

Cl€ 

pet 
It 

eac 
cd 9 

sta 
itic 
atte 
er o 
ive 

pre 



the 
eral 
llel 
V, se 
iticE 
shcul 
fc cf 
ight 
te fo 
E re 
r to 
f leg 
dist 
sent 



two fc 
Gcvernm 
to the 
cticr 1 

requir 
d be 
1/3 cr 

percen 
r the p 
guireme 
be refe 
al vote 
riots 
Ccnstit 



res cf 
ent and 
present 
cf the 
ements, 
set at 
ffcre cf 
t {8%) 
etiticn 
Et for 
rred at 
rs of a 
cf the 
uticnal 



Section 6. ELECTIONS. All measures referred tc the 

people shall be voted upon at the regular bieEnial 

election unless a special election is ordered by the 
legislative assembly. 



CoBiaiittee en General Gcv€rnB'?rt 



821 



Sccticr. 7. LEGAL VCTERE. The cuttber cf legal voters 
for each legislative representative district and fcr 
the state is deterffined by the votes cast tor the 
office of gcV'3rnor in the regular election imiediately 
preceding filing cf petiticrs fcr initiative or refer- 
endum iDt.isures. 

COKKE.NTS 

Iheso secticns are adtnicistrat ive in nature and fairly 
self-explanatory. The comaiittee feels such measures sbculd be 
stated in the saii-3 place as the subject inatter they cover. 

Section 8. GU3EB KAICEI AL VIIO. The gcvemcr does not 
have pcwer to veto initiative cr ref ere rduiii measures. 

CCMKEinS 

This section prohibits the gcverrcr frca vetoing an initia- 
tive cr lef er=?nduBi. The present Ccrstituticn alsc contains such 
a provision. The comiriittee feels one Ban should net have the 
power to overturn a decision made ty a majority cf the state's 
elec tciate. 



Section 9. EESTKICTION , This a 
ble to Constitutional revisicc 
of this Ccrstituticn. 



rticle is not applica- 
as covered in Article 



This section is included tc prevent any ccrfusicn with the 
initiative and referendum prcvisicrs en Constitutional revision 
that are otherwise created in the Constitution. 

Section 1C. FECALl. Laws shall be enactec tc provide 
tor the recall cf all elected officials of the state 
and cf its political subdivisions upon petition cf 
electors equal in number to twenty-five percent (25^) 
cf the nuffiber of persons voting in the last preceding 
election for the office cf gcverrcr in the state or 
pclitical subdivision cf the official sought tc be 
r ecalled . 

CCKHENIE 



Section 10 provides for the recall cf public officers. The 
committee feels this is a basic right cf the people under a fcrni 
cf governoient such as {Montana's. The recall is designed to keep 
politicians "honest" in the £clitical sense. Iiipeachment provi- 
sions are designed to keep politicians hccest in the legal sense. 
In ether words, recall is not designed fcr cases cf malfeasance, 
flecall is designed to allcw the public to remove an elected offi- 
cial who is making political decisions with which the majcrity cf 
the peeple disagree. It is designed tc help insure a politician 



822 



MONTANA CONSTITUIICNAl CCN\I£NTICN 



Will liv'/ up tc his j-J^cffiiscE 
pecpl-a leai^dv tc a situation that 
befcte the n^xt election daj. 



once elected. Fecall gives the 
they feel trust be rectified 



Th" r--?qui Lement of tfcenty-five percent (25''^) cf the nuniter 
of el.ictcrs in the concerned political sufcdivisicn creates a 
workable and desirable systeir. The petition requirement is very 
steep. Frivolous att-r-iDpts to call a recall election cr the use of 
the r--call as tlackn;ail ty a stall minority are extremely doubt- 
ful and both instances represent hypothetical situations cf 
dubious foundation. 

The recall sponsors hould be hard pressed tc convince 
twenty-five percent (25?i) cf the ccrcerned individuals that the 
deeds of the official were nefarious enough to warrant the cost 
of a recall election. Cn the other hand, should genuine griev- 
ances exist, the petiticr leguirement is ret so high that a 
recall election is unattainable. 

Section 11. GAMBLING. All forirs cf gaobling, lotter- 
ies, and gift enterpiises are prohibited urless acthcr- 
i2ed by acts of the legislature or by the people 
through initiative or referecduff. 

COPMENTS 

This section is designed to replace Article XIX, section 2 
of the present Constitution. The present Constitution prohibits 
gaablir.g of any kind. The proposed revision would continue this 
prohibition until the legislature specifically legalizes partic- 
ular forms. The proposed revision would alleviate a good deal of 
fear among the populace that a Constitutional change would open 
the door to all sorts of gambling prcbleirs that do not now exist 
in the state. The coniniittee revised the specific and inflexible 
prohibition because it feels the legislature should make the 
rules qcverning gamtling. 



The coDiirittee r^cccicends that if at all possible, the con- 
vention decision on lotteries and gaabling be presented to the 
voters as a separate issue. 



CcnmitteG en General Government 823 



tllNOHITY PKCFCSAl 1 



EE n FRCPOSiC: 

That there be a nefe Ccrst it ut icnal secticc as fcllcws: 

S-^cticn BOnNEARIES. The scver-si^nty and juris- 
diction ct thi state of Montana shall prevail viithir 
th'e area ercciTEassed ty the fcllcwing bcurdaries: 

Eeginnin^j at the {.cint ct intersection of the ICUth merid- 
ian of kest longitude and the i45th parallel cf north lati- 
tude, thence clcckwife vest en said parallel to its inter- 
section with the 111th meridian; south on said meridian tc 
the crest of th^ Eocky ^icuctains; ncrth^est ward en said 
crest (the ccntmertal divide) tc th's suiffit cf Lost Trail 
Pass intersecting there with the southeast end and crest cf 
th-^ i-itt^rrcot Mountains; hence northwest hard on the crest 
cf ths Bitterroot Kountams and Range tc 116th leerician; 
north on said neridian tc the '♦9th parallel; east or said 
parallel tc the ICUth meridian; and scuth on said neridian 
tc the place of teginning. 



^^Egn_Ii_Belcher Z§Z_£SliI_^i_ll^icw 

COfPENTS 

The wording for this mincrity report is taken frctt the work 
of Halter Staaiai, Dillcn, Montana. The minority feels the Consti- 
tution should state the exact area over which the dccuirent estab- 
lishes jur isdicticr . 



824 



I^CNIANA CONSTITOTTC^AL CC^VE^TICN 



HINOPITI PRCPCSAI 2 



BE n PROPOSEE: 

That section 1C of the ttcfcsed General Gcvernirert Article 
dealing with recall te deleted and nc ccaparable secticr te 
included in the Constitution. The secticr 
f cllcws : 



tc te deleted reads as 



St-cticn 10. FECALl. IdiiS shall te enacted tc provide 
tcr the recall ct all elected officials of the state 
dnd ct its political sutdivisicns upcr petition cf 
electors equal in nuuter tc 2": percent cf the number cf 
persons voting in the last preceding election fcr the 
office of qovftrnor in the state cr political subdivi- 
sion cf the official scught tc te recalled. 



ZSZ-^iSii-IlSii^Ii 



^s^_Br uce_f ^_Ercwn 



COKKENIS 



A recall provision is an unnecessary and dangerous harass- 
ment prevision that would hinder an elected official in perfor- 
mance ot his duties. Such a provision would tend to disrupt the 
body politic, and ke-^p Montana in a state of permanent flux. The 
intent cf recall is also basically covered under the present 
electoral system, as elected officials are subject tc recall each 
time their office is up for election. 



Committee on General Governrert 



825 



MINOFITY PRCECSAI 3 



EE 11 FFCPOSEC: 

That section 11 of the frofcsed General Gcvernment Article 
dealing with gaiiitling and lotteries te deleted, and nc ccnparatle 
section be included in the Cc rsti tuticn. ihe section to be 
deleted reads as fellows: 

Section 11. GAHELING. All fcrms of gamtlirc, lotter- 
ies, and gift enterprises are prohibited unless author- 
ized by acts of the legislature or ty the people 
through initiative or referenduin. 



Z§Z_IiI£§Il_ili_Choat e 



^s/_Faul_K._Harlow 



CCKRENIS 



plis 

matt 

gaiDb 

of 

Stat 

is i 

is t 

fore 

ticn 

acti 

latu 

does 

whic 

the 

iden 



Ihe 
h th 
er t 
ling 
any 
es t 
lleg 
he c 
9 un 
, 
on i 
re 

not 
h th 

get 
tica 



Km 
e sa 
c st 

air 

na t 
hat 
al u 
ase, 
less 
r c 
s s p 
f rofli 

fee 
e Ig 
eral 
1 to 



crity 
Hie en 
a tutc 
eady 
ure. 
situa 
r, 1 e s s 
ther 
cv'?r 
hange 
ecula 
act 
1 it 
gisla 
powe 
the 



Pro 
d vii 
ry 1 
oxis 

How 
ticn 

mad 
e ar 
turn 
d b 
tive 
ing 
is r 
ture 
r to 
Mine 



posal 
th reg 
aw , wh 
t . Nei 
ever , 
. Ihe 
e lega 
e laws 
ed Ly 
y the 
and n 
on th 
ecessa 
or ps 
so do 
rity P 



and 

ards 

ere 

ther 

the 

Mine 

1 is 

on 
the 

leg 
eith 
e pr 
ry t 
cple 
B 
ropo 



the 
to 

ext 

Kaj 
rit 

EU 

the 
ecu 
isl 
er 

ese 



na 
asi 
sal 



Ma j 
gai 
ensi 
cvis 
orit 
y f e 
perf 
bcc 
rt, 
atur 
prop 
nt s 
list 
y ac 
call 



orit 

blin 

ve 

icn 

y Pr 

els 

lucu 

ks, 

prch 

e. 

csal 

tatu 

a 
t wb 



y Pr 

g. E 

prcv 

wcul 

cpcs 

that 

s an 

the 

ibit 

Disc 

pre 
tcry 

spe 
en t 
he M 



cpcsa 
oth w 
isicn 
d leg 
al Cc 

tc E 
d red 
laws 
ed by 
ussic 
hibit 

laws 
cif ic 
hey h 
a jcri 



1 wo 
culd 

s F 
ali2 
nsti 
tate 
unda 
will 
the 
D of 
s t 
. Th 
in 
ave 
ty P 



uld 

lea 
roh i 
e ga 
tDti 

SCIf 

nt. 

St 

Con 
ary 
he 

e iri 
Stan 
teen 
rcpc 



accoa- 
ve the 
biting 
abling 
orally 
ething 
If, as 
ay in 
stitu- 

ccurt 
legis— 
ncrity 
ce in 

given 
sal is 



Ihe minority feels the majority prcvisicn also could be 
soniewhat confusing to the voters, whereas nc ffenticn of gaabling 
would save the ccnfusicn resulting frcni the redundant Eajcrity 
article . 



The minority wculd alsc like tc pcint cut that if the Major- 
ity Proposal is adopted, ganbling would join treason as a Ccnsti- 
tuticnal crime, while such criaes as iiurder, rape and assault are 
statutory crimes. In this light, the ttirciity wcnders if gambling 
is really a basic and Constitutional issue. 



826 



MCKTflNA CCNSTIIUIICNi^L CCNVENTICN 



AEFENCI> A 



CPCSS REFERENCES 



PFCFCSEC SECIICN 
1 
2 



6 

7 

8 

9 
1C 
11 
rcne 



FPESENT fiFlICLE ;>NC SECTICN 
IV 

X, 2-4 ard 46 revised 
XIX, 1 revised 
V, 1 revised 
V, 1 revised 
V , 1 revised 
V, 1 
V, 1 

V, 1 revised 
ncce 

XIX, 2 revised 
I 



Co iTi mitten en Ger.eral Gcvernaent 



827 



APFINEIX E 

IlilGATc_PKOECSAIS_CCKSILEFEC_EY_CCPMITTE| 

The committee examined many delegate prcpcsals. The fcllcw- 
irg list of these prcpcsals is secticra lized ty general areas as 
well as by individual proposal. 

Nuniher cf 

£12££^Si £]li2£_S££IiS2I CcrteT;t_ard_Cis^c£iticr] 



1. 



INIlIflTIV|^_EJlIFlKryK_ANC_EECAI.I 

Fred Martin This prevision provides for recall ct 
public officials, and if revised and cov- 
ered in the proposed article. 



2. U2 Virginia Elend This proposal provides fcr initiative, 

referendoii! and recall or a local level, 

and is revised and covered in the proposed 
art icle . 



129 



Paul Harlow 



This proposal contains the ptcvisicns for 
initiative, referendutc and recall, and was 
the core prcpcsal that resulted in the 
proposed article, 

ECUNEAFIES 



6, 



26 Eruce Drown This proposal certains an abbreviated 

description cf the boundaries of the 
state. It was rejected in favor cf the 
majority and nincrity boundary proposals, 

84 Eruce Brown This proposal calling for coaplete dele- 
tion of any aenticn cf the state bounda- 
ries has been adopted as the aajority 
report, 

I:C2I1|IES_ AN L_ GABBLING 

24 Lyman Choate This proposal called fcr nc centicn of 

lotteries or gaEblinq cf any sert in the 
Constitution, This proposal was adopted as 
a minority repcrt, 

28 Don Belcher This proposal provided that all fcrss of 

gaicblicg wculd reiaain illegal until acted 
upon by the legislature. This proposal was 
revised and incorpcrated as the gajcrity 
proposal. 

Ill Gene Rarbaugh This proposal wculd prohibit gaabling as 



828 



MONTANA CCNS1I1D7ICNAL CC^VEKTICN 



9. 



120 



a neans ct laisirg revenue fcr the state, 
and would allcw rcnprcfit organizations tc 
'='r.gag€ in gift enterprises. This prcpcsal 
was rejectee by the ccffsittee. 

A.W, Kamhoot This prcpcsal wculd have allowed non- 
profit or ganizatic ns tc spccscr tirgc. As 
such. It has rejected hy the cdtnittee. 



CATH 

10. 31 ''aul Karlcw This prcpcsal established a short cath fcr 

office, and was adopted as the irajcrity 
propcsa 1 . 

CCNTINUJli CF GCVEF^^'F^T 



11. 36 



Don "nelcher 



This proposal established the seat of 

gcvernment in Helena and served as the 

ccra prcpcsal fcr the iraicrity repor*- on 
continuity cf gcvernisent. 



IKTEBEST BATES 



12. hU 



JeuofflG Gate 



Ihis prcpcsal set a limit of twelve per- 
cent (12^) cf all interest charges in the 
state. The committee feels such a previ- 
sion is net a Const ituticnal iratter, and 
consequently rejected the proposal. The 
coaimittee reccroipends this proposal be 
studied ty the legislative Council. 



SlfiTE_ANE_THE_lIiCCF_ECSINESS 

13. 112 Arnold Jacofsen This proposal wculd have prohibited the 

state frctt engaging ir. the liqucr business 
after 197U. The committee rejected this 
proposal. Ifcere is re tcenticn cf the 
state's invclveaient ir the liqucr business 
m the present Constitution, and the 
involveffert was the result of legislation. 
Consequently, the ccBiittee feels this 
prcpcsal is legislative in nature, and if 
tha intent cf the prcpcsal should be car- 
ried out, it shculd be dene thrcugh the 
legislature. The cciBittee reccniends this 
proposal be referred tc the Legislative 
Council. 



1U. 157 Torrey Johnson 



This proposal is siailar tc Delegate Pro- 
posal 112, but it gees beyond 112 in that 
it prohibits the state frcff "acccpe- 
lize (ing) what wculd otherwise be a coib- 
petitive business." The ccaffiittee rejected 



Coirinittee on General Govcrnaent 



829 



this 
re ]e 
mcno 
extr 
sicn 
rami 
pred 

that 
have 



ficpcsal fcr the sane reasons it 
ctGd 112, and also t€caus€ cf the 
poly prevision. The committee is 
emely leary cf freezing such a provi- 

intc the Constitution, and feels the 
ficaticns cf such a osove cannot be 
icted and are eitremely difficult to 
ulate or with the brief airount cf time 

the ccmirittet and the corverticn 



TRANSITICN 

15. 115 Eaphne Euqbe? This proposal wculd have prohibited any 

changes dealing with elective offices 
called for in the proposed Constitution 
from taking effect until 1S77. The ccairit- 
tee feels this decision should te itade by 
the concerned ccasittees in consultation 
with the ccBHiittee on Style and Crafting. 
Consequently, this ccHiisittee rejected the 
proposal. 

STATE INSTITDTICNS 



16. 139 Hike McKeon This proposal wculd have Ccnstituticrally 

established the location of all state 
institutions at their present site. The 



comBittee rejected 
dangerously ignores 
changing conditions, 
block reconstruction 
tion of the state 



this proposal, as it 

the possibility cf 

Such a proposal wculd 

and necessary reloca- 

prison at Deer Lodge 



should the buildings and the general area 
be rendered unsuitable by an earthquake. 



OMBUCSKAN_CE_fICFlE^E_ACVgCATJ 

17. 172 Richard Champoux This proposal called for the creation cf 

the office cf Cirbudsnan in Rontana, The 
committee noted that the Legislative Ccb- 
fliittee has recomicended the creation cf 
such an office in its report. The ccisBit- 
tee also noted that the Constitution dees 
not new prohibit the creation cf such an 
office. The ccaiittee feels if the office 
of Cifbudsnar (People's Advocate) is a Con- 
stitutional matter, then the legislative 
Ccmmittee's proposal is adequate to put 
this secticn before the convention. Conse- 
quently, the ccmmittee rejected Delegate 
Proposal 172. 



EEAPPCETIONMENT COKHISSION 



830 



HONTANA CCNSlIIUlICNflL CCNVfNTICN 



18. fc2 



Katie Paynf 



This proFcsal called fcr the cr^aticn of a 
reapt;crtionffent ccmirissicn . The cciritittee 
feels this natter was provided lor by the 
legislative Ccirniittee, and ccnseGuently 
tcck no specific acticc en the proposal. 



CCEOiittee en General GcveimeDt 831 

APEENCIX C 

Willis SZ S_F|iPC_E]f_CC MM ITT EE 
Nd53_r:_Af f iliaticn_;_Residence_-_Sutj€ct 

1. Fay Cocley - Citizen - Jcplir - CmbudsiBan 

2. Kurk Kruden - Citi2eE - Jcplin - Cnsfcudsaian 

3. Fayl'? Jack sen - Intern - Eczeoan - Oirtudsiran 

U. Jchn Hauser - Citizen - Stevensville - Initiative, Refer- 
endum and Secall 

5. Cuane Welker - Citizen - Hamilton - Initiative, Keferendum 
and Recall 

6. Frank Freeburg - Plontana Music Co. , Montana Coin Machine 
Operators - Great Falls - Gaiblirg 

7. Halter Stamai - Citizen - Dillon - Boundaries 

8. Frances sattert hwait e - Inter-Trital Policy Board - Relena - 
General State-Indian Relationships 

9. Earl Hollnian - Citizen - Butte - GatDtlirg 

1G, Bob Curkee - Montana Taverns' Association - Helena - 
Gaffbling 

11. Gerald I. KcCurdy - NHE Montana Branch - Hamilton - Initia- 
tive, PfeferenduiE and Recall 

12. Fey G. Crosby, Jr. - Citizens for Constitutional GcvernEent 
Kissoula - Initiative, Seferenduni and Recall 

13. Joe Shea - Administrator of Liquor Board - Helena - State 
and Liquor Business 

14. Don Larson - Jorgenson's - Helena - State and Liquor Busi- 
ness 

15. D. H. Sievert - Montana Chamber of Ccffinerce - Helena - 
State and Liquor Business 

16. C. E. Grimes - OEO - Helena - Cmbudsnan 

17. Steve Coldircn - Low Income - Helena - OBbudsaian 

18. Besley fcertz - Montana Bankers Association - Great Falls - 
Interest Bates 



832 



MCNIAKA CCNSininiCNAL CCNVEKTICK 



19. Bcbert J. Err,aicr£ - Citiztn - Great Falls - Icterest Fates 
2C. Lyle Olson - Ccinmerc^ Bank - h€l<=na - Interest Bates 

21. Sees Vratti; - F'ontana Betailers - Htlera - Interest Pates 

22. Joe iLwin - Mcrtdna Ccnsumets' Finance Asscciaticr - 

Great Falls - Interest Fates 

23. lEvinvj Nyquist - tiyquist financial Services - Great falls - 

Interest Fates 

24. Kcms Nyquist - Nyqaist Financial Services - Great Falls - 
Interest Kat-^s 

25. I. ^. Alke - D-^paitflient of Business Eegulaticn - Helena - 
Interest Rates 

26. Bill Keener - Citizen - Hamiltcn - Initiative BefererduBi 

and tecall 

27. Scott Stiatton - First National Bank - Great Falls - 
Interest rates 

Tha following is a list of witnesses (with as couch identifi- 
cation as was possible) heard during the ccffffittee's radio trcad- 
castec hearing en gairblirg and lotteries. Ihe list is at tiaies 
incciiitlete and may net be ccnfletely accurate due tc technical 
difficulties encountered during the hearing. 

Hitn ess_-_Aidr6ss 

28. Fill Fisher 

29. Everett Seller 

30. Kr. Grunds - Miles City 



31. ternard Geier 



32. Fred Levitt - Eczeoian 



33. Stella lilabitts - Great Falls 



34, Kr. Jackson - libby 



Coicuittee en General Governirect 



833 



35. frs. Jacoty - Great f^lls 



36. f.z. Platiei - ^^hitefis^•. 



3 7. Mi. Cl.iik - Living stcn 



38. The fint - Surturst 



3S. Mr. i«ilscn - Glasgow 



ac. Bet Crar9 - Helena 



U1. Ken Christian - Cciurohus 



U2, Et. Crarover - Libbv 



43. Margaret Mayer - Peicna 



44. frs. ?'atthsws - Helena 



45. Jess - Great falls 



46. f^arcld trcwn - Fort Peek 



47. Mr. Harlan - Great Falls 



43. Lee Neigh - Missoula 



49, Jim Gentry - Misscula 



5C. Ecbert Sier - Glendive 



51. Iva Holiday - Glasgow 



52. John Leonards - Great Tails 



834 



MCNTANA CCNSIIIDTICNP.L CCKVENTICK 



53. Gary Ldr, ers - Eillcr 



54. l^?'^ Wilson - Ccnrad 



S5. frs. Maubrick - Helena 



56. ^pcmi F<ad«-E - Eozocrar 



57. Al Kpyer 



58. Petty Fcgensen - Araccnda 



59. Wayne Pichardscr - Anaconda 



60. Les - Misscula 



61. Alvin Grant - Miles City 



62. Paul Grating - Whitefish 



63. Floyd F<-rri€l - Great falls 



6U, Shirley Balance - lewistown 



65. Jim Eut-*:naii! - Lib by 



66. Ecb Purrs - Shelby 



67. fr. Kennerman - Great fall: 



68, Max Neilscn - Shelt^ 



Note: This list does net certain celegates whc spcke cd 
their prepesals 



Committee on General Government 



835 



w 






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836 



."MONTANA CCNSTITOIICKAI CCKVENTICN 



CoTipact hith Units. i States 



837 



fCNTa.Nfi CCNSTTTUTICNAL CCKVEtillCN 



1S71-1C 



CCf.FACI «IIt THE CNIIIC STATES 



838 



KCNTriKA CC^S'II'IU'IIOKflL CC^VE^TICN 



PRCPOSAL_CN_|INPI_CCbSICEFfilICK 

APTICIF 
CCKPACl iillH TFE (J M 1 E C STATES 



All f-rcvisicns cf th-? enatlinc act cf Ccngrsss (afprcved 
tetruary ^l., 186<^, 25 Stat. 676, as amended) and cf Crdinarce Nc. 
1, appended tc th£ Ccnstituticr ct the stat^; cf fen tan a and 
approved February 22, 1889, including the agreeaent and ceclara- 
tion that all lands cwned cr held fcy any Indian cr Indian tribes 
shall remain under the absolute jurisdiction anc control cf the 
congress cf the United States, ccitirue ir full force and effect 
until revoked by the consent cf the United States and the people 
of Mcntand, 



Ccnipact kith United States 



839 



DNANIH0US_FFCFCSA1 

ty 

CCM^ITTES CN STYLE, CRAFTING, SOEMISSICN AND TRANSIIICN 

CCKFACT_^ITH_THt_l)NIltC_£T ATf S 

BE IT ERCtCSEC £Y THI CCMKITTEE CN STYLE, LFAFTING, IBAKSITICN 
ANC SCEWISSION: 

Thdt there be a nav Article en Ccirfact with the United 
States to r'=ad as fcllcws: 

AbTICLE 
CCMFACT fclTh IHt OMIED STATES 



All frcvi£icD£ cf the enatlirg act cf Congitrss (avficved 
Fetruaiy 22, 1869, 25 Stat. 616) and cf Crdinacce No. 1, appended 
to the Ccnstituticn of the state cf Mcntara anc apprcved Eetruaiy 
22, 1889, including the agreeffent ard declaration that all lands 
owned cr held by any Indian or Indian tribes shall renair under 
the dbsclut-? jurisdiction and ccnttcl of the congress cf the 
United States, continue in full force and effect until revoked by 
the consent cf the United States ard the feople of fcntana. 



i22hn_Mi_Schiltz 
C h a i r B a n 



KilliaE_Burkhardt^ 
Vice Chairicar 



D. L. Holland 



^^cbert Lee Felleher 



tiiSiiS-Stii^S. 



Vir3inia_Hi_El€nd_ 



840 



MONTANA CONSIITUIICNAI CCNVEMICN 



ARIICIE 



CCKFACT WITH THE LNIIEC STAIES 



All previsions of the enatliny act cf Congress (approved 
February 22, 1ti89, 25 Stat. 676) ard cf CrdiLance No. 1, appended 
to th: Constitution of the state of f"cntara ard apFicved Fefcruaiy 
22, 1889, including the agreement and declaration that all lands 
owned or held ty any Indian ci Irdian tribes shall remain under 
the absolute jurisdiction and control cf the congress cf the 
United States, continue in full torce and effect until revoked ty 
the consent of th*^ United States ard the people of Mcntara. 



Johll-Ki.Schiltz. 

Chair aan 



Villiaff_Eurkhardt_ 
Vice Chairman 



D. L. Holland 



Eotert Lee Kelleher 



Luciie_S£e_3r. 



Virginia_E^_Elend_ 



CilSi_Elailcc_k_ 



Ji_Ci_Garlin2ton_ 



Ear_Ei_Eer2, 



Fichard E. Boeder 



Jercne 1. Lcendcrf 



***** 



CCRMENTS 



The proposed Article is a response to Delegate Proposal No. 
15, which was referred to this Ccinirittee, and to ether expres- 
sions of concern at the Convention. It is similar to a prcvisicn 
in the new North Dakota Constitution. Its crly function is to 



Ccircact with United States 



841 



serve as a reminder that the guarantees upcn which Congress ccn- 
diticn'=5d the entry of f^ontana into the Ur.icr. persist even though 
Cr dinance. 



842 



MONTANA CONSTITUIICNAI CCNVEKTICN 



843 

STYLE AND DRAFTING REPORTS 

KCNTANA LCKSTITUTICNAL CCNVENTICN 
1971-1S72 

REECRT CF CCfflTTHE CS SlYLE, EFAFIING, 
IFANSITICN ANE SCEfISSIC^ CN 
SUffRAGE ANU rlECIICNS 
NC. I 



Date feported: February 2^, 1972 
^s/_Jchn_M;j._Schiltz , Chair lar 
^s^_William_Ai_Burkbardt, Vic€ Chairnan 



844 



tHECET Ct CCKflllEI CN STSLE, EFAFTIKG 



MCN^AN^ CCNSIIICTICNAI CCNVENTICN 

CGMMllTEE ON S1YI£, CRAFIING, 
TEANSniCN />NC SUEKISSICN 



TC: ^ciitdnd Ccnttituticnal ccnvcnticr. 
SOEJECT: SUFFBAG£ A^C EirC'UCNS 

Ladies ard Gertl'^men: 

Th-> CoiTuit^. >3-^ en Style, Craf-. ing. Transition and EutBissicc 
transmits ivvisicns cr th€ above Anticle fcr ccrsideraticn cf the 
Convention . 

Immediately fcllcwir^ this letter you will find the above 
Article as revisfed by tht Ccaimittee , indicating (ty underlining) 
words we have added and (fcy crossing cut) words ve have deleted 
frcffi the Articl-3 as approved. Finally, there is an explanation cf 
the chances we have trade. 

Sincerely, 



ChairiTdr cf the CcDJfliit tee 

on Style, Drafting, Irarsiticn 

and Suticissicr 



Vice Chairitan cf the Ccmittee 
cr Style, Crafting, Transition 
and Subffiissicr 



he. I — Suffrage ard Electicrs 845 



BZ II PFCFOSEC EY THE GZNEFAL GCVEFNHENI ANE CON SIIT OTIC NA L 

AfENEMEM CCfMIITEE: 

That there be a new Article en Suffrage and Electicrs tc 
read as f cllcw£ : 



ARTICLE 
SUEFKAGE AbE EIECIICNS 



Section 1. BALLCT. All elections ty the fecpls shall be by 
secret ballet. 

section 2. QMklllli lilCTCF. Any citi26n of the Dr.ited 

States «iie-i€ 16 years of'age or cld^r r— *«^ whc neets the regis- 
tration and residence requireirents *-6 provided ty law is a quali- 
fied electcr-r-'i^eef*— fek-a*— fi«-f€*sefl— «+»e-i6 urless_he_is serving a 
sentence for a felony in a penal institution or «ke is ^4-e^4 of 
unsound mind, as_deterffiined ty a court. »ay-^-€4€-r 

Section 3. ElECTICNS^ The legislature shall provide by law 
the requirements f cr~tii-i4e«€^ LS.^i^S.Il£^> registration, absentee 
voting^ and adirinistrat ion of elections. 5*t-e-4«^iei«*-H5€ It aay 
provide for a systeir of poll tooth reqistr aticr. , and shall irsure 
the purity cf elections and guard against abuses of the electoral 
process. 

section u. ELIGIEIIIIIf EOF PUELIC_CljICE. Any -peccor quali- 
fied ;t€-v©-fee-#€i-6iii€-eii46^*6-d*— §e-{r«-EdX^eii«44r©R-6 elector is 
eligible to any public office ejicept as otherwise provided in 

this Ccnstitutionj.T— 6-»*^«*-*«-*«¥ lilS l§aiii^lai§ Sli E£2Yide 

additional qualifications f*©-v44«4^^-*^*c-4«^4eit4*««e-t-^*e^4ri«-4T 
i^^^e^^etT-*^^* tut nc person convicted of a felony shall be eligi- 
ble ^-aaii^i-e^ to hold office ■6*«€'f *-■ »h?^-b until his final dis- 
charge froni state supervision. 

Section 5. RESCLT CF IIECTICNS^ In all elections held ty 

the people ■»*4e^-^iii6-eefisi4*:«*4-6-fi7 the person or persons receiv- 
ing the -hi-^^es* largest nunter of i-e^-si votes shall be declared 
elected. 

Section b. PRIVILEGE FFCM M^IST^ Hee^esG — e+^aii— i«— a4i 

i^^«.§ — 4t«« — dit^s* — 4«^««|~4fe*it-a*4«-fi4a-fi€-e-a4-e4€€*4«*e-«-p4-^-B 
^«i«^-*«-d«4-«€*-H*fiia-§-**.5€e4*«*-r A_<jualified_ eject or is — £rivi- 




breach_of_the_£eace^ 



846 



B£ECPI CF CCKMIIIIE CN STYLI, EPAFIING 



nt^pctt No. 1 — SOffRflGE AND ELIICIICNS 
CcDinicints oil style, fcriii, and grairnar 



GiQetdl^ A titl- was add^d tc -^.ach secticn, 

Sscticii_^_; The yran-matical chances achieve brevity without 
altering sutstarce. 

SS£ii2n_iii '^'"^ language deleted ftcir lin^s 22 and 23 
repeated th- qualit icaticns set forth in secticr 2. Ihe fcrir cf 
lines 25 throujh 28 was changed tc avcid the presence cf 
"except," "subject to," and "provided, however" in the sane sen- 
tence. 

5££ii2Ii_^l Tne wcrds deleted frcii line 30 are superfluous. 
The words "by the people" in line 29 nay alsc be superfluous, tut 
remain to insure certainty that "elections" were political (as 
opposed tc corporate, tor exanple) . Be lire 1, p. 2 "numters" are 
"larg-:;" or "sBall", net "high" or "lew". If a vcte is not 
"legal", it is ret a "vcte". 

S^cticn_<:j_ The Convention vcted tc adopt the language from 
the present Ccns tit ution , the style cf which varies froHs that of 
this Article. The Committee on Style interpreted the existing 
language as intended tc protect the voter frcin arrest onl^ for 
acts comniitted enrcute tc the pells. It expressed that interpre- 
tation in the proposed substitute. The word "treason" has been 
emitted because it is the opinion of the Ccirnittee en Style that 
it is included within the terai "felony". 



No. I — Sutfrage and El?cticns 



847 



CBDEE CF EUEIKESE NC. 5 — 
FINAL CCNSICERATICN Sl^LZ ANE LEAfTING — 
SUFFPAGF ANC FLFdlCNS - NC. I 

AEIICIE 
SUFFRAGE ANC ELECTIONS 



Section 1. 
secret fcallct. 



BALLOT. All elections by the pecfle shall te ty 



Section 2. QUALIFIED ELECTCE. Ary citiz^t of the United 
States 1& years of age oi elder hhc meets the registration and 
residence requirements frcvided by law is a qualified elector 
unless he is serving a sentence tor a felony in a penal insti- 
tution or is of unsound mind, as determined by a court. 

Section 3. EIECTICNS. The legislature shall provide by law 
the requirecents for residence, registration, absentee voting, 
and administration cf elections. It nay provide for a system of 
poll tooth registration, and shall insure the purity cf elections 
and guard against abuses cf the electoral prccess. 

Section U. ELIGIBILITY FCP EUELIC OFFICE. Any qualified 
elector is eligible to any public office except as otherwise pro- 
vided in this Constitution. The legislature may provide addi- 
tional qualifications tut nc person convicted of a felony shall 
be eligible to hold office until his final discharge free state 
superv isioc. 

Section 5. RESULT CF ELECTIONS. In all elections held by 
the people, the person or persons receiving the largest ncuber of 
votes shall be declared elected. 

Section 6. PRIVILEGE FFCM AEEEST. A qualified elector is 
privileged from arrest at polling places acd in going to and 
returning therefroir, unless apprehended in the couniission of a 
felony or a breach of the peace. 



848 



REPCRT Cf CCJ'fl'ITEE CN SlilE, CRAPTING 



No. II — Ccrstituticral Psvisicn 



849 



RCNIANA CCNSinCIICNAl CC^'VENTICN 
1971-1^72 

FEfOFI Of CCX'^lIIltF CN STYLE, CRAPTING, 
TPANSITICN AtvC SIlEflSSICN CN 
CCKSIITUTICixAI PEVISICN 
NC, II 



Date Eepctt-;3: Petruary 26, 1S72 



^s^_Jcbn_P_._Schiltz_t Chainran 



Z§Z_i!iiii35_£i_f yiJsiJ^rdtj, Vice Chairaan 



850 



FEPCrvT CP CCrtlllll CN STILE, CB^FTTKG 



TO: -icr. tana Ccriistitutional Ccrverticc 
SUtJFCT: CCNS1I1U7ICNAL RE^ISICM 

Ladies and G-^ntlemtr : 

The CcEititte-r en Style, Crafting, Transiticr. and SuLooission 
transmits revisions ct tha above Article fcr ccnsideraticr cf the 
Ccrvanticii. 

Immediately tcllcwirg this letter ycu will find the abcve 
Article as revised by ths Comrtii ttee . Ecllcwing that is the Arti- 
cle indicating (by underlining) vicrds we have added and (ty 
crossing out) words we have deleted frcir th^ Article as approved. 
Finally, there is an explanation cf the charges we have made. 

Sincere ly , 



^s^_Jchn_Ki_Schilt2i 
Chairnan cf the CcmiDittee 
on Style, Crafting, Trarsiticn 
and Subiissicn 



z§z_i!!iiliss_BA_fiiiiJsii3idtjt 

Vice Chdirnac cf the Committee 
en Style, Drafting, Transition 
and SutiBission 



tic. II — Ccr^stituticndl Pevisicn 



851 



bE IT EECFCSED EY THE C-ENZf'AL GCVEahMENT AND CCN £TIT CT ION AL 
AHENEMENI CO^:flITTE£: 

That there be -a n^iv Article or. Const itut icr.al l<evisicn to 
read ds follows : 



ABTICIE 
CCKSTITUTIC^Al kEVISICN 



Section 1. CONSTITIITICNA I CC^VENTICN. The leyislatuie, ty 
an af r imative vote ct two-thirds cf all th? iieiib^?rs, fchethei one 
cr mere todies, way at ary tini£ subait to the qualified electors 
the QU^sticr cf whether there stall t; a Ccrv^rticr. to revise, 
alter, or airer.d this Ccrstituticn. 

Section z. INITIATIVE FCF CC ^S^ ITDTICN A I CCKVEMlCh. (1) 
Ihe fecple aay ty initiative petiticr direct the secretary cf 
state to subniit tc the qualified electors the question cf vhether 
there shall be a Conv:nticn tc r-^vise, alter, cr airend 
stituticr.. The petition shall be signed by at least 10 
the qualified electors cf the state. That ruaber shall 
least 1C percent ct th-^ qualified electors in each cf 
of the legislative districts. 



this C c n- 
percer.t cf 
inc lude a t 
twc-f if ths 



(2) The secretary 
petition in his office 
the next general electicr. 



of state shall certify the filing cf the 
and cause the question tc be sutaitted at 



Section 3. PEFIOEIC SliEKISSIC h . If the questicr of holding 
a Convention is not cther^ise sutiritted during any period cf 20 
years, it shall te submitted as provided ty law at the general 
electicn in the twentieth year following the last sutroissicn. 



Section a. CAIL CE CCKVENTICK. If a aajcrity cf these 
voting on the question answer in the affirmative, the legislature 
shall provide for the calling thereof at its next sessicr. The 
number of delegates to the Convention shall tc the saire as that 
of the larger tody of the legislature. The gual if icat icns cf del- 
egates shall be the same as the highest qualifications required 
for electicn to the legislature. The legislature shall determine 
whether the delegates may be rctrinated on a partisan cr a rcrpar- 
tisan basis. They shall te elected at the same places and in the 
same districts as are the memters of the legislative tody deter- 
mining the number cf delegates. 



Section 5. CONVENTION EXPENSES. The legislature shall, in 
the act calling the Convention, cesignate the day, hci:t, and 
place of its meeting, arid fix and provide fcr the pay 
bers and officers and the necessary expenses cf the 



of its mem- 
Ccrventicn . 



852 



RiPORT CF CCM!'n'IEE CN £1KL£, IPAFTING 



Section b. OATH, VACANCIfS. E=fcre prcceedirq, the dele- 
g-ttcis shall tak^ the carl, provided in this Ccnst ituticn. Vacan- 
cies ccc'jririj shall be tilled ir th:; iranrer prcvided for tilling 
vacancies in the legislature if not otherwise provided ty la*. 

Section 7. CCNVENTTCN CUIUS. The Ccrventioc shall iceet 
after the election of the delegates and prepare such revisions, 
alterations, or amendmerts to the Constitution as niay te deeiEed 
necessary. Ihey shall te suhiritted to the qualified electors for 
ratification or rejection as a whole cr ir separate articles cr 
direndments as determined by the Ccrventicn at an election 
appointed by the Conv-inticn for that purpose net less than tfcc 
months after ad jcurnire nt . Unless so subtritted and approved by a 
majotity of the electors voting thereon, no such revision, alter- 
ation, or arrenditent shall take effect. 

Section a. APENDMENT EY lEGISlATIVE BEFEFENCUK. f merdirents 
to this Constitution tcay be proposed ty any tceoffcer of the legis- 
lature. If adopted ty an affiraative roll call vote of two-thirds 
of all the meuibers thereof, whether one cr nicre todies, the ptc- 
posed amendiiient shall te sutroitted to the qualified electors at 
the next general election. If approved by a irajcrity of the elec- 
tors voting thereon, the amendment shall teccne a part cf this 
Constitution on the first day of July after cer tif ica tier cf the 
election returns unless the anendoient provides otherwise. 

Section 3. AKENCKEKT BY IKIIIATIVE. (1) The people ffay also 
propose Constitutional anerdroents by initiative. Petitions 
including the full text cf the proposed amendnient shall te signed 
by at least 1C percent of the qualified '^lectors of the state. 
That number shall include at least 1C percert cf the qcalified 
electors in each cf two-fifths cf the legislative districts. 

(2) The petitions shall be filed with the secretary of 
state who shall check and certify the validity cf the signatures 
thereon. If the pititicns are found to have been signed by the 
required number of electors, the secretary of state shall cause 
the airendment to te published as provided by law twice each Bonth 
for two months previous to the next regular state-wide election. 

(3) At that election, the proposed amenditent shall te sub- 
mitted to the qualified electors for approval or rejection. If 
approved by a majority voting thereon, it shall become a part of 
the Constitution effective the first day of July following its 
approval, unless the amendment provides otherwise. 

Section 1 'j . PETITION SIGNEES, The number cf qualified elec- 
tors required for the filing of any petition provided for in this 
Article shall te determined by the number cf votes cast fcr 
governor in the preceding general electicr. 



Section 11. SUBMISSION. If mere than one aiendment is sat- 
mitted at the same election, each shall te so prepared and 
distinguished that it can be voted upon separately, BE IT PEG— 



'Ac. II -- Ccr.stituticnal Fevisicr 853 



POSED EY Trit GENE3AI GCVERNMENT AN! CC fv ST II U^ I C N AL A f- F N P M E M CC«- 
MITTEE: 

That there be a nsw Articl- cr Ccns ti t u ticnal Devisior. to 
read as icllcws: 



AFTICLE 
CCNSTIIUTICNAI FEVISICN 



Section 1. CO>'STIT011CNAI CCKVrMICh. -(4-)- The legislatur*? , 
by an affirmative vcte ct thc-thixds cf all the ffeoibers -^feegee-g , 
whether cnf cr mere bodies, nay at ary tii^ sutmit tc the guali- 
fied rilectore e#— fe-h«— e*^-te the question of whether there shall t3 
*-R— a-ft4:-i*i*^4 Ccnvrntioa tc revise, alter, cr airend this Constitu- 
tier.. 

Secticn 2. I^ITI ATT VE_EOE CCNSTIIUTICNAI CCNVEMICN. Jll 
The fecfl-- may by initiative petiticn direct the secretary cf 
state to subirit tc the Hiiillif S_f if £l£IS •»«+-e€e— ©4—fe-b'e— e-t-a*^ the 
question of whether there shall be *-fi--«-R44«i4«4 a ConventioL to 
revise, alter, or amerd this Ccnst ituticn . The petition «-B€-fe 
^h^il tie signed by at least 1C {-ercert cf the aualif ied__electcrs 
ie^,ii — »e % r-Eto cf the sta t€_j_-7~-*'-h4€-h Thai.nunjb^r shall include at 
least 10 percent of the 2iJlliiiiS_§li£i£Ii ■ie^^4— v^-fe-^-te in each 
of two-fifths or the legislative -E-e-pt^et^fi-td-ti-ve districts^, o t ■■ t k -e 

Hi The »^*-4*±e-fi — s^dii — fe-e — iii-^ — -wi**— *i?e secretary cf 
stater-**^ shall certify the filing o f _the_£etiticr_iri_his_of f ice 
%4^eJE^-e^ and cause the question tc bs submitted «€-■ feke---v«*et« at 
the next gsneial election. 

Secticn 3. PEFIOCIC SUEfllSSICNi If the question cf hcldicg 

a Convention is not otherwise submitted *e — %4»^ — f-e-sfi^e — d4 — €©«e 
%i BG during any period cf 2C years, it shall be subisitted as_xrc- 
vided__b_y law at the general election in the twentieth year fol- 
lowing the last sutfflissicn^. -et-ette^— f^3ee44-e«T 

Section 4. CALL_CF CCNVENTIC];^ If a najcrity of those 

voting en the question answer_in_the_a f f irffiati ve^ efealjr-^ec lar e 
i n f av o r -e^— g4i6^-eeB-»^H»%4^«^ the legislature i^^iei^-fei-we— &€€e«-fe4f 

shall .**-i+-6-fte«*-sessi'e* provide fcr the calling thereof at its 

next session. The number of delecates tc ffcafee^-e— e# the Conven- 
tion shall b€~the same as that^cf'the Isti-^se^ lar:;jer body of the 
ie^isi^-fei-v^ i^aislaturei -aeeeft-feiy-r The qualifications cf «e-H>fee*6 
delegates shall be the saise as the highest qualifications 

required for »€«4«tsfei? — 4e Sigcticr tc the legislature. The 

legislature shall «d^ determine whether the deleqates e^d-ii jajr 
be «ies*^4-d#4ei— fi-e«ifl'*-fei€ft— fe-y-f©i4^-ie<i4-fa**-ie«-r iicmina ted_cn_a 
partisan or «« a non-partisan basiST^ fe-«-fe They shall be elected 



854 REPORl CP CCMMIITEF CN STYLE, EFAFIING 



at thtt same places and in the saire distiicts as are_the_icejters 
of th'; legislative tody n <?ter ir in ir.g the rutrber cf delegates. 

Section 5. CONVENT ICN_EJ(££NSESi The i€«isia4i*e e€&e«44y 

i£aisii^l^£.-2 shill, m rh-3 act calling the CcEvention, designate 

the day, hourjt_ ard place cf its mestirq, acd fix ^nd_£rcvide fcr 

the pay of its nidiiters atid of f iceiST-— i*«^-f-E«-»-i^«— ^«--fe-*^-p«y«-^s^ 
e^_%t^^_sdffleT-te^-^*i»-'*— «i4ii and the necessary expenses cf the Con- 
vent ion. 

Section o. QATK_t_VACANCIESi Eefcre pccceedirg, the ge a be r c 
^Sisa^tes shall take the oath ei-b^i-w-iee provided in this Consti- 

tuticn . ?4ie-6««»4i#-ie^%±-e«e-€-i-«^«-fe-e-t€-€i-a-i4:— fe-€— ^■it^ — s-d»-fe — ae *rhe 

•h-ig-k'C«4 — •e«t4444i€-k4-ie»'e — €-c^ti-if e4 — t-6-E — »^*fe'e*e-b4^ — i-fi-%4-e--i-e^-i-6- 
i.*«:-«E*^T Vacancies cccurir.g shall be filled in the raarner provided 
fci falling vacancies in the Is^islature -ie^4-&4-a4-i-»-e— a-e-6e«t-iy7— e-E 
d-s if.noi othf^rwise provided ty la*. 

S'octicn 7. CCNyiNTIC];_DyTIES_. The Ccrventicc shall meet 
after the election cf the delegates and prepare such revisicrs, 
alterations^ oi affiendm^nts to zh<^ Cccstituticn as may te deemed 
necGssaryri. «^4e-h The^ shall te submitted to the aualififd elec- 
tors fcr %-k-^ri* ratificaticn or rejection as '''^~ '~ '~ 




S section 8. GG*}-g-?444;404»-M, flPENCPENT BY *«* — i*€iSt-Ag^***-r 
IiEGl£LATIVE_FE_FERENDyK^ Affiendffents to this Constitution may te 
proposed by any ireirber cf the legislature^ -ie-ef-ieid-fei-v-e— ae-ee-frfe-i-yr 
If adopted by an affirmative roll call vote cf two-thirds of all 
the oeirb'^rs thereof, wnether cne cr mere bcdies, the proposed 

amendffi'ent shall fe-eeea^-a— p^E ^ -e ^ -4 hc C € cc 444^%4«« w-feee — af pre ^e ^ l 

by - th e -f € i^-e»4fi^— p-Eoee^'HF'gT 

■S-66*4re«— 9-r — ?ii-e — i€-§-is-i*4-4ve — de-6«*fe4-y &h^44— *-e^-e«— *-h^-p^F«- 

^«e'e4-a««ft4«-e-ft^ ^^-Subroitted to the 3ualified_e lectors vot et c e-i 

^^€ — s*a%e— e-#— *l-e«4-a«t*--t©-t^-v©-fe«4-€-s— i-fi at the next general elec— 
tion^ 4»'644-4fl-%bfe-g%. at Q , If approved ty a majority cf the elec- 
tors voting thereon, the aierdirent shall beccme a part cf this 
Ccnstituticn on the first day cf July after certification cf the 
election returns unless the amendment €44»€«-«-is-e prcvidesi — she 
otherwise^ 

Section 4-0 9. €«*S5i?-854©^-At AMENCKENT BY INIIIA1IVE. _Qi 
The people «#— f»eft*d».s may also propose Const ituticnal asendments 
by initiative^, f^^^^se-^ Petitions -e^i^st^Ti includina i«€4^j4-e the 
full text of the proposed amendment *»4 shall be signed by ««* 
i<»6s-*-feafi lt_least 10 percent of the 4^^pa^4- v otc t e aaalif ied_elec- 
l2£I_2l_ih§_gtatei i*— M-e-fi^t^fla— ¥4*4€-b Ihat_numter shall'i nclude at 
least 1C percent of the gualif ie d_electc ii~4e^al- » e%-e^^ in each 



Kc. II — Const itut icnal Fevisicr. 855 



of thc-tifths cf the legislative -f^f^-ee-e-R^tj^i-v^ districts^ -e^ 

IZL -^^ fetitior.s shall te filcf vi*-A. the s^crftary cf 
stdt^T- whc shall €-a««€— t-h*^-ed«€— fe«--fe'e-€-tHt-G-fc-e4 check =inr! €'^-f-^i4i-e4 
*6-*e c^rtill ^^'^ validity cf the signatures therecn,^ ^+^4-, It th^e 
£etiticris_ar£ fcund to fee have_t_feer signed by the reguiiec numter 
of ^ii£i£S§» v*i*e-ES the_£ecr = tar_s_ct_state_shall cause the anerd- 
nent €rt-»€: to be published ifi-e-ae-h-««*-t-ci as ficvided ty law twics 
each month for twc norths pr^vicus to the r=xt regular state-wide 
eiecticru-y -d*— «-hi€«--si«<b-%-fec--p-E€f 6e<e4— i«'e-fi4-sw»ti-fe — e^^ii — ■fet--¥d%«4 

ill '^^- S'si*} that electicii_t th^- prcfcsed amendaent shall be 
submitted to the qualified electors -64 — *-ke — s ^a t <g for -t4»€-4-E 
dcprcval or rejection. If apprcvea by a cajcrity voting thereon^^ 
it shall become a part cr the Ccrstituticn effective the first 
day cf July following its approval, unless ■e4-i»-e£*isT-f-€-6*-i4€-4— -i-B 
the aaer.dffiinti- Hg vi ies_cth€r wise_j^ 

Section 44 j:. iSeAi— V«-i**-S PiIIIICN_SIGNl RS^ -^^i-e—B+jff-tees-e-i 
^^e*-es-€-se*-4e = -tii»— Gr-ti'Se-^-i— §€-v-.HE-ee-E — 4« — ^ii<s — ^-^ft^tai — ^4-ec tio ft 

•fefeis— j+f^-iel^— s«a4-i-4e%-e-E*4*'fe-4-fe-T — •«-««*■€£ — e4 — -i-e-gai — -v^-e^-^-f^-r The 

tion ££Ovided__f or in f hi£__iit icle_shal 1_ te_det er£ii)ed_b_i_t he 

nun]b6r_ct_ vet ss_c3st_for_scvfrrcr_ir_the__£r seed in3_£cneral 
t ion^ 

Section 4-2 JJ. SUEKISSICN. S-h©a44 If icre than_cne a«-e«4- 
«e-H*-s 3ffleriment *-kas-e»^— fe-5 is sutnitted at the sane electicr, 
^^H^ ;^ach shall td so prepared and distinguished •fe^-^ 
e th o r w 4-g« that it -ra^-h can te voted upcn separately. 



856 



EEPORT OF COfif^ITTIE CK SlYIE, EPAFTING 



Fepcrt #2 - Cci: ftituticnal fpvisicr 
CGKSEN'IS CN S1YLE, fCFK, ANE ChhVf.hh 



General 
s a r y . 



1. Secticr titles were aJded as neces- 



2. The phrase "cualifi^d elector", 
adopted in repcit * '' , was substituted tcr "leqal 
vott^r" cr its equivalent. 

S£cticn__1« The adjective "unliffitfd" was dr^leted frcit lir,€ 
12 and line 17, £i'C^ticn_2, tecaust its presence is not necessary 
tc provide ior such power. In addition, its presence would make 
possible an in ter pretaticn that there is no power to call a 
"limited" Coiiventicr. 

^SSiiSS-^- '^^^- structural charges do net alter sutstance, 
but clarify the Convention's intention to require that the r.uirber 
of petitioners be spread across the state, Adding subsections 
serves clarity. 

§§£tl2i]_3. The words deleted are superfluous, fidding "as 
provided by law" eirpcwers the legislature to identify the 
submitter . 

2£ction_i4. Deletion, substitution, and rearrargeaent of 
language dc^s ret alter substance. The ncur "delegate" was sub- 
stituted for "member" because it is more appropriate. 

Secticn_5. Grammatical charges do not alter substance, 

Secticn_6. Two changes cf labels, deletion cf "otherwise" 
in lire 18, and Ecving one sentence to section U , dc not alter 
substance . 

S€cticn_7. Structural charge and deletion cf superfluity do 
not alter substance. 

Sections 8 and 9. The operative portions cf each section 

were combined tc produce one section with no change in substance. 

§S££i2!i_2C. R§I'!iStered_^92. Structural changes and removal 
of superfluity do not alter substance. That pcrtion prescribing 
the number of signers accords with the alteration in secticr 2. 

Secticn_11. Renumbered MC^. Sentence structure has been 

altered tor clarity without change in substance. 

Section_J2. Fenumbered_^_1_1^. Structural change and deletion 
of superfluity dc not alter substance. 



No. II — Const it ut icDd 1 Pevisici 



857 



CRDEF CP BUSINESS NO. 5 - 
FINAL CONSIEERATICN SlYIr AfvD DEAtllNG 
CONSIITUTICNAL FEVISICN - NC. II 

fifiTICII 

CCNSIITUIICNAI PEVISICN 

Section 1. CCNSIITUIICNAI CCNVFMICN. Ih? legislature, ty 
an affirmative vets of two-thirds cf all th= meffibers, whether ere 
or ircr>5 bodies, iray at any titre subirit to the qualified electors 
the question of whether there shall be an unlinited Ccr.verticn to 
revisH, alter, or aroend this Cc tsti tu ticn . 

Section 2. IiaTIATIVE FCfi CC NSI ITDIICN AL CCNVEhTICN. (1) 
The people may ty initiative fetiticn direct the secretary cf 
state to submit to the qualified electors the question cf whether 
there shall be an unlimited Ccnventicr tc revise, alter, or amend 
this Constitution. Ihe petition shall be sigted by at least 10 
percent cf th9 qualified electors cf the state. Ihat number shall 
include at least 1C percent of the qualified electors in each of 
two-fifths cf the legislative districts. 

(2) The secretary cf state shall certify the filing cf the 
cetiticn in his office and cause the question tc be submitted at 
the rext general election. 

Section 3. PEFICDIC SCEHISSICN. If the question cf bcldicq 
a Ccnventior is net otherwise subritted during any period cf 20 
years, it shall be submitted as provided by law at the general 
election in the twentieth year following the last submissicn. 



voti 

shal 

nunb 

of t 

egat 

for 

whet 

Dcn- 

in t 

dete 



Sectio 
ng en t 
1 provi 
er of 
he larg 
es shal 

electi 
her the 
partisa 
he same 
roining 



n u. 
he q 
de f 

del 
er b 
1 be 
en t 

del 
n b 

dis 

the 



CA 
uest 
or t 
egat 
edy 

the 
e th 
egat 
asis 
trie 

nuB 



IL C 

ion a 
he ca 
es to 
cf th 
same 
e leg 
es It 
. The 
ts as 
ber c 



F CO 
nswer 
lling 

the 
e leg 

as t 
islat 
ay b 
y sha 

are 
f del 



NVENTICN. If a majority cf those 
in the af f ir ffiative , the legislature 
thereof at its next session. The 
Ccnventicn shall be the sace as that 
islature. The qualifications of del- 
he highest qualifications required 
ure. The legislature shall detersice 
e rciinated en a partisan or a 
11 be elected at the sasie places and 
the meabers of the legislative body 
egates. 



section 5. CCNVENTICN EXPENSES. The legislature shall, in 
the act calling the Convention, designate the day, hour, and 
place cf its meeting, and fix and provide fcr the pay cf its ine«- 
bers and officers and the necessary expenses cf the Ccnventicn. 



Section 6. OATH, VACANCIES. Eefcre proceeding, the dele- 



858 



REPORl CF COMMITTEE CK STYIE, EEAFTING 



gates shall take the cath prcvided in this Cc tstit uticn. Vacan- 
cies cccuring shall be filled in ths manner provided for filling 
vacancies in the legislatura it ret otherwise provided ty law. 

Section 7. CCNVENIICN EUIIES. The Convention shall ineet 
after the r^lecticn ci the delegates and prepare such revisions, 
alterations, or aoiendinents to the Constitution as maj be deemed 
necessary. Th-:y shall be satraitted to the qualified electors for 
ratification or rejection as a (.hcle or in separate articles or 
aniendni'^nts as oetermined by the Convention at ar election 
appointed by the Convention for that purpose not less than two 
months aft'^r ad journro-t^nt. Unless so submitted and approved ty a 
majority of the electors voting thereon, no such revision, alter- 
ation or aiD-ndment shall take effect. 

Section b. AFEND?1ENT E¥ lEGISLPTIVE EEEEPENCUK. ? ffie r dnien ts 
to this Constitutior aay be proposed by any iieirber of the legis- 
lature. If acopted by an affirmative roll call vote of two-thirds 
of all the iTiembers thereof, whether one or more todies, the pro- 
posed anendmcnt shall be submitted to the qualified electors at 
the Hc^xt general election. If approved by a majority of the elec- 
tors voting therecn, the aire r due nt shall become a part cf this 
Constitution en the first day of July after cer t if icaticn cf the 
election returns unless the amenditient provides otherwise. 



Section 9. Af^ENDfiEKl BY INITIATIVE. (1) The people may also 
prcpcse Ccrstituticnal amendments by initiative. Petitions 
including the full text of ths proposed anerdnieiit shall be signed 
by at least 10 percent of the qualified electors cf the state. 
That number shall include at least 1C percent of the qualified 
electors in each of two-fifths cf the legislative districts. 



(2) The petitions shall be 
state. It the petitions are 
required number of electors, the 
"'" " ' "" ^' published as 



cf 
the amendment to b 



filed with 
found to have 
secretary cf ^v^^v. 
provided by law twice 



the secretary c 

i been signed by th 

state shall caus 



f 
e 

cause 

each month 



for two months pr';vious to the next regular state-wide electicr. 



(3) At that election, the proposed amendirent shall be sub- 
mitted to the qualified electors for approval cr rejection. If 
approved by a majority voting therecn, it shall beccire a part cf 
the Constitution effective the first day of July following its 
approval, unless the amendment provides otherwise. 



Section 10. FETITICN SIGNEFS. The number cf qualified elec- 
tors required for the filing of any petition provided for in this 
article shall be determined by the number cf vctes cast for the 
office of governor in the preceding general election. 

Section 11. SOBMISSICK. If ncrs than one amendment is sub- 
mitted at the same election, each shall be sc pr6par€d and 
distinguished that it can be voted upon separately. 



Kc. Ill — Legislative — Onicameral and Eicaneral 



859 



MONTANA CCNSTITaTTC^AL CCNVENTICN 
1971-19'72 

REPORT OF COKi-illTEE ON STYLE, CRAFTING, 

TPANSniON AND SOEMISSICN CN 
LEGISLATIVE - UNICAKERAL ANE EICAKERAI 

NO. Ill 



Eate Feported: March 2, 1972 



^s^_Jchn_Mi_Schilt 2 , Chair irar 



Z§Z_lilliJS-*i-£i^liSl3lI^i' Vice Chairffan 



860 



FEFOET CI CCffmEt CN S1YLE , TFAFTIhG 



TO: Mor. tand Ccnstitutioral Ccrvecticn 
SUEJ£CT: LEGISLATIVE - UNICArtEHAL A Iv C BICAKEFAL 

Ladies ai;d Geritlemtr: 

Tha CciTini t te=i cr Style, Ctatting, Transition and Sutirissicn 
transaiits r? visions of the above Article for consideraticr cf the 
Convt^ rti en. 

Iflimedi ^tp ly tcllcwir'j this Ic-tt-'^r you will find the above 
Article as revised by the Comniitt^e. Folic winq that is the Arti- 
cle indicating (by underlining) words we have added and (ty 
cicssirg out) hords v^ have deleted frcni the Article as approved. 
Finally, tner- is an explanation cf the charges we have made. 

Sincere ly , 



^s^_Jchn_Ki_Schilt2 

Chairirar cf the Ccanrittee 

on Style, Drafting, Irarsiticn 

and Submission 



Zsz_Williac_A . _Bijrkhardt 
Vice Chairiran cf the Committee 
on Style, Drafting, Transition 
and Sutmissicn 



No. Ill 



Legislative — Ur,icair€ral and BicaniPral 



861 



Unicaireral 



BE n EFCEOSEC Ei THE LEGISlfiTIVE CC KMIIT E E : 

That thet'S be a new Article en the Legislature to read as 
follows: 



ARTICLE V 
THE LEGISLiSlORE 



Section 1. ECWEP AND STEUCTUEE. The legislative pc*er is 
vested in a legislature of one chatcber whose meoibers are desig- 
nated senators. The feople reserve to thenselves the powers of 
initiative and referendun. 



Section 2. 
by law, but it 



S 1 7 E . T h ( 
shall not b' 



nuiiiber of senators shall be provided 
smaller than ICC ncr larger than 135. 



Section 3. ELECTICK ANL TEHfS. A senator shall be elected 
for a term of tour years to begin cr a date provided by law. One- 
half of the senators shall be elected every two yaars. 

Section 4. gUAIIFICATICNS. A candidate shall be a residett 
of the state for at least one year rext preceding the general 
election. Fcr six months next preceding the general election, he 
shall be a resident of the county if it contains one cr mere dis- 
tricts or of the district if it certains all ci parts of more 
than cne county. 

Section 5. CC PEE KSATICN . (1) Fach senator shall receive 
ccmperisa tion for bis services ard allowances provided by law. No 
legislature ffay fix its own compensation. 

(2) The legislature shall create a salary ccmiissicn tc 
recoirtiiend ccmpensaticn fcr the judiciary and elected members of 
the legislative and executive departments. 

Section 6. SESSIONS. The legislature shall be a ccrticucus 
body fcr two-year periods begirrirg when newly elected senators 
take office. Any business, bill, or resolution pending at 
adjournment of a session shall carry over with the same status to 
any other session of the legislature during the bienniun. The 
legislature shall meet at least crce a year in regular sessions 
of net more than 60 legislative days. Any legislature may 
increase the limit on the length of any subseguent session. The 
legislature may be convened in special sessions by the gcverccr 
or at the written request of a irajcrity of the senators. 

Section 7. VACANCIES. A vacancy in the legislature shall be 



862 



FEPCET CF CCKMTIEE ON STYLE, CFAFTING 



filled Ly cpecial 6lt=cticn ici tb' 
wist; frcvii^d ty la*.. 



ur^xfii^d tetni unless other- 



Section d. iKMiNlTi. A senatcr is ptivil€C€d frca arrest 
during atterdancc at Gcssicns cf the legislature and in coir.g tc 
and rt^turning thar":f roni , unless apprehended in the ccffiirissicn cf 
a felony or a breach ot the peace. He shall net be questicred in 
any cth-?r place for any speech or delate in the legislature. 

Section 9. DISQn ALIf TCAT IC K . Durirg the teric fcr fchich he 
is elected, a senatcr shall net hold any civil, federal, state, 
ccunty, cr municipal office. This ptchibiticn dees net apply tc a 
notary public cr a nensber cf the nilitia. 



Section U. OFGANTZAIICN AND EFCCECUFE, (1) The legislature 
shall judge the election and qualifications cf senators. It may 
vest in th--^ courts the power to try and determine contested elec- 
tions. It shall choose its officers frciF aircng its leaitcrs, keep 
a ■ 

punish a senatcr fcr gocd cause shewn 
twc-thirds cf all the senators. 



journal, and make rules fcr its prcceedings. It may expel cr 

with the concurrence of 



(2) A majcrity cf the Sf:-natcrs constitutes a qucrum. A 
oiialler number may adjourn frcm day tc day and compel attendance 
of absent members. 

(3) The sessions c± the legislature and of the cctrmittee cf 
the whcle, all ccminittee meetings, and all hearings shall be open 
tc the public. 

(M) The legislature may establish a legislative ccuccil ard 
othet irterin ccmmittees. 



Secticn 11. BILLS. (1) A law shall be passed 
shall not be so altered or amended en its passage 
legislature as tc change its original purpose, 
become law except by a vets of the majcrity cf 
present. 



by bill which 

thrcugh the 

No bill shall 

all senators 



(2) Every vote of each senator en each substantive question 
in the legislature, in any committee, cr in ccmmittee of the 
whole shall be recorded and made public. Cn final passage, the 
vote shall be taken by ayes and nces and the naaes entered cr the 
jcurnal. 



(3) tach bill, except general appropriation bills and bills 
for the codificaticn and general revision of tte laws, shall ccc- 
tain only one subject, clearly expressed in its title. If any 
subject is embraced in any act and is not express'^d in the title, 
only sc much of the act net so expressed is void. 

(4) A general appropriation bill shall certain only appro- 
priations for the ordinary expenses cf the legislative, execu- 
tive, and judicial departments, for interest cr the public debt. 



No. Ill — Legislative — [Unicameral and Bicameral 



863 



and fcr public schools. Every ether ap prcpr iat ion shall te inads 
by a separate till ccntairing but ere subject. 

(5) No appropriaticr shall te made for religious, charita- 
ble, industrial, educational, or ter. evclent purposes tc ary pri- 
vate individual, private associaticr, cr private corporation not 
under ccntrcl of the state. 

(6) A law nay be challenged en the grcurd of ncrcc b pliance 
with this section only within twc years after its effective date. 

Section 12. LCCAL AND SFECIAI lEGI SI A IICN . Ihe legislature 
shall net pass a special cr local act when a general act is, er 
can te made, applicable. 

Section 13. IKF EACIfMENT. (1) Ihe gcverncr, executive offi- 
cers, heads of state depar tuen ts, judicial officers, ard such 
other officers as nay be niade subject tc irapeachiaent by law shall 
be removed from office upon conviction of impeachment. Cther pro- 
ceedings for removal frcm public office for cause ttay be provided 
b J law. 

(2) The legisldturp shall provide fcr the fpanner, proce- 
dure, and causes fcr rencval by impeachaert and shall provide for 
a tribunal. 

(3) Impeachment car te treucht only by a two-thirds vote of 
the legislature. The tribunal hearing the charges shall convict 
for impeachment only by a vote of two-thirds or mere of its mem- 
bers. 

(4) Conviction shall extend only to removal from office, 
but the party, whether convicted cr acquitted, shall alsc te 
liable tc prcsecuticn according to law. 



Section 14. DISTRICTING AND AFPCRTICKfE NT, (1) 
pose of election, the state shall te divided into 
tricts as there are senators. Each district shall 
compact and contiguous territory. All districts 
nearly equal in population as is practicable. 



For the pur- 

as uacy dis- 

consist of 

shall te as 



this 

f ede 

whom 

for 

and 

the 

days 

the 

If 

tine 



(2) 
Co 

ral 

may 
redi 
cong 

leg 

aft 
fift 
the 

pro 



In th 
nstitut 
populat 

ba pub 
strict! 
ression 
islatur 
er thei 
h ffi-^^ipbe 

four 
vided. 



e leg 
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icn c 
lie o 
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al di 
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r des 
r, wh 
membe 
a ma j 



islativ 
and the 
ensus , 
f f icial 
d reapp 
stricts 
all ea 
ignatio 
o shall 
rs fail 
ority o 



e ses 
reaft 
a ccm 
s, sh 
crtic 
. The 
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f the 



sicn 
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miss 
all 
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f c 
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icn 
te s 

the 
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two 
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chd 
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llcwi 
oh se 
of fi 
elect 

Stat 
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ccmn 
esBis 
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6 fif 

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ng 

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e i 

min 
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cf 
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rati 

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the 

embe 

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f ica 

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of 
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plan 
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n 20 
lect 
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the 
hii. 



(3) The cCBBissicn shall sobait its plan tc the legislature 



864 



REPORT Cf CCMMITIEE ON STYLf, CPAPTI^G 



at the tirst reyuliC session d£t°t its afpcintaient or after the 
census figures are availatle. Within 3C days after subirissicn, 
the leqislature shall return the plar. to the ccaiirissicn with its 
recon!ir<endfi ticns. Within 30 days the^r^atter, the comiDissicn shall 
file its final plan with the secretary cf state and it shall 
become law. Ihe ccnnissicn is then dissolved. 



Section 15. HEFERFNDUr? CF UNICAKERfiL 
1S6u the secr-^tary of state shall place 
general election the question: "Shall the unicaireral 
form fcfc continued?" 



I EGISiATUTE. <1) In 

upcr the tallot at the 

legislature 



(2) If a majority cf the qualified •=lectcrs votino or the 
question answer in the af f i raia ti ve , the tcrin shall be continued, 
and this S'^ction shall be cf no further effect. 

(3) If a majority of the qualified electors voting on the 

question answer in the regative. Article cf this Constitution 

is amended by deleting sections 1, 1, 3, 10, 13, and ^^, and 
inserting in lieu thereof the follcwirg: 



(a) "Stcticn 1. POWEB AND SIRUCTDFE. Ihe legislative powe 
is vested in a legislature consisting of a senate and a hcuse c 
representatives. Ihe people reserve tc themselves the powers c 
initiative and referendum." 



er 
f 
f 



(b) "Section 2. SIZE. Ihe si2e of the legislature shall be 
provided by law, tut the senate shall rot have mere than 53 or 
fewer than 5C members and the house shall net have sere than 1C6 
or fewer than ICC neabers." 

(c) "Section 3. ELECIICN AKC lESMS. A member of the house 
of representatives shall be elected for a terir cf two years and a 
member of the senate foi a term cf four years, each to begin on a 
date provid?d by law. One-halt cf the senators shall be elected 
every twc years." 

(d) "Section 10. CBGANIZAIICK AND ERCCECDFE. (1) Each house 
shall judge the election and Qualifications cf its aeBbers. It 
nay by law vest in the courts the pcwer to try and determine con- 
tested elections. Each house shall choose its officers frcE among 
its members, keep a journal, and make rules for its proceedings. 
Each hcuse may expel or punish a ueirber for gocd cause shcwt with 
the concurrence of two-thirds of all its members." 

"(2) A majority cf each hcuse constitutes a quorum. A 
smaller number may adjourn fron day tc day and compel attendance 
of absent members." 

"(3) Ihe sessions of the legislature and of the cciraiittee 
of the whole, all committee aeetings, and all bearings shall be 
open to the public." 

"(a) Ihe l_'gislatur6 may establish a legislative council 



No. TIT — Legislative — Unicameral and Bicair^ral 



865 



and c r h e r i n t ►_= r i ir c c iii m i 1 1 e ? s , " 

"(";) Ntithei; hous*= shall, witbcut the ccrsert cf the cthet, 
ddjoucn or recess fcr mcr'; than three days or tc any place ether 
than that in which the two hcuses ar" sitting." 

(^) "Section 13. IMEEACh:«ENT. (1) The qcv-erncr, executive 
cfficics, h^ads cf state depart opp nts , juaicial officers, ard such 
other officers as may be made subjeci: by law shall te removed 
frci office upon conviction cf in peachrrent . Other frocect^incs 
for remcval frcn public cffice tor cause iray be provided ty law. 

"(2) The legislature shill provide fcr the manner, proce- 
dure anri causes for r-mcval ty irapeacbffient ard lay select the 
senate as trifcural. 

"(3) Iffpeachioent shill be brought crly by a tfco-thirds vcte 
cf th- hcuse. 1h^ tribunal hearing the charges shall convict for 
impeachoirent only by a vcte cf twc-thirds cr mere cf its neabers. 

" ('^) ccnvicticn shall exten'j only tc retccval frcir cffice, 
but the party, whether ccnvicted or acquitted, shall also be 
liable to prcsecuticn according tc law." 

(f) "Secticn ^^. DISTEICTING AKC 5EFCETI0NK EN 1 . (1) The 
State shall be divided into as many districts as there are mea- 
bers of the hcuse, and each district shall elect one representa- 
tive. £ach senate district shall be composed of twc adjoining 
house districts, and shall elect one senator. Each district shall 
consist of compact and ccntigi!ci;s territory. All districts shall 
be as nearly egual in pcpuiaticr as is practicable. 

"(2) In the legislative session fcllcving this anerdBient 
and thereafter ir each session preceding each federal population 
census, a con.missicn of five citizens, rcre cf *ihom may be public 
officials, shall be selected tc prepare a plar fcr redis tricting 
and reapportioning the state into legislative and congressional 
districts. The majority and minority leaders of each bcuse shall 
each designate one comniissicner . fcithir 2C days after their des- 
ignation, tho four commissioners shall select the fifth neirber, 
who shall serve as chairman of the ccDPtnissicn . If the four meir- 
bers fail tc select the fifth aeirber within the time provided, a 
majority cf the supreme court shall select hiff. 

"(3) The commission shall sutirit its plan tc the legis- 
lature at the first regular sessicn after its appcintirent cr 
after the census figures are available. Within 30 days after 
submission, the legislature shall return the plan to the ccairis- 
sicn sith its recommendations, hithin 30 days thereafter, the 
cctrmissicn shall file its final plan with the secretary cf state 
and it shall become law. The ccmaiissicn is then dissolved." 



in 



(U) The members of the unicameral legislature shall remain 
cffice and their authority tc act shall continue until the 



866 



fEPCEl CF CCKfIIlI£ GN SlYII, CBAfllhG 



meiflbGrs cf a ticanrsral body ar? sl^ct'^d ar.d qualified. 

(5) The s3natP chamt^r existinu upcr. tli€ da+-s cf adcpticn 
of this Article shall retrain irtact until the electicrj frcvided 
for in this ttction hss dct^ririned whether the unicairptal legis- 
lature is tc ccntinu^;. 



(6) When the 
out, it shall be cf 



provisions ot this s*^c^icn have been carried 
nc furthpr effect. 



Secticn 16. FRCHIETTIC EfiYMMS. Except fcr interest or the 
public debt, nc Hcney shall te paid cut cf the treascry unless 
upcn an appropriation mad? by law and a warrant drawn by the 
proper officer in pursuance thereof. 



Section 17. CODE Of ETHICS. Ihe legislature shall prcvide a 
cod>r^ of ethics prohibiting ccrflict between public duty ard pri- 
vate iiit*^rest for senators and all state and local officers and 
employees. 



Nc. Ill — Legislative — Unicameral and Picaffieral 867 



Unicameral 



BE IT PROPOSID EY THE LrC-lSLATIVt CCPMTTFE: 

That theie te a new Article cr the Legislature to read as 
tcllcws : 



AFlICLr V 
THE lEGISLAIUfE 



Secticn 1. POWER AND STFLCTLF.?. The legislative fower -G-i 
*fee— 6-t-i-fe-t is vested in -fe-fe-e a 1 egislat ur er-eei^fi-ie-t-i-B^ cf ere chan)- 
Der whcs^ members are designated senators. The people reserve tc 
thems-^lves the f€-we* £oj«6rs of initiative and referendun. 

Secticn ^. SIZE. Ihe nucnber ct senators shall he f te€€-f-i-fe-e4 
grovidf^d by law, but -fe-fe-e-E^ it shall not be -R-e-t— !-**«■£ saaller than 
IOC «-e«^*^-e nor aet-e larger than 1C5. 

Section 3. ELECTION ■A-W*-?^**-?-^^— Jt^-ft-BS-f 5 . A senator shall 
be elected fcr a term ct icur years tc_be2in_cn_a_d dte_£;rgvided 
bY_law. One— half of the senators shall be elected every two 
years . *-ee-R-a4e-E-«-e-4-ef »-s-fe-a4-i— fe'^f i*--6-f— *-4d4-e— p-E-6-v4:-4^-4— t^-i-*-**-.- 

Secticn U, QU AIIFIC AIIGNS. A candidate 4€£-*i»^-j€^4e4e^fe^*-6 
shall be a resident of the state for at least ere year next pre- 
ceding the general election. Fcr six months f«±€-E--fe€ ngxt_£re- 
cedina the general election^ he #-«e-t shall be a resident cf the 
county wfaiefe if_it contains cne cr DDore distr ictST— ^«4-#^et-e— a or 
of_the district if_it eefce-ie-fee ccntaii)s_all_cr__Earts cf mere than 
one ccuntyr— ^^-«-«s%--E'?6-i4-6-*44-fe4-fi— *4»-d*— 4-ie-tti€*. 

Section 5. COPPENS ATICN. (1) Each «€«-fe«-E-€-^— feit^-i-e-giei-d***^ 
senator shall receive compensaticn fcr his services and allow- 
ances d-e— «*-y— be— ^ee€*it€4 ££ovided by law. No legislature say 
fix its own coc pensaticn. 

(2) The If ilislatur e__shall Slfate -A a salary coirniission 

steaii-fe-e-6eed*re<i-fe-y-%-ke— ie-i^i€id+-H*^ tc reccmaiend ccra^ensa ticr_f or 
the__judiciar^_and_el€cted_geffibers_cjt_th€ legislati ve-y and execu— 
tive-y— aft4-5«4i6-id4-e-6«-f€*-s«4-3rG«T ^Sl^r tffents. 

Section 6. SESSIONS, The legislature shall te a continuous 
body for two-year periods beginning «« — ^he — 4*-fee jjhen newly 
elected mca bef s g^U^tcrs take cffice. Any business, till, cr 
resolution pending at adjournment of a session shall carry over 
with the same status to any -i-H-E-fe+'e* cthet session of the legis- 
lature during the biennium. The legislature shall meet at least 
once a year in regular sessions cf nct_fficr€_than 6C legislative 



868 REPORT CF CCfBIITEE CN STYLi, EEAPTING 



days €i-4r^e-6. Any leqislature may incr'^ase th-. limit en the 
length of ary substcuent session. The l-^gislature may te ccrvered 
in special sessicns by the gcverrcr cr at the nitten request cf 
a Biajctity cf the ffl-ee-fe'tis senators. 

Section 7. VACANCIES. A vacancy in the lecislatuie shall te 
filler) by special election for the urexfitei teim unless other- 
wise {.rcvid'^d by livi. 

Section H, IfKUNIlY. -?-h-e— »-e*-fe-e-E-e— e-f— t-b-6-4-e-^4€4-a*-«*^— 6-k^4-l-r 
ifl-4 4i-6,s€^-6T— ^-"-e-e^*-* '?*<'«¥ -**^-^*«*«**—®*^— ***^ — f«d€€T — -fee — pti»i- 

<M^y_6^^^€-fe-et-4e-fed-fe-e-i-p-**e-4-<?-§4e4-d4«*H£^-4-h-^f-ei«»44--fi«*-fe<T — -^««-e- 
t,iefl^4 — i-R — *-ft^ — •6*-fe<^i^--pi-%€e-r A_seratcr_is_£Eivile2ed_f rcff_atrest 

^urina_attendance_at_sessicr£_cf_the_leaiElature_and_ir_aci tc 

and__rcturniRi2ii££sli2Sx_iJI;I§iS_3iiIfi;ended_ir_the_ccf ffiis 

a~f jlcnY_or_a_breach_cf_the_£eacei_fce_shall_nct_b€_auesti^ in 

Section 9. DISCUALIFICAT ICK. U^ — e-e*d4€€-e-E— E€pEes-e**-a*4-v« 
&i»A44T-4-»-Ei»^-4fe'?-*<?'«»-*«E-«^4€4i-fe«-sfea44— bd-»*-te^« — ^ l€G ^-^4-, — -fee 
appoin-%fe4 — t-e — ■Aft-y-€i-v±4— e^-^i-e-e-«-fi4-ef — fe^-- 6-%-d4-e-f-d-fi^-ft«-»'e«^-e-E — e4 

G-e««-E-?e€T--e* — -e-t^e-f — ^-eHFce* — ■b«444fl^--afl — €-i-§4e«^ (e^ee-f^-fe — «e^-af-f 

-^feiieT— e*-4ft— fe-b-e-«i4i^i«k) — «-B4^-E--fe-fee-*«4**'4— S-fe-a-t-ee— «s-%4»46— s^-a-fe-er 
64^^44 — fe* — ■* — »e«-be-s — ^ — -6 4^ -he* — ■he-tte€-4«*4-B'g— hi«— e««4i«-Ha-B€«— 4fl 
e#-#4e^3 Curiny_the_terffl_f or_which_he_is_el2cted_4_a_senator__shall 

not k2i^_i£l_£ivil^_f ederalx_£tate_4_ccunt j^_cr_£unici£al_cXl icej_ 

Iiji§_i;£2Eii±licn_iccE_not_aE£lj^_tc_a_rc_ta r^_£ublic_ci_a_nember_c 
the_Bilit ia^ 

Section 10. OEGANIZATICN AKD EBCCEEOBE. (1) The legislature 
shall judg-= the electicn and qualifications of 4^6— a^a bcrc fgna- 
torSi a-H4 It may fey-4a« vest in the courts the 4-E4-a4 — a&4— 4e+«^«4— 
frd-ti€fi — ©# E2!!S£_i£_*£l_lI!^_^Sif iSifiS contested elections «f -4 46 
B-e«-be*€. It shall choose its officers from ascEg its Daenibers-j^ 
keep a journal-}-^ and make rules for its proc€edingE-t-d-fi4^ It aiay 

expel or punish a «-e-»*-6t S^SSi2£_l££_:3££ll_£^Uii ^hcun with the 

concurrence cf two-thirds cf all 4-tt-«-e«fe«-Ee the_seratcrs_. 

(2) \ majority of the -»-6»-b-6E~644 p cf t h e log i clat ui c sena- 
tors constitutes a quorum %«— 4e-fe«64-R'e6«. A sitaller nuaber nay 
adjourn from day tc day and coaipel attendance cf absent iDeinbers. 

(3) The sessions cf the legislature-^ and_cf the ccffsittee 

of the whole^ ^■fi4 all committee meetings^ and all hearings shall 
be opf^n to the public. 

(U) *fe^*e-«ri^-fee— a-4«^s4-a%4¥*-€€««€44-**4 The legislature 
may establish a_le(iislative_ccuncil_and ether interiia committees. 

Section 11. BILLS. (1) A law shall be passed by bill-y- an d -^ 
fe444 which shall not be so altered or amended en its passage 
through the legislature as to change its original purpose. No 



Nc. Ill — Legiolativ-- — On ica trcLa 1 and Ficaireral 869 



bill sill 11 fceccfg i3i__iZ£££l_^i_a_vct£_ct_ the_n!a jcr iti_of _all 

ssnatcrs_£rf bert j^ 

(2) ?;k-B-— ¥«*©-©#— e-a€4i-»-e«i-fe^€-e-i-*h*=-4«^-ie-i-d*«-E^— s«4-4+€-e-e»— 

^•b-l-ie-r i;V9 i__^__yct£_2t_e ach_s€natcr_cn_6ach_£utstartive_2ue£ t icn 

iD_the_lj53isl jt ur 9^_in_ar_2_ccjr f it tef _4 £I__il'__cca;niit tcf __of t he 

ik£2i_§li^ii_iil_Ii£2£dS3_3I}^_£a!3i_Eyt lic_. 

i%f--e4--iai4 — 9€»h-a6 — f *-5r*'^*-t-,-€i-B4— ©-u Cn final j-assage, the vote 
SilSil tt taken ty ayes and noes and the nanes entered cc the 
journa 1 . 

-(4)-J3jL ^ach till, except general apfrcftiaticn Lillsr and 
bills for the ccditicaticn and general revision ct the laws, 
shall ccntaii. only one sabject, -h-fe^efl— 6^d-i4--fee clearly expressed 
in its titlerj. fe-«-t— i4 If any subject s-fea-i4--fee is embraced in any 
act ■w-h-i'&k — -e4kdii and_is net -fe-? exfress-:-d in the title, ^veh—ete-^ 
s-hflii-i-be— »«i4 cnly -a-e— e-e so much ^-^eeee-i-ris-s-b-a-l-i cf_the_act not 
■fe* so expressed i£_void. A-4dii(-«-a^— B"=— e-e^44-e*^©-4-©fi-4i»'e-«€e«<^s 

©4#ee-t-i-v©-4^-fe-e— fe-(i-fe-fe©4-ai-feet-%-kd*-f-e-E-ie4-r 

-(^f_(j4)_ A •Ge-R^*d4 asneral appropriation fe-i-iis bill shall 
contain cnly appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the 
legislative, executive^^ and judicial departirents «-#-- *ite— e-t-ai-te, 
for inter'-^st on the public debt^ and for public schools. -A44 
I2S£1 cth'^r approp^ iati o-R6 ^£EE2E£iiii£i shall be Bade by a sep- 
arate bill ■feiiisT-e'*€4» containing but cue subject. 

■("H-i^i. No appropriation shall be made for religious, chari- 
table, industrial, educat ional,^ or benevolent purposes to any 
private individual, private association, or private corporaticn 
not under control cf the state. 

_(6] i_law_si^l_be_challer!2ed_cr_the_grcund_of D2Il£2SEiilD£S 

ijith_this_sec_ticn_crl}r_Hithin_t*o_jears_af ter_its_ef 

Section 12. ICCAL A^t SEECIfll LEGISLAIION. Ihe legislature 
»«y shall not pass a special or local act fchen a general act is, 
or can be made, applicable. 

Section 13. IfiPEACKMENI. (1) Ihe governor, executive offi- 
cers, heads of state departments, judicial officers,^, ard such 
other officers as may be made subject to iir peachiren t by law aa-j 
shall be removed from office upon conviction of i upeachment . 
Other proceedings for removal from public office for cause may be 
provided by law. 

(2) The legislature shall provide fcr the manner, proce- 
dure_£, and causes for removal by impeachmert and shall provide for 
a tribunal. 



870 fcEPCRT CF CCfV.llTll CN STYLP, CPAFTING 



(3) Iir^-sachmer t can te trcuaht crly by a two-thirds vets cf 

the e-eft^**? l£gis lat ure^_Th;e_t r ibui}al_hear ing the chdiges shall 

convict ^ii4 — -fie — ee^viet-ie* fcr iofeachnrect -e-h-aiA— fe-e— »d4-€-€*e<^% 
oili"' y ^ vot-a ct twc-third£ cr more of ^h-s its itcffbers -e-i *-h« 

(ij) s«€k €«-ft-v-te*-i©e Ccrviction shall esi-f exterd crl_^ tc 
r^KOVJl frcRi office, but th€ party, whether ccr.victed cr acquit- 
ted, shall alsc b9 liablt tc prcs-^cuticn according tc law. 

Section 1U. DISTi<ICTIhG SNC ft E EC FT ICNK EN"! . (1) For the pur- 
pose of •e-i-664^ft-^— «T?-R*«i^s-€-i— t-he-^^e^i-ieid^t-a-Ee^ §i££ticr the state 
shall he divided into as aary districts as there sfeeii-fee-ffl€^i^b■e•^« 
»4— fefe^-i^^i-sid-fe-w-f*^ 3re_sendtors. Each i«g-is4d%i-¥^ district shall 
consist of coaipact and contiguous territory^ -afi-i ^ii.^istricts 
sha^l be e-e as nearly equal in population as is practicatlt. 

(2) In the legislative sessicr fcllcwing ratification cf 
this Ccnstituticn and thereafter in *i»e each session preceding 

each f ederal_£0£ulation census ■S's4-e — -fe-y — -fefe-e — -a^i^-befi-ty — €^4 t-h« 

■i*-ft4:4e4 — S-td-fee-s^ a €ea miit 4-e-e comfissicn cf five citizens, none of 
whom may ti public officials, shall be 4e«4:^fl-a^«4 selected to 
45t4#* £I2£are a plan for r edistricting and reappcrticning the 
state into legislative and congressional districts. The najcrity 
and a'inotity leaders of the legislature shall each 4-e6-i^-fia-fee 
selecr two coniiEissioners. -tii^-^e-w*— €-©»«is6i««e€67- — •«4%i»-i-B iiithin 
20 days after their designaticr, t he_f cur_ccffin!issicners shall 
select the fifth meirber, who shall serve as chairnian cf the com- 
mission. If the four inerrfcers fail tc select the fifth ireffber 
within the time £rcvided ■p-E«e-e€«44*«4 , a majcrity of the supreme 
court shall ap^6-ifl*-*-ke— €fe-di-E«^-H sel€ct_hiffi. 

111. Ihe aff-ei«-fe-e4 comiBission shall 4-Ea*— af — a— fi-a* — #o r r^ a p— 
portic-s4-R^ — -aft-^ — t€4is4Fie%i«'g-4-e^i-6-l-a4i^-e— aft4— €eftgEess4«««i-l — 4-i-e— 
*-Ei€%6— a-ft4 submit *^i€ its plan to the legislature at the first 
liiyiJI session after ga^j ^ ^i e a-fe-t-eR — «# — ^feie — €«fte*i-%«-t-i«« its 
S.£E5ii-tsent cr after the census figures are available. Within 

-f3C) thig -te-y days after *■*♦« subiiission,, 4e-i% the legislature 

shall return the plan to the coaiinissicn with its reccmniendaticnsj, 

4-e-E— 6fe-d-R-f<^— A-R4-4-be-6e««±6s4€«-s-b^-a-li w ith -i« Within -430) % hirt -y 

days thereaf ter^_the_coniniission_shall file «444i- t hG See r €4-a ry o f 
S tat e its final plan with_the_secretar^_of _stat€ and *t»€-ed*€ it 
shall become law, -a^^^-e— eft^he4«€«%-«*-a— *a4-i4— pid-fi-44»i-6 The com- 
oissicn -e^-aii-fee is_then dissolved, 

section 15. FEFESENDUM OF UNICAfERAI lEGISLSTOPE. (1) In 
1980 the secretary of state shall place upon the ballet at the 
»e«%-#«-l:4«-w4-fi*j general election the question: "Shall the unicam- 
eral legislature fcrir te continued?" 

(2) If a majority of the qualified electors voting on the 
question answer in the affirmative, the fcrm shall be continued, 
and this section shall be cf no further effect. 



Nc. in — Legislative — (Inicam er a 1 and Ficaneral 871 



(3) If a majcrity cf th^ qualified electors voting en the 
question tnswer in the regative, 4-t>-«^ — -p-te-viei^te — €# — ■&e6-%-i«* — 4-, 
"•f©-W-&« — -A-H-e — ^;4S-y€¥«-8*ii^ — S^€*4€P-iT— u«*t44'-u+— S^€*i«-B— 3-,-ii*i*tiJ€* 

S€64:i€fi — 4^+7- — ii4**i-ftG-h-H*-{4?^7 — ^-f^ — i^^^€44€« — 4^7 — iLa4^JIP4€44*G-A-Ke 

s^aii-fe■e-^s-^^fee*i^■H-6■e■s-:tei-Sr^e■fe4€■Ft?-4-,■— ^T-^T— '^T-^-'*-'^«4-4^-e^ — -t-b-is 
»*«-i€-39^€di — o:e%-i€-ie — -^-fi-d — -b-& — €-eft4-E€44:-i:«'g--«f-6*--fe-t*'e-e6«f-es4r*i-e4i— €-i 

#«*«-t'e-4^-^-i-t4-t-fei-v-e-«et?-efffe-i4-esT Article 2l_lilii_Ccrst it ut icri_i£ 

2ESIl£f S_il_:^ii£ii£ii_s£cticn£_J_4_2_4_J_t_J_i_4_J j_j^_and_2U_t_ard_irf ert- 
in2_i^_lieu_th€ reef _thg_f gllc toi r^i 

Jai "StctJ.cn_2i lC^l£_fli«C_SlFl)CTUP|i_Th6_leciElative_xcwei 

iS_^:^Sis^_il'_§;_l^aislitur^_corsistincj_cf _a_s6nate_3nd_a_hc usG__cf 
re^resentati v_2Si li2i_i:SOEiE_I£I£II:i_lc_theffS6l ves_the_£0W9rs_cf 

ijbi "5ectign_2i SIZE^_1 hc_£ize_cf _the_le2i£la tur€_shall_fce 

£rovia^d_L2_l5iix_&yl_ill§_Sii]^if _lil3ll_nct_haye_acre than__5 3__or 

jcl "5£Cticn_3^ li^CTIC N_A ND_TE f KS ._ A_ffe ab£r_ct_th€ touse 

2l_ii££§^Iiiiiii^S§_sl;all_ce_€l6ct ed_£cr_a_ t jr m_cf _t wc_i€ars_and_a 
meffib6r_cf _the_s^in2 te_tor_a_tj3rffi_cf _ tour_xears^_each_tc_te3ir_on_a 
date Iicvidc d__fci_law^_Cre3 ha If _cf_the_ senator s_shall_t€_ elected 

Jdl "3fcction_JC. CSGANIZAIICN ANC f FOCECUEEi (Jl Each 

It ffiay bi_ldw_v€st_iri_t hg_ccur ts_tri^__£cwe r_to_trj_a nd_ deter ff in 

£2Si5§i.6d_elcct icESi_Each_hcj]£e_£ hal l_chccsf its officers f ICe 

affion^ its iL^tttsrs^ ]Siii_;^_j£iJIi:lix_5£i^_S!lJSS_Ijyi£i_lcr_i t£_£rc- 
c€€din5Si_Lach_hcuse_ffla2_sxiel_cr_xu^ish_a_JIieffifc€r_tcr_qccd cause 

§S^iiS£_I-MSki£_2§l_l^ J2i^££_lESSl_S§l_i£_dai_and_ccn;£el attendance 

cf_at£ent ig embers. 

^ j3} The S^ssicn£__c f_t he_le£i£lat ur6_and_cf _the_ccn;§ittee 

of _t be_whoIe^_all_ccffi™ittec_ffeetintjSx_a rd_dll_hearin3s shall te 

o£en_to_t hfc_£ublic_. 

^J4j liig__lS3i§iStur9 iai__€stablish_a_le2i£lative_ccuncil 

and_cther_inter im_ccmmitteeE_. 

^J5} NGither_hcuse_£hall_t_«ithcut_the_ccr£ert_cf _the_cth^ 

ad jour n_cr_receES_f cr_mor €_than_t hr ef_dais_cr_t c_an2_lll£S__ct her 
i]i§i3_t£at_in_which_the_two_hcuses_are_sittina_.^ 

_(e] "Secticn__13_j_ IM PEACH HE Nl^ l2i_lhe_2cverncr^_executive 

of f ice rs_t_heads_of _s tat €_ depart ttents^_j udicial_cf ficers_t_and_su 
other_of ticers_ds_ffia^_te_mad€_£ubject_t_j law shall be regcved 



872 FiEPCRT CF CCP^'TT'IEE CN STYLI, EPflfTlNG 



r^movi.l_f roiT|_£ublic_of f icc_f or_cau£f_Ka2_ts_£rcvid£d^ 

•^ j2]_ The 1:^3 isla tuts ll^^ii-liSli^f-l ££_lil§_S2.SI2£IJ_£I2£f- 
durei_and_cd us§s_tor _re f cva l_fc^_ijr£edch ce r t_and__iDa^ S£l§£i ^il 

sena tt_as_tr ibu ra !_. 

'2 ill. l£2SS£h!!!£iii_sliall_te_fcrcucjht_cnly_ti_a_twc3thir ds_vcte 

of _thc_hca2^^ IHsl.tr iLunal_heariri3_th9_char2Si_§iiil_£££5i£l_l£I 

iffi£Sa£ii!:iii__££il_il_l-^2i£-2i-ii!2-rtlli£ds_cr_2£I£_£f _it£_f gf hers^, 

^J4]_ ^£!ivicticn_shall_€ xt€r,d_cr l^_t c_ie2C val ll£S__2f li££* 

but__t he__]23.rtYx__i*i!££li££ £££JZi£l£^ 2£_^£aiJiil£^x_s]]Sil_3l£o_te 

ii§^le_ tc_£ re secu tic n_ accord ir;^_tc_ la w_.^ 

Ill !!S£cticn__lili. EIS1PIC1ING_ANC AFPCPTICNKENT. iJl I he 

Stat e__ shall b2_di vid2a_into_as_nianY_d istr ict£_aE_ther e_ar9_meffi- 
bers_of_th^_tlCuse^_aIid_each_d istr ic t_£hall_el2£ t_cn e I ££££§££ Na- 
tive i__ Each £:5Tia te__di£tr ict__sbail_be_ccffi£cs6d_cf _t *c_ad jcinin^ 

hou£e_di£t rict£^_ and _ shall gl^ct cne senatcti l3£t>__^istr ict 

§iiiii__££I§isi_££._£22!£S££_§S£_££Iii.iSli£M§_l§££ll£Ili._iii_^lSili£i§ 
shall_te_a£_rijdrijj_£gual_in_£C£ulation_a£_is_£racticatl€_j_ 

2 ill II;_li2E_l£3i§i^i±l£_f£^ii££ i£ii£Si£3__llii5__§I£I3^15i}l 

and therf af ter_in_edch_s€3£icij_£recedin3_each_tedcr al_£0£ulati 

C€iisu£^_a_con£i.s£ic£_cf _f i V6_ci ti2ens_t_ncne_cf_vihc§_f a_y_b€^ 

ofticial£j£hall_be£€lected_ tc fr^gare a gl§n_jcr £gdi£ trict in^ 

and ££S££2£ii££i£3__^ll£_S tate_intc_l2<3islati ve_and_cori2re£sicral 

diEtrict£i_Th3_ma jor it^_and_mincr it_i_l6ad€i£_of_each_h^ iiS.ll 

£5£il__^£§i3Ils££_£££_££SiLiSJi££££i_*llilli£_2C_ddy£_a f ter_the ir_de£- 
ign^tio^_t_the_f our_ccmffii££ icner£_shall_£elect_t he li^t h__c€gfcei^ 

who si-all £giyg_a§_chairfflan_^cf_the_ccgU!i£sicn._I|_th€_£cur_K6g- 

bers_f ail_tc_sf l9ct_th6_Ii|th_ffeff t€r_w_ithin_th€_tim^ a 

ma jorit_i_of _the_£U£rGffie_ccur t_£hall_£el€ct_hin_. 

"SIl III:^ £2iEi§£i£D shall iufcffit it£_ilari_tc_th€_l€3i£- 

latur;^_a t_the_rirst_r;?3ular s€S£icn after it£__a££OiEt ffent cr 

after th? £3ns]J£ li-3U££§ 9££_§Z2ilikl£i iilhir_30_dai£_af ter 

submissicnj^_the_le3islat ure_shall_return_the_£lan_to^ cggmis— 

sicn with it£ recommendations^ Mii hin_3 C_dai£_thereaf terx_the 

ccffimi££icn_£hall_f ile_its_findl_£lan_with_the_secr6tar^_of state 

and_it_£hall_beccni2_la Wj;_ Iil£_£222iSgi£n_l§_th£r_di£ solved^" 

(U) The Eeraters of the uEicaneral legi£lature shall remain 

in office and their authority tc act shall continue until -t^^eit 

cooc o c se^g — 4^ the_members_gt a bicameral body €««— fe€ are elected 
and qualified. 

(5) The ^t^s««* Senate chamber £xlstin5_u£cn the date cf 

i^££ii£fi_2£_£iiis_article shall rettain intact until evieh the elec- 
tion £E£vided_fgr_in_this_secticn has deternined whether the uni- 
cameral legislature is to e€fi^4tini^4 ccntinue. 

i^I Mhen the ££cvi£icn£_cf_this_secticn_have_been_carried 



No. Ill — Legislative — llnicanieral and Eicaneral 873 



out_t_it_shall_fce_cf_nc_furt ];€£_€ f feet _. 

Section 16. £IiCHIBTTEC_E AYMENIS. Exce£t_ tc r_in t erf s t_on_t he 
EUtiiS-^S^ijt ■?•■€ re ttcr.ey shall te paid out of the treasury e-»€«»-^ 
ILSi^^^ upcn an appropr iat icn« irade Ly law-» ard €•» a fcarrart drawn 
by the proper officer ir pursuance thereof-^ — «*e6f* — i*-fee-Ees-t — «« 

Section 17. CCDE CF_|IHICS. A-€-94<&-e4— e*+i€6-^e£-di4— e-fe-a-t« 

e B f lcy 'e'e-g — -pt-©-ir-ir-fei%4ft-g — ee«#4i€t^ — fe-e***©"^— p-«-fe-ii€— i-«%-y-dfi4-pE-i-v-a-t-£ 
■3rft-te-Ees4— sitct-i-i— fe-e-4«-&6ti4«4— fe-y-iriw-r lhe_ie3is Iat ure_shall_irc vide 

a_code_cf_ethics_£rchibit in3_ccEf lict between EiiliiiS ^^ll ^R^ 

£rivat 5 interest for sj5nators_and_all_state_and_lccal_cf f icers 

and_em£lc_YiiSj_ 



874 



PEPOP'T Ci CCMKITTtE CN SlYLE, EFflfTING 



Fepcrt Nc. 3 - LegislcitivG - (Uricaaeral) 
COCMENIS CN STYLE, t C B f: , AND GBAf.^AB 



S£ction_Ji Deleticn cf unnecessary herds aces ret change 
substance. Tht ad.liticn ct "s" tc "power" is self-explanatory. 

iiSiiSI'-ii Gramaiatical changts dc ret alter sutstanct. 

SiCtion_3i H sarrangeinent dees ret alter suVstance. 

Section_a_. As the second sentence cane Ercii the Ccffmittee 
ot tli? Whol-, it did net require six raenths' residence in a 
mult i- county district. Because there did ret appear tc he a sub- 
stantive reason fer the difterence, the drafting charge does 
require such residence. Additicns ccrcern districts which iray 
consist cr only parts ct aiore thar ere county. 

S^£ticn_5_. Here and throughout the rest cf the Article, the 
label "senator" has substituted fer "neirber tor the legislature," 
in order that the unicameral and bicaceral alternatives night be 
separate. Other charges do net alter substance. The second sen- 
tence cf suhsection (1) peraiits a "carryover" senator tc fix his 
own compensation. 

Section_b_. Ne change in substance . 

Sf£tion_bj^ The provision has been rewritten to accord with 
the tieatiiert cf the elector's privilege in section 6, SUffPAGE 
ANE ELFC1ICMS. There is nc change ir substance. 

Section_yi The rewriting attempts to update style, and tc 
avoid repetition cf the phrase "under the state," the nearirg ef 
which is unclear. 

S2cticn_2Ci Changes to accomplish clarity and brevity do 
not affect substance. Addition of "for good cause shown" to the 
last sentence of subsectica (1) clarifies the extent ef the 
power. 

Sf ction_2_1i^ Changes in language and order dc not alter sub- 
stance. The last sentence of subsectier (3) beccmes subsection 
(6). 

§^£li2Il_J2i The vert has been changed tc aake certain the 
prehibiticn . 

Sgcticn_23^ The change in verb in subsection (1) irakes 
clear that removal is required, ether charges dc net alter sub- 
stance. 

^££ii2Il_iil« line 3: "Ceirniissicn" was substituted for "coie- 
oittee" because the meiaters are called "ccaaissicners". The Ian- 



NO. Ill 



Legislative — Unicacreral and Eicameral 



875 



guage of the i^tc^csal in what is rcw the first sentence of sut- 
secticr (3) cculd have been reaa tc require the first ccirffissicn 
to report to the session which appcinttd it. The alteraticr in 
language s'^eXs tc avoid that cccst rue tier. . 

Secticn__15^ As it came frcin Ccmirittee cf the hhole, subsec- 
tion (3) attempted to airend the Co r.s titut icn without providing a 
method or the substantive content of the affandirent. The new sub- 
section (3) supplies those offissicns tut is cot a change in sub- 
stance. Changes in language in ether sutsecticns dc ret alter 
substance. 



Sections _16 and__17i Titles were added. Fewritinq dees not 

alter substance. Ecth sections will probably be neved tc other 
mere appropriate Articles later. 



876 



hrPOFT CF CCKflTTEE CN SlYli, CFftfTING 



Eicameral 



Bt n FR0P05IL t\ l¥l lEGISIAlIVE CCdyiTTEE: 

That there be a r.3w Aiticl<; cr. the Legislature to read as 
f cllc ws : 



APTICIE V 
THE lEGISIATCKE 



Se-cticT; 1. PCVnEP ANiJ STFUCTUPE. The legislative pcfcer is 

vested in a ln.'gislature consisting cf a senate and a hcus? cf 

representatives. The pecpls r-essrv?: tc theiiselves the poviers of 
intitiative and referenduic, 

Secticr. 2. SIZE. Tho siiz ct the legislature shall te pro- 
vided Ly liv, tut the ssr. ate shall ret have irore than 53 or fewer 
than 5C [n-?mbers and thj house shall net have ircre than 106 or 
fewer than KC oieirters. 



ection 3. £LECTIC^ ANE TEEPS. 



A 



[reniter cf the house of 



representatives shall te elected for a tern cf two years and a 
member of the senate tcr a tsrir of four years each to begin on a 
provided by law. One-half cf the senators shall be elected 



date 
every 



two year: 



candidate for the legislature 



Section u. QlJALIFICATICNS. A 
shall be a resident of the sta+e tcr at least ere year next F^^- 
ceding the general election. tcr six irenths next preceding the 
general election, he shall te a resident cf the ccunty if it con- 
tains one or more districts ct cf the 
or parts cf more than ore ccunty. 



cf the ccunty 
district if it contains all 



Section 5. COMPENSATICK . (1) Each meiiter cf the legislature 
shall receive ecu pe nsaticn for his services and allcwarces pro- 
vided by law. No legislature may fix its own ccnpensaticn . 

(2) The legislature shall create a salary coiitissicn tc 
recottitend compensaticn for the judiciary and elected centers of 
the legislative and executive departments. 



Section 6. SESSICNS. The legislature shall be a ccnticucus 
body for two-year periods beginning when newly elected members 
take office. Any business, bill, or resolution pending at 
adjcurnuient of a session shall carry ever with the same status to 
any ether session cf the legislature during the tienriun;. The 
legislature shall neet at least once a year in regular session of 
not mere than 60 legislative days. Any legislature atay ir.crease 
the liirit on the length of any subsequent session. The legis— 



Kc. Til — Lei^islative — Dnicdiceral and Bicaneral 



877 



laturs iray te ccnvered ir special sessions by the gcverncr cr at 

the fcritten i-squest of a majcrity cf the w(iwt?ts, 

S^'Cticn 7. VflCANCIIS. A vacancy in th? legislature shall he 
filled ty special electicn tct the unexpired tern unless other- 
wise provided by law. 



Section 6. ItC.UNITY. 
leged froBi arrest during 
lature and in gcinq to 
hended in the ccimnissicn o 
shall net b? questioned in 
debate in the legislature. 



A roemter of the legislature is 
attendance at sessions cf the 



pr i vi- 
legis- 



and returning therefrca, unless appre— 

f a felony cr a breach of the peace. Fe 

any other place fcr any speech cr 



P' 
peech 



Section 9. CISgnAIIFICAIICK . Curing the term for which he 
is elected, a senator or representative shall r.ct held any civil 
federal, state, county, cr municipal office, Ihis prohibition 
does net apply to a notary public cr a member cf the militia. 

Section 10, CEGANIZATICK ANC EECCZDUEE. (1) Each hcuse 
shall judgs the electicn and qualifications cf its members. It 
may by lav; vest in the courts the pcwer to try and deteraire ccr- 
tested elscticns. Each house shall cheese its officers from among 
its meirbers, keep a journal, and make rules icr its proceedings. 
Each house may expel cr punish a meirber fcr gocd cause shewn with 
the concurrence of two-thirds of all its (nembers. 

(2) A majority of each hcuse cerstitutes a qucrum. A 
saaller number tray adjourn frca day tc day and compel attendance 
of absent members. 

(3) The sessions of the legislature and cf the ccumittee cf 
the whole, all cctrmittee meetings, and all hearings shall be open 
to the public. 

(k) The legislature isay establish a legislative ccurcil and 
other icteriir ccmiittees. 



(5) Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, 
adjourn cr recess fcr mere than three days cr tc any place other 
than that in which the two houses are sitting. 



law shall be passed by bill which 
' ' its passage through the 



Section 11. BILLS. (1) A ^^- ^, 
shall net be so altered cr amended en 
legislature as tc change its original purpose. No bill shall 
become law except by a vote of the aajority of all leitbers 
present. 

(2) Every vote cf each meffber of the legislature on each 
substantive question in the legislature, in any coeiittee, cr in 
ccmiBittee of the whole shall be recorded and Bade public. Cn 
final passage, the vote shall be taken by ayes and noes and the 
naees entered on the jcurnal. 



878 KEPOBT CF CCCMTIEE CN SlYLE, CSAITING 



(3) Each bill, excfipt general apprc g liaticr tills anc tills 
for the coditicaticr and gsreial rei/isicr. cf the laws, shall con- 
tain only one sutj-£ct, clearly expressed in its ^.itle. If any 
subject is errbraced in any act and is net expressed in the title, 
only sc B uch cf the act ret sc expressed is vcid. 

(4) A genc-ral ^pprcp r iat icn bill shall certain only appro- 
priations fcr the ordinary expenses cf the legislative, execu- 
tive, and judicial departasrts, for interest en the public debt, 
and fcr public schools. Every ether appropriation shall be ccade 
by a separate bill, ccntainirc tut one subject. 

(5) Nc apprcf naticr shall be made fcr religious, charita- 
Dle, industrial, educaticual, cr benevolent purposes to any pri- 
vate individual, private association, cr private ccrpcraticn net 
under contrc] ct the state. 

(fc) A law may be challenged cr the ground cf ncncoirpliance 
with this section only vithin twc years after its effective date. 

Section 12. LCCAL ANE SEECIAI lEGISIATICN. The legislature 
shall net pass a special cr local act when a general act is, or 
can b^ icad'^, applicable. 

Section 13. itEEflCHKENI. (1) The governor, executive offi- 
cers, heads cf state departnerts, judicial officers, and such 
other officers <is raay be made subject to inceachiEent by law shall 
be removed froK office upcn conviction of impeachiDent . Other pro- 
ceedings for removal fren public office for cause iray be provided 
by la V. . 

(2) Ihe legislature shall provide fcr the nanner, proce- 
dure, and causes for reneval by iffipeachmen t and may sel*=ct the 
senate as tritunal. 

(3) rmpeachroent shall be brought only by a twc-thirds vote 
of thi house. The tribunal hearing the charges shall convict fcr 
impeachnient only by a vote of two-thirds cr mere of its aeiDbers. 

(U) Conviction shall extend only tc rencval frcni office, 
but th5 party, whether convicted or acguitted, shall alsc be 
liable to prosecution according tc law. 

Section lU. CISIPICIING AND AFP CEII C ^REK'I. (1) The state 
shall he divided into as lany districts as there are iteffbers cf 
the house, and each district shall elect cna representative. Each 
senate district shall be composed cf twc adjoining house dis- 
tricts, and shall elect cne senator. Each district shall consist 
cf compact and contiguous territory. All districts shall be as 
nearly equal in population as is practicable. 

(2) Tn the legislative session following ratification cf 
this Constitution and thereafter in each sessicn preceding each 
federal population census, a ccamissicn cf five citizens, none of 



No. Ill — Legislative — Unicaireral and Gicaueral 



879 



whcm may te public officials, shall te selected tc prepare a plan 
tor red istr ict inq and reappcrt icr irq the state into legislative 
and ccngressicnal districts. The majority and nincrity leaders of 
each house shall each designate cne ccuiFissicrei. Hithir 2C days 
after their designation, the fcur cciriniEsicners shall select the 
fifth irenb^r, v<ho shall sarve as chairman cf the ccmiissicn. If 
the fcur mecbers fail tc select the fifth itenber withic the tine 
prescribed, a majority cf the supreme court shall select hia. 

(3) The ccmmission snail subirit its plan tc the legislature 
at the first regular session after its appcirtaert or after the 
census figures are available. Within 3C days after subeissicn, 
the legislature shall return the plan to the cciraiission with its 
reco anienda ticns. bithin 30 days thereafter the ccmffiissicr shall 
file its final plan with the secretary of state and it shall 
becoiTP law. The coirtrissicn is then dissolved. 

Section 15. FHOHIEIIE£ FAKMEMS. Except fcr interest on the 
public debt, no money shall be paid cut cf the treasury urless 
upon an appropriation made by law ard a warrant drawn by the 
prcper officer in pursuance thereof. 



Section 16. CCCE CE EIHICS. The legislature shall provide a 
code of ethics prohibiting conflict between public duty and pri- 
vate inter'='St for senators and all state and local officers and 
effplcyees . 



880 K5PCE1 Cf CCMKIITEr CN STYLE, CFAFTING 



Bicameral 



BE IT PRCPOSID EY THE LEGISLATIVE CCfKIlTEE: 

That tL^:E-; b*^ a r;e« Article on the legisidturd to read as 
fcllcvs: 



AFTICIE V 
THE LEGISLATUFE 



S-^cticr 1. POksE? AND SThDCTUPE. The leqislatlAje pc*er ei 
-fei»-?--t;*«i*^ is vested in ***^ a i-e^ie4-^*i-v*§^-^S€'e«teiy i§2iii^ii^IS 
ccnsistirnj of a stnate ari'l a house of r epr 9s-3 nratives. The people 
reserve to thens^lv'^s the f-6-^-^-i x£*S£S °^ initiative an A refer- 
enduir. 

Section 2. SIZE. The size cf the legislature shall he -p*€- 
e€*ife^4 trovidfd by law, tur the senate shall €€-Rei€-t-€-t rot have 
more thir, 53 *€t ci l^iee feher thar 5C niembers ar.d the house g4 
S^lii f^'C't hs.!^ more than Icb *€-£ cr -i^-e-e fewer than 1GC iretnters. 

Section " . ELECTICN ANC TIE«S e*-'M4-f^«**« . A meniber cf the 
house cf repi'ziscntatives shall be elected for a terir cf twc years 
and a member ct thp senate for a term of four years each_t c_be^in 

on a__date £iovided__by law. One-half cf the senators shall be 

elected €v?ry two y-ars. 5-k«— t-e**— G-t— 4-ft-e-«-69-fe*-E6-e-b*44— fe-e^-i-fi— e*— s 

Section u. CUALIFICATICNS. A candidate for the legislature 
shall be a resident of the state fcr at least cne year next pre- 
ceding the general election. Eor six ircnths -pE-i-e-E — -t-e S€xt__Dre- 
£§^il!H 't^- general electicn^ he -t«-64 shall be a resident cf the 
county w-feieit if_it contains one cr core d istrictSr— *«4 — w4ie-E«— ^a or 
of_thd district ii_it 6««e4e%e ccn tains_al l_cr_£arts of more than 
one ccunty-y—it^— «HH?*-E*^6i4«— wi-feli-ifi-t-fedt— d-is*-E4€*. 

Section 5. COPPENSATICK . (1) Each mefflber cf the legislature 

shall receive ccmpensaticn for his services and allcwances •««— ««hy 

fe^-^*-^e€iiee4 £rovided by law. No legislature may fix its own 
ccupersd ticn. 

(2) Ih£__lgiiil:iture snail create A a salary ccmtrission 

&ha41' bo-€-E-o<h^-e4--b^-%^^-lc-§-i64^4-B-£« tc reccBmend coffi£ensat icn_f cr 
the_ judicidr2_and_elect€d_a;en!bers_cf_th6 legislative and execu- 
tive <*«4— 3-a4-i€ia-l-€e«-pe-ftea«-i-e-fi-r department s_j. 

Section 6. SESSIONS. The legislature shall be a ccrtirucus 
body fcr two-year periods begirrirg -e* — 4fe-e — #^4-e ihen newly 
elected meaibers take office. Any business, till, cr resolutiCD 



No. Ill — Legislative — Unicdneral and Dicampral 881 



pecding at ad jc urnmGQt of a session shall carry ever with the 
same statas to ar.y -t-«i-%-fe*r* cthei session of the legislature 
during th^ LienniuE. The l^cislature shall ireet at least once a 
year in r-gular sessions of nct_2cr2_tha r 6C legislative days et 
■ t e e s. Any legislature may increase the liait en the length cf any 
subseguer.t session. Ihe legislature way be convened in special 
sessions by the governor, or at the written request cf a najcrity 
of the lerchers. 

Section 7. ViiCttNCIES. A vacancy in the legislature shall te 
filled ty special election tcr the unexpired terir unless ether- 
wise frcvided ty law. 

Section e. IMLLNI1Y. -i-h-e— B.'e«-t-e-E-6-et--fefe^-4'fe^-i-e4T*-t-«-t'e — e-i^-iir 

«Hi^ — -ef-e^e-ft— e*-4'e-fe-d-%^-i-ti— %-fl'i-4r-e-64s4d««t'eT-*-fe^-y— e-tt^44r-*-64— fe*— 9-H<?e- 
■fei-6-fie4-4rft— *-R-y— ©-t^-^f-fi^-G^^-r A_ce ttt e r_cf_the_lec[islature_is__£rivi- 
le^ed f iCffl__ar res t iu£in j Si^ enda nce_<^;i_se ssicnE_cf _the_leais- 
shal l__nct if __2UiStioned in ani_c t her_£lace_f gr_ani_s£e ech_cr 

Section 9. DISQ'J.^IIFICA IICN . »-e-€-°Bqte£ — -c-e — *-P|ii<est-B%e^4^»€ 
si^^iix — 4»-E4fi-^ — *^e-%e*»-*«-t— «4i4€4t — Bt?— e4Hi44— kAV€-b©e«— e4e€*-^4-, — fe-s 
d-^-p-64ft*-64-4:€— d*^" — €i*44— G444€'B-«*.^-€i-^+-&— fe4^4-ei— a*4— B'C — K€«-t-ei — €4 

•&©fi-fi^es7 — €* — €-*i-&i — -p^-f e«-fi t^64-44-fi^ — -^-r — ■e-i44€^s {€«e-e-p*-4:-e*-a-t^ 

^■feiieT— e*-4-ft— tii'e-«44i-fe4<*-) — ■«•««€*— %*!•€— y«4-t -94— S4-a 4^6— e-E—*-k4e-e-%d*-GT 
s4i-d44— fe«-dr-«-e«fe-e€-€4 — e444He-t — •fe-G-B^'e — ■tHi-E4rS-g — *4-e — •6€-fi*i*-a^-f-6-c — 4-fi 

e44-i€€T During the term i2£_Jilli2l!_]36_i £_elected_4_a_seratcr_cr 

iS££S§SIiI^iil§_l£i.Ii_£2l_]i2i2_I£i_2ivil_lf d cral_t £ tate _t ^£RLllj. 

2X__Si^2i2i:£Sl_2lli2ii._2ii:I_i:I2liiiiii2I_^2Si_£2l_^IllJ_l2_2_£2iS£i 
£utlic_cr_a_n;eniber_cf _the_n;ili tia^ 

Section 1 j . CBGANIZATICN ANC EBCCICDEE. (1) Each louse 
shall judge the electicn and qualifications cf its cppffherSi €tf^4 
It may by la* vest in the courts the -fe-Ei^l — i-&4 — 4-e*-e««4ed*4e« — e^ 

Dower__tc tr2__and_deter mine contested electiccs €#-i4-e-»e«-fe«t€. 

Each house shall chcose its officers frcm asorg its nieir ters-j^ 

keep a journalf^ and make rules for its prccsedings-t_. •d-R4 Each 

house may exp^l or punish a meiiber f cr_3Ccd_cao£€_shc wn with the 
concurrence of two-thirds of all its nemhers. 

(2) A majority cf each house constitutes a qucruir 4«-4e 
fe^jfiifi^ee. A smaller nuaibar may adjourn frcii day to day and ecu- 
pel attendance cf absent meiiters. 

(3) The sessions of the legislaturer and_cf_the ccimiittee 
of the whole^ «t-ft4 all coniniittee Bteetirgs^ and all hearings shall 
b€ open to the public. 

(a) -S-fe-e^e — 9-a-f — ■fe-€-d-4-e-§4e4^-*i*e-G-e-Hfl644— d-B4— fe-k't The leg is— 



882 FEPCRl CF CCKMIIEE CK STYIT, EFftlllKG 



Idtur; may (-ttatlish :l_l^ijislat ive_ccurcil_^n c cth = r irt^rin ccn- 
raitt?.? £ . 

(5) N'=ither hcus-:i shall, without the consent cf the cthei, 
adjcurn cr ri^cess for rocre thari three days-, — b-6-e cr tc any ©%-b^t 
plact ether than that ir. which the twc hcus^s ei^^ii-be are sit- 

t irij . 

Section 11. EIILS. (1) A law shall Le passed by bill? •a-R4— a 
J*-iii ihich shall not ke so altered cr ameDded en its passage 
tnrouijh the l-gislat ur-^ as to change its crigiral purpose. Nc 

bill__shall__b€cc2e__la w exce_£t_h_i;_a_vcte_cf _the_ttajorit_Y_cf_all 

membets_|.rssGnti 

»i4-%rHi6— €ft-:**-y-€-H-te-6*-r^ft*iv-e— g-a-ee^iefl-sfeaii-fe* — •f€€«-E4'e4 — ^■fi4 — -e-a-de 
p»bl -i:€-r E ver j_ vcte_cr_£dch_aeffb€r_c f _ the_l^gislatur€_on_each_sub- 
stan ti ve Si^fli t icn in the i^c^ is lat ure^_in_ar^_ccmniitte€^_cr_in 

cof mit t9e_of_ths_whoie_shall_b€_reccrded_and_rDade_£utlic^ 

■i^) iie— t»i4-i— s-feti-i-i-t<5€€«-e— i-a-w— G-K-6-e-f4--fe-y-*--¥€*6-€#— *4»e-«-a4-e-f— 

±*y— s*-*-i4-«-&«-t-eifc— ^E€s-^ft*T-*-fi-<^ «« £n final passage, the vote 
§hiii ^^ taker by ayes and noes and the nanes entered cr the 
jcurnal. 

-(■'^)-Ji]L ^ach bill, except general appropriation bills? and 
bills fcr the codification and general revision cf the laws, 
shall contain only en'? subject, ■w-b-ie4-€-J>di4— b-s clearly expressed 
in its titleTi b-«*-i^ If any subject e^fe^-ii-b^ is eabraced in any 
act «^4g^-a^ai:l and_is net -fe-e expressed ir the title, -e-tc-h — d€fe 
•s^^-ii — h^—¥-ei:4 only .*«—*€ sc much *i>ete«:&-ds-ek-ai-i of_the_act net 
b« sc expressed is_void. -ft— l^*-«^y-i€-€iia-i4-sfi-§€4— e-fi — *4« — -f«€-H«4s 
-e-i — fi € B- € ei»-pJ-Jr»fre-8 — •w-i^-k — %k4e-6g64^QB— v>4-%4t4^-4-he— y^ase-a^ f t cr it a 

-(■^Jitl i -Geft^ta-l: yensral appropriation till c bill shall 
contain only appropriations fcr the ordinary expenses cf the 
legislative, executive^ and judicial departments &4 — *i><6 — e tat€ , 
for interest on the public debt^ and fcr public schccls. Ai-i 
Everji other -a-pf-Ee^fidti^fts a££rc£ridticn shall be made by a sep- 
arate feiiis? bill e^€fe containing but one subject. 

-(-^J5i Nc appropriaticn shall be made for religious, chari- 
table, inlustrial, educaticnal^ or benevclect purposes to any 
private individual, private asscciaticn, cr private ccrpcraticn 
net under contrcl cf the state. 

J 61. A_i4w_S^I_b§_challenaed_cn_the_2round_cf_ncn-ccff£lianc6 

Sii^_ilii£_secticn_onli_*ithin_twc_^ears_af ter'iti^ef f^ 

Section 12. ICCAL flNE SFECI^l LEGISIATTCN. The legislature 
*^y Sliali net pass a special cr local act when a general act is, 
or can be made, applicable. 



Nc. Til — Lsgisla+-ive — Ur.icantral and eicaierdl 883 



section 13. IftikCi-fEhl. (1) The gcv<=rncr, -^xscutivc offi- 
cers, heads of state d-f ar tiK^r ts , judicial officers,,, and such 
ether officers as may t€ uade sutject tc inpeachmer; t tj law s-a-y 
shall te removed frcir office upon convicticr of in peachment . 
Other proceedings for r-sircval frcir puLlic cffics for cause iray be 
provided by lav.. 

(2) The l-:qislature shall provide for th^ naiirer, prcce- 
dure_t and causts for retcoval by in peachner t and may select the 

sen at- as tribunal. 

(3) Impeachment €df» shall te hrcught crly by a twc-thiids 

vote of the hcuse^ •dfi4— R-9-€©«vi€4^-iefl The tribunal liiarira the 

Charlies shall__con vict for iirpeachttent •e4-a4ri--fe-e-»d4€-'e«S'Cf t cnlj[ 

by a vote cf twc-thirds or more of *«€ its aembers «^§— 4-i**^ — -feii-fe-H- 

{^) S^-eh — €-e-R-v-i€*4-e-fi Ccrvic^icn shall eii-f exterd cnl^y to 
removal froiE office, but the party, whether convicted or acquit- 
ted, shall also be liable tc prosecution according tc law. 

Section 14, DISTcilCTING i\NE A EECFTICN « E NT. (1) The state 
shall be divided into as many -t^e-tifi-e districts as there are i't^-E-e— 
s-efi-feri%i¥'fe6 2iii;bers of the hcuse^ ard each district shall elect 
one representative. Hach senate district shall be -ecg p i 4-g-'e4 cck— 
£osed of two idjciring -E«f ie-t-e^-t^-t-i-ve h2U£§ districts^ ^6-e — -^^-^ 
e4e6%4-»ft — e^ ^25_£lllii_Sis£t one senator, -f-v-s-t-y Each 4'€^4-e-le4i-v« 
district snail consist cf ccBpact and ccntigucus territory^. -a-R-^ 

All__^istricts shall be e-e as nearly equal in population as is 

practicable. 

(2) In the legislative sessicr fcllcwing ratification of 
this Constitution and thereafter in %i»-e each session preceding 
each f Hd!iral_£0£ulat ion census «-a-d-e — -fe-y — ^h-^ — -a^^-he^i^y — €■# — ■%-*»« 
■y-iHt-te4 — S-fed-te^^ a €e a ffli-%t'r€ ccmffiissicn cf five citizens, ncne of 
whom may be public officials, shall be 4esi^fl-a-fe«4 selected to 
4f<t#* £IS£iiI§ ^ plan for r edistr ict ing and reappcr tiering the 
state into legislative and congressicnal districts. The najcrity 
and minority leaders of each house shall each designate a one 
commissioner. ?i»e-#€«-E— e€««±€ei-e-fhei€-r— w-i-t-fe-i-fi Within 2C days after 
their designation, the_f cur_ccttjr issicre rs shall select the fifth 
fflember, who shall serve as chairiran cf the ccmmissicn. If the 
four members fail tc select the fifth itember within the time pre- 
scribed, a majority of the supreme court shall -aff-eifi-t— t-h*-€i»d4-t— 
«dfi select_him. 

111. Ihe t*ff «i«4e4 commission shall 4€a«-«f-^-fi^*-^e*— f^ap- 
^**i©fii-frf~^ft4— E^4i6*^€%i«^-ie^i6i-a*i-v*^-^«-4 — •6e«-9t€6s4€-Rd4 — -di*- 
^ri c ts — =ni4 submit *4ti-6 its plan to the legislature at the first 
regular session after edii#4€*4i€-fi — -e^ — -t^tis — G««s%i*-«*4e« its 
a£Egintment or after the census figures are available. Within 
^30f— tfei-E*^ days after ^-i^ subiission^ 4e — i+ the legislature 
shall return the plan tc the commission with its reccmmenda tions^. 
^_e« — e-b^«^e — *ft4 — -fe-he — ee#«4ssi««-eit^i-l— w-i*-h4« Within -(30f— fei»i*4^ 



884 SrPCM CF CCKflTIEE CN SIYII , CEAFTING 



days thereatter t he_cc^ni££icr_shail fil-~ -wi^-fe-^he — S<i€-i-e4-a-E-j« — ©•# 
■S*-t-fe-s its final plan wi th_t h£_£^cretarx_cf _£ t ata and -fc4^-c-et*«« _it 
shall teccms l^w. A-§*r^-E-T?-fi^€4«^-B*-€i--a— »a>-ii4-f-ii3ft— ti»i-s The ccir- 
missicii e+'-^i-i— fc'G is_th2n dissclved. 

Section 15. fi:CHIEITEE_i:AYMFNlS. lxce£t_icr_int€r 6St_cr_the 
EM^iiS-^iikiz ■^•^ L£ ffioney shall te paid cut cl the tif^asury «*6-6f4 
unless upon an dff»t©f f i-ifei^fls a^^rc^riaticn ir.ad- ty law-y and •©« a 
warrant drawn ir. y the prcc-er officer in pursuance therecf-y— e-K«ef-% 

Section If. CCCE_CF_|THICS . ■ft-€e4€-ei-e4*-i€6-^€*— ai4 — €*d4-e 
d-ft4 — iee-di — -e^^-ireirtisT— «4#-i6t?f S7--i«-^ieiiS-t-6-E€-,— d-R4-s%-a-fe-e-d«4--i-e«-a4 
e«-pi«-y-e-e-6— f-E€-ki-fei4i:«'§— eefi-i-iic-fe— t-fe%«€ef--f«fe-ii6 — 4-«-t-y — ftfl4 — -^±-»«-*-e 
i-B-fe^*-?€-fe— 6kri-ii--fe-c-4€ee*i-b-64— fe-y-4d»-» Ih2_i£3i§iJi!2ES_^^§ii_££Ov_ide 

a cede cf sthics i^iohit it in3_ccrif lict_bstw€€ n_£ublic_dut^_and 

£ri vat s_in teres t_fcr_se rat cr£_ard_all_ state and lccal_of fleers 

and_eff£lcyees_. 



No. Ill — Legislative — lir.icanieial ar.d 2icair-?ral 



885 



P€f cr t Nc. 3 - 
Itgislative - (Eicasoidl) 

CO f, MP. NTS CN SIYLI, FCrr*, ANC GSAHMAF 



NE - Only coirments which differ trcn these applied to ths UMCAM- 
3EA1 prcfcsal appear hear. 

St;cticr.£_ 1_4_2x_3_t__1C^_Ji^_dnJ_JU. Gr accoiat ic a 1 changes dc ret 
alter s u t s t a r. c e . 



886 



fEFCKl Cf CCK«niEE CI. STYLE, EPAF1ING 



(BICASEF.AL) 



CRDEE CF EDSINESE NO. 5 - 
FINAL CCNSILFBATICN 
STYLt ANL EeAFTI^G - LEGISLATIVE - 
NO. Ill 

AFTICLE 
THE LEGISLATURE 



Section 1. POWER AND STFUCTDBE. The lecislative fcvier 
vested in a legislature ccrsistirg cf a senate acd a hcuse 
representatives. Tbe people 
initiative and ref tienduiii . 



reserve tc theiBselves the 



IS 

cf 
pcwers cf 



Spcticn 2. SIZE. The size of the legislature shall be pro- 
vided by law, but the senate shall net have ircre than 5C cr fewer 
than UO meiDbers and the house shall net have more than ICO cr 
fewer than 8C members. 

Section 3. EIECTICN ANE TEEMS. A member cf the hcuse cf 
representatives shall be elected fcr a term cf two jears and a 
member of the senate for a term cf four years each tc begin en a 
date provided by law. One-half of the senators shall be elected 
every twc years. 

Section 4. gu AIIFICATICKS. A candidate fcr the legislatcre 
shall be a resident cf the state fcr at least ere year next pre- 
ceding the general election. for six months next preceding the 
general election, he shall be a resident cf the county if it con- 
tains cne or more districts cr cf the district if it certains all 
or parts of acre than cne county. 

Section 5. CCfPENSATICN . (1) Each meiEber cf the legislature 
shall receive compensation for his services ard allowances pro- 
vided by law. No legislature may fix its cwn ccmpensation. 

(2) The legislature shall create a salary commission tc 
reconaerd ccmpersation for the judiciary ard elected menibers of 
the legislative and executive departments. 

Section L-. SESSIONS. The legislature shall be a continucas 
body fcr two-year periods beginning whec newly elected aembers 
take office. Any business, bill, or resolution pending at 
adjournment of a session shall carry ever with the same status tc 
any other session cf the legislature during the bienniua. The 



No. Ill — Leqii;lrttive — llRicamerdl and PicaiiTral 887 



legislature shall n;eet at least cnce a year in tegular S'^ssicn cf 
net Bcre thar, 6C legislative days. Any legislature iray ircrease 
the limit en tiie l-^r.gth ct any subspquant session. The legis- 
lature may be ccnvened in special sessions by the gcvorrci cr at 
the written request ct: a najciity cf the iretrLers. 

Section 7. VACAKCIES. A vacancy in th^ legislature shall te 
filled by special rlecticn for the unexpired term unless ether- 
wise crovioed ty lav.. 

Section 8. IMKHNITY. A aenter e£ the legislature is privi- 
leged from arrest during attendance at sessions cf the legis- 
lature and in going to and returning therefrca, ur. less appre- 
hended in thp ccniiiiissien cf a felery cr a breach cf the peace. He 
shall net he questioned in any other place for any speech cr 
delate in the legislature. 

Section '^ . DISQUA Ilf ICA IICN . he -e-e^e^-fe^-fc — ■€* — -Ec-ftses^R^^^^-v^ 

ffleffiber__cf the i^Sjislature shall, during the terra icr fchich he 

shall have been elected, te appcintea tc any civil office under 
the state; and no n-eaber cf congress, cr ether f^rsen holding an 
office (except rctary public, cr in the (rilitia) under the United 
States or this state, shall be a a-enber of •€i*4?-e-E--iie«-6-e the 
ig9iiiSiiJ£S during his continuance in office. 

Section 10. CRGANIZAIICN AND tBCCEEUIE. (1) Each house 
shall judg? the -^lection and a ual if icat ic rs cf its uieniters. It 
may ty law vest in the ccurts the pew-r tc try and determine con- 
tested elections. Each house shall cheese its efficers frcir aircng 
its memters, keep a journal, and nake rules fci its proceedings. 
Each house Bay expel or punish a nienber for geed cause shcfcn hith 
the concurrence ct twc-thirds of all its nerobers. 

(2) A Diajcrity of each hcuse constitutes a qucruiD. A 
saaller nuaiber may adjourn frctt- day -t-c day and ccirpel attendance 
of absent oieiibers. 

(3) The sessiens of the legislature and cf the conimittee of 
the whole, all ccmmittee meetings, and all hearings shall te open 
to the public. 

(4) The legislature may establish a legislative council and 
ether irterin. coramittees. 

{^) Neither hcuse shill, fcithout the censent cf the ether, 
adjourn or recess tor more thar three days or tc any place other 
than that in which the two houses are sitting. 

Section 11. BILLS. (1) A law shall te passed ty till which 

shall net te so altered or anerded en its passage through the 

legislature as to change its original purpose. No till shall 

become law except by a vote cf the Eajerity cf all meniters 
present and voting. 



888 



KEPOPI CF CCH'MI'ITEE Ch SlYIE, CFJFTING 



(2) Every vct.^ cf each nerrtet ct the legislature cr. each 
substantive question in thr: legislature, in arj ccniirit tee , cr in 
ccflimittet ot the whole shall be recorded and made public. Cn 
final passage, tht vote shall be taker by ayes and nces and the 
names entered on th^ journal. 

(3) Each bill, except, general a f prop r iatic r bills ard bills 
for the codiiicaticr and general revision cf the laws, shall con- 
tain only ont subject, clearly expressed in its title. If any 
subject is err.braced in any act and is not expressed in the title, 
only so [Puch of the act not so expressed is void. 

(4) A general appropriation bill shall contain crly apprc- 
priations for the ordinary expenses cf the legislative, execu- 
tive, and judicial uepar tnients, fcr interest cr the public debt, 
and tor public schools. Every ether appropriation shall be made 
by a separat^ bill, containing but cne subject. 

(5) No appropriation shall be Biade fcr religious, charita- 
ble, industrial, educational, cr benevolent purposes tc any pri- 
vate individual, private associaticn, cr private corporation not 
under ccrtrcl of the state. 

(6) A law iray be challenged cn the ground of nocccnpliance 
with this section only withir twc years after its effective date. 

Section 12. LOCAL AND SPECIAI lEGI £ I AIT C N. The legislature 
shall not pass a special or local act when a general act is, cr 
can be made, applicable. 

Section 13. IKPEACEPIENI . (1) The governor, executive offi- 
cers, heads cf state depart nents, judicial officers, ard such 
other officers as may be provided by law are subject to impeach- 
ment, and upon conviction shall be removed frcia office. Cther 
proceedings for rsiroval frcit public office fcr cause tray be pro- 
vided by law. 

(2) The legislature shall provide fcr the manner, proce- 
dure, and causes fcr iitfeachisent and iray select the secate as 
tribunal. 

(3) Impeachment shall be brought cnly by a two-thirds vote 
of the house. The tribunal hearing the charges shall ccrvict 
only by a vote of two-thirds cr more of its Bembers. 

(ti) Conviction shall extend only tc reircval frcin office, 
but the party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall also te 
liable to prosecution according to law. 



state 



No. TTI — Legislative — Ur.icaireral and Eicameral 



889 



of ccmpact ^nd ccntigucus teriitcry. All districts 
nearly ecuil in fopulaticn as is practicable. 



shall be 



as 



( 

this C 
f edera 
whom m 
for r 
and CO 
each h 
after 
fifth 
the f 
prescr 



2) In 

c n £ t i t 
1 pcpu 
ay b 
"distr 
ngress 
ouse s 
their 
n - a b e r 
our aie 
ibed. 



the 
u t i c n 
latic 
publi 
ictin 
ional 
hall 

desi 
, who 
nbers 
a ma j 



le 

and 

n ce 

c of 

g a 

d is 

each 

gnat 

£ha 

tai 

orit 



gis la 
ther 
nsus, 
t icia 
nd re 
trict 
desi 
ion , 
11 se 
1 tc 
y cf 



t ive 

eaft 

a c 

Is, 
appc 
s. T 
gcat 
the 
r ve 
sele 
the 



ses 
er ir 
cmniis 
shall 
rticr 
he ma 
e one 
f cur 
as ch 
ct th 
supr e 



sicn 
eac 

sicn 
be 

irg 

jor i 
ccm 

CdEIE 

air m 
€ ti 
ffe c 



fcl 
h sa 

of 
sele 
the 
ty a 
miss 
issi 
an c 
tth 
curt 



lc« i 
ssic 
five 

cted 
Stat 
nd n 
icne 
or ^r 
f th 
ff eiib 
s ha 



ng rati 
n p r e c 
citize 
tc pre 
e into 
incr ity 
r. With 
£ shall 
e ccroip 
er with 
11 sele 



f icat ic 
eding 
rs, ncn 
pare a 
leg is la 

leader 
in 2C 

select 
issicn. 
in the 
ct hi ff . 



n cf 
each 
e cf 
plan 
t ive 
s cf 
days 
the 
If 
time 



(3) The commission shall submit its plan tc the legislature 
at the first regular sessicr after its appcirtnent cr after the 
census figures are available. Within 30 days after subffissicn, 
the legislature shall return the plan tc the ccmniission with its 
recomrerdaticns. ^;ithir 30 days thereafter^ the ccnurissicc shall 
file its final plan with the secretary cf state and it shall 
become law. The ccicitissior is then dissclved. 



Section 15. FEOhlEIIZE PAYMENTS. Except tcr interest en the 
public debt, nc money shall be paid cut cf the treasury unless 
upon an appropriation made by law and a warrant drawn ty the 
proper officer ir pursuance thereof. 

Section 16. CCDE CF ETHIC5. The legislature shall provide a 
code cf ethics prohibiting conflict between public duty and pri- 
vate interest for legislatures and all state and Iccal officers 
and employees. 



890 



BZPOKT CF CCKf.niEE GN SlYLI , EBABTING 



Kc. IV — Executive 



891 



h:CNTANA CCNSTITUTICNAL CCNVINTTCN 
1971-1972 

REFCRT OF CC»"KITTZE ON SlYLE, CFAFTING, 
TRANSITION ANE SDEMSSICN CK 
SXECU1IVE 
NO. IV 



Date Reported: farch U, 1972 



^s^_Jchr_Mi_Schiltz, Chairman 



Zs/_j!iiii3 ffi_ Ai_ F uckh ar d t , Vice Chairian 



892 



REFCKT CF CCKflTTIf CN STYLE, ERAFTING 



TO: Montana Constitutional Ccnvt^nticr. 
SI) EJECT: SXiCUTIVI 

L a d i •£ s d r d G e n 1 1 -^ ni t ii : 

Th-e Ccumitte*- on Style, Crafting, Transition and Subaissicn 
transmit F revisions cf the aLcve Article fcr ccr. siJeratior cf th-e 
C o n V '^ n t i c n . 

rmmedid t € 1 y fcllowirg this letter you will find the above 
Articl<2 ds revised by the Ccirmittee. Fcllcwirg that is the ;>rti- 
cle indicating (by underlining) words we have added atd (ty 
crossing cut) herds h.^ have deleted frcci the Article as apprcved. 
Finally, there- is ar exflanaticn cf the charges we have irade. 

Sincerely, 



ZsZ-JcfcD-^i-ichiltz 

Chairiran cf the Ccncittee 

en Style, Crafting, Transition 

and Subtrissicr. 



/s/_j!illiaff_A,_Eurkhardt 
Vice Chairoar of the Ccffimittee 
en Stylo, Drafting, Transiticr 
and Subiiissicn 



Nc. IV — rxp;cutiv€ 



893 



BE II PROPOSED E^ THE EXECUIIVE CCHKniEE: 

That there be a new Article en the Executive to read as fol- 
lows : 

flRTICIE 
THE EXECUTIVE 



Section 1. OEFICESS. (1) The executive defartirert includes 
a governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney 
general, superintendent cf public instruction, treasurer, and 
auditc r . 

(?) ^ach holds office for a tertr. of four years which begins 
en the first Monday of January next succeeding election, and 
until a successor is elected and qualified. 

(3) Each shall reside at the seat cf governBient, there keep 
the public records cf his office, and perfcrm such other duties 
as are provided in this Constitution and by law. 

Section 2. EIECTICN. (1) The governor, lieutenant gcverrcr, 
secretary cf state, attorney general, superintendent of public 
instruction, treasurer, and auditor shall be elected by the qual- 
ified electors at a general election provided by law. 




Section 3. QUALIFICATIONS. (1) No person shall be eligible 
to the office of governor, lieutenant gcverncr, secretary cf 
state, attorney general, superictendent of public instruction, 
treasurer, or auditor unless he is 25 years of age or elder at 
the time of his electicc. In addition, each shall be a citizen cf 
the United States who has resided within the state two years next 
preceding his election. 

(2) Any person with the foregoing qualifications is eligi- 
ble to the office cf attorney general if an attorney in good 
standing admitted to practice law in Montana who has engaged in 
the active practice thereof for at least five years before 
ticn. 



elec- 



(3) The superintendent cf public instruction shall have 
such educational qualifications as are provided by law. 

Section 4. DUTIES, (1) The executive power is vested in the 



894 



BEPCHT CF CCHKITTEE CN Sltll , CBAFTING 



governcr who shall see that the laiis are faithfully ex<=cutecl. He 
shall hav€ such other duties as are urcvided in this Ccrstituticn 
and by law. 

(2) Ihe li-:utenar.t governor shall perfcrir the duties pro- 
vided hy law ar.d these delegated tc him hy ths gcverncr. Nc power 
specifically vested in the goverrcr by this Ccrstituticn nay be 
delegated tc the lieutenant governor. 

{7') T!:e £<=cretdry of state shall icaintair, official records 
of the executive departaent and of the acts of the legislature, 
as provided by law. He shall keep th=? great seal of the state of 
Montana and perfcra any ether duties prcviced tj law. 

(U) Thf attorney general is the legal ctficei of the state 
and shall have the duties and pow-rs provided by law. 

(5) The superintendent cf public instruction, the treasur- 
er, and the auditor shall have such duties as are provided by 
law. The legislature may appoint a legislative pcst-auditcr who 
shall perforin such post-auditing duties as aay be provided by 
law. 

Section 5. COMPENSATICN. (1) Cfficers cf the executive 
depart ire n-^ shall receive salaries jicvided ty law. 

(2) During his tertc, re elected officer cf the executive 
department may held another public office or receive ccmpersaticn 
fcr services frcn; any ether gcvsr nitent al agency. He aay be a can- 
didate for any public office during his term. 

Section 6. VfiCAKCy IN OtFICE. (1) If the office cf lieuten- 
ant ycvernor becomes vacant by his succession tc the cffice cf 
governor, or by his death, resignation, or disability as deter- 
Eined by law, the gov-rncr shall appoint a qualified person tc 
serve in that cffice fcr the remainder cf the term. If both the 
elected governor and the elected lieutenant goverrcr beccae 
unable to serve in the cffice of goverrcr, succession to the 
respective offices shall be as provided by law for the period 
until the next general election. Then, a governor and lieutenant 
governor shall be elected to fill the remainder of the original 
ter IT . 



(2) If the cffice cf secretary cf state, attorney general, 
auditor, treasurer, or superintendent cf public instruction 
beccnes vacant by death, resignation, or disability as deterained 
by law, the governor shall appoint a qualified person tc serve in 
that office until the next general election and until a successor 
is elected and qualified. Ihe perscr elected to fill a vacancy 
shall held the cffice until the expiration cf the term fcr which 
his predecessor was elected. 

Section 7. 2C DEPAEIMENI £ . All executive and administrative 
offices, boards, bureaus, coEmissicns, agencies and icstrumen- 



No. IV -- Extcuriv€ 



895 



talities of the executive departirert (except fcr the cftice cf 
governcr, lieutenart governcr, secretary cf state, attorney gen- 
eral, superintendent of public instructicr, auditor, and treasur- 
er) and their respective functions, fcwers, and duties, shall be 
allocated ty law aicng net rrcre than 20 frincipal departoen ts so 
as tc provide an orderly arrangement in the adci nistra ti ve crga- 
aizaticn of state gcvcrnDrent. Tempcrary ccnniissicrs may be estat- 
lished by law and need not be allccatsd hithin a departnert. 

Section 3. APPOINTING ECWEF. (1) The dspartients E^cvided 
for in section 7 shall Le under the supervisicr cf the governor. 
Except as otherwise provided in this Corstituticn or by law, each 
department shall be headed by a single executive appointed by the 
governor subject tc conf ir tnaticn by the senate to held office 
until the end cf the gcverncr's ters; unless sooner removed by the 
gcverr.cr . 

(2) Ih'd governor shall appoint, subject to cocf ir Dsa tien by 
the senate, all officers provided for in this Ccnstituticr or by 
law whose appointment or election is rot otherwise provided for. 
They shall held cffice until the end of the gcverncr's tern 
unless sooner relieved by the governor. 



(3) If a vacancy occurs ir, ary such office when the legis- 
lature is net in session, the governor shall appoint s qualified 
person to discharge the duties thereoi until the cffice is filled 
by appointment and confiriraticn. 

{^) A person not ccnfiraiec by the senate for an office 
shall not, except at its request, be nciinated agai^i fcr that 
office at the same session, or be appointed to that office when 
the legislature is not in session. 

Section 9. BUDGET AND MESSAGES. The governor shall at the 
beginning of each legislative session, and may at other tinges, 
give the legislature informatior and reccmicend measures he con- 
siders necessary. The governor shall submit to the legislature at 
a time fixed by law, a budget fcr the ensuing fiscal fericd 
setting forth in detail fcr all operating funds the proposed 
expenditures and estimated revenue of the state. 

Section 10. VETO EOHEB. (1) Each bill passed by the legis- 
lature, except bills proposing anetdnects tc the Pcntana Consti- 
tution, bills ratifying proposed atoendipents to the United States 
Constitution, rescluticns, and initiative and referenduB nea- 
sures, shall be submitted to the governor for his signature. If 
he dees net sign or veto the bill within five days after its 
delivery to him if the legislature is in session cr within 25 
days if the legislature is adjourned, it shall become law. The 
governor shall return a vetoed bill tc the legislature with a 
statement of his reasons therefor. 

(2) The governor may return acy bill to the legislature 
with his reccmmendation fcr amendment. If the legislature passes 



896 



K5PCRT CF CCt'MI'l'IEF CK Sl\ll , EEAFTING 



the Dill ir acccr^ancf with the qcvf?ir,ci'£ recomuiendat icn, it 
shall d^aiii return th" till tc th€ gcverncr fcr his reconsidera- 
tion. Ihe gov^^rncr shall not r'Sturn a bill fcr aoiendinent a second 
tim-^ . 



(3) If after receipt of a veto aessaqe, two-thirds of the 
memijers present apfLCve the till, it shall beccne law. 



£f the legislature 



(U) _ , _ 

vetoes a bill, be shall return 

to th3 legislature as t-rcvided ty law. 

veno to reconsider any Lxll sc vetoed. 



IS ret ir session *ihen the gcverncr 

the hill wirh his reasons therefcr 

Ih*^ legislature may recon- 



(^) The gcv-^rncr tray veto itecs in a f pr cf liaticr tills, and 
in such instances the procedure shall be the sane as upon veto of 
an entire bill. 

Secticp 11. FAaCCNS. Thi gcverncr nay grant reprieves, ecu- 
mutations and pardons, restore citi2enship, and suspend and remit 
fines and forfeitures subject tc procedures provided ty law. 

S''cticn 12. f^IlITIA. (1) The coverncr is ccinrnander-in-chief 
of the irilitia forces ct the state, except when they are in the 
actual service of the United States, he may call out any part cr 
all of the forces to aid in the execution of the laws, suppress 
insurrection, retel invasicr, cr prefect life and property in 
natural disasters. 



(2) 

citizens 



The 
of t h 



nilitia forces shall consist cf all ahle-tcdied 
: state except these exeirpted ty law. 



Section 13. SUCCESSICN. (1) If the gcvernc r-elect is dis- 
qualified cr dies, the lieutenant gcvernc r-elect upon qualifying 
for the office shall beccne gcverncr for the full terai. If the 
governor-elect fails tc assume office for any other reascr, the 
lieutenant governor-elect upon qualifying as such shall serve as 
acting gcverncr until the governor-elect is able to assume 
office, cr until the office beccffes vacant. 

(2) The lieutenant governor shall serve as acting gcverncr 
when so requested in writing ty the governor. After the gcverncr 
has been absent troa the state for icore than 45 consecutive days, 
the lieutenant govtrncr shall serve d£ acting governcr. 

(3) He shall serve as acting gcverncr wher the gcverncr is 
so disabled as to be unable tc ccmmunicate to the lieutenant 
governor the fact cf his inability tc perfcrm the duties of his 
office. The lieutenant governcr shall continue tc serve as acting 
governcr until the governcr is atle to resuae the duties cf his 
office. 



(4) Whenever, at any ether tiae, the lieutenant gcverncr 
and attorney general transait to the legislature their written 
declaration that the governcr is unable tc discharge the powers 



No. TV — Executive 



897 



and dut. it--F ct his cffice, the Ifcislirur^ 
mine wh-eth-sr iie is atie tc dc sc. 



shall ccrvtr. 6 tc d^ter- 



(5) 



deter [T 
qov-jcn 
office 
Thferea 

K r i 1 1 -^ 

pOW-; ES 

latur^ 
the 1^. 
tinu £ 



'J 

in€ 

or 

/ t. 

f te 

r d 
an 
d'^ 

gi£ 

tc 



If t 
s bj t 

13 U 

h- lie 
r , wh 
-^clara 
d duti 
t erniin 
iatur: 

S frT V8 



he 

V.C- 

r.ab 
ut^^ 
en 
tic 



dS 



1-iy islature , withir 21 lays att^r corveninq, 
thirds vote of its neirters present ♦•hat the 
le tc discharge the powers and duties of his 
riant ycv^rncr shall serve as acting gcverrci. 

the governcr transiits tc the leqislature his 
n that no inahility exists, he shall res o roe the 
cf his cffice within 15 days, unless the legis- 
otherwise by twc- thirds vcte cf its ireiiters. If 
; deterftines, the lieuterart gcv^rncr shall ccn- 
actinq gcverncr. 



(6) If *-.he office cf jcvernci beccmes vacant ty reason cf 
death, r^signaticn, or disqualification, the lieuterar.t ccvcrncr 
shall become governcr ici the rettairder of the terffi, except as 
provided in this Ccrstituticn. 

(7) Alditicnal succ£ssicr tc fill vacancies shall be pro- 
vided by law. 

(8) Whtn there is a vacancy in the cffice cf governor, the 
successor shall be the governor. Ihe acting gcverncr shall have 
the powers and duties ct the cffice cf gcverrcr only fcr the 
period during which he serves. 

Section 14. Ify rORP:ATICN FCE GCVE6NCE. (1) The gcveircr way 
require inforniaticr in writing, under oath when required, frcm 
the officers cf the executive departirent upcn any subject relat- 
ing to the duties cf their respective offices. 

(2) He may require infcrniaticr in writing, under cath, frcsa 
all officers and wanagers cf state inst it i;t ions. 

(3) He may appoint a cciiiniittse to investigate and report to 
him upon the ccnditicn of any executive cffice or state insti- 
tution. 



898 REPORT CE CCfeiTTEf CN S1YL5, LHAFTING 



B£ n EF.CEOScL FY lEE EXECUTIVE CC^CinEE: 

That thet? be a n^v Article en ths Executive to read as fel- 
lows: 

ARTICIE 
THE EXECDIIVE 



Section 1. CFFICEPS. (1) The executive departaert G kal 4 
G««sit*-€4 ir.clu;^€s a gcverncr, lieuterar.t gcveiner, secretary of 
state, attorriey~geiieral, a«^ suf erintend^nt ef public irstruc- 
ticn, e-*rHte treasurer^ ar, d etd4e auditor. 

(2) Tach s^-ai4 h-G44 hclds -k-i€ cffice for a tera of four 

yearsr jjhich e©««efr6ifi-^ t^:3iiis on the first Monday cf January 

next £ucc-=i^ding hie el6cticn_t and until a successor is elected 
and qualif iad . 

(3) Each shall reside at the sect cf government, ¥-b€-E€ Jne 

fi ha -i^ thet2 keep the putlic records of his cffice-r^ 

-{43 i^-eh — s-h^-ii and perfcrff such ether duties as are pse- 

Sresi-ise-d £rovid£d in this Cc rs titut ien^ and by law. 

Section 2. EIECTICN. (1) The governcr, lieutenant gcverncr, 
secretary of state, attorney general, €%d*e-*€ede-«-E'e-eTr -^h^ super- 
intendent of putlic instruction^ liSSS^er^ and «4-d-*-e auditor 

shall be elected by the qualified electors «4-*fe#-e**-fe« at a gen- 
eral election k«^4— a-B4-4JrflaJ:^y-4e-fee-£-g-i nod a -e provided by law. 

(2) Each candidate for gcverncr shall file jointly with a 
candidate for lieutenant governcr ir prifary elections, or so 
otherwise comply with neminaticn prcceduresT £Iovided_bjf_law €•© 
that the offices of governor and lieutenant governor efedii-fee are 
voted upon together in priiary and general electicnsy-ae— f-Ee- vA 4 € -4 

laM»i 1 a hi 

OT ■' * d w m 

Section 3. QDALIFICATIONS. (1) Kc person shall be eligible 
to the office of governcr, lieutenant governor, secretarjt_£j 
StilSx attorney general^,^ ef superintendent cf public instructicn^ 
trea£urer^_or_auditor unless he fe«*g-*44^fie4-*}»« — a^-e — ©4 is 25 

years of age or elder at the tiire cf his electicn-i — nor te the 

^S-^i€^-el- s£cre%ag^-e#-6%a%eT-6-fea^fee-»«6 t^ ^e-£-y-ef-&fea4€ — %f eaeare E y 
<* «l ee6 — he — h^a-e — a44 aiH €4— fe-he-ef e-e-i-S^— yee-g^ . In additicc t e %h e 
q u a 1 i f jr-ee-^ Jr»R€-a^ev€-^f ece^ 4:^e4 , each ef - t h e ■ e f #4€e€6- Ba a'6 4 shall 

be a citizen cf the United States^ — a-ft4 — ha-ve whc has resided 

within the state two years next preceding his election. 

(2) i*^— *44i-feieft-*^e Any_£erson_with the foregoing qualifica- 
tions, dfty — pefee* — *© — Se is eligible to the cffice of attorney 



Nc. IV — Executive 899 



gereral -e-kri-i-i— te^^ if an dttctn^y in gccd stardirq admitted tc 
practice law in %fe^--t4ri4-e— e-t Wcntar. a-,--a-s4— b^-v~ ii;£_i:IS encaged ic 
the active practice thei^of fcr at_2east five y^dzs before «=l€c- 
ticn. 

( .3) if*--a'S^-i-%4€-fi-^« — *-fe-= — ^e-te-e-e-i-f <5---«-a-a-ii4i€d4iefi---%t-e The 
super ir.t^n'i-rt cf public instructic:; shall f-€-6€es-6 have such edu- 
caticnal qualifications as are f -Ee^e^-ii-e-e ircvidec ty law. 

Section ^. CDTIr_S_i {21 The extfcutivs pcwec «4--tfee— 6-fed^e is 

veste-i irj the gcverrorr who shall Sct that th° laws are faith- 
fully •^x:-cut-^d. fie shall have such ether duties as are -be-E^f-ifi 
prcvided-r ill_this_Ccnst it uticr and ^€-f t«-vi-4*€ ty law. 

(2) The lieutenart gcverncr shsll perfcra the duties Iic- 

vided__Ci law iSS__ill£§^ delegated tc hii by the governcrT. *«4 

%i^il^^©vi4^4-iee-fe±*— tf — ■!'**-» — -fe-t* — *€ Nc power specifically 
vested in the govt-rnor by this Cc ts t itu t ior. nay te delegated tc 
the lieutenar.t gcv = rrcr i-fi--*'hi-6-«d«*-ei . 

(3) The secret try cf state shall maintain ■^■a^ official 
records c f _the_sx5cu tive_de£ar taent_and cf the acts cf the 4:P gi e- 

provided by law. ~Ke~shall keep the great seal cf the state cf 
MontanaT and pericru any ether duties prcvided ty law. 

(^) The attcrnay ger.eral e-i^-ai-i— fee is the legal officer cf 
the state-, anl_shall_haye «-i^-fe ^he duties ard powers provided by 
law. 

(5) The sui^eri nterdent__ct lutlic ir ll t uction^_the e%a^« 

treasurer^_ard_the~iuditcr~ihall have such duties as are provided 
by law. 

-(4) $ie-a«4-i%€-E-e-hd44-*^-v-e— s-«€-i>~4-H-fe4ee-dS-dS€ — fie^-i4^ t-y 

ir^v-r — 4ft — d44i-fei«ft — -t«— E4*€-i;***e-4-H-6i±€-fT— ^-fe IhS. legislature aay 
appoint a t««is4s*4v€ legislative *«-6-* £cst-auditcr whc shall 
perfcrir such post^auditing'dut ies as fe fe ^l4 ma;^ te ^c^6-€^^-e4 prc- 
vided by law. 

^7) ih^ — «-af-^-Eirft%-c-«4eft*— 64--f «feiiG — i-fie*i-»€4i€«— 6^«44— b^-»€ 

6WG h 4 u%i ec — as-^£€-^ge?44€4— fey-4-a-i#-r 



;6ction 5. COKPENSATICN. (1) Cfficers cf the executive 
department shall receive salaries prcvided by law. 



J ' 



(2) Durina his_terffix *« Il£ elected cfficer cf the executive 
department aay ~4«-Ei-fr§ — hii — 4-6«« held ^-Bf-e^i^^i: another public 
office-, or receive coinpersaticn fcr -^4* services from any ct^ier 
governtrental agency. He iray te a candidate fcr any public cffice 
during his term. 

Section 6. VACANCY IN OFFICE. (1) If the cffict cf lieuten- 
ant governor becoflies vacant by his succGssicn tc the cffice cf 



900 EEECF"^ CF CCfflTTEI CN STYLE, ERAITING 



■joverrcr, ci by r.is deat.h, r f sigr.at icn^ cr disafcility as deter- 
mined by Idw, th-^ yov&rncr dhall appcint a qualiticd perscr tc 

^^4,4 .&+>4 sarve in that cffics tcr the ronaindet of i*€ the terai. 

It toth th° fleeted €«*r^*-H-6-t ijC vfrrcr-r— e* Ji-C ths elected i-i<~«- 
*r^«dfl* li^^lSnaiit goveEncrT-i5fee-H4i b-sccire unable tc serve in tb? 
offic»? oI~S©v^E«€£ 20V2iiicr, successicn tc *-k»€-i-E the resfectivs 
offices shall te as providid by law fcr the period until tfce next 
general elscticr.Tj. -w^+^-ft lien, be*-h-*-he a G-e-»«**G* governor and 
ti^^j*r'-R-4-fi-fe lieutenant S©v-^*«-6-t ^cverrcr shall be ^-§ti±ft elected 
^Q£ — ^a^ S2__iililliii:i -fedi^-R^^ i^ffainder ct the original term 

(2) If the office of secretary cf state, attorney gereral, 
auditor, trtasurer^ ^a-^ or super interdent cf public instruction 
becomes vacant by dtath, resignaticr, cr disability as determined 
by lak, the governor shall appoint a qualified person to fee l d afid 
serve in that office until the next general electicn^ and until 
ii-i€ a successor is elected and qualified. The perscn elected tc 
fill s^eh i vacincy shall held the office until the exgiraticn of 

the term for which %*^-f «rEse-fi-i- — e-ae€^e4-6 his predecessor was 

elected . 

Section 7, 20 DrPAFIMENTS. All executive and adffiinistrat ive 
offices, boards, bureaus, cciririssicrs , agencies,^ and instrumen- 
talities of the executive departinent €-£-e*d-fee-'6f«»eifi««*-* Jexcept 
for the office of gcvernor, lieutenant governor, secretary of 
state, attorney generalj^ -^^4 superintendent of public icstruc- 
ticn, -e-fed^-e auditor^ and s*d4-e treasurer], and their respective 
functions, powers, and duties, shall be allocated by law among 
*«4 — «±*4*±-R not more than 2C £rinci£al depar tments-r— S ubc o-qwe B t-i-y-y 
a- 11 c e-w— ^e^^^^e-e-g— #-Hfte%Jre-fts-6J^^^^ — t^e — dS6-i-g*«4 — 4-e — -g€f^-E4«^flter 

4-i-vi-ei€-fi-6T — €-ee4i-efte, et--a-fii*s-i«—e-H€it— «*«««« so as »-t^- tend to 

provide an orderly arrangement in the administrative organization 
of state government. Temporary ccmirissiens may be established by 
law and need not be allocated within a f-Ei-ne-i-pai department. 

Section d. AEECINTIWG ECfcEB. (1) The f^4n€ip a l departirents 
provided for in section 7 shall be under the supervision cf the 
governorT — T^-R-dT-^ <=«ee^ I^ce^pt as otherwise provided in_this_CcE- 
stitution -b-e-E^^-B or by law, each_de£ar t lent shall be headed by a 
single executive appointed by the governor -a-R-d subject tc ccnfir- 
maticn by the senat er-S«efe— e»ee«-ti-¥'e6— e4»-ft4-l to hold office until 
the end of the 90vernor2.s term «4 — *-b€ — •ge-vetfi-e-E-r unless sooner 
removed by the gcvernor. 

(2) The governor shall appoint, subject to ccnf irmaticn ty 
the senate^ all officers provided for fef in this Ccnstituticr cr 
by law *-r4 whose appointment or election ©*-*«*« is net otherwise 
provided for. They shall held office until the end cf the 
a21fm£llS term e4-%i»-e— §«ve*«-©« urless sooner removed by the 
governor. 

(3) If a vacancy occurs in ary such office «€««-E€-4«Eifrg-a 
t«€€6s-e# when the legislature is_nct_in session, the gcvernor 



No. TV — rXcCUT.ive 901 



shall apfcint -eea-^—l^i-fe a_cjviali f led perscri tc discharq? tht duties 
thereof until -fe^<? — ft^?*^ — ^^^^^i^j^ — e^ — ^^^-i^^^si^^wt'^T— «+»-^-fi the 
offic-^ efe^i-1:— !*■? is rilled fcy appoi ntine nt and cc r.f i r na ticn. 

(1) ?f© A person ncr ccijtirasd by the senate rcr an ctfice 
shall ret, except at its rsqu-3st, be rcininated aqain fcr ^,hat 
office at rhe saai; s^ssicn, cr te appcintel tc that office 4-Ht-i«-g 
*- €^€-^e«-<9# Kills 'th^ legisl at or f^T ig_!JOt_ i r_g2Iii££i 

Section 9. EUDGilT l.hD MESSAGES. The gcveircr shall at the 
begir.rirq cf sach laqislative session, ar3 may at other -t-ittes, 
give the legislature inter nation and rfcoinicnd treasures he con- 
siders nec-issary. The gcverncr sh^ll subirit tc the legislature at 
a tiroe fixed by law, a budget fcr the ensuing fiscal period 
setting torth in detail^ ror all operating turds-r the proposed 
expenditures and estimatec revenue cf th- state. 

Section 1 v . VEIO fc'CWEK. (1) A^4 lach feiiie bill passed by 
the legislature, except bills propcsirg a irsnd ments to the fontana 
Constitution, bills ratifying proposed airendicents to the United 
States Constitution, rv? solutions, ard initiative and refer erdun 

measures, siiall be submitted tc ttie gcverrcr fcr hi£__gi22ilyEgi 

-aft4-sfeaii-ee4=««'^— 4d*-y— i^ If he dcfe£_nct_si2n -B-ij^-itfe-^E-df f«€-vee-fi©-E 
or ^■^4-e'e-e veto the bill within five days after its delivery to 
bin! if the legislature is ir sessicn-,^ or within 25 days if the 
legislature is ad jcurr.ed^_it_shall_beccn!e_lafc . The governor shall 
return a vetoed bills tc the legislature with a statement cf his 
©fe^-^e-fei-e-R-6 r€ascns_t heref or . 

(2) The governor a ay return any bill to the legislature 
with his •©te5«€-fe4-e-fie-dfi4--w-i-%-h— a r eccnirenda ticn fcr -a-a amendinent ee- 
a«-eft#ffl6ft*e — *-e-i* . If the legislature passes the bill in accord- 
ance with the governor's recoctterdaticn, it shall again return 
the bill tc the gcverncr for his r econsideraticr. The gcverncr 
shall net return a bill f cr_a aerdcent a second t iine7---#6¥--a^Hr-fi-^- 

(3) iifea If after receipt of a veto message, -t-fe-e-i^'^-ie- 

i-*%^iE-;-s-fe<i4i-ee6-G-a6i4e-E-f^'a-s-ee'§-e-«4— *-ti-e--ve*ee^-b4i-l-r -A twc-thirds 
♦^-fe-e of the ireaibers present a££rcve ■G-»-e-E-f44-6€-*-b'e— v-e4«-,-«ifl-d the 
bill^_it shall beccne law. 

((4) If the legislature is net in sessicn when the governor 
vetoes a bill, he shall return the bill with his e^f»^€€-ti«fi€ 
£§^scnE_theref or to the legislature i-e — a — «a-fi«'e-E — -a-H^-keti-ee^ as 
provided by law. ?i^e— ie-§ie4d4-Ki-e-y— ae— pt«-vi4«-^-4»-€€€-fe4«-R-44-, The 
liiIililiJ£S ^^y reconvene 4-fe6-e-i* to reconsider any billt so 
vetoed fey-%i»'e-§e¥'e-t-R€-E. 

(5) The gcvernor may veto items in apprcpriation bills, and 
in such instances the procedure shall be the sane as upcn veto of 
an entire bill. 

€e e tiQfl-44y — S**€4A-i — S*SSi€4}-r— W-fe-e-fi-e-v-e-E—t-b^-g-e-v-e-f-fi-e-t— €€«-e-i-4- 



902 blitCBT CF CCfMIITii ON STYIE, CEAFIING 



Section 4-5JJ. PAKi;CI<£. Ihc gcverncr €-ha-i4-kn*^^e— fe-b-e-{*9-wet-fe« 
max qrant reprieves, ccir nut aticns and pardcns d*-feec — €-6**ie*ie«, 
i^i«6^^*e restore cit i2 -nship 4, ard «->^ susperd and remit fines 
and forttitures Subject tc ficcedures ^*«-e-6ti*-e4 ^rcvided ty law. 



(i) Th(r nilitia forces shall ccr.sist of all atle-todied 
citi?en£ of the state except s-a«k-f-e^-e€-fi-s--ae-H*-€ these exenpted 
by law . 

Section ^^13. SUCCESSION. (1) If the governor-elect is dis- 
qualified-^ or dies, the lieutenant governcr-e lect upcn qualifying 
for the office shall beccme gcverncr for the full term. If the 
governor-elect fails to assume office for any ether reason, the 
lieutenant governor-elect upcn qualifying as such shall serve as 
acting governor until the governor-elect ^•a-di-i4-i'es-#«t is_able_to 
assume office, cr until the office tecooes vacart. 

(2) The lieutenant governor shall serve as acting governor 
when so requested in writing by the gcverrcr 4€-4-e-e«. ft-e-e-hai-i 

has beei:_absent from the state e^-*fe€-g€*e-E«e-f-#«*-*-fiY— p^-t4«4-4ft 

o aeecc — e4 f 0i_S!cr2__thar ^45 consecutive days,, the iilMlfS^^ 

goverricr_shall_ser ve_as_actini3_30verr!cr . 

(3) He shall alsc serve as acting gcverncr when the gover- 
nor is so disabled •dft4— fe-y-f-e^aees-e-f-ttat-^-iea-b-i-ii-fe^— i-6 as to be 

unable to conmiunicate tc the lieutenant gcverncr the fact cf his 

irability tc perfcriii the duties of his office. The lieutenant 

governor ift-6«€fe— e-v^-H-fe shall continue to serve as acting governor 

until the governor is_able_tc i<ee-«*es resume the duties of his 
office . 

(U) *'heneverx_at_ani_cther_tij[e^ the lieutenant gcverncr 
and attorney general transmit tc the fg€6444fl^ -of f i e er— e^ — tfe-e 
legislature their written declaraticn that the governor is unable 
to di,-charge the powers and duties ct his office, the legislature 
shall convene to_detsrmine_whether_he_is_able_tc_dc_sc. 

(5) If the legislature, withir 21 days after convening, 
determines by two-thirds vote of its meibers present that the 
governor is unable tc discharge the powers and duties cf his 



Nc.IV — Executive 903 



otiic^ , th~ lieutenant gcverncr shall f -fi-te^— t-^efi-^fi^-^ieefeae^e 
t-fe€-sa»-e sjrvs as actiny gcv<-"rncrti *-h-e-E'^-*-f4e€ Thereafter, Mhen 
the ycverncr transmits tc the f *-e€444fi^-e4^44s-?*-€4-4«e legis- 
lature his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall 
resume the powers and duties of his office within 15 days, unless 
the legislature determines otherwise ty two-thirds vote of its 
laeaibers. If the legislature so detertrines, the lieutenant gover- 
nor shall continue tc 4ieekaE^e— fe-ne — -^e^-^-Ee — rjfl-d — 4«*its--€-i ^-t^e 

e4-§i€T^ S^IZh 3£ acting governor. 

(6) If the office of governor becomes vacant ty reason of 
death, resignation, or disqualification, the lieutenant governor 
shall becoie governor tor the remainder of the terir, except as 
provided fe-s-P'^ift in_t his_CcnEtituticn . 

(7) Additional succession to ^-neh fill vacancies shall fce 
•i6 provided ty liw. 

(8) When there is a vacancy in the office of goverrcr, the 
successor shall iiti-v-e— t-h-e--ki*ieT-f ew-e-EfiT-^-H-tie-e— d-fl4— e«oi-H»€fi*6 — e# 
%-fea* — e-i-f±s<^-*fi4-e-h-344 be the governor, -w-fee* The s«€6ee-6«i— s*-&-»«« 
*« acting govsrEor ^e-E-ct-^e*^ et-^-E-y-f'^^-i^^T— 1»^ shall have €fiiy the 
powers and duties of the office of 30 verncr_cn 1^ for the period 
during which he serves ae-s-ae-fe. 

Section 4^24. INiC&KfiIIC|:_ FCF(_GCV EP NCR_J 11 The goverrcr (ray 
require info rma tier, in writ ing^_under_cath_when_reauir€djt frcm 
the officers of the executive derartaent upon any subject relat- 
ing to the duties of their respective officesTi -*.-h-i«i*-i«-i€-E«a4:-i-6ft 

_(2} h^ He may a-iee require information in writing, a*— as^ 

^«eT under oath, from all officers and managers of state insti- 
tution s-^i -«f«fi-aft^-s«4»4ee%-s-eia^i*-ei-4«— t-fe€— 6-e-f4±*4-6-fiT-*afla^*«efi* 

J3]_ He may, a4-aft^-*-iffl-6--h*--4-6-e«e-i* — -pee-reea-EyT appoint a 

committee "to investigate and report to him upon the ccnditicc cf 
any executive office or state institution. 



904 



H£FO!^T Cf COMMITTEE CN f.lYIL, CB^^FTING 



R^fCLt *M - i-xecutivs 
C0n«5N'I^ CN STYLE, FCl-K, ANC GbAff.AFi 



Section_Ji "C--[.aL tn.£ n t" is the generic label adopted in 
report ~Nc7 "l2, GENtPAl GCVEPNP'ENT. There- rray te seme mir.cr con- 
fusion b-ecaufir the hord is used in a differert ccntext in section 
7 cf this article. The GENEPAL GCVEPNWENI ccffiBents speak of 
dividiiiq th^ pcw^rrs cf cGv-5rniiert aircrg throe "tranches". Changes 
for brevity and clarity dc not alter substance. The order in 
which the offices are listed in section "i will te used ir final 
f or ff . 

5H£ticn_2_. Delr-?ticn cf superfluity dees net alter sub- 
stance . 

£3cticn_jj^ Scm" language has teen reacrarg^d and scire emit- 
ted. Ciliissioi.s dc net alter substance. 

ii£ii2S_li The CemiEittec on Style interprets subsection (2) 
as differentiating between "duties" and gu t ern ator ia 1 "power" 
which is Const ituticnally vesxed. 

Chang^^s dc net alter substance. The frcvisicn for a "legis- 
lative pest-d'iditor" in what was subsection (6) should be acved 

to the Article on THE LEGISLAIOBE. 

SecticR_5_. (1) The CcmiBittee on Style interprets this sub- 
section as net prohibiting either increases or decreases in sal- 
arias at any tim^. 

(2) The changes ir language are interded te make plain that 
the officer will te paid for the services he renders in his 
office . 

Section_6i Changes in language dc net alter substance. 

Section_7_. Deletion of the language begirning with "subse- 
quently" retrovcs a statutory provision which has been effected. 

Secticn_8_. (3) and (U) The words "is net in sessier" were 
substituted tor "recess", which was attbigucus. 

S£ction__10^ (1) The changes in language avcid the seeming 

possibility that a bill beccires law cnl^ if it is net signed or 

vetoed. Opinion is divided on whether "veto fewer" is EXECUTIVE 
or LEGISLATIVE. 

Sacticn_J_1i The section was deleted because the oatter is 
provided for in the last sentence of Section 6 cf the lEGISLftTIVE 
A RTICI E . All_f cllcwin3_secticns_ha v€_b€^n_r exu^te_red. 

Section 11. The verb "restore" was substituted for "reir- 



No. IV -- Executive 



905 



state" before "cit i2-;nship" because it is 'jsed in H.C.K. 1947, 
section 9 4-472^. 



?ecticn_Jl2i Chanaet iD larguage dc ret alt = i sutstance. 

Secticn_23^ (.) 1h" changes nake plain that the liputenant 
gGV9rncr~do?s r.ct tcgin tc act as gcverncr ur.til after thf; pas- 
sag? of U5 consecutive days. 

(8) The words deleted frcn sertence 1 dc not add force to 
the statement that "th^ successor shall be the gcverncr." Sen- 
tence 2 was rewritten tc produce brevity. 

Secticn_JliJi language charges dc ret alter sutstancc. A 
title was added. 



906 



FEFCtvT CF CCf.MITTIE CN STYIE, CBAFIING 



CFCEF C? EDSINESS NO. 5 - 
}•1^AL CCNSICEBPIION 
STYLE AM CBAiTING - EXECUTIVE - 
NC. IV 

ARTICLE 
IHE EXECD1IVE 



Sectior. 1. CfllCEES. (1) The executive dcfartnient ircludes 
a jcvorrcr, lisutenaiit gcverr.cr, secretary of state, attorney 
general, suf ^-rintend^nt of futlic instruction, and auditor. 

(2) £ach holds office for a term of four jears which tegir.s 
on th£ iirst Kcnday of January rext succeeding election, and 
until a successor is elected and qualified. 

(3) Zach shall r-?sidt5 at the seat cf gcvernwent, there keef 
the public records cf his office, and ferfcm such other duties 
as ar.r provided in this Constitution and ty law. 



Section 
secretary of 
instruction, 
tors at d general 



2. EITICITCK. (1) 
state , attc rney g 
and auditor shal^ 
"^ electicr. provided 



Ihe governor, lieutenant gcverrcr, 
ereral, superintendent of public 
1 be elected by the qualified elec- 
vided bj law. 



(2) Each candidate tor goverrcr shall file jointly with a 
candidate for lieutenant governor in prinary elections, or so 
otherwise ccirply with nocmatior procedures provided by law that 
the offices cf governor and lieuterart governor are voted upon 
together in primary and general elections. 

Sectior 3. QU AIlFit AI ICN S. (1) NO person shall be eligible 
to the office cf governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of 
state, attorney gent-ral, superintendent cf public instruction, cr 
auditor unless he is 25 years of age or older at the tiise cf his 
election. In addition, each shall be a citizen cf the Urited 
States who has resided hithin the state two years next preceding 
his election. 



(2) Any person with the foregoing qualifications is eligi- 
ble to the office of attorney general if an attornej in good 
standing admitted to practice law in Montana who has engaged in 
the active practice thereof fcr at least five years before elec- 
tion. 

(3) The superintendent cf public instruction shall have 
such educational gualif icaticrs as are provided by law. 



No. 



;v — Executive- 



go? 



SecticE 4. CUIIES. (1) The executive pcwer is vested ir th€ 
governor who shall see thdt the laws are faithfully executed. He 
shall have such ether duties as are provided ir. this Ccrstituticn 
and ty law. 



(2) The lieutenant governor shall perfcrir the duties prc- 
d by law and these delegated tc hini by the gcverncr. Nc power 
ifically vested in the governor by this Constitution may be 
gated tc the lieutenant governor. 

(3) The secretary cf state shall maintain official records 
of the executive departnent and cf the acts cf the legislature, 
as provided by law. He shall keep the great seal cf the state of 
Montana and cerforn any ether duties provided by law. 



(2) The 
vidad by law 
spec ' " ■ 
deleg 



(4) The attorney general is the legal officer of the 
and shall have the duties and powers provided ty law. 



state 



(5) The superintendent of public instruction, and the audi- 
tor shall have such duties as are provided ty law. The legis- 
lature may appoint a legislative pcst-auditcr who shall perfcru 
such post-auditing duties as may be provided by law. 



Section 5. CCFFE KSATICN . (1) Officers cf the 
departirent shall receive salaries provided ty law. 



execut ive 



(2) During his terir, no elected officer cf the executive 
department say hold another public office or receive compensation 
for services froa any other governEental agency. He lay be a can- 
didate for any public office during his term. 

Section o. VACANCY IN CFFICE. (1) If the office cf lieuten- 
ant governor becomes vacant ty his successicc tc the office of 
governor, or by his death, resignation, or disability as deter- 
mined by law, the governor shall appoint a qualified person tc 
serve in that office for the rettairder cf the term. If both the 
elected governor and the elected lieutenant gcvercor teccme 
unable to serve in the office of gcverncr, successicr. tc the 
respective offices shall be as provided by law for the period 
until the next general election. Then, a goverrcr and lieutenant 
governor shall be elected tc fill the remainder of the original 
term. 

(2) If the office cf secretary of state, attorney general, 
auditor, or superintendent of public instruction becones vacant 
by death, resignation, or disability as determined ty law, the 
governor shall appoint a qualified person tc 
until the next general election and until a 
and qualified. The person elected to fill a 
the office until the expiration cf the term 
cesser was elected. 



serve m that office 
successor is elected 
vacancy shall hold 
for which his prede- 



Section 7. 2C DEPAPTMENTS. All executive and administrative 



908 



REPORT CF C0?':MI1'IEE CN STXIE, EFAFTIKG 



offices, bcaif^s, tur€^us, ccwiLisEicrs , agencies and instruttec- 
talities of the exicutiv«= d?partirer;t (exceft fcr the office of 
qovfrr.or, lieutenant gcveinct, sccietary cf state, attorney gen- 
eral, oUi;arintcndf^nt cf public instruction, and auditor,) ar.d 
their respective functicLs, powers, and duties, shall te allc- 
cat-::-d fcy law .iincng not acre than 2C principal departments so as 
to providt> an orderly ar rang-^mert ir the administrative orgar.iza- 
ticn of state gover nir-snt . leirpcrary ccipoiissicns may te estab- 
lished by law and need net te allocated within a departniert. 

Section 8. AEECIMIKG ECKEb. (1) The departments provided 
fcr in section 7 shall tc under the supervision of the governcr. 
Sxcept as oth--rwise provided m this Constitution or ty law, each 
department sh^ll be neaded ty a single executive appointed ty the 
governor sul-ject to ccnfircaticr by the senate to hold office 
until th*^ ina or the governor's tern unless sooner removed ty the 
governcr . 

(2) The governor shall appcirt, subject to confirmation by 
the senate, all officers provided for in this Constitution or by 
law whose appointment or election is not otherwise provided for. 
They shall hold office until the end cf the governor's term 
unless socr.ei remcved ty the goverrci. 

(3) If a vacancy occurs in any such office when the legis- 
lature is net in s-ssion, the governor shall appoint a gualified 
person to discharge the duties thereof until the office is filled 
by appoi rtiiier t and confirmation. 



(4) h 
shall not. 



p-rscn not ccnfirirea ty the senate for an office 



except 



its reguest, be rcainated again for that 



office at the sanio session, or te appointed to that 
the lecislature is not in session. 



office when 



Section 9. BUDGET ANL MESSAGES. The governor shall at the 
beginning cf each legislative session, and aay at other times, 
give the legislature inforoiation and recoiiisend measures he con- 
siders necessary. The governcr shall submit to the legislature at 
a time fixad by law, a budget for the ensuing fiscal period 
setting forth in detail fcr all operating funds the proposed 
expenditures and estimated revenue of the state. 

Section 1C. VETC FCV-'EF. (1) Each bill passed by the legis- 
lature, except bills proposing amerdaents to the Montana Ccnsti- 
tution, bills ratifying proposed airendnients to the United States 
Constitution, resolutions, and initiative and referendun mea- 
sures, shall be submitted to the governcr fcr his signature. If 
he does not sign or veto the bill within five days after its 
deiiV'-^ry to Mm if the legislature is in session or withir 25 
days if the legislature is adjourned, it shall become law. The 
governcr shall return a vetoed till to the legislature iiith a 
statement of his reasons therefor. 



(2) The governor may return any bill to the legislature 



Nc. IV — Executive 



909 



with uis r scomaiendaticn fcr aiTG rdment . If the legislature passes 
the bill in accordance »<ith the gcverncr's r ecommendat icr , it 
shall again return the bill tc the gcverrcr fcr his reconsidera- 
ticn. The gcverrcr shall net return a bill fcr anendmect a seccnd 

tilB9 . 

(3) If after receipt cf a vetc message, twc-thirds cf the 
memhers pr-:;sent apprcve the till, it shall becciie law. 



(H) If the legislature is ret 



vetces a bill, he shall return the till with his reascns therefcr 
the legislature as prcvided ty law. Ihe legislatu 
".e tc reconsider any bill sc vetoed. 



to the 
ven 



in session «hen the governor 

s th 
re may reccn- 



(5) The gcverncr may veto iteics in ap pr c j r iaticn tills, and 
in such instances the procedure shall be the saoe as upon veto of 
an entire bill. 

Secticn 11. SFICIAL SESSION. Whenever the gcverncr consid- 
ers it in the public interest, he nay convene the legislature. 

Section 12. P&RDCKS. The gcverncr may grant reprieves, cob- 
BUtaticns and pardons, restore citizenship, and suspend and reoit 
fines and forfeitures subject tc procedures provided by law. 

Section 13. KIIITIA. (1) The gcverncr is commander-in-chief 
of the irilitia fcrces of the state, except when they are in the 
actual service of the United States. He iray call cut any part or 
all of the fcrces to aid in the execution of the laws, suppress 
insurrection, repel invasion, cr prefect life and property in 
natural disasters. 



(2) The militia fcrces shall consist cf all 
citizens of the state except those exempted by law. 



aHe-bcdied 



Section 14. SUCCESSICN. (1) If the governor-elect is dis- 
qualified or dies, the lieutenant gcverncr-elect upon qualifying 
fcr the office shall tecome governor fcr the full terra. If the 
governor-elect fails tc assume office for any other reason, the 
lieutenant governor— elect upcn gualifying as such shall serve as 
acting governor until the governor-elect is able to assume 
office, cr until the office fceccmes vacant. 

(2) The lieutenant gcverrcr shall serve as acting governor 
when sc reguested in writing ty the governor. After the gcverncr 
has teen absent frca the state for Eore than a5 ccnsecutive days, 
the lieutenant governor shall serve as acting gcverncr. 

(3) He shall serve as acting gcverrcr when the gcverncr is 
so disabled as to be unable tc ccirmunicate tc the lieutenant 
governor the fact of his inability tc perform the duties cf his 
office. The lieutenant governor shall continue to serve as acting 
governor until the governcr is able tc resuae the duties cf his 
office. 



910 



REPCRT CF CCf^MIlTEI CN SI 111 , ESAFTIRG 



(tt) Whtnever, dt any ether tine, the lieutenant gcvernor 
and attorr.=.y goneril trdismit tc the legislature their written 
declaraticn that the gcverncr is unable tc discharge the fcwers 
and duties ot his cffice, the legislatuif shall convene to deter- 
mine whether lie is alle to do sc. 

(5) If the l-=gisldtuie, liithir 21 days after ccrverirq, 
derv^rroin^s by two-thirds vote of its irembers that the gcvernor is 
unabli tc discharge the powers and dutitis ct his cffice, the 
lieutenant jcverr.cr shall serve as acting gcverncr. Thereafter, 
when th3 gcv-rncr transndts tc the legislature his writter. decla- 
ratid th^t r.c inability exists, he shall resume the powers and 
duties of liis cffice withir 15 days, unless the legislature 
deteririiies otherwise ty twc-thirds vote of its meirbers. If the 
legislatui:^ so deterinines, tht: lieutenant governor shall continue 
to s^rve as acting governor. 



(b) If the otfic? of governcr tecones vacant by reascr cf 
death, resignaticn, or disqualification, the lieutenant gcverncr 
shall tecoaie gcverncr fcr the reoiainder of the terii, except as 
provided in this Ccrstituticr. 



(7) Adfiitional 
videc Ly liw. 



successicc tc fill vacancies shall te pre— 



(8) When there is a vacancy in the cffice of governor, the 

successor shall be the governcr. "The acting gcverncr shall have 

the powers and duties cf the cffice cf gcverrcr only for the 
pericd during which he serves. 

Section 15, INfOSr'ATICN fCf GCVEFNOB. (1) The gcverrcr Bay 
require infcrttaticr. in writing, under oath wher required, from 
the officers of the executive department upon any subject relat- 
ing to the duties cf their respective cffices. 



all 



(2) He may require inforiraticr in writing, under cath, froi 

officers and managers cf state institutions. 



(3) 

him upcn 
tuticn . 



H^ may appoint a coiririttee to investigate and report tc 
the ccnditicn cf any executive cffice cr state insti- 



No. V — Judiciary 



911 



f!OKIANfl CONSTITDTICI^AL CCNVENIICN 
1971-1S12 

BEPCKT CP CCKMITIEE CN STYLE, EFAFIING, 
IRANSITICN AND SCEKISSICN CN 
JUEICIBEY 
NC. V 



Eate Repcrted: March 9, 1972 



^s^John_U_j._Schiltz , Chairaan 



Z§^Milii3B!_A^_Pur khardt , Vice Chairaan 



912 



BEPCKT CF CCM'.ITTZE CN S1YLI, ESAITING 



IC: '■icntana Ccnst itut ional Ccrverticr 

SUBJECT: JtJElClAFY 

L a d i e 1-: a r J G <:: n 1 1 e m <:. n : 

1h~ Ccnunitt-::t cr. Style, Crafting, Transiticn and Sutaissicr 
traiitffitt r-^visicns ct the atcvf^ Article fcr ccnsidera t icr. cf the 
C c n V t n t i c ii . 

Immediitf^ly fcllcwir.g this lett-^r ycu will find the atcve 
Article as t'^vis-rd by the CcmiEittce. Fcllowinc that is th€ Arti- 
cle indicating (ty undeilanicg) words we have added and (by 
crossing out) words we have deleted frcir the Article as approved. 
Finally, there is an exflanaticr or the changes we have made. 

Sincerely , 



/s^John_f;^_Schi Itz 

Chairiran cf the Ccaicittee 

en Style, Crafting, Transiticn 

and Sutraissicr 



ZsZMlili^S-ii-Euiishardt 
Vict Chairitan cf the Ccnmiittee 
en Style, Crafting, Transiticn 
and Subniissicc 



No. V — Judiciary 



913 



BE IT FFCPOSIC EY TUl JUElCIAhY CCfMTIEE: 

That there be d r.?** Article ci; the Judiciary tc read as fol- 
ic k£ : 

A.RTICIii 
TF£ JOnCIAFY 



IS 



Secticr. 1. JOflCIAL fCWEF.. Ihf juaicial pcwer of the state 
vested in on- sufrein? ccurt, district courts, jusrice courts. 



and such ether courts as may be frcvided by lavi. 

Secticn 2. SUPREME CCUBl JOB ISCICl IC ^ . (1) The sufreita 
ccurt has apftllat€ jurisdiction and iray issue, hear, ard deter- 
Biine writs appicpiiirs thereto. It has oriqinal jurisdiction to 
issue, h-^ar, and detiraiin= writs of habeas corpus. 



(2) 



ha; 



general supervisory ccntrcl ever all other 



court : 




(4) Supreme ccurt process shall extend tc all parts of the 
state. 

Secticn 3. SUEHEME CCUET CBGAN IZAT ICK . (1) The supreffe 
court consists cf one chief justice ard fcur justices, hut the 
legislature may increase the number of justices from four tc six. 
A majority shall join in and pronounce decisions, which lEust be 

in writing. 

(2) A district judge shall be substituted for the chief 
justice or a justice in the event cf disqualification or disabil- 
ity, and the opinion of the district judge sitting with the 
supreme court shall have the sane effect as an opinion of a jus- 
tice . 

section U. DISTPICI CCOBT JUE IS£ICTICN . (1) The district 
court has original jurisdiction in all criminal cases amounting 
tc felony and all civil matters and cases at law and in equity. 
It may issue all writs appropriate to its jurisdiction. It shall 
have the power of naturalization and such adciticnal jurisdiction 
as may be delegated by the laws cf the United States or the state 
of McDtana. Its process shall extend tc all parts cf the state. 

(2) The district court shall hear appeals frcir irfeticr 



914 



HEFOBT OF CCfKITTEI CN STYLE, EBAPIING 



anev unless cthetwisp picvided ty laiii. Ths 

'"^ the district court 



courts as trials 

legislature iray {.rcvide for direct review Dy 

of d-;cisions of ddministrat ive agencies. 



(3) Other courts may 
not aaiounting to felony drd 
that cf th= district court as 



hav- jur isdict icr. cf criirinal cases 
;uch jurisdicticr ccncurrent with 
(ray te provided ty law. 



Section 5. JUSTICES CE THE EEACZ. (1) There shell te 
elected in each ccur.ty fcr a terir cf four years at least cce jus- 
tice cf the peace with qualif icaticns , training, and monthly ccm- 
pensdtion provided ty law. Ihere shall te provided such facili- 
ties that they may perform their duties in dignified srrrcund- 
incs . 

(^) Justice courts shall have such original jurisdicticn as 
may be provided by law. They shall not have trial jurisdicticr in 
any criminal case designated a felony except as examining courts. 



the 



(3) 

pea 



3) The legislature may provide fcr additional justices 
ace in each ccunty. 



of 



(1) The legislature shall 
x.u.^ ju^^^aaj. districts and provide for the 
in each district. Each district shall be formed 
of compact territory and te bounded by ccunty lines. 



Secticr 6. JUCICIfll EISTFICTS. 
divide the state into judicial 
number cf judges 



(2) The legislature aay change the nuiher and boundaries of 
judicial districts and the number cf judges in each district, but 
no change in boundaries or the number of districts or judges 
therein shall wcrk a removal of any judge from cffice during the 
term fci which he was elected cr appcirt'==d. 

(3) The chief justice may upon request cf the district 
judge, assign district judges and ether judges for tempcrary ser- 
vice frcm one district to another, and from one ccunty to 

a nether . 



Section 7. 
shall be paid 



TEBMS ANE FAY. (1) All justices and judges 

__ j-„^„ as provided by law, but salaries shall not be 

diminished during terms of office. 



(2) Terms cf cffice shall be eight years fcr supreme court 
justices, six years for district ccurt judges, and as provided by 
law fcr cth^r judges. 

Section 8. SELECTICN. (1) The governor shall roninate a 
replacement frci nominees selected in the manner provided ty law 
for any vacancy ia the office of supreme ccurt justice cr dis- 
trict court judge. If the governor fails to nominate within 
thirty days after receipt cf ncminees, the chief justice cr act- 
ing chief justice shall make the ncmina ticn. Each noBination 
shall be ccnfirmed ty the senate, tut a rcainaticn aade while 
the senate is not in session shall be effective as an appcintient 



ho. V — Judiciary 



915 



until the end cf th-i a^xt sassier.. If th-: rc^riraticr. is net ccn- 
firmed, ths office shall c= vacant and ar.cthec selecticc ar.d ncoi- 
inaticE shall be mad -a. 



(2) 



It, at t h ■? 



first el-^cticn after 



♦^rat"? ccr f iinaticn , 

cf office, any 

ice cr district judq? 



and at th- -l^cticr befcr*^ each succfc'iing tern 
car.diaate other than th-a ircuitent jus' 
files tor -^lection to that cftice, the r.aire ct the ircumbent 
shall le placed cii tha tallct. If th^re is re ccrtest for th = 
office;, the r.awe cf th? ircuElert shall re v^ r thelsss be placed on 
the <j<-r.eral election ballet tc allcw voters cf the state ct dis- 
trict tc ^tprove cr reject hiir. if ar. incuatcnt is rejected, 
ancthrr sei^^cticr ard nciiiiaaticn shall be irade. 



(3) if an incumbent requests that iii. 
the tallct, there shall be an electicr. tcr 



; nafft net be f.lac< 
the cffice. 



d er. 



Section ':■ . g c;>IIF ICATICNS . (1) f citizr^r cf the United 
States who has resided in the state twc years iiraie d i at e ly befcre 
taking cffice is eligible tc the cffice cf sufrecae court justice 
oi district court judge if admitted tc the fractice of lah in 
Montana for at least five years pricr tc the date cf appcintmen t 
cr election. C ualif icaticns and irethcds cf selection of judges cf 
other courts shall be provided by law. 

(2) -Jo supreiTG court justice or district court judge shall 
sclicit cr receive coaipe nsat ic r in any tcrni whatever cr account 
of his cffice, except salary and actual necessary travel expense. 

(3) Except as ctherhise provided in this Cc rsti tutien , no 
supreuie court justice or district ccurt judge shall practice law 
during his terra cf office, engage in any ether eaiplcyffent for 
which salary or fee is paid, cr held cffice in a pclitical party. 

(U) Supreme court justices shall reside within the state. 
Every other judge shall reside durirg his terir. of office in the 
district, county, township, precinct, city cr tcwr in which he is 
elected cr appcirted. 

Section IC. fCRFEIlDRE CF JtEICIfil ECSITICN. Any holder of 
a judicial pesiticn forfeits that pcsiticr by either filing for 
an elective public cffice ether than a judicial pesiticn or 
absenting himself froir the state for tpcre than 6C ccnsccutive 
days . 

Section 11. REDIOVAL AND CISCIEIINE. (1) The legislature 
shall create a judicial standards ceannissicn consisting ef five 
perscns and provide for the appcirtoert thetete cf two district 
judges, cne attcrney, and two citizens whc are neither judges nor 
attorneys . 

(2) The coniniissior shall investigate ccaplaints. Bake rules 
inpleicenting this section, and keep its proceedings confidential. 
It may subpoena witresses and docuitents. 



916 



REPCPT CF CCPflTIEF CM SISLI, LBk^TllG 



(3) 'Jpcn r eccnitnenda t icr ct the ccirniEsicn, th*; supreme 

court, raaj: 

(a) retire any justice cr judge fcr disability that seri- 
ously interferes viith the perfcrmance cf his dutias and is cr may 
tecorae pemanert; cr 

(b) censure, suspend, cr reocve any justice or judge for 
willful wisccnduct in office, willful and persistent failure tc 
perform his duties, cr hatitual in tempera r.ce . 

Section 12. EXEBPTICN LAViS. The legislature shall enact 
libera] hcuestead and exempticn la«s. 

Section 13. FZ F FET UI TIE £ . No perpetuities shall be allcwed 
except fcr charitable purposes. 



No. V — Judici^iry 917 



BE IT FBCFCSET E^ THE JflEICIAFY C C f f m E E : 

That there be a new Article cr the Judiciary tc read as fcl- 
Icfcs: 

AB1ICIE 
IHE JCLICIAtli 



SecticH 1. JUDICIAL P08EP. Ihe judicial power of the state 
is vested in * one suprtin^ ccurt_t -s*-^ district ccur ts_t___justice 
ccurts_j^ and such ether courts as may he frcvided by lav. 

Section 2. SUPPE««E CCUFT -t^-fct-f-S J tE IS E ICT IC N. Jl). Ihe 
supreme court has appellate jur isdict icnT--i-fi6i-B4ifl^ — 5-H-Eie4i€-t-ir9ft 
and__fljaj^ -t-^ issue, hear^ and deternine writs appropriate thereto^, 
4«— ir*s-af't'€ii-i-te--gy-f 4-s4i-e4-i€-Ri--^ft-«i It_has cricinal jurisdicticn 
to issue, hear^t and Get e mire writs cf hateas corpus. 

J2]_ It has g-eneral supervisory ccntrcl ever all ether 
courts . 

J3}_ It may irak^ rules gcverrirq appellate procedure, ta ^ es 
«4 practice and procedure for all cthei cotrts, •d-R4-EH-i'e^e-€-i 
admission tc the tar dnd the ccrduct cf its tcenihers. Rules cf 
procedure shall te subject to ■^ffi-evai-'e-i disapproval by the 
legislature in either cf the twc sessions fcllcwing 4-hei-E prcmul- 
gaticn . 

jUj Su£reBe_ccur t_£rccess_shall_ex terd_tc_all_^ar t s_cf the 

Stat e^ 

Section i. SUPBEME CCUBT CBG A NIZ Al ICN . J1]. The suprene 
court ekdiiee-fesie-t consists cf one chief justice and four jus- 
tices, but the li:lislature_mdY_increase_the_ruffber_cf_ justices 

f rcffl_f cur_to_si X. -nA majority €*--wii©*— *Hii-i--l&-e-fle6e6Sde-j'-*6 shall 
jcin_in_ani pronounce ^h-e 4-ee-ie-iefi ^gcisic^s, which nust te in 
writing -=^4 — 5-6-i«>c4— is— fe-y-%-h6-«d-3€-ti*Y. 5ke-i<%^4rS-i-d%i¥-6-d€&e«-fe4-y 
fra-y—i-fi6-£'e*s-e—fe^e—fi««-fe'et—«-fe-5-»€«-i€€e-^E6#- •#4*^-4 €—ee-»e-R-r 

J2J A district ^-a^-^es jud^e shall be sutstituted for the 

chief justice cr %-ke a jHs^ic-e-fe justice in the event of disguali— 
ficaticn or disability, 4-fi-d«-y— ed-«*-67- and the cpinien of the dis- 
trict judge sitting with the supreme court shall have the same 
effect as an opinion of a justice €*-4it-?— 6-«-^-t^«€-6«-«t*. 

Section 4. DISTRICI CCUPl JUEISCICTIC N. (1) The district 
court has original jurisdicticn ir all criminal cases ajrcurticg 
to felcny and all civil matters and cases at law and in equity. 
It Bsay issue all writs appropriate tc its jurisdicticn. It shall 
have the power cf naturalizaticr and such additional jurisdiction 



918 REPC^T CF CCf:fI11il CN SIYII , ERAFTIKG 



as itiay be i^l'^gated by th"^ laws cf the Dnited States or th€ stats 
cf ?'cntara . I ts_Ercc2S3_sh all_extf ra_tc_al l_iar ts_cf thf §tat€j, 

(2) The district court shall hear apfeals frcin inferior 
courts as trials arewr unless ctherwise prcvil^d by lav.. -(^> The 
l^ejislatur^ may provide for direct review ly the district ccurt 
cf d£cisicr.s cf administrative agerciesri 

j3]_ Cther_coijrts_Dia2 h^l^ ^"^^ jurisd ictior. of ciiniral 

cases nct~dffcurtir.g tc~lclcry 4*— 6*i»e4-e-e4rt4-6T and #©t-€«-R€«*-p««* 
such jurisdicticp ccncurrent with e44i«-E-6«-«t-%e that_of_the_diE- 
trict_ccurt_as_[ra_y_t €_£rov ided_ti_law . 

e ut e n d -4c a^l-f ti-£-fee-e#-»tee-fe%^4€-r 

Section 445. JCS1ICES CF IHE PEACE — i-liG54e^ ^-*ii-f^-G-A- 

5i€¥-S -feO-KPi-MiA^iC^ — jy-SiSfiiG^H-G*. ill There shall be elected 

in each county t cr _a_terffi_cf_f c ui__sears at least cne justice cf 
the peace with qualifications, training, and Bcnthly compensation 

■a« provided by 1-i wt— *«+t-6-s^-<i4^-*-€i^-e-#4-ie'e-4«i-*-h'e %e-t* — b4 — -i-G-H-E 

^e^t^, There shall be provided such facilities #e-E-s«-64i that_the_Y 

^g^i€c-s — se — ti^* ffla^ £5ll2£S their duties #-ay-*e— pe€#€-E«-e4 in 

dignified surroundings. 

J2)_ Justice courts shall have such original juiiscicticn 
wi^-hifi—fe-h^if-teef t'e^iv-e-e^-H-fi^ie-e as may be ft e€€ti-b'e-# ifovided by 
law. They shall not have trial jurisdiction ir any criffiinal case 
designated a felcnyT except as exanining courts. 

J3}_ The legislature nay provide rcr additional justices of 
the peac-^ ir each county €-e— G*^-fee-E— *yf.ee-e#-e€-a-E-ts-fe^-ie-«— %fee — iis- 
tci c t c o u ^-fe— ■ir^-v-g-^'a6-4s-4€-e-B€4— B-&€€€fe^€-y. 

Section %b. JDCICIAL DISTRICTS, Jl). The ie^4re4^44*e 
d««e*fe4y liaislature shall divide the state into judicial dis- 
tricts and provide for the ruraber of judges in each district, 
ll£h_district_shall_be_fcrmed_cf_ccff£act_t err iter j_ard_be_bcuEd^ 
by_ccunti_li_re£_, 

III. ^Q le ^464.^%4»«-aeg<=~gfe-^y-g-kall ■ha-^'g— %ke — pe-*het *e The 

i£2i§iitM£^_i;£tY charge the nuirber and_bcundarie£ cf judicial dis- 
tricts ^«4-*-beit-t6tifi4^^-i-e€ and the nutcber of judges in each dis- 
tricts^ ^Q^^e^eg, c-iGh — 44£tiict chall be 4-etff-e4 of €««^-a €t - 4 e € - 
gJr%eg-y-aB4— b^e— fe-e-a«4-e4— fe-y— ee^fi-fe^ 1 i f.os j but no ch a ngeo chan3€ in 
boundaries or the number of districts cr judges thereir-y shall 
work a reaioval cf any judge frcif office during the tertn for which 
he feds— fe-e^-ft was elected cr appointed. 

J3)^ The chief justice iiiay,^ upon request cf the district 

iU^SLSi assign *-be district -j a dgc judges and other judges for 
temporary service from cne district tc another, and froB one 
county tc another. 



No. V — Judiciary 919 



Secticn -fe?. TERMS ANC FAY £^-^-fi-&^^S. JJi__All justices e4 
t h o G U p E -j'g'-^-€e-H-E^7-44-s-fe-£-ir€^-€e-t>-fcfe-5ti4€gS and €-t-B^-E judges shall 
be paid as providtJ by law, tut -t-b-e-i-t— e-a-i-a-e^ SlilSiiS shall net 
be diminished during -tfe-eit -fe-e^a ifllS of cffic^. 

J2}_ Tc-rirs cf cfficc -te-E-s-Hf^f c.*ii__ee-H-E4 — ^-ts-ti-e-ee shall be 
eight ytarsx icr_su£r2Ee_cc u^t_j_i;£ t ic3S_t_£ix__Year s 

i^iff-s — -€# — ©*t4e^ tcr district ccurt judgss^^ ei^^i-i— fe-e-ei« 
-yei*-E€-r and_d s_crovid^d_ti_law 

?ee«e-<^*-e4-i-i€'i for ether judges gft^a-li-e^-f f •9-<?i4^4 — t-y — i-a-**. 

Section i3. SIIECTICK e* — -J-S-e^-^. _(J}_ I hi_3C ve r nc t_£ha 1 1 

2£iillli:i_S_ES:lii3£S2Sni_iEC i_nciiref £_s elect ed_in_the_2anne r__xrc- 
videa__b_y__la w -is-riii-^-a^^fte-ir-s iCi_ar^_vacancy in the cfiicee cf 
supreme court justices ^-r^ cr district ccurt judgiSTi ^-^h? — -^o v cc- 

j udg e — E-E-fHB — -ft-eeirft-e-^o — e-ei-?€%-e4-i-B-*iie-«-f«ftr^-f--^£e-vi4<&4— fey — 1-a-w-r I f 
the gcverncr fails tc ncminate within thirty days after receipt 
cf %fee — ftaaee-^-i— fe-k^ ncminees, the chief justice cr actirg chief 
justice shall itake the ncffiEaticn. Each rcainatior. shall he ccn- 
firaied by the senate, but a nciririaticn trade vhile the senate is 
not ^aeeaei-?4 in_sessicr shall be effective as an appcirtttect 
until the end cf the next sessicn e4-*i»^--s^*i^*-e. If the rciiina- 
ticn is net confirmed^ fey-tk*=-6<=-R-^4-e the cffice shall be vacant 
and ancther selection and ncminaticn shall be irade. 

■e-tee*-i-e«— f-Ei-e€-^e--^<t€-h— 6«eeee4ifif-*et«— 9*— 9##-tee-y-*^<r-fid»-^-«4 — %-h-3 

i H c a ff bent ' ^-Be^e— e-t^^a J:l— fe-e— p Jr-g€^4-eft-'a-€€-B%-fefi-fe-a4-- b a 1 !«-€ i# — et kcE 

g afl d idat rs — h^t^-e — -f-ii€4 — #65 — ■e-ies-?±€S-4'e-*-fta-fe-€#*i€€-i- If ^_at_t he 

f irst_electicn_af t£r_senate_ccnf ir cat icnj, and at the election 

bet o^^ ^^£h. §ii££^§din^_ter ff_cf _cf tice_j_an^_cardidat e_cth€r_t han 

the_incuttbent_j U£tice_or_d istr ict__jud5e f ilss f cr glec_ticn to 

that cf f ice^ Ilis__naffie__cf _the_ircuroben t_sh 3ll_b€_£laced_on_t he 

ballct_. If there is no -pf-iaai-y-^-lee-fe-ie-fi ccctest for the cffice, 
the name cf the incumbent -g-t^d^-e shall nevertheless be placed on * 
fe-a-i-i«* — i-fi the general election ballct_tc allcai-fi^ voters cf the 
state or district *ie-e4*«-i6-6-€4 — Ir-i* — a-ff £e- va 4--Qg — -ee-gee^-idfi to 

a££rcve or Sgjict hiffi. iff — *fe-€--e*<r«4— e#-i-^^-ee-fe-i-e«-€# If a an 

judg e iliSi^S^f ^i_ii_£i j§£i^!^x ancther selection and nominaticn 
shall be [cade ie— ii-ke-«a^ifi-c€. 

J3X If an incumbent 5-«4f*T-4-ee«— e«4— e-h-r reguests_that . his 
Sm_I12l_^i_Li^£§4_S£_lke_ballct , there shall be a an e«« t o st€ 4 
election for the cffice. 

Section ^^9 . QUAIIFICAIICHS -Aii-e ii^^-?-A4iG*S €* F UDGE S, 

IIL *^-€— §e^-e-eft-€fe^a ll b e A_citiz€n_cf _t he_Urited__Sta tes jihc has 

resided in thestate two years iBcediately befcre_ taking cffice 

is eligible tc the elrii^^-e cffice cf su£reBe_cc ur t justice ©•#-4ii€ 



920 EfFCPT CF CCW!?I1IEE CN ?TiLI, [BAPT3^G 



6u p £ r ff -g— e-64j-£-t CI (j 1 £ 1 1 i c t__ c c u 1 1 "udqe ■€■# 4^ 4-i-6*-Ei€-% €««5% 

»fti-es-e — ■t»^--ee-s-fe^-sftti4:i-^,i-¥€— fe<S4:fi if ad.iiittec to tYf. practice cf 
law ir. Mcntgiid tcr at least fiv€ yeats prior tc the date of 
appoin tmf nt or electicn-7i 4e— d-€i44aefl-e#-*i4*r— fe«i*«4-S4ct-%-es-y— a«4 

^•Aitifi*^ — et*4'Ce-r Qua lif ica tiCDS and irethcds cf selecticE cf judges 
cf cthtit courts shall be prcvided ty law. 

J2J_ No supr&iT'? ccuit justice cr district ccurt judge shall 

solicit or receive a-R-y cofff ensat icn in aEl_l2£I!!_w]3^£ever en 

account of his office, 4:-p--4-fi^-4ef«-*-ha4e-ve€7 except salary and 
actual necessary travel expense d«-f*€-v±4e4— fe-y-4-^-K. 

111. rxcept as cth-^rwise prcvided in this Ccnst ituticr, re 
supreme court justice or district ccurt judge shall practice law 
during his tern cf office, engage in any ether eir.plcyirent fcr 
which salary or fee is paid, er held office in a political party. 

•fe-«t€-«4--3«44€id4-f €ei-fei'G*--fe-H4— a-^-«4-ee'-»^-y-4i4<r-4€i-afi€4ihei — -54i4i- 
€±a-l — -pesi^iefl — *i^^«a4 — ^.^j^^^^.^^^.^ — ei — *h e j <i44€4ra4-f €ei ticn— fe« 
hei4e-r 

J^l. -A44 — ^«4«e^S7- — e-jf^ef* Su^rewe court justices €■# — **-e 

eu pr e«^ — G«-Ht*7- — *«« shall reside within the state-y^ Every^cthgi 
judcje shall -f-ee-pee-t-i-v-^-y reside during *-h-e-ii his term of office 
in the district, county, tcwnship, precinct, city cr town in 
which •t-fee-y-iRd^i' — tee he_is elected or appointed. 

Afif-5-a4±€id4— 94-iie*£— *f-h«— «dy-^-teefi-t-+»-ift6-e-i4--f€e« — ^h^ — -6%^4-e 
#«* — *€se — ^han — ^■G-€e«-e€-€«-%4-v-e-4^^e-g.fed4:4--te«-4'ee-fre4-4«— fe^d-v-e— #^«- 
-#e4-t-e-4 — h is- e 44 4 ee »- 

Section_1.0_. £ QBFEIIUR E_CF_ JnciClAl_f CSIIIC N. _ Ani_holder of 

a JMilicial £2siticn_f or f e its_that_£C£ition_tj_either_f ilin£_f or 

an_Sl€ctive_x;ublic_cf f ice ether than a judicial~_£csit Ic r_2cr 

afesentin^ ilAiiself from the state_f c^_mcre_than_6C_ccnsicutive 

daySi - - - _ - _ _ 

Section ^^2}. FEKOVAl AN£ DIStlELINE Qf 4-G€-6*S. (1) The 

legislature shall create a judicial standards ceeiniissicn ccnsist- 

ijia 2f__fiye It^rscns and provide for the appcirtirent thereto cf 

two district judges, one attorney, and twc citizens who 4s are 
neither -s judges nor -as attorneys. 

{ 2) ^^h^ — €e«ffi4es4Ge — €4»a44-4B v estiga t e ccgpl a i ft-fe^y-e^jfefQ^sa^ 

#4-feft«ee«s — aft4 4ee««H?«4«7- — ^ft4 — «a4^e€ — E-«4es i»^efle»*4frg — fe-fe4« 

s e 6 - t 4efi — a-B4 — f *«-¥444«-§-— 4e* — €^-F444«-R44a444-y— 64-piQce€4iB^6T The 

co2mission_s ha ll_irvesti2ate_coE£laintEx_Eake_ rules illleffectica 

tbis §§£ii££x_iii^_k€e£_its_£rcc€edin5s_ccnf idectialT'lt ia2_sufc- 

EO§Si_*!it£§sses_aDd_dccufentSi ~ ~ ~ 

(3) Upcn reccmmendaticn of the ccff irissicn , the supreae 
court [Fay: 



No. V — Judiciary 921 



(a) Retire any justice cr judge fci disability that seri- 
ously interferes with the pertcrcnance of his duties and is cr may 
becoBs ^ermarent; cr 

(b) Censure, suspend, cr reircve any justice or judge for 
willful misconduct in office, xillful and persistent failure to 
perfcrir his duties, or habitual intemperance. 

Section 44J2. tXEKPTICN LAWS. Ihe 4^-§4€4ra^M:-¥^ -a€€-e«t4-y 

isaiiiil^ES shall eract literal hoaestead and exempticn lass. 

Section 4-5J3. P ERF ETU IT I££ . No perpetuities shall be 
allowedy except fcr charitable purposes. 



922 



fIFOcT CF CCf.^'ITTEZ CN £1YLE, IPAFTING 



FEPCRT NC. V - JUCICIPRY 
CCKKEKIS CN SlYLE, TCEM, AND GFAKHAB 



Sfcticn_J. 
the indefinite 
ptovi^icn in the 
is new Section 5 



The cardinal number 



'OK' 



was substituted for 



article 



to picvidc haincry with the sinilar 



United States Ccnst it uticn. The addition 
i-^quireo acditicn cf "justice courts," 



of what 



Sccticn_2. Subsections were added and language deleted to 
aid cLirlty without altericc substarc^. Subsection (3): Deleting 
"apj.rcval or" ex^^iesses the intent of floor debate. Subsection 
(4) *>as moved trotn secticn 4. 



SecTicn_3, (1) 
to express intent. 
stance . 



NuBbers in the first sentence were changed 
■^organiza ticn and deleticr. do not alter sub- 



was moved to 



first clause cf subsecticr (3) 

(2). The first sentence 



SeGticn_u. Ih- 

becoin- the second sentence of subsection . ,. _ _ 

of the last paragraph, which was not part of the CcniEittee cf the 
rfhcle amendirant, conflicts with subsection (2), 
deleted. The reference to process in th 
moved. 



sc it was 
second senterce was 



Secticn_^. fcas added in Coiririittee cf the hhcle as section 
10. The language deleted at the end repeats part cf section 1. 
Ihe ether changes in language do not alter substance. 

3§S^tion_6. The additicn cf the wcrds "cf the district 
judge" to subsection (3) clarifies the source of the request. 
Changes in language and crder dc net alter substance. 

Section_7. Deletion and reorganizing achieve brevity and 
clarity wittiout altering substance. The phrase "ether judges" in 
subsection (2) is understood by the Ccfflmittee to include, ancng 
others, "magistrates" and "justices cf the peace." 

5£2Ii:£n_&. Subsection (2) was redrafted to clarify meaning. 
In addition, references to "primary election" were deleted to 
avoid perpetuating the primary mode of selecticr in the Constitu- 
tion. The underlined additicn tc subsection (3) was substituted 
for "dct'S not run" tc reconcile its previsions with subsection 
(2). Removing the adjective "ccrtested" avoids a requirement that 
more than one candidate file. 

§££li2Il_^' Ihe phrase "as provided by law" was deleted frcn 
subsection (2) because it contains a prohibiticr which is net to 
be affected by any law but the Constitution. Other extensive lan- 
guage and crder changes do not alter substance. Two sentences 
concerning forfeiture were combined in the next new section 1C. 



§Ji£ii2S_J2« Subsection (2) was redrafted to differentiate 



No. V — Judiciary 



923 



the rsquir anients laid upcn the ccmaissicr and its discretionary 
pofcer tc subpoena. Crher changes in the section clarify. 



Sections 12 and 13. These sections will be mcved to ether 

Articles when the ertire Constitution is frcpcsed. 



924 



EEPORT Ct CCfflTTEE CN STYLE, tRAPTING 



CHDEB CF BUSINESS NO. 5 - 
EINAL CCNSIEitATICN 
SlYLE fl^C LFZ!flING 
- jrjEICIAFY - ^C. V 

ARTICLE 
Ihi. JUEICIA^Y 



secticn 1. JUDICIAL PCKEE. The judicial fcvier cf the state 
is vested in one supreae ccurt, district courts, justice courts, 
and such othtr courts as cay be frcvided ty law. 

Section 2. SUFREnE CCUET JU FISCICT lOK . (1) The sufreire 
court has atpellat'; jurisdiction and may issue, hear, and deter- 
Biice writs appropriate thereto. It has original jurisdiction to 
issue, hear, and determine writs cf habeas corpus and such other 
writs as may be provided ty law. 



(2) 

courts. 



Las 



gereral supervisory control ever all ether 



(3) It Bay lEak-: rules governing appellate procedure, prac- 
tice and procedure for all other courts, admission to the tar and 
the conduct of its members. Fules cl procedure shall te subject 
to disapproval by the legislature in either cf the two sessions 
following pronulgaticn. 



(U) Supreme court process shall extend to all parts of the 



sta' 



Section 3. SUPEEME CCUET CRG AKIZAT IC N . (1) The suprene 
court consists of one chief justice ard tour justices, tut the 
legislature; n^ay increase the nuaiter of justices frcB four to six. 
A majority shall join in and pronounce decisiccs, which raust te 
in writing. 

(2) A district judge shall te substituted for the chief 
justice or a justice in the event of disqualification or disabil- 
ity, and the opinion cf the district judge sitting with the 
supreme court shall have the sane effect as an opinion of a jus- 
tice . 

Section 4. DISTSTCT CCUBT JUEISEICT ICN. (1) The district 
court has original jurisdiction in all criiinal cases airounting 
to f-^lony and all civil matters and cases at law and in equity. 
It may issue all writs appropriate to its jurisdiction. It shall 
have the power of naturalization and such additional jurisdiction 



No. V — Judiciary 



925 



as jaay be del9gared by +hf= laws 
of Mcntar. a. Its process '■■ 



of the 
shall extend 



United States or the state 
tc all parts of the state. 



(2) The district ccurt shall hear appeals from inferior 
courts as trials anew unless otherwise prcvided ty la*.. The 
legislature nay provide for direct review by the district court 
of decisions of administrative agercifs. 

(3) Other courts may have jur isdicticr. of crininal cases 
not amounting to felony and such jurisdicticr concurrent with 
that of the district court as iray te provided ty law. 

Section 5. JUSTICES CF THE FfACE. (1) There shall te 
elected in each ccurty at least one justice cf the peace with 
qualifications, training, and rocnthly cciiipensaticn provided by 
law. There shall be provided such facilities that they may per- 
form their duties in dignified surroundings. 

(2) Justice courts shall have such original jurisdiction as 
Bay be provided by law. They shall ret have trial jurisdiction in 
any criminal case designated a felony except as examining courts. 



(3) The legislature nay 
the peace in each ccuntj. 



provide for additional justices cf 



Section 6. JUCICIfiL DISTRICTS. (1) The legislature shall 
divide the state into judicial districts and provide tcr the 
number of judges in each district. Each district shall be foraed 
of ccmpact territory and te bounded by county lines. 

(2) The legislature may change the nuBtter and boundaries cf 
judicial districts and the nuttber cf judges in each district, but 
no change in boundaries or the number cf districts or judges 
therein shall work a removal of any judge fron office during the 
term for which he was elected cr appointed. 

(3) The chief justice may upon reguest cf the district 
judge, assign district judges and ether judges for tempcraiy ser- 
vice from one district to ancther, and frcir one ccurty tc 
another. 



Section 7. TERMS fiND PAY. (1) 
shall be paid as provided by law, but 
diainished during terms cf office. 



All justices and judges 
salaries shall ret be 



(2) Terms of office shall be eight years for supreme court 
justices, six years for district ccurt judges, four years fcr 
justices of the peace, and as prcvided by law for other judges. 

Section 8. SELECTION. (1) The governor shall nominate a 
replaceaent fron nominees selected in the manner provided by law 
for any vacancy in the office of supreue court justice or dis- 
trict court judge. If the governor fails tc nciinate within 
thirty days after receipt cf rcainees, the chief justice ci act- 



926 



BEPCRT CF COKfmEf CN STTlLt, CRAFTIKG 



iny chiet justice shall crake the rciriraticE. Each noirinaticn 
shall be ccnfirnied by the senate, tut a rciiir.aticr made while the 
senate is not in sessicr. shall te effective as an af {.cirtisent 
until the end of the n«^xt sessicr. If the ncffinaticc is r.ct ccn- 
firired, the cftice shall te vacart ard a r. ether sel-?ction and ncu- 
iraticr shall Le ffiade. 

(2) If, at the tirst electicr. after senate ccr.f irttaticn, 
and at the election before each succeeding terir cf cffice, any 
candidate ether thai the incumtert justice cr district judge 
files tcr electicn tc that office, the r.aire of the ircuirtent 
shall te placed on the hallct. If there is nc election contest 
for th'3 office, th^ nacc cf the incumbent shall nevertheless te 
placed on the general election tallct to allc« voters cf the 
state cr district to approve cr reject hiir. If an incuDtert is 
rejected, another selection and rcniraticr shall te made. 



ticn 



(3) 

for 



If 
the 



an incuKt 
ot f ice . 



■nt dees net run, there shall be 



an 



elec- 



section 5. QU^LIF ICATIC NS . (1) fi citizen cf the United 
States who has resided in the state two years inirediately tefore 
taking office is eligitle tc the cffice cf supreme ccurt justice 
or district court judge if adiritted tc the practice of law in 
Montana for at least five years prior to the date cf appci rtmen t 
or election. Quali f icaticns and methcds cf seleccicn cf judges of 
other cciirts shall re provided ty law. 

(2) bio supreme court justice cr district ccurt judge shall 
solicit or receive ccttpensaticc in any fcrc whatever on account 
of his office, except salary and actual necessary travel expense. 

(3) Except as otherwise provided in this Ccnsti tuticr , nc 
supreme court justice cr district court judge shall practice law 
during r.is terin of office, engage in any other enplcyirert fcr 
which salary or fee is paid, cr hold cffice in a political party. 

(14) Supreice ccurt justices shall reside within the state. 
Every other judge shall reside during his term of office in the 
district, county, tcwnship, precinct, city cr town in which he is 
elected cr appointed. 

Section 13. FCFFEIIUHE CF JUIICIAL PCSIIICti. Any hclder cf 
a judicial position forfeits that pcsiticr. ty either filing for 
an elective public office other than a judicial position cr 
absenting hiirself from the state fcr more than 6C consecutive 
days. 



Section 11. EFMOVAL hhL EISCIELINE. (1) The legislature 
shall create a judicial standards ccmirissicn ccrsisting cf five 
persons and provide fcr the appcintment thereto of two district 
judges, one attorney, and two citi2ens who are neither judges nor 
attcrnays. 



No. V — Judiciary 927 



(2) The ccfflmissior shall irvG£tigat€ ccraplaints, iiake rules 
implsnier.tinoi this section, and keep its prcceedinqs confidential. 
It may subpoena witnesses and docuDoents. 

(3) Upon reccirmGndat ion cf the ccosniiss ion, the suprene 
court tray: 

(a) retire any justice or judge for disability that seri- 
ously interferes with the perfciffacce of his duties and is cr iray 
beccffe permanent; or 

(b) censur-?, suspend, or remcve any justice cr judge for 
willful misconduct in office, willful and persistent failure tc 
perfcrn) his duties, or habitual inteir perance. 

Section 12. EXEMPIICN LAKS. The legislature shall enact 
literal homestead ar.d execrpticn lahs. 

Section 13. PEBPETUITIES . No perpetuities shall be allowed 
except for charitable puipcses. 

Section ia. CAMPAIGN EXPENSES. The l^iei»%i¥€ — ase e a bly 
l§3ii2SliJ£:i shall appropriate funds fcr the contested general 
election campaign expenses of candidates for the offices of chief 
Justice_and justices of the supreme ccurt ard shall enact laiis 
regulating the aacunt, expendit ure^^ and disposition thereof. No 
candidate for chief _justic6_or justice cf the supreme courts ««€ 
or any person cr persons acting on his €-e— fe-e* behalf, shall 
expend ircney in a campaign fcr the office in exc3ss cf the aiBCUDt 
appropriated and authorized by the ±e^is-id4i-»« — *«€€*feiy iS^is- 
lature. 



928 



REPORT Cf COKKITIEE CN STYLE, CEAFTING 



Nc. VI — Natural Pescurces ar.A Agriculture! 



929 



rCNIANA CCNSTIIUIICNAI CCNVFNTICN 
1571-1972 

BEPOBT CP CC^IMITTEE ON STYLE, CF&FIING, 
IP.ANSIirON ANE SUEfilSSlCN CS 
NATURAL PISCUfCIS A xN C AGi-ICtLICEE 
KC. VI 



Late Repcrtfcd: March 1C, 1S72 



/s/_John_K^_Schiltz, Chairffar 



Z§Z_iiiiii^I_^i_IyiJsl:SI^i » vice Chaiman 



930 



REPORT CF CCMMlTTfE CN STKIE, CEAFTING 



TC: ^lontana Ccnst itut icnal Ccrventicn 
SUEJECl: NATURAL RESOUECES ANC AGFICCLIDFE 

Ladies and G€ntleirer: 

The Coffiwittee en Style, Drafting, Transiticn and Sutmission 
transffiits r-^visicns cf the atcve Article fcr ccr sidera tier of the 
Ccn venticn . 

Imniediately fclloHing this letter you hill find the above 
Article as revised by the Ccmmittee. Following that is the Arti- 
cle indicating (ty underlining) wcrds we have added and (by 
crossing cut) words we have deleted frcB the Article as approved. 
Finally, there is an explanation cf the changes we have made. 

Sincerely, 



^^_Jghr_Mi_Schiltz 

Chairman of the Ccainiittee 

en Style, Drafting, Transition 

and Subirissicn 



Vice Chairaan cf the CemBittee 
en Style, Crafting, Transition 
and Subttissict 



Nc. VI — Natural Fcscurces ard Ajiiculture 



931 



BE IT URCFCSEC BY THE NATURAL RESCUFCES ANL AGBICULTL'PE CCPMIT- 
TEE: 

That there b'- a new Article en the Envircnment and Agricul- 
ture to redd d£ follows: 



ABIICLE 
ENVIRONilENT ANC KATUPAL RESOURCES 



Section 1. EfCTECTICM AN£ If'PECVEfEM. (1) The state and 
each person shall maintain and iirficve a clean and healthful 
envirc r oier.t in Kctitana fct presert and future generaticns. 



(2) The Irgislarure shall 
and ^rfcicament of this duty. 



frcvide fcr the adsi ristrat icn 



(3) Ih^ legislature shall frcvide adequate remedies fcr the 
protection of the scvircnnienta 1 life suppcit syst-sm from degrada- 
tion and provide adequate remedies to prevert unreasonable deple- 
tion anc degiadaticr or natural resources. 

Section 2. RECIAPAIICN. Ail lards disturbed ty the taking 
of natural resources shall te reclained. Ihe legislature shall 
provide effective requirements and standards tor the reclamation. 

Section 3. WATER RIGHTS. (1) All existing rights to the 
use ct any waters for any useful or teneficial puipcse are hereby 
recognized ard ccnfirmed. 

(2) Ihe use at all water that is row ci may hereafter be 
appropriated fcr sale, rent, distribution, or other beneficial 
use, the right of way over the lands of others fcr all ditches, 
drains, fluaies, canals, and aqueducts recessarily used in cocnec— 
ticn therewith, and the sites for reservcirs recessary fcr col- 
lecting and storing water shall be held to be a public use. 

(3) All surface, underground, flccd, and atmospheric waters 
within the boundaries of the state are the property of the state 
for the use of its people and are subject to appropriation for 
beneficial uses as provided by law. 

(4) The legislature sbal] provide for the administration, 
control, and regulation of water rights and shall establish a 
system of centralized records, in addition to the present systen 
of local records. 

Section 4. CULTURAL RESOURCES. The legislature shall pro- 
vide for the identification, acquisition, restoration, erhance- 
ment, preservation, and adai ir istra ticn of scenic, historic, 
archeologic, scientific, cultural, and recreational areas, sites. 



932 



FEFCRl CF COHKITIEE CN STYLE, ERAFTING 



recorri s 
pecplo. 



ani objects, and fcr their use anc enjoynent by the 



Nc. VT — Natijual R-Hscurces ar.d Aqiicultuie 933 



BE n PEvGPOSED TiY lh£ NATURAL REECCr^CES ANC AG R ICU ITU F E CCfflT- 
■lEE: 

That there be a new Articlf^ cc rhs Ervircr. mart a.TA Agricul- 
tures to r-dd afc fcllcws: 



ARTICLE 
ENVIKCNMLKT AND N ? T C [< ;> L SESCURCES 



S€Ction 1. PRCTECTICN ANC *««Ji^e*-f*4.5 I? I B C VEME NT . (1) The 
S4d-fe*? State €-fe-t4-6fi-%e-9a ar.d each perscr -sMi-e-t shjll maintain and 
improve a clean and healthful 44^-^^*-c^«-a enviicnment ir.fjCrtana 
for freseEt and tuture generaticrs. 

(2) The legislature «-h-64 shall frcvide fen the adtniristra- 

ticn ara enfcrcetc^int of this duty. 

(3) The legislature **-- <^-i-E'ee-«€4-*€ shall frcvide adequate 

remedies for the prctection of the e nvircnnien tal life support 
system froffi degradation and ^e provide adequate reiedies tc pre- 
vent unreason dtle cepleticn and degradation cf natural tescurces. 

Svjcticn 2. RECLAKATIC^. All lands disturbed by the taking 
of natural resources *-«-6-t shall he reclained. The legislature 
shall provide effective reguir eirents and standards for the recla- 
maticn ■€#- irt-F4-e-4-i-64-»HE-fe«=-4— fe-y-%i'e-*d+tifi^-©#-fla*-w*ai— Er?-6«-«*€<re. 

Section 3. WATER FIGHTS. (1) All existing rights to the 
use cf any waters ift-**i-is-s4^%« for any useful cr tereficial pur- 
pose are hereby recognized and ccrfiraed. 

(2) The use of all water that_is rev/ c i_a!a^_her€a f t er_be 
appropriate i-^— ©*— *^-^-<**-«*-y-^^^«^^*^* — ^^ — •^f ^*«f €-id%-fe4 for sale , 
£«fi-t.*4 rent, distribution, cr other beneficial use, ^ft4 the right 
of way ever the lands cf cthers-r fcr all ditches, drains, flua.es, 
canals, and agueductsr necessarily used in ccrrecticn therehith, 
a-e-we- i J:— »6 and the sites for reservoirs necessary for ccllecting 
and storing *«-e-e-a«€-r water shall be held tc be a public use. 

(3) All surface, underground, flccd, and atmospheric waters 
withir the boundaries of the state e4 -«€*%«*■* are 4€€4-a-E-e4-%«-fe-6 
the property of the state fcr the use cf its people and are sub- 
ject tc apprcpr iation for beneficial uses as prcvided by law. 

(i4) The legislature shall provide fcr the adBinistraticr , 
contrcl_j^ and regulation of water rights and shall establish a 
system cf centrali2ed records, in addition to the present system 
of Iccal #iii«-g-«4 records. 

Section 4. CULTURAL RESCOBCES. The legislature «-b«4 shall 



934 



EEPCPT CF CCflf^mti CN STYLE, ERAPTING 



prcviie tor the identif ica tier , acquisiticn, restoration, 
echd ncetr)*^n t , pr^ser va tior,^ and adi in istrat ic r cf scenic, his- 
toric, archociocjic, scitntific, cultural,^ and r €cr€at icr.a 1 areas, 
sites, records and objects, and fcr th*=ir use ard enjoynent ty 
the ft?cplr. 



NC. VI 



Natural Resources and Agriculture 



935 



Eepcrt Nc. VI - FNVIRONKENT AND NAIUFAL FESCUPCES 
COMMENTS CK ElYLE, FCFf., ANC GFAPC.AF 



Siction_Ji (1) The CcmiEi ttee addled "a" before "clean and 
healthful", and deleted "th-^ Mcrtana" befcre envircnnient and 
added "ii, .-icrtana" thereafter, ir. crd€r to preserve what has 
recalled to be the serse ct aitetdments adcpted in CcBiBittGe of 
the Whole. Cther changes in the section do net alter substance. 



Secticn_2i Deletion or repetition a 
sentence does rot alter substance. 



t the end cf the second 



Section_3i Reordering and deletion cf language do net alter 
substance. It should be noted, however, that the substantive 
coiBiiiittee ccmaiGnts appended to subsection (2) were that section 
15, Articl-^ I1I» of the present Const i tuticn were duplicated ver- 
batiff "tc preserve the substantial ruiiber cf court decisions 
interpreting and iccor f orating the language". 



936 



EHPCRT Cf CCfflTTEE CK STYLE, LKAFIING 



BE IT EHCPCSEC fi Y THE NATfJPAL EESCOFCES ANE AGRICDLTUPE CC^'MIT- 
TE E : 



That there be a new Article or. Agriculture to read as fel- 



lows : 



ARTICLE 

agftcultu?;e 



Section 1. DEEARTKENT OP AGRICULTORE. There is a Eepartirent 
of Agriculture. The legislature shall enact lass and provide 
appr cf riaticrs to protect, enhance, and develop all agriculture. 

Section 2. SPECIAL LEVIES. Special levies may te Bade en 
livestock and en agricultural commodities for disease ccntrcl and 
indemnification, predator ccntrcl, and livestock and ccmaiodity 
inspection, protection, research, and proBcticn. Revenue derived 
shall be used solely for the purposes of the levies. 



No. VI — Natural Bescurces and Agriculture 937 



BE IT PBCPOSIC EY ThE NAIDRAL RESCOFCES ANE AGFICDLIUfE CCfMIT- 

TEE: 

That there te a new Article en Agriculture to read as fol- 
lc«s : 



ARTICLE 
AGRICDLTDRE 



Section 1. DEPARTPEM CF AGEICUIIUeE, ih^ l-6^4£ia*4-»€ 

flkss-sff-bi-y — aas* — fE€vi4e-4e-E There_is a Department cf Agriculture^ 
^^^ Ill§_i§ii^l§iii£S_I£§ii enact laws and provide apprcpriaticns 
to protect, enhance^ and develop all agriculture e^-4-b«— s4-a**. 

Section 2. UiG^^ — ¥G SPECIAL lEVIES. -A-6f-e€4^4 Special ie^f 
levies may be made on livestcck and on agricultural ccmircdities 
for -fe^e—p-atf ©€©—«# disease control and irdeir r if icaticc, predator 
control, and livestock i fi €p €c ti c n and f t€*'e-e4-ie«7- — a^^-t^-wj^ tural 
commodity inspection^ -a*-^ protection, -ii-v-e^-fe-e^Jt— a«4— a'^-Fi-e^i-fe-acd-i 
e«««944*y research^ and promotion. Beverue derived 4-E€ff — 64fe-fe 
i«^^4-e€ shall fce used solely for the purposes cf_th€ ■i*-¥ie4 
levies. 



938 



EEECBI CF CCKWITTEi CN STYLE, CRAFTING 



Report Nc. VI - AGRICULTUBE 
CCCKENTS OH STYLE, FCF^., ANE GtAfiMAR 



Section_2j^ The first sentence has teen changed to accord 
with usually accepted drafting rules. Neither that charge ncr 
these ir. the second sertence alter sutstar.ce. 

SS£ti£n_2. The singular rcun which is the subject cf the 
sentence was made plural to accord with reality and the i;sage in 
the title and the second sentence. 



Nc 



VT — Natural Resources ard Agriculture 



939 



CfiEEB OF EDSINiSS NO. 5 - FIKAI CC K SIDE E flIION 
STYLE ۥ DRAFTING - ENVIEONKEM 6 NAICKAL FESCUPCES - 

KC, VI 

ABTICLE 
ENVIRGNf.ENI AND NATUPAI PESCDFCES 



Section 1. PROTECIICN AND I KEBC VEME Nl. (1) The stat€ and 
each person shall maintain and inprcve a clean and healthful 
environment in l^cntana fcr present and future generations. 

(2) The legislature shall provide fcr the administrat ion 
and enfcrceBient of this dutj. 

(3) The leqisliture shall provide adequate renedies fcr the 
protection of the envircnoecta 1 life support systein frca degrada— 

' '.e deple- 



\ ^ f X It ^ j.^yj.oj.:ii-ua.^ wiiuj-j. ^i.\,.»_l\-i" u\j<cvjuuu^ a.^uj^wj.^w 

protection of the envircnoenta 1 life support systein frca ( 
ticn ard provide adequate reniedies to prevent unreascnatl< 
ticn and degradation of natural rescurces. 

Section 2. P ECLA PATIC N. All lards distorted ty the taking 
of natural rescurces shall te reclaimed. The legislature shall 
provide effective requirements and standards fcr the reclamation 
of lands disturbed. 

Section 3. WATER RIGHTS. (1) All existing rights tc the 
use of any waters for an useful or beneficial purpose are hereby 
recognized and confirmed, 

(2) The use of all water that is now or nay hereafter be 
appropriated for sale, rent, distribution, cr other beneficial 
use, the right of way over the lands cf others fcr all ditches, 
drains, flumes, canals, and aqueducts necessarily used in connec- 
tion therewith, and the sites fcr reservoirs recessary for col- 
lecting and storing water shall te held to be a public use. 

(3) All surfaced, undergrcucd, flood, and atmospheric 
waters within the boundaries of the state are the property cf the 
state for the use cf its people and are subject tc appropriation 
for beneficial uses as provided by law. 

(U) The legislature shall provide fcr the administration, 
control, and regulation of water rights and shall establish a 
system of centralized records, in addition tc the present systen 
cf local records. 

Section U, CDLTUBAL BESODBCES. The legislature shall pro- 
vide for the identification, acquisition, restoration, enhance- 
ment, preservation, and administration cf scenic, historic. 



940 



FEECEl CF CCKfllTil CN STYLE, CEAFIING 



archeclogic, scientitic, cultural, and rscrsa 
records an:l ctjects, and for their use ard 
pecple . 



icnal areas, sites, 
enjoyment ty the 



No. 



VI — Natural Resources ard Ayiiculture 



941 



OREER OF EDSINESS NO. 5 - FINAL CC NSICERfiTIC K 
SlYLE S DRaniNG - AGRICOITOFE - NC. VI 

ARTICLE 
AGRICOnORE 



Section 1. DEPARTMENT OF AGPICOIIOPE. Ihe legislature shall 
provide for a Cepartinent of Agriculture ard eract laws and pro- 
vide appropriaticns to protect, enhance and develop all agricul- 
ture . 

Section 2. SPECIAL LEVIES. Special levies Hiay be irade on 
livestock and on agricultural ccffmcdities for disease ccntrcl and 
indemnification, predatcr ccntrcl, and livestock and coBiaodity 
inspection, protection, research, and prcBCticc. Revenue derived 
shall be used solely fcr the purfcses cf the levies. 



942 



REPCeT CF CCPPTITEE CN STYLE, CRAfTlNG 



No. VII — Fewenue acd Picance 943 



HONTAMA CCNSTITDTIC^AL CCNVENTION 
1971-1972 

REPORT OF COKKITTEE CN STYLE, ERAfTING, 
TRANSITION AND SUEflSSICK CN 
RFVENDE AND FINANCE 
Nc. VII 



Date Reported: March 11, 1972 
/s/_Jch c_j5i_Sch i Itz , Chairiaan 
Z§Z-liiliiJE-ii-l5iiS^ardt, Vice Cbairman 



944 



REPORT Cf CCKt?ITTEE CN SlYLE, tSAPTING 



TO; HCRtana Constitutional Ccrv?r.ticr 
SGBJECl: HEVEKUE ANC FINANCE 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

"Ihe Cotnirittee on Style, Drafting, Ttansiticn and Sutttissicn 
transmits revisicns of th^ above Article fcr consideration of the 
Convention. 

Iminediately fcllcwir.g this letter jcu viill find the above 
article as revised by the Comniittee. following that is the Arti- 
cle indicating (by underlining) words we have added and (by 
crossing out) words we have deleted from the Article as approved. 
Finally, there is ar explanation of the changes we have sade. 

Sincerely, 



/s/_Jchn_i^_j^_Schilt7 

ChairHian of the Ccsniittee 

en Style, Drafting, Transition 

and Subaiissicr 



/s/_iilliaffi_A_._Eur Xhardt 
Vice Cfcairian cf Ccnunittee 
en Stjle, Drafting, Transiticr 
and SubnissicE 



fvO. VII — i\€vsrue ard Pirance 945 



BE II FeCPOSID EY TV.c REVENGE AND FINANCE CCr H I'lTE H : 

That there be a nsw Article en Fevenue and Finance tc read 
as f cllc hs : 



ARTICIS 
BIVENDI ANC FINANCE 



Section 1. TAX PUEECSFS. Taxes shall be levied try general 
laws tcr public furj-cses. 

Section 2. TAX PCWEF! TNAIIENAELE. The power to tax shall 
never be surrendered, suspended, cr ccrtracted away. 

Section 3, FBCPEKTY TAX AC KIN ISTH ATIC N . The state shall 
appraise, assess, and equalize the valuation of all property 
which is tc be taxed in the manner provided ty law. 

Section 4. EgUAI VALtATICN. All taxing jurisdictions shall 
use the assessed valuation cf property established by the state. 

Section 5. FEOPEFTY TAX EXZfPIICNE. (1) The legislature 
may exempt from taxaticr: 

(a) Property cf the Orited States, the state, counties, 
cities, towns, school districts, municipal corporations, and 
public libraries, but any private interest in such property way 
be taxed separately. 

(b) Institutions of purely public charity, hospitals and 
places of burial not used or held for private or corporate 
profit, places for actual religious worship, and property used 
exclusively for educational purposes. 

(c) Any other classes cf property. 

(2) The legislature may authorize creation of special 
iiBprovement districts for capital impr cvetects and the nainte- 
nance thereof. It may authorize the assessment of charges for 
such improvements and maintenance against tax exempt property 
directly benefited thereby. 

Section 6. HIGHWAY BEVENOF NCN-EIVE RS ICN . (1) Bsvenue from 
gross vehicle weight fees and excise ard license taxes (except 
general sales and use taxes) on gasoline, fuel, and other energy 
sources used tc propel vehicles on public highways shall be used, 
after deduction cf statutory refunds and ac justments, solely for: 

(a) Payment of obligations incurred for construction, 
reconstructicn, repair, operation, and nairtenance of public 



946 REPORT CF CCKKIIIEE CN ST51E, ERAFTING 



highways, strsets, reads, and bridces. 

(fc) Payment cf ccunty, city, and tcwc cbligaticns on 
str-^ets, roads, and bridges. 

(c) Znforceaicnt cf highway =af = ty, driv-?t education, tour- 
ist proiDotion, and administrative ccllection ccsts authorized ty 
the legislature. 

(2) Such revenue may be appropriated fcr ether purposes by 
a three-fifths vcte cf the seiibers cf each hcuse cf the legis— 
latur-^ cr by initiated Keasure approved by a majority cf the 
qualified electors. 

Section 7. TAX APPEALS. The legislature shall provide inde- 
pendent appeal procedures fcr taxpayer grievances abcut apprais- 
als, assessments, equalization, and taxes. The legislature shall 
include a r-^view procedure at the local gcvernnert unit level. 

Section 8. STATE EEET. No state debt shall he created 
unless authorized by a two-thirds vcte of the metabers of each 
house cf the legislature or a majority cf the electcrs voting 
thereon. No state debt shall be created to cover deficits incur- 
red because appropriations exceeded anticipated revenue. 

Section J. EALANCEE BUCGIT. Appropriations by the legis- 
lature shall not exceed anticipated revenue. 

Section 10. ICCAI GCVEBNHENl EEET. The legislature shall by 
law limit debts of counties, cities, tcwcs, and all ether local 
governffiental entities. 

Section 11. USE Cf LCAN EBCCEEES. All mcney borrowed by or 
on behalf cf the state or any county, city, tcwn, or ether local 
governnsentd 1 entity shall be used only for purpcses specified in 
the authorizing law. 

Section 12. STRICT ACCCUNTABIIITY . The legislature shall by 
law insur-3 strict acccuntability cf all revenue received and 
mon'^y spent by the state and counties, cities, towns, and all 
other local governroental entities. 

Section 13. INVESTMENl OE FUPIIC PONDS. The legislature 
shall provide for a unified investment prcgram for public funds 
and provide rules therefor, includitg supervision of investaent 
of surplus funds of all counties, cities, towns, and other local 
governoientdl entities. Each fund forcing a part cf the unified 
investment program shall be separately identified. Except fcr 
monies contributed to retirenert funds, no public funds shall be 
invested in private corporate capital stock. The investment pro- 
gram shall be audited at least annually and a report thereof sub- 
mitted to the governor and legislature. 



No. VII — Fevenue and Finance 947 



BZ IT FRCfCSED EY THE REVENUE ANE FINANCE CCMMIITEE: 

That th^re by a new Article en Bevenue dpi Finarce tc read 
as follows: 



AFTICIE 
l^EVENUE ANC FI^AKCE 



Section 1. •PSSiiG TAX *-B*-P«4^ liiEjPCSES. Taxes shall te 
levied ty general laws fci public purfcses. 

Section 2. SWR»*^S*-;i G-t-A-6-S* I_^J( EOfeER 1 i Ailll^iil • "^^^ 

pow'sr ©t-**«*^ie« tc_tax shdll never te surrendered, suspended, 
or contracted away. 

Section 3. PBOPERTY TAX AD f INISTP ATICN . The State_shall 

a££rais6_4_assessx_and_s2ualiz6 the va luaticn of all {^tepeE-fey 

£ro£ert_y which is to te taxed e-K-a-i4— t-e— *ff c-a-is-e^T— d-e-freet'e^— **^ 
e-^«a-iige4— fey— 4it-e-64d-fee in the aarrei ^-E«€€-fife^ E£cvided ty law. 

Section u. E<^DAL VALCATICK. All. t a X i n^_ jur is d ic^ icr £_s h a 1 1 
use ih*i th^e assessed valuation of property *© — b-^ — -fe-a^-e^ — i-fi — ««^ 
feaning — 3-»*i-&ti±'e*i««-s^a4-i-fee-*'fet?— 6a#e--vd4-H^-ti6-R-as-t:be-¥ai*d*4«-B 
S§i§^lished_b2_the -^q^b state a«-6-€e«ft*f — f-««-f«6«€. 

Section 5. PROPERTY TAX EXEPETICNS. JJX The lecjislature 
ma2_exem£t_f ron_taxaticn_^ 

i^L p-geg^ rt -y P£2£f£ii o^ ^^^ United States, the state, 
counties, cities, towns, school districts, municipal ccrpcra- 
tions, and public libraries «a-y— fe-6-e»e*f*-*-E««-4^-«-a4ie&, tut any 
private interest in such property nay be taxed separately. 

_(b}_ #-E«^e-E-%y— «6-e4 — €-«€-i-««-iA^e4-y — -i^-E — ©4-H€a4i««di — p««fee©Sx 
•^«k-6€e-*e^— a€-fe«-i4— Ee-i4^i€«e— w-e-Es-fei^T— h-es^i-fea4e-afl4-piae-es-€^— fe-«-E— 
i-ai — fte-% — -ttstr^ — -e* — 4H=i4 — jef^-- p^4-Vt» t €' - €e ■ e-6-e-pe^a-fe-e— p-Ee44-fe-y-4ft6%-4— 
^«*i«fie-©4-f-«e«iy-f «teii€-€-fea-£4r-«-y7 — »-a-y--fee — ■e-U'eaf * — ft«« — fe-a*-a44-6«-r 

i£§liiMli;Oi}§ °l__£i^rel^ £l^iii£_£llSlill^_S2f £il5i§_2S^_Ei2CS§_Sl 

^£i^_S£l_iJ§S^_£E_li§i!L.l£i_Ili^5t£_£i_££I£cr at e__£rcfit^__X laces 

for acxual religious ,Mcrshi£^_anQ_, ligi^J^ tY_ u£ed_ exclusively for 

educat ional_£ur£CseSi 

JcJ ASl_other Ge-e-fe-aifi classes of property «-a-y — -t-e — -e-s-eaf* 

#t««— %-a*a-feieft . 

_I2)_ The J.-e^4e l a t ig-5— A-e s oa bl y i£2i§iiiure may authorize cre- 
ation of special imprcvenient districts for capital improvements 

and the isaintenance thereof ^ -©4— €a-p4%di-i«f «-e*-e~ff^«-t-6— **4 It maj 

authorize the assessment of charges -t-fe-6-t^4©i |££_glich_i ff£rcve^ 
ffients_and_maintenance against tax exeirpt property directly tene- 



948 BEFCF-.T CF CCMHITTIE ON STYLE, ERAFTING 



fited ther-^ty. 

Section b, -HieW-WA-* — *A*-«-A** FilGH W A Y_EE VlNU|_NCNrDI ViPSIC). . 
iie*^flso— t.^*-i.t4r€-fi— e« — ^*e©i4BeT — 4»-<?4 — ^i^ — -94-fe-e-E — ^ F C t g^ — -ee-e^-e^e 

fue^4*^ — «^e*rit;fei«fi-, — d«4-«a4-R*e-fia*-6-e— e4-iHJ-b44-e— t>4-^+H*ha^-t-y— 64*^^4-St 
t«^^_^ft^_i,f44^es-d*4-€-e^-€€-B-R4^T— e-i*-5f— s*-^ — *e*fl — e-fe4i^4%-i^-fre — -6* 

4ti^;ef _^44je^4i«fi-,— t€«f-ie-fe-f£«-ff€4i-6-fi— a-fi4 — 4ei a4*4-&4re-%*^44-«-e — a«4 

ee4i«e%4eft-6©6*e-a€-a«*^-G€4-8-fe4— fe^-4**€-4-e^4eid*i*e-ass«*-fe4-y-. B^f-^ 

.^^5^^«44^ — e* — b^ — i*i-*^ia^e4-«-e-*e-H-E^— af-f^«*-64--fe^-a-«a-3«*-i*^— e4— %4€ 

eie€%ei=*-feeT— e«€^-4e4i-6d-t-e4-i«-fi4e— ft-a^— fe-e aff^ef ■£ i a t €4 — #-6* — ■G^-b-e* 

^t^es-reT Ji) &evenue_trcm_3rcs£_vehiclf_w€i2i!t_f 6es_ard_€xcise 

SS^_ii£§£S£_I^isi_iii£il;i_SS2££9i_§jiiS_lii^_i3iS_il^§II £1 S^f c- 

line^_~fu«li_~and_cther_eDircj;^_scurcf s_us€d_tc_£rc£el_vehicjes_cn 

iutlic2iiihwa2£_ihilll_lb€ used^ allir djdtcticr cf statutcrj[ 

£fiiJS^§_§B^_S^Justffe nt£_^_£cl6l_2_lor2 

J a) ^^irognt of ct ligations incurttd f cr cccstr vjcticn^ 

ISCor£tructicn_4_r3;£airi 2£§£2£icn_4 and Slinte nance cf Eublic 

l!i3^wdy£^_stre£t£i_roads_4_and_trid2eSi 

jbj_ Elisent of ccunt^^ cit^^ and tcwn otli^aticns en 

streets^_roadSx_snd_brid2€£_. 

Ic] Enf orcement_of_hic]hwaj_saf6tY4._arivei_€ducaticn^ i£U£z 

ist £rcffloticn7_and_administrative_ccllecticn_ccsts_auth^ 

the_lecji£lat ure^ 

J 2} Such_rev€nue_ffiaY_fc€_a£_trc£riated_f cr_cther_£ur£CS6£ b^ 

lature_cr_bl_initiat6d_mea£ure_a££ccved tj a lajcritj^ cf the 

Section 7. TAX APPEAIS. The legislature shall provide *«*- 
^■yet independent appeal procedures for taxga jgr^ grievance s_ about 
appraisals, asse£Sinents_^ -a«4 equalization^ ^-g-aevaDCce and 4*^f 
taxeg ^*i-ev-a-B€ee. The teg±s4a*«-Ee ifaislature shall include 

%h ere4-R a review procedure at the eeafi^y e-e local f-ey^-e cB o ntal 

9£i^iI3SS£i unit level. 

Section 8. STATE 4-M-B*«**«4J«-SS CEET. No state debt shall te 
created unless authorized by a two-thirds vote of the iBemters of 
each house cf the j>-e^4s4a ti ve- A-eee«b4-y~y le£islature or € fi l Q6€ 
a^ uth o rie o d -fe^ a majority of the electors voting thereon. Kc Stat e 
iiate debt €ha«-fi€4 shali be created to cover deficits incurred 
w h e n because appropriations g « oee4 exceeded anticipated revenue 



No. VII — Hcveru€ ard Pin ance 949 



S??ction 9. EAIANCtr BODGET. A pp r c pr i at i c r s by the i^^ie- 
i**^t-VT'-A-ss-i«feiy iiii^l^ture shall r.ct ':xc€€g articicated ?c-v-<?-p-»«-s 

S<;cticii 1'J. ICCAI GCVEFNfENI i4.-E-^44^+Hf-S5 CEET. The i^^is- 
ta%iv<$— Assriftfei-y Igijislat ur;2 shall «-ft*€^ tl_il^ linsit «^-±fl4^^%e4— 
■*^** iifet^ tor -6-a-t4-iv±siees-dft4-44e4*i6-fe€-€-§— 4i*-e-€4-a-*'eT counties^ 
Sili es_4_townsj,_and_d ll_cthjr_lccal_3ov€rnro^ntd l_eiit it ie 

Section 11. USE OE LCAN EFCCEECS. All icrey fcctrcwcd ty cr 
on tsbalf cf th-j stite-/ or any •e«-fe4-i-v-is4€*-6-E-44-64-f i€*-e-i— fe-fee 

o%d-fe€-y count_Y_t_cit^_4_town^_cr__cthGr__ Iccd^ 25 vernment al__£rt it^ 

shall be used only fcr ^-a-^-f-H-t-^e-e-t— s-e purpcsfs specified ir the 
■ir?kv authcrizing law *-fe€-ied-R. 

Section 12. STBICI ACCOUNI AEIIIl Y. The i-e^isi^ti**— ftee«='*-fe4-y 
iiiSiii^iiilx shall e-p-*e-fe— fcft€ — -fi-eG^rse-aey by -i-j-ws law •%'9 insure 
strict accountatilit y of all *-r»e*-Hr?-6 ££i3Ii]2i received ard asorey 
spent by th-rt state ^-a-Bti-i-visie-BS and 4-is*e4e^re-%i»'?-E-e-6*T ccuntieE^ 
£ili^jL_i£^Ii£j._3Iiil_iil_2£l]3E_iS£ii_22vern36ntal_en^iti€S^ 

Section 13. INVESIKENI CE tDELIC EDNCS. The t€^46-ld%4-ve 
A€-se-»*4y i23i§i^lyEs shall prcvide fcr a unified investment prc- 
gram fcr public funds and -pE-es^-Eit-e £rcvids -i-h^ rules ■*-fi4— t-e-g-tiia— 
tioD -e therefor, including ^h-^ supervision cf investaent cf sur- 
plus funds of all €-«-fe4i-visie-fts— <s-ft4-4i6%€-5S%-s-€*-*-ft-e — e- %a - t -eT coun- 

ties_£ £iii§Sx__townSi_dn J_cther_lccal_(ic ve r nf ental_entit ies_. ^-h^ 

s^fA-Er4-*-e-<^-K±-e%^-B6^— aft4— i-4-c»^4%-y — e4 -e-ae-h Sacb •*-fi4 — e-¥^-t-y fund 
ifls o l v ^ — -^s f2Eii£H -^ part of the unified investment program 

shall be -s-€t-ie-fe4:-y-«-ai-a^^irft-e-4T separate 1_^ l^iliills^i *-i-*^ — -feh€ 

O MC o pticn — ©■# 2xce];t_fcr mcnies ccntributad tc retirement funds, 
no public funds shall be invested in private ccrporate capital 
stccK. Aft — *ti4i-fe — ^4 The_irvostffient_£rc2ra3_shail_be_e€«4-»«-%-e4 
audited at least annually and a_r e£crt_therecf submitted tc the 
SQ ¥ o-£fto^ y.2VGrncr and J;e-^B^-a%4r¥g— A e ccoibl y i li2i§li^i2E^i 



950 



REPORT CF CCMMIl'IEt CN SIXLE, ERftFTlUG 



REPCRT NC. VII - REVENUE ANE EIN^iNCE 
COMMENTS CN S1YLE , FCEM, AND GFAPHAP 



Section_2. A much mere descriptive title was substituted 
for cne which was misleading. 

5§£ti2S_i' P€hriting the sertence avoids the errcr cf 
asserting that "prcp^rty. .. shall be ... equalized ." 

Ss£ti2Ii_ii« liewritinq serves brevity and clarity and creates 
consistency~with the principle ct state assessment established in 
Sectivon 3. 

S£cti2n_5. K ecrganizaticn achieves clarity without changing 
substance. (As a matter of substance, it should be noted that 
the state has no power to tax property cf the United States, 
absent its periEissicn . ) 

S ec_t ion_b . A new title uas substituted for cne which suf- 

fered~the twin deficiencies cf sirackicg of the vernacular and 

misleading. Rf^organization achieves clarity without changing sub- 
stance . 



Ssction_7, rewriting 
have grievances. 



makes plain that people — not things 



Sections_8_a n d_9 . 
altering substance. 



Changes serve brevity and clarity without 



s 
cctnniit 
the s 
niticn 
report 
quate . 
and " 
ingly, 
intent 
cities 
ph rase 
these 
state. 



ecti 

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tate 

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No 

Res 
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the 
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(m 
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(I 



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revea 
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"Icca 
XI 
earch 
ty" 

Ccmni 

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wns, 
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she 
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expre 
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been 
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_13. C 
he phra 
SE that 
nt uni 
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at the 

legal 
Style 
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rase " 



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com 
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GCV 

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ubdi 



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the 



No. VII — ueveru€ and Firatc*? 951 



OBEEF Cf tnSINtSS NC. 5 - fINAL CCN SI E tK AT ION 
STYLE 6 DFAFIING - EEVfNUI 8 EINANCE - NC. VII 

AFTTCLE 
EtVENUE ANL FINANCE 



Section 1. TAX PUx^PCSES. laxts shall t6 l€vi<?d ty general 
laws for public {.urjcses. 

bection 2. TAX POXER INALIEKAELE. The power to ta* shall 
never be surrendered, suspended, or ccrtracted away. 

Section 1. FFCPEFTY TAX AEK IMSTSAT IC N . The state shall 
apprdise, assess, and equalize the valuation of all property 
which is tc te taxed in the manner provided by law. 

Section a. ECOAI VALtAIICN. All taxing jurisdictions shall 
use the assessed valuation of property estatliHhed ty the state. 

Section 5. PBCPEETY TAX EXEtPTIChS. (1) The legislature 
iBdy exempt from taxation: 

(a) Property of the Orited States, the state, counties, 
cities, towns, school districts, municipal ccr pcratic cs , and 
public libraries, but any private interest in such property raay 
be taxed separately. 

(b) Institutions of purely public charity, hospitals and 
places of burial not used or held for private or ccrpcrata 
profit, places for actual religious worship, and property used 
exclusively for educational purposes. 

(c) Any ether classes of property. 

(2) The legislature may authorize creation cf special 
improvement districts tor capital imprcvenerts and the mainte- 
nance thereof. It may authorize the assessment of charges for 
such improvements and maintenance against tax exempt property 
directly benefited thereby. 

Section 6. HIGHWAY REVENUE NCN-EIVEPSIC N. (1) Severue from 
gross vehicle weight fees and excise and license taxes (except 
general sales and use taxes) on gasoline, fuel, and other energy 
sources used tc propel vehicles on public highways shall be used 
as authorized by the legislature, after deduction of statutory 
refunds and adjustments, solely for: 

(a) Payment of obligations incurred for construction, 
reconstructicn, repair, operation, and maintenance cf public 



952 



DfPORT Cf CCfPITIEE CN SlYLE, LBAfTING 



highways, streets, roads., and tridces. 

(b) Payment of ccunty, city, and town cbligaticrs en 
streets, reads, and bridges. 

(c) Gntcrceaisnt of highway safety, driver education, tour- 
ist prcmcticn, and administrative collection costs. 

(2) Sucli revenue may te afprcpriated for cthsr purpcses by 
a three-fifths vote cf the ireirbers of each house of the legis- 
lature or by initiated measure approved >-y a majority cf the 
qualified electors. 

Section 7. "lAX APPEALS. The legislature shall provide inde- 
pendent appeal procedures for taxpayer grievances about apprais- 
als, assessments, equalization, and taxes. The legislature shall 
include a review procedure at the local goverrnert ur.it level. 

Section 9. STATE DEBT. No state debt shall be created 
unless authorized by a two-thirds vcte cf the meinbers of each 
house of the legislature or a majority of the electors voting 
thereon. No state debt shall be created to cover deficits incur- 
red bi^cause appropriations exceeded anticipated revenue. 



Section 9. EALANCEE EOCGET. Appropriations 
lature shall not exceed anticipated revenue. 



by the legis- 



Section 10. LOCAL GCVERNf.ENT CZET. The legislature shall by 
law limit debts of counties, cities, tcwns, and all ether Iccal 
gcverniTienta 1 entities. 

Section 11. USE CF LCAN EFCCEECS. All mcney borrowed by or 
en behalf of the state or any county, city, town, cr other local 
governmental entity shall be used only for purposes specified in 
the authorizing law. 

Section 12. STRICT flCCCDNTABILITY . The legislature shall by 
law insure strict accountability of all revenue received and 
money spent by the state and counties, cities, tcwrs, and all 
other local qovernaiental entities. 



Section 13. INVESTMENT OF 
lature shall provide for a unif 
funds and provide rules ther 
investment of surplus funds of 
other local governiaental entitle 
the unified investment progra 
Except for monies contributed t 
funds shall be invested in pri 
investment program shall be aud 
report thereof submitted to the 



PDEIIC fOKDS. J1,l_ The legis- 
ied investment program for public 
efor, including supervision cf 

all counties, cities, towns, and 
s. Each fund forming a part cf 
m shall be separately identified, 
o retirement funds, no public 
vate corporate capital stock. The 
ited at least annually and a 
governor and legislature. 



(2) The public school fund shall forever remain inviclatej 
*-r4 guaranteed b^_the_state against loss cr diversion -fe^ — ^^ 



No, VII — Pevenue and firarce 



953 



a 4at €. The putlic school fur.d ard the periranent funds of the 
&*d*-e Hcntana university sjistem and e4 all ether state insti- 
tutions of learningT shall be safely and conservatively invested 
ic : 

Ail p»ti4e Futlic securities of the state, its subdivi- 
sions, local governnent units,^^ and districts within the state, or 

Jbi. feeft4« Bonds cf the Dnited States^ or ^ ether securi- 
ties fully guaranteed as to princifal and interest ty the United 
states, or 

_(c)_ Such other G«€-b safe investments tearing a fixed rate 

of interest-r as may te ft*6€^ifee-4 Erovided by law. 



954 



REPORT CF CCKKIITEE C.N SIML, ERAFTlhG 



No. VIII — Bill ct Fights 



955 



HONTANA CGNSIIICTICNAI CCNVENTICN 
1971-1S12 

BEEOFT OF CCWMIIIEE CN SlILl , CPftfTING, 
TBANSITICK AND SDEMISSICN OiN 
EILL OF BIGHTS 
NC. VIII 



Dat= Feported: March 13, 197: 



^s/_Jchn_Mi_Schiltz, Chairaar 



/s^_HilliaB_Ai_Buckhardt, Vice Cbairffac 



956 



REECBT CF CCKMiniE CN STYLE, EPAPTIKG 



TO: Montana Ccnstitutional Ccrver, ticn 
SUBJECT: BILL CE BIGHTS 

L-ifiies and Gentlemen: 

The CcmiTiittao en Style, Craftinq, Transiticn and SufcitiEsion 
transciits rivisicns cf the abcve Article fcr ccnsideraticr cf the 
C c n V '? r t i c i; . 

Immediitely fcllcwirg this letter you k.ill find the abcve 
Artici;- as revised Ly the Ccniniittes . Ecllcwiny that is the Arti- 
cle indicatinq (by underlining) words «e have added and (by 
crcEsin-) out) words we have deleted frcir the Article as approved. 
Finally, there is an explanation of the charges we have made. 

Sincerely, 



^s^_Jchn_»j__Schiltz 

Chairttar cf the CcKirittte 

en Style, Drafting, Transition 

and Suhiiiissicn 



/s^_WilliaB_Ai_Burkhard t 

Vice Chaiman cf the CciRiBittee 
en Style, Drafting, Transiticn 
and Submission 



Nc. VIII — Bill of Fights 



957 



Bl IT ERCP05ED BY THE EIIL CF BIGHTS CCMMIITEE: 

That there be a net. Article en the Fill c£ Rights tc read as 
follcws : 



f FEAKELl 



We tha people of Montana grateful tc Gcd for the quiet 
beauty of our state, the grandeur cf cur ncuntains, the vastness 
of cur rolling plains, and desiring tc iirfrcve the qualify cf 
life, equality of cpportunity and tc secure the blessings cf lib- 
erty for this and future geceraticrs dc crdain and establish this 
Ccnstituticn. 



ARTICIE 
DECLABATICN CF BIGHTS 



power is 
cf right 
only, and 



Section 1. POFDLAE SOVEFEIGKTY. All political 
vested in and derived frctp the people. All gcvernment 
originates with the people, is fcunded upon thair will 
is ir.stituted solely for the good of the whcle. 

Section 2. SEIF-GC VE5 NMENT. The people have the exclusive 
right cf governing themselves as a free, sovereign, and independ- 
ent state. Thsy may altar or abolish the Ccnstituticn and fcrm cf 
government whenever they deem it necessary. 

Section 3. INALIANABLE FIGHTS. All perscns are born free 
and have certain inalienable rights. They include the right tc a 
clean and healthful envircnment and the rights cf pursuing life's 
basic necessities, enjoying and defending their lives and lib- 
erties, acquiring, possessing and protecting property, and 
seeking their safety, health and happiness ir all lawful ways. In 
enjoying these rights, all persons recognize ccrrespccding 
respcnsibilities. 

Section U. INEIVIDDAL DIGNITY. The dignity of the human 
being is inviolable. No person shall be denied the equal prc- 
tection cf the laws. Neither the state ncr any person, firm, cor- 
poraticn, or institution shall discriminate against any person in 
the exercise of his civil or political rights ce acccunt of race, 
color, sex, culture, social origin or ccnditicn, or political or 
religious ideas. 

Section 5. fKEECOM CF RELIGICN. The state shall Bake no law 
respecting an establishment cf religion cr prohibiting the free 
exercise thereof. 



958 



HEECi<T CI CCMMIITEE CN STYLE, C8AFTING 



Section ^. FEEExTC;i CF ASSEf.tlY. Th^ pecfle shall hav€ the 
right tc asseiiitle peaceably in crder tc fotiticn for redress of 
grievances or pretest governmental acticn. 

section ''. FBEEDOK CF SPFECF, EXFBESSICfi, AKC EEESS. Nc law 
shall be passed impairing the fre^dcn cf speech or expression. 
Every person shall be free to speak, or publish whatever he will 
on any subject, being responsible for all abus9 cf that liberty. 
In all suits and prcsscuticrs for libel or slander the truth 
thereof may te given in evidence; and the jury, under the direc- 
tion cf the court, shall determine the law and the facts. 

Section .■^. BIGHI Cf P AFIICIE AT ICN. The putlic has the right 
to expect gcver nmental agencies tc affcrd such reasonable oppor- 
tunity fcr citizen participation in the operaticn cf the agencies 
prior tc the final decision as iray be provided by law. 

Section 9. RIGHT TC KNCli. Nc ptrscn shall be deprived of 
the right to examine documents or tc observe the deliberations cf 
all public bodies or agencies of state governiiiert and its sub- 
divisions, except in cases in which the demand cf individual pri- 
vacy clearly exceeds the irerits cf public disclosure. 



Section 1C. KIGHT CF E&IVACY. The right cf individual pri- 
vacy is essential to the well-being cf a free scciety ard shall 
net be infringed without the showing cf \ ccEpelling state inter- 
est. 



Section 11. SEARCHES ANI SEIZURES. The people shall be 
secure in their persons, papers, hcttes and effects from unreason- 
able searches and seizures. Ko warrant tc search any place, or 
seize any person or thing shall issue without describing the 
place to be searched or the person cr thine tc be seized, cr 
without probable cause, supported by c^th or affirmation reduced 
to writing 




Section 13. BIGHT CF SUFFPAGE. All elections shall be free 
and open, and nc powc-r, civil cr military, shall at ary tiire 
interfere to prevent the free exercis? cf the right of suffrage. 



Section 14. AEtLT FIGHTS, 
ar adult for all purposes. 



A person 18 years cf age cr elder 



Section 15. SIGHTS OF FEESC^£ NCT ACtLTS. The rights cf 
persons under 18 years cf age shall include, but net be limited 
to, all the fundamental rights cf this article unless specifi- 
cally precluded by laws which enhance the protection of such per- 
sons. 



Nc. VIIT — Bill of Eights 



959 



Section 16. THE AD WI NIST F.A "IICN CF JUSTICE. Courts of jus- 
tice shall be open to every person, and spetdy reiredy afforded 
for 2very injury cf person, property, or character. No person 
shall te deprived of this full legal redress for injury ircurred 
in emplcyment for which another perscr nay te liatle except as to 
fellcw enployees and his iiaitediate employer whc hired him if such 
iamiediate enployer provides coverage under the Viorkmen's Compen- 
saticTi Laws of this state. Bight and justice shall te adminis- 
tered without sale, denial, or delay. 

Section 17. CUE EfiCCESS CF lah. Nc persor shall te deprived 
of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. 



Section 18. STATE SUBJECT TO SGIT. The state, cccnties, 
citit-:s, towns, and all other local governirental entities shall 
have nc imisunity frcm suit for injury to a person or property. 
This provision shall apply only to causes cf action arising after 
July i, 1973. 



Section 19. KABEAS CCEEDS. The privilege 
habeas corpus shall never te suspended. 



cf the writ cf 



Section 20. INITIi^TICN OF FPCCEEEIKGS. (1) Criffinal 
offenses withir. th3 jurisdiction cf ary court inferior to the 
district court shall be prosecuted by ccEPplaint. All criminal 
actions in district court, except these en appeal, shall te 
prosecuted either by inf crnsaticc, after exarrinaticn and ccffniit- 
fflent by a magistrate or after leave granted by the ccurt, or by 
indictment without such exaninatioc , coasirititent , or leave, 

(2) a grand jury shall consist cf eleven persons, of whoa 
eight oust ccncur to find an incictnient . A grand jury shall be 
drawn and suiBiBcned cnly at the discretion and crder cf the dis- 
trict judge. 

Section 21. Eflll. All persons shall be bailable by suffi- 
cient sureties, except fcr capital offenses, when the proof is 
evident or the presuapticn great. 

Section 22. EXCESSIVE SA^CTICN£. Excessive tail shall net 
be required, or excessive fines iicpcsed, or cruel and unusual 
punishments inflicted. 



the 

long 

he c 

shal 

secu 

law, 

out 

afte 

siti 



Secti 
pur pos 
er th 
an giv 
1 be 
rity, 

and i 
their 
r rea 
on aut 



on 23. 
e of sec 
an may b 
e securi 
dischar 
his dapo 
n the pr 
presence 
sorable 
horized 



CETENTICK. 
uring his 
e necessar 
ty for his 
ged upon 
sition sha 
esence of 
, if they 
notice of 
by this se 



KC 

test 

y in 
app 
giv 

11 b 

the 

shal 

the 

ctic 



iocn 
crd 
eara 
ing 
e ta 
accu 
1 fa 
tice 
n ma 



rscn shal 
y in any c 
er to take 
nee at the 

the saite 
ken in the 
sed and hi 
il to atte 

and place 
y te recei 



1 be iipprisc 
riiainal pro 

bis deposit 

tioe cf tri 
; if he cane 

Banner prov 
£ counsel, o 
rd the exat 

thereof. An 
ved as evide 



ned fcr 
ceeding 
ice. If 
al, he 
ct give 
ided ty 
r witb- 
inaticn 
y depo— 
nee en 



960 



5£P0ST CI CGf.KllTil CN SlYLE, LRAiTING 



the trial, if the fcitn-^ss shall te Otad c r ats^rt ficir. the state, 

Siction 214. tlGHTS CF THE ACC'JSEE. In all crioiinal crcse- 
cuticns th^ accusec shall hdv«r the right tc apfsar and defend in 
person and by counsel; tc demand th£ nature and cause cf th-2 
accusaticn; to meet the witnesses against him face to facs; to 
have prccoss to compsl the attendance c£ witnesses in his tebalf, 
and a speedy puLlic trial by an inpartial jury cf the county or 
district in which tht? offense is alleged tc have been ccnaitted, 
subject to the right cf the state tc have a change of venue fcr 
any cf the causes for which the defendant may obtain the sairt. 

51ecticn 25. S EL F-I NCR IKIN ATIC h AND CCCELE JEOPAHTY. Nc 
person shall be ccmpelled tc testify against hiraselr ir a crimi- 
nal proceeding. No ptrscn shall be again put in jeopardy fcr the 
same offense previously tried in any jurisdiction. 



liection 26. TRIAL 
ed to all and shall 



or 



EY JUFY. The right cf trial by jury is 
reaair. inviclate. Put upon default cf 
by consent of the parties expressed in such naanner 
provide, all cases may be tried without a jtry or 
than the nuiter cf jurcrs provided by law. In all 
■^wo-thirds cf the jury toay r^^nder a verdict, and a 
verdict so rendered shall have the saire fcrce and effect as if 
all had concurred therein. In all crininal acticns, the verdict 
shall le un-initncus. 



secu 

appeal anc 

as the law may 

before fewer 

civil actions. 



S-ction 27. IMPBISClvPEM FCf EEEI. IJ c person 
impriscned tor debt except in the nanner prcvidsd by law, upon 
refusal to deliver up his estate fcr the benefit of his ere 
tors, or in cases of tcrt, where there is strong presumption of 
fraud . 



shell be 

law, \ 

his credi- 



Section 28. BIGHTS CF IKE CONVICTED. Laws for the furish- 
ment cf crime shall be founded cr. ths principles cf prevention 
and re f crnia ticn. Termination cf state supervisicn fcr any cffense 
against th^ state shall restore all civil and political rights. 



Section 29. EKINEhT DCfAIN. Private property shall not be 
taken cr damaged for public use without just ccapensation tc the 
full extent cf the less having been first teade to cr paid into 
court for the owner. In the event cf litigation, just ccapensa- 
ticn shall include necessary expenses cf litigation to be awarded 
by the ccurt when the private property cwner prevails. 




i>JO. VIII 



-- Bill of Eights 



961 



S<=cticn 31. iX PC£1 FACIC, CEIIGAIICN CF CCMFACIS, ^hl 
ISEZVOCABIH irFIVlIEGils. Nc -X fcst facte law cr any law jnfair- 
iv.q th.- c:;ligaticr. ci contracts, cr irakirg any irrevocable grant 
of special privil3g^3, frcinchises, cr iciru nit i ?s , shall t? passed 
by the legisliturs. 

Section 32. CIVILIAN CCNIFCL CF THE MIII1ASY. The military 
shall always b= in strict sutordin at icn tc the civil pckfr; nc 
soldier shall in tiii^. cf peace he quartered in any nous? without 
the consent of the cwner, ncr in timo cf war, except ir the ear- 
ner provided ty law. 

Section 33. IfiEOKl ATICN CF ?P?EE EEFSCfS. Nc armed person 
or persons or armed tody ct irer shall te trcught intc this state 
for trie pre-ser vation of the peace, cr the suppression of dcipestic 
violence, except upon the application cf the legislature, cr cf 
the governor when the Iv-gis la tur e cannot te convened. 

Section 3U. CNEKUMZBAIEE FIGHTS. The enumeration in this 
Ccnstituticn cf certain rights shall net te construed tc deny, 
impair, or disparage ctheis retained fcy the people. 



Section 3 5. SE?V ICEMEN, SEFVICFi*C?.EN, ANE VHTEFA^£. Ihe 
people declare that Montana serviceirer, se r vicewcirer , and vet- 
erans may be given special ccnsideraticns determined ty the 
legislature. 



962 



PEFCK'I CF CCMflllTEE CN S1YIE, EFAFIING 



BE II PECFOSIC EY I (i E PILL CF RIGHIS CCKf^TIlEE: 

That there be a new Article cr the Eill of Bights to r?ad as 
f cIlcwE : 



Pi^EJf^ELE 



We the people cf Montana grateful to God for the quiet 
beauty of our state, the grandeur cf cur ircortaias, the vastress 
of our rolling plainc, and desirirg tc improve the quality of 
life, equality of opportunity and tc secure the tlessirgs cf lib- 
erty for this and future geceraticns do ordain and establish this 
Constitution. 



RETICLE 
DECLAEAIICN CE EIGHTS 



Section 1. PCFULAE SC VEEEIG NT Y . i\ 11 pclitical power is 
vested in and derived frca; the fecpleti ^-ii All gcverrnert cf 
right originates with the people-}-^ is founded upon their will 
only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 



Section 2. SEIF-GC VEBNME NI 
the exclusive right cf governing 
and independent state. Ihey itay 
stitution and form of government 
sar y . 



Ihe people efc-4-fe-e-6*d*-6 have 
thecrselves as a free, sovereign, 
alter cr abolish *i»€-if the Ccn- 
whenever they *-Af dees it neces- 



Section 3. INALIENABLE FIGHIS. All perscr.s are bcrn free 
and have certain inalienable rights^ *-b-i€i» Ihe^ include the right 
to a clean and healthful envircnirertT- and the ^f4v4 rights of 
pursuing life's basic necessities, ei enjoying and defending 
their lives and liberties, e4 acquiring, possessing and protect- 
ing property^ and e4 seeking their safety, health and happiness 
in all lawful ways. In enjoying these rights, 4-b« — peo p le all_2€r- 
sgns recognize corresponding responsibilities. 

Section u. INCIVIEDAL DIGMIY. Ihe dignity cf the human 
being is inviolable. No person shall be denied the equal pro- 
tection of the i^M lawgTj^ rg-e— be-4is€-E±«4«^*«4 lieither_the state 

fl2I_5IJI_I«£scni_f irm_4_ccr£oraticn^_or_instituticn_shall_di£criffii 
pate against ani_£erson in the exercise cf his civil cr political 
rights cr account of race, color, sex, culture, social origin or 
condition, or political or religious ideas^i ^-y-^-R-y— p«f &e^»-y fi€ «y 

to y Otl X ▼ X C^"^ tl O T 



Nc. VTTI — Pill cf [lights 963 



Section 5. FPEEDCi? CF hlllGICN. Ihc sta*--^ €4-«6«-td-F-s shall 
aake nc law rasp^cting an sstafclisl-iiisnt cf r^^liqicr.-/ cr prchit- 
iting the free exercise tnsrecf. 

Secticn 6. FREECCC CT ASSHMELY. The pecfl^ shall have the 
right f^-A€~ihi^ tc a = Sc[rbl?-y £eac?a tl;j_ ir_crdei_tG cetiticn fcr 
redr^ess of ili^vancco or ^e-ie-e-ite-l-y pictest gc vernniental ac*-icn. 

Section 7. i-PEiiDC^. Cf SEifCK, EXFBESSICK^ ANE F.-'FSS. Nc law 
shall be passed impairing the frecdcni cf speech cr expressicn. 
Every person shall be tree tc speak cr publish whatever he will 
on any subj-^ct, being respcrsifcle fcr all abuse of that liberty. 
In all suits and prcsecuticrs fcr libel cr slander the truth 
thereof may bo given in evidence; and the jury, urder the direc- 
tion cf the court, shall deteimine the law and the facts. 

Section 8. SIGHT Cf F A F1ICIE ATICN. The public eh-^il-h^f^ 
has the right tc expect go ver cccen tal agencicjs tc afford such 
reasonable opportunity for citi2er pa ztici paticn in the operation 
of the agencies prior to the final cecisicr.T as E3i_fce provided 
by law . 

Section 9. i-.IGHT TC KNCW. Kc perscn shall be deprived of 
the rignt tc exaccine docuffents cr tc observe the deliberations cf 
all public bodies or agencies of state governoient and its sufc- 
divisiccs, except ir, cases in which tr.e deaand cf individual pri- 
vacy clearly exct<ids the merits ct public disclosure. 

Section IC. BTGHl CF EBI^flCX. The right cf individual pri- 
vacy is essential to the well-beirg cf a free society and shall 
net be infringed without the showing cf a ccirpelling state inter- 
est. 

Section 11. StARChES ANE ShIZDFES. The people shall be 
secure in their p-rscns, papers, hoaes and effects-, frcit unrea- 
sonable searches and seizures^^ -a*-^ ^c warrant tc search any 
place, or seize any person or thing shall issue without describ- 
ing the place tc be searchea-y ci the person or thing tc te 
seized, »«■£ cr without probable cause, supported by cath cr 
af firmaticnr reduced tc writing. 

Section 12. RIGHT TC EEAB Aff^S. Ihe right cf any perscn tc 
keep or bear arics in defense cf his own hone, person, and prop- 
erty, or in aid of the civil pcwer when tberetc legally sunircned, 
shall net be called in question, but nothing herein contained 
shall be held te pernit the carrying of concealed weapcns. 

Section 13. RIGHT iG CF SCFFFAGE. All elections shall be 
free and oper, and no power, civil cr ailitaiy, shall at any titte 
interfere tc prevent the free exercise of the right of suffrage. 

Section 14. ADULT FIGHTS. f ^e e e e -B-g £erscn -ei^-fe^^^s— (1 8)- 

years of age or_clder d*«-^e€id*€-4— 4e-b€-d4«-l%e is_an adult for 

all purpc; 



; p ^ = . 



964 REPORT CF COMKllTEE CK SIYIE, CFfiFIING 



Secticn 15. RIGHTS CF PEFSCNS fl-W**«-5-H*-A6*-€*— KA^«-F45-¥ NGI 
^£IiI;3f* 'I^^ rights c£ perscrs urder 44te J9_ISa£S_o| ^9^ ©-^ 
a*5«€4*y shall incluJe, tut net be liaited to, all the funda- 
mental rights cf this article -e-xe^f *— w-b-e-t-^ ili§ss specifically 
precluded by laws which enhance the protection *€£ cf such per- 
sons. 

Secticn 16. IllE ADaiNISlRATICN CF JUEIICE. Courts cf jus- 
tice shall be open to every person, ar.d speedy reiiedy afforded 
for every injury of person, property, or character-t^ »© No person 
shall be deprived cf this full legal redress fcr injury incurred 
in emplcymeiit for which another perscn may be liable except as to 
fellow eaployees and his ininiedidte eaplcyer who hired him if such 
imiBediate employer provides coverage under the fccrkmen's Ccippen- 
saticn Laws of this state-f^, -^ft-d— 4-ted* ei-g-h-fe Ri^^ht and justice 
shall be administered without sale, denial, or delay. 

Section 17. DUE PFCCESS CF lAfc. No person shall be deprived 
of life, liberty, or property without due process cf law. 

Section 18. ■R€«-i-P«^4i^i3;-¥-**€* ST A1E_ECEJECJI TO SUIT. The 

state^ dft4 — i*s--safe4-i¥is4:€-Rs ccurti6s^__cit ies^_tcwrSi_ar!d_all 
2Hli£_l5Cdl_20vernmental_entiti6s shall have nc -sfee-tai iHcturity 
frcBi suit for injury to a perscn cr property. This provision 
shall apply only to causes of action arising after -J-«-ft-e Jul^ 1, 
1973. 

Section 19. HABEAS CCFFCS. The privilege of the writ of 
habeas corpus shall never be suspended. 

Section 20. INITIATTCN CF PECCEFCINGS. SJH Criffiral 

offenses within the jurisdiction of wi-ie^ any €«-b-e4€ court 

inferior to the district €e«-Et-s-iia-¥€-5-H5i€44€44:€fl court shall be 
prosecuted by complaint. All criminal actions in district court, 
except those en appeal, shall be prosecuted either by irfcrffa- 
tion, after exaitination and coniitnent by a iiiaqis trat e-y or after 
leave granted by the court, cr eha- l J: -fe«-f f«e-ee-B%r»4 by indictment 
without such exaaination^^^ ■©* coanitBert, cr -wi4iie-B4— s-fre-h leave ©-§ 

IZL ^- gr^nd jury shall consist of eleven persons, cf whom 
eight must concur to find an indictment. A grand jury shall e c ly 

be drawn and summoned ^*-b€-6 cnl2_at_the_discre ticn and order of 

the district judge slta-l^T— t-fe— ^■ar g - 4ieeE e44e-By-ee-ft€%4^-g it fl c c ce 

Section 21. BAIL. All persons shall be bailable by suffi- 
cient sureties, except for capital offenses, when the proof is 
evident or the presumption great. 

Section 22. EXCESSIVE SANCTICNS. Excessive bail shall not 
be required, or excessive fines imposed, cr cruel and unusual 
punishments inflicted. 



No. VIII — Dill ct rights 965 



S^cticri 23. CETENTICN. Nc f€i£cr shall ^s iirptiscrei fcr 
the curfcs^ ot socurinq his t€stirrcny ir ary ciiirinal prcceedinq 
Icnq-^r than aay fce necessary in cider tc take Us dcpcsitict. If 
he can give security fcr his appearance at th€ tims cf trial, he 
shall to discharged upon jiviny the sair.T; if h'? cannct give 
security, his depcsiticr; shall be tak^n in ths manner ■fri^e€-Ei-fe-c4 
£I2vidi2 ^y law, and in the preserc; cf the accused and his coun- 
3p1, cr iiithcut th--ir presence, if they shall fail tc attend the 
oxamin^ticn after r-^ascnacl= nctice cf the tiitc and place 
therecf. Any deposition authorized Ly this section itay be 
received as evidence on the trial, if the witness shall te dead 
or ar^^ent frctt the state. 

Section 2^. i^IGHTS C? IHE ACCIS^E. In all criminal prose- 
cuticns th9 accused shall have the right tc appear and defend in 
person and by ccuns-l; tc demand the nature and cause cf the 
accusation; to me^^t the witnesses against hin; face tc face; tc 
have process tc coirrfl the attendance cf witnesses in his behalf, 
and a spe-iy public trial by an impartial jury ct the ccunty cr 
district in which the ctferse is alleged tc have been coffiritted, 
subject to the right of th:- state tc have a change cf v=rue fcr 
any cf th-^ causes rcr which the defer.dact nay obtain the sanie. 

Section 25. SELF-I NCTiIMlN AIICK AKT CCCFLZ JECffFEY. No 
parser shall be compelled tc testify against tiaself it a criiri- 
nal prcceedingTi «€i—sh^ii-€tf:^ Nc person shall be 4-**i€€ asain put 
in jeopardy for the sane offense previously tried in any juris- 
dict ion. 

Section 26. TRIAL EY JUPY. The right cf trial ty jury efetiii 
-be is secured tc all-r and shall renair irviclater. fe-B't — i« — ai-i 
Sdsei — dfi4 tut upon default cf appearance-, or by consent cf the 
patties expressed ir. such manner as the law may ee-eee^-ife^ II£- 

Tide^ all cases ^d^ t e_tr ied_wi thcut_a_Ju ii_or_be for §_ fewer * 

%£irk4— fe^-5«-e-y— fta^-fee— w^-ve^T-«^— ^— ^*^^^-«^^-*-y-<*«?— i"^se than the 

number cf jurors 4-ha-ft-*ii€-«-H*-fe-e* provided by law. In all civil 
actions^ two-thirds i-a- B<ja\b € ^ of the jury may render a verdict, 
and €-«e-fe a verdict so rendered shall have the same force and 
effect as if all ea^ti-^-e-E-y had concurred therein. In all crimi- 
nal actions, the verdict shall be urariffcus. 

Section 27. IMPRISCNMENl FOP EEEI. No person shall be 
imprisoned for debt except in the scanner f-E*f €£-ite-e4 grcvided by 
law, upon refusal to deliver up his estate fcr the benefit cf his 
creditors, or in case cf tort, where there is strong presumption 
cf fraud. 

Section 28. RIGHTS CF THF CCKVICIFC. Laws fcr the purish- 
nent cf crime shall be founded cr the prirciples cf prevention 
and reformation^ ,4ft4— §«-li-Ei<^k-te— ehaii— fe«-^-«4e«a*i€aiiy — teete€e4 
•»^«« -fee^ffiirftA-tiefi l^rmination of state supervision fci any cffense 
against the state ihall~restcre_all_civil_and_2clitical._r i^hts. 



966 FEFCHT Ct CCKt^ITTlc Cw STYLE, EPAFIING 



Section 2<i. EMNEM DCflAIN. Private prop'^cty shall ret fc9 
taken cr damaged fci: public use withcut just cctnpensation to the 
full -^xt^^nt cf the less having he^n first irad€ tc cr paid into 
court for ths cwner. In the event of litigaticn, just ccmpensa- 
ticn shall include necessary expenses cf litigation tc he a^iarde;! 
by the court when the private picpeity cwr^^i i-e — %^e — ps^e^diiie^ 
^f-t-y ££ 6 V j_i lo . 

Section 3C . TE^ASCN AND CE5CEK1 CE ESTATES. Treason against 
the state shall consist only in levying war against it, cr in 
adhering to its enemies, giving then aid and ccirfort; no person 
shall he convicted cf treason except en the testinicny of tho wit- 
nesses to the same cv^-rt act, or on his ccrfessicn in cpen court; 
no person shall te attainted cf treason cr felony by the 4re^ie- 
4^%44^_^^.e^«i^^j. li^isldturei no ccrvicticn shall cause the loss 
of property tc the relatives or heirs cf the ccnvicted. The 
estates cf suicides shall descend cr vest as in cases of natural 
death. 

section 31. EX FC5T FACTC, CELIGATICN CF CCNTFACTS^ ANE 
IREEVCCAELE PRIVILEGES. No ex pest facte law rcr law inpairing 
the obligation of contracts, or iraking any irrevccatle grant of 
special privileges, franchises, or iniiuunities , shall be passed ty 
the -i-^-fieiTi-ti-v-e— *ssee-fei^ isaislslmi* 

Section 32. CIVILIAN CCNT&CI CF THE PIIITAFY. The ffilitary 
shall always be in strict sutordi nation to +h= civil power; tc 
soldier shall in tiire cf peace be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except in the man- 
ner ^■6e€^-i-fe-e-4 iicvided ty law. 

Section 33. IKPOBTATICN CF AFf.EE FEFSCNS. No armed person 
or p'^iscns or armed body of men shall te brought into this state 
for the preservation of the peace, or the suppression of domestic 
violence, except upcn the application cf the i-ef is-ia-fe-i**? — aeeeg 
bi-y-^ iiaisiiiiJISx o^ °^ 'the governor when the ^e ga e l ^a^^-o-e-^^g^g— 
^^"f i£3iii^liJ£§ cannot te convened. 

Section 34. DNENDMEHATEC EIGbTS. The enuieration in this 
Constitution of certain rights shall net te construed tc deny, 
impair, or disparage others retained by the people. 

Section 35. SEPVICEMEN, SEE VICEWCKE R^ ML VETEFAKS. The 
people €^-H€fi*-afid declare that Montana serviceiren, servicewomen^ 
and veterans may be given special considerations a* determined 
by the ■i-e^i€4:*%4-¥-e-dsse«fe4^-r legiglaturei 



No. VIII — Fill cf Fights 



967 



REPC5T NC. VIII - £ILI CF FIGhlS 
CO KM EMS CN Sltll , fCFf, A.^^. GFAr.KAF 



IllliS^iiSliSi;- "^he Ccniffitt?^ en S-^yl^, seEsitive to the pcir.t 
Bade by the substantive commit t<=e 's ccair?r.ts that scire "pclitical 
philcscphy provisions ar? net cft^r ia. oiediately justiciable," has 
stayG'l its ecitcrial hard. 

!:'2Cticn_2. I.- ur ctud ticn changes serve clarity and dc net 
alt'=r substance. 

^ycticn_2. Delatincj "of the stats" frcic the first ser.ter.c6 
avoids~r€p?tiricr . Changing the third person plural possessive 
proncun "th-ir" to the definite article crakes plain the function 
of a Constitution is to constitute the crgaric law cf the state 
rather than to ostaLlisii a pcss^sscrj relationship bet*i6en the 
pecpl-- and th^ instranert. 

^ecticn__3. Structural charges serve clarity kitbcut alter- 
ing substance. 

Siction_a. The wcia "law" was trade plural to agree kith the 
parent lUth A tiendir.en t . Alteration of the forcr, but not the sub- 
stance, of the second senrence irakes the prohibiticr crystal 
clear. Countless court decisicrs irake flain that a prohibition 
directed against the "state" includes all its aris, ircluding 
"ageccits or subdivisions". 

Sicticn_6. fccrds were added to clarify the intertioc of 
the substantive ccirniittee expressed in its ccoinient tc this 
section. As rewritten, the secticr makes plain that it prefects 
one right - "tc assemble EfaceabJ^" - fcr two purposes: (1) to 
petition for redress of grievances or (2) tc protest gcverrnertal 
acticn. 

§££li2S_l • i^ililiS "Sijci" ^£^_"l3x_be_^_dces_nct_al t6r_sub- 

st^DCe. The additions wf^re necessitated by the tlccr airendiaent 
having been appendea. 

Sectioa_lJ. Slight changes clarify without alterirg sub- 
stance . 

Section_1.U. The fcrii was changed tc ccrsist with drafting 
standards. 

Secticn__15. The title and content were changed tc accord 
with the substarce cf section la. 

Section_28. The substituted phrase is the same as that 
adopted "for the saire purpose in the Article or REVENUE ANE TAXA- 
TION. The second sentence should be mcved tc the adoption sched- 
ule. (Suggestion for title: SCVEEEIGN IM?5UNIIY IS DEAD! LCNG LIVE 



968 BEFCRT Cf CCKKI1TEI CN STYIE, CPAFIING 

THE FlhG!) 

S;5Cticn_20. Changes in fcrir dc net alter substance. 

5;?cticn£ iJx__22x_23^_ar.d_24. "Cncp turned, twic? shy". The 

substantive comtnittt-i ccirn!<?nts to each section re- ad that the ccir— 
mittee voted un^riacusly tc retain ■^h-2 eld secticr unchanged. 

o C • • • • 

5icticn_25. Changes remcve redurdarcy. 

Section_26. Rewriting for clarity dees net alter substance, 

Ssctior_27. "The ccmtrittee voted unaniacusly to retain 
fcrnifir Article III, Section 12 uncharged". 

Sect ion_28 . Rewriting makes plain that it is the act cf 
tarmiriaticn of state supervision which restores "all civil and 
political rights." Tnat phrase frcni the substantive ccBBiittee 
comnients specifies "full rights." The proposal: "Eeath shall not 
be prescribed as a penalty for any crirae against the state." will 
be placed on the tallct, as directed by the Convention. 

SectioiiE_3G_4_3J_4__32^_3 3x_3U. The substantive ccniinittee voted 
unaniir.cusly to preserve these previsions unchanged. 



No. VIII — Dill cf Fights 



969 



CHCEF CE EUSINESS NO. 5 - 
fINAL CCNSIEE&flllCN SlYlt ANC EBAFIING - 
BILL CF BIGHTS - NO. VIII 

FEEAfEIE 



W= the j^^ofle cl; Kcntana grateful tc Gcd fcr the quiet 
beauty cf our state, the gracdeur cf our ucurtains, the vastness 
of our rolling plains, and desiring tc imprcve the quality cf 
life, equality of opportunity and to secure the tlessings cf lib- 
erty for tnis and future gereraticrs dc cidain and establish this 
Constitution. 



ARTICIF 
CECLflBAIICN CF EIGHIS 



Section 1. FOPDLAE SCVEEEIGNIY. All pclitical power is 

vested in and derived frcci the pecple. All gcvernaient cf right 

originates with the people, is founded upcn their will only, and 
is ir.stituted solely fcr the gccd cf the whcle. 

Section 2. SE IF-GCVEENMENT. The people have the exclusive 
right cf governing themselves as a free, sovereign, and independ- 
ent state. They may liter or abolish the Ccrstituticn and form of 
government whenever they deem it necessary. 

Section 3. INALIENABLE EIGHTS. All persons are born free 
and have certain inalienable rights. Ihey include the right tc a 
clean and healthful envircnmen t and the rights cf pursuing life's 
basic necessities, enjoying and defending their lives ard lib- 
erties, acquiring, possessing ard protecting property, and 
seeking their safety, health and happiness in all lawful ways. In 
enjoying these rights, all persons recognize corresponding 
responsibilities. 

Section U. INCIVICUAL DIGNITlf. The dignity of the human 
being is inviolable. No person shall te denied the equal pro- 
tection of the laws. Neither the state nor any person, firm, cor- 
poration, or institution shall discriminate against any person in 
the exercise of his civil or political rights on account of race, 
color, sex, culture, social origin or condition, or political or 
religious ideas. 

Section 5. FEEEDOM CF EELIGICK. The state shall ffake eo law 
respecting an establisfcaent cf religion or prohibiting the free 



970 



EFPCI^I CF COfKIlTEF CI SIYIE , CFAFIING 



exercise th erect. 

Section 6. FPEFDCr' CF ASSEMEli. Ihe pacfle shall have the 
right peaceably to assemtlc, petition for redress cr peacfatly 
protest goverr. nertal action. 

Section 7. FPii^-DCK CF SDEFCH, F>It<ESSICN, ANE FRtSS. ho law 
shall be passed impairing the frefdcDC cf speech cr expression. 
Every persor. shall be iree tc speak or publish whatever he will 
on any subject, being rpsponsifcle for all abuse cf that liberty. 
lE all suits and prosecutions tor libel cr slander the truth 
thereof ffay be given in eviderice; ar.d the jury, under the direc- 
tion of th-i court, shall determine the law and the facts. 

Section B. RIGHl CF tAFTICltmCN. The public has the right 
tc expect gcvernmental agencies tc affcrd such r^^ascnable oppor- 
tunity for citizen participation in the operation cf the agencies 
prior tc the final decision as may be provided by law. 

Section 9. RIGHT TC K^CW. No person shall be deprived cf 
the right tc exairine docuirents cr tc cbserv^ the deliberations of 
all public bodies or agencies of state gcvcrnment and its sub- 
divisions, '^xcept in cases in which the demand cf individual pri- 
vacy clearly exceeds the irerits cf public disclosure. 

S'^ction 1C. FIGHT CF FFIVAClf. The right cf individual pri- 
vacy is essential to the well-being cf a free society and shall 
net be infringed without the showing cf a ccupelling state inter- 
est. 

Section 11. SFSRCHES AND SEIZDI-ES. The people shall be 
secuf^ in their persons, papers, hcires and effects frcm unreason- 
able searches and seizures. No warrant to search any place, or 
seize any p?rson or tning shall issue without describing the 
place to be searched or the perscn cr thing to be seized, or 
witncut probable cause, supported by oath cr af f iriBatiCE reduced 
to writing. 

Section 12. EIGHT TC BEfiF ABP!S. The right of any person to 
keep or bear arms in defense of his own hcae, person, and prop- 
erty, cr in aid cf the civil pcwer when thereto legally summoned, 
shall not be called in guesticr, but nothing herein contained 
shall be held tc permit the carrying cf ccr.cealed weapons. 

Section 13. FIGHI CF SUFFBeci. fill elections shall be free 
and open, and nc power, civil cr ailitary, shall at any tine 
interrere tc prevent the free exercise cf the right cf suffrage. 



Section 14. ADULT FIGHTS. A person 16 years of ace cr elder 
is ar adult for all purposes. 

Section 15. BIGHTS CF PEFSC^S KCT ACUITS. The rights cf 
persons under 18 years of age shall irclude, but not be limited 
to, all the fundamental rights of this article unless specifi- 



No. VIII — Eill cf Eights 



971 



cally precluded by laws i«hich erhar.ce 
sees. 



th£ prctecticr cf such per- 



Section 16. HE ADKIN ISTKATIC K CF JtSTICE. Ccurt£ ct jus- 
tice shall b€ open to every perscr., and speedy reir^dy afforded 
for every injury of parson, property, or character. No person 
shall be deprived of this full legal redress fcr injury incurred 
in euploym^nt fcr which another person nay be liable except a£ to 
fellow employees and his ioiiredidte employer who hired bin if such 
imnnediatt employer provides coverage under the fcorkaien's Compen- 
saticr. Laws of this state. Right and justice shall be adainis- 
terec without sale, denial, or delay. 

Section 17. CUE PFGCESS CF LAW. Nc person shall be deprived 
of life, liberty, or property without due process cf law. 

Section 18. STATE SOEJECI IC £111. The state, counties, 
cities, towns, and all other local govercnertal entities shall 
have nc immunity frcm suit fcr injury to a person or property. 
This provision shall apply only to causes of action arising after 
July 1, 1973. 

Section 19. HABEAS COPFDS. The privilege 
habeas corpus shall never be suspended. 



of the writ of 



Section 20. INITIATICK CF EECCEECINGS. (1) Criirical 
offenses withir the jurisdiction cf any court inferior to the 
district court shall be prosecuted by ccoaplaint. All criminal 
actions in district court, except these on appeal, shall be 
prosecuted either by infer mat icn, after exasiraticc acd ccaiiBit- 
aent by a sagistrate or after leave granted by the ccurt, cr by 
indictment without such examinaticr , ccmri tiren t or leave. 



(2) A grand jury shall consist cf eleven persons, of whom 
eight must concur to find an indictment. A grand jury shall be 
drawn and summoned cnly at the discretion and order of the dis- 
trict judge. 

Section 21. BAIL, All persons shall be bailable by suffi- 
cient sureties, except fcr capital offenses, when the proof is 
evident cr the presuoaption great. 

Section 22. EXCESSIVE SANCTICNS. Excessive bail shall net 
be required, or excessive fines iitpcsed, or cruel and unusual 
punishments inflicted. 

Section 23. DETENTICN. No person shall be inpriscred fcr 
the purpose cf securing his testimcry in any criminal proceeding 
longer than may be necessary in crder to take his deposition. If 
he can give security for his appearance at the time cf trial, he 
shall be discharged upon giving the same; if he cannot give 
security, his deposition shall be taken in the Banner provided by 
law, and in the presence of the accused and his counsel, cr with- 
out their presence, if they shall fail to attend the exaaination 



972 



REPORT CP CCf. {"ITTEt CN STYLE, EFflFIING 



att^^r reasondtle nctice ct th*? tiire and t-lace thereof. 



Section 2ii. RIGHTS C¥ Till flCCtSEU. In all criminal prose- 
cuticLS the accused shall hav€ th-^ ticht to afjear and defend in 
person and by ccunspl; to d<;iiiard the nature and cause cf the 
accusation; to me»^t the witnesses against him face to face; to 
have procf^ss to coinpei the atterdance of hitresses in his tehalf, 
and a spaedy public trial ty an inpartial jury cf the cctr. ty or 
district in ^./hich th? ctrense is alleged to have been cciriritted, 
subject to the right cf the state tc have a change of verue fct 
any ct the causes for which the defendant aay cftain the same. 



SectiiKi 25. SELx'^-INCh'IMINATICN AND DCUBIE JECFflREY. No 
person shall fce compelled tc testify against hiffself in a criiri- 
nal frcceed inj . No person shall be again [u^. ir jeopardy for the 
saae offense previously tried in any jurisdiction. 



Section 26. TFIAl EY JURY. The right of trial by jury is 
secured to all and shall renain ir.viclate. Put upon default cf 
by consent of the parties expressed in such iranner 
provide, all cases may be tried without a jury cr 
than the nunber cf jurors frovided by law. Ir all 
twc-thirds of the jury aay render a verdict, and a 
verdict so r'^ndered shall have the saire force and effect as if 
all iiad concurred therein. In all criminal actions, the verdict 
shall be un-iriicus. 



appearance cr 
as the law niay 
before few:^r 
civil actions. 



Section 27. IfPnISCNMINT fCF EEET. ^c person shall be 
imprisortd for debt except in the iranner provided by law, ufcn 
refusal to deliver up his estate for the benefit cf his credi- 



tors, 
fraud. 



cr 



m cases o: 



tort, where there is strong presumption of 



Section 28. EIGHTS CF THE CONVICTtE. Laws for the punish- 
ment cf crime shall be founded en the prircifles cf prevention 
and reformation. Full lights are restored by ter minatiori of state 
supervision for any offense against the state. 



Section 29. EMINEM CCMAIN. Private property shall not be 
taken or dan-aged tor public use vithcut just ccmpensa ticn tc the 
full extent of the loss having been first made tc cr paid into 
court tor the owner. In the event ct litigaticn, just ccirpensa- 
tion shall include necessary expenses ct litigaticn tc be awarded 
by the court when the private property cwner prevails. 

Section 3C. TREASON AtiE EESCEKT CP FSTATES. Treason against 
the state shall ccrsist only in leiiyinq war against it, cr in 
adhering to its enemies, giving thetn aid and cccpfort; nc perscn 
shall be convicted cf treason exceft en the testimony cf two wit- 
nesses tc the same overt act, or en his confession in open court; 
no person shall be attainted cf treascn or felccy by the legis- 
lature; no conviction shall cause the less cf property tc the 
relatives or heirs cf the convicted. The estates of suicides 
shall descend cr vest as in cases cf natural death. 



No. Vlir — Eill Cf FiqhtS 



973 



Section 31. FX FCST FACIC, CElIGflllCN CF CCNTFACTS, AND 
IRaEVCCABL£ fFIVlL£GE:3. Iso ex post facte law rcr ary la« inipdir- 
in^j the obligaticn ct cciitracts, or making any irrevccable grant 
cf special privileges, franchises, cr inmiuniti^s , shall b€ passed 
by the legislature. 

Section 32. CIVILIAN CCNIPCI CF THE PIinABY, The Kilitary 
shall alhays te in strict subcrdinaticr. tc the civil pc«er; nc 
soldiar shall in time cf peace be quartered in any house without 
the consent cf the cwner, nor in time cf war, except in the man- 
ner providsd by law. 

Section 35. IMPORTATICN CF JRPEE FFPSCKS. No armed person 
or perscns cr armed body of iren shall te brought irtc this state 
for the praservaticr. cf the peace, cr the suppression cf dcmestic 
violence, except upon the application of the legislature, cr cf 
the governor when the legislature car.rct be convened. 

Section 34. CNENOMERATEE PIGl^TS. The enuneratior in this 
Ccnstitution of certain rights shall net te construed tc deny, 
impair, cr disparage ethers retained by the people. 

Section 35. SEKVICIMEN, SER VICE HC f! E N , A^D VETERANS. The 
people declare that Montana servicemen, service wcner , acd vet- 
erans may be given special censideraticns determined by the 
legislatura. 



974 



REPCST Cf CCMMIlTiJ Ch> SlYll , EEiiFTING 



Nc. IX — ruhlic Health, Welfare, later 

and Industry 



975 



PCMANA CCNSIIICTICNAl CCKVENTICN 
19 71-1972 

REPCRT Ci- CCKfiniFt CN STYLE, EBAFTIfiG, 
IRANSITIC^ ANT SCEt^ISSICN CN 
POELIC HEALTH, WELFARE, 
lABCP ANt INEUSTPl! 
NO. IX 



Cats Fepcrted: ^'arch 17, 197 



^E^_Jchn_Ki_Schilt7 , Chairnari 



^s/_Williaffi_A^_Burkhardt, Vice Cbairrar 



976 



REl'ORT Cr CCMKITTEE ON STYLE, ERAFIING 



TO: ^cntdna Cciist itut icnal Ccrventirn 

SUBJECT: FULLTC HEALTH, WtlFASE, lABCB ANE INECSTE-fY 

Ladies and Gtntlcni?i;: 

Th'? CCDinittrr'^ en Styl--, Crattir. g, Transiticr and Sutnissicn 
transtiiit^ I'^visicrs cr th-r atcve ArticK- fct ccrsidGiatioi. cf the 
CcnvGn ticn . 

I [n[iit?di i tel y fcllcwinc) this l-^tte-t ycu will find the above 
Articl.T as revised by tli^ Ccnifittse. Ecllotiinc that is the Arti- 
cle irdicatinq (ty un^l -r linir.g ) wcrds we have added ar,d (ty 
cros£in>j cut) words we liave deleted frcin the Article as affrcved. 
Finally, there is ar. exflanaticr cf the charges we have iiiade, 

Sirce rely , 



/£/_Jchn_K._Schiltz 

Chairaar. cf the CcEaiittee 

en Style, Crafting, Transition 

and Sutttissicn 



Vice Chairffan cf the Ccffirittee 
cr 5tyle, Crafting, Transiticr 
and Subujissicn 



Nc. IX — Public HPdlth, Welfare, liter 

and Industry 



977 



BE II eSCFCSfL L'Y THE FUFIIC KEALTF, WELFARE, lAECP AND INCCSTEY 

CCHMm? I: 

That there b-s: a nen Articl'? cr Ncn-rrunicital Ccrfcraticrs tc 
read as f ol lews : 



A P 11 CLE 
NCN-KUNICIF AL CC E t C F AI IC KS 



Secticn 1, LIc^ITATICN CE ECWEF. Cccfcrate charters shall he 
grantfcd, modified, cr dissclved only fursuant tc general laii. 

Section 2. peoiECTICN rCB CI1I2EN&T(. Ihe l^egislature shall 
prcvid^ frctecticn and educaticn tcr th€ pecfle against harmful 
and ucfdir practices by either foreign cr domestic ccrpcraticrs , 
individuals, cr assccidt ic rs . 

Secticn 3. RETROSPECIIVE LAW FKCHIEIIICK. Ihe legislature 
shall pass nc law r etrcspsct i ve in its cferaticns which iitpcses 
en toe people a new liatiJity ir respect tc transactions cr con- 
sideriticrs already passed. 



978 



EEFC2T OF CCP^flTTEE CK SlYLZ, LRAITING 



BE II tiiCEOSEE 
CC»1f.ITTEE: 



BY THE PUeilC HEALTH, WELFi^BE, LAECfi ANE IKDL'STFY 



That there be a n?w Article en Later tc read as fellows: 

ARTICLE 
LAECF 



S^cticn 1. DEPARTMENT ANC CCfMSSICNEE. The legislature 

shall prcvide for a Department cf Labor ard Industry, beaded by a 

Ccmaiissicri ^r appointed by the gcverncr and ccnfirmed by the 
senate- . 

Section 2. EIGHT-HCUB LAY. A indxiiruir period of 8 hours is 
a regular day's work in all industries and effiplcymen t except 
agriculture and stock raising. The legislature may change this 
naxiniuni period tc prcmcte the general welfare. 



Nc. IX — Futlic Health, Welfar-?, Later 

and In dustr y 



979 



BE IT fFCPOSEL EY I f^ E PUBLIC KEALTfi, WEIFA.T£, IfiPCb ANE INEUSTRY 
CCKKIITEE : 

That th-er^ te a new Auticlf^ cr Institutions and Assistanc? 
to read as tcllcws: 



PET I CLE 
IKSTITCIICf.S ANE ASSISTANCE 



S'rction 1. INSTITUTICNS. The state shall estatlish and sup- 
port institutions ani facilities as the rutlic gccd may require, 
including hciTGs which itiay te necessary acd desirable fcr th? care 
of v-jteiacs. 



Section 2. KESTCHATICfi CF flGKTS. Parsers ccsffitted tc any 
such instituticr.s shall retain all rights except those necessar- 
ily suspended as a condition of con nait ire nt . Suspended rights 
shall te restored upon teraiinaticn of the state's responsit ility . 



980 



B I PORT Cf CCt<fITTEc CN STYLE, rfiflFIING 



3E IT EbCFGSEE EY TFr PSIELIC ?^EAlTh, fcELFJSEE, lAECE AND INDUSTPY 

CCMKITTEE: 

That ther»3 b<: a rew Article en Eegulaticn cf Eutlic Utili- 
ties tc T'^id as folicvis: 



ABTICLi 
BEGfJlATICK Cf EUELIC DTILITIES 



Section 6. CCNSUHEF CCUNSEL. Ihe legislature shall prcvide 
for an office of consuoier ccur-sel fchich shall have the duty cf 
refresenting consumer interests in hearings before the public 
service coinmissicn cr any ether successor agency. The legislature 
shall provide for the funding cf the office cf consumer counsel 
by a special tax on th^ net income cr gross revenues of regulated 
compan ies . 



Nc. TX — Public Hpalth, W€lfai€, Ldfccr 981 

and Incustcy 



BE IT EPCPOSiC EY 1HE POcIIC HEALTf:, WELFA&E, IflECF ANL INCUSTEY 
CCKMITIEE: 

That there te a new Articl- cr Nc r-irunici pal Ccrporations to 
read as fcilcws: 



AFTICLE 
NCN-MO^ilCIFAl CCBFCFAIICNS 



Section i. Gf^ft-N* il^IIAlICN CE FC»EF. Ccipcrate charters 
shall t€ graiif^d, (rcdiiied, cr dissclvsd cr.ly pursuant to general 
lak. 

Section 2. PBCTECTJCN FOB CITI7ENFY. The ie^4-64d4i-V€— A-e-sea- 
fei-y legislature shall provide -§-6* protection and educaticr fcr 
the pecple against harmful and unfair cractices ty either foreign 
or dcirestic cor p craticns , individuals, cr asscciaticns . 

Section 43. RETRCSFECIIVE LAS EBCKIEITICN. The i-^-keis^^f-^ 
•ass'Sftfei-ii iiSislature shall pass no la*i retrospective in its cper- 
dtions which ifflpcses on the people a new liafcility in respect to 
transactions or considerations already passed. 



982 RtPOni CF CCfKITTEE CN STYLE, EEAFTING 



BE IT tFCPOSEE LY 1 {1 E PLiPLIC hEALIH, WELFARE, lAECE ANC INCCSTPY 

CCJ^F-ITTEE: 

That there te a new Article cr, Labcr to read as fcllc%s: 



APTICLE 
LAECB 



J-?cticr. 1. DIEAHTKfNT ANE CCMK ISSIC SEE . The J:^4 e4 atJ:-y« 
■Aseesi^i^ iSSisi^turf shall prcvids fcr a Cepartirient of Lator and 

Industry-i- ?-fe'«^-<B'ef^t-t«<^-R4--6-h*i4— fe-e— B+4-ei-E— t+-«^-€€-fi4£-6-i— 64 headed by^ 

a Ccirinissicr.er appcir.ted b> the G€-vei«-e-f 3cverncr-r ana ccnfirmei 
fcy the •i'f^^-is-la-^a?*^ -(^^-fi-d-t-*?)- senate. 

Secticr. 42. EIGHT-HCUB EAY. A maxicruii pericd of 6 hours 
e bal Jr — eefes-tit-u*-? is a r-.gular day's work in all industries and 
employ ffi'^r t <^xcept i-R agriculture and stock raising. The -te^ie— 
■ta-t-H-E^ iiiislaturg irayr-iie«-<r-v<s-E-7 change this itaxittuni £ericd w hon - 
e*^*-- jja— i-fee-efifii-eft— fe-tt'tr-e-fe-afi^-e— w-ii-l-t€%-t-e£ to frcracte the general 
welfare. 



fJc. Ia — Public Health, i^elfaio, labcr 983 

anc Industry 



£1 II FFCFOSEE EY T H H PUBLIC HEALTH, hELFflSE, LASCR ANC INDUSTEY 
CCE^MITTEE: 

That there he a new Article en Irstituticns and Assistance 
to red] as icllcws: 



AFIICLE 
INSTTTUTICNS ANE ASSISTANCE 



Secticii 1. INSIIILTICNS. lhf;_stett_Fhall_€Statlisl-_ard_sui- 
£ort -5-th=-fe institutions and facilities li_t he_rutlic_accd_Ba_2 
require, incluQing hcm^s which nay be necessary and desirable tor 
the cir-^ cf vet pransr— *-^-*-^-^— l*-*^***^--^^^^-**^' — -f^^-s-i-E-eT-— e^'Sii — -fe^ 

•ia-w . 

Section -32. P.ESTGFAIICN CE EIGHIS. Eerscns comfliitted to any 
such irstituticns shall retain all rights except these necessar- 
ily suspended as a conditicn cf ecir cni t icert . A-i-i-g4f l^^e— R€€ceca£- 
i^y 6^s^eft4-:;a Susganded rights shall be restered upcn teririraticn 
of th-? ■^^a^^-'-e staj:e_^s r^spcnsi til i ty . 

Section -e3. ASSISTANCE, ^-fe— s-fe-a-i-i— fe-e-t-tee — 4«*-y — b4 44»« The 
^^^j-gj^ ativ -e — frs-s-feft-fei^ — -fee is^is lature_shal2 preside such econoiic 
assistance and social ard rehabilitative services as Hay bs 
necessary for these inhabitants whc, by reason of age, infiraii- 
tiesx or cnisfortune may have need fcr the aid cf society. 



984 



EEtCRT Ct CCKMIITEI ON STYLE, EBAFIING 



BE IT ERCFCSHC BY THE FHELIC HfflLlF, WEIPAHE, IflECB AND INDUSTRY 

COn^i TTTEE: 

That the^re he a new Articl-; en Regulaticr. cf Futlic Dtili- 
tiss to r-di as fcllcws: 



ArTICIE 
EEGULATICN CF PUEIIC UTILITIES 



S-ction 6. CGN5UMEF CCDNSEL. The legislature shall provide 
fe-y — -iri* for an office cf consumet counssl which shall have the 
duty of representing ccnsumer interests ir. hearings before the 
P'jblic service coffiniissicn or any other soccesscr ageccy. The 
legislature shall frcvide -fe-y-i-a-b fee the furdirg of the office of 
consumer counsel by a special tax or the ret income or gross 
revenues of regulated companies. 



No. IX — Public Hnalth, fielfare. Later 

and Industry 



985 



POELIC HEALTE, WSIfASE, lABCF AND INEDSTRY 

Repcrt Nc. S 
CGMHENTS CN SlYLE, FCFP AKE GFAffflR 

liCNz:?!il^ICIPftI_CCRFCFRIICNS 
Sec tic n 43. Thi numhet «as chanced. 



lAECB 

Section 1. The wcrds "headed by" veie substituted for 
"under the central of" to produce consistency kith sccticr 8 (1) 
of the EXECUTIVE Article. The transition schedule will provide 
for substituting the >.icrd "legislature" fci "senate" if the 
voters approve a unicameral. 



Section -52. The nutrber was changed, 
brevity, but do not alter sutstance. 



Other changes serve 



lNSTITyTIC]!S_iNE_flSSISTiNCJ 

Sections 1 and 3. Substitution of the active for the pas- 
sive form of the vert does not alter substance. The phrase "as 
Bay be prescribed by lax" uas deleted as redundant. 

Sections 2 and 3. The crder was reversed so that the phrase 
"such institutions" in what was originally section 3 would follow 
iffinediately after the section containing the antecedent of 
"such. " 



986 



REECET OF CCMMITTEt C K SlYIF, CFAFTING 



CRCFF CF ELSTNcSS - NC. 5 - FINAI CC ^ S I DE E fiT ICN 
STYLE 5 LRAFIING - PUBLIC Hh-ALIK, WELFARE, 
LAECF ANE INCIJSTPY 
NC. IX 

ARTICIE 
^CN-aUNICTPAL CCBECEATICNS 



Secticr 1. LIKIIAIICN CF POWEF. Ccrfcrate chattels shall ts 
granted, Bodifi^d, or dissolved only pursuant tc ceneral law. 

Section 2. PyCTECTICN FCf CIIIZENEY, Iht legislature shall 
trcvidc protecticr, and education for th? pecple against hariful 
and unfair practices by either foreign cr dcmestic ccrpcraticns , 
individuals, cr associat ions . 

S3cticn 3, REIEOSPECIIVE LAW PRCHIEIIICN. The legislature 
shall pass nc law retrospective ir its operatiocs which inpcses 
en the people a new lid^ility in respect tc transactions or con- 
siderations already passed. 



No. IX — Public tealth, 'oelfare. Later 

and Industry 



987 



ORDFH OF BUSINESS - NC. 5 - FINAL CC NS I C E F ATI C N 
STYLF t, IhAFTTNG - EUBLIC KEALIH, WILtARE, 
LAECF. ANE INCUSTRY 

NO. IX 



AFIICIE 
lAECF 



Section 1. DEFABIRENT ANE CCf.M ISS ICNEF . Tb€ legislature 
shdll provide for a Departnient cf labcr atd Industry, headed ty a 
CCHDiissicnor appointed by the governor and ccnfirnied ty the 
senate . 

Section 2. EIGHT-HCUB CAY. A iraxiffiuit period cf 8 hours is a 
regular day^s work i r. all industries and eitplcycDent except agri- 
culture and stock raising. The legislature may change this laxi- 
muip period tc prcracte the general welfare. 



988 



BIPOfiT Cf CCtCIlTEE CN SIYLI, [RAFTING 



CEDES CF EUSINFSS - NC. 5 - FINAL CONSICFRATICN 
STYLE & EhAFTING - PUBLIC KEALTfi, HELirABE, 
LABCF PNE INIUSIPY 
NO. IX 

AFTICIE 
INSTITUTIONS AKF ASSISTAN'CE 



Sscticn 1. INSTITUTIONS. The state shall establish ar.d suf- 
pcrt instituticns and tacilities as the public qccd nay require, 
including honits which may he necessary and desirable for the care 
of veterans. 



Section 2. KESTCRATICN CF fclGf^lS. EerscEs conmitted tc any 
such instituticns shall retain all rights except these necessar- 
ily suspended as a conditicn of ccaroitaie nt. Suspended rights are 
restored upon t<^raiinaticn of the state's r espcrsibility. 

Section 3. ASSISTANCE. The legislature shall prcvide such 
eccnciric assistance and social and rehabilitative services as icay 
be recf^ssiry for those inhabitants who, by reascn cf age, 
infirmities, or irisfcrtune iray have need for the aid cf society. 



Nc. IX — Public Health, Welfare, Later 

and Industry 



989 



OECIR Of ELSINISS - NO. 5 - FIKAl CC N SIDEF flTIOM 
STYLE S CRAFTING - FDELIC FFAITF, fcElFARE, 
LABCE ANE IKEDSTBY 
NC. IX 



AFIICIE 
PUELIC D1IIITIES 



CCNSOMEE COUNSEL. The legislature shall prcvide fcr an 
office ot ccrsuner counsel fchich shall have the duty of repre- 
senting consumer interests in hearings fcefcre the public service 
commissicn or any other successor agercy. The legislature shall 
provide for the funding of the office cf ccrsuttsr counsel by a 
special tax en the n?t income or gross revenues of regulated ccb- 
panies. 



990 



EEEORT CI CCfMIlTEE CN STYLE, EB^ifllNG 



Nc. A — Education anc FuLlic Lands 



991 



fONlANA C0NS1I1UTICKAI CCKVEKTICN 
1971-1^72 

FirCFT Of COMMITTEE CN STYLE, CRfiFTING, l&ANSLTICN 

AND SUEMSSICN CN 

ZEUCAILON ANE PUEILC LANDS 
NC. X 



Date Bepcrted: narch 15, 1972 



Z§Z_Js!lS_5*._Schiltz , Chairsar 



^s/_hiilliaro_Fi_Burk har dt , Vice Cbainan 



992 



EEPCei CF CCKKIITEI CK SlYIi, ER^FIING 



TC: Montana Ccnstituticral Ccrvsnticc 
SUBJECT: iiDUCATION AND EUBIIC LANES 

Ladies and Gentlensr: 

The Ccinnii ttn-.- en Styl^;, Praftirg, Transition and Sutffiission 
transaits revisions of the above ArticJe fcr cc rsidera ticn cf the 
Ccnvan-^icn. 

Iirirediately tcllcwinq this letter ycu kill find the above 
Article as revised Ly the Ccranittee. Following that is the Arti- 
cle indicatirg (hy underlining) words we have added ai.d (by 
crossing t;ut) words we Lave deleted frcK the Article as approved. 
Finally, th^re is an explanation cf •^he changes we have made. 

Sincerely, 



^s^_Jchr_fJi_Schiltz 

Chair iTi an of the Ccnaittee 

on Style, Erafting, Trarsitioo 

and Subffissicr. 



/IZ_lilli^2_Ai_Burkhar dt 
Vice Chairnar of the CoBmittee 
en Style, Crafting, Transition 
and SuhffissiCE 



No. X — icucdticr and Eutlic Lairif 



993 



BE II F?CrCSIC EY T H i ILUCATICN AKE tUPlIC LANES CG«1«ITTIE: 

That there be a r-^-w Article cr Educaticr. tc read as tcllcw; 

AiTICLE 
ZEUCATICN 



Section 1. ECUCATICNAI GCALS ASE CUTIES. It is the qcal c£ 
the peofle to ^st^Lli.sh d eysteir cf educaticn vhich will develop 
the full educaticcal pcti-r.tial cf each persor.. Equality cf edu- 
caticnal cpforturiity is guaranteed tc each perscn cf the state. 

(2) The state reccgr.izes the distinct acd unique cultural 

h-eritiqe cf the AiTTrican Indiars and is ccniiritted in its educa- 
tional ycals tc th- pr-seivaticr cf tneii cultural int'^grity. 

{3) The legislature shall prcvide a tasic system cf quality 
free putlic clera-^ntary ard seccndary schccls. The legislature 
may pr:;vii-; such ctiier educational instituticrs, public librar- 
ies, ar.d educational frcqiairs as it dceits desirable. It shall 
fund and distribut-? i r. an equitable manner to the schccl dis- 
tricts the state's share ci the cost cf the basic elementary and 
seccrdary schccl syst-ir,. 

Secticr 2. PUBLIC SCHCCL lUNC. The public schccl fund cf 
the state shall consist ct: 

(1) Proceeds from the school lards which have b^-^n cr nay 
hereaft-^-rr be qranted by the United States; 

(2) lands qranted in lieu tberect; 

(3) lands qiver cr qranted by any perscn cr ccrporation 
under any lav. cr grant cf the United States; 

(U) all other grants of land or money irade frcff the United 
States for general educational purposes cr no cthei special pur- 
pose; 

(5) all interests in estates that escheat tc the state; 

(6) all unclaimed shares and dividends cf any ccrporation 
inccr corated in the state; 

(7) all other grants, cifts, devises ci bequests irade to 
the state for general educational purposes. 

Section 3. PUELIC SCHCCL EU^E INVIOLfllE. Ihe public school 
fund shall fcrever rauair inviolate, guaranteed by the state 
against loss or diversicn. 



994 



FitOKT CF CCfflTIEF CN SlYLt, TRAPTING 



S'.c-^icn 4. BOA'iD Oi- Li^NT CC i* f ISSICNE B £ . Ihe gcvernor, 
suf •^rint-ni-3r. t cf public i rstructicri , aucitcr, secre-tary cf 
sta^';, and attcrn-y fj-rreril ccr.stitute the tcard cf land connnis- 
sicnsrs. It has th? directicn, central, Icasiro, exchange, and 
sale cf the schccl lands and lands which have teen or may te 
granted for th^ suppcrt and I'sncfit cf tne vaiicus state educa- 
tional institu ticns, under such regulaticrs and restriction? as 
may te provided ty liw. 

Section 5. PUEIIC SCHCCI FtNC FEVENUE. (1) Ninety- five per- 
cent cf all the inter'-':?£t received en the public schccl fcrd and 
ninety-five percent cf all rent received frcni the li^asing of 
schccl lands and all other inccire from the putlic schccl fund 
shall te t-'Quitatly apportioned anrually tc putlic elementary and 
seccrdiry schccl districts as provided ty l^w. 



(2) The remaining five percent cf all interest received en 
the putlic schccl fund, and the renairirg five percent of all 
rent received frcm the' leasing of school lands and all ether 
income from the public schccl fund shall annually be added to the 
public fund and tecoire and forever regain an inseparatle ard 
irviolatlt part thereof. 




(2) This section shall ret apply tc funds free 
sources provided tc the state for the express purpose of 
buticn tc ncn-putlic educaticn. 



Secticn 7. NON-DISC hi f I NATION IN ECDCSTICK. No religious 
or partisan test or guaiif icat ion shall te reguired cf any 
teacher or student as a ccnditicn cf adniissicn into anj public 
educational institution. Attendance shall net te required at any 
religious service. No sectarian terets shall te advocated in any 
public educatxcnal institution of the state. Nc perser shall be 
refused admissicn te any putlic educational institution on 
account cf sex, race, creed, religion, political beliefs, cr 
caticnal origin. 

Section 8. SCHOOL DISIEICI IPDSTEES. Ihe supervision and 
control cf schools in each school district shall te vested in a 
board of trustees tc be elected as provided ty law. 



Secticn 9. EOAEDS Cf EC0CAT1C^. (1) There is a state 
board cf educaticn ecmpcsed cf the toard ef regents cf higher 
education and the toard of public educaticn. It is responsible 



Nc. X — rducdticr. dDO Futlic lands 



995 



for Icng-ran^^ tlarricy, av.a tcr cccrddratiry and evaluating 
policies and programs tcr the state's pcucaticnal systf as. It 
shall submit unified tudg€t requests. A tio vct-3 at any nifeeting 
may te broken by the governor, bhc is ar -^x officio oif^aLer of 
each cciTf-cncr.t Lcard. 

(2) (a) Ths gcv3rr.irent and ccrtrcl cf th-^ Montana univer- 
sity systii is vested in a toard of rtgents cf higher education 
which shall have full power, responsi til i t y , and authority to 
supervise, coordinate, aanaoc and ccrtrol the Pontana university 
systea and shall supervist and cccrdmat? ether futlic sduca- 
ticnal institutiors assigctd ty lav*. 

(b) Ine to arc consists cf S'^ver. ireirhers appointed by the 
governor, and ccnfirmed ty the senat-., to cveilappir.q terirs, as 
provided ty law. The gcv-?rncr and superintendent of public 
instruction are ex officio ncr-vctiny memters of ths toarc. 

(c) The board shall appoint a ccira issicre r cf higher educa- 
tion and prescribe his t^^rni and outies. 

(d) The funds and appiopriatiors under the ccn+:rol of the 
beard cf regents are sutjtct to the sane audit provisions as are 
all other state funds. 



(3) (a) There is a board cf public education to exercise 
general supervision over the public scbccl systeir and such other 
public educaticnil instituticrs as may be assigned by law. Cther 
duties of the board snail be provided ty law. 



(b) The board consists cf seven aeirbers 
governor, and ccnfirnced ty th ' ' 



appointed ty the 

senate, to overlapping teriES as 



provided by law. The governor, cciririssian er of higher education 
and state superintendent cf public instruction shall be ex 
officio EC n- voting meaiters cf the board. 



Section 10. STAT2 UNIVERSITY i-ONES. The fun^s of the f«or- 
taca university system and of all cttier state institutions of 
learning, frcci whatever source accruing, shall forever remain 
inviolate and sacred to the purpose for which they were dedi- 
cated. The various funds shall te respectively invested under 
such regulations as may be provided by law, and shall te guaran- 
teed by the state against loss or diversion. The interest from 
such invested funds, together with the rent frcir leased lands or 
properties, shall te devoted to the oiaictenance and perpetuation 
of the respective institutions. 



996 PEECFI CP CCf^MlTEF CN SlYLF, EBflFIING 



BE IT ERCEGSrO EY TKr 5CI)CATICN ANE FUEIIC LANES CCKHITIEF: 

'Ihat theri hf- a new Article on Educaticn tc read as fellows: 

AFIICLF 
ELDCATICM 



S-ction 1. ECUCATICNAL GCALS ANE EUIIFS G¥-^Hi:-&^:4k^i . (1) 
It skd-ti-fe^ IS the goal of the p€opl^: e-g-«€Ho*-a-p-a tc f-f«-V4«-e — 4«-E 
*t>-e ^6*dteii6i*»-^-H* ^£I§^ii§l} ^* 2 system of educaticn which will 
develop the tull educational potential of each perscc. Equality 
of educational cppcrtunity -e-h^il— fee is guaranteed tc each perscn 
of the state, 

ill The state reccgnizes th~ distinct and unique cultural 
heritage of the Airerican Indians and is ccnunitted in its educa- 
ticnal goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity. 

-(<-)- J3J_ The legislature shall provide #€* a tasic system of 
quality tree public elementary and seccrdary schccls. The legis- 
lature may aifre provide #e« such other educational institutions, 
public libraries^ and educational prograns as ■**•«— 4'ee«-e-6 it_deefs 
desirable. It shall furd and distribute in ar. equitable manner 
to the school districts «-i-*-fee— 6-%A-t^ the state's share of the 
cost of the basic elementary and secondary school system. 

Section 2. PUBLIC SCRCOI PONE. The public school furd of 
the state shall consist of^ -^-fe^ 

Jll -p^ee-ee-ie froceeds «4-€4i-G-h from the school lards -a* 

which hav3 ^tetetof o-e-^ been ^E-aet^-i^ or may hereafter be grantedr 

•%e--ti*-^— s-t^-fe^ by the ■ge'flet^-4-«e¥'e-E-fi«e-f»4 Onited States, known as 

school landsf; «k«4— t-J*<=6-e 

J2) Lands granted in lieu €■§-■ e-H-e-h; thereof^ 

ill i^-fi4e Lands -dc-g-a-i-f-e^ ^i ven_cr_aranted by -fi-f-t — 6*-^*-a«-* 
#*«« any person or corporation under any law or grant of the ^e»— 
©^•ai— g©-»-6i-ft«e(«-fe-f- UEited_Sta tes^ d«4-e4 

Jifl -aii All other grants of lard or ffcney made -te — *!»€ — e%d%€ 
from the ^eft-eEa-l-^6-¥e£-fi«-e«-t nnited_States for general educational 
purposesT or «J»e*e no other special purpose -ire— i«44-e-a-fe-6-4— *«— €»-6-fe 

i^l stii All interests_in estatesTor' d -i;-e4-t4^44r-v«— e-bag^e-^ 
«s%d*€s that «ay escheat to the state7_i 

J6)_ a-Jri All unclaimed shares and dividends of any corpora- 
tion incorporated ««4€-E-44^e-4a-*riS— e* in the state, ^a^^ 



No. X — Elucatior. and Futlic Lards 997 



12), '*^^ M.i cth-.r grants, cifts, devises cr bequests itade to 
the state for general educaticnal furfcses. 

£--cticn i. PUELIC SCHCCl FUND INVIOLAIE. Th? futlic schccl 
fund shall rcr'PVit i-[rair in violate, guaiarteed by the state 
agair^t less or div-Ersicn. 

Secticn a. DCARC CF LAN£ CCf MSSICNEFS. The gcvernct, 
superint end^sri t cf public ir.st ruct ic n , €-fe-a*-^ auditor, s^cr-^tary cf 
statT3_^ and attorney general s-t»ta44 ccnstituta thr^ e-t-s-t-e board ct 
land comuiissionGrsxi «-ft-i€i+-t-t*«-li-4>-d-V'e It_has the directict, ccr- 
trcl, leasing, exchange^ and sale ct th: schccl lands ei-^h^ 
s*ret4^-rr and ^h^ lands fl(fia-F4-5-4— g-e which hav€_t€en_cr nay h^i€^4r4^i 
be granted for the support and tensfit of the varicus stat<=. edu- 
cational mst ituticrs , under such r-yulaticns ard restrictions as 
may te f*-f €5€*ife€-d trcvided hy l^v.. 

Section 5. I-OEIIC SCECCl FUKL EEVENUE. JH Ninety-five 

po r e: n tu -a; f^-%^)- EiEScnt ct all th«: int^L = st received en the 

£ublic schccl -i-tt-R-i-s fund -s-i— fe-fl-r-sta^-ST and nicety-five -p^ie^^-R^ya 
-fjg^^^ EiESilil '^i ill f-j-Fi-fes lill received frcm the leasing cf 
schccl lands and o^ all cth^^r inccire trcir the public schccl €«-R<is 
fund shall be equitably appcrticned annually to public eleicentaiy 
and secondary schccl districts as provided by law. 

iil '^^^ remaining five f^i€e-fi4-«# £iicent -(§«)- cf all -%-h^ 
inter-fst r-^ceived on the £utlic school 4«-f4€ tund e#-44t€-e-fect*€, 
and the remaining five ^teesefl*eff L^L£^IlX -(■^*-)- f^ f all *fe^ -t^-R-t-e 
rent raceived froo the leasing cf school lands and e4 all ether 
incoaie from the public schccl ^«-fi4-6 fund-, shall annually be added 
to thd public school -^-tt-R^s fund e-fe-*4*e-s*-s^^ ard beccite ard for- 
ever reiaain an inseparable and inviolable part therecf. 

Secticn 6. AIC PHCHIPITEC TC SEClflEIAN SCfiOOLS. ^11 -»«*- 
■tit^c-4-b<i The i-e^s4a%i¥c — ^se^«t4y liai§l3lil£g » «e-E-d«-y--€'e4i*-fe-y 
counties, ei-fe^ £ilij§/ -fe^^tfi tohns, -e-E schccl 44s-fe-E4€-fe districts, 
e^f_e-t^e-E and public cor pcraticns-r shall e-»-^-E not make 4iBee%4-y— e-e 
i«44-€e€*4^ any direct_or_indirecr a pprcpr ia t Ictt cr fa-y ia^uiGnt 
frcm any public fund cr ircnies *-hd4e-ve-E , cr stefe-e any grant of 
lands cr ether proptrty f or_an^_stctar ian_£ur£cse_cr_tc ie aid «* 
any church, -c-e— i-e-t— aft-y-ee'Cfedtia-fi-fyt-pe-fr-e-,— et— fe'G-di4-ifi — ^h^ — e-«-§— 
^t*r — €i — *«-y school, academy, seminary, ccllege, university, cr 
other literaryr or scientific institution, controlled in whole or 
in part by any church, sect,^ cr de ncDiinat icn *^hd4-<3-ve-f . 

^2]_ This section shall net apply tc funds from federal 
sources provided tc the state for the express purpose of distri- 
buticn tc non-public education. 

Section 7. NCN-DISCRIKIN ATICN IN ECCCflllCN. No religious 
or partisan test or qualification shall -g-v^s-e be required cf any 
p o rcca teachfer_cr_srudent as a condition of adirissicn into any 
public educational institution G-^-tie-s^^-teT^ e4*i»e-E-de-*€d€t>6^E 



998 EEPCRT CF CC^:!'.n'IEE CN STYLE, CPAETIfJG 



^^_g*^4^^:HH~*<»*— fe^^ii ri*-fe-rfl-e4*€^ HHill^ISg iljaii-ESl ^c required 
at aiiy religious servict^. •w-hd-^-e-vr^-E^-fte-E-e-^a-l-i — ^*-y No sectarian 
tenets £h:ill te advocatsi in ary public pfiucational institution 
of the stat~ti «ei-eka4i-^«^ No p^^rscn shall te 4-c4-a^*-c4 refused 
adirissicr tc any public §:>ucaticnaj icstituticn e4-i-e«ti*ifi^ en 
account of sex, race, cret^d, reli^^icn, political beliefs^ or 
naticr al criqin. 

Section e. SCHOOL DI £1 f;ICI_IBUSTEZS •fei4e4^€-NS. The super- 
vision ard ccntrol cf schccls in each school district shall be 
vested ir a -e-eite-ei Lcardi- ?^^-4*j^4-6irt44-w-— *«-s^-B^4-y— s+i*i4-f *€4>-i4'5 
#©i — ^4£€i.4efts cf ee-ke-e-i— d-i-t4-f4-e4 trustees tc_te_elected_as_xic- 
vided_by_laWi 

Section 9. -(4)- S?-Ai-S-*©-**-C ECABCS CF ECDCATICN. Sli There 
sitflti-l — fe^-e is a state board of education ccirpcsed cf the *«-at4 
^card cf re3€nts_gf _hi2her_educati en ^-tfWie — *4«e-a%ief> and the 
i « at 4i beard cf i;uilic_educaticri ■f.-&e«-B%€-€*-«4§-»«?-E— e4-H€«4ie«-as 
i^e*e^44^*— 4^ei^ft^*«4 . It sftdi4-fe<e is responsible for long-range 
planning, il}d_fcr coordinating and €¥di«d*-i-e-B— ©4 §22iliiaii£3 pdi- 
cies-r and programs-y for the state's educational systems. It 
shall submit unified budget requests. i-R-€ae<?— e^-d A tie vote at 
* an_y meeting S!aY_be_broken_bj^ the governor, who is an ex cfficic 
member cf each cctnpcnent boar d-y-ffa^-eas-fe-i^— ¥•©■%«. 

-(^^ ^21 -BeAftC-G*-- e«eii€-*«-b€-ft4i€-N-r Jai. There sii^i-i— fee is 
a board of public education *+4€4* — e-tiA-li tc exercise general 
supervision over the public school system and such other public 
educaticral institutions as -Kdj §ai_be assigned by law. Cther 
duties_cf _the_bcard_shall_be_£rcvid6d_b^_lah^ 

Jb)_ ■S*-i4 Iho board -e-h^-ii -e-G«-6-i-6*€ consist of seven iceiiibers 
appointed by the govHrncr^ *-i*^-6€-Ri-i-E«ri*i-©«— ©4 and_conf irffled_b2 
the senate^ to overlapping terras as_£rc vided_Oi_law . The gover- 
nor, commissioner cf higher education and stats superintendent cf 
public irstructicn shall be ex officio ncn-voting ffieabers of the 

board. 5fee-4«ties-©#-*^-is-fe€«i£4— afi4 — e4 — 4-h^ — ewf^f ifl^-e-B^eR* e4 

■pa bli 6-4-B6-^f-H«-fe4-e«-g^-aJrir— fe-e— pg-e€€g4-b€d-J»y-4-aw-i- 

-(4> J2X Ja), The qcvernnsert and ccntrol cf the Montana «ai— 
'heBsi^f y£il£E§iti Efs^^^ gistem etal J:— fee is vested in a beard of 
regents of_higher_e ducat ion -w-b-G-ei^-a-l-i — -fee — c c loc t o d — e-e — ff«-¥44e4 
l»«t€4ft-r — ¥fe€-i^efefi*e which shall have full power, responsibilit y,^ 
and authority to supervise, coordinate, nacage and ccntrol the 
Montana efri*eF64%-y university S^t*e« s^sten and shall supervise 
and cocrdinate ether public educational institutions »fe4€-b-« ay - be 
assigned by law. 

Jb)_ Sd^-i-i The beard e-bai-1 6 €B € 4e4 consists of seven Bterbers 
appointed by the gcverncr^_and_ccnf ir tted_b^_ths_senate_4 tc over- 
lapping terms, s-afe^ee-t— 4e-€e-B#4-t«d-%-ie«— b-y— fefee-ee-B*4e7- under regu- 
lations as provided by law. ^^e-be^^4— e4-a4-ir- appoiB % - a-€««-»46— 
siofte-E-«4— b-i'g-het-e^^Gd-fciefl-dfi^ — ^e-ecrifce — bis — *ei« — aft-4 — 4^ i tie e -r 
The governor and super intecdert cf public irstructicn e-ba il - b e 



No. X — EJucdtior. and Futlic lands 999 



are ex officio ncn-vo*:ina Ksititsrs ct 4-hie tht tcard. 

Jcj Ilf _iCl£l^_siia ll_a£^cir t_d_ccffffj. ss ic r;f i_cr_highs r_22jy^a- 

tici}_igQ_j:-r:igciiLjr_hio_tgig_aru_duti-s^ 

Ja}_ Ih€ fur.us and apcrcptiaticns ur. der th^ cor. trcl cf the 
beard ct r^u^nts eh-ai^-fe^ die sutj^ct tc the satce dudit provi- 
sions as drf dll cth-ir ststc fuKris €4-*-b--s-t^-fetr . 

Section 10 Ai. SlhlL UMVEFSITY FUKCS. Ibt? funds cf ths 
&t-<i%-c fi2Ilta_ri uriv;r£i*y si^toa and cf all other state ir.sti- 
tuticLS cf learrini^, ircic whatever scurce accruing, shall forever 
remain inviolate and sacred tc the fuifcse fci which they were 
dedicated. The various funds shall he respectively irvested 
under such regulations as aiay be ■^i-e-se-e-i-f'-e^ £££^1^2^ ty law, and 
shall he guaranteed by the state against less or diversion. The 
interest •ei--&-i-i4 frca_such invested furds, together with the 
t^-fi-fe^ HJii from leased lauds cr prop -rt ies,^^ shall he devcted to 
the iraiiitenaiice and perpetuation of *-t»ee» the respective insti- 
t u t i c r. s . 



1000 



fEFCPT CB CCffniEE CN STYLE, [RAFTI^G 



BE n PRGP05IE EY I h £ ECUCAIICN ANL FUELIC LANES CCKtITTEE: 

That tber'i b« a n<;h Article cr Eutii'i lards to read as fol- 

A P lie IE 

FHEIIC LANES 



S9Cticn 1. PUBLIC LANE TRUST, DISFCSITIC^. (1) All lands 
of th^ statf that have tfun cr roay te granted by ccrgress, cr 
acquirpd by gift cr grant or devise frcu any person or ccrpora- 
ticR, shall be public lands of th<= state. They shall be held in 
trust for thf people, tc b= disposed of as hereafter provided, 
for th=? r-5sp*rctiv>; purposes for which thay have been or may be 
granted, dcaated cr devised. 

(2) N'o such land or any estate cr interest thereir shall 
ever bp disposed of except in pursuance of general laws providing 
for such disposition, or until the full irarket value of the 
estate or interest disposed of, tc be ascertaired in such manner 
as aiay be provided by law, has beer paid cr safely secured tc the 
state. 

(3) Nc land Khich the state holds by grart frcm the United 
States which prescribes the tranrer of disposal and rririffua price 
shall be disposed of except in the narner and for at least the 
price prescribed without the consent cf the United States. 

(4) All public Ian] shall be classified by the beard cf 
land ccmaiissiortrs in a manner frcvided by la*. Anj public land 
may be exchanged for other land, public cr private, which is 
equal in value and, as closely as possible, equal in area. 



No. X — Ed'icdtion anc Tutlic Lards 1001 



BE IT PBCFOSfC EY 1P£ EEUCATICN /iNE PUEIIC LANES CCMMITTEi: 

That th^ire te a ::^»< Article cr Public Lands to read as fol- 
lows: 

APIICLF 

EUBIIC LANES 




J2I li2 such landT -R^i cr any estate or interest thereir-^ 
shall ?ver be disposed ct •=xc€pt in pursuance cf general lavis 
providinc for such dispcsiticn, «€* or •afii^ese until the fnll 
market valu^ of the "Estate cr interest disposed cf , to ts ascer- 
tained in such mannsr as may te provided by law, fe^ lj§i_been paid 
or safely s-^cured tc the statef^ -R-e-E— e-^i-i— as^ 

121. lis l ^B^s i^nd Mhich the state hclds ty grant frctc the 
Dnited States -(±fi-dfiy-€S6e-i«f which Iiescrifces the manner cf 
disposal and minimum price -a-£-e-s6-f.E€S€i-ife'54)- shall be dispcsedr 
cf except in the manner and fcr the least the price prescribed i* 
th -3 ^-ga-R t - t h o r e-6-i-r without the consent cf the United States. 

g-> i ri 

U Li X LI 

_(a) All £ublic ■i^«4€ land shall be classified by the board 

of land commissioners in a manner f*-e-e€*i-be4 ilSii^i^ ^5 law. 
Any e# — s-i44 tubiic ia-e-i-e land may be exchanged fcr ether ta«4« 
land, public cr private, which -a*^ is equal in value and^ as 
closely as pcssible^^^ equal in area. 



1002 



BFFCRT CF CCfKlllEE CN S1\LH, ERflfTIKG 



EDDCAIICN - :-p[crt NC. y. 

CcaiiGr, ts cr. Style, Fcru, and Granirar 

Socticri_J. Uel^ticns reacv-^ tv«c "false anf -arat i ves " ; they 
do net ait3r substanc?. Ihat ccinm<?nt fcllcws ujcd the ccrclusicn 
that th^r- is nc suhstantivt difftrer.ce between "prcvide" ar.d 

" p r c V i d -3 r o i: " , 

Secticn_2. S'lviny the cau£€ ct ccuputih-^ rsicn by cidering 
dees r;Ct alter sutstanc;. 

^2<ili2Il_ii« Changes dc not alt^r sutstarc*^. 

S:^cticn_5. Changes dc net alter suhstance. 

Section_^ . Changes dc net alt^r sutstar.cc. 

S2Cticn_7. Nc chatge ir. substance. 

Sfcticn_8. The title was charged to accord with the sut- 
s t a n c ■' . 

Sfction_9. cel?ting sots^cticn titles ard recrderirc dcts 
net chang<? substarce. 

Sfc^ior_2v^. (rer.umhsred trctr 12) . Nc change in sufcstar.c?. 



FCEIIC LAMES 



S^cticn _1. Prcvidinj sotsecticiis and altering style dc net 

chance substarce. 



No. X — £ducaticn and Public L^nds 



1003 



OELER CF BUSINESS NC . 5 - FINiM CC NS lEER ATIC K 
STYLE ANC CRAFTING - ECUCATICN - FEECFT NC. J 

ARTICLE 
ECUCATICK 



Section 1. ECDCATICNAL GCALS ANE LUIIES. (1) It is th€ goal 
of the people tc establish a system cf education >hirh will 
develop the full educational potential of each person. Equality 
of educational opportunity is guararteed tc each person of the 
state. 

(2) The state recognizes the distinct and unique? cultural 
heritage of the Airerican Indians ard is ccastcitted in its educa- 
tional goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity. 

(3) The legislature shall provide a tasio systetr cf free 
quality public eleirentary and secondary schools. The legislature 
Bay provide such other educational institutions, putlic litrar- 
ies, and educational prograirs as it deems desirable. It shall 
fund and distribute in an equitable manner to the school dis- 
tricts the state's share of the cost of the basic elementary and 
secondary school system. 

Section 2. PUBLIC SCHCOL FUNE. The putlic schcol fund cf 
the state shall consist cf: 

(1) proceeds from the school lands which have been or may 
hereafter be granted by ths United States; 

(2) lands granted in lieu thereof; 

(3) lands given or granted by any person or ccrpcraticn 
under any lav. or grant cf the United States; 

(U) all other grants of land or tcorey aade from the United 
States for general educational purposes or without special pur- 
pose ; 

(5) all interests in estates that escheat tc the state; 

(6) all unclaimed shares and dividends cf any corporation 
incorporated in the state; 

(■7) all ether grants, gifts, devises or kequests Bade tc 
the state for general educational purposes. 

Section 3. PUBLIC SCHCCL FUhE INVIOLATE. The putlic schocl 
fund shall forever remain inviolate, guaranteed by the state 



1004 



BZFCBT CF QCfV.lllil CN SlYll , LlMTlt^G 



against less or diversion. 

oFCticn U. EOAHC OF LANE CC JT' IS SIC NEF £ . The gcverncr, 
superintendent cf public ir.str uct icn , auditor, secretary cf 
state, ar-d gttcrncy general ccrstitutu the beard of land ccffiris- 
sicners. It has th-3 authority to direct, ccntrcl, lease, 
exchange, and sell schccl la fids and lands which have beer cr may 
be granted fcr the supf-crt ard her, etit cf the various state edu- 
cational institutions, under such regulaticr.s and restricticns as 
may be provided by law. 

S'^ction 5. FIIEIIC SCHCCL FCNE FEVENOE. (1) Mnety-five 
percert ct all the interest received cr the public schccl fund 
and ninety-five percent cf all rent received frcu the leasing cf 
schccl lands and all other incoire trcm the public schccl furd 
shall be e'^uitably apcorticned annually tc public elementary and 
secondary schccl districts as provided by law. 



(2) 



Thp remaining five percent cf all interest received en 
the public schccl fund, and the reaairirg five percent cf all 
rent received frcm the leasing of schccl lands and all ether 
income froiii the public schccl fund shall annually be added tc the 
public school fund and beccae and forever retrain an inseparable 
and inviolable part therecf. 



Section 6. AID FRCHIEITEC IC SEC^AFIa^ SCHCCLS. (1) The 
legislature, counties, cities, towns, schccl districts, and 
public ccrporations snail net irake any direct or indirect appro— 
priatien or paynieat from any public fund cr series, cr any grant 
of lands or ether property tor any sectarian purpose cr tc aid 
any church, school, acadenjy, seninary, collage, university, or 
other litt^rary cr scientific institution, ccntrclled in whole cr 
in part by any church, sect, cr dercainatior. 

(2) This section shall ret apply to funds from federal 
sources provided to the state fcr the express purpose cf distri- 
bution tc ncr-pubiic education. 

Section 7. NCN-D ISC FIf.I N ATICN IN FCDCAIICN. ^o religious 
cr partisan test cr qualification shall be reguired cf any 
teacher or student as a condition of admission into any public 
educational institution. Attendance shall net be required at any 
religious service. Nc sectarian terets shall be advocated in any 
public educational institution cf the state. Nc person shall be 
refused admission tc any public educational institutien on 
account of sex, race, creed, religion, political beliefs, cr 
naticral oriain. 



Section fe. SCHOCL DISTDICI IRCST5FS. The supervision and 
control cf schccls in each school district shall be vested in a 
board cf trustees tc be elected as provided by law. 

Section 9. ECAKDS CF ECUCAIICN. (1) There is a state 
board of educaticn ccmposed of the board cf regents cf higher 



No. X — rducaticn and Public L=inds 



1005 



education and the toard of public education. It is resfcr.sifcle 
for Icng-uange planning, and tcr cccrdiraticg and evaluating 
policies and crograms for the state's educaticnal systens. It 
shall sutDiit unified tudget requests. A ti? vets at any meeting 
Bay te broken ty thp gcverrcr, whc is an ex cfficic nieirber of 
each ccrcpcnert heard. 

(2) (a) Th^ gcverrnert and control cf the Mcrtana univer- 
sity syst-om is vested in a beard cf regents cf higher education 
which shall have full power, responsibility, and authority to 
supervise, coordirat.^, aanage and control the Montana university 
system and shall supervise and cccrdinate ether public educa- 
ticnal institutions assigned by law. 

(b) The beard consists cf seven meiibers appointed by the 
governor, and confirmed by the senate, to overlapping terns, as 
provided by law. The governor and superintendent of public 
instruction are ex cfficic non-voting meiEbers cf the beard. 

(c) The board shall appoint a ccEffissicner of higher educa- 
tion and prescribe his term and duties. 

(d) The funds and ap prop riaticns under the ccntrcl cf the 
board of regents are subject tc the saae audit previsicrs as are 
all ether state funds. 



(3) (a) There is a toard of public educaticr. tc exercise 
general supervision over the public school systen and such ether 
public educational institutions as may be assigned by law. Cther 
duties of the beard shall be provided by law. 

(b) The board consists of seven meiDters appointed ty the 
governor, and confirmed by the senate, tc overlapping teres as 
provided by law. The governor, ccmniissioner of higher education 
and state superintendent cf public instruction 
officio non-voting members cf the beard. 



shall be ex 



Section 1 '' 
tana university system a 
learning, from whatever 



STATE UNIVEFSITY FL'NES 

nd of all other state 

accruing, shall forever reaain 



The funds cf the Pon— 
institutiers of 



1006 



REPORT CF CCH^mEE CK STULE, CPAETI^G 



STYLE 



OPLEE CF BUSINESS NC. 5 - FINAL CC NS I E E S AT IC ^ 
CKAFTING - PUBLIC LAMS - FEPCP'l NC . X 



AETICLr 
PUBLIC LA^CS 



Section 1. PUPIIC lANL TFtSl, DISPCSIIICK. (1) All lands 
of the stat=> that hav€ Lten cr may Ls granted by ccngiess, cr 
acquired by yirt cr grant cr d^vis? frcir any p?rscn cr ccrfcia- 
ticn, shall te public lands of the state. They shall te held in 
trust for tht people, tc te disposed of as hereafter provided, 
for the respective purposes tor hhich they have be?n or may te 
granted, donated cr devised. 

(2) No such land or any estate cr interest therein shall 
ever te disposed ct except in pursuance of general laws prcvidirg 
for such dispcsiticn, cr until the tull irarket value of the 
estate cr inter-^st disposed of, tc te ascertaited in such Banner 
as may Le provided by law, has tesn paid cr safely secured to the 
state . 

(3) No land which th^ state hclds by grart trctr the United 
States which prescribes the tranner of disposal and ndnioiuir price 
shall be disposed of except in the (tanner and for at least the 
price prescribed without the ccnsert cf the United States. 

('4) All public land shall be classified by the beard cf 
land comiriissiontrs in a iranner provided by law. Any public lard 
may be exchanged for other land, public cr private, which is 
equal in value and, as closely as possible, equal in area. 



No. XI — locdl Gcverrasrt 



1007 



fCKTANA CCNSTTTUTICNAL CCN\»EN'ITCN 
1571-1972 . 

EEECRT CF CCMMTTEE CN SlYLE, CBAFIING, 
IKANSI1I0N ANC SUEMISSICK CN 
ICCAL GCVEFN.*!ENT 
NC. XI 



Date eepcrted: March 2C, 1972 



^s^_JchE_U_. _Schiltz , Chairman 



Zsz_]!iliia2_*i_f ]JliSti§I^i» vice Chairman 



1008 



R I POET CF CCflfllll'i; CN STYLF, EBAfTINC- 



TO: Men tana Ccnstituticral Ccrverticn 
SUBJECT: LCCAL GCVti.Ni^EhT 

Ladies ard G^: ntl em '-:r.: 

The Cotnir.itt-ee en Style, Ciatting, Iracsiticn and Sutrrissicn 
transmits itvisicns of th- aLcv€ Article fc:: censidera tien ot the 
C c n V c r. t i c n . 

Iniinediatsly tcllcwiry this lett*;i ycu will find *-.ht abcve 
Article d£ revised ty the Ccnmiittee . irellcwinq that is the Arti- 
cle indicating (Ly ui.der lining) wcrds we have added and (ty 
crcEsinq out) words wt Lave deleted frcir th»^ Article as approved. 
Finally, th^rt- is an explanation of the changes we have made. 

Sincere ly , 



ZfZ_J£liD_^i_Schiltz 

Chairiran cl the Ccffnittee 

on Style, Drafting, Transiticr 

and Subnissicr. 



/|;/_Wil liani_A_i__Bur kbardt 
Vice Chairnar. cf the Comniittee 
on Style, Drafting, Transition 
and Sutitissicn 



l\c. XI — Lccal GcvcrciTGnt 



1009 



BE IT PECFOSED BY lil F LCCAL GCVJFNflNT CC [< « TTT E E : 

That there te a new Artie I'i cr Lccal Gcverrment tc read as 
f cllcws : 



AFTICIE 
LCCAL GCVEF(^I'E^'I 



Sf^ction 1. DELINITICN. Ihe tern "lccal gcvernirent units" 

includes, but is net limit^j tc, counties ard irccrfcrated cities 

and towns. Other lccal gcvernttent units cray te es-t-dblishsd ty 
la h. 

Section 2. CCUNTTES. The ccuntiec cf the- state are these 
that exist on the dat4; ct ratification ot this Ccns ti t u ticn. No 
county fcound=iry ffay te chang-=d cr county seat tranferred until 
approved hy a ffajority ot these voting on the question in each 
county aff^ct^d. 

Section 3. ECFKS CF GCVEENhEKT. (1) The legislature shall 
provide methods for governing local gcvernff'^nt units and proce- 
dures for incorporating, classifying, merging, consolidating, and 
dissolving such units, and altering their boundaries. The legis- 
lature shill provide snch opticnal cr alternative fcrirs ct 
gcvcrnnert that each unit cr ccmtinaticn ct units aay adopt, 
amend, or abandon an opticnal cr alternative fcrir by a aajcrity 
of those voting on the questicr. 

(2) One optional fcrff cf ccunty gcvernoert includes, tut is 
not iiiiited to, the election cf three ccunty ccnaissioners, a 
clerk and recorder, a clerk of district ccurt, a ccunty attcrre-y, 
a sheriff, a treasurer, a surveyor, a ccunty superintendent of 
schocls, an assessor, a corcner, and a.putlic adn iristr atcr. The 
terms, gualiticat icns , duties, and ccmpensa tier, cf these offices 
shall te provided hy law. The beard cf county ccmaiissicners cay 
consolidate the cr iricre such offices. The hoards ef two cr mere 
counties may provide for a jcint office and for the election of 
one official to perform the duties cf any such office ir these 
counties. 



Section U . GENSPAL POWERS. (1) A local governmert unit 
without self-government powers has the fellcwing general powers: 

(a) An incorporated city cr town has the powers ef a 
municipal ccrpcraticn and legislative, ad air istrative , and ether 
powers provided or implied by law. 

(b) A county has legislative, adniiristrative, and ether 
powers provided or inplied by law. 



1010 



REPCPr CF CCKf-niEE CN Sl^lE, EF/iBTIhG 



(c) Other Iccal ccverrircr.t urits have fcwers provided by 



Id h , 



(2) Ihh p ewers cf inccrpcratfcd cities and towns and ccun- 
tiSE sh.^ll te literally ccnttrued. 

S"Cticn 'j. £E1F-GCVE[?NMFN1 CHAFIFE?. (1) Ihe legislature 
shall prcvid*-: procedures p^ririttin^j a local ccverr.irert urit ci 
cccbir.aticn ot units to trane, adopt, aa=?:r.d, revise, or atandon a 
se If-qcvernmerit charter with the approval cf a irajority cf these 
votiny or. th»f question. Ihe procedures shall ret require approval 
cf a charter cy a legislative tcdy. 

(2) If the legislature does ret provide such procedures by 
July 1, 1^75, they nay be established by electicD either: 

(a) initiat'^d by petiticr in the local government unit or 
coirbi ration ct units; or 

(t) called by the gcvernicg tcdy cf the Iccal gcvercirent 
unit or combination of units. 

(3) Charter provisions establishing executive, legislative, 
and adirinistrative structure and crganizaticn are superior to 
statutory previsions. 

Secticn ft. SFLF-GC VEENMENT PCfcEES. A Iccal goverrirent unit 
adopting a self-gcvernirent charter may exercise any pcwer ret 
prohibited by this Constitution, law, or charter. This grant cf 
celf-government powers may be extended to ether Iccal go verrmeEt 
units through opticnal ferms cf gcvemtent provided for in 
sf>cticn 3. 

S<=ction 7. INTEFGCVEHKKEMAL CCCEEFflllON. (1) DnlesE pro- 
hibited by law 01 charter, a Iccal governnert urit may: 

(a) cooperate in the exercise cf any function, power, or 
resfjcrsibility bith; 

(t) share the services cf any officer or facilities with; 

(c) transfer or delegate any furcticn, pciier, responsibil- 
ity, cr duty cf any officer to one cr acre cthei Iccal government 
units, school districts, the state, or the United States. 

(2) The qualified electcrs cf a local governnent unit Hiay, 
by initiative or reforenduic, require it to do so. 

Section 8. INITIATIVE AhD FEFERENCUM. The legislature shall 
ext<^nd the initiative and referendun powers reserved to the 
people by trie Constitution to the qualified electcrs of each 
local governBPent unit. 



Secticn 9. VCTEH PEVIEW CF LCCAL GOVIfiNMENT. 



(1) The 



Nc. 



-- Lccal Gcvtrnent 



1011 



legislature shall, within fouc years cf the ratificaticr cf this 
Constitution, provide piccedur€s requirirq ^ach local ccvernment 
unit or ccnibirja ticn cf units to review its stiuctur'= and submit 
one alternative fcra or ycv€ri;iDer, t to th^ qualified electors at 
the n-ixt general or special -slecticr. 



(2) The legislature shall reguir-e a icvitw frccedure once 
every t^n years ifter th= first election. 



1012 EJFCy^ CF CCff.ITTEI CM STYLE, CSAFTING 



Bi. II FfiCtCSIE EY Thl LCCAl GCVEf^^EN'I CCfi:^IITIE: 

ihat thfre bt a nei. Articls cr Iccal Gcver noaent tc r = ad as 
f cllcwf : 



AEI TCLE 
ICCAL GCVEfNfiENT 



Section 1. DEFINIIICN. The t.?rnt "Jccal gcvernnient ur.its" 

includes, but is net liirited tc, ccurties and irccrpcrated cities 

and tcwns. Othf-^r Iccai gcv-arnweut units nay tc estatlish^d ty 
law. 

Section 2. CCUNTIE5. The counties cf the state e#--f«eft-fe-**^ 

a s -t-h^f ai£_thcs2_thHt exist ti* on the d4€^%i«* ^ilg cf__iatifi3 

cation of this Constitution a£-e-%-!^-e-€-e-«-ft*4^-s-e#-t-he-6*-a*-e. Nc 
Ge«-fii-y county fee-«-fi4-^-Ei-se t2i]S^2El s+ia44 na^ -ft-e* be changed or 
county e-?-s-fe6 iS^i transferred until afprcved ty a majority cf 
those voting on the question in each county affected. 

Section 3. FCE^iS CF GC^FFK^iEM. Jl}. The legislature shall 
provide fef — iet-w methods for %fe*^-ge¥-eefl#-e**-€4 gcverning local 
go vernaic'nt units and isf procedures -e-f for incorporating, classi- 
fying, ireruing, consolidating, and dissolving such unitSj^ and e# 
altering their boundaries. The legislature shall provide -fe-y— i-a-w 
^* liJSli optional or alternative forms cf government 4-6^ Ih^l 
each unit or cotnhination cf units 4€-'e-ft^^i-€— r* — «*-i4-€5-e€«t4«a-fe-i-6« 
•a# — «fli-te— *e asa^ adopt, amend,, cr abandon an optional cr alterna- 
tive forir. by a majority or those voting on the guestion. 

111. On*" optional form of county goverrtrert includes, tut is 
not limited to, the election cf three county commissioners, a 
clerk and recorder, a clerk of district court, a county attorney, 
a sheriff, a treasurer, a surveyor, a ccunty superintendent of 
schools, an assessor, a coroner, and a public adeBiri£tratcr_j. 
»4ee€ The terms, qualifications, duties^ and ccmpensaticn cf 
those_cf f ic3s shall be f»ies€«ife-e4 ircvided by law. The boards cf 
G-e^-ft-t-y SSMIill ^-eflftis-sie-R-ete ccmmissicners icay ccnsclidate two or 
mere such offices. The board €•# — €-e««i6€iefiets of two or more 
counties may provide for a joint cftice and fci the election of 
one official tc perform the duties of -t-Jt-a-t ani_such cffice in *-fe-e 
t«e^ee-*-i¥e these counties. 

Section 4. GENEFAL ECVtEBS. JJ)_ A ie-e-ai Iccal covernisert 
«-e±%s unit »e4 — ^'-neB^ieifi-^ HitilSyl self-gcver rment powers -a-R^e* 
Se c t i oft-6— ^-^-^4-4-6^^4:1— h-ave has the fcllcwing general powers: 

-(4)-_(al_ An i-fi€-G-E-f.©*-a4-e4 inccrxcrated €i4-i'e6-*«4— fe-e«-B-6 — -th-aii 

fe€hv« cit;y ££_tcwn_has the powers ct a municipal corporation and 

e»€it legislative, administrative, and other powers «« provided cr 



No. XI — local Goverrner.t 1013 



inifli^-i ty Icw. 

adffiinistrat i ve_^ arc cth-r pchera •«-? frcvid = d cr iipli^d ty law. 

-(•^J£l othir Iccal gcvcrrcert ur.its -s-k^ai-i have e«€-fe powers 
■as p L' o V i d <=, d by 1 i w . 

counti9£_shali_fc3_l ib;^ra 1 l^_ccrEt t Ued^ 

Section 5. S EI f ^GC V E Rf^MS. Nl CHAPTEPS. Jl]_ The legislature 
shall -^it^-se-E-ife-e ^rcvid^ prccsdurep a-tt4— tF^-y--se-«— ii«i-fes— «*4-€E-%-b4eft 
EiEIEi^iilLii ^ local gov-^inff^^rt unit cr ccir t inat i c r. cf units «a-y to 
fraire, adept, amend, revise^^ cr abandcn a se If -qcvernaient charter 
with th-; approval cr a najcrity ct ihcse vcting cr the gcesticn. 
The ■fi~-e€^i^-^4 procedures, hev^v^-f:-, shall net require approval cf 
a charter by a legislative tcdy. 

All I^ *"-i''^ legislature dci^E net prcvide such procedures by 
July 1, 1975, they may be established by election =ither: 

(a) Initiated by petiticr in the Iccal gcvetnnent unit cr 
ccnibinaticri cf units; cr 

(b) Called by the goverrirg body cf the local gc^ierrffient 
unit or ccDcbinaticr cf units. 

Ill Charter previsions -wi^-h-i-e-ef e'e-t--t-6-a — 4-e€^i — ^e-v€t«-fre*-fe 
««-jrfe-i-s establishing executive, legislative^ and admiris trativa 
structure and organization s-k<a-ii-fe^ are superior to statutory 
previsions. 

oection 6. SZIF-GCVEFNMENI FCfcEBS. A ie€ai local governisert 
»-Ri*s unit adopting a self-gcvernment 6hae4-ei€ £h^El§L ""^y exer- 
cise -aii an;y pe-wt^es gower net prohibited by tnis Constitution, -fe-y 
law^ cr b^ charter. 'Ihis grant of self— gcvsr r aer.t pcv.ers may bs 
extended to ether local gcvernir^nt units through optional fonrs 
of gcvernirert provided for in •S-t€-fe46-fi secticr 3. 

*e^5* — -Hfti-t — i^-y — *€*--©# — i%s — •ge^'etfiifi^ — fee^-y-say-r-'S-f T--«f€*-fe'S*-ftf 
r e q u ir -e4— by-4r-ftit4-i-a-fe-a:-v-?-eg-^e^'e-E^-R4-H»T--e^-»-i^-^ — e-eef-^-s^^-^r — €©fl&e-i-i— 

fe-i4i-fe-y-*4-fr*-y— e-t— 6-hai-e- *-b«-S'et¥±€'c-'e4-dfi-e-§-i±€-e*-ef--iaeiii*-i'e&T— e* 

4.e^^ie-§e-E — e« — ^e-te-ga^e — -a^-y §*ift6*ri€ft-y-f €«*^*-€-E-f eef-s-fi-eifeii-i-t-y-e* 

d uti cc— e4— aft— Q-#44:'6'eg-%:e-e-fl-^— €-£-ff€-£€-e4-he^-4'6€a4-^e¥-6^ftaeft^-«fr4%^T 

s€^'e'6-i-4-ie-fe-Ei6-t-6-/-— **^--*-*'fe-=— **-*-*'^-yfii^-^^-****'S-ST— «*^-^« — fi-Gfei-fe- 
i*«4 —fe -y—id-*»—G t - 6 ii<i £ -t ■e^ -r 

Section_7_. INIZEGO VEBNHENTA 1 CCCEE E A1IC}.^__( 1}_ iEless_£ro- 



1014 EiPCFT Cf CCPtlTTEt CN STYLE, LKAIIING 



^ibii^il_tl_l5w_cr_chartcr^_a_lccal_ogv§rr;5§rt_uijit_ff aij_ 

jaX coc£erate_in_ih€_€Xf rcis9_ct_ari iJJIcticnx £2J!SEx. SE 

jti shace I he S6rvice£_cr_a ni_ctf icei_cr_f acili ti6£_with_; 

jc}_ transf;er_gr_dcl^^at€_an2_f uncticn^_£Ci€i4 £§§££I§itil- 

^iiiiixZi£E22i_^i§i£i£i^A-ili^-§iiiS-£i-il2i-^i^i^^--5iil^§i 

^Y_iQiii^li^S:_2£_iii2i«:I;^I^Sx_I§3iliiS_ii_l£_^2_i2i 

section 48. INITIATIVE ANE BIflEENDUM. The l€2l§ia£UI^ 
§llSii_§xiSIiil_iil!i initiativ? and r = ffcrenduir pcwsrs te£Grv€c tc the 
people~by tht Ccrstituticn -e-kd-ii— fe«— e-«-%^Hi«-6-^-fe-y— l^-w tc the quali- 
fied ¥€*«•£•« elGctcrs of each local gcverrtrent unit. 

Secticn 449, VCTEF KEVIEW Cf ICCAl GCVEENMENT. JJi The 
legislature shdll^ fcithin four years of th*= a4-€f^4€fl ratificaticn 
of this Constitution^ provide #«* frccedures -fe-y — •w*-i€i« reguirir^ 

each local gcv = rnni^nt unit or coffifcinat icr]_cf_UDit£_tc ■ei*t*-ee 

ee^>^-tti4<e4j^et— 3Gi»%iy-e^a-ii review ■t-fe-r-^'e-¥-6€««««* its structure 
e* — *^e— 3r©e*i— B«i4— e*-4ei«*— »«i* and e-fedi-i suboit cne alternative 
fcriB cf qovernment tc the ¥€%«■£€ Qualif ied_electgrs at the next 
general cr sfecial electicn. 

J2}_ Ihe legislature shall f t 6 v i^€ — 4€i £§gui£e a review 
procedure -ri^ek- cnce_averi ten years after the first electicn. 



No. XI — Lccul Gcverrner. t 1015 

PEPCRT NC. XI - LCCAL GC V F B K f. £ Kl 

CC «MENJS_CK_S I Yl.E^_rCPK^_AKC_G^Af!K A f 

5i£i;i2II_=« ChaEq = £ in tht first serterc^ £p=;cify the dat = 
upon whicti the id^T-t iry ct tne counties 5.ill te '=sta fcl is he-i . Th-a 
nccr. "rdtificiticn" was substituted fct "adcf-ticn" t<:? cause the 
fctffitii is appli-d by the cresi:nt Ccnstituticr tc the process 
which will occur cr. June fc. 

S3Cti.on_J. language changes shorter and clarify without 
alterirg substance. 

Sfcti2n_^. Chani-j^-s in language and order do not alter sub- 
stance , 

S££ti2B_5' Language changes dc net alt'^i suhstance. The 
words "iray set limits" were remcved frci subsection (1) for two 
reasons: 1. The veri) shifts frcDi the mandatory "shall" to the 
peiir.issivt "uMy." 2. The legislatur- "ir.ay set liirits" ir the 
usual exercise or its powers without any reference being rade 
thereto. 

Sectiori_f. Ciiarjes from plural tc singular accord with gcci 
drafting standards. 

3ection_7. ^■fecrjanizirg frocuces clarity without chargi::.] 
sutstance. 

Section_9. language changes do net alter substance. 



1016 



REPORT CF CCWPTin^F CN SIUE, CRftFTIKG 



Nc. XII — General Gc veinni'ar] t 



lor 



KCNTANA CCNSTnCTICNAL CCNVENTICN 
1971-19';2 

FEEOET OF COKMIIIEE CN STYLE, E&flFTING, 
TKANSITICK ANE SllEMISSICN ON 
GENEiiAL GCVEFNKENT 
KO. XII 



Gate Eefcited: March 2C, 1S72 



^s^_Jchn_r5i._Schiltz, ChairBar 



^s^_ftillian!_Ai_Burkhardt, Vice Chaiman 



1018 



EEECfil CF CCMKIITEI CN STYLE, LSAPIING 



TC: ."cntana Const ituticr.al Ccnv^nticr 
SUbJECT: GFNERAL GCVEF^PE^T 

Ladits and Gtntlciner: 

The Ccffiu 1 tt':5:;' on Style, Crafting, Transiticr and Sutirissicn 
transmits revisions cf the aLcve Article fcr cc rsiv3?rd tier ct the 
Ccnventicn. 

I nirtdi.i tt ly fcllchiny this letter ycu vill find the above 
Article as revised by the Ccmtritte^. Fcllcwing that is the Arti- 
cle indicatiny (by un <ier 1 in inc) wcrds w.e have added and (by 
crossma out) words we have deleted fccni the Article as apfrcved, 
finally, tneie; is an exflanaticr cf the changes we have made. 

Sircere ly , 



Z£Z_Jc]-ri_Mi_Schiltz 

Chairsar cf the Ccnmiittee 

on Style, Crafting, Transiticr. 

and Su Lm issicn 



Vice Chairman cf the Ccirniittee 
cr Style, Crafing, Transiticr 
and Subtnissicr. 



XII — General Gcverr. aert 



1019 



BE n PRCFOSED EY THE GENERAL GCVEFiNfFM AhC CCNSTITDTIONAL 

flKENEf^ENI CCtKIIlEE: 

That there te a new Article cr General Gcvsrnment to read as 
f cllcws: 



APTICIE 
GENEBAI GCVEENCEKI 



Section 1, SEPARATICN CF PCVEFS. The pcwer cf th€ govern- 
BiGDt cf this state is divided aacrg three distinct 
branches — I'^^gislative, executive, and judicial. No person cr ^ez- 
sons charged with the exercise cf power prcperly telonging to one 
branch shall exercise any power properly belonging to either cf 
the others, except as in this Ccnstituticn expressly directed cr 
permitted . 

Section 2. CONTINUITY CE GCVEFNMENT. The seat cf gcverrment 
shall te in Helena, except during periods cf energency resulting 
from disasters or enemy attack. The legislature may enact laws to 
insure the continuity cf governffent during a period of eaergency 
without regard fcr other previsions cf the Ccnstituticn. They 
shall te effective only during the period cf eaergency that 
affects a particular office cr gcverrnental operation. 



all ex 
subscr 
upon t 
affirm 
of the 
tana, 
f ideli 
shall 
trust. 



ection 3. OATH CP CFEICE. Pemters cf the legislature and 

ecutive, oiristerial and judicial officers, shall take and 

ibe the following oath cr af f irca ticn , before they enter 

he duties cf their offices: "I do sclennly swear (cr 

) that I will support, protect and defend the Constitution 

United States, and the Ccnstituticn of the state cf Mcr- 

and that I will discharge the duties cf my office with 

ty (so help ae God)." No ether oath, declaration, cr test 

be reguired as a qualification fcr any office cr public 



Section U. INITIATIVE. (1) The people Bay enact laws ty 
initiative en all matters except apprcpriat icns cf mcrey and 
local cr special laws prohibited by this Constitution. 

(2) Each initiative petition must contain the full text cf 
the proposal. Each shall be signed ty at least five percent cf 
the gualified electors in each cf at least one-third of the 
legislative representative districts and the total number of 
signers must be at least five percent of the total qualified 
electors of the state. A petition shall te filed with the secre- 
tary of state at least three ircnths prior to the election at 
which it will be voted upon. 

(3) The sufficiency cf the initiative petition shall net be 



1020 



BEECHT Cr CCfflTTEF C IJ SIYLI, EKAPTING 



qutsticned aft^r the Gltcticn is held. 



S 
reject 
pria ti 
by the 
cent 
the le 

of th? 
secEr t 
the l€ 



may apprcvc^ cr 



t c t i c r 5 . R E F E F E N C U M . ( 1 ) The F ^ c p 1 - 

Ly t.-rfercnduff any act cf the legislatuie except an api-rc- 
cr cf money. A rc:f^renduff shall be held sitbt^r ufcr crder 

legislature cr uj-cn petiticr signed ty at least five per- 
of tn; qualified electors in each cf at least ere- third cf 
gislative representative districts. The tctal nuir.Ler cf 
s must be at least five percent cf th? qualified electors 

state. A referendum p'^titicr shall be filed with the 
ary ct state no later than six ffcr. ths after adjcurnffent cf 
gislature hhich passed the act. 



(2) An act referred to the cecple is in effect ur.til sus- 
pended Ly petition signed by at least 15 percent cf the qualified 
electors in a uiagcrity of the legislative representative dis- 
tricts. If sc suspended the act shall beccae operative only after 
it is approved at an electicn, the result cf «hich has been 
detertcined and declared as previa ed by law. 

Sectivon fc. ELrCITONS. The people shall vcte en initiative 
and referendum at the general •^l-cticn unless the legislature 
orders a special election. 

Section 7. NCKEEB Cf EIECTCFS. The nuirter cr qualified 
electcrs required in each legislative representative district and 
in the state shall be determined by the nuisber of votes cast for 
governor in the preceding general election. 

Section S. FrCHIEITICN. The provisions cf this Article do 
net apply to CONST ITUTICNAl BEVISICf^, Article XIII. 

Section S. SECALL. The legislature nay prcvide fcr the 
recall cf all elected officials cf the state and local qcverriiert 
units. 



Section 1 C . GASDLING. All fcrirs of cairblirg, lotteries, and 
gift enterprises are prohibited unless authcri2€d by acts cf the 
legislature or by the people through initiative or ref erenduir. . 

Section 1C. GAMBLING. All fcrirs of gaffiblirg, lotteries, and 
gift enterprises are prohibited. 

Section 11. ECDNEABIES. The sovereignty ard jurisdiction of 
the state of ."lortara shall prevail fcithin the area enccnpassed ty 
the following boundaries: 

Beginning at the point of intersection cf the ICUth neridian 
of west longitude ard the UEth parallel cf north latitude, thence 
clockwise west on said parallel tc its intersection with the 
111th meridian; south on said meridian tc the crest cf the Rocky 
Mountains; northwestward en said crest (the continental divide) 
to the sumBit of Lost Trail Pass intersecting there with the 
southeast end and crest cf the Eitt^^r Ecot fountains; thence 



Nc. XII — General Govern 1-3 r.t 



1021 



northnestward cr the cre^t cf the Fitter Feet fcuntains ard Pange 

to the 116th meridian; ncrth cii said leridian to the U9th jaral— 

lei; east on said parallel to th= 1C4th meridian; and south en 

said (ceridian tc tho plact cf teqirnirg. 



1022 REPORT CF CCfiKIITEi CN Sim, n<AFTIKG 



BE 11 PROPOSED EY THE GE^JEi^AL GCVEEKWENT SN£ CC NST IT UTIC N flL 

APENCCFNT CCf:HTTTEE: 

That there be a new Article cr. General Gov?rriEerjt to read as 
f cllc v.s: 



AHTICIE 
GE NEPAL GCVEFNKENT 



Section 1. SEPAFATICN CE FCViETS. The f6¥^i6 ££W£I cf *+»« 
govsrr.ment of this state a-E-c is divided i*<-e aicni^ three distinct 
branch es-s-^-44^'e legislative, executive, and judicialy,^ -a-e-e «© No 
perscn or e9ii^€*i€fi— e* t-ersci.'S charged with the exercise cf 
fe*-eis £ow5r properly telcrging tc cne €*-*«€£■« ^-s&^ehe-e trarch 
shall ^xercisi any f-e-w-ete i^cwer prc^erly belorcing tc either cf 
the ethers, except as ir this Ccnstituticc expressly directed or 
permit ted. 

Section 1. CCNTINDITi CF GGVEPN^E^I. The seat cf gcverrirent 
shall be in Helera, except during [ericds cf entercency resulting 
frcm dissst<rrs or tinciry attack. The -Je-^ie-id-fei-we— ae-sisftti-y leaiir 
lature may enact laws tc insure the continuity cf f e-*i=i-R«-eft-t-ai 
asverniierit -e-petf «*-feisfie during a pericd cf eicGrgercyT— S-B€fe-ia«e-fray 
4e»4rd*-e — 4Ee# withcut_rei3a rd_f or ether previsions cf the ^cr ta -fl'a 
€e-fis*-i%-B4i-e-n Ccns t itut icni. 6e«-i4i€*i-fi-e-4-b^-£-e*-i-*-fe— ^-a* lhS.1 shall 
be etfectivri cnly during the fericd cf energency that affects a 
particular office cr governirental cperaticn. 

Section 3. OATH CE OFFICE. Members cf the 4-6fi^-*^*-*« 
a-s-s+^ftiri-y i^Sigl^ture and all €-i#i€e^ie-y executive, ainisterial -e-t 
and judicial officers, shall-y— fe-e-tei-e-'t-fe-ey-eHft-t-e-f— Hf-e* — 4ii-e — ■i-s^^-i-es 
^4 — 4-fee-i-E — -E-eef -ee-ti^e — ei^^-ie-e-e-y take and subscribe the following 

oath cr af f irnia ticn , betore_the v_€rter_U£cn_t he_dut ies cf their 

officj^s *« — -wi*: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will 
support, protect and defend the Ccnstituticr cf the United 
States, and the Constituticn cf the state cf t^cntana, and that I 
will discharge the duties cf try cfrice with fidelity (so help ire 
God)." Afi4 — ft€ No other oath, declarat icn_j cr test shall be 
reguiiid as a gualif icat ion for any office or public trust. 

Section 4. INITIATIVE. Jl^ The people may enact laws by 
initiative en all matters excejt appropriations cf ircrey and 
local cr special laws prohibited by this Constituticn. 

J 2) S§^ii_i£i^i§tiye_petiticn_ff ust_ccntain_the_f ull_text of 

the £IC£OS€d Sfasure^, ifi-j*ia-fe-i*«^ — -f-e-ti-^i-G** Each «-«s* shall be 

signed by at_lfeast five percent «^*-«-©*« of the fiuali f ied_electcr£ 
4efa^- ¥ o t o-£fi in each cf at_least cne-third -e-t— ft-e-E-* of the legis- 
lative representative aistricts and the total number cf signers 
must be at_least five percent «-E-«-e-te of the total i-e^«i *G%ets 



Nc. XII — General Gcverrmfnt 1023 



2i3^1i|i§d il^czczs of the state. i^€^_p^44*i€*-««6*-66**^i-fi— fe-h-e 

^^^•^— fe ^-it^-Q f ■ ■ t h V- — p-c«^efre4 — »-e-d6«f-e-r A f<?-*i^-i€*e lititicn »-ae* 
shall be filed with the -See^e-ta-E-y secretari of S^^i^'itate at 
isist thrt-^ wcnths €*-»«t-e pricr tc ths~ilecticr at nhich 45-e-y it 
will be vct-d upon. 

Ill The sufficiency of the initiative fetiticn shall net be 
questioned ei^e^ 3ll£i the election is held. 

section S. PiEEaENEUK. (1) The people nay apprc^ie or 

reject tl__££|sLeEdu i an^ t*-e4* ac_^ of the legislature fe-y— e^4^-e- 

e Bda «-y except an ^t*i^«QFti^*^-iQ**« appic^r iaticn of money. A refer- 
endum «ay ghall be ■ei4^-i^4 hf ld_eit hf r_u£cn_crd€r by the loqic - 

id*i^Fe-^-frs^«-fe4-y-r IgaiiigliJis oi^ upcr. petition signed ty at least 

five percant €€ — «■&*« of the J:<r-§-a4- v €tt?-£€ sualifif d_electcrs ic 
each of at_least one-third e-e— s-G-fe of the legislative representa- 
tive districts^ A-fi4— %4h? The total number of sigrers trust be at 
iSS^t fiv-i percent o^-«e«'e of the 4€4r*-l-4e^^-i— ¥«4^-Ee asglified 
iil£i2Ii of the state. A *-ai-e*-e-ft44}-ff referendum f -e-^i-^-i^-Fe letiticn 
«-«6* ihall fc^ filed with the Se€i-e4d*f l^cietarj of S%-a4€ state 
no later than six months after adjournaent of the 4-e-g4€4-d*i-v€ 
*S6<=«fe-i-y li^islature which passed the bill act. 

(2) An A-e4e act o4-%iie--l'eg-i€4-a-%-H-E-e referred tc the fecple 
**♦? is in *«-ii-#-G-E€<^— a&4 effect Hftiess until suspended by -p^ ta - 
%4€a-6 £€titicn signed by lt_least 15 percent of the ie^ai — ¥Q % e £ s 

aMiiliS^ Si2£i££i o4 in a majority of the «^«-i^-«-a«fe^{-«^-44»-e 

legislative representative districts €#-- feke-s^a^ey^ 4ft-»b46fe -cas^ 
If _sc_sus£snded the 4a<* act shall -fe-e becofe i-fi€f et-a-fei^-e c^erative 
-tm-ti4— e-«6fe— fei«-e-as oni^.^fter it efeaii— fe€-fa€s<r4-«pefi is_a_£_£rcved 
at a r. ^^lecticn, ^-fi-i the result cf_Khich has beer detenrired and 
declared as provided by law. 

■S^ee-feieft— 4-.- — *ti€¥-i€-i.ST — -Aii — »^as«t-es-£e'4e-E-E^4-4-e-4i»-e— f^e^^-l-e 
«fea4-i-fe«— *e*-e4--Hf ©»-a%-%fee-Eef«4at — -fei^e^ftiai — ^^iee^iea — a-fi-i^e^ — a 

S€ction_6i IIECTICNSj, Ihe iI0ll£_5iia ll_vcte_on_in it iat ive 

and_re f er eadum_at_the_2eceral election unless the legislature 

orders_a_s£ecial_elect ion^ 

Sg6%4-Qa" ? 1 — J:£eAJ. — -VG^-i-R-fex — ?-4*« — fHi«-fe-e-E — €-i-i«-ga4-¥e*««6-4-e-E 
ea«ii-4-e-g-i-6-la-ti-¥<?— E«f-E'e«-e-fi-fea-%i-v-e— 4i6*Ei6%— a«4 — 4€-e — 4rh-e — s-fea-fe€ — is 

dete f ai ne d — ^-^ t4»e — v^^-ee-eae-fe-^ei-^-fee-e-i^i^e-^^- ee¥et«et--i«— 4-h« 

t«-«|-«-la-t-«-le€-ti€-ft-i««e4-i-a4-e4-y—p€-ee€4ifi^-#ii-i «•§-—&# — f e4i-*i€«€ — *©« 
initiati v o-e-E— ^-e#etfe«4H#-g€ae-B-£^-e-r 

S€ction_7_. NDMBEE CF flECTCRS^ The nunber cf_aualif ied 

§i^£i^Ii_I13i^i£S^-iil-Sl£ll_li3i§l5f iYe_re^reser]ta ti ve_district_and 

ill_tiit_£tate_shall_b€_deter nine d_bi_the_nufflber_cf_ vote s_c as t for 

gover ncr_in_t he_£recedin3_3en era 1_ elect icrij. 

Section ^8. R*&¥«4e?4«^» I|CHIJI11CN^ The £rovisicns of 

Thi s this Article ie-B«4-af-p44-6a*4-6 do not a£_£l2 to CONSTITO- 



1024 itEPOET CF CCiXMlTHE CN STYLE, EfiAFTlNG 



TICNAL hEVISION_t f»e-€0¥r^f -e4-4fi Article XIII €4--5-fe4€-€€-Re4-i-*-«4i««. 

Section 4^S. fiZCAIl. i-a^s-*-*^— fe^— e*-s-6-t*4-4-6 The_le3islature 
may provide ror the recall of all elected officials of ths state 
and 4*6-t«-ii4-t-e-ei-€-H*4-i¥-i64ecs-r iccal_2cve rnjrer.t_unitSi 

Socticn 44J0. GAMELING. ^.11 fcrtrs of gatrtlinc, Icttsries, 
and gift -rt^rprises are i;rchititf:d unless authcrized ty acts of 
the Itqisliture cr by the pecj-l^ thrcugh initiative or reier- 
enduir. 

Section 44_1£. GAKBIING. All fcrnss cf gantling, lotteries, 
and gift entetpristss are frchititec. 

Section 4i_1J. BGU KDA P IE £ . Ihe sovereignty and jurisdiction 
of th^ state cf i^cntana shall prevail witUr the area enccirpassed 
fay th-^ following fccundaries: 

Eeginnirg at the- point cf intersecticr cf th^ 1Ci*th neridian 
of west longitude dcd the^ a5th parallel of north latitude, thence 
clcckhise west on said parallel to its intersection with the 
111th meridicin; south on said iceridiar tc the crest of the Focky 
flountairs; northwestward on said crest (the ccrtinental divide) 
to the suraii'^ cf Lest Trail Pass intersecting there with the 
southeast end and cr^st of the Bitter -fre-64 Soot Mountains; bec e e 
thence rcrth w-?st hard on the crest of the Eitter -E«-e4 Hcct 
Mountains and Range to 116th Eeridiar; north on said meridian to 
the U9th parallel; east on said parallel tc the lOUth fljeridian; 
and south on said aeridian tc the place of begirning. 



rsc. XII — G-3r£Ldl Gcverrn-rt 1025 

r<':pcct No. XIT - G<?r€ial Gcv'^inaent 
CC.1MENTS CN SI^LH, ICFP AhT GFA•'^AF 

S;9cticL_J. Th-; changes i r. Idryuage i.aks rlair. tl-d«- the 
pow~r cf gov-?r naiT^r.t is cr.-? hhclc which is dividei irtc three 

parts . 

S^cti2Il_i. Changes i r. larguace clarify ard sbcr^pr. hithcut 
dff=?c7, ir.g sutstanc^?. 

Sec^icn J. r^ecrdecing prcnctes tlcw without alt^rirg sub- 
stance . 

Stcticns_^ ilii 5' P-ecrderit.g and lan^uacs charcss dc r.ct 

alter sutstarce. 

5i£ii2Il_^* Charges ffake cl^ai that tcth icitiativc and 
refers rdufli are cover -^d. 

3icticn_7. Changes clarifi. 

Si£li£il_S^' Changes eiphasizs the fichititicn. 

5ectiari 4^9. "he fhrase "local gcvement units", adopted 
ir secticn~^7 Irticle XI, LCCAI GCVrF^?:£^;T, was sutstituted fcr 
"its pclitical sutdivisicr.s". 

Secticn_44JC. Ihe adoption schedule will provide for the 
deleticn'cf" whichever tcrrr ct the section is r.ct apprcved tj the 
vcters . 



1026 



F£FCET CF CCPIKITTEI CN STYLE- EEAFTING 



No. XIII — Compact with the United States 1027 



PCMANA CCNSTIIUTTCNAL CCI^VENIICN 
1S7 1-1S"/2 

CCHiillTFE CK STYll, EEAPTING, 
TBANSITTCN, AND SUEf.ISSICN EfCPCSAl 

NC. XIII 



Cat€ tefcrted: r.atch 16, 191: 



^£/_Jchn_Mi_Schiltz Chairniat) 



Wi 1 lian!_Ai_Putk bar dt^_Vice_C hair ffan 
(crigiral ursigned) 



1028 Hir-CFT CI' CC?-MT1FE C« blYLl, ERAmNG 

Fao€ 
LFlTEf Cr TrANS>'.T'IT AL ]029 

T £ X I 'J F or: .:•.;■; T i'' c u s t ^ c E Co a i !():«) 

CCKMLi.T CK UNANIfOUS L'KCfCS,^! KKH 

A F P c N r I X \o:vi 



No. XIII — Compact with the United States 1029 



Datf: farch Ifc, 1^.72 

Tc: fCiJTANfl CCSSTllUl TCbAL CChVEMICN 

frcm: Ccmtrittec cr Style, Ciaftir. c, Trcirsiticr 
and Sutmissicn 

Ladies ■n.c Gtrtleai^r: 

Th^ Ccciiiittrte cri .^tyle. Crafting, Transiticn and Sutaissicn 
sucmits a unenincus prcfcsil entitled "CCiYEACI WITH lEl TJKITfE 

Its raif^cn d'etre app.^arE in th-- app^r.ded ccirirer. t. 



/s^_Jchr_f;_j__Schii tz 
Chairnar, 



Williaf_Ai_Buri;hardt_j_vice_C];air fan 
(original ursiyct^d) 



1030 REPORT CF CCKtlllTHE CN STYLE, CRAFTING 



yNANIffCU£_EFC£CSflL 

BE IT tFCPCSED EY THE CCfKITlEE CN STYLE, CfflFlIKG, IFfilsSILICN 
flNE SOFMJSSICN: 

That there he- a r, =w Article cr. Ccirfact with the United 
States to r'^'aci as tclloi^: 



AFIICLE 
CCfEACI fcllH TEE UKIIZD STATES 

All provisions of the enatling act of Cccgress (approved 
February 22, 1889, 25 Stat. 676) and of Crdinarce Nc. 1, appended 
to the Ccnstituticn of the state cf Mcntaca and approved February 
22, 1889, including the agreement and declaration that all lands 
owned or held by any Indian cr Irdian tribes shall reinair under 
the absolute jurisdiction and ccntrcl of the congress cf the 
United States, continue in full force and effect until revoked by 
the consent of the United States and the pecple cf Mcrtar.a. 



/s^_Jchi;_Mi_Schiltz 

Chai rman 



Hilliam_Aj__Burkhar dt^_Vice_Chairiar 

(original unsignedj 

Z£Z_^cbert_L€e_K€ll€her ZsZ_Di_ii_Rolland_ 

Z§Z_Ii£'iiciS_Wi_Elind Z§Z_iu£i2^_iIf^I— 

^s^_J_._C^_Garlincjtcr /^s^_Chet_Elailock_ 

^s/_Richard_Ei_Rceder Z^_J^S_li_£S£a 

^s^Jeroffie_Ti_Loendcrf_ 



No. XII No. XIII — Compact with the United States 1031 



CC|;^ENIS 

The prcpcsed Article is a rfsfcr.se tc Eeleyatc Prcpcsdl Nc. 
15, which wd£ cef-^rred tc this Cciririttse, and tc cth'^.i expres- 
sicns cf cciic<8rn at the Convf^nticn. It is similar to a prcvisicc 
in the now North Dakota cons t itut icn. Its ccly functicu is to 
servt as a tcmind-r that the guaranttis upcr. which Ccagiess ccn- 
dition-^d the ertry cf Ken tana intc thp Union persist >iyer though 
Ordinance No. 1 is lict reprinted. 



1032 



KEPCPT CF CCfl'lTTiE CN S 'm E , EBAFTING 



A E I E N C I X 
!;■■: legate Pre pes a 1 Nc. 15, spcnscred ty fessrs. Scar, lin 



Verciillicn, was 
adcftcc! ill fart. 



txaiTiir.ed and ccrsidercc ty the Ccnnittee 



and 

acd 



firal Bepcrt 



1033 



fCKTAWA CCNS1TTU1ICKAL CCNVENTICN 
19 7 1-1C-/2 

BEPCEl CF CCMMITTEE CN SlYLE, CFflFTING, 
TSAKSniCN ANC SOEPISSICN 
FINAL FEECRT 



Date Bepcited: l*aich 22, 1972 



^s/_Jchn_Ki_Schiltz , Chairnan 



/s^_Sillian!_Ai_Eurkhardt , Vice Chairiran 



1034 



E?POFT Cr CCKHITTEF CN STYLE, ERAFTING 



PINAL BEECFT 
CCfKEKTS CN STYLE, FCFf., ANE GFAMMAK 



1. To consist with the change aadt ty the Ccnventicr in 
prct^csal No. 12, GENEFAL GCVEFKKENT, the noun "trarch" was sut- 
stituted toL- "drfirtai-^nt" in: 

Article V, section 11 (uricaaeral and bicaiEeral) 

Article VI, sections 1, 4, 5, 15 

Articlo XIIT, s-cticn a. 

2. To order material, the tollowing frcvisicrs were moved 
as shewn: 

(a) Salar)^ ccBOiissicr: — LL£1 Article M , Ihl lEGISLATUFE, 

i-=ctlcn~57 sulsection 2, tc Article XIII, GENEFAL 
FSCVISICNS, section 4. 

(h) £rchibited_£ai2ents — frca Article \, TFE LEGISIATDBE, 
s'^ction "ii (unicaccerai) section 15 (fcicaseral), tc 
Article VIII, EEVENDE ANE FINANCE, secticc 14. 

<c) Cgde_of_ethics — Ilcn; Article V, THE lEGIELATDEE, 
section 1"^ (unicdiieral) s^cticn 16 (ticaaieral) , to 
Article XIII, GENEEAL PfiCVlSICNS, sscticn 5. 

(d) lxen!£ticn_laws — trcn Article VII, THE JUEICIAFY, 
sicticr" 12, to Article XIII, GENERAL EFCVISICNS, 
sec tier 6. 

(e) P2I£^tuitifs — frcro Article VII, THE JULICIAFY, 
sectior. 13, tc Article XIII, GENERAL FEOVISIONS, 
secticr. 7. 

3. To avoid repeating a ser.terce ider.tical tc that appear- 
ing as section 3 of Article X, EEnCATICN ANE PUBLIC LANES, the 
first sentence cf sutsecticn (2), section 13, Article VIII, 
REVENUE ANE FINANCE, was deleted. 



Eirial Pepcrt 



1035 



TO: Kcntana Ccnstitut icr al Cc r v-Tnticn 
SUBJ5C1: FINAL FEFCST 

ladies and GGntlemer,: 

The CcirtDittee on Styl?, Drafting, Iransiticr. ard Sutaissicn 
transmits its tiral rsfcrt fcr ccnsiclerat icn cf the Ccnvention. 

Immediately fcllowir.g this letter ycu will find: 

(a) CCf!MENlS identifying changes in tcra cr crier. 

(t) Th-? proposed Ccnstituticr. . 

(c) Adcpticn Schedule. 

(d) Transition Schedule. 

(e) A proposed form of ballet. 

The CoBHiittee wishes tc thank Erotessor Gardner Crcaiwell, 
Consultant; Sandra Muckelstcn and Eiana Cowling, Counsel; and 
Betty Nelson, staff secretary. 

Sincerely, 



Z§Z_Een_Z^_Eerax_Jlj. 

^s^_Jercffle_Tj__Lcendorf 

^/_Eavid_Li_ Holland 

^s/_Virginia_H^_Blend_ 
^s^_lucile_S£eer 



/s^_Jchn_Ki_Schiit2 
Chair nan 

ZiZ_iiiiii§5_^i_Buiishardt 
Vice Chairaan 

Z§Z_^i_Ci_Garlin£ton_ 

^s/_Chet_Ela_2lcck 

^s^_Richard_E._ feeder 

^s/_Fct€rt_L€e_Fe21eher 



10.36 



HEtCRT CF CCfKniEF C K S1\Ti, rPAF'II^G 



tFc/ifELE 
W€ the {.ccjrl'^ ct Mcntdr.d grate tul ■*:c Gcd fcr *'he quiet 
Dc-auty cf JUL stat-, the qrardeiir ct cut rocuiitair, s, the vast n ess 
of cur rcllir. J (.lams, and dtsirirg tc iirfrcve t!i-f Quality ct 
life, e^jucility cf opportunity ai;:i tc S9cur€ the tl^ssirgs cf lit- 
■irty rcr thi^ and tutur>; ger.era t ic r s dc crdain ai;d tstatlish this 
Const i tut ion . 



Final Fepcrt 



1037 



AFlTCIt I 



CCflPACT hllH IBl (IMISD STATES 



All frcv:L£icns of th'j enatlinc act cf Congress (approved 
February 2^, "tScS, 25 Stat. 676), as aircrdcd arc cf Crdinacce Nc. 
1, appsniriri tc th-; Ccnstituticn cf th= state cf ^crtera and 
approve a February 22, 1669, includirg the aqreenent and ceclara- 
ticn that all lands cwn?d cr held by any Indian cr Indian tribes 
shall rtirain under the atsclute jurisaicticn and ccntrcl cf the 
congress of the United States, ccrtirue in full force and effect 
until revch-GG by the consent of +ht United States and the people 
cf ffcntana. 



1038 



FEECET CF CC^':^;IITE■E CN STYLE, ERAFIING 



^BTICIE II 



CECLASATICN CF FIGHIS 



Section 1, PCtULAP SCVEFtlGMY. fill pclitical pcw€t is 

vested in and deriv^eu ficii the feo|,lp. All qcvernrreiit ot right 

originatfis with the people, is tcund^d upon thsir will crly, and 
is institutred solely for th-a gccd cf the whcle. 

Section 2. SFIF-GCVLr^N!iENI. Ih-: pecplf have the exclusive 
right cf governing thee, selves as a free, sovereign, and irdepend- 
ent state. They iray alt'=r ct abolish the Constitution and form cf 
goverrir^r.t whenever they deem it necessary, 

Socticn 3. IfvALIFKAELE BIGKTS. All persons are bcrr free 
and have certain inalienatle rights. They include the right to a 
clean and healthful envircnaient and the rights cf pursuing life's 
basic nec'^ssit ies , enjcying and defending their lives and lib- 
erties, acquiring, possessing and prctectinc property, and 
seeking their safety, healtt and happiress ii. all lawful ways. In 
anjcyirg these rights, all persons recognize corresponding 
responsibilities. 




Section 5. EFEECCf CF bElIGICK. The state shall aake re la* 
resp€ctii;g an establishicent cf rsligicn or prohibiting the free 
exercise thsrecf. 



Section 6. FREEDOM CF ASSEKEIi. The people shall have the 
right peaceably to assemble, petition for redress or peaceably 
protest governmental action. 

Section 7. FPEEDOM CF SPEECH, EXFEESSICN, AND FBFSS. No law 
shall be passed iapairing the freedcir cf speech or expression. 
Every person shall be free to speak or publish whatever he will 
on any subject, being responsible for all abuse of that liberty. 
In all suits and prosecutions for libel cr slander the truth 
thereof may be giver in evidence; and th^ jury, under the direc- 
tion of the court, shall determine tlie law and the facts. 



Section 8. BIGHT CF P ARTICIF ATICN . The public has the right 
to expect governniental agencies tc afford such reasonable oppor- 
tunity for citizen participation in the operation cf the agencies 



Final Fepcrt 



1039 



prior to the final decision as iray be provified by law. 

Section <D . RIGHT TC KNOh. No person shall be deprived of 
the right to examine iocuirents or to ctserve the delifcerat icrs cf 
all public bodies or agencies ot state government and its sub- 
divisions, axcept in cases in which ths demand cf individual pri- 
vacy clearly exceeds the nerits cf public disclosure. 

Section 10. RIGHT CF EBIVACY. The rigtit of individual pri- 
vacy is essential to ths well-being of a free society and shall 
not be infringed without the shewing cf a compelling state inter- 
est. 

Section 11. SEARCHES Mil SEIZUFES. The pecple shall be 
secure in their persons, papers, hemes and effects from unreason- 
able searches and seizures. No warrant to search any place, or 
seize any person or thing shall issue without describing the 
place to be se^irched or the person cr thing to te seized, or 
without probable cause, supported by oath or af f ir maticn reduced 
to writing. 

Section 12. FaCHT TC BEAF AFKS. The right cf any person to 
keep or bear arirs in defense of his own hone, person, and prop- 
erty, or in aid ot the civil power when thereto legally suirmcned, 
shall not be called in guestion, but nothing herein ccrtained 
shall te held to pemit the carrying of ccncealed weapons. 



RIGHT CF SUFFEAGE. fll elections shall te free 
and cper., and nc power, civil cr ailitary, shall at ar.y tine 
interfere to prevent the free exercise of the right cf suffrage. 



Section 13. 
cper., and 



Section ^U, ADULT RIGHTS, 
is ar adult for all purposes. 



A person 18 years cf age or elder 



Section 15. RIGHTS OF PEBSCKS NOT ACDITS. The rights of 
persons under 16 years of age shall icclude, tut not te liaiited 
to, all the fundamental rights cf this article unless specifi- 
cally precluded by laws which enhance the protection of such per- 
sons. 



Section 16. THE ADMINISTRATICN CF JUSTICE. Courts cf jus- 
tice shall be open to every person, and speedy remedy afforded 
for every injury of person, property, or character. No person 
shall be deprived of this full legal redress for injury incurred 
in emplcyment for which another person may be liable except as to 
fellow employees and his imaediate employer who hired him if such 
immediate employer provides coverage under the Workmen's Cempen- 
saticn Laws of this state. Eight and justice shall be adminis- 
tered without sale, denial, or delay. 

Section 17. DUE PRCCESS CF LAK. No person shall te deprived 
of life, liberty, or property without due process cf law. 

Section 18. STATE SUBJECT TC SUIT. The state, counties. 



1040 



PEPCRT Cf CCK(^niE5 CN SIYLE, CRAFTING 



cities, tohr.f, ana all cthei: local gcvernnertal ertities shall 
have no immur.ity rrcHi sui* for injury to a parscn or prcpprty. 
This crcvisicn shall apply cnly 
July 1, 197 i. 



cauE€s of action arisirg after 



Sec-^ici: 
habeas ccrpu; 



19. HABEAS 
, snail never 



CCEPOS. Th= privilege 



SrC+icn 2j. INITIATICN CF 
offens'=s wi+^^hin the jurisdicticc __ ^ 
district court shall be prcsecut-ed ty complaint 
district ccui t , 



cf the writ of 



Criminal 



IFCCEcCINGS. (1) 

cf any ccurt inferior to the 



actions in 



prosecut-d .^ithf^r ty information, after exairicatic 
ment by a na9istrat'^ or after I'^ave grant'^d by t 
indictiL^nt without such examinat icr , ccniritnient or 



All criirinal 

except thcs^ on app-sal, shall be 
fter exairicaticn ard ccniniit- 
he ccurt, cr by 
leave. 



\ grand jury ^ 



:all ccnsist of eleven perscr.s, cf whore 
= ^^.. . .,.„.,. concur to find an indictment. A grand jury shall be 
drawn ana suir.ircned cnly dt the discreticr and crder of the 
trict judg-3. 



(2) ^ 
eight must 



dis— 



Section 21. H/'IL. All persons shall te bailable by suffi- 
cient sureties, except tor capital cffenses, when the prcof is 
evident cr the pr'-3sump ticn great. 



Section 22. EXCESSIVE SAIXTICNS. 
be required, or excessive fines iirfcsed, 
punishments intlxcted. 



Excessive bail shall ret 
cr cruel and unusual 



Section 23. DETENTION. No person shall te ispriscred fcr 
the purpose of securing his tftstincry in any criminal proceeding 
longer than niay be necessary in order to take his depcsiticn. If 
he can give security fcr his appearance at the tiaia of trial, he 
shall be discharged upon giving the same; if he canrct give 
security, his deposition shall be taken in the iranner provided by 
law, and in the presence cf the accused and his counsel, cr with- 
out their presence, if they shall fail to attend the exaniraticn 
after reasonable notice of the tias and place thereof. 




Section 25. SELF-INCBIMI NATICK AND DOUEIE JECPAREY. So 
person shall be compelled to testify against hiirself ic a crimi- 
nal proceeding. Nc person shall be again put in jeopardy fcr the 
same offense previously tried in any jurisdicticn . 



Final Fti-ort 



1041 



EY JUI^Y. Tti€ right ct trial ty jury is 
r^cain inviolate. But upon default cf 
by consent of the parties expressed in such lanner 
provide, all cases aay be tried without a jury or 
th^r the numter cf jurors provided by law. In all 
two-thirds cf the jury may render a verdict, and a 
verdict so rendered shall have the sane fcrce and effect as if 
all had concurred therein. In all criminal actions, the verdict 
shall te unar.iffCUE. 



Section 26. TRIAL 
secured to all and shall 
appearance cr 
as the law iray 
before fewer 
civil actions. 



Section 27. IiYFRISC NKFN1 ICF CEEl. No person shall te 
imprisoned tor debt except m the nanrer provided ty law, upcn 
refusal to deliver up his estate for the benefit of his credi- 
tors, cr in cases of tort, where ther'^ is strong presumpticn of 
fraud. 

Section 23. FIGHTS CF THE CCNVICTEC. taws for the purish- 
ment of criise shall te founded cr the principles of prevention 
and ref criTiaticn. Full rights are restored by terniinaticn cf state 
supervision for any offense against the state. 

Section 29. EKINEKT DCKJIN. Private property shall not be 
taken cr damaged for public use without just ccmpensation tc the 
full extent of the loss having been first made to or paid into 
court for the owner. In the event of litigation, just cctrpensa- 
ticR shall include necessary expenses cf litigation to te awarded 
by the ccurt when the private property cwner prevails. 

Section 30. lEcASCii ANE EESCENT CP ESTAIZS. Treason against 
the state shall ccnsist only ir levying war against it, or in 
adhering tc its enemies, giving them aid and ccmfcrt; nc perscn 
shall be convicted cf treason except on the testimony of two wit- 
nesses to the same evert act, cr en his confession in eper ccurt; 
no perscn shall be attainted cf treascr. cr felcny by the legis- 
lature; no conviction shall cause the less cf property tc the 
relatives or heirs cf the convicted. The estates of suicides 
shall descend or vest as in cases cf natural death. 



Section 31. EX POST FACTC, CELIGATICN OF CONTRACTS, AND 
IRREVOCABLE PRIVILEGES. No ex post facte law ncr any law impair- 
ing the obligation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant 
of special privileges, franchises, or imniu nities , shall te passed 
by the legislature. 

Section 32. CIVILIAN CCNTBCL CF THE MILITARY. The military 
shall always be in strict sutordinat icn tc the civil pcver; nc 
soldier shall in time cf peace be quartered in any house without 
the consent cf the owner, nor in time of war, except in the Ban- 
ner provided ty law. 

Section 33. IMPORTATION OF APPEC FEPSCNS. No armed perscn 
or persons or armed body of men shall te brought into this state 
for the preservation of the peace, cr the suppression of domestic 
violence, except upon the application of the legislature, cr of 



1042 



BKPCFT CF CC^'.KITTEE ON STYLE, CRAFTING 



the governor when the l-?gis lat ure cannot te convened. 

S'icticn 3U. UNiNUMEHATEE EIGHTS. Ihe enuireratior in this 

Constitution of certain rights shall net te ccrstrued tc deny, 

impair, or disparage others r'='tair.6d ty the people. 



section ^5. SFfiVICiMEN, SEPVICEWCHIN , ANC VETEFANS. The 
people declare that Mcntana serviceiDen, se rvicewcirer , and vet- 
erans may be giv^n special considerations determined ty the 
legislature. 



Final Bej-crt 



1043 



AP'IICLE III 
GENEEAl GCVFPNMENT 



Section 1. SfPAtJAIICN CF FCWFES. The pc\«er of th€ qovern- 
lueiit of this state is divided into thre? distinct bianches — 
legislative, executiv--, ar.d judicial. No person or persons 
charged with the exercise of power properly telonging to one 
branch shall exercise any pow=r properly belonging to either of 
the others, except as ir. this Constitution expressly directed or 
permit ted . 

Section 2. CCIJTINUIT i CF GCVEFNKENl. The seat of gcvernment 
shall be in Helena, except during periods of emergency resulting 
from disasters or nn^my attack. The legislature may enact laws tc 
insure the coatinuity of governnent during a period of emergency 
without regard for other previsions of the Ccnsti t uticn. They 
shall be effective only during the period of emergency that 
affects a particular office or gcver nirental operation. 

section 3. OATFi CF CFFICZ. ['eubers of the legislature and 
all executive, ninisterial and judicial officers, shall take and 
subscribe the following oath or af f ina ticn , before they enter 
upon the duties of their offices: "I dc scleranly swear (or 
affira) ttiat I will support, protect and defend the Constitution 
of the United States, and the Ccnstituticr of the state of Mon- 
tana, and that I will discharge the duties cf wy office with 
fidelity (so help ire God)." No ether oath, declaraticn, cr test 
shall be required as a gualif icaticn for any office or public 
trust. 

Section '4. INITIATIVE. (1) The people may enact laws by 
initiative on all matters except appropriations of iterey and 
local or special laws. 

(2) Initiative petitions must contain the full text of the 
proposed measure, shall be signed by at least five percent cf the 
quaiiried electors in each cf at least one-third of the legis- 
lative representative districts and the total rumber cf signers 
must be at least five percent cf the total qualified electers of 
the state. P-^titions shall be filed with the secretary cf state 
at least three months prior tc the election at which the measure 
will be voted upon. 

(3) The sufficiency cf the initiative petition shall net be 
questioned after the election is held. 

Section 5. REFERENDUM. (1) The people nay approve cr reject 
by referendum any act of the legislature except an appropriation 
of money. A referendutn shall be held either upon order by the 
legislature or upon petition signed by at least five percent cf 
the qualified electors in each of at least 



percent 
one-third of the 



1044 



REPORT Cf CCMMIllEE CN STYLE, CFAETIKG 



legislative^ representative districts. The total number of signers 
must bt at lj>ast five percont cf the qualified electcrs cf the 
state. A referendum petition shall be filed with the secretary of 
state no later than six months after adjournment cf the legis- 
lature which passed the act. 

(2) ^n act referred to the people is ir effect until sus- 
pended by petitions signed by at least 15 percent cf the quali- 
fied electors in a majority of the legislative representative 
districts. If so suspended the act shall become operative only 
after it is approved at an election, the result cf which has been 
determined and declared as prcvidcd ty lau. 

Section 6. ELECTICiNS. The people shall vcte en initiative 
and referendum measures at the general election unless the legis- 
lature orders a special electicr. 

Section 7. NUMBER CF ELECICBS. The nuaber cf qualified 
electcrs required ir each legislative representative district and 
in the state shall be determined by the number of votes cast fcr 
the office of governor in the proceeding general election. 

Section ^. PRCHIEITICN. The provisions cf this Article do 
net apply to CONSTITfJTICN AL REVISION, Article XIV. 

Section 9. GAKBLING. All forms of gamblirg, lotteries, and 
gift enterprises are prohibited unless authorized by acts of the 
legislature or by the people through initiative or refererduir. 



Section 9. GAKBLING. All forms of ganblirg, lotteries, and 
gift enterprises are frchitited. 



Final Report 



1045 



ARTICLE IV 
StJFFHAGF. AND ELECIICNS 



Liection 1. 
secret Ldllct. 



BALLOT. All electicns ty the f€oplr shall te by 



Ssctian 2. QUALIFIEE ELECTCR. Any citizen cf the United 
States 18 years of age or elder who meets the reqistraticr and 
residence: requirements provided by law is a qualified elector 
unless he is serving a sentence tor a felcr.y in a penal insti- 
tution or is of unsound cind, as deteraiinsd ty a court. 

Section 3. ELECTICNS. The legislature shall provide by law 
the requirements for residence, registraticr , absentee voting, 
and adrainistraticn ct elections. It ttay provide for a system of 
poll booth registration, and shall insure the purity cf elections 
and guard against atuses cf the electoral process. 

Section ^. ELIGIBILITY Fcr< FUEIIC CFPICE. Any qualified 
elector is -eligible to any public office except as otherwise pro- 
vided in this Constitution. The legislature may provid*^ addi- 
tional qualifications but no person convicted cf a felony shall 
be eligible to held office until his final discharge frcir state 
supervision. 

Section 5. RESULT CF ELECTICNS. In all elections h'^ld by 
the people, the person or persons receiving the largest number of 
votes shall be declared elected. 



Section 6. PFIVIIEGf FECf ABtEST. A qualified elector is 
privileged frcir arrest at polling places ar.d in going to and 
returning ther<^from, unless apprehended in the coamiissior of a 
felony or a breach of the peace. 



1046 



BEFCRT CI CChtllTTEF ON STYLE, CEAFIING 



ARTICLI V 
THE LEGISLATUBE 



S^cticn 1. PCUEF ANC STEOCltRE. The legislative pcwer is 
vested in a legislature ct one chanter whcse ffieufcers are desig- 
nated senators. The people reserve to themselves the powers of 
initiative and referenduir. 



by 



Section 2. SI7E. The nuffter ct senators shall be provided 
law, but it shall net te sir.aller than 90 ncr larger than 105. 



Section 3. ELECTICN AND TEFKS. A senator shall te elected 
for a term of four years to begin or. a date provided ty lat. Cne- 
half of the senators shall te elected every ti«c years. 

Section 4. QOALIFICAT ICN£ . P. candidate for the legislature 
shall be a resident of the state for at least cce year next pre- 
ceding the general election. For six nicnths next preceding the 
general election, he shall be a resident of the county if it con- 
tains one or more districts or of the district if it contains all 
or parts of more than one county. 

Section b. CCKEENSATICN. Each metnter of the legislature 
shall receive coaipensat ion for his services ard allowances pro- 
vided by law. No legislature may fix its own ccirpensation. 

Section 6. SESSIONS. The legislature shall te a cortirucus 
body for two-year periods beginrirg when nekly elected ireiribers 
taxe cflic'?. Any business, bill, or rescluticn pending at 
adjournment of a session shall carry over with the same status to 
any other session of the legislature during the bienriua. The 
legislature shall meet at least once a year in regular sessions 
of net more than 60 legislative days. Any legislature nay 
increase the limit en the length of any subseguent session. The 
legislature may te convened in special sessions by th^ gcverncr 
or at the written reguest of a itajciity of the members. 

Section 7. VACANCIES. A vacancy in the legislature shall te 
filled by special election for the unexpired term unless other- 
wise provided ty law. 

Section 8. IMMUNITY. A member of the legislature is privi- 
leged from arrest during attendance at sessions of the legis- 
lature and in going to and returning therefrom, unless appre- 
hended in the commission of a felony or a breach of the peace. He 
shall not be questicned in any ether place for any speech or 
debate in the legislature. 

Section 9. DISQO AlIFICATICN . Kc meirber cf the legislature 
shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, te 
appointed to any civil office under the state; and no member cf 



Final Feport 



1047 



congr-ss, or cth-^r porscn holding an cffica (except notary 
public, or in the uilitia) under the United States or this state, 
shall be i meaiber nf the legislature during his continuance in 
of f icp . 



Section 



10. OIvGANIZAIIGN AND FF.CCECnSH. (1) Ths legislature 
shall judge the el-5cticn and qualifications cr senators. It may 
by liiw V3st in ths courts the t;cwer tc try and df^termine con- 
tesred el lc tiers, it shall choose its officers frcir amccg its 
aieiabers, ketp a journal, and itake rules for its proceedirgs. It 
expel or punish a senator for good cause shojin with the 
cf tho-'-hirds of all the senators. 



may 

ccncurrancj 



(2) A majority of the senators constitutes a qucruff. A 
sflialler number may adjourn tree day tc day and compel attendance 
of absent ni-^ffiLers. 



(3) The sessions cf the I'^gislature and cf the ccairittee cf 
the whole, all ccmirittee acetings, ar.d all hearings shall te open 



to the public. 



(U) The legislature may establish a legislative ccurcil and 

other interim comiDittces . The legislature shall establish a 

legislative post-audit committefc which shall supervise 

post-auditing duties provided by law. 



Section 11. DILLS. (1) A law shall be passed 
shall net be so altered cr amended en its passage 

its original purpose, 
of the Biajcrity of 



legislature as tc change 
becoaie law except by a vote 
present and voting. 



by bill which 
through the 

No bill shall 
all necbers 



(2) ivery vote of each aieir, ter on each substantive question 
in the legislature, in any ccir,inittee , cr ir ccEmittee cf the 
whole shall be recorded and made public. Cn final passage, the 
vote shall be taken by ayes and noes and the raires entered cn the 
journal. 

(3) Each bill, except general a pprcpriaticn bills and bills 
for the ccdification and general revision cf the laws, shall con- 
tain only one subject, clearly expressed in its title. If any 
subject is enibraced m any act and is net expressed in the title, 
only sc much of the act not so expressed is vcid. 

(a) A general appropriation bill shall contain only appro- 
priations for the ordinary expenses cf the legislative, execu- 
tive, and judicial branches, for interest cn the public debt, and 
for public schools. Every ether appropriation shall be loade by a 
separate bill containing but one subject. 



(5) No appropriation shall te made for religious, charita- 
ble, industrial, educational, or benevolent purposes tc ary pri- 
vate individual, private associaticc, cr private corporation not 
under ccntrol of the state. 



1048 



HEECRT CF CCaWTITPE CN STYLE, EEAEIING 



(6) A law may be challenged cr. the grcurid of noncompliance 
with +-his secticR only within two years after its effective date. 



Section 12. LCCAL ANC SPECIAL LEGISLATION. The legislature 
shall nc-^ pass a special cr Iccal act %ihsn a general act is, or 
can be rraue, applici^tle. 



Section 13. IP'ES ACHMcNl. (1) The governor, executive 

cers, heads of state depar tirents , judicial officers, and such 

other cfficars as may be provided by law are subject " ' "^ 

ment, and upon ccrvicticn shall be removed frcm < 
procee lings for removal frcir public office for cause 
vided by law. 



off i- 
1 such 
iirpeacb- 
ffice. ether 
roay be prc- 



(2) The legislature shall provide fcr the manner, proce- 
dure, and causes for impeachment and shall provide fcr a tribu- 
nal. 

(3) Impeachment can be brought only by a two-thirds vote of 
the legislature. Tha tribunal hearing the charges shall convict 
only by a vote of two— thirds cr more cf its members, 

(t^) Conviction shall extend cnly to removal frcm office, 
but the party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall also be 
liable to prosecution according tc law. 

Section 14. DISTEICTING AND AEPCRTIC^ME NT. (1) The state 
shall be divided into as many districts as there are seratcrs and 
each district shall elect one senator. Each district shall con- 
sist of compact and contiguous territory. All districts shall be 
as nearly equal in population as is practicable. 



this 

fede 

whom 

for 

and 

the 

days 

the 

If 

time 



(2) 

Cc 
ral 

may 
redi 
cong 

leg 

aft 
fift 
the 

pro 



In th 
nstitut 
populat 

be pub 
strict! 
ression 
islatur 
er thai 
h membe 

four 
vided. 



e legi 
ion a 
ion ce 
lie of 
ng and 
al dis 
e sha 
r desi 
r, who 
member 
a ma jo 



slativ 
nd the 
nsus, 
f icial 

reapp 
tricts 
11 ea 
gnatio 

shall 
s fail 
rity o 



e sess 
reaf te 
a ccmm 
s, sha 
crt ion 
. The 
ch sel 
n, the 
serve 
tc se 
f the 



icn 
r in 
issio 
11 be 
inq t 
major 
ect t 
four 
as 
lect 
supre 



f cllcw 
each s 
n of f 

selec 
he sta 
ity an 
wo com 

ccmmi 
hair sa 
the fi 
me ecu 



ing 
essic 
ive c 
ted t 
te i 
d sin 
missi 
ssion 
E cf 
fth m 
rt sh 



rati 

n pr 

itiz 

o pr 

ntc 

crit 

oner 

ers 

the 

embe 

all 



f ica 
eced 
ens, 
epar 

leg 
y le 
s. w 
shal 

com 
r wi 
sele 



tion 
ing 

ncn 
e a 
isla 
ader 
ithi 
1 se 
ffiss 
thin 
ct 



cf 
each 
e cf 
plan 
tive 
s of 
r 2G 
lect 
icn. 
the 
him. 



(3) The ccmaission shall submit its plan to the legislature 
at the first regular session after its appointment or after the 
census figures are available. Hithir 3C days after submission, 
the legislature shall return the plan to the ccmmissicn with its 
recommendations, within 30 days thereafter, the coBsissict shall 
file its final plan with the secretary cf state and it shall 
become law. The commission is then dissolved. 



Section 15. FEFEBENDUM GE UNICAMERAL LEGISLATDBE, 



(1) In 



Findl Feport 



1049 



1980 the secretary of state shall plac? upcr the ballot at the 
genaral election the question: "Shall the unicaireral legislature 
form be continued?" 

(2) If a majority of the qualified electors voting en the 



question answer in the affirmative, the form shall be 
and this section shall be of no further effect. 



continued. 



(3) If a majority of the qualified electors voting en the 

question answer in the negative. Article V of this Constitution 

is amended by deleting sections 1, 2, 3, 1C, 13, and 1U, and 
inserting in lieu thereof the fcllcwirg: 

(a) "Section 1. POWER AND STBUCTUBE. The legislative power 
is vested in a legislature consisting of a senate and a house of 
representatives. The people reserve to theoselves the powers of 
initiative and referendum." 

(t) "Section 2. SIZE. The si2e of the legislature shall te 
provided by law, but the senate shall net have uore than 50 or 
fewer than 40 members and the house shall net have iDcre than 100 
or fewer than 8C iteitLers." 

(c) "Section 3, ElECIICN AND TERMS, ft meirber of the bouse 
of representatives shall be elected for a terrc of two years and a 
member of the senate for a term of four years, each to begin on a 
date provided by law. One-half of the senators shall be elected 
every two years. " 

(d) "Section 10. CRGANIZATICN AKD FFCCEDDFE. (1) Each house 
shall judge the election and qualifications of its mecbers. It 
may by law vest in the courts the power to try and determine con- 
tested elections. Each house shall choose its officers from among 
its members, keep a journal, and make rules for its proceedings. 
Each house may expel or punish a meffber for good cause shewn with 
the concurrence of two-thirds of all its members." 

"(2) A majority of each house constitutes a quorum. A 
smaller number may adjourn frcii day to day and compel attendance 
of absent members." 

"(3) The sessions of the legislature and cf the ccmaittee 
of the whole, all committee aeetings, and all hearings shall be 
open to the public." 

"(4) The legislature may establish a legislative council 
and other interim committees. The legislature shall establish a 
legislative post-audit committee which shall supervise 
post-auditing duties provided by law.*' 

"(5) Neither house shall, without the consent of the ether, 
adjourn or recess for more than three days or to any place other 
than that in which the two houses are sitting." 



1050 



BlirOBT Cf CCf^KITlEE CN STYLE, CRAFTING 



(e) "Sectior 13. I MrF ACHP'ENI . (1) Th-? gcveruor, executive 
offic:irs, heads ot stat-; departments, judicial officers, and such 
other officers as iray be provided by law are subject tc iirpeach- 
ment, and upon ccnvictior. shall be r^trcved frcm office. Ctber 
proceedings fcr r^^moval trcm public office fcr cause may be pro- 
vided by law . 



" (2) 

dure and 
tribunal. 



The legislature shall provide fcr 
causes fcr impeachm-rnt and iray 



the manner, proce- 
select the senate as 



"(3) Impe achoient shall be brought crly by a two-thirds vote 
of the house. The tribui.al hearing the charges shall convict 
only by a vote of two-thirds or nore cf its roeabers. 

"(U) Ccnvicticn shall extend crly tc removal from office, 
but the party, wh'=:ther convicted or acquitted, shall also be 
liable to prosecution according to law." 



(f) "Section 1U. EISIBICTING ^NC A FFCFT ICK P E NT . (1) The 
state shall be divia^d into as many districts as there are meir- 
bers of th^ house, and each district shall elect one represcnta- 
tivcr. Each senate district shall be ccoiposed cf two adjoining 
house districts, and shall elect cne sanatcr. Each district 
shall consist cf ccrcpact and contiguous territcry. All districts 
shall be as nearly equal in population as is practicable. 



and t 
censu 
of fie 
and r 
distr 
each 
ignat 
who s 
bers 
ma jor 



"(2) 

hereaf 
s , a c 
ials, 
eappor 
icts . 
design 
ion, 
hall s 

fail 
ity of 



In 
ter 
on, mi 

sha 
tion 

The 
ate 
the 
erve 
tc s 

the 



the le 
in each 
ssion o 
11 be s 
ing th^ 

ma jcri 
one com 

four c 

as cha 
elect t 

supr em 



gisla 
ssss 
f fiv 
elect 
Stat 
ty an 
fflissi 
omniis 
irman 
he fi 
e cou 



tive 
ion 
e ci 
ed t 
e in 
d ii)i 
oner 
s ion 

cf 
fth 
rt s 



se 
prsc 
tize 
c pr 
to 1 
nori 
. Hi 
ers 
the 
aeir t 
hall 



SElCt 

eding 
ns, no 
€ pare 
egisla 
t y lea 
thin 2 
shall 
commis 
er wit 
selec 



f cllcwi 
each fe 
ne f w 
a plan 
tive a 
ders of 
C days 
select 
s i o n . 
bin the 
t him. 



ng th 
deral 
hon) tt 
for r 
nd c 
each 
after 
the f 
If th 
ine 



IS a 

pc 

ay b 

edis 

orgr 

hou 

the 

ifth 

e f 

pre 



irendment 
puldtion 
e public 
tr ict ing 
essional 
se shall 
i r d e s— 
meirber , 
ur ffleiB- 
vided, a 



"(3) The cooiniission shall subaiit its plan tc the legis- 
lature at the first regular session after its appcirttrert cr 
after the census figures are available. Within 3C days after 
submission, the legislature shall return the plan tc the ccBinis- 
sion with its recommendations. Within 30 days thereafter, the 
commission shall file its final plan with the secretary of state 
and it shall become law. The commission is then dissolved." 



(U) The members of the unicameral legislature shall remain 
in office and their authority tc act shall continue until the 
members cf a bicameral body are elected and qualified. 

(5) The Senate chamber existing upon the date cf adcpticr 
of this Article shall remain intact until the election provided 
for in this section has determined whether the unicameral legis- 



Einal Report 



1051 



latutt is to ccntir.u-;. 



(6) When th 9 
out, it shall be cf 



provisions cf this section have been carried 
nc turther effect . 



1052 



RIFOtT C? CC^f,I'lTFE Ch STYLE, ERAflING 



APTICLE V 
THE LEGISLATQEE 



Secticn 1. POWER AKD STEOCTUFE. Thf legislative pch^r is 

vested in a legislature ccnsistinq cf a senate arc! a hcuse cf 

representatives. Tht pecpie restrve tc themselves the pollers of 
initiative and retsren'iuni. 

Secticn '?. SIZE. The size ct the legisiatur'= shall te j^vc- 
vided Ly law, hut the senat? shall ret have ircre than 50 or fewer 
than UC Ri embers and th-= house shall r. ct hav^ acre than IOC or 
fewer than 8* iceicbtvrs. 



Section ?. ELtCTIC^ AND 'IEFf:S. A ffeiater of the house of 
representatives shall te elected for a tern: cf two years and a 
member of th^ senate for a term cf four years each to begin on a 



date provided 



the senators shall 



elected 




Secticn S. COi'.PENSATICN . Each tneroter cf the legislature 
shall receive cctrpensaticn fcr his services ard allowances pro- 
vided by law. No legislature may fix its own ccmpensatic r . 

Section 6. SESSICKS. The Ifgislature shall te a continuous 
body for two-year periods teginnnc when newly elected ireiiiters 
take ofrice. Any business, bill, or resolution pending at 
ad journcDent of a session shall carry ever with th3 same status to 
any ether £.-:Esion of the legislature during the tienniuiD. The 
legislature shall meet at least once a year in regular session of 
not more than CO legislative days. Any legislature may increase 
the limit cu the length of ar.y subseguent session. The legis- 
lature may be convenad in special sessions by the governor or at 
the fcritten roguest of a aajcrity cf the uemtsrs. 

Section 7. VACANCIES. A vacancy in the legislature shall he 
filled hy special electier fcr the unexpired tern: unless other- 
wise provided by law. 

Section 8. IMKONTTY. A member cf the legislature is privi- 
leged from arrest during attendance at session cf the legislature 
and in going to and returning therefrom, unless apprehecded in 
the ccmmission of a felony or a breach cf the peace. He shall net 
be questioned in any ether place for any speech cr debate in the 
legislature. 



Final Fppcrt 



1053 



SecticR 9. DISQUAIIFTCATICN. Nc ffiember cf the legislature 
shall, during the term icr which he shall have been elected, te 
appointad to any civil office under th^ state; and nc neaber cf 
congress, or ether psrscn holding ar office (except rotary 
public, cr the ccilitia) under the United States or this state, 
shall be a member cf the legislature during his continuance in 
o f f i c z . 

Section 10. CSGANIZATTON AND F3CCIDUFE. (1) Each house 
shall judge the election and qualifications of its meisbers. It 
may by law vest in the courts the power to try and determine con- 
tested elections. Each house shall choose its officers frca among 
its members, keep a journal, and niake rules for its proceedings. 
Each house may expel or punish a meirber for gocd cause shewn with 
the concurrence of two-thirds of all its memters. 

(2) A majority cf each house constitutes a qucrum. A 
smaller number may adjourn frcor day to day and compel attendance 
of absent meobers. 

(3) The sessions cf the legislature and cf the cctrmittee of 
the whole, all ccmoiitte^ meetings, and all hearings shall be cpen 
to the public. 

(U) ihe legislature may establish a legislative council and 
other interim committees. The legislature shall establish a 
legislative post-audit comirittee which shall supervise 
post-auditing duties provided by law. 

(5) Neither house shall, without the consent of the ether, 
adjourn or recess for more than three days cr to any place other 
tiian that in which the two houses are sitting. 

Section 11. GILLS. (1) A law shall be passed by bill which 

shall net be so altered or airerded en its passage through the 

legislature as to change its original purpose. No bill shall 

become law except by a vote of the majority of all members 
present and voting. 

(2) Every vote of each member of the legislature en each 
substantive question in the legislature, in any committee, er in 
committee of the whole shall be recorded and made public. On 
final passage, the vote shall be taken by ayes and nces and the 
names entered on the journal. 



<3) Each bill, except general appropriation bills and bills 
for the codification and general revision cf the laws, shall con- 
tain only one subject, clearly expressed in its title. If any 
subject is embraced in any act and is not expressed in the title, 
only so much of the act net so expressed is void. 

(U) A general appropriation bill shall contain only appro- 
priations for the ordinary expenses cf the legislative, execu— 



1054 



REPORT 0¥ CCKKITTEE CN STYLE, EKAFTING 



tive, and judicial tranches, for interest cr. tb? pufclic dett, and 
tor public schccls. Every cthei apprcpr ia ticn shall be made ty a 
separate bill, containing b\it ere subject. 

(^) No appropriation siiall te wade fcr religicus, charita- 
ble, industrial, educational, cr benevolent purposes to any pri- 
vate individual, private association, cr private corporaticr net 
under control of the state. 

(f) A law may be challenged on the ground of ncr.coirpliance 
with this section only within two years after its effective date. 

Section 12. LOCAL AtsC SFECIAI LEGISL AIIGN . The legislature 
shall net pass a special cr local act when a general act is, or 
can b9 made, applicable. 



Section 13. 
cers, heads ct 
other officers as 
ment, and upon 
proce3dings tor removil 
vidsd ty law. 



I^■F£ACKP'.E^•I. (1) Th^ governor, executive cffi- 

state depar taients, judicial officers, and such 

provided by law are subject to irrpeach- 

reiroved from office. Other 

frcir cutlic 



ai a y t -? 

conviction shall be 

office fcr cause nay be pro 



(2) The legislature shall prcvide for th< 
dure, and causes for impeachment and nay select 
tribunal . 



manner, proce- 
the senate as 



(3) Impeachment shall be brought orly by a two-thirds vote 
of th2 house. Th--^ tribunal hearing the charges shall convict 
only by a vote of two- thirds cr more of its meirbers. 

(U) Conviction shall extend only tc renoval from office, 
nut the party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall alsc be 
liable to prosecution according to law. 

Section m. DISTl<1C1IKG AND AFECEIICNti ENT . (1) The Eembers 
of th;- house, and aach district shall elect one representative. 
Each senate district shall be composed of two adjoining house 
districts, and shall elect one senator. Each district shall ccn— 
sist of compact and contiguous territory. All districts shall be 
as nearly equal in population as is practicable. 

(2) In the legislative session following ratification of 
this Constitution and thereafter in each session preceding each 
federal population census, a coimiisEion of five citizens, none of 
whom may b3 public officials, shall be selected to prepare a plan 
for redistr icting and reapportioning the state into legislative 
and congressional districts. The majority and irinority leaders of 
each house shall each designate one coaiiDissioner . Within 2C days 
after their designation, the four cctPinissioners shall select the 
fifth BGffiber, who shall serve as chairman of the ccuffiissien. If 
the four members fail to select the fifth leitber within the time 
prescribed, a majority of the supreme court shall select hin. 



Final Beport 



1055 



(3) The ccirinission shall sutnit its plar tc thp legislature 
dt the first regular sessicn aft^r its appcintirert or after the 
census figures are available. within 30 days after subirissicn, 
the I'^gislature shall return the plan tc the ccmniission with its 
reccnirenda ticns. Within 30 days thereafter, the ccoitrissicn shall 
file its final plan with the secretary cf state and it shall 
becoaie law. The ccimiissiGn is then dissolved. 



1056 



REPORT 01 COK«ITTEE CK STYLE, CFfiFTING 



ARTICLE VI 
THE EXZCCTIVE 



Stction 1. CfflCEES. (1) Th€ executive branch includes a 
governor, lieutenant qoverncr, secretary ct stat^, attorney gen- 
eral, superintenapr.t of putlic instruction, ard auditor. 

(2) Each holds office for a tsm ct four years which begins 
on the first Monday ot January next succeeding election, and 
until a successor is elected anc qualified. 

(3) Each shall reside at the seat of qovernmant, there keep 
the public records cf his office, and perfcrffi such ether duties 
as are provided in this Constitution and by law. 

Section 2. EIECTICN. (1) The governor, lieutenant gcverncr, 
secretary ot state, attorney general, superintendent of public 
instruction, and auditor shall te elected by the qualified elec- 
tors at a general electicn provided by law. 

(2) Each candidate for goverrcr shall file jointly with a 
candidate for lieute-naut governor in priirary elections, or so 
otherwise couply with rcoiiEaticn procedures provided by law that 
the offices of gcvermr and lieuterant gcverncr are voted upon 
together ir primary and general elections. 

Section J. QOALIFICAIICNS. (1) Nc person shall be eligible 
to the office cf governor, lieuterant gcverncr, secretary cf 
state, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction, cr 
auditor unless he is 25 years of age or older at the time of his 
election. In addition, each shall be a citizen cf the United 
States who has resided within the state two years next preceding 
his election. 

(2) Any person with the fcregcirg qualifications is eligi- 
ble to the office of attorney general if ar attorney in good 
standing admitted tc practice law ir. fcntana who has engaged in 
the active practice thereof fcr at least five years before elec- 
tion. 



(3) The superintandent of public instruction shall have 
such educational qualif icaticns as are provided by law. 

Section U. COTII^S. (1) The executive power is vested in the 
governor who shall see that the laws are faithfully executed. Be 
shall have such other duties as are provided in this Ccrstituticn 
and by law. 

(2) The: li^^utenant governor shall perfcra the duties pro- 
vided by law and these delegated tc him by the governor. Nc power 
specifically vested in the governor by this Constitution may be 



Final Report 



1057 



delegated to the lieutenant ^cverncr. 

(3) The s-acretary of state shall maintain official records 
of the executive crarch and of the acts ct ♦rbe legislature, as 
provided by law. H'^ saall keep the great seal of the state of 
'•icntar.a and perform any ether dati = s provided ty law. 



(U) The attorn^ey general is the legal officer c: 
ana shall have the duties and peters frcvided Ly law. 



the state 



(5) The superintendent of public instruction and the audi- 



tor shall hav'3 such duties as are provided ty la' 

Secticr 5. CCKEE.NSATICN . (1) Cfficers of 
branch shall receive salaries provided ty lavi. 



th. 



executive 



b 
se 

da 



elected officer 
off ice 



(2) During his tera, no elected officer 
iranch may held anoth?>r public office or recei 
;ervices trcit any other gover rire rta 1 agency, 
.ate fcr any public office during his ten. 



of the executive 



or receive ccaper.sat icr fcr 
aiay te a candi- 



fie 



ant 

qcve 

mine 

serv 

elec 

unab 

resp 

unti 

gov^ 

term 



Section '^. . VACANCY IN OFrlCE, (1) If the office cf lieuter- 
governcr becomes vacant by his succession to the office of 
rncr, or ty his death, resignation, or disability as deter- 
d by law, the gcvarnor shall appoint a qualified person to 
e in that office for the remainder of the term. If tcth the 
ted governor arc the elected lieutenant governor beccme 
le to serve in the oifice of governor, succession tc the 
ectiv? offices shall be as provided ty law for the period 
1 the next general election. Then, a governor and lieutenant 
rncr shall oe elected to fill th*^ remainder of the criginal 



(2) If the office of secretary of state, attorney general, 
auditor, or superintendent of public instruction becomes vacant 
by death, resignation, or disability as deteruined by law, the 
governor shall appoint a qualified person tc serve in that office 
until the next general election and until a successor is elected 
and gualified. The person elected to fill a vacancy shall held 
the office until the expiration of the term for which his prede- 
cessor was elected. 

Section 7. 2C DEPAHTRENTS. All executive and administrative 
offices, boards, bureaus, ccimiEsions, agencies and instrumen- 
talities of the executive branch (except fcr the office of gcvet- 
nor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney general, 
superintendent of public instruction, and auditor) and their 
respective fuccticrs, powers, and duties, shall be allocated by 
law among not more than 2C principal departments so as to provide 
an orderly arrangement in the adain istrat i ve organization of 
state governEent. Temporary commissiocs may be established by law 
and need not be allocated within a department. 



Section 8, APPOINTING PCHEE. (1) The departments provided 



1058 



FEPCBT CF CCMMITTEE CN STYLE, CRAFTING 



for in section 7 shall be under the £up€rvi£icn of the gcverncr. 
Except as otherwise provided in this Ccrstituticn or by law, each 
department shall be headed ty a single executive appointed by the 
governor subject to ccntir niaticr ty the senate to held office 
until the end of th^ governor's torir urless sooner removed by the 
gcverncr. 

(2) Iht gov^irncr shall appoint, subject to ccnf ir cation ty 
the senate, all officers provided for in this Constitution or by 
law whcsp; appciutment or alecticn is not otherwise provided for. 
They shall hold office until the end of the governor's term 
urless sooner removed by the governor. 

(3) If a vacancy occurs in any such office when the legis- 
lature is not in session, the governor shall appoint a qualified 
person to discharge the duties thereof until the office is filled 
by appointai^nt and conf irmaticr . 

^^) A person not confirffied ty the senate for an office 
shall not, except at its request, te noisinatec again for that 
office at the same session, or be appointed to that office when 
the legislature is not in session. 

Section 9. BUDGET AND MESSAGES. The governor shall at the 
beginning of each legislative session, and may at other tiaes, 
give the legislature information and recomniend measures he con- 
siders necessary. The gcverncr shall submit to the legislature at 
a time fixed ty law, a tudget for the ensuing fiscal period 
setting forth in detail for all operating funds the proposed 
expenditures and estimated revenue of the state. 

Section 1C. VEIC ECiiEE. (1) Each hill passed by the legis- 
lature, except bills proposing airerdffeDts to the Montana Consti- 
tution, bills ratifying proposed aocendnients to the Onited States 
Constitution, resolutions, and initiative and referendui mea- 
sures, shall be submitted to the governor for his signature. If 
he does not sign or veto the bill within five days after its 
delivery to him if the legislature is in session or within 25 
days if the legislature is adjourned, it shall becoae law. The 
governor shall return a vetoed bill to the legislature with a 
statement of his reasons therefor. 



(2) The governor may return any till to the legislature 



with his recoffluendation for 
the bill in accordance with 
shall again return the bill 
tion. The governor shall not 
time. 



aaetdnent. If the legislature passes 
the governor's reccmmendaticn, it 
tc the gcverncr for his reccrsidera- 
return a bill for amendment a second 



(3) If after receipt cf a veto message, two— thirds 
aeabers present approve the bill, it shall become law. 



cf the 



(U) If the legislature is not in session when the governor 
vetoes a bill, he shall return the till with his reasons therefor 



Final Bepcit 



1059 



to th^ legislature as provided ty law. The legislatui' 
veus to reconsider any till so vptcsd. 



iray rcccr- 



(5) The governor iray veto iteas in a pp rof riation tills, and 
in such instances the procedure shall be th=- sase as upcn veto of 
an enr ire bill . 



ers 



Section 11. SPECIAL SESSION, fchenever the governor consid- 
it in the public interest, he may ccnvsre the legislature. 



Section 12. EAF.DONS. Ih^ governor may grant reprieves, ccn- 
mutaticns and pardons, restore cit iz-^rshi p , and suspend and remit 
fires and forfeitures subject to prccedures provided by lah. 

Sectior. 13. tlLIIlh. (1) The governor is ccmmander- ir-chief 
of the itilitia forces of the state, except i»hen they are in the 
actual service of tha United States. He iray call out any part cr 
all of the forces to aid in the execution of the laws, suppress 
insurrection, repel invasion, cr protect life and property in 
natural disasters. 

(2) The Bilitia forces shall consist of all able-bodied 
citizens of the sta-t-e except those exeirpted ty lah. 

Section 14. SUCCESSION. (1) If the governor-elect is dis- 
qualified or dies, the lieutenant governcr-elect upcn aualifyirg 
for the office shall become goverrcr for the full tersr. If the 
governor-elect fails to assume office for any ether reason, the 
lieutenant governor-elect upcn qualifying as such shall serve as 
acting governor until the governor-elect is able to assuise 
office, cr until the office b6CCB;es vacant. 

(2) The lieutenant governor shall serve as acting gcverncr 
when so requested in writing by the gcverncr. after the governor 
has been absent front the state for core than 45 consecutive days, 
the lieutenant governor shall serve as acting gcverncr. 

(3) He shall serve as acting gcverncr whec the governor is 
so disabled as to be unable tc ccffnucicate to the lieutenant 
governor the fact of his inability to perform the duties of his 
office. The lieutenant governor shall continue tc serve as acting 
governor until the governor is able to resume the duties of his 
office. 

(4) Whenever, at any ether time, the lieutenant gcverncr 
and attorney general transirit tc the legislature their written 
declaration that the governor is unable tc discharge the powers 
and duties of his office, the legislature shall ccrvene to deter- 
mine whether he is able tc do sc. 

(5) If the legislature, within 21 days after convening, 
determines by two-thirds vote of its members that the gcverncr is 
unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the 
lieutenant governor shall serve as acting gcverncr. Thereafter, 



1060 



B£tCKT CF CCMMITTEE GN STYLE, EfiAFTING 



when thf <jovtrrncr transmits tc the legislature his viritter dpcla- 
raticn that no inacility exists, he shall resume the powers and 
duties cf his office within 15 days, unless the legislature 
determines otherwise ty twc-thirds vote cf its ineiDberE. If the 
legislature so deterroines, tht lif^ut^nant governor shall continue 
tc servt; as acting governcr. 

(6) If the office cf gcverncr teconies vacant by reason cf 
death, resignation, or disqual if icaticn , the lieutenant gcverncr 
shall becctne governor for the r<?niainder cf the terit, except as 
provided in this Ccr.stit ution. 



(7) Additional succession 
vided by law. 



fill vacancies shall te pro- 



(8) When there is a vacancy in the office cf goverrcr, the 
successor shall te the governor. The acting governor shall have 
the powers and duties of the office cf gcverncr only fcr the 
period during which he serves. 

Section 15. INFORfATlCN FCE GCVIFNCP. (1) The governor may 
require infcrmaticn in writing, under cath when required, froni 
the officers of the executive branch upon any subject relating to 
the duties of their respective offices. 

(2) He may require informaticn in writing, under cath, from 
all officers and managers of state institutions. 



(3) He may appoint a consffittee tc investigate and report to 
hiffi upcn the ccndition of any executive office or state insti- 
tution . 



Final Eepctt 



1061 



flFIICLE VIT 
THE JUCICIAr,Y 



Section 1. JUCICIAi EC«EF. Ihe judicial power of the stats 
is vested in on? suprette coutt, district courts, justice courts, 
and such other courts as may te provided ty law. 

Section 2. SDEFEMl CCUPl J OF IS LICT IC N . (1) Ihe suprea^ 

court has app-allate jurisdicticn ard nay issue, hear, and deter- 

Biine writs appropridt-^ thereto. It has original jurisdicticn to 

issue, hear, and det-^rmine virits of habeas corpus and such ether 
writs as cay le provided hy law. 



(2) 

courts . 



It has general supervisory ccntrcl over all ether 



(3) It Diay make rulfs gov-:rnirg appellate procedure, prac- 
tice and prcct?du:e for all ether courts, adteissicn tc the tar and 
the ccTiduct of Its memt^rs. Kules ct procedure shall fce subject 
tc disapproval ty th^; legislature ir either of th'i two sessions 
following pr cnulgation. 



(U) Suprecrc court process shall extend tc all parts cf the 



stati 



Section 3. SUtilEMF CCUFT OFGfiMZAIICh. (1) The supreae 
court consists cf one chief justice and four justices, but the 
legislature nay increase the ruirter of justices from four to six. 



A irajcrity shall join in and pronounce 
in writ inc. 



decisicrs, which irust be 



(2) A district judge shall be substituted for the chief 
justice or a justice in the event of disquali f icaticn or disabil- 
ity, and the opinicr cf the district judge sitting with the 
supreme court shall have the satre effect as an opinion of a jus- 
tice. 

S-cticn a. DISTRICT CCDPT JUF ISEICTICK. (1) The district 
court has original jurisdicticn in all criteinal cases aBcurtirg 
to felony and all civil matters and cases at law and in equity. 
It may issue all writs appropriate to its jurisdiction. It shall 
have the power ct naturalization and such additional jurisdiction 
as may be delegated by the laws cf the United States or the state 
of Montana. Its process shall extend tc all parts of the state, 

(2) The district court shall hear appeals frcK inferior 
courts as trials anew unless otherwise provided by law. The 
legislature may provide for direct review by the district court 
of decisions cf administrative agencies, 

(3) Other courts may have jurisdiction of criminal cases 
net amounting to felony and such jurisdicticn concurrent with 



1062 EEFORT CF COWKITTEE CR SIIIE, EFAFIING 



that of tbt district ccurt as may t€ frovided by law. 

Section 5. JUSTICE? CI THE PEACE. (1) There shall te 
elect's'^ ii! each county at least ore justice of the peace with 
qualifications, training, and mcnthiy coispersaticn provided ty 
law. There shall be provided such facilities that they nay per- 
form thair diiti3S in dignified surrcurdings, 

(2) JuEtic? courts shall have such original jurisdiction as 
may be provided by law. Ihey shall not have trial jurisdiction in 
any criminal casc designated a felcry except as examining courts. 

(3) The legislature may provide for additional justices of 
the peace in each ccunty. 

Section fc. JUCICIAI DISTEICTS. (1) The legislature shall 
divide the state into judicial districts ar.d provide fcr the 
nuBber of judges in each district. Each district shall be fcrioed 
of corapac-*- territory and be bounded by ccunty lines. 

(2) The legislature may change the nuuter and boundaries of 
judicial districts and the number cf judges in each district, bat 
no change in boundaries or the number of districts or judges 
therein shall work, a removal of any judge frci office daring the 
term for which he was elected cr appointed. 

(3) The chief justice may, upon request of the district 
judge, assign district judges and other judges fcr temporary ser- 
vice from one district to another, and frci one county to 
another. 

Section 7. TEEMS ANE EAY. (1) All justices and judges shall 
be paid as provided by law, but salaries shall not be diminished 
during terms of office. 

(2) Terms of office shall be eight years fcr supreae court 
justices, SIX years fcr district court judges, four years for 
justices of the peace, and as provided by law for other judges. 

Section 8, SELECTICK. (1) The gcverrcr shall ncainate a re- 
placement froir rcirinees selected in the lanner provided ty law 
for any vacancy in the office cf supreme court justice cr dis- 
trict court judge. If the governor fails to nominate within 
thirty days after receipt cf nominees, the chief justice cr act- 
ing chief justice shall make the nomination. Each noKination 
shall be confirmed by the senate, hut a ncaination made while the 
senate is not in session shall te effective as an appointment 
until the end of the next session. If the noBinaticn is net con- 
firmed, the office shall be vacant and another selection ard nca- 
ination shall he made. 

(2) If, at the first election after senate ccnf irmaticn , 
and at the election before each succeeding tera of office, any 
candidate other than the incumbent justice or district judge 



Final Report 



1063 



files fcr electicr tc that office, the raire cf the ir.cuirbent 
shall be placed en the ballet. If there is no elscticn ccntest 
for ths offics, ths naaic cf the iDcunibent shall nevertheless be 
placed en the general -election ballet tc allow voters cf the 
state or district tc apprevs or reject his. If an incuicter.t is 
reject'^d, ancther selection and rcminaticr shall be iraie. 



ticn 



(3) If an incumbent 
for the ctfice. 



decs not run, there shall te an elec- 



Section 9. QU AIIFlCATICt; £ . (1) A citizen of the United 
States who has resided in the state twc years iairediately before 
taking office is eligible tc the office cf supreme court justice 
or district court judge if admitted tc the practice cf law in 
Montana for at least five years prior tc the date cf appointment 
or electicn. (qualifications and netbods cf selection cf judges cf 
other courts shall be provided by law. 

(2) :^o Eupr-^-me court justice cr district court judge shall 
solicit or receive coaopensat ion in any tcrir whatever en account 
of his office, except salary and actual necessary travel expense. 

(3) rxcopt as otherwise provided in this Ccnstit uticn, no 
supreire ccuit justice cr district court judge shall practice law 
during his term cf office, engage in any other etrplcyment for 
which salary or fee is paii, cr hold office in a political party. 

(U) Supreme court justices shall reside within the state. 
Every other judge shall reside during his terff cr office in the 
district, county, township, precinct, city cr town in which he is 
elected cr appointee. 

Section 1C. FORFEITURE Of JOEICIAI FCSIIICN. Jny holder cf 
a judicial position forfeits that position by either filing fcr 
an elective public office ether than a judicial position or 
absenting hiaiself from the state for more than 60 consecutive 
days. 

Section 11. REMOVAL AND DISCIPLINE. (1) The legislature 
shall create a judicial standards comirissicr cctsisting cf five 
persons and provide fcr the appointiEent thereto cf twc district 
judges, one attorney, and twc citizens who are neither judges nor 
attorneys. 

(2) The ccmmission shall investigate conplairts. Bake rules 
iaplemen ting this section, and keep its proceedings confidential. 
It may subpoena witnesses and dccuaents. 



(3) 

ccurt may; 



Open reccnniendatien cf the cenffissicn, the supreme 



(a) Retire any justice cr judge fcr disability that seri- 
ously interferes with the perfcrmance of his duties and is cr nay 
beccBie perisanent; cr 



1064 



REPCT^T CP CCffllTFE CN ZlYLl, ERAFTING 



(b) Censure, suspend, or remcv-d ar.y justice cr judge for 
willful misconduct in otficc, willful and persistent failure to 
perform his duties, or habitual inteir f erarce . 



Final Repctt 



1065 



ARTICLE VIII 
REVENUE AND FINANCE 



Section 1. TAX POEFCSES. Taxes shall tt levied by qereral 
laws fcr public purposes. 

Secticn 2. TAX POUER INALIENABLE. The pcwer tc tax shall 
never be surrendered, suspended, or contracted away. 

£'=ction 3. PROPERTY TAX ADKI M ST RATION . The state shall 
appraise, assess, and equalize the valuaticr cf all prcperty 
which is to be taxed in the wanner frcvided by law. 

Section 4. EQDAL VALUATICN. All taxing jurisdictions shall 
use the assessed va]uaticn cf property established by the state. 

Section ^. PROPERTY TAX EXEME1ICNS. (1) The legislature may 
exempt from taxation: 

(a) Prcptrty cf the United States, the state, counties, 
citi=>s, towns, school districts, irunicipal corporations, and 
public libraries, but any private interest in such prcperty cay 
be taxed separately. 

(b) Institutions cf purely public charity, hospitals and 
places of burial not used or held fcr private or corporate 
profit, places fcr actual religious worship, and property used 
exclusively for educational purposes. 

(c) Any ether classes of prcperty. 

{?) The legislature may authorize creation cf special 
improvement districts for capital ia prcveinen ts and the isainte- 
nance thereof. It luay authorize the assessner.t of charges for 
such improvements and maintenance against tax exempt property 
directly benefited thereby. 

Section b. HIGHWAY REVENUE NCN-DIVEFSTON. (1) Revenue from 
gross vehicle weight fees and excise and license taxes (except 
general sales and use taxes) on gasoline, fuel, and other energy 
sources used to propel vehicles or public highways shall be used 
as authorized by the legislature, after deduction cf statutory 
refunds and ad just ffents , solely fcr: 

(a) Payment of obligations incurred for construction, 
reconstruction, repair, operation, and naintenance cf public 
highways, streets, roads, and bridges. 

(b) Payment of county, city, and tcwr. ctligaticns en 
streets, roads, and bridges. 

(c) Enforcement of highway safety, driver education, tour- 



1066 



SFFCRT CF CCKMITTEE CN SlYLP, CFSFTING 



ist promot icri, and administrative ccllecticr ccsts. 

(2) Such revenue iray be ai-ficptiated fcr ether purposes by 
a thre^^-f if ths vet'? of the raemters cf each house ef the legis- 
lature . 

Section 7. TAX APPEALS. Ihe legislature shall provide inde- 
pendent appeal procedures fcr taxpayer grievarces atcut apprais- 
als, assessments, equalization, and taxes. The legislature shall 
include a review procedure at the local government unit level. 

S.^ctien 8. STATE EEBT. ^o state debt shall be created 
unless authorized by a two-thirds vote cf the uieirbers of each 
house cf the legislature or a icajcrity of the electors voting 
thereor. No state debt shall be created tc cover deficits incur- 
red because appropriations exceeded anticipated revenue. 



Section 
latur a shall 



9. BALANCEE EUCGET. Appropriations 
not exceed anticipated revenue. 



by the legis- 



Secticn 10. LOCAL GCVERNMZNT DEET. The legislature shall by 
law limit debts of counties, cities, tcwns, and all ether local 
gcver nirert al entities. 

Section 11. C£Z CF LOAN EHCCEECS. All ncney borrowed by or 
on behalf of the state or any county, city, town, or ether local 
governirertal entity shall be used only fcr purposes specified in 
the authcrizing law. 

section 12. STHICT ACCCUNTABILITTf . The legislature shall by 
law insure strict accountability cf all revenue received and 
money spent by th_^ state and counties, cities, tcwns, and all 
other local governirertal entities. 



Section 13. INV^iSIMENT OF PDEIIC FUNDS. (1) The legislature 
shall frcvile fcr a unified investment pregrai for public funds 
and provide rules therefor, including supervision ef investment 
of surplus funds of all counties, cities, tcwns, and other local 
governmental entities. 3ach fund fcriring a part of the unified 
investment program shall be separately identified. Except for 
monies contributed to retireirent funds, no public funds shall be 
invested in private corporate capital stock. The investment pro- 
gram shall be audited at least annually and a report thereof sub- 
mitted to the governor and legislature. 

(2) The public schocl fund and the permanent funds of the 
Montana university system and all ether state institutions ef 
learning shall be safely and conservatively invested in: 

(a) public securities cf the state, its subdivisions, local 
gcvernment units, and districts withir the state, or 

(b) bonds of the United States or other securities fully 
guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, or 



Final Report 



1067 



(c) 

interest 



such ether safe in ves tmonts tearing a fixed rate cf 
as tray he provided by law. 



Section 14. PROHIEnE£ PAYMENTS. Except tor interest on the 
public debt, no money shall be paid out cf the treasury urless 
upon an appropriation tcade by law ard a warrant drawn by the 
proper officer in pursuance thereof. 



1068 



REPUSl Cf CCK«ITTEE C ^i SlYIE, CFAFTING 



ARTICLE IX 
ENVlriONMhNI AND KfllCFfiL EESCUPCES 



Section 1. PROTECTION AND IPpecVEMENT. (1) The state and 
each person shall mair.taic and iirfrcv€ a clean and healthful 
anvironoit'Dt in ."cntaad for present and future generations. 



(2) Ihe legislature shall provide 
and enforce nun t cf this duty. 



for the administration 



(3) The legislature shall prcvide adequate refficdies fcr the 
protection of the envircnffiental life support system frcm degrada- 
tion and provide adequate remedieE to prevent unreasonable deple- 
tion and degradation of natural resources. 

Section 2. EECLAMATION. All lands disturbed by the taking 
cf natural resources shall be reclaimed. The legislature shall 
provide effective r-^guirements and standards for the reclaiaaticn 
of lands disturoed. 



Section 3. WAIEtt BIGHTS. 
of any waters for any useful c; 
recognized and confirmed. 



(1) All existing rights to the use 
bereficial purpose are hereby 



(2) The use cf all water that is new or aay hereafter be 
appropriated for sale, rent, distribution, cr other beneficial 
use, the right of way over the lands cf others fcr all ditches, 
drains, fluaits, canals, and agueducts necessarily used in connec- 
tion therewith, and th-9 sites fcr ressrvcirs necessary fcr col- 
lecting and storing water shall be held to be a public use, 

(3) All surface, undeigrcund , flood, and atmospheric waters 
within th^ boundaries of the state are th€ property of the state 
for the use cf its people and are subject to appropriation for 
beneficial uses as provid«=d by law. 

(U) The legislature shall ficvide fcr the adttiristraticr , 
control, and regulation cf water rights and shall establish a 
system of centralized records, in addition to the present system 
cf local records. 



Section U. CUITOHAL SESCUfiCES. The legislature shall pro- 
vide fcr the identification, acquisition, restoration, enhance- 
ment, preservation, and administration of scenic, historic, 
archeologic, scientific, cultural, and recreational areas, sites, 
records and objects, and for their use and enjoyment by the 
pecpl*^ . 



■inal Report 



1069 



ARTICIE X 
EDUCAIICK AND PDELIC LANES 



Section 1. ECUCAIION.M GOALS AND DUTIES. (1) It is the goal 
of th'^ peopl'^ to establish a system cf education which will 
develop th 3 full educational potential cf each person. Equality 
of educatiop.cl opportunity is guaranteed to each person of the 
state. 



(2) The state recognizes the distinct ard unique cultural 
heritage cf the Anericar. Indians and is ccuiritted in its educa- 
tional goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity. 

(3) The legislature shall provide a basic system cf free 
quality public eleEentary and secondary schools. The legislature 
aay provide such other educational institutions, public librar- 
ies, and educational prograais as it deems desirable. It shall 
fund and distribute in an equitable aianner to the school dis- 
tricts the state's share of the cost cf the basic elementary and 
secondary schccl system. 

Section 2. PUELIC SCHOOL FUND. The public schccl fund cf 
the state shall consist cf: 

(1) proceeds frois the schccl lands which have been cr oay 
hereafter be granted by the United States; 

(2) lands granted in lieu thereof; 

(3) lands given or granted ty any perscn or ccrpcraticn 
under any law cr grant cf the United States; 

(U) all ether grants of land cr ircney made froa the United 
States for general educational purposes cr without special pur- 
pose ; 

(5) All interests in estates that escheat to the state; 

(6) all unclaimed shares and dividerds cf any corporation 
incorporated in the state; 

(7) all other grants, gifts, devises or bequests Bade to 
the state fcr general educational purposes. 

Section 3. PUELIC SCHCCL POKE INVICIATE. The public schccl 
fund shall forever remain inviolate, guaracteed by the state 
against loss or diversion. 

Section U. BOARD CF LAND CCKHISSIONERS. The governor, 
superintendent cf public instruction, auditor, secretary of 
state, and attorney general constitute the board of land commi s- 



1070 



RIPCHT CF CCKKniEE CN STKLE, EFAFTIKG 



sioners. It has the autbcrity tc direct, control, lease, 
exchange, ana sell school lands and lands which have been cr may 
be granted for the sufjpcrt and benefit of the various state edu- 
cational institutions, ur.d-3r such regulations and restricticrs as 
may be provided ty law. 

Section b . PUBLIC SCHOOL fUNC REVENUE. (1) Ninety-five per- 
cent of all the interest received CD the public scfcccl futd and 
ninety-fiv- percent of all rent received froia the leasing of 
school lauds and all other income froir. the public school fund 
shall he -equitably appctticntd annually tc public elementary and 
secondary schocl districts as provided ty lavi. 

(2) Ihe remaining five percent of all interest received on 
the public school fund, and the remaining five percent of all 
rent received from the leasing of school lands and all ether 
income from the public schocl fund shall annually be added to the 
public school fund and become and forever reaair; an inseparable 
and inviolable part therect. 

Section 6. AID PRCHIBITEE 10 SECTAPIAN SCHCCIS. (1) The 
legislature, counties, cities, towns, school districts, and 
public corporations shall net make any direct cr indirect appro- 
priation or payiu-nt from any public fund or monies, or ary grant 
of lands or other property for any sectarian purpose or to aid 
any church, school, academy, seirinary, college, university, or 
other literary or scientific institution, controlled ir whcle cr 
in part by any church, sect, cr de rcffinaticn. 

(2) This section shall net apply to funds from federal 
sources provided to the state for the express purpose ct distri- 
buticn tc nor.-public education. 

Section 7. NCN-DTSCPIMIN ATICK If ECUCATICN. No religious cr 
partisan test or qualification shall be required of any teacher 
or student as a condition of admissicr into any public educa- 
tional institution. Attendance shall not be required at any reli- 
gious service. No sectarian tenets shall be advocated in any 
public educational institution of the state. No person shall be 
refused admission to any public educational institution on 
account of sex, race, creed, religion, political beliefs, cr 
national origin. 

Section 8. SCHOOL DISISICT TEtSTEES. The supervision and 
control cf schools in each school district shall be vested in a 
board of trustees to be elected as provided by law. 



Section 9. BOARDS CF EEUCATICN. (1) There is a state board 
of education composei of the board cf regents cf higher education 
and the board cf public education. It is respccsible for long- 
range planning, and for coordinating and evaluating policies and 
programs for the state's educational systems. It shall submit 
unified budget requests. A tie vote at any neeting may be broken 
by the governcr, who is an ex officio member cf each ccitpcnent 



Final Fepcrt 



1071 



beard. 

(2) (a) Ihe gcvernment and ccnttol of tte Hcr.tara ur.ivei- 
sity systein is vested in a tcard cf regents ct higher education 
which shall hava full power, responsibility, and authority to 
supervise, coordinate, nanage and control the Montana university 
systoai and shall supervise and coordinate other public educa- 
tional institutions assigned by law. 

(b) The board consists cf seven meipbers appointed by the 
governor, and confirmed by the senate, to overlapping teres, as 
provided by law. The governor and superintendent of public 
instruction are ex officio non-voting meaibers cf the board. 

(c) The board shall appoint a ccmmissicner of higher educa- 
tion and prescribe his terni and duties. 

(d) The funds and appropriations under the control of the 
board of regents are subject to the sawe audit provisicrs as are 
all other state funds. 

(3) (a) There is a board of public education to exercise 
general supervision ever the public school systeai and such ether 
public educational institutions as may be assigned by law. Other 
duties of the board shall be provided by law. 

(b) The board consists cf seven meaibers appointed by the 
governor, and confirmed by the senate, to overlapping terms as 
provided by law. The governor, comiDissicner cf higher education 
and state superintendent cf public instruction shall be ex 
officio non-voting Bembers cf the tcard. 

Section 10. STATE DNIVERSITY FDKDS. The funds cf the Mon- 
tana university systeni and of all ether state institutions of 
learning, from whatever source accruing, shall forever reaain 
inviolate and sacred to the purpose for which they were dedi- 
cated. The various funds shall be respectively invested under 
such regulations as may be provided by law, and shall be guaran- 
teed by the state against less or diversion. The interest frca 
such invested funds, together with the rent from leased lands or 
properties, shall be devoted to the maintenance and perpetuation 
of the respective institutions. 



Section 11. PUBLIC LAND TPOST, DISPOSITION. (1) All lands 



of the state that have been 
acquired by gift or grant 
tion, shall be public lands 
trust for the people, to 
for the respective purposes 
granted, donated or devised 



or Bay be 

or devise 

of the state. 

be disposed of 

for which they 



granted by congress, or 

from any person cr corpora— 

They shall be held in 

as hereafter provided, 

have been cr lay be 



(2) No such land cr any estate or interest therein shall 
ever be disposed of except in pursuance of general laws providing 
for such disposition, or until the full market value of the 



1072 



REPCRI CF COMMITTEE CN STYIE, CEAFTING 




Firal Report 



1073 



ARTICLE XI 
ICCAL GCVEFNMENT 



Section 1. DEFINITION. Th€ t 



rm 



"Iccal gcvermrect units" 



includes, but is net linit-ad tc, ccunties and inccrpcrated citie: 
and tcwns. Other local gov€rninent units iray fce established hy 
law . 



Section 2. CCUNTIES. The ccurties of th-5 state are those 
that exist en the date of ratification cf this Ccnstituticn. No 
county boundary nay te changed cr county seat transferred until 
approvod i:, y a [najority of these voting en the question in each 
county affectec^. 

S-cticn 3. rOR.IS OF GGVERNKEKT. (1) The legislature shall 
provide methods for governing Iccal gcv^rna^nt units and proce- 
dures for incorporating, classifying, lerging, consolidating, and 
dissolving such units, and altering their boundaries. The legis- 
lature shall provide such cpticnal cr alternative fcrms cf 
governDcent that each unit cr ccubinaticn of units may adopt, 
amend, cr abandon an optional or alternative fcm by a itajority 
of those voting en tae question. 

(2) One optional fcriti cf county gcvernnert includes, but is 
net limited tc, the election of three ccucty ccBirissicners, a 
clerk and recorder, a clerk cf district court, a county attorney, 
a sheriff, a treasurer, a surveyor, a county superintendent cf 
schools, an assessor, a coroner, and a public administrator. The 
terms, gualif icaticns, duties, and coirpensat i cr of those offices 
shall be provided by law. The board cf county ccmBDissicrers may 
consolidate two or ircre suck offices. The boards cf two or more 
ccunties may provide for a joint office ard fcr the election cf 
one official tc perform the duties cf any such office in those 
counties. 

Section a. GENEBAI PCWEFS. (1) A local qcvernaient unit 
without self— govern irent powers has the following general powers: 

(a) An incorporated city cr tcwn has the powers cf a 
iBunicipal ccrporaticn and legislative, administrative, and other 
powers provided cr iirplied by law. 

(b) A county has legislative, ad nti nistrati ve, and other 
powers provided cr implied by law. 



law. 



(c) ether Iccal gcvernment units have powers provided by 



(2) The powers of incorporated cities and towns and coun- 
ties shall be literally construed. 



1074 



KZFORT Cr CCKf-ITTEE CN S1YLE, CRAFTING 



S^ctior, 5. SEIf-GCVZRKMENT CHi^ETEES. (1) The legislature 
shall provide frcc^iures peraiittir.q a local gcwernireEt unit or 
combination of units to frame, adept, amend, revise, cr atandcn a 
sGlf-gcvrrnment charter with the affrcvdl cf a majority of those 
voting en the question. The picctdures shall not reguire approval 
of a charter by .i legislative tody, 

(2) If the legislature dees not provide such procedures by 
July 1, 1975, th-^y iray te established by election either: 

(a) Initiated by petition in the local government unit or 
combiraticn cf units; or 

(b) Called by the governing body of the local governiisent 
unit or comtinaticn of units. 

(3) Charter provisions establishing executive, legislative, 
and aduinistrative structure and organization are superior to 
statutory provisions. 

Section 6, SEIF-GC VERNMENT FCWEBS. A local government unit 
adopting a self-government charter may exercise any power not 
prohibited by this Constitution, lau, or charter. This grant of 
self-government powers niay be extended to other local government 
units through optional forms of govercirent provided for in 
section 3. 

Section 7. INTERGCVEBNKE NTAI CCCFEEATION. (1) Unless pro- 
hibited by law or charter, a local goverraert urit may: 

(a) cooperate in the exercise of any function, power, or 
responsibility with, 

(b) share the services of any officer or facilities with, 

(c) transfer or delegate any function, power, responsibil- 
ity, cr duty of any officer to one cr srcre cthei local government 
units, school districts, the state, cr the United States. 

(2) The qualified electors cf a local government unit may, 
by initiative or referecdum, require it to do so. 

Section 8. INITIATIVE AND EEFERENDDK. The legislature shall 
extend th^ initiative and referendUB powers reserved to the 
people by the Constitution to the qualified electors cf each 
local government unit. 



Section 9. VOTER REVIEW CE ICCAI GOVERNMENT. (1) The legis- 
lature shall, within four years of the ratification of this Con- 
stitution, provide procedures requiring each local government 
unit or combinition of units to review its structure and subsit 
one alternative fora of government to the qualified electors at 
the next general or special election. 



Final Report 



1075 



(2) 

(Very ten 



The legislature shall require a revi<^w procedure cnce 
years after the first electicn. 



1076 



fiEECEl CF CCMHITTEE CN STYLI, EKAFTING 



aPTIClF XII 
CFPAFTKEMS ANC IKSIIID'UONS 



Spctioii 1. AGFICULTUFF. (1) The legislature shall frcvide 
for a C-spar tm ii. t of Agriculture ar.d eract lavs and provide appro- 
priaticns tc protect, enhance, and develop all agriculture. 

(2) Sn<=cial levies may he made on livestock and on agricul- 
tural ccmraodi ties for disease ccrtrcl and indetanif ication, 
predator control, and livestock and ccBHicdity inspection, pro- 
tection, rc^search, and prorrcticn. Revenue derived shall te used 
solely for the purposes of the levies. 

Section 2. LAEOR. (1) The legislature shall prcvids for a 
Dapartirent of labcr and Industry, headed ty a CciriBissicner 
appointed by the governor and ccnfiried ty the senate. 

(2) A maximum period of 8 hours is a regular day's work in 
all industries and eirplcyirent except agriculture and stock 
raising. The legislature may change this ffaxiiucB period to pro- 
mote the general welf^r«=. 

Section 3. INSIITDTICNS ANC ASSISTANCE. (1) The state shall 
establish and support instituticrs and facilities as the public 
good may require, including homes which iray be necessary and 
desirable for the care cf veterans. 

(2) Persons ccflnnitted to any such institutions shall retain 
all rights except those necessarily suspended as a condition of 
connDitment . Suspended rights are restored upon termination of the 
state's responsibility . 

(3) The l^^gislature shall provide such eccncmic assistance 
and social and rehabilitative services as Bay be necessary for 
those inhabitants who, by reason of age, infirmities, or 
misfortune may have need for the aid cf society. 



irdl Fepcit 



1077 



ARTICLE XIII 
GEN55AI FFCVISICNS 



Section 1. NON-MUNICI EAL CCF PCF ATIC NS . 
ters shdll b^ grant^^d, wcdified, or dissolved 
general law. 



(1) Ccrporate char— 
only pursuant to 



(2) Th*^ I'f gis lritur€ shall prcvids jrctection and education 
tor ths ptr-ople agairst harmful and unfair practices by either 
for-iign or domestic ccrpcrat icns , individuals, or asscciaticns. 

(3) The ligisliture snail pass no law retrospective in its 
operations which iipcses en the people a new liability in respect 
to transactions or cansideraticr s already passed. 

Section ^. C0N3UMIF CCUtiSEL. The legislature shall provide 
for an office cf ccrsuicer counsel fchich shall have the duty of 
reprssenting consumer interests in hearings before the public 
service conimissicn or any other successor agency. The legislature 
shall provide for the funding of the office cf ccnsuner counsel 
by d special tax cr the net income cr gross revenues of regulated 
coBpanies. 

Section "> . SALARY COMMISSICN. The legislature shall create 
a salary comirission to r<^coa;iiiend ccapensaticn fcr the judiciary 
and elected cjomters of the legislative and executive branches. 

Section 4. CCEE Cf ETHICS, The legislature shall provide a 
code of ethics prohibiting ccrflict between public duty ard pri- 
vate interest fcr Dercbers cf the legislature and all state and 
local officers and employees. 

Section 5. ZXSMFTICN LAWS. The legislature shall enact lib- 
eral hcirestead and exemption laws. 

Section 6. PEPPETCITIES. No perpetuities shall be allowed 
except fcr charitable purposes. 



1078 REPGPT CF CCPMIIIEE CN STILE, CPAFTING 



fiFTICLE XIV 
CUNSTllUTIONAL PEVISICK 



Section 1. CONSTITDTICNAl CCNVENTICN. The legislature, ty 
dn affiripative vet-? of two-thirds cf all the members, whether one 
or incrG bodies, may at Any time submit tc the qualified electors 
the question of wh'^ther there shall be an unlimited Convention to 
revise, alter, cr amend this Constitution. 

Section 2. INITIATIVE EOF CCNST ITDT IC NA I CCNVEKTICN. (1) 
The [;-3C{;le may ty initiative petition direct the secretary of 
state tc submit to the qualified electors the question cf whether 
there shall le an unlimited Convention tc revise, alter, cr amend 
this Constitution. The petition shall t€ signed ty at least 10 
percent cf the qualified electors of the state. That number shall 
include at least 10 percent of the qualified electors in each of 
two-fifths of the legislative districts. 

(2) The secretary of state shall certify the filing cf the 
petition in his office and cause the question tc be submitted at 
the next general electicr. 

Section 3. PEFIODIC SUBMISSION. If th€ question cf holding 
a Convention is ret otherwise submitted during any period of 20 
years, it shall be submitted as provided by law at the general 
election in the twentieth year following the last submission. 

Section 4. CALL OF CCNVENTICN. If a najcrity of those 
voting en the question answer in the affirmativ€, the legislature 
shall provide for the calling thereof at its next session. The 
number of delegates to the Convention shall be the same as that 
of the larger body cf the legislature. The qualif icaticns cf del- 
egates shall be the same as the highest qualifications required 
for election to the legislature. The legislature shall determine 
whether the delegates may be nominated on a partisan or a nonpar- 
tisan basis. They shall be elected at the same places and in the 
same districts as are the members cf the legislative body deter— 
ainicg the number of delegates. 

Section 5. CCNVENTICN EXPENSES. The legislature shall, in 
the act calling the Convention, designate the day, hour, and 
place cf its meeting, and fix and provide fcr the pay cf its mei- 
ters and officers and the necessary expenses cf the Ccnvention. 

Section 6. OATH, VACANCIES, Before proceeding, th€ dele- 
gates shall tike the oath provided in this Ccrsti tuticn. Vacan- 
cies occuring shall be filled in the manner provided for filling 
vacancies in the legislature if not otherwise provided ty law. 

Section 7. CCNVENTICN EDTIES. The Ccnventicn shall meet 
after the election cf the delegates and prepare such revisions. 



Final Bepcrt 



1079 



alterations, 
necessary. Ih' 
ratif icat icn 



cr airendiner.ts tc the Ccnstituticn as may te deemed 
'y shall be suhaiitted tc the qualified electcrs fcr 

cr lejocticn as a iihcle cr in separat>s articles cr 
amendra-^n ts as d-t^rmined by the Ccnventicn at an election 
appointed by the Ccnventicn fcr that purpcss net less than two 
iBcnths aft-Dr adjournment. Onless sc submitted and approved ty a 
majority of the -electors voting theiecn, nc such revision, alter- 
ation, cr ainendment shall take effect. 



Fecticn H. AfiNCMENT BY lEGISLATIVE EZFEBENCUM. A nre rdiren ts 
to this Coustituticr iray L2 proposed ty any ueirber cf the legis- 
latur'^. Tf adopted by an affirtDative rcll call vote cf two-thirds 
of all th^ memters thereof, whether one cr mere bodies, the pro- 
posed aorendnient shall be tutifiitted tc the qualified electors at 
the next ijeLeral electior. If approved ty a niajcrity cf the elec- 
tcrs voting ther-^cn, the a aerdnent shall become a part of this 
Constitution o:: the first day cf July after certification cf the 
■election returns unless the aoEendaient provides otherwise. 

Section 9. AMENDfCENl BY IMlIfillVE. (1) The people say also 
propose Ccnstituticnal aroendments ty iritiative. Petitions 
including the full text cf the proposed auendnert shall be signed 
by at least 10 percent of the qualified electors cf the state. 
That nunih5r shall include at least 10 percent of the qualified 
electors in each cf two-fifths of the legislative districts. 



(2) The p-ititions shall be 
state. If the petitiocs are 
required rutnter of electcrs, the 
the amendment to be published as 



filed with the secretary cf 
found tc have teen signed by the 
secretary of state shall cause 
provided by law twice each ironth 



for two months previous tc the next regular state-wide election. 



(3) At that election, the proposed anendirent shall te sub- 
mitted to the qualified electcrs fcr approval cr rejection. If 
approved by a majority voting thereon, it shall becoire a part of 
the Constitution effective the first day of July following its 
approval, unless the ameiidrnent provides otherwise. 

Section 1 >: . FhTIIICN SIGNERS. The number cf qualified elec- 
tors required fcr the filing cf any petition provided fcr in this 
Article shall be determined ty the number cf votes cast for the 
office of gov-^rncr in the preceding general election. 



Section 11. SL13MISSICN. If ncre than one amendment is sub- 
mitted at the same election, each shall be so prepared and 
distinguished that it can te voted upon separately. 



1080 



PEFCKT CF CCMJ'I'IIil CS S1\1l, tRAfTIKG 



ADCEIICN SCHEtULZ 



These Schedule provisions arc part cf this Ccnstituticc crly 
for the lirait'-~d purposes cf deteriririrg whether this Constitution 
has been idopted, determining what charges result frcin the vote 
on each of the separately submitted issues, and establishicg the 
general effective date cf this Ccnstituticn. No prcvisicr cf this 
Schedule snail te published unless it beccmes part of the Consti- 
tuticr as the result of the adoption of a separately submitted 
pre visicn. 

£ecticn_J. This Corstit uticn , if approved by the electors 
as provided by the Ccnstituticn of 1889, shall take effect en 
July 1, 197?, except as otherwise provided in sections 1 and 2 of 
the Iransiticn Schedule. The Ccnstituticn cf 1869, as amended, 
shall thereafter be cf no effect. 

S^ction_2. (1) If separate issue 2A ccncerning the unicam- 
eral fortr of the legislature is approved by the electors and if 
the proposed Constitution is approved by the electors, ther: 

(a) There shall be deleted freir ARTICLE V, THE LEGISIATOBE, 
that portion which concerns the bicameral fcra, 

(b) The words "cf each house" are deleted frcit subsection 
(2) cf section 6 and from section 8, flFTICLE VIII, REVEKOE AND 
FINANCE. 

(c) The word "legislature" is substituted for "serate" in 
subsections (1), (2), and {U) of section 8, ARIICLE VI, THE 
EXECUTIVE, and in subsections (1) and (2) cf section 8, ARTICIE 
VII, THE JDDICIABY. 

(2) If separate issue 2B concerning the bicameral fcric of 
the legislature is approved by the electors acd if the proposed 
Constitution is approved by the electors, then there shall be 
deleted frooi ARTICLE V, IHE LEGISLATURE, that portion which con- 
cerns the unicameral form. 

5§ction_3. If separate issue 3A is approved by the electors 
and if the proposed Constitution is approved by the electors, 
then there shall be added to section 26, ARTICLE II, EECLARATICN 
OF RIGHTS, the following sentence: "Eeath shall n :t be prescribed 
as a penalty for any crime against the state." And there shall be 
deleted from section 21 of tne same ARTICLE the fcllcwing: ", 
except for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the 
presumption great". 



Sg£tion_4. (1) If separate issue UA is approved by the elec- 
tors and if the proposed Constitution is approved by the e.T.ec- 
tors, then there shall be deleted frcB APIICLE III, GENEPAI 
GOVEBNEENT: "Section 1C. GAfSELING. All ferifis cf gaffbling. 



Final Beport 



1081 



lotteries, ar.d gift interprises are pichibited." 

(2) I£ sefdiatG issu? UE is approved by th-? electors ard if 
the prcpcsed Ccnstit ut icr. is approved by the electors, then there 
shall be deleted frcm ARTICLE Til, GENiFflL GCVERNHENT: "Section 
10. GAKELING. All fcrras ct gantling, lotteries, and gift enter- 
prises ar-3 prohibited unless authorized by acts of the legis- 
latur-j or by the people through initiative or ref erendun. " 



1082 



REPCKT CF CCMKITTEE C K S1Y1E, CBAFTING 



TtANSIIICN SCHfEUlE 



The following provisions shall reiidir part c£ this Ccr.stitu— 
tion until th^-^ir terirs have teen ejecuted. Cr.ce each year the 
attorney y-?n-:?ral shall ravi^w the fcllc«ing provisicrs and cer- 
tify to th^ secr€t-iry ct state iihich, if any, have fcesn executed. 
Any prcvisior.s sc certified shall thereafter fce rerrcved frcn; this 
Schedule and no Icrger futlished as part cf this Ccnsti tuticn. 

Section 1. accelerated Effective Late 

S.?cticn 2. Delayed Effective Late 

Section 3. Frcspective Cperaticn cf Ceclara*-icn cf Fights 

Secticn ^. Terms of Judiciary 

Section 5. T^rms of Legislators 

Section 6. General Trans it icr 

2€ctiori_J. ACCFLEkATED EFEECTIVE LATE. Section 14 (CISTFId- 
ING and" APIORTIONMENT) cf Article V, THE LEGISLATURE, shall te 
effective January 1, 1973. 

Secticn_2. DEIAYEL EFEECTIVE DATE. The provisicrs cf sec- 
tions 1~ 2, and 3 of ARTICLE V, LEGISLATURE, shall not fceccite 
effective until the date the first red istrictirg and reappcrtion- 
aent plan bee cm is law. 

^ection_3. PECSPECTIVE CEEPATICN CE DECIARATICN CE BIGHTS. 
Any rights, procedural or substantive, created for the first tiae 
by Article II shall be prospective and not retroactive. 

S?cticn_4. TtRMS CE JUDICIARY. Supreme ccurt justices, dis- 
trict court judges, and justices of the peace holding office hhen 
this Constitution becomes effective shall serve the teras fcr 
which they were elected or appcirted. 

5ecticn_5. TERMS Ci- LEGISIATCES, (1) Ihe terms of all 
legislators elected before the effective date of this Ccnstita- 
tion shall end on December 31 of the year in which the first 
redistrict ing ard reappcrticnrent plan beccnes law. 

(2) The senators first elected under this Constitution 
shall draw lets to establish a term of twc years fcr cce-half cf 
their nuffber. 

Siction_6. GENERAL TRANSIIION. (1) The rights and duties of 
all public bodies shall remain as if this Ccrstitution had not 



Final Report 



1083 



been adopted with the excepticn cf such changes as are ccrtained 
in this Corstitutica. All laws, crdinances, rc-gulaticr.s, and 
rules cf court net contrary to, or inconsistent with, the provi- 
sions of this Constitution shall remain in force, until thsy 
shall expire ty th^ir own liiritaticn or shall te altered or 
repealed pursuant to this Constitution. 

(2) The validity of all public and private tends, detts, 
and contracts, and cf all suits, actions, and rights of action, 
shall continue as if no chanqe had taken place. 



(1) All officers filling any office ty election or appcirt- 
Bient shall continue the duties thereof, until their offices shall 
have been abolished or their successors selected and qualified in 
accordance with this Constitution or laws enacted pursuant 
thereto. 



1084 



REPORT CF CC^;^!I115F CN STSLE, IRAFTING 



CfFICIi^L EALLCT 

IiISlIJJcticn£_tc_ voters: Place an "X" in the boxes hhich 
express your prater f:uces . Ihe full text cf the prcpo^ed Con- 
stitution and th'-: separate prcpcsitic r.s are availatle for 
inspection at ycur felling place. 



YCU SHCULD VCIE ^ TIKES 



(Vote for cne) 



£ZZ7 '"^^ 't-^^ proposed Ccnstit uticn , 



/ / '\qain;it tli^ frofCS'^d Ccnstituticr. , 



(Vote icr ore) 



Z__/ 



2\, For a unicameral legislature (1 house). 



/_ / 2e. For a bicameral legislature (2 houses) 

(Vote for one) 
£ZI7 3A. For abolishing the death penalty. 



I / 3E. Against abolishing the death penalty. 



Fir. al Sepcrt 



1085 



(Vote tcr cr.°) 

lZZ7 '-'-• fc- allowing the legislature ct the people tc 

authorize gamtling. 



£ZI7 '*P« Against allcwirg the legislature cr the people tc 
authorize gairtling. 



1087 

The 

CONSTITUTION 

of the 

STATE OF MONTANA 

PREAMBLE 

We the people of Montana grateful to God for the quiet beauty of our state, the grandeur of 
our mountains, the vastness of our rolling plains, and desiring to improve the quality of 
life, equality of opportunity and to secure the blessings of liberty for this and future 
generations do ordain and establish this constitution. 



ARTICLE I 
COMPACT WITH THE UNITED STATES 

All provisions of the enabling act of Congress (approved February 22, 1889, 25 Stat. 676), as 
amended and of Ordinance No. 1, appended to the Constitution of the state of Montana and 
approved February 22, 1889, including the agreement and declaration that all lands owned or held 
by any Indian or Indian tribes shall remain under the absolute jurisdiction and control of the 
congress of the United States, continue in full force and effect until revoked by the consent of the 
United States and the people of Montana. 



ARTICLE II 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS 

Section 1. POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY. All political power is vested in and derived 
from the people. All government of right originates with the people, is founded upon their will only, 
and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Section 2. SELF-GOVERNMENT. The people have the exclusive right of governing 
themselves as a free, sovereign, and independent state. They may alter or abolish the constitution 
and form of government whenever they deem it necessary. 

Section 3. INALIENABLE RIGHTS. All persons are born free and have certain in- 
alienable rights. They include the right to a clean and healthful environment and the rights of 
pursuing life's basic necessities, enjoying and defending their lives and liberties, acquiring, 
possessing and protecting property, and seeking their safety, health and happiness in all lawful 
ways. In enjoying these rights, all persons recognize corresponding responsibilities. 

Section 4. INDIVIDUAL DIGNITY. The dignity of the human being is inviolable. 
No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws. Neither the state nor any person, firm, 
corporation, or institution shall disciiminate against any person in the exercise of his civil or 
political rights on account of race, color, sex, culture, social origin or condition, or political or 
religious ideas. 

Section 5. FREEDOM OF RELIGION. The state shall make no law respecting an 
establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. 

Section 6. FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY. The people shall have the right peaceably 
to assemble, petition for redress or peaceably protest governmental action. 

Section 7. FREEDOM OF SPEECH, EXPRESSION, AND PRESS. No law 

shall be passed impairing the freedom of speech or expression. Every person shall be free to speak 
or publish whatever he will on any subject, being responsible for all abuse of that liberty. In all 
suits and prosecutions for libel or slander the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and the jury, 
under the direction of the court, shall determine the law and the facts. 



1088 

Section 8. RKJHT OF PARTICIPATION. The public has the right to expect 
governmental agencies to afford such reasonable opportunity for citizen participation in the 
operation of the agencies prior to the final decision as may be provided by law. 

Section 9. RKiHT TO KNOW. No person shall be deprived of the right to examine 
documents or to observe the deliberations of all public bodies or agencies of state government and 
its subdivisions, except in cases in which the demand of individual privacy clearly exceeds the 
merits of public disclosure. 

Section 10. RIGHT OF PRIVACY. The rightof individual privacyisessential to the 
well-being of a free society and shall not be infringed without the showing of a compelling state 
interest. 

Section 11. SEARCHES AND SEIZURES. The people shall be secure in their 
persons, papers, homes and effects from unreasonable searches and seizures. No warrant to search 
any place, or seize any person or thing shall issue without describing the place to be searched 
or the person or thing to be seized, or without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation 
reduced to writing. 

Section 12. RKJHT TO BEAR ARMS. The right of any person to keep or bear arms 
in defense of his own home, person, and property, or in aid of the civil power when thereto legally 
summoned, shall not be called in question, but nothing herein contained shall be held to permit the 
carrying of concealed weapons. 

Section 13. RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE. All elections shall be free and open, and no 
power, civil or military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the right of 
suffrage. 

Section 14. ADULT RIGHTS. A person 18 years of age or older is an adult for all 
purposes. 

Section 15. RIGHTS OF PERSONS NOT ADULTS. Therightsof persons under 18 
years of age shall include, but not be limited to, all the fundamental rights of this Article unless 
specifically precluded by laws which enhance the protection of such persons. 

Section 16. THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. Courts of justice shall be 
open to every person, and speedy remedy afforded for every injury of person, property, or 
character. No person shall be deprived of this full legal redress for injury incurred in employment 
for which another person may be liable except as to fellow employees and his immediate employer 
who hired him if such immediate employer provides coverage under the Workmen's Compensation 
Laws of this state. Right and justice shall be administered without sale, denial, or delay. 

Section 17. DUE PROCESS OF LAW. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or 
property without due process of law. 

Section 18. STATE SUBJECT TO SUIT. The state, counties, cities, towns, and all 
other local governmental entities shall have no immunity from suit for injury to a person or 
property. This provision shall apply only to causes of action arising after July 1, 1973. 

Section 19. HABEAS CORPUS. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall 
never be suspended. 

Section 20. INITIATION OF PROCEEDINGS. (1) Criminal offenses within the 
jurisdiction of any court inferior to the district court shall be prosecuted by complaint. All criminal 
actions in district court, except those on appeal, shall be prosecuted either by information, after 
examination and commitment by a magistrate or after leave granted by the court, or by indictment 
without such examination, commitment or leave. 

(2) A grand jury shall consist of eleven persons, of whom eight must concur to find an in- 
dictment. A grand jury shall be drawn and summoned only at the discretion and order of the 
district judge. 

Section 21. BAIL. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for 
capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the presumption great. 

Section 22. EXCESSIVE SANCTIONS. Excessive bail shall not be required, or 
excessive fines imposed, or cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 



1089 

Section 23. DETENTION. No person shall be imprisoned for the purpose of securing 
his testimony in any criminal proceeding longer than may be necessary in order to take his 
deposition. If he can give security for his appearance at the time of trial, he shall be discharged 
upon giving the same; if he cannot give security, his deposition shall be taken in the manner 
provided by law, and in the presence of the accused and his counsel, or without their presence, if 
they shall fail to attend the examination after reasonable notice of the time and place thereof. 

Section 24. RIGHTS OE THE ACCUSED. In all criminal prosecutions the accused 
shall have the right to appear and defend in person and by counsel; to demand the nature and 
cause of the accusation; to meet the witnesses against him face to face; to have process to compel 
the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the 
county or district in which the offense is alleged to have been committed, subject to the right of the 
state to have a change of venue for any of the causes for which the defendant may ol)lain the same. 

Section 25. SELF-INCRIMINATION AND DOUBLE JEOPARDY. No person 
shall be compelled to testify against himself in a criminal proceeding. No person shall be again put 
in jeopardy for the same offense previously tried in any jurisdiction. 

Section 26. TRIAL BY JURY. The right of trial by jury is secured to all and shall 
remain inviolate. But upon default of appearance or by consent of the parties expressed in such 
manner as the law may provide, all cases may be tried without a jury or before fewer than the 
number of jurors provided by law. In all civil actions, two-thirds of the jury may render a verdict, 
and a verdict so rendered shall have the same force and effect as if all had concurred therein. In 
all criminal actions, the verdict shall be unanimous. 

Section 27. IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT. No person shall be imprisoned for debt 
except in the manner provided by law, upon refusal to deliver up his estate for the benefit of his 
creditors, or in cases of tort, where there is strong presumption of fraud. 

Section 28. RIGHTS OF THE CONVICTED. Laws for the punishment of crime 
shall be founded on the principles of prevention and reformation. Full rights are restored by 
termination of state supervision for any offense against the state. 

Section 29. EMINENT DOMAIN. Private property shall not be taken or damaged 
for public use without just compensation to the full extent of the loss having been first made to or 
paid into court for the owner. In the event of litigation, just compensation shall include necessary 
expenses of litigation to be awarded by the court when the private property owner prevails. 

Section 30. TREASON AND DESCENT OF ESTATES. Treason against the state 
shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and 
comfort; no person shall be convicted of treason except on the testimony of two witnesses to the 
same overt act, or on his confession in open court; no person shall be attainted of treason or felony 
by the legislature; no conviction shall cause the loss of property to the relatives or heirs of the 
convicted. The estates of suicides shall descend or vest as in cases of natural death. 

Section 31. EX POST FACTO, OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS, AND 

IRREVOCABLE PRIVILEGES. No ex post facto law nor any law impairing the obligation of 
contracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special privileges, franchises, or immunities, shall 
be passed by the legislature. 

Section 32. CIVILIAN CONTROL OF THE MILITARY. The military shall 
always be in strict subordination to the civil power; nosoldier shall in time of peace be quartered in 
any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except in the manner provided by 
law. 

Section 33. IMPORTATION OF ARMED PERSONS. No armed person or persons 
or armed body of men shall be brought into this state for the preservation of the peace, or the 
suppression of domestic violence, except upon the application of the legislature, or of the governor 
when the legislature cannot be convened. 

Section 34. UNENUMERATED RIGHTS. The enumeration in this constitution of 
certain rights shall not be construed to deny, impair, or disparage others retained by the people. 



1090 

Section 35. SERVICEMEN, SERVICEWOMEN, AND VETERANS. The people 
declare that Montana servicemen, servicewomen, and veterans may be given special 
considerations determined by the legislature. 



ARTICLE III 
GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Section 1. SEPARATION OE POWERS. The power of the government of this state 
is divided into three distinct branches — legislative, executive, and judicial. No person or persons 
charged with the exercise of power properly belonging to one branch shall exercise any power 
properly belonging to either of the others, except as in this constitution expressly directed or 
permitted. 

Section 2. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT. The seat of government shall be in 
Helena, except during periods of emergency resulting from disasters or enemy attack. The 
legislature may enact laws to insure the continuity of government during a period of emergency 
without regard for other provisions of the constitution. They shall be effective only during the 
period of emergency that affects a particular office or governmental operation. 

Section 3. OATH OF OFFICE. Members of the legislature and all executive, 
ministerial and judicial officers, shall take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation, before 
they enter upon the duties of their offices: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support, 
protect and defend the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of 
Montana, and that I will discharge the duties of my office with fidelity (so help me God)." No other 
oath, declaration, or test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust. 

Section 4. INITIATIVE. (1) The people may enact laws by initiative on all matters 
except appropriations of money and local or special laws. 

(2) Initiative petitions must contain the full text of the proposed measure, shall be signed 
by at least five percent of the qualified electors in each of at least one-third of the legislative 
representative districts and the total number of signers must be at least five percent of the total 
qualified electors of the state. Petitions shall be filed with the secretary of state at least three 
months prior to the election at which the measure will be voted upon. 

(3) The sufficiency of the initiative petition shall not be questioned after the election is 
held. 

Section 5. REFERENDUM. (1) The people may approve or reject by referendum any 
act of the legislature except an appropriation of money. A referendum shall be held either upon 
order by the legislature or upon petition signed by at least five percent of the qualified electors in 
each of at least one-third of the legislative representative districts. The total number of signers 
must be at least five percent of the qualified electors of the state. A referendum petition shall be 
filed with the secretary of state no later than six months after adjournment of the legislature which 
passed the act. 

(2) An act referred to the people is in effect until suspended by petitions signed by at least 
15 percent of the qualified electors in a majority of the legislative representative districts. If so 
suspended the act shall become operative only after it is approved at an election, the result of which 
has been determined and declared as provided by law. 

Section 6. ELECTIONS. The people shall vote on initiative and referendum 
measures at the general election unless the legislature orders a special election. 

Section 7. NUMBER OF ELECTORS. The number of qualified electors required in 
each legislative representative district and in the state shall be determined by the number of votes 
cast for the office of governor in the preceding general election. 

Section 8. PROHIBITION. The provisions of this Article do not apply to 
CONSTITUTIONAL REVISION, Article XIV. 

Section 9. GAMBLING. All forms of gambling, lotteries, and gift enterprises are 
prohibited. 



1091 

ARTICLE IV 
SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONS 

Section 1. BALLOT. All elections by the people shall be by secret ballot. 

Section 2. QUALIFIED KLECTOR. Any citizen of the LInited States ISyearsofage 
or older who meets the registration and residence requirements provided by law is a qualil'ied 
elector unless he is serving a sentence tor a felony in a penal institution or is of unsound mind, as 
determined by a court. 

Section 3. ELECTIONS. The legislature shall provide by law the requirements for 
residence, registration, absentee voting, and administration of elections. It may provide for a 
system of poll booth registration, and shall insure the purity of elections and guard against abuses 
of the electoral process. 

Section 4. ELIGIBILITY FOR PUBLIC OFFICE. Any qualified elector is eligible 
to any public office except as otherwise provided in this constitution. The legislature may provide 
additional qualifications but no person convicted of a felony shall be eligible to hold office until his 
final discharge from state supervision. 

Section 5. RESULT OF ELECTIONS. In all elections held by the people, the person 
or persons receiving the largest number of votes shall be declared elected. 

Section 6. PRIVILEGE FROM ARREST. A qualified elector is privileged from 
arrest at polling places and in going to and returning therefrom, unless apprehended in the 
commission of a felony or a breach of the peace. 



ARTICLE V 
THE LEGISLATURE 

Section 1. POWER AND STRUCTURE. The legislative power is vested in a legis- 
lature consisting of a senate and a house of representatives. The people reserve to themselves the 
powers of initiative and referendum. 

Section 2. SIZE. The size of the legislature shall be provided by law, but the senate 
shall not have more than 50 or fewer than 40 members and the house shall not have more than 100 
or fewer than 80 members. 

Section 3. ELECTION AND TERMS. A member of the house of representatives 
shall be elected for a term of two years and a member of the senate for a term of four years each to 
begin on a date provided by law. One-half of the senators shall be elected every two years. 

Section 4. QUALIFICATIONS. A candidate for the legislature shall be a resident of 
the state for at least one year next preceding the genera! election. For six months next preceding 
the general election, he shall be a resident of the county if it contains one or more districts or of the 
district if it contains all or parts of more than one county. 

Section 5. COMPENSATION. Each member of the legislature shall receive 
compensation for his services and allowances provided by law. No legislature may fix its own 
compensation. 

Section 6. SESSIONS. The legislature shall be a continuous body for two-year 
periods beginning when newly elected members take office. Any business, bill, or resolution 
pending at adjournment of a session shall carry over with the same status to any other session of 
the legislature during the biennium. The legislature shall meet at least once a year in regular 
session of not more than 60 legislative days. Any legislature may increase the limit on the length of 
any subsequent session. The legislature may be convened in special sessions by the governor or at 
the written request of a majority of the members. 

Section 7. VACANCIES. A vacancy in the legislature shall be filled by special 
election for the unexpired term unless otherwise provided by law. 



1092 

Section 8. IMMUNITY. A member of the legislature is privileged from arrest during 
attendance at sessions of the legislature and in going to and returning therefrom, unless 
apprehended in the commission of a felony or a breach of the peace. He shall not be questioned in 
any other place for any speech or debate in the legislature. 

Section 9. DISQUALIFICATION. No member of the legislature shall, during the 
term for which he shall have been elected, he appointed to any civil office under the state; and no 
member of congress, or other person holding an office (except notary public, or the militia) under 
the United States or this state, shall be a member of the legislature during his continuance in 
office. 

Section 10. ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURE. (1) Each house shall judge 
the election and qualifications of its members. It may bylaw vest in the courts the power to try and 
determine contested elections. p]ach house shall choose its officers from among its members, keep a 
journal, and make rules for its proceedings. Each house may expel or punish a member for good 
cause shown with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its members. 

(2 1 A majority of each house constitutes a quorum. A smaller number may adjourn from 
day to day and compel attendance of absent members. 

{'■]) The sessions of the legislature and of the committee of the whole, all committee meet- 
ings, and all hearings shall be open to the public. 

(4) The legislature may establish a legislative council and other interim committees. The 
legislature shall establish a legislative post-audit committee which shall supervise post-auditing 
duties i)rovided by law. 

(5) Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn or recess for more than 
three days or to any place other than that in which the two houses are sitting. 

Section 11. BILLS. (1) A law shall be passed by bill which shall not be so altered or 
amended on its passage through the legislature as to change its original purpose. No bill shall 
become law except by a vote of the majority of all members present and voting. 

(2) Every vote of each member of the legislature on each substantive question in the legis- 
islature, in any committee, or in committee of the whole shall be recorded and made public. On 
final passage, the vote shall be taken by ayes and noes and the names entered on the journal. 

(3) Each bill, except general appropriation bills and bills for the codification and general 
revision of the laws, shall contain only one subject, clearly expressed in its title. If any subject is 
embraced in any act and is not expressed in the title, only so much of the act not so expressed is 
void. 

(4) A general appropriation bill shall contain only appropriations for the ordinary 
expenses of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, for interest on the public debt, and for 
public schools. Every other appropriation shall be made by a separate bill, containing but one 
subject. 

(5) No appropriation shall be made for religious, charitable, industrial, educational, or 
benevolent purposes to any private individual, private association, or private corporation not 
under control of the state. 

(6) A law may be challenged on the ground of noncompliance with this section only 
within two years after its effective date. 

Section 12. LOCAL AND SPECIAL LEGISLATION. The legislature shall not 
pass a special or local act when a general act is, or can be made, applicable. 

Section 13. IMPEACHMENT. (1) The governor, executive officers, heads of state 
departments, judicial officers, and such other officers as may be provided by law are subject to 
impeachment, and upon conviction shall be removed from office. Other proceedings for removal 
from public office for cause may be provided by law. 

(2) The legislature shall provide for the manner, procedure, and causes for impeachment 
and may select the senate as tribunal. 

(3) Impeachment shall be brought only by a two-thirds vote of the house. The tribunal 
hearing the charges shall convict only by a vote of two-thirds or more of its members. 

(4) Conviction shall extend only to removal from office, but the party, whether convicted 
or acquitted, shall also be liable to prosecution according to law. 

Section 14. DISTRICTING AND APPORTIONMENT. (1) The state shall be 
divided into as many districts as there are members of the house, and each district shall elect one 



1093 

representative. Each senate district shall he composed of two adjoining house districts, and shall 
elect one senator. Each district shall consist otcompact and contiguous territory. All districts shall 
be as nearly equal in population as is practicable. 

(2) In the legislative session following ratification of this constitution and thereafter in 
each session preceding each federal population census, a commission of five citizens, none of 
whom may he public officials, shall be selected to prepare a plan for redistricting and 
reapportioning the state into legislative and congressional districts. The majority and minority 
leaders of each house shall each designate one commissioner. Within 2U days after their 
designation, the four commissioners shall select the fifth member, who shall serve as chairman of 
the commission. If the four members fail to select the fifth member within the time prescribed, a 
majority of the supreme court shall select him. 

(3) The commission shall submit its plan to the legislature at the first regular session 
after its appointment or after the census figures are available. Within 30 days after submission, 
the legislature shall return the plan to the commission with its recommendations. Within 30 days 
thereafter, the commission shall file its final plan with the secretary of state and it shall become 
law. The commission is then dissolved. 



ARTICLE VI 
THE EXECUTIVE 

Section 1. OFFICERS. (1) The executive branch includes a governor, lieutenant 
governor, secretary of state, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction, and auditor. 

(2) Each holds office for a term of four years which begins on the first Monday of January 
next succeeding election, and until a successor is elected and qualified. 

(3) Each shall reside at the seat of government, there keep the public records of hisoffice, 
and perform such other duties as are provided in this constitution and by law. 

Section 2. ELECTION. (1) The governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, 
attorney general, superintendent of public instruction, and auditor shall be elected by the qualified 
electors at a general election provided by law. 

(2) Each candidate for governor shall file jointly with a candidate for lieutenant governor 
in primary elections, or so otherwise comply with nomination procedures provided by law that the 
offices of governor and lieutenant governor are voted upon together in primary and general 
elections. 

Section 3. QUALIFICATIONS. (1) No person shall be eligible to the office of 
governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney general, superintendent of public 
instruction, or auditor unless he is 25 years of age or older at the time of his election. In addition, 
each shall be a citizen of the United States who has resided within the state two years next 
preceding his election. 

(2) Any person with the foregoing qualifications is eligible to the office of attorney 
general if an attorney in good standing admitted to practice law in Montana who has engaged in 
the active practice thereof for at least five years before election. 

(3) The superintendent of public instruction shall have such educational qualifications 
as are provided by law. 

Section 4. DUTIES. (I) The executive power is vested in the governor who shall see 
that the laws are faithfully executed. He shall have such other duties as are provided in this 
constitution and by law. 

(2) The lieutenant governor shall perform the duties provided by law and those delegated 
to him by the governor. No power specifically vested in the governor by this constitution may be 
delegated to the lieutenant governor. 

(3) The secretary of state shall maintain official records of the executive branch and of the 
acts of the legislature, as provided by law. He shall keep the great seal ofthe state of Montana and 
perform any other duties provided by law. 

(4) The attorney general is the legal officer of the state and shall have the duties and 
powers provided by law. 

(5) The superintendent of public instruction and the auditor shall have such duties as are 
provided by law. 



1094 

Section 5. COMPENSATION. (1) Officers of the executive branch shall receive 
salaries provided by law. 

(2) During his term, no elected officer of the executive branch may hold another public 
office or receive compensation for services from any other governmental agency. He may be a 
candidate for any public office during his term. 

Section 6. VACANCY IN OFFICE. (1) If the office of lieutenant governor becomes 
vacant by his succession to the office of governor, or by his death, resignation, or disability as 
determined by law, the governor shall appoint a qualified person to serve in that office for the 
remainder of the term. If both the elected governor and the elected lieutenant governor become 
unable to serve in the office of governor, succession to the respective offices shall be as provided by 
law for the period until the next general election. Then, a governor and lieutenant governor shall 
be elected to fill the remainder of the original term. 

(2) If the office of secretary of state, attorney general, auditor, or superintendent of public 
instruction becomes vacant by death, resignation, or disability as determined by law, the governor 
shall appoint a qualified person to serve in that office until the next general election and until a 
successor is elected and qualified. The person elected to fill a vacancy shall hold the office until the 
expiration of the term for which his predecessor was elected. 

Section 7. 20 DEPARTMENTS. All executive and administrative offices, boards, 
bureaus, commissions, agencies and instrumentalities of the executive branch (except for the 
office of governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney general, superintendent of 
public instruction, and auditor) and their respective functions, powers, and duties, shall be 
allocated by law among not more than 20 principal departments so as to provide an orderly 
arrangement in the administrative organization of state government. Temporary commissions 
may be established by law and need not be allocated within a department. 

Section 8. APPOINTING POWER. (1) The departments provided for in section 7 
shall be under the supervision of the governor. Except as otherwise provided in this constitution or 
by law, each department shall be headed by a single executive appointed by the governor subject to 
confirmation by the senate to hold office until the end of the governor's term unless sooner 
removed by the governor. 

(2) The governor shall appoint, subject to confirmation by the senate, all officers provided 
for in this constitution or by law whose appointment or election is not otherwise provided for. They 
shall hold office until the end of the governor's term unless sooner removed by the governor. 

(;5) If a vacancy occurs in any such office when the legislature is not in session, the 
governor shall appoint a qualified person to discharge the duties thereof until the office is filled by 
appointment and confirmation. 

(4) A person not confirmed by the senate for an office shall not, except at its request, be 
nominated again for that office at the same session, or be appointed to that office when the 
legislature is not in session. 

Section 9. BUDGET AND MESSAGES. The governor shall at the beginnning of 
each legislative session, and may at other times, give the legislature information and recommend 
measures he considers necessary. The governor shall submit to the legislature at a time fixed by 
law, a budget for the ensuing fiscal period setting forth in detail for all operating funds the 
proposed expenditures and estimated revenue of the state. 

Section 10. VETO POWER. (1) Each bill passed by the legislature, except bills pro- 
posing amendments to the Montana constitution, bills ratifying proposed amendments to the 
United States constitution, resolutions, and initiative and referendum measures, shall be 
submitted to the governor for his signature. If he does not sign or veto the bill within five days after 
its delivery to him if the legislature is in session or within 25 days if the legislature is adjourned, it 
shall become law. The governor shall return a vetoed bill to the legislature with a statement of his 
reasons therefor. 

(2) The governor may return any bill to the legislature with his recommendation for 
amendment. If the legislature passes the bill in accordance with the governor's recommendation, 
it shall again return the bill to the governor for his reconsideration. The governor shall not return a 
bill for amendment a second time. 

(3 ) If after receipt of a veto message, two-thirds of the members present approve the bill, it 
shall become law. 



1095 

(4) If the legislature is not in session when the governor vetoes a bill, he shall return the 
bill with his reasons therefor to the legislature as provided by law. The legislature may reconvene 
to reconsider any bill so vetoed. 

(5) The governor may veto items in appropriation bills, and in such instances the pro- 
cedure shall be the same as upon veto of an entire bill. 

Section 11. SPKCIAL SESSION. Whenever the governor considers it in the public 
interest, he may convene the legislature. 

Section 12. PARDONS. The governor may grant repreives, commutations and 
pardons, restore citizenship, and suspend and remit fines and forfeitures subject to procedures 
provided by law. 

Section 13. MILITIA. (1) The governor is commander-in-chief of the militia forces of 
the state, except when they are in the actual service of the United States. He may call out any part 
or all of the forces to aid in the execution of the laws, suppress insurrection, repel invasion, or pro- 
tect life and property in natural disasters. 

(2) The militia forces shall consist of all able-bodied citizens of the state except those ex- 
empted by law. 

Section 14. SUCCESSION. (1) If the governor-elect is disqualified or dies, the 
lieutenant governor-elect upon qualifying for the office shall become governor for the full term. If 
the governor-elect fails to assume office for any other reason, the lieutenant governor-elect upon 
qualifying as such shall serve as acting governor until the governor-elect is able to assume office, 
or until the office becomes vacant. 

(2) The lieutenant governor shall serve as acting governor when so requested in writing 
by the governor. After the governor has been absent from the state for more than 45 consecutive 
days, the lieutenant governor shall serve as acting governor. 

(3) He shall serve as acting governor when the governor is so disabled as to be unable to 
communicate to the lieutenant governor the fact of his inability to perform the duties of his office. 
The lieutenant governor shall continue to serve as acting governor until the governor is able to 
resume the duties of his office. 

(4) Whenever, at any other time, the lieutenant governor and attorney general transmit 
to the legislature their written declaration that the governor is unable to discharge the powers and 
duties of his office, the legislature shall convene to determine whether he is able to do so. 

(5) If the legislature, within 21 days after convening, determines by two-thirds vote of its 
members that the governor is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the lieutenant 
governor shall serve as acting governor. Thereafter, when the governor transmits to the 
legislature his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of 
his office within 15 days, unless the legislature determines otherwise by two-thirds vote of its 
members. If the legislature so determines, the lieutenant governor shall continue to serve as acting 
governor. 

(6) If the office of governor becomes vacant by reason of death, resignation, or disqualifi- 
cation, the lieutenant governor shall become governor for the remainder of the term, except as 
provided in this constitution. 

(7) Additional succession to fill vacancies shall be provided by law. 

(8) When there is a vacancy in the office of governor, the successor shall be the governor. 
The acting governor shall have the powers and duties of the office of governor only for the period 
during which he serves. 

Section 15. INFORMATION FOR GOVERNOR. (1) The governor may require 
information in writing, under oath when required, from the officers of the executive branch upon 
any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices. 

(2) He may require information in writing, under oath, from all officers and managers of 
state institutions. 

(3) He may appoint a committee to investigate and report to him upon the condition of 
any executive office or state institution. 



1096 

ARTICLE VII 
THE JUDICIARY 

Section 1. JUDICIAL POWER. The judicial power of the state is vested in one 
supreme court, district courts, justice courts, and such other courts as may be provided by law. 

Section 2. SUPREME UOURT JURISDICTION. (1) The supreme court has 
appellate jurisdiction and may issue, hear, and determine writs appropriate thereto. It has original 
jurisdiction to issue, hear, and di'termine writs of habeas corpus and such other writs as may be 
provided by law. 

(2) It has general supervisory control over all other courts. 

{',]) It may make rules governing appellate procedure, practice and procedure for all other 
courts, admission to the bar and the conduct of its members. Rules of procedure shall be subject to 
disapproval by the legislature in either of the two sessions following promulgation. 

(4) Supreme court proi-ess shall extend to all parts of the state. 

Section 3. SUPREME COURT ORGANIZATION. (1) The supreme court consists 
of one chief justice and four justices, hut the legislature may increase the number of justices from 
four to six. A majority shall join in and pronounce decisions, which must be in writing. 

(2) A district judge shall be substituted for the chief justice or a justice in the event of 
disqualification or disability, and the opinion of the district judge sitting with the supreme court 
shall have the same effect as an opinion of a justice. 

Section 4. DISTRICT COURT JURISDICTION. (1) The district court has 
original jurisdiction in all criminal cases amounting to felony and all civil matters and cases at 
law and in equity. It may issue all writs appropriate to its jurisdiction. It shall have the power of 
naturalization and such additional jurisdiction as may be delegated by the laws of the United 
States or the state of Montana. Its process shall extend to all parts of the state. 

(2) The district court shall hear appeals from inferior courts as trials anew unless 
otherwise provided by law. The legislature may provide for direct review by the district court of 
decisions of administrative agencies. 

(3) Other courts may have jurisdiction of criminal cases not amounting to felony and 
such jurisdiction concurrent with that of the district court as may be provided by law. 

Section 5. JUSTICES OF THE PEACE. (1) There shall beelected in each county at 
least one justice of the peace with qualifications, training, and monthly compensation provided by 
law. There shall be provided such facilities that they may perform their duties in dignified 
surroundings. 

(2) Justice courts shall have such original jurisdiction as may be provided by law. They 
shall not have trial jurisdiction in any criminal case designated a felony except as examining 
courts. 

(3) The legislature may provide for additional justices of the peace in each county. 

Section 6. JUDICIAL DISTRICTS. (1) The legislature shall divide the state into 
judicial districts and provide for the number of judges in each district. Each district shall be formed 
of compact territory and be bounded by county lines. 

(2) The legislature may change the number and boundaries of judicial districts and the 
number of judges in each district, but no change in boundaries or the number of districts or judges 
therein shall work a removal of any judge from office during the term for which he was elected or 
appointed. 

(3) The chief justice may, upon request of the district judge, assign district judges and 
other judges for temporary service from one district to another, and from one county to another. 

Section 7. TERMS AND PAY. (1) All justices and judges shall be paid as provided 
by law, but salaries shall not be diminished during terms of office. 

(2) Terms of office shall be eight years for supreme court justices, six years for district 
court judges, four years for justices of the peace, and as provided by law for other judges. 

Section 8. SELECTION. (1) The governor shall nominate a replacement from 
nominees selected in the manner provided by law for any vacancy in the office of supreme court 
justice or district court judge. If the governor fails to nominate within thirty days after receipt of 
nominees, the chief justice or acting chief justice shall make the nomination. Each nomination 



1097 

shall be confirmed by the senate, but a nomination made while the senate is not in session shall be 
effective as an appointment until the end of the next session. If the nomination is not confirmed, 
the office shall be vacant and another selection and nomination shall be made. 

(2) If, at the first election after senate confirmation, and at the election before each suc- 
ceeding term of office, any candidate other than the incumbent justice or district judge tiles for 
election to that office, the name ofthe incumbent shall be phiced on the ballot. Ifthere is no election 
contest for the office, the name of the incumbent shall nevertheless be placed on the general 
election ballot to allow voters of the state or district to approve or reject him. If an incumbent is 
rejected, another selection and nomination shall be made. 

(3) If an incumbent does not run, there shall be an election for the office. 

Section 9. QUALIFICATIONS. (1) A citizen ofthe United States who hasresided in 
the state two years immediately before taking office is eligible to theofficeof supreme court justice 
or district court judge if admitted to the practice of law in Montana for at least five years prior to the 
date of appointment or election. Qualifications and methods of selection of judges of other courts 
shall be provided by law. 

(2) No supreme court justice or district court judge shall solicit or receive compensation in 
any form whatever on account of his office, except salary and actual necessary travel expense. 

(3) Except as otherwise provided in this constitution, no supreme court justice or district 
court judge shall practice law during his term of office, engage in any other employment for which 
salary or fee is paid, or hold office in a political party. 

(4) Supreme court justices shall reside within the state. Every other judge shall reside 
during his term of office in the district, county, township, precinct, city or town in which he is 
elected or appointed. 

Section 10. FORFEITURE OF JUDICIAL POSITION. Any holder of a judicial 
position forfeits that position by either filing for an elective public office other than a judicial 
position or absenting himself from the state for more than 60 consecutive days. 

Section 11. REMOVAL AND DISCIPLINE. (1) The legislature shall create a 
judicial standards commission consisting of five persons and provide for the appointment thereto 
of two district judges, one attorney, and two citizens who are neither judges nor attorneys. 

(2) The commission shall investigate complaints, make rules implementing this section, 
and keep its proceedings confidential. It may subpoena witnesses and documents. 

(3) Upon recommendation of the commission, the supreme court may: 

(a) Retire any justice or judge for disability that seriously interferes with the 
performance of his duties and is or may become permanent: or 

(b) Censure, suspend, or remove any justice or judge for willful misconduct in office, 
willful and persistent failure to perform his duties, or habitual intemperance. 

ARTICLE VIII 
REVENUE AND FINANCE 

Section 1. TAX PURPOSES. Taxes shall be levied by general laws for public 
purposes. 

Section 2. TAX POWER INALIENABLE. The power to tax shall never be 
surrendered, suspended, or contracted away. 

Section 3. PROPERTY TAX ADMINISTRATION. The state shall appraise, 
assess, and equalize the valuation of all property which is to be taxed in the manner provided by 
law. 

Section 4. EQUAL VALUATION. All taxing jurisdictions shall use the assessed 
valuation of property established by the state. 

Section 5. PROPERTY TAX EXEMPTIONS. (1) The legislature may exempt firom 
taxation: 

(a) Property of the United States, the state, counties, cities, towns, school districts, 
municipal corporations, and public libraries, but any private interest in such property may be 
taxed separately. 



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(b) Institutions of purely public charity, hospitals and places of burial not used or held 
for private or corporate profit, places for actual religious worship, and property used exclusively 
for educational purposes. 

(c) Any other classes of property. 

(2) The let,nslature may authorize creation of special improvement districts for capital im- 
provements and the maintenance thereof. It may authorize the assessment of charges for such 
improvements and maintenance against tax exempt property directly benefited thereby. 

Section 6. HKJHWAY REVENUE NON-DIVERSION. (1) Revenue from gross 
vehicle weight fees and excise and license taxes (except general sales and use taxes) on gasoline, 
fuel, and other energy sources used to propel vehicles on public highways shall be used as 
authorized by the legislature, after deduction of statutory refunds and adjustments, solely for: 

(a) Payment of obligations incurred for construction, reconstruction, repair, operation, 
and maintenance of public highways, streets, roads, and bridges. 

(b) Payment of county, city, and town obligations on streets, roads, and bridges. 

(c) Enforcement of highway safety, driver education, tourist promotion, and 
administrative collection costs. 

(2) Such revenue may be appropriated for other purposes by a three-fifths vote of the 
members of each house of the legislature. 

Section 7. TAX APPEALS. The legislature shall provide independent appeal pro- 
cedures for taxpayer grievances about appraisals, assessments, equalization, and taxes. The 
legislature shall include a review procedure at the local government unit level. 

Section 8. STATE DEBT. No state debt shall be created unless authorized by a two- 
thirds vote of the members of each house of the legislature or a majority of the electors voting 
thereon. No state debt shall be created to cover deficits incurred because appropriations exceeded 
anticipated revenue. 

Section 9. BALANCED BUDGET. Appropriations by the legislature shall not 
exceed anticipated revenue. 

Section 10. LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEBT. The legislature shall by law limit 
debts of counties, cities, towns, and all other local governmental entities. 

Section 11. USE OE LOAN PROCEEDS. All money borrowed by or on behalf of the 
state or any county, city, town, or other local governmental entity shall be used only for purposes 
specified in the authorizing law. 

Section 12. STRICT ACCOUNTABILITY. The legislature shall by law insure 
strict accountability of all revenue received and money spent by the state and counties, cities, 
towns, and all other local governmental entities. 

Section 13. INVESTMENT OF PUBLIC FUNDS. (1) The legislature shall provide 
for a unified investment program for public funds and provide rules therefor, including 
supervision of investment of surplus funds of all counties, cities, towns, and other local 
governmental entities. Each fund forming a part of the unified investment program shall be 
separately identified. Except for monies contributed to retirement funds, no public funds shall be 
invested in private corporate capital stock. The investment program shall be audited at least 
annually and a report thereof submitted to the governor and legislature. 

(2) The public school fund and the permanent funds of the Montana university system 
and all other state institutions of learning shall be safely and conservatively invested in: 

(a) Public securities of the state, its subdivisions, local government units, and di